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Accession No. JjQ±£jeL0 Call No. J <S~/ 


Jan- ts J«n iio-2 

Call No. 2LSJ— - Accession No./.Q t Jf.6 & 
da r\ . -to Ju r\ . I <1 o % 
Vol <+ 

Bethany Theological Library 

3435 W. VanBuren St. 
Chicago, III. 


This book may be kept for two weeks 
with privilege of renewal for two weeks. 

Fine of two cents charged for each day 
books are overdue. 








Less than two years ago tbe Inglenook had a 
few hundreds of readers. Now it has as many or 
more thousands. There's a reason for this, and it 
is because people like it. If it has been good in 
the past it will be better in the future, — more in- 
teresting and entertaining. 

If the Inglenook is a good thing for you, why 
not for your' friends who know nothing about it? 
Tell them, and give everybody a chance. 

It is going to be illustrated in a few weeks. 



IN, ;fjLLIN 
RE IP U 9' H0 



r ^- 

Jan. 4, 1902. 


Weekly, $1.00 per Year. 


Vol. IV. No. 1. 


Is the Most Direct Line to All 




For the Farmer... 

Thousands of acres of rich agricultural land. 

For the Stock-raiser... 

Immense areas of excellent grazing lands. 

For the Miner... 

The great mineral deposit of the West. 

For the Homeseeker... 

Millions of acres of land already under irrigation, while but 
little is yet under actual cultivation. 

Write for Copy of Pamphlet " Business Openings on the 

Union Pacific." 

Full information cheerfully furnished by 


General Passenger and Ticket Agent 




Vol. IV. 

Jan. 4, 1902. 


No. 1. 


The great logs lay on the broad fireplace, 

Flooding with warmth and cheer, 
The old-fashioned room, and the happy hearts 

Of guests from far and near. 
An aged couple, bent and gray, 

Sit bathed in the ruddy glow, 
Above them wreathed and twined about 

Hang the holly and mistletoe. 

'T is Christmas eve, and the children have come, 

Leaving the toil and strife 
Of their daily lives to visit again 

The scenes of their early life. 
They sit and talk of bygone days, 
• When romping all day long, 
The very rafters seemed to ring 

With the din of shout and song. 

And they think of the absent one to-night, 
Whom they have not seen for years; 

The willful lad who left his home, 
In spite of prayers and tears. 

'Twas Christmas night and the snow lay thick, 
.The wind blew strong and wild, 

And the mother, broken-hearted, plead 
"Come back, come back, my child." 

But he went away and left her there, 

This reckless youngest son. 
And the years are long, but never a word 

Have they heard of the absent one. 
The mother gazes across the room, 

Where the glittering fir tree stands 
At a fair-haired boy who holds a sword 

Clasped in his chubby hands. 

" So'like Robert," she whispers low, 

Then calls him to her side, 
" Robert who? " the wee one asks, 

" My uncle Robert who died? " 
But tears are falling thick and fast 

Upon the up-turned head 
" Ah no, my dear," is the low reply, 

" We trust he is not dead." 

Hark! a knock! and Robert runs 

To open wide the door, 
A ragged stranger steps within, 

Then faints across the floor. 
It 's Robert! cries the mother. 

" Our own beloved son," 
And they recognize the features 

Of the missing absent one. 

" I 've come home," he soon is faltering, 

For I do not care to live, 
'Till you grant my prayer of pardon, 

'Till you say that you forgive." 
" Robert," sobs the kneeling mother 

" Your trespasses we forget, 
As we loved you when you left us, 

So, my son, we love you yet." 

Greeting him with words of welcome, 

All the others gather round, 
Young and old rejoice together, 

That the lost one now is found. 
And the heart of that dear mother, 

Wells up with the old-time joy, 
For once more she '11 spend her Christmas 

With her youngest, dearest boy. 



Although silk is a substance that is produced 
by several varieties of insects, it has come to be 
almost exclusively associated in the public mind 
with the product of a particular variety of cater- 
pillar, which is popularly known as the silkworm, 
and by the entomologists as the larva of Bombyx 
mori, or the mulberry-feeding moth. The eggs 
of the silkworm are hatched by artificial means, 
and are exceedingly small, weighing about one 
hundred to the grain. 

It is customary to place pieces of finely-punc- 
tured paper above the trays in which the eggs are 
being hatched. As soon as the worms break 
through the shell they creep through the holes in 
the paper in their endeavor to get to the light, 
and in doing so scrape off the pieces of shell 
which may adhere to their bodies. They are 
reared in rooms where particular care is taken 
that an abundance of fresh air and light are 
present, and where the temperature may be kept 
at an even point. The worms are voracious feed- 
ers, and begin to increase rapidly in size from the 
day they are hatched. 

As a rule, the silkworm moults four times dur- 
ing its life, usually about the sixth, tenth, fifteenth 
and twenty-third days after being hatched. As 
soon as the caterpillars have reached their full 
growth they climb the twigs and small branches 
which have been prepared for them, and begin the 
spinning of their cocoons. The silk glands of 
the worm consist of two sacks running along the 
sides of the body, with a common opening on the 
under lip of the worm. In the process of spin- 
ning its cocoon the silkworm ejects from both 
glands a line of extremely fine thread. 

The two filaments from each gland are laid side 
by side, and are held together by an adhesive se- 
cretion from the worm. The cocoons are either 
deep yellow, white or light green in color, and 
oviform in shape. Their average length is from 
one to one and a half inches, and they are from 
one-half to an inch in diameter. The cocoon con- 
sists of an exterior made up of broken and strag- 
gling filaments, while the interior layers are 
densely glued together into a mass which is not 
unlike parchment, and which is impossible to un- 
wind except by moistening. 

The manufacture of silk may be broadly divid- 
ed under the heads of reel silk manufactun* and 

the manufacture of spun of waste silk. The first 
method has to do with continuous fibres thou- 
sands of yards in length. In the spun silk in- 
dustry the raw materials are worked up by 
methods similar to those used in the case of cotton 
and other fibrous materials. 

The first operation is to produce the " raw 
silk " of commerce. The cocoons are placed in 
warm water for the purpose of softening the nat- 
ural gum with which the filaments of the cocoon 
were fastened at the time it was spun. From 
six to ten of the cocoons are put in a bath, and 
as soon as they are properly softened the threads 
of each are caught up by an attendant on a fine 
brush, and passed through an eyelet to a reel, 
upon which they are wound. The reel consists 
of a light wooden revolving frame, which winds 
the silk into what are known as skeins, and it is 
in this form that the silk is usually received at 
the silk mills. 

The first thing to be done with the skeins after 
they are taken from the bales is to soak them 
thoroughly in cold water. The raw silk is too 
fine and delicate for textile manipulation, and 
has to be doubled and twisted to give it the neces- 
sary body and strength. To this end the skeins 
of raw silk are placed on light wheels, known as 
" shifts," from which the silk is wound on spools ; 
then two spools of silk are run together and 
doubled and afterward twisted, some of the twist- 
ing machines, however, performing the doubling 
and twisting in one operation. 

The twisted silk is then wound onto rectangular 
frames, known as creels or reels, and at the same 
time is measured off into lengths of from 10,000 
to 15,000 yards, the silk now being once more in 
the form of skeins. It is then taken from the 
creels and rolled up into hanks, ready for dyeing. 

After the silk has been dyed it is returned in 
skeins, which are slipped on over a set of what 
are known as " soft silk " winders, from which 
it is wound onto spools once more. It is then 
taken to the warping department, where the 
spools are placed upon tables which may carry 
from one hundred and ten up to as many as six 
hundred pegs. In the hand-warping machines 
there will be from one hundred to one hundred 
and twenty spools on a table, while the power- 
warping machines will carry from three hundred 
to six hundred spools. 







The operator gathers up the ends of silk on 
each spool and runs the threads on the frames 
in the mill, the threads in this case being wound 
parallel. From one hundred to four thousand 
threads are run off on warping spools, which are 
technically known as " beams " — round cylinders 
of wood or iron which are six or seven inches in 
diameter and of a width which varies from four 
inches to thirty-six inches, according to the char- 
acter of the fabric of which the thread is to form 
the warp. 

The beams are then carried to the looms, where 
the threads are first led through a " harness," and 
then passed through a steel " reed " or comb, 
there being from two to fourteen threads in one 
" dent." according to the quality of the goods. 
The harness consists of a series of top and bot- 
tom slats known as " shafts," each pair of which 
is connected by a number of parallel vertical 
threads at the center of each of which is a small 
brass eyelet through which the silk threads are 

Several of these sets are arranged vertically be- 
hind each other in the loom, and each harness 
with its set of threads is raised in turn between 
each passage of the shuttle through the warp. 
Each harness thus serves to lift a different set 
of threads for the passage of the shuttle ; and it 
is by the proper adjustment of the vertical mo- 
tions of the harness to the strokes of the shuttle 
that the nature of the weave of the goods is de- 
termined. The woven fabric is then taken to the 
packingroom, where all knots, dirt and stains are 

The goods are now taken to the finishing de- 
partment, where they are put through a variety 
of operations which would necessitate another 
article to adequately describe them. Among oth- 
er operations is that of singeing, to take off any 
rough nap that may be left on the goods, and 
sprinkling or sponging with a preparation of wax 
and gelatine, a process which is not unlike that 
of starching in laundry work. 

The final gloss or finish is secured by calender- 
ing, in which the fabric is run between a series 
of superimposed steel rolls, where it is ironed 
out and the fine, glossy finish is secured. The 
goods are then either folded or wrapped on blocks 
readv for the market. 



Back in 1839, when rabbit hunting waV ex- 
cellent in the brush on the lake frout southVif 
Van Buren street, and the postmaster knew e* 
trybody by his first name, Dr. Sylvester Willarc 
paid out $327 in cash for lot 8 in block 14 of the 
Fort Dearborn addition. People wondered what 
had come over the physician, and it is handed 
down that the transaction shattered the faith of 
a number of his patients, who figured that such a 
reckless investment didn't speak well for any 
man's ability. The doctor held the property 
three years, at the end of which time he considered 
himself "fortunate to dispose of it to Erastus Cole 
at a slight profit. In 1844 Mr. Cole sold the land 
to S. W. Peck, who, at the end of 1845, conveyed 
it to his partner, L. W. Boyce, for $750. In de- 
fense of his action Mr. Boyce told his friends 
that the deal was not made for investment pur- 
poses, but that he liked a nice, quiet spot for a 
home. He built a house on the land and livedjjn 
it with his family for several years. After Mr. 
Boyce's death a Mr. Jones bought the property 
and occupied the dwelling for a number of years. 
The property changed hands a few more times, 
and in 1876 Marshall Field came along. He pur- 
chased the house and land for $191,000. By 
this time the people had begun to figure out that 
Chicago was destined to become great, and they 
applauded Mr. Field for his wise move. Twen- 
ty years later Mr. Field negotiated a lease for 
ninety-nine years on the property, the contract 
calling for a yearly rental of $40,000 for the first 
seven years and $50,000 for the balance of the 
term. These rentals set a value of about 1,000,- 
000 on the ground, and it is doubtful if that 
r.mount now would even be considered as a pur- 
chase price. The lot is located at the northeast 
corner of State and Madison streets, the site of 
a part of Mandel Brothers' great store. It has 
a frontage of fifty-three feet in State street and 
a depth of 150 feet. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

A deaf mute is suing a street railroad com- 
pany in New York for the loss of two of his fin- 
gers, a loss which he alleges impairs his conver- 
sational powers. The defendant replies that un- 
der the modern system of talking for mutes one 
hand is enough. 


V I 




It was many years after the crucifixion, when 
an aged Judean, while walking along the high- 
way near Nazareth, saw coming toward him a 
youthful Galilean. The aged man held in his 
hands a scroll, which he read as he walked. 

As the twain drew nigh to each other the Gal- 
ilean saluted the Judean and accosted him. 
"What readest thou?" he asked, in a gentle 

" The Law," replied the other. 
" Hast seen the Gospel ? " inquired the Gali- 

''Aye," he answered, in trembling voice, " but 
that is not for me. I am Iscariot ! " 

"And art thou," spake the Galilean, " the Ju- 
das of that name, who betrayed the Christ ? " 

' 'Twas I ! " he cried in agony and with dis- 
torted visage, as he gazed at the Galilean. " But 
who art thou ? " 

" Thy friend," replied the other. 
" I have no friend on earth or in heaven," said 
Judas. " When I read the Law I am affrighted, 
and when I pray to the one God I see him frown 
I am Iscariot ! " 

" Thy friend I am, dear Judas. Look on me." 

The Galilean's voice was gracious as he spoke, 

but Judas shook as smitten to the soul. He flung 

himself at the feet of the Galilean, who had 

called him friend, and kissed them. 

" The Gospel is for thee, dear Judas," said the 
friend, as Judas lay upon the ground, in tears. 

" Nay, nay." said Judas. " I bartered off my 
soul and I sold my Master, him who was divine. 
'Twas said I hanged myself, and it is true, but I 
did not die, though hanged." 

"And yet, dear Judas, know his Gospel is for 
thee," said the other with firm voice to the aged 
Judean, sunk in despair. 

"By what authority speakest thou?" asked 
Iscariot, as he looked into the Galilean's face. 
" Speakest thou for Peter, John, or other breth- 
ren, lost, though yet alive : the men whom once 
I loved only less deeply than I loved the Christ? 
Who art thou?" cried the aged Judean, "and 
whence thy authority?" 

" The authority, dear Judas, of him who was 

crucified, and who spoke the words, ' No one who 
cometh to me shall be cast out.' " 

" Those words are not for me," wailed Iscari- 

"Aye, for thee each word, dear Judas, and for 
thee alike the last cry of the Christ, that all 
might be forgiven. I speak for him." 

" But who art thou? " exclaimed Iscariot once 
again, as he saw that love illumined the face of 
the Galilean who stood before him. 

" It was I who spoke the words while on the 
cross, and here I speak them once again to thee." 

"The Christ?" asked Judas. "He whom 
once I loved, whom I betrayed, for whose loss I 
wept these weary years, and for whose betrayal 
I'll lave my heart in tears till death? " 

" Thy sins, dear Judas," softly spoke the Gal- 
ilean, " are forgiven. To-day thou shalt be with 
me in Paradise." 

Judas Iscariot lay dead at nightfall. His on- 
ly Friend embraced his redeemed spirit as they 
rose aloft, amid sounds of angelic music. 

And was it, then, his long-lost Master whom 
he had met on the Galilean highway as he walked 
toward Nazareth, where the Christ was born ? 

,$. 4. 4. 

One thing, at least, is in my 
power, if I cannot realize my ideal, 
I can at least idealize my real. 

V T V 

riven worse than death. 

The punishment which the regicide Bresci 
will be forced to undergo for murdering King 
Humbert is worse than death. 

In Italy the penalty of death is abolished. 
But the punishment awaiting the regicide is 
worse than death. He will inevitably be con- 
demned to penal servitude, aggravated by ten 
years of solitary confinement. A man con- 
demned to this punishment, before being placed 
in his cell, is shut up in the " secret cell," about 
six feet long by three wide, and half lighted. 
A few inches above the floor is a plank about 
half a yard wide and slightly inclined which 
serves as a bed. The food is bread and water, 
passed through the little window called the 
" spy " by the jailer, the door being always kept 
rigorously closed. 



The prisoner is condemned to absolute si- 
lence; if he breaks the rule he is subjected to 
other punishments — namely, the strait-waist- 
coat, irons and strait-bed. A prisoner who at- 
tempts his own life in anyway is put into the 
strait-waistcoat and at night in a sort of sack, 
in which he cannot move. When the prisoner 
has suffered the punishment of the "secret 
cell " for a longer or shorter time he is removed 
to the cell where he must remain for ten years. 
Its size depends on the construction of the 
whole prison. These cells are only lighted from 
the corridor and are generally about two yards 
square. The bed is the usual plank and bread 
and water the food. In winter a single blanket 
is allowed at night. 

Silence is still enjoined; the only concession 
is the door being opened a few inches. The 
food is given only once in the twenty-four hours. 
If the prisoner is sick the doctor can have him 
removed to the prison infirmary, where he is 
kept in a separate chamber. 

Prisoners in solitary confinement may neither 
read, write, smoke nor work. They are con- 
demned to absolute idleness and absolute si- 
lence; very few complete their sentence; they 
either go mad or die. The extra punishment 
of the " irons " is terrible. The handcuffs are 
joined by chains to similar rings on the ankles. 
At night, still in irons, he can lie on his plank. 

The " strait-bed " is a strong wooden case re- 
sembling a coffin without lid. At the foot the 
sufferer's feet are fastened in a kind of stocks. 
Unless by order of the governor the prisoner 
may not be moved and his jailer has to feed 
him. This punishment is only exercised on 
some desperate rebel. 

V T *T 

The secret of life is not to do 
what one likes, but to try to like 
what one has to do. 

* * * 


The Chinese are possessed of a great deal of 
mechanical ability, but for this they have not 
always been given credit by western peoples. 
A number of the most useful " inventions " of 
civilization were known by the Chinese thou- 
sands of years ago. Indeed, in the matter of 

mechanical ability and skill the Chinaman 
stands very high. In the shops and factories 
that are owned by foreigners the native artisan 
compares favorably with the workman of any 
other nation, especially in the use of western 
tools, methods and machinery. In a broader 
sense, in the erection of bridges, construction 
of temples, roads, canals — in the wide sense of 
the engineer — the Chinaman compares well 
with his fellows in more civilized lands. Many 
of his bridges are marvelous not only for their 
beauty and accuracy of construction, but in the 
difficulties overcome and in the solidity of their 
foundations. Here the Chinaman's character- 
istic of thoroughness expresses itself. "The 
Chinaman builds for all time; the rest of the 
world builds for to-day." 

But the Chinese are opposed to the employ- 
ment of machinery. This opposition exists not 
only among the presumably ignorant who labor 
for their daily support, but among the rich and 
highly educated as well. The reason for this 
opposition is founded upon social and econom- 
ic conditions unlike those in any other part of 
the world. 

The statement is as follows: 

1. Every man in China is a worker and only 
by untiring industry is he capable of feeding 
and clothing himself and family. 

2. All branches of industry are full. There 
is never lack of labor nor of work to do, and 
so nicely adjusted have become the economic 
conditions through centuries of struggle that 
practical content reigns among the workers and 
any upsetting of the equilibrium of supply and 
demand produces widespread distress. 

The proposition: Introduce a machine which 
shall by the supervision of one man be able to 
do the work of ten men. 

The result is that nine men are thrown out of 
that particular task. There is no outlet for 
their industry for the reason given in-paragraph 
two of the statement. Therefore these nine 
men must starve, steal or emigrate. This is 
pretty nearly the correct status of the working 
world in China, and is the underlying reason 
for the opposition to labor-saving machinery. 
In this great empire a labor-saving tool or ma- 
chine is an economic curse, and will remain so 
until the conditions are greatly modified 
throughout China. 



Blarney town is a small manufacturing place. 
The old castle, however, is well outside the 
village, in surroundings wholly rural. It stands 
on a low hill, whence it looks forth from amid a 
grove of trees down on a broad field that is 
used as a public pleasure ground. A slight 
wooden bridge spanning a swift, clean little riv- 
er, gives entrance to the field, in which are many 
noble shade trees with rustic seats about their 
base, and in the opens, a number of framework 

The castle has suffered little from the ravages 
of time, except that the roof and the wooden 
floors have fallen. You can climb winding 
stairs and follow devious passages into vaulted 
chambers and chilly cells to your heart's content. 
All this is very romantic, but it is worth while 
remembering that, in spite of historic charm and 
strong appeal to the fancy, the castle is a relic of 
an age of barbarism, when the country was di- 
vided among many petty chiefs, each distrustful 
of the other even when on terms of nominal 

The castle is many stories high and in the top- 
most cornice is the far-famed Blarney stone — 
that powerful talisman which you have only to 
kiss to be endowed with eloquence for life. But 
as the vertical measurement of the cornice is 
about six feet, and its projection beyond the main 
wall fully three feet, and as the stone is at the 
bottom of the cornice, the kissing is not as easily 
accomplished as might be. Formerly it was cus- 
tomary to lower the candidate for eloquence over 
the rampart head foremost, a friend clinging to 
either heel, but at such a dizzy height the pro- 
ceeding smacked so seriously of danger that of 
late years a row of great spikes guards the para- 
pet against further attempts of the sort. 

The Stone Eloquent at one time dropped out. 
It was, however, promptly restored, and is now 
fixed in place by two heavy iron rods which 
clasp it to the cornice. Were it not that the 
Blarney stone comes opposite one of the fre- 
quent gaps which alternate with the out-thrust 
of the supporting stones of the cornice it would 
be practically inaccessible. As things are, the 
only way to bestow the mystic kiss is to get down 
■ Hi your knees, double up like a jack-knife and 

crane your neck across the yawning vacancy. I 
regarded the stone with interest, and wished I 
was more of an acrobat or more courageous, but 
I was deterred by that lofty hole, which, though 
not much more than a foot broad and four long, 
was still plenty large enough to fall through, and 
I decided to get' along without the eloquence. 

The story of the stone dates back to the middle 
of the fifteenth century, when Cormac McCarthy 
the Strong, a descendant of the ancient kings of 
Munster, and builder of the fortress, chanced one 
day to save an old woman from drowning. For 
a reward she offered Cormac a golden tongue 
which should have the power to influence men 
and women, friends and foes, as he willed. She 
told him to mount the keep and kiss a certain 
stone in the wall, five feet below the gallery run- 
ning around the top. He followed her directions 
and obtained all the fluent persuasiveness she 
had promised. The tale of this new acquirement 
and its origin spread, and the Blarney stone has 
been drawing pilgrims to itself ever since. 

-J- >£. <{. 

A cruel story runs on zvheels, and 
every hand oils the wheels as they 

* * * 



The straw ride is the southern substitute for 
the sleigh ride. Here nothing is known of the 
invigorating pleasure to be gained by a ride over 
the smooth, hard, snow-covered roads of the 
North in a light and shapely sleigh behind a gen- 
tle but spirited young horse with plenty of " go." 

We stay around the fire on the few cold days, 
that are scattered here and there throughout the 
winter, because necessity, the great law maker 
and custom maker, does not compel us to pre- 
pare either clothing or buildings suitable for 
passing any integral part of our time watching 
a low thermometer. But when the long hot days 
and the sweltering nights of the North are on, 
then the cool breezes of the Sunny South invite 
us out to spend a pleasant evening beneath the 
multitudinous stars and extraordinary brightness 
of the moon in southern latitudes. 

tihiie xiisra-iLiEiisrooiK:. 

A big farm wagon is brought out, three mules 
are hitched to it by the colored " help." The 
" wagon body " is filled with straw (pine " nee- 
dles " or leaves ) and a dozen young people, with 
a chaperone or two, start for a long drive. It is 
a bright, care-free, hatless, laughing company. 
They sing and talk and laugh and make love as 
they jolt along in a brisk trot over the rather 
rough roads. But the jolt is broken by the 
spring of the straw and the pleasant breeze and 
the mellifluous moonlight. And the congenial 
social environments make the spirits bubble and 

Xow they stop on a wooded hillside, and make 
a fire of "light-wood knots" (pine knots). 
They produce cake, pickles, eggs, cheese, and 
ground coffee. Thus soon they make some good, 
strong coffee, boil eggs, toast cheese on sharp 
sticks, and eat a merry hunch before returning. 
But the return must be made before eleven 
o'clock. And " when they " like John Gilpin 
" ride out again may we be there to see." 

Whistler, Ala. 

•fr <• "fr 

People who say nothing can of- 
fend as deeply as people who say 
too much. 

* -1- * 



Thank you, Sister Sell, for your good advice. 
I think it is a nice thing to have a grandma, and 
why not take good care of her? I never saw any 
of my grandmothers and I often thought I would 
like to have one. Well, why not borrow one? 

It will be three years on the 18th of January 
next that I was sent for to take care of an old lady 
who had the grippe, and I have been with her 
ever since. 

We got along very well, and I thought her nice, 
so I thought I'd borrow her. So noiv I have a 

If any of my old friends East would like to 
know how I am spending some of my precious 
moments, they can imagine what a nice time I 
am having taking good care of my grandmother. 

Hinsdale, III. 

♦ ♦ + 


She was a woman of about fifty-five or sixty, 
and she was dying. She had come to that stage 
when the mind wanders and goes back to earlier 
days. She talked rationally enough for a time 
and then wandered off, returning again. She 
was waiting for her only son who had been tele- 
graphed for and who was coming as fast as he 

That evening he arrived, a grown man, who 
had evidently led a life of hard and honest toil. 
Immediately he asked whether he was too late 
and at once went into her presence. She was 
dozing when he stood by her bedside and he 
spoke but one word, " Mother." She opened 
her eyes and gazed steadfastly upon him. 
" Mother, do you know me?" and she reached 
out a thin hand and placed it in his. He knelt 
down by the bedside and asked again, " Mother, 
do you know me ? Who am I ? " 

" You are my poor, dear little lamb, Willie. 
I'm glad you came when I called you. Willie, 
I'm going far away and you must be a good little 
boy when I'm gone, will you?" 

" Yes, mother," he said, " I will. Do you know 

" Yes, Willie, I do know my little curly-headed 
baby," and she stroked his hair with one hand. 
' I'm going away a little while, Willie, but I'll 

be back soon, and you ." We walked out in 

!he open air, and all things seemed to live and 
act as though there were no death in the world. 

Many a man puts his best foot 
forzi'ard so far that his other foot 
becomes discouraged in attempting 
to catch up zvith ■it. 




At the close of each session of Congress, when 
the exodus of members, clerks and attaches takes 
place, the Washington city post office has a diffi- 
cult time to handle the outgoing mail. Especial- 
ly is this true at the end of a Congress where 
many members of both branches retire to private 

The reason for this rush of mail is not hard 
to find. Senators and representatives have the 
privilege of franking home their personal effects 
through the mails. In theory this franking priv- 
ilege extends only to the congressional docu- 
ments, books, papers and letters relating to offi- 
cial business, but in practice it covers almost 
everything which the ordinary member of the 
senate or house has in his possession. It is one 
of the perquisites connected with congressional 
life which make the life bearable. 

Toward the end of the session the congressman 
finds himself presented with three chests. Two 
of them are of pine, but strongly built and braced. 
They are about three feet in length, two in width 
and a foot and a half deep. The third is of cedar, 
slightly larger than the others. Having been 
utilized for shipping purposes, it is stored away 
in some closet, where it becomes the receptacle 
for the family furs, fine dresses and other mate- 
rials on which the moth feeds. Sometimes it is 
used as a chest for the family silver. These cedar 
chests would sell for from $10 to $25 in any fur- 
niture store, and while the pine chests are not so 
handsome, they are quite presentable. When the 
congressman receives his quota of boxes he has 
nothing to pay. They come from the official car- 
penter shop and are built by the official carpenter 
and paid for out of the contingent fund. In fact, 
the principal duty of the carpenter is to construct 
the hundreds of boxes used by members. 

Into these boxes the member or his clerk loads 
all his letter files, papers, documents, books, maps 
and other publications which he has in stock. 
Typewriters, letter presses, inkstands and other 
office paraphernalia are stored away in their re- 
cesses. Frequently clothing, bedding and other 
personal or household effects are packed away. 
When filled to the brim they are locked and the 
tops screwed down and then carted off to the 
post office, where they are shipped through the 

mails to all points within the borders of the 
United States. 

" Abuses of the franking system," said a griz- 
zled employe of the post office to-day, " are not 
nearly so prevalent as they were some years ago. 
I remember the time when it was considered the 
proper thing for senators and members to ship 
home anything they wished by simply placing 
their address and their frank upon it. That time 
has, fortunately for the service, gone by. It is 
now considered a breach of good manners to ship 
anything under a frank that cannot be packed in 
the special boxes, or in the mail sacks which are 
provided for documents. Formerly furniture, 
desks, trunks, and even buggies and carriages 
were franked home in mail cars. Nowadays we 
very seldom come across anything of that kind, 
except an occasional trunk or two. It is also no 
longer considered an fait for a congressman to 
send his laundry or family wash to his home and 
have it returned under his frank. 

" There used to be a member of Congress from 
a western State who was addicted to this habit. 
He had a family of about five children and yet 
after two terms he retired with about $10,000 
which he had saved out of his salary. One of 
his daughters acted as his private secretary, 
another was a clerk in one of the departments 
and a small son was a page at the capitol. The 
entire family practiced rigid economy and among 
other things the congressman each week franked 
home his family wash. Of course, he did not 
save much by the operation, but in the course of 
his four years' service it must have amounted to 
at least $200. I have heard he was one of those 
members who constantly use their committee sta- 
tioner}- and draw their allowance in cash." 

" What was the most difficult shipment you 
have known?" inquired the Sun correspondent. 

" Well, we have had many difficult and pecul- 
iar jobs in that line," responded the post office 
employe. " Probably the worst job I ever had 
to tackle was when a retiring senator franked 
home a safe. In his committee room at the capi- 
tol he had a very fine and large safe which had 
been purchased for the use of his committee, but 
which had been condemned and sold to him at 
an infinitesimal price. It weighed about 6,000 
pounds. All the senator did was to place an ad- 
dress and a frank upon it and notifythe post office 


to send for it. They got it all right, but the get- 
ting was accompanied by much sweating and 
many words. What the clerks in the post office 
where it was shipped said when it landed, I have 
never heard. I don't think it was delivered by a 
letter carrier. 

" We used to have considerable difficulty," he 
continued. " with household furniture. A fold- 
ing bed or a lounge is not a desirable object in 
a postal car. It is bad enough to have the car 
filled with bags of documents or boxes of goods, 
but when it comes to marble-topped tables, boxes 
of bric-a-brac and other things of that character, 
including china closets and kitchen utensils, one's 
patience is strained to the limit. I have heard of 
a member of Congress who once franked an up- 
right piano home. The clerks were so enraged 
at his presumption that a heavy box was allowed 
to drop — accidentally, of course— upon the lid, 
which was split open. Then a leaky lamp was 
hung right over the piano, and by the time it 
reached its destination it was very badly dam- 
aged. Of course, the member had no recourse, 
as he could not make a complaint about the treat- 
ment his piano received when he was clearly vio- 
lating the law. 

" We have had some queer requests in regard 
to shipping of franked matter. Just a few days 
ago a representative from a western State 
brought a handsome fox terrier to the office, 
which he wished to frank to his home. We per- 
suaded him that the dog might suffer from inat- 
tention en route and he sent it by express. There 
is a member of the Senate who was once accused, 
according to the public press, of franking home 
his horses and carriages. I am not saying 
whether this is true or not, but the hullabaloo 

which was raised by the publication of the charge 
put a stop to most of the abuses of the franking 

" Still, the outgoing Congress has a respectable 
record in that line. Over one thousand boxes 
have been, or will be, shipped to different parts of 
the country, together with more than that number 
of bags of public documents, which will be dis- 
tributed by the members and ex-members during 
the summer season. Their total weight will ap- 
proximate 400,000 pounds, and the shipments av- 
erage 20,000 pounds a day. As it costs seven 
cents a pound on an average, you can see that 
the post office department expends a consider- 
able sum every year in moving the effects of the 
members of Congress." 

" How is it that no complaint is made ? It 

would seem that the employes or some of the 

department officials would call attention to the 

" You see, it's this way : Congress makes the 
laws and Congress appropriates the money to run 
this department. Now, it is a matter of small 
concern to me, to any other employe of the de- 
partment or to the postmaster general if a con- 
gressman wants to ship a house home under a 
frank, while it is a very important matter that 
Congress should be satisfied with the administra- 
tion of the post office department. Suppose I 
should complain that Congressman Blank is us- 
ing his frank improperly and the complaint 
reaches the ears of the congressman. He might 
discover that the department could do without 
my efficient services and I might be turned out 
to hunt a new job, which at my time of life 
would be very inconvenient, to say the least." 

When a fool hen takes a notion 
to sit she doesn't care whether 
there are any eggs in the nest or 
not, and some men are built on the 
same plan. 



the insra-i-.Eisrooic. 




It can be readily proved that spiders, in spite 
of their repulsive appearance, are rarely if ever 
poisonous or even harmful ; that certain species 
are really useful and beneficial, and that they all 
play an important part in the great scheme of 
nature. Their chief service to man lies in thdr 
destruction of noxious insects. Flies are not 
only a nuisance; they are carriers of disease, 
spreaders of pollution. Spiders also kill mosqui- 
toes, moths and other flying and crawling pests 
that stray into their webs. The spider agalena 
naevia, whose dew-spangled web is often seen on 
the lawn in the early summer morning, preys up- 
on many kinds of noxious insects. A larger spe- 
cies common in woods and about stone piles and 
fences makes larger and stronger webs, in which 
bigger insects, such as locusts, grasshoppers and 
June bugs are often trapped. The webs of all 
the agalenas lead down into dark and secret tun- 
nels, where the spider retreats when danger 

The jumping spiders are also active fly catchers 
and destroyers of noxious insects. They build 
no web except a very small receptacle in which 
to hide their eggs and to protect their young 
when hatched. They are the tigers of the insect 
world, springing upon their prey with true feline 
energy. The orb-weavers, epeira, are equally 
useful to man and their webs reach the highest 
development of mechanical skill. It is worthy 
of note that insects injurious to man form the 
chief prey of the orb-weaving and grassy-bank 
spiders, as well as of the jumping species. It is 
true that beneficial insects, such as ichneumon 
flies, dragon flies and predaceous beetles, may 
stray into their nests, but the noxious flies, the 
caterpillars, grasshoppers and leaf-eating beetles 
are their far more numerous victims. 

The most useful of all spiders are those which 
prey upon the caterpillars that infest shade and 
fruit trees and destroy their foliage. Attached 
to the branches of trees, particularly to the cher- 

ry, apple, maple, elm, ash and linden, may often 
be seen large, unsightly webs or nests, sometimes 
covering a good-sized branch. These nests are 
constructed by the larvae of several kinds of web 
worms and each nest is the home of a colony of 
the worms, hiding there by day and crawling 
forth at night to devour the surrounding leaves. 
A single web often contains hundreds of these 
worms and were it not for a few spiders that also 
inhabit the nest and suck the life blood of the 
caterpillars, the latter would increase in such 
numbers as to strip fruit and shade trees almost 
bare of foliage. 

♦" ♦ ♦ 


Of great repute and of more importance than 
lac dye is cochineal, which is the source of artists' 
carmine and carmine lake. When precipitated 
with a salt of tin, it also yields a splendid scarlet. 
The cochineal insect, of which the female, like 
that of the nearly allied lac insect, alone yields 
the dye, is originally a native of Mexico, where it 
is parasitic on the leaves of the prickly pear. 
The males of the coccus cacti, as the species is 
called, are minute insects furnished with well- 
developed wings, feathered antennas and a long 
pair of hair-like processes at the hinder extrem- 
ity of the body. On the other hand, the female 
is a repulsive looking, wingless creature, with 
very short posterior hairs and nearly double the 
size of her partner. These insects adhere tightly 
to the smooth surface of the fleshy leaves of the 
prickly pear and are not unlike small purple 
wood lice in general appearance. 

When the harvest time has arrived the culti- 
vators stretch out on the ground pieces of linen 
at the foot of the plants, and detach the cochineals 
from them, brushing the plants with a rather hard 
brush or scraping them off with a blunt knife. 
if the season be favorable the operation may be 
repeated three times in the course of a year on 
the same plantation. The insects thus collected 
are killed by dipping into boiling water, by being 




put into an oven or by being placed on a plate of 
hot iron. When withdrawn from the boiling 
water they are placed on strainers in an airy po- 
sition, first in the sun and afterward in the shade. 
In commerce three sets of cochineal are recog- 
nized ; first, the mastique, of a reddish color, with 
a more or less abundant glaucous powder ; second, 
the noir, and third the sylvestre, which is smaller 
and of a reddish color. This last description, 
which is gathered from wild cacti, is the most 
highly esteemed of all. Each year there are im- 
ported into France 200,000 kilogrammes of coch- 
ineal insects, which represent a value of about 
three million francs. 

V V V 


When other birds go south in the autumn the 
- hawks and owls are among the few birds left in 
the north. These usually looked upon as feath- 
ered pests are, really most valuable friends of the 
farmer. The hawks and owls have been unlucky 
enough to get bad names, and the farmer boys 
wage war on them in spite of the fact that they 
destroy more than enough ground squirrels, go- 
phers and other rodent pests to pay many times 
for the few chickens they take. 

If farmers would only see this there would be 
more grain in their cribs and fewer hawks and 
owls tacked up on their barns to scare away their 

" Wise as an owl " — that saying may have been 
started in a spirit of sarcasm, but there is a 
great deal of truth in it. It is said that owls 
make unusually intelligent pets. Besides, they 
are perfectly fearless and are affectionate when 
you have succeeded in winning their affections. 

Hawks have their virtues, too, in spite of their 
predatory habits. They are strongly attached 
to their mates, and often a widowed bird will 
live alone for years, plainly mourning for its 

Parental love is highly developed in them. A 

striking case is reported from Minnesota. A 
forest fire was raging, and as it approached a 
tree in which was a nest of young fishhawks the 
old ones hovered over them with cries of distress, 
and as the tree was wrapped in flames they 
dashed into the fire and died with their little 

Owls, as well as hawks, go in pairs, and have 
been known to mate for life. 
-$••{• 4/ 

Rats are very susceptible to the odor of cer- 
tain drugs, and any ordinary trap set in their 
haunts is likely to succeed if dressed with these 
scents, the attraction of which, rat catchers affirm,' 
they cannot resist. An example is : Powdered 
asafcetida, eight grains; oil of rhodium, two 
drams ; oil of aniseed, one dram ; oil of lavender, 
one-half dram. Shake together in a bottle and 
use a very small quantity to dress the bait. 

To catch rats, cover a common barrel with 
stiff, stout paper, tying the edge round the bar- 
rel. Place a board so that the rats may have 
easy access to the top. Sprinkle cheese parings 
or other food for the rats on the paper for sev- 
eral days, until they begin to think they have a 
right to their daily rations from this source. 
Then place in the bottom of the barrel a piece of 
rock about six or seven inches high, filling with 
water until only enough of it projects above the 
water for one rat to lodge upon. Now replace 
the paper, first cutting a cross in the middle, and 
the first rat that comes on the barrel top goes 
through into the water and climbs on the rock. 
The paper comes back to its original position, 
and the second rat follows the first. Then be- 
gins a fight for the possession of the dry place on 
the stone, the noise of which attracts the others, 
who share the same fate. 

•k 4? -3e 

The hide of the hippopotamus in some parts 
is fully two inches thick. 

Flowers are the sweetest things 
God ever made and forgot to put a 
soul into. 


tihiie nsra-XjiEiisrooiK:. 




Elgin, Illinois. 

The subscription price of the Magazine is one dollar a year. It is 
a high-class publication, intended for the Home, and for the interest, 
entertainment and information, of old and young. 

Articles intended for publication should be short, of general inter- 
est, and nothing of a love story character or with either cruelty or 
killing, will be considered. 

Manuscript submitted to the Editor will be at the entire risk of 
the writer, and its return is not guaranteed. 

Subscribers wishing the address of their papers changed should 
Invariably give the old address at which they received their Ingle- 

Agents are wanted everywhere, and any reasonable number of 
sample copies will be furnished free. All communications relating 
to the Inglenook should be addressed as follows: 

(For the Inglenook.) 32-34 S. State St., Elgin, 111. 

Entered at the Post Office at Elgin, 111., as Second-class Matter. 

Your purse may be light, but what of that? 

It isn't the cost that counts. 
Those gifts are the best that come with love 

And the price tag never flounts. 
This one great truth 1 would have you learn — 

'Twill add to the zest of living — 
It isn't so much what you give, my friend, 

But the way you have of giving. 

+ + + 

George McDonaugh, so well known to the 
traveling public, called at the Inglenook office, 
when the editor was in the city of Chicago, 
and left a prize potato and his card showing him 
to be connected with the Union Pacific Railway. 
We commend him to our people everywhere as 
a gentleman whose word is good, and who will 
tell things as they are. 

+ + + 

The difference between theory 
and practice has kept many a man 
from succeeding in life. 

+ + + 

From potatoes to honey is a far cry, but facts 
are facts, and the 'Nook acknowledges the re- 
ceipt of three boxes of honey from an unnamed 
friend in Colorado. The editor needs his tem- 
per sweetened now and then, and the donor of the 

honey will know from this that a more acceptable 
gift has not hitherto been received where the 
'Nook is made. 

+ + + 

A large per cent of good resolu- 
tions go into effect only at the 

+ + + 

Several professional cooks said that the 
Christmas menus in the 'Nook were the work of 
other chefs. Nay, gentlemen of the paper cap, 
you may slap things together in the back room 
and send them forth to the little table, where they 
all taste as though they were cooked in the same 
pan, and are only arranged differently on the 
plate, being made out of the same things, but 
when you want something really palatable we'll 
do you the kindness to let some of these Dunker 
sisters get you a clean, square meal once in your 
lives. And some of them, most of them, could 
give you points in cleanliness that would be ap- 
preciated by the unfortunates who are compelled 
by fate to patronize short order places. 

+ + + 

There are few people zvho are 
more often in the wrong than those 
who can not endure to be thought 

* * + 


Take a lot of people, representing all classes, 
of all nations, and stripping them of their sever- 
al garments, dissection would show them all to 
be alike physically. This most people will agree 
to. But when the 'Nook says that they are all 
alike mentally and morally, as far as each goes, 
it will likely raise a chorus of dissent. Yet there 
is nothing truer. At heart we are all pretty much 
the same. We look different, dress in different 
ways, follow diverse pursuits, but when it comes 
to action and failure and success we are all made 
out of the same material. 

Thus it comes that most of us have made the 
same resolutions " to be good " from New Year's 
on, and we have seen the resolutions take flight 
as an apronful of swallows. It's funny one way, 
pathetic in another, and always a good thing. No 
matter how often we fall down it is in the getting 




up and at it again that the moral merit lies. The 
man or woman who never makes a mistake does 
not exist. True there are some who talk and 
act as though they were perfect, but could they 
be stripped of their hypocrisy and stood up on 
the platform they would appear in no enviable 
light. Verily, we are " all pore critters," and 
happy is he who knows how poor he is, and hap- 
pier yet he who in spite of poverty of good still 
tries to struggle up the side of Mt. Perfection 
even though the top is never reached. 
+ + + 
Never write " despair " on the 

book of Time. 

+ + + 


want to let some of the lords of creation have a 
benefit this is the opportunity. 

It has been suggested that the unprinted chap- 
ters of the Life of Christ, running through the 
'Nook, be published as essays in the future. This 
has been agreed upon and hereafter the remaining 
written chapters will appear from time to time 
in the form oi a contributed essay. 

The reason is in the fact that no matter how 
good a thing is, in time it becomes monotonous, 
when it is best to present it in a more acceptable 
garb. The original plan will be modified in ap- 
pearance only. Those who have written the un- 
published chapters will see them in the form of 
an essay and this is done for the purpose of se- 
curing a more interested constituency of readers, 
a condition induced by a different form of ex- 

+ + + 


In a short time we contemplate issuing a num- 
ber of the Inglenook, every line of which is to 
be written by women. We ask contributions 
to this issue from our women readers. These 
articles must be short, pointed, and sent on almost 
immediately. We do not agree to use all that 
are sent, but all are invited to contribute. Choose 
your own subject and handle it in your own way. 
It will be necessary that you take the matter up 
at once. The idea is to show the world at large 
that we have women as good with the pen as they 
are with the skillet. You must act at once or 
you'll miss it. If you have anything any of you 
want to " let fly " this is your chance. If you 

o o *>«>** *> *P 

r ? r ? < ? 

Is the work of Christ to be regarded as a miracle? 

Surely so. 


Are the chemical perfumes, sugars, etc., as good as 
the natural products? 

Yes they are, and often a lot better. 

Can you refer me to a reliable poultry dealer? 
By letter, yes. Not by free advertising in 
these columns. 

Why should paintings by the old masters be so val- 

Mainly because of their rarity and skill in ex- 


Why are the miles of different countries of different 

For the reason that each nation established its 
own units of valuation without conference. 

I have a lot of Colonial paper money. Is it of any 
great value? 

Very little value it set upon it by dealers. It 

is too common. 

Is there a limit to the refining of carbon oil as far as 
its lighting properties go? 

Yes. Past a certain point it loses in illuminat- 
ing qualities. 


There is a mineral spring on our place having strong 
medicinal qualities. Why not freeze the water and sell 
the ice in summer? 

There is no reason the 'Nook sees why it 
should not be done. 

Will figs grow in this country? 

Yes, the writer has seen fig trees, wild, in 
North Carolina, as big as a large apple tree. 
The crows got most of the ripe fruit. The birds 
hang around the trees for the purpose of getting 
the ripened figs. 



the iisrc3-i-iE3srooK:. 


" As plain as the nose on your face," says the 
proverb. Just how plain you do not realize, per 
haps, until you have seen a man without one ! He 
may lack an eye, an ear, an arm, and pass un- 
noticed, but without a nose — never! 

For that organ is the salient feature of a race. 
The fourteen small bones that, with the mass of 
cartilage, go to compose it are molded into every 
conceivable form. Look about you to see if you 
can discover any two noses alike. You cannot 
do it. 

Yet the}' all have something in common. The 
Troy Times once said that they can all sneeze, 
snarl, snuff, snore, snort, sneer, sniff, snuffle, 
snigger and snivel. 

In no way does the growth of the human 
animal show such a change as in the development 
of that one organ. 

The babe is born with a bump in the middle of 
his soft face. Pretty soon the bump stretches a 
bit, but all through childhood the nose has an 
inward curve. During this period Tommy thinks 
it has but one office. His auntie asked him what 
his nose was for. " For mamma to wipe," was 
the innocent's reply, founded on experience. 

Later it is a planting ground for freckles ; then 
it straightens out, and at twelve or thirteen al- 
most runs away with Tommy. It is then ahead 
of the body in growth, but it begins to take on 
some character and decides whether it is to be 
aquiline, knobbed or " tip tilted." 

All the characteristics of people, all gradations 
of society, all peculiarities of race, does this ex- 
pressive feature mark. A morning at the police 
court will reveal marvels in nose lore. Could 
you possibly associate culture or morality with 
those concave, crooked, misshapen objects? 
What tales they tell of the lower life! Seldom 
indeed is a truly fine nose seen in the " submerged 

Besides this, caste differences, racial markings 
are also eloquent. The weak, undeveloped or- 
gans of the Bushmen and Eskimos indicate the 
rank of the owners in the world's progression. 
Far more loudly than tongues do the flat noses 
of the Africans and the highly aquiline ones of 
the American Indians proclaim their natures — 

the first so sluggish a people, the second spirited, 

The Chinese flatten the nose of their babe 
because they have a ridiculous idea that the nose 
should be less important than the eyes. For cen- 
turies they have cultivated that ugly shape, and 
so the Chinese nose is really no criterion of their 
character, for intellectually they are a superior 

The German usually owns a fleshy, comforta- 
ble-looking, self-satisfied article. The Irishman 
tilts his to the skies, and it is as funny as his 
wit. The French are a " nosy " people, too, but 
there is a delicacy, a piquancy inscribed thereon 
that is a quality of their mentality. 

Broadly speaking, the Caucasian nose is the 
superior of all others. If one " follow his nose " 
the Caucasian leads the world. 

Yearly all our " great men " have been re- 
markable for their noses in some way. Moham- 
med, for instance. His nose was almost a beak 
— it seemed to try to reach his chin. Then the 
immortal Ovid was called by the irreverent " Mr. 
Yosey " or Xaso. Yapoleon III. suffered the 
same scoff, Grosbec, or Nosy. 

The " Great Yapoleon " had an exquisitely 
chiseled nose himself, and was wont to say, "Give 
me a man with plenty of nose." Fortune an- 
swered his prayer, although hardly in the way 
he wished, for Wellington was thrown across 
his path — the owner of the most prominent nose 
in Europe ! 

Richelieu. Wolsey, Bacon, Franklin, all had 
large nostrilled noses, betokening strong power 
of thought and love of serious meditation. Our 
Washington had nobility of purpose and heroism 
plainly stamped on his. Caesar's was much the 
same type. Gladstone owned a generous," broad- 
minded " nose. 

Once a great nose saved a great life, and it was 
in this wise : Ludolph of Austria, he of the big 
nose, roused the enmity of some of his knights, 
and they decided to slay him. One night a peas- 
ant working near their tents overheard them say, 
" To-morrow we'll surprise old Big Nose and cut 
him to pieces." Presently as the peasant was 
on his way to another part of the camp — for this 
happened during a campaign — he was met by 
the emperor, taking an evening walk to inspect 
his army. Ludolph asked him what was going 



on in his part of the camp. The man innocently 
answered that there would be great fun next 
morning, for they were going to cut a big nose 
to pieces. It is needless to say that there was no 
•" next morning " for the conspirators. 

Rameses II. punished those convicted of 
treason by striking off their noses, and Actisanes 
of Egypt treated robbers in the same manner. 
His unique method of reforming dishonest butch- 
ers was putting a hook through their noses, on 
which to hang bad meat ! 

It is not now such an irreparable loss as it was 
once to lose one's nose, for wax and plaster ones 
are made very successfully. They must certainly 
be more becoming than the golden one that Tycho 
Brahe of old attached to his face with cement. 

T Tr T 

The depth of beauty often de- 
pends upon the thickness of the 

t T T 


As inventors women have long been to the fore 
and numerous instances could be given of women 
who have invented articles which have placed 
them in comfortable circumstances. Women in- 
ventors occupy all ranks of society, from the poor, 
struggling working woman to the Empress of 
the French who invented the dress improver 
which years since developed into the then fash- 
ionable crinoline. The woman who patented the 
improved baby carriage made £10,000, while a 
young girl living at Port Elizabeth, South Africa, 
devised a simple toilet requisite from which she 
derived an income of £100 a year. The wife of 
a clergyman invented an improved corset, which 
was the means of making her independently rich. 
It was a woman's inventive power that produced 
the paper bag making machine. Another clever 
woman is responsible for the wonderful device 
for deadening the sound of car wheels on the 
overhead railway. Women have perhaps more 
often figured as the instigators of inventions than 
as inventors. The machine by which the Broth- 
ers Morley made their great fortune was in- 
vented by Rev. Wm. Lee, who was an eminent 
fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, England. 

The story of his life is pathetic. He fell in love 
with an innkeeper's daughter and married her, 
which action deprived him of his fellowship. He 
was soon reduced to extreme poverty. His wife 
knitted stockings fory living, and Lee, sitting by 
her side as she worked, watched the intricate 
.1. \ ements of her hands, and was thus led to 
speculate on the possibility of constructing a ma- 
chine which would do the work more expeditious- 
ly. Lee, however, unfortunately came to grief, 
owing to the machine being regarded as a device 
for throwing people out of work, and he died 
poor and friendless, a broken-hearted man. 
Apropos of the manner in which Lee discovered 
the stocking loom, it is interesting to note that 
the late Mr. Horsey invented the modern tobacco 
pouch from an idea which was presented to his 
mind after watching his wife folding some stock- 

T T T 

We prepare oursehes for sudden 
deeds by the reiterated choice of 
good or evil that gradually deter- 
mines character. 


In the fight at Lindley the Dublin Hunt section 
of the Imperial Yeomanry suffered heavily. 
Trooper William Holmes was found on the battle 
field severely injured. But for the kindness of a 
Boer w r ho sat by him all night and conveyed him 
in a cart next morning to Lindley, he would prob- 
ably have died. As it was, his condition was se- 
rious, and a leg had to be cut off. In the course 
of time this very Boer was captured and trans- 
ported beyond the seas. From his new quarters 
he wrote to the trooper in the hope that he might 
be able to get him sent back to the Cape on pa- 
role. The letter reached the soldier's home in 
Dublin before the invalided man had returned 
there, but it was opened by his father, Lord Jus- 
tice Holmes, w r ho at once forwarded it to Earl 
(then Lord) Roberts. The commander-in-chief 
answered by telegraph that the Boer had been 
released, and was on his way home. It is such 
grateful incidents as these that tone down to some 
extent the horrors of war. 


the xhtg-t^ehtcxdis:. 


On Holland Island, in Chesapeake bay, is the 
queerest town in the United States. 

The ocean tides regulate the whole life of the 
place. At low tide the town is in full activity. 
Business, society functions and schools are then 
carried on. But when the flood tide sets in, all 
people and children scamper for their homes, re- 
gardless of the time of day or night. 

The cause of this peculiar arrangement is the 
fact that the town is gradually sinking under the 
waters of the bay. Holland Island, which used 
to be a body of land rising high above the water, 
has sunk rapidly in the past few years. Its prin- 
cipal streets are flooded at high tide. Only the 
houses on the high central ridge of the island are 
above water. 

When high tide occurs at 4 or 5 o'clock in the 
morning the affairs of this town go on much the 
same as in any other town. By 6 or 7 o'clock the 
water has receded from the streets and the mer- 
chants open their stores. At 9 o'clock the chil- 
dren go to school and the women go shopping. 
All are happy in the thought that they can stay 
away from home until late in the afternoon, when 
the returning high tide is due. 

But when high tide occurs at midday all this 
is changed. The children must get up and go to 
school before light in the morning. Men hustle 
downtown to their stores at 3 or 4 o'clock in the 
morning, anxious to do part of a day's business 
before the tide comes in. Before noon they must 
close their shops and go home till evening, when 
they can open up again at low tide. 

In spite of these inconveniences, 600 people 
live on Holland island. They are mostly oyster- 
men and their families. 

Much money and labor have been expended by 
the property owners to combat the terrible action 
of the swift-running tides, but now all seems 
doomed to destruction. 

Dr. Amos Brown, head professor of geology at 
the University of Pennsylvania, has this to say 
about the island : 

" There may be two causes for this very pecul- 
iar disappearance. The fact that islands go out 
of sight, however, is no new thing, but for one 
to be swallowed so rapidly is certainly startling. 

This disappearance may be due to the weight of 
the island itself. Deep currents are often found 
in a bay which eat and cut away from below, so 
that the upper or exposed portion of the island 
gradually sinks. Especially is this the case where 
the land is of alluvial formation, and consequently 
soft and very yielding. 

" A second consideration is that the swift tides 
of the Chesapeake may be rapidly cutting away 
the land from the top and sides, but this is a 
much slower process. I think that the rapidity 
of disappearance in the case of Holland island 
would point to the first cause I mentioned, or, 
possibly, to a combination of each. There is no 
doubt that this island is of alluvial formation and 
was once joined to the other islands in the bay 
lying near it. When the rich farms of Virginia 
and Maryland were in their best condition of cul- 
tivation before the war, immense quantities of 
deposit were carried down the Potomac into the 

" Most of the islands opposite the mouth of 
the river were thus built up and sustained against 
the action of the tide sweeping in. Since the 
war these farms have not been worked and the 
land has become baked, and the debris carried 
down by the river is thus checked. The islands 
receive nothing, therefore, to compensate for the 
action of the tides and underlying excavation of 
deep counter currents, and must in time entirely 
disappear. This island is particularly well sit- 
uated for the best possible action of the tides. As 
the tide advances it cuts away on the west, then 
travels up Holland straits and eats away on the 
south and east. Coupled with the causes already 
mentioned, one must not forget that the whole 
eastern coast line is slowly sinking. This has 
become already a serious matter to real estate 
owners on the New Jersey coast. The Pacific 
coast, on the contrary, is gradually rising." 

T T T 

Nothing is improved by anger, 
unless it be the arch of a cat's back. 

V T T 


The ordinary person makes no distinction be- 
tween one cloud and another, though by some 
meteorologists they are divided into four distinct 



roups ; the heaped up cumulus ; the delicate, 
feathery, curling little clouds, named cirrus, so 
high as to be frozen, often, into minute needles of 
ice; the wide-spreading sheets of cloud named 
stratus, which, seldom more than half a mile 
above the earth, often come down to envelop us 
in fogs of mist; and the dark, unmistakable 
nimbus, very soon causing the water that left the 
earth as vapor to be restored as rain. 

The clouds owe their different forms to dif- 
ferent physical states of the atmosphere, to which 
are also due the aerial currents, which often flow 
in directions other than the currents or winds 
prevailing close to the earth. 

In weather forecasting, no clouds are worthy 
of such attention as the cirrus clouds, which at- 
tain a greater elevation than any others, 
averaging in summer a height of five or six miles 
above the earth. Their sudden appearance in a 
clear sky is generally a signal of foul weather, es- 
pecially when their streamers have an upward 
tendency, for this indicates that the clouds are 
falling. After heavy rains, on the other hand, 
the formation of these clouds is often a sign of 

When cirrus clouds appear in summer, the as- 
sumption is that rain will occur in two or three 
days. They are seldom seen in winter, and never 
for long. When cirrus clouds assume the form 
of stratus, at any altitude of four or five miles, 
their persistence is an almost certain sign of rainy 
weather. If. on the contrary, they remain of 
small size, and quickly disappear, no change is 
to be apprehended. 

Among the most significant of the cirrus for- 
mation of clouds is that delicate white vail called 
cirro-pallium, which is gradually drawn across 
the sky. This, with its accompanying lunar and 
solar halos, almost certainly foretells rain and bad 
weather for the next day. 

Cumulus clouds vary enormously in size, but 
so long as they remain of moderate dimensions, 
in fine weather, they indicate a continuance of 
brightness. But when, in hot weather, they grow 
exceptionally large, they give warning of storms, 
with high temperature — and with great certainty 
when they assume a dome-like shape. 

The ordinary stratus, the fog of the sky, is 
common in all seasons, but is generally observed 

in the morning or evening. It causes fine rain, 
seldom of very long duration. 

None can mistake the nimbus formations, those 
dark, heavy-looking masses, with clearly-defined 
outlines, the certain precursors of immediate rain. 
They may attain the size of immense mountains 
of vapor, the base less than a mile above the 
ground, and the summit as high as five miles. 
Some nimbus clouds have been calculated to con- 
tain as much as 200 cubic miles of vapor ! — Pear- 
son's Magazine. 

4. 4. 4. 

// you are acquainted with hap- 
piness, introduce him to your neigh- 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


There is a humorous side to the foreign 
troubles in China. The chief engineer of the 
railway that is being built through Shang-Tung 
province by the Germans complained to a tao- 
tai, or local governor, that the people pulled 
up and carried off the stakes that his surveyors 
had driven into the ground to guide the con- 
struction gangs in grading the right of way, so 
that he had been compelled to do the work 
over three or four times. The taotai promised 
that the mischief should stop, and said that he 
would give the matter his personal attention. 
The surveyors went over the line again and 
marked it out carefully with wooden pegs. 
When they came back a few weeks later they 
were disgusted to find that every one of the 
markers for miles had disappeared. The chief 
engineer, in the heat of his wrath, rushed to the 
taotai to make complaint, and the latter, with a 
smile that was childlike and bland, attempted 
to soothe him, saying: 

" The stakes are all right, every one of them ; 
I had my men go out and take them all up, and 
keep them safely until you returned, and I have 
gQt them tied up in bundles for you." 

The letter which brings this interesting anec- 
dote all the way from Shan-Tung relates that 
the engineer grabbed the mandarin by the 
throat and nearly shook his head off, although 
the latter had done what he supposed to be a 
great favor with the best of intentions. 




To feel in apple-pie order is a phrase which 
dates back to Puritan times — to a certain Hep- 
zibah Merton. It seems that every Saturday she 
was accustomed to bake two or three dozen apple 
pies, which were to last her family through the 
coming week. These she placed carefully on her 
pantry shelves, labeled for each day of the week, 
so that Tuesday's pies might not be confused with 
Thursday's, nor those presumably large or in- 
tended for washing and sweeping days, eaten 
when household labors were lighter. Aunt Hep- 
zibah's " apple-pie order " was known through- 
out the entire settlement, and originated the well- 
known saying. 

It was once customary in France when a guest 
had outstayed his welcome for the host to serve 
a cold shoulder of mutton instead of a hot roast. 
This was the origin of the phrase. " To give the 
cold shoulder." 

" Xone shall wear a feather but he who has 
killed a Turk," was an old Hungarian saying, 
and the number of feathers in his cap indicated 
how many Turks the man had killed. Hence 
the origin of the saying with reference to a feath- 
er in one's cap. 

In one of the battles between the Russians and 
the Tartars a private soldier of the former cried 
out : " Captain, I've caught a Tartar ! " " Bring 
him along, then," answered the officer. " I can't, 
for he won't let me," was the response. Upon 
investigation it was found that the captured had 
the captor by the arm and would not release him. 
So, " catching a Tartar " is applicable to one who 
has found an antagonist too powerful for him. 

That far from elegant expression, " to kick the 
bucket," is believed to have originated in the time 
of Queen Elizabeth, when a shoemaker named 
Hawkins committed suicide by placing a bucket 
on a table in order to raise himself high enough 
to reach a rafter above, then kicking away the 
bucket on which he stood. The term coroner 
is derived from the word " corphcornor," which 
means corpse inspector. 

" He's a brick," meaning a good fellow, orig- 
inated with a king of Sparta — Agesilaus — about 
the fourth century B. C. A visitor at the Lace- 
demonian capital was surprised to find the city 
without walls or means of defense, and asked his 

royal host what they would do in case of an in- 
vasion by a foreign power. "Do?" replied the 
heroic king. " Why, Sparta has 50,000 soldiers, 
and each man is a brick." 

When the horse guards parade in St. James' 
park, London, there is always a lot of boys on 
hand to black the boots of soldiers, or do other 
menial work. These boys, from their constant 
attendance about the time of guard mounting, 
were nicknamed the " blackguards," hence the 
name " blackguard." Deadhead, as denoting one 
who has free entrance to places of amusement, 
comes from Pompeii, where the checks for free 
admission were small ivory death's heads. Speci- 
mens of these are in the museum at Naples. 

# + * 

The flirt's punishment for con- 
tempt of court is ancient spinster- 

♦ ♦■ ♦ 




c;:.. : 

" The Empress was never seen by a foreign 
man, but has been seen by the wives of all the 
ministers in Peking. When she has an inter- 
view with a Chinese official, according to Chi- 
nese custom, she sits behind a screen. Among 
the presents she gave the wives of the ministers 
were a lot of ivory combs — fine combs as well 
as coarse — a present which, it is to be hoped, 
these good ladies will not have use for outside 
of China. During the interview with these la- 
dies she introduced them to the emperor. She 
passed the tea to them herself, taking a sip 
from each of the cups before she gave it, evi- 
dently to show them that it was not poisoned. 
They came away infatuated with the ' Old 
Lady,' as the Chinese sometimes call her. The 
empress dowager's chief characteristic is quick- 
ness of thought and action. When she comes 
to a crisis she does not wait to think twice, she 
acts at once, and awes by her very presence. 
She does not take time to reckon what the con- 
sequences will be, but when she has gotten the 
reins well in her own hands she plans at leisure 
how to avoid consequences. She has always 
been hand and glove with Li Hung Chang, and 
he would do anything to protect her. It was 
formerly supposed that she was for reform and 
so she might have been had she not been com- 

the iitgleitooe:. 




pelled to put herself behind the conservative 
party when she deposed Kwang Hsu. She is 
extravagant beyond expression. Her sixtieth 
birthday fell during the Japanese-Chinese war. 
To celebrate it she had a stone road built to the 
summer palace, while the public road to Fung- 
chou was in a dilapidated condition. When 
30,000,000 taels were raised for the construction 
of railways, it is said, she used a large part of 
the money in the decoration of the imperial 
gardens, stopping the railway at Shanhaikuan 
instead of at Monkden, according to the orig- 
inal plans." 

J» ♦ ♦ 

Silence is the understanding of 
fools, and one of the virtues of the 

* + + 



. Among 

?! J:'KiI 

3; CO 

jr outside 

ill a si? 

.::. Be 
:= quick- 

::::" : ' r 

;:: ; '- 


orffl and 

so com- 

The inability of the Filipino to understand 
that accuracy of bullet flight is the first thing to 
be sought in rifle fire may account for the many 
weird inventions by which the insurgents attempt 
to increase the deadliness of their weapons at the 
expense of unerringness. They will, in a fiendish 
desire to secure a bullet that will cruelly tear a 
victim's body, produce a missile that can nearly 
always be counted on to miss its target. Instead 
of aiming at accuracy of flight they waste their 
energies in efforts to add peculiar lacerating pow- 
ers to their bullets. Fully half of the cartridges 
found in the possession of the rebels consist of 
refilled shells. In some of the crude arsenals 
wounded soldiers, women and boys are engaged 
in the work of refilling. The Filipinos have been 
able to buy large quantities of tea lead and get it 
through the line in the form of wrapping or pack- 
ing materials for teas, sugar and articles of mer- 
chandise of all kinds. The sheet lead has been 
cf great service in t!-e cartridge-making plants. 
It is seldom melted and cast, the sheets instead 
being rolled and pounded into the form of a bul- 
let wiiich usually breaks open when discharged. 
Such a missile makes a ragged and dangerous 

Ingenious natives — and there are not a few of 
these — make a bullet from pieces of iron, forged 
out and adjusted into a shell. This is the rough- 
est of all the home-made bullets and is employed 
only when the better forms of ammunition have 

run out. Various are the natives' ways of mak- 
ing their bullets deadly. Sometimes a wire nail 
is driven through the ball. One insurgent was 
caught the other day with a score of these on his 
person. Understanding the deadly effect of 
brass in wounds, they are always studying means 
to utilize brass metal against the American sol- 
diers. One rebel made a small ball out of hard- 
wound fine brass wire. It was to be placed in a 
cartridge and the idea was that when it unwound 
it would effectually prevent the recovery of the 
victim it chanced to hit. Another dangerous mis- 
sile is made by grooving a ball and winding the 
groove with spring wire. The end of the wire 
being only soldered down it breaks loose on leav- 
ing the gun and is expected to make a bad wound 
in tearing into its victim. 

Splitting bullets is a favorite method of bru- 
talizing native warfare. The missile is split into 
halves or quarters and on striking an object ex- 
pands, causing much trouble to the surgeons, as 
the pieces often break off and are hard to locate 
in the body. Spiral grooves are cut in some bul- 
lets for the double purpose of causing a bad 
wound and of enabling the ball to keep a straight- 
er flight. One of the most singular specimens is 
a bullet penetrated sectionally with two pieces of 
brass wire, the points projecting and being sharp- 
ened, so that a wound by it nearly always brings 

on bloodpoisoning. 

4, 4. 4. 

Be firm; one constant element in luck 
Is genuine, solid, old .Teutonic pluck. 
4. 4. 4. 


Some would-be-correct folk have tried to give 
?. feminine turn to the name of two duchesses — 
Consuelo, duchess of Manchester, and Consuelo, 
duchess of Marlborough, by writing it " Con- 
suela." This shows a misunderstanding of a 
most characteristic Spanish name. Consuelo is 
" comfort " or " consolation " — a masculine sub- 
stantive, but a feminine name, for it implies Ma- 
ria as a first name. Almost all Spanish women 
are christened Mary with some special invocation, 
thus Mary of the Seven Sorrows is " Dolores," 
Mary of the Immaculate Conception is " Con- 
ception," and Mary of Good Comfort is " Con- 




It is a very difficult task to explain to one who 
has never seen ski or ski running what it really 
means. Skis are really very simple instruments. 
They consist of two long, narrow strips of wood, 
pointed and curved upward in front. In Norway 
the ski is generally seven or eight feet in length 
and from three to four inches in breadth. At 
the center under the foot they will be about an 
inch thick or a little more, beveling off to about 
a quarter of an inch at either end. The under 
surface is flat, often with a groove along the mid- 
dle, and is made as smooth as possible. They are 
fastened to the feet by a loop for the toe, fixed 
near the center of the ski, and a band which 
passes from this round behind the heel of the 
shoe and which can be tied very tight. 

I remember an incident which happened in 
America many years ago. He was an engineer, 
and was surveying for a railway far west on the 
prairies. The winter had set in, and deep snow 
had covered the fields. Being a skillful ski run- 
ner, he made himself a pair of ski. The same 
day he had been out trying these for the first 
time a group of Indians came upon a track, 
consisting of two parallel grooves or furrows in 
the snow, and, never having seen a similar track 
before, they followed it up to make out what kind 
of an animal it might originate from. They 
followed the track to the door of the Norwe- 
gian's cottage, where they saw two strips of wood 
leaning against the wall. They measured the 
track and they measured these wooden things, 
and found that they were exactly the same 

And now followed a very close investigation 
of these marvelous creatures, which were care- 
fully measured on all sides. When the Norwe- 
gian, as by chance, came out of his cottage door 
the natives darted away from the ski and looked 
at something else, pretending not even to have 
noticed them. The Norwegian showed them, 
however, the ski and how they were used. They 
wished now to try them, but using them as they 
were accustomed to do their snowshoes they made 
slow progress and found them poor and slippery. 

The Norwegian then put them on and pro- 
posed to race with the Indians, and they were 
quite willing. But the surprise of these swift 

Indians, on their light snowshoes, was great when 
the}- discovered that they were only able to keep 
pace with him for a few hundred yards and then 
rapidly dropped behind, even though they were 
•■acing over their well-known prairies. After- 
ward the Norwegian helped them to make ski 
and some of the Indians learned to use them tol- 
erably well, although men who are not trained 
to use ski from early boyhood very seldom be- 
come skillful ski runners. 

The motion employed in ski-ing has no resem- 
blance to that employed in skating. While they 
are moved the ski are always kept strictly parallel 
and as close together as possible and should not 
be lifted from the ground — like Canadian snow- 
shoes. On flat ground they should constantly 
be kept gliding over the surface of the snow, 
while being driven forward by alternate strokes 
from the hips and thighs, and the body is thrown 
forward in each stride. The length of the stride 
may be increased by propulsion of the staff which 
the ski runner carries in his hand. 

Up hill, if the gradient be steep, the ski runner 
will have to tack from side to side, following a 
zigzag course, or go sideways, bringing the ski 
almost to a right angle with the slope. But down 
hill the ski runner often goes with a tremendous 
speed, and then it may well be possible that he 
could " outstrip the birds in flight." The ski now 
slide readily, and the steeper the slope the great- 
er the speed, the one thing necessary being to 
maintain the balance and to steer clear of all dif- 
ficulties, such as trees and precipices. The ski 
runner can go everywhere, over hill and valley, 
and nothing stops him so long as there is suffi- 
cient snow to move over. 

A great art in ski running is the jumping upon 
ski. It is generally done down steep hillsides, 
which in the middle have some natural breaks in 
the ground, or where a bank of snow is built. 
Sliding with a great pace from the top of the hill 
onto this bank, the jumper, owing to the sudden 
break in the ground, is thrown far into the air, 
and after a longer or shorter journey through 
space, he alights on the slope below and continues 
his headlong course at an even greater speed than 
before. As a rule, he will even very much in- 
crease the length of his leap by taking a spring 
;ust as he leaves the projecting bank. The length 
of such jumps is very generally seventy or eighty 



i snow- 

leet, and in the later years jumps exceeding one 
hundred feet are recorded. 

* + * 

In several issues of the 'Nook reference has 
been made to so-called freak farming, that is, en- 
gaging in some out-of-the-ordinary pursuits, and 
if we mistake not we called attention to skunk 
raising. Below we give the experience of the 
proprietor of such a place in Pennsylvania, as 
related in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 

We bought a farm in Monroe County, Penn- 
sylvania, for the express purpose of experiment- 
ing in skunk raising. We paid $6,500 for the 
farm. We obtained a charter from the State, and 
in October, 189 1. opened an office near the farm 
for the purpose of purchasing our skunks. We 
found this no small matter, and only succeeded 
after doing a great deal of advertising and send- 
ing expert trappers into regions where the ani- 
mals were numerous. We bought one male to 
ten females, paying usually from $2.50 to $3.00 
for fine black specimens. A black skunk is one 
which has no white back of the shoulder except- 
ing the tip of the tail. 

A temporary pen 80x100 feet was constructed 
to keep the skunks until spring. Early in the 
next April a three-foot trench was dug around 
a twenty-acre piece of hillside land, sloping to the 
sun. In this ditch we set posts eight feet apart, 
and to this we stapled galvanized wire netting 
eight feet high, with a one-inch mesh. This 
made a tight fence five feet below the surface. 
The trench was then filled and tramped hard. 
Then a twelve-inch hemlock board was strung 
aiong the tops of the posts inside and out. This 
was to keep the skunks in and other animals out. 
Then we turned to the making of dens. 

The dens were made of heavy oak planks, or 
of stone, of various patterns and styles, but the 
prevailing size was 4x10 feet, just below the frost 
line. A hall ran the whole length of the den, 
with openings into rooms 2x2x2 feet. Each den 
had leading to it a tunnel twelve feet long and 
twelve inches square, so inclined as to give grav- 
ity drainage to the interior. 

Over the mouth of each tunnel, as cold weather 
approached, was placed a thick cloth to exclude 
the cold ; and many other minor matters looking 

to the comfort and safety of the inmates re- 
ceived our attention. 

April 20 the park received its fragrant popula- 
tion of about three hundred skunks. We had 
discovered them partial to a meat diet, especially 
poultry. Beef, lamb or pork would be cast aside 
at any time for chicken. Fish were also popular 
food. Occasionally thawed frozen apples would 
ie lighly eaten during the winter, and now and 
then in summer a dessert of berries or wild plums. 
Bugs, crickets and grubs of all kinds were deli- 
cacies for them, and in search of these they kept 
the twenty-acre park as thoroughly plowed as 
any farm implement could have turned it. As 
■o rooter the skunk equals the pig. He will spend 
the whole night overturning flat stones, chips, 
bark, rooting in toughest sods, and digging in old 
logs for insects and larvae. He is strictly a noc- 
turnal animal, and if seen abroad in the daytime 
there is generally urgent cause. 

The young skunks are born in May or June in 
this latitude. A warm winter will bring them 
about thirty days earlier. The young of mature 
skunks have finer and better fur than the progeny 
of the younger animals, and their pelts are larger 
and more valuable. The females have one litter 
a year, numbering from six to sixteen. Seventy 
to eighty per cent of these are females. In buy- 
ing our stock from trappers this average, also 
held, though we had not specified the proportions 

The first year brought no increase in our stock, 
but rather a falling off, due to natural deaths. 
This was entirely unexpected. We looked for 
^,000 skunks in 1892. No reason could be as- 
signed for our disappointment, but we determined 
to keep a strict watch in the spring of 1893. 
This revealed to us that the skunk is a cannibal. 
Though we kept the animals supplied with an 
abundance of the choicest food, and conducted wa- 
ter to their dens through iron pipes from a cold 
mountain spring, we found that they destroyed 
the young as fast as they were born, the males 
being the chief offenders. 

We saw many surprising and startling proofs 
that the skunks were doing in captivity what they 
had never been known to do in the wild state. We 
several times saw a mother rush from one of the 
dens with a kitten in her mouth, a cannibalistic 
pack in pursuit. 



Our hopes of gathering a fortune by raising 
this valuable little animal in captivity had received 
a sore blow by this discovery, but the more san- 
guine members of the company had plans to set 
this obstacle aside. 

It was certain that the males were the chief 
destrovers of the young. Why not separate them 
from the females after breeding? The sugges- 
tion was so reasonable that it was adopted. 
March 2, 1894, the females were segregated in 
a spacious inclosure specially prepared for them. 
In due time the young were born. Then the 
females ate each other's children. One had been 
placed by herself, and she successfully reared 
nine young. We estimated the cost of raising 
this single brood at $30. 

Skunks are not especially quarrelsome. We 
never knew one to use his scent except in self- 
defense. The removal of the scent sack did not 
appreciably affect the growth of the animal, but 
seemed fatal to many, and beyond a doubt af- 
ected unfavorably the general appearance, the 
furring, and consequently the value. So that 
in skunk culture the unwholesome scent gland is 
quite necessary. 

During cold weather the skunk lies dormant in 
a burrow below the frost line, several living to- 
gether. The mother skunk will sometimes move 
her children to a new burrow, doing this at night. 
I made an estimate of the distance covered by 
one mother in moving a family of seven, and I 
found she had traveled nine miles, half the dis- 
tance with a kitten in her mouth. 

Skunks cannot be raised in captivity. It cost 
us $25,000 to find this out, but we are convinced. 
* * * 

Probably few people in occidental countries 
know anything about the feminine traders of the 
East. Nevertheless, in those vast tracts of the 
Orient where the female sex passes its life in 
strict seclusion, a considerable retail business of 
a primitive kind is transacted by wandering wom- 
an peddlers, who carry their goods round and 
display them in the houses of well-to-do families. 

Originally this trade was carried on entirely by 
native women, but of late a certain number of . 
European women have embarked in it, either on 
their own account or as agents of small European 
houses. Of course, the business lies almost en- 
tirely among the families of Mohammedans, of 
whom Great Britain alone has nearly 100,000,000 
among its subjects. 

A very large proportion of the success in ori- 
ental countries gained by missionaries is due to 
the ladies who assist them, for, naturally, they 
alone can get at the women of the East. What 
applies to the spread of religion applies also to 
the spread of trade, and the work done bv the 
zenana missions is an indication of what a trad- 
ing association on the same lines could effect. 
Equally it shows the value of the woman agent. 
There are many Mussulman women who cannot 
go to markets and shops, and their custom would 
be practically assured to the firms which sent 
goods to their houses by lady agents, more es- 
pecially such goods as are required in household 
use. In Turkey Catholic nuns have alreadv 
adopted this method of business and they have 
numerous customers among Mohammedan wom- 
en for their woolen stuffs, cloth, stockings, shawls 
and such things, which they make in their own 

The need felt by Mohammedan families for 
such means of doing their shopping is rapidly 
becoming greater owing to the spread of Euro- 
pean influence and refinement, which naturally 
necessitates an increase of household require- 
ments and personal luxuries. It is true, of 
course, that husbands, brothers and sons can be 
sent to buy these things, but husbands, brothers 
and sons cannot always be relied upon to get the 
right article. With the exception of villagers 
and the poorest classes only women of advanced 
ideas ever go to market or shops in the oriental 
towns and even they do not know the delights 
of shopping. They are veiled and being unac- 
customed to talk to strangers they are not at their 
ease. The woman of the East much prefers to 
do her shopping in her own house with a woman 

/;; great crises it is woman's 
special lot to soften our misfor- 





L ; i^y?i 


The Home 

16 is w •) 

ill*, ;; c: 

hi v.-ha 
plies also J 



.-/ woman may forget all the rest 
of her friends, but she never forgets 
the woman who didn't conic to her 



S, more e 
ve ilreadv 

ski WOT- 


Three eggs, three tablespoons sour cream, 

one-fourth teaspoonful of soda, one-half tea- 
spoonful of salt, one-half teaspoonful of baking 
power and flour to mix very stiff. Roll and 
cut like cookies. Then take each piece separate- 
ly and roll it very thin. Spread a white cloth on 
the table and place them on it to dry. About an 
hour's time will be required for drying. Cut into 
strips about an inch and a fourth wide. Pile 
them about an inch high. Shave very fine from 
the end of the pile. 

If one wishes to cook noodles with chicken, 
pour about a quart of milk into the kettle when 
the chicken is done cooking. When it boils, 
lightly drop into it about half this quantity of 
noodles. They require only a few minutes' cook- 

North Yakima, Wash. 

Salt to taste, boil slowly for one-half hour, longer 
will improve it. This is my own manufacture 
which we have used over twenty years, and never 
tire of it. It makes a cheap, healthy, unadulter- 
ated, clean diet for brain and nerve. 
McPherson, Kans. 



Dissolve in one pint of hot water one-half 
ounce of gelatine. After it has cooled, add the 
beaten whites of three eggs, one teacupful of 
sugar, and the juice of two lemons. Pour the 
whole into a mould. When set, put in a dish, 
pour over it a quart of custard flavored with 
vanilla, and set on the ice until served. 

Nezvburg, Pa. 


V ■<* 




Take good wheat, either from the thrashing 
machine or from your mill, scoured wheat. 
Wash clean and drain, then put in the oven to 
dry. Dry slowly and thoroughly, so it will grind 
well. Grind coarsely in a good coffeemill, or a lit- 
tle hand mill. Add to this one-fourth rye or 
white flour. Have water boiling, about four 
cups of water to one cup of the prepared food. 

Take two ounces of tartaric acid, juice of one 
lemon, two pounds of white sugar, three pints 
of water ; boil together five minutes. When 
nearly cold, add, after beating together, the 
whites of three eggs, half a cup of flour made 
smooth with a little water, and one ounce of win- 
tergreen essence. Mix well, put in glass jars 
or pint bottles and keep in a cool place. For a 
drink, two tablespoonfuls of the syrup to two- 
thirds tumbler of cold water, and one-quarter 



teaspoonful of soda. Stir until creamy with 
foam. This is very refreshing in hot weather. 
Huntingdon, Pa. 

* <4 



Put in a porcelain vessel one teaspoonful of 
Heno (or Sheon) tea, pour over it one quart of 
boiling water. Set on the back of the stove 
where it will not boil. Let it stand until the 
leaves unfold and sink, then pour into the teapot. 
Do not allow it to stand on the leaves too long, 
as it destroys the flavor. 

Roanoke, Va. 


Make a sirup of a cup of granulated sugar 
and a third of a cup of water and simmer over 
the fire until it threads. Beat the whites of two 
small eggs stiff, add a generous pinch of cream 
of tartar and beat steadily while you pour in the 
hot sirup. Do not cease beating until it is like a 
thick, white paste, then flavor with vanilla or 
lemon, and spread at once on the layer-cakes. 

Bleeding from the nose can often be checked 
by laying a piece of ice on the wrist. 

To scale a fish more readily let it lie for a 
little while in salt water before scraping. 

Old newspapers laid down over the carpet 
lining will assist in freeing one from moths. 

When stuffing a fowl that is to be roasted, 
prepare and insert the stuffing over night, and 
the flavor of the seasoning will penetrate through 
the entire bird. 

Bureau drawers if inclined to stick should be 
rubbed with a bit of dry soap, or with paraffine. 

A sprig of parsley eaten after one has indulged 
in onions will remove their unpleasant odor from 
the breath. 

<« * 

Fish for frying must always be dried thor- 
oughly and dredged with flour before being 
brushed over with egg and bread crumbs. 
<• <* 
Bake custards by setting the cups in a pan of 
water. This cooks them very evenly and makes 
them less liable to become watery. 
>•* + 
When burning refuse, such as potato skins or 
cabbage leaves, put a handful of salt into the 
fire and it will destroy the unpleasant odor. 
« •* 

For a slight burn try an application of common 
baking soda, moistened with water. Spread this 
over the burned surface and the pain will be 
quickly allayed. 

Salted popcorn is prepared in the same way 
as salted almonds or peanuts. Choose the soft- 
est and whitest kernels of popped corn, put in a 
hot frying pan with a little melted butter, and 
dust over with salt. Let them brown lightly. 

For red hands use a little chloride of lime — 
dropping a few grains into the water used for 
washing the hands. Be careful to remove all 
rings and bracelets first, for chloride of lime will 
tarnish them. 

* (« 

In icing a' cake a little cornstarch dusted into 
the icing will help to prevent its running off the 
sides of the cake. Also a strip of stiff paper a 
trifle deeper than the cake may be pinned around 
it before spreading on the icing, and should be 
left on until the icing is quite dry. 


The proof that there is no hoase- 
cleaning in heaven is that there is 
no heaven in housecleaning. 

'dt should i, 



Vol. IV. 

Jan. 11, 1902. 

No. 2. 


I ask not gold to hoard and hold 

Beyond my need from day to day; 
Nor wealth of lands my life demands, 

Nor stocks and bonds to file away, 
Nor costly trophies of the mart. 

And vet to riches I a=pire; 

One splendid jewel I desire — 
Give me, O God, a cheerful heart! 

This jewel mine, I shall not pine, 

Nor seek nor strive for lordly store; 
'Tis wealth itself, nor power nor pelf 

Can add to its possessor more; 
From it shall living fountains start 

To pave my path with gorgeous flowers; 

I crave the magic of its powers — 
Give me, O God, a cheerful heart! 

Let others strive and think they thrive 
In getting things that must decay; 

Of these bereft they may be left 
Untortressed in an evil day, 

L : narmed against the spoiler's dart. 
Contentment such protection brings 
I shall be more secure than kings — 

Give me, O God, a cheerful heart! 

The cheerful heart that plays its part 

Exultant whatso'er beset, 
Nor frets nor fumes in sullen glooms 

That make disaster darker yet: 
Be this my wealth, and if the mart 

Shall yield me less than others win, 

I still have greater store within — 
Give me, O God, a cheerful heart! 

— Robertas Love. 

V V V 


Thousands of rabbits are being placed in cold 
storage these days. It is difficult to tell the exact 
number, but it is estimated that there are not less 
than 300,000 in the various storage plants. The 
reason is the low prices. 

When the season opened in October rabbits 
were worth $1.75 a dozen. Yesterday they could 
be bought for forty or fifty cents. This price 
hardly pays the cost of transportation, and large 

numbers have been merchandized by commission 
men at the market quotations and put in the cool- 
ers to wait for a rise in the price. Dealers ex- 
pect to see a change'in a day or two. 

Large profits have been made by storing rab- 
bits. They are packed in barrels just as they 
are killed in the forest, and frozen hard. They 
will be taken from the coolers as the market jus- 
tifies. It would not be at all unlikely that these 
rabbits which go in now at fifty cents a dozen 
would sell later for $1.50 a dozen. There is no 
game law to protect rabbits in any State. Kan- 
sas, which used to have rabbit drives to get rid 
of them because they destroyed crops, now sends 
carloads to this market. They come in all kinds 
of packages.. In boxes, wool sacks, egg cases, 
chicken coops, and many are fastened in big 
bunches by a wire run through the hind leg and 
shipped in that way. Nearly every express wag- 
on which backs up to a commission house has 
a package or full load of rabbits. 

The big jackrabbits come from Kansas and 
Missouri. These are worth $1.50 a dozen, while 
the big white ones come from the Dakotas. The 
white ones are worth $2.50 a dozen. The com- 
mon cotton tails weigh about three pounds each, 
while the jacks and white ones go as high as 

ten pounds. 

£ 4. -j. 


Quinine is sold at every rural post office in 
India at the rate of five grains far a farthing. 
That is ten grains for a cent, or forty-eight cents 
an ounce, retail. In Bengal alone 1,440,000 five- 
grain packets are sold annually. The govern- 
ment used to import $250,000 worth of quinine 
every year, but Lieutenant Colonel King, super- 
intendent of the royal botanic gardens in Cal- 
cutta, has introduced its cultivation in India, and 
there are now 4,000,000 trees in Bengal. 


the iitgleitook:. 


Ten years ago the telegraphic columns of the 
newspapers devoted much space to what is now 
a forgotten industry — that of the production of 
rain by artificial means. It was about that time 
that W. S. Melbourne attracted the attention of 
half the world by claiming that he had discovered 
a method by which man could regulate the sea- 
sons and could produce rainfall at his desire. 
Melbourne was one of the greatest confidence 
men on earth and Keeley's motor alone outranks 
his rainmaking apparatus. ,_ 

It was in the last great rush of immigration to 
the west in the latter part of the '8o's that the 
necessity for irrigation of the western plains was 
first felt. Ditches were planned through Wyo- 
ming, Colorado and western Nebraska and thou- 
sands of dollars were invested in what promised 
to be a safe enterprise, when every investor was 
scared and work on every irrigating plant was 
stopped by the alleged discoveries of Melbourne. 
This discovery was heralded to the world dressed 
in scientific garb. The well-known laws of hy- 
drostatics were used to prove the conclusion of 
the inventor of the process. 

It was Melbourne's theory that the air always 
contained moisture and that all that was necessary 
to produce rain was to " squeeze " it as one would 
wring water from a damp sponge. To squeeze 
the air was the problem that Melbourne claimed 
he had solved. It was to be accomplished by the 
means of high explosives in more senses than one. 
Dynamite was to be sent up into the heavens on 
kites and exploded when certain strata of air had 
been reached. The priest of the new atmospheric 
dispensation took his texts from popular his- 
tory and tradition. There has always been a 
rain after every great battle, and every schoolboy 
knows that it always rains on the Fourth of July. 
During battles and upon ihe natal day of the 
republic there are explosions, and therefore the 
explosions caused the rainfall. 

Such was the reasoning which attracted the 
people and such was the reasoning which sus- 
pended the work on the irrigation ditches and 
caused people to buy land in arid districts, which 
caused one railroad system to expend thousands 
of dollars chasing the elusive raindrop and 
brought to its promoter an independent fortune. 

The greatest of Melbourne's tests was at Chey- 
enne, where for three days he fired his dynamite, 
and # for three days it rained. The people who 
saw this test were convinced. Nature had come 
to the relief of the fakir and his fortune was 

Riding upon the tide of this popular excitement 
came Rainmaker Jewell. Mr. Jewell was a Kan- 
sas production, and with all the expansive ideas 
of the Sunflower State he tried to reach the 
stars. It was not through labor that he started, 
but through the credulity of the managers of the 
Rock Island railroad. At that time the Rock 
Island had extended its system through the short 
grass country and was reaching for the cattle 
trade of the Texas panhandle. Thousands of 
acres of government land stretched along its lines, 
which would support an empire if water could be 
obtained. Jewell impressed the managers of the 
road with the idea that he could produce rain and 
was employed at a salary as official rainmaker of 
the system. He started operations at Goodland 
and rain fell when the explosions occurred, or at 
least close enough thereafter to make the people 
believe that the detonations of the dynamite had 
brought the shower. 

The apparent success of Melbourne and Jewell 
was brought to the attention of the United States 
department of agriculture, which at that time had 
recently taken charge of the weather bureau. At 
the suggestion of the secretary of agriculture 
Congress appropriated several thousand dollars 
to be used in rainmaking experiments. 

The experimental work was placed in charge 
of General Dyrenforth, who selected Texas as the 
place for the work. The professional rainmakers 
were consulted and their advice accepted. With 
all of this the appropriation was exhausted before 
one drop of rain which could be traced to the 
experiments was produced. Then the bubble 
hurst and the professional rainmaker went to sell- 
ing gold bricks of another kind. 

Apropos of rainmaking it may be interesting 
to note that the late trouble in China is the 
direct result of the failure of the people to secure 
rain when desired. For years there has been a 
strong anti-foreign feeling in the flowery king- 
dom, but it has generally been confined to isolated 
territories where it could be curbed by the govern- 
ment. This summer there were long periods of 

ftoucht an- 

n the o 

Tboi ittl 

[lem roor 





It that It 

it : ' 

quel foi 

ItH!" : . ■ 



D article 


will jive 
A tomac 


ll'.e -irn 


fortune was' 


reach the' 

1 he started, 

ie the 

gh the short. 

* the tattle; 
lousands of 

ter could be. 


ice rain and 




; the people 

THE iisrcB-XjEisrooK:. 


and lew! 
sited States 

at time had 
lureau. At 

drought and the anti-foreign element, supported 
hv certain of the native priests, alleged that the 
gods would not send rain until every foreigner 
should be driven from the land or sacrificed to 
allay the wrath of the deities at their presence 
upon the celestian soil. This inflamed the pop- 
ulace and the work of placating the deities began. 
But if the rainmakers who failed are making 
trouble for the Christians in China the Christians 
themselves have not been guiltless in the matter 
of punishing people who have prevented the fall- 
ing of the rain. Among the witches burned at 
Salem more than one was charged with causing 
drouths which destroyed the crops. As late as 
the beginning of the present century a minister 
of the Church of England held his living because 
he could produce rain by prayer. It is not re- 
corded that rain ever fell at his entreaty or, in 
fact, that he ever prayed for rain, as it was under- 
stood that he would not ask for the blessings of a 
shower until his flock was unanimous in their 
request for it. This unanimity could never be 
attained, so his power was never put to the test. 

T T T 

Many a man would be smarter if 
he knew half as much as he thinks 
he does. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 




Seeing numerous inquiries in the 'Nook con- 
cerning cyclones or tornadoes I thought probably 
an article on that would be interesting as well as 
instructive to those who live where cyclones are 
unknown, and as I have been through one once 
I will give a few things as they occurred. 

A tornado is a mass of air whirling very rapid- 
ly around, sometimes touching the earth, and then 
rising above the earth, and of different sizes. 
The smallest part touches the earth at times, and 
is shaped like a funnel, and is black in color. 
The sign li cyclones is two currents of air, and 

can be told bv the clouds moving in opposite di- 

- :..e 


ced to the 

ina 1; 
[I ;ecuij 

;;.•' ' a 
• is m 

! :r:'" r1 ' 
J Is i 

rections at the same time, although this condi- 
tion does not always produce cyclones. 

The day of our cyclone 1 will always remem- 
ber if I live to be a hundred years old. It was 
in the spring. One Sunday it had been raining 
hard, and toward evening there appeared in the 
southwest black clouds, all seeming to move 
toward one central point, and then we could see 
a large black cloud, funnel shaped, fast approach- 
ing, and all sorts of debris flying around it. We 
watched until it was very near, and then all ran 
to the cellar and we had hardly got there when 
it struck the house, and with our hands on our 
heads as if for protection we all breathed a prayer 
for our safety. The noise was deafening, the 
air hot and inky black, and in less time than it 
takes to tell this all was over. We looked up. 
The house was gone, the porch roof had fallen 
into the cellar and struck one of us, but lightly. 
We crawled out over the debris and such a sight 
I never want to see again ! In the distance was 
the cyclone and very near us were several people 
fast in some debris, and their cries attracted our 
first attention. After we helped them all we 
could we viewed the remains of our own build- 
ings. The wrecking was complete. Parts of 
broken furniture, dead and wounded animals, 
and articles that were not blown away, were al- 
most buried in the mud. There were dead fowls 
with all of their feathers blown off, hubs and fel- 
loes of wheels with spokes gone, and all our 
building scattered to the winds. The deed to our 
property we had in the secretary. It was sent to 
us afterwards by mail, having been found by a 
farmer in his cornfield at Maitland, Mo. There 
is nothing built that can withstand a cyclone ex- 
cept a good cave. It actually tore the grass off 
the sod, and trees were playthings. The people 
that were hurt or killed remained in the house 
when it was demolished, when they ought to have 
gone to their cellar or cave. Seeing a cyclone 
increases one's " respect " for it, as the editor 

Sabetha, Kans. 

It was Epictetus who said, "If 
you desire great things remember 
that you must not lay hold of them 
with small effect." 


tikis msro-nLEisrooiEci. 



The value of a concordance, as of many anoth- 
er thing, depends upon the use or uses which it 
may be made to serve. I must, therefore, show 
how a concordance may be used. I myself use 
a Bible concordance chiefly to locate a text al- 
ready more or less correctly in mind, in order to 
verify it or correct it, as the case may be, or to 
study it in the light of the context. Let us have 
a few illustrations of this use. 

Let us suppose that I am studying the question 
of the financial support of the ministry. This 
text comes to my mind : " The laborer is worthy 
of his hire." I am not quite certain that it reads 
just that way in the Bible. Neither am I certain 
that the context will justify its use in ministerial 
support. So I turn to my concordance for the 
word laborer. Looking down the list of quota- 
tions there given I discover that mine occurs in 
Luke 10: 7, and that I have quoted it correctly. 
I find also, in 1 Tim. 5 : 18, a statement differing 
from this only in the use of the word rezvard for 
hire. Studying each scripture in its setting, it 
appears that each refers to the ministry, but that 
it is not quite certain that the latter relates to 
financial support. Had I not found the text 
from the word laborer, I should have tried wor- 
thy, and then hire. With the brief concordance 
of the ordinary Teacher's Bible one can usually 
find any important text. In this I sometimes fail. 
Then I use a larger one — " Young's Analytical 
Concordance " — with which I never fail to find 
the text sought. 

Some of us have heard at love feasts, as the 
closing hymn was announced, the following, sup- 
posed to be a quotation from the Bible : " And 
when they had sung an hymn, they went out and 
it was night." Let us try our concordance and 
see what we find. Looking for the word hymn 
we are cited to Matt. 26: 30 and Mark 14: 26, 
each of which reads as follows : " And when they 
had sung an hymn, they went out into the Mount 
of Olives." It is true that it was night, as one 
may learn from a study of the context, but it 
is not so stated in connection with the statement 
about the singing of the hymn. In this case the 
concordance has enabled us to correct a mis- 

quotation. Each of us who writes for the re- 
ligious press should test his quotations from the 
Bible, and for this the concordance is an indis- 
pensable help. Those who quote scripture loose- 
ly and unverified in their writings for the press 
either send their manuscripts into the waste bas- 
ket or the editor after his concordance. 

Queries frequently appear in the Querists' De- 
partment of the Gospel Messenger which any one 
ought to be able to answer.with the help of a con- 

A second use which gives value to a con- 
cordance is its helpfulness in word study. It is 
a profitable Bible study to collect the various 
texts which contain some important word and 
make a comparative study of such texts. To 
some of us there seem to be better methods of 
Bible study, and I myself have not made much 
use of this method. But if carefully used this 
method is both legitimate and fruitful. Most 
that the Bible teaches on the subject of baptism, 
for example, may be gotten together by collecting 
the texts containing the word baptism. Here are 
a few words that may be used as a basis for such 
word study as is meant in the opening of this 
paragraph : sin, righteousness, faith, repentance, 
salvation, truth, love, justification, prayer. Of 
course the word in its various forms should be 
used ; as, for example, prayer, pray, praying. 

I must throw out a caution to be observed in 
this method of word study. It is not safe to take 
the word thus studied as having the same mean- 
ing in all the texts in which it occurs. It is all 
right to make the Bible serve as its own commen- 
tary, but not to the extent of making this blunder. 
The actual meaning of any word in any text 
must be determined largely from the context. 
To disregard this principle is to learn from the 
Bible things which it does not teach. Let us 
illustrate. In John 3 : 16 we are told that " God 
so loved the world," etc. 1 John 3: 15 says: 
" Love not the world." Now, we might infer 
that God loves what he does not want us to love, 
which in this case is not true. World does not 
have the same meaning in these two texts. Take 
another illustration. Jesus says : " Fear not them 
which kill the body but are not able to kill the 
soul." But we learn that men did kill souls in 
Joshua's time. Josh. 11: it. In Gen. 35: 18 
we learn that the soul is something that may de- 


^d are in ' 
which 1 

ie bricks m 

THE Fll 

Ie 5rsi 

nph." I 

riper, th 
Itsity of 
t in the c 


' re- 
n the 


ot a cot- 

; ■■■ -• 
■ van- "i 



part from the body. Then we learn in other 
scriptures that souls thirst, get hungry, eat, etc. 
Now. without regarding the varying meanings of 
the word soul we are involved in contradictions 
and are in danger of building up false theories. 
Not a little of error is due to the proof-text theol- 
ogy which ignores the necessity of studying each 
scripture citation in its own setting. When the 
concordance is used to promote the false method 
here criticised its value becomes a minus quantity 
— that is. its value is less than nothing. Alex- 
; , ander Cruden, who made the great concordance 
which bears his name, never learned much of the 
real spirit of the Bible. " He could not see the 
building for the bricks." The separate texts are 
the bricks which compose the great superstructure 
of God's Word. 
McPherson, Kans. 

$ 4* $ 

Do not let want of success trou- 
ble you, but struggle on.. .Labor 
hard and you will win in the end. 

T T T 


The death last Tuesday morning at Hastings- 
on-the-Hudson of Miss Anna Catharine Draper, 
the first woman who ever " sat for her photo- 
graph," brings forcibly to mind the fact that the 
art of photography has been developed from Da- 
guerre's crude invention to its present perfection 
within the compass of a single lifetime. 

In 1839, when Daguerre's discovery was first 
announced, the famous scientist, Dr. John W. 
Draper, then a member of the faculty of the Uni- 
versity of New York, was pursuing his research- 
es in the chemical phenomena of light, whose re- 
sults are among his most valuable contributions 
to science. Daguerre's announcement interested 
Dr. Draper greatly, and he at once made it the 

subject of special study. He was the first per- 
son in the world to utilize Daguerre's process in 
the portraiture of human beings. His sister was 
the sitter for the first photographic portrait 
from life, taken sixty-two years ago, on the roof 
of the old university building, Theodore Win- 
throp's Chrysalis college, if tradition is trust- 
worthy. As the length of the " exposure " was 
six minutes, during which Miss Draper had to sit 
absolutely motionless in the full glare of the sun, 
with her face thickly covered with a white metal- 
lic powder, her services to science involved suffi- 
cient of personal inconvenience and discomfort 
to give her a claim to be entitled the heroine of 
photography, and to be held in honor by the 
countless thousands to whom the art of photog- 
raphy, with all its cognate and related arts, is 
now a source of pleasure, of education, of cul- 
ture, of livelihood, of wealth. 

If the young scientist who " took " and his sis- 
ter who " sat for " the first photographic por- 
trait could have looked but a short way into the 
future they would have been astounded at see- 
ing, grown from that first crude daguerreotype 
of theirs as from a seed, with little more than half 
a century, a delightful and valuable art, and the 
great industry in which, through one of the city's 
greatest and most famous manufacturing firms, 
Rochester now leads the world. — Rochester Dem- 
ocrat and Chronicle. 

■i* 4» 4* 

The I'ocal Physiologist says: "More money 
is thrown away on the education of the human 
voice than on the support of the government. Of 
every 10,000 voices one may be listened to with- 
out pain ; of every 100,000 voices one may be lis- 
tened to with patience; of every 1,000,000 voices 
one may be listened to with satisfaction ; of every 
10,000,000 voices one may be listened to with 
sensations of joy." 

Be careful of your days, for ev- 
ery day is a little life, and we know 
not when it may end, and every life 
is but a day repeated. 




By long odds the most singular occupation 
followed by a woman is that of Miss Grace Som- 
ers of California. She lives with an uncle on a 
ranch near Sonera, and has for some time past 
been engaged in the novel occupation of catching 
rattlesnakes, with which the region abounds, and 
is earning by that means a handsome sum of 
money every year. She has a small parcel of 
ground set apart for her individual use, which 
she has named her rattlesnake farm. 

" I wanted to do something to earn money, and 
there's not much a girl can do whose lot is cast 
on a lonely cattle range," says Miss Somers. " I 
was born in St. Louis. After I graduated from 
business collegs I had a good position as type- 
writer in a lawyer's office. Then my mother's 
health failed and we came to California. 
Through letters I obtained a responsible position 
in San Francisco. We came to California too 
late, though, to save my mother's life, and the 
grief at losing her and the worrying over my 
office work soon told on me. I held out for al- 
most a year and then collapsed. The doctor said 
I needed a complete rest and change, so I came 
up here to my uncle's ranch, where the bracing 
mountain air has almost restored me to health. 

" In my rambles about the hills I often startled 
snakes from the rocks and brush and invariably 
watched them glide away. I wanted to observe 
their beautifully marked skins. One day Jim, a 
cowboy on the ranch, killed a rattler and brought 
the skin to the house. I had just read a comment 
on the fashion of wearing snake skin belts and 
I thought what a fine one this beautiful skin 
would make, so I sent it to the city and ordered 
a belt made of it. That gave me my idea. ' If 
there is a demand for snake skin belts,' I thought, 
' why shouldn't I supply skins to the market ? ' 

" So I wrote to a firm in San Francisco and 
asked them if they would buy any fine rattlesnake 
skins. They jumped at the offer, and that was 
my start. Later I discovered I could mount the 
skins into belts just as handsomely as the hands 
they employed. Now I send the belts all over 
the United States. I do not make the snake skin 
purses myself. For the snake skins mounted in- 
to belts I receive from $4 to $10, according to the 
size and beauty of the skins. The skins suitable 
for purses net me about $1 apiece." 

Miss Somers laughed at the idea of carrying 
along whiskey as an antidote for snake bites. 
" I couldn't lug along enough of it to be of any 
use and there are no moonshiners' stills in these 
mountains to tap. There is always a little hope 
of preserving the life of anyone unfortunate 
enough to be bitten, providing there are powerful 
alkalies at immediate hand for prompt applica- 
tion. For such an emergency I always carry a 
reticule containing a bottle of ammonia, a stick 
of nitrate of silver and a cloth bandage to bind 
tightly around the wound in order to cut off cir- 
culation till the poison's strength is conquered. 

" But I don't place too much reliance on them." 
she added, frankly. " 1 believe in the ounce of 
prevention, and my greatest protection is ' tireless 

" It keeps me busy all the time, either catching 
the snakes or mounting the skins into belts. Of 
course when I'm hunting I wear a short skirt, 
padded leggings and a stout pair of gauntlets. 
If I am going any distance I ride over and tether 
my horse while I scare up the snakes on foot. 
Snakes love to snuggle among warm, sunny rocks 
or in the soft, dry, rotten wood under a dead tree. 
I aim to find rattlers first, of course, but I am al- 
ways ready to catch any other kind that crosses 
my path. Many of the harmless ones have skins 
with beautiful markings that can be sold for 
purses at good profit. 

" I'm more than satisfied with the amount of 

money I have made. You'd be surprised if I 

told you my earnings for the last six months. 

No, I'm not afraid of other women crowding me 

out of this field," and Miss Somers laughed 


4. 4. 4, 

Among the fezv possessions of a 
shiftless man yon zvill ahvays find a 
worthless dog. 

4, 4. 4. 


lie fasten 
,-oald not 
jol dist» 

tri'Yi:. • 


he I 


vould sur 
cut Mar) 
Ms ilta 
be uncori 
It lias 1 

indicate tl 

fust ii" 

fa Samo 


"As true as the needle to the pole " is a phrase 
that requires modification in these days, for, if 
geographies are to be believed, it is not always 
true. Experiments are being made at the United 
States revenue cutter service station, Curtis Bay, 
in the study of magnetic compass variations, a 
matter the government is also investigating at 

tihiie in^ro-iiiiEiisrooiK:. 


needle. If in the year 1800 it had been run so 
as to be magnetically east and west, beginning' at 
the eastern end, and supposing that the surveyor 
would not have encountered any areas of peculiar 
local disturbances, the boundary line would have 
thrown Emmitsburg into Pennsylvania, making a 
deviation of two and one-half miles. But were 
the line run under the same conditions to-day 
it would drop nineteen miles to the south, which 
would surrender the richer portion of Alleghany 
and Garrett Counties to Pennsylvania and would 
cut Maryland's western boundary line in two. 
This illustrates the inaccuracy of surveying by 
the uncorrected needle. 

It has been popularly explained for years that 
the needle pointed to a magnetic pole which has 
been located at a spot northwest of Hudson Bay 
or Boothia Felix, but recently scientists have not 
been so sure of the fixity of this magnetic pole. 
The fluctuations in the needle from time to time 
through secular periods, tc say nothing of the 
slight variations at different hours of the day, 
indicate that many elements enter into the reck- 
oning, and science has by no means settled the 
cause and meaning of them all. It is easy to ac- 
count for local eccentricities of the needle by the 
presence of deposits of iron or other metals at- 
tracting or repelling the needle, but the theory 
underlying the whole thing still remains much in 
the dark. 

Just now the work of this government and of 
most of the others co-operating with it is decided- 
ly practical. From a large number of observa- 
tions it is expected that the reasons for them will 
eventually reveal themselves. Our government 
will soon have established four magnetic observ- 
atories, besides many temporary places known as 
magnetic stations. The Germans have recently 
determined to establish a magnetic observatory in 
the Samoan islands, and the present Antarctic 
explorations have a direct relation to terrestrial 
magnetism. It is expected that they will throw 
some light upon the magnetic pole at the south, 

Cheltenham. Md. ; in Alaska, in Honolulu and 
in Kansas. 

In Baltimore the needle pointed six degrees 
and six minutes west in 1670, and in 1802 was 
only thirty-nine minutes west. A street a mile 
long laid out by the compass in 1670 would have 
had its north terminus 504 feet too far west in 
1802. It is related that a magnetic party, while 
establishing a meridian line for the use of sur- 
veyors in Chestertown, Md., the county seat of 
Kent County, found that the main street ran 
nearly magnetically northwest and southeast. 
Assuming that it had been laid out to run exactly 
so, it appeared from the old magnetic data that 
the town must have been laid out in the early part 
of the eighteenth century. Upon looking up the 
records the assumption was found to be correct. 
The town had been laid out in 1702. 

The historic Mason and Dixon's line was for- 
tunately run, in 1766, by the stars and not by the 
about which less has been known than about the 
one in our hemisphere. Magnetic observatories 
have been established all over the globe and they 
will begin on Feb. 1, 1902, to make simultaneous 
magnetic observations on certain selected days, 
generally the first and fifteenth of each month, 
and to continue them for at least one year. At 
these observatories — about forty in number — 
observations of magnetic variations will be re- 
corded continuously by photographic appliances. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The man who spends his time in 
idleness seldom has anything else 
to spend. 

+ + + 

The common dodder is one of the natural 
paupers. In the beginning, it makes an honora- 
ble start : performs every plant-like duty ; shoots 
out root and leaf. But the bane of the idler is 
in its nature; so, casting off its self-respect, it 
proceeds to suck its daily sap from some worthy 
neighbor. — Edwin Markham in Success. 

Sow an act, and you reap a hab- 
it; sozv a habit, and you reap a char- 
acter; sow a character, and you reap 
a destiny. 


the insro-XjiEitTOOiK:. 


Paper masks are made by doubling one 
sheet of a specially-prepared paper, wetting it 
and molding it by hand over a face form. It is 
then dried by artificial heat and cut off the form. 
Openings are cut for eyes, nose and mouth and it 
is painted and decorated by hand as desired. 
The paper used by Sonneberg manufacturers is 
made at Oeslau and Schleusingen and costs at 
present about 33 cents per 480 sheets. One 
sheet makes three of the common masks. 

Painting of cheap masks costs about twelve 
cents the cross. The molding of the face costs 
about fourteen cents per gross. Packing is fig- 
ured at about three per cent, as the masks are 
rolled in brown paper, the ends being folded in to 
save string. The hair used for mustaches, etc., 
cost last year 15.5 to 17 cents per pound. Man- 
ufacturers have no trouble in getting good pric- 
es and are making handsome profits. These cal- 
culations are on the cheapest staple goods. On 
specialties the gain is considerably more. 

Wire masks are made by stamping a piece of 
wire netting about one foot square over a face 
mold in a large machine, inclosing the rough wire 
edges in a narrow strip of lead, and painting. 
The latter is done by hand in oil colors. The 
prices of these masks have undergone little 
change during last year, but an increase of about 
4.7 cents the dozen is looked for next season. 
The present selling price of the cheaper masks is 
47.6 cents the dozen. 

Gauze masks are made by molding over a clay 
face form a doubled piece of cheap linen gauze 
that has previously been soaked in a starchy paste. 
The sticky linen is made to adhere to the form 
and this is set on a stove and dried for about 
twenty minutes. The linen is then taken off and 
openings cut for the eyes, mouth and nostrils. It 
is painted as desired and makes one of the most 
practical masks known. The gauze mask is used 
considerably in the United States, and the larger 
portion of them are made here. 
+ + * 

Maine yards. At Bath, Belfast, Waldoboro and 
Machias the aggregate tonnage last year was 
55,000 and already contracts for 1901 warrant 
an estimate of 60,000, and that is certain to be 
considerably increased. But the most interest- 
ing phase of the work is the rapid evolution from 
wooden to steel shipbuilding which is going on 
in these yards without other encouragement than 
the enterprise of owners and a large demand. 
The yards are being enlarged for the building of 
bigger vessels, both wooden and steel, though 
the former are not expected to be made in such 
large numbers as the latter. 

It is the development of the four, five and six- 
masted steel sailing vessel that attracts the most 
attention. One of these recently made the voy- 
age from New York to Yokohama in from two 
to three weeks less time than a steamer with a 
speed of eleven knots an hour. Another made 
the run from New York to Brunswick, Ga., in 
only a day longer than steamship schedule time. 
These are significant facts, because they refer to 
an industry only on the threshold of its devel- 
opment. The carrying capacity of some of the 
largest of these vessels is about 5,500 tons, 2.000 
more than the ordinary tramp steamer of the 
smaller class. Altogether the promise of the 
Maine shipyards is one of the remarkable phases 
of a revived industry. 

♦ + ♦ 

Our admiration for some people 
is not infrequently based on their 
good opinion of us. 

4. -f- 4. 

What may be called a side light on the discus- 
sion in regard to the ship subsidy bill is thrown 
by the latest report upon shipbuilding in the 

The mahogany hunter is the most important 
and best paid laborer in the Central and South 
American states, for upon his skill and activity 
largely depends the success of the season. The 
trees do not grow in groups, but are scattered 
promiscuously through the forest and hidden in 
the dense growth of underbrush, vines and creep- 
ers, and it requires skillful and experienced 
woodsmen to find them. To fell a large mahog- 
any tree is one day's task for two men. On ac- 
count of the thornlike spurs that project from the 
trunk at its base, scaffolds are erected and the 
tree cut off above these protuberances, which 

the iietq-XjEustoo-k:. 


leaves a stump from ten to fifteen feet high, thus 
wasting the best part of the tree. 

After trimming the tree of its branches it is 
hauled by means of a crude truck, with oxen as 
motive power, to the bank of the river. There 
the logs are collected and made ready for the 
floods. On the longest rivers these begin in June 
and July and on others in October and Novem- 
ber. The logs are turned adrift and when they 
reach tidewater are caught by means of 
booms. From the boom the logs are taken to the 
embarcadero and prepared for shipment. 

A tree makes from two to five logs measuring 
ten to eighteen feet in length and from twenty to 
twenty-four inches in diameter after being hewed. 

There is a great range in the value of mahog- 
any timber. The poor grade of short stock may 
sell as low as fifty cents for 1,000 feet, while 
fancy material, used in the manufacture of tops 
of counters, may be worth $3.50 for 1,000 feet, 
or even higher. Previous to the war in Cuba 
much mahogany was shipped from the island to 
the United States, and the trade has been reviv- 
ing within the last two years. The finest qual- 
ity from this source is called the San Jago and is 
used in the manufacture of fancy furniture and 
for the interior work of houses. The price of 
this variety, made on an inch basis, ranges from 
$140 to $165 for 1,000 feet. Fine, hard Mexican 
mahogany, which is one of the most satisfactory 
kinds for fine furniture or interior work, is sold 
according to the grade. It is a hard wood, of 
good color, and finishes well. The " firsts " and 
" seconds " in this class of stock are sold for 
about $160 for 1,000 feet, but when it is selected 
it is worth from $170 to $200 for 1,000 feet. 
"Commons" sell at from $110 to $145, and 
" culls " (lowest grade) at from $60 to $90. The 
soft Mexican mahogany is not desirable, and, in 
all grades, is worth from $20 to $25 for 1,000 
feet less than the hard variety. 

From being an article of luxury, and used only 
for expensive work, mahogany is becoming one 
of the staple finishing and furniture woods of the 
United States. It is not a cheap wood and un- 
doubtedly never will be, but even houses of mod- 
erate cost may contain one or more rooms finished 
with it, and as a furniture wood it has become a 
standard. It is reported that one of the leading 
furniture factories of Michigan will use this year 

mahogany for eighty per cent of its product, and 
other furniture makers throughout the country 
are making medium-priced goods of this mate- 
rial. Its use as a veneering is extensive. 
♦ ♦, ♦ 

In the problem of the application of motive 
power to transportation as a form of production, 
in the sense that it increases the value or utility 
of a product, the significance of the development 
of motive power transcends almost any other con- 
sideration. A somewhat impressive example 
can be derived from the rough calculation of the 
meaning that would attach to a trans-Atlantic 
liner with a 20,000 horse power engine were 
that engine to be replaced by 20,000 horse power 
of human muscles. To run night and day there 
would have to be three relays of men at the 
treadmill or other appliances which would be 
used. Each eight-hour shift at each 10,000 
horse-power engine would be 100,000 men, or 
200,000 for the two engines. Three shifts of 
200,000 men would give below decks a popula- 
tion of a city of second grade. 

If the problem, moreover, were put in the form 
of high-speed transportation, such as is repre- 
sented by the locomotive condition, it disappears 
practically in the field of the unthinkable. It 
needs, therefore, but a moment's consideration 
of the widespread significance which the railroad 
bears to the modern economic method to bring 
out the debt which the modern community owes 
to the motive-power problem. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The average age of man has been increased 
seven years and six months in the last hundred 
years. This is due to increased sanitation and 
advancement in medicine and surgery. 

■fr 4» ♦ 

It is said that automobiles have so cheapened 
the cost of harvesting grain in the immense Cali- 
fornia fields that wheat can be raised at less actu- 
al cost than in the Argentine Republic. 






Frank Marshall White contributes to the 
January Pearson's a charming description of a 
day in the life of a working ant. After account- 
ing for the early hours of the day, he continues : 
It being now past noon and Formica's thoughts 
turning to refreshment, she hied herself to the 
outskirts of the nest, where the family cows were 
pastured. These cows, or aphides, were feeding 
on the leaves of the daisy, into which they plunge 
their proboscides and suck all day long, filling 
their bodies with pleasant juices. Our ant came 
up behind an aphis and stroked it gently with her 
antennae, when the little creature gave out a drop 
of her sweet liquid, which Formica sucked into 
her own crop. There were thousands of these 
aphides pasturing on the leaves and thousands 
of ants milking them. 

Most of the ants took more of the juice into 
their crops than they needed ; and, on the way 
back to work, gave up a part of it to friends 
whom they met going to the cows, thus saving 
the others' time and enabling them to resume 
their occupation more quickly. The ants were 
making the most of the aphis juice during the 
summer days, knowing that the supply would fall 
off later when the aphides laid their eggs. 
(Note here the superior mental equipoise of the 
ant, which neither betrays surprise nor writes to 
the newspapers when her cows begin to lay 

These eggs the ants would store over winter, 
tending them with the utmost care until spring, 
when the young aphides are brought out and 
placed on the shoots of the daisy to mature and 
provide food again during the hot weather. This 
far-sightedness is unexampled in the animal king- 
dom. Other insects and animals put away stores 
for the winter, to be sure, but the ant is the only 
one of them that breeds its own food supply. 

Having taken her fill of the sweet juice on this 
particular day, Formica noticed that the aphis 
which she had been milking was in a position on 

the leaf which might expose it to the observation 
of some aphidivorous insect. She immediately 
descended to the ground, where she obtained a 
mouthful of earth, and, again climbing up the 
daisy stalk, built a tiny shed over the cow, going 
back and forth several times to bring up suffi- 
cient material. 



One of the notable successes of 1901 is the 
cranberry industry ; for, when the last of the yield 
was picked, an aggregate of one million bushels 
was reached. By comparing this with the yield 
of 1900, five hundred and sixty-nine thousand 
bushels, the success stands revealed. 

The cranberry is as closely allied to the Christ- 
mas dinner as holly to the Christmas tree; but, 
of the millions who enjoy the tart berry, few 
know how it is cultivated. The berries are 
grown in bogs that cost from three hundred to 
five hundred dollars an acre. The soil in which 
they flourish is composed of peat and clean, sharp 
sand, the latter being absolutely essential to 
healthy growth. 

The bush on which the berries appear grows 
about six inches high, and every year it puts out 
" runners " that, in turn, take root and form 
new bushes; so that, when a bog first becomes 
productive, five years from the time of its begin- 
ning, it is thickly covered with bushes. 

This growth is accentuated by a system of ir- 
rigation that keeps the bog water-soaked, though 
not to such a degree as to cause anything like a 
liquid state. The irrigating plan is most useful 
as a protection against frost ; for, when the grow- 
er believes a frosty night at hand, he opens the 
flood gate and allows the water to overflow his 
bog, until it is from eighteen to twenty-four inch- 
es over bush and berry. The next morning the 
bog is drained and the fruit picked. 

The picking process is a simple one. It con- 
sists of placing the fingers, slightly spread, be- 
neath a bush, and then, by an upward movement, 



raking the bush clean of its fruit. By means of 
a winnowing machine, the berries are freed from 
dirt and leaves. New York City, alone, con- 
sumes two hundred and fifty thousand bushels of 
cranberries every Christmas season. — Success 
for December. 

•ie <t 4t 

Perhaps one of the queerest occupations a man 
can go into is that of a sales agent for shooting 

A flash of light across the sky — a momentary 
dazzle of white effulgence — the arc of a circle 
done in a gleam of fire — that is a " shooting star " 
as it first appears. 

If any portion of it happens to reach the earth 
it is a meteorite, or as fragments of one — bits of 
fused and molten metal. Industrially meteorite 
as a property has little value, but as a curiosity it 
is so prized that the trade in shooting stars is an 
extensive one. 

Meteorite collectors pay handsomely for good 
specimens of these strange earth visitants from 

Peary on one of his arctic expeditions spent 
days and weeks dislodging a large meteorite from 
its base near Disco, Greenland, bringing it all 
the way home and placing it as a great treasure 
in the Brooklyn navy yard, where it may be in- 
spected to-day. Peary's meteorite is the largest 
in the world, and is worth many thousands of 

There are several large meteorite collections in 
the world. One of the most extensive is in the 
Mineralogical museum at Harvard college. The 
most valuable collection is at the British museum, 
London. At Paris there is also a large collection. 
Vienna is also well represented in this line. 

Meteors are valued in accordance with their 
completeness. If a museum owns the entire me- 
teorite the stone is of great value — indeed, some 
meteorites are worth from $75 to $100 per 

When a meteorite breaks up into thousands of 
pieces, however, and these particles are distrib- 
uted over a wide area, it is difficult to place a 
value on the fragments. If one museum gets all 
the pieces, then the stone, or iron lump, is worth 
something. But if various collectors get differ- 
ent portions, the separate pieces are of little value. 

The museum possessing the largest piece of 
any one meteorite is said to " control " that par- 
ticular " fall." In order to obtain the remaining 
portions the museum exchanges with various col- 
lectors who may have other portions of that par- 
ticular meteorite, giving them portions of their 
falls until the entire meteorite is possessed by one 
party or institution. 

So valuable, indeed, do certain mtceorites be- 
come that the weights are expressed in grams 
and ounces, not pounds. 

Of course the value of a meteorite collection 
depends greatly on the number of different falls 
which it represents. The Harvard museum con- 
tains pieces of meteorites which represent about 
275 different falls. The total weight of the col- 
lection is about 2,800 pounds. 

The most famous piece of planetary dirt in the 
Harvard collection is known as " Cynthiana." It 
weighs about 6,000 grams. The two largest 
pieces weigh 3,113 and 539 grams, respectively. 
The Harvard collection is carefully tabulated, 
and the dates of each fall are written on the pieces 
of stone. 

Some of the most remarkable specimens seen in 
this museum were obtained from Ohio. They 
are mainly prehistoric. These meteorites rested 
upon the fields of Ohio for many years, and were 
regarded as of no value until the advent of a 
meteorite collector, who saw in the find a for- 

The specimens, after authenticity was proved, 
were sold to the Harvard museum at great profit 
to the finder. 

The earliest meteorite at the Harvard museum 
dates back to 1164. The earliest fall recorded in 
America is one that occurred at Campo del Cielo, 
Argentine Republic, 1783. The first fall in 
America of which an authentic record has been 
kept occurred at Weston, Conn., in 1808. 

The meteorites exhibited in the various muse- 
ums are usually treated with acid and one of their 
surfaces polished in order to bring out the quali- 
ties of the stone. 




Elgin, Illinois. 

The subscription price of the Magazine is one dollar a year. It is 
a high-class publication, intended for the Home, and for the interest, 
entertainment and information, of old and young. 

Articles intended for publication should be short, of general inter- 
est, and nothing of a love story character or with either cruelty or 
killing, will be considered. 

Manuscript submitted to the Editor will be at the entire risk of 
the writer, and its return is not guaranteed. 

Subscribers wishing the address of their papers changed should 
Invariably give the old address at which they received their Ingle- 

Agents are wanted everywhere, and any reasonable number of 
sample copies will be furnished free. All communications relating 
to the Inglenook should be addressed as follows: 

(For the Inglenook.) aa-24 S. State St., 

Elgin, III. 

Entered at the Post Office at Elgin, 111., as Second-class Matter. 

So many gods, so many creeds, 
So many paths that wind and wind 
While just the art of being kind 

Is all the sad world needs. 

+ » + 


It is an unpleasant feeling that comes over us 
when, meeting with a pleasantly remembered 
friend, after the lapse of years, we find that he 
has utterly forgotten us. It must be a dreadful 
thing for a mother to realize that her only child is 
lost to her through absence. 

Yet this matter of being able to forget is a 
blessed thing in other ways. Time takes from 
us the sting of. death, and dulls the edge of care. 
There are some things we pray that we may 
never forget, and then along come the years, 
strewing more and more of the seed of forgetful- 
ness over the graves of the past, till, later on, they 
are only memories. It is a wise and a merciful 
provision of Providence that we do not always 
have the shadow of the tombstone forever across 
our pathway, or the dead faces of the departed 
continually before us. 

I wonder whether we forget, and are forgotten, 
in the world to come? It would seem to rob 

heaven of much of its expected joys in the life 
that is to be. The contemplation of the ages 
on the subject seems to include as its most prom- 
inent feature the idea of reunion. Those who 
have gone before cannot have forgotten, those 
who go to them must not forget. It is a pleasant 
thought that when we have laid down our travel- 
stained garments we will be together again 
where there is no failure of memory or forget- 
fulness of friends. Meantime there is much that 
it is well to thank God we do forget. 

+ + + 

The average man finds it much 
easier to pay compliments than 

* * + 

A few evenings ago Mr. Harry Fahrney and 
Miss Agnes McDannel, both of Elgin, and both 
'Nookers, were joined in the holy bonds of mat- 
rimony, which, being rendered into good English, 
means that they got married. They sent a lib- 
eral piece of the cake for the 'Nookman to put 
under his pillow, and they have the kindest wish- 
es of the Editor for a pleasant journey down the 
highway of time. May they grow old together. 

+ + + 

True happiness, if understood, 
consists alone in doing good. 
+ + + 

To show how pleasant it is living in a flat in 
the city, one of those palatial looking places, we 
repeat the following conversation. 

" Who lived here before you did ? " 

" Indeed I don't know." 

" Who is on the flat above? " 

" I don't know who it is." 

" Who is on the flat below? " 

" I don't know that either. We've only been 
here six months." 

Some of our 'Nookers who live where they 
know everybody for ten miles in every direction, 
and who are ready to help in case of need, and 
who will be helped in an emergency, may find a 
lesson in the above when they get tired of the 
farm and want to move to the city. 
+ + + 

If a wife can induce herself to submit patient- 
ly to her husband's mode of life she will have no 
difficulty to manage him. 

ey and 
id both 
: a lib- 
to put 
t wish- 

flat in 
•js. we 

id, and 
fed a 
of the 

ave no 

the insra-LEisrooic. 


*? *? 

Is the silver issue likely to come up again as a factor 
in politics? 

Not unless other conditions than those now in 
sight arise in the political field. 

Is it the right thing to sell or give away a present? 
Circumstances must govern. It is not advised 
to advertise the fact in the papers. 

* <* 

Is the recipient of a wedding invitation expected to 
make a present? 

Not necessarily so, but some acknowledgment, 
verbal or otherwise, would be in good form. 

Is it possible for a good chemist to analyze any com- 
pound and tell what it is? 

No, not always, in the sense you mean. Veg- 
etable compounds are hard to separate, minerals 
comparatively easy. 

•* * 

Is it right for a church to take money dishonestly ac- 

Opinions differ. It would be a better show- 
ing for the church if it refused it. " Thy money 
perish with thee." 

<* •* 

What is the South Carolina dispensary method of 
selling liquor? 

The State furnishes, and through its agents, 
sells the liquor subject to cast-iron restrictions. 
The plan is said to work well. 

Will there ever come an absolute prohibition of the 
making and selling of liquors? 

Probably so, but it is a long ways off. The 

time will come when the State will forbid it as 

a matter of public welfare. It will likely come in 

a way that none now foresee. 

■4 V 

My son is a very bad boy, and I think of committing 
him to a reformatory. Would you advise it? 

No, don't. The tendency of all young people 
is to imitate the worst, instead of the best. In 
nearly every neighborhood is some man with a 
knack of developing the best in people. Get htm 
to take the boy. It will be best even if he fails. 

I have some photographs I think very good. Could 
I sell them? 

Possibly so. Send them to some of the illus- 
trated magazines for examination. Set no price 
and enclose stamps for return. 

Are all the questions the 'Nook receives answered in 
these columns? 

Not half of them. All questions not frivo- 
lous are answered, but most of them by letter, 
the questions not being of general interest. 

Before the art of printing was discovered how were 
books made? 

With a pen and ink, letter at a time, on vellum, 
the prepared skins of animals. They lasted for- 
ever, practically, but were very expensive. 

What is a sweat shop? 

Some man takes a big manufacturing con- 
tract, clothing, say, and sublets it to others, and 
so on down to the crowded tenement where they 
do the work for next to nothing. 

Is it right for the holder of a note, opposed to the 
collection by law, to sell it to one he knows will sue it 

This is a question that has puzzled heads gray- 
er than the 'Nookman's. Yes and no. Some- 
thing always depends. No general rule can be 
laid down. 

What is the cause of the different oysters, blue 
points, cherry stones, etc. 

The oysters are fished or tonged from the beds 
where they grow and are sorted over in sizes and 
shapes known in the market by the names you 
refer to. The man who does the sorting is main- 
ly responsible for the varieties. 

•* * 

Is a gift recognized in law? 

No. The giver can demand its return and 
the law will sustain him. If there has been a 
consideration, no matter how trifling, it is a 
sale and makes the transfer good. If you want 
an important gift to hold, have a paper drawn 
showing a consideration in it, the receipt of 
which is acknowledged, and then it is binding. 





" England and the State of Virginia," said 
a lawyer, " are the only places I know of where 
a man may not lawfully marry his sister-in-law." 

As a matter of fact, who may marry, what pre- 
liminaries one is compelled to go through in order 
legally to be married, how one is married, and, in 
fact, almost every stage of the necessary legal 
proceedings vary in the different States of the 
Union. A marriage in New York might only be 
considered a little flirtation in Kansas, and two 
persons who may be perfectly eligible for mar- 
riage in the Empire State may be committing a 
misdemeanor by going through the marriage 
ceremony in Arkansas. 

The common law forbids the marriage of men 
and women within certain named degrees, gener- 
ally recognized as being between parents and 
children, ancestors and descendants of every de- 
gree, of the half as well as the whole blood, 
brother and sister, uncle and niece, aunt and 
nephew. In most States additional provision is 
made by special statute making marriage within 
the prohibited degrees incest. In Iowa such mar- 
riages make the parties liable to ten years' im- 
prisonment. Marriage between first cousins is 
a misdemeanor in Arkansas and punishable as 
such, and such marriages are void in nineteen 
other States. Marriages between step-relatives 
are forbidden, in all States except thirteen, in- 
cluding New York. 

The statutes of many States forbid a man and 
woman of different races to assume the matrimo- 
nial yoke. Marriages between white persons and 
negroes or mulattos are void in Arkansas, Cal- 
ifornia, Louisiana, North Carolina, Texas, Idaho 
and Indiana, and they are also forbidden in Ala- 
bama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, 
Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, 
Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia and 
West Virginia. Even if a negro and a white 
leave one of these States to be married, when they 
return their marriage is held to be invalid. So 
strict is the law in Tennessee that a negro and 
white woman living together in that State as 
man and wife are liable to indictment, even 
though they may have been married in another 

Some States have still further racial provisions. 

'Whites and Indians are forbidden to marry in 
Massachusetts, Arizona, Nevada, North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina and Oregon, and their mar- 
riages are void, as are the nuptials of whites with 
Chinese in Arizona, Nevada, Oregon and Utah 

Lunatics are not allowed to marry, though i 
they are wedded in a sane interval the marriage 
is valid. It has been held in New York and 
Tennessee that a lunatic, becoming sane, may af 
firm a marriage made while insane without fur- 
ther ceremony. Connecticut has a special stat 
ute forbidding the marriage of an imbecile of 
feeble-minded woman under forty-five years old 

The statute discreetly makes no provision for 
older women, from which it is inferred that no 
Connecticut woman, however feeble-minded, ever 
admitted that she was over forty-five. Insanity 
after marriage has never been held as a cause for 
divorce in any State. 

It has been held in several States that a mar- 
riage while one of the parties is suffering from 
delirium tremens is void, though it is valid if. 
the ceremony was conducted during a lucid in- 
terval. A special provision in the statutes of 
New Jersey states that deaf and dumb persons 
are not idiots in law and may marry. 

According to the common law extreme youth l 
is not much of a bar to marriage. Persons un- 
der seven years may not assume the responsibili- 
ties of matrimony, by the common law as it came 
to us from England, and marriages of males be- 
tween seven and fourteen years or females be- 
tween seven and twelve years are voidable. 
Over that age marriages are valid. However, 
many of the States fix by special statute the mar- 
riageable age. 

In Ohio the age is fixed at eighteen for males 
and sixteen for females, in California eighteen 
and fifteen, in Iowa eighteen and fourteen ; in 
Alabama, Arkansas and Illinois seventeen and 
fourteen, and in North Carolina sixteen and four 

In New York, where there is no regulating! 
statute, the marriage of a girl between fifteen! 
and sixteen years without her parents' consent 
lias been held to be valid. In most States the 
age of majority is twenty-one for males and 
eighteen for females, but the consent of parents 
is not always necessary to persons below these 


Re ? 

art. ■: ' 
he;: • 

h people 

lie; '.'.;::: 
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pas Ik 


k legishti 

indent of ; 

1 of the 


bout the 1 

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iages have r 


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Dale A 




the iisra-LEisrooic. 


In Illinois if a clerk issues a marriage license 
o a minor without the parents' consent he is 
ined S300. Licenses are required in most of the 
.. States. In Illinois persons who rush into matri- 
mony without the formality of a license are fined 
The question who can perform the marriage 
* :eremony is certainly an interesting one. May- 
ars of cities, aldermen and justices of the peace 
re the usual civil functionaries invested with 
the right of tying the knot. 

Regularly-ordained ministers of the Gospel 
are, of course, permitted to fix things up for two 
earts that may be beating as one. In Arkansas 
the governor has the special privilege of marry- 
ing people. Also in that State, religious socie- 
ties which reject formal ceremonies may join to- 
gether in marriage their members " with such 
rites as they deem proper." 

Illinois has a similar provision. In this State 
-fmembers of the brotherhood of Quakers or 
• ' : > Friends may be lawfully married by making 
: known their intentions to a standing committee 
of their meetings one week before the marriage 
:1 is to come off, and signing certain papers. Also 
; the legislators have decreed that " the superin- 
tendent of any public institution for the educa- 
; tion of the deaf and dumb shall have the power 
"scci us to perform the ceremony in their respective in- 
stitutes, the bride and groom of necessity spell- 

- ing out the responses on their fingers. 

In Xew York and some other States practically 
no ceremony is required, and one can be married 
almost without being aware of the fact. One 
-/:■-'• man who gave a ring to a young woman with the 
•;.e3- r ' words " This is your wedding ring; we are mar- 
ried.'' was subsequently held to be married in that 
State when the young woman brought the case 
to court. However, these unceremonious mar- 
riages have received a hard blow by a recent act 
of the State legislature, which practically does 
away with common law marriages in that State. 

Though one may promise to marry, and is in 
all sorts of trouble if he fails to keep his word, 
promises not to marry are invalid in practically 
all States, and are declared " against public poli- 
cy and void." As soon as Strephon and Chloe 
definitely decide to go tandem through life they 
become entirely different persons in the eyes of 
the law. If Strephon suddenly takes it into his 
head hereafter to give or convey away a good 
part of his worldly goods the law will seize 'em, 
and he is likely to get into hot water. Chloe has 
a potential share in all his estate and he in 

There is record of one Catharine Baker, of 
South Carolina, who the day before her mar- 
riage conveyed to her stepmother all of her prop- 
erty. This conveyance the court declared void. 

If a husband or wife disappears, or goes off 
on a voyage and fails to return, the other left at 
home may, after five years, presume that the ab- 
sent one is dead, and enter the matrimonial mar- 
ket again. This is according to the common 
law. which is followed in some States. In other 
States the deserted party is required to wait sev- 
en long years before he or she can smile on mat- 
rimonial possibilities again. If John, who has 
been dead to the world for over half a decade, 
suddenly appears again to find his Man- repos- 
ing on the bosom of his old friend Frank, unex- 
pected complications arise, which have often been 
the theme of novelists and poets. Lawfully, 
Mary's second marriage is not necessarily valid in 
such a case, but in most States it holds good un- 
til it is declared void, whereupon Frank goes 
sadly back to bachelor's hall. John may then 
take up the broken thread of his domestic life as 
soon as the spirit moves him. 

Various statutes protect persons inveigled in- 
to marriage, and where an adult inveigles a mi- 
nor into going through a ceremony the marriage 
is invalid. 

Generosity makes many ac- 
quaintances, but it doesn't know its 
friends until adversity singles them 




Attached to the use of the ring in wedding 
and other ceremonies from the earliest times there 
have been mystic meanings. Whether the plain 
band or the motto-inscribed article which the 
changing times brought into fashion, the ring has 
retained the significance attached to it as a sacred 
emblem or an emblem typifying sacred ceremo- 
nies. To the devoutly religious or the careless 
scoffer at religion the little circlet has its charm. 

From the earliest period mystic significance 
has been associated with the ring. In its circular 
continuity it was accepted as a type of eternity 
and of the stability of affection. The Jews make 
it an important feature of the betrothal in the 
marriage ceremony. The rings used in the Jew- 
ish marriage rite were sometimes of large size 
and much elaboration of workmanship. It is 
necessary, according to the Jewish law, that the 
ring be of a certain value. It is examined and 
certified by the officiating rabbi and chief officers 
of the synagogue when it is received from the 
bridegroom, whose absolute property it must be, 
and not obtained by credit or gift. When this is 
properly certified the ring is returned to him and 
he places it en the bride's finger, calling attention 
to the fact that she is, by means of this ring, con- 
secrated to him, and so completely binding is this 
action that, should the marriage not be further 
consecrated, no other could be contracted by 
either party without a legal divorce. 

Solemn betrothal by means of the ring often 
preceded matrimony in the middle ages and was 
sometimes adopted between lovers who were 
about to separate for long periods. Shakespeare 
has more than once alluded to the custom, which 
is absolutely enacted in his " Two Gentlemen 
from Verona," where Julia gives Proteus a ring, 
saying : " pyeep vou this remembrance for thy 
Julia's sake," and he replies : " Why, then, we'll 
make exchange. Here, take you this." 

The fourth finger of the left hand has from 
long usage been consecrated to the wedding ring, 
from an ancient belief that from this finger a 
nerve went direct to the heart. So completely 
was this fanciful piece of physiology confided in 
by the Greeks and Romans that their physicians 
term this the medical or healing finger and used 
it to stir their mixtures, from a notion that noth- 
ing noxious could communicate with it without 

its giving immediate warning by a palpitation of 
the heart. This superstition is retained in full 
force in some country places, notably in Europe, 
where all the fingers of the hand are thought to 
be injurious except the ring finger, which is 
thought to have the power of curing any sore 
or wound which is stroked by it. 

* * * 

An ability not to display your ig- 
norance often goes a long way to- 
ward convincing people that you 
are well informed. 

+ + "ir 

During the past season twelve thousand per- 
sons found profitable employment in hunting for 
pearls in the White and Black rivers of Arkan- 
sas, where some of the finest gems in the world 
are found. Incident to the pearl fever has been 
the development of the button industry in Ar- 
kansas and the shipment of large quantities of 
shells from the State to button factories else- 
where. At first the shells were cast aside as 
worthless by the hunters in their mad rush for 
wealth, but it was soon found that the saving of 
the shells was almost as profitable as the pearls 
and had the added advantage of assuring the 
hunter of at least making something for his : 
work. Shells sell for from $5 to $7 a ton, and 
ihe hunter averages from Si. 50 to $2.00 a day 
from this source alone. Button factories have 
been established on White and Black rivers and 
the shells are sold to these or shipped in car-load 
lots to the factories in other States. As the shell 
beds of the Mississippi river, the source of prin- 
cipal supply in former years, are practically ex- 
hausted, the Arkansas shells are in ready demand, 
and it is claimed for them that they excel the 
Mississippi shells in many respects. 

The hunters are an indiscriminate lot, and near- 
ly all classes and conditions of men are found in 
their ranks. The women are not absent, and the 
children even participate in the industry, and fre- 
quently prove more fortunate in their finds than 
the older hunters. It is not uncommon to see 
several hundred of hunters congregated at one 
bar or on one stretch of the river, all bent on mak- 
ing a fortune in a day and all occupied in fishing 
for and opening the shells. 






tieue insro-XjEisrooic. 



It is only natural that the stranger in Wash- 
ington should comment on the gilded dome of 
the library of congress, which is one of the three 
conspicuous landmarks of the city, the Washing- 
ton monument and the dome of the capital being 
the other two. Few of those who gaze upon 
this wonderful creation know that in giving such 
an attractive finish to this superb building the 
dea of economy was uppermost. This gilded 
dome will stand for years to come as an illustra- 
tion of the care and thoroughness of the late 
General Casey of the engineers, under whose su- 
pervision the building was constructed. It was 
at first proposed to paint the dome, and although 
no color was named it was assumed that it would 
be either white or gray. General Casey decided 
that gilding would not only outlast any paint, but 
would apparently lighten the top of the immense 

In pursuance of this idea he advertised for pro- 
posals for covering the dome and the pyramidal 
structure underneath the lantern with goldleaf. 
The lowest bidder offered to do the work for 
$1.10 a square foot. It was -required that the 
goldleaf should be twenty-two carats fine under 
assay. Discarding the extravagant bids which 
had been submitted, General Casey purchased the 
gold, found workmen who knew how to beat it 
and others to apply it. and succeeded in accom- 
plishing the work in a thoroughly-satisfactory 
manner at a cost of 333-^3 cents a square foot. 
The entire cost of goldleafing the dome and 
its pyramidal base was only $3,500. At the time 
General Casey estimated that gilding would last 
at least thirty years. Although it was applied 
more than five years ago it looks as bright as on 
the day when the last sheet was put on. The 
general figured that the cost of painting the dome 
would have equaled in five years the cost of gild- 
ing it, so that the goldleaf is the least expensive 
covering for the dome and the effect is beautiful 
in the extreme. 


There lived at the court of Ferdinand de Med- 
ici, about two hundred years ago, a Padun harp- 
sichord maker, named Bartollemeo Christoferi, a 
man of great inventive genius. After many ex- 
periments he solved the problem, which had been 
a puzzle to the musical instrument makers of the 
period, how to make a satisfactory working 
" keyed psaltery/' and by the method he invent- 
ed of overcoming the difficulties inherent in the 
task, produced an instrument which was the un- 
doubted ancestor of the pianoforte of to-day. 
From 1709 — the date when Christoferi made his 
four " keyed psalteries " — the piano, at first slow- 
ly, but afterwards by leaps and bounds, went on 
increasing and increasing in popularity, until now 
its manufacture has become a great industry. 

4. 4. 4. 

The slightest sorrow for sin is 
sufficient if it produces amendment, 
and the greatest is insufficient if it 
does not. 

* * * 


Blanche is the little five-year-old daughter of 
an East Side newspaper man. She has lately 
been meditating on the problems of existence. 
Yesterday she got something in her throat which 
caused her to cough. When she got through she 
said : " I guess I will cough my head off some 
day." Then she went on : '' If I should cough 
my head off, papa, would God make me a new 

Her papa answered : " I am afraid not. I nev- 
er heard of such a case." 

She pursued her thought a step further and 
said: ''I suppose it would be just as cheap for 
him to make a whole baby as to make just a 
head." Her father answered that he thought it 

Improvidence may consist in be- 
ing too saving of what is useless. 




For years past there have been intermittent out- 
bursts of talk to the effect that among the dark 
pictures of race tracks none was blacker than 
that showing how horses were " doped " to win 
or lose, according to the desire of unscrupulous 
trainers and owners. The recent strictures of 
Lord Durham on American turf methods have 
revived such talk and the impression has to some 
extent gone abroad that this method of obtain- 
ing advantage is peculiarly American. Such is 
by no means the case, although most sportsmen 
will agree that racing in England is cleaner than 
in this country, because it is more closely safe- 
guarded there than here. As a matter of fact, 
horse racing offers so many opportunities to gain 
unfair advantage with the promise of large fi- 
nancial returns that unscrupulous men are always 
to be found who are willing to risk discovery and 
disgrace for the chance of reaching the coveted 
prize. This has always been so and they will be 
officials of rare wisdom who in the future can 
make it impossible. 

Turf scandals have been known ever since 
horses were first brought into speed contests. 
Bridles with poison on the bits have accounted 
for many defeats of splendid thoroughbreds by 
inferior animals. This is a crude method, how- 
ever, and is now seldom resorted to even by 
those of the most brutal instincts. 

At one time a trainer wishing to accomplish a 
coup in the betting ring would select a thorough- 
bred known to be capable and enter him for a 
race, in the running of which he would wear 
what are known as boots on the forelegs. These 
boots would be heavily weighted with shot and 
would so anchor the horse's feet that he would 
show far beneath his true worth. This operation 
might be repeated until a time would come when 
a raid would be made upon the bookmakers 
(" layers of odds " they are now called). With 
the wagers properly made the heavy boots would 
be removed and the thoroughbred would run 
away from horses that had previously defeated 
him with ease. 

This came to be looked upon as a clumsy meth- 
od, fraught with unnecessary danger. Then a 
scheme was created for using soft metal between 
the hoof and the shoe. Loss of speed would re- 

sult and the reversal would come after the horse 
had been reshod in a proper manner. Vigilant 
racing officials soon discovered the secret of this 
piece of dishonesty, and it, too, became unpopu- 

It was nearly a decade ago that mysterious 
stories began to be told about saddles with elec- 
tric battery attachments and the wonderful speed 
developed by their use. A few such saddles 
have been made and used, but not many. The 
drugging of horses was found to be safer and 
more effective. Drenching was first resorted to. 
Just before being sent to the starting post the 
horse was given a dose, carefully estimated as 
to quantity, of whiskey, brandy, or some similar 
liquor. The result would be a stimulation of 
strength and speed, unless an overdose was giv- 
en or the start was so long delayed that the ef- 
fect wore away. In either of the last-named 
circumstances the liquor would accomplish just 
the opposite of what was desired. This method 
of drenching is still sometimes resorted to, al- 
though it is now looked upon as crude. 

Horses that suffer because of weakness or sore- 
ness of the forelegs receive local applications of 
anaesthetics that result in their hammering along 
over a hard track without feeling the pain that 
would be theirs had they not received the atten- 
tion of the veterinary surgeon. In defense of 
this practice the argument is advanced that the 
thoroughbred has been saved unnecessary pain. 
The crime lies in the act of running a horse that 
is physically unfit to compete. Eucaine is the 
drug now generally used as an anaesthetic to be 
applied to the forelegs. Bandages are wrapped 
about the legs above the ankle joint, and these are 
saturated with the drug about forty-five minutes 
before the time set for the race. The ordinary 
process of absorption accomplishes the rest. 

A horse so lame that he can hardly hobble will 
go prancing to the post as though he had never 
known a pain. He is not in a condition to pro- 
tect himself, and is in great danger of breaking 
a leg. Such an accident often happens, after eu- 
caine has been administered. One of the trag- 
edies that cost the life of a promising jockey is 
generally believed to have been due to the dead- 
ening effect produced upon the forelegs of the 
lad's mount by eucaine. It is almost impossible 
to use bandages upon the hind legs, for which 


aid ;-; 





reason a spray of ether, cocaine and eucaine is 
used. These methods are not intended to in- 
crease speed, but merely to render the thorough- 
bred oblivious to pain. 

For the purpose of increasing speed a prep- 
aration, of which cocaine is the main ingredient, 
is used, being administered hypodermically. 
The injection is often made back of the jaw. 
From this point the drug is taken up more rapid- 
ly and a quicker effect is obtained. Unfortu- 
nately for the dishonest trainer, a noticeable 
swelling is produced, which does not disappear 
for several hours. When there is fear of de- 
tection the injection is made in the neck, where it 
is covered by the mane. It requires only ten 
minutes for the drug to take full effect, and the 
reaction does not come for at least half an hour. 
This makes it possible for a horse to be sent out 
for a race filled with stimulated energy and 
strength that will not disappear until there has 
been ample time for the contest to be decided. 

It happens at times that an overdose of co- 
caine is injected, when a thoroughbred that may 
have established a record for extreme docility 
becomes crazed and creates more trouble than a 
dozen fractious two-year-olds. Filled with an 
ambition to run. he will if possible get from un- 
der the control of his jockey and tear around the 
track, often covering miles before the drug loses 
its potency. Recently a secret preparation has 
been made use of by dishonest trainers. It is 
not used as an injection, but is administered in 
capsules. It requires ninety minutes for it to 
begin operating, but its stimulating effect is said 
to be superior to anything previously tried. 

Thoroughbreds are just as susceptible to the 
drug habit as are human beings. When a horse 
has run a couple of races under the effect of co- 
caine or any other stimulant it is impossible for 
him to do himself justice unless he has had the 

injection which renews his vigor. This adds 
another opportunity for fraud and accounts for 
the reputation some racers have for in and out 

Destruction to the thoroughbreds is worked by 
the injection of cocaine or any similar stimulant. 
The effect of the medicine is to bring the bones 
into a chalky condition, rendering them so brittle 
that they break under slight strain. Seldom can 
a horse stand two seasons of racing under stimu- 

No small measure of responsibility for the 
methods of fraud here described must be borne 
by those in charge of racing. It is possible for 
a competent veterinary surgeon to tell whether 
a certain horse is under the influence of drugs. 

A thoroughbred, properly trained, when given 
his canter preliminary to a race will break into a 
natural perspiration. Under the influence of 
drugs the same animal will, without exercise, be- 
come so nervous as to bring to the skin a cold 
sweat that will never deceive an experienced eye. 
Too many turf crimes are overlooked because of 
the influence exerted by trainers or owners. 

Methods of drugging to increase speed have 
been here described. To produce the opposite 
effect it is only necessary, as has been pointed 
out, to neglect the use of the stimulant to which 
the thoroughbred has been accustomed. In case 
the horse is not w r hat is known as a " dope fiend " 
it is possible to render him slow and sluggish 
by the administration of laudanum. This is not 
often done. No attempt is ever made to con- 
ceal the fact that a horse has been " nerved." 
That means that a thoroughbred with a hoof 
diseased beyond cure passes under the surgeon's 
knife. The nerves in the leg are cut and the ani- 
mal then may run for a time without pain. In- 
evitably the hoof begins to rot and in time it sim- 
ply drops off. 

// a man has plenty of push he 
is bound to get there — but some- 
times a pull helps along wonder- 


the insra-LEisrooic. 

MISSING $5,000,000,000 IN GOLD. 

Five billion dollars in gold is missing from the 
world's coffers. It is known that this amount of 
gold has been produced, but the most expert 
handlers of facts and figures have not been able 
hitherto to say what has become of it. 

Recently, however, a theory in regard to the 
missing billions has been suggested. In the 
treasure chests of Russia's war fund, it is said, 
is the money that some day will enable this great 
nation to dictate to the world. And this sus- 
picion is the result, not of idle surmise, but of 
confidences made to an American by a Russian 
official whose grandfather was minister to Alex- 
ander I. 

It was this grandfather, the Russian official 
claims, who originated the scheme upon which 
Russia has now been silently working for three- 
quarters of a century. 

" Russia," said the official recently, " is pro- 
ceeding on safe lines. Her progress may seem 
slow, but it will sooner or later pass that of any 
other country. It is like the movement of a 
glacier, which, for many years, moves by inches, 
until suddenly it sweeps everything before it. 
She is fortunate in having a government which 
cannot be hurried or called to account year by 
year. Russia has been governed along these 
strict lines ever since the days of Peter the Great, 
and her war fund policy adopted at the close of 
the Napoleonic wars has never been varied to 
this day. She is advancing towards a financial, 
industrial, commercial and military supremacy. 

" First, she has to take one-half the product 
of Russian mines in gold, silver and platinum 
and convert it into gold and store it away. This 
half has never been embraced in Russian mint or 
other reports -of production. As Russia was, for 
many years, the great gold-producing power of 
the world, it is easy to see what effect this policy 
would have and what its results. 

" Second, she was to lay away one-half of all 
the church revenues after converting them into 
gold. The Greek church, of which the Czar is 
the head, as he is of the state, is the custodian of 
this fund. Not a rouble of this money has ever 
been appropriated for any purpose, no matter 
what demands there might be. It has steadily 
accumulated for over eighty years. 

" Whether Russia is planning war or not, it 

is a sad thing to think that while she is hoarding 

this gold thousands of her people are suffering 

for food." 

4, .j. 4, 

People who make mistakes are 
the ones who make ez'erything else. 
♦ ♦,• ♦ 


The much-vaunted ingenuity of thieves ap- 
pears to be on the wane in Chicago. Time was 
when a new confidence game and a new way 
of getting into close proximity with some other 
man's goods could be expected to appear every 
day or so. This has all changed, say the police, 
and now the criminals seem content to ply their 
old accustomed games, certain that through them 
they will acquire a competence or an enforced re- 

" We haven't had a new game brought to light 
in a long time," said Inspector John Hartnett at 
the Harrison Street Police Station recently. 
" What few confidence men are still left in this 
district are all sticking to their old tricks — the 
lock game and the counterfeit money bogus offi- 
cer combination. To be sure there was a man 
the other day sold a farmer an option on the 
Masonic Temple for $400, but that was a sporad- 
ic case. And as for burglars, why they are all 
using the same old method of prying an entrance 
with a jimmy, and sometimes using skeleton keys. 
Sneak thieves are few, and even they are not 
ingenious enough to think up new games. Most 
of them depend on the games others have 

" There is nothing new in crime," repeated 
Captain Evans of the Bureau of Identification. 
"All the things we hear about are on the same old 
order. Of course there are confidence men who 
are sharp enough to think up a new scheme 
every time they see a new victim, but their games 
are, after all, so similar that one describes them 
all. They offer a man a chance to get a lot of 
money in an easy way, and they get the money. 
In burglary or thieving there is absolutely noth- 
ing new. And no new tools, either. The jimmy 
and the skeleton key are still supreme." 

A search of the property-room at the City Hall 
revealed no new implements of burglary, and the 

lew war 



officer in charge in the absence of custodian De 
Witt C. Cregier asserted that none had come 

" The jimmy is so near a perfect tool that they 
can"t improve on it, and nothing new will be apt 
to come forward until a new way of building 
houses and locking them up is devised," he said. 

T T V 

The love principle is stronger 
than the force principle. 

•fr + + 


v ire 'i 

The British war office has decided that after 
the Boer war is over khaki will not be used, but 
a working dress will be made of a peculiar drab 
mixture, which is said to be of a more neutral 
color than khaki serge, so that the present cam- 
paign will doubtless be handed down to posterity 
as the khaki war. This material, it is com- 
plained, has not enhanced the appearance of Eng- 
lish soldiers, and the authorities are by no means 
satisfied that it has added to their safety. 

The British admiralty is anxious to discover 
the tint giving the greatest possible invisibility. 
The present black hulls and white upper works 
are very conspicuous. Sky blue, khaki and black 
have already been experimented on, and black has 
been a dead failure except at night. 

T T t 

A wise man never wants zcliat 
he can't get. 

4e ♦ ♦ 

As an illustration of how closely everything 
is watched in Russia, take their system of regis- 
tering firearms. When a weapon of any kind is 
purchased a permit must be secured from the lo- 
cal authorities. The name of the man who 
makes the purchase, with the number of the 
weapon, is recorded. If the purchaser ever 
wants to dispose of the weapon he must notify 
the authorities and cause the transfer to be re- 

corded on the books of the firm which sold it. 
If that weapon is ever used in an attempted as- 
sassination or any demonstration against the law 
the man recorded as last having it in his posses- 
sion is held responsible. 

T *§* V 

Helping others we help ourselves. 
+ * * 


A German scientist has given another proof 
of the painstaking nature of his race in obtain- 
ing perfect accuracy and the most minute detail 
of all things. This savant has measured the time 
that is occupied by a wink. 

He used a special photographic apparatus and 
fixed a piece of white paper on the edge of the 
eyelid for a mark. He found that the lid de- 
scends quickly and rests a little at the bottom 
movement. Then it rises more slowly than it 

The mean duration of the downward move- 
ment was from .075 to .091 of a second. The 
time from the instant the eye rested till it closed 
varied from 0.15 to 0.17 of a second. In rising 
the lid took 0.17 of a second. The wink was 
completed in 0.4 of a second. 

*r T "i* 

Happiness is the juice of joy. 
•b + 4p 

A little boy who goes to Sunday school every 
Sunday always receives a nickel from his father 
to place in the collection plate. Last Sunday his 
father gave him two nickels, saying: " One is for 
the Lord and the other is for yourself." As it 
was too early to start for Sunday school, the lit- 
tle boy sat on the porch steps in the warm sun- 
shine playing with the two nickels. After a 
while he dropped one of them and it disappeared 
down a crack. Without a moment's hesitation 
and still clutching the remaining coin in his 
clenched fist, he looked up at his father, exclaim- 
ing : " Oh, pop ! There goes the Lord's nickel ! " 

When a man has a particularly 
empty head, he usually sets up for 
a great judge, especially in religion. 

4 6 



The students of the university college of North 
Wales have been giving the regents and teachers 
a great deal of trouble lately by the predilec- 
tion for flirting. The upshot of the matter has 
been the posting of the following stringent and 
somewhat unique rules: 

" Men students may not, firstly, meet women 
students by appointment or walk with them ; sec- 
ondly, accompany women students to or from 
college ; thirdly, walk with women students in 
the grounds of the college; fourthly, visit or re- 
ceive visits from women students in their lodg- 

" Reasonable association between men and 
women students will be permitted, firstly, at au- 
thorized social gatherings within the college; 
secondly, in the college field during the progress 
of matches, and, thirdly, in the college itself for 
business connected with college societies or class 

The principal appeals to the students for their 
co-operation and support, which, he says, are 
necessary to the healthy social life of the col- 
lege, and he concludes thus : " Should you at any 
time feel in doubt or difficulty on any point con- 
nected with the subject I shall always be glad to 
see you." 

These rules may work like a charm in old 
Britain, but would undoubtedly cause a small 
storm of indignation among independent young 

«j» fj» tj» 

All the world loves a lover, and 
laughs at him. 

+ <fr 4- 

ed by Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1 597, to Castle 
Rushen, the fortress which stands in the middle 
of Castletown. The works are crude, being driv- 
en by ropes and pulleys, but nevertheless they 
keep fair time. The clock, in fact, has run ever 
since it was built, except for rare stoppages for 
repairs. To this day the single hand which trav- 
els slowly round the dial outside the tower of 
Castle Rushen is the principal source of informa- 
tion as to the hour to the inhabitants of Castle- 

.j. 4. 4. 

A man never confesses his past 
to the woman he marries unless he 
is just the least bit proud of it. 
•t -1- -i- 


At quaint old Castletown (the " metropolis " 
of the Isle of Man) there exists a very interest- 
ing clock, which has now performed its functions 
of time-telling in five centuries. It was present- 

Here is one that a young man who knows a 
good story when he hears it heard one railroad 
man tell another in a depot up the line the other 

" We picked up a new Irishman somewhere up- 
country and set him to work brakin' on a con- 
struction train at three cents a mile for wages. 
One day when him an' me was on the train she 
got away on one o' them mountain grades and 
the first thing we knowed she was flyin' down the 
track at about ninety miles an hour, with nothin' 
in sight but the ditch and the happy huntin' 
grounds when we come to the end. I twisted 
'em down as hard as I could all along the tops, 
and then of a sudden I see Mike crawlin' along 
toward the end of one of the cars on all fours, 
with his face the color of milk. I thought he 
was gettin' ready to jump, an' I see his finish if 
he did. 

" ' Mike,' I says, ' don't jump.' 

" He clamps his fingers on the runnin' board to 
give him a chance to turn round, and, lookin' at 
me contemptuous, answers : 

'"Jump, is it? Do yez think I'd be afther 
jumpin' an' me makin' money as fast as I am? ' ' 

Uniform goodness is heaven's 
only livery. 


i run era 
tower of 

The Home 

the iieto-IjIeictooik:. 



A woman never feels comfortable 
in masculine garb because it will 
stay on without being pinned. 

the rid 

f here up- 

)r wages. 

ides and 

ih Dothin' 
i- huntin 1 
; twisted 

|,vsir.' st 

: :e ::::er 
. • ■« 





Cook one cup of rice in a covered dish to keep 
it white. When nearly done add one cup of 
cream, a pinch of salt, the beaten whites of two 
eggs and one cupful of sugar. Flavor with va- 

Pile in a glass dish and jot with jelly. Serve 
with sugar and cream. 

Roanoke, La. 


Take two slices of bread, toast nicely on both 
sides, and spread with butter ; then fry one or 
two eggs and put between the bread. 

Newry, Pa. 



Put the eggs in a pan of boiling water, and let 
them stand where they will keep hot, but the wa- 
ter will not boil for ten minutes. This gives an 
evenly-cooked, but soft-boiled egg, and the pro- 
cess has to be lengthened or shortened to produce 
a harder or softer result. 

•4 * 


Take two tablespoonfuls of mustard, one of 
salt, one of sugar and one of butter. Mix thor- 
oughly and add the beaten yolk of one egg, then 
the white whipped to a froth. Mix well and pour 
over it in a bowl set over hot water half a cup of 
hot vinegar. As soon as it thickens — it must not 
boil — it is ready for use. 

North Yakima, Wash. 



Take one cup of brown sugar, one cup of New 
Orleans molasses, one cup of lard, one cup of hot 
water, and three teaspoonfuls of soda. Put 
the soda in the molasses and add one teaspoonful 
of ginger and one teaspoonful of cinnamon. 
Add flour enough to roll. Cut with cookie cutter 
and bake, and they are very nice iced if you like 
them that way. 


Save all your bread crumbs, crusts, and broken 
pieces of bread. Spread on pie plates and put in 
a very moderate oven until dry clear through and 
a golden brown. Put in a pan and crush with 
a wooden potato masher. To use instead of oat- 
meal or other cereals, put four teaspoonfuls of the 
crumbs into a dessert dish, and cover with hot 



milk, to which a pinch of salt has been added. 
Sugar may be used, but it is more wholesome 
without. This is excellent for well people as well 
as invalids. The crumbs may also be used for 
thickening tomato and other soups. As they con- 
tain no moisture, they may be kept in a dry place 
indefinitely. In warm weather stale bread and 
crumbs should not be allowed to accumulate, as 
they soon become mouldy. Loaves of bread 
should never be wrapped in a cloth when put 
away, but kept in a large stone jar with a close- 
fitting lid. Scald the jar frequently. 
Huntingdon, Pa. 


Formaldehyde has been extensively sold in 
this country, especially to dairymen, under the 
names of Milk Sweet, Iceline, Freezine, and 
" M " Preservaline, writes Prof. H. W. Wiley of 
the federal bureau of chemistry in Good House- 
keeping. Of all common food products milk and 
cream afford the most fruitful field for the use of 
formaldehyde. Especially in the summer time 
both dealer and consumer are glad of anything 
which will keep these products sweet. The hot- 
ter and more sultry the weather, the greater the 
tendency of milk and cream to sour. It is not 
enough to say that souring is a natural process 
and therefore unobjectionable. Where milk and 
cream are thoroughly sour and the lactic acid 
formed has coagulated the casein and formed 
" clabber," we have a pleasant beverage, especial- 
ly when properly cooled. But no one likes sour 
milk in the transition state from sweet milk to 
clabber. Others object also to the obvious and 
commendable method of preserving the sweet- 
ness of the milk by boiling. This drives out the 
gas which adds much to the flavor of milk and 
gives it a flavor which many do not relish. How 
great the temptation in this case to add a few 
drops of " preservaline " in the shape of an aque- 
ous solution of formaldehyde! By this means 
even in the most sultry weather the milk and 
cream keep sweet even for several days. The 
dealer preserves his wares and the consumer his 
temper and the digestive organs suffer in silence. 
As one of the dealers in Milk Sweet said to the 
senate committee investigating the adulteration 
of foods: " Milk Sweet may be harmful in large 

quantities, but so little of it is used by our formu- 
la." But theft is theft whether it be a penny or 
a million dollars that is involved. — Good House- 

Paint spots on window glass are easily re- 
moved by rubbing with a cloth dipped in vinegar. 

Tar stains on cloth should be first rubbed over 
well with lard and then washed with warm water 
and soap. 

To keep milk sweet a little lime water, about 
two tablespoonfuls to the pint, will be of great 

-« * 

To restore color to silk when it has been taken 
out by acid, apply to the spot a little hartshorn or 
sal volatile. 

<* * 

If hot grease has been spilled on the floor or 
table, cold water poured over it at once will pre- 
vent its soaking into the wood. 

I have had great success in keeping cut flow- 
ers, especially hothouse roses and carnations, 
since I learned how much they like an all-over 
bath. Every night I clip the ends off of the 
sterns and put the flowers into a pail of water 
deep enough to let the blossoms float on the sur- 
face. In the morning they are as fresh as when 
first cut, and 1 have had hothouse roses last a 
week by this method, when usually a day and 
night in the vase withers them. — Mrs. F. W. 
Cook in Good Housekeeping. 

This homemade medicine will often loosen a 
hard cough. Pour one cup of cold water over 
two ounces of pulverized gum arabic and two- 
thirds of a cup of sugar. Put two heaping ta- 
blespoonfuls of unbruised flaxseed to steep in 
three cups of cold water. Set in a hot place, but 
not where it will boil. When this grows thick, 
strain it over the sugar and gum arabic, which 
ought to be like a thin jelly. Add the juice of 
two lemons. Take a tablespoonful every half 
hour till the cough begins to loosen. — Good 



ied over 


i taken 

Vol. IV. 

Jan. 18, 1902. 

No. 3. 




I :'.e 


Wide open and unguarded stand our gates, 

Named of the four winds, North, South, East, and West; 

Portals that lead to an enchanted land 

Of cities, forests, fields of living gold, 

Vast prairies, lordly summits touched with snow, 

Majestic rivers sweeping proudly past 

The Arab's dale-palm and the Norseman's pine — 

A realm wherein are fruits of every zone, 

Airs of all climes, for lo! throughout the year 

The red rose blossoms somewhere — a rich land, 

j A later Eden planted in the wilds, 

With not an inch of earth within its bound 
But if a slave's foot press it sets him free. 
Here, it is written, Toil shall have its wage, 

^ And Honor honor, and the humblest man 

$ Stand level with the highest in the law. 

Of such a land have men in dungeons dreamed, 

And with the vision brightening in their eyes 


Gone smiling to the fagot and the sword. 
Wide open and unguarded stand our gates, 
And through them presses a wild motley throng — 
Men from the Volga and the Tartar steppes, 
Featureless figures of the Hoang-Ho, 
Malayan, Scythian, Teuton, Kelt and Slav, 
Flying the Old World's poverty and scorn; 
These bringing unknown gods with them and rites, 
Those, tiger passions, here to stretch their claws. 
In street and alley what strange tongues are loud, 
Accents of menace alien to our air, 
Voices that once the tower of Babel knew! 
O Liberty, white goddess! is it well 
To leave the gates unguarded? On thy breast 
Fold Sorrow's children, soothe the hurts of fate, 
Lift the down-trodden, but with hand of steel 
Stay those who to thy sacred portals come 
To waste the gifts of freedom. Have a care 
Lest from thy brow the clustered stars be torn 
And trampled in the dust. For so of old 
The thronging Goth and Vandal trampled Rome, 
And where the temples of the Caesars stood 
The lean wolf unmolested made her lair. 
* * * 

Women far more readily than men fall into the 
drug habit. It is estimated by medical journals 

of repute that there are four times more women 
than men addicted to the morphine and cocaine 
habits. The cause is, probably, that physicians 
too often prescribe these drugs to alleviate the 
sufferings to which their finer nervous organi- 
zation renders them subject. 

It is now learned from eastern physicians that 
women have of late become addicted to the cam- 
phor habit. The motive is the improvement of 
the complexion and the means adopted is cam- 
phor eating. The number of camphor eaters 
among the well-to-do classes in the large cities of 
the east, would, it is said, cause a sensation if 
known. Of course the practice is carried on 
secretly as far as possible. 

The idea seems to prevail that this gum, taken 
in small and regular doses, gives ,a peculiar 
clear creaminess of complexion, and scores of 
young women buy it for this purpose. The habit 
is. moreover, very difficult to cast off, for cam- 
phor produces a mild form of exhilaration and 
stupefaction and in many instances where very 
large doses have been swallowed the habit has 
become a sort of slavery. 

Camphor eaters all have a dreamy, dazed and 
very listless air and in most of them there is an 
ever-present longing to sleep, or at least to rest. 
Extreme weakness generally follows the taking 
of regular doses and cases have been seen where 
it has been almost difficult to tell the effects 
from those of alcohol. As to the complexion, if 
a ghastly pallor be an improvement camphor cer- 
tainly produces it. 

•fr <• 4? 

A gold-weighing machine in the Bank of 
England is so sensitive that an ordinary postage 
stamp if dropped on the scale will turn the index 
on the dial a distance of six inches. 

/ 6, ? ^ 


tihiie izsra-LEisrooKZ. 


The principal rule of the free lodging-house 
and the one which it may be a bit hard to enforce 
is the one providing that no person shall be ac- 
commodated with lodging more than four nights 
in any month. If some such provision were not 
made it is apparent that a number of indolent, 
lazy fellows would settle down at the place and 
live there in idleness all winter. But it is the 
aim of the management to find employment for 
the applicants as well as to furnish them with 
temporary shelter, and to that end an employ- 
ment bureau has been opened in the place. Ev- 
ery man is asked what his trade or calling is and 
as fast as is possible is given a list of places where 
he may apply for work. An attempt is made to 
discover whether or not he has really tried to get 
work and if it is learned that he has not, the 
privileges of the home will be denied to him 
thereafter. This is to be no " hobo's roost " 
where lazy tramps may live at their ease with- 
out expense. It is intended to help the unfortu- 
nates to be self-supporting, to put them into 
communication with those who desire to em- 
ploy labor, and to give them shelter and a modi- 
cum of food for a few days while they are seeking 

Three police officers are stationed at the home 
to see that the rules are enforced, and the house 
is under the management of John H. Bogue, sec- 
retary of the lodging-house committee of the City 
Homes Association. ^'hen an applicant for 
lodging enters the place he approaches a desk 
in the office where a policeman sits beside a big 
ledger. The facts in the case are all noted down 
— the name, age and occupation of the applicant, 
the length of his residence here, the number of 
times he has previously applied at the home and 
all other data bearing upon the case. If every- 
thing is satisfactory he is given a check on a 
string and passes to the next floor. There 
another policeman is in charge and the applicant 
is directed to strip and turn over his clothes to 
an attendant, who places them in a bag of net- 
ting, to which a duplicate check is attached. 

The clothes in the bag are then hung in an 
apartment where sulphur fumes can penetrate 
them all night, pans of sulphur being lighted on 
the floor and replenished from time to time, and 

the applicant goes into another room, where he 
finds a policeman directing the bathing of the. 
men who have preceded him. Close to the wall 
are a dozen shower bath nozzles and the appli- 
cant is supplied with a piece of soap and a brush 
and assigned to one of the baths, where he is re- 
quired to perform his ablutions to the satisfaction I 
of the policeman. No slighting of dirty necks is | 
allowed, the sharp eye of the copper alighting! 
on the lazy man and his voice, not modulated with 
any degree of feeling, sharply calling him tqfc :: 
account. The clothes check is hung about thep 
neck of the lodger on its string and when h^ It 
emerges from the bath he is given a nightrobe ' 
and a pair of carpet slippers and shown the way » ; 
to the dormitory on an upper floor. 

This is the star feature of the lodging-house, k 
All the rest of the establishment is practically w« : > 
duplicated in many of the ten-cent lodging-houses > ;j:r 
of the city, but the dormitory, instead of being k;. ~ 
fitted up with rude wooden bunks two or three k-' ::: 
tiers high, as is the custom in many of the cheap- »>— ;;V: 
er sleeping places, is furnished with white enamel kmasajt 
iron beds, mattresses, sheets, blankets and pillows - ■"■■■ 
fully as warm, as soft and as comfortable as those '•- ~' r - : - 
in many of the cheaper " European " hotels of " e ' the 
the city. Here the homeless man can get his k~ 
foretaste of comparative luxury, which is all as "' ; 
free as the air. A policeman is on duty in the ln?> : 
dormitory to preserve order and to see that nc ^ wearer; 
loud talking or carousing disturbs those whc B '« 
turn in early. The rules are rigidly enforced anc'Ponaeo 
any lodger who objects to them is at liberty tcfc 
seek accommodations elsewhere. ping HI 

It is very quiet in the dormitory all the time E ~ " ;: 
The lodgers slip in, take the beds assigned tc >: 
them and go to sleep as soon as possible. Then il ■■'■"■'.' 
is no chance of a lodger's pockets being robbec ;i " :1 ?--3 
during the night, which often happens in tin The rcet 
" levee " and west side lodging-houses, as al »' 
his clothes are safely locked up in the disinfect 
ing-room downstairs and the policeman keeps ai 
eye open to see there is no exchanging of check 
during the night whereby some early riser migh 
claim some other person's clothes. 

Soon after 6 o'clock the place is astir. Th 
policeman on duty wakes up the " boys " an' 
tells them it is time to get out and hustle fo *: 
work. They go down to the fumigating-roorr k 
turn in their nightrobes and slippers and, givin 





p their checks, claim the clothes they turned in 

le night before. The manager of the place has 

to the wj one his best during the night to apportion the 

Itheappl pplications for help among the described oc- 

"idabns upations and when the lodgers come downstairs 

> a breakfast of bread and coffee those for whom 

respective jobs are waiting are hurried away to 

t}' necks : et them. The Knickerbocker Ice Company 

r aligfadn ent in an application for 150 men to handle ice 

le second day the lodging-house was open and 

", :;::: : ny free guest who declined to tackle such a 

about tf trenuous job was put down in the black book. 

I when t 'he next time he shows up, provided the officer 

■...:- n duty remembers his face, he will be turned 


On Christmas night two score guests were in 

line-kii ie house. They were gathered from the four 

practical! orners of the globe and represented, according 

v' -i 3 their own stories, a score of different indus- 

1 of ban ries, most of which are at present overcrowded. 

1 lad the weather been sharper the free hotel 

1 light have done a better business, but as it was 
jteaam lie manager rubbed his hands as he looked over 

;ie well-filled dormitory and declared business 

, H ras keeping up very well. Not all of the men 

cere of the typical " hobo " variety. Many of 

hem were fairly well dressed, but that does not 

2 ut money into an empty pocket or stay the 
un- in tb an §f s °f hunger to any extent, and therefore 
sj that a ne wearers of the good coats and fairly good 
: .■;; n|| inen were obliged to make application for a free 

.; ;i ied on the one night of the year when every man 

;,-:. . hould be at home. There was no attempt at 

nything like a Christmas celebration. For one 

. eason, the rules of the place forbid it and for 

,u nother it would have been desperately hard to 

' - tir up anything like Christmas enthusiasm among 

,1 he lodgers at a charity lodging-house. 

:,, £ The men sat around the stove in the office a 

. j; j hort time, for lounging in the common room 

r.^itft 5 not encouraged, and did little talking. Those 

^gvho did find something to converse about did 

, .: r fc lot talk of Christmas. By common consent that 

^ ubject was tabooed and they talked of the weath- 

:r, the stagnation in the various lines of work 

. -j, hey represented and any other topic aside from 

. -j, he great holiday which suggested itself. They 

vere even more silent, perhaps, than on any other 

light of the year, for the signs and tokens of 

(Thristmas cheer were all around them in the 

streets and stores and it was impossible to keep 
their thoughts from turning in that direction now 
and then. A big fire crackled in the stove, the 
room was warm and cozy and the place was far 
preferable to the chilly, sloppy streets in which 
many of them had wandered night after night 
for weeks. But there was an oppressing sense 
of charity about the institution which seemed to 
have an especial effect on Christmas night, and 
one by one the lodgers sought the bath and the 
dormitory and " turned in." Not a stocking was 
hung up in that dormitory on Christmas eve, be- 
cause the attendant had them all down in the dis- 
infecting-room and Santa Claus has not yet 
placed the municipal lodging-house on his route 

•If 4. •£• 

Before submitting to the inev- 
itable a wise man takes pains to 
ascertain that it is the inevitable. 

* * * 

The Egyptian cTity of Cairo is undoubtedly one 
of the most picturesque places in the world and 
not the least of its attractions are the varied 
and often musical street cries which assail the 
ears on all sides. Not only the street musicians 
who tap their tambourines to the admiring " Al- 
lahs " of the crowd, but the merchants and ped- 
dlers contribute to the chorus. A fruit seller, 
basket on head, with grapes and figs, will saunter 
by singing in a quaint minor : " Oh, grapes, oh, 
sweet grapes, that are larger than doves' eggs 
and sweeter than new cream ! Oh, angels' food, 
delicious figs, bursting with honey, restorers of 
health." Another street cry which may be heard 
in the main street of Abbassieh (a suburb), con- 
tains the following enticing announcement : " To- 
morrow, Oh people, I am going to kill a camel. 
The doctor says it is young and healthy. Oh, 
its flesh will be tender as the quail and juicy as 
lamb. Its price is but one and one-half piasters 
(seven and one-half cents) the pound. Do you 
love the sweet flesh of a camel, then come early 
and be satisfied ! " Not the least picturesque 
figures in the streets are the city police, in their 
neat white and red uniforms in summer and blue 
serge in winter. 


THE I3sr<3-T_.E2srOOIC. 


Shits are like men. Some are stricken in 
youth : others in middle age, and a few pass away 
after many years. When man comes to an end 
there is always a burial place, but the ship's only 
cemetery is the deep sea. If in its youth it runs 
ashore on a lee coast or if in its old age it is 
condemned as unseaworthy it meets the same fate 
— to be broken up and sold as old junk. This 
destiny, though prosaic, is popular to that small 
class in the community known as " marine junk- 
men." It is not a numerous guild: it is confined 
to the great seaports, but it is thrifty, wideawake 
and frequently buys, unseen in Xew York, some 
craft that has been lost on the Jersey sands or 
the Xew England granite shore. The metropolis 
is, of course, the headquarters of this queer folk. 
They have little offices on South and West streets 
and many of them have so-called yards on the 
water front. There is no special district which 
they favor above others. There are a few yards 
on the East river, some over in Jersey City, some 
in Brooklyn and others on the North river, the 
sound and Staten Island. The dealers are usu- 
ally old sailors or ship carpenters, but in their 
new calling they develop odd knowledge and 
business traits. 

While ships are all alike to landlubbers, except 
in size and rig, they present vast differences to 
these sea junkmen. At a glance they can make 
a valuation of a ship which will come within 
twenty per cent of its real worth, and how they 
haggle with the captain, owner or ship's husband ! 
They are not delicate in their language when it 
comes to chaffering. Good round Saxon oaths, 
strange Italian curses and the brutal blasphemy 
of the fo'castle are mixed up in a way that would 
cause each particular hair of a devout man's head 
to stand on end. but which fall upon a captain's 
ears like a strain of familiar music. 

Sometimes instead of buying outright they take 
a ship on shares, but woe to the credulous cap- 
tain or agent who enters into this kind of a bar- 
gain ! The receipts are all correct, but the ex- 
penses are usually bewildering. The junkman 
employs every relative he has in dismantling the 
craft and puts in a bill for labor and time that 
often eats up the entire proceeds. The masts 
and rigging range greatly in value. Some masts, 

especially compound ones, braced with steel oi i>- 
wrought iron, are often in admirable conditio! it 
after thirty or forty years of use and only require Ian 
cleaning and a few repairs to become market- 
able at a fair price. The yards and bowsprits 
tiller wheels and rudders often display the samt ;. 


The rigging 
vestment, particularly 
made of wire rope 

is usually a 
the stavs, 

good i 

& , , lev have 

or of old-fashionec f „ l.- 
Br. . 
tarred hemp. Sails varv greatlv, but ever , 

the oldest and poorest can usually be solcf 

to the brick sloops, line schooners and other craf 


in these deliberations 

which ply Long Island sound or the Hudsor 

The s:allev and the cabin cut a fair figure . 

The stoves and kitchen 

ware can be readily sold to other vessels or tc 

dealers in second-hand goods ashore. 

Cabins may prove a small bonanza to the spec- . 
ulator; many of them are built of the fines'^, 
woods, carved and gilded. The weathering thej l 
have received for years has brought out all th<L 
beauty of the grain and has dried them until the) . 
are as compact and resilient as an ancient violin l . .• : 
They are bought eagerly by the makers of an .j. p . 
tique furniture and reappear in a few months a; L „.. 
colonial book cases, revolutionarv bedsteads anc 

Puritan secretaries. When it comes to the hul 

^ had 
the average speculator is inclined to bide his tim< - 

and look out for a profitable opportunity. O 

late years there has grown up a dispositioi , 

toward utilizing: the staunch hulks as colliers l-. ; 

° II gram. 

Occasionally a small hull can be sold as a bethel 
or a houseboat and sometimes it can be floatecl -.--■ 
at high tide upon one of the marshes or lov 
shores around Xew York and there sold to ai 
ambitious shopkeeper or saloon proprietor. I 
it is sold for the latter purpose the buyer first re 
moves the copper and everything detachable 
Copper nowadays is worth sixteen cents a poun< 
and copper sheathing always finds a quick sale 
Even on a small ship it is worth over $ioo an< 
on larger vessels it often brings handsome sums 
The number of hulks which have been sold 
beached and utilized as residences or for trad 
is much larger than is commonly supposed 
They can be found here and there upon both side 
of the Hudson river, the East river, the soun 
Newark bay, the Arthurkill and Raritan ba> 
They make comfortable homes and have the ricl k* 
perfume of the sea about them, which no white 

tor talk 

j's and ' 
ptactaj ■ 

lor in i 
n famii 



e : 



" 'asli or paint will ever remove. If the specu- 
itor finds no customer for the hull he breaks it 
p and disposes of it as timber. 

Very iittle goes to waste. The value depends 

■ ! "''"3 

pen the wood employed in the construction. All 
Ul ships are like Joseph's coat of many colors, 
'hey have been repaired in many ports and often 
"main a score of various woods. The knees are 
:.,, ... sually hackmatack, and the ribs of oak, the 
•. , lanking of pine and oak. But in the repair 

arils of the globe all sorts of woods are used. 
Unone them may be found mahoganv and iron- 

,: |: ... imes rosewood and ebony. 

rood, teak and pitch pine and cedar and some- 

The wise speculator 

;. ies over every piece of lumber. If one of them 

>ri >ves a precious wood he can dispose of it at 

ligh figures. Even oak, after thirty or forty 

<* -ears. is. when undisfigured, twice as valuable as 

18 vhen it is new. Any cabinetmaker is only too 

[lad to purchase a huge oak beam which has 

ailed ten or twenty times around the globe. It 

' s not the age alone which has improved the qual- 

*! ty of the fiber, but the straining and wrenching 

' a )f the vessel by the sea, the chemical action of the 

' 2 )ilge water and of many kinds of cargoes. 

sleads at | ome pi all i <s anc [ veneers made from an oak beam 

which had been part of a ship eighty years old 

" ,vere exhibited a few years ago at a fashionable 

:;;:: J Surniture store on Broadway and attracted gen- 

lll -i ' '■* ;ral notice from the exquisite coloring and beau- 

l; *" :iful grain. 

is a bahi 

. ., ., Equally striking were some beams of mahog- 

^ my taken from a bark which was engaged in the 

„ sugar trade between New York and Cuba in the 

40's and '50's. The years and the traffic had 

■ ., ffi :ontracted the pores and deepened the color until 

, ., vl it looked as superb in its chromatic intensity 

... . as an antique sang de boeuf Chinese vase. It was 

,'.j. made into a cabinet and has to-day a place of 

the drawing-room of a wealthy New 

Aged teak rivals ebony in color, 

. but surpasses it in strength, beauty and durability. 

Beams and planks in good condition can be sold 

sold to 


. honor in 
„ York familv 


to shipyards and to the lumber dealers. That 

which is too cracked or disfigured is purchased 
, readilv bv the kindling wood manufacturers. 

ay In the old days the iron bolts gave much trou- 
pe ri ble to the workingmen who broke up the craft, 
jMvfcitbut an ingenious Italian showed that by wetting 

them with crude petroleum or kerosene they could 
be removed without difficulty, no matter how 
thick the rust of the years. These go to the deal- 
er in old iron and at the present time, when the 
steel prices are so high, give a very fair return to 
the seller. Anchors and chains retain some mar- 
ket value to the very last. They rarely go to the 
dealer in old metal, but are cleaned, painted and 
stored away for future use. 

The dunnage and inner planking are taken by 
house builders for scaffolding, by lumber yards 
and, last of all, by the kindling wood men. With 
iron vessels, especially steamers, there is less spec- 
ulation and less variety. The hulls are utilized 
for colliers and to-day at least fifty can be seen 
in the bay or the adjacent waters. The engines 
are not very salable. They are usually anti- 
quated and are sold to dealers in steel or to ma- 
chine shops. Where the hull is broken up it be- 
ci imes old iron and brings seldom more than half 
a cent a pound.. Modern trade is frugal and 
even avaricious. Just as a miser preserves his 
rags, although they have little or no value, so 
Dame Commerce tries to keep her ships and 
steamships at work until they fall to pieces or 
founder through sheer weakness. 

Sometimes queer discoveries are made in 
breaking up an ancient craft. Between the inner 
and outer planking is a wide space which runs 
from the main deck down sometimes to the keel- 
son. Into this drunkards often drop their be- 
longings, thieves their booty, criminals the evi- 
dences of their guilt and mischievous men the 
spoil of their victims. 

A brig which was dismembered at Red Hook, 
in South Brooklyn, yielded a ghastlier find. It 
consisted of manacles and shackles, almost eaten 
away by the bilge water, and yet retaining enough 
of their pristine appearance to show that they 
had been engaged in the African slave trade. In 
a brigantine over at Weehawken there were the 
bones of a human arm and leg far down near the 
ship's well. Whether they represented some for- 
gotten crime or the prank of some playful sailor 
will never be known. Knives and pistols, swords 
and daggers are often found in this ancient hid- 
ing place, as are pieces of dress goods and other 
materials which seamen tried to smuggle, but hid 
forever in order to avoid detection. 


the zisra-i-iEnsrooic. 


The fact is that a large number of men are 
absolutely necessary on board a cruiser or battle- 
ship to pass the baskets, " trim " the bunkers — 
level oft the coal as it is received through the 
hatchways — and to swab and polish after the 
operation is finished. On a first-class battleship 
the firemen and stokers are reinforced in this 
work and from 400 to 500 men are kept at it, yet 
the quantity necessary cannot be transferred to 
the vessel in an ordinary working day. During 
warm weather operations are carried on as much 
as possible at night by the aid of electric lights, 
as the labof is very fatiguing. 

" Coaling ship " is included as one of the reg- 
ular evolutions ordered by the navy department, 
and the work has been systematized down to the 
smallest detail. First, the vessel is moved to 
a position which is termed the coaling station. 
She is fastened, if in the harbor,_in such a manner 
that the barges and lighters can be placed along- 
side. The strength and the direction of the tide 
or other currents must be calculated with the view 
of offering the least resistance to the barges, while 
care must be taken to prevent them from striking 
the sides of the ship, as the blow might injure 
some of the outer works, or where the warship 
has armor projecting the impact might sink the 

The coaling force is divided into divisions, each 
assigned to a certain quarter of the vessel, as dur- 
ing an engagement. A petty officer is placed in 
command of each division, which removes the 
coal from a certain number of the lighters and is 
assigned to fill a certain number of bunkers. If 
the coal is transferred by means of bags or bas- 
kets a portion of the division goes into the hold 
of the lighter. These are the fillers. A line of 
men is formed from the hold to the hatchway, 
while another gang is stationed below in the 

At the word of command the fillers begin shov- 
eling into the bags or baskets. As fast as each 
is loaded it goes from hand to hand along the line 
of " passers " and is dumped through the open 
hatch into the bunker, where the trimmers stow 
it into the proper location. Special shovels are 
provided for filling the baskets, but as the coal 
comes loose, also in lumps the size of a man's 

head, much of it must be put in the baskets with 
the hands. 

The rapidity of coaling by hand depends much 
upon the arrangement and number of hatchways 
and the number of barges which can be moored 
alongside. If the ship is provided with eight or 
ten entrances to the bunkers, the line can be 
divided into as many divisions or squads and the 
work proceeds much more rapidly than if the 
fuel must be put on board through five or six 
hatchways. With the machinery, guns, quarters 
for the officers and crew and storage for the 
ammunition, but very little space can be pro- 
vided for coal hatches. 

In fact, every inch of space on board a modern 
warship is of the utmost value, and the naval ar- 
chitects at Washington frequently cudgel their 
brains to provide the necessary openings. As it 
is. very fast time has been made in this work, 
and a comparison shows that a crew of American 
" Jacks " can put away more coal in a given 
time than the crews of any other navy. 

The battleship Iowa has broken the record in 
this respect. At a coaling in San Francisco har- 
bor seven divisions were employed, placing on 
board 1,004 tons in eleven hours and twenty-five 
minutes. Each division loaded from twenty-one 
to thirty-two tons an hour, including stops when 
gangs were relieved and empty barges were re- 
placed by loaded ones. At another test the vessel 
was loaded at the rate of 163^ tons an hour, 
while during another trial the rate was 152 tons 
an hour. 

The bunkers of a first-class battleship will con- 
tain from 1,200 to 1,500 tons. They are usually 
completely filled, if the supply of coal at the 
station is ample, as the work is anything but 
pleasant to the officers and crew, from the cap- 
tain down to the stoker. All hands are glad 
enough to get through with it, and considerable 
rivalry exists between the divisions in the speed 
of loading. Bets are made as to the largest quan- 
tity each section can put through in a certain 
time, and many a man doubles or loses his 
month's pay as a result of this betting. When 
the different divisions get fairly started the bags 
and baskets go from the barge to the ship in a 
steady stream, just about as fast as the men can 
pass them from one to another. Each division 
has two or three relief gangs, and after three 







sketsiij lours steady work one of these takes the place of 
the last one. 

Within a half hour after the coaling com- 
mences the sailors, marines and everybody en- 
■k like a gang of miners, while the white 
't>:::j: paint and glistening metal of the vessel are cov- 
red with the black dust so thickly that no one 
ould take her for a warship were it not for the 
n muzzles projecting from the turrets and bar- 
bettes. Every officer who is not absolutely com- 
pelled to be on deck either gets shore leave or 
retires to his cabin and shuts doors and windows 
in the endeavor to keep out the dust, but the stew- 
ards and cleaners have plenty of work to do even 
in the captain's cabin after coaling has finished. 
Although water is sprinkled over the tops of the 
barge loads, it has little effect in keeping down 
the dust clouds. The only relief is when a strong 
wind is blowing away from the ship. 

The plans for lessening the time of coaling 
have resulted in the use of considerable trans- 
ferring machinery. The demand has arisen for 
loading on the open sea, \vhere neither the collier 
nor the warship can anchor. A cable is passed 
from the coaling vessel to the cruiser or battle- 
ship and- the fuel transferred in patent buckets 
by means of steam power. This plan has proved 
quite successful, although it is much slower than 
when several barges can be unloaded at the same 
time by the crew. Another plan proposed for 
coaling at a station is to have barges equipped 
with patent elevators for hoisting and transfer- 
ring the coal instead of utilizing the fillers and 
baskets. The plan is similar to that of the float- 
ing grain elevators used in New York harbor 
and elsewhere. 


Still another plan advocated by some of the 
naval officers is to supply each warship with a 
set of steam winches and booms. These booms 
are to be attached to the masts at such an angle 
that they will project out over the coal barges. 
By means of the block and pulley system the bas- 
kets or bags will be hauled on board by the 
winches and lowered directly through the hatch- 
es. The booms are to be made adjustable, so 

that they can be taken off and stored away after 
the work is finished. The great difficulty, how- 
ever, in the use of booms is that, owing to the 
model of the warship the barges cannot be fas- 
tened directly alongside, as the armor beneath the 
surface extends beyond the line of the vessel 
above water. Consequently the booms must be 
made very large to be of service, and cannot be as 
strongly fastened for this/reason. 

Coaling is a very expensive operation even in 
home ports. The government frequently must 
pay twice or three times the original cost of a ton 
when the vessel is to be coaled off the coast rjf 
Florida, for instance. If a United States warship 
puts into Bermuda for a supply the government 
may have to pay as high as $15 for fuel which in 
Hampton roads would cost less than $4. As 
from fifty to one hundred tons a day will be 
burned on a cruise, according to the speed re- 
quired, a supply of even 1.200 or 1,500 tons is 
soon exhausted. In fact, such a ship as the 
" Kearsarge," which may make a cruise of three 
or four days along the coast and then lie at 
anchor a week or more, needs to be coaled every 
two or three weeks, as when a warship is in com- 
mission the naval regulations require that fires 
should be kept up constantly under at least a 
portion of her furnaces. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Ax old darky went to Memphis the other day 
to get his pension check cashed. After receiving 
his money, which amounted to $11.00, the old ex- 
slave sauntered down Front street to a produce 
house and bought three crates of cabbages. 
When they were delivered at the wharf late that 
afternoon the old jnan was there and received 
them with a mouth watering in anticipation of 
the good time ahead. " YVhut yer gwine ter do 
wid dem cabbages ? " inquired the negro dray- 
man who delivered them. " Eat 'em," was the 
quick response. " I'se been free forty years and 
dis is de first time I'se had de money to buy 'nuff 
cabbage. I'se gwine ter eat cabbage till I furgit 
de wav ter mv mouf." 

More men are ruined by fool 
friends than by sworn enemies. 




There is a great deal in a name, despite the 
sneers of iconoclasts, and it is to be regretted that 
parents in naming their children, especially their 
girls, have paid so little attention to the origin 
of the designations they bestow upon them. 
Children are named for parents, near relatives, 
dear friends, favorite characters in literature, 
or from a mere fancy for a pleasing sound, with- 
out a thought for the eternal fitness of things — 
the real significance of the name. 

Had it not been for the stress laid upon such 
things by the people of France, Louis VIII would 
have had a far more beautiful wife. When this 
monarch — Cceur de Lion — decided to marry, he 
sent ambassadors to the court of Madrid. Natu- 
rally, their choice fell upon the most beautiful 
princess — who happened to be the oldest also — 
until they learned, to their horror, that her un- 
musical name, Xracca, translated, meant " the 

Such a thing as a magpie mating with a lion 
heart was an incongruity not to be considered 
for a moment. So the worthy ambassadors se- 
lected instead a younger and less attractive sister, 
who bore, however, the appropriate name of 
Blanche — the fair — and she became the wife of 
the emperor of France, and mother of St. Louis. 

The possessors of names which they do not 
like, and in the choice of which they had no 
voice, may comfort themselves with the thought 
that there are often very beautiful meanings at- 
tached to very homely names, and vice versa. 

Those matrimonially inclined will perhaps be 
interested in the information that Adeline means 
noble wife ; Deborah, a bee, as a symbol of indus- 
try ; Lina, a support. 

The names Ruth and Helena are both pretty 
and desirable, the former meaning " a vision 
of brightness,'' and the latter " bright as the sun." 

Katherine, Katie. Kathleen and Kate signify 
" spotless, pure." 

Margaret, Margarita and Marguerite are from 
the Greek and mean " a pearl." 

Minna and Minnie, borne in memory, beloved; 
Delia, brilliant ; Psyche, the soul : Sybil, counsel 
of God ; Sophia and Sophy, wisdom, and Ida, 
eing, are also from the Greek. 

Sarah, princess ; Celia, one who commands ; I 
Cleopatra, a father's or a country's glory ; Ade- 
laide, noble maiden; Rachel, an ewe lamb; Mil- 
dred, gentle of speech ; Letitia, gladness ; Edith, 
blessed; Eleanor, Ellen,, Leonora and Nellie, 
fruitful, are surely by reason of their meanings 
names of whom anyone might be justly proud. 

When one reflects that the literal translation 
of the name of Holland's staunch young queen 
is " helm of many," that of Angela Burdett 
Coutts " messenger of God " and that of Florence 
Nightingale " of loving mind, beloved," one is 
almost tempted to believe that there is more in 
a name than Shakespeare would have had us im- 

<• <§■ ♦ 

Being daughters of Eve, young 
ladies are of course partial to twi- 

* * + 


One of the most delicate mechanical processes 
is that of turning a billiard ball, a fact that few 
who see and handle the ivory spheres seem to 
realize. The billiard ball in its natural state is 
the principal means of defense for an elephant. 
In time the elephant falls a victim to the venture- 
some hunter and he parts with his tusks, which 
are the most valuable of all his possessions to 
commerce. Most of the tusks find their way to 
London, which is the greatest sales mart for 

In the window of one of the large manufac- 
tories of billiard balls lies a tusk about two feet 
long. It was purchased some years ago. and 
while being sawed in two the saw came in contact 
with an obstruction. It proved to be a rifle bul- 
let, which had penetrated the elephant's tusk 
when quite young, for the whole inside had a 
decayed appearance. 

There are different kinds of ivory, and only the 
finer kinds are suitable for making billiard balls. 
The best comes from the small tusks, which are 
from four to six inches in diameter at the thick- 
est end. They are sawed into blocks, each sec- 
tion being large enough to allow of the turning 
of a single ball. 

The factories devoted to the billiard ball in- 
dustrv in this country usuallv receive the ivory 

the HN-a-XjEisroo-K:. 



in this shape, the sections being marked so that 
the turners know from what part of the tusk 
each piece comes, and in this way can calculate 
as to the grain and quality. It takes a long time 
to produce a perfect billiard ball, and only skilled 
labor is employed. 

The exact center of the ball is first discovered 
by means of measurement. The block is then 
placed in a socket and half of the ball is turned 
by an instrument made of the finest and sharpest- 
edged steel. The half-turned ball is then hung 
up in a net for a while; then the second half is 
turned and the ball hung up as before in a room 
the temperature of which is from sixty to seventy 

The roughly turned ball is kept in this posi- 
tion about a year. Then comes the polishing, 
whitening, etc. A good deal of hard rubbing is 
also necessary, as the ball, before being used, 
should be as near a certain weight as possible 
and measure two and three-eighths inches in diam- 
eter. It has been found impossible to get two 
balls exactly the same weight. Very often they 
will be heavier on one side than on the other and 
frequently they split right through the center. 
This is due to decay. 

The price of ivory for making billiard balls 
has greatly increased within the last few years 
and the demand exceeds the supply. A prom- 
inent billiard company has offered $10,000 for a 
perfect substitute for ivory. 

Xot until after placed on the table is the real 
life of the billiard ball shown. The pores of 
the ivory may close and then, if the ball is kept in 
a hot room, it is likely to crack, or it may crack 
by reason of concussion with other balls. This 
is one of the great difficulties to contend against. 
To overcome this the balls should be kept in as 
even a temperature as possible. 

When a billiard ball is first used it occupies the 
first rank. A crack may soon be exposed and 
then it is returned to the factory. The nick is 
shaved off and it comes back slightly smaller in 
size. It may then find its way into some second- 
rate billiard-room. After some more hard usage 
it is again returned to the factory and comes forth 
again much reduced in size and probably becomes 
a cue ball in pool. 

After it is found to be practically useless for 
the purposes for which it was originally made, 

it is bought by dealers in bone and ivory and the 
ball is then turned into buttons. 

*r t t 


He heard 
The Duke 

An inquisitive French bishop once caught a 
Tartar in the Duke de Roquelaure. The Duke 
was passing in haste through Lyons, 
the bishop hail him with " Hi ! hi ! " 

"Where have you come from?" asked the 

" Paris," answered the Duke, curtly. 

"What is there fresh in Paris?" asked the 
other, hungry for news. 

" Green peas," said the exasperating Duke. 

" But what were the people saying when you 
left ? " asked the bishop, hoping that the ques- 
tion had been misunderstood. 

" Vespers." 

" Goodness, man ! " broke out the angry ques- 
tioner, " who are you ? What are you called? " 

'"Ignorant people call me 'Hi! hi!' Gentle- 
men call me the Duke de Roquelaure. Drive on, 
postilion ! " 

* * * 


Rev. Justus Forward was noted in the early 
days of the last century as a very godly man. 
He lived at Belshoetown, Mass., where he en- 
joyed the esteem of all classes. He once re- 
proved a workman for swearing while he was 
plowing a new field. " Swear ! " said the man. 
" I guess you'd swear! " 

Mr. Forward took the plow and hurried after 
it, indignantly denying the charge. Then, as the 
field became more impassable, he began panting. 

" I never did see the like ! I never did see the 
like ! " When he had gone once round the field 
he stopped, breathless, and said : 

" There, you see, I didn't find it necessary to 

" No," drawled the other man, " but you've 
told more'n fifty lies. You said you never did 
see the like, and you saw it all the time I was 







Not long ago I read about a chicken with four 
legs. I remember of having one similar to the 
one mentioned, but it did not live but a short 

But last spring our old Bettie had nine little 
pigs, and one of them had only three legs. The 
left front leg, shoulder blade and all was miss- 
ing. We supposed it would soon die, but it got 
along all right for two weeks, when old Bettie 
had to be turned out of the pen. As it could not 
well follow it soon began to droop. So I had it 
brought to the house for a pet. It ate heartily 
and soon began to thrive. I called him Jimmy. 
All I had to do after going out with a tin of 
milk was to say, " Come, Jimmy ! " Then I had 
to hurry or he would get there first, even on three 

I sold him in June, but he was still living a 
short time ago. 

Ola, Iowa. 

4? •!• 4? 


by c. a. Mcdowell. 

While working on a grade a few years ago 
I helped to unearth a few snakes. Some we 
broke out of the frozen clay, and when we got 
them we let them lay on the ice until we could 
bend them in almost any shape and they would 
remain that way. But if we laid them close to 
the fire they would soon show signs of life, es- 
pecially if we placed something hot on them. 
The part that was burned would move first. If 
the head was next the fire the first signs of life 
would be the tongue coming out, slowly at first, 
and faster as he warmed up. We could not 
break them. 

When frozen I have also seen a few snakes 
killed with electricity by placing one wire on the 


head and one on the tail, and then turning the 
current on. They don't stand much of it. 
Johnstoivn, Pa. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


Dear 'Nook: — 

In the Inglenook of Dec. 28 is an inquiry 
whether anyone ever saw a snake in winter, when 
frozen. When I was a boy I plowed one out in 
January. In turning the dirt over the snake was 
in the bottom of the furrow in a coil, and was 
stiff as if no life was in it. I laid the snake in the 
sun for several hours, when it moved some, but 
towards sundown it became stiff again. I then 
dispatched it. It was of the garter kind, and 
about two feet long. Someone said afterwards 
if I had made a fire and thawed it out well it 
would have run away. M. H. Shaver. 

ML Sidney, Va. 

ie 4? + 


Who ever heard of a piece of land deeded to 
animal or fowl ? Yet such has been done by pop- 
ular consent. In Minnesota there is a pictur- 
esque island that is uninhabited by man and given 
up to the cranes. When the Indians held full 
sway these birds decided upon this spot for a 
summer resort. As time went on and no white 
man had the temerity to disturb them they be- 
came sole owners, until now this island is point- 
ed out from passing boats as one of the curios- 
ities of the country. 

It is estimated that three thousand cranes make 
their home there in the summer season, and they 
can be seen wading out in the water, ducking 
their long necks, and heard emitting a peculiar 
squak to warn off intruders. 

Their nests are made of very large sticks, are 
often the size of a bushel basket, and are usually 
built on some substantial tree. In the years that 
have passed since this region was first settled 
by white men only one or two attempts have been 




made to land on the island, and these have re- 
sulted disastrously. 

One man, more venturesome than the rest, cap- 
tured with difficulty a young crane and carried 
it home. When exhibiting his trophy to the 
family the indignant bird thrust out its long beak, 
and before its captor guessed its intention, 
plucked out his eyes. These birds guard their 
property so jealously that though elegant sum- 
mer homes have been erected all around on the 
adjacent islands, Crane Island will go down to 
posterity as the one spot on earth sacred to the 
crane and his progeny. 

T T "I* 


The problem of submarine photography has 
been taken up by a Massachusetts inventor, who 
has patented an apparatus combining a pair of 
cameras with means for the artificial illumination 
of objects in the depths. 

It has been ascertained by careful experiments 
(such as the exposure of sensitive plates at vari- 
ous depths) that, practically, not a ray of sunlight 
penetrates farther down than 600 feet below the 
surface of the sea. Even in comparatively shal- 
low water photography is out of the question 
from lack of light. But here is a machine that 
carries a light of its own, and which, by the use 
of very ingenious means, so it is claimed, is able 
to illuminate quite powerfully any object that is 
to be taken. 

The two cameras, each of them enclosed in a 
large bulb of metal with a glass bull's-eye, are 
held by rigid arms on either side of a chamber 
containing strong arc lamps. They are so ar- 
ranged as to point somewhat inward, and to be 
focused upon the same object, which is at the 
same time illuminated by the powerful ray thrown 
forward from the electric chamber. 

Through rubber tubes pass wires which control 
the action of the cameras and lights. Thus the 
operator, when he wishes to take a picture, is able 
to turn on the light and, at the same time, to ex- 
pose the plates; all that is needed being a touch 
upon a button. An automatic arrangement turns 
the exposed plate out of the way, and places 
another in position for exposure. Owing to the 
relative positions of the cameras, they take pic- 

tures of the object from two different points of 
view, almost at right angles. 

At very great depths — such as a mile — a ma- 
chine of this kind would not be available as it 
would be crushed by the pressure of the water. 
But this is not a matter of much importance as 
the apparatus is designed for use in connection 
with diving operations, which are not conducted 
very far below the surface. 
■f. 4. 4, 

The ingenuity of a Yankee inventor has de- 
vised a use for that humble and unlovely shrub 
of the Western deserts known as " greasewood." 
It has been found to contain a gum that affords 
a valuable substitute for rubber. 

The method of obtaining the gum, which has 
been newly patented, consists in bruising the 
woody stalks of the greasewood, soaking them in 
a solution of carbon disulphide, and then draw- 
ing off the liquid, which is distilled. The chem- 
ical used as a solvent is driven off by heat, and 
there remains in the bottom of the vessel a gum- 
my stuff, flexible and elastic. 

Finally, the gummy stuff is washed and puri- 
fied, the result being a very fair substitute for 
India-rubber — so good, in fact, as to suggest 
the notion that some day the American deserts 
may be made to yield very satisfactory profits 
in the production of raw material for gum shoes 
and bicycle tires. 

*r v v 

One of the chief governing instincts among 
wild birds is the sense of fear. This feeling of 
fear is not apparent in birds until ten or twelve 
days after birth. All perching birds acquire the 
instinct of fear at from eight to ten days after 
birth, and this instinct becomes the controlling 
factor in the subsequent experiences of the bird, 
being either lessened or increased by circum- 

♦ + ♦ 

It is a popular impression that Alaska is a 
frozen zone, and that the soil is barren and worth- 
less. This is a mistake. The sun is hot, the 
snow moistens and enriches the earth, and the 
soil in the valleys is fertile and productive. 
Wheat, corn, oats, barley, buckwheat, flaxseed 
and a considerable variety of vegetables and for- 
age plants can be successfully grown in many 
parts of the territory. 






Elgin, Illinois. 

The subscription price of the Magazine is one dollar a year. It is 
a high-class publication, intended for the Home, and for the interest, 
entertainment and information, of old and young. 

Articles intended for publication should be short, of general inter- 
est, and nothing of a love story character or with either cruelty or 
killing, will be considered. 

Manuscript submitted to the Editor will be at the entire risk of 
the writer, and its return is not guaranteed. 

Subscribers wishing the address of their papers changed should 
invariably give the old address at which they received their Ingle- 

Agents are wanted everywhere, and any reasonable number of 
sample copies will be furnished free. All communications relating 
to the Inglenook should be addressed as follows: 

(For the Inglenook.) 32-24 S. State St., Elgin, III. 

Entered at the Post Office at Elgin, 111., as Second-class Matter. 

There is never a day so dreary 

But God can make it bright; 
And unto the soul that trusts him 

He giveth songs in the night. 
There is never a path so hidden 

But God will show the way, 
If we seek the Spirit's guidance, 

And patiently watch and pray. 

+ + + 


Less than two years ago the Inglenook 
started. It was an experiment in a sense, but 
of the outcome the Editor "never had a shadow 
of doubt. He had confidence in the belief that 
the people wanted good reading and he never 
doubted his ability to furnish it, especially when 
backed by so able a corps of contributors. It 
succeeded, and numbers thousands among its 
friends and it will have thousands more before 

Now comes an unsolicited idea from a valued 
'Nooker, and a man at that. Some of our best 
moves have been suggested by women, but it 
was a man this time, and his suggestion is that 
we celebrate. Briefly, the proposition is that on 
the date of the first number of the Inglenook 

each family getting the 'Nook have something 
for dinner taken out of the Cook Book. 

The idea is an excellent one and the 'Nook ap- 
proves it and is in for it head and stomach. The 
time will not be for some weeks and due notice 
will be given. In the meantime the idea is open 
for discussion and suggestion. 

+ + + 

The kleptomaniac regards things 
from an abstract point of view. 
+ + + 

Judging from the letters we receive the Editor 
is a sort of ogre who takes delight in flipping con- 
tributions into the waste basket. Now, dear 
friends, don't be unduly exercised. Never has 
there been an article consigned to the waste bas- 
ket in the Inglenook room. There's a basket, all 
right enough, but it has yet to secure its first 

Some thousands of contributions have been 
received, and we look on them in this way. If 
the writer goes to the trouble of preparing an ar- 
ticle and sending it to us it gets careful con- 
sideration and even though we may not print it, 
we never destroy it. It is not the custom in any 
well-regulated editor's office to destroy articles 
because they don't suit. Contributions, the real 
thing, are the life of a paper. They are always 
welcomed. Send them along. We will do our 
best to see the good side of them. 

Self-inspection is the best cure 
for self-esteem. 

+ + + 

Our 'Nook people who contributed to the 
Inglenook Cook Book will be interested in learn- 
ing that it is spoken of in the highest terms by 
outsiders who have it and who use it. There 
are several hundreds of them in use in Elgin city 
and everywhere the recipes are being tried and 
words of praise come to us on all sides. Many a 
sister's contribution to the book will gladden 
homes she will never see, and her potpies and 
cookies will live after she has gone over to a 
better land. 





i, dear 
per has 
its first 

e been 

-ay. It 
; an ar- 
id con- 
irint it, 
in any 
he real 
do our 

Editor of Inglenook, 
Elgin, 111. 
Dear Sir:— I have read the Inglenook since its 
ppearance in Elgin, and I have been asked to give my 
opinion of it. 

I regard the Inglenook as one of the best family 
papers, for old or young; and I would he glad to know 
that it entered every family in this city. It is very in- 
structive, clean and healthful. 

Yours truly, 

D. B. Sherwood. 

The above is from a 'Nooker in Elgin, and 
shows the status of the magazine among our best 
people. Hon. David B. Sherwood is an ex- 
judge, and is one of the ablest jurists in the 

+ + + 

He that respects himself is safe 
from others; he zvears a coat of 
mail that none can pierce. 

to the 
i learn- 

rms by 

jin cit- 
ed and 

:rto i 

????**** ** r 

*? *? 

Is President Roosevelt a college man? 
Yes. He is a graduate of Harvard. 

I read of coaling stations. What are they? 
Places where the government stores large 
quantities of coal for the use of war vessels, etc. 

« '■* 

Which can run the faster, a locomotive or a racing 

The chances favor the auto's coming out ahead 
in a race. 

What amount of paper is consumed in a year for 
printing purposes? 

The paper and paper pulp mills have a capac- 
ity of 2,500,000 tons a year. 

•4 * 

Will the Spanish language be used in the future in 
our colonial possessions? 

Yes, for a long time, but if we hold on Eng- 
lish will eventually take its place. 
<« -* 

What is an absolute zero? 

That degree of cold when it can get no colder. 
It is a sure thing that it exists but has never 
been reached. 

Do nations ever keep a special war fund? 

Yes, some do. Germany has $29,000,000 set 
aside for use in case of sudden need in time of 

Will the so-called arid west ever be fit for settlement? 

In time either crops adapted to it, or some way 
of irrigating it, will be discovered and it will be 
the garden of the world. 

* <* 

Is it morally right to join a union? 

Something depends on its character. There 
can be no question about the abstract right of 
workers, or anybody else, to combine for self- 

« -« 

Is it true that an elephant is afraid of a mouse? 

Yes. The big fellow will sometimes stand on 
his hind legs and paw the air in terror at the sight 
of one, but they are also said to grow accustomed 
to them in time. 

What is " gumbo," used in making a railroad? 
Where stones are wanting for ballasting a road 
clay is burned, broken in pieces, and used in the 
place of stone. It looks not unlike red coal cin- 
ders and is better than stone. It is called gum- 

Why may not a co-operative colony succeed? 

In every instance where tried failure has result- 
ed sooner or later. The causes seem to be in- 
herent uneasiness, jealousies and ambition. 
Those last the longest which have a strong reli- 
gious turn to them, but all fail in the end. 

Is a marriage performed by one not legally qualified 
binding on the parties? 

Yes, if they want it to be. It is the living to- 
gether and recognizing each other as man and 
wife before the world that does the business. 
If, as it seems by the letter, the marriage was a 
so-called " mock " marriage it is binding all the 
same on the parties, and will take an action of the 
court to undo it. The unauthorized party is sub- 
ject to punishment, but the parties promising 
before witnesses are in for it if either or both 
want it to stand. Such things are " playing with 
fire " the worst kind of a way. 




From time immemorial physical vigor has 
been considered a sine qua non to longevity. The 
races that distinguished themselves in the history 
of the world for their aggressiveness, their phys- 
ical prowess and valor have in the main been 
people inured to hard manual labor, out-of-door 
exercise and active modes of living. The Greeks 
of old were as assiduous in their devotion to their 
sports and games as the Englishman of to-day is 
to his national pastimes of cricket and racing or 
the German to his fencing. The Teuton of the 
nineteenth century in physical development sur- 
passes all other races and rules the world. He 
is on the whole a long-lived race. He works 
with his hands, with his body, with his legs and 
with his brain ; in fact, he works altogether. He 
is not apt to stunt one portion of his physical 
make-up to aid in developing another portion. 
In his normal condition he is a country dweller 
and despises the town. 

In contradistinction to the Teuton, let us con- 
sider the Jew, and we speak now of the masses. 
Physically, he is poorly developed. Centuries of 
oppression have stamped out his physical vigor, 
if not his vitality. The European Jew is under- 
sized, and markedly so. His mental vigor, how- 
ever, is unimpaired, and probably on the whole 
is superior to his neighbor's. He is a city dwell- 
er, and betrays an inherent dislike for hard man- 
ual labor or for physical exercise or exertion in 
any form. He is adverse to out-of-door sport. 
He prefers to live by his brain rather than by his 
muscle. His chest capacity is limited, and he 
possesses many other features of physical degen- 
eracy. In fact, his physical make-up is what one 
would expect to find in a short-lived man. And 
here is a surprising feature. 

Possessing so few of the elements so long con- 
sidered as necessary to longevity, the Jew is 
probably the longest lived of any race of people 
now in existence. His tenacity of life is remark- 
able. In spite of the social conditions which sur- 
round the mass of the Hebrew population the 
world over, and especially in the large cities of 
America, where they form a large percentage of 
the population, the death rate among the Jewish 
inhabitants is but little over half of that of the 
average American population. Professor Wil- 

liam Z. Ripley, in his papers on the racial geog- 
raphy of Europe in the Popular Science Monthly, 
discusses this question very ably and very fully. 
He states that if two groups of one hundred in- 
fants each, one Jewish and one of average Amer- 
ican parentage, be born upon the same day, one- 
half of the Americans will die within forty-seven 
years, while the first half of the Jews will not 
succumb to disease before the expiration of sev- 
enty-one years. According to Lombroso, of \ 
1,000 Jews born 217 die before the age of seven 
years, while 453 Christians, more than twice as 
many, are iikely to die within the same period. 

The immunity of the Jewish population from 
accident on account of their indoor occupation 
will account for some of the discrepancy, but on 
this very account they should be more liable to 
epidemic and other disease. This is not wholly 
true, however. They show an abnormally small 
proportion of deaths from consumption and pneu- 
monia, which are responsible for the largest pro- 
portion of deaths among the American popula- 
tion. Professor Ripley ascribes their immunity 
from this, as well as from some other diseases, 
to the excellent system of meat inspection pre- 
scribed by the Mosaic law. Hoffman says that 
in London as much as one-third of the meats 
offered for sale is rejected as unfit for consump- 
tion by the Jews. 

Probably the temperate habits for which the 
Jews as a race are noted will account to some ex- 
tent for the longevity. The Jew is temperate in 
almost all that he does, in all that he eats and in 
all that he drinks. He is seldom addicted to the 
intemperate use of alcoholic liquors. He ab- 
stains from certain varieties of meat, and those 
of the richer and more heating kind. 

*X* T* *f* 

There is no cement that will re- 
pair broken promises. 
* + * 

" The visitor to Mexico encounters many 
strange sights and curious customs and methods 
of doing business," said an American business 

" A great deal of mining and agricultural ma- 
chinery has been brought into Mexico, and the 



Mexican ranchero, if not instructed in handling 
the newfangled farm machinery, is sometimes at 
a loss to get things at work. The loss of a screw, 
a nut or bolt sometimes completely blocks all his 
efforts to get things in motion. 

" Not so long ago I went out with a gen- 
tleman from the States on a trip through the 
country selling ploughs, and during our travels 
in the State of Michoacan stopped at a very large 
hacienda. The owner was very polite and kind, 
but when it came to the point of buying a plough 
he did not seem to be in the humor to trade. He 

" ' Why, I have bought several different kinds 
of tools and implements from the States, but 
must confess I have had bad luck with them. 
Not long ago I received a mowing machine from 
a well-known manufactory, and it won't work, 
and I am getting tired of being swindled.' 

" We thought it very queer that a new ma- 
chine would not work, and requested that he get 
it out and let us look it over, which, of course, 
he gladly did. We looked it all over very care- 
fully and could see nothing wrong with it, so 
had some of the farm laborers take hold and haul 
it around the yard, the owner in the meantime 
following along with us and very much interested 
in the proceedings. 

; After satisfying myself that everything was 
in good working order, I reached over and threw 
the knives into gear, and she worked like a charm. 
You should have seen the look of astonishment on 
that ranchero 's face. They did not know enough 
to throw it into gear. This will explain why a 
good deal of trouble is had in this country in 
selling improved machinery. 

" A good deal of comment has been made on 
the native method of doing business. A friend 
of mine wanted to buy a certain grade of native- 

tural ma- 

made wax matches. One day he came across a 
stand where an old woman had the identical 
kind he was looking for. She had some two 
dozen boxes and he insisted upon buying them 

" But evidently she did not understand deal- 
ing in a wholesale way, and would not consent 
to dispose of more than three boxes at a time, 
which he very reluctantly was compelled to take. 

" After walking away a few steps he decided 
that the opportunity might not occur again to 
get those matches and he returned and bought 
three more boxes, and when he found that the 
retail plan of selling prevailed, he kept marching 
back and forth, and every time he passed the old 
woman's stand he bought three more boxes until 
he had the whole two dozen. 

" Last year I spent several months in a small 
town in the State of Guerrero, and having some 
stock to feed decided to iuy enough corn to last 
me two or three months. So visiting the market- 
place on the next Sunday I looked up a native who 
was selling a sackful of corn by the quart, or 
small measure used by them. He told me he had 
fifteen cargas and would sell it all. 

" I decided that this was just the opportunity 
I was looking for and told him I would take the 
whole lot if he would deliver it the coming week. 
The native proceeded to scratch his head and 
look me over and hem and haw, and finally he 
decided that he could not sell. I pressed him for 
his reason. 

' Well, I'll tell you,' he said, ' I raise nothing 
but corn, one crop each year. Now if I sell 
this corn all at once I will be sure to spend the 
money, but if I sell a little at a time I will have 
the money every week until the new crop.' 

" And according to his business views he was 
right and we did not trade." 

Where one lawyer in a small vil- 
lage would starve two can make a 
good living There is a great big 
moral concealed in this. 

6 4 

the iisra-XjEisrooic. 


BY CLARA L. T0DS0N, D. 0. 

Osteopathy is a method of healing disease 
without the use of drugs, substituting therefor a 
system of scientific manipulation. This manipu- 
lation includes primarily adjustment of the vari- 
ous tissues and organs to their normal relations; 
secondarily, regulation of nerve vibrations by 
means of physiological stimulation or inhibition. 

The Osteopath looks upon the body as a ma- 
chine of delicate adjustment, every part of which 
has a definite relation to the other parts. Upon 
the maintenance of the correct relation of all the 
parts depends the harmonious working of the 
machine — in other words, perfect health. As is 
the case in man-made machines, a very small de- 
parture from this accurate adjustment may have 
serious consequences. 

The most important structures of the body are 
the blood, or life-giving, and the nerves, or life- 
conserving. The blood carries nutrition, the 
nerves apply and utilize it in carrying on the 
bodily functions. Pressure on a blood-vessel, if 
an artery, means too little blood in the area sup- 
plied by it; if a vein, it means too much blood 
(congestion) in the area back of the obstruction. 
Pressure on a nerve, if slight, may mean merely 
an irritation resulting in over-activity; or if more 
severe it will, in proportion to the degree of 
pressure, produce partial or complete paralysis. 

The sources of pressure on blood-vessel or 
nerve are : ( i ) misplaced bone, as a dislocation 
of any joint; (2) misplaced or contracted mus- 
cle, as in "stiff neck"; (3) cartilage, as the 
semi-lunar cartilage of the knee-joint; (4) liga- 
ment, as in " sprained ankle"; (5) organ, as in 
" floating kidney." In each of these conditions 
there are pain and interference with the circula- 
tion. Where the nerve or blood supply to deep- 
seated structures is interfered with the effects are 
just as marked. This may be shown by a spe- 
cific example. But first it is necessary to men- 
tion a few points in anatomy. 

The spinal column, or " backbone," is made up 
of a number of segments of bone, called vertebra. 
These are bound together very strongly by a 
wonderful system of ligaments. Attached to the 
vertebra; are many strong muscles, by means of 


which the movements of the spine are accom- 
plished. The body of each vertebra is perforated 
for the passage of the spinal cord — a bundle of 
nerves. Between each two vertebras there is on 
either side an opening for the exit of nerves 
branching off from the spinal cord. Thus, nerves 
to the stomach, heart and lungs leave the spinal 
cord at points in the upper part of the back; to 
the liver lower down ; to the intestines lower still ; 
and so on. 

A word is necessary here about " Osteopathic 
centers." By study and experiment extending 
over nearly thirty years, many " centers " have 
been located in addition to those noted in the 
regular text books of physiology. Thus we 
speak of the bronchial center, heart center, lung 
center, liver center, etc. 

For an example we will take a slipped bone at 
the " stomach center." Here it is important to 
note that the effect of interference with a nerve 
appears at the termination of the nerve, even 
though it be a considerable distance from the 
point of interference. Thus on hitting the ulnar 
nerve at the elbow (commonly called the " funny 
bone ") the effect is felt in a tingling and numb- 
ness not at the elbow, but in the little and ring 
fingers. In the same way the slipped bone at the 
stomach center, by bringing pressure on the nerve 
fibers to the stomach, interferes with the normal 
digestive processes. The work of the Osteopath 
is to replace this bone. How is it done? Firsti 
it is necessary to relax the muscles and ligaments 
around the bone, which are more or less contract- 
ed. This is accomplished by various manipula- 
tions, — stretching, pressure, movements of the 
spine, etc. Then by applying the mechanical 
principles of levers the bone is gradually worked 
back to its place. It may be necessary to repeat 
this process many times before it remains per- 
manently. This is followed when necessary by 
a judicious stimulation of the nerves which have 
been interfered with. 

The same principles apply if the condition is 
due to muscular or other abnormality. 

There is another phase that must be considered. 
Suppose a boy eats a green apple or two. The 
usual consequences follow. Is a bone in his back 
pulled out of place? Hardly. But the irritation 
in the stomach is reflected to the " stomach cen- 
ter " in the back, resulting in muscular contrac- 


k broncl 

Tt f i: ;! 



I ; 

-'- in :- 

rw, eve 


m nerf 

ie HMEB 

the iisrc3-i-.E2srooic. 


tion. with soreness and tenderness, at this center. 
Manipulation at this point, in connection with re- 
moval of the cause from the digestive tract, re- 
lieves the condition. 

So overwork, or ahuse of any organ, while not 
originating in the spine, has its expression there, 
and treatment of the spine overcomes the effect 
of overwork. 

The ordinary surgical treatment of fractures 
and dislocations is in accord with Osteopathic 
principles, — viz: readjustment of the parts. The 
Osteopath follows the same procedure as the sur- 

The principles set forth — find the cause and re- 

move it — are applicable to all diseases. Thus, in 

diseases of the eye, ear, nose, throat, brain — in 
fact any part of the head — the Osteopath first 
examines the neck. In the majority of cases 
where there is trouble with the eyes he finds the 
first or second vertebra in the neck involved, cor- 
rection of which is usually followed by cure, 
sometimes even in cases of absolute blindness. 

In Bright's disease of the kidneys the most 
common abnormality is an anterior condition of 
the vertebras at the kidney center. 

In sciatica there is some pressure on the sciatic 
nerve — possibly from contracted muscles in hip 
or thigh, or a slight malposition of the hip bones. 

Aaricose veins may come from similar causes. 

In asthma there is usually malposition of one 
ie ; Fifi or more ribs, interfering with the innervation of 
the bronchial tubes. 

In goiter the collar bone is depressed. 

The list could be lengthened indefinitely ; but 
: "t in all cases the plan of treatment is the same, — 
correction of anatomical abnormalities, and phys- 
I iological stimulation or inhibition of the nerves. 

Room 25, the Spurlmg, Elgin, III. 
4, -t- 4. 

Never enter into a partnership 
with a man who is smarter than 

+ + + 




3 tai 

, ■■•■■it- 

Dear 'Xook: — 

Undoubtedly the Ixglexook is a vistior to 
many Swedish homes, especially in the West. 
Their attention will be called especially to the 
article on page 918 of the last number, " Swed- 

ish Customs." There are a few things misrep- 
resented in that article. That " the pig shares the 
bedroom with his master, and the people rarely 
undress when going to bed," and a few other 
things mentioned in the same article are not quite 
correct. A reader of the Ixglexook here 
thought that the Editor of the " 'Nook " would 
appreciate criticism along the line of the Swed- 
ish customs, so on his advice I ventured, as due 
to my native country. 

A brother once told me that during his preach- 
ing he was called to dine with a family in West 
Virginia. He said he dined on the top of the 
hogs. To me it scarcely seemed true, but when 
he explained that the hogpen was underneath the 
dining room of course it seemed true. But I 
would never dare say that such is the custom 
among the people of West Virginia. The same 
could be true, possibly, in one or two cases in 
Sweden, but it is far from a custom. 

In order to get some valuable and reliable in- 
formation concerning Swedish customs, I would 
advise the Editor to get the two volumes of the 
book entitled " Sweden and the Swedes." The 
author of this book is W. W. Thomas, the 
United States Minister to Sweden. He has lived 
there for thirty years and has fully acquainted 
himself with the customs, and through his intelli- 
gent search he has been able to throw aside many 
incorrect statements made by other authors with 
less knowledge. With love, 

Carrie A. Westergrex. 


The above is printed with pleasure for several 
reasons. First, it is a correction of what seems 
an error. Second, it is most courteous. Cour- 
teously correcting an error that has unconsciously 
crept into the 'Nook endears the party doing it 
to the Editor. The facts are that the life of a 
people can not be told in a magazine article, no 
matter who does it. There are many Swedish 
families that read the 'Nook, and articles descrip- 
tive of the pleasant side of their old-country life 
will be appreciated by the other readers of the 
'Nook, and are solicited. Finally, the chronic 
grumbler who makes a noise when he sees some- 
thing in the Ixglexook that he does not like is 
invited to study the above letter as a model of 
criticism, always appreciated by the manage- 
ment of the magazine. The Editor. 




Two little children going somewhere, rigged 
out in their best. The little boy's shoe lace has 
come unfastened, and he stands patiently while 
his younger sister stooping, ties it again, and 
then they're off. It's the little woman of it. 

The old woman sits in her accustomed place 
in the church. There is something about her 
that cannot be acquired in any other way than 
that which comes through the years. What is 
it? It is hard to say, but the Lord sets his seal 
on some faces as a reward for a good life that 
says to all who look, " This is a good woman." 


A gray-haired couple are going down the 
street. Years have touched them both. He has 
a staff, she wears spectacles. All over them are 
written the successes and the sorrows of life. 
What strikes the man with the camera is ;the 
fact that they are old people who have traveled 
together till they are practically one. They are 
walking toward the setting sun. 

He is about twenty, she about eighteen. They 
pass on the street, and he lifts his cap and looks 
eagerly. She smiles pleasantly. There is a 
sense of wanting more of it all about them. 
Then after passing she turns and looks after him. 
He turns, too, and catches her looking. She 
flushes red as a rose and walks on faster. It's a 
pretty bit of play, all the better because it is un- 


A baby carriage is wheeled by. A very pretty 
child is in it, and it is clean, clear-eyed, and 
dressed in its best. Everybody looks earnestly at 
the sight, and the mother notices the admiration 
and seems the prouder for it. Is it not the one 
and the only baby in the world? 

Down the street comes the procession of car- 
riages. The white hearse is in the front, and in 
it is a little coffin, buried in flowers. The dread 
yard of the dead is the end of the drive. In the 
carriage following are sad-hearted people who 
will always have the shadow of the little coffin 
across their lives. 

It is a big and a proud day for the boy as he 
stands before the high school crowd and makes 
his speech on the Dignity of Labor. There is a 
crown of laurel ahead of him at the end of the 
world's Olympic race for the prize. He sees it 
in his dreams. And the sorrow of it. Let us 
not say it. 

The little girl goes down the street clippety- 
clip in high-heeled shoes, a plait of hair adown 
her back. She is just where the brook and the 
river meet in life, and everything is before her. 
May the season of life's June roses be a long one 
in this maiden's journey. 

The old man goes feebly up the street. He is 
very old and all his friends are dead. He is the 
last leaf on the tree, the only one left, and he is 
only waiting the summons from on high. And 
he sighs as he passes and is ready when the call 
comes. He sees in the faces of the children the 
features of those he knew in his youth. 

Some day the 'Nookman will also be out where 
the tenants never move, and the world will be all 
the same as now. And those who then read what 
he now writes in the old yellowed volume of the 
'Nook, given them to quiet them, will wonder 
what he looked like, or, most likely they will nev- 
er give it a thought. But he will rest as easy one 
way as the other. 

£ 4- 4. 

Don't try to be funny with people 
who are unable to appreciate ivit. 
•!■ 4. 4. 



In the Inglenook of Nov. 16 J. A. Seese gives 
us an article on " Spearing Eels." In reading 
his contribution my mind was carried back to old 
Virginia and my boyhood days, for many an eel 
have we speared or gigged, and many a gig have 
we made for ourselves and other boys. 

But say! Did any of you 'Nookers ever go 
a bobbing? Many will wonder, or say, "What 
is going a bobbing? If the 'Nook man 
doesn't care I will tell you what it is.. 



Now you boys, listen ! Girls don't go much 
on fishing for eels anyhow, " the horrid things," 
meaning the eels. So they will be excused if 
they don't want to read this. 

The best time to " go bobbing " is in July and 
August when the nights are dark and warm, or 
just after a shower of rain when the creek is 
muddy. But there is no use to go if there is 
thunder and lightning, for eels don't want to be 
caught at such a time, and they won't bite at 
your " bob." 

Well, what is a bob anyhow? And how do 
you make one ? It's done this way : Get a hoe 
and dig a big handful of earthworms, big fat 
ones. Next get three or four feet of strong 
sewing thread, and a knitting needle, and tie the 
thread fast to the needle. Now pinch the heads 
off the worms and string them as you would 
beads, running the needle through them from 
end to end. The entrails of a chicken or squir- 
rel will answer as well. 

Xow when you get your string full, bring the 
ends together and tie them. Now fold or double 
your string until it is not more than four or five 
inches long. While you hold them let someone 
tie a strong cord around the middle of it. Next 
get a pole eight or ten feet long, just as you like, 
and tie your bob to it, leaving only about four 
inches of line. An ordinary fishing pole will do, 
but it must not be very limber. Now your bob 
is ready for business. It should be, when done, 
about the size of a turkey's egg. 

Xow you may take your lantern and go to the 
creek or milldam. Set your lantern down back 
from the bank a little, and then stick your " bob " 
right down to the bottom of the creek. And 
while the frogs sing and the gnats bite, wait for 
results. If there are any eels near, and they have 
any appetite at all, they will try to get on the out- 
side of your bob. Just wait until he gets a good 
hold, and when he says " ready " by giving your 

bob a vigorous pull, just lift him out. When he 

finds himself out of water he will let go. And 

now the fun begins, but you may take care of 

your own eel. I have told you how to catch him, 

and you may do the rest. 

But you will find him a slick fellow. 

Leeton, Mo. 



Mirrors that one can see through are a new in- 
vention already coming into use. They are of 
so-called " platinized glass," being backed with a 
compound made of ninety-five per cent silver and 
five per cent platinum, and optically speaking, 
they are exceedingly curious and interesting. 
Looking into a glass of this kind, one finds a 
first-rate reflection; it is a mirror and nothing 
more. At the same time, a person on the other 
side can see directly through it. 

For example, a glass of this sort placed in front 
of the prescription desk in an apothecary shop 
perfectly conceals the prescription clerk and his 
apparatus. Thus the privacy of that department 
is secured, while on his part the clerk is able to 
survey the shop and see everybody who comes in 
just as if the mirror were ordinary glass. It is 
transparent to him, but is like any common mir- 
ror from the viewpoint of people in front. It is 
easily seen that glass of this kind is likely to be 
useful for a good many purposes. It can be 
put in the doors of dark bathrooms, or of any 
other rooms where privacy is desirable and light 
is wanted. Anybody who has observed his own 
reflection in the plate-glass windows of shops will 
understand the principle well enough. The ef- 
fect is merely enhanced by an extremely thin coat 
of the platinum-silver, which allows light to pass 
through, and yet furnishes an excellent looking- 
glass. The process consists in pouring over 
plate-glass nitrate of silver and platinum, and 
then applying Rochelle salts. 

Sunday is the golden clasp that 
binds together the volume of the 




Curing a human being is one thing, but cur- 
ing a dumb animal is quite another affair. The 
horse is perhaps more subject to sickness and 
disease than any other animal, and it is for this 
reason that so much progress has been made in 
recent years in veterinary knowledge, big colleges 
having been erected for the purpose of perfecting- 
those men who take as their life's vocation the 
alleviation of brute suffering. 

Chicago has a number of veterinary colleges. 
These institutions are the scene of several opera- 
tions upon horses every day. 

A surgical operation upon a horse is a difficult 
matter, first, because the use of anaesthetics is 
rarely resorted to in the case of animal treatment, 
owing to the peculiar sensitiveness of the animal 
mechanism, and, secondly, because the absence of 
the drug that takes away the pain makes it nec- 
essary to so secure the invalid horse as to prevent 
it from moving while under the knife and thus 
injuring itself. 

Casting is the almost universal method of se- 
curing a horse when it is to go under the sur- 
geon's knife, although an English invention is 
claimed to do away with this by placing the ani- 
mal in a vise-like instrument, after which the 
surgeon can manipulate the contrivance at will 
by the simple moving of a lever. Chicago veter- 
inarians do not place great faith in the device, be- 
cause of their expressed belief that a horse would 
be apt to injure himself in it. 

The stocks, as they are used in Chicago by 
veterinary surgeons, are made of heavy, strong 
wooden beams, and even these have been known 
to break under the strain of a horse confined 
within its bounds making desperate efforts to ex- 
tricate itself. 

" A horse confined in the stocks," said one sur- 
geon, " no matter how heavy and strong they 
may be, is so irresistible in strength that I have 
known the stocks to give away and burst as 
if they were scantlings. We have to pro- 
vide against that by making the stocks of al- 
most incredible strength, and so I cannot see 
what would prevent a horse, raised from the 
ground and fastened in the revolving device, 
from injuring itself in that iron straight-jack- 
et, for that is just what it amounts to. 

" The best way, even though it has been in 
use for years, is to cast the horse. With the 
method of roping the animal there is absolutely 
no chance for it to move." 

If the tail, the head, or the breast is to be oper- 
ated upon, the stocks are universally used by the 
veterinary surgeons of America. The horse is 
backed into a sort of stall, heavy beams forming 
in on either side, and a strong beam being placed 
crosswise at the rear and in front of the animal. 
In this way he cannot possibly move either for- 
ward or backward. Then a huge cloth strap is 
fastened underneath the horse and another over 
his back, and he finds himself as solidly wedged 
into the stock as an anchor cemented in a rock. 

His feet can then be readily tied so that he can- 
not move them, and the animal is all ready for the 

If the feet or legs are to be operated upon, or 
a serious operation is to be performed on the 
animal's body, then he is cast on a bed of sawdust 
in as remarkable a way as the cowboys throw 
their wild horses on the plains, with the single 
exception that a wild western horse can kick, 
while the horse in the grasp of the modern vet- 
erinary surgeon has no opportunity whatever 
for any fancy movements of his lower extrem- 

Minor operations are sometimes undertaken 
without either casting or chloroforming a horse, 
but this is a dangerous proceeding, both to the 
horse and to the operator, for there is likely to 
be some swift kicking as soon as the point of the 
knife touches the horse. 

When the horse is first brought in from his 
own stable to the hospital he is not carried, it 
is needless to say, to a private room in a cot on 
spring wheels. He is unceremoniously hoisted 
either to the operating-room on the top floor of 
the modern horse hospital, or else in the treat- 
ment-room in the basement, by means of a huge 
tackle which is fastened to the body harness 
specially adapted to the peculiar circumstances 
of the animal's ailment. 

But they are as kind and gentle with a sick 
horse in the horse hospitals of Chicago as they 
are with the most delicate patients in the private 
wards of the various medical institutions of the 


I ' 

B Of * 



'id -' 


I /risk 



the injsra-UL.iEiisrooiK:. 



Wall Street has a vocabulary of its own — 
a vocabulary of phrases, many of them so purely 
technical that one requires an interpreter to make 
their meaning clear if he is not a regular reader 
of the market reports. There is a large major- 
ity of the readers of newspapers who do not read 
market reports in ordinary seasons ; who only 
learn what the markets are doing when the mar- 
kets are doing something extraordinary, as for 
instance, when Phillips corners corn or the mon- 
ey magnates bid Northern Pacific up to $1,000 
a share. It is for the enlightenment of this class 
of readers that the following " dictionary " of 
Wall Street terms is given here : 

Watering — To increase the quantity of a stock 
without improving its quality. 

Carrying — To hold a stock with the expecta- 
tion of an advance. 

Irish Dividend — An assessment upon stock- 

Tip — Private information in advance of the 
movement of a stock. 

Hunch — A tip based on one's instinct or im- 

Big Board — The New York Stock Exchange. 

On 'Change — The floor of the Stock Exchange. 

Bucketing — To execute orders in stocks with- 
out dealing on any regular exchange. 

Lamb — A new speculator without knowledge 
of the market or its methods. 

Bull — One who has bought stocks expecting 
an advance. 

Bear — One who has sold stocks and who gains 
by a decline. 

Short — One who has sold stocks for a decline. 

Long — To have bought for a rise. 

Loading- — To buy stocks heavily. 

Pool — The stock and money contributed by a 
clique to carry through a corner. 

Covering — Buying stock to satisfy a short sale 
on the day of delivery. 

Block — A number of shares bought or sold in 
a lump. 

Averaging — Buying or selling stocks on a 

Slump — A sudden decline in the price of 

Boom — The opposite of a slump. 

Bottom — The lowest point or price reached by 
a stock. 

Top — The highest quotation of a stock. 

Insider — One who causes a movement in the 
stock market. 

Scalping — Buying or selling stocks on slight 

Piker — A small speculator. 

Plunger — One who deals heavily in stocks, 
taking great risks. 

Blind Pool — A close corporation ; one which 
does not issue any statement of expenses or earn- 

Crazy Market — One which fluctuates violently 
without apparent reason. 

Collateral— Any security given in pawn when 
money is borrowed. 

Squeeze — A sudden movement of the market 
which forces the bulls or bears to close out their 
stocks at a loss. 

Bulge — The upward movement of a stock. 

Break — A sudden decline caused by a strin- 
gency in the money market. 

Unloading — To sell out stocks which have 
been carried for some time. 

Some men pay cash for every- 
thing they buy because they ivant 
to and others because they have to. 




Here is a suggestion pregnant with possibili- 
ties. It comes from far away southern Califor- 
nia, where at last reports the English sparrow 
has not yet begged for crumbs. 

There is nothing more delicious and strength- 
giving than good, strong sparrow broth. As the 
California writers say, the milk pitcher of the 
poor is not too often filled, and in case it be empty 
a sustaining substitute may be found for all 
weakly children past the nursing age in sparrow 
bouillon. This is neither visionary nor a joke. 
Thousands of sparrows daily pose as reed birds 
in the restaurants, and the epicure smacks his 
lips over them, and, even though his belief be 
not implicit, his palate is as well satisfied as 
though each little broiled bird bore an affidavit 
tag that it had been killed on the reed-grown 
stretches along the Potomac. The English spar- 
row is almost entirely grain fed. It eats a few 
insects at times, but this in no way injures either 
the flavor or the nutritious quality of its flesh. 
The woodcock, the king of game birds, as it is 
of table birds, lives wholly on worms and mi- 
nute, ground-haunting insects. It is practically 
as easy to catch a dozen sparrows as it is one. 
Make it two dozen and you have the main dinner 
meat dish for a family of four. 

Of course people can't live on sparrows, but 
they can enjoy a sparrow dinner twice a week 
without having the little birds' flesh pall on th£ 
appetite. The rich man eats them, and gets half 
a dozen of the broiled Britishers for his dinner 
and pays a dollar to have them served on square 
bits of toast. The poor certainly will not ob- 
ject when the way is pointed out to a twice-a- 
week feast fit for Lucullus. 

But this is only one side of the sparrow food 
question. The eggs are of great value. Boiled, 
poached or fried birds' eggs are a delicacy that 
the weakest system can take, retain and nourish 
itself upon. One may rob as many English spar- 
rows' nests as he pleases and be well within the 
pale of the law and know that while he is pilfer- 

ing the eggs he is doing both the State and his 
stomach a service. 

The English sparrow will lay eggs as indefati- 
gably as any buff Cochin or Brahma that was 
ever well housed or well fed for the sole purpose 
of making her lay eggs for the market. Mrs. 
Sparrow begins to nest in March. She will, un- 
der favorable circumstances, that is, circum- 
stances favorable to herself, raise three broods in 
a season. This is the reason why the birds are 
so numerous. When she lays her complement of 
eggs in March they may be taken after the last 
one is deposited, and, without much ado, she will 
straightway lay another set. She will keep this 
up practically indefinitely, but after she has sup- 
plied the table with a dozen or two fresh delica- 
cies it would be a good plan to let her sit and 
raise a brood as a reward of merit. 

It takes about six sparrows' eggs, so to speak, 
to make a hen's egg. One nestful will give a del- 
icate baby a nourishing meal. Now, unthinking 
objectors may say: "But the baby will want 
many meals and the neighbor's babies will want 
meals, too." 

Well and good. The sparrows are in number 
like the feathers in a million old-fashioned pil- 

Not long ago there was sold in an Albany, N. 
Y., market in a single consignment 3,800 of the 
little pests. They all went into potpies and the 
Empire State citizens who ate them, knowing 
they were sparrows, declared that the flavor was 
much better than that of reed birds. The birds 
are eaten every week by the hundreds in Chicago, 
the only difference between that city and Albany 
being that the restaurant-keepers in Chicago de- 
ceive their customers as to the nature of the bird, 
while the Albany bonifaces, knowing that no 
apology is necessary for the flavor of the flesh, 
say : " These be sparrows pure and simple." 

The 'Nookman has eaten sparrow potpie and 
can attest to its excellence. It takes a good many 
for one pie, but there are a good many to take 

There is a place for everything 
in this old zvorld, but few of us 
liave access to an index. 

• mat was 




The Home 




re add- 



Many a man's settled opinions 
arc due to the fact that his wife 
settled them. 



.. vagi 

of tie 
nd the 



at no 

A house is built of bricks and stones, of sills, and posts 
and piers; 

But a home is built of loving deeds .that stand a thou- 
sand years. 

A house though but an humble cot, within its walls may 

A home of priceless beauty, rich in love's eternal gold. 

The men of earth build houses— halls and chambers, 

roofs and domes — , 

But the women of the earth — God know'st the women 

build the homes. 
Eve could not stray from Paradise, for oh, no matter 

Her gracious presence lit the way, lo! Paradise was 

I. Martinsburg, Pa. 

*w V V 


with a straw. Arrange the apples on the plat- 
ter they are to be served in ; boil the syrup down 
and pour over the apples ; when cold, heap irreg- 
ularly with a meringue of the whites of four 
eggs, four heaping tablespoon fuls of pulverized 
sugar and the juice of a lemon. Sprinkle with 
chopped almonds and set in the oven on a board 
and brown quickly. Serve very cold, with a 
rich custard. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


Boil three sweet potatoes of medium size until 
done ; peel and squeeze through the patent veg- 
etable strainer, add a heaping tablespoonful of 
butter, salt and pepper to taste, and enough milk 
to make very soft. Put in a baking dish, dot it 
over with tiny bits of butter and bake until 
brown. Serve in the dish in which it is baked. 
If any is left over, remove the thin, brown skin, 
make the potato into small, flat cakes and brown 
on both sides in a little butter in a spider. 

T V V 


Three tablespoonfuls of pearl tapioca, cooked 
in boiling water till softened, and then boiled 
with one quart of milk and one small cupful of 
sugar. When boiled, stir this into the beaten 
yolks of four eggs. Flavor with vanilla and 
pour into pudding dish. Beat the whites of the 
eggs very stiff, add three tablespoonfuls of pow- 
dered sugar and a few drops of lemon juice. 
Place this over the pudding, dropping it off the 
end of a fork so that it does not go on smoothly. 
Grate some lemon rind over this and brown 
slightly in a quick oven, and you have a pretty 
and palatable dessert. ' 

■fr "ic 4? 

Peel and halve tart apples ; make a syrup of 
granulated sugar and water and put the apples 
m it, letting them cook until they can be pierced 

Oxe-half cupful of butter, one-half cupful of 
sugar, one-half cupful of milk, one-half cupful of 
flour, one cupful molasses, four eggs and one 
teaspoonful of soda ; mix the sugar and flour to- 
gether : add the molasses ; warm the butter in the 
milk, then add the eggs, which must have been 
well beaten ; lastly, put in one teaspoonful of so- 



da dissolved in a little hot water ; stir well togeth- 
er and bake half an hour in a buttered pudding 
dish. Serve hot with sauce. To make the 
sauce, beat the whites of two eggs and one-half 
cupful of powdered sugar to a stiff froth ; add a 
little wine or lemon juice. 

V V V 


Take three-quarters of a pound of flour and 
add to it six ounces of finely-shredded suet and a 
teaspoonful of baking powder. To this add six 
ounces of stoned raisins, and work all into a stiff 
dough with about a gill of tepid water. Have 
ready a large pan of fast-boiling water ; cut the 
paste into eight pieces, roll each into a dumpling 
6n a floured board. Throw in the dumplings 
one by one, let them boil sharply till they rise to 
the top of the water, after which it is necessary 
to keep them boiling briskly till served, which 
should be at the end of half an hour. Serve on a 
folded napkin, and eat with butter and brown 

* ♦ 4t 


So few cooks understand why vegetables 
should be cooked in boiling salted water ; why 
meat should be seared before roasting ; why ce- 
reals require long cooking; why yeast; soda, 
cream of tartar and baking powders are used to 
raise bread and cake batters. They do know if 
they combine certain ingredients, certain results 
follow, but they rarely comprehend that too 
much or too little material in a teaspoon or meas- 
uring cup will ruin the combination. A strug- 
gle lasting through months was needed, in one 
case, to teach a cook that bread made up over 
night required less yeast to raise it than bread 
stirred up in the morning and baked quickly. 
Another cook insisted that both soda and baking 
powder were necessary in cake making. 

The art of cooking and seasoning vegetables 
is a lost one, judging from the flat, tasteless 

messes often served even in pretentious houses. 
M eats are overdone, underdone or burned, and I 
fish is sometimes a watery horror or a fried night- ] 
mare, while cereals are lumpy or pasty and toast ' 
is scorched. How rare is a cup of good tea or ] 
coffee ! The first is boiled more often than 
steeped, while the second is muddy and rank in 
flavor. Now there is only one right way to cook, 
while there are countless wrong ways, and it J 
concerns the health of the nation that the right ' 
way should be taught, line upon line, precept up- 
on precept, in season and out of season. — Good 

+ * * 


In reference to the excellent and nut-like fla- 
vor of the acorns of the ilex, which the men of ' 
the Golden Age were supposed to have lived up- 
on, and which have none of the bitterness of the 
common oak's fruit, the writer is informed by 
one who has a wide knowledge of old Spain and 
especially of Don Quixote's country, that there is 
an oak there producing acorns two and one-half 
inches long of most admirable flavor. These are 
the acorns which Sancho Panza's wife sent to 
the duchess, as a specimen of the " natural com- 
modities " of her neighborhood. It is on these 
acorns that the pigs are fattened which supply 
the celebrated Spanish hams, said to be the very 
best product of the pig in any shape or country. 

T* V V 


Dissolve a lump of beeswax in a small quan- 
tity of sweet oil — over a candle — let it cool, and it 
will be ready for use. Rubbing it warm on the 
lips two or three times will effect a cure. 

"J? T T 

Ix the healing of burns and scalds, where 
there is danger of contracting scars, rub the new 
skin several times a day with good sweet oil. 
Persist in this rubbing until the skin is soft and 

Instead of occupying a place on 
the table the turkey gobbler sits in 
a chair. 

t:h::e xnsro-ijEnsrooic. 

. i: 


verybody's Magazine. New York. The Jan- 
iry number of Everybody's is before us and 
aintains its high standard of excellence. . It is 
' he equal of any of the ten-cent magazines and is 
ar and away ahead of some of them in literary 
lerit and mechanical beauty of execution, 
'here is an interesting article entitled " Li Hung 
hang on China's Future," and a most interest- 
lg contribution is found in a well-written de- 
cription of the People of the Farthest North. 
'he making of an Indian blanket is described 
nd the whole magazine is beautifully illustrated 
vhile the story of Miss Stone's capture by brig- 
nds will strike a sympathetic chord in every 
eader of the article. Everybody's is ten cents, 
nd is to be had at any news stand. 

'■'■::: ;> 

The Review of Rez lews, Xew York. This is 

|.he popular and always excellent compendium of 

bout all that has gone on in the world's progress 

orthy of mention. It is essentially a magazine 

;:ei. ; |Eor the library, the literary inclined, and the busy 

: ivorker who has not time to read the world's mag- 

;- izines, but who is interested in the trend of pub- 

K ic thought and movement. It is all in the Re- 

i. ;■-■ view of Reviews. Here are some of the articles : 

-. ;-s; ITie Great Isthmian Canal, Electric Trains Run- 

.:;.- ning over One Hundred Miles an Hour, The 

Good Roads Movement, A Tenement Settlement, 

and others of equal value, while the extracts from 

the periodical literature of the world are well 

taken and of enormous value to the man who 

would keep abreast with the current thought and 

action. The price is $2. 50 a year or 25 cents an 

issue. The man who would like to take all the 

magazines but who cannot, will find that the Re- 

view of Rei-iezi'S comes the nearest available thing 

to it. and we commend the magazine to the "Nook 



Country Life in America, Doubleday, Page and 
Co., Xew York. This is the high-class pictorial 
we have referred to in the 'Xook before this. 
Its price is S3.00 a year or 25 cents a copy, and it 
is worth it. The January number before us is 
a sectional issue, the " California Number," and 
is devoted exclusively to that State. As a State 
issue it is everything that can be expected, the 
half-tones are superb, the articles are well writ- 
ten and it hangs together well, but we venture the 

opinion that this thing of sectionalizing a maga- 
zine of national intent is not the best note that 
could be struck. The man in Maine is not so 
interested in a bunched-up account of a section 
remote from him as he is in well-selected mat- 
ters of interest pretty well scattered. The most 
interesting article in the magazine is an account 
of the almond industry. Our 'Nookers out on 
the coast will find the January issue of Country 
a good thing to buy for themselves, or their 
eastern friends, and our word for it, the publi- 
cation will be found one that is not likely to be 
thrown about carelessly or turned over to the 

The Arena. New York. Twenty-five cents a 
copy, or S 2 -5° a year. The January issue of this 
publication is before us, and it maintains its high 
standard of excellence. The Arena occupies 
high ground in the realms of sociological and 
metaphysical questions, and it is the scholarly and 
thoughtful man's magazine. Here are some of 
the articles : Anarchism, The English Friendly 
Societies, Race Reversion in America, The Work 
of Wives, and others of similar character and 
greater or less interest to the thinker. Those 
who run to this sort of intellectual feast will find 
in the Arena much that is of the highest and 
greatest interest to them. In the article on Race 
Reversion the author quotes Prof. Starr as fol- 
lows : " Prof. Starr has been among the Germans 
of Western Pennsylvania and he finds that these 
people, who for two hundred years have received 
no new admixture of foreign blood, either from 
those around them or from fresh accessions from 
Germany, show many instances of the Indian 
type." And the inference is that the residents 
of America will eventually become Indians in 
type. The writer of the article thinks the in- 
ference fallacious, and the 'Nook would like to " 
know in what particular part of Western Penn- 
sylvania the above condition is found. 

Here Is the only Student's 

Search Light Gasoline Vapor Lamp 

that has the patent double burner, giving 100 can- 
dle power light for 14 hours for 2}i cents, and with- 
out a single exception it is the best on the market 
to-day, all brass, nickel plated, and retails through 
the trade at $ We can buy it for you at $3.60. 
Cash with order. Guaranteed in every respect by 
the manufacturers. Through 
Fraternity Purchasing and Sales Departments, 
12 and 14 State Street. 3U3 Chicago, 111. 

Mention the INGLENOOK when writing. 

tihiie in^Ta-iHiiEiisrooiK:. 


Dr. A. Michael will send you FREE of charge his new book on 
Catarrh and its Treatment, which tells how to cure diseases of the 
Nose, Throat and Lungs at home. 
















Dr. A. Michael has perfected a mild, soothing treatment by which 
any one suffering from CATARRH or any disease of the Nose, 
Throat or Lungs can cure himself at home. If you are afflicted 
with any respiratory trouble, write the DOCTOR at once and tell 
him all about it. He will give you his consultation and advice FREE. 
He will send you his book and tell you what he can do for you. 


We, the undersigned, have been personally acquainted with Dr. A. 
Michael for a number of years, and Know him to be a responsible and 
trustworthy physician, of excellent ability, and thoroughly up-to- 
date, honorable in professional and business transactions. 

A.W. Ramsay, Editor Tribune. 

Ira M. O'Banion. Clerk Tipton Circuit Court. 

F. E. Davis, Cashier State Bank. 

James B Johns, Postmaster. 

W. P. Newhouse, Elder of Baptist Church. 

I Thank God Every Day. 

Dr. A. Michael, 

My Dear Friend: I tell you I thank God eve y day for 
sending me to you. You don't know how grateful I am; cannot ex- 
press it. If there is anything I can do to help you along I will be 
glad to do it for saving my life. I am getting so healthy; weigh more 
now than I ever did in my life. I never feel bad any more, which 
is very uncommon for me, as you know I was a continual sufferer 
for years before I took your treatment. I am a<3 ever, 

Your friend, Mrs. Rhoda Urbon. 
Berryville. Ark., Nov. 26, 1901. 

Helped Me Wonderfully. 

Dr. A. Michael, 

Dear Sir: I would just say the treatment has helped me 
wonderfully and I am glad I sent to'you for it. You may please send 
me another month's treatment. I want to continue until I am en- 
tirely well. Yours truly. Joseph Haines. 
Palestine, Ind., Sept. 22, 1901. 

WRITE TO-DAY for question blanks to 

A. MICHAEL, M. D., Rooms 19 to 22, Moore Block, 

»4 Mention the 1NGLENOOK when writing. 

Please Remember 


The Inglenook is the property of the Dunker 
Church and goes to its people. There are about 
100,000 Dunkers in the Country. This Magazine 
is the ONLY advertising medium through which to 
reach all of the above-mentioned people. 

S\ir»f»«»««f 111 »" Cu j>a-«>r(TheE g g) 

vJ VVtVOOl Ul Brooder (The Chick) 

They take care of them. Mails loaded with words of 

, - ^-^^ . 3 praise from chicken people. Our 

- gsj -Ttat c^iiil.^'iie turns the lime 
■' /. 1. '-^1 H liirht on the poultry business. Five 

= zS 1 SjJdiiTerent editions, five languages. 
{J English edition 4 cents,othersfree. 


^^m^-*>Box441Des Slolnes, lowu, or Br 

BuffM. , A. Y. AJd'tu 



Mention the INGLENOOK when writing. 

Always — 

All the news, without prejudice; 

The best general reading; 

The best market reports; 

The Great Paper of the Great West, 

The Kansas City Star 

By mail, postage prepaid, daily and Sunday, i year . . $4.00 
By mail, postage prepaid, daily and Sunday, 6 months, 2.00 

The Weekly Kansas City Star 

Postage prepaid, 25 cents a year. 

50 YEARS' 



Trade Marks 
Copyrights Ac 

Anyone sending a sketch and description may 
quickly ascertain our ooinion free whether an 
invention is probably patentable. Communica- 
tions strictly confidential. Handbook on Patents 
sent free. Oldest agency for securing patents- 
Patents taken through Munn & Co. receive 
special notice, without c harg e, in the 

Scientific American, 

A handsomely illustrated weekly. I.areest cir- 
culation of any scientific Journal. Terms. S3 a 
year, four months, fl. Soldbyall newsdealers. 

MUNN &Co. 361Broadwa '- New York 

Branch Office. 625 F St, Washington, D. C. 

OuLt Tliey 


We own 100,002 acres in eastern Morton, and other North Da- 
kota counties, where the greatest flood of land seekers are going. 
Rich, nutritious grasses, deep, black soil, pure water in springs, 
streams and wells, coal $1 per ton. 160 acre free homesteads adjoin- 

PRICE $4!* TO $7\, PER ACRE. 

We will sell in large or small tracts, splendid for stock raising 
or general farming. We want reliable Real Estate men to form 
colonies. Go now, don't wait until spring. 

"The Hustlers," Win. H. Brown * Co., Devils Lake, 
North Dakota, or 155 La Salle St., Chicago. 

Mention the 1KGLEN0OK when writing. 


A house or barn al- 
low us to furnish you 

a price on Hardware. Roofing. Paint, Glass, and other materials. 
Fraternity Purchasing and Sales Departments, 

12 and u State Street. Chicago, 111. 



Vol. IV. 

Jan. 25, 1902. 

No. 4. 


" And where is God? " the doubter asked. 

I do not see him anywhere — 
Behind what creature is he masked, 

In sea, on earth, in clouds, in air?" 

"And where is death?" the mourner sighed — 

"And yet I know that he is near; 
There lies my dearest friend that died — 

Nor voice nor footstep did I hear." 

" Where are violets?" asked the child — 

" 1 do not see them, yet I know, 
Although the winds are blowing wild, 
They are alive beneath the snow." 

— Maurice Francis Egan in Donahoe's. 
* + + 

The electric light is new and yet is so old that 
perhaps we do not appreciate its marvelous 
achievement. If we will but recall the condi- 
tions before it came we shall see what a wonder- 
ful advance it has been in the field of applied 
science. Its use in theaters, in stores, in show 
windows, in street illuminations, in private as 
well as in public, its application for lighting in all 
sorts of out-of-the-way corners, its divisibility 
into various degrees of power, its absolute safety 
so long as the wires are properly guarded, its per- 
fect sanitary qualities, the practical absence of 
heat and the entire absence of odor are things 
that make one feel that in the way of lighting we 
have come perhaps to the last discovery. 

Yet this light was shown in this country for 
the first time at the centennial exhibition — twen- 
ty-five years ago. And it is needless to say that 
those who saw it were skeptical of its practical 
use. Arc lighting was produced on a commer- 
cial basis in 1877, but the real beginning of elec- 
tric lighting in its modern aspects was with the 
opening of the Pearl street station of New York 
by Edison in September, 1882, where the Edison 
incandescent lamp was used. In the nineteen 

years since then, according to a careful tabulation 
made by the Electrical Rcviczv, the investment in 
electric lighting plants in this country alone has 
reached the sum of $700,000,000. This wonderful 
industry has been established in this short time and 
we must now remember in the face of the organized 
and long-established competition of gas illumina- 
tion, a powerful and rich interest which until 
the adoption of electric light occupied the whole 
field for the best kind of lighting. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

" Did you ever think how little attention you 
pay to the possibility of counterfeits in making 
change?" asked an old bank teller of a friend. 
"And did you ever think that most of the atten- 
tion that is paid to it by the public is so much 
waste effort? 

" But it is a fact You never think when the 
street car conductor puts the change from a quar- 
ter in your hand that both dimes may be counter- 
feit. You take $1, $2, $5, and $10 bills from any- 
body in change without ever a thought as to their 
genuineness. But if a stranger tries to pass a 
$20 bill on you you begin to get shaky, while a 
$50 or $100 bill is almost impossible to be rid of 
in a street of small shops. 

" Yet you could hardly hire a counterfeiter to 
try to make and pass bills above $10 in value. If 
a stranger should come into your place of busi- 
ness and ask change for a $50 bill, it would 
scare you badly for fear of a counterfeit, whereas 
the chances would be 999 V^ in 1,000 that the bill 
was good. 

" You noticed the other day, on the other hand, 
that the United States government was much con- 
cerned over the counterfeit one-cent pieces that 
are now flooding Chicago. Yet you never looked 
at the genuineness of a one-cent piece in vour 


thiie nsra-iLiEitsrooiEc. 


Three days before the ceremony the bride- 
elect retires from the society of family and 
friends, and gives her attention wholly to fitting 
herself spiritually for the station she is about to 

The rabbi of the district is her only counselor, 
and much time is spent in prayer. On the Satur- 
day preceding the nuptials friends and relatives 
of both principals attend a special service in the 
synagogue and long prayers are offered for the 
guidance of the young people. 

If the family of the groom can afford it a hall 
large enough to hold every relative and friend of 
the bride and groom is rented. At the wedding 
feast a plate is laid for every friend, for it would 
be an ill-omen should they in their happiness — 
the bridal couple- — neglect to make everyone who 
loved them happy.- 

The guests, clad in their brightest and best, 
usually assemble in an ante-room, and at the ap- 
pointed hour the doors of the main hall are 
thrown open and to a lively march by an orches- 
tra stationed at the north end of the room the 
guests file in. Two long tables, loaded with the 
bridal feast, are arranged parallel with the east 
and west walls. There is a chair for each guest, 
and place is assigned to him by ushers. 

The wide center-space between the tables is 
for the time clear. Later it is used in the cere- 

At the northwest corner of the room is a 
small table. On its white cloth rests the holy 
scroll, a book of prayers and a bottle of wine. 

At a signal the orchestra starts the wedding 
march, and every guest stands silent by his chair, 
the women uncovered, the men with hats on. 

In front of the bridal party walks the chief 
rabbi, clad in black clothing, black tie and high, 
black silk hat. Directly behind him are the cler- 
ical assistants, the senior wearing a black derby 
hat, the junior, black felt. 

The groom comes next, leaning on the arms of 
his father and his bride's father. 

The men are dressed in regulation street at- 
tire, with hats of any description. The groom's 
tie is white, and in the buttonhole of his black 
sack coat is a small white flower. 

Behind the men are the women. The bride's 
dress is usually white, though delicate colors are 
permissible. A bridal veil, caught at the crown, 
extends to her feet. Leading her are her mother 
and the mother of the groom. 

These elderly women wear black dresses of the 
plainest design. On their heads, wholly conceal- 
ing the hair, are bound large silk handkerchiefs. 

This custom of concealing the hair, almost ob- 
solete in America, is held sacred among the or- 
thodox Hebrews of the old world. A married 
woman must not show her real hair to any man 
other than her husband. 

The custom was first modified in America, 
false hair being substituted for kerchiefs. 

In the orthodox Hebrew colony, many eld- 
erly women wear false hair in public, and a few 
may be seen with kerchiefs, which are always 
worn by the mothers of principals at a wedding. 

After the bride come the three official wit- 
nesses to the wedding. 

The rabbis lead the way to the small table in 
the corner of the hall. The witnesses stand fif- 
teen or twenty feet away during the preliminary 
ceremony that follows. 

The chief rabbi seats himself at the head of 
the table, the ushers stand behind his chair. 

At the rabbi's left the bride is seated. At her 
left the groom. Directly opposite her is her 
mother, and his mother is his vis-a-vis. At his 
left is his father, at the end of the table, facing 
the rabbi, and her father sits to right of the 
groom's mother, also at the end. 

Music ceases when the bridal party is seated. 

At the first note of the rabbi's voice raised in a 
chant, the bride bursts into tears, and from then 
on sobs continually until the ceremony is complet- 

As a rule her expressions of grief could not be 
greater at the funeral of a beloved one. 

" She is parting from home and parents, and 
it tears the heart of all good girls," explains a 
venerable Hebrew. 

And she is alone in her weeping. The moth- 
ers sit stolidly opposite her, apparently more in- 
terested in the chant of the clergyman than the 
audible sobs of the girl. 

Her friends at the table are equally unmoved, 
and the groom is apparently untouched. 

this iisra-LiEiisrooiK:. 


All brides cry, and these guests would be sur- 
prised if she did not. 

The rabbi suddenly ceases his chant, and in a 
high-pitched voice reads excerpts from the law 
of Moses. , 

He next turns to the bride and in Hebrew asks 
her if she realizes the step she is about to take, 
its cares, sufferings and responsibilities. 

She nods. 

"Are you then willing to be wife of this man 
before man and God ? " 

Again she nods. 

The man is then questioned and his replies are 
clear and loud enough to be heard over the room. 

The rabbi opens the wine and pours a small 
glassful. Touching it to his own lips, he hands 
it to the bride with a command to drink. 

She sips it, passes it to the groom, and he to 
the fathers, and they to the mothers. When it 
again reaches the rabbi it is empty. He hands 
it to the groom. 

" Break," he says. 
. The groom crushes it under his left heel. This 
signifies that all past ties are broken and that the 
last cup with his family has been drained. 

Again, as the bridal party rises to its feet, a 
number of elected friends march from an ante- 
room bearing aloft a wide canopy, stretched be- 
tween four eagle-mounted supports. 

At the center of the hall, between the long ta- 
bles, they halt. 

The bridal party in the original order meets 
them. The bride and groom with the officiating 
rabbis pass under the canopy, the mothers and 
fathers stand without, the former near the girl. 
Here a short prayer is offered by an assistant 
rabbi for the repose of souls of departed rela- 
tives. While this is being chanted, guests light 
small candles and hold them aloft, while the hall's 
lights are dimmed. 

This is the most impressive moment of the cer- 
emony. Through the semi-darkness and above 
the weird drone of the clergyman's voice, is dis- 
tinctly heard the pathetic sobbing of the bride. 

Usually a mother has to support her in this try- 
ing ordeal. 

Then comes a sharp command from the chief 
rabbi. The bridal party forms into single file, 
and to loud sonorous chanting march seven times 
around the canopy, led by the rabbi as Joshua led 
the armies of Israel seven times around the walls 
of Jericho. 

Just as the walls of that ancient city fell, and 
the children of God were blessed with victory, 
sin and all evil influences fall away from these 
two and they will triumph over adversity, spir- 
itual and material. 

When the march is ended, the principals, with 
faces to the east, stand side by side before the 
minister. He reads again from the law. 

Then the marriage contract translated into He- 
brew is read. 

Again he asks the young couple if they are 
desirous to walk before God as man and wife. 

" So be it," he says, and places a wide, gold 
band on the index finger of the bride's right 
hand. Another chant, the lights flare up and 
there is a rush for bride's kisses, which are given 
without discrimination to sex. 
♦ ♦ ♦ 

The first six months of matri- 
mony is novelty — the rest of it is 


•f. 4. 4. 


At the present time there are seven self-pro- 
pelling fire engines in the country. Those in the 
Boston (Mass.) department have been in service 
since 1897, and have proved of great value. Each 
weighs nearly nine tons, but are easier to handle 
than those drawn by horses. They answer 
alarms, and are much better hill climbers than 
the horse engines. The largest size engines 
throw an average of 870 gallons a minute, about 
twice the amount of water thrown by the average 
horse engine. — Pittsburg Dispatch. 

The mote seen in another eye is 
often the miniature reflection of the 
beam in our own. 

7 6 



Building a locomotive in a day at one estab- 
lishment from the raw material to the completed 
engine ready to couple up to a train of cars, is 
a feat that few people, if they stop to think about 
it, will regard as being within the possibilities. 
Nevertheless, it is a fact. 

When specifications for a locomotive are re- 
ceived at the works they go first to the general 
office and then to the drafting room, where the 
drawings are made and white prints prepared 
of all the details for distribution to the various 
shops where the different parts are manufactured. 
In the drafting room there is also kept a set of 
index books, which refer to the drawings, so that 
in case at any time a part is called for the original 
detail drawing can at once be had and the part 

In going into the works the first shop visited 
was that devoted to preparing the sheet iron 
sheathing for the boilers, and though this is one 
of the last things used in erecting a locomotive, 
partaking as it does more of the ornamental than 
the useful, it is difficult in works of large mag- 
nitude, where everything goes on together, to 
say where the actual work of making a locomo- 
tive begins. In order, however, to get as near 
to what may be regarded as the beginning as the 
conditions will admit of, it may be well to depart 
from the order in which the shops were visited 
and take up the foundry next. 

This is a very large room, a whole square in 
length, and here they begin with the raw mate- 
rial. A cupola is situated in a yard just outside 
the shop into which the pig iron is put with coal 
and the other ingredients and the resultant 
molten iron is run off through an orifice, called an 
eye, which opens into the shop, into large bucket- 
like ladles. These are attached to traveling 
cranes that convey them to any part of the shop, 
where the iron is poured into molds that have 
been prepared for it, and the castings are made. 
The principal castings made here, although there 
are innumerable small ones made also, are cylin- 
ders and cast-iron driving wheels, the steel driv- 
ing wheels being purchased outside. In casting 
the wheels the molten metal is poured in at the 
center, where the hub is, and over this a man 
stands, constantly stirring the metal with a rod, 

this being done because the metal in running 
into the spokes has a tendency to draw away 
from and weaken the hub; by constantly agitat- 
ing it at this point this undesirable result is 
avoided. # 

The wheels, after being carefully cleaned, 
are taken to the wheel shop, where they are first 
prepared for forcing them on the axles. This 
is done by placing them on rotating tables, where 
the hubs are faced and bored out with great ac- 
curacy and a key-way slotted in. The axles, 
which are being turned and finished at the same 
time, have a diameter exceeding that of the hub 
by three-thousandths of an inch to inch of axle 
diameter. When both are ready, the axle, after 
being coated with a lubricant, which is also used 
in the hub, is hung between the uprights of the 
hydraulic press, and first one wheel and then the 
other forced on. The wheels are then placed in 
a turning lathe and turned up to receive the tires, 
which are made of steel, having great tensile 
strength. These are shrunk on, that is, they are 
heated just enough to produce a sufficient ex- 
pansion to allow them to go on the wheel easily, 
and when on they are subjected to a stream of 
cold water, which shrinks and binds them upon 
the wheel. The crank pins are then inserted and 
the wheels are ready for use. 

The cylinders, like the wheels, are thoroughly 
cleaned before they leave the foundry. They are 
then taken to the cylinder finishing shop, which 
is provided with a traveling crane that runs its 
whole length, and put through the various pro- 
cesses that complete them. 

Now comes the boiler shop. In making boilers 
steel plate is used. It is received at the works in 
various sizes and thicknesses, some plates being 
over twenty feet long; this length is necessary 
to form the ring for the large boilers. They are 
first made ready for drilling and punching. 
This is done by placing them on a table and 
marking on them in accordance with the detail 
plan the places where holes are to be made. 
They are then taken to the drilling or punching 
machines by means of an overhead traveling 
crane, which is made possible by using separate 
electric motors to drive the machines, thus re- 
lieving the shops of shafting and belting. The 
holes are punched or drilled while the plates are 
still flat. 



Some of these machines are capable of drilling 
five or more plates at the same time. Where this 
is done the plates that are intended for the barrel 
of the boiler are conveyed to the bending ma- 
chines. These consist of three rolls, operated by 
electric motors so arranged that they can be ad- 
justed to bending the plates to any required diam- 
eter. While this is going on the plates requiring 
flanges are taken to the flanging shop, which is 
equipped with a hydraulic press that can exert a 
maximum pressure of 365 tons. The plates are 
here first heated in a large furnace. They are 
then placed on a suitable form clamped to the 
lower table of the press, a corresponding form 
having been clamped to the under side of the up- 
per table. The lower table is then raised by hy- 
draulic power and the entire flange made at one 
heat.. When the flanges are of odd shapes or 
there are no dies to form them they are made by 

The bending and flanging having been done the 
plates are assembled for riveting. This is done 
by hydraulic riveters which are practically noise- 
less. When this is finished the boiler is in sev- 
eral parts. These are now hoisted to the second 
floor, where they are riveted together and the 
boiler completed, after which it is sent to the 
erecting shop. 

A very interesting department is that devoted 
to brass work. To this there is a foundry at- 
tached where the brass is cast into the numerous 
contrivances in this metal that are used in the 
construction of a locomotive. These are then 
taken to the finishing shop and completed by a 
forest of machines adapted to the various cast- 

The connecting rods are made in a shop set 
aside for that purpose. They are made of ham- 
mered steel and the machines devoted to their 
manufacture are principally planers and milling 
machines. The steel is purchased outside and 

finished up in the shop. This is also the case in 
the bolt shop, the bolts being bought in the rough 
and then turned up and threaded as desired. 

The frame shop is a very important and inter- 
esting one. Here the frame upon which the boiler 
rests and by which it is suspended upon the 
wheels is constructed. Both wrought iron and 
cast steel frames are used ; but the former are 
not made in the works. In forging the wrought 
iron frames small pieces of selected wrought iron 
scrap are first welded into thin slabs, a number 
of these are then welded together and gradually 
worked into a frame. The process is quite a 
lengthy one and requires considerable skill on 
the part of the men engaged in it. 

When the frames are finished in the rough they 
are taken to enormous planers which are capable 
of working on a pair of frames, at the same time 
they make a continuous cut from one end to the 
other. After this they go to immense slotting 
machines which, if necessary, can handle eight 
at a time, and then to the drilling room, where 
they are practically completed. 

When all the parts of a locomotive are com- 
plete they are sent, as stated before, to the erect- 
ing shop. Here there are. two 100-ton cranes, 
which can pick up and carry about the heaviest 
engines that ever were built, and two fifty-ton 
cranes. The cylinders and frame are first put 
in position and supported on jacks ; then the 
boiler is brought in and swung into position by 
one of the big cranes. After this the necessary 
bolting of the parts together takes place, and the 
attaching of the guides, guide boxes, rocker box- 
es, reverse shaft and other similar work, which 
varies more or less with every engine put out, is 
done. One of the big cranes then lifts up the 
whole structure while the wheels are being placed 
under it and lowers it upon them. The sheath- 
ing and other finishing work follows, and we see 
that which was but a few days before only crude 
material transformed into a complete locomotive. 

Some men are unable to obtain 
credit because they are unknown, 
and some others because they are 




'Nookers will be interested in the following 
account of the Mafia, pronounced " Moffea," so- 
ciety of Sicily : 

One of the most curious and regrettable 
features of modern Sicilian life and a source of 
constant anxiety to the Italian government is 
the organization known as the Mafia, a society 
whose history is written in blood. Much has al- 
ready been written about the society and many 
theories, some of them more or less fantastic, 
have been advanced as to its character, causes 
and purposes, but a great deal of light has been 
shed upon it by a book recently published at 
Palermo that has fallen under the displeasure of 
the authorities, but has nevertheless obtained a 
limited European circulation. 

The origin of the Mafia is by no means ancient. 
It dates no further back than the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. The causes to which it is 
due are probably the centuries of misgovernment 
to which Sicily has been subjected and, above all, 
to the infamous police systems of the Bourbons. 
The Sicilian has acquired in consequence an in- 
born hatred of all government, and he regards 
any interference of the authorities in his private 
affairs with jealousy and distrust. His charac- 
ter is the exaggeration of individuality. All pri- 
vate differences should be settled privately, either 
in fair fight or by murder ; no man is in his eyes 
so vile as he who calls in the help of the authori- 
ties for any purpose whatsoever. He is no " man 
of honor," but a cassittuni (spy). 

The Mafia is unlike any other known institu- 
tion. It is not a secret society, political or other- 
wise ; it has no fixed rules or statutes ; its objects 
are not necessarily criminal. It is a sort of vast 
mutual help association, to which an indefinite 
number of Sicilians belong. Its aim is to gain 
influence by every rgeans so as to promote the 
interests of its members. It assumes many dif- 
ferent forms and has no generally recognized 
leaders. It often has recourse to bloodshed and 
violence for purposes of terrorizing, of getting 
money, or of revenge. Its effect is to produce an 
appalling state of moral anarchy and lawlessness. 
It is distributed unequally over the island, and, 
as Signor Cutrera shows by a map, it does not 
by any means flourish least in the richest parts 

of the country. There are three main divisions 
of the Mafia: — the Mafia of Palermo, the Mafia of 
the district round Palermo and the Mafia of the 
provinces. Palermo is the chief center of the 
institution and the residence of most of the pezzi 
grossi, or leaders. The youth who aspires to 
Mafia honors begins as a ricottaro, which means 
a man who lives on the illicit earnings of unfor- 
tunate women. Among the ricottari are men of 
the upper bourgeoisc — idle students and smart 
" men about town " — as well as members of the 
lower orders. They are arrogant, insolent and 
ready with the knife and the revolver. They act 
as the official claque in the theatres and are com- 
monly used as electioneering agents. The higher 
members of the Mafia are often men of civic and 
political importance. Their houses are like gov- 
ernment offices. They are constantly busy with 
secretaries, agents, etc. Their halls are filled 
with all manner of people waiting for an audience 
to ask some favor — letters of recommendation, 
legal advice, the removal of some obnoxious offi- 
cial, pressure on the judges in a lawsuit, and 
so on. The " capi-mafia " are not paid for their 
services, but by this means they acquire influ- 
ence and power among all classes. At election 
time their services are invaluable and the candi- 
date who has the Mafia on his side is almost sure 
to be returned, whatever his political views are. 

The Mafia in the " Conca d'Oro " is respon- 
sible for more deeds of violence than the other 
sections. This proves that the institution is nei- 
ther attributable to poverty nor to the latifondi 
(large landed properties), as this region is the 
richest in Sicily, and that in which property is 
most subdivided into small holdings. The or- 
ange and lemon groves necessitate a large num- 
ber of watchmen if fruit stealing and damage to 
the trees are to be prevented. But the only way 
to protect one's property effectively is to come 
to terms with the Mafia, accept its nominees as 
watchmen, and pay it a toll. Otherwise every 
night thousands of oranges and lemons will dis- 
appear, trees will be mutilated, and the landlord, 
if he disregards these warnings, will probably be 
shot from behind a garden wall. 

In the provinces the Mafia has a somewhat 
similar character, but it devotes itself chiefly to 
vineyards and cattle. Here, again, the landlord 
or his middleman have the choice of having their 

the iisra-iLjEisrooic. 


property protected by " mafiosi " or of being 
robbed and perbaps murdered. But in the coun- 
try the brigands are responsible for most of the 
crimes which are committed. They are by no 
means identified with the Mafia, and act indepen- 
dently of it. But often brigands and " mafiosi ' 
are on friendly terms, and help each other out of 

Although, as stated, the Mafia is not a regular 
uniform association, within its pale minor asso- 
ciations for criminal purposes have often been 
formed, generally for some particular object. 
The history of these societies is a record of 
treachery, murder, abduction and extortion. 
Sometimes whole families and clans have been 
wiped out. But one of the peculiarities of these 
crimes is that the victims are usually themselves 
members of the Mafia, or at least they have had 
dealings with it. Foreigners, among whom 
Italians from the mainland are included, may 
travel all over Sicily in perfect safety. In fact, 
should they happen to be robbed by common 
thieves they will probably find an application to 
a " capo-mafia " more profitable than the help of 
the police. 

Sig. Cutrera describes some of the curious 
ceremonies and customs of the " mafiosi." When 
a man wishes to enter one of the inner brother- 
hoods of the Mafia he is brought into a room 
where several chiefs are gathered. On a table 
there is a lighted candle and a picture of a 
saint. The neophyte's thumb is pricked and the 
blood is made to drop on the image. He places 
his hand on the latter and swears fealty to the 
brotherhood. The image is then burned and he 
adds : " As this saint and these drops of blood 
are burned, so do I swear to shed all my blood 
for the brotherhood ; and as these ashes and this 
blood can never return to their former state, so 
can I never quit the brotherhood." Possibly in 
this burning of the image there may have been 
originally some idea of desecrating it. The for- 
mula of recognition among members of these 
associations is usually as follows ; " How my 
eye tooth aches ! " " How long has it been ach- 
ing?" "Since Candlemas" (the date of the 
initiation). "Who was there?" "A., B., C, 
etc., who received me as a brother." 

These associations have given rise to many 
sensational trials, but the authorities have always 

found it very difficult to bring the guilt home 
to the real culprits, because of the feeling of 
" onesta," which makes evidence almost impossi- 
ble to obtain, and because the whole machinery of 
the Mafia is set in motion to put pressure on 
judges, jury, counsel, police and witnesses in 
favor of the accused. Moreover, the Mafia ob- 
tained a considerable influence with the govern- 
ment by aiding it in the revolution of i860. The 
only hope for its final suppression lies in better 
education, combined with the strictest penal laws. 
4. 4. 4, 

Women laugh oftener from a 
sense of duty than from a sense 
of humor. 

♦ 4> ♦ 


The black handkerchief which the sailor of the 
English navy knots around his throat was first 
worn as mourning for Nelson, and has ever since 
been retained, while the bright stripes around the 
broad blue collar of the sailor's jumper commem- 
orate the victories of Trafalgar, Copenhagen and 
the Nile. The broad blue collar itself is older 
than Nelson and was first adopted at that period 
when sailors plastered their hair into a stiff pig- 
tail with grease and powder. 
t + + 
Many a man's popularity is due 
to the fact that he doesn't think out 


4, 4. 4, 


It is estimated that of the United States paper 

money outstanding more than $10,000,000 has 

been lost or destroyed and will never be presented 

for redemption. 

4, 4. 4. 

Man proposes — and woman sel- 
dom refuses. 

4, 4. 4. 


The King of England is an excellent boot- 
maker, the trade which he was taught by the wish 
of the Prince Consort, who had all his children 
taught some trade. 


thiie iisra-XjEisrooK:. 


Time was when the indigent young European 
who wanted to pick up some of the gold in the 
streets of American cities and had not even the 
price of steerage passage had a habit of making 
a "stowaway" of himself in the hold of a steamer, 
working his passage after he turned up on the 
outward trip and calmly walking ashore in New 
York, Boston or Philadelphia. They don't do 
that any more. The " stowaway " who is found 
in a steamer nowadays is locked up until the ship 
makes her return trip, taken back to the country 
from which he sailed, and usually sent to jail a 
month or two to work out the price of his "keep" 
on board the steamer. The cause of the change 
is the enactment of a law by the United States 
classing stowaways among the " undesirable " cit- 
izens, such as paupers, imbeciles and others likely 
to become public charges, and requiring the 
steamer which brings them over to haul them 
back again. Where the shoe pinches is that a 
fine of $1,000 is imposed for each stowaway who 
gets ashore, provided the fact is discovered. 
Therefore things are worse than ever for the 
stowaway in these times, and besides running the 
risk of starving to death in the hold or where- 
ever he has stowed himself he is very likely to be 
worked half to death in the fireroom of the ship, 
taken back home and thrown into jail. 

It would seem at first that a man or boy willing 
to take the desperate chance of concealment on 
an Atlantic liner, with the uncertainty, if he is 
successful in eluding the vigilance of the ship's 
officers, that it can only be done at the cost of 
keeping himself hidden and of suffering the 
pangs of hunger and thirst for several days, 
must have some of the " get-up-and-get " element 
in him and a certain amount of " grit " that 
would make him a valuable contribution to a 
country where grit and muscle were needed. 

Unfortunately there are very few countries 
now where men are not the very cheapest of 
commodities and the workers barely in demand, 
so that such a form of immigration cannot be en- 
couraged, and the United States have long since 
ruled out these stowaways as of the " undesira- 
ble " class. 

In the case of vessels leaving Liverpool there is 
little chance of disembarking stowaways when 

once out of the river, and it often happens that 
the presence of an able-bodied stowaway is not 
so much a matter of worry as it might be. At 
any rate, unless the vessel is due at Oueenstown 
it is not easy to put a stowaway ashore, and he is 
therefore tolerated on board or relegated to the 
fireroom to assist in passing coal or other con- 
genial employment. 

Years ago the captain of the Boston-bound 
Leyland line steamer finding six stowaways on 
board off the coast of Ireland promptly sent them 
over the side into one of the ship's boats, in 
which they were taken to the shore, and landed 
somewhere many miles from human habitation 
to make the best of their way home again. 

But this does not often happen. Generally 
they get to Boston, are promptly re-embarked on 
a homeward-bound steamer if possible and land 
in Liverpool with the prospect of a two months' 
sentence in jail for their escapade. 

One skipper of an old-time Leyland boat, be- 
fore the days of the rigid United States 
laws governing such undesirable immigrants, 
brought in stowaways. By way of revenge 
on his undesirables the captain shaved one side 
of their scalps and brought them into the dock 
at Boston astride of the ship's main boom. Then 
he let them loose, a proceeding which under the 
present laws would have cost the captain or 
owners of the steamer about $ 1,000 for each 
" passenger." 

It is not easy to blame the captains of vessels 
for feeling a little sore on the question of stow- 
aways. Until the recent law governing the mat- 
ter of such alien undesirables a skipper was re- 
sponsible for the return of these to the port 
whence they sailed. 

It was obviously hard for the captain to im- 
prison a British subject on a British vessel for 
what was technically not an offense under the 
law governing his position. And, indeed, it 
was almost impossible to detain some slippery 
customers. A case in point was that of Captain 
Manley of the " Borderer," a vessel well known 
to Boston ten years ago, who brought to that 
port an elusive stowaway who had made more 
than one attempt to land there and had been 
thwarted in his efforts. 

He was detained on the ship, but soon managed 
to elude his keepers and got ashore. Visions of 



a tine of S 1,000 hung around the ship and its cap- 
tain, but fortunately the fugitive was caught and 
brought on board again. For safer keeping Cap- 
tain Manley locked him in a stateroom, and then, 
feeling that all was safe, at last dismissed the 
subject from his mind. 

Returning to his ship the same evening from 
a visit to Boston, Captain Manley was attracted 
by a crowd in City Square, Charlestown, and on 
going to the spot found his stowaway the center 
of a crowd, whom he was entertaining with a 
song and dance act. 

The captain immediately recaptured his pris- 
oner — possibly illegally — and took him to the 
vessel, where to the surprise of the captain and 
steward, who had the prisoner in charge, it was 
discovered that the door was still locked and that 
the stowaway must have escaped through the 
port. And this he had done, being remarkably 
thin. though the space would be more than cov- 
ered by an ordinary dinner plate. 

After that it became necessary to put the slip- 
pery customer in irons. But here a dilemma 
arose. There were no irons on board small 
enough to hold the prisoner. At last a handcuff 
was placed on his legs and thus fettered he re- 
mained till the " Borderer " left for London. 

Such a course of treatment would not be nec- 
essary at the present day. Alien stowaways are 
taken in charge by the Boston harbor police, held 
at the ship's cost at a charge of $1 per day and 
transportation and then returned to the vessel on 
the day of departure. 

But all these things entail worry and cost and 

'it is not hard to understand why stowaways do 

not readily excite pity in the minds of the captain 

and officers or the owners of trans-Atlantic 


It takes a lot of nerve to " stowaway " under 
the best of circumstances. The crew of most 
steamers, knowing the antipathy in which this 
class of passengers is held by owners and offi- 
cers, lose no opportunity of routing them out and 
throwing them off the ship if they are discovered 

before she leaves port, just as freight brakemen 
throw the tramps off the cars. If the stowaway 
succeeds in eluding the vigilant eyes of the crew 
he has still the problem of eating to face, for it 
is usually difficult to take more than a small bit 
of provisions into the small space in which he is 
obliged to stow himself. 

It has more than once happened that a stow- 
away has taken too many chances. Two of them 
hid in the hold of an Atlantic liner, and were 
secured with the rest of the cargo. When the 
East Boston longshoremen opened the hatches 
and prepared to unload the cargo they were hor- 
rified to find the two bodies of the hapless stow- 
aways, who, though less than fifty feet from their 
fellow-men, had been slowly starved to death. 
One of them was dead, the other, a mere skeleton, 
had somehow kept alive by sucking the moisture 
off the rusty sides of the hold and by the utmost 
care and attention he was nursed back to life. 

Still another crept into the hold of a steamer, 
ignorant of his dangerous position, and was 
buried alive in the mass of grain that rushed into 
the hold from the elevator. His body was not 
discovered until the ship reached Liverpool. 

The late Captain Matthew Fitt of the " Vir- 
ginian " discovered a little boy stowaway who 
had lived in the ship's dog kennel for several 
days. The little fellow was well taken care of 
and is now a well-to-do citizen of Waltham, 

However, there are stowaways and stowaways. 
There are a large number of American citizens 
who go over as cattle punchers, feeders of cattle, 
and who either lose or sell their return ticket. 

Of course, severe penalties are threatened 
thosewho transfer their return tickets fraudulent- 
ly to another, but the fact remains that it is often 
done, though the transaction cannot easily be 
proved. Then the individual who has lost or 
sold his certificate finds his way to his old ship 
or some other, keeps out of the way till the ves- 
sel is fairly at sea, and turns up with all the 
sangfroid imaginable. 

Many a man has a good appetite 
and nothing to eat, while others 
have plenty to eat but no appetite. 






There is one animal which lives entirely in 
trees, but is able to maintain its position during 
slumber without the least exercise of muscular 
force. This is the sloth, common in the forests 
of tropical America. Its long claws are so bent 
that they hook over the branches and allow the 
creature to hang upside down like an animated 
hammock. Curiously enough, the hammock ap- 
pears to be a South American invention, and is 
universally employed by all the Indian tribes of 
the Amazons. Perhaps the primitive human 
dwellers in this region took to sleeping in ham- 
mocks after observing the habits of the sloth. 

The great ant-eater, which is both a kinsman 
and fellow-countryman of the sloth, has an enor- 
mous tail which it uses in a very remarkable man- 
ner. I recently saw two of these animals lying 
together asleep, and they had arranged their tails 
so cleverly that their whole bodies were hidden 
from view. Moreover it was evident that this 
caudal coverlet would afford excellent protection 
from the weather, for the central solid part of the 
tails acted as a kind of ridge-pole over the high- 
est part of the sleepers' bodies, so that the long 
fringes of hair sloped downward on each side 
like the thatch upon a roof. 

Like the sloths, many kinds of bats sleep sus- 
pended by their hooked claws without any mus- 
cular exertion whatever. Some of the large 
fruit-eating bats of the tropics, which do not 
sleep in holes like the species common in southern 
latitudes, but which hang suspended to the 
branches of trees in the open air, adopt a position 
which it would be difficult to beat for economy 
and comfort. Gould's fruit-eating bat, common 
to the warmer parts of Australia, suspends itself 
upside down by one hind foot, and wraps its body 
in the tent-like folds of its wing membranes 
which extend right down to the ankles. Its 
shoulders, to which the membrane is attached, 
are humped up so as to act as eaves to shoot off 
the rain, and when asleep it draws its head under 

their shelter and nestles its nose under the warm 
fur of its chest, 

■b * + 


Consul-General Stowe writes from Cape 
Town that for the past fifteen years ostrich farm- 
ing in Cape Colony has been a highly-successful 
industry. In the pa"3t ten years ending in 1899, 
before the beginning of the war, the number of 
birds increased from 115,000 to 261,000. Twen- 
ty-five years ago the statistics of Cape Colony 
said that there were only ten tame ostriches in 
the colony. 

The birds each yield about a pound and a half 
of feathers every year, the average value being 
about $12 a pound. The finest feathers, of 
course, are the wing feathers of the male bird, 
which are long and white and bring from $50 to 
$70 a pound. It takes eighty of them to make a 
pound. The wing feathers of the female ostrich 
are much lower in value because they are always 
gray. The supply was much smaller when it 
came wholly from wild birds, and the best quali- 
ty of feathers frequently brought as much as 
$135 a pound. As each male bird yields only 
twelve or fifteen of these feathers and as there" 
is always a steady demand for them the price is 
not likely to fall much until the ostrich farming 
industry becomes larger than it is now. 

Twenty years ago almost all the feathers that 
came into the markets were from the wild birds, 
most of them from North Africa. Now, howev- 
er, a New York dealer in feathers says that not 
more than one per cent of the feathers are from 
wild birds. The business in South Africa, which 
is the source of nearly all the supply, is now cen- 
tered in the hands of men of considerable capital, 
who raise the birds in the sandy, dry bushland 
northeast of Cape Town. In the early days of 
the industry many small farmers engaged in the 
business, but they were largely forced out of it 
in the years of experimentation when the industry 



was subject to many vicissitudes, and they have 
not gone into it since then. 

Formerly wild ostriches were killed to get their 
feathers, which were obtained by plucking them 
from the dead animals. Now the crop is gath- 
ered about once in every eight months by cutting 

the feathers from the birds. 

t ♦ ♦ 



I have considerable respect for the female 
spider, writes Dr. M. L. Holbrook, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that she does not treat the male very 
considerately. I had an opportunity last sum- 
mer to watch a large one that had a web in the 
top of a decaying peach tree with so few leaves 
that it was in plain view. I caught sight of her 
first when watching some birds with my glass. 
She seemed to be climbing from the top of the 
tree on nothing, to a telephone wire some fifteen 
feet away and somewhat higher than her web. 
When she reached the wire she went around it 
and then back. In studying the situation I 
found the web was so located that it required a 
cable to hold it up, and the spider had in some 
way got one over the wire so far away. This 
cable was, of course, a slender, silken thread 
which evidently she had thrown out, and on ac- 
count of its lightness it had floated to the right 
place and become attached there by its glutinous 
properties. It seems remarkable that it should 
have adhered to the wire firmly enough to allow 
so large an insect to climb over it, which she did 
every day as long as I watched her, evidently to 
mend or strengthen it. The spider must have 
brains in which the ability to construct its web 
and adapt it to conditions is highly developed. 
♦ ♦ ♦ 

The class of explorers whom the ungentle Thi- 
betan turns out of his country with more asperity 
than any other is the naturalist. Before Sikkim 
was annexed a man of science had been through 
the country collecting specimens of the animal 
and vegetable life of the little kingdom, and the 
Thibetans now are convinced firmly that any man 
who collects moths is really trying to grab terri- 
tory. It is safer to cross into Thibet with a 
drawn sword in one's hand than with a butterfly 

The jarrow wood, which grows in Australia, 
is almost the only kind known to the lumbermen 
which effectively resists the depredations of in- 
sects. Not an insect will touch it. 
4. 4. 4. 

When soda ash was obtained from seaweed a 
Parisian soap boiler discovered in it the element 
of iodine. In the hands of Niepee and Daguerre 
this iodine was found to render a silver surface 
sensitive to light. The developed and fixed im- 
pression on the plate gave the daguerreotype. 
The French government purchased the secret and 
made it free to the world. 

+ + * 

Were it not for matter floating in suspension 
in sea water, minute living organisms and air 
bubbles due to the breaking of the waves, all of 
which reflect light, the ocean would look as black 
as ink, for, in that case, none of the sun's rays, 
having once penetrated it, would be reflected to 
its surface. 

4» ♦ ♦ 

The Caspian sea is literally a great depression 
in the surface of the earth. It is eighty-four feet 
below the regular sea level. Besides this its wa- 
ters have very little salt in them, being almost 


4. 4. 4, 

In a few issues, possibly the next to this, the 
'Nook will begin its illustrations. There is no 
doubt of their making a brighter page to look at. 

4. 4. 4. 

Eskimo children at the Carlisle school in Penn- 
sylvania are reported to rank far ahead of Indian 
youths in every study. 

4. 4. 4. 

The Eskimos of Alaska make waterproof boots 
and shirts of the skin of the salmon. 

v *r v 

Great Britain ships firewood from Australia 
for her troops in China. 

4. 4. 4. 

The blood of the eel injected into a vein is a 
deadly poison to man. 


the xhtq-tjemstoo'ez. 



fil^HTH^Efl PtlBliISHirlG HOUSE 
Elgin, Illinois. 

The subscription price of the Magazine is one dollar a year. It is 
a high-class publication, intended for the Home, and for the interest, 
entertainment and information, of old and young. 

Articles intended for publication should be short, of general inter- 
est, and nothing of a love story character or with either cruelty or 
killing, will be considered. 

Manuscript submitted to the Editor will be at the entire risk of 
the writer, and its return is not guaranteed. 

Subscribers wishing the address of their papers changed should 
Invariably give the old address at which they received their Ingle- 

Agents are wanted everywhere, and any reasonable number of 
sample copies will be furnished free. All communications relating 
to the Inglenook should be addressed as follows: 

(For the Inglenook.) M-34 S. State St., Elgin, III. 

Entered at the Post Office at Elgin, 111., as Second-class Matter. 

A boy sees a man or a number of them, gen- 
erally out of his class, and he envies them. They 
wear good clothes, have money, and frequent 
places that are but a dream to him. They seem 
to have a good time. The boy goes back to his 
work, dissatisfied with it, and with his surround- 
ings. He wishes he was one of them. 

Now, the 'Nookman does not blame the boy. 
If a door opens for him to enter the company he 
envies ten to one he is lost. The boy does not 
know this because he is not old enough to see the 
end and he has not had the experience. 

Let the writer tell you a little story. Once he 
taught school where he could and did go to an 
adjoining city pretty nearly every week. There 
was just such a flashy crowd in sight. The man 
who kept the place, which was reputable enough 
as far as one could see from the outside, was 
making about one hundred and fifty dollars a 
day. He spent about a hundred dollars a day 
and was lavish with his money. If there was 
anyone to be envied it was he. The writer knew 
the place sold whiskey and there was a taint of 
worse things, but as said before it was counted 
reputable. Who would not envy the man ? 

Then half a lifetime passed and keeping track 
of the man was easy. In brief, he died in the 
county almshouse, of paresis, a public charge, an 
insane pauper. The reasons are easy to give — 
rum and women did the business. As far as 
known all the gay crowd went to the bad. 

Now, this is not an exceptional case. All such 
people end wrong. Every middle-aged and old 
man knows of just such cases. In fact, they are 
invariable and inevitable. It can not, in the na- 
ture of things, be otherwise. Start down hill and 
keep on going and the bottom is the only end. 

And now boy, or girl too, for that matter, when 
you see wickedness in good clothes and idleness 
you will be wise if you take to heart the wisdom 
of the ages, that such a combination is undesira- 
ble and unworthy of envy or imitation. The 
'Nook doesn't expect you to see the ending, but 
it wants to burn into your life the fact that as you 
sow so shall you reap. 

+ + + 


When a man comes to die it is sometimes the 
case that he has been engaged in a losing fight all 
his life, one in which apparently nothing is 
gained, and yet he has succeeded after all. The 
reason for this is that results are not always vis- 
ible or capable of estimate. The man that keeps 
everlastingly at it in the cause of right certainly 
succeeds within himself, even though he is able 
to show nothing in the way of tangible results. 

The fact is that in most of the great move- 
ments, perhaps in all, the prime movers, and those 
who did the most of the work leading up to the 
end, died before seeing the successful termina- 
tion of their labors. Shall it be said that the old 
time abolitionists who died before the Civil War 
held a losing cause? And the most stupendous 
failure of all time would have seemed to be Him 
who hung dead on the cross, with every follower 
forsaking and in flight. Yet see the result to- 
day in girdling the earth with the teachings of 
this same Crucified One! 

The fact is that success lies not in immediate 
results but in keeping up our end of the work, 
or the part assigned to us, till death loosens our 
hands. He who does that is a success, and no 
matter though not a single item of the sought-for 
end is visible. Failure is only when we let go. 

This for Every Nooker. 

The management of the Inglenook, desirous of having the present 'Nook family extend 
the sphere of usefulness of the magazine, and to enlarge its subscription list indefinitely, have 
decided to make the following unprecedented offers to our readers. Each and every' 'Nooker 
who sends us a new subscriber together with a dollar to pay 

For One Year's Subscription 

It will 

will receive for his trouble the new inkbottle pictured herewith. 

It is made of aluminum, and has the peculiarity of always being ready for use, 
be upset and rolled around in any direction and not a drop will be spilled. 

upset, but will right itself, and it 
can be picked up off the table 
and carried in a valise or a pocket 
and never spill a drop. It is al- 
ways ready for use. It sells for 
fifty cents, and we give it to the 
'Nooker who sends us one new 
subscriber. The picture shows 
the exact size, and a sectional 
view of^its make. The subscriber 
will have sent him the Cook Book 
for his premium. 

and it may 
not remain 

No More of this with amflb The loglenook Ink Bottle. 

Or if you would rather have a really good knife you can get this one 

For Only One Subscriber 

and 15 Cents Extra. 

It has a stag horn handle, four blades, and is a good knife for either lady or gentleman 
It retails at seventy-five cents, and is 


And if you prefer the larger knife pictured below, you can have it 

For One New Subscriber. 

This knife would sell for fifty cents in the stores. This knife is for man or boy, and is a very 
serviceable article. This for one subscriber, and no fifteen cents need be added. 



This is a Knife for Service, and Whoever Gets 

It Will Have a Useful, Valuable 

and Durable Article. 

^ ^ % 

Every lady has always wanted a pearl-handled pen, and below is the picture of a gold pen, 
with an exquisite pearl handle all in a plush-lined box, that will be sent you as your pay 

For Two New Subscribers. 

It sells in the stores for $1.00. 

This will Last Years and Years, and be a 
Thing of Beauty all the Time. 


But a man does not usually care for a pearl-handled pen, and for him we offer the fountain 
pen shown below 

For Only Two New Subscribers, 

and it is a perfect working pen that will last you a lifetime. It is a first-class pen that sells for 
$1.00. It comes in a box, together with an ink filler. 

Next to the Inglenook Portable Ink Bottle 

this Pen is the thing for 

the Pocket. 

a very 

Mr.World and 
Miss Ch\irch= 
Member* « 

For Three Subscribers 

the one sending them to us will receive a copy of the book, 
" Mr. World and Miss Church-Member," an allegory that will 
be appreciated by all who read it. It is substantially bound 
in cloth, is amply illustrated, and has 315 pages. This is a 
book that has run through several editions to supply an un- 
usual demand, and those who get it as a premium will have a 
handsome addition to their library. The book sells for Si. 00. 

Another Really Fine Offer. 

Every woman is interested in beautiful tableware, and 
for her we have selected the following heavily-plated silver 
teaspoons. She will get 


For Only Four New Subscribers, 

and if she gets eight she will receive a dozen, if she wants them. Or she can have half a dozen 
spoons, and as many of the other premiums as her list calls for, should she get more than the 
four new subscribers. These retail at S3. 25 per dozen. 

sells f<» 

Just Note These Magnificent Offers ! 

And where is the man or woman who does not want a good watch, 
even though they have one now? For them we have selected two 
beauties. The man's is shown below. It has what is called a gun 
metal case, really oxydized steel, trimmed with silver, and is a service- 
able, guaranteed watch, that would ordinarily sell for S6.00 in the 
stores. There is nothing cheap about this watch. It is worth 
all it costs, and it will be sent any Nooker 

For Ten New 


The Pictures Show 
the Exact Size and the Works 

Here is a Watch, Pretty as a Picture. 

For the ladies we offer the following watch, as pretty as its picture, and it is made of nick- 
el, silveroid, they call it, and it is a watch that any lady might wear anywhere with credit. It 
is a guaranteed time-keeper, and ordinarily sells for S7.00 at a jeweler's. It is an open-faced 
watch, and will not tarnish, but always have the appearance of a silver watch, while it is really 
more serviceable. 



Costing more than 
the Man's, Goes to 
Anybody Sending in 

Twelve New Subscribers 

The Chance of a Life=time. 


Study the conditions. Then take your Inglenook and your Cook Book, and start out. 
Every subscriber gets the Cook Book as a premium. The more subscribers you get the greater 
your premiums. The premiums described here are for yourself. The cost of getting the pre- 
miums to you is paid by the House. That costs you nothing. There isn't a cheap or foolish 
thing on the list. The 'Nook couldn't afford to and wouldn't do that. If you want sample 
copies for distribution, preparatory to a canvass, they will be sent you for the asking. It is an 
open and a free field. Go in to win. It's easy once you get the start. 



the iisra-XjEisrooic. 


Look out for the Sisters' number of the 
Inglenook next week. 

+ + + 

The Inglenook will reach you one of these 
days looking so different that you will hardly 
know it for the same magazine. And the pic- 
tures ! 

+ + + 

At last accounts Frank was going around 
the place at home bidding good-bye to the ani- 
mals and looking rather grave about it. Kath- 
leen is quiet, and it wouldn't take much to have 
her whimpering and wanting to back out. They 
are going all right enough, and will start in a 
very short time now. It will be many a long day 
until they sight the old home place after they 
.once get started, with 30,000 or 40,000 readers 
following them. 

+ + + 

The picture on the cover shows a sod house 
of the plains where irrigation has enabled the 
owner to make a garden of his surroundings. 
The " soddy " as the sod house is familiarly 
called in the west, is a not uncommon sight, and 
in reality is a very comfortable dwelling house. 
Perhaps some of our readers will tell about life 
in a soddy. It will be appreciated. The other 
picture on the cover shows how an irrigating 
ditch changes the whole face of an arid coun- 
try. There is so much of intense interest 
in this subject of irrigation that we will have 
quite a little to say about it in the future. It is 
an extensive subject of the most absorbing in- 
terest to millions of people. We are indebted to 
Hon. Geo. H. Maxwell, of Chicago, for the cuts. 

*> *P *> 

7 ? ? ? ? m i L 

*? *? 

Is there such a thing as dried milk? 
There is. It is used for a number of purposes 
in the arts and in the preparation of foods. 

Why is the 'Nook to be regarded as " our magazine," 
as the editor says? 

Because he wants every subscriber to think he 
has a personal interest in it, not to the extent of 
meddling, but to the end of helping to make it 

Is it correct to speak of flours, coals, etc? 
Certainly. Rye flour, rice flour, and wheat 
flour are flours. Hard coal, soft coal, charcoal, 
etc., are coals. 

<« <* 

What are dormant plants, such as dormant roses? 
Plants dug and stored in cellars or other places 
where growth is indefinitely postponed by a low 
temperature and a correct amount of moisture. 

* -* 

Is it in good form for a writer to have his picture in 
his book? 

Opinions vary. Some people never feel so 
good as when they are on show. If they want to 
pay for the exhibition and turn themselves loose 
on the world, whose affair is it but their own ? 

* <* 

Is it likely that China will ever wake up as did Ja- 

It is not likely that the Chinaman will im- 
prove as fast as the Jap does, as he is a different 
sort of man, but the indications are that he will 
be drilled and moulded into an effective soldier 
and so may possibly be a world menace. 

Is a book on etiquette of any value to me, a " green- 

Just about as much as " The Complete Letter 
Writer " to a correspondent. Go out into that 
indefinable thing called society, and note how 
the others do. " Sassiety " is a fearfully and 
wonderfully constituted thing, differently gov- 
erned in different sections. A study of the Ser- 
mon on the Mount is the best book on manners. 

<• -4 

Can I get a correct pronunciation of a foreign lan- 
guage out of a book? 

Impossible. You can get a working measure 
of it, but there is always a tang to the speech 
other than the mother tongue. " Talking like a 
native " is only approximate. Who has not 
heard the German, here for half a lifetime, but 
who has never entirely gotten over the Deutsch- 
land of it? No person ever accurately speaks 
more than the tongue of his childhood and early 
youth. There's always a ring and tone to the 
acquired language. 




There are two government stations engaged in 
the propagation and distribution of shad — the 
one at the fish commissioner's building in New 
York, and that near Havre de Grace, Md. In 
addition to these regular stations there is also a 
hatchery on board of the commission's steamer and 
two of its four special cars can readily be fitted 
with the necessary apparatus and used tempora- 
rily for the same purpose. . 

The process for hatching shad eggs is a most 
interesting one. A visitor to the museum of the 
fish commission notices a number of large glass 
jars filled with curious tiny spherical objects, 
evidently many thousands. These multitudinous 
brown pellets, as they seem at first, are kept in 
continual motion by streams of fresh water con- 
stantly pouring into the jars through glass tubes 
and finding an outlet through another system of 
tubes. It has been said that the little spheres 
resemble, at a casual glance, brown pellets ; but 
a closer inspection reveals the fact that they are 
semi-transparent, or, at all events, covered by 
a transparent coating, and inside this coating, or 
membrane, as it is really, are curiously sentient 
specks which are nothing less than tiny eyes. In 
short, these little brown pellets are the eggs of the 
shad, and they are seen in the hatching apparatus 
preparatory to emerging in the contiguous tank 
or aquarium as promising finny proteges of Uncle 

The hatching apparatus, which is the invention 
of the present fish commissioner, is the result of 
a long series of experiments and is a simple, 
effective and ingenious device. It consists of a 
cylindrical glass vessel with a round bottom, pro- 
vided with a screw top, with apertures for the 
admission of two glass tubes, one to supply the 
eggs with a constant flow of water, the other to 
carry off the overflow, and a small tank or aqua- 
rium for the reception of the young shad as they 
are hatched. The supply tube extends to the 
bottom of the jar and the water rising to the exit 
at the top keeps the mass of eggs In constant cir- 
culation, in what has been described as a " boil- 
ing motion," bringing each egg in succession to 
the top. It is a quality of dead eggs that once 
having reached the top of the mass they will not 
again mingle with the others, so that they gradu- 

ally accumulate in the upper part of the jar, 
whence they are removed by simply pushing 
down the exit tube until they are carried off with 
the overflow. Eight or twelve of the jars are 
arranged round one tank and furnished with 
water from the general supply pipe at the rate 
of about two quarts per minute. Each one holds 
six quarts and has a capacity of over 100,000 
eggs, though usually operated with about 85,000. 

So transparent is the egg and so rapid the de- 
velopment of the embryo, when once started, that 
the whole series of changes may be observed in 
the one individual, until it rends the delicate 
membrane and escapes into the world, a fish. 

A fresh-laid shad egg is irregularly spherical 
in form, surrounded by a very much wrinkled 
shell-membrane, and is a pale amber in color. 
Immediately after fertilization the membrane is 
rapidly distended to about seven times its origi- 
nal size by the absorption of the water and the 
wrinkles disappear. The egg is then about an 
eighth of an inch in diameter, and within can 
be seen the vitellus or yolk, surrounded by a 
delicate envelope of germinal matter called the 
cortical layer. In a very few moments this en- 
velope is thickened on one side by the concen- 
tration of its material, and inside of half an hour, 
the blastodisk is formed. This is a protuberance 
at one end of the egg composed of very minute 
germinal cells. In the course of an hour and a 
half this disk commences to undergo a series of 
divisions into numerous minute spheres in the 
formation of what is technically known as the 
" mulberry mass," or blastula, a phenomenon uni- 
versally attendant upon the development of all 
ova of whatever kind. This is the first indica- 
tion of the spinal column. After this the ele- 
ments contained in the egg become separated 
into two layers, the upper and the lower; the 
upper containing the matter from which is de- 
veloped the bones, muscles, brain and nerves, and 
the lower constituting the ultimate formation of 
the viscera, etc. 

Shortly, at one side of the spreading basto- 
disc, the first trace of the embryo appears in 
a swelling at a certain point. This lengthens 
rapidly, and a little later the embryo is quite dis- 
tinctly outlined. At this period, too, the rudi- 
mentary eyes, the first of the sense organs to be 
developed, are visible as two bright, elongated 



thickenings of the nervous layer. Very soon the 
tail begins to appear. And now the little fish 
develops apace, although, to the naked vision, 
very little of him is visible, as he whirls in the 
jar among his multitude of brethren, save those 
two bright little specks of eyes. On closer scru- 
tiny, however, two or three faint, shadowy, dark 
lines are observed, coiled half round the interior 
of the egg, marking the position of the body, 
which is nearly as transparent as the surrounding 
water. Faintly visible, too, is the vitelline sac, 
in which the remainder of the yolk is inclosed, 
attached to the abdomen of the fish, and from 
which he gains sustenance. He has acquired 
considerable power of movement by this time, 
and, at intervals of one second, he gives a vigor- 
ous wriggle. A few hours later, or about the 
end of the third day, a movement of more than 
usual strength will rupture the frail prisoner and 
set him free. He is yet far from being a per- 
fect fish, for though his mouth is open, there is no 
passage through the esophagus, and he is sus- 
tained by the contents of the yolk sac, which will 
remain attached to him for five or six days 
longer, when it will be finally absorbed and dis- 

Were a young shad given, like Richard III, 
to reflection, he might well consider himself " un- 
finished, sent before my time into this breathing 
world, scarce half made up," for he has, as yet, 
only half his rightful belongings — no fins, but 
two rudimentary pectorals ; no teeth, an imperfect 
heart, only the promise of a liver and scarcely a 
hint of an air bladder. But victualed for a week, 
with nothing on his mind, he is as oblivious of 
his defects as we are of ours and as he darts 
about the hatching jar, still hampered by his shell, 
perhaps, from which he has not been able to get 
himself entirely free, he is plainly in a mood to 
enjoy life. 

At length, after violent efforts, he reaches the 
top of the jar and is carried by the overflow into 
the receiving tank, whence he is transferred with 
his fellows into tin cans for distribution. It is 
necessary that this should be effected at once, 
for, unlike many of the species handled by the 

fish commission, the trout, the salmon and the 
bass, for example, the shad cannot be reared to 
maturity in confinement. Before the disappear- 
ance of the vittelline sac, it must be turned loose 
to find its natural food and to make its way at 
this time of the year to the sea, which is its home. 
The shad belongs to that class of fishes called 
anadromons, which ascend the rivers and estu- 
aries during the spawning season to deposit their 
eggs and return thereafter to salt water. The 
distributing cans, each containing about 30,000 
fry, are sent by rail to various points on the coast 
and emptied into the rivers, where in the course 
of the summer, the fish will attain a length of 
two or three inches. 

* * * 

You may close your eyes to your 
faults, but you\ neighbors ■mill not. 

•h 4f 4r 

Grand Rapids, Mich., has a woman cobbler, 
the only one in the State, if not in the country. 
She is Mrs. Nellie Harmer. 

In the big factories women are, to be sure, em- 
ployed to do certain parts of the work in making 
a pair of shoes by machinery, but none of them 
has to do what Mrs. Harmer does. She has 
worked on the bench beside her husband for the 
past seven years and is proficient in every phase 
of the cobbler's art from stitching a rip in a lady's 
kid shoe to pegging a sole in a cowboy's boot. 
She learned the trade from her husband. 

Ten years ago they came from Canada and Mr. 
Harmer opened a little shop in Grand Rapids. 
Being a skilled workman he soon had a brisk little 
business established, but he could not get compe- 
tent help. It was then that his wife came to his 
aid and said that she would learn the business. 

In the rear of their place of business their liv- 
ing apartments have been fitted up. These in- 
clude a piano, books, and pictures. Mrs. Harmer 
is pretty and not yet thirty. She is the mother 
of three children two boys and a girl. She is 
said to be as good a musician as she is a cobbler. 

When the critics condemn a play, 
curiosity drives the public to see it. 




If there is a stranger detective system than the 
" underground " it has not come to light, which 
is not a poor joke but a solid fact. 

And no one can pay money to this agency and 
get detection in return. Nobody who is not on 
the inside can ever hope to get in, and the aid of 
the police is never asked by the agency. Yet its 
ramifications extend from Maine (of course) to 
California, and it wields an influence that the po- 
lice themselves do not possess and never can 
hope to acquire. As this is not a joke, neither is 
it an advertisement. This agency does not ask 
for advertisement, because it does not want more 
business than it has. 

Its office is wherever its two principal mem- 
bers meet. It may be ii\, the Harrison Street 
Police Station, as it frequently is, and it may be 
in the house of one of the members, or in the 
street, or at a church bazaar, for the agency is 
not hampered by any set of four walls. 

But what is it? 

It is the system that the professional bonds- 
men of Chicago employ to prevent persons upon 
whose bonds their names appear from leaving 
the city before the case is heard, or from keeping 
in hiding if they do not happen to run away. It 
is a left-handed auxiliary of the police, and for 
its services the police are often grateful. It pos- 
sesses means of getting at persons that no po- 
liceman could get if he lived to be one hundred 
years old. To understand its scope and to see 
the adroitness with which it is operated it is nec- 
essary to know the circumstances which make its 
existence a necessity and which make its opera- 
tion a wonderful thing to behold. 

It may be understood and it may not that when 
a person is arrested by the police, charged with 
the commission of any offense against a city or- 
dinance or a statute of the State, it is possible for 
him to get bail. This is done by having a friend 
who can schedule enough property to go bail for 
the appearance in court of him who has been ar- 
rested. When this bond is lookfd over and rat- 
ified by the police justice the prisoner may go 
free until his case is called in court. 

It is only natural that a man who has been ar- 
rested will prefer to go home to his family until 
the day of his hearing in the police court or in the 

criminal court. He would certainly rather be at 
his own fireside than at the crude, steam-heated 
radiators that the city has placed near the cells 
in the police stations. Yet if he does not get this 
bail he will have to stay in a cell. He may have 
friends who have enough property to warrant 
them in signing his bond. But he may not. 
The fact is that more than two-thirds of the men 
and women who are arrested do not have the 
luxury of friends with enough money to go on 
their bond. They want their liberty as much as 
he wants it who has legions of friends. So the 
professional bondsman has come into existence. 
He is as old as the system of bail. 

In Chicago he is always a man who has some 
business apart from that of signing bonds. It 
was in that other business that he made enough 
money to be able to be accepted by the police and 
justices and the courts of record as a bondsman. 
But as he does not know the men for whom he 
signs the bonds, and as his compensation is one 
of money instead of gratitude, he takes many 
chances. As soon as the prisoner steps out of 
the cell he pays the bondsman, and then there is 
little chance of telling whether he will appear 
when the bondsman has contracted for him to 

This chance is what made John T. Rafferty, 
Andrew Craig, who is called " the king of the 
levee," and Abraham Beamish, the owner of the 
famed Beamish's goat, now dead, get together 
and form the *' underground " detective system. 
Its workings have been going on for some time, 
and there has not been a failure. 

The founders ascribe this to the sort of men 
upon whom they call for aid. They do not pay 
a cent to any of them. The services the operat- 
ives render are prompted by the sense of favors 
done in the past or to be done in the future. 
There is one or more of these " underground " 
operatives in every city of size in the Union. Not 
one of them is a policeman or a detective in the 
sense in which that word is generally used. Ev- 
ery one of them is engaged in business of some 
other sort, and his services to the Chicago head- 
quarters are performed as a side line, as the 
drummers call it. 

The men who are at the head of the concern 
are not " straw bondsmen." A straw bondsman 
is one whose principal asset is nerve. He has no 



property, but if he can persuade the officer in 
charge to accept him on a bond he gets paid by 
the released prisoner for his services. A list of 
such bondsmen is sent out every so often by 
State's Attorney Deneen, and police justices and 
police officers are ordered not to accept those 
men on any bonds. The men who have founded 
the *' underground " are not of that stamp. 
Craig is a prominent worker in the First Ward 
Democracy. He is reputed to be worth $20,000, 
and with John T. Rafferty is supposed to be one 
of the two best dressed men on the levee, always 
excepting the eminent statesman, Alderman 
Coughlin. Rafferty has a bank account of good 
proportions. Abraham Beamish has had a 
horseshoeing establishment for years. He has 
prospered, and with Craig and Rafferty is worth 
a great deal of money. 

Xot so much, however, that he cares to let any 
of it get away by signing the bonds of prisoners 
who will take French leave without telling him 
when they will get back or even where they are 
going. When one of them does run away the 
action of the unique detective agency begins. 

Joseph Coyne, who is Rafferty's righfc-fcand 
man. and Craig get together and write a dozen 
letters, all alike except the address. A copy of 
one of these letters follows : 

" Benjamin Kaehler, Broadway, St. Lou- 
is : September first one of us signed the bond of 

, under arrest here for burglary. 

We did not know him and he has left town. 
The case has been continued before a police jus- 
tice for ten days and we want our man by then. 
He is five feet ten inches tall, medium weight, has 
blue eyes, and a light mustache. He works as a 
carpenter, does not drink, but smokes a pipe a 
great deal. May be found living in a pretty 
good hotel for workingmen. Has no family. 

" Signed, Craig." 

These letters are sent to the cities in which it 
would be likely the man might be found. The 
letters go to saloonkeepers, hotel clerks, lawyers, 
and men in almost every other occupation. As 
soon as one is received the man who gets it writes 
another letter to a man in a nearby town, and that 
man in turn writes another. In that way an end- 
less chain that reaches across the country and into 
the most obscure hamlet is thrown out. Every 
one of the " underground police " is at work. 

Strangers in town are scrutinized. The tele- 
graph is used liberally, because in Chicago one of 
three bondsmen is standing a chance of losing 
a heavy sum of money if the fugitive is not sent 
back. It is a more difficult matter to be a 
fugitive from the " underground " men than it is 
to be fleeing from the police. The police have 
only one description of the man, while with the 
" underground " men each man who gets a letter 
containing the description of a man he knows 
puts a little more detail into the letter he writes 
in obedience to orders. He also sends this more 
complete description back to Chicago. Then in 
the next batch of letters that headquarters sends 
out the description will be there enlarged and 
improved. Pictures are never sent because it is 
almost impossible to get them. Through friends 
on the police force it is often possible to get a 
look at the picture and written record and meas- 
urements kept by the Bertillion system in the 
different " rogues' galleries," and this informa- 
tion is sent out to supplement that already re- 

The chain of letters never ceases until the man 
is found. A copy of the postoffice guide, of gaz- 
etteers of different cities, and copies of the Police 
Bulletin published by the City of Chicago are 
brought into use, and from Chicago pours a per- 
fect avalanche of mail into the hands of men who 
are not detectives at all, but who go out gladly 
to do detective work. 

The way this network of spies all over the 
country has been built up is out of the ordinary. 
It is not reasonable to expect men to drop their 
regular vocations and get out to hunt up men 
that are unknown to them, but that are wanted in 
Chicago, but this is just what is expected and 
just what is done. The men to whom the letters 
in the endless chain go are men who have met one 
of the three heads of the system or one of their 
friends, and who have been told that their inter- 
ests will always be looked after by the Chicago 
party. In some respects it is a case of reciproci- 
ty, because a great many of the men to whom the 
Chicago letters go are bondsmen in their own 
cities. It is then in a sense a professional bonds- 
men's trust, and a closer corporation never ex- 

Its members will not turn over their hands to 
help an outsider. 

9 o 

the i:£TC3-i_i:e:ltooj<l- 


A young girl in western Texas for many years 
daily risked her life in the pursuit of one of the 
most dangerous occupations ever devised by hu- 
man ingenuity for the purpose of obtaining 
wealth. The word fear sems to convey no mean- 
ing to the mind of this remarkably attractive 
frontier heroine. It is a common remark that 
she has no nerves, but it is more probable that 
she has schooled herself by careful training to 
disregard the particular character of danger that 
she faces every day. 

She is Agnes Say, and she is the only daughter 
of an old pioneer Indian fighter known from San 
Antonio to the deserts of Arizona as old Sweet- 
killer, from the fact that he was always looking 
out for bee trees and bee caves, and it was seldom 
that he was ever found without a cup of honey 
or a piece of honeycomb in his shot pouch. He 
was a fearless ranger and a good trailer, but his 
comrades frequently intimated that the buzz of a 
bee was liable to throw him off his guard. It 
was always conceded that old Sweetkiller was the 
most expert bee hunter in the State, and on ac- 
count of the invariable success that attended his 
expeditions in search of honey his services as a 
ranger were always highly appreciated. When- 
ever provisions became scarce Sweetkiller could 
always find a bee tree or a little crevice in some 
bluff where the harbingers of civilization were 
storing their food. A company of Indian fight- 
ers considered themselves well supplied when- 
ever there was plenty of honey and venison in 

The old Texan raised two sons and one daugh- 
ter. These boys soon became as expert in their 
inherited calling as their father, and as they grew 
older they became venturesome. Few bee caves 
in the lofty cliffs were beyond their reach. If 
they could not ascend the great natural walls by 
cutting notches in the rocks they would soon 
find some other way to reach the bee caves. 
Their sister, Agnes, frequently accompanied the 
boys in their expeditions in search of honey, and 
as she grew older she developed a taste for moun- 
tain climbing which led her to perform many 
feats that astounded the boldest mountaineers. 
She was much lighter in weight than her broth- 
ers, and she soon proved that she possessed stead- 

ier nerves and decidedly more activity than either 
of them. Other advantages which were early 
developed in the young girl's mind and character 
led her to take a deeper interest in the peculiar 
vocation that Sweetkiller had apparently trans- 
mitted to his children. She had learned to read 
and write and she had made the discovery that 
money could be made by gathering and shipping 
honey. About four years ago this fearless young 
girl commenced the business of gathering and 
shipping honey systematically. 

Thanks to her courage and good sense, the 
family now owns a bee ranch that is valued at 
$30,000, and no young woman in western Texas 
is better dressed than the one who has justly 
won the title of the " Queen of the Bees." 

Few people would be willing to take her wealth 
and fame at the price she has paid for- it. No 
cliff has been too high for her to scale if a swarm 
of bees were storing honey in the crevices of its 
walls. Time and again her brothers have sus- 
pended her by a rope from the top of some lofty 
precipice, and she has hung there for hours, often 
300 feet above the waters of the .river, taking 
honey from some cavern. She has taken honey 
from the bee caves on the Guadaloupe, the Hon- 
dos, the Llano, and many other mountain 
streams, and curiously enough during all of her 
venturesome career she has never once been stung 
by a bee. Her brothers say that they have seen 
countless thousands of angry bees swarm out of 
a cave that they had perhaps uninterruptedly 
occupied for a century and literally cover the 
girl's body while she was suspended in the air 
several hundred feet above the earth. Trembling 
for her safety they would beg her to let them 
draw her up to the top of the cliff, but she would 
only laugh at them and shout back: " My pets are 
not going to hurt me. Send down the bucket. I 
have found a fortune in honey." 

The Guadaloupe River runs for some twenty- 
five or more miles through a deep canon. The 
walls of solid rock on either side rise to dizzy 
heights. In many localities the summits of the 
cliffs are 300 or 400 feet above the waters of the 
river. The bees have literally taken possession 
of these lofty cliffs, and in many places countless 
swarms of them have been storing honey for cen- 
turies. They are so numerous in many places 
that they shade the earth like a vast cloud as they 




en honey 


1 the air 

K WW" 

pets are 


v places 
1 u they 

fly about the caverns. Many of these swarms 
have never been disturbed, and it is highly prob- 
able that they will remain in peaceable possession 
of their homes for all time, though experts like 
Miss Agnes are of the opinion that some of them 
contain tons of honey. " I have had my share of 
climbing," says the Queen of the Bees, " for it 
requires nearly all of my time to attend to our do- 
mestic swarms, but I sometimes descend upon 
a particularly rich swarm and rob the wild cliff- 
dwellers of a few hundred pounds of their 
precious possessions. Some of these caves are 
rich. In one instance we took more than a thou- 
sand dollars' worth of honey from one cavern. 
I frequently visited some of the loftiest caves for 
the purpose of securing a vigorous queen to mix 
with my tame bees. I have found that the larg- 
est and best workers occupy the loftiest places 
in sides of the bluffs." 

This venturesome Texas girl has never ex- 
perienced a fall, or been seriously hurt, though 
she has more than once been in great danger of 
losing her life. Upon one occasion, while sus- 
pended in the air over 300 feet above the earth, 
she suddenly felt the rope that supported her give 
a little, and upon looking up she was horrified to 
observe that a projecting ledge had already cut 
one. strand. She was barely able to reach a little 
ledge with the toes of one foot, and by casting as 
much weight as possible upon these toes she was 
able to relieve the strain on the rope. Realizing 
that the least trepidation on the part of her broth- 
ers would result in hurling her to the earth, with 
great presence of mind she cut the bucket loose 
and quickly fastened the stout rope that had 
been attached to it about her own body. She then 
called to her brothers, and, after warning them 
to hold the bucket rope firm, she told them that it 
was tied about her own body. They suspected 
that something had happened, and, obeying her 
directions implicitly, she was safely rescued. 

The most perilous situation that she ever en- 
countered occurred about a year ago. She was 
in a locality that she had never visited before, 
and, while suspended in the air in one of the 
gloomiest canons of the Honds some 300 feet 
above the water, she was suddenly alarmed by 
a hissing noise, and, upon looking around, she 
saw two enormous eagles perched on a ledge only 
a few feet away. She signaled to be drawn up, 
but the big birds did not allow her to escape. 
Both flew at her face shrieking like fiends. " I 
had a large knife in my hand and I defended my- 
self as best I could. One of the eagles cut a gash 
in my forehead with his talons and the blood 
blinded me. I realized that the boys were draw- 
ing me up, but I feared the enraged birds would 
tear out my eyes before I could escape. They 
were beating me with their wings and cutting my 
flesh with their sharp claws. I kept striking at 
them with my knife, and in making a desperate 
blow I struck the rope above my head. It seemed 
as if my blood instantly congealed. I knew I had 
struck the rope, but did not know whether I had 
cut it or not. With a desperate effort I wiped 
the blood from my eyes and looked up. The 
knife dropped from my nerveless hand. There 
was a great gash in the rope. I closed my eyes. 
Shivering with terror, I felt myself descending 
headlong through space and I heard my bones 
breaking on the rocks. When I opened my eyes 
my brothers were dragging me back away from 
the edge of the precipice and the eagles were still 
dangerously near. I was barely within reach of 
the boys when the rope began to part." 

This pretty Texas Queen of the Bees has made 
enough money to live in luxury without pursuing 
the dangerous calling that has brought her wealth 
and fame. Her brothers declare that she has 
hunted cave bees for the last time, but she an- 
swers with a smile that " one experiences an un- 
accountable and rather fascinating sensation while 
suspended in the air." 

One swallow doesn't make a 
summer, and it usually takes sever- 
al to fetch a fall. 




On the top of the Prince of Wales' coronet is 
a small tuft of feathers. 

The wife of a rich Manchester cotton spinner 
endeavored to get some similar. She was told 
that there were none on the market. This made 
her the more anxious to procure them. " I don't 
mind spending £100," she said. The plume sel- 
ler smiled. " They will cost you the price of a 
special expedition to New Guinea," he observed. 
Her husband was enormously wealthy, and she 
induced him to authorize this. 

Last June the plume hunters returned. They 
had been away nearly a year, and spent over 
$4,000. They reported that the feriwah, the par- 
ticular kind of bird of paradise from which the 
plumes are taken, is extinct. 

It is a part of the Mahometan creed to smash 
the noses of all idols they may come across. 
When they invaded India, they defaced in this 
way every Hindoo god. A figure of Vishnu cut 
in green jade was buried in the bed of the 
Ganges during this invasion, and is now pre- 
served in a temple in Benares. It is the only 
perfect image left of all the old idols, and its 
sanctity is such that the priests at Allahabad 
have offered for it its weight in gold, together 
with two magnificent rubies, formerly the eyes 
of Buddha. But they cannot buy it. 

An English earl, whose wealth is counted by 
hundreds of thousands, has a splendid collection 
of Greek statuary. His great ambition has been 
to possess a Samian Apollo, of which two only 
were known to be in existence. Last year he 
had news from his agent that another had been 
unearthed in a village near Athens. 

The real value of such a statue is about $6,000, 
but Greek law strictly forbids the export to 
foreign countries of any antiques. The agent 
bought the statue from its finder and then set to 
work to smuggle it out of the country. He had 
his find removed to a little-known fishing village 
on the west coast of Greece and chartered a 
steam yacht to fetch it. But the government 
officials got wind of his project and the Apollo is 
now in an Athens Museum. 

An enterprising Australian millionaire named 
Leonard took a trip to Peru some years ago. He 

saw great flocks of the alpaca wandering on the 
Andes. Being a wool grower himself, he was 
struck with their splendid fleece. He resolved 
to buy some and take them home. He found 
that the Peruvian government absolutely pro- 
hibited their export. He trie,d, by chartering a 
special ship, to smuggle some off, but was un- 
successful. Then the idea occurred to him of 
taking them out of the country eastwards. He 
bought a large flock, engaged trusty men and 
had the creatures driven over the passes, 18,000 
feet above the sea level, and then clean across 
the continent to Buenos Ayres. This little ex- 
pedition cost him $15,000. But the long march 
had so weakened the alpacas that they all died on 
the voyage. 

The most expensive picture known is the Ra- 
phael in the National Gallery of England, which 
cost the nation $350,000. It cannot be bought. 
Another famous picture by the same great artist 
is in possession of a country squire in the 
Midlands. He is not a rich man, and it must 
have been a temptation when a millionaire baron 
sent him an offer accompanied by a blank check. 
The check was returned. Undiscouraged, the 
baron made a definite offer — $250,000 down and 
$10,000 a year for life. The owner refused. 

One of the most perfect vases in the world is 
in a church at Genoa, Italy. In it is a vase cut 
from a single emerald. It is twelve and a half 
inches in diameter and five and three-quarters 
inches high. No other emerald approaching this 
size is known. A millionaire offered $1,000,000 
for this treasure, but was assured that money 
would not buy it. 

On the occasion of the late queen's visit to 
Ireland a program of all the traveling arrange- 
ments and details of the journey was made up. 
It included a map of the railway route, a map of 
Dublin, the order of the procession and a list of 
prominent Irish officials. Only one copy was 
printed, and this bound in green velvet, with a 
gold harp and crown on either side. A Dublin 
brewer of great wealth was most anxious to in- 
duce the firm which printed this unique speci- 
men to duplicate it. He met with a flat refusal. 

Of Shakespeare's signature there are but sev- 
en known specimens, one of which is doubtful. 
That one in the British Museum cost $15,700. 
A millionaire recently offered $100,000 for a gen- 


"g on the 

He Eg, 

men i 
s, d|i 

she Ra- 
il Vfli 

at artist 
in the 


jed, the 

m a 





ade up. 

list of 

with 3 

r speci- 
nt sev- 




uine autograph of Shakespeare if brought to him 
within twelve months. But he has had no reply. 
A " gem," strictly speaking, is not merely a 
precious stone. It is an engraved stone. Two 
thousand years ago gem cutters understood how 
to polish the cutting of an engraving throughout 
on both sides. The art is now lost. A gentle- 
man called Thornton, residing in Sydenham, has 
in his possession a chrysophrase with a perfectly 
cut and polished engraving upon it. It was 
found, many years ago, in the Catacombs of 
Rome. A Hebrew banker, who has a wonderful 
collection of engraved stones, has offered as much 
as $40,000 without tempting the owner to part. 
<• <• + 
The egotist thinks he is the 1 in a 
1,000 and the other 009 are the 


4. 4. 4. 


A replica of the famous carpet from the 
mosque of Ardabil, which is now preserved in the 
South Kensington Museum, London, is being 
made at Tabreez, Persia, the center of the car- 
pet-making industry of that country. The flow- 
ering and designing of this carpet are absolutely 
unique. A hand-painted design of the original 
has been furnished to the Persian weavers and so 
skillfully is the work being carried out that it is 
stated by the English consul general that when 
completed it will be equal in every respect to the 
original carpet, so faithfully is the work being 
reproduced, both with regard to the coloring and 

The carpet is being woven by boys ranging 
from eight to twelve years of age. They sit in 
' serried rows before their looms. Their method 
of procedure is to pull the wool from a reel sus- 
pended above their heads in their left hands and, 
with a flat knife provided with a crooked point 
in their right, dash the thread, with three move- 
ments, through the web strings, hook it into the 

desired knot, cut off the surplus ends and start 
another knot. The work is carried out with such 
remarkable rapidity that it is almost impossible 
to follow the movements of the weaver. 

Before setting to work the weavers closely 
study the painted design which they have to re- 
produce, and then depend entirely upon their 
memories to enable the work to be completed. 
Their memories are so reliable that it is very 
seldom they will refer back to the painted design. 
When working upon a complicated pattern the 
foreman of the loom — a boy about fourteen years 
of age — walks up and down, calling out, in a 
curious monotone, the number of stitches and the 
color of the threads to be used. The Persian 
rugs and carpets are made by hand throughout 
and none but vegetable or natural dyes are em- 
ployed. It is to this fact that the longevity and 
durability of the Persian rugs are attributable, 
especially in connection with the colorings. — Sci- 
entific American. 

*JP V T 

Too much pleasure is apt to be 
the direct cause of a man's troubles. 
4. 4. 4. 

An invention has just been completed by which 
the immense kelp beds of the ocean are to be util- 
ized in the manufacture of paper. The invention 
consists of taking the seaweed and forming it 
into a pulp from which paper of the best quality 
can be manufactured, equal even to the finest 
linen, which it greatly resembles. Paper is made 
from a hundred different substances, any sub- 
stance containing cellulose being capable of con- 
version into paper. 

*f? *f? V 

The giant troubles that loom up on the horizon 
of life have this advantage — they dwarf into 
lesser stature the little hills of difficulty that rise 
around them. 

Eve probably ivasn't the only 
woman who ever szvapped paradise 
for a petticoat. 




The cultivation of flowers was to Doctor Lla- 
nerk the relaxation and pleasure of his busy life. 
Often a bunch of his choicest was his only pre- 
scription for a sick one. He asserted, as a part 
of his professional experience, that flowers were 
the best of tonics. 

His many friends, young and old, took pleas- 
ure in sending him whatever was rare or beau- 
tiful of those flowers which they grew or found, 
well knowing that he would carry them to where 
they would cheer and delight. 

Late one night his bell rang. Thinking that 
at that hour it must be a call for his services, he 
rose from bed, put on his wrapper, and went to 
the door. The light was dim. He saw a col- 
ored man holding a huge paper package, from 
which the Doctor, to his delight, saw buds and 
full-blown roses protruding. 

" Is Miss Ca'line Ward in ? " asked the man. 

" She has retired," was the reply. (" Miss 
Ca'line Ward " was his colored cook.) 

" I is sorry, sir, to call so late. Dah was a 
jam in de street-cars. I leab dis fo' her, sir, ef 
you will kindly gib it to her in de mo'nin'." 

" Certainly," responded the Doctor. He took 
the bundle carefully, thanked the man in the 
name of Miss Ward, closed the door, tenderly 
carried the flowers to the kitchen, pleased as if 
he had been the recipient, took a dish-pan from 
its nest, drew a few inches of water in it, care- 
fully pressed the base of the package into it, and 
imagining how pleased his servant would be, 
went to bed. 

He rose early, as was his habit. In going to 
his flower-beds he passed through the kitchen. 
There stood Miss Ca'line Ward, holding the 
dripping bundle before her. Her face was rife 
with indignation. Her manner was belligerent 
her tone was challenging. " Ef I had de pusson 
heah dat did dat, I'd empty de kittle on 'em. I'd 
jes' like to know who put my new hat, dat I jes' 
bought, in de dish-pan. Dat I would. I'd scald 
em fo' shoo'." 

Doctor Llanerk was accustomed to restrain- 
ing his feelings and preserving a countenance 
that told no tales. He expressed strong sympa- 
thy. He promised that the matter should be in- 

vestigated and the guilty person or the careless 
deliverer punished ; then went among his flowers 
and actually rolled them flat while he laughed. 

That day, when he returned from his profes- 
sional visits, he carried to Miss Ca'line Ward, 
with his compliments, the most beflowered hat he 
could buy, and meekly requested the pleased 
negress to " scald him well." — Charles Mcll- 
vaine, Lippincott's Magazine. 

T T T 

Flirtation, like polishing pozvder, 
brightens up the spoons. 
4. 4. £ 


A drummer whose business calls him to the 
sunflower state relates the champion drouth story 
of the season. " I was driving across the coun- 
try to a little town in western Kansas the other 
day, when I met a farmer hauling a wagon load 
of water. 

" ' Where do you get water? ' said I. 

" ' Up the road about seven miles,' he replied. 

" ' And you haul water seven miles for your 
family and stock ? ' 

" ' Yep.' 

" ' Why, in the name of sense, don't you dig 
a well?' 

" 'Because it's just as far one way as the other, 
stranger.' " 

V *V V 

It is not a difficult matter to se- 
cure a woman's sympathy; all you 
have to do is to get her to hate 
some one you dislike. 
•*• + * 


The largest gold coin now in circulation is the 
gold ingot or " loof " of Anam, a French posses- 
sion in Eastern Asia. It is a flat round gold 
piece, and on it is written in Indian ink its value, 
which is about £65. The next sized coin to this 
valuable but extremely awkward one is the 
" obang " of Japan, which is worth about £10, 
and next comes the " benda " of Ashantee, which 
represents a value of about £9. 

us flowers 

is proies- 
« Ward, 

e please 
'« JW 


m to the 
uth story 

he com- 
he other 



The Home 


//' a young man owns real estate 
in a large city it is an easy matter 
for him to find a girl willing to 
share his lot. 



(or your 

von t 

le other. 

n is the 

i value. 
to tbii 

is the 
it iio. 

If you wish it to be juicy and tender, you 
should select the meat for a pot roast as carefully 
as you do that which you roast in the oven. 

The back part of the rump is most satisfactory 
as ft is of finer grain than some other portions, 
and if it is to be eaten cold, it will cut in better 

People often ruin a pot roast by boiling it in too 
much water, only enough to barely cover the meat- 
being necessary; and this should not be cold or 
lukewarm, but hot. The heat immediately 
closes the pores of the meat, and prevents the 
juices from escaping. As the water boils away, 
add a little more ; and it is better to simmer gent- 
ly, than to boil furiously. From three to four 
hours should be allowed to boil from four to five 
pounds of meat. 

When done, remove from the stove, and set 
the meat away to cool in the liquor. It is well to 
put in a large, deep dish, and to pour the liquor 
over it. When cold this forms a jelly which 
keeps the meat juicy. 

Meat cooked in this way is delicious sliced cold, 
for supper ; or it may be eaten hot, if so desired. 
The jelly may afterwards be utilized for soup 

•f* *X* *X* 


one-half cup stoned and chopped raisins. Let 
simmer gently until the dates are cooked, then re- 
move from the fire, and stir in sufficient chopped 
English walnuts, pecan, or hickory nut meats to 
make quite thick. Line patty pans with rich puff 
paste, fill with uncooked rice or bread, and put 
on a crimp cover of the paste. Brush 
the tops with a little sweet milk, and bake 
in a quick oven to a pale brown. When 
done, let cool, remove the tops and rice filling, 
and when the fruit mixture is cool, put it in the 
shells and put on the tops again. Before serving 
place in the oven for five minutes. When proper- 
ly made these are delicious. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Make a light rich layer cake after any favorite 
recipe, and fill with the following mixture : Drain 
the syrup from two cups of fine, preserved 
peaches, chop the fruit very fine, mix with it one- 
half cup finely chopped almonds, and whip the 
mixture into the whites of two eggs beaten very 
stiff with four tablespoonfuls powdered sugar. 
Ice the cake with white icing flavored with 
almond extract, and before this becomes quite 
cold place a small candy peach in the center of 
the cake, and around it a circle of blanched al- 
monds. This is a most delicious cake, 
t i ♦ 

Stone and chop two cups new dates, add just 
water enough to cover, one cup coffee sugar, and 

One-half pound of stewed prunes (with the 
juice drained off) pressed through a sieve. Add 
one cup of granulated sugar, and the stiffly 

9 6 

tihiie zcztTa-XjEinsrocrEs-. 

whipped whites of six eggs. Mix well and bake 

for half an hour in a moderate oven. Serve cold 

with whipped cream flavored with vanilla. 

* * * 


Burn one cup of sugar until chocolate 
brown, dissolve this in one quart of hot 
milk, add a pinch of salt, and the yolks of five 
eggs well beaten. Turn into a pudding dish and 
bake in a pan of hot water in a moderate oven 
until firm. Whip the whites of the eggs until 
stiff with five tablespoonfuls powdered sugar, 
spread over the pudding and brown delicately 
in a slow oven. 

•fr + + 

Two cups finely minced white meat of chicken, 
two cups diced celery, and one-half cup of 
blanched and coarsely chopped almonds. Moisten 
with dressing made as follows : Mix together one 
teaspoonful each of salt and mustard, and one- 
half saltspoon of white pepper, stir into the well 
beaten yolks of three eggs. Beat all together, 
and add gradually one-half cup melted butter, and 
one-third cup lemon juice or vinegar. Cook in a 
double boiler until it thickens, then add the stiffly 
whipped whites of the eggs. Before serving, 
when cold, add one cup whipped cream. Garnish 
with whole blanched almonds and small celery 

*X* *1* *I* 


Wash the celery and cut into one-half inch 
pieces. Cook it in boiling salted water until 
tender, drain in cheese cloth until dry, then bind 
together with a thick white sauce made by cook- 
ing together one tablespoonful butter, two of 
flour, and one cup of sweet milk. Season with 
salt and a dash of paprika, and spread on a plate 
to cool. Then shape into croquettes, dip in 
crumbs, then in egg, and again in crumbs, and 
fry in smoking hot fat, drain on unglazed paper, 
and serve at once. 

* * * 


for these sandwiches. Only the very tender part 
of the celery should be used and chopped fine 
and put in iced water until needed. Add a few ' 
chopped walnuts to the celery and enough may- 
onnaise dressing to hold them together; butter 
the bread before cutting from the loaf, spread 
one slice with mixture and press another over it. 
If biscuits are used, split and butter them. They 
should be small and very thin for this purpose 
and browned delicately. 

* * * 

Into a saucepan put a quarter of a pound of 
grated, unsweetened chocolate. Add four ounces 
of butter, a pound of brown sugar, a gill of mo- 
lasses, a gill of cream and a teaspoonful of va- 
nilla. Stir this over a slow fire until thoroughly 
mixed, and then boil it until it cracks when 
dropped into ice water. Turn into greased, shal- 
low pans to the depth of half an inch and stand 
aside to cool. When nearly cold mark the cara- 
mels into squares. 

♦ ♦ + 

Make layer cake as usual, using vanilla as a 
flavor. Bake in three layers. Dissolve one-half 
of a cake of Paris sweet chocolate in a half pint 
of boiling water. Keep on the stove until it is 
all melted, then add slowly one teaspoonful of 
cornstarch dissolved in a little milk, and one tea- 
spoonful of granulated sugar. When it comes 
to a boil, set off and let it cool a few minutes, then 
spread between the layers of the cake. This is 
much better than a hard filling. 

V V *v 


Use dainty little baking-powder biscuits fresh- 
lv baked, but cold, or white home-made bread 

Mix well together two heaping tablespoonfuls 
of mashed sweet potatoes, one of melted butter, 
one of sugar, a little less than a pint of sweet 
milk, four heaping tablespoonfuls of flour, a 
"teaspoonful of baking powder, a little salt and the 
whites of two eggs beaten stiff. Oil the waffle 
iron well and bake to a delicate brown. Serve 
with maple syrup or honey cream sauce. This 
sauce is made by beating one cupful of comb 
honey cut into small bits, into one pint of whipped 


. Vol. IV. 

Feb. 1, 1902. 

No. 5. 



Great, splendid oak, the athlete of the wood, 
Whose foliage like a graceful toga falls 
About thy thick brown limbs, whence comest thou? 
" My mother, Nature, with fine chemistry 
Mixed my proportions; part of me is earth, 
The common loam that makes us near of kin; 
The skipping raindrops patting all my leaves, 
And searching all my farthest rootlets out, 
With dews ambrosial of cool summer dawns, 
Part of my texture be; the truant airs 
Of breeze and tempest blow me of their life, 
And threads of sunshine wrap my inmost heart." 

Superior soul, walking the breezy hills, 

Whose glances like a benediction fall 

On body-bound earth-people, whence art thou? 

" Out of the soil of compact circumstance, 

Deluged and washed with troubles' overflow, 

With principle unbent by insolent winds, 

Refreshed by dews of kindly patronage, 

Clothed with the Sun that burst the firmament, 

I grew." Ah, sprung from what environment! 

And we, with like luxuriant power endowed, 

Nod wantonly as thistles in a field, 

Or like the night-shade throw our bane about, 

Using the elements to foster sin 

Instead of building with a prophet's care, 

A straight, good man — God's most expressive thought! 

Huntingdon, Pa. 

# ♦ 4> 



The 'Xook is in the hands of the sisters this 
week. We made a book that showed we could 
cook, and all the world that has it is trying this 
one's cake, and that one's pies. This issue of the 
magazine wouldn't have been possible twenty- 
five years ago. It is easy now, because of our 
schools, our advancement along the lines of good 
literature, and the great interest in things that 
go to help others. 

Nobody expects that these writers are all of 
the same skill or common ability, but the fact that 
it is possible without urging and help shows a 
very commendable spirit abroad in the land. It 
is not believed that an equal number of men could 
do more than as well if they tried. The editor 
tells me that if they think they could they can 
have it for a week. 

Things of this kind are sometimes attempted, 
but are " cooked up " to suit the management. 
Not so this time. The writers did the thing to a 
turn themselves, and asked no odds — so says the 
management. What do you think of it? 

About fifty women have had a hand in the 
making of this week's issue, and whether they 
have done it well or not is before you for a 
verdict. It is a fact that there are just as good 
writers for the 'Nook among women as among 
men. Naturally enough, the "eternal femi- 
nine" of all of it crops up all the way through, 
but in the main we take it to be a very credit- 
able piece of work. It is unique, and has never 
been hitherto attempted, at least not with suc- 

It may interest our readers to know that 
a much larger number of contributions were 
received for this issue than could be used, and 
they were good material, but arrived too late 
to be of service, though they will be printed 
later on. The editor requests me to say the 
next number of the Inglenook will contain his 
ideas of the present issue, and that it will be to 
the point all will agree Finally, the whole 
matter is before the reader. He can see, be- 
yond a doubt, that the women of the church 
can write, and that they will write where they 
are interested. How well they have done it is 
not for us to say, but if it is thought that it can 
be bettered, the opportunity is doubtless to be 
had of the editor for the asking. 

Elgin, III. 

9 8 

tihiie iitgleitooe:. 



It really seems but yesterday that arrange- 
ments for our first journey through Palestine 
were completed. And, in looking through the 
glasses of a woman, who by nature is not of the 
daring or venturesome sort, I am made to wonder 
why my consent was ever given to be one of a 
party who should make a twenty-one days' tour, 
on the back of a horse, camping by the way, to 
journey through the Holy Land. But I did con- 
sent and to this day have never regretted so do- 

Our dragoman — or guide — was a large and 
strong man, one who impressed us with the feel- 
ing that we could rely upon him with impunity. 
The dragoman provided the camping outfit, also, 
food and articles of comfort necessary for the 
company under his charge, and we learned after- 
wards that his task was no light or easy one. 

Now all that was left for us to do was that of 
selecting one's own horse and saddle, and that 
meant a great deal more than one might at first 
thought imagine. Horses were brought by their 
owners to a certain place for the tourists' inspec- 
tion, and such a lot of poor animals I am sure 
you never set eyes upon. Many were sore-eyed, 
sore-backed and lame. Everybody was anxious 
to provide himself with a strong and good trot- 
ting horse, and also to have a saddle which fit 
nicely upon the horse's back, and was comforta- 
ble to sit upon as well. As a party of tourists — 
eighteen in number — we left Jerusalem in rather 
low spirits. It was the season of latter rains, 
and never did I see water from the clouds come 
down faster. We were illy prepared for rain 
storms, and a good soaking was our portion. This 
then was our introduction to discomforts, and each 
day brought with it much to be endured. Locat- 
ing camp we learned but very little about, for the 
servants and camp outfit always went ahead, they 
to set up the tents and have things in readiness 
for the tired and weary company. Each person 
knew his tent by the number painted upon 
it, and, in a very short time after dismounting, 
we found a resting place. I was always tired, 
never rested. This, however was the general 
complaint of all the ladies and a glance at their 
woebegone-looking faces told the story. 

The settling of a camp of tourists was always 
a very great attraction for the lazy natives, who 
gathered in crowds sitting in stooping postures 
and watching every movement of the tourists. 
Many times they proved nuisances when it be- 
came necessary for the dragoman to order them 
to leave the camp. 

The tents used in our camp seemed of extra 
good canvas and for comfort and beauty too 
were lined with heavy cotton cloth, upon which 
had been sewed red calico cut in some fanciful 
design. Upon entering our tent for the first 
time we were strongly impressed with its cheerful 
look. The lining of these canvas homes remind- 
ed us very much of quilts belonging to our an- 
cestors, and we remarked, " Where did they get 
their quilts for decorating purposes ? " 

In each tent were found all necessary toilet ap- 
pliances for the comfort of tired and weary men 
and women. Our bedsteads were iron with 
springs and mattresses on them. The bedding 
seemed new and clean, which fact pleased us 
greatly, for we had a horror of sleeping in beds 
where vermin had sway. 

The nights were damp and chilly, and fresh air 
in the tents was plentiful. One of the most un- 
comfortable things to be endured by myself, was 
the lack of bed covering, and as a result of this 
sleep did not always come to me at the proper 
time. Those were not the days of the hot water- 
bottles, that greatest of conveniences of the trav- 
eler. After substituting glass wine bottles for 
the rubber sort, I found my comfort was tenfold 
greater and sleep came without coaxing. 

One tent was used expressly for a dining tent, 
and was lined with the same sort of cotton cloth 
and red calico as was the rest of the tents. It 
was large enough to hold a table around which 
eighteen people could be seated comfortably. 
Rugs were spread in all tents making it quite 
comfortable to our feet. Only at meal time were 
we in the dining tent. The dragoman's large 
chest stood in it and he stood guard over the 
chest because the silverware, and valuables be- 
longing to the tourists were placed in it for safe 
keeping. This chest was the bed upon which 
the dragoman slept night after night, during the 
entire journey through the Holy Land. 

Our cook was a man. Women are never em- 
ployed there as servants. His kitchen was usu- 





ally the open air, but sometimes a small tent was 
carried along for that purpose. His cookstove 
wa- an odd-looking- thing, being a long shallow 
box of sheet-iron, with a perforated, grate-like 
Bottom, and six legs which could be folded up. 
The fuel was charcoal. It was put in large sacks 
and carried upon the backs of mules and donkeys. 
So large were the sacks of charcoal that they 
nearly overbalanced the animals, threatening to 
topple them over. 

Excellent meals were cooked upon those odd- 
looking stoves and upon coming into camp our 
appetites were sharpened by the odor of cooking 
meats and vegetables, and the desire for the even- 
ing dinner bell to ring grew exceedingly great. 

Camp was usually broken up while we were at 
breakfast, and you can imagine our surprise at 
finding tents struck and baggage and all loaded 
upon the backs of mules when we appeared after 
the meal. Many times our belongings had not 
been gathered together preparatory to moving, 
yet. to our certain knowledge nothing of ours 
was ever lost or stolen, and, upon arrival in camp 
we were sure to find everything in place in our 

The last loads to leave a camping place were 
usually camp stools and table furniture, and then 
came the time for us to mount our horses and be 
off. In taking a glance over the grounds one 
could seldom see any signs of camp left other 
than the ashes which the cook had cleaned out of 
his cooking stove before it had been folded up 
for removal to the new camping place. This was 
the daily process, and was only changed when an 
earlier or later start was ordered. 

The dragoman had full management of all the 
affairs of the camp, and it was he who instructed 
the servants as to where each camping place was 
to be located. One thing in particular was stud- 
ied and that was an easy access to water, pleasant 
surroundings for the company were likewise tak- 
en into account. Very often the distance between 
camping places is very great and I have a very 
vivid recollection of having been in the saddle 
ten hours in one day, stopping only long enough 
to eat our noonday luncheon, so ten hours be- 
tween points means a wide stretch of country to 
be traveled over in one day. 

It would be hard to give a detailed account of 
the many pleasures enjoyed while on this journey, 

so likewise would it be hard for me to enumerate 
the many discomforts connected with a twenty- 
one days' horseback ride through the roughest 
of rough roads. There was one pleasure 
in the which every woman took an active 
part, and that was shedding of tears. They were 
indulged in somewhere along the line of march 
and at different stages of the journey. You need 
not be surprised at such a statement for there 
were many things transpiring daily to bring even 
the bravest woman to tears. Horses were at 
times hard to manage, being frisky and tricky. 
They are very sensible animals and when they 
had enough of carrying their burden would some- 
times seek a mudhole in which to lie down, very 
much to the discomfort of the lady and unex- 
pectedly too. 

Rivers deep and wild were forded which gave 
us concern as to how we might protect our feet 
and skirts from the water which seemed likely to 
reach them. Roads so stony that horses went 
stumbling along for hours sometimes falling, 
sending the rider headlong, only to arise with 
bruised face and blackened eyes. One lady was 
so unfortunate as to break a limb, and was tied 
several days on the back of her horse, riding 
backward because it were better so. All of the 
above things and more were counted in with the 
discomforts of a journey through the Holy Land. 

Mt. Morris, III. 

T **• V 



Rejoice in your youth and cling to it, for it 
will never return, " do not chafe against the 
guide of your youth," but keep your young heart 
free from resentment, and your face from frowns. 
Be thankful that you are care free and in posses- 
sion of all that makes life worth living. Do not 
burden yourself with costly trappings. Let those 
come later. Do not fib about your age. No one 
cares how old you are. and deception in the mat- 
ter only makes you contemptible. 

Be sweet, personally, socially, morally, and 
spiritually. Personally, by the strictest attention 
to cleanliness in person and clothing. It is not 
necessarv that vour face be beautiful in order to 



be sweet, as goodness or kindness makes any 
face sweet. Cultivate a sweet expression, not 
the affected smile, but genuine loveliness. When 
you stand before the glass to adjust your hat, 
notice carefully how that mouth sets, and the 
forehead, too. See if there are perpendicular 
furrows between the brows. You cannot lay 
them off with your hat. 

Be sweet socially, beginning at home. You 
are free from the cares that burden your parents 
or guardians, who minister to your needs, and it 
is your duty to give them all the comfort that a 
sweet-tempered girl can ; awaken an interest in 
them to life by keeping them acquainted with all 
the pleasant incidents that come to you while you 
are away from them. You are mistaken if you 
think that they cannot take an interest in your 
youthful joys. They will, and in turn give many 
an interesting account of incidents in their young 
days : and this, too, will make the younger mem- 
bers of the family love you, and the happiness of 
all will be increased by sociability. 

And in school or amoung your young asso- 
ciates do not show too much partiality. Be care- 
ful to see to it that the over-diffident ones are 
not neglected. Of course everyone has particular 
friends, but they are for your private company, 
and it is very unkind to show all the attention to 
one in public, when others have a claim upon you 
— and if the humblest man in the community lifts 
his hat to you, reward him with a kind word and 
a smile. It will be a blessing to him and reflect 
one on you. Be candid, as nothing will endear 
you to your associates more than candor. 

Be sweet morally. Abstain from slang and 
rough words, and above all from repeating vile 
stories. If anyone tells you a bad tale, just try 
to get it out of your mind, and you will find that 
no easy task ; but don't try to get rid of it by pol- 
luting another's ears. Don't ever say you are 
pleased to death, or worried to death, tired to 
death. It is a form of exaggeration that is very 
common, yet very improper. Words lose their 
meaning when so used. The words awful, horri- 
ble, terrible, etc., have no meaning as used in com- 
mon conversation, and grate on the ears of 
refined persons. Say what you mean and use 
only those words that express the matter plainly, 
leaving off superfluous phrases. 

Be sweet spiritually by " remembering thy Cre- 

ator in the days of thy youth." Never pronounce 
the sacred names except in praise or prayer. 
There never was a time when it was not a sin to 
take those names in vain, and it grates painfully 
on the ears of refined and pious persons. Never 
ridicule anyone's religion, but you cannot be bet- 
ter employed than in comparing the different re- 
ligions with the words of your Savior. That will 
be of lasting benefit to you. Be sweet in the sight 
of God as well as in the sight of man. So shall 
you be forever blessed. 



•fr 4r 4t 


I feel my inability to write upon this subject, 
but with a limited knowledge will give you some 
idea of what the majority of the people in the 
large cities have to endure, and how they live. 
If the readers of the 'Nook were to undergo it 
for a year, they would rebel against the thought 
of it. 

The people who have a way of making a liveli- 
hood, commanding from $12 to $20 a week, live 
in flats ranging from the first floor to the fifth 
and sixth, which means the ascent of five flights 
of stairs ere those who live in the top flat can 
enter, for which they pay from $10.00 to $15.00 
per month rent. Not a foot of ground is theirs. 
When they get to the ground they are on the 
street, and that is everybody's, and nobody's after 

There are as many as nine families have their 
exit to the street through the same hallway. Yet 
there are families that live side by side for 
months (the doors by which they enter their 
flats not more than four or five feet apart) that 
do not exchange words with each other. The 
poorer class, that do not have regular work, are 
crowded in smaller quarters. Some have three, 
some two, and some only one large room b 
live in, and are generally a class of people who 
care not what comes or goes. All the energy 
and ambition they ever had has been crushed out 
of them. The main reason that they cannot get 
work is that they do not have a particular trade. 
A " Jack of all trades " is not needed, hence he 
is soon laid off. Then they spend what they have 

ma i 

-■ -!:::: 

is sail 



i (Ian, 




amed for liquor to drown their troubles. The 
ooms they occupy are in disorder, dirty, and 
ilthy. The mother and children correspond to 
he same. 

I call to mind one woman, a widow, with two 
ittle girls, aged two and four years respectively, 
iving in three rooms. The kitchen was large, 
he two bed rooms quite small. The bed rooms 
n all flats are so small that when you get a bed 
n them you have barely room to get around it. 
[ do not think she used liquor, but was dispirited 
tnd did not know how to do any work neatly, 
lence when she was employed a few times at a 
)lace she was dismissed. She became discour- 
sed, ill-natured and permitted herself to go un- 
cempt. The children were the same. She did not 
enow how to care for what she did earn. When 
■ou called you would find the floor dirty and 
;;;-* )ieces of bread strewn about, and yet she would 
e in a >lead poverty. This is a sample of the slums, 
accept that liquor is indulged in. 
I hear you say. " What can you do for them? " 
■::::~ They would not know how to use what would be 
riven them. The only thing we can do is to min- 
i jle with them, try to gain their children and teach 
: hem a better way. If the people can be got on 
higher plane of living it would be half the vie- 
on-. This can not be done in a day. You can 
vork and work and think you are accomplishing 
j:;,; lothing, but I believe we do not always reap 
what we sow. Others may live to see what we 
. onged to see. 

Xow a little about their amusements and pleas- 
ares. The children gather on the street and play 
■ james. Here all classes of children are thrown 
jv, Yi ogether, and it is almost impossible to bring up 
hildren in the right way and permit them to as- 

.ociate with all other classes of children. During 
he summer season the city has arranged to give 
he poor children two weeks in the country, and 

.-!; n ilso a sail up the Hudson once a week. It is not 

-; iupposed that the same persons go every week, 

Dut that everyone has the privilege. You get 

i ticket, which is given, and this will entitle you 

, j^rn :o a place on the barge, a pint of milk and a few 

:-:-_■'_ emon crackers in the forenoon and afternoon. 

t . ; * This, with your lunch, makes all the refreshments 
leeded. The barge leaves the pier in the morn- 
ng between eight and nine and reaches Excelsior 
^jsja jrove, a sail of some twenty miles, soon after 

twelve, where we all go ashore, climb the hills, 
quench our parched tongues with the cool spring 
water and eat our lunch. We have about two 
hours here. When the whistle sounds the time 
to return all must come on board the barge, and 
soon we are rocked on the bosom of the Hudson. 
The sail home is grand, and we arrive 
between five and six. We have enjoyed this sail 
many times with a number of the mission friends. 
The different homes in the city that care for or- 
phans and poor children give them an outing by 
chartering as many cars as are needed and going 
to some beach or seashore to spend the day. All 
the different Sunday schools give the children an 
outing during the summer season. The Xew 
York Evening Journal gave the poor children an 
outing, by taking a carload once a week to some 
seashore to spend the day. This they certainly 
enjoy. Much more could be said and yet I could 
not make you realize the true condition unless 
you can visit them personally. 
Brooklyn, A". Y. 

9 V V 



Living under the shadow of a mountain all 
her life, and on the ancestral farm which has been 
the home of the family for four generations, it 
is not remarkable that the writer loves her moun- 
tain home. The associations incident to such an 
environment have a tendency to endear the spot. 
But aside from all this, the mountain possesses 
attractions which appeal to all lovers of beauty in 

For those who never saw a mountain it is al- 
most impossible to so describe with pen as to 
make their grandeur and beauty definable. For 
those who have seen them it requires few words 
to bring to mind the huge mass of rock and earth, 
covered with trees and shrubbery, that rises in 
solemn majesty and stands guard over the valley 
below. Those who see a mountain for the first 
time are usually filled with wonder and admira- 
tion. To those to whom the mountains are a 
daily and familiar sight, they never grow old nor 
monotonous. Each season shows forth its hand- 
iwork in rendering the mountain an ever varied 
and changing picture. 


the nsra-LEisrooK:. 

The beautiful Cumberland Valley is walled in, 
as it were, by the two mountain ranges, known 
as the North and South mountains. Living near 
the North mountain the writer has had ample 
opportunity to view them in their various moods. 

The Rocky mountain native and the Mt. Po- 
pocatepetlean would probably regard a Pennsyl- 
vania mountain with derision. Nevertheless, 
among all mountains the North mountain is the 
writer's favorite and on it we take our stand. 
This mountain possesses charms both of a prac- 
tical and an sesthetical nature. 

A thick growth of timber of many varieties 
covers it. The delicious huckleberry grows here 
in abundance. Springs of clear, cold water bub- 
ble out from the rocks. The loveliest of ferns 
nourish amid the rocks. Here grows that most 
charming and fragrant of spring flowers, the 
trailing arbutus, also the laurel bush with its 
glossy, green leaves and beautiful blossoms. A 
climb up the mountain gives one a magnificent 
view of the valley spread out like a picture. 

Forest fires are frequent, often doing much 
damage to the timber on the mountain. It is a 
thrilling sight at night to view from the valley 
the fiery element extending along the mountain 
side for miles, sometimes, and resembling a huge, 
fiery serpent. 

In midwinter, when covered with a dazzling 
coat of snow, with the skeleton trees outlined in 
black on its snowy surface, the mountain is an 
impressive sight. It stands as an unyielding 
barrier of protection over the valley below, and 
to some extent shuts out the cold winds of the 
north. It fills one with awe to gaze upon its 
rugged and majestic proportions and think of 
the centuries that it has stood thus, looking over 
the valley. One could almost imagine it as say- 
ing, Men may come and men may go, but I stand 
here forever. 

When the warm days of spring come, then a 
faint tinge of green appears on the mountain. 
Gradually this deepens and increases until finally 
the whole mountain stands forth arrayed in liv- 
ing green of every shade, but all blending togeth- 
er in one harmonious whole. Through the hot 
days of summer, when the valley is parched and 
dry. the mountain presents a green and inviting 

It is in autumn, however, when the frosts come, 
that the mountain looks its best. Usually in 
October occurs what might be called the festival 
of the foliage. Of every color and shade, from 
deepest orange and crimson to brightest scarlet 
interspersed with the dark green of the pines 
the mountain resembles an immense bank of flow 
ers. For a brief period its glory lasts, then si 
lently but surely fades away. 

The autumn rains and storms come and the 
mountain is stripped of its gorgeous covering 
and left bare and brown, until covered with the 
snows of winter again. 

Newburg, Pa. 

t T *r 



Are our colleges match-making institutions? 
So they have been called by some; and judging 
from the number of students who go out from 
them and marry, the name does not seem so in- 

This subject has its amusing features, but we 
leave them for former collegiates to reflect upon 
at their leisure, for it is the earnest side we wish 
to consider, earnest because of the fact that young 
people are continually going out from our schools 
and committing matrimony, earnest because of 
the unhappy results and life-long misery of an 
unfortunate marriage. 

Among our acquaintances we count sixty-six 
couples who first met at college. Sixty-six youti; 
men and as many young women actually fell in 
love at school. Does this mean sixty-six happy 
homes ? The writer vouches for one, and doubt- 
less the other sixty-five can say as much. Do 
you wonder why so many college matches? 
Look about you and note how many times the 
young people of your community are to be found', 
together in society. They meet at church, at so-J 
cial gatherings in the neighborhood, in the town, 
at the district school, until ere long the friendship; 
between some young gentleman and lady be-j 
comes intimate, and a wedding is the result. 

This is true all over our country everywhere,! 
and why should it not be true at school? It oc-. 
curs oftener there because the college brings to-} 
gether a greater number of young people than 



are found in a neighborhood. Day by day they 
are thrown together in society. They put forth 
united efforts for the preparation of programs, 
etc.. and thus the duties of a young man and 
woman may be for a time largely the same. This, 
with their other school work in general, suggests 
subjects for conversation interesting to both. 
Everyone who has seen students together knows 
how easy it is for them to converse, their only 
trouble seeming to be to know when to stop 
talking. In this way each one is likely to find 
a nature congenial to his own, and as naturally as 
water runs down hill they sooner or later find 
themselves talking on more serious and personal 
topics. Should this be favorably considered, 
everybody knows the end of the whole matter. 

Did the college make the match? In a sense, 
Yes. In another, Xo. It is responsible in that 
it brings together so many young people, and that 
from the very nature of school work the oppor- 
tunities for association are increased. However, 
these students have done only what hundreds of 
others who never attended college did. They 
have found their dispositions congenial and con- 
ducive to a happy life together, for if they are 
truly honest they have not married because of 
some petty fancy, each having found in the other 
a perpetual fortune which consists of intelli- 
gence, industry and geniality of soul. They have 
one faith, one aim, and Heaven has made their 
spirits one before so pronounced in public. He 
who is true to self admires the noble character of 
his friend, and he who marries not for beauty of 
soul marries not as God intended. 

Let none infer that we believe in young people 
attending our colleges for the purpose of secur- 
ing a life companion. Far from it. If a young 
man or woman does not attend for the intellectual 
and religious culture to be obtained there, better 
not go at all. 

Daleville, Va. 

t ♦ 1 



These observations must necessarily be con- 
fined to one county in Pennsylvania and the Gem 

City of Northern Illinois. But what is true of 
the schools in these places is perhaps generally 
true of the schools all over our country. 

In the Keystone State the first requisite is a 
certificate received from the County Superin- 
tendent after passing a satisfactory examination 
in the prescribed branches. The certificate, with 
a written application stating what particular 
school is desired, is presented to the Board of 
Directors. This is usually done at a meeting 
appointed by the directors. The applicants with- 
draw and the election takes place. The success- 
ful candidates are called in and are asked to sign 
an agreement. One of the conditions of this 
agreement is that the teacher will scrub, or cause 
to be scrubbed, her schoolroom a certain number 
of times during the term. 

The next step is to find out which of the pa- 
trons holds the key. Having obtained this pre- 
cious property, the teacher elect goes to the 
schoolhouse, unlocks the door, walks in, looks 
around and says, " I am monarch of all I sur- 
vey." If the previous teacher was considerate 
and left the room in a good condition, all that 
is necessary to begin the new life may be to 
clean down the cobwebs. Or, if the school is in 
one of the little mining towns where the boys 
feel it their duty to throw a stone through every 
window pane during the summer, the struggle 
with stones and broken glass may prove an inter- 
esting task. 

The first day of school comes. The teacher, 
of course, is there bright and early. About eight 
o'clock the children begin to come. They are 
timid and bashful. Drusilla after answering a 
few questions musters up courage enough to tell 
the teacher about her new dress. Grandma 
bought it for her and wanted it made one way, 
but Aunt Jane made it and she made it this way. 

By nine o'clock the teacher has the problem 
before her and is generally left to solve it as 
best she can. The County Superintendent pops 
in once during the term to make his observations. 
If the teacher is energetic she may sometimes in- 
duce some of the parents and even one or more 
of the directors to visit the school. 

As the teachers in most of these district 
schools are changed every year, and each teach- 
er grades according to her idea of success, the 


the iira-XjEnsrooic. 

new teacher generally requires about one month 
to get the school thoroughly classified and in 
good working condition. 

She has all grades and of necessity many 
classes. This makes her time for recitations 
short. But as the classes are usually small good 
results may be obtained. 

Here in Elgin after passing a satisfactory ex- 
amination and paying the County Superintend- 
ent one dollar he gives what is called a license 
to teach. An application blank provided by the 
Board of Education is filled out. Unless there 
is a shortage of teachers the name is put on the 
substitute list. When any of the regular teach- 
ers for any reason is unable to teach a call is 
made on one of the substitutes. Her work is 
inspected by principal and superintendent and if 
the teaching qualifications are apparent she will 
be hired as a regular teacher when there is a va- 
cancy. When once a position is gained it may 
be held so long as the work proves satisfactory. 
The present superintendents are wide awake, 
hard workers. And while abundant opportuni- 
ties for improvement are given the teachers are 
held accountable for those opportunities. 

Each teacher has two classes, varying from 
fifteen to thirty in a class. Each room is provid- 
ed with a course of study which tells just what 
is expected of each class. The teacher is com- 
pletely hedged about and with the assistance of 
principal and superintendent is required to fill 
her niche. The teachers of each grade are given 
opportunities for visiting the best teachers in the 
grade and .occasionally grades above or below, so 
that the schools of the entire city are kept in 
touch almost as if taught by one teacher. 

The rooms are finished in hard wood with 
oiled floors. They are heated, ventilated, swept, 
dusted and in every way cared for by the jani- 

On the day the school month ends the report 
is made out and sent to the principal, who in 
turn sends her report to the Board of Education. 
On a certain day of each month the board issues 
the checks, and on the following day every teach- 
er gets what belongs to her. 

Some advantages belong to the city school, 
and some to the country school. A good con- 
scientious teacher will do much good in either, 

while an indifferent one will squander golden 


Elgin, III. 

4. 4. 4. 



It means, first, that she needs have a good 
deal of the elastic quality in her nature. That 
is, her peace of mind will often depend upon her 
ability to adjust herself quickly and easily to dif- 
ferent surroundings, environment, and emergen- 
cies. When the doctor's family move into a 
community it means that the wife's social status 
is that of the wife of a professional man. She 
is thereby advantageously brought into contact 
with the culture and social caste of the place. 
She needs therefore to be a woman of refinement 
and culture, and right here if she be one of our 
own Tunker faith she needs be strong of pur- 
pose to avoid the whirlpool of fashion. As the 
wife of a physician she has the advantage of 
meeting and associating with the learned of the 
various professions, and happy is she can she 
meet them upon an intellectual level. Aside from 
this she comes into daily contact with the various 
and manifold afflictions of humanity in general. 
This means a patient ear, a sympathetic heart 
and sometimes her own personal ministration. 

She must be an expert housewife to keep 
household affairs from getting into a hopeless 
jumble. The care of house and family devolves 
almost entirely upon her, as the income of the 
average doctor will not permit the expense of 
servants, and she needs often do the family 
washing, serve substantial meals on short order 
at all hours of day or night, for the doctor is a 
hungry man. This with broken hours of rest 
makes the house affairs a problem at times. Up- 
on social occasions in her home she needs fre- 
quently perform the duties of both host and host- 
ess in case the doctor is suddenly called away. 
It further means that she is deprived very much 
of her husband's society. In times of much sick- 
ness, there is only the occasional coming home 
for a few hours' rest or something to eat, and 
then there is the anxiety for husband's safety on 
dark nights when the storm king holds carnival, 
or when the intense cold would fain induce the 
traveler into the eternal slumber, or perhaps 

the insro-XjiEnsroo-K:. 


death is stalking about in the form of pestilence. 
It means that often, even into the hours of the 
morning, she sits by the fireside too anxious to 
sleep, and should the 'Nookman in his night 
vigils for genius conceive the idea of the possi- 
bility of an article from the pen of a doctor's 
wife, then there is trouble in a new quarter. 

Yes, the life of a doctor's wife is full of alter- 
nating lights and shadows, only sometimes when 
adversity overtakes, or health fails, and sickness 
enters the home, the shadows deepen. 

Morrill, Kans. 

* * * 



In the first place this narrative will be limited 
to recent years. For the frontier on the plains 
of thirty years ago is far too far back for my 
appreciation. The experience of the years we 
have met has fully satisfied us with the present. 

We arrived here in the spring of '96 — the wet 
season — and of course the prairies were very 
wet. Thousands of ponds and lakes dotted the 
country over. When we were at length permit- 
ted to see our claim, or our future home, which 
was but a handful of dry prairie grass bunched 
up on the broad and seemingly boundless prairie 
save one house a couple miles to the south- 
west there was not a settler, shanty, stack or 
board for ten or fifteen miles around. Things 
were new enough for a young woman with three 
small children (not accustomed to such life) 
to do her share toward making a home on the 
plains? We were twenty-five miles from town, 
and for many miles a trackless prairie between us 
and town. Coming from town to our home we 
were often far into the night in reaching home. 
Some of the 'Nook readers, I know, are not able 
to imagine my feelings when night would over- 
take us many miles from our destination. The 
children tired, hungry, and sleepy, from the long 

ride, and all of us perched upon the top of a load 
of household goods, lumber or something of the 
kind, and have to drive a team of wild mules 
which I would trail behind the team my hus- 
band drove. Sometimes the mosquitoes were so 
numerous we could but little more than breathe 
for them, to say nothing of the worry they were 
to the children and the team. Then fancy your- 
self trying to guide a team of heedless mules 
while they turn from the trail and bouncing you 
over stones, badger dens and ditches, scattering 
you over the prairie half broken to pieces ! Such 
has been my experience with them on the plains. 

Our first home was a neat little sod house, 
twelve by fourteen inside, one door, two windows, 
a roof of poles and hay over it with thin sods to 
keep the hay in place. In this house were four 
weary travelers begged for lodging over night, 
and insisted on giving me a dollar for the hospi- 
tality; a bed of hay on the ground floor! We 
are located on the bank of a beautiful lake half a 
mile wide by eight or ten miles long. Though 
the prairie is level here there was not a neighbor's 
shack in sight. We did not get lonesome, for we 
had so much work to do and the wild geese, ducks 
and water fowl kept up a chattering all night. 
We captured a brood of young wild geese which 
were very interesting pets. We have often seen 
wolves and antelopes not far from our house. 

A few more words lest this will reach the waste 
basket. With all the hardships and trials, nature 
seems to lend a helping hand. This great plain 
is almost a continuous flower garden in summer 
season, beautiful red lilies, wild daisies, ox-eye- 
daisies, crocus, golden-rod, etc. Many changes 
now greet our eyes, shacks with neighbors, and 
cultivated fields, better buildings, big crops to 
repay us for our hardships, privation and toil. I 
wish the dear 'Nookers could see our home now, 
or the picture we had taken on New Year day 
of our home, and then the one of the feeble start 
six years ago. 

Rock Lake, North Dakota. 


tihiie insra-LEiNrooK:. 





" How dear to my heart are the scenes of my childhood, 
As fond recollections present them to view." 

And one of the pleasantest memories of all, is 
of the days when, happy and care free, I ran over 
the farm with my dear old father, listening to 
the many interesting stories of bears, Indian war- 
fare, and the ever-new story of the " Blue Dog," 
a pet of his, in his young days. No one could 
excel my father in story-telling, and the tales had 
been repeated to us so often that we came to 
know them by heart, and would correct him in- 
stantly if he varied the slightest in the narrative. 
Then, when the day's work was done, we gath- 
ered on the front porch and raised our 
voices in glad song, while through the dreamy 
twilight came the dear notes of night birds, 
crickets, frogs and owls, and the mingled scent 
of roses and the honeysuckle that clambered over 
the porch came faintly to our nostrils. Happy 
childhood days, how glad and yet how fleeting. 

We " were seven " and the dear mother must 
be helped to bear the load, so we had many light 
tasks to perform, and all days were not sunshine. 
But childhood griefs, while sharp, are but the 
trials of a moment, and so we moved along, each 
day forgotten as the next began. 

Many and varied were the pets upon which we 
lavished our affections. There were dogs, cats, 
birds, young rabbits, and last, but not least, a 
tiny polecat, as glossy and beautiful as one could 
wish to see. He was harmless and gentle, but 
when aroused would fly around and back up 
against you, plainly showing his mode of war- 
fare. He ran away at last, and we mourned him 
sincerely until new friends came to occupy his 
place. Five gray squirrels that bit and ran 
from us were these friends, and it took several 
weeks to show then they had nothing to fear 
from us. They took up their abode in an unused 
cupboard in the woodshed, and they would chat- 

ter and scold at anyone who came near. We 
would find them curled up in the mending-basket 
and all kinds of queer places. They would 
climb on the chairs, and from there leap onto 
your shoulder, and talk in their lively manner. 
When fall came, the squirrels left for the .woods, 
but the following summer one of them came back 
and being frightened by the dog ran off again, 
and we saw them no more. 

" Jim," a glossy crow, was a dear pet, and, by 
the way, no more interesting pets can be found 
than these same fellows. But, — mischievous, — 
yes, none more so! Anything small that could 
be carried off and hidden, straightway disap- 
peared. Sitting on the window sill one day Jim 
talked and talked, meanwhile keeping an eye on 
the silver thimble I wore, and when, in a pause 
in my work, the crow flew with it to the top of 
the barn, and only by pelting him with stones 
could I persuade him to drop it. In the morn- 
ing, when the windows were opened upstairs, 
Jim always flew in and strutted up and down 
before the mirror, talking and evidently admiring 
himself immensely. And he never failed to pull 
all the pins from the cushions and drop them out 
on the porch roof. Anything else small and 
movable went with the pins. One day he went 
with mother to gather the lettuce, and he 
watched the proceeding closely and when she 
was safely out of sight he gravely pulled up all 
the young cabbage plants, and then flew content- 
edly away. For this act he was condemned to 
death, but before the sentence could be put into 
execution he fell into the slop barrel and was 
drowned. And amid loud lamentation he was 
buried by the small members of the family. And 
no crow ever had a nicer shroud or coffin, nor 
had a more touching sermon preached over him, 
than our " Jim." 

Memories of other pets and other balmy days, 
of childhood sports and dear school friends 
crowd on, waiting to be told. But time and 
space forbid, and these scenes and times, so dear 

THE iintgleitooz:. 


to me, can but awaken a passing interest in 

West Elkton, Ohio. 

*f* *r v 



Yesterday morning when our neighbor went 
out to feed his horse he found the lot gate open 
and the horse was gone. Rain had fallen during 
the night, so he could see her tracks very easily 
and thinking she must be somewhere near, in a 
neighbor's yard perhaps, he started to look for 
her. After tracking her for about three-fourths 
of a mile and not finding her he came back for 
his breakfast. After eating his meal he mounted 
his nephew's horse and started to follow the 
tracks again. 

He owns a farm several miles from town and 
has been driving out there quite often, so thought 
there was where she had gone. He bought the 
horse last winter of a man here in town and so 
did not know where she had been raised. He 
could tell by the tracks she had gone in a lope and 
men that he asked, had seen her go by, and said 
she was going as fast as she could. 

He tracked her until he had ridden fifteen 
miles south, to a little town, and being tired rid- 
ing, and the horse he was riding was almost tired 
out, he put it in the barn and got a livery rig 
and started on the track again. After going ten 
miles farther he found her. 

She had gone right for the old home where she 
had been raised, and the man had just tied her in 
the barn and fed her. 

There were five colts she had raised, one a 
large mule. Is it any wonder she hunted her 
way back there again, and don't you think she 
was homesick, just as much as we are sometimes? 

Our neighbor said it was a lonely farm and he 
told the man he thought he ought not sell a horse 
like that away from her home. 

When they started home with her, all her colts 
(full grown now) whinnied after her and she 
for them. 

She is in good hands now, and has a nice place, 

but it is not home. 

Sabetha, Kans. 

4. 4. 4. 



In a recent issue of the 'Nook appeared a true 
description of " Montezuma's Well." I wish to 
tell of another of nature's freaks found a short 
distance from the well. 

It is a small plot of ground surrounded by a 
clump of ash trees, where strong soda water bub- 
bles and boils up constantly, forming a number 
of small springs. 

The principal one, used for bathing, is not 
more than three feet in diameter, others are 
smaller. It is quite a pretty sight to watch the 
water and sand boiling up and the bubbles burst- 
ing on the surface, but the most interesting fea- 
ture is when standing on the bank prepared for 
bathing, you leap into the water and instead of 
sinking find you have a hard struggle to keep 
yourself in the water as it buoys you up. You 
can not reach the bottom of the spring and so 
realize a peculiar sensation, that of standing on 
nothing and trying to remain on it. 

The water is the proper temperature for bath- 
ing and the surroundings so delightful that al- 
together bathing in soda springs is both a pleas- 
ant and healthful exercise. 

Camp Verde, Ariz. 




fi^ETH^E^l PUBlilSHiriG HOUSE 
Elgin, Illinois. 

The subscription price of the Magazine is one dollar a year. It is 
a high-class publication, intended for the Home, and for the interest, 
entertainment and information, of old and young. 

Articles intended for publication should be short, of general inter- 
est, and nothing of a love story character or with either cruelty or 
killing, will be considered. 

Manuscript submitted to the Editor will be at the entire risk of 
the writer, and its return is not guaranteed. 

Subscribers wishing the address of their papers changed should 
Invariably give the old address at which they received their Ingle- 

Agents are wanted everywhere, and any reasonable number of 
sample copies will be furnished free. All communications relating 
to the Inglenook should be addressed as follows: 

(For the Inglenook.) aa-34 S. State St., Elgin, III. 

Entered at the Post Office at Elgin, 111., as Second-class Matter. 


To my readers who are well acquainted with 
the Brethren it is not necessary to explain that 
" new things " are usually thoroughly examined 
by them before they are condemned or approved. 
All can see the wisdom of this. 

In many localities the Sisters' Aid Society is 
properly classed under the head of New Things 
and so comes in for its share of inspection. This 
was true in our congregation. There were few 
of us, but we were anxious to do something to 
help along some of the many branches of church 

First, permission was obtained at a council 
meeting for conducting a Sisters' Aid Society. 
This was accomplished with little difficulty, 
though there were many things said that were 
not " spoken out in meeting." However, the 
brethren were willing for us to try, though they 
expected our attempt would be of short life. 

We meet from house to house, once in two 
weeks in winter and monthly in summer. The 
dinner is donated by the hostess, each member 
present paying five cents to the treasurer of the 

society for the same. It is not expected that the 
hostess make an elaborate spread, but provide 
only a simple meal. The officers are elected ev- 
ery six months and consist of a president, vice- 
president, secretary-treasurer and assistant. 

The work of the society consists of making 
garments and selling them, as well as donating 
some, quilting quilts, knotting comforters, mak- 
ing caps, bonnets, etc. At present we are piec- 
ing quilts which we expect to donate to the Old 
Folks' Home. 

Many who opposed us in the beginning are 
now our firm supporters. Even good causes, 
however, have their drawbacks. There is a pos- 
sibility of the Aid Society being expected to meet 
expenses that ought to be provided for by the 
church as a body, through the church treasurer. 

At each meeting all come as early as possible. 
Work begins with the arrival of the first mem- 
bers and each one is supplied as she takes her 
place in the circle of workers. During part of 
the time selections are read by one of the com- 
pany from the Messenger or some book on re- 
ligious life and work. Before the meeting closes 
there is a Scripture reading and prayer. After- 
wards the business of the meeting is brought up, 
minutes of the previous meeting read, place of 
next meeting decided upon and plans for work, 
donations, etc., are discussed. 

I believe that all who attend regularly feel that 
the time thus spent is a paying investment. 

Herring, Ohio. 

* * * 



" Pride goeth before destruction, and a 
haughty spirit before a fall." Pride of heart is 
one of the greatest evils we have in this world, 
for it keeps people striving for worldly honors, 
to the neglect of heavenly things. If all pride 
could be removed from the hearts of men there 
would be nothing to hinder the Spirit from re- 
vealing the truth of God to our hearts and minds, 
thus bringing us to the knowledge of his will. 
Humility is one of the noblest things of the 
Spirit of Christ in our hearts, for it seeks only 
to do and be what is good and true, but also be- 
cause it is right and honors God. 

Therefore, in order to live Christian lives we 
must exterminate the root of pride from our 
hearts, for Christ entreats us to " be clothed with 
humility, for he resisteth the proud but giveth 
grace to the humble." 
East Akron, Ohio. 

+ + + 

tihiie i:isra-:r_.:E:isroo:K:. 



Those who are on their way to heaven have 
no time to stand and gaze about. Their motto 
should be, " Holiness to the Lord." There is 
no standing still in this important work. We 
should be continually growing " in grace and 
in the knowledge of our Lord and Savior, Jesus 
Christ." The Christian who is in a lukewarm 
state is in a very dangerous condition, and we are 
afraid that the number of such at present is not 
very small. 

What use is there in making a religious pro- 
fession and not at least try to come up to it ? It 
is but an injury to the cause. Such a one does 
no good for himself or anyone else. He is a 
stumblingblock to the world, and will have a 
hard time of it in the next life. 

There is no such thing as souls standing still. 
Lives either go up or they go down. Neglected, 
they descend in the scale of moral value, lose their 
beauty and act as contagious deterrents among 
those with whom they come into contact. 

There is but one remedy. It is to continually 
cultivate the higher life and the better side of our 

New Windsor, Md. 

r» ty f> o O O O 

? ? £ 

Was St. Paul a married man? 
No. St. Paul was not a married man. — Sister 
George D. Zollers, South Bend, Ind. 

What disposition should be made of gold ornaments, 
a gold watch or the like, when presented by friends? 

There are two ways. First by asking the don- 
ors to exchange the gold ornament or watch for 
something else. Second, by accepting the gift 
and laying it aside as a keepsake. — Sister Edna 
Puterbaugh, Elkhart, Ind. 

Is a person who repeats an untrue story equally culpa- 
ble with the one who originates it? 

Yes, if he is cognizant of the fact that the story 
is untrue. — Sister Joseph M. Rowland, Hagers- 
town, Md. 

At what age should a young girl be allowed to receive \ 
company of the opposite sex? 

It depends on the girl. The gentleman 
should not stay beyond the family's hour of re- 
tiring.— Sister A". /. Roop, Warrensburg, Mo. 

Should a church member publicly confess a personal 
sin not affecting others? 

If the heart is overburdened by a sin a public 
confession might be right and do good. — Sister 
Susie M. Brallier, 928 Bedford St., Johnstown, 

•* * 
Were there women teachers in early Christian times? 
Not as public teachers, but this is not to be con- 
strued as meaning they did not teach privately, 
as they may, unquestioned, now do. — Sister 
Sarah A. Sell, Newry, Pa. 
-* * 
What qualities do women most admire in men? 
Cleanliness, personally and about the house, 
good language, kindness, truth and an absence 
from the use of tobacco or intoxicants. — Sister 
Mary Netsley, Batavia, III. 

All things being equal should a sister marry outside 
of the church? 

I am inclined to think not. The common trials 
and difficulties of married life commend a com- 
munity of religious belief. — Sister Fannie Hersh- 
berger, Grantsville, Md. 

•* «•_ 

Does the sisters' garb worn in public ever really oper- 
ate against the wearer in any desirable thing? 

No. On the other hand it is a kind of safe- 
guard against giddy and dangerous society. 
Our garb would not introduce us into question- 
able places of amusement. And when a young 
sister lets a worldly young man influence her to 
forsake her religion she is giving him power over 
her to lead her into any kind of trouble he chooses. 
I think our garb speaks for us strength of char- 
acter, and commands respect and love from those 
who are worthy of our society. — Sister Howard 
H. Keim, Ladoga, Ind. 





First because of its beauty and pleasures. 
Second, because of the healthful atmosphere. 
Third, because of its prosperity. 

As many have never seen a prairie I will try 
and give a brief description of one. Just imagine 
yourself on a pony or in a buggy, riding out over 
a country that is one vast and apparently limit- 
less stretch of green, dotted here and there with 
buttercups and daisies. And as you spin along 
the sunflower with its disk of yellow rays nods 
and bends in the breezes as though wishing you 
good luck and a good time. If you happen to be 
in a wheat belt there seems to be nothing but 
boundless acres of green or golden wheat as far 
as the eye can see. 

As many live in mountainous countries they 
cannot appreciate the plains until they visit them 
or live there awhile. 

In the spring and summer how beautiful the 
boundless area of green billowy prairie looks 
with its robe of blue grass rising, falling, swayed 
by the invigorating breeze, which gives new life 
and health to .all it comes in contact with. 
Healthfulness is one of the most important fea- 
tures of a prairie home. There are not so many 
grumbly, grunty people here, who are always 
complaining of the " lung trouble," " back 
aches," etc. If one gets the blues or " down in 
the mouth " all he has to do is to go out in the 
balmy, bracing winds for a ride, and he will be 
sure to come back in high spirits. 

One thing about Kansas, when people get dis- 
couraged and go to some other State to seek a 
home, they are almost always sure to come back 
to Kansas to live again. For prosperity is the 
cry of the State. Everything shows prosperity 
from the fine fat horses and milch cows grazing 
on the blue grass or clover, the big fat hogs in the 
pens that are so fat they can't stand up to eat, 
to the chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks and guin- 
eas that flock around the well-filled barns and 
granaries, growing fat for a Thanksgiving or 
Christmas roast. 

When winter comes with its snow and ice, 
when the year's work has been laid aside, then is 
when the fun begins. The Jack rabbit and cot- 

ton tails have to keep hid now, for some western 
boy or girl would be heartless enough to shoot 
them just for sport, and then they are good to 
eat also. 

Besides hunting and horseback riding we have 
sleighing parties, skating, oyster suppers, etc. 

All these and numerous other causes tend to 
make life on the plains a success. That's why I 
love my prairie home. 

Wayside, Kans. 

■X* *l* T* 



One need not worry from meal to meal 
" What to cook,'" which is such a fretful question 
for many a housekeeper. Hygienic food is a 
simple food simply cooked. 

Wheat, having in it the chief elements of the 
body, can and should make up the principal diet 
prepared and cooked in various ways. A wheat 
breakfast food, milk, eggs, good vegetables, vari- 
ous grains, occasional good beef, fish, fowl, all 
well cooked, seasoned simply, and an abundance 
of fruit will make up quite a list of simple, health- 
ful foods. 

Wheat being the chief food can in so many 
ways be home prepared that you may know it is 
not adulterated as in so many of the prepared 
foods. It is a satisfaction to know what you are 

The housewife's time need not be taken up 
with pies and pastries of endless, needless kinds, 
but the hygienic food gives the housekeeper time 
for recreation and storing the mind with useful 

Then it is the best food for children. They 
should not be fed on strong diet with much 
meats, fats, and sweets, or their organism will be 
weakened and they will grow up pale and sickly. 
I believe if the American people would all adopt 
the hygienic foods the generations would grow 
stronger and live longer than at present, and 
much suffering would be banished from these 
bodies of ours. 

When using the hygienic foods a person will 
not suffer the ills and bad feelings, and, may I 
add, often ill humor if he happens to miss a meal 
at the proper time, as would a higher liver, es-- 
pecially one who is a habitual strong coffee drink- 




er or a tobacco user. Anything we eat or drink 
and which we know to be hurtful to our bodies 
is a sin and we will have to pay the penalty. Our 
motto should be, " Whatever we do, whether we 
eat or drink, we should do all to the glory of 
God," and take care of our body which is the 
temple of God. It is not all in hygienic food to 
live a hygienic life. Caring for our bodies in 
various ways, in healthful dressing, healthful 
outdoor exercise, in moderate work, in even tem- 
per, cheerfulness, contentment, happiness — these 
and many more all go to make a hygienic, happy 

McPherson, Kans. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 



About the first of April the little white daisies 
begin to peep up at the sky, often covered with 
snow, in the lower altitudes of our mountauious 
State. In higher localities they do not blossom 
until later, according to the altitude. In some 
places the first blossoms do not appear until June. 
The daisies are abundant on hillsides and hill- 
tops nearly all over the State. But the number 
and variety of flowers that gladden our hearts 
in summer-time I cannot begin to describe. So 
will only mention a few by name. 

The wild rose is a welcome guest in June ; also 
the white primrose is abundant. A dainty vari- 
ety of wild flax grows on the hills in some local- 
ities, and blossoms twice in one season. The elk- 
horn cactus is the most admired variety of early 
flowers. It grows on the eastern slope of the 
mountains, and blossoms in May and June. The 
plant grows about three feet high, is very thorny, 
and the blossoms are rose-red with thick petals 
and can be kept nicely a week without water after 
being taken from the plant. There are also other 
varieties of cactus which blossom. Then we 
have the dainty harebell, the bluebell, and the 
large white tulip, and a kind of dainty little pink, 
a small, low, purple flower that seems to love the 
sun exceedingly, and shows its beauty only when 
the sun smiles upon it. The wild clematis is a 
lovely vine, climbing up the rugged rocks and 
blossoming profusely. 

The wild columbine is probably the most beau- 

tiful flower of the high altitudes, growing upon 
Grand Mesa, in the vicinity of Cripple Creek, 
and elsewhere. They are larger and more beau- 
tiful at the former-named place. The plant, in- 
cluding seed stem, grows to a height of eighteen 
inches. This has several blossom stems, each of 
which has a cluster of blossoms. Some of the 
blossoms are as large as a teacup. They are 
snow-white with a golden center, sky-blue with a 
golden center. Some are a delicate pink, some 
pink shaded off to a sky-blue on the edge, some 
cream white shaded off to pink on the edge. 

Other flowers are the sweet pea, honeysuckle, 
monkshood, the larkspur, the Indian pink, the 
wild cypress, and the glorious old sunflower ; cle- 
oma, or spider lily, thistle, golden-rod, geranium, 
violet, and many other flowers both familiar and 
unfamiliar to the plains. The larkspur grows as 
high as a man's head in the high altitudes, and is 
very abundant. It is poison to cattle, and causes 
death in a few minutes unless the animal thus 
poisoned is at once bled. But it is of short dura- 
tion. The Indian pink is usually of a bright 
scarlet color, except in high altitude, where it 
may be either pink, red, purple or white. The 
wild cypress grows upon a plant about two feet 
high, has a number of long spikes, each of which 
is covered with dainty scarlet blossoms, the same 
shape as cultivated cypress. There is also a 
white and a pink variety, but they are rare. 

In the highest altitudes the dainty little blos- 
soms come out under the snow, and as it melts 
away, one can pluck them from beside the huge 
bank of snow. But few mountain flowers have 
any fragrance, the columbine being a delightful 

Among the most admired species of plant life 
among the great and rugged mountains are the 
dainty little ferns, which grow high upon the 
rocky cliffs, clinging close to their over-hanging 
sides, and thriving without soil, moisture or sun- 
shine in any visible quantity. Most Colorado 
people are lovers of flowers, and many of them 
are like the flowers of their country, some wild 
and lacking refinement, but many of them highly 
cultured, possessing rare qualities of excellence, 
strong in faith, frugal, dauntless, courageous, 
long-lived, large-minded, full of resources, and 
able to climb to a generous height. 

Canon City, Colo. 





This little feathered fairy is a native only of 
America and adjacent islands. It is found in 
greater abundance among northern Andes be- 
tween the parallels of ten degrees north and south 
of the equator and from there they gradually 
diminish in numbers. 

It is the least of all birds, the largest not more 
than eight and one-half inches and the smallest 
two and three-eighths inches in length, yet there 
is none other so numerous in species, there being 
nearly six hundred distinct species known at pres- 
ent, none so varied in form nor so brilliant in 
plumage and so different from all others in their 
mode of life. 

The vervian is the smallest specimen of the 
feathered life that is at present known to zoolo- 
gists. It is a native of Jamaica. The plumage 
is set closely to the body and possesses a very 
rich metallic brilliancy. It has been said by one 
author, "It is a glittering fragment of the rain- 
bow," its plumage being so brilliant in color one 
would think the emerald, ruby and topaz all min- 
gle and glitter together." 

The male is always more gorgeously decorated 
than its mate. This little bird is much used for 
ornamental purposes. Thousands of them are 
killed every year and used in this way. 

They surpass all other birds in rapid and 
graceful movements and they seem to possess all 
the gifts of other birds in more profusion, except 
the melodious voice. This they do not have. 

It is said that one species sing some, but it is 
the only one, and it is a native of Jamaica. Their 
voice, as a general rule, is of a twittering charac- 
ter, not very loud nor musical, and its no^es are 
varied according to the mood of the bird which 
utters them. One can detect anger, pleasure and 
alarm, for each call forth a peculiar expression. 

Their general habits are in most respects sim- 
ilar to those of other birds, but they are mostly 
seen in the daytime, although there are some 
species that are only seen at dawn and just after 
sunset. Their flight is so rapid that one cannot 
follow them with the eye when they fly at full 
speed. It is very interesting to watch them as 
they flit from flower to flower, not remaining a 

moment at one place, but darting hither and 
thither and never alighting, as one would think, 
to rest, for they seldom trouble themselves to 
perch when feeding, but suspend themselves be- 
fore the flower they intend to feed upon and with 
their long, slender tongues are able to feed at 
ease. The legs of the humming bird are weak 
and delicate and the wings are proportionately 
strong and we may observe that by this combina- 
tion it was intended for the bird to spend 
the greater portion of its time in the air. They 
are unable to progress upon the ground or any 
flat surface by means of their legs and feet alone. 
They are so distinct from other birds in their ex- 
ternal structure and manner of flight that they 
present in every respect, except when resting, an 
appearance entirely peculiar to themselves. 
When resting they sit in a nearly vertical posi- 
tion, with head drawn down and feathers of the 
throat puffed out something in the manner of the 

Tbxy seem to take great delight in arranging, 
stroking and preening their plumage, and they do 
it with neatness and activity. This bird can only 
be rivalled by the bird of paradise in the beauti- 
ful ornament of feathers which adorn the head ; 
these in some species are very beautiful. 

We can easily guess what their food consists 
of, since we see them flit from flower to flower. 
Yes, it is honey, in the main, but they also feed 
upon small insects. And in this manner of feed- 
ing from the flower they perform in the economy 
of nature the same office as insects, by transfer- 
ring the pollen from one bloom to another and 
thus assisting in their fertilization. They are 
very easily tamed and show great confidence in 
one who seeks their friendship. Often they are 
tamed by placing honey where they can find it in 
some flower of a house plant or garden, and con- 
tinue to do so every day and they will learn of 
this in a short time and before many days they 
will sip the honey from a flower held in the 
hand. Just try this ; you will find it interesting. 
But they will not live long if confined and it is 
thought it is because they do not have enough 

This little feathered fairy shows such a high 
order of intelligence, one would almost think it 
owned reasoning powers. This is shown more 
especially in the building and selection of location 

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of their nests, which are the most beautiful ex- 
ample of bird architecture. 

They make them in different forms, but usu- 
ally of the cup or turban shape. The material 
used consists chiefly of a pliant down, interwoven 
and strengthened by spider webs and often orna- 
mented with pieces of moss lichen and small 
feathers. These are attached in many different 
ways, according to specie, and are very small — 
the weight of one being about twenty-four grains. 
Were you to peep in the nest at certain seasons 
you would find two white, oblong eggs, which 
sometimes weigh from five to three and one-half 
grains ; but they are much larger than you would 
imagine, since the bird is so small. The period 
of incubation occupies twelve to fourteen days. 

Astoria, III. 

V V T 



The Brethren as a fraternity are mostly farm- 
ers, so we will take the farmer and his wife as an 
illustration. The model farmer has his duties 
on farm and field, the wife in house and home. 
The horses are sleek and spry, the cows are well 
fed and produce a satisfactory income, the 
chickens and pigs have warm places to sleep and 
are fed well, the farm is an inviting one, the 
fields are clean of weeds and briar, and the build- 
ings are in good repair. The wife keeps the 
house in order ; clean and well-ventilated, a place 
for everything and everything in its place. It 
is also warm and cheerful. The meals are at 
regular hours, and there is a smile for husband 
and children, the same for the servants, and she 
is also ready to entertain strangers. The greet- 
ing will be rewarded by the smiling countenances 
of all that enter her home. 

The model family is zealous of good works. 
This applies to Christian duties as well as to 
home and social duties. 

The Sermon on the Mount is a primary lesson. 
" Seek ye first the kingdom of God and his 
righteousness, and all these things shall be added 
unto you." 

Having these blessings added unto them they 
will choose those that will tell for the most good. 
They will act freely in the duties of the church, 

the home, and in society. Being directed with 
love and zeal, their influence will be a power for 
good. In the model home there will be no ques- 
tion as to going to Sunday school, but all will 
work together and be there on time. In the 
model home there will be pleasure for father, 
mother and children. There will be a home in 
which is plenty to eat, clean rooms, cheerfully lit 
up with bright lamps. Also will there be books 
and music. 

The children are not restricted from attend- 
ing places of entertainment unless it is contrary 
to Christian character. In the model family 
there need not be many restrictions, as love will 
reign. There will be great pleasure, too, in 
knowing that children would rather enjoy their 
evenings at home. Children learn important 
lessorae by observation, so father's and mother's 
lessons will be learned to the joy of all in future 

Rittman, Ohio. 

£ 4. 4. 



The pros are what you consider before taking 
and include the advantages, real or im- 
aginary. The cons come after v and include the 
disadvantages, which have the quality of un- 
compromising reality, especially the rent. If 
you have a very active imagination you may call 
it life, but it isn't. It is an expensive and unsuc- 
cessful imitation of life, where the world is made 
of wood and stone, and only in dreams do you 
" in the love of Nature, hold communion with 
her visible forms," hear the singing of free happy 
birds, the babbling of brooks and feel the sweet 
grass under your feet while you rest in the deep 
shade of a giant monarch of the wood. 

A flat in the dictionary, is a floor of a house 
which forms a complete residence in itself, and 
one house will contain as many flats as floors, or 
more, according to the size of the building and 
the business sagacity of the architect — the more 
flats the more tenants and the more rooms to the 
flat the higher the rent. 

In practical life a flat is the invention of — 
well, no matter whom, for the benefit of man, to 
be used for the purpose of getting money from 


the iisra-XjiEiisrooj^- 

un fortunate people who seek a rest for the soles 
of their feet and the balance of their anatomy. 

In good flats, as flats go, you will find polished 
hard-wood floors, which call for rugs instead of 
carpets ; steam or furnace heat with a janitor to 
attend to it and the halls and stairs, which ob- 
viates the drudgery of keeping fires ; hot and cold 
water without limit, which facilitates cleanliness ; 
gas ranges with a moral like this : Practice 
economy against the day when the gas bill is 
presented, unless you are fond of startling ef- 
fects ; electric bells ; and speaking tubes through 
which you can interview your caller and find out 
his business with you before you decide whether 
you are at home or not. 

On the pro side of the flat question the drudg- 
ery of housekeeping is minimized and you can 
see, before taking, how much time you will have 
to devote to other interests, but if you forget to 
consider the flights of steps that figure in the 
" ups " and " downs," if you forget the family 
below who have a baby that does all its sleeping 
in the daytime, the family across the hall with an 
alarm clock that goes off at random, the - family 
above who believe in early rising and have mas- 
tered the art of moving a minimum of furniture 
with a maximum of noise, if you have forgotten 
the family that keeps two big dogs in the base- 
ment and the other family that keeps a parrot, 
well, perhaps you can use some of the time when 
you are not rubbing your elbows black and blue 
from turning around in the dear cozy little flat in 
counting up the cons of the situation if you 

Chicago, III. 

V V Tl* 


The mocking bird is a very thoughtless house- 
keeper, building his nests in the trees and shrub- 
bery around the house, or in low hedgerows — 
indeed almost anywhere that happens to be con- 
venient at the time of nesting. The female lays 
from three to six eggs of a pale bluish green color 
blotched and spotted with yellowish brown. 

While the energy of the mocker seems mostly 
devoted to song, when there are eggs hatching, 
or babies in the nest, they will protect them fierce- 
ly, as some gentle people when really aroused or 
angered will do. The birds feed upon berries, 
seeds, and insects, and are quite harmless in 
every way. 

But his song is indescribable. He will imitate 
all other birds, and also the squeal of young 
pigs, the cry of cats, and will scare the chickens 
with the hoarse scream of a hawk. But usually, 
as I have heard him about our house or barn, he 
pours forth only the clear, beautiful melody 
which has made him so famous. While singing 
his favorite perch is a high, swinging tree branch, 
or the peak of a house, and he sits with head 
thrown back and throat distended, while his 
whole body vibrates in song. He is the embodi- 
ment of joy itself. 

Thoreau's eulogy of the bobolink's notes is 
applicable in full to this charming bird. " It is 
as if he touched his harp within a vase of liquid 
melody, and when he lifted it out the notes fell 
like bubbles from the trembling strings. And 
the meadow is all bespattered with melody. Its 
notes fall with the apple blossoms in the orchard 
It seems as if in that vase full of melody some 
notes sphered themselves and from time to time 
bubbled up to the surface, and were with difficul- 
ty repressed." 
Warrensburg, Mo. 



We are inclined to be somewhat vain of our 

numerous song birds, but chief among them is the 

genuine mocking bird. He is said to be even 

superior to the nightingale. There is nothing / 

attractive in his appearance except his graceful / joining county of Garrett in Maryland, produces 

manner and neat form. In color he is grayish I more maple sugar than any other section of equal 

brown above, and dull white below, while his \ ar ea in the world. 


Somerset County, Pennsylvania, with the ad- 

quills are black, variegated with white. He is 
really distantly related to the plain and modest 

The water from which maple sugar is made 
is procured from the sugar maple. The trees are 
natives of this section, and grow like other foresl 



trees. They are generally large, and when in 
February the sugar season opens, the farmer goes 
from tree to tree with an auger and bores one, 
two, or three holes in a tree, the number depends 
on the size of the tree, about two feet from the 
ground and two inches deep. 

The keelers, or other vessels used for catching 
the water, having been hauled out and placed at 
the different trees, the farmer places spiles in the 
holes he has made. The spiles may be patent 
ones made of tin, or wooden ones made of elder 
wood, but in either case resembling little troughs. 
Through this medium the water is conveyed from 
the tree to the vessel. There are patent buckets 
made now that can be fastened close to the tree 
and are used by some farmers and found to be 
very convenient. 

The water does not run out, as may be sup- 
posed, but on a good day it drops very rapidly. 
A bright, or at least a warm day, after a hard 
frost, is considered a good sugar day. The tem- 
perature being right the water drops at night as 
well as in day time. When the vessels are about 
full the men begin to haul the water to camp. 

A good-sized building built of rough boards, 
in which the furnaces and tanks for holding water 
and syrup are, comprises the camp, and in this 
building the real sugar making is done. There 
is a large tank in the camp to hold the water as 
it is hauled in ; and over a large furnace there is 
a pan in which the water is boiled until it makes 
a thick syrup. 

For hauling the sugar water to camp a large 
cask, which holds three or four barrels, is used, 
and during a good run it is often necessary to 
employ several of these casks. 

At one end of the camp, outside, there is a 
raised place upon which they drive, and from 
which, by means of a trough, the water is emptied 
into the tank from the cask. 

To make maple syrup the water is put in the 
pan over the furnace and boiled down. When it 
is almost thick enough it is removed from the 
pan and put away to settle. After settling it is 
boiled to the proper thickness in a smaller vessel. 

When sugar is the product desired, the water 
is boiled down until it forms a thick syrup, when 
it is put into casks and left stand until the day of 
" stirring off." 

When a sufficient amount of syrup is on hand, 

the large iron kettle over another furnace comes 
into play. The kettle is partly filled with syrup 
and set to boiling. It is closely watched by the 
careful sugar maker, and when the syrup forms 
threads from the paddle, the word goes around 
for the tin cups and each person who is fortunate 
enough to be present, passes up a cup half full 
of cold water and receives a generous supply 
of syrup, and when it hardens in the water you 
have a real Pennsylvania " spotza." You must 
eat fast or you'll only get one spotza from a 
kettle, for soon as it is hard enough the kettle is 
lifted off and the liquid sugar poured into a large 
wooden trough. -In this it is worked back and 
forth by means of a wooden paddle and hammer 
until it crumbs up fine. The sugar is then sifted, 
and we have the crumb sugar. If properly made 
it is very fair and in great demand. About six"Sy 
gallons of sugar water are required to make one 
pound of sugar. This, however, is greatly in- 
fluenced by the season, as some years the water is 
much sweeter than others. 

The average sugar crop of this section for the 
past three years was three hundred thousand 
pounds. Most of this quantity is purchased by 
one man and shipped to the Northwest, where it 
is used in the manufacture of maple syrup, and 
then shipped to all parts of the world. 

The finest sugar and syrup are made in the 
early part of the season, before the sap runs in 
the trees, and to have perfect -sugar or syrup the 
water must be free from snow or rain water. 

The price of maple sugar varies with the 
amount produced and the quality. The average\ 
price, however, is eight cents per pound. 

The sugar season closes as soon as the sap runs 
sufficiently to spoil the water. 

Elk Lick, Pa. 

* * * 


Will you please take a walk with me to my 
garden this beautiful morning? It is so fresh 
and invigorating, I know it will do you good. 

This beautiful bed of cabbage here I started 
the last week in August, by putting the seed in 
the hills just where they want to grow. That 
prevents the necessity of transplanting and the 
cabbage comes into use by Christmas, and will 



be at least three weeks earlier than these over 
here that were transplanted. These collards 
were planted about the same time and are in fine 
condition to use now. These turnips and ruta- 
bagas, by actual measurement are thirty-six 
inches from tip to toe. Here in the south you 
know the tops are valued as highly for the table as 
the root or bulb. These beets are rather small 
now but are of late variety and will come in for 
spring use. The onions over there were set the 
last of September, and we are using of them right 
along. We often raise them as large as a saucer 
from the seed. Radishes and lettuce we have 
had for a long time on the table. The first week 
in September I planted snap beans which fur- 
nished all the family could utilize until the cold 
set in. 

But there is plenty here to tickle anyone's 
palate yet. The middle of March we will plant 
for summer use. I find it quite possible to 
have green vegetables every month in the year 
and for health and economy I find it to be indis- 
pensable. This patch of yams over here are now 
ready to dig. They are what we put our de- 
pendence in for winter use instead of the Irish 
potato. I am not, however, ready to admit that 
the Irish potato does not grow here, for I have 
never seen or eaten better ones anywhere. Plant- 
ed the last week in January or the first of February 
they make fine tubers and I have kept them till 
in August. The last of August we plant for win- 
ter use and often get fine results, however, not 
so good as the spring planting. These English 
peas were planted a little late. The cold coming 
earlier than usual they are somewhat stunted. 

I think you have seen about all of the garden, 
let us go to the cellar and see some of the prod- 
ucts of the summer. These cashew are fine 
keepers, and can be served in many different 
ways for the table. These tin cans contain to- 
matoes. Here are blackberries, wild ones. They 
grow in abundance in the woods and old fields. 
The peaches, pears, grapes and plums that you 
see are all home grown and are great luxuries. 
I only put up about three hundred quarts this 

Do you hear that horn? That is a call from 
the sugar mill. My son wants me to help him 
to take off a boiling of syrup. If you will go 
with me you can see and taste some of Florida's 

sweets. These barrels are filled with syrup and 
we have a quantity yet to make up by boiling the 
syrup down. We can produce a very nice article 
of light brown sugar. Some families never use 
any other. For my part I prefer the granulated. 
Rex, Fla. 

+ * * 



Come with me to my window and I will show 
you something that is beautiful. It is a plant 
adorned with lovely red flowers. In turning this 
plant toward the dark room, it will at first be- 
come straight, standing with its face upward, 
until finally it bows its head back again from the 
darkened room towards the window where it can 
drink of the light of the sun ; thus ever, refreshed, 
it has become a beautiful and healthful plant. 
We can learn a useful lesson from this plant. 
Let us compare the good things of this world to 
the light and the evil things to the darkness. As 
the plant turns from the darkened room to the 
beautiful sunshine, so should we turn from dark- 
ness to light. We may choose either of these 
ways. God has implanted within us the power to 

The little child when started to public school 
should have this knowledge of right and wrong. 
As soon as children have attained the age of 
knowing right from wrong, the parents should 
give special attention, teaching them to accept the 
good and shun the evil. 

The young man when started out in life 
should show his appreciation for that which is 
right, and his respect for himself as a man, by 
ever directing his steps in the way of right and 
truth. He needs to exercise this power especially 
when entering a town or city where there are so 
many temptations that lead to evil. There are 
the saloons, pool-rooms, theatres, and innumera- 
ble places that lead to ruin. His future happi- 
ness would be far greater if he would seek such 
places as the Sunday schools, churches, schools 
and the public libraries. There are many who 
instead of living an intelligent and industrious 
life, are leading themselves to destruction by fol- 
lowing the evil temptation. 

The young woman should seek purity, that 

the i3sra-i_.Eisrooic. 

n 7 

which will adorn her character. We may be cul- 
tivated, beautiful and accomplished, but the 
crowning beauty is gentleness. There is a 
wondrous charm in a gentle spirit. It leaves a 
benediction wherever it moves. After death, our 
good deeds we have done, if any, will have a 
great influence over those left behind. 

Woman's sweet patience is never disturbed. 
Her voice sounds like music in the ears of the 
dear children who love her. It is not the walls 
and furniture that make a happy home. It is 
the peaceful mother. Her hands are gentle in 
performing all ministries. 

As the fragrance of the flower is perceptible 
in the air we breathe, so the presence of a gentle 
woman is felt in the moral atmosphere of the 

Accident, Md. 

+ + * 


This is a land of evergreens and sunshine. 
The forests are nearly all pine. Their tops look 
beautiful and green all winter. Along the 
streams and in the low ground grows the holly 
and the mistletoe. The holly bush is full of 
bright red berries while the mistletoe has trans- 
parent white ones. They are much used for 
ornamenting parlors and rooms for entertain- 
ments, especially at Christmas time. These bush- 
es, with many other kinds of shrubbery, stay 
green all winter. Here roses bloom nine or ten 
months of the year. 

The native people mostly live in houses built 
of shaved pine poles with a stick chimney at- 
tached on the north end. A great deal of their 
cooking, baking and roasting is done by the fire- 
places. The natives mostly make their living 
raising cotton and sweet potatoes. Some of them 
have large droves of sheep and cattle running at 
large the whole year. Also the razorback swine 
with its long snout is quite numerous in the 

There are a great many turpentine orchards in 
this country. The way the pine trees are tapped 
is they cut and chisel a deep notch in the tree and 
then hollow the lower side out in the shape of 
a trough wherein drains the rich, sticky sap of 
the tree. This sap is gathered into barrels and 

hauled to the distillery, where the turpentine is 

separated from the rosin. 

We love our Alabama home. We love the 

kind-hearted, sociable people. We love the pure, 

soft water, and above all we love this mild and 

genial clime. 

Fruit dale, Ala. 

■f. 4. 4. 



This beautiful and enterprising town contains 
about 1,400 inhabitants, and despite the fact that 
it is the site of the first grist mill in all this re- 
gion, it is one of the newest towns of the county. 
About the year 1765 Jacob Neff built a mill be- 
low the spring, but it is quite recently that the 
town grew up. This town, which is situated in 
Blair county, Pa., and only three miles from 
Bedford county, was named from the spring 
which is a natural curiosity. 

This spring comes from the foot of a slight 
elevation, and sends forth a volume of clear, pure 
and cold water. It is a sad thought that the loud 
roar has been lessened by changes made at its 
source. It is said that before this obliteration it 
did send forth, in the stillness of the forest, a 
sound that could be heard for half a mile. 

The industries, which consist of a paper mill, 
blank book factory and planing mill, now in a 
flourishing condition, are owned and controlled by 
D. M. Bare & Co. I might say that D. M. Bare 
& Co. own a large company store, and that plans 
are already made for a company bank. A fair 
per cent, of the laboring people work in the shops 
of Altoona, traveling back and forth on the train. 

Roaring Spring, Pa. 

V V T 



He doesn't do it unless he has to. But if there 
is no way out of it he begins by laying out some 
new and improved ( ?) methods by which to save 
labor. In the first place he resolves to be more 
careful in cleaning his shoes before entering the 
house. This is to make sweeping unnecessary. 

If he has access to an abundant supply of 


the izsrca-XjEirooK:. 

dishes he does not wash any until he has used 
them all, in order that he may save time by wash- 
ing all together; or perhaps refrains from using 
dishes, concluding that for the time being it is 
better for him just to take a cold snack in his 
hand. But if he has promised his wife to eat 
something warm each meal during her absence, 
he prepares whatever requires the least time and 
work, but something that will be at the same time 
tempting to the appetite. Boiled eggs are his fa- 
vorite dish. They are eaten morning, noon, and 
night, while for a little variety he purchases pies, 
cakes and cheese at the corner grocery. Think- 
ing that it will take too many precious minutes to 
rearrange the bed every morning, he decides, aft- 
er the first day. to use the couch, which he con- 
cludes will " do just as well anyhow." 

Finally the day arrives for wife's return. The 
broom and duster are called into action for the 
first time ; clothes are arranged on their proper 
pegs, and things in general are given an air of 
tidiness. The head of the house is even forced 
to a smile as he thinks how proud his wife will 
be of his housekeeping : but all the time he keeps 
working he is repeating a solemn promise to him- 
self that the next time she goes to visit her folks 
he will go along or else take his meals at a hotel 
until her return. 

Bridgczcater, Va. 

* * * 


The 'Nookman says if I'm not a sister what 
am I ? And then I've got a sister for a secretary, 
and that fixes it. I got lots and lots of presents 
and I want to tell all that I thank them kindly. 
And here's something, I haven't had a real aunt 
in the world before, and now I'm going to call 
everybody who remembered me my aunt. One 
of them said she couldn't see me. She's blind. 
My uncle Howard said I should tell Aunt Mary. 
that's the blind aunt, that the very first person 
she would ever see would be the Savior when she 
died, but I don't know what died is, and the 
'Nookman said it meant only going a little way off 
and never having any more trouble and always 
being at home. 

But I have my troubles now. The other dav 
I watched my chance and climbed on the table 
and found the sugar bowl. I just sat down to a 
good time and I had it. It was a sweet time. 

Then I was snatched off and there was a lot of 
talk, as there always is when I'm enjoying myself. 
All that come of it besides the talk was a big 
pain in my 'tummy. Unc' Howard said every- 
body was always just trying to get into a sugar 
bowl, and then the 'Nookman said dead people 
weren't and Unc' Howard said that was the only 
kind that wasn't. 

My Unc' Howard's bedroom is next where Ma 
and me sleep and the other morning they set me 
down at his door before daylight. He was asleep 
or he let on to be, and when I pulled at his hair 
he said " Hello ! I hear a kid somewhere." He 
wanted to sleep and I wanted to play. So I 
crawled over him a few times and then I sat 
down on his face. Then he got up and put on 
his clothes while I jumped up and down and just 
hollered and laughed. He said he didn't allow 
anybody to sit on his face, not even young ladies 
like me. I heard my Ma a laughing. Then he 
took me under the arm like a bear takes a little 
pig, and he called out on the stairs, " Who's lost 
a red-headed young one ? " 

Only yesterday I had what the 'Nookman 
called an " infelicity." It was this way. I have 
learned to crawl up stairs and then I turn around 
and crawl down backward. And would you be- 
lieve it. I forgot the other day and just walked 
on at the top, and bumpety-bump. thump, squall 
and hullabaloo! I landed in the hall. I cut 
loose and made a noise and the whole house came 
running and there was a big fuss. I was being 
rocked when the 'Nookman came in and the first 
thing he said was. "What did you do it for?" 
It was enough to make anybody cry. Did he 
think I did it for fun? 

Every day I know just when the 'Nookman and 
Unc' Howard come home on the car that stops 
right in front of our house, and I meet him on 
the porch if it isn't too cold and they open the 
door for me. Then he hangs his coat and hat 
in the hall and sits down in a big chair and I al- 
ways slip my hand in his coat pocket quietly while 
he calls out, " Police, Police, here's a girl steal- 
ing" I got an apple to-day and yesterday I got 
a 'nana, a big yellow one. I always divide and 
he said it was a pity 1 would grow up to be stingy. 
He said all people wanted the earth and didn't 
want to divide. I aint stingy. Are you? 


P. S. — Want another kiss? 



The Home 




Put 3 quarts of bolted meal into an earthen 
vessel that will hold at least i l / 2 gallons. Into 
this pour 1 quart of scalding water. Stir in 2 
tablespoonfuls of salt. Pour in enough cold wa- 
ter to moisten all the meal. Set in a warm place 
to rise, which will take about 12 hours if suffi- 
ciently warm. When it is light as a sponge, stir 
in 1 teacupful of dry meal. Bake in an old-fash- 
ioned skillet with a lid. Place the skillet over 
some live coals. When hot, grease well, sprinkle 
with little dry meal and put in the sponge. Cover 
with lid which has been previously heated. Put 
over top of lid some live coals. When the coals 
die out repeat with live coals until the bread is done, 
which will take 1^4 hours' moderate fire. When 
done, wrap with several thicknesses of cloth, lay 
away until about half cold. A good time to start 
this is in the evening while preparing supper. 
Let it rise over night and bake in time for dinner 
next day. If there is any left over it is good to 
eat with sweet milk for supper. This recipe 
has been well tried and handed down from grand- 
mother to granddaughter. 

Cordell, Okla. T. 

■4 4 



One cup of sugar, 1 tablespoonful of butter, 1 
egg, half a cup of milk, I 1 /- cups of flour, and 2 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Bake this in one 
layer, and when done cut the top off with a sharp 
knife and fill with a custard made of half a pint 
of milk, yolks of 2 eggs, half cup of sugar, and 
enough cornstarch to thicken. Cook in a double 

boiler till thick, and pour in the cake before quite 
cold and place the top on again and use the whites 
of eggs for icing. This same recipe can be used 
for little pattie cakes and they are light and nice. 
Flavor with vanilla, and also the custard, or use 
whipped cream instead of the custard. 
Laporte, Ind. 



Take beef or chicken broth, season with salt, 
pepper and parsley. Let come to a boil, then add 
6 good-sized sliced potatoes. Let this boil 5 
minutes. Have ready a dough made of 1 cup of 
sweet cream, 1 egg, and 1 teaspoonful of baking 
powder. Mix as for biscuit. Roll and cut in 
inch squares, and drop in the broth, and boil 15 

Milledgeville, III. 

■4 + 



One and a half pounds of raisins, 1*4 pounds 
of currants, % pound citron, 1 pound butter, I 
pound of sugar, 1}% pounds of flour, 10 eggs, 2 
tablespoonfuls of lemon, and 2 teaspoonfuls of 
yeast powder. Mix l /$ pound of the flour in the 
fruit you add. 

Johnstoivn, Pa. 

•4 -4 



Take 2 pounds of beef and 1 pound of pork 
(fresh), chopped fine, 2 eggs, y* cup of cracker 



crumbs, a small lump of butter, salt and pepper 
to suit taste ; mix well, shape in a loaf or roll, and 

Johnstozvn, Pa. 

•4 <4) 


Take 8 eggs, reserving the whites of 5. Beat 
the eggs light. For each egg add 3 tablespoon- 
fuls of rich milk or cream. Salt to suit, pour all 
into a hot, well-buttered skillet. Fry slowly 
and beat the whites of the reserved eggs very 
light, pour the latter over the contents of the skil- 
let and set it into the oven. Bake to a delicate 
brown, then turn one-half over the other half and 
serve immediately. 

Stone House Farm, Md. 

* -4 


Pare and slice into a baking pan 6 apples, 
sprinkle on 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar. Pour 
over this a batter by mixing l / 2 cup of sugar, 1 
egg, butter the size of an egg, 34 CU P of sweet 
milk, 1 teaspoonful of baking powder and flour 
enough to make a stiff batter. Bake in a mod- 
erate oven, and serve hot with sweetened cream 
or milk. This is sufficient for a small family. 

Hopkins, Mo. 



Take y 2 cup of rice, 1 quart of milk, 1 table- 
spoonful of sugar. Flavor with nutmeg or lem- 
on to suit taste. Put in the oven and bake until 
the rice is done. To be eaten with cream. 

Beattie, Kans. 



One large cup of brown sugar, 1 large cup of 
molasses, 1 cup of butter, 2 eggs, 2> l / 2 cups of 
flour, a dessertspoonful of soda, 1 cup of sweet 

milk, and a little salt. Lard may be used instead 
of butter by taking water instead of milk and 
adding more salt. Ginger and cinnamon to 1 
taste. Mix and bake. 

Ipava, III. 

■4 -4 



Into a well-greased baking dish put a layer oi 
rolled crackers, then a layer of boned salmon 
with a dash of salt and pepper and a little butter. 
Continue putting in alternate layers until 1 can 
of salmon is used, then add 1 quart of milk and 
bake slowly for 1 hour. This dish is much im- 
proved by adding 1 can of oysters. 

Chicago, III. 

'■4 * 


Take a chicken, or the bony parts, and cook it 
well. Then take the chicken out and add to the 
broth commeal enough to make a thin gruel. 
Salt to taste. Make it thicker and richer as the 
patient improves if desired. 

Marshneld, Mo. 

<4 * 


Take i ounce of China blue dissolved in a lit- 
tle soft water. Strain through thin muslin. 
Now take 1 ounce of oxalic acid and dissolve it 
in 1 pint of soft water. Add to blue and bottle. 
Use 2 tablespoonfuls to a tub of rinse-water. 

Hartland, Wash. 



Take i pint of good vinegar, y 2 pint of tur- 
pentine, *4 P^t of ammonia water and 2 eggs 
well beaten. Put all in a bottle and shake well. 
Put away for use. This makes an excellent lin- 
iment for bruises, lameness, or rheumatism, ei- 
ther for man or beast. Shake well before using. 

Hopkins, Mo. 

« LtN&JKL 

Vol. IV. 

Feb. 8, 1902. 

No. 6. 

I : - 

nii a 




in jib 


Hold fast the dear old Sabbath, 

To the day of peaceful rest; 
Look back to the days of childhood 

That its tranquil glories blessed: 
Hold fast to its quiet pleasures, 

All its sweet traditions save, 
For the sake of the weary living, 

And the memories of the grave. 

Hold fast the dear old Sabbath, 

That is neared, like a verdant isle, 
On the week's dull sea of toiling. 

With a thankful, happy smile. 
One day give the Great Creator, 

Be thy creed whate'er it may; 
For the sake of human freedom 

Keep the dear, old Sabbath Day. 
* * * 


A member of the Cabinet to entertain largely 
should have such a house as usually rents at 
torn $6,000 to $12,000 a year. Senator Depew 
says a month for his house. On the 
ijjjl Jther side. Secretary 'Wilson, who is compara- 
m $ ively a poor man, lives in a house that rents for 
ot more than $75 a month. Postmaster Gen- 
eral Smith spent his entire salary of $8,000 a year 
ind was compelled to write magazine articles and 
to add to his income in other ways to maintain 
lis establishment. He finally wearied of the 
struggle and took apartments in a hotel. 

Each Cabinet Minister is expected once a year 
:o entertain the President and his associates at 
dinner. Beyond this he can cut out dinner-giv- 
ng. The Secretary of State, in addition, must 

i - ^ jive a breakfast once a year to the diplomatic 
:orps. Secretary Day resigned because he could 
lot afford to follow the social pace. 

Carriages and horses are furnished by the gov- 
:rnment to Cabinet members. All other expenses 
hey must pay themselves. A member of the 

Cabinet maintaining his own house would have to 
expend at least $15,000 a year, or nearly double 
his salary, to keep up even ordinary appearances. 

Attorney General Knox, upon taking up 
his residence in Washington, began by pur- 
chasing a house costing $140,000 and bringing 
with him a team of hoftes that cost $12,000. 
His expenses will be vastly in excess of $15,000 
a year. 

James S. Clarkson, when he became First 
Assistant Postmaster General, rented a house at 
$3,800 a year. His salary was $4,000. Mr. 
Clarkson laughingly said to his wife: "What 
shall we do with the remainder of my salary ? " 

*' Rent a telephone," was the reply. 

•j? *X* T* 


There is not now living a single descendant 
in the male line of Chaucer, Shakespeare, Spen- 
cer, Milton, Cowley, Butler, Dryden, Pope, Cow- 
per. Goldsmith, Byron or Moore, not one of Sir 
Philip Sidney nor of Sir Walter Raleigh ; not one 
of Drake, Cromwell, Hampden, Monk, Marlbor- 
ough, Peterborough or Nelson ; not one of Bo- 
lingbroke, Walpole. Chatham, Pitt, Fox, Burke, 
Grattan or Channing ; not one of Bacon, Locke, 
Newton or Davy ; not one of Hume, Gibbon or 
Macaulev ; not one of Hogarth, Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds or Sir Thomas Lawrence ; not one of Da- 
vid Garrick, John Kemble or Edward Kean. 
+ + + 

The site of the old mint in Philadelphia, which 
failed to sell for $2,000,000 the other day, was 
bought by the government in 1829 and the cor- 
ner stone was laid on July 4 of that year. It 
was then in " the country." Now it is in the 
very center of the financial and business life of 
the city, and near it are the largest hotels, li- 
braries and clubs. 




The whaling men are the great traders of the 
region north and west. Whales are sometimes 
scarce and the whalers are glad to add to the pre- 
carious profits of a season's catch by trading for 
furs and other products of the country. There 
are native settlements on the coast of Northern 
Alaska and on the islands of the Behring sea, 
where not more than one ship is seen in the course 
of a year. At other places three or four vessels 
call during the short season of navigation. The 
" Bear," the steam barkentine employed for years 
in the revenue-cutter service on the Arctic cruise, 
is usually one of these vessels. 

Every whaling vessel carries its stock of trade 
goods on a northern cruise and even the officers 
on the " Bear," though in the service of the gov- 
ernment, are allowed to take a limited quanti- 
ty. In the case of government officers, the trad- 
ing is not carried on for profit, but for the pur- 
pose of obtaining relics of the country and ar- 
ticles of personal use. 

The trade goods of a whaling ship consist of 
a pretty definite list of articles, and change little 
from year to year. The Eskimo's wants are few 
and he knows little of the luxuries of civilization. 
The list includes flour in bags, cloth, tea, sugar, 
tobacco, hard bread or sea biscuits, cartridges, 
or needles and thread. The native has to offer in 
exchange mukloks, or walrus-hide boots, fox- 
skins, walrus ivory, bearskins, deerskins, ivory 
buttons, and various native implements and de- 
vices prized by white men as curios. It is inter- 
esting to find that different Eskimo settlements 
are headquarters for different articles comprised 
in this small list. For example, if a whaler 
wants to trade for buttons he asks for them at 
St. Lawrence island, for the natives at North- 
west cape are famous as makers of ivory buttons. 
King island is the best place of all to trade for 
the curious ivory pipes found only in this part 
of the world, and if a visitor is so ambitious 
as to wish to carry a kyak. or small native boat, 
back to the United States with him, he had better 
make his trade with one of the little colony on 
this same island. F(fr deer skins go to the Si- 
berian coast or to Port Clarence ; for foxskins to 
Kotzebue sound; for brown and polar bearskins 
tn any of the Eskimo settlements north of Behr- 
ing strait on the shores of the Arctic. 

Bearskins were scarce this summer, for what 
reason no one seems able to explain. Nearly, 
every summer it is possible to find several of 
these beautiful white pelts at the three or four' 
principal settlements between Cape Prince of 
^Yales and Point Barrow. Every year, too, the 
Eskimo seems to be disposed to demand a little 
higher price for his skins. They are gradually 
getting a vague idea of the market value of these 
things in the United States, or, to speak more 
accurately, they are learning how badly the white 
man wants what the native has to trade. Never- 
theless, it is usually possible to buy on the arctic 
coast a fine polar bear skin worth several hundred 
dollars in New York or Boston for three or four 
small sacks of flour, two or three cases of hard- 
bread, and a few cartridges. If you make the 
trade on these terms you have paid from $15 to 
$20 for the skin. Frequently it is possible to buy 
a polar bear skin for less than $15 ; it is hard to 
say what the average price really is. 

The visit of a whaling ship to one of these 
native settlements always excites interest among 
the Eskimos very much like that felt by the mer- 
chants in a small city when the circus comes to 
town. It is a holiday and a day for profitable 
enterprise, both in one. A ship is sighted by 
keen native eyes as soon as a few inches of her 
topmast shows, a mere speck above the horizon, 
and the village becomes a place of great activity. 
Boots or mukloks made during the winter with 
soles of walrus hide and tops of hair seal or deer- 
skin are brought out, with walrus tusks, ivory 
buttons carved in the form of seals, foxskins, 
bearskins, and a large collection of miscellaneous 
curios which the white traders may fancy. The 
Eskimos think all white men are crazy. This is 
averred by all whites who know the Eskimo 
language and overhear the natives' conversation. 
They have been in no land but their own, and they 
cannot understand why white men should dig in 
the ground for gold and do other queer things 
unless they are the victims of unbalanced minds. 

As soon as the ship drops anchor the natives 
are seen coming off in their oumiaks and kyakj 
— men, women, and children, the whole popula- 
tion. Nearly every one of them has a poke or 
sort of pouch made of the whole skin of a hair 
seal slung over his shoulder. In these are con.4 
tairied the furs and ivory and boots that they 


':,.'• ] 



K actnic 

inter «i 
al or 




to trade. Nearly every one of them has a 
paddle which he wields vigorously in his eager- 
to reach the ship. There is a great deal of 
shouting and jabbering and laughing, for the 
Eskimo is always merry, and his sense of humor 
is the wonder of white men. A sailor throws a 
line from the whaler's afterdeck, and in a moment 
shi 'it. fat, smiling Eskimo men, women, boys and 
girls are rolling up over the sides of the ship. 
The whaling men then bring up their trade goods 
and the barter begins. 

The Eskimo, in nine cases out of ten. assumes 
■sition of the buyer; the whaler is the store- 
keeper or merchant. The native asks for what 
he wants, and the whaling man. if he has it. pro- 
duces it and asks the native what he has to offer 
in return. 

The process is rather more interesting when 
the white man appears in the role of buyer and 
the native in that of storekeeper. In that case, 
supposing the white man sees a pair of boots 
: which he particularly wishes to obtain, a con- 
si ami versation something like this takes place, the 
white man beginning the conversation : 
-What you want?" 

I Calico." replies the native, using the one word 

jy which Eskimos have learned to describe all 

kinds of cloth of whatever character. 

" Capsini (how much) calico? " asks the buyer. 

The native holds up four fingers, including the 

thumb, for if an Eskimo holds up one or more 

.].; jfl, fingers to denote a number, one of these is the 

thumb. A white man doesn't do it that way. 

Fathom." replies the native, the accompany- 
ing use of the fingers denoting four fathoms. 
If the white man agrees to the trade he meas- 
e Eslia ures off the cloth, extending both arms as far as 
ivtrsM they will reach for the purpose of drawing the 
iindrhi doth across his chin. Then the native takes it 
njdiiigi and stuffs it into his sealskin poke. The cloth is 
tt -rtfcb! probably blue jeans or denim, or it may be some 
print cloth, costing five cents a yard in the United 
J States, which is vastly pleasing to the Eskimo 
I women and girls. Natives of both sexes cover 
jup really beautiful reindeer skin parkies or Es- 
kimo coats with shirts made from blue denim or 

\Yhen the native named four fathoms as his 
rice for the walrus hide boots, the white man 

knew that no better terms could be obtained. It 
is positively and invariably useless to try to beat 
down the native's price ; he may want the calico 
very badly, but he will not reduce the price of his 
boots. If he can't get four fathoms of calico, 
back the boots go into the poke until another cus- 
tomer appears. 

Offer a native a price which to him is ridicu- 
lously low for his goods and he will probably 
laugh at you. He seems to think that it is a good 
joke, and that you really cannot mean to be seri- 
ous. At the price of four fathoms of calico for 
one pair of mukloks, which is a pretty low figure, 
the profit to the whaler is enormous. Eskimo 
mukloks are the best kind of footwear for the 
regions in which the Eskimo lives, and thousands 
of white men in the Alaska mining camps and on 
the trails throughout the territory wear them 
throughout the winter. Mukloks cost six dollars 
a pair at Nome, seventy-five miles from here. 
Calico, even at Nome, is only fifteen cents a yard. 

At St. Lawrence island there is always a great 
supply of buttons. Formerly the custom was to 
carve them almost exclusively in the form of 
seals.. Now they make them in all shapes im- 
aginable, and some of them are decorated with 
colored spots and with carved and colored heads 
of birds and walruses. A little Eskimo boy. who 
had carved some buttons rudely from a piece of 
ivory, came on board a ship at St. Lawrence 
island this summer with an oumiak full of men 
and women from Northwest Cape. He asked 
everybody on the ship for a colored pencil, mak- 
ing his wants known by producing a tiny piece 
of red crayon pencil which he must have obtained 
from some whaler a year and perhaps two years 
before. He seemed to want a colored pencil far 
more than most white boys want a bicycle, but 
there wasn't a pencil to be found on the ship. 
Apparently the boy wanted to use the crayon 
mixed with water or seal oil for coloring the 
carved spots and images on buttons and walrus 

+ + + 


Within twenty miles of City Hall park. New 
York City, there are more than 4,000,000 people, 
or more than one-twentieth of the country's entire 




The announcement that a party of scientific 
men will leave Vancouver for Alaska next June 
to study the so-called " silent city " mirage di- 
rects attention to a phenomenon which has been 
the subject of much discussion during the last 
ten or twelve years. 

As long ago as 1887 a mining prospector who 
had explored southern Alaska extensively created 
a sensation in Juneau, and gave newspaper cor- 
respondents a first-class topic, by exhibiting a 
photograph which he pretended to have taken of 
a mirage. 

This prospector, one Willoughby, was particu- 
larly familiar with the region about Glacier bay, 
and is said to have piloted Prof. Muir's vessel 
to the glacier which now bears the tatter's name. 
The story which Willoughby told in Juneau was 
substantially this : 

There seemed to hang suspended in air a num- 
ber of huge buildings, all of beautiful and impos- 
ing architecture, whose spires and buttresses 
strongly suggested the cathedrals of the old 
world. Lest his story should be discredited he 
made several attempts to photograph the picture, 
which the Indians called " The Silent City." 

Whatever doubt may attach to the genuineness 
of the picture, the rest of Willoughby's statement 
may be accepted without hesitation, because .there 
is plenty of corroborative evidence. 

The Duke of the Arbruzzi, in 1897, had reached 
the summit of Mt. St. Elias and had descended 
part of the way, when night overtook the party. 
They encamped on the slope. With returning 
day they pushed on over the Malaspina toward 
Yakutat bay, where lay their ship. Dr. Filippi 
says : 

" The southern ridges of Mt. St. Elias stood 
out clearly, merging in the long chain of Chaix 
hills, which, as it approached the Malaspina gla- 
cier, assumed a series of strange shapes which 
we were no longer able to recognize. 

" Their outlines underwent changes before our 
very eyes, assuming the forms of spires, belfries, 
minarets and architectural outlines of fantastic 
cathedrals, all of which slowly appeared and dis- 
appeared, to be succeeded by buildings of lesser 
height, severely rectilinear. 

" This proved to be the mirage known as ' The 
Silent City,' an optical illusion to which this wide 

ice surface is prone in common with the burning 
sands of the desert. The marvelous spectacle . 
continued throughout the afternoon. 

" Willoughby declared that the suspended city 
lay off to the westward of him, toward Mt. Fair- 
weather, which stands between Glacier bay and 
Mt. St. Elias. It is to the vicinity of Fairweather 
that next summer's expedition is to go." 

Spectacles of this kind have been seen on the 
coast of Greenland, too. Scoresby, writing thirty 
odd years ago, remarked : " Hummocks of ice as- 
sumed the form of castles, obelisks and spires, 
and the land presented extraordinary features. 
In some places the distant ice was so extremely 
irregular and appeared so full of pinnacles that 
it resembled a forest of naked trees. In others 
it had the character of an extensive city, crowded 
with churches, castles and public edifices." 

Practically all writers on the theory of the 
mirage hold that, while the images presented to 
the observer's eye may be distorted and obscure, 
they have a certain basis in fact. They are rep- 
resentations (accurate or inaccurate) of real 

Napoleon's army, crossing the sands of lower 
Egypt, saw remote villages which were yet be- 
low the horizon lifted into view. At sea it is not 
uncommon to detect ships that are yet too far 
awav to be seen normally. Indeed, there are: 
multiple images, one above the other, and some: 
of them upside down, perhaps. But in spite of 
their eccentricities there is a real ship involved in 
the phenomenon. 

Mr. Bruce mentions the popular suspicion that 
Willoughby's picture was a " fake," and adds 
that he is himself under such obligations to the 
prospector that he could hardly confess the truth 
if he had any doubts of his own. 

Dr. Filippi's book contains no representation 
of the " Silent City," although it is full of other 
photographs of Alaskan scenery. Perhaps the 
image was too unsteady for a camera to register 

V V V 

Some people would rather be 
consistent than be right. 

+ + + 

Every man is a hypocrite who in his morning 
prayer says. " Thy will be done," and then goes 
ahead and does his own. 

' - . :::. 
it Far 
bay a 




I was very much surprised to learn the other 
day.*' said a visitor, " that Jackson had no cotton 
in his fortifications during the battle of New Or- 
leans. Whether the younger generation is better 

advised I am unable to say. but the cotton-bale 
legend is believed religiously by middle-aged 
people all through the New England States. 
They are proud of it as a master example of 
what might be called Yankee cunning, and before 
you could shatter their faith in the story you 
could persuade them that Washington didn't 
cross the Delaware and that Benedict Arnold 
was a high-minded American patriot. 

" I attended public school when I was a boy 
at Greenfield, Miss.," continued the speaker, "and 
I remember distinctly the account of the Battle of 
New Orleans that was given in our ' Intermedi- 
ate History of the United States.' It described 
the cotton-bale fortifications as a happy inspira- 
tion which came to Jackson at the last moment 
as a possible means of offsetting the immense 
preponderance of the British forces. According 
to the narrative, the cotton was piled up in a 
gigantic wall and when the enemy's artillery 
opened fire the projectiles bounded back from 
its surface like rubber balls thrown against the 
side of a house. I remember that the incident 
tickled us boys immensely. We thought it was 
such a good joke on the Englishmen, and years 
afterward, when anything would remind me of 
the battle of New Orleans, I would instantly have 
a mental vision of a crowd of astonished artillery- 
men dodging their own cannon balls. The small 
, , American loss was attributed solely to this re- 
markable piece of strategy and the chapter was 
embellished with a full-page woodcut, which ( is 
as clear to my mind's eye as if I had seen it yes- 
terday. It represented what was evidently in- 
tended to be one end of the fortifications — a solid, 
square-sided, rectangular wall of bales, with reg- 
ular apertures for cannon. On one side was a 
line of men dressed like the traditional dime-novel 
trapper, each with a coonskin cap on his head 
and a rifle about nine feet long, and on the other 
side was a dense mass of British grenadiers, wear- 
!,.;; mofliiJ ing what looked like bishops' miters. A number 
jjdengt* of cannon balls were seen lying on the ground 
outside, where they had bounced from the elastic 

Ti on tb 

icks Hi 



ly of ti 
i to 

1 of re 

re vet t* 
a it is a 

there a: 
and son 
in spite 



ramparts, and the grenadiers were plainly getting 
the worst of it. 

" That picture stands to-day as the accepted 
New England version of the battle, and the man 
who attempted to pluck out those venerated cot- 
ton bales and substitute ordinary Mississippi river 
mud would have a disagreeable job on his hands. 
I wouldn't like to undertake it." 
4. 4. 4. 

Many a truthful man has been 
knovM to lie at the point of death. 

T T T 



The following figures may help prove to the 
skeptical that there is something real in writing a 
popular song : 

Balfe received high prices for the copyrights 
of some of his songs. For " I Dreamt I Dwelt in 
Marble Halls " he received $40,000, the same for 
" When Other Lips," and $25,000 for " The 
Heart Bowed Down." At a sale $6,000 was ob- 
tained for the copyright of Michael Watson's 
song, " Anchored." For " Kathleen Mavour- 
neen " the composer, Mr. F. N. Crouch, received 
just $25. The copyright was afterward bought 
by a London firm for $2,500. " She Wore a 
Wreath of Roses," another well-known song, was 
sold by the composer for $10.00; but when the 
copyright came to be sold it brought $2,500. 

" See-Saw " was sold for $150, and has real- 
ized over $2,500 for the publishers. " Ta-ra-ra- 
boom-de-aye " brought $75.000 ; " Dream Faces," 
$3,500: "Two Lovely Black Eyes," $2,500; 
" The Bogie Man," $2,500 ; " Nancy Lee," 
$3,000 : " Grandfather's Clock," $2,000. Each- 
song composed by Sig. Paolo Tosti, the composer 
of " Forever and Forever," is said to be worth to 
him about $2,000. Sir Arthur Sullivan sold the 
copyright of his " Sweethearts " for $3,500. For 
his celebrated song " The Lost Chord " he real- 
ized $50,000. 

Hartville, Ohio. 

V V T 


A certain sect in Russia considers hair sinful, 
and baldness a 6ign of sanctity. 




With 500 birds as his companions and sub- 
jects Professor Charles O. Whitman of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago has for six years been study- 
ing and conducting experiments which before 
long it is promised will give results of the utmost 
scientific value and which will pass even for the 
layman far beyond the bounds of the merely in- 

Professor Whitman has not only made home 
companions of half a thousand wild and domestic 
doves, but, in order that he might not have his 
studies interrupted, they have been his traveling 
companions as well. Last week, in the house of 
the student and in the grounds at the rear, there 
was enacted a scene of the most intense interest 
to all scientists who have made animal intelli- 
gence a study. Cages containing the 500 pigeons 
had their doors opened wide and the birds set at 
liberty. They had just been brought back from 
a three months' stay at Wood's Hall, Mass., 
where Professor Whitman had pursued his sum- 
mer bird studies. Upon the opening of the door 
of its cage each pigeon unerringly made its way 
instantly to the particular cote which it had occu- 
pied before leaving Chicago for its summer out- 
ing by the sea. Nine months hence, when the 
birds are taken back to Wood's Hall, they will be 
turned loose again and each will fly at once to the 
cage where it passed the summer which has just 
waned to autumn. 

This quiet university scholar who literally has 
pigeons at his bed, board and books has succeeded 
in his South Side home in securing some of the 
most remarkable results from cross-breeding ex- 
periments known to the pigeon fancying world. 
He has in his collection, or, as he would pre- 
fer it, among his companions, representatives of 
perhaps every known kind of pigeon that the 
world produces. Further than this he has, with 
the sole exception of a few birds owned in Mil- 
waukee, the only known living specimens of the 
American passenger, or wild pigeon, now extinct 
in a wild state, but which only a comparatively 
few years ago was the most widely distributed 
and numerous of American birds. 

Within the scope of his collection Professor 
Whitman has pigeons which in size, are no larger 
than a sparrow, and others, the crowned pigeons 

of Australia, whose bulk is as great as that of the 
bald eagle. There are in some of the cages which 
hide the walls of the student's library featherless 
little creatures just out of the shell which claim 
for parents mothers and fathers of two totally 
different pigeon tribes, and of such extremes in 
size that the one parent in some instances could 
easily make three of the other in weight, length, 
and breadth of wing. One curious feature of the 
collection is the sight of some hard working ring 
doves feeding, cuddling, and doing their best to 
bring up in the way they should go young ones 
which have no natural claim on them whatsoever 
being the offspring of some pair in an adjoining 
cage who lack either the inclination or the ability 
to bring up children properly. 

It might be supposed, possibly, that Professor 
Whitman chose pigeons as a study because ofj 
their superior intelligence. As a matter of fact 
the birds are less intelligent than many of their 
feathered brothers of other families, and they 
were chosen for study because of their adaptabil 
ity to conditions of confinement, but more par- 
ticularly because the great number of varieties in 
the family gave an unlimited field for crossing ex- 
periments and resulting observations on the ef 
fects of heredity. 

Pigeon fanciers and thousands of other people 
as well, for that matter, have always been puz 
zled to account for the origin of the instinct of 
tumbling, a habit which a certain breed of the 
birds indulges in constantly, and which makes of 
the tumblers a specially prized class. Through 
his long study of the pigeons, both caged and at 
liberty. Professor Whitman has arrived at certain 
conclusions touching this tumbling practice which 
are as interesting as they are new. He says that 
the probable source of the origin bf tumbling was 
undoubtedly a general action instinctively per- 
formed by the ordinary dovecote pigeon. 

" I have noticed a great many times," said Pro- 
fessor Whitman, " that common pigeons when on 
the point of being overtaken and seized by a hawk 
suddenly flirt themselves directly downward in a 
manner suggestive of tumbling and thus elude 
the hawk's swoop. The hawk is carried on by its 
momentum and often gives up the chase on the 
first failure. In one case I saw the chase renewec 
three times and elude with success each time 
The pigeon was a white dovecote bird with 1 





trace of fantail blood. I saw this pigeon repeated- 
ly pursued by a swift hawk during one winter and 
it invariably escaped in the same way. I have 
seen the same performance in other dovecote 
pigeons under similar circumstances. 

But this is not all. It is well known that 
lovecote pigeons delight in quite extended daily 
flights, circling about their home. I once raised 
two pairs of these birds by hand, in a place sev- 
eral miles from any other pigeons. Soon after 
thev were able to fly about they began these 
flights, usually in the morning. I frequently saw 
one or more of the flock while in the middle of a 
high (light and sweeping along swiftly, suddenly 

^plunge downward, often zigzagging with a quick 
helter-skelter flirting of the wings. The behavior 
often looked like play, and probably it was that in 

1 nmst cases. I incline to think, however, that it 
was sometimes prompted by some degree of 
alarm. In such flights the birds would frequent- 
ly get separated and one thus falling behind 
Would hasten its flight to the utmost speed in 
order to overtake its companions. Under such 
circumstances the stray bird coming from the rear 
might lie mistaken for a moment for a hawk in 
pursuit, and one or more of the birds about to be 
overtaken would be thus induced to resort to the 
tumbling method of throwing themselves out of 
reach of danger. The same act is often per- 
formed at the start as the pigeon leaves its stand. 
The movement is so quick and crazy in its aim- 
lessness that the bird often seems to be in danger 
of dashing against the ground, but it always 
clears every object. As this act is performed by 
young and old alike, and by young birds that have 
never learned it by example, it must be regarded 
as instinctive, and I venture to say that it proba- 
bly represents the foundation of the more highly 
developed tumbling instinct." 

A large number of Professor Whitman's pi- 
geons are wild birds. The two crowned pigeons 
of Australia, the largest of the pigeon tribe, go 
fluttering with fear at the approach of anyone save 
him who feeds and owns them. In a cage just 
beyond is a naturalized Filipino pigeon, perhaps 
the most beautiful of all the many varieties that 
go to make up the family. This bird is called the 
" bleeding heart " because of the brilliant red 
splash upon the whiteness of its breast. At a lit- 
tle distance it looks as though the bird was wear- 

! 1 i :: 


Ij m 

tnd tin 

m pal 


p. the 


Ml P«l 

Blind '■ 

at certs 

• ays tti 

by a b 
ward in 
thus el* 
■d on by : 

ing a damask rosebud. There are pigeons from 
China, from Africa, from South America, and 
practically from all known lands. 

V "V V 

Hope is all right when mixed 
with an equal amount of hustle. 

4. 4, ag. 



As far my observation and inquiry goes the 
signs of a blizzard are not always the same. 
The most common sign is snow on the ground 
six or more inches deep, very loose and light, and 
the morning unusually clear, with rising mercury, 
the sun bright and sparkling. When these signs 
appear the saying is to keep at home and take 
care of your stock. Do not notice any sign from 
domestic animals, as the}' do not seem to realize 
any danger, and will not come home of their own 

Denbigh, N. Dak. 

4. 4, 4, 

// is easy to see the happiness 
you derive from poverty after you 
strike it rich. 

4* 4* v 

An ingenious arithmetician, writing in the 
Speaker, makes the following calculation in com- 
paring the weight in flesh of the Boers and the 
cost in gold of the war: Assuming that the 
Boer army proper contained originally about 22,- 
870 men, averaging in weight 154 pounds, and 
accepting the estimate of Mr. Lloyd George, the 
pro-Boer member of Parliament, that the war will 
eventually cost England some $2,000,000,000, he 
makes the discovery that the whole of the Trans- 
vaal army might have beer, weighed out in the 
scales and barely equal the weight in gold which 
will be requirel before they are all led into death 

or captivity. 

4. 4. 4. 

John and- Mary Burkett, of Kokomo, Ind., 
have been married four times and divorced three 
times. They are now living happily together ' 
and say they have no further use for the divorce 




Constantly sailing toward these shores is a 
great fleet whose ships are bringing from every 
corner of the world an almost infinite variety of 
articles for the use, pleasure and personal adorn- 
ment of the Americans. Gold, silver and pre- 
cious stones, minerals, earths, fabrics, foods, rare 
woods, marbles, iron and steel, perfumes and a 
thousand and one other things the earth con- 
tributes to this country and the people thereof. 
The last report of the state department of goods 
declared in foreign ports for export to the United 
States shows that this country makes demands 
for some singular articles. Australia and Bel- 
gium seem to be doing a thriving business in sup- 
plying us with rabbit skins. No Yankee need go 
without " a little rabbit skin to wrap the baby up 
in "' at the present rate of import. One startling 
thing is to see that this country imports ginger- 
bread from Dijon, France, at the rate of over 
$500,000 worth a year. Who can eat this ginger- 
bread? Where does it go? 

Large quantities of old metal are imported 
into this country from the West Indies and South 
America. A part of the metal consists of old 
cannon — relics of the days of Portuguese and 
Spanish domination in those parts of the world. 
From the West Indies and Central America 
comes also a steady flow of old copper. Why 
these countries should be so rich in old copper is 
a mystery. We get the most of our coffee, of 
course, from Brazil, the great coffee pot of the 
world, but the returns show that we receive 
amounts, large in the aggregate, from Mexico, 
the West Indies, the countries of the Spanish 
main, the Dutch East Indies, Arabia, Hawaii, 
France, Germany, Belgium and Holland. 
Among the imports from France is charcoal, to 
be used in censers, and from Arabia is imported 
gum incense. 

From Algeria we import our camels and from 
the Straits Settlements we receive among other 
things green snail shells and wild animals. There 
seems to be a great demand for plumes in this 
country, for large quantities of heron plumes are 
imported from Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela 
and Honduras, and we draw upon Arabia, 
British South Africa, the Argentine Republic and 
Uruguay for quantities of ostrich plumes. Other 
kinds of ornamental feathers are received from 

Central and South America, China, Germany, 
Austria and England. 

All the world joins to send us fish, even Japan, 
the Canary islands and Greece contributing. 
The gold and silver which we import irt bullion, 
dust and bars comes from Canada, Mexico and 
Central and South America. It is surprising to 
know the amount of human hair imported into 
this country. It comes from Austria, Italy, Ger-: ' 
many and Russia. It would not be supposed 
that there would be much demand in this country 
for fez caps — those round, red head coverings 
with the black tassel on top, such as are worn by 
the unspeakable Turk — but there is the city of 
Prague, in Austria, supplying us with over $6ooH 
worth of these articles a year. 

In spite of the industry of the American bees 
they do not seem able to keep the home supply 
of honey up to the demand, for we import it at} 
the rate of about $100,000 worth a year from 
Hayti, Jamaica, Mexico and the Dominican Re- 
public. Switzerland sends us a lot of imitation 
precious stones and Germany supplies us with 
all the imitation jewelry that is good for us. It 
is singular to see, in looking over the list, that 
Mexico joins with France and Germany in sup- 
plying us with optical instruments. Also one 
finds that all our imported mushrooms do not; 
come from France and Italy, but that Japan and : 
the Society islands, far off in the wilds of the 
Pacific, send us large consignments of these edi- 
ble fungi. Human skeletons are imported from 
Austria and from Nicaragua. The skeletons 
from Austria are properly articulated and go to 
the doctor's study and the medical student's class- 
room, but those from Nicaragua are simply hu- 
man bones jumbled together, the mortal remains 
of that prehistoric race which once had the seat 
of its vast empire in Central America, or the ves- 
tiges of the more recent dead who passed away 
from earth on the breath of the fever or in the 
constant tumult of the revolutions which have 
marked with blood the history of Nicaragua. 

It seems that we do not supply ourselves with 
all the toothpicks we want, for we import these 
articles from Japan and Portugal. One curious 
import from China is yak tails. What anyone 
wants a yak tail for is a mystery, but evidently the 
yak gives up his tail to serve some useful purpose, 
for we import yearly great quantities of them. 




; K 


\lso os 


1 Japan. 

ibiitinB Lei us consider how news paper is made in one 
bullion >f tne g reat mills of the Adirondack Mountains, 
icoa n , where the giant machines, rattling on, day after 
isinjd l*y> never stopping, are scarcely able to supply 
ted inn he demand of a single New York newspaper. 
Iv.Ger The timber, which is felled in the forests of the 
upposfl tforth, in winter, is floated to the mill in the 
coantr nountain streams by the spring freshets, and 
ivennj riled up in great heaps about the mill buildings, 
worn bi vhose many roofs, chimneys and towers form 
citvo 1 strange picture in the wilderness against the 
.*er S6ot ackground of cloud-topped mountains. 

By being fed to shrieking saws, the spruce 
anbea °S S are cut mto pieces that are no longer than a 
; supoli nan's arm. "Barking" machines, which have 
ortitj lisks of rapidly whirling radial knives, attack the 
3 r iron vood and tear off the bark. To prevent a waste 
icanRf. )f any part of the timber, an endless chain con- 
mitatio reyor carries the bark to the boiler room, where 
us w itJ t is fed to the fires. Another conveyor, like the 
rottoir roulant at Paris, carries the clean logs 
o the grinding room, where a long line of three- 
lorned monsters is waiting for them. ' 
Flumes, beside which men are mere pigmies, 
; do ni (ring the mountain torrents rushing down to the 
ipan an grinding room, feeding the energy of forest cat- 
Is oi tb itacts to the great turbines. They have an enor- 
hese etii nous work to do. Within the iron cases of the 
ted fra hree-horned monsters are grindstones of a spe- 
skeleffi ial hardness, turned by the turbines. The 
nd go ! ' horns " are hydraulic presses, which force the 
it's das ogs under them against the stones. Thus the 
mplyhi vood is ground to pulp, the stones eating away 
I remaii hree feet of wood an hour. The engineer tells 
: []. m las that more than ten thousand " horse-power- 
r :k '■* nours " of energy are needed to convert one cord 
seii i bf spruce into pulp, and that the mills use more 
or in d >ower than a whole manufacturing city in New 
i ii England. Cold water flows continuously on the 
a ;sa grindstones to prevent the friction setting fire to 
i, he wood, and the mixture of ground wood and 
'' .jjj vater which flows away from the grinders, as a 
• , ankish, gruel-like, fluid, runs over dams and 
gj hrough screens and drying machines, until, a 
hick mass, it is either put in storage tanks, in 
)ulk. or formed by machinery into thick sheets 
hat can be rolled up like blankets. It is then 


ground wood pulp, ready for the paper machines. 
— Frank Hix Fyant, in Success. 
4. .|. .j. 

Lots of things prevail on earth 
that haven't the slightest resem- 
blance to the truth. 

•b ♦ * 


" George Washington's false teeth, sup- 
posed to have been made of ivory, are giving a 
certain class of freak historians about as much 
trouble as they must have given the venerable 
patriot who wore them," said one of the profes- 
sors of the Smithsonian institution to a reporter 

" Many times a year for several years this in- 
stitution has been called upon to produce these 
mysterious teeth for the inspection of persons 
who insist that they are here. 

" Our matter-of-fact answer to these inquiries 
that Washington had no false teeth, or at least if 
he did, that they are not in the possession of the 
museum, seems only to stimulate the inquiring 
mind to protest our statement. They proceed to 
give us authentic accounts of these teeth and al- 
ways conclude with expressing the belief that 
they must be in the museum somewhere. 

" Where or how the idea that Washington had 
false teeth originated is an unsolved mystery. 
That it is firmly believed by many is certainly a 
fact. There seems to be no authentic record of 
the father of his country possessing ivory teeth, 
and by a study of the bust we have of him, which 
was made but a few years before his death, there 
is no indication of an indentation along the line 
of the gums, such as can be noticed in persons 
who have had their teeth drawn, even though they 
wear artificial ones. However, we will continue 
to answer the same question in the same way 
probably many times in the future." 

According to some biographers Washington 
lost his teeth during his service as commander- 
in-chief of the Continental army and had a set of 
ivory ones made. These teeth, it is also stated, 
gave him much trouble because they did not fit. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Shoes were worn in Egypt 2,200 years before 








There are ladders of various kinds in India, 
but one of the most ingenious ones I have yet 
seen is a monkey's tail. One time a half-grown 
monkey made several gallant efforts to mount a 
high stone wall, but every time he failed to reach 
the top. Presently another monkey came along, 
somewhat larger than the former, and in one 
bound reached the top of the wall. Instead of 
running off, he sat quite still on the top, his long 
tail reaching three or four feet down the side of 
the wall. The smaller monkey now made an- 
other bound and was easily able to grasp his 
neighbor's tail and help himself to the coveted 
place, the top of the wall. Then both trotted off 
to frolic as they pleased. 

A baby monkey is a very frolicsome creature. 
One time a little fellow, like other children with 
the spirit of investigation, ventured a little far- 
ther than usual and came into the schoolroom 
where our orphan boys were busy studying. See- 
ing the little fellow, the boys thought they would 
catch him, and as the teacher did not object they 
began chase. The little fellow soon got bewil- 
dered and, missing the open window he had en- 
tered, was chased by the boys from room to 
room, down the veranda and into the room 
again, scared so badly he did not know what to 
do. Meanwhile the old mammy was in a great 
fright on the trees outside, calling and chattering 
as loudly as she could. Fortunately the little 
fellow found the window again and got outside, 
where his mother was. I did not see whether she 
rejoiced most because her baby escaped capture, 
or whether she gave him a sound spanking for 
being so imprudent as to get in such a place as 
he did. (Monkeys do spank their babies some 
times. ) 

Once some monkeys were playing on the roof 
of a house where some people were living, and 
the tile being removed, one little fellow fell 

•:; ■ 

through and came down into the room where the 
people were. When he got out where his mothei 
was the native woman who saw it said she gave 
the little fellow bho shiksha (much punishment) 

The monkeys frequently get on the roof of oui 
house, and if the windows are not closed wil 
come in upstairs to see what they can find. One 
time one big fellow was not satisfied with what he • 
saw upstairs, so proceeded down stairs to a tabu 
where some mangoes were setting and began Lc 
help himself. He was so quiet about it that we 
did not find it out till later, though we were ir 
the next room. Another time he came back anc 
helped himself again. Next day he did nof 
trouble to come around by the stairway, but came 
through the front door to go direct to the table 
This time, however, we happened to be in the tithe 
room, and he was glad to make his escape by the 
back door without touching the mangoes. Stil! 
not daunted, he quietly crept back while we wen 
at the table eating and made off with a mango 
This time he was pursued, and, much to his re- 
gret, compelled to give up the luscious fruit wher 
only half finished. 

The monkeys are very destructive to nearly al 
kinds of fruit, except sour limes, also grains anc 
vegetables. The Hindus will not shoot them 
but simply drive them off with sticks and stones 
so they become very tame and troublesome, 
once saw a monkey who had adopted a little blacl 
pup for a baby. She sat up in a tree and helc 
it in her paw as tenderly as though it had beet 
her own offspring. A baby monkey alway! 
clings to its mother's belly with its paws arounc 
her body when it is carried. But the pup had te 
be carried differently. 

Jalalpur, India. 

•j, .J* #£• 



The heading of this article is from on 
" 'Nookman," in which I feel to join in the "re 
frain " by saying, " Yes, pass it along." I hav 


k m 
■ d I 



is ( 


this insro-XjiEitTooiK:. 




been exceedingly interested on several occasions, 

ding from the pages of " Nature Study " in 

e 'Nook how animals, down even to insects, 

,ve the instinct of protecting their own, in dif- 

ent ways. 

A few years ago, while returning to the house 

from the field at the noon hour, I chanced to walk 

through a grass field. The grass then was a foot 

ior more high. I heard a cry of distress. 

Amen! "Squeak-, squeak, squeak." I stopped to look 

01 ota from whence it came, which only took a very few 

sed w seconds to discover, for very near to my feet was 

'J» a snake with its head and neck raised from the 

nvliatl ground probably six inches, with a half or two- 

iki thirds grown mouse in its mouth. This little 

mouse was the one uttering the cry of distress. 

For a moment I watched to see the outcome. I 

had but a very short time to wait to see it all over, 

for " Mother Mouse " was very near to hear the 

cry, as well as I. In an instant, almost a flash, 

caa did she run on to the snake and up the protruded 

thelabi neck and gave a sharp " nip," back of the head, 

when the angry and irritated snake opened wide 

bvi its mouth, which of course freed the little mouse 

So from his prison, and made good its escape into 

wewa the grass, while the snake in anger started after 

manp mother mouse with open mouth and angry eyes, 

but the mouse made good its escape. 

All this did not take over two minutes, yet the 
picture is indelibly fixed in my mind, and ever 
since I have had more profound respect for the 
insignificant little mouse. 




ot lh( 


had bei 
; alwj 
s arod 
ip had t 

Franklin Grove, III. 



One concern has a practical monopoly of the 
banana trade in the United States. It has sixty 
steamers engaged in bringing bananas from 
South and Central America, and for over seventy- 
five million people 400,000 bmnches are imported 

weekly. A bunch of bananas weighs about fifty 
pounds, so that twenty million pounds of bananas 
are brought to this country every week, which 
makes the weekly per capita consumption some- 
where between one-third and one-fourth of a 

Kansas City is one of the great distributing 
points. The Western trade is supplied from 
there and the banana sheds which protect this 
fruit when it must be held over in transit aie 
said to be the completest in the United States. 
Shipping bananas is a business which receives 
much closer attention than one would naturally 
suppose. When all other fruits fail we can al- 
ways fall back on bananas, and for this reason, 
perhaps, people have come to believe that little 
or no method is required in their handling. Per- 
haps when they are informed that bananas can't 
stand less than 55 degrees Fahrenheit, nor more 
than 80 degrees, they will begin to think differ- 

4, 4, 4. 


That the lion and lamb shall lie down together 
was prophesied a long time ago, but quite as won- 
derful is the friendship between a cat and a rat. 
The rat, which is of the white variety that some 
persons fancy for pets, makes its home under the 
counter. Back of this is a shelf, on which the 
proprietor places nuts and other dainties. The 
rat spends much of his time carrying these things 
down to his nest on the floor. 

The cat used to be known as a particularly fine 
'• ratter," and roams about at will. It often goes 
to sleep on a shelf behind the counter, and the rat 
crawls in between its front paws, and cuddling 
down like a tiny kitten, also takes a nap. The 
cat has never offered to harm the rat, and even 
seems to take pride in keeping the white rodent 
clean. Several times a day the cat makes the 
rat's toilet, licking its fur until it fairly shines. 


tieeie xnsro-iLjiEirsrooiK:. 



Elgin, Illinois. 

The subscription price of the Magazine is one dollar a year. It is 
a high-class publication, intended for the Home, and for the interest, 
entertainment and information, of old and young. 

Articles intended for publication should be short, of general inter- 
est, and nothing of a love story character or with either cruelty or 
killing, will be considered. 

Manuscript submitted to the Editor will be at the entire risk of 
the writer, and its return is not guaranteed. 

Subscribers wishing the address of their papers changed should 
Invariably give the old address at which they received their Ingle- 

Agents are wanted everywhere, and any reasonable number ol 
sample copies will be furnished free. All communications relating 
to the Inglenook should be addressed as follows: 

(For the Inglenook.) 22-24 S. State St., Elgin, III. 

Entered at the Post Office at Elgin, 111., as Second-class Matter. 

When I want to speak let me 
think first, Is is true? . .Is it kind? 
Is it necessary? . .If not, let it be 
left unsaid. 

+ + + 


In the February issue of the Junior Munsey 
magazine is an article on fashions, and for the 
benefit of our 'Nook family we reproduce the 
following sentence: 

" With no royal preference to guide the 
Parisian designers in making their fashions, and 
no court to wear them, the pleasant duty of sug- 
gestion seems to devolve upon the leading ac- 
tresses and the most prominent members of the 
demimonde ; and for them the designer creates 
his masterpieces." There you are ! If ever you 
wonder where the fashions come from, the very 
latest thing, know that some actress or prominent 
bad women devised them. Now there is a pos- 
itive disadvantage in all this. From the time the 
" prominent women " devise the correct thing to 
wear, until it gets to The Corners, is necessarily 
a long time, and the Parisian kept-woman, or 
street walker, is wearing something else. Why 
can we not have a nearer fountainhead of fashion ? 

" Prominent women " are found pretty nearly 
everywhere, and we are inclined to believe there 
are several of them in Chicago. Following them 
would bring the rural tail end of the procession 
nearer its native metropolitan head than is the 
case with the Paris originators. 

And the fashions of the men? They are most 
probably the result of imitating the gentlemen 
who know the most about the " prominent mem- 
bers." A great thing is Fashion! 
+ + + 
Life is not measured by the time 
we live. 

+ + + 


How it grows on one ! Beginning as economy 
and prudence it passes through all the gradations i 
till the several commendable virtues are passed , 
and the stingy stage is reached. Once this is 
acquired, the thing soon becomes a habit and a 
sort of second nature with the individual. 

The stingy man suffers pain mentally quite as 
much as the physical cripple does. When he sees 
money melting away he is grieved, even though 
it may not be his own. When his own goes there 
is acute suffering long drawn out. Many are 
the stories, when" " bang goes the saxpence," con- 
cerning the stingy man. None is more surprised 
than he himself that he should be regarded as 
being parsimonious. He is only prudent and 

And what does it all come to in the end? 
When the time comes to die, as die he must, he is 
generally followed by a lot of people, as jackals 
follow the wounded lion, simply awaiting to get 
at his savings. Then when they get it what was 
leaden-footed and clinging before takes wings. 
It is better to disburse one's holding while alive 
and watch where it goes. 


*> *> 


^ 1> 

Can a person be sued for libel against a dead person? 
Yes, and punished if guilty. 

Why does the boiler of a locomotive never blow up? 
It does sometimes, and the vicinity isn't 

h mclies 

Prate indi 

'in their 
water, ; 
be tot 

What is a good cure for a burn? 
Paint the burnt surface with the white of an 
rg, and let dry on the skin. 

What makes the unevenness of rock formation? 
The action of the elements going on all the 
me, now as well as ages back. 

v + 

Is wine a healthy drink? 

Nothing that contains alcohol is healthy, and 
ine is not wine until there is alcohol in it. 

<* * 
When a dynamo stops running what becomes of the 

Nothing. There is no current and nothing 


i ii i 

it ma 

; P ass « parent tree? 


i he set 

i tout 
[any ai 

lie HI 


; vine 



Why will not an apple seed produce the same kind as 

Because bees, insects, etc., cross fertilize the 
arieties when in bloom. 

Settle a discussion for us— what is the color of steam 
a boiler? 

It has no color whatever and a glass boiler full 
i live steam seems empty. 

Is there any way to remove the bad smell in a closed 
lpboard ? 

Yes. Put chunks of charcoal in the corners, 
nd wherever they will not be in the way. 

Does ice ever get colder than ice? 
Sure. It will get as cold as its surroundings, 
any times colder than necessary to its produc- 

ts * 

Are watches and watch cases made at the same fac- 

No, at least not in all instances. They are 
eparate industries. There are watch and case 
actories here in Elgin. 

'•4 < 

Why do not all fishes occupy the ocean uniformly? 

Fish are influenced by food and temperature 
nd in their chosen fields occupy different levels 
fi the water, according to the kind. This is prob- 

>ly due to their make and the consequent com- 

rt or discomfort caused by water pressure. 

If tobacco is so pernicious to health why is it that very 
old people use it? 

Yes, but how do you know they would not be 
in better health if they did not use it? It is well 
established that it is not good for anybody. 

Is death a painful process? 

Natural death is in all probability without sen- 
sation of any kind. The senses are blunted and 
if the dead could tell there would be no more tc 
recollect than there is of birth. 

How is it managed for the 'Nook cover to be printed 
in two colors? 

It goes through the press twice, the whole 
edition once in one color, and then again in an- 
other. Practically all color printing is done the 
same way. 

<• -4 
Do you advise the use of an assumed name in writing? 
Why? You will probably astonish the world 
more over your own name than any other. This 
does not apply to " Veritas," " Citizen," and 
" Old Subscriber " when they want to pitch into 
somebody from around the corner. 
* «• 
What is the Louisiana purchase? 
In 1800 Napoleon acquired Louisiana from 
Spain for purposes of colonial empire, the ar- 
rangement being secret. But being fully occu- 
pied by European troubles it was passed on to the 
United States April 30, 1803, for $15,000,000. 

How is sugar had from beets? 

The beets are washed, shredded, the sugar 
soaked out of the pulp, and the sugar water boiled 
down and crystallized. The machinery is very 
expensive and the sugar cannot be made at home 
to advantage in any way. A certain kind of beets 
and soil are necessary to commercial success. 

Why would not the stories of a foreign language be 
acceptable if translated into English? 

Some are, — but very few. Most of them have 
a characteristic turn and manner to them that 
bars them out. The average French story is 
surely Frenchy, and in less known languages a 
literal translation is unbearable to a habit of 
thought cut along different lines. They " don't 
come out right " to suit* 




The ten-cent stores of our larger cities are of 
comparatively recent growth, say within the last 
twenty-five years. They are found in almost any 
town of considerable size. In the larger-sized 
cities thev are operated under the control of one 
person, or a syndicate, having branches in their 
own and other cities. The exact originator of 
the idea is not known, but it is likely that it 
started with the ninety-nine-cent stores, or the 
stores where articles for ninety-nine cents are 
sold, as it is certain that these higher-priced es- 
tablishments preceded the ten-cent places. 
There are also five-cent stores as well as ten-cent 

A visit to one of these establishments, especial- 
lv in the large cities, reveals an immense amount 
of merchandise of varied assortment, any single 
piece of which may be had for five or ten cents, 
as the case may be. There is one in Elgin un- 
der the effective management of F. M. Murphy, 
who also operates another similar store in Free- 
port, 111. In an interview with Mr. Murphy in 
regard to the management we learned the follow- 
ing of interest to 'Nookers : 

It is a difficult matter to say what particular 
article is best sold in one of these establishments. 
The demand naturally varies with the season of 
the year, while some articles are suitable the year 
around. Mr. Murphy finds it to his advantage 
to import his chinaware direct through a Boston 
house, while other articles are bought of manu- 
facturers. Anyone having a considerable amount 
of any one thing to sell at such a price that will 
afford the ten-cent man a margin is sure of a 
purchaser in him. It is a fact that the intrinsic 
value of goods does not always cut any consid- 
erable figure in conducting one of these estab- 
lishments. You can buy a granite ware article 
for kitchen use at a price which cannot be reached 
by a regular dealer, and this fact is due, not that 
the ten-cent man has better facilities in purchas- 
ing, but in the fact of his taking advantage of 
offers on the part of those who are overloaded 
with some particular article which they wish to 
dispose of immediately for cash. Thus, if a pub- 
lisher has brought out a book for the Christmas 
trade, and has sent his traveling-men abroad and 
made all the sales that hp finds possible, and vet 

has a number of books on his hands, he is willii 
to dispose of them at perhaps even less than 
could get for them in the regular channels 
trade. The ten-cent store man is alive to the 
opportunities and is on the alert continually I 
such purchases, and taking advantage of them 
even able to offer for sale to the general publ 
many a thing below the real cost of productio 
Take another instance for illustration. The ma 
ufacture of all the granite ware in the Unit 
States is controlled by a trust. It does an enc 
mous business, and in the course of the sales 
their material some pieces are deficient in sot 
respects, so slightly as not to be noticeable to a 
not familiar with the business, and these accum 
late by the car-load at headquarters. These a 
offered for sale at cash prices for even less thi 
the cost of the material entering into their man 
facture. The merchant in the ten-cent stoi 
buying for cash and getting a rebate for dov 
payments, is enabled to put these things on r 
counters for less than the regular dealer, and \ 
in a way that does not interfere with their legi 
mate trade, which would not allow a damag 
article to appear on their shelves even though 
might be as good as others they had. This 
gravitates to the ten-cent stores where it is di 
posed of in short order. 

To give the 'Xooker an idea of the extent 
the business. Mr. Murphy's store is not a larj 
one so far as space is concerned, yet he does a v 
large business.' In the single matter of confe 
tionery, in the month of December, he sold abo 
seven tons of candy at the regular price of t 
cents per pound. 

The contents of a ten-cent store are continua 
changing and there is not an opportunity of sh 
worn goods accumulating or dead stock pilii 
up on the merchant's hands. It is a sort of 
" come quick and go quick " business, and 
reader should imagine that only things of lit 
or no value are to be found at such a pla 
Many of the staple articles of commerce, 
course within the limitations of prices, are pick 
up at auction rooms, clearance sales, fire sal 
sheriff sales, etc., and all of these taken togeth 
constitute an almost unlimited stock from whi 
to choose. 

The character of the patrons of the ten-ce 

stores is almost identical with those of a gr< .... 

tihiie iisra-iLiEirNrooiK:. 


.rtment store, there being no difference be- 

- ireen them in a social or financial way. If a 
"""- :rson desires to purchase a common article of 

- msehold use he is more apt to find it within 
adv reach at a ten-cent store than he is at a 

: -eat department store. And so it comes that 
[e the business is a small one as to price, it is 
universal in its patronage. 

It is difficult to ascertain the average number 

purchases made by a caller in one of these 

ores at one time. Some people will come in 

look around, buy a single article and go out. 

ers will look around and perhaps buy five or 

x dollars' worth. Perhaps the average patron 

one of these stores will buy about three arti- 

es at a call. There are those who patronize 

lese establishments regularly for the reason that 

stock in trade is continually shifting and al- 

_ 5 presents new attractions. One advantage 

e ten-cent store has over the older and more 

■thodox institutions is that the goods are ail 

splayed, or nearly so. and there is no question 

»ut the price. People may see for themselves 

~ at they are not shop-worn or second-hand in 

ly respect. Naturally the store appeals to the 

aninine element of the population to a greater 

rtent for the reason that the average woman is 

:en on the scent of a bargain, and the store 

" here things are sold for a dime presents many 

-.::;': ich attractions that they are almost impossible 

i-v pass if the requisite coin is at hand. 

I The project has proven so eminently success- 
" J il that the business is widening out in every di- 
ction, especially in the West. A great deal of 
is managed by syndicates who locate stores in 
:::.: therto unoccupied territory. These syndi- 
::'• ites do not arrange to compete with one another. 
:-;. :i id where they locate a store they are not inter- 
: ; - 1 red with by others. 

As a result of the expansion of the ten-cent 
ore we have establishments in larger cities 

: - ■•' here wares are placed on counters on which ev- 
ything is not more than twenty, twenty-five, or. 

'-''-'■'■ ity cents as the case may be; but the ten-cent 
■' ore bases its sales on ten cents for the largest 

:' : V nount of any one thing sold, although all oi 

iem naturally sell smaller articles, not worth 

n cents, for five cents, or even less. Taking it 

■;-. 1 around the ten-cent stores seem to be a suc- 

.. j r ss and have come to stay. 


A physician had to wait the other day for 
two hours in an office building. As he sat in 
idleness a man with a fresh but unlighted cigar 
in his mouth came into the room and began to 
talk. He talked a long while and then he went 
out again. He returned at the end of an hour 
and the cigar, still unlighted, was still in his 
mouth. The physician said afterward to the man 
in whose office he was waiting : " Does your 
friend often go about with an unlighted cigar in 
his mouth, as he has been doing this afternoon? " 
The other answered : 

"Often? Oh, always. He is never without 
that ornament." 

" Well," said the physician, thoughtfully, " it's 
a strange thing to say. but I wouldn't bet on your 
friend's sanity a year hence." 

" Why not? " asked the other. 

" Because 1 have seen so many paretics who 
had this habit of ' dry smoking,' as the thing is 
called, and I have come to regard the habit al- 
most as a sign of incipient paresis. Lombroso 
regards it as such a sign, and so does the English 
alienist Maudsley. Look out for your friend. 
Watch him very closely." — Philadelphia Record. 
+ * * 
When beggars cease to ask you 
for alms it is time for you to change 
your tailor. 

♦ ♦ * 

Emery comes from the Island of Naxos, in the 
eastern Mediterranean, whence it has been ex- 
ported for the last two centuries or more. The 
beds are in the northeast of the island. There 
are about three hundred men engaged in the 
trade, all of whom have to be married before they 
are admitted to the fraternity. The material i? 
much too hard to be dug out or even blasted. 
Great fires are lighted round the blocks till the 
natural cracks expand with the heat, and levers 
are then inserted to pry them apart. This sys- 
tem is continued until the blocks are reduced in 
size to masses of a cubic foot or less, and they 
are then shipped as if they were coal. There are 
said to be twenty million tons yet available at 
Naxos. It is one of the hardest substances 





If a 'Nooker were whisked from his present 
place of reading to the heart of Mexico City 
on one of its principal streets at first sight he 
would not know he was out of his own country, 
but he would not have to look around more than 
once to find himself wondering as to what part of 
the world he had suddenly come upon. The city 
is a very old one, probably a thousand years hav^: 
come and gone since its founding, but the lead- 
ing streets of Mexico and the people are not very 
unlike those of our own country, taking them as 
a whole. There are houses, paved sidewalks, 
asphalt streets, telegraphs, telephones, stores and 
show windows, and people dressed exactly as 
they are in any city of the United States. 

Nevertheless, when one comes to examine any 
particular thing he finds it different after all. 
The stores are managed very much as our own 
and the articles offered for sale are about the 
same, but the people and their customs are so 
widely different as to be a source of never-ending 
surprise and comment. On the leading streets 
one will see all kinds of people. When I say 
street it should be remembered that in Mexico 
City every street does not retain the same name 
throughout its entire length, but has a different 
name for every square. Thus in going down a 
street, let us call it Gante street, we cross over 
and come to Bettlemitas street, and so on, chang- 
ing throughout the entire length. To say that 
persons live on a certain street is practically say- 
ing that they live on one side of a certain square. 

Now the people on these streets are widely dif- 
ferent. Nowhere in Mexico, either in or out o!: 
the Capital, are there more than two classes of 
people, — the better class and the literally poorer 
class. The better classes are dressed in the 
height of fashion ; the poorer class wears a native 
garb and carries a blanket over the shoulder. 
The great middle class that owns the earth with 
us is wholly wanting in any Spanish-speaking 
country on the American continent. The well- 
dressed man and the white-shirted and broad- 
hatted peon fill the sidewalks, while out in the 
street for greater facility of action and rapidity 
of progress, the Indians, dressed in their native 
costumes, may be seen rapidly passing to and fro. 


Even 1 

Hacks drive up and down the street, pnva 
equipages pass, and every man or woman > 
pass is possessed of an individuality that is notiq 
able on close inspection. Little newsboys call 
the papers they offer for sale the same as 
own. It is perhaps the only place in the wor 
where to-morrow's paper is sold to-day. 

The language is universally Spanish, thouj 
there is much English spoken and no little Ge 
man and French. It is entirely possible for ai 
reader to spend a year in Mexico City and g 
along very well without a knowledge of a wo 
of Spanish, though, of course, he would be bett 
equipped if he knew the language spoken by q 
people. Still, it is not a necessity by any mear 

Turning into a hotel, say the Iturbide, on 
a private dwelling place, afterward the palace 
an emperor, and now a hotel, one enters the offk 
registers in a book similar to those in use 
home, is assigned a room, and goes up an elevat 
to his floor along with a moso, or man-servai 
He finds his room very much like that of a hoi 
room at home with the exception that the char 
bermaids are conspicuous by their absence ai 
that men do all the work. The guest can w; 
in his room while the servant brings the linen ai 
makes the bed. This is invariably the case, 
no bed is made ready for occupancy and left 
without a guest in the room. The reason for tr 
is, perhaps, that the bedding would disappear 
accessible to the native help. There is an electa 
bell in the room and the general appliances ai 
appurtenances, as said before, are not unlike tho 
of a home hotel. 

Leaving our room and going down on t 
street there is so much to see that one hard 
knows where to begin. We can go up to t 
National palace in five minutes, having to cro 
the great central plaza, a most beautiful spot wi 
trees, flowers, and fountains, and in the center 
band-stand at which most excellent music is di 
coursed to the public on given evenings of t 
week. It is said that this music, which begi 
at eight o'clock in the evening, is the only thii 
in Mexico that has ever been known to begin 1 
time. Let us sit down on one of these seats ai 
look around us a little. On two sides of t 
square are business houses, on another side tl 
National Palace, the largest building in all Mel 
ico, on the other side the great cathedral of Mel 
ico, built on the site of the old Aztec tempi 

* the 




3b i 
any m 


: in 

an cfe 
ian-sen I 
tof a t 
^ the ch 

the nsro-LEisrooK:. 


e right across the street from it was Monte- 
's palace where Cortez brought him out to 
» his speech to the angry people of the old 
1 and where a stone was hurled at him from 
crowd causing his death. For a thousand 
s this open square has been a place of public 
rt, being the market place in Aztec times, 
been occupied by the various revolution- 
irmies and the flag of the United States, of 
ice and of Mexico have taken turns in su- 
lacy. Within five minutes' walk in any di- 
on we are at the center of things and places 

l ' >f which the edicts have gone forth that have 

:rned the country for at least a thousand 

Every foot of it is historic ground, and 

y sight and every scene a strange one. At 

;: : future period we will take a walk around 
square and see more in ten minutes than we 
ght possible on the American Continent. 

+ * + 

There are certain things zvhich 
no lapse of time will ever cover. 

I 1 T V 

it 01 

:e In 



a recent Inglenook article the Editor recol- 
•r : a Thanksgiving dinner of long ago, at which 
an ela: e was no end to the good things to eat, in 
'h he says "that there never was a woman yet 
inliketl wore the bonnet who felt at peace with her- 
if she didn't stack things up beyond the 
est capacity of the eaters," " and the only 
on why there was not more to eat was be- 
they didn't happen to think of it." 
s the Dunkard of it." 
s comment gives us the thought that the 
who wear the bonnet have no higher 
in view, no higher conception of this life, 
to live to cat. I do not believe the Editor 
ed to convey this thought to the readers 
on!' ;'.# ur richly-laden magazine, but only to praise 
fcgi good sisters for their benevolent and liberal 
,; B :; Is and their generosity to their guests, and, 
] a : I say also, to give them a word of praise for 
>, $ r good cooking. 

feel that our people have grown out of that 
.] ■:)[ as they have grown out of many other things, 
ecially do I see it with many of our Western 

sisters. They think more soberly of life. 
" They eat to live." 

It is true they often call in their friends and 
have a rich repast, and an abundance of it, but 
it is not looked upon as being " the Dunkard of 
it." They have weightier matters to think and 
talk about, such as the various kinds of missions, 
benevolent work, their Bible studies and how 
best make use of the precious time allotted to 
them, how secure the best means to educate their 
children to a higher, nobler life, and in many 
other things calculated to improve the talents 
given them till the Master comes. 

McPherson, Kans. 


The 'Nookman has no objection to the sisters 
who meet to discuss the higher life, etc., but if 
you happen to know a woman whose name might 
be Mary Ann, cleanly, healthy, homey, womanly, 
whose whole life is an engrossed poem without 
her knowing it, who is an adept at potpies, able 
to concoct dumplings that are dreams, familiar 
with pies that bespeak inspiration, and so on, — 
one who goes over the hill to see a sick child of 
an afternoon, and who feels it her mission to 
make a happy home, and stay there most of the 
time, — just give me Mary Ann while the rest of 
them are at the meeting. When I die I want to 
continue some things begun on earth, and Mary 
Ann is sure to be there, even though it would 
puzzle her to tell what all this higher life busi- 
ness really meant, for, having lived it, she never 
thought about it as a necessity. 
•fr + + 
Some people save a lot of money 
by not buying soap. 

♦ ♦ * 


Exploration has lately revealed relics of 
Menes, the founder of the Egyptian monarchy, 
fashioned more than 6,500 years ago. Of Zer, 
the successor of Menes, it is astonishing to find 
the forearm of his queen still in its wrappings, 
with four splendid bracelets intact. This bril- 
liant and exquisitely finished group of jewelry is 
2,000 years older than the jewelry of Dahshur, 
the oldest up to then known. The arm of the 
queen had been broken off by the first plunderers 
and had laid hidden in a hole in the wall of the 


the izcsra-ijiEiisroo-b^- 


In an article descriptive of making bread by 
machinery, the Scientific American has the fol- 
lowing interesting article, that cannot fail to in- 
terest the 'Nook family, all of whom are inter- 
ested in the staple of life : 

The raw material employed in the making of 
bread at the bakery in question consists princi- 
pally of flour, yeast, milk, and water. For the 
finer varieties of bread, butter is used.* The flour 
is piled in sacks to the number of six thousand 
in a large storeroom occupying the topmost floor 
of the factory building, and is composed of spring 
wheat, winter wheat, and pure rye. Although 
modern milling machinery has done much to im- 
prove the quajity and cleanliness of flour before 
it reaches the consumer, the baker finds that it 
must be still further cleaned before it becomes fit 
for his purpose. Consequently an elaborate 
cleaning apparatus or " dresser " is employed, 
invented by the late Jonathan Mills, which so 
thoroughly refines the flour that even the finest 
fibers of the sack are removed in passing through 
the machine. The cleaning apparatus comprises 
essentially a system of hoppers, screens, convey- 
ers, and bins. 

The hoppers are located at one end of the flour 
storage room ; and into their mouths the flour is 
poured. At the lower tapered end of each hop- 
per an adjustable rocking closure is suspended by 
rods, which closure permits the passage of a defi- 
nite amount of material. As the rods swing from 
side to side the closure rocks and permits the flour 
to drop into a spiral conveyer, by which it is 
transferred into a rotary screen. As the flour is 
whirled around and mixed in this rapidly-turning; 
screen, it is driven by its centrifugal force toward 
one end of the screen ; but before it reaches that 
end it has sifted through the meshes. The foi- 
eign matter and impurities are left behind, and 
these alone emerge from the end of the screen, 
left open for that purpose. The sifted, cleaned 
flour is transferred by a screw-conveyer, mounted 
immediately below the rotary screen, to a bucket- 
elevator, by which it is raised to the flour storage 
room and taken to four bins by separate chutes. 
As the one bin receives its charge, its chute is 
closed, so that the next bin may be filled. This 
cleaning apparatus is constantly in operation ; for 

fa. at 

during a working day some 200 barrels of | 
must be refined. 

The four bins in the storage room are situ 
directly above four dough-mixing machine! 
the floor below. And to each mixing mac 
the flour is carried by a small screw-conveyor 
a flexible pipe-like chute from the superposed 
Above each machine is a tank in which cold 
hot water are mixed until a temperature var 
from 90 degrees in summer to 95 degrees in 
ter is attained. Into each mixing machine s 
gallons of milk and water, previously mixed 
baker, 840 pounds of flour, fifteen pounds of 
and a suitable amount of yeast, are introdi 
to form what is technically called a " spon 
In the making of rye bread caraway seed is 
mingled with the other material. For the fi 
varieties of bread, milk and butter are usee 
we have already remarked. 

Although the four mixing machines d 
somewhat in detail, the main elements of the 
struction are the same in all. Each machine ( 
prises essentially an iron vessel mounted to sw 
in which a double spiral dasher or mixe 
mounted, and is turned through the mediur 
gearing driven by a belt and pulley from a O 
tershaft. When the mixing machine has rece 
its charge of material, the belt is shifted frc 
loose to a fast pulley, whereupon the dashers 
and knead the sponge into dough. Human h; 
could never knead so thoroughly and so quit 
After twenty minutes of mixing and knead 
by which the ingredients are intimately 
mingled into a perfectly homogeneous mass, 
mixing machine is swung downwardly on it: 
and from the turning dasher the dough 
with a long-bladed knife and collected 1 
wheeled trough. 

Time was when this kneading and mixing 
done by hand. The workmen washed their h: 
and cleaned their nails before kneading and h: 
ling the dough. But it is hard to knead dc 
thoroughly by hand ; and perspiration must b 
out from the pores with the arduous labor, 
using mechanical kneaders the dough car 
mixed, thoroughly kneaded, without touchir 
with the hands. How great is the saving in 
and labor wrought by these machines may be 
ceived when it is considered that the work w 
each performs in twenty minutes required at 






v mix 

or tie 

; rh 



t toucl 




the incessant labor of two men for three- 
ters of an hour. 

fore machinery was introduced in the mak- 

)f bread a man worked from twelve to thir- 

hours a day in a large bakery and from sev- 

■n to eighteen hours in a small bakery. At 

;nt all large bakeries, at least those of New 

: City, employ their men only during sixty 

iture \- sper week. 

. le dough collected from the mixing machines 

troughs is now allowed to ferment or 

," as it is properly called, a process which 

ires about two and a half hours. After fer- 

... ation the dough is ready to be molded by 

into loaves of some forty different shapes 

sizes. Adequate machines for this purpose 

never been devised. 

"om the mixing room the fermented dough is 
ped into a molding and oven room by chutes, 
:-bread dough passing down by one way, 
fheat-bread dough by another. The rye-bread 
is carried to a table in the mixing room, 
nto pieces of a certain weight, dropped into 
ichine called a " break," then passed down 
the molding and baking room by way of a 
; e, to be molded and baked. The " break " 
ists merely of a pair of rollers placed side by 
and serves the purpose of squeezing the air 
)f the dough. 

le wheat-bread dough, on the other hand, is 
scted to no squeezing, but is conveyed di- 
y by a chute to a table, to be cut up and dis- 
11I kne ^ e( j amon g the men who are to work it into 
roper shape. After having been molded into 
mm s the dough is allowed to raise in a steam- 
for one-half an hour. 

the walls of the baking room fifteen ovens 
milt, into which the loaves are inserted b\ 
•handled wooden shovels commonly called 
:1s." The baking extends over a period of 
half to three-quarters of an hour, depending 
the size of the loaf. The interior of the 
is lit by gas so that the loaves can be readily 
: Of the various ovens employed, a large 
ile Werner-Pfleiderer drawplate oven should 
>articularly mentioned ; for it constitutes a 
valuable adjunct to the baking plant. 
jv j n gj le oven in question has two heating cham- 
arranged in as many tiers, and two carriages, 
of which receives a baking plate and is run 
■ ra j 'ard and back in its chamber. Hangers of 

different lengths extend from the forward ends 
of the carriages and are curved in the lower 
carriage so as not to impede the upper. These 
arms or hangers run on rails to guide the car- 
riage into the oven. The construction utilizes 
the space in front of the oven to the best advan- 
tage ; for large-sized baking plates may be drawn 
out to their full length. 

After the baking the loaves are collected, classi- 
fied, as it were, and taken to the shipping room. 
Here they are loaded on some fifty delivery 
wagons and distributed throughout the city of 
Xew York. 

The output of this model bakery aggregates 
about 43,000 loaves of bread and 15,000 rolls per 

♦ /♦ ♦ 

That Caspar Lampson, a well-to-do farmer o.? 
Stewarttown is alive to-night is due to the brav- 
ery -of his shepherd dog, which rescued him from 
a vicious bull that would have killed him had not 
the dog come to his assistance. 

Mr. Lampson was leading the bull to water 
this morning when it turned on and attacked him. 
He had a pitchfork in his hand, with which he de- 
fended himself as best he could, but at last the 
maddened animal in a most vicious rush knocked 
the fork from the farmer's hand.' Then it bore 
him to the ground and was trampling on and 
goring him when the dog leaped the barnyard 
fence and attacked the bull, biting and snapping 
at its heels. This caused the bull to turn -from 
the man to the dog, which then attacked the bull, 
fastening its teeth in the bull's nostrils and hold- 
ing on until the badly-injured farmer could crawl 
to a place of safety. 

When the dog saw that its master was safe ic 
loosened its hold on the bull and reached safety 
by jumping the fence. 

♦* ♦ if 

A Canadian doctor, when called to prescribe 
for insomnia, always advises, before drugs are 
employed, a hop pillow instead of feathers. It 
is made of a thin muslin slip stuffed with hops 
and hop leaves and sprayed fresh with alcohol 
every night before the patient goes to bed. He 
claims that nine times out of twelve he has cured 
insomnia by this simple plan. — Good Housekeep- 





The larger half of the 'Nook family know 
nothing about irrigation, and no doubt a good 
many care nothing about it for the reason that 
they know nothing. Nevertheless it is a very 
interesting subject, and is one that will influence 
every reader of the Inglenook who lives long 
enough. In fact, perhaps no person from the 
East has ever looked on the work of irrigation, 
as successfully carried out, but who thought what 
a good thing it would be at home where it might 
be applied to advantage. 

Now in order to get at this thing in some sort 
of order, let us say that irrigation of crops is as 
old as civilization, and possibly a good deal older. 
There is nothing new about it. But the man, 
here at Elgin, say, puts out his crop and trusts to 
luck for rain at the right time, and if it comes it 
hits all right, and if it doesn't the crop is more or 
less of a failure. Now the difference between him 
and the irrigating man is this : The Elgin man 
hits or misses connection as it happens. The 
irrigating man is as sure of his crop as the 
mechanic is of turning out a kitchen table when 
he starts in with material and a knowledge of 
what he wants to make. Every farm reader 
knows that there is a time in the history of every 
crop when if there is no water gets to it there is 
a greater or less shortage, often a total failure. 
The man with the water makes weather and gets 
his crop, sure, every time. That's the difference 

Now there is a broad strip of country, hun- 
dreds of miles across, beginning up in British 
America and extending through the United 
States clear down into old Mexico, for over a 
thousand miles, in which the soil is an ideal one, 
the climate often perfect, and the surface many 
times better than the older parts of the country, 
as far as topography is concerned, and yet in all 
this section it is a hit or miss gambling game that 
man plays with Nature every time he puts out a 

A man with his family selects a perfect quar- 
ter-section of land, and buys or homesteads it, and 
builds him a sod house and starts out with the 
highest and holiest aim that could move him to 
action. He is home-making. He plows up the 
tough buffalo grass sod, puts in his crop and 


; the i 

(St A 

lis thro 


waits results. In the morning the sun comil 
like a ball of fire, sails through a sky as bl 
that of Italy, and goes down in the west, e 
of fire. At night the stars wheel into plac( 
night breeze sets in, and it is pleasant eith 
daylight or starlight. These perfect days r 
themselves, and everything happens in ro 
save the falling of the rains at the right 
The corn shrivels, the wheat and other grain 
it up, and the days come and go like a dream. 
goes too. The sod house tumbles in, and sti 
last, done out in the unequal battle, the S' 
sun shines on day by day, and the stars laugl 
blink at night. There is only one thing tr 
needed to make it a garden spot for more 
lions than now inhabit the whole United S 
and that is water. This water is no idle di 
It is a certain fact under every foot of the 
and in places man has tortured the river 1 
flows through his ditches, and along the lat 
and where the spiny cactus in its varied scr 
forms found life out of nothing, the long- 
tered grape, the peach, and the almond abc 
And the arid country is a garden. Now th 
terest that attaches to all this cannot but coi 
the 'Nook family, a good many of whom li 
the midst of the reclaimed desert. 

And there is something else that the 'Nool 
will let you work out for yourself, but it is a 
averaging one's way through the question, 
irrigating community is always an intelligent 
more so than the hit or miss farm settlei 
How people get their water, and how they ; 
it, and the fun and the misery of it, make 
reading. It is good enough for the 'Nook, 
it has to be very good to find its way int< 
" gude black prent " of its pages. So ir 
future we will tell something of the means 1 
to get water, and if those who irrigate their 
dens in the West in a small way will tel 
'Nook family how they do it, and what har. 
when it is rightly done, they will confer a 1 
on many an eastern reader who has the com 
tion, but who doesn't know how to work it. 

Not long ago the writer was at an old 
house, old in the sense of having been there 
occupied by the same family, for generations 
up on the hillside above was^ a strong spring 
filled a pond that kept fish in summer and 
nished ice in the winter. The house was 
below it, and there was the big family ga ! 


pg : 

It prii 

with j 

Jul the 


- to 



j-etfmes it hit, and sometimes it dried up. 
iy a westener would rather have that corn- 
ion than to have found a pocketbook full of 
jjy. Will someone tell how it should be 
|:ed. and what could be done with a two-inch 
,-ater pipe steadily flowing the year 

;lj w; 


4. 4. i- 

Usually when a woman is in the 

: - wrong she cries — then she's all 

mi rio 

its tog 



T T T 



\'ov,' th 

.NE of the unfortunate things in this life, or 

;]ist apparently unfortunate, is also one of the 

' nonest. A woman, young or old, single or 

' ied, is thrown upon her own resources. She 

' mpelled to make her own living for herself 

" sometimes for others. In and of itself this 

[tion is not so serious, in fact, if all things 

"Itqual, it is not a situation to be gravely de- 

But, unfortunately, it often happens 

:ese parties are absolutely without expert 

',. /ledge or technical skill sufficient to enable 

, to earn their daily bread. The history of 

sands and thousands of women would be a 

itful record of trouble, privation and disaster, 

1 ending in suicide, or shame worse than 

is not within the province of this article to 
iss the primary conditions that lead women 
; so helpless. The fact remains that every 
an reader does not know how soon she may 
lirough stress of circumstances, brought face 
,ce with just these conditions. It is the un- 
cted that happens and with it sometimes 
s the terrible. It may be, and often is the 
that when a woman is thrown upon her 
esources kind friends come to the rescue 
ooth the way of self-support, but in thou- 
of cases they are left entirely upon their 
resources and know not which way to turn. 
dw. it has occurred to the Inglenook that a 
s of articles from persons situated in the 
cier herein described, showing how they won 
Sng for themselves, would be of great inter- 
y all of our readers. Not only would it be a 
er of absorbing interest, but it might prove 
1 of a most helpful character in cases of pos- 

sible emergency among many who are now well 
situated. Therefore, we have concluded to ask 
for contributions from women who make their 
own living, telling how it is done, the experience 
necessary, and the struggles through which they 
passed before they attained their present self- 
supporting condition. 

We do not ask for the addresses, or even the 
names of the writers. An assumed name will do 
as well. It is not intended to ask a woman to 
parade her troubles, her griefs, and her final suc- 
cess before the world over her own name. Ini- 
tials or an assumed name will be sufficient. 

Perhaps no woman has ever been brought face 
to face with this problem without the regret that 
she had not qualified herself for something of 
the kind before the emergency arose, and if, 
therefore, those who contribute their experience 
will add a word of advice along the line they have 
successfully followed it may be a vast help to all 
who read. We ask these contributions in the in- 
terest of a number of people who have written 
the Inglenook for advice in premises precisely 
similar. And not only to them will these articles 
be valuable, but to all who read. We hope for a 
hearty response; not only from those who have 
had a personal experience, but those who know of 
others who have been forced to earn a living. 
They may do this even without their knowledge 
or consent, omitting names, of course. 

We trust there will be a liberal response to 
this call and that we will have many an avenue 
opened up for consideration among those who, 
though now blessed with a home, may at an early 
period be compelled to seek employment to keep 
the wolf from the door. 

Names and places will be regarded as con- 
fidential by the management of the magazine and 
only direct facts of an impersonal character are 

Now, let us hear from you. 
•fr + 4? 

Quite an interest is being manifested in the 
premium offers to any present 'Nooker who se- 
cures new subscribers. It is so easy to accom- 
plish that every present subscriber should make 
an effort to send in some new names. It is easy 
once started upon, and getting the premium for 
the trouble is " like finding money." Don't de- 
lay action. Take hold promptly. 


.TIHIIE izcstq-XjEiltooik:. 



Last week's Inglenook was written by sisters 
of the Brethren church. About seventy-five con- 
tributed, some getting in too late to appear in the 
number set apart for them. Now what was the 
effort like ; how does it compare with a like num- 
ber of men writing? Well, if the editor knows, 
and he thinks he does, the performance was rath- 
er better than as many men would have made. 
That ought to be glory enough, but there are also 

The greatest fault of all writers, everywhere, 
is a disposition to preach. Let me illustrate 
what I mean. Take half a dozen men and wom- 
en, ten miles back of Elgin. Let them ride to- 
gether to town, take the cars for Chicago, run 
around all day there, return at night fagged out, 
and while there will be talk, intelligent and par 
with the subjects discussed, wit, pathos, sarcasm 
and good-natured raillery, there will be no preach- 
ing. Now give the six a chance to write, or to 
make it even numbers, a hundred of them, and 
about ninety-nine of them will choose some ab- 
stract subject and go to moralizing. No satis- 
factory explanation has ever been tendered. It 
is shown in the subjects graduating classes take 
for their essays and orations, and for a lot of im- 
possible and unreasonable topics commend me to 
a college or seminary programme. It seems to 
be a fixed idea among most people that when they 
speak or write they must preach. 

Now preaching is all right in its place, and 
some people are born to do it, called, I believe is 
the word, and, oh, the imitators ! While every- 
body tolerates them yet behind the door opinions 
are quietly expressed. Now this is the preface 
to the remark that there was little or no preach- 
ing in the woman's 'Nook. Much of it was real 
interesting, all of it was creditable. While all 
public expression of any character should be ele- 
vating and helpful it is no part of the necessities 
of the case that the teacher should look and act- 
like a dyspeptic owl. Yet that is the very thing 
most people think they must do, and for that very 
reason most people who write never get into 

Then facility of expression seems to be a gift 
no books or training can give. Did you ever 

notice a new glove on the plump hand of 
teen-year-old girl ? Her " paddy " fits in 
ery part of it, and there is no suspicion 
wrinkle. Just so some people write, 
ideas fit into the words as the hand does 
glove. And that's good writing. It is sai 
one might as well try to push a brick ou |s 
house with one's finger as to change a w< f 
Shakespeare, and the comparison is an ex< 
one. Now some of our contributors have ; 
knack in telling a thing in the glove-fitting 
while others call to mind the Indian's cor 
on Congress : " Talky — talky, heap talky.' 

To one to whom the gods have been 
this way these things may come without c 
but to the average mortal of us, the round' 1ST 
riod and the clear and clean-cut expressk 
the results of a good deal of care and study twash,a 
some reason most people introduce their ; ok one 
by saying that it is something they just 
off." The 'Nookman always feels like s 
" You get ready to catch. I'm going to tos. d stale bre 
now." Don't deceive yourself. Nobod\ s nne-thi 
has succeeded in literature ever got there bj 1!c( i Cf | fr . 
ing things off. 

Taken all in all the woman's Inglenoo: 
a success. Croakers said it couldn't be 
that there would be a mess. Well, it was L 
and well done at that. Doubtful whethe ir two 

tie: for 


If ..:: ipped 

meats, ar 
(lit goos 

illl It 

siah, Jacob and the rest of them could 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


Prince Orsini, who is the owner of the t rved with 
ful Lake Nemi, near Rome, has facilital 
every possible way the efforts of the Italiat 
eminent to raise the two galleys of Caligula 
were sunk A. D. 41 off the shores of this 
sheet of water. Sufficient has been recove 
present to disclose the astounding fact th 
vessels in question measure respectively 22 * a ifi 
and 237 feet in length, by sixty feet and sc 
five feet in width. Their decks were evi 
covered with splendid mosaic, and already 1 
mense number of magnificent bronze ol 
among them a beautiful head of Medusa, 
be seen at the Prince's villa, where eventu r 
museum is to be organized of objects in cc 
tion with the sunken galleys. 

lv it i 



81 SC 

■':'■ r 






If n 



tons < 

A small boy says it is impossible 
to judge the effect of a slipper by 
its size. 

3E, wash, and clean a young goose careful- 

00k one finely-chopped onion with one-half 

utter for ten minutes, strain the but- 

s id add to it one and one-fourth cups 

* ;d stale bread crumbs, two cups hot mashed 

1] es. one-third cup melted butter, one-half 

ty -ated celery, one egg slightly beaten, one- 

ip chopped English walnut meats or hick- 

t meats, and salt, pepper and sage to taste. 

the goose, after stuffing, sprinkle with 

'Jling (but not with flour), and bake in a hot 

or two or three hours, according to size. 

every fifteen minutes, indeed the more 

■By it is basted the more tender, 

ind delicious it will be. Serve with 

rt apple sauce, carefully cooked so as to be 

ight in color. Black currant jelly is also 

served with roast goose. 

+ + -fr 




one and one-fourth pounds of beef, chop 
d one egg, one-half cup of crackers roller! 
little onion if desired, pepper and salt to 
Mix up well, using sweet milk or water, 
tough to form it into a nice long roll. Put 
1 and bake till done. It is better to have- 
red while roasting, as it retains its flavo>- 
This is enough for eight or ten persons. 
".aster, Pa. 

3 * 



Take bread that is dry, the dryer the better, 
dip into the following batter: two eggs, one quau 
of milk, a pinch of salt, all beaten together well ; 
fry in hot lard with a little butter until brown, 
serve hot. 

Flora, hid. 

* * * 



Take one cup each of sour milk, suet, raisins, 
and sugar or molasses, one teaspoonful of soda, 
llour to make a rather stiff batter; put in a pan 
and steam two hours. Serve with a sauce made 
of one cup of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of flour, 
one tablespoonful of butter, and one quart of boil- 
ing water. Flavor to taste. 

Yale, Iowa. 

* * + 



Take one quart of rich buttermilk, shortening 
the size of a hen's egg, one teaspoonful of soda, 
one teaspoonful of salt, flour enough to mix soft ; 
dissolve the soda in the milk, mix, cut into bis- 
cuits and bake in a quick oven. 

Mishawaka, Ind. 


the iztsra-i-iiEirsrooirs-. 



Take two eggs, one pint of sweet milk, one 
teaspoonful of baking powder, flour enough to 
make a batter. Fry on a greased gridle. Serve 
with maple syrup. 

Nappanee, Ind. 

+ + <• 



Take one egg, one teaspoonful of salt, two tea- 
spoonfuls of sugar, one pint of sweet milk, two 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder, and flour to make 
a thick batter; bake twenty minutes in a quick 

Westminster, Md. 

* * * 


Take one pint of corn meal, one pint of wheat 
flour, one pint of buttermilk, two eggs (whites 
beaten separately), butter the size of a walnut, 
one teaspoonful of soda. Bake till done. 
Roaring Spring, Pa. 

*r *v v 


Take six tablespoonfuls of lard, three table - 
spoonfuls of beeswax, two tablespoonfuls of pul- 
verized alum ; melt all together in a pan and strain 
through a thin cloth. 

Otterbein, Ohio. 



I wish to tell the girls who have openi 
their rooms that they wish to conceal and 
know how, of a cheap and good way to 
Some have unused doors to their rooms 
make the walls look barren. Others have a 
door just where it is the most inconvenient 
in the world to manage. 

Now if mother or grandmother has 
those lovely, homemade, blue-and-white 
lets, or any others that have pretty coloring 
that she is willing to spare, just rip it very 
fully down the middle and drape on a poll 
the unused door, or take down the closet 
and hang the coverlet — now dignified wit 
name of portiere — which will make a cha 
addition to the room and also be much mon 
venient. If you cannot find a coverlet th 
ured denims make nice portieres which 
nicely laundried. 

Warrensburg, Mo. 

♦ ♦ ■♦ 

Fruit cake may be kept an indefinite lenj ,., , 
time by packing it in granulated sugar. I 
just opened a box containing a loaf of my 
ding cake, which was put away six years 
In the bottom of a tin box was placed sug 
the depth of about one inch. Then in the 
of box was placed the cake, and sugar pour * 
about it, filling the box to the brim, the si 
box allowing for about an inch and a ha , _' 

Tie s« 


On the h; : . 
Id the » 

Oh, sad.s. 

One may 

He on! 

sugar at the sides, while the depth above the 

wrapped in heavy brown paper and carri 
the attic, where it remained undisturbed. A 
recently opened, flavor and moisture were 
tica^ with what they were when put away ir 
tober, 1895. — Mrs. E. R. Barnard in 

1 ai it, t 

lik the Ea 

Till a thing is done men wonder 
that you think it can be done, and 
when you have done it they wonder 
that it was never done before. 


I NSbEN90K, 

'■'"' r .' 

hers have 

Vol. IV. 

Feb. 15, 1902. 

No. 7. 


fe lias 


rip it ver 
son aw 
the closj 
rnified 4 
ake a chi 


ite len 

«f of mi 
six year 
'laced si 
n in the 
in, the 

He sought the old scenes with eager feet — 
The scenes he had known as a boy; 

"Oh! for a draught of those fountains sweet, 
And a taste of that vanished joy." 

He roamed the fields, he mused by the streams, 

He threaded the paths and lanes; 
On the hills he sought his youthful dreams, 

In the woods to forget his pains. 

Oh, sad, sad hills; oh, cold, cold hearth! 

In sorrow he learned thy truth — 
One may go back to the place of his birth — 

He cannot go back to his youth. 

— John Burroughs in the Independent. 


ear Xookcrs: — 

When we planned our trip we thought we 
ould start from the East, that is, we intended 
arting from Washington, but there was a differ- 

ce. It was this. The West is one thing, the 
ast is the same old thing, one and the same al- 
ays. We couldn't make the arrangements with 
le eastern roads, while the western lines were up 
id at it, everything completed and waiting, 
hile the East referred the question. It wasn't 
at they didn't want Frank and me, but they did 
ir )o much referring. That a railroad signs itself 
ie X. Y. Z. " R. R." has pretty nearly come to 

above tl 
box n 
nd c; 

!rl lean " Respectfully Referred," while the western 
;awav Ry." stands for " Ready for you." When we 
'■ ot out of patience at the delays and shuffling we 
id some telegraphing and the answer from the 
bookman was refreshing in its directness and 
mplicity: " You two start to-night on No. I, 
leet you at Chicago station." That was all, and 
lat was enough. We started, and we are here 
1 Chicago. 

Xow before we say a word about our trip, that 
, the actual going, I want to tell you all that this 

thing of leaving home isn't just as easy and as 
pleasant as one would think. When the last 
afternoon on the farm came, and everything was 
ready. I went around and looked at the animals. 
And it wasn't much of a jollification. The old 
cow mooed, low like, in the barn, and my Jersey 
heifer looked at me with her great, liquid eyes 
while I rubbed her ears and stroked her neck. 
When I went out to go to the house, Frank was 
going in the barn and I wouldn't have spoken to 
him for a king's ransom. Outside, to make mat- 
ters worse, Toppy, my pet white hen, flew up on 
my shoulder and tilted forward and back and 
seemed to be wanting to tell me something. Up 
on the porch Prince, our old dog, pounded on the 
floor with his tail and he wanted to say Good-bye 
as plainly as a dog could. Even Tabitha, the 
Maltese cat, seemed to be more affectionate than 
usual. Ma said that all animals would sooner 
be kind than not if we gave them to understand 
we meant to be kind to them. 

Before we started, Pa and Ma, Frank and I, 
had a little talk in the front room. Ma didn't 
say much. Pa did the talking. He told us he 
had decided to let us take this trip alone because 
he had confidence in our good sense, and he 
hoped we wouldn't make fools of ourselves, that 
we would return having used our opportunities 
well, and that we would not discredit our pro- 
fession and practice, and he emphasized " prac- 
tice " just a little. I didn't look up, but I knew 
Ma was looking hard at me, and I knew why, 
but I won't tell, at least not now. Then Pa gave 
us each a lot of money, and each a draft for more, 
and he told us to keep it on us so that nobody 
could get it away from us. He said that sort of 
division of the money was like Robinson Crusoe's 
burying his powder in different places, so it 
couldn't all go up at once. 

When finally we got started I knew just the 
place, to the last panel of fence, where I could get 

i 4 6 

the iisra-XjEnsrooic. 

one last look at the house, and there I looked back 
and saw Ma on the porch, waving. I waved 
back as the wagon jolted around the bend. And 
Frank ! He was talking about the West, and 
never turned to look. I confess I cried a little, 
not much, just a little, and then I thought of the 
funniest thing. It was just this, " Kathleen, 
don't make a fool of yourself." Then I tried to 
hum a tune, but I didn't get far in it. 

When we got to the station we had a surprise. 
Of course the whole neighborhood knew we were 
going; but about a dozen young people had met 
there to say good-bye. I never thought so much 
and so. hard in my life as I did then for a minute. 
We all had a jolly good-bye, and we climbed on 
the train. Just after the last good-bye one of 
them handed me a pasteboard box. I opened it 
after we were in our seats. What do you think 
was in it? Half a dozen great, long-stemmed 
rose buds, and as many carnations. After a 
while I saw a woman with a baby across the aisle 
and I gave her one. She seemed pleased to 
death over it. There was an oldish man in 
front of us and I offered him one. He took it 
and said he was going to see his sick daughter 
and he would give it to her. Then I gave him 
another, and really I had no idea before how 
much pleasure there was in a few flowers. 

Well, after a fussy night, an " uncomfy " 
night, the next day we rolled into the Union sta- 
tion at Chicago. I didn't know how the Nook- 
man would ever find us in the crowd, but as soon 
as we passed out of the iron gate, between the 
trains and the station, I heard a familiar voice, 
" Here, you ! " and there he was. He simply 
grabbed my grip, hefting it as he did so, and said, 
" Come on! " and away we went, up the steps, 
around the corner, over a bridge and I don't 
know how we ever got there, but we did find 
ourselves at a hotel, where he had engaged rooms 
for us. We followed orders, took a wash and 
met in the ladies' parlor. Here he gave us our 
instructions. They were these : 

" In this trip you represent the Nook. You 
write turn about, each week, and we want facts, 
not crude opinions. Understand?" We said 
we did. "Got your camera?" We had. 
" Send your letters and your pictures whenever 
you can. Pictures can't be made off-hand. Re- 
member?" We said we would. "Finally, no 
foolishness. See?" I'm afraid I snickered, but 

Frank said he saw, but what he saw he didfl 
say. Then the Nookman said, " Good-bye anjjf 
good luck." and off he went. 

That night as I unstrapped my telescope, th 
is my valise. I saw on the top of everything t 
Ma had put a Bible there, and she must havt 
done it when I was bidding the cows good-byi 
So I read the twenty-third psalm, said 
prayers, and went to bed. The next thing 
knew Frank was knocking at my door, saying 
was time to get up. It was morning. We a: 
going to do Chicago and I'm glad it's Frank's 
turn to write — the city's so big. However, that'i 
Frank's business, and I'll let him tell his o 
story next week. Lovingly, 


P. S. — Frank made a funny break last nighl 
that I want to tell you about. We were in the 
hotel parlor, alone, and it was pretty late, and ] 
suggested that we better go to bed. Frank waj 
half asleep, and he spoke up and asked, " Die 
you put the cat out ? " Then he rememben 
where he was. I'm going to remember that, 
if I go wrong and Tie twits me about it, I'll a 
about the cat. 

+ + <• 

When a man's song is self- 
praise, let the hymn be in short 
metre and let the tune be in the 
minor key. 

* * * 



The word paper comes from ^ie term papy 
the name of a rush-like plant that grew on th 
banks of the River Nile in Egypt. It is claimed 
that from this plant the mother of Moses coi 
structed the ark which saved her son's li 
See the account in Ex. 2 : 3. The Egyptians tool 
the inner bark of this plant, cut it into pieces 
proper length, and pasted these pieces together 
with some sticky substance and then pressed them 
to make a smooth surface. This papyrus, pn 
pared in this way, formed the first paper us© 
more than three thousand years ago. 

Not so many years ago paper was made prill 
cipally from linen and cotton rags. Our grand- 
mothers had bags into which they stuffed all the 
linen and cotton rags they could gather, an<| 



tieeie ijntgleituok: 

rhen the bag was full it was taken to the store 

ml sold tor a few cents a pound, and then 

: hipped to the paper mill. Here all the coloring 

means of a solution of chloride 

»f lime, then the rags were washed clean and 

i'--'- round into fine pulp and made into paper. 

- >ome poor people, and especially children, almost 
'.; lade their living by picking up rags from the 

■ ; : : i utters in the cities, then washing and selling 

»( ; lem. 

; Iran Xow wrapping paper is principally made of 

rer. tha traw. but the great bulk of writing paper, book 

nd newspaper is made from wood. A few 

reeks ago we had the pleasure of examining 

- :: horoughly the process of papermaking as pur- 
:;;-^ ued at Rearing Springs. Blair Co.. Pa As we 


•s finally cut the proper width and rolled into 
immense rolls, weighing nearly half a ton, if 
wanted for the daily papers, or else it is cut into 
sheets of various sizes and placed on tables 
where a number of bonnie lasses with nimble 
fingers count them into reams, so fast that it 
would almost make one's head dizzy to watch 
them. The paper is then packed ready for the 
purchaser. The paper for the Sunday School 
Times. Philadelphia, is made in this factory ; the 
rest is shipped to various parts of the United 
States and some even to Japan. One hundred 
and seventy-five hands are employed to make 
twenty-five tons of paper per day. 

+ + + 

re a 


ntered the town we noticed immense piles of 
a, rood which the superintendent said contained 
bout twelve thousand cords, and is constantly 
[ eing added to as well as taken from. The kinds 
- ■--■■;. f wood here used are basswood. white pine, ma- 
le, beech, and birch, and perhaps a few other 
. inds of white, soft wood. The process of man- 
facture is as follows : 
Several men push the cordwood endwise into 
chopping machine, very much like the feeder 
uts the sheaves of wheat into a thresher ; this 
uts the wood into fine chips and from forty-five 
fifty cords are used daily. It is then put into 
■nmense kettles with soda and lime and boiled. 
This separates the wood into fine fiber. The 
me and soda are washed out and the pulp is 
aesed through the " wet machine " into large 
ats where it is mixed with chloride of lime and 
eated to take out all the coloring matter. It is 
in washed to take out the lime and put into 

He who will not go to bed until 
he pleases everybody, zvill have to 

sit up a great many nights. 

* + * 



; : V:Mrainage vats to take out most of the water. It 
w : \ then passed through a " beating-machine 

•hich grinds the pulp very fine. It is next 
-,■ fixed with china clay or agolite. and melted resin 
give more of a body to the paper and a smooth- 
surface. This is called sizing. More water 
gj$ : added and run into large vats where it is given 
rl ; p ay color desired by means of aniline. Still more 
'ater is added, until it has the consistency of 
lilk and run over a cloth on a fine wire sieve 
a shallow stream as broad as desired, and 
>rced between two rollers which squeeze out the 
ter and press the pulp into thin sheets which 
■.,. 3 jntinue to pass between nine or ten pairs of 
>llers, heated with steam to dry the paper, which 

In some of those ancient ruins are solid stones 
that measure sixty-three feet in length and are 
thirteen feet square in cross sections. These 
monsters rest on stones that are almost thirteen 
feet cube. One of the Egyptian obelisks weighs 
297 tons, and was quarried 138 miles from the 
place where it stands. Other monoliths, almost 
as large, were transported over 800 miles. The 
statue of Rameses II., when it was entire, 
weighed nearly 900 tons, and the block of stone 
from which it was carved was carried almost 140 
miles. Archaeologists have found in deserts, cov- 
ered in great part by sand and remote from any 
place where stone could be quarried, enormous 
blocks of stone, gigantic statues and immense 
columns. The wise men say such monoliths 
were cut out of the living rock before history 
began to be written. The question is, " How- 
were those stones transported and how were they 
raised to their final resting place? " 

t *l* *r 

As nature made every man with a nose and 
eyes of his own, she gave him a character of his 
own, too, and yet we, O foolish race, must try . 
our very best to ape some one or two of our 
neighbors, whose ideas fit us no more than their 





In the early days of settlement of the prairies 
of Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado, the soddy was 
the principal dwelling house, and in many parts 
of those prairies the soddy is still to be seen. 
Persons who are inclined to judge by outward 
appearances, should not be too hasty in judging 
a family who live in a soddy, as to their thrift or 
cleanliness, as some thrifty farmers with good 
housekeepers live in sod houses. 

In the erection of a sod building, the builders 
select a patch of tough sod, and with a sod plow 
turn thick layers of earth, which are then cut 
crosswise with a sharp spade into lengths cor- 
responding with the thickness of the walls to be 
built, which are then conveyed to the building 
site and are laid up much in the same way brick 
and stone walls are built, but mortar is not used 
in the building of sod walls. 

After the walls are completed, they are nicely 
dressed down with a sharp spade, making them 
nice and smooth and leaving them either perpen- 
dicular, or thicker at the bottom than at the top 
of the walls. Next comes the roof, which con- 
sists of a long timber called the ridgepole, and 
which is laid on the point of the gables lengthwise 
of the room and supports a layer of brush, or 
boards and tar paper, and over all is a layer of 
sod, and in a sod house, with such a roof, a 
family can dwell in peace and comfort so far as 
heat and cold are concerned, but woe to such a 
family during a protracted rainy season, for in 
such a time the sod roof becomes watersoaked, 
after which the water leaks down, injuring 
household goods, washing the plastering from the 
walls, if there be any, and often water-soaking 
the walls so much that the entire building col- 

When sod houses are well built and covered 
with a good shingle roof, plastered and white- 
washed, with a good floor, they are as nice in- 
side as most of the frame houses, and when thus 
protected by a good shingle roof, they will stand 
for years, and are much more comfortable, either 
in cold or warm weather, on account of the thick 
walls. Especially is this true in case of wind 

Frequently, in settlements of foreigners, the 

building is very large, consisting of several 
large rooms giving shelter to all the stock, as 
well as the family, and all are under one roof.. 
In such cases the rooms are at either end of the 
building, and are used as living rooms, the other 
one as stable, the middle room, or rooms, as 
storeroom, etc. 

A sod house on the prairies often furnishes 
great sport for range cattle, which roam over the 
prairies, and may chance to come across such a 
house. Very often the men will return to their 
work from dinner or a night's rest to find only 
a heap of earth where once had been well-built 
walls, or even a house. And the mischiefmak- 
ers may be at a little distance calmly chewing : ' 
their cud and studying where to make the next | 

Not only are dwellings and stables built of sod, 

but also schoolhouses and churchhouses, and 
not infrequently small enclosures are made by 
building sod walls, and such enclosures are safe 
places in which to corrall stock, especially sheep 
McPherson, Kans. 

4e "t "t 

People don't think much of a 

man's piety when his promises are 

like pie crust — made to be broken. 

* * * 



There is a crowd down the street. A crowd 
in the city springs out of the dust and stones, al- 
most. There is a policeman in the midst, and 
on the ground is a man. He has been run down, 
in some way, and he is dead. Nobody touches 
him, nobody seems to know just how it hap 
pened. There is a clanging bell up the street, 
the hospital ambulance backs up, and off it goes 
with its ghastly burden. The crowd disperses, 
and traffic moves on again. 

They search the dead man, and find that he is 
a visitor in the city. So they send a telegram out 
to the nearest home office that he was accidental!) 
killed. The messenger takes out to the fai 
the yellow envelope with its sudden blow, anc 
delivers it to the woman. The boy has no con- 
cern in the matter and whistles to the dog neai 
by. The woman opens the envelope, read; 
dully, and calls the rest of the household. Th< 


ap; some 
tee inte! 

m the- 

the insra-XjEisroos:. 


'•■■• tlier 
ms, IS 

over the 

:- *! rir 

v '. ■■ !v 



the next 

ies, and 

are safe 

\ crow 
.tones, al 
lidst, an 
ut lowl 
t touches 

18 il goj 

the fafl 

jioiv. J" 
j no Ml 

M. Til 

bov knows nothing at all. The neighbors are 
summoned, and it slowly dawns on them that 
they should send for the body. So they tele- 
graph accordingly, and sit down to wait, wait, 
wait, the slowest, most miserable chapter of ex- 

The next day, at the station, is a group of men 
in unaccustomed Sunday clothes. The train 
grinds to a stop, and the brakemen lift the box 
out, and away the cars go again. The neighbors 
put it in a wagon, and the procession starts. 
Looking out from a corner of the window cur- 
tain the family see the coming wagon, they see 
the yellow box, too, and cries break out. It is 
uneasily jolted into place in the darkened front 
room, and sky, and air, and earth turn black to 
the household. There is mourning and trouble 
abroad in the home. Finally the slow cortege, 
the mound of yellow clay, and quiet. Only the 
other day the writer saw the first chapter of this 

V V V 

Too many people measure a 
man's success by what he gains in- 
stead of by what he deserves. 
•fr + + 


Eighty miles above Pittsburg, on the east side 
of the Monongahela river, are the Pictured Rocks 
we will write about. There are other pictured 
rocks in different parts of the country, and per- 
haps some of them are more extensive than those 
on the Monongahela, but none of them are of 
more interest to the writer. The reason, per- 
haps, for this interest is in the fact that we vis- 
ited them when but a boy, and perhaps it is be- 
cause they are on the Monongahela, for of all 
the rivers we have seen there is none like it to us. 
It was to it we went to swim and fish when a 
boy. and upon its clear and placid waters we took 
many a boat ride. I do not wonder at Naaman 
for loving Abana and Pharpar as he did. 

But to the Pictured Rocks, and to see them we 
will have to go back at least fifty years, for at 
the present time there is but very little to be seen 
of them, or at least but little of the pictures. 
Where they once were the water in the river is 
very deep, and on the side of the river where the 

rocks are located, the hill rises pretty steep to a 
height of perhaps three or four hundred feet. 
On the other side of the river there is nice bot- 
tom land. The Pictured Rocks were right at 
the water's edge, in fact even when the riv- 
er was very low there could be seen some pic- 
tures, as we called them, that were covered with 

The pictures consisted of tracks of different 
kinds and seemed as though at some time animals 
and fowls had made the impressions in the sand, 
and it then hardened into rock. In all probabil- 
ity it was all the work of the Indians, as there 
was at one time an Indian village a short dis- 
tance below on the river. 

But let that be as it may, the pictures are all 
gone. The rock has been blasted out and re- 
moved for building purposes, some here and some 
there, and the Pictured Rocks of the Mononga- 
hela are no more. 

Wichita, Kans. 

4. •{• •}• 

Hustle wins the race while Wait 
is looking for a good place to start 

•h 4* 4* 

German papers speak »of an annual belonging 
to the leguminous class, growing in tropical Af- 
rica, which is largely cultivated by the negroes 
as an article of food. It has been introduced to 
some extent in Brazil. The Africans call it 
woandsu, but its botanical name is Glycine sub- 
terranea. The fruit, like the peanut, matures 
under the ground. The eatable kernel has the 
shape of an egg, and is dark red, with black 
stripes and a white hilum like most beans. It 
furnishes a very white flour, the flavor of which, 
after cooking, very much resembles that of chest- 
nuts. Two pounds of this product would supply 
the daily requirements of the human system. 
This is one of the very few fruits which in a nat- 
ural state contain all the chemical properties of a 
perfect nutriment. 

i ♦ 4 

A policeman in New Orleans owns one hun- 
dred acres of land in the Beaumont oil region. 
He has refused an offer of $1,000,000 for the 
property and continues to patrol his beat while 
waiting for a better offer. 




The following from the St. Louis Post- 
Dispatch by Margaret Rathbone Kent, is a simple 
presentation of a sometimes troublesome question. 
Our younger Xookers can study it with profit : 

The process of introduction should never be 
labored or complicated. It should appear to be 
a? it is, a very natural and easy process of mak- 
ing strangers known to one another. Men are 
presented to women. The form is, " Mrs. 
Browning, let me present Mr. Jackson," or Mr. 
Anthony Jackson if there are several Jacksons 
or a Jackson father and son. The father of sev- 
eral sons would be Mr. Jackson, the sons should 
be presented as Mr. Anthony or Mr. James Jack- 
son, to discriminate between them. When a man 
is presented to a woman the woman's name is al- 
ways first spoken. Mrs. Johnson allow me to 
or let me present Mr. Black. It is customary, 
except where introductions are under one's own 
roof, to ask a lady's permission to present a man 
to her. 

For example : '* Mrs. Yermilve, may I present 
my friend, Col. Baring, to you? He desires the 
honor of meeting you." 

A gentleman when introduced to a lady bows 
ceremoniously and murmurs a few words of 
pleasure at the honor accorded him. The lady 
bows, but does not usually offer her hand. Some 
very high-bred and charming women offer their 
hand to a man when introduced, but handshaking 
has gone much out of vogue of recent years. It 
is quite out of fashion in formal and semi-formal 
functions. A man in any case never takes the 
initiative in shaking hands with a woman — his at- 
titude is that of deference. He accepts favors, 
but takes no liberties. 

A lady rises when a man is presented on all 
occasions except at a tea, a ball, supper or dinner. 
A man always rises to be presented to a woman, 
no matter where he may be, and, incidentally, 
it may be said that he does not resume his seat 
while women are standing. The women shake 
hands when introduced, except at formal func- 

The simplest form of introducing women is 
the best form. Where the women to be intro- 
duced are of the same station and near the same 
age all that is required is: "Mrs. Benton, Mrs. 

Jackson." Or, " Mrs. Benton, this is my friend, 
Mrs. Jackson." 

Young ladies are presented to women much 
older than themselves. The form is : " Mrs. Lee, 
may I present Miss Alice Taylor to you? " The 
young lady bows or curtsies and the elder lady- 
offers her hand first. 

In introducing a stranger to a group : Suppos- 
ing for example at an informal evening one guest 
arrives much later than the others, never lead 
the last arrival around the room introducing him 
or her to each person. The situation is more or 
less an awkward one, and the best way of meet- 
ing it is the simplest way. The host or hostess 
in these circumstances merely savs. if the late 
comer is a woman, as she enters the drawing 
room. " Mrs. Joslyn. let me present Mrs. Davis, 
Mrs. Weatherbee, Capt. Foster and Mr. Lynn." 
naming each guest. The men rise and bow. the 
ladies smile and bow unless the late comer is a 
woman much older or — as sometimes happens — • 
a professional star or celebrity. 

In such cases men and women both rise and 
are formally escorted and presented each to the 
distinguished guest. 

Less formality is observed in introducing one's 
family than in ordinary circumstances. One 
may say with perfect propriety. " Mrs. Jones, 
this is my mother." or, " Father, this is Mr. Bak- 
er, of whom you have heard me speak." on 
" Mother, may I present Mr. Carey? " 

Introductions in street and elevated cars, fer-? 
ries and all public conveyances, are to be avoided 
as much as possible. They are like introductions 
in the street — made only to avoid embarrassment 
and entail no further acquaintance necessarily. 

A man may ask permission of a woman friend td 
introduce another man. The form is : " Mrs. or 
Miss Bird, my friend, Mr. Hills, is very desirous 
of meeting you ; will you allow me to present 

Except in very unusual cases, the lady gra- 
ciously consents, and Mr. Hills is brought cere- 
moniously to her and formally presented. 

There must be a good and sufficient reason 
for declining to know a man vouched for in this 
way by another of good social standing. 

When such a reason exists the lady as gently 
as possible says : " I 'am sincerely sorry, but I 
prefer not to know Mr. Hills." 


tihiie iztra-ijiEirsrooiK:. 






I iic 
1 ' 

The following interesting reading has been 

snt the Nook by Mr. J. H. Kreps. of Oregon. 

Tie article originally appeared in the Pacific 

lomestcad, and is by Dennis H. Stoval, of 

irants Pass, Oregon: 

A new industry has arisen in Southern Ore- 

on — that of manufacturing the long slender 

eedles of the pine into stuffing for mattresses 

id pillows, filling for cigars, and into soaps. 

Tups, candies, and a coarse cloth. The suc- 

§s with which the industry is being met ac- 

jrds it a permanent place and a probability of 

^coming of more than ordinary importance on 

ie Pacific Coast. 

While the industry is a new one in this coun- 
y it has been known for the past fifty years in 
ermany. The people in the forests of Thurin- 
knew a half century ago that the oil of the 
ne needle was most efficient in the curing of 
diseases of a pulmonary character, and that 
:rvous people found comfort and repose by ly- 
ig upon pillows or mattresses stuffed with the 
we of the pine needle. 

Five years ago the industry was introduced to 
merica, the first factories being built in Grants 
ass. Southern Oregon, and where they are at 
esent doing a good business. Grants Pass 
as chosen for the reason that it is in the midst 
a great pine forest, making the cost of secur- 
g the needles a comparatively-small item. The 
railable pines are known as the yellow or 
bull " pine. They are not a tall tree, they grow 
the lowlands, and have needles that average ten 
ches in length. The factory pays twenty-five 
nts per hundred for the gathering and deliv- 
y of the needles, six hundred pounds being an 
.:., rerage day"s work for one person. The nee- 
are picked in the spring and fall. 
They are gathered into sacks and hauled im- 
. ediately to the factory and dumped into large 


r-v. :::) 


vats. Here thev are boiled and 

steamed for eight hours or more, until the long 
needles become as soft and flexible as rubber, 
and of a glossy brown. The pine needle oil is 
the resulting liquid of distillation from the steam- 
ing vat. For every ton of needles steamed ten 
pounds of extract find their way through the dis- 
tillation tubes and enter the oil tank. This oil 
is the extract that forms the medicinal base of 
pine needle soaps, syrups, and candies. It is al- 
so used in its pure state for asthma, colds, and 
bronchial troubles. The oil has the appearance 
and color of olive oil, but it is endowed with a 
strong odor of the pine forest. 

The process of making the fibre for pillows 
and mattress stuffing is wholly mechanical. The 
needles are elevated from the steaming vat and 
carried to a set of rolling machines where they 
are rolled and chewed and twisted till naught 
remains of them but the outer tough and hair- 
like fibre. This then makes a journey through a 
row of washing and drying machines, coming out 
at the end a light, fluffy, hair-like wool, ready 
for the cushions and mattresses. As a stuffing 
the pine needle is lighter than wool and but lit- 
tle heavier than feather down. There is a per- 
manent odor of the pine emitted from the needle 
mattresses and pillows that is productive of sleep 
and repose. This odor strikes terror to all in- 
sects, the well-known and universally-despised 
bedbug being no exception to the rule. 

To make cloth, the fibre is spun into a thread 
and woven into cloth in the usual way. The fab- 
ric is coarse, and is used in the making of inner 
soles for shoes, chest protectors, knee warmers, 
socks, hose, and underwear. 

Thus far eighteen different articles are manu- 
factured from the pine needle fibre or extract. 
All these articles are giving entire satisfaction 
wherever they are used. There is no end to the 
quantity of pine in the Coast Range mountains, 
the trees being only benefited by the picking of 
the leaves ; the forest commissioners encourage 
the industry. 

A hen with one chicken makes 
no end of scratching and clucking, 
and so does a man with one idea. 





Not long ago there was an article in one of the 
leading magazines about the Dunkards, and it 
was an exceptionally mixed-up affair. Outsiders 
cannot take up the defense of the Fraternity be- 
cause they do not know. Members rarely an- 
swer such articles. Most writers single out the 
grotesque and odd specimens of humanity, found 
in all organizations, and then hold them up as 
a sample of the whole lot. Members smile at 
the presentation and let it go. 

It is a remarkable fact that thousands of peo- 
ple live near the Dunkards all their lives and still 
know next to nothing about them. Now there- 
are some thousands of Inglenook readers who 
are not members and who have very hazy ideas 
about the real belief and practice of the Brethren, 
as many of our people prefer being called, and the 
'Nookman wants to set forth a few things about 
the majority of the 'Nook family who are main- 
ly Brethren, for the benefit of our friends who 
read the 'Nook in blissful ignorance of what re- 
ally is believed and practiced. Let us get at it 
in a negative sort of way. Suppose the whftle 
world were " Dunkards," what would happen ? 
Well, something of what follows would come to 

Where two rulers, or two sections, fell out 
about something and got a lot of men with guns 
to go out and kill, cripple, and destroy each oth- 
er when the actual combatants hadn't an iota of 
personal difference, stacking up debt and disas- 
ter beyond computation, — none of this would 
happen, for the Brethren don't believe in war and 
don't engage in it. 

If two people differ about the ownership of a 
mangy yellow dog they sometimes go out, and 
after exhausting all their vocabulary of vileness 
and abuse, set to and pound one another black 
and blue, tear their clothes and get run into jail 
and fined while the cur is scratching fleas in the 
back alley. There would be none of this, for the 
Brethren do not believe in personal violence, and 
don't practice it. 

See the policeman on the corner watching the 
drunken man coming out of the saloon. There 
would be no officer in sight, for the world would 
be peaceful and there would be no saloon. Nei- 

ther would there be a court or a jail, for t' 
Brethren do not go to law and do not get into th. 
road that leads to jail. There would be no law; 
yers and no court trials, for the Brethren, whei 
they honestly differ, tell their stories to the churcl 
which decides and ends it for them. 

If all the world were Dunkards there wouldn' 1 
be a lock on the door or a gun to kill with in th< 
house, for there would be no thieves and conse 
quently nobody to cripple or kill. It would 
as safe for anyone to travel day or night any 
where in the world as it is to cross your own bed 

There would be no poorhouse, for the unfor 
tunate would be helped. As, it is now let somi 
titled Cyprian dress herself in outre style aru 
presently the " fashion " travels to every hamle 
and home in the land, to be followed by anothe 
and another. There would be none of that fo 
the Brethren do not follow the fashions. 

Notice the differences socially and otherwis' 
in the world, the pride and the miserable imita 
tions and the crooking of the knee that patronag 
may follow ! There is none of that at all ii 
the Brethren church, for the only aristocracy ii 
the Brotherhood is that born of a greater hear 
and a purer life, and no money can buy posi 
tion and real regard. 

Do not allow yourself to believe that the Dun 
kard is only a man of fat cattle and a big farn' 
There are papers published by the church th 
equal of any anywhere. There are seven or eigh 
colleges and college people are as plenty as black 
berries, and there are men with degrees, and ex 
pert professional men and women, and author 
and writers abound. 

You didn't know all this? Well, it's all tru< 
and the most likely reason you didn't know it i 
because the Brethren are a quiet people, attendin 
to their own affairs and never coming to the for 
in the fuss and feathers of politics or societ} 
And why are these people as they are? For t!i 
simple reason that they try to follow the teaching 
of Christ. That's the one and only reasoi 
That there are exceptions only proves the huma 
element but with the other ninety and nine whs 
is here outlined is so common in their lives tli< 
they never give it a thought. And so the no 
time you hear the church ridiculed or cartoone 
remember what you have read here, and kno 1 
there is another side the world hardly ever nt 

h , 

She ca 


fcesn't te 

She <:z 
lade bat 

She can 

i strange i 
She fe 
careless, w 
She wil] 
1 vices i: 
She has 

THE I:N"Q-IjE2$J"00-K:. 


?et into 

1« no la 
ten, wh 

the dim 


tices, but which exists in the hearts and lives of 
a hundred thousand people of like faith who are 
quietly doing the best they can to follow the 

V *V *¥ 

To-morrow is the refuge of the 

*v v *r 

There are some things she can do and some 
things she can't. 

She can keep a house cleaner than a man but 
she can't shoot off a gun without shutting her 

She can get more subscribers for the 'Nook 
than any man, if she tries, but she is afraid of a 

She says she can see right through men, but 
she can't — not always. 

She can get more teeth pulled out at one sitting 
than any man living and make less fuss, but she 
can never get out of a street car facing the right 

She says every man is awkward, but when she 
tries to throw a stone all nature shudders. 

She can tell what another woman has on while 
she passes her on the street. A man couldn't 
tell in a day's look. 

She can and does cut corns with a razor and 
doesn't tell, but he knows, every time, yes he 

She can be up day and night, for weeks, with 
a sick baby and not complain, and then raise a 
row because he was an hour late one night. 

She can and always does give an opinion about 
a strange woman her husband speaks well of. 

She blames him for losing things and being 
careless, when she hasn't a pocket to her name. 

She will insinuate that he is possessed of all 
the vices imaginable, and then fight to the death 
for him when he falls out with another man. 

She has no use on earth for the woman he 
I used to go with." 

She gets into a fight with her hubby and then 

light ai 
the uni 

) It! - 

irv han 
iv awl 

at at 

ater Is 

buy tJ 

(he D 

j, anii 



10 the 1 

and k 

when the strong man takes him by the throat she 
cracks the stranger over the head with the rolling 

She abhors a lie, but when her husband is 
caught in a good big one she substantiates it. 

She never forgets the man who has said he 
always liked her looks, but she lays out the wom- 
an who says the same thing about Josiah. 

She spends ten cents for car fare, buys a thing 
for forty-nine cents when she doesn't really need 
it, and laughs over the bargain. But Einstine 
and Jacobson chuckle too. 

You will never make her believe the home 
merchants are not robbers. Why in Chicago, 
etc., etc. 

She can get up the best kind of a dinner and 
then apologize for it. But if people agreed with 
her she would be as mad as a wet hen. 

Finally, when she dies she goes straight to 
heaven, but most everybody has his doubts about 
the man she lived with. 

There are other things, but these will do for 

* * * 

Good nature may be a great mis- 
fortune if ive do not mix prudence 
ivith it. 

* + * 


The tallest smokestack on record is what is 
known as the St. Rollox chimney at the Tenant 
chemical works, Glasgow. It is 455^4 feet. It 
was originally four hundred feet, but the man- 
agement, learning that another stack was to be 
built equaling it, added the fifty-five and one-half 
feet to hold the record. The original height was 
rendered necessary by the law against chemical 
works within the city and the necessity for car- 
rying the fumes clear of the district. It is built 
of brick and supported by heavy iron bands. 
Once it swayed out of the perpendicular, but by 
means of a kite and the sawing of the mortar 
upon one side it was swayed back. Germany 
has a stack 396 feet high. 

Some men never think of the 
poor save when their own purses 
are empty. 







There are six or seven different species of 
gophers. The one I ; wish to describe is the 
pouched or pocket gopher. It is found in Can- 
ada, Missouri, Kansas, Illinois, Iowa, Texas, 
Mexico, and the Gulf States. This gopher is a 
reddish-brown on the back and sides, ashy be- 
neath and has white feet. It is about nine inches 
long, with an almost hairless, square tail, nearly 
three inches long, and weighs about thirteen 
ounces. Its legs are short. The fore feet are 
strong and well adapted for burrowing, having 
five claws, the three middle ones very large and 
long. The claws on the hind feet are small, but 
two middle ones longer than the others, the inte- 
rior one being almost rudimentary. It has twen- 
ty teeth, eight upper and eight lower molars, and 
four incisors which are of a yellowish color and 
very strong, especially the lower pair, which is 
much longer than the upper one. The ears are 
very small. The eyes resemble those of the 

The gopher prefers to burrow in sandy soil and 
throws up the earth in little mounds. Its most 
remarkable characteristic is the possession of 
pouches which cover the sides of the head and 
are capable of being distended so as to enable the 
animal to carry a considerable load of dirt or 

Their holes are generally from six inches to a 
foot and a half under the surface, but sometimes 
as deep as five or six feet. They do not dig as 
deep in the Spring as in the Fall. When you 
examine their holes in the Fall you will find 
large quantities of grass, grains, nuts, and other 
farm vegetables stored away in small holes which 
are built out from the main ones for this purpose. 
During the Summer they subsist upon the roots 
that grow into the old holes, and the grains and 
roots they find while digging. 

The Fall and the Spring are the two best sea- 
sons of the year to trap them ; the latter is the bet- 

ter of the two, because their holes can be opened 
easier then than at any other time of the year. 

To catch them, scrape the mound away and 
find the hole, by the use of a sharp stick. Then 
clean it out and set a snap shot gopher trap, 
By using seven of these traps I have caught as 
high as twenty-one in half a day. 

McPherson, Kans. 

(For the benefit of our Eastern Nookers we 
will say that a gopher is simply a Western ground 
squirrel, not unlike the little fellow so common 
along fence rows. Their habits are very much 
alike, and they closely resemble one another. — 

V TT *F 


The anic 

[meant ii 


I do not like a snake subject but will give you 
what I saw in January, 1891. Mr. Bradshaw 
and myself were working in a stone quarry for 
Elder S. R. Knox, a minister of the Advent 
Christian church, when we found an open seam 
about four inches wide by several rods long, and 
several feet deep. At the bottom of the crevice 
we found six snakes. They were what we call 
blue racers. They would range in length from 
two to three feet. They were frozen so hard 
that we broke one of them in pieces. The rest 
we laid on the dry grass below the quarry, which 
was facing the southwest. We went to dinner, 
having to go about one-fourth of a mile, and 
when we came back the snakes were crawling. 
I have always heard that snakes will hibernate, 
even where they will freeze solid, and I know it 
is true. 

Round Mound, Kans. 

4- ■£ 4- 



While a young man was strolling on the 
beach one day along with his mastiff he noticed 
a singular disturbance of the water a little way 
from the shore and called the dog's attention to 

He ;: 






■nans htg-leitooe:. 


The animal took to the water and swam out 

a sandbank. Hardly had he reached the spot 
U J efore a big fish, in pursuit of whiting, darted 

1 front of him. The dog chased it and caught 
: and brought it to the bank. The fish showed 
ght and bit the mastiff badly about the muzzle. 
n the course of the struggle the fish reached 
pe water and bolted. The mastiff dashed after 
c, seized it and fetched it once more to the sand- 
ank. But the fish was still game and went for 
. ie dog valiantly. This time, however, the mas- 
tff meant it to be a fight to a finish, and though 

ie fish escaped again into the sea it was only for 
few moments. It was hauled back to the bank 
nd soon killed. The dog's master found it to 
e a huge hake, seventy pounds in weight, full 
f whiting. 

4" <• •$• 

y, wild 


The presence of rats in the residence portion 
f the city is more than usual, and attempts are 
eing made to kill them off. A peculiar method 

followed by the rodents in traveling from one 
ouse to another. A few evenings ago a lady 
'as sitting on her veranda when her attention 
as attracted by what she first thought was a 
irge lizard crawling along an electric light wire 
hich connected with the house. She soon dis- 
Dvered her mistake, as the " lizard " was a big 
it. He traveled along the wire, keeping his 
juilibrium, and reached his destination safely. — 
lonolulu Commercial. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Dr. Filz, the leading German statistician, is 
itisfied after many years of collecting materials 
lat married persons live longer than single per- 
ms. The death rate among married people be- 
veen 20 and 30 years of age is 6.7 per 1,000, un- 
larried, 8.4; between 30 and 40, married, 9.1, 
imarried, 15.8; between 40 and 50, married, 
\.2, unmarried, 26.5 ; from 50 to 60, married, 
L unmarried, 42 ; between 60 and 70 the propor- 
ons are, married, 45, unmarried, 71. 

These figures prove that the deaths of married 
arsons between 30 and 70 are three-fifths less 

1 unmarried. The average life of the un- 

: """" arried persons who pass 31 is 58.6, of the mar- 
: ed,6 4 . 4 . 


The appearance of a distinct rainbow in a clear 
sky the other morning created a sensation in 
Richmond, Va. The bow was visible for more 
than an hour. Dr. Taylor, the state chemist, ex- 
plains the picture as the reflection of the sun's 
rays upon minute particles of ice crystals that 
had been carried high in the sky by the cold snap 
of several days' duration. The heat from the 
sun is sufficient to drive the light through the icy 
bank, and in this penetration the colors that cause 
the resemblance of the phenomenon to a rainbow 

are generated. 

4. .;. 4. 


Western Australia is one of the richest ter- 
ritories in the world, as man counts riches, and 
its wealth lies in that which mankind has been 
striving after ever since he made it an article of 
value — gold. There is gold in abundance in 
western Australia, scattered in irregular patches 
all over the State. Some of these patches are 
one hundred miles in length by thirty or forty 
in breadth. To-day it is said that the total area 
of the gold fields of western Australia is over 
324,000 square miles, or just one-third of the 
area of the colony itself. 

* * * 

An idea of the size of the trees in the Philip- 
pines is obtainable from the dimensions of Gov- 
ernor Taft's round table, the top of which is a 
solid section of a native tree eight feet in diam- 
eter. Throughout the islands one frequently 
sees in the better class of houses dining-tables 
that are seven, eight, and nine feet wide, the tops 
in every case being made from a single section. 
These are not so large as the southern California 
table tops, but they will do. 

* * * 


Travelers in Eastern Siberia carry soups in 
sacks. They are frozen solid as stone and keep 
indefinitely. Milk also is frozen and sold by the 

1 5 6 





Elgin, Illinois. 

The subscription price of the Magazine is one dollar a year. It is 
a high-class publication, intended for the Home, and for the interest, 
entertainment and information, of old and young. 

Articles intended for publication should be short, of general inter- 
est, and nothing of a love story character or with either cruelty or 
killing, will be considered. 

Manuscript submitted to the Editor will be at the entire risk of 
the writer, and its return is not guaranteed. 

Subscribers wishing the address of their papers changed should 
Invariably give the old address at which they received their Ingle- 


Agents are wanted everywhere, and any reasonable number of 
sample copies will be furnished free. All communications relating 
to the Inglenook should be addressed as follows: 

(For the Inglenook.) 32-34 S. State St., Elgin, III. 

Entered at the Post Office at Elgin (11. is Second class Matter. 

" / am suffering from a fit of ab- 
straction," muttered the editor as 
he clipped an editorial and forgot 
to credit it. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


In this issue of the Inglenook our boy and 
girl make the start of their contributions to the 
magazine. Knowing the itinerary of the young 
people, and what they expect to do, enables the 
Editor to say to the reader that a rich feast may 
be looked forward to. Kathleen and Frank are 
at this present writing in Chicago, and her first 
letter is printed herewith. One would natur- 
ally suppose that the pictures that they take will 
have to be delayed a little, at least until the next 
number, when they will appear. 

It is ordered that these young people should 
not write anything except that which is of uni- 
versal interest and little known. How well they 
will succeed we shall see. It has been a question 
whether or not the pictures of the two them- 
selves shall be printed. If there is a call for 
them we shall probably have to comply. They 
are going over the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railroad to St. Paul, and if they carry out 

the instructions of the Editor we may all look 
forward to an intensely interesting series of ar-i 

The finest speech is the silence of 

two souls who have passed beyond 

the need of communication and hear 

and respond inzvardly. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


It may be a source of gratification to the tal- 
ented sisters who contributed to the Inglenoo 
to know that the edition has been exhausted and 
hundreds and hundreds of applications for sam- 
ple copies cannot be filled for the reason that they 
are not to be had. It became necessary to print 
a circular letter to send to the people who re- 
quested the magazine of that particular issue 
after it was not available. The general verdict 
of the reader is that it is an exceedingly well-done 
number. It would not have been possible 
a number of years ago, and that it now is shows 
an awakening to intellectual life that is simply 
astonishing. There are those who will immedi- 
ately think that this is due to the prevalence oi 
education and the commonness of colleges in our 
midst. We regret to destroy this illusion, but 
the fact remains that a letter addressed to four ol 
our institutions of learning failed to elicit a single 
contribution from any of its students. The 
Woman's Number is made up almost wholly by 
matured women who have written as they 
thought and felt, and most of them have never . 
seen inside of a college. This is not to be taken 
as an argument against higher education, but it 
is a fact all the same that our contributors as a 
rule do not come from our colleges. 

4» * * 
True friendship does not care 
for a " card of thanks " in the 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


: m 

pat 1 .: 

We take the liberty of extracting from a le^ 
ter received from a Nooker in the far East, whc 
did not intend his communication to appear in 
print but which is so pertinent to the subject 
under consideration that we reproduce it here: 

" Referring to the Woman's Issue of the Nook 


Bin of 


8 the 
nited ; 
\ wher 


have to say that I have read the greater part 
i it and as far as my limited judgment goes 
must say it is a good one, one of the best that 
las been issued. Now this may not be your no- 
ion of it, but just wait until you get the general 
erdict. It is plainly to be seen that the coming 
voman will let herself be heard if she has an 
>pportunity. There has been such a radical 
lange in the last fifty years in woman having 
.n opportunity to show us ' stronger . vessels ' 
vhat she can do when the opportunity is offered 
idles ier > tnat: it looks as though she would not have 
o continue occupying a back seat just to look 

ll si 



' to p: 
lar is; 
J verc 
is I 
is sim; 


p in 
sion, 1 
o [on 



as tl 
ive it; 

. be tak 

itors l 

tieue iisrc3-T_.Ensrooic. 



Can photographs be taken bv moonlight? 
Yes, if the exposure is long enough. 

How large is the Yellowstone National Park? 
Sixty-five miles long, fifty-five miles wide. 

Can an English subject residing in America, visiting 
ngland, get a passport? 

No, he can not. 

Is any particular wording of a will necessary? 
No, only so that it is clear, and readily under- 

A gentleman, at my first meeting with him, asked to 
orrespond with me. What should my answer be? 

No, not yet, possibly not at all. Our ac- 
uaintance is too limited to suggest that." 

Is the planet Mars inhabited? 

The conditions of land, water, atmosphere, and 
easons are all there for the existence of life, but 
is not absolutely known to exist. 

If I discover an island not charted and outside of the 
risdiction of any known country, what shall I do to pos- 

orn 3 

. . , Hoist the American flag, let out a wild yell for 

' ie United States, notify the government of your 

x ction, when, if your island is worth anything, 

, ie authorities will promptly come along and oust 

ieN« ou - 

Does the United States weather service usually fore- 
cast correctly? 

Yes, but it occasionally misses. The condi- 
tions that make weather are not completely un- 
derstood as yet. 


What does the Nook think of a young w man who 
makes public letters and confidential conversation? 

The leaky sister is a good one to let alone. 
There is no surer sign of down-stairs birth and 
affiliation than babbling. Real people don't do it. 

What is the origin of the house cat? 
It is lost in antiquity. Probably some prehis- 
toric man caught a little tiger and brought it 
home for the babies in the cave to play with, and 
the animal concluded to stay. 


What is meant bv mean solar time? 

The time that is shown on your watch or clock. 
Apparent solar time is the time shown on a sun- 
dial, and it will vary over a quarter of an hour 
from the other. 

What are some of the -igns of changing weather? 

We used to regard ourselves as considerable of 
a prophet in weather matters, but a residence in 
Illinois has taken it all out of us. We have 
changed from prophecy to history, and now only 
agree to tell what happened yesterday, not know- 
ing at all about the morrow. 


What does the term "State flowers" mean? 

The legislatures of some States, and the votes 
of school children in others, determine a common 
native flower as an emblem. In Illinois it is the 
rose ; Delaware, the peach blossom, and so on. 
It is only a sentiment, but a pleasant one. 

Do not the signs of the times indicate an early destruc- 
tion of the earth? 

Not that we see. The steady increase of the 
Nook family would indicate that the people ex- 
pect it to last a while yet, at least. Still, we are 
not familiar with the contemplated order of 
things. However it may be about going to 
smash, we intend putting out our potato patch 
this spring the same as usual. 

i 5 8 



Unquestionably the best fed and the best 
groomed detectives in Chicago are men who are 
known to be detectives by only a few of the per- 
sons who see them. 

They sit around the lobbies of the big hotels. 
Their principal duty is to be as polite as possible, 
and yet to keep their eyes open for possible in- 
fractions of the law against the larceny of proper- 
ty from the rooms of guests and from the hotel's 
rooms. The men are chosen for two qualities, 
which, if they do not possess them, makes them 
valueless to the hotel which pays them. They 
must in the first place fit into the picture, so to 
speak. Nothing in their dress or manner or 
language must jar upon the most sensitive guest. 
They must sit as easily in the best chair, drink 
the best, smoke the best cigars, and look as pros- 
perous and contented as the man who pays the 
highest price for the best room in the house. 
These house detectives give tone to the hotels. 
They know all about the city and their advice is 
always sober and quiet. There is nothing harsh 
in their make-up and politeness they cultivate as 
an art. 

The second qualification is far removed from 
the first. As well as being an ornament to the 
hotel they must have a utilitarian value and this 
comes of their intimate knowledge of hotel 
thieves. The hotel thief is in a class by him- 
self. With him caste cuts as much figure as it 
does with the sedate and dignified bank burglar, 
and the bank burglar is supposed to be the flower 
of the criminal aristocracy. The man who steals 
in hotels must have quick wit, good address, and 
an acquaintance with the best hotels in the land. 
He must not attract attention by shabbiness or 
a furtive eye if he sees fit to register under an 
assumed name the better to ply his vocation. He 
must harmonize with the picture as much as the 
detective does and it is harder for him. But he 
does it. That is why he is a hard thief to catch. 
Often when a detective has put his hand on the 
expensive coat sleeve of a man he is sure is a 
thief the suspect turns on him with a mien of 
offended innocence that would frighten an inex- 
perienced man out of his position. The hotel 
detective then must be immune to intimidation 
and must be quick and sure in his judgments. 

As the hotel thief looks so much like an 

honest man, and as he guards his secrets wel 
the new detective has no chance of arrestin 
many of his tribe. But the men who prot© 
Chicago's hotels are not novices. Most of thei 
have served in the City Police department 

They and the other hotel protectors know t| 
noted hotel thieves by sight and reputation. Tr, 
proof that the hotels are well guarded is that fe 
robberies are committed near them and that pra< 
tically no guests lose articles from rooms. Tr 
hotel sneak has the skeleton key habit and know 
the uses of a transom. A fire escape is to h 
liking, and where there are telephones in tl 
rooms he uses the tactics that have given tl 
" telephone burglar " a distinct place in the ga 
lerv of criminals. He calls up a hotel guest o 
the telephone, and, using an assumed name, fine 
a time when that guest will be absent long enoug 
to permit him to work with ease. Then he conn 
around and if he can run the gauntlet of tr 
bell boys and the detective he goes to work. 

The house detective has two other missior 
besides catching hotel thieves. He watches fc 
guests that may emulate to some degree the ma 
immortalized in the song as the " boarder wh 
let his trunk down with a rope and off to tr 
freight train he did slope." Many guests ha\ 
little baggage and more of them have big bill 
To preserve an equality between what the gue 
can pay and what he contracts to pay is part ( 
the work of the detective. This work must I 
done delicately. A false move, an impertinei 
question, or a pertinent one impertinently pu 
might cost the house a good guest. But the ii 
formation as to the guest's reliability must cog 
from some place, and the detective is the ma 
who has to get it. So he treasures all the gossi 
he hears and does all the verification work thi 
he can. He is often valuable as a commerci 

Another mission that is his is the watching < 
employes. The hotel silver and linen, althoug 
carefully checked up by the housekeeper eac 
day, is of such value that many employes will rl 
great risks to get possession of some of it. Th( 
the detective has work to do that is more like th. 
of the regular city detective than any of his othi 
labor. He must shadow employes and wot! 
himself into their secrets, and always with an Q 
to the interests of the hotel. His day is filh 

< Dest 

Id in 






L Ji interesting things, and he never lacks varie- 

T T T 

Because a man does business 
next door to a bank is no sign he 
understands the financial question. 

+ <■ + 


Few persons are aware," said a glove man- 

rer yesterday, " that most of the gloves 

are sold in this country under the compre- 

Ive title of ' kid,' are really made of goatskin. 

e is hardly a country in the world that does 

supply some sort of materials which are made 

into gloves, and manv of them pass for kid. & - v 

na The supply of kid skins of the finest quality 

njujj laturally limited. The greater part is ab- 

t ] a jj »ed in the manufacture of women's gloves. 

,-ji; i's gloves, therefore, are frequently made of 

. ujjj lambskin, which is better than the second- 


kid. The genuine fine kid skins are mainly 
ee'ie JP rencn or '£ m > an< ^ those obtained from the 
.,.-.. intain slopes of sunny France are world 
.; . ed for their excellence. 

','.: iu 

xuestst \11 the best conditions of climate, air and di- 
rt big i ppear to unite in exactly the degree required 
• ;'r.e 1 ecure perfection in this district. Nowhere 
is :•-. are the conditions equally favorable, al- 
:e igh kid skins of great excellence are pro- 
impers: :d throughout the mountain ranges of south- 
naitii Europe. Their production is the principal 
Pali: stry among the mountaineers. 
1 must c Great pains must be taken to secure the soft- 
: : and delicacy of texture and freedom from 
,11 the g" ish which form the value of the kid skins. 
m work diet is the most important factor, and moth- 
1 cisffi^milk is required to keep the kid in perfect 

acta! ;f the animal is allowed to eat grass its value 
lies, as the skin immediately begins to grow 
er and coarser in texture. To keep the skin 
;rfect condition the young kid is kept closely 
ed and carefully guarded against injury 
1 scratches, bruises, and so on. As soon as 
ids have reached the age at which their skins 
;t id s d the best condition for the glover, they are 
1, and the skins are sold to traveling ped- 
, who bear them to the great centers of the 

. day is ^ 

tanning industry at Grenoble, Annonay, Milhau 
and Paris. 

" London is the chief market of the miscel- 
laneous skins. Here may be found the Cape 
sheepskins, tough and durable, from the Cape 
of Good Hope; colt and calf skins from Buenos 
Ayres and other cities of South America, hog- 
skins from Mexico and Brazil, antelope from 
India. Brazil, Colorado and Africa. Of late 
years many of these skins have been brought di- 
rectly to New York, and American buyers find it 
no longer necessary to go to London. While 
fine lambskins are the staple in men's gloves, colt- 
skins are rapidly coming into favor, and fine calf- 
skins are also extensively used. 

" Each has a grain peculiar to itself, which, 
while not visible to the ordinary buyer, can in- 
stantly be perceived by the expert. 

" Every invoice of heavy skins contains more 
or less curiosities, and the kind of leather that 
will be evolved from a strong moose, musk ox, 
llama or kangaroo skin depends upon the skins 
that accompany it. Dogskins are occasionally 
made up into gloves, but their use is very un- 
common. Everything that goes by the name of 
dogskin nowadays is likely to be Cape sheep. 

" Calfskins are good looking, soft and pliable, 
but they are apt to crack. This fault is not found 
in coltskins, which are durable and handsome, 
and in many respects make model gloves. The 
wrinkles are objectionable, but these disappear 
when the glove is on the hand. The ' jacks ' of 
Venezuela contribute the majority of deerskins at 
present. Heavy leather gloves are obtained from 
elks. Hogskins are used to a moderate extent." 
♦ ♦ ♦ 
A dog's tail never deceives. 
All hypocrites are humans. 
♦ ♦ ♦ 

It has been ascertained by experiment 
that turkeys that get charcoal mixed with their 
food get heavier than others, and their meat is 
more tender and better flavored. 

V T t 


Thoroughbred dogs are less intelligent than 




Very few people have ever been in a volca- 
no's crater, and the following account of a night 
in one is reproduced from the Kansas City Star. 
It is from the pen of W. J. Rouse. When the 
Nookman visited the volcano he considered that 
he had enough when he reached Las Cruces, — the 
crosses — and wisely allowed the others of the 
party to do the climbing and panting. The arti- 
cle is an account of the adventures of an English 
engineer who visited the crater for the purpose of 
inspecting the sulphur deposits, which have been 
worked by the Indians for ages. 

" I left the City of Mexico over the line of the 
Interoceanic railway and traveled to the pretty 
city of Amecameca, which is the nearest railway 
point to the volcano, which rises high, apparently 
not many miles away. Popocatapetl looks to be 
easy of ascent, but appearances are deceptive, 
sometimes, even in Mexico. Early one morning, 
accompanied by Indian guides, I made start for 
the volcano's crater. All day we traveled, and 
by evening we had passed timber line, at an ele- 
vation of perhaps 10,000 feet above the sea. We 
rested at a ranch called Tlamacas, where a small 
sulphur refinery has been in operation for several 
years. Fumes from the volcano are in the air 
and all around are to be seen small ferns and 
flowers encrusted with sulphur. The little re- 
finery is supplied with material brought from the 
crater by Indian carriers. 

" After the evening meal my chief guide in- 
structed me not to eat or drink again until we 
reached the summit of Popocatapetl. At 2 : 30 
o'clock the following morning myself and party 
were awakened. We were told not to wear boots 
or shoes from that point on. Our feet were 
wrapped in strips of heavy flannel, and after they 
were wound about until they looked like 
sacked hams, we were given native ' guaraches,' 
or rawhide sandals, which possess only a sole 
and a few thongs of leather to hold them to the 
feet. Over the sandals more strips of flannel 
were wound, to prevent slipping. After this 
preparation we mounted ponies and set off up 
the mountain. We rode until six o'clock through 
deep, fine sand. Then we came to Las Cruces, 
where there is a great rock jutting out from the 
side of the mountain. From this point upward 
the trail was too steep to permit of horses or po- 


nies being used, and we walked. Our guic 
cautioned us that if we ever walked slowly in c 
lives, to walk slower then, and we found the 1 
vice to be good. 

" In two hours we entered the region of p 
petual snow and stopped to enjoy the grand vi< 
The domes of the City of Mexico glowed in 1 
morning light like minarets of polished copp 
while almost beneath our feet, apparently, J 
the pretty little city of Amecameca. Vast c 
tances appeared wonderfully dwarfed and 
great, fertile valleys of Mexico lay spread at 
feet like a magnificent panorama. We are 
prised by a sudden haze in the atmosphere, 
chill wind sweeps over us, coming apparer 
from all directions at once, and almost before 
realize what is happening the panoramic spl 
dor has disappeared and we are in the midst 
a bewildering blizzard of snow, such as only h 
pens at such elevations. 

" We wait half an hour, but to no purpose, 
the storm is too furious to permit of further 
cent, we turn back again to Tlamacas . 
spend another night. Next morning at the sj 
early hour we make a second start for the si 
mit of Popocatapetl. We succeed in goinj 
little farther than on the first day, but a blizz 
again overtook us and we were forced to ret 
to Tlamacas. The weather on the third day 
still severe, but on the fourth day we succee 
in reaching the crater's rim, after a tedious, 
hausting tramp. It was a little before mid 
when we looked into the volcano's mouth. 

" The crater of Popocatapetl is 1,575 ^ ee 
diameter and 1,300 feet deep. The first tl 
hundred feet is a sheer precipice of lava, to 
nating in a ledge about three or four feet w 
From that point down, the debris that has re 
in from the rim during ages has made the cr 
funnel-shaped, the sides being about an angl 
forty-five degrees. The snow of years has 
zen there, and the Indians get down from 
ledge by cutting steps for their feet. On 
edge of the crater is an old windlass or 
)i crude native manufacture, carrying a -.3 
more than three hundred feet of rawhide 1 
The nut that held the handle on is gone, and 
whole machine is in a dilapidated condition, 
as it is the only means of reaching the bot 
there is no choice but to use it. 

When I was readv to go down the Inc c »* ! 

'1 tlie ir 







aced a sling around my body, under my arms, 
id another around my thighs, something after 
e fashion of a bo'sun's chair, and I stepped to 
e edge. Letting myself over carefully I swung 
it into space, and looked down into the chasm 
at yawned beneath me. The creaky old wind- 
y . ss began to work and I felt myself going slow- 
down. I swayed against the wall of the cra- 
and escaped injury by kicking against the 
ill with my feet and pushing with my hands, 
own, down, down — until the rope that held me 
3m eternity looked like a spider's web, I went 
and finally, when it seemed that the descent 
>uld never end, the rope stopped and my feet 
uched the lava ledge, which, directly beneath 
e windlass, is about four feet wide. 
1 1 looked down, another thousand feet, made 
sort of mental estimate of what I still had to 
through, then cast off the slings and signalled 
r two of the Indians to join me on the ledge. 
ley had been there before, and soon joined me, 
r the trip was not a novelty to them. They 
;re armed with picks and hatchets and soon 
Ejan cutting footholds in the snow crust, to- 
,rd the bottom of the crater. They made 
out a thousand of these crude steps, I follow- 
j them down as fast as the steps were made, 
til, just before sunset, we reached the end of 
e perilous descent. There had been fresh, un- 
azen snow on the snowcrust, but this was easi- 
removed, so that we were fortunate in getting 
r steps finished with as little trouble and delay 
we did. 
I In the middle of the crater's bottom were 

large crags with a little space between them, 
d here we determined to camp for the night. 
e had told the Indians on the rim to return 
Tlamacas and come back to pull us out on the 

Drrow. When darkness closed in around us 
were alone in the bottom of a volcano's cra- 
r, cut off from all the world. 

1 It was a weird, creepy experience, and as the 
rkness of the night grew more intense the 
owing blow holes upon every side grew more 
d more luminous, and their rythmatic pulsat- 

' pfooh — pfooh — pfooh ' sounded like the 
avy breathing of some prehistoric monster, 
lose breath, creamy white and very sulphurous, 
ded away in dim clouds of mist, above the 
izing eye. I looked from one blowhole to an- 
her in the blackness of that night, and you may 


eii as 



\ - 
as d 


at it 

Bi a I 
:o; 10 
lird 1 


ic fin 


ur is 

i a::. 

ass <'■ 



readily understand that it didn't require an ac- 
tive imagination to conjure up all sorts of demons 
as inhabiting the place. Now and then, between 
the pulsating throbs, we would hear a rumble 
and a crash, as some boulder or lava block, roll- 
ing down from the rim of the crater, found its 
last resting place in the cone-like bottom, where 
we were. Any one of the twenty or more of 
rocks that came down that night would have end- 
ed our careers, had it not been for the protection 
of the two gigantic crags, beneath which we were 

" I slept little that night. The fumes of 
sulphur were becoming oppressive. My lungs 
were laboring, owing to the fumes and the alti- 
tude, for we were more than seventeen thousand 
feet above the level of the sea. I cannot de- 
scribe to you my joy when the first streaks of 
dawn penetrated that awful pit, and gave as- 
surance of another day. My depression was 
growing, and I knew that unless our Indians 
came, a few more hours would end it all. What 
if another snowstorm had prevented them reach- 
ing the summit? The thought was too horrible 
to describe. But, an hour or so after daylight, 
1 saw them on the rim, waving their hands. 
•k -t 4" 

A great many people who are 
never late at the theatre have to be 
notified by bell that it is time for 

* 1r * 

We are gratified to note a second time that the 
Sisters' number of the Nook is receiving well- 
merited comment everywhere. That this is not 
due to a natural gallantry of the men in the 
church so much as to actual merit is shown by 
the fact that city dailies have republished some 
of the articles entire, and duly crediting them. 
The St. Louis Post-Despatch reprints Sister John 
E. Mohler's mockingbird article, and there are 
others. These people are not influenced by any 
sentiment, but know a good thing when they see 

* * * 

A West Virginia hunter made the mistake of 
carrying his tobacco and cartridges loose in the 
same pocket. He tried to smoke, and as a result 
it took a surgeon and a dentist six weeks to make 
him presentable. 

1 62 



If anyone has any doubt that the great heart 
of the people is merciful and just, the prompti- 
tude with which the public has responded to the 
appeals of the destitute in the last two or three 
days ought to be sufficient to dispel it. In each 
instance money, food, clothing and kind words 
have been the immediate result. 

And yet there are persons who continually 
murmur about " human nature " and its depths 
of turpitude and wickedness. The reformer 
who proposes any sort of plan for the betterment 
of a community is invariably met with the plaint : 
" It's all very well, but you'll have to change hu- 
man nature first." Such a person is the worst 
kind of pessimist. He looks at his fellow-man 
with mistrust and skepticism, even with hatred. 
He is guilty of a libel upon humanity. 

It is one of the most cheering things, and full- 
est of hope, that in this busy, distracting world, 
people daily and hourly turn aside to give of their 
time and money to those in distress. The cry of 
hunger rarely goes unheard. 

That there is evil in the world and that cruel 
wrongs are perpetrated cannot be denied. But 
that such wrongs are the outgrowth of anything 
inherent in human nature can be and is denied. 
Who can doubt that ninety-nine out of a hundred 
persons prefer to do right rather than wrong? 
And that when they do wrong it is their circum- 
stances or environment rather than their nature 
that impels them? It is something without and 
not within — the incentive of gain, for instance — 
that moves them. Human nature is not a mon- 
strosity. It is in the innate goodness of man- 
kind, which all the ages have not been able in 
anywise to dim or destroy, that the hope of pos- 
terity lies. 

The above is an editorial clipped from the Kan- 
sas City Star. The motive of the article was the 
response to a call for help for certain needy per- 
sons named in the paper. It is refreshing to note 
the optimism of the editor. There are some peo- 
ple always complaining that the world is going to 
the dogs, that people are getting worse all the 
time, etc., without let-up or ending. The facts 
are all the other way, and most people, all nor- 
mally constituted people, would rather " be 
good " than not, yet environment, stress of un- 
controllable circumstances, and the like, con- 

tribute by far the longest tale to the woes of t 
world. The best way of helping people is 
make a better world for them to live in. 

V V V 

It's a mighty geod thing to be 
able to feel young while growing 

4» -* 4 

:i) c 


ftthe w 

m the 


w 0] 

What the rabbit is to Australia the praii 
dog is to Kansas — a pest for the eradication 
which a fortune will be paid by the authoriti 
of the region suffering. Agents have been & 
ployed in every County of Kansas to try this a; 
that plan of extinction, but the little animal cc 
tinues to thrive and increase. A report has jt 
been submitted to the State officials showi 
that 1,224,854 acres of soil in Kansas are giv 
over to prairie dogs. This land cannot be ci 
tivated with safety because of the fact that the 
animals may at any time make a raid on the fiel 
and destroy them. Professor D. E. Lantz, of t 
Kansas Agricultural College, has just complet ■ 
his report to the State officers in regard to t 
prairie dogs in that State. He says : 

" We sent out 1,400 blanks and have tabulat 
680 replies. They show that sixty-eight of t iraer 
102 Counties in the State have the prairie d Bns 
pest. I have made personal investigation in s« 
eral Counties from which the heaviest acreage 
reported ; and while many township trustees ha 
made mere guesses in their reports they have 1 tknn 
exaggerated. The general estimate of damage bjture 
fifty per cent, though many farmers think it 
greater. One cattle man in Wallace County sa 
his cattle will not eat grass on that part of 1 
range occupied by the prairie dog towns, 
ranchman in Logan County says he is able 
pasture only five hundred head of cattle on 
certain field, whereas last year he pastured c 
thousand head. Prairie dogs have ruined 1 
grasses. Logan County is the greatest suffei 
from the prairie dog pest, 236,460 acres bei 
occupied by them. Finney County is next, w 
212,150 acres, while Gove County has 211,5 
acres occupied by prairie dogs." 
4. 4. 4, 

Such has been the increase in population 
civilized countries that the space occupied by c 
person a century ago must now contain three. 

hi ; 






ht : 
rt tlii 

Electrical appliances in use in the United 

ates to-day are estimated to be worth $3,975,- 


The capital of the Magnetic Telegraph Com- 

ny, the first to introduce the use of electricity 

industrial purposes (in 1846) was $15,000. 
Electrical industries have bounded forward at 
; rate of fifty-three per cent advance annually 
fifty-four years, until to-day 600,000 persons 
this country earn a living in the various lines 
electrical business. 

T. C. Martin, an authority upon the subject, 
ds that 100,000 people are employed in teleg- 
jhy — 26,000 by Bell Telephone companies, 
),000 in electric lighting plants, 150,000 on 
s eet railways operated by electricity, and 150,- 
;1 10 3 d in electrical factories. 

Ilie arts of electricity, says Mr. Martin, have 
ied at a very conservative estimate $6,000,000,- 
3 to the world's wealth. More than half of 
s is in the United States. 
The Morse telegraph was, as the Magnetic 
legraph Company, first in the field in 1846, a 
erunner of the vast telegraph and telephone 
iiness which has since sprung up. Of the 
,'eiabtl npany's capital stock of $60,000 one-half went 
:$it oi the owners of various patents. The other 
Drains ),000 was but half paid up, so that the actual 
ition in a invested in the mechanical part of the busi- 
it acreaa is was but $15,000. 

rustees Many of the subscribers at the time expected 
iev haw lose their money. The whole sum would not 
>f dama) r furniture for a big telegraph office to-day. 

he telephone business dates from the inven- 

i are 

not k 



i con 
tard I 

Count;;! is of Bell and Gray in 1877. The Bell tele- 

me lines to-day are valued at $400,000,000. 

ey have 1,500,000 subscribers. The earnings 

$20,000,000 annually, or ten per cent on the 

ual $200,000,000 said to be invested in the 

r town 

le is $ 


is nest 
has 211 

n three 

.lectric light plants are owned by three thou- 
itest sufi d companies and are worth $1,200,000,000. 
ey furnish 500,000 arc lamps and 30,000,000 
bndescent lamps. 

Electrical appliances used in street railways 
of the country represent an investment of $1,800,- 

The electrical motor business is increasing 
$150,000,000 a year in the United States. 

Electrical apparatus used in mining is estimat- 
ed to be worth $100,000,000. 

Improvements are constantly being made in 
the electrolysis of metals for various purposes, 
and in the separation by this means of gold and 
silver from their compounds. 

Electrical manufacturing and electro-plating 
companies carry a capital of more than $200,000- 

*§* T T? 

Men stagnate when they enjoy 
uninterruptedly a full gratification 
of material things. 

fr *i" *i? 

A new marriage law has just gone into opera- 
tion in the State of New York. It will have the 
effect of abolishing the legal if not a portion of 
the social evils arising from what has been loosely 
called a common law marriage. The unexpected 
appearance of sudden widows, real or alleged, 
in the settlement of estates, and the injustice in- 
flicted upon the lawful or at least the regular 
heirs, convinced the New York legislature that 
the unrecorded marriage was a dangerous inci- 
dent which ought to be checked. 

Hereafter marriages will not be legal in New 
York State unless recorded, either in the more 
usual way following a ceremony performed by 
license, or in consequence of a contract duly 
signed and sealed by the principals and sworn to 
in a declaration to be filed with the city clerk 
within six months of the agreement. 

The design of the authors of the new law was 
to protect women against the false promises of 
men. Its operation will also shield families 
against the secret connivance of both men and 
women who seek to evade legal and moral re- 
straints required for the safety of society. 

Only what we have wrought into 
our character during life can we 
take away with us. 




Some time ago a woman walked into the office 
of the writer and asked for employment. He 
had none to offer, and she went away. That is a 
simple story, but there is a big, big story back of 
it. I want to tell it for the benefit of the 'Nooi: 

The woman was a widow, about thirty years 
of age and she had a little girl of four or five 
traipsing around with her. Her previous his- 
tory had nothing out of the ordinary in it, that is, 
nothing more than is going on in a million cf 
homes at this very writing. She was one of a 
family of three, having one brother and a sister, 
married and having all they could do to make a 
poor living. When our widow was a girl she 
went to school and got from a third to half an 
education. That is, she learned to read and write 
and figure a little. There were other things she 
learned, but at twenty-nine practically all she 
knew was to read and write, when she had to, 
and all the rest was lost. There wasn't a single 
thing in her that was any good on earth as far 
as turning it into money was concerned. She got 
married, had the little girl sent them, when he 
died and there she was, with nothing but an in- 
cumbrance tagging after her, and which she 
would not give up under any circumstances. 

Now the 'Nookman wants to say some plain, 
hard things. There are some millions of girls 
traveling the same path. They go to school, fit 
up with a few rudiments, promptly forgotten 
through disuse. They then pass through an un- 
certain period when it is all beaux and clothes, to 
get married and " settle down." Children come, 
as come they 'do to most, and then some fine day 
the unlooked-for arrives and her husband is 
buried and she faces the problem of making a 
living out of nothing. It's no new story. It's 
as old as the hills. 

Possibly she " takes boarders " if she is not 
strong enough to take in washing, or she sews, 
or something of the kind, that means much hard 
work and little money. Often there is some old 
widower with an upside-down house full of wild 
children who comes to the fore and an agreement 
is patched up, garbed in a marriage ceremony. 
That is perhaps the best that can be done, but at 
its best it is a hard bargain. 

Now let us get back to our woman. When 

|u dock 
rill the 


in tbi 
»fal ! 

•k 1 


1» {0 «, 
fun is 


she asked for work she replied that she could r 
keep books, set type, run a typewriter, read pro 
write shorthand, or, in fact, do anything at 
that was required. But she " could learn." 
yes, — learn — but who was going to do the tea 
ing, and more than that, hozv was she going 
learn at her age? That last was something $ 
never considered. There's a golden year or 
for self-equipment and when they pass at 
goes along. If there had been one single t 
she could do well there would have been lit 
difficulty getting her a place. If she could 
any one single thing better than others the pis 
would have hunted her up — but she was, to 
blunt to coarseness, no good on earth at anythi ; 
for which there was a desirable market 
course she'll get through — somehow, but consu 
the cost and the worry on the way. 

Now there is always a large lot of you 
women who will never have anything in th 
heads but cheap finery and " fellows," and w 
will get married and adjust themselves to pati 
ing clothes and frying mush the rest of their lfo 
If they are satisfied, whose affair is it? We hi 
not a word to say. 

Then there is another lot of young worn - 
bright, industrious and capable, who are earri ; 
their own living, and often keeping the fai 
out of their earnings. They are all right and 
not in our book for anything but words of pra.' 

And then comes the unfortunate class 
lions of them, with pleasant homes and favo 
ble surroundings. They are unfortunate beca 
they are so comfortably situated as to throw 
of the question the matter of ever having to e 
a living for themselves. They set out bran 
enough, and everything seems right up to 
moment when all goes to smash on the rocks 
disaster. And then? 

Now it is this class, the " then " people, 
'Nook wants to counsel. It is easy to say, 
not so easy to do. While you can, in the day! 
youth, master thoroughly some calling, such ., T 
cooking, typesetting, proofreading, or one of 
many avenues open to women, that will stay 
you, and which can be turned into money w 
the evil days come. It can be done. It is d 
every day in the year. But beaux and clol 

tier has 

iwds and ! 

m lb 
lis; p« 

ttthe Bibli 


ugh in 
ud instr 

have a very microscopic part in it. It means h 
work, poor pay or none at all, and a longei 
shorter apprenticeship. The girl who could 

[letters oi 

K:a,i 2 

£l ;■ 

o the tj 



weler or watchmaker to take her on for no 
would be in luck. If she showed up every 
rain or shine, was courteous, willing to learn, 
stuck to it for a couple of years she could 

at disaster when it came, hang out her 
den clock for a sign and tinker watches and 
cs till there was coal in the bin, flour in the 
el and the children had clothes, she did not 
to take as a donation. This is but one of 

instances open to women. The rule is to 
are in the day when skies are blue for the 

when they are overcast. Now, young 
an, the 'Nook has had its say. Have you 
questions to ask ? 

+ + + 

The world is a ladder for some 
to go up and some to go down, but 
there is no need to lose your char- 
acter because you lose your money. 

■X* "f* *X* 



! bea 
le cm 

at an; 
but cm 

ing in 


■I tlien 


.rate In 

it up 
the r« 

.- to i 



:. H 
: and 



TIHIIE I2sra-T_.E2SrOOI^. 


the Philadelphia North American is an 
unt of a man who has read the Bible one 
ares red and seventeen times. Speaking of what 
•eader has accomplished and how he did it, 
is the following: 

r or instance, he can tell how many times cer- 
: class, words and letters appear ; how many chapters 
verses there are ; names that spell the same 
ways ; peculiar passages of Scripture ; the 
to thr He book, chapter, verse and line ; the oldest 
of the Bible, and other facts which he refers 
curiosities of the Bible. 

tfr. Ottey says that if you want to read the 

through in a year you can do so in an inter- 

l and instructive manner by reading three 

net ters every weekday and five on Sunday. Or 

two in the Old and one in the New Testa- 

: every weekday and six in the Old and four 

New Testament every Sabbath, and you 

jront then have read the Old Testament once and 

jifls 'few twice in a year. 

'he number of verses commencing with the 
his letters of the alphabet he has computed 
illows: a, 12,638; b, 2,207; c > ^l', d, l 77* 
i f > 1.797; g. 209; h, 1,164; i, 1,449; J, 158; 
; 1,411; m, 437; n, 96150, 592; p, 149; q, 4; 
7; s, 1,088; t, 5,286; u, 83; v, 37; w, 1,396; 
>ne;y, 356; z, 17. 

" Mr. Ottey has discovered that the following 
phrases, which are commonly supposed to be in 
the Bible, cannot be found therein : ' Cleanliness 
is next to godliness ' : ' God tempers the wind 
to the shorn lamb ' ; ' In the midst of life we are 
in death.' He has ascertained that the Bible con- 
tains 1,189 chapters, 31,198 verses, 773,697 words 
and 3,566,480 letters. The name ' Jesus ' occurs 
700 times in the Gospels and Acts and 69 times 
in the Epistles. The words ' girl ' and ' boy ' are 
found but once each in the Bible. Both are found 
in Joel 3 : 3. There are 2,300 words that occur 
but once, and Mr. Ottey can tell where all can be 

There is nothing very remarkable about such 
a performance, and doubtless there are others 
who could do pretty nearly as well. The object 
in reprinting the article is to can 1 attention to 
the fact that these people who know so much 
about the letters of the Bible are rarely, if ever, 
familiar with the historical and higher spiritual 
facts connected with The Book. As a curiosit) 
the work is like that involved in putting together 
a ship in a bottle, difficult and utterly useless. 
An understanding of the real message of any one 
of the books composing the Bible is worth all 
this arithmetic and plaything business. 

+ + * 

When a woman tells you that all 
men are alike she has generally 
found out that one of them is dif- 

T T T 


Nature is a prodigal, a spendthrift of forces. 
All around us she is squandering energies which, 
if caught and harnessed, would do the work of 
the world and give man a perpetual holiday. 
According to a careful calculation a recent storm 
on the north Atlantic ocean developed 473,000,- 
000 horse power. The horse power of all exist- 
ing steam engines is estimated at 39,000,000. If 
one of the big storms which rage across the At- 
lantic several times a year could be caught and 
harnessed, all the steam engines in the world 
could take a rest for twelve times as long as the 
storm lasted. Some of these storms last as long 
as a week at a time, and five of these storms 
would run the industries of the nations for a year. 



An ordinary thunderstorm develops enough 
electrical energy to run all the cables and tele- 
graph lines of the world for a year. The force 
of a flash of lightning varies up to 1,000,000 
horse power, and fifty such flashes would be suf- 
ficient for the purpose. The energy of the tidal 
wave which sweeps around the world twice every 
day is sufficient, if turned into heat, to cook all 
our food and keep us warm for a year. The 
sun's rays are so squandered over space that it is 
estimated that all the planets together do not get 
a ten-millionth part of the heat given off by that 
vast orb of liquid fire. 

Then there are those great storehouses of heat, 
light and electric force — volcanoes. No possible 
use can be made of their immense energy, and yet 
if Italy could harness the forces of Etna and Ve- 
suvius when those mountains are in a state of 
eruption and set them to pumping water, grind- 
ing corn, etc., the Italians could loaf in luxurious 
ease. Loafing is a fine art in Italy now, and the 
harnessing of Vesuvius and Etna would only 
aid and abet what is already a national institu- 

Then look at the freakish way in which nature 
manages her water supply. She empties billions 
of tons of water annually on the smoking, 
steaming tropics while great deserts like 
the Sahara lie bleaching in drouth. As to 
gold, nature just throws it away. There 
is gold enough in the waters of the 
ocean to make us all wealthy, but it can't be got 
at, and so remains just for the tantalization of 
avaricious man and as a foundation for the for- 
mation of wildcat companies by " inventors," 
who declare that they have solved the problem 
•of its extraction from its waterv storehouse. 



Many people keep a diary, which is a 
thing to do. One who has a diary often fit 
it very valuable for reference. A few years a 
the writer noticed that manufacturers of dial 
had^ on sale a five-year diary, a few lines 
each day of the five years on one page. 1 
idea seemed very practicable, but the book y 
rather large and expensive. Its size made it 
convenient to carry when traveling. I concltK 
to try another plan. 

I secured four blank books, which retailed 
five cents each. They are four and one-half 
seven inches, over twenty lines on a page 1 
ninety-six pages in a book. Each book is lai 
enough for three months, a page to each d 
and each page has about five lines per day 
five years. I am now beginning the third ; 
and am exceedingly well pleased with the J3 
One always has before him each day the 00 
rences of the previous years. The books 
small enough that a person can carry one in 
pocket, if desired, and cheap enough to an& 
all the purposes of economy. One could \ 
more expensive books and still have a very chi 

Malmo, Szveden. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


The floods of the Nile are so regular in tr 
coming that for hundreds of years they have 
varied ten days in the date of their arrival a t 
given point. 

It is not against the universal ills 
that a man cries out, but agaitist the 
special ones that make him think 
fortune has discriminated against 


the iisrcB-rjEzsrooic. 



A man's idea of an ideal ivife is 
one zvho thinks she has an ideal 





To one egg and one grated lemon (removing 
seeds) add a piece of butter the size of a wal- 
tt and boil briskly for five minutes, or until 
out as thick as honey. This will make a jelly 
ass full and can be increased in the same pro- 
rtions. This is nice for lunches. 
Canton, Ohio. 

■ ■-■' 1 




Lake one egg well beaten, one-half cup of 

Ited butter, two cups of molasses, two tea- 

Mifuls of ginger, one cup of sour milk, two 

kping teaspoonfuls of soda, four scant cups of 

and a pinch of cinnamon and nutmeg. 

len bake. 

r hitciK-ater, Ind. 



rAKE two cups of lard, two cups of sugar, one 
of sweet milk, three eggs, and the whites of 
more eggs, one medium-sized nutmeg, three 

spoonfuls of baking powder and enough flour 

roll. Bake in a quick oven. These cookies 

I good when six weeks old. 

\>allas Center, Iowa. 



Break one egg into a glass, beat very light; 
add one teaspoonful of granulated sugar, and 
fill the glass with good fresh, creamy milk. 
Bat ana, III. 

<* * 


Melt chocolate 

over a teakettle of boiling water 

by grating it and holding it 
Dip the mold- 
ed cream candy into the melted chocolate. 
Elgin, III. 



Take one cup of flour, one egg, one cup of 
sweet milk, one teaspoonful of baking powder, 
pinch of salt; mix just stiff enough to roll; cut 
in inch squares and boil fifteen minutes in meat 

Altoona, Iotva. 



Peel or scrape carrots, then cook and pickle 
the same as beets. 
Wayside, Wash. 

1 68 

' TIHIIE I3sTC3-Il.E!3SrOOK:. 



Take one cup of sugar, one-half cup of butter, 
one-half cup of sweet milk, two cups of flour, 
three eggs, one teaspoon ful of soda dissolved in 
the milk, one teaspoonful of baking powder, one- 
half cup of chocolate cooked in one-half cup of 
milk, cool and stir in last. Filling: Take one 
cup of sugar cooked in small one-half cup of 
milk ; beat till cool. Then bake. 

Stratford, III. 



Take one cup of Orleans molasses, one cup of 
brown sugar, one cup of sour or buttermilk, two 
eggs (I beat the whites separate), two-thirds 
cup of butter and lard mixed, one teaspoonful 
of soda, and one each of ginger and cinnamon, 
and three cups of flour. Dissolve the soda in 
a small amount of warm water. Cream the 
shortening, yolks and sugar together. Bake in 
gem pans. 

Mt. Morris, III. 



Take a little bread well baked and not too 
fresh, crumb into a bowl, add a tablespoonful of 
•good sour cream, then pour over it a little boil- 
ing water, add a little salt. This will sometimes 
settle a nauseated stomach. 

McPherson, Kans. 



Take three and one-half pounds of minced 
veal, three eggs well beaten, one tablespoonful 
each of pepper and salt, one grated nutmeg, four 
rolled crackers, one tablespoonful of cream, but- 
ter the size of an egg; mix these together and 
make into a loaf and bake like other meats. 

ML Carroll, III. 



Pour two quarts of water on six potatoes, boil 
down, take the potatoes out, mash, season with 
pepper and salt, and return to the same water 
add one ounce of butter and one quart of sweet 

Lonaconing, Md. 



Beat well two eggs into one pint and thre 
gills of buttermilk, stir in flour to make a thicl 
batter, add one teaspoonful of salt and one tea 
spoonful of soda ; bake in a hot oven in well 
greased tins. 

Greenland, W. J 'a. 

(« -4 



Take two cups of sugar, four eggs, one cu 

of butter, two teaspoonfuls of cream of tarta 

one teaspoonful <5f soda and flour enough to ro 

Bake in a quick oven. 

Pyrmont, hid. 

* <4 


Take two cups of sugar, two eggs, one cup 
shortening, one-half cup of sweet milk, and oil 
teaspoonful of baking powder. Flavor wi| 
nutmeg. Bake in a quick oven. 

Leaf River, III. 



Take seventeen quarts of soft water, two be 
es of lye, eight pounds of clear grease, one-h 
pound of rosin, and one-half pound of bon 
Dissolve the rosin, borax, and lye. Then a 
grease and boil rapidly one and one-half hour 

Pitsburg, Ohio. 

:'. S, ; 

%\ feNOOK: 

Vol. IV. 

Fi:b 22, 1902. 

No. 8. 


Chicago, III. 
Chicago justly ranks among the largest cities 
f the world. It is not the largest, by any means, 
ut it is a great big city after all. One of the pe- 
uliarit its of Chicago, as I see it. is its difference, 
rchiteclurally, from so many of the eastern cit- 
rs. I spent a few days in Baltimore once and 

The "Pioneer Limited" 

anemher that city as a c impact town built of 
rick, everything solid and substantial, and I 
ave heard that this is characteristic of other east- 
rn cities. Xow. Chicago is just as solid, and a 
reat deal higher up in places in the business part 
E the city, and the residence part is just as fine 
rchitecturally as in any other city anywhere. 
he characteristic of Chicago is that it is 
Jrawled out over so much more of the prairie, 
it deal of it> outside edge is new and 

isc* i\y. ( in, t have t i go very far from the 

usine-- district or the " down town " part, as it 
called, until he strikes squares of small houses, 
lank sidewalks, dirt and dust. A succession of 
ooden squares with " what made Milwaukee 
mil us " selling on the corners, and a few small 

on the C. JVI. & St. P. P,. P». 

- scattered in between, and more Milwaukee, 
make up a very large part of Chicago's deep 
fringe of city. 

When you go to Chicago, however, and have 
but a short time to stay, you naturally want to 
see the best of it and you need to make a break 
for the Lake Front and the parks. Here there 
are the widest streets, the cleanest parts of the 
city, and the best residences. One of the peculiar 
characteristics of humanity is an inborn desire 
to see the sights when they go to town. A man 
at home will be a model citizen and as straight 
as a string as the saying goes, and yet. when he 
comes to Chicago, he seems to deem it incumbent 
upon him to wade in the sediment of humanity. 
He justifies himself, as a rule, by saying that he 
wants to see these things for himself. Many a 
man who would not be caught talking of such a 
thing at home, has thrown himself bodily, into 
the slums when he thinks nobody is going to 
find him out. Xow, one thing \ have never for- 

n is a remark I heard made by an eminent 
traveler, a man who had been in many European 
capitals. He said that every sight he looked upon 


the iisrca-XjEzsrooic. 

was as a picture hung in his life, and of which he 
could not get rid. It is always there, "once he 
took possession of it, and he advised our high- 
school class at home, in talking about this subject, 
to always see the best, and thus have nothing else 
to keep. So anyone who would like to go down 
into the slum districts and see the dirty saloons, 
the dirtier frequenters of both sexes, and get an 
impression done in mud. will have to go without 
me along. 

The- fact is Chicago is a city that has almost 
everything good and bad in it, and it is so rattling 
big and widespread that there is not time to get 
more than a bird's eye view of a part of it at the 
best. The prettiest places in the whole town are 
the Lake Front and the parks. Standing on a 
street fronting the lake one can look across the 
\ as! inland sea. shimmering in the distance and 
lapping the shore almost at his feet. With wise 
forethought the city fathers have turned the por- 
tion between the street and the lake into a contin- 
uous park and it is a really beautiful place. 
Then there are the libraries, the art galleries, the 
museums, and other places of interest which are 
all on a large scale. Chicago never does any- 
thing in the small. From its good to its wicked- 
ness it is all broadgauge. And the distances are 
something appalling when you come to rattle over 
them in the street cars. 

Yesterday Sister Kath and I thought we would 
go down to the Union Station and find out about 
our tickets and possibly take a snapshot or two. 
We are going from here to St. Paul over the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad. There 
are many ways of getting to St. Paul, but the 
Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul people were 
so thoroughly courteous and up to date in our 
transactions with them that there were no two 
ways about it — we are going over the Milwau- 
kee Road. 'When we were down at the sta- 
tion it was suggested to us that we go out and 
snap the train that would take us there, and we 
did so. It is a beauty, called " The Pioneer 
Limited." We got a number of other pictures, 
some of which we hope will be incorporated into 
the Inglenook, though it will all depend on the 
Xookman and what he thinks about it : but I 
would like to have the Pioneer Limited shown. 
Kath and I read of the Seven Wonders of the 
World, but none of the "Id fellows in their wild- 

est dreams ever conceived of such a thing a: 
fast train flying through the country clippitv-c 
passing with a whiz and a roar. We are go; 
to take some pictures of scenery as we go ale 
and some things we think would be of inter 
we are going to copy from other pictures, 1 
thus let nothing good escape us simply beca 
we are not there personally. It isn't necess; 
when one invites his friends to dinner that eve 
thing on the table should be raised on his o 
farm by himself. 

Figures convey no real idea to some people 
when I say that Chicago has at least i,500,( 
population it does not mean much really. 
what strikes Kath and me is the widespreadn 
of the place. It begins from ten to fifteen m 
outside and thickens up towards the cen' 
What it will be a hundred years from now 
body ever dreams. A slight shift of the eart 
surface in a good earthquake might settle a g( 
many municipal problems of the future with 
whole business fifty feet under water, althot 
this need not deter you from accepting any pr 
erty that may be willed to you in the heart of 



The Old Way of II. 

It is all folly to talk about getting in anynj 
definite about Chicago within the limitations 
magazine article. Just think of anything 
have a mind to anywhere and the best and 
worst of it is here, and don't you forget it, 
biggest of it. Chicago wouldn't feel good if 

tzecie iitgleitooe:. 


ler city had anything- bigger than it had — even 
'■jit.- rascals. 

e thing that astonishes me is the rapidity 

• th which one can get around these days com- 

with the so-called good old days. See the 

re of the man the coach has dropped, on page 

^io. and then look at the Pioneer Limited, and see 

: % difference. Then all that money can buy is at 

* disposal of the traveling public. Of course 

Ists money, but not a great deal considering 
lat is at the passenger's disposal. Let us give 
Jfeiv facts. 

The reader will note that the Chicago station is 
the plainest of the lot. and the reason is that 
things are in such a mix with the several rail- 
roads centering in the Union station in Chicago 
that they cannot have a great common union sta- 
tion. The time will come when the present 
station will be replaced by a better one, though 
the present one answers most purposes at present. 
Why anybody wants to leave his home in the 
country and come to live in a city, of his own vo- 
lition, is a puzzler. A man in one of the big 
skyscrapers of buildings told me that he hoped 

The above is a map of our route to St. Paul, 
d the Limited runs to St. Paul via Milwaukee. 
hen a passenger man wants to make a map of 
5 railroad he takes a ruler and draws a straight 
te between the terminals, and puts the towns in 
terwards. When he draws his competing lines 

sets the towns where they belong, and winds 
e roads around to them. But as you don't go 

the map. but on the train, you are sure to get 
mewhere if you stay on. So you see that you 
11 get to St. Paul around a slight kink in order 

touch Milwaukee. Through the courtesy of 
e railroad we are enabled to present the several 
itions we expect to see en route. The one in 
e upper left hand corner is the Union Station in 
licago. where we arrived, and through which so 
*ny Xookers have passed. The cars come in 
lind the station, and the passenger passes 
rough the gates, up stairs, and out under the 
rch. The one in the right hand corner is the 
ilwaukee station, the one just below the St. Paul 
ition. and the other the Minneapolis station. 

sometime to own a home in the country, and all 
the people of great wealth, sooner or later, get 
out into the country, God's country, and try to 
live, really live. The suburban people, the ones 
who live outside, on the settled edge, seem mad 
to get their trains when their dav's work is done. 

And Summer Lakes.. 

The route we are taking leads us by and to a 
good many summer resorts where there are 
lakes, and fishing, too, but all that will come 

the T.iNra-ii.iEiisrooiK:. 

later on. I would sooner be out in the country 
than in this big, bustling, dirty, modern Baby- 


And Fi 

Ion. Naturally there can be little said abov r: 
such a big thing in the limits of the article an 
space at our disposal. 

Sister Kathleen is daft over the dining car shl 
saw down in the railroad yards, and as she me 
a man who knew all about it, I shouldn't be sut 
prised if she told it all in her letter next weel •' 
We don't show each other our letters, and if sh 
makes mistakes and gets things wrong she know 
who is to blame for it. I asked her what sh 
was going to write about, and she replied by ask 
ing whether I had forgotten the Eleventh Cora 
mandment. That settled it. If she wants 
mix things now it isn't my fault. Still, she's m;| 
sister, and I'm going to get her a bunch of v8 l 
lets. They're frightfully expensive, this timeS I 
vear, but I think she would like them. 

■V + + 

Kathleen's letter has been received and deal 
largely with the dining and sleeping cars of th 
trip. Fully illustrated. Don't miss it. 







B"V I. M. NEFF. 

Tin-: village of Hollywood, nestled in a beau- 
valley, having Sand Mountain, which be- 
js to the Cumberland range, to the east, and 
rregular series of wooded foot-hills and rocke- 
ts, forming another spur of the Cumberlands, 
le west, lies in the extreme northeastern part 
k State of Alabama. Many of these moun- 
ts, to all appearance, are so entirely composed 
rock, not a solid mass, but piles of stone rang- 
in size all the way from that of your fist to 
of a barrel and now and then to that of a 
that it would seem impossible for them to 
port any form of vegetable life. But " things 
not always what they seem." and the fact is 
from these ragged mountain sides is being 
en cedar of a commercial value that to the un- 
rmed would be simply astonishing, 
ake a drive up one of those mountain coves, 
wing a circuitous road, sometimes narrow, 
letimes wide, here a mire of mud, there a 
ssion of rocky ledges edged up almost per- 
dicularly and running directly across your 
sometimes up hill and sometimes down. 
re and there you pass a rude cabin occupied 
a family of uncouth mountaineers. There 
es a gentleman now. He wears a hat that 
ears to have been inherited from his grand- 
er, one shirt sleeve is oft* at the elbow, trou- 
supported by one homemade suspender, and 
wears a pair of stogies which by contact with 
,d from the flat, are " finished in red." We 
speak to him : 

Well, brother, this is a pretty rough country 
are living in." 

yes. sah, mighty rough." 
How long have you lived here ? " 

1 bought this fa'm and moved into this cabin 
yeah arter the surrendah." 

How much land do you own ? " 

My land 'stends back to the top of that moun- 
1, across to the right to the pint of the second 
?e and down to this road." 

How many acres in the tract ? " 

I d'know, sah." 

What crops do you raise ? " 

Up this cove is a little flat, whah I make a 
' taters and a little co'n every yeah." 

I'm you have arn other employment? " 

" Ployment? What's that?" 
" Do you do any other work besides farming? 
1 mean." 

" O yes, I git a heap o' cedar out o' these 
mi luntains." 

Have you sold any cedar from your place?" 

" See that mountain thah?" 

1 sole the cedar that stan's on that mountain 
two yeahs ago for $10,000, and now I'm paid 
$400 a yeah for let'n' it stan' till they're ready to 
have it cut." 

! "p to this point I was wondering why anybody 
in the world would want to live in such a place 
as this : but when I heard this I began to wonder 
why anyone would want to live anywhere else, if, 
like this man, he had gotten in " on the ground 
floor." Upon further investigation I learned 
that the cedar is cut into logs of various lengths, 
dragged down the rocky mountain sides by mules 
til! ground is reached that is sufficiently level and 
clear of rock to make the use of a wagon possible. 
There the logs are loaded on wagons and hauled 
sometimes a distance of ten or twelve miles to 
what is known as the " block mill." This differs 
but little from an ordinary sawmill of small ca- 
pacity. But the timber differs widely from that 
known to the ordinary lumberman. A lumber- 
man from the pine belt of the Gulf States, accus- 
tomed to the long, straight, large, smooth, sym- 
metrical logs that come from the forests of long- 
leafed yellow pine of the far South, would stand 
aghast on being introduced to these small, crook- 
ed, knotty, hollow, sap-rotted and worm-eaten 
cedar sticks that come out of the mountains of 
North Alabama. He would pronounce them of 
no commercial value whatever. And the mystery 
to him would be how such timber could be meas- 
ured, especially in cases where the hollow is al- 
most as large as the log. But the emergency 
must be greater than this if these men of the 
mountains are not equal to it. In order to get at 
the value of a log, no matter how crooked, how 
tapering or how large the hollow, this timber is 
bought and sold by weight. By this method a 
man can buy a log without paying for the hole 
that is in it. I learned from the proprietor of a 
" block mill " at Hollywood that he pays four 
to five dollars per ton for cedar and that an 


tihiie insra-iLiEisrooiK:. 

average two-horse wagon load is about one and 
one-half tons. 

But why is the " block mill " so called ? It is 
because its manufactured output is in the form 
of blocks. When the log goes into the mill it 
is first cut into slabs two and one-fourth inches 
thick by a common circular saw, such as is used 
in sawing ordinary lumber. These slabs are car- 
ried to a cut-off saw and cut into thirty-inch 
lengths. From here they go to an edging saw 
and are ripped into two-and-a-quarter-inch 
squares or blocks. Each one of these blocks that 
is clear of knots or other serious defects is ready 
for the market. Defective blocks are taken to a 
small cut-off saw and cut into seven-and-one-half, 
fifteen or twenty-two-and-one-half-inch lengths, 
owing to the location of the defect, the blocks 
containing the defects being thrown out as waste, 
the marketable blocks being either of the four 
lengths named. Thus it will be seen that a log 
with knots or other defects not closer together 
than seven and a half inches contains marketable 
timber, and so it comes that logs so rough that 
they would be quite unfit to manufacture into 
lumber can be used for this purpose. 

When the cedar is worked into blocks as above 
described it is sold by weight again ; but this time 
to the company that operates a " slat mill." Here 
the blocks are first put through a sizer, which 
consists of a horizontal wooden cylinder about 
two feet in diameter and three feet long. Into 
this several notches are cut lengthwise, deep 
enough to receive one of the blocks and at equal 
distances apart, each notch being cut straight in 
on one side and quite slanting on the other, some- 
what after the fashion of the notches between the 
teeth of a hand saw. As this cylinder slowly re- 
volves, it is " fed " by placing a block into each 
notch as fast as it comes up into position to hold 
it. Above the cylinder work five small cut-off 
saws on one shaft and at equal distances apart. 
They are usually set about seven and one-fourth 
inches apart, the specifications being given by 
the German buyers of slats in meters, decimeters 
or centimeters, which is the length of the regu- 
lation lead pencil used in Deutschland. As the 
cvlinder revolves it carries the blocks upward into 
these saws and each full-length block is cut into 
four blocks of the exact length desired and 
dropped into an elevator on the other, side, and 
by it carried to the second floor of the factory. 

On the second floor of the factory a number | 
small rip saws are running, by which the blocl 
are worked into slats half the thickness of a le| 
pencil. As these slats drop from the saws tr 
fall into shoots that convey them to another cj 
partment down stairs where the cullers are 

The cullers are girls whose duty it is to cil 
grade and assort the slats. A perfect slat is sj 
lead pencils in width. These are put to thai 
selves, tied into bales and the bales put into casj 
r ady for shipment. The defective slats are gral 
ed with reference to the size or position of tl 
defect, which may be rot, worm holes or s;l 
All slats with a defect small enough or nt| 
enough to one edge so that it can be removed 
cutting away the thickness of one pencil, go irl 
a bundle marked " 5." " Fives " are slats 61 
pencils wide. After they are assorted ill 
threes, tours, fives and sixes, all below sixes ;J 
taken to a small edging saw and edged down 
required width and thus all defects cut out. 

The number of slats put into a bale varies wj 
their width. Sixteen bales are put into a cal 
making from fifty to one hundred gross of slal 
They are shipped by the car load to New Ycl 
and thence to Germany, the German buyers cc| 
tracting for them at so much a gross. 

There are quite a number of these factor! 
in Northern Alabama, their entire output beil 
sold in Germany. " Where does the rest of tl 
world get lead pencil cedar?" do you asjj 
Don't know. 

Fruitdalc, Ala. 

*r t t 

An acquittal is a sure remedy 
for temporary insanity. 
+ + + 


Soi' houses as a rule make quite cheery al 
comfortable homes despite the forbidding exl 
rior. The walls are usually plastered with wll 
is known here as " native lime," and is used j'l 
as it is dug from the hillside after being screer| 
and mixed with sand. 

I have in mind a convenient sod house witrl 
pleasant kitchen, pantry, closet and sitting rocl 

the iisro-1-.Eisrooic. 


istead of being ceiled or lathed and plastered 

erhead. the ceiling in most cases consists of 

:a «fcin. tightly stretched and neatly tacked on 

it 10 th 

:■. : 

s. which in turn are fastened to the board 
>of with small nails. 

In most sod houses one or more of the rooms 

eatly papered and the remainder whitewashed, 

with floors carpeted and windows tastefully 

lrtained. the task of making them homelike isn't 

great, after all. If an eastern Xooker were 

d blindfolded into the house. I doubt if, when 

ie bandage was removed, he would ever suspi- 

on that the outside of the house was other than 


Sod houses usually have fewer and larger 

x>ms than frame ones, because the task of break - 

ig and laying up the sod house is no small one. 

course all sod houses are not " homey," but 

all frame ones ? They can easily be made 

tractive inside with a little exercise of good 

iste and small expenditure of money. 

olby, Kans. 

4. 4. 4. 


A woman always seems sur- 
prised when a man proposes to her. 

+ + + 


Hi:r name is Dora and she is educated and 
>eaks English very well. When she came home 
om school she dressed neatly and attended Sun- 
iv school, but some whites made her feel she 
as out of her place, so she said she was just an 
idian. anyway, and went back to their customs 
: dress and living. Xow she is married to an 
idian who cannot speak English, and she goes 
irefoot and bareheaded and carries her pappoose 

mi her hack in a basket fastened with a strap over 
her head, as all squaws do. 

Her troubles began about one year ago. when 
her sister died from wounds received from a 
brutal husband. Poor Dora must now have her 
hair cut short, for such is their custom in mourn- 
ing. Soon her mother, grieving over the tragic 
'loath of her daughter, wishing to join her in the 
Happy Hunting Ground, hanged herself. Then 
1 1' ira must again cut her hair. 

Then one evening in last November, just as 
school was being dismissed, we heard a commo- 
tion and on looking out saw Indians running, 
talking and wildly gesticulating. Several 
squaws were passing and from one we learned 
that her father. " Marshal Pete," had been shot 
by an Indian of another tribe, with whom he was 
playing cards. 

( >h ! such a moaning, weeping and tearing of 
hair as those squaws did! Indeed it was pitiful 
to witness. We visited their camp and saw poor 
Dora, the picture of despair. With her pappoose 
1 ui her back she would sit and sway her body back , 
and forth and, others joining her, utter such dole- 
ful sounds we thought we never witnessed more 
real sorrow and truer affection among civilized 

The next day the hills were scoured by bands 
of stern, savage-looking Indians, hunting the 
murderer, who was too wary for even their sharp 
eyes, for he was Indian himself. 

Whites laid the body of Marshal Pete to rest, 
so there was no Indian ceremony, except that two 
blankets were placed in his coffin. 

After one of their number dies it is their cus- 
tom to kill the dogs and ponies and burn the 
wickiup and other property; but in this case the 
sheriff forbade their doing this, so they claimed 
the devil got after them, and they had to leave the 
camp, and have not yet returned. 

Camp Verde, Ariz. 

Tell a girl she is "pretty as a 
picture " and she never stops to 
consider hozv unattractive some 
pictures are. 

1 7 6 



When some porch-climber has made a raid 
on a brown-stone front and gone through the 
jewel case on a mahogany dresser, probably the 
owner of the jewel case knows within a few dol- 
lars of the actual loss she has sustained, whether 
it is reported to the police in those figures or 
not. But with the ordinary victims of holdups 
and sneak thieving it is a question if they have 
any idea of how much or how little the crooks 
will realize on the proceeds of the melting-pot. 

" For this reason," said a prominent manufac- 
turer of jewelry in Chicago, " you may get on a 
train here and go west, northwest, and southwest, 
especially, buying up rings and old jewelry that 
bear carat stamps, and 1*11 venture that in a thou- 
sand pieces taken at random, you won't find ten 
in which the gold is fine enough to bear out the 
carat stamp. 

" Why? Simply because the public cannot tell 
a fourteen-carat ring from one eighteen carats 
fine, and for the further reason that neither the 
State nor national government has put a penalty 
upon such cheats or undertaken — as the British 
government has done — to stamp the genuineness 
of gold jewelry and silver plate. This leaves the 
public open to any imposition which may be pos- 
sible to a ' crooked ' house. The result is with 
us, for instance, that in buying old gold for the 
melting-pot, we pay no attention to the carat 

"This is a statement in general, however: 
there are numbers of manufacturing firms whose 
stamp we know to be genuine, whether it be ten 
carat or twenty-four carat. Vet in sharp con- 
trast to these are houses which manufacture a 
fourteen-carat goods which they sell to retailers 
as such, yet stamped eighteen carat ' for the 
trade.' Xow, when it is considered that a house 
offering to do this might have no moral hesitancy 
in making twelve-carat stuff instead of the con- 
tract fourteen, you can see where the injustice 
comes in for the final purchaser. When this stuff 
finally comes to be old gold for the melting pot, 
you can imagine that we cannot afford to buv 
according to the carat stamps." 

For, as a matter of commercial fact, there is a 
sharp difference in the actual value of a piece of 
gold eighteen carats fine and one that is only 
fourteen carats. An ordinary wedding ring will 




weigh five pennyweights. If it be 
carats fine it represents a final gold standar 
value of S4 even : if it is only fourteen carats am 
stamped eighteen, however, it will bring onl; 
$3.20, a difference of 80 cents in a single ring ^ 
On every pennyweight there is a difference o ■; . 
sixteen cents in favor of the fourteen-carat gold 
and this is- $16 on 100 pennyweights — a differ 
ence which makes a sharp profit in a year for ai 
unscrupulous manufacturer. 

Gold twenty-four carats fine is pure gold. Ii 
that degree of fineness it is not especially attrac 
tive. It is extremely soft and does not admit o 
a high polish. In fact, it is never worked in tha 
form, unless it might be at the special order o 
-omeone who had a freakish desire for it. A 
twenty-two carats it occasionally is made int( 
wedding rings, because of the desire to hav 
the metal as nearly pure as possible, but eva 
then it is easily bent and wears rapidly. Gold a 
eighteen carats is best adapted to the manufac 
ture of showy jewelry. It then has one-fourth a 
the alloy in it, and with that proportion of stiffen 
ing metal it takes on its most brilliant polish 
wears longest, and is most generally satisfactory 
to the wearer. Gold seldom is stamped as low 
as ten carats, but the range of bullion value fo< 
each pennyweight, from twenty-four carats dovJ 
to ten, is: For twenty-four-carat gold. S1.04: faj 
eighteen carats. 80 cents: for sixteen carat?. 1 
cents : for fourteen carats. 64 cents : and for ter 
carats. 48 cents. 

" However much better eighteen-carat goi 
may be for manufacturing purposes, it is never 
theless true that most of the gold jewelry onj 
sees is not above fourteen carats.'' said a Chicagc 

manufacturer who has grown gray in the busl 
ness. " Most of this fourteen-carat gold is 
stamped eighteen carats, too. There is the rob- 
bery. Only an expert can distinguish these tout 
degrees of fineness, but in effect it is quite as bac 
for a jeweler to sell fourteen-carat gold fa 
eighteen-carat as it would be for a grocer to set 
baking powder that is twenty-five per cent chalk 
Yet the grocer can be prosecuted, and it is doubt- 
ful if the jeweler could be. 

" The thing that we need is a government in- 
spection of jewelry, or at least a national law 
making the government the prosecutor when i 
false stamp is put upon gold or silver. I don 




or t 

■ ( aiow that the English ' hallmark ' method could 
-' je made satisfactory, as I understand it causes 
^ British manufacturers much trouble and incon- 

■ renience. It has seemed to me that a national 
- : ' statute making it a penitentiary offense for 

stamping gold falsely would be enough ; men 
*"' vill break municipal and State laws much more 
'eadily than they will risk prosecution by the gov- 

" To take our United States mints, we have no 
, : j jetter-regulated government institutions. For a 
tv r:rj jood many years now we have done our own re- 
:;,v ining, but when we used to send it out to private 
■efineries we never got more than 80 per cent of 
jur gold ; when we sent it to the United States 
ints we got it all, paying only a slight charge 
t;c; ~ or the work. The point that I would make is 
., hat with our coins and the general work of our 
. nints, unquestioned anywhere in the world, it 
.j :s a crying shame that our gold and silver plate 
-;• j s questioned everywhere. England has accom- 
- jlished something in that way, even if by a clum- 
sy method ; why can't we? " 
- -. :j Of gold in general there is a good deal of tra- 
lition abroad among the people. " Etruscan " 
:, jold and " Guinea " gold are frequently on the 
.■ ongue. but according to expert handlers of the 
netal. gold of twenty-four carats fineness is sim- 
)ly pure gold, without reference to whether it 
:ame from some California placer, some Austra- 
ian " digging," or from some deep mine in South 

Gold is never pure, however, when taken out 
n nuggets, dust, or " color," so that as it comes 
Torn the mine it may have its marked character- 
sties. If copper is one of the chief foreign met- 
ils in the nuggets or dust, the gold will show 

. ' II 

red; if it be silver the gold will show greenish- 
yellow. Thus if for some design a manufacturer 
wishes to make up three shades of gold, he uses 
a copper alloy for the red, silver for the greenish- 
yellow, and leaves the middle shade as nearly 
pure as is possible. The alloy that is used de- 
pends wholly upon the shade and polish desired. 

As to alloys in general, those for gold coins 
average about ten per cent, showing ninety parts 
gold and ten of copper. In gold jewelry and 
plate the world's average must be found some- 
where between seventy-five parts gold and twen- 
ty-five parts copper, and ninety-two parts gold 
and eight parts copper. As to gold coins of the 
United States, for instance, the gold in a $20 
piece was not as fine as that in a $10 piece, up to 
1834, the one being .900 fine and the smaller coins 
.916%. Several changes were made affecting 
these and smaller gold coins until finally the fine- 
ness was fixed at .900, uniformly. As against 
this ten per cent of alloy in United States gold 
coins, however, British coins have only 8^ per 
cent of foreign metal. 

In the manufacture of gold jewelry the ques- 
tion of waste, present and final, must enter large- 
ly into the general ledger account of profit and 
loss. However, a loss that may show in the 
books for two, four, or five years may be wiped 
out in a great measure when the wooden floors 
of the working rooms are torn up, and the gold 
recovered from the crevices and the grain of the 
wood. • 

In the meantime in one down-town factory, the 
sweepings from the floors and the contents from 
the traps in the workroom sinks yield $1,500 a 
year of the precious dust which has escaped both 
the workman and the espionages of his employer. 

1 7 8 




T T ▼ 


A A A 


So far only the poets have been able to tell 
what causes sleep, scientific men being totally at 
a loss to account for this mystery. A rather 
startling theory lately put forward by a young 
physiologist, is attracting considerable attention. 
This student believes that a gland or certain 
glands in the system secrete a narcotic substance ; 
that this substance is stored in the gland or 
glands until at definite times — mainly influence 
of habit and " tiredness " of the individual — it 
is thrown into the circulation and thereby causes 
the phenomenon of sleep. Further, he suggests 
that sleep continues as long as the " natural nar- 
cotic " is kept up — until the latter is so far atten- 
uated in, or wholly abstracted from the blood by 
the excreting organs. 

There is no direct evidence of the correctness 
of this theory, but he refers to a lately-discov- 
ered fact that the urine of health secreted in wak- 
ing hours always contains a narcotic substance, 
and he urges this point in support of his theory. 
The existence of such glands is difficult to deny. 
Sir T. Lauder Brunton has pointed out that opi- 
um will keep a person awake if he wishes to be 
wakeful and conversely will make him sleep if 
he wishes to sleep, which would seem that sleep 
is in some measure under the control of the will. 
* + + 

*' Among the newer salad plants," said a dealer 
in green vegetables. " is one called Oriental ro- 
maine, "which has been introduced here about four 
years. It came originally from China. This is 
a winter salad, and is grown in the South, being 
raised as far north as North Carolina. 

" A head of Oriental romaine is about as long 
as an ear of corn, and, in its middle part, of about 
the same diameter ; but instead of tapering down 
at its lower end it is there somewhat bulbous; so 
that the whole head is somewhat vase-like in 


▼ ▼ T 

" It is made up of long, narrow leaves folding 
closely together, solidly, from the heart out, the 
outer leaves being of about the size of green corn 

"It is sold by the pound, at from fifteen to 
twenty cents, according to the supply. A single 
head weighs about a pound, more or less. 

" Another vegetable new here, we have had it 
about four years, one which is more often eaten 
cooked, but which, uncooked, is used as a gar 
nish for salads, and is eaten as such, is Japanese 
crosne, an artichoke-like vegetable coming ori 
inally from Japan, but now cultivated in Fran 
whence all our supplies of it are imported. 

'* Japanese crosnes are about two inches 
length by half an inch in diameter at the thick 
part, midway of their length ; tapering towa 
the ends ; they have also ring-like moldings, 
that they look like rather stubby little turn 

" Besides their salad use, and their use cookedifl| 
they are also used to garnish or decorate cooked | : 
meats. In Japan they are eaten cooked, pickled, | 
and as salad. 

" Japanese crosnes are imported in baskets li! 
small, heavily-made champagne baskets, fiffr 
pounds to the basket. They sell here at fo: 
cents a pound and find favor." — A r . Y. Sun. 
+ + 4- 

lit! en! 

It is well known that certain plants, of whi< 
the sundew and the Venus' fly trap are examph 
capture insects for food and digest them. B< 
anists have discovered that the leaf which caj 
tures the prey throws out a digestive fluid up< 
the insect and that this fluid exhibits a comj 
sition analogous to that found in the gastric juice J 
of the human stomach. Certain other plants 
capture insects by means of their pitcher-like 
leaves. In the pitcher-like leaves the insects are 
drowned and their bodies undergo decomposi- 
tion. A member of an English botanical society 
points out now that in the plants mentioned the 


■ ■.: .. 



a at 

the nsro-XjEisrooic. 


gestive ferment is not so much like that of the 
limal as that found in the pancreas or sweet- 
This latter organ furnishes a fluid which 
in digest all kinds of food and one substance in 
fluid, trypsin, acts specially on nitrogenous 
atter. It is this tryptic principle which is rep- 
sented in the eating plants. Another likeness^ 
the higher animal world is found in the differ- 
ce between the mode of feeding seen in the sun- 
:ws and in the pitcher plants. The former take 
eir food in a fresh state ; the latter, it is com- 
only believed, like their food rather " high." 


+ + + 

As would be inferred from its temperature, the 
:sert is a land of fearful winds. When that vol- 
ne of hot air rises by its own lightness, other 

Fnu ke 

from the surrounding world must rush in to 

its place ; and as the new ocean of at- 

osphere, greater than the Mediterranean, pours 

enormous waves into its desert bed, such winds 

ult as few people in fertile lands ever dream 

The Arabian simoon is not deadlier than the 
idstorm of the Colorado desert (as the lower 
If of this region is generally called). Express 
lins cannot make head against it— nay, some- 
les they are even blown from the track ! Upon 
crests of some of the ranges are hundreds of 
res buried deep in the fine, white sand that those 
irful gales scoop up by carloads from the plain 
id lift on high to fling upon the scowling peaks 
Dusands of feet above. 

* * * 


"here recently died an old man in our neigh- 

rhood, who would have been one hundred and 

: years old in March. He was born in March, 

797. He ran away from home and fought in 

He battle of New Orleans under Gen. Andrew 

ckson. His name was Allen Easter. He came 

this part of the country when a young man 

id saw civilization grow up around him. 

I He was out hunting his first jack rabbits about 

days before he died, — with a rifle, and he got 

|iem, too, — and contracted a cold that ended in 

leumonia and caused his death. He did the 

tost of his own work. Many a time have I seen 

him walking around, about his chores, as lively 
and as straight as many men of sixty. 

Speaking of killing the jacks, he said : " I never 
had the " buck-ager " so bad when I tried to shoot 
a bear or a deer." Think of a man shooting at a 
jack rabbit with a rifle, when 105 years old. 
How many Xookers will do it? 

(The above came to us unsigned, with a letter, 
mislaid or lost, that gave the author's name. Ar- 
ticles should be signed.) 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Another remarkable addition has apparently 
to be made to the casualty lists from South 
Africa. The other day a man who is engaged 
on the English steamship " Canada," writing 
home to his relatives, referred to the capture of 
a big shark at East London. When ripped open, 
the monster, which measured eighteen feet long, 
was found to have quite recently swallowed a 
soldier bodily. The man's body and uniform 
were intact, save for a small portion of one 
shoulder, which had been cut oft". 
4. 4. 4, 

A German botanist is said to have discovered 
that out of over 6,000 species of flowers cultivated 
in Europe only 420 possess an agreeable perfume. 
Flowers with white or cream-colored petals are 
more frequently odoriferous than others. Next 
in order come the yellow flowers, then the red, 
after them the blue, and finally the violet, of 
which only thirteen varieties out of 308 give off 
a pleasing perfume. In the whole list 3,880 vari- 
eties are offensive in odor and 2,300 have no per- 
ceptible smell, either good or bad. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The ancient Romans, at whose sumptuous ban- 
quets truffles played an important role, supposed 
that their existence was one of the material 
results of thunder. More modern botanists have 
classed it as a species of mushroom, but it can 
scarcely be termed such. To be exact, the truf- 
fle is a tuberculous fungus, a sort of morbid ex- 
travasation of vegetable sugars analogous to oak 
balls or nutgalls and doubtless originating, as 
these latter, from the sting of an insect. 

i So 



fl WEEI^liY jyiflGAZIJSIE 


Elgin, Illinois. 

The subscription price of the Magazine is one dollar a year. It is 
a high-class publication, intended for the Home, and for the interest, 
entertainment and information, of old and young. 

Articles intended for publication should be short, of general inter- 
est, and nothing of a love story character or with either cruelty or 
killing, will be considered. 

Manuscript submitted to the Editor will be at the entire risk of 
the writer, and its return is not guaranteed. 

Subscribers wishing the address of their papers changed should 
Invariably give the old address at which they received their Ingle- 

Agents are wanted everywhere, and any reasonable number of 
sample copies will be furnished free. All communications relating 
to the Inglenook should be addressed as follows: 

(For the Inglenook.) 12-24 S. State St., Elgin, III. 

Entered at the Post Office at Elgin, 111., as Second class Matter. 


The picture Nook starts on its way this i 
sue, and will continue indefinitely. We wou 
like to hear from every Nooker how it strik 
him. Let this be understood. There is perha 
not another weekly publication in existence, f 
the price, that shows the same amount of illustr 
tions and the same character of unique litera 
matter. If you, as a Nooker, want to upho 
and help the cause along, interest your neighbo 
to the extent of getting them on the list. 
great deal of the future success of the public 
tion will depend on this. What do you think 
it? How does it strike you? We will be gl; 
to hear from every reader. 

* * * 
Much of the trouble in this world 

is due to the fact that ignorance 
isn't bliss. 

♦ ♦ •> 

It's just like a woman! When our Kath w;j 
down at the Union Station. Chicago, the othl 


Vieczi of Denver, Reached from 



iv. she saw her first dining car, and she went 
rough the whole thing. What she didn"t learn 
out housekeeping on wheels isn't worth know- 
g. Next week she's going to tell it for the sis- 
HS. As we said, it's just like^ woman! Even 
r. Knowitali may learn something if he reads 
lat she has 1. 1 sav. 

people who live in the East may imagine 
kt when they get to Denver they will " meet 
1 1 with the cowboy and the Indian. See our 
ge illustration of the city, taken from a 
:ph. and furnished us by the Union Pa- 
le Railway for the Nook readers. Looks as 
Migh civilization had reached across the coun- 
■ From Smithville, near home, doesn't it? 

Goo presents her compliments to her 

ler brothers and sisters of the family and says 

tting along pretty well, thank you, con- 

ering her troubles, and that she has another 

! :er she has thought out between two quarts of 

Ik, which will appear pretty soon. 

Our relations, that is. members of the Nook 
family, are sending us articles on Life in a Soddy. 
We are gratified and appreciative, but let us tell 
a more certain way of getting before the 
public. When you see an article in the Nook, 
and feel moved to write about it, do it right at 
once. After a subject is once worked up it is 
again threshed over, unless it is badly in 
error. If several good articles on the same top- 
ic come in at once they will likely be printed, ei- 
ther in the same issue or one after the other. 
But the writer who waits is like the woman who 
tates — both often get left. One man took 
nine months to answer an article. The Nook is 
imt an ancient history. Get your wits to work- 
ing like a steel trap, and your pen to be a close 

♦ *i* ♦ 

Tin; pictures in the Nook necessitate a radi- 
cal change in the make-up of the magazine. But 
it will be an educator all the same. If you would 
like to get the premiums offered any of our 
N'ook family we will send you all the samples 
y< u can use judiciously. 


the iisra-i-iEisrooic. 



Not a century ago woman was held back, with 
the idea that she needed no education except be- 
ing able to read. Man was calculated to do all 
business for her. Later she might have a com- 
mon-school education and teach only in summer 
at low figures. A woman thrown on her own 
resources then was to " dig or beg." Now al- 
most every avenue that is open for man, is open 
for woman if she has the acquired knowledge. 

Woman, thrown on her own resources, having 
a family to support, and no education, or knowl- 
edge of any livelihood, deserves pity, but if she 
has a will she can make a living in almost any 
circumstance in life. 

I personally know a woman who was left with 
a little boy. She made a livelihood by keeping 
boarders and sewing and knitting. She raised 
her boy, who needed much medical care, gave 
him a common-school education and paid for a 
small home. Another, a school-teacher, was 
among the first of my teachers, and she earned a 
living, raised and educated her girl, bought a 
home, and has retired from teaching for many 
years. I know one who wove carpet, kept her- 
self and an aunt, and earned a small home. I 
know some women who make a livelihood by 
taking in washing and who go out house-clean- 
ing. Some dressmake and do general sewing. 
Others do canvassing. There are many little 
things to canvass besides books. A book agent 
is so despised that other useful articles often 
bring more profit. A woman who was left with 
a girl and without means canvassed a kind of dip- 
per, funnel, cake cutter, and pint measure, all 
combined, for twenty-five cents, which made 
enough t y raise and educate her girl, and bought 
a home in her town. The people knew her ambi- 
tion and worthiness and patronized her. She 
would lay off for a while and when in need of 
money would canvass again. Another poor girl, 
who had tact, made small articles, such as Christ- 
mas toys, trinkets, ornaments, etc., also knit 
laces, crochet-work of various kinds suitable for 
holiday gifts. She would have those articles 
ready for holidays, rent a show window, exhibit 
and sell. It was surprising to her about her first 

sales. When her work was fully known she ha 
no trouble to sell, which made her the owner ( 
a store where she employed help to manufactui 
her articles to meet demands, all by having ta< 
and diligence. 

McPherson, Kans. 

* * + 

A man never does anything des- 
perate if fed regularly. 
-j. 4. 4, 


The popularity of violet as the latest favori 
in the list of perfumes is threatened by the art; 
of ylang-ylang of the Philippines. Coloni 
Agrippina, the choice perfume of the Romans, 
named in honor of the wife of the Emperor Cla' 
dius, after enjoying in modern times an unrival 
lead for nearly two centuries, as the eau 
cologne, from the city of the Rhine, the fil 
place of its modern manufacture on an extensi 
scale, yielded to the more lasting fragrance of t 
sachet in evidence in all forms, in all places ai 
among all classes and conditions of women. 

The attar of roses, the famed essential oil 
the Damask rose of Kazanlik on the sunny slop 
of the Balkans, finds in the Philippine prodii 
its equal in perfume, a better yielder of essen] 
from the flower, and therefore a less costly ba ; 
essence for the perfumer's art. 

The ylang-ylang, or sometimes spelled ilar 
ilang, while indigenous to many parts of trop 1 
al Asia, reaches its greatest perfection in 1' 
Philippine islands, where it is a favorite amoj 
the natives. Besides its value as an attar 
preparations for the hair and toilet waters, it| 
also claimed to possess curative virtues in tO( 
and other aches and pains. In a preparation 
coo lanut oil, known to commerce as Macas 
oil for the hair, attar of ylang-ylang is the p 

The perfumers of Europe, and to a less deg 
of the United States, make it the base of some 
their most costly extracts. The Manila oil 
practically without competition in the markets 
the Western nations on account of its superior 
and at from $40 to $55 a pound is unequal to 

Hitherto the United States' supply has cc 
through Germany or France. Together v 







igland, those countries have a monopoly of the 
xluct, which is generally secured in advance 
der contract for the entire output. 
The tree, common to many localities south of 
inila, is found chiefly in the well-populated 
nrinces and islands, it being said to thrive best 
ir the habitations of man. The propagation in 
ntations by seed or cuttings about twenty feet 
irt each way (108 trees to the acre) is easy, 
the growth is rapid in almost any soil. The 
t flowers appear in the third, the eighth year 
lding often as high as one hundred pounds, 
bloom occurring in every month. The great- 
yield is from July to December, 
'he process of converting the long, greenish 
low. fragrant petals of the flower into essence 
>y the simplest form of distillation, no chem- 
s of any kind being required, simply water and 
choicest flowers. The oil will vaporize in a 
ed boiler at 220 degrees Fahrenheit. The 
al results follow. 
e best quality must be clear as distilled water 
fragrant. The second quality is yellowish 
smoky. The oil is drawn from the bottom 
1 1 glass separator, the water remaining. The 
is filtered through talcum and ready for the 
, -Ret. being packed in glass bottles, and com- 
. ids ready purchasers. 
'', Lbout seventy-five pounds of flowers yield one 
nd of oil. Flowers are worth from eight to 
, ., len cents gold per pound, and the cost of man- 

. " :ture is placed at $4 a pound. The yield in 
tsoltt " * . . ,, - , 

case of attar of roses is small, 150 pounds 

ose leaves producing but one ounce of oil. 

here are flowering groves in many parts of 

i nva 
■ the al 



1 m 
x eau 
:, it 
1 extern 
ante A 


thern Luzon and the Visayan islands which 
' be leased. The vicinity of Manila is partic- 
ly well adapted to the growth of this valuable 

■toes in I 

as }\& 

i a less * 

a;e A 


the mar'rf 

itsstpenj N ^at climacteric evening, when He and his 

imeqffl 1 " iples sat at their last supper, after he had 

>ed the bread and given it to them as his body, 
the wine as his blood, and had declared : 

at I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth 


4. 4. 4, 

Don't worry if your sins find you 
out: they will be sure to call again. 
.;. •{» .;. 



of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I 
drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom! " 
; t would seem that the emotions of the moment 
had risen to that point where words do not 
bring comfort ; and so I find the might of music 
working in the next verse (of Matt. 26: 30), 
which records, "And when they had sung an 
hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives." 
It we but knew the tune of that hymn! 

Here, you observe, as far back as the beginning 
of our era, we find the world in possession of a 
stock of tunes. There can be little doubt that 
the melodies which the disciples sung with Christ 
in person were handed down and formed the 
body of those collections which Bishop Ambrose, 
and after him Pope Gregory, brought together, 
and it is possible enough that the hymn which 
Christ and his apostles sung was sung yesterday 
in some church of America, for we have tunes in 
our Psalmody — not to speak of the Gregorian 
tunes still surviving as Plain Chant in the Catho- 
lic churches — which have come down from quite 
immemorial times, and the path of church music, 
as I have shown, leads directly back to this hymn 
which was sung on the evening of the Last Sup- 
per. — Sidney Lanier, in February Lippincott's 

4- "h ie 


The big sister, aged twenty-two, was engaged 
in some household duty that it took her a long 
while to accomplish. " I do wish you would be 
faster, Bessie," said her mother. That evening 
the small brother, aged three, was heard to say 
in the course of his nightly prayer, " And, oh 
Lord, do please make Bessie fast." 
4. 4, 4, 

The woman from New England buys a " table 
spread," while her sister from the South buys a 
" table cloth." The woman from Nova Scotia 
orders the servant to " lay the table," while with 
most of us natives of the United States the com- 
mand is to " set the table." In the country the 
hostess says to her guests, " Sit by," when it is 
time to eat ; in town it rs, " Please sit down " ; in 
the city among swells there is no further invita- 
tion than the announcement of the servant that 
" Dinner is served." 

1 84 

tihiie insra-XjEzsrooTC. 



The practice of turning grapes into raisins is 
as old as the Spanish occupation of California. 
The Spanish priest introduced the grape, the 
fig, and the olive, but not until comparatively 
recent years have grapes been turned into raisins 
as a matter of business and commercial profit. 

The muscat grape is the one that is used for 
raisin purposes, and it is a large, white grape, 
the same that is sold at the fruit stands as Cal- 

are assorted, the loose ones constituting on 
grade, and those that remain clinging to the sterr 
make another. The loose ones are run throui 
a sieve, and graded and sold according to size 

Our illustration shows the women and childre 
at work among the trays at Rochester and Et 
wanda. After being dried the raisins are boxe 
and shipped. There is now a raisin combine t 
hold up the prices, and it is done by an agreemei 
to hold the crop for given prices. However, tr 
retail price of raisins is about the same all ov< 
the country. 

The quality of the home-grown raisin is 


ifornia grapes. When the grapes are perfectly 
ripe, say in August, the raisin season begins. 
The picking is done mainly by boys and women, 
and Indians and Chinamen take a part in it, 
owing to the necessity of employing cheap labor. 
When picked they are placed on trays, and 
dried in the sun. There is no preparation what- 
ever, and no after treatment, other than the dry- 
ing. It takes about a week or ten days to dry 
them thoroughly, and to facilitate this they are 
turned several times bv hand. When dried thev 


good as that of any foreign brand, but the che 
labor of the European raisin-producing countr 
prevents any great degree of competition with 
As soon as people come to know that the hon 
grown raisin is as good or even better than 
high-priced foreign competitor, it will result h 
better market for the California product, 
it now stands, the industry in California 
a growing one and the time is not far dists 
when the imported foreign fruits, as well as OT 
olives, etc., will be supplied from home. 


the insro-iLiEisrooiK:- 



iVERV Xooker knows a candle when he sees 
, but perhaps not many know that there are 
dies and candles. From an interesting ar- 
e in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch we take parts 
in article that cannot fail to be of value to all 

Yithin the last two years, say the manufac- 
ers. the sale of candles of all kinds has in- 
ised fifty per cent. There are three candle 
lufacturing firms in St. Louis. Francis A. 
ench, manager of one company, says : 
St. Louis will realize over $600,000 this year 
the candle trade. This means the largest out- 
in its history since the time of tallow dip 
ts. and is the result of an investment of about 
,000. These figures will not be surpassed 
year in the world. There are three import- 
ctors in the growth of the candle industry, 
omy in poor districts, the substitution of 
es for mine lamps and the sudden great de- 
d for parlor candles. The consumption by 
ches is also a big item, but this growth has 
steady and easily anticipated. 
The mining candle ranks first in point of 
mfacture and sale. West of Syracuse, N. 
ere are no candle manufacturing cities save 
uis. This gives the local concern an enor- 
advantage over its eastern competitor. Not 
does St. Louis monopolize the trade west 
e Mississippi, but it gets a big share of the 
ess east as far as the Ohio. St. Louis sells 
e mines of Arkansas, Colorado, Montana, 
on, Washington and British Columbia, 
sands of pounds of candles have even gone 
laska this year from this point. 
e candle has been gradually supplanting 
lamp in mines for the last ten years. It is 
per, there are no explosions, and the light 
illy as strong, without the smoke, as that of 
ring oil wick. Our orders are being in- 
d every six months, which shows the can- 
give all we claim for them. 
Louis is a great market for church candles, 
growth of the Catholic and Episcopal faiths 
rried with it an increased demand for can- 
These are made of beeswax, so that there 
be no drip or smoke. The Episcopalians 
st invariably order the plain white candle. 

measuring from fourteen inches to two feet. 
Those used in the Catholic churches are more 

The paschal is decorated with bronze wax, 
with the symbols of the faith. They cost from 
S3 to $10 apiece. They are hardly ever con- 
sumed during the forty days and, at the expira- 
tion of that time, are given to parishioners who 
have made requests. In Italian churches there 
is a lively demand for them, which is often 
turned into profit for the church treasury. In 
many Italian homes of this city can be seen to-day 
pieces of paschals, obtained last Ascension day. 

" It is in the parlor, or fancy candle, that the 
great strides have been made during the last two 
years. In all, I should say, the trade in this line 
has increased fifty per cent. These candles are 
used exclusively for decorative purposes. 

" This being the principle of the demand, it 
becomes the first consideration of the manufac- 
turer, and this year the designs are the most ar- 
tistic known. All colors, in every shade, shape 
and design, the catalogues show in a variegated 
assortment. Reds, greens, pinks, whites and yel- 
lows are most popular. In the parlor we find 
these colors in the decorated candles. These 
decorations are made of wax and put upon the 
candles by hand. The wax is colored, so as to 
give the decorator's artistic taste the widest pos- 
sible range. Thus, we will have red holly berries 
and green leaves twining round the white Christ- 
mas candle. There will be white designs, red 
background, and so on indefinitely. Of course, 
it is the manufacturer's business to get up the 
most artistic designs and the richest color and 
the quaintest designs. 

" The large hotels now use candles almost ex- 
clusively for cafes, dining rooms and banquet 
tables. The plain, red, yellow, and green are in 
the greatest demand. Small shaded candle 
lamps are now manufactured for this trade, and 
are immensely popular for eating tables. Some- 
times this idea is elaborated upon, as in the case 
of a St. Paul street railway magnate, last month, 
who ordered from us for his banquet table one 
hundred candles two inches in diameter and two 
feet high. 

" St. Louis supplies practically all the candles 
used in Mexico. These will run from eight 
inches to two feet in height and, unlike the Amer- 

tihiie izrsra-ijiEiisrooi^. 

ican candle, tapers toward the top. This is nec- 
essary on account of the immense heat. Were 
the basic diameter maintained to the top, the 
tallow, or wax, would get soft and the stick bend, 
as it is much heavier at the bottom than at the 
top, and successfully maintains an erect attitude, 
notwithstanding the sun's most vigorous assaults. 

To-day wins zvhile To-morrozu is 

* •*• + 


The evidence that all colds are infectious and 
that without the presence of infection it is impos- 
sible to catch a cold is probably far stronger than 
your correspondent, Dr. Clayton Jones, thinks. 
Colds are almost unknown in the arctic circle, not 
on account of the action of the continuous cold, 
but because the greater part of that region is un- 
inhabited. When Sir William Conway and his 
men were exploring Spitzbergen though they 
were exposed to great privations and were al- 
most constantly wet through, they never caught 
a cold, but directly they came down to Andree's 
settlement on the coast, where some forty men 
were living in almost constant intercourse with 
the mainland, they all developed violent colds. 
Nansen and his men never caught a cold during 
all the three years of his voyage, notwithstand- 
ing the utmost exposure, but directly they 
reached civilization on the coast of Norway, 
though still within the arctic circle, they all suf- 
fered badly from colds. The weather is not al- 
ways keen and bracing in the arctic regions ; dur- 
ing the summer time in Franz Josef Land, at any 
rate, it is exceedingly damp, and raw, mist-laden 
east winds prevail ; yet the members of the Jack- 
son-Harmsworth expedition never caught a cold 
there, though all but two of them did so directly 
they reached civilization. 

More noteworthy still were Conway's experi- 
ences in the Himalayas. While among the 
mountains he and his men, notwithstanding great 
exposure, never caught colds ; nor did they even 
when they visited the small remote native villages, 
but once they came down to a village where there 
was a small European settlement in communica- 
tion with the outer world, and there they all took 
bad colds. Nor is it only in the arctic regions 

and among high mountains that colds are a 
sent ; the same immunity from them is noticeat 
during long sea voyages, when camping out 
the desert, and still more unexpectedly in the be 
open-air sanitariums, such as Nordrach, whe 
the ventilation is practically perfect, it is foui 
that the patients do not catch cold. There is, 
believe, plenty of other evidence to show tt 
there are places remote from ordinary human li 
where colds cannot be caught whatever the e 
posure ; probably many of your readers can brr 
forward instances. 

On the other hand, that ordinary colds are 
the highest degree infectious is now becoming 
matter of common knowledge, and any medii 
man if he goes about with open eyes can coll 
evidence for himself. I have watched a a 
pass from house to house, and have even trac 
it from one village to another, and have listen' 
not without some amusement, while the diffen 
sufferers from it have explained to me just h 
they caught it — ascribing it to some open w 
dow, change of garment, or other fancied imp 
deuce. I know houses where all the memb 
of the household, including visitors and childr 
are constantly catching colds, and they are 
the airy or even the draughty houses, but stu 
grimy, badly ventilated and dark ones, 
doubt it is possible to have an inflammation of 
nasal mucous membrane as of the conjuncti 
from some simple irritant, but such an evem 
rare, whereas the ordinary infectious cold is 
far the commonest of all diseases, purely, th( 
fore, it is important that its infectiousness sho 
be frankly recognized. — Dr. H. W. Gardner, 
the Lancet. 

T T T 


nice am 



Ike I 
lis as » 
|0n man' 

sexes p 
nin win! 
paint mi 
fcvn ir 
i lo man; 
h are. 

an eas' 

HI i 

// all the so-called beautiiiers 
■were what they arc cracked up to 
be, there wouldn't be a single home- 
ly female on earth in a short time. 


and thi 

b it she 

• : 

•fan cos 

i dan 
Mr. Hitchcock, Secretary of the Interior, ^ be prohi 
Mr. Jones, Commissioner of Indian affairs, ll leasts 
decided upon another step toward the civilizaP"? acts a: 
of the Indian. It is in the form of a decree I - 
Indians of both sexes shall hereafter be prohw'sion ( 

4* •h + 


tied a o 






Jc . I from painting their faces and that the men 
noticed ust begin patronizing barber shops. Dances 
no ojj e also prohibited in connection with funerals 
in tli e (| id other ceremonies. The agents of all reserva- 
,, ;! ins are instructed to carry out regulations of 
tjsio, e department, which have been issued in circu- 
r form. Some of the provisions of the letter 
agents are as follows : 

" The wearing of long hair by the male popu- 
snhei :ion of your agency is not in keeping with the 
H vancement they are making, or will soon be ex- 

cted to make, in civilization. The wearing of 

ort hair by the males will be a great step in 
lecomin vance and will certainly hasten their progress 
nv med ward civilization. The returned male student 
can col r too frequently goes back to the reservation 

d falls into the old custom of letting his hair 
trat ow long. He also. paints profusely and adopts 
the old habits and customs which his educa- 
a m in our industrial schools has tried to eradi- 
lejustl te- The fault does not lie so much with the 
open f lools as with the conditions found on the res- 
ciedifflf rations. 

le rnemb " On many of the reservations the Indians of 
nd childi th sexes paint, claiming that it keeps the skin 
liev are ,rm in winter and cool in summer. But instead 
, but stu s paint melts when the Indian perspires and 
ones, is down into the eyes. The use of this paint 
lationof ds to many diseases of the eyes. 
conjunct ' You are, therefore, directed to instruct your 
an even je Indians to cut their hair and both sexes to 
is cola is p painting. With some of the Indians this 
■urely. ta H be an easy matter ; with others it will require 
!>ne'i>Klisiderable tact and perseverance on the part of 
Jurself and your employes to successfully car- 

Iout these instructions. With your Indian em- 
iyes and those Indians who draw rations and 
jplies it should be an easy matter, as a non- 
Tipliance with this order may be made a rea- 
1 for discharge or for withholding rations and 
The wearing of citizens' clothing instead of 
Indian costume and blankets should be en- 
' Indian dances and so-called Indian feasts 

, mid be prohibited. In many cases these danc- 
Intenor, ^ . > 

... 1 and leasts are simply subterfuges to cover de- 

\ ; iding acts and to disguise immoral purposes. 

', „ u are directed to use your best efforts in the 

l ipression of these evils. 

" On or before June 30, 1902, you will report 
to this office the progress you have made in the 
suppression of these evils." 

<• 4> + 

A telegraph line is being built across south 
Africa and occasionally bits of information re- 
garding the undertaking find their way to civili- 
zation. These reports show that the hardships 
suffered by linemen and the difficulties they are 
compelled to overcome are something tremen- 
dous. One section of the line passes through 
a swamp in which vegetation grows to such a 
height during the wet season as to top the wire 
and cause troublesome leakage. The natives 
cannot be induced to go in during the season 
and cut down the weeds, owing to the swarms 
of crocodiles. On another section the elephants 
have caused several interruptions by breaking off 
the poles. In some of the forests through which 
the line passes trees are met measuring over one 
hundred feet in circumference. Some of the ra- 
vines are impassable even to the linemen during 
the rainy season, owing to the paths being under 
water and the rank growth of vegetation. 

+ ♦ ♦ 

// people were as wise as they 
think t/iey arc, the unexpected 
would never happen. 

■fr 4e '♦ 

The King of England's retinue of servants 
makes a staff which would appal an American 

The salaries aggregate $660,000 a year. Ap- 
pended is a list of some of the functionaries, and 
what the cost of their services : Waxfitter, who 
arranges all the candles, $300 a year ; a first and 
second lamplighter, $500 each per year; five ta- 
ble deckers, who set the royal table, $1,460; chief 
butler, $2,500 a year; chef, $3,500 a year; four 
master cooks, each $1,000 a year; clerk of the 
kitchen, $1,500 a year; confectioners, $1,500 and 
$1,200 each; workers in the royal laundry, ag- 
gregate wages, $10,000 a year. Beside the 
amount that is paid for household labor, the 
tradespeople who supply the eatables receive on 
an average $860,000 a year. 






" Wanted an experienced seamstress," is the 
notice which salutes passers by from the en- 
trance of a large clothing factory. Ordinarily 
one thinks of a seamstress as a woman who 
skillfull}- fits and fashions garments for others. 
Applied to a factory it is somewhat different. 
On entering this factory one observes a great 
many men at work at long tables. Spread out 
on these tables, to their full length, and of a 
thickness of two inches, are layers of cloth. At 
one men are engaged in marking with chalk 
round heavy cardboard patterns on the cloth ; 
at another they lay the cardboard forms of pat- 
terns on the marked cloth and with sharp, razor- 
like knives they cut through the entire thickness 
at one cut. Not once does a man falter or make 
a miscut. As the company does not plan to do 
mending not an available scrap of material is 

Tall men come round and fasten similar piec- 
es of cloth in bunches, and others gather the 
bunches and send them in wicker baskets to the 
" seamstresses. " who hold sway on the floor 
above. There are forty to fifty of them, rang- 
ing from seventeen years to thirty and some are 
older. Amid the whir of wheels and booming 
of machinery they fashion hundreds of garments. 
Each one has her own piece of work to per- 
form. One makes collars for shirts, another 
pockets, another shields, and so on while others 
unite the parts. No time is wasted in cutting 
threads or trimming raw edges. The latter are 
deftly turned under by machinery. The ma- 
chines are alike, different only in the attachments 
needed for different kinds of work. All are 
propelled by the same power, and the thrust of a 
lever will throw any machine out of gear when a 
girl wishes to stop. 

An interesting machine is the one which sews 
on buttons. Dozens of buttons are sewed on 
with perilous rapidity and never one is broken. 
Fine pearl buttons are sewed on " by hand." 
The girl who makes buttonholes, for it can be 
done by machinery, cuts one with her scissors, 
while she runs the machine and sews another. 

Double seams are sewed at once by machines 
fed by four spools of thread. 

The best seamstresses are employed in making ■■ 
coats. The light is so dim in some parts 0! 
the room where people work that electric light 
are burned at midday. 

Each person engaged at the factory performs 
his part to perfection, and all co-operate to pro 
duce the best results, but I doubt if anyone coul< 
fashion a garment alone. As it is they turn ou 
hundreds of garments in the time one good old 
fashioned " dressmaker " would make one. 

Falls City, Nebr. 

+ + + 

After a man reaches the top of 
the heap he worries continually be- 
cause of the attempts to displace 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


r „:.:■ . 



ng him 
le new I 

i demai 

Every reader of the Nook knows somethi 
of the traveling salesman or commercial travel 
Perhaps some of the old uncles and aunts of t 
Nook family prefer to call him a " drummer. 1 
Not one of the entire family will fall out witl 
them for clinging to the former name, for w' 
these same uncles were happy as the day is 1 
" with their turned-up pantaloons and their mi 
ry whistled tunes " and those same aunties 
a summer's day, raked the meadows sweet w: 
hay " I presume that was the proper and oi 
name by which people engaged in the busini 
of selling goods to merchants were known. 
" drummer " of those days and the " commer 
traveler " of to-day are in some respects m' 
the same, while in many ways there is but li 

Possibly some of the older Nookers know 
some of the good farmer boys who in those 
days were eager to get to the store in the lc 
winter evenings, especially if they thought som 
drummer would be there, not because he w» 
such a talented man, but because of his wondi 
ful vocabulary. This ability to entertain 
ever present with the drummer of the old sch 
without it he would have been a stupendous fail tj v 
ure ; with his " storage-plant " always full 
overflowing, ready to burst out whenever til 
suitable occasion presented itself, he was a gi 
gantic success. There is no need of censurin >• 


art ai 

and bat 

may be, 
of the lo 

i who 

ij iii 


the insra-X-riEicsrooiK:. 


m, if, at times, in his desire to be funny in or- 
to be popular and therefore successful, he 
lc "? id something which would not look well in 
int, because the spirit of the times seemed to 
m mand it. 

The present order of things is vastly differ- 
In those days the drummer was looked 
bn as a freak and his occupation one toward 
lich only a few of the especially gifted dared 
lire. His services were not in very great de- 
ind, for most merchants preferred to take a 
p to the city to make purchases. Now, few 
:rchants go to the city to buy. Representa- 
es of all the leading houses in the city show 
n samples of the goods right in his own store, 
is saving him many trips to the city, and per- 
tting him to buy just what he needs. 
The new order of things is certainly quite an 
provement over the old. There never was 
:h a demand for young men of good habits to 
vel in the different commercial lines as at 

The end of each year finds fewer of the ones 
o are addicted to vicious habits " on the 
d." The beginning of each year finds more 
the boys carrying the grip who have a dear 
e and babies or one true sweetheart, as the 
e may be, at home, praying for the safe re- 
n of the loved one. While there are some on 
road who do not live exemplary lives, there 
many of the noblest and best men in the 
:ana fcd thus employed. If Nookers desire it 
" w re may some "unusual experiences of life 
the road " appear later. 
forth Star, Ohio. 

♦ ♦. ♦ 

Beauty may be only skin deep, 

but thick-skinned people are not 

necessarily the most beautiful. 

+ + + 


nts ol 





sweet 1 


is knoi 

11 w 

use he 
his w« 
- old sc 

tays W 


if »' !S 
of ce« 

> young lady who had lived several years in 
10a was able to make herself understood by 
ing Samoan to the natives of the Southern 
ippines when she visited those islands with 
rty of American officials some months ago. 
chief whom she addressed threw up his 
ds in surprise. " What," said he, " does the 
te maiden talk our language ? " He was 
ently overjoyed and promptly asked her the 

Samoan equivalent for " what he could do for 
her." She told him in her sweetest Samoan how 
much she admired the bead work on their gar- 
ments and how much she would like to buy a 
piece of it to take back to her own country and 
show her countrymen how skillful and artistic 
these particular Filipinos were. " No," said the 
chief, with a lordly wave of the hand, " You shall 
not buy. You shall take as a gift." Whereupon 
he quickly removed his trousers and handed them 
over with the unblushing grace of a child of 
nature. The young lady hastily resumed her 
English tongue and the other ladies of the party 
confined their further importunities to women 
of the tribe. 

♦ 4r ♦ 

Ambition is all right if it is the 
right kind of ambition. 

*!r *r "r 


" Yes, I have a pretty big mouth, for a fact," 
admitted the candid man," but I have learned to 
keep it shut, and that counts for something when 
you take your levels. I received a lesson when I 
was a small boy that I have never forgotten. I 
was born and brought up on a farm, and I had 
the country boy habit of going around with my 
mouth wide open, especially if there was anything 
unusual going on. One day an uncle, whom I 
had not seen for years, paid us a visit. 

" ' Hullo, uncle,' said I, looking up at him with 
my mouth opened like a barn door. 

" He looked at me for a moment without an- 
swering, and then said : 

" ' Close your mouth, sonny, so I can see who 
you are.' 

" I took the lesson to my heart and resolved 

that from that day I would not allow my mouth 

to conceal my identity." 

£• 4> <t< 


" Have you got what they call tabledy hote 
dinners at this eatin'-house? " asked the man in 
the bearskin overcoat. 

" No, sir." 

Stepping to the door, he beckoned to somebody 
on the outside. 

" Come in, 'Mandy," he said. " They eat in 
English here." 





What kind of oil did the old masters use for mixing 
thin colors? 

They used the yolks of eggs. 

Where can I get a book on auctioneering? 
Address Leary's Old Book Store, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

What has become of the Belgian hare craze? 
Passed by. They were nothing but big, lub- 
berly rabbits. 


What does an Inglenook Cook Book cost by itself? 

If you mean what we will sell it for without 
the Nook, $1.00, with the Nook, $1.00. 

How far north do wild ducks go to breed? 

Lots of them breed in North Dakota, or even 
in Northern Illinois. Others go far beyond the 
northern limit of settlement. 

Is it correct to quote Latin in ordinary conversation? 

We find that the United States language af- 
fords a tolerably fine swing of expression when 
one gets fairly well into it. 

What is a real blizzard? 

Fine, hard snow, driven by a fierce wind in 
intense cold. In a real good one none can see 
ahead, and if lost they perish. 

For how long can perishable goods be kept in cold 

Indefinitely with proper regulations of the tem- 
perature. Some articles are not frozen, but 
chilled to within a degree or so of freezing. 

Why do Guinea hens sell for less than chickens in the 
city markets? 

A Chicago dealer tells the Nook that it is be- 
cause people do not know how good they are. 
He says they sell for ten cents apiece in summer. 
They often masquerade as game at the hands of 
a skilled chef. 

What is the difference between an electro and a h« 

The halftone is made from a picture phot 
graphed on metal and eaten out with acids. 1 
electrotype is made from the halftone and 

A dispute has arisen between two prairie bovs. W 
is done with ships in the winter? 

Sea going boats go ahead as usual. River a 
lake boats usually tie up and lay by till navigati 
opens. In the latter case someone looks af 
them, " Keeps ship," it is called. 


What are the distinguishing features of the Co! 
cian system of religion? 

There is no " system " of religion in the tea 
ings of Confucius. His works are moral p 
cepts in which reverence for the family is stroi 
est. The family is the unit in China, not 

If a person, blind from birth, suddenly received 
sight, how would it affect him? 

Talking about this to an educated blind m 
he said he would have to learn everything a 
child does. He said all would have to be lean 
by experience, taking years, and that at first si 
he would be apt to try stepping over a river, 
reaching for the moon, the same as the child d< 

1 the m 
into till 
tut, the 

lard 1 


until s( 
I stir in 
sell be 

eggs to 


to b 

What is the secret of the success of powwowing? 

Imagination and faith. The " words " rr 
be learned from the opposite sex and kept a \ 
found secret. We violate no confidence in 
inc; it to the Nook family, but don't let it 
public. Here are the words: "Flash, rash, 
away and never come back again till the vii 
bear a second son." With a pot lid and f 
i hi the part of the patient all good Nookers — 
there are no other kind — can now go ahead 
practice. Warranted especially good in in fat 
rash that goes away in nine days of itself. 





The Home 


. / fancy sofa pillow is no sign of 
a (;ood breadmaker. 


. ■:;;; Mix one and one-half tablespoonfuls of corn- 
ooki a rch with a little milk, stir it into one quart of 

ling milk ; have ready the yolks of two eggs 

11 beaten with one-third of a cup of sugar ; 

;en the milk is thickened stir it a little at a 
i ike Ci le into the egg and sugar, heat it again for a 

tment. then set it away to cool. Beat the 
a ites of the eggs to a stiff froth and stir into 
moral] custard when cool; serve with jelly. 
y is stro 7m / oh Bridge, Md. 

c : 

at lira 
'j a riv 


+ + + 


soak two-thirds of a cup of tapioca in warm 
' ter until soft ; boil one quart of milk, when 
' ling stir in the tapioca, with the yolks of three 
js well beaten, sweeten to taste ; boil until 
:k, stirring carefully. Then beat the whites 
the eggs to a stiff froth, add one-half cup of 
verized sugar, spread over the top, set in the 
ti to brown ; flavor with vanilla. Serve cold. 
jttsburg, Pa. 

+ 4" + 


till ike 
lid and 

go aka 
lodin" 1 

iReasil your bowl or kettle with a little butter, 
it get quite hot, then pour in one-half teacup- 
of water, now add three quarts of good sweet 
k and when it boils stir in slowly rivels made 
rubbing one egg and a pinch of salt into a 

small quantity of flour ; rub between the hands 
until the rivels are fine. 
Colly, Kans. 

•h + + 



Take slices of light bread, spread thinly with 
butter and lay in a pudding dish, put in a layer of 
raisins, then bread and so on, till within an inch 
of the top. Add five eggs to a quart of milk. 
Salt, sugar and spice to taste ; pour over the 
pudding and bake twenty or twenty-five minutes. 
Serve with a sauce. 

1e <ir 4; 



Take two eggs, two cups of sour milk, one- 
half cup of sugar, one and one-half teaspoonfuls 
of soda, a pinch of salt, shortening if desired — 
it is just as good without — one-third corn meal, 
two-thirds wheat flour. Bake thoroughly. 

Wayside, Wash. 

4. ig< 4. 



Take three eggs well beaten, about thirty wa- 
fer crackers rolled fine, one teaspoon ful of pep- 
per, one tablespoonful of salt, five pounds of veal 
chopped very fine, one cup chopped salt pork, one 
cup cold water, butter size of a large egg. Bake 
two hours. 

Whitewater, Ind. 




Trim the cutlets evenly, sprinkle . both sides 
with salt and pepper, dip in melted butter and 
place on a gridiron over a clear fire. Baste while 
brotfing with melted butter, turning three of four 
times. Serve with melted butter sauce or tomato 

Charlestown, W. Va. 

t t *r 


.Make a batter with one pint of sweet milk, 
one teaspoonful of sugar, two eggs, whites and 
yolks beaten separately, two cups of flour, two 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder mixed with the 
flour ; chip some good apples, mix with the batter 
and fry in hot lard. Serve with maple syrup. 

Lonaconing, Md. 

♦• ♦ •♦ 


Take raised bread dough and work it into very 
small rolls till light. Into a kettle pour boiling 
water, about one quart to twelve dumplings, add 
butter the size of a hen's egg, and one-half cup 
of sugar ; drop dumplings in, cover tightly and 
cook fifteen minutes. Lift the lid quickly and 
stick each dumpling with a fork (that keeps them 
from falling) and serve with sugar and cream. 

North English, Ioiva. 

* + + 


Take three pints of graham flour, two pints 
of sour milk, one teaspoonful of soda, one-half 
teaspoonful of salt ; mix the salt and soda in the 
flour, then add the milk; have gem pans greased 
and it is best to have them hot, drop in the dough 
by spoonfuls and bake in a very hot oven. 

Dayton, J 'a. 



Fake one cup of tapioca, three cups of sw 
milk, one-half cup of sugar, four eggs. S' 
the tapioca for two hours, beat the yolks of f 
eggs, add sugar, milk and stir in the tapic 
Set on the fire till it thickens, stirring frequ< 
Iv. flavor with orange, vanilla, or one cup 
raisins, then add lightly the beaten whites 
four eggs. 

Worth Georgetown, Ohio. 
.j. .j. .j. 



Take one egg, one-half cup of molasses, < 
half cup of sugar, butter size of a walnut. < 
fourth teaspoonful of cloves, one-fourth 
spoonful of cinnamon, one-half cup of rais 
one-half cup of sour milk, one teaspoonfui 
soda, one cup of graham flour, one cup of w 
flour. Steam one and one-half hours. 

Whitewater, hid. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


Take one cup of boiled rice, two cups of sij 
milk, one-half cup of sugar, three eggs; 
the yolks of the eggs, add the sugar and 
stir in the cup of boiled rice, set on the fird 
it thickens, stirring frequently, then stir in li| 
ly the beaten whites of the three eggs. 

North Georgetown, Ohio. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


Fill a bowl half full of bread crumbs, 
two tablespoonfuls of rich sour cream, a pincl 
salt, boiling water enough to cover the br| 
serve hot. For invalids. 

Batavia, III. 

p/OL. IV. 

i iCl-enOok, 

March 1, 1902. 

No. 9. 

OM Of 


No malterhow much you endeavor 

To study the moods of the throng, 
You will find that your efforts, forever, 

With many are sure to go wrong. 
You can't expect plaudits to thunder 

From all of the people at once; 
For some will declare you're a wonder 

And others will say you're a dunce. 

When the carpers at last have you worried 

And lead you to alter your gait, 
You presently find you have hurried 

Into a quite similar fate. 
And the world will as usual rate you — 

Part hero and likewise p^rt fraud; 
The men who applauded will hate you 

And the men who once kicked will applaud. 
* * * 

I Nookers: — 

Then we left Chicago we took the C. M. & St. 

or St. Paul. The train that carried us there 

" Dinner is Now Ready in the Dining Car.' 

is the Pioneer Limited. The idea of naming 
trains is an old one. I heard an old man tell 
about the Lightning Express of his boyhood. It 
actually ran thirty miles an hour and went so 
fast that it sometimes ran past the stations while 
the brakemen were screwing up the brakes, and 
it had to back up again. But, really, the extra 
fast trains on the long runs do not actually go 
so fast, after all. True, here and there they go 
kiting, but lake the distance between two far 
apart cities and divide by the hours printed on the 
schedule and there is no mile a minute about it. 
The fast trains get there by their everlastingly 
keeping the wheels going round and round. 
There is a moral in this and if you want you may 
have it for the looking up. 

"What I want to talk about in this letter is for 
the women of the Nook family ; the men don't 
read my letters, anyhow. It's the dining car. 
Now every considerable road runs its own diners 
and they are like girls. All of them are good 
and some a whole lot better than 
others. The Milwaukee says, or 
thinks and might as well say it, 
that it has the best of the lot. 

Frank and I took in the diner 
with our camera and the picture 
shows it resplendent with linen and 
silver, and more by luck than skill 
I found the man who knew the 
whole inside of the business. He 
didn't want his name mentioned. 

But the dining car! It costs 
money to build and equip a diner. 
In the first place the cost of a din- 
er, just the car, you know, is about 
$13,000, and then for linen and sil- 
ver and the rest of it, about $2,000 
more, or from $15,000 to $16,000 
is put into the car before it is ready 



for the cooks and the rest of them. The conduc- 
tor of the diner, or the steward, as he is sometimes 
called, gets S75 a month, his board and room. He 
has under him four cooks, first, second, third and 
fourth, and they get S75, S50, $40 and $30 a 
month, and their room and board. There are 
four waiters at $25 a month. So you see that 
there must be a whole lot of money put into a 
diner as it stands on the track ready to be coupled 
on the train, and don't forget to add over a hun- 
dred dollars' worth of food that must be stored 

goes through the train and announces t 
" Dinner-is-now-ready-in-the-Dining-car." 

Frank and I took dinner on the Pioneer L| 
ited and it was our first meal on a diner. I si 
gled in the camera and under cover of a naf 
I snapped a young man and his wife at an 
osite table. At least I thought it was his w 
Eor he snapped her off in a way no young, 
married man would do. 

But let us get settled down to the dinner 
see what there is to order. 

away for the trip. 

The cooks must be skilled chefs, and. what is 
more, they must be quick, quicker than " on 
land." For some reason people will go into a 
hotel or restaurant, give an order, and sit around 
waiting for the greater part of half an hour for 
the man U> bring it in. But on a diner he wants 
what he wants right off. So the diner cooks 
must lie quick people. 

Now, a good many of our Nook people are 
finicky about cleanliness and lots of them will 
think things are dirty about a diner, but really 
they are as cleanly as any home. Things are as 
clean as they can be, and what more can anybody 
have? The man out of sight, that is, the man 
never see, goes over the river to the commis- 
sion and market people and buys his stock of eat- 
ables for the car. He gets the best there is. It 
i- put in the car, charged up to the conductor, 
who is the responsible man on the car, and when 
everything is in shape the white-jacketed waiter 

Tlit- Parlor Car. 

Here is the menu. You pay your dollar 
take your choice: 



Celery, Sweet Pii Icles, ( ill 

Puree of Split Peas, Consomme with Crouton 
Fillet of Sole with Anchovy Sauce.. 

Escalloped < (ysters on the Half Shell, 

Boiled .Mutton, Caper Sauce. 

Macaroni C.ik. \\ | 

lecue'd Rabbit, Mayonnaise Sauce. 
Roast Heel, Dnp Gravy. Roast Goose, Apple S;| 

Mashed Potai Boiled PotatoeB 

String Beans. Mashed Turnips. 

Brussels Sprouts, Butter Sauce. 

Claret Punch. 


Peach Pie. Strawberry Shortcake, 
earn. Caki s. |' 

Black Coffee and Fruit. 

the iisra-XjEisrooic. 


State Room ill the Sleeper. 

Frank.'' said I. "what's Cotuits?" 
Bs," >aid he. " Cotuits are Cotuits." 

:ided not to risk them, but we took most 

-r. I gave it as my opinion that while it 

all right in every way and worth the dollar 

- yet fi ir a good, square, satisfactory. 

meal, my Ma. — but no. I won't say 

I told Frank, but he just grunted. Thai - 

's wav when he's full. 

A Quiet Spot. 

The time from Chicago to St. Paul, over the 
.Milwaukee, is from early candle lighting to a 
iate breakfast, and the distance is 410 miles. 
The train is a smooth one, and as the track is 
mainly straight and good the gait is a clippety- 
clip, steady rattle-rattle, over the steel rails, and 
a whiz most of the way. Here a village, then 
fields, farm houses, way stations and the house 
with the woman's face at the window and the 
simple, home-suggesting life all 
around them. It's a wonder how 
many happy looking homes one 
passes in the flying trip of a jour- 
ney like ours. I was going to tell 
you all about the sleepers, and the 
parlor cars, and I may, again, but 
not now. There isn't time, or 
room. But the pictures are sent 
herewith, and they may appear. 
If we stop off at Milwaukee, it's 
Frank's turn to describe the city. 
Yours Lovingly. 


P. S. — I found out that Cotuits 
are oysters, from Cotuit Bay. But 
who would ever know it ? A man 
sitting in front ordered them, and 


the insrca-LEisrooic. 

if I am any judge he didn't know 
what was coming. That's the way 
I found out — I watched the man. 

One would think that, at the 
prices, a dining car pays a great 
big profit, but really it doesn't 
Most of them sink money, but the 
roads having begun the experiment 
have to keep it up. It seems to be 
a settled thing, even among rail- 
roads, that when one takes up a 
matter that seems to be an improve- 
ment, the others have to follow. 
Then they can never agree to let go 
again, or, at least, they don't. 
Here is the way a girl looks at it. 
If the dining car had unapproacha- 
ble women for cooks and waiters, 
and served a home meal, one 
that was ample and simple, such as the 
nine hundred and ninety-nine have at home, 
charging half a dollar therefor, the car would 
come out at the end of the month with a profit to 
its credit. Fewer cotuits and less Roquefort, 
with added potpie and the like, would bring in 
more money, and be just as satisfactory, gener- 

•£* ffi ■£ 

A genius is a man who is able to 
get along without -cvork. 
4c "fr "4 1 



Men spend wealth and time in travel for the 
sake of looking upon beautiful sights, evidently 
unconscious of the great wealth of splendor and 
grandeur within sight of their own home doors. 
To be sure, everyone is acquainted with the gen- 
eral appearance of the sky above him, but not 
everyone has sought out the wondrous beauty 
which it has continued to present to us down 
through the ages, since the creation of the uni- 

When we gaze upon the huge cloud banks for 
a short time, they take upon themselves a thou- 
sand lovely forms, some resembling picturesque 
towers and castles, others stately ships sailing 
majestically across a shining sea. There are 
deep canons, rocky chasms, and shadowy caves 

1 1 \ 

1ST :::• .' 

C. M. * St. Paul Station, at Milwaukee. 

leading into the hearts of snow-capped mo 

As the fiery chariot of the day speeds onw; 
in its course, the western portals tinged with 
approaching brilliance open wide their glimm 
ing folds and the stately ships slowly gather i 

It is the hour of sunset when all the ma 
cence of the universe seems to be concentrat 
111 the tinted west. As daylight deepens i i 
darkness and the golden splendor of sur 
gradually recedes from our vision, the vie 
canopv of the heavens sparkles with flash 
gems, more brightly beautiful than any ever s 
upon the earth. Ah ! what queen would not 
proud to wear upon her brow a coronet of sta, 
A slight knowledge of astronomy will now 
crease our interest a hundredfold. Every 
can place the Dippers, and by these can soon le 
to locate the Sickle, Orion. the Pleiades and oth 
ui the brighter and most prominent stars 

The nearest star is twenty trillions of m 
away, and many of them are, in all probahil 
suns, the centers of planetary systems like 
own. Facts like these tend to arouse our ini 
est, and it is when we become interesteil in 
wonders and mysteries of the celestial dome, t 
we first begin to see their true beauty ami mat 

Kinsey, Ohio. 


THE insro-XxEItTOOIC. 



fHOl'SANPS of barrels of herring go into our 
ng factories daily, and are there wonder- 
transformed into canned mackerel, brook 
t and sardines. Few people realize the mag- 
dc of the sardine industry, or the position 
the American sardine holds in our markets 
ay as a food product. 

otted along the Maine coast, from Bar Har- 
east for a distance of six hundred miles, are 
iber of small towns and villages where the 
Hcipai industries are the catching and canning 
Bsh. The largest factories for this purpose 
Blocated in Millbridge. Jonesport, Machias- 
I and Eastport. 

i >he first thought that arises when this whole- 

■ destruction of herring is considered is that 

s law should be passed to protect this fish 

l total extinction ; but scientific observation 

statistics show that while locations may be 

w " : lorarily affected, yet there is no apparent im- 

ion made on the great life of the ocean. 

fishermen are careful, never to place their 

or weirs near the spawning beds, and, as the 

ng is a very prolific fish, the supply is never 

anger. This is further proven by the fact 

in 1899 tne price paid to fishermen by the 

>ries was $4 per hogshead, while to-day they 

secure all they require for $2 per hogshead. 

e supply had fallen off the prices would have 

L til 

nth Si ased instead of decreased. The great her- 
inven fisheries off the coast of Norway have been 
stence for 250 years without any apparent 
sion being made upon the supply in that 

I. i\ 
• I 


:'i- ''I 


iriments were made in America in canning 
lg for sardines as early as 1866, but its ex- 

as a business dates from 1875. To-day 

are over two hundred vessels pursuing this 

^ess for nearly six months in the year, and 

iks first among the shore fisheries of the 

:d States. The fish are caught by the local 

len in weirs and nets and sold to the ves- 

jery Maine fisherman knows the habits of the 
ig, as it is most necessary, in the construc- 
jf his weir, for in that construction lies the 
ss of his business. The herring are the 

|of every other fish that swims, and for pro- 

tection of themselves they travel in large schools 
or shoals, so that they may dodge in and out 
among themselves when pursued. It is recorded 
that some of these shoals are so vast that 1,000 
barrels have been taken in a single haul of the 
seine. These schools always swim with the tide, 
coming to the shores to search for food with the 
incoming tide, returning to deeper water with 
the ebb tide. 

Pn many countries the fishermen stand on shore 
at some high point on the coast and watch for 
these schools. When one is sighted they row out 
with a net, one end of which is fastened to the 
shore, and rowing directly around the school 
back to the shore the entire school is thus en- 
closed and drawn in. In order to do this the 
bottom must be smooth and large, and expensive 
nets are necessary and someone constantly on the 

The writer was invited to see the weir seined, 
and donning a suit of oils and a " sou'wester," he 
jumped into a boat at 4: 30 A. M., prepared 
with camera so as not to miss this valuable oppor- 
tunity. The catch was not so large as usual, but 
the process was as interesting, and in this single 
haul of the net sixteen hogsheads, or one hundred 
and twenty barrels, were secured. 

During the dipping of the fish from the large 
purse nets into the scow the fishermen stood 
above their knees in herring, and the scales from 
the shining little fellows, lighted up by the sun, 
which had just appeared above the horizon, filled 
the air with a silver shower, while the fishermen 
themselves appeared to be clothed in silver 

Outside the weir the fishing smacks and sar- 
dine boats are anchored, waiting for the catch. 
The bargain is soon made, and the fish are on 
their way to the canning factories to be con- 
verted into sardines. If no smack or sardine 
boat is in sight, a flag is hoisted on a near-by 
smokehouse or wharf, to notify passing vessels 
that herring are ready for shipment. Unless a 
boat should call in a few hours the entire catch 
becomes unmarketable, but this does not often 
happen, because the fishermen located near the 
factories contract with them to have their boats 
call daily. Those more remotely situated ar- 
range their weirs with an additional pound con- 
nected with the weirs by gates, through which 

i g8 



the fish are driven and the gates closed after each 
catch. In this way they are kept alive until 
wanted for the market. 

The natural enemies of the fishermen are 
storms and dogfish, and a visit from either of 
these destructive agencies not only destroys his 
entire catch before it can be secured, but often 
seriously damages his weir. But a fisherman 
is at all times a philosopher, he is always expect- 
ing trouble, and is, therefore, never disappointed, 
except pleasantly. His very existence is based 
on chance. He may find $150 worth of fish in 
his weir at every turn of the tide for a month, 
or he may not make a single catch in a month. 
He is accustomed to this life of uncertainty, and 
he enjoys it. It has the same fascination for 
him that the gambler finds in his play, yet you 
will find the Maine fisherman honest, contented, 
happy and brimful of genuine old-fashioned hos- 

But the sardine boat has arrived, the bargain 
has been concluded, and we are on our way to 
the factory with our purchase. These factories, 
large and small, are located in each town directly 
on the shore, with plenty of wharf space attached. 
The larger factories hold their employes during 
the entire day throughout the fishing season. 
The employes who work in the smaller factories 
come from all parts of the surrounding country 
and live in small cottages, most of them contain- 
ing but two rooms — a living room on the ground 
floor and a sleeping room above. These cottages 
are all located near the factories, and when a sar- 
dine steamer arrives she toots her whistle as 
many times as she has hogsheads aboard, and the 
help rush from their cottages to the factory and 
are ready for business. If ten whistles sound, 
announcing ten hogsheads, only a part of the 
cottages are vacated ; at twenty whistles more 
respond, and at forty whistles the entire force 
hasten to their work. 

In the smaller and older factories the herring 
are baked in great ovens, within which is a sort 
of " Ferris wheel " of revolving shelves. On 
these shelves the fish are placed in wire trays or 
" flakes," and there remain until cooked. 

When a vessel arrives, unloading at once be- 
gins into a long chain of buckets that are sus- 
pended from an overhead railway, and are car- 



ried the length of the wharf to the cutting rex 
of the factory. Here they are dumped upon lcj 
tables, where they are sorted, the large herri 
or " smokers " being thrown aside for salti 
and smoking. The medium and smaller 
are cut to the required length for sardines, 
are employed in this room. 

After the fish are cut the required leng 
they go to the pickling vats, where they are 
lowed to remain until properly seasoned. Tl 
are taken to the flaking room and placed up 
" flakes " or wooden slatted trays, then convej 
to the dryhouse, where all superfluous moisti 
is removed. They are now placed in wire fry: 
baskets and plunged into boiling oil and th : 
cooked for ten minutes. 

While this process is being undergone, wf}| 
men are busy on large piles of sheet tin, \vh 
by their deft workmanship, assisted by impro' 
machinery, are rapidly converted into tin cl 
or boxes of different sizes. These are carrieel 
the packers, who arrange them in rows onal 
tables, one tier above another. Neatly attil 
women and girls were busily engaged at th| 
tables dipping into these boxes some sort 
liquid mystery in which the fish are to be pad 

The genial superintendent stated that this 
tory had four different methods of packing f : 
viz, in oil, mustard, tomato catsup, and s 
the latter being a syrup composed of white 
vinegar and sugar. The dippers or ladles z 
by these packers contain just enough of trie lie 
required for each box. 

The fish were then hurried out of the 
baskets to these tables, and there rapidly p: 
into the boxes — the larger sizes into in 



lot stric 
« adv: 
st root 

"''• ; 

and tomato sauce, the smaller ones into oil 
souse. The boxes are then taken to the sea' 
where they are soldered, and then they 
the bath process, which includes exhaling 
air in the exhaust bath and resoldering. F ' 
there they are sent to the shipping room, w: '■'« .' 
they secure their attractive labels and are r< 
for the market. They can be purchased at 
tail stores at from five to fifteen cents per 
The imported article is much more expen 
as the fish are packed in the best olive oil 
are of a much more delicate flavor, althoug 
the herring family. They are caught in 
Mediterranean sea, near the island of Sard 

fe the 
i! pays. 




No. 2.— Keeping Boarders. 

BY r.. M. 

Scattered health, four small children, and 

lelpless invalid husband : such were the cir- 

ptances when the problem of self-support 

red me in the face. What could I do? No 

to think of teaching again, or sewing, or 

Ishing. or house-cleaning. And we had no 

ickens or cows, or even a home. of our own. 

enjoyed housekeeping, and had some expe- 
llee boarding students, so taking in boarders 
led to be the only resource left me. Situated 
I was. my boarders would necessarily be fac- 
hands or mechanics, and to get a number 
[these together when one is a stranger among 
and get only such as are congenial, honest 
temperate, requires much discretion. I pre- 
red to begin slowly, getting my boarders 
stly as they could be recommended by my 
ids (some of whom are employers), instead 
advertising and running the risk of getting 
iesirable people to share our home. Of 
Lrse. being almost entirely inexperienced in 
\ling directly with people. I made some mis- 
ses. Occasionally I would have a boarder who 
not strictly clean, or honest, or temperate. 
was advised before beginning, to take the 
icest room in the house for the family. 
Jo," I replied, " I am going into business, 
the best I have is for my patrons." I have 
ed to carry out this idea all along, to give my 
rders the best I have, or can afford, and I 
it pays. The " pay " of this business de- 
ids on many things. With rent seven or 
Iht dollars a month, help two dollars a week, 
fires of five and one-half dollars a ton an- 
icite coal, or four dollars-a-cord-and-split-it- 
self wood, butter thirty cents, eggs twenty- 
lit cents, potatoes a dollar, beef ten and twelve 

cents, and other things in proportion, it would 
take about ten boarders at three dollars a week, 
and careful management, to support a family of 
six in a modest way, and keep up repairs of car- 
pets, etc. I was told that for factory hands it 
would take considerably more food and of a 
stronger kind than for students. 

My experience is that students can eat, too, 
and that it takes little more for factory hands. 
Students, as a rule, eat less meat and pie, but 
more butter and fruit. Factory people need a 
heavier supper ; they have more time to eat and 
digest after the day's work is done. 

Then, too, one must be guided by market and 
boarding rates as to the frequency of chicken 
dinners, or oyster suppers, or choice fruits and 

One's thinker must be made to render valuable 
service if one wants to keep a good table at 
reasonable expense, and make people feel at 
home and comfortable, or when it becomes nec- 
essary to accomplish a certain amount of work 
with the least possible outlay of time and 

This business has two big sides to it. The con 
side : — Sharing one's home and giving up the 
privacy of the same. Children are harder to 
train. When constantly among strangers they 
lose their timidity. Then crushing one's own 
natural shyness, and being forced to mingle and 
deal with people when it is so much easier and 
more like a home to have " Papa " at the head 
of the family. 

The pro side : — I'm doing what I can towards 
supporting my loved ones. The thought that my 
boarders do not have to sit in a barroom, but 
seem to feel at home and happy, is pleasant. It 
is good for my development spiritually and other- 
wise. It cultivates unselfishness, tact, business 
capacity, more sympathy for mankind, and, above 
all, more of the trusting in God disposition, to 
whom we owe all. 

olive ■ 

// the average man isn't born 
great or is unable to achieve great- 
ness, he tries to thrust himself 
upon it. 


tih::e izctg-IjIeiltook:. 



Perhaps a description of the manners and 
customs of the people of Argentine will prove 
interesting to the strangers to that land. I will 
tell things as they were when we lived there, 
though it has been a number of years since, and 
what was reality then might not be fact now, as 
people change in coming in contact with foreign- 
ers. And what is true of people is also true of 
a country. Settlement often changes the appear- 
ance of a country, sometimes for its betterment, 
and sometimes otherwise. 

Many times the wonderful works of God's 
hand are completely obliterated by man's mer- 
cenary spirit. Beautiful trees are cut down and 
lovely birds are destroyed. 

The soil of Argentine is rich and productive. 
Corn and wheat grow to perfection, also melons, 
squashes and sweet potatoes do well. Oranges, 
limes and lemons thrive, and the oranges are of 
an excellent flavor. There are not many raised, 
the natives being too indolent to care for 'them. 
They are also cheap and plentiful, great quanti- 
ties coming from Paraguay, which country is the 
home of the orange. The lime is a small, round 
fruit, resembling the lemon in color. The 
peaches are good. Farther south, where the cli- 
mate is cooler, apples and prunes grow. 

The trees native of the country are peculiar 
in one respect. The foliage is fine and delicate, 
of the acacia species, therefore casting little 
shade, with the exception of the ambu, the leaves 
of which are large. This is a singular tree. It 
grows quite large, and many feet in circumfer- 
ence. The wood cuts like a beet, almost as soft, 
and oile can cut a large tree to pieces in a short 
time, and With little fatigue. The wood will not 
burn. Lay it on the fire and it will smoke and 
smoulder through until it becomes ashes, with 
which the natives make soap. When the wood is 
dry it is very light, of scarcely any weight. The 
tree is mostly valued for shade and ornament. 
In riding over the pampas you will see a solitary 
ambu standing in the distance. You will know 
there is a native's house there. These houses are 
often made of grass or mud. with very little com- 
fort or improvement, but perhaps a few flowers. 
This is the casa, or house, of the gaucho. Thev 


are the poorer class of natives, and are shift! 
Their chief wealth consists of herds of horses ; 
cattle, and they are never happier than w 
riding over the plains, herding cattle. The tf 
pings of their horses are the gayest. The m $ 
silver they can get on, the. better. They m 
pretty whips and reins of braided horse hair ; 
rawhide, and they- ride well. The dress of 
gaucho element is peculiar to themselves, 
men wear a garment called serape. It is a k 
of shawl, one end of which is fastened into 
belt in front, the other behind. The belt is m 
from dressed hogskin. a species of wild hog, t 
inhabits the grassy swamps. Their belts are > 
broidered, are double, from six to nine inche: 
depth, and are formed in a number of pock d 
They are covered with dollars and half-dollar! k. It 
silver. He wears wide, white trousers, reach ik 
a little below the knee, trimmed with 1 
Sometimes he wears boots, the shirt, poncho, 
hat. The poncho is worn over the should 

The gaucho women dress very 7 much 
Americans .except the headdress, which 
usually a silk shawl or black lace, which t 
drape very gracefully. They are not very n 
though they sew beautifully, and are good vri 
ers, which is done differently from the way 
wash. They take all the clothes to the rivei ■■-> 

some pond, without board or tub. and put 
clothes on a flat stone and pound them, dip tl 
in cold water, rub on soap, then pound ag 
and when clean they spread them on the s 
to dry. 

Meat is the principal food of this class, 
generally roasted before the fire, sometimes 
the hide on, as they are never in a hurry and 
dom cook but one article at a time. The mes 

R -. 

F: . 

roasted to perfection. They use corn pounde fced 

to C 


a mortar, from which a stew is made by put 
the meat in a pot, cut in small pieces with sqi 
and peppers. These people are very genei 
with what they have, and will divide if 
do not have enough for themselves. 

The wealthy, or higher class people genei 
live in towns or cities, and have beautiful h 
and live mostly in European style. The ho 
are built on the Moorish plan, with flat roof, < 
court, sometimes a fountain in the center, 
rounded with beautiful, fragrant flowers and| 
quisite vines. They live idle, dreamy i 
Some of the men and women are very handsi 

4ev t 



■classes, high and low, are addicted to cigar- 
\e smoking, also the mate or Paraguay tea, 
'pich is made by putting the mate in a gourd 
Tth boiling water and sugar, and sipping 

i a silver tube or bombilla. 

•iu/, Oregon. 

+ * * 
Most men want to do better, but 

they are seldom able to decide 

where to begin. 

•4* T V 


Wo one of the polished brass balls a wire is at- 
i, which runs up a high mast, or hangs from 
^kite. The electric pulsations, set up when a 
^ark leaps from one ball to the other, run along 
Ib wire and are thence radiated off into space. 
! st how large a role this suspended wire plays 
5 the sending is not yet very clear. Maybe some 
y it will not be needed. The sending instru- 
'■ ;nt might be located in the cellar, for these 
" xtric waves seem to go through brick and 
5)ne. and almost everything, save the metals, 
n It is clear enough that if the sending operator 
J n open and close his circuit as he likes, he can 
'ike the series of sparks long or short as he 
'■ :es. So you have a long or short series of 
-ives flying through space at the speed of light. 
Jhile Signor Marconi waited in Newfoundland 
s th the telephone at his ear, this is what his 
erator in Cornwall was doing. In Newfound- 
id was an arrangement of a little different 

: Here were batteries, and a circuit, just the 
r=me. But instead of the transformer and the 
ifllished brass balls, a little glass tube makes a 
" rt of the circuit. Into this run the two ends 
a the wires from the batteries. In the gap be- 
! r een the two are some nickel-silver filings. Or- 
parily, these will not let the current from the 
ttery pass. The path is blocked. 
But if this little tube, about as big as a quill 
Dthpick. be attached at the same time to the re- 
iving wire, which runs out through the window 
id up the mast, a curious effect is observed. 
hen the waves strike the high wire, and are ab- 
rbed. they come running down in a way to 
ake the nickel filings stand up in a hurry. The 
tie particles seem to cohere, and in such a way 

as to let the other current, from the batteries on 
the floor, flow through. Why, nobody knows. 
Give the tube a little tap, and they fall apart 
again. It is the oddest sort of a performance, 
and was quite unheard of until Professor Bran- 
ly's discovery ten years ago. 

\Yhen Professor Lodge heard of the Branly ex- 
periments, he fixed up a little automatic tapper. 
It worked on the same principle as an electric 
door-bell. (I wonder how many people ever 
stopped to think how even that simple every-day 
affair operates, i The effect of this tapping ar- 
rangement was to give the slender tube of filings 
a smart jog every time the electric waves made 
them cohere. It was a decoherer. 

The rest was simple. If the battery on the 
floor could be made to operate the tapper, it 
could also set a common Morse printing instru- 
ment going. According as the series of waves 
coming down the receiving wire was short or 
long, the machine prints a dot or a dash. These 
you read off on the tape, just as you read the 
quotations on a stock ticker, only you have to 
know the Morse alphabet to understand. 

Ordinarily, the waves are strong enough and 
their effect clear enough, so that no telephone 
attachment is needed. The clicks can be read off 
by the ear just as in ordinary telegraphy. But 
the waves seem to weaken with the distance, and 
those which had traveled two thousand miles, 
from Cornwall to Newfoundland, were faint in- 
deed. This was why Signor Marconi held an 
instrument to his ear. — From " Wireless Telegra- 
phy and Signor Marconi's Triumph," by Carl 
Snyder, in the American Monthly Review of Re- 
views for February. 

<• + ♦ 

A Creole, strictly speaking, is any person born 
in this country of European ancestors : also, it 
may be construed to mean any person bom within 
the tropics. The use of the word, however, has 
generally been restricted, first, to children of for- 
eign parentage in the South, and, second, to chil- 
dren of Spanish or French parents born in the 
State of Louisiana. In the North the word has 
been so perverted that it is generally believed 
to imply some strain of negro blood in the person 
to whom it is applied. This is a grave mistake, 
as it does not imply anything of the kind. 






▼ ▼ ▼ 


Wk take pleasure in reproducing here from 
Medical Talk an article ably written by Orlando 
J. Stevenson. We are under obligation to Dr. 
S. E. Miller, of Iowa, for sending it to us. 

In the early springtime, when we see the vari- 
ous forms of insect and reptile life once more re- 
appearing, we are often moved to ask the ques- 
tion, " Where have they come from ? " and " How 
have they managed to survive the long, hard win- 
ter? " For each separate form of life a different 
answer would in most cases be required. 

The toads and earthworms find a retreat deep 
in the earth below the frost line. The frogs and 
turtles bury themselves deep in the marshes. 

Snakes roll themselves together, nine or ten 
in a clump, in a tangled, misshapen knot. 

Bees survive in their nests, in a numb and 
torpid state. 

Flies die off in the fall, only a few of their num- 
ber surviving in houses and other warm places. 

The water-spiders live through the winter in 
a bubble of air at the bottom of the ponds. 

The snails seal up the mouths of their shells 
with a gelatinous substance, being careful to leave 
a compartment of preservative air under the film. 

Grasshoppers, bugs, beetles, spiders, etc., etc., 
in the majority of cases, perish with the cold of 
early winter, leaving, however, eggs, pupae, co- 
coons, etc., containing the germs of the new 
season's brood, which the warmth of returning 
spring soon brings to maturity. 

Most of the smaller species of wild animals 
found in the region of the great lakes are active 
throughout the winter. 

Our two common kinds of field mice, the deer 
mouse, which lives principally in the woods, and 
the meadow mouse, which lives in the fields, both 
lay in winter supplies of grain, beech-nuts, etc., 
and are comfortably provided for. 

The meadow mouse buries his supply in a hole 
in the ground, but the deer mouse is a great 


climber and often makes use of holes in trj 
cavities in stumps, etc., for his storehouses. 

Of the squirrels, the chipmunk is the 111^ 
provident. His storehouse is deep undergro;tf 
and all the autumn long he is busy carrying di «* 
supplies for the winter. Early in November*: 
retires to his well-stocked nest, and lives throuk 
out the long winter on the fruit of his labors, d 
reappearing again above ground until the foil* 
ing spring. Strangely enough, however, eft- 
one chipmunk occupies each burrow, and m 
winter is passed in unbroken solitude. 

The red squirrel is also very active in the ■- 
and lays by a good supply of nuts in various 
ing places, chiefly in hollow trees. He is h< 
however, and in spite of his provident habi 
out in all sorts of winter weather. 

The gray squirrel lays by no regular su 
for the winter. He buries a few nuts separa 
in the ground, but as this is all the provision t : 
he makes, he sometimes fares badly when 
cold weather comes. 

The cottontail rabbit is active throughout 
winter, and lives for the most part on yoi 
shoots and twigs, or on withered grass and lea 
The cottontail does not change color, but his nl 
of kin, the Northern hare, changes his brc 
coat for a white fur covering, with the coming 
the first winter snow. 

The approach of winter does not affect 
various members of the mink or Weasel tribe, 
cept that one species of weasel, the stoat, 01 
mine, changes color also. His fur change 
a pure and beautiful white, only the tip of 
tail remaining black, in order the better to c 
ceal him from his enemies. 

The raccoon, the skunk, the woodchuck 
flying squirrel and the bat, all go into hibernal^ 
with the approach of winter. 

The bat hangs himself up on a single cl 
head downward, in some hollow tree or to\ 

The flying squirrel is gregarious, as is 


bat. and a whole company occupies the same 

The woodchuck governs his winter sleep by the 
[iT linoxes. 
1 JThe skunk is late in retiring to his winter 
ers and reappears again in February. 
t ♦ 4 



very eastern reader will know what is meant 

the word pheasant, and it is not really a pheas- 

at all, but, correctly speaking, the ruffed 

tmse. It is a very hard bird to shoot, unless 

■ fc know-s its habits and methods. It has a habit 

going up at your feet, and whirring off in the 

stance, much to the surprise of the amateur 


But there is a way of catching pheasants bodily 

- it may be new to the Nooker, and which we 

r 1 tell. It also has in it a delightful element 

ir uncertainty. A bird on a tree in range has 

•■ chance at all, or very little, w r ith a skilled 

xksman, and one on the wing stands a poor 

- . . , D uice if in easy sight of the man with a breech 

; . 3t der. And then there are the murderous traps. 

- . en comes flopping them. This is the how of it. 

- .- When, in a pheasant country, there is a deep 

3\v in the woods frequented by the birds, say 

o feet deep, and everything is covered, the 

., ds have a habit of darting from a tree into the 

>w, making a round hole where they go in, and 

"en settled under a foot of light snow they 

.. ist be very comfortable and relatively safe. 


m the hunters, if there be more than one, in 

right time, that is when the snowfall justifies 
situation, go through the woods carefully, 
>king for these round holes in the snow. The 
le appears about as large as a cocoanut, with 
ilight wing scrape on the surface of the snow, 
each side, where the bird folded its wings 
t as it shot into the fluffy mass. 
1 Once the hole is located, if there be a second 
le near at hand showing a break through, it 
clear that the bird has come out, and that is the 
d of that experiment. But if there is only one 
le, then comes the trial. The pheasant is down 
the snow, somewhere near. The plan usually 
» lowed is for one man or boy to get within dis- 

tance, being governed by the directions of the 
other, who stands off and engineers the job. 

Once it is settled as well as possible, the near 
one spreads himself, eagle fashion, and falls down 
bodily on the snow. Several things may, and do, 
immediately happen. The bird may emerge at 
one side, right before the face or even in the face 
of the flopper ; it may come up between his legs 
behind, or, what is worse for the bird, it may be 
under the body of the man or boy, when all there 
is to do is to reach under and catch it. 

The chances of getting the bird are about even- 
ly divided with its getting away, and as the 
pheasant is in the habit of going in loose, wide- 
spread coveys, or flocks, there is a chance of get- 
ting half a dozen in half an hour's flopping, or 
there may be eight or ten birds in a comparatively 
restricted area all break out where least looked 
for, alarmed by the whirring of the first one dis- 
turbed, or, as it happens, they may be most of 
them caught if luck follows the hunter's efforts. 
If there ever was a " hit or miss " business, it is 
flopping pheasants. One thing is sure, there is 
no trying it over with the same bird, the same 

•tr 4t <i 


The director of the Xew York Zoo has re- 
fused $15,000 for a two-horned rhinoceros, one 
of the ugliest and sulkiest animals in existence, 
or at least in captivity. 

Smiles's almost incredible value lies in the 
fact that she is one of the rarest animals in cap- 
tivity, there being not more than eight two- 
horned rhinoceroses in bondage. The Central 
Park beast was named Smiles in an ironical spir- 
it, for nothing like a smile has ever been detect- 
ed on her countenance, and she never shows a 
sign of pleasure or of satisfaction. In fact, her 
demeanor has constantly been ferocious. The 
two-horned " rhino's " lack of intelligence is due 
to the fact that there is little space for brains in 
its head. Where its forehead ought to be is a 
depression occupied by the horns. 

Smiles is believed to be no years old. 
.|. 4. .;. 

A tea garden seven years old yields about 
700 pounds of tea to the acre. Each plant 
yields about four ounces of tea. 





Elgin, Illinois. 

The subscription price ol the Magazine is one dollar a year. It is 
a high-class publication, intended for the Home, and for the interest, 
entertainment and information, of old and young. 

Articles intended for publication should be short, of general inter- 
est, and nothing of a love story character or with either cruelty or 
killing, will be considered. 

Manuscript submitted to the Editor will be at the entire risk of 
the writer, and its return is not guaranteed. 

Subscribers wishing the address of their papers changed should 
invariably give the old address at which they received their Ingle- 

Agents are wanted everywhere, and any reasonable number ol 
sample copies will be furnished free. All communications relating 
to the Inglenook should be addressed as follows: 

(For the Inglenook.) 32-24 S. State St., Elgin, III. 

Entered at the Post Office at Elgin, 111., as Second class Matter. 

The outspoken man or woman is very apt I 
be premature and incorrect. Few people, indee ' 
of any class or character, are able to form g 
absolutely and entirely correct opinion on ma 
ters that involve others, and to blurt out a ra 
and necessarily-unfinished statement as a 
simply because we think so, is often 
put ourselves in a situation that subsequen 
ly we find it necessary to get away fr< 
A good many things said are better when w 
tied, as then they need no apology. We can 
help thinking, but we can help telling what v 

And it is not necessary to tell what we 'thin 
In fact, in more cases than not, it is just as we 
to repress and withhold the adverse criticisi 
when there is no call for our opinions. A ma 
may be a fool, and show it, but there is not tr 
slightest necessity of our listing ourselves wit 
him and making a life-long enemy by telling hii 
when there is no need for it. 

No, it isn't the best to say what one think 

lit in 

// is just as important to say the 
right tiling in the wrong place as it 
is to say the right thing in the right 

♦ # ♦ 

One of the common sayings is that one should 
speak as he thinks, and that we might as well say 
a thing as think it. Both propositions are wrong. 
True what we do say should be truthful, but he 
who tells all he thinks tells more than he knows, 
very often, and many a thing we think is the 
acme of idiocy to let loose in words. 

Omaha, fJebfaska, frcl 

and thai we think a thing is no reason at all fo 

having to say it. 

•j. 4. .;. 

The best prayer ever uttered con- 
tained but seven words, .hid it 
was answered. 

♦ * * 

Of course we all come to hate the man an; 
woman who are eternally grinning, but still thd 
are better than the undertaker style of peopl 
who are always going to or coming from a funer 

tihiie iitgleitooe:. 


?me people look on life as prolonged ob- 
juies. while others see the flowers, hear the 
ds. love the sunshine and, being well, they 

f all the animal creation man is the onlv one 
laughs, and even' healthy child begins it 
before he can talk, and keeps it up as long 
e lives, unless he happens to have been born 
the sign of the vinegar barrel, and gets con- 
tionally soured. To be sure, there are 
es when gravity is desirable, imperative in 
t, but for the everyday people of everyday 
there is nothing better than the man who 
hs and who gets into the oriole habit rather 
that of the owls. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 
The acme of folly is putting your 

trust in a man who has to be sub- 
sidised into being good. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

"e are in receipt of a number of articles on 

could acquire it and he wasn't going to bother 
with ordained failures. He said any one of the 
s he turned away could have learned it ten 
years earlier in life. There's a time in life when 
the mind is receptive, the fingers nimble, and am- 
bition is dominant. Later in life we all get 
" sot," and a miserable piece of business it is 
when bread winning is a necessity and there is 
no way of getting at it. 

There is only one way out of it, only one way 
of doing it, and only one, and that is to take it 
up while you can and make ready against the 
day yon will need it. Going to school is only a 
necessary preliminary. That is getting ready to 
do something. The actual ability to do must be 
learned in one's salad days, and not put off until 
we are helpless. 

♦ ♦ <fr 

There is a zwst difference be- 
tween mixing your politics into 
your religion and taking your reli- 
gion into your politics. 

yion Paeifie P»ailuiay. 

some women make a living and they will all 
printed. We are glad of this interest in a 
st important subject, and as far as lies in us 
^1 advise and help all who may ask, holding 
communications sacred. 

There is one thing that can not be too strongly 

fcressed on the young women of the Nook 

flnily. and that is the golden age of early youth 

be only time in which much of real value can 

acquired. Take the matter of stenography. 

I celebrated teacher of the art once told the 

Dkman that he refused to teach applicants 

twenty-eight years old. He said they never 


Our Kath touches up the diner and the sleep- 
er most artistically in this issue. Between the 
two the editorial opinion is that Kathleen is 
ahead in the matter of interest, this far. But 
that is not saying that she can keep it up, or that 
Frank will not develop into a first-class writer. 
We warn our youthful correspondents to be 
careful and alive. Thousands of readers are 


<j> 4. <$> 

If you want extra copies of the illustrated 
Nook, ask. They're yours. 




Probably next to the English sparrow in 
point of general worthlessness is the old field 
crow. It is known that one stretch of timber 
has provided sleeping quarters for as many as a 
million crows during the winter months, when 
these black birds are wont to huddle themselves 
together to keep from freezing and in order that 
they may be enabled to resume their depreda- 
tions upon the grain of the fields as soon as the 
weather and the crop conditions will permit. In 
many localities crows flock together at night and 
frequently 100,000 to 200,000, a sufficient num- 
ber to devastate a farm in a single day, find 
roosting places in the tall trees of a few acres. 

It is impossible to estimate the number of 
crows in this country alone, but it is probable that 
there are at least two or three for every one of the 
75.000,000 of human beings in the United States. 
And this guess may only fall short of the actual 
number by a few hundred millions. The birds 
are not worth the trouble it would take to ascer- 
tain the fact. That is, unless every State in the 
Union would do as Maryland once did — enact a 
law allowing three cents for every crow's head 
presented in payment of taxes. 

The crow, however, is a much more interest- 
ing bird than most people think. To most 
minds he is simply a loathsome, carrion-eating 
bird with a thieving disposition. In short, he is 
regarded as diabolical and fit only to be shot. 
Crows are notoriously clannish and except dur- 
ing a few weeks of nesting time are actually seen 
in flocks. Moreover, even while nesting they are 
more or less gregarious, for although two nests 
are seldom built on the same tree, yet half a 
dozen pairs often build within easy hearing dis- 
tances of each other and if one be disturbed all 
are likely to unite for common protection or pro- 
test. During migration crows commonly travel 
in flocks of varying size and in autumn they con- 
gregate in large numbers, but only during win- 
ter do they unite to roost in immense communi- 
ties. Many roosts are known where not less 
than 100,000 crows spend the night during the 
winter and it is claimed that the roost near Bris- 
tol, Pa., accommodates more than a million of 
the big black birds nightly during the cold sea- 

Most of these roosting places have been used 


year after year in the same way — the same ir 
vidual trees for scores of years and the same gi 
eral locality probably for centuries 

Some of the roosts are in thick pines or gi 
er evergreens, not necessarily large trees, 
such as afford protection during storms. Othr 
are in oaks, maples, poplars, etc., while thjl 
growths of willow and alder are chosen ocfi • 

On the Delaware river crows have roosc 
among reeds or coarse grass and brushwck 
overgrowing low islands. Whatever be the i'~ 
ture of the place chosen, crows often begin j< iris c. 
gather in the neighborhood several hours bef 
nightfall, but do not actually settle upon Lgck 
roost until it is almost dark. They begin to lei 1 r - 
the roost soon after daybreak, scattering over 11 
surrounding country for several miles aroundi 

Seven miles southwest from Baltimore a l| ' • 
mile southeast of Arbutus station, on the Bair 
more and Potomac Railway, is a tract of lam ! . ?;- 
half mile square on which are several patches! [ on the 
woods which furnish a roosting ground foil ja; are 
winter colony of crows, according to a Washiin 
ton Times writer. It seems from the testimc I , vr 
of the owners of this land that the crows h; I 

roosted there for about twelve years, having p 
viously occupied a piece of woods a half mile 
more to the westward, which they abandoi r 
when house building and wood cutting by the 
habitants made it undesirable. 

A determination of the exact number of crq 
that gather here is not possible, but even the m 
conservative observers place it among the hi| 
dreds of thousands. 

The immense winter colonies of crows in 
neighborhood of Chesapeake bay early attra 
ed the attention of naturalists, and it was in 
years 1800 to 1804 that they increased so r.| 
idly and were so destructive in Maryland t| 
the State government, to hasten their dimiit 
tion, received their heads in payment for taxes| 
the price of three cents each. The storekeep 
bought them of the boys and hunters, who 1 
no taxes to pay, at a rather lower rate, or 
changed powder and shot for them. This me 
ure caused great havoc among the crows and 
a few years so greatly diminished their numb 
that the bounty was withdrawn. 

Two modes of shooting them in considera 

Km v 

is near 

are f; 

IB. 01 



s'mber were followed, and with great success — 
e that of killing them on the wing while on 
:ir way to the roosts, and the other attacking 
i;m at night in their roost after they had been 
for several hours. But the grand harvest 
crow heads was derived from invasion of their 
t Iging places. The roost is most commonly 
: densest pine thicket that can be found, gen- 
51 illy at no great distance from some river or 
K y or other sheet of water which is the last to 
,:eze or rarely is altogether frozen. 

• "Endless columns pour in from various quar- 

: ~ * s and pitch upon their accustomed perches, 

e upon iwding close together for the benefit of the 

;gin to let rmth and the shelter afforded by the thick foli- 

"■s of the pine. The trees are frequently liter- 

1 y bent by their weight. 

ra °rc ah There is one roost of great age and magnifi- 

11 the 3a it extent in the vicinity of Rock creek, an arm 

ciot lam the Patapsco. There are also numerous 

patches >sts on the rivers opening into the Chesapeake 

toy, and are everywhere similar in their general 

m To gather crows' heads from the roosts a very 
: "" ge party was made up according to the extent 
' lavm ?P surface occupied by the roost. Armed with 
hall mile uble-barreled shot guns and duck guns, which 
a ™" 01 ew a large charge of shot, the company was 
- ' e dded into small parties, and took stations se- 
ted during the daytime so as to surround the 
ieroicW)st as nearly as possible. A dark night was 
■en the in rays preferred, as the crows could not fly far 
15 the hi ien alarmed, and the attack was delayed until 
irly midnight. All being at their posts, the 
rows in I ng was begun by those who were most ad- 
, r |v attra itageously placed, and followed up successive- 
ns in t by others as the affrighted birds sought refuge 
; e j ;o fi their vicinity. On every side the carnage 
rvland fl red fiercely, and there can scarcely be conceived 
f - diniii riore forcible idea of horrors of a battle than 
j lir (axes :h a scene affords. 
r:;prhe sanguinary work is continued until the 
hjoters are fatigued, or the approach of daylight 
rate, or 1 res the survivors a chance to escape. Then the 
Tfc"K>rk of collecting the heads from the dead and 
■■■«;• and »unded began. This was a task of considerable 
»ir numb ficulty. as the wounded used their utmost ef- 
ts to conceal and defend them. The bill and 
on-iiiera If the front of the skull were cut off together 
d strung in sums for the taxgatherer, and the 

product of the night divided according to the 
size of the party formed. Sometimes the great 
party of shooters were hired for the night and 
received no share of scalps, only having their 
ammunition provided by their employers. Oth- 
er parties were formed by friends and neighbors, 
who clubbed for the ammunition and shared 
equally in the result. 

I luring hard winters the -crows suffer severely 
and perish in considerable numbers from hunger, 
though they endure a wonderful degree of ab- 
stinence without much injury. When starved 
out the poor birds will swallow bits of leather, 
rope, rags, in short, anything which appears to 
promise the slightest relief. 

Many times crows have been seen in the act of 
lifting clams, mussels and other shellfish high in 
the air and dropping them on hard objects in or- 
der to break the shells and get at the contents. 
An observation on this subject illustrates the 
acuteness and intelligence of the crow. Some 
years ago a flock of crows were seen flying out 
to an island just off the shore of Puget sound. 
The tide was ebbing. Each crow was seen to 
seize some object in its bill, and, flying to the 
n >ck shore, drop it on- the rocks and then de- 
scend to feast upon it. Investigation showed 
that the objects were mussels. Instead of ham- 
mering the shells open, which would have cost 
time and labor, the crows, in order to get at the 
contents, resorted to the easy and expeditious 
mode of letting the mussels fall on the rocks. 

Another instance of the acuteness of crows il- 
lustrates their shrewdness in getting other agents 
to find food for them. A herd of hogs were 
rooting in the beach along the seashore, and a 
flock of crows were flying about them a few feet 
all' ive the ground. To the amazement of the 
observer they flew one to each pig and perched 
nil the head between the ears. From this out- 
look each crow kept a bright watch on the hog's 
snout, evidently on the qui vive for whatever of 
food should turn up, and not for a moment was 
his attention diverted. 

Presently one of the hogs rooted up a razor 
clam, when immediately down pounced the alert 
but unprincipled crow, seized the prize and made 
off to devour his ill-gotten prize at leisure. The 
stupid but honest hard-working porker renewed 
his labors apparently with no sense of his loss. 


tzhzie insro-i-iiEitsroo^. 

An Artesian Well iii Nebraska. 


r in the so-called arid regions one will of- 
ten hear the remark that anything will grow if 
water can only be had on the land. While this 
is not literally true, yet it is nearly so. The or- 
ange and the pineapple would not thrive in any 

As irrigation is a method of agriculture th 
will, in the near years to come, be a living que 
tion in vast areas, and of interest to every 
of the foil everywhere, we show here a pi 
of an artesian well in Nebraska, with the n 
voir to the right, and the dense vegetation 
around it. 

^"here artesian water can not be found 

the conditions are such that a considerable str 

can be deflected into a canal and laterals laid 

the owner of land is in a situation to make wi 

er of his own, and the crops that he can rail 

stagger belief. The hot sun overhead, the ric 

est soil of age-old accumulation under foot, m 

water at will make all sorts of crops of unusi 

size and extent of yield. The potato pictu 

shows the result of irrigating the tuber along 6 

Union Pacific Railway. Twenty of them mil 

a bushel. 

-J- 4- 4- 


Irrigation Grown Potatoes. 
Courtesy of U. P. Ry. 

part of western Kansas, but where there is an 
opportunity of getting plenty of water on the 
land, as shown in the accompanying picture, all 
that will grow anywhere in that climate may be 
successfullv cultivated. 

It lakes eighty men to make a German doj 
Each man makes a small portion of the doll, bl 
it is the same bit all the time and one thousan 
dozen dolls can be made in a day in some of tlj 
big factories. After the men finish the body po 
tion of the doll the women's work begins. Thi 
paint, dress the dolls and pack them for tl 

thie ustgleitook:. 



It is hardly twenty years since John Way- 
>uth. the Wolverhampton engineer and design- 
disc* >vered the motive power of heat, exhibited 
a. one of the simplest, cheapest and most useful 
jines imaginable, and then deprived the world 
its benefit. 

He had produced beforehand a round dozen 
excellent inventions, which still bear his name, 
:luding the modern revolving chimney cowl ; 
d. having made a large fortune, he devoted 
nself to harnessing the ordinary heat of a fire 
1 making a new power of it. The idea was 
ghed at by all his friends ; but, after four years 
study and experimenting, he produced a 
.tionary engine that gave double the power of 
y steam-driven mechanism at about a third the 
st. and also a small model heat locomotive, 
ge enough to draw a truck with a man in it. 
He invited a committee of scientists and en- 
lre leers, including Profs. Huxley and Forbes 
jyjjj. own. and showed them that his two machines 
even . ; >rked to perfection. The affair made a great 
. , . .. r, and it proved that a great power of unlimit- 
scope had been discovered. Waymouth was 
oded with offers of huge sums for his inven- 
n, but. for no apparent reason, except, perhaps, 
; alleged madness of genius, he absolutely re- 
ied to either bring it out himself, or sell the 

He announced himself satisfied with the tri- 
lph of the invention, and before his death, a 
later, he destroyed all the papers and plans 
ining the system, and removed the essen- 
parts of the two engines. These engines 
i still possessed by his heirs, but nobody has 
A; Hi able to make anything of them. 

Still stranger was the famous loss of the recipe 
r the manufacture of diamonds, some fifteen 
ars ago. Herbert Warner, who alone dis- 
vered and held the secret of diamond-making, 
i not live to wreck the diamond industry, as 
ople thought he would, and the circumstances 
the loss were mysterious and tragic. Inferior 
imonds can still be produced artificially, but 
ly at a cost of about ten times their value, 
arner, after years of experimenting, was able 
turn out a genuine diamond, of large size and 
the first water, at the cost of a small fraction of 
e complete stone's worth. 







He, like Waymouth of heat power fame, man- 
ufactured his diamonds before an audience of 
scientists, and produced three fine stones, which 
were tested and pronounced faultless. Two of 
them are still in existence, and are the greatest 
curiosities the jewel-world has ever seen. But 
within a fortnight of this triumph, before any of 
the new stones were put on the market, Warner 
utterly disappeared from his house in Harley St., 
London, leaving no trace whatever. So corn- 
was his disappearance that from that day 
to this not the smallest explanation has been hit 

Then there is the lost secret of the wonderful 
new metal called " talium," which would certainly 
have been worth many millions sterling to the 
nation and the inventor. Grantley Adams dis- 
covered it just eight years ago, and during its 
short life it was one of the greatest wonders of 
the '* science and commerce " world. " Talium " 
was an alloy of metals, electrically treated, nearly 
fifty-five per cent lighter than steel, both stronger, 
tougher, and costing thirty per cent less to pro- 
duce. It was the fruit of four years hard work 
and study, and eventually Adams completed it, 
and publicly exposed it to every kind of test. 

Trains, or any other vehicles, as it was proved, 
would be able to travel at nearly double their 
present speed if constructed of " talium," and 
there was no kind of edged tool that would not 
be as keen, as well as much lighter, if made of 
the new metal. The commotion caused by this 
discovery was extraordinary, and still more so 
was the upshot of it, for the magnitude of his 
success overcame Adam's reason and he became 
insane before ever the secret of the construction 
of " talium " was given out. Adams died a year 
later, a hopeless lunatic ; and, as there were no 
papers explaining his method, the great secret 
was lost. All the tools and engines of " talium " 
which he had made remain, but no analysis has 
revealed the method by which the metal was 
blended. " Talium " is lost to the world. 

The extraordinary " perpetual lamp " of Henry 
Mills, which he invented, perfected and proved 
the worth of, twelve years ago, was lost in quite 
a different manner. The Mills lamp was an 
incandescent light, produced without any using- 
up of materials — it had nothing to do with 
combustion, and the " flame " of it was perfectly 



cold. It was certainly one of the most wonder- 
ful inventions of the age, and not at all an ex- 
pensive affair. 

Mills made two of these lamps, and demon- 
strated their absolute success ; but an extraordi- 
nary thing happened before the invention was 
put at the disposal of the public. On the night 
of May 20, 1889, Mills' laboratory in Hampstead 
was broken into, both the lamps broken to frag- 
ments, and all the papers describing the inven- 
tion, involving years of work, stolen. There was 
not the smallest clew to the perpetrators of the 
burglary, which was done most scientifically, and 
the crime has never been traced. Even the 
reason of it is not known — whether it was malice, 
jealousy or theft. No use has been made of the 
stolen papers. Mills, who depended on these 
papers, set to work again ; but two months later 
he contracted typhoid and died, and Britain was 
thus deprived of his secret. 

In one way it is, perhaps, as well that the new 
gunpowder, " fulmite," invented by Herbert Saw- 
bridge six years ago, never came to a head. Saw- 
bridge discovered this powder by accident, in 
his little chemical experimenting room at Exeter. 
He perfected the powder after a good deal of 
study and trouble, and finally showed that, in an 
ordinary service rifle, this powder could drive a 
bullet accurately a distance of nearly six miles, 
and that at ordinary ranges it gave over ten times 
the penetration that " cordite," the present pow- 
der, gives. A bullet propelled by it, at 600 yards, 
would penetrate twelve men. 

It would have been a terribly destructive in- 
vention, and one of its best points was that it did 
not strain or corrode a gun in any way; and, 
above all, damp could not harm it. But such is 
the extraordinary fatality that seems to dog in-- 
ventors, that Sawbridge was killed in an explo- 
sion in his laboratory, which wrecked the entire 
cottage. This happened soon after the govern- 
ment had begun to negotiate with Sawbridge for 
the purchase of his invention ; but the explosion 
that killed him destroyed any records there might 
have been of his works. It was hot " fulmite " 
that killed him, but an accident with ordinary 

It was sheer vanity that kept Grant Finlay from 
giving the world the benefit of his invention for 
the total abolition of smoke. He evolved a sim- 

ple system by which any fire or h'ght could 
made to consume its own carbon, and thougl 
demonstrated the usefulness of the inven; 
many times, he obstinately refused to put it 
the market, or sell the secret of it. 

His own house, just outside Glasgow, 
fitted with his system, which did not cost 
thirty shillings for the entire building, and 
jot of smoke was ever emitted there. All 
fires consumed their own smoke, and he was f 
of showing the efficacy of his invention to gue 
but never would he explain the working ol 
and he died two years ago, carrying his se 
with him to the grave. A week before his dc 
he had all the " antismoke " apparatus strip 
from his house and destroyed. 
4, 4. 4, 

gs tninn' 

i little 
g Son 

No man is a genuine cynic unless 
he says he isn't. 

4. 4. 4, 


■ : 

liter a 
st often • 


A most interesting account is given of 
wonderful state-aided industry at Jena, wl 
glass and lenses are made for scientists. '10 
industry has been built up by Prof. Abbe p •■■' ' ■- 
Dr. Schott, and has throughout been conduie 
by scientists whose efforts have made Jena '1 
mous among scientific men the world over. <« 
of the most picturesque features of the Jena gj 
works is the great corridor where the thermi' ■ " ; : 
eter tubes are blown and drawn. 

We saw the glass in process of manufactl^iip'ar 
A boy workman caught a bit of glass from i : 
furnace on the end of a blow-pipe. It was ha:l Kiunari 
larger than a walnut, but, by twirling and blow! <*'at:! 
and molding, it grew to the size of an oraij 
with the shape of an acorn. More glass 1 
then added, and there was more rolling and bill 
ing, and when the proper stage was reached I 
blow-pipe was passed quickly to the brawny nt 
ter workman. 

He, in his turn, added glass, blowing from tl 
to time with cheeks outpuffed until it seeme<|i 
though they must burst, and then rolling I 
great ball of glass on his iron kneading bci 
until it looked like a huge yellow gourd. Fi 
er and faster he worked, keeping the ball alw^ 
symmetrical and yet white hot. At length J 
lifted the glowing mass quickly in the air, an 



ffglt duAfeond workman attached his blow-pipe at the 
;i Jottom. 

■ Then the two men ran in opposite directions, 
virling the pipes, aiul blowing lustily from time 
) time. From a thick, portly, yellow globe the 
lass thinned out quickly as the men ran apart, 
ntil it became a dull red tube no larger than a 
lan's little finger and nearly three hundred feet 
)ng. Sometimes in drawing these tubes one of 
ne blowers would not only run the length of the 
orriilor, but far outside on the hill. 
+ •*• + 

Trying to be a good fellorv has 
scut many a man to a bad ending. 

+ + + 


A man died and was received into the other 
rorlds. For a long time there was so much to 
nterest him that he forgot all about the earth, 
mt after a while he said to the angel who was 
nost often with him, — 
' I remember a curious place where I once 
leca wl vas — a center of confusions and many strange 
mists. ' hings ! " 

i. Abbe Then said the angel kindly, " You would re- 
n condiii urn ? " But the man made haste to answer, — 
ije fena " No, not return, for it was not a satisfactory 
over. ( ipot, and I fear to go too close, lest I get my 
e |em| vings entangled or perhaps besmirched, but sure- 
e tberffl y we might go near enough to hear the voices of 
:he inhabitants and learn what messages they 
lanufact send upward." 

ss [fju Therefore the two winged their way earthward, 
ffi |iaiUid it chanced that a devil joined them and flew 
[I ,;,;„ ■silently at their side. The man would have driv- 

an orai 

■aw n 


ding bo 
d F 
ball al« 

air. an 

en him violently away, but the angel said quietly, 
" Let him be! This atmosphere is free to all." 

Presently, as a bird hangs in the air to sun his 
plumage, so these three hung over the earth, re- 
volving hurriedly beneath them, and listened in- 
tently. The man's eyes flashed, the old earth 
sympathy moved him, and he cried loudly, " This 
touches me nearly ! It is well that we came. 
Let each one tell what he hears." 

Then , the devil laughed darkly. " I hear," 
he said, " the sounds of discord and hate, the 
crying of the anguished who long to inflict in 
return the wrongs they have suffered from oth- 
ers. It is so loud, how could you hear anything 
else? " 

Then the man laughed with a scorn that 
matched that of the evil spirit. " Nay, rather 
how can you hear aught but the splendid thun- 
der of the battles which decide the ambitions of 
kings, or the inspired voices of the singers who 
cheer them on, or the far-piercing clarion call of 
the trumpet blown by a last dauntless breath! " 

Only the angel was silent, until both turned to 
him and cried, " You are nearer the Gods than 
we in your perceptions. What reaches you of 
all this?" 

\nd the angel answered: " The sounds ye dis- 
cern I hear not at all, or only as a far, faint echo, 
like the beating of a weary surf. But even this 
much of it I forget, for I hear rising purely and 
clearly through the endless mists the sounds of a 
child's prayer, • the thanksgivings of a young 
mother over her first-born, and all the simple but 
infinite and exquisite melody which arises from 
those spots on earth which you on earth name 
' The Forgotten Ways.' " — Clinton Danger-field, 
m February Lippincott's Magazine. 

2 I . 

tihiie iisra-XjEi^roois:, 



This country is on the Oregon Short Line, 
and the name of the town in which I live is Pay- 
ette. This town has about one thousand inhabi- 
tants now. 

East of the town are hills which are called foot- 
hills. They are covered with sage brush and 
many people go out there to get the brush to 
burn. It makes very nice stove wood when the 
largest part is cut up. The nearest mountains 
are about thirty-five miles north of here. We 
can see mountains south and west of us, too. 
They are all covered with snow now and we see 
snow on the mountains north of here until June. 

This country has to be irrigated, as there are 
no summer rains, although we have a great deal 
of snow and rain during the winter. This val- 
ley is irrigated from the Payette River and is 
called the Payette Valley. The Payette river is 
about three hundred feet wide at the mouth. It 
is not very deep, but it runs very swiftly. The 
Snake river below the mouth of the Payette is 
•eight hundred or nine hundred feet wide. It is 
very deep and it runs very smoothly. The 
mouth of the Payette river is about a mile north- 
west of town. The Snake river ferry is about 
a mile north of town. 

The main irrigating canal is taken from the 
Payette river about seven miles south, and is 
about twenty miles long. The main canal, and 
all the rivers, run north here. Smaller canals, 
called laterals, branch off from this main one 
and run in all directions through the town and 
the country to irrigate the gardens and fields. 
Smaller ditches are cut from these lateral canals, 
that run between the rows of trees, grain and 
vegetables. Everything is planted in rows that 
can be, so it can be readily irrigated. 

Hay land is flooded, which is a much easier 
way of irrigating. To make irrigating satis- 
factory, the land must be quite level. A water 
vine, with a small pink flower, grows in the 
ditches and partly stops the water, so they have 
to be cleared of the pest. Almost everything 
that is raised at any other place is raised here, 
hut it is more noted for fruit and melons. 

The rivers have an abundance of fish of vari- 
ous kinds, but the nicest are salmon and sturgeon. 

The sturgeon are a very peculiar fish, becaus 

they have no bones in the body except in th 

head. In place of a backbone is a gristle. I sa 

several last summer, and the smallest weighed 

about sixty pounds and the largest weighed 325 

pounds, although much larger ones have been 

caught here. They are caught with a hook a: 

line, and the hook is about six inches long, an 

the line is about the size of a clothes line, onl; 

much stronger. The hooks are set over night 

and the line is fastened to the trunk of a tree or a 

stout stake, and then to a small tree, near the top, 

so it will spring when a sturgeon gets on the 

hook, and not to break the line when the fish 

gives a sudden jerk. 

Payette, Idaho. 

4. 4. 4. 

Some men call duty in a whisper 

and pleasure with a megaphone. 

♦ ♦ 4r 




People grow old by thinking themselves old. 
When they reach the age of forty, fifty, or sixty, 
they imagine they look like others of the same 
age, and that they soon will be useless, unfit for 
work, and unable to perform their wonted duties. 
As surely as they think this, it will come true, for 
thought is creative. How many of us can say, 
with Job, " The thing which I greatly feared is 
come upon me." 

The time will come when children will not be 
allowed to celebrate their birthdays ; when they 
will know that, by thinking themselves young, 
they will remain young, and that they will cease 
to grow old when they cease to believe in old age. 
The body is built up of beliefs, and our convic- 
tions are stamped upon every fiber of our beings. 
What we believe, what we think, that we are; 
so people who remain young in spirit never grow 

Not one of a hundred students, of whom the 
writer was one, under Oliver Wendell Holmes, at 
Harvard, ever thought of him as an old man, al- 
though he had then passed his eightieth birthday. 
His spirit was so young, and he was so buoyant, 
so fresh and full of life, that we always thought 
of him as one of ourselves. His vivacity and 
joyousness were contagious. You could not be 
in his presence five minutes without feeling 
brighter and better for it. The genial doctor 



li* islan 




:ver practiced medicine, yet he did more to re- 
ive human suffering than many practicing phy- 
cians. His presence was a tonic ; it was a per- 
al delight to be near him. — Success for Feb- 


♦ ♦ ♦ 

// is unsafe to measure a man's 
goodness by the wag of his dog's 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

What is the smallest republic in the world? 
,j, ? : ndorra. one reader may say : San Marino, an- 

her. Both would be wrong. These are, in- 

;ed. the smallest republics mentioned in current 

icyclopedias and gazetteers. 

Strangely enough, both Goust, in the Lower 

yrenees. and Tavolara, an island a few miles 
theast of Sardinia, have been overlooked by 
U FE Jir geographical authorities. Both are repub- 

:s. Goust is the smaller in area, occupying 
■Ives ol urely °ne mile of territory, while Tavolara is 


X)ut five miles long by five-eighths of a mile 

ide. But Goust has about 
avolara has barely fifty. 

For over two centuries and a half Goust has 
true. i ected a president every seven years, and its 

ai .-. 

150 inhabitants. 

dependence has been recognized by both France 
d Spain. Tavolara did not become a republic 

itil recently. In 1830 the absolute dominion 
the island was conceded by Charles Albert, 
ing of Sardinia, to the Bartoleoni family, whose 
sad became King Paul I. 

He was likewise Paul the last, for on his death, 
1882. he requested that his title should be 
iried with him and that the kingdom be turned 
to a republic. A constitution was accordingly 
rawn up. and under its terms a president, with 
council of six. is elected every six years, all 
iults, male or female, casting a ballot. No sal- 
ry is paid either to the president or the members 
f his council. 

+ + + 

It is said that the electric chair 
is a sure cure for insomnia. 
4e Ht ♦ 

been made a fine art. To enter a zenana, or the 
woman's apartment in a native house, where all 
the family treasures are kept, is the ambition of 
every native thief. This is no easy matter, for 
the zenana is the center of the house, surrounded 
other apartments occupied by ever-wakeful 
sentinels. In order to reach it the thief bur- 
rows under the house until his tunnel reaches a 
point beneath the floor of the room to which ac- 

ss is sought. But the cautious native does not 
at once enter. Full well he knows that the in- 
mates of the house sometimes detect the miner at 
work and stand over the hole armed with deadly 
weapons, silently awaiting his appearance. He 
has with him a piece of bamboo, at the end of 
which a bunch of grass represents a human head, 
and this he thrusts up through the completed 
breach. If the vicarious head does not come to 
grief the real one takes its place, and the thief 
entering the zenana secretes himself, or, finding 
everything favorable for this purpose proceeds 
to attempt what seems an impossible undertak- 

This, indeed, is no less a task than to remove 
from the ears and arms and noses the earrings, 
bracelets, armlets, bangles and nose rings of the 
sleepers without awakening them and to get safe- 
ly away with his plunder. Who but a dacoit 
would be equal to so delicate, dangerous and dif- 
ficult a piece of work? But the dacoit seldom 

■fr ♦ ♦ 

An ignorant man is a merciless 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


I Probably the most expert thieves in the world 
those in lower Bombay. There theft has 

The stone of Scone is about two feet long and 
lies under the coronation chair, which is kept in 
Westminster Abbey. London. It was the coro- 
nation stone of Scotland until brought to Eng- 
land. According to a tradition it is the stone 
upon which Jacob rested his head when he had 
the dream in which he saw the ladder. It is. in 
fact, a piece of Scotch stone of a kind not found 
in Palestine. The stone upon which Jacob rested 
his head is shown near Bethel, in Palestine, but 
as the site of Bethel is in dispute, and as there 
are several square miles covered with similar 
stones, the story is probably a hoax. — K. C. Star. 



What is the cure for roup in poultry? 

As far as we know nothing but a hatchet. 


How long will the Frank and Kathleen letters run? 
They are planned to cover months and months. 

Do all birds mate yearly? 

No. Some choose for life ; the pigeon is an 

When was the wife of ex-president Cleveland born? 

In Buffalo, X. Y., in 1864. But why do you 
want to know ? 


What is the corn starch, used for food, made of? 

Corn, usually, and it is only the finer grades 
of the starch the laundryman uses. 

Can a letter be reclaimed once mailed? 
Yes, by proof if needed, and giving the post- 
master a receipt therefor when you call for it. 

Why did the Egyptians mummify the dead? 

They believed that the dead would not If 
judged for their sins till the body decayed, am 
the object was to put this off as long as possibR 

I read that discarded cigar stumps are gathered ad 
sold. What for? 

It is a regular business. They are worked o« 
into other forms of salable goods, on the tobac 
c< mist's shelves. 


Is it true that the century plant blooms but once in V 
hundred years? 

Nonsense. The writer has seen hundreds t 

them in bloom. They blossom in from five! 

twelve years, dependent on soil, location, etc.B 


Why do not plants growing outside become covejl 
with lice? What prevents their being infested with 
as house plants sometimes are? 

Nothing prevents, and outgrown plants do 
lousy, but natural enemies keep the parasite; 

I have five subscribers for the Nook and expect to 
get the twelve necessary for a premium watch. Can I 
send the five in and then others later? 

Write the Business Department about this. 

How can a daily paper, sold for a cent, be produced 
for that sum? 

Tt can not be. The gain comes in the advertis- 
ing, and, possibly in cases, other sources. 

What is red Guinea gold? 

< iold is gold the world over, but impurities in it 
give it .1 shade of color. "Red" gold means 
the presence of enough copper to color it. 

1 would like to try growing flowers for sale. What is 
it best to begin with? 

In your latitude violets are suggested. These 
will not require a hothouse, and the flowers find 
a ready sale at high prices, out of season. 

Could I grow a pineapple in the house? 

Yes, but it would not be worth while, as 
growing plant is not specially attractive anc 
would take several years of care to get a po| 


What is the difference between illuminating and lutj 
eating oils? 

Illuminating oil is refined and intended to 
light when burned. The other is used for oili] 
machinery and is a crude oil, or one especial! 
prepared for the purpose. Both may come < 
of the same hole in the earth. 

Where can I get I 

I want to buy a good spj 
I want to use it on the farm. 

A " spy glass " is usually nothing but a tj 
Better buy a good field glass. At pawn shol 
near the wharf, in seaport towns, they can usujj 
be had. Better let somebody who knows bujj 
for yi hi. 

the insro-ijEisrooic. 


T he Ho me 



The less a man cares the more 
love a woman wastes on him. 



S it not about time to discontinue the sisters' 
ing receipts department in the Inglenook ? 
r'hile I very much appreciate the good things 
sisters have prescribed for the stomach, yet 
there n ossibility of overdoing a good 

? Tt seems to me that if the cooking re- 
s already furnished us by the good sisters 
all utilized, they would be quite sufficient ti 1 
;e the present generation to die with over- 
Id stomachs, or else live the life of a miser- 
dyspeptic! Notwithstanding our boasted 
of being a temperate people in all things, 
eve that ten persons suffer in our fraternity 
ving too much to eat, where one suffers by 
having enough. One might possibly con- 
e, after reading the Inglenook cook depart- 
It for the last year, that we as a people were 
\g to cat, instead of eating to live. But we 
ild endeavor to prove in the future to those 
might take this uncharitable view of the 
er, that we have much higher aims in life 
simply to cat. 

view of the fact that the sisters have been so 
successful in prescribing for the natural 
would it not be wisdom to reverse the or- 
and have them prescribe something for the 
itual man to feast upon? Believing as I do 
at we as American people, living in a land of 
bundance. where, comparatively speaking, real 
amine and want are unknown, are right now 
with cook book in hand, of course 1 much more 

in need of a good receipt to feed and nourish the 
soul, than for more receipts to feed 
the natural man. 

Now, I am thoroughly convinced since reading 
the Cook Book, and the sisters' number of the 
Inglenook, and also considering the conceded 
fact that women outnumber men by far as regular 
and attentive church goers, that they have the 
ability as well as the will to give the men some- 
thing that will be beneficial, and well worth the 

ing, along the line suggested, and that it can 
be had for the asking. I am very anxious and 
desirous of knowing to what the sisters of the 
church attribute the cause of so much indiffer- 
ence and spiritual lack among so many of the 
male members of the church at the present age. 
Please give us the prescription, and if the in- 
gredients lie within our reach, we shall thank you 

the favor and gladly endeavor to apply the 
remedy And if the Sword of the Spirit is used, 
which cuts both ways, while the men are being 
hewn down to the line of duty, and since none 
are perfect, perhaps the women, too, may receive 
a slightly needed dressing, and thus all will be 

Now, the Nookman may christen the desired 
information preaching, but it matters not what 
you name it, — just so it feeds the soul, and keeps 
it healthy, while the stomach is performing its 
office in digesting some of the delicacies pre- 
scribed in the famous Cook Book, of which I can 
attest from actual experience. I realize the fact 
that some have only the ability to feed the natural 
man. while others have the ability to feed both 
the natural and spiritual man, and both being 



quite .necessary, hence it follows that all have a 
work to do. 
Shideler, hid. 


The above opens up a new line of thought. 
Now, do the women readers of the Nook want 
no more home matters in the Inglenook, and do 
they want what is suggested above? (Now, 
John, out of personal regard for you, do you 
work around to the door while I am talking, so 
you can bolt readily.) In case the sisters and 
readers of the Nook generally, would prefer 
the abolition of the Home Department, as far as 
the kitchen is concerned, and substituted therefor 
essays, etc., will they please indicate their wish 
by sending the Editor a postal card expressing 
their preference for either a continuance of the 
culinary art, or a substitution therefor along the 
lines indicated by our correspondent? The 
Nook is made for those who subscribe for it, 
and as far as possible it will be worked out along 
the lines chalked by the people we hear from. It 
would be a very interesting magazine if the 
women were allowed to " let go," and the men to 
answer.' Remember that there can be no mixing 
of interests in the Home Department. It is a 
question on the part of our contributor of discon- 
tinuing it entirely, and substituting entirely dif- 
ferent matter instead. What is the voice of the 
family on the subject? 



Take one cup of sorghum molasses, one cup of 
sweet milk, one cup of suet chopped fine, one- 
half cup of melted butter, one cup of raisins, one- 
half cup of currants, two and one-half cups of 
flour, one-half teaspoonful of soda ; mix well, salt 
and spice to taste ; steam two hours. 

Sauce : Take one tablespoonful of cornstarch, 
two-thirds of a cup of sugar, one tablespoonful 
of butter, two tablespoonfuls vinegar, one-half 
a nutmeg, one-half cup of boiling water ; if de- 
sired, one tablespoonful of red sugar may be 
added to color it. 

v Kans. 



Take six large-sized potatoes, one cup chopp 
celery, one-half cupful of cream, sour is prefer 
ble, one teaspoonful of salt, one small onion, thf 
or four sprigs parsley, a dash of black peppt 
one teaspoonful of sugar, one-half teaspoonf 
mustard mixed with vinegar to taste. Add cm 
or more hard-boiled eggs, chopped and mixed i 
Cut the cold boiled potatoes in dice. Mix all t 
gether and let stand several hours. 

Oaks, Pa. 

■4 « 

'OL. IV. 



Place the linen in a tub or any vessel that w 
not rust ; pour over it enough buttermilk to co'f 
it entirely : let stand a day. then rinse in cle£ 
water ; if the stains have not all disappeared, r 
peat the process and wash with warm water ar 

Otterbein, Ohio. 

■4 * 


Take four ounces of borax, four ounces < 
salsoda. two ounces of fuller's earth, and tw 
bars of white laundry soap. Dissolve the soap i 
one vessel and the other ingredients in anothe 
in just enough water to dissolve them. The 
put together and add five gallons of hot wate 
Scrub with a brush and rinse with a clean cloth. 

Meyersdale, Pa. 



Take one ounce each of mullein, horehounq 
broken elecampane root, powdered licorice re 
wild cherry bark (whole), alcohol; add on 
quart of boiling water : boil down to one pin 
strain, add one pound of brown sugar, heat 
dissolved, when cool add the alcohol, bottle ar 
keep in a cool place. Dose, tablespoonful everl 
three hours. Shake. 

Lancaster. Pa. 


Vol. IV 

March 8, 1902. 

No. 10. 



Fair as a star, rare as a star, 

The joys of the future lie 
To the eyes of a child, to the sighs of a child, 

Heavenly far and high! 

Fair as a dream, rare as a dream, 

The hopes of a future sure 
To the wondering child, to the blundering child 

Trusting, and free, and pure!" 

Fair is the soul, rare is the soul 

Who has kept, after youth is past, 

All the art of the child, all the heart of the child. 
Holding his faith at last! 

There are several ways of getting from Chi- 
cago to Milwaukee. In the summer time one of 
the pleasantest ways of travel is to take one of the 
steamer.-; that ply between the two cities, and have 
a vi >yage over the lake. Or, if you are in a hurry, 
you can go on the train. As Sister Kath wrote, 
we took the Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Road. The distance between the two cities, Chi- 
and Milwaukee, is eighty-five miles ; and the 
time is a little over two hours. Both cities are 
i m the lake and both are large cities, Chicago hav- 



the insrca-LEzsrooic. 

ing a population of 1,698,575, while Milwaukee 
ha? 285,315, according to the census of 1900. 
Of course, of the two cities Chicago does the 
greater amount of business, but Milwaukee is 
also a wonderful place. It has many manufac- 
tures and a very large volume of business is 
transacted. In the case of a very 
large city it is always a distributing 
point for the immediate vicinity. 
\\ hero there are two large cities - 
close together as Milwaukee and 
Chicago, or St. Paul and Minneapo- 
lis, which are only about eight miles 
apart, there is naturally much com- 
petition for the trade tributary to the 

So far as its buildings and streets 
are concerned. Milwaukee is a finer 
city than Chicago. Both have the 
advantage of the lake and both have 
a large foreign population. There 
are perhaps more Germans and 
Swedes in and around Milwaukee, 
relatively speaking, than there are 
in Chicago. 

The country between Milwaukee 
and Chicago is a good one agriculturally. In 
fact for more than one hundred miles in everv 

States. This means good pasture, and good pa 
ture means good soil. I need not tell this to 
majority of the Nook readers, who know fan 
ing as well as anybody does. 

While we stopped off at Milwaukee, vet 
almost at once proceeded to St. Paul. Just 



direction from Chicago, where agriculture is pos- 
sible, it is an excellent farming country. It con- 
stitutes the threat dairy center of the United 


good a way as any to see a city, and see it rapi 
and fairly well, is to jump cm a street car and 
just as far as the car goes and t'l 
come back on it and take anon 
This is not a common way of doj 
but it is an excellent one all 
same. It is the way the Xookr 
advised us to take in order to S; 
time. It is one of the least e 
sive ways of traveling and it alw 
covers the ground of the grea 
activities of the city. The street 
people build their roads to fit 
business, and you will not go '.vr 
at any time in seeing the best 
of the city in traveling ovei pntr; 
street railways. Of course. th< 
no law against your paying 
dollars for a hack and dr» 
around, but you will get ti 
111 < more, and what you do se^ 
be no more comfortably see: 
what you get out of the street-cars for ten 
Do not forget that the street-cars everyw 
touch the leading centers of business ac|| 


tieeie msra-i-iiEiisrooic. 


JDown where we live, near the border of Marv- 
el, there are mountains, but no lakes, while up 
this country we strike boating and hunting 
jions and lakes galore. As the country is 
iUy well north, it makes an excellent place for 
Timer tourists. There are lakes in the woods, 


summer resorts by their margins, where the 
ist can paint, and the summer-clad idler may 

in the shade of an over-hanging 
, if he is not inclined to play ten- 
or croquet. \Ye may have our 
1 opinion as to the waste of time 

all in this proceeding, but the 

remains that thousands of peo- 
spend their summers this way. 
s is a region where, if one must 
tway from home to get rest and 

ort. summer resorts, luxury and 
less are easily found. 

«ere are splendid views of 
al scenery on the way between 
vaukee and St. Paul. The rail- 
winds through a very pictur- 
e part of country, portions of 
h we were lucky enough to 
re with our camera and which 

we hope to have re- 
d in the Ingle- 
<k pages. There is 
one thing about this 
natural scenery to 
which I wish to call 
the Xook readers' at- 
tention. A great deal 
of the natural scenery 
of the country is made 
famous by the judi- 
cious use of printers' 
ink. Down near our 
home Thomas Jeffer- 
who climbed on 
top of the hill at Har- 
per's Ferry and looked 
up and down the val- 
ley, said that it was 

th a trip from Europe to stand on the rock 
that bears his name and take in the view. Yet, 
there are hundreds of places where Thomas Jef- 
ferson's view would not make a good back- 
ground to the picture. We have taken some pic- 
tures of the river and other scenery along the 
route of the Milwaukee. 

There are picturesque places along the line of 
the road, and there are others near at hand where 
the seeker after rest finds plenty of shade and 
good fishing to his hand. As said before, it is 
a lake country, and that means good fishing, and 
there are forests, and in its earlier history Wis- 
consin must have been a paradise for the hunter 







and the trapper. As it is now it is mainly given 
over to the farmer, the dairymen and the tour- 
ists. The Dells of the Wisconsin river are inter- 
esting, some of the scenes being shown herewith. 
It seems to Kath and me that this would be an 
ideal country in the summer season, and that this 
is recognized by others is shown in the number 
of visitors annually carried to the woods anil lake 

Of course, not stopping oft en 
route, we can only tell what we 
saw from the car window, or the 
platform. Some of the scenes in 
the great North "Woods country 
are very interesting, and here is one 
of them showing the thoroughfare 
at Minocqua, Wisconsin, to Toma- 
hawk lake. What an ideal place 
for the fisherman. While the run 
between Milwaukee and St. Paul 
would seem to appeal stronger to 
the summer outing, yet the winter 
is by no means without its pictur- 
esque and romantic side. Sitting 
in the Pioneer Limited is not just 
exactly roughing it, but the 
glimpses from the window show 
well that it can be done to the 
heart's content where the tall pines 
watch the waterway. 

The country between Milwaukee and St. Paul 
and that north of the line looks to be a fairly- 
good farming region, though nothing at all like 
the level and rich prairie we expect to see on our 
northern trip through Dakota, where so many of 
our people live. This country is wooded heavily, 
and there is a great deal of lumbering done. 
There are large mills along the road and the river 
is used for lumber transportation to a very large 

The climate in winter does not seem to be unu- 
sually severe, though probably viewing the cli- 
mate of a country through a parlor car window 
is not as correct a guide as living in it for a year 
or two. There is no doubt, however, about its 
being a desirable place for a summer resort. 
There are endless places where hunters, fisher- 
men, and the general idlers congregate in the 
season. There is every grade of accommodation 
from the country farm-house, and the log hotel. 

up to the splendid summer resort with its broa 
piazza, glaring beds of geraniums, and its clrr 
where somebody committed suicide for love, 
summer resort without a Lovers' Leap, wb 
the man, being refused by the hard-hearted maid 
en, goes out and jumps off a hundred feet« 
more, is a poor place. 1 have often wondere 
whether the survivor felt duly sorry and wer 
and jumped too. I asked Kath what she thougr 


about such performances. She was soufl 
enough to say that she looked on it as a got 
riddance. She asked me what 1 thought abo 
it. but I said while I do not know for sure, yet 
thought I had not met the girl I would break n 
neck for in any such summary fashion. The 
just like a girl, she accused me of being witho 
a heart. But there are Lovers' Lanes in abu 
i lance in all this Northern country, and that 
a good deal more like than jumping off sot 

The region between Chicago and St. Paul, 
said before, is largely a dairy country, and t 
lumber interests are large. When we gel | 
enough north we will come to the treeless p] 
and there the difficulty of clearing the f 
growth is absent; but on the other hand, tl 
country is alive with fuel, and there is iv 
in that respect. It is evident that we are gra< 


ally slipping out of the old East into the 
West. ["here are none of the old stone hoti 

life i 



d the big red barns of the home country back 

ist. and instead of the Pennsylvania German 

hear a great deal of Svensk, and see a great 

my Swedes and Danes, not to speak of other 

ing the same language, brings emigrants together 
in sections. 

Confidentially, Kath is beginning to get home- 
sick, though she puts up a brave front and denies 



nalities. I asked an intelligent man on the 
what the cause of these people being 
specially, rather than further south, and he 
that the perfectly general rule was for emi- 
n to follow the same lines of travel west- 
conforming with the parallels of latitude. 
and the desire to be among people speak - 

it. The other day I found her looking at a little 
snapshot picture of our place at home, and when 
I asked her why her eyes were full of tears she 
said it was the climate. Maybe she will confess 






Being in Florida, and within reach of the 
ocean and Pelican Island, we will visit hoth of 
them for the benefit of the Nook family. From 
where we now write we first cross the Indian 
river. This river is about a mile from the ocean, 
and I think the island, or strip of land, from the 
river to the ocean will average about a mile in 
width for about one hundred and fifty miles, the 
length of the river. This land is covered with 
cabbage palms, saw palms, live oaks, ferns, etc. 
On some of the larger live oaks the little ferns 
get a hold in the bark and spread until the limbs 
are hidden with the beautiful growth. On the 
beach is a broad strip of clean, brown sand, de- 
posited there by the ocean in ages past. Stand- 
ing on the beach the ocean seems like a great 
hill sloping gently towards us. From low water 
to high tide is perhaps a distance of one hundred 
feet at this particular place. This leaves a clean, 
smooth, sloping surface of sand, beaten down so 
compactly that soon after the waves leave it one 
may walk over it and scarcely leave a footprint. 
Yet, this sand can readily be scraped up with the 
hands. The sand is so thoroughly washed that 
it is entirely free from all dirt, and can be handled 
to any extent without soiling the hands. On this 
slope of beach the waves have been rolling stead- 
ily for ages. 

The first thing I did when I got there was what 
about every Nook boy and girl would like to do. 
I took off my shoes and stockings and waded 
into the surf of the Atlantic ocean, and I only 
wished that I had with me a bathing suit, that I 
could enter the water. 

The constant swell of the vast ocean breaks 
upon the beach in waves, and this goes on con- 
stantly. It is this that causes the roar, very much 
like that made by a distant train of cars, heard 
in a heavy atmosphere. It may be heard in min- 
iature by holding a conch shell to the ear. 

One of the interesting things along the shore 
is a little bird called a sand-piper. As the waves 
roll up on the beach these little birds, in flocks of 
a dozen or more, will run up' just as fast as the 
water does, and as soon as the waves begin to 
break they follow them back until they meet the 
next one coming up. They look like a lot of little 

balls coming up with the water. Their object 
to catch insects and marine animals which th 
sharp eyes notice instantly. 

On the crest of the waves rides a great sh 
perhaps ten or fifteen feet long. He looks 
and comfortable as he rides on through 
waves, yet he is ever on the alert lor a victim 

And here are the pelicans along the bea 
Their home is from four to five miles up the ri\ 
and they are here fishing, as that is their o 
food. They sail along, almost touching 
water at times, picking up a fish that may vent 
too close to the surface. Usually they fly 
single file, and so accurately do they maint 
the distance between them that no militarv | 
could improve it. 

Pelican Island, where these birds live, is ab 
fifty feet wide and two hundred and fifty 
long. This island was formerly covered v 
black mangrove, a tropical tree. These trees 
all dead now, and the pelicans use them for 
nests, which are made of dead grass and lea 
and are about the size of a half bushel. If tl 
is not room for all they will build on the grot 
They lay three eggs, about the size of a d~ 
egg. In a space about twenty-five feet sqt 
I counted about one hundred young birds, r-: :.-,; 
estimated that there were from 1,000 to i. 
young pelicans perched on the dead branches t 
on their nests on the ground. They were o: . 
sizes from the ugly, black, little ones, just 
of the egg up to the full-fledged bird ready r ,,-.. 

When these big, lazy-looking birds have t 
wings extended they measure about six feet f 
tip to tip. Their backs and the top of their w '■' ;: 
are white, while their lower feathers are b) -v 
The pelican is a " rubber-neck " in every sens 
the word. Their mandibles are fourteen in * 
long, with a distinct hook on the upper one. 
tached to the lower is a pocket or sack exten ' 
back and down the neck about two feet, and t 
about eight or ten inches wide. In this pc 
they carry their fish to their young and 
mates doing their hatching. These pouche 
actual measurement, hold fifteen quarts of \v 
They have web feet and are in every sense a 
ter bird. Around their home island they m< 
seen sitting on the water by the hundred 
eggs can be found in all stages of incube 


tikie ihgleitook:. 

: oni the one fresh laid to the broken shell of the 
in chick. 

fould the Xookers like to hear from the 
lamas? Possiblv. ves: but that's another 

'abasso, Fla. 

* + + 


No. 3. Keeping Store. 

w n 


LN a recent issue of the Inglenook the Edi- 
asks women who are compelled to earn their 

living to write and tell about it. I am one 

^reat army of women and will gladly tell 

at I do if it will help some other unfortunate. 

er seven years ago I was thrown upon my 

resources with a family of four small chil- 
li, ranging in age from six years to six months. 
as left with a good house and some live stock, 
the suburbs of a city of 25.000 inhabitants. 
Did the horses, except one, and kept two cows. 
le pigs and the chickens. I managed to get 
r about three years, my live stock get- 
; ;--■ . 1 less and less until the last cow was sold. I 
) received some help in this time. 

began to see the great necessity of doing 
lething that would count, to make a living. 
ten sold my house, which was a much larger 

than I needed, and bought a smaller one of 

I rooms and ground enough for a garden and 
e fruit trees. This transaction left me 
;.:. '. 2ve ugh cash difference to start in business in a 
,.± x -*>. r small way. You would hardly think it pos- 

than sixty 
lined the ' 

that a grocery store could be started with 

dollars. But that is what I did. 
best room " of my house into a 
fery store. But before I laid in my stock I 
: among my neighbors -to solicit their trade, 
eceived enough encouragement to make the 
ure. I then went to one of the several whole- 
groceries here in the city, and bought as 
11 a quantity of each kind of staple grocer- 
is my limited capital would allow, so that I 
lit get as great a variety as possible. At first 
ught nothing of what might be termed " fan- 
groceries. I bought flour at the mills, wrap- 
paper, paper bags, etc., at a wholesale paper 
: where I could get a small quantity more 

reasonable than at the wholesale grocery. I also 
laid in a supply of thread, needles, pins, pencils, 
stationery, buttons, etc., and stamps, no profit in 
the latter hut to accommodate, and possibly draw 

To • start with, my counter was a table, my 
shelving boxes. The scales were loaned me un- 
til I was able to buy them. I bought second- 
hand gasoline and oil tanks. I thus got started 
very nicely and added to my stock as fast as I was 
able, always paying cash. I will add right here 
that this is the only way to buy, and sell, too. and 
have an easy mind. Although I've never tried 
the " time " system in buying I've tried it in 
selling. I bought goods of different houses 
where I could do best, and by paying cash one 
can be independent. A kind neighbor hauled 
the goods for me, the wholesale houses not de- 
livering so small an order. 

About three years ago I began buying ex- 
clusively of a large wholesale and retail house 
where it was possible to get a greater varietv. 
as they had " broken cases " of everything and 
at as fair prices as the others, and they also de- 
liver all my goods, except the gasoline and oil, 
which the company I buy of delivers, whenever 
ordered. Butter comes in just about enough to 
supply the demand, and eggs many more, but I 
can exchange to the wholesale house for goods. 
I keep no tobacco in any form. 

I now have a real counter and about three times 
the variety of goods I started with, and a larger 
stock until the room is quite crowded, and, best 
of all. I like the work. I do my own housework 
and bake quite a good deal of bread for sale. 

Much care and thought must be exercised in 
buying in season, especially perishables. It is not 
all plain sailing, — people are wanting always to 
buy on time. You can safely trust an honest 
neighbor for a few days, but I would advise 
against it as a practice. Upon the whole, I think 
I can keep house and provide for my family better 
in keeping this store than in any other way. My 
children are never kept out of school, but deliver 
goods when necessary in the evening, and on 
Saturday, in a small hand wagon. I can hardly 
see how so small a business could be carried on in 
a place where there are no wholesale houses, but 
" Failure " is not written over many widows' 




A boy writes the Nook, asking a question that 
probably has troubled millions of other boys and 
girls before him, and he comes to us with his 
trouble. Briefly, he wants to know how to get 
an education. He says he is poor and wants to 
get through quickly. 

The proposition is an excellent one, and, for- 
tunately, the answer is a ready one. Go to 
school, the nearest, best school accessible. With- 
out going into details, which might not be under- 
stood by the very class intended to instruct, it 
has been very well settled that this is the best 
thing to do. There is something, in fact a great 
deal, in the mere association with learners trav- 
eling the same path. The main object of school 
does not consist in learning things out of a book, 
but the idea is the disciplinary effect. The work 
of a school, as mapped out generally, is to put an 
edge on the blunt mind. It enables the educated 
man to get hold of a .thing without having it 
diagrammed and explained to him in half a dozen 
different ways. He sees things because he is 
trained to do it. He understands quicker. The 
uneducated man is slow of wit, lopsided in his 
estimate of things, and likely to be wrong and is- 
hard to set right. 

Now our boy says he is poor and probably can 
not get off to school. There is nothing new in 
all this. What, then, is he to do? The next 
best thing is for him to take up the studies of a 
school, one at a time, and, as near as may be, let 
him master them. It has been done, but the 
chances are that they will be dropped. Not one 
boy in fifty has the will power to set aside a given 
time each day and systematically bone his way 
through a subject. He gets his book, makes his 
boasts, starts fairly and sooner or later begins to 
dawdle and neglect his work and then abandons 
it. He would be of little good if he did go to 
school, just as the majority of school goers never 
become scholars. After a certain age progress 
seems practically impossible. True, it has been 
done, but for one remembered success there are 
a hundred wrecks forgotten and lost sight of. 
But this one thing is worthy of being remem- 
bered. If boys and girls are worth educating they 
will get there in some way, school or no school. 
The most of those who do go to school never ac- 
quire accuracy. Not one in ten of them can write 

a column for the Ixglenook, sense not consid 
ered, and have it so accurate that no change neet 
be made by the proofreader. Xo newspape 
office expects it. and the receipt of an article need 
ing no correction from first to last would be littl 
less than a miracle, even though done by 
recognized as a scholar.' The element of 
curacy throughout is wanting. There is no s 
thing as an absolutely accurate continued o 
dition, for the human mind is like any other <£ 
ganization, liable to error and lack of proporti 
luit he who comes the nearest to it, as far as 
g( ies, is the best scholar. If he can only add 1 
columns of figures and get them right every tir 
he i- a scholar that far, even though he ne 
heard of fractions. 

So kt our boy start with the very elements 
get every idea in them, clearly and effectivi 
and when mastered, pass on to the next in or 
Let him remember that he must know his 
language accurately and that all he knows a 
anything must be as thorough as possible to h: 
mental make-up, and then -he will begin to bl 
scholar and when he has passed from one to tfc 
i ither of the sciences in this way he will bee 
a proficient scholar. There is no quick road, 
short cut, no easy way of it. It means vs| 
Reading is not education. It comes from 
proaching accurate habits of thought and 
pression by beginning on the very ground 
and working up stairs, creeping, crawling 
stumbling till he can walk upright with c 
e in himself. 

The only merit of the school is that it 
help, and a mighty help, too. If it canno 
reached, the next best thing is the book, the 
corner, resolution and industry. Let our boy 
rid of the idea that there is some hidden mai 
the school. After all, it is only buckling di 
to a thing and boning away till it is unders' 
what is sought for, and education is the help 
dci this quickly and well. The value of the edl 
cation consists in accuracy as far as it goes 
let our boy take courage and begin just where 
is shaky in his knowledge and start the climb U 

4« ♦ 4* 

1 tii ham smeller's only tools are a long 
trier and his nose. He stands in a barrel to 
his clothes from being soiled by the drippii 

the insrca-LEiNroojc. 


fine, and the hams are brought to him, and he 
ages his sharp-pointed trier into them, with- 
vs it and passes it swiftly beneath his nose, 
trier always goes down to the knuckle joint, 
testing meat in that manner the man with 
trier judges by the slightest shade of differ- 
between the smell of one piece of meat and 
Other. The smell of the meat is almost univer- 
sweet, and that is what he smells. The 
itest taint or deviation from the sweet smell 
therefore appreciable. It is not the degree of 
at that he expects to find, but the slightest odor 
is not sweet. 

fhen he detects an odor, he throws the meat 
ie, and if it is not unwholsome it is sold as 
jected " meat, but if it is tainted it goes to the 
fdering tank. The ham tester smells meat 
7 o'clock in the morning until 5 o'clock at 
fit, and his sense must never become jaded or 
act or his usefulness would be at an end. 
am testing is not a pursuit dangerous to the 
i, as tea testing is supposed to be, but the 
1 smeller with a cold in his head is like a piano 
who loses his arm in a railroad wreck. 
<{• <|> 4> 
There is no cloud attached to the 
silver lining of the fat parse. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The people of Elgin were treated to an ex- 
lent series of illustrated lectures by Bro. D. 
Tiller a week or so ago. Bro. Miller, as 
of our readers are aware, has traveled 
ensively in the Orient, and in the course of 
travels has acquired a large number of 
|tographic views, and with the aid of an ex- 
ent lime light stereopticon, these are 
irn on a large screen, and the views are ac- 
kpanied by a running description, by the 
jrer, that makes the entertainment, which 
nightly for a week, a most interesting one. 
ie excellence of the views, and the inter- 
attaching to the descriptive talk, make the 
fcrtainment an exceptionally interesting and 
jctive one. The way it was managed 
was in having the instrument set up in 
lend of the church, and the screen stretched 
kss the far end of the room. The pictures, 
like and expressive, were thrown on this 
en. There were [quite a large number of 

them, all good, and some of them beautifully 
colored, while the lecturer, having had the ad- 
vantage of a personal acquaintance with the 
scenes, pointed out the things of special inter- 
est. The audience was large and appreciative, 
and the locality that succeeds in getting the 
entertainment will be sure of a week's interest- 
ing and instructive visit to places they will nev- 
er, in all probability, see in person. 
4. 4. 4, 

No man wins success to-day by 
spending his time complaining 
about yesterday. 

T T T 


From the mountains of New Hampshire comes 
a David-Harum-like story- of the advent of the 
first automobile, which made its appearance last 
summer, having climbed one of the steep slopes 
near Wonalancet with disastrous results to the 
running gear. The accident happened near a 
hayfield, where a farmer was endeavoring to 
repair a broken mowing machine. Attracted by 
the appearance of the strange-looking horseless 
vehicle, the fanner left his occupation and came 
out to inspect the remarkable object with open- 
mouthed astonishment. After a few moments of 
silent scrutiny he said to the chauffeur, who was 
repairing the break as well as he could : 

" Wha' d'ye call that 'ere machine? " 

"That is an automobile," was the reply; 
"'what do you call yours?" pointing waggishly 
to the disabled apparatus in the field. 

" Wal," was the dry response, with a pause for 
a shift of " chaw." " it auto-mo'-hav, but it 
don't ! " 

♦ t ♦ 

.4 man's dullness is usually due 
to his inability to reflect. 

t ♦ 4 

According to experiments conducted by H. 
Janssen on Mont Blanc it is not necessary to 
erect poles for stringing telephone and telegraph 
wires in snow-covered countries. If the snow 
is several inches thick it serves as a good insu- 
lator; the wires can simply be laid down and be 
ready for transmission of messages. 


the insro-LiEitsrooiK:. 



T ▼ ▼ 

A A A 



What is said to be the only pigeon ranch in 
the world is near Los Angeles, Cal. It covers 
eight acres of sand}', gravelly ground in the bed 
of the Los Angeles river, where there is an abun- 
dance of water. Here stands an enormous ark- 
shaped loft, or pigeon house, whose crudities of 
architecture are concealed by the thousands of 
pigeons upon the roof. Fifteen thousand birds 
fairly cover the ground and loft, so that at 
times from a distance it appears as though some 
of the snow from the neighboring Sierras had 
been dropped upon the roof. The increase of 
this gigantic flock is enormous. If the market 
should fail the owner would be utterly unable to 
feed his birds, as in less than two years he would 
by calculation have a million birds on his hands. 
Fortunately the demand is better than the sup- 
ply, and the pigeon ranch sends about 40,000 
squabs a year to the market. 

The statistics of this unique ranch are interest- 
ing. The estimated output for the month is 
3,000, the gross income being about $9,000 a year. 
The average price per dozen for the birds is 
about $3.00, sometimes ranging up to $10.00. 
The expense of maintaining such an enormous 
flock is considerable. The birds are fed three 
times a day, each meal costing approximately for 
all $5.00, so the annual food bill is about $5,500. 
The food consists mainly of wheat, screenings, 
boiled meal and stale bread. The daily consump- 
tion is about twelve sacks of screenings, eight 
sacks of wheat and many gallons of boiled meal. 
The bread is an additional fattener given during 
the week. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


One of the most famous natural curiosities in 
the United States — the wonderful " frozen well " 
at Brandon, Vt, is the work of man played upon 
by a freak of nature. The well was dug in the 

▼ T T 

year 1858, and has been a noted wonder since 1 
first fifteen feet of the excavation was made. 
was started in gravel, which extended to a de] 
of ten feet, where a four-foot bed of sticky yell 
clay was encountered. After this clay strat 
had been pierced, and the total depth of the w 
was pronounced to be fourteen feet, a deposit 
solidly-frozen gravel was struck. Work wh 
was done on the well during the next three 
four weeks revealed the fact that this glacial 
posit was exactly fifteen and one-half feetj 
thickness. After the excavation had been 
tended through the frozen gravel a layer of s;| 
(unfrozen) was revealed, and it was in this tj 
water was found. A " basin " was then dug I 
( which gave the well a total depth of thirty- 
and one-half feet), and the hole was t 
walled up. Since that time the water in 
peculiar well has never been more nor less t 
two feet in depth, and this is always frozen c 
with a sheet of ice of greater or less thicknl 
During the summer of 1895 the temperature] 
the bottom of " Brandon's Frozen Well " 
phenomenally low- — so low, in fact, that ic 
one time formed to the depth of twenty- 
inches on the two-foot sheet of water. A 
times of the year there is ice from four to e 
inches thick on the walls of the well where, 
come in contact with the frozen stratum. 

t : 


♦ ♦ ♦ 

Sponges of the common sorts are so 
known that people long ceased to admire f| 
curious and interesting structure. There 
some rare species of sponges, however, sucl 
the " glass " " lace " and " tapestry " sporl 
that are so exceedingly beautiful that the presl 
of such a specimen never fails to excite ex]| 
sions of admiration. The delicate " Venus 
er basket " belongs to the family of glass spoi| 
and is rightly regarded as a wonder by all 
have had the privilege of owning or vie - ! 


1 en 




iem. This curious " flower basket " is found in 
le deep sea near the Philippine Islands and in 
o other place in the world in numbers sufficient 
> make fishing for them a profitable industry, 
'his species of sponge looks like delicate threads 
f glass woven into a curious, beautiful and in- 
•icate pattern, some specimens being of such 
quisite loveliness that one can scarcely believe 
lat it is simply the skeleton of a variety of 
jonge. This sponge is composed of an im- 
lense aggregation of minute " spicules," running 
ngthwise from end to end, with numerous cross 
inds at right angles. These bands and cross 
knds are set with numerous, five, six, nine and 
lelve pointed spicules, some of them filled with 
>zens of holes, which can only be seen with a 
icroscope, because they are so exceedingly 

* * * 


,)The visitor to the Falkland islands sees a 
Amber of what appears to be weather-beaten, 
•pss-covered boulders of various sizes scat- 
red here and there. On attempting to turn 
|e over he is surprised to find that it is an- 
jored to the ground by roots of great strength. 
-Iiese are not boulders : they are trees. No oth- 
„ place in the world can show such a peculiari- 

of " forest " growth. 

-.The Falkland islands are exposed to a strong 

. lar wind, which renders it impossible for trees 

.. grow in the proper form ; nature has, conse- 

• ,,,( Hitly, adapted herself to the prevailing condi- 

...... is and produced this strange form of plant 

These " living stones," as they are called, 
quite devoid of " grain," and it is next to im- 
isible to cut them up and utilize them for fuel. 

*r t t 


are so 



flat onathan Bass, the original of the many cel- 

ver 51H tted "ossified" men, first noticed that his 

.,„. ;^j its were stiffening into solid bone in the fall 

, ,i, e pr(S 1848. At that time he lived at Cambria, N. 

ate ej and, although his frame continued to ossify 

■■ Venus rapidly as the disease could make progress, 

.■jjKSia lid not die until quite recently. He first took 

all lis bed in 1857 an< l remained there perfectly 

,. yj{ iless, with every joint perfectly solid, unable 

to stir or even masticate food, for upwards of 
thirty-five years! During all that awful ordeal 
his constitutional health remained in what the 
physicians pronounced " splendid condition." 
His was undoubtedly the most remarkable case 
of total ossification on record. 

* -b ♦ 


The longest fast on record terminated fatally 
at Dubuque, Iowa. The victim, a lad fifteen 
years old, named Thomas Sutton, was not an 
apostle of either Succi or Tanner, but was forced 
to abstain from food by paralysis of the throat 
and stomach, caused by an injury to the spine. 
He managed to exist for ninety-six days, or over 
three months, without taking a bite of any kind 
of food. During the first six weeks of the boy's 
forced fast he was given a teaspoonful of wine 
every hour, but for the thirty-three days preced- 
ing his death nothing whatever passed his lips. 

♦ 4 ♦ 

The highest village in Europe is Avers Platz, 
in Switzerland (7,500) ; the highest inhabited 
point in Europe is the Hospice of St. Bernard, 
in Switzerland (8,200 feet). In Colorado the 
mining town of Lead ille, with 15,000 inhab- 
itants, is over 14,500 feet above sea level; other 
silver mines are worked at an altitude of over 
12,000 feet. 

•fr ♦ ♦ 


The strongest animals exist entirely on vegeta- 
ble food. It is the ferocity of the lion rather 
than his strength that makes him formidable. 
An elephant is a match for several lions, and is a 
vegetarian. The animals with most speed and 
endurance — the horse, the reindeer and the ante- 
lope — are all vegetarians. 

* * * 

A large number of cuttlefish have recently 
been caught off the north coast of Germany. As 
they have never before been met with in these 
waters it is difficult to account for their presence. 


this ustgleitook:. 




Elgin, Illinois. 

The subscription price of the Magazine is one dollar a year. It is 
a high-class publication, intended for the Home, and for the interest, 
entertainment and information, of old and young. 

Articles intended for publication should be short, of general inter- 
est, and nothing of a love story character or with either cruelty or 
killing, will be considered. 

Manuscript submitted to the Editor will be at the entire risk of 
the writer, and its return is not guaranteed. 

Subscribers wishing the address of their papers changed should 
Invariably give the old address at which they received their Ingle- 

Agents are wanted everywhere, and any reasonable number of 
sample copies will be furnished free. All communications relating 
to the Inglenook should be addressed as follows:"! 


(For the Inglenook.) 32-24 S. State St., Elgin, III. 

Entered at the Post Office at Elgin, 111., as Second-class Matter. 

Two visions by men's dying eyes are seen, 
Both so unlike, both freighted with despair, 

The lovely shade of what they might have been, 
The unclean, gibbering ghost of what they were. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

So he people condense all their religion into 
one day of the week, and then often into a few 
hours of that one day. Not disparaging that 
method, the Nook suggests that a better plan 
is to incorporate our religion into our everyday- 
life. It is something that can be done, that is 
often done, and which should be done at all times. 
There is no business in religion, but there may 
and must be a great deal of religion in business. 
In fact we should show our faith and profession ■ 
in ajl that we do. One reason for this, which all 
will assent to as being correct, is to ensure a hab- 
it of doing things right and religiously correct 
till it becomes automatic, as it were. 

The writer once knew a man who ran to the 
fad of clocks, and he had dozens of them, of all 
kinds and conditions. But when he wanted to set 
his watch he consulted a somewhat plain old- 
fashioned-looking specimen, in a corner, giving as 
his reason that it always kept correct time, nei- 
ther gaining nor losing to any appreciable extent. 

And that is just what is meant by putting oui 
religion into our everyday lives, doing it in such 
a way that our actions are standard at any hotn 
of any day in the week. It is not so very difncul] 
once the habit is acquired. 

* * * 

It is more blessed to give than to 
receive, simply because the giver 
can squeeze no end of contentment 
out of the contemplation of his 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


Is this true? Is it a fact that when honesty i 
a result of a policy on the part of the individua 
that it has any moral merit? We think not 
The moment a man is truthful, or sincere, or wht 
keeps his word, simply because it is profitable to, 
do so he immediately loses all moral merit a 
far as the principle of the thing is concerned 
Not a suspicion of policy can attach to honest; 
without tainting it. 

On the other hand honest) should be innajj 
inborn, ingrained, and as habitual as the use oj 
the right hand, or any other physical character 1 
istic. It is meritorious just as it is in propor 
tion to its naturalness, and policy is a thing ut 
terly apart from it, and wholly incompatible wi 
it. When a man is honest because it pays 
it is a pretty good sign that he would be dish 
est if that paid better. Let the element of person! 
al profit cut no figure in any part of truthful 

Man is but a freckle on the face 
of time. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


\l BOE 

"Did you get the Nook, Pop?" And Po 
slowly disentangles himself and fishes it out 
his pocket. Then you see half a dozen h 
together while they leaf over the pages and 
in the pictures. Ma breaks up the party, an 
while the larger ones are at their work she an 
the least look it over and finally wedge it bac 
of the clock till after supper when there is a gooc 
natured squabble as to who gets it first. Tl 
lamp burns brightly on the table and two or thn 


id the 






\ to read it at once, while, outside, the stars 
e blinking and the farm animals resting and 

Get all the good you can out of it. It's 
range, but true, that the people who make the 
00K. and those who read it in the happy homes, 
ill never all meet in any other way than the 
Id of thought crystallized in its pages. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 
An old bachelor says that matri- 
mony is the best cooking school. 

♦ * •'• 



Where is the boy, or girl either, for that mat- 

who would not like to be a naturalist? And 

is so easy, after all. All there is to it is the 

curate study of the daily life history of animals. 

is only a matter of seeing things and classify- 

* them, and yet the ability to see a thing and 

ize its related meaning is one of the rarest 

implishments. Not one in a thousand can 

it, easy as it seems. The failures are due to 

.ck of training. 

he naturalist looks at an insect creeping over 
printed page he is reading, or sees a bird fly 
the car window, and he sees more in the fleet- 
look than the unskilled person would discover 
a day. It's all in the seeing and in knowing 
Let every Nooker get into the habit of 
y seeing things they look at. Every reader 
seen an old cow cropping grass, but how 
y front teeth has she in her upper jaw? 
♦ *J* ♦ 


" Ani| 
ties it ° 
teen 1 
iges ani| 
work * 


d two w 

All things come to those who get 
tired waiting and go after them. 

4> 4. .;. 

IE war is still on in South Africa, and the 

jl, so often promised, is not yet. It is not likely 

England will ever find herself in peaceable 

session of the territory for which she has so 

rly contested. The cost of the war has been 

lessive, and the waste in human life has borne 

Oom Paul's original statement that the price 

|ubduing them-would stagger humanity. Dis- 

: has wrought as much havoc, and more, than 

lets, and the money outlay thus far has been 

enormous. \.ddedto this there have been discov- 
eries of surprising frauds in purchasing supplies. 
Take it all in all it is a verification of the truth 
about war's uselessness. Tt is doubtful whether 
there has ever been a good war or a bad peace, 
and all the conquests made by force of arms could 
have been accomplished in a better way if the 
principles of the Sermon on the Mount had ob- 
tained in the councils of the contesting parties. 

♦ *i- ♦ 

Should any of our Nook family get an extra 
copy of the Inglenook, will such recipient kind- 
ly hand it to someone likely to be interested? 
Some are sent out in this way with this issue. 

♦ ♦ 4> 

Ink bottles and spoons, pens and knives and 
the rest of the premiums, are steadily going out 
to the Nook family as a slight appreciation of the 
missionary work our friends are doing among 
their acquaintances by introducing them to the 
Inglenook. Let the good work go on. There 
are lots of premiums left. 

♦ ♦ * 

Nookers will take notice of the important 
question pending concerning the disposition of 
the Home Department. A member of the family 
suggests its abolition. True, he is only a " mere 
man," but he will be heard, if not set back by a 
voluminous protest on the part of the rest. If 
you want the Home Department continued, write 
and say so at once. The Nook is managed in 
the interests of its readers, and they must express 
themselves, or forever after, etc. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

As there has been considerable of a demand 
for the resumption of the want and labor column 
in the Nook all who want either work or to hire 
workers, if they are members of the Nook family, 
or inmates of a family where the Inglenook is 
read, may send in their wants and they will be 
published. Nothing but work will be consid- 
ered in this connection. No charges are made, 
and if an advertisement is answered and the 
person for whom it is intended receives it, the 
courtesy of a personal letter is recommended, 
acknowledging the receipt of the answer, if no 
more. If anything appears in the Nook that is 
not straight, at once notify the magazine. Now 
send in vour wants. 




There is a popular belief that vast wealth lies 
buried deep between the sand and rocks of our 
coasts. Ship after ship, laden with ingots and 
coinage, has struck on the British beaches and 
gone to pieces during the last five hundred years. 
From time to time hundreds of pounds' worth of 
gold has been showered on the seashore and 
picked up and used, yet there still remains some- 
thing like eighty million sterling in gold and 
silver under the sea. 

When the " Jonkheer Meester Van de Wall," a 
Dutch East Indiaman, struck the iron-bound sea- 
front of the Lizard many years ago, she went to 
pieces before anything could be done to save her. 
Some fishermen from Penberth Cove, while en- 
gaged in fishing up blocks of tin which 
formed part of the vessel's cargo, found a tin box 
lying in six-fathoms water. Being opened, it was 
found to contain coins to the value of £13,000. It 
is said that there are other boxes of gold, silver 
and banknotes lying among the rocks and sands 
where the ship sank. 

In 1874 a Spanish galleon went ashore near the 
Lizard, having on board many thousands of 
pounds' worth of bar gold and money, which 
were being carried to London for safety during 
the unsettled state of affairs in Spain. The 
greater part of this vast wealth still lies awaiting 
recovery between the rocks, which have, even at 
low water, six feet of water over them. 

Some years ago a company sank a shaft 
through the rock below high water mark to try 
to recover the riches the sea holds so tight. It 
was imagined that the waves after a storm would 
drive some portion of the buried specie into the 
hole at the bottom of the shaft. Before the work 
was completed, however, the sea broke in, and the 
shaft had to be abandoned. Another syndicate 
soon afterward dragged the bottom of the sea in 
the Lizard district, but nothing of importance 
was found. The treasure is undoubtedly there, 
for coins and ingots are being constantly washed 
ashore on the beach. 

Treasure to the value of a million and a half 
sterling, which went to the bottom of the sea with 
a Dutch galleon, lies awaiting recovery some- 
where on the Chesil beach, a long, narrow tongue 
of shingly land near the great convict station of 
Portland. This Dutch treasure ship was return- 

ing from the West Indies laden with precic 
metal, and when coming up the channel v 
caught in a gale and driven into Portland ra 
where tremendous broken seas rage when thi 
is any wind. Gradually she was carried tow£ 
Chesil beach, and it did not take her long 
dissolve into match wood. The entire freight 
gold and silver went to the bottom. Occasiona 
the fishermen are reminded of its existence 

finding a silver or gold bar or two on the bea 


ill lie; 
ltd tw 

The " Abergavenny." which was lost in a sto 
off Weymouth about the year 1800, had on bo< 
several thousand pounds' worth of specie j 
jewels. In 1806 a syndicate was formed, and 
means of a diving bell sixty-two chests of d 
lars. to the value of $350,000, were fished up 

Treasure of vast amount is supposed to lie 1 
der the sea in the Sarn Badrig, a sunken cau 
way running miles out to sea from the We 
coast. The story runs that a French treas 
ship, the " Bretagne," struck on this death trap 
ships, and, caught by one huge wave, hurled cc 
pletelv over, to sink with all hands in deep wai 

Another case of total loss, involving four 
a half millions in gold coins, was the striking 
the" Infanta," a noble Spanish galleon, on the ro 
of Mizzenhead, near Bantry bay, in NovemI 
1793. The nature of the coast renders investi 
tion difficult, and not a single coin has b 
brought to the surface. In all probability 
treasure will remain in the sea for centuries. 

The " Czarina," having fifteen million dollar: 
gold on board, foundered in Filey Brigg, on 
Yorkshire coast, and another galleon was 
a few miles farther south, near Bridlington qui 
Thirty thousand pounds have been drawn frj 
the sea's clutches at Bridlington quay, and the 
mainder lies awaiting the person who is abl 
rescue it. 

The Gunfleet bank, off the Essex coast, is thi 
ly strewn with gold and silver, in coin and ing 
for the " Vrouwe Polder," a Dutch vessel, emp c 
its cargo of half a million sterling in gold and 
ver there. 

About a century ago a Spanish treasure s 
carrying a freight of a million sterling 
caught in a storm near Beachy Head, and s 
with all on board. The treasure lies in a 
hole, over which a strong current runs, makin 
impossible for divers to descend. 


ver. is 



Did pa; 

oath of 



4 as i n 

! k tai; 



Much treasure trove lies off the coast of Ire- 
.nd. Many Spanish galleons have shed their 
a ches there, and several ships of the great arma- 
eja, with all their wealth on board, came to grief 
the district. Three millions are scattered off 
I point near Tralee, or rather its equivalent in 
bubloons. Numerous attempts have been made 
I recover the treasure, and one syndicate actually 
scued two hundred thousand dollars from the 
; a : but the bulk of the wealth remains untouched 
1 this day. and at low tide there is only a foot 
! water over the scene of the wreck. The ship, 
j>wever. is buried in the sand, but one day a 
ighty gale might scoop the sand away and re- 
al the lost treasure, and then some person will 
id himself rich beyond dreams of avarice. 
4. 4. 4. 

You never realize how dearly you 

have paid for your whistle until you 

try to sell it. 

4. 4. 4. 


Is a man more likely to tell the truth after he 

s raised his right hand and sworn on the Bible 

he will do so? Modern nations are coming 

' Idoubt this. In Germany oaths have been abol- 

jed altogether. In England and Australia the 

lemn affirmation has now as mach force as the 

!>st solemn oath. In France no oath is required 
members of the legislature. 
[The taking of an oath is a very ancient prac- 
i'"- 2 *, and it has been followed by the people of 
:--- ] l countries. The Medes and Persians swore. 
r" "" le Egyptians and Assyrians swore. Chris- 
ilingM'jIi and pagan, savage and civilized men, 
'bmiswore and still swear. The Bible is full of 
■ i' ;! hs. And probably a time will never come 
vho is abl en the oath will have altogether died out of 

coast, is tl lie oath of the Christian takes two forms. In 
jin and in jland, Spain, Italy, Austria and America, 
[f . e :.f 5ng other places, it is taken on the Bible. But 
English alone kiss the book. In France and 
gium the Scotch method of raising the hand 

'arsees sometimes give rise to much perplexity 
our courts. They strongly object to being 
irn on the Bible, and claim the right to make 
oath as in their own country — namely, by 
iing the tail of a cow. The cow being a 


leal and 
lies in s 
runs, «*! 

sacred animal in the eyes of the Parsee, he can 
commit no sin while touching it. But there is 
fortunately an alternative. In the city of Lon- 
don courts, some years ago, it being impractica- 
ble to procure a cow, a Parsee took a sacred relic 
Miit from his bosom and. holding it aloft, swore 
impressively, " By God, and God omniscient, and 
( iod Omnipresent, and God Almighty." 

Mahometans are much opposed to swearing. 
\\ hen they do swear it is a very solemn cere- 
mony, and is performed by holding the Koran in 
the right hand, placing the left hand on the fore- 
head and bringing the head down to the book. 
A Mahometan never commits perjury. In India 
their prejudice against swearing is so strong that 
the government allows them to affirm. 

Of all the oaths the Buddhist one comes near- 
est to what an oath should be. Although we 
swear to tell the whole truth, we either do not 
understand what we promise to do or we evade 
the obligation. The Buddhist cannot fall into 
the former error, so clearly does his oath indicate 
what he has to do. " I swear, as in the presence 
of Buddha, that I am unprejudiced, and if what 
I speak prove false, or if by my coloring truth 
others shall be led astray, then may the three holy 
existences. Buddha, Dhamma and Pro Sango, 
together with the Devotees of the Twenty-two 
firmaments, punish me and also my migrating 

Hindoos, like the Chinese, have a variety of 
oaths. The laws of Manu say : " Let the judge 
cause the priest to swear by his veracity ; the sol- 
dier by his horse or weapons; the merchant by 
his cattle, grain, gold or other possessions, and 
the servile man by imprecating curses on his own 

4, 4. 4, 


Anon twenty-five years ago government en- 
gineers decided to pave Pennsylvania avenue in 
Washington with asphalt. That w^as the be- 
ginning of the general use of the scientific mys- 
tery for street pavements. To-day over 234,000,- 
000 square feet of street pavements in the United 
States and Canada are covered with asphalt. 
This asphalt pavement would make a boulevard 
twenty-six feet wide over 1,750 miles long and 
would reach from New York to New Orleans, 
and then have several miles for side streets. 




'0 - 






the zisra-XjEisrooic. 


HOW $100,000 A YEAR GOES. 

How readily $50,000 to $100,000 a year melts 
ay in the household of the " smart set " can 
5t be told in a little account of the way these 
jple live their lives, of the demands modern 
ihion in Xew York makes upon her votaries. 
|\s a general thing, upper servants manage a 
use of this class under the general control of 
[Ster and mistress. Several Xew York estab- 
lments have as many as twenty-five servants; 
! at least thirty. A good butler can command 
y close to $80 per month, a valuable house- 
per $60. Personal maids cost $40, a man as 
to S75. Cook or chef for a house 
ere there is much entertaining means an ex- 
ise of anywhere from $50 a month to $10,000 
ear. It will thus be seen that the wage list 
oe of a household of even ten servants is no 
ill item, and the expense of feeding them, even 
servants' table, is a great additional ex- 

Tie man and the woman have a country home 
ceep up, too, an added series of bills. The ele- 
lt of house rent probably does not figure in 
case, practically all this class owning their 

mansions, yet some hundreds or thousands 
5t be added each and every year for ref ur- 
lings and repairs. There are books, pictures, 

a-brac to be bought, even if the man and the 
nan themselves care very little for these 

ince mother Eve started the question of 
es, costume with both sexes has been a vital 
e. With the smart set this is of paramount 
ortance. What proportion of an income of 
3,000 a large family spends on clothing and 
onal adornment it would be very difficult to 

But a few figures may prove illuminative. 

he writer once made a careful study of what 

' York's smart girls spent on dress. He 

id the average, taking girls of small means 

large, to be from $1,500 to Si, 800 a year each. 

even $1,800 would be a very small sum for a 

to-day in the height of fashion. Such a 

would find it difficult to scrimp along on less 

$2,500, and that would mean that her allow - 

was eked out by man}' presents from her fa- 

and mother. A well-dressed matron would 

I ire twice that sum, which of itself would 

And it is quite problematical whether the smart 
matron of the four hundred generally keeps with- 
in that figure. 

There are questions of jewels beside, and the 
expenses of the master of the house and his sons 
which cannot be set at a low figure, when clothes 
and the needful ready cash are to be considered. 
Fortunate are the smart man's purse and bank 
account if monthly allowances are not to be 
drawn from them for one or more grown boys. 
For the young fellow of an establishment like 
this, whether at college or at home, a couple of 
thousand dollars a year would be small. 

A stable must be attached to a fashionable es- 
tablishment, a costly matter in Xew York, eating 
up thousands a year, with the keep of its horses, 
the wage list, the liveries, the renewing and re- 
pairing, to say nothing of the fresh purchases 
necessary. The smart set, too, has a costly wine 
cellar to replenish and cigar boxes to keep filled. 
This must be a house of plenty, if he is to de- 
serve the name of a man of the day in his little 
set of fashion. 

The wonder is not how is needed to 
run a big Xew York establishment a year, but 
how that sum even suffices, with a hundred spig- 
ots to the barrel, a thousand avenues for the dol- 
lars to flow out through. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

77 is easy to admit that a man is 
headed if he is below your lev- 

♦ + + 


The 16,000 monastic establishments of France 
have about 400,000 inmates, or one to every one 
hundred of the population. 
■fr ♦ ♦ 

A little miss of five, living in Washington, 
conspired with her brother, aged four, relates 
Victor Smith, to save enough pennies to buy papa 
and mamma presents. A friend of the family 
noticed that mamma's present was much finer 
and more expensive than papa's, and was im- 
pelled by curiosity to inquire why the bulk of the 
savings had been expended for the mother. The 
little miss replied : " Well, you see, papa is only 
related to we children by marriage, while mamma 
is our relative bv bornation." 


tihie insro-XjiEirsrooifc^. 


Although monarch of the greatest realm the 
earth lias ever known, King Edward of Great 
Britain must admit to certain restrictions upon 
his personal conduct that are not imposed upon 
his humblest subject. 

If the owner of the biggest and most valuable 
business in Great Britain were to write to the 
king offering him a half share in all the profits 
from that business for nothing it would be im- 
possible for the occupant of the throne to accept 
this generous proposal. Just as no clergyman 
nor officer may combine business with his profes- 
sion, so the king must not become partner with 
a subject. 

Neither can he be a tenant nor hold anything 
" in service " from one of his subjects. The old 
law on the subject declares this to be beneath the 
king's dignity. He may, however, accept the 
post of executor under a will, but may not act. 
He must appoint someone to do the work for him, 
for he is supposed to have his hands too full with 
state duties to attend to trivial private affairs. 

Although, as may be known, the monarch may 
dispense with his cabinet and most of his civil 
servants, yet he cannot discharge the privy coun- 
cil, but is obliged to call their aid in delibera- 
tion. What is more, it is against the British con- 
stitution for the king to preside over the privy 
council. Queen Anne was the last occupant of 
the throne to do so. And although the original 
appointment of members of the privy council is a 
royal privilege yet the king may not select any 
foreigner — that is, one born out of the kingdom 
and not of British parentage — to serve. 

In the reign of George III. the privy council 
discussed how far the king's mandates must be 
obeyed by his subjects and came to the conclusion 
that the law of the land would not permit the 
king to prohibit new buildings being erected in 
London nor his forbidding the making of starch 
from wheat. 

The king cannot exempt any class of his sub- 
jects from duties imposed upon them by act 
of parliament. This was proved when a charter 
was granted to a certain college of physicians 
exempting them from the militia tax. After a 
big lawsuit the judgment was in this instance 
against the crown. Nor is the king at liberty to 

compel anyone to lend him money. The petitior 
of right which contained this stipulation meam 
it as a strong hint that taxes were in future to b. 
collected by the orders of parliament, not of thi 

Although the king may pardon a malefact 
he cannot send him or any other man to prisi 
of his own authority, nor has he the power of lif 
or death over any of his subjects. He has, I 
fact, no legal power, for he may not appoint a jus 
tice or any other commission of the peace. Th 
high sheriff is the only functionary of the kin' 
whom he personally and unaided may appoint 

The king may make a will dealing with hi 
private property, but though during life th 
crown jewels are his property, he cannot wi 
them away. 

If he marry a Roman Catholic a king of Eng 
land is liable to lose his throne. It is necessar 
that he be a member of the Established Church c 
England and that he do not evade any conditior 
of the coronation oath. 

4> 4> 4> 



" Naval officers were the most violent opp 
nents of iron ships," observed a well-known nav 
officer, " and fought their introduction 
way possible, but the iron ship got the best oi 
in the long run. Farragut and hosts of oth< 
officers refused outright to sail in an iron shi 
and loaded down the records of the navy wi 
reasons why an iron ship would not take t 
place of the wooden ship. It is interesting nc 
in read these old reports in view of the fact th 
there are practically no wooden ships left. Th 
argued and proved to their own satisfaction, tc 
that the iron ship would be too cold in wint 
and too warm in summer ; that it would ' sw 
and give everyone who rode in it rheumatism 
dozens of other diseases. Experience has sho\ 
every one of the objections to be without fou 

" The people who forced the iron ship on t 
navy were landsharks in every instance. Th. 
knew little about the sea themselves, but just 1 
same they thought it would be an improvemi 
on the wooden ship, and they were right about 
The only thing that I can compare it to was 
opposition to the elevated railroads in New Y< 
city. Three hundred of the physicians of 


i a- •.. .. 


the iisra-LiEi^ooic. 


argcst practice in New York city joined in a 
>rotest against the building- of the elevated rail- 
id. They insisted that, if the elevated cars 
ire run, in less than six months one-third 
>r more of the people living- along the lines of 
levated railroads would be driven crazy; that 
ic noise and the jarring would have such an 
: ect upon the nerves of the people that they 
(d not exist. Hundreds of famous naval sur- 
geons and hundreds not so famous are on record 
le same way against the iron ship. The long 
st of diseases that were to follow their intro- 
uction have not yet materialized, and the iron 
lip persistently refuses to 'sweat' in the ter- 
ble way predicted for it." 

V v *v 


lown n 

navy I 
jt take 

lie laci 

d in w 

According to a decree recently issued in Spain 
hours will be there counted from one to twen- 
condiri r-four each day, beginning- at midnight. The 
overnment offices, the telegraph, telephone, rail- 
oad and steamship lines have been directed to 
bserve the new method. On this continent it 
lay already be seen in the time-tables of the 
anadian Pacific railroad, says the Youth's Com- 

This change has long been urged in this coun- 
i y. Some years ago, when the railroads brought 
is mo »ut the present system of " standard time," or, 
i iron: > it used to be called, " railroad time," they de- 
red to inaugurate the twenty-four-hour scheme, 
xi. The change was too radical to be popular, 
id rather than imperil the success of the other 
irt of the programme, the railroads abandoned 
Time-tables are now generally printed with 
le afternoon hours in heavy type, and morning 
urs in light, and this device eliminates much 
niiatisn If one had nothing to do but to travel by rail 
e has sfa id study time-tables, the proposed change would 
ithout T : eminently desirable; but for ninety-nine out 
: every one hundred acts and appointments out- 
le of those connected with the railroads, there 
BO confusion arising from the present system. 
Tien we read that a lecture is to begin at eight 
clock, no one thinks that it is to begin in the 
lb! orning; and if Mary Minns should write to 
.y that she will drive over at eleven o'clock, al- 
\> ost anyone would expect to see her in the fore- 



it to* 

i i- 

In astronomical observatories the twenty-four- 
hour system is already in use, except that in them 
the day begins at noon instead of midnight. 

♦ t ♦ 
Circumstances alter cases — espe- 
cially reduced circumstances. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


" In looking over a trunk full of old truck the 
other day." said the elderly man, " I came across 
a li it of old shirts with the buttons sewed on, and 
as I looked at them 1 realized anew what the 
collar button means to humanity. There have 
been greater inventions, surely, but not many 
that have conferred a more unmixed blessing on 

" The younger person of to-day, accustomed to 
the collar button always, cannot realize what it 
was to be without it. He can never know what 
it was to have shirts with the buttons sewed on — 
<>r not, as the case might be. Not so many years 
ago, when the collar button was yet compara- 
tively new, before persons had come to keep, as 
everybody commonly does now, a lot of buttons 
on hand, the man who had lost his collar button 
thought himself entitled to the sympathy of his 
fellows, but wrung as he might be by that loss 
he could not even guess at the anguish that in 
the sewed-on-button days filled the heart of the 
man who, when he came to put on his last clean 
shirt, found that key button, the one on the collar 
band, most important one of all, gone entirely or 
only just hanging by a thread ! 

" I knew a man once who had this happen to 
him and didn't say a word. That was the only 
great thing he ever did, but I have always 
thought that that alone was enough to stamp him 
as a most extraordinary man." 

T X T 


ion, even if she did not add " A. M." 

Tt is not generally known why pocket hand- 
kerchiefs are always made square. The reason 
is interesting. In the year 1784, on September 
23. a decree was issued by the King of France, 
ordering that the length of all the pocket hand- 
kerchiefs made in the kingdom must be equal to 
the breadth, and since that time pocket handker- 
chiefs have been made in the shape of a square 
all over Europe. 


thiie insroLEisrooic. 



It was the fall of 1897, on the 


in one of the western States, that the following 
happened. The writer was working for the same 
road, a few stations farther north, and heard the 
following as it was flashed over the wire. O 
received orders from D office for No. 2 local way- 
freight and a special stock train going south to 
meet a special north with empty stock cars at his 
station. No. 2 pulled in and their orders were 
delivered to them and they took the side track. 
For some cause the operator at O office pulled his 
train order board in, and, in a few minutes, it 
being some down grade, the south-bound stock 
train went tearing by, going forty miles an hour. 
Then the operator remembered he had orders for 
them to sidetrack for the north-bound train. He 
immediately called the dispatcher at D office, 
thus, " D D D, Q ;" "DD D, O ;" " D D D, ;" 
as fast as he could work the key. Presently D 
answered, and the operator at O, in a few words, 
told what had happened, and D called the next 
office south. " X X X, D ;" " X X X, D ;" " X 
X X, D ;" as though the wire was being burned 
up, it was buzzed off so fast. 

Presently " I I I I " X and D said, " Stop spe- 
cial north." Then X repeated back. " Stop 
them." D said. Then X hurried out, but could 
not get them, as they were too far by. Operator 
at O heard this dialogue, and knowing the two 
trains would meet on a sharp curve, about five 
miles from Q's office, was almost frantic, 
thinking that some of the trainmen would be 
crippled, or, possibly, killed. Then he thought 
of No. 2's engine on the sidetrack. He ran out 
and in a few words he told the engineer on the 
local what had happened. 

Cutting the engine loose from her train, she 
was started after the fleeing train. There being 
a hill to go up, two miles from Q and three miles 
long, the engine would have a chance of over- 
taking them. The engineer pulled the throttle 
wide open, and the engine, being loose from its 
train, almost flew over the rails. They were 
gaining. Could they catch them before they 
went over the hill and rounded the curve, where 
the two huge engines would surely come to- 
gether ? 

On, and faster flew the engine, blowing he 
whistle. They were but a mile behind. To tH 
operator at O, as he watched them, it seeme 
ages. Would they make it? Yes, they hav 
overtaken them, just as the top of the incline i 
reached. The flagman rushed ahead, and th| 
north train was nagged and all was safe. 

Inuuui, Nebr. 

•h 4? <l? 

In the measure that we are open 
to vivid impressions do the trifles of 
life yield our truest joys. 

V T T 




Abraham was born 292 years after the floe 
and died 467 years after the flood. See Gen. 1: 
10, 26. 

Shem died 502 years after the flood. Abr; 
ham and Shem were cotemporary 175 year 
Shem. survived Abraham thirty-five years 

Abraham sojourned in Canaan 100 years, ar . 
the author of Genesis records but one meeting 
the two rivals for patriarchal honors, ar 
then puts Shem under the nom de plume of Mt 

It is possible that Shem saw, or might ha 
seen, at least eleven of the twelve patriarchs, 
he died about the time Benjamin was born. 

Noah died 350 years after the flood, wb 
Abraham was fifty-eight years old. 

Noah died only seventeen years before Abr 
ham entered Canaan, and it is not likely th 
met, unless Noah dwelt in Chaldea or Mesop , 

Again, Noah was patriarch until his death, 
350 years after the flood ; then the patriarcr 
mantle fell upon the shoulders of Shem, 1 
firstborn, where it evidently remained until 1 
death, which was thirty-five years after Abl 
ham's death. But how could Abraham have be 
a patriarch while Shem lived, the old antediluvi 
regime being still in vogue? 

The patriarch only had the prerogative of ki 
and priest, therefore the Melchisedek who n 
Abraham on his return from the slaughter vi 
no other than Shem, the king of Salem and pri 
of the Most High. What a beautiful coin 



h to fte 

tzhzie msro-iE-jEisrooic:. 



it seen 


, nee in the sum and substance of the patriarchy! 
lere were twelve for the antediluvian age, 
elve for the Jewish and twelve apostles for 
e Christian dispensation. 

It appears the world's history is divided into 
. , ree epochs of two thousand years each. The 
St reaches to Abraham and the second to the 
■th of Christ, and just how these periods are 
nneeted and interlocked is mysterious. 
.;. .$. .j. 

Few people i ally want a 

thing until they see others chasing 
after it. 

4r "h "b 



I max who has traveled far and wide over the 

ie of the earth, visiting nearly every country 

own to civilization, declares that if asked where 

prettiest girls in the world are to be found 

would unhesitatingly reply in Limerick, Ire- 

-i d. There is a freshness of face, lustrousness 

' ; eyes, healthfulness of color' and complexion 

veai- mt the Limerick girls en masse that carry off 

sweepstakes trophy. The girls of Cork and 

the lakes — in fact, of the country all the way 

vn from Dublin — are somewhat of the Limer- 

order. In form they constitute a happy me- 

m between the rotund English maids across 

channel and the sylphlike Parisian 

wiscllcs beyond the other. 

Jut the Limerick face is the perfection of 

iale beauty — a human ceramic without a 

nish. The Limerick girl is also the highest 

before Al mple of exquisite wit and ingenuousness — an 

raordinary assimilation, to be sure. In other 

ds, while she is not insensible of her sparkle 

words, she seems like one who has never 

ced frequently into a mirror. She has regu- 

and sometimes very pretty teeth and if her 

e is often inclined to retrousse and there is 

I Irish expression of mouth " these but add 

.5 after A lancy to the other beautiful features. 

+ + + 

"eaciier — " What is the meaning of the word 

ccavate? ' ' Small Pupil — " It means to hol- 

out." Teacher — " Correct. Now form a 

:ence in which the word is properly used." 

ill Pupil — " Stick a pin in a boy and he will 

avate." — Chicago News. 


might t I 

; bom. 


he patnart 
of SI 

idek who 


[n all the civilized countries of the world thir- 
teen is referred to as being somebody's " dozen." 
In America, Australia, Great Britain (present 
day) and several other lands that number is said 
to be a " baker's dozen." In Italy, it is referred 
to as the " cobbler's dozen," there being a tradi- 
tion that there was formerly a law which com- 
pelled cobblers to put twelve tacks or nails around 
the edge of a boot heel. Finally, when nails be- 
came cheap, a center nail was driven for " luck." 
That nail was, of course, the thirteenth, and in 
order to break the spell of that unlucky number, 
the number in the heel was never spoken of as 
being more than an even dozen. In old Eng- 
land, thirteen was called " the devil's dozen," but 
exactly why is not known. 

* * + 

Any man with ideas in advance 
is age is likely to wear clothes 
away behind it. 

+ + + 

A few days ago a well-known Washington 
lady, being unexpectedly bereft of her kitchen 
assistance, advertised for a colored woman capa- 
ble of performing general housework. 

The first caller in response to the advertisement 
was a mulatto damsel, bedecked with ribbon and 
finery. From her airs and graces she might have 
been a graduate of a seminary. She announced 
that she had noticed the advertisement and was 
desirous of securing employment. 

"Are you a good cook? " inquired the lady of 
the house. 

" Xo, indeed, I don't cook," was the reply. 

"Are you a good washer and ironer? " was the 
next query. 

" I wouldn't do washing and ironing; it's too 
hard on the hands," declared the caller. 

" Can you sweep? " the housewife then wanted 
to know. 

" No," was the answer, and it was a positive 
one. " I'm not strong enough for that." 

" Well, in the name of goodness, what can you 
do?" said the lady of the house, exasperated. 
The placid reply was : 

" I dusts." 



( fK. 

i Tfie q. & a. 



What is almond meal? 

Ground almonds, mainly used as a cosmetic. 

Can cranberries be canned as other fruits? 
Yes, anything in the fruit line can be so pre- 

Of what is quinine made? 

It is made from the bark of a tropical tree, 
winch is sometimes cultivated. 

What is a good remedy for boils? 
i food, nutritious food, exercise and the observ- 
ance of the common health rules. 


Were the Indians in America at the time of its discov- 
ery the same race that built the mounds? 

No. It is believed that the mound builders 
were a different and superior race. 

Where did the Aztecs come from? 

Possibly from Asia, following the Pacific coast 
down into the far tropics. Their features indi- 
cate Asiatic origin. 


Why cannot nitroglycerine be used in guns? 

Because its explosive power is exerted in all 
directions at once, while ordinary powder seeks 
the weakest point for exit. 

Will the tea plant grow in the United States? 
Yes. There is a garden in South Carolina 
that produces excellent tea. The plants can be 
grown m a pot in the house. 


Why are not tropical fruits preserved and offered for 

Some are. Others, most people have never 
even heard their names. They might be pre- 
served as our own fruits are, but there are local 
reasons why it is not undertaken, of which are 
government taxation and lack of competent help. 

Pays. I«n 

_ ± /3) 

Why did the cliff dwellers build as they did? 

To keep out of the clutches of the fighting 
Indians that raided them. It was a matter of 
personal protection. 


Are nut kernels healthy and nutritious? 

They represent the most condensed forms of 
nutrition and are as healthy or healthier than 
other foods, properly used. 

What is the difference between a creek and a river 

Mainly size, and frequently the name. Som< 
streams called rivers in places wouldn't be coj 
sidered good creeks in others. 

What is ether? 

Something of extreme tenuity surrounding 
and in and through every material substance 
Nobody knows what it is, or verv much about il 


What is the difference between olive oil and sweet 

None. Usually, however, the " sweet oil " c 
the store is rancid olive oil. The genuine, fn 
besl olive oil has a pleasant taste without a sus 
cii hi i if grease. 


What is a micrometer gauge? 

A small machine for measuring infinitely smai 
things. It is operated by a screw on which 
considerable turn is infinitesimally reduced pre; 
portionally in another part of the apparatus. ' 

I saw it stated in a magazine that the coming ml 
would not eat meat. Is this true? 

It is probably correct. The tendency is 
that way. Savages are rapacious meat eati 
when they get a chance, and civilization is ste 
ily winning its way against flesh eating. 

What is the value of gold in other parts of the wor! 
MiMiii the same in all civilized countries. T 
money stamp is only a convenience, the weig 
only being considered in matters of trade. 
lump of gold is as valuable, or nearly so, as "j 
same ami unit o lined. 


:l;!y \. 
5 remover 


til ovei 





The Home 


Few women are interested in the 
study of prehistoric man. Their 
specialty is the man of to-day. 


a pinch of salt to coffee to give it tone. 
+ "fr + 

SPRINKLE clothes with hot water and a whisk 

+ + + 

I Rub celerv on the hands to remove the odor of 
1 . 


-t- •!- -1- 

To clean knives nothing is better than the old- 
li. nied brick dust. 

+ + + 

I Ordinary tea marks on china may be readily 
|ssolved by scrubbing with a soft brush dipped 
salt and vinegar. 

■I* ,|, «|« 

I Mud stains should be allowed to dry, then 
loroughly brushed with a dry cloth and the 
ots removed by rubbing with alcohol. 
■§• 4> ie 

1Gr::ase stains are eradicated most effectually 
th benzine. The liquid should be rubbed back 
d forth over the stain until it has disappeared, 
will not then leave a ring. 
* + * 

Ox silverware, stains require prompt attention, 
they will take too long to remove. Sulphuric 
d will remove the stain left by medicine. Dip 
e spoon in the acid, repeating the process until 
has disappeared, then wash it in very hot wa- 
To remove egg stain from silver rub it with 
le salt. 

1 In pictures, soap should never be used. 
Wash the painting gently with clear warm water, 
dry with a piece of cheese cloth, then rub it with 
a clean cloth saturated with olive oil. 

Borax is best to use for stained tinware. 
Should the inside of a tin teapot or coffee pot be 
discolored, boil it in strong borax solution for a 
sin irt time and all its first brightness will return. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

For ink stains on furniture use this : Add six 
drops of niter to a teaspoonful of water and ap- 
ply to the ink stain with a feather. If the ink 
di ies not yield to this, make mixture stronger and 
repeat process. 

♦ .+ ♦ 

On carpets, grease or gummy dirt stains may 
be removed by rubbing on them the following 
mixture: One bar of good soap to two teaspoon- 
fuls of sal soda and saltpeter and four quarts of 
boiling water. When cold, add six ounces of 
aqua ammonia. Bottle and use as required. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Fingers are often ink stained; lemon juice 
will remove this, so also will spirits of wine or 
methylated spirits, or eau de cologne. (These 
three, together with gin or whisky, may all be 
used to cleanse the piano keys, in addition to the 
remedies already given.) But acids must not 
be used for ink stains on polished wood, nor 
strong alkalies: turpentine is the remedy then. 


the iztNTa-iLiEnsrooiK:. 


Three eggs well beaten, three cups of sweet 
milk, one tablespoonful of melted butter or lard, 
one teaspoonful of salt, two heaping cups of In- 
dian meal and one cup of flour sifted with two 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Beat well, then 
bake quickly in rings or small pans and serve 

4> 4* 4* 


Oxe cup corn meal, two cups graham flour, 
one-half cup of molasses, one cup of sour milk, 
one teaspoonful of soda, one teaspoonful of salt, 
one cup of dried prunes, washed, pitted and 
chopped fine. Scald the corn meal and then add 
the other ingredients, 
steam three hours. 

£ 4. 4. 


Put in greased cans and 


Take one cup of sugar, one cup of vinegar, 
one egg. Boil all together, then pour over cab- 
bage which has been cut fine and seasoned with 
salt and pepper. 

Lonaconing, Md. 

4- 4- 4- 



Take one cup of tapioca, soak over night, add 
three well-beaten eggs, two-thirds of a cup of 
sugar, one quart of milk ; put in a slow oven and 
bake until thick. Serve cold with sugar and 

Flora, Ind. 



Oxe pint sour cream, two eggs, a pinch 
salt, one-half cup of sugar, one cup of flour, t\ 
cups of corn meal. Bake in a quick oven. 
Middlebranch, Ohio. 

4> •h 4* 

Boil five good-sized sweet potatoes until U 

der, then mash them and add one tablespoon 

of very light brown sugar, one teaspoonful 

salt, one scant saltspoonful each of grated ms 

and nutmeg. Mold this mixture into pineapp 

for each individual using the spoon to put in 

eyes. Put a dot of butter in each eye and tr 

place the molded potatoes in the oven to heat a 

brown a little. 

4. 4, 4. 





Five quarts of salt, one pound of brown sug 

one-half pound of pepper, one-half pound 

saltpetre. Mix well before using. Rub 

meat well four or five times, leaving as much| 

the mixture on as possible. This will cure 

hundred pounds of meat. 

Leaf River, 111. 

4, 4. 4. 




Take a lump of unslacked lime, pour boil 
water over it : cover the head of the little suff | 
with a blanket and let the steam be inhaled. 

Otterbein, Ohio. 


I '''■'-'-- 

1111 i:\i>. 

Aad whi 

fel NSLtNOOK: 

Vol. IV. 

March 15, 1902. 

Xo. 11. 



Two babies were born in the self-same town, 

On the very same bright day. 
They laughed and cried in their mothers' arms 

In the very self-same way; 
And both seemed pure and innocent 

As falling flakes of snow; 
But one of them lived in the terraced house 

And one in the street below. 

Two children played in the self-same town, 

And the children both were fair; 
But one had curls brushed smooth and round. 

The other had tangled hair. 
The children both grew up apace, 

As other children grow, 
But one of them in the terraced house 

And one in the streets below. 

Two maidens wrought in the self-same town. 

And one was wedded and loved; 
The other saw through the curtains' part 

The world where her sister moved. 
And one was smiling, a happy bride — 

The other knew care and woe, 
For one of them lived in a terraced house 

And one in the street below. 

Two women lay dead in the self same town, 

And one had tender care; 
The other was left to die alone, 

On her pallet so thin and bare. 
( >ne had many to mourn her loss — 

For the other few tears would flow, 
For one had lived in the terraced house 

And one in the streets below. 

If Jesus, who died for rich and poor, 

In wondrous holy love, 
Took both the sisters in His arms 

And carried them above. 
Then all the difference vanished quite. 

For in heaven none would know 
Which of them lived in the terraced house 

And which in the street below. 

This is St. Paul, and I wonder whether the 
illustrious original of the name would have any- 
thing tu do with the 
rcity if he were to 
come here. Not but 
JBU M that it is a pretty good 

^3| place, as good as any 

*^ other, but that it 

seems wrong to me to 
name a city after a 
saint. They don't 
sell beer and the like 
in the city of a saint. 
Things are peculiar 
here t( i a certain ex- 
tent. There are two 
cities, twins, as it 
were, and there is a 
great deal of rivalry 
between them. And 
they are different. 
St. Paul has a population of [63,0 15, by the 
last census, and this is awav below the estimate 


of the patriotic citizens who insist on a good many 
thousands mure. This town is built on hills, and 



has what is said to be the finest street in this 
country, but as that distinction is claimed by oth- 
er cities, I will not attempt to decide as to the 
merits of the question. 

The other twin is Minneapolis, originally eight 
or more miles away, and it is the larger city, hav- 
ing 202,718 population. But while the two places 
are under separate city governments, they have 
practically grown together, with Minneapolis in 
the lead as far as population is concerned. There 
are other differences, and one of them is that 

is a good exemplar of what wealth can and do 
do in the way of making beautiful surrounding 
There are endless opportunities of getting ov 
from St. Paul to Minneapolis, the electric ca 
running every few minutes. 

Minneapolis is a city on a plain, and the stret : 
stretch away out for miles in all directions, 
you like a bluff, hill city. St. Paul's the place 
you take to the level, Minneapolis is your tow 
There is a wonderful water power at Minneap 
lis, and this has gone a long ways toward ma 


Minneapolis is on level ground, while St. Paul is 
on hills. St. Paul marks the head of navigation 
on the Mississippi river; Minneapolis is also on 
the river, at the Falls of St. Anthony. This is a 
country of saints, and Frank says it is a legacy 
from the original settlers and old explorers, who 
were Catholics in the main. 

It is hard to tell which is the prettier city of 

iln- two. In St. Paul is the street, Summit Ave- 

referred to before, and it is really a fine one, 

literally a row of private palatial dwellings. It 

ing the place what it is. The largest mills 
the world are found here, and doubtless evi 
Nooker has heard of the Pillsbury and Washbi 
flours, and many have eaten bread made fr| 
wheat ground here, as the yearly output is 
ten million barrels. At Minneapolis they a 
make a grade of blankets that command 
highest prices, and ought to be, and probably 1 
the best, or among the very best made. 

One of the places of interest is the old gow 
ment fort, Fort Snelling (see page 244) i 

the insro-iiiiEisrooic. 



re other places of interest. Although 

se cities are centers of business activity, yet 

arc much frequented by the summer tourists 

heated-season people trying to escape the 

of a warmer section. In fact, I don't know 

■tter place to spend the 

mer than in p. trip along 

Ke northern lines of 


I want to tell you some- 

g. Tin homesick. Yes, 

am. I don't deny it. 

d I can't help it. Last 

Jglu in this big hotel I 

* never more alone. 

ere were lots of people 

iund, but I didn't know 

oul of them all, and I 

^'t suppose one of them 

for me. I just 

uldn't help thinking 

)out things at home. 

lere's Daisy, my Jersey 

w. and I know that every 

nc the stable door is 

ened. she puts her ears 

rward and looks for me, 

d I aint there. Then 

a wrote that my white 

)ppy wants to set, and 

10 is going to look after 

f ? Old Prince, the dog, 

ed to see me away down 

£ road, watching for me 

come from town, and he 

irays came on a run to 

let me. And to think 

often he has watched 

me, when I was going 

ay from him all the time ! 

id Pa and Ma! And 

ubtls len night comes and thev 

gather around the fire at 

me, and I'm sitting 

ound here in some big 

rn of a hotel, actually 

ring for staying away from home, when they 

fjht to be paying me for leaving such 

K>me. I can see it all as I write. There's 

big stone house with the piazza in front, the 

porch, the mountain back of the house, the 

run down below the house, and the trees, where 
I cut a deep " K " in the bark, and the ferns, and 
the babbling little stream — I wish I had never 
come ; yes, I do. When I get back to the old 
farm again. I'll know enough to stay, I hope. 



Last Sunday Frank and I went to church, and 
that was the worst of all. It was a great, big 
church, and. not knowing what kind it was, we 
went in. A very pleasant man inside showed us 
to a seat, pretty well up, in the big, almost empty 



room. and after a little the electric lights flashed "Jesus, Lover of My Soul," and then we kne 

up. and a big organ we hadn't seen 1 med out down and prayed — really knelt down, not tl 

behind us, and a lot of people began to sing. way they did hen' — and after Uncle Jake In 



I'll admit it. I watched the choir as much as I finished his talk, we all stood around in the aii 
could without seeming to, and their talking and and talked together before we went home. I 
giggling was just shameful, that's what it was. here I am. over twelve hundred mile- frc 



The sermon 1 listened to, but I 
didn't Inar it. I was hack at the 
Ridge church, with old .Maude 
hitched out at our tree in the 
gn ive, and people gathered in the 
house, and we all sung together, 




:ic. and 1 wish 1 had never come, indeed I 



P. S. — I was talking to Frank last evening, 

d I asked him whether he was homesick, ami 

Id me that he wasn't. Then 1 got to talking 

t the folks at home, the Sunday-school 

and things about the house, and he began 

fidget. He was quiet for a good while, and 

en he said : 

'* Rath, do you mind that gourd dipper at the 
ring in the sugar camp? " 
I said I did, for I had made the dipper out of 

1 and put it there myself. 
' Well. I'd rather be there, taking a drink out 
that spring, than be here with all their cut 
tss and the rest of it." 


That was the most sensible thing I heard that 

y say for a long time. I'm going the whole 

p, if it kills me. but if I do get back. — well. I 

not going to promise anything, but you doirt 

me looking for happiness away from my 

home. Why do people look for happiness 

re it is not to be found ? 

-J- 4. 4. 


.v the population of the United States are 
he men's side of sex, and the most of them 
shirts. There are shirts and shirtmakers. 
u are of a certain age, Mother made the kind 
used to wear, sewed the buttons on. and made 
put it on Sunday morning. Indeed, there 
some of that kind now in use. Then there 

are others, and some of these we want to tell 
about in this article. 

Here in Elgin is one of the largest shirt facto- 
ries in the Country. It you happen U> have a 
shin, on the neckband of which is the legend. 
" The Elgin Shirt. Made by Cutter & Crossette," 
you will know that it is made here, and is one of 
the best things of its kind in the market. 

It is an interesting thing to go through the 
ory, and as the most of the Nook family are 
too busy to look in. the writer will give them the 
benefit of his visit. The original factory was in 
Chicago, and was finally located here about ten 
years back, the removal being made on account 
of better facilities. The company has another 
factory at Dundee, a near-by town, but two big 
three-story buildings on the outskirts of Elgin 
do the biggest business of the company. 

The material is purchased of the manufactur- 
ers, only the best being used. It comes to the 
factory as it does to the country store, in big 
es, and is made into shirts at the rate 
ot about 150 dozen per day. The process is too 
complicated to follow in detail, for the way of 
the shirt is a devious one. from the bolt of muslin 
to Einstine &: Isaacson's show window. But it 
is s, imething like this : 

Up in the third story of the main building is 
a long loft, and there are four or five long tables, 
each very much like a kitchen table, unpainted. 
ami 196 feet long. On this the muslin 
is laid in thicknesses of ninety-six ply. The 
son why it is ninety-six. and not a hun- 
dred, is this. It has been found that a bundle of 
four dozen shirts makes convenient handling, and 
twice four dozen is ninety-six. That is why this 
number is taken. When the pile is smoothed out, 
a pattern is laid on top. and the cutter, who is one 
1 if the highest paid employes in the factory, pro- 
ceeds to cut out. say. the back of a shirt. It is 
an exhibit of dexterity and skill to see him do 
this. He has a knife, made for the purpose, and 
it resembles nothing more than a wornout shoe- 
maker's knife, with the blade ground down to a 
sharp-pointed, keen cutter, about two inches 
\< trig. This is detachable from the handle, and 
requires that it be kept razor-like. The man. 
who, by the way. must have learned his trade, 
thrusts this knife into the pile, and draws it 
around the pattern as fast and faster than you 
would cut a picture out of the Xook with a pen- 



knife, and he does it with such skill that the cut 
is perfectly smooth and without a raveling left. 
A slash or two, and there are the backs of ninety- 
six shirts. 

The other parts of the shirt are either cut the 
same way, or by a machine that has a wooden 
block, the same general shape as the thing de- 
sired — the wristband, say — and around this is a 
steel shell that moves up with its cutting edge, 
and, with scores of piles laid on it, one upward 
thrust of the knife cuts out the pattern. Wher- 
ever there is a thing to be done that a machine 
can do, the inanimate combination of steel and 
wheels does it. 

After being cut out, the pieces go to other 
rooms where some two hundred girls, all of them 
good looking, some more so than others, put the 
shirt together. One girl does one thing at a time, 
and only one, and as the whole business is piece 
work and their weekly check is dependent on 
their nimbleness for its size, they lose no time. 
There are long tables, with sewing machines 
fixed on each side of them, a girl to each, and 
the whole is run b\ r machinery. Each one is 
doing something — the same thing over and over, 
whatever it is. The song of the shirt is heard 
in the room, resembling the hum of a threshing 
machine in the barn, as heard from the outside. 
These girls earn from six to nine dollars apiece, 
weekly, and there is a standing advertisement in 
the papers for help. Girls are preferred, and it 
is a fact that the faces change all around in about 
three years. That is, in about that time a new set 
of girls are in evidence. The reason for this is 
that they get married, die, move away, or get into 
other employment. Naturally, a lot of bright- 
faced, intelligent-looking young women do not 
expect .to be working in a shirt factory all their 
lives, nor do they. The operators do not resem- 
ble the New England factory women. They 
seem to be happy and contented with their lot. 
These factories, and similar ones, are a godsend 
to a community where the demands are consider- 
able, and the earning capacity of the head of the 
family relatively small. 

There is a union connected with the establish- 
ment and there has never been a strike among the 
operators. The company is making arrange- 
ments now for the introduction of something on 
the plan of a restaurant. At present they furnish 
only coffee, which they sell to the employes at 



the rate of six cups for five cents. It is said to t 
good coffee at that. The idea is to furnish a cu 
of warm coffee with the noon lunch. It is tk 
intention of the management to introduce the: 
restaurant along the same line of excellence an 

It takes thirty or forty people to make a shir 
That is, a single shirt passes through the hanc 
of that many people before it is ready for tl 
market. After a shirt is made, it goes to tr 
laundry to be done up. This department is, i 
most respects, like that of any similar affair an; 
where, with the exception that the shirts are m 
very much soiled, and yet must be put in a pr- 
sentable shape for the purchaser. Everything 
done by machinery, and the shirt comes out beai 
tifully laundried, ready to be passed to the bo: 
ers, and then shipped to their destination. 

The sale of the shirts extends to all parts of 
United States, and the company have men on 
road selling for them. Some orders go to H@ 
olulu and some to Canada. 

Strange to say, there are only six varieties 
white shirts made. The fashions in shirts fro 
year to year do not change very materially, ai 
a shirt is a shirt — last year, this year, and ne 
year as well. 

It is also a fact that the company is makii 
shirt-waists for men. Last year they could n 
supply the demand for this article of wear, ai 
this year there will be considerable over one hu 
dred thousand of them put upon the market 
the manufacturers in different places, althouj 
Superintendent J. B. Roach in charge of the I 
gin factory, a thoroughly intelligent and obsei 
ing gentleman, says that he does not antici 
the perpetuation of the shirt-waist fad over t 
coming season. Nobody knows about this to 
certainty, and it may be that the shirt-waist r. 
come to stay. Whether it has or not does 
come within the domain of this article. 

Out of the odds and ends of the waste of 1 
shirt making, where the pieces are large enou§ ij{ cov 
cravats are made. The still smaller pieces tl 
are not available for any purpose whatever ; 
sold to the paper makers, by whom the patel 
are turned into the best quality of paper. 


make a colored shirt in one style, and also a m ^ ;■ 

ligee shirt in one style. The patterns for th 
colored shirts are first submitted to the shirt f 
torv management bv the manufacturers of 

I! ill 




■s ia breat 

Won ■ 

TBCIE izN-a-LiGiisrooiK:. 


h the h 

ady ioi 

r affair 

mt in a 

IK out 

;o the 

: men m 


ar, and 

)i wear, 
ver one 

lot ar 




j the pi 


■cs, who originate them, and then the shirt 
ory people make their selection for the ensu- 
year. There is no reason for this except 
of pleasing the public by a new pattern from 
to year. 

Taking it all in all, the factory is a busy place, 
the output is good in the matter of material 
up-to-dateness. Who gets an Elgin shirt will 
one of the best made. 

he size most commonly used is said to be 

t Xo. 15. An analysis of this fact would be 

teresting story of itself. Naturally, there 

great deal that cannot be told within the 

e of an article limited in space as we are in 

e Ixglenook, but if you will imagine a big, 

fee-story building, humming with industry, in- 

which pours a stream of the best muslin and 

irt materials, and out of which comes an aver- 

of one hundred and fifty dozens of shirts a 

. with two hundred and fifty men and women 

between the raw material and the laundried 

irt in the box, you will have a mental picture of 

Elgin Shirt Factory when it is in full blast. 

Whenever a man tells a woman 

that lie loves her, the chances arc 

he lias an axe to 'grind and 

ivants her to turn the grindstone. 

t + ♦ 


The throne of England, so splendid in its rich 
appings of silk, velvet and gold wire lace and 
ssels, is simply an old-fashioned, high-backed 
lair. It has been in use for more than 600 
ars, but the early history of the old oaken relic 
id the name of its maker are both unknown, 
lie wood which composes this " throne " is very 
ird and solid, as may be imagined when it is 
own that the chair has been " kept in the dry " 
id weli covered with rich cloth of various kinds 
nee the days of Edward I. The back and sides 
: the chair were formerly painted in various 
>lors. The seat is made of a rough sandstone. 
his stone, which is believed to possess talismanic 
awers, is twenty-six inches in length, seventeen 
dies in breadth and nineteen and a half inches 
thickness. Numberless legends are told in 
winection with this wonderful stone, but the 

truth probably is that it was originally used in 
So ttland as a " coronation stone " upon which 
the Scottish kings were seated while undergoing 
the ceremonies connected with being crowned 
" King of the Realm of Scotland." When and 
how the stone was removed to England is so 
interwoven with tradition that the truth cannot 
he learned. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Trying to enjoy life without do- 
ing something useful is like trying 
to thread a cambric needle with a 

+ + + 


" I feel in myself the future life. I am rising, 
I know, toward the sky. The sunshine is over 
my head. Heaven lights me with the reflection 
of unknown worlds. 

" You say the soul is nothing but the result of 
bodily powers ; why, then, is my soul the more 
luminous when my bodily powers begin to fail? 
Winter is on my head and eternal spring is in 
my heart. 

" The nearer I approach the end, the plainer I 
hear around me the immortal symphonies of the 
worlds which invite me. It is marvelous, yet 
simple. It is a fairy' tale, and it is a history. 
For half a century I have been writing my 
thoughts in prose, verse, history, philosophy, 
drama, romance, tradition, satire, ode, song — I 
have tried all But I feel that I have not said 
the thousandth part of what is in me. When I 
go down to the grave I can say, like so many oth- 
ers : 'I have finished my day's work,' but I can- 
not say, ' I have finished my life.' My day's 
work will begin the next morning. The tomb is 
not a blind alley ; it is a thoroughfare. It closes 
in the twilight to open with the dawn. I im- 
prove every hour because I love this world as my 
fatherland. My work is only a beginning. My 
work is hardly above its foundation. I would 
be glad to see it mounting and mounting forev- 
er. The thirst for the infinite proves infinity." 
•fr 4> + 

The government's new mint at Philadelphia 
will be the largest, costliest and finest money- 
making establishment in the world. It will cost 
82,000,000 exclusive of the furnishings. 




The Chinese are abandoning foot binding. 
It is a fashion that is going out like waist bind- 
ing among the Caucasians. All the world and 
its peoples are slaves to fashion. 

The stories told about foot binding in China 
are often untrue. It was simply a fashion. It 
gained a foothold in the reign of the Emperor 
Sung. Attempts have been made to uproot it 
from time to time, just as your doctors have 
preached against waist lacing, which is a greater 
menace to the human race than foot binding. 

The Emperor Shun Chih, who reigned from 
1044 to [662, issued an edict against this fashion, 
prohibiting it. but it had been a practice of Chi- 
nese women since the year of your calendar. 970. 
under the last Emperor of the Sung dynasty. 
This Emperor hail a beautiful wife who delight- 
ed to please him by dancing. To make her feet 
look more beautiful she used to bind them with 
strips of satin until they resembled a crescent 
moon or a bent bow. 

Thus the fashion began. During more than a 
thousand years it became general, and what was 
intended first for beauty became a defi irrriity. 
Women wanted their feet small and then smaller. 
I believe even American ladies are accused of 
wearing shoes smaller than the natural size of 
their feet, so that it is easily understood how 
this fashion degenerated. 

It shocks a Chinese woman just as much to see 
a laced waist as it does a Caucasian to look at a 
bound foot. American women have been rebel- 
ling against this practice for many years. I see 
by your publications that some are now wearing 
what they term health waists, and others have 
abandoned any tight or restrictive covering for 
the waists. You have the athletic girl now. who 
is a complete evolution of form since the days 
of her grandmothers. 

In China fashions do not change so readily as 
among the Americans, but I am told that the re- 
action against fool binding is general, and that 
a large percentage of the girls whose feet would 
have been bound during the last two years are 
growing up naturally and able to romp and play 
like other little girls. I should not be surprised 

if the reaction against this practice should ; 
ci miplish general results in a short period, a 
that within ten. fifteen or twenty years the 
would be none foot-bound in China, except t 
old women. 

The methods of binding in vogue in China a 
the period of commencing the practice vary, t 
the bandages are applied at from five to eig 
years of age. The practice is not confined 
the rich. Poor women are just as rigorous d« 
1 'tees of this fashion. The general process ■ 
-ists of two stages. A piece of strong cott 
cloth, about two yards long and three inches wi 
is first bound around the foot, leaving the gn 
toe free, and doubling the others under the s 
so that the toes of the right foot peep out un< 
the left or inner side of the foot, and the -a 
method is reversed for the left. This reduces 1 

Each succeeding day the bandage is tighter 
both morning and night. Sometimes the I 
bones of the foot are refractory and spring 9 
into place when the bandage is removed. Th 
is only one remedy for this, to strike them w 
the heavy wooden mallet used in washing clot! 
This is possibly a mercy in disguise. For nJ 
months after the binding is commenced the li' 
girl is compelled to run up and down on her a 
ing feet to prevent mortification of the flesh z 
tendons setting in. 

This process of binding continues for one vt 
The next stage is the shortening of the leng 
The bandages are then so arranged as to dr 
the fleshy part of the foot and the heel close 
gether. In the end there is a deep groove 
tween the fleshy part of the foot and the h 
somewhat the shape of the clinched hand with 
ball of the thumb pressing against the find 
The process is not considered complete unti 
Chinese tael. a coin about the size of a sil 
dollar, can be hidden in this groove. The f 
two years of this process are terrible. 

Manchus and Mongols and Chinese l'.ani 
nun do not bind their women's feet. The pr 
inces of Chili, Kwangtung, and Kwangsi, a 
the Taiping rebellion was suppressed, ackne 
edged foot binding was wrong, and the hall 
them abandoned the practice. In Szech 
Province, in the cities of Peng-chou and IV 
chi-hien, Hung-va and Sa-chang, there are \ 

I |(!S0ni 

I It grai 

Ig ibl 

the nsro-XjEisroojc. 


this fashion of small 

authority then goes on to detail 

an who have changed 

1 et - 
This Chinesi 

e laws for the punishment of crimes against 
e person and the injury of the limbs in quarrels, 
id sa\ s : 

' Bui there is no law against foot binding, the 
s are too merciful for that. When in a tight 
quarrel a person's limbs are injured there is an 
binted punishment, but people have their 
hg daughters' feet broken on purpose, not 
ding their cries of pain, and yet parents are 
d to love their daughters! For what crime 
these tender children punished? Their par- 
cannot say. It makes the daughters cry 
.v and night aching with pain. It is a hundred 
KS a-- bad a punishment as the robbers get. 
a man is (logged in the yamen, he can get over 
in a fortnight. But if a girl's feet are bound 
e suffers from it all her life long and her feet 
n never regain their natural shape." 
The great impetus of the new reform has 
ng from the Boxer outbreak. During the 
ges of this horde and the invasion of the in- 
ational troops the Chinese women were help- 
They could not run away upon their de- 
ed feet, they suffered from the Boxers anil 
invaders alike. 

be 1 >f the great evils of unbinding the feet is 

after the deformity of the foot is attained the 

ortunate must suffer great pain if the band- 

s are removed. It has, however, in many 

nces been done slowly and the women can 

>\v walk, and say they suffer no pain. The 

n in the unnatural crease of the foot is tender, 

■ever, and the unbinding must be carefully 

oi the 


linesi Buj 
«t. Thei 

+ + + 

ndoners want a vehicle less dangerous than 
hansom. Last year 1,400 people were in- 
red and eighteen killed by being thrown out 
their hansoms by reason of the horse falling 



" Did 1 ever tell you how clouds of dust once 
saved Washington city from what many people 
believe would have been certain capture at the 
hands of the confederates? " asked a member of 
the "Id Veterans' Reserve corps which was on 
duty at Fort Stevens during the war. to a crowd 
of companions in a. downtown hotel the other 
day. No one in the assemblage had heard the 
story ami so the veteran continued. 

" It was when the army of Northern Virginia 
was just outside the capital city. Von may re- 
member that General Early, who was in com- 
mand of this particular division of the confeder- 
ate forces, in writing to refute statements pub- 
lished in northern papers to the effect that he 
could easily have marched into Washington, said : 
"' I knew the defenses were weak when I arrived, 
but my troops were so exhausted from the en- 
forced march that a halt was absolutely neces- 
sary, and the next morning I knew by clouds of 
dust that re-enforcements had arrived." 

" That dust, gentlemen, was raised by a few 
men, not exceeding one hundred, of the Veteran 
Reserve corps. The temporary commander of 
this company, a stout man of medium height, 
whose name or rank I did not learn because he 
wore no blouse or insignia, placed the men in line 
in the rear of and between Fort Slocum and Fort 
Stevens. After making a short speech, in which 
he urged every man to do his best, he directed 
us to march down some distance on the grass 
past Fort Stevens. Once there he told us to 
break ranks and right about, returning in the 
middle of the main road and kicking up all the 
dust we possibly could. We doubled on