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An introduction to spoken Amharic 


ILontion: FETTER LANE, E.G. 

C. F. CLAY, Manager 

t i 





flFUinlmrg?): loo, PRINCES STREET 

ISerlin: A. ASHER AND CO. 


i^eto gorfe: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

eombao anU Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. 

All rights reserved 


An introduction to spoken Amharic 



Sudan Civil Service; 

late of H.M. Administration, British Central Africa; 

sometime Minor Scholar of King's College, Cambridge 

Part II 



Cambridge : 

at the University Press 


©woi Ae nApA nANTA ton AoroN ynoKeeTAi on ta AeroMeNA 

yn' 6KACTO0N AKOH rp-^^OO. 

Herod, ii. 123. 


Carleton Skarratt 

a 3 


THE words and phrases in this work have been 
taken down from the mouth of natives ^ As 
many as possible of the phrases are such as have 
been said spontaneously, i.e. are not the products 
of cross-examination. The Abyssinian, like other 
members of partially civilised peoples, or uneducated 
individuals of hi<::hly civilised races, does not always 
speak naturally when ([uestioned by a stranger. If 
he has had no education of any kind he experiences 
the same difficulty in answering enciuiries concern- 
ing the language he unreflectin«»ly uses as would, 
in similar circumstances, an uncultured European. 
Those, on the other hand, who have any smattering 
of learning tend to supply one with 'fine language' 2, 
which may or may not be idiomatic, instead of the 
ordinary conversational expressions current among- 
themselves. In any case it is of course incompatible 
with the position of the white man that natives should 
address him in the style in which they address one 
another. I have, therefore, paid more attention to 
what I have heard natives say to each other than to 
what thev have said to me, and have not excluded 

^ While the language of all sorts and conditions of men has 
been noted, it is hardly necessary to say that care has been 
taken to avoid as informants individuals speaking Tigrmna, 
Agluiina, Galliuiia, Arabic, etc., and knowing Amharic only as 
an acquired tongue. 

2 cp. the so-called jJl* ^^J* and ^Si^^- 

viii Preface. 

words or modes of expression on account of their 
so-called vulgarity^ ; the object in view being to give 
some description not so much of what, in the opinion 
of learned Europeans and natives, Abyssinians ought 
to say as of what in point of fact they do say. 

In dealing with a spoken language I have not 
hesitated to use colloquial English. 

Those who wish to pursue their acquaintance with 
Amharic beyond this * Introduction ' I would refer to 
the writings of Guidi, my indebtedness to which I 
desire to acknowledge most gratefully. In his mag- 
nificent ' Vocabolario ', a work indispensable to serious 
students of the language, there is a brief bibliography 
of Amharic and kindred subjects. 

In the few cases where I have differed from Guidi 
in regard to the meaning of words ^ it has been 
with diffidence, and only after repeated verification. 
Differences as regards form are of more frequent 
occurrence, as I have concerned myself with the 
spoken rather than the written word. 

The publication of this series has been rendered 
possible by the financial assistance of the Egyptian 
Government, as advised by Lord Cromer, and by the 
liberal attitude of the Syndics of the University 
Press, Cambridge. 

^ Quot homines, tot sententiae : e.g. Mondon-Vidailhet, Gram, 
p. 201 ?i'>'h'J e ' Cette facon de parler passe aujourd'hui pour 
vulgaire ' : yet I heard this useful word employed repeatedly by 
Dajjazmac Gassasa, a man of great courtesy and refinement. 

2 In cases like ?iH,^ or hTI^ = there, Guidi's 'quello L\' 
(Vocab. p. 487) may be the original meaning : I give the one 
I find in use. 

Preface. ix 

I wish to express my cordial thanks, for valuable 
information supplied and for assistance rendered in 
many ways, to Lieut.-Gen. Sir F. Reginald Wingate, 
K.C.B. etc.. Sirdar and Governor-General, A. F. Broun, 
Esq., Mrs H. M. Broun, A. L. Butler, Esq., J. B. Chris- 
topherson, Esq., M.D. etc., J. Grieve, Esq., H. H. King, 
Esq., Maj. W. S. R. May, Capt. R. C. R. Owen, C.M.G., 
F. M. Simpson, Esq., M.A. and Lt.-Col. E. B. Wilkinson, 
of the Sudan Government: to Lt.-Col. Lord Edward 
Cecil, D.S.O. and Capt. the Hon. C. James, of the 
Egyptian Government : to Capt. R. B. Black, Capt. C. 
Ganice, D.S.O. and El Yuzbashi Mustafa EfFendi 
Izzeddin, of the Egyptian Army: to H. Farnall, Esq., 
C.B. etc., of the Caisse de la Dette, to Dr A. Forel, 
to W. B. Heard, Es(i., late H.M. Vice-Consul at Addis 
Abeba, to Dr E. A. Wallis Budge, of the British 
Museum, and at Cambridge to Prof F. C. Burkitt, 
Dr M. R. James, George Wherry, Escj., MA. etc., R. T. 
Wright, Esq., M.A., A. R. Waller. Esq., M.A. and to 
J. Clay, Esq., M.A. and his staff, notably Mr W. J. 
Foreman : X'J'^^U • tiK^^^f - rt?*^- • nft^F- • A^^"*^ : UA 

Notices of errors and suggestions for improvements 
will be thankfully received, and should be addressed 
to me 

c/o The Sudan Agent, 
War Office, 

August, 1910. 




Preface vii 

Abbreviations xiii 

Use of Brackets and Hyphens xv 

Abbreviations of Works referred to ... . xvi 

Note on Phonology xviii 

Corrigenda xxvii 

English-Amharic Vocabulary 1 

Addenda 426 

Appendix A. Principal Parts of Verbs . . . 457 

Appendix B. Grammatical Note 498 

Appendix C. Note on Guidi's Review of Part I. . 503 



abbr. abbreviated, (-tion). 

ace. accusative. 

act. active. 

adj. adjective, (-val, -vally). 

adv. adverb(ial, -ially). 

Ag. Agau (Auni, Am. Agauii- 

Am. Amharic. 
an. animate. 
App. Appendix, 
approx. approximate(ly). 
Ar. Arabic. 
art. article, 
aux. auxiliary. 
B. B^c^gamdir. 
card, cardinal, 
caus. causative, 
comp. com])ound. 
compos, composition, 
conj. conjunction, (-tive). 
conjug. conjugation, 
conn, connected, 
constr. constructed, (-tion). 
cont. contingent (mood), 
cp. compare(8). 
D. 13ambya. 
dat. dative, 
dem. demonstrative, 
dist. distributive, 
e.g. for instance, 
eccl. ecclesiastic(al, -ally), 
emph. emphasis, (-atic). 
end. enclitic. 
Eng. English. 

AM. GR. (ll) 

esp. especial(ly). 

Eth. Ethiopic. 

euphem. euphemism, (-istic, 

Eur. European, 
f. feminine, 
fin. final. 
Fr. French. 
G. Gojjdm. 
Gall. Gallinfia. 
gen. general(ly). 
Ger. German. 
Gr. Greek, 
i. intransitive, 
i.e. that is. 

ib. in the same place, 
id. the same, 
imp. impemtive. 
imperf. imperfect, 
impers. impersonal(ly). 
inan. inanimate, 
ind. indicative, 
indecl. indeclinable, 
indef. indefinite, 
inf. infinitive, 
inter, interrogative, 
interj. interjection, 
iron, ironical(ly). 
It Italian, 
juss. jussive. 
1. line. 

lit. literal(ly). 
m. masculine, 
med. medical. 




mil. military. 

neg. negative. 

nom. nominative. 

num. numeral. 

obj. object. 

onom. ouomatopoetic. 

ord. ordinal. 

p. page, passive. 

part, participle. 

perf. perfect. 

pers. person(al, -ally). 

pi. plural. 

plup. pluperfect 

pol. polite, the form for ad- 
dressing superiors. 

poss. possessive. 

pref. prefix(ed). 

pron. pronoun (-nominal). 

prop, proper(ly). 

prov. proverb. 

prp. preposition. 

q.v. which see (in vocabu- 

r. reflexive. 

rad. radical(ly). 

recip. reciprocally ). 

s. substantive. 

s.v. under the word (in vo- 

sc. namely ; understand (some- 
thing unexpressed). 

8g. singular. 

simp, simple. 

sp. species. 

subj. subject. 

subst. substantive, (-val,-vally). 

suff. suffix(ed). 

S. S|ua (Shoa). 

t. transitive. 

Te. Tigre (^asa). 

Tna. Tigrinna. 

us. usual(ly). 

V. verb. 

vet. veterinary. 

vocab. vocabulary, (-ries). 

Ist, 2nd, 3rd : the respective 

V root or stem. 
- long. 

V very short. 

-^ sometimes long, sometimes short. 
' stress accent ; words marked with two accents usually have 

the first when final, the second before another word (§ 8). 
■f not in general use. 
* theoretical form. 

= amounts to, is equal to, the same as. 
§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Part I.). 
Names of plants also denote their flowers and fruits : e.g. flAft 
balas, 8. fig (tree and fruit). 



In English 

(a) Inclusive : 

dirt, s. (-ty, adj.) = dirt, s. and dirty, adj. (for which 

Amharic uses the same word). 
He (it) is = he is ; also : it is. 

(b) Explanatory : 

Disposition (character) = disposition in the sense of 

In Amharic 

id(i)f=idif andidf. 
tiq(J8)sa = tiqissa and tfqsa. 

(^]^r[v]c^' = ?^r'vc^, also ^rvc^, ^^rcH- 

and ^^C^. 

sababbara (-ya-, -ar-) = sabdbbara ; also saydbb^rgi, sa- 
bdbbara and sayjibbara, (see § 7d). 

In English the masculine is intended unless the feminine is 
specified, and 'you' and similar words are singular unless marked 

In the phrases the Eng. verbs in the 2nd pers. are sg. ; pol., 
pi., after the translation of a phrase = the same phrase with the 
subject in the pol. or pi. 

Pull it : flUoh ti sayau, 

pi. -fl*^ ss -yut = Pull (pi.) it : ^n*^ :; sayut. 

Has he been summoned ? 'f"niC;t^K tatartoal?, 

pol. & pi. -"fP^ K -taual ? = Has he (pol.) or have they 
been summoned ? ■f'rnC'h'PAs tafartaual ? 




Afevork, Gram. Grammatica della lingua amarica, di G. J. 

Afevork, Roma, 1905. 
Blandford, Geol. & Zool. Observations on the Geology and 

Zoology of Abyssinia, by W. T. Blandford, London, 1870. 
Broun, Cat. Catalogue of Sudan Flowering Plants, by A. F. 

Broun, Director of Woods and Forests, Sudan Government, 

Khartoum, 1906. 
Chaine, Gram. Eth. Grammaire Ethiopienne, par le P. M. Chaine 

S. J., Beyrouth, 1907. 
Cust, Lng. Afr. A Sketch of the Modern Languages of Afi-ica, 

by R. N. Cust, London, 1883. 
Guidi, Coniug. Sulle coniugazioni del verbo amarico. Di 

I. Guidi, in the Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie, viii. 
Guidi, Gram. Grammatica elementare della lingua amarina, 

2nd edition, Roma, 1892. 
Guidi, Prov. Proverbi, strofe e racconti abissini, tradotti e pub- 

blicati da Ignazio Guidi, Roma, 1894. 
Guidi, Redupl. Sulla reduplicazione delle consonanti amariche, 

di I. Guidi, in the Supplement! Periodic! all'Archivio 

Glottologico Italiano, Roma, 1895. 
Guidi, Vocab. Vocabolario Amarico-Italiano, compilato da 

L Guidi, Roma, 1901. 
Isenberg, Gram. Grammar of the Amharic Language, by the 

Rev. C. W. Isenberg, London, 1842. 
Lepsius, St. Alph. Standard Alphabet for reducing unwritten 

languages and foreign graphic systems to a uniform 

orthography in European letters, by C. R Lepsius, 2nd 

edition, London, 18G3. 
Ludolf, Lex. /Eth. I. Ludolfi Lexicon ^thiopico-Latinum, editio 

secunda, Francofurti ad Moenum, 1699. 
Mondon-Vidailhet, Gram. Grammaire de la langue abyssine 

(amhariquc), par C. Mondon-Vidailhet, Paris, 1898. 
Munzinger, Vocab. Vocabulaire de la langue tigr6, par 

W. Munzinger, Leipsic, 1865. 

Abbreviations of Works referred to. xvii 

Praetorius, Am. Spr. Die Amharische Sprache, von F. Prae- 

torius, Halle, 1879. 
Praetorius, Gram. yEth. Grammatica ^Etliiopica, scripsit Dr F. 

Praetorius, Carlsruhe, 1886. 
Reinisch, Chamir. Die Chamirsprache in Abessinien, von Leo 

Reinisch, I. & II., Vienna, 1884. 
Reinisch, Quara. Die Quarasprache in Abessinien, von Leo 

Reinisch, I. & IL, Vienna, 1885, III. Vienna, 1887. 
Reinisch, Wort. Bed. Worterbuch der Bedauye-Sprache, von 

Leo Reinisch, Vienna, 1895. 
Vollers and Burkitt, Gram. A Grammar of the Modern 

Egyptian Dialect of Arabic, by K. Vollers and F. C. Burkitt, 

Cambridge, 1895. 



{The following paragraphs are quoted from Initia 
Amharica, Part I.) 

Phonetic Alphabet. 
§ 3 In order to designate the pronunciation of Amharic 
as far as possible without ambiguity I employ the 
following phonetic alphabet. The principle held in 
view is that one letter should never represent more 
than one sound, and one sound should not be repre- 
sented by more than one letter^. In regard to the 
consonants this is a feasible system ; but the fluctuat- 
ing character of some of the short vowels precludes 
a strict adherence to it, which would involve the use 
of an impracticably large number of letters to repre- 
sent variations of no essential importance. The 
indications, then, by means of examples taken from 
European languages of the value of the sounds which 
occur are, especially in the case of the vowels, only 
approximately exact. 

With the exception of the 'explosive 2' sounds 
represented by p, q, t, 6, s, and the guttural x 
(frequently pronounced k by Abyssinians themselves) 
the pronunciation of Amharic presents little difficulty 
to an Englishman. 

^ Lepsius, St Alph. pp. 31, 32, 38. 
' See end of this §. 

§ 3] Note on Phonology. xix 


All vowels are pronounced short unless marked 

~ = long, "^ = long or short, ^ = very short. 

a in It. fatto. 
the same lengthened, 
e in bet, but more open, 
the same lengthened, 
a a in formula, e in Fr. le. 

O ' 

a I the same lengthened, 
e e in bet, but less open, 
e the same lengthened. 
1 i in It. minuto. 
1 the same lengthened. 

1 i in quick, but pronounced with the lips more 

the same lengthened. 

u in Fr. absolument. 

a in was. 

o in It. caro, but more open (not o aperto). 

the same lengthened. 

u in full, 
u in It. luna. 

a a and a* represent the same vowel in Amharic 
(giTz § 4). The above examples show, approximately, 
the commonest pronunciations of this variable voweP. 
When ji a ft) are given as alternatives they represent 
a gradation of sounds from e in * bet ' through approx. 
u in 'but', eu in Fr. neuf, e in Fr. le, o in Ger. Gotter 
to a in 'was' (§ Id). 

^ Guidi, Gram. §46, 'suono non ben determinato ' ; see Lepsius, 
St. Alph. p. 48, and cp. our varying pronunciations of e in 
' oflfering ', i in * girl ', u in ' occurrence.' 


Note on Phonology. rs 3 


Diphthongs are merely their component vowels 
pronounced in rapid succession without any inter- 
vening hiatus. They are marked ^. The following 
approximations are fairly close: 

i in bite. 













ai in Ger. Waise. 
au in Ger. aus. 
o in no. 
oy in boy. 


ch in Ger. noch. 

h in he. 

an explosive guttural pronounced a little fur- 
ther back than k^ ; the centre of the tongue 
is raised towards the palate. 

k in kin. 

g in go. 

ng in singing. 

tt in hottest, but pronounced with an explosion. 

sibilant t, similar to ts in pots, but pronounced 
with an explosion. 

ch in church, but pronounced with an explo- 
ch in cheese, 
sh in she. 

z I j in Fr. je. 

^ but not as far back as Syrian J. 

§ 3] Note on Phonology. xxi 











j in jam, but the tongue comes nearer the teeth. 
y in you. 

\\ in Spanish sefior. 
dental t, as in Fr. tu. 
dental d, as in Fr. de. 
s in so. 
z in size. 
1 in let. 
r in red. 
n in no. 
p in pot. 

p pronounced with an explosion, 
b in be. 

bilabial f, (the teeth not touching the lips), 
bilabial v, b in Spanish arriba. 
labiodental, f in ftm. 
labio-dental, v in van. 

w in wan, but the lips are more open : u in It. 

^ y, ^, are h, y, w, pronounced very slightly, ^ and "^ 
almost merged into the adjacent vowel (§ Id), and ^ 
final tending to disappear, y and w may be regarded 
as the consonantal forms of i and u respectively; after 
a vowel they often pass into those vowels and form 
diphthongs (cp. y in layer, w in lower): a + ya = dia, 
a + wa = aua; similarly i and u when doubled (§ 6) 
become yy, ww (uw). 

q, p, t, s, c are pronounced with emphasis, and 
appear to be separated from a following vowel by a 
slight explosion of breath. They are radically dif- 
ferent from k, p, t, s, c. 


Note on Phonology. 


The Amharic Characters: 

§ 4a Amharic employs the Ethiopic syllabary, with 
additional signs representing sounds not occurring in 
Ethiopic. The characters are read from left to right. 
There are seven forms of each character, each repre- 
senting the consonant followed by (and including) a 
different vowel. These seven classes are known by 
their Ethiopic names (of which the Amharic pronun- 
ciation is given). 

I. IbH gfiz, original, representing the con- 
sonant followed by a (a, a>) 

II. hd-fl kaiv, second, 

III. "^Aft sdlis, third, 

IV. ^-fld rdvi, fourth, 

V. ^ri\ hdmis, fifth, 
VI. ^J^ft sddis, sixth, 

VII. fi'Hb savi, seventh, 

• o' ' 

There is also a series of characters representing 
the consonant followed by w and a vowel ; this w is 
often pronounced o before a. 





i or no 
" vowel 


li ha ih hi! VL hi y ha 

A la /V- lu A. It A la 

rh ha /li< hii rh, h i 'h ha 

ao ma <n>- miii '^ mi i *^ ma 

o 1 1 

IP sa I**- sii i "t st I "^ sa 

C ra 4- rii j^ r i ^ ra 

° I I 

A sa iA« su A. st A sa 


rdvi hdmis 



t h^e 

U hi, h 

If h^o 

A. l^e 

A i 1 

A- l^o 

ifi. h^e 

h\ hi, h 

rh h^5 

1, m^e 

9^ mi, m 

f m^o 

"fc s^e 

r si," s 

r s^o 

& r>e 

C ri, r 

C r^5 

A. s^e 

A si, s 

A s^5 


Note on Phonology. 



?r sa, sa 

+ qa 
n ba 


+ ta 


^ ca 



h ka 


'^ xa 

ID wa,Waj 


H za 


TT ^ za, za 

f ya 

^ da 

K ja 

*» ga 
m ta 

• o 

£Q> ca 
* pa 
S\ sa 

• o 


• o 

^ fa 


T pa 





• o 

tf« su 

It SI 

Tff sa 

*fe qii 

* q 1 

^ qa 

n- bu 

n bi 

n ba 

+ tu 

-fc 1 1 

;^ ta 

¥ cu 

^ CI 

^^ ca 

-v hit 

-i hi 

^ ha 

V- nu 

3t ni 

*•■ na 

*^ nil 

t ni 

? na 

h- ii 

A, 1 

^ a 

Vh kii 

h. ki 

h ka 

Ti- xu 


T) xa 

01. wit 

*£ wT 

*P wa 

l^ ii 

% t 

^ a 

H" zii 

It zi 

H za 

Tf zii 

TC z 1 

TT za 

«i yii 

P. y 1 

? ya 

^ dii 

^ di 

^ da 

^ jii 

% Jt 

% ja [ 

7- gii 

^ g 1 

;> ga 

m« tii 

m. 1 1 

"\ ta 



*^ ca 

^ PU 

^ Pt 

^ pa 

^ sii 

3L SI 

K sa 

0- su 

1 SI 

9 sa 

^ f ii 

if. fi 

^ fa 

T pu 

X pT 

;r pa 






















If z e 
p. ye 

^ d>e 

% g>e 
fll. t>e 
QBe c^e 
A. p^e 

3t s^e 
% syg 



n SI, s 

* qi' q 

-n bi, b 

^ ti*; t 

•^ V. V 

T CI, C 

-^ hi, h 

*} ni, n 

^ ni, u 

Tt i 


h ki, k 

"^ xi' X 

fl»-wi, wii,u 

* i 

TI zi, z 

:>f zi, z 

^ f\ i'i 

J^ di, d 

K" ji, j 

*^ gi' g 

'J* «. t 

-^ ci, c 

^ pi' P 

X" si, s 

d si, s 

* fi. f 

T Pj. P 


• o 


-^ h^o 

"^ no 
h ^o 
In k^o 

Ti x'^S 
JP wo 

H z^o 

tr z^o 

p- yo 

/^ d^o 

^ j"o 

■) g^o 

^ t^o 

Q^ C^O 

^ p^o 

}t S^O 
f S^O 

C f^o 
7^ p^o 

^ also X za, za, :Hf zii, PC za, X z^e, pc, ^ zi, z, 3C z^o. 
•IC = *7 + M,gzt 


Note on Phonology. 





• o 





Ol Iwa, loa 

^ ^ mwa, moa 


^ rwa, roa 

2f^3 rya 

0. swa, soa 

"?£ swa, soa 

*fc qww 

*h- qw 1 

it qwa, qoa 
H bwa, boa 
;t twa, toa 
3? cwa, coa 


^ qwi, qwii 

'Y» hwa, hwa> 

'K hw 1 

A hwa, hoa 
X nwa, noa 
J ilwa, noa 

> hwe 

"V- hwi, hwti 


h^ kwi 

V^ kwa, koa 


tf- kwi, kwii 

n«» )(Waj 

V xw I 

*^ X^^' X^^ 
y. zwa, zoa 

Tf zwa, zoa 

? yua yoa 

^ dwa, doa 

S. jwa, joa^ 

"fr xwi. xwti 

1" gWoj 


^ gwa, goa 
OJ. twa, toa 
flp,cwa, coa 
^ swa, soa 
^^fwa, foa 


T* gwi, gwii 

1 also T, *X. 

2 according to Chaine, Gram. Eth. p. 3, = mua. 

^ used for rwa, rda, by those who reject ^ : native opinion 
on the point is divided ; rya is also written Z. 
* also ^. 

§ 46] Note on Phonology. xxv 

Value of Characters. 

In the traditional Ethiopic pronunciation the § 46 
vowels of all the classes except gfiz and sddis are 
considered long; but in spoken Amharic they are 
all constantly shortened (§ 7d). 

The vowel of grfiz differs from that of rdvi not so 
much in quantity (rdyi often being short) as in quality, 
in which it varies (§ 3) in different words. But in 
U th "h h 0^ it is of the same quality ^ as rdyi. The 
above are its commonest values after the various con- 
sonants; but A la, l(o, and ^ ca, cw also occur. For 
this and other variations in pronunciation see § 7d. 

Some characters which represented different sounds 
in Ethiopic are now pronounced the same and are 
interchangeable in writing: 

ip = rt sa 


h = a 
X = sa 

• o 

0, is also written A<P, «^=5'"*P etc., and ^=C^ or d^. 

h and (§ 2) contain no consonant, but are vowels 
and as such may be blended with an adjacent vowel 

(§ 7a) I 

^ gfiz in these 5 letters as in the rest is theoretically 
short, and is usually pronounced so unless the accent 
(§ 8) falls on it when it is often pronounced long. 

^ ha, ha occur as pronunciations of h Ti ; e.g. see 
App. B, § 7d. _ 

^ ^A (for ^- + hii § 7a) sometimes sounds yaalla, i.e. 
the crasis is not always complete ; but no hiatus 
occurs between a apd A in any way comparable with j- . 

xxvi Note on Phonology. [§ 4c, § 5 


§ 4c : marks the end of a word. 

J corresponds to a semicolon. 

a „ „ full stop. 

:!: marks the end of a paragraph. 

Doubling of Consonants. 

§ 5 In English we pronounce doubled consonants as 
if they were single, only one f being heard in offer, 
stiffer, etc. In Amharic doubled consonants are pro- 
nounced double: ff as -ff f- in 'off fur' (pronounced 
without any hiatus between the words) or ff in Italian 
goffo ; tt as -t t- in * hot tea ', etc. 

The Amharic characters represent not only single 
but also double consonants with a following: vowel: 
A = la or 11a. 

o o 

Thus since ^ = t, ti, tt or tti 
7 = n, ni, nn or nni 

' o' o 

7i = s, si, ss or ssi, 

' o' o' 

^'>7i tfnnis, small, might be transliterated in 64 
different ways. 

There are no means of indicating by Amharic 
characters whether a consonant is doubled or not, or 
whether the consonant of a character in column VI 
of the syllabary (sddis) is followed by a vowel or not : 
and in both cases both alternatives are common : 
htwoD a-mma-ma, it ached. 

o o ' 

}\aD9^ f-ma-m, pain. 
4*AT9" qf-1-ti-m, marrow. 
tllC iij-&|-ggi-r, pronunciation. 
9^^C m-di-r, ground. 











o • • 



(|)kk^o[(tik-); usually 

(i)kk^ 6 (lik- ; alone. 



hjdikk^o hidiikk^o 

hidfkk^o hidiikk^d 


3, 25 

addababai (- 

(f)kk^^'o (iik- 

; often en- 

addababai (-avavai; 

(i)kk^6 (iik-; alone. 












hkwdn (§ 8) 

















o * 




should follow 1. 26. 






addabdbai ( 




addababai (-ayayai ; 

animate objects 








on to 





ndJ^ih * 





























23 ndit, nd^et 

ndit, nd^gt 





* o 


O' o 







addabdbai (avayai) 

addababai (-aydyai; 









past imperf. etc. 

+70 tao^dbba 



should follow 1. 30 








§§ 246, 33a, 636 


















tut** " * 





























on to 


















§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar {Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

a, indef. art., not translated : 
Horse: d^^ils fdras. 

o o 

A horse : <C^ft : f dras. 

o o 

abandon, v.t. '^<D tdvva (tdua). 

' O O ^ O O ' 

^A tala 


A4»+ ld(iqaqa. 
abandon (be abandoned § 68), cause or allow to, 

v.t. hftA++ asldqqaqa. 
abandoned, be, v.p. i'+fli tatdwa (-|ua). 
+^A tatala. 

o • o 

+A++ tald.(iqaqa. 
abate, v.i. T^^A gwwddala. 
abdomen, s. If j^ h"od. 

(lower) flj^j^ bajiid. 
able, be, v.i. ( = can) ^A cdla. 

+^AflH tacdlau (impers. § 43a). 
See § 63c. 
Are you able to walk ? ^AU : ^rh.^AU:: cilah tiha- 
ddllah?, pol. -fAtD-: jirh.^A*:-. cilau yiliiidallu ? 

AM. GR. (ll) 1 


abound, v.i. flH bazza. 

't'ddn tarrafa (tar-). 

o o o ^ / 

about, adv. ( = approximately) ^OA yahil (yahl; s.v. 
KhA). ^ 

About twenty : U^ : ^UA: ha^a y^hil. 
about, prp. ( = around) fl-...: ^ml-flba-... atagab (-ay; 
Round about the house: flfl.^: hml'tts bav^et 

o • 

about, prp. ( = concerning) P-...: lIC ya-... nagar (-gar; 
What is it about? f9"'Ji i7C: Vfl>-K yamfn nagar 

above, adv. A^ Idi. 

nA^ baldi (§ 8). 
above, prp. (of position) fl- [h-, i"-] . . . .« A^ ba- (ka-, 
ta-)... 14 (§§8, 475). 
Above the house : flfl.^ .- AR : bav^^et lai. 

*^ o • o 

above, prp. ( = exceeding) h- [-h-] . . .: e'^fl AT ka- (ta-). . . 
yammibalt (Ji*^- (i)mmi-, -iy-, -alt; § 58c). 

Or use other parts of flAm ballata, to exceed. 

i o o • o 

Above ten: ;^/*'C: h'^flAT: tdssir immivalt. 
They are above ten: ^P'C-. j&flA'HA' tdssir yiyal- 
abscess, s. KflT fbat (fv-, -at). 

?i'nm^ ibtat (iyt-, -tat). 
xn*^ fbbaa (? 8). 
abscond, v.i. m4- taffa. 
absent, be, v.i. use neg. of Vfl^ nabbara and of AiA dlla 

He is absent : f Al^ •.: yallam. 


He was absent : hM(\d9^ii alndbbaram. 

O o o 

Who is absent ? *^'i .- *(D- .- f A.A :•. mdn-nau yal4lla? 
Why were you absent? 9^1-. 'lOh: hMncV9^ii 

mln-nau alnabbarhim? 

O O o o 

abstract, v.t. flirty wassada (wws-). 

abstracted, be, v.p. i'toAf!^ tawassada (taiia-, -cos-). 

abundance, s. "^CP tirf. 

' o 

abundant, adj. 'AH* bizu. 

abuse (abusive language), s. ftj^r-fl sfdib (-iy). 

abuse (revile), v.t. rt^fl saddaba (aya). 

abuse one another, v.i. i^rt-S^fl* tasadaddabu (tasad-, 

abused, be, v.p. 'hA^H tasaddaba (tas-, -aya). 
Abyssinia, s. Vdfi h;ibasa (h;ly-, -as-). 

Au'lhP-^J? ityOpya. 
Abyssinian, adj. ^Odifi yiihabasa (-hdy-, -iis-). 
Abyssinian, s. ?0(\fi : rta>- yiihabasd sau (-hay-, -iis- ; § 8). 

Utlli hdbasa (hay-, -iis-). 
Acacia Siima {A, cam2)ylacantha\ Broun, Cat. 181), s. 

1*^Ci\ gimarda. 
accept, v.t. ++nA taciabbala. 

i- ' O Ao O O 

I will not accept it (them § 61&) : hA+flAi'":: aliq- 
accord, of one's own : "hl^^Oh (f)ndyau (§ 8). 

Ki^ay- (f)ndau (§ 8). 
Ger. (§ 35) of ^irtfl dssaba (-aya). 
He (it) did so of his (its) own accord : Ki^^Oi* : 

hf!,dlii ndyau addrraga. 
They gave it me of their own accord: KAflfl»-: 
rtm-^:: assivau sattuii. 

Q. o O . • 



according as, conj., and 

according to, prp. ( = in proportion as, to), ?i^ft-...» 
d't^d^s (i)nda- (-da-)... batawarad (ya-, -and-). 
According as they work: h'i^'^A^: fli-V^j?:: 
ndammisaru vataudrad. 

o o * o o o 

According as they have worked: K'}^rt<-: H't'^^s 
ndasdrru vataudrad. 

o • o o o 

According to your (pi.) work : Mf!^tl^TO': fli'<PdJt! 
ndasirdccyuh vataudrad. 

o »' • o o o 

account, s. (bill) M'il isab (-dy ; § 8). 
^'?C qwftir (qwtit-). 
This account is not correct: ^Vs K^'fli ^hhA9": 

h&F-^ii ylh isdv tikfkkilimm aidal (S 7d). 
The account was closed: ^^-hC: +4-4*;: ddftar 

Don't do it on any account : r'^Ti tllf ">: ^;^J^C•7:s 
miniram bih^'dn attadiig, pi. -CT".-. -rigu. 
account-book, s. ^^I'C daftar (-tar). 
accusation, s. hft kiss, 
accuse, v.t. hrtrt kassasa. 

o o o 

accused, be, v.p. +hrtrt takdssasa. 

accused (the), s. i'h^Ti takasds (§ 8). 

accuser, s. h^Tf kasds (§ 8). 

accustomed, be (become), v.i. tumf^ lammada. 

ache, s. "haoT* imam. 

ache, v.i. haoao ammama (impers. § 43a ; § 63c?, e). 

My head aches: ^ri^: ^ao^^w ras^en(§ 56c) yam- 


Acheta sp., s. <C.^^ fJ'enta. 
acquaintance, s. (knowledge) hah^^ fw(ti)qat. 

fiiljl: limdd (§ 8). 
acquainted with, be, v.t. h(D^ auwaqa (-wwq-). 


acquit, v.t. <C^^: A- farrada la- (§ 47a). 

The Kas acquitted him: ^ft: d.dH-^^ii ras %ra- 


acquitted, be, v.p. i'd^d^ti^ tafarradallat (impers. § 43a; 

across, bring (take), v.t. Mid assaogara (-gar-). 
across, come (go), v.i. & t. i-lind tasaggara (tas-, -gar-). 
They came across the river : flJ^H"'}: i'Tf 14-:: wwn- 
zun tasaor^'aru. 
act, v.i. hf!^dl addrraga. 
active, adj. T-* niqu. 
activity, s. 'i^'i^ niciinnat (-nat). 

Adansonia digitata (Broun, Cat. 65), s. ^Cnm firtata. 
add, v.i. & t. (up), K<n>A jammala. 

(to) GB^aod cdnmiara (-mar-). 
added, be, v.p. (up) '\r%aoh tajaminala. 

(to) '\rGS^at»L tacammara (-miir-). 

\ I o-o oo^ ' 

addition, s. (increase) T**^^ cimmdri. 
additional, adj. ^'^l, cimindri (§ 576). 
address, s. (on letter) J^Ah-T* milikkit. 
admirable, adj. *^fiA.y mrdafya. 

aDfiih9° mdlkdm, pi. also aDfiihh9^ mal- 
kdkdm (§ 8). 
admiration, interj. expressing : ?inv"fl itub ! (-uv ; § 8 ; 

admit, v.t. h(ll(\ asgdbba. 
adore, v.t. Alft saggada (sag-, -gad-). 
adorn, v.t. hillm asg>eta. 

' O . o 

adorned, adj. TiAl^ sillim. 
adornment, s. IT g>et. 

•fiA'^^'sillfmdt (§8). 

o O \0 / 

adult, adj. ■^A^' tflliq. 


adult, s. "inn g^obaz (-Sya-). 
adulterer, s. i»-7i'^ wiisfmma (-sum-). 
adultery, s. ahfi9^^^ wusimmlnnat (-siim-, -nat). 
adultery, commit, v.i. (of the man) tD'Hao wassama (wws-). 

(of the woman) fl>-*fi*^: ^tt^ wii- 
sfmma ydzac (-cc § 6). 
advice, s. 9^\lC mikir. 

' o o 

advise, v.t. aohd mdkkara (-kar-). 

affair, s. T-Hf» gwf dddi (gwiid-, giid- ; § 8). 

Vie nagar (-gar). 
afraid, be, v.i. rtp sagga. 

A.^ farra (far-). 
Don't be afraid : h^tlpn attfsga, pi. -T".: -gu. 
(encouragingly): h^nVu diz^oh !, pol. hj&H?'^:: 
diz^o^tl, f ^J&HTIk diz OsI, pi. ^/^.^I,^l^a ai- 

zodccyuh ! (§ Id). 
after, prp. h- [i*-] . . . : fl^^A ka- (ta-) . . . bahwdla (ya-, 
-auha- § 7f/ ; § 476). 
After tea: Me,: AAA: kasai vauhdla. 
after — may be rendered by i'ti-tii taqattala, to follow : 
I will go after you (him, her, it, them, § 61b): 
-t-h^^: ^x%fi^^h•.l takattiyye ihaddllaui^ (§ 7(?). 
afternoon, in the, (speaking beforehand) 'Mfl-A+T-.- fli-S.^ 
takkiilaqan wwdya (§ 8). 
Good afternoon : (on meeting) "ht^^ : *PAO ;: 
nd>et walh?, pol. hJ^^: 'PA'k nd^et walu?, 
pi. X*}^^ : *PA^l^:: nd^et walaccyuh? (§ 7d). 
afterwards, adv. :^A hwala. 

AAA bahwdla (bauha- § 7c?). 
again, adv. A*7T* dagm^o [(dag-), ^*r* damm'^o (dam-)], 
again, do, v.t. ^7<w. daggama (dag-). 

Do it again : Jt75^« dfgam, pi. -<n>- -mu. 


age, s. Kjt*^ fdmye. 

(old) hCgT irjfnna. 
What is your age ? h^'^V-. ft^^.- ia>-.: fdm^eh sfnti 
aged (elderly), adj. hC% ar'^^og^e. 

ti^llfi* simagfllJ^e. 
agent, s. i>V? hunafina (-nan-). 
ago, adv. f H<i yazdr^e. 

Use hf^^dl adarraga (q.v.). 
Ten days ago: fH<2,: fi^Cs +'>: yiizdr^e assfr qan. 
How many years ago is it? f H<2» s tl'i^ : *J<w»^ .• 'kd^h 

yazdr^e sint amat nau ? 
He came two months ago: f H<J» : ^h^^: mC: 'lOhi 
faof^ :: y;izdr>e hiilatt wwr nau yiimatta ; or 

J o o *' o • • ' 

i>A'V: (DC: ii-'r;l"A: h^w)'']:: hiilatt wwr hiin'^o- 


tal kamatta (i'<n»^:: tamatta). 
I sent him (it) three days ago: ^A'>: +*>: h^Cli 

Ahih'T*:: s'^^ost qan <ldrigg-^e idkhut. 
A little time ago : ^^'9°: qiddim. 
Long ago : h^{\> -. X\l -. ayydl' e gfz> e. 
agree, v.i. Kit •. hfi (l)ssi (-si, -s>) dla (s.v. VflA, § 44rt). 
^ft : ^A dass (diiss) ala. 
^A : htioh dass (dass) dlau (impers. § 43a). 
If he agrees to this : flfl.U .- Kii\ .- n,A : bazzfh fssi yil. 
Do you agree to this ? flJtU : ^A .- ^AVA « bazzih 

dass yfliihal? 
I agree (to a proposal, or grant a request) : 9°'ia 
h*^^:: minkafFaii?, or 

O o ' 

i^'> : ^1^^ « min cao:2:aran ? 
agree together, v.i. +A'^tfi>- tasamammu (tasam-). 
+m^4'fli>- tataqdqqamu. 
+'P^'^ tawaddadu (taud-). 


agreeable (amiable), adj. m*P'h? taifitdnna (-tan-). 
agreeable (amiable), be, v.i. m^: hti taff dla (s.v. VflA, 

§ 44a). 
agreement, s. ^C? qwiirt. 
fl>*A wul. 
They made an agreement: ^CT: hfidtn qwtirt 

He broke the agreement : *I>^CT : hd,dii s qwiirt 

o o o 

Until the agreement terminates : fl>- A : hfth.^ A4*s 
^dil i will iskydlq diras. 
agriculture, s. hllaD^ azmara (-mar-), 
ahead, adv. (id.^ bdfi t (-fft ; § 8). 

©A^t^wo^ddfit (-fit; §8). 
He has gone on ahead : fl^f.^ : rh«J?^A a bafft 
hfdoal, or flift<t^ •. rh.^ :: wwdaf it hada. 
air, s. ti'ti nffds (§ 8). 
alarm, s. (fear) 'P^^ ffrat (§ 8). 

(rousing) 4*ft4*^ qisqasa. 
alarm, v.i (frighten) hhd.^ asfarra (-far-). 
(rouse) ^rt+rt qasaqqasa. 

alarm-clock, s. flA^ai A i rt^^ baladdual saa(t). 

alert, adj. *>* nfqu. 

alight, be, v.i. (fire, lamp) +fl^ tabarra (-aya-). 

Is the lamp (candle, any light) alight? ao'd^^t 
■fdC^^ ;: mavrdt tavdrtoal ? 

o • O • O 

alive, adj. +V^*PA- tannanafsu. 

all, pron. U-A- hull- with pers. suff! (§16, § 126). 
s.v. hhti. 

Not all of it : inrf". U-/V-: mac hiillu. 

Take it all away : Ohiif^oh s u-/V- k wtisadau hiillu. 


Is that all? ^U: ih/V-.- 'kD".-. yihe hiillu nau? 
Let them all come: ihA^iD-: /i9"fli-:: huMccau 


All the men : rtflJ- : l^A• : sdu hiillu (cp. § 52a). 
They are coming back, transport and all : f^oDtifiiin 

•M^H^aJ- a yimmallasallu tannaofwazdccau. 

1/ o o o o o'-' o 

He has come after all ! rw>^Vi :•. mattakk^'o I (s.v. 

Where has all that money gone to? fis ^OAs 
TJH-fl: P*^: fh.^:: yan yahl ganzay yet hada? 
(§ 56c; S.V. hllli). 
all right ! interj. Kit (f)ssi ! (-si). 

nK bd jja ! (b^j-). 
f^lhTr yihun I 
at all, adv. 9°'i9°'} minimmin (§ 16), only with neg. verb 
(§ 38). ° ' 
h-f katt"o (s.v. h-ti-). 
It is of no use at all : 9^'>9^'} : h^lA9^ « minfmmm 

^-v o o o 


o o • 

allegory, s. i^^A» missdl^^e. 
Allium cepa, s. Tf-^Vf-C'lh siinkwurt. 

+^: i^'JW'C^ qdi (qayy § 6) siinkwiirt. 
Allium sativum, s. V*?* : Tf-'JW'C^ niicc sunkwiirt. 
allow, v.t. +fli tdwa (taua). 

o o ^ o o ' 

Or use causative in ht\- as- (§ 22a) ; s.v. VflA. 

allowed, be, v.p. ++0 tatawa (-dua). 
'i 000^00' 

Is it allowed ? je,1'<P/t"/Z,:: yittduallwf ? (s.v. -id|&). 

It is not allowed : h^i'ah9°;i aittaum. 
aloe {A. ahessinica, Broun, Cat. 573), s. [?t]<J.^ (i)ryet (§ 8). 
alone, adv. •fl^ bfcca, with pers. suff! (§ 126). 
A-fl?^- labicca- (avf-) „ „ 

It stands alone : -H^ .- Van « biccd (§ 8) nau. 

ALO— AMB 10 

Leave him alone : Mi^ah: -fwohv. lavfccau tauau, 

o • o o o ' 

pi : +01.^:: . . . . tdut. 

I wish to be alone: -fl^fT : 'lOhs h9"\r'iv. biccdTan 


(§ 56d) naummh^'on. 

along, adv. (intensive) [?i]ln ©kk^^'o [(tik-); usually en- 
clitic and a suffix]. 
Go along ! rh.Jt»i!: hidfkk^o !, pi. rlu-^Vi « hidiikk^o I 

along (-side of), prp. h- ['^-]. . . : T'7 ka- (ta-) . . . tigg (§ 8, 

§ ^^«)- 
Alongside of the wall : M^l^ .• T*7 : ka^rgidda 

(§ ^^0 tigg. 
alphabet, s. <i^A ffdal. 

also, adv. ^1*P dagm^^o (dag-). 

f/P damm^o (dam-). 

-9" -m (-mm § 6 ; § 486). 

hHw^^ (i)z(z)d^dya (-zdd- ; § 8). 
altar, s. ;'-fl^ tdb^dt (-dyo- ; § 8). 
alter, v.i. (be altered, v.p.) i'litDm talauwata. 

It must alter (be altered): j&AfliT:: yillauat. 
alter, v.t. Aaim lauwata. 

' o o • o 

Don't alter it : h^lioh'mahv. attilauwutau. 

O O •© 

alteration, s. Afl^'P laut. 
altogether, adv. T'^Ti cfrras (§ 8). 

It was omitted altogether : *I?'^7i : +^ •.: cirras 
always, adv. l^A'7H. hiillgiz^e (-A*?- -llagi-). 

Hfli^C zauwtir. 
amber, s. Hji'lh zeit. 
ambiguous, adj. a>-Afl>-A wulfwwiil. 
MT-fii agwdgwtil. 

11 AMB— AND 

amble, v.i. wld s^ggara (-gitr-). 

ambush, v.t. (lie in ambush, v.i.) Ai^fl adabba. 

Amharic, adj. & s. h9°:^C'^ amarinna. 

What is this called in Amharic? ^U: nrriC? s 
h'}^^ s jiflA A :: yihe yamarfiiiia nd^ et yibbdlal ? 
Do they understand Amharic? h9^'>C^ -. J2.rt*^A-:: 
amarinna yisamallu? 

o •' o o 

amiability, s. m¥;^ tafFita. 

amiable, adj. m'P'h^ tafFitanna (-tan-). 

amiable, be, v.i. m*P: ^iA taff dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

ammunition, s. [?i]C«^ft (i)rsds (§8). 

Ti&-> tiyyit(tiy-; § 52«, 8). 
amount to, v.t. at^ wwtta. 

Zdii darrasa. 

■^ o o o 

^ihA akkala. 

o o 

What does it amount to? ftTl*: ^(Dm^a sint 
yuojtal ? 
amuse, v.t. h'^ati' acc;luwata (-wwt-). 

h'*i'P assd(ia. 
amused, b6, v.i. "f+ sdqa (at fl- ba- § 47«). 
amusement, s. fiti.fli;i' cawata (cdu-, -wt-). 
amusing, adj. ao**i'k9 masdqya. 
and, conj. -9^ -m (-mm § G). 
-'i' -nna. 
(§ 485, § 72). 
The horse is a bad one and the mule is too dear; 

<C^rt-: h^: hOhi n4'/t"fl>-5^: (D'^ '. *<»-•.: faraSU 

' O O 

kffu nau vaql'^^oum wiiddi nau. 

o o • o •■■ o o 

Bring some water and the medicine : (0*i^ s 
<iDjt:5»:t*'} : je,HU: ^h wuhanna madhdn^itun 

yizah (§ 8) na. 

AND— ANG 12 

and, conj. — often not expressed (§ 74c) : 

He went and saw and returned : rh.^ : h^ : 'f'<n»Art:: 
hada ayya tamallasa. 

*' •' o o o o 

There is bread, meat and water : -^0 : Z**^ s OhV s 
htiii ddbb^o sfga wiiha dlla. 
Where English co-ordinates, Amharic subordi- 
nates one or more sentences, especially by the 
use of the gerund (§ 74a, b) : 

Come back and take it away : 'tao^ftV s a^rt^fl^:: 
tamallisah wttsadau. 

o o o o 

He has taken and eaten the meat : /*'p : JiH s 

nA:l:A a sfga yiz'^o yaltoal. 
Go to the market and buy some grain and come 

back: Ifl.^: rh^^U : hV^: TH-MJ: Vs gdyya 

hldah fhil ffaztah na. 

O O O d o 

Fill it and hang it up : ao^i'V : ft4*Aa>- s mdltah 
and, conj. joining numerals over 99 and fractions (§ 20), 
i-- ta-. 


180: ao-f^s i'fl^'}^'. mdt^o tasamdnya. 

IV3: Mjt: +^ft^^: and tas^ostiyya. 
and, conj. ( = in order to) Mj^- (i)nd(i)-, pref. to con- 
tingent (§ 45). 

Come and see: V: h'i^^&n na ndittai. 
anger, interj. expressing: KP» a^^e! (si^e-6 !). 
anger, s. "d-Cd.^ k>v1irfya. 

4»^^ qwdtta. 
angry, be, v.i. (with, v.t.) +*fe^ taqwwtta (§ 63^, e). 

I am not angry: hAi^fe^iM^:: altaqwojttahum. 

I am angry with you: '^*feT^yAl^ •.: taqwwticc^^e- 

13 ANI— ANT 

When I am angry do not come near me : ft^fe"! : 
iD^i : 3\^9^^ :: siqqwwtta wwdan^^g attimta. 
animal, s. (wild) hC*S dur^e {§ 7d), pi. h^^'G^ arawit (§ 8). 
(domestic) hlM (i)nsasa (§ 7d). 
(horses, cattle, etc.) h'fl'Th kayt (kaft § 7d). 
ankle, s. <^C'^9^^9^^ qwurcimcfmit (-cfmcimt, -'^9^ 
*P"^^ -cimcfmat § 8 ; § 52a, y). 
I (have) sprained my ankle : i^C'^9°'^'^^: idA^s 
^lA^ :: qwiircimcimdt wdlamm dlan. 

1 • o • o o o 

annoy, v.t. hll'k^ asqwwtta. 

annoyed, be, v.i. +'»'^^ tanaddada (at, with, fl- ba- 

I am annoyed with you : '^'i■^^l^'flU :•. tanaddad- 



AnogeisHus lelocarpus (Broim, Cat. 188), s. hCVl^ kir- 


anoint, v.t. +fl qdbba. 
anointed, be, v.p. i'+O tacjabba. 
answer, s. i^A'fi millas (§ 8). 

Is there an answer? — No. J^ATi : htiv. f AJ^ « millas 


allii ? — yallam. 
answer, v.i. & t. ootid mdllasa (mal-). 

What did he answer? 9^1 1 aotiiiOhw min mdlla- 

^^ o o o 

ant, s. (small black) *'}«^T' qu(n)cac (§ 8). 

(large, black or red) ^^Vi7i tiinkwas (§ 8). 

(large black, harmless) l-iiC : 'Y-'Tifil g|bra (-dvr-) 

gwiinddn (§8). 
(large black, biting) *7'}^ gfeda. 
(driver, biting) r-lfM gwdnddn (§ 8). 
(white, = termite) J^ftT mist. 
See § 52a, S. 

ANT— ANY 14 

antelope, s. (small) f '^^ .• ¥f A yam^^eda fiyyal. 
anthelmintic, s. Vi^ k'^ds'^o. 
ant-hill, s. hCH*^ arbdcca (-rya-). 
anus, s. [hj^'fl (Dr^eb (-ey). 
anvil, s. aoii^ mazf (§ 7d). 

any, indef. pron. *n'^^tD'9" manndc(c)aum (-mm § 6; §16). 
M^^ dnddcc (§ 8 ; fl6). 
h'i^n^(D'9" anddccaum (-mm § 6 ; § 16). 
I haven't seen any of them: '^'^Vah'ir : M^O-a 

mannaccaunnimm alayyau^ (§ 7d). 
He may come any day : ^'>1^ : n«^'?^a>-9" : +'} s 
^aott\^ .; dingat yamannaccaum (§ 8) qan yima- 
Haven't you seen any? M^^.- KAfUJ^-.-. anddcc 

alayyahim ? 
Haven't you seen any of them? M^^fl>-'}5^: MfUs 

andaccaunnimm alayyiih ? 
any — often not expressed : 

There isn't any water : flJ-V .- f A9":: wdha yallam. 

Is there any? h^l\ alia? (§ Z2cl). 

Are there any ? ht)r\i allu ? 

If there is any, bring it : "hlfiti : Y\9^tnah n ndalla, 

dmtau, (ndallantau § 7d). 
Was there any? 'id^i: nabbara? (§ SSd). 
anybody (anyone), indef pron. <^'}J^ mannim (-mm, § 6 ; 

rtoJ- sau. 


Do not let anyone come in : <^'}JP' : hj2,*7n s mdn- 

nimm di^va. 
Is there anybody there? fiOha htita sdu d-llan? 

(S.V, -■>). 

15 ANY— ARM 

anything, indef. pron. ir"}jr* mfnim (-mm, § 6 ; § 16). 
There isn't anything: 9°'}9^ •. fA-.: mfnimm yalla 
(§ 39). 
apart, adv. 'd^ bfcca. 
ape, s. mij t^dta. 
appear, v.i. (come into sight) ;^P tdyya. 

HA* zallaqa (q.v.). 
(seem) aoiiti massala. 
appearance, s. (form, colom*) <n>AVl malk. 
appoint, v.t. (fix) i'oxd qattara (-tiir-). 
(to an office) "Pao s'^oma. 
appointed, be, v.p. (fixed) +4»m^ tacjattara (-t^r-). 

(to an office) 'tytw tas^'oma (tils-). 
appointment, s. (to meet) ^mC qatar'^'o (-tar-). 
approach, s. <w»ir»«i mamca. 

approach, v.i. & t. ^d(\ (jarraba (aya) constr. with (Dfi- 


approximately, adv. ^UA ydhil (yahl ; s.v. ^hA). 

April, s. see calendar. 

Arab, s. hd'd ;irab (av). 

Arabic, adj. hd.'Q'i arabfniia (-ayf-). 

Is there anyone here who speaks Arabic? hAs 

hItU ! hiH-n^ i ^"%S1C :: cillii zzih arayiiifia yam- 

minnaffjirar ? 
arbitrate, v.i. -^Y danfia. 
argue, v.i. -Ml^h^ takarakkara (-karakkar-). 
argument, s. \lCtlC kirikkir. 

o ' o o o 

ark, s. (eccl.) ^(\^ iih''6i {-iw^6- ; § 8). 

arm, s. /n**}^ tiinca (prop, upper arm ; § 52a, y). 

armed, adj. dtiaofi^^ balamassarya. 

arm-pit, s. 'fl'fl^ blbbit (§ 52a, y). 


ARM— AS 16 

arms, s. (weapons) aofidy massarya (cp. § 52a, 8). 
-n^^ bfrat (-rat ; „ „ ). 

army, s. rt^*e^ sarauwit (sar-, -wit). 
around, prp. fl-.-.s hml'd ba-... atagab (-ay; § 47&). 
arrange, v.t. rt^ sarra (sar-). 
arranged, be, v.p. i'f^^ tasarra (tasar-), 
arrangement, s. /^'^^ sfrat (§ 8). 
arrest, v.t. ^H ydza. 
arrested, be, v.p. i'^H taydza (taia-). 
arrested, have, (cause to be), v.t. hti^n asydza (§ 68). 
arrival, (time or place of), s. <w»i^«i mdmca. 
arrive, v.i. ^^rt darrasa. 
Id gabba. 
When he arrives : rt,^Cft i sidars. 
When they arrive : rt-^CA« : sidarsu. 
arrive, cause or allow to, v.t. h^^rt adarrasa. 
arrow, s. 4*ft^ qast (q.v.). 
artillery, s. <w»jt^ madf (marf § 7d). 
artillery-man, s. aoj^dJi madfauna (marf-, -fan-). 
artizan, s. rt^i"? sarratanna (sar-, -tan-). 

HAE- bdlajj (§ 8). 
as, conj. h'i^- (i)nda- (-da-) pref. to simp, perf 
ft- si- pref to cont, past imperf , etc. 
ftA- sila-, pref to simp. perf. 
(since) h- [1"-] ka- (ta), pre! to simp, perf 
Or use the gerund. 
Make another as you made this : J&UV^ : ?i'>^rt^U i 
A»A : fl^ :: vihannan indasarrah lela sfra. 

V O O O O 

As he was going, he stopped : fLth*^ : VflC : ^ao « 
sihS,d ndbbar, (f^'oma. 

17 AS— ASC 

As they have work to do, give them more forage : 

ft^ : tl'i'i^ah : Id,^ : ffiL9"CA^<»- :: sfra silalldc- 

cau, Q'afara cammirilldccau. 

o'--'oo 'O oo o 

As they have no work, don't let them eat much : 
il^s ftAA.A^fl^: Tt^: T«fe^: ft-n/V- :: sfra si- 

^^ o o 

lal^allaccau, tiqit tfqit yfvlu. 
As he has come, let him stay : i'trnf^ .- ^*I»<idT k 

tamatta, yiqqamat. 
As he was tired I left him on the road and came 
on : ^hT*'l* : -t-aoll^ .- ''h^fl^ : aomih ;: dakim^ot 
tamanofad tfcc^eu mattau^^ (S 7c?). 
as far as, prp. hMx- (i)ska- (§ 47a). 
^tft-h- (i)sta- (^ „ ). 
as for, prp. -'^ -mma (end). 

As for that: f^\)^ : yihamma. 
as long as, conj. '^A sdllii ( = ft- + ^tA § 32) after gerund. 
As long as you are ill you must not go out : Y\*^\)'. 

fiti : M'aht^ .. amm'^oh sjillii attwtita. 
As lonof as I am here : 'hll,U : "hlx^^hV' : tazzfh is- 

o • o o o 

tdlliiu^» (§ Id). 
I will wait as long as I can : hl^T^^ .• ?i*fe^Ai> « 

ndiimmicrt Hiwwyyjlllau'' (§ Id). 
I waited as long as I could : f ^Al^•'|•'^ .- ^UA : 
*fef £h :: yacdlhutin (§ 56c) yahl qwcJyyau^ (§ 7c?). 
ascend, v.i. ai"\ ww'tta. 

v.t. fl-...: Aje, : (D"\ ba-... lai (§ 8, § 47&) wwtta. 
ascent, s. (rising ground) M({^ ^^q^bat (-ayat). 

(way up) loh*^ mauca. 
ascertain, v.i. & t. ho)^ duwaqa (-wwq-). 

(ask) mf 4» tayyaqa (-yaq-). 
Let him ascertain and tell me : mj&* : f^Trld^ a 
tdyyiq'^'o yfngarafi. 

AM. GR. (ll) 2 

ASC— ASS 18 

ascertained, be, v.p. ^(D^ tauwaqa (-wwq-). 
ash (ashes), s. hoof!: amad. 
ashamed, be, v.i. hd^d affara (-far-). 

I am ashamed to look (at it) : h^^d'h s ^/i s 
afrallau^ (§ 7d) s£ (§ 61&). 
ask (for), v.i. & t. mf 4» tayyaqa (-yaq-). 

Ask him: m^+flHu tayyiqau, pol. Jim/i*fe1";: yi- 

tayyiqut, pi. m^*^-.: tayyiqut. ^ 
Ask them : m^^^oh- « tayyiqdccau, pol. ^m/i 
^^Oh :: yitayyiqwdccau, pi. mj&^^flH k tayyi- 
Did you ask him? m^^Uahv. tayyaqhau?, pol. 
mf *fe^ :: tayyaqut ?, pi. mf j^^l^^ k tayyaqdc- 


Ask whether there is any : aif,^ .• h^-SA a tayyiq 


Ask the headman for a house: Thav-Tn 0.^: mjR4*:: 

siimun b^et tavviq. 
They (mil) bring him whatever he asks for : h9^ 

m« A^ : f '^LA^fl^'> : ^<w»fll-A;^A s antullin (§ 7d) 

yammilaccaun yamatullatal, (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
Ask the cook for it (them, some, §61&): Am^: 

dtiOh '. fl)T : flji^T :: sftaii valau wwt v^etun. 

o • • o o • • 

Ask me for it (etc.) to-morrow: ^tlffh^s flA'^ .• 
il:: yfstun valan nao^a. 
asked (for), be, v.p. i'mf^ tatayyaqa (-yaq-). 
asleep, be, v.i. i"? tafifia (tan-, -fia ; § 63f/, e). 
He is asleep : '^^;t A « taiifiitoal. 
If I had been asleep it would all have been spoilt : 
i-^^: din-. l^A-: ^nAYi: iflC:: tannicc>e Mh^on, 


hiillu yibbaldss nabbar (§ 81c/, /x). 
ass, s. hoy ahiy(y)a. 

19 ASS— AUT 

assembly, s. 'bdh, guba^^e (-uyd-). 

Til^ sang^'o. 
assembly, place of, s. ^^Hflji addabdbai (ayayai). 
assist, v.i. & t. [K\^^ (pradda. 

If you (pol.) will assist me : rt,^'*?-^ : biradun. 
assistance, s. hC^^ irddta. 
astonished, be, v.i. 't'ldao tagarrama. 

^ o ^— ^ o o o 

Id^aoOh garramau (impers. § 43a; 
§ Q3d, e). 
I am astonished : l^ao^ a garraman. 
at, prp. h- ka- [+- ta-] \ ,. ^^ . 

n-bl ^ )M§^^«)- 

Isheat Addis Abeba? ;^■^ft : h({(\: 'rnhv. taddis 

(§ 7a) ayaya nau ? {§ 8). 
He was engaged at ten dollars : fl/*'C: •ilC: 'i'^'mdv. 
bdssir virr taqattara. 
Atbara, s. ^'il gdann. 
attack, v.i. & t. '^V•^ tanassa H- ba- (^ 47a). 

Did they attack you ? 'I'lof-'dl) ;: tanassubbih ? 
If they attack us : fl.Vi*»-'flV .- binnassubbinna. 

V O O O O 

attend, v.i. (pay attention) htl'l'*Pi\. astawala (aud-). 
attention, s. (heed) A'fl libb. 

Your attention is over there: A-flU: hH,^: VflHr. 
libbih kiizzya nau. 
audience hall, s. h^flfl^ addababai (-aydyai). 
auger, s. aoahl,^ maiigya. 

atti^ wwsf-^e. 
August, s. see calendar, 
aunt, s. Mnft^ akist (§ 8). 
authority, s. Xt-aD^ siimat (-mat). 
^A-'lh cil^ot (§ 8). 


AVA— AWL 20 

avalanche, s. <w»C*7 marg (marg). 

avarice, s. "i^l^ nif p^at. 

avaricious, adj. 14-1 nffug. 

avoid, v.t. ?f?f sassa (sas). 

await, v.t. *feP qwwyya. 

await each other, v. recip. i"^^^ taqwojiayyu. 

awake, adj. t^ nfqu. 

awake, be, v.i. i^ naqqa (§ 63^7, e). 

Is he awake? l4*:i:A:: naqtoal?, pol. i^'i'^PAa 
naqtaual ? 

I am awake : 'i^^ii'^ « naqiccallau*" (§ 7d). 
away, adv. 

Is he away? fAl^p. yallammwf ? (s.v. -tDf*; § 39). 

4 -6 -i ° p 

away, go, v.i. th»f^ hada (ha-, h^e-, -da, § 7d). 
(Dlf^ wwggada. 
Go away! rkj?::: hid!, f. HujE-k hij!, pi. rh.-^:: 
hfdu ! 


(more forcibly) a)*7jt:! Wdugid!, f. fli*7jf:: wwgiji, 
pi. wlH-ii wwgidu ! 
away, be put (taken), v.p. 'hoirt^ tawassada (taud-, -(6s-). 

't'l^ tanassa. 

o o 

away, move, v.t. O'fl: hff^Cl sabb adarraga. 

Move him (it) away a little: T«fe^: ^'fl: h^ClOi-a 
tfqit sabb adrigau (arg- § Tf/), pi. -"h^ :•• -gut. 
away, put (take), v.t. flirty wassada (wcJs-). 

M^ anassa. 
Take him (it) away : fl>-rt^(D- :: wusadau, pi. -^^ :: 
awl, s. aofi^^ massaffca. 

' o o 

aoohxy maiigya. 
aift^C waj'sf^e. 

21 AXE— BAG 

axe, s. <n>T<ifl,^ matrabya (-ayya). 
axilla, s. 'fl'll^ bibbit (§ 52a, y). 

§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I.) 

baboon [Cynocephalus sp.), s. 'H'>K(? zinjar^^o (-jwr-). 
baby, s. h^il ards (§ 8). h^tl : A^ ards lij. 
CEI.4*A caqla. 
/h'H^ Man (§ 8). 
back, s. (of body) KCfl jarba (-rya, -rwa). 
back (again), come (go), v.i. i'aoiiCl taniallasa (-mal-). 

Come back (again) : 'I'twlitl « tamalas, pi. -fr « -su. 
back (again), send (bring), v.t. aotifi mallasa (mal-). 
Bring him (it) back (again) : ao^doh v. mallisau, 

pi. -fr'lh:: -SUt. 

back(-wards), adv. fli^'AA wwdahwala (-daiihd- § 7d). 
bad, adj. (morally) h^ kifu (kdfu, ktifu § 7d). 

(physically) *7i^ gim. 
bad, be (become), v.i. (morally) hi- kaffa. 

(physically) 19^ : lf"i gim h^' ona. 
bad-tempered, adj. ^mr qwdttu. 

i^^^g- tandddj (§ 8). 
h'P^9° am^dtdm (§ 8). 
badly, behave, v.i., (treat, v.t.) fl^A baddala (bad-), 
bag, s. hdnu^ karatit. 

(wicker-work) hhi-fi ak^'ofdda. 
baggage, s. h^ fqa. 

Baggage train (of troops) : ^H gwaz. 
baggage-mule, s. hpllil -. n4»A" : agdssis baql'^o (ya). 

BAG— BAN 22 

baggage-pony, s. aopt% magdjja. 

bake, v.t. "\f^ tada. 

balance, s. (scales) '^H'} mizdn (§ 8). 

(remainder) f 4»<i yaqarra (§ 62&, c). 
4'^;^ qirr^eta. 
I received five dollars; you have the balance: 

misti virr taqabbalhu ; yaqarrau tanta nau. 
balance, v.t. aoXih mazzana. 

' o o o 

Balanites cvgyptlaca (Broun, Cat. 8 8), s. Vhj^Vh^ kudkiid- 

'fc'n qut(t)a; (Ag.). 

S. ^(^^ qdc^ona. 
bald, adj. fl^ bara. 

ball, s. V»,ft kwas. 

(■h)i.C (i)rQr. 
bamboo {Oxytenanthera abessinica, Broun, Cat. 677), s. 

7i£w»A simal (-mal). 
banana {3Iusa sapienthim, Broun, Cat. 559), s. a^ti muz. 
bandage, s. *^rt<5^ masarya (-sar-, -ya). 

Undo the bandage and let me see: Iftd^Oh'is 
^^ I A^ :: masaryaun ffta, li. 
bandolier, s. 'HTC zmndr (§ 8). 
bang, s. (report) ^5^T dimt. 
bang, v.i. ^ : ^A gwa dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

*79" : hty gimm dla „ „ 

banish, v.t. hw^ awwtta (auw-). 
banjo, s. Vl^C kfrdr (§ 8). 
bank, s. (of river, etc.) HC dar. 

J^l^nc dfmbar (-bar). 
This bank: w^V: '^F--. wwdfh mdd^^o. 


The other bank : "If^ : mdd^^ o. 

23 BAN— BAT 

On the bank of the river : i'at'ill : ^C -. tauwnzi 

o o 

banquet, s. j^*7ft diggis. 

1-nC o{b(i)r (-fy-). 
baobab (Adansonia digitata, Broun, Cat. 65), s. 

^C"\m firtata. 
baptized, be, v.p. 'i'axao^ tatamniaqa. 
barber, s. AtCU ldc(c)i. 
bare, adj. (naked) ^'fJ-'h raqut (§ 56fZ). 

(arid) ^^4* daraq. 
bark, s. (of dog) tEfe'fi'l* ciihat (-hilt). 

(of tree) AT lit. 
bark, v.i. (^'fi c'^dha. 

n- : h^ bu°dla (s.v. J({^, % 44rt). 
barley, s. l-flft gabs (gays, gafs). 
barn, s. ^i'&' g^'otara (-tar-; § 8). 
barracks, s. ^(D'J'^C .- Xx-V^ yiiwwttaddar katama. 
barrel, s. (of gun) h^- Tif 

A double-barrelled gun: l^A'l*: h^- mfl^J?.. hii- 
latt af tavania. 

o • o • o •' 

basin, s. <w»;^rnfl.JP mattfitabya (-ayya). 

(for washing the face) f^'l': <^>;^^lfl.^ yafft 

o . o • •' 

basket, s. ^C^'-lA' qfrcdt (§ 8). 

hl^1l\ agalgil (agal-). 

(small) ao'H^ miidai (§ 8). 

(bag-shaped) ^lri4-^ ak^'ofdda. 
basket-work, s. ft<C-> sff^et (§ 8). 
bat, s. f A.^ : ?*V^ yal^et wof (^of ). 
bath, s. (process) ao:h(n'(\ mattatab (-ay). 

(utensil) ao^'mH,^ mattatabya (-ayy^)- 

BAT— BE 24 

Or use ^aid : 
He is in his bath : j&;^mfl A « yittattayal. 
I am in my bath : K;^m^Al^ :: ittattayallau^. 
I am going to have a bath : Aj^m-fl : V^ « littat- 

tay (§ 8) nan. 
bathe, v.i. ^m(\ tdttaba (ava). 
bathe, v.t. Kmfl attaba (ava). 

• " o o ^ o • O ' 

battalion, s. fl^C t^'or. 

battle, s. a^x wiiggi. 

Bauhinia reticulata (Broun, Cat. 167), s. ■^'fl-?. dabdi 

be, v.i. \f"i h'' ona. 

hh alia (§ 32, § 39). 

Vfl^i nabbara (-bar-, -flC -bbar, -bbar, S 83). 

T^ n^^ ora. 


'i(D* n|u (§ 13&, § 40). 
Where have you been? id^^: ihlVA:: wwd^^et 

hunahal ? 
When I was in Egypt: i'J^ftC: ^Alr-:: tamfssir 

sall^^^ (§ Id). 
Let it be as it was : Mf^hfid, •. /i>-C « ndanabbara 

Give me what there is : ^A: tiax^a yalla sitaii. 
There isn't any : f AJ^ v. yallam (§ 39). 
There are two: U-A^: hA-r. hiilatt allu. 
They are two : l^A^ .- ^^ah v. hiilatt ndccau. 
They have not been here before : i'ltO .- +^J^ : 

liA<w»/n-{r*:: tazzih qaddam almattum. 

o •» o o o • • 

He is to go : ^tKH: « yihid. 

Didn't you know you were to go? <w»*h.JtUj 
hf[(D^V9^:: mahadih alauwwqhim? 

25 BEA— BEC 

bead, s. (small) ^*^ sdmye. 
(large) ?-^ d'^^Oqa. 
beam, s. (of light) '^A'J'^A cilancil. 

(of wood) fliC'fl tarb (tar-, -ry). 
"hTliGsJV (f)ncat. 
"KlQBe^ (pnc>et. 
bean, s. (broad, Vicia faha^ Broun, Cat. 141) fl*feA ba- 
{Phaseolus sp.) h^l^d^ adangwdr^e (-da>n-). 
bear, v.t. (carry) M^ anassa. 
(endure) ^A ctlla. 

(children) oiA^'T- walladac (wal-, wwl- ; -cc § 6). 
I can't bear it: hA'lf-Ai'"::°alcnim (§ 016). 
beard, s. 611 riz. 

S. ff^-^n-l* sang^^(5bat (-6y-, -at). 
beast, s. (wild) A»Cl» a^ir>e (§ Id), pi. h^'G'l' arawit (§ 8). 

(horse, cattle, etc.) h-fl-l* kayt (kaft). 
beastly, adj. (repulsive) X^*? ^^^T^t" (m- td- ; § 8). 
beat, v.t. 7^<C garrafa (gar-). 
ao^ matta. 


(in a game, case, etc.) [?»]<^;'' (i)ratta. 
Don't beat him (it) : M9^:i'tD".'. attfmtau. 
beaten, be, v. p. i"!^^ tagarrafa (gar-). 
't'oDjh tamatta. 

o o 

(in a game, etc.) '^^C;^ taratta (tar-). 
beating, s. 10-^- gfrfat (§ 8). 
beautiful, adj. iD"(\ wtib (wuy). 

<w»Ahi^ malkdm, pi. also ao^hh9° mal- 
kdkdm (§ 8). 
beauty, s. flJ-fl^ wiibat (wu-, -ya^, -iit, § 7d). 
because, conj ftA- sila- with simp. pei*f or rel. -I- cont. 
(§ 48a). 


I drink because I am thirsty : hai^fHh .- tlliml^n 

itattallau^ silatamman (S 63c?). 
He won't come because he won't know ; hf^tni''l9^'. 
tlii^foh^ :; aimatam silammaiauq. 

' oo« oo o-»- 

because of, prp. ft A- sila- (§ 47«). 

Because of the rain : ftA'H'i''fl : silazindv (5 8). 
beckon, v.i. m*l*rt taqqasa. 
become, v.i. If V h'^ona. 

bed, s. (-clothes) 9^'im^ mfntaf (§ 8). 

(-stead) h^p alga. 
In bed : ^^p .- taiga, 
bed-curtain, s. MdC ag'^obar (-6y-, -ar). 
bed-room, s. f {'"*2;^ : (t^ yaminnitdb^et (-dy>e- ; § 70&). 
He (it) is in his (the) bed-room : '^?"*2;^ : fl.^ i 
iOH :: tamiunitav^et (^ 8) nau. 

o o o • \o / o 

bee, s. 'i'd nib (niv). 

beef, s. f fl^ : ^p yabar^e (yaya-) siga. 
beer, s. mA talla. 

• o 

beeswax, s. f '^C : rt?" yamdr sam. 
beetle, s. h'illll (i)nziz. 
ih'JltH tinziza. 
before, adv. hUj) .- <t1* kazzih (ha-, f"- ta-, -az-, -zfh ; § 46) 
fit (fit ; § 475). 
hJLU: t^J^ kazzih (ha-, i"- ta-, -iiz-, -zfh ; §46) 

q ad dam. 
^'C diir^' o. 
Have they been here before ? i'ltU •• ^^ •• <w>m- k 
tazzfh fit mattu ? 

O O o • • 

before, conj. ft- s(i)- with (§ 7a) neg. imperf (§ 38), which 
loses its -9^ -m. If the tense is to be specified 
it is done by the addition of other words. 

27 BEF— BEH 

Yesterday, before he came : ^'•"J^.- fi^aotn-. tindnt 

o o • 

To-morrow, before he comes : VT : ft&aofi} .■ nd^a 

o o • 

Before you start(ed) : ^^V*^ : sattinnassa. 
How long will it be before you come ? 'hMitl'i^ : 
iioD'i : ^oD^miV :: iskasint zaman timatalliih ? 


before, prp. (of time and place) fl-...: d.^ ba-... fit 

(fit; §8, §476). 
h- (+-)...: n<t^ ka-(ta-)... bafit (ya-, -fft; § 8, § 476). 
Before Monday : i'rt''? .- (\d^^ .- tasaiiiio vafit. 

«/ o o * o o 

bear, v.i. & t. Aiw»V lammana. 

~' OOO 

He begged for this : f.V'i'i: Atw^V:: yihanniln lam- 

o o 

Don't beof : M'Ai^'J « attilammin, pi. -^- :: -nu. 

~ O O O ' -1 

beggar, s. A*^'*^ Idmmdfi (-nn § 6 ; § 8). 
begin, v.i. & t. "^rro^ jdmmara (-mjir-). 

Where shall I begin ? '^P-^• : Aj^^C « tayet li jam- 


beginning, s. av'^ao^^ majammarya (-mar-), 
begun, be, v.p. (begin, v.i.) •\'%aol, tajammara (-mar-). 
Where does it begin ? i^f-'l* .- f^'f^twl^^ :: tayet yij- 
j dm mitral? 
behave, v.i. h^Cl adarrao^a. 

' "^ o oOo 

Don't behave in this way : Ki^X) : ^^;^^C*7 « ndih 

attadrig, pi. -T-h -gu. 
behind, adv. AAA bahwdla (bauhd- § 7c?). 

He is behind : AAA .- Vfl>- k bauhald (§ 8) nau. 
He has stopped behind: *l*C;f:A:: qartoal, (from 

+^ qarra § 426). 

BEH— BEN 28 

behind, prp. h-{i'-)...s AAA ka- (ta-)... bahwdla (ya-, 
-auha-, § 7c? ; § 47&). 
Behind the house : hfl.^ .- AAA .- kav^et vauhdla. 
beisa {Oryx heisa), s. flA sdla. 
beUef, s. hTh^ Jmnat (-nat). 
believe, v.i. & t. Ai<w>l ammana. 

o o 

^aoh tammaiia (ger. & part, type B, 

aohtitD* massalau (impers. § 43a). 
I beheve you : h^^Tiiis^ :: amnihallau^ 
I do not believe you : h*\9^'i\)T* « alamnihim. 


Do you believe he came? ^<w>ftAyA: ^aott\ k yimas- 
lihal yamatta? 

O V o • • 

Do you believe he will come ? ff^tmh^i^: "h'^oD^n 
yimaslihall (^ 6) immimata? 
believed, be, v.p. ^ao^ tammana (ger. & part, type A, 

bell, s. (small) ^^P'A q^cil. 

(large) ^a>A daual (dauwl). 
bellow, v.i. hl^ agassa. 
belly, s. If J^ h^^ od. 
below, adv. & prp. s.v. beneath, 
belt, s. ao^oi^^ mattataqya (-taq-). 

J^*7 dig. 
bend, v.i. (be bent, v.p.) e^aoao tammama. 

^a\i, tdttafa. 

• ■ o o 

(incline) 'hH*l*H+ tazaqazzana. 

\ ' CO -"^O o ■'^o 

bend, v.t. haxaoao atdmmama. 


hoid* attafa. 

• • o o 

(incline) lf*l*H+ zaqazzaqa. 
beneath, adv. fl;*'^ bdtdc (-cc § G ; § 8). 

29 BEN— BET 

beneath, prp. fl-...: ;^'f ba-... tac (-cc § 6; § 8; § 476). 
h- [+-]■•• '/"Cka-Cta-)... sir ( „ „ ). 
bent, adj. m*^*^ tamdma. 
Berehera ferruginea (Guidi, Vocab. p. 322), s. 'flC'fl^ 

birbfrra (-rvi-). 
beside, prp. (around) fl-...: hml-fl ba-... atagab (-ay; 
(near to) h- [i--]...: T*7 ka- (ta-)... tigg (§ 8, 
§ 476). 
besides, adv. ^^T* dagm^^'o (dag-). 
^T* damm'^o (dam-). 
?iHai^^ (i)z(z)aS«jdya (-zad- ; § 8). 
besides, prp. h-. . . .• fl+C ka- ('K ta-). . . bdqar (ya- ; § 476). 
There are four besides this one : +11.1) : fl+C : 
hlr'^ i hi)r :: tazzih vdqar ardtt allu. 

o • o -^o 

best, adj. f'h^f A yiitasdla (-tils-). 

f 'T!.7f A yiimmissdl (K*^- (i)mmi-). 
See § 14. 
What is the best thing for me to do ? 9^'i : fl^C^: 
^^AA :: min badarg yissdlal ? 
bet, s. fl^CCJt wurfrrid. 

bet, v.i. & t. i'CD^^E tawararrada (taua-, -wra-) constr. 
with fl- ba- (§ 47a). 
How much will you bet? flft'J-V: ^m^dfiMv. ba- 
sint tiwwararraddlliih ? 

O O O o 

I bet 100 dollars he will come: fl<n»jr'/iii: j aao-f--. 
-flC : "htD^d^tili^ :: bamamtdtu vamaf'^o virr iw- 

^_^ o o • • O O " o o 


o o 

betray, v.t. m^fetm taqqwcuma (twq-). 
better, adv. jiflAT yibalt (-iy-, -al-) ] (§ 58c) constr. with 
fM^ yiisll " I h- ka- (+- ta-, § 47a). 

BET— BET 30 

Can't you do better than that? -MtU: ^flAT : 

h^'^^9^s ;^^C•7•.: tazzfh yiyalt atticilim tadarg? 

Warrata rides better than Gabru : (Dd^ .- 'M'fl4- : 

/i?f A: f,^aDfi\^ii warrata tagayru yissdl yiqqam- 


better { = preferably) — use the jussive : 

He (it) had better remain here : f^^ao^ ■ hii,u ;: 
yiqqamat izzih. 
better (after illness) fl") bagg'^o. 

Are you better? MVK'flrh.C: ^'^CVs d^s iO:: 
igziayhyer yimdrih, yagg^ d (§ 8) nah ?, pol. ?i*7 
n.h'dth.Cs jK.'^^iP: n-): *?* :: igziayhyer yimd- 
ra'' o, yagg^'^o na'^o ? (lit. God have mercy on you, 
are you better ?). 
Yes, thanks : h1\lh'(lib,C : ^aotlllr :(!■>: i^ :•. ig- 
ziayh^er yimmasgan, yagg^'6 nan (lit. God be 
praised, I am better), 
better, be, v.i. (surpass) +<^A tasdla (tas-), constr. with 
h- ka- (i'- ta-, S 47a). 
(after illness) "ffitiah tasdlau (tas-; im- 
pers. § 43a ; § 63c?, e). 
This is better than that : J&O .• 1"M^ .- j&Vf AA u yihe 

tazzyd yissdlal. 
I am better to-day: H&: ^fili^^a zarJ'e yissd- 

Is he better? '^7iA";*•A •.: tasi^'otal? 


better, get, (recover from illness), v.i. -SV dana. 

You will get better: ^J?:*?A0:; tidindllah, pol. 

^J?:^A*:: yidinallu. 
He will get better: ^^^^v. yidfnal. 
Did they get better ? ■^V-k danu? 

31 BET— BIE 

between, adv. fl<^liA bamahal. 

It lies between : fl'^WA : Vfl>- « bamahal (S 8) nau. 
between, prp. fl-...-'i': fl-...: *^UA ba-...-nna ba-{ya-)... 
mahal (§ 476). 
Between the river and the hill: flo^H'T: ni-^^£D-i 
'^liA :: baucunzunna vatardrau mahal. 

o • o o 

beware, v.i. +fliV+4* tatanaqqaqa. 

Beware ! 'hm^*l'4» :: tatanqaq !, pi. -4»'fc:: -qaqu ! 

Let him beware: ^rn'>*l'4»:: yittanqaq, pi. -+*&« 
beyond, adv. flij^^ wwdya (§ 8). 
beyond, prp. h- ('/•-).. . : (DJ^^ ka- (ta-). . . wo^'dyS (§ 8, § 476). 

Beyond this : i'ltU : flij?:^ .- tazzfh wwdya. 
biassed, be, v.i. ^^A adalla (-dal-). 
Bible, s. 4»^-ft : aotn*^ qiddiis matdf (§ 8). 
biceps, s. (of arm) ^f,T ayit (ait). 

(of thigh) '^^f\ sullida (-Itid-; § 52a, y). 
bifurcation of a road, s. <wi'};i- manta. 


big, adj. '1I'A4» tillui. 
bile, s. KT*'V .im^^ot (§ 8). 
bill, s. M-n fsab (ay; §8). 
*I»^TC (pvitir (-wilt-). 
bill-hook, s. oB^^^^ ma(iwuraca (-rac-). 
bind, v.t. (tie) hi\i. assara (-siir-). 

(a book) ftV.V saffana (saf-). 
bind-weed {Convolvulus sp.), s. h^*7 drag. 
bird, s. 9*^ wof (^of). 

birthday, s. (his) f i-fliA^n^ : +'> : yataualladabbat (§ 8) 
qan. ° _ ^ 

(your) f +fliAj^Ufl^ : 'l'^ .- yiitaualladhibbat 

qan. ° _^ 

(your, pol.) fi-oiA'^.n^: +'>■• yiitaualladub- 
bat qan. 

BIT— BLI 32 

bit, s. (piece) ^^'V' qiirrac (§ 8). 

(of bridle) M9^ Hgwam (lugam § 7c?; § 8). 
bitch, s. [ft»^ s~\ah7i (s^et § 54&) wiissa (^lis-). 
Mil^ : Ohli infst wiissa C^iis-). 

o o \ / 

bite, v.i. & t. Vhrt ndkkasa. 

' o o o , 

bite (be in the habit of biting), v.i. i'^iYlfl tanakkasa. 
Does it (do they § 52a, 8) bite? /K-Vh^/t-jZ.-.: yinndk- 

kasallwi? (s.v. -flJ^). 
Don't let it get into the habit of biting : hf^'ihll a 


o o 

Biting flies : P'^'i'hft : ^Tf^ : yamminnakkas tfnift 
bitten, be, v.p. "Mhrt tanakkasa. 
bitter, adj. od^^ mardra. 
black, adj. T*feC ttiqur. 
blackberry {Rub us sp.), s. Ki'^d (i)nj'^6ri. 
blacksmith, s. 'fl^i^ .- (id bfrat (-rat) sari (sar-). 

■H^'P'i biratanna (-rataii-). 
bladder, s. <?.? fiiina. 
blanket, s. ^'ym^ mfntaf (§ 8). 

f -flCj^ : A-flft yabfrdi libs (yayf-, liys). 
bleat, v.i. C^fi c^'dha. 
bled, be, v.p. ^Itw taggama. 
bleed, v.i. ^^ damma (dam-), 
bleed, v.t. hlao agp^ama. 

bleed at the nose, v.i. Vrt^iD- nassarau (-sar-; impers. 
§ 43a ; § 6Sd, e). 
My nose is bleeding : *ii\d^ :: nassaran. 
I am subject to nose-bleeding: fAhdyi^n yji^fs- 
blind, adj. "kohC fwwur. 

^^> : hmSi dina sfwwur (syiiwur). 
blistered, be (become), v.i. hl^lSi agwwrraba (-aya). 

33 BLO— BOG 

block, s. (wooden) *7^J^ gj^id. 

blood, s. fT dam. 

bloom, v.i. ^iflfl abbaba (ava). 

blossom, s. ^iflfl ababa (avava). 

blotting-paper, s. <^j^-^*fe^: (dC^^ •. madraqya wdra- 

blow, s. 9^^^ miiii (§ 8). 
blow, v.i. ' nafFasa. 

o o o 

When it blows hard : 'AH* : rt.V'Pft .■ bfzu sindfs. 

o o o 

blow (on), v.t. ?i^: hti iff(i) ala (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
(an instrument) i4- nafFa. 
Blow it (away) : ?»¥ .• nAa>« :: iflK valau. 

\ <J ' o o • o o 

Blow the fire: M-^li h^-. riAa)-:: isdtun iffi 

o o o 


• o o 

blows, come to, v.i. 'h*^;!* tamatta. 
blue, adj. rt*r?*e samdwi. 
board, s. mC'fl tarb (tilr-, -ry). 

X'JflJ.'l- (i)nc;it. 

hlQ^^' (f)nc>et. 
boast, v.i. iMd. fakkara (kar-). 

o o o ^ ' 

boast (-ing), s. ^h/S* fikkara (-kar-). 
boat, s. jLAfl jalba (-Iva). 
bodkin, s. twlxd*^ masfya. 
ootids masf>e. 


ao(ii^]i' massaft'aca (-f ac-). 

o o o ^ ' 

body, s. (human) T\ «>ala. 

rtfl>-V'l* saunnat (-niit). 
(dead) nj^7 badin (bad-; -inn § 6). 
bog, s. a,i.+6H.4» caqaciiq. 

AM. GR. (ll) 3 

BOI— BOK 34 

boil, s. (small) -mC bfgir (bdgur). 
(large) -nr-'i^ bdginj (§ 7d). 
This boil is not mature: f^V: -flT-T^jf : ^AflrtAJ^:: 
yfhe viioiini alvassalam. 
boil, v.i. <i.A falla. 

' o 

When it boils : A.<{.A ; sifala. 


boil, v.i (a liquid) hd.'i afalla. 

(in a liquid) 'I'+A qaqqala. 
Boil some water : OhV .- Ai^A -.: wiiha afla. 
Boil the potatoes: f^'i^'i -. ^^^(D-•.'. dinnicun 

(§ •52a, S) qaqqilau. 
Boil it (water) and let it cool : h^'iiD''! : ^-fl^Cjt a 
aflaunna yiyrad. 
boiled, be, v.p. (in a liquid) i^^+A taqaqqala. ^ 

Boiled water: f<i.A: fl^y.• yafalla wiiha (-lauha). 
boiling, adj. 'PA fil. 

Boiling water : ¥ A : a^V -. fil wdha. 
bold, adj. ^4^C dafFdr (§ 8). 
bolt, v.i. On<l danabbara (-bar-). 

The mule has (mules have § 52a) bolted : fl4'A"i 
^7'n^A:: baql^o dambirSal (§ 7d). 
bone, s. KT7^ atint (§ 8, §52a, y). 

^AT?" qiltim (§ 52a, y). 
book, s. ao^fh^ mas(l)haf (§ 8). 

aom^ mataf (S 8). 
boot, s. 3^'H'^ jdzma (§ 52a, S). 
^-i*^ camma ( „ ). 
These boots will not stand the stones: JK.U: J^tj*^, 

^'JT.^ s hfrf'^9" :: yihe jdzma dangya aicilim. 
Those others will : ^ .- J&^'A A :: ya yicilal. 
boot-lace, s. ^^'H'l -. **l(i6^ yajdzma masdrya (-sar-, -ya). 
Borassus flahelUfer (Broun, Cat. 599), s. AA."} sdl^en (§ 8). 

35 BOR— BOU 

bore (through), v.i. & t. iidftd sarassara (sar-, -sara). 

bore (weary), v.t. h^hao adakkama. 

bore into, v.t. d^ti^ii falafFala. 

bored (through), be, v.p. "tfl^fld tasarassara (tasar-, 

bored (wearied), be, v.i. & p. ^h<n> dakkama (§ 636?, e). 

^hoDOh' dakkamau (impers. 
§ 43a ; § 63^, e). 
bored into, be, v.p. +<i.A<CA tafalafFala. 

■* ooooo 

boring into, instrument for, s. an^^d,^ mafalfaya (-fill-, 

oo ' ^_^ 

born, be, v.i. '^(DA^ tawallada (taua-, -al-, -wl-). 

O O O O O O ' 

borne, be, v.p. +W tanassa. 

borrow, v.i. & t. ^'0^/. tabaddara (tav-, -addiira). 

Bos coffer cequinoctialis, s. "V'fi g''oss. 

bosom, s. (breast) ^^'> darat. 

(fold of dress) T-ft^ft «»wtisgwas (§ 8). 
both, pron. li-A-V hiilatt (-liitt). 

Bring them both: ii-A*'>j h9^mahM hulattun 
{intau (§7r/; § 52a, 8). 
both...and, conj. ...-5^: ...r ...-m(m) ...-m(m), (§ 6). 
Is it (a shirt) called both ciirq and qamis ? GB^C^T*: 
^t^d^ . ^OAA :: carqim qamisim yibbdlal ? 
bottle, s. niC0i>-'H tdrmiTz (tar- ; § 8). 
(small) -flA^T bflqdt (§ 8). 
(not G.) ^Gd^ qar^ora. 
bottom, s. <w>iP^^ masarat (sariit : S 8). 

ooo^ '0/ 

At the bottom : n;^'f .- batdc (-cc ^ 6 : ^8). 
bought, be, v.p. i*?*! tagazza. 
bounce, v.i. 'laxd nattara (-tar-). 
bound, s. (leap) TIA^ zdlya. 
bound, v.i. (leap) HAA zallala. 


BOU— BRE 36 

bound, be, v.p. (tied) ^h^ tdssara (-sar-). 

(of a book) 'f'ff <<.V tasaffana (-saf-). 
bow, s. (weapon) f^p^l dagdn (§ 8). 
bow, v.i. K^ : *i**\ ijj nassa (to, A- la- § 47a). 
bowel, s. 1M%^ anjat (§ 52rt, y). 
bowels, s. If J?: .• "ix^ h'^Odiqa. 

Are your bowels free ? flrttVU : 'M^ : ^id'HAO a 
bat^enah idddri tiwwtallah ?, pol. nm.*??* : "h^^ .• 
j&ffl'HA".: bat^ena'^'o dddri yuwtdllu? 
bowl, s. 4»A qil. 

4-^ fdga. 
box, s. ^T^ satin, 
boy, s. Ajf lij. 

(big) ^TlhC askar (-kar). 
(small) '^f** mamm^o. 
p*^ gamm- e. 
bracelet, s. YkT^C ambdr (§ 8). ^ 

braces (pair of), s. <n>^Tr maydza (maid-), 
brag, v.i. ^l. fakkara (-kar-). 
brag(-ging), s. ^h^ fikkara (-kar-). 
brain, s. ^^">A ang^'ol. 
bramble (Ruhus sp.), s. h'i^'d (i)nj'^6ri. 
branch, s. *^^ caf 
brandish, v.t. hfliHfliH auwojzauwwza. 
brass, s. VVft nahds (§ 8), 
brave, adj. K*?*? jagna (jag-). 
bray, v.i. ^^*fi c''dha. 
Brwjera anthelminthica, s. 1n^ k^ds^o. 
bread, s. (a, made in European fashion) «fe''l q|tta. 

( „ „ „ , wheaten)^flddbb''o. 

(A native) KiXi^ (i)nj>era {% -ja-). 
New bread : AJ^A9" .- ^lO : lamlam dabb^^o. 

37 BRE— BRI 

breadth, s. ©Cjt ward (wa>rd). 

ft4-^ sffdt (§ 8). 
break, v.i. (be broken, v.p.) '^An<^ tasabbara (tas-, -bar-). 
Take care it doesn't break : ?i'>^ftrtnC:: ndaissab- 

O o 

break, v.t. rtfl^C sabbara (-biir-). 
(an animal) 1^ garra. 
Have you broken it? MCOaha sabbarhau?, pi. 
f^(\^''1'U"1' :: sabbardccihut ? 

o o o 

break down, v.i. f^hao d^kkama (§ 6'Sd, e). 

^hi/i>fl>- dakkamau (impers. § 43a; 
§ 03c?, e). 
break one's word, v.i. h(\li abbala. 

o o 

breakfast, s. f fl''> : ^Ctl yabiinn (-ayii-) qurs. 

After breakfast : i'd-'i .- *Cft .- flAA s tayiinn (§ 70b) 
qurs yauhdla (§ 7d). 
breast, s. (chest) ^d-l' darat. 

(mamma) m-1* tut (§ o2a, y). 
breath, s. •"h'J^.Yi tfnfds (-|mf- ; § 8). 

He is out of breath : Afl- : cdA^ A « Ifbbu wwlq5al. 
breathe, v.i. '^V<(.rt tanaffasa. 

o o o o 

breeches, s. (Eur.) h^C •. fl'JmA"^ accir bantaP'on (va-). 

(native) A-<5 siirri. 
breechinji:, s. (of pack-saddle) ai^A wa;dd>^lla (ah- wii-). 
bribe, s. 7-0 giibb^'o. 
brick, s. nvfl tub (tuy). 
hd^C afar (afar). 
Let them make bricks: hA.C: ^"Jm-:: afar (§52a,S) 
bridge, s. .^Aj^^ dfldiy (§ 8). 

He built a bridge : Jt Aj^je. .- rt^ h dildiy sarra, or 
JtAj^je.: ^A^Ak dildiy daladdala° 

BRI— BRI 38 

bridle, s. A^r Ifgwam (Ifigam § 7f/; § 8). 

Let him put a bridle on the horse: <i.<iM: 

f,ti'T'9^ '.'. farasun yilaggwum. 
If it has a bridle on : n,A7"9" .- billaggwwm. 
bridle, v.t. (an animal) ti>0o laogwwma. 
bridled, be, v.p. (of an animal) i-AT-^w* talaggwwma. 
brigand, s. at'ia^ wwmbad^e (§ 7^0- 
brigandage, s. fli^Oj^V^ wwmbadinnat (-nat, § 7d). 
bright, adj. -n^ bfrra (§ 576, used only of weather). ^ 
That bright one : ^: f '^^n^fl>- : ya yammyayarau. 
Bright weather : -fl^ .■ birra. 
bright, be, v.i. hfl^ abarra (aya-). 
brim, s. (of vessel) h'id.C kanfar (-ainf-> "f^i" § 7^^)- 
K^af. ' ° ' 
(of hat) ^a j^or^o. 
Don't fill it up to the brim: hh^4". h^r^ahli 
istdfu attfmlau. 

o o 

A wide-brimmed hat: ^A^'.- ^(T: ^tiOhs fiC%^\\ 

tfUiq i^'dr^'o yallau varneta. 
bring, v.t. hao^ amatta. 

(conduct) h^^fl adarrasa. 
Bring it: hJ^'HrD-:-. dntau (§ 7d), pi. ^9"m•^•.: dn- 

tut. • _ 

Don't bring it: h^9^"\ahv. attdntau, pi. ^i;^?"/n•^:•. 

Bring a chair: fli9"nC: f^wy)-. *?:: ww'mbar yizah 
na, (s.v. ^H). 
bring back, v.t. aotiil mallasa. 

Bring it back : <wiArtfl>- -.: mallisau, pi. -fr^ « -sut. 
bring near (-er), v.t. M^d aqarraba (-aya). 

Bring it near(-er): h4»Cflfl>-:: dqiryau, pi. -fl*'^:: 

39 BKI— BRO 

bring out, v.t. ho)^ awwtta (auw-). 

Bring it out : t\ahtt\ah v. {iutau, pi. -nv^ « -tut. 
bring up, v.t. (children) Mfl/l asdddaga. 
brink, s. hi^^ if if (§ 8). 
brisk, adj. Tr^ nfqu. 

(quick) ^A^l^- qaltaffa. 
briskness, s. l^'i^ niqinnat (-mit). 
brittle, be (become), v.i. hoTi : hti kwwss ala (s.v. VflA, 
§ 44a). 
It is brittle : h»7i : ^A A :: kwwss yilal. 
broad, adj. rt<i. saffi. 

(DCfi9" wardam (wwr- ; § 8). 
broad, be, v.i. rt^* safFa. 

' ' o 

broad-chested, adj. f^C^^^f^ ddratdm (§ 8). 
broken, adj. rtfl^ sabdra (-aya). 
broken, be (get), v.p. '^rtn<^ tasabbara (tils-, -biir-). 

(of an animal) i'^^ tagarra. 
Take care the glasses (spectacles) don't get broken: 
<n»VTC : ?i7^ifcrtnr: :•. manattir indaissabbiir. 

•^ O0'«0 oo 

bronchocele, s. >i'>4*C'"l' (i)nqirt. 

broom, s. /w>T^T.y matrauva. 

broth, s. <w>^4* maraq. 

brother, s. mlf^^ wo^ndini (mm § 6), pi. also (d1?:'^T^ 

wwndimam'' oc (-cc § 6). 
His brother : Gi'^^ao- : ww'ndimmu. 
brother-in-law, s. h"^^- amac (§ 8). 
brought, be, v.p. ao"\ matta (§ 23a). 
brought, have (cause or allow to be), v.t. hhaottx as- 

Please have (pol.) him (it) brought: t\Wt\ ^titwrn'^a 

fsti yasmdttut. 

BRO— BUG 40 

I will have him (it) brought: )illaDtt\*Pii-y- a as- 

o • • o 

brought up, be, v.p. hf!/l addaga. 

Where were you brought up ? P»^ : V<d- : ^^*70fl^:: 
yet nau ydddaghibbat ? (s.v. \/i-). 
brown, adj. ^*^ ddma. 

Light brown, adj. OJ^fl wwiba (-iya). 
fbA bulla, 
brush, s. (clothes-) troTdXif matragya. 

(hair-) '^flm<5^ mabattarya (-aya-, -attar-), 
(tooth-) f/oi,^^ mafdqya. 
brush, v.t. m^l7 tarraora. 

(hair) h(\a\d abattara (ava-, -attar-), 
brushed, be, v.p. 'tmdl tatarraga. 
Buhalis tora, s. -f^ f^ora. 
bucket, s. %C^^ jardal. 

(metal) *feC*fe(? qwwrqwwrr^o. 

( J^) <w>4»^ maqja. 
buckle, s. ao^^ii^f maqwwllafya (-laf-). 

'^^^ qwulf. 
buckle, v.i. (be buckled, v.p.) i"feA^ taqwwllafa. 
buckle, v.t. *feA<i. qwojUafa. 

J o o 

Biicorax abessinicus, s. hCX)r9^ irkiim (S 8). 

bud, v.i. fl+A baqqala (baq-). 

buffalo {Bos caffer cequinoctialis), s. "^Tl g'^'oss. 

buflfoon, s. h^'^ assiqin (-qin ; -nfi § 6). 

bug (Cimex sp.), s. ^"XTi tihwdn (tiihdn § 7f^; § 8). 

bugle, s. twhXl^ malakat (§ 8). 

Sound the bugle : /w»Ah^ : '>4« :: malakat nffa. 

<=■ o o o o 

bugler, s. i/oAh'J*? malakatdnfia (-taii-). 

41 BUI— BUS 

build, v.i. & t. rt^ sarra (sar-). 

bull, s. n^ bar^e. 

bullace {Primus insititia), s. ?i^h°|i (i)nkwai. 

bullet, s. [h\Cf\h (i)rsds (§ 8). 

bunch, s. ft'fl^fU sibsdbi (sivs-, -dvi). 

bundle, s. "htiC fsir. 


ffhl'" saldm (sak-). 

o o ' 

Buphaga erythrorhynclms (Guidi, Vocab. p. 441), s. 

Yxd/l!' ariic. 
burden, s. ?fln?" sakim (s4k-). 
buried, be, v.p. +4*0^ taqdbbara (-bar-). 
burn, v.i. (be burnt, v.p.) i'^mA taqattala. 

V^ft ndddada. 
(be hot) i'\^(i tdkkwcusa (tcukkosa). 
burn, v.t. h^oiii a(i(q)attala. 

(scorch, sting) '/'h-A takkwwsa (twkkosa). 
Burn it : ^^TAflH :: aqcjdtlau, pi. -A*^ k -lut. 
Burnt ground (i.e. of which the vegetation has 

been burnt, dJuj^- ) : ^^"^ tiikkwds'' o. 
burst, v.i. (be burst, v.p.) I'rtVni* tasanattaqa (tasan-). 

^^^ fanadda. 

o o 

burst (cause to), v.t. Mm^ sandttaqa. 

\ / o o ■ ■ o -^o 

)\^'if\ afanddda. 

o o 

bury, v.t. ^(\d qabbara (-bar-). 
bush, s. (shrub) «l»^T$rn qwutqwdt'^'o. 

(jungle) n^y baraha. 
bushbuck {Tragelaj^hus scrijjtus decula), s. -^W-A duk- 

bushel, s. '^f^p madfgga. 
bush-fire, s. ^^ qwayya. 

BUS— BUT 42 

business, s. (affair) T^^^ gwidddi (gwtid-, gud- ; § 8). 

(trade) '>*7j^ niod. 
busy, be, v.i. A^ sarra (sar-). 

I am busy : Jirt^A'V- :: isarallau^. 
When I am busy: ftrt^: sisara. 
If he is not busy let him come : ft^ : K'>^A»Afl>* : 
^9^m :: sfra ndaP allau yfmta. 
but, conj. T> gin (may come second in its clause, § 75 ; 

§ 8). 
Vic : *7'> nagar (-gar) gin. 

It is very nice, but it spoils my teeth : ^S"*?: ^^li^M^s 
Va>-: TCrt.*}: '7'J: ^flA^f A K Ijjig malafya nau, 
tirs^en gin yabbalassal, or . ..'lay' .■ *7'> : TCrt,*} :. . . 
nau, gin tfrs^ en etc. 
When the second of two clauses is introduced by 
' but,' the former may take -ft -s, -ss : 
There is hot water but no tea : 'PA : ahVfl : hti s 
^J&: fAl^K fll wiihass alia, sai yallam. 
When 'but' is connective rather than adversative 
it is usually not rendered : 
I told him, but he said nothing : 'ilCo-H': 119°: hAa 
naggarhut, zimm dla. 
butcher, s. Z**/! : <^*P' sigasac (§8), pi. ^p -. fi^'^ siga- 

sdc'^'oc (-CC § 6). 
butler, s. hpA^d aggafdri. 
butt, s. (of a gun) rt^*H sadaf 
butt, v.i. (Dp wojgga (^^wg-). 

(habitually) i'^P^i tawagga (taua-). 
butter, s. 4*fl> qfb>e (qiy>e). 

buttercup {Ranunculus sp.), s. fa^y : (\C(\& yaiiha bar- 
bar^e (varvar-). 

43 BUT— BY 

butterfly, s. 'fl^'fl<5^ birrdbirit (-dyi- ; gen. f. ; § 52a, 8). 

buttock, s. 'feT qit (§ 52a, y). 

button, s. •f>^A*h qwiilf. 

button, v.i. (be buttoned, v. p.) i^'feAii. taqwwllafa. 

button, v.t. *feA^ qwcJllafa. 

button-hole, s. ^*^fii^ : *^fi^ yiiqwiilf qadada. 

^'i^^^i 7-J?:^J?: yiiqwiilf giidgwdd (-lirgw- 
button-hook, s. ao'^fi^^ maqwwlUfya (-laf-). 
buy, v.i. & t. 1H gdzza. 

All right, I will buy it (them § 61b) : Kit -. ltll^^•^ « 
issi, i":az;Ulau'\ 

o o o~ o o 

Well, I shall not buy it (them): Ttity^'i: hMHr.: 

nkwan, algdzam. 
Don't buy it : A»'>'7Hfl>- :: attfgzau. 
Buy it for me : *7H A^ :: g|zalliri. 
If he had brought it I should have bought it : 

AilP»'P-f' V : din-. 7H»h: iaCv. amtit ot vfh^^on, 

gdzzau*^ (§ 7d) ndbbar (cp. § Sid). 
by, prp. n- ba-. 

It is sold by weight: H^lMt: ^Tf'nA:: bamizOn 

They (will) work by time: nT.H.: ^rt^A*:: bagiz^e 


»/ o o 

Let him travel by night : l^iiA' -. ff»tKg: :•• Pelit 

*' o o 

by, prp. (agent) d ...: Kf^ha-... ij]. 

By whom was it built ? d^lf •. hS « 'i'^^ « bamdnn 
iii tasarra? 

CAG— CAL 44 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharlca, Part I.) 

cage, s. *^T<w>3? matmaja (-maj-). 

n,^ b^et. 
calculate, v.i. & t. •fem^ qwojttara (-tar-). 
calculated, be, v.p. 't'*k(nd taqwwttara (-tar-). 
calculation, s. ^fC qwitir (-wiit-). 
calendar : — 

The Abyssinian year has 12 months of 30 days 
and 1 of 5 days. 
Sep. 11"^— Oct. lO''^ aDti\\d9° maskaram (-kar-). 
Oct. ll**^— Nov. 9'^ T4»i^^ tiqimt (§ 8). 
Nov. 10**^— Dec. 9*^ /h^C hfddr (§ 8). 
Dec. 10*^— Jan. 8*'^ ;^'V"/ft tasds (tas-, tfs-; § 8). 
Jan. 9'^— Feb. 7'^ TC tirr (tarr § 7d). 
Feb. 8'^— Mar. 9*^ f h-fc^ yak(k)dtit. 
Mar. 10*^ — Apr. 8*^ aopdjt' maggabit (-dyi-, -yyit). 
Apr. 9''^— May 8"' '^'H^ mdzya. 
May 9*^— June 7*'' *7'>fl^ ginb^ot (gwfn-, gwiin-, 

-nv'^o-, -vat ; ^ 8). 
June 8*^— July 7'^ rti san^e (san-). 
July 8*^— Aug. 6^^ th9"ii» h^lmPe (am-). 
Aug. 7*^— Sep. 5^^ VrhA. nahas>e. 
Sep. 6*^—10^^ ^n*^ qwdgmJ'e. 

The year begins on V^ maskaram = Sep. 11*'', and 
is then 7 years behind the European date ; on 
and after 23'^'* tdsas = Jan. 1"' up till 5"' qwdgm^e 
= Sep. 10*'' it is 8 years behind : 

45 CAL— CAL 

Dec. 31^ 1908 = 22'^*^ tasas, 1901. 
Jan. 1^ 1909 = 2^'^ tasas, 1901. 
Feb. 28'^1909 = 21«* yakkdtit, 1901. 
Mar. 1^ 1909 = 22""^ yakkdtit, 1901. 
As with us, every 4*** year is leap-year, when 

qwdgm^e receives a O**" day. 
This O**" qwdgm>e = Sep. 11'^ in the (European) year 
preceding our leap-year; and maskaram and 
its successors up to tarr then begin and end 
and yakkdtit begins a day later than the cor- 
responding dates given above, till Feb. 29*'' = 2P* 
yakkdtit, which restores the correspondence : 
Dec. ^r\ 1907 = 2r' tdsas, 1900. 
Jan. 1^ 1908 = 22"^^ tdsas, 1 900. 
Feb. 28^ 1908 = 20''^ yakkdtit, 1900. 
Feb. 29"\ 1908 = 21^' yakkdtit, 1900. 
Mar. 1^ 1908 = 22'"' yakkdtit, 1900. 
The omission of leap-year in 1900 was not made 
in the Abyssinian calendar: so that in trans- 
lating a date in the last century the European 
dates given above must be put back a day, 
maskaram being Sep. 10*'' — Oct. 9"', etc. 
calf, s. (very young) ?i{^fl^ (i)mb'^6ssa. 
(during first year) *?% tijja. 
(of leg) n^ bat (§ 52a, y). 

^Ctx fars (fars ; § 52a, y). 
calico, s. ^»fl• : K-^J^' abu (flyu) jadid. 
call, v.i. & t. (summon) m^ tarra. 
See VnA (§ 44a). 
(wake) ht{'i**i asnassa. 
(designate) Y\t\. dla (VflA). 
Call him : T^i»- :: tfrau, or ^ -. OAflH k na valau. 

•o ' • o o 

CAL— CAN 46 

Call them: T^^id-h tirdccau, or "hs AA^id-k nu 

• o o 

Call me early : rp,^ : hM**i^ « twat asnassan. 
Don't call me : ^»;^^lV"/^ :-. attasnassan. 


called, be, v.p. (summoned) 'tax^ tatarra. 
(named) i'dii tabdla (-ayd-). 
What is it called ? ri -. ^flA A « min yibbalal ? 
callosity (hardened or thickened skin), s. 'b'dC giibbir. 
calm, adj. (of water and persons) [JtJCT- rigu (irgu). 

(of persons) 'M*?f'? ziggitanna (-tan-). 
calm, be (become), v.i. (of water and persons) ['h'jdp 

(of persons) HI .• hA zigg ala. 
calmness, s. (of water and persons) [?i]C;i^ rigdt (irg-; 
§ 8). , 

(of persons) Ti*?;*" ^SSt^^ (§ ^)- 
camel, s. *7<w»A gimal (-mal). 
camp, s. rt<i.C sdfar (-far). 

camp-bedstead, s. ^ erotic : h^p yamangad alga, 
camping- ground, s. aofid^d^ massaf(f)arya (-far-). 

aoii^i^d^ massafaf(f)arya (-far-). 
can, s. ^Xh tanika. 
can, v.i. ^A cdla. 

"Ir^tKah tacdlau (impers. § 43a). 
Can they come ? ^Ai»- : f^tm/mt :: cilau (ger.) 

yimatallu ? 
If I can : -n^-A .- bicfl. 

o o 

If you can: -fl^^A: bitticil, pol. (U^At bicflu, 
pi. -n-T-^A- : bitticflu. 

tr o o o 

I can't open the door : t/Dmifah'i -. aoY^d,^ .• hf!,^ 
A^J^ :: mazgyaun mdkfat aiccdlaiinim. 

OtI o o o o 

47 CAN— CAP 

He (it) can't get out: <w>fl^«i: fAa>-9":: mduca 

One cannot make it reach (so far) : ^AftCft?" : 
hiiii aldarsimm dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
cancel, v.t. hd^dfl afarrasa. 

' o o o 

cancelled, be, v.p. <i.^rt farrasa. 

' ' IT O O O 

The agreement is cancelled : fl^A : d^C^^ •.; wul 
candle, s. rt?" sam. 
rp,^ twaf. 
(lighted) '^'dd^ mdbrya (-ayr-). 

oD'Ul.A' mdbrdt (avr- ; S 8). 
Have you any candles ? rti^ : ^AU :: sam allah ? 
Bring a candle : '^-nd^-. hr^m.'. mdyrya c4nta (§ 7d). 
cane, s. ff9"fl* sambaqq^'o. 
Canis simensis (Guidi, Vocab. p. 270), s. 'PdC qabar^'o 

(^- qd-, -ya-, -Jir-). 
canister, s. ^X!h tanika. 
cannon, s. ao^V niadf (marf § 7d). 
canopy, s. M(iC ag"()bar (-(')ya-, -ar). 
canter, s. ff^'il^^i dangaldsa. 
canter, v.i. ff/il^i^ -. ih,f:, dangaldsa hada. 
canvas, s. ?f^ sdra (sara). 
cap, s. *'fl q'^ob (q''oy). 
capital, adj. J?:'}4' dinq. 
capon, s. tfo-h'l* .• [R-C] miikkit (d^or^o). 
Capparis tomentosa (Broun, Cat. 28), s. laoC gamar^o 

Capra vali or walie, s. *PA^ wdlya. 
Capsicum annuum (Broun, Cat. 391), s. flCfl^ barbarye 
(bar-, -rya-, -ar^^e). 

CAP— CAR 48 

capture, v.t. ^H ydza. 

(in war) <^<ih marraka. 
captured, be, v.p. i'^n taydza (taid-). 

(in war) 'i'^dh tamarraka. 

\ / o o o 

Carduus sp. ^V^ : T^l) yahiyya s'' oh. 
caravan, s. ^Ti gwaz. 
caravan, start one's, v.i. i'^tl tagwaza. 
care, s. ^i^'fl as(s)db (4y ; § 8). 

He has no cares : M-H-. PAa^9" « assay yallaum. 
care, take, v.i. htii'^ti astawdla (-aud-). 
(of, v.t.) mnV tabbaqa. 
(of oneself, v.r.) i'ai'i^^ tatanaqqaqa. 
Take care ! (Look out ! Mind !) : i'm^+4' k tatan- 

qaq ! pi. -+* « -qaqu ! 
Take care of him (it) : m-fl+OH « tdbbiqau. 
* Take care ' may be expressed by h'i^- (i)nd- and 
the neg. imperf (§ 38) : 
Take care it doesn't fall : hlffiS^a)^^ « ndaiwcodiq. 
careful, adj. htii'^Pf!, astawdi (-taudi; -dyy § 6 ; § 8). 
carefully, adv. — use ger. of htl-fPii : 

Carry (lift) him (it) carefully: htl^t'ah^V: hl^nohvt 
astdulah ansau. 
caress, v.t. ^*feA<wjm aqqwwlammata. 
Carissa edulis (Broun, Cat. 337), s. }\p9° agam. 
carpenter, s. m^fU tardbi ( dyi). 
Ma\, an(n)dti. 

carpet, s. ft;i^ si^^U^- 

carriage, s. /^^lA siragalla (w- sa-). 

carried, be, v.p. i'W tanassa. 

carried away, be, v.p. (removed) 'hflirt^ tawdssada 

(tana-, -ws-). 

49 CAR— CAT 

carried off, be, v.p. (by force) i'^*^ taqdmma. 
carrion, s. TJ^'fl timb. 
carry, v.i. & t. M**i andssa. 
^A cala. 

(on animals) '^'i cana. 
How much does this mule carry? ^Us fl4»A": lll^s 

^^A A :: yfhe yaql^'o sint yicilal ? 
This one can't carry anything: f^\) .■ h^'i*^9° a yfhe 

aianasam (§ 63c). 
What are you (pi.) carrying (on your animals) ? 
i^"} I '^'t'-'f'X^ :: min cindccyuhal ? 
carry away, v.t. (remove) oirt^ wdssada (wws-). 
carry off, v.t. (by force) 'PI qamma. 
cart, s. /*'^1A siragalla (ip- sa-). 
cartridge, s. TJi'V tiyyit (tiy-). 
carve, v.i. & t. (wood, etc.) aidfl tdrraba (-aya). 

Max annata. 

o • o 

(meat) ^dai qww'rrata. 
case, s. (receptacle) fl>'"h b>et. 
^T^ satin. 


(legal) <n>-*7^ miiggit. 
cast-ofl^ adj. flH^S wtirraj (§8). 
castor-oil plant {Ricbius communis, Broun, Cat. 528), s. 

T-A^ gwiilqwa. 
castrated, adj. (of calf, goat, ram, or cock) a^\\^ miikkit. 
cat, s. Jt<^^ dfmmat (-mat). 
cat, interj. to call a, h«C urrr ! 

— to silence or drive it away, h'P kiff ! 
catch, v.t. ^H ydza (§ 44c). 

Catch him (it); ^Ha>-:: yazau, pi. -H*^:*. -zut. 
caterpillar, s. ^T^aol .- ^A yagwwmman (§ 8) til. 
f 4*fli A : 1*A yaqital (-tal) til. 
(hirsute) hfl : Ga,^& abba caggwdr^e. 

AM. GR. (ll) 4: 

CAT— CHA 50 

cattle, s. h-n^ kayt (kaft § Id). 
cattle-plague, s. f h-fl^ : n7i;^ yakaf t yasita. 
cause, s. 9^W^^ mlknydt (§ 8). 

Without cause : y^9^M^^ : yalamlknyat. 
cause, v.t. — use causatives in h- a- and hh- as- (§ 22a). 
cautious, adj. hfli-'Pf^ astawai (-a^^j > -^JJ § ^ ' § ^)- 
cautious, be, v.i. htl't'Pli astawdla (-aud-). 
cautiously, adv. — use ger. of htli'^Pii: 

Let him go cautiously: hfii'ahtir: ^iK^a astdul'^o 
yihid, pi. -Afl>-: ^rh.-^-.: -lau yihidu. 
cavalry, s. <<.^rt? farasafina (-san- ; § 52a, 8). 
cave, s. *P^ wdssa. 
centipede, s. h9°fi*lC amsagir. 
central, adj. *^Vi)/i mahalanna (-lau-). 
centre, s. '^l/A mahal. 

Cephalophus abessinicus, s. 9^^^ middqqwa. 
certainly ! interj. KtL issi ! (-si). 

n^bajja! (baj-). 

( = I agree) 9"^: h4-^« minkdffan? 
9"'i: ^Id^w min cagga- 
cerumen, s. \)r\\ kukk. 
Cervicapra bohor, s. OOC b^ohar (-hwr). 
chain, s. rt'JrtA'T' sansalat (-lat ; S 8). 
chain (up), v.t. (put in chains) hAd assara (-sar-). 

The Ras put him in chains: ^ft: hrt4-^r. ras 


chained (up), be, v.p. (chains, be in, v.i.) ^A^ tassara 
(-sar- ; § 63(/, e). 
He is in chains : ;^A^A a tdsroal. 

51 CHA— CHA 

chair, s. ai9^(\C wwmbar (-bar). 

Bring a chair : a)9^(\C -. h9^m « wwmbar dnta {7ct). 
chamber, s. (room) fli^ b^et. 
4'CT qirt. 

?iA^^ ilfm (-fill § 6 ; § 8). 
chamber-pot, s. /w>?f? masaiia (-sari-). 
fl<J.;^ bar>eta. 

(euphem.) tmYid.^ makfaya (-f^ja). 
change, s. (alteration) Afl>-T laut. 

(small money) 9^1^^ minzdr^e. 
<w»rhA4» mahallaq. 

o o '^ 

change, v.i. (be changed, v.p.) i'limm talduwata. 
chanoje, v.t. Aaim Iduwata. 

O ' o o -o 

(money) ao'iUd manazzara (-zitr-). 
Go and change this gold: rh.j^ : f^Vi s wC^ s 
aolliC :: hid, yihan wwrci mdnzir. 
changed, be, v.p. (money) 'l'<w»VH^ tamandzzara (-zar-). 

channel for irrigation ( J^Jc^ ), s. *w>ftT masn^^'o. 

d^Clti fasas. 
chapter, s. 9^6/^-^ mirdf (§ 8). 

character, s. (nature) flrh^ bahri (bhari § 7d). 

(statement of qualifications) i^ftVlC misik- 


I have written you a good character ; 9^hp^ s 
^¥l^AU:: misgdna tdf hullih. 
charcoal, s. hrtA kdsal. 

o o 

charge, s. (accusation) Yltl kiss, 
(price) 'Pp wdga. 
(for hire) h^J& kfrSi (§ 8). 


CHA— CHI 52 

charge, v.t. (accuse) hrtrt kassasa. 
(a price) d.til f^Haga. 
charged, be, v.p. (accused) '^hrtrt takassasa. 

(a price) i'd.M tafdllaga. 
charm, s. (talisman) mArti'" talsam. 
chat, s. fift'P;'" cauata. 

' • o 

01*7 Wcug. 

chat, v.i. i'^^at't' tacauwata (-wwta). 
chat with, v.t. h^oi' accauwata (-wwta). 
cheap, adj. (?i)Ch7i rikkds (irkkds ; § 8). 
cheat, s. ^"Id* qatafi. 
cheat, v.i. & t. ^md. qattafa. 
h^Mi attallala. 

o o 

h'py am'^oiina. 
cheated, be, v.p. i-^md. taqattafa. 
'^;^AA tatallala. 

o o o 

cheating, s. 4'T<{.^ qitf|t (-f^t)- 
^'T'bT qitfinna. 

Xo . o 

cheek, s. T-'i'^ gwunc (§ o2a, y). 
cheese, s. [KjCi rfg^o (irg-). 

h^'d dib .(%). 
Chelonia sp., s. h.A. >eli. 
chess, s. rt^m^t santaraj (-tar). 
chest, s. (box) ^T"} satin. 

(thorax) ^^^ darat. 
(of animals) ^Ci-il^ firimba. 
His (man's, horse's) chest is too narrow: f^d'P 
mfl'fl : Vfl>- :: ddratu tabbdv nau. 

o o • o • o 

chicken, s. (young) *^6R;^ cdciit (dyii- § 7d). 

(older) -ft-fl : R-C q>eb (qyey) d^^dr^o. 

53 CHI— CHR 

chick-pea {Cicer arietinmn, Broun, Cat. 140), s. Tii^'fl^ 

o o 

chief, s. YxtK^ dlaqa. 

Tf-?" sum, pi. also ff-'^i^^ sumamit. 

*J^Vi'? ainatafiiia {-nat-, -t^fi-). 

(local, village) ^^'. "^9^ ciqd sum, often abbr. 

to '^^ ciqa. 
(local, district) i^ftAi mislan^^e (-Ian-). 
Where is the chiefs house? PTf-ow-: fl.^ : P*^: Vfl>-« 
yjisiimu y^ et yet nau ? 
child, s. Ag- lij. 

7"flA ffiibil (-livi-). 
(small) fla.4»A caijla. 
How many children has she? hl^-. Aj^: M^w 

sint lii allat? 
How many children has she had? ft'JT: aiA^T« 
sint walladac ? 

O o 

childhood, s. aK-V-I* li jfnnat (-nat). 
childless, adj. <w»'/'J mahdn (§ 8). 
children, interj. to silence, K^ iss ! 
chin, s. hl^ dgac (-giic). 

?f'>'>n'"h sang^^<)bat (-6y-, -at). 
chip, s. 'PA'T' filldc (§ 8). 
chisel, s. troC mar'' o. 


choose, v.i. & t. (select) <n»<Cm marrata. 
(prefer) oi^^ wwddada. 
Choose as you please: Ki^^-^it:\i: TCf^^ ndafi- 
qddih mfrat, (pol.) y^lf^^^fj* : f.9^dm' « ndafi- 
qdda'^o yfmratu. 

x o »' o o • 

chosen, be, v.p. 'taodm tamarrata. 
Christian, s. YlCil-t^Tf kristydn (§ 8). 
Christmas, s. A^^ Ifdat (-diit). 

CHU— CLE 64 

church, s. fl.'f : YlCil't^'i b^ etakristydn (bataskydn ; § 8). 

^'flC dabir, pi. also h^(\C adbdr (-dyd- ; § 8) 

and h^d^^ adbardt (dyd- ; § 8). 

Ciconia Ahdimii (Guidi, Yocab. p. 205), s. TlrmA simdla. 

cigar, s. ^i'ax^titi : ^?"nA : yatataqallala timbauha 

(§ Id, turn-, -boha). 
cigarette, s. na)^*l»ih .- f I'm+AA .- ^J^flA : bauaraqat 
yatataqallala timbauha (S Id, etc.). 

•' o • O ^O O O O o \i) ' I 

circle, s. ^yDhfl-fl makbab (-kyay). 
circular, adj. h-fl kibb. 
circumcise, v.t. 'MM garraza. 
circumcised, be, v.p. i'l^li tagarraza. 
circumference, s. frC^ ziirya. 

What is its circumference? H^C^id-.- ftT-^.- Vfl^w 
zuryau sfnti nau ? 

^ o o o 

civet cat ( Viverra civetta), s. Ilflj^ zibdd (-fyd- ; § 8). 

TC^ tfrffi (-nil S 6 ; 8 8). 

•o o ^ ' / 

civilised, be, v.i. 4»'i" qanna. 
clarified, be (become), v.i. >m^ nattara (-tar-). 
clarionet, s. h'Jfl.A;^ (i)mbilta (§ 7(^/). 
clatter, v.i. (of persons) ^»^V»,V^ ankwakkwa. 

(of things) ^ : hA kwa dla (s.v. \/flA, § 44a). 
Don't let the things clatter : "h^ .- \\ : Y\f,(i^ k fqa 
kwa aiyal. 
claw, s. T¥C tifir (§ 52a, y). 
clean, adj. "Jm-Zh nituh. 
clean, v.t. m^l tarrag^a. 

(by wiping) attimli walauwala. 
(purify) hm^ atarra. 
(the teeth) *^ca, mwacca. 
Clean it: T^lio-:: tfragau, (a)A<D-Aii>- :: walwiilau, 

h'T^Oh' :: atrau), pi. -7-^ :: -gut, (A*^ s: -lut, 
-^.'l-:: -rut). 


clean, be, v.i. m^ tdrra. 

Are the clothes clean ? A-flft : mC^^a liys (§ 52a, S)- 
tartoal ? 
cleaned, be, v.p. i'mdl tatarraga. 

(wiped) •fatAiDti tawalauwala (taua-). 
(the teeth) i^'^.fiCi. tamwacca. 
Has it been cleaned ? +mC^A :: tatargoal ? 
Yes, I have cleaned it: hatTr -. (mHlih^ :: dwwn, 

tdrraghut, or fllC'i*PAl^:■. tarigg^ewallau^\ 
When it has been cleaned, show it me : rt,m^*7 : 
M?'"^ '.'. sittarrag, asdyyan. 
clear, adj. (obvious) ?la^4» iwuq (r'uq). 

(of water, etc.) T<- tfru (ttiru). 
(not confused) 'fl<- biru. 
He has a clear head : An- .- -04- : 'lOh v. libbu yiru 


clear (be), v.i. m/" tdrra. 
clear away, v.t. h'i**i andssa. 

Clear it away : hV^ah a j'lnsau. 

Don't clear them away: ^i;'"'>•^'f^a^:: attansdccau. 

Clear (pi.) it away: hla*'^:-. ansut. 

Don't (pi.) clear them away: h^lrOJi'O^ '• attan- 


clear off (out), v.i. (d1^ wwggada. 

Clear off! (dI^v. waigid 1, f. aJ*7jS' :: wwgij !, pi. 
fl)*?-^ a wwo^idu ! 
clear up, v.i. (of the weather) ht\^ abdrra (ayd,- ; said 
also at night). 
When it clears up : rt,^fl^ : syaydra. 
clerk, s. ^d. tdfi. 
clerk, chief, s. Xrh<C. •* ^Hli sahdf^e tiziz (§ 8). 

CLE— CLO 56 

clever, adj. ^^9" rasdm {§ 8). 

-flAVI-? bilhatanna (-tan-). 
Tflfl? tibabafina (-ivav-, -an-). 

• OOO VO-O' ' 

cliff, s. 1^ A gddal (gadal). 
climb, v.i. at^ wwtta. 

climb, v.t. h-...! AjR : ID'H ka-... lai (§8, § 47&) woj'tta. 
He climbed the hill : h+^^ : AJK. : fl)"] s katarard 

o o 

(^ 59a) lai wwtta. 
clip, v.t. 4»mm qattata. 
clipped, be, v.p. i'^mm taqattata. 
clippers, s. ao^ai*^ maqtaca (-tac-). 
clitoris, s. ^TrOiC qintar (-tar). 
cloak, s. ncTA barn^^os. 

' o 

^9^^ lamd. 
hfl kabba. 
(woollen) *^4* maq. 
clock, s. rt^^ saS.(t) — (s.v. time, watch). 

It is eight o'clock: fl9"Tf^: rtW: 'taha sfmmint 

sadt nau. 
At eio^ht o'clock : flftJ^'}^: rt^ih .• basimmint sadt. 

o o o o o 

clod, s. r-ii.^ gwiilTt (-lit). 

close (near), adj. (close to, prp.) 4f*C'fl qirb (qiry). 

close, v.i. (be closed, v.p.) 'tnp tazagga. 

The door won't close : hl^ah .- hf!,\lp9^ « sdnqau 

aizzaggam (§ 63c). 
The road has been closed to cattle: <w»^7^: 
-hmn+r h-fl^-: A'J^^A'P:: manofadu tatabbaqa 
kaft indaialf, 

O'O o 

close, v.t. Hp zagga. 

(a lid) h^.V kdddana. 

57 CLO— COA 

Close the door : avrxixfohl -. mpah a mazgyaim 

Close the box: ^T^'J: Vl^Vfli-:: sdtinun kidanau. 

• o o o o 

close(r) together, be, v.i. i"^^d.Or taqararrabu (-ayu). 
They are to be close(r) together : f^^^dd" :•• yiqqa- 

o • 

They are not to be so close together : hja+^^fl* .- 
'h'if!MJ)ii aiqqardrayii ndazzih. 
close(r) together, put, v.t. M^dM aciqararraba (-aya). 
cloth, s. (gen.) ffii.C4» ciirq. 

(for wear) A-flA libs (liys). 
(for wiping) ao'?/.'h9 niatrdgya. 
(for ^vrapping) aoax^lK^ mataqlaya (-ttiq-, -|ia). 
Assortment of cloths : fitl.C:^fla.C4* cJirqdcarq (§ 8). 
clothe, v.t. liAnA aldbbasa. 
clothed, be, v.i. Aflrt labbasa. 

' ' o o o 

clothes, s. A-flA libs (livs). 

Fine clothes : IT g^et. 
cloud, s. ^ao^ dammana {^ 8). 

clove, s. 4*0^^ (jiriinful (qur-, -iimf-, -i-f: -fud, § Id). 
clover {Trifolium sp.), s. 'PS'*^ wajma. 

G. 'T-Cm'fl gwoj'rtab (-ay). 

S. ft-^A siddisa. 


club, s. (weapon) ^A diilla. 
coagulate, v.i. [?i]<i;5 (i)ragga. 
coal, s. hrtA : fJiX^ k^sal dangya. 
Live coal : <PJ^ fhn*(§.52a, 8). 
coarse, adj. (scabrous) h°AV\A kwwskwdssa. 

(rude) nAl bdlag^e (-lag-). 
coarse-grained, adj. hh kikk (klikk § Id). 
coat, s. (Eur.) tjfi-V k^^ot. 

(of animal) av'Y'C tagwiir. 

COB— COL 58 

Cohus defassa, s. J^4-^ diMsa. 
cobweb, s. f ?f <C^^ : fl^^ yasararit yyet. 
cock, s. ^^a^^: P-C aur^ d'^dr'^o. 

At cock-crow : hoh^ -. F-C^ .• fL^^fl •• aura d^or^o 

o • 

cockroach, s. (\dC barar^o. 

o o 

coffee, s. n*'> bunn (plant, berry and drink). 

Coffee and milk : rbT-V : ati'^ :: biinninna wwtat. 

o e 

Coffee without milk: fl**}: ^tuoi'^ii bunn yala- 

wcJtat (-auoj-). 
Don't put sugar into the coffee : A-hC : i'fl'^ : h^ 

j^C*7fl^ :: siikkar taviinn attadrioibbat (-tdrs:-). 
coil, v.i. (be coiled, v.p.) i'maomtrD tatamattama, round, 

fl- ba- (ya- ; § 47a). 
The snake coiled round me : Kfl-fl : 't^aiaDaitro'd'^ a 

ivdv tatamattamabbin. 

o» • o*o O'*© o o 

coil, v.t. maomffD tamattama. 

• o o • • o o 

coin, small, s. aothli^ mahallaq (§ o2a, S). 
cold, adj. ^H^H qazqazza. 

(of weather) -flCj^ bird (§ 576). 

Cold water : ^H^H -. a^V : qazqazza wiiha (-zauha). 

Cold weather : -flCj^ bird. 


Very cold weather : okC^ wurc. 
Is it cold there ? hli,^ : -flCjt : 'lah -.: kazzya yfrdi 
cold, s. (weather) -ilCj^ bird. 

(in the head) -bli^t giinfdn (-limf- § 7rf; § 8). 
I have caught a cold : 'h'}4-'i -. ^H^ « gumfdn 
ydzan (lit. a cold has seized me), 
cold, be (get), v.i. fl<l^ barrada. 

4*H*I*H (iaza(i(iaza. 

I o o ^ ^ o o 

If it is cold : nncj^- : bivard. 

59 COL— COM 

Let it get cold : ff^'d^H: k yfyrad. 
Don't let it get cold : hf^'dd^ k ^iyrad. 
cold, be (feel), v.i. fl<i^(D- barradau (impers. § 43a; 
§ 636?, e). 
I feel cold: nCA^^A:: bard^oiiiial 


Coleus tuberoms (Guidi, Vocab. p. 676), s. J^^-f dfnnic 

(-CC § 6). 
collect, v.i. (be collected, v.p.) i'rtflrtfl tasabassaba (tas-, 


o • o o • o ' 

collect, v.t. (bring together) AflAfl sabassaba (savassaya). 

(pick up) A*l*<w» laqqama. 
collected, be, v.p. (picked) 'Vti^ao tala(iqama. 
collection, s. (group) ft'fl'^rt, sibsdbi (siysdyi). 
colonel, s. (native) flAi^fl<5«ft balambaras. 
colour, s. ao^ti malk. 

' o 

+Ai^ qdlam. 

(of animals) a\l>C tagwiir. 
comb, s. '%?' mfd^'o (mfd^^o). 
ao'i^Ti mamiasa. 

o ^ o 

(of fowl) S. lih^ k^V)kan (-kiin). 
G. r-±^ gwiittiya. 
comb, v.t. V4»rt ndcjciasa. 

come, interj. (intensive) [?i]Vi (f)kk''o (iik- ; often en- 
clitic and .suffix). 
hl'^ (i)nji (end). 
nA bai. 
Come, bring it (them §616)! XVi : hrm.-. iikk^^o 

dnta ! (§ 7d), or }\9^m\i « antakk^o ! 
Come, put it down! hti*P9°a\ah -. hl'^u asqammi- 

taunji ! 
Come, give it me! iiai^s "hlf^a sitanninjf ! (§ 6), 
or flA : tiai^ :: bal sftafi ! 

COM— COM 60 

come, v.i. aofn matta, (imperative 9 na, pi. Y- nu). 
Come here ! 'i' : (D^V s na wwdlh 1 
Come (here), please : 'i : hili: s ndsti, pol. J&9"/n« : 

"hll'tii yimtiisti, pi. "hi htl'ta misti. 
Tell him to come : *i": flAfl*-:: na valau, pi. V: fl/V-^:: 

na valut. 
Tell them to come : V- ; flA^<»- k nu valaccau, pi. 

>•: fl^^flJ-K nu valwaccau. 
Where does he (it) come from ? 'to)^^ -. 'lah -. 

"h'^aoft :; tawwd^et nau mmimata? 

o o , o o • 

come and a:o, v.i. +<w>AArt tamal§llasa. 

O ' o o o o 

come, cause (or allow) to, v.t. htlaD^n asmatta. 
come in, v.i. 7fl gabba. 

Come in! in-.: gfya!, pol. ^10' a yfgyu!, pi. *7n-r. 
orfvu ! 
come in, cause (or allow) to, v.t. htil(\ asgabba. 
come out, v.i. fli^J wcJtta. 

Come along out ! *? : ahf\ « na wtita ! (nauta !). 

The stain has come out: hjt^s A+4*:: fdfii Idq- 


come out, cause (or allow) to, v.t. htKo^n aswwtta. 
comfortable, adj. fi/^'t dahna. 

I am comfortable : ^'^V : V^ s dahnd (§ 8) nan. 
I am not comfortable: jl'fe<i*I*^<i?A;: yiqwwraq- 

Are you comfortable? ^IfT: 'iVn dahnd nah?, 

pol. ^'1'?: V?*:: dahudna^?, pi. A'V'?.- V^lha 

diihnd ndccyuh ? (§ 7d). 
He is in comfortable circumstances: 'iiiao'i -. Vahs 

alamaiHid nau. 

o o 

command, s. (order) ^Hli tfzdz (§8). 

(authority) "^ao^ siimat (-mat). 

61 COM— COM 

command, v.i. & t. hllH azzaza. 
commandant (commander), s. hli^ alaqa. 
commerce, s. '>*7jt nigd. 
commissariat officer, s. flScT^j^ bajir^dnd. 
commode, s. <w>?f? masafia (-saii-). 
fliJ.;'' bar>eta. 

(euphem.) in»\id.^ makfaya (-faia). 
common (plentiful), be, v.i. *wjA malla or T*A m^'(')lla, 

Is it common ? 'P^^'i :-. m^^oltSalla ? (s.v. -h, § 6). 
communicate, v.i. (receive Holy Communion) *fe<in 

qwwrraba (ava). 
companion, s. dfiiiyi^ balinjara. 
company, s. (mercantile) VhflJ^^ kubbaniyya. 

He is good company : fiD.*?'!'? : Vfl>- :: cauatiiiifia 
(§8) nau, pol. -i'''i : V^flJ-:; -taiina ndccau. 
compensation, s. h^ kdsa. 

Compensation for homicide : f VPft .- *P^ : yiinavs 
(§ 7^0 waga. 
complain, v.i. i?*Ti c'' 6ha, of, fl- ba- (ya- ; § 47a). 

I complain of him (it) : ?^^^*fin;^Al>• « ic'^ohibba- 


I complain of the headman : flTf-?" : hi^'^a^tHhn 

basiim ic''ohibbatallau'\ 
Whom do you complain of? fl'^'} .- ^^^TiAU « 
bamdntic^'ohdlliih?, pol. fll'i- ^(?*TiA-:: bamdn 
yic^ohdllu ? 
complainant, s. Mti kasds (§8). 
complaint, s. (grievance) ttfeTi'V ciihat (-hat). 
(ailment) see disease, pain. 
I have a complaint : fiCfeTi^ .■ ^A^ « ciihat allafi. 
What is your complaint ? 6Cfe*fi1-U : ri^C -. VflJ- « 
ciihatih mfndir nau ? 

COM— CON 62 

complete, adj. tf^-A* miilu (9°i)r milu). 
complete, v.t. OL^A carrasa (carrasa). 
completed, be, v.p. i'CR.iirt tacarrasa (tacarrasa). 
completely, adv. '^^Ti cfrrds (§ 8). 

nfl>-A bawiil (bdiiiil ; § 8). 
compliments, s. h'JI^ .- OhfMh kantu ''udddsye. 
compress, v.t. ^^fl4» attabbaqa. 
compressed, adj. T-fl^* tibq (tiyq). 
compressed, be, v.p. a\M tabbaqa. 
compulsion, s. *7j?: ^dd. 

compulsory, adj. (-orily, adv.) fl*7j?: bagidd (§ 8). 
comrade, s. flA^K^ balinjara. 
concave, adj. 1"^^^ gwwdgwadda (-wrgw- § 7d). 
conceal, v.t. Aatd sauwara. 

' o o o 

ffffi sassaga (sassaga). 
concealed, be, v.p. i'rtfli^ tasauwara (tas-). 

't'S'Sl tasassaga (tasassaga). 
conceit, s. Vl-^^ kiirdt (§8). 
conceited, adj. Vl«4- kiiru. 

'tMd takabbari. 

o o 

concubine, s. f '^'} : Id,^ yacin (-fn) garad. 
condemn, v.t. d^df!^s fl- farrada ba- (va-: S 47a). 
condemned, be, v.p. i'd.ds^d^ tafarradabbat. 

''r »^» ooooo 

condition, s. (stipulation) ^C? qwurt (§ 52a, S). 

These are the conditions on which you will work : 
nH.U : <^C'? : ^rt/J-AU :: bazzlh qwiirt tisarallah. 

o ■•• • o o 

condition (training), be (get) out of, v.i. 't>^ tagwwdda. 

h^ kassa. 


See § 63c?, e. 
He (it) is out of condition: +7"Jt;tA;: tagwaidi- 
t5al (-cJrt- § 7^0- 
condition, lack of, s. T-^^ gwtiddt (§ 8). 

63 CON— CON 

conduct, s. ft^ sfra. 

conduct, v.t. (guide) ao^ marra. 

(bring) Ai^^^ adarrasa. 
conducted, be, v. p. 'h<wi^ tamarra. 
confidence, s. "hS^h^ ^'^'^^ (-nat). 
confine, v.t. \\(ii. assara (-sJir-). 
confined, be, v.p. ^di. tdssara (-sar-). 
confiscate, v.t. aiCh wwrrasa. 
conflagration, s. ^^ qwayya. 
confound, v.t. 

Confound you! ^JRAU:: yillih ! (s.v. h^). 
confuse, v.t. (mix) fJXts*^ daballaiia (-avd-). 
(mentally) G. hhfX'V assasdta. 
S. YyfxfX'V assasdta. 


confused, be, v.i.&p. (mixed) •^^nA+ tadaballaqa (-aya-). 
(mentall}^) G. '^rt^'f• tasasdta (tiisas-), 

S. 'VfyMr tasasdta (tiis-). 
congratulate, v.t. (on achieving) : 

I congratulate you: ?i'>V\^: MH.^'flrh.f: : ?i^^U:: 
nkwdn igziavli> er iraddali, pol. . . . ?i^^?* :; . . . irdd- 
consent, v.i. ?iit .- ^A (f)ssi (-si, -s>') dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
nj^ : hts. bdjja (b^j-) ala ( „ „ ). 

I consent: Vd;: fssi, or ^ !>*>:: ylhun. 
consequently, adv. ?i'>*7^U (i)ngd^eh. 

hHo)-^^ (i)z(z)iPwdy§; (-zdd- ; § 8). 
consider, v.i. & t. AiAfl assaba (ava). 

^ OO^O'O' 

consul, s. ^'^^^A qwtinsil. 

consult, v.t. '\r'^\i^ tamakkara (kiir-) h- ka- (1*- ta-, 
Consult the head-man: 'Mf-oi*-: +'^hC;: tasiimu 

^ o 


CON— coo 64 

consume, v.t. flA ball a. 

consumed, be, v.p. i"flA taballa (taya-). 

contaofious, be, v.i. hfid. allafa. 

O ' ^ o o 

Is the disease contagious ? n7l;^: ^A4-/t"^:: basita 
yalfallwf ? (s.v. -fli^, § 6). 
contain, v.t. ^H ydza (§ 44c). 
?J^A cdla. 
How much will it contain? 9"^: ^UA: /Z./2,HA:: 

min yahl yiyizal? 
What does it contain? 9°'}-. hAfl^K min allab- 


contempt, interj. expressing: hdl drag ! (araag! § 7(1). 
content, v.t. f^il : lirtT dass (dass) assafina. 
content, be, v.i. ^A .■ ^A dass (-a-) dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
^ft : htiOh- dass (-a-) dlau (impers. § 43a). 
See § QSd, e. 
Is he content ? ^ft : 'flA";^A«•|^ « dass yfl'^^otallwi ? 
(s.v. -ai|&, § 6). 
contrary, on the, "hlK (i)nji. 

He is not to go : on the contrary, he is to stay : 
h^Ax,^ : je,«fe/^ : hTr"^ :: dihid, yfqwwyy inji. 
convent, s. Ifi9° gadam (gad- ; § 8). 
conversation, s. 00*1 plC mannagdgar (-gar). 

01*7 Wcug. 

converse, v.i. 't'lpld. tanagdggara (-gar-). 

i'^ati' tacauwata (-wwt-). 
converse with, v.t. h^^at't accduwata (-wwt-). 
convolvulus sp., s. hd.1 arag. 
cook, s. IDT: fl.^ wwtb^et (-tyy-). 

tpox : fid wo^ta sdri (sari ; § 9^). 
cook, v.t. /iflrtA abassala (ava-). 

65 COO— COR 

Cook it: h-iitltiohii avsilau. 
Can you cook ? idT * ^Oh^M •••• wwt tauqallah ? 
cooking (cookery), s. flJT wwt. 
cool, adj. ^H^H qazqazza. 
cooler, s. 'H'tt^^ mabrdja (-ayr-, -raj-), 
co-operate, v.i. i'm^^a^ tataqdqqamii. 
copied (out, in wi'iting) be, v. p. i'liKdm tagaUbb|ta. 

i'^^ taqddda. 
copper, s. V/tl ndhas (§ 8). 
copulate, v.i. (inire) fl-^ bddda (bad-). 

(of the female) i'fl^^* tabdddac (tabad-, 

-iiyd- ; -ace § 6). 
(euphem.) +? tdiina (tan-, -na). 
copulation, s. H^^ hidit (§ 8). 
copy (out, in writing), v.t. lAflm galdbbata. 

+-^ (iddda. 
Cordia ahessinica (Broun, Cat. 371), s. *?*}»! wSnza. 
coriander, s. j^-JT^'flAA dfmbilal (§ 8). 
corkscrew, s. f mC<n>«'H « tw^-^ yatarmiiz (-tiir-) mdfca. 
corn, s. hl^ sfnd^e. 

What is the price of corn? ft'J^e'P/iiD-eflA'J^B 
iflJ-K sj(nd>e (§ 556) wdj^au vasinti nau ? 
com, Indian {Zea mays), s. pn/lfiC:*^7i'\ yiibdhir (-aySr) 


comer, s. <^H7 mdzan. 


corpse, s. flj^*} bddin (bdd- ; -inn § 6). 
correct, adj. (-ly, adv.) ^'i'? dahna (§ 8). 

^hhA tikfkkil. 

o o o 

Ah likk (§ 576). 
nAh'bdlikk (§ 8). 
m^i"? tafFitaiina (-tan-). 

AM.GR. (ll) 5 

COR— COU 66 

correct, be, v.i. 'thhti takakkala. 

' ' o o o 

tn^'hii tafF ala (s.v. VHA, § 44a). 
correct, (render), v.t. htii'hhfi astakakkala. 

m^sh^^l taff adarraga. 
corrupt, v.t. (a person) hfi-f assdta. 
Corvus sp., s. *^ qiira. 
cost, s. Vp wdga. 
cost, v.i. 't'lH-'d- tagazza ba- (ya- ; § 47a). 

\\Tiat did it cost ? dhlr^. 't-lH.'. baslnt tagazza? 

o o o*— ' o 

What does it cost? *pJ^a^!9"'>.•^UA••Vfl^K wdgau 
min yahl nau ? 
cotton, s. (-plant, -wool) TT tit. 
(thread) hC kirr. 

cotton soil (^i^L) , s. <PAh wdlka. 

twnp mazaga (-zag-). 
cough, s. ^A sal. 

Have you got a cough ? ^ftAAU « tisildllah ?, pol. 
j&ftAAr. yisilallu? 
cough, v.i. fiti sdla. 

Does he cough? )&AAA» yisilal?, pol. ^AAA-k yi- 
silallu ? 


count, v.i. & t. *fem<C qwwttara (-t^r-). 

Count it (them § o2a, S) : <f>^m^(D-s'. qwiitarau. 
Have you counted it (them) ? *femCWfl>-« qwcJttar- 


counted, be, v,p. i"fem^ taqwwttara (-tar-). 
country, s. (gen. inhabited) hlC agar (-gar). 

(opposed to town ; uninhabited) ddV bdra- 
What is your country? hlCV'-^^i'tahn dgiirih yet 

67 COU— COV 

In your country : QlCV •• bdgarih. 

A man that knows the country: YxIC^^'^^ah'^i 

fiahi dgjir yammyduq sau. 

countryman, s. (rustic) flAI balag^ e (-lag-). 

flAlC baldgar (-gar). 

Ifl^J. ffabar^e (-ava-, -ar-). 
courage, s. A-fl libb. 

course, of, interj. "ht^^ (i)nd>eta. 
h'iy\'i ^kwiln. 
Yes, of course bring it! ?l^^;^■•^li^'»Jfl^:?l751:•. 
nd-^eta, antaunji ! (§ 7d). 
court, s. (of justice) ^^C^'-M'- yaffrdi b^et (y^-). 
rtlV'lh sagannat. 
In court: (\(D9^(\C'd.'1'- bauwmbar (^ 8) fit. 

o o ^'J ' o 

cousin, s. ^7°^! aS" yaggwwt (§ 8) lij (uncle's child). 
tltm^ zamad (relation). 

atlr^V* wwndim (prop, brother), pi. also 
flj-jj^oyip:)-. wcundimdm^oc (-cc § G). 
He is my cousin: ^l-'t •• aS" •* Vfl^ :•• yaggw^t^e lij 


cover, s. (lid) <w»h^? makdana (-dan-). 
(of cloth, etc.) A-flft libs (liys). 
cover, v.t. (clothe) htidfl alabbasa (§ 56/). 
Tld^'i saffana (saf-). 

o o o ^ ' 

(as a lid) h^V kaddana. 
Cover the sore: '^tldr'i '• h^'dAahn qwiisilun dlyi- 


Cover the sore on his back: ^^^CdahTri^tl^-- 
h^'HAahi'. yajaryaun qwdsil dlyisau. 

Cover the sore on her back: ^XC([*P'i'''i^tlfii-- 
h^'Qfl^ ti yajiiryauan qwiisil alyisat. 


COV— CRE 68 

covered, be, v. p. (cover oneself, v.r.) i'TfAV tasaffana 

coverlet, s. r^Tfm^ mfntaf (§ 8). 
cow, s. Ai'" lam. 

coward, s. (-ly, adj.) ^d fari (fari). 
crack, s. (fissure) 1^ niq, pi. also '>^^^ niqdqdt (§8). 
tl'i'vi slntiq. 
(in soil) »i<:iri^ k^orak^^dra (-rwk- ; § 52a, S). 
crack, v.i. (be cracked, v.p.) i^ ndqqa. 

i'i'di'd tatardttara (-tardt- 

o o o o o ^ o 

tar a). 
i'Mm*^ tasandttaqa (ta- 
The jar will crack: h^ft^iD-sJi'h^l'h^AK nsirau 
crack, v.t. 'i'^i'd. tarattara (tardttara). 
Mm^ sanattaqa. 
It will crack the jar: h'itl^fOh'iif^i'd.^^^ii nsf- 
raun yitardttiral. 
cracked, adj. iil"\^ santaqqa. 

Is the soil there cracked? -Mt^ ■• #wi^^ ; rt'}''!^ : 
hahi\ tazzyd mar^^et santaqqd nau? (§ 8). 
crackle, v.i. •f"^h»'<ffh»?f tankwwsakkwwsa. 

o o 

crafty, adj. "flAT bilt. 
crash, v.i. ^s^A gwa dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
•7{^:M^mm*'ala( „ „ ). 
creak, v.i. ■t'T'V^V^ tankwakkwa. 
crease, s. '^aid,^ matafya. 
credit, s. M Ma. 

On credit: fl^-- bdda (§ 7a). 
No credit given: fl^l'^sh^^AK baddmm didal 
(§ 7^). 

69 CRE— CRU 

creditor, s. flAl'JH'fl balagdnzab (-ay). 

hdfi^ abadddri (ava-, -ad-). 
crest, s. (of bird) iil^ qiinc'' o. 
crevice, s. Tr^ niq, pi. also 1^^^ niqdqat (§ 8). 
cricket {Gryllus sp., Acheta sp), s. iji"\ f^'dnta (§ 52a, 8). 
crime, s. Cx^M (h)atyat (§ 8). 

n^A badal (bad-), 
croak, v.i. (P^fi c'^'oha. 

' • o 

croak (-ing), s. f^fi^ ciihat (-hat). 
crocodile, s. ^H azz''o, 
crooked, adj. m*^*^ tamdma. 
crop, s. (planted field) ?iCVf irsa (§ 5 2a, 8). 
(harvest) hHao^ azmara (-mar-). 
Are the crops good ? hliaD^''(\J^v. azmdra yajja? 
cross, s. <w>ft+A mdsqal. 
cross, v.i. & t. iLdm (jw^rrata. 

't'Hnd tasaggara (tas-, -gar-). 
Cross it and go straight on; *feCfliUfl>-s<(.^sA^^! 
tK^ K qwwrtiihau fit lafft hid. 

'^ 1 • o o o o o 

To cross one's legs: Yi'l^'i-d.-l'li-- fgrun (§52a, y) 

o o o 

cross (in a bad temper), be (become), v.i. i'aDd.d tamdr- 

rara (-riira ; § OSd, e). 
cross-roads, s. aot^ manta. 

When you reach the cross-roads : «^>'};^fl^■: ft^^Cfte 

mantau sittidars. 


crouch, v.i. ^ftfl ad^bba. 
crow (Corvus sp.), s. *fe^ qiira. 
crow, v.i. ^=*»Ti c^'oha. 

• o 

crowd, s. thll'd hfzib (-iv), pi. also hfhH'd dhzdb (-dy ; § 8). 

crown, s. HflJ-j?: zdud. 

crucified, be, v. p. i'rt+A tasdqqala (tas-). 

CRU— CUR 70 

crucify, v.t. rt+A saqqala. 

cruel, adj. cah^ cakkdn (-nn § 6 ; § 8). 

crupper, s. (D^A wwdd^ella (to*- wii-). 

crush, v.t. flJ+m wwqqata. 

crushed, be, v.p. i'iD^m tawcJqqata (tauw-). 

cry, s. fl^Ti^ ciihat (-hat). 

cry, v.i. ^^'^ c^'dha. 

(weep) hli^Cl alaqqasa. 
cub, s. *7A'1A ofloral. 

Cucumis melo (Broun, Cat. 206),. s. ^(\ diibba. 
Cucurhita maxima (Broun, Cat. 209), s. 4* A qil. 
cultivate, v.i. & t. (sow) H^ zarra (zar-). 
(plant) '^hA takkala. 
cultivated, be, v.p. (sown) '^H^ tazarra (tazar-). 

(planted) 't'i'hti tatakkala. 
cultivation, s. (cultivated land) hCfi frsa. 

(practice) hlloD^ azmara (-mar-), 
cultivator, s. 1(\& oabar^e (-ava-, -ar-). 
cunning, adj. -flAT bill 
cup, s. 9'm^ finjal (§ 8). 

*P'i*^ wdnca. 

i'P Mga. 

(of enamelled ware) ^i,h tanika. 
cup, v.t. hloD aggama. 
cupped, be, v.p. ;^•|<w> taggama. 
cupping-horn, s. *P19°^ wdgamt. 
curdle, v.i. [?t]^l;j (i)ragga. 

Curdled milk : h^'ti dib (%). 
curds, s. [?t]C"> rfg^o (frg-). 
cure, v.t. <Cairt fauwasa. 

o o o ^.^ 

cured, be, v.p. i'^ioA tafauwasa. 

71 CUR— CUT 

curse, s. [KjCII'i rigimdn (irg- ; § 8). 
curse, v.i. & t. dlao rao:orama. 

qOOo o 

Curse you! 9"'}-h(\^VK minabbatih? 
curtain, s. aop^ maggaraja. 

MAC ag^'obar (-oy-, -ar). 
Let down the curtain: m»^^3?fl>-'}:^AflHK mag- 
garajaun talau. 
curve, v.i. h^iflrt a^wwndbbasa. 

~ o o o 

cushion, s. ao\\i\ mak(k)adda. 
custom, s. i^^^ sirdt (§ 8). 
JiJ^C fd°dir. 

"^ o o 

01*7 wwg. 
Is it an ancient custom? f ^J^T* •• hj^C : V(»- a ya- 

qddm^'o iddfr (§ 8) nau ? (-qarm''(kl- § Id). 
custom-house, s. im^C^^i. maciraca (rac-). 
flC barr. 


customs, s. 4*^T qarat. 

How much are the customs? 4*^m«.'J'"'}!^0A.' 
V<D-K (laratu min yahl nau? 

loo* O *' o 

customs, collect, v.i. ^Cok qarrata, on, h- [+-] ka- (ta-, 

§ 47«). 
customs, pay, v.i. i'+^Cm taqarrata. 

Everything will have to pay customs : U- A* •• ?i^ « 

^^C"\t\^' hiillu fqa yiqqarratal. 
I do (shall, will) not pay customs : hA+^Tl^K aliq- 
customs official, s. «I»^*P' Qardc (§ 8). 

n<i? barraiifia (-ran-). 

o o ^ ' 

cut, v.i. & t. <k^ni qwwrrata. 

(corn, grass) \\GB^f^ accada (-cada). 
Cut it: *l>^<^mi»-K qwiiratau, pi. -m-^K -tut. 

CUT— DAN 72 

Don't cut it: h^'^^moi'^ attiqwiiratau, pi. -ohl-s 
cut, be, v.p. '^*fe<im taqwwrrata. 
cut-throat, s. JJ-^ gaddu. 
Cynocephalus sp., s. ll'i'KC zinjar'^o (-j^r-). 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

dagger, s. lin;fl^ cub^e (-uy^e). 

daily, adj. f U-A*^ yahullaqan. 

daily, adv. l^A+'J hullaqan. 

daisy, s. 11*70 zfgba (-gya). 

Dalhergia melanoxylon (Broun, Cat. 158), s. Hfl,z^dbbi. 

dam, s. *7jt^ gf^dib (-iy). 

dam, v.t. I^fl gaddaba (-ava). 

damage, s. T^^^ gwtidat (§8). 

damage, v.t. 7"-^ gwwdda. 

damaged, be (get), v.p. '\r>fi tagwcJdda (§ 63^, e). 

See that it doesn't get damaged : hlr^f/h*f{^ ndaig- 
gwojdda, ...that they don't get... --^k -ddu. 
damp, adj. [?i]CA (i)dss. 
AHH lazdza. 


These clothes are damp: ^U-- A-flftsJiCAiVaHa 
yihe liys (§ 52a, S) irlssi (§ 7d) nau, or /2,0.- A-flA-- 
fcC^AK yfhe livs yirfsal. 
damp, be, v.i. [?i]^rt (i)rdsa. 
dance, s. Hd/i zdfan (zaf). 
dance, v.i. H<CV zdfFana (zaf-). 
danger, s. '■^pC cfggdr (§ 8). 

73 DAR— DAY 

dare, v.i. & t. 

I dare say : jtlf^As yih^onal. 
dark, adj. (devoid of light) fiftA*^ callama {§ 8, § 57b). 
(in colour) T*fcC tiiqur. 
(of complexion) a\^9" tayyim. 
The room is (too) dark: fl.* •• fliA'^ •• Vi»- k b>etu 
callamS, nau. 
dark, be, v.i. (ElUoo callama. 
darkness, s. (ELti*l callama (§ 8). 
date, s. (day) *f*^ qan (§ 8). 

(fruit) -M^C tamir (§ 52a, S). 
date-palm (Phoe)iix dactylifera, Broun, Cat. 595), s. 

AA.** sdl>en (§ 8). 
Datura stramonium. (Broun, Cat. 394), s. AiA'h'?*7C as- 

tandgir (-tan-). 
daughter, s. rt.1-: Ajf s-^et-lij (§ 8). 
dawn, s. "ip^ nfgdt (§ 8). 

^Tfl,^ atbya (-tyy-). 
dawn, v.i. mfl tdbba. 

'ip ndgga. _ 

Before the day dawns: i'^JtC-'A^nifls mdir sai- 

•o • 

day, s. +^ qan (§ 8). 

[*]A1^ (i)i^t (-lat). 

See § 52a, 8. 
Every day, adv. l^A+^ hulldqan. 
flf +V' bayyaqanu. 
hf *f»V- iyyaqanu. 
He works (will work) by the day: fl+'J-'JiA^A:: 

baqdn yisdral. 
We shall start in three days : flAA^.- ^l- K'JV^A^a 
bas^Ost qan inninnassfillan. 

o i-a o o o 

DAY— DEC 74 

Ten days ago: hf^C-'^'i'-hf!^^!-' assir qan addr- 

o ~ o 

In how many days? dtll^i^l'' basinti qan? 

Half a day : ?iVhA»;^ s +'> •- iikkuP etd qan. 

He (has) worked for half a day : i'Vl-A.;^ * ^1 •• rt<5« k 
takkul^etd qan sarra. 
day before yesterday, the, adv. i'ihT^^ : (D^^ tatindnt 

wc^dyS (§ 8). 
day-labourer, s. flA^^ balamwaya (-aia). 
deaf, adj. f^'i'kC danqwwr^'^o. 
dear, adj. (beloved, and expensive) fl>-j^ wiidd. 

This is too dear at five dollars: ^V-'(\9°h^i'(\C-- 
oh^ : ifli- :: yfhe bammisti virr wtiddi (S 7d) nau. 

Oh dear ! (surprise) : h^ « ara ! 
death, s. 'P^ m^^ot. 

death, put to, v.t. htil^ii asgaddala (-gad-). 
debt, s. M Ida. 

' o 

-flJ^C bfddir. 

"^ o o 

He is 100 dollars in debt: tm-f-.'^ii 
mat^o virr fda allabbat. 

O • O O o 

debtor, s. HA^ bdlad^ (§ 8). 

nA-nj^C balabiddir (-avf-). 
decanter, s. ^'ild'^ mabraja (-ayr-). 
deceit, s. ^T^JL^ qftfat (-fiit). 

*T<h9 qitffnna. 

?i'flA^ iblat (iyl-, -lat). 
deceive, v.t. *l»m<C qattafa. 

hdii abbala fl- ba- (va- ; S 47a). 

OO o\*o'<' / 

h^tifi attallala. 

o o 

hT^y am^^ofifia. 
He deceived me : hdH'W^ v. abbalabbin. 

75 DEC— DEF 

Mind he doesn't deceive you: ?l^■^^;^AAO« ndaiat- 

o o 

deceived, be, v. p. i'^aid. taqattafa. 
't^titi tatallala. 

o o o 

deceiver, s. ^^^m qatafi. 

December, s.v. calendar. 

decide, v.i. (in a case) ^d^^ farrada. 

decided, be, v. p. i'd,^^ tafarrada. 

decision, s. 'PCj^- fird. 

declare, v.i hfi ala (s.v. v^flA, § 44a, § 80). 

(on oath) '^A mdla (§ 80). 
decorate, v.t. htllax asor^eta. 
decorated, adj. (gen. & mil.) TlAJ'" siUim. 
decoration, s. (gen. & mil.) TiA*^-!* sillimdt (§ 8). 
decree, s. /^^^' sirit (§8). 
^H-M tfzdz (§ 8). 
decree, v.t. rt^ sdrra. 
hnn :izzaza. 

o o 

decreed, be, v.p. 'I'rt^ tasarra (tiisar). 
deep, adj. (of water) TA4» tilq (§ r,7b). 

niA.4» tdliq. 
(of a cavity) hf,^ ;iiq. 
It is deep: TA^'.-Vm-H tilq! (§ 7d) nau. 
How deep is the water? <»-'/•• TA*-* AW sifl>-« 

wiiha tilqu sfnti nau ? 
Is it too deep to ford? Aahih^fi\h^9°i'- sau aias- 
kadim? (a^as-). 
deep, be, v.i. mA*!' tdllaqa. 

It is too deep for him (it) : ^mA+'PAK yitalqaual. 
defeat, v.t. JtA.-^^^T dil addrraga. 
JtA••<w>;^ dil matta. 

DEF— DEP 76 

defeated, be, v.p. J^A.-lf* dil h'^ona. 

S:^ii'0o^ dil tamatta. 
defecate, v.i. MdifD^n (i)ddari wwtta. 
'^fi'-mm m^eda wwtta. 
defend, v.t. mfl* tabbaqa. 
defendant, s. i'h^'fi takdsds (^ 8). 
defended, be, v.p. 'hmn+ tatabbaqa. 
deficient, adj. T^^A" gwajdal'^^o. 
define, v.t. (dM wwssana. 
delay, v.i. "feP qwwyya. 

+^ qdrra (§ 42&). 
Don't delay: ^^'fe/iss attfqwwi, pi. h^Wn atti- 
qwwyyu, or h^^Ca attfqir, pi. ^^4'4-k attiqru. 
delay, v.t. ^*fef aqwwyya. 
hMd asqarra. 
deliberate, v.i. aohd makkara (-kar-). 

' o o o ^ •' 

delu (a) 3), s. <n»4»3? maqja. 

demand, v.t. h^ dla (s.v. s/flA, § 44a) with imperative of 
Am satta : 
They demanded money: 1^H'fl-'Am'>«^/V*K ganzay 
sftann dlu (or ...•• tiai^ '- hi^ :•• ... sitann dlu). 
demon, s. HC zar. 

deny, v.t. h^ dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a) with neg. coning. (§ 38). 
(disown) h^ kdda. 
He denies that he saw him (it): Mfih^^s|iAAK 

aldyyahutim yflal. 
He denied the debt (dishonestly): ?»^fl>-7 : ?f ?f 1 « 
fdaun sdssaora. 

o o o^ o 

depict, v.t. AA sdla (conjug. like AA to cough), 
deposit, s. (on trust) ^^^ dddra (-d4r- ; § 8). 
depth, s. "hCHao^ irzfmat (-miit). 
(of water) TA4» tilq. 

77 DER— DET 

derived, be, v.p. (n't wwtta. 

Dervish, s. (of the Sudan) ftCfl-Ti darbus {^- df-, -ryu-). 

descend, v.i. atdf^ w^rrada. 

descending, adj. ^4-;'' dafata. 

descent, s. (slope) ^fii*^ti^ qwulqwiilat (-lat ; § 8). 

(way down) tmOi^dA mauraja. 
describe, v.t. <w»rtA massala (type B § 35). 

I will describe him (it) : ?i<w>ft A*PAi> « imassilaual- 

lau^(§7c?, §12c). 
Describe him (her, it, them § 61&) to me : <w>ftAA^» 
massililliii (S 47ft). 

o o o o \«5 / 

description, s. 9^t\^ ^jsU- 

J^OA» missdl^e. 


desert, s. fl^'/ baraha. 

o o 

deserted, adj. *h"f ficc (§ 576). 

deserve, v.t. +7flfl>- tagdbbau (impers. § 43a). 

He deserves praise : J^ft;3T!^7fl'PAK misgdna yig- 
desire, s. 9°"^^ mfiniot. 
desire, v.t. <i.A7 fallaga. 

"ttmi tamaiiiia. 
despair, v.i. +A4-sh^ t^sfa (tas-) atta. 
desperado, s. ja*^ gaddu. 
destroy, v.t. ^% f^jj^ (faj-). 
hi^d^il afarrasa. 

o o o 

(consume) flA balla. 
destroy utterly, v.t. d.^% %jajja (faj-). 
destroyed, be, v.p. ^i^ii fdrrasa. 

-i-dX tafdjja (-faj-). 
destruction, s. *PCft firs, 
detain, v.t. ^"fef aqwwyya. 
Kft«f*^ asqarra. 

DET— DIF 78 

determine, v.i. & t. (intend) <(.+^ faqqada. 

(fix) wM wwssana. 
determined, adj. Cfth^ cakkdfi (-nil § 6 ; § 8). 
devastation, s. Ti-^ tifat (§ 8). 
devil, s. Cl^tnTr sStdn (§8). 

■^.^-n/t-ft d5'db(i)l^ds (da-, -ay(i)l- ; § 8). 
The devil take him (it)! I^As^'^n:-. gadal yfgya! 
The devil take you! 9^'i.M^Vii min abbatih? 
devoid of, prp. ^A- ydla- (§ 47a). 

f A.An^ yalJ^allabbat (-bat ; §§ 39, 47a, 62c). 
A place devoid of grass: •^CsfA.Afl^sfl'P^s sar 

yaPallabbat sifra. 
In a place devoid of grass: •^C s flA.Aft^ •• ft¥<5« •• 
sar val^allabbat sifra. 

• o o o 

devour, v.t. T^^rt gwwrrasa. 

dew, s. mM i/ezsi. 

dewlap, s. ^^p dalga. 

diamond, s. h^lh almas (§ 8). 

diaphragm, s. hcn-d'^n^ irgibgfbat (-iygfydt ; § 8). 

diarrhoea, s. ^H'i qizan. 

^^'^T tiqmat (§ 8). 
diarrhoea, have, v.i. *l*Hi qdzzana. 
diarrhoea, cause, v.i. (in, v.t.) /lA+HV asqazzana. 
die, v.i. 'P't m^ota. 

What did he fit) die of ? a9"'i:'P't"^ bamfnm^ota? 
differ, v.i. +Af taldyya. 
difference, s. <w>Af ^ mallayat. 
different, adj. AP hyyu. 
A.A lela. 

This is different from that: jbVi^^:'iah.y9^'.fii^s 
Va>-K yfhe liyyu nau yam liyyu nau. 

79 DIF— DIR 

difficult, adj. *P''}4» cinq. 
'^'hC cfggur. 
This is difficult to climb: /iU--<wi(»-^i5:^7-C--i(D-:: 

yihe (§ 555) mautdtu ciggiir (§ 8) nau. 
Amharic is difficult to learn: Ai'^C? •• K/Z.^'H jP" « 
amarfnna aiyydzim (§ 63c). 
difficulties, be in, v.i. '^^7^0^ caggarau (gar-; impers. 

difficulty, s. (distress) ^-^C cfggdr (§8). 
dig (up), v.i. & t. *fe<C<i qwo^ffara (far-). 
t^'^ kwdta. 


dignified, adj. hOj^ kabbdd (§ 8). 

dik-dik {Madoqna Saltiana and Nanotragus Hemp- 

richianus), s. 9^f\^ middqqwa. 
diligence, s. ^p^ tfgdt (§ 8). 
diligent, adj. ^"h tfgu. 
diligent, be, v.i. "Irp tagga. 

dflu (J^), s. in»4»3^* m^(jja. 
Binder, s. hf,*l ;iima. 
dinner, s. ?i^'> irdt. 


Is dinner ready? ?i^^s'hrt'i'j^;tAK irdt tasanddi- 

tSal? (-ndrt- § 7^/). 
Put it on the table and let it wait: *l'Cn:^'feji:: 

qdry^'o yfqwwi (-y^^oiq-). 
direction, s. (dH wagan (wwg-). 

He went in this direction: nH,U!fliT>:rh.e:: bazzfh 

/ » o o 

wwgan hadii; or flJUU-'flVhA-'rh.^:: bazzih yak- 
kul hada, (s.v. ^ihA). 
dirt, s. (-y, adj. § 3lh) Ji^'P id(i)f. 
dirty, be, v.i. h^d. addafa (§ 63r/, e). 
It is dirty : hf^^ k addafa. 
It will get dirty : ^Jt4-A « yadfal. 

DIS— DIS 80 

disappear, v.i. JiAJ^s^A illimm dla (s.v. Jdti, § 44a). 

HA4» zdllaqa (q.v.). 
disappearance, s. T4-^ tffat (§ 8). 
disbelief, interj. expressing, hdl drag ! (aradg ! § 7d). 
disclose, v.t. lAm gdllata (gal-). 

Do not disclose it: h^ltimahv. attlglatau, pol. 
hf^ltiai'^i'. diglatut, pi. AiMAm-^K attiglatut. 
disclosed, be, v.p. i"lii(n tagallata (-gal-). 
discomfort, cause, v.i. tl^^'-hti sfqiqq dla (s.v. VflA, 

§ 4:4a). 
*fe<i*fe^ qwojrdqqwwra. 
He (it) causes us discomfort : ^'hd'^d^^ a yiqww- 
discourteous, adj. flAl balag-^e (-lag-). 
discover, v.t. 7Am gallata (gal-). 
discovered, be, v.p. i'liitn tagdllata (-gal-), 
disease, s. dti^ basita. 

A*B daw^e (ddu^^e). 
He (it) has a disease of the lungs : ^y"n<D•'}!;^^AK 
sambaun (§ 52a y, § 56c) tdmmSSl. 
disgrace, s. h^^^ if rat (-rat). 
disgusting, adj. 3^^¥ sdyyaf (m- td- ; § 8). 
dish, s. iidi'i sdhan (§ 8). 
dish-cloth, s. <niT^T.^ matrdgya. 
dishonest, adj. ^^A» qatafi. 
dishonesty, s. ^'T^C^ q^tfat (-fat). 
4»T¥9" qitffnna. 
^-flA^ iblat (iyl-, -lat). 
dislike, v.t. mA tdlla. 
dislocated, be, v.i. fliA* wdllaqa (wwl-). 

My ankle is dislocated: Yil&i tD^^^v. |gr^e wwl- 

81 DIS— DIS 

dislocation, s. fl^A4» wulq. 

dismiss, v.t. ^rt'i'ni' assanabbata (-bat-). 

dismissal, s. tllil^ sinfbbit. 


dismissed, be, v.p. i'rtVfli' tasauabbata (tasan-, -bat-). 
disobedience, s. hao*? amat. 

' o • 

disobedient, adj. haoai'i amataiiiia (-tan-). 
disobey, v.i. & t. haoai ammata H- ba- (ya- ; § 47rt). 
Are you going (do you mean) to disobey me? 
A;M^T'n^ ! -gg^ ... littammitibbf 11 nau ? 

O O'O o o 

You are disobeying me : ;^i'"T'fl*'f AU :•• tammitib- 


disperse, v.i. (be dispersed, v.p.) i'fl'f'V tabattana (tayd , 
The crowd (was) dispersed: rhli-fl •• i'fli'i •.: hfziy 

o • o 

disperse, v.t. fl'^V battana (battiin-). 
disposition, s. (arrangement) /*'^1" sfrdt (§ 8). 

(character) fl/h<i bahri (bhdri § 7d). 
dispute, s. YlCtlC kirfkkir. 

jr ' o o o 

ai»«*7l* mu<»irit. 
dispute, v.i. -I'h^h^i takarakkara (-karakkiir-). 
dissolve, v.i. (dissolved, be. v.p.) ^^ mwammwa. 
distance, s. [?i]C+1' rfqat (frq-). 

What is the distance? C+^:.•?"'>.•^UA.•Vfl^:: rfqatu 
min yahl nau ? 

o »' o 

distant, adj. [?i]<-^ (|)ruq. 
distant, be, v.i. [?i]^*l» (i)raqa. 
distinguish, v.t. Af layyii. 
distinguished, be, v.p. i'ti? taldyyii. 
distress, s. (grief) hn'} dzan. 

(misfortune) "^jjC ciggdr (§ 8). 

AM. GR. (ll) 6 

DIS— DO 82 

distress, be in, v.i. ^IdOh caggarau (gar- ; impers. § 43a; 

distressed, be, v.i. & p. hH^i azzana. 
distribute, v.t. hUd^ti akkaffala. 

, o o 

distributed, be, v.p. 'thd^ti takafFala. 

' ' X^ o o o o 

district, s. (gen.) hlC agar (-gar). 

(administrative) 1H^ gfzS-t (§ 8). 
disturb, v.t. h'lWai annauwata (-wwt-). 
disturbance, s. V<»-T nawiit (naut). 

A disturbance occurred: ifl>«T!f'V*^K naut ta- 

o • o 

He raised a disturbance : 'lah^fshzdln naut adar- 

•^ o • o 

disturbed, be, v.p. i^'i'flim tanauwata (-wwt-). 

ditch, s. fl^ b^Si. 

7-j^fl giidba (-dya). 
odIiT masn^o. 


d^flti fasas. 

o o 

dive, v.i. mA^ tallaqa. 

divide, v.i. (be divided, v.p.) 'thd^ii takaffala. 

divide, v.t. h<J.A kaffala. 

Divide it into three parts: hiCAaMfl^ft^K kffa- 
lau vas^ost. 

o ■ o 

division, s. (act of) ew^lA*^ makfal. 

(part) »l¥A kmi. 
divorce, s. *b^ ficc. 
divorce, v.t. <i.;^ fatta. 
divorced, be, v.p. 'td,:^'^ tafdttac (-cc § 6). 
do, v.t. hfidl adarrao^a. 

What are you doing? 5^"}:;^^C^AUK min tadar- 
gdllilh?, pi. -pfi'l'O'i' -gallaccyuh? 

83 DOC— DON 

Don't do so: h;^/tC*7« attadrig, pi. -Chs -rigu. 
Don't do anything to him (it): i^'}J^.•^^;^JtC^A^K 
mfnimm attadrio^illat, pi. -Cbti^a -rigullat. 

o o o~o o -^ 0~ O 

That will do : ^fl;^ A :•. yiyaqal. 

This is done with, isn't it? J&U.-^A*:h^^AK yih 

dlq^o (§ 656) didal (§7f/)? 
It is done with: ^'fl4»:f:A« dyqitoal, or hA^i^A:: 

(emphasizing a verb) [?i]lfi (i)kk''6 (tik-), usually 
enclitic : 
Do wait : *fe^Vi k qwwikk'' 6. 
doctor, s. Utu9" hakim {-im ; hakf m § 8). 

(Miaoj^'^Y^^ balamadhdn^it (-dahnit § 7d). 
(Dift wwg-^essa (Gall.), 
dog, s. (D'fi wtissa (''lis-). 

Wild dog (Lycaoti ^>/c^?^5) : -J'W-A tdkwiila (§ 52«, 8). 
dog, interj. to call a, fl-^sfl'-Tf' biicci yucc! 
dollar, s. -flC birr (§ 8, § 52a, 8). 

One dollar: Mf^'-'HC-- andi virr. 
Two dollars: U-A'*l*s'flC: hulatti virr. 

o • o 

Ten dollars: h^'C'-'HC'- assfr virr. 

o • o 

How many dollars? A'>^-"flCs sinti virr? 

•/ o o • o 

dom (>^J, bifurcating palm), s. '^^C cffdr (§ 8, § 52a, 8). 

done, be, v. p. i"^<i7 tadarraga. 
donkey, s. h\}^ ahiy(y)a. 

don't — rendered by substituting M- att(i)- for the 
initial ^- y(i)- of the jussive (§ 27) : 

Let him go: ^rlujt« y^^\^> pk -^'' -du. 

Don't go: h^tK^v^ attihid, pi. -S-« -du. 

Let him come : f,T*"\ » yimta, pi. -nv s -tu. 

Don't come: ^^^^s: attfmta, pi. -fli«« -tu. 


DOO— DOW 84 

Let him do it : f^ClOh k yddrigau (yargau § 7d), 

pi. -'b^v. -gut. ^ 

Don't do it: ^i;^^C^a^•K attadrigau (attdrgau), 
pi. -"h^:: -gut. 
door, s. ao'YlX^ mazgya (mS,z-). 
fil^ sanqa. 

^E- dajj (dajj). _ _ 

Shut the door: fi'i^Oh'i'.'llpahi: sdnqaun zfgau. 
He is not to leave the door open: ao'UX^ah'is 

h¥^s^^i'fl>-5: mazgyaun kift aitau. 
Open the door for him : Yid^^ii^n kifatillat. 
door-keeper, s. fl^? barranna (-ran-). 

h^hje. kalkai {-dyy § 6 ; § 8). 
doorway, s. ffA^ ddjjdf (§ 8). 
double, adj. l^A^ hiilatt (-latt). 

(of consonant in pronunciation) T'fl4* tibq 


doubt, v.i. & t. aidmiH tarattara (tarattara). 

doubted, be, v.p. i"fli<im^ tatarattara (-tarattara). 

doubtful, adj. (D'^af*^ wuliwwul. 

doubtless (no doubt), adv. 'h'i\\'i nkwan. 

dough, s. fl'lf biih^o. 

dove, s. (domestic) [?i]C*7'fl rfgib (frg-, -iy). 

(wild) *PA^ walya. 
down, adv. (below) j**^ tac. 

n;!-^ batac (§ 8). 
They are down there: hH,^ •• fl;^^ •• Wfl^ b kazzyd 
vatdc ndccau. 

• o o 

down, s. (rising ground) ">^ g^'dra. 
down, come (go), v.i. ai<C^ wcJrrada. 

He has gone down: cdCJ^Ak wwrd5al. 

85 DOW— DRI 

The price will come down : *P^ •• JiAA A :•• wdga yi- 
downhill, adv. 4»^A«I>^A^ qwtilqwtilat (-lat ; § 8). 
down-stream, adv. i^Ct^ farasaiina (-saii-). 
downwards, adv. ^M^^ qwtilqwiil. 

flJft;^^ wcodatdc (§ 8). 
doze, v.i. M^^^ anqaLafFa. 
draw, v.i. & t. (pull) Ofl sdba (sdya). 

(portray) ^A sdla (conjug. like ^A to 
<w>rtA massala (type B, § 35). 
(water) *f*^ qadda. 
drawer, s. (of table, desk, etc.) f\*^l sdtin. 
drawers, s. (garment) fr^ siirri. 

(woman's) AflAfl libbalba (-lya). 
drawing, s. (picture) ftA ^sil. 
drawn, be, v.p. (pulled) 'I'^fl tasdba (tils-, -dya). 

(of water) ^r^^x taqadda. 
dream, s. ZhAjr' hilm (?iAi^ ilm). 
drench, v.t. ^nAfli) abasabbasa (ava-). 
drenched, be (get), v.p. Art Art basabbasa. 
dress, s. A-flA libs (liys). 
dress, v.t. ^lAHA alabbasa. 

o o o 

dress (another) well, v.t. ^ifilm asg-^eta. 

dress (oneself, be (get) dressed), v.i. AHA labbasa. 

Wait till I'm dressed: *feji •• hA'll'A'flA « qwwyy isti- 

o • 

dress (oneself) well, v.i. Y\%(^ ag^eta. 

drill, s. (mil.) AA<P salf (salf ). 

drill, v.i. (be drilled, v.p.) +rtA<<. tasallafa (tasal-). 

drill, v.t. h(iti&. assallafa (sal). 

DRI— DRO 86 

drink, s. (something to) <nimT matat (-att § 6). 

Are the drinks in the water-jar? <wJrtirn^:i-^ft<5.: 
hdr :: matatt^oc tansira allu ? 

o • o • • o o 

drink, v.i. & t. m^ tatta. 

When did he (it) drink? ao^'mm^ mac^e tatta? 
drink, give to, v.t. hm^ atatta. 

(infants) pi" gdta. 
drinking-place, s. <w»m<^ matacca. 
drip, v.i. Vmfl ndttaba (nat-, -aya). 
drive, v.i. & t. V-^ nadda. 

Let him drive the mules: n4'A"^ sJi'J'^ « baql^oc 
drive away (out), v.t. ho)^ awwtta (auw-). 
driven, be, v.p. i'^H tanadda. 
drop, s. (liquid) VT-fl natib (-iy). 

One drop is enough : K^J^ •• VT-fl •• J^fl^As and natiy 
drop, v.i. (be dropped, v.p.) iDft*l* wwddaqa. 

i^m^ tatdla. 
drop, v.t. "I A tala. 

drop off (down), v.i. •^'flshA dubb dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
(of more than one person or obj ect) 
^-fl : ^-fl ! h^ dubbidiibb dla (s.v. 
VHA, § 44a). 
drown, v.i. (be drowned, v.p.) flio-ysT't' bawiiha (bauha) 



fl^y:^iTA*^:*^*'^ wtiha a 

tilq^ot m'^ota. 

•o -1 o 

drown, v.t. haxti^ atallaqa. 

Drown it : hT^^Ohn atilqau. 
drowsiness, s. ?i'>*A<P (Oiiqilf (§ 7d, § 8). 

87 DRU— DUR 

drum, s. h(\G kabar^o (kav-, -ar-). 
(big) *ip£,^ nagarit. 
Beat the drum : hfl(^sJ^;^K kavar'^o mlta. 

o • o o 

drunk, be, v.p. 'hm^'l tatatta. 

drunk (intoxicated), be, v.i. rth<i sakkara (-kar-). 

drunkard, s. rt*lC sakkdr (§ 8). 

drunkenness, s. fthC sikar (§ 8). 

dry, adj. ^^^^ daraq. 

(of climate) JE^C4» dirq (§ 576). 
(of weather) "ll^ bfrra ( „ ). 
Dry season : fl^ baga [Jan. Feb. & Mar.], 
dry, v.i. ^^'f' darraqa. 

Let it dry: ^Jt^^^"* yfdraq, pi. -*•.*. -qu. 
dry, v.t. hf^O^ adarracja. 

Dry it: ^J^C+ahk adruiau, pi. -*^:: -qut. 
dry, spread out to, v.t. hrt"! asatta. 

Spread it out to dry: ^lft^fl^:: tistau, pi. -nv-^a 
dry up, v.i. (weather, ground after rain) aii^^-'Yxh 
tafaflf dla (s.v. VflA, S 44a). 
When it dries up: ni<{.*h!rt.A«* tafaffi (§ 7rZ) sil. 
dryness, s. J^C4» dirq. 
duck, s. S. -HP. ziyye (§ 52a, S). 

G. h^'>1- kayint (§ 52a, 8). 
dug (up), be, v.p. i'i^d.^ taqwwfFara (far-). 
+V>,'i' takwata. 

O O 

duiker (Cephalophits abessmicns), s. 9°^^ midaqqwa. 
dumb, adj. ^^ dfida. 
during, prp. fl- ba- (§ 47a). 

h- ka- ( „ ). 

-^ ta- ( „ ). 

P- [n-]. . . : ^H. ya- (ba-) . . . giz^'e (§ 476). 

DUS— EAC 88 

During the rains: fWld^^- bakirdmt (§ 8). 
During the night : i'A.A.^s talyelit. 
During breakfast: flfl-'Js'feCfts'l.H.-' bayiinn qurs 
dust, s. (raised by wind) hV^ awdrra. 

(minute, accumulated) "htU^ tibbya. 
duster, s. aoT/il,^ matragj^a. 
dwarf, s. J^r'JVl dink, 
dye, s. +A9° qalam. 

The dye will not come out: +A1^!^J&A^9"« qalam 
dye, v.t. ^lioD qallama. 
dyed, be, v.p. 't^iioD taqallama. 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar {Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

each, dist. pron. ?if- ...-u, iyya- ... -u (§ 18) ; -u may be 
replaced by the pers. suff. (§ 126), 
and after numerals is dropped. 
ht^Trf!: andand (§ 18, § 8). 
See § 83a. 
Give them a dollar each: M^'Jjt.-nC.ft'ni^iD-K 

anddndi (S 7d) virr sitdccau. 
Give a little to each of the horses: ?if<(.^fr:T*fe1'» 

Amfl^K iyyafarasu tiqit sftau. 
Put some in each box: nf^TV"*^iJtC*7s bayya- 

sdtinu arg (§ 7d). 
Pay each man himself: Yi^'i'l-OhiM^fi^iD'a kifa- 
idccau layyarasdccau. 

89 EAC— EAR 

They are (cost) half a dollar each: nVhA!?iYl«As 

"flC: Wfl>-» bakkul ukkiil (§ 8) yirr ndccau. 
Ten at half a "dollar each: Ai/^C.-nfVhA.-KVbA: 

•flC ! assir yayyakkul iikkiil virr. 
Ten at one doHar each: h/^C : n^'J^'^j?: : -nc : assir 

yayyandandi yirr. 
Ten at two dollars each: h^C^.a^O'^^•'nC: assir 

yayyahulatti yirr. 
Two at ten dollars each: u-A-lh : n^i^C : -flC : hiilatt 

vayyassfr virr. 

. o»' >/ o • o 

each other, reciprocal pron. hCfi - flCft- frsa [KCft •* irs] 
bars- (va-, -iirs-, § 19) with the plural pers. sufF. 

They bite each other : JiCrt • nc^T fl>- •- p^Mt)r « Irsa 
varsdccau yinnakkasallu. 

• O *' O o 

eager, be, v.i. (for, v.t.) i"^*^ tasamnia (tas). 
eagle, s. AiT*^ am" ora. 
ear, s. '^-G j^^or'^o (§ 52a, y). 
early, adv. rp,^ twdt. 

'n^i^ malada (§ 8). 
n'^A^ bamdlada (§ 8). 
If we start early we shall reach it : *^ A^ - 'fl^rh.Jt •• 
?l'}^Cftn;^A'} !•• mdlada vinnihad, innidarsibba- 
early, rise (do anything), v.i. *^Aft mdllada. 
Come early: <^AftU !«?:•. maldah na (§ 8). 
I shall start early: <^AJ^s?»**^A'>^k mdlijj^e in- 

nassdllau^ (§ "id). 
He is to go early: *^AA^!j&rluJt« mdld^o yihid. 
earn, v.t. hi'dd, atarrafa (-tar-). 

' o o o \ z 

earring, s. 7*1"^ gwuticca (§ 52a, 8). 

EAR— EDI 90 

earth, s. (soil) <w»^^ market (§ 8). 
(loose) h^C afar (-far). 
(world) 'i^9° dlam. 
What on earth is it? {^^••<wi^fi:ifl>-s min masai 

^— V o o o 

earthenware, s. ffhA sakla (sak-). 
earthquake, s. <w»i^i4» mannaqdnaq. 

An earthquake occurred: J^^Csf'V^i+K mdir ta- 
ear-wax, s. Ml kukk. 
ease, s. "hCdJV frfat (-fat). 
east, s. J^/*'^* misraq (§ 8). 
Easter, s. ^I'Hh, tinsai. 

» o o 

A'iiM fdsika. 
easy, adj. 9"^ miccu. 

4*7 qin. 
eat, v.i. & t. HA balla. 

Something to eat : <n>'fl A • mavil. 
Give him (it) something to eat: Ai'flAflJ- k dylau, 
pi. -A-^K -lut. 
eat greedily, v.t. T^^lrt gwwrrasa. 
eaten, be, v.p. 'MIA taballa (taya-). 
ebony {Dalbergia melanoxylon, Broun, Cat. 158), s. 

nn, z^obbi. 
economise, v.i. <kmn qwwttaba (-ay a). 
eddy, s. h^d azwdri. 
edge, s. "SC dar. 

S^rac dimbar (-bar). 
«^*P caf 

(of plateau, of precipice) Y\A-^ dfaf (§ 8). 
edible, adj. f'TinA yiimmibballa (§ 14, § 63c). 

Is it edible? Aiwi'flAs^^flAK lamdyil yirayal ? 

91 EDU— EIT 

educate, v.t. M^l asacldaga. 

egg, s. ?i^4»^AA (i)nqwdlal {§ 8, § 52a, S). 

Boiled eggs : 4'4'A •• ?t^4»^A A •• qjqqil inqwulal. 

Fried eggs : T-flA : 'h'Tr^'i^ •• tiys inqwiilal. 

Poached eggs: ^A4»C^^ : f l-'I'+A : ?t'}*f»^A A « yala- 
qfrfit yataqaqqala nqwtilal. 
eggshell, s. f ^4>^A A '• 4*C¥^ yilnqwuldl qirfit. 
Egypt, s. 9^ilC mfssir. 

Egyptian, adj. f 5^ftC yamfssir (s.v. P-, § 47«, § 70). 
Egyptian, s. f9"AC••rtfl^ yiimissfr (§ 8) sau, 
eh? interj. ( = Avhat did you say?) V^Trth^Vi'. min alh? 
(after a phrase) -fliji -wai ? (-wwi ; -o^ -wi ; § G, 

§ 8)- " 
-K-S? (§6, §8). 
This is finished (done with), eh? je,U!f«A*:,eAfli/8,:: 

yih alq'^'o yjilltiuwi ? 
He wants money, eh? linilif^d.^p/ir^'.'. gdnzay 


*' o o oO o 

You'll tell me if you go, eh? '(\^ih.f:^^^^^M^^ 
bitthad tiliinnallahd ? 

o o 

eight, card. num. (19^1^ sfmmint. 

eighteen, card. num. h/^^ '• tl9**'i^ asrd sfmmint. 

O ' 

eighty, card. num. ii^^'i^ samanya. 
either ... or, conj. flij& ••...•• (D^ wai . . . wdi (ww'i . . . wwi). 
aij&lT'! . . . :flije,jr» wdlm (mm § 6) . . . 

waim (-mm) [wwim (-mm) wwim 

Either pay the money or return the goods: tDf,'' 
I'inOrlfsYliLtiahnD^i'h^ah'i'.aD^tli'. wSi ganza- 

• o ~o o 

vun kffalau wwi fqaun mallis. 

ELA— EMP 92 

elastic, be (become), v.i. T-l'^sJiA gwiitatt dla (s.v. 

VOA, § 44a). 
Is it elastic? T-h^.-j&AAK gwiitatt yflal ? 
elbow, s. YlCi kirn (§ 52a, y). 

elephant (Elephas afrkanus), s. HlfJ zoh^on (H- za-). 
Meusine multiflora (Guidi, Vocab. p. 624), s. H"}^^ zaii- 

gSda (§ 8). 
Eleiisine tocusso (ib. p. 691), s. ^"hfi dagussa. 
eleven, card. num. h^^^itht^ asrahand. 
ember, s. 99^ fim. 
embrace, v.t. Md. aqqafa. 

h^fiaom aqqwojlammata. 
embroider, v.t. mA<i. tallafa. 
embroidered, adj. (-ery, s., cp. § 57b) TA^ tilf. 
embroidered, be, v.p. i'miid, tatallafa. 

' ' ir o • o o o 

emerge, v.i. fl)^ wwtta, from, h- ka- (f*- ta- ; § 47a). 
emperor, s. iT-w-'il^^^ iij^usa (§ 9f7) nagast (§ 8) ; abbr. 
'J7-/*' nfgus (§8); spoken of and addressed as 
^'}ir^ janh^'Si (§ 8 ; § 536) ; also spoken of as 
^fll. at^e with his name. 
The Emperor Menilek: ^ifll.:1^5:A»J: dUe minilfk. 
A foreigner of high rank may address him thus 
byname: hm.:5'"3:AVl:: aUe minilfk. 
Present me to the Emperor (pol.) : i't'h/**-' 

^1'i'f ^K tanigiis yaggandfinuii. 
What does the Emperor say? :^'}lfje,:r'J:pAA-K 
lanh^^oi min yilallu? 
employ, v.t. hii^ assarra. 
employment, s. i'*7flC tagbar (-gya-; § 8). 

Out of employment: i'ldd-d,^-- tagyara (§ 96?) 

o , 

empress, s. hi;"! (i)t^eg"'e. 

93 EMP— ENG 

empty, adj. fl^ bdd^o. 
enamelled ware, s. ^i.U tanika. 
encamp, v.i. fld^d saffara (-far-). 

When we get out of the trees we will encamp: 
'l'HV^.ll'i(Dm'^h'ifl9/i^^'i'.l tazaf (§ 52«, 8) sinn- 
wojta innsafrallan. 

o o 

encampment, s. rt<CC safar (-far). 
enceinte, adj. ChU rfgiiz (§ 8). 

hd-H frgiiz (§ 8). 
enclosure, s. (for cattle) (\d^ barat (barat). 
end, s. (completion) aDSEL^fi macarrasa (-car-). 

(conclusion) *^A*fe^ malaqya. 

(extremity) ^C dar. 
end, v.i. ^iA4' jillacja. 
end, v.t. £CL^A cdrrasa (car-), 
endure, v.t. ,^A cdla. 


enemy, s. (personal) mA^ taldt (§ 8). 

(in war) mfl^ tabaiiiia (tayafi- ; § 52a, 8). 
engage, v.t. ^md (jattara (-tar-). 

(for another) h^nxd aqqattara (tara). 
I (will) engage you: ?i*f*T^yAii' » hiatriihallau''. 
Engage a servant for me: A*'A.:+T^i;:^*7flA^:: 
r^Ol^e qatnih agyallin. 
engaged, be, v.p. i'+m^ taqdttara (-tiir-). 

How much is he (can he be § 63c) engaged at? 

(iill^ ■• fc+m^A :•• basint yiqqattiiral ? 
How much are (were) you engaged at? flA'J^s 
i'+T/iyAK basfnt taqatriihal? 

O O O Ao • 

engineer, s. <w>ii'}j^A mahandis. 

England, s. Vtlli/n'-hlC yiingliz agar (-gar ; s.v. f-, § 70). 
KiX^'ni^ (i)ngiltarra. 

ENG— ENT 94 

It is made in England: -t'i'lli/li'hlC-^ti^^a tan- 
gliz dgar yibbajjal. 
English, adj. f 'J*7A.'H yangllz (§ 8 ; s.v. f-, § 47a, § 70). 
Englishman, s. hllii/n (l)ngliz (§ 8). 
engrave, v.t. (portray) ^A sdla (conjug. like ^A to cough), 
engraving, s. AA sil. 
enjoy, v.t. h*ndah amdrau (impers. § 43« ; § 6Sd, e). 

I (shall) enjoy eating this: ^V'0D'n^'.^9°d.^^ti 
yihe mavil y^mrannal. 
enlarge, v.t. (increase) GS^tm^ cammara (-mar-). 

(widen) ^rt4« asalFa. 
enlarged, be, v.p. (increased) +6Ei.<w»^ tacammara (-mar-). 

(widened) A4- safifa. 
enough, adj. & adv. f^fl:^ yammibaqa (h*^- (i)mmi- 

S 14 ; -iva-). 
enough, adv. — often omitted : 

This (that) is not strong enough: ^U-"flC'tJ^! 
?»feA^AK vfhe virtiimm aidal. 
enough, be, v.i. fl^ baqqa (baq-). 

That is enough: ^li!^n.^AK ylhe yiyaqal. 

The fence is not high enough: ^T^- s hCTf rmi^ •• 

h^(\^9°a dtiru (S 555) irzfmatu aivaqam. 
Is it enough for you? Jiflj^yA:-. yiyaqahal?, pol. 
J&n^F^AK yiydqa^l?, (. . . you, pi.) ^S-nj^^AA-.: 
yiyaqdccyuhal ? (§ 7d). 
enough, have, v.i. (of food, etc.) mlfl taggaba (aya). 
I have had enough: m*7'fl^Au-:: tagibbyallau'\ 
enquire, v.i. & t. mf*l* tayyacja (-yaq-). 
enter, v.i. & t. 7fl g^bba h- [i*-] ka- (ta- ; § 47a). 
enter, cause or allow to, v.t. hftlfl asgabba. 


95 ENT— ESC 

entrails, s. Iff^ •• h^ h'^^Odiqa. 

d.Ch fars (fars). 
entrance, s. (way in) emld,^ magbya (-gyy-). 
envelope, s. h9°(i/t"\l ambol^'ok. 
envelope, v.t. ^H ydza (§ 44c). 
m*Ptili taqallala. 

• o ^o o o 

enveloped, be, v.p. +^H taydza (taia). 
"i'm^'tiii tataciallala. 

0*0^0 o o 

envious, adj. *f*Vi'? qannatanna (-tan-). 

environs, s. H*C^ ziirya. 

envoy, s. /wjAyii'*^ malaktaiina (-Ah- -lik-, -tan-). 

envy, s. ^'t^ qindt (^^ 8). 

epiglottis, s. Wi^C jinqtir (§ 8). 

epilepsy, s. •*h*7<5^ tigrida. 

equal, adj. 'I'hVlA tikikkil. 

equal, v.i. ^ihA ;ikkala. 

equal, be, v.i. +hhA takakkala. 

equalize, v.t. ^ft'^^lhA astakakkala. 

•■■ o o o 

equerry, s. (iA'c^'^ll liciamakwds (liq-, -qum-, -kds). 
Eragrostis abessinica (Scbweinfurth), s. fli'h t^ef. 
err, v.i. fii* sdta. 


error, s. ftl*^ sftat (-tat). 

Erijthrina tomentosa (Broun, Cat. 147), s. ^^ qwdra. 

S. tic?- k- ore. 

D. IfCl- h^^orc. 
escape, v.i. mi- tdffa. 

If a prisoner escapes you will be punished : htld^s 

fl,m4--' ^^'HAU :: asrdnna vitdfa tinqattdllah. 

O ••O oAAo'- 

escape, allow to, v.t. hliat^ aswwtta. 

escape from, v.t. (a person) im4* nattaqa (nat-). 

(a place) toil ■• h- wwtta ka- (i*- ta- ; 
§ 47a). 

ESC— EVE 96 

escort, s. ?f ^;^ sannltta (san-). 

escort, v.t. ?fT sailna (sail-). 

escorted, be, v.p. i^ff T tasanna (tasan-). 

Ethiopic, adj. & s. •7^11 giiz. 

euphorbia {E. ahessinica, Broun, Cat. 508), s. *I»^A$A 

qwiilqwal (§8). 
European, s. ^^if: faranj (faranj ; § 8). 
even, adj. ■^VllnA tikfkkil. 

' " o o o 

even, adv. ^*7T* dagm^o (dag-). 
fX damm^o (dam-). 
-9" -m*'(-mm § 6 ; §§ 48&, 37e). 
Fly? Why, they can't even stand up! "KV^^ 
aD'(\dCih^'iu>*9°i- nkwdn mavrar ainnassum! 

•^ ^ o * o o o 

even, be, v.i. i'hhA takakkala. 

' ' o o o , 

even, make, v.t. hhi'hhti astakakkala. 

^ o o o 

evening, s. '^^ mdta. 

Towards evening : atf!^'^^ s wwdamdta. 
Good evening! (on meeting) hl^^'- hero's Vn nd^'et 
amassah?, pol. -Tf-K -su?, pi. -'^f^l^K -sdccyuh? 
(§ 7d) ; (on leaving, dismissing, etc., = good-night, 
s.v. night), 
evening, become, v.i. aoTi massa. 
evening, pass the, v.i. heroTi amassa. 
ever, adv. (see always) — h-f- katt^o (s.v. il-fi') with neg. 

9^19^ •M'l'- minimm bih'^dn 

o o 

(bi- ; § 8) with neg. verb (§ 38). 
What ever is it? ?"'> •• rwi/ift : Van :•• min masdi nau? 

* o o o. o 

every, adj. ^^A- hull- with pers. suff. (§ 12h, § 16). 

?if-...-u iyyii-... -u (§ 18); -u may be re- 
placed by the pers. suff. (§ 126), and after 
numerals is dropped. 
s.v. all, each. 

97 EVE— EXC 

everything, pron. ihA-?" hiillum (-mm § 6 ; § 16). 
evidence, s. 9°MlC mislkkir. 

' o o o 

If you have any evidence, give it; ^MlC-'h'i^liVi 
tianD'i' misikkir indallah, sitau. 

o o o o ' o> O 

evidence, give, v.i. aDC^hd masdkkara (-kar-), for, A- la-, 

against, fl- ba-, (§ 47a). 
evident, adj. hai,^ fwuq (f'^uq). 

^f*^ ti(y)iyyu. 
evident, be, v.i. ;^ID*^ tauvvaqa (-wwq-). 
;^f tayyit. 
It is evident to us : /i;^f 'I'A » yittdyyannal. 
evil, adj. hf^ kffu (kiifu, kdfu § 7d). 
evil, s. yi^-l- k|kt (kdf-, kdf- ; § 8). 
ewe, s. fl*7 bag. 

exact, adj. (ly, adv.) fl^h bdlikk {§ 8). 
exalted, adj. hfhC kfbur (-iyu), 
examine, v.t. Aif ayyii. 

aodtm^ mardmmara (mardmmara). 
examined, be, v.p. ;I"P tdyyii. 

i'tro^aod tamardramara (mardmma- 

o o o o o ^ o 

excavate, v.t. *fe^/i qwwffara (-far-). 
\\i' kwdta. 


excavated, be, v.p. i^^d.^ taqwoJffara (-far-). 
i'\\'i' takwdta. 

o o 

exceed, v.t. flAm bdllata h- ka- ('t- ta- ; S 47a). 
excellent, adj. ^^CT mirt. 

aDfiih9^ mdlkdm pi. also 0ofiihh9^ malka- 

kdm (§ 8). 
T<- tiiru. 
J^T-^* dinq. 
It is excellent : hfc7^J^ » ais^orannim. 

* o~o o o 

AM. GR. (ll) 7 

EXC— EXE 98 

except, prp. h- . . . •• fl+C ka- (i"- ta-). . . baqar (ya- ; § 47 ft). 

rt«4»C siqar (siq- ; s.v. 4»^ § 42& ; follows its 


All except so-and-so: '^^A»!n*l*C!|^A•! tao^alJ'e vd- 

qar hiillu, or ?l',*l'C••l^A••• igal^e siqar hiillu. 

Take out all the furniture except the table : 

h^fl;^a^ •• fl+C : v-i^'i •• h^ ihahmahn kaffavatau va- 

oO o • o • o 

qar hullun fqa autau. 
Let them all go except one: hl^-'Aah'-MCi 
ihA'sftrh.-'J-H and sau siqar hiillu yfhidu. 
exchange, s. A(D-T laut. 

exchange, v.t. tiatm lauwata, for, fl- ba- (ya- ; § 47a). 
Exchange it: i\ahmahv, lauwutau, pi. -m-^K -tut. 
Will he exchange the horse for a mule? d^dth"}: 
flfl4»A":ftAii>-^AK farasun bavaql'^o yilauwiital? 

r- OO O'O-"^ ''OO • 

exchanored, be, v.p. i'tiiom talauwata, for, fl- ba- (va- ; 

O' 'IT OO o"o ' o^'o' 

§ 47a). 
Can the mule be exchanged for a horse? fl4»A"<»-s 
fl<i.<iA!fcAfl)^AK baql'^ou vafaras yillauwatal? 

•^ o-*^ •OOO*'0o O" 

excommunicate, v.t. ^H'^ gazzata. 

' ~ O o o 

excommunicated, be, v.p. '^^H'^ ta^azzata. 

' ' r^ o~ o o o 

excommunication, s. IH^ gfzzit. 
excrement, s. (animal) i-l^^ fandiyya. 

(human) hC ar. 
excuse, s. (reason) f^W^^ mlknyat (§ 8). 
excuse, v.t. J&4»C * AiA : A- yiqir dla (s.v. n/AA, § 44a) la- 
Excuse me: (pol.) J&4*Cs^flA'A^K yfqir yfyalullifi. 
execute, v.t. (put to death) fJifSi dabaddaba (daydd- 
dava, -vad-). 

99 EXE— EXT 

executed, be, v.p. '^^fl^fl tadabaddaba (avaddava, 

executed, cause or allow to be, v.t. ^ift^fl^fl asdabad- 

". o o 

daba (-avaddava, -vad-). 

O O^O'O O'O • ' 

executioner, s. ^•fl-^fl. dabdabi (dayddyi). 
exhaust, v.t. (tire) h^hoD adakkama. 
exist, v.i. h^ alia (§§ 32, 39). 
i'lY taofdiina. 


It exists: hA" alia, pi. At/V-K dllu. 

It does not exist: f AJ^k yalliim, pi. f A*J^k yallum. 
existence, s. (presence) <w>TC man'^'or (§ 8). 
exit, s. (way out) '^fl^'**i mauca. 
expect, v.t. flifl*!' tdbbacja. 

I expect so: l&lf'i'A:: yih^'onal. 
expedition, s. (mil.) iiaoli' zamaca. 
expense, s. 'Pp wfiga. 

They must do it at their own expense : flT^Hfl^OHs 
^^CT-^K baganzaydccau yadrigut. 
expensive, adj. Oh^ wiidd. 
explain, v.i. & t. A.^' fatta. 

Please explain this to me: f,\)'i'ii*^:9'fii^i: yihan- 
niin fltallin, pol. je-Un-'^^P+A'-VK yihanniin yff- 


explanation, s. 'P^ ficc. 

explode, v.i. (be exploded, v.p.) <CV^ fanadda. 

Look (pi.) out, it is going to explode: 'hm^+'fes 
A.<J.W:Vai-K tatanqaqu, lifanaddd nau (S 8). 

O'O-'-O-'- OO O \0/ 

explode (cause to), v.t. AkC^-^ afanadda. 
explore, v.i. & t. AAA sallala (sal-). 
export, v.i. & t. ^AoiA^ aswassada (-w<us-). 
extend, v.i. ^dA darrasa, to, htltl- iska- (§ 47a). 


EXT— FAI 100 

extend, v.t. (stretch) lldp zaragga (zar-). 

(widen) hii4- asdffa. 
exterior, adj. ^a^'^ yawfcc (§ 8). 
exterior, s. Oh*^ wicc. 

' o • • 

extinguish, v.t. hm^ ataffa. 

Extinguish it: h*?4^ahii dtfau, pi. -f-^B -fut. 
extinguished, be, v.p. m4- taffa. 
extra, adj. '^'^6 cimmdri. 
extract, v.t. h(D"\ awcJtta (aucJ-). 
eye, s. 'J^T- ain (§ 52a, y). 

Keep an eye on Jim or he'll steal something: 
jS•^'>:'^<w>Ah'^fl^.•^^'}^J&rtC4»:: jfmmin tamalka- 
tau ndaisarq. 
eyebrow, s. ^l^'H qfndib (-iv ; § 52a, y). 
eyelash, s. ffA^i.^ salafat (-fat ; „ ). 
7i4.7i¥1-°sifdsift ( „ ). 

o o \ ■" / 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Ghrammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

fable, s. +^^ tarat. 

o o 

9^fttk» missdl^e. 


face, s. ^^ fit (fit). 

facetious, adj. flL^i'? bwaltdnna (-tan-). 

911? wazdiiiia (-zafi-). 
fade, v.i. ^<l*l* darraqa. 
faded, adj. f^dA* daraq. 

faint (feel), v.i. fMootD' dakkamau (impers. § 43a; § 63c?, e). 
I feel faint owing to the heat: ?ii:^1fl'r*?A.- 
ftA<n>*+^« in>e(§ 556) dakim^'^onnal silamiiqat. 

101 FAI— FAR 

fair, adj. Ohil wiib (wiiy). 

(of weather) -fl^ bfrra. 
faith, s. y^^^T^ haiman^ot. 
fall, v.i. ai^*l» wwddaqa. 

Take care he (it) doesn't fall: htHj^^atf^^a ndai- 
wwdiq, they don't... : -*« -qu. 
fall off (down), v.i. •^'fl-'hA dubb dla (s.v. J(\^, § 44a). 
(of more than one person or object) 
^-fl.-^.-n.-^A dubbidiibb dla (s.v. 
VflA, § 44a). 
false, adj. (of persons) ahS:^9^ wtisdtdm (§ 8). 
(of things) fl^?f ^ wfsiit (wiis- ; § 57&). 
(coin) •7?" gim. 
A false dollar: *79":'flCs jj^im birr, 
falsehood, s. fl^?f■^ wfsJit (wiis-). 

falsetto voice, have a, v.i. *?•*?• ••Ai A cicc (§ G) dla (s.v. 
n/OA, § 44a). 
A man with a falsetto voice: *P'*P':p'r?.AsAaH« 
cic yammil (§8) sau. 
Famaka, s. h^--aoh dfa niakka (mak-). 
family, s. H<w»Jt zdmad. 

Z**-)^ sfg^oc (-CC § 6). 
famine, s. [JiJ^-fl (i)rdb (-dy). 
fan, s. *^<Mfl,^ marraggabya (-dyya). 

<r?C9'mfl,^ margabgabya (-aygayya). 
fan, v.t. (oneself, v.r.) ^^Ifl arraggaba (-aya). 
far, adv. [JiJ^-^* (i)riiq. 

Is it far ? ?i4-4* •• VflH « iriiq nau ? 
far (off), be, v.i. ^^ r^qa. 

How far is it to the river? oi^fr.J^'J.-^UA.-J&C^A:: 
wwnzu min yahl yirfqal ? 

FAR— FAS 102 

To be rather far (off) : fl'dihli-- sabb ala (s.v. VflA, 

§ 44a). 
It is rather far (off) : 'i'flsJiAAs*. sabb yflal. 
fare, s. h^^ kfrdi (§ 8). 

Let him travel at the fare they fixed: fla)rt>-^! 
h^^sj&rlv.JtK bauwssanut (§ 62c) kirdi yihid. 
farmer, s. Ifl^ gdbar^^e (-ay-, -ar-). 
farther (one), the, dem. pron. [f]iDj?:^^fl>- (ya)w(ydyan- 
ndu (§8, §13a). 
Shut the farther one: f(Dj?:^?m-'}j'H;iaH:: yawwd- 
yanfidun zfgau. 
fast, adj. (in action) ^^^4- qaltaffa. 

d,m^ fataft (fat-; -nn § 6 ; § 8). 
Fast travelling : Ihlfi : aris" asa. 

O Oq ^ O 

fast, adv. -f-A" t^^olo. 

Very fast: -f-A^-'-f A"-* t^plo t^olo. 
Send him fast: ^«f» AT<J.O s A^fti»- « aqaltifah sf- 
dadau, pol. h+AT^C^D-sj&A^-^^K aqS,ltifau yfs- 
dadut, pi. M^Ti-'^iilfJi'^ii aqaltifdccyuh 
. (§ 7c?) sfdadut. 

As fast as I gave him money he got rid of it : 
TJH'fl •' h^iiai'lt^ '• "h^mi- •.•• ganzay iyyasattau^ (§ 7d) 
iyyataffa (s,v. hf-). 
fast, s. mjP t^^om. 
fast, v.i. (noD t^oma. 


fast, be (act), v.i. i'timd. qalattafa. 

-f A-!hA t^61o dla (s.v. ^/0A, § 44a). 
<CmV fattana (fattana). 

o • • o o ^ • • o ' ^^^ 

The watch is fast: A^* s 'f'j^^ A k sadtu qarmSal 
(§ TrT). 
fast, cause to act, v.t. Mtimd, aqaldttafa. 
fast, cause to travel, v.t. >i7A7A ag(g)asdggasa. 

103 FAS— FAT 

fast, travel, v.i. iftlii gasaggasa. 

Travel fast : 7A*7ft k gasgis, pi. -A- k -su. 
How many days will you take to get there travel- 
ling fast? nAW.+^-lA*7rtU:^ftC^AU:: basfnti 
qan gdssrisah tidarsdllah ? 
fasten, v.i. (be fastened, v.p.) ;^rt^ tassara (-sar-). 

't"*feA<i. taqwojllafa. 

©A O O 

fasten, v.t. hii^ dssara (-siir-). 
•fcA<C qwwllafa. 

X o o 

Fasten it: XA^Cid-k Isarau, pl.-^I^K -rut,or *feA<Cfl»-K 

qwoillifau, pi. -^1".: -fut. 
Fasten them: ?lA^^fl^K isardccau, pi. -^^ahk 

-rwdccau, or 'feA^-^iD-K qwwllifdccau, pi. -^^ah» 



fat, adj. i^l cdma. 

oi'P^r ww'fram (§ 8), pi. also fli4-'h<5.r wwfufff- 
rdm (§8). 
Very fat : 14-4- gafdfa. 
fat, s. A-fl sib (siv). 

fat, be (become), v.i. (D^^ wojffara (far-). 
father, s. M^ abbat (§ 8). 

Who is his father? M'P'-l'ii'iah'.i abbdtu man 


What is his father? ^n*:l^^:JiA^AK abbdtumin 
yisaral ? 

»' O O 

The question hd'Ui^^'ii'iah-.i abbdtu min nau? or 
9"'iih(\'^:'. min abbdtu? is a term of abuse. 

o •^ 

father-in-law, s. h*^^ amat (§8). 
fatigue, s. g:h9° dikam (§ 8). 
^4-^ lifat (§ 8). 

FAV— FEE 104 

favour, s. (kind action) hhA;*" wulata (-lat-; § 8). 

He (pol.) did me a favour: a^A;^ s Ti^^i'h A^ r. wti- 
latd addrragullin. 
favour, v.t. h^A adalla (-dal-) A- la- (§ 47a). 

Does he favour him ? ^^AAj^Ak yadalallatal ? 
fear, s. ^^^ ffrat (§ 8). 
fear, v.i. & t. <{.^ fdrra (far-), 
feast (banquet), s. IHC gfb(i)r (gfy-). 

(-day, eccl.) flA bal. 
feather, s. Ann lab^oba (lay^'^ova, § 52a, y). 

Afl Idba (idya, § 52a, y). 
February, s.v. calendar. 

feed, v.i (be fed, v.p.) 'taold tamaggaba (-aya). 

Has he (it) been fed? flAjtA:: baltoal? 
feed, v.t. aold maofsraba (-ava). 
hn^ aballa (ava). 
Feed him (it) : h-iifito* k aylau. 
Feed them: ^'flA'FflJ-K avldccau. 

• o 

feel (oneself), v.i., use Van nau (§ 13&). 

Do you feel well? m.*70!VUfl)/2,K t^enah nahwwi?, 
pol. m.'S'fP.-VF'flJj&K tJ^ena^ naS)w5i ? (s.v. -iDj&). 
Do you feel all right ? ^'IV •• VUflije, k dahna nahwS?, 
pol. ^'^'TsVPflij&K dahna nd^wcJi? 
:., How do you feel? ?»^^9"7:VU:: ndamfn nah?, 
pol. Mff^i : VfP :: ndamfn na^ ? 
I feel better: l-TfA^s tasdlan (§ 63c?). 
feel, v.t. (handle) -^rtrt dassasa. 

(perceive) A*^ samnia (§ 63^/, e). 

i'fi*l(D* tasdmmau (tas-; impers. 
§ 43a ; §°63r/, e). 

105 FEL— FES 

I feel it : j&rt*^?AK yissammannal. 

I don't feel it: h^ii^^9^ii aissdmmafiiiim. 

Do you feel it prick you? fai;iU»/Z,rt*^yA:: ya- 

wcJggah yissammahal?, pol. PlD;l?'.•^rt*^?';^AK 

yawcJgga^o jissamma^'^otal ? 
Let me feel it : A-^rtiiM*. liddssau. 
I feel the cold: 'flCj^shrt'^Aih:: bird isamallau^ 

O O O o 

Felts leo, s. h'i(lf^ anbdssa (ambd-, anyd-, § 7^/). 

Felis pardus, s. ^•flC nabir (na-, -yir). 

fell, v.t. ^^a\ qwwrrata. 

felt, be, v.p. i-rt*^ tasdmma (§ 63r7, e). 

female, s. & adj. (of persons and animals) rt.^" s^et. 

(of animals) MH^ fnfst (§ 8). 
femur, s. '^t cin (§ 52a, y). 
fence, s. ^TC dtir. 

(strong) Idl^ garagara. 
The space within the fence is not broad (enough): 
^T<- : *7n, : rtii. : hf^M^ :: ydtiru gfbbyi saffi aidal- 
lam (§ 7d). 
ferment, v.i. flh b''6kka. 
fern, s. G. y^^hi^ j^'orasia. 

S. tlttll sfnsin. 

S. fA.^:J^Aft: yas>et mflas (§ 8). 
ferocious, be, v.i. 'h'HA tatalla. 

o • 

Is it ferocious ? ^^AAk yittallal? 
ferried over, be, v.p. '^^^<C tasaggara (tas-, -gar-). 
ferry, s. ooTildf massaggarya (-gar-). 
ferry over, v.t. Ml^ assaggara (-gar-). 
festival, s. (eccl.) flA bal. 

FET— FIE 106 

fetch, v.t. hoDft} amatta. 

aom matta with ger. of ^M (§ 44c). 
Fetch it: ^nUoht'^ti yizahdu na, f ^H7la>-:Vj&K 

yizasyii ndi, pi. ^H^U-^!>-k yizaccihiit nu (§ 8). 
Let** him fetch it: ^H^:^l^^« yfz^^ot yfmta, 
f ^Hfl^.•^J'"«lK yfzau tjmta, pi. ^Ha^^!Je.9"/n•K 
yizaut yfmtu. 
Go and fetch him (it): Huj^sh^'^flJ-:: hid antau 

(§ ^d). 
Fetch a pair of boots : *^*^ --^nv •- «? k camma yizah 

What (price) did it fetch? J^'}:^OA:hfli'»lK min 

yahl auwtta ? 
fetch and carry, v.i. & t. hao^tifi ammalallasa. 
fetch out, v.t. ho)^ awoj'tta (auoJ-). 
fetlock, s. *7A7A:fflf'? gilgal sah^dna (sa>h-, -Ti- -x^6-> 

-*i- -k^'d- ; §§ 8, 7d, 52a, y). 
fetlock -joint, s. ??f if? •• *^mii.^ yasah^ond matafya 
(§ 52a, y). 
fm*i'*7As*^fli<{.^ yatandgil matafya 
(§ 52a, y). 
fever, s. "J^Jt nfdad (§ 8). 
few, adj. (a, pron.) T*fe1" tfqit. 

h'ifi'i^ dndand (§ 8 ; § 16). 
A few will do: T*fe^:^n^AK tiqit yiyaqal. 
A few mats: 'P«fe^.'^a>-/^^! tfqit daujj^oc. 
There are a few: M-^'^J^.-hA:: anddnd alia. 
Ficus carica (Broun, Cat. 533), s. flAfI b^las (balas). 
Ficus sycomorus (Broun, Cat. 533), s. fli^fl bamba. 
field, s. (cultivated) hCfi frsa. 
(of grass) aoMl mask. 

107 FIE— FIN 

field-glasses, s. ^^^•-ao'i'VC tilliq manattir. 
field-mouse, s. h^ai'-aoT^'? ayita magwwt (ait-; § 96?; §8). 
fifteen, card. num. ^/^'^••^i^ft^ asrammist. 
fifty, card. num. h9^fi amsa. 
fig {Ficus sp.\ s. (edible) flAft balas (balas). 
(wild) ^9^^ bamba. 

fliCh wdrka (wwr-, <P- wd-). 
?S'A s^^dla. 
fight, s. OhX wtiggi. 
fight, v.i. -tpf^ti tagaddala. 

+*Pp tawagga (taua-). 
file, s. *P^Jt m^orad. 
file, v.t. *r»^^ m^drrada. 
fill, v.i. & t. aofi mdlla or TA m^^dlla. 

' o 

(a pipe) T^ao s''6ma. 
The river filled : atlll • #w»A :•• wwnz mdlla. 
Fill it: 9"Aa^:•. milau, pi. -/V-^k -lut. 
Don't fill it: h^rfioh.: attfmlau, pi. -A-1-k -lut. 
Fill it with water : OhV : a^fioh :: wiiha miilau. 
Fill the pipe and give it to me: aoai'^ah'ii'ii'aDVt 
tiai^i' matdccaun siimjih sftiiii. 

o • o • • o* 

filled, be, v.p. aD^ mdlla or 'PA m^^ dlla (§ 63r/, e). 

(of a pipe) i'T^ao tas^'Oma (tas-). 
filter, s. *^T<t^ mitfya. 
filth, s. (filthy, adj. § 57b) h^^ fd(i)f 
filthy, adj. (loathsome) }\^*h sdyydf (m- td- ; § 8). 
find, v.t. hiy agdniia (-gan-). 

Have you found him (it)? hiyoohrn agdnfiahau?, 

pi. Ai7?^i>^K agaiindccihut ? 
Find him (it): h*iyahii dgifinau, pi. hlf-^a dgifi- 

FIN— FIR 108 

find out, v.i. & t. hat*^ auwaqa (-wwq-). 

Find out and let me know: hoh^V-htl^ah^^a 
autlqah astduuqan. 
fine, adj. (excellent) 9°fiii}9^ malkam, pi. also iioAhhi^ 
malkdkdm (§ 8). 
(small) ^'>7i tfnnis, pi. also ^'}'>7i tinfnnis. 
(of powder) Alf'fl Ifzzib (iy). 
(of weather) -fl^ bfrra. 
It is very fine (excellent): h^l^9°ii aiggannim. 
fine, s.'^ afalama. 


i}^ kdsa. 
You will have to pay a fine: ^^i.A'^ •• ^h^AAU k 

afalama tikaflallah. 

O O O 

fine, v.i hfihd,ti askaff'ala. 

o o o 

finger, s. ^^ tat (§ 52a, y). 
finger-tip, s. HC^ zarf (zarf ; § 5 2a, y). 
finish, v.i. (finished, be, v.p.) hti^ allaqa. 

•fcEL^fl tacarrasa (tacarrasa). 

o • o o o \ • o' 

The work is finished : ft^ihA^A-.-. sfra alqSal 
finish, v.t. ea»dfl carrasa (carrasa). 

Finish it: OkCt^OH:: carrisau, pi. -A«^k -sut. 
I am going to finish it: ?lfl^.Crt'PAl^K icarrisaudl- 


fire, s. M^ isat. 

' o 

(conflagration) $^ qwdyya. 
Light the fire: M'P'i'-h'i^^:: isatun dndid. 
Set fire to it: M1-:MjtJtn^« isat andidibbat. 

o o O o 

fire, v.i. & t. (gun) i'h°rt takkwwsa (tcJkkosa § 7c?). 
Fire: i^M'tln t&j'kkwiis, pi. -A-k -su. 
Don't fire: h^i-H-tl:'- attitcJkkwus, pi. -A-u -su. 

109 FIR— FLA 

firebrand, s. S. »l4.)S. kfffdi (§ 8). 

G. ^'J;^Vtfntdg (§ 8). 
fired, be, v.p. (gun) +'Mi»rt tatakkwwsa (-tcJkkosa § 7^?). 
fireplace, s. '^'>^3^ mandaja. 
firm, adj. mlh^ tankdrra. 
first, ord. num. <{.+? fitaniia (fit-, -tan-). 

(initial) ao%ao&^ majammarya (-mar-). 
On the first day of the month: f fli<- •• fl<w>J^#ni^^ : 
+'>! yawwru yamajammaryd qan (§ 8). 
firstborn, adj. ;^A4» tallaq (§ 8). 
fish, s. ^"^ asa (§ 52«, S). 

Abounding in fish : *J"/9": dsam (§ 8). 
Are there fish in it? ^•^••?iA£»-:: dsa dllau? 


fish-hook, s. <ni^T^ maqdtin. 

fishing-net, s. aoOii marab (-ay). 

fissure, s. 1^ niq, pi. 1^^^ niqdqdt (§ 8). 

ft'}'p4» sfntiq. 
fist, s. fl-m, biitti (§ 52a, y). 
fit, adj. T^ mfccu. 

fit, v.i. & t. (be fit, v.i.) -I'^id^ tamacca (-mac-) A- la- (§ 47a). 
five, card. num. Y\9^h^ dmmist. 

' o 

fix, v.t. (appoint) 4»fli<i qattara (-tar-). 
(settle) flirtV wwssana. 
I will fix a day: *l»'}••^l4»T^Al^:■• qan iQatrallau^ 
fixed, be, v.p. (appointed) i'*f»m^ taqattara (-tar-). 
As (it) was fixed: ?i'>^i'+m<is ndataqdttara. 
flag, s. ^A*^ aldma. 

0'}^^ band^era. 
flag-staff*, s. iilfS^ sandaq. 
flame, s. VflAflA nabalbal (-avalva-). 

' oo \o«o*' 

^-flAflA nibilbal (-ivilva-). 

o o \ o* o • / 

FLA— FLO 110 

The flame of this lamp is not good : ftUUsuD'fl^^-- 
'J'fl^flA-*^*7i^-'Ai^/^AK yazzih mayrdt niyflyal 
daggimm didal {§ 7d). 
flash, v.i. Ai'flAfia.AiXk ablacallaca (ayl-). 
flask, s. ^*P^ rduwdt (i-OhV^ rauhdt; § 8). 
flat, adj. ^hhA tikfkkil. 

(of ground) *^^ m^eda. 
Ci'im santa. 

o • 

flat, be, v.i. 'tUhli takakkala. 

' ' o o o 

flat-iron, s. aoi'hoTi matakkwcJsa (-twk-). 

' o o ^ ' 

flat-nosed, adj. ^¥^«] daftatta. 
flatten, v.t. htli'hhti astakakkala. 

' o o o 

flatter, v.i. & t. h'^fiaom aqqwculdmmata. 

?ffl?fn sabdssaba (savassava). 

O O O O^O'O o*o' 

flea (Pulex irritans), s. 4^'}*^ qwunicca (§ 52a, 8). 

flee, v.i. (from, v.t.) lf?f sassa (sas-). 

flexible, adj. AflA^ lasldssa. 

flexible, be (become), v.i. AAAA lasallasa. 

^ \ /■' o o o o 

flexible, render, v.t. ^AAAA alasallasa. 

' ' o o o o 

flexor muscle of thigh, s. Tf-A^ sullfda (-idd- ; § 52a, y). 
flies, infested with, adj. llT^^r zlmbdm (§ 8). 
flint, s. n-Aj^ bul(l)dd (§ 8). 
flock, s. ao'ip manga. 

A flock of sheep : ^d^QiooTrps yayag manga, 
flood, s. >C^ gwwrf 
floor, s. iw&T mar>et (§ 8). 
flour, s. ^*^ d^^5q>et (§ 8). 

Is it fine or coarse? VlVlsViD-sA'H'fl:: kiikki nau 
flourish, v.t. (brandish) hatHwtt auwwzduwwza. 
flow, v.i. rfi.^ hada (ha-, h>e-, -da, § 7d). 


flower, s. hflfl ababa (avava ; ^ 52a, 8). 

flutter, v.L 'hClfllfl targabaggaba (tar-, -ayaggaya). 

flutter, v.t. hCldlfl aro^abao^gaba (avacrjyava). 

fly {Musca domestica), s. TlJ'^'fl zimb (§ 52a, 8). 

fly, v.i. {\CC barrara (-rar-). 

fly-whisk, s. *2?*^ cfra. 

foal, s. •7A1A gflgal. 

foam, s. 7»^4- arafa. 

fog, s. "M^ gum. 

t;i*7 tfgag (§ 8). 
fold (up), v.i. (be folded (up), v.p.) ^a\i. tattafa. 
fold (up), v.t. Y\a\d. attafa. 

Fold it (up): ?tni^<D*:: ftafau, pi. -^^k -fut. 
follow, v.i. & t. '^h'^A takattala. 

o o o o 

Follow him to his house: ^ri'MUIssl^h+AiO-K ista- 

^^ O O 

v^etu takattalau, pi. -A-l*:-- -lut. 

• o o o o * 

food, s. <n>'flA mabil (-^yi-). 

?»->?> (i)nj>er§: [%- -j4-). 

^St: madd. 
Is the food ready? ?i^j^^:+C(IAk njara qary6al? 
Food and drink: *^Jt*i'--<HiniT: mdddinna matat. 

•^ o o • o • 

fool, s., foolish, adj. T*^ m''onn. 

He (has) made a fool of me : AiT*f ^ « am'^'dnnan. 
fool, play the, v.i. *l»nm qabbata. 
foolishness, s. 'P^W m^'oiiiiinnat (-nat). 
foot, s. MC fg(i)r. 
*^*^ camma. 
(of hoofed animals) ?f Ifi" sah^dna (swh-, -Ti- -^6-, 

-*i--k^^6-, §7f/; §8). 
(of animals with claws) aof{^ mddaf (§ 8). 
See § 52a, y. 

FOO— FOR 112 

He is to go on foot: fl*74-:j&VLj^:: bagru ylhid, 

pi. (\*l^^ahs^*L^ii bagrdccau yihidu. 
Did you come on foot? fl*7CU!<n>'nOK bagrih mdt- 

tah?, pi. n*7^^l^:<w»'^^l^•.•. bagrdccyuh (§ Id) 

At the foot of the hill: hi'^^sT'7-- katarard tigg 

(§8, §47&). 
foot-soldier, s. K*7^? igranna (-ran-, § 52a, 8). 
for, prp. A- la-. A- l(i)- (§ 47a). ^ 

It is for you : AW •• V(D- •••. lanta nau. 
For me: AJu lan^e (Ian-; § 8). 
Whom is it for ? A*^"} •• 'HD* a laman nau ? 

o o 

forage, s. Id.^ gl^^ra (-far- ; § 8). 
(grain) T<2. tfr^e. 
Forage for the horse (-s, cp. §52a): f^^A:1iC^: 
yafaras grafara. 
forbid, v.t. hAhA kalakkala. 

o o o o 

See n/AA (§ 44a). 
The doctor has forbidden me to eat meat : VtK9^s 
l**p ' h^'flA ■• fi A"^ K hakim sfga attiyla dlun. 
force, s. (strength) :5»j&A hail. 

'nC;^^ birtdt (§ 8). 
(body of troops) rnC t^or. 
By (physical) force : flrij&A: bahdil (§ 8). 
By force (compulsorily) : n*7j^! bdgfdd (§ 8). 
Don't use any force: n:?»^A••^i;^JtC*7:•. bahSl at- 
tddrig (-tdrg § 7r/), pi. -t'^ -gu. 
forced march, s. *7A7'i gisgdsa. 
forced march (es), cause to make, v.t. Ai7A7A ag(g)a- 

ford, s. <niAh mdlka. 

113 FOR— FOR 

ford, v.t. i!.d(n qwwrrata. 

We forded the river: ©"JH*") s 'fe^lTi :•• wwnzun 
forearm, s. M,^ kind. 

(vet.) *^Ufii''hl^ mahal (mal) agada. 
See § 52a, y. 
forehead, s. 19^(\C gfmbdr (§ 8). 
forenoon, s. ^4-Jt raft ad (§8). 

In the forenoon: (speaking beforehand) 'MihAs 
+'>:ai-^U: takkiila (lan wwdih (-dih; §8). 
forest, s. ah-^'H wtidma. 

^•C dur. 
forget, v.i. & t. ['h]^ft (prassa. 

Don't forget it : MC^Oi".-- attfrsau. 
I have forgotten: h^fiihn irassa'^u (-sau'' § 7d). 
forgive, v.i. & t. '^^ mdra. 
forgiven, be, v.p. i'^ld tamdra. 
forgotten, be, v.p. 'IVA tarassa (tiir-). 
fork, s. yf-h siikka. 
form, s. <w>Ayi malk. 

It's bad form : 'kd^C •• VdJ- :: naiir nau. 
formerly, adv. diL^ baf it (-f ft ; §°8). 

+J^'P' qadm^'o (qarm- § 7d). 
^C diir" o. 
fort, s. ?»Cjt ird. 

' "^ o 

He (it) is in the fort: nCj?:--fl>-ftT:VflH:: bard(§ 7a) 
wtisti nau. 

•o o 

fortunate, adj. V-ii^T* habtdm (-ayt-, -aft- § 7cl', § 8). 
fortune, s. (good or bad) ?tJ?:A fddil. 

(good) W-n-V habt (hayt, haft), 
forty, card. num. hOi arba (-rya ; § 20a). 

AM. GR. (ll) 8 


FOE— FEE 114 

forward, adv. <{.^ fit (fit). 

i; (Df^^^ wwdafit (-fit ; § 8). 

found, be, v.p. 'MT taganna (-gail-). 

He (it) has not been found : h^'f"l'^9^ :•• altagan- 

Is it (to be) found? ji1?A« yiggannal?, pi. J&I^/Vk 
found out, be, v.p, ;^a)4' tauwaqa (-wwq-). 
foundation, s. #w»ip^^ masarat (-sarat ; 5 8). 
four, card. num. h^^ ardtt (§§ 8, 20a). 
fourteen, card. num. h^**^ih^^ asrdratt (§§ 8, 20a). 
fowl, s. F-e d^or^^o (§ 52a, 8). 

Buy young fowls, not old ones: hC%'P'C''h^*in'' 
;^'?T7i!^l'>%K ar^Og^e d^dr^o attfgza, tanannds 
France, s. ^^^^ fransa. 
francolin, s. *4' q^oq (§ 52a, S). 
fraud, s. ^*?d.^ qitfat (-fat). 
*T^'i' qitfmna. 
h-nti^ iblat (fyl-, -lat). 
free, adj. (freed) ^CV^sffl)"] arrfnnat (-nat) yawwtta 


free, v.t. ^^ fatta. 


He was a slave once, but now he is free : <i.^! flC^s 
'i(\CihO''ishC'i^iiD^:'- fit vdrya nabbar, ahun 
arrinnat wwtta. 


freeborn, adj. 6H.<P c|ua, pi. fia'P?'^ cauawoc (cauduoc ; 

-cc § 6). 
freedom, s. hCi^ arrfnnat (-niit). 
freeze, v.i. (become solid) [?»]<C;J (i)ragga. 
French, adj. f 'P^^'^ yiifransa. 

f 'b^'}<^*C yiifransa wi. 
8.V. f-, §§ 47a, 70. 

115 FRE— FRO 

Frenchman, s. ^^'J^'E fransawi, pi. -P"^ -woe (-cc § 6). 
fresh, adj. (new) h^ll addis. 

(other) AfA lela. 

(of bread) ^9°^r lamlam. 

(of water) T<- tfru (tiiru). 
Is there no fresh news? h^(l:ai&s^li9°ii addis 


wwr^ e yallam ? 
Bring some fresh bread: ti9^^r*•^H(i^^h9"^^.'. lam- 
lam dabb^^'o jlmta (anta § 7d). 
Pour the water out of that and put in fresh : f fr*}! 
(»••/: ^^^rtfl^TT<-.•a^y••^l/tC*7n1•:: yassiin wiiha 
affssau, tiiru wtiha adrigibbat (drg- § 7d; s.v. and), 
fresh air, s. 'J'f-ft nifds (§8). 
fresh air, get, v.i. i'^d.ft tanaffasa. 

' ~ o o o 

Friday, s. hC-fl arb (ary). 

friend, s. fli^K" wwddj (§ 8). 

friendly, adj. (mil.) h*n^ dmdn (-iiii § G ; -mtii § 7fl?; § 8). 

friendship, s. ¥4*C f|(iir. 

fright, s. ^/^'^ ffrat°(§'*8). 

(sudden) j^T^m. dingdtye. 
frighten, v.t. hti^^' asfarra (far-). 

Don't frighten him (it): h^l'tl^^ahi-. attasfdrrau, 
pi. -<-^:: -rrut. 
frightened, be, v.i. & p. <J.^- farra (far-). 

flp sagga. 

(suddenly) ^V7ni danaggata. 
fringe, s. HC^ zarf (ziirf ). 
frivolous, adj. (lAl^'f bwaltaiina (-tail-). 

*PH? wazaniia (-zaii-). 
frog, s. ^l-Tr^C gwagiinciir (§ 52a, 8). 
til^'h^C (i)ngwagucar ( ,, ). 


FRO— FUR 116 

from, prp. h- ka- (§ 47«). 
-t-ili „ ). 
Take it from him: ^tKo-'-i-'^:- yazau (pi. ^H*^.- 
yazut) tajju, or ahfi^d^n wiisadibbat, pi. --^fl^K 


Where does he (it) come from? -f^^'-^oD^^i'- 
tayet yimatal ? 
front, s.V^ftt (fit). 

In front, adv. (\d.^ baf It (-fit ; § 8). 
front of, in, prp. fl-...:<{,^°ba-... fit (fit; § 8, §47&). 

h- {-t )...'• a^H- ka- (ta-)... bafit (ya-, 
-fit; §8, §476).' 
In front of the house : hH^'-ddM^'- kavJ^et vafit. 
front, put in (send in), v.t. htl^^ao asqaddama. 
frontier, s. ^IC'-^C^ y^gar (s.v. f-, §§ 7a, 47a, 70) daricca. 
^9^(\C dimbar (-bar). 
On the frontier ; ^IC •• ^C^ '• tdoar darfcca. 
frost, s. ta.C'^ wurc. 
full, adj. ao^t^ mdlu (9^^^ milu). 
full, be, v.i. <w>A malla or T'A m^olla. 

' ' o 

fundament, s. tro^tw^ maqqamaca. 

fungus, s. hl-hfi^ (i)ngiidS (§§ 8, 52a, 8). 

funny, adj. (of persons) dAi*? bwaltaniia (-tan-). 

(of things) <wi"/«fe^ masdqya. 
fur, s. mT^C tagwiir. 
furniture, s. h^ Iqa. 

f n.^:<w»^^^ yab>et (-ay>e- ; s.v. P-, §§ 47a, 70) 
massaryfi (-yii). 
furrow, s. 7-Jtfl giidba (-dya ; § 52a, S). 

lir GAI— GAR 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Tnitia 
Amharica, Part I). 

gain, s. ^C*P tirf. 

gain, v.i. & t. h-tdd, atarrafa (-tar-). 

What does he gain by this? tlUV'.r'i'.^'l'Ci^^i'. 

bazzfh min yatarfal ? 
The watch gains: rt'J'f3;j&4»j^<»7^:: sadtu yiqadmal. 
gait, s. hhth.^ akkdhad. 
gaiter, s. IJ'^fllA. gamballa (§ o2a, 8). 

hT-J^n/t- agumbc411"o (§ 52a, 8). 
gale, s. hoh/^ aul^'o. 
gall, v.t. ^m gdta. 

See that the straps do not gall him (it): m*PC: 
hlffif^naxah 11 tafir (§ 52a, 8) indaigftau. 
Gallabat, s. ao-f*^ matamma (matam-). 

gallop, s. •7A'fl^ gpi^ya (-lyya). 

gallop, v.i. & t. /lAfl gallaba (ava). 

Let the horse gallop: <C<lfr:JipA'fl» farasu yfgaly. 
Don't gallop the horse : <i.^rt-7 •• MpMi k farasun 
game, s. (amusement) fiO.(D;^ cawata (caua-, -wt). 

(animals) YxdJ^ dur^e (§ Id), pi. ^^*e^ ai-awit 

(§ 8)- 
Who won the srame? '^'J-'ifl^sf^i;'-:-- man nan 

o o 

yaratta (§14)? 
garden, s. Ai;*"3flA^ atakilt. 
Gardenia Tkimhergia (Broun, Cat. 237), s. pT'Ht^ 

gambill^o {^9°- gwam- B.). 

GAR— GER 118 

garlic {Allium sativum), s. V*?* ' Tf-'JW'C^ nacc sunkwurt. 
You must not come when you have been eating 
garHc: 'I'V'i'&'i^C^-il^tifi'h^T'm.' nacc siin- 
kwiirt sittvala attfmta. 

o • o o • ^ 

gash, s. *I*^AA qwiisil. 

Gash, s. (river) «w»^-fl marab (-ay). 

gate, s. ^& dajj (dajj). 

nc barr. 
gate-keeper, s. (\d}j barranna (-ran-). 

hAhje. kalkS (-dyy § 6; § 8). 
gather, v.i. (gathered, be, v.p.) i'rtflrtfl tasabassaba (tas-, 

o • o o • O ' 

gather, v.t. (bring together) Cldfid sabassaba (sayassaya). 
(pick) ti^oD laqqama. 
Gather them together: rt-flftfl^a^:-. saysiydccau, 

pi. -P,^fl>-K -vwaccau. 
gathered, be, v.p. (picked) i'ly^tw talaqqama. 
gathering, s. <w>rt'flrtn,^ masabsabya (-aysayya). 
gecko, s. IflA" gabal'^^o (gaya- ; § 8). 
gelding, s. flTfp •• d^Ctl sanga faras. 
general, s. (mil.) ffj^ll^'^ dajj dzmdc (§ 8). 
generosity, s. ^Ci^ carinnat (-nat). 
generous, adj. ^C car. 
genitals, s. -flA^ bfllit. 
gentle, adj. 7C gar (gar). 
gently ! interj. 4*ft qass ! 
gently, act (be gentle), v.i. 11*7 :AiA zigg dla (s.v. VflA, 

§ 44a). 
German, adj. ?'i9^fi yanamsa. 

f Vl^O«e yanamsjlwi. 
S.v. ? , §§ 47a, 70. 
German, s. V5^^*C namsawi, pi. -?*''f -woe (-cc § C). 

119 GER— GIN 

Germany, s. h^^fi namsa. 

It was made in Germany: hV9"fl ■• MC ■• -hOK « ka- 
namsa dgar tayajja. 
gesture, s. T4*iff tfq(is)sa. 
get, v.i. (arrive) ^d.h darrasa. 

He (it) will not get there in time: ^|lftCA9"K 
aidarsim, pi. -rt-{^« -sum. 
get, v.i. (become) \f"i h"" ona. 

How did he (it) get like this? ?i'}^1"!?i'}^U:|fV« 
ndJ'et indih h'^ona?, pi. ->•:•• -nu? 
get, v.t. h'Ti agafifia (-gafi-). 

Where did you get it from ? i'P*^ = YiT^Oohw tayet 

agannJihau?, pi. -l^1*:•. -hut? 
Where can I get it ? ^^' •• ^^7*PAl^ « yet agaufiau- 
allau^ ? 


Get me some: <(.A*7A^k falligillifi, pi. -T-A^:: 

O o 

I have got some: Y\tC%i' allafi. 

Have you got any? ^AUk allah?, pol. hM*^' alla^?, 

pi. ^A^l^•.•. alldccyuh? (§ Id). 
Have you got me any? AiIYUA^k agafinahillifi? 
Has he got any? ?»AaJ-K allau?, pi. hf\^ah;\ allac- 



Did he get any? hlTv. aganiia?, pi. -*^k -nfiu? 
ghost, s. (D-^fl. wuqab>e (-dy>e). 
gift, s. ftrn;f- sit'^ota. 

troi'^^ mattayaya (-taidia). 
gimlet, s. oofiCfld^ masarsarya (sarsar-). 
gin, v.i. & t. (cotton) ^oDtn dammata. 
ginger, s. Ti^^-flA zinjibil (^1 jin-, Vi^)- 
ginned, be, v.p. i'Haom tadammata. 
ginning-machine, s. oofiirD^^ madamaca (-mac-). 

GIR— GLA 120 

giraffe {Giraffa camelopardalis), s. ^^i'^'^'i jirata- 

qaccin (§ 9d). 
girdle, s. ao^m^^ mattataqya (-taq-). 

ao^'i^ maqannat (-nat). 
girl, s. *fe^^ qwwnj''o, pi. also «fe'?jS"f'"f qwwnajit'^oc 
(-CC § 6), 'k'l^^^'^ qwconajajit^oc (-cc § 6). 
^^Id^ lijagarad. 
(small) '^'TL^ mammit (-mit). 
girth (saddle-, horse's, mule's, etc.), s. ao^'i^ maqan- 

naca (-nac-). 
give, v.t. rtm sdtta (§ 61a). 

Give me it (them) : ftm^K sftan. 
I (will) give it (them) to you: hrtrnVAu-K isatahdl- 


I gave it (them) to you: rtnii>OK sattahuh. 

Did you give it (them) to him ? rtmWa>-K sattahau? 

The man you (pol.) gave us (has) disappeared: 

Prtm«V<»-jrtflHsm4-« yasattunndu (S8) sau taffa. 
What did you give for it? {\hl^nnOiD*vi basfnti 
Q^azzahau ? 
give each other, v.t. ^rt^lm* tasatattu (tasat-). 
give up, v.t. M*^ laqqaqa. 
give up (be given up § 68), cause or allow to, v.t. 

fiftA4»*f» aslaqqaqa. 
given, be, v.p. ■t'rtm tasdtta (tasat-). 
given up, be, v.p. i'A**!' talaqqacja. 
glad, be, v.i. ^h-Yxti dass (dass) dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
fJi'yytUD' dass (-a-) dlau (impers. § 43a). 
See § 63r/, e. 
I am glad: ^A."flA"?A:: diiss yfr^onfial. 
I am so glad you have come: ?i'>t»,!<w>'nu« ^kwa 
mdttahl, pol. -m«K -ttu !, pi. -"X^ihn -ttdccyuh! 

121 GLA— GO 

glass, s. 'flCI?'* bircfq'^o. 
-nCA. birill>e. 


(mirror) aDtli'*P^ mastauwat. 

\ / GO 

A glass of water: 'dCI}'^ •• at'V '• bircfq^o wiiha. 
glitter, v.i. h-iltiGELliea. abliicallaca (ayl-). 
glue, s. *^^fl*fe^ mattabaqya (-ayaq-). 
glue, v.t. ^"10+ attabbaqa. 
glued, be, v.p. 'h'nfl*!* tatabbaqa. 
gnat, s. ^t^ tfnifi (-inn § 6 ; §§8, 5 2a, 8). 
gnaw, v.i. & t pm g^ta. 
go (about, away), v.i. rh.^ hada (ha-, h^e-, -da). 

Don't go ! h^iK!!:'-- attfhid!, pi. h^Au'i''.'. attihidu! 

Go (away)! Ht^j^ k hid!, f. dug:-- hij !, pi. rh..?-:: hidu! 

I want to go to Gondar: ^'iflC'^^^h,^^^'hd.^p^^hii 
g^^ondar lihad ifalliQrallau'\ 

O o o o o oO o 

I am going : Arh.j?: : V^ a lihad nan. 
I am not going to ride: /iA+/wiT1^k aliqqamma- 

• o 

There is nowhere for him (it) to go: od^od^^s 
^"IAk maqqamaca ydtal. 
go away, v.i. aHf!, woj'ggada. 

Go away! ai*7j^:: wagid !, f iD*7jE'« wwgij !, pi. 
ai*7«^ K wwgidu ! 
go down, v.i. (descend) wdf^ wwrrada. 
(abate) T^^A gwwddala. 
Go down! ahdj!:^- wtirad!, pi. -S«k -du! 
When does the water go down ? ao^ •• 'lOh -. h'^'h' 
J^ A '• (D'Vah K mac^ e nau mmigwwdl lihau ? 
go in, cause or allow to, v.t. htll(l asgabba. 
go, let, v.i. & t. (release) A4»+ laqqaqa. 

d,^ fatta. 

GO— GOO 122 

Let go I A+4* •.*. If qaq !, pi. -* w -qu ! 
Let him (it) go: ¥^fl>«:: fftau, pi. ¥*^:: fitut. 
go out, v.i. (D^ wwtta. 

(be extinguished) mi' taffa. 
Go out! ahmn wiita!, pi. fl^m-:: wtitu! 
We want to go out: Alfli'nsh'Jii.A^A'}:: linnwtuta 

O O O 0~ 

The fire has gone out: M^im^^^a isdt taftoal. 
go out, cause or allow to, v.t. htio)^ aswwtta. 

Don't let the fire go out: M^'-h'i^^aii-i' isdt 

o o • o 

go round, v.i. H^ z^Sra. 
go up, v.i. 0)"} wwtta. 

v.t. n- ....-Aj&sfli'n ba-... lai (§ 8, § 47&) wcu'tta. 

Go up! Oh flu wdta!, pi. (D'm'ii wiitu! 

The price will go up: <P;i.-^lfiAAK wdga yakkilal. 
goat, s. ^f A fiyyal. 
God, s. hinh-ndbC igziabhJ^er (-ayh-). 
goitre, s. hl^C^ (|)nqirt. 
gold, s. fliC4* wcurq. 

Gold braid: fliC4»:Hn.- wcJrqa (§9c?) zab^o (-ay'^o). 
goldsmith, s. h'JT^? antraima (-ran-). 
good, adj. ^T dagg (dagg). 

0D^t}9" malkdm, pi. also 0D^i}U9" malkakdm 

(§ 8). 
T^. tfru (tiiru). 
^'i^ dinq. 
It is very good: ?ijf*7.-^*7:V<D-K Jjjig dagg! (§ 7(?) 

He is a good man: ^*7.•rtfl^•■•Va^:•. dagg sau nau. 
A good mule: T<-:fl4'/t": tiiru yaqP'o. 

123 GOO— GRA 

What good is this to you? S^V'-r"iV.'iah:i yfhe 
minfh (S 16) nau ? 

o o \o ' o 

good-bye! interj. ^'^'7 * o-*} k dahnd hun!, pol. ff^'^'t^ 
f.ih'hi- dahnd yfhunu!, (to more than one) f!/h't'- 
ih^i'. dahna hiinu ! 
good-natured person, s. lat'p'P gaugawwa (-auwa). 
goodnight! interj. fi'h^ -- hff^Ci'- dahnd fdar! (-naid-), 
pol. ^'V'i":)i^<-K diihnd yfdaru! (-ndid-), (to more 
than one) ^'VT:?i^<-k dahnd idaru ! (-naid-). 
goods, s. h^ fqa. 
goose, s. ^-fl^ y^bra (-^yr). 

G. ^(\C yibdr (-fyd-; §8). 
See § o2a, 8. 
Gospel, s. (dITm^ wwhg>el (§ 8). 

Gossypium i^itifolimn (etc., Broun, Cat. 64), s. TT tit. 
got, be, v.p. •f"V^ ta«»;anna (-gan-). 

Can it be got? J^I'^i'^k yiggafinal?, pi. j&l'f/V-K yig- 
gourd (Cffcurbita maxima, Broun, Cat. 209), s. 4'Aqil. 
gourd-shell, s. 4^^ fdga. 
govern, v.i. V7ip naggasa. 

v.t. 1H gazza. 
government, s. <w>'>*7/*'^ mdrigist. 
government office, s. fl.1'!#wj'>*7/^^ b^eta (§ 9fl) mangist. 

^A"'> cfl^^'ot (§ 8). 
^^f\f\f^ addabdbai (aydyai). 
governor, s. ^Toh-VT- makwwnnan (-niin). 

IDT gaz. 
gradually, adv. flT*^ : flT*fe^ l^atfqit yatfqit. 
grain, s. (cereal) ?iUA fhil. 
T<t tfrJ^e. 

GRA— GKA 124 

gram {Cicer arietinum, Broun, Cat. 140), s. Tli^'fl^ sim- 

granary, s. ■)i'^ g'^otara (-tar- ; § 8). 
grandfather (-mother), s. hf^ ^yyS,t (§ 8). 
grant, s. ftfn;^ sit'^ota. 
o^rant, v.t. rtm satta. 
granted, be, v.p. i'rtm tasatta (tas-). 
Gras rifle, s. K«Jf *7^ ujigra (ujigra § 8). 
grass, s. "/C sar. 

Cut (pL) the grass round the tent: ^d't^TfWi' 

hml'd'-'hai^^'-'' sar tadimkwdn atagav icadut. 
Short grass : flCF- sdrd" o (sar-). 
grass-fire, s. ^^ qwayya. 
grate, v.i. ft4*4* •• hti siqiqq dla (impers. § 43a ; s.v. VflA, 

It grates on me: tl^^ •- ^ii^ fii^ siqiqq yilannal. 
grateful, be, v.i. fl^A;^ •• h(D^ wiilata (-lat-) auwaqa (-wwq- ; 

§ QSd, e), to. A- la- (§ 47a), or the pers. sufi! (§ 126) 

is added to a^lK^. 
I am grateful to you: ah-li^Vi'-hah^fti'lt^'^ wii- 

latahin auuqqyallau^ pol. -^P^t'-... -td^'on...,, pi. -;^^l^'^^ -tdccihun (-tdccyuhin § 7d).... 
gratis, adv. hl^^Oh (f)ndyau (§ 8). 
grave, adj. (of persons) [h^Ch rfgu (frgu). 

hnj^ kabbad (§ 8). 
grave, s. ao^'dC maqdbir (-dyi-). 
grave, be (become), v.i. (of persons) ["h^dp (pragga. 
gravity, s. (of persons) [h]Cp^ rfgdt (irg- ; § 8). 
graze, v.i. (pasture) G. +A*^/«- tasamarra (tiisiim-). 
S. i'flaod tasamarra (tasam-). 

O O O O ^ ' 

Let the animals go to graze: h'fl't.-j&rt'^^K kaftu 
(§52a, S) yissamdra, S. ...^rt<w»CK ...yissamar. 

125 GRA— GRI 

graze, v.t. (pasture) G. hA*n^ assamarra. 
S. hiiaoC assamarra. 

o n o 

(wound slightly) pa\ g^ta. 
I want a man to graze the mules: An4*/t"'f :?i<i?! 

h^^piiO".: layaql'^occ irranna ifalligallau^. 
A stone grazed him (it): ^iX^ipaiOhv. dangya 
grease, s. /I'd sib (siv). 

Put some grease on it: flft'fls4*fl<»-:: basfy qfyau. 
grease, v.t. *l*fl qabba. 
greased, be, v.p. '^*f*fl taqabba.* 
gi'eat, adj. '>a4» tilliq. 
Greece, s. f *7<5]fi •• hiC yagrik (-rik; s.v. f-, §§ 47a, 70) 

agar (-gar). 
greedy, adj. ^*l^^9^ qiqqftdm (§ 8). 
Greek, adj. k s. *7<5ln grik (grik). 
green, adj. hd'i^^ arwngwdd^e. 

Dark green is often called T*C tiiqur ( = black), 
greens, s. 'h'OD'i gwwmman (-miin). 
greeting suitable at any time and for all persons : 

m.V ■• /iftTA**^ :■• t>ena yfstillin, I wish you good 
health, the reply to which is h-ilC •• f^lim'i a 
dvr''o yfstan. 

^ o • O 

grey, adj. htwji:*^ amadfmma (-mild-). 
grey-haired, adj. 7ln;^l^ sibatdm (-iy-, -at-; § 8). 
grief, s. imif azan. 
grieve, v.i. AiHi azzana. 
srill, v.t. mflrt tabbasa. 

c ' • o o o ^ 

grind, v.t. d,Ga, facca (fac-). 
grindstone, s. aoft^ masdl (§8). 

aofi^ masaya (aia). 
grip, v.i. <fe t. ^li ydza (§ 44c). 

GRO— GUA 126 

groom, s. A^*^ Iwggwdmi. 
ground, s. 0d&^ market (§ 8). 
9"^C mfdir (liidir). 
Hard ground: C^CC: f^dra^^or. 
Stony ground : '^1'^ •• cinca. 
On the ground : h9°^C •- kamdir. 
ground, be, v. p. 'I'd^eEL tafacca (-fac-). 
group, s. ft-fl^fl. sibsdbi (siysdyi). 
grow, v.t. H^ zarra. 
grow (up), v.i. (of persons) hf!Jl addaga. 

(of trees, etc.) (i^li baqqala (baq-). 
(become larger) ^hA akkala. 
He has grown up : ^A4»••l^XAK tllliq hiinoal. 
Where does it grow ? ^^ •• Va>- ■• h'^fl^'A « yet nau 

mmivaqil ? 
This child is growing: I^U-'AE-s^ViAAk yihe lij 
Gryllus sj)., s. ^l^n f^enta (§ 52«, 8). 
guarantor, s. 'Pft was. 

You must get a guarantor : 'PA s ^9"'n « was anta 

(§ 7f/). 
Who is your guarantor? ^hM'-^lihOhv. wasihman 
guarantor, be, v.i. (for, v.t.) 'h'Prt tawdsa (taud-). 
guarantor, offer as, v.t. }\*?(i awdsa (aud-). 

Whom do you offer as guarantor? *^V'} : ;^fl^^ AU :•• 
mdnniin tauusallah ? 
guard, s. (individual) Hfl? zabanfia (-ay-, -an-). 

mfl*fe tabbdqi. 
■f"^^ taraiifia (t;ir-, -ran-), 
(of one or more) H-fl zab (zay). 
Cp. §52a,S. 

127 GUA— GUN 

Mount a oriiard over him : n(Vi'-h^9"(\^:i zavdnna 
dqumibbat, pol. Hd^'-y^ao-d^n zayanna ydqu- 
mubbat, (-fl- to prevent his escape, § 47a). 
Mount a guard over it: H(\^'-h^9"ii^'.- zayanna 
dqumillat, pol. lffl?s^*fe<n>-AihK zayanna ydqu- 
mullat, (-A- to protect it, § 47a). 
guard, v.t. mfl*l* tabbaqa. 

Guard him (it): (Wfi^ahv. tabbiqau, pi. -*fe^:: -qut. 
guard, be on one's, v.i. +m^*f'4* tatanaqqaqa. 

Be on your guard : 'taiTf^^ s tatanqaq, pi. -* « -qu. 
guarded, be, v.p. +mfl4* tatabbaqa. 
guest, s. A-}*?^ (i)ngida (§ sj' 
guide, s. trod mari (mar-). 

I want a guide and nothing else: aodi'hd.^plUhl 
A.As^iA^CAl?":-. mari ifalliirallau^^ : lela alfdlli- 



They refused to give me a guide: aod:h'iA'?9": 
ht^^i-' mari annsdtimm (S G) dluii. 
guide, v.t. OD^' marra. 

Guide him: 9°^aha mirau. 
Guide us : 9"^> » miranna, 

o o 

guided, be, v.p. 'tao^ tamarra. 

guinea-fowl (JVumida mitrata), s. S'*1^ jigra (§ 52a, 8). 

guitar, s. ln<5-C kfrdr (§ 8). 

Guizotia oleifera (Guidi, Vocab. p. 397), s. V-*7 nug. 

gum, s. ao-^H. miicca. 

(of the teeth) f!:ff: didd (§ 52a, y). 
gun, s. mflT'^ tabanja (-aya-). 

'iidSt birat (-riit). 

V'PT naft. 

o • 

(big) aoff:^ madf (marf § Id). 
gunner, s. ao^&^ madf anna (arf-, -fail-, § 7^). 

GUN— HAL 128 

gunpowder, s. fl^J?: barud. 
gut, s. h'}'^^ dnjat. 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar {Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

habit, s. /^'/J-^ sfrat (§ 8). 
hj^C fddir. 
It is my habit : Z^'^'fc •• V<»- :•• sirat^e nau. 
Hcmiatopota sp., s. KoJ-Cs'Hl^'fl fwwur zimb (§ 52a, 8). 
hail, s. ddP- barad^o. 

' o o 

ddf^ barad. 

o o 

hair, s. (esp. of head) mT^C tagwiir. 

(on the face or body) "^IC cfgar (-gar). 
See § 52a, y. 
I want a man to cut my hair: ^rt.*} •• f '^Afift^ : 
^l<i.A/lAl^:•• rds^en yammildccanil ifalliorallauK 
hair-brush, s. ^dmd^ mabattarya (-ay-, -attar-). 
half, adj. & s. Mbfii fkkul (likk-). 
s. ^tV^A.;^ ikkuP eta (iikk-). 
T^ft samis. 

O o o 

Half of it will be enough: ?lV^A»;^fl^■: jiflj^Ar. 

ikkuPetau yivaqal. 

o •' o» o ^ 

Half a dollar: P-nC ■• ^lAj?: : yayfrr aMd. 
half-caste, adj. 4»A4*A qilfqqil. 
halt, v.i. ^m* q^ oma (§ 42c). 

Halt! "fcl^K qum !, pi. ^ao-n qiimu ! 

We will halt now: hih'ii'h'i^^ii'ii'. ahun inniq^'o- 

Where we halted : e*9"in^: yaq'^omndbbat. 

129 HAL-HAR 

halter, s. AO'Tl libab (Ifydv ; § 8). 

Put a halter on it: A'flflflM: labbivau. 

O O' o 

When it has a halter on : fLtiH-il - sillabbav. 

, o o o • 

hammer, s. <w»A^7f mad^' osa. 
hand, s. ?t& ijj (§ 52a, y). 

With your hand(s) : fljfu : bajjih (baj- ; § 7a). 

Give it into the Ras's hands: ft^n^OHsA^ft.-flJ? 
^fl>-K sitaccau lards viiijaccau. 
hand over, v.t. h^hfl arrakkaba (-rdk-, -ava). 
handkerchief, s. aodxd.'tl maharrab (av). 
handle, s. ao^'H' maydza (maid), 
handle, v.t. -^rtrt dassasa. 

' o o 

hang (up), v.t. rt+A sacjciala. 

hTfOxtimti antalattala. 

• o o • • o o 

Hang it up on the wall: 'h'7j^-*?^a>- •• ft+AiD- « ta- 

^rgfddau (§ 7d) siqalau. 
hanged, be, v.p. i'rt+A tasdqqala (tas-). 
happiness, s. ^ft;*' dass(i)ta. 

happy, be, v.i. ^ft-'^iA dass (diiss) dla (s.v. v/flA, § 44a). 
^{I'-hiiah dass (-a-) dlau (impers. § 43a). 
See § 6'Sd, e. 
Harar, s. thdC (h)arar (-riir). 

thdC% (h)ararg>'e (-rar-). 
Harar, language of, s. th^C^ (h)ararfiina (-riir-). 
harass, v.t. VH>H nazannaza. 

o o o o 

hard, adj. (of materials) T>- tfnu. 



m'J-h^ tankarra. 
(difficult) T'l^ cinq. 
•f "hC cfggur. 
Hard wood: T>-s?i'>cCte-^: tinii (§ 8) nc^^et. 

AM. GR. (ll) 9 

HAR— HAT 130 

The eggs should be hard; ?i'}4>^AAsj&Cp:: hqwu- 
Idl yjrga; — should not be hard: — •• hf,Cp k dirga. 
This book is hard to read: je.U!«iD^¥s'}fln-:'T'^4»: 
VflHK yihe matdf (§ 55b) niyayu cfnqi (§ 7d) nau. 
hard-working, adj. -^T- tfgu. 
hare {Lepus abessinicus), s. T^^A tfncal. 

G. T-'J'hA cfntal (-tal). 

-T-^^A cfncal. 
barm, s. (evil) flft bis. 

(damage) 7^^^ gwtiddt (§ 8). 
There's no harm in him (it): lUft •• f Aoni'" « bis 
harmful, adj. tlft bis (§ 576). 

»1^ kifu (kdfu, ktifu, § Id). 
harmful, be (become), v.i. h4- kaffa. 
hartebeest {Buballs tora), s. -f^ f' ora (§ 52a, S). 
harvest, s. hllem^ azmara (mar-), 
haste, s. ^h»A cikkwcola (ctikkdla ^7d; § 8). 
haste, make, v.i. ^h"A cakkwcola (cwkkola). 

^f'iir^.3i^ t^^olo dla (s.v. VflA, §44a). 
4{.mV fattana (fattiina). 
+Am<i. qalattafa. 

io o . • o o 

Make haste! -f/t-inAu t^^olo val!, pi. -fA-.-n/V-K 
t^dlo valu ! 


They must make haste: 'fA-s^flA-K t'V)lo yiyalu. 
Make haste and do it: -f-ti^.-diiV-h^Claha V^6\o 
yilah drgau (§ 7d). 
hasten, (cause to), v.t. hd.m'i afattana (afattiina). 

Mliaid, aqaldttafa. 

A© O • • O O 

hasty, adj. ^V^A cikkul. 
hat, s. flCi;*" barneta. 

131 HAT— HEA 

Have you seen my hat? (\Ci^^lf'h^O(D'i'' bar- 

netd^en ayyahau? 
Put your hat on: flC5i;^U'>! Aflfts barnetahin Hyas, 

pol. ^CJl;^?''}.•^Anrt«!•. barneta^'onyflyasu. 
Take your hat off: flCi;^U'>■•^la^A4':•. barnetahin 

We do not consider a man polite that comes 

in with his hat on: h^twilMr'-^'t'^m'dC^^: 

^^01 a4» •• f '^Ifl :•• aimasljinnim yiltaqatta yarneta 

saiauojlq yammisrava. 
hate, v.t. mA talla. 
hatred, s. ^^"^ qiyydm>e. 
have, v.t. use h^ dlla (§§ 32, 39), If V h'^Sna, etc. (s.v. be) 

with pers. suff. (§ 12c). 
I have another: AtAshA^" lela dllaii. 
Has he a horse? <{.<CA••^lAfl^■:•■ faras dllau? 

o o 

I shall have time tomorrow: il!T.H.!jiT^?AK 
naffa ixiz^'e yin^^oraiinal. 

( = cause), use causative in ^i- a- or htl- as- 
(§ 22«). 
Have it done: hflfiClOhi: asdarri<^au. 
Have the tree cut down: H^'JshA*feCm(D-:: zdfun 

A O • O 

hawk, s. 1^ gadd^e. 
hay, s. JtCit dirqwa. 

J^C*7i dfrq^^os (§ 8). 
he, pron. hCA* Irsii (§ 8), pol. "hCf^'foh irsac(c)au (§ 12a), 
(usually omitted imless emphatic). 
Yes, he is : htolr •• Vfl>- :•• dwwn, nau. 
It is he: ^lCA-sVfl^K irsii nau. 

O O 

head, s. ^ft ras. 

Fore part of head : M^ andt (§ 8). 


HE A— HE A 132 

head-man, s. "^9^ sum. 

*Jj&^1'? ainatanna (-natan-). 
(local) '^^i'd'9^ ciqd sum, often abbr. to 
1!'^ cfqa (§8). 
head-stall, s. AH'Tl Ifbdb (Ifvav ; ^ 8). 
health, s. (good) rttV t^ena.' 

f^'hlh^ dahninnat (-nat). 
How is your health? ?i'>^^siU« nd>et nah? pol. 

h^^^.-V?':: nd^et na^o ? 
Is he in good health ? ^IfT '• hah :•. dahna nau ? 
Is Eas Gugsa in good health? ^ft--T'*7"/!ft'i«?: 
^^Oh :: ras gugsa dahnd ndccau ? 
healthy, adj. (of animate objects) fll.'i''^ t^^enamma. 

(of places) ArttT:^*? lat^ena dagg (dagg). 
fll.'i" tJ-ena (§ 576). 
Is he healthy? a\,^^'*iahi\ t^^enamma (§ 8) nau? 
Is it (the place) healthy ? ntT •- hoh k t^ena nau ? 
Is that country healthy? ^:MC!Am.V!^'7!ia>-K 
ya agar lat^ena daggi (§ 7c?) nau ? 
heap, s. \l9°C kfmmir. 
heap, v.t. X\ao^ kammara (-mar-). 
heaped, be, v.p. 'tXiaoC takammara (-mar-). 
hear, v.i. & t. rt*^ samma (§ 63f?, e). 

Do (did) you hear? rt'^U" sammah? 
I do (did) not hear anything: 9"'}9":KArt'^ihK 
mfnimm alsammahu (-au^ § ^d). 

o o o \ o / 

Can (does § 63c) he hear ? J&A*^A :•■ yisamal ? 

He can't (doesn't) hear : Y\^fi"19°'A aisamam. 
heard, be, v.p. 'f'rt*^ tasamma (tils-). 

Can it be heard ? jirt'^A:: yissammal ? (§ 63c). 

It cannot be heard : ^ijirt*^?":: aissammam ( „ ). 
heart, s. A-fl libb. 

133 HEA— HEK 

heat, s. ao'^^ miiqat. 

Damp heat : Afl^ idbat (4ya-, -iit). 
heat, v.t. h'P*^ am'^oqa. 
heathen, adj. & s. hd^aoY, araman^e. 
heaven, s. rt'^/i samai (§ 8). 

Good heavens ! aiP-sT^J^:-- wwyyo gud ! 
heavy, adj. hfljt kabbad (-0,^?: -bbfd, -bbid ; § 8). 

Are the goods heavy ? JiJ?*'! hflj^sViD-:". fqa kabbad 


heavy, be, v.i. hfl^ kabbada. 
Hebrew, s. & adj. Ji'Tl^/iftT ibrdist (iyr-). 
heel, s. 'h^h'H tarak(k)az (§ r^2a, y). 
heifer, s. (very young) "hf^fyfi (i)mb''6ssa. 

(during first year) T^ tljja. 
height, s. "hCWao^' irzfmat (-milt). 
'fc<w»'lh (jiimat (-mat). 
What is his (its) height? 'ittn>'\^it\l^'''iahxi qiimatu 
sfnti nau ? ' 

o o o 

heir, s. fli^Ti wwrds (§ 8). 

Helioti'opium sp. (Broun, Cat. 374), s. *I?")'>1* cig''6g''ot 

(§ 8). 
helmet, s. flCi;^ barneta. 
help, s. ?^C•S;^ irddta. 
help, v.i. & t. [?»]^^i (i)radda. 

Help him: hCHahn frdau. 

They did not help us: h^.S.79":: arrdddunnim. 
hen, s. F-e d^or^'o (§ 546). 
her, pers. pron. (ace.) -a^ -at (§ 12c). 

(emph.) XCO,'} frsSn (§ 8 ; § 12a). 
her, poss. pron. -*P -wa (-5a; § 12b). 
herd, s. ao'ip mantra. 

' o ~ 

A herd of cattle: ^Yl'd^'-aolpi yakaft manga. 

HER— HID 134 

herdsman, s. tx^ irranna (-ran-). 

' o o ^ ' 

(nomad) HA^ zallan (§ 8). 
here, adv. ?iH,U (f)zzih (-zih ; § 8). 

hitO kazzlh (ha-, +- ta-, -az-, -zlh ; § 8). 
( = hither) m^Xi wwdih (-dfh ; § 8). 
Is it here or there? hH.U •• ^fl>- : OJJZ. s hlt^ :•■ kazzih 
nau wai kazzya ? 

o o o o *^ 

Come here ! '•"••oi-^.Uk na (pi. >•! nu) wwdih ! 
Is he (it) here (present) ? ^Ak alia ? 
Here it is, here: ^0(i>« s i'H.U « yihau tazzih. 
Here you are 1 (finding something) Jiilf:*. nnahd! 

(handing a thing) h^h k nka I 
Just here: i'lty--* tazzihu. 
hereabouts, adv. flftl'ltU bastazzih (-taz-, -zfh ; S 8). 

niLUilltl-A bazzi'h (baz-, -zfh) bdkkul 


hermaphrodite, s. & adj. ^(.T^T'^ fandfint (¥V- find-). 

hers, poss. pron. f C(l. yarsod (§ 8 ; § 12a). 

hew, v.t. *fe^m qwwrrata. 

hidden, adj. ftfli.C sfwwur (sydwur). 

hide, s. -PCfl^ q^drbat (-ry-, -at). 

(with coat) MA ag^'dza. 
hide, v.i. (oneself, v.r., be hidden, v.p.) ^hiDL tasauwara 

'Mf?f7 tasassasra 

o o o'-' o 

i'^n* tadabbaqa. 
hide, v.t. rtoi^ sduwara. 

' o o o 

Tflfl sassaga (sassiiga). 
fj\^ dabbaqa. 

135 HID— HIP 

Hide him (it): TiTilah'.- sassigau, pi. -'b^a -gut. 
hide, cause or allow to (§ 68), v.t. hft^fl* asdabbaqa. 
hiding-place, s. aoTlTil.^ massassagya (massiissag-). 
high, adj. ^S^ rajjim (raj-, -Dr9" -zzim). 

This mule is°iiot high (enough): f.VJJ[^^-•^d^rrs 
h^F-^n yfhe yaql^o rajjimimm aidiil (§ 7d). 
highland, adj. (highlander, s.) ^1? daganna (dagan-). 
highlands, s. ^;i daga. 
hill, s. 'h^^ tardra. 


(small) -VT g^ot. 
hilt, s. 0o\i^ makd. 

o ,_^ 

him, pers. pron. -u, -Oh -u, -^ -t, pol. -i^ah -dc(c)au,(§ 12c). 
emph. ItxCCb'i Irsiin (§ 8), pol. hCfirahlr 
irstic(c)aun, (§ 12a). 
Have you seen him ? h^Uoh :-. dyyahau ? 
I have seen him : ?if ii"l*:-. ayyiihut. 
I know Ras Gugsa, I have seen him: ^'tl'-'bl'H'' 
hah^H'Vt^-^lhn'l'ay'i'' ras giigsa auiiqaccau- 
dllau'\ ayyahwdccau. 
hinder, v.i. & t. hAhA kalakkala. 

' o o o o 

Don't hinder him (it): h^hAlnAfl>-:: attikalkilau, 

\ / O O o o 

pi. -A-^K -lut. 
Don't hinder them : >i'1hhAlflA^i»-:: attikalkildccau, 

^^ o o o o 

pi. -OL'f^fl>"K -Iwdccau. 
hindered, be, v.p. +hAhA takalakkala. 

i ^^ o o o o o 

hinderer, s. hAh^ kalkdi (-dyy § 6, § 8). 
hinge, s. *^m<t^ matafya. 
hip, s. ^t^ mwahit (-hit ; § 52a, y). 
hippopotamus {ff. amphibms), s. 9-*^^ gumdrJ'e. 
Hippotragus eqidmis, s. at'i^d wwndfbb^e (§ 52a, 8). 

D. ai^J^fl, wwddambi. 

HIR— HOL 136 

hire (cost of), s. h^Jl kfrS (§ 8). 
hire, let on, v.t. Aih^f akkarayya (-kar-). 
hire, (take on), v.t. +h^f takarayya (-kar-). 
4»m<l qattara (-tar-). 
Hire a mule: fl^'A^i'Ml^fts baql'^^o takaraJ. 
I wish to hire a house: ^^^^ Ah^|&!?i<i.^^AU-s 
b^et likkarayy ifalligallau^ (§ Id). 
hired, be, v.p. i'+m^ taqattara (-tar-). 
his, poss. pron. -u, -ah -u, pol. -k^oh -ac(c)au, (§ 125). 

emph. f Cfr yarsu (§ 8), pol. f C^^fl>- yar- 
sdc(c)au, (§ 12a). 
hiss, v.i. G. hXeOM afwacca. 
S. hGTi af^Onna. 
hit, v.i. & t. ao^ matta. 

Hit him (it): 9";^fl^:•. mitau, pi. JP**^-.: mitut. 
Don't hit him (it): MT'^Ohix attfmtau, pi. K^ 
r-^^v, attimtut. 


hither, adv. id-?.0 W6>dih (-dih ; § 8). 

hoar-frost, s. hao^^ amadai (§ 8). 
hock, s. (of animal) $7^ qwdnja (§ 52a, y). 
hoe, s. ao'^d.d^ maqwwffarya (-far-), 
hoe, v.i. & t. '^d.C qwwiFara (-far-). 
hoed, be, v.p. •f'^d^C taqwwffara (-far-). 
hold, v.i. & t. ^H ydza (§ 44c). 

(contain) ^A cdla. 
Hold (catch hold of) him (it): ^Hahn ydzau, pi. 

-H"^:: -zut. 

(Of a bag, jar, etc.). What does it hold? Itt^s 
/2.^-AAk sint yicllal? 

*^ o •^ o o 

(Of a nail or peg). Will it hold anything big? 
^A4»:?i^:^iFAA:: tilliq fqa yicilal? 

•^ OO-'-O^ •'OO 

137 HOL— HON 

hole, s. (through anything) +^-8 qaddda. 

(cavity) "hJt^Jt giidgwad (-lirgw- ^7d; § 8). 
There is a hole in the carpet: i'tlp^'-^H^itxtin 

tasigdjja qaddda alia (qadaddlla). 
He fell into a hole: ^T^j^^j^ •• ai^+ « tagiirgwad 

The steamer had a hole knocked in it: fid'Ci 

'^4*^^ •••■ bayur taqaddada. 
Sew up the hole(s) in it: 'pfifioh'} -. lii^ a qadddaun 

(cp. § o2a, 8) sffa. 
He (it) has made a hole in it : 'i^F-^^ « qadd^^'otal. 
It has got a hole in it : i'+J?^ A :•• taqadd^al. 
holiday, s. flA bal. 
hollow out, v.t. d,hd,ti falaflfala. 

o o o o 

hollowed out, be, v.p. 'i'dA^.h tafalaffala. 

' ' 1 o o o o o 

hollowing out, instrument for, s. ao^^d.^ mafalfdya 

(-fal-, -aia). 
holy, adj. ^'-S-ft cjiddiis (§ 8). 
home, s. 0*'*^ b> et. 

Is he at home? i'n>'lJ s Vfl>- « tav>etu nau?, pol. 
'^n.;^^fl^ : hA- :: tav^etdccau allu? 
honest, adj. ^Oji nabai (na-, -ya- ; -dyy § (3 ; § 8). 
^lfl^•V'^? unataiiiia (-nataii-). 
4»7 qin. 

(plain) '^9°^ cfmmit. 
honey, s. "IC mar. 

See whether there are any ants in the honey ; if 
there are, take them out with a spoon, not with 
your hand: i"^4-:Xj&:*'}«^*P':?i'>^An^::?»'}^As 
n*^'>h : hahn)ah '.'. flg-U : h-lrlh k tamdru iy quncdc 
(§ 52a, S) indallabbat ; ndalla, yamanka autau, 
vajjih attinka. 

HON— HOR 138 

honour, v.t. hhdd akabbara (-bar-). 

honoured, adj. hfl^C kfbur (-Jyu-). 

honoured, be, v.p. +hn^ takabbara (-bar-). 

hoof, s. h-i? kwwtt^e. 

T^C tffir. 

See § 52a, y. 

Take the dirt out of its hoofs: hS!:^-i"?^^' 

hoh^noh K idif tatifru autau. 

000*0 • ^ ^.^ 

Pare its hoofs: T^^'i'-'P^dmahv. tifrun qwtiratau. 
hook, s. (for fishing) tw^'?'i maqdtin. 

(for fastening) 'i^^9 qwulf 
hook, v.t. *feA<i. qwwUafa. 

(fish) yn ydza (§ 44c). 
hooked, be, v.p. i"feA<<. taqwojllafa. 

(fish) i'^H taydza (taid-). 
hope, s. i'tii' tasfa (tas-). 
hope, v.i. i'tli-ih^^l tasfa (tas-) adarraga. 

I hope I shall see you again: ^Tr*!AjZ.U!i'ft4-! 
h^C^AiHs dagm^o idyih tasfa adargallau^ pol. 
^«7^.-/\ffP: etc. dagm^o idya^ etc. 
horn, s. ^Tr^ qand (§ 52a, y). 
hornbill, ground (Bucorax cibessiniciis), s. 'hC\v9° irkiim 

(§ 8). 
horrified, be, v.i. ^V7m dana"q:ata. 
horror, s. ^'ipoh dingdt^e. 

horse, s. d.dh faras. 


What is the price of this horse? J&U !<{.<! A ••flft'}^. • 

'lOh K vihe faras vasfnti nau ? 

•'O 00 'CO O O 

What is its pace like? ^'^Ohs'h'i^^s^ahv. riic- 
cau nd^ et nau ? 


I want a horse with large limbs and a broad chest: 
^fi^q^o^9^:f^4:^9^'.d,dll-'hiL^p(Hh:: qiltimam da- 
ratam faras ifalligallau'*. 

O O O O O O*^ O 

139 HOR— HOW 

A horse with long pasterns: Tilfiahi^dttaoi d.dlli 

sah^ondu (S 52a, y) yarazzama faras. 
horse, interj. to urge a, if c^e ! 

to stop it, Kii iss ! 
horse-cloth (placed under saddle, namda), s. 
(for riding animals) 9^^ mfccu. 

aoao^ maminaca. 

o o 

(for transport animals) m.4» t> eq. 

Jt-n^-n dibdab (diy- 

ddy; § 8). 

<w>^Aj^A madalddil. 
hot, adj. tf»-4* muq. 

Hot water : «n»-4* •• a>-'/ •• muq wiiha. 

Hot weather : fli»-«|»'> .- miiqat. 
hot, be, v.i. 'T* m^^ oqa (§ GSd, e). 
hour, s. rt*J'Th sadt (§ o2a, 8). 

One hour: hl^-'M^i and sadt. 

Two hours: U-A-l* s rt^'l* s hulatt sadt. 

o o ^^ 

How many hours? ft'J'I'.'rt'Jil'! sint sadt? 

" o o 

Bring it in quarter of an hour: fl^-'flsrt'J^" 

Y\9^'^ahx\ bariiv sadt amtau (antau S Id). 
In half an hour : nVl-Asrt*J'1hs bakkul sadt. 

o o 

house, s. fti^ b^et. 

(of brick, stone, etc.) *7i'"'fl gimb. 
how?, adv. M9j^ (f)nd>et? (--^^ -dit,°-dit; § 8). 
hl^ri (i)ndamfn ? (§ 8). 
How do (will) you do it? ?i^^^ •• ;^ftC^<PAl; « nd>et 

tadarjjaualliih ? 
How are you? ?i'>^9"'}:10k ndamfn niih? pol. 
M^-V.-AVn*:: nd^etsanabbatu? 

o o o 

How is it made? K'J-^^.-jK.n^^A:: nd>et yibbajjal? 

HOW— HOW 140 

how, adv., (intensive) 9"*}? minffma (§ 15). 

How hot it is! (of an object): y"^? •• <m-4» : Vfl>- « 
minfnna muq nau ! — (of the temperature) 9°t^s 
tnt'i'^siahii mininna muqat (§ 8) nau ! 
How it runs ! 9"'}^ • ^amfia- minfnna yir^dtal ! 

(intensifying size or quantity) 9""} min with 

parts of hhli q.v. 

How large (small) he (it) is I J^'}:^UAAb min 

yahlal ! 

how, conj. (in indirect questions) X*}^- (i)nda- (-da-), 

pref to simp, perf (§ 48«) or to rel. + cont. (§ 14). 

I don't know how he did it: MHff^dlOh-.May'kr'K 

ndadarraqrau alauuqim. 
I don't know how it is made : ^lAfl^4'9"! h^^'^OE-:: 

alauuqimm indammibbaji. 
I will show you how to do it: M?Vti'^'''h'}J!:^^C 
lah'.: asayyahallau^ indittadargau, (lit. in order 
that you may do it). 
— Except after a negative, the indirect question 
may be left in its direct form : 
Show me how you do it: M^^--'h'i^^-'^f!^C1'P 

AUk asdyyanfi ind^et tadargauallah. 
Show me how it is made: M?^'-'h'i^^--S!»(i^^ii 
asdyyanfi ind^et yibbajjal. 
how much (many)? inter, pron. il'i^ sint ? (indecL, § 15). 
How much is there? ll'i^--hiii'' sint alia? 


How many are they? ilt^s^^ahn sinti (§ 7d) 
naccau ? 


how much (many)!, (intensive) J^'J-'^UA min ydhil! 
(yahl, S.V. Mlii). 
How many there are! 9°'}i^Vfii'-h/k':'- min yahl 

141 HOW— HUR 

howl, v.i. ^=»»Ti c'^oha (§ Id). 
hull, v.t. d^ii^ti falaflfala. 

o o o o 

hulled, be, v.p. •f'd.tid^h tafalaffala. 
hullo!, interj. flftin» : ^i'fl k basma ab ! (av). 

Hullo, you there ! hl't' •• Aoh k anta sau ! 
hum, v.i, h'i'h'^'h'd. angwajraggwwra. 
humble-bee, s. "hTrllll (pnziz. 
humorous, adj. 11,A+? bwaltaiifia (-tan-). 

*?»? wazaiifia (-zan-). 
hundred, card. num. oD-f' mat^'o (§ 20a). 
hung (up), be, v.p. i'rt+A tasaqqala (tiis-). 
i'Troxtimd tantalattala. 

o • o o • • o o 

If it is hung up its place is known: (Urt+A: 
A'h^flH •• f^^'Oi^^ :•• bissaqqal sif rau yittiiuwajqal. 
hunger, s. [?i]^'fl (i)rdb (-dy). 

hungry, be, v.i. [?i]^na>« (i)rdbau (-yau ; impers. § 43a). 
'h/f-fl taniba (titr-, -va). See S 03f/, e. 

I am hungry : ^fl^ « rdyaii. 

I am not hungry: ^^O^l^:-. arrdyaniiim (§§ 6, 7c). 

If he is hungry : fl.Cflfl>-: bfryau. 

They will be hungry : /&Cfl'T*PA:: yirvdccaual. 
hunt, v.i. & t. ^ftV Jiddana. 

' ' o o 

I want permission to hunt : A^^ •* ^^ft: '• "hd^^ptiih « 

ladiin fiqdd ifallig<41]au'\ 

o 1 O O 0^5 o 

hunting, s. hf!/} ddan. 

hurrah!, interj. ?irtj& (i)ssai! 

hurricane, s. haht\r dul'^o. 

hurried, adj. ■T-VhA cfkkul. 

hurry, s. ^*h"A cikkwwla (ctikkdla § 7r/ ; § 8). 

I am in a hurry : fl'-fh-Asi^K baciikkola (§ 8) nan. 

We were in a hurry: fl -f h»A •• If "JV « baciikkold 

HUE— HUS 142 

hurry, v.i. 'f^h°A cakkwwla (cc<jkkola). 

^lir•.h^ t^dlo dla (s.v. VOA, §44a). 
<i.mV fattana (fattana). 
*l*Am<{. qalattafa. 
Don't hurry: K^^W-Ak atticakkwtil, pi. -/V-.-. -hi. 
Hurry up ! -f A-: (IAk t^dlo yal 1, pi. -f A-: n/V-r. edlo 

• o 

hurry, be in a great, v.i. ^Vh A •• ^Vh A •• ?i A cikkul cik- 
kull (§ 6) ala (s.v. VnA, § 44a). 
I am in a orreat hurry : ^V^A: -flfhAsJiAAIp^K cik- 
kul cikkull ilallau^. 

o o o 

hurry (cause to), v.t. hd.m'i afattana (afattana). 

Mi\a\d^ aqalattafa. 

±o o • • c o 

Hurry him: K+AT<(.fl^K aqaltifau, pol. ^'I'AT^^k 

yaqaltifut, pi. >i4*AT^^k aqaltifut. 
Hurry them: M^Ti-^Oha aqaltifdccau, pol. ^4* 

AT55^fl>*« yaqaltifwdccau, pi. i^*l* AT^^flJ- "■ 

hurt, v.i. (feel painful) htwaD dmmama (§ 6Sd, e). 

My back hurts: %C^^l'-haoim^\\ jaryd^en (loQc) 



hurt, v.t. (cause pain to) Maoao asammama. 
(injure) 7°^ gwcudda. 
Don't hurt him (it): h^'^9^trDay'i'. attasdmmimau, 

pi. h^fi9^ao'^i'. attasammimut. 
The whip hurts him (it): ht\lip'-^ao'9^\\ alanga 
hurt, be, v.p. (feel pain) haoaDOh ammamau (impers. 
(injured) i'T"-^ tagwwdda. 
husband, s. flA bal. 

143 HUS— IF 

husbandman, s. lfl<2. gabar^^e (-ay-, -ar-). 
hush !, interj. K^ iss ! 

119° zimm ! 


hut, s. n»^ b5 et. 

(rude, temporary) "J^ g^'ojj^o. 
hysena {H. crocuta), s. £"'fl jib (jiy; § o2a, 8). 
Hypericum gnidicefolium (Guidi, Vocab. p. 428), s. 

hr"^ amfjja. 
Hyphaene thebaica (Broun, Cat. 600), s. ^i^C cffdr (§ 8). 

§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar {Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

I, pers. pron. ?i3t fn' e (§ 8, § 1 2a), generally omitted un- 
less emphatic. 
It is I : hi •• Y'S •'' in> e nan. 


ibex {Capra vali or walie), s. *PA^ wdlya. 
ice, s. fl^Jt barad. 

' o o 

n^/^ bdrad^^o (lit. hail). 

axC^ wurc (lit. frost). 
idea, s. hfi-ii {is(s)db (-dy ; § 8). 
idle, adj. fl)ri<P^ waswdssa. 

>ifl>-^A^^ audaldai (-dal-; -dyy § 6; § 8). 
idle, be, v.i. hoh^h^ti audaladdala (-daldddal-). 

o o o o ^ ' 

if, conj. (§ 81) 'fl- b(i)-, (q.v.), pref. to cont. (§ 48a). 

hl^vri (i)ndah^^on (-dJih-), (q.v.), follow- 
ing cont., rel. + cont., rel. + simp, perf , 
or gerund. 
fl- ba-, (q.v.)' pref to simp, perf (§ 48a). 
If you like: -fl^fli.^: bfttwwdd (§8). 

ILL— ILL 144 

If I am not here (there) wait: ?»Ji s fl ATC •"fej& » 
iii> e yaln^^or, qwwi, pi. ... "fe^ :•• . . . qwcJyyu. 

If he comes, he buys it: fl,<wi^:j&7H'PA:: bimdta, 

If he comes, he will buy it: f^oDm-Mf^in.^l 
H*PAk yimatandah^^on, yigazaual, (or ?i*^in»«]: 
"hTrZlfi-- etc. immimatandah^on, etc.). 

If they were to bring it, we should buy it : ^aDOb^i 
h'i^lT'i'.h'iinah'.'iaC'ii'. yamattut (§§ 7a, 14) fn- 
dah^^on, inno^azau ndbbarn. 

o ' o ~ o o 

If they had brought it, we should have bought it : 
fl<n>m-^smHVflH:: bamdttut, ba^azzanau. 
ill, adj. ;^<^'^ tamdnii. 
ill, be, v.i. ^aoao tammama. 

' ^ o o 

haoaooh ammamau (impers. § 43a). 
See § 63^, e. 
Are you ill? ;^<^>yA•" tdmmahal?, pol. ;^#nl<PAK 

tdmmaual?; or ^*P'/A:: amm^ohal?, pol. h'P 

Ph^i-' amm^o^Sal? 
He (it) is ill: ;^^A!•. tammSal, or ^i'^*;^AK Am- 

He (it) is not ill: h^^aoaoT^' altdmmamam, or 

hfiaD0Dah9° i- alammamaum. 
I am ill: ;^i^9"^A'V■K tamimmyallau^ or ^^?A« 

I am not ill: Yx^^tro^^ihT* i\ altdmmamhum, or 

MaoaD^9°i\ alammamannim. 

o o 

I was ill yesterday: to-day I am better: ^A'Jl's 
;^r<^:VnC:Ha..•n•>:V^:•. tiMnt tcamimm^^e nab- 
bar : zdr^e bagg^^'o (§8) nan. 

He is always ill : flTli'? •• Vm- :•• basitafind (§ 8) nau. 

145 ILL— IMP 

How long have you been ill? 9"^.-^Ua-;*'<w»9"0« 

min yahl tammamh ?, pol. ...^aoa^n ...tamma- 

ill, make, v.t. Maoao asammama. 

It will make you ill: ^fi9^aoi^v^ yasammimahal. 
Something I ate to-day has made me ill: H^s 

<iD'flA ■• flAl^^ •• Maoao^w zdr^e mdvil ydllahut 



illness, s. flTi;'' basita (§ 8). 
ill-treat, v.t. fl^A baddala (bad-). 
14- gdfl a. 
Don't ill-treat him (it): ^'Thflj^'AoJ-:: attiyaddilau, 

pi. -A"V:: -lut. 
Don't ill-treat them : M(\^*\'\'ah\\ attivjiddilaccau, 
pl. -^S^f^ahw -Iwdccau. 
ill-treated, be, v.p. i'fl^A tabaddala (-ay-, -ad-). 

-f'Tj. ta<^aff a. 
illuminate, v.t. ^^fl^ abdrra (ayd-). 
illustration, s. l^AA mfsil. 

9"^A^ missdl^e. 
immediately, adv. ca^^tD* wwdyau (§8). 
impartial, adj. ■^hlriA tikikkil. 
implement, s. '*ljt:Ch9 madragya (-rag-). 

aofid^ massdrya (-ya). 
impolite, adj. OAl bdlag^'e (-lag-). 
import, v.t. hhaof^ asmatta. 

What do they import? 9°'}'-ytlaD"\f)rii min yas- 

Do they import it? ^haom^^^w yasmdttutal? 
important, adj. ^9^ qum. 

An important matter: ^9^'*ilCi qum nagar. 

AM. GR. (ll) 10 

IMP— IN 146 

importunate, adj. ^h^^h cakcdkka. 
V'H'i'H naznazza. 


importunate, be, v.i. 'H'Yl'-hti cikk dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

importune, v.t. VHVH nazannaza. 

importunity, s. lll'ill nizfnniz. 

impossible! interj. h^l}"i9^''- aih'^dnim ! [lit. it is not, 

cannot (§ 63c) be], 
imprint, v.t. '^'i'ao hattama. 
hi'tro attama. 

o o 

imprison, v.t. hCtd assara (-sar-). 
imprisoned, be, v.p. ^fid tassara (-sar-). 
imprisonment, s. *7H^ gfz'^ot (§ 8). 
impudent, adj. ^4-C daflfdr (§8). 
impurity, s. h^^ ^d(i)f. 

(moral) '^xiuh^ (li)atydt (§ 8). 
in, prp. h- ka- [-t- ta-]. 
n- ba-. 


See § 4:7a. 
In the house: hn.^: kav^-^t (§ 8). 
In the grass : i"^C : tasdr (§ 8). 
In the water: '^a^ylI^■! tduhau. 


He was killed in battle: nrnO^s'Pi':: bat^orfn- 

O " o 

nat m^dta. 
In half an hour : flVh A •• rt'J^ « bdkkul sadt. 

o o 

What is there in it? 9^'i •• hiid^ -^ min allabbat? 

o o 

in, come (go), v.i. 10 gabba. 

Come (go) in! •in« giya!, pol. JE,*7n-:: yfgyu!, pi. 

•7fl'K giyu! 
Don't come (go) in! h^ndu attfgya!, pol. hf^ld-n 

Sgyu!, pi. >i '1**70' K attfgyu! 

147 IN— INC 

in, let, v.t. htllQ asgabba. 

Don't let him (her, it, them § 616) in: ^;^ft^^K 
attasgabba, pi. -Or» -bbu, pol. ?i^A7fl*:: aiasgab- 
bu. " 
in, take (bring, put), v.t. hid agabba. 

Take (bring, put) him (it) in: Mdaha dgyau, pi. 

-ft-^K -yut. 

Don't take (etc.) him (it) in: h^lflohn attagyau, 
pi. -n-lh:: -yut. 
incense, s. Iti^'i ftdn (§ 8). 
incense, v.t. ^ft'fe^ asqwcJtta. 
incline, v.i. (slope) 'l'H+H*l* tazaqazzaqa. 

H^-'hii ziqq dla (s.v. VflA, § 44«). 
incline, v.t. (cause to slope) H+H*!* zaqazzaqa. 
include, v.t. m4*AA taiiallala. 

hl(\ agabba. 
included, be, v.p. i'm+AA tata(iallala. 

in p^dbba. 
including, prp. hV- kanna- [+V- tanna-, § 47a]. 

Land including the timber, minerals and water 
on it: aod.'I'ih'i'iCE^'Pih'if^'i'hpah.h'iahyahii ma- 
rket kannanc^etu kannadari^Tau kannaiihau. 

o o • o o ~»' o o 

inclusively, adv. HT^'AA batfqlil. 

increase, s. '^£'"1^ cimmdri. 

increase, v.i. (be increased, v.p.) 't'CEbao^ tacammara 

\ A' O'OOO 

hhti dkkala. 

o o 

increase, v.t. £0.00^ cdmmara (-mar-). 
hdtim aballata (avd-). 

o o • o ^ • o ^ 

Increase it: fli9"^<D-» cammirau, pi. -4-^k -rut. 


INC— INF 148 

incredible, adj. ^'^f^^ao'i yammaittamman (§ 14, s.v. 
This kind of story is incredible: ?i^-?.0:^A:^A: 
hf^^aolT* s ndih yalla qal aittdmmanim. 
indeed, adv. KV^ (i)nji. 

MWi Akwdn (§ 8). 
tl^ biyya (§ 8). 
It is not white, indeed it is black: T*C •• Van •• h^^ « 
h*^9^ •• h^F-fii K tuqiir naunji, naccimm aidal (§ Id). 
Isn't it disgraceful ! Vfl>-C •- hf^f-ti^^ « ndur aidal- 
1am? (§77). It is indeed: Va>-!?i'>?.K naunji. 
indeed?, interj. ( = is it so?) KiWii'iOhM ndihnau? 
indefinite, adj. h-YY'^ agwdgwul. 
India, s. Vl^ hind. 

Indian, adj. f UT-Jt yahfnd (§ 8, s.v. P-, §§ 47a, 70). 
Indian, s. PU^Jt '- rtfl>- yahindi (§ Id) sau. 
Indian corn [Zea mays), s. Pfl/hCs'^TiA yabdhir (-aya-) 

indicate, v.t. haoMii* amalakkata. 

' o o o o 

indication, s. (symptom) *^ft;^a)*fe^ mastauwqya. 
industrious, adj. rt^i'? sarratailna (sar-, -tail-). 

^7- tfgu. 
industry, s. (employment) tl^ sfra. 

(diligence) ^p^ tfgdt (§ 8). 
infant, s. hi^tl ards (§ 8). 

h^ft-' aK" ards lij. 

fcft4'A caqla. 

^hmTr hitin (§ 8). 
infantry, s. "hld/i igranna (-ran-), 
infect, v.t. Vh nakka. 

149 INF— INO 

infected, be, v.p. 't'lh tanakka. 

These cattle are infected with plague: ^Viih-ii^: 

fl7I;^!Vh'f';^AK yihan kaft (S 52a, 8) vasita nak- 

infectious, be, v.i. hti^ dllafa. 

o o 

It is infectious : ^A4-Ak ydlfal. 
It is not infectious : ^^ A¥5^ « a^^dlf im. 
inflate, v.t. V4« naffa. 


inform, v.t. hti^wP astduwaqa (-wwq-). 
hild^ asradda. 


information, s. (knowledge) ha^'t'^ iw(ti)qat. 

(news) (Dd* wwr^e. 
informed, be, v.p. htD'P auwaqa (-wwq-). 
'I'd^ taradda. 

o o 

informer, s. fli^*^ taqqwdmi (twq-). 
inhabitant, s. flAIC baldgar (-gar; § 52a, 8). 
inhabited, adj. ti9° lam (liim). 
inherit, v.i. & t. (odft wwrrasa. 

o o 

injure, v.t. T"-^ gAvwdda. 

Don't injure him (it) : MT-fio- « attfgwiidau, pi. 

-^^:: -dut. 

injured, be, v.p. i'*?-^ tagwwdda. 
injurious, adj. h^ kffu (kdfu, kiifu, § 7d). 
injurious, be (become), v.i. h4. kaffa. 
injury, s. T-^^ gwiiddt (§ 8). 

(wrong) n^A badal (badal). 
ink, s. (dark) T*C.*+A^ ttiqur qalam. 

Bed ink: 4»^:+Ai^.- qS qalam. 
inn, s. tA-h*}^ lukanda. 
inoffensive, adj. 7C gar (gar). 

INS— INT 150 

insane, adj. "h'd^ ibd (iyd). 
insanity, s. h-fl^^ ibdat (iyd-, -dat). 

h-fl^V^ ibdinnat (iyd-, -nat). 
insect — no general term. 

Large buzzing insect: K^TiTi- (f)nziz (§ 52a, S). 
inside, adv. flflJ-flT bawiist (h- ka-, i^- ta-, -auti- ; § 8). 
inside, prp. fl-... » a>-ftT ba- (h- ka-, '^- ta-)... wust. 

h-...! flfD-flT ka- i-t- ta-)... bawiist (va-, 
-fui-; §8). 

See § 476. 
Inside the house : hfl>il' s fl^ftT •- kay^et wust. 
inside, s. ahliT wust. 
insincere, adj. (of persons) AHH lazdza. 
insolent, be, v.i. (D-TT!fl>-TT-*hA wiitit wdtitt (§ 6) dla 
(s.v. VnA, § 44a). 
Don't be insolent; iD-TTsflJ-TTsh^n^s: wtitit wii- 

•o • 

titt dttval. 
inspect, v.t. l^d.'h'd gwojraggwwra (-rwgg-). 

aod^tw^ marammara (marammara). 
instrument, s. '^f^CX^ madragya (-rag-). 

aoii^^ massarya (-ya). 
intelligent, adj. i?*A» c^dlPe. 

'flA'/i'? bilhatanna (-tan-). 

O O ^ ' 

Tflfl^ tibabaiifia (-ivav-, -an-). 
h^*k awaqi (and). 
l^f\9^ rasdm (§ 8). 
interest, s. (on loan) fliAj^ ^valldd (wwl- ; § 8). 

It is not at interest: floiAj?:?" •• ^|K.^A « bauwl- 
Iddimm didal (§ "id). 

151 INT— INT 

interfere, v.i. i'^Uti^ tadaballaqa (aya-). 

S. 't'^(\^^ tadaballaqa (-aya-). 
Don't interfere with him in his work: i'll^ohs 
h^^'flA4»n^K tasfrau attidddylaqibbat (§ 47a), 
S. ...: h^f:(\^^a^K ...attiddavdlaqibbat. 
He (it) interferes with him (it): |ij^nA4»n;''A « 
jdddayallaqfbbatal, S. -^fl- -ddaya- (§ 47a). 
interior, s. fl>-ftT wiist. 
interlace, v.i d.i'fi fattala (fattjila). 

' o o o ^ o ^ 

interlaced, be, v.p. i'd.i^fi tafattala (-fattala). 
interpret, v.i. & t. •f'd°ao taraggwwma (tiir-). 

Interpret for (to) me: 'I'CT^J^A^k targwiimilliu 
(§ 47a). 
interpreted, be, v.p. 'M'^T^/wi tatardggwwma (-tiir-). 
interpreter, s. hAi'C^*'^ astwrgwdmi (-tar-). 
interrupt, v.t, (a proceeding) hl^ti ;iggwwla. 

Don't interrupt it: M'T-tvay''.' attfigg^'Tilau, pi. 
-A-l-:-. -hit. 

Don't let him (it) interrupt the work: tl^at'ti 
h'iH^t'fii''' sfraun inda^aggwul. 
interrupted, be, v.p. ^'l^ti taggwwla. 
intertwine, v.t. <i.'^A fdttala (fattala). 
intertwined, be, v.p. i'ii.i'A tafattala (-fattala). 
intestine, s. h"}"^^ dnjat (§ 52a, y). 
intestines, (gen.), s. If J^ •• "h^ h'^ ddiqa. 

<CCA fars (fars). 
into, prp. h- ka- (+- ta-; § 47a). 

Put it into a box : h^T*} •• A%*7flfl^ « kasdtin dgyau. 
intoxicated, be, v.i. rth^ sakkara (-kiir-). 

INT— ISL 152 

introduce, v.t. (bring in) hid agabba. 

(present) hl^f aggananna. 
Introduce me to the Ras: '^^ft ■• MTf^ « tards 


aggandnnan, pol. . . . ^Ti"^^ » . . .yaggandnnuil. 
invert, v.t. lAflm galabbata. 

' ~ o o o • o 

Invert it: lA'flm<D-« galyitau, pi. -m-^K -tut. 
inverted, adj. I^HT gilbit (-Ivi-, gilibbit). 
inverted, be, v.p. i'ltidm ta^alabbata. 
invite, v.t. m^ tarra. 
invited, be, v.p. ■fm^ tatarra. 

I have been invited (out): 'i'mC'^^ti'^a tataiic- 
irascible, adj. 4>^m« qwtittu. 
iron, s. 'fld^ bfrat (-rat). 

(flat-) iwt'\io7i matakkwojsa (-tcok-). 
iron, v.i. & t. (linen) ■i'Viort takkwwsa (twkkosa). 
ironed, be, v.p. (linen) i'i'h-A tatakkwcusa (-twkkosa). 
irrigation channel (J^J^), s. <w>ftT masn^'o. 

n^ b^^dT. 
<i.rtft fasas. 
irritable, adj. «f>^/n- qwtittu. 

-h'T^g- tanddaj (§ 8). 
hT^9^ am^dtdm (§ 8). 
He is irritable : hT*^9° •• "lOh « am^^'otam nau. 


irritate, v.t. (provoke) htl'k^ asqwwtta. 

(prickle) h-rth-rt kwwsakkwwsa (-scJkkosa). 
Don't irritate him (it): ^;^^l'fe'^fl^■ :•• attasqwwttau, 

pi. -flV-^K -ttut. 

island, s. ^rt.^ dd,s>et (§ 8). 

153 IT— JEA 

§§ 8, 12a; usually 

omitted unless em- 

it, pers. pron. nom. ?ifr fssu 
hCib frsu 

hCOt, frsod 
dat. & ace. -ah -u. ) 

-^ -t after o, u. [ § 12c. 
-a^ at. ) 

This (that) is it: hft'i'iahii issu nau. 
Italian, adj. f ^A.^ yatalya. 

^^ilSY, yatalydni. 

S.v. f-, §§ 47a, 70. 
Italian, s. "J/l.^J: talydni, pi. -T^ -n'^'oc (-cc § 0). 
Italy, s. X'HA.^ jt^lya. 
ivory, s. *f*'>Jt (l|iid (lit. horn). 

fHlf'>:+'>Jt yiizoh^^on qand. 

§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

jackal, s. ^^G qabar'^'o (^- qd-, -ya-, -ar- ; § 52a, 8). 
jacket, s. l-n^'H gfbbigibb. 
(Eur.) tln^ k"ot. 
January, s.v. calendar, 
jar, s. (large) "hltli- (i)nsfra. 

(small) -f 4^ t^^Ofa. 
jasmine {Jasminum floribundiim, Broun, Cat. 330), s. 

fli9"nAA tambdlal (-balal). 
jaw, s. ao'ipp mangdga. 

Lower jaw of animals : *7'}T'A gfncil. 
jealous, adj. +V'^? qannataniia (-taii-). 

JEA— JUM 154 

jealous, be (become), v.i. 4**? qanna (§ 63f?, e). 

He is (will get) jealous: J&+'?A» yiqanal, pi. 
j&^'i'A'K yiqanallu. 
jealousy, s. ^'^^ qindt (§ 8). 
jest, s. 0,^^ bwdlta. 

*PH wdza. 
Jew, s. hf»ih^ aihiid. 

jingle, v.i. W'-W-hti kyu kyu ala (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
1n^.-h^.-Mkickicc(§6)dla( „ „ ). 
join, v.i. (meet) laiao gattama. 
join, v.i (e.g. splice) ^aiti qattala. 
(meet) i'l^'^ tagananfia. 
joined, be, v.p. 'i'^mti taqattala. 
joint, s. *^aid»f matafya. 

(of the body) /^C sir (§ 52a, y). 
joke, s. (lA;^ bwdlta. 

*PH wdza. 
joy, interj. expressing, hrtjZ, (i)ssai! 
joy, s. ^A;^ dass(i)ta. 
judge, s. (d9"^C wwmbar (-bar). 

H^ ddnna. 
judge, v.i. & t. <i.^ft fdrrada A- la-, fl- ba- (§ 47a). 
judged, be, v.p. 'td.dff.ii^ tafarradallat (favourably). 

'td.d^f^tX^ tafarradabbat (unfavourably), 
judgment, s. ^C)^ fird. 
jug, s. '^'}'feC*fe^^ manqwwrqwwrya. 
juice, s. hoc iz. 

OhV (w)iiha (liha). 
July, S.V. calendar, 
jump, s. 11 A^ zfllya. 
jump (over), v.i. & t. HAA zdllala. 

Jump: TiA^K zflal, pi. TfAA-K z(lalu. 

155 JUN— KEE 

Jump over it: Utiliahn zflalau, pi. -f^^v. -lut. 
Jump onto it: TfAAfl^" zilalibbat, pi. -/V-fl'Th:: 


June, S.V. calendar. 

juniper {Juniperus phoenicaea, Guidi, Vocab. p. 829, 

Schweinfurth's J. procera), s. Tj^ tid {§ 52a, 8). 
lust, adi. -^hhA tikikkil. 

(of persons) 'PC-^ : f +T f frdu yilqanna. 
He is just: 'PC^.:^hhA.•ifl^K firdu tikikkil fi 8) 


just, adv. (only) 'fl^ bfcca. 

txlfjoh (i)ndau (§ 8). 
K-J-^^fli- (i)ndy^ (§ 8). 
(emphatic) -(D* -u (q.v.). 
State just what you know: h'}i^ih9^:f'ah^ah'i'' 
-fl^ ! i'T7C :•• antii mmittaufujaun (-tiimmttduq-) 
bfcca tand":ar. 

o o ~ 

Just give it me : hl^ahsdm^'.'' ndau sftafi. 

C5 *^ O O'O 

Just pull it: ^floH.'M^flj-:: saydu ndau. 

Just there: '^ll.^fl^;•. tazzydu (§ 8). 

All right! I am just coming: "h'tC'-oDfii'h:- issi, 
mdtt^h (§ 7^) 

justice, s. 'PCj^ fird. 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

Kaiiahia lanl flora (Broun, Cat. 348), s. f j^/wj^ •• 0)+^ 

yadfmmat wwtat. 
keep, v.i. (remain) rtVfl'h sanabbata (-bat-). 
*fcf qwwyya. 

KEE— KIN 156 

Keep here till I come back: 'Ml,Us*fe^!?iflh<n>'»l:: 

tazzih qwwyy iskimata, pi. ...s*fe^s?tft*l-... qwwy- 

yu ski-, 
keep, v.t. mfl4* tabbaqa. 

Keep it till I come (back): m'd^ahihfitlaomi'- 

tabbiqau skimata, pi. . . . -*^ •• hMl- . . . -qut iski-. 
keepsake, s. Iti^mli mastaudsa (-aucos-). 
kept, be, v.p. 'i'm(\^ tatabbaqa. 
kerosene, s. tA9"fl lamba. 
kettle, s. aoVd,"^ mahraj. 
key, s. OD^^ mdfca. 

ao\\^^ makfaca (-fac-). 

o o ^ ' 

khor ( J^), s. St:^ dfffa. 
^^ faf a. 


kick, v.i. & t. <w»;^ matta. 

Does it kick? ^ao^^'» yimatal?, f. ^ao^ti^w ti- 

matallac ? 


kid, s. (male) ©mm. wajtat^^e. 

(female) -fe-n q^^eb (q^'ey). 
kidney, s. W-AA.^ kwuldlit (§ o2a, y). 
kill, v.i. & t. I^A gaddala (gad-). 

Kill him (it): *7^A(»-k gfdalau, pi. -A-^s: -lut. 
Don't kill him (it) : >i^*7^Afl>-K attfgdalau, pi. 
-A-^K -lut. 
killed, be, v.p. H^i- m^ota. 

He was killed by a lion: n^flA : X& •• Ti- « ban- 
vassflii m''6ta. 
killed, have, (cause to be), v.t. hhlf^h asgdddala (-gad-). 
kind, adj. ^C ciir. 
kind, s. "if^*!^ '"^F^t (-niit). 

Of what kind? rii^' minfima?^ (§15). 
p.^-?fl>-» yetfnfiau? ( „ ). 

157 KIN— KNI 

What kind is it? *JftV* : ir">j^C : Vfl^ s dinatu mfn- 
dir nau? 

o o 

kindness, s. ^CV^ carfnnat (-nat). 

(kind action) (D^ti^' wtilata (-lat-). 
king, s. ^T-/** nfgus (§§ 8, 536), pi. \l/^'> nagast and 
'I'j^^:^- naorastdt. 
Where is the king? ^7-/*':P»^!T^id«k| nigiis yet 
ndccau ? 


What did the king say? 'i'b/^--9^'i:hti".'. nigus 
min dlu ? 


kingdom, s. ao'il/**^ mangist. 
kinship, s. 11 9" j^*? zimdinna. 
kinsman, s. Hao^ zamad. 

o o 

m^j^jp wcJndim [prop, brother ; pi. also 
at'i^o^H^'^' wwndimdm^'oc (-cc § G)]. 
kiss, s. aofi9° masdm (§ 8). 

(mutual) aDfifi9" massdssd,m (§ 8). 
kiss, v.t. ftao sdma. 

' o 

kissed, be, v.p. i'^iao tasdma (tas-). 

kitchen, s. [f ]aiT •• n.1- (y;l)wwt b> et (y^et). 

kite {MilvHS regalis, Guidi, Vocab. p. 840), s. T'A^ 

cpat (§ 8). 

klipspringer ( Oreotragus saltator), s. M sdsa. 
knee (-cap), s. T^Afl-lh gwiilbat (-ly-, -iit ; § o2a, y). 
kneel (down), v.i. I^J'^fl^hh tambarakkaka (-bar-). 

(in prayer) rt7^ saggada. 
kneel (down), cause to, v.t. }\9°(\^\\\\ ambardkkaka 

o o o o 

Make it kneel down: Ai9"nchh<»«:: ambarkikau. 

o o 

knife, s. (large) h^ karra. 
(small) iilau santi. 

KNO— KUD 158 

knock, v.i. & t. <w>;^ matta. 
lea* gacca. 
Knock before entering: ft^'}s9";^s^^1flK dajjun 
mita sattigava. 
knock (against), v.i. 'tpea. tagacca. 

Don't let them knock against each other: h^p^Etin 
knot, s. *I»^TC qwitir (qwdt-). 
knot, v.t. ^(Tid qwdttara (-tar-). 
know, v.i. & t. ho)'^ auwaqa (-wwq-). 

I know: ^fl^^Al^« auqallau^ (§ 7d). 

1 don't know: hAi»-4»l'"K alauqim. 

I know him (it): ^lfl^«*I'*PAl^•.•• auqauallau^ 

I don't know him (it) : ^Afl^*l'a^9"K alauqaum. 

Do you know ? ^ah^tiV « tauqallah ? 

Do you know him (it) ? ;^II^*I''PA0 k tauqauallah ? 

Do you know them ? ;^a^^^*PAU « tauqaccaual- 

Does he know ? ^fl>-J* A « yauqal ? 
Do they know ? ^OJ-^A* k yauqallu ? 
If you don't know, say so: fl;^a^4».•Ma^4*9"••flA•.5 
battauq, alauqfm (§8) bal. 
knowledge, s. (learning) ^9^[V]C^ t£m(h)frt (§ 8). 

(acquaintance) hoh^^ lw(u)qat. 
known, be, v.p. ^^fl)* tauwaqa (-wwq-). 
kopje, s. "JT g'^'ot. 

(large) h9^(\ c4mba. 
kudu [Strepdceros kudu), s. hpWi agazan (-ziin). 

159 LAB— LAK 

§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

labour, s. (work) ft^ sfra. 

(workmen) rt^i'^^ sarratannoc (sar-, -tail- ; 
-occ § 6). 
labour, v.i. rt^ sarra (sar-). 
labourer, s. rt^'h? sarratafina (sJir-, -tan-). 

flA^^ balamwdya (-aia). 
lace, s. (for fastening) '^fl^^ masarya (-sar-, -yii). 
lack, v.t. hm dtta. 
lacking, be, v.i. ^^ tatta. 

I^ft ^addada. 
What is lacking? J^'>:^;I-«1A:: min yittdttal? 
ladder, s. <wirtAA masaldl (§ 8). 
laden, be, v.p. i'Tihao tasakkama (tiisak-). 
+*^> tacdna. 

O • o 

lady, s. Tiaod't' (i)mmab^et (-ay>et ; § 8). 

iD^nC wdizar'^o (wSi-, -zar-), pi also aij&H'HC 
waizdzir [wwi-, -HUC-'t' -zdzir^^'oc (-cc § 6)]. 
My lady (form of address): h'^^n fmm^et! 
My lady (form of reference): X'^'fre (i)mm>et^e 

Our Lady : ?i<w>ft,;J"^''>: (i)mmayietdccin. 
lag behind, v.i. *l*^ qarra. 

Don't lag behind: h^^Cv. attfqir, pi. h^^^'i- 
lake, s. flrhC bdhir (-har) ; s.v. dp. 

(small) '^JPQ,^ cfmbwdt (§ 8). 
Is it a lake or a river? ^*7;tAsfl)^!jirh.^AK rag- 
t6al wcJi yihddal? 

LAM— LAN 160 

lamb, s. n*7 bag (§ 52a, S). 
lame, adj. hlh^i ankdssa. 
lame, be (become), v.i. Mhfl andkkasa (§ 6Sd, e). 

He is lame: ?\'}hO,A:-. ankisoal. 

She is lame: Mh^A^w ankisallac. 


He will get lame: ^Vh^A« yanakkisal. 
She will get lame: ;^Vlfl^A^:•. tanakkisallac. 
lameness, s. K'Jhft'i' (i)nkisfnna. 
lamp, s. tro-air^^ mabrdt (-ayr- ; § 8). 
*^'fl^^ mdbrya (-dyr-). 
tw^^li maqraz. 

O A o 

Lamp oil: tA9"fls lamba. 

Light the lamp: ao'd^'ts'iih'd^ahti mayrdtun dy- 

Put the lamp out: iw»'fl^i5'}s?iT4-iD-K mayratun 

The lamp is too high: *^'fl^^fl^ s nc^;t A « mdy- 
ryau yartitoal (from fl^;^). 
lamp-shade, s. ftwd^^saoYlfiJi yamabrdt (-ayr-) mak- 

dafia (-daii-). 
lancet, s. imahX^ maiigya. 

Oihdo wcJsf^e. 
land, s. 9"JtC mfdir (mdir). 

(country) hlC agar (-gar). 
landslip, s. <w»C*7 marg (marg). 
language, s. ^1^ qwanqwa. 

What is your own language? f'ii'i^tlVi^'i^Vi 
9^lSt:l •' hah :: ydnta rdsih qwanqwah mindfn nau? 
What language does he speak? 9"'>?s/i*?7^AK 
minfiiiia yinnderoraral ? 
lantern, s. i-'i-ti fdnus. 

161 LAR— LAT 

large, adj. ■^A^' tilliq. 

large-boned, adj. ^'AT*^!^ qiltfmam (§ 8). 

lash, s. (stroke) nC4^^ girfit (§ 8). 

(whip, small) hti'ip alanga. 

(whip, large) g-^^P jfrdf (§ 8). 
If you do that again you will get twenty lashes ; 

dammed nd^^ih yadarragh fndah^'^on haa tis:- 
lashes, give (to), v.t. Idd. garrafa (g^r-). 

He gave him ten lashes: h/^'C •• l<i<i.a>- « assir jrar- 

^ o ~ o 


o o 

Give him ten lashes: h^^Ci*ldd.ahii dssir fffrafau. 

^ o Oo o o 

lashes, receive, v.i. i'ld^ tagarrafa (-gar-). 

How many lashes did you receive? tlt^ti'ldWii 
sint tagarraf h ? 

o o <-' o o 

last, adj. 'Xti*! hwaldiina (-Ian-). 

Last month: ftid^fOiC'- ydllafa wwr. 

Last year : h9°'i •• amna. 
last, v.i. T<C n'' ora. 


How long will (does) it last? I'^'J.-^UA.-^T^Ak 

min yahl yin'' oral ? 
lasting, adj. X^ nw^ri. 
late, adj. 

'Late' is rendered by such verbs as ^d.R, Hf- 


fada, to be(come) forenoon, <w»?f mdssa (mas-), 

to be(come) evening, according to the time 

at which one is speaking : 

I thought it was too late: (in the morning) 

d^f^'n^fiii'(\y^V'^^ rafd^^obbiniial yiyycillaiih, (in 

the afternoon) £iD7i'f"fl?A!'fl- mast'^obbifinal yi-. 

AM. GR. (ll) 11 

LAT— LEA 162 

late, be, v.i. Hlf zagayya. 
*feP qwwyya. 

See § 63c?, e. 
Don't be late : h^H7/2,K attizagai, pi. YvVWl^-^ at- 
tizagayyu {§ 6) ; or A^'fe^K attfqwwi, pi. h^'fe^w 
attiqwwyyu (§ 6). 
He (it) is not to be late: h^niff^a aizdgai, pi. 
h^ni^ii aizagayyu; or ^J&*fe/iK aiqwwi, pi. 
^^*fe^K aiqwwyyu. 
He will be late: j&H7^Ak yizagayyal. 
He will not be late : hf^\i1^9°\i aizagayyim. 
He is two hours late: l^A^••rt^^!'fef » hiilatt saat 

o o 

Why are you late? ft Ai'"'} •• *fef U k silamfn qwwyyah? 
It's getting late (in the morning): A.<l¥j?: s ifl^ k 
lirafd nau, (afternoon) (i^oo'^i'iahv. limas nau. 
late, make, v.t. ^*feP aqwwyya. 

What (has) made you (so) late? S'^Jsh^fefUs: min 
aqwwyyah ? 
later (on), adv. fl^^^A bahwdla (bauha- § Id). 
latrine, s. ^^V •• 9"J?:C ainamdir (-nam- ; § 9cT). 

?ipl^ •• fl.^ yasagard b^'et (-gar-, y^et). 
laugh, v.i. "i* sdqa. 

What are you laughing at? ^9^'ii^/**^^Vii lamin 
tisiqallah ? 

o o i 

Don't laugh at him : h^^^d^n attsdqibbat. 
lavatory, s. '^mfl,^ matabya (-ayya). 
law, s. ^H-H tizaz (§ 8). 
/^^^ sirdt (^ 8). 

o \0 / 

(religious) !h1 higg, pi. ^hlp^ higgfgat (§ 8). 
lead, s. (metal) [hjC^A (i)rsas. 

163 LEA— LEA 

lead, v.t. htiXhf!^ askadit (-ka-, -da). 

(an animal) ^fl sdba (sdya). 
(guide) ao^ mdrra. 
Let him put a halter on it and lead it : A-flO -• 
ftOflaJ-:: labbiv^'o yisdvau. 
lead to, v.t. ©rtfi wassada (wtJs-). 

Where does this road lead to? ff^VsaDlrl^s^^: 
J&oifl^A:: yihe mangad yet yiwwsdal? 
leaf, s. (of tree or book) 4»niA qftal (§ o2a, 8). 
leak, v.i. (escape) <i.rtA fassasa. 

(allow to escape) hd^iift afdssasa. 
The water leaks: ahVaht^d^fi^y- wiihau yifasstil. 
The jar leaks: ?i'>ft^a>-!^<C<^A« nsfrau yaf^ssal. 
lean, v.i. "fZld. tadasprafa (taoaddafa). 

' "^ o oO~o o ^ o~o o o ' 

't'oip tatagga, against, fl)^»- wwda- (§ 47«). 
lean, v.t. htitnp astagga. 

Lean the box against the wall: AT>-'}.-ai^*7j^-*7^i: 
htimpohi'. sdtinun wwdagirgidda (§ Id) astaggau. 
Don't lean it against it: h^i'dtnpah-.: attastdggau. 
leap, s. TiA^ zillya. 
leap (over), v.i. & t. HAA zallala. 
learn, v.i. & t. ^H ydza (§ 44c). 
tiaop lammada. 

•^ o o o 

'i'*nd. tamdra. 

o o ^^ 

It is hard to learn: ^1^^119^ v. aiyydzim (lit. it can- 
not be learnt, § 63c). 
I wish to learn it: AfcH£»« •• ?i<i. A^ A'>^ « lifzau ifal- 

^.^ '^ oo o o o 

I want to learn Amharic: h'lC^''fii^9^^ih^L^ 
ptHhii amarffiiia lildmd ifallisfallau^ 

o o o o o o~ o 

learned, adj. M'k awaqi (aud-). 


LEA— LED 164 

learned man, s. S/di'^ dabtara {-avt-, -aft-, -tar-), 
learning, s. ^r\yfp^ tfm(h)irt (§ 8). 
learnt, be, v.p. +^H taydza (taid-). 
least, at, (U^^A byans (s.v. \\hh). 

There are at least two: (U^^ftsihA^s^A*:: byans 
hiilatt allu. 


leather, s. ^Cfl^ q^'^orbat (-ry-, -at). 
leave, s. ^^9: ffqad (§ 8). 

leave, v.i. & t. [depart (from)] i^W tanassa h- ka- (^- ta-). 

When do you leave? <w»^s^i"/AUK mac^e tin- 

nassallah? pol. rwi^:/iV»^A's: mac^^e yinnassallu? 

pi. (fo^ ■• ^WA^ih « mac^^e tinnassalldccyuh? (§ Id). 

You must leave this place: e*7j?: : -MtO : ^V*^AO « 

vaoffddi tazzih tinnassallah. 

J Oo o o o o 

leave, v.t. i'flJ tawa (taua). 

Leave him (it) alone: '^flJfl^K tauau. 
Leave him (it) here : hH,U : i'fDOh v. kazzih tauau. 
Leave (pi.) it as it was: K'J^VflC ■• i'flJ.^ :•• ndanab- 
bar tauut. 

o o 

Leave it open: i'ii^-f"- ^^ao*? v. takaft^o yiqqa- 

o • 

Who left this? ^ViTr-'l'ii't'tDahv. yihannan man 
tauau ? 

o o 

Where did you leave him (it)? f^H'-i'dhUohv. yet 
tauhau ? — you pi. — . . . i'<P^ih'> «... taudccihut ? 

o o *' ••• o o 

You have left this out: ^0!+C;1:Ak yfhe qar- 
lectern, s. Mdil atr^onis. 

' o 

led, be, v.p. (guided) i'tw^ tamarra. 

(of an animal) i'fid tasdba (tits-, -dya). 

165 LEF— LET 

left, s. & adj. (left hand) *7^ gfra. 

On (to) the left: 0*7^.- bagra. 
left, be, v.i. & p. (over) *l»^ qarra. 

(abandoned) i'i'a) tatawa (-aua). 
There are twenty-one left: U^.*rh'}jt.-^4»^AK 
ha^ahdnd (§ 20a) yiqaral. 

lend, v.i. & t. hdff^d abdddara (ay-, -addara). 

Please lend me some ink: ?inyiU:T*Cs4»A5^! 
hflJt^i^K iyakkih tiiqur q^lam ayaddiriiii. 
length, s. hCHao^ irzfmat (-miit), 
^OD^ qumat (-miit). 
What is the length of your rope (string) ? lao^-i)-- 
*fc<Hi'lJ ! A'J^'' : VoH « yamadih qiimatu sfnti nau? 

OqoO a o ooo 

Lent, s. mJP t^^om. 

leopard [Felis pardiis), s. V-flC ndbir (na-, -yir). 

leprosy, s. AJ'^T lamt. 

Lepus abessinicus {L. tigrensis), s. '?Vl'^ tfncal. 

G. '^'>tk cfntal (-till). 
*P''}'TA cfnciil. 
let, v.t. (allow) "Irai tdwa (tdua). 

Use causative in Y\ti- as- (§ 22a) ; s.v. VflA, § 44a. 
Will he let you go? Al'rh.Jt:^'ha>-'/A:: litthad 
yitduhal ? 

► O o 

I will not let him (her, it, them § 61&) come : 

hMioDttxy^xi alasmattam. 
Aren't you going to let us pass? fiA^A4.^ii-: 

'IhA AU K alasallifdccvuh tiMllah ? 

O " o 

The flies wouldn't let me work: 'H^P-f-AiArt^^: 
hA-K zfmb^'occ alassarrann dlu, or TfJ^fl^.-Ail.: 
hA^Cls^s zfmb^oc sfra asfattun. 

LET— LTA 166 

She will not let one take it (them): hMlf»ni9^'' 
^AA^K alasyfzim tilallac. 
Directing: use the jussive (§ 34). 
Let him (it) come : f.9°^ « yimta. 
let, v.t. (on hire) fih^f akkarayya (-kar-). 

Will you let it (them) ? Vh^^AU-.: takkarayydllah ? 
Will he let it? ^h^fPAw yakkarayyaual ? 
At how much a month will you let it? (latC'-tll^i 
^h^^'PliV « bauwr sint takkarayyauallah ? 
let go, v.i. fi^^ laqqaqa. 

Let go ! A+4'K hqaq!, pi. A+'fcs Ifqaqu ! 
let go, v.t. A+4* laqqaqa. 
d,^ fatta. 


let in, v.t. htild asgdbba. 

let out, v.t. hll(D^ aswwtta. 

letter, s. ^-fl^n, dabdabb^e (dayd-). 

Tell a servant to come to take a letter to the 
Eas: h7i\\C'.f^9°m'^^'(\H(U''^^^tl^.?n.(D{l^:^ askar 
yfmta davdabb^e lards yammiwc<^sd. 

level, adj. ■^hVlA tikfkkil. 

' o o o o 

Level ground : '^•^ m^eda. 
film santa. 


level, v.t. ^A^A daladdala (daladdala). 
^ifti'hhA astakakkala. 

o o o 

Level it: ^Aj^A(»-k daldilau, pi. -A-^k -lut, or 
^ift'hhViAfl^K astakdklau, pi. -A*^k -lut. 
level, be, v.i. +hhA takakkala. 
lever, s. aod/i^^ mafanqaya (-aia). 
(of gun) ^;^ qdta. 

aoYi^ffi makfdca (-fac-). 
liana, s. /»H dzz^'o (§ 52a, 8). 

167 LIA— LIF 

liar, s. 'PV wds'^o. 

ahS^9^ wttsatdm (§ 8). 

^iflj& abai (aya- ; -dyy § 6 ; § 8). 
liberty, s. hCi^ arrfnnat (-nat). 
lice, infested with, adj. ^'^'{9^ qimaldm (§ 8). 
lice, ova of, s. ^^9^ qfcam (§ 8, § 52a, 8). 
lick, v.t. Art lasa. 
licked, be, v.p. 'hArt taldsa. 

' ' I o o 

lid, s. <n»h^? makddiia (-dan-). 

M-} kidin {{s). 
lie, s. (untruth) hfi^ assat. 

OhTl^ wfsiit (wiis-). 
^l'a^^> iblat (M-, -lat). 
That is a lie: £D-ff -1* •• ifl^ k wdsat (§ 8) nau. 
You had better not tell lies: M"P'fi •• J& iff AVA « 
attudss yissdliihal. 
lie, v.i. (speak falsely) *P?f wassii. 

(recline) 't'''j taniia (tan-, -na). 
Lie down! i*?-.'- taniia ! pi. +f k tanfm ! 
lie in wait, v.i. (for, v.t.) h^fl addbba. 
life, s. Ap-o)^ hfywoit (§ 8). 
V¥rt nafs (nil-, -vs). 
(mode of) MC tfddr (§ 8). 
He was sentenced to imprisonment for life: 
n^'^a^:tfo.A-:Je.;^rtC.•'^<C^^n-V:: badm^eu miilu 
yittasar tafarradabbat (S 4 7a). 

•'o o oooo o'"J/ 

lift, v.t. M^t anassa. 


Lift him (her, it, them, § 61&): ^'J'^k ansa, pi. 
hlu^'-i ansu. 
lifted, be, v.p. i^V*^ tanassa. 

' ' r o o 

LIG— LIK 168 

light, adj. (not heavy) *I'AA qalldl (§ 8). 

(not dark) -aC'/'i bfrhan (§ 8, § 5lb). 
Let it be in a light place: n-flcyjsft^^s/S.U-'Ja 
bavirhdn sifra yfhun. 
light, s. (abstract) -nCVt bfrhdn (§ 8). 

(concrete, e.g. a candle) ao'Ulr^^ mabrat (-avr- ; 

§8). ] °' 

<^'fl<5^ mabrya (-^yr-). 

There is no light: 'flC'/'J ■• f A?" k birhdn yallam. 

Bring a light: twUl^^'-hT^^Xv^ mayrdt anta (§ Id). 

light, v.t. (kindle) h'l^f^ anaddada. 

Aifl^ abarra (ava-). 

Light the fire : Ji^*^ •• Mj^Jt « isdtun andid. 

Light a lamp : ao'd^^' ■• h-ii^ k mayrdt dyra. 

lighten, v.i. (flash) -flA^P'-'^A billicc dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

lightning, s. •ilfi^'V'^ bill f eta. 

He (it) was struck by lightning: H-fl^^* s i'^ni;*- :•• 

bayirdq tamatta, (s.v. ■fl^^*). 

like, adj. h"}^- (i)nda- (-da-). 

It is like iron : X'J^'fl^^ •• Vfl^ « ndayirat nau. 

It is very like this: h'if!JlV:^in-S!,ir^^''- indaz- 

zih yih^dn yih^onal. 

There is nothing like it: hf,i^9°v. aiggannim. 

like, v.i. & t. iD^ft wojddada. 

I like him (it) : hw^'PiV^ :•• i wwddauallau''. 

I don't like him (it): 7»AflJ^a>-9"K alwwddaum. 

Do you like him (it)? ^<D^<PAlf JJ, « tiwwddaudl- 

lahwf? (s.v. (D^), pol. /^,lD•?.;^A-/^,:•. yuwddutallwf ?, 

pi. ^ai'^-;^A'f li-fli^ K tiwojddutallaccyuhwai ? 

like, be, v.t. «n>rtA mdssala (type A § 34). 

What is it like? ?"'>:^#h»AAA« min yimdsilal? 

169 LIK— LIT 

like each other, v.i. i^'P^-^ tawaddadu (taua-). 

They don't Hke each other: hj&*Pft-^9"» aiwwdd- 
liked, be, v.p. i'flift^ tawcJddada (taucJ-). 
likely, adj. — use IfV li^ona, to be, become. 

Very likely: j&lfTA:: yih'^onal. 

It is not at all likely: hf,U"i9^V' aih^onim. 

Is it likely to rain? ^HT-flA"^:*. yizanyallwf? (s.v. 

likeness, s. 9°lifii mlsil. 

' o o 

1^^A» missal^e. 


limb, s. 4»AT{r» qfltim (§ 52a, y). 
lime, s. (fruit) A-'TL l^^Omi (§ 52a, S). 

(mineral) T^ n''6ra. 
limit, s. ^C^ darfcca. 
limit, v.t. airtV wwssana. 
limp, v.i. Mhfl andkkasa. 

•*■ o o o 

line, s. (rank) rtA'h salf (sJilf ). 

(on paper etc.) aollaoC mdsmar (-mar; § 52a, 8). 
lion {Felis leo), s. hl^fl anbdssa (ambd-, anyd- § Id). 
lip, s. h'><i.C kanfar (-amf-, -fitr, § 7c/; § 52a, y). 
lisping, adj. ^A ddda. 
list, s. aoHl'd mdzgab (gay). 

Make a list of them: ^iDTii-n : hjtC*7n-lh « mdzgay 
argibbat (§ 7d). 
listen, v.i. (to, v.t.) hff^aoai adammata. 

Listen to me : h!!:9"a\^ « ddimtafi, pi. -m*^ « -tuii. 
little, adj. "^T-Ti tfnnis. 

-je-*, -i* -itu (f art. § 11). 
See § 54c, d. 
It got in by a little hole: n+^^j&ls : 70 « baqa- 

dadaitu sabba. 

O ~ o 

LIT— LOA 170 

Use f. dem. pron. (§ 13) : 

Fetch that little book from the house: ^-f^-- 
«OT»i|¥si'fl,^;jiHO.''i'K yaccin matdf tay^et yizah 
This little one (little thing): J&^.- yicc (feci). 
little, a, s. & adv. T«fe^ tiqit. 

Give me a little: T*^ s ftm^ k tfqit sftan. 
Wait a little : 'k^'T^^.- qwS tfqit. 
live, v.i. (reside) T^ n'^^ora. 

(get a living, exist) t\f!^d dddara (-dar-). 
Where does he live? ao^enK^ahi^^i^ahn maq- 

qamacau yet nau ? 
How does he live? X*}^^ s ^J^^ A « nd^^et yddral? 
liver, s. T-fll' giibbat. 
living, s. H-fiC tidir (§ 8). 

lizard, s. hlrtiMiJt' (i)nsiMlit (-lit), often f (§ o4c). 
load, s. ?rifl9" sakim (sak-). 

(animal's) ^P'i^ cfnat (-nat). 
The load is too much for it: 'V''i^ '- (\H(i^ v- cinat 

• o 

vazzabbat (^ 47a). 
load, v.t. (an animal) *^V cana. 

Load it (them §61&): «^7« can, pi. «i*-K cdnu. 
I can't load this mule: it is worn out: ^OTr'- 
n4'A-:h^^^!hJ^C^■•K'l?•'i•Al^K^^h'^*;^A:•. yihan 
vaql'' o nd^et adriffo^^e icinallau'^ ? dakim^otal. 
load (be laden), cause or allow to, v.t. htl^^'i ascdna. 
loaf, s. ^0 dabb^^o. 

*fe^ qftta. 
loaf, v.i. hahZiif^ii audaladdala (-diiladdal-). 

loafer, s. hahf!,Mf!* audalddi (-dal-, -dyy § 6 ; § 8). 
loathe, v.t. niA talla. 

I loathe it: ?imA*PA'V-:: italautillau^ 

171 LOA— LOO 

loathsome, adj. X^*? sdyydf (m- td- ; § 8). 

lock, s. 'f^A'H qwtilf. 

lock, v.i. (be locked, v.p.) 't"k^A, taqwcullafa. 

Does it lock? JK.'feA^-A:: yiqqwwllafal ? (§ 63c). 
Is it locked? i-fe A^A-J& •/ taqwwflif 6allwf ? (§63^7, 
S.V. atf,). 
lock, v.t. *feA<i. qwwllafa. 

n<ni<P^:Hp bamdfca zagga. 
Shut it, but don't lock it: Upat'-'aD^tdaoV^ti 
zf«rau, mac vamafca. 
locust, s. hm^ anbata (amb-, anyd- § 7d). 
log, s. *7^J^ gind. 

mC'd tarb (ta-, -ry). 
Ma^^ {i)ncyet (-60.^ -cat), 
loin, s. -^A* daPe (§ 52a, y). 

flil'fl wwgab (-ay; § 52a, y). 
long, adj. ^^^9^ rajjim (raj-, -Df9^ -zzim). 

Howlonff is it? XCHz/ni: .- A^lh t Van k irzfmatu sfnti 

o o o o ^^ o o 

nau? or 'ktro'li'.tl'i^i'iahii qiimatu sfnti nau? 

O '■' o o o o 

long, adv. ilao'i zaman. 

How long did he stay? A**^ s H<w»'} : i'+iwim « sint 
zdman tandmmata? 

O O O^O O'O 

long for, v.t. i'troy tamaniia (-man-). 

(D-AflJ-A-'AiAflH wiilliwiill dlau (§§ 4:3a, 44a). 
longing, s. *i''h«P'V nafq"ot ('J'b- nff-). 
look, v.i. (at, v.t.) hf ayya (§ 446). 

Look! ?»^::iy! (-1,-1), pi. h^v. fyul (|u, lu). 

Let me look at him (it) : Mah k liyau. 

I want one to look at: Mjt •' A^^f -> •• ?i<«.ApAii- « 

and lamdiat ifallkrallau^'. 

O O O O O^ O 

Look out (take care)! i'm'J+4*:: tatdnqaq!, pi. 
-+* :■• -qaqu ! 

LOO— LOQ 172 

look for, v.t. d,hl fdllaara. 

'h'^'h'd gwwrdggwwra (-roJgg-). 
Look for him (it) : d.^KD'ti falligau, pi. -'h^B -gut. 
He has gone to look for one (him, it, them, § 61&): 

A.<«. AT : du^^ « lif^llig hfd5al. 
look over (through), v.t. 'h'd'h'd gwwraggwwra (-rwgg-). 
Let him look all over the village: <w>^^4-^!/i7"C 

T^Ci'' mdndarun yigwwrgwiir. 
lookout, s. (e.g. customs official's hut) ^7^ g^ojj''^o. 
loop, s. (for suspending) *^7mAm^ mantaltaya (-tal-, 

loose, adj. (slack) AA lil. 

This parcel is too loosely tied: /iO.-?iAC:?i'^AAs 

ViD-K vihe fsir immilalld nau. 

•^ o o o o o o 

loose(-ned) be (become), v.i. AA lalla (§ 63d, e). 

The bandage has got loose: '^rt<5^!AA;tA» ma- 

sarya idltoal. 
His teeth are loose : TCfr s i'V^V* « tfrsu (§ 52a, y) 


O O -■- O '''O 

loose, get, v.i. (of animate objects) d,^ fatta. 

(cease to fit) wli^ wdllaqa (wcJl-). 
The horse got loose and went off: d.dtl-d^^'f"' 
d\»Z « f aras f att^' o hada. 

' o o o ^ 

The nail has got loose: ^^h4-!<DA$AK cinkaru 
loot, s. "h^ fqa. 

loot, v.i. & t. n^A. zarrafa (zar-). 
(D^^ wcJrrara. 

o o 

looted, be, v.p. i'tidd. tazdrrafa (tazar-). 
loquacious, adj. 9"Art^ milasanna (-san-). 

A¥A<(. laflafi.° 

A^A4. laflaffa. 

173 LOS— LOV 

lose, v.t. hmi' ataffa. 

Don't lose him (it): ^;^T4•a^K attatfau, pi. -^^s: 

-fut. _ 

Who lost him (it)? ^m4-a>- •• '^^ •• Vm- a yataflPau man- 



He has lost my gun: mfl^^^^'Js^im^-'fl^K tayan- 

jdyen atafFabbiii (s.v. fl-, § 47«). 
The watch loses: rt^l^ij&Hl^A:: sadtu yizagayyal. 
lose a case, game, etc., v.i. i'd^ taratta (tar-). 

He lost his case in court: flaiJ^nC:<i.^:i'<C;l":: 
bauwmbar fit tardtta. 

o o o o o 

I have lost (the game): '^<i;^'>^^ k tardttahwtifi 

(§ 614 
loss, s. T-^^ tffat (§ 8). 

loss, be at a, v.i. ^l^oh caggarau (-giir- ; impers. § 43a). 
lost, be, v.p. m4- taffa. 

Is he (it) lost"? m^PrtAK tdft6al? (§ GSd). 

When was he (it) lost? ao'l-t'iah-.^mi-"- macS, nau 

\ / o o 

yiitaff a ? 
Where was he (it) lost? f m^-fl'l* •• flJ^-^" ifl>- » ya- 

tdflfabbat wwd-^et nau? 

• o o o 

lot, a, s. (many) -flH- bizu (§ 52a, /3). 
(sors) hm fta. 
A lot of people : 'flH'srtflM bizu sdu. 
He is a bad lot: r'^rVb-^aha minamint^e (§8) 


loud, adj. -VA^* tilliq. 

loudly, adv. n^A*:jt?"T batilUq (§ 8) dimt. 

louse, s. 4**^^ qfmdl (§ 8, § 52a, 8). 

Ovum (ova) of louse : 4»«^i^ q^c^m (§ 8, § 52a, S). 
lousy, adj. ^**l'i9^ qimdldm (§ 8). 
love, s. fl»"j^ wiidd. 
^^C ffqir. 

LOV— LUN 174 

love, v.t. fl)^^ wwddada. 

loved, be, v.p. +ai^R tawwddada (tauoJ-). 

lover, s. flJ^E" WGjddj (§ 8). 

low, adj. >J^^^ gwcudgwadda (-wrgw- § 7d). 

This table is too low: jiO ^ in^ = 1-J^^^ = V(D- k ylhe 

gayata gwwrgwaddd (§ 8) nau. 
Low country: *feA! qwwUa. 

hoh^^i aurajja. 
low, adv. n;^^ batac (§ 8). 

flJ^;^^ wwdatdc (§ 8). 
low, v.i. hl**i agassa. 
low (-er § 5Sb), be, v.i. Il^stili ziqq ala (s.v. VflA, § 44rt). 

It is (too) low: Ti+.-^AAs ziqq yilal. 
lower, adj. ^"^^ taccinna. 
lower, v.t. (take down) hiodf!^ awoj'rrada (auw-). 
(incline) If+H*!' zaqazzaqa. 
Lower it: ^fl>-C^(D-K dutirdau, pi. --^^k -dut. 
H^H^ay-ii zaqziqau, pi. -•fc^r. -qut. 
lowered, be, v.p. O)^^ wct^rrada. 

(inclined) i'ti^n^ tazaqazzaqa. 
lowland, adj. (lowlander, s.) *feA? qwwlldnna (-Ian-). 
lowlands, s. *feA qwwlla. 

loyal, adj. h*^^ dman (-nil § 6 ; -mai ^7d; § 8). 
luck, s. (good or bad) ?»Jt A fddil. 

(good) Uil^ habt (hayt, haft). 
He has no luck : li-fl^ '• fiiah9° k haft yallaum. 
lukewarm, adj. A-fl labb. 
lunch, s. 9^fi mfsa. 

What time will lunch be ready? 9"^ •• nft^^ •• rt^l- « 
ftAV-^A:*. mfsti vasfnt sadt yissandddal ? 
lung, s. ^9^(\ samba (§ 52a, y). 

175 LUP— MAG 

lupine {Liipinus Termis, Broun, Cat. 117), s. *7'flrn 

gibt-o (-fyt-). 
lurk, v.i. ^i^fl addbba. 
Lycaon pictus, s. '^1r^'V takwdla (§ 8 ; § 52a, S). 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

Mdba abessinica (Broun, Cat. 328), s. ftCVbi sfrkuni 

machine, s. anWJi makina. 

o o 

tmHoiC mazauwar. 

o o o 

mad, adj. "hiiSt: ibd (iyd). 

Are you mad ? hl^ : ^-flj^ ■• iU k ant iyd| (§ Id) niih ? 
mad, be (go), v.i. >»fl^ abbada (§ 63c?, e). 
maddening, adj. '^fid'^ massabbaja. 
made, be, v.p. '^n3^ tabajjii (-ay-, -aj-). 

What is it made of? i-riif^d^^xi tamfn yibbaj- 
madness, s. h-fl^^ Jbdat (fyd-, -diit). 

h-flj^i^ ibdfnnat (ivd-, -niit). 
Madoqua Saltiana, s. 9^^^ middqqwa. 

S. e'>tt^yansu. 
maggot, s. '^ A til (§ 52a, 8). 
magic, s. hli*^^ t4smat (§ 8). 
magician, s. fl'-S biida. 

hh*^-^^ asmatafiila (-tail-). 
magnificent, adj. *7^9" gfrum. 

MAI— MAN 176 

maid, s. A^^l^ij^ lijagaracL 

*fe^^ qwwnj'^o, pi. also 'feTE-f'^ qwwnajit'^oc 
{-cc § 6), 'fcVi^jf -f ^ qwconajdjit-oc (-cc § 6). 
htihC askar (-kar). 
mail, s. (letters) ^-fl^O. dabdabb^e (dayd-; § 52a). 
(service) tthft^ biista. 
t;^ft;^ p'^'dsta. 
maize {Zea mays), s. POACs'^TiA yabdhir (-ayd-) ma- 

make, v.t. h(\% abajja (ay-, -aj-). 
rt^ sarra (sar-). 
I can't make this out: ?nv'ii^'^^^h^ah^r^^ yaz- 
zlhin ficc alauuqim. 
male, adj. & s. (of persons and animals) (dI^ wwnd. 

(of animals) hoh^ aura (§ 8). 
mallet, s. iw^^?^ mamca. 

mamma! interj. (cry of child to mother) h'^'l imdmma! 
mamma, s. (breast) m-^ tut (§ o2a, y). ^ 

man, s. (human being) rtfl>- sau (§ 8), pi. rt?*?' sau^oc 
(-CC § 6). 
(not woman) atlr^ wwnd. 
Not always expressed : 

This man is a liar: j!,V'-ahTl^9^'''i(D-i'' yfhe wiisa- 
tdm nau, 


manage, v.t. rt^ sarra (sar-). 

Can't you manage it (get it open, shut, in, out, 
through, etc)? hrO^ihM.'- mbi dlah? (s.v. VnA). 
mane, s. (of horse, mule, donkey) pi gamma. 

manger, s. ao'il^ mdbya (-|yy-). 
manipulate, v.t. ^»?f dssa. 

177 MAN— MAR 

manipulated, be, v.p. ;^?f tdssa. 

mantis, s. +"15:^ qatdnit, usually f. (§ 54c). 

mantle, s. hfl kabba. 

many, adj. & pron. 'AH- bfzu (§ 52a, fi, § 536). 

Are there many? 'UllP^'-hdrii bfzwocc allu? 

Have many people come? '(\]i"-iiahsaDft\i'. bfzu 
sdu matta ? 

o o • • 

map, s. jflC'-^^dPi yagar (-gar) sil. 

thC;»- kc-lrta. 
March, s.v. calendar, 
march, s. (stage) ao^vZ"' mannaharya (-Ti- -^a-, -ka- § Id). 

Forced march; Ihlfi-- ffissrasa. 
march, v.i. rfi.^ hada (had-, h- ed-, -da), 
mare, s. flTf^ bdzra. 

rt,^ ■• d.^.l\ s> et faras. 

o o 

margin, s. -^C dar. 

J^rnc dimbar (-biir). 
mark, s. (siffn) 9"Alri'V milikkit. 

' \ o / o o o 

Make a mark on it: i^Aln''h:Ai.^C'7n'lh» milfkkit 
drgibbat (§ Id). 
market, s. Ifl,^ •• [l-fl^] gabya (-ayy). 

S. 7flJ? ji^abaya (-dva-, -aia). 
market fee, s. .^AA dildl (§8). 
marriage, s. rtC*7 sarg (sixrg). 
married, be, v.p. i'pfl tagabba. 

Is he married? rt,'> : >»A "f-(0- •.: s^et allaccyu? 

Is she married? OAsM^*:: bal dllat? 
marrow, s. 4*AT?° qHtim. 
marry, v.t. Jilfl agabba. 

He has married her: ^%'7'fl:f:;^AK agfytwatal. 

She has married him : h*7'fl;''*PA^K agiytaualliic. 

AM, GR. (ll) 12 

MAR— MAT 178 

marsh, s. ^*7^*7 ragrag. 

£Ci.<l>(X)>4> caqacaq. 
martingale, s. 1x9^(1^ ••T-tl9° (i)mbya gwiisim. 
marvel, s. (-lous, adj. § 57b) ^'>4* clinq. 
mason, s. h^tn, an(n)ati. 

Mason wasp : ^"JJUH : tinziza (§ 52a, S). 
massacre, v.t. i^fl^fl dabaddaba (davaddava). 
massacred, be, v.p, •\'^(ifj\ tadabaddaba (-dayaddaya). 
massage, v.t. KS assa. 
massaged, be, v.p. ^'H tdssa. 
Massaua, s. 9"T<P mitfwwa (-tiiww-). 
master, s. 1^ g^eta. 
masticate, v.i. & t. *fc<im<wi qwtorattama. 

31asticate it: 'kCTaoahi'. qwwrtimau, pol. J&'fcCT 
<n>-^K yiqwo^rtimut. 
masticated, be, v.p. i'^dmao taqwwrattama. 

It should be masticated : |&*feCm?" :•• yiqqwcJrtam. 
mat, s. ^a^3^ daujja. 
^I't'i" at^ena. 
match, s. Yl'd^^ kibrit (-lyr-; § 8 ; § o2a, 8). 
material(s), s. (for working or building) aofi^^ mas- 

sarya (-ya). 
matter, s. (affair) V7C nagar (-gar). 

T-^je. gwiddai (gwiid-, giid-; § 8). 
(pus) iw»*7A magil. 
What is the matter with you? 9""} •• U«Vy A « min 
hiinahal ? 
matter, v.i. 4»^CT : ITV qwiirt h'' ona. 

It doesn't matter: ^4»C:: yfqir, or *7jt«fA9"!: gidd 

What does it matter to me? I^^jI^^^k min gdd- 
dadafi ? 

179 MAT— ME A 

mattress, s. f^^Ti f (i)rds. 
mauve, adj. «i7-*^ cagiimma. 
May, S.V. calendar, 
me, pers. pron. -^ -fi (-fin § 6; § 12c). 

emph. hit iD7en (§ 8 ; § 12a). 
meadow, s. aoMi mask, 
meal, s. (flour) ^'6'> d5q>et (§ 8). 
(food) tfo-flA mabil (-ayi-). 
(lunch or dinner) lilC gib(i)r (giy-). 
mean, adj. (stingy) /**!*»• sissu. 
mean, v.t. hti dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

What does it mean? '^A* •• 9"'}jtC : Van :•• mdlatu 
mindfr nau ? 

o o o 

We didn't mean to do it: Ai^fti''>:/i^<^*7>:: assd- 
sitan adarraffna. 

o o oO o 

meaning, s. '^A'T* mdlat (-liit). 
¥•!• ficc. 


By all means ( = I agree) : 9^1 ••h4-'^ v. min kdffan?, 
or 9^"} •• H'ld^ :: min caor<2:ariin ? 
meanwhile, adv. "h^fid iyyaddara (-^C -ddar, -dar- ; s.v. 

measles, s. hlhti^ti ankalTs (S 8). 
measure, s. (instrument) aoMl,^ malakkya (-lak-). 

aolid,^^ masfarya (-far-, -yii; 
not for liquids). 
[s.v. «1^:— ft'J'HCs— h'Jj^: for length, 
4^'i's — ^ay-fii for dry measure.] 
measure, v.i. (be measured, v. p.) +Ah talakka. 
measure, v.t. Ah lakka. 


A^d safFara (-far-; not of liquids). 
Measure it: tihahn lakkau, pi. AVi-^k lakkut. 

12 2 

MEA— MEN 180 

measurement, s. Alfl likk. 

ft^C slfir (not of liquids). 
What is its measurement? AY^^ft'}■^h■•Vfl^« Ifkku 


sinti nau ? 

o o o 

meat, s. f**^ sfga. 

medicine, s. ao^yiJV^ madhan^it (-ddhnit § Id). 

medium, adj. *^WA? mahalanna (-Ian-). 

meet, v.i. Icaao gattama. 

meet, v.t. 'MVT tao:ananna. 

Where will you meet me? P»^ « ^I'l'f^AU « yet 
tigganannaniiallah ? pol. P*^ •• J&'l*i"*f ? A k yet yig- 
ganannunnal? (§§ 12c, 32&). 
Megaloponerus foetens, s. 11^ gfnda (§ 52a, 8). 
melon, s. -^fl diibba. 
melt, v.i. (melted, be, v.p.) *l»Am qallata. 

(in a liquid) ^^ mwammwa. 
melt, (cause to), v.t. Mtiov aqallata. 
menace, v.i. & t. hfld,^^ asfararra (-far-). 
mend, v.t. AiOji^ abajja (ay-, -aj-). 

Mend it: h'dXah.: ayijjau, pi. -%^i-' -jjut. 
mended, be, v.p. i'flK tabajjii (-ay-, -aj-). 

When it is mended, I will send it to you : (l.flE- '- 
hfiitl^Vliihii sibbajj, ilikillihallau^ — you pol. : 
...: ?lAVlA?'^Al^•.: ...ilikilla^dllaui^ (S 7d, U7a). 

OOOO O \«J ' f} / 

menses, s. f!^9° diim. 
hf!^^ Mat 
hClao^ iro^fmat. 

o ~o o 

menstruate, v.i. ^9"!Vn^''f' dilm ndbbariic (-iicc § 6). 
^»^*b-'Vfl<C^ adiif ndbbariic ( „ ). 
For present tense of Vfl<l^* use 'i'^ nat (§ 136), 
S. V-f niic (niicc § 0) ; for neg. conjug. see §§ 39c, 40. 

181 MER— MID 

merchant, s. 'ip^ naggddJ'e. 

(European) \jfi kwaja. 
mercury, s. flH.^ baz^eqa. 
mercy, s. 9"[/lh]^^ mi(h)rat (-riit). 
merely, adv. h'i^.^Oh (i)ndyau (§ 8). 
hly^at- (i)ndau (§ 8). 
He merely left it: ?t'>-^.^(D- •• i'tooH « ndyau tauau. 
message, s. ^A qal. 

(letter) ^.-fl^O. dabdabb^e (-ayd-). 
(errand) /w»Ah'l* maldkt (§ 8). 
I received (heard) the message you (pol.) sent: f A 
V^^^:j^A••rt'^l^:: yiildkutln (§ 62c) qal sammau'\ 
messenger, s. aofiYi'l'^ malaktdiina (-Ah- -lik-, -tan-). 
Messor harhariis, s. 7'n^:?^'>-^7 gabra (-dvr-) gwiindan 

metal, s. no general term. 

metal, worker in, s. (iron) ^^If-hlfi dabandnsa (daya-). 
(gold, silver) h'i'V^'^' antra iiiia (-rail-), 
metre, s. ^"trVC m^etr. 

metropolitan, s. (of all Abyssinia) ^fl'T- abun (ayun, 
awun, ;luun ; before a name -h -na). 

o ^ 

The Metropolitan Matthew: hn-> s '^-tP'ft •• dyuna 
mew, v.i. (P^fi c''6ha (§ Id). 
micturate, v.i. ffV sdnna. 

o o 

(euphem.) h<(.A kafFala. 
middle, adj. <^(;A?' mahalaiina (-Ian-), 
middle, s. '^WA mahal. 

In the middle : n<^(;A ••: bamahal. 


middle-aged, adj. no-A- miilu (l^A- mflu). 

Middle-aged woman: flA't^-- bdlt^et (§ 8). 

MID— MIN 182 

midnight, s. ?iYhA:A.A.^ ukkul Pelit 

h\b^'t\,^Jf ukkdla (§ 9d) Pelit 
ao'O,^ '• (\>(ij\r manfaqa l^^elTt. 

o o ^o 

At midnio^ht : flVb A •• A./V.^ •• bakkiil P elf t. 
midriff, s. hCI-nnd^ irgibgfbat (-iygfyat; § 8). 
midwife, s. h^fi^ awwdldj (auwd- ; § 8). 
midwife, act as, v.i. (to, v.t.) Mti^^ awwalladac (auwa-; 

-ace § 6). 
migrate, v.i. +<^^^ tasSIddada (tas-). 
mild, adj. (of disposition) IC gar (gar). 

Ali-n Ifzzib (iv). 
military, adj. f fll;^^C yawwttaddar (-dar ; s.v. f-, §§ 47a, 

milk, s. iDi'^ watat (wwt-). 
milk, v.i & t. hAfl allaba (-ava). 
Milk her: ?iAn^:: jlayat. 

Have you milked the cow? A'TL't'JjhA'ny^K idmi- 
tun allayhat? (-Ti^ -xat, -kat). 
milked, be, v.p. ;^An^ t§;ilabac (-ava-; -ace S 6). 

Has this cow been milked ? ^-f '- A?" « ;^ Afl^Ji s yicci 
lam tallayaccwf ? (s.v. m^). 
mill, s. ffl^^Bb w&jTc^o. 
millet, s. *^7iA masflla. 


million, card. num. iiD-fshA*? mdf'o ilf 

o o 

t'^A,P-'> milydn (§ 8). 
See § 20a. 
Milvus regalis (Guidi, Vocab. p. 840), s. ^A^ cfldt (§ 8). 
mind, s. A*!! libb (nearest term : lit. 'heart'), 
mind, v.i. 

I don't mind : K^ :•• issi. 

183 MIN— MIS 

Never mind : Ji4*C :•• yfqir. 

*7jt : f Ajr» K gidd yallam. 
I have lost it: m4''fl^« taffabbin. Never mind, 

• o o 

it will be found : '7jt :f Ai^: jZ.l?A:: gidd yallam, 
Never mind! (don't be afraid!) hj&HD:*. aiz'^oh!, 
pol. h^\i9'^"'- diz^^o'^ot!, f hj&HTlK Siz^os!, pi. 

^i^y,■T•l^« aizodccyiih! (§ 7d). 
mind, v.t. (keep) mfl* tabbaqa. 

Mind it: (Wd^ahn tdbbi(]au, pi. -'fc^K -qut. 
Mind them: m-fl^'TflJ-K tabbiqdccau, pi. -^*f^(»-K 
mine, poss. pron. fi yan>e (§ 8, § 12a). 
It is mine: fisVfl^:: yiin^e nau. 
It is not mine: filP*.* Ai^^^Ak yan>emm (§ 37&) 
aidal (§ 40a). 
mineral, s. ^'}^^ dangya,^ ) pi. ^->->^ dang^^oc 

S. ^'J;i^d^ngai(§8),) (-cc § 6). 

minute, s. ^'b^ daqiqa (§ 5 2a, S). 
mirror, s. <w»fti'<P'l* mastauwat (§ 8 ; -+<d^ -tauwat). 
misbehave, v.i. fl^A baddala (bad-), 
miscarriage, have a, v.i. hlKD^fJ^' aswwrradac (-iicc § 6). 
miscellaneous, adj. A^-'AP' liyyu liyyu. 
mischievous, adj. *^7i7ln miisink (§ 8). 
miser, s. 'i4-*^ nffug. 
miserable, adj. (of persons) '^p^^ ciggaranna (-ran-). 

(of objects) •7J^ gim. 
misery, s. -fpC cfggdr (§8). 

<w»h^ makara (kar-; § 8). 
misery, be in, v.i. (Xl>)4*<i>« cannaqau (impers. § 43a ; 
§ QZd,e). 

MIS— MIS 184 

misfortune, s. "f pC ciggdr (§ 8). 

misgivings, have, v.i. ^Cfhtioh qirr alau (impers. § 43a ; 

s.v. VflA, § 44a ; § QSd, e), constr. with fl- ba- (§ 47«). 
I have misgivings about this man: nrtU'rta>-s4'C: 

htC^V' bazzih sau qirr dlafi. 

o o -i^o 

mislead, v.t. M'i' assdta. 

This is misleading: ^U••^A;^AK yfhe yassital. 
miss, v.i. & t. (aim) fi't' sdta. 

(way) G. Y\i\f\'\r assasdta. 
S. ^i^'if' assasdta. 


I (have) missed him (it): O^ih^K sathut (-t-h-, not 

-0- I 3). 
I miss that chair that was lost: ^sPfli4-a>-!fl)9"nC! 
^11 •• J&A? A :•• ya yatafFau wwmbar tizz yflannal. 
miss fire, v.i. ?il^n.:KA (i)mbi dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
^iflA abbala. 

o o 

My gun missed fire: mfl'}3?P»-*^»nA'fl^:: tayanjd^e 

abbalabbin (§ 47a). 
missed, be, v.p. 'i'fi'\r tasdta (tas-). 
mist, s. 'h9° gum. 

^pn tigag (§ 8). 

G. ^pn cfgdg (§ 8). 
mistake, s. t\i''\r sitat (-tat). 

(inaccuracy) *l^dJ\r gfdfat. 
mistake, v.t. G. hiifi-lr assasdta. 

V o o 

S. Mfi-f" assasdta. 


mistake, make a, v.i. (act by mistake) 
f\'\r sdta. 

o • 

G. ■f'M'i' tasasdta (tlisas-) | usually 
S. -i-fifi'V tasasdta (tas-) f impers. (§ 43a). 
G ht\f\'\r assastita. 

V O O 

S. hhfvV assasdta. 

185 MIS^MOI 

(be inaccurate) 

1^<(. gaddafa (type A § 34). 
'^^^<i.fl^ tagaddafau (impers. § 43rt). 
I took it by mistake: -hrtA-f^! [S.t^ft-f-^.] flirtj?: 
l^''^:•. tasasf'^ofi (S. tasdsf'on) wassadhut. 

o O ^ O ' o o 

They took it by mistake: ^irtfli-fo--* [S. Mdi'oy'i] 
^H*^:: assastaii (S. assdstau) ydzut. 
mistress, s. haod^ (i)mmab^et (-ay^^^ 5 § 8). 
mistrust, s. TC^<? tirittdri. 
mistrust, v.t. tn^axd tarattara (tarattiira). 

I mistrust him: ?im^T^*PA'>^:: itarattirau;illau'\ 

O • O O • 'O o o 

mistrusted, be, v.p. 't'mdmd tatarattara (-tiirattiira). 
misty, adj. 'b*^^ gumdmma. 

A misty day: 7«<^*^ •• +7 •• gumammd (§8) qan. 
mix, v.t. 'I'A+A qalaqqala. 

^,flA+ dabdllaqa (davd). 

Mix it: f^'d^'t'Ohi'. dayli(]au. 
Don't mix it: h'>^'nA*l'a>-K attidavliqau. 
mixed, adj. 4*a4*A (ijliciqil. 
mixed, be, v.p. ■I'+A'I'A tacjalaciqala. 

'^^flA*^ tadaballaqa (-avd-). 
S. '^^^A^' tadaballaqa (-ayd-). 
Take care they don't get mixed: ?»'}^Ji+A4' A k 
ndaiqqaliiqqal (sg. for pi. cp. § o2a). 
moderate, adj. (-ly, adv.) flAh balfkk (§ 8). 

He who (one that) drinks moderately: flAhsf*^ 
m^s balikk viimmitatta. 

o o ♦' o» o • • 

modest, adj. h4-C aftar (§ 8). 
modest, be, v.i. hd.d aff'ara (-fiir-). 

O O ^ ' 

moist, adj. 'hC'V'n frtib (-iy). 
AHH lazdza. 

MOI— MOR 186 

moist, be (become), v.i. ^mfl rattaba (-aya ; § QSd, e). 
moisten, v.t. Vh^ nakkara (nakkara). 

Moisten it : "Trildat^ » nikarau, pi. -4-^ k -rut. 

o o o *- 

moistened, be, v.p. 'f'ih^ tandkkara (-nakkara). 

It ought to have been moistened before we started: 
'^'}i*^-'j&VhCsVflC:: sanninnassa yinnakkar ndb- 

bar (§ 635). 
mole {TaJjKi sp.), s. *hA<CA filfal. 
monastery, s. ero^Yi^^ manak^dsdt (§ 8). 

Ifi9^ gadam (gad-; §8). 
Monday, s. rt^ sanno (sail-). 
money, s. I'JH'fl ganzab (-ay). 
-nC birr. 


monk, s. aoii^ifi, malwks^e, pi. also /w»AV\W'ft'f ^ ^^^- 

kwdkwust^oc (-CC § 6). 
monkey, s. rn«l t^'dta. 
monkey-bread (Adansonia digitata, Broun, Cat. 65), s. 

¥C^^ firtata. 
month, s. (dC wwr (^' or ; § 52a, S). 

Six months: ao'iA^^s manfaq. 
moon, s. eSLd^ caraqa (§ 8 ; sometimes f. § 54e). 
morass, s. d*ld*l ragrag. 

O^^^CL^* caqacaq. 
more, s. adj. & adv. A.A lela (§ 16). 

^'I'P dagm^^o (ddg-). 
^T* damm^'o (dam-). 
f'^nAT yitmmibdlt (-iy-, -al-; § 14). 
X'^nAT (i)mmibalt ( „ „ ). 

^riAT yibalt (-jy-, -al-; § o8c). 
The parts of flAm above are constructed with h- ka- 
[i'- ta, § 47rt], than (§ 58a). 

187 MOR— M08 

Is there more? A.A.*7»Ak lela alia? 

I don't want any more : ft*TP •• hfinL^n9° « d%m^o 

That is more than I want : ^U •• flH'fl^ :*• yihe baz- 



Bring (put) some more: eaJ^C:*- cammir, pi. -4-k 

Bring some more tea: 7f|&!6H.5^C:*. sai cammir. 

More than ten: ;^/*'C■•J^flAT: tdssir yiyalt. 

I will give yon one, but I can't give you more : 
pol. M^ •• hf^a\9'h^0' T i-n^V : ^n<\T ■■ ITf • Y\ff.^h 
^9^ a and isata'' Oc411au'\ tazzfh yivalt gin aiccd- 

OO'O O O O •'O'O' ^^o o 



moreover, adv. ^*7T* dagm'^o (dag-). 
f!jP d^mm'^0 (dam-). 
hll^V ngd^eh. 

MiD^^ (i)z(z)a'^dyS (-zdd-; §8), S. ;^■^^ 
tddya (§ 8). 
morning, s. '^A^ mdldda (§ 8). 
rp.^ twat. 
In the morning : tr^,^ * twat. 
Good morning ! (on meeting) hl^,^ •* h^CV » ndit 
(h-y^^-- nd^^et) dddarh?, pol. hl^^'h^^v. ndit 
dddaru?, pi. }l'i^^•'h^^^>^1'^h:•^ ndit addardccyuh? 
(s.v. hfi^iH). — ( = good-bye!) f:/h^-V^i: dahnd 
wall, pol. A'^'i's/Z.'PA-K dahnayiwdlu!, i>\. f!A^' 
^P/V* K dahna wdlu ! 
Half the morning is gone : ^^^ A » rafdSal. 
mortar, s. (Mf buh'^^o. 
Moslem, s. & adj. hftAJ^ fsldm (§ 8). 

MOS— MOU 188 

mosquito, s. -^^^ tfnin (-Inn § 6; § 8, § 52a, S). 

See that there are no mosquitoes in it: ^iF^ih.'i 
ftf^xna^.' tfninfi indaih^^onibbat (S 47a). 

• OOOO OO^'' ' 

Catch and kill the mosquitoes which are in this 
room : flltU : fl.^ : ^^ah'i : ^lr% •• (&HU : *7^A<D-K baz- 
zih v^'et yallaun tiniii yizah (§ 746) gfdalau. 

Mosquitoes are a cause of fever : ^*'>^ •• f 'J-Sjt * 
?"lfl'}J?'VsVfl>-K tinffi yaniddd miknydt nau. 

' 00*'0 O '' o 

mosquito-net, s. M^C ag^obar ( dy-,. -ar). 
0op^ maggaraja. 
Lower (close) the mosquito-net; <w>;5^J?<D-T':^A« 

[if^i::] maggarajaun tal (zfga). 
See that it is shut everywhere: hPiu-si'U-A'.'ft'P^s 
M^Wp K iyau tahiillu sifra ndizzaofsra. 
moss, s. "fin^ sfbat (-fy-, -at). 
most, adj. hihrt-sfTLnAT kahiillu ('^l^/V-! tahiillu) yam- 

mibalt (-iy-, -alt; § 58). 
most, adv. hu-A- kahiillu (i-ih- tahii-, § 58). 
moth, s. f ^'V^^ yasdtirat (§ 706). 
(in clothes) 'flA bil. 
See § 52a, S. 
mother, s. "h^^ (i)nnat (§ 8). 
mother-in-law, s. K*^^ amdt (§ 8). 
mottled, adj. 'Wl'hChC zingiirgur. 
mould, s. (earth) hdSi afar (-fiir). 
mouldy, adj. 'Hp^ sagdta. 
mouldy, be (become), v.i. 'Uli^ saggata (§ 63r/, e). 

It will get mouldy: ^Vf*7:i"A:: yisiiggital. 
mound, s. "VT g''ot. 

189 MOU— MOV 

mount, v.i. & t. (go upwards) 7i4''fl •- hli siqqib (-iy) ala (s.v. 
VflA, § 44a). 
(climb) 0)^1 wwtta h- ka- [i*- ta-, § 47a]. 
(an animal) ■f'+^wim taqammata. 

i'ii'^li tasdqqala n-ba-(S47a). 
mountain, s. (large) Y^d'Q^ k^orabta (-ayt-). 

(small) 'h^^ tardra. 
mountainous, adj. Vl^'fl;^9" k^^orabtam (-dyt-; § 8). 
mounted man (mounted troops § 52a, S), s. <{.^rt'^ fa- 

rasaniia (-san-). 
mourn, v.i. hHi dzzana. 

(publicly) i'A+rt taldqqasa. 
mourning, s. aoCF' mard^'o. 
mouse, s. h^'V flyit (ait), usually f. (§ 54c; § 52a, S). 

Infested with mice, adj. h^fi\9^s ayitdm (dit-; § 8). 
moustache, s. nu9° tim (tim). 
mouth, s. h^ af. 

move, v.i. rh.^ hada (ha-, h>e-, -da, § 7r/). 
■I^AcDm talauwata. 

o o o • o 

(without changing gen. position) 'l''>*l*^4»rt 
Don't move: KM+^+A a attinqasdqas, pi. -'I'rt*:: 

It has moved from its place: i'A^^flHs'/'AflimK 
tasifi'du talauwata. 

o o o o o • o 

He's (it's) not dead, he's (it's) moving: hA'T'l'S^: 
f,'i^f^^f^fi{.^.'. alm^'otam, yinqasaqqasal. 
move, v.t. timai lauwata. 

o o • o 

(heavy objects) d^^^ii fanaqqala. 
(without changing gen. position) hl^fi^fl 

MOV— MUR 190 

Don't move it: h^AflJ-moHK attilauwtitau, pi. 

o o • o ' *^ 

-nb^K -tut. 
move away, v.t. ^'fl •• hf^^l sabb adarraga. 

Move it away a little: T*fe^ s ^-n « A»JtClfl>- « tfqit 

sabb ddrigau (drgau § 7d), pi. -t^ :•• -gut. 
mow, v.t. hGOM^i accada (-cada). 
Mrs. (Df^nC waizar^o (wwi-, -zar-). 
much, s. adj. & adv. •11 H" bfzu. 

J^^*^ \m (§ 8)- 

Is there much ? 'AH* •• hh s blzu alia ? 

o ^.^ 

It is too much : ■flH* •• Va>- k bizu nau. 

O O 

It is much too much: hjf*? : 'flH* : ViD- « ijjfg yfzu 
(§ Id) nau. 
mud, s. ^^ cjqa. 

Deep mud : '^T •• mat. 
muddle, be in a, v.i. Jt'flA4*A4*:hA diblfqliqq (diyl-) ala 
(s.v. s/flA, § 44a). 
It is in a muddle: j^'AA^'A^'sj&AAk diyliqliqq 
muddled, adj. ^'flA^'A^ diblfqliq (diyl-; § 6). 
muddy, adj. (of roads) '^^ ciqa (cp. § 575). 

(of liquids) J^^Cft dffris. 
mule, s. fl4*rt" baql'^o, pi. also hfl4>^A^ abaqwilt (ayd-, 
-qwii-, -4'- -qi-, -A-f 'f -It^ oc ; -cc § 6). 
Riding mule: fViC^-'fl^'A": yak''orlccayaql'^o(§7^). 
Baggage mule: ^i^Af|!fl4*A"s agdssis yaql^o. 
mule, interj. to urge a, od*^ mace ! (miicc). 

to stop it, ?i7i iss ! 
muleteer, s. fl4'/t"^ baql"6nna. 
munch, v.i. & t. •fe<Cm«w» qwwrdttama. 
murder, s. #wi*7^A magdal (-dal). 
murder, v.i. & t. 7^A gdddala (gad-). 

191 MUR— MYR 

murdered, be, v.p. fl-...! h'j^i'Pi' ba... ijj m'^'ota. 

He was (has been) murdered : (\iiah s ?%£• •• 'Pi' a 

basau ijj m^'dta. 

O O O"" o 

murderer, s. iHf* gaddi (gad-; -dyy § 6 ; § 8). 
Musa Ensete (Broun, Cat. 559), s. txlh^ (|)iisat (-sat). 
Musa scvpientlum (Broun, ib.), s. a^m muz (§ 52a, 8). 
muscle, s. /**p sfga (prop, flesh : s.v. biceps), 
muscular, adj. (strong) T^ An;^9" gwulbatdm (-Iva-, -at- ; 


T^Afli'? o^wiilbataiiiia (-Iva-, 

^ o o o ^ • o ' 

mushroom, s. 'i\l'hf\^ (i)nguddi (§ 8, § 52a, S). 
musk, s. TlOj^ zfbdd (-fvd- ; § 8). 

TC^ tfrfn (-nfi § 6 ; § 8). 
musketry, s. ip\\t\ tuks. 

*JA'^:'|Jhft alamd (§ 8) tuks. 
muslin, s. 'H'^ sjis. 

must, v.i. — use the juss. (§ 27) and imp. (§ 28): — also: 
He must go: f*7.«i---je.rh.^A:: yiigidd yihadal. 
It must be taken away: *I»^CT ■• Va>- ■• ?i'^fljrtj^ k 
qwtirti nau mmiwwcJssad. 

X • o o o o 

They must have gone: rh.^(»- •• ^If'TA k hfdau yi- 
h^^onal (s.v. If V). 
mustard, s. rtT'h*?' sanafic. 
mutineer, s. h'^^ fimmdc (§ 8). 
mutiny, s. hao'V amat. 
mutiny, v.i. haooi timmata. 

The troops (have) mutinied: (Di^fjl'haoaxw wwt- 
taddiir (§ 52a) <4mmata. 
mutton, s. f fl*7 s f^p yiibag (-aya-) sfga. 
my, poss. pron. -5'e, -f -yii (->a), -P» -ye (-^e), (§ I2b). 
myrrh, s. hCfl. karb>e (kar-, -ry>e). 

NAI— NAP 192 


§ refevB to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

nail, s. (unguis) T*bC tffir (§ 52a,y). 

(metal) '^'iUC cinkdr (§ 8, § 52a, 8). 
naked, adj. ^*^ raqut (§ 56d) with pers. suff. (§ 12b). 
I am naked: ^'fc't'Jsi^K raqut^^en (§ 8) nan. 

namda (Hindustani \S^), s. 

(for riding animals) aoCH^ marasdt (maras-; 

§ 8)- 
9^^ mfccu. 


aoao^ mammaca. 

o o 

(for transport animals) riL^* t^eq. 

Jt-n^-n dibdab (dfyday § 8). 
aofifi^fii madalddil. 
name, s. ft?" sim. 

What is your name? tl^^V'-llf-^ahi: slmih man 

o ^-^ 

What is his name? fttfo- s '^'J j Voh « simu man nau? 

o o 

What is its name? 9"'J.-je.nAA:: min yibbdlal? 
name, v.t. hi\ ala (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

hrtT assafifia. 
named, be, v.p. 'I'flA tabala (-ayd-). 

A man named Warrata : atd^ •* X'^fl A ■• fiah •• war- 
rata mmibbdl sau. 

o o O 

Nanotragus Ileinjyrichianus, s. 9^fi^ middqqwa. 

S. nrP yansu. 
napkin, s. aoihd'fl maluirrab (-ay) | (prop, liand- 

aotU^*^^^ maharramya (-rS,m-) j kerchief). 

S. \aolf'i,l\ mdndi 1 (§ 8). 

193 NAK— NEA 

narrate, v.t. i'dh tarraka (tar-). 
narrow, adj. mfl'fl tabbab {-dy ; § 8). 
narrow, be, v.i. mflfl tabbaba (ava). 
narrow (narrower), make, v.t. ^» mflfl atabbaba (-ava). 
The buttonhole is too wide; make it a little 

narrower: f^^^ '• 4*^^ •• rt<(.: Vfl^ « ^T'flflfl^sT«fe^K 

yaqwiilf qaddda saffi nau ; dtyiyau tf qit. 
nasty, adj. R^'P sayyaf (m- ta-; § 8). 
native, s. flAlC baldgar (-gar; § 52a, S). 
Use hlC agar (-gar), country: 
The soldiers will not be quartered on the natives : 

(D^f.C'(\lC'i'Ad''h^l(\9^'.i wwttdddar (§ 52a, S) 

yagar (§§ 7a, 47a) tasari aigdyam. 
natron, s. h9"0 amb^o. 

nature, s. (character) (\ihd bahri (bhdri § 7d). 
nature, relieve, v.i. Md'-atf^ idddri wwtta. 

' ' o 

naughty, adj. '^Ti'JVl mdsink (§ 8). 
nauseous, adj. 5^^^ s^yy^f (ni- td- ; § 8). 
navel, s. ti'mc^ (f)nbirt (-mb-, -nyi-, § 7d). 

T-'flC giibbir. 
near, adj. & adv. ^C'tt qirb (-ry). 

Is he (it) near? W-fl •• Vah k qjryi (§ 7d) nau? 
near, prp. h- [+-]...: 4»C'fl ka- (ta-)... qirb (-ry; § 475). 
Near me: •ti.i^C'ili tan>e qirv. 
It is not to be near the tent: i'j!:'iy\'h'-^C'n'-h^ 

ih'ii' tadunkwdnu qirv aihun. 
Hang it near the ground : if it falls it is not far (to 
fall) : ai^iwkJ.^ : McdV • A*Ai»- T Hat^^ • ^^Cfl Ak 
wwdamar^et dqirviih siqalau: biwwdiq, yiqarval. 
near (nearer), be, v.i. +^fl qarraba (-aya). 

It ought to have been near(er): ^4»C'fl'*VflCK yi- 
qary nabbiir. 

AM. GR, (ll) 13 

NEA— NEE 194 

near (nearer), bring (place, put), v.t. ?»+^^fl aqarraba(-ava). 

Bring it near(er): h^Cdahn dqiryau, pi. -fh^K-yut. 

nearer, (one), the, dem. pron. [f ]ai-?.U?a>« yawwdihffi- 

iiau (-dih-; § 8, § ISa). 
nearly, adv. ^UA y^hil (yahl). 

Nearly 100: ao-f-s^V^'- mat^'o yahl. 
He nearly died: A.^T^iVnC:: lim^^ dt nabbar. 
It is nearly finished : A^^A^'jVid-k lialq nau. 
neat, adj. m^i'? taffitaiina (-tan-). 
neat, be, v.i. m¥ •• hti talF ala (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
neat, render, v.t. m^-*Kft<i'l taff adarrao^a. 
neatness, s. m^^' taffita. 
necessary, adj. 4>^CT qwiirt. 

f '^'S yammisa (§ 14, s.v. Tf). 
Is this necessary? No, we will leave it behind: 
^Ost^CTsiflJ-K— K^^AJ^siR+^AK yihe qwiirti 
(§ 7d) nau? — aidallam, yiqaral. 
It is necessary : ^?f A •••. yisdl. 
It is necessary to life : filh^a)^ •• ^C*? •• ^Oh :•. lahiy- 
wwt qwtirti nau. 
necessity, s. *7jt gidd. 
neck, s. hll^ angat (-gat). 
necklace, s. ^d dfri. 
neck-tie, s. 1i"(\ mdtab (-av). 

' o ^ o • ' 

need, v.t. d^lil falla<»a. 

^IdOh caggarau (-gar-; impers. §43a). 
I need it: ?i<i.A1*PA1r'K ifalligauallauK 
I don't need it: ^A<{.A7fl>-5^K alfalligaum. 

o o'^ o 

Do you need it? ^<i.A7*PAU:: tifalligaudllah?, pol. 

J^,<(.A7•;^AK yifalligutal ? 
I was hungry, I needed food: XCO^-'iflCraD'flAs 

<{.A*7U«K irv^'oii ndbbar, mavil fdllaghii. 

195 NEE— NEW 

needed, be, v.p. '^<<.A^ tafallaara. 

i o o o ~ o 

It is not needed: |&4»C« yfqir (s.v. *l»^). 
needle, s. aoC^ marf^e (mar-), 
neglect, v.t. ^ A ■• hii •• A- call dla la-. 

S. "^A.-^A.-A-cillaalala-. 

o o o 

s.v. VnA, § 44a ; § 47a. 
Don't neglect your work: Aft^U •• ^ A •• Ai^fl A :•• lasi- 
rdh call attjfval, pi. Aft^^l^:^A.•^^nA•:: lasirdc- 
cyuh (§ 7c?) call attiyalu. 
negligence, s. ^A;^ callita. 
negligent, adj. -FA'h? callitaiina (-tan-). 
negro (-gress), s. T*C--rta>- tuqiir (§ 8) sau. 
T*C tiiqur. 
fi'i^/i sanqflla. 
neigh, v.i. hiihh askakka. 

neighbour, s. -J^n.^ g''(5rab>'et (-ay>et ; §§ 8, 52a, S). 
nervous, adj. f^lp'^ dahgdc (dan- ; § 8). 
f!jip"\ dangStta (diin-). 
(timid) d,d fari (fari). 
nest, s. rt.-^ b^et. 

net, s. (fishing) ao^'H mdrab (-ay). 
nettle (Urtlca urens or simensis, Guidi, Vocab. pp. 149, 

150), s. fin s§;mma (§52a, 8). 
neutral, adj. AiT-A %ul. 

never, adv. JP'^r:fl,lf>: minimm bih^dn (bfh- ; § 8) with 
neg. verb (§ 38). 
He will never come: 9°'i9°'-(l,lJ"i:he»aDni9°:i mi- 
nimm bih'^dn aimatam. 

o o O O • 

new, adj. h^ti addis. 

news, s, a)& wwr^e. 

Good news : l^A^^ missfrdc (f ?"- yami- ; -cc § 6 ; 

§8). • V 


NEW— NIP 196 

newspaper, s. ^H.;^ gazJ'eta. 

next, adj. (coming) (DfJ^ wwdanfia (-dan-). 

^*n.aDn\ yammimata (s.v. f-, §§ 14,62). 

By next mail: fliD^?i;^ft;^.- bauwdanna p^osta. 
Next Tuesday: f'T^rwi^.-'^hrt^: yammimata mak- 

On Tuesday next: (^'Xaotn-'^Ylii^i bammimdta 



nibble, v.i. & t. pa\ g^ta. 
nice, adj. f^l dagg (dagg). 
'^^d>^ malafya. 
night, s. tSfdJt PelTt. 

A.^ iJ^et. _ 

Good-night: ^1rT.-?i^C:: dahnSidar, pol. R'^'?* 
j&^4-K dahnaidaru, pi. ^'h'i '"hf/^v^ dahnaidaru. 
This night: H<2..-A.A.^s zar^e Pellt. 
To-morrow night : *i1 i A»A.^ '• naga l^elft. 
Lastnii^ht: ^'i"J^ V ■• A.A.^ •• tinantina l^^elit. 

c? o o 

night, pass the, v.i. h^^ addara. 

We w ill pass the night here : hH,U •• M^^tit k kaz- 
zfh innadrallan. 

o o 

The place we passed the night at : f^Cid^'-ll^^s 

yaddarnibbat (§§ 14, 47a) sifra. 
At (from) the place we passed the night at: 
;^^C'Jn^!ft¥^! taddarnibbat (§ 62c) sifra. 
Nile, s. (Blue) hd^ flbbS (§ 8). 

(White) ^*P':hn^ nacc abbSi. 
nine, card. num. Hm^ ^^tl^^ (zataft ; § 20a). 
nineteen, card. num. h^^ •• Hai^ asrazdtafi (-zatan ; 

§ 20a). 
ninety, card. num. Hm'i" zatdna (zat- ; § 8, § 20a). 
nip, v.t. *fcVflim qwwnattata 

197 NIP— NOI 

nipple, s. m-^ tut (§ 52a, y). 
nit, s. *«*9" q|cam (§ 8, § 52a, S). 

Infested with nits, adj. ^'^'^9^ qicdmdm (§ 8). 
nitre, s. [f ] : fl<-Jt (ya)cau (s.v. P-, §§ 47a, 70) bdrud 


no, adv. 

(denying) hf^P'ti9° aidalliim (ad-, -dal- ; -mm § 6). 
(denying or declining) MWi nkwdn (§8). 
(refusing) hJPfl, (f)mbi (-bi). 
(refiising emphatically) Md,d^ asaffarafi (-faran ; 
-fin § 6). 
No, not yet: h/i^A9"rTr:Vm-:: aidalliim, gdna nau. 
I said *No': hf^F'^r'^'h^^h^i'. aiddlliimm dlhufi 

(§ fil4 
Do you want it?— No, I don't: ^^ATPAUk tifalli- 

gauallah ?—?!'>»?.'> r^AiCA^r -.'• Akwan, alfdlligim. 
Give it to me. — No, I won't: iKii^a sftaii. — h9"(l^i 
hArtTjr»:: mbi, alsdtim. 

o o -o 

After a neg. question hatTr dwwn ( = it is as you say) 
may be used where we say 'no'. 
Has he come? — No: aomi-' — h^P'^9^i'. mdtta? — 


Hasn't he come?— No: AiA/n»^{P»:: — h^^^AJ^:-. al- 

mattam? — aidallam, or (more commonly) hmli' 

nobody, indef pron. *^^ir» mdnnim (-mm § 6 ; § 16) with 

neg. verb (§ S7d). 
Nobody is to speak: *l'i9^ s h^'^lCn mdnnimm 


O ~ o 

noise, s. j^i^T dimt. 

(continuous) fiKfeTi^ cuhat (-hat § 7^). 

NOI— NOT 198 

That noise must stop : ^0 ■• OfeTi^ : Ti?" : ^(1 A k yfhe 
ciihat zimm yfval. 

O O i* 0* o 

It must be fixed (tied) so that it makes no noise : 
119° •• h'J-?. A : ^;^rtC K zimm indfl yittdsar. 
noise, make a, v.i. (of animate objects) h'i\\>\ ankwdk- 

(of inanimate objects) 'i'Tfy\y\ tan- 
Don't make a noise : h;^7V^V^ « attankwakwa. 
Furniture, etc. that makes a noise (e.g. a creaking 
table) : ?'^'i\\\\-''h^'- yamminkwakkwd qa (§ 8). 
nomad herdsman, s. HA^ zalldn (§8), 
nonsense!, interj. hd*^ arag! (araag; § 7d). 
hf^\n9°v, aih^^dnim! 

r' O O 

nonsense, s. 'PH wdza. 
noon, s. +^C qatirr. 

JiVbA-'+'J ikkiil (ukk-) qan. 

TiVhA:*^ ikkiila (iikk-; § 9r/) qan. 
At noon: '^V^A!*^'^s takkiil qan. 

noon, pass (halt for, JLi), v.i. 'PA wdla. 

We will halt here for noon: hli.UsK'Jm-AA^K kaz- 
zih inniwilallan. 

o o o o 

The village we halted at for noon : f <P A'>fl^ •• ao'i 
eCs yawalnibbat mandar. 

•^ «' o o o o 

north, s. hi,! sfm^^en (§ 8). 

*7^ gfra. 
nose, s. h^l^^ afinca. 

' o • 

nostril, s. ^^I'^'-^^fi yaffnca qadada (§ 52a, y). 
not, adv. ao'^ mac. 

See negative conjugation (§ 37, § 38). 
Not this: ao^tlitbii mac issii. 

199 NOT— NOT 

He (it) came : ao^ « matta. 

\ / o • • 

He (it) did not come: ^A<w»«lJ'"« almattam. 

He (it) is hungry : ^doh « rdyau (§§ 43a, 63c?). 

He (it) is not hungry: h^(\ah9":i arr^yaum (§ 7c). 

He is to go : J&rkijt « yihid. 

He is not to go : h^tK.^ » ^jhid. 

We drink: Mm'nA^:: inntattalliin. 

O • o • • 

We do not drink: h'im''}9^'A anntattam. 
If we drink : 'fl'Jm^ •• binntatta. 

o . o • • 

If we do not drink: fl^m"]! banntatta. 
We shall not drink anything: 9°'i9°ih'i(n^K mi- 
nimm anntatta. 

O .Q • • 

One came: h'i^'i 0Df*l and matta. 

o • • 

One did not come: h'}K:shfiiiiDfl9°ii and almdt- 

o • 

Not one came : hTf^'9" •- h^aofl n jindimm almdtta. 

o o • • 

not, he (it) is, v.i. hjE-^Al^ aidallam (ad-, -dal- ; § 40). 
This is not mine: /iU.- fX:Aije,/?.Ai^:: yfhe yan^e 

It is not bad : hf l^:Ai|Z./^A:: kffumm didal (§ 376). 
If it is noj^ right, tell me : Ah •• h'J^^^A : '}ld^ » 
likk indaidal, nierarafi. 

o o o ' oO 

This is not what I told you: /Z.UVJiT'iAiAAiMJK 
yihannanimm alalhuh. 

*> o o 

This is not what I want: JiU9":hj2,^A.?iJ^<«.A'7s 
yihimm (yihiimm) didall (§ 6) immifallig. 
notable, s. 'J/iVf'? ainatanna (-nataii-). 
note, s. (letter) ^-fl^n, dabdabb^'e (dayd-). 

I will make a (mental) note of it : hili'ahii'Pii'h « 

o o o 

note-book, s. ^¥+C daftar (-tar). 

NOT— NUR 200 

nothing, indef. pron. 9^'i9" minim (-mm § 6) with neg. 
verb (§ 16). 
It (there) is nothing: J^'J^'.-fA-.: mfnimm yalla. 
I saw nothing: 9^'i9°'-h'i^ihi' minimm aldyyau^ 

(§ Id). 
They struck him for nothing: "ht^^ahiao'P^ii 

ndyau mattut. 

notice, v.i. & t. hll't^li astawdla (-taud-). 

" o o ^ o ' 

i'aDMl'f tamalakkata. 

o o o o o 

I didn't notice (him, her, it, them, § 616) : ^Afti-'PA 
0'9^» alastaualhum, or h^'t'ootih^ibV^n altama- 

o ' o o 

lakkathum (-t-h-, not -6-, S 3). 

o o ^ ' / 

nourish, v.t. aold maggaba (aya). 
nourished, be, v.p. •faoid tamaggaba (-aya). 
November, s.v. calendar, 
now, adv. hih'} ahun (-hwn). 

(after this) Tx'i'l^V (Dngd^eh. 
numbed, be, v.p. fl^i baddana (bad-; § 6Sd,e). 

My hands are numbed : ?»£* flj^l '- Ifi s ij j^^e (§ 52a,y) 
vadinn h^dna. 

• O o 

number, s. '^TC qwftir (-wtit-). 

Numida mitrata, s. £'*7^ jfgra (§ o2a, 8). 

numnah, s. see namda. 

nun, s. ontiYifi, malcJksye, pi. also ^mAViVf-ft-f ^ malakwa- 

kwust^^ocVcc § 6). 
nurse, s. 'P^lt'^ m^'dgzit. 

201 OBE— OCT 

§ refers to the paragraphs of the Graramar {Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

obese, adj. l4-4- gafdfa. 

obese, be, v.i. ^d,^'-hti g^dfaff ala (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
obey, v.i. & t. ^HH tazzaza (with ace. or A- la- § 47a). 
i"lH tagazza (A- la- § 47a). 
KlL-'hti issi (-si) dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
fljE: •' A» A bdj jii (baj-) ala ( „ „ ). 

Did he obey you? ;^HHU•.•• tazzaziih? 
Does he obey you? ^;^H'HA'/A:: yittazzazillihal ? 
He refused to obey : AiArt'^i^-'AiA« alsdmamm dla. 

•/ o o 

You must obey him : ;^H1f A'*h k tdzazillat, pi. ;^H 
frA'^K tdzazullat. 

o o 

observe, v.i. & t. i'lroiiM tamaldkkata. 

o o o o o 

hhi'^Pti astawdla (taud-). 

o o \ o ' 

obstinate, adj. ^Yllf'U cakcdkka. 

obstinate, be, v.i. "^tl'-hii cikk dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a; § 6Sd,e). 

obtain, v.t. tiiy aganfia (-gan-). 

I want to obtain one (some § 61&): 'il^i'hd.^pfi'hi'' 
laaraiiii ifallior{illau'\ 

o o o oO o 

obtained, be, v.p. i'ly tagannit (-gaii-). 

Where can it be obtained? f-'"h!|il?AK yet yig- 
gafmal? (§ 63c). 
obvious, adj. hoK^ ^wuq (P'uq). 

(to the eye) ^J&^ ti(y)iyyu. 
occasion, s. UU gjz^e, pi. also %ny^ gjzydt (§ 8). 
ocean, s. fl>-*fe^Tft wtiqydn''os. 

Indian Ocean: f U'}jt •• a>-*fe^TA ■• yahind wuqydn^^os. 
October, s.v. calendar. 

ODI— OFF 202 

Oclina fruticosa, (Broun, Cat. 113), s. h9^(i^^ ambdlta 


of, prp. P- ya-. 

h- ['^-] ka- (ta-). 

See §§ 4:1a, 70. 
The door of the house: fn.^-*^£'s yav^et dajj. 
The depth of the water: Pfl)-'/!TA4»: yauhd tilq. 
It is one of these : +5iU s M^ - ifl>- s*- tannlh dndi 


He died of poison : daoCH ■• 'Pi' b bamarz m^ota. 

X o o o 

off, adv. hH,U kazzih (ha-, -az-, -zfh ; § 8). 
i'H,U tazzih (taz-, -zfh ; § 8). 
Be off ! V •• Au^ K na-hid ! (§8), pi. V- : rh.^ « nu hf du ! 
It's a long way off: i'JtU.*?i^4':i(D-« tazzih iriiq 
off, prp. h- ['^-] ka- (ta-; § 47a). 

Take it off the mule : +ft4»A"a>- •• h'i'tah « tavaql^ou 

Where are you off to ? P'^-^nAOK yet yilah? (§ 44a, 
§ 656). 
off, be, v.i. fl)7^ wwggada. 

Be off! a)*!!!::', wwgid!, f ai*7jfs: wwgij! pi. flj*7.^» 
w&jo^idu ! 
offal, s. TJ'^'fl tirab. 
offence, s. ^(fuh^ hdtyat (at- ; § 8). 

n^A badiil. 
office, s. (official building) A»^flfl/Z, addabdbai (-aydyai). 

^A-^ cfl^ot (§ 8). 
officer, s. '&9^ sum, pi. also Yh^iy^^ sumdmit. 
h9^(\^ ambal (-bal). 

203 OH— ONE 

oh !, interj. (of surprise) hd dra ! 

(surprise, admiration) Km-'fl itub! (-y, ha- 

tudy !). 
(surprise, contempt, disbelief) hd'^ arag! 
oil, s. iif,^ zeit. 

^(\:'h1 qibanug (-iyd-). 
old, adj. hC% ar^^OgJ^e. 

(of persons) 7i'^*7A. simagfl(l)ye. 
^a4» tilliq. 
old, be (become), v.i. h£^ arajja (§ 6Sd, e). 

How old are you? ?»Jt'^U.r^:;l-UAAU:: fdm^^eh 

min tahldllaii ? (s.v. hXiK). 
How old is he (it)? ^lJ^'^fl^.• J^'>:^UAAk idm^eu 
min ydhlal ? 
Olea chrysophylla (Guidi, Vocab. p. 587), s.^ (Df^i- ^'^F* 
olive, s. (wild) J (wwi-). 

omen, s. Iff: gadd. 
omoplate, s. aop^^ magdfya. 
on, prp. n-. . .: A^ ba. . . Idi (§ 8, § 47&). 

It is on the table: mn;^a^••AJ&■•ifl^« ba<2:avatau 
lai nau. 

o o 

Give me two dollars if you have them on you: 
i>A^-"flC!4'C'fl:?i'}^AU!ftm^:! huldtti virr qirv 
indallah sftaii. 
once, adv. (a single time) Mft: ■■ *7H. and giz> e (andfgz^e). 
(formerly) T**^ tint. 
At once (now): -f A".•^il^'}.• t^^dlo ahun (-ha>n). 
(immediately): (D^foh: wwdyau (§8). 
one, card. num. htj!: and, f hl^^ audit (§ 20a). 

Let them come one by one: h'ifi'}fi^ahift9"nhii 
andanddccau (§ 18) yfmtu. 

ONI— OPP 204 

This one: f»Vi yfhe. 
The other one: A.Aa>-! lelau (§ 59c). 
The large one: ^A*: tflliqu ( „ ). 
The small one : ^iXh'- tfnnisu ( „ ). 
onion (Allium Gepa\ s. Tf-'Jlrf-C^ siinkwurt (§ 52«, 8). 

+j&:tf'^W'C^ qdi (qayy § 6) siin- 
only, adv. "fl^^ bfcca. 

Four only: h^ih."!!^.- aratt yfcca (§ "Id). 
If he had only come I fflf- : n<wi^ :•. wwyyo yamatta ! 
open, adj. \\^^ kift (kuft § Id). 

(of a garment) ^mA natala (§ 8). 
Leave it open: h^isT-s+oia^K kfftun (cp. § 56c) 

o o 

Leave the door open: tmrWhSf^'^'^^^''^^'' caaz- 
gyaun kift tau. 
open, v.t. hii.'t' kaffata. 

Open it: Yld^i-ahn kifatau, pi. -^^k -tut. 

Do not open it: MYld^i'to^a attikfatau, -pi. -'t^w 
open, be, v.i. (opened, be, v.p.) +h<i.'h takaffata (§ 636?, e). 

Is it open? 1-h'P;f:A-.: takdftSal? ° 

Can it be opened? ^h<(.;^A« yikkafFatal? (§ 63c). 
opinion, s. ^^-fl as(s)ab (-dy ; § 8). 

What is your opinion? 9^Tr •• :htl(\^v a min tassiyal- 
opposite, adv. ^JK-P- ti(y)iyyu. 
opposite, prp. ^..•' ^f,^ ya-... ti(y)iyyu (§ 476). 

Opposite the house : fft.i5:''hji^: yay>etu tiiyyu. 

oppress, v.t. 1i- gdffa. 

n^Abaddala (bad-). 

205 OPP— ORN 

oppressed, be, v.p. i"l4- tagdffa. 

i'dff^ti tabaddala (tav-, -ad-). 
They are oppressed: ^li-dra yiggaffallu. 
oppression, s. 19 gif. 

or, conj. tDf, wS (woii ; § 6). 

Is it his or yours? fCfr:VflH.-fl>Ji:^'}f'K yarsu nau 
wct>i ydnta ? 

In questions also with -ft -ss (q.v.) : 

Is he coming or not? f,aDfl^ia)ff,tl:h^aDfi\9^:i 
yimdtall wwiss aimatam? 

•/ o o • o o o • 

Commonly omitted : 

Is it yours (pi.) or theirs? f '?'}^ •• Vid- ■• f C^^m- k 

yanndnti nau ytirsdccau? 

•' O o ^ o ^,^ 

orange, s. flln^aH •• [fl^^liD- s] tf*^ bakrau (atr) l"6mi. 
order, s. (arrangement) /^^^ sfrdt (§ 8). 
(command) 'T'H'H tiziz (§ 8). 
Whose order is it? (orders are they? § 52a): f*^*}-* 
^Hll i'lOh:: yjimdn tizdz nau? 

•/ o o 

Is the country in good order? Ai7C s 4*T •• ^AA"^ k 
agar qatt yflallwf ? (s.v. oiji). 
order, v.i. & t. hUH azzaza. 

' o o 

As he ordered: h'J^HH-' indazzaza. 

, o o o 

ordered, be, v.p. ;^'HH tazzaza. 

' ' L O O 

As (he, it) was ordered : ?l'J^;^HH « ndatazzaza. 

\ o o o 

Oreotragus saltator, &. M sdsa. 

oribi {Oribia montana), s. <(o«P f^eq^o. 

*%^ m>eq^o (m^aq-). 

<w>ai4» ma'^^^wq (ma'' - ; § *Jd). 
origin, s. HC zar (ziir). 

originally, adv. T*}^ tint, 
ornament, s. IT g^et. 

ORN— OUG 206 

ornamental, be, v.i. him ag^^eta. 
ornamented, adj. ti^9° splim. 
oryx (0. beisa), s. flA sdla. 
other, indef. pron. A»A lela ^§ 16). 

The other: A.Afl>-s lelau (§11). ^ 

Fetch the other: A.Afl>-'}.-h^«lK lelaun dnta (§ 7(^), 

pi. -rth -tu. ^ ^ 

Where is the other ? A.Afl^ : P»^ « Vc»- « lelau yet nau? 
There is no other: A.A.-fAJ^K lela yallam. 
Take one and leave the other : h'i^Tf-^nV^hTf^'i'- 
't'Ohti andun yizah (§ 746) andiin (§ 8) tau. 
otter {Lutra sp.), s. h^fl^ aq^osta. 
Otus cineraceus (Guidi, Vocab. p. 782), s. T-T-^ gwtig- 

ought, V. aux., use past imperf. (§§ 24&, 33ct, 63&). 

He ought to have gone: jirh.i?:--inCK yihad nab- 
See §67&: It ought to be done: i'^^7.sVfl>-» ta- 
darragi (^ 8) nau. 
You ought to go : aoih,^ •• J&lfly A « mahad yiggab- 
bahal {s.v. Id). 
' Ought ' may be implied by using ^d (q.v.) with il- 
and the neg. conjug. (§ 38) : 
Why didn't you tell me so ? (sc. as you ought to 
have done) : h^9^'i•^^ah^. hl^V '. ^hohl •. ^^V*7^^ : 
4»^Uk silamfn nau ndih yallaun sattindgrail 

OOO O 0»'O O oC3 

qarrah ?, pol A|&V*74-^ : +4-K sainagrun 

qarru?, pi A^V*7<-^ ■• ^/S-^ih k . . . . sattindgrun 

qarrdccyuh? (§ 7d). 
'Ought to have': use past imperf. (§ 24): 

It ought to have been done: ^^^*7--VflC» yidd^r- 
raj? nabbiir. 

207 OUN— OUT 

You ouffht to have told me: ^A^-'VflCU:: tilan 

~ o 



ounce, s. id'&I* wdq^et (wwq- ; § 8). 
our, poss. pron. -d-f^ -ac(c)in (§ 126). 
ours, poss. pron. f ? yanfid (§§ 8, 12a, 47a). 
out, adv. s.v. outside. 

Out with you ! '^••ahf]: nfiuta ! 
out, go, v.i. (issue) (D^I wcJtta. 

(be extinguished) m4« taffa. 
Has he gone out? <dT;I:Ak wwtitoal? pol. & pi. 
(dTI^'PAk wwtitaual? 

•o o 

Go out if you want to: 'n^<i.A*7:fl>-«l:: bittifdllis:, 

wtita, pi. 'fl^<CA7'!fl>-m«« bittifdllio:u, wiitu. 
Don't go out: ^i-1*fl^^:: attfwtita, pi. -nv-K -tu. 
When did he go out? «d*P : ai") « mdcii wwtta, pol. 

& pi. ...•• flim-K ...wwttu? 
Let it (the fire, etc.) go out: ^T^-k yitfa. 
Don't let it go out: Txlrfi^mi-i: ndaitafa. 
out, let, v.t. htKD'n aswwtta {hC*^ as^'otta). 

Let him (it) out: htiat^ay-y- aswcJttau, pol. ptl 

(Dfn'^'i- yaswcuttut, pi. hliatm*^':'. aswwttut. 
Don't let him (it) out: h;>ftiD''li»-K attaswwttau, 

pol. h^tnom'^a a^aswwttut, pi. h^tUDtn'^ii at- 

Let them out: hC^^^Ohf. as^ottaccau, pol. yf^ffK 

^Ohii yas^' ottwdccau, pi. ^^rp.^fl>-:: as'^ottwdc- 

Don't let them out: h^f^'^'-^ohi: attas'^ottaccau, 

pol. h^fiiT^^iD'i'. a>as^ottwdccau, pl.^i;^^rp.^Pa^K 

Who was it that let him (it) out? ylia)mah:*^Tr: 

^fl»-« yaswwttau (§ 14) man-nau? 

OUT— OVE 208 

out, put, v.t. ^llD'»l awcutta (auw-). 

(extinguish) hmi' ataflfa. 
Put the bedstead out: ^Apfl^'}!^^fl^^a^•.•• algaun 

autau, pi. -m-^ k -tut. 
Don't put it out : h^ah^loh » attautau, pi. -m«^ k 

Put the light out: <n»'fl^'|3'>s?tT4-<»-K mayrdtun 

Don't put it out : ^^;^T4-fl^K attdtfau. 
outlaw, s. 7!^;^ sifta (§ 52a, S). 
outlawry, s. 7i'^;^i^ siftannat (-¥^- -fti-, -nat). 
outside, prp. h- ...•• (D**^ ka- (i'- ta-)... wicc (§ 8, § 47&). 

Outside the house: hfl.^siD-'^s kav^et wicc. 
outside, s. & adv. fl^'^ wicc. 

adv. flflH^P* bawfcc (baufcc ; ^ 8). 
"h^d idddri. 
oven, s. '^'flrt^ mabsaya (-ays-, -aia). 

oDftx^ matdja. 
over, prp. (of position) fl- [h-, 'h-]...s A^ ba- (ka-, ta-)... 

lSi(§8, §475). 
Put this over that: ^UV'J.nitU.A)Z..Kj^Clfl>-« yi- 
hannan yazzlh lai drgau (§ Id), pi. -7-^ k -gut. 
over, prp. (exceeding) h- [i*-] ••■• f^flAT ka- (ta-)... 
yammibalt (K'TL- (i)mmi-, -iy-, -alt ; §§ 14,476, 58c). 
Over fifty: ;^9"^.•f'^LnAT.• tamsa yammiyalt. 
They are over fifty: ;^J^^.•J&nA''JA•K tamsa yiyal- 
over there, adv. hH,^ kazzya (ha-, -az- ; § 8). 
i'H,^ tazzya (taz-; § 8). 
ii(D^^ bauwdya (§ 8). 
Put it over there: hH,^ •• AiV-^i»« :•• kazzya dnurau, 
pi. -<-^K -rut. 

209 OVE— OWN 

overcome, v.t. [JtJ^i;'" (i)ratta. 

overcome, be, v.p. '^^;^ taratta. 

overfed, adj. T^fl^ tigabaiifia (-ay-, -an-). 

overrun, v.t. (raid) (O^/i wwrrara. 

owe, v.t. ifl^ nabbara (-bar-), VflC nabbar (-bar; § 33), 
with present Vr»- ndu (§ 13b) and iiii dlla (§ 32), 
of which the Eng. object becomes the subject : 
constr. with fl- ba-, 'fl- b(i)- (§ 47«), or h- ka- 
(+- ta-) of the debtor, and f- yii- or the pron. 
pers. suff. (§ 1 2c) of the creditor : 
I owe it: hJisVflJ-K kan^e (S 8) nau. 
Do you owe it? h'ii'i^ahi: kanta nau?, pi. hA'J^'s 
Vfl>-K kallant nau? 

o o 

How much do you owe? h'i^'-M'-M'dVi'. sint fda 


You owed him a dollar: h'i'i"-h'i^i'nC-''it\^ahn 
kanta and! virr ndbbarau, or fCfr-'Ai'Jj^s'flCs 

O • O o o 

Vfl^i'flU :: yarsQ and! virr ndbbiiriibbih. 

•^ o • o o o 

You owe me a dollar: f i •• Mj^ : -nC •• ^A-flU •.: 
van> e andi virr allilbbih. or ^Tr-t" •• hl^ •• HC •• hti^ :•• 

V O • O O "^ 

tanta cindi virr alliin. 

o • o 

I owe you a dollar: ^li"- h'i jl: •• 'dC'- h^^f\^ -.: yAntii 
find! virr allabbin, or t\ii3\'i^i'nC-'hM).-' ban^e 

o • o o ' '^ o 

dndi virr flllah. 

o • o 

owing to (because of), prp. ftA- sila- (§ 47«). 
owl (Otns sp.), s. T^T^^ gwiiggwut. 
own, adj. llll'ti- ganzab- (-ay-) with pers. sufF. (§ 12a). 
It is my own: TJHfl.s^flHK ganzay^e (§ 8) nau. 
Is it your own? TJH'flU •• >a)-:: ganzayfh nau?, pol. 
--fUP-'ViD-:: -y^^o nau ?, pi. -fl -f l^ : iio- K -ydccyuli 

AM. GR. (ll) 14 

OWN— PAI 210 

own, v.t. IH ofazza. 

owned, be, v.p. i'lH taji^azza. 

OX, s. A'ipi(\d3 sano^a var^ e. 

Oxytenanthera ahessinica (Broun, Cat. 677), s. 7iiw»A 

sfmal (-mal; § o2a, S). 

§ refers to the paragrai^hs of tJie Grammar {Initia 
Amharica, Part T). 

pace, s. (running) [K]<«*^ (i)riicca. 
pack (up), v.t. h'^'^ kattata. 

hilC assara (-sar-). 

o o ^ / 

rtflrtfl sabassaba (savassava). 
Pack up this baggage : f Ui^ ■• "h^ •• A'dflOU : ?iA^<d- k 

yihannan iqa savsivah isarau. 
package, s. KftC isir. 

Open those packages that came: ^tlCi^aot^Ohli 
"h^ : ^^oh •• tdsr^^o yamattaun Iqa f ftau. 
packing-needle, s. twtl^ mdsf^e. 

aofid,^ massaff aca (-fac-). 

o o o ^ ' 

pagan, adj. & s. hdaoi araman^e. 
paid, be, v.p. i'h^A takaffala. 

It is to be paid: /^h^A:: yikkafal. 

It is not to be paid : /i^h^CA » aikkafal. 

Has the money been paid? T>H'fls1'h^AK gdnzay 
takaffala ? 

o o o o 

Has he been paid what was owed him? Moht 
+h<(.AA'*h:: fdau takdffalallat ? 

211 PAI— PAP 

pail, s. KC^A jardal. 

(metal) 'feC'feC^ qwwrqwwrr^o. 

( Jj) OD^"^ niaqja. 
pain, interj. expressing, h a ! 
pain, s. ?trw»9" imam. 

Violent pain : 9°"? mit. 

He had a pain in his hand: h^'iihaDaDOht'. fjjun 
(§ 56c) ammamau. 
pain, be in, v.i. fl.i.V4»i»« cannaqau (impers. § 43a). 
paint, s. ^i{9^ qalam. 

paint, v.t. (portray) ^A sdla (conjug. like ^A to cough). 
*l*A/w> qallama. 

loo o 

painted, be, v.p. •f'P/iffo taqallama. 
painting, s. (picture) ftA sil. 
palace, s. *19^'(\ gimb. 

h^/.''ti addaras (§ 8). 
n,'^:/Hl'J'7/^-'^ b>eta (S 9d) mdngist. 
•70, gfbbi (court). 
He is at the palace: h'}7'/*'.-H'>j^'.-Va>«:: kanigds 
zdndi nau. 

o o o 

palate, s. i'V^ tandga. 

palm, s. (of hand) aoi\^ mddaf (§§ 8, o2a, y). 

(tree. Phoenix dactylifera, Broun, Cat. 595 and 
Borassus fiahellifer, ib. 599) rtA.*} saPen (§ 8). 
pan, s. 4-,!i fdga (prop, gourd). 

rtrh*} sahdn (§ 8 ; prop, plate), 
pander, s. l\^"\6 aqqatari. 
panther, black, s. *7/*''\ gjssilla. 
papa!, interj. (cry of child to father) >ifln ababba! 



PAP— PAR 212 

paper, s. tod^^ waraqat. 

Ruled paper: rwift^niCs^Afl^sai^+^s masmar yal- 

labbat waraqat. 
Blotting-paper: *^?"m«a-' mamtaca (-tac-). 
paper-knife, s. f ai^^4*^ ■• <n»4*^^ yawaraqat maqdaja 

parade, s. (mil.) rtA^ salf (salf). 

Parade ground, s. <w>AA<t^ massallafya (-sallaf-). 
parade, v.i. (be paraded, v.p.) +rtA<i. tasallafa (tasal-). 
parade, v.t. hrtA<<. assallafa (-sal-). 
paralysed, adj. flj^'J badin (bad- ; -nn § 6). 
paralysed, be, v.i. fl^i baddana (bdd-). 
AAA sallala (sal-). 
See §6^,6. 
His legs are paralysed :, M4- : AOuA "• fgru (§ 52a, 8) 
parasitic plant, s. i'4'TA taqattilla. 
parcel, s. htlC isir. 
parchment, s. 'fl/J-'i' biranna. 
pardon, v.t. ^d mdra. 

Pardon me (after an inadvertency): pol. ^4»C-* 
J&flA-A''^:: yfqir yiyalulliii. 
pardoned, be, v.p. '^'^^ tamdra. 

Has he been pardoned? ^'J^^Ak tamiroal?, pol. 
and pi. i'9"<l<P A « tamiraual ? 

I o o o 

pare, v.t. 'j^dax qww'rrata. 

Pare it (them §52a): '^/imahn qwtiratau, 
pared, be, v.p, i"fe<Cm taqwwrrata. 

When the hoofs grow long they should be pared : 
'P¥C:A..ej^-'7:^,to^T:: tifir (§ 52a, y) syadig yiq- 
part, s. (division) h'PA kifil. 

213 PAR— PAS 

partner, s. flAVhA balakkul. 

partridge, s. (*d s'^oran (-ran ; § 52a, 8). 

parturition, s. aoohti^ mawulad (maul-). 

Pains of parturition : 9"T mit. 
party, s. — s.v. KV- (i)nna- 

Tasamma and his party : KVi'rt*^ '• nnatasainma. 

Jr ^ o o o 

pass, s. (mountain) flC barr. 
pass, v.i. & t. hiid. allafa. 
pass, let, v.t. Mtid, asallafa. 

hiiYhf!^ askadii (-ka-, -da). 
Let him (it) pass: M^d^at'-.i asallifau, pol. ^^A 

^^K yasdllifut, pi. Mfiii-^n asallifut. 
Don't let him (it) pass: Y\^fi^d,ahv. attasjlllifau, 
pol. h^fiM'^-' aJasallifut, pi. h;'"'^A^^:: atta- 


Let them pass: h^A4-^a>-K asallifdccau, pol. ^^A 

^^(D-:: yasallifwaccau, pi. h^AH•'^a^:•. asalli- 

Don't let them pass: ^i;'"^A4-^a^K attasallifdccau, 

pol. h^fi^i^H'Ohw a^asallifwdccau, pi. h;^^A^ 

^ID- :•• attasallifwdccau. 

O O 

pass on a little, to, v.i. KA^P-'hA illifF dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
Pass on a little: ^lA'psnA:: illiffi (\%1d, 8) val, 

pl. ...•• flA*:: ... Valu. 

passage (passing), s. JiA^P ilf. 
Passover, feast of the, s. ^A.h fdsika. 
pastern, s. ?flf9 sah^dna (swh-, -Ti- -x'^o-, -In- -k^o-; §§ 8, 
Id, 52a, y). 
m'i'*7A tandgil (§ o2a, y). 
pasture, s. aoMl mask. 

PAS— PAY 214 

pasture, v.i. G. 'tAl^ tasamarra (tasam-). 
S. i'tlao^ tasamarra (tasam-). 

o o o o '' ' 

V.i G. Yxd*^^ assamarra. 


S. hilaod, assamarra. 

o o o 

patch, s. aotm,^ matdfya. 

Put a patch on it: <w»^«i,^:hjtC*7n^:: matdfya 
adrigibbat (drg- ; § Id). 
patch, v.t. '^i* tafa. 

Patch the shirts which have holes in them: Pf* 
+^ftfl'-T' ■■ 'fr'^ft ' ''Xd.Ohw yataqaddadaun qamis 
(§ ^2a) tdfau. 
patched, be, v.p. 't'^'ld^ tatafa. 
path, s. aoti^ mangad. 
T"-^*/ gwwdana. 
patience, s. ^^^^ tfgist (§ 8). 

'H'7;^ ziggfta. 
patient, adj. Uli"'*! ziggitanna (-tan-). 
IJ'r*^ cfmmit. 

• o o 

patient, be, v.i. ^lip taggasa. 

pause, v.i. ^^^--hti qwwyyatt dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

He (it) has paused: 'fef^s'flOuAK qw^yyat (§ 6) 
paw, s. <w>^*b madaf (§§ 8, 52a, y). 
pay, s. ^T*!! dam^^dz (§ 8). 
pay, v.i. & t. (sum, and to person) h<i.A kaffala. 

Have you paid it (paid him)? h<CAU(D-K kaffalhau? 

Pay him (pay it): Yld^tiaha kifalau. 

Pay them : ln<(.A^a>- :•• kifalaccau. 

I have paid (it): h^^-V-K kdffalhu (§ 616). 

I have paid him : h<i.Al^''^ « k^ffalhut. 

I have paid them : h<t AA•Ta^ « kaff alhwdccau. 

215 PAY— PEN 

Don't pay it (pay him): h^Yld^dah:-. attikfalau. 
I will pay (it) : S^h'PAA'^ k ikaflallaii^ (§ 616). 
I will pay him : Jih^A^P A1^ :•• ikaflaimllau'\ 
I will pay them : hh'PA^'P Alr^ « ikaflaccauallau*^. 

r «/ o o o o 

I have not paid : h^hd,^ih9"'.: alkaffalhum(§61&). 

I do (will) not pay: ^Ah'HA9":: alkaflim. 

I have to pay for it : hi •• 'lOh n kan> e nau (s.v. owe). 
pay a fine, v.i. (pay as a fine, v.t.) hrt k^sa. 
pay a tax (tribute), v.i. Idd gabbara (-biir). 

Do they pay a tax (taxes) i ^l-fl^A-:: yi<^abbirallu? 
pay, make (cause to), v.t. htl\\d,ii askafFala. 

He will make them pay: ^/lh*hA'[-<P A « yaskaff*i- 


pea, s. MC atar (-tar; § 52a, S). 

peace, s. hC^ frq. 

peace, make, v.i. i'^^C* tararraqa (tiir-). 

i'fltnfa^ tasamamma (tasilm-). 
peach, s. hh k'^ok. 

peasant, s. flA7C baldgar (-gar ; § 52a, 8). 
pebble, s. *P''}«^ cfnca (§ 52a, 8). 
pedestrian, s. Md/T' igrdnfia (-ran-). 
peel, s. 4»C*P^ q^rfit. 

peg, s. (for tethering, suspending etc.) ^hA cfkdl (§ 8). 
(tent-) htll kdsima (-siim- ; § 52a, 8). 
Will the peg hold? ^^A.-^^-AAk cikdl yicflal? 
pelvic bone, s. ^5:^ annisa. 
pen, s. (enclosure) fl^l^ barat (barat). 
(for writing) -UC bir. 

oD^dM^ matdfya. 
A fountain pen: +A5'" ■• ^Afl^ « -flC •• qalam ydllab- 

PEN— PER 216 

pencil, s. [hjCftti (i)rsas (§ 8). 

aofldMp matdfya. 
penis, s. *I»^A qwiila. 
3? A jdlla. 

(euphem.) -flAih billit. 
people, s. (persons) Aoh sau (§§ 8, 52a, 8). 
(tribe) HC zar (zar; § 8). 
There are many people: 'fllf' •• rtfl>- s AiA •••• bizu sau 

He incites the people to rebellion: rti»-s^A9"^AK 
sau yasammital. 
pepper, s. (black) *feT'^!flCfl& qiind^o barbaric (yar-, 
-ry-, -arye). 
(red) ncn<& barbar^^e (ba-, -ry-, -ar^e). 
per cent, hao-f' kamdf^o (i'- ta-; § 47a). 

Ten percent: hao'f^sh/^'C-' kamat^o assir. 
Perdrix coturnix (Guidi, Vocab. p. 663), s. J^C*P•'^ dfr- 

cit (§ 52a, 8). 
perfect, adj. tfo-A- miilu (9" A* milu). 
perfume, s. '^^ sftta. 
perfume, v.t. htWi attana. 
perfumed, be, v.p. ^a\*i tdttana (§ 63^, e). 
perhaps, adv. <d^ wai (wwi). 

nu"> bl'h^on (bfh- ; § 8). 
S^ll^ dmgat 

9"VAn^ ming;ibat (-lya-, -fl^ -yac). 
Perhaps you will want it: aij& : ^<{. AlflH s ^If *i'A k 
wdi tifallk^au yih^'onal (s.v. JV(D'i). 

OO o<^ O "^ o ^ ' 

peritoneum, s. *r*^ m^'dra. 

permanence, s. #n»TC man'^or (§ 8 ; inf. of *TC q.v.). 

permanent, adj. X6 nwdri. 

permanent, be, v.i. T^ n'' ora. 

217 PER— PHO 

permission, s. *b^Jt ^^^^ (§ 8). 
permit, v.t. i'(D tawa (taua). 

I will not permit it: hfiii'(Dah9° a altauaum. 

If you permit it : 'fl^'^fllfl^ •• bittitauau, pol. JUi" 
fla.^-* bitauut. 


perseverance, s. ^;i^ tfgdt (§ 8). 
persevere, v.i. "tp tdgga. 
persevering, adj. ^"h tfgu. 

persist (be persistent), v.i. "^Tn-'hti cikk dla (s.v. VflA, 
§ 44a ; § QSd, e). 
The rain is persistent: TfT'Tl ■• ^Vl •• -flO^A « zinay 
cikk! {§ 7d) yilGTil. 
persistent, adj. 'f'h^h cakcakka. 
person, s. rtfl^ sau. 

(body) rta»-V^ sdunnat (-nat). 
Young person : htihC -• dskar (-kar). 
perspiration, s. atH waz (wwz). 

A-n lab (lay). 
perspire, v.i. (dH wazza (wwz-). 
persuade, v.t. htl^^i asradda. 
persuaded, be, v.p. i'^fi taradda. 
pester, v.t. ^HVH nazdnnaza. 

IT ' O O O O 

He (it) pesters me: /?^^H^H?Ak yinazdnnizannal. 
pestering, adj. i'H'i'H naznazza. 
petroleum, s. tAJ^fl Itlmba. 
pewter, s. •fcC'feC^ qwwrqwwrr^o. 
Phacochoents cethlopicus, s. hC^ |rya. 

hChC karkdrr'' o (kar-, -k5r- ; 
Phaseolits stp., s. h^l^^ adangwdr^e (-da>n-). 
Phoenix dactyl i/ei^a (Broun, Cat. 595), s. rtA*"} sdl>en(§ 8). 

PIA— PIE 218 

piastre, s. *7C7i girs (§ 52a, 8). 

pick (scrape, off, out), v.t. rt4*rt*f» saqassaqa. 

Pick it (them § 52a, 8) off: rt4*ft+(D-K saqsiqau, pL 
-•fc^K -qui 
pick (up), v.t. ti^ero laqqama. 

Pick it (them § 52rt, 8) (up): ^^tmahn Ifqamau, 

pi. -tfi>«^« -mut. 
Where did you pick it up? i'^^iti^f^Ooha tayet 
pick out, v.t. (extract) ^*f*rt naqqasa. 

Pick it (them § 52a, 8) out: '^4*rta^:•. nfqasau, pi. 

-fr^K -SUt. 

Pick out this thorn for me: f^Vi^hVO-'i^tl^^-.i 
yihann is^Oh nfqasillifi. 

^ o O O ^O o o 

picking {off, out), instrument for, s. <w»rt4*rt*fe^. masaq- 

saqya (-saqya, -saca). 
pickaxe, s. ao^d^d^ maqwwffdrya (-far-), 
picked, be, v.p. 'i'ii^ao talaqqama. 

It is (they are § 52a, 8) not to be picked : Ii^A+I^k 

When is the coffee picked? (15^'} .•^H.. •*<»•. -n-^.- 
K'^A+9" :: bamfn ffiz^e nau vunn immillaqqam? 
pickles, s. \r9^mm h^^omtatta (Yi9°- k^^om-, -"Ifll. -tdf e). 
picture, s. 9"llfi\. mfsil. 
/^[d]A sil. 
S^^A. missdPe. 


piebald, adj. rt.^C'^ s^edarfmma (-dar-). 
piece, s. *^'^ qiirrac (§8). 

Give me a piece of bread: T'fe^s-^nsftm'^K tjqit 

ddbb^o sitafi. 
They will work by the piece: flflHAej&A^A-s baiil 
yisarallu (or d^CT «... baqwttr t . . . ). 

219 PIE— PIP 

piecework, do, v.i. di^C*? •• rt^ baqwtirt sarra. 
(\ah^ i rt^ baiil sarra. 

o o 

pierce, v.i. & t. fidfid sarassara (sarassara). 

(DP wwgga (^^'wg-). 
pierced, be, v.p. i'rt^lrt^ tasarassara (-sarassara). 

'['(Dp tavvojgga (tauw-). 
pig, s. M^ asdma. 

pigeon, s. (domestic) [XJC*?*!! rfgib (frg-, -iy). 
(large wild) n-AA biiflal (§^8). 
(small wild) *PA^ wdlya. 
pile, s. 1n9"C kfmmir. 
pile (up), v.t. h/w>^ kdmmara (-miir-). 

Pile it (them § 52a, S) up; X\9^Cahv. kammirau, pi. 
-<-^K -rut. 
piled (up), be, v.p. 'f'hao^ takammara (-miir-). 
' pillage, v.i. & t. H^<C zarrafa (z4r-). 
(Odd wcJrrara. 
Don't pillage it : h^Udd.ah :: attfzraf au, pi. -f-l" k 
pillaged, be, v.p. i'ti^d, taz^rrafa (taz4r-). 

It is not to be pillajj^ed : h&nd^i- aizzdraf. 

X O * o o o 

pillow, s. oohH mak(k)ddda. 

^^ft tfras (§ 8). 
pimp, s. h^^d aqqatdri. 
pin, s. (Dd'itn warant^'o (§ o2a, S). 
pincers, s. T^m^ gwiitat (-tat). 

ao^'im^ maqwwntaca (-tac-). 
pinch, v.i. & t. 'fe^mm qwwnattata. 

Pinch him (it): *fe'>Tmfl^:•. qwwntitau, pi. -flv-^w 
pipe, s. (tobacco-) aoax'^ matacca. 
(water-) Q,9°0, bwambwa. 

PIP— PLA 220 

Fetch my pipe and tobacco: <wim*^flH'}9" « ^IP 
(\'X'i9^ ''^HV'-'t K mataccaunim timbauhaunim 

r' O • O • • O O O O 

(§ 7d) yizah na. 
Piper nigrum, s. *fe'>A^-'flCfl& qund^^'o barbar^^e (yar-, 

-ry-, -ar^^e). 
Pircunia dbessinica (Guidi, Vocab. p. 471), s. ^»'>/^Jt 

pistol, s. Ti'hT stiggut. 
Pisum sp., s. h'i'C atar (-tar ; § 52a, S). 
pit, s. 'hJt^Jt gudgwad (gurg- § 7r/; § 8). 

Pit of the stomach, s. Hj^Jt bajad. 
pitch, v.t. (a tent) '^hA takkala. 
Pitch (pi.) it: ^h/V-^K tikalut. 
Don't (pi.) pitch it: KI-^hA-^K attftkalut. 
Have you (pi.) pitched the tent? J^^»?.V-^ : -MnA^ 
AAk duhkwdnun taklaccihwal ? 

o o 

pitched, be, v.p. (of a tent) i'i'hA tatakkala. 

It is to be pitched here: hlUU-'^+hA:! kazzih yit- 

o o ^^ 

It is not to be pitched: ^tj&l'hA:'. aittakal, pi. 

-h/V-K -kalu. 
When it is pitched tell me: rt.i'hA:'>'l<i^K sittdk- 
kal nforaran. 
pitchfork, s. aoyfi mans (mans). 
pity, s. 9^\h\]^j\r mf(h)rat (-rat). 
YxWl azan. 


pity, v.t. hWi azzana A- la- (§ 47a). 

Pity him: KH'JA^k fzanillat, pi. -^-AI-k -nullat. 
place, s. ft^^ sffra. 

S. hcl sfrfa. 


ao^ao^^ maqqamdca. 
^;^ b^dta. 

221 PLA— PLA 

Put it in its place: hti^^at^'-hi'dahti kasifrau 

dnurau, pi. ...'• K>-<-^k ... dnurut. 
Put (pi.) each thing in its place: i>A-sflPA*P^a>-: 
h^Cb^ K hiillu yayyasifrau adrigut (drgut § 7d). 
Is there no place for it? ft^^sfAtD-T^K sifra yal- 

laummwi? (s.v. atjf,). 
Who knows the place it came from? ?aD'^([i:'i: 
ft*P^ ! '^T' '• yat'^^ :•• yamatfcibbatun sffra man 
yauqal ? 
place, v.t. )\tli»aD(n asqammata. 
hzdl adarraj^a. 
^T^ an'' ora. 


placed, be, v.p. 'h^^7 tadarraga. 

plague, s. fl7i;^ basita. 

plain, adj. (obvious) 'I'^P' ti(y)iyyu. 

(clear) -fK- bfru. 
plain, s. *^^ m>eda. 

Grassy plain : aoti^i •• mask, 
plaintiff, s. h^'fi kdsds (§ 8). 
plan, s. (arrangement) /^^A' sirAt (^ 8). 

This plan is not a good one : ^V'-^^^'1---h^eni''1'9^'.i 
yjfhe sirdt aimmaccim. 

•/ o o o o 

plank, s. mC-fl tarb (tii-, -ry). 
plant, s. "I'lFlA tikil. 
plant, v.t. i^hA takkala. 

H^ zarra (zar-). 
plantain (Musa sajy'ientmm, Broun, Cat. 559), s. ao^'fl 

muz (§ 52a, 8). 
plantain, wild {Musa Ensete, Broun, Cat. 559), s. 

hlil^ (f)nsat (-silt). 

(inedible) 'h^'h^ gundguna. 

PLA— PLE 222 

planted, be, v.p. i"i'h^ tatakkala. 

i'H/J' tazarra (tazar-). 

o o ^ ' 

plate, s. rtrh*} sdhan (§ 8). 
plateau, s. (small) h9^(\ amba. 

(large, the high country) ^p daga (dag-). 
On the plateau : (\^p • badaga. 
play, s. GB^Oi^ cdwata (cau-, -wt-). 
play, v.i. +**%(Di' tacauwata (-wwt-). 
playful, adj. +«^<P^ tacdudc (§ 8). 
pleasant, adj. *^ii^^ malafya. 
please, v.t. ^ft ' ^irtf dass (dass) assanna. 

Did he (it) please him? ^ft:Airt7fl>-K dass assan- 
please (if you), hflhU ibdkkih (iyd-), t -hTi -kkis, pol. 
-h?* -kka^o, pi. -h^ih -kkdc(c)yuh 
(§ 7d\ according to person or per- 
sons addressed. 
"htlXu- [-ft'fc-] (i)ski- (-sti) pref to im- 
-A^ -Hill (for me). 
-A'}[-AV] -llin (-llinna) (for us). 
Please dve it to me: MYlV •■ iiai^ f- ivakkih sitaii, 

pol. hflhP'j^ftnv^K iyakka'^o yMuii. 
Please give us some wood: h^fiO,^ •• ^ft'tftm'J » 
neat istisftan. 

o o •© 

Please go away (from us): iK^M'-i-fLVn hfdil- 
linna tazzih. 

o o o ^ 

pleased, be, v.i. ^ft.-^A dass (dass) ala. 

^ft •• hAiD- dass (-ii-) dlau (impers. § 43a). 
S.v. VnA, § 44a ; § G3^, e. 
I am pleased: ^A«^A^Ak diiss yjlaniial. 

223 PLE— PLU 

I am pleased with you: fl W « Rft s -flrt^^A » banta 
{jh'ii': tanta) dass yiP'oilnal. 
pleasure, interj. expressing, ?»rtj& (i)ssai ! 
pleasure, s. ^ft;^ dass(i)ta. 
pledge, s. h^^ adara (-ddr-; § 8). 
plentiful, be, v.i. <w»A malla or ^A m'^olla. 

It is plentiful: TA:I:Ak m^^dltSal. 
plenty, s. -AH* bfzu (§§ o2a, o3&). 

There is plenty: h^l'-hii:'. fjjig allii. 

This is plenty: ^Ui^E-T :*<»-» yihe ijjfg (§ 8) nau. 
pliant, adj. (of inanimate objects) AftA^ lasldssa. 
pliant, be (become), v.i. ArtArt lasallasa (§ (j'dd, e). 
pliant, render, v.t. ^iAi^AA alasallasa. 

It renders it pliant : ^ArtArt*PA:J yalasallisaual. 
pliers, s. T^rnih gwtitat (-tiit). 
plough, s. ^d.'ii mar^sa. 

Td.C m^^ofar (-fiir). 
plough, v.i. k, t. h^ii {irrasa. 

(new ground) laod gammasa. 
ploughman, s. ^^7i ards (§ 8). 
ploughshare, s. J^*7C digir. 
pluck out, v.t. Vfla. nacca. 

V+A naqqala. 
plucked out, be, v.p. i'^iGBi, tanacca. 
plum, wild (Primus insUitia), s. ?»7h»|& (f)nkwai (§ 8). 
plunder, s. h^ fqa. 
plunder, v.i. & t. H^<i. zarrafa. 
(Dd,d wwrrara, 

o o 

Anybody that plunders will be punished: f*^ 
ttC^i^'^^fiii-' yammizarf yiqqattal. 

PLU— PON 224 

plundered, be, v.p. 'i'tlCd, tazarrafa. 

It is not to be plundered: ?»)iH^*bK aizzdraf. 
Poa dbessinica (Guidi, Vocab. p. 836), s. m.*? Uef. 
pocket, s. K'fl j^eb (j^ey). 

T-h^h gwtisgwas (§ 8). 
U.ft kis. 
poet, s. hll^^i azmdri. 
point, s. (of a needle, etc.) Tf-A sul. 
(station) rdl^^ mfrdf (§ 8). 
Up to this point: hft-MLU •• 9"d^¥ ■■ istazzih miraf. 
There's no point in it : ^i^ •- f Afl^9" » f fr^e yallaum. 
point (out, to), v.i. & t. haoti^i't' amalakkata. 
pointed, adj. Tf-A sul (§ 576). 
poison, s. ooCU marz (marz). 

He died by poison: dao^CfX^'-'P'^" bamadhan^it 
(-dahnit § Id) m^ota. 
poison, v.t. (inanimate object) rwiClf s ^.c^^il s fl- marz 
adarrao^a ba- (va-; ^ 47«). 
(animate object) aoOi'-YxiW marz aballa 
He poisoned the food: Hm'ii^iaDCfiiYx^d^^v, 
bamavil marz adarragabbat. 

o o*o o o oc© o 

He poisoned him (it) : aod'Yi •• hd^ioh s marz aydllau. 
poisonous, adj. #w>CH5^ marzdm (mar-; § 8). 
pole, s. aofifi masass'^'o. 
polite, adj. fi^+^J yiitaqatta (§14; s.v. +^). 
polo, s. ?i<-C '• 6El>a);^ iriir cauwta. 

Ti" ofanna. 
polo-stick, s. f4-C:#w>jr»^ yarur (§§ 47a, 70) mamca. 
pond, s. W-^^. kwiirJ e. 
pony, s. d^dll faras. 

225 POO— POS 

pool, s. Yt'& kwtir^'e. 
poor, adj. ^^ daha. 

(in quality) r'^'T' mfrrac (§ 8). 
pop, v.i. (produce a slight explosion) "I'HsAiA tdtta dla 

(s.v. VnA, § 44a). 
populous, adj. A9" lam (lam), 
porcupine (Hystrix sp.), s. ^C^ jart. 
portfolio, s. *^'i^C mdhdar (mahdd-, -dar, § 7d). 

S. tnC^ b'^ drsa. 
portray, v.t. ^A sdla (conjug. like '^A to cough). 

<w>AA massala (type B § 35). 
position, s. (place) ^;^ b'^ota. 
A'P^ sffra. 


S. flC4' s(rfa. 


<w»«f»/n»«i ma(iqamdca. 

olio o • 

possess, v.t. 1H g^zza. 
possessed, be, v. p. 'MH ta<2^azza. 
possessions, s. '}'fl^'"l* nibrat (-fyr-, -rat). 
possible, be, v.i. +^A tacdla. 
post, s. (postal service) tfl-ft/ij biista. 

t;^A;^ p^^'osta. 
(pole) aoflft masass^'o. 
(station) d^'i:^'' fanta. 
post, v.t. (mail) hn-ft'»l •• hid kayiista agabba {i'd'- tayii-). 
hy'{l:f^ •• hl(\ kap^'osta agabba (-ty- 
(station) Mao acf^'oma. 
Post this letter: iRUV'}:^'n^n..•h;^ft;^.•Mnfl>-:: yi- 

hannan dayddbb^ e kap^^ dsta dgyau. 
Post a man there: rtc»-:h*fc?"fl^K sau dqumibbat. 
postage-stamp, s. t'tjp-flc tambr (§ 52a, 8). 

AM, GR. (ll) 15 

POS— POU 226 

posted, be, v.p. (mailed) hfl*A^!7fl kayiista gabba (i'fh- 

hy^fi^'.in kap^dsta gabba (i-;^- 
Have all the letters been posted? ^'fl^fl.■•|^A•s 
i'n-ft^.-l'fl;tAK daydabb^e (§ 52a) hiillu tayiista 
o-avtoal ? 
Stay where you were posted: h^9^ih(i^stl^^'' 
*fej&K kaq^dmhubbat sifra qwoji, (lit. at the 
place at which I posted you; s.v. f-, §§ 14, 62c). 
postman, s. tfl^ftrn? bustanna (-tan-). 
post-office, s. tf n-ft'n •• n.^ yayusta y^et. 
tf;^ft;^.•n,^ yap^osta y^et. 
See § 8 enclitics ; §§ 47«, 70. 
At the post-office: hO-ft'^.-n.^s kayusta yJ'et. 
pot, s. -f-i- t^6fa. 

r'W^ mfncat. 

(chamber-) <w»?f^ masana (-san-). 
fl^;^ bar^eta. 
potato {Coleiis tuherosiis, Guidi, Vocab. p. 676), s. ff:'Trir 

dfnnic (-cc § 6 ; § 52a, 8). 
potter, s. ?fhA:rt<{ sakla (sak-) sari (sari). 
pottery, s. ffVlA sakla (sak-). 
pound, s. (weight) VTC natir (nat-). 
pound, v.t. (D'^Oi wcJqqata. ^ 

pounded, be, v.p. i-fli+m tawwqqata (tauw-). 
pour (out), v.t. lAOm galabbata. 
*l»^ (jadda. 
Pour it (e.g. tea) out : ^'^fl^ k qfdau. 
pour away, v.t. h<i.rtrt atassasa. 

Pour it away: K'PrtoJ-:: afissau. 

Don't pour it away: M'^doi'v. attaffssau. 

227 POU— PRE 

poured (out), be, v.p. i'lAflm tagalabbata. 

i'^fi taqadda. 

O '■O 

powder, s. (gen.) Ml" d'^oq^et (§ 8). 
(gunpowder) 04-^ bdrud. 
power, s. :?»JiA hail. 

(authority) Thtm^ siimat (-mat). 
^A»^ cil^^ot (§ 8). 
powerful, adj. (gen.) ^^tVi hailanfia (-Ian-). 

(physically) ^AT*^?" qiltfmdm (§ 8). 
-nC* birtu.° 


practice, be (get) out of, v.i. 
't'hfi tajifwwdda. 
If^d, gaddafa (type A § 34). 
+7^<(.flJ- tagdddafau (impers. § 43a). 
See § i5Sd, e. 
I am out of practice: +'?°Jt^'A'V" k tagwwdiccal- 
lau^ or -Mj^rC'f Ak tagadr^oiiiial. 
practice, out of, adj. 1H4- gaddfa. 
praise, s. 9°tip^ misgdna. 
praise, v.t. haofn'i amasaggana. 
praised, be, v.p. +<n»rt7> tamasajirffana. 
prate, v.i. fid^li^ lafallafa. 

M. ' O O O O 

pray, v.i. mAf tallayii (-laiii). 
prayer, s. mi)r^ tal^'ot (§ 8). 
precede, v.i. & t. ^ft^ao qaddama. 
precipice, s. I^A gadal (gadiil). 
prefer, v.t. fli^^ wwddada. 

hdtim aballata (avd-). 

O O • O ^ • O ' 

(to, h- ka-, i'- ta-, § 47«). 
We prefer horses to mules : +04* A" •• ^dtl •• X^fli^A'J k 
tayaql'^o (§ 52a) faras innwwddallan. 


PRE— PRE 228 

I prefer walking to riding: hin>4»<n>Ts n*7^!<iDrh.Jts 
hw^tHhii kamaqqamat vdgr^^e mahad iwwddal- 
lau^ (§ 7d). _ 

preferred, be, v.p. +0*^^ tawwddada (tauw-). 
pregnant, adj. Chll rfguz (§8). 

YiCtll irguz (§ 8). 
prepare, v.i. (oneself, v.r., be prepared, v.p.) 'hrt'i''^ tasa- 
nadda (tasan-). 
Let him (it) be prepared: ^rtV-^w yissandda. 
Prepare to go : ItiTr^^th,^ •• -frtT-^ k nditthad tasa- 
ndda, pi. K'Jj?:^ A.-^ s I'rtT'S. K nditthadu tasa- 
prepare, v.t. Airt*/^ assanadda. 

Prepare it: hfi't^at^i'- assanddau, pi. --^^k -dut. 
Let him prepare it: ^rtV^flJ-K yassanddau, pi. 
-^^:: -dut. 
prepuce, s. ai?f A wasdla (wws- ; § 8). 
presence, s. aoTC man^^or (§ 8 ; inf of T^ q.v.). 
present, adj. 

The present one : ^l^^•• ydhunu ( = f- § 47a + hih'} 
now § 7a + art. § 11). 
present, s. ftrn;^ sit'^ota. 

ao'fff mattayaya (-taiaia). 
'hC'ti giirsa. 
It is not our custom to accept presents: fl?s/*%^s 
<w>1'^^ih^*f*flA?"K bafiM sirdt mattaiaia (§ 52a) 
present, v.t. (give) rtm satta. 

(introduce) hl^"^ aggananfia. 
present, be, v.i. T^ n^^'ora. 

^A alia (§§ 32a, d, 39a, h). 

229 PRE— PRE 

I wish you to be present: fii^^C'-hd^^ptHhn litti- 
n'^dr ifalligallau^ (pi.)... -T<-.' ...-n^oru.... 
He is not present : f Al^ « yallam, pi. f A-1^ « yallum. 
presentiment, have a, v.i. 4*C.-^Aa>* qirr dlau (impers. 
§ 43a; s.v. VflA, § 44a ; § 63f7, e), constr. with fl- ba- 
(§ 47a). 
I have a presentiment about this: flH^U.'^'Cs^iA^:: 
bazzfh qirr dlan. 
press, v.t. (on) ca.ii.'i caqqwwna (cwqqona). 

(against) 14- gaff a. 
pressed, be, v.p. (on) '^ffil.•fe^ tacdqqwwna (-cwqqona). 

(against) i'li' tagaffa. 
pretend, v.i. & t. hf!^/il adarraga. 

h{laDf^ti asmdssala. 

o o o 

He pretends he is ill: ^A-'J:;'-'";'7.-->^ACj3Ak ri- 

sun tamdmi yadargal. 
He is telling lies and pretending to tell the truth: 

fl>-?f ^ •• V?C ■• M^T-f" : ?ia>-V^.AiftOTA/V- : jz.97^Ak wd- 

siit ndffiir amtit"o liniit asmassil'^'o yinndofgraral. 
He pretended not to know: Ma>-4»?" •• -fl A" .•<P?f:: 

alauqim bfl^o wdssii. 

iQ O 

pretty, adj. oh-n wiib (wiiy). 
prevent, v.t. hAhA kaldkkala. 

X ' o o o o 

Neg. conjug. (§ 37) of causative verbs 
(§ 22a) with ^A dla (s.v. VOA, § 44a). 
Prevent him (it): hAlnAa^■.•. kdlkilau, pi. -A-^k 

Don't prevent him (it) : h^h^Tntiahn attikalkilau, 

The moon prevented me from sleeping: 03.^^: 
^iAAi'?^{r":/iA^K caraqa alastaiinannimm dlac. 

• o o -^ o 

PRE— PRI 230 

prevented, be, v.p. i'hAhA takalakkala. 

He (it) must be prevented: ^hAhA» yikkalkal, 

pi. -A* K -lu. 
He (it) is not to be prevented: ^^hAhAs aikkal- 
kal, pi. -A* « -lu, 
previously, adv. ^A+^T* asqaddim^'o. 
price, s. *Pp waga. 

What is its price? <P^<d- : A*}^ : ^fl^ ••: wdgau sfnti 


It fetched a good price: Mli^'-'lYiaM'. akkul'^o ta- 
sata (s.v. hilli). 
prick, v.t. mV*feA tanaqqwwla. 
a)p wwgga (^^wg-). 
A thorn has pricked me: lxY>V'-a3p^K is^'oh wcJg- 
gafi (-oh^wg-). 
pricked, be, v.p. (prick oneself, v.r.) i'mp tawwgga 
Take care you don't prick yourself: IviH^iDpi- 
ndattiwwwgga, ...yourselves: -oiT-k -wwcJggu. 
prickle, v.t. h«Ah"A kwajsakkwwsa (-swkkosa). 
prickly, adj. hoAV>,A kwwskwassa. 
pride, s. Vh^'^ kiirdt (§8). 
priest, s. hot kdhin, pi. also hUT^ kdh(i)ndt (§ 8). 

*feA q^es, pi. also *&Aa>-A^ q^esjCust (§ 8), and 
^fiohtl-f-'^ q^esaiist^oc (-cc § 6). 
princess, s. (Df^WC wdizar'' o (w&^i-, -zar-), pi. also atf^HllC 

waizdzir r-HTiC^ -zdzir^oc (-cc S 6)1. 
print, v.t. 'h't'iTD hattama [hi'tm dttama). 
printed, be, v.p. ^i'tro tdttama. 

It is (has been) printed : ;^^^A « tattim5al. 
It ought to be printed: j&;f-h?"«VnCK yittattam 

231 PRI— PRO 

printed, cause (allow) to be, v.t. M-i'oD asattama (§ 68). 
I will have it printed: M^aD*Pli'l[^» asattimau- 
allaiii^ (§ 7d). 
prison, s. ^nii^'-H^ yagiz^dtb^et (y^et). 
fftC.-n.^ yiisfr b et (y). 
fir^jtC.-n,^ yamdfr b>et (y-). 
You must go to prison: ;''rtC« tdsar, pi. ;^'A4-» 


Take care you don't go to prison: hlfi'lr^f'flCi'- 

ndattittdssar, pi. -rt4-s: -ssaru. 
He must go to prison: /i;^rtC•.: yittdsar, pi. -rt<-:: 



You will go to prison: ^;f'f^^^iV:'• tittassarallah, 

pi. -^A^-U' K -ralldccyuh (§ 7d). 
If he is found, he will go to prison : fl,7^ s^;''rt^AK 

^j^?^*^ (§ ^)' yittdssaral, pi. n,T5^ •• j&;i'rt/{-/V- k big- 

gduiiu yittassarallu. 
He is in prison: ;''ft/J;A:: tasroal, pol. & pi. r^'ft^VAK 

He has come out of prison : i'^^'l*;!: A « taf dttoal, 

pol. & pi. I'^^-f-'PA:: tafattaiuil. 

r Mr o o o 

prisoner, s. htl^^ asrdiiiia (-ran-). 

(of war) 9"Cli^ mirk^'^'dfifia. 
J^Ch mirk^^o. 


See § o2a, S. 
prisoner, be taken, v. p. i'^^iHh tamarraka. 
prisoner, take, v.t. '^^h marraka. 
private, adj. (ground, etc.) InAliA kilikkil. 
probably, adv. J^77^ dfngat (-gat). 

(standing alone) f^W^^n yih'^Snal. 
proclamation, s. hV"^ audj (§ 8). 
procreate, v.i. & t. aiA^ wallada (wal-, wcJl-). 

PRO— PRO 232 

procure, v.t. (for hire) h^md aqqattara (-tar-). 
procurer, s. h^^'ld aqqatdri. 
profit, s. ^C^ tirf. 

Vd. ffr^e, pi. V&P'^ ffre^^oc (-cc § 6). 
What profit did you make? i^'J:^OA^^'^^¥OK 
min yahl atarraf h ? 

o •' o o 

profit, v.i. h'tdd. atarrafa (-tar-). 
prohibited, adj. hAVlA kilfkkil. 
promote, v.t. iEyaod cdmmara. 
VoD s^'oma. 


promoted, be, v.p. •i'T^ao tas'' oma (tas-). 

i'fiH.rm^A^ tacammarallat (impers. 
§43a; § 47a). 
When were you promoted? <wi^ .• i'?s'jr*0 ss mdc^^e 

tas^omh ? (-l^fi -mk, -t\k, § 7d). 
If you act like that you will not get promoted : 
?l'}^0.•'n;^^C*7:>i^6a«w»CAU9":: ndih yittadarg 

O • • O o o o 

pronunciation, s. MplC annagdgar (-gar). 

'}*7*7C nigiggir. 
proper, adj. (-ly, adv.) flflJ-A b|ul (badl, § 8). 

Use the article (§ 11). 
Do it properly: fliiJ- A : ^j^C7a>- :•• baiil ^rgau (§ 7c?). 
At the proper time : (["ULoh : bagiz^eu. 
This is not the proper place: ^0:ft*P^flM^»^^ 
/^A:: yfhe sifrdumm (§ 37&) aidal. 
property, s. h'Tl-'h kayt (kaf t § 7d). 
Itn-n ganzab (-ay). 
t'd^^ nfbrat (nfyr-, -riit). 

233 PRO— PTE 

proportion, s. +'P<iJt tawdrad (taud-). 

Pay them in proportion to their work: h'if^fi^^at'i 
a-f-tp^p^sYid.'i^ah:'. ndasiraccau vataudrad kifa- 

o ^^ 

proportionally, adv. fl+'P^J^ batawdrad (-and-). 

prosecute, v.t. hrtrt kassasa. 

prosecuted, be, v.p. i'hrtrt takassasa. 

prosecutor, s. h^Ti kdsds (§8). 

prosperous, adj. ti9° lam (lam). 

prostitute, s. ^A*^*;^ galam'' ota. 

prostrate oneself (in prayer), v.i. rt7^ sdggada (saggada). 

protect, v.t. aoh't' mdkkata A- la- (§ 47a). 

proud, adj. Vh4- kiiru. 

proverb, s. i'd^ tdrat. 

province, s. *7H^ gfzdt (§ 8). 

provisions, s. (gen.) aoil^ nidbil (-ayi-). 

(for use while travelling) /*">4» sinq. 
provoke, v.t. hll'k^ asqwwtta. 

Don't provoke him (it): h:^tl'^^aha attasqwcuttau, 

pi. -/n-^K -ttut. 
He (it) is provoking: rtii>*-'^ft*fe^AK sau yasqwwt- 

He (it) is very provoking (to me): ?iE'*7s^A'fe^?AK 

fjjig yasqw' wttaiiiial. 
prudence, s. -flA'/^ bflhdt (§ 8). 
prudent, adj. 'flAU bpih. 

Is he prudent in business? A'}*7jt'"flA0sVflJ-K la- 

nfgd yilih (§ 7d, § 8) nau? 
Primus insititia, s. "hlX^f* (l)nkwai (§ 52a, 8). 
psalter, s. -8*^^ dauit. 
Pterolohinm abessinicum (Guidi, Vocab. p. 289), s. 

+'}mi. qantdffa. 

PTI— PUN 234 

Ptilonorrhynchus alhirostris (Guidi, Vocab. p. 569), s. 

*PC^ warda. 
pudding, s. mi-'^ tafdc (§ 8). 

hfi*? aldwa (alaua). 
pudenda, s. -flA-Th billit (§ 52a, y). 
pufF, v.t. ?i^:hA iff ala (s.v. J(\^, § 44a). 
Pulex irritaiis, s. '^l^^ qwunfcca (§ 52a, S). 
pull, v.i. & t. on sdba (sdya). 

Pull : '^'fl a say, pi. Ofl- « sayu. 
Don't pull : M^i-H :•• attisdy, pi. -fl" « -yu. 
Pull it: fi^(D*v, sdyau, pi. -fl-^K -yut. 
Don't pull it: MfiHohw attisdyau, pi. -fl*^K -yut 
pulled, be, v.p. i'On tasdba (tas-, -dya). 
pumpkin, wild (Cucm^bita maxima, Broun, Cat. 209), s. 

^'A qil. 
punish, v.t. +"1 qatta. 

Punish him: 4*^(0-:*. qitau, pol. ^^m-^K y^qtut. 
Punish them: ^^^oha qitdccau, pol. Jl4*fp,^<D-« 

Don't punish him : M^^ahn attfqtau, pol. Iij&4» 

m-^B aiqtut. 
Don't punish them : h^^^^ah « attiqtdccau, pol. 

^^4'fp,^a>-« aiqtwdccau. 
Did you punish him? ^fflVohi'. qdttahau?, pol. 
«l»m-^K qattut? 
punished, be, v.p. ^•+"1 taqatta. 

He will be punished: JR+'HAk yiqqattal, pi. -^A-k 

He should be punished: JI+^'Ik yiqqdta, pi. -/n«K 

235 PUN— PUT 

He should not be punished : hf,^^ « aiqqata, pi. 

-m«K -tu. 
Has he been punished? ++T;tA:: taqattoal, pi. 
-Tl-'PA:: -ttaual? 
punishment, s. 4*^^ q^dt (§ 8). 
pupil, s. (learner) 'h'^^J tamari. 

(of eye) 'dd^ bfrat (-riit; § 52a, y). 
purchase, s. aolH^ ma^zdt (§8). 
purchase, v.t. 1H g'^zza. 
purchased, be, v. p. +7H tagdzza. 
pure, adj. T<- tfru (t^ru). 
pure, be, v.i. m^ tarra. 
purify, v.t. ha\^' atarra. 
purple, adj. '^'h'^ cagiimma. 
purpose, on, — use gerund of hati' duwaqa. 

I did not do it on purpose: Ai£D''&!h'\^<:*7iM^:: 

{tuuqq^e aladdrraghum. 
I suppose you sent him (it) by mistake. — No, on 
purpose : Ai^ft'hU : AlTKiOMDje, :•• ^IZ.A^AJ'" ■• hiD-* ! Vfl^ K 
assdsitiih lakhauwwf? (lakkau- § 7(^i?; § 6). — aidal- 
lamm (§§ 6, 7d) auttqq^'d (§ 8) nau. 
purr, v.i. h'iy\d^ ankwarrafa. 
purse, s. h<im,1* karatit. 
"7^^ maffida. 
pus, s. aolfii magil. 
push, v.i. & t. l4- gafFa. 

Push: '74-:: gffa, pi. *7^:: gffu. 
Don't push: Am4-:: attfgfa, pi. -f ::-fu. 
pushed, be, v. p. "fli- tagaffa. 
put, v.t. hf^/il addrraga. 
Md angora. 


htl^aom asqammata. 



Where did (have) you put it? f-^'-h^dlVahn yet 
adarraghau?, pi. ^^••hf^^p'^ih^i-- yet adarra- 
ff^ccihut ? 

O o 

Where did (has) he put it? ^^--hf^^nahix yet 

adarragau?, pi. -T-^s -gut? 
I don't \now where he (has) put it: ^^^.Id^Tr- 

^Afl>«4*J^K yadarragabbatin alauqira. 
Put it here : linj) ■* ^J?:C^fl^ k kazzih adrigau (^rgau 

§ 7d), pi. t^ K -gut. 
Put it down: hil^^^anD^i'. asqammitau, pi. -tn'^r. 

tut. '_ _ 

Put it right: na^A••>iJ?:C^fl^K baiil drgau, pi. -'b^» 

Put it on the table: (n(\^ahsf{j!,:h'hdahi-- baga- 

vatau lai anurau, pi. -4-^k -rut. 
Put it back : ao^iioh s mallisau, pi. -A-^ « -sut. 
— Use the jussive of other verbs : 

Put it near that I may see it : ^C'fl.- j&U-'}:?i'}^f<D-.: 

qiry yihun (s.v. JVcfi) inddiau. 
put, be, v.p. •f'^d.1 tadarraga. 

Where was it put? P»^s+^^7k yet taddrraga?, pi. 

-T-K -gu? 
It is to be put here: httU:J&^^*7M kazzih yiddarag, 
pi. -7«K -gu. 
put away, v.t. flirty wassada (wws-). 

Put it away: (D'Cl^ahn wdsadau, pi. -^^« -dut. 
Put them away: ahf^^^(D'i' wiisaddccau, pl.-^^flH" 
put away, be, v.p. +iDrt^ tawassada (taud-, -ws-). 

Has it been put away? i'tttil^^n tauwsd6al?, pi. 
-^<PAk -daual? 

237 rUT— QUA 

put in (inside, indoors), v.t. hid agabba. 

Put it in: M(\ah» dgyau, pi. hlO'^a dgyut. 
Put them in: M(V^ahii agvdccau, pi. -OJfaha 

• o 

Don't put it in: ^;^*7flfl^K attdgyau, pi. -fl-'^:: 

Don't put them in: ^l;^*7fl^a^K attagyaccau, pi. 

-Q/fahii -ywdccau. 
Put the table inside: in;^<»«'}sh'7fli»-K gayataun 
put in, (etc.) be, v.p. 7fl g^bba. 

Has it been put inside? l-AjtA"^ k gaytoallwf? 
(s.v. (Df!>). 
put out, v.t. htD^ awo^tta (aua>-). 

(extinguish) haii^ atdffa. 
Put the dog out: ahTiahlshahfiohn wtissaun 

Put the li":ht out: <n»'fl^i2'} •• hT4- « mavrdtun 

Don't put it out: h:f"?4-aha attdtfau. 
python, s. H'J^ zand^'o. 

§ refers to tJie paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

quail (Perdrix coturnix, Guidi, Vocab., p. 663), s. JtC 

*!?"> dircit (§ 52a, S). 
quality, s. '^f/i^ ^inat (-nat). 
quantity, s. Ah likk. 

QUA— QUI 238 

quarrel, s. YlCtlC kirikkir. 

What is the cause of the quarrel? eyiCVlC:9"h'>^^: 
9^'ii'iahii yakirikkir miknydt mfn-nau? 
quarrel, v.i. 'h'nA tatalla. 

i'h^h^ takarakkara (-karakkar-). 
Don't quarrel: Ai^^Ak attittala, pi. -rt-K -lu. 
If you quarrel I shall dismiss you both: 'd^^fi"- 
I^A;^^l^ ■• ^rtT'n;^^A A-V^ :: bittittallu hulattdc- 
cyuh assanabbitaccyuhallau^ (§§ 7*^^, 12c). 
quarrelsome, adj. T^fl? tigabanna (-ay-, -an-). 

quarter, s. (V4) A»^^? arattfnna. 

[hj^-fl (i)rub (-liy). 
quarter troops on, v.t. 'tfl^-'Clf^^'-d- tasari saddada ba- 

quartered on, be, v. p. (of troops) i'rt^-'lflsfl- tasari 
gabba ba- (ya- ; § 47a). 
No troops will be quartered on them : 'fA^ '• h^l 
flfl^iD-jpK tasari (So2a, S) aigavabbdccaum. 
queen, s. '}*7/*'^ nfgist (§ 8). 
queer, adj. 7-^ gud. 
question, s. T^'fe tiyydqJ^e. 
question, v.t. m?^ tayyaqa (-yiiq-). 

Question him : m|&4»a>* « tdyyiqau. 
Question them : ai^^^ahn tayyiqdccau. 
questioned, be, v.p. i'm^'P tatayyaqa (-yaq-). 
quick (in action), adj. *I'A^4' (jaltaff a. 

iLm'-^ fataii (fat-; -anii §G; § 8). 
quick, be, v.i. ^fimd, qalattafa. 

•f-ti^-'hii t^'olo dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
<{.mV fattana (fattiina). 

239 QUI— QUI 

Be quick: -f A-:nA:: t^dlo yal, pi. "f A-.-nA*:: t^dlo 


He is to be quick: -fft-sj&flAK t^olo yfyal, pi. -/V-k 

quick, cause to be, v.t. h^timd, aqalattafa. 
quickly, adv. -f /t" t^olo, usually with gerund of hli 

(§ -i^a). 
Fetch it quickly: -f A".*'nAU:f»J'"'^fl^K t^dlo yllah 

antau (§ 7f/), pi. -f A-"flA^ih:^^m-^:: t^dlo ^- 

laccyuh (§ 7d) antut. 
Come back quickly: •^iiri'UtiVi't'mititii'. t^^'dlo yf- 

lah tamalas, pi. "f/t" ^ 'flA^U* •• l^^wiArt- k t^^dlo vi- 

o o o -"^ • o 

idccyuh tamalasu. 

*' o o o 

He is to come back quickly: -f A"-*'flA-sj&£w>Aft:: 
t^dlo yfl^o yimmalas, pi. -f A" •• 'flAiD- •• J&«niAA« ••: 

t^dlo vflau yimmdlasu. 

• o o *' o o o 

quicksilver, s. flH.^ baz^eqa. 

quiet, adj. (silent, of animate objects) ll9^i'^ zimmi- 
tafifia (-tan-). 
(silent, of inanimate objects) [J^JCT- Hgu 

(tame) 1^-9^ garrdm (§ 8). 
(inoffensive) IC gar (giir). 
(patient) '^P-r-V cfmmit. 
Is this mule quiet? j&ll.- n4'A"! l^J^s Vi»-:: yfhe 

vaql^'o garrdm nau? 
A quiet place: 6n;Ti-Th-'fA.Afl^sft^^-- ciihat yaPal- 

lilbbat (§ 395) sifra. 
A quiet person: '^JT'^.-Aoh-- cimmft (§ 8) sau. 
quiet, v.t. TiJ^-'^irtY zimm assanna. 

QUI— QUI 240 

quiet, be, v.i. (silent, of animate objects) 119^ --hti zimm 


(silent, of inanimate objects) [?i]^^ (D^'f o" 

(undisturbed) KT •* hti satt dla. 
S.v. VQA, § 44a; § 6Sd, e. 
Be quiet: 'Hl'^snA:: zimm bal, pi. Tfi^sflA-K zimm 


Tell them to be quiet: H^^'-f.fitt'i'. zimm yfyalu. 
Is the country quiet? h7C •• J^T •• 'fl^A"/i •.•• dgar satt 

yiloallwi? (s.v. ©Ji). 
Sit down and be quiet: 'H9"s'flAU.*i'*l»<w>TK zimm 
bflah taqamat, pi. 'HiP'••'flA^l^!'^+<n>fl^•.•. zimm 
bildccyuh taqdmatu. 
quietly, adv. 119^ zimm or *f*A qass with ger. of hti dla. 
quietly, act, v.i. ^tl •• hii qass dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

Do it quietly: ^tli'dtiV'-h^Cla}".: qass yilah drgau 
(§ ^^^)» pl +A ! 'flA^i> s ^JtC7"Th K qass yildccyuh 
(§ 7d) drgut. 
quinine, s. hJ^*? kinina. 
quite, adv. flfl>-A bawiil (bauiil, baiil ; § 8). 
n^ns^ batam (§ 8). 
Was it quite boiling? flio-A-'^CA-fs VACk bautil 
falt^ o nabbar ? 

o o 

It has not gone quite in: fl'HJ^iAiA'in?":: batam 

Quite'hot: ^In-H- tfkkiis (ttik-; § 8). 

241 RAC— RAI 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

race, s. (tribe) HC zar (zar). 
radish, s. rtT'bT' sandfic {% 52a, 8). 
raft, s. ^Tf>\ tdnkwa. 
rag, s. fla.C4» carq. 
rage, s. \i'Cd>f kwdrfya. 

'^"l qwiitta. 
rage, get into (be in) a, v.i. (with, v.t.) i-'fe"! taqwwtta 

The chief was in a rage with him; *tf'JP:i'*feT'f'^s 
iflC:-. sum taqw&jtif'ot ndbbiir. 
Rahad (river), s. 7i{^4- sfmfa. 
raid (raiding party), s. tlao^ zamdca (§ 8). 
raid, v.i. & t. tod^ woJrrara. 

' o o 

(Dp wojgga (^'w'-). 
They (have) raided our territory: hl^'^-'i'isw'b^K 
agardccinin wwggut. 
raided, be, v.p. 'batp tawwgga (taucJ-). 

If our territory is raided, we shall require com- 
pensation from you (pol.): ^i7^^'}:n,fli^:T}M 
(\'^'i'i•.hCf^?*^'h'}^L^p^'i''^ agjiraccin biwwo^gga 
ganzaydccinin karsa'^^o nnifalligallan. 
railway, s. f nn-C.-<w»'J7j^ yiibdbur (yaydyur; §70) m^ngad. 
Railway stores: fnfl-C:/*"}4's yababur (yayayur; 
§ 8) sinq. 
railway-station, s. ao^'^f maq^'dmya. 
oDih'n mahatta. 


railway-train, s. ao'i\)»^M-C mankwojrdkwiir. 

PJ^j^C:nn-C yiimdfr bdbiir (ydyur). 

AM. GR. (ll) 16 

RAI— RAP 242 

rain, s. TlT'd zmab (-dy ; § 8). 

Heavy rain : 7"C^ •- gwwrf. 
rain, v.i. HVfl zannaba (zan-, -ava). 

' o o o ^ ' o • o ' 

If it rains ;'J'fl •• bizaniv. 
rainbow, s. '^il'ti^tw'^ qasta (§ 9d) dammdna (§ 8). 

B. ^"lC^9^''ao'^h^ yamdryam (§ 70) maqan- 
nat (-nat). 
rains (rainy season), s. \}d9"^ kfrdmt (§ 8). 

Before the rains come on: \}d9"^''fif,l(\i kiramt 
raise, v.t. M**! andssa. 

Raise it : ht^Oh » ansau, pi. h'ia^^ « ansut. 
raise into sight, v.t. 'fl^'s^ft^T biqq a-t^lrraga. 
raised, be, v. p. i^i*^ tanassa. 

It must be raised: ^V*^k yinnasa, pi. -ip-ss -su. 
If it were raised : f i'V'^ •• hlfi^lfi •• yatanassan- 
dah^on (§ 81c, ^), pi. f'f'Vu»«.-?i'J^(f'>: yatanas- 


raisin, s. HfU'fl zabib (zayiv ; § 8 ; § 52a, 8). 
ram, s. fli^Jt - fl*? w&jndi bag (yag ; § o4&). 
ramrod, s. fmfl^^!H'>*7 yatabdnja (-ayd-; § 70) zang. 
rank, s. (line) rtA¥ salf (salf ). 

(position) Thao^ siimat (-mat). 
Ranunculus sp., s. ^ahV « (\C(i& yauha barbar^^e (yiirya). 
rapid, adj. ^A^^^ qaltaffa. 

d,m^ fatlii (fat-; -diin § 6 ; § 8). 
rapidly, adv. -fA" f'olo. 

rapidly, act, v.i. ^f't\r••h^ f'olo ala (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
*l»Am<i. qaldttafa. 

J.O O • • o o 

<{.mV fattana (fattiina). 

o • • o o ^ • • o ' 

It dries (up) rapidly: -f A"!'nA":/K,^C^A» t'^dlo 
yfl^ o yidanjal. 

243 RAP— REA 

rapidly, cause to act, v.t. Miiaid, aqalattafa. 
rapidly, cause to travel, v.t. hlfllA ag(g)asaggasa. 

Please cause him to travel rapidly: pol. htlii^lti 
*7rt-^ K istiyagasgisut, . . . cause them . . . -lft*70, 
Tpfli-:: -orasffisw^ccau. 
rapidly, travel, v.i. 7rt7rt gasaggasa. 

Start now and travel rapidly: ^ih'>-"M/*'+U:lft 
•7^:: ahun tanastiih (§ 74&) gasgis, pi. ^^l^'}:'^V 
/*';^'fl^••^ft•7A«:•. dhun tanastdccyuh (§ 7d) gas- 
rat, s. h^*? ayit ({lit), usually f. (§ 54c; § 52a, S). 

Infested with rats, adj. ^Ji^H?"-' jlyitdm (dit-; § 8). 
rations, s. *l*A'fl qallab (-ay). H 

rattle, s. S^'i'X'A sandsil. 

' • O 'O 

rattle, v.i. \\ •• hii kwa dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

See that it doesn't (they don't § 52a, S) rattle : \\'' 
?i'>^j&A:: kwa nddil. 
ravage, v.t. H^<C zarrafa (zar-). 
(Odd wwrrara. 

o o 

raw, adj. T<2. tir>e. 

We don't eat it (them § Gl6) raw: T<i : MnAJT* •.: 
tir^e annivalam. 

•O O- O 

ray, s. *P'A'>*P'A cildncil. 
razor, s. l^AT* mildcc (§ 8). 

Don't touch my razor(s § 52a, S) : ir»A6Rp'>: Ai^'JhaJ-.: 
mildcc^en attinkau. 

o • • o 

reach, s. 

It is out of reach: ?i4-4*sVa>-K iriiq nau. 

O A O 

reach, v.i. & t. ^^A darrasa, constr. with htlh- iska- or 

"^ o o o o o 

"-ba-(ya-; § 47a). 
I can't reach it: fiA^CAfll'i^K aldarsibbatim. 




He (it) did not reach me before I started : fiM*^' 
h^S!^^fli^9° « salinnassa aldarrasafinim. 

»* o o o o o 

You will reach it: ^^Cftfl;^AU k tidarsibbatallah, 
pol. /^^Cfrn;^A:•. yidarsubbatal, pi. ^^CA•fl;^'V 

'^ihi'. tidarsubbatalldccyuh (§ 7d). 
Did you reach it? ^^ftUfl^:: ddrrashibbat? (-s-h-, 
not -S-, § 3), pol. ^^frn^K ddrrasubbat?, pi. ft^ 
frfihH^ K darrasdccihubbat ? 

O o o o 

reach, cause to, v.t. h^dfi addrrasa. 

' ' "^ o o o 

read, v.i. & t. Mdfi anabbaba (ava). 

Can you read? ;^inAOK tanabballah? {§ 63c). 
Read it: hlr'adahn ambiyau (§ 7d). 
I can (will) read it : Md'Pii'^ii anabbauallau^ (§ 7d\ 
I can't read it : '^'^A^r k mambayu (§ 30) 

o o ^^ 

I will not read it : AvAVflfl^?" « alanabbaum. 

o o 

reading, s. ^fl-fl nibdb (nfydy ; § 8). 

ready, be, (get), v.i. 'f^A*?-^ tasanadda (§ 6Sd, e). 

Is he (it) ready? i'A'i'Jt;tAK tasandditoal? (-ndrt- 


d), pi. -i-'PAK -taual? 

He (it) ought to have been ready: j&A'i'^-'VflCK 
yissanadda nabbar, pi. -^.'Vfl^-:! -ddu ndbbaru. 

When will he (it) be ready? /wi^rj&rtT'^AK mdca 
yissanaddal?, pi. -'i'-^A-k -naddallu? 

Get ready: i'A'i'^K tasanada, pi. -H-a -du. 

Be ready before dawn: A|imfl-*'f'A'i'^K saitdya ta- 

I am ready : i'A Vj^^^A'V^ k tasanildiccallau^ (§ 7d). 

I am not ready: h^i'fl'tH0'9°i-- altasaiiaddahum. 

•^ o o 

I shall be ready before sunrise: mii^sA^fli^.'Jirt 
'•'■^A'V^K tahai saiwwta i.ssanaddallau'\ 

245 REA— REB 

ready, make (get), v.t. hii'iH assanadda. 

Get it ready: hA^fiahn assanddau, pi. -H-^a -dut. 
Haveyougot it ready? M^fiVaha assanaddahau?, 
pi. hA'i^'^0'^ a assanadddccihut ? 

•IT O O 

You ought to have got it ready: h'ii'i^fl't^ah'' 
VnCs anta tassanaddau nabbar. 

o o o 

Get lunch ready: Vfi'-f^^d.-iin mfsa yfqray {s.v. 

really, adv. f^ao-^ yfnaut (s.v. 'Pi'). 

[Kp (i)kk^6 (uk- ; alone, & suffix). 
-Oh -U (q.V.). 

fl^ biyya (§ 8). 

(expressing mild impatience or surprise) 
hd, ara! 

o o 

I really didn't see him (it): j&tfi»">:hAfih1-J^K yi- 

mut aldyyiihutim. 
This is really it : f^l)-- 'hdA^ k ylhe naukk" 6. 
It is really }/oti that (have) killed him (it) : hli'ahs 

VO •• f 7^ Alifl^ K antau niih yagaddiilhau. 
Was this really so ? ^U ■• M^V •• IfV : Hy k yihe nd^eh 

h'^ dna biyya ? 
I really don't know: /i<C!^iAa>-4*J^« dra alauqiml 
reap, v.i. & t. ^i6El>^ '^9?|<^la (-cada). 
reason, s. (cause) l^Vl V'^ miknydt (§ 8). 

What is the reason? nn^^'|5:JP"Jj?.-C:Va>-:: mik- 
nydtu mfndir nau ? 

^ o o o 

For no reason: ^AJ^lfl7^^.* yalamfknyat, or M 
^yohs (f)ndyau (§ 8). 
rebel, s. haoai^ amatafuia (-tan-). 
rebel, v.i. i^V*^ tanassa, against, fl- ba- (va-; ^ 47a). 
haoai ammata 

REB— REC 246 

He rebelled aorainst him: 'hV"/n^K tandssabbat, 
pi. i'ii*»-n^K tanassubbat; or^<wimfl^:: dmma- 

1 o o o o 

tabbat, pi. haoabH^a ammatubbat. 

• O O -"^^ o • o 

rebellion, s. hao'V ainat. 


rebellion, incite to, v.t. Maom asammata. 

o • o 

He incites them to rebellion: ^^9"^^<PAk ya- 
sammitdccaual, pi. ^'iS^^^'PAK yasammitwdc- 


rebound, v.i. Vm<C nattara (-tar-). 

receipt, s. (acknowledgment of) 9"A7i mfllds (§ 8). 

Wait for the receipt: l^Ai!f^^s*fej&K milldsun qw5i. 
receive, v.t. i'^dli taqabbala. 

o ■■ o o o 

(take over) i"^hfl tarakkaba (tardk-, -ava). 
v.i. (give audience) i'lT taganna. 
I received your letter: pol. ^'fl^H.P'.-^^iA^K day- 
dabb^^e^o darrasan. 

o o o 

I did not receive your letter: pol. ^'fl^fl.f'sKA^^l 
ti^9°i'' davdabb^^e^'o aldarrasafinim. 

o ■ o o o o 

Does the Emperor receive to-day? 'i'b^*':H&s 
J&7?/V- K nigiis zdr^'e yiggannallu ? 
reception-room, s. M^fi adddras (§ 8). 
reckon, v.i. & t. ^a\d qwwttara (-tar-). 
reckoned, be, v.p. i"fem^l taqwfJttara (-tar-). 

This (that) was not reckoned: f,V •• hM"i^a\d9^ » 
yfhe altaqwcuttaram. 
recognise, v.t. hat^ jiuwaqa (-wwq-; § QSd,e). 

Do you recognise him (it)? haf^Uahn tiuwwqhau? 
I should recognise him (it): hah^ay-'-'ifid'' auqau 
nabbar (§§ 26, 81c). 
recognised, be, v.p. ;^flI*l» tauwaqa (-wwq-). 

247 REC— REF 

reconciled, be, v.i. 't'Cl'^ao- tasamammu (tasam-; § QM,e). 
They are not reconciled: ^Ai'rt'^flo-^K altasa- 

mdmmum. ^ 

They will not be reconciled: ^J&rt*^<i»-^» aissa- 
recount, v.t. +<ih tdrraka (tai'-). 
recover, v.i. (from illness) ^V dana. 

i"^Afl>- tasdlau (tils- ; impers. 
§ 43a). 
He (it) will recover: jZ.Jt«i"AK yidinal, pi. f^^'^/^" 

•^ o o ^-^ 

He (it) will not recover: h^J^^?""- aidinim, pi. 

->-i^:: -num. 
Have you recovered? +?fAU:'. tasdlah?, pol. -A?'« 
rectangular, adj. ^^^ •• '^H^ « ^Aa^ •• aratt mazan yallau 
[lit. four corners (§ 52a) which (§ 14) has (s.v. 
rectum, s. *fe7i^ qwwst. 
red, adj. +J& qai (qayy § 6). 

Red soil : (^dOC b'^ orab^or (av^^ or). 

o \ o • ' 

Od"}^ b^^oranq (§ 8). 
red, be, v.i. +A (jalla. 

Red Sea, s. (IthCiKCH'^- bahir (har) ertfra. 
red-hot, adj. 99^ fim. 
reed, s. ffj^fl* sambaqci^o. 

(large, Cyperus papy7^iis1) fjil^ dangal. 
See § 5 2a, 8. 
reedbuck (Cervicapra hohor), s. i\OC b'^ohar (-ha>r). 
reflect, v.i. ao\\l, mdkkara (-kar-). 
refusal, s. ^»i^n.;^ (pmbita. 
refuse, s. Itxff:^ M(i)f. 

REF— EEL 248 

refuse, v.i. & t. Ji9°(Uihh (f)mbi dla ((i)mbydla). 
Use the neg. conjug. with hH dla. 
S.v. VnA, § 44a. 
If you refuse : hi^ns-n^A* mbi yittfl, pol. h9"(L'' 
dii". mbi yilu, pi. hro^i-n^t^-. mbi yittilu (§ 81a, 6). 
If he refuses ; ?i9"n, : fl,A '• mbi yil, pol. and pi. 

hm-.tltf- mbiyilu. 
Did he refuse? h9^(L'hti''i mbi dla?, pol. and pi. 
hrH'-hti".'. mbiaJu? 


He refused to give me the money: l^Hfl-^shArt 
TO^^ '• hli^ i'. oranzavun alsatihimm dlan, or 1^ 
Hn-*} ! h^fia\^9^'' hti :: ffanzavun alsatannimm dla. 

Ooo» o- o o 

He refuses to tell us : hM1^'^^h9^^'^^^^K alnag- 
raccihum yflannal, or ^Ai*7^^jn»:^AVAss alnag- 
rannim yilannal. 
regret, interj. expressing : h^ ai ! 
regret, s. hnt azan. 
regret, v.t. hHV azzana AA- sila- (S 47a). 

I regret this: AAH.Oj^'MTA'V'K silazzih aznallau^ 

o ^ o o o o 

(§§ -d 26). 
reign, s. ao'il/*'^ mangist. 

In King John's reign: nm.:p-rh^ft!<w>'}*7/*'^: bat^e 

(§§ 7a, 47a, 70&) yohannis mangist. 
reign, v.i. ili*» naggasa. 
relate, v.t. i'^h tarraka. 

o o o 

relation, s. (kinsman) iitro^ zamad. 

^ ' o o 

a)'i!!:9° wcJndim (prop, brother), 
pi. also fli7j^'^T^ wwndimS.- 
m'^'oc (-OCC § 6). 
pi. Z**^^ sfg^^oc (-6cc § 6 ; § 8). 
relationship, s. TiJ^j^V zimdfnna. 

249 EEL— REL 

release, s. ao9^^ maftdt (^8). 

To obtain the release of, v.t. htid,^ asfatta. 
release, v.t. <^.;^ fatta. 

Release him (it): ^^Ohn fftau, pol. JR*?*^:-- ylftut. 

Release them: *P;^^f^a^■K fitdccau, pol. ^^;i:^£»-K 

I will release him (it): ?l<C;^*PA'V■ :*• ifatauallau^\ 

I will release them : 'hd.:h^*Pt{'^ :-. ifataccallallau^ 

o o o o 

I will not release him (it): ^A^;^a^J^« alfataum. 
I will not release them: ^A<C;^^fl^l^" alfatac- 


released, be, v.p. 't'd,:^* tafatta. 

Has he been released? i'd.^:t^'' tafdtitoal?, pol. 
& pi. 'i'iL^»t'9^ii tafdtitaual? 

•^ o o o o 

Is he (it) being released? J&<(.;''A« yifFattal? 
Will they be released ? ^<i.;^ A- k yiff attiillu ? 
reliable, adj. ;l-<^*'^ tamdn (-diin § 6; § 8). 

'hao-'i fmiin. 
relied on, be, v.p. ^f'ao'i tammana (ger. & part, type A 
He (it) can (§ 03c) be relied on: |l;''#w»VA« yit- 

tdmmanal, pi. ^^ao^t^n yittammanallu. 
He (it) cannot be relied on: hf^^ao'if* v. aittam- 
manim, pi. -V-J'":: -num. 
relieve nature, v.i. M^iOfl (i)dddri wwtta. 

Have you relieved nature? h^^ •• alT'^yA » idddri 

wwttahal?, pol. ...: fliTl^'PA". ... wwttaual? 
When did you relieve nature? ao^:M£:a)^V» 

mdca dddri wwttah?, pol. ...* flim-« ... wwttu? 
Are you relieving nature every day? flf+^-'h-^^S* 
^ffl^HAUK bayyaqanu dddri tiwwtdllah ?, pol. ...s 
j&oi^A-:: ... yiwwtallu? 

REL— REM 250 

religion, s. Vf^l'i^ haiman''ot. 
rely on, v.t. hao'i ammana. 

;^#|DV tammana (ger. & part, type B § 35). 
I rely on him : K9"V'PA1r-K amnauallau'^ {§ 7cl). 
I do not rely on him : h'i9^'iah9^ « alamnaum. 
remain, v.i. *fef qw^yya. 
'id n^Sra. 


Mdi' sanabbata (-bat-). 
(behind, over) *f*^ qarra. 

i'd^ tarrafa (tar-). 
I shall remain here ten days : hnj) •• h^C •- *f»^ s ?i*fe 
^ti'^i' kazzlh assir qan iqwwyyallau^, pi. ,..• 
h'i'kJftiTfi'' ... inniqwcuyyallan. 
Remain where you are : flft'P^O '• *fej& « basifrdh 
qwSi, pi. flft^^^ih : *fe^ :: basiMccyuh (§ *7d) 
He (it) has remained for a long time: ■flfrj'I.H.! 
^^A:: bi'zu g|z^e niiroal, pi. ...: WPAk ... nii- 


He will go on, I shall remain: ?iCA-!^rh.^As?i2is 
h+^A'V- :•• irsii yihadal, in> e qarallau^ (§ 7d), pi. 
hCf^^(D'^'f,^'ih^'^h'>^^^'}i•' irsaccau yiha- 
dallu, iiind nniqarallan. 

You go on, you remain behind: h'Ji'srh.^-'JiW! 
4»Ck anta (§ 8) hid, anta qir, pi. Mli'^dw^i'- 
?iA'>+:4»4-s illanta hldu, illdnta (ifru. 

O O O ' O O AO 

remainder, s. 4*<J»;^ qirr^eta. 

^i-d^ yatarrafa m 14, 62). 

f+^yaqdrra (_ „ ). 
remember, v.i. & t. hftj^flirt astauwasa (-wws-). 

' O o ^ ' 

^irtfl ilssaba (ava). 

o o \ o • o ' 

See § 03c?, e. 

251 REM— REN 

I don't remember (him, it, etc.): Mtl^(Dtl0'9" a al- 

astduwooshum (-s-h-, not -s-, § 3). 
I remember him (it) : ?%rt'fll^^ a dssavhut. 
remind, v.t. hll^atA astauwasa. 

Mild asassaba (-aya). 

o o \ o • O '' 

Remind me : Mhd^ « asdssivan. 


Remind me to write to him to-morrow: ^I'-hlfg: 
T¥A^!Alft;^fl^rt^:•• ndo^a nditffillat astaimsan. 

O*-" O O»0 O o 

You ought to have reminded me: ;^^ftn^••inCK 

tasd,ssiyan ndbbiir (§ 636). 
reminder, s. *nil:f*aili mastaudsa (-auws). 
Remington rifle, s. rtTj^C sanddir (san-). 
remorse, s. tiWi azan. 


remove, v.t. M**1 andssa. 

(some distance) 'i'fl •• hff^dl sabb adarraga. 
(entirely) atiif, wdssada (wc«^s-). 
Remove this: ^UVJ s ^^"/fl^ :•• yih^nniin ansaii, pi. 

-u^^ii -sut. 
Don't remove it: h^'l^toh n attansau, pi. -i*»-^:: 
removed, be, v.p. -f'V"/ tandssa. 

o o ^.^ 

i'oirt^ tawdssada (taua-, -ws-). 
Has he (it) been removed? I'V/^'jtAK tandstoal?, 

pi. -I-'PAk -taual? or+fliftJ?^A« taiico'sdSal ?, pi. 

-^'PA:: -dauai? 
This is to be removed: /iUs'ffli^K'.'iflJ-:: yfhe 

tauwssdi nau. 

o «^ o 

removed, have (allow to be), v.t. htKofl^ aswassada 


Please have him (it) removed: pol. "hil^^lKotl^^a 
render, v.t. (cause to be) hflf assanna. 

REN— REP 252 

renew, v.t. h^ii addasa. 

o o 

rent, s. (hire) *1^J& kfr^ (§ 8). 

rent, v.t. (take on hire) ^h^f takardyya. 

(let on hire) hh^f akkarayya. 
repair, v.t. hd"^ abdjja (ay-, -aj-). 

Repair it : h'dJ^tD' « ayf jjau. 

Repair them: ^l'fl^^fl^:: ayijjdccau. 
repaired, be, v. p. 'MIK tabajja (tay-, -aj-). 

It is to be repaired: J&fljS-K yfbbaj, pi. ^fl^s yib- 

The watches have been repaired: rt^-f-f •• i'dK' 

^''PAk sadt^oc tavajjitaual. 
repeat, v.t. ^lao daggama (dag-). 

Repeat it: f:l9^v. dfgam (§ 61b). 
replace, v.t. +*! takka, by, fl- ba- (ya-; § 47a). 

He replaced the mule by a donkey: fl4»/l"fl^7s 
flU^ •• i'l} :: baql'^oun yahiyya tdkka. 
replaced, be, v.p. i"hh tatakka, by, fl- ba- (ya-; § 4Ta). 
repletion, s. Tp-fl tfgdb (-dy ; § 8). 
reply, s. J^ATf mfllds (§ 8). 

Wait for a reply: 9"A??''}."fej&:: milldsun qwwi, pi. 
...! *fe^K ... qwwyyu. 
reply, v.i. & t. <n>Art mallasa (mal-). 

What did he reply? V^Tf-aDlifti'. min mallasa?, pol. 
&pl. -fr:: -su? 
report, s. (news) (D& wwr^e. 

(of gun) j^i^T dimt. 
report, v.i. & t. tDd^'-htw^ wwr>e amatta. 

X o * * 

He reports that they are coming: f<^»j^"'^;^^a^^« 
(Dd^ihoD^v. yiimamtatdccaun wcJr^e amatta. 

253 REP— RES 

reported, be, v.p. ai&iaoit\ wojr^e matta (§ 23a). 

It is reported that the river is full: oi'J'M : PT*A •• 

-fl/t" s f 'TL A •• aid* ! ao"\ ss wwnz yam^^'dlla yil'^o yam- 

mfl wwr^e matta (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
repose, s. "hCi,^ frfat (-fat). 
represent, v.t. (portray) 'iA sdla (conjug. like OA to 

representative, s. (agent) l^i? hundiina (-nan-), 
repulsive, adj. X^¥ sayydf (fli- td- ; § 8). 
request, v.t. mf*f* tdyyaqa. 
require, v.t. <i.AT f^llaga. 

I require him (it): ?t<i.A7*PA'V' :•• ifallio-aufillau'^ 

(§ Id), pi. X'Jii.ATPA^K innifalligauallan. 
I do not require him: ^A<CAla>«5^K alfdlligaum, 

pi. ^i'><<.A^a^J'":: annifallip:aum. 

■•^ o o o~ o ^^ 

Do you require him? 'lh<<.A7*PAU :•• tifalligaujilliih?, 
pol. J^,<CA7';^A:: vif all igutal ? , pi. ^<(.A7•;^A^l^« 
tifalligutalldccyuh ? (§ Id). 
required, be, v.p. 't'^tM tafallaga. 

This (that) is not required: JRU-*^4*C:! yihe yiqir. 
rescue, v.t. M*! addna. 

' o 

resemble, v.t. #n>AA m^ss<ala. 

o o o ^^ 

It resembles a watch: A'J^jj&^wjAAAk sadt yimds- 
reside, v.i. T^ n'' ora. 


't'^aoax taqammata. 

o -"^o o • o 

Where does he (pol.) reside? oi^^si'+J^m'PAK 
wojd^et taqamtaual? 

O Ao • O 

residence, s. (place of) tio'^aD*^ maqqamaca. 

(fact of) <n»TC man^^'or (§ 8). 
residency, s. fl.l' s rwil*?/**^ b^ eta (§ ^d) mangist. 
resolute, adj. ffl>h^ cakkdn (-fin § 6 ; § 8). 

RES— RET 254 

respect, v.t. hd,d affara (-far-). 

He doesn't respect him: h^^<ifl>-9" k a^dfraum, 

pi. h^¥4-^J^K a^dfrutim. 
He doesn't respect them: hyV^^OhT* i- a^afrfic- 
caum, pi. hf^$^^ah9°ii a^afrwdccaum. 
respectful, adj. hi'C affar {§ 8). 
rest, s. "hCd.^ Irfat (-fat). 

The rest, s. k*&^ qirr^eta. 

^i-dd, yatarrafa (§§ 14, 62). 
f+<:yaqarra ( „ ). ^ 

Take the rest back: P«l»<ia^'}s<w»AftK yaqdrraun 
mallis, pi. ...- -fr« ... -su. 
rest, v.i. h^^ drrafa. 

' o o 

You are tired: go and rest: ^Vl^PVA I Hu^O ■?»<:*?!•. 
dakm^ohal (§ 436) : hfdah fraf, pi. ^h*5L^AAI 

rlu-^^o-sh^ifis: dakmodccyuhal (§ 7d): hiddccyuh 

O O 

I can't rest till I have finished it: fi^6a,Ciiahs 
hf{C^9° K salcarrisau alarf im (S 63c). 
resting-place, s. ^l.^^ marafya (-raf-). 
restore, v.t. (return) aohii mallasa (mal-). 

(repair) h^rt addasa. 
restore order, v.i. -ST ddiina. 
resurrection, s. ■^^"if/i. tinsai. 

o o 

return, v.i. '\'aohii tamallasa (-mal-). 

o o o o ^ / 

ao(f\ matta. 
When I return: tltrotitii simmallas, pi. tltaolihi 
sinnimmallas (^ 45). 
return, v.t. <n»Art mdllasa (mal-). 

When I return him (it) : (lao^iioh •• simallisau, pi. 
ft'}rw>ArtflH ■• sinnimallisau. 

255 REV— RID 

reveal, v.t. Idai gallata (g^l-). 

revealed, be, v.p. I'lAm tagdllata (-gal). 

reverse one's position, v.i. *7 A-flT ■• hii gilbitt (-lyi-) ala 

(s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
revolt, s. hoD*? Smat. 
revolt, v.i. haom ammata. 

o • o 

revolt, cause to, v.t. Maoai asammata. 
revolve, v.i. H^ z^' ora. 

'tiiatd, tazauwara. 

o o o o 

revolver, s. Ti'hT siiggut. 
reward, s. tCH giirsa. 

rheumatic, adj. ^C*?*n^9^ qwfirtimdtdm (§ 8). 
rheumatism, s. '^C'V'n^ qwiii-timdt (§ 8). 
rheumatism, have, v.i. ^^daioDOh qwwrdttamau (impers. 
§ 4:3a ; § 63f/, e). 
Have you got rheumatism? «feCT*r*yA» qwwr- 
tim^^ohal?, pol. *feCTT*}P;^A:•. qwwrtim^^ o'^tal ? 
He has rheumatism : •feCT'P;^A « (iwcJrtim'' otal. 
She has rheumatism : *feC'P*^;'"A :•• qwwrtimoatal. 
rhinoceros {B. hicortiis), s. ^^fl^^^ft aurdris (-ris). 
rib, s. l"ft:l gw&jdin. 

>^'}:KT'}4' gwaJdin Stint. 
See § 52«, y. 
rich, adj. (wealthy) flAmp balatagga. 

V-n-J-r habtdm (hayt-, haft-; § 8). 
fl-hrt. bukkas^e. 
rich, be, v.i. hfl^i kabbara (bar-). 
Ricinus commwu's, s. (Broun, Cat. 528) T^A^ gwulqwa. 
ride, v.i. & t. 'h+<n>m taq ammata. 

•i^rt+A tasaqqala (tas-). 
I want to ride : A4»<wjT •• ?t<i. A^ Al^ « liqqammat 

o o o^* o 

KID— RIN 256 

You (A) ride the pony, you (B) must walk: hti'i 

— o 

rasun tiqqammatallah, dnta yagrih (§ 52a, 7) ti- 
Does he ride well? 't^'l'^iiahii taqammaci nau? 
ridge-pole, s. p^9^ g^dim. 
ridiculous, adj. ao^H^^ masaqya. 
right, s. adj. & adv. (-hand) 4*^ qaftfl. 

(correct) [n]^h (ba)likk (§ 8). 

^'i'? dahna (§ 8). 
(proper) ^*7 dagg (dagg).^ _ ^ 
(adv., quite) flio-A bawtil (bautil, 
bddl ; § 8). 
(imr batam (S 8). 
On your right: ¥%\)'i'' qaniiihin (§ 56^). 
When you come to the hill go to the right: 
't^^tD'Tf i tl^^Ch •• fl+^ ! du^ ••'• tardraun sittidars 
(siddars) yaqann hid. 
Is this right (correct)? ^l): Ah^Vio-:: yfhe likki 
nau ? — (proper) : ^U : ^*7 •• Vfl>« :•■ yihe daggi nau ? 
This is the right way (to do it, for it to be, etc.) : 
h'i^V'.^tl-'iahi'. indih Ifkki (S 7d) nau. 

^ o o o ^0 / o 

He (it) went right in: (\m9°:l(\'.i batdm gabba. 
All right (approving): Jii>7K yihun, or KlLa issi. 
They are all right: ^'V*?! Wi»-k dahnd 


( = safe : of ground, water, etc.) : 
It's all right (it will bear, it's not too 
deep, etc.): n9^:hf,^"' mfnimm 
cUl (§§ 37r/, 44a, s.v. VOA). 
rigid, adj. m'ih^ tatikarra. 
rind, s. ^CV^ qfrfit. 

257 RIN— KOA 

ring, s. 4»An^ qdlabat (-ay-, -at). 
ring, v.i. & t. ^©A dauwala (-w&)l-). 

Ring the bell: ^^drl-'fi^ahliahti qdcilun dduwti- 


ripe, adj. -flftA bfsil. 

fflrtA yabdssala (yaya-; §§ 14, 62). 
These figs are not ripe; JZ.U:nAfl-'^AnAAi^» ylhe 
vdlas (S 52a, S) alvassalam. 

• oo \" ' 'O oo 

Are there any ripe figs? fnAAiflAAshAK yavds- 
sala vdlas alia ? 

o o • o o 

ripen, v.i. AAA bassala. 

It will not ripen here: htt.U:^^nAAS^» kiizzih 

o* o o 

rise, s. (ascent) ^i+fl-V Jiqabat (-ayat ; § 8). 
rise, v.i. +i'^ tanassa. 

o o 

'i\f!:n^'h^ bidigg dla (s.v. VOA, § Ua). 
Rise: +V'^k tanasa, pi. 'Mi/»«:: tandsu. 
Don't rise: ^%^V*^:: attinndsa, pi. -i*'- « -su. 

o o -"^ 

When the river rises : atlH •• A.*r*A •• wwnz sim'' ola. 
rise into sight, v.i. O)"! wwtta. 

'fl4»!^A biqq ala (s.v. VHA, §44a). 
When the sun rises: mUftsfuaf}: tahdi siwcJta. 

• o o 

When the hippopotamus rises: 7'*^<2. s -fl^* •• A. A « 
gumdr^e bfqqi (§ 7d) sil. 
rising ground, s. ^^ g^' ora. 
river, s. at'ill wwnz. 

(Of a river) : to rise : <n»A mdlla (TA m'^^dlla). 
to fall ; 7"^A gwwddala. 
road, s. aollji: mangad. 
'h'-^'i' gwwdana. 

AM. GR. (ll) 17 

ROA— ROB 258 

Do you know the road ? ao'il^'i'-^ah^Ms mdn- 
gadun tauqdllah?, pol. ...•• ^ah^tin-. ... yauqdllu?, 
pi. ...! ;^a^^A^l^K ... tauqalldccyuh ? (§ 7c?). 

Which is the road to Gondar? •JT-^Cljf'^iDftjt- 
ao'ilfti^-.f^'ps'iahr. of^dndarin yammiwasid man- 

•^ o oo*' oooo 

gad yetu nau? 
Waggon road: tf /*'^'1A : /w»'>7j^ •• yasiragalla man- 
S. f?pd i aoTfl^ i yagdri mangad. 
See §§ 4.7a, 70. 
Is the road fit for waggons? ao'Uf^s^d.lfi'' (S. pd-) 
A*rh.j?:fl^:^iw>^A« mangad siragalla (S. gari) 
lihadibbat yimmaccal ? 

o o o •' o o 

Can laden mules go by that road? Pi'^^VsA^'A".* 
flltU •• <n»'}1j?: .* ^ftVt^ A K yatacana yaql^'o bazzih 
mangad yaskadal? (§ 52a, 8). 
Keep (pi.) together on the road: ^'fl^^i> s 'feP' : 

'i'oD'i'l^i'. ayraccyuh (§ 7d) qwwyyu tamangad. 
We don't want a man that doesn't know the road: 
aDliii,'i'.^fn^ah^ihld.^1T*i'' mdngadun yam- 
maiauq annfdlligim (§ 37a, h). 
roan antelope (Hippotixigiis equimcs), s. 
flj'J^n. wwndfbb>e. 
D. fli^i^d wwddambi. 

See § 52a, S. 
roar, v.i. hl^ agassa. 

roast, v.t. mflrt tdbbasa. 

' • o o o 

Roast it: Tflrta^K tfvasau. 

• o • o o 

roasted, be, v.p. '^mnA tatabbasa. 

It is to be roasted: j&mflft:-. yittdyas, pi. -fr« -su. 
rob, v.t. *l»*^ qdmma. 

rt<i*f» sarraqa (sar-). 

259 ROB— EOL 

robbed, be, v.p. i"*l"^ taqamma. 

I have been robbed : i"^'*l'h « taqammau^ (§ 7^). 
robber, s. fold^ wombM^e (§ 52a, S). 
4**^? qammdnna ( „ ). 
A robber (Robbers) took it (them § 616) from 
him: +'^?sairt^n^K qammdnna wcJssadabbat 
robbery, s. 4*9"^ qfmmya. 
robust, adj. 'flC't bfrtii. 

'^An;^r gwulbdtdm (-ly-, -at- ; § 8). 
T^Afli"? gwtilbatanfia (-ly-, -atafi-). 
rock, s. ^'iiy dangya, | pi. ^'iY-l- dang'^oc 

S. f^-ip^ dangS (§ 8), ) (-cc § 6). 

See § 52a, 8. 
roll, v.i. (be rolled, v.p.), (move revolving) 't'iMlili tan- 

kaballala (-ava-). 

o o o ^ o • ' 

(curl) i'fli+AA tataqallala. 

V ' o • o -• o o o 

It cannot be lifted, but it will roll: hj&V"/J^ •• js,^h 

HAAA ". ainnassam (S 63c), yinkavdllalal. 
It is to be rolled, not folded: ^m4'AA.•^^Je,;^m*h:! 

yittaqlal, aittdtaf 
It is to be folded, not rolled: /&;''fli'H--hjim4*AAK 
yittdtaf, aitta(ilal. 
roll, v.t. (move) Ai'JhOAA ankaballala (-avd-). 
(curl) m*l*AA taciallala. 

\ / • o ^o o o 

Roll it along: MhflAAiD-:: ankaydlilau, pi. h'ihd 
AA-^K ankavdlilut. 

o • o 

Roll it (e.g. the cloth) up : fli4»AA(D- •.■• taqlilau, pi. 
m4'AA'^K taqlilut. 
rolling stock, s. tf jr*jtC.-nn-C:/*'^'IA: yamdir ydyur si- 
ragalla (ip- sit-; § 52a, 8). 


KOO— ROU 260 

roof, s. AT bat. 

room, s. (in a house) 0.^ b^et. 

4'CT qirt. 
(private) h^^^ flffii (-nfi § 6; § 8). 
(space) ao^ero'^ maqqamaca. 
When you clean the room: fl.i='}-'ft^mC*7-- b^etun 

sittitarg, pi. -Ch'- -rgu. 
There is no room for the chair: Aa){^flCs<w»«|»m»'**i: 
f A9"k lawwmbar maqqamaca yallam. 
root, s. /*'C sir (§ 52a, 8). 
rope, s. lao^ gdmad. 
rose {Rosa sancta, Guidi, Vocab. p. 297), s. +^ qaga 

(§ 52a, 8). 
rough, adj. (violent) 'flCi^ birtu. 

:?»|iA? hailanna (-Ian-). 
(rude) (\hT* balag^e (-lag-). 
(of a surface) TiU^ sakdra. 
(scabrous) h°flV,0 kwwskwdssa. 
The lake is rough: flrhC!j&'i'fl)''lAK bahir yinnau- 
roughly, adv. (violently) n:^J&A bahail (§ 8). 

(approximately) ^U A ydhil (yahl ; s.v. hhii). 
He seized him roughly: fl;5»^A!^HflHK bahail yd- 


There were roughly 100: i^o-f :^UA.*VnCK mdt^o 
yahl nabbar (§ 20a). 
round, adj. h-fl kibb. 
round, prp. fl- ...'•hml'd ba-... atdgab (-ay; § 47&). 

Go right round the hill and come back: i"i'^^t 
}tC^tD''i:]fdVi'iii tatardra zurydun (§ 5Qc) zurah 
(§ 8) na. 

261 ROU— RUB 

round, turn, v.i. \id z^ora. 

Turn round: H*C« zur, pi. H*4-« ziiru. 
round, turn (cause to), v.t. ?iH^ az^'ora. 

Turn him (it) round: h\t'd(D*i'. dzurau. 

Turn them round : hH'^^ah » azurdccau. 


rouse, v.t. 4»rt'l*rt qasaqqasa. 
hM"^ asndssa. 


Rouse him: *l*ft4*rta>- « qasqisau. 
Rouse them: *l'ft4»^^(D- :•• qasqisdccau. 
Rouse me before dawn: f^^C'-fif^md'-hM^H^t'. 
mdir saitava asnassan. 

o o • o • o 

Don't rouse me : ?i;^fti*^^:: attasndssan. 


roused, be, v.p. (rouse oneself, v.r.) i'+rt+rt taqasaqqasa. 
See that I am not roused: ?i'>^ A+rt+ft « ndaliq- 
rub, v.i. & t. <2.1<C7 faordffaffa. 
h'ff {issii. 

(with an unguent) +0 qdbba. 
Rub it: d/l^HD-V' faoffiorau, pl.° -'hT-^ « -figut. 
Don't rub it: h^d^n^lah,-. attifagfigau, pi. -T-^:: 

-gut. ^ 

Don't rub your eyes: ^^'>U'>••^i^?fa^K ainihin 
(§ b2a, y) attfsau. 
rub down, v.t. atiiatti walauwala. 

' o o o o 

Rub the horse down: <i.<iA«^ •• © Ai»*Aa>- « fdrasun 

o o 

wdlwilau (-Iwiil-). 

o o o \ ' 

rubbed, be, v.p. 'bd/ld/l tafao^affaora. 

J^'S tdssit. 
++fl taqabba. 
It should be rubbed: f'^ld^^'la yiffagfag, pi. -d,V» 

RUB— KUL 262 

rubbed down, be, v.p. t-flJAfliA tawalauwala (taua-). 

' 'ir ooo oo^oo' 

Has the horse been rubbed down? <C^rt-:+fliA 
oh^^K farasu taudlwul5al ?, pi. d.df^^ti'ai^ah 
A^P A K faras^Occu taudlwiilaual ? 

o o o o o 

rubber (India-), s. Aft-tVl lastik (§ 8). 
rubbish, s. S^V^'J mindmin. 

' o o 

t^V gudif. 

(sweepings, etc.) T^T. tirrdgi. 

liltlHtl ofibfsbis (givfsvis). 
•feTffTf qwfusasa. 
Rubus exsucciis (Guidi, Vocab. p. 533), s. Vi«ff7iA kwwsa- 

sflla (-SWS-; § 52a, S). 
rude, adj. (impolite) flAI bdlag^e (-lag-). 
ruflSan, s. p^ gdddu. 
rug, s. r^im^ mfntaf (§ 8). 
(of skin) Mn ag^oza. 
(carpet) ftp3? sigajja. 
ruin, s. (destruction) T^^^ tffat (§ 8). 

¥Cft firs. 


ruin, v.t. hd^d^ii afdrrasa. 

^ ooo 

You have ruined it: hd^dflOohv. afarrashau (-s-h-, 

o o o \ 

not -S-, § 3), pi. ^<i.<i^^l^^» afarrasdccihut. 
He will ruin it: ^<i.Crt<PA« yafarsaual, pi. -A•;^A:! 
ruined, be, v.p. <i.^rt farrasa (§ 63c?, e). 

It is ruined: <(.CO.Ak farsoal, pi. ^S.Crt'PAK far- 


rule, v.i. V7ip ndggasa. 

(over, v.t.) IH gdzza. 
ruled (over), be, v.p. i"lH tagdzza. 
ruler, s. (governor) I^T gaz. 

#w>h»V^ makwojnnan (-nan). 

O O ^ ' 

263 RUM— RUS 

rumble, v.i. *19^shli gimm ala (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
Rumex abessimcus (Guidi, Vocab. pp. 80, 81), s. ao^ao^ 

rumour, s. (D& wc«>r>e. 
run, v.i. [?i]c?m (i)r'' ota. 

Run; ?i<-T:: Jrut, pi. <-m«s riitu. 
He is to run : J&4-T « yfrut, pi. j&^-m- :•• yiriitu. 
Don't run: h^^'Va attfrut, pi. /»^4-m-K attinitu. 
run away, v.i. m4- tdfFa. 

(from, v.t.) "STi sdssa (sas-). 
Take care he (it) doesn't run away: ?i'>^^ni4-K 

(To child):— Run away I ai*7^K wa^gid!, f. ai*73E':: 
wwgij !, pi. (Dlfi'ii wcJgiduI 
runaway, s. & adj. hK* k^ji. 

Runaway slave : hE* kaj. 
running, s. [?i]<-**«i (i)riicca. 

rush (luncus sp.), s. fl^n.'Jlf barab^enz (-ay>'^-; § 52a, 8). 
Russia, s. f <w>ft**P i hlC yjimdsq'' of agar. 
Russian, adj. f^wift**? yamasq'^^of (s.v. f-, §§ 47a, 70). 
Russian, s. aoli^^ mdsq^of. 
rust, s. HTi" zaganna. 

rust (be, become rusty), v.i. H7 zdga (§ 68c?, e). 
Don't let it get rusty: "h'ifi^li*!:'- ndaizig. 
rust (make rusty), v.i. & t. ^iHT azdga. 

It will make it rusty: ^TiTPAK yazigaual. 
rustic, s. flA'i balag^e (-lag-). 
flA7C baldgar (-gar). 
Ifl^ gabar^e (-av-, -ar-). 
See S 5 2a, 8. 

EUS— SAD 264 

rustle, v.i. 'i'^h»^h«'?f tankwwsakkw&jsa. 

What is that rustling there? hVu ■ f '^'>Vi- <?f h-7i s 
i'"'}JtC-'^£»-K kazzih yamminkwwsakkwws min- 
rustle (cause to), v.t. h'i\i°1i\i°Ti ankwwsakkwwsa. 

You (pi.) are making them rustle : ;^'>h"^W•?[^*P 
A-fii-K tankwwsakkwuswaccaualldccyuh. 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Ch^ammar {Initia 
Amharlca, Part I). 

sabbath, s. rt^fl^ sanbat (-ny-, -at). 
sack, s. h^m.^ karatit. 
sacred, adj. 4*-^ft qiddiis (§ 8). 
sad, be, v.i. hWi azzana. 

' ^ o o 

saddle, s. IfiC^ k^orfcca. 

Put the saddle on : ^^'J » can. 

Let him put the saddle on : ^'^'J k yfcan. 

Put (pi.) the saddles on: '^^^^-s cdnu. 

Let them put the saddles on : ^^^^^ « yicdnu. 

Put the saddle on properly: flflj- A •"*^Vc»- « baul 
saddle, v.t. *^V cdna. 


Saddle it : '^Vaj- k cdnau. 


Saddle this horse: ftO'>s<J.<ift :«i7:: yihan fdras 

saddle, cause to, (have saddled), v.t. hli'^.h ascdna(§ 68). 
Have it (them § 616) saddled: Y\h'^li\ ascin. 
Please have it saddled: pol. ?ift'f:^ft*P*>-4'K isti- 


265 SAD— SAL 

saddled, be, v.p. •f^^'i tacdna. 

It has not been properly saddled: flio-AshAi'*** 
i9"K baiil altacdnam. 

o o • o 

saddle-girth, s. ao^*i^ maqannaca. 
4"r^ qfnit (§ 8)! 
See § 52«, 8. 
saddle-pad, s. -Sid-A daiilla. 
safe, adj. (-ly, adv.) ^'IV dahna (§ 8). 
Itxao-'i fmun. 


Is he (it) safe ? fj*i^ • Va>- « dahnd nau ? 

It is not safe: ^'^'i"9":^/i^A:: dahndmm (§ 375) 

Sdal (§ 406). 
Did he arrive safely? ^'^T.-IOk diihna gabba?, pol. 

&pl. -n-:: -bbu? 
We are safe here: '^^tlO •• ?itfi>-'} •• i** « tiizzjh imiin 
(§ 8) nan. 
safety, s. ^'V^V^ dahnfnnat (-nat). 

h'^Ti fimdn (§ 8). 
safflower (Carthamus tinctorius, Broun, Cat. 310), s. fr^ 

suf (§ 5 2a, S). 
said, be, v.p. +flA tabala (-ayd). 

Is it said? /inAAs yibbdlal? 
sailor, s. <w»Chfl? markabaiiiia (miir-, -kav-, -an-). 

' OOO ^ 'O' ' 

saint, s. ^'-S-ft qfddiis (§8). 

sake of, for, prp. ft A- sila- (§ 47a). 

For God's sake: ftA*7»th'flfh.C! sila<>ziavh>er. 

o o*^ o • 

salary, s. ft'P'H dam^dz (§ 8). 
sale, s. aoS*? masat (-sat). 

For sale: A^wj'rfT-' lamasat. 

It finds a ready sale° ^?f'^AI?l'>fta^•/.•^rh.^A:: 
yissatal, inda^'iiha yihadal. 
salt, s. ee^oh can. 

SAL— SAU 266 

saltpetre, s. [f ]£ftfl>« •• n4-j^ (ya)cdu (s.v. f-, §§ 47a, 70) ba- 

rud (yd-). 
salute, v.i. & t. Jijf's V"/ ijj ndssa constr. with A- la- (§ 47a). 
Whom are they saluting? A*^^:?iE':^i*^A':: lamdn 
iii yinasallu? 
same, adj. hti^ and. 

Use the article (§ 11). 
It's all the same: U-A-sMj^-'Vid-k hiillu dndi (§ 7c?) 


This is not the same kind: )&Us^JiV*9"!h|i/^AK 
yihe dinatumm (§ S7b) didal (§ 40&). 

Come tomorrow at the same time: Vlsfll.H.flJ- ■•*?:: 
ndo:a vaofiz^eu na. 
sand, s. KS^P asaua. 

' ^ o 

S. MV asaua. 
sandal, s. VmA!*****^ natala camma (§ 52a, 8). 
Sanseviera agave (cp. Broun, Cat. 560), s. ^*^ qdca 

(§ 52a, 8). 
sated, adj. TpfVi tigabafina (-ay-, -an-), 
satiety, s. T^-fl tigdb (-ay ; § 8). 
satisfied, be, v.i. (with food etc.) rmfl taggaba (-aya). 
(gen.) ^AsAiA dass (dass) ala. 

^A '• hiitD* dass (-a-) alau (impers. 
§ 43a). 
S.v. x/nA, § 44a. 
Are you satisfied? ^A-'JRAyA:: dass yilahal? 
satisfy, v.t. ^A •• AiAT dass (-a-) assaiina. 
Saturday, s. & adv. 4*^*^ qiddm^e. 
saucepan, s. J^A^ dist. 
sausage, s. itA**^ qwalima. 

267 SAV— SAY 

save, v.i. & t. M^ addna. 


(economise) i^aid qwwttaba (-ava). 
He saved his life: +T*^ •• ^i^V(0- :•• tam^dt addnau. 

o o 

saved, be, v.p. +*femn taqwcJttaba (-ava). 

With the money that was saved he bought another: 
fli-femn : 7'JH'fl : A.A ! in K bataqwwttaya (§ 62c) gan- 
zav l^la ffazza. 
saw, s. aopH mdgdzz (§ 8). 
say, v.t. ^A dla (s.v. VOA, §§ 44a, 80). 
^Id n^ggara (-gar-). 
Say it : flAoi- k bdlau. 

^ o o 

Don't say it: ^^flAfl*-:: attivalau. 

Say it again: ^ir*v. dfgam (§ 61h). 

Do you hear (understand) what I say? ^Al^^^•• 

rt'^U:: yalhutin (§62c) sdmmah? (§ 63^), pi. ...: 

A'^^ih:: ... sammdccyuh? {^7d). 
Did you hear what he said? ytiaht-.^fi^^t'idCii 

ydlaun tisdma ndbbiir?, pi. ....••Thrtflo-.-iflC:-. ... 

•^ o o O O ' X 

tis^mu ndbbfir? 

O O O 

What did you say? J^^.-^AUk min alh ? (alk § 7d), 

pol. r^i'hi^ii min alu?, pi. 9°^ t hfi^ih a min 

alaccyuh ? 
What does he say? J'^'J.-^AAk min yflal?, pol. & 

pi. ...s^AA-K ... yiltillu? 
I can't say: hl^i-- nja. 
He said nothing: li9°'-hfy:'. zimm ala, pol. & pi. 

Il9°'-h/i"'i zimm dlu. 


What is it you said? y°'}JtCsVfli-:^AO:: mfndir 

nau yalh ? 
I hear (understand) what you say: ^ AiiflJ-T- •• Ai^ 

^A'>^ K ydlhaun samiccallau^. 

SAY— SCB 268 

I don't hear (understand) what you say: f^Vah'}'- 

h^f^'^U'9^•'i yalhaun alsammahum. 
This is what he said: h'}^V-'ai)r'-hh.- ndih vfl^o 

■ o 

dla, pol. & pi. h'i^V--'nii(D'ihtk".i ndih yflau dlu. 
How does one say (it) in Amharic? Q'HC^i'h'i^^: 

j&AAAk bamarfniia (§§ 7a, 47a) nd^'et yibbalal? 
saying, s. ^A qal. 
scabbard, s. rtlfl sagaba (-^ya ; § 8). 
scabrous, adj. h»ftV»,^ kwwskwdssa. 
scald, v.i. & t. i'Vi-A takkwwsa (twkkosa § 7d). 
scalded, be, v.p. 't"t'\i»Cl tatakkwwsa (-twkkosa). 
scalding, adj. ¥A fil. 
scales, s. (balance) '^H'i mizdn (§8). 
scandal, talk, v.i. h'PhVh ass'^okass^oka. 

' ' o o 

scandal-monger, s. hVil'Syu ass'' okswdki. 
scapula, s. aup^^ magdfya. 

scatter, v.i. (be scattered, v.p.) 'hfli'i tabattana (tay-, 
(spread apart) G. "td^^ tarardqu (tarar-). 
S. '\rlf-li-*k tararaqu (tar-). 
scatter, v.t. (I'M bdttana (battana). 

o o o ^ o ' 

(drive apart) G. hO'^ arrardqa (-rar-). 
S. h^^^ arrardqa. 
Don't scatter it about: h^d^'iahi'. attivattinau, 
pi. -V*^ s -nut. 
scent, s. fi^ sftta. 

' o 

scent, v.t. (smell) hTii'i' asattata (-s^t-). 

It will scent us: 0i'^^« yasattannal, pi. ^Tfis 

'i'Ak yasattunnal. 
It has scented us: hH-f'^^a asftf'onnal, pi. ^Ti 
•foh^^i' asfttaunnal. 

269 SCE— SCR 

scented, be, v.i. (perfumed) ^ax'i tdttana. 
sceptical, adj. aiC^d tartari (tar-). 
scholar, s. (learned man) fjiii'^ dabtara (-ayt-, -aft-, 
(schoolboy) i-*^^ tamdri (§ 52a, S). 
school, s. [f ]^r[U]Cl" : n.^- (ya)tim(h)irti (§ 70b) b^'et (y^-). 
Have you been to school? i-^^^C^ s n.'> s iflCU « 
tatimfrti v> et ndbbarh ? 

o o o • o o 

schoolmaster, s. <w>J^[U]C mamm(h)ir, pi. also <wii^[U]/J«^ 
mamm(h)irdn (§ 8). 
htii'ld astamdri. 


scissors, s. <n»«l»ft maqas. 

scold, v.i. & t. +*&"! taqwwtta. 

scoop, s. aod,^^^ mafalfaya (-fill-, -aia). 

scoop, v.t. <(.A<(.A faldffala. 

*■ ' o o o o 

scooped, be, v.p. i'^CA^iLA tafaldflfala. 

*■■■ ooooo 

scorch, v.i. k t. i'h-A takkwwsa (twkkosa § Id). 
scorched, be, v.p. I^Mi-A tatdkkwwsa (-twkkosa). 

Take care it doesn't get scorched: ^'>^^'^h»ftK 


scorching, adj. -I'lfhA tfkkiis (ttik-; §8). 
scorpion, s. *7'>T gint (usually f. § o4c). 

Is it a scorpion? '7'}T ■• '^^ « gfnti (§ Id) nat? 
scour (scrub), v.t. '^fli mwacca. 

Scour (scrub) it: *Xfla.a>*K mwdccau, pi. *%GS^^\i 
scoured (scrubbed), be, v.p. +^03. tamwacca. 
scouring (scrubbing), instrument for, s. ao*^^^ ma- 

scout, s. rtA^ sdllai (sal- ; § 8 ; § 52a, S). 
scout, v.i. AAA sdllala (sal-). 

' o o o \ / 

scramble for, v.t. dhVf*^ tasamma (tas-). 

SCR— SEA 270 

scrape, v.i. & t. 4^+ Mqa. 

(off, out v.t.) rt+rt* saqdssaqa. 
Scrape it : 4««l'a>- » f aqaii, pi. 4-*^ •••• f aqut. 
Don't scrape it: h^i-^ahv. attiMqau, pi. -«fe^:: 

Scrape it off (out) : Cl^tl^Oh « saqsiqau, pi. -*^ k 

Don't scrape it off: ^^rt^ft*f»fl^ « attisaqsiqau, pi. 
-*fc^K -qut. 
scraped, be, v. p. ^'4-+ tafdqa. 
scraping (off, out), instrument for, s. twii^d^^ masaq- 

saqya (-saqya, -saca). 
scratch, v.i. & t. ^hh akkaka. 

o o 

^fiEl.^ moaccara. 
Don't scratch it : h^\i\\ah « attikakau. 

o o o 

The cat will scratch him: Jt^wi-fc* : ^*2.'^<i'P A^ k 

dfmmatitu timoaccirauallac. 

o o o o • • o o 

scratch, cause or allow to, v.t. M\\\\ asakkaka (§ 68). 
Don't let it scratch it: h^fi\\\\iD*-» attasakkikau. 

o o 

scratched, be, v.p. (scratch oneself, v.r.) ;^hh takkaka. 
scream (screaming), s. tEfclfi'l* ciihat (-hat § Id). 
scream, v.i. <?^*fi c^'oha. 

• o 

scrofula, s. h^Cfi naqarsa (<w>+- maqa-). 
scrotum, s. rtT-Vi^ sank^of. 

P'feA^.-^cn^ yaqwwlat q^drbat (-ry-, -at). 
sea, s. fl/hC bahir (-har). 

fiXi><D<:n^C yiicau (§ 706) bahir (ya-, -har). 
seal, s. (instrument) ao'\'[''%^ mahattamya (-tam-). 

(impression) <^'^'hjr» miihtam (mahdtam § Id). 
seal, v.i. & t. ^•f'tio hattama. 

' o o 

h'i'ao attama. 

271 SEA— SEA 

Seal it: '\^aoah\s, hattimau, pol. fA^ao^^v. yihat- 


sealed, be, v. p. ;^'^^ID tattama. 

It has not been (was not) sealed: ^lA;^'^/wlj^» u 

o o 

sealed, cause (allow) to be, v.t. M'^'tm asattama. 

Please have it sealed: pol. htl't^fi^ao^^v. isti- 
sealing-wax, s. '^'Hfl'fe^srt?" mattabaqyii (-ay-, -iiq-; 

% 8) sam. 
search, s. *^tip fiHaga (§ 8). 

Have a search made for him (it): hlxd^lMahw as- 
falligau, pol. ^hd.^'h^v. yasfdlligut. 
search, v.i. & t. I^Ch*^ gwwrdggwwra (-rojgg-). 
(for, v.t.) ^Ml fallaga. 
Search him (it) : 'V'C'Y'd.iD- •-•• gwwrgwiirau, pi. >CT* 

<•'!•» gwcorgwurut. 
Search them : '?"C7^^'7'i»- » gwajrgvvurdccau, pi. 
-^'VtD".: -rwdccau. 

'^' o 

Search for him (it): <<.A7(D-". falligau, pi. -7-^k 

Search for them: d^P^p'-JrfD*"' falligdccaii, pl.-^^fl^:•• 


O o 

He must search for him (it): f^d^M(D*"' yifalligau, 

pi. -7-^« -gut. 
Have you searched for him (it) ? d,t\*lUah k f dllag- 

hau, pi. ^A^^'ih^K fallagdccihut ? 
searched, be, v.p. 'h'?"^?"^ tagwwraggwwra (rwgg-). 
The house is to be searched : (U^-'/iT-OC:: b^etu 


SEA— SEE 272 

searched for, be, v.p. i'd^til tafallaga. 

He (it) was searched for and found: i'^CM^I'lYK 

tafallig^'o tagdnfla (§ 74a). 
He (it) was searched for but not found: 'h<i.A")i 
h^'tiy9° K tafallig^o altaganiiam. 
seat, s. ao^ao^^ maqqamaca. 

(chair) (d9^(\C wwmbar (-bar). 
second, ord. num. ihiii'^ hulattdnna (-lat-, -tan-; § 20b), 
MenilekIL: W^*e •• i^^t Ah : dagmdwi minilfk. 

c» o o 

secret, adj. Jffl^ dibbiq. 
s. 9^liaKC mfstir. 

o • 

secretary, s. ^& tdfi. 

secretly, adv. Use gerund of i'Ad^ tasdrraqa (tasar-). 

He went secretly : '^rtC^ •• rh.^ « tasarq^ o hada. 
security, s. (guarantor) <Pft was. 

(on which a loan is made) ao^'K' maydza 
What is your security: <w>^iro •• ?"'}Jt'3' •'*<»• « ma- 

ydzah mindfn (§ 8) nau ? 
You must offer security: <wi^ir : KS'"^ « mayaza 
anta (§ 7d). 
security, stand, v.i. (for, v.t.) 'h'Prt tawdsa (taiia-). 

Who will stand security for you? 'TJ.'Jl'PrtyA:: 
man yuwdsahal ? 
sedition, s. hao*? amat. 
seditious, adj. haom't amatafifia (-tail-). 
seduce, v.t. (corrupt) Ai^'f' assdta. 

(a woman) fli?f <n» wassama (wgJs-). 
see, v.i. & t. h? ayya (§ 44&, § QSd, e). 

(examine) aoCaoC marammara (mardmmara). 

I will see him (it) : ^if <PAl^ k aiautlllau^\ 

273 SEE 

I see him (it): hf,^Vtiihn aicc^ewallau^ 

I don't see him (it) : h^^at'9^ « aldiaum. 

I have seen (saw) him (it): h^ih^r. ayyahut. 

I have not seen (did not see) him (it): hAfu-^J^r. 

Do you see him (it)? h^i-UV/i^f^v. ditahauallwi ?, 

pi. ^^,;^^l^;^/t"Ji k aitdccihutallwf ? (s.v. flije,). 
Do you see them? h^-tV-f^VO^f,:-. aitahdccauallwi?, 

O o o 

pi. ^^J^,;^^'A^'PA"^•.: aitaccihwdccaucallwf? (tac- 

cyuhd- § 7d). 
Have you seen (did you see) him (it)? Aifi/fli-:: 

dyyahau?, pi. hy'^ih^n ayydccihut? 
Have you seen (did you see) them? h?V^aha 

ayyiihaccau?, pi. Y\fH"X'^ahxx ayyaccihwdccau ? 

(-ccyuha- § "id). 
Haven't you seen (didn't you see) him (it)? 7»Af 

Uahr*a alayyiihaum ? {-UOhH^f,.: -haummwf ?), pi. 

h^y'l-O'^'iTii alayydccihutim? (-'^r*j&:: -timmvvf ?). 
Go and see: rh.^U:?i^:: hidah i, pi. rM■'^f•|^ •• ?ip. » 

hiddccyuh lu. 
See whether it is broken: <w»C9"^fli- •• '^rt'fll^ •• K*}^ 

Wi"- marmirau tai?avr"(')ndah'^on. 

o o o o * o 

We have seen him (it): ^^-hVPA-.: aitiinaual. 
He^it) will see us: ^f^A:-- yjUiinnal, pi. ^^VA» 

He (it) sees us : h^-f^'t^ a dit'' onnal, pi. h^-t-at* 

^Ak aitaunnal. 

o o 

The doctor will see him (it): lJh,9" ■• ^OT^l'"<-;^ A k 

hakim yimarammirutal. 
See that it is not left behind : h'J-S^+C k ndaiqar. 

AM. GR. (ii; 18 

SEE— SEL 274 

see each other, v. recip. i'^^ ta^'dyyu. ^ ^^ 

They do not see each other : hf!,'t^^9^ « aitta^ay- 
seed, s. HC zar (zar ; § 52a, 8). 
seek, v.i. & t. d.M fallaga. 
seem, v.i. aoflii massala (type A § 34). 

It seems to me he has lost it: ^aotiti'i^ihaxi-ahi: 
yimaslannal ataffau (-iiall-at- § 6). 
seen, be, v.p. ;^f tayya. 

(examined) i'tro^oD^ tamarammara (-ma- 
He (it) cannot be seen : h^^^9^ « aittayyim, pi. 

-^jr* :: -yyum (§ 63c ; cp. § 54c). 
As soon as he (it) is seen: rt.;^j^,.• sittdyy. 
seize, v.t. JPH ydza (§ 44c). 

Seize him (it): ^Hfl>-« y^zau, pi. ^H-^k yazut. 
seized, be, v.p. i-^n taydza (laid-). 
select, v.i. & t. ao^Hm marrata. 

li^^ao laqaqqama. 
Select one: h'i^^^r^,'?^.' and mirat, pol. ...: ^JP* 
^flV-K ... vimratii. 
selected, be, v.p. i'aodax tamarrata. 

i'ti^^tw talaqaqqania. 
This is the one that was selected: f'^m>^ma^••^0! 
'lOhi'. yatamarratau (§§ 14, (32) yihe nau. 
-self, r. pron. ^l\- ras- with pers. suff (§§ 12b, 17). 

He himself is here: ?iCfr:^fr:^A« irsii r4su dlla. 


I myself: hi-'^rt,-- in^e rds^e. 

You will want it yourself: hli-- ^'tll)'.t'd,f\l9tiVti 
dntii rdsih tifallijjrauallah, pol. ^iCrt^'-'^rt?*! J& 

<{. AT^;*" A :•• irsa^'o rdsa^'o yifdlHprutal. 

O O o »' o o o" 

275 SEL— SEN 

He is by himself: A'A^id- « Vid- k layiccau nau. 
Of (by) oneself: hl^^O}- (f)ndya^ (§ 8). 

h-J^flH (i)ndau (§ 8). _ 

They went of themselves: 'h'i^yahstb.^a ndydu 

sell, v.i. & t ffm sata (sata). 

Sell it : Timoh' « sitau, pi. Ttm-^ » situt. 

Don't sell it: M'TtaiiD'v. attisitau, pi. -m*^:*. -tut. 

Sell them: %^'^ahi- sitdccaii, pi. itrp.^flHs sit- 



Don't sell them: Ai^rf.^^fl>-:: attisitdccau, pi. 

o o • o * 

-rp,^fl>-K -twdccaii. 
Will you sell it? Wm*PAU:: tisiitauallah ? 

*' O • o 

Will he sell it? ^ffm*PAK yis4taual? 

What will you sell it for? nA'>"^:V?fm*PAU:: basfnt 

tisiitauallah ? 
What will they sell it for? nft'}-^•:/^.ff^^;^A:! basint 

yisatutal ? 
Whenever you sell it, divide the proceeds among 
yourselves : ?iP?f ^ '/*U« •• '^^l<(.A•^ :•• iyyasiitdccyuh 
(§616) takdfalut. 
semen, s. H'i^' sint (prop, urine). 

(euphem.) :5»m.^'l- (h)dtydt (§ 8). 
send (away), v.i. & t. Ah idka. 

rt^^ saddada. 

o o o 

Send him (it) : AhiD- :•• lakau, pol. j^AVl-'l* :: yildkut. 
Don't send him (it): h^filKD*-.-. attildkau, pol. hf^ 

AVhl".: aildkut. 
Send him the answer: ir*Aff''} •• AhA^ :•• milldsun 

Idkillat (§ 47a). 
Send him with the answer: i'?"ATf': JC:AhflH« ta- 

millasu gar (§ 47&) lakau. 


SEN— SEN 276 

We will send him (it) to you (pi.): X^AViA^AA^k 
innilikillaccyuhallan (^ 7d). 

o o O O «' \v / 

Send me him (it) : pol. ^ft^-^A^ « yisdadullin. 
send for, v.t. hdao^ asmatta. 

Send for him (it); htltrofna}".'' asmattau, pol. yh 

aom'^ii yasmattut, pi. hilaom'^i-' asmattut. 
I will send for him (it): hdao^'Wii'hii asmattaii- 



I will send for them: hft^o^^'PA'V^ « asmattac- 

o • • 


o o 

I have sent for him (it) : hilffoflO'^ a asmattahut. 
I have sent for them : hllaof'l'X^iD'ii asmattahwdc- 

o • * 



send on (ahead), v.t. hfl^ff^en* asqaddama. 

Send him (it) on ahead : hil't'^aoat* :•• asqaddimau, 

pol. ^ft*l*j^tfi>«^ K yasqaddimut. 
Send them on ahead: hfl*l'j^'^^iD-K asqaddimdc- 
cau, pol. ^(l^^"X^ahi'. yasqaddimwdccau. 
sense, s. (meaning) '^A^ malat (-lat). 
^-f f ice. 


There's no sense in it: '^Al* ■• PAfl>-{^ » mdlat yal- 


sensitive of, be, v.t. i'rt*^<o- tasammau (impers. § 43a ; 

§ Q'dd, e). 
sent (away), be, v.p. '^AS^ taldka. 

Has he (it) been sent (away)? i'AV^Aw talikoal? 

(tal-), pol. & pi. 'i'Ah'P A K talikaual I 
He (it) has not been sent (away), he (it) is here: 
hA-l'Ahi^ihA:: altaldkam, allii, pol. & pi. fiAl^A 
Vhi^TAtA-K altaldkum, allu. 

- o 

Let him (it) be sent: JZ,Ah:: yillak, pi. J&AVbK yil- 

277 SEN— SER 

sentry, s. Hfl? zabafina (zay-, -an-). 
■t"^? taraniia (tar-, -ran-). 

o o ^ ' 

nifl*fe tabbdqi. 

See § 52a, S. 
separate, adj. (-ly, adv.) s.v. -fl^^ bfcca. 

Keep it separate : A-fl^io- •• f^v^l « layfccau yfhun. 
separate, v.i. (be separated, v.p.) 

(move apart) G. i'd^^ tarardqu (tarar-). 
S. i'^^'fc tarardcpi (tar-). 
Separate more than that: G. '^^tU:^nA'P.•'^^^*K 
tazzih yiyalt tarardqu, S. ...'• i'^^*:*. ... tara- 
Don't separate: G. >l'^h^^*» attirrardqu, S. M 
^^*fcK attirrardcju. 
separate, v.t. (move apart) G. hd^i* arrardija (-rar-). 

S. h^'lr^^ arraraqa. 
(distinguish) Af layyii (lay-). 
Separate them (e.g. combatants): G. ttdC^^a^a 
arriirqaccau, S. h^C- arrar- : pi. -^'^•fl^ » -qwdc- 


Separate the bad and the good: h^'JTs^T-')* 
Affl^•.•• kifuninna daggun layyau, pi. ...'• AP-'1*« 
... layyut. 
separated, be, v.p. (distinguished) +Af talayyil (-lay-). 
September, s.v. calendar, 
serious, adj. (of persons) [^ilCT* rfgu (irgu). 

hOj^ kabbad (§ 8). 
(of things) '>a4» tniiq. 
He is a serious man: hfl/^.-A(»-»ii»-K kabbad sdu 

"^ o o 

nau, pol. ...■• ^^oh:: ... ndccau. 
This is a serious matter: ^0!^A4»!VlC-*i(»-K yihe 
H^^i^ iiagar (§ 8) nau. 

SER— SEV 278 

servant, s. hUhC flskar (-kar). 

/t-A. I'^dPe, pi. also A-AA^ l^olalit. 
Table-servant: ?i«^A<L: asalldfi. 
Call a servant: A-A.sT^k FoPe tfra. 

• o 

— To summon a servant whose name one does not 
know — h'i^ih'dhCi'' ant askar ! 


servant-girl, s. 1^^ g4^|d. 
serve, v.i. & t. hlfiiti aorala^o^ala. 

How long has he served? tl'i^-'hlfii*l^fiii'. sint 
agalgilM?, pi. -•7A'PAk -gilaual? 
service, s. (mil.) (0:9* ^Ci^ wojttaddarinnat (-dar-, -nat). 

(domestic) A"AV^ l^olinnat (-nat). 
sesame (Sescmium indicum, Broun, Cat. 429), s. AA*T 

salTt (sal-; § 8). 
set, v.i. (sun, moon & stars) Ifl gabba. 

When the moon sets: CQ,^^:A^lfl: caraqd sitti- 

• o o ■•■ o o 

set, v.t. (place) hf^Cl adarraga. 

hti^aoav asqammata. 
MC an'^ora. 


(plant) 'hhA takkala. 
H^ zarra (zar-). 
Set it down : h'hdat* « dnurau, pi. -4-^ « -rut. 
set, be, v.p. (placed) +^<i7 tadarraga. 
(planted) i"MiA tatakkala. 

vx / o o o o 

i'H^ tazarra (tazar-). 
Setit (river), s. i'hlL takkaz^e. 

\ /' o o 

settle, v.i. •fi'trom taqammata. 
A^^ saff'ara (-far-). 

o o o \ ' 

settle, v.t. (disturbance) ^Y ddnna. 

(define) <dAV wwssana. 
seven, card. num. Afl^ sdbat (-dyd- ; § 8 ; § 20a). 

279 SEV— SHA 

seventeen, card. num. h/^^'-M^ asrasabat (-ay^-; § 8; 

§ 20a). 
seventeenth, ord. num. h/*'^:rtfli'? asrasabattanna 

(-saya-, -tan-; § 20b). 
seventh, ord. num. rtfli'? sabattanna (sava-, -tail- ; § 20b). 
seventh {y^), s. rtn^^s [An-t^] sabattiyya (saya-; §206, 

§ 52a, 8). 
seventieth, ord. num. rtfl? sabaiiiia (sayfi- ; § 206). 
seventy, card. num. rtfl saba (saya ; § 20«). 
severe, adj. 'flC't birtu. 
sew (up, on), v.i. & t. A 4- saifa. 

m^oD taqqama (taq-). 
Sew it on before it gets lost: fif^mi^'-tli-ahti sai- 

tafa sifau. 

• O o 

Let him sew it up: ^A4.fl>-K yfsfau. 
sewing, s. AkC^ sff>et (§ 8). 
sewn (up, on), be, v.p. "tfli- tasdffa (tas-). 

It is to be sewn (up, on): ^rt4-K yissdfa, pi. -f-ss 
shade, s. TA tfla. 

Put it in the shade : i-TA -hf^CKD-v. tatfla (§ 47a) 

drgau (§ 7^), pi. -t^i' -gut. 
There is no shade : TA : f A5^ "• tfla yallam. 
shadow, s. TA tila. 

shake, v.i. (be shaken, v.p.) 't'OHlwii tawazauwaza (taua-, 

+i4*i+ tanaqannaqa. 
It is not to shake (be shaken) : Aij&iD'Hai'H :•• aiw- 

WojZWooZ, pi. -fflH":: -WwZU. 

It shakes when the wind catches it : '}4-A ■• 'hf'iUahi 
^ ^V+i^A:*. nifds iyyanakkau yinnaqannaqal. 

8HA— SHE 280 

shake, v.t. aifffoH wazauwaza (wa;zauwce>za). 
V+V+ naqannaqa. 
Shake it: al'Hfl^Hfl^•:: wwzwuzau, pi. -fr^K -zut, or 

V4»'}+a»«K naqniqau, pi. -*fe^:: -qui 
Don't shake it: h^attiohnahw attiwwzwuzau, pi. 
-H*^:-. -zut, or ^ihV4'^*l»fl^ :: attinaqniqau, pi. -«fe^i: 
Shake the bottle: axCa^Wl'-'t^l^ahix tarmiizun 
shame, s. (sense of) ?i*P^^ ifrat (-rat). 

(matter of) *i(D-C naur. 
shape, s. ao^ malk. 
share, s. h*hA kifil. 

Your share: »l¥AU-' kfflih i\ I2h). 
This is your share: ^U.•^'>'^!h¥A.•Vfl^:•. yih ydnta 
(§ 60&) kifil (§ 8) nau. 
share, v.i. & t. '^^l<i.A takaffala. 

o o o 

Share (pi.) it : '/•3l<i.A"> k takdfalut. 
sharp, adj. (edged) ft A sil. 
sharpen, v.t. fid sdla (conjug. like ^A to cough), 
shatter, v.t. rtOfl^ sabSibbara (sayS-, -bara ; § 226, t)). 
shattered, be, v.p. i-rtflfl^ tasababbara (tasa-, -va-, -bara; 

'■ oo oo'' J.» gJ 

§ '22h, d). 
shave, v.i. (oneself, v.r. ; be shaved, v.p.) +AiH. taldcca. 

I am going to shave : ^lA*«iAl^ « illaccallau^ 
shave, v.i. & t. Aeo. lacca. 

This razor won't shave : ^U •• 9°^'^ •• AjiA*^?" « yfhe 
mildcc aildccim. 

o • • o • • o 

shaving-brush, s. ^aod.*ld/h9 mafagfagya. 

she, pers. pron. ?iCO, frsod (§ 8, § 12a), usually omitted 
unless emphatic. 

281 SHE— SHO 

shear, v.t. +mm qattata. 
sheared, be, v.p. i'+oim taqattata. 
shears, s. <w>4»m*** maqtaca (-tac-)- 
sheath, s. rt7fl sagaba (dya ; § 8). 

(vet.) -nA^ billit 
shed, s. Hll das. 

Put (pi.) up a shed: ^ft.-^/V-K das tdlu. 
sheep, s. (il bag- (§ 52a, 8). 
sheep-skin, s. fn*7:*^ yabag (-aya-; § 47«) q^oda. 

(with coat) ^">H ag^'dza. 
shelf, s. *T q"ot. 

On the shelf: +*T: taq^^dt (§ 8; § 74a). 
shelter, s. (straw, temporary) Yfi g''ojj''o. 
shield, s. pfi gassa. 

shin, s. *^U^-'hnH mahal (mal) agada (§ 52a, y). 
shine, v.i. fl^ barra. 

What is that shining there? ^ : ^'^n^fl^ : r^JBl-C •• 
Vfl^K ya mmiyarau (§ 62c) mindfr nau? 
ship, s. troCh'tl mdrkab (mdr-, -ay). 
shirt, s. 4»'^ft (jamis (-mis). 

^j^.-mn-n f jjii (§ 9(1) tdbbdb (-dy ; § 8). 
(common native) 60.C4» ciirq. 
shiver, v.i. +'>4'm+ni tanqataqqata. 
shock, s. (fright) j^'ipm* dingat>e. 

He (it) died of (the) shock: a^'ipoh-ri'^ badin- 
gdt^e m^ota. 
shocked, be, v.i. £V7m dandp^gata. 
shoe, s. '^*^ camma (§ 52a, S). 

A pair of shoes : '^'H '• camma. 
Bring me another pair of shoes : A»A « ^'^i*^ ' h9°^ 
A^« lela camma antallifi (§ 7d, § 47a). 

SHO-SHO 282 

shoe-horn, s. f '^'^ s '^Jt^V yacamma madragya (-rag-) 

'^*7fl,^ mdgbya (-gyya). 
shoe-lace, s. f*^'^:'^rt<5^ yacamma masdrya (-sar-, -ya), 
shoot, v.i. i'h-rt tdkkwwsa (twkkosa § *Jd). 

v.t. fiaidTr^iao^ batabanja (ava) matta. 

O'O O*' ^O'O' o 

Has he learnt to shoot? i^hfts Ai^J?:,^:: tuks 1am- 
d5al ?, pi. . . . : Ar ft<P A :: . . . lamclaual ? 

Did he shoot him (it)? {{ay^Hi^'-ao^ahxi batayanja 
mattau?, pi. ...« twt:^i'. ... mattut? 

I am going shooting: ti^'i'-lxdufiiyihy' ddanihadal- 
lau^ pi. ...'• h'iih.^fi'} '.•' ... innihadallan. 

o ^ o o 

He shot himself: rndt^ ^ m^ a tavania tatta, or 
mfl'>3?:7"^AK tavania orwwrrasa. 

•O'O" C3 O O 

shop, s. K^^sfl.^ iqd-b^et (-y>-). 

^tropH'i magdzan (-H,^ -zin). 
short, adj. h'^C accir. 
short(-er), be, v.i. haid attara (-tara; § 586). 

It is (too) short: ^T^A« ydtral, pi. ^T^A-k yat- 

This is to be shorter than that: /2,U!i-H,U:/imC« 
yihe tazzfh yftar. 
shorten, v.t. Maid asattara (-tara). 

' . • o o ^ • o 

Shorten it : M*?diD' k asattirau, pi. -<»^ » -rut. 

• 'O o ' r^ 

shot, be, v.p. dmaTf^ •' 'toD^ batabanja (-ayd-) tamdtta. 
should, V. aux. — see § 246, note 2 ; § 81c, d 

You should have gone : ^rh.j^! VflCw tihad ndbbar, 
pi. ■^ih.-^:inCK tihddu nabbiir. 

r^ o o 

If they brought a good mule I should buy it: 
f^s n4'A"! fl^<n»m-!?i1Hfl>-: VnC:: ttiru vdql'^o vya- 
mdtu, i<>:azau ndbbiir. 

283 SHO— SHU 

shoulder, s. -^h^ tikassa. 
«^'J^ cdnqa. 

(of horse, mule, etc.) ?iJ'"fl,^ (i)mbya. 
See § 52a, y. 
shoulder-blade, s. aop^y magdfya (§ 52a, y). 
shout, v.i. £^fi c^'dha (§ 7d). 

Shout: fitblfi:: cuh, pi. <XfeTi-« ciihu. 

Don't shout: M^Etifli- atticuh, pi. -fl^feTl-K -ciihu. 

shout to (at) each other, v.i. 'h^fi^Ti- tacodcoahu. 
Shout to each other: +<a^6^'fi-« tacoacdahu. 
Don't shout at one another: h^a.Xf^'^" attic- 
show, v.i. (appear) :^f tayya. 
v.t. M? asayyii. 
It doesn't show: h^^f!,9^'.'- aittayyim. 

(of a small object) M'Jh?,^'.'. at- 
tittdyyim (§ 54c). 
Show me (him, it, them, § 61a) : M^^.- asdyyafi. 
shrink, v.i. (become smaller) mflO tabbaba (aya). 

It doesn't shrink when washed : iUi^ax-H •• h^m-fl^ss 
sittdttav aitabbim. 

o . • o • o • o o 

shrub, s. 4»^T^rn qwut(|wdt''o (§ 52a, S). 
shudder, v.i. ft4»4'»?»Afl>- sj^ljqq ^au (impers. § 43a ; s.v. 
VOA, § 44a). 
It makes me shudder: ft4»4*:^A?AK sfqiqq yilan- 
shut, adj. -HT zigg. 
shut, v.i. (be shut, v.p.) +Hp tazagga. 

It is not to be shut: h^tipa aizzaga, pi. -t-' -gu. 

Is it shut?— Yes, I have shut it: +H*7:I:A:: hioTfi 

H*7^*PAfh:! tazao^toal ?— dwcon, zagiccewallau^ 

SHU— SID 284 

shut, v.t. lip zagga. 

(a lid) hftV kaddana. 
Shut it: H ;3ah II zfgau, pi. TIT-^k zigut. 
Don't shut it: h^llpahu attizgau, pi. -7-^« -gut. 
Shut the door: ft'i^Oh'i-.llpat*:'' sanqaun zigau. 
Shut the box and lock it: ^*?i-'ish^'iVi^fiid,ah» 
sdtinun kadnah qwojllifau. 

•O o A o o 

shy, v.i. ^"ilm danaggata. 

1^7^ garaggara (garaggara). 
shy (modest), be, v.i. hd.d affara (-far-). 

It is shy (wild): fiahsh^a)^9°:i sSu. aiwwddim. 
shying, given to, adj. ^Ip^ c^ngac (dan- ; § 8). 

^lp"\ dangdtta (dan-). 
ICpd gargdri (gar-). 
sick, adj. ;^'^'^ tamdmi. 
sick, be, v.i. ^aoao tammama. 

o o 

haoaooh amniamau (impers. § 43«). 

See § 63f7, e ; s.v. ill, be. 
(vomit) +4. taffa. 
You will be sick: ■^i'4-AUK titafallah, pi. ■^1^4- 
A^l^:•. titafalldccyuh (§ Id). 
sick, make, v.t. hfitwao asammama. 

o o 

(cause to vomit) hh'i'i^ astaffa. 
It makes (will make) me sick: ^rii'4-?AK yastdf- 

It will make you sick: ^ri1'4«yAK yastafFahal, ... 
you (pi.) ...: ^ftl'^^'l-'AAK yastaffaccyuhal (§ Id). 
sickle, s. *^*I?'j^ mdcid. 
sickly, adj. S^^^9^ dwaydtdm (-aid-; § 8). 
sickness, s. n'fi;^ basita. 
side, s. 7"J?:'> gwwdin (>'} gwwnn ; § 52a, y). 
(part) (Dl'i wagan (wco'g-). 

285 SIE— SIG 

What is the length of the side? >*• : ft7^ •• V(D- k 

ffwwnnu sinti nau? 

O o o o 

Have you a pain in your side? T^TfVTf-h'P'/fiiii 
gwwnnihin c4mm^ohal ?, pol. T-VJ^^ •• ^rfP;^ A « 
gwwnna'^'on amm''o''otal? (§ 56c). 
On this side: (of an object) flltUsioTJ-' bazzih 
(in regard to an object) Aoi-^Ob 
bauwdili (-dfh; ^8). 
On the other side : ( = over there) dtoj^f -• bauw- 

dji (§ 8). 
Go round to the other side: aij^'^ ■• H"C k wwdyd 

zur, pL . . . ! H"<- « ... ziiru. 
The other side: (of water) *^^s mad"o. 
sieve, s. to'id.^ wanfit (ww-, -mf-, -fit), 
sift, v.t. V4- nafFa. 

Sift it: Wfl>-:: nffau, pi. '}^^k nffut. 

o i. o 

sifted, be, v.p. 'M4- tanaffa. 

' ' I o o 

Let it be sifted : J&i4- ••: yinnafa. 
siffh, v.i. +V<i.rt tanaffasa. 

o ' o o o o ^^ 

sight, s. (seeing) '^P'Th maiiit (ma^at ; § 446). 

(of gun) aD'if}md^ mannatattarya (-tS,r-). 
He (it) has come into sight: HAi^A:! zal<i6al, pi. 
HA4»<PA:: zalqaual (s.v. HA+). 
sight-protector, s. P/n>V^ni<5^s<w>h^? yamannatattarya 

(§§ 4:7a, 70a) makdafia. 
sign, s. (signal, gesture) T4*Vf tfq(is)sa. 
(mark, token) r Ah^ milikkit. 
(symptom) *^ft;J'fli'fc^ mastau^qya. 
Make a sign (signs) to him : T+rti»- k tiqasau, pi. 

-fr^K -SUt. 

SIG— SIN 286 

Make signs to them: T+^^ohk tiqasdccau, pi. 
-0.^fl>"*'- -swaccau. 
sign, v.i. (beckon) m+rt taqqasa. 

(write one's name) tlao't •• f\d. sfmun tdfa, 

\ / O • o 

pol. & pi. ri*^^fl>-'>'''n^« simaccaun tdfa. 
{Note. Abyssinian documents are sealed, 
not signed.) 
silence!, interj. -H^snAK zimm ball, f. H?":!!^:: zimm 

bdi!, pi. Ifi^sflA*:: zimm balu! 
silence, s. (forbearance from causing noise) 'H^;^ zim- 


(freedom from noise) [h]Cp^ rlgdt (irg- ; § 8). 
silence, v.t. 11?" « hiCi zimm assanna. 

Silence him (it): 'HJ'"s?irtTfl^K zimm assannau. 
silent, adj. (not causing noise) '^9^'t'^ zimmitanna 
(free from noise) [?t]C7- rfgu (frgu). 
silent, be, v.i. (cause no noise) '^9°iY\t\. zimm ala (s.v. 
VOA, § 44a). 
(be free from noise) [?»]<^P (i)ragga. 
Let him be silent : Ti?" :^nAK zimm yiyal, pi. 111'".- 
ftn/V"K zimm yivalu. 
silk, s. UC harr. 
silver, s. 'flC birr. 

simpleton, s. 1(D'P*P gaugawwa (-auwa). 
sin, s. ^(n,h^ hdtydt (at- ; § 8). 

since, conj. h- [i'-'] ka- (ta-) with simple perfect (§ 48a). 
It is ten days since he started: h/^C ■•*!*>«: >flM 
hi'V*^"' assir qanu nau katanassa. 

o -i^o o o o o 

Well, go in, then, since you want to: ?i'>V»,'} •• *7n « 
i'd.tilV '•• hkwan, giva, tafallagih. 

287 Sm— SKI 

sincere, adj. •fe9" qum. 

4»'> qin. 
sinciput, s. ^'i'^ andt (§ 8). 
sing, v.i. & t. nd,^ zaffana (zaf-). 
h^^'^ aqrdrra. 

(chant) Hao^ zdmmara (-mar-), 
single, adj. hlf!: and, f. h'i^i,^ andit (§ 20a). 

h'}^^ andiyya. 
sir, interj. hO,^ ab^et (ay>- ; § 8). 
sister, s. hth^ fhit (hit, it). 
sister-in-law, s. 9"^'> mirdt (§ 8). 
sistrum, s. XVX'A sanasil. 
sit (down), v.i. 'h4»<w>m tacjanimata. 

Sit down: i'+^/nT:*- tacjamat, pol. ^+<w>m-« yiq- 
qamatii, pi. 'I'^^aonvn ta(iamatu. 
six, card. num. ftj^-ftl* sfddist (§ 20a). 
sixteen, card. num. h/^^'-l\^M' asrilsfddist (§ 20a). 
sixteenth, ord. num. h^^/^ •• flj^'ftf"^ asrasiddistdnna 

(-tan-; §206). 
sixth, ord. num. t\ff:h'\'''^ siddistanna (-tan-; § 206). 
sixth (Ve), s. ft.f^'ft ^-^ : [ftj^-ft'I:^] siddi«tiyya (§ 206, § 52a, 8). 
sixtieth, ord. num. ftA«^^ «ilsaiiiia (§ 206). 
sixty, card. num. l\M isilsa (§ 20a). 
size, s. ;''A4*V^' tallaqfnnat (-nat). 
*Jjm* Suat (-niit). 
^OD^ qiimat (-mitt). 
What size is it ? r-J.-^UAA-.-. min ydhlal? (s.v. hhA). 
It is about this size: J&U'>:^UAsVi»-s: yihann yahl 


skilful, adj. 'flA*/'^? bilhatafina (-tan-). 

Tflrt? tibabaiiiia (tivav-, -an-). 



skill, s. -flAV^ bflhat (§ 8). 

Tn-fl tibab (tivav). 
skin, s. *cn^ q'' drbat (-ry-, -at). 

(bag made of) ^•fc*^^ aqumdda. 
S. ftApf^ sillicca. 

y"^ o o 

(for water) ^*P^ rauwdt (§ 8). 
(hide) *^ q^dda. 

(with coat) MH ag^'dza. 
skull, s. 4»A qil. 
sky, s. rt*^j& samai (§ 8). 
slack, adj. (loose) A A lil. 

slander, v.t. ilC-* rt^ ndgar (-gar) sarra (sar-) fl- ba- (ya-; 
h^ amma. 
He slandered him : hlC '• rt^fl^ k nagar sarrabbat. 
slanderer, s. 'ild'-iid nagara (-gar-; § dd) sari (sar-). 

h*^ ami. 
slaughter, v.i. & t. hd^ arrada. 
slave, s. nc^ bdrya, pi. dC'-^ bar^oc (-cc § 6). 

Runaway slave: h£" kaj. 
slavery, s. flCi^ barinnat (-nat). 
sleep, s. ?i^*A¥ (i)nqilf (§ ^f^; § 8)- 

9°t^ mfniiita {ao't- maniii-, -it-). 
He needs sleep : ao't^^sf^Ti^'.i matanfidt yisdl. 
sleep, v.i. i"? taiiiia (tan-, -na, § 7c?). 

I could not sleep: ^Ai'?U-J'"K altaniiahum (cp. 

§ 63c). 
One can't sleep with that noise going on: J&Oe 
lSfe*fi^:rtfl^■•^i^ft'^^V"•.: yihe ciihiit s|u a^astaii- 
sleep, cause (send) or allow to, v.i. & t. hhi'^ astdfina 
(-tail-, -na, § 7d). 

289 SLE— SLI 

The heat sends me to sleep: fli>-*l»^:^ft'h??Ass 
miiqat yastannanfial. 
sleepy, be, v.i. ^i^4»A4- anqalaffa. 

I feel sleepy : h'i^fii-li'^ k anqalafFallau^' {§ Id). 
sleet, s. n^j^ barad. 

o o 

sleeve, s. ?iK"l f jjjg^e (§ 52a, 8). 

slender, adj. +T'^ qaccin, intensive pi. ^^'^'i qacac- 

cin, +'*^*P'T''1F' qacaccin^'oc (-cc § 6). 
slide, v.i, •f'Tf^i'f' tansattata (-tata). 

' o o o ^ o ' 

sling, s. e{^JtC:V'?°Jt ydmdir nagwwd (§ 8). 

(of rifle) *^H^ mahgdca (-gaca). 
slino- over the shoulder, v.t. Wil'i' ana<'o:ata. 

Sling it over your shoulder: fl**i7:^U •• M*7'i'<»- « 
bacdnqah an^itau. 
slip, v.i. -^m data. 

You will slip: '"bj^^AU-.: tiditallah, pi. '"l^^'^A'f•I^K 

tiditalljlccvuh (^ Id). 
Take care you don't slip: ?i'}^'>j^T:: ndattidlt, 
pi. -J^m- :: -df tu. 
slip, cause or allow to, v.t. Max addta. 
slipper, s. 'ia\f\i^^"l ii^t^l'i camma. 

(Avith turned-up toe, ^^ja) Vh'ps''*i*^ kuff 


See § 52a, 8. 
slippery, adj. (of ground, etc.) J^T dit. 

S. .^T dat. 
M"^ adac (§ 8). 
(eluding the grasp) tm-A*?* miillic (-cc § 6). 
slippery, be (become), v.i. (of ground, etc.) Mm addta, 

(eluding the gTasp) 0»-A*I?'s 
hii miillicc dla (s.v. VflA, 
§ 44a ; § 6Sd, e). 

AM. GR. (it) 19 



This place is slippery: J&U:ft<P^.-^j^'nA:: yfhe 

sifra yadltal. 
It is very slippery: one can't hold it : ?»S*7! <n»-A*l?'s 

'dX^l^f'^'^^'' |jj j& i^^l^ccj y^l^al : aij^dzim. 
slit, s. +^^ qadada (§ 52a, S). 

There is a slit (are slits) in it: ^-^^s^Afl^K qa- 

ddda allabbat. 

o o 

slit, v.i. (be slit, v.p.) i'+A^ *|<l|ddada. 

It will slit: J&+A^Ak yiqqaddadal, pi. l^+^^A-s 

It has''(is)° slit: I'+Jg^A-.s taqadd5El, pi. -^<PA« 

Take care it doesn't slit : lilfi^^^^ :•• ndaiqqad- 
dad, pi. -^^i' -ddadu. 
slit, v.t. 'I'^ft qaddada. 

Slit it : ^^^(O' :: qf dadau, pi. ^f!,^^ » qfdadut. 
Don't slit it: ^^4'^^a^:•. attfqdadau, pi. -^^k 
slope, s. *f>^A'i^A^ qwulqwtilat (-lat; §8). 

When he (it) goes down the slope: 4*^ A*!*"- A^ s rt. 
(dCj^s qwiilqwiilat siwwrd. 
slope, v.i. H^'-hti ziqq dla (s.v. J(\ii, § 44a; § QScl, e). 
See that it doesn't slope: 'H4» •• ?i'>-Sj& A :•• ziqq in- 


sloping, adj. «f»^A'f»^A qwdlqwiil. 

The ground is sloping : ?"jtC! 4^ A*f>^ A «>£»•:•. liidir 
qwulqwiil (§ 8) nau. 
slops, s. h^^ fd(i)f. 

Pour the slops away and put fresh water in it: 
>lJ^•f^:^T.rtU••T<.:fl^•/■•^^J?:C*7n•^h:: Mfun affssah 
tdru wiiha adrigibbat (tiiruhdrgibbat). 

291 SLO— SME 

slow, adj. ^-t^ datanfia (-tan-). 

^A+^ cillitanna (-tan-). 
The watch is slow : rt*}* -• H*7j&;l; A « saatu zagjdtSaU 
or ...s *f»C:f:AK ... qartoal. 
slowly!, interj. HI zigg! 
^h qass ! 
slowly, go (act), v.i. 11*7 --Ai A zigg dla. 
^llshlV qass ala. 

lo o 

S.v. VOA, § Ua. 
Speak slowly : Tf*? •• -fl AU : -h'^lC k zigg yiliih tanagar. 
Let him speak slowly: 'M*7:'flA".-^V7C:: zfggi (§ 7r/) 
yil"o yinndgar. 
small, adj. ■^'>7i tfnnis, intensive pis. ^"iTfti tinfnnis, 
-IVI' -nnis^^ocVcc § 6), ^-^Tfi titfnnis^ ^FfV 
-nnis'^oc (-cc § 6). 
They are quite small : 1*'^^'fi : V^fl^ :: titinnfs (§ 8) 


small-pox, s. Vl-'P^ kiifFin (-nil § 6; § 8). 

He is pitted by small-pox: Xb^^sfmpoh-.'iahii 

kufFin yawajQ:«>au naii. 
Has he had small-pox? Yh^^-'^iai^:: kiiffinn au- 
wtta?, pol. & pi. -m-K -ttu? 
smart, adj. (clever) ^^A» c''61Pe. 

(well dressed) lai^ g^etanna (-tan-). 
smart, be, v.i. (dress well) hZm ag^eta. 
smash, v.i Aflfl^ sababbara (sava-, -bara ; ^ 22b, 77). 
smashed, be, v.p. i'Aflfl^ tasababbara (tasii-, -va-, -biira: 

§ 22b, 0). 
smear, v.t. *l*fl qabba. 
hail abbasa. 

o o 


SMB— SMO 292 

Smear the boots with grease : ^^.loh'i -. ti'dt -. ^(\ah k 
cammaun (§ 52a, 8) sfyin (§ 5Gf) qiyau, or «i*^iD-'>s 
flft'fls^'flflH"' cammaun basfv qfvau. 
smeared, be, v.p. (smear oneself, v.r.) i'^d taqabba. 

;^flrt t^bbasa. 

o o 

Has it been smeared with grease? ft'fl^s'h+'flrtAss 
siyin (§56/; or flft'fl! basfy) taqaytoal?, pi. ...s 
i'+'fl'h'P A •» ... taqdytaual? 
smell, s. 71;^ sitta. 

(unpleasant) *7'^^ gimdt (§ 8). 
I can't bear the smell of it : 11^ '-'• gammail (§ 61c). 
smell, T.i. Ti'i"i' sdttata (sat-). 

(unpleasantly) 11 oamma. 
See § 63^, e. 
He (it) smells: ?f;l:A" sattoal. 

(unpleasantly) 1?";tAK gamtoal. 
smell, v.i. & t. ^ff'^'^ asattata (-s4t-; § 6Sd, e). 

I have a cold, I can'tsmell: 'hli^l'^n^'-M'S^rA 

gumfdn ydzan, alasattim (§ 63c). 
I smell it: ^'fi^'PA>'» asicc>ewallau^ (§ Tf^, pL ^ 
'fii'V'PA" asittanaual. 

o o o 

Do you smell it? ^*rt'^t^'PA"j& « dsittahauallwi? (s.v. 
(D^), pi. h'fi^^O'^(\rf^-» asittaccihutallwi ? 
smell sweet, v.i. ;^mV tduana (§ ij'dd^e). 

It smells sweet : ;^TXAK tatinoal, pi. -^*PA:: -naual. 
smile, v.i. 'P'1*7:^A figigg dla (s.v. x/flA, § 44a). 
smith, s. OAg- bdlajj (§8). 

^^^isjb qatqdc (§ 8). 

smoke, s. m.fl tis. 
^P'fl cTs. 
smoke, v.i. m.A t>esa (§ 42c). 

(tobacco) v.i. k t. m") tatta. 

293 SMO— SO 

Do you smoke? ^{^flA-^m'HAU:! timb|iiha ti- 
tattdllah?, pol. ...s/K-m^A-K... yitattallu? 
smoked, be, v.p. (of tobacco) i'm'H tatatta. 
smoky, adj. m.*^!^ tlsdm (§ 8). 
smooth, adj. AAA^ lasldssa. 

Ali-n Ifzzib (-iv). 

O O \ O" / 

snail, s. +^0 tasabb"o (tas-), usually f. (§ 54c). 
snake, s. Kfl'fl fbdb (fvdv ; ^ 8). 

Is this snake poisonous? ^V-Md'aDCnr^-'iahii 
yih ivdv marzam naii ? 
snare, s. '^'Vao'^ matmdja (maja). 
snatch, v.i. & t. Vm^f* nattaqa (nat-). 

Don't snatch : Y\^'la\^ •••• attintaq. 
sneeze, v.i. MmCi andttasa. 

o • • o o 

snipe, s. Pa^•/ ■• j^*C*?""h yiUiha dfrcit (§ 52a, 8). 
snore, v.i. h'i\\i'.d. ankwarrafa. 
snow, s. haoPif^ araadai (§ 8). 

OKC^ wurc (prop, frost), 
snub-nosed, adj. ^V'"]'^ daftatta. 
snufF, s. lil'^l sincjan. 
snuff, take, v.i. til^^luw^ H^^W^ ^dtta. 

Do you take snuff"? ft^*^'>••1•^l'»]AU:•. sincian titat- 
tallilh?, pol. ....■/Z.m'HA-:: ... yitattc411u? 

so, adv. (consequently) hHo)^^ (i)z(z)a'''wdya (-zdd- ; § 8), 

S. ;^•S,/ tadya. 
h'il^V (i)ngd>eh. 
(thus) ht^V (f)ndih (-dfh; § 8). 

htf^tUV (i)ndazzih (-daz-, -zfh ; § 8). 
(inferential) -^i -a ? (§§ 6, 8). 
I don't wish it so: ?i^^H.0.AiA<CA*7i^K ndazzih 

o oCo 

SO— SOL 294 

Quite so : VflH « nau, or 'hah-'i^ ■• "lOh a unat nau. 

So you are going? ^tb,fiMii tihadallaM? 
so-and-so, indef. pron. hH\> igal^e (§ 16). 
soap, s. ^fli»-V samuna. 
sociable, adj. '^«i<P^ tacaudc (§8). 

III. 'Pi'? cauatanna (-tan-). 

• o o ^ ' 

sociable, be, v.i. i'^ai't tacduwata (-wwta). 
sock, s. TJ^^'fl siirrdb (-dy; § 8, § 52a, S). 
soft, adj. AftA^ lasldssa. 

It is too soft : AftA^ •- VflH « laslassd, (S 8) nau. 
soft, be (become), v.i. AAArt lasdllasa. 
soften, v.t. hlifilifi alasallasa. 

o o o o 

soil, s. aD&^ mar^^et (^ 8). 


(loose) }id.C afar (-far). 
Hard, stony soil : G^GC-- f^draf^or. 
Red soil: (i^(iCs b^drab^or (-av^^-). 
Od'i^i b^dranq (§ 8). 
soil, v.t. h^if^d, asaddafa. 

o o 

Don't soil it: h^fi^d^Ohw attasaddifau, pi. -^^k 

You will soil it: ;^^J?:<(.*P AU k tasaddifauallah, pi. 

^^^4'^'i'^O' K tasaddifutallaccyuh (§ 7c?). 
soiled, be (become), v.i. & p. h^d, addafa (§ 23a, § 63c?, e). 
It is soiled: AiJ^^Ak adfoal, pi. h^d.'Pfii'.- adiaual. 
It will get soiled : ^j?:*^Ak yddfal, pi. ^j^r^-A-s yad- 

fdllu. ^ 

See that it doesn't get soiled : Mfifj!:^ k nda^ a- 

dif, ... that they don't ...: K'J^^Jt^K ndaTadfu. 
sold, be, v.p. i'Km tasata (tas^ta). 

Let it be sold : jtffT « yfssat, pi. |&?f /n* :•• yissatu. 
It is not to be sold: ^^TTTk dissiit, pi. h^Tfobn 


295 SOL— SON 

What is it sold at? nft'}^:^?filA:: basfnt yissa- 
tal?, pi. ...! j&?f^/V-K ... jdssatallu? 
solder, s. *l"\(\*k^ mattabaqya (-ay-, -aq-). 
solder, v.t. h^di* attabbaqa. 
soldered, be, v.p. i'^fl* tatdbbaqa. 

It must be soldered: ^^n4»:: yittdyaq. 
soldier, s. a^^C wwttdddar (-dar ; § 52a, 8). 
sole (of foot), s. ^n,^ camma (§ 52a, y). 
solid, adj. TV- tfnu. 

-nC-lJ bfrtu. 


mth^ tankdri'a. 

• o 

solitary, adj. hl^,^ andiyya. 
Somali, s. i^'^H* s"omdl>e (-A, -li). 
some, indef. pron. (gen.) ^A yallii (§§ 7a, 14, 32a). 
(much) h^A. ayydPe (§ 10). 
(a few) hlftl^ jlndand (§ 8), pi. hi 
^IrF-'^ anddnd^oc (-cc § 6; § 16). 
Bring some like the last: ?i'>ftAA'fa»-:^A--M'"«l:: 

ndahwalaiindu yallii dmta (-lldnta §§ 7a, d). 
Some are (to be) seen: A»'}^'>j^!j&.'^^A:: andfind 
yittayyal (§ 52a, 8). 
— often not translated : 

Please give me some water: >iny]LI*'£D-y-'Am^» 
ivdkkih wmia sitan. 

O' o o* o 

Is there some? hiiv. alia? (§ 32r/). 

Are there some? hA-s allu? 

Was there some? Vfl^:: nabbara? (^ 33c?). 
sometimes, adv. hlfH'i^ ■• T.H. andandi gfz^e. 
son, s. aE lij. 

(as opposed to daughter) fli'Jjt •• aE* wwnd-lij (§ 8). 
son-in-law, s. ^i*^^ amdc (§ 8). 

SON— SOR 296 

song, s. H<i.'} zafan (zaf-). 

soon, adv. ^C'ti'-IM qirb (ry) gizye. 

flT*fe^ . n^/\ batiqit bahwala (ya-, -auha-, § 7c?). 
(fast) -i^A- r dlo. 
I shall start soon: ^C'(\'•lM'•'M'*l^'h•''' qiry giz^e 

o o o 

Come as soon as you can: ?i'>^*^^AO."f'/t"!Ta 
ndammiccdlih t'^dlo na. 

o o 

He (it) will soon come back now: hih'ii-^^ti^s^a'* 
A^Ak dhun t^dl^'o yimmallasal. 
soot, s. T+CTf tiqarsa (-qar-). 
sorcerer (-ess), s. fl"-^ biida. 

hl\*H'^ asmatanna (-tan-), 
sorcery, s. hll^^ asmdt (§ 8). 
sore, s. 4>^ftA qwtisil. 

To have a sore (sores): *fertA: qwcJssala (§ 6Sd, e). 

To cause a sore (sores) : ^*fertA •• aqw^ssala. 

He (it) has a sore: *feft^A*" qwwsloal, pi. *feftA<PA» 

He (it) will get a sore: j&*feAAAK yiqwcJslal, pL 

^*feriAA-K yiqwwslallu. 
It is not to get sores : Ai^*l»^rt A » aiqwiisal, pi. hf, 

*l>^rtA*K aiqwiisalu. 
It will cause a sore: ^"feftAAK yaqwwslal. 
If flies settle on a sore it will not get well: TiJ^'flf 
+4^ftA.n*l'/wiT!>»J&<^A(D-r:: zimb (§ 52a, 8) ta- 
qwtisil viqqammat aissdlaum. 
sorghum {S. vulgare, Broun, Cat. 663), s. *^7iA masflla. 
sorghum-stalk, s. ■^'Jh'fi tfnkis (§ 52«, S). 
sorrel {Rumex abessinicus, Guidi, Vocab. pp. 80, 81), s. 
ao^oD^ maqmaqq^^o. 

297 SOR— SPA 

sorrow, s. ?iH^ azan. 


sorry, be, v.i. hH'i dzzana. 

I am very sorry: h'^l'-hli^i^U'i'. ijjig aziiiiiallau^ 
(§ 7d), pi. ...s^TiWA!-- ... aznanal. 
sort, s. ^Ji'/I* ainat (-nat). 

What sortV? ^^^(D- yetfiinau? (§§ 8, 15). 

IP^^ minmna? (§15). 
What sort of houses have they? fl.-f'^'^fl>---'J^V'ts 
'^'if^^'i^^'i-.'iahv. b^et'^'occdccau (§ 55&) ainatu 
ndamindfn (S 8) nau ? 

o o \ o / o 

soul, s. V*Pft nafs (na-, -vs). 
sound, adj. T<- tiru (ttiru). 

^'^'T dahna (§ 8). 
sound, s. J^J^T dimt. 

(continuous) fiCfe'fi'T" ciihat (-hat § 7^0- 
sound, v.i. i'A*^ tasamma (tas-). 
sound, v.t. (by blowing) 'i4- naffa. 

(by percussion) <7d;J- matta. 
soup, s. tro^'t* maraq. 

sour, adj. ir9^mm h^^omtatta (*i9"- k^om-, mm, -tdt>e). 
south, s. ftfl-'fl ddbrib (ddydy ; § 8). 
souvenir, s. *^ft;''aiTf mastaiiasa (-auwsa). 
sow, v.i. & t. (seed, & ground) H^ zdrra. 

How do they sow it? h'i^^-^n^^-^.i nd^et jd- 
zarutal ? 
sown, be, v.p. •fli^ tazarra (tazar). 

When is it sown ? <iD^:jiH^^:: mdc>e yizzarral? 
space, s. (room) ao^ao^^ maqqamdca. 
spade, s. ao'^d.d^ maqwwfl'drya (-far-). 
span, s. (8 inches) A^lfC sfnzir (§ 52a, 8). 
sparkle, v.i. h-HtiGO^ha^ ablacallaca (ayl-). 

SPE— SPL 298 

speak, v.i. & t. 't^ld tanaggara (-gara). 

Don't speak so fast: ^(i^^'f'ttr'.M'^'lC^ t^^olo t^dlo 

attinndgar, pol. ... •• ^^'n4-« ... ainndgaru. 
Speak slowly: in •• -flAU : i-TlC « zfggi yflah tand- 

o^ar, pol. 'H*7s'flA<»-s ft'i'74-« ziersri vilau yinnd- 

Speak very loudly : 6tfeTiU-"f'nCK ciihah tandgar. 

I can't speak much Amharic: ^'^C?-"flH---^A*? 

1C9" K amarfiina vizu alinnaggarim (S 63c). 
Do you speak Arabic ? h^'fl? •• ^^l^liV •.•• arayf fina 
tinnaggarallah?, pol. ...« fp'tl^t^v. ... yinnagga- 
spear, s. rnc t^' or. 
spear-head, s. h^d> dfr^e. 
spectacles, s. <n>VTC manattir. 
speech, s. ^A qal. 
spelt, s. h^ ajja. 

spider, s. ?f^<5^ sararit (siirar-), usually f. (§ o4c). 
spill, v.t. h^CAA afassasa. 

Don't spill it : h:f'^fiah « attaf fssau. 
You will spill it: ^d^fl^fiVn tafassauallah. 

1 o o 

spin, v.i. & t. (thread) Mu^ anazzara (-zara). 

Can she spin? ;^V'H^A^K tanazrallac? (§ 63c). 
spindle, s. hlUC^ (|)nzirt (§ 8). 
spine, s, (vertebrae) MlChd akarkdri (-kark-). 
spirit, s. (liquor) Ai^*fe araqi (-raq-). 

(ghost) fl>-^n. wuqdb^e (-dyJ'e). 
spit, v.i. & t. ^'^ihti tiff dla (not S.). 

h-i^-V-hk (i)ntiff (-ttiff ) dla. 
S.v. v/flA, § 44a. 
Spit it out: h-i^^'-mohii Atiffi valau. 

• o o • o o 

spleen, s. '^V^ taffya. 

299 SPL— SPO 

splendid, adj. H:!^ dinq. 
*7^9" gfrum. 
h^'Q'i^^hr ijjjg maMm (§ 8). 

It is splendid: Atje-I^^" •••• aiggaimim. 
splice, v.t. *l*fliA qattala. 
spliced, be, v. p. -h+niA taqdttala. 
splinter, s. ft^TC sintir. 

I have got a splinter in my hand: AlTC'l-Jt-lflK 
sfntir tajjJ'e (§§ 7a, 47a) gdbba. 
split, adj. rt7^^ santaqqa. 
split, s. 1^ niq, pi. also 'i^^^ niqaqdt (§ 8). 

A'>t4» sfntiq. 
split, v.i. (be, v.p.) +rtVni4» tasandttaqa (tiisan-). 
Vj^ ndqqa. 
It is split: l^rt^TjtAK tasantiqSal, pi. -+<PA:: 

It will split: JK.rtVm.'^A:: yissandttaqal, pi. f-rtVm 

^/V".: yissanattaqallu. 
It won't split: hf!,Mm^9^ '.'- aissanattaqim, pi. 

-m*fcl'"K -ttaqum. ^ 

Mind it doesn't split: ?i'>^^AVm*« ndaissandttaq. 
The wood is going to split : Mge&'P • A.rtVm4» •• Va»-.: 

nc^etu lissanattdq (§ 8) nau. 
This kind is Inclined to split: ^Us'J^V^.-V'fe.-^a^:: 
yihe ainat naqi nau. 
split, v.t. AVm+ sanattaqa. 

Split the wood: h^fiRrl^^ : rt'>T4»fl>- « nc^etun sdn- 
tiqau, pi. -'fcl":: -qui 
spoil, v.i. (be spoiled, v.p.) i-fl'tTf tabaldssii (taya-). 

<{.<Crt farrasa. 

o o o 

It will all be spoiled: ihA-sj&nATfA-.: hiillu yibba- 

SPO— SPR 300 

spoil, v.t. h(\f{Tl abbaldssa. 
hd^dfl afarrasa. 

o o o 

If you do that you will spoil it: h'i^V - h!!:CW '- 
^dfiTf^tiV K ndih drgah (§ 7d) tabbalassauallah, 
pol. ?i^^U.•^iJ^C^fl^:^nA?f■;^A:•. ndih drgau yab- 
baldssutal, pi. h'J-lU ■ ^j^Cp^i> = ;^nA?i^;^A^l^ « 
ndlh argdccyuh tabbalassutalldccyuh. 
You will spoil them: ;MlA^Tf^'PAUK tabbalassac- 
cauallah, pi. ;^nA'?t^'PA'fl^•.: tabbalasswaccaual- 
spoon, s. *^'iU manka. 
spoor, s. ^A^ fillaga (§8). 
S. <i.A*7 fdlag. 

o o^ 

4-^ fdra. 
See § 52a, S. 
spout, s. (of vessel) h^ af 
sprain, s. fl)AJ'°;^ walamta. 

sprained, be, v.i. (Di\9°--hii walamm dla (s.v. VflA, §44^^; 
§ 6Sd, e). 
The joint is sprained : f^C •• (DtiT* : 'flO^A « sir walam 
(§ 6) bilSal. 
spread, v.i. 1*1*1 gdnnana. 

The fire will spread: ?i'^^!|Z,'lVA» isdt yigannal. 
spread (out), v.t. Mai^ anattafa. 

(to dry) hiim asatta. 
Spread it out: h'JT<i.fl^:: antifau, pi. -^^k -fiit. 
Y\l\"\ahi' astau, pi. -ni-^« -tut. 
spring, s. (of water) 9°!*^ niinc. 

(metal) TiO sib^^o (siy^^o). 
(leap) TIA^ z^lja. 
spring, v.i. (over, v.t.) HAA zdllala. 

301 SPR— SPR 

He (it) sprang over it: HAA<»-k zallalau, pi. HA 
A-^K zallalut. 

o o 

He (it) sprang onto it : HAAfll' « zallalabbat (§ 47a), 
pi. HAA-n^-:: zallalubbat. ° ° ° ° 

•» o o o 

sprinkle, v.t. 

(a liquid, or with a liquid) h<(.h^ kafakkafa. 

dd^M raV)arraba (ra- 

o o o o ^ o 


• o o • o ' 

[?i]<ifl.i. (i)racca ( rac-). 
(a substance, or with a substance, other than a 
liquid) VrtVrt nasanna«a. 

A ' o o o o 

See § .36/ 
Sprinkle it with water: <»•'/■• ^'flC-nfl-ll-:: wdha ray- 

rivibbat (S 47a), or (D-V '• d'ilCilah .'. wtiha ravrivau. 
Sprinkle the ground with water: ao^'Wi t ohV •• 

CGO^at^'.-' mar^etun liha ricau. 

o o • o 

Sprinkle the earth over it: ^<i.<-^!VA'>Afl-'l*:: afiirun 
nasnisibbat, pi. ...•• VA'JA-n-l*:: ... nasjnisubbat. 

ooooi oo o 

sprinkled, be, v.p. 

(of or with a liquid) i^dA)^. takafakkafa. 

^ •*■' ooooo 

'/'^fl<Cfl tarabarraba (tiir-, 

o o o o o ^ 


o • o o • O ' 

i'^M. taracca (tarac-). 

o o • • ^ o • ' 

(of or with a substance other than a liquid) 
'^VrtiA tanasdnnasa. 

o o o o o 

See § 50/ 
The ground should be sprinkled with water: 
#wi<J.^:a>-'/:^h^h^:: market liha yikkafkaf, or 
iwd^^ i Ohi i Pfd-il^'Q K mar^ et liha virravrav. 

•^ o »'oo*o- 

Salt should be sprinkled on it: fla,fl>-:^VAVAfl'*ih» 
cau yinndsnasibbat (^ 47a). 
sprout, v.i. n+A baqqala (bS,q-). 

SPU— SQU 302 

spun, be, v.p. (of thread) +VH^ tanazzara (-zara). 

Show me how it's spun: Mf ^ ■• K^^^ s J&VM^A » 
asayyaiin (§ 6) ind^et jdnnazzaral, f. M^^'-M 

^^s . . . asayyinii ind^ et 

spur, s. (calcar) /w>hoAh"^ makwalkwaya (-kwwl-, -aia). 
aD\\°C\)pd^ makwwrkwcurya. 
See § 52a, S. 
spur, v.t. yi»<ih»<i kwwrakkwcura (-rwk-). 
spurge (Euphorbia sp,), s. hl^C^ antarfa (-tar-). 
sputum, s. ^^:^ t^ffjta. 
spy, s. rtAjZ, sallai (sal- ; -dyy § 6 ; § 8). 
spy, v.i. & t. (on, v.t.) rtAA sallala (sal-). 
square, adj. — use rectangular, q.v. 

It is in a square tin; fl^^- : '^H^ •• ^Afl>- : <^T^ •• h A k 
baratt mazan yallau sdtin alia, 
square, s. (open space among houses) h^flflji adda- 

babai (-aydyai ; § 8). 

squeak, v.i. (of mouse) A.T •■ ^%A^ st tt dliic (-cc § 6 ; § 54c). 

(of inanimate objects) ^.TTsAiA sftitt (sftitt) 


S.V. VnA, § 44a. 

squeeze, v.i. & t. h"\M attabbaqa. 

e^*^*i caqqwwna (cwqqona § 7c? kdiy). 

Squeeze it: ^i^'fl4'fl^s•. attayiqau. 

GB^^*iahi\ co^qqwiinau. 

Don't squeeze it: h^^X-H^Ohw attattayiqau. 

h^QB^'^hahix atticwqqwunau. 

squeezed, be, v.p. i'^nfl*!* tatabbaqa. 

'h6H.*feV tacdqqwwna (-cwqqona). 

If it is squeezed : fl,''lfl4»: bittabbaq. 

d.O.Ll^'}: biccwqqon. 


303 SQU— STA 

squeeze out, v.t. m<w>«f» tammaqa. 

Squeeze the] juice out of the lime(s § 52a) : f /t" 
'^J.fl>•'}:a^ysT<wI4»a^K yal^omiun uha tfmaqau. 
squeezed out, be, v.p. •faioD^ tatammaqa. 
squirrel {Xerus sp., Blandford, Geol. & Zool. pp. 278, 

279), s. 'S^ sala, often f. (§ 54c). 
stab, v.i. & t. (Dp ww'gga ('' wg"-). 

He stabbed him with a knife: flh^ s idjjid- :•• ba- 
karra (§ 47a) wwggau. 
stabbed, be, v.p. 'i'lop tawwgga (tauw-). 
stable, s. ^^^h--^^ y^i%i'as (§§ 47rt, 70 ; § 8) b^et (y>-). 
;iT gat. 
Put it in the stable: h<<.^ft:fl.1*:?»j^Cli»-:: kafards 

^ o o o 

{•fd.- tafa-) v^et adrigau (argau § 7^). 
stack, s. \\9°C kimnur. 

' o o 

stack, v.t. Ylao^ kammara (miira). 

o o o ^ o ' 

stack it (them § .32a, 8) here: \\\l}}-'XiT*d.ah:x kiiz- 
zfh kammiraii, pi. -<-"^k -rut. 

O O O O ' I 

stacked, be, v.p. •f'Xiao^. takammara (-milra). 

Show him where it is to be stacked : f^h^mCfl^-'J: 
M^Ohv. yammikkammilrfbbatin (§ 02c) asayyau. 
stage (of journey), s. ao^VZ- mannahjirya (-"fi- -x^-, -ka- 

§7^/; § 52a, 8). 
stagnant, adj. [JijCT* rfgu (Irgu). 

f'^^rh,.^ yiimmaihad (§§ 14, 37c). 
stagnant, be, v.i. \)\y.p (pr^gga (§ 63c?, c). 

Use neg. of rh.^ hadii (h|-, h>'e-, -da, 
§ 7^0, to flow._ 
It is stagnant: ?i^rh.Jt9":: aihadim. 
It is stagnant, it isn't good to drink: <i*7;f:AIA<w> 
fli^^:^*7jr»:^/&/^A:: ragtSal, lamatattdt dag- 
gimm (§376) aidiil. 

STA— STA 304 

stain, s. +A9" qalam. 

(of dirt") h^9 id(i)f. 
stain, v.i. & t. (dye) *l*A<w» qallama. 
(soil) M^d. asaddafa. 
It will stain it : ^^JtiC'PA k yasaddifaual. 
stained, be, v.p. (stain oneself, v.r.) i'^tim* taqallama. 
(be soiled) hf^^d, addafa (§ 23a). 
Mind the cloth doesn't gei stained: GB^C^-'txlih^ 
j^'hK carq inda^adif 
stale, adj. f T^ yan^^ora (§§ 14, 62). 
stale, v.i. (vet.) Xi'i sanna. 
stalk, s. Y\1^ agada (§ o2a, S). 
stall, s. p*? gat. 
stammering, adj. fiA duda. 

stamp, s. (instrument) aD'\'\'%^ mahattamya (-tam-). 
(impression) '^'^'^JP mahtam (mahdtam § Id). 
(postage-) t'frjP-nC tambr (§ 52a, 8). 
stamp, v.i (imprint) 'hi'ao hattama {Mao dttama). 
stamped, be, v.p. ^^'^'ao tdttama. 
stampede, v.i. ^^fl^ danabbara (-bara). 

They stampeded and are all lost : ff^TrilC'- ihA-s m4-K 
dambir^'o hiillu taffa (§ 52a), 
stand, v.i. ^ao q^^Sma (§ 42c). 

Stand here: hn,U!*fcjr»:: kazzfh qum, pi. . . . « *fc<ii>- k 
. . . qiimu. 
stand, v.t. h^ao aq^oma. 

Stand it here: hltU.-^'fciw)<D-:: kazzfh dqumau, pi. 
. . . •• >i*fctfi»-^- K ... aqumut. 
stand still, v.i. ^T.-^A: qatt dla (s.v. VOA, § 44a). 

Standstill: ^T.-riA:: (latti val, pi. «f»T:nA-:: qatti 

305 STA— STA 

stand up, v.i. +V"/ tanassa. 

'flJt'7'lKA bfdigg (§ 6) ala (s.v. VHA, § Ua). 
Stand up: -Ajt^sflAK hidig (§ 8) yal. 
standard, s. (with flag) ^A'^!A'}ft4» aldma sdndaq. 
star, s. hh-n k^^okab (-av), pi. also h'Plri'fl'l- k^idkibt 

(-iyt) ; see § 52a, 8. 
starch, s. ^h'^F- amid'^o. 
start, v.i. (proceed) i*!*^ tanassa. 

(begin) 'tj^ao/i tajammara (-miira). 
Start: i'V'^K tanasa, pi. i-ii***!-. tanasu. 

o o * o o 

Don't start: ^i^V"/:: attinndsa, pi. -a»«:: -su. 
Before you start : «^'ll-V'^! sattinnassa, pi. -i*»-: -ssu. 
When you start : ft'l-V"/.- sittinnassa, pi. -a^: -ssu. 
Why have you not started? 9^'i'-'i(D':hM''i''il)9^.'. 
mfn-nau altanassahim?, pi. T*"} • 'lah : h^'l-'i'^'^ 

O O O O O A 

ihjr»:: mfn-nau altanassdccihum ? 

o o o o o 

He is to start : J&i*^ « yinnasa, pi. -i*»« :•• -su. 
He^is not to start, let him wait: ^^V^/Tj&'fejB.:: 

ainnasa, yfqwwi, pi. hjRVa»-T^*fef.:: ainnasu, yi- 

Has he started? i'V/*',-f:A:: tanast(lal?, pol. & pL 

i-V/^'l-'PA:: tandstaual? 

o o o 

He is to start at once : 'f-A":f»u-'>: je,V"f « t^dlo ahun 

yinnasa, pi. ...-i>*-:: ... -su. 
When did he start? ao^ -. i-'i'^ v. mac>e tanassa?, 

o o o ' 

pol. & pi. <w»^s+W*»«;: mac^e tandssu? 

' o o o 

I am going to start: AVf.-V^:: linnassd (§8) nan, 
pi. A^V"/:V'>:: linninnassd nan. 

* O O o 

I am not going to start: ^AWi^-.: alinnassam, pi. 
h'}'i**l9^ :: anninnassam. 

O o 

Before I start: /»AV«^: salinnassa, pi. ftth*^-- san- 

O o 

AM. GR. (ll) 20 

STA— STA 306 

When I start: M**i' sinndssa, pi. tl'i'i^: sinnin- 


We are not starting yet: h'i'i**i9^ll'!s'iahti annin- 

nassam, gand (§ 8) nau. 
I shall start early in the morning: Ili^iJii'^ti'hi' 

malada nnassallau'\ pi. *^A^ •• ?i^V"f A*} k malada 

o o o ' r o 


o O 

start, v.t. (move) hfl'i'*i asnassa. 

(begin) £<n»^ jammara (-mara). 
Start the transport: ^\t'iihM*^ahii gwdzun as- 

nassau, pi. -a»-^K -ssut. 
Don't start it: h^M^^Ohn attasnassau, pi. -w-^k 
started, be, v.p. +£<w><i tajammara (-mara). 
startle, v.t. hft^Vlm asdanaggata. 

It startled me : Kft^^7m^ k asdanaggatan. 
What was it that startled you? ytl^'ilmVi9^'i: 
VnC:: yasdanagffatah min nabbar? 
startled, be, v.i. & p. ftilm danaggata. 
starving, adj. [?i]^'fl+? (i)rabtanna (-ayt-, -tan-), 
state, v.t. hli dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

^Id naggara (-gara). 
station, s. (post) d/}^ fanta. 

(railway-) aoth^ mahatta. 
(stopping-place) tm^'^p maq^omya. 
station, v.t. h^im aq'^^oma. 

Station a man at every fifty yards : hlfilff!: •• iioh '• 
([^ao^ '• Wft: '• ^*JP:: andand sau yayyamat^d (§ 8, 
§ 18) kind dqum (lit. at every 100 cubits), 
stay, s. (residence) tm^C man'^or (§ 8). 
stay, v.i. (remain) "fef qwojyyji. 

(reside) ++<w»fli taqdmmata. 

307 STA— STE 

Stay here: hJtiU:*feJiK kazzfh qwwi, pi. hH.lle'fc^:: 

kazzfh qwcuyyu. 
Don't stay (away) long: 'AH* s ^i^'feji « blzu attj- 

qwwi, pi. 'flH'.'h^'fepK attiqwwyyu. 
I am going to stay here: hH,Us?i*f»<wj/nA1r^K kazzfh 

iqQammatallau^ pi. hH.0 : hl'PaDflli'i n kazzfh in- 

o J.T o o • o ' i o o 

niq qammatdllan. 
I am not going to stay long : 'AH* •• hfii^aoTV^ « hfzu 

aliqqdmmatim, pi. HH' i h'Tr'PaD^9° a bfzu anniq- 

Stay! (where you are) (>'>« hun !, pi. li-V-K hiinu! 
stay behind, v.i. (not proceed) 4*/^ qai'ra. 
Stay behind: 4*C:*. qir, pi. 4*4- :•• qfru. 
Don't stay behind: h^^d-- attfqir, pi. M^^a at- 

What did you stay behind for? AJ'^'J-'+^Uk lamfn 

qdrrah?, pi. Al^^ s +^^l^ :•• lamfn (jarrdccyuh? 

(§ '7<'0- (expressing annoyance) 9°'is'iah''*P^ 

U-fl^;: mfn-nau qarriihibbin ?, pi. 9^'i-''iahs^^ 

o o Aq o o ' ^ 

^l^'fl^:•• mfn-nau qarrdccihubbin? 
He is to stay behind : ^4»C :•• yfqir, pi. /&4*<- :: yjqru. 
He is not to stay behind: hf^^Ca aiqir, pi. ^Ji4*4-a 
stay, cause to, v.t. h*^^ aqwojyyti. 
steady !, interj. i'Oh :: tau I, f. (e.g. to a mare) i*^ "• tai I 
steady, be, v.i. (of animate objects) [^]^P (i)ragga 
Is this mule steady? j&U:fl4»A''!<i*7:J:AK yfhe yaq- 
l^oragt5al?, f )e.^:n4»A"!^:*7;^A^» J feci yaql^o 
ragtallac?, pi. ?iVH,U.-n*A"'f :^*7i-'PA:: nniizzfh 
vaql"oc rdgtaual? 


STE— STI 308 

steal, v.i. & t. rt<J+ sarraqa (sar-). 

He will steal it: j&rtC*l"PAK yisarqaual, pi. J&rtC 

*fe;^A■.•• yisarqutal. 
Mind he doesn't steal it: hT-^^rtC'J'fl^:: ndaisar- 

qau. Mind they don't ...: -C*^:-. -rqut. 
He has stolen it: rtC*;^A•.•• sarq^'otal, pi. rtC4*flH 

;t-AK sarqautal. 
He did not steal it: h^fld^ah9^i: alsdrraqaum, 
pi. ^iArt^'fel'^":- alsarraqutim. 
steamer, s. flfbC babur (bdyur ; § 8). 

fn/hC-nn-C yayahir (§§ 47a, 70) yayiir. 
steel, s. 'fl^^ bfrat (-rat). 

(for use with flint) fbAjt bul(l)ad (§ 8). 
stem, s. hlfi agada. 
stench, s. *T^^ gfmat (§ 8). 
Stereospermum Kuntliianum (Broun, Cat. 426), s. H*? 

stew, v.t. *I»4'A qaqqala. 

Stew it: *l*^Afl>-K qaqqilau. 
steward, s. Y\H7V azzaz (§ 8). 

(of household) hpA^i aggafari. 
stewed, be, v.p. i'*l»*l»A taqaqqala. 

It (they §52a, 8) should be stewed: j&*I*4*Ak yiq- 

stick, s. n^C bdttir. 

G. & B.^also -n^C bittir. 

o o 

stick, v.i. (adhere) 'l'"\M tatabbaqa. 

It sticks (they stick § o2a, 8) : jR^flj^A-.-- yittabbaqal. 
It doesn't (they don't) stick: hf^mti^^^i^ aittab- 

I found it wouldn't stick: ^A^O^J^.-hA^K alit- 

o • 

tdbbaqimm (§ 0) alail (s.v. VflA). 

309 STI— STI 

stick, v.i. & t. (cause to adhere) h^H^ attabbaqa. 

The gum doesn't stick well: ao-'^ . f/hf; . hf^-a 
4»9":: nuicca dahna a^attabbiqim. 
stiletto, s. tmohX^ maiigya. 

(Dtid„ wc<jsf>e. 
still, adv. (yet) TT g^na. 

I still don't understand: TT.-^^A'^ihJ^K gana al- 
sammahum (§§ 37a, G3c?). 
still, be, Vi. [?»]<:;J (prfe^a (§ 63^, e). 

Keep still: hCpv. frga, pi. "hChi- frgu. 
still stand, v.i. +T s h A qatt ala (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

Stand still: 4»T:nAK qdtti (§ Id) yal, pi. +T:nA-« 
qdtti vdlu. 
sting, v.i. & t. *i^i. ndddafa. 

It has (they have" f 52a, 8) stung me: Vj^CfAs 

It (they) didn't sting me: hAV^<«.^l'"« alnddda- 

o o 

It (they) will sting you: ^Vjt^^VAw yinddfahal. 
Did it (they) sting you? i^<i.U:: ndddafah? 
sting (habitually), v.i. i'T^iC. tandddafa. 

Does it (do they § 52a, S) sting? je.'?A4-A"^ « yin- 

naddafallwf? (s.v. (d^). 
It doesn't (they don't) sting: ^IZ.'^A'PJ^k ainnad- 


o o 

stingy, adj. /**!*»• sissu. 
stink, s. 'I'n^ gimat (§ 8). 
stink, v.i. T^ gamma (§ C3^?, e). 
stinking, adj. *19^ gim. 
stir, v.i. & t. (a liquid) Ai'^rtA ammassala. 
Stir it : h^^tliioh « ammasilau. 

o o 

stirrup, s. [XjCJl-Tl frkdb (rik-, -dy ; § 8, § 52a, 8). 

STI— STO 310 

stirrup-leather, s. flJ'hA^ wwflaq (-laq ; § 52a, S). 

stitch, s. hiL^ sif^et (§ 8, § 52a, S). 

stockade, s. Idl^ garagara. 

stocking, s. ^g-J^ s Tf-^'fl rajjim siirrdb (-ay ; § 8, § 52a, 8). 

stolen, be, v.p. 'hrt^'l* tasarraqa (tasar-). 

It has been stolen: i'rtC^Asi tasarqoal, pi. -'f»'PA'.s 

Take care it doesn't get stolen : Ki^f^ild/Pi- ndais- 
sarraq, ... care they don't...: -^*fes -rraqu. 
stomach, s. IfJt h^ od. 

(pit of) n^Jt bajad. 
(of ruminant) CR.^^ caggwarra (cwg-). 
stone, s. (large) fpl.^ dangya, ^ pi. ^^•>'f dan- 

S. ^'ipf, dangdi (§ 8), j g^oc (-cc § 6). 
(small) mmC tatar (-tar). 
See § 52a, S. 
stony, adj. '^'i'^^ cincamma. 

Stony ground : *^1^^ •• cfnca. 
stool, s. 0)9° (\C wcJmbar (-bar). 
ao^ao^H. maqqamaca. 
•7Cm-Jt gfrfmbud (gtiriim-). 
stoop, v.i. i'T-iflrt taowwnabbasa. 

r^' o^ o o o 

Stoop (down): +7"^nft h tagwwmbas (§ Id), pi. -flA-R 


stop, s. (in writing) VT'fl natib (iy; § 52a, 8). 

Please put stops in your letters, to make the 
sense clear : pol. JiOh?* : VT-fl •• fl^-fl^n. •• ^^CT-fl^s 
'^AIj : X'}-^.;''fli4* K ivakka^ nativ vadavdabb^e 

O • o ^ "O. • o o • 

yddrigubbat, mdlatu ndittauwwcj. 
stop, v.i. (halt) ^ao q^'oma. 

4»T:hA qatt ala (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
(remain) *fef qwwyyii. 

311 STO— STO 

Stop : *feJ^ » qum, pi. *fc<n»- s qumu. 

(desist) ^;^JtC*7K attadrig (attdrg § Id), pi. 
-T-K -gu. 
•fohii tdii. f. i'B » tai, pi. '\raK-' tauu. 
stop, v.t. (cause to) h^ao aq'' oma. 
(prevent) hAhA kalakkala. 

Use neof. of 'hflo tdua, to allow, or of 
causative in ht\- as- (§ 22a). 
Stop him (it, — from going): h^ffoahu dqumau, 

pi. -ao'^ti -mut. 
Stop them : h*fe*^^i»« « aqumdccau, pi. h^^^Oh a 

Don't stop him: h^^aoohw attdqumaii, pi. -no-^:: 

Stop him (it, — from doing a thing): Mi'tDOhii 
attitduau, or hAVlAa^:•. kalkilau, pi. M'+flOL^K 

ooo' oOo'A 

attitauut, or hAVlA-I^K kdlkilut. 

O O o o 

stop them: h^'t'^f^Ohv. attitaudccau, or hAlflA 
^fl^ " kalkilaccau, pi. Mi'dKYv^Oh k attitauiidc- 

o o o i o o 

cau, or hAhOL^fl>"« kalkilwdccau. 
Don't stop him: /i^hAhAfl>- -.: attikalkilau, pi. 

-A-^K -lut. 
The wind stops me from hearing: '}4-A--h^A'^^?"K 

nifds a>assdmmaiinim (aas-). 
stop a little, v.i. *fef ^ •• hti qwwyyatt dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
Stop a little: 'fef^-.-flA:: qwwyyat (§§ G, 8) yal, pi. 

*fef^«nA'!: qwcuyyat yalu. 
store, s. h^ •• ft.^ iqa-b^et (-y^ -). 

Every day after breakfast tell me what you want 

from the store : I/A*"} : i-a-Tr -• *CA ■• AAA ■• i-^-d^: 

^9°^d,Mah'}i'ind^:: hullaqan taviinn qurs vau- 

hala ta-qdyJet (§§ 7a, 47a) yammittfalligaun niga- 


STO— STE 312 

stork, s. {Ciconia Ahdimii, Blandford, Geol. & Zool. 
p. 436) 7i<w>A simala. 
{C. ephippiorrhyticha, Guidi, Vocab. p. 131) 
[hJ^H (i)raza. 
story, s. (tale) ^d\\ tdrik (-rik). 

(of house) ^C'O darb (-ry; § 52a, S). 
A two-storied house: i>A^ •• ^C-fl « ^ Aom ft>^ s hii- 
latt dary yallau (§ 8) yyet. 
stout, adj. ai<h^?" wwfram (§ 8), pi. also ai4-*P^9" wwftlfff- 
rdm (§ 8). 
Very stout : li^i- gafdfa. 
stout, be (become), v.i. atd^C wwffara (-fara; % 636?, e). 

He is (too) stout: id^P^^k wwffirSal. 
stout, be (become) very, v.i. •)<<.¥ .-^ A g'^dfaif ala. 

G. -h^^ ! ^A giififf (-fuff ) 


S.v. VnA, §44a; §63<7,6. 
He is very stout: •><<.'?.• -OOl A k g'^ofaffi (§7^) yf- 
straight, adj. (not crooked) ^1 qin. 

^V qanna. 
^hhA tikikkil. 

o o o 

Put (make) it straight: 'f'Tsje.nAB qatt yfyal. 
Is it a straight road? <w>'}ij^ : 4» V •• Van « mangad 

qanna (§ 8) nau ? 
straight, be, v.i. «f»T:^iA qatt ala (s.v. VnA, ^ 44a). 
'^^ qdnna. 
Is it straight ? +T : j&AA-je. -.: qatt yilallwf? (s.v. ID^). 
It is not straight : ^T.-h/Z.^i^:: qatt dilim. 
Hold yourself straight: ^Ts-nAU:*'/':: qatti {^Id) 

yilah (§ 8) qum, pi. «frT!'flA?-i>:*tfo.:: qdtti (§ 7c?) 

yildccyuh (§ Id) qiimu. 

313 STR— STR 

straighten, v.t. M'l aqanna. 

Straighten it: ^4*V(D-k dqnau, pi. K4*^^k dqnut. 
straightforward, adj. (of persons) *9" qum. 

^'i qin. 
strange, be, v.i. Idao garrama (type A § 34). 
stranger, s. ?»7*7^ (pngjda (§ 8). 
strangury, s. 'H'i^ '• '^T sint mat. 
strap, s. m'PC tafir. 

(for loading animal) ao^^^ macaiia. 
The strap (-S §52a, 8) will breaki^fli'PC.-j&nm/iAK 
tdfir yibbattasal. 

• O O "^ o • • o 

straw, s. 7Afl g^laba (-aya; § 8). 

Chopped straw ( Aj): ^<<1*^ <i^^4?^ (-faca). 

G. ^^l*^ dafdnca (-fanca). 
(fine) ?i'n* ibbiq. 
(ofPoa abessinica) ^P'/t did. 
strength, s. r^^A hail. 

'nC;^'■^ bfrtdt (§ 8). 
7^An^ gwiilbat (-ly-, -at). 
Strepsiceros kiidn (Blandford, Geol. & Zool. pp. 270- 

272), s. tipWi agdzan (-ziin). 
stretch, v.i. (oneself, v.r.) 'I'^tiao tagwassama (siima). 
(be stretched) "i'tt/ip tazardgga (taziir-). 
Don't stretch: h^^fi9"i'. attiggwdsam, pi. -A<n»-:: 


It stretches from here to here : hlUO •• ?iAhH,U •• ^dfl •• 
j&H^j3Ak kazzih iskiizzih dfras yizzaraggal. 

»^ ^ oo o oo*'oo o~~ 

stretch, v.t. (out) nd,p zaragga (ziir-). 

(taut) ataid woj'ttara (-tiira). 
Stretch it: HCpo^K zargau, pi. -7-^k -gut. 
at'Tdohi'. wwttirau, pi. -4-^k -rut. 

STR— STR 314 

stretched, be, v.p. i'lldp tazaragga (tazar-). 

The rope is to be stretched its whole length: 
•l<w»^ : hfti:^ A4» ! JSi-^cri ■• je.HC;i :: gamadu stiyalq 
dfras yizzarga. 
strew, v.t. (a substance, or with a substance) VrtVrt na- 

sannasa (s.v. sprinkle), 
strewn, be, v.p. (of or with a substance) 'MrtVrt tana- 

sannasa (s.v. sprinkled, be), 
strike, v.i. & t. <w);^ matta. 

Strike him (it): J'";^fl^K mftau, pi. JP*^:: mitut. 
Don't strike him (it): MT^^Ohw attfmtau, pi. 

i3^ K -tut. 

Who struck you? <^'} .• «n);^U k man mdttah? 
striking-pin, s. (of gun) ao-frWi matakkwwsa (-tcuk-). 
string, s. lao^ gamad. 

This string is not long enough: fp\)-laoft:'-'i\C'Yl0o 
'P''hfb(\^9^i'' yfhe gamad (§555) irzfmatu aiydqam. 
stroke, s. 9^^^ mftdt (§ 8). 

(with whip) 'ICi'^ girfat (§ 8). 
See § 52a, 8. 
stroke, v.t. -^rtrt dassasa. 
strong, adj. axTrh^ tankarra. 

ri^A? hailanna (-Ian-). 
-flC* bfrtii. 


(muscular) 7^^fl;M'" gwulbatdm (-Iv-, -at-; 

§ 8). 
T^Afll-? gwiilbatdnfia (-ly-, -at- 

^AT'^S^ qiltfmdm (§ 8). 
strong(-er), be, v.i. (\d^ bardtta (bar-; § 5Sb). 

This is the stronger : f,Vi ^n^;^A« yjhe yiyarattal. 

315 STR— SUB 

strop, s. ei^A^P'sAlf't yamilacci (§ 70) Idh^ot^e (§ 8). 
aotioD^ malammaca. 

o o o • 

strop, v.t. tiaom lammata. 

Strop it: A9"nia>-:: lammitau. 
stropped, be, v.p. i'tiaom taldmmata. 

It should be stropped: j&A</nT» yillamat, pi. -m-K 

-tu. _ 

It is not to be stropped: /i^AodTk ailldmat, pi. 
-m-K -tu. 
struggle, s. ^Ifii tfgil. 
struggle, v.i. ^Iti taggala. 
Struthio camelus, s. Mli sdg^'on (§ 8). 
stubborn, adj. ^h^h cakcdkka. 

stubborn, be, v.i. -fyi-'^iA cikk dla (s.v. n/OA, §44a; 
§ 63</, e). 
He (it) is stubborn: ^Yl-'ii'S^^'.- cfkki (§ Id) vfl6al, 
pi. '^h.-'flA'PA:: cikk! vilaual. 

1 o o • o o 

stump, s. *7^Jt gind. 

stung, be, v.p. +V^<(. tandddafa. 

Have you been stung? 'Mj^^^VAk tanddfahal?, 

pi. i-Vj^-f-^AA:: tanadMccyuhal? {lid). 
You will get stung : 1'V^4'AU « tinnaddafjlllah, pi. 

^>^4-A^l^:! tinnaddafalldccyuh (§ 7^/). 
Mind you don't get stung: Ji'J-^^V^^k ndattin- 
naddaf, pi. -^^ » -ddafu, (s.v. ?i7jt-). 
stunted, adj. A^9" Ifqqam (§ 8). 
stupid, adj. T*^ m^oiin. 

^^'feC? danqwwr^ o. 
stupidity, s. *r*^V^ m^onfifnnat (-nat). 

^'J'feCV^ danqwwrfnnat (-nat). 
stuttering, adj. -^^ diida. 
subdue, v.t. 7^ gdrra. 

SUB— sue 316 

subdued, be, v.p. "tl^ tagarra, 
subject, be, v.i. Idd. g^bbara (-bara), to, A- la- (§ 47a). 
'h7H tagazza, 
To whom are they subject? A*^** : j&l'fl^A' « lamdn 


Aren't they subject to Ras Tasamma ? A^A •• i'rt*^ '• 
h&l\t9° :: laras tasamma aiffgazzum ? 
substitute, v.i i'h tdkka, constr. with A- la- (§ 47a), for, 
or ace. (cp. § 56c) of ^;^ b^'dta, place. 
He substituted a donkey for the mule: hV^iti 
d^/fah'.'t'hii ahiyya (§ 56a) layaql^^ou takka, or 
fd^ii^Oh'i : 0^ : hvy '• +h "• yayaql^oun (§§ 56&, 706) 
b^ota ahiyya (§ 56a) t^kka. 
Or use A(Dni lauwata, to change, to, A- la-. 

Substitute coffee for tea: ff ft ■• Afl'T- •• Afli-flia>- k sai 

laviinn lauwutau (lit. change the tea to coffee). 

substituted, be, v.p. 't"t'h tatdkka, constr. as i'h above. 

A donkey has been substituted for the mule : f 

n4'A"fl>-^!fl;>-.'hU^s+'Mn;tA:: yayaql^oun b'^dta 

ahiyya tatdkkitoal. 

•^ •^ o o o 

substitution, s. 9^^Yl mitikk (§ 8). 

' O O ^'^ ' 

succeed, v.i. (prosper) fl)^ bajja (baj-). 

The plan has succeeded: Z^'^* : fl£:t A « sirdtu 

It would not succeed: hj&fljf?" * iflC •••. aiyajjim 
nabbar (S 81c, X). 
suck, v.i. & t. mfl tabba. 
Suck it : TOflJ- •» tivaii. 
Suck the poison out of it : tmClt •- h'i^mm -- TflflH k 

marz indiwwta (§ 48a) tiyau. 
Don't suck it : h-ThTfliD- « attf tyau. 
sucked, be, v.p. i'mfl tatdbba. 

' ' X o • o 

317 SUD— SUM 

Sudan, s.— usually called f^Cn-Ti-'MC: yadaryus Sgar. 
suddenly, adv. ^'il^ d|ngat. 

njt'}7l' badmgat. 
sufficient, be, v.i. fl^ baqqa (baq-). 

That is sufficient: j&0:jZ,n^A:! yilie yiyaqal. 

It is not sufficient : h^(\^9^ •'• aiydqam. 
sugar, s. A«hC sukkar (§ 8). 
sugar-cane, s. TfT-h-C sankwwr (swn-). 
suit, v.i. & t. 'toD^ tamaccii (-mac-) A- la- (§ 47a). 

He (it) suits: f^ao^'fii-- yimmdccal, pi. j&«w»^^A*k 
yimmaccallu. ^ 

He ° (it) "doesn't suit:'^^^A mmmaccim, pi. 

-^JP*:: -CCUm. 

He (it) suits me: ^oo^^fiK'.: yimmacciiiuial, pi. 
-^?Ak -ccufifial. 

He (it) doesn't suit me : hf!^inrf^9^ "• aimmaccilii- 
nim, pi. -^^9^i'' -ccuniiim. 

Does he (it) suit you? ^^o-T'/A:: yimmacciihal?, 
pi. -'f'/A::-ccuhal?, ... you (pol.)? J&</D^■JP;^AK 
yimmacca?otal?, pi. -^?';''A:: -ccu^^otal ? 

He (it) doesn't suit you: hf^ao'lvr*'.-- aimmacci- 
him, pi. -•fU?":: -ccuhim, ... you (pol.): tx^aoH' 
PT'v. aimmacca?om, pi. -^P?"" -ccu"om. 

o o o ■•■ 

It wouldn't suit the Ras: A^ A •• hj&rTD-T-r : vnc « 

lards aimmaccim nabbar (§ 81c, X). 
suitable, adj. T^ mfccu. 
sulphur, s. -^.^ din (din), 
sum, s. (calculation) t^TC qwitir (-wtit-). 

(total) K-J^Ajimla. 
summit, s. '***'P caf. 

(of ascent) h^^ afdf. 

SUM— SUR 318 

summon, v.t. 'h'H^ tatarra. 

Please summon him: pol. ?ift'fc/i^4-^K istiyittarut. 
Please summon them: pol. titl't^fl^^aht'. istiyit- 


summoned, be, v.p. +ni^ tatarra. 

Has he been summoned? •fmC^fiH' tatartoal?, 
pi. -I-TAk -taual? 

sun, s. aithf, tahai (0- sa- ; thai, tdi; sometimes f. § 546). 
Take him (it) out of the sun: i'Oithf^'-h'i^^iahii ta- 
tahai ansau. 

• o o _^ 

When the sun rises: mrhfcsrt.fli^s tahai siwwta 

» - o o o • 

(ft^fl)^.' sittwwta). 
Sunday, s. & adv. h/h-^ ihiid. 
support, v.t. fj^ daggafa. 

If^d, gdddafa (type B § 35). 
Support him (it) : ^•7<i.fl>-« daggifau, pi. -^^k -fut. 
l^d^oht'. gaddifau, pi. -^^m -fut. 
supported, be, v.p. i'^ld, tadaggafa. 
'tlf.d, tagaddafa. 
suppose, v.i. & t hrtn assaba (-aya). 

aofitioh massalau (impers. § 43a ; type 
A § 34). 
What do you suppose? 9"'i:^aDtiM^i'- min yimds- 
lahal ?, pol. y"i •- ^<wJftA?';^ A k min yimasla^tal ? 
I suppose so: /ilf'i'AJs yih^onal. 
sure, be, v.i. (of something) i*^^ tarddda (§ 636?, e). 
I am sure : i'd^^ti'h •••. taradiccallau^ (§ 7c?). 
Are you sure? i'^j^i''/A« tarddtahal?, pol. i'dJS: 
i-'PA:: taradtaual? 

o o o 

There is sure to be one (some § 52a, S): ^^m4-?"s 

O- O 

surety, s. *Ptl was. 

319 SUR— SUR 

surety, be, v.i. (for, v.t.) i^'Prt tawdsa (taud-). 

Who will stand surety for you ? '^^••j&<PrtyA» man 
surety, find, v.i. <Pft '• a\&- was tarra. 

*?t\ihaotn was amatta. 

o • • 

You must find a surety: *?/!•* T^« was tira, or 
'?h'hrm^ was anta (§ 1d). 
surety, produce as, v.t. ^I'Prt awdsa (aud-). 

Whom have you produced as surety? *^i'}-'^'PAUK 
mdnnan audsh? (-s-h, not -s, § 3). 
surpass, v.t. +?f A tasdla (tiis-) h- ka- (+- ta- ; § 47a). 
flAm ballata h- ka- (+- ta- ; \ 47a). 

OO'O o\ o'" ■' 

surprise, interj. expressing : 

(pained) h^ ai ! (di). 
(incredulous) h^*^ drag ! (aradg ; § Id). 
(admiring) Anvfl ftiib ! (-y, § 8, hatudy). 
(horrified) flft/m.-^'fl basma ab! (ay). 
surprised, be, v.i. 't'ldao tagarrama. 

l^ao(D* garramau (impers. § 43a; 
I am surprised: ICao^w garraman, pi. -<w»'}» -man. 
surrender, v.i. i^'^^ih tamarraka. 

' o o o 

■tlH ta^razza. 
survey, v.t. h^ ayyii (§ 445). 

€io^aoC marammara (marammiira). 
surveyed, be, v.p. ;^f tayya. 

'Vaol^aol, tamardmmara (marammara). 

ooo oo^ o o' 

survive, v.i. +^<i. tan*afa (tar-). 

' o o o ■ ' 

v.t. pf^A cdla. 


A man that survived from the fight : i'tD'Xif'l^dd.' 

flOhi tauiiggi (§ 47a) yatarrafa (§ 8) sau. 

SUS— SWA 320 

This child would not survive small-pox: |iOsAJf s 
Tfh'P^.-hjE.^A?":! yihe (§8) lij kufffnii aicilim. 
suspect, v.i. & t. mdm^ tarattara (tarattara), of, fl- ba- 
(ya-;§47rt). ^ ^ 

I suspect him: hrtKCT^'PA'V- « itarattirauallau^ 
(S 7d), pi. }\'ia\d'Vi!L^^'i k innitarattirauallan. 

\0 /' JT O O • O O • 'O O 

I don't suspect him : h^a\d'?dah'9^» altarattiraum, 

pi. h'imd*?dah9°''i annitardttiraum. 
Whom do you suspect ? '^i'J •• ^fli^T^AU » mdn- 

nan titarattirallah?, ... you (pol.) ...? '^V'Jsje.m^: 

T^A*" mdnnan yitarattirallu ? 
What do you suspect him of? n9"^:^fli<:T<:<PA0K 

bamfn titarattirauallah ? 

O O O • o • 'O o 

suspected, be, v.p. 't'cndaxd tatarattara (-tardttara). 
suspend, v.t. (hang up) A*f»A saqqala. 

hTrmiimli antalattala. 

. o o • • o o 

(interrupt) h7"A aggwwla. 
suspended, be, v.p. (hung up) i'A+A tasaqqala (tas-). 

'f''}mAniA tantalattala. 

o • o o • • o o 

(interrupted) ;^7"A taggwwla. 
How is it (are they § 52a, 8) suspended? (19°'}: 

+A4*^A K bamfn tasdqloal ? 
The work has been suspended: A^:;^^^C^AK sira 
suspender, s. tw^'^ maydza (maid-), 
suspicion, s. TCl^S tirittdri. 
suspicious, adj. (suspecting) mCl^ tartdri (tar-). 
swallow, v.i. & t. ^Pm wdta. 

Swallow it: *PmiD-K wdtau. 

• o 

Don't swallow it : h^'Paiahn attwdtau. 

• o 

When you swallow it (them) do so slowly : (l^ah*? •• 
?i^'fefU!<PTK sittwiit iyyaqwwyyiih wat (§ (Mb). 

321 SWA— 8WE 

swamp, s. ^*7<i*7 ragrag. 

iXl><i*fXI>4> caqacaq, 
swarm, v.i. ■i'rtflrtfl tasabassaba (tas-, -avassava). 

(into, over, v.t.) wdd wwrrara. 
swear, v.i. (at, v.t.) rt^fl sdddaba (-aya). 

Don't swear : Ai^ft^'fl k attfsday, pi. -fl' « -yu. 
Don't swear at him (it) : ^^ft^fliD- « attlsdavau, 

\ / ' oo*o' 

pi. -fh-^K -yut. 
swear, v.i. (make oath) *^A mdla (§ 80). 

Swear that this is the truth: <^AA^:|&U:?ia>-i^e 
V<»-K mdlillin (§ 47a) ylhe unat (§ 8) nau. 
swearing, s. (abuse) ftj^"fl sklib (-iy). 
sweat, s. (DTI waz (wwz). 

A-fl lab (lay). 
sweat, v.i. atH wdzza (wcwz-). 
sweep, v.i. & t. m^7 tdrraga. 

Sweep it: 'P^7i»-» tfragau, pi. -t^a -gut. 
sweepings, s. 'hJ^'P giidif. 
T^T. tirrdgi. 

•7'flft'flft eribisbis (givfsvis). 
•fe^ff qwwsdsa. 
sweet, adj. "l^-*?' tafdc (§8). 
sweet, s. tA»A*P aldwa (alaua). 
sweet, be, v.i. "l^i.m tafFata. 

• o • o 

swell (be or become swollen), v.i. ^flrtl dbbata (§ 6Sd, e). 
It is swollen: Ai'flrii.AK dytoal, pi. -m<PAK -taual. 
If it swells: fl.^'flTs byayt, pi. -m--* -tu. 
swelling, s. KflT ibat (fy-, -at). 

Jt-flflii- Ibtat (fyt-, -at). 
"k^i^ ibbai (§^8). 

AM. GR. (ll) 21 

SWE— SYP 322 

swept, be, v.p. i'Oidl tatdrrao^a. 

Has it been swept? i'tnC^^a tatargoal? 

It has not been swept: h^'ta\dl9°''' altatdrragam. 

It is to be swept : f^mdl » yittarag, 
swim, v.i. 'PY wdiina. 

I am aroinff for a swim : A^P^ ■• V^ k liwdnni nan. 

o o o o 

I cannot swim: <?*?■• K'\fl^4»5^K wdna alauqim. 
Can you swim ? 'PT : ;^fl^:^AU k wdna tauqdllah ? 
Can he (it) swim? ^V^Ak yuanfial?, pi. ^'P^A-s 
yuannallu? (§ 63c). 
swimming, s. ^PV wana. 
swine, s. M'l asama (§ 52a, 8). 
switch, s. <w>'}3? mdnja. 
sword, s. (straight) rtj&^ saif. 

(curved) 1°^^ gwcoradJ^e. 
sycamore, s. (Ficus sycomorus, Broun, Cat. 533) fl9"fl 
{Ficus s}).) (DCh wdrka (wwr-, 'PC- war-). 
( „ )V'i s^^ 61a. 
syce (^^L), s. A^^'TL Iwggwdmi. 
symptom, s. *Hl^a}^^ mastauwqya. 
syphilis, s. <fcT^ qjttjn (-nn § 6 ; § 8). 
syphilitic, adj. «feT?9" qittinndm (§ 8). 

323 TAB— TAK 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

table, s. S. ^fl;^ gabata (g|ya- ; § 8). 
G. rt^^ sddaqa (daq- ; § 8). 
fl^^ sad^eqa. 
Put it on the table: '^^n;'•a^:'\^!^JtC^fl^:•. taga- 
yatdu (§ 8) lai (§ 4.7b) drgaii (§ 7d). 
(Of a meal:) Let it be on the table at eight o'clock: 
nftjr»^^:rt^^s fc^'^'flK basfmmint sadt yiqrav. 
table-cloth, s. f^n;^! A-nft yiigayatd {§§ 8, 70) libs (liys). 
table-servant, s. M^A> asalldfi. 
taenia, s. aift4-^ wcJsfdt (§ 8). 
tail, s. E-^-l-jfrdt (§8). 
tailor, s. rt«i. skfi, pi. rtC^ s^f^oc & (not G.) rt^tJ"^ sd- 

fi^oc (-CC § 6 ; § 9b). 
take, v.t. yn ydza (§ 446'). 

(away) flirty wdssada (wcJs-). 
Take him (it): ^Hohk ydzau, pi. ^H-^k ydzut. 
Don't take him (it): M^liahn attydzaii, pi. -H-^k 

Did you take him (it)? ^llVahii ydzhau?, pi. ^H 

^U-^K yazdccihut? 
I have taken him (it): IZ.Tf'PA'T^ :•• yizz^ eudllau^ 

(§ 7d), pi. ^HV<PAk yfzanaual. 
I have not taken him (it) : h^^1lih^9" •-' alydzhu- 

tim, pi. h^^ll'iah9" » alydznaum. 
I will take him (it): K.H*PA'V«'K izaudllau^ pi. hi. 

H*PA'}k innizauallan. 

o o o 


TAK— TAK 324 

I will not take him (it): hfiiKMah9°a alizaum, pi. 
h^nah9° li annizaum. 

o o 

Let us take some water in this: dtUJiOhiiMfTl 
fl^K bazzih wiiha nnydzibbat. 

o »' o o 

I shall take it to England: 'h'}*7A.'H: MCshioft 

^'PAu- K tangliz agar iwwsdaudllau^ (§ 7c?). 
Who has taken it ? "^l-atllP'^^ti man wcJsd^otal? 
take awav, v.t. airt^ wdssada (wws-). 
M^ andssa. 
Take him (it) away: (D-rt^<»-K lisadau, pi. --^^a 

-dut, or ^'}"/fl^ s ansaii, pi. -i***^ s -sut. 
Come and take it (him, her, them, § 61&) away: 

<7:fl^rtJ?:K na wiisad (ndusad), pi. V-siD-rt-^B nu 



Don't take him (it) away: Mahfif^oht'. attusadau, 
pi. "^^K -dut, or h^'i^ahv. attdnsau, pi. -i*»«^b 

Don't take the matches away from here: h-fl^S^s 
'MUU:^;^'}*^!! kivrit tazzih attansa. 

o * o 

take hold, v.i. (of, v.t.) ^H ydza (§ 44c), s.v. take, 
take in (inside, indoors), v.t. h1(\ ag^bba. 

Take him (it) in: h*l(\ah'.'. dgyau, pi. -(h^s -yut. 
Don't take him (it) in: Ai;^*7flfl^:•. attfigyau, pi. 
-fl-^K -yut. 
take off, v.t. (from the body) hatti^ awallaqa (aud-, -cJl-). 
Take your boots off: ^^1V'iihah^*^ahit camma- 

hin duliqau (§ 52a, S). 
Take the bridle off: Mr^'-hah^^r. lugftm (§ 7t?) 
take over, v.t. i'd'hti tardkkaba (tarak-, -ava). 
taken (away), be, v.p. i'Oirt^ tawdssada (taua-, -a>s-). 

+V"/ tandssa. 

325 TAK— TAL 

Let it be taken away: ^V*^k yinndsa, pi. -ip«k -su. 
It is not to be taken away: K/iV*^:-. ainnasa, pi. 

-W*:*. -SU. 

taken away, have (allow to be), v.t. hlKoii^ aswdssada 
(-WWS-; §68). 
I will have him (it) taken away: ^ftfliftft<P A'V^ a 
aswa;ssidauallau^ pi. ?i*rAa)ft^<PA^:: innaswojssi- 


Have him (it) taken away: ^fta)ft^a^« aswwssi- 
dau, pol. ylKDtlff-^'.' yaswwssidut, pi. htKotl^^a 



taken in (inside, indoors), be, v.p. Id gabba. ^ ^ 
Has it been taken indoors? l'fl:l:A« gavtoal?, pi. 
f'fl'M'A:: jrdvtaual? 

O o • o 

It must be taken in : p.*7n k yigya, pi. -fl" « -yu. 
tale, s. ^dln tartk (rik). 
tale-bearer, s. hVYl'S.h. ass'' okswdki. 
tales, carry, v.i. >i7S*h?S'h ass" okdss'^^oka. 

Don't carry tales: A»;i'?^hff'lFl k attass"" okdsiik, pi. 
-Tf-Vh" -siiku. 
talisman, s. mArt?" talsam. 

' • o o 

talk, s. 00*1 plC mannagdgar (-gar). 
ffil.*P;^ cauata. 

• o 

ID*7 Wcug.l 

We will have a talk to-morrow : V7 '• h'i^tD^li'i » 
ndo^a nniccauwwtallan. 

o~ o o • • 

talk, v.i. 'h'n^ tanaggara (-gara). 

(together) 't'lpl^ tanagaggara (-gara). 
't^at't tacauwata (-wwta). 
Don't talk: h^'^lCa attinndgar, pi. (together) 
^^V/n<- K attinnagdgaru. 

TAL— TAR 326 

It's no use talking: ao^lC '- hS!>d(\9° i- mannagar 
Srdvam. ^ ^ ^^^^^ 

o o 

talk too much, v.i. hd^hd^ lafallafa. 

'' o o o o 

He talks too much: ^A<{.^4-Ak yilafdllifal, pi. 

J& A<i. A'f-A' K yilafallifallu. 
Don't talk too much: h^A^A^s attildflif, pi. 
-Af""' -lifu. 
talkative, adj. 9"Art^ milasanfia (-safi-). 
A*hA<i. laflafi!* 
h^M^ laflafFa. 


talking, s. ao^lC mannagar (-gar). 
tall, adj. ^jfi^ rajjim (raj-, d.dr9^ razzim, raz-), intensive 
pis. d.'^'&r raj^jjim (raj-), C^^H^^ rajajjim^oc 
(raj-, -cc § 6). 
Talpa sp., s. ¥A<i.A filfal, usually f. (§ 54c). 
tamarind (Tamarinclus indica, Broun, Cat. I7l), s. 
{TaoC h'^ omar (Id- k^o-, -mar, § Id). 
S. C^ r^oqa. 
tame, adj. 7C gar (gar). 

I^J^^'garrdm (§ 8). 
is^fi lammada (-madda). 
ATi'fl Ifzzib (-iv). 
tame, v.t. "1^ garra. 

tame, be (become), v.i. garrama (type B § 35 ; 
§ 63^7, e). ^ 

Is it (are they § 52«,S) tame? 7C^Ak garrimSal? 
tamed, be, v.p. i"l^ tagdrra. 

Can it (they §52a,S) be tamed? ^I^Ak yiggdr- 
ral? (§63c). 
tape-worm, s. aihi*^ woisfat (§ 8). 
target, s. 'JA*^ aldma. 

327 TAS— TEA 

taste, s. ero^aotl maqqamas. 
(pleasant) "11^ tarn. 
I like the taste of it: TT»?As tim^onnal.^ 
I don't like the taste of it: hf,*?aD^9^ii aitfman- 

Do you like the taste of it? pol. ^T<w)?';^A"J& u 
yitima^'otallwi? (s.v. fl)^). 
taste, v.i. (be tasted, v.p.) i-^oDfi taqammasa. 

What does it taste like ? h'i^r'i :V+<^^ A k ndamfn 
yiqqammasal ? 
taste, v.i. & t. +<w>A qdmmasa. 

Thank you, 1 have tasted it (them § Gl6) before: 

pol. Mn^h-ndbC '• J&AT A^ ' hJtU : A.^ : 4»J^Ti>f Alh :: 

igziayh^er yfstilliii, kazzlh fit qainissydllau^' (§ 7d). 
taste pleasant, v.i. ^ao tdma (§ 63^/, e). 
tasted, be, v.p. i'+iwirt taqdminasa. 

It cannot be tasted: h^'l*aDii9^ii aiqqdmmasim 
{§ 63c). 
taught, be, v.p. "f^d tamdra. 

Where were you taught? ©^^ « -hi^^l'/A k wwd^et 
tamirahal?, pol. ...:i'i'"^'PAK ... tamiraiial?, pi. 
...■•i'J^^^^s^A:: ...tamirdccvuhal? (^7d). 

o o * \o ' 

Where was he taught? id^-I- : l-J^^ A « wwd^et td- 
miroal?, pol. & pi. -<^*PA". -raual ? 
tavern, s. odTi^' masata (sata). 
tax, s. n-ilC gib(i)r°(gfy-). 
tax (taxes), pay (a), v.i. Ifl^ gabbara (-biira). 

Does he pay a tax (taxes)? J&I'A^Ak yigdbbiral?, 
pi. ^l-fl^A-K yigabbirallu ? 
tea, s. lifM sai. 

S. ^^ cdi. 
After tea: i-'Uf^'H^'i' tasdi vaiihdla (§§ 7d, 476). 

r- o O • O ^"" ' 

TEA— TEA 328 

This tea is too strong — weak: JiO ■• ?f/i : (D*P^{^ s 
*iahii — 4»«p»^:ia>-K yihe sai wcofram (§8) nau — 
qaccin (§8) nau. 
teach, v.i. & t. htii''!^ astamdra. 

Teach him : hl\i'9^^a}' « astdmirau. 

o o o 

Who taught you? *^'} •• ^ft-h'^^lU •.; mann (§ 6) as- 

tamdrah ? 
What does he teach? l^'J:^fti'9"^A« min yas- 
tamiral?, pol. & pi. J^*} : ^ftl-J^^A- k min yastami- 
teacher, s. hii-f^ld astamdri. 
teaching, s. ■^J^[0]C^ tfm(h)frt (§ 8). 
tear, s. (in the eye) X'Jfl (f )nba (-nya, (f )mba ; § 52a, 8). 

(rent) ^^^ qadada. 
tear, v.i. (be torn, v. p.) i"*l*^A taqaddada. 

'hflmrt tabattasa (tava-, -at-). 
It will tear: JR+^^^h yiqqaddadal, pi. f!,^f,Htta 
^dmfi^ii yibbattasal, pi. j&flmflA-K 
Mind it doesn't tear: K'J^j&'I'^j?: k ndaiqqaddad, 

pi. -^-^K -ddadu. 
h'ifi^daitl :: ndaibbdttas, 
pi. -mrt«K -ttasu. 
It is torn: i"P^^K taqaddoal, pi. -^<PA:: -ddaual. 
i'flTO.AK tavattisoal, pi. -A'PAk -saual. 
It is strong, it won't tear: fll'}h^.■Va^l^»Ji4»^J^J^K 
tankarrd (^ 8) nau, aiqqdddadim. 
tear, v.t. 'I*^^ qaddada. 

flflirt battasa (bat-). 
Tear it: 4»^^i»-:: qfdadau, pi. ^^^^a qfdadut. 
flTrtfli-K battisau, pi. -A«^k -sut. 

329 TEA— TEL 

Don't tear it: M^fL^aha attfqdadau, pi. -^^» 
h^(\*?Ciahii attivattisau, pi. -A-^« 
You will tear it: ^+^'PAOk tiqaddauallah, pi. 
^^-^j^A^ii- :j tiqaddutalldccyuh (§ 7d). 
tease, v.t. (annoy) hft*fe^ asqwwtta. 

Don't tease him (it): ti^il^^ahv. attasqwwttau, 
pi. -rth^K -ttut. 
teat, s. /ih-V tut (§ 52a, y). 
telegram, s. t'fcA,*7^i^ talagrdm. 
telegraph, s. t'tA.*?^^ talagrdf. 
tftAlFl silk. 


By telegraph : d-bfuli'^-- bataliigrdf (§ 47a). 
Telegraph-wire: f'L•A,*7^'h^7i^■• yatJilagrdf (§§ 47a, 

70) siy^'o. 
They erected a telegraph: P'tA.*7^^!7lfls'hhA'K 

yatalagrdf sfV'o takkalu. 
He (pol.) had a telegraph erected: f'tA.*7^*h«7ifls 
hhi'ht^ii yiitalagrdf sfv"'o astakkalu. 
telephone, s. t'frA.O tiilaf^'On. 
tell, v.i. & t. ^A ala (s.v. VOA, §§ 44a, 80). 
'lid naggara (-giira). 
(inform) hft;^fl)«^ astauwaqa (-wwqa). 
(disclose) lliai gallata (gal-). 
Use the jussive (§ 27). 
I (will) tell you: ^lM^O"^ ilahc411auh (§ 7d), pi. M 

AVA^:: mniliballan (App.°B § 12c). 
I can't tell you : ?i'}3?AU » njallih (s.v. ht^, §§ 47a, 

I told you : 'ilCthl) v. naggarhuh, pi. MOU « ndg- 

TEL 330 

I told you (pol.): 'ilCihPn naggarhu^, pi. VlCVJ^ss 

I told you (pi.): V^CA^l^K naggarhwdccyuh (§ 7d), 

pi. nCT^ih:: naggarndccyuh. 
Did I not tell you? hMlCihV9^i'. alndggarhuhim?, 

TalhMlCiV^^i'. alndg^arnihim ? 

1 o~^ o o 

Did I not tell you (pi.)? ^AV7CA^l^J^K alnag- 
garhwaccihum?, pi. hMlC't'^0'9° a alnaggarnac- 
cihum ? 


I told him: 'ilCih^n naggarhut, pl^nCiahit nag- 

I did not tell him: hAVlCih^'J^K alnaggarhutim, 

pi. hM'lC'nD'9^ :: alnaggarnaura. 
I told them (him, pol.) : 'ilCX^tD* :•• naggarhwdccau, 

pi. 'ilC^^Ohi' naggarndccau. 
Ijdid not tell them (him, pol.): hAl7C;^^fl^5P« 

alnaggarhwaccaum, pi. h^hlCt^Oi^y^v, alnag- 

Tell me : lld^^^ nfgaran (-ran), pi. ^74-^ k nfgarun. 
Tell him : ll^.ah n nfgarau, pi. 'il^^ :•■ nigarut. 
Don't tell him: h^Tfldahn attingarau, pi. h^'}! 

4-^K attfngarut. 
Tell them (him, pol.): lll^^Ohw nigardccau, pi. 

'}7^1^fl>* K nigarwdccau. 

o~ o o 

Don't tell them (him, pol.) : M'ill^^ah :•• attinga- 
rdccaii, pi. h^tl^^ahn attingarwaccau. 

Did you tell him? ^ICOahn naggiirhau?, pi. V7^ 
■f ii«^' :: naggardccihut ? 

o~~ o o 

Did you tell them (him, pol.)? 'tlCV^-ahn naggar- 
hdccau?, pi. V7^^:^^fli- K naggaraccihwdccau ? 
(-ccyuhd- ^7d). 

331 TEL 

He will tell you: JS,A'/Ak yilahal, pol. & pi. J&A-VAk 

Won't he tell you? hf.'incvr^a ainagriliim ?, pol. 

&pl. AiftV*7<-U9"K ainagruhim? 
He told me: V7^^k naggarafi, pol. & pi. V'14-^k 

He did not tell me: hMld/^9°i- alnaggaraiinim 

(§ 6), pol. & pi. ?iAV7<-^J^ K alnaggarufifiim. 
He told us: 'ild^'ia naggaran, pol. & pi. V74-^k 

He did not tell us: h^'ild,'i9^ --' alnaggarannim 

(§ 6), pol. & pi. hMn^'i9°i' alndggarunnim. 
Did he tell you? VI^Uk ndggiiriih ?, pol. & pi. V74-U k 

naggaruh ? 
Did he tell him? hld^Ohn ndggarau?, pol. & pi. 

VK-^K ndgffarut? 
Did he tell them (him, pol.) ? V7^^<»* :*• naggarac- 

cau ?, pol. & pi. *il<tiH'(D* K naggarwaccau ? 
Who told you? '^'Js^AU:: mann°(§ C) dfah? 
Who told you (pi.)? *^7••^lA^l^:: mann aldccyuh? 

(§ 7^). 
Who told him ? *^'> « YxtiOh « mann dlau ? 


Who told them (him, pol.)? *n'i--M^-ah^ mann 
aldccau ? 


Don't tell (disclose it to) anybody: A'^'}5^:^^*7 
Aflifl>-« lamdnnimm attf":latau, pi. -Anv"^*« -latut. 

Tell him to come: *i'j.'flA(0-ss na y^lau, or ^9"'»1:: 

Tell Tasdmma to come : A+A*^ '- V : flAfli- k latasam- 

o o o o o 

ma na y^lau, or 'f'A'^s^9"''lK tasamma yfmta. 
Tell him everything: ihA-T-J^shAj^'OH+fl^ k hiillu- 
nimm astduqau. 

TEL— TEN 332 

Tell him just what I tell you: -ildahsMff^r'ilCV'. 

•il^i'- nfffarau ndammind^ih vfcca. 
Tell him to give you some money: I^H'fl.-ftm^s 

nA<D«K ffdnzav sftan valau, or TJH'Osje.flTOK gan- 

zav yfstih. 
He told me there wasn't any: fA9"s^A^K yal- 

lamm dlan, pol. & pi. PAl^shA-^K yallamm dlun. 
tell a tale, v.i. 't^h tarraka (tar-). 

' o o o ^ ' 

See whether you can find me a man that can tell 
tales : f 'TLI'Cln •• fioh ■• <«. A*? A^ » yammitarrfk (§§ 8, 
14, 63c) sau falligilliii (§ ^1a), pol. . . . = J&^^AT- A^ « 
... yifalliorullifi, 
temporary hut or shelter, s. "V^ g'^ojj'^o. 
tempt, v.i <i.i"V fattana (fattana). 
tempted, be, v.p. i'^'t'i tafattana (-fattana). 
ten, card. num. h/^C dssir (§ 20a). 
ten thousand, card. num. hA^ ilf (§ 20a). 
tendon, s. g**^^ jfmmdt (§ 8 ; § 52«, y). 
tent, s. !!:'iWi dfnkwdn (dtin- ; §§ 8, 52a, 8). 

Pitch the tent: ^'i\\'h'}--^\\l{ahv. diinkwdnun tf- 

kalau, pi. -A*^K -lut. 
strike the tent: J?:^V^V'^■•^+Aa^■•.•. dunkwanun nf- 

qalau, pi. -A"^ :*• -lut. 
The tent is to be pitched here: Jt'JV^V-shli.U* 
ftl'hAK dunkwdnu kazzih yittakal. 
tenth, ord. num. h^d^ assiranna (ran- ; § 206). 
tenth (Vio), s. ?»/*'C^![*i/^<{i] assiriyya (§ 20b, § 52a, 8). 
tent-peg, s. hA'^ kdsima (-siima; § 52a, 8). 
tent-pole, s. i'^H tarada. 

You (A) hold the tent-pole : you (B) pull out the 
pegs: ^'J'^s'^^^fl^'>s^'HI^*'}'^*'>+A» anta ta- 
radaun (§ 8) yaz : antii niqal. 

333 TEP— THA 

tepid, adj. A-fl labb. 

Terminalia glabra (Broun, Cat. 187), s. +]& s fl)ir»flA qayy 

Terminalia splendida (ib.), s. T*feC:ai9"flA ttiqur wwm- 

terrified, be, v.i. & p. <i.^ farra (far-). 

(suddenly) ^Vlfli danaggata. 
terrify, v.t. hild^i- asfarra (far-). 
terror, s. *P^^ firat (§ 8). 

(sudden) ^'ip(n> dingdt>e. 
test, v.t. T*h^ m^^okkara (-kara). 
<iL+V fdttana (fattiina). 
I will test him (it): ^'Pln^'PA'V.:: im'^'okkirauallau^ 

\ / o o o o 

(§ 7d), pi. ?i'}'rh^<PA'}:: innim^^okkiraudllan. 
tested, be, v.p. i''Fhd tarn" dkkara (-kiira). 
i'd^'t'i tafattana (-fattiina). 

O O O O ^ O ' 

It has not been tested : h^'t-*Ptl/:9° « altam^dk- 


karam, pi. -^9° a -rum. 
testicle, s. "feA^ qwwlat (-lilt ; § 52a, y). 
'fl^C'lh bfrat (-riit ; „ ). 
testify, v.t. aoHhd masakkara (-kiira). 
testimonial, s.9^ti;i't misgdna. 
Testudo sp., s. Kd^ ^eli. 
tether, v.t. hd^ assara (-siira). 

o o ^ o ' 

Tether it to a tree: i'^^i'hill.ahw tazaf fsarau. 

o O o o 

tethered, be, v.p. ;^rt<i tdssara (-sara). 

Has it been tethered? ^ti^^y- tdsroal?, pi. j^A 
^'PAk tdsraual? 


It is to be tethered : ^;^AC » yittdsar, pi. -A4-::-saru. 
than, conj. h- ka- {'t- ta-; § 58). 

Is he older than you? ?lCfrs;^A4»••Vfl^s;^'>'^K irsii 
talldq nau tdnta ? (§ 7a). 



than that, conj. \l- k(i)- prefixed to contingent (§§ 45 
48a); tense is not distinguished in the verb it 

I would rather that he should be imprisoned than 
that he should be put to death: U.T^••A.;^AC» 
hmfili^ :•• kim^^dt littdssar iwcoddallau^ (§ 7d), 

It was better that he should be imprisoned than 
that he should be put to death: tuH^^'d^flC'' 
i'TfA" kim^dt vittdssar tasdla. 

• o 

thanks, s. 9°t\;}'i misgdna. 

thank you, interj. Mit^'flrh.CsjS.ATU". igziavhyer yfstih. 
'^fl<iyl :•• tabdrak (tayd-). 
pol. ?i'7Hi'nrh.C:je,riTA^:: igziavhyer 
yistillin, or . . . J&ftmP k . . . yfsta'^o. 
Thank you very much, but the doctor has for- 
bidden me this : pol. MJt^-flrh.C ■• ^flT A^ s n-flH- s 
UXk9° • eUV} •• h AhAi»-?A K io^ziavhJ^er yistillin va- 
vfzu, hakim vihannan kalkilaunfial. 

•O' »'0 ooo 

that, conj. (in order that) ?i'>Jt- (i)nd(i)-, prefixed to con- 
tingent (§§ 45, 48a) ; tense is not distinguished 
in the verb it introduces. 
I will question him that / may hear : [hmf^^'Pii'h •• 

^rt,s?i^jtrt*^:! itayyiqauallau^ rds^e ndisama. 
I questioned him that / might hear: ax^^ih^s 
^(y-l\'}^Ci*ni'' tayyaqhut rds^e ndisama. 
that, conj. (introducing subst. clause) 
S.V. JOii. 

may be omitted (§ 80). 
use infinitive (§ Q6). 
It is reported that they have crossed the river 
and are coming here: fll'Jt^^■•'^■?f*7<ifl^••al■^0« 
^aoti\t^:^'*%^:ai^iaD"\'.'. wwnzun tasdgrau w&>- 
dih yimatallu yammil wwr^e mdtta. 

335 THA— THA 

Does (did) he (A) say that he (B) will come? 

j&<w>'nA:hAK yimatall (§ 6) ala? 
Does (did) he (A) say that he (A) will come? 

haofnii-^'Ma imatallauh (S 7d) dla? 
I heard that you had gone: <w>rfi.j^U'}!rt'^ih!: ma- 

hadihin sammau^ (S 7c?). 
Didn't he know that I was away? KA/n>T<2.'>:M 

aj4*T*j&K alaman'^^Or^en alauwwqammwf ? (s.v. 


that, dem. pron. (near) ^U yihe (yih, yahe), f. J&u'-f yihic 
(-cc) or ^^ yic i-, -cc), pi. M]UV (i)n- 
nazzih (n^z-, hii- illd-, -laz-, -zfh) or 
hiV (f)nn>eh (-i.V -nnih, -nnih, hiUl) 
ilPeh, -A^U -llih, -llih) ; (§ 8). ' 
(distant) ^ ya, also prefix ya-, f. ^-f yac 
(cc), pi. ?iVll,^ (i)nnazzya (naz-, hii- 
illa-, -laz-) or hi.^ (f)nny§; (?iA.^ fllyg;) ; 

^^^^- _ See § 13a. 
That's it: ^Uahi-. yihaii. 
This and that: /Z-UT-'/Z-l): yih^nna yihe. 
Give me that (other, over there): y'l'i '• lim^ '.'• ydn- 

njin sftaii, 

O. O 

That man coming: ^Vi^'%aof}''Aahs yfhe yam- 

mimatd (5 8) sau. 
That man who was here yesterday: ^rtoMf'H.Oi 

^'i'»!fin<iflM ydsau tazzlh tindnt yandbbarau. 

•^ O O v O o 

Who are those (over there)? ?ii'^'3': Wfl>-.-?iVH,^K 
nnamdn ndccau nnazzyd? 

o o o *' 

I like these better than those: i''inj)'-'hiA)Tf'-'haifi 
A't^K tiinnazzih (§ 58) innihin iwwddallau'' (§ 7d). 
that, rel. pron. s.v. who, which. 

THA— THE 336 

thatch, v.t. hdJhd. kafakkafa. 

What do they thatch it with? nr'J:^h<^.lfl^;^AK 
bamin (S 47a) yikafakkifutal ? 
thatched, be, v.p. i'hdMd. takafdkkafa. 
the, art. -u, (-fl^ -u after a vowel), f. -il^ -itu (-itu ; §§11, 

theft, s. ftC*^ sfrq^ot (§ 8). 
aod^^ mdsraq. 

o o ■•■ 

This is called theft: j&U:ftC*^:VflH!?i'^nAK yihe 
sirq^dt nau mmibbdl. 

o i o o 

Theft is what we call it: aDlld^'.'llD".h9^'}^ahs 
h^ii masrdq (§ 8) nau mminnilau (§§ 14, 44a) nna. 
their, poss. pron. -iVah -dc(c)au (§ 12b). 
theirs, poss. pron. f C^^iu* yarsdc(c)au (§§ 12a, 47a, 70b). 
them, pers. pron. -i^Oh -ac(c)au (§ 12c). 

(emph.) KC^^iD-'} irsdc(c)aun (§ 12a). 
( „ , of inanimate objects) hW 
Oh'i issdc(c)aun (§ 12a). 
Often omitted (§61&): 

I don't want them : h^^fi^*Q9^ « alfallisrim. 

o oOo 

then, adv. (at that time) flf-lM. yan gfz^e (yangiz^e). 
(afterwards) AAA bahwdla (baiiha- § 7c?). 
(after that) ?i'}*7^U°(i)ngd>eh! 
(done) -h -a? (§§6,8). 

(consequently) XHoi-?.^ (i)z(z)a'^a)dya (-zdd-), 
S. ;^^^ tddya, (§ 8). 
We did not know then that we were coming here: 
yi ■• UU ■• fli^H,0 : oD^'m^'^'i'} : M(D^'i9° « ydngizye 
wwdazzih mamtatdccinin aMuwwqnim. 

O O ■ O O '■' o 

It should be mended first, then washed: flA^« 
^ng'TnAA:^;i-m'flK baflt yibbajj, yauhala yjt- 

337 THE— THE 

It's downhill as far as the stream : then it's flat : 

iskauwnz dfras qwiilqwulat (§ 8) nau : hgd^^h 
m^edd nau. 


First I gave him a dollar, then I told him to go : 
A^ : h'}^ : -nC ! rt T^ : ?i'J*7^U : VLjt • A» AVi-^ k fit an- 

di virr saticc^e ngd^^eh hid (§ 80) dlkut (§ 7d). 
You don't want him (it), then? h^^Mohl :-. atti- 

fdllioaummd ? 
He has understood, then ? ^fl^^A « duiiqoalld ? 
thence, adv. hiDj^^ kauo^dya (i'to- tauw-, § 47« ; § 8). 
there, adv. (near) hH,U kazzih (ha-, i*- ta-, -az-, -zih ; § 8). 
(distant) hlt^ kazzya (ha-, i'- ta-, -az- ; § 8). 
There it is, on the chair: '/'H,U.*1'fliJP*fl<-:VaHK taz- 


zfh tauwmbdru (S 8) nau. 
stay (stop) just there (where you are): l^'>e'^H,^fl^■K 
hun tazzyau (s.v. -fl>-; § 73^). 
— There is (one, some) : ^Ah alia (q.v.; §§ 32, 39). 
There are (some) : ^A*:: allu. 
Is there (some, any) water? ahVihtia wiihadlla? 

If there is any [if he (it) is there] : 'h'ifi^t nddlla. 
If there is not any [if he (it) is not there]: M 

^A.A: ndaPallii. 
Isn't he (it) there? ^A : ?ij&M*r»j& « ydlla aidal- 
liimmwf? (s.v. (D^), or fA9":: yallam? 
therefore, adv. AAH.U silazzfh (-laz-, -zfh : S 8). 
these, dem. pron. MlUV (i)nnazzih (-naz-, -zfh). 

?iiU (f)nnJeh {-IV -nnfh, -nnfh). 
XAH^U illazzfh (-laz-, -zfh). 
?iA.U flP'eh (-A.0 -llfh, -llfh). 
See §§ 8, 13a. 

AM. GR. (ll) 22 

THE— THI 338 

Bring these : Mn^Vi-- h9^m « nnazzihin anta (§ 7d), 

pi : ^iJ^rtV a ... antu. 

I don't like these ponies: TiiilLVi •- d.^it*'^ '- hfii 

(Dg:9^ :: illazzihin faras'^^occ alwwddim. 

■^ o o o o o 

they, pers. pron. hCfi^Oh' irsac(c)au (§§ 12a, QOb), usu- 
ally omitted unless emphatic, 
thick, adj. oi^^i^ wwfrdm (§ 8), intensive pis. 0)4-^^9^ 
wwfafffrdm (§ 8), (oi^V^'P'^ wcofaff'irdm^oc 
(-0CC § 6). 
^'i^i't dandanna. 
thick, be (become), v.i. atd^d wwffara (-fara ; § 63c?, e). 
thief, s. A.n Peba (lyeva). 

rt^«fe sardqi (sar-). 
thigh, s. 'V''} cin (§ 52a, y). 
thin, adj. (deficient in one dimension) /**/** sis. 

(deficient in two dimensions) *l"^^ qaccin, 
intensive pis. +'****?''} qacdccin, *f»**i'^f ^ 
qacdccin'^^oc (-occ § 6). 
(emaciated, of animate beings) hft;*" kassitta. 
(of animals) 7•'^^ gufdyya. 
A thin book: /*'/^-aom^: sis mataf. 

o o • 

Thin cloth: /**/** .•fliC4': sis carq. 
Thin paper: /**/** !iD<i+^! sis waraqat. 
A thin (slender) man: ^'^Tf-flohi qaccin sau. 
A thin stick: '^^'i-.a^C- qaccin bdttir. 
Thin rope (string): +'^'}s7<w>j^: qaccin gamad. 
thin, be (become), v.i. 

(deficient in one dimension) **i^ sassa. 

(deficient in two dimensions) +mV qdttana. 

(emaciated) h^ kassa. 

See § 63c?, e. 

339 THI— THI 

This cloth is too thin for me: je.ll:ffii.C4»:»^*^'fl^« 

yfhe carq sassabbifi (§ 47a), 
This rope (string) is too thin for me: f^Vilaoj^t 

+nii'fl^:: yihe ffamad qattanabbin, 

•'O C3oO •••©••OO O ^_^ 

He (it) is (has got) thin: hft;tA-.: kdstoal, thtl^ 
A^:: kastallac, pi. hft'h'PAs kastaual. 

O 'A O O 

thing, s. (matter) ilC nagar (-gar). 
(object) h^ fqa. 

See § 52a, 8. 
think, v.i. & t. Airtfl assaba (-ava). 

aofHioh massalau (impers. § 43a). 
S.v. believe, cp. § 80. 
I am thinking: ^iftflA'V-s assiyallau^ (§ 7d), pi. 

Mil(\fi'iii innassivalliin. 
I think so : j&<n»A A'^ A » yimdslaniial. 
I should think so : J&lfV A » yih^' 5nal (s.v. JU(D^). 
I don't think so : hfLaohti ^V* :: aimdslafiiiim. 
I think it is mine: ^ooftA'^A-'fiOfli-a yimdslanilal 

yan>e nau. 
Do you think it is yours? ^<w»ftAyA»^71'»Va>-K 
yimaslihal yanta (§ 8) nau? 
*To think' may be rendered by ^A ala (s.v. VflA, 
§ 44a), esp. when given as a reason for action : 
(As) I thought he (it) was (too) near: +^flB'flP»a 

qarraya yiyye (§ Qoh). 
I didn't think we should get here (there) : hlfjl 
ftJ'"s'flP»:VflCK anndarsim biyye nabbar. 
third, ord. num. ^Al'? s'' ostaiina (-tan- ; § 206), 
third (V,), s. ^A^^:[AA'f:^] s^^ostiyya (§ 20&, § 52a, 8). 

7,: OA^:AA^^: huliitt s^ostiyya. 
thirst, s. TJ^ tim. 

iD-'/:TJ^ wuhd (uhd; § 8) tim, 


THI— THI 340 

thirsty, be, v.i. m*^£0- tdmmau (impers. § 43a ; § 63^^?, e). 
I am thirsty: mJ^'f^AK tdmt^onfial, pi. m9"-f 
*i"As*. tamt'^onnal. 

• o 

I am not thirsty: h ^019^4-^9" a altdmt'^onnim, pi. 

-•f *>?" w -t'^onnim. 
Are you thirsty ? a\9^-^Vfii'.'. tamt^'ohal? 
thirteen, card. num. h/**^'-f^{l^ asrds'^'dst (§§ 8, 20a). 
thirteenth, ord. num. ^»/*'^«^ft'^? asras^''ostanna(-tan-; 

§ 20b). 
thirtieth, ord. num. i*»A^^ salasanna (-sanna ; § 20h). 
thirty, card. num. a»A^ saldsa (§ 20a). 
this, dem. pron. ^U yfhe (yih, yahe), f. ^U^ yjbic (-cc) 
or ^-f yic (^i-, -cc), pi. ?i^H,0 (i)nndzzih (-naz-, 
KA- ilia-, -laz-, -zfh), hi,V (f)nnJeh {-3iU -nnlh, 
-nnfh) or KA.U lllJ^eh (-A.U -llih, -Ihh); (§§8, 13a). 
I don't want this: ^V'i'i'-h^d,^*19^a yihannan al- 

o oCo ^ 

Like this : h'i^nj)'- (i)ndazzih (-daz-,-zfh ; §§ 8, 47a). 
Before this: \l\lV . a^^ -kazzih vafit (§§ 8, 47&). 
Without this: ^AlUU: yalazzih, G. hAltOs alazzfh, 

{§§ 8. 47a). 
Together with this : i'lUV'-pC-- tazzih gar (§ 47&). 
This is it : ^VOh k yihau. 
Take this: je.liV'Js^'H" yihannan yaz. 
Who is this man ? jiU •• Afl>- : '^'J •• Van « yihe sau man- 

Are there more like this? A.A:fH,U.'JjB.i1'«/iA:s 
lela yiizzih ainat dlla? (§ 52a). 
thistle, s. jfy^-}iVV yahiyya (§§ 7a, 47a, 70) s^oh. 
S. h»(ff A» kwwsaP e. 

See § 52a, 8; s.v. thorn. 

341 THO— THO 

thonff, s. m^C tafir. 

<w»*«i? macdna. 

o • 

thorax, s. ^d.^ d^^at. 

thorn, s. hVV is^^Sh (-5x, -5k, § 7f?; §§ 8, 52a, 8). 
thoroughly, adv. fliO-A bawtil (bautil, baiil; § 8). 
(\m9° batdm (S 8). 
Let it boil thoroughly: nfl»-Asj&*PAK bautil yffla. 
those, dem. pron. ?iVH,^ (i)nnazzya (-naz-). 
TxXF (pnnyi 
?iA»Ly i^l^zzy^ (-laz-). 

>ii^y fllyi 

See §§ 8, 13a. 
thou, pers. proii. h'ii' anta (-tii, ht^ ant, q.v.), f. h'i'G 
dnci (li'>'f anc), (§§ 12a, 60ft), usually omitted 
unless emphatic ; s.v. you. 
though, conj. h- ka- ('N ta-) prefixed to simp. perf. (§ 48a). 
•fl- bi- pref. to cont. (§ 48a) which may take 
the suff. -J^ -m (-mm § 6 ; § 486, § S7e). 
Though I told him I did not want it he brought 
it: ^»A<(.A*7{r•.•;^A'V^:^lrw»'^fl^« alfdlligjm tdlhti 
amdttau, or hA<(.A*7J^«'flAaH:/iaD'na>-K alfalli- 
gim bllau amattau. ['(liiah = -fl- bj- (§ 48a) + >iA 
il (§§ 7a, 44a) + -a- + -fl>- -u (§ 12c)]. 
Even though it rain I shall go: n,M'>'flJP■!^l*h.^Al^» 
bizanvimm ihiidallau^' (S 7d). 
thought, s. M-ii as(s)db (-dy ; § 8, § 52a, 8). 
thousand, card. num. TiU sih {§ 20a). 

TSlsi ( „ ). 
4000: h^l-iTiUs aritti sjh. 
1000 dollars: Tts-flC: sfyirr (§ 8>. 
How many thousand? tll^stiV'' sjnti sih? 

THO— THR 342 

There were about 1000: 7iU:^UA.-inc« sih yahl 


thousandth, ord. num. TiU? sihfnna (§ 20b). 
thread, s. JflC kirr. 

(warp or woof) <S.^A fatil (fat-). 
threaten, v.i. & t. htld.^^ asfararra (-fiir-). 
three, card. num. f^tl^ s'^ost (§ 20a). 
thresh, v.t. at^ w cJqqa. 
threshed, be, v.p. i'm^ tawwqqa (taucJ-). 
threshold, s. 9°^^^ midvik (§ 8). 
throat, s. tCC gurdro. 

To clear one's throat: hYl'-hlii akk dla (s.v. VflA, 
throne, s. A»A^ alga. 

:; ^ iD9"nc wcJmbar (-bar), 
through, go, v.i. hti^ ^11|%- 

It won't go through: hf^^^i^ a^alfim, pi. -f J^k 

Has it gone through? ^A^Ak dlfSl?, pi. -<i.1»AK 


through, put (send, allow to go), v.t. Mhi^ asdllafa. 
i il want some drawers that I can put my legs 
' through: M&'J •• M^*^^^ A*? •• fr<5 •• ?i<CA;iA'^ a 
fgr^en (§ 52a, y) indammyasallif siirri ifalligallau^ 
^^ (lit. such that it will allow my leg to pass), 

throw, v.t. a>d(D^ warauwara. 

o o o o . 

(away) "\ii tdla. • 
I have thrown it away: 'PP»<PAl^K tiyyewdllau^ 

(§ 43&, § Id). 
Throw it away: ^A(»-k talau, pi. 'HA-l-u talut. 
Don't throw it away: h^fltiOhn attitdlau, pi. -A-lr. 

343 THR— TID 

thrown, be, v. p. "faidiDd tawarauwara (taua-). 

' l OOO 00''00' 

(away) i'^fi tatdla. 
It is to be thrown away: j&'HAk yittal, pi. ^^A*» 
; yittalu. 

It is not to be thrown away: Kj&'HAk aittal, pi. 
h^mt^i'- aittdlu. 
thumb, s. hah^sfq^f- aura (§ 8) tat (§ 52a, y). 
thunder, s. V7"Jt^J^ na<^wwdgwad (-wrg- § 7(1). 
I G. 'iTg:^!^ nigwddgwad (nug-). 
oD'il/.^ mabraq (ayr- ; q.v.). 
thunder, v.i. /w>'fl<i4* •• /w>;^ mabraq (avr-) matta. 
(in the distance) *7i^ •• hd gimm dla. 

«7jr»:«7^:^A gim(mi)g£mm 


; S.v. v/flA, § Ua. 

Thursday, s. & adv. hao-li amus. 

thus, adv. rit^^U (f)ndih (-dih ; § 8). 

.,.. ,^, . ?t^AH,ll (i)ndazzni (-daz-, -zfh ; § 8). 

tibia, s. *^Ofi\.'-hlfi mahal (mal) agada (§ 52a, y). 

tick, s. (parasite) ffoHlC mazgar (-gar ; § 52a, 8). 

tickle, v.i. & t. h»^h"^ kwwrakkwcora (rwk-). 

h^^iha sfqiqq dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

/i^hh asakkaka. 

o o 

^" ; . (unpleasantly) h»rth»rt kwwsakkwwsa (-swk- 

kosa § 7d). 
See § G3^, e, These verbs are all commonly used 
impersonally (§ 43a). 
It tickles (me): h-^Ch-^^s kwturwkkwwraii, A4'4»« 
hti^'.'' sfqiqq dliin, etc. 
tidiness, s. m'?;'" tafFita. ' ;^l^ 

tidy, adj. ax^i'^ tafFitdnna (-tan-). 

TID— TIG 344 

tidy, be, v.i. m^shti tafFdla (s.v. s/flA, § 44a). 

It isn't tidy: mV-h^^9^i- taffSilim. 
tidy, put (render), v.t. m^ih^dl tafF adarraga. 

Put all the things (furniture, baggage) tidy: 
h^a>-'i''0'/^'i-a\^ihf:Clahii Jqaun hiillun taff 
^rgau (§ 7d). 
tie, s. (neck-tie) '^+'(1 matab (-ay). 
tie (up), v.t. hfid assara (-sara). 

(in something) ^m^ qwattara (-tara). 
Tie it properly : (iohfii : "hflday- k baiil Jsarau, pi. 

-4-^K -rut. 
Tie the dog up: i»-7faH'>!?irt<ia>-K wiissaun fsarau. 
Tie a little up (in a bag): T'fe^s^TCK tfqit qwdtir. 
tie into loads, v.t. 4»<l*l»fl qaraqqaba (aya). 

Let them tie (the baggage, goods) into loads: 
Ji*l»C4»fl-:: yiqarqiyu. 
tied (up), be, v.p. ^iid tassara (-sara). 

(in something) i'^m^ taqwdttara 
He (it) is to be tied up : 5^;^rtC s yittasar, pi. -rt<« » 

He (it) is not to be tied up: ^i/i;^rtC:•. aittSsar, pi. 

-rt4-K -saru. 
Has he (it) been tied up? ;^ft^AK tdsrSal?, pi. 
-dV^ii -raual? 

o ^ ^ 

It is tied too tight : m-fl^A » tayqSal. 
tied into loads, be, v.p. i'+^+fl taqaraqqaba (-aya). 
Has the baggage been tied into loads? h^^'ti'C 
^HAk (qa taqarqiySal? 
tight, adj. (compressed) T-fl^* tibq (tiyq). 
(stretched) i»«TC wiittir. 

345 TIL— TIM 

These clothes are too tight : J&U •• A-fl A : fli-TC : Vfl>- « 
yfhe liys (§ 52a, 8) wuttlr (§ 8) nau. 
till, conj. ?iAh- (i)ska- [Tttli'- (i)sta-] prefixed to simp, 
htiYi- (i)sk(i)- [?iA^- (i)st(i)-] prefixed to cont. 
See §§ 45, 48a. !!:^ti diras may follow either tense. 
The distinction of tense in the verb introduced by 
TiAh-, ?iA1fi- is not observed as closely in Amharic 
as in English, i.e. the present may be used where 
logically the past is required. 
I waited till he arrived: ^ift'^^^rt••'fef'V•K istadar- 
rasa qwwyyau^ (§ 7d), or }\l\±^Ctl * 'fef "V- « istidars 
I will wait till you come: h'^ftHhi'hil^^iwilK 
iqwcjyydllau'^ istittimdta. 

o-i •'•' O OOOO- 

Till we meet (again): >iA^'}Ti'^:j?:^A: stinnigga- 
nS,n dfras. 

o e 

They eat till they are ill: f,(\'{^•ihM\^^*nn^ahs 
jlrdil « yiyalallu skyammdccau dfras. 
till, prp. htlh- (i)ska- {§ 47a). 
Xft+- (])sta- ( „ ). 

htih- [kftf--] ...rjt^A (i)ska- [(i)sta-] ... d^ras 
(§ 476). 
Wait till Monday : ^^lhrt'? •• "fej^ s iskasanfio qwwi. 
Till to-morrow : XA+iT « J?:^A •• istanaga dfras. 
Up till now: ^A;^^^'}.• istdhun (§ 7a). 
Till then : hil-tn^f » f^dtl •- istazzyd d|ras. 
timber, s. htsE^^ (()nc>et [-ea.^ -cat]. 
time, s. %n,'.[1tL] gjz^e, pi. also XHf^ gfzyat (§ 8). 
ilaot zaman. 

o o 

M^ saat. 

See § 52a, S. 



There is still time: iTs' gana giz^e dlla. 

How many times? A'}^!l.H.:: sfnti fffz^e? 

He struck him three times: ^A^.•'I.H.^<w>;^a^-» 

s^ostl giz^e mattau. 
This is not the time for it: hl^'}!^H.fl^5^:^^/^AK 

ahun giz^eumm (§ 376) ^idal (§ 7d). 
I will see him (it) another time : fl A.A •• T.H •• ^f <P A'V^k 

balela siz^e aiauallau'^ (S 7d). 
In twenty days' time: i'U^!4»'}:fl:\A! tahad qan 

(-hdqan) yauhala (§ 476 ; § 7d). 
I haven't time: X\L'-h(nd^-» giz^e attaran (§ 63^). 
I shall not have time: TLH. ■• ^T^?A « gfz^e ydtran- 

nal (§ 636). 
You will not have time : UU •• ^T^'/A « gfz^^e ydt- 



Let them come one at a time : M^l^^Ohs fi,9°aba 
andanddccau (§ 18) yimtu. 

It will not be done in time : Ti^^Cfti^ « aidarsim. 

Some time or other : ao^V* •• macam (-ca- ; -mm \ 6). 

In course of time : ?i^ftC •• iyyaddar (s.v. hf^C). 

In course of time it will get wider: ?i^^<ls^*rt4-A« 
iyyaddara yisafal (s.v. YyfJ^. 

A long time: Ai^A.s'I.H.s ayydl-^e gfz^e. 
In Abyssinia the day is reckoned to begin at sun- 
rise, approximately 6 a.m., and the night at sun- 
set, approximately 6 p.m. and each is divided 
into 1 2 hours ; so that 7 a.m. is called 1 o'clock 
(of the day), 7 p.m. 1 o'clock (of the night), etc. 

What is the time? hl^'-M^'-^tahw sint sadt nau? 

6 o'clock: AjtA^''rt*>^« siddist sadt 

At 6 o'clock: nftjtA1*:rt'J'>: basiddist sadt. 

6.15: A^A1':rt^'l*t+<-'fl» sjddist sadt tariiy. 

347 TIN— TIE 

At 6.1 5 : n/lj?: A^ : rt*J^ : 't-^'il '• basf ddist sadt tariiv. 
6.20 : ftjt A^ : rt^J^ •• -h^A-fc^ •• sfddist sadt tas'^ostiy- 

6.30: Ajtft^-rt^^.-'Mfi-A: sMdist sadt takkul. 

o o o o ^.^ 

6.40: +rtni':rt^^:flAi:^:fT"^A.- tasavdt saat s^os- 

' o o • o 

tiyya yagvvcuddala. 
At 6.40: nAnl*«rt''/^.AA't^:f7"^A.- basayat (cp. 
§ 70b) saat s'^'ostiyya yagvvcu'ddala. 

6.45 : i-An^ •• rt^^ •• ^--fl •• f l-^A •• tasavat sadt ruv ya- 
If the time is expressed in hours and minutes i"- 
ta-, and (§ 20), is inserted before the number of 
minutes. ^ 

9.10: Hm^••A'J^.•;^/*'C« zatan sadt tassir (S 7a). 
tin, s. (metal and receptacle) :^X}i tanika. 
(metal) 'feC'fccr qwwrqwci>rr''o. 
(receptacle) AT") sdtin. 
tinkle, v.i. WtW^hii kyu kyu dla. 

h^ « h^ : /»A kic kicc (§ 6) dla. 
S.v. VOA, § 44a. 
tip, s. (gratuity) tCH giirsa. 
tire, v.t. ^^h<w» adakkama. 
tire oneself, v.i. A4- laff a. , 

tired, be (become), v.i. ^Tnao dakkama. 

^h<w»a»- dakkamau (impers. § 43a). 
See § 63c?, e. 

I am tired: ^hT»?A« dakim^^onnal, pi. ^h^'^'^^'- 

I am not tired: ^A^hlPihi'^K aldakkamhum, pi. 
It A^h^V?" » aldakkamnam ; or h A^hiw>^l'' « al- 
dakkamafinim, pi. AiA^ll<n»'}i'"B aldakkamannim. 

TO— TO 348 

You will get tired: ^^Vi'^AUk tidakmdllah, pol. 

^^h*^/!*:: yidakmallu, pi. ^^ln'^A^i>K tidak- 

malldccyuh (§ 7d). 
Are you tired? f^lrVfii^'. ddkim^ohal?, pol. TP 

;^A•.•• -m'^o^tal?, pi. -^^AA» -mbdccyuhal ? 

(§ 7^). 
Tell me when you are tired: A.ft*lJ^U!^1<:^a si- 
dakmih, nfo:aran. 
to, prp. (towards) <d^- wwda-. 
(up to) hMi- (i)ska-. 
Jxlli-- (i)sta-. 

htih- [kftl--] ..:it^ft (i)ska- [(i)sta-]... 
(for) A- la-, A- Ik 

See § 47. 
Where has he gone to? — To the river: ai^^srh.^:* 

— flJ^flJ^Ti w wwd^ 6t hada ? — wwdauwnz. 
The water reaches to his neck: OhV'-'hll^'i'l'P' 

^CO,Ak wuha stangatu darsoal (§ 6Sd). 
Whom is the letter to? ^'0^0..- A'^'}.-Vfl>-:: day- 
dabbJ'e lamdn nau ? 

o o 

Omitted before the names of places : 

He has gone to Addis Abeba: h^tl--h(\(\'-iK^^» 
dddis avava hfd5al. 

o » o • o 

to, sign of infinitive (§ 30). 

See VOA. 
to and fro, be sent, v.p. G. i'AAh talalaka. 

' r ^ o o o 

S. i'AAh talaldka. 

o o 

He is sent to and fro: G. ^AAhAa yillalakal, 
S. ^AAhA:: yillal&kal, pi. G. J6AAhA-» yillalakdl- 
lu, S. JiAAhA-a yillalakallu. 

349 TO— TOB 

to and fro, carry, v.i. & t. hoDfiUft ammalallasa. 

Let him carry the plates to and fro: Adilrifao 
A Aft » sahdn (§ 52a, S) yammaldls. 
to and fro, come (go, pass), v.i. i'<n>AArt tamalallasa. 
He goes to and fro: ^<w>AAAAk yimmaldllasal, pi. 
^<w>AAAA-K yimmalallasallu. 
to and fro, send, v.i. & t. G. hAAh allaldka. 

V o o 

S. TiAAh allalaka. 
Send them to and fro : G. hti^Wah a alliilikdccau, 
S. ?iA Ah'Pot- K allalikaccau. 

o o 

toad, s. ?i'}«f»^^<5''h (i)nqwtirdrit, usually f. (§ 54c). 

T-CTgurt _ 

toadstool, s. MtH^ (i)ngiiddi {§ 8). 
4»^^ qwticca. 

See § 52a, 8. 
toast, s. (toastedbread)f +mnAj-^n yiitatdbbasa (§§ 14,02) 

toast, v.t. mflrt tdbbasa. 

' • o o o 

Toast it: TdAoht'. tivasau. 

•©• o o 

toasted, be, v.p. i'mtlii tatabbasa. 

' X o*ooo 

It should be toasted more than this : '^H,U s jaflATs 
^mdA:: tazzih yiyalt (§ 58c) yittayas. 

tobacco, s. l-J^flA timbauha (tiim-, -boha, § 7d). 
It may be specified thus : 

Cigar: f+m+AAs^i^riA- yiitataqdllala (§§14,62) 

Cigarette: flfli^+^.'f'I'm+AA--^-! bauaraqat ya- 

tataqallala ti-. 
Cut tobacco: f '^*fe<Cm s ^- •• yataqwwrrata ti-. 
Pipe tobacco: P<w»m'^«^-! yamatacca (§§ 47a, 
70) ti-. 



to-day, adv. H<2. zarJ'e. 

What is to-day? 9^1-^1 -hah -.m^xi min qan nau 
toe, s. ^n^ tat (§ 52a, y). 

Big toe: hohi-itn^'' aura (§ 8) tat. 
together, adv. h'iiC dbr^'o (dyr- ; gerund § 34). 

fl'Jjt band ( = fl- ba- § 47« + Mjt and 
§ 20a; §7a). 
* MjtAjR and(i)lm. 
Keep (pi.) together: h'fl^^-ihs'fe^K ayrdccyuh (§ Id) 

Are they all together or each by himself (itself) ? 
^^A^fl^ •• fl'Jj?: « V^a>- : fl)j& : flf -fl^^iD- « huUdccau 
ydndi (§ 7^) ndccau wwi yayyayiccau? (§ 18). 
token, s. 9"A*1^ milikkit. 

told, be, v.p. (be disclosed) i'lAm tagallata (-gal-). 
tomato, s. ^ft-'J.-fliT ydbun (-^yu-) wwt (§ 52a, 8). 
to-morrow, adv. h*l naga (naga). 

Early to-morrow : V7 « rp,^ : naga twat. 
The day after to-morrow : -MT •• fli^^s tanaga wwdya 

(-g^oid-; §8). 

IP Aft ^s salist. 
tongue, s. 9"Aft milds (§ 8). 

Put out your tongue: l^AftU'}*AnD-''l (»•:•• mildshin 
(-s-h-, not -S-, § 3) dutau, pol. aoMi9*lifahmr^'A 
mildsa^n ydutut, f J'"Aft7i^••^a^*ff•fl^K mildsi- 

sin aucyu. 
Put it riffht out : ([''19° 'hahtflohxi batdm dutau. 
to-night, adv. H<2. s AtA^'T" zdr^ e 1^ elTt. 
tonsilitis, s. (suppurative) 4»j^lf qimh'^o (qiimho § 7c?). 
tonsure, s. (large) p'% gamm>e. 
(small) A-^A sadiilla. 

351 TOO— TOO 

too, adv. Jijfr*? ijjig. 

n-nH- babizu (bavf- S 7d). 
(also) /E^*7T* dagm^o (dag-; §46). 
^'T ddmm^^o (dam- ; § 46). 
r* -m (-mm § 6 ; § 4.8b). 
This is much too small : jfrf •• fl-nH- •• ^Irti •• '?-l- :; ^fcci 

o o 

(S 54c) vavfzu tinnfs (S 8) nat. 
He is to come too: >iCft"'f,TsS!,9"mii irsQ (§ 606) 
dtom^o yfmta. 
— often omitted : 

This is too broad and that too narrow: J&U:<DC<^t 
(id,i'iahi y : md'Qi'iahii yfhe wwrdu safFi (§ 8) nau, 
ya tabbdv nau. 
tool, s. l!f:CX9 madragya (-rag-). 
aofi^y massarya (-yti § 7d). 
tooth, s. TCft tirs (§ 52«, y). 

Bring some water for me to clean my teeth: 
'?Cfi,'i*h9^9^a^tahV''hrm:i tfrs>en immiffqib- 
bat (§ 47a) wiiha linta (§ 7^/). 
A preparation for the teeth: f TCft * <ii»j^:i3:^ : 
yatirs (§§ 47a, 70) madhan>it (-dahnit § 7d}. 
toothbrush, s. [fPCA*] <w»4.«fe^ (yiitjrs §§ 47a, 70) ma- 
0o*%^l mamwdca. 
toothpick, s. [fTCft:] aoi^Ody (yatirs) magwargwdrya 
<»Drt4»rt«fe^ masaqs^qya (-qsaq- ; -saca App. 

B § 7^/). 
ao^X^^ mamwdca. 

o • 

This toothpick has no point : 5iU : oD'hOdy .• '&^9°i 
hj&A^AK yihe magwwrgwwrya siilimm Sidal (§ 7d). 

TOO— TOR 352 

tooth-powder, s.— explain thus; PTCft : ?i'}^/^*^ ' ^A « 

ao^'^^iS^i yiitfrs indad^oq^^t yalla (§ 7a) maddh- 

nit (§ 7r/). 
top, s. (summit) ^ft ras. 
«^'h caf. 

(of ascent) ^i4-¥ afdf. 

(cover) aotif^ makdana (-dana). 
top, on, adv. A^ lai. 

OAje. balSi (§ 8). 
top of, on, prp. n- [h-, -h-]...! A^ ba- (ka-, ta-)... lai (§ 8, 

§ 47^)- _ 

On top of the house: fllU^sA^s bay>et lai. 

On top of each house: flfft.'fJsAj&s bayyay^etu 

(S 18) iS. 

torch, s. oD'tl^^ mabrdt (-avr-; ^ 8). 

"I'iid^ mdbrya (-dyr-). 

4^*? fdna. 

torn, be (get), v.p. '\r^^^ taqaddada. 

i^flmrt tabattasa (tava-, -at-). 

It will get torn: ^*I*^^Ak yiqqaddadal, pi. Ji+ft 

^A-K viqqaddadallu. 

^nm^AK yibbattasal, pi. J&flm 

^A-K yibbattasallu. 

Mind it doesn't get torn : "ht^^^^f!: -.• ndaiqqdd- 

dad, pi. -^-^K -ddadu. 

K^^^flmA :: ndaibbat- 

tas, pi. -mA* :•• -ttasu. 

It has got torn: +*I»J?^Ak taqdddSal, pi. -^'PAk 


-hflTilLA:: tayattis6al, pl.-A*PA:: 


353 TOR— TOY 

tornado, s. ^»a^A" dul'' o. 
torrent, s. foTrll wwnz. 
T'C'P gwwrf. 
tortoise {Testudo sp.), s. ^.A* 5'eli. 
total, s. Si^A jfmla. 

Jttfi>-C dfmmur (j^l^C dfmmir). 
touch, v.i. & t. Vh nakka. 

Don't touch (him, it, them, § 61&): Yx^lh « attfnka, 

pi. -VhK -ku. 
Don't touch it (them) with your finj^ers, take a 

cloth: n'^1•:^1•'>^l:nffil.c4»:: batat (§ 52^, y) at- 

tinka, vacarq. 
touched, be, v.p. +Vh tandkka. 

It is not to be touched: ^^Vh" ainndka, pi. -Vh:*. 
towards, prp. (Df^- wwda- (§ 47rt). 

Towards the house : (D^fl.^ « wwdav^ et. 

o • 

Towards me: flJ^is wwdan^e (§§8, Via). 
Towards the rains: (Df^\\^9^^'- wwdakfrdmt (§ 8). 
Towards noon : (Df^^^C « wwdaqdtirr. 
towel, s. *^Jt<i*fejP madrdqya (-raq-). 
'^^'H mabbasa (-bas-). 
ao*?^%y matragya. 
Face-towel: f <i.^ •• "7jt<i*fe^ •• yaf it madraqya. 
f<(,1*:'^n7f : yjifft mabbasa. 

•^ O o 

Bath-towel : f T\ - '^J^^'fc^ s J^igala madraqya. 
See §§ 47a, 70. 
town, s. Yi-t-^ katama (§ 8). 
town-crier, s. h'^'^'-'ipd audj nagdri. 
toy, s. an^^o)^ macauaca (-auojca). 

AM. OR. (ll) 23 

TRA— TRA 354 

track, s. (trace) *PA;i fill^ga (§ 8). 
S. falag. 

o o ~ 

4-^ fdra. 
See § 52a, 8. 
(path) ao'iif:^ mdngad. 
T"-^'? gwwdana. 
track, v.t. d,M f ^Uaga. 
tracked, be, v.p. i'd.til tafallaga. 
trade, s. '>*7j^ nigd. 
trade, v.i. V1^ naggada. 

Does he trade? /Z,i*7^A« yinaggidal?, pi. ^V^^A-k 

yinaggidallu ? 
He doesn't trade: K^V*?J^9":: ainag^dim, pi. 

-^9":: -dum. 
What does he trade in? 5^'>:j&V7^Ak min yinag- 
gidal?, pi. y"'}s/Z,V*7.^A'K min yinaggidallu? 
I have come to trade : A'}*7jt •• aof}^ k lanfgd mat- 

tau^ (§ 7d), pi. ^'in^''aofn^rl•^ lanfgd mattan. 
I have not come to trade: A'>*7jt-'^A<w»^i>9":: 
lanfofd almattahum, pi. -^^jPk -ttanim. 
trader, s. V;i^ naggdd^e. 

(European) \\^ kwdja. 
See § 52a, S. 
Tragelaphus scnptus decula, s. -^W-A dukkwma. 
train (railway-), s. <n>['}]y»%lrf'C ma(h)kw&jra,kwur. 

[f5^JtC:]nn-C (yamdir §§ 47a, 70) hi- 
biir (ydyur; § 8). 
training (condition), be (get) out of, v.i. +7"^ tagwwdda. 

M kassa. 


See § 63^, e. 
He (it) is out of training : i'7"Jt:l:A k tagwojditoal 
(-cJrt- § 7d), pi. -•I-'PAk -taual. 

355 TUA— TRA 

He (it) will get out of training : jK,'?"'^ A k yiggwcod- 
dal, pi. ^'h'^f^'.i yiggwwdddllu. 
traitor, s. (n^'% taqqwdmi (twq-). 
translate, v.i. & t. 't'Ch'tn* taraggwwma (tar-). 

Translate (it § 61&) for (to) me: l-CT-i^ A"^ s: tar- 

gvvumilliii (§ 47a). 
Translate (it) for (to) him ; 'hCT^J'^A'!* » targwiimil- 

Who will (can § 63c) translate it? 'nl•'f,'t'^.'V^ao'?^lx 
man yitiiraggwumaual ? 
translated, be, v.p. i"td.'h'aD tatardggwwma (-tar-). 

It has been translated : '^'^C7^'^A•.! tatargwum5al, 

pi. -T^/wi^Ak -gwiimaual. 
It has not been translated: /iA'l"J'^7"<w>S'":: alta- 


tardji^ofwcumam, pi. -ao'9^ :: -mum. 
It must be translated : J^+CT-^" :: yittdrgwwm, pi. 
-tfo-K -mu. 
translation, s. ^CbT* tfrgum. 
transport, s. '-^11 gwaz. 
trap, s. '^^Van'^ matmdja (-maja). 

(D*?aD^' wdtmad (wwt-, -miid). 
He set a trap: (D^Vfm^shmrro^i: watmad atdm- 

o o 

trash, s. 9^'^9°'i mindmin. 

' o o 

travel, v.i. hlCtH^ kdgar (;*•- td- §§ 7a, 47a, -giir) z^'ora. 
travel fast, v.i. Irt7rt gasdggasa. 

Travel fast : lft*7ft k gdsgis, pi. -'7A- « -gisu. 

Don't travel fast: ^'^h^ft*7ft:•. attigasgis, pi. -rt-s -su. 

He is to travel fast: J&7fnftK yigasgis, pi. -fr" -su. 

He is not to travel fast: h^ltilha aigdsgis, pi. 
-fr « -su. 




Have you travelled fast? 1ft*7rtyA« gdsgisahal?, 
pi. llll^'^'X^"- gasgisaccyuhal ? (§ 7c?). 
travel fast, cause to, v.i hlfllfl ag(g)asdggasa. 

Please cause him to travel fast : pol. "hd't^ltilib^n 
istiyagasgisut, ... cause them ... ^»ft'fc^^A*75L^fl^••.•■ 
traveller, s. ao'ilffji mangaclanna (-dan-), 
treasure, s. aolM-a mazgab (-ay). 
treat badly, v.t. fl^A baddala (bad-). 
14- g^ffa. 
Does he treat him (it) badly? ^njtA*PA:-. yiyaddi- 

laual?, pol. & pi. ^nJtA•;^A:•. yiyaddilutal? 
Does he treat them badly? ^flj^A^^PA-.: yiyaddi- 
idccaual?, pol. & pi. j&flj?:^^'PA:: yiyaddilwdc- 
caual ? 
treated badly, be, v.p. i'fl^A tabaddala (tay-, -ad-). 

'hi 4- tao^aft'a. 
Is he (it) treated badly? )&n^AA:: yibbaddalal ?, 

pol. & pi. J&n^AA-K 
yibbaddalallu ? 

^ O o 

/S.'14.A« yiggaffal?, pol. 

& pi. Jil^-A-K yiggaf- 

treaty, s. ^C? qwiirt. 

ID-A will, 
tree, s. H^P zaf (§ 52a, 8). 

What is the name of this tree? f^M'-n^-llao'in'ii 
VflHK yfhe zaf sfmu mdn-naii? 

•' o o o 

trefoil, s. '^IT mdgat. 
<PjS'*^ wajma. 
G. >Cai'n gwwrtab (-ay). 
S. l\^f\ siddlsa. 

357 TRE— TRI 

tremble, v.i. +'>*l*m+m tanqataqqata. 

He (it) is trembling: jZ.^+m+'nAK yinqatdqqatal, 
pi. ^l^m^'^ti^ii yinqataqqatdllu, (§7c, note), 
trench, s. 7-^fl gaidba (-dya). 

G. 'b^'fiy giidbya (dyya). 
(shallow) 0^ b^ST. 
^fltl fasas. 

o o 

aoll^ mdsn^o. 


tribe, s. HC zar (zar). 

What is this man's tribe? j!,V-iiah'.n^-9^'}!l:C''iaha 
yfhe sau zaru mfndir nau ? 
tribute, s. n-nC g{b(i)r (giy-). 

What is their annual tribute? IH^^at^'-dtwH"' 
ti'i^'i'iahi'. giyraccaii ydmat (§§ 7a, 47a) slnti nau? 
tribute, pay, v.i. 1(1^ gabbara (-biira). 

Whom do they pay tribute to? A*^^ : ^l-fl^A- » 
lamdn yijjrabbirallu ? 

o *' o~ o o 

trick, s. (artifice) 4»T<C^- qftfat (-fat). 
4»T*hV (ijtffnna. 
A-flA^ fblat (fyl-, -lat). 
trick, v.t. +m<C qattafa. 

hdfi abbala fl- ba- (va- ; S 47a). 
h^tiii attallala. 

o o 

He tricked them: ^flAfl^flJ-K abbalabbdccau, pi. 
hflA•flVa^r. abbalubbdccau. 

o o 

tried, be, v.p. (tested) 't'Phd. tam'' okkara (-kara). 

i'd^'t'i tafattana (-fattaua). 
(judicially) fla)l'"nC:<i.^si'/w»^<w»^ bauwm- 
bar (-bar; S 8) fit (fit) tamardmmara 

TRI— TKO 358 

Has he (it) been tried? i-*r»h^A!: tam^dkkirSal?, 

pi. -^i'PAK -raual? 
He will be tried (judicially): t\(D9^aC:d,^i^aDdao 
<J-A:s bauojmbar fit yimmarammaral, pi. ...f^ao 
dao^d' :: ... yimmarammarallu. 
trifling, adj. (frivolous) 0,A'l'*f bwaltdnna (-tan-). 

<PH^ wazafina (-zail-). 
(small) ^'JTi tinnis, intensive pis. ^"ilffi ti- 
ninnis, -'J?*'^ -nnis^oc (-cc ^ 6), ^^'iH ti- 
tinnis, -TrV^ -nnis'^oc (-cc 5 6). 

O \ eJ / 

Trifolium sp., s. '^TP magat. 
'Pg-'^ wSjma. 
G. 7°Cfli'fl gwwrtab (-ay). 
S. ft"^^ siddisa. 
trigger, s. J^A*?* mildcc (§ 8), often f. (§ 54c). 
Trinity, s. /^AA. silldsye. 
Trionyx sp., s. h.A, ^eli. 
tripod, s. (on which to hang things) 
<nifl4»^ masqaya (-aia). 
*^'}niAm^ mantaltaya (tal-, -aia). 
troop, s. (^C t'^or. 

troops, s. (D^^C wwttaddar (-dar ; § 52a, 8). 
trot, s. Ci9^f»'l s'^oms^dma. 

trot, v.i. f»9^f»*^tih,f, scorns'' dma hada (ha-, h^e-, -da). 
Can he trot? /^ir'/i<^:^rh.^As s"' oms'^'dma yiha- 
dal?, f. ... ^fh.^A^-.: ...tihaddllac?, (§ 63f ). 
trouble, s. <w»h^ makara (-kara ; § 8). 
'IpC cfggdr (§ 8). 
It's no trouble (to me) : {^^«^7^^« min caggaran ? 

r'>!h4-^:: minkdff'an? 

359 TRO— TRU 

trouble, v.t. (mentally) htl^ld ascaggara (-gara). 

(physically) *fe^*fe<i qwwrdqqwwra. 

He (it) troubles me: ^A^*7^?Ak yascaggiranfial, 

pi. ^ft^*7<«?AK yascaggiruiinal. 

You are troubling me : ^tl^ld^liV « tascaggiran- 

ftallah, pi. ;''A^*74-?A'f l^ s tascaggirunfialldc- 

cyuh (§ 7d). 

Don't trouble him: ^i;^A'P*7<ia^ :•• attascaggirau, 

pi. -4-^K -rut. 

Don't trouble me: h;^ft^*7^^:•. attascaggiraii, pi. 

-4-^:: -run. 

troubled, be, v.p. (mentally) ^Idoh caggarau (-gar- ; 

impers. § 43a). 

(physically) i"t!.^'hd taciwwrdqqwwra. 

See § 03r/, e. 

He is troubled : ^*7(?;^ A k caggir'' otal, pi. ^*7^^ 

*PAk caggir6dccaiial. 

I am troubled: ^iC'i^--' caggir^'oiinal, pi. -Cifim 


trousers, s. (Eur.) (\'i(n/)r'i bantal'^On. 

(native) A*<5 siirri. 

true, adj. hah'i^' linat (liniit). ] ^ ^ ^, 
. A. 1-- r See §576. 

fhv haqq. J "^ 

It is true: ^^fl^V''^ •• Va^ k undt (S 8) nau. 

It is not true: ?ifl>«V^?" : ^^/^A « lintitimm (§376) 

Sdal (§ 7c?). 

This is a true story : f»V'- th^ « 'ilC -• 'lOh v. yihe haqqi 

(§ "^) nagar (§ 8) nau. 

true!, interj. hoh'i^ linat! (linat). 

trumpet, s. aoMi^ malakat (§ 8). 

trumpeter, s. aoMi't'^ malakatdiiiia (-tan-). 

TRU— TRU 360 

trunk, s. (travelling) ^TTr sdtin. 

(elephant's) Vh9"fl kiimbi. 

(of tree) •7'Jjt gind. 
trust, s. (belief) hr*'i^ fmnat (-nat). 

(deposit) hf!,^ adara (ddara; § 8). 

trust, v.t. hao'i ammana. 


;^<n>V tammana (ger. & part, type B § 35). 
I trust you: h9^'iV^'^ii amnihdllau'^ {hr^W- am- 

naha- App. B § 12c), pi. Mr-iitilv. innamnihdl- 

lan (-5^*y- -mnaha-). 
I don't trust you: ^Ai^^UlT's aldmnihim (-minh-), 

pi. M9^'iV9°i: anndmnihim (-minh-). 
I trust him: A»9"V'PA'^k amnauallau^, pi. h^r^i'P 

A^» innamn|uallan. 
I don't trust him : AiA9"Vfl>-9" •• alamnaum, pi. M 

9°'iiD'9^ :•• anndmnaum. 


Do you trust him? j^S'^V'PAUk tamnauallah?, pol. 

yr"h:^^a ydmnutal? 
Don't you trust him? h^9"'ia}'9"a attdmnaum?, 

pol. h^ri'^rn aidmnutim? (a^d-). 
Don't trust him: h^ao'iiD'ii attimanau, pol. hf, 

ao'h^ii aimanut. 

O O 

trusted, be, v.p. ;^/wlV tammana (ger. & part, type A § 34). 
He (it) cannot be trusted: Y\f,^ao'i9° v: aittdm- 
manim, pol. & pi. -'hf^ « -num, (§ 63c). 
trustworthy, adj. hao-'i imun. 

;^*^^ tdmdn (-nn § 6; § 8). 
truth, s. ^lfl^i^ linat (linat). 
d\^ haqq. 
This is not the truth: ^{i-'hah'i^9^thf^?-^'A yfhe 

linatimm (§ 37&) aidixl (§ Id). 
Tell me the truth: rh4»:'}7<:^:: hdqqi (§ Id) nigaran. 

861 TRU— TUM 

truthful, adj. Vfl/i nabSi (na-, -ya- ; -iyj § 6 ; § 8). 

hoh'i't'^ unatafina (unatan-). 

*fc9" qum. 

*fcjP:V7^? qum nagarafina (-gar-, -aft-). 

4*'J qin. 
try, v.i. & t. 'Phd m^'okkara (-kara). 
<i.+V fattana (fattana). 

o o o ^ o ' 

Try: TYid'. m^^dkkir, pol. J&'T**!^:: yim^okkiru, 

pi. 'r*ln4-K m^^okkiru. 
Don't try: M'V*\}C'.i attim^^dkkir, pol. ^JRT'lfl4-:: 

aim^'^dkkiru, pi. MH^Yi^- » attim'' dkkiru. 

o o ' i^ o o 

Try it: 'PYlda^.i mOkkirau, pol. jK.'Ph^-l-K yi- 
m^^Skkirut, pi. TYl^^-i- m^^dkkirut. 

You can if you try: 'd^'TlndiD-'^'^'fitiVi'' bitti- 
m^()kkirau ticiUUlah, pol. n,'rh<.-"h •• j&^A/V- k bi- 
m^'dkkirut yicilallu, pi. 'n-1l*^lfl<-^ : ^•^•AA^•|^ « 
bittim^' dkkirut ticilallilccyuh (S 7d). 

OO O 00 ./\0/ 

I will try him (it): Ji^'I'V'PA'^ « ifiittinaiiallau'' 

*' \ / o o o o 

(5 7d), pi. Ji'JA^V'PA'J:: innifltttinautlllan. 

\o /' r o o o o 

I will try this horse: ^V'i''d,i:tl''hTY}i!:'P^O'» yi- 

han faras im^^okkiraujillau''. 


try a case, v.i. d^^fL farrada. 

Who is trying the case? '^'>s^<<.C^A:: man yifar- 
Tuesday, s. & adv. *r?hrt^ maksaftno (-sau-). 
tuft, s. (of hair) *fe'>^«' qunc'' o. 
(of grass) 'h^^ giiccita. 
tumble, v.i. aj^4» wcJddaqa. 

Mind you don't tumble : 'h'ifi^aij^^ « ndafctiwwdiq, 
pi. -*feK -qu. 

TUM— TUR 362 

tumble oflf (down), v.i. H-'d '• hii dubb dla. 

(of more than one person or ob- 
ject) H''(iiJh'(i•^h^ dubbidiibb 


S.v. VnA, § 44a. 

They kept tumbling oflf (down) and getting broken: 

^'fl:^'fl:?i^A-:'hrtn4-:: dubbidubb iyydlu tasab- 

baru, or (§52a,S) ... hyti'-'tfid^a ... iyydlatasab- 


o o 

tumbler, s. (glass) •flC'T'* birciq'^o. 
tumour, s. JiflT fbat (fy-, -at). 

h-nm^ fbtat (iyt-, -tat). 

hd'^ tbbac (§ 8). 
turban, s. /smfli^^m*^^ matamtamya. 
turbid, adj. Jt^Cft dffris. 
turf, s. rtCA^ sard^o (sar-). 
turkey, s. hCh4-'^ karkardmi (karkar-). 
turn, s. (alternate) d,d,^ faraqa (§ 8). 
(in order) <(.'};^ fanta. 
•f^ tdra. 


See § 52«, 8. 
In (alternate) turn : tl^^^^ah-. bayyafaraqau (§ 18). 
Let them each come in turn: flfi'^sj&y^m-K bay- 
yatara (§§ 47«, 18) yfmtu. 
turn (round), v.i. H<J z^ora. 

Turn round: H'Ck zur, f. ^^-.^ ziiri, pi. H"<-« ziiru. 
turn (round), v.t. AiH^ az'^ora. 

(a wheel) lifli^ zduwara. 

\ / o o o 

Turn it round: Yi^^Ohv. azurau, pi. -<-1*s! -rut. 

363 TUR— TUR 

turn, be done in, v.p. (occur, v.i.) i'd.^d.'P tafarSrraqa. 
They are done in turn : f^d.^'d^f^t'- yiffararraqdllu. 
It is to be done in turn, first like this, then like 

that: <t^:?i7^U:AA:M-?.U:ihT:jRA^/:4':: fit ju- 

dfh hwala ndih hiin^'o yiffardraq (§ 52a, 8). 
turn, do in, v.t. hd^^d^ aftararraqa. 

Do them in turn, this to-day, that to-morrow: H<ts 

^UV7:V7:^Ui'}.rtC1'U!^<i.^C*:: zdr e yihannan 

n^o^a yihannan sartiih aff*ardriq. 
turn inside out, v.t. lAflm o^alabbata. 

O o o o • o 

Turn it inside out: Ifii'tlmahv. g^lyitau, pi. -m*^K 

Turn them inside out: 7A'fl'n^a»-:: "fjllvitdccau, 
pi. -(n,'lrah:'. -twdccau. 
turn out, v.t. (eject) hw^ aww'tta (aucJ-). 
(rouse) +rt*l*rt qasdcjqasa. 

Turn him (it) out : ^fl^''lfl^ :: ilutau, pi. hahm-^ « 

Turn them out : ha^fl^oh :: autdccau, pi. -^.^tf^ :: 



Turn the men out to work: rt?'^'>!>i7^rt<-:+ft 

^/i^ohi'. sau^^occin indisaru qasqisdccau. 

O OOOO -^o^o o 

turn out (to be), v.i. If V h"" ona. 

He has turned out (to be) a thief: A.fls|^.'I,<^:: 
P eva hiin5al, pi. A»0^ : u-V'P A » 1> ev'' oc hiinaual. 
turned inside out, be, v.p. +7Anm tajjalabbata. 

It has been turned inside out: +7A'flrp.A:-. tagal- 

vit5al, pi. -'flm'PAK -vitaual. 
It is to be turned inside out : ^7AflT « yiggalyat, 
pi. -flm*:: -yatu. 

TUR— TWI 364 

turned out, be, v.p. (roused) i'+rt+rt taqasdqqasa. 

They are to be turned out before cock-crow : f'C^ 
^^C^fl-'^^ili'tl'i'- d^'or^o saic'^dh yiqqasqasu. 
turtle {Trionyx sp.), s. h,fl, ^eli. 
tweezers, s. ao^lax^^ maqwwntaca (-taca). 
twelfth, ord. num. K/*'^!|^A'^? asrahulattdniia(-latt4n-; 

' O o ^ 

§ 206). 
twelfth (i/i,), s. h^l^ » \h^^^ s [- A-fc^] asrahulattiyya (-lat- ; 

§ 20&, § 52a, S). 

twelve, card. num. ^/*'^!I^A^ asrahiilatt (-latt; § 20a). 

twentieth, ord. num. U^? ha^anna (-f ? -yS,nna ; § 206). 

twenty, card. num. U^ hd^a (haa ; § 20a). 

twenty-first, ord. num. U^ ■• Axlfji ha^ ahandanna (-dS,n-). 

U^:^7ft? ha^aandaniia {-J and-, 


See § 206. 

twenty-one, card. num. \)^'-thlj!: ha^ahand. 

0^ : hlf!: ha^adnd (-4nd). 

See°§ 20«. 

twenty-two, card. num. 0^ -- i>A^ ha'ahulatt (-latt; § 20a). 

twice, adv. l^A^■•^H. hiilatti (-latt!) giz>e (-ttfzgye) 

twin, s. #wl^;^ manta (§ 52a, 8). 

She (has) had twins: <n>'};^:aiA^"f « manta wcJlla- 


They are twins : <w»'>'f ^ « *7^fl>- ■» maiif^oc ndccau. 

•^ o o 

twine, s. <i.^A fatil. 

' o o 

twine, v.i. (be twined, v.p.) '^m#w^m<w» tatamdttama, 
round, fl- ba- (ya-; § 47a). 
It twines round it: fc^l<w>m5^*fl;^A » yittamatta- 
mibbatal, pi. f,mm>nitfi>-n;'' A k vittamattamiib- 


twine, v.t. aiaoaiao tamdttama, round, fl- ba- (ya-; § 47a). 

365 TWI— UGL 

Twine it round it (them § 52a, S) : mi^TJ'"!!^ « 
tdmtimibbat, pi. m9"T<n>-n'lh « tdmtimubbat. 

•O'OOO-'- -O'O o 

twist, v.t. m<n»MH tamazzaza. 

• o o o o ■ 

Twist it; mJ^liliiD-K tdmzizau, pi. -Tflf"^:: -zizut. 

• o o o ' * o 

Don't twist it: h^m9"1lliah'ii attitamzizau, pi. 

O" O O O ' -t^ 

-TIH-^K -zizut. 


twisted, be, v.i. & p. •fmoDnil tatamdzzaza. 

' 1 o ■ o o o o ^^ 

It is (has got) twisted: i'ai9^1t^fiiii tatdmziz5al, 

pi. -TiH'PAK -zizaual. 
It must be twisted : j&m^'H'MK yittamzaz, pi. -HH's 

It must not be twisted : hf»a\9^lili « aittamzaz, pi. 

-HH*K -zazu. 


He (it) has got a twisted gut: ^'>j^'f2!;^T^A:•• 
anjatu tdtfdal. 
twitter, v.i. «*is*«?.--hA ca-ca dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
two, card. num. l^A•^h hiilatt (-latt ; § 20a). 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharlca, Part I). 

udder, s. m-'lh tut (§ o2of, y). 
ugly, adj. £a jil. 

(of persons) Im ■• n,ft gatta bis (vis). 
Ugly person: (tA^ sil (sil). 
ugly, be, v.i. %h jala (§ 63<^/, e). 

We think she is ugly because we are not accus- 
tomed to her: K'f :;^AAlw»J^T^:jf AA^:?i'>'\A'Jk 
ifind talldmmadnat ( = +- ta- S 48a + h^- al- 

O O O ^ O " 

^S 37c, la + tiaof^'i lammadna -I- -a^ -at S 12c) ji- 
Idllacc (§ 6) innildllan (s.v. VHA, § 44a). 
umbrella, s. TA tfla. 



unadulterated, adj. *?<^ tfru (tAru). 
unarmed, adj. ftiaofid^ yalamassarya (-ya; §§ 47a, 52a, S). 
Are they unarmed ? ^tiaofid^ -. T^oi- « yalamassdr- 

ya ndccau?, or oofid^i^'i^ahT's massdrya yal- 

idccaum ? 


unbending, adj. (rigid) mth^ tankarra. 

uncertain, adj. (insincere) AHH lazaza. 

uncivil, adj. flAl bdlag^'e (-lag-). 

uncle, s. ^7»^ dggwwt. 

uncomfortable, be, v.i. i'^fe^'fe^ taqwwrdqqwwra. 

ft4*4* ! ^t Afl^ sfqiqq dlau (impers. 
§ 43a ; s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
See § 636?, e. 
Are you uncomfortable ? i'^kC^d^^ •••• taqwcJrqwii- 
rahal?, pol. i"feC4>^^'PA» taqwcJrqwiiraual ?, pi. 
'^'feC*l>^^^A A K taqwwrqwurdccyuhal ? (§ 7d). 
I am uncomfortable : i'^C'^C^li'^ :•• taqwwrqwiir- 
ryallau^ (§ 7d), or ft4»4»:hA^s sfqiqq dlaii. 
uncomfortable, render (make), v.t. *fe^*fe<! qwojraqqwwra. 
It makes me uncomfortable : J&*fe^*l»^^? A k yiqww- 
uncouth, adj. flAl bdlag^e (-lag-). 
uncover, v.t. lAm gallata (gal-). 

Uncover it: *7Amfl>«K gflatau, pi. -m-^:: -tut. 
Don't uncover it : K^*7Am<»-:: attiglataii, pi. -mr^s 

Uncover them : •7A''l^i»- « gilatdccau, pi. -tr^^oh :: 


Don't uncover them : h^ltifl^oh n attifflatdccau, 
pi. -(i^^ahii -twdccau. 

367 UNO— UND 

uncovered, be, v.p. -tlhrn tagallata (-g4l-). 

If it is uncovered: fl,7AT.' biggdllat, pi. -m-.- -tu 

It is not to be uncovered: AiiMAT:: ajggdlat, pi. 

-Oh a -tu. 
undecided, adj. (in attitude or intention) AiT-A dgul. 

(indefinite) h^T-fii agwagwtil. 
under (-neath), prp. fl- ...: ;^?• ba... tac (-cc § 6). 
h-[1'-]...: /*'Cka-(ta-)...sir. 
See §§ 8, 476. 
Under the table: n7n;^fl^:;^^: bagayattlu tac. 
Under the big tree: h-VA*:H<i::/^C:'^kati]liqu zaf 


What is it under? -i^r^'i'.A^C.'iah.i tami'n sir nau? 

O O O o * 

underdrawers, s. A«<{ siirri. 

underneath, adv. fl;!-^ b^tdc (-cc § 6 ; § 8). 

understand, v.i. & t. ii*n samma (§ 42a). 

hw^ {luwaqa (-wwqa). 
See § G3r/, e. 
I understand: rtJ^^AIr.:: samiccallau'^ (§ 7^/), pi. 

o o 

(generally) Tirt'^A'*^:: isamc411au'^ 

O O o 

(§ 7d), pi. h'Jrt'^A'J:: innisamdl- 

o o o 

I understand it: A^fll4»l^^:: duwwqhut. 
I don't understand: h^(i°lih9° v. alsammahum, pi. 

-'^ir-.x -mmanim. 


(gen.) h^d'^r-.i alsamam, pi. 
hlil^ir'-A annsamam. 

UND— UND 368 

Do you understand? rt'^Uw sdmmah?, pol. rttfo-s 

sammu?, pi. ii*l'^ih» sam- 

o ' * o 

mdccyuh ? (§ 7d). 
(gen.) ^A'^AUk tisamalliih?, 
pol. Z&rt'^/V--.-. yisamallu?, 
pi. ■^rt'^A^ih K tisamalldc- 
cyuh? (§ 7d). 
Don't you understand? ^Art'^Oi'":-- alsammahim?, 

pol. h^flao'9° :: alsdm- 
mum?, pi. K Art'^^iM^ ". 
alsammdccihum ? 
(gen.)h^rt'^9"". attsamam? 
pol. Kj&rt<n»-9"". aisamum?, 
pi. h^flao^rx'. attsdmum? 
Have you understood ? rt9"+y A K sdmtahal?, pol. 

rtJ^i^PAK samtaual?, pi. 
A9°^'^'X^-' samtdccyu- 
hal?(§7^): or" 
h(D^l} ••'• auwwqh? (-wqq § 7d), 
pol. ?iflJ*fc« auwojqu?, pi. 
haa^'^'ih K auwcoqaccyuh ? 

(§ 7rf)- 
Do you understand what he says? ^Aa>-^:rt*^0:: 
ydlaun sammah ?, Do you (pol.) ...?... ilao- k . . . 
sammu ? 


Do you understand what they say? ^A'^'}-'rt'^OK 
volutin sammah ? 

V O O 

Do you understand Galla? ;iA?:^*rt'^AU!: gal- 
Hnna tisamdllah? 

o o o 

Does he understand Arabic? h^'fl'fsJlrt'^AK ara- 
vfiiiia yisdmal ? 

• o *' o o 

undervest, s. 'ff-^'fl siirrab (ay; § 8). 



369 UND— UNE 

undo, v.t. (unfasten) d.^* fatta. 

Undo it: ^;^fl^:: fft^, pi. ^1:^:: fftut. 

Don't undo it : ^^•<^;^fl^K attiftau, pi. -'P'ls-lh •.: -ftut. 

Undo them: ^^'^ah-.-. fitdccau, pi. *P;fciPa>-K fi- 



Don't undo them : h•'^¥;^'^fl^ :•• attif tdccaii, pi, -^^ 
^ahi: -ftwdccau. 


I can't undo it : 'h9°(\^'-hli^i'' liibi dlaii. 

Can't you imdo it? h9^i\^'hM"' mbi dliih?, pi. ... 

M^O-K ... aldccyuh? (§ 7d). 
undone, be, v.p. (come, v.i.) '^4i.;^ tafatta. 

It comes (will come) undone: ^^f.;'-^:: yiftattal, 

pi. f^i,'J't>^'.' yifFattallu. 
It does (will) not come undone: ^/i<i.;^5'":•. aiffat- 

tam, pi. -'^T :: -ttum. 
It is to be undone : J&<C;^:•. yiffdta, pi. -12:: _tu. 
It is not to be undone: hf^d^^^v. aifFata, pi. -'fs:-. -tu. 
It has come undone : 'f'<(.'l*;/:A:: tafattoal, pi. 'VdJV 

'h'PA" tafattaual. 

o o o 

undress, v.i. A'flfr'J : ^i(dA4» libsun (liys-) awallaqa (aua-, 


I am goin<^ to undress: A'flrt,'> •• Afli a4» •• i^ :: Ify- 

s^'en lauoilqi (§§ Id, 48a) nan. 
I am undressed: ^•fe't'J.-V^:: raqut>en (§§ 8, 56c?) 
uneasy, be (feel), v.i. fl^4*!hAa>- sfqiqq dlau (impers. 

§ 43a ; § 63r?, e). 
unemployed, adj. dJ\' fatt. 

ft<5- : <C^ sfra fatt. 
uneven, adj. I^Cfl") gwwrbatta (-rya-). 

On uneven ground: flT^Cfl"] i {'"J^'C •• bagwwryatta 

AM. GR. (ll) 24 

UNE— UNL 370 

unexpectedly, adv. J!:'il^ dfngat. 

H^'il^ badingat. 
unexpectedly, enter, v.i. iiay-ihii zauw (§ 6) dla (s.v. VflA, 
§ 44a). 
Don't come in unexpectedly: H<»--"flAUs?i^*7fl:: 
zauw! vflah attfgva. 
unfasten, v.t. d,^ fatta (s.v. undo), 
unfastened, be, v.p. (come, v.i.) '^<i.;^ tafatta (s.v. undone, 

ungrateful, be, v.i. fl^•A;^••^m4- wulata (-lat-) ataffa, to, 
P- ya- (§ 4:7a), or pers. suff (§ 125). 
He was not ungrateful to me: fl^■A;^P»'}:hAm4•l'"K 
wulata^en alataifam (§ 37a). 
uniform, adj. ■^InVlA tikfkkil. 
uniform, s. PrtA*p! A-flft yasalf (-salf; § 70) libs (liys). 

aoiiiid3^ massallafya (-sallaf-). 
uniform, be, v.i. i'hhA takakkala. 

' ' o o o 

They are uniform: j&i'JlhAA-K yittakakkalallu. 
uniform, render, v.t. ^fti'hhA astakakkala. 
unimpaired, adj. T^ ti'ru (tiiru). 

f^h'i dahna (§ 8). 
unlawful, be declared, v.p. i'lU't' tagazzata. 

Has it been declared unlawful? i'TH:tA« tagrazzi- 

^— ^ ° * " 


unlawful, declare, v.t. IHi* gazzata. 

unless, conj. ( = if not), use neg. verb (§ 37c) in con- 
ditional constr. (§ 81) ; s.v. if 
He is not to come unless he wishes: fl^aiJt-'^J& 
9°^ K baiwojdd, fiimta. 

o ' o • 

Don't take it unless you want it: fl'h<i.A7(D- •• ^'li* 
a>-A£fl>-K battifdlliqrau attusadau. 

371 UNL— UNS 

He won't come unless you fetch him: fl^em^tD'i 
hP,trofl9^ti battamatau aimatam. 

•^ o • o o • 

I should not pay him unless he brought it : ^AJT" 
T-f ^ : tllf"i '. hfiiti^iiohr : inc :: aldmtit ot vi- 

•o • 

h'^on, alkdflaum ndbbar. 

o o o o 

Unless he had come, I should have sold it: ffiiaofl s 
?i'}^U"}:?iffma>-.-Vnc« yalmattandah^on, isatau 

o o 

unload, v.t. hat^^ awc^rrada (auw-). 

Unload the baggage : "h^Oht .• hohCff^oh a f(jaun 

dwiirdaii, pi. -S-'l* :•• -dut. 
Unload the mule: +n4'A" : ^fl^CJ^A^ :: tayaql'^o 
dwiirdill^t, pi. -^-A'V « -dullat, (§ 47a). 
unlucky, adj. (ill-omened) 1"^/V" gwto'dal'^o. 

It is unlucky: >^A---?iJt A .•*<»-". gwwdal''o (§8) 
ddil naii. 

o o 

He is unlucky: li'fl'l*:fAfl»-i^K haft yallaum. 
unripe, adj. ^AdAA yalbassala (-ly^-; §S 1*^' *5^^j 37c). 
unripe, be, v.i. — use neg. of flrtA bassala, to ripen. 

It is unripe: h AflAAl'" •••• alyassalam, pi. -i\r9°ii -lum, 
(§ «36/). 
unsaddle, v.i. & t. h^ld, arraggafa. 

Unsaddle : h^*l^ « arrdgif, pi. -*7^ » -gifu. 

Don't unsaddle: h^'^l^a attarrdgif, pi. -^k -fu. 

Unsaddle the pony: d.^f^'i'-h^l^i'- farasun arrd- 

Unsaddle him: h^ld^ahn arrdorifau, ... her: -4-'V:: 

Oo o 

Don't unsaddle him: h^^1A,ah» attarrdgifau, ... 
her: -4-'Vk -fat. 


UNS— UNT 372 

unsteady, be, v.i. '^i4*V*l' tanaqannaqa. 

This table is unsteady: J^.U:^n;^.•J^,>+i^A:•. ylhe 
oravata yinnaqannaqal. 
untie, v.t. <i.;^ fatta (s.v, undo). 

Untie the knot : *l>^T4-'> : ^^Oh •.: qwiitirun f itau. 
untied, be, v.p. (come, v.i.) i'd,^' tafatta (s.v. undone, be), 
until, conj. htlh- (i)ska- ["hM'- (i)sta-] prefixed to simple 
hM}- (i)sk(i)- [Kft^- (i)st(i)-] pref. to contin- 
gent (§ 45). 
See § 48a ; J^r^ft diras may follow either 
tense ; s.v. till, 
until, prp. Jifth- (i)ska- (§ 47a). 
J.ft+- ("jlsta- ( „ ). 
>ifth-[Kft1--]...!^<:ft (i)ska- [(i)sta-]... djr|s 

<§*^*)- S.y°till. 

untrue, adj. fl^ff^ wfsat (wus-; §575). 
untrustworthy, adj. ^^^^'ao'i yammaittamman (s.v. 

untrustworthy, be,*v.i. — use neg. of ^ao^ tammana (ger. 

& part, type A § 34). 
He is untrustworthy: h^^ao'i^^ v. aittdmmanim, 
pi. -^^9° :: -num. 
untruth, s. fl)-ff'h wfsat (wtis-). 
hfi^ assat. 

h-nA'T- Iblat (lyl-, -lat). 
See § 52a, 8. 
untruthful, adj. 'PV wds'^o. 

ahri^'9^ wusatam (§ 8). 

h(\f. §:bai(ay-; -dyy §6; §8). 

373 UP— UPS 

up, adv. (above) Aj& Idi. 

nA^ balSi {§ 8). 
(upwards) tDfJ\f^ wwdalai (§ 8). 
7i4»'(l sfqqib (-iv). 
up, prp. h- ka- (§ 47a). 
'i--il{ „ ). 
He (it) is up the tree: '^H4^sVfl^:: tazaf nau. 
up, go (come), v.i. oi^ wwtta. 

v.t. n-....: Aji.-iD'nba-.... lai(S8, U76) 

O O \t' ' « / 

Go up : ID-'H "• wtita, pi. fl^^v :•• wtitu. 
Don't go up: ^i'l*i»-'n k attuta, pi. -m* « -tu. 
Has he (it) gone up? fl)T:tA:: wcu'ttM?, pol. & 
pi. iDT'h'PA:: wwttaual? 

A • O 

Go up the hill : n'^^^ : A^ : i»-'»l » batarard lai wiita. 

*■ • o o o • 

The price went up : *?pih\\^x'. wdga tikkala. 
up to, prp. ItxhXl- (i)ska- (§ 47a). 
Jiftl-- (i)sta- ( „ ). 

Kfth [Xftt-] ... : j^-<:ft (i)ska-[(i)sta-] ... dfras 
Up to now: 'hhhih'i •• iskdhun. 
Up to here : Txtxi-nA) • Jt^^ft •• istjizzfh dfras. 

■* O O O o 

uphill, adv. ^'I'fl'lh tiqabat (-ayat ; § 8). 

When he (it) goes uphill: M(\H"- tum'U •- dqayat 


upon, prp. n- [h-, -K] ....- A|Z. ba- (ka-, ta-) ... lai (§ 8, § 476). 
Upon the chair: i'a)9^f[<^:'i^: tauwmbdru lai. 

* '^ O O o 

uproot, v.t. V4*A naqqala. 
uprooted, be, v.p. i'V+A tanaqqala. 
upside down, adv. n*7A'flT bagilbit (-lyit, -giUbbit). 
It is upside down: n*7A'flT:ViD-:: badlibbft (S 8) 

UPW— USE 374 

upwards (upstream), adv. H^ii sfqqib (-iv). 
upwards (upstream), go, v.i. hfi^(\ asaqqaba (-aya). 

ti^'flshti sfqqib (-iy) ala 
(s.v. VnA, § 44a). 
He (it) has gone upwards: M^f^^^a asaqqiyoal, pi. 

-fl*PAK -vaual, or 

• o ' 

7J4''fl •• -flO, A ss siqqiy yf- 
15al, pi. ... 'flA'PAK ... 

• O O 

urethra, s. P7i'}^!/*'C yasint sir. 

(male) P*l*^As/*'C yaqwuld sir. 
See §§ 8, 70. 
urinal, s. aoS^ masana (-sana). 

(\&^ bar^eta. 
urinate, v.i. ffV sanna. 

(euphem.) hd^ti kafFala. 
urine, s. fi'i^ sint. 
Urtica ureiis (or simensls, Guidi, Vocab. pp. 149, 150), s. 

A*^ samma (§ o2a, 8). 
us, pers. pron. -t -n (-nn § 6, -V -nna, § 12c). 

emphatic fi'i'i Inndn (§ 8, § 12a). 
Don't bring it near us : (D^ •• h:i'9^flah k wwdannfi, 
(§ 47a) attantau (§ 7d), pi. ... -flb^s -tut. 
usage, s. iDl wtug. 

/^^^ sfrat (§ 8). 
?iJtC fddir. 
use, s. (utility) T^'J^ tfqim. 

What is the use of it? fi9^'}tf^d(\lii« lamfn yird- 

375 USE— USE 

It's no use: (of a course of action) ^^i?^ah9^t: 
fir^e yallaum. 

O "^ o ^^ 

(of an object) ^.G^Cfli^w airayam, pi. 
-0-9" :: -yum. 
h^(n^9°9°i' aitaqmim, 
pi. -tfo-jr» :: -mum. 

I have no use for it: Ai:7i^m4»<w»^J^:! lan^e aita- 

It's no use his shouting: ll9^''(\(t--'iah:h'^i^fl» 

zimm bil^'o (S 8) nau mmic''6h (§§ 7d, 14). 
use, v.t rt^sfl- sdrra (sar-) ba- (ya-; § 47a). 

What do you use it for? ^"J •• ^rt^n;l-AO « min ti- 

sarabbatallah ? 

o o 

How does one use it? M^^'-f^ao^^'-' nd>et yim- 

maccal ? 
We used to go every month : flf a)4-s X'Jrh.Jt •• VflO:*. 
bayyawwru (§ 18) nnihad ndbbarn (§ 246, § 33a). 
used, be, v.p. (in use, be, v.i.) 'i'liaof!, talammada. 

Is this word used? jK.U:^A:/Z.A<wi^A-je.K yihe qal 
yilldmmadallwj? (s.v. a)J&). 
used to, be (become), v.t. A#ni^ Idmmada (§ 63^?, e). 

He (it) is used to it (them §016): Ar^As 1dm- 

d(Sl, pi. AJ'^ft'PA « Idmdaual. 
You will get used to ft (them): ^^r^^V'^ tilam- 
dallah, pol. ^Ar^A-« yilamddllu, pi. ^A?"^A^l^« 
tilamdalldccyuh (§ 7d). 
useful, adj. f^^Cfl yammiraba (aya; § 14:). 
useful, be, v.i. <C0 rabba. 

m+<n» tdqqama (taq-). 
He (it) is useful: f^dd^i- yirdyal, pi. J&^nA-K yira- 

USE— VEI 376 

useless, adj. f^J&^fl yammairaba (aya; §§ 14, 37c). 
9"TJ^7 mindmin. 

o o 

uterus, s. *ltha\'i mah(i)tan. 
'Im'i mdtan. 

• o 

uvula, s. h'i^C anqdr (§ 8). 

§ Q'efers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

vagabond, s. ho^^A^/i audalddi (-dal- ; -dyy § 6; § 8). 
vagina, s. ?»J^ft ims. 

(euphem.) -IIA^ bfllit. 
vain, in, adv. — use gerund of TfS^.-^iA zimm ala (s.v. 
VnA, § 44a). 
He begged in vain: 'H9"i'flA"iAOTis zimm bll^o 
Idmmana, pi. 'H^^s'TIAid-.-AotiV-:: zimmbflau 1dm- 

OOO-'' oooo 



valley, s. If A^ salaq^o (swlwq^ o). 
vanguard, s. ha^-^d aurdri. 

Commander of vanguard : d^^oh^'^ fitaurdri (fit-). 
various, adj. AP-s AP' liyyu liyyu. 
vegetable, s. -^VlA tikil, pi. also ^;^VlA^ atdkilt. 

(gTeen) 'h'tw'} gwwmman (-man ; § o2a, 8). 
vegetable marrow, s. -S-fl diibba. 
veil, s. au^&j'^ masaffafia (-saffdfia). 
veil, v.t. ff<{.V saffana (saf-). 
veiled, be, v.p. (veil oneself, v.r.) 'V^&h tasaffana (tasaf-). 

Is she veiled? (now) -^'^^^ti^v^ t.^sjk'injillac?, pi. 
i'Tf'hV'PA:: tasafFinaii'al? 

o o 

(generally) 'Ihff <CTA^- ••: tissaff anal- 
lac?, pi. J&?f<i.'?A-:: yissaffan^llu? 

377 VEI— VIC 

vein, s. /*'C sir (§ 52a, y). 

velvet, s. h<Cfi kafai. 

venereal disease, s. (gonorrhoea) fiR.'flT cayt. 

(syphilis) *feT^ q|ttin (-nil § 6; § 8). 
veranda, s. A'fl^'n slbsdb (siysdy ; § 8). 
G. ^jS-mP^ aittayaf (-aiiif ). 
B. A'J?^ dajjaf (§8; in G. & S. doorway), 
(of church) ^£ •• rtA9" daj jii (§ 9^) saldm (§ 8). 
On the veranda: -i'tl'dfi'ti-- tasiysay (§ 47a). 
G. y^me^.-haittdiaf ( „ ). 
vermifuge, s. Vi^ k^ds^o. 
versatile, adj. 'nAy'^? bilhatafina (-tan-). 

Tflfl'f tibabaiuia (tivav-, -an-). 

• OOO V'O'O* ' 

versatility, s. -flA'/'T- bilhat (§ 8). 
TO-fl tfbab (tfvav). 
very, adv. hf:*! Ijjig. 

n-nH- babfzu (bavf-). 

o o ^ o • o ' 

Very nice: K^l'-'^tid^^'- fjjig mfilafya. 
He (it) is very tall: ?ijt*7:^£r:Vfl»-:: fjji«4- nijjfm 


vest, s. (under-) 'rt'*^'fl siirrdb (-dy; § 8). 
Vetterli rifle, s. me^G^ wacaf '' o. 
vice, s. In^^'V kifat (kaf-, kiif-, § 7r/; § 8). 
Viciafaha (Broun, Cat. 141), s. n*A baq^ela (§ 52a, 8). 
vicious, adj. h^ kifu (kiifu, kdfu, § Id). 
(of animals) 4*^m« qwtittu. 
vicious, be (become), v.i. h4' kaff'a (§ 63f7, g). 

This mule is (has got) vicious: /i!)!n4*A"sh^:I:A« 
yihe ydql^^ o kaft5al. 

VIC— vol 378 

victory, s. j?:A d|l. 

They (he, pol.) fought and gained a victory: -fP 
*7'^a^ ! Jt A s A^<iT- K taudgtau dil addrragu, or 
... JtAeii**-:: ... dil nassu. 

*^ o o 

vigilance, s. ^4*V^ niqfnnat (-nat). 
vigilant, adj. 7* nfqu. 

vigorous, adj. T■An;^9" gwulbatam (-ly-, -at- ; § 8). 
T^Ani*? gwulbatanna (-ly-, -atan-). 
vigour, s. T^Afll* gwiilbat (-ly-, -at). 
village, s. aotff^C mandar (-dar). 
hlC agar (-gar). 

See § 52a, S. 
In the village: •f'ao'ifijcii tamdndar (§ 4Ta). 
Are there many villages on the road? 'flH's<wi'}^Cs 
Y\h'''t'ao'iif^it\f»,xi bfzu mandar alia tamangddu 
(§ 8) iS? (§ 476). 
vinegar, s. "hJ^TT giimtit. 

If jPrtj/n h^^ omtatta (\\9^- k^om-, mm. -iitj^). 
violence, s. :ij&A hail, 
violent, adj. ^^f^tC? haiUfiiia (-laii-). 
violet, adj. *^'h^ cagiimma. 
violin, s. '^Ti'}*^ masfnq^o. 
viper, s. *P^^ fdnfiit, often f (§ 54c). 
virgin, adj. J?:7*7Aj& dingfldi (§ 8). 
virgin, s. J^'>*7A dfngil, pi. also ^*i'*7A danagil. 
viscera, s. If Jt •• "k^ h^^odiqa. 

<tCft fars (fars). 
Viverra civetta, s. 'HflJt zfbdd (-fyd- ; § 8). 
TC^ tfriu (-fin SC; S 8). 
Usually f (§ 54c). 
voice, s. J^i^T dimt. 

379 VOL— WAI 

voluntarily, adv. fllHsJiS'- bagazzdjj- (§ 8) with personal 
suffixes (§126); (s.v. 7H). 
He did it voluntarily: (iini'h%shf!,^l(D'ti bagaz- 
zdiiu addrragau. 

OO O O ~ O -, 

She came voluntarily: HlH * ?i5, •• ^ni")^ « bagazzaj- 
jwa mattac. 
vomit, v.i. & t. '^*^ tafFa. 

Have you vomited ? i'4«UK tdfFah?, pol. i"^-.: taffu? 
vomit, cause to, v.i. & t. Aiftf'4- astaffa. 

It will cause you to vomit : ^ft+^-VA « yastdifahal, 
... you (pol.) ...: ^ft'^4.?';^A:: yastaffa^tal. 
vomited, be, v.p. i"t'4^ tatafFa. 
vulture, s. fT^'flt/iT*^ yatjmb (§ 70) am^ora. 

h'P^ am'^ora. 
vulva, s. h9°tl ims. 

(euphem.) 'flA-V bfllit. 


§ refers to the paragrapJis of tfie Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

wager, s. OhCCf: wiirfrrid. 
wages, s. ^*r"H ddm^(5z (§ 8). 
waggon, s. t/*'^7A siragdlla (i*'- sa-). 
S. tj3<{ gdri. 
Waggon road: tf/*'<:'IA.'<w>'}7j^e yjtsiragdlla mdn- 
S. ^^pd'-ao'Hjt:'. yiigari mdngad. 
See §§ 47«, 70 ; s.v. road, 
waist, s. fli'l'fl wwgab (-ay). 
waistband, s. ao^'iff^ maqannaca. 
^•^dig " 

WAI— WAI 380 

waistcoat, s. *7'n*7'll ^ibbidbb. 
wait, v.i. (for, v.t.) "fef qwwyya. 

mfl*!' tabbaqa. 
Wait: *feJ&K qwwi, pi. ^P-" qwwyyu. 
Don't wait: ^^*fe^K attfqwwi, pi. h^W^- atti- 

qwwyyu. _ 

He (it) is to wait: jR*fe/iK yfqwwi, pi. j&*feP'« yi- 

He (it) needn't wait: lij&*fej&:'. aiqwcui, pi. ^j&'feP'K 

I cannot wait : #n>«fef ^ : hj!,^ti^9° s maqwwyyat 
aiccalanfiim, pi. -Ii'i9^ s -lannim. 

o o ^ Mr o o 

Wait for him (it): *fefiD-K qwwyyau, pi. W^-' 

rti'fU'aHK tabbiqau, pi. -«fe^K 
Wait for them: *fe^^m-:: qwwj^dccau, pi. *feJi*P 

^fli-K qwcuyyudccau. 
ax'Q^^ah li tabbiqdccau, pi. -$ 
^f^fl^:: -qwdccau. 
wait a little, v.i. *fef^!?iA qwwyyatt ala (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
Wait a little: ^fef^snA:: qwwyyat (§§6,8) yal, pi. 
*fef ^ ■• fl/V* K qwftiyyat yalu. 
wait, cause or allow to, v.t. K*fef aqwwyya. 

Aift*fef asqwcuyya. 
Make him wait: ^'fefOJ-:: aqwwyyau, pi. h*k^^" 

Make them wait: h't^y^ahn aqwwyyaccau, pi. ^"fc 
^'h^Oh '.'. aqwwyyudccau. 
wait for each other, v. recip. '^*fe^P' tacpvcoiayyu. 

Don't wait for each other: Ik^'fe^P-K attiqciwojiaiu. 

381 WAI— WAL 

They are not to wait for each other: ?i'}-Sj&'fe^&:: 

We will wait for each other: h'J'fe^^A'JK inniq- 
waiting, keep, v.t. hA*fef asqwcJyya. 

Don't keep him (it) waiting: ^;^ft*fefa^:•• attas- 
qwcjyyau, pol. ^^ft'fe^^ « a^ asqwo^yyut, pi. ^^;^ft 
'feP'^K attasqwojyyut. 
Don't keep them waiting : ^i;^ft'fe^^•a^ « attas- 
qwtuyydccau, pol. h^tlWh^tO'i' a^ asqw&jyyudc- 
cau, pi. h^'il'k^h't^ah K attasqwwyyudccau. 
wake, v.i. ^^ naqqa. 

I shall wake anyhow: ?»'>-?.^fl>« •• h^^A'V^ « ndyilu 

naqallaii'' (§ 7d). 
I shall not wake unless you call me: flj^'fti*^'*^ •• 
hM^9°ii battasnassanii (§§6, 37c) alnaqtxm. 
wake, v.t. M^ anaqqa. 
hM**! asndssa. 


Wake me : ht^'"^ k anqaii. 

hM*^'^'.'- asnassan. 


Don't wake me : h^^l^'"^ k attdnqan. 

h:i*t\*i**i^-'' attasnassan. 


Wake me before dawn: 'i-'ip^'^d.^'-txi^^vs, ta- 
nigdt yafit dncian. 
walk, s. (gait) Ahrh.jt akkahiid. 
walk (about, off), v.i. rh.^ hada (ha-, h^e-, -da, § Id). 
Can he (it) walk? ^rh.^AK yihadal?, pol. & pi. f, 

rh.^/V-:: yihiidallu? (§ 63c). 
He (it) can't walk: h,ftrfi.Jti^-- aihadim, pol. & pi. 
-fi-r-' -dum (§63c). 

WAL— WAN 382 

walk, v.t. (about) hMhf^ askada {-ka-, -da), 
(along) fid sdba (sdva). 
Walk the horse (about): ^dfh'i-'hlltu^ah'^ fara- 
sun askidau. 

o o 

Walk it about until it is dry : hMKf!.0}--hil'l:f!.C^» 

dskidau stidarq. 
Walk the horse alonor: d.^C^'i'-fidoha farasun sd- 

~ o o 

walk, "TO for a, v.i. i'Vii.rt tanaffasa. 

I am aroino* out for a walk: ^I'l'^^A'V'saiT^K in- 
naffasallau^ wwticc^e. 
wall, s. (high) n^^fi gidgidda (girg- § 7d). 
(low) ^Jt4» nfddiq. 
h^*P Idm^o. 
wallet, s. h^rHi'lh karatit. 

(wicker-work) hXii^^ ak^'ofdda. 
wallow, v.i. i'^hflAA tankaballala (-aya-). 

He (it) wallows °in the mud^ h'T'^.-JK.^hnAAA:: 
kacfqa yinkayallalal, pi. -AAA A* k -yallalallu, (§ 7c, 
note 1). 
want, v.t. d,til fdllaffa. 

o O^ o 

Do you want him (it)? ^<(.A1*PAU:: tifalligauallah?, 
pol. Je,<^A'^;^AK yifalligutal?, pi. 4*<C A7';^A^^^ s 
tifalligutalldccyuh? (§ 7d). 

Don't you want him (it)? ^^^A7flJ-r:: attifalli- 
gaum?, pol. hf,iLfii'h^9°tt aifalligutim ?, pi. h^ 

^fiit^r*'.' attifallio-utim? 

o o o~ o 

What do you want? JP*^ : -><{. Aj3 AO « min tifalli- 
gallah?, pol. 9°'i'f^4L^pti"'' min yifalligallu ?, pi. 
9°'i-'^d,^pf[^-ihi'- min tifalli<>allaccyuh? 

I want him (it): hii. A7*PA'^^ :•• ifalligauallau'^ (§ 7c?), 
pi. h'i^^l'PfiTf'.'' innifalhgaujilliin. ° 

1 o o o oO o 

383 WAN— WAN 

I don't want him (it): ^iA<C AfiiMP » alfalligaiim, 

pi. h'id.^liD'9^ii annifalli^aum. 
I want to go: Arh.Jt ••?i<^A;3A1r^:! lihad ifalligal- 

lau^ pi. ^'i^b,^'•'h'id,^p^'iii linnhad innifalligal- 

I don't want to go: Arh.Jt-^iA<CA*7i^:: lihad alfal- 

ligim, pi. ^'ith.!!::h'id,^*19"ii linnhad annifalli- 

Do you want to go? A^rh.j^."lh<CA^AU:: litthad 
tifalligfillah ?, pol. A.rh.-S.-'^^CA/i/V's: lihadu yifal- 
ligallu?, pi. A^rh.^.:^<{.A;iA^i>:: litthadu tifalH- 

Don't you want to go? A-Vrh.^- •• Ai^^C A^i'" « litthad 
attifalligim ?, pol. A^rh..?. •• hf^d^^l'9^ v. lihadu aifal- 
ligum?, pi. Al'rh.^.:Ai'l'^.A'hr :: litthadu attifdl- 
ligum ? 

He has sold the mule I wanted: fl4*A"(»-'>-*?fm 
•fl'^K baql^oun sdtabbin (s.v. fl-, §§ 47a, 71). 
want of, be in, v.t. IfL^tD* gdddadau (cp. § 43a). 
Y\"\ atta. 

See § 63<:/, e. 

What are you in want of? ^"'Js'l^yAK min gad- 
d^ohal?, pol. r'}:^/^?';^A:! mih gadd^oS)tal? 
(-d^ot-), pi. 9"'>.'7Jg^^AAK min gadd5dccyuhal? 

(§ 7^0- 

wanted, be, v.p. •frd^hl tafallaora. 

He (it) is not wanted : J&4*C:: yfqir, pi. Ji4'<-K yiqru. 
wanting, be, v.i. 1^^ g^cldada. 
;^'n tatta. 

See ^ 636?, e. 

WAR— WAR 384 

There is nothing wanting : 9°'i9°ihf,l!!:ii mfnimm 

(§ 6) %add (§ 37d), or 
l^"}?":? 7^^:f A:: minim 

(§ 6) yagaddada (i 14) 
yalla (§ 39&). 
war, s. (nCi^ t'^orfnnat (-niit). 
(nc t^'or. 
In time of war: f mC : ^H..• yat'^dr (§§ o6c, 70) giz^'e. 
War material: ^(^C-'Oofi^^: yat^^or massarya. 
war, go to, v.i. H<w>i' zammata. 

If he goes to war: {UlT^-- bizamt, pol. & pi. fl.H 
9^')? I bizamtu. 


war, send to, v.t. hH<7i»i- azzammata. 

' o o o 

Does he send him to war? ^HJ^i^'PA" yazzammi- 
taual?, pol. & pi. ^nr^-P^'^i: yazzammitutal? 
war, take to, v.t. hHtro'l' azammata. 

^ ' o o o 

Does he take him to war? ^Hi^i'<PA'» yazamtaual?, 
pol. & pi. ^li9"'P:f'^i-' yazamtutal? 
warm, adj. ao^'t' muq. 

Very warm : ^Yhft ■• tikkiis (ttik- ; § 8). 
warm, v.t. h'P^ am^ oqa. 

Warm it : hao'^of* » amuqau. 

Don't warm it : h^ao^^(D* :: attamuqau. 

Warm it up a little: MX'h^CIV'-hao'^ah'.x labb 
drgah (\ld) S-muqau. 
warm, be, v.i. ^^ m'^oqa (§ QM, e). 

It is (too) warm : oo-^ A :•• miiqoal. 

S. T'^'A:: m^^dqSl. 

It isn't warm (enough): liAT**!*?":: alm'^^dqam. 
warmth, s. 00-+^ miiqat. 
warp, s. (in weaving) ^JL'Tl'A fdtil (fat-). 

385 WAR— WAS 

warp, v.i. Hfl zdbba. 

It will warp: ^HOA-.: yizayal, pi. j&HOA-:: yizayallu. 

It will not warp : Aij&lf n?" k aizayam, pi. -fl-JP-.: -yum. 

It is warped: H-fljtA:: zaytSal, pl.-^'PA:-. -taual. 
wart, s. h'};^(^^ kintSr^^'ot, usually f. (§ 54c). 
wart-hog (Phacochoerus cvthiopims), s. "hC^ frya. 

\\CX\C karkarr^o 

o o 

(kiir-, -kar-; 
wash, v.i. (wash oneself, v.r.) ^oi^ tattaba (ava). 

• • o o \ O • O ' 

I am going to wash: A;^^l•n •• *^ :: littattdy (§ 8) 
nan, pi. AV-m-fl ■• VJ « linnittattdy (§°8) nan. 

I am washing: ?l;^m^A'^:: ittattay{lllau^ pi. M 
:^m(\M'.'. innittattavjilljin. 

O O • • o • 

I haven't washed yet: ^iA;^^l•fl(^r:^7:V^:: altat- 
t^yhum, gana nan, pi. h A;^^l'nVJ^» .. 7«7 : >•} :•. al- 
tattavnam, ":and niin. 

I shan't wash now: YMhlihl\'J*a\-n9°i'. ahun alit- 
tattayim, pi. ^tii'-J.-^V-m-fUP:: ahun annittatta- 

. O - . o 


• o 

Before I wash: ^A;^m'fl: salittattay, pi. (i'i^a\'({t 


O . . o • 

When I wash: ft^l-m-fl: sittattay, pi. tll^oi-iii sin- 

When I have washed: ;I-Tn.: tatibb^e (§29), pi. 
;^Tn7: tatvan. 

• • o 

Wash yourself: ^ay-ii'^ tatav, pi. ;^^l^^:: tatavu. 
Aren't you going to wash? h^-^ax-av^n attittat- 
tayim?, pl.-n-5^::-yum? 
wash, v.t. Atflifl dttaba (-ava). 

• • o o ^ o • O ' 

Wash him (it): hmaohix itavau, pi. -O-^k -vut 

AM. GR. (II) 25 

WAS— WAT 386 

Don't Avash him (it) : h^mdah:-. attitayau, pi. -fl-^K 

Have you washed him (it)? hai'dViD'i'' attayhau?, 

pi. hmfl'fl^^•.•• attavaccihut? 
I want to wash my hands: h'X.'i --^^ (nil --hd.^ 

pii'h'.'- ijj^en (§§ 52a, y, 56c) littdttay ifalligallau^ 
Wash your hands: ?iE*U'> s ;^m'fl « i^jjihin tdtay, pi. 

?l3?'fl^'>!;^mf^« ijjaccihun tatayu. 
washed, be, v.p. ;^mfl tdttaba (-ava). 

Has he (it) been washed? ;^TP,rt"Je.:•. tatiyoallwf? 

(s.v. fl)^), pi. ;^Tn*PA"^ :•■ tdtiyauallwi ? 
It is to be washed : J&;'"fli'n h yittatay, pi. -fl- « -yu. 

It is not to be washed: ^J&;^m'flK aittatay, pi. -fl--.: 

It must be washed in hot water: ([ao-^ : ohV '• f^^ 
oi'fl K bamiiq wtiha yittatay. 
washing, s. (process) hTfl^ ^tbat (ity-, -at). 

These clothes want washing: ^UsA'flft--?iTn^:J2, 
<(.ApAK yihe liys (§ 52a, 8) ftyat yifalligal. 
washing-place, s. *^mfl,^ matabya (-^Yysi)- 
wasp, s. ^Ohfi :'}■({ yaussa-nib (niy; §§ 47a, 70). 
Mason (solitary) wasp : ^"JH^H ■• tinziza. 
See § 52a, S. 
waste, v.t. haii' atalFa. 

Don't waste it: h^'Ti-ay-i- attatfau, pi. -^'>k -fut. 
watch, s. rt^^' saat, sometimes f. (§ 54c), see Addenda. 
Is it going? J2.H^Ak yiz^oral? 
Has it stopped? *^A:-. qum6al? 

S. *^Ak q^^omSal? 
Wind it up : aoAoh :•• miilau. 
It loses : |i4»^ A « yiqaral. 

387 WAT— WAT 

It is slow: «f»C:f:A« q^rtoal. 

H'7^:tAK zagyitoal. 
It gains : J&4*Jt^ A k yiqadmal. 
It is fast : 4*J?:^ A « qadmoal. 
Put it on (forward): hlli'^aoa}"^ asqaddimau. 
Put it back: hil'i'dtD'i- asqarrau. 
It is right: ^\l\}^'-'tahi: tikikkfl (§ 8) nau. 

Ah : VflJ- :: llkkl (S 7d) nau. 

O o ^ " ' o 

It is not right: A»l.-^J&/^Air»:: likk aidallam (§ Id). 
Put it right: htl'thYltiahn astakdkilau. 

c-" o o o 

How much has it lost (is it slow)? J^'Js^UA:*^::: 

min yahl qarra ? 
How much has it gained (is it fast)? i^^s^UA-' 

«|»^<w» :: min yahl qaddama ? 
It is wound up : T*A « m'^'dlla. 
It is not wound up: AiA'PAJ^:: alm^ollam. 
watch, v.i. & t. +/niAhf' tamalakkata. 

o o o o o 

Watch him (it) : i'/w* Ah'l'fl>- « tamalkatau, pi. -is^s 
watchman, s. 't'd^ taraiiiia (tar-, -an-). 
HO? zabdnna (zav-, -dii-). 

o o \ O ' ' / 

mfl*fe tabbdqi. 

See § 52a, S. 
watch-tower, s. rtlV-V saorannat. 
water, s. OhV wtiha (uha). 
S. also (dV waha. 
Warm (hot) water: ao^^sahV: muq wiiha. 
Boiling Avater : 'PAsm-'/s fil wdha. 
Cold water : ^V^H •• OhV •• qazqazza wiiha. 
Clear (pure) water : T^iOhVi tfru wiiha. 
Clean water: ^nvrhs^D-ys nitiih wiiha. 

o • 

Fresh water: h^ilsay-'/s dddis wiiha. 



WAT— WAT 388 

Bring some water: fl^y .•>%?" "Is Aviiha amta (uhdn- 

ta § Id). 
Tie up a little water in a skin : T*fe^ '- ay-V •• +^<P^ : 

^T^a>-K tfqit wdha tarauwdt qAvdtirau. 
Where did you get this Avater from? ^VtsohV: 

i'^^ihaofi\Vahi: yihan wttha tayet amattahau? 
water, v.t. hai^ atatta. 

Have you watered him? hm^tUohy. atattahau? 
Have you watered her? ^m^y-I^K atattahat? 
Have you watered them? hai^V^at^a atattahac- 



Water (pi.) the animals: h'fl-f^'J.'^imrp^^aHK kaf- 

t^occin atattwdccau. 
Don't water the pony yet: <^.<iA-'>:^i;^m^a^T^*7! 

'liD"-'' farasun attatattau, o;and (S 8) nau, 
water, pass, v.i. ?fV sanna. 

When you pass water : tl^Til •• sittisan, pol. fijSY- •• 



Are you passing water without difficulty? flfll.'i'Us 
WVAUu bafgnah tisanallah?, pol. nm.V?'.-^?f 
^tt"'' bat^ena^'o yisanallu? 

o • »' o o ^^ 

water-bottle, s. (travelling) ^^P^ rauwdt (§8). 

^<p^ rdwdt (raudt ; § 8). 
^fli-y^ rduhat (§ 8). 
n9^tt'^^ zamzamiya. 
(pottery, glass) *l'Qd'^ mabraja (mayr-, 

The water-bottle is (-ties are § 52a, 8) to be wetted 
and kept wet : ^<P'1- : ^"ihC T ^h^1\U •• hCT-n •• f^ihTrn 
rauwdt yinndkar ; hiillagz^ e rtiy (§ 7d) yihun. 
waterbuck (Cobus defassa), s. Jt4-^ difdsa. 
water-cooler, s. I'd^'^ mabraja (mayr-, -aj-). 

389 WAT— WAY 

water-course, s. win wcunz. 

(small) ^4- dm.. 
d,4' fafa. 


watered, be, v.p. (drink) m"! tatta. 

Has he (it) been watered? m'P:l:AK tattit5al?, f. m 

'P;^A^« tattitdllac?, pi. aiT+'PAk tattitaual? 
He (it) is to be watered : S^m^ r. yi tatta, f. ^m"! s 

titdtta, pi. ^mm- :•• yitdttu. 
He (it) is not to be watered: hf^m'^n aitatta, 
f. h^m^-'- attitdtta, pi. h^mm-u aitattu. 
water-hole, s. AiH^*^* azaqt (§ 8). 

'^^^J^' giidgwdd (giirgw- § 7c?; § 8). 
watering-place, s. (place for drawing water) ao^^ maq- 
(place for drinking) emm^ matdcca. 
water-jar, s. "hltl^ (i)nsfra. 
water-pipe, s. (conduit) (\'9^(\ biimba. 

Q,9°f}, bwdmbwa. 
wave, s. *P7.^ m^'ogad (§ 52a, 8). 
wave, v.i. (be waved, v.p.) i'Cldld targabdggaba (tiir-, 

-avdggava, S 7c, note 1 ). 
wave, v.t. h^ld arraggaba (-ava). 

hCldltl argabdggaba (-aydggaya). 
wax, s. ii9^ sam. 


way, s. (road) <n»'>1j^ mdngad. 
T"-^*? gwwdana. 
Way down: oDahd^'- mauraja. 
Way out or up : "loh^^i mduca. 
Way in : aold^ -. magbya (-gyya). 
Which is the way? aoll^sat^^i'iiD^i- radngadu 
wwd^ et nau ? 

WAY— WEA 390 

Which is the way to Addis Abeba? fl^^sVfl*-: 
^■^ft ! MdiaoTrl^ b ba^et nau yd-ddis ayayd mdn- 
Which way did he go? floi^^ •• ?»Vl-A ■• rh.ft « bauw- 

Come this way : flH,U •- ^ « biizzih na. 
Go out that way : flH,^ •• ah^l « bazzyd wtita (-yduta). 
In this (that) way: hTf^V-. (l)ndih (-dih ; § 8). 

TxTrffM^V: (i)ndazzih (-daz-, -zfh; 
§8). " " 
Don't do it that way: hl^V-h^^Clahn ndlh 
attddrigau (attdrgau § 7d). 
To be some way off: fi'd'-hli'- sabb dla (s.v. VflA, 
§ 44a). 
It is some way off: ^'flsj&AA:-. sabb yilal. 
A long way: ?i^4»! iriiq. 

He (it) has gone a long way: ?i<-4» : rh.^ A « 
iriiq hfdoal. 

o M o 

One can see him (her, it, them, § 6l6) a long 

way off: n4-4» : ^^ A : rtfl>- » bariiq (§ 7a) yaidl 

(S 8) sau. 
Make way ! l^^Tr •• gwojdin ! 
Get out of the way ! a)*7jt » wojgid !, f. ai*7jf' :•• wcugi j !, 

pi. ID*?'?. :: Wo^gidu ! 

Get out of his (its) way! ai*7jtA^:*. wwgidillat!, 
f -£ A^ K -jillat !, pi. -^. A^ K -dullat ! 
wayfarer, s. aoTrlfJi mangaddiiiia (-dan-). 
we, pers. pron. h!^ ifind (§§ 8, 1 2a, 60&), usually omitted 

unless emphatic, 
weak, adj. (of animate objects) ^h*^ diikkdma. 
(gen.) AW sanaf 

391 WEA— WEA 

This rope is too weak: J&Us'l<w»J^.•rtl<P:ifl^:s yihe 

gam ad sanaf (S 8) nau. 
This coffee is too weak: f^V'-OrTr-'^^'is'iahii yfhe 
vunn qaccfn (§8) nau. 
weak, be (become), v.i. 

(of animate objects) ffjnao dakkama. 

^htwiD* dakkamau (impers. 
§ 43a). 

See § 6Sd, e. 
He (it) is (too) weak : ft*l'^*;^A :■• dakim^otal, f ^h 

*y,:f'^'.'. ddkimSatal, pi. ^Iti'^^-'PAk dakimolc- 


weaken, v.t. (exhaust) hfijnf** adakkama. 

It weakens one: rto^s^^h'^A:: sau yadakimal. 
weakness, s. (of animate objects) ^h9^ dikdm (§ 8). 

(gen.) lll^'t sinfmna. 
wealth, s. flAm*7V^ balataggfnnat (-nat). 
wealthy, adj. flAmp balatdgga. 

(;•n;^r hflbtam (hdyt-, haft- ; § 8). 
n-hrt. bukkas^e. 
weapon, s. aofid^ masstlrya (ya § Id). 

-n^^ birat (-rat). 
wear, v.t. (put on) Aflrt Idbbasa (§ 56c). 
Yx^Cl addrragra. 
Wear it: AflrtflJ-:: Ifvasau, f AflTiio-:: hvasyu. 

©• O O ' O • O •' 

Don't wear it: Ai^Aflrtfl^K attilvasau, f -flTii»-K 

o • o o ' 

I shall wear it: JiA'flrt'PA'V-K ilavsaudllau^ 

o o • o o 

I shall not wear it: ^AA'flAfl>-jr";: allavsaum. 

o • o 

To-morrow I shall wear these boots: 'ilifbU'tl'- 
«i*^!|»^C'l<PA'>^K nagayihannan camma(§ o2a,S) 

WEA— WEI 392 

wear (out), v.t. (consume) flA bdlla. 

The stones will wear it out: ^T-T.^sjZ.flA'PAK dan- 
gya (§ 52a, 8) yiydlaual. 
weary, v.t. h^hao adakkama. 
weather, s. 

Fair weather: -fl^s bfrra. 
weave, v.i. & t. iL'f'ii fattala (f attala). 

' o o o ^ o' 

Do they weave it here? hH,0:j&<C^/V';^Ass kazzih 
vif atilutal ? 
weaver, s. d,^^ ^^^ (fat-; -ayy § 6 ; § 8). 

Tf'^Ji sammdn^e (sam-). 
Wednesday, s. & adv. Cil r^' ob (r'^oy). 
weed, s. hd9" aram {hdV* aram^o ; § 52a, 8). 
weed (out), v.t. hdem drrama. 

Weed the corn: KU/V'7--AiC<wi(D-:! fhilun drrimau, 

o o ' 

pi. -tn>'^ ii -mut. 
Weed out the grass from the corn: ^^'iti'Vi^i 
hCaoiD'ii sarun tahilu arrimau. 

o ^ o o 

weeded (out), be, v.p. ^^ao tarrama. 

This hasn't been weeded: ^Vih^^dao9"v. ylhe 

o o 

week, s. ^9"'}^ sammint (§ 52a, 8). 
weep, v.i. ^A+rt aldqqasa. 
weigh, v.i. (be weighed, v.p.) i'<w>HV tamazzana. 

aon'i mdzzana (q.v.). 

o o o ^ T- ' 

How much does it weigh? ft'J^:j&<n>H<i"A» sint 

yimmazzanal ? 
It must be weighed : JRhdH*} k yimmdzan. 
Which weighs the more (most)? I^^aht^aom'^^'.: 

mannaccau yimdzzinal ? 

o •' o o o 

This weighs more than that: )iU:'l%U:jirw>'HVA« 
yfhe tazzih yimdzzinal (§ 586). 

393 WEI— WEL 

He (it) weighs a lot : h-flJS^A:: kaydSal, pi. h-n^'PAs 

kaydaual, (§ 6Sd). 
He (it) doesn't weigh much: hAhfl^i^K alkabba- 

dam, pi. -n^l^K -bbadum, (§ 63^. 
weisrh, v.t. <w)HV mdzzana. 

o ' o o o 

Weiofh it : ao'Yl'iah :-. mazzinau. 

~ o o o 

weighing-machine, s. '^H'i mizdn (§ 8). 
weight, s. '%H'i mi/An (§ 8). 

By weight: n'T.H^s bamizan (§ 47a). 

What is its weight? '^Hy-:ft^ihsVfl>«K mlzdnu sfnti 

weighty (important), adj. ^9^ qum. 
welfare, s. ^'*il!*i^ dahninnat (-nitt). 
well, adj. ^'^V dahna (§ 8). 

(after illness) M bdgg^o. 
Are you well? ^'^V:VU:: dahna niih?, f ^'^'^iVfis 
dahnd nils?, pol. ^'I'^-'V?':: dalmd na^o ?, (§ 136). 
Aren't you well? ^'*i^ -h^F-MiT^'' dahnd aidal- 
lahimmwi?, f -A^A'fiT'je. » -dalliisimmwi ?, pol. -^A- 

o o ■ *^ o o ' r^ 

r*/Z,» -dallummwi?, (§§ 7r/, U)a, s.v. fl)J&). 
I am not well : ?iT*^ A » amm^' onnal. 
Are you well again? ?i'7ll,^'flrh.C.j&'^CU-n'):Vi;K 
igziayh>er yimdrih, yagg^d (§§ 7c/, 8) nah?, f ... 
/S.'^CTi.-n-VsVfiK... yimdris, yagg'^d nas?, pol. ... 
^'^^P:n">:V?'» ... yimara^, yagg'^d na^? (lit. 
God have mercy on you, are you well ?). 
well, adv. ^'>V dahna (§ 8). 

(thoroughly) (i"\r* batdm (§ 8). 
(adversative) iKlWi (i)nkwan (§ 8). 
(expletive) ?i^*7^0 (i)ngdyeh. 
(resumptive) -'^ -mma. 



He cooks well: ^'^V-'OiTij&rt^AK dS,hna wwt yi- 

He speaks Amharic well: h*^C^ sod fi^f}9^ih^C^ -- 

^'tl^^i' amarfnna malkdm adrig^'o (drg^'o § 7d) 

You Avrite very well indeed: ^'i^'-hf:ClV'-^*?4' 

AUk dinq adrigah (drgah) titifallah, pol. Jt74»s 

AiJtC7fl>-!j&T4'A'K dinq adrigau (argau) yitifallu. 
Do you know him (it) well? n'^9":;^fl^+<PAUK 

batdm tauqauallah ? 
Wefl, we wiirgo: ltl'i\\'i^.h'iih,fi^'i'^ 6kwan(§760» 

Well, we won't go: h'JV^'J •• Mrh.Jt9" k nkwan, ann- 



Well, I must be going: ?i'}*7^U •• rh./tih^ » ngd^eh 
hadhufi (rh.JtVl-^ badkun, hark-, § 7c?; § 61e), pi. 
h'il^V '• rh.Jti :: ngd>eh hadna (Part I, p. xxiii). 

Well, I hope he won't throw you off: h'J'7^0 : h*} 
^^TAUk ngd^eh indaitilih. 

'^ o o o-o o 

And afterwards? ^fitxi^ hwdlass? — Well, after- 
wards we came back : ^^A*^ •• 4'<n»Afti :•• hwaldmma 

Very well! (all right!) ?i(1k Issi! (-si). 

ng:: bajja! (bdj-). 

Well off (well provided for), adj. ^A<w>?: alamanna 
well, s. 7-Jt^j^ giidgwdd (giirgw- § 7f? ; § 8). 
hn^^' Szaqt (§ 8). 

How deep is the well ? T-Jt^j^-'^CH^w**: /iT^siiD-:: 
ffurgwdd (S 556) irzfmatu sfnt! nau ? 

GO \o /ooo ooo 

well, get, v.i. ^*i dana. 

i'Tf AflH tasdlau (tas- ; impers. § 43a). 

395 WEL— WET 

He (it) will get well: ^Jt*?^"- yjdfnal, f. ^j^'TA^k 

tidinallac, pol. ^^^l^-- yiclinallu. ^ 
He°(it) will not get well: ^^j?:^J^»_aidfnim, f. h^ 

^19°''- attidfnim, pol. ^ip.J^V-l'^K^aidfnum. 
He (it) has got well: JtXA« dfnoal, f. Jt'?A^« di- 
nallac, pol. ^'t^^-- dmaual. 
well-behaved, adj. fl'+'H yiitaqatta (§ 14, s.v. ^'H). 
well-born, adj. flAfl^ balabbdt (§ 8). 
well-fed, adj. T^ifl? tigabaiifia (-ay-, -ail-). 
west, s. 9^d^'n mirdb {-iv ; § 8). 
wet, adj. KCT'fl frtib (-iy). 

CT-n ritib (iv). 
wet, v.t. Vh<i ndkkara (nakkiira). 

' O O O ^ O ' 

Wet it : iXx^fD* "• nikarau. 

o o o 

Don't wet it: ^'l-^h^fl^" attinkarau. 

O o o 

wet, be or become, v.i. d.a\(\ rdttaba (-aya ; § 63(f, e). 

[?i>rt (i)rasa (§ (33<^, e). 
(weather) HVO zannaba (-aya). 
The ground is wet: </i><J."^s^TO.Aw niar>et rdtyftal. 
When the cloth is wet: 6ti.C* : /ICft ■• c4rqu sirfs. 
If it is wet (weather) : rUfH-n •• bizany (-amb). 
wet season, s. \\^9^^ kfrdmt {% 8). 
wether, s. <n»-yi'> •• 0*7 miikkit bag (yag). 

tfW'Vl^ miikkit. 
wetted, be, v.p. (get wet, v.i.) i^Vh^ tandkkara (-nakkiira). 
He (it) has got wet : 'hVlfl/^^ » tanakroal, pi. i'Vh 
<l*PAss tanakraual. 

o o o 

He (it) has not got wet : h^^'iYi^,r* » altandkka- 

ram, pi. -h4-l'"K -karum. 
It is to be wetted: ^^hC« yinndkar, pi. -<•« -ru. 
It is not to be wetted: hf^'itiC-^ ainndkar, pi. -<-» -ru. 
Mind it doesn't get wet: h'J^^ihCs ndainndkkar, 

pi. -4- SI -ru. 

WET— WHA 396 

Wetterly rifle, s. <Dffl,c: wacaf "'o. 
what ?, inter, pron. 9"^ min ? 

9^'i^C mfndir ? 
9^'i^Tf mfnclin (-nn § 6). 
See § 15. 
What (do you say)? S^'JshAOK min alh?, f. r-ii 

^lATis min als?, pol. {^"JsKA-k min dlu? 
What is it? ri-v. mfnu? 

9"'i^C'''iahii mfndir nau? 
What is the name of this place? j&Usft^P^sftflo-s 
*^'i •• 'itD' :•• yfhe sifra sfmu mdn-nau ? 

•^ o o o o 

And what about this ? ^O^s yihassa? (s.y. -tl, -h). 
— intensive, 9°^ min with parts of Mlfi q.v. 
What a lot! 9"'}!^UA.-Vid-:-. min yahl nau! 
What a (large, small) horse ! ^V ■■ ^Ldil '- 9^1 '- ^OA A :•• 
yihe faras min yahlal ! 
what, rel. pron. f- ya- (q.v.) pref to simple perfect. 

f 9"- yamm(i)- [hJ^- (i)mm(i)-] pref to 

The above are nom. & ace, sg. 
&pl. ; see §§ 14,62. 
Tell me what he said : ^ Aa>-^ : 11^ « ydlaun (§ 7a) 

Do you know what they eat? f'^nA-^•J■■;^fl^+<P 

AUk yammiyalutin (-miy- §7c?) tauuqauallah? 
I forget what he (it) does: f '^^^C'Ioh^ : ?i^^U«^ » 

yammyadargaun irassahut (§ 63f/). 
That is not what I asked: JE,UV'>:^Amf4»l^J^K yi- 

hannan altdyyixqhum. 
What kind of? P»^?i»- yetiiinau? (§§ 8, 15). 
rrf minififia? (S 15). 

o o \0 / 

397 WHA— WHE 

what's-his-name, indef. pron. h'i-f-['i] (f)iit^o(n) (§ 16). 
Call what's-his-name : Tt^-f-^.-T^flH:: nt'^on tfrau. 
what's-its-name, indef. pron. M^Tr {i)ntin (§ 16). 
wheel, s. aolYip^it'C mankwwrakwur (rwiho- makww-; 

§ 52a, 8). 
wheel-handle, s. aonaad^ mazzauwdrya (-war-). 
when ?, adv. tn*^ mdc> e ? 
ao^ macii ? 


When does (will) he (it) come? <wi^ •• jtrwi") A » 
mdc> e yimdtal ? 

O •'0 o • 

When did he (it) come ? ao^ •• aot^ « mac^e mdtta ? 
when, conj. ft- s(i)- (qv.) pref. to contingent (§45); 
tense is not distinguished. 
fl- ba-, pref. to simple perfect followed by 
%k giz^e. 

See § 48a. 
When he comes : (l^aot^ -. simata (sim- § Id). 
When he came: fliwi^ s 1.11. •• bamdtta jirfz^e. 

o o • • Oo 

When you clear the things away, leave this : }\^ « 
ti^'t**i : ^UVJ ! '^fllfl^ :: |qa (§ 52a, 8) sittanasa, yi- 
hannJin tduau. 

o o 

Didn't you see it when you cleared the things 
away? ?ij^ « ft;^W ; hAf (/a>-T*/i :: fqa sittandsa 
aMyyahaummwf? (s.v. flJJi). 

— before a negative verb use -fl- b(i)- pref to cont. 

(§§ 37c, 45) ; tense is not distinguished. 
When I am (was) not here; 'MtU:nATC: tazzfh 
yaln^dr (§ 7a) ; [^ATC: saln^^dr = before I am 

— may be rendered by putting the verb of either 

the subordinate or the principal English clause 
into the gerund (cp. §§ 65a, 74) in Amharic. 

WHE— WHE 398 

When I have seen them I will come (back) : hf, 
B^^ahihe/ofltHhi- aiccdccau imatallau'^. 

o o o o • o 

When cattle drink they walk into the water: 
h-n^ : i-ohV : l-n-f^ : JZ.m'H A K kaft (§ 52a, 8) tauhd, 
ffavt^'^o yitattal. 
whence?, adv. hP»^ kayet? 
See § 47a. 
where (to)?, adv. (D^^ wwd^et? 
^> yet? 
Where is he (it)? P»ih!Vfl>-K yet nau? 
Where is he (it) to be found? ©^ihs^iAK wwd^'et 

Where has he (it) gone to? P'-^srh.^:*. yet hdda? 
Where do you come from? i^^^'-'taoflliVn tayet 
timatallah ? 

o o • 

where, conj. — expressed by the relative (§§ 14, 62) and 

-fl^ -bbat ( = in it, § 47a) ; but, except after a 

negative, indirect questions may retain their 

direct form (§ 78). 

Ask him where he (it) is: ^ Afl^^ •• mj&+i»- k yal- 

labbatin tayyiqau, or 
m^+fl>- •• P»^ •• 'lOh :: tay- 
yiqau yet nau. 
Ask them where he (it) has gone to : 

f rh.^rt^'} I m^^^a>- K yahadabbatin tayyiqdc- 
cau, or 

o ' 

ai^^^ahifD^^ '• rh.^« tayyiqdccau wwdyet hada. 
Ask him where he (it) comes from : 

'h'^0Dfn(\^''} •• mf,*^ah » immimatabbatin (im- 

-mim- § 7c?) tayyiqau, or 
mf>^ahii'^^'-f,irDfi\^i: tdyyiqau tayet yimdtal. 

399 WHE— WHE 

I don't know where he (it) is; fM[^'i'-hfiah^9^i'. 

yallabbatin alauqim. 
They don't know where he (it) has gone to : f rh. 

^(\^'i'-h^(D'^9"i- yiihadabbatin aiauqum. 
He refused to say where he came from: p£iD«ifl^*'J: 

hATlCJ^-'^A:: yiimattabbatin ahnnaofo^arimm dla. 

•/ o • • o o o oo o o 

whether, conj. ii- b(i)-, pref to contingent (§ 45). 

M^iri (f)ndah^^on (-dah-; § 8) q.v., fol- 
lowing contingent or gerund. 
I don't know whether you will return: 'ii'l'imtitii 
h^Oh'^V^ii bittimmallas alauqim. 

o o o io 

I must see whether I can find some: fl7^-* AdLA^K 

baorann lifdllis:. 
I don't know whether I shall go: hth.j^ih'i^ir'i'- 

hf{ah^9^ i: ihad fndah''on alauqim. 

o o o ■'o 

I don't know whether he went: rh,A^:?i'}^l/"j8^A 
fl^4*J^•.: hid''ondah''on ahiiiqim. 

O o 'o 

Go and see whether dinner is ready: th.^-'hf*- 
h^'lr •.'l'fl^fi:^.h'if!^ir'ii: hid i irdt tasiinadit^^dn- 
dah'^'on (tasanart''6ndah''on § 7^). 

See whether there is a hole (are any holes § 52a, S) 
in it: #wlCl^^fl^! +^i^ •• h'J^Anil':: marmirau qa- 

o o -^o 

ddda ndallabbat. 


Whether he comes or not, I shall go: f^^mij: 
(10"} if^f^aom-dvn •.^nh.^^'^:'. yammimata vi- 
li^on yammaimata vih^'on, ihadallau^ 

•^ o o • • O ' O O 

See whether there is water or not : <»•'/ « aoT^'i'i « 
p^0o'M<^'i^.aDcr*C'.'' wtiha man^^ oruninna (?5 30, 
72a) yalaman^' drun (§ 37a) marmir. 
whet-stone, s. ao/t^ masdl (§ 8). 

aofi^ masaya (-aia). 
Alf -t lah^otJ'e (§ 8). 

WHI— WHI 400 

which?, inter, pron. P»'t yetu?, ace. ^'Pl yetun?, f. P»;f: 

yetwa?, ace. ^^"i yetwan?, pi. 
Ki* (i)nn>etu?, ace.-*'} -tun? 
P»^?i»- yetfnnau?, ace. -?!»-'} 
-niiaun?, (§ 8), f. ^^^ji* yetin- 
nStu?, ace. -PTf -tun?, pi. p.^'^¥ 
yetinndccu?, ace. -^t -ccun?, or 
P«W^ yetinnoc? (§ 8 ; -cc § 6), 
ace. ^^"^"^"i yetinnOccin ? 

«/ o o 

(of two or more) l^^ah manndc- 
(c)au?, ace. -^Ohl -c(c)aun?, f. *^ 
*i'^Ji'l2 mannac(c)''oitu?, acc.-i^^ 
-tun?, pi. '^'i"^?''f mannac(c)au- 
-oc (-^F*^ -c(c)-o-oc?, -cc §°6), 
ace. -'^1 -ccin? 


See § 15. 
Which horse has he saddled ? ^'\^1 •• d,dil •• '^V k 
yetun faras cdna ? 
In indirect questions the relative (§§ 14, 62) may 
be used (§ 78a, 6): 
Go and see which horse he has saddled: f-^'P'is 
<{.^ft ! *^Va>- s rK.Jt ! ?»J& K yetun faras cdnau hid i, 
or ^*^'iah'isd.d.tliduf^V-''h^ii yacdnaun faras h£- 
dah i, (§§ 65«, 74c). 
which, rel. pron. P- ya- (q.v.) pref to simple perfect. 

f {^- yamm(i)- [hr*- (i)mm(i)-] pref to 
The above are nom. & ace, sg. & pL; see §§ 14, 62. 
The horse which was (has been) saddled is to 
come: ^^''^^ah s d^dtl •• f,9"fn n yatacdnau fdras 

•^ *' o • o o o 


401 WHI— WHI 

Let him bring the horse which was (has been) 
saddled: ^-t'^'uD-l-iLdfl'- ^n-f!,9^m'.' yatacd- 
naun faras yfz^'o yfmta (s.v. ^H). 

The horse which he (has) saddled is to come: 
f «^Vfl>- '- d^dtl i ^9"^ K yiicdnau faras yimta. 

Let him bring the horse which he (has) saddled : 
f «^Vfl>-'> •• ^Ldti •• JiH •• f,9^fn :•• yiicanaun faras yfz^ o 
yfmta (s.v. ^H). 

Let the horse which is being saddled come : f '^ 
'^'lah i d,d{l •' ^J^'H « yjimmiccanau (Ji'T.'^iVflH e 
immiccdnau ; -mic- S 7d) fdras yfmta. 

I don't want the horse which he is saddling : fTL 
'T'VcD-'>.^^ri:AiA<CA*7i»"» yiimmicfnaun (h'^'^ 
'lOhl/i immicfnaun ; -mic- S 7c?) faras alfdlliffim. 

O -OO o • V 'OO o o~ o 

Let the mules which I don't want go away: f*^ 
^d,^P'fah- '• n4*A"'T' •' f^iK^ « yjimmalfalligaccau 
vdql'^oc yfhidu. 

Take (pi.) away the mules which I do not want: Tii* 
?i'^A^A;i*rfl>-'>.-n4'A-'f-:fl>-rtJ?^'Pi»-:: in>e mmal- 
falliordccaun bdciT'dc wiisadwdccau. 

o oO O o ^ o o 

Where are the boxes which arrived yesterday? 
1'A'}'l-.f^^fr'|2:^T'r'T«ai^^:'i''/'fl»-:: tilant ya- 
darrasutu sdtin^^oc wwd^et ndccau? 

O O 'O o 

while, conj. ft- si-, pref to contingent (§ 45, § 4:8a). 

hS- [?iP-] Tyyil- (q.v.), pref to simple perfect. 
Let them sit down while they wait : rt.'fcp:j&4*<w»/n-ss 

siqwwyyu (siq- § 7c?) yiqqamatu. 
Let them sing while they work: ^frt<-s.6Tf<CV-B 
iyyasarru yfzfanu. 
whip, s. (small) htKlp alanga. 
(driving) aoH^ mdnja. 

AM.GH. (ll) 26 

WHI— WHI 402 

whip, v.t. l^i^ garrafa (gar-). 

Whip him (it) : **l^d.ah « gfrafaii. 
Don't whip him (it): h^ldd^Ohn attfgrafau. 
Did you whip him (it)? Id^Oahn garrafhau? 
whipped, be, v.p. •i'lCd. tagarrafa (-gar). 

He (it) has been whipped: 'MC^A« tagarfoal, pi. 

•h1C<i.<PA« tagarfaual. 
He (it) will be whipped : J&7^4-A « yiggarrafal, pi. 

f^l^A-lV « yiggarrafallu. 
He (it) is to be whipped: ^I^^h yiggaraf, pi. -f-K 

He (it) is not to be whipped: h^ld.^-A aiggaraf, 
pi. -4-i' -fu. 
whisper, v.i. & t. G. h'i\to7\\\p'S ankwcusakkwojsa. 
S. hllShT!^ ans'^okass'' oka. 


Whisper: G. ^'>h<»^W'7i» ankwwsdkwus. 

S. hmh&rii^ ans^okasiik. 
Don't whisper : G. h;^'>y^•7f W-'fi « attankwcosdkwiis. 

S. ^;^'}?*•^l?f.1fl:: attans-okasuk. 
He whispered this to me: ff,\)'il-hl\\-7\\t1^'. [G.; 
Y\'Yi!^h'^\}i S.] V7^^« yihannan ankwwsdkwus'^o 
(G. ; ans'^okdsk^^'o S. ) naggaran. 
whistle, s. (sound) ^fiti.^ fiiciit. 

(instrument) 00*?^^ matrya. 
whistle, v.i. hi^e^ afwacca. 
S. hCG^ afocca. 

• ■ o 

G. hl^GBL anfwacca. 
W:hA fyu (fyuu) ala (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
Whistle: S. hC^^ dfocc, pi. ^Cctb:: afoccu. 

G. hl^'"^'.' dnfwac, pi. hl'CGSbv^ anfwacu. 

403 WHI— WHO 

Don't whistle: S. ^i;^fi:*P•K attdfocc, pi. h^C^Ekn 
G. ^;^'}^V^'K attdnfwac, pi. ^;^'} 
^6tfeK attanfwdcu. 
white, adj. V*P' nacc (nacc). 

White Nile, s. VT-s^O^: nacc dbb^ (§ 8). 
white, be (become), v.i. V"! natta. 

Whatever a black man may do he will never be- 
come white : T*C •• hA^C •- riflA ■• h^V^r « tiiqur 
dssir vivdla ainatam [lit. if he should eat ten 
(men's food)], 
white of eye, s. 'J/Z.V.-'P^ Sna (-nil; § 9) m^dra (§ 52a, 8). 
white-haired, adj. 'li(\^^9^ sibatdm (siv-, -at-; § 8). 
who ?, inter, pron. sg. & pi. nom. *l'i man 'i (-nn § 6), 
ace. *^V'> mdnmin?, pi. also ^V^^ (i)nnaman? 
{h^*^'i illdmdn?, § 8 ; -nn § 6), ace. JiV^^VJ (i)nna- 
mdnniin? (JiA*^- illamd-). 
Who came? '^'i -• aoft] :-. man mdtta?, pi. M*^**-' 
#w>nv •" innamdn mattu ? 

00 o • ■ 

In indirect questions the relative (§§ 14, 62) may be 
Did you see who came? f<w)^'}:^ifO:s yiimattan 
dyyah?, ... who (pi.) came? f<w>nV'7.* ... yiimdttun 
who, rel. pron. f- yix- (q.v.) prefixed to simple perfect. 
f J^- yamm(i)- [hJ^- (i)mm(i)-] pref. to 
The above are all numbers, genders, cases and 
persons ; see §§ 14, 62. 
The man who killed the soldier : fll;^^<•'> •• ^IfJiOh -. 
fiOhs wwttaddarun yaji^addalau (S 8) sau. 




The soldier who killed the man: f^(D/i'^lf.^ahs 
(D^^C s sauun yagaddalau wwttdddar. 

The man whom the soldier killed: at^^C •- f ^^Afl^f 
flOh: wwttaddar yagaddalau (§ 8) sau. 

The soldier whom the man killed: rta^!f'I^Afl^■^ 
<D^^C'' sau yagaddalau wwttaddar. 

Do you know the man who killed the soldier? 
flj;''A4-'> ! f 7^Afl>-7 : rtflJ- •• ;^a^+'PAU :•• wojttddda- 
run yagaddalaun (§ 8) sau tauuqauallah ? 

Did you know the man whom the soldier killed ? 
fll;^^C s P7^Afl>-'> ! fioh'S ^ah-^ah -- iflC :•• wwttaddar 
yagaddalaun (§ 8) sau tauiiqau nabbar? (§ 33«,^). 

I who went did not see him (it) : hi ■• f rh.jfV- •* KA 
^0*^9^ ••'• mJe yahadhwti alayyahutim, pi. h^s 
Prh.jt^ •' ^Af ifl^9" K ifiM yahadna alayyanaum. 

Sit down you who have come: h'ii'i^aD^ViAah'. 
't'^oD^ :: anta yamattah (§ 8) sau taqdmat, pi. M 
t^ •• ^oofHi^O' ! rt?*^- •• 'i'^aom' K illant yamattac- 
cyuh {^7d) sau^'oc taqdmatu. 

Come on, you Avho are coming ! h^^^ao^ '. Vln « 
immittimata ndkk'^o! (s.v. "Mi), pi. "h^^^aoab: 

o o o o * ^ n \. 

>-Vi •••• immittimatu nukk^'^o ! 

o o o o * 

whole, s. f^a^C dimmur {^^C dfmmir). 

why?, adv. (asking cause) hM^l silamfn? (§ 8). 
(asking object) A9"7 lamin? (§ 8). 
(expressing surprise or annoyance) 9^1 ^ 
^Gh B \9°hah k] mfnnau ? 
See §§ 15,47a, 78a. 
Why did you do it? A?"'} « /i^^*7i;aH « lamfn adar- 
raghau? (-•7*fit»-K -gx^u* -kkau §7rf). 

405 WHY— WID 

Ask him why he did it: mji+io- : A?" ^ : hft^7(»- :: 

tayyiqau lamin adarragau. 
I don't know why he did it: hfioh^r . ^r'i • hf!. 
^loh a aldutiqim lamf n adarragau. 
Or 9°^ min may be the object of the gerund of hli 
dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a) : 
Why should I do it? 9"'>:'nP»:AjtC7fl>-K min biyye 
ladrigau?, pi. r'i^^^n^'i^M^Claht'' min bllan 
innddrigau?, (§27). 
Why should he go? n.-ilit-.^iK^.', min bil^^o 
yfhid?, pol. & pi. ^^!'nAa^.•^rh,^» min bilau 
yfhidu ? 
why!, interj. (advancing reason) -*^ -mma (§ 8). 
(expressing surprise) h^. ara ! 
A child couldn't do it : but he, why, he's^a man ! 
Ag- : ^Je,^•Aa^9" T hCCh^ •• 'Ih A* •• 'lah « U j aicilaum : 
irsiimma tilliq (§ 8) nau ! 
Why, I never saw him (it)! h<: s /lAf l^^r k dra, 

aldyyahutim ! 
Why, you've had a wash ! hiH-^Tdf^'.- dra, tatva- 
wick, s. VlC kirr. 

wicked, adj. *1^ kffu (kiifu, ktifu, § 7d). 
wicked, be (become), v.i. h4- kafFa (§ 636?, e). 
wickedness, s. 1fl4«^ kffdt (kiif-,° kiif- § 7d; § 8). 
wicker-work bag, s. htiM ak'^ofdda. 
wide, adj. rt<t saffi. 

(dC^9^ wardam (woJr- § 7d; § 8). 
wide, be (become), v.i. rt4- saffa. 

It is (too) wide: /iA4-A« yisafel, pi. J&A4-A-K yisa- 



It is not wide (enough) : h^rt4-9"5s aisafam, pi. 
-4-9^1' -fum. 
widen, v.t. A»rt4- asaffa. 

Widen it: ^ft4-a»-K dsfau, pi. hti^-^a dsfut. 
Don't widen it: h^ili-ahs attdsfaii, pi. -^^k -fat. 
width, s. (dCH: ward (wwrd § Id). 
ti4^^ sifat (§ 8). 
What is its width? iDC-^:ft^^:Vfl>-s wwrdu sfnti 

o o 



What is, roughly, the width of the river? (DTrHs 
tl4-'P •' 9°'i i ^V^s'iOh v. wwnz sifatu min yahl nau? 
wife, s. G. J^Ti^ mist. 
S. 9^tl^ mist. 
Is it his wife? G. rfi-P-^^y- mfstu nat? 
S. J^ft*:*^:-. mfstu nac? 


wild, adj. ^ddV yabaraha (yaya-; § 4:7a ; = of the country). 
Wild beast : hC*B dur^e (§ 7d), pi. h/^'^^ arSwit 
(§ 8), see § 52a, 8. 
wild dog, s. -Mrf-A takwiila (§§ 8, 52a, 8). 
wild fig, s. (Ficus sycomorus, Broun, Cat. 533) fl9"fl 
(Ficus vasta) ©Ch warka (wcur-, 'PC- wdr-). 
(Ficus sp.) ?*"A s'^dla. 
win, v.i. & t. (game, case) [?»]^;^ (i)rdtta. 

(battle) ^ A s hf^^l dil adarraga. 
^AsV*^ dil nassa. 
I won two dollars from him over a bet : fll/A^J-flCe 
't'lD^CK •' ^;^^^^ « bahulatt! yirr taiiwrdrijjJ e rdt- 
He won his case in court: i{ai9^dCi^^iC^vi 
bauojmbar {% 8) fit ratta. 
Winchester rifle, s. oirT'fi'hC wasastiir. 

407 WIN— WIP 

wind, s. 14^(1 nffds (§ 8). 

Violent wind : hohUr'- aul'^o. 
wind, v.i. (wind oneself, v.r.) i'maomaD tatamattama, 
round, fl- ba- (ya- ; § 47a). 

It winds round it : ftm<wimJ'"fl;^AK yittamattamfb- 

• »' o • • o o • • o o 

batal, pi. ^a\aoa\ao'(\^^'.: yittamattamiibbatal. 
wind, v.t. aioDmaD tamattama, round, fl- ba- (va-: ^ 47a). 
Wind it (them § Ola) round him (it ; them § 52a, 8): 
flilT'TJ^fl^:: tamtimibbat, pi. m9"T<n>-fl^K tam- 

•o o 

Wind it round your arm: fl1n'>JtU:m9"T#wia^K ba- 
kindih tamtimau. 

o o • o *o o 

wind, break, v.i. (of persons) *fc4*-*^iA quqq dla. 
(of animals) ^^'-hti tatta dla. 
S.v. J(\^, § 44a. 
wind (up), v.t. (clock, etc.) trofi malla. 

T»A m^^dlla. 
Wind it up : ?"Afl^ « milaii. 

ao'/[ahi'. miilau. 
Don't wind it up: h^9^f[ah'.'. attimlau. 

h^ao'fiahi'. attfmiilau. 
Wind up the clock (watch) : rt'J'f-">!?"Afl>-» sadtun 


Don't you wind it up, bring it to me: hti'^h^ 
l^AOJ- T Ai ih9^^ :•• anta attimlau, lan> e anta (§ 7d). 
window, s. aotlYi^ mask^'ot (§ o2a, S). 
wine, s. mS tajj (tajj). 
wink, s. t4»^ tiq(is)sa. 
wink, v.i. m+rt taqqasa. 
wipe, v.t. ^iflrt abbasa. 

(Dliatli walduwala. 

WIP— WIS 408 

Wipe it : "htiiioh « fvasaii. 

IT O • O O 

h'dCiahii abbisau. 

o o 

(D^ahtiohK walwiilaii. 

o o 

Don't wipe it with this (that): (\ILV '• h^dfioh a baz- 
zih attivasau (... ^i;^'flrtfl^:•• ... attabbisau, ... h^ 

OO'OO^ oo' 

fli Afl^Aa^■ » ... attiwalwulau). 
wiped, be, v. p. ;^nrt tabbasa. 

i'iDtUDti tawalauwala (taua-). 
It must be wiped : j&;^nft « yittdyas, pi. -flA- k -yasu. 
j&fDAoiA:: yiwwahval, pi. -atdrs 


wire, s. TiO sib^^'o (siV'o). 
t/lAh silk. 


tftAtU silki (Tna.). 
wisdom, s. Tfl'fl tibab (tfvav). 

' -O o V -O' O • ' 

wise, adi. Tflfl? tibabaiina (tivav-, -dn-). 

^i*P*fe awdqi (aud-). 
wise, be, v.i. i^mflfl tatdbbaba (-ay a). 
wish, s. 9^"^^ minnot ("§ 8).° 

^^^ fiqad ( „ ). 
wish, v.i. & t. &.h1 f alla«a. 

' o o^o 

<(.4'^ faqqada. 
Do you wish to? ^<CA^AUk tifalligallah?, pol, f, 

<{.A;iA-K yifalligallu?, pi. ■^^CAjaA^ii- « tifalligal- 

Don't you wish to? ^^^A*??":: attifalligim ?, pol. 

^ije-^CAT-?":: aifalligum?, pi. K'Th^CAT-ru attifal- 

liofum ? 
As you Avish: ?i^^¥^j?:Uk ndafiqddih, pol. "t\lf^ 

^^^jp.. ndafiqdda^o (§ 12&). 
If you wish (it): -fl^^CA*?* bittifdllig, pol. n^CAT-.- 

bifalligu (bif- § 7c/). 

409 WIT— WIT 

I wish to see him (it) : APflH--h<CA;iA'>^K laiau ifal- 

ligallau^ (§ Id), pi. A'TeiD-sh'J^CAjjA^K linnSau 

I wish to go : Arfi.^!?i<i.ApA'V'K lihad ifalligallau^ 

pi. A^rh.j?: ! Kii.^phl :•• linnhad innifalligallan. 
I do wish we had gone! fliP---flrh.j?:V:: wwyyo ya- 

hddna ! 


witch, s. fl"-^ biida. 

i\t\°l'\r^ asmatdnna (-t^n-). 
with, prp. (accompanying) h- [+-] . . . : pC ka-(ta-) . . . gar 

(;i^gara; §8; §476). 
h [+-]...: H^Jt ka- (ta) ... 

Zand (§ 476). 
h'flt? dbr'' o (ayr- ; ger. § 34) 
with pers. suff. § 12c. 
He is to go with me: +^:;iC-'j&rh.Jt» tan^e gar 

yihid,pl.^.:: ...yfhidu. 

Did he come with him ? h'HC^'-initn'^ dvr'^ot mat- 
ta?, f. hil^iD". trom'-'i".'- dyrau mattac?, pol. & pi. 
ti'ddah^ t troob :: dvraut mdttu ? 

o o • • 

Did he come with her? ii'd^^'-oD"} « dyroat mdtta?, 
f. h'il^^itrDm^'-'' dyrat mdttac?, pol. & pi. h'dd 
<p^:iiD/n«:: dvrauat mdttu? 

o o • • 

Did he come with them (him, pol.) ? h'tl^^^ahtaom :; 
avrftdccau mdtta?, th'tl^^ahsaofn'^ti avrdccau 

o o • • ' • o 

mdttac?, pol. & pi. ^•fl^'P^fl^!<w>m•K ayraudccau 
Did he come with you? h'tiCVientm :*• ayr^oh matta?, 
f. h'Q^V-'t/Dfil^ii ayrah mattac?, pol. & pi. K-fl 
d(D*Oiaoin*i' avrauh mattu? 

WIT 410 

Did he come with you (f.)? h'flCHnrDf'li'. ayr^os 
mdtta?, f. h-H^ti'-aDfl^i: dvras mattac?, pol. & 
pi. h'dd.Oh'fi'-aDfnri- dvraus mattu? 

Did he come with you (pol.)? ^'flr^f ^ : <w>'n s: dy- 
r^^o^t matta?, f. h'tl^f^ioom'^.'' avrsTo mattac?, 

o • • • o • • 

pol. & pi. Ai-fl^a^F^ ■• oDtn* K ayrau"" ot mdttu ? 
Did he come with you (pi.)? ^'fl^'f l^ : <w>'n » ay- 

rodccyuh (§ 7fZ) matta?, f. K'fl^^l^ •• ^w)"!^ :: ayrdc- 

cyuh mattac?, pol. & pi. ^i'fl^'P^a'S#w>m-K ayrau- 

dccyuh mattu ? 
He came with me: h'tlG^-'Ootnn avr^on matta, 

f. h'i\ln^''aotf\^i'. dyran mattac, pol. & pi. h-fl 

dah^ioom'-.i dvrauil mattu. 

o o • • 

He came with us: h'dC'i '• emffln dvr^on mdtta, 
f. h'Qi-'i •• 0of]^ li dyran mattac, pol. & pi. ^i-fl 
d(D''iierDm".i dvraun mattu, 

• o o • • 

Did you come with him? h'd^Oah: aDfm)'» avrahau 
mattah?, f. K-fl^TiflHs^wi^TiK dyrasyumattas?, pol. 
h'ddah^i aoobi-' avraut mattu?, pi. h'tl^'^lh^: 
aotti^o- K ayraccihut mattdccyuh ? (§ Id). 

Did you come with her? Y\'i[d.i^iaon\\)ii dyrahat 
mattah?, f. h-flilTf^s/wi^Tf:! dyrasat mattas?, pol. 
h'fl^'P^ ! #w»ni« :: avrauat mattu?, pi. ^'fl^^A^• 
oD^'^ih ss ayrdccyuhat (§ 7d) mattdccyuh ? 

Did you come with them (him, pol.)? h'ddV^Ohs 
aofiWi- avrahdccau mattah?, f. h'Udyi^ah'- aotfl'dn 

o o o • • 

avrasdccau mattas?, pol. tt'd^'P^ahttrDOfi'' avrau- 
dccau mattu?, pi. A'fl^^'A^fl^■•<w»'^^l^K avrac- 

o O • • * 

cyuhdccau (§ 7d) mattdccyuh ? 
If you come with me: h'il^O^i'il^ao'Us dyrahan 
bittimdta, f. ^'fl<C7i^!'fl^'<w»T'-' dvrasin bittimdc, 


pol. h'ddah^iH.oDfn'i dyraun bimdtu, pi. h-fl^^ 
ih^ •• 'fl^<w»m- : avraccihun bittimdtu. 

411 WIT 

If you come with us: h'tldWii'd^ao'']: dyrahan 
bittimata, f. h'Ud'^'Tf-'d^aD'^: dvrasin bittimac, 

OOO- -OOOo* 

pol. h'ii^Oh'iitl.aomri dvraun bimdtu, pi. h'il^^ 
ihl'-'tl^aomr: avrdccihun bittimatu. 

• O O O o • ^.^ 

I will go with him : h'Q&ah : hth.fiti'h « ayfrr^eu 
ihaddllau^ (§ 7d), pi. ^-fl^TriD- •• Ji'Jrfi.^A'J k ayranau 


I will go with her: h-fl^^ ■• hrh.-^A'V- •.*. ayfrryat 
ihiidallau^, pi. fi'fl^V^-'X^rh.'^A'jK dvranat inni- 

o o ' * • o o o 

I will go with them (him, pol): ^•n^^'a>--'?irh.^A'>^!: 
avirrydccau ihadallau'\ pi. Ai'n^T'f-fl>-!?i'}Wi.-^A'}« 
avrandccau nnihadallan. 

o o o 

I will i»:o with you : h'U&V '• ?trh.^A'>^ k avirr> eh ihii- 
d{illau^ pi. h-n^C^U sTi'Jrli.^A'} k dvranih innihiidal- 

I will go with you (f): Ai'n<J.*fi : Tirh.^A'*'^ :*• dyirr^es 
ihadallau'\ pi. ?»'fl<lTfi : hTrh.^A'} « dvriinis inni- 

o or • o o o 

I will go with you (pol): h-il^?* '-htlu^ti'^'-i'- ayfr- 
r^e^ ihadallau'\ pi. h'dd'i?* •h'ith.Hti'ii' dvranat 

o o ' ^ • o o 



I will go with you (pi): h'(\'^'^'ihi'hth»^ii'h :•• ayirr- 
ydccyuh (§ 7r/) ihadallau'\ pi. h-dd'i'^'O'-h'ith^fi 
A7:: avrandccyuh innihadallan. 
(possessing) flA- bala- (§ 9c?). 

The man with the tent : (Xti^lWi •• baladiinkwan. 


The woman with the sunshade: flATAsrt,^! bala- 
tila (§ 8) s^et. 

(by means of) fl- ba- (ya- ; § 47a). 

gerund of ^H ydza (§ 44c). 
What does he sew it with? n9"^:j&rt4«'PA« bamfn 
yisafaual ? 

WIT— WIT 412 

What does he sew with it? 9"'>.•/&rt4«n;^A« min 

yisafabbatal ? 
Cut it with a knife : h^ : ^HU : '^^tnoh s karra 

yfzah (Xa/Sa)v) qwiiratau. 

(manner) gerund, especially of compounds 
of h^ (s.v. VflA, § Ua). 
The gun burst with a bang: oitiTr'^i^i'tKt^'-d^Wi'- 

tavanja arwa viP'o fanadda. 
Do it with great care: n«19":'H*7:'flAO:hjtC'li»-:: 
batdm zfo^gi vflah adrio-au (ararau ^ 7c?). 
withdraw, v.i. (oneself, v.r.) rh.^ hada. 

ID") wwtta. 
fli"!^ wwggada. 
He refused to withdraw: ^Arh.j^i^-->iA« alha- 
dimm dla, pi. h'}ih,^9"'h/k'ii annhadimm dlu, 
(s%. VOA)! 
withdraw, v.t. (dAz. wassada (wws-). 
M^ anassa. 


withdrawn, be, v.p. +airt^ tawdssada (taud-, -ws-). 
i'V*^ tanassa. 

o o 

wither, v.i. ^^4» darraqa. 
withered, adj. f^d.^ claraq. 

(paralysed) fljt^ badin (bad- ; -nn § 6). 
withers, s. aop^^ magafya (§ 52«, y). 
within, prp. (of space) fl- . . . s fl)-AT ba- (ya-, h- ka-, +- ta-) 

... wust. 
h- . . . •• nfl>-AT ka- {i-- ta) . . . b^wdst 

(yd-, -l^iii- ; § 8). 
n-...:*7n,ba-(ya-)... gibbi. 
(of time and distance) h- [+-]...! id-^U ka- 
(ta-)... W6idlh(-dfh; §8). 
See § 476. " 

41 B WIT— WOM 

Within the house: i-d^ •• Ohii'? -- tay^et wtist. 
Within half an hour: i-Vl- A •• rt^^ •• fli^U s takkul 


sadt wwdih. 


without, prp. ^A- yala-. 
G. hii- ala-. 

f A.Ani- yliP allabbat (§§ 39, 62). 
See § 47a. 
Don't go without him: ^ACrt-!Ai^rh,Jt» yalarsu 

attfhid, pi. -•?•:•• -du. 
I am not going without you: ^A W •• ^ Arh.Jt J'" « 

yalanta alhadim, pi. ... h'ith.f^^^ « . . . annhadim. 
A house without windows: <n»A?n^:fA.Afl^!rt.^s 

mask^^)t (§ o2a, 8) yal> alliibbat (§ 8) y>et. 
In a house without windows : r/oAlfi^: flA»Afl1*! fli^* 
mask^ot vaP alliibbat v^et. 

o • o o • 

witness, s. 9^MlC misfkkir. 

' o o o 

Have you got witnesses? y'AVlcr^-*^A'U:: misfk- 
kir'^occ alluh? 


witness, bear, v.i. troflh^ masakkara (-kiira), 

' ' OOOO^ O' 

for: A- la-. 


agrainst : fl- ba- (va-). 
See §§ 47a, 71. 
witty, adj. dAi"? bwaltaiifia (-tan). 
wizard, s. ft"^ biida. 

htl*^i'''i asmatdnna (-tan-), 
woman, s. rt.^ s^et. 
— may be expressed by using the feminine : 

That is a pretty Avoman: ^^ •• iD-'fl : <?'> « yac wtiy 

Young Avoman: 'fc^/^ qwwnj'^'o, pi. also *fe'i'jS"f'^ 
qwwnajit'^oc (-cc § 6), *fei3^jf -f^ qwojnajajit^oc 
(-CC § 6)!* 
Middle-aged or oldish woman : flA-t-Th bdlt^et (§ 8). 

WOM— WOR 414 

womb, s. '^hxmTr mdh(i)tan. 
'^m'} mdtan. 

• o 

wonder, s. (-fal, adj.) J^^4» dinq. 

;^^5*l tdrik (-rik). 
I think it wonderful : ^V*^ « dannaqafi. 
wonder, v.i. ^i*l*fl>- dannaqau (impers. § 43a ; § 63c?, e). 
wonderful, adj. *7^9" gfrum. 

It is wonderful: •74•j^sVfl^:•• giriim (§ 8) nau. 
wonderful, be, v.i. ^V*f* dannaqa. 
wood, s. (substance) ?i'}6D?ih (i')ncyet [-fitt^ -cat], 
(forest) a^J^*^ Aviidma. 
^C dur. 
It is made of wood: f "J^Efc"^ •• Vid- s yanc^et (§§ 47a, 
7a, 8) nau. 
woof, s. <{.^A fatil (fat-). 

wool, s. fn*7.-mT^C yabag (-aya-; §§ 47a, 70) tagwtir. 
woollen cloth, s. '^4' maq. 
word, s. Vie nagar (-gar). 
;*'A qal. 
See § 52a, 8. 
work, s. i\^ sfra. 

(employment) i'*7flC tagbar (-gydr; §8). 
The work is not finished: tl^ih^d,^9"ii sfra al- 


fattam, or fl/J«.*hA+<i.;''J^K sfra altafattam. 

O ' O o o ^^ 

Has he "^ot work? i'*7flC-'^iAfl>-« taorvdr allau? 

Hard work: -MA^.- tfgflt (§ 8). 

It needs hard work: flMA^.•Va^:•. batic^flti (S 7<?) 

o o~o o \«) / 



work, v.i. & t. rt<5- sarra (sar-). 

He works: j&A<5-A:-. yisdral, f -Vrt^A^K tisardllac, 

*^ »' O O ' ' 

pol. & pi. ^irt^/V-:: yisarallu. 

415 WOR— WOR 

He doesn't work: hj&rt^9"K aisaram, f. Mii^9"i' 
attisaram, pol. & pi. h^fi^9^i- aisarum. 

He has worked well: «niAJ|J'"srtC:f:AK malkdm sar- 
t5al, f. ... rtC;^A^:: ... sartallac, pi. ..! rtC+<PA» 


He has not worked well: twiAhJ'^-'^iArt^^":-. mal- 


kdni alsarram, f. ... AiArt^-fi^s ... alsarraccim, 
pi. ... ^Art4-i^:: ... alsarrum. 
They will not work by the day but by the piece : 
n+'}.^J2,rt<.5'"Tnfl>-A:Vfl>-:?iT^Jl:: baqan aisarum, 
baiil naunii. 

O O " 

I can't work until (unless) that noise stops: JRU* 
6tfc*fi'>:'Hr.?ift'l:Asft^:^j&^A^J^:: yfhc cuhat 
zimm istil sfra aiccdlannim. 

o o o o o o 

work for, v.t. hliilii aj^alaorffala. 

How many years have you worked for him? illH'-- 
'ioD^-ihltil^Vahi'. sint dmat a<>:ala<»o:alhau ?, ... 

o o ~oo~~o o ' 

him (pol.)? ... ^i7A7A'/^'flH:: agalaggalhaccau? 
work hard, v.i. :h'iti taggala. 

He works hard : J&;*"7AA« yittaggalal, pi. /i;^^AA•:•. 

He doesn't work hard: ^tJ&;^^ A9° :■• aittaggalim, 
pi. -A-r-.: -lum. 
workman, s. A^i'? sarratanfia (sar-, -tan-), 
world, s. 'iti9^ dlam. 

' o 

worm, s. '^A til (§ 52a, 8), usually f (§ 54c). 
worn, be, v.p. i'iiQii talabbasa. 

1 o o o o 

How is it (are they § 52a, S) worn? Jt'J^^.-^AflAA:: 
nd^ et yillabbasal ? 

•' o o o 

It is (they are § 52a, 8) not worn : hf!,fi(ill9^ n aillab- 

WOR— WOR 416 

worn out, adj. (of inanimate objects) fl^^3f■ wiirrdj (§ 8). 
These clothes are worn out : ^ U ■• A-flft •• Oh^^ •• Vfl^ » 
yihe liys (§ 52a, 8) wiirrdj nau. 
worn out, be (become), v.i. 

(of animate objects) ^hao dakkama. 

fMooo^ dakkamau (im- 
pers. § 43a). 
(of inanimate objects) hA4» dllaqa. 
See § 63c?, e. 
It is worn out: ^A^Ak alqoal, pi. A»A*f*<PAK al- 

He (it) is worn (tired) out : ^Vl*r*;^A « dakim"" otal, 
f ^h^;^AK dakimSatal, pol. & pi. ^Vi^^'PAk 

o o 

He (it) is old and worn out: hdX'-^^^" arajja, 

ayaqqa (§ 74c). 
I am worn out: ^ViT^Ak dakim^oiinal, pi. ^Vl^P 

TAk dakim^onnal. 


worried, be, v.i. & p. (troubled) ^Idoh caggarau (-gar- ; 
impers. § 43a ; § 6Sd, e). 
I am worried : ^Id^ « caggarafi, pi. -^1 « -ran. 
worry, s. -fpC ciggdr (§ 8). 
worry, v.t. (trouble) htl^l^ ascaggara (-gara). 
(pester) VHVH nazannaza. 

\i / o o o o 

Don't worry me: h^tl^ld^a attascaggiraii, pi. 

-4-^ :: -run. 
h^^mn^ K attinaznizafi, pi. 

o o o ' r 

-H"^:: -ZUn. 

Don't worry us: ^;^ft^*7^'^K attascaggiriin, pi. 

-4-'}k -run. 
h^^infiUi- attindznizan, pL 

o o o ' r 

-«•'}» -zun. 

417 WOR— WOU 

He (it) worries me: ^ft^*7<i?Aw yascaggirannal, 

pi. -4-?Ak -runnal. 
R^WJH^Ass yinazannizafinal, 

•^ ♦' O o o o ' 

pi. -fr^A « -zuiiiial. 
He (it) worries us: ^ft^*7<CVAK yascaggirannal, 

pi. -4-'i'Ak -runnal. 
JRVH'JH^Ak yinazannizannal, 
pi. -frVAw -zunnal. 
worse, be, v.i. h4- kdffa (§ 63^?, e), than, h- ka-, +- ta- 
He (it) is worse : h*b:l:AK kdft5al, pi. -'h'PA « -taual. 
worship, v.i, & t, rt7^ sdg<»ada (saggada), 
worth, be, v.i. ^lhA akkala (q.v.). 

What is this worth ?Vl^-'i^'>-' ^«'^ A « yfhe minyjih- 
lal? (S, ^hAA:: yakkilal), pi. ?iWUU.V'>:^UA/V-:: 
nnazzih min yahlallu? (S, ^lflAA*» yakkihlllu). 
It isn't worth that : ^UVJ.-^^OAIP*:: yihanniin aMh- 

lim (S, Ai^lnA?":: a^Vikkilim), pl.-A-9":: -lum. 
It is Avorth half a dollar: f'flC* WfbA.-^UAA:: yiiyfrr 
tikkul ydhlal (S. ^h A A « yakkilal). 
would, v.aux. see § 81c, d 

It would be splendid : J^'}4' •• VflC « dinq ndbbar. 
wound, s. "l^ftA qwdsil. 
wound, v.t. (tearing) Ai<kAA aqwwssala. 

(penetrating) fD^ wwgga i^oi%-). 
Did you wound him (it)? l\%(\^\)ahxi aqwwssalhau ? 

(opVoh It wwggahau? 
He (it) wounded me: h*fertA^:: aqwcJssalan. 

atp^ii wwggan. 
He (it) didn't wound me : hA*fert A^?" s*. alaqwwssa- 



h^(Dp^9^ K alwwggan- 

AM. GR. (ll) 27 

WOU— WRE 418 

wound, be, v.p. 'ttnaomtro tatamdttama, round, fl- ba- 
It is (has been) wound round it : i'(n9^'?'Pi\^^ :*. 
tatamtim^dbbatal, pi. '^mi^'P<w>a^n;^ A » tatam- 

O'O'O o-"- 0"0 


•o O o 

wound (up), be, v.i. & p. (of clock, etg.) <w»A malla. 

T*A m^^dlla. 
Is it (has it been) Avound up? ao^^fi^n maltSal? 

*r»A:tAK m^dltSal? 

wounded, adj. ^llii^ qwuslanna (-Ian-). 
w ounded, be, v.i. & p. (torn) *fertA qwwssala. 

(penetrated) i'atp tawwgga (tauw-). 
See § 6Sd, e. 
Are you wounded ? i'W'l'f''/^ :•• tauwgtahal ? 
Where are you wounded ? i'9"'}0s'fertAUK tamfnih 

*' o o o 

(§§ 47a, 15) qwwssalh ? 
woven, be, v.p. 'i'd^i'ti tafattala (-fattala). 
wrap, v.t. (roll up) ni'l'AA taqallala. 
(cover) Tid.'i sdffana (saf-). 
Wrap it up in a cloth: n£Q>C4>:ni4>AAfD<:: bacarq 



flcaC^ '• ff^^flj- :: bacarq 

O o 

wrapped, be, v.p. (rolled up) '^m4*AA tataqallala. 

(wrap oneself, v.r.) -Mf^CV tasafFana 

^ ^ ^ ' oooo 

It is to be wrapped in a cloth : 

fleaC^'sJ&m^'AA:: bacarq yittaqlal. 
ncti.C4*!jiff<{.^:: bacarq yissafan. 
wrapping-cloth, s. <w»m4*A^ matacilaya (-taq-, -iia). 
wrestle, v.i. ;^^A taggala. 
wrestling, s. 'lh*7A tigil. 

419 WRE— WRI 

wretched, adj. (of persons) '^pd^i ciggaranna (-ran-). 
(of animals and inanimate objects) *71^ 

wring (out), v.t. a\ao'^ tammaqa. 

Wring it out : T<w>*|»a>- » timaqau. 
wrist, s. <w>A^ malUyya. 

e^.-^-Jll- yajj (§ 70) dngat (-gat). 
See § 52«, y. 
On his wrist(s): i\%--hl1^'' bajju angat. 
write, v.i. & t. ^<2. tafa. 

Q. 9^d, safa. 
I will write: liT'f-A'^:: itifdllau'^ (§ Id). 
G. ?iX'4.A'^::isifallaii^ 

O 'O o 

I will write it : ?iT<i.<P A'V- k itifauallau^ 

O 'O o o 

I will write to him: ?lT*PA;^A't^ « itifillatallau'^ 

o *o o o o 

(§ ^^^Ci)' 

I will write to them (him, pol.) : KT'PA^'PA'^ :: 


O 'O o o o 

I will write to you : KT^hA'/A'V^ :•• itif illih;illau^. 
I will write to you (pol.) : hT^AfP^AV:-. itffilla^o- 

I want to write : AT^ •• >i<?.A;) A-*^ « litff ifalligdllau'^ 
I will not write: ^lAT'Pr « altifim. 
I wrote: ^^ih" tdfhu. 
I did not write: hA^^iM^^K altdfhum. 
Write: ^^k taf 
Don't write: K^^*P« attitaf 
Have you written? T<i.yAK tifahal? 
Did you write ? ^'PO « taf h? 
Can (§ G3c) you write ? ^T^-AO « titifdllah ? 
Can he write? ^T4-Ak yitifal? 




writer, s. ^^ tdfi. 

G. H^ sdfi. 
writing, s. T<C^ tifat (G. X"- si-; -fat). 

Writing materials : aotni^f matdfya (G. aoK- masa-). 
written, be, v.p. +^<(. tatdfa (G. i'J^- tasd-). 
wrong, adj. & adv. (incorrect) l^i- gadafa. 

That's wrong (not correct) : J&U: n/*'^^?" •• ^J2,A^A:: 
yihe yasiratimm aidal, or JiUsflflJ-AJ^sh^/^A:*. 
yfhe yaulimm aidal, (§ 7f/). 
Or use parts of fi'\r sata (q.v.), to miss : 
You have counted Avrong: *feT^Us^^UH qwwtrah 
sath (-t-h, not -6, § 3). 
wrong, s. (injury) fl^A bddal (badal). 
wrong (incorrect), be, v.i. Ift^C gaddafa (type A § 34). 

i'lf^d.Oh tagaddafau (impers. 
§ 43a). 

See § Q3d, e. 
He is wrong : 7j?:^ A « gadf oal. 

i-Jj^C;*- A K tagadf ^otal. 
wrong, do, v.i. fl^A baddala (bad-). 

He has done wrong : flj^^A k baddiloal, pol. & pi. 

flj^A'PAK baddilaual. 
You have done wrong: flj^AVA:: baddilahal, pi. 
nj^A'-f AAk baddilaccyuhal (§ 7d). 
wrung (out), be, v.p. i"m<wi*f» tatammaqa. 

Xenis sp. (Blandford, Geol. & Zool. pp. 278, 279), s. ?f A 
sala, usually f (§ 54c). 

421 YAW— YES 

§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar {Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

yawn, v.i. hHp azzagga. 

Don't yawn : h^^p « attazzdga. 
year, s. ^<n>^ amat (amiit ; § 52a, 8). 

This year (adv.) : H'Jj^C: zdnd(i)r^o (zan-). 

Last year (adv.) : Y\9°^' amna. 

Next year (adv.): d'^aom'-'iao^i bammimdta 

(§ 02c) dmat. 
Five years : i\9°h^ •* ^<w»^ « ammist dmat. 
Five years ago : ;M^ft'll' ■• ^<wi^i fl^l-s tdmmist (§ la) 
dmat vdfit (^ 8 ; ^ 476). 
hjrft^ : 'iao^ : ?i e^Cl s ammist amat 

' o o 

In five years' time : ({9°h^i*^ao^i bammist amat. 
Every year: fl<w>^ •• fl<n>1* •• bdmiit ydmat (§ Id). 
How many years ? til^ •• ^«ni^ : sint dmat ? 
yell, s. fitfeTi^ ciihat (-hiit § Te?). 
yell, v.i. ^"""Ti c^'oha (§ 7^?). 
yellow, adj. 'fl**^ bf9a. 

yes, adv. hml dwwn (duwn, du&>); — after a negative 
question hoi means no (q.v.), and yes is ex- 
pressed by repeating the verb in the positive. 
Don't you like it ?— Yes : h^(Df^ahr ii—haf^'P^'^ « 
attiwojddaum ? — iwwddaudllau^. 

o o o o o 

Yes indeed! hah'i^i'iahti undt (§8) nau! 
yesterday, adv. ^M^ tildnt (§ 8). 
^A'JI-'? tilantina. 

o o 

S. ^"^Tf^ tjnant (§ 8). 
^«?'>^V tinantina. 

o o 



The day before yesterday: '^^'i">^ : aijE^^ « tati- 
nant wcudya, or iPAft^Vs salfst(i)na. 
yet, adv. T? gana. 

Haven't they gone yet ? T? •• K Arh.^*r*^ k gana al- 

hadummwf ? (s.v. flJji). 
Not yet: I'l'-'uD'ii gand (§ 8) nau. 
yield, v.i. (in war) 'h'^^h tamarraka. 

(to persuasion) Kit-hli (i)ssi (-si, -s^) ala. 
(to pressure) AflTs?»A l^batt (-aya-) dla. 

G. AT.-^Vtt (laU)°%' 
S.v. J(\^, § Ua. 
yoke, s. +9"nc qdmbar (-bar). 

(dMi wtusk^o. 
yoke, v.t. mtmf!, tammada. 
yoked, be, v.p. i'mao^ tatammada. 

* o • o o o 

yolk, s. htiy\^ askwal (§ 8). 

yonder, adj. ^ ya, also prefix ya-, f. ^^ yac (-cc), pi. M 
fL9 (i)nnazzya (-naz-, 'h^- illd-, -laz-) or "hX^ (|)n- 
nya {Itxti} fllya). 

See §§ 8, 13a ; s.v. that, dem. pron. 
yonder, adv. hM,^ kazzya (ha-, -az- ; § 8). 

+H,^ tazzya (taz- ; § 8). 
you, pers. pron. — see § 1 2a : the disjunctive forms are 

usually omitted unless they are 
emphatic (§ 605). 
M-t^ dnta (-ta). 
hli^ ant^q.v.) 
f hl^ dnci. 

hlrh anc (q.v.). 
pol. ?iCrtP frsd^o (Jirt- fssd-, -hP -s^o, 

hCti frs^o, ht\9*, hfi fss°6 ; § 8). 
pol., but less so than hCflf*, h'ii: 
dntu (see Appendix B § 12a). 

423 YOU 

pi. Ml^ illdnt (h'i (Dnnd-; § 8 ; -l-h 

-nta, -nta). 
(ace. & dat.) -0 -h, f. H -s, pol. -(a)?» 
-(a)^o, -(a)?'1- -(a)^^ot, pi. -a^u- 
-dc(c)ihu (-dc(c)yuh § 7d); see § 12c. 
The suffix corresponding to hli^ is 
-•V- -hwii or -U- -hu (-uh, after a 
vowel -u^ § 7^/), see App. B § 12c. 
(ace. emph.) hli''} ant an (-tan), f. 
hlr^'i ancin, pol. hCA?''i irsS^on 
(hii iss&-, etc. ; § 8), hli:'} flntun, 
pi. M'i^'i illantin {M- (i)nnd-, 
-Tri'l -ntan, -ntiin). 
You there ! ^^i'sftoJ-:: anta (§ 8) sau ! 
He saw you : h^V « dyyiih. 

you (f): h^Hii dyyas.^ ^ 

you (pol.) : h??* :: ayyii^^o (h??*^ « dyya^^ot). 
hfV-K dyyau''. 
„ you (pi.) : h^-f i> K ayydccihu (-dccyuh). 
We saw you : h^'il) « fiyyanih. 

you (f.): hf^Tl:: fiyyanis. ^ 
„ you (pol.): ^ifVi^'s ayyiina^'o (-VF'^k 
h^'if-A ayyjin^o (TrP^''' -n^ot). 
AifTV-K dyyjinhwu (-nuh). 
„ you (pi.): ^fV-fihs ayyandccihu (-ndc- 
I will give you it (them § 61a) : 
hrtmVA'V^:: isatahdllau''. 
hrtTVA-V- K isatihdll^'^ (App. B § 12c). 
I will give you (f.) it (them § Gla) : 
XrtTTfA'^^:: isatisallau^ 

YOU— YOU 424 

I will give you (pol.) it (them § 61a) : 
'hiim9*h^'^i'• isatsTodllau^ 

O O * o o 

}lii(n9*^^'hi•. isata'^otallauK 

o o * o o 

hf^'?Ph^'^i'. isat^oallauK 

o o • o 

^lrtT?';^A'^ss isat^otdllau^ 

o o • o 

hdm'Xii'^ ''• isatahwallau^ (isatauhallau^). 

oo"o o \oo«o O ' 

I will give you (pi.) it (them § 61a) : 

hrt^^AAIr^ ss isataccihwallau^ (isataccyu- 

OO* O O '•OO' •' 

They will give you it (them § 61a) : j&rtnhVA:: yisa- 
young, adj. ^Trti tfnnis, intensive pis. ^'}'}7f tinfnnis, 
-TrV'^ -nnis^oc (-cc S 6), ^^tt titinnis, 

o \ on ooo' 

-"W^ -nnis'^oc (-cc § 6), very young. 
^;^ s^Sta. 
Young man: ^TihC* askar (-kar). 

T^flTf ! gwcJbaz (gvvwvaz), pi. also ^fl 
HTIft^ gwwbazdzist (gwwva- ; § 8). 
your, poss. pron. (addressing one) -I) -h, f. -Ti -s, pol. 

-aJP -a^ (fP -^o), --^ -hwti (-ih -hu, 
-uh, -u^ App. B § 12&). 
(addressing more than one) -d-f l^ 
-ac(c)ihu (-ac(c)yuh § Id), (§ 125). 
yours, poss. pron. (addressing one) ^^i* yanta, f. $1^ 

yanci, pol. f Crtf* yarsa^o (§ 8), ^"J* 
ydntu (App. B § 12a). 
(addressing more than one) f A^l" 
ydllant or f VJI- yanndnt (§ 8). 
See §§7a, 12a, 47a, 70. 
youth, s. (abstract) KtiXiCh^ askaWimat (-kar-, -nat). 
7^'fl'H'i' gwtibzjnna (gwtlyz-). 

425 ZEA— ZIZ 

§ refers to the paragi'apJis of the Grammar {Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

Zea mays, s. fflrhC!*^7iA yabdhir (yayd-) masilla. 
zebra, s. f^^s^U^ yam^eda ahiy(y)a (-dah-), (§ 52a, 8). 
Zizyphiis mucronata and Z. spina-Chrlsti (Broun, Cat. 
105), s. 10 gdba (gaya). 
Z. spina-Christi : YxH't'd* abattdr^'e (ay-, -iittar-). 
S. *C*^ qurqiir(r)a. 

ABO— AGE 426 [addenda 


§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

abolish, v.t. "Jf ^ sdra. 


abolished, be, v.p. i'fi^ tasdra (tas). 

It ought to be abolished: ^TfC-'VACs yissdr ndb- 


It ought not to be abolished: ^/i^Cl^sVnCK a^- 
sdrim ndbbar. 

o o o 

abolition, s. 7i^^ sfrat (-rat). 
abortion, s. Ttfii sil (sil). 
acquiesce, v.i. KlLihii (i)ssi (-si, -s^) dla. 
flj^! hii bajja (baj-) dla. 
G. ^*?•'h^ latt (latt) dla. 
S. AflTs^A labatt (-ava-) aJa. 
S.v. J(\^, § 44a. 
adhere, v.i. +^n*l» tatabbaqa. 

It adheres: JE.'nfl;^ A » yittabbaqal, pi. jl'nfl^A".: 

It does not adhere: h^^n4*i^K aittabbaqim, pi. 
-*fejr*:: -qum. 
advantage, s. ^^ fir>e, pi. ^d.P'^- fire^oc (-cc § 6). 
affection, s. ^^C f fqir. 
affectionate, adj. *P4»<i? f iq(i)ranfia (-ran-). 
aged, adj. (elderly) 7i*^*7A. simagilPe (-gil^e). 

addenda] 427 AIM— ASS 

aim, v.i. & t. ftiV ddggana (dag-), at, fl- ba- (ya- ; § 47a). 
Aim at him (it) : ^*7^n^K dagginibbat, pi. ^*7V-n^a 

Don't aim at him (it): h^fj^ld^n attidagginib- 

bat, pi. -*7>-fl^K -gginubbat. 
I aimed at him (it) : fj'iihd^ « dagganhubbat. 
I didn't aim at him (it): h^fJtU'd't'r i- aldag- 


~ o o o 

aimed, be, v.p. i'^l'i taddggana (-dag-), at, fl- ba- (ya- ; 

alternately, adv. tl^d^d^Oh bayyafaraqau (§ 18). 
alternately, be done, v.p. (occur, v.i.) i'A.^d^ tafarar- 

O '^O 

alternately, do, v.t. txd./^d.'P afFararraqa. 

alternation, s. A.d^ faraqa (§ 8). 

always, adv. at^G wwtr^o. 

ant-hill, s. S. kiiyyisa (§ 52a, 8). 

anus, s. (not S.) oo-CT murt. 

ascend, v.i. W-fl-'AiA sfqqib (-iy) dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 

Does the road ascend? #w»'}7.S.:Yi4*'fl-*/iAAK man- 
gadu sfqqiv yilal? 
Ascension, s. dCl^ frgat. 
aside, adv. 

Move aside ! 1"^^ •- gwwdin ! 
assist, v.i. & t. hin aggaza (G. type A § 34, S. type B § 35). 

Please assist us : pol. G. hft't^'JH"'} « istiyfgazun. 

S. htl±f*in''}:'. istiyaggizun. 

Please assist them : pol. G. htl't^l^^Oh a istiyigaz- 



S. Ttiil^^n^^Ohii istiyag- 

On O 




assisted, be, v.p. ;^^H taggaza. 

He will be assisted: J&^7Ha« yittaggazal, pol. & 

pi. J&;^^HA•K yittaggazallu. 
Assumption, s. <PArt;^ fjlsdta (16*^^ to 21^^ Vrhrt., s.v. 

calendar), sometimes f. (§ 54e). 
asthma, s. ft?"fl'fl sfmbab (-av). 

' o o ^ o • ' 

He has asthma: ftj^fl'fl : ^H;^A » sfmbay yfz^otal. 
asthmatic, adj. h9"({(\9^ sfmbabdm (-aydm ; § 8). 
attend, v.i. (to, v.t.) A-fl-'^^^T libb adarraga, constr. 
with ace. or A- la- (^ 4:7a). 
Attend to it: A-fl •• ^/?:C*7A^ k libb adrigillat (dr- 

gillat § 7d). 
Attend to this: J&OV}-* A-fls^J^rClcD-K yihannan 
libb adrigau (drgau § 7d). 

back, be put, v.p. "taotifl tamdllasa (-mal-). 

back, put, v.t. aotifl mdllasa (mal-). 

Put it back into its place: +A*P^iD-!<H»Artfl>-B ta- 

stfrau mallisau, pi. -rt-^ k -sut. 

Balanites cegyptiaca (Broun, Cat. 88), s. <m-«i mucca. 

S. 3?*r* jamm^o. 

bank, s. (commercial) ^l^^^sO.^ gimja-b^'et (-y^et; § 8). 

tfl-JVi bank. 

basket, s. (bowl-shaped) ^9^'(\^ qimbfcca. 

CP'iP' c'^oc'^o. 
bath, s. 

I am going to have a bath: 7AP»'}.•?^;^mflA'V■» 

gdlaien (S 56c) ittattavdllau^ 

bed, s. (-clothes) t^^Ti f (i)rds. 

before, adv. (time and place) dA.^ b^flt (-fit ; § 8). 

(time) +^^ qdd(d)am (-mm § 6). 

n+^jP baqdd(d)am (-mm § 6). 


belt, s. S. ^n-f qabatt^o (qaya-). 

bend down, v.i. (bend oneself down, v.r.) f"^*?- tadaffa. 

Bend down: +ft4'K tadafa, pi. 't'^4-"- tadafu. 

If you bend down: -n^^-f-s bittiddaffa, pi. -4*- -ffu. 
bend down, v.i ^4- dafFa. 

Bend it down : Jt4-(»- » dffau, pi. J^^l* •••• difiit. 
bent, adj. T-fl") gwwbdta (-o>yd-). 
bent down, be, v.p. '^^4- taddffa. 
bicycle, s. f^iif^^'nt'-^dll yiisaitan (s.v. P-, §§47, 70)faras. 
big, adj. ^^^ tflliq, intensive pis. ■^AA^* tilflliq, -A-P-f 
-lliq^oc (-CC § G), 1-1-A4' titflliq, -A*'T- -lliq^^Oc 
(-CC § 6), very big. 
blossom, s. . . . usually f (§ 5 4c). 
blotting-paper, s. t'^j^'m*'* mamtdca (-taca). 
bother, s. "^-pC cfggdr (§ 8). 
bother, v.i. & t. hilH-ld ascaggara (gara). 
)H)H nazdnnaza. 

o o o o 

s.v. worry. 
Don't bother: 119"! (1 A k zimm bal, pi. TIJ^.-n/V-K 
zimm bdlu. 
bothered, be, v.i. ^l^at* caggarau (-gar- ; impers. § 43a ; 

bung, s. aof^&yx madfdfia (-faiia), usually f (§ 54c). 
bung (up), v.t. f^^ ddffana (dafFilna). 

Bung it up : f^&hoi* » dffanau, pi. ->-^* « -nut. 
bunged up, adj. Jt'P'J dffin. 
bunged (up), be, v.p. I'^^i.V tadaffana (-dafFana). 

It is to be bunged up : J&^^O » yiddafan, pi. -V- « 
busy, be, v.i. tl^'-^H sfra ydza (§ 44c, § 6Sd, e). 

I am busy: ft^.-je-TTAIr^K sfra yizzdllau^ (^PP- B 
§ 44c), pi. fl^-'j&H'i'Au sfra yfzanal. 




buy, v.i. & t. 

I should have bought it: (as rendered on p. 43, 
and, perhaps more commonly) TH^ •• ^flC :•• gazic- 
c^e nabbar (§§ 616, 81^). 

called, cause to be, v.t. htim^ astdrra {§ 68). 
Calot7'opis procera (Broun, Cat. 347), s. rn-fl^ t'^'dbbya. 
cancel, v.t. lid sdra. 
cancelled, be, v.p. 'tlid tasdra (tas-). 

It is (has been) cancelled: i^YJ^As tasiroal. 
cancellation, s. Ti^^ sirat (-rat). 
captive, adj. & s. hild^ asrdiina (-ran-). 

(taken in war) adj. 9°Ch mirk. 
s. 9°C^ mlrk^o. 


adj. & s. 9"C\i^ mir- 

See § 52a, 8. 

Car dims sp., s. S. h»?f At kwajsal^e (§ 52a, S), usually f. 

(§ 54c). 
careless, adj. ^Ai*^ callitdfina (-tan-). 
careless, be (become), v.i. VA-'^»A call dla. 

G. & B. ^A •• hh cala dla. 
S. ^A.-AiAcmadla. 
S.V. VnA, § 44a r§ 63c?, e. 
carelessness, s. ^^^ callita. 


cart (carriage), s. S. \p& gdri. 

Carthamus tinctorms (Broun, Cat. 316), s. A*¥ suf. 

Cassia goratensis (Broun, Cat. 166), s. If*?"! zigitta. 

G. ^ntn digftta. 
castrate, v.t. AAA sallaba (-ava). 

castrated, adj. AA-n silb (-ly). 
•>*^^ g^'omdda. 
castrated, be, v.p. i'AAfl tasallaba (tas-, -ava). 

addenda] 431 CAT— CLO 

caterpillar, s. i'9^'^ tame (tame ; § 62a, S), usually f. 

(§ 54c). 
certain, be, v.i. (of something) "t^H taradda (§ 63d, e). 
I am certain : •fdj^^ii'li^ « taradiccallau^, pi. 'i'd^ 

+'i'Ak taradtanal. 

o o o 

Are you certain? '^^Jt'^y A « taradtahal?, pol. 'i'^j^ 
i'^PA:: taradtaual?, pi. +^j^^^'AAk taradtdc- 

cyuhal? (§ 7d). 
chant, v.i. & t. litw^ zammara (-miira). 

' o o o \ O ' 

chatter, v.i. iid^lid. lafallafa. 

' o o o o 

He chatters : j&A<CA4'Ak yilafallifal, pi. j&A<CA'^/V-» 

Don't chatter: h^^^^9'^ attilaflif, pi. -A^:: -lifu. 

o o o ' r^ o 

chatterbox, s. 9"Art? milasdnna (-san-). 
/{^/[d, lafldfi" 
A<PA4. lafl§;ff a. 


cheese, s. aofn'^-'h^'Q matata fiib (fiiy, matataiy). 
chew, v.i. & t. *fe<ini<w> owwrdttama. 

' o • • o o 

Chew it : 'feCT<n>fl>- :: qwwrtimau, pol. f^'kCTao-^ :: 

Don't chew it: h^^CVnoah':'. attiqwwrtimau, pol. 

h^^C^av-^ :: aicpvajrtimut. 
chewed, be, v.p. '["kdaxoo taqwwrattama. 

A OA 0'*00 

civet cat, s. . . . usually f. (§ 54c). 
clap, s. (gonorrhoja) 6Ci.'flT cayt. 
close together, adj. *7TJ^ gfttim (-imm § G). 
close(r §586) together, be, v.i. *7T9".-AiA gfttimm (§6) 
dla (s.v. J(\^, § 44« ; § 63^, e). 
The things are to be close(r) together: h^Ohi 

*7TJ^.'j&nAK fqau (§52a) gittim yiyal. 
The things are not to be (so) close together : h^ah: 
*7TJ^:^/Z.nAK Iqau gittimm dival. 

CLO— CON 432 [addenda 

The things are (too) close together: 'h^ahi*l*?9^s 
"flO, A « iqau gf ttim bil5al. 
close(r § 586) together, stand, v.i. 1^004- tanababbaru 
(-aya-, -baru). 
Stand close(r) together: '^Vfl^4-a tanaydyaru. 
close (up), v.t. (an aperture) f^d/i daffana (daffana). 
Close it up : J^<CiiD- » dffanau, pi. -"h^ a -nut. 
Don't close it up : h^^d^^oh n attfdfanaii, pi. ->-^k 
closed (up), adj. ^^'i difin. 

closed (up), be, v.p. (of an aperture) i'^d.'i taddffana 
Let it be closed up : ^^<0 « yiddafan, pi. -^ » -nu. 
clover (Trifolium sp.), s. '^TP nidgat, usually f. (§ 54c). 
Coleus gomphojphyllus (H. M. Broun), s. T^^^ gwiidara 

(-dara ; § 8), usually f. (§ 54c). 
colic, s. 

He (it) has colic: Mj^^-J •• ;^'^. A « anjatun (§ 56c) 
tammoal (§ ^%d). 
Colohns guereza (Guidi, Vocab. p. 728), s. 'h&i\ gureza 

(§ 52a, 8), sometimes f. (§ 54c). 
colon, s. (med.) ^'>^i dandann^e. 
commission, s. (commercial) "hCli giirsa. 

(errand) <w»AVl'i* maldkt (§ 8). 
The commission is 1 % : 'hC^ « \\ao^ : hlfi: •• Vfl^ » 
sriirsa kamat^^ o and! nau. 

o o o o o 

conduit, s. fl'9"fl biimba. 

a^^d bwambwa. 
conquer, v.i. & t. J^ A •• h^^l dil adarraga. 
J^A.-V'^ dil nassa. 

o o , 

conquered, be, v.p. JtA«lfV dil h'^ona. 

J?:A--1'V"/ dil tandssa. 

addenda] 433 CON— CUS 

control, v.t. G. AT-'li^^'l latt (latt) addrraga. 

S. lid'Tihe^dl Idbatt (lavatt) addrraffa. 
He (pol.) controls them: G. AT^^^C^^^'PAk latt 

yadargwaccaual . 
S. AnT:^ACW9AK la- 
vatt yadaro^waccau- 

convince, v.t. hhdfi asrddda. 

convinced, be, v.i. & p. 'I'^H tarddda (tar- ; § 63c?, e). 
Are you convinced? 'h^j^f'VA^/i « tarddtahallwf ? 

(s.v. (Df,), pol. 'h^jt'i''PA-J& K taradtauallwf? 
I am convinced : f'^j^^A'V^ k taradiccdllau^ (§ 7d), 

pi. 'h<^j?:+T A K tarddtanal. 
I am not convinced: AiAi'^^U-J'"'- altaraddahum, 
pi. hAi"^^'>^» altardddanim. 

r o o o 

Coreopsis macrantha (H. M. Broun), s. Ji-^flfl addbaba 
(-ayaya ; § 52a, S), usually f. (§ 54c). 

cork, s. (stopper) ao^^'^ madfaiia (-fana), usually f. 
(§ 54c). 

cotton soil, s. S. <n>^<2» mdrar^e (-riir-). 

cranium, s. *P'74*A^ cinqillat (cinq- ; § 8). 

creak, v.i. 

I don't like things that creak : f 'TL'^V*.'?. ■• ^ AoiJt jr* :-. 
yamminkwdkkwa ahvwddim. 

Jo o 

crooked, adj. T^fl"! gwwbdta (-wyd-). 
crowd (together), v.i. i'Vflfl<- tanababbaru (-ayd-, -baru). 
Don't crowd : h^Vflfl4- » attinnavdvaru. 

o o • • o 

Crucifixion, s. ft^'A^' sfqlat (-lilt). 

A+AI'sVlCft'fA sfqlata (-lata; \M) kris- 
custom house, s. t'hjT'^-h giimruk. 
t^jr»<.h jiimruk. 

AM. GR. (ll) 28 




Cynoglossum cceruleum (H. M. Broun), s. *P">")^ cjg'^^^- 

g-ot (§ 8). 

I^CTIT*- firfstinu. 
Usually f. (§ 54c). 

dark(er § 58&), be, v.i. ax'^C'-hti tdqwwrr (twq&jrr) dla 

(s.v. VflA, § 44a). 
It is darker than this: 'Ml.W!m*feC--^AA« tazzfh 

tcuqcurr yflal. 
Datura stramonium, s. S. A»m4-^ft atafdris. 

• o 

day, s. 

A few days: rtT"}.- sdm^on. 

In a few days : 4'C'fl : +'} : qfryi qan. 

nrUUsrtT*'}.- bazzih sdm^^on. 

O O 

-deaftiess, s. ^^*feCV^ danqwwrfnnat (-nat). 
decrease, v.i ^t^Vrt asannasa. 

o o 

defend, v.t. aoXii'iii- makkata la- (S 47a). 

' o o o o ^^ / 

Delphinium clasycaulon (H. M. Broun), s. f^jD^+Ashflfl 
yamdsqal (§§ 47a, 70) dbaba (ayaya ; § 52a, 8), 
usually f (§ 54c). 

depose (dismiss from office), v.t. '^^ sdra. 

deposed, be, v.p. i'Tf^ tasdra (tas-). 

Has he (pol.) been deposed? i'Ti^i'PAK tasfraual? 

deposition, s. 7i^^ sirat (-rat). 

deride, v.t. **i^''(i- sdqa ba- (ya-; § 47a). 

derision, s. ■^4* saq. 

descend, cause or allow to, v.t. hlKDdf!^ aswcJrrada. 

/ o o 

desert, s. fl^ bada (bada). 

rj^/.d^ midra (§ dd) bada (bada, yd-, ya-, 
dik-dik, s. S. ^'iXh yansu, usually f (§ 54c). 
diminish, v.t. h^Vrt asannasa. 

addenda] 435 DIR— EAR 

dirty (make), v.t. Mf^d. asaddafa. 

Don't make it dirty: h^fif!:d^ai*'« attasdddifau, 
pi. -^^K -fut. 
disgrace, s. (shameful matter) Vfl»-C naur. 
distressed, be, v.i. 6H.i+a>- cannaqau (impers. § 43a). 
•IreB^'i^ tacannaqa. 

See § 636?, e. 
ditch, s. T-J^fl giidba (-dya). 

G. T'Jt'fl^ giidbya (-dyya). 
docile, adj. A*^-^ lammdda (-madda). 
Dorylus (Anomma) nigricans, s. T^"}^*} gwdndan (§ 8 ; 

§ o2a, 8), sometimes f. (§ o4c). 
double, v.t. (consonant in pronunciation) havM atdb- 

double(d), be, v.i. (consonant in pronunciation) mn* 
tabbaqa (type A § 34 ; § 63c?, e). 
It is doubled : ni'flit A k tdyqoal. 
Is it double ? m-fl^'A-je, "• tayq6allwf ? (s.v. IDJ&). 
It isn't doubled: AiAmfl+y":: altabbaqam. 
doubt, s. TCn^S tirittdri. 
dream, v.i. & t. (dream of, v.t.) htKao allama. 
dreamed (of), be, v.p. ^iiao tallama. 
dried meat, s. ^1"\ qAvanta. 
duiker, s. S. f '}ff' yansu, usually f (§ 54c). 

early (earlier § 58), adv. (previously) 4*^J^ qdd(d)am 

(mm § 6). 
n^l'Ai^ baqad- 
(d)am (-mm § 6). 
early (earlier § o8&), be, v.i. +^i'"--^A qad(d)amm (§ 6) 
dla (s.v. VflA, § 44a). 


EIG— EXC 436 [addenda 

Let him come early this afternoon : 'tXhti^'isai^ft 

+^{'"s'flA"«j&j^^:: takkiilaqan wwdyd qad{d)am 

bfl^'o (qad(d)ammi yir^'o § 7d) yfmta, pi. .. . +^9": 

'nAa^.•)iJ^m•K ...qdd(d)am bilau (qad(d)ammi 

vilau) yfmtu. 
eighteenth, ord. num. h/^^ifl9°'ii'^ asrasimmintanna 

{-tan- ; § 20b). 
eighth, ord. num. Il9^'ii'^ simmintanna (-tan- ; § 20b). 
eighth (^/g), s. tirt^^ '• l-'i'tf] simmintiyya (§ 20c, § o2a,S). 
eightieth, ord. num. rt*^*}^? samanyanna (§ 206). 
eleventh, ord. num. h/*'^ : dxlfj^ asrahandaniia (-dan- ; 

§ 20&). 
eleventh (Vn), s. h/*'^ : rh'Jjt^ •• [rh^-^^] asrahandiyya 

(§ 20c, § 52a, 8). 
enceinte, be (become), v.i. /t^lH-f araggazac (-cc § 6 ; 

endure, v.i. (last) mT tanna (§ 63^, e). 
engine, s. flfbC bdbur (bdvur § 7c?; § 8). 
epiglottis, enlargement (hypertrophy) of, s. ?i'JT A (f)ntil. 
errand, s. aDf\^\^ maldkt (§8). 
error, s. (inaccuracy) *7jt<{.^ gfdfat. 
eunuch, s. tiMX silb (-ly). 
•)<^^ g^omada. 
Euphorbia sp. (spurge), s. hl'i'CA* antarfa (-tar-), usu- 

ally f. (§ 54c). 
examine, v.t. l^Cl^C. gwwraggwwra (-rwgg-). 

Examine it : l^CT-^ah- » gwcorgwiirau, pi. -<-^ k -rut. 
examined, be, v.p. 't'h'd'h'^ tagwwraggwcora (-rwgg-). 
Has the baggage been examined? ?i^ -"M^CT^iA « 

|qa tagW6jrgwiir5al ? 
exceedingly, adv. h*?'(l^ atbiq^'^o (dtyi-, atibq'^o, -ivq-). 

addenda] 437 EXP— FIR 

expectorate, v.i. & t. ^^ihti tiff ala (not S.). 

h-i^^-hk (f)ntifF (-ttifF) ala. 
S.v. Jdti, § Ua. 
extend, v.i. i^H^^ tazardgga (tazar-). 

Where does it extend to ? hlli'a)^^ •■ ^^h '- j&H<:;i A» 
istauwd^ et dfras yizzara<>"al ? 

fat, be (become) very, v.i. •)<i.*P •• htK g'^'ofaff ala. 

G. 'h^^^h^ g^fiff (-fiiff) ala. 
S.v. VnA, § 44« ; § 63r?, e. 
He is very fatj^ •><(.¥ •• -fl^i.^ « g^dfaffi (§ 7c?, G. T-*^* 
ffiififfi) vfloal. 

o o o'' • o 

father, s. 

The question f»^s7ifl'>- yet abbat- with personal 
suffixes (§ \2b) is, like 9°'}iM^- min abbat- etc., 
a term of abuse. 

Felis caracal, s. a^^'-Y\l{\fi c5ahi anbdssa (ambd-, 

anyd- § Id), usually f (§ 54c). 
fever, s. S. f^'fl wdba (woya). 
fibre, s. ^^^ qaca. 
Ficus vasta (Broun, Cat. 533), s. flJCh warka (wwr-, ^PC- 

fifteenth, ord. num. Y\f*'i^ s YxTti'lr^ asrammistafiiia 

(-tail- ; § 206). 
fifth, ord. num. hl'^ftl'^ ammistdfiiia (-tan- ; § 205). 
fifth (%), s. ^iJ^ft^^s[A»rft-f:^] ammistiyya (§ 20c, 

§ 52a, 8). 
fiftieth, ord. num. hf^fi'? amsafina (§ 206). 
fine, be paid as, v.p. 'hhrt takasa. 
fine, pay a, v.i, (pay as, v.t.) hrt kasa. 
firm, be, v.i. mV tdnna (§ 63f/, e). 

FIR— FUN 438 [addenda 

first (at), adv. ad,^ baf f t (-fft ; § 8). 

<L^ fit" (fit). 
fist, s. S. m-«i tiicca (§ 52a, y). 

flax {Linum usitatissimum), s. i'Afl tdlba (tal-, -lya). 
flower, s. . . . usually f (§ 54:C). 
foetus, s. iIA sil (sil). 
footprint, s. ^lip fillaga (§ 8). 
S. iL^^ fdlag. 

o oO 

4-^ f ara. 

See § 52a, 8. 
forbidden, adi. hAVlA kilikkil. 

' o o o o 

foreskin, s. ai?f A wasala (wws- ; § 8). 
forest, s. ^7 dan (-nn § 6). 

Is there forest there ? f/i •• KAfl^ k dann allabbat ? 
foretell, v.t. +Vn tanabba. 

' o o 

formerly, adv. d^^ fit (fit). 

fortieth, ord. num. hCH? arbanna (arya- ; § 206). 

fourteenth, ord. num. h/^^ •• h^'t^ asrarattdnna (-tan- ; 

§ 20&). 
fourth, ord. num. h^'t^ arattanna (-tan- ; § 20b). 
fourth (V4), s. ^^^? arattinnaV^^, -'t^ -tiyya). 
[hj^-n (i)rub (-liy). 
See § 20c, § 52a, S. 
74- ^ft^«^»^^?- s'^'ost aratt(ima. 
Friday, s. 

On Friday : hCH •• ary. 

Good Friday: tl^ti^-- sfqlat (-lat). 

ft^A-h.hCftVft: sfqlata (lata; § 9d) 


friendly, adj. ^4»^? fiq(i)rdiina (-ran-). 
fruit, s. — no general term ; s.v. 9d> ffr^^e. 
fungus, s. (inedible) ^?^ qwticca (§ 52a, S). 

addenda] 439 GEN— HAN 

genet cat {Geyietta abessiiiica), s. Y\*iC anar (anar). 
German, adj. ^^Cao'i yajarman (s.v. f-, §§ 47a, 70). 
German, s. %Cao'Ti j arm an. 
Germany, s. ^%Ctnt'i'}\10 yajarman (§ 70) agar (-gar). 

[ijP»^ (L*4J ) more properly = Austria], 
get, v.i. 

I can't get at it now : hihl •• ?i<-4» ■• hah k dhun Iriiq 


gift, s. 'hd'H giirsa. 

give, v.i. (yield to pressure) AflT«liA Ubatt (-^ya-) dla. 

G. AT.-hAlatt (latt) dla. 
It doesn't give: AflTs^i^AJ'":: layatt dilim, pi. ...e 

fi^A-lT*:: ... dllum. 

p^onorrhoea, s. oa.'flT cavt. 

Have you got gonorrhoea? fli'flT.'^HyAK cavt yf- 
z^ohal ? 
good, s. 

For good (always) : at^'G • waitr'' o. 
govern, v.t. G. ^*?^•hf:dl latt (liitt) adarraga. 

S. AOT.-h^^T labatt (-ava-) addrraj^a. 
grammar, s. trt*Pftfl>- sawdsu (saud). 
gratuity, s. 7'Cli giirsa. 

great, adj. -ThA^* tilliq, intensive pis, I'A ^4* tililliq, - A^-f 
-lliq^^ oc (-CC § 6), -l-^A* titilliq, -A*^ -lliq^^oc 
(-CC § 6) very great, 
ground, s. 

Hard ground : S. h»^h»'>'f kwojrakwanc. 
ground-squirrel {Xerus rutilus, Blandford, Geol. & Zool. 
pp. 278, 279), s. ?f A sala, usually f. (§ 54c). 

hairpin, s. aiAfl wwlaba (-dya; § 8). 

hand over, v.i. & t. JiA^hn asrdkkaba (-rak-, -ava). 

a a a \ ' a ' a' 

HAR— HOL 440 [addenda 

Hand the things over: 'h^ah'is}\ti/;\itlahii fqaun 
(§ 52a, S) asrakkiyau. 
hard, be, v.i. m*? tanna (§ 63^, e). 

It is hard and strono*. m'};tATm'}h^sVaH» tdn- 
toal, tankarra (§8) nau. 
Hawdsh, s. MTi auds. 
heal, v.i. (of a wound) lid sara. 
It will heal : |i7f^ A k yisiral. 
It won't heal: h)Z,7iC9"K aisfrim. 

» o o o 

It has healed : Ti^A k siroal. 
It has not healed: h^fid9^i' alsdram. 
help, v.i. & t. hm dggaza (G. type A § 34, S. type B § 35). 
Help him: G. hlHOhv. fgazau, pi. -H*^:*. -zut. 

S. MttOh K aggizau, pi. -tt*^ "• -zut. 
Help them: G. hlH^at".-' igazdccau, pi. -I1,Vid-k 
S. hlH^ahv. aggizaccau, pi. -Jl,^fl>-s 

, o 

helped, be, v.p. ;^^H taggaza. 

He has not been helped: ^A;^^H9":•. altaggazam, 

pol. & pi. -IM^ :: -zum. 
We have not been helped: ^A;^THVJ^k altdggaz- 



Herpestes gracilis {H. mutgigella, Blandford, Geol. & 

Zool. pp. 43, 234, 235), s. tfi»-*i»"T'A mucicilla. 

S. JPT'^T mftmat (§ 8). 

Usually f. (§ 54c). 
hide, s. *^ q'^dda. 

hidden, adj. ^n4» ddbaq (4y|-)- 

history, s. ^£i\ tdrTk (-rik). 

hive, s. +C qaf^o. 

hold up, v.t. A7<C ddggafa. 

If^d, gdddafa (type B § 35). 

addenda] 441 HOO— INA 

Hold him (it) up so that he (it) doesn't fall : flJ^Os 
nf!:d.ahth'}fi^ai^^'i bajjih ( = fl- ba-, with § 47cf 
+ h^l) f j jih, your hands § 52a, y) gaddifau ndai- 
wojdiq, pi. n3?^l^!•lJt^^•• ... bajjdccyuh (§ 7c?) 
gaddifut... . 
hoof, s. 

Long hoofs: ^^T«T¥C: ydddaga (s.v. hf^l) tffir. 
horrify, v.t. htlfi'ilai asdandggata. 
hot, adj. 

Very hot: (of objects) ^Y^ft: tfkkiis (tiik-; § 8). 
(of weather, places) M^' isdt. 
hotel, s. tjP-frA ''6v6l (§ 8). 

tA-h"}^ lukanda. 
hunchback, s. T^fl") gwwbdta (-wyd-). 
hundredth, ord. num. ao-f-^ mat^'ofina (§ 20h). 

Two hundredth : l^A^ « rTD-ff s hiiliitt mat" dnfia. 


hut, s. -Sft das. 

Hystrix sp., s. ^fC'T" jart, sometimes f (§ 54c). 

ichneumon (Herpestes 579., Blandford, Geol, & Zool. 
pp. 43, 234, 235), s. ao.'^'^\ mucicflla. 

S. jPT'^T mftmdt (§ 8). 
Usually V. (§ 54c). 

identification, means of, s. 9"Ah^ milfkkit. 

' ■ 000 

iliac bone, s. hX^i annisa. 

Impatiens Irvmgii (H. M. Broun), s. *77iCT gfsrit. 

G. -hTiCT giisrit. 

S. *7C7iT gfrsit. 
inaccuracy, s. *7^<i.^ g^dfat. 

inaccurate (incorrect), adj. l^i* gaddfa. 




inaccurate (incorrect), be, v.i. l^d. gdddafa (type A § 34). 

i'le^^oh' taoaddafau (im- 
pers. § 43a). 
See § 6Sd, e. 
increase, v.i. flH bdzza (baz-). 
increase, v.t. h(\H abazza (ava-, -az-). 

Increase it : h'dHah n ayzau, pi. ^i'fl^^^ :•• ayzut. 
Indian, s. Vt^l hfndi, pi. -P-ih -d^oc (-occ § 6). 
India-rubber, s. AAi:h lastik (§ 8). 
inn, s. *^dd3^ marafya (-raf-). 

(European) tjP-fcA ^6t>'el (§ 8). 
inspected, be, v.p. •faodao^ tamarammara (-maram- 

't'h'd'h'd tagw&jraggwwra (-rwgg-). 
That house is to be inspected: j&U.-tt^si-T-C^^s 
'kd^'a yihe y^et tagwwrgwari (§ 8) nau. 
instead of, prp. fl- ...* 9^^\} ba- ... mftikk°(§ 8, § 476). 
Instead of this : riltU : 9^^\l •• bazzih mftikk. 

o o o 

Let another man come instead of you : (l'Tf't"-9^^\l * 
A.A:rta^:^J^^K bdnta mitfkki (§ 7d) leld (§ 8) 
sau yfmta. 

o «/ o • ^^ 

intercourse, s. £Q,(D^ cawata (cdu-, -wta). 
flj*7 wwg. 

Sexual intercourse: 'fl-^^s bfddt (§ 8). 
intestine, s. 

Large intestine : ft'^^Ji ■• dandann^e. 
iron, s. 

Galvanised iron : 'feC'fet^ qwojrqwwrr^'o. 
;^3:h tanika. 
irrigation channel, s. S. *^1^ magat. 
itch (-ing), s. hMl ikak. 

Affected with itch: M\h9^'' ikikam (S 8). 

addenda] 443 ITC— LAR 

itch, y.i. Ji^hh asakkaka. 

MMiah asakkakau (impers. § 43a). 
See § 63f/, e. 
My back itches: ^Cd^Tr • MMi^ a jarySen (§ 56c) 


knotted, be, v.p. i'^m^ taqwdttara (-tara). 

knowledge, s. 

Without the knowledge of, prp. J?:*?^- difinn- (§ 6), 

with personal 
suffixes (§125). 

ka- (ta-, la-)... 

o \ o ' o ' 

dffin (§ 476). 
Without my knowledge : ^^i/ difinn^ e. 

i-i.-'^^^'tiin^e dffin. 
Without his knowledge : J^^V"' dffinnu. 

ACfr.Jt^'J.larsd dffin. 
Without their knowledge: j^'PT^fl*-! difinndc- 

i-C^^fl^.Jt*?^* tar- 
sdccau difin. 

o o o 

This was done without our knowledge : ^UsA?* 
J!:^'iii'f!^dli-' yihe liinfia difin taddrraga. 
knuckle, s. VhCVl-1^ kurkum (§ 8, § 52a, y). 

labourer, s. S. t^l gurag^e, pi. 'h^l?''^ gurdgyoc (-occ 

large,| adj. ■^A^* tilliq, intensive pis. '1'AA4» tilflliq, 

-A*^ -lliq^oc (-CC § 6), -^h^A* titflliq, -A*^ 

-lliq^oc (-CC § 6), very large. 

LAR — LON 444 [addenda 

larva, s. -^A til. 

(of lepidoptera) 'hJ^'f tame (tame). 

(hirsute) Msai,^& abba cag- 
(of bee) h^ ic. 

S. V^ hie. 

o • 

See § 52c(, S ; usually f. (§ 54c). 
last, v.i. mV tdnna (§ 6Sd, e). 
laughter, s. •^4' saq. 
lean, adj. (of persons) aott\ft\ matdta. 
lean (over), v.i. i'T^Vflrt taorwwnabbasa. 

Lean over: i"'?"'}flriK tagwwmbas (§ 7c?), pi. -flA-a 

Don't lean over: fk^T^^flfts attiggwwmbas, pi. 
-flft-K -basu. 

leper, s. | f^^^^ Umtdm (§ 8). 
leprous, adj. J o . ^o / 

lessen, v.t. ^^irt asannasa. 

' o o 

like, adj. 

What is it like? ?i'>^9"'}j?:C : Vfli- » ndamindfr (§ 8) 
nau?, pi. 'h'i^9^'i^C''i^ahi\ ndamfndir ndccau? 
Linum usitatissimum, s. i'Afl tdlba (tal-, -lya). 
litter, s. (sweepings, etc.) T^T. tirrdgi. 

l-ah-ati oribfsbis (srivfsvis). 
*fe^<?f qwwsdsa. 
little, adj. ■^771 tinnis, intensive pis. ■^'J'JTf tinfnnis, -liV^ 
-nnis'^oc (-cc ^ 6), ^^"JTi titinnis, -11^'^ -nnis'^oc 

o \o/' ooo' o 

(-CC § 6), very little, 
long, adj. ^jf J^ rajjim (raj-, OVT* razzim, rai-), inten- 
sive pis. lA'^9° rajajjim (raj-), -jf-T*^ -jjim^'^oc 


addenda] 445 LOO— MUL 

loosen, v.t. hdld ardggaba (aya; § 41c?). 
hdld arrdggaba (-aya ; § 41/). 
Loosen it: hddahi: drgiyau, pi. -^fl*^!*. -giyut. 

hdldoi'ii arrdggiyau, pi. -^fl*^;; -giyut. 
lose, v.i. (battle) JtA«lfV dil h^^Sna. 

j^A.-l"**^ dil tandssa. 

O O o 

love, v.t. hd,^d afdqcjara. 

love each other, v.i. i'<<.^+<- tafaqdqqani. 

They don't love each other: ^ij&<<.^*l»<-9" :-. Sffa- 
loving, adj. ¥4*<C? fiq(i)ranfia (-ran-). 

lynx {Felis car deal), s. f^fi « h'idft codhi anbdssa (amba-, 
anyd-, § 7d), usually f. (§ 54c). 

mail-carrier, s. tfl-ftm? bustdnna (-tan-). 
moist, adj. CT-fl rftib (-iy). 
Monday, s. 

On Monday: fl'ft safino. 
mongoose {Herpestes gracilis, H. mutgigella, Blandford, 
Geol. & Zool. pp. 43, 234, 235), s. ao-'^'^fi muci- 

. cdla. 
S. jPT'^T mft- 

o • 

mat (§ 8). 
Usually f. (§ 54c). 
monkey, s. {Colobus guereza, Guidi, Vocab. p. 728) 'b&M 

gureza (§ 52rt, 8), sometimes f. (§ 54c). 
multiply, v.i. (be multiplied, v.p.) flH bdzza (baz-). 

•f'ea.aod^ tacammara 

o • o o o 

multiply, v.t. AiflH abdzza (aya-, -az-). 
GB^iml, cammara (-miira). 
Mtiox aballata (avd-). 

NAT— PAS 446 [addenda 

nature, s. (temperament) h<n>A amal (amal). 

nedect, v.t. G. & B. ^'{••hti-'ti- cala ala la- (s.v. \/flA, 

§§ 44«, 47a, QSd, e). 
nineteenth, ord. num. Ai/*'^sHmi? asrazatandfina (-za- 

o • o o \ 

tanaii-; § 206). 
ninetieth, ord. num. Hfli*!"? zatandniia (zat- ; § 20&). 
ninth, ord. num. HmV? zatananna (zatanail- ; § 20b). 
ninth (Yg), s. Hm'}^ •• [Hm3:^] zataniyya (zatan- ; § 20c, 

notice, v.i. & t. A-flsAifi^T libb adarragra, constr. with 
acc. or A- la- (§ 47a). 
Notice him (it) : A-fl •• h^ClOh •• libb adrigau (drgau 

§ 7c?), or A-n : hjtC*7Al' » libb adrigillat (irg-). 
I didn't notice: A-fl : ^A^<:'7ih5'" :•• libb aladarrag- 

I didn't notice him (it): A-fl : ^iA^<:*7ihA^9" s libb 

o o~ O o 

I didn't notice this: ^0V'>:A'n:^iA^^:*7l^^i^K yi- 

hannan libb aladarrao:hutim. 

o o o~ o 

Numida ptilorrhynca (Blandford, Geol. & Zool. pp. 
421-423: ' N. meleagris, Guidi, Yocab. p. 638), s. 
E'*7^ jfgra (§ 52a, S), sometimes f. (§ 54c). 

on, prp. fl- ba- (ya- ; § 47a). 

Put it (them § 6l6) on it: ^ft+i^Tn^:: asqammi- 

•o o 

ostrich {Struthio camelus), s. Mli sdg^'^on (§ 8). 

paid as fine, be, v.p. i'hrt takasa. 
pass, v.i. hiid, allafa. 

v.t. A»A<i.:h- allafa ka- (i*- ta-, ^ 47a). 

O O O ^ O ''^ ' 

He (it) has passed the house: i'ft.'fss^iA^AK ta- 
y^etu alfoal, pi. . . .•• h A^CVA :••... alfaual. 

addenda] 447 PAS— POC 

pass through (an aperture), v.i. VMl s'^dllaka (sol-, sal-). 

v.t. VMiifl- s'^ollaka (etc.) 
ba-(ya-; § 47^). ' 
He (it) has passed through here: n?tU:7S'AVsA:: 
bazzih solkoal. 
penis, s. S. ao-CV murt. 

Pentanisia Schweinfurthii (H. M. Broun), s. G. '?'i%^ 

S. ao^C^ 

o o 


Usually f. (§ 54c). 

perpetually, adv. fD^'C waj'tr^'o. 
persist, v.i. m*? tanna (§ 03</, e). 
picking out (extracting), instrument for, s. 

ao'^'\a\^l maqwwntaca (-taca). 

aoTf^'il mah(iasa. 

o ' o 

piled (up), be, v.i. 'I'Vflfl^ tanabtlbbara (-avd-, -bara: 

§ 6'6d, e). 
pip, s. ^^ f fr^e, pi. ^^f'-l' f fre^^oc (-cc § G ; § 52a, S). 
pipe, s. (to carry water) fl"9"fl biimba. 
plucked (pulled) out, be, v.p. 'M*I»A tanaqqala. 

It must be pulled out : J&V*I* A « yinndqal, pi. -A* » 

plug, s. aDj!:dJi madfaiia (-fana), usually f. (§ 546*). 
plug, v.t. ^<<.V daft'ana (daffiina). 
plugged, adj. ^^'i dffin. 
plugged, be, v.p. i^^^CV tadafFana (-dafFana). 
pocket, s. 

It fell out of my pocket: i'A'flrt.-'flHftT.-fli^+'fl^:: 

taliys^e wiist (§ 476) wwddaqabbifi (§ 47a). 

POI— PRI 448 [addenda 

point, v.i. & t. 

Point him (her, it, them, § 61a) out to me: h<w»A 
h^A^ K amalkitillin, pi. -^A^ « -tullifi. 
point, v.t. (a weapon) ^li daggana (dag-), at, fl- ba- (ya-; 
He pointed his gun at him (it) : mCi'i^ah'itf^l'ia^ti 
tavanjaun dagganabbat. 

• O • O " OCT o O O 

pointed, be, v.i. & p. (of a weapon) •ffj'i taddggana 
(-dag-), at, fl- ba- (ya- ; § 47a). 
The (his) gun was pointed at me: md'i^ahs'tfijl 
Vfl^» tayanjau tadagganabbin. 
pollute, v.t. Mf!,d. asdddafa. 

He (it) pollutes it: ^^j^<i.*PAK yasdddifaual, pi. 
-4*^^« -futal. 
polluted, be, v.p. hfid. addafa (§ 23a, § QSd, e). 
pomegranate [Punica granatum), s. dlr r^ommdn. 
possible, be, v.i. 

It is possible: I^^AAk yiccdlal; or (§ 63c) J&W'i'Ak 

yih'^onal, or f^f^dp^a yiddarragal. 
It is not possible : hf,^^9° k aiccdlim ; or h^in9^a 
aih^ dnim, or hf!,f^d*19^ « aiddarragim. 
preaching, s. ^"ilC^ tfngirt (§ 8). 
pregnant, be (become), v.i. (woman) hdl)!^ araggazac 

(-66 §6). 
(animal) hfl^^ kabbadac 
(-CC § 6). 

See § 6Sd, e. 
previously, adv. <L^ fit (fit). 

dA,^ baf it (-fft ; § 8). 
+^i^ qkd(d)am (-mm § 6). 
n+^jr* baqdd(d)am (-mm § 6). 
prisoner, s. hllC isir. 


prophecy, s. -^T-fl,^ tinbft (timbit, tinyft, § 76?; § 8). 

prophesy, v.i. & t. i'Vfl tanabba. 

prophet, s. Vfl,j& nabi (na-, -yi), pi. also Vd^-V ndbiat 

(na-, -yi- ; § 8). 
prurigo, s. hMl Ikak. 

pubes, s. f-flA^ smr-C yiibfllit (yiiyf- ; §§ 47a, 70) tdgwtir. 
pudding, s. tKA*P aldwa (alaua). 
Pimica granatum, s. C^l r'^^ommdn. 
pursue, v.i. & t. <CAT fallaga with gerund of ■t'h'hA ta- 

kattala (^ 65rt). 

o o o ^«^ ' 

Pursue him: i'h'lhAl)s<i.A7(»-:: takattilah fdlligau, 
pi. '^h''^A^l^:<(.A7-*^« takattillccyuh (§ Id) falli- 

Pursue them: '^h'*hAU••<CA;^'f^fl^K takattilah falli- 

o o o op 

gdccau, pi. '|•h^A't•l^••<{.A^^fl^K takattildccyuh 


o o~ o 

In the negative use i'hI'A alone : 

Don't pursue him: /^•1'hl'AaH :•• attikkdtalau, pi. 
-I'A'I'K -talut. 


quarter (V,), s. h&-^^'[hl^t9] arattiyya (§§ 20c, 52a, 8). 

7,: ^ft1-:h^'>^: s^T>st arattiyya. 
quinsy, s. 4*5^1/* (ifmlr^'o (qiimho). 

regret, inter j. expressing, hf, di! (di). 

resin, s. ao^^^ miicca. 

rigid, be, v.i. mV tanna (§ 63f/, e). 

sack, s. hVf kasa (kasa). 

•^3:^ duniya. 
saliva, s. ^^:h tiffita. 

' o o 

school, s. ei-"7^:n.^ yiitamdri (§ 70&) b^et (y^et). 

AM. GR. (ll) 29 

SCI— SLA 450 [addenda 

scissors, s. ao^d.'^^ maqwurdcit (-rac-). 

scorn, s. *^4» saq. 

scorn, v.t. •^4»sfl- sdqa ba- (ya-; § 47a). 

He would scorn it: J^/^'^'fl^sVAC:: yisfqibbat ndb- 
bar,pol. & pl.j&/*'*n^:VflCK yisfqubbat nabbar, 
(§§81c, X, 33a, ^). 
scraggy, adj. (of persons) ao^fl matdta. 
scrotum, s. h^l^ aqumada. 
S. flA^ sillfcca. 

o o 

secret, adj. ^fl4» dabaq {-^Y^-)- 
send for, v.t. t\tia\^ astarra (§ 68). 

Please send for him: pol. Kfl'fc^ftm^-^ •« istiyas- 

Please send for them: pol. htl't^fiai^^ahi-. isti- 
serious, be, v.i. (of illness) m*? tanna (§ 63^?, e). 
It is serious : m^;t A k tantoal. 

• o 

It is not serious: h^m^9^ii altannam. 

• o 

sew, v.i. & t. 

Sew it (the hole) up before it gets big: ^J&rt4«s 
tli-at'i' saisafa sffau. 

o o o 

sexual intercourse, s. •ii^^ bfdat (§ 8). 

Shoa, s. ?f ^P saua. 

Shoan, adj. f ff^P yasdua (§§ 47a, 70). 

Shoan, s. If^P saua, pi. ?f?''T- sauoc (-cc § 6). 

shock, v.t. htlf!^'ila\ asdanar^prata. 

skin, s. (for water) d*P^ rdwdt (rduat ; § 8). 

^fl>-y^- rtiuhat (§ 8). 
slandered, be, v.p. ^*^ tamma. 


sneezing, remark to a person on their : 

MtU^'fl'h.C.-^'^CO:: igziayhJer yimdrih!, f. -C*fi« 
-ris !, pol. -L9* k -ra" o !, may God have mercy on 
The reply is : 

h'flC^.'j&'^^'jK dyr'^o yimdran !, may He abide with 
us and have mercy on us ! 
solid, be, v.i. mV tdnna (§ G3(?, e). 
It is solid: okI^^v, tantoal. 
It is not solid : ^^Am*|■i'^ k altdunam. 

• o 

solitary, adj. lAA galdla (B. ^A- gild-). 

A solitary place : 1AA - ft¥^ •• galdla sffra. 
Solitary wasp: 1''}»UH: tinziza (§ 5 2a, S), usually f. 
(§ 54c). 
sooner, adv. ^f^T qad(d)am (-mm § (5). 

n+^iP ba(idd(d)am (-mm § O). 
spill, v.i. (be spilt, v.p.) i'^4« taddffa. 
It will spill : )&^4-A :•• yiddaffal. 
spill, v.t. fA' daffa. 

Don't spill it: h'Vj^-4.fl>- « attfdfau, pi. -^-Ih:: -fut. 
You will spill it: ^ft4.*PAl):: tidafaudllah, pi. ^ft 
fi;^A'f l^ :: tidaf iitalldccyuh (§ 7r/). 
stand close(r) together, v.i. 'MflfK- tanabdbbaru (-ayd-, 
Let them stand close(r) together : )&Vflfl4- « yinna- 

• o 

They are not to stand (so) close together: hj&VQ 
fl<-» ainnavavaru. 

o o • • O 

stand up, v.i. 

Stand (pi.) up: '(lj?:*7:nA-:: bfdig yalu. 
starve, v.i. fl^'fl •• T'i' bardb (-dv) m^ ota. 





starve, v.t. fl^'fl : I^A bardb (-ay) gaddala (gad-). 
stop (up), v.t. (an aperture) f^&^ dafFana (dafFana). 
Stop it up : ft:^ah k difanau, pi. -^^ k -nut. 
Don't stop it up : h^f^^fB* » attfdfanau, pi. -V-^ k 
stopped (up), adj. J^'P'} difin. 

stopped (up), be, v.p. (of an aperture) '^^^ tadaftana 
It has been (is § 63^?) stopped up: i'^^PXAw ta- 
dafnoal, pi. -VPAK-naual. 
stopper, s. ao^^ madfana (-faiia), usually f. (§ 54c). 
stretch, v.i. (oneself, v.r.) i^'im^^ tantararra (-tar-). 
stretch, v.t. (one's limbs) h'im^^ antararra (-tar-). 
strong, be, v.i. m*!* tanna (§ 636^, e). 
subdue, v.t. G. AT : h^^T latt (latt) adarraga. 

S. AflT.-hA^'' labatt (-aya-) adarraga. 
He (pol.) subdued them°: G. AT-'K^^IWa^k latt 

S. iidvi\f:d^'fah:i la- 
va tt adarrau:wdccau. 
submit, v.i. G. AT •• h^ latt (latt) dla. 

S. AllT i hA labatt (-ava-) dla. 
S.v. v/OA, § 44a. 
summon (have summoned), v.t. htim^ astarra. 

The Ras summoned him : ^A •• l^Am4-^ k ras astar- 

• o 

rut (cp. § 52b). 
The Emperor will summon them : "^'ilf^i^tim^:^ 
*PA» idnh^^'oi yastarrwdccaual. 
sunshade, s. TA tfla. 

taken (hold of), be, v.p. i'^H tayaza (taia-). 
telegraph, s. tAAlU silki (Tna.). 

addenda] 453 TEM— TIG 

temper (temperament), s. hao^ amal (-mal). 

He (it) has a good temper: h<w>A-s^*7sV(D«:: amalu 
dasrari nau. 

oo o o 

testicle, s. S. ^^i qwtila (§ 52a, y), 

they, pers. pron. ?»VCA- (i)nnarsii (-nar- ; § 8). 

(of inanimate objects) M^ay- issdc- 

Mih (i)nndssu 

(-nas- ; § 8). 
See § 12a, s.v. M-. 

though, conj. — may be rendered by the gerund : 

She went in though she knew he was not there: 

(\f,'rC'-hah^:'iahin(\'^i: bain (5r (§ 37c) auqd, 

(§8) nau yiigdbbac, or htiem't^'iihay'^i... ala- 

man^'drun (§ 37a) aiiqd... . 

through, prp. fl- ba- (ya-; § 47rt). 

I came through Harar : (\thdC1''/rDf'\'y-i'. baharar- 

~ o o 

g>'e mdttau^ (§ 7^). 
through, pass, (an aperture) v.i. VMl s^dllaka (sol-, sdl-). 

v.t. VMi-(\ s°^ollaka (etc.) 

ba- (ya- ; § 47rt). 
He (it) passed through the hole and has got away: 
Mftfiah-.T^^h'tK^fii'' baqadddau solk^^o hfd8ril. 
tick, s. S. aofilC masgar (-gar) ; usually f. (§ 54c). 

Take the ticks off' it: ao'n'}C'^h'i'^^^'^ mazgar 
ansallat (§§ 47a, 71). 
tight, be (tied), v.i. mfl+ tdbbaqa (type A § 34). 

mn4>:hA tabaqq (-aya-) ala (s.v. 
VnA, § 44a). 

See § (jSd, e. 
It is (too) tight: m-fl^A:: tayq5al, pi. m-fl+'PAs 


See that it is not too tight : M^fffwd^ « udaitdyq, 
pi. -*» -qu. 
tighten, v.t. I»mfl+ atabbaqa, 

flifl4»:^^^7 tabaqq (-|ya-) adarraga. 
Tighten it : ^T-fl+flH a atyiqau, pi. -*fe^ k -qui 

7ifli'fl4»flH« atabbiqau, pi. -«fc^!: -qut. 
Don't tighten it: ^;^T'fl+a^■K attatyiqau, pl.-«fe^K 
h^ai'd'Pah a attatabbiqau, pi. 
-*fc^K -qut. 
Tighten the girths: aiti^ •• h^CW •• '^'toh n tdyaqq 
ddrigah (drgah § 7d) cdnau. 
time, s. 

In (good) time: 0*1.11. •• bagiz^e. 
tomato, s. f^dt^ •• ?i'>hoJ& yafardnj (-faranj ; § 70) fn- 

kwai (§ 52a, 8). 
tournament, s. T-lflft guks. 
train, v.t. (a gun) ^7V daggana (dag-), on, fl- ba- (ya- ; 

trained, be, v.p. (of a gun) i'jfj'i tadaggana (-dag-), on, 

fl-ba- (va-; S 47a). 
treaty, s. 

He made a treaty: flJ-A-'h^^iTs will addrraga, pel. 
& pi. -dT^a -rragu. 
Tuesday, s. B. Itlh"^ maskanfio. 
turn down, v.t. ^4- dafFa. 


turned down, be, v.p. (turn down, v.i.) +^4- tadaffa. 
twenty, card. num. S. U^ hS^ (hdS, V ha, Hy x^> kS^, 
X^a, kaa, Ti ;^a, ka ; § 20a). 

unfrequented, adj. 7AA galala (B. •7A- gild-). 

addenda] 455 UNI— WAT 

uninhabited country, s. fl^ bada (bada). 

rff:0 n^ midrd (§ Qd) bada (ba- 
da, ya-, ya-, § Id). 
upset, v.t. ^4- daffa. 

Don't upset it: Mrft:i-(D*\i attfdfau, pi. -^^k -fut. 
upset, be, v. p. (upset, v.i.) '^^4- tadaffa. 

Mind it doesn't upset : "hl^f.^i- k ndaiddaffa. 

very, adv. AiT-fl* dtbiq^'o (dtyi-, atibq^o, -iyq-). 

watch, s. — phrases, making rt'J^ f. (§ 54c): — 
Is it going ? ^H^A'T- » tiz^^oralliic ? 
Has it stopped ? 'fe'^A'f « qumdlliic? 

S. *'^A?-::q^^omc411iic? 
Wind it up : <m-A^ » miilat. 
It loses: i'+^A'f:: tiqardllac. 
It is slow : +C;^A*T• -.j (jartdllac. 

m^;^A^:: zagyitallac. 
It gains: ^4*J^'^A'lh:: tiqadmalliic. 
It is fast: +J^'^A^-:: (ladmalliic. 
Put it on (forward) : Yxh^f^'^^ « asqdddimat. 
Put it back: Aift+^^K asqdrrat. 
It is right : 1-hh A : V^s tikikkfl (§ 8) nat, S. . . . » V^s 
. . . nilc. 
Ah.-T^:: hkki {lid) nat, S....:V^a... 
It is not right: Ah s ^/S^/^A-f ?" » likk aidallaccim 

Put it riofht: ^A+hVlA^K astakakilat. 

O o o 

How much has it lost (is it slow)? ^7:^UA:+^^k 

min yahl qarrac? 
How much has it gained (is it fast)? ^^--^UA: 

+^<w>^ :: min yahl qdddamac ? 


WAT— WRO 456 [addenda 

It is wound up : TA^ » m^dllac. 

It is not wound up : h A*r*A^l^ •••• aim"" dllaccim. 

It won't go : h Art^9" '• hil^ k alsaramm filac (s.v. 


watch, v.i. & t. (guard) mfl«f* tabbaqa (type B § 35). 

^mfl'l' atabbaqa. 

Watch him (it) : tn-ii^Oh n tabbiqau, pi. -•fe^ k -qui 

hT'd^ahv. atyiqau, pi. -*fc^:: -qui 

hai'd^ahii atabbiqau, pi. -*fe^:: 

week, s. ii'P'i sam^on. 

what's-his-name, indef. pron. 'h'ii''i (f)ntan (-tan), ace. 

Mi-TfTr (f)ntanin (-tan-), (§16). 
where?, adv. G. ID^ wwt? 
window, s. 

A house without windows : ^^'i s n>^ « dif fn (§ 8) 

wood, s. (forest) f!/} dan (-nn § 6). 
wrong, adv. 

There's nothing wrong with him (it) : h Ah^-flJ-i'" » 

alkdfFaum, ...with them: h^\i4'^ah9^ n alkaffac- 

caum, (§ Qdd). 



[ADDITIONS to Appendix to Part I] 

Part I. p. 280, 1. 27, omit ( = t7^<(.). 
p. 286, 1. 14, add ( = 't'f.l^). 
p. 306, 1. 14, ydmral, add (yamiral). 
p. 310, 1. 4, for arr^ggaba, yarrdg(i)b, yaiTdg(i)bal, 

read ardggaba, yardg(i)b, yarag(i)bal. 
p. 314, 1. 14, yassiqal, add (yassjqal). 
p. 316, 1. 20, for yassital, read yassital (yassital). 
p. 341, 11. 26, 27, for hm^n^ azmdc read hH*^^" az- 


p. 344, 1. 10, yddinal, add (yadfnal). 
p. 345, 1. 13, for adin^o read adin^o. 
p. 374, 1. 21, add ( = ^1^). 
p. 388, 1. 18, for <t£ read ^%. 

458 Appendix A. 

Note. — In causatives in h- (regular triliteral type fxMao 
alaqqama § 41c?), in the parts in which two adjacent 
radicals become sddis {§ 4a), i.e. in the gerund, com- 
pound perfect, jussive and imperative, the usual 
pronunciation, so far as I have observed, is for the 
first radical to receive no vowel while the second 
receives i: thus hM'ao ger. AiA^'T* alqim^o, juss. 
^^^9° yalqim, etc. ; the less common variation of 
pronunciation (§ 7d) being for the first radical to 
receive i and the second no vowel: ger. dliqm^o, 
juss. ydliqm, etc., (with long i-, yd-, since they now 
form open accented syllables). In some verbs, 
however, the reverse is the case, aliqm^'o etc. being 
the usual pronunciation, and alqim^o etc. the less 
common variation. Generally speaking alqim'^o is 
commoner in G. and dliqm^o in S. : but occasionally 
both forms are to be heard in the same verb both 
in G. and in S. ^ 

^ Guidi (Gram. p. 34) gives as paradigm Mid andg- 
gara, ger. MIC an^grO, but juss. filC yangSr. 

Aj)pendix A. 459 

Since writing the appendix to Part I. I have heard 
the following variations in addition to the pronunciation 
given there: — 

AiA+#w» ger. dliqm'^'o, comp. perf. aliqm5al, juss. 

y^Hq(s)in, imp. aliq(i)m. 
^lA+rt ger. dliqs'''o, etc. 
h^(H\ „ alibs^o (-ivs'^'o). 
Yxaotn „ G. amrtt^^o. 

o • 


o • 



abrif'o (avr-).' 

o \ . / 

dbisl^'o (dvi-). 
jibiqt'^'o (dyi-). 






{lurid'^'o (-riid-). 







O o 

agbit^o (agyi-). 
/i*7j^^ agdid^o 




Appendix A. 

Simp. perf. 


o o o o 




o o o 

2nd a^ai,u 



o o o o 


o o 


(w\ / V v.. 

-ccab, etc. 


o o o 


chatter, i. 

dissolve, i. 

defend, i. 

scour, t. 




pick, t. 

Comp. perf. 




o o 




o o 




o o 

(ra-, -yriyo-) 





(sal-, -lyo-) 





•^ O O o o 





V o o o o 





»■ O O 

(-sal-, -ly) 

•' o o io o 1 

Comp. imperf. 






•/ o o o 





•^ O O o o 

bal (yira-, 





(-sal-, -lyal) 




Appendix A 












«/ O O 





o o 













wdt (§ 8) 




o o 


o o 



o o o 


(-ace § G ; 


(mwacc § G) 



o , 


(yira-, -vriv) 

(ra-, -yriy) 

(ra-, -yriy^'o) 


o o ^ o 


• o • ' 









^\o/ O • 

(-ra-, -CtU-ci) 






O O 



(sal-, -ly"'o) 



o o 















o O X O J. 



Appendix i 


Simp. perf. 


Com p. perf. 



Comp. imperf. 


(s61-, Id) 

through, i. 


(sol-, sal-) 


(-soik, -salk) 


(-sol-, -sdl-) 



heal, i. 
abolish, t. 





hasten, i. 








trouble, t. 










tie into 
loads, t. 







bal (-iyal) 


J. o o 


cate, i. 









T. O • 'O 



chew, t. 








clip, t. 





ferment, i. 








Appendix A. 




yfsdr (§ 8) 

•'0*0 'O 






(-qar-, -iy) 












(qar-, -iy) 





lo •o • 

(s61-, sal-) 






I o -o 


(qar-, -iy^^o) 








mdsdr (§ 8) 

o io • o 


(q^r-, -ay) 


o * o 



• o 


O i • o • 



(mayu- ; § 8) 

(sol-, sal-) 






qatdc (§ 8) 


Appendix A. 

Simp. perf. 





o • • o o 


o o 


o o o • o 


o o o o 



2°^ -fiftU 

-ccah, etc. 


o o o o 

ba (tJir-, 


(of the 




be, p. 

Comp. perf. 

(§ 32) 

(bad-, bdrt-, 
bart-, § 76?) 



o • -o 


be i-ArouA 

stropped, \ talammi- 

o o o 


be worn, 




o o 


slandered, tamtSal 






(yiy-, -ada) 

(yiya-, -at-) 




*' O O o • 



•/ o o o 


Comp. imperf. 

(§ 32) 


be 1 i-d.-ncfifis. ^<:n^'fl 

sprinkled, |tardbriboal yirrabarrab 
P' (tiira-, i (-avarrav) 

-vrivo-) 1 

(yiy-, -ad-) 














^ o o o o 


V o • O O " ' 

Appendix A 













(bad-, bdrt-, 
bart-, § 7d) 



(mavd- ; 


(baj, X -ji) 

(yiyf, -at-) 










o o " • o 

(maya-, -at-) 

o o 

(bat- ; § 8) 


•/ o o o • 



O O • 


GO O • 


O O 







O O O 



O O 








"(§8) ' 







O ^ 



*' o o o 



o o o 


o • ' 


o o o 


AM. GR. (ll) 




ippendix A 

Simp. perf. 


Comp. perf. 




Comp. imperf. 


o o o o 

(tar-, -rak-, 

• o ' 

take over, 


[tar-, -rak-, 


(-rak-, -kay) 


' bal ° 



o o 





o o 

-rart-, § Id) 




oy • 

-ccah, etc. 





./ o o • • 



•/ o o • • 




O o o 

(tas-, -aya) 





o p 

(tasal-, -lyo-) 





•^ o o o 



o o 


be kissed, 


o o^ 





o • 


give each 
other, t. 



o • 

















Appendix A. 





•^ o o o 




o o o 

(-rak-, -ay) (tar-, -rak-, 



•^ o o 









tarak(i)b^ol marrakab 

[tar-, -rak-, 



o o 

(tar-, -rart-, 
-rart-, § 7c?) 

(-rak-, -ay) 


o o 


'h^C'^-f aDd.ea.^' 

virrac tarac tarac(i)t^o marraciit 

c/QO* OO* OO'O' O O" 

(-rac ; § 8) (tarac ; § 8) (tarac-) (-r^?-) 




o o 

(tar-, -rak-, 



-^ -ji) 








o o " • 



o o 





o o • • o 



o o 



o o o 


\ o • ' 


(§ 8) 






o o 

(tas-, -dyi) 



Appendix A. 

Simp. perf. 


Comp. perf. 




Comp. imperf 


taqwwraq- troubled, taqwwrqwu-iyiqqwfurdq-yiqqwwraq- 
qwwra ^* i r6al qwcur qwwral 

++^+n be tied i'+C^p.A /i+^+'n 

taqardqqa- into loads, 

ba (-ava) I ^* 

taqarqi- yiqqardq- 
bSal I qab(-ay) 
(-qar-, -iyo-) 
'l^kdmao be chewed, ' '^*feCT*2. A J&'fe^mJ^ 




receive i'4»fl'flA<PA 




taqwwrti- yjqqwwrat- yiqqwojrdt- 




taqabab- froni each taqabab(i)- yiqqabab- 
* laual balu 





[-ay^y(j)i-] , (-qaya-) 

+*fe^^ await each i-'fe^^'h'PA Ji'fe^P 

taqw^ayyu other, taqwi^iS- yiqqw^- 

taual ayyii 









taqwattara knotted, | taqwdtr6al yiqqwattar yiqqwdtta- 

ral (-tar-) 



't^mm be clipped, +4*rp,A |&4»niT 

taqattata I P- i taqattSal ! yiqqattat 

i-nn/V- say to -hn-flA'PA j&nnA- 

tababalu each other ltabab(i)lau-' yibbabdlu 









Appendix A. 








(-qar-, -ay) 


• o 








taqababalu taqabdb(i)- 
(-avdva) lau 

\ o • • o -^ o 









taqwcuiciiu taqwwiai- 



tababdlu itabdb(i)lau 

O O ^O' o 

(tayaya-) j [tayay(i)l-] 



(-qar-, -ay) 


• o 

bal (-avdval, 

o \ o • • o ' 









(-aydydi ; 



maqqwdtar, taqwatari 

Vtar) " 



(-dydl ; § 8) 

taqdtdc (§ 8) 

(tavavdi ; 



Appendix A 


Simp. perf. 


Comp. perf. 




Comp. imperf. 








o o ^ 


taya- ; 

-acc § 6) 

(of the 



O ^O ^Q/ 



tavad-, -art- 


-acc § 6) 



o o 


(-bad-; -acc 



be torn, 





o o • • o o 



O • -0 ^ 



•/ O O • • G 

(taya-, -at-) 





be sub- 





o o 



O O 



•' o 








o o 



o o 









o o o 



O O 


•/ O GO 


















o o ^ 









o o 



o o 


*' o o 









ra (-navd-, 

o \ O • ' 


piled up, i. 

stand close 
together, i. 


o o 



»/ o o 



(-ayd-, -bar) 


*' o o 



(-ava-, -bar-) 

Appendix A 






(§ 28) 











o o 



o o ■ o ' 

tiivad-, -art- 

■ § Id) 


(-bad- 1 §8) 







o o • -o 

(tava-, -at-) 

\ o • o • ' 


o ^ o • o 









CO o 



o o 







o o 


o o 




o o ^o 



o o o 






»' o io 



o o i 


o o ^o 






o o 







pi. +vnn4- 






o o o 


o o 


O O 


o o ^ 

(-aydy-, -ar) 





(-aydy-, -ar) 



Appendix A. 

Simp. perf. 


O o o o 


o *o 




o o 


o o 


o o o 


o o 




O O o ~^ 


Comp. perf. 

be spun, i'ilf^^ 
P- tanazrSal 





be paid 
(as fine), 


be dug, 




o • o 







" (tak-) 

takaf kifoal 


Comp. imperf. 

be ' +a)4*;tA 
threshed, tawoJqtSal 

p. i "/x- M 

^ (tauoj-) 




(§ 7c note; 






«/ o o o 








(§ 7c note ; 








•/ o o o 






be i'HC*7:f:A f^m,p i&H^jJA 

stretched, tazargit5al yizzaragga yizeardggal 

(tazar-) (-ziir-) (-zar-) 

ta^taual , yitta^^yyu |yitta>ayy§;i- 

° i I lu 


see each 

Appendix A. 




•/ o o o 


•' o • O 

(§ 7c note ; 





* o o o 




(§ 28) 




o o 





o ■ o 






O • O 

yitta^aiu i ta^^aiu 



o o 


o o 




o o o 



o o ~o 


e o o 


o o o 


o ■ o 

(§ 7c note ; 
-tar- ; § 8) 



o o 






'(§ «) 


o o o 










(mauww- ; (taua-, -cJqi) 

(-zar-l § 8) 



o o ~ 



Appendix A. 

Simp. perf. 

Comp. perf. 


Comp. imperf. 



o o o 

daba (-da- 




o o 

be hidden, -hft-n^ A JR^n4» 

p. I tad|bbi- yiddabbaq 

be I 'hA'flJtQ.A ^^n^-fl 

massacred,! tad|bdi- yiddabad- 

boal dab 

, o 

(-daydiyo-) (-dayadday) 
be aimed, , -t^^lX^ 



•^ o o o 

dabal (-da- 


be turned 

^?Xi j&^TTA 

^daggj- yiddaggan yiddagga- 
noal (-dag-) (-dag-) nal (-dag-) 

down, p. tadaftSal yidddffa i yiddafFal 

'^'^ih be closed 

o o o o 




oc o o • o 




'^^¥XA ff^^iL-i f,f^i^^^ 

up» P- tadaf(i)n6al yiddaffan yiddaffanal 
° (-dif-) I (-daffan) , (-ddffan-) 

be inter- 



be I +7Arii,A 
disclosed, tagaltSal 

P- I (-gal-) 
be cupped, ;^'7'^A 

+7^H be circum-l i'7C»l,A 
tagarraza i cised, p. tagarriz5al 

O'-' O O O ©CJ o ^ o 

I I (-gar-) 


















Appendix A 



















V o o o T- 


o o o T- 



o O -i 











o o o 


o o 










o ^ o~o 











o o 


o o 


o o 



o o 






•'0 , o o 



o ^ o o 


o o 




§ 8 ; -nil § 6) 







o ^ 











1 (-galiit) 

(-gal- ; § 8) 















o~ O 



o®~o o 




Appendix A 


Simp. perf. 


Comp. perf. 
(§ 32) 


Comp. imperf . 














o~ o 

ma (-sama) 

o \ o' 

oneself, r. 


sam (-sam) 



mal (-sam-) 










be helped, 


G. tagzoal 
S. taggizoal 





oO o o o 

be excom- 



o~ o o 







end (of a fast), 
i. — impers. 
(§ 43a) ; 
be inaccu- 
rate, i. 


o=>o , 






o • o o o 

be embroi- 



o -o 





«/ ©• • o o 


be sucked, 



• o 



t/ o* • o 



Appendix J 
























sam (-sam) 









'(-tat) ° 


° (§8) 


G. tagz^'o 
8. taggiz^'o 


G. tdgdz (§ 8) 
S. taggdz (§ 8) 



o ~ o o 



o~ o o 


oOOq o 











o * • o o 



o •© 


(-dydt; §8) 


Appendix A. 

Simp. perf. 

(§ 25) 


o • o o -lo 


° "(§ ^cl) 




o o o o o 


o o o To 



o o o o 



o o o o 

Comp. perf. 

be +6EL^^A 

distressed, tacanqSal 



cry to each 

vomit, t. 




o • 






o o o 



" hu 


» o O 

Com p. imperf. 


alternate, 'td,^C^fi\. 


love each 

be woven, 



•^ o o O o 


o oo o *'o OO o 





»' o o 



tafaqaq(i)- j yiffaqaq- 
raual qaru 




o p 



•^ o o o 



•/ O o o 





»' o o o o 


Ajypendix i. 








(§ 27) 




o • o ■•■ 




o • • o o A 







^-^ ^_^ 

— ,_^ 

' — ^ 

^-V ^ V 

^-^ '"^ 



o • 


o • • o 


o • • • 


o ♦ • 

" hu 



















•^ O O 


o o o 


CO o 


o o o 




(-fal-; §8; 

-hi § 6) 






•z o o o T- 



CO o i 


O O A 








o o ■•■ ^o 




o o -*- -^o 


(-OCC § 6) 






*' o o o 



o o o 


o o o 


** (-f dl) 


(-fat-; §8; 

-^yy § 6) 









o a 


o o o 








Appendix A 


Simp. perf. 
(§ 25) 

Com p. perf. 


Comp. imperf. 




o o o o 

pester, t. 




•^ o O o o 



•^ O o o 

7a 1 



o o 

dream, t. 






o o o 

(-rak-, -ava) 

\ O • O' 

hand over, 





o- / 


>J CO 

(-rdk-, -iv) 


«/ O 





o~~o o 


loosen, t. 









oOOq O 


loosen, t. 




\ o« / 



(-5c §6) 





cause to 

give up, 



(-c6 § 6) 







(-6c § 6) 


" (-Idq-) 


o o o 

(-rak-, -ava) 

hand over, 



(-rak-, -iyo-) 


(-rak-, -iv) 


(-rak-, -iyal) 






o o 



Appendix A. 




(-rak-, -iy) 


(§ 28) 








nazniz^^o manaznaz 

arrakkib arrakki- 

o o o o 

{-r4k-, -iy) | b''o (-rak-, 














(-rak-, -iy) 


AM. GR. (ll) 









o o 




(-rak-, -ay) (-riik-, -dyi) 


^ o 


arraggib'' o 1 marrdggab 










argdz (§8) 

masla(|qaq aslacjqdqi 

hft^lnn '^ft^h-n ?ift/.hn 


o o 

(-rak-, iy^o) 

masrakkab asrakkabi 

o o o 

(-rak-, -ay) i (-riik-, -dyi) 

asraddit^o | masradddt asraj j (-rajj ; 

I (§8) i§8; -'Jl-jji) 


Appendix A 


Simp. perf. 


Comp, perf. 


C§ 26) 

Comp. imperf. 



2nd -f U 

-yyah, etc. 

cause to 
wait, t. 





annoy, t. 


tSal " 





cause to 
seal, t. 




" o 




cause to 
vomit, t. 



o o 




o o 

lessen, t. 







o o 

cause to 
scratch, t. 






o o 

cause to 
descend, t. 







cause to 

come out, 




• 'O 




cause to 
hide, t. 



o o 





Appendix A. 





yasqwwyy asqwcJyy 


(§ 29) 
























./ o 



asqwcuttif' o masqwwttat 


asattim^^o i masattam 

O o 

astdff'it^o mastafFat 

O O o 

asannis^'o i masannas 

O [ o 

asakkik^'o masakkak 



(-6£U -cci) 






maswwrrad aswwrrdj 


aswcjttit^o I masvvwttdt 


asdabbi q "^ o m asddbbaq 


o • • 

(-wwcc, -(SL 





Aiypendix i 


Simp. perf. 

Comp. perf. 



Comp. imperf. 


o o 


o o 



cause to 
kill, t. 


o o 










o 0~ 


startle, t. 


o ~o- 






o o 

soil, t. 







cause to 
enter, t. 


~ o 







• • o 


-fi- for -tlO)- 




shorten, t. 







• o 

cause to 
call, t. 



•O ,0 





• o 

cause to 
saddle, t. 






Appendix A. 





•z o o 






yascdn (§ 8) 




o o 







(§ 29) 


o o 









O C?0" 


o ~ o 








• o o 





ascin ascin^o 

ascan (§ 8) 




• o 
















(§8; -fin §6; 

-*^ -nni) 


Appendix A. 

Simp. perf. 


cause to 

aqalattafa hasten, t 



(aya-, -az-) 


o o o 




G. hl^ea, 

2nd -ea»\} 
-ccah, etc. 



(auw-; -ace 



o o 



for hire, 



spin, t. 

stretch, t. 

whistle, i. 

act as mid- 
wife to, 

start on a 
raid, i. 

Comp. perf. 






(dyz-, abizt-, 





(-fwayyt- I 
§ 7^0 ' 


(auw- ; -ace 




Contingent 1 Comp. imperi 

(§ 26) (§ 32) 

^tATi: ^^AT'l-A 

yaqalattif yaqalattifal 

yaqqattir yaqqattiral 

yabaza yabazal 
(yaya-, -S,za) (yaya-, -azal) 









yanfwacc yanfwaccal 










, o 

(tauw- ; 
-ace § 6) 




Appendix A 














































dbizt^o, dyi-) 

(mdvzdt ; 































(-tars § 8) 











(§«) * 
















(auw- ; § 8) 


















A2)pendix A. 

Simp. perf. 

(§ 25) 

Comp. perf. 



take to 
war, t. 


hnao'f' send to hn^^,^ 

azzammata ^'^^' ^- I azzamnii- 

o o o I o o 

I toal 



rust, t. Ai-M^A 


^^^rt cause to ^JtCO.A 
adarrasa amve, t. adirsoal 

o o o 

h^^^ dry, t. 

O ©A© 

Ma\ cause to 
adata sliP' *• 








interrupt, hT-^^ 



t. M'JA 



~ o o 

cause to ^^ft'70.A 
travel fast, ag(g)asgi- 


(.§ 26) 





I ygiggwul 

I yag(i)m 



I gis 
' (-sag-) 

o oO 

Comp. imperf. 






i' o o 
















Appendix A. 



(§ 27) 


•' o o 













o~ O 




o o 









mat (-mat) 

mdzdg (§ 8) 





ddit^'o mdddt (§ 8) 










azdgi (§ 8) 

adrds (§8) 


addc (§ 8) 

yag(g)^sgis ag(g)dsgis ag(g)as- mag(g)as 
[-(g)asg-] [-(g)asg-] I gis^^o gas 

I [-(g)asg-] 

1 Not ^llf*^^, as given in Part I, p. 341. 





Appendix A. 

Simp. perf. 

(§ 25) 



oo o o 




Comp. peif. 


Contingent | Comp. imperf. 

(§ 26) (§ 32) 

G. agzoal j G. yag(i)z 

G. ydgzal 

S. dggizoal S. yaggiz S. yaggizal 

tie tight, t. 
guard, t. 

^<J.^^4» alternate, 
affararraqa t- 



fiCcH. S. whistle, i. 
2nd -fiCktl 
-ccah, etc. 

hrt pay (as 

kdsa fine), t. 


h»rtli«»rt prickle, t. 
kwojsdk- i 





dtbiqoal i yatabq 

(^tyi-, (-^yq, 

atibq-, -abbiq) 



affarar(i)- i yaffararriq 

qoal j 

^¥*^A ^dJ^C 

ifqivm I yafaq(i)r 






afoccitoal yafocc 




•/ o o 









hoftvf-5LA ^hortvf-ft ^hortvf-^A 

kwcJskwu- J yikwojsak- yjkwojsdk- 
s6al j kwtis I kwusal 
I (-scJk-) ' (-swk-) 

Appe7idix A 












G. ^TH 

G. hTH 





s. Yi^-n 

G. agz^' 

S. caggiz^^'o 

G. mdoaz 

S. maggaz 

G. agdz (§ 8) 









































o o ■■■ 






















• • O 




(§ 8)' 







yfkas (§ 8) 



mdkds (§ 8) 












Appendix A. 

Simp. perf. 





o e 


dig, t. 
loot, t, 

thresh, t. 


Comp. perf. 

(§ 32) 

HA4» come into 
zallaqa (pass out of) 
Sight, 1. 

m rust, i. 


^n+ hide, t. 

^fl^fl massacre, 
dabaddaba ^- 

o o o o 




(§ 26) 






Comp. imperf. 


wc«;g(gi)d5al yiwo;g(gi)d 






aim, t. 



o o J- 



























•z o o o i 





»' O O 



bal (-da- 








Appendix A 















mdkwdt (§ 8) 












o o 


(ydr-, -rar) 


































o o ^ 






yj^^g (§ 8) 


mazdg (§ 8) 



*' o o o A 




o o o T- 




«/ o o o 



o o 




o ^o o 












(dag-; §8) 


Ajypendix A. 

Simp. perf. 



turn down, 

Comp. perf. 

^<Ci close up, 
daffana t. 

o o o 



o o o • o 




~ o o o 



~ o o o 






stink, i. 
devour, t. 










Comp. imperf. 

circumcise,! ICJiA 


pay a tax, 



drag, t. 







O o o 


*' O O 


•/ o o 


yidaf (i)n i yidaf(i)nal 








*' o~ o o 


v o~ O o 










t/ 0~ o o 






Appendix A 













dffa i 


madfdt (§ 8) 










o o 



(daf- ; § 8 ; 
-nil § 6) 





gflat i 







mdgmdt (§ 8) 


(gals §8) 






gwwrds (§ 8) 


















Vtat) " 











Appendix A 


Simp. perf. 


Coinp. perf. 

(§ 32) 



Comp. imperf. 



• o o 











• o 

be strong, 



• o 





• o o ^o 

(§ 43a) 

be dis- 
tressed, i. 








o o o o 

scoop, t. 



o o 




»' O O O 




weave, t. 







Apj^endix A 










(§ 29) 










•o o 



o • o 










• o 

(canq- ; § 8) 

mdtnat (§ 8) 


tan (tan) 










o o 


o o o 






(fal-; §8; 

-ayy § 6) 







*' o 




o o 







-^yy § 6) 

AM. GR. (ll) 





§ refers to the paragraphs of the Grammar (Initia 
Amharica, Part I). 

§ 7c?, p. 26, 1. 4 : {add) gfiz in V, ^, % h, is usually a 
(§ 4&) : but it is a in 
dra! hd why!, 
and a, a in U interchanging with Ti, h, e.g. in the 
simple perfect and gerund sg. 2nd m. (§§ 25, 29) 
on their receiving the suffixes {§ 12c) which have 
a (a) as connecting vowel : 

alhan h^V^ (dlxan ^ATi^, dlkan ^Ah^) you 

told me ; 
qwwtrahau •feT<CWfl>- you counting it ; 
and in the preposition 

ha- U- G. = ka- h- (§ 47a) at, in, from. 

§ 7d, p. 28 : rdyi, a: (add) Pronunciations such as warka 
(wwr-) fliCh for warka 'PCh sycamore, gambill^'o 
iJ^-flA" for gambill^'o p9^'il/)r gardenia, zangdda 
(-gada) for zangada HTrp^ Eleushte multijlora, 
heard in Dambya and Dam''6t, are probably 
due to the influence of Auni { Agaiiiiiia) ^ 

^ Cp. Reinisch, Quara., § 7 .... veniiengt das Quaresa haufig 
gedehntes a mit hellem a. Cp. Reinisch, Chamir., § 1 1. 

Appendix B. 499 

§ ^d, p. 32, 1. 4 : {add) 4» with following i, y, or ^ is 
sometimes pronounced c (cp. 9^1'^ and Eth. 

ces for q>es *&ft, priest, 

masaqsaca for masaqsaqya m>rt4'rt*fe^ tooth- 
§ 7f/, p. 35, 1. 10: (ac?^/) and z arising from zi, z>e (§ 76) 
does not interchange with j, but I have heard 
occasionally in Dambya and G^qjjdm 
yfjj^e for yfzz>e ^Tf (§ 44c), I seizing. 
§ 96, p. 51, 1. 10: {read) The pi. is formed by adding 
-wgvf. _w55 (v^-occ before a vowel § 6) to the last 
consonant of the sg. 
§ 12a, p. 56, 1. 6: {add) sg. 2nd, pol., but less so than 
hCrtfP, nom. M* antu\ you, ace. hl'P'i 
dntun, pi. h'i'i^. 
— with article and preposition : 

yt'Pah'iihaofli'. ydntuun (-twun) amatta, he 
brought yours (m., e.g. bull), ^'i'Pf^'U'i -• haotn ••. 

yantuitun (-twit-) amdtta, he brought yours 
(f, e.g. cow); 

^ Declared by some to be obsolescent; e.g. Guidi, Vocab. 
p. 466, 'h'i'^i non 6 pifi in uso nelle cittk,' and Guidi, Prov. p. 82 
'. .. ora Vtx'i'P e specialmente il -'^ non si usano quasi pitt' 
I accordingly omitted this pronoun and the suffixes and verbal 
forms corresponding to it in compiling Part I, such experience 
as I had at the time (1905) agreeing with Guidi's remarks. 
Since then, however, I have heard them fairly frequently in 
Weolqait, S|,gad^e, Woj'gara, Sim^en, Taqwcwssa, Dambya, B^^- 
gamdir, G'^ojjam, Dam'^^ot and Sana (Shoa), both in town and 
country, and therefore append them here. 


Appetidix B. 

conjunctive with nouns (§ 125), the suffix: 
-'^ -hwii or -li- -hu (usually -uh § Id pp. 26, 27, 

after a vowel -u^ § Id p. 30) : 
(a) rt.^'V^ b^ethwu^ (-tuh), your house, 

ace. n.^'V-^ b^ethwun^ ; 
(^) 1^'Y' g^etahvvii (-au^), your master, 
(y) n4*A"'V" baqP'^ohwu (-ou^), your mule ; 
conjunctive with verbs (§ 12c), the suffix (infix): 
-'Y' -hwu or -ih -hu (with displacement of u as 
above) : connecting vowel, a (a) and none : 
(a) ^'ilC'h yingarhwu (-ruh), let him tell you, 
^V*7^:^A yinagrahwal (-rahwal, -rauhal), 

he tells you ; 
h^^l^O'9^ aindgrahum (-rah-), he will not 
tell you ; 
(/3) rtfli-f 'V^ sattaccihwti (-ccuh), she gave you; 
(y) V7^'V- naggarau^ he told you; 

h^'i1^0'9° alnaoro^arahum, he did not tell 
you; ^ 

(S) 'il^'h naggaruhwti (-ruuh, -rwuh), they 

told you ; 
(Q rt'^'V- sammahu (-mau^), he heard you; 
(rj) rtT^:5^Ai>- saticc^ ehwdllau'^ (-cyuhal-), I 

have given to you; 
(0) >*7(rAA nagr^ohwal (-r^ouhal), he has 
told you. 
(§ 136) Vi> nahu (nahu, ndu^), you are. 
(§17) ^ft-V-^rdshwu^ (-suh), V^Pft-V- ndfshwti^ 
(na-, -VS-, -suh), fl7H •• JiK-lr- •• bagazzdj- 
jhwu (-juh), etc., yourself 

1 -t-h-, not -6-, (§ 3). 

-s-h-, not -S-, (§ 3). 

Appendix B. 501 

Indicative simp. perf. (§ 25) 

sg. 2nd pol. suffix -'V- -hwti or -ih -hu (-hti, 
or with displacement of u as above, also 
-kii, -kti after a consonant § 7c? p. 31): last 
radical sddis ; 
Contingent (§ 26) 

Prefix 1*- ti-, suffix -u ; 
Gerund (§ 29) 

suffix -a'V^, -ahwti (-ahwu, -au*^). 
(§ 32a) htsrY- allahwu (-liih-, -lau^'), you are; 
(§ 32&) ^A4'0I>•;^A'V■ tilaqmutallau'\ you are 

picking it. 
(§34) Ind. simp, perf A+J^1r- laqqamhwu 
(-amuh, -mhii, -mku, -mkil), you picked, 
Comp. perf A4»<w»:^A Idqmahwal (-mah-, 
-mauhal), G. also A+lT'o-'^A Idqqam- 
Comp. imperf ^A4»*^A'^ tilaqmdllau^, 
CoNT. ■l'A4»tfi»« tilaiimu. 
Imp. A+tfo* Ifqamu, 
Ger. ^^ao•^ laqmahwu (-mah-, -mau^). 

(§43a) ^^"Y- rabahwti (ray-, -ah-, -yau^), you 

were or (§ (33c?) are hungry. 
(§ 47a) AhA-V^ idkallihwu (lakd-, -Huh), he sent 
to or for^ you. 
j&AhA'AA yilikillihwal (-Hkf-, -lluhal), 
he will send to or for^ you. 
§ 12a, p. 56, 1. 7: for hCfi^Oh read hCfi^Oh. 

^ Sent for = misit, not arcessivit. 

502 Appendix B. 

§ 12a, p. 56, 1. 8: (add) The polite forms of address 
and reference include both genders. 

§ 12c, p. 61, 1. 24 : /2,V*7^yA yindgrahal (-ah-) : {add) occa- 
sionally JiV*7CyA yinagrihal. 

§ 12c, p. 61, note 1: (add) or f!/ilC9* yfngar^o (-gar-), 
or f^my*^' yfngara'^ot (-gar-). 

§13&, p. 69, hah 

(add) sg. 2nd pol. also ^^Oh ndc(c)au. 
„ 3rd f S. *^ nac (-cc § 6). 

§ 44c, p. 138, 1. 11 : for yizallau^ read yizzallau*^. 




in the Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen, Nov. 1909, pp. 933-7. 

p. 934, 11. 21-28. For the accentuation of T^, 'flA", 
-riA see that of the type li^ (§ 8, p. 43). 
11. 29-32. "le question! «2:lottologiche o com- 
parative ; " these are touched on in Part III. 

p. 936, 11. 8-21. It was not until I had heard the com- 
pound perfect in -*?A repeatedly used (by 
Amharas of G^oj.jam) that I proceeded to 
describe it in § 32c. On enquiry I was told 
that it was ^fJ^nilC-. It is used much 
less commonly than the form A*^A, but I 
have heard it fairly often in G^ojjam and 
Dam^Ot from M^6ta to Bur>e, and was told 
there that it was especially in use in Daray^e^ 

1 Guidi is of course not responsible for a remark of Afevork 
which he quotes : " EgH cosl mi scrive : A+aoVA* hlWi' 

ft/V^jPs:" (l(iqqamannal....I don't believe there is such bad 
Amharic even in the country of the blacks, much less in G^oj- 
jam). I am inclined to question whether an expression of dis- 
belief in and abuse of a form with which one is not familiar has 
much scientific value, not to mention good taste. 

604 Appendix C. 

p. 937, 1. 9. "... non si vede chiara I'utilita di questa 
lunga appendice, in luogo della quale sarebbe 
stato pill opportune porre dei dialoghi ovvero 
dei brevi e facili testi." This refers to the 
long list of principal parts of verbs. I con- 
sidered it necessary in view of the incomplete 
treatment of the verb in the body of the 
grammar, and because a list of this kind is 
what I myself should most have liked to have 
in my hands when first I began to try to 
speak Amharic. Phrases and dialogues will 
be found in Parts II. and III. 



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