Skip to main content

Full text of "Inland wetlands of the United States : evaluated as potential registered natural landmarks"

See other formats


5! 



m 

D 

ir 

o 

D 
□ 

□ 

m 

D 



National Park Service 
Natural History Theme Studies 
Number Two 




1975 



7i 

Inland Wetlands of £-. 
the United States 



Evaluated as Potential 
Registered Natural Landmarks 




Richard H. Goodwin 
William A. Niering 

Connecticut College, New London 



As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has basic 
responsibilities of water, fish, wildlife, mineral, land, park, and recreational resources. 
Indian and Territorial affairs are other major concerns of America' s "Department of 
Natural Resources." The Department works to assure the wisest choice in managing all 
our resources so each will make its full contribution to a better United State s-now and in 
the future. 

This publication is one in a series of research studies devoted to special topics which 
have been explored in connection with the various areas in the National Park System. It is 
printed at the Government Printing Office and may be purchased from the Superintendent 
of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 



Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

Goodwin, Richard Hale. 

Inland wetlands of the United States. 

(Natural history theme studies; no. 2) 

Includes bibliographies. 

1. Natural monuments — United States. 2. Wetlands — United States. I. Nier- 
ing, William A., joint author. II. Title. III. Series. 
QH76.G66 333. 9'1 75-619182 



Contents 



FOREWORD vii 

PREFACE ix 

Part 1 

1. INTRODUCTION 1 

2. THE VALUE OF INLAND WETLANDS 3 

Hydrologic Role 3 

Productivity 4 

Oxygen Production and Nutrient Recycling 5 

Pollution Filtration 6 

Education and Recreation 7 

3. ENCROACHMENTS ON WETLANDS 9 

4. CLASSIFICATION OF INLAND WETLANDS 13 

Fresh-Water Wetland Types 15 
Saline Wetland Types 19 



Part 2 



INVENTORY OF INLAND 

Alabama 27 
Arizona 33 
Arkansas 38 
California 42 
Colorado 76 
Connecticut 80 
Delaware 90 
Florida 92 
Georgia 110 
Idaho 128 
Illinois 140 
Indiana 153 
Iowa 163 
Kansas 170 
Kentucky 176 
Louisiana 180 
Maine 194 
Maryland 206 
Massachusetts 216 
Michigan 230 
Minnesota 244 
Mississippi 258 
Missouri 265 
Montana 272 



WETLANDS 

Nebraska 280 
Nevada 286 
New Hampshire 294 
New Jersey 304 
New Mexico 316 
New York 322 
North Carolina 35 1 
North Dakota 354 
Ohio 364 
Oklahoma 377 
Oregon 383 
Pennsylvania 390 
Rhode Island 412 
South Carolina 422 
South Dakota 428 
Tennessee 441 
Texas 448 
Utah 459 
Vermont 468 
Virginia 486 
Washington 507 
West Virginia 513 
Wisconsin 528 
Wyoming 546 



23 



VI 



Foreword 



The National Registry of Natural Landmarks is a program of public service 
administered by the National Park Service under the authority of the Historic 
Sites Act of 1935. The objectives of the Natural Landmarks Program are (1) to 
encourage the preservation of sites significantly illustrating the geological and 
ecological character of the United States, (2) to enhance the educational and 
scientific value of sites thus preserved, (3) to strengthen cultural appreciation of 
natural history, and (4) to foster a greater concern for the conservation of the 
Nation's natural heritage. 

Under this program, the National Park Service strives to assure the preserva- 
tion of such a variety of nationally significant natural areas that, when considered 
together, they will illustrate the diversity of the country's natural environment. 

The Natural Landmarks Program is voluntary on the part of the owners. 
Landmark designation does not change ownership or responsibility for the 
property. There is no legislative authority for acquisition of natural landmarks. It 
is primarily a recognition type of program. 

Registered Natural Landmarks may display, but are not limited to, one or more 
of the following characteristics: 

1 . Outstanding geological formations or features that significantly illustrate 
geologic processes. 



VII 



2. Significant fossil evidence of the development of life on earth. 

3. An ecological community significantly illustrating characteristics of a 
physiographic province or a biome. 

4. A biota of relative stability maintaining itself under prevailing natural 
conditions, such as a climatic climax community. 

5. An ecological community significantly illustrating the process of succes- 
sion and restoration to natural condition following disruptive change. 

6. A habitat supporting a vanishing, rare, or restricted species. 

7. A relict flora or fauna persisting from an earlier period. 

8. A seasonal haven for concentration of native animals or a vantage point 
for observing concentrated populations, such as a constricted migration route. 

9. A site containing significant evidence illustrating important scientific 
discoveries. 

10. Examples of the scenic grandeur of our natural heritage. 

In order to qualify as a Registered Natural Landmark, a site is first recom- 
mended as a potential natural landmark in a comparative theme study inventory 
such as this one concerning the Inland Wetlands. The information in these theme 
studies is largely based on secondary sources. The area is then evaluated in the 
field by a professional who is especially knowledgeable about the theme rep- 
resented at the site. Upon recommendation by the field e valuator, it is further 
reviewed by the Secretary of the Interior's Advisory Board on National Parks, 
Historic Sites, Buildings and Monuments. If the Advisory Board concurs on the 
evaluation, the site is recommended to the Secretary who finally determines 
eligibility for inclusion in the National Registry of Natural Landmarks. The final 
step is for the owner, whether public or private, to voluntarily file an applicatiion 
for official Registered Natural Landmark designation. In so doing, the owner 
agrees to maintain the natural integrity of the site and to manage it in a manner 
consistent with accepted conservation and use practices. Upon receipt of the 
application, the National Park Service presents a certificate and an engraved, 
bronze plaque to the owner. 

In the future, this theme study will be updated, and all potential natural 
landmarks reported in this book that are eventually listed on the National Registry 
of Natural Landmarks will be identified and described more fully. 

As the National Park Service evaluates sites through the Natural Landmarks 
Program, it is also gradually completing an inventory of the country's natural 
areas. These studies focus attention on important natural areas and often stimu- 
late communities, states, and conservation organizations to take action in pre- 
serving significant areas. 

Readers desiring further information concerning the Natural Landmarks Pro- 
gram should contact the Chief Scientist, National Park Service Science Center, 
National Space Technology Laboratories, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi 39520. 



Gary E. Everhardt 
Director, National Park Service 



VIII 



Preface 



The purpose of this survey is the identification of the significant inland 
wetlands, both fresh-water and saline, in the conterminous United 
States. Wetlands under tidal influence were omitted to avoid duplica- 
tion with other federal studies. The information has been obtained by 
the cooperation of many federal and state agencies, private conserva- 
tion organizations, and biologists at various colleges and universities. 

The role of the wetlands as natural ecosystems in regulating run-off, 
in ground water recharge, in biological productivity, and in pollution 
filtration, as well as their value as recreational and educational assets is 
briefly reviewed. A nationwide summary of the environmental en- 
croachments on wetlands, which involve filling, dredging, draining, 
channelization, housing and industrial developments, strip mining, oil 
exploitation, pump-storage facilities, dams, rights-of-way for power, 
telephone, and gas transmission lines, airports, and timber harvest, 
presents an alarming picture. Most of the wetlands reported could be 
classified broadly as marshes, swamps, and bogs. In refining this clas- 
sification 12 wetland types were recognized, 9 freshwater and 3 saline. 

Data on a total of 358 individual wetlands are included in this re- 
port. Information has been obtained from each of the 48 states with 
numbers of specific areas per state ranging from a minimum of one for 
Delaware to a maximum of 22 for California. For each state there fol- 
lows a general description of the wetlands, their current status, our 
sources of data, and specific recommendations regarding their poten- 
tial as Natural Landmarks. Although many significant areas are re- 
ported, additional field work in certain states is urgently needed to 
give the whole country consistent coverage. 

Richard H. Goodwin 
May 1971 William A. Niering 



IX 



Part 



Chapter 1 

Introduction 

The primary goal of this survey is to classify and inventory the signifi- 
cant natural inland wetlands of the United States, exclusive of Hawaii 
and Alaska, that might be considered especially suitable for registry as 
Natural Landmarks by the National Park Service. The report is divided 
into four sections. The first briefly outlines the various values of these 
wetlands; the second deals with their classification; the third consists of 
a brief review of the many encroachments on these habitats that are 
currently taking place across the country; and the fourth presents a 
state-by-state inventory. 

The classification developed for use in this report generally follows 
the one currently in use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, but the 
descriptions of the various categories have been somewhat amplified to 
include habitats of relatively little importance to waterfowl. Some con- 
sideration has been given in the discussion to other schemes which 
place greater emphasis upon species composition of the dominant 
plants. It is clear that any program directed toward recognizing dif- 
ferent habitat types must take into account the diversity that reflects 
the many environmental variables encountered over a wide geographic 
range. By selecting representative wetlands from each state that fall 
into the various categories recognized here, a good sampling of the 
diversity of wetland types should be achieved. 

One of the significant by-products of this study has been the broad 
overview of the manifold encroachments on the wetlands that has 



C\J 



C/5 

Q emerged. Environmental quality makes it imperative that a? much as 



I- 



< 



possible of these valuable habitats be preserved. The U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service has been making a notable contribution in preserving 

> and rehabilitating wetland habitat of particular value to waterfowl. 

q Hopefully, the Natural Landmark Program of the National Park Ser- 

vice will expedite preservation through action in the private sector. 

The inventory itself is arranged alphabetically by states. A general 
description of the wetland types, nature of encroachments, sources of 
data, and recommendations is followed by descriptions of specific 
areas on which we have been able to obtain information. Most of the 
data on these areas are based upon reports sent in by a large number 
of respondents who have been identified in each case. We would like 
to thank all these persons for their generous cooperation. The above 
information has been supplemented by published reports and some site 
visits by the authors. However, the magnitude of the project has 
precluded exhaustive literature search or thorough coverage where 
responses have been inadequate. 

The authors would like to thank the personnel of the National Park 
Service in the Division of Special Planning Studies for providing the 
USGS topographic maps used in this report and Ellen Nelson Raynolds 
for her painstaking work on the manuscript. 



Chapter 2 

The Value of Inland Wetlands 

The wetlands of the United States represent an extremely limited 
resource, comprising about 3.5% of the entire country, excluding 
Alaska. Although among the most productive ecosystems in the world, 
they have been subjected to widespread destruction and abuse. As a 
result of dredging, draining, filling, and pollution they have been 
reduced to 70 million acres, which is slightly more than half of the 
original estimated 127 million acres. These figures include all wetland 
types, inland and coastal. 

Although the ecological role of the coastal wetlands in supporting 
the shellfish and finfish productivity of our estuarine waters is well 
documented, recent studies have also provided data on the significant 
ecological role of our fresh-water wetlands. Two current studies are of 
special relevance. Wharton's analysis of the ecological values of 
southern river swamps keynotes four major values: water quality, water 
quantity, productivity, and potential educational use (Wharton 1970). 
McCormick (1970) and Grant and Patrick (1970) have recently 
completed a study of the polluted Tinicum wetlands in the Philadel- 
phia region which documents their high productivity and role in pollu- 
tion filtration. 

Hydrologic Role 

Wetlands are of major importance in the nation's hydrologic regime. 
Because of their water-holding capacity, they act as storage basins. 



LLI 



< 

_l 

Z 



CO 

Q lowering flood crests, minimizing erosion, and serving to reduce the 

< destructiveness of severe floods. In densely populated areas this is 

especially important, since urbanization intensifies the rate of runoff. 
Buildings, concrete, and asphalt waterproof the land surface and tend 

q to concentrate large volumes of precipitation. Cities lack adequate 

soak-in areas and the runoff is usually rapid and in excessive amounts. 
Wetlands, and especially flood plains, act as catchment basins and tend 
to slow the speed of flood waters, thus minimizing flood damage. In 
1955, when severe floods hit eastern Pennsylvania, many bridges were 
washed out along the stream courses. However, two bridges of the type 
destroyed elsewhere were still intact below the Cranberry Bog, a Natu- 
ral Area preserved by The Nature Conservancy and recommended for 
landmark status. That swamps provide natural storage for flood waters 
has been demonstrated on the Alcovy River in Georgia (Wharton 
1970), also recommended for landmark status. 

It has been estimated that a 6-inch rise in water over a 10-acre wet- 
land places more than 1 .5 million gallons of water in storage with no 
harm to the surrounding biota (Niering 1966). By slowing the velocity 
of flow, wetlands minimize erosive processes and simultaneously act as 
siltation basins. Wetland filling is often a combination of organic, 
plant-derived, and inorganic, stream-carried sediments. 

Wetlands have been shown to play a significant role in ground-water 
recharge. In the Ipswich River basin of Massachusetts the USDI 
(1962) found that marshes and swamps functioned not only as water 
storage and discharge areas but also occasionally as ground-water 
recharge areas. In North Carolina along the Yellow River, Kilpatrick 
(1964) found an alluvial aquifer below the flood plain that was 
hydraulically contiguous with the surface waters of the stream. 

Productivity 

Fresh-water marshes and swamps are among the most productive 
biological systems. Eugene Odum (1959) estimates the gross produc- 
tivity of southern river swamps such as the Alcovy and Altamaha bot- 
tomlands at 20,000 kcal/m 2 per year, which compares favorably with a 
field of sugarcane (27,010). * the most productive, intensively managed 
agro-ecosystem. Furthermore, wetland productivity is estimated to be 
double the 20,000 figure on the most favorable sites. Hardwood 
production reaches about 12 metric tons/ha (2.4 acres) per year. The 
estimated timber productivity on the 2300-acre Alcovy River system is 
estimated to be $1,578,720 per year ($686 per acre per year) based 
on a 100-year period and at present market value. Fish productivity 
averages 75 pounds per acre but may reach 1300 pounds per acre in 
the backwaters and sloughs, according to the Georgia Game and Fish 
Commission. Wharton ( 1970) estimates the total productivity value of 
the Alcovy at $546,940 per year or $3,648,720 based on a 100-year 

'Day net production plus night respiration. 



Ul 



O 



period. These monetary estimates do not include the value of primary 
production in terms of food for wildlife or in terms of the animals, in- 
cluding furbearers, that it supports. < 

Wetlands have long been associated with the production of water- _] 

fowl (Alexander et al. 1953; Linduska 1964). They are recognized as > 

the Nation's "duck factories. " The pothole country, for example, S 

which represents only 109£ of our wetlands, produces over 50*% of our C/5 

ducks. Every year 300,000 ducklings fly off the western marshes along 
the Pacific Flyway. The 14 southern states add another 700,000, and 
the eastern coastal marshes add 200,000 more during the best years. 
Some wetlands are more important as the actual breeding areas. 
Others are essential as wintering grounds and as feeding and resting 
areas scattered along the major flyways (Errington 1966; Niering 
1966). 

Studies of the primary producers in the Tinicum Marshes by McCor- 
mick ( 1970) provide insight into higher plant productivity. Among the 
eight vegetation types represented, common reed grass, wild rice, cat- 
tail, and mixed aquatic types were most important. They produced a 
standing crop of 4.2, 6.9, 3.9, and 4.0 tons/acre, respectively. 

In general, wetlands exhibit a distinctive flora and fauna adapted to 
hydric conditions or to periodic flooding. Some of the plant species are 
of special interest for their unique features. These include the insec- 
tivorous plants, orchids, and ericads of the bogs and species typical of 
the vernal pools that change morphologically with gradual desiccation 
of the site. 

Oxygen Production and Nutrient Recycling 

Grant and Patrick ( 1970) found that the 512 acres of wetland in the 
Tinicum Marshes produce a net increase of 20 tons of oxygen per day. 
This is the product of photosynthesis. 

Modern man has drastically modified the nitrogen cycle. The annual 
natural turnover of nitrogen compounds in the U.S. has been calcu- 
lated to be about 7 or 8 million tons (Commoner 1970). Currently our 
agricultural fertilizers add another estimated 7 million tons, and 
nitrogen compounds produced as by-products from our power plants 
and automobiles, another 2 to 3 million tons. More than doubling the 
nitrogen input into the biosphere has resulted in a serious deterioration 
of enviornmental quality in various parts of the country. Denitrifying 
bacteria have the ability to take the deleterious nitrogen oxides that 
are accumulating and convert them back into atmospheric nitrogen of 
which most of the atmosphere is composed. Most wetlands support 
vast numbers of these micro-organisms and thus serve to reduce the 
load of dissolved nitrogen washed into them. 

Another role of aquatic ecosystems is the recycling of organic sulfur- 
containing compounds by action of sulfate-reducing bacteria. As 



CO 
CO 

g Deevey (1970) puts it: 

5 What follows, if R.NHj.SH is to remain a renewable resource, is that water, mud, 

f— air, and land are closely linked by oxidation-reduction cycles in which reduction is 

W performed entirely by organisms. 

Q Pollution Filtration 

< One of the most significant roles of wetlands is their ability to 

Z remove pollutants. Preliminary studies in the Tinicum Marshes indicate 

that this area receives sewage from three treatment plants and that a 

significant reduction in absolute amounts of pollution occurs by the 

time the water has passed through the 512 acres of marsh. Grant and 

Patrick ( 1970) succinctly summarize this vital role as follows: 

It is significant that reductions in BOD, P-PO.,, N-NH :t , and N-NO :i , did occur in the 
excursion of the river water over the marshland in the time interval of 2 to 5 hours. 
This reduction occurred in 57% of the BOD measurements, 57% of the P-P0 4 
analyses, 66% of the N-NH :I , and 63% of the N-NO : , analyses. Oxygen increases oc- 
curred in 73% of the analyses. It is difficult to determine from the information at 
hand why the decreases in pollution load were not always consistent but are probably 
due to irregular pattern of flow and the variability of pollution load. If we take the ap- 
proximate average value for each of these characteristics this would mean an approxi- 
mate reduction of P-PO., of 190 mg/ft :1 of water per day; BOD of 310 mg/ff' 1 per day; 
N-NH : , of 176 mg/ft :t per day; N-NO :) of 3.2 mg/ft :i per day and an increase of oxygen 
of 4 1 2 mg/ft :1 per day. Since the wet area of the marsh is about 5 1 2 acres, this would 
amount to a reduction per day of approximately 7.7 tons of BOD, 4.9 tons P-PO.,. 4.3 
tons N-NH :1 , 138 lb. N-NO,,, and an increase of 20 tons of oxygen. From these 
preliminary results it is evident that the marshlands play an important role in reducing 
the nutrient load in water and in increasing the oxygen content. 

In Georgia, water quality was studied along the Flint and Alcovy 
rivers to assess the value of river bottomland swamps in pollution 
reduction. In the Flint River system, the Georgia Water Quality Con- 
trol Board reports a high degree of recovery by a very organically pol- 
luted stream within a distance of 6 miles, where there were extensive 
swamps. It was also observed that the degree of recovery was directly 
correlated with the presence of the adjacent swamps. Along Mountain 
Creek, a tributary of the Alcovy River, the Federal Water Pollution 
Control Administration found extreme pollution due to human sewage 
and chicken offal (Wharton 1970). However, after passing through 
2.75 miles of swamp forest along the Alcovy, the river water was 
designated as clean; and water quality was excellent after traversing an 
additional 7 miles of swamp. Data also suggest that coliform counts, 
dissolved oxygen, and biological oxygen determination (BOD) all 
returned to more favorable levels downstream from the swampy areas. 
In another study of oil wastes on the Gothard's Branch in Douglas 
County, Georgia, Turner and Ahearn (1970:18) found that the largest 
amount of the degradation of the pollutant occurs along the swampy 
portion of the stream. 

The role of swamps in sediment removal has also been documented. 
Wharton (1970) estimates that the value of the Alcovy River Swamp 
as a sediment accretor exceeds $3000 annually. This function would 
be destroyed by channelization, a potential threat to such wetlands. It 



has been found that water velocity is doubled by channelization, while 



£ 



the silt load is tripled. 2 

In conclusion, Wharton ( 1970) estimates the value of the 2300-acre 
Alcovy River Swamp ecosystem from the standpoint of water quality at 
$1,000,000 annuallv. 



a 
m 



Education and Recreation g 

Wetlands are outdoor educational exhibits and scientific laborato- CO 

ries. They serve as the resource base for scientific research and also as 
museums for teaching the dynamics and ecological role of these 
ecosystems. At the Connecticut Arboretum in New London, the per- 
manently preserved wetlands have been studied by Connecticut Col- 
lege students. A red maple swamp, actually a bog, with its underlying 
20 ft of peat, presented a challenging problem to an undergraduate 
student as she unravelled the 13,000 years of post-glacial history 
revealed by the pollen preserved in the peat. At the Thames Science 
Center, closely affiliated with the Connecticut Arboretum, thousands 
of school children annually are given first-hand field experience and 
are being taught the value of wetlands. The Arboretum Guided Tour 
(Emery 1967), used by the teachers, makes this point about the wet- 
land along the route: "The swamp below this dam is roughly an acre in 
size. If flooded to a depth of one foot it would hold 330,000 gallons of 
water. Thus whenever a swamp is filled or drained, another large quan- 
tity of water is lost from the underground water supply and made to 
run off more quickly to aggravate flooding problems downstream." In 
these ecological settings one can also emphasize the basic ecological 
principles operative in natural ecosystems — energy flow, recycling, 
diversity, and limited carrying capacity. These concepts can also be 
directly related to man and the environmental problems created by 
failing to recognize their applicability in human ecology. 

Wetlands also provide many recreational outlets, such as fishing, 
hunting, bird-watching, and hiking. Twenty million Americans go fish- 
ing, two million hunt waterfowl. Thousands hunt the wetlands with 
binoculars and cameras, where an unparalleled diversity of waterfowl 
and spectacular marsh birds gives pleasure and inspiration. On Staten 
Island a unique fenway system has been proposed for incorporating the 
wetlands as part of the open-space pattern. This represents a sound 
ecological use of resources and the recreation potential is very great. 
Such a mosaic o\' open space should be incorporated as an essential 
part of any community development plan, as it serves an important so- 
cial function and greatly enhances the quality of the environment 
(Hoffman 1963: Thomson 1970: USDI 1962). 

Literature cited 

Alexander. M. C, N. Hotchkiss, and W. S. Bourn. 1953. Classifica- 
tion of wetlands of the United States. Spec. Sci. Rep. Wildlife No. 20. 



Q 



00 

C/D 

2 U.S. Department of Interior, Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington, 

< DC. 

[7j Commoner, B. 1970. Threats to the integrity of the nitrogen cycle: 

nitrogen compounds in soil, water, atmosphere and precipitation. In 
Global effects of environmental pollution. S. Fred Singer, ed. 

< Springer-Verlag New York Inc., New York. 

Z Deevey, E. S. 1970. In defense of mud. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 51( 1 ):5-8. 

Emery, J. 1967. A guided tour of the Connecticut Arboretum, Conn. 
Arboretum Bull. No. 16, 32 p. 

Errington, P. L. 1966. Of men and marshes. Macmillan, New York, 
150 p. 

Grant, R. R., Jr., and R. Patrick. 1970. Tinicum Marsh as a water pu- 
rifier, p. 105-123. In Two studies of Tinicum Marsh. The Conserva- 
tion Foundation, Washington, D.C. 

Hoffman, L. ed. 1963. The conservation and management of temperate 
marshes, bogs, and other wetlands. Proc. Project MAR Conf. Nov. 
12-16, 1962. International Union for the Conservation of Nature 
Publications, new series, No. 3. 

Kilpatrick, F. A. 1964. Source of base flow of streams. Symposi- 
um—Surface Waters. Int. Assoc. Sci. Hydro. Publ. 63:329-339. 

Linduska, J. P. ed. 1964. Waterfowl tomorrow. Bureau of Sport Fishe- 
ries and Wildlife, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C, 
770 p. 

McCormick, J. 1970. The natural features of Tinicum Marsh, with 
particular emphasis on the vegetation. Pages 1-104 in Two studies of 
Tinicum Marsh. The Conservation Foundation. Washington, D.C. 

Nifring, W. A. 1966. The life of the marsh— the North American wet- 
lands. McGraw-Hill, New York. 199 p. 

Odum, E. P. 1959. Fundamentals of ecology. W. B. Saunders, Philadel- 
phia. 

Thomson, B. F. ed. 1970. Preserving our freshwater wetlands. Conn. 
Arboretum Bull. No. 17, 52 p. 

Turner, W. E., and D. G. Ahfarn. 1970. Effects of oil pollution on 
populations of yeasts in fresh water (Abstract). Bact. Proc. of the 
70th Annual Meeting. 

U.S. Department of Interior. 1962. The value of wetlands to modern 
society. Fish and Wildlife, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. 
Proc. Project MAR Conf. Nov. 12-16, 1962. International Union for 
the Conservation of Nature Publications, new series, No. 3. 

Wharton, C. H. 1970. The Southern River Swamp— a multiple use en- 
vironment. Bureau of Business and Economic Research, School of 
Business Administration, Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Ga. 48 p. 



Chapter 3 

Encroachments on Wetlands 



A review of the comments received on the status of the individual in- 
land wetlands, state by state, gives an alarming picture of their destruc- 
tion or modification on a national scale. Although the details may be 
found in the inventory and are summarized for each state, the follow- 
ing generalized overview of the nature of these encroachments may be 
of interest. 

Within the eastern megalopolis lying between Portland, Maine, and 
Norfolk, Virginia, and within the vicinity of other large metropolitan 
centers scattered throughout the country, a multiplicity of activities 
place the wetlands in jeopardy. These are well exemplified on the Troy 
Meadows in New Jersey and the Tinicum Marshes on the outskirts of 
Philadelphia. They include dumps and sanitary land-fill operations, 
rights-of-way for power, telephone, and gas transmission lines, highway 
construction, draining and filling for shopping centers, airports, facto- 
ries and housing developments, and pollution by sewage and industrial 
wastes. Real estate values have escalated to fantastic figures, in some 
instances to over $100,000 per acre. 

Around the periphery of the urban centers other activities take place 
that are directly attributable to the needs of the population. These in- 
clude flooding of valleys in the development of metropolitan water 
supplies and for hydroelectric and pump-storage facilities for power 
companies. Dredging and filling of wetlands for marinas, recreational 
facilities, and housing also take their toll. 



<: 

Q 



CO In the Southeast the channelization of a large number of river 

Z systems under the direction of the Army Corps of Engineers is destroy- 

j ing the flood-plain forests and associated wetlands. An analysis of the 

uj Alcovy River in Georgia by Wharton (1970) clearly demonstrates the 

importance of evaluating these habitats on a multiple use basis. Their 
value to society has been estimated to be $7 million per year, a figure 
that exceeds the agricultural benefits derived from their conversion. 

Major dams for hydroelectric power, flood control, and irrigation 
have already modified many river systems throughout the country. In 
some instances these activities have produced new wetlands around the 
periphery of reservoirs, but many of these are unproductive due to the 
great seasonal fluctuations in water levels to which they are subjected. 
Agricultural activities south of Lake Okeechobee in Florida have been 
facilitated by a major system of canals and flood gates under the ju- 
risdiction of the Army Corps of Engineers. This scheme has inter- 
rupted the normal southward flow of water from central Florida, 
thereby placing the entire Everglades ecosystem in jeopardy (Wildlife 
Society 1970). The proposed international jetport would have had still 
further adverse impact on Everglades National Park. When the water 
table drops on a wetland such as the Everglades, that is underlain by 
extensive peat deposits, the ecosystem, which may have been shaped 
by fires under normal circumstances, becomes vulnerable to this en- 
vironmental factor, and the peat itself may become consumed to con- 
siderable depths. 

The Cross Florida Canal is a further potential threat to the integrity 
of the hydrologic regime in south Florida. This development, if it 
should be completed, would destroy the Oklawaha, one of the finest 
wild rivers in the country, and a magnificent swamp forest. 

Drainage of wetlands for agriculture has been taking place 
throughout the country, and notably in the prairie pothole country, 
where over half the wetlands were already drained by 1950, and ap- 
proximately 125,000 acres were drained between 1965 and 1968 
(Harmon 1970). Agricultural interests have been working at cross pur- 
poses with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and federal funds have 
been squandered in the process. The extensive "Tule Lakes" of the 
Central Valley of California are another wetland complex that has 
been greatly reduced and modified by drainage. These wetlands have 
also suffered from the impact of pesticides that have washed or 
leached into them from the surrounding fields. In the arid Southwest, 
irrigation, pumping from wells, and erosion brought about by overgraz- 
ing have lowered water tables, resulting in the desiccation of wetlands 
locally known as cienegas. 

Timber harvest in the swamp forests has been taking place wherever 
merchantable stands are found. The bottomlands in the Mississippi 
Basin and along the Atlantic Coastal Plain have been extensively ex- 
ploited, despite the difficulty of operating in the swamps. The state- 



ment that a given area is "one of the last uncut stands of cypress" has ^ 

been encountered in state after state. Recovery from such operations "> 

does occur, but it is often very slow, especially if followed by severe o 

wildfires. In the North and Northeast, white cedar has been harvested %_ 

for fence posts. _] 

Strip mining is destroying wetlands habitat in states underlain by ^ 

Carboniferous deposits such as West Virginia and oil extraction has ^ 

been a major disturbance in the swamps and bayous of Louisiana. A c/) 

much smaller extractive exploitation is the mining of peat deposits 
from our northern bogs. Where this takes place, it is very damaging to 
these fragile ecosystems. 

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and a number of the state depart- 
ments concerned with wildlife resources have been making a notable 
contribution toward the preservation of the country's most significant 
marshes and the restoration of others. At the same time it must be 
pointed out that their programs are directed especially toward water- 
fowl production in response to the hunting interests. Management 

practices, including the creation of impoundments and the manipula- 
tion of water levels, are altering natural conditions and may, as in the 
case of Fish Springs in Utah, be destroying some interesting and 
unusual habitat from a botanical point of view. Some of the outstand- 
ing National Wildlife Refuges are found in Utah and the Central Val- 
ley of California and Oregon. The widespread destruction of wetland 
habitat along the major flyways through drainage is having another im- 
pact by funneling larger concentrations of waterfowl onto the refuges 
during migration and thus straining the carrying capacity of these 
remaining wetlands. 

The pressure of people has one further impact on the wetlands 
through use for various types of recreation. Hunting and fishing are the 
major activities that bring people to the wetlands. In the South espe- 
cially, mechanized contrivances such as airboats and swamp buggies 
are disturbing natural conditions. Trampling along the edges of water 
courses and in the bogs is also destructive, and orchid collectors in 
their enthusiasm are eliminating one of the features that make bogs 
such unique botanical communities. 

In summary, it is evident that the inland wetlands lack adequate pro- 
tection from continued destruction. There is no question that a na- 
tional inland wetlands policy is required if the nation's remaining 
ecologically valuable wetlands are to be saved. 



Literature cited 

Harmon, K. W. 1970. Prairie potholes. Natl. Parks Conserv. Mag. 

45(3):25-28. 
Wharton, C. H. 1970. The Southern River Swamp: A multiple-use en- 



CVJ 

£/) vironment. Bureau of Business and Economic Research, School of 

^ Business Administration, Georgia State Univ., p. 1-48. 

< Wildlife Society. 1970. Everglades water and its ecological implica- 

tions. Report of the Florida Chapter of the Wildlife Society, p. 1-42. 
w 

Q 
Z 
< 



Chapter 4 

Classification of Inland Wetlands 

The present report is concerned only with the fresh-water and inland 
wetlands. The estuarine habitat has been excluded to avoid duplication 
of coverage with the estuarine survey of the Federal Water Pollution 
Control Administration (Wastler and de Guerrero 1968). Thus in 
coastal areas, the wetlands in this report are limited to sites free of 
tidal influence and where the vegetation is typical of fresh-water en- 
vironments. 

A wetland is recognized as a site where the water table is near, at, 
or above the surface of the ground for at least some portion of the 
year. Areas seasonally flooded, such as river flood plains, therefore, 
qualify as wetlands. Lakes and ponds are included where they are 
ecologically related to specific wetland types. 

Marshes, swamps, and bogs constitute the three major types of wet- 
lands, each of which may exhibit various phases or subtypes. Ecologi- 
cally, they represent a dynamic set of ecosystems that are constantly 
undergoing change and that are subjected to a diversity of environ- 
mental influences, such as fluctuations in water level, sedimentation, 
erosion, fire, and natural and man-induced eutrophication. Wetland 
development can produce dramatic changes in site conditions, in 
which lakes and ponds may be transformed into marshes, swamps, or 
bogs. For example, bodies of water with shallow margins frequently 
develop littoral zones of submerged, floating, and emergent aquatic 
vegetation typical of those found in marshes. These aquatic plants may 



^ form distinctive belts, which may remain relatively stable, may undergo 

Z cyclic fluctuations, or may encroach upon one another, depending 

_i upon changes in the water table. If organic accumulation exceeds the 

Lij rate of recycling, shallow open water may eventually become a marsh 

^ dominated by submerged, floating, and emergent aquatics. Depending 

Q upon the water depth, this may lead to the formation of a deep or a 

< shallow marsh. The prairie potholes of the north-central United States, 

Z renowned for their high waterfowl productivity, are a classic example 

of deep marshes, where considerable areas of open water may be 
present. If water levels are maintained, these marsh types may persist. 

With a lowering of the water table and/or organic accumulation, 
however, marshes within forested regions may become shrub or tree 
swamps, or a combination of the two. Although muck or peat soils un- 
derlie marshes and swamps, mineral material is usually relatively near 
the surface. Marshes and swamps generally exhibit stream drainage 
patterns, although exceptions occur, as in the prairie pothole country. 
Further vegetation development toward somewhat drier conditions in 
swampy sites is dependent upon water table changes. As long as the 
site is sufficiently wet to exclude upland species, a swamp vegetation 
will prevail. 

Bogs represent a wetland type most frequently found within the 
glaciated sections of North America. They can usually be distinguished 
from swamps by their location in poorly drained depressions underlain 
by considerable deposits of peat. Bog formation represents a classic ex- 
ample of autogenic development, in which a lake, through continued 
accumulation of dead plant material, gradually becomes transformed 
into a bog. Bogs usually exhibit a distinctive evergreen-shrubby and/or 
coniferous-tree cover. The spruce bogs scattered across the northeast- 
ern United States represent an excellent example. They exhibit a 
distinctive flora, including insectivorous plants — the sundew and 
pitcher plant — bog orchids, and a diversity of evergreen shrubs belong- 
ing to the heath family— leatherleaf, bog laurel, bog rosemary, and 
Labrador tea. Within the eastern deciduous forest region, they 
represent outliers of a more boreal biota. 

The transition between bogs and swamps is often not clear cut. For 
example, red maple, a typical swamp species, may invade a bog and 
eventually become the dominant tree, despite the fact that the wetland 
is underlain by deep peat deposits. The southern white cedar on the 
Atlantic Coastal Plain is frequently found growing in poorly drained 
depressions along with a typical bog flora. Being less tolerant of shade 
than the red maple, it may be gradually replaced by the maple. 

The wet meadow is another fresh-water, wetland type, somewhat 
marsh-like but drier than the wetlands previously mentioned. Although 
the soil is wet, flooding is rare. This site frequently exhibits a diversity 
of herbaceous plants, including sedges and showy forbs such as purple 



loosestrife and ironweed. Z 

Seasonally flooded areas, although they may intergrade with the > 

wooded swamp type, often support a less hydric vegetation. Annual q 

plants, tolerant of mesic conditions, often colonize flood-plain sites < 

which are only periodically inundated. A rather unusual community, rn 

the vernal pools of California, is included in this category. These areas f~ 

exhibit a unique flora in which the growth form of some of the plants z 

changes from truly aquatic to spiny xerophytic as the depression dries ^ 

out. 

The inland saline wetlands occur in poorly drained, semi-arid re- 
gions, where high temperature evaporates much of the water, leaving 
the salts behind. Where insufficient leaching occurs the salts accumu- 
late, forming alkali soils. Plants on such sites are known as halophytes 
and are characteristic of saline flats and marshes that may be per- 
manently or periodically flooded. 

In order to avoid unnecessary proliferation of classification schemes, 
we have utilized the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service system (Martin et 
al. 1953; Shaw and Fredine 1956) with some elaboration. This involves 
1 1 of the 20 wetland categories described, 8 fresh water and 3 saline. 
We have added one special type, the riparian habitat, which is often a 
gallery-type forest restricted to stream margins, especially in drier re- 
gions. This vegetation may be considered transitional between a true 
bottomland wetland and a mesic upland type. Examples include certain 
canyon and stream border communities that occur in California, 
Arizona, and the Great Plains. 

Kuchler ( 1964) has developed a map of the potential natural vegeta- 
tion of the United States. Of the 1 16 vegetation types recognized, 10 
describe inland wetlands. Table I has been included to show how these 
types fall into the classification employed here. 

In the classification of wetland types that follows, the distinctive fea- 
tures and floristic characteristics of each are summarized. The codes 
for each type are used in the inventory to characterize the wetlands 
described. As would be expected, a given wetland may exhibit features 
of more than one category. The first letter of the code indicates 
whether the wetland is fresh (F), saline (S), or riparian (R). The num- 
bers refer to the types as used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 
The final letters indicate whether wetland is a marsh (M), a shrub 
swamp (Ss), a wooded swamp (Sw), or a bog (B). Calcareous habitats 
may be designated by (Ca) at the end of the code. 

Fresh-Water Wetland Types 

SEASONALLY FLOODED BASINS AND FLATS (F-l). These 
sites are inundated periodically, but not flooded during the growing 
season. They occur along water courses and on flood plains, especially 
in the lower Mississippi drainage and in the Southeast. They also in- 
clude temporarily flooded basins in the Panhandle of Texas and the 



to 



if) 
Q 



LU 



Q 
Z 
< 

_l 

z 



TABLE I. Kiichler's wetland vegetation types 



Type 

No. 


Name 


Dominant plants 


Location 


Wetland 
Code 


49 


Tule Marshes 


Scirpus, Typha 


Widespread; 
esp. Cal. 
and Utah 


F-3-M 
F-4-M 


78 


Southern Cord- 


Spartina 


Southeast Tex.; 


F-3-M 




grass Prairie 


alterniflora 


Southern La. 




79 


Palmetto Prairie 


Aristida stricta 
Serenoa repens 


Central Fla. 


F-2-M 


80 


Marl Everglades 










Grassland 


Cladium jamaicense 


South Fla. 


F-3-M(Ca) 




Hammocks 


Persea borbonia 

Taxodium distichum 


South Fla. 


F-7-Sw(Ca) 


91 


Cypress 










Savanna 


Aristida, Taxodium, 
Cladium 


South Fla. 


F-3-M 


92 


Everglades 










Grassland 


Cladium 


South Fla. 


F-3-M 




Bayheads 


Magnolia virginiana 
Persea borbonia 


South Fla. 


F-7-Sw 


94 


Conifer Bog 


Larix laricina 
Picea mariana 
Thuja occidentalis 


Glaciated 
eastern and 
central states 


F-8-B 


98 


Northern Flood- 


Populus deltoides 


Midwestern 


F-l-Sw 




plain Forest 


Salix nigra, Ulmus 
spp. 


river bottoms 




113 


Southern Flood- 


Nyssa aquatica 


South and ' 


F-l-Sw 




plain Forest 


Quercus spp. 
Taxodium 


Southeast 


F-7-Sw 


114 


Pocosin 


Pinus serotina 
Ilex glabra 


Coastal Plain 
Va. to S.C. 


F-8-B 



vernal pools of California. Their vegetation is dependent upon the ^ 

season and the duration of flooding. The herbaceous vegetation of ex- ^ 

posed open sites (F-l-M) includes smartweeds (Polygonum spp.), fall O 

panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum), tealgrass (Eragrostis hypnoides), ^ 

and wild millet (Echinochloa crusgalli). Vernal pools exhibit a unique 
flora, individual species of which change form from truly aquatic to > 

spiny xerophytic as site conditions become more xeric. Bottomland q 

forests along rivers (F-l-Sw) may be composed of cottonwood w 

(Populus deltoides), silver maple (Acer saccharinum), black willow 
(Salix nigra), elm {Ulmus spp.) in the Northeast and Midwest; gums 
(Nyssa spp.), oaks (Quercus spp.), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua), 
and cypress (Taxodium distichum) in the South and Southeast. 

FRESH MEADOWS (F-2-M). The water table is at or near the sur- 
face, but usually there is no standing water. Such sites often exhibit a 
rich floristic diversity, including grasses, sedges, rushes, and colorful, 
broad-leaved, flowering plants. They are especially abundant in the 
Fake States and Florida. They also include the spring- and snow-fed al- 
pine meadows, beaver meadows, and cienegas. The vegetation is domi- 
nantly herbaceous and includes such plants as the manna grasses 
(Glyceria spp.), canary grass (P/ialaris arundinacea) , tealgrass 
(Eragrostis hypnoides), prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), sedges 
(Care.x spp.), rushes (Juncus spp.). In the South cordgrasses {Spartina), 
paspalums (Paspalum spp.), and beakrushes ( Rhynochospora spp.) are 
common. 

SHALLOW FRESH MARSHES (F-3-M). The soil is waterlogged 
throughout the vegetative season, and the sites are often covered with 
6 inches or more of water. They occur throughout the United States as 
shallow basins and sloughs and along the margins of shallow lakes or 
the borders of deep marshes. The vegetation is dominated primarily by 
emergent aquatic plants such as cattails (Typha spp.), arrowheads 
(Sagittaria spp.), burreed (Sparganium spp.), pickerelweed (Pontederia 

cordata), bulrushes (Scirpus spp.), galingale (Cyperus spp.), smart- 
weeds {Polygonum spp.), spikerushes (Eleocharis spp.). rushes (Juncus 
spp.), vvhitetop grass (Scolochloa festucacea) , rice cutgrass (Leersia ory- 
zoides), and reed (Phragmites communis). Others especially common in the 
Southeast, including the Everglades, are maidencane (Panicum nemitomon) 
and sawgrass (Claudium jamaicense). 

DEEP FRESH MARSHES (F-4-M). The water depth may range 
from 6 inches to 3 ft during the growing season. These areas include 
shallow lakes, sloughs, potholes, limestone sinks, and margins of open- 
water areas. This distribution is widespread, but concentrated in the 
north-central United States and Florida. The vegetation of the more 
shallow water phase includes the emergents previously listed (F-3-M). 
The deeper water supports floating plants such as water lilies (Nuphar 
spp., Castalia spp.) and duckweeds (Lemna spp.), and submerged 
aquatics such as pondweeds (Potamogeton spp.), water weeds 



LU 



GO 

Q (Anacharis canadensis), naiads (Najas spp.), coontail (Ceratophyllum 

< demersum), and water milfoil {Myriophyllum spp.). In the South, water 

hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) often forms a dense surface mat. 

OPEN FRESH WATER (F-5-M). This includes natural shallow 
ponds, springs, and man-made impoundments usually less than 10 ft in 
depth. These are widespread, but most abundant in Florida and the 
prairie pothole country of the north-central United States, where they 
are noted for their high waterfowl production. The vegetation of the 
marginal zone is dominated by emergent vegetation (see F-3-M); the 
deeper areas by floating and submerged aquatics (see F-4-M). Species 
of the prairie potholes include cattails, bulrushes, spikerushes, smart- 
weeds, and whitetop. 

SHRUB SWAMPS (F-6-Ss) (sometimes referred to as Carrs). The 
water-table is at or near the surface throughout much of the year, and 
they may be flooded with as much as 6-12 inches of water at certain 
periods. Such swamps occur throughout the deciduous forest region in 
upland depressions and along rivers and sluggish streams. They are 
especially common in the Lake States and Florida. The vegetation in- 
cludes willows (Salix spp.), alders (Alnus spp.), buttonbush 
(Cephalanthus occidentalis), dogwoods (Cornus spp.), viburnums 
(Viburnum spp.), sweet pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia), and swamp 
privet (Forestiera acuminata). 

WOODED SWAMPS (F-7-Sw). The water table is at or near the 
surface throughout the year and 6-12 inches of standing water during 
part of the year is common. They occur in poorly drained upland sites 
along streams, shallow river basins, and deltas. The vegetation includes 
the typical red maple-hardwood swamps of the Northeast and the vast 
acreage of bottom-land hardwoods and cypress swamps of the 
Southeast. Wooded swamps are also frequent in the Lake States. The 
Great Cypress Swamp of west Florida is one of the most extensive of 
such areas in North America. Although river flood-plain swamp forests 
intergrade with seasonally flooded swamp forests (F-l-Sw), those more 
continuously flooded throughout the year are included here. Shrub and 
wooded swamp types may also intergrade. Forest composition varies 
geographically. In the Northeast: red maple (Acer rubrum), black ash 
(Fraxinus nigra), black spruce (Picea mariana), balsam fir (Abies bal- 
samea), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica), tamarack (Lari.x laricina), and 
arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis). In the Southeast: primary trees are 
cypress (Taxodium spp.), water oak (Quercus nigra), overcup oak 
(Quercus lyrata), swamp black gum (Nyssa biflora), tupelo gum (Nyssa 
aquatica), and pond pine (Pinus rigida var. serotina). In the Northwest: 
western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), red alder (Alnus rubra), and 
willows (Salix spp.). 

BOGS (F-8-B). These usually develop in deep lakes and poorly 
drained depressions of glacial origin, and are underlain by extensive 
peat deposits. They occur throughout the glaciated regions of the 



CO 

northern United States. Extensive boggy peatlands occur in northern Z 

Minnesota. Southward they are restricted primarily to mountainous re- > 

gions and on the Coastal Plain are represented in the Carolina Bay re- q 

gion. The vegetation includes distinctive flora and fauna. Spruce bogs ^ 

within the northeast deciduous forests represent disjunct northern [H 

biota. Northern white cedar and southern white cedar types are recog- C 

nized, the latter along the Coastal Plain. In the North: black spruce Z 

(Picea mariana), larch (Lari.x laricina), southern white cedar <# 

( Chamaecypari s thyoide s ) , northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), 
heath shrubs such as bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), Labrador-tea 
(Ledum groenlandicum), leather leaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), cran- 
berries (Vaccinium spp.), and swamp loosestrife (Decodon verticil- 
latus), and bog sedges (Carex spp.). In the South: bay (Persea spp.), 
loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus), leatherwood (Cyrilla racemiflora), 
sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana), pond pine (Pinus serotina), and Vir- 
ginia chainfern (Woodwardia virginiana). jCPrf^vLeL*Jp&*^7 ti *f* i *' i '' i> 

RIPARIAN (R). These habitats consist of narrow bands of vegeta- 
tion found along water courses. They may be transitional between 
seasonally flooded types (F-l ) and more mesic vegetation. In some in- 
stances their flora is unique (e.g., desert palms). 

Saline Wetland Types 

SALINE FLATS (S-9). The water table is at or near the surface dur- 
ing the growing season, but is only flooded following heavy precipita- 
tion. They occur in undrained sumps, often covering extensive areas in 
parts of the arid West, especially Utah. The vegetation is usually very 
sparse. Their flora includes various halophytes such as seablite (Suaeda 
depressa), salt grass (Distichlis spicata), Nevada bulrush (Scirpus 
nevadensis), salt bush (Atriplex spp.), and burro-weed (Allenrolfea oc- 
cidentalis). 

SALINE MARSHES (S-10). These occur in shallow lake basins, 
where the soil is saturated during the growing season and is usually 
covered with several inches of water, from Kansas westward, but espe- 
cially common in Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. The vegetation 
consists of emergent and submerged aquatic forms, including sago 
pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and hardstem bulrush (Scirpus 
acuius). 

OPEN SALINE WATER (S-l 1 ). These open saline aquatic areas are 
typically associated with the saline marshes and flats. Water depth is 
highly variable but usually less than 6 ft. The vegetation consists 
chiefly of submerged aquatics, such as sago pondweed (Potamogeton 
pectinatus), ditchgrass (Ruppia maritima), and the alga (Chara spp.). 

Literature cited 

Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous 
United States. Am. Geographical Soc, Spec. Publ. No. 36. 



o 

CM 

c/) Martin, A. C, N. Hotchkiss, F. M. Uhler, and W. S. Bourn. 1953. 

Z Classification of wetlands of the United States. Special Scientific Re- 

5 port:Wildlife No. 20. U.S. Dept. of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Ser- 

u] vice, Washington, D.C. 

^ Shaw, S. P., and C. G. Fredine. 1956. Wetlands of the United States. 

Q U.S. Dept. of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Cir. 39, p. 1-67. 

< Wastler, T. A., and L. C. de Guerrero. 1968. National Estuarine In- 

Z ventory. U.S. Dept. of Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Ad- 

ministration, Div. Tech. Serv., Office Estuarine Studies, Washington, 
D.C, p. 1-77. 



Part 




Inventory of Inland Wetlands 

This inventory is based principally upon data obtained through cor- 
respondence with a large number of contacts scattered throughout the 
country. These include staff members of departments of wildlife, con- 
servation, or fish and game located in each state; directors of the re- 
gional offices of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife; members 
and staff of The Nature Conservancy; and university and college biolo- 
gists. Most of these respondents have filled in forms that were designed 
to provide essential information. Wetlands have also been identified in 
the following listings: wildlife refuges (Butcher 1963); natural areas 
owned by The Nature Conservancy (The Nature Conservancy News); 
and research natural areas on federal lands (Federal Committee on 
Research Natural Areas 1968). In addition, the authors have had occa- 
sion to make site visitations to a number of the wetlands reported, 
either before or during the period covered by this theme-study con- 
tract. 

The following information, if available, has been given for each of 
the 358 individual wetlands included in the report: acreage, location 
(including its boundaries on the USGS topographical map), description 
of its biological and other features, published references, en- 
croachments, ownership, sources of data, and names and addresses of 
other knowledgeable persons. 

The situation with respect to inland wetlands has been reviewed for 
each state. A general description of the state is followed by a brief 



ro 



> 

z 
a 

m 



o 

CO 



CM 

W analysis of the current status of the wetlands and the nature of the 

"Z. coverage. The authors' recommendations for action with respect to 

_j designating the wetlands as Natural Landmarks, based upon the infor- 

Lu mation they have been able to assemble, conclude each state summary. 

> An alphabetical list of the specific areas, together with the codes 

^ designating the wetland types found therein, precedes the individual 

< wetland descriptions. Wetlands that are already Registered Natural 

Z Landmarks and/or those that should be given top priority for designa- 

tion are marked with an asterisk. The limitations of this type of survey 
should be recognized. We are aware that the data presented for the 
various states do not represent uniform coverage of the significant wet- 
lands. Excellent data were available from certain states, whereas poor 
responses resulted in minimal information from others. 

Literature Cited 

Butcher, D. 1963. Exploring our National Wildlife Refuges. Houghton 

Mifflin, Boston. 340 p. 
Federal Committee on Research Natural Areas. 1968. A directory 

of Research Natural Areas on federal lands of the U.S.A., U.S. 

Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 129. 
The Nature Conservancy News, 21 (2):3-4 1 . 1970. 



en 



Key to Wetland Types 

In the codes the first letter designates a fresh-water wetland (F), a 
saline wetland (S), or a riparian site (R). Numbers refer to wetland 
types recognized by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Final letters 
designate marshes and meadows (M), swamps (S), bogs or peatlands 
(B), shrub swamps (Ss), wooded swamps (Sw). Codes followed by 
(Ca) designate calcareous areas. 



> 

Z 

o 

:> 

m 

H 



c/> 



Code 

F-l-M 

F-l-S 

F-2-M 

F-3-M 

F-4-M 

F-5-M 

F-6-Ss 

F-7-Sw 

F-8-B 

S-9 

S-10-M 

S-ll-M 

R 



Wetland Type 

Seasonally flooded marshes 

Seasonally flooded swamps 

Fresh meadows 

Shallow fresh marshes 

Deep fresh marshes 

Open fresh water 

Shrub swamps 

Wooded swamps 

Bogs 

Saline flats 

Saline marshes 

Open saline water 

Riparian sites 



Abbreviations 



BLM 
BSFW 

NPS 
RNA 



SAF 



TNC 
USFS 



Bureau of Land Management 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Department 

of the Interior 

National Park Service, Department of the Interior 

RNA-1 through RNA-336 refer to specific areas 

listed in Research Natural Areas on Federal Lands of 

the United States of America. 1968. Government 

Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 

SAF followed by a number refers to a specific forest 

cover type listed in Forest Cover Types of North 

America (Exclusive of Mexico), Society of American 

Foresters. 

The Nature Conservancy, 1800 North Kent St., Suite 

800, Arlington, Va. 22209. 

United States Forest Service, Department of 

Agriculture. 



> 
ALABAMA f 

CD 

General description: Many natural sloughs and beaver ponds occur in the bot- ^ 

tomlands throughout Alabama. The swamp forests, such as Blue Girth Swamp in > 

Dallas County (Hall 1943), are densely wooded with cypress, tupelo, and black 

gum. Such areas are often heavily used by waterfowl, and hunting pressure is 

usually heavy. Kiichler recognizes the southern flood-plain forest dominated by 

tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), oak (Quercns spp.) and bald cypress (Ta.xodium 

distichum) as the distinctive vegetation type along the major rivers (Ku'chler 

1964). Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge in Limestone County is one of the 

finest wetlands in the state and attracts thousands of ducks and geese annually. 

Stands of cypress are typical along the shorelines of natural lakes in 

southwestern Alabama. The Mobile Delta, with mostly fresh water in its upper 

reaches, comprises 200 miles 2 of scattered lakes and bayous. 

Status of the wetlands: Both the Mobile Delta and the Wheeler National Wil- 
dlife Refuge have been subjected to serious encroachments. These include pol- 
lution from paper mills, aluminum ore, chemical plants and domestic sewage, 
highway construction, power and telephone easements, and development. 

Source of data: Information was received from state and federal personnel. 
Coverage of the state was inadequate. 

Recommendations: The Mobile Delta represents one of the most significant 
natural wetlands in the state. The waters of the lower Delta range from fresh in 
late winter and spring to moderately brackish in the late summer and fall. Pollu- 
tion, however, is affecting the vegetation, especially in Polecat Bay. according to 
testimony presented at a public hearing on 19 January 1967. to establish water 
quality standards for streams of Alabama. To quote W. W. Beshears of the State 
Department of Conservation. "I would like to repeat that the Mobile Delta is 
one of the finest natural marshes remaining in this country, and if it is to con- 
tinue to be important as a commercial and sport fishery, as a seafoods spawning 
ground, and as habitat for waterfowl and other wildlife, pollution from all 
sources must be stopped or at least reduced to a minimum level compatible with 
the basic biological needs of the primary fish and wildlife species of im- 
portance." The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge, although under federal pro- 
tection, is recognized as one of the outstanding wetlands in the state. Lily 
Shoals, a mile along the Cahaba Riser in Shelby County, should be given 
prompt attention. Although the ownership pattern needs further clarification, 
the Kimberly Clark Co. ordered no further cutting along the river in order to 
preserve scenic values. It is felt that with further investigation other significant 
wetlands would be found in Alabama worthy of Natural Landmark status. 

Literature cited 

Ham., Thomas F. 1943. Cypress-gum communities in the Blue Girth Swamp 

near Selma. Alabama. Ecology 24( 2 ):208-2 1 7. 
Kic in i k. A. W. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous U.S. 

Am. Geographical Soc. Spec. Publ. 36. 



00 
C\l 



< 

OQ 
< 



3 



1 




Wetlands reported from Alabama 

Al. 1 . *Lily Shoals of the Cahaba River 

AL 2. * Mobile Delta 

AL 3. Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge 



Habitat type 

F-5-M 

F-l-Svv, F-5-M 
F-3-M, F-4-M, F-7-Sw. 



ro 

CO 



AL I. Lily Shoals of the Cahaba River. Acreage: 55 estimated. 

Location: Bibb and Shelby counties; 2.8 miles NNW of Marvel and 10.6 miles 
NW of Montevallo; reached via Bibb County Rt. 10 NE from Marvel, turn NW 
on unmarked dirt road at Boothton (community no longer extant). 

Description: An extensively braided channel development with shallow riffles of 
gravel, rubble, and rock ledges. A dense growth of water willow (Justicia) and 
beds of spider lily (Hymenocallis) — a rare botanical feature. The shores are 
vegetated with mesic woodlands with scarce wildflowers. The river itself has an 
unusual fish fauna. 

References: van der Schalie, H. 1938. The naiades (freshwater mussels) of the 
Cahaba River in northern Alabama. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zoo!. Occas. Pap. 392:1- 
29. 

Encroachments: Some recreational pressure. One lumber company has ordered 
stoppage of cutting along the banks to preserve the scenic beauty. Possible fu- 
ture pollution by sewage may occur. The mine seepage is buffered by the hard 
water. 

Ownership: Various mining and paper companies; the riverbed itself is techni- 
cally owned by the state. 

Data source: Dr. John S. Ramsey, Fisheries' Bldg., Auburn University, Auburn, 
Ala. 36830. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Ed Blake, Shelby County Reporter, P.O. Box 
947, Columbiana, Ala. 35051; Dr. Robert Mount, Zoology-Entomology Depart- 
ment, Auburn University, Auburn, Ala. 36830; Mrs. Robert E. Burks, Jr., 3733 
Dunbarton Dr., Birmingham, Ala. 35223. 



> 

00 
> 







o 

CO 



< 

CO 
< 



AL 2. Mobile Delta. Acreage: 65,000 estimated. 

Location: Mobile and Baldwin counties; Fairhope, Tensaw, and Bay Minette 
quadrangles; just N of Mobile; reached via U.S. 90, 98, and 3 1 . 

Description: The Mobile Delta is that area in southern Alabama extending from 
the open Mobile Bay to the union of the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers, which 
is a distance of about 40 miles in a straight line. It is about 10 miles wide and, 
unlike a typical delta, is hemmed in on both sides by high land. Approximately 
the lower one-quarter is treeless island marshes and bays, while the upper three- 
quarters is a chain of rivers, bays, bayous, and extensive swamp with a thick 
growth of trees such as black gum, white bay, cypress, red maple, tupelo gum, 
ash, cottonwood, red bay, and willow. The lower third of this wetland complex 
is considered one of the finest natural marshes in the country. It is affected by 
salinity. In the upper bays the salt content varies from to 0.01 ppt in the spring 
months and from 1 to 3 ppt in the late summer and fall months. Submerged, 
floating, and emergent vegetation is typical. The most important in order of 
their abundance follows; bushy pondweed (Najas); potamogeton (Potamogetun 
pusillus and sp.); wild celery (Vallisneria); water star-grass (Heteranthera); 
muskgrass (Characeae); coontail (Ceratophyllum); horned pondweed 
{Zannichellia), and water hyacinth (Eichornia). Tidal emergents and high marsh 
vegetative species in order of their abundance are as follows: alligator weed 
(Achurantus); common cane {Phragmites); cattail (Typha); cutgrass 
(Zizaniopsis); giant bulrush (Scirpus); duck potato (Sagittaria); feather grass 
(Panicum); saltreed grass (Spartina); three-square (Scirpus); and cowpea 
( Vigna). Upper reaches of the area are dominated by swamp bottomland forests. 

References: Lueth, F. X.1963. Final report of Pittman-Robertson Project 7-R, 
Mobile Delta waterfowl and muskrat research; Baldwin, W. P. 1957. An in- 
spection of waterfowl habitats in the Mobile Bay area; Beshears, W. Walter, 
Jr. Alabama's estuarine areas; Beshears, W. Walter, Jr. Work plan V, Job V- 
F, Mobile Delta vegetative study (Progress report — not for publication); 
Beshears, W. Walter, Jr. A statement on the Mobile Delta (Prepared -as 
testimony for the public hearing to establish water quality standards for streams 
in Alabama); Beshears, W. Walter, Jr., and I. B. Byrd. 1959 Alabama's 
estuarine areas-Mobile Delta area. Ala. Conserv. 30(6):7-10. 

Encroachments: Industrial pollution (paper mills, aluminum ore depository, 
chemical plants, sewage). Shell dredging. Highway I- 10, increased commercial 
development along Battleship Parkway. 

Ownership: Marsh, open water, and bay bottoms, 45,000 acres, state of 
Alabama; 20,000 acres, private. 

Data source: W. Walter Beshears, Jr., Alabama Department of Conservation, 
Montgomery, Ala. 36100. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Neil Hotchkiss, BSFW, Patuxent Wildlife Research 
Center, Laurel, Md. 20810. 



Map on following page 



CO 



' • A L~A #a 



mgS 












Bw» 



B*V*' 



ajJTlS! 



.._ * 



V A^A^ 



> 

00 
> 



\. 



/ 



r n:: 



^SS£ 



m? ■■■-■: i 






L»k« 



* 



S 4? 



\ 






■■I 



S. JgU^lS. ij? . J 



3 < 






\ 

i « 



Li r 

-la I 



44 (?*r>i*.r t r© 









19 

tiabt 






f 



«Jc 



|ar ! 



»tai£*s «» 






p 



Y.j § 



0"-"* *• / j 









CVJ 
CO 



< 

CO 

< 



AL 3. Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Acreage: Wetlands about 15,500. 

Location: Morgan, Madison, and Limestone counties; Mason Ridge Quadran- 
gle; between Decatur and Huntsville, Madison and Triana; reached via U.S. 31, 
20, and 67. 



Description: Low upland and bottomland. Some streams occur, but the area 
consists mostly of sloughs — the Tennessee River backwaters from Wheeler Dam 
impoundment. 

Encroachments: There has been a steady demand for deletions and nonprogram 
uses. These include the Point Mallard Deletion, 1-65 construction, and nu- 
merous road, power, and telephone easements. The situation will probably wor- 
sen. 

Ownership: BSFW. 

Data source: Thomas Z. Atkeson, P.O. Box 1 643, Decatur, Ala. 3560 1 . 

Other knowledgeable persons: Bob Shanks, 1214 Owens Dr., Huntsville, Ala.; 
Dr. Curtis Adams, Biology Department, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Ala. 
35807 



' ■// 


/ ^ ~\ 


x. v 


£l|v/ 




¥ N > ) 




■28/ 


4p-:3" 




iWh 


■~-s?5..' 


- 


t l~s 




\ 


A 




\." 


J> 


i.y 




I 


/ 






~~*^ / 





/,- 



-..'I /' W>/\*A\ 



\ 



% 



\ (^ 



M \\ v 









\ Q 



I 



/ 



-**—*• 



o 



c 



I 



-HJ-? — t. 

1 ' 






V J 



V 



WHEELER N h^Al" 1 ^!^— 

wildlife" REFUGE 






36 /'o^rf 



I 



31 



:\ 



VE 



o ft 

A 



Jt 

'***£ 






-f 



o'o ^":- 



02 O 



2fe= 






J6L JLJ c 



\ \ 



t 



--/ 






v.- 



I fc 



^v 



H-, 



Aft 



Y 



Cair>TaTidi,-jg^ 



^KGANCO 



TE NNBSSEE- 






-v - — S^ ._^ 



CO 
CO 



ARIZONA 

General description: Only four areas that might be considered as wetlands have 
been reported from this arid state: three of them cienegas (Arivaca, 
Babocomari, and Canelo Hills) and one a riparian site along Sonoita Creek. 

Status of the wetlands: In arid country the pressure on water resources is severe. 
Wetlands suffer from drainage, dropping water tables, grazing, erosion, and pol- 
lution. 

Sources of data: Personnel of the Arizona Fish and Game Department and 
university biologists have reported these areas. 

Recommendations: Two areas are now being preserved by The Nature Con- 
servancy: the Canelo Hills Cienega and the Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctua- 
ry. Both of these should qualify as Natural Landmarks. They are unique, the 
former especially for its rare flora, the latter for its aquatic fauna and birds. The 
Arivaca and Babocomari cienegas would also be worthy of landmark status, 
contingent upon a permanent commitment on the part of the present owners. 
Sycamore Canyon in Santa Cruz County appears to be an outstanding botanical 
area, but does not qualify as a wetland. It has therefore not been included in this 
study. 



> 

N 

o 




Wetlands reported for Arizona 

AZ I. Arivaca Cienega 

AZ 2, Babocomari Cienega 

AZ 3. Canelo Hills Cienega 

AZ 4. Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary 



4 2 

• • 

3» 








Habitat 
R, F-5- 


type 
M 




R 








F- 


2-M 




iarv 


R 







CO 



O 
N 

DC 
< 



AZ I. Arivaca Cienega. Acreage: 730 estimated. 

Location: Pima County; Arivaca Quadrangle; 50 miles SSW of Tucson; reached 
via U.S. 89 to Arivaca Road and thence to Arivaca. 

Description: A level flood plain with gentle foothills in the vicinity. Upper 
Sonoran in character, short periods of freezing temperature, 18 inches of 
precipitation mostly in the summer months. Dominant vegetation includes Cot- 
tonwood, ash, willow, and hackberry. Typical aquatics are Potamogeton, Cham, 
and duckweeds. Fauna includes mule deer, antelope, cottontails, javelina. Gam- 
ble's and Mearns' quail, snipe, and coots. Fifty nongame birds have been 
recorded. 

References: Numerous historical references in accounts of Spanish mining and 
early American mining activities (see Hinton. 1877. Handbook of Arizona). 

Encroachments: Heavy grazing and development pressure near the Village of 
Arivaca. 

Ownership: Fred Noon and Fred Boyce, Arivaca P.O., Ariz. 85601. 

Data source: Wesley B. Fleming, Arizona Game and Fish Department, 1688 
West Adams, Phoenix, Ariz. 85007. 









r 'MctS 



Camjjoa Kanch" !■"'«• 



Well 



i; 



.*' « 



/OS'S 



e wf 



lj» 



X 



) 



— 1 
! 



a Mj 

X 36 0W 



19 







W&l 



I !, 



27 






<*. 



«fc 



"5» 



3? 

a m 



'\ n 






.4- 



■ 



'33 BM *-3;"so 3$ 

>Tank I 



\Wel 



373» J # 

o ■ { 



;, 



* .,,.■■» 



___-„ .<: -^ J__ *- 






■ 



\9rtiT 









AZ 2. Babocomari Cienega. Acreage: 100 estimated. 

Location: Santa Cruz and Cochise counties; Mustang Mountains Quadrangle. 

Description: An outstanding marsh south of the Mogollon Rim. There is a per- 
manent stream through it containing species of native fish and riparian species 
of cottonwood, willow, various aquatic plants, some of them rather rare in 
Arizona, including Oenothera rosea, with a community of dense sacaton in drier 
areas beyond the cienega itself. The cienega extends about one-half mile along 
Babocomari Wash and is about 1000 ft wide. 

Encroachments: Headward erosion on Babocomari Wash in the 1930s was 
stopped by a low dam built with the help of the Soil Conservation Service. 

Ownership: Mr. Frank Brophey, Phoenix, Ariz. 85000. 

Data source: Dr. Paul S. Martin, Department of Geochronology, University of 
Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 85721. 



> 

N 
O 



V ^w/-" 



J t. 



Vi/"*"" 



,---■ -..ait. ^i-' 

v — -vjank - 






FN 



M 



\ 



\ 



_./ 



a 



\ c *- 

_> -\ o 

~&d34/ 



I <- 



-&\-ALA — 41 V 



\ 



\\ 



-J \ / 



)A 



\ ) 



X G\ N A' C 



y'C 



v 







Ranch- TO*!! 



f***^~ 



zs 



y 



/'I I 



% 



* /"7 






__/ 



) 7?;~~T 



s 



C ^ 6 



Water • 1 
Tank / 



\ 






J 



CO 
CO 



O 

N 

< 



AZ 3. Canelo Hills Cienega. Acreage: 60. 

Location: Santa Cruz County; O'Donnell Canyon Quadrangle; 1.7 miles NW of 
Canelo. 

Description: The rarest of the cienega plants is an orchid, Spiranthes 
michuacana, presently known in Arizona from no other locality. An adjacent 6 
acres of similar hahitat with willow, cottonwood, blue-eye grass, and showy but- 
tercup (Ranunculus micranthus) occur on private land belonging to Bud Ewing. 
Mr. Ewing's land should be considered for National Landmark status along with 
TNC property, formerly the Knipe Ranch. Both of these cienegas are important 
in our paleoecological studies. They provide information on the modern pollen 
rain of a habitat once more widespread through southern Arizona. Most of them 
were eroded and drained starting in the mid- 19th century. 

Ownership: TNC and Mr. Ewing. 

Data source: Dr. Paul S. Martin, Department of Geochronology, University of 
Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 85721; TNC. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Bud Bristow, Arizona Game and Fish Depart- 
ment, 2211 West Greenway Rd., Phoenix, Ariz. 85023; Wesley Fleming, 
Arizona Game and Fish Department, Room 120 Arizona State Bldg., 1688 West 
Adams, Phoenix, Ariz. 85007; Howard M. Bassett, Chief of Fisheries, Arizona 
Game and Fish Department, 1688 West Adams, Phoenix, Ariz. 85007. 




</ '„° \ My& 



CO 
-J 



AZ 4. Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary. Acreage: 309. 

Location: Santa Cruz County; Mount Wrightson Quadrangle; SW of Patagonia; 
reached via Rt. 82. 



> 

N 

o 



Description: A permanent desert stream fed by springs downstream from 
Patagonia. A mature stand of cottonwoods grows along the stream banks. Large 
numbers of species of birds are observed here, including the gray hawk and 
black hawk. 

References: Minckley, W. L. 1969. Aquatic biota of the Sonoita Creek Basin, 
Santa Cruz County, Arizona. Ecol. Stud. Leaflet 15:1-8. 

Ownership: TNC. 

Data source: TNC; Dr. R. H. Goodwin, Box 1445, Connecticut College, New 
London, Conn. 06320. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Edward Steele, 35 Calle Primorosa, Tucson, 
Ariz. 85700. 



\ C ! 

: ' oi 






m n 



(I 2 



f z *u 



-1 



NAL V 



\J 

c 

CO o 

c 



RtK<NI>ARY 



Shs*t 

r. 



Tunwrl' 












Patagoma ..;:;• *! : .ii s£ 

J8M 405?}. 



y^- <■'..•:' ' 



.$#&' V ** * 




K < 



£ /^ 3904 




7: 



2 » 

5 



\ V. 



•j^an yon 






*/„:' 



"V? 



00 
CO 



CO 

< 

CO 

z 
< 

< 



ARKANSAS 

General description: The wetlands of Arkansas include periodically inundated 
forested bottomlands and swamps on the flood plains of the Mississippi, Arkan- 
sas, and Red rivers and their tributaries. 

Sources of data: Very little information has been received regarding the wet- 
lands of this state. 

Recommendations: Two areas have been reported that would warrant investiga- 
tion as potential Natural Landmarks. A survey will be required in order to 
locate the best portions and to establish the ownership pattern. The location, 
habitat quality, and ownership of Grassy Lake, an extensive old-growth cypress 
swamp, is known, but a commitment to preserve the area would be required. 
The Cache River Bottoms are interesting because of the great fluctuations in 
water levels to which they are subjected. A third wetland, the White River Su- 
garberry Natural Area, has been established in the White River National Wil- 
dlife Refuge. An effort should be made to develop more data regarding the wet- 
lands of this state. This should include the river bottoms and also possible 
pockets in the Ozark and Ouchita uplands known to harbor an ancient Ap- 
palachian Highland floristic element. 




Wetlands reported for Arkansas 

AR 1. Cache River Bottoms 

AR 2. *Grassy Lake 

AR 3. White River Sugarberry Natural 

Area 



Habitat type 

F-l-S 
F-7-Sw 

F-l-Sw, F-7-Sw 



Location: Monroe and Woodruff counties; 55 miles E of Little Rock. 



CO 
CO 



> 



AR 1. Cache River Bottoms. Acreage: Not known. 3 



> 



CO 

Description: Area subject to great fluctuation in water levels. Cypress knees ^ 

have developed to a record 10-11 ft in height in these bottoms. 

References: Meanley, B. 1967. Champion cypress knees. Ail. Nat. 22(3): 159. 

Ownership: Unknown. 

Data source: Brooke Meanlev in article cited above. 



o 



CO 
< 

CO 

Z 
< 

< 



AR 2. Grassy Lake. Acreage: More than 3000. 

Location: Hempstead County; McNah and Red Bluff quadrangles; 5 miles NW 
of Fulton; reached via Rt. 355. 

Description: A virgin cypress swamp with water surface estimated to be about 
3000 acres. The lake harbors a native population of alligators, various water- 
fowl, and many other forms of aquatic fauna and flora. 

References: A survey of Arkansas game. Arkansas Game and Fish Commission. 
1955. 

Encroachments: Flood control projects have reduced the frequency of 
backwater flooding by turbid waters, thereby allowing the encroachment of un- 
desirable aquatic vegetation. 

Ownership: Grassy Lake Hunting Club 

Data source: Harold E. Alexander, Arkansas Planning Commission, Little Rock, 
Ark. 72200; Ernest E. Parks, 409 Merchants Bank Building, Little Rock, Ark. 
72200. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Andrew H. Hulsey, Assistant Director, Ar- 
kansas Game and Fish Commission, Little Rock, Ark. 72200; Mr. Paul Cotce, 
Box 36, Blevins, Ark. 71825; Mr. Raymond Martin, Centerton Fish Hatchery, 
Rogers, Ark. 72756; Mr. Roland Brown, Southern State College, Magnolia, Ark. 

71753. 




> 

AR 3. White River Sugarberry Natural Area. Acreage: 973. 33 

> 

Location: Desha County; White River National Wildlife Refuge. Z 

Description: Alluvial river bottom, with 410 acres of sweet gum, Nuttall oak, ^ 

and willow oak; 109 acres of sugarberry, American elm, and green ash; 454 
acres of overcup oak and water hickory. 

Data source: RNA-43. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Refuge Manager, White River National Wildlife 
Refuge, Box 308, 704 South Jefferson St., Dewitt, Ark. 72042. 



C\J 



rr 

O 

y. 

_i 
< 
O 



CALIFORNIA 

General description: The location and extent of the marshlands of California are 
outlined by Mason ( 1957 ). They occur along and at the mouths of rivers, along 
embayments and lake margins, and in poorly drained depressions and sumps. 
Mason writes: 

Along the coast, large marshes occur around lagoons, bays, and estuaries. Notable 
are those along the Humboldt County coast, especially around Humboldt Bay. Exten- 
sive marshes occur around San Francisco Bay and along the estuaries and lowlands of 
coastal southern California. Flanking the lower reaches of the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin rivers and especially on their delta, extensive fresh-water marshes occur. 
Farther up the valleys of these rivers their flood plains are characterized by vernally 
wet alkaline marshes. Marshes are common along the Pit River in Modoc, Lassen, 
and Shasta counties and in the intermontane basins of northeastern California. There 
are also marshes in the Imperial Valley where water seeps to the surface, and along 
the Colorado River. Many small habitats for marsh plants have been created artifi- 
cially by local features of irrigation systems. Ponds and lakes are common in the 
mountains; in the valleys the ponds and lakes usually reflect the meandering courses 
which the rivers had before they were brought under control by diking. Minor topo- 
graphic features contribute to the formation of vernal pools and mesas and in valleys. 
Swamps in California are chiefly found in association with rivers. 
The inland wetlands reported fall into the following major categories: sloughs 
and marshes in the central valley system (Tule-Klamath Basin, Butte Basin, 
Grasslands Water District); lagoons and lakes along the coast formed by sand 
bars and dunes between headlands (Freshwater Lagoon, Lake Earl, Bodega 
Head Marsh, and the San Joaquin Marsh; those that are regularly open to the 
sea are not included in this report); sloughs and marshes in the desert basins 
(Fish Slough, Deep Springs Marsh, the Salton Sea Wetlands); and smaller wet- 
lands in the moist Coast Ranges (Darlingtonia Swampy Area, Duncan Mills 
Marsh, Pitkin and Atascadero Creek Marshes, Laguna de Santa Rosa, Bennett 
Mountain Lake), in the Central Valley ( Pixley Vernal Pools), and in the desert 
basins (Afton Canyon, Deep Canyon, Carrizo Creek, Pushawalla Palms, 
Saratoga Springs, Mohave Desert Camp, San Felipe Creek). 

Status of the wetlands: Most of the wetlands in the state have been subjected to 
human disturbance of one kind or another and some of our respondents have 
suggested that there are practically no wetlands remaining in their natural con- 
dition. The major wetlands of the Central Valley represent mere fragments of 
the formerly extensive "Tule Lakes." These and the marshes around the Salton 
Sea are being managed for waterfowl by state and federal agencies and private 
hunting clubs. Encroachments include drainage for agriculture, pollution with 
pesticides, and disturbance by grazing. The vernal pools are being destroyed by 
the plow. In the desert sites such as Afton Canyon and the Mohave Desert 
Camp, the wetland habitat is being destroyed by motor vehicles. The Pushawalla 
Palms are being damaged by vandals; Saratoga Springs, by recreational use. 
Developments threaten, encroach, or pollute other sites such as Laguna de 
Santa Rosa, Buena Vista Lagoon, the San Joaquin Marsh, Lake Earl; and dams 
threaten others such as the Mohave River Camp. 

Sources of data: Numerous biologists connected with the universities and with 
the California Academy of Science have sent in data. 

Recommendations: Of the major wetlands in the state, some of the most signifi- 
cant from the point of view of wildlife are in the Butte Basin, the Grasslands 
Water District, the Tule-Klamath Basin, and around the Salton Sea. Whether 
there are relatively undisturbed portions of these that would qualify as Natural 



z 
> 



CO 

Landmarks must be determined. > 

Of the coastal lagoons. Lake Earl is one of the most mature and interesting. It — 

is presently in private hands; but if it could be assured of protection. Lake Earl Q 

would certainly be worthy of landmark status. Action on this area deserves high 33 

priority. The complex of lagoons starting with Freshwater Lagoon on the north 
and ending with Big Lagoon on the south comprises a significant complex, some 
of which is already in public ownership. Their propinquity to the Redwoods Na- 
tional Park suggests that immediate action be taken by the National Park Ser- 
vice to assure their protection. The wetland at Bodega Head should also be in- 
vestigated. The San Joaquin Marsh may eventually be acquired by the Universi- 
ty of California, Irvine, as a natural area. It is pretty well surrounded by develop- 
ments. 

The delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, an extensive wetland 
complex, and the bottomlands along the Colorado River are two areas for which 
no data were received. They warrant further investigation. 

Of the desert basin areas, Fish Slough and Deep Springs Marsh are each 
unique; the former is perhaps the area that should be given the higher priority as 
a landmark. 

The special wetlands included in this report are so different that comparisons 
are difficult. The Darlingtonia Swampy Area within the Six Rivers National 
Forest would gain added protection as a landmark. Duncan Mills Marsh, the Pit- 
kin and Atascadero Creek Marshes, the Laguna de Santa Rosa, and Bennett 
Mountain Lake Area are each quite different. All are in private hands and all 
are probably worthy of recognition if the cooperation of the ownership could be 
assured. The Pixley Vernal Pools are now under the protection of The Nature 
Conservancy and may be the only sample of this unique habitat under protec- 
tion. The desert springs and water courses are very precious. All those listed 
deserve special protection. Saratoga Springs already lies within Death Valley 
National Monument. However, this feature apparently needs more supervision 
than it is presently receiving from the National Park Service. The Mohave 
Desert Camp and Afton Canyon on the Mohave River need custodial care; the 
former is also being threatened by dam construction. Deep Canyon is a substan- 
tial natural area unit, including riparian habitat. It might better be classified 
under a different theme study; but it is worthy of consideration as a landmark. 
Landmark status should be helpful in preserving the remaining areas — Carrizo 
Creek, Pushawalla Palms, and San Felipe Creek. An attempt should be made to 
resolve ownership and management commitments. 

Eagle Lake was suggested for inclusion in this report. It is apparently an out- 
standing body of water that should be given consideration for landmark status 
under the appropriate theme study. 

Literature cited 

Mason, H. 1957. A flora of the marshes of California. Univ. of California Press, 
Berkeley. 



5 

< 

z 

£ 

_i 
< 

o 







Wetlands 
CA 1. 


reported for California 

Afton Canyon 

Atascadero Creek (see Pitkin 
Marshes) 


Habitat type 
R 


CA 2. 


Bennett Mountain Lake 
Big Lagoon (see Freshwater 
Lagoon ) 


F-l-M, F-5-M 


CA 3. 


Bodega Head Marsh 


F-2-M. F-3-M, F-5-M 


CA4. 


Butte Basin 


F-l-M. F-3-M, F-4-M. F-5 


CA 5. 

CA6. 


Carrizo Creek (see Deep Canyon) 
Darlingtonia Swampy Area 
*Deep Canyon and Carrizo Creek 


M 

F-8-B 
R. F-5-M 


CA 7 


Deep Springs Marsh 


S-9-M,S-10-M,S-l 1-M. F 
2-M, F-3-M 



CA 8. 
CA 9. 
CA 10 

CA 11 



CA 


12 


CA 


13 


CA 


14 


CA 


15 


CA 


16 


CA 


17 


CA 


18 


CA 


19 


CA 


20 


CA 


21 



o 
> 

Tl 
O 
J) 



CA22. 



Dry Lagoon (see Freshwater 
Lagoon ) 

Duncan Mills Marsh 
*Fish Slough 

*Freshwater Lagoon, Stone Lagoon, 
Dry Lagoon, Big Lagoon 
Grasslands Water District 

Laguna de Santa Rosa 
*Lake Earl 

Mohave Desert Camp 
Pitkin and Atascadero Creek 
Marshes 
*Pixley Vernal Pools 
Pushavvalla Palms 
Salton Sea Wetlands 

San Felipe Creek 
San Joaquin Marsh 
*Saratoga Springs 
Stone Lagoon (see Freshwater 
Lagoon ) 
Tule-Klamath Basin 



F-2-M, F-3-M 
S-10-M.S-1 1-M 

F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 
F-l-M, F-2-M, F-3-M, F-4- 

M, F-5-M 
F-2-M, F-3-M, F-4-M 
F-l-M, F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5- 

M 
R 

F-2-M, F-3-M 

F-l-M 

R 

S-10-M, S-l 1-M.F-3-M, F- 

4-M 
R 

F-3-M 
F-3-M, F-5-M 



F-l-M, F-2-M, F-3-M, F-4- 
M, F-5-M 



CO 



2 

-I 

< 

O 



CA 1. Afton Canyon. Acreage: 600 estimated. 

Location: San Bernardino County; Cave Mt. Quadrangle; about 15 miles SW of 
Baker; reached via 1-5. 

Description: The Mohave River surfaces here to provide a marshy area in the 
desert. Afton is about 100 miles from the origin of the Mohave River, which is 
intermittent except in a place such as Afton. The site provides a place to ob- 
serve the waters of an endorheic river near its terminus. 

References: Hubbs and Miller. 1948. Bull. Univ. Utah Biol. Ser. 10(7). 

Encroachments: A stream with water in the desert attracts campers and pic- 
nickers. There is need for supervision and for sanitary facilities. The main en- 
croachment is from the desert jeep drivers who drive through and over the 
pools, destroying the biological features of especial interest. 

Ownership: Not reported. 

Data source: Lars H. Carpelan, Department of Life Sciences, University of 
California, Riverside, Cal. 92502. 



«m 




16 



£OOi-^ 



2 3 
K__^/ 134CJ 



■ $i y i' 



28 



G 



36 



31 



33 



. - .' t 



^1 



CA 2. Bennett Mountain Lake. Acreage: 150. > 



Location: Sonoma County; Kenwood 7.5' Quadrangle; 3 miles W of Kenwood; 
reached via Rt. 1 2. 

Description: Shallow lake with wide, marshy shores which are usually inundated 
in winter, but become exposed in summer. The bordering area represents a ver- 
nal pool-type habitat. The area is extremely rich in aquatic and marsh species of 
plants and insects, many of which represent unusual records for this part of the 
state. Unusual plants: Potamugeton diversifolius, Najas guadalupensis, Sagittaria 
euneata, Alopecurus aequalis, Eleocharis pauciflora, Wolffiella lingulata, Elatine 
heterandra, Myriophyllum hippuroides, Navarretia plieantha (this latter known 
from this site and Boggs Lake in Lake County only). 

References: Rubtzoff, P. 1960-66. Notes on fresh-water marsh and aquatic 
plants in California. Leafl. West Bot. 9:73-77, 170; 10:70, 166, 266, 268, 308. 

Encroachments: Overgrazing by cattle and horses, at times heavy, is adversely 
affecting the vegetation. 

Ownership: Coney Brothers, 6834 Sonoma Hwy. 

Data source: Peter Rubtzoff, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, 
Cal. 94100. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Information on entomological values can be sup- 
plied by Mr. Hugh B. Leech and Dr. Charles O'Brien, c/o Department of En- 
tomology, California Academy of Sciences; and Dr. J. Stannard, Illinois State 
Natural History Survey, Urbana, 111. 61801. 



I2S* 






:>Ja 




/ J 




r 

7 A 


\35 


■Varry 


c 



o 

33 



■ - • r. . - 



00 



< 

CC 
O 



< 
O 



CA 3. Bodega Head Marsh. Acreage: 80. 

Location: Sonoma County; Bodega Head Quadrangle; one mile SW of Bodega 
Bay; reached via Rt. 1 . 

Description: Although located close to the Goast, this area is essentially a fresh- 
water marsh and pond area, brackish in places, separated from direct oceanic 
influence by sand dunes on Bodega Head. Shallow water areas, overgrown by 
Txpha latifolia as well as T. domingensis, Sparganium eurycarpum, Scirpus ru- 
biginosus, Polygonum cocci neum, etc., are surrounded by sedge bogs. Among the 
plants growing at this site which are rare in the state, Care.x comosa and Hippuris 
vulgaris may be mentioned. 

References: Rubtzoff, P. 1960-66. Notes on fresh-water marsh and aquatic 
plants in California. Leafl. West Bot. 9:73-75; 10:72-268. 

Encroachments: Grazing by sheep. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Peter Rubtzoff, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, 
Cal. 94100. 



o 



\ - 



145 



:'3'> 



f5? 



Bodega Bay*.V& : . 



r5 



X?> 




O 



B MA* 



T 



* 



& 



')> 



79 



ii- 



*& 



rseshm Cove 



73 



o 



Do 



CO 

CA 4. Butte Basin. Acreage: 75,000. > 



Location: Sutter, Colusa, and Butte counties; Butte City and Sutter Buttes 
quadrangles; 5 miles E of Colusa; reached via Rt. 20 and county roads. 

Description: Butte Basin comprises about 75,000 acres of wildlife habitat, but 
the prime habitat, totaling about 25,000 acres, is found at the south end of the 
basin where a complex of ponds, marsh, oxbows, and channels are maintained 
by overflow waters from Butte Creek and the Sacramento River. It is one of the 
most important wintering areas for waterfowl of the Pacific flyway. At times the 
millions of ducks and hundreds of thousands of geese make up more than half of 
all the waterfowl wintering in California. This prime habitat is being maintained 
mostly by private duck clubs. 

References: Butte Basin, California, A report on fish and wildlife resources. 1954. 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon; Water requirements for the 
waterfowl of Butte Basin, California. 1967. California Department of Fish and 
Game, Sacramento. 

Encroachments: Reclamation and flood control plans by the U.S. Army Corps 
of Engineers and the State Reclamation Board are a threat to this wetlands 
habitat. 

Ownership: About 65 private landowners. 

Data source: Frank M. Kozlik, Department of Fish and Game, 1416 Ninth St., 
Sacramento, Cal. 95814. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Philip H. Arend, Wildlife Consultant, 21 
Buena Vista, Novato, Cal. 94947. 



T| 
O 
13 



Map on following page 



o 
in 



O 



< 

o 



White Ms d*d ' 



\C 



i . 

r J 

f ^ 

J 

ist & 

; ( 



I 



* - 



X 

z. 



I .__ 



G K * Y . f, 



VV A T K R F O 



CO ' 



"afec 



5i BUTTK .CO _, 

/"sWTfiR CO 



</A 



<o/ 



/ 



y/ 
»&» 
% 

A 
\ \ « 

v ! 

» 

\ i 

1 



3' 



A- 



to 



,*'.v*!er r»rfc Q] 



a -^ 













> e ; 


| 


*#*.. 


f 





■■ 1 - > 



W -ui-htf C 'fe 



i"s- 



*> 



C 



3ti 



( 



Z 



\ 



) 

\ 



«!-. . ,, 6?« 



*>&; 



Wl&t Stt«8- 



'"1* -'* 
, ausc 



.If 



- 



. 



en 



CA 5. Darlingtonia Swampy Area. Acreage: About 3. > 



Location: Del Norte County; Gasquet 15' Quadrangle; 2 miles E of Gasquet; 



16 



15 



£jt>;vi \,:ii'',;i ■ 5 • ; - ; 


'.£■■ 


■V' ; L 


■'. ::'.-^.<"^f 


- _ * ™ - ; ■ J . „ * - 


Lv" . 




. -..{.-- 


*S54 ■ ■ ■$?■ 






' 


■ ^k f 








14 <</ j&| ' 

, * . . i 




1 


3 / p } 






) 2 * i| 22 , ' as 

Ranger ^•'S' - , ' 



v: 








28 - 1 '••'•" ftelingtonia I '.26 t ; 25 



v*'?- v 



ai i «nq 



ench Flat 



. ^* A - i ■ - -^Qx.. I ., a.C*' 



*v 



,i fik^*' / 



33 ..' *|P ■ : 36 



34 



.?35.' 






o 



along U.S. 199 just before the bridge over the Middle Fork of Smith River. -j} 

Description: A small swampy area on serpentine soil. The area is lightly forested 
by Pinus jeffreyi, and has a dense understory of Rhododendron occidentale. The 
forest floor is a carpet of Darlingtonia californica and it is the only known locali- 
ty for Cypripedium calif ornicum. 

Encroachments: A small housing development of U.S. Forest Service personnel 
is located immediately above this springy area. A number of ram jet water 
pumps have been installed to provide water for these houses, causing desicca- 
tion of this unique habitat. Water extraction can be stopped by tapping other 
water sources or obtaining water directly from the Smith River. Road building 
should be limited and drainage should not be tampered with. 

Ownership: Six Rivers National Forest. 

Data source: Dr. Rudolf W. Becking, Department of Forestry. Humboldt State 
College, Areata, Cal. 95521 . 

Other knowledgeable person: District Ranger, Gasquet Ranger District, Six 
Rivers National Forest. Cal. 



CM 
ID 



^ CA 6. Deep Canyon and Carrizo Creek 

CC 

O Deep Canvon. Acreage: 2000 estimated. 

LL 



< 



Location: Riverside County; Palm Desert Quadrangle; 10 miles S of Palm 



O Desert; reached via Rt. 74. 

Description: Deep Canyon is a spectacular watercourse extending from the 
coniferous forest of the Santa Rosa Mountains to the low desert of the Coachel- 
la Valley. The lower reaches are owned by the University of California and are 
preserved for research as the Philip L. Boyd Desert Research Center. The upper 
reaches show marked differences in the flora and fauna with increasing altitude 
and decreasing aridity. Moisture zones ranging from humid to arid and tempera- 
tures from cold to hot occur within a short distance along the stream course. 

Encroachments: In order that maximum benefit may be obtained from universi- 
ty ownership and protection of the lower reaches, it is essential that something 
be done about the threat of private developments and sale of government lands 
along the upper reaches of the drainage system. 

Ownership: BLM, USFS, University of California and portions by private in- 
dividuals. 

Data source: Lloyd Tevis, Jr., 4 1 -530 Rio del Sol, Rancho Mirage, Cal. 92270. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Rodolfo Ruibal, Department of Life 
Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Cal. 92500. 



Carrizo Creek Desert Waterholes. Acreage: 10. 

Location: Riverside County; Palm Desert Quadrangle; 5 miles S of Palm Desert; 
reached via Rt. 74. 

Description: Two permanent, small waterholes in a desert canyon. These two 
water holes are essential to the survival of the relatively abundant bighorn sheep 
of the surrounding area. Various other desert mammals and birds utilize the 
waterholes. 

Encroachments: Subdivisions are getting closer and ultimately will destroy the 
waterholes. 

Ownership: Gwynn Wilson, Palm Desert, Cal. 92260. 

Data source: Lloyd Tevis, Jr., 41-530 Rio del Sol, Rancho Mirage. Cal. 92270. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Richard Weaver, Star Route Panorama 
Point, San Bernardino, Cal. 92403. 







O 
> 



O 
J3 



ifrfatjaT&H 



in 



< 

Z 
(X 

O 

< 

o 



CA 7. Deep Springs Marsh and Lake. Acreage: 3600 estimated. 

Location: Inyo County; Blanco Mountain Quadrangle; about 25 miles SE of 
Bishop; reached via U.S. 395 and Rt. 3. 

Description: Contains the two amphibians, Bufo exsul and Scaphiopus intermon- 
tanus. The former is found only here. This marshland in the isolated Deep 
Springs basin also provides habitat for a number of water birds. Quite a few spe- 
cies of waterfowl, shore and wading birds, and marshland types have been 
noted. The bird populations are small, because of the limited area, but markedly 
different from those in the surrounding sagebrush desert. 

Encroachments: Construction of ditches to irrigate the marsh for cattle grazing 
has had bad effects on the Bufo populations in the past, as has scientific collect- 
ing. 

Ownership: Probably BLM. 

Data source: Alan M. McCready, 2510 Rogue River Dr., Sacramento, Cal. 
95826. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Robert C. Stebbins, Museum of Vertebrate 
Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 94700; Dr. Robert Miller, 
Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48100. 



CO 



>5 



#" 30 



29 



28 



O 



v. 



27 



3.6 



12 f < 



31 



.-cw-s 






{ 32 

';. Spring 



«<>60. 



O) 



33 



Wei: 



i** » 



'»~ Deep Springs Lake 



8 



Bur Ichor n 



34 



■we 7 



f? 7% 



l?*9*7/ 



ma® 



■jm 

m 
< 'f> 



1QV€ 



•aj 






CA 8. Duncans Mills Marsh. Acreage: 80. 

Location: Sonoma County; Duncans Mills Quadrangle; just N of Duncans Mills; 
reached via Rt. 116. 

Description: A fresh-water pond and marsh area surrounded by redwood forest. 
Water area heavily overgrown by Typha latifolia and Nuphar pulysepalum. 
Sedge bogs and wet ground thickets adjoin it. The site is rich botanically. Spar- 
ganium midtipedunculatum is common in the aquatic part (southernmost Coast 
Range occurrence). Carex Hendersonii is one of the rare sedges occurring in the 
area. Very scenic. 

References: Rubtzoff, P. 1960-66. Notes on fresh-water marsh and aquatic 
plants in California. Leajl. West But. 9:73-76; 10:72. 

Ownership: Mrs. Emma Morrill. 

Data source: Peter Rubtzoff, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, 
Cal. 94100. 



O 
> 

Tl 

o 

33 




CA 9. Fish Slough. Acreage: 3200 estimated. 



CO 

in 

< 

Z 

or. 

O Location: Mono County; Bishop and White Mountain Peak quadrangles; about 

— 8 miles N of Bishop; site may be reached via Rts. 395 and 6 from Bishop. 

< 

O Description: This is the last toehold of several rare fishes, most notably 

Cyprinodon radiosus, plus two undescribed species of Gila and Catostomus. An 

Owens Valley Native Fish Sanctuary is being planned here by the Department of 

Fish and Game, The Nature Conservancy, and the Los Angeles Department of 

Water and Power. This slough is frequented by a number of different water 

birds also. 

Encroachments: Introduction of exotic game and trash fishes. 

Ownership: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. 

Data source: Alan M. McCready, 2510 Rogue River Dr., Sacramento, Cal. 
95826. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Phil Phister, California Department of Fish and 
Game, Bishop, Cal. 93514. 






SJ5 






2 


■ 




- 


E L 


A 


N D 


ss 




- 


438* 



o 
> 

■n 
O 
33 



00 

in 

< 

2 CA 10. Freshwater Lagoon, Stone Lagoon, Dry Lagoon, Big Lagoon. Acreage: 

CC 250. 

O 

^ Location: Humboldt County; Orick, Rodgers Peak, and Trinidad quadrangles; 

< between Trinidad and Orick on U.S. 101. 

O 

Description: These lagoons provide significant habitat and feeding places for 
migratory waterfowl, being one of the vital links in the Pacific flyway. Periodi- 
cally, the lagoons break open to the ocean in the winter, but close themselves 
off again by a sand strip in the spring. Very interesting ecological changes from 
the saline environment to brackish and fresh-water take place rhythmically 
every year, increasing greatly planktonic productivity. The swamp back of Big 
Lagoon is the sanctuary of Roosevelt Elk, the only existing herd of any sig- 
nificance outside Prairie Creek State Park. 

Reference: Two unpublished masters theses in fisheries at Humboldt State Col- 
lege. 

Encroachments: These lagoons will become increasingly important for heavy 
recreational use." Protection and ecological management and planning are ur- 
gently needed in order to prevent pollution. The NPS now has a responsibility 
and an opportunity to include these lagoons within the Redwoods National Park 
and to protect their ecosystems. 

Ownership: NPS, Humboldt County, Georgia Pacific, and some private small 
owners. 

Data source: Dr. Rudolf W. Becking, Department of Forestry, Humboldt State 
College, Areata, Cal. 9552 1 . 



<0 



mud 

sand 



sand 



mud sand 



sand 



f\ 



VVrf &S 



\f 



/ X W<W^fAA 



.' sand 



I ! 



1 %?^8fe^ 






^vil 1 



/ % ^teSMajfM^ 



mud s 8 nd 






sand 




sand v -'--?"£ 



Cone Rc?ck f'."- 



sand 1 : 

sand mud ° fi Trinidad Rokk 

I h 



O 
> 



o 

3J 



8 
< 

2 CA 1 1 . Grasslands Water District. Acreage: 75,000. 
OC 

O Location: Merced County; Los Banos, Delta Ranch, and Dos Palos quadrangles; 

— : Los Banos is near the center of the area; site may be reached via 1-5 and Rt. 

< 152. 

O 

Description: This area is the most important waterfowl wintering area in the San 
Joaquin Valley. It is formed by the flood plain of the San Joaquin River and is 
composed of flat grazing land interspersed with ponds, sloughs, swales, and 
meandering stream beds. Much of it is managed for waterfowl management and 
cattle grazing. The prime habitat is found on the Grasslands Water District 
which distributes water to 138 duck clubs, totaling 46,000 acres, and on the 
state waterfowl areas (Los Banos, San Luis Wasteway) and federal refuges (San 
Luis and Merced). There is probably no finer example of cooperation between 
private and public groups in preserving wetlands habitat. References: Waterfowl 
conservation in the Lower San Joaquin Valley. 1950. U.S. Department of the In- 
terior report, Washington, D.C. 

Encroachments: At one time this area was threatened by the loss of water for 
the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's Central Valley Project. However, through the 
efforts of conservationists, Congress passed the "Grasslands Bill," Public Law 
674, which allocated water for waterfowl management on this area. 

Ownership: Private duck clubs, state, and BSFW. 

Data source: Frank M. Kozlik, Department of Fish and Game, 1416 Ninth St., 
Sacramento, Cal. 95814. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. J. Martin Winton, Chairman, Grasslands 
Water District, 4233 East Tulare St., Fresno, Cal. 93700. 



o> 




O 
> 

■n 
O 

z 
> 



CM 
CO 



< 

Z 



CA 12. Laguna de Santa Rosa. Acreage: 1000. 



O Location: Sonoma County; Sebastopol and Two Rock quadrangles; running 

^ from 4 miles SE to 6 miles N of Sebastopol. 

< 

(3 Description: A sluggish stream accompanied in its course by extensive fresh- 

water marshlands, representing a variety of habitats, including vernally wet 
areas, permanent sedge bogs, springs, seepages, mudflats, and wet-ground 
thickets. Contains a rich waterfowl life. Some unusual plants: Marsilea 
mucronata, Alisma lanceolatum, Glyceria elata, Eleocharis pauciflora, Scirpus flu- 
viatilis, Care.x Hassei, Elatine heterandra, Sium suave, Navarretia Bakeri, Navar- 
retia cotulaefolia, Lycopus americanus. This may be the largest wetlands in the 
California Coast Ranges. 

References: Rubtzoff, P. 1960-66. Notes on fresh-water marsh and aquatic 
plants in California. Leafl. West Bot. 9:73-76, 166; 10:70, 72, 269, 307-309. 
Notes on the genus Alisma, ibid. 10:92. 

Encroachments: Located in a farming region, it is being gradually eradicated as 
a natural area as a result of heavy grazing, drainage, and ploughing. A danger of 
subdivision exists. 

Ownership: Denner Brothers, Mr. Bolander (Timber Hill), Mr. Whitlatch, 
Clover Milk Dairy, and others. 

Data source: Peter Rubtzoff, Department of Botany, California Academy of 
Sciences, San Francisco, Calif. 941 18. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Bolander on Timber Hill. 







O 
> 



O 
33 



&&&> 



CO 



CC 

O 

u_ 

_i 
< 
O 



CA 13. Lake Earl. Acreage: 5500 estimated. 

Location: Del Norte County; Crescent City Quadrangle; 3 miles N of Crescent 
City; reached via Lake Earl Drive. 

Description: A large shallow lake, originally a lagoon cut off from the sea by 
sand dunes. Fed by Jordan Creek, it fills to a height of 8 ft above sea level. 
Freshets periodically wash out the beach barrier at confluent Lake Talawa, and 
Lake Earl suddenly drops to sea level. Wave action then rebuilds the dam and 
the lake refills. Aquatic and emergent vegetation, including dense stands of bul- 
rushes give shelter and feed for large numbers of migratory waterfowl. 

Encroachments: The lake is still essentially undisturbed, but is threatened to the 
north by a large incipient development. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: R. H. Goodwin, Box 1445, Connecticut College, New London, 
Conn. 06320. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Huey D. Johnson, TNC, 215 Market St., San 
Francisco, Cal. 94105. 



28 



V 



*9 

> 



v 









01 



CA 14. Mohave River Camp. Acreage: 100 estimated. 

Location: San Bernardino County; Lake Arrowhead Quadrangle; about 5 miles 
S of Hesperia; reached via Arrowhead Road. 

Description: The junction of Deep Creek and the Mohave River, which 
originates on the desert side of the San Bernardino Mountains and ends in Soda 
Dry Lake. The site of greatest interest as a point of reference for waters farther 
out in the desert. This site is the last permanent water for 100 miles. An en- 
demic fish, the Mohave chub {Siphateles mohavensis), is known nowhere else. 
The Mohave River Camp is also of interest in itself, limnologically, as the con- 
fluence of two dissimilar waters. The area was once the terminus of a toll road 
to Lake Arrowhead. It is now off the beaten path and worthy of preservation for 
esthetic reasons. 

Encroachments: This is a popular camp site, a use which could be continued; 
but supervision is needed to control litter, and sanitary facilities must be pro- 
vided. The chief encroachment is by motorcyclists and off-the-road (4-wheel 
drive) motorists who destroy the area, and by indiscriminate riflemen. 

Ownership: Not reported. 

Data source: Lars H. Carpelan, Department of Life Sciences, University of 
California, Riverside, Cal. 92502. 



O 
> 

~n 
O 
J3 




25". 



A" 



-— 



;'M 



, ..-' --^ i 


) 8M <SJ3S' 


"■-^' ■ \ --' l .~" 




V>"^^ 


y 28 


29 <;—">-< 




\ .--__/ ■-' 


fe 


' c •""' t — ' \K 


- -' ~i 




,s? 


I } S" Jj 


< »**lf~ 




, -, frzr:* 



10 






1 






22 



27 P 



^ff^J^ttftai^ 



S ! 



"•*?.' 
** 



CO 
CO 



o 

u. 

_l 

< 
o 



CA 15. Pitkin and Atascadero Creek Marshes. Acreage: About 400. 

Location: Sonoma County; Sebastopol and Camp Meeker quadrangles; about 4 
miles N of Sebastopol; reached via Rt. 1 16. 

Description: The Pitkin Marsh is a narrow area, slightly more than one mile 
long in an oak woodland, Douglas fir region. It is in the valley of a small inter- 
mittent stream (unnamed) which opens into Atascadero Creek Marsh. At the 
northern end of this marsh Atascadero Creek flows into Green Valley Creek, a 
southern tributary of the Russian River. Because of the common drainage, these 
two marshy areas are best considered together. The entire marsh consists of 
open marshy areas alternating with willow or azalea thickets. The wet marshy 
places are sedge bogs, which are a kind of quaking bog. The important feature 
of this marsh is a floristic one, the geographic affinities of many of its plants 
being boreal. The following plants reach their southernmost distribution in the 
California Coast Ranges: Sparganium multipedunculatum, Glyceria elata, 
Deschampsia caespitosa, Calamagrostis Bolanderi, Agrostis oregonensis, Rhyn- 
cospora spp., Tofieldia occidentalis, Drosera rotundifolia, Sium suave. 

References: Rubtzoff, P. 1953. A phytogeographical analysis of the Pitkin 
Marsh. Wasmann J. Biol. 1 1(2 ): 1 29-2 1 9. 

Encroachments: Pitkin section is grazed but not overly so. Atascadero Creek 
has no grazing and no encroachments so far as known. 

Ownership: Private. The Pitkin family owns most of the Pitkin Marsh. 

Data source: Dr. Elizabeth McClintock, California Academy of Sciences, San 
Francisco, Calif. 94118. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Peter Rubtzoff, California Academy of Sciences, 
San Francisco, Calif. 94 1 1 8. 







I v 



I i 






i w 






&'\ 



Mateana," 11'° 



^^\ p riM 



•Am 



'237, 



\ • ' It- * // 



1 J,. VA'^X 






CA 16. Pixley Vernal Pool Area. Acreage: 40. 

Location: Tulare County; Sausalito School quadrangle, "square" no. 30; 5 miles 
E and 1 mile N of Pixley, reached from Pixley via local, unnumbered roads 
along section lines. 

Description: Vernal pools are an interesting feature of the grassland of the 
Great Central Valley of California. These depressed areas of varying sizes and 
shapes are underlain by an impervious soil layer and during winter rains are 
filled with water. In late winter and spring a number of spring-flowering annuals, 
some of which absolutely need water for seed germination, cover the pools with 
their yellow, white, and blue flowers. During the summer dry season the pools 
with their colorful flowering plants as well as the grasses and grassland plants of 
the surrounding area dry up. Certain species are endemic to these vernal pools 
and will be lost with their destruction. An inventory of the plants on the 40 
acres shows a total of about 160 plants throughout the year in the pools and sur- 
rounding grassland. 

References: A description of the area together with an inventory of the plants is 
in preparation by E. McCuntock and J. T. Howell. 

Encroachments: The western boundary of the 40 acres is a road but on the 
other three boundaries is irrigated farm land. Encroachment from the surround- 
ing irrigated land is a potential threat to the area. 

Ownership: TNC. 

Data source: Dr. Elizabeth McClintock, California Academy of Sciences, San 
Francisco, Cal. 941 18. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Jack Zaninovich, Route 2, Box 716, Delano, Cal. 
93215; John Thomas Howell, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, 
Cal. 94118. 



O 
> 



o 

ID 




,<334 



CO 

CD 



o 



< 

o 



CA 17. Pushawalla Palms. Acreage: 20 estimated. 

Location: Riverside County; Myoma Quadrangle; about 10 miles NW of Indio; 
reached via Thousand Palms Road. 

Description: A native stand of Washingtonia filifera and associated riparian 
vegetation in a very arid part of the California Desert. The San Andreas Fault 
causes a permanent stream about 0.5 mile in length in an otherwise typical 
desert canyon. This is a breeding site for two species of amphibians. Numerous 
species of birds and a high density of individuals for the desert are present. 

References: Vogl, R. J., and L. T. McHarguk, 1966. Vegetation of California 
fan palm oases on the San Andreas Fault. Ecology 47:532-540. 

Encroachments: Habitat has been and is being damaged by deliberate vandal- 
ism. 

Ownership: Not reported. 

Data source: Lloyd Tevis, Jr., 41-530 Rio del Sol, Rancho Mirage, Cal. 92270. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Randall Henderson, Palm Desert, Cal. 
92260. 



./ 






( 











/ 




( 


,.y 




■;:.-'- 


i> 


- -■ - — * — ~ — K.z-^~y 


t 
/ 








^^^^ 




/■, ,-c 



u shawaHa.._ 




\ 

X 


. _/---^ 







rV 



{. \ 



\ 





■' m 


\^2*S 


' ) r 


e#C Ox 


/ > 




' ~v r '" ' ^ L^ 


. ' % 




cj _.^ 


J —''' \s>> 




°o .. 





1 '■".'- '"'/' 



IS >, I 



Oi 
CD 



CA 18. Salton Sea Wetlands. Acreage: 10,000 estimated. 

Location: Imperial County; Frink and Calipatria quadrangles; 15 miles N of 
Brawley; reached via Rt. 86 and Rt. Ill from Indio. 

Description: The Salton Sea is a dry desert basin inundated by the Colorado 
River in the early 1900s and now maintained by irrigation run-off. It is the only- 
place in the United States with fisheries for Anisotremus davidsoni and Cynoscion 
xanthulus. It also contains the rather rare Cyprinodon macularius, as well as a 
host of exotic fishes. The wetlands at the southern end of the lake are an impor- 
tant waterfowl sanctuary, notably during the winter. The Salton Sea National 
Wildlife Refuge and the Imperial Wildlife Area have been established along its 
shores and along the bottoms of the New and Alamo rivers. 

References: The ecology of the Salton Sea, California, in relation to the sport 
fishery. California Department of Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin No. 1 13. 

Encroachments: Although increasing residential development and use of 
agricultural pesticides may affect the ecology, the main problem is one of 
rapidly increasing salinity because of a very high rate of evaporation on a shal- 
low basin. 

Ownership: BSFW, state of California, and private. 

Data source: Alan M. McCready, 2510 Rogue River Dr., Sacramento, Cal. 
95826. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Alex Calhoun, California Department of Fish 
and Game, 1416 Ninth St., Sacramento, Cal. 95814 



O 

> 

r; 

O 
DO 



Calipatria 




Ramer 
Unit 



Westmoreland 



B 



cc 



CA 19. San Felipe Creek. Acreage: 1000 estimated. 



O Location: Imperial County; Harpers Well Quadrangle; 32 miles NW of Brawley; 

j reached via Rt. 78. 

< 

O Description: This area is extremely desirable because it contains one of the very 

few spots in California's deserts where water flows continuously throughout the 
year. Although nearly all of both San Felipe and Carrizo creeks are dry on the 
surface most of the time, the region at the junction of these creeks contains 
flowing surface water at all times. Amphibians (Rana pipiens and Hyla regilla) 
and musk rats {Ondatra zibet hica) are residents at this site. The native pupfish 
(Cyprinodon macularius californiensis) finds a refugium here, and aquatic insects 
are also present. In essence, this is an aquatic island surrounded by desert. Ex- 
posures of the valley fill in this area provide opportunities for geological and 
archaeological research. 

Ownership: Alternate sections under Bureau of Reclamation Control and 
Southern Pacific Railroad ownership. 

Data source: Boyd R. Strain, University of California, Riverside, Cal. 92500. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. C. L. Hubbs, Scripps Institute, La Jolla, Cal. 
92037; Drs. R. Ruibal and W. W. Mayhew, University of California, Riverside, 
Cal. 92500. 



>> 






•\\ *» 






a 



O 
> 



o 

33 






\ "I 









y/ 



\ ,?,; 



/ \\ jy s - 












£^ 









'"-Pv 



k i i 






Oj 8 



UJ>ps 



\ 00 






\ 



% 



i \ 



o 









CM 

m 



t» 



* 
^ 



\ 



CM 
1^ 



o 

u. 

_i 
< 

o 



CA 20. San Joaquin Marsh. Acreage: 149. 

Location: Orange County; Tustin Quadrangle; between Santa Ana and Newport 
Beach. 

Description: Historically, the marsh was an extension of Newport Bay, but the 
present form is a result of operations by the owners, the lessees (San Joaquin 
Gun Club), and the local Flood Control District. The marsh contains two large 
water areas covering 94 acres and a number of smaller pools. A great variety of 
plant and animal life occurs in the marsh. The northern end supports a mosaic 
of Salix trees and thickets, interspersed with Arundo donax and Baccharis 
viminea. Shallow water areas are characterized by thickets of J uncus spp., Scir- 
pus spp., and Typha spp. which form islands in the larger ponds. Planktonic 
algae and aquatic invertebrates are extremely rich. Mosquito fish (Gambusia af- 
fmis) have been introduced by the local mosquito abatement district and are 
now present in large numbers; other fish appear to be few in both numbers and 
species. Large numbers of birds can be seen in and around the marsh, both re- 
sident and migratory species. A population of White-tailed Kite, containing at 
least 50 specimens at the last count, is probably the most important of these. 

Encroachments: Presently leased to the San Joaquin Gun Club; the University 
of California is negotiating with the Irvine Company to purchase the marsh area 
in order to establish a reserve. There is risk of conversion to a golf course if this 
fails. 

Ownership: Irvine Company, the Irvine Ranch, 13042 SW Myford Rd., Tustin, 
Cal. 92680. 

Data source: Dr. Peter S. Dixon, Department of Organismic Biology, University 
of California, Irvine, Cal. 92664. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. A. Boughey, Department of Population and 
Organismic Biology, University of California, Irvine, Cal. 92664. 



h,m 




f't CK 



INDS 






/ 



s 



^ 



o N 



/ 



/ 



/ 






«**s 



-•"N.ewpo^SSeachI 



•^ 



¥■ 
TO 



>* 



*\ 



•water 

lark 



I MVK.HMfV OK I'.U.tKOOiKIA 

" ; 1 l; V INK' 



CO 



CA 2 1 . Saratoga Springs. Acreage: 20 estimated. 

Location: Inyo County; Avawatz Pass Quadrangle; about 40 miles NW of Baker; 
reached via 1-5 and Rt. 127. 

Description: This thermal spring is within the boundaries of the Death Valley 
National Monument, but remote from the tourist center. This is one of the few 
places where permanent water is found in the drainage of the Amargosa River, 
the largest stream in the Mohave Desert. It contains an endemic fish 
(Cyprinodon mohavensis) and is of interest to species distribution because of its 
isolation. Its connection with the Amargosa is not clear, and the area is of 
hydrologic and geologic as well as of ecologic interest. 

References: Hubbs and Miii.hr. 1948. Bull. Univ. Utah Biol. Ser. 10(7). 

Encroachments: As part of a National Monument the area is somewhat pro- 
tected. It needs more supervision to protect it from bathers, picnickers, and 
campers. There are no sanitary provisions for visitors. 

Ownership: Death Valley National Monument. 

Data source: Lars H. Carpelan, Department of Life Sciences, University of 
California, Riverside, Cal. 92502. 

Other knowledgeable persons: James E. Deacon, University of Nevada, Las 

Vegas, Nev. 89100. 



O 
> 



o 

J3 



2» 



;.N A L 

33 

J :5L 



7* 



•** 



a, 



V 



&> 






27 



34 



c .„.'*j3ga. 




r 



-$TT0; K-'IJ M /E 'N 






XO 



'K 



11 



U 



.12 



4 



c 



V 



e 



H 



< 

2 CA 22. Tule-Klamath Basin. Acreage: 100,000. 

DC 

O Location: Siskiyou and Modoc counties; Dorris, Mt. Dome, Tule Lake and 

— Clear Lake Reservoir Cal.-Ore. quadrangles; nearest town Tulelake; reached via 

< U.S. 97 and Rt. 139. 

O 

Description: At one time this basin of about a million acres was composed of 
shallow lakes and extensive marshes. However, much of it was drained and con- 
verted to farmland. Most of the remaining marshlands are now in federal and 
state waterfowl areas. Most of the main migration routes for the Pacific flyway 
pass through the basin. During the fall millions of ducks and geese funnel 
through the basin, as they move from the northern breeding areas to the Califor- 
nia wintering grounds. The basin is also used as nesting grounds by thousands of 
ducks, the Great Basin Canada Goose, Greater Sandhill Crane, and numerous 
water-associated birds. 

References: Plan for wildlife use of federal lands in the Upper Klamath Basin. 
1956. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service report, Washington, D.C. 

Encroachments: At one time most of the basin's wildlife habitat was threatened 
by the policies of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to reclaim and homestead the 
marshlands. However, Public Law 88-567 permanently established the federal 
refuges. 

Ownership: BSFW, state of California, and various private owners. 

Data source: Frank M. Kozlik, California Department of Fish and Game, 1416 
Ninth St., Sacramento, Cal. 95814. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. John E. Chattin, Flyway Representative, 
BSFW. P.O. Box 3737. Portland. Ore. 97208. 











r- 




(fa 






t:. 




>" 


>■ 


t/3 


UJ 


? , 


3 
"Ok { 


— p 


Q 

UJ 

£2 


2- 
O 


I : 


5£ 




f 


S,~ • 




< 
> 


«j 


• 






< 


< 




10 




_J 


o 

t- 


, 






„ 


z 


_ _ 


■ .Jfj; 





'-! 




/^ tu 5 




r> 




C >-* 


>jj 


Q 




w o 


* 


-13 




~ OJ 


r> 


a 


Wl 




o 


O 


T. 












3 




1 




5 


• 


1 

J 


U 



o 
> 



o 



q fj 



1 



CD 

§ COLORADO 

< 

O General description: Wetland types present in Colorado include: cottonwood- 

pd willow flood-plain stands along the South Platte and Arkansas rivers in the 

Q Great Plains; Sarcobatus stands and related desert and semi-desert types in the 

San Luis Valley, where a high water table is supported by artesian springs; some 
as yet undammed portions of the Gunnison Basin; and beaver meadows and 
swampy ground around lakes in the montane, subalpine, and alpine regions. In 
the first three categories about 500,000 acres have been inventoried (Hopper 
1968:1-88). 

Status of the wetlands: Recreational activities such as boating and water skiing, 
manipulation of water levels for irrigation, and hunting pressures are having an 
adverse impact upon the wildlife. 

Sources of data: An inventory of the wetlands of Colorado has been published 
(Hopper 1968) and provides data on two areas. Only one other specific site has 
been suggested by personnel of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. 

Recommendations: The Russell Lakes Area would seem to hold the greatest 
potential as a Natural Landmark. The Riverside Reservoir is obviously 
disturbed, although there may be some sufficiently typical periodically flooded 
marshes to warrant designation. An investigation of the wetlands along the river 
bottoms and around mountain lakes is certainly needed. The Salt Works ad- 
jacent to Salt Creek, 15 miles south of Fairplay in Park County (Antero 7.5 
Quadrangle) would seem to have primary interest from an historic point of view. 
No data were submitted on the associated vegetation. 

Literature cited 

Hopper, R. M. 1968. Wetlands of Colorado. An inventory and evaluation study of 
wetlands for waterfowl hunting. Colorado Fish and Game Parks Dept. 
Migrating Bird Investigations. Project W-88-R, Federal Aid in Wildlife 
Restoration Tech. Publ. No. 22. 




Wetlands reported for Colorado Habitat type 

CO 1. Riverside Reservoir F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 

CO 2. *Russell Lakes F-3-M, F-4-M, F-2-M 



o 

CO I. Riverside Reservoir. Acreage: 3800. O 

Location: Weld County; Masters and Dearfield quadrangles; 30 miles E of -rj 

Greeley; reached via U.S. 34. > 

D 

Description: Riverside Reservoir is a large, man-made impoundment sur- ^ 

rounded largely by rolling, native grazing land. The reservoir and adjacent areas 
provide habitat for a large variety of bird life. Breeding waterfowl include the 
Mallard, Blue-winged Teal, Pintail, Gadwall, and probably other species. Several 
thousand ducks of these species molted on the reservoir prior to about 1965. 
Summer boating activities are thought to have contributed to the recent decline 
in molting ducks here. Canada Geese have been introduced in the area and are 
expected to nest in the next year or two. Waterfowl and shorebirds are espe- 
cially numerous during fall and spring migration. Riverside Reservoir has a 
unique population of White Pelicans nesting on the small islands associated with 
this impoundment. At least five other species of birds nest on these same islands 
(California Gull, Double-crested Cormorant, Snowy Egret, Forsters Tern, and 
Red-winged Blackbird). 

References: Ryder, R. A., and J. R. Grieb. 1963. White pelicans breeding in 
Colorado. Wilson Bull. 75(0:92; Hopper, R. M. 1968. Wetlands of Colorado; 
Ryder, R. A. 1964. California gull nesting in Colorado. Condor 66(5):440-441 . 

Encroachments: Increased use of the reservoir by boating and water-skiing 
enthusiasts in the future presents a threat to nesting and molting birds that now 
utilize the area. Molting waterfowl have already been greatly reduced in 
number, probably as a result of increased water sports activity. High water levels 
inherent with irrigation reservoirs at certain times of the year sometimes cause 
flooding of nests. 

Ownership: Riverside Reservoir and Land Co., 217 E. Kiowa Ave., Fort Mor- 
gan, Colo. 80701. 

Data source: Richard M. Hopper, Game Research Center, P.O. Box 567, Fort 
Collins, Colo. 80521. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Ronald A. Ryder, Department of Fishery and 
Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. 80521; Dr. B. O. 
Thomas, Department of Zoology, Colorado State College, Greeley, Colo. 

80631. 



00 



O 
O 
< 

DC 

o 

-I 

o 
o 



r*t 



f\ 




•4lfo 



. rv 



CO 



CO 2. Russell Lakes. Acreage: 3000. 

Location: Saguache County; Harrence Lake Quadrangle; 9 miles S of Saguache, 
reached via U.S. 285. 

Description: The Russell Lakes area includes a variety of habitats, including 
lakes, marshes, and meadows. It is a major duck production area in the San Luis 
Valley with many species of ducks represented. Nesting Canada Geese have 
been attracted here recently from other parts of the valley. Other nesting birds 
of interest include the White-faced Ibis, Snowy Egret, Black-crowned Night 
Heron, and Wilson's Phalarope. Extensive stands of bulrush supply much of the 
nesting habitat for many of these species. 

References: Bailey, A. M., and F. G. Brandenburg. 1941. Colorado nesting 
records. Condor 43(l):73-74; Ryder, R. A. 1951. The San Luis Valley: A 
Colorado waterfowl factory. Colo. Conserv. March, p. 22-25. Ryder, R. A. 1952. 
Bird notes from southern Colorado. Condor 54(5 ):3 17-3 18. 

Ownership: Major land owners include: Saguache Gun Club, Salida Gun Club, 
A. C. Davey and Carroll Wetherill, all of Saguache, Colo. 81 149. 

Data source: Richard M. Hopper, Game Research Center, P.O. Box 567, Fort 
Collins, Colo. 80521. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Ronald A. Ryder, Department of Fisheries 
and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. 80521; Mr. 
Charles R. Bryant, Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Monte Vista, Colo. 
81144. 



o 
o 

I— 

o 
> 

o 



19 



Dam 



wMi 



John* 

I fJS/R 



- _ V ' 


1 ( 


■ K 


a 


~tife o 


i 
| 


- "^H 




^%3?)'. f 


1 ^11 


<% • ! - ■' j ' 


*■ J 


-4 


-*- - * a 


t 


,» *■ ■* 


V t 






* "*• *** •; | 


■**■ 




£ J % 


X.. x ~\ 




*' ^- • 




~ " * 


t r .- ' '' . ; 


"*" -* ,? i 


737a. 


** "•4M 


j 



H'trrcin 
lAkt 



29 



:'V. 4 



V 



1/1 



^ 




riri 










fc 




-.>-' 


i 


?>, 


V 




■& 



'S? 



V£ 



IT f ^^^ 



1 j ''' 



o 



o 
oo 

I- 

g CONNECTICUT 

O General description: The fresh-water wetlands include swamps, bogs, and 

2 marshes. Wooded swamps are usually dominated by red maple; shrub swamps, 

Z by buttonbush. Cattails, sedges, rushes, and associated emergents characterize 

O the open marshes. Three types of bogs are recognized: coastal white cedar in 

the southern half of the state; spruce and northern white cedar in the northern 
portion. Extensive river marshes still exist along the Connecticut River, but most 
of these are under tidal influence. Mature flood-plain forests occur on a number 
of the islands in the Connecticut River, including Wilcox Island north of 
Middletown still subject to tidal fluctuations. 

Status of the wetlands: Inland wetlands are being utilized as sites for dumps, 
some are being reclaimed for housing developments, and some are being 
flooded for reservoirs. The Bradford Mountain Swamp is being threatened by a 
Northeast Utilities pumped storage project. 

Sources of data: The authors in consultation with officials of the State Board of 
Fisheries and Game and other ecologists have contributed data. Three reports 
are available (The Nature Conservancy 1964; USDI 1954, 1965). 

Recommendations: Beckley Bog in the Walcott Preserve is one of the largest 
northern spruce bogs in the state, situated at the northern end of a sizeable bog 
lake. Since The Nature Conservancy owns the bog and the surrounding upland, 
this represents an ideal wetland for recognition as a landmark. Silas Hall Pond is 
nearby and has a similar vegetation, but is less outstanding. The entire moun- 
tain-top complex at Mt. Riga with its mosaic of crest and wetland vegetation 
types is worthy of preservation. Within the area, Bingham Pond and surrounding 
bog, including one of the most mature spruce bog forests in the state, represent 
the finest high-elevation bog. As it is in private ownership, it is more in need of 
protection and should be given prior review. Of the several undisturbed 
southern white rrdar swamps the one in the Pachaug River sector within the 
Pachaug State Forest may represent the finest. It is remote, being accessible 
only by boat, except in winter, when the area is frozen. A Fine cranberry heath is 
also present. There are some private inholdings. Designation as a landmark 
would be desirable. The Cedar Swamp in Chester is wholly owned by the state 
and is another excellent wetland of this type. Robbins Swamp is the only exten- 
V sivc northern white cedar swamp in the state and, as such, is recommended as a 
landmark. The Bradford Mountain Swamp is an unusual, high-altitude swamp 
now in private hands. It is threatened by a pump-storage development. Thomp- 
son Meadow and the Durham Meadows are considered by the State Board of 
Fisheries and Game as excellent wetlands, but no adequate data are available on 
these areas. 

Literature cited 

The Naturi Conservancy. 1964. Natural areas of Connecticut. Mimeographed 

report prepared by the Conn. Chapter of The Nature Conservancy. 
U.S. Department of THE Interior. 1954. Wetlands of Connecticut. Fish and 

Wildlife Service, Office of River Basin Studies, Region V, Boston, Mass. p. 1- 

17. 
U.S. Department of the Interior. 1965. Coastal wetlands inventory of 

Connecticut. Supplementary Report. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of 

Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Region V, Boston, Mass. 



00 




O 
O 



m 
o 

H 
O 

c 



Wetlands reported for Connecticut Habitat type 

Beckley Bog (see Walcott Preserve) 
* Bingham Pond Bog 5 r"^- 2 j hh<J 

Bradford Mountain Swamp 
» *Cedar Swamp 
. *Pachaug Great Meadow Gv<jsakM>iL)< F-8-B, F-7-Sw 

Robbins Swamp TG^c. F-7-Sw(Ca) 

Silas Hall Pond fit-±p**<* F-8-B 



CT1. 

CT2. 

CT3. 

CT4. 

CT5. 

CT6. 

CT7. 



F-8-B 

F-6-Ss, F-7-Sw 

F-6-Ss, F-7-Sw, F- 



8-B 



*Walcott Preserve N-*f rl/C '* , 



F-8-B 



C\J 
CD 

I- 

O 

H 
O 
LU 

Z 

z 

o 
o 



CT 1. Bingham Pond Bog. Acreage: 60. 

Location: Litchfield County; Bashbish Falls, Mass. and Conn.-N.Y. Quadrangle; 
1.2 miles E of N.Y. State line and 2 miles S of Mass. State line; reached via 
Washington Rd. 

Description: High elevation (1894 ft), open bog lake surrounded by belts of 
leatherleaf, larch, and spruce. Here occurs one of the most mature bog forests in 
the state. Bingham Pond is one of a complex of wetlands and natural mountain 
lakes most worthy of preservation. 

Encroachments: None reported. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: W. A. Niering and R. H. Goodwin, Connecticut College, New 
London, Conn. 06320. 




00 
03 



CT 2. Bradford Mountain Swamp. Acreage: About 100. 

Location: Litchfield County; South Canaan Quadrangle; between Wangum 
Lake and the top of Bradford Mountain, about 4 miles W of Norfolk. 

Description: A high-altitude (1560 ft elevation) swamp, dominated by small 
hardwoods and shrubs, with heavy sphagnum ground cover and heavy stands of 
cinnamon fern. 

Encroachments: The area is being considered as a site for a large pumped 
storage project by Northeast Utilities. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Dr. Frank E. Egler, Aton Forest, Norfolk, Conn. 06058. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. H. Lincoln Foster, Falls Village, Conn. 
0603 1 . 



O 

o 



m 
o 

H 
O 

c 



ft 



R T H 



f! 



-fl 



A 



j. 



y 



1 
/ 



i l 



m 





"M K 




/ 






BM- V 



-•£11328 






00 



r- 

g 

i- 
o 

LU 

z 
z 
o 
o 



CT 3. Cedar Swan"?. Acreage: About 400. 

Location: Middlesex County; Deep River Quadrangle; 2.2 miles W of Chester; S 
of Rt. 148 and W of Cedar Swamp Road. 

Description: The main swamp is largely shrubby, with Clethra alnifolia. Vibur- 
num recognitum, Lindera benzoin, Kalmia latifolia, and Ilex verticillata as the 
dominant species. Some red maple, yellow birch, hemlock, and white cedar 
(Chamaecyparis thyoides) are present, the latter abundant in the 3-4 inch dbh 
size class. The ground is firm with no standing water. At the southwestern 
corner, a drier section is covered with hemlock and larger (9-11 inch dbh) 
cedars. Moister portions along a small stream include shrub (Chamaedaphne, 
Cephalanthus), swamp, and bog mat vegetation. The open water supports vari- 
ous submerged and emergent aquatics. 

Ownership: State Park and Forest Commission. 

Data source: Dr. Terry R. Webster, Department of Botany, University of Con- 
necticut, Storrs, Conn. 06268. 





' ' 9 Jisffi 

±.f\ X*"*;' 




A 





^^( 







MfWlf 



00 

en 



CT 4. Pachaug Great Meadow. Acreage: 600. 

Location: New London County; Voluntown, Conn. -Rhode Island Quadrangle; 
1 .5 miles NE of Voluntown. 

Description: Coastal white cedar swamp forest and open cranberry heath 
traversed by the Pachaug River, probably the finest wetland of this type in the 
state. G-CCC ■*$'£/{_ fc>t^ b oedt + ^o^durAjLk. 

Encroachments: None reported. 

Ownership: Partly by the state, partly private. 

Data source: W. A. Niering and R. H. Goodwin, Connecticut College, New 
London, Conn. 06320. 



O 
O 



m 
O 

H 
O 

c 




jjgpV ^TAtEFC^KST I ' 



CD 
CO 



3 CT 5. Robbins Swamp. Acreage: 1000. 

£7 Location: Litchfield County; South Canaan and Ashley Falls, Mass. -Conn. 

HI quadrangles; about 2 miles S of Canaan. 



o 
o 



Description: The most extensive northern white cedar swamp in the state. 

Encroachments: Has been cut over. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: R. H. Goodwin and W. A. Niering, Connecticut College, New 
London, Conn. 06320. 



00 



/ 1 '**¥ s ( J •'* /' 

\ Vtt \ / " ■ pyicKfer./ . i 

: * | -■■-THHf: / / y 

V 




Bobbins Swamp 



[iff* 
1*1.-1 

yit" 1 : — iii-ff 
^CJI -•■- ; - c rAZ-Ji- A A— ±^*= 




L*1 O 



i ,i 



I 




,#• 



PHI 



, » 









l£li 



y™ 



jui 



r-i"'i 
*^9f 







# 



/ 



ft a 



"*,■■■ 



li 



£ 



i/ 



->. -Aw,, jf ^fjt - r 






4 r 3(1 



SSI 



<^ 



C f644 



/ 




">£ 



i 



f§>. 



■■: '- ' %* 



o 
o 



m 
O 

H 
O 

c 



00 

oo 



\- 

g 
o 

LU 

Z 

z 
o 
o 



CT 6. Silas Hall Pond. Acreage: About 55. 

Location: Litchfield County; Norfolk Quadrangle; about 4.5 miles SE of Nor- 
folk in the town of Winchester. 

Description: Unspoiled bog pond surrounded by a typical heath mat. 

Ownership: 39 acres owned by The Nature Conservancy of Connecticut, Inc., 
the remainder in one private ownership. 

Data source: R. H. Goodwin and W. A. Niering, Connecticut College, New 
London, Conn. 06320. 

Other knowledgeable persons: TNC. 



m 



*3 



S%ftU\! 






■14-81 



( 



•%,. 



/.?<?&. 



J ( 



Y 



M I 






■4 



/378 



?ess W& Cerf*" 



A 




00 

to 



CT 7. Walcott Preserve (Beckley Bog). Acreage: 600. 

Location: Litchfield County; Norfolk Quadrangle; about 3 miles SE of Norfolk. 

Description: One of the finest northern-type bogs in the state. The area com- 
prises a beautiful wooded valley in the midst of which nestles a 7-acre lake, 
Beckley Pond, invaded at the north end by a black spruce bog known as 
Beckley Bog. Insectivorous plants, the sundews and pitcher plants, as well as 
tamarack and a wide variety of shrubs and herbs typical of the bog heath can be 
found here. At the south end of the lake is a sedge meadow. The whole preserve 
is located amid upland forest of hemlock, white pine, and northern hardwoods. 
An active beaver colony is present on the preserve. 

References: Natural Areas of Connecticut, p. 27. 1964; Conard, W. M. 1961. A 
Floristic Study of Beckley Bog. Masters Thesis, Yale University. 

Encroachments: None. 

Ownership: The Nature Conservancy of Connecticut, Inc. 

Data source: R. H. Goodwin and W. A. Niering, Connecticut College, New 
London, Conn. 06320. 

Other knowledgeable'persons: TNC; Dr. Frank Egler, Norfolk, Conn. 06058. 



O 

o 



m 

o 

H 
O 

c 






f ({% 



« -~ 












•A \< 



Flagg Hili 



itaft 



o 



LU 
DC 
< 

I 

_l 
HI 
Q 



DELAWARE 

General description: Along the Coastal Plain, which covers most of the state, 
fresh-water marshes and shrub and wooded swamps are reported (USDI 1953). 
Inland fresh-water wetlands total approximately 38,000 acres. In the wooded 
swamps, such as the Cypress Swamp, which is the northern portion of the Great 
Pocomoke Swamp of Maryland, cypress reaches its northern limit. 

Status of the wetlands: Major threats include cutting, draining, and develop- 
ment. In 1955, 76% of the state's wetlands were considered safe, but by 1959 
only 23% were in this category (USDI 1959). There is considerable urgency, 
therefore, for landmark designation. 

Sources of data: The limited data available were obtained from the State Game 
and Fish Commission. 

Recommendations: The Cypress Swamp was the only area for which data were 
obtained. However, this 8000-acre wetland represents a sizeable portion of the 
state's fresh-water wetland resources. Although most of cypress and southern 
white cedar have been cut, a few stands still persist. Given protection from 
further encroachment one can expect the development of a mosaic of mature 
wetland types. Every effort should be made to designate this section of the 
Pocomoke as a Natural Landmark. With further field investigation, additional 
significant wetlands may be located. 

a 

Literature cited 

U.S. Department of the Interior. 1953. Wetlands of Delaware. Fish and 

Wildlife Service. Office of River Basin Studies, Region V, Boston. 
U.S. Department of the Interior. 1959. Wetlands of Delaware. A 

supplementary report. 




Wetlands reported for Delaware 

DE 1. Cypress Swamp 



Habitat type 

F-7-Sw 



CO 



DE 1. Cypress Swamp. Acreage: 8000. 

Location: Sussex County; Whaleysville and Millsboro quadrangles; 6 miles S of 
Millsboro; reached via U.S. 1 1 3 and Rt. 4 1 7. 

Description: An extensive wetland which is part of the Great Pocomoke Swamp, 
most of which lies in Maryland (see Pocomoke River and Swamp). Many years 
ago bald cypress and southern white cedar forest covered this area. Now only a 
few stands remain. 

References: Delaware Conservationist, winter 1963; A Guide to Delaware's Natu- 
ral Environment, winter 1969. 

Encroachments: Much of the forested land bordering the cypress stands is being 
rapidly cut, drained, and converted to agriculture. 

Ownership: Delaware Wildlands, Inc., and private. 

Data source: Mrs. Elizabeth T. Caulk, Delaware Game and Fish Commission, 
North St., Dover, Del. 19901. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Edmund H. Harvey, President, Delaware Wil- 
dlands, Inc., 1014 Washington St., Wilmington, Del. 19800. 



m 



> 

ID 

m 



h 



. >' 



•A 



y- 



x 



or 



* 



cS 




tf> 



jf 






V 



/ 



y 





W/s 



I.) I S T R 



— -a— >; 

Neck 



4r 



CM 



Q FLORIDA 



DC 

General description: The relief of Florida ranges from rolling hills in the 
U» northern part of the state to relatively level Coastal Plain topography southward. 

Inland lakes, swamps, and marshlands are conspicuous features. Davis ( 1967) in 
his general map of the natural vegetation of Florida recognizes the following in- 
land wetland types: 
Cypress Swamp Forest. Mostly in depressions bordering rivers and lakes. Forests of 
many shapes, as round domes and long strands. Some have hardwood species as- 
sociated. 
Swamp Forests, mostly of hardwoods. Several kinds bordering most rivers and in 
basins. Some Bay Tree, Gum, Titi, and cypress zones occur in many of these hard- 
wood swamps. 
Grasslands of Prairie Type. Wet prairies on seasonally flooded lowlands. Dry prairies 

on seldom flooded flatlands. Many areas of these now improved pastures. 
Region of open Scrub Cypress. Mostly on rock and marl soils that are often flooded. 
Some areas in this region are tall domes and strands. Also there are some hardwood 
and palm hammocks. 
Fresh-water Marshes. Some are mixed marshes of many kinds of herbs and bushes, 
and some are dominated by one plant, such as Sawgrass Marshes, mainly of 
Mariscus jamaicensis. 
Everglades Region Sawgrass Marshes. Area mostly dense to sparse sawgrass, a few 

tree islands and sloughs. 
Everglades Region Marshes, Sloughs, Wet Prairies, and Tree Islands. The tree islands 

vary from Bay Tree type to Tropical Hardwoods. Region now changing. 
Wet to Dry Prairie. Marshes on marl and rock land. Some are mostly thin sawgrass, 
others are bushes and grasses. 

Status of the wetlands: The wetlands of Florida are extremely vulnerable to 
manipulation. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in attempting to provide flood 
control irrigation water and inland waterways have greatly modified the major 
wetlands of the state. The future of the Everglades National Park which at- 
tempts to protect the typical fresh-water sawgrass marshes, sloughs, wet prairies, 
and tree islands is still uncertain. With proper management of the water 
resources, the Everglades National Park could survive as a viable ecological 
system, otherwise it may be doomed. Other encroachments, such as a major jet- 
port, would only add further ecological stress on this aquatic system now on the 
verge of losing its viability. 

Agricultural drainage of the wet prairies or encroachment by livestock has 
severely modified the original vegetation of these areas. 

The remaining significant wetlands are constantly being threatened by 
highway construction and development. The large development corporations of 
South Florida pose an especially serious problem. To the west of the Everglades 
in the Cypress region, they are constructing major drainage canals to facilitate 
the development of new communities. Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, owned by 
the National Audubon Society, was thus threatened, necessitating the acquisi- 
tion of additional contiguous land to prevent the lowering of the water table. 
The Fahkahatchee Strand to the east of Naples, recommended for landmark 
status, represents one of the wildest wetland regions of South Florida and 
abounds with a rich flora and fauna. It is currently being modified by a massive 
drainage canal, which will also seriously encroach on the Janes Memorial Drive, 
given to Collier County as a Natural Scenic Drive. 



> 



CO 
CO 

T| 

Sources of data: Information reported has been derived from the staff of the q 

Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission and college and university jj 

biologists during site visits to certain of the areas reported. The generous q 

cooperation of Mr. Larry Shanks, River Basins Study Project, Florida Game and 
Fresh Water Commission, is greatly appreciated. 

Recommendations: Among the areas included are two Natural Landmarks — Big 
Cypress Bend and Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary. Other areas of outstanding in- 
terest which need national recognition are Emeralda Marsh, Fahkahatchee 
Strand, and Hickstown Swamp. They represent three of the major wetland types 
mapped by Davis. The Hickstown cypress swamp in northern Florida has a dif- 
ferent floristic composition from the more southern swamps such as Corkscrew 
and Big Cypress Bend. Fahkahatchee Strand lies within the mature cypress and 
scrub cypress region. Although it has been cut over, it represents an extensive 
wilderness wetland with one of the best native stands of royal palms in the state. 
Emeralda Marsh is dominantly an open marsh and provides an ideal breeding 
area for the Sandhill Crane. All the wet prairies have been disturbed. However, 
Paynes and the Kissimmee still exhibit aspects that should be protected from 
further encroachment, and landmark status might be helpful. The former has 
been recognized for its historical and biological interest by an interpretative 
roadside station. Agriculture activity and drainage operations are currently hav- 
ing a serious impact on these wet prairie sites. 

The Green Swamp is one of the most extensive in the state ( 128,000 acres 
estimated) and includes a diversity of wetland types — marshes, wooded swamps, 
and wet prairies. Although the ownership pattern is complex, plans are being 
proposed for a massive drainage operation. Prompt action will be required to 
save it. Biologically, it ranks high as an area worthy of national recognition. 

Three of the areas recommended are within federal holdings. The Lox- 
ahatchee National Wildlife Refuge situated northeast of the Everglades National 
Park exhibits aspects sufficiently different to warrant consideration, even though 
certain sections are under intensive management. Within the Osceola National 
Forest, the Osceola Natural Area represents a several hundred acre hardwood 
or mixed hardwood evergreen swamp forest. In the Ocala National Forest, the 
Oklawaha River Swamp is worthy of preservation as a scenic river. Dense stands 
of cypress line the shore of this deep, clear, strongly flowing river. As a national 
park, the Everglades is assumed to be protected as a natural area. Therefore no 
descriptive text is included on the Everglades National Park. This wetland com- 
plex is recognized as a unique aquatic ecosystem — highly dependent upon the 
natural flow of water from Lake Okeechobee. The future of this park will de- 
pend upon assuring an adequate supply of water which is now under the control 
of man. 

An excellent list of other potential areas can be found in a memorandum of 
the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission entitled Some Needed Wild 
Rivers and Unique Areas of Florida at the Crossroads, September 13, 1965. 

Literature cited 

Davis, J. 1967. General map of natural vegetation of Florida. Agricultural 
Experiment Stations. University of Florida. Circular S- 1 78. 






< 
a 

cc 
O 




Wetlands reported from Florida 

FL I. *Big Cypress Bend 

FL 2. *Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary 

FL 3. *Emeralda Marsh 

FL 4. *Fahkahatchee Strand 

FL 5. *Green Swamp Area 



*Hickstown Swamp 
*Kissimmee River Prairies 
*Loxahatchee National Wildlife 
Refuge 



FL6. 


FL7. 


FL8. 


FL9. 


FL 10. 


FL 11. 



*Oklawaha River Swamp 
Osceola Natural Area 
Paynes Prairie 



Habitat type 

F-7-Sw 

F-7-Sw 

F-3-M, F-4-M 

F-7-Sw 

F-7-Sw, F-2-M, F-3-M, F- 

4-M 
F-7-Sw 
F-2-M, F-3-M, F-4-M 

F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M, F-7- 

Sw 
F-7-Sw 

F-7-Sw 
F-2-M(Ca) T F-3-M(Ca) 



FL I. Big Cypress Bend. Acreage: 650. 



CD 

m 

TI 

r- 
O 

Location: Collier County; along the north side of U.S. 41, W of Royal Palm — 

Hammock, and contiguous with the Fahkahatchee Strand. > 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. A mature stand of cypress which 
is exceptionally sound and free of heart rot. Trees reach 100 ft in height and 
range from 4 to 5 ft dbh. Some have clean trunks for 50-60 ft to the first branch. 
Occasional trees of the native royal palm occur in this stand. In addition to the 
cypress, there are about 100 acres of saw-grass prairie and an equal tract of pal- 
metto hammocks. 

Encroachments: Drainage operations by a development corporation may even- 
tually jeopardize the future of this area. Changes in the water levels can have 
far-reaching effects in this low-lying country. 

Ownership: Mr. Lester J. Norris. 

Data source: NPS. 



CD 

< 

O FL 2. Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary. Acreage: Over 6000. 

EC 

O Location: Collier County; Corkscrew Swamp and Corkscrew SE quadrangles; 

il! 30 miles NE of Naples and 1 6 miles W of Immokalee. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. One of the largest remaining 
stands of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) in North America. Other 
wetland communities include pond cypress (T. distichum var. nutans), wet 
prairie with grasses and sedges, open ponds with duckweed (Lemna minor) and 
water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), and marshlands covered with a complex of saw- 
grass (Mariscus jamaicensis) and willows (Salix). Other species of importance 
are cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto), custard apple (Annona glabra), pop ash 
(Fraxinus caroliniana), red maple (Acer ruhrum), wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera), 
red bay (Persea borbonia), poison ivy (Rhus toxicodendron), strangler fig (Ficus 
aurea), and hibiscus (Hibiscus coccineus). Frequent epiphytes include the com- 
mon air plant (Tillandsia fasciculata), Spanish moss (T. usneoides), catopsis 
(Catopsis berteroniana), cigar orchid (Epidendrum tampense), and night-smelling 
orchid (E. nocturnum). The two most abundant emergent aquatics are ar- 
rowhead (Sagittaria spp.) and pickerel weed (Pontederia cordata). Conspicuous 
ferns include leather fern (Acrostichum danaefolium), royal fern (Osmunda 
regalis), resurrection fern (Polypodium polypodioides), strap fern 
(Campvloneuron phyllitidis), and Boston fern ( Nephrolepis exaltata). Forty spe- 
cies of birds are permanent residents. Wood Storks nest during the winter and 
spring months. Other species include Green Heron, Little Blue Heron, Great 
Blue Heron, American Bittern, American Egret, and Limpkin. Barred Owls can 
also be observed during the day from the boardwalk. Other wildlife include gray 
and fox squirrels, raccoon, otter, bobcat, alligator, American chameleon, 
Floridian five-lined skink, cricket frog, green tree frog, squirrel tree frog, 
leopard frog, southern bull frog, sliders, Florida softshell turtle, water moccasin, 
and eastern diamond-back rattlesnake. Upland surrounding the swamp is 
dominated by pine flat woods-slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa and saw pal- 
metto (Serenoa repens). 

References: National Audubon Society. Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary self-guided 
tour of the boardwalk. 

Ownership: The National Audubon Society owns over 2880 acres; additional 
acreage has been leased from Collier County. 

Data source: NPS; Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, National Audubon Society, 
P.O. Box 806, Immokalee, Fla.; William A. Niering, Box 1511, Connecticut Col- 
lege, New London, Conn. 06320. 



CO 
-si 



FL 3. Emeralda Marsh. Acreage: 2500. 

Location: Marion and Lake counties; Emeralda Island Quadrangle; 5 miles NE 
of Leesburg. 

Description: Extensive open marsh with scattered bay hammocks or islands. Ap- 
proximately 90% open water 2-3 ft in depth, with sawgrass and water lilies the 
dominant aquatics. Frequent associates include Eriocaulon, Sagittaria, and 
aroids. Bladderwort {Utriculuria inflata) is locally common. Bayheads include 
gums, wax myrtle, and Smilax. Cypress is rare. Shrub belt surrounds shore line. 
Slash pine occurs on adjacent upland. Egrets are especially common. This is one 
of the important resting areas for the Sandhill Crane. In 1966, 9 nests and 18 
pairs were recorded. Waterfowl use is heavy and the diversity of other water- 
birds using the area is great. Over 90 species of birds have been recorded. 

Encroachments: Potential farm land for truck crops; adjacent area currently 
being drained ( 1969). 

Ownership: Southwest Florida Water Management District. 

Data source: Larry Shanks, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission; 
W. A. Niering, Connecticut College, New London, Conn. 06320. 

Other knowledgeable persons: B. S. Burton, Route 2, Leesburg, Fla. 32748. 



O 

D 
> 



</\ 






EMERALDA ISLAND 






10 



00 

< 

Q FL 4. Fahkahatchee Strand. Acreage: 75,000. 

DC 

O Location: Collier County; W of Copeland; 30 miles SE of Naples; reached via 

Cl Rt. 29 N from Rt. 4 1 . 

Description: Extensive wilderness wetland 4 miles wide and 15 miles long, 
owned originally by Turner Lumber Company and cut over in the late 1940s or 
early 1950s. A 13-mile W. I. Janes Memorial Drive takes one through an unbe- 
lievable wilderness where wildlife abounds. Weasels, raccoon, and deer may be 
seen commonly during the day. Birdlife is abundant. Alligators can be seen in 
the sloughs from the car. Original forest of cypress is being replaced in part by 
willow scrub and other deciduous species. Associated trees include bay, red 
maple, and oak. Lack of cypress reproduction may be correlated with a severe 
fire that swept the area in 1961. The area is unique in harboring the most ma- 
ture royal palms in south Florida, as well as the Paurotis palm. A great diversity 
of orchids occurs, including the unusual ghost orchid. Open, extensive stands of 
pond cypress occur in the western sector of the area. In a 1965 report, the 
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission states, "This area is unique 
because of its lush forests of Royal palms, Paurotis palms, bald cypress, and con- 
centrations of exotic orchids, Bromeliads and ferns, some of which are found 
nowhere else in North America. The list of mammals, reptiles and birds which 
have chosen this as a sanctuary is very extensive. The strand serves as protection 
for panther, bear, mink, and alligator. Wilderness preservation as well as water 
conservation are compatible here, as the strand is the natural drainage valley of 
central Collier County and is now in great danger of being destroyed." The 
Janes Memorial Scenic Drive is along a 100-ft strip, located on the main rail- 
road right-of-way and bordered on either side by open sloughs. This strip was 
deeded to the county by the Turner Lumber Co. prior to the sale of the land to 
Gulf American. It is visited by about 100 cars per day, when open. It is con- 
sidered one of Florida's more unique wilderness drives. 

Encroachments: Hunting camps have been leased by Gulf American. These are 
located on the old railroad spurs off the Scenic Drive. Occasional camps can be 
seen from the road. The area was relatively undisturbed when visited in the 
spring of 1969. However, in the spring of 1970 an extensive drainage canal was 
being constructed across the western section of the area. The Scenic Drive was 
closed to the public probably to prevent any adverse publicity in conjunction 
with this major encroachment on the Scenic Drive. If the drainage operation is 
continued or expanded it is highly possible that the water levels will be suffi- 
ciently lowered to destroy the biological values of the area as a whole and espe- 
cially those along the Scenic Drive. 

Ownership: Gulf American Corp. (NPS had surveyed to buy before acquisition 
by Gulf American. ) 

Data source: R. N. Asbell, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission; W. 
A. Niering, Connecticut College, New London, Conn. 06320. 



CO 
CD 




o 

> 



tih Rivet 






o 
o 



< 

g 

CO 

o 



FL 5. Green Swamp Area. Acreage: 128,000 estimated. 

Location: Lake, Pasco, Sumter, Polk counties; Brauhborough and Clay Sink 
quadrangles, and unmapped area to east; 5 miles E of Dade City; reached via 
Rt. 50andRt. 33. 

Description: A wetland complex considered one of the most extensive wetlands 
left in Central Florida. Includes a great variety of ponds, lakes, pine flatwoods, 
many fine cypress swamps, and some marshes, wet prairies, and hardwood 
swamps. It is relatively undeveloped as water drainage has been a problem. 
Plans are for a large development of drainage and water control which may alter 
the "natural" conditions. Four rivers find their headwaters in the swamp. A 
biogeographic boundary occurs here. A perched aquifer and associated 
Pleistocene dune systems are of special geological interest. 

References: Scattered descriptions and investigations, such as by the U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville. 

Encroachments: Numerous land developments for pasture, farming, some home 
sites, some lumbering, fishing and hunting camps. 

Ownership: Complex ownership; Cummer Lumber Co. 

Data source: John H. Davis, Department of Botany, University of Florida, 
Gainesville, Fla. 32601; Margaret L. Gilbert, Biology Department, Florida 
Southern College, Lakeland, Fla. 33800. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Southwest Florida Water Management Board; 
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. 







FL 6. Hickstown Swamp. Acreage: 6000. 

Location: Madison County; 7 miles W of Madison. 

Description: The most extensive and least disturbed cypress swamp still found in 
northern Florida. Islands of pond and bald cypress were cut over around 1900, 
but trees have now regrown to 12-18 inches dbh. In the undergrowth there oc- 
curs considerable vegetation of a more northern affinity. Floristically, the area 
differs considerably from the more semi-tropical aspect of the cypress swamp in 
southern Florida. In open water between the islands is found a luxuriant growth 
of aquatic species — water lilies, pickerel weed, and grasses. Golden club 
(Orontium aquaticum) occurs in great abundance. Bird life is abundant, espe- 
cially egrets. Other animal species include alligator, otter, raccoon, White Ibis, 
American Bittern, Cattle Egret, Wood Stork, Osprey, Black Vulture, and Tur- 
key Vulture. 

Encroachments: Some water is used for irrigation. A major highway has been 
proposed across the area. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Larry Shanks, Chief of River Basins, Florida Game and Fresh 
Water Fish Commission; W. A. Niering, Box 1511, Connecticut College, New- 
London, Conn. 06320. 



O 

D 
> 



CM 
O 



^ FL 7. Kissimmee River Prairies. Acreage: Extensive. 

Q 



rr 
O 



Location: Polk, Osceola, Okeechobee, Highlands counties; Fort Kissimmee and 
Fort Kissimmee NW quadrangles; 20 miles E of Avon Park, reached via U.S. 27 
and State 64. 

Description: Vast river-wetland prairie complex, exhibiting great biogeographic 
interest, is not confined to the marshes, but includes old beach dunes with scrub 
oak and sand pine and longleaf pine with turkey oak. 

Encroachments: Air Force activity, pasturing, river channelization by U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers. Originally 90 miles of meandering river; now 39 miles 
of canals. One mile of flood plain converted to improved pasture. 

Ownership: U.S. Government (Air Force); private. 

Data source: Margaret L. Gilbert, Biology Department, Florida Southern Col- 
lege, Lakeland, Fla. 33800. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. David Austin, Florida Game and Fresh 
Water Fish Commission, Avon Park, Fla. 33825. 



o 






\ 



JL 



J 

i 



r %* 



> 



\ Vb.vs.' POLK CO / oso b ola CO 
~XfT HIGHLANDS CO T^T OK E BOHOBEE CO 



Orange Hammock \ 





9 

1&~ 



,.*■ ■ 



o 

D 

> 



./" 



: C !c 



7i5 £ 



\ 



r 



I 



18 



X 



19 



17 



>»* 



20 



Podt KissiniRwr « 



1 '. 



£t 



r 

i 



16 



( 



< o 







o 



*£ FL 8. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. Acreage: 145,525. 



O 

-J 
li. 



Location: Broward and Palm Beach counties; refuge headquarters 1 mile W of 
U.S. 441 on Lee Rd. 

Description: This portion of the Everglades consists of prairie-like flats that are 
covered with shallow water during most of the year. Stands of sawgrass inter- 
sperse the flats. Shallow ponds and sloughs support white water lilies and other 
aquatic plants that bloom throughout the year. The landscape is dotted with tree 
islands that vary from a fraction of an acre to several hundred acres in size. Wax 
myrtle, redbay, dahoon holly, and ferns on the islands retain their foliage 
throughout the year. Fall and winter migrations result in spectacular bird con- 
centrations. Flocks of herons, egrets, and ibises, often numbering in the 
thousands, congregate where receding water strands myriads of small fish and 
crayfish. The tree islands in winter are frequently alive with small birds, includ- 
ing several species that otherwise winter south of the United States. Among the 
more interesting resident species are Limpkin, Sandhill Crane, Wood Duck, and 
Mottled Duck. Bobwhites are abundant along the levees. Turkeys have declined 
in recent years, and now are seldom observed. Otters, whitetail deer, bobcats, 
raccoons, opossums, marsh rabbits, alligators, and cottonmouth moccasins are 
among the other animals which may be of interest to watchful observers. The 
rare Everglade Kite is attracted to the area and has nested successfully. This 
bird's only food is the fresh-water snail ( Pomacea) and the kite is therefore 
found on the refuge only when water levels are favorable to this gastropod. 

Ownership: The 143,000 acres within levees of the Central and Southern 
Florida Flood Control District are being leased for fish and wildlife manage- 
ment; the remainder is owned by the U.S. Government. 

Data source: BFWS. 



&S-5A LANDING 




o 



O 

D 

> 



CO 

o 

< FL 9. Oklawaha River Swamp. Acreage: 10,000 estimated. 

Q 

CC Location: Marion and Putnam counties; Rodman and Keuka quadrangles and 



o 



unmapped sections of the Ocala National Forest; along the Oklawaha River 
from Orange Springs Ferry to its confluence with the St. Johns River. 

Description: The Oklawaha is a deep, clear strongly flowing stream that winds 
for miles through dense cypress-bordered swamps. The river itself should be 
preserved as one of the nation's outstanding wild rivers. 

Encroachments: Area threatened by flooding for the Cross Florida Canal. 
Traversed by at least one highway. 

Ownership: In part by the Ocala National Forest, USFS. 

Data source: Richard H. Goodwin, Box 1445, Connecticut College, New Lon- 
don, Conn. 06320. 




# 



<N 











o 










^1 






t 

• 


\ if 


-n 

V 

O 
33 


>*> 






a 








:| 


> 




J 




! 






i v 


.. 







Ah&F*** 



dd P^m n 



II 
It 

li 



«Q 



# 



CM . 



***-^r. 









44/P 



wc\ "^ 




») = © 




4kV*<hA 












■/. 




to \ 




g 


I 




< 


12 v - ;\ 






* i $ ''if 






& $&/$& 


g 




O 


~ V- /sM 





^ 



"<7B 







! 






% 



35 



ft 



* O C 



V 



// ... 
f 



& 



, *-*'.— .— — • . 



# 






1/ 



00 

o 



< 
g 

CO 

O 



FL 10. Osceola Natural Area. Acreage: 373. 

Location: Baker County, Osceola National Forest. 

Description: Sweetbay, swamp tupelo, and red maple (SAF-104). 131 acres; 
pond cypress (SAF-100), 64 acres; pond pine (SAF-98), 7 acres; swamps and 
marshy areas. 

Ownership: USFS, Osceola National Forest. 

Data source: RNA-52. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Director, Southeast Forest Experiment Station, 
223 Post Office Bldg., Box 2570, Asheville, N.C. 28802. 



o 

CD 



FL 1 1. Paynes Prairie. Acreage: 5000 estimated. 

Location: Alachua County; Micanopy Quadrangle; 3 miles S of Gainesville on 
Rt. 441. 

Description: An extensive expanse of wet prairie and marshland situated in a 
natural limestone sink which became plugged, forming a lake. Grassy prairie in- 
cludes scattered shallow lakes. The botanist, Bartram, first described this area in 
1774. A tremendous diversity of aquatic plants and water birds inhabit the area. 
There is a scenic interpretive roadside stop on Rt. 441 . 

Encroachments: Water level is currently maintained by a series of pumps and 
canals. Grazing and other agricultural activities. 

Data source: W. A. Niering, Box 1511, Connecticut College, New London, 
Conn. 06320. 



O 

D 
> 



' "■"«■""". 


T « 


Ky Point! 

i /, , '■:■■-. 


i 

V 


/"S **-' 




V $ 




' 3'i- 





/.i 



To 



_AKP.K!X)NDO 



E S 



LLI 



< GEORGIA 

O 

cc 

Q General description: A complex river system extends across the Piedmont and 

Coastal Plain of Georgia, along which occur the typical southern river swamps. 
These bottomland forests have been classified by Penfound (1952) as deep 
swamps. He recognized two communities: southern cypress-tupelo gum 
(Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica) and swamp gum-pond cypress (Nyssa 
biflora-Taxodium ascendens). The former occurs in the flood plains of large 
rivers and the latter are much more common on the upland of the Coastal Plain. 
Braun (1950) reports a similar pattern with the addition of pond pine (Pinus 
rigida var. serotina) which is also found on nonalluvial sites. Such large inland 
swamps as the Okefenokee exhibit species representing both wetland phases 
(Wright and Wright 1932). 

In areas underlain by limestone, slumping of the surface strata often results in 
water-filled depressions such as Sag Ponds in northwest Georgia. Such sites ex- 
hibit a distinctive biota and often show a sequence of vegetation development 
that is' related to the time the specific depressions were formed. Also associated 
with the limestone are natural springs such as Spooner Springs and Spring Creek 
Swamp in southwest Georgia. 

Status of the wetlands: One of the major threats to the natural river systems of 
the state is channelization. There exists a serious conflict of interest between 
federal agencies as to the long-term benefits of such operations. Although addi- 
tional agricultural land may accrue to certain contiguous landowners, these 
values are not equal to the current values of these river systems left in their 
undisturbed natural state. This has been well documented by Wharton (1970). 
Other threats include cutting and encroachment by developers. 

Sources of data: Data were supplied by the Georgia Natural Areas Council, the 
State Game and Fish Commission, and university biologists. 

Recommendations: Among the several river bottomland forests, the 1 2,000 
acres along the Altamaha River near the junction of the Oconee and Ocmulgee 
rivers and the Lower Altamaha including an estimated 50,000 acres of the Doc- 
tortown Swamp should be given top priority. Other river ecosystems which 
merit further investigation are the Little Ohoopee, Alcovy, Middle Oconee, and 
Murder Creek. The Alcovy River watershed is of special interest, since Wharton 
( 1970) estimates its natural value at over $7 million annually. Of unique floristic 
interest is the Alapaha River Swamp dominated by a pigmy cypress forest. 

Of the two natural springs reported — Spooner Springs and Spring Creek 
Swamp — the former is the more extensive (900 acres) and least disturbed. How- 
ever, both are State Registered Natural Areas. The Sag Ponds complex com- 
prises only 10 acres but exhibits an unusual sequence of sink holes or ponds in 
dolomitic limestone. 

The Middle Oconee River is the only area reported with beaver ponds. These 
extend along an 8-mile stretch of the river. Unfortunately, a watershed project 
involving clearing and snagging is threatening this 400-acre tract. Data on Big 
Dukes Pond is limited. However, it represents a sizeable wetland on the Coastal 
Plain. It should be given special consideration. 

The Okefenokee Swamp as a National Wildlife Refuge is currently serving as 
a natural area. It is without a doubt one of the outstanding wetlands in the state. 

For further information on natural areas of Georgia two recent reports of the 
Georgia Natural Areas Council are relevant — Activities Report, 1970 and Geor- 
gia Scenic Rivers Report, Preliminary Study, 1970. Several of the areas reported 



have been designated as State Registered Natural Areas by the council. These 
include Spooner Springs, Sag Ponds, and Spring Creek Natural Area. This pro- 
gram involves the issuance of a certificate to the owner. If at any time the owner 
alters natural conditions, he must surrender the certificate. 

In considering the state as a whole, there is a conspicuous lack of data from 
the northwest Ridge-Valley section. 

Literature cited 

Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America. The Blakiston 

Co. 596 p. 
Penfound, W. T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. Bot. Review 18:413- 

446. 
Wharton, C. H. 1970. The Southern River Swamp— A multiple-use environment. 

Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Georgia State University, 

Atlanta, 48 p. 
Wright, A. H., and A. A. Wright. 1932. The habitats and composition of the 

vegetation of Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia. Ecol. Monogr. 2:1 10-232. 



O 
m 
O 

ID 

o 
> 




CM 



< 

CD 

oc 
O 

UJ 

CD 



Wetlands reported from Georgia 




Habitat type 


GA1. 


Alapaha River Swamp 




F-7-Sw 


GA2. 


Alcovy River Swamp 




F-7-Sw 


GA3. 


Altamaha Bottoms 




F-7-Sw 


GA4. 


Big Dukes Pond 




F-7-Sw 




Camp Fortson Boyd (see 


Little 






Ohoopee River Swamp) 








Doctortown Swamp (see 


Lower 






Altamaha) 






GA5. 


Little Ohoopee River Swamp 


F-7-Sw 


GA6. 


* Lower Altamaha River S 1 


ivamp 






Forest 




F-7-Sw 


GA7. 


Middle Oconee River 




F-7-Sw 


GA8. 


Murder Creek Swamp 




F-7-Sw 


GA9. 


*Okefenokee National Wildlife 






Refuge 




F-3-M, F-7-5 


GA 10. 


Roundabout Swamp 




F-7-Sw 


GA 11. 


Sag Ponds 




F-5-M(Ca) 


GA 12. 


*Spooner Springs 




F-5-M(ca) 


GA 13. 


Spring Creek Swamp 




F-5-M(Ca), 



F-5-M 



F-7-Sw(Ca) 



CO 



GA 1. Alapaha River Swamp. Acreage: 100. 

Location: Irwin County; SW of Irwinville; Waycross Quadrangle (1:250,000); 
reached via first bridge over river after junction of Highway 1 25 and 32. 

Description: Beautiful, dense stand of stunted trees, dominated by cypress and 
including Ogeechee lime and water ash. No trees are over 50 ft high. Many have 
the tops broken out and tremendous, swollen bases, suggesting they are quite 
old. The Alapaha River at this point is in many shallow, braided channels, inun- 
dating most of the flood plain. 



O 
m 
O 

33 
Q 

> 



Ownership: H. D. Fletcher, Chula, Ga. 3 1733. 

Data source: Georgia Natural Areas Council, 350 Seven Hunter St. Bldg., At- 
lanta, Ga. 30334. 




; yOjFT^ — > fir 



i o,. 



39&t\ 



T 






M 



T/J.V V (. i .- :- 




X 



Vi- 



"X/ v 



\ 



= ; ^y^j^y 






A 



OS? >? ri Iras 






^ 



^ 



'■' / 



i 



\ 







■>G 



to 



< GA 2. Alcovy River Swamp. Acreage: 200. 

O 

CC Location: Newton County; Covington Quadrangle; 2 miles SE of Covington; 

O reached via U.S. 278. 

O 

Description: An alluvial bottomland along the Alcovy River; one of the finest 

examples of mature bottomland hardwood swamp in the Georgia Piedmont. 
This is a winter-flooding swamp which is flooded on the average 4-5 times a 
year. At least three types of forest can be recognized: (a) high swamp and 
swamp edges characterized by large loblolly pine, beech, water oak, ironwood, 
holly, with some laurel {Kalmia) on the slopes; (b) low swamps dominated by 
gum, overcup oak, water ash, and red maple, with patches of lizard-tail 
(Saururus) and occasionally sweet bay (Magnolia virginiana); (c) tupelo swamp 
in old channels, depressions, and oxbows, with pure stands of tupelo (Nyssa 
aqualica), representing the most northerly large stands of this tree in the Pied- 
mont. Dr. C. H. Wharton ( 1970) has documented that the entire 2300-acre wet- 
land, of which this swamp is a part, has a multiple-use value to the taxpayer of 
more than $7,000,000 per year. 

References: Wharton, C. H. 1970. The Southern River Swamp — A multiple-use 
environment. Bureau of Business and Economic Research, School of Business 
Administration, Georgia State Univ. p. 1-48. 

Encroachments: Owner has reserved the right to cut mature timber. 

Ownership: Don Stephenson, County Ordinary, The Courthouse, Covington, 
Ga. 30209. 

Data source: Georgia Natural Areas Council, 350 Seven Hunter St. Bldg., At- 
lanta, Ga. 30334. 



%'-"'-. h' 




-?■-' 


; 2 J N 


\ "' -9,;' 




'A L 


£erV*" " / 




-A 


~~ '<•*"---. 




/ i 1 , '•" 


V *F 












: ) **? j 


j • 


•sn^^^ i3 


J : _/' / 





W I 



.- n- 



V 




rs: 



P 



V 



en 

O 
m 
O 

o 
> 



W ( 



,r7 

. (_ 

TV/-* 



i 7 



/ \ 



\ V^ ,' 



,-., 9» 



. "■: -, \ 



T*r 



i r«w>- 






^. V. 



/ 
/ . 



s ..O 



•/ 



u 



if . .\ 



CD 



< 

CC 

O 
LU 

O 



GA 3. Altamaha Bottoms. Acreage: 12,800 estimated. 

Location: Montgomery, Wheeler, Jeff Davis counties; Waycross 1:250,000 
Quadrangle; 10 miles NE of Hazelhurst; reached via U.S. 221 . 

Description: This area is situated at the junction of the Oconee and Ocmulgee 
rivers. It is the source of the Altamaha River which empties into the Atlantic 
Ocean near Brunswick. This is one of the most extensive wetlands in the state. A 
wide range of habitats occurs between the dry, scrub-oak uplands and the 
broad, flat cvpress-gum bottomlands. This Coastal Plain site contains alluvium 
that originated in the northern Piedmont 300-350 miles away. It differs from the 
Okefenokee Swamp in a variety of ways, but principally from the standpoint of 
edaphic conditions. Indian history permeates the region. 

References: Harper, R. 1906. A phytographic sketch of the Altamaha Grit Re- 
gion of the Coastal Plain of Georgia. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 17:1-415. 

Encroachments: No major problems occur at the present time. However, the 
paper pulp industry is actively involved with tree culture in the area, sand and 
gravel pits are becoming more numerous with industrial expansion of the whole 
area; lakes and impoundments are becoming more abundant. 

Ownership: Unknown. 

Data source: Gayther L. Plummer, Botany Department, University of Georgia, 
Athens, Ga. 30601. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Local Soil Conservation Service representatives. 



i 



.'4 



/ 












}$> 



^ 



p£i 



)m& 







2^= 



"■v * 



:y J 



*fi 



<?%' 






m>4 



-*s3\. 










Ai 



GA 4. Big Dukes Pond. Acreage: 1100. 

Location: Jenkins County; Macon Quadrangle ( 1 :250,000); nearest city, Millen, 
Georgia; reached via county road in Jenkins County going to Birdsville. 

Description: A depression on top of a watershed. It contains open aquatic 
habitats and forest growths in cypress. 

Encroachments: Uncuccessful attempts have been made to drain. 

Ownership: Rayonier, Inc.; Ben Franklin family of Millen, Ga. 30442. 

Data source: Georgia Natural Areas Council, 350 Seven Hunter St. Bldg., At- 
lanta, Ga. 30334. 



Q 
m 
O 

o 
> 







00 



< 

O 
CC 
O 

LU 

o 



GA 5. Little Ohoopee River Swamp (Camp Fortson Boyd). Acreage: 175. 

Location: Emanuel County; Macon Quadrangle (1:250,000); reached via Rt. 
56, east side of Little Ohoopee River, off Highway 56. 

Description: Black gum, tupelo, sweet gum, water oak, and scattered cypress 
are dominant trees in the undisturbed river swamp. The flood plain is bordered 
by slopes supporting magnolia, beech, bays, and live oaks and above that 
spreads the turkey oak-longleaf pine community. The gopher tortoise (Gopherus 
polyphemus) is common in this area. 

Ownership: Georgia-Carolina Boy Scout Council. 

Data source: Georgia Natural Areas Council, 350 Seven Hunter St. Bldg., At- 
lanta, Ga. 30334. 




GA 6. Lower Altamaha River Swamp Forest (Doctortown Swamp, Buffalo 
Swamp, Lewis Island Tract). Acreage: Lewis Island Tract 6090; Buffalo Swamp 
6000; Doctortown Swamp 30,000. Double acreage if both sides of river are in- 
cluded. 

Location: Macintosh County; Jesup, Ludowici, Everett City, and Darien 
quadrangles; along the Altamaha River from Doctortown to Darien. 

Description: An extensive section of bottomland hardwoods along the lower Al- 
tamaha, with considerable native cypress and tupelo in the wetter sites and 
sweet gum, black gum, water ash, and hickory in the better drained areas. The 
Lewis Tract is of special interest, since it contains sizeable stands of old growth 
forest which have never been logged. Cypress up to 7 ft dbh have been 
recorded. The area comprises a network of waterways with scattered islands of 
mature cypress and tupelo in the center of the islands. A somewhat "drier" 
swamp vegetation is found here than in most such river bottomland forests. 

Encroachments: Potential timber operations. 

Ownership: Lumber companies. There is a possibility that Lewis Island Tract 
may be acquired for preservation. 

Data source: Dr. C. H. Wharton, Georgia State College, Atlanta, Ga. 30300. 



CD 

O 
rn 
O 

O 
> 




o 

CsJ 



< 

O 
CL 
O 

HI 

O 



GA 7. Middle Oconee River. Acreage: 400. 

Location: Jackson County; Jefferson Quadrangle; near Jefferson. 

Description: The beaver ponds are the principal wetlands in this area and lie 
along approximately 8 miles of the Middle Oconee River southeastward from 
Pendergrass. This habitat is used by Mallards and Wood Ducks during the 
breeding season and by an estimated 7000 waterfowl in the late fall and winter. 
Black Ducks, Blue and Green-winged Teal are also present. Good fishing occurs 
on several of the ponds which are between 20 and 30 acres. 

Encroachments: This area is currently in the construction stage of the Middle 
Oconee-Walnut Creek Watershed project. The Middle Oconee River has 
recently been cleared and snagged. We oppose this type of operation. The 
beaver ponds, presently unaffected, may possibly be drained later on by private 
landowners. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Robert C. Howarth, Rt. 1 2 Wesley Dr., Gainesville, Ga. 3050 1 . 




ro 



GA 8. Murder Creek Swamp. Acreage: 200. 

Location: Putnam County; Athens 1:250,000 Quadrangle; 10 miles E of Mon- 
ticello, E of Lazenberry Mill Bridge. 

Description: The area is largely summer-flooded, in contrast to the Alcovy 
River. It exhibits a different swamp vegetation, more evident in the understory 
and ground-cover species than in the dominant canopy hardwoods, which con- 
sist largely of hickory, sweet gum, swamp chestnut oak, and water oak. Large 
specimens of hackberry, poplar, loblolly pine, sweet gum, and hickories are also 
present. The larger tulip trees reach 50-60 inches dbh. Murder Creek supports a 
rich mammalian fauna, including otter, fox squirrel, and beaver. 

Ownership: USFS, Oconee National Forest. 

Data source; Georgia Natural Area Council, 350 Seven Hunter St. Bldg., Atlan- 
ta, Ga. 30334. 



O 
m 
O 

33 
Q 

> 






ft 


r c ;-^=- 



' "I -'_ 



CVJ 
CVJ 



< G A 9. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge. Acreage: 330,880. 

(3 

^ Location: Charlton, Clinch, and Ware counties; Valdosta and Waycross 

2 1 :250,000 quadrangles; 8 miles S of Waycross, just off U.S. 1 and 23. 



(D 



Description: One of the most extensive upland swamps in the southeastern 
United States. It is underlain by considerable deposits of peat ranging up to 20 ft 
in depth. Major wetland types include shallow marshes (locally called prairies), 
wooded swamps or bays, water courses which merge with marshes, and marginal 
bogs (locally called strands) which include sphagnum bogs and fern bogs 
(Wright and Wright 1932). Although much of the wetland is forest, 60,000 
acres of the area is open marsh or "prairie" where grass, sedges, rushes, water 
lilies, arrowheads, golden club, pickerel weed, swamp marigold, and swamp iris 
comprise the marsh vegetation. Bird life is especially abundant. Anhingas, Sand- 
hill Cranes, egrets, ibis. Wood Ducks, and wild turkey are among the diverse 
bird fauna. Other animal life includes bear, alligator, raccoon, otter, and white- 
tailed deer. Within the refuge are two natural areas: The Okefenokee Sweet 
Bay Natural Area (RNA-51;SAF-104) (2560 acres), dominated by sweet bay, 
tupelo, and red maple; and the Okefenokee Pond Cypress Natural Area ( RNA- 
46;SAF-1()0) (14,989 acres). 

References: Wright, A. H., and A. A. Wright. 1932. The habitats and com- 
position of the vegetation of Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia. Ecol. Monogr. 2:1 10- 
121. 

Ownership: BSFW. 

Data source: BSFW, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; RNA-46,RNA-5 1 . 






Fn« to*e> 



.Cemetery i 




CKEFENOKtE 

NATtONAl 

WILDUff RfcfUOF 




sf 



JS- 



#r 



*rf 



v <*° 



Bfrtys Wand 



NATIONAL 

New 6 
island^ 



CM AHV, ON OQyNIY_ 
WARE COUNTY 



WILDLIFE 



florid 



REFUGE 



i I 
_.i i 



■ -.^|j^AgrcouNrY_ \ 



l< s 



: " - - •/' 



CD 
m 
O 

DO 

Q 
> 



C\i 



< 

O 

o 

UJ 

o 



GA 10. Roundabout Swamp. Acreage: 2000. 

Location: Atkinson County; Waycross 1:250,000 Quadrangle; 5 miles W of 
Pearson; reached via U.S. 82. 

Description: None available. 

Ownership: Tollerson Lumber Co., Mystic, Ga. 3 1 769. 

Data source: Georgia Natural Areas Council, 350 Seven Hunter St. Bldg., At- 
lanta, Ga. 30334. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Buddy Tanner, Kirkland, Ga. 



<P' W; 



Ot.-erry 



$y 275 m^ f-o \ yf^ 




**Kc3&. jATKfNSON^OUNTY S 









to 



/ 




ro 
en 



GA 1 1. Sag Ponds. Acreage: 10. 

Location: Floyd and Bartow counties; Rome 1:250,000 Quadrangle; reached via 
route U.S. 41 N from the intersection of U.S. 41 1 near Cassville to Pleasant Val- 
ley Road, turn right (east) 3 miles; ponds lie W of the Pleasant Valley Road. 

Description: The ponds are depressions which are the consequence of 300 ft 
thick surface materials slumping into solution chambers in dolomitic limestone. 
The six selected ponds are of different ages and therefore represent a sequence 
in vegetation development. The older depressions are filled with silt, clay, and 
organic debris which are of special interest for palynological investigations. 
Coastal plain plants are abundant in riparian habitats. There are also a few spe- 
cies with northern affinities. It is supposed that these "coastal plain disjuncts" 
migrated into present localities during postglacial times. Six of the ponds have 
been selected to be preserved. The area is under long-term lease to Hiawassee 
Land Company, Calhoun, Tenn., which has agreed to the preservation of these 
ponds. 

References: Grl:ear, P. F-C. 1967. Sag Pond vegetation in northwest Georgia. 
ASB Bull. 14(2):29; Watts, W. A. 1970. The full-glacial vegetation of 
northwestern Georgia. Ecology 51( 1 ): 17-33. 

Encroachments: Possibly by recreational activities. 

Ownership: Hiawassee Land Co., Calhoun, Tenn. 37309. 

Data source: Georgia Natural Areas Council, 350 Seven Hunter St. Bldg., At- 
lanta, Ga. 30334. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Phillip F-C. Greear, Department of Biology and 
Earth Science, Shorter College, Rome, Ga. 30161; Dr. C. H. Wharton, Georgia 
State College, Atlanta, Ga. 30300. 



O 
m 
O 

ID 

O 
> 




CM 



< 
O 

o 
o 



GA 12. Spooner Springs. Acreage: 900. 

Location: Seminole County; Tallahassee 1:250,000 Quadrangle; about 9 miles 
SE of Donalsonville; reached via Rt. 285 and private dirt roads controlled by 
locked gates. 

Description: This group of undisturbed springs and natural lakes is in the Fish- 
pond Drain Creek complex. The area lies in limestone, sandstone, and clay 
deposits of the Eocene Epoch. The land is subject to regular flooding. On occa- 
sion the whole area is inundated, the overflow going into Lake Seminole. 

Ownership: Ralph Trawick, Rt. 2, Donalsonville, Ga. 31745. 

Data source: Georgia Natural Areas Council, 350 Seven Hunter St. Bldg., At- 
lanta, Ga. 30334. 




■Rrd H 



LAKE 



>rs?ft 



s •■ 



^<5^fe3 



ro 



GA 13. Spring Creek Swamp. Acreage: 400 estimated. 

Location: Miller County; Dothan 1:250,000 Quadrangle; just N of Colquitt; 
reached via Rt. 45. 

Description: The limestone underlying this area permits beautiful boiling springs 
throughout. The timber is good though it has been logged in the past. Species 
found in the area include: sweet gum, oaks, hickories, maples, cypress, and 
magnolia. Wildlife is abundant, especially in the form of amphibians. 

Ownership: T. C. Griffin, M. Boyd, A. Boyd, and D. C. Brown. 

Data source: Georgia Natural Areas Council, 350 Seven Hunter St. Bldg., At- 
lanta, Ga. 30334. 



CD 
m 
O 
j) 
Q 

> 













\ 1 


%•*--■■■-' 

H 


S^ 

f 




\F 


i ■ 

0\ 


- >7<i 


j v2. 
- r ® 

i 


w 


7^ 


\ 




V \r 




( . \ 


(V 


\A 


V * \ 


A 


**"*>w. ^**^1 


; 


M '" 


' 1 

) 


m 




m ' 




X5 




> \ w 




\ .-*> 




1 f 






; 




j 


\ 






: .U 






/ 






® - 






I 



CO 
CM 

O IDAHO 

< 

Q General description: Much of Idaho is covered by the Rocky Mountains. 

Southward, however, they are replaced by the Columbia Plateau and to the 

southeast by the Basin and Range country. In the Rockies scattered bogs and 

bog lakes such as Hager Pond occur. The most common wetland types reported 

were marshes associated with meandering rivers such as the Boise, Kootenai, 

and Payette. Duck Valley is a typical high desert wetland along the Owyhee 

River. 

Status of the wetlands: Most of the state's larger wetlands have been disturbed 
by drainage operations. Market Lake, for example, was originally a marsh. It 
was drained to facilitate construction of the railroad and has since been 
restored. Currently, overgrazing, drainage, and pollution by sewage, mine, and 
smelter wastes threaten certain of the remaining significant wetlands. 

Source of data: Most of the information was supplied by the Idaho Fish and 
Game Department and university biologists. 

Recommendations: Among the valley wetlands reported, the Boise River 
drainage comprising some 20,000 acres represents a fascinating complex of 
meandered sloughs which should be given high priority for designation as a 
Natural Landmark. Although some grazing is reported, a section of the river 
should be set aside and maintained free of disturbance. Farther south and sur- 
rounded by desert on either side is Duck Valley, adjacent to the Owyhee 
River— a less disturbed lowland owned by the Shoshone-Piaute Indians. The 
river bottom along the lower Coeur d'Alene River, part of the Killarney Wildlife 
Management Area, is a highly productive wetland under management. The 
phytogeography of this area has been described by Humphrey (1924). The 
Kootenai Valley, once a vast marsh, has been drained for agriculture. The river 
is currently protected by dikes. Although under management, portions of this 
valley might still qualify for Natural Landmark status. The Sterling wetlands are 
largely owned by the state and federal government and may, depending upon 
the management policies, qualify for national recognition. Market Lake, a 
12,000 acre restored marsh, should also be given high priority. Hager Pond, in 
the northern Rocky Mountain section of the state, represents a unique bog lake 
with a typical bog flora. It was the only such bog area reported and should be 
given careful scrutiny, even though limited in size. The Payette Valley is a 
poorly drained alkali area, but is highly productive in waterfowl and shore birds. 
This wetland, estimated to be 5000 acres, if adequately protected, should be 
eligible for national recognition. 

Literature cited 

Humphrey, H. B. 1924. The phytogeography of the Coeur D'Alene flood plain 
of northern Idaho. Ecology 5:6-13. 



IV) 
CO 




> 

O 



Wetlands reported for Idaho 

ID I. * Boise River 

ID 2. *Duck Valley 

ID 3. Hager Pond 

ID 4. Killarney Wildlife Management Area 

ID 5. Kootenai Valley 

ID 6. Market Lake 

ID 7. Payette Valley 

ID 8. Sterling Wetlands 



Habitat type 

F-l-M, F-2-M, F-3-M, F-5 

M 
F-2-M 
F-8-B 

F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 
F-2-M, F-3-M 
F-3-M 
F-?-M 
F-3-M 



o 

CO 

O ID 1. Boise River. Acreage: 20,000 estimated. 

I 

q Location: Canyon County; Nampa, Notus, Wilder, and Parma quadrangles; W 

— of Boise and S of Parma and Notus. 

Description: The flat valley floor above the mouth of the Boise River has fair-to- 
poor drainage and is filled with meandered sloughs, river channels, potholes, 
and wet hayland. Typha and hardstem sedge are abundant where not controlled. 
Excellent shorebird and duck habitat exists. 

Encroachments: Agriculture and drainage. This area is used for cattle grazing 
and feeding. 

Ownership: Many private owners. 

Data source: E. G. deReus, P.O. Box 25, Boise, Ida. 83707. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dick Norell, P.O. Box 25, Boise, Ida. 83707. 



CO 



3 ',;v^ \ "«•_<-'-; 




D 
> 

O 



^3*^/ t»— »| — \ -|. 1 — i — 4- 4s 



C\J 
CO 



< 

Q 



ID 2. Duck Valley. Acreage: 20,000 estimated. 

Location: Owyhee County; not yet mapped by USGS; on the Idaho-Nevada 
border, 92 miles S of Mountain Home; reached via Rt. 5 1 . 

Description: This area is a high desert wetland adjacent to the Owyhee River. 
There are two meandering streams with wet meadow and willows. 

Ownership: Shoshone-Piaute Indians. 

Data source: E. G. deReus, P.O. Box 25, Boise, Ida. 83707. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dick Norell, P.O. Box 25, Boise, Ida. 83707. 



CO 
CO 

ID 3. Hager Pond. Acreage: About 5. D 



Location: Bonner County; not yet mapped by the USGS; 2.5 miles S of Nord- 
man;0.25 mile W of Rt. 57. 

Description: Pond has an anchored sedge mat on three sides, with a floating 
sphagnum mat extending out from the fourth side. The latter has Drosera, 
Ledum, etc. 

References: Rumely, J. Thesis (unpublished), Washington State Univ. (contains 
a good account of the plant ecology of the area). 

Ownership: Mr. Sidnikovitch who lives nearby. Dr. Rumely could give more in- 
formation. 

Data source: R. Daubenmire, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. 
99163. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. John Rumely, Department of Botany, Mon- 
tana State College, Bozeman, Mont. 59715; Dr. William Baker, Department of 
Botany, University of Idaho, Moscow, Ida. 83843. 



o 



CO 

O ID 4. Killarney Wildlife Management Area. Acreage: 6000 estimated. 

q Location: Harrison-Kootenai counties; Plummer, St. Maries, Lane, Kingston 

quadrangles; city of Harrison is immediately adjacent at downstream point; 
reached via routes: U.S. 10 to Rose Lake Jet., then S on Rt. 3 and also Al- 
ternate U.S. 95. 

Description: River bottom and delta marshes and shallow lakes on both sides of 
the lower Coeur d'Alene River. Excellent duck production, wild rice in profu- 
sion; good spiny ray fishing; uplands are cutover ponderosa pine and Douglas 
fir. There is excellent Ruffed and Blue Grouse habitat in portions of the area. 

Encroachments: There has been a very serious problem with sewage, mine, and 
smelter waste here, but, promise of mine and smelter clean up. Cities are having 
a tough time with bond issues for treatment. Land is in a resort-type speculative 
market now. 

Ownership: Idaho Fish and Game Department, USFS, BLM, Diamond Interna- 
tional, Spokane and Eastern, and approximately 12 private owners. 

Data source: E. G. deReus, P.O. Box 25, Boise, Ida. 83707. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Al Bruner, Box 549, Coeur d'Alene, Ida. 83814; 
Les Gissel, P.O. Box 561, Sandpoint, Ida. 83864; Howard Livengood, P.O. Box - 
Thain Road P.O., Lewiston, Ida. 83501. 



CO 
Ol 

ID 5. Kootenai Valley. Acreage: 8000 estimated. O 

> 
Location: Boundary County; Copeland, Farnham Peak, Ritz, Moravia, Bonners ^ 

Ferry, and Moyle Springs quadrangles; Bonners Ferry is at upstream edge; 
reached via routes: U.S. 2 and U.S. 95 to county roads. 

Description: This was once a vast river-valley marsh that has been drained for 
agriculture. It is now protected by high dikes maintained each year during flood 
threat; however, this will soon dissipate because of Libby Dam construction. 
The Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge is located on one drainage district 
(Moravia Quadrangle). This area is immediately adjacent to vast wetlands in 
British Columbia. 

Encroachments: Agriculture. 

Ownership: At least 20 private owners; U.S. Department of Interior. 

Data source: E. G. deReus, P.O. Box 25, Boise, Ida. 83707. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Al Bruner, Box 549, Coeur d'Alene, Ida. 83814. 



Map on following page 



CO 



< 



( '< 



-?S6 



w 



12K00T^ 



sfA 1 



<rr 



- i- 



/ • 



I 



vm 









\ ' „l 









hi / 
,59 ' 






Pumping 
Station 



13 



12) 



cs 






.'7R7+ 

I 



SB? 



- I 



3^3 



A< 



\ 



24 



3? 



S M9 



>*^ 

I 



m 



l# 






'3 ) 
5m(i 



X 



■l n 4, 



r vrnxm 



j 25 



.ml 



i 



H 



< 


1 


55 


1 ' 

1 
1. 




~'T "/~ 




i 




r i ^ 


< 


"^ : i i 




»4i 


•^ 





O 

© 



vj/ 



y 



i 



30 



Pttmpi 






ID 6. Market Lake. Acreage: 12,000. 

Location: Jefferson County; Market Lake, Deer Parks, Roberts, and Lewisville 
quadrangles; 2 miles N of Roberts; reached via 1-95. 

Description: This area was once a 12,000-acre marsh that was a rendezvous site 
for early fur trappers. The railroad drained the marsh to facilitate construction. 
The Idaho Fish and Game Department has restored approximately 3000 acres of 
marsh and presently owns over 4000 acres in the area. Existing wet areas now 
support hardstem and alkali bulrush, muskrats, and redheads. The site attracts 
up to 200,000 waterfowl each spring. 

References: Market Lake Wildlife Management Area; project budgets and re- 
ports. 

Encroachments: Railroad and farm drains. Hunting. 

Ownership: Idaho Fish and Game Department, and approximately 10 private 
owners. 

Data source: E. G. deReus, P.O. Box 25, Boise, Ida. 83707. 



D 
> 

O 




~"\ 


!■ 


v - "'"; J~,-'~ 


/> '■'■ 


i ' 1 '-' 


"v.i-'3 


! ' / " ' 


' * a 


— ft 




'■ / 


\l 


y. 














/ !: 






,. \. ' \? ■ * 








^j y %> 


$ c^ 






i ' 9 


if 






fS~~* 






'; 


C — 1 J 


i S 


. ._ 


— ». 


,._.J4_- 


; '}S . 






,_-,, '-■' 


H 


1 


('. 


fis^K. 


■'\ 


1 

! 




c. 


.; 








J 


1 






.-, » 










U 


— — 


' 


\l~' 



Market Lake 



_Shnigh_ 



& 






< 



s 



\ 7 



Wells 



Grave \ 






<f 





1 ', 




Jjg, 




&, 


> v i 




*\s 





ff f 



Marl 



■ft" #G'TOW „ 

, ■■""! Flowing? • ■> 'P'-t ; 
,W«II "#►» 


- 


1 

I 







GO 
CO 



O 

I 
< 

Q 



ID 7. Payette Valley. Acreage: 5000 estimated. 

Location: Gem County; Boise Quadrangle 1:250,000; reached from Boise via 
Rt. 44 to Rt. 16, then to Emmett on Rt. 16; Emmett is located at upstream edge 
(E) of area. 

Description: This area consists of a flat, poorly drained valley floor adjacent to 
and south of Payette River. There is a definite alkali problem but the area now 
produces many shorebirds and waterfowl. 

References: Wetlands of Idaho. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Soil Conser- 
vation Service. 

Encroachments: Area offers good hunting when ducks are using area in the fall. 
There is also good pheasant hunting and some bass fishing. Abuse by short-term 
private owners severe (drainage, overgrazing, farming attempts). 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: E. G. deReus, P.O. Box 25, Boise, Ida. 83707. 







■ (•■■■■■ ■ , 



\ ADA cbuNP 












CO 
CO 

ID 8. Sterling Wetlands. Acreage: 6000 estimated. q 

> 
Location: Bingham County; 10 miles N of Aberdeen; reached via Rt. 39. ^ 

Description: This area consists of a large partially drained wetland with many 
springs, a few potholes, several meandering sloughs, and many acres of small 
marsh units. The Idaho Fish and Game Department is presently embarking on 
an acquisition project. Low diking can increase the marsh area. There seems to 
be sufficient water and access. 

Encroachments: The entire area has been abused by livestock interests. At- 
tempted agriculture and overuse by livestock will become more severe unless 
the area is protected. 

Ownership: Idaho Fish and Game Dept., U.S. Department of Interior, and over 
15 private landowners. 

Data source: E. G. deReus, P.O. Box 25, Boise, Ida. 83707. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Howard Raster, P.O. Box 397, Idaho Falls, Ida. 
83402; Rus McKeever, 647 Bennett Ave., American Falls, Ida. 8321 1; Soil Con- 
servation District, Aberdeen, Ida. 



o 



W ILLINOIS 

O 



General description: In the glaciated northern portion of the state a few 
remnant bogs exist of which Volo and Wauconda may be the best. In the central 
prairies the open marshland at Goose Lake is the only habitat of this type re- 
ported. In the south several splendid wooded bottomland swamps exist, which 
are subject to periodic flooding and some of which are also fed by large springs. 
Two wooded wetlands — Long Spring and Cove Spring — are not subjected to 
these seasonal fluctuations in water level. 

Status of the wetlands: The following encroachments are mentioned as taking 
place: strip mining, lumbering, flooding to produce a lake, draining for 
mosquito control, and development for housing and industrial parks. 

Sources of data: Illinois has been well inventoried by its very active Illinois 
Natural History Survey. The legislature has also established the Illinois Nature 
Preserves Commission. Two publications giving data on natural areas have been 
received (Evers 1963: 1-32; Illinois Nature Preserves Commission 1967:1-21). 
Personnel from both of these agencies have provided information and additional 
reports have come in from academic biologists. 

Recommendations: Of the two bogs reported, both Volo and Wauconda should 
probably be considered for landmark status after review in the light of current 
encroachments. Volo may be the better of the two. Neither are outstanding in 
the national perspective, but as outliers they represent a unique habitat within 
the state. They have been acquired by the state through the activity of TNC. 
Goose Lake should be examined carefully as the only open marshland reported, 
especially in conjunction with the adjacent prairie types said to be present. The 
wooded wetlands at Long Spring and Cove Spring, that are presumably not sub- 
ject to substantial seasonal fluctuations in water level, support a rich and unique 
herbaceous flora and should be preserved. The riverbottom swamps and sloughs 
(La Rue Swamp, Little Black Slough, Horseshoe Lake, Grantsburg Swamp) are 
all fine areas and should probably be reviewed for landmark status in the above 
listed order. Little Black Slough and Heron Pond are in private ownership and 
action here may be most urgent. 

Literature cited 

Evers, R. A. 1963. Some unusual Natural Areas in Illinois and a few of their 
plants. State of III. Dept. of Registration and Education, Natural History Div., 
Biological Notes, No. 50. 

Illinois Nature Preserves Commission. 1967. Illinois Nature Preserves. Three- 
year Report. 




o 



ILL 

IL2. 

IL3. 



IL4. 

IL5. 
IL6. 
IL7. 



IL8. 
IL9. 



»orted for Illinois 


Habitat type 


Cove Spring (see Long Spring) 




Cranberry Slough Nature Preserve 


F-8-B 


*Goose Lake 


F-3-M, F-2-M 


Grantsburg Swamp 


F-7-Sw 


Heron Pond (see Little Black 




Slough ) 




Horseshoe Lake 


F-3-M, F-4-M, 




Ss, F-7-Sw 


*La Rue Swamp 


F-7-Sw, F-5-M 


*Little Black Slough and Heron Pond 


F-7-Sw 


*Long Spring and Cove Spring 


F-7-Sw 


Pine Hills Swamp (see La Rue 




Swamp) 




*Volo Bog 


F-8-B 


Wauconda Bog 


F-8-B 


Wolf Lake (see La Rue Swamp) 





F-5-M, F-6- 



CM 



CO 

O 



IL I. Cranberry Slough Nature Preserve. Acreage: 400. 

Location: Cook County; Palos Park Quadrangle; W of Mannheim Road (U.S. 
45) and S of 95th Street. 

Description: The only quaking bog in Cook County. Cranberry and purple 
chokeberry are present. Inhabited by beaver. 

Data source: George B. Fell, Illinois Nature Preserve Commission, 819 North 
Main St., Rockford, 111. 61 103. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Roland F. Eisenbeis, Forest Preserve District of 
Cook County, River Forest, III. 60305; Ray Schulenberg, Morton Arboretum, 
Lisle, 111. 60532. 




CO 



IL 2. Goose Lake Prairie and Marsh. Acreage. Over 200. 

Location: Grundy County; Coal City Quadrangle; lies about 4 miles W of 
Lorenzo; 0. 1 5 mile N of Lorenzo Road. 

Description: This wetland is a portion of the prairie tract of about 2000 acres. A 
sanctuary for waterfowl, including the large Canada Goose. Muskrats also use 
the area. It contains typical marsh vegetation. Northward from the marsh lies a 
wet, a mesic, and an upland prairie. 

Encroachments: Threatened by an industrial park. 

Ownership: Presently privately owned, but is to be purchased by state of Il- 
linois. 

Data source: Dr. Robert A. Evers, Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, 111. 
61801. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Charles Olmsted, Department of Botany, 
University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. Dr. Robert Betz, Northeastern Illinois State 
College, Chicago, 111. 60600. 



O 
CO 



,- I 







CO 

O 

z 



IL 3. Grantsburg Swamp. Acreage: About 2000. 

Location: Johnson County; Brownfield Quadrangle; 1 mile E of Grantsburg; 
reached via Rt. 146. 

Description: A very beautiful cypress swamp dissected by State Highway 146 
from which it may be observed. Plants and animals are typical of cypress 
swamps in southern Illinois. 

Encroachments: There exists the possibility of drainage and draining the swamp 
to reduce mosquito populations. 

Ownership: Federal, USFS. 

Data source: Robert A. Evers, Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, III. 
61801. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. John Schwegman, Department of Botany, 
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, III. 62901. 







IL 4. Horseshoe Lake. Acreage: About 2000. 

Location: Alexander County; Thebes, III. -Mo. Quadrangle; 1 1 miles NW of 
Cairo; reached via Rt. 3. 



Description: This is an oxbow lake in the bottoms of the Mississippi River at the 
northern edge of the Mississippi embayment. Habitats range from open lake to 
shallow marshy or brushy areas and wooded swamp. Typically, the lake is bor- 
dered with a band of Bald Cypress and Swamp Tupelo. Virtually the entire flora 
and fauna is of southern species near the northern limit of their range. The area 
is famous for its huge wintering flock of Canada Geese. It is one of the last areas 
in southern Illinois where the Bald Eagle nests. 

References: Evers, R. A. 1963. Some unusual natural areas in Illinois and a few 
of their plants. ///. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes No. 50, Urbana. p. 22-23. 



Ownership: 

III. 62706. 



linois Department of Conservation, State Office Bldg., Springfield, 



O 
0) 



Data source: John Schwegman, 303 W. Grand Ave., Carterville, 111. 62918; Il- 
linois Nature Preserves Commission. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Robert Evers, Illinois Natural History Survey, 
Urbana, III. 61801; Dr. W. D. Klimstra and Dr. Robert Mohlenbrock, Southern 
Illinois University, Carbondale, III. 62901 . 







O 



IL 5. La Rue Swamp (Pine Hills Swamp) (Wolf Lake). Acreage: 1 1 50. 

Location: Union County; Alto Pass (WolF Lake 7.5') Quadrangle; 18 miles SW 
of Carbondale, just N of Wolf Lake; reached via Rt. 3 and a U.S. Forest Service 
road. 

Description: A spring-fed swamp on the Mississippi River flood plain, which 
contains many old meanders of the Mississippi River. In the deeper parts of the 
area, there is considerable open water with many fallen logs and snags; in shal- 
lower areas a wooded swamp exists. Trees of this swamp include: pumpkin ash, 
swamp cottonwood, red maple, southern hackberry, and water locust. The many 
large springs add diversity to the aquatic habitats by providing a cool environ- 
ment where more northern species abound, while some distance from these 
springs the water is warmer apd a southern element dominates. "This is perhaps 
the most important wetland in Illinois." (Dr. R. A. Evers). 

References: Ashby, W. C, and R. W. Kelting. 1963. Vegetation of the Pine 
Hills Field Station in southwestern Illinois. Trans. 111. Acad. Sci. 56:188-201; 
Evers, R. A. 1963. Some unusual natural areas in Illinois and a few of their 
plants. Natural History Survey Biological Notes No. 50, p. 21-22; Gunning, G., 
and W. M. Lewis. 1955. The fish population of a springfed swamp in the Missis- 
sippi bottoms of southern Illinois. Ecology 36:552-558; Mohlenbrock, R. 1959. 
A floristic study of a southern Illinois swampy area. Ohio J. Sci. 59:89-100; 
Rossman, D. A. 1960. Herpetofaunal survey of the Pine Hills area of southern 
Illinois. Q. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 22 (4):207-225. 

Encroachments: Duck hunters utilize the area. Overzealous collecting. 
Designated a Natural Area by the USFS. 

Ownership: Federal, USFS, Shawnee National Forest, Harrisburg, Illinois. 
Southern Illinois University owns and maintains a field station at the southern 
end. Also, William Rumfeld, Jack Houston, and the Atlas Powder Co. own por- 
tions. 

Data source: John Schwegman, Illinois Nature Preserves Commission, 303 West 
Grand Ave., Carterville, 111. 62918; Dr. Robert Mohlenbrock, Department of 
Botany, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, III. 62901; Dr. Robert A. 
Evers, Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, III. 61801. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. W. D. Klimstra and Dr. W. M. Lewis, 
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, III. 62901. 



■1^ 

-si 




z 
o 

0) 



CO 



22 IL 6. Little Black Slough and Heron Pond. Acreage: 1000. 



Z 



Location: Johnson County; Karnak Quadrangle; 5.5 miles SW of Vienna; 
reached via U.S. 45 S of Vienna, then W on Belknap Rd. 

Description: The largest bald cypress and tupelo swamp left in Illinois. This 
swamp has many areas which have not been cut for timber. In general, swamp 
tupelo is a more abundant but smaller tree than the cypress; however, at Heron 
Pond, 1 mile E of Little Black Slough, there occurs a large, nearly pure stand of 
cypress, the best in the state. Many of the large cypress trees in Heron Pond are 
more than 5 ft in diameter above the swollen base. Other interesting plants in- 
clude Styra.x americana and Ilea virginica, swamp buttercup (Ranunculus flabel- 
laris), bedstraw (Galium tinctorium), and water featherfoil (Hottonia inflata). In 
the western area, known as Black Slough, are the orchid (Triphora tri- 
anthophora), hastate-leaved snakeroot (Aristolochia hastata), and creeping 
loosestrife (Lysimachia radicans). There are many heron rookeries throughout 
both swamps. Swamp reptiles include the cottonmouth, bird-voiced tree frog, 
and mole salamander. This is one of the last strongholds of the bobcat in the 
state. 

Encroachments: An attempt is presently being made to establish a Cache River 
Conservancy District which could lead to the drainage of this and other swamps 
in the area. Main Bros, are in the lumbering business. 

Ownership: Main Bros., Box and Lumber Co., Karnak, 111. 62956, and Mr. 
Charles Marshall, Greenville, III. 62246. The land is for sale at $500 per acre. 

Data source: Dr. Robert H. Mohlenbrock, Department of Botany, Southern Il- 
linois University, Carbondale, 111. 62901; John Schwegman, Illinois Nature 
Preserves Commission, 303 W. Grand Ave., Carterville, III. 629 1 8. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. W. D. Klimstra and Mr. John White, 
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 111. 62901. 



4^ 
CO 




o 



v^ 



M J \ \ \ S ) ; 



o 
10 



C0 
O 



IL 7. Long Spring and Cove Spring. Acreage: 25 estimated. 

Location: Pope County; Paducah, NE 7.5' Quadrangle; 6 miles N and 0.5 mile 
E of Unionville; 2.5 miles S and 2 miles E of Bay City; 0.75 mile W of Azotus 
Church. Site may be reached only by forest service trails. 

Description: The two springs form the most extensive marshy woods habitat of 
this type in the state. Many of the characteristic plants are rare in other parts of 
Illinois. The sedge (Carex incomperta) and southern arrowhead (Sagittaria lon- 
girostra) are restricted to these habitats in Illinois. Another sedge (Carex bro- 
moides), a bulrush (Scirpus polyphyllus), and an orchid (Habenaria clavellata) 
are restricted to this habitat in southern Illinois. At a very slightly higher eleva- 
tion than the source of the springs, the lowland forest is the home of the only Il- 
linois station for the whorled pogonia orchid (Isotria verticillata), the only 
southern Illinois station for New York fern {Thelypteris noveboracensis) , as well 
as other rare species such as crane-fly orchid (Tipularia discolor) and pink St. 
John's wort {Triadenum tubulosum). 

Encroachments: There is a proposal for building a lake which would inundate 
Long Spring. 

Ownership: USFS. 

Data source: Robert H. Mohlenbrock, Department of Botany, Southern Illinois 
University, Carbondale, III. 62901. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. John Schwegman, Illinois Nature Preserves 
Commission, Department of Botany, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 
111.62901. 






* <4 x 






^ 



> ■ . -. 



Wi !r * e E 



/?' 



~N\ 




\ 


r, Q 






1 I 


"""\ 


t 










\ 


* ^. 






\ 








^ \< 


- A 






] 




••" "7 



£, 



-Hodge Cewi : 



'Vt 



■ -—- - r 




\r> 




■■■? 



rx \ 






n 



A <S 



V >* X 



'i^m 



71 



U! 



IL 8 Volo Bog. Acreage: About 100. 

Location: Lake County; Wauconda 7.5' Quadrangle; 1.5 miles N and 1 mile W 
of Volo; reached via U.S. 12 and Sullivan Lake Road. 

Description: There is an area of open water at the center of the bog. This is sur- 
rounded by a border of cattails and giant bur-reed. Next is a shrub zone, with 
winterberry, leatherleaf, and poison sumac being common. Tamaracks grow at 
several points around the bog. Since there are very few bogs in Illinois this area 
contains many plants that are unusual or rare in the state. This is one of the best 
bog habitats found in Illinois. 

References: Evers, R. A. 1963. Some unusual natural areas in Illinois and a few 
of their plants. ///. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes No. 50, p. 7-8; Artist, R. C. 
1936. Stratigraphy and preliminary pollen analysis of a Lake County, Illinois, 
bog. Butler Univ. Bot. Studies 3:191-198; Waterman, W. G. 1926. Ecological 
problems from the sphagnum bogs of Illinois. Ecology 7:255-272; Waterman, 
W. G. 1923. Bogs of northern Illinois. Trans. III. Acad.Sci. 16:214-225. 

Encroachments: Possible development close to the bog could alter the water 
table. 



O 
O) 



Ownership: 47 acres owned by the University of Illinois, Urbana, 
remainder is private. 



the 



Data source: John Schwegman, 303 West Grand Ave., Carterville, III. 62918. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Charles Kendeigh, Vivarium Bldg., Wright 
and Healy St., Champaign, III. 60200. 







J Sullivan X | 
Lake \ 



" V 



m 



Gravel Pits 






A 



c 



i 



S S 



S> / 



ROM 



f 'I 



27 



/"'< 



CM 

in 



O 



IL 9. Wauconda Bog. Acreage: About 67. 

Location: Lake County; Wauconda 7.5' Quadrangle; immediately S of Waucon- 
da. 

Description: Wauconda Bog was once part of a large lake of which present 
Bang's Lake is but a small remnant. If the water level of Bang's Lake should rise 
8 ft, the surface of Wauconda Bog would be covered with water. No pool of 
open water exists within the bog; the old lake bed is filled with sphagnum and 
sedge peat. This is a bog with cattails, low shrubs, and herbs, alternating with 
tamarack, tall shrubs, stunted deciduous trees, and an herbaceous understory. A 
large stand of common reed grows near the center of the bog. Some of the tall 
shrubs are poison sumac, alder buckthorn, red-osier dogwood, and winterberry. 
Some of the smaller shrubs are chokeberry, dwarf birch, and a number of spe- 
cies of shrubby willows. Deciduous trees include soft maple, bur oak, quaking 
aspen, and basswood. Numerous sedges and grasses, among them reed grass, 
form much of the herbaceous cover. Growing among the grasses and sedges are 
other herbs, a few of which are pink ladyslipper, marsh marigold, purple 
cinquefoil, buckbean, swamp thistle, saxifrage, and numerous asters and golden- 
rods. Hummocks of sphagnum moss occur throughout. 

References: Evers, R. A. 1963. Some unusual natural areas in Illinois and a few 
of their plants, ///. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes, No. 50, p. 8-9. 

Encroachments: Most of Wauconda Bog will soon be ringed by residential 
areas. The pastureland that once bordered the bog on the south has recently 
been subdivided into lots and roadways. The north side of the bog touches the 

village. 

Ownership: Part of Wauconda Bog is owned by the University of Illinois. 

Data source: Robert A. Evers (1963), Some Unusual Natural Areas in Illinois 
and a Few of Their Plants, ///. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biological Notes, No. 50. 

Other knowledgeable persons: George B. Fell, Secretary, Illinois Nature 
Preserve Commission, 819 North Main St., Rockford, 111. 61103. Cyrus Mark, 
1900 Dempster St., Evanston, 111. 60200. 




INDIANA 

General description: The northern glaciated portion of the state has a large 
number of wetlands, 6755 having been inventoried (Hamilton). Of these, two 
bogs have already been registered as Natural Landmarks and six other areas 
have been suggested for consideration. No wetlands have been suggested for the 
southern, unglaciated portion of the state. 

Status of the wetlands: Some of the marshes are being threatened by develop- 
ments with their attendant problems of sewage and solid waste disposal. 

Sources of data: The natural areas of Indiana have been exceptionally well 
reviewed and catalogued by a professional ecologist, Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, 
under a grant from the Ford Foundation (Lindsey et al. 1969). The State Divi- 
sion of Fish and Game has also published a report on the wetlands (Hamilton). 

Recommendations: Two bogs (Cowles Bog and Pinhook Bog) are already Re- 
gistered Natural Landmarks. Of the remaining six wetlands on which we have 
data, we recommend their review as potential landmarks in the following order: 
( 1 )Cabin Creek Raised Bog; (2) Tamarack Bog; (3)Marsh Lake; (4) Merry Lea 
Marsh; (5) Wing Haven; and (6) Cedar Lake Marsh. Dr. Lindsey writes that, 
"Cabin Creek Raised Bog is by all odds the most unusual wetland area in Indi- 
ana." It is distinctly different from those already registered, and needs per- 
manent protection. The Tamarack Bog site represents a number of wetland 
types and is already in state ownership. Marsh Lake also includes a variety of 
wetland types and, as a series of private holdings, needs to come under institu- 
tional protection. Merry Lea Marsh preserves a cattail association. Wing Haven 
and Cedar Lake are both desirable if they can be protected from development 
and/or other encroachments. 

Literature cited 

Hamilton, M. Wetlands of northern Indiana. Final Report. Department of 
Natural Resources, State of Indiana Division of Fish and Game. Pitman 
Robertson Project 2-R. 

Lindsey, A. A., D. V. Schmelz, and S. A. Nichols. 1969. Natural areas in 
Indiana and their preservation. Lafayette, Indiana, p. 594. 



CO 



g 

> 



in 



< 

Q 

Z 




Wetlands reported for Indiana 

IN 1 *Cabin Creek Raised Bog 

IN 2. Cedar Lake Marsh 

IN 3. *Cowles Bog 

IN 4. Marsh Lake 




Habitat type 

F-8-B(Ca) 
F-3-M 

F-8-B(Ca), F-3-M 
F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M, F-8- 
B, F-2-M(Ca), F-7-Ss 



IN 5. 


Merry Lea Marsh 






F-3-M 




Mineral Springs Bog (see 


C< 


:>wles 






Bog) 








IN 6. 


*Pinhook Bog 






F-8-B 


IN 7. 


*Tamarack Bog 






F-8-B, F-5-M, F-4-M, F-6 

Ss 


IN 8. 


Wing Haven 






F-8-B, F-5-M. 



en 
01 



IN I. Cabin Creek Raised Bog. Acreage: 30. 

Location: Randolph County; Farmland and Maxville quadrangles; 6 miles N of 
Modoc; E of Indiana Rt. I, between Farmland and Modoc, 500 ft S of Cabin 
Creek on farm of Robert Holliday. 

Description: This bog is 10 ft above the general flood-plain level due to artesian 
springs, high in calcium, that give rise to several small streams that flow from 
the peat moss. The pH has been reported as ranging between 6.9 to 7.5, the 
temperature from 52° to 55° F. Sphagnum moss is absent. Sedges, moss (Dre- 
panocladus), and woody plants are the chief peat producers. Marl deposits 
derived from the ground water are prominent. The Bog has become increasingly 
dominated by shrubs during the past 20 years of protection from fire, but ericad 
species are absent. Friesner and Potzger and Stares have listed 222 species of 
vascular plants, which include prairie plants, typical bog shrubs, disjuncts, 
northern species at their southern limits, and southern species at their northern 
limits in Indiana. The algae present have been reported by Dailey. Lime-loving 
species such as Rhynchospora capillacea, Triglochin palustris, Scleria verti- 
cicillata, Juncus hrachycephalus, Eleocharis elliptica, Pamassia glauca, and 
Lobelia kalmii, and orchids, Calopogon pulchellus, Cypripedium reginae, 
C. calceolus, C. candidum, and Pogonia ophioglossoides are present. 

References: Lindsey, A. A., D. V. Schmei.z and S. A. Nichols. 1969. Natural 
areas in Indiana and their preservation, p. 287-291; Daily, F. K. 1953. The 
Characeae of Indiana. Butler Univ. Bot. Studies 11:5-49; Daily, W. A. 1961. 
Some algae of the Cabin Creek Raised Bog, Randolph County, Indiana. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 71:298-301; Friesner, R. C, and J. E. Potzger. 1946. The 
Cabin Creek Raised Bog, Randolph County, Indiana. Butler Univ. Bot. Studies 8: 
24-43; Riemer, C. W. 1962. Some aspects of the diatom flora of Cabin Creek 
Raised Bog. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 71:305-319; Starcs, H. 1961. Notes on 
vascular plants of the Cabin Creek Raised Bog. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 71:302- 
304. 

Ownership: Robert Holliday. 

Data source: Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, Department of Biological Science, Purdue 
University, Lafayette, Ind. 47900. 



> 



N. X__^-" 




CO 



< 

Q 



IN 2. Cedar Lake Marsh. Acreage: About 130. 

Location: Lake County; Lowell Quadrangle; at the south end of Cedar Lake. 

Description: A marsh, dominated by broad-leaved cattail, at the south end of 
Cedar Lake. It is the largest continuous marsh in the state. 

References: Natural areas in Indiana and their preservation, p. 555-556. 

Encroachments: At the south end there is a small rubbish dump at the end of a 
causeway, penetrating a short distance into marsh and accessible by car. It is re- 
ported that the state pollution officials have closed this to further dumping. 
Cedar Lake is somewhat polluted by domestic sewage, and was poisoned a few 
years ago with rotenone because it was overstocked with small bluegills. 

Ownership: Not known. 

Data source: Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue 
University, Lafayette, Ind. 47900. 



/' 






W&d&t "' -9v 



I C 

'I Cedjw Lake MM* 

|.| k 



TwR 



a 

1 > 



r 

-4 

a 



























dnttr snore .< — ,_- < , / .< v . irrt *. 

J ^Jl./> -v* 



r fie 



-si 



IN 3. Cowles Bog. Acreage: 57. 

Location: Porter County; 10 miles W of Michigan City and 0.5 mile S of the vil- 
lage of Dune Acres. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. This calcareous wetland supports 
an assemblage of plants, including Cypripedium reginae, C. candidum, poison 
sumac and arborvitae. Some of the typical bog species, such as cranberry, cot- 
tongrass, bladderwort, and sundew, are absent. 

Ownership: Save the Dunes Council 

Data source: NPS. 



Z 
D 

> 



LAKE MICHIGAN 



Michigan City 



Beverly Shores. 



East Chicago 
Gary 




CO 

in 



< 
Q 



IN 4. Marsh Lake. Acreage: 70. 

Location: Steuben County; Jamestown Twp.; Angola East Quadrangle; reached 
via Rt. 27, turning E on Feather Valley Road just N of the entrance to Pokagon 
State Park for 0.8 mile. Entrance through driveway of the Ray Clark farm. 

Description: Marsh Lake is probably the largest lake in the state suitable for 
preservation as a Natural Area. The water is calcareous. Substantial stands of 
tamarack occur at the eastern and western ends of the lake. An extensive bog is 
at the eastern end. The lake margins are surrounded by a shrub zone of red- 
osier dogwood, shrubby cinquefoil, dwarf birch, tamarack, poison sumac, 
peach-leaved willow, nannyberry, elderberry, Care.x comosa, other sedges, pur- 
ple meadowrue, dogbane, marsh pea, and jewel weed. A sedge meadow, an 
emergent marsh zone, and floating and submerged aquatics add numerous spe- 
cies. The alga Hydrodictyon is more common here than elsewhere in the state. 

References: Natural areas in Indiana and their preservation, p. 426-428. 

Encroachments: An access drive on the Clark property and two houses and a 
house trailer on the southwest side are the only developments. 

Ownership: Eaton Springs Trout Club and Ray Clark (south shore). Property of 
Mr. Clark and of Wing Haven & Pristine Valley south of Marsh Lake are 
designated wildlife refuges. 

Data source: Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, Department of Biological Science, Purdue 
University, Lafayette, Ind. 47900. 






13 




en 

CD 



IN 5. Merry Lea Marsh. Acreage: 45. 

Location: Noble County; Ormas Quadrangle; east side of High Lake; 2.2 miles 
SW of Wolflake; reached via Wolflake. 

Description: This is a broad-leaved cattail marsh between High Lake and Bear 
Lake. There are two small tree-covered islands in the marsh. Land is on one 
side, lake all around, elsewhere. The marsh and surrounding water are well sup- 
plied with living forms. Other terrestrial areas within the surrounding 700 acres 
are also being preserved for nature study and research. As there are no nature 
preserves in Indiana with appreciable areas of cattail marsh, this one, though 
small, is well worth attention. 

Encroachments: Cottages on dry land near the edge of the marsh may provide 
some contamination by domestic sewage. 

Ownership: Merry Lea Nature and Religious Foundation, Wolflake, Ind. 46796. 

Data source: Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, Department of Biological Science, Purdue 
University, Lafayette, Ind. 47900. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Douglas Waldman, Manager, Nature Center, 
Merry Lea Nature and Religious Foundation, Wolflake, Ind. 47900. 



Z 

o 

> 

z 
> 




V r 









: i 
\ 

\ 









o 

CO 



< 

Q 



IN 6. Pinhook Bog. Acreage: About 27. 

Location: La Porte County; La Porte West Quadrangle; about 4 miles S of 
Waterford on the east side of Wozniak Road. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. A typical bog in a glacial depres- 
sion, with open water being invaded by an ericaceous heath. 

Ownership: Mrs. Mary Jackman. 

Data source: NPS 




O) 



IN 7. Tamarack Bog. Acreage: 65. 

Location: Lagrange County, Springfield Twp.; Mongo Quadrangle; 1 mile SE of 
Mongo, mostly S of the Pigeon River. 

Description: There is a larger area of heavy tamarack cover here than anywhere 
else in Indiana. In addition to a bog, there are broad reaches of open water 
(backwaters of Mongo Reservoir — an old stabilized one), a broad shallow 
stream with gravel-sand bottom, cattail marsh, and tamarack and shrub swamp. 
Poison sumac is abundant, showy lady's slipper, several other orchids. Sphag- 
num mats, etc. The Pigeon River upstream from and within the Tamarack Bog is 
one of the wilder streams in this state — cool and clear. Massasauga occur in 
some numbers. Twenty-three species of mammals have been recorded. 

References: Natural areas in Indiana and their preservation, p. 458-465. 

Encroachments: Hunting under close supervision of state employees; fishing. 

Ownership: State of Indiana, Fish and Game Division. 

Data source: Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, Department of Biological Science, Purdue 
University, Lafayette, Ind. 47900. 

Other knowledgeable persons: William B. Barnes, Director, Indiana Division of 
Nature Preserves, Department of Natural Resources, State Office Building, Indi- 
anapolis, Ind. 46200. 



> 







CM 
CO 



< 



IN 8. Wing Haven. Acreage: 200. 

Location: Steuben County; Angola East and Angola West quadrangles; 5 miles 
N of Angola, on the east side of 1-69; reached via 1-69 at the Pokagon State Park 
Exit. 

Description: This area contains a chain of small natural lakes, only one of which 
contains resort development on west end. It has an unusual aquatic succession 
of plants, as well as tamarack and yellow birch bog and upland oak-hickory 
forest type. Unusual plants include Cypripedium reginae, bush cinquefoil, and 
Canada mayflower. It is glacial moraine county with kames, lakes, and marshes. 

References: Natural areas in Indiana and their preservation, p. 465-47 1 . 

Encroachments: Private ownership but owner is interested in preservation. 
Funds are needed to purchase this tract. Threatened with development. 

Ownership: Mrs. Helen Swenson, R.R. 2, Angola, Ind. 46703. 

Data source: William B. Barnes, 6148 Primrose, Indianapolis, Ind. 46200. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, Purdue University, Lafayette, 
Ind. 47900. 







■\0 






• 



CO 



IOWA 

General description: The wetlands of Iowa are found on the bottomlands along 
the Missouri (Forney's Lake), Mississippi, and other rivers (Bergo's Slough), 
and in poorly-drained sloughs and potholes in the northern glaciated section of 
the state (Anderson Goose Lake, Dewey's Pasture). 

Status of the wetlands: Many of the sloughs and potholes have been destroyed 
by agricultural practices. Some of the best wetlands are being manipulated for 
waterfowl production. 

Sources of data: Data were provided by state personnel, university biologists, 
and the Regional Director of The Nature Conservancy. 

Recommendations: Top priority should be given to the Dewey's Pasture — 
Smith's Slough area as a Natural Landmark. It is outstanding, both from the 
point of view of quality and the extent to which it has been studied. National 
recognition would increase the probability that the State Conservation Commis- 
sion would continue its present policy of treating this wetland as a Natural Area. 
Anderson Goose Lake is privately owned. Whether the present management 
would be compatible with landmark status would have to be determined. 
Bergo's Slough, Rush Lake, and Forney's Lake are all state-owned. They are all 
reported to be excellent wetlands, rich in wildlife. The question as to whether 
present public hunting policies are compatible with landmark status should be 
determined. 




29 



1 




Wetlands reported for Iowa Habitat type 

I A 1 . * Anderson Goose Lake F-3-M 

IA 2. Bergo's Slough F-3-M, F-4-M 

IA 3. * Dewey's Pasture and Smith's Slough F-3-M 

IA 4. Forney's Lake F-3-M, F-4-M 

Goose Lake (see Anderson Goose 
Lake) 

Island Lake (see Anderson Goose 
Lake) 
I A 5. Rush Lake F-3-M, F-4-M 

Smith's Slough (see Dewey's 
Pasture) 






< 
O 



IA 1 . Anderson Goose Lake. Acreage: 1 35. 

Location: Hamilton County; Waterloo 1:250,000; 1 mile E of Jewell; reached 
via 1-35 and Rt. 175. 

Description: Goose Lake is a shallow marsh with a small watershed. It is located 
at the southernmost tip of the prairie pothole country, which extends from the 
Canadian prairie provinces to central Iowa. As such, its water levels fluctuate in 
relation to rainfall and its vegetational changes go from open-water lake condi- 
tions to predominantly cattail marsh conditions. It is a traditional stop for migra- 
tory waterfowl and shorebirds. It represents a splendid example of the thousands 
of marshes which once were present in Iowa prior to agricultural exploitation. 

References: Errington, P. L. 1963. Muskral populations. Iowa State Univ. 
Press; Errington, P. L. 1957. Of Men and Marshes, Macmillan; 1938. Observa- 
tions on muskrat damage to corn and other crops in Central Iowa. J. Agri. Res. 
57:415-422; Martin, G. W. (ed). 1954. Marsh and aquatic angiosperms of 
Iowa. State Univ. Iowa Studies Nat. Hist. 29(5): 1-92; Sprugel, G., Jr. 1951. 
Spring dispersal and settling activities of central Iowa muskrats. Iowa St. Coll. J. 
Sci. 26(I):71-84; Weller, M. W. 1961. Breeding biology of the least bittern. 
Wilson Bull. 73:11-35; Weller, M. W., and C. E. Spatcher. 1965. Role of 
habitat in distribution and abundance of marsh birds. Spec. Rep. No. 43, Agr. 
Home Econ. Exp. Station, 3 1 p. 

Encroachments: Agricultural practices on shore lands do not provide nesting 
cover for some waterfowl species. The pumping of ground water for main- 
tenance of water levels to promote better hunting may, in the long run, change 
the nature of the flora. There appears to be no danger of drainage for agricul- 
tural purposes. 

Ownership: Anderson Lake Sportsman, Inc., Dr. John Timmons, Secretary, 
Iowa State University, Ames, la. 50010. 

Data source: Keith D. Larson, 433 Westwood Drive, Ames, la. 50010. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Milton W. Weller, Dr. Roger Q. Landers, 
Mrs. Caroline Errington, all of Iowa State University, Ames, la. 50010. 




I A 2. Bergo's Slough. Acreage: 33. 

Location: Worth County; Mason City 1:250,000; 5 miles E of Lake Mills; 
reached via Rt. 105. 

Description: Bergo's Slough is a sedge marsh located in an old oxbow of Elk 
Creek. It is surrounded on three sides by prominent ridges, which give an am- 
phitheater effect. Dominant vegetation on the shallow flats of the marsh include 
lake sedge (Care.x lacustris), tussock sedge (Carex tuckermanni), blue joint 
grass, reed canary, manna grass, and associated wetland forms. In the deeper 
portions (18 inches plus), dominants include bur reed, cattail, and scattered 
beds of sweet flag and hardstem bulrush. It has an extremely rich avifauna, typi- 
cal of midwestern marshes. 

References: Kaufman, G. W., and R. Ivens. 1965. The effects of a flood on 
nesting Iowa marsh birds. Iowa Bird Life. 35:9-1 1; Martin, G. W. (ed). 1954. 
Marsh and aquatic angiosperms of Iowa. State Univ. Iowa Studies Nat. Hist. 
29(5): 1-92. 

Encroachments: An impoundment downstream raises winter water levels that 
permit carp and muskrats to overwinter in the slough. This has resulted in 
elimination of vegetation from the deeper portions of the slough, and a decline 
of overwater nesting marsh birds breeding in Bergo's Slough. However, the 
situation can be remedied by dropping water levels in the impoundment during 
the winter. 

Ownership: State of Iowa, Public Shooting Area. 

Data source: DeVere E. Burt, TNC, 260 Ludlow Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio. 45220. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Milton W. Weller, Department of Wildlife 
Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, la. 50010. 



a 

o 

> 



m<mi*MM t ,Mmm m mxn 




CO 
CO 



5 IA 3. Dewey's Pasture and Smith's Slough. Acreage: 692 (401 in Dewey's 

O 



Pasture). 



Location: Clay County; Fairmont 1:250,000; 4 miles NW of Ruthven; reached 
viaRt. 341. 

Description: Smith's Slough and Dewey's Pasture are abutting properties di- 
vided by Rt. 341. They represent a remnant of the prairie pothole habitat that 
once occupied a large part of northern Iowa. The upland prairie has never been 
plowed, but has been heavily grazed and is now bluegrass-dominated. There are 
many native prairie plants, however. It may represent the best remaining piece 
of kettlehole prairie in Iowa. It is also unique because it is the southernmost ex- 
tension of the "Coteau de Prairie," which is the glacial moraine running 
northward into Saskatchewan. From an ornithological viewpoint, it is an out- 
standing area. All the usual prairie marsh bird species are present. It is probably 
the finest Blue-winged Teal nesting area in North America. Extensive studies 
have been conducted on the area from 1932 to the present. 

References: Bennett, L. J. 1935. A comparison of two Iowa duck nesting 
seasons. Trans. 21st Am. Game Conf. 1935, p. 277-282; Bennett, L. J. 1937. 
Grazing in relation to the nesting of the Bluewing Teal. Trans. 2nd N. Am. Wildl. 
Conf. 1937, p. 393-396; Bennett, L. J. 1938. The 1934 spring migration of 
some birds through Clay and Palo Alto counties, Iowa. Iowa Bird Life 8:2-6; 
Bennett, L. J., and G. O. Hendrickson. 1939. Adaptability of birds to changed 
environment. Auk 56:32-37; Bennett, L. J. 1938. The Blue-winged Teal (Its 
ecology and management). Collegiate Press, Inc., Ames, la. 144 p; Bennett, L. 
J. 1938. Redheads and Ruddy Ducks nesting in Iowa. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Conf. 
3:647-650; Errington, P. L. 1937. The breeding season of the muskrat in 
Northwest Iowa. J. Mammal. 8:333-337; Errington, P. L. 1938. The decline of 
a mink population. J. Mammal. 19:250-251; Errington, P. L. 1939. Reactions 
of muskrat populations to drought. Ecology 20:168-186; Errington, P. L. 1943. 
An analysis of mink predation upon muskrats in North-Central United States. 
Iowa State Coll. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 320; Errington, P. L., F. 
Homerstrom, and I. N. Homerstrom, Jr. 1940. The Great Horned Owl and its 
prey in North Central United States. Iowa State Coll. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. 
277:759-847; Glover, F. A. 1950. Spring waterfowl migration through Clay and 
Palo Alto counties, Iowa. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 25(3):483-492; Glover, F. A. 
1953. Nesting ecology of the pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) in 
Northwestern Iowa. Wilson Bull. 65:32-39; GloveR, F. A. 1956. Nesting and 
production of the Blue-winged Teal in Northwest Iowa. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 
20( 1 ):28-46; Hayden, A. 1943. A botanical survey in the Iowa Lake Region of 
Clay and Palo Alto counties. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 17:277-416; Low, J. B. 
1941. Nesting of the Ruddy Duck in Iowa. Auk 58:506-517; Low, J. B. 1945. 
Ecology and management of the Redhead Nyroca americana in Iowa. Ecol. 
Monogr. 15:35-69; Travis, B. W. 1939. Duck brood counts in Iowa. Iowa Bird 
Life 9(4):46-50. 

Encroachments: The area is now owned by the State Conservation Commission 
and the present policy is to leave it as a "natural area." There has been some 
management. 

Ownership: State Conservation Commission, 300 4th St., Des Moines, la. 
50308. 



05 

-si 



Data source: Dr. Milton W. Weller, Department of Zoology and Entomology, 
Iowa State University, Ames, la. 50010. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Roger Landers, Botany Department, Iowa 
State University, Ames, la. 50010; Dr. Leigh Fredrickson, Director, Gaylord 
Memorial Laboratory, University of Missouri, Puxico, Mo. 63960. 



o 
> 




T \ o-: 



^~\ (_j 



Vt 



s* 



f 
A ' ", I „ f ■ ) 

I! n \ 



X 



) 

> 










/ . > 




A 




GO 
CO 



< 

O 



I A 4. Forney's Lake. Acreage: 1071. 

Location: Fremont County; McPaul 7.5' Quadrangle; about 2.5 miles NW of 
Thurman; reached via county highway. 

Description: Forney's Lake is an old Missouri River oxbow lake where Blue and 
Snow Geese have been stopping over on their spring and fall migrations for 
many decades. This was probably an important goose concentration area when 
man first came to Iowa. It is a very important area for hunting and for observing 
the spring migration of Blue and Snow Geese. 

Ownership: State Conservation Commission, 300 4th St., Des Moines, la. 
50308. 

Data source: Richard Bishop, State Fish Hatchery, Clear Lake, la. 50428. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Tom Berkley, Panora, la. 50216; Lester Lamke, 
Rt. 2, Bedford, la. 50833. 



1 



[936 



r 



j 



■■& 



1936 



F 



R N E Y S L 
M A N A G 



T 



T 



gSMM «*«**-*- , " 







V 



AKE STATE GAME 



EMENT AREA 



I.-MWUMIIIIIIH"" 



wr 



/ - 



939 



,*<L:_. 



/ / 



3/ 

or- 







CD 



IA 5. Rush Lake. Acreage: 522. 

Location: Palo Alto County; Fort Dodge 1:250,000; 8 miles W of Mallard and 
Curlew; reached via Rt. 3 1 4. 

Description: Vegetation is almost all cattail. A small stream enters the west end 
of the marsh and deposits a silt fan which supports lush growth of arrowhead. 
This marsh has been studied by Dr. Milton W. Weller and his students for at 
least a decade. Data on birds and muskrat populations correlated with changes 
in distribution and abundance of vegetation have been accumulated and will be 
published soon. 

References: Frederickson, L. H. 1969. An experimental study of clutch size of 
the American Coot. Auk 86(3):541-550; Frederickson, L. H. 1970. Breeding 
biology of American Coots in Iowa. Wilson Bull. (In press); Hayden, A. 1943. A 
botanical survey in the Iowa Lake Region of Clay and Palo Alto counties. Iowa 
State Coll. J. Sci. 17:277-416; Martin, G. W. ed. 1954. Marsh and aquatic an- 
giosperms of Iowa. State Univ. Iowa Studies Nat. Hist. 29(5): 1-92; Neal, T. 
1969. Home range and movements of muskrats. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci.; 
Provost, M. W. 1947. Nesting birds in the marshes of northwest Iowa. Am 
Midi. Nat. 38:485-503; Weller, M. W., and C. E. Spatcher, 1965. Role of 
habitat in distribution and abundance of marsh birds. Spec. Rep. No. 43, Agr. 
Home Econ. Exp. Sta. 31 p. 

Ownership: State of Iowa. 

Data source: DeVere E. Burt, TNC, 260 Ludlow Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio. 45220. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Milton W. Weller, Department of Wildlife 
Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, la. 50010. 



o 
> 




o 

5 KANSAS 

05 

^ General description: As a midwest plains state, Kansas exhibits a distinctive wet- 

^ land type — the inland salt marsh. Studies of Ungar ( 1964, 1965) in the Big Salt 

Marsh have documented the unique nature of these saline areas. Certain spe- 
cies, such as spikerush (Eleocharis rostellata) and three-square (Scirpus amer- 
icanus) occur both in these inland wetlands and also in the tidal marshes along 
the eastern coast (Roberts and Lohmann 1971 ). Species comprising this vegeta- 
tion are referred to as halophytes and have become adapted to the saline condi- 
tions. Although the flora and associated fauna of such saline marshes are often 
less diverse than those of the fresh-water wetlands, the species present are 
highly restricted in their pattern of distribution. Reservoirs and farm stock 
ponds account for the major permanent water areas in the state. The Arkansas, 
Missouri, and Kansas River basins also provide an invaluable wetland resource. 

Status of the wetlands: Most of the wetlands in the state have been modified by 
grazing or by manipulation of the water levels. Oil-well drilling has also had an 
impact in some areas. The Big Salt Marsh within the Quivira National Wildlife 
Refuge is relatively undisturbed. 

Sources of data: Data were provided by the State Forestry, Fish and Game 
Commission, and university biologists. 

Recommendations: Data on only two areas have been obtained. The most sig- 
nificant, the Big Salt Marsh, comprising over 9000 acres, is relatively 
undisturbed and lies within the Quivira National Wildlife Refuge. Under such 
status it has a considerable degree of protection, although management for 
waterfowl is permitted. An even more extensive tract is the Cheyenne Bottoms 
also located in the central part of the state. Owned by the state, water levels are 
now controlled and specifically manipulated to favor waterfowl. Data on 
privately owned wetlands should be sought. 

Literature cited 

Roberts, M. F., and M. Lohmann. 1971. Tidal marshes of Connecticut — A 

primer about the plants that grow in our Wetlands. Conn. Arboretum Reprint 

Ser. No. 1, 30 p. 
Ungar, I. A. 1964. A phytosociological analysis of the Big Salt Marsh, Stafford 

County, Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 67:50-64. 
Ungar, I. A. 1965. An ecological study of the vegetation of the Big Salt 

Marshes, Stafford County, Kansas, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 46:1-98. 



05 
> 
CO 



Wetlands reported from Kansas 

KS 1. Big Salt Marsh 

KS 2. Cheyenne Bottoms 

Quivira National Wildlife Refuge 
(see Big Salt Marsh) 



Habitat type 

S-10-M,S-11-M 

S-10-M, S-ll-M 



C\l 

5 KS 1 . Big Salt Marsh. Acreage: 9600. 

CO 

2 Location: Stafford County; Great Bend 1:250,000 Quadrangle; 8 miles E of 

vj£ Hudson. 

Description: Occupies part of Rattlesnake Creek valley, a tributary of the Ar- 
kansas River. A broad flat valley with large, inland salt marsh. Area extensively 
studied by Ungar (1964) who has recognized the following vegetation types: 
Tall Distichlis stricta meadow; D. stricta-Suaeda depressa, Spartina pectinata-D. 
stricta; Scirpus americanus-Eleocharis rostellata, and Scirpus paludosus-D. stricta. 
This mosaic of salt grass, sedge meadows, and open salt ponds is relatively 
undisturbed from grazing. Area includes Little Salt Marsh and lies within 
Ouivira National Wildlife Refuge. 

References: Ungar, I. A. 1964. A phytosociological analysis of the Big Salt 
Marsh, Stafford County, Kansas, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 67:50-64; Ungar, I. 
A. 1965. An ecological study of the vegetation of the Big Salt Marsh, Stafford 
County, Kansas. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 46:1-98. 

Encroachments: Oil-well drillings. Grazing on margin. 

Ownership: BSFW. 

Data source: Irwin A. Ungar, Botany Department, Ohio University, Athens, 
Ohio 45701; Lloyd C. Hulbert, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 
Manhattan, Kan. 66502. 



CO 







> 

Z 
CO 

> 

CO 



^ KS 2. Cheyenne Bottoms. Acreage: 19,790. 

CO 

Z Location: Barton County; Ellinwood NW and Ellinwood NE quadrangles; 9 

S miles NE of Great Bend; reached via U.S. 281. 

Description: Large flat oasis with saline soils, often flooded in the past. Now 
much of it has been diked to control water level and maintain conditions favora- 
ble for waterfowl. Around the edge of the area are sites with characteristic salt 
flat vegetation. In the state-owned area, 12,290 acres are listed as being under 
water. Great numbers of waterfowl can be observed during migrations. 

Encroachments: Manipulation of water levels. 

Ownership: Kansas Forestry, Fish and Game Commission. 

Data source: Lloyd C. Hulbert, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 
Manhattan, Kan. 66502; A. W. Kuchler, Department of Geography-Meteorolo- 
gy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 66044. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Kansas Forestry, Fish and Game Commission, 
Pratt, Kan. 67124. 



-J 
01 



0«j: 



— :JUtV«NnOH 



^■■ ti i 'j i 



aonjaoj — 






J 









_j6tn 



,.y 



vJ> 



a 
K 
O 



If 



V 
V 







Pi 


CO 

a 


H 
O 






Q3 


! 




a 

a 


u) 




$M 


t 




a 




CM 





r 






X 






O 






00 

; CM 


. : * 


> , . 



i$5^ 




A 1 

&'• j 

a io| 



h4 
O 

a 
"eg 
a 

H 

■< 



a 

< 
CO 



CM 



,0 



V"' 



"• > <%s* 



"N: 



N 
CM 














p 


eo 




fe 


s 




a 





00 

C\j 


05 


H 






O 




J 


05 




j£ 






: » ! ^ « . I ' ' ! ' 






W 



O 
2^ 



2 

0) 



se 



O 



z 

LU 



KENTUCKY 

General description: Major wetlands occur in the seasonally flooded bottoms of 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers and in shallow lakes formed in old channel scars 
on their flood plains. There are numerous wetlands, usually less than an acre in 
extent in sinks scattered in the karst topography. 

Status of the wetlands: Henderson Sloughs have been disturbed by lumbering, 
sloppy oil extraction operations, drainage, and clearing for agriculture. 
Murphy's Pond is threatened by a dredging operation planned by the U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers on adjacent Obion Creek. 

Sources of data: Only two wetlands were reported, Henderson Sloughs by the 
Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources and Murphy's Pond by a number of 
independent respondents. 

Recommendations: Henderson Sloughs, although clearly disturbed, are worthy 
of review as a Natural Landmark. Their quality should be considered in relation 
to other similar areas in Illinois and Missouri. Murphy's Pond is a most unusual 
wetland, notable for its rich fauna of reptiles and amphibians. 




Wetlands reported for Kentucky 

KYI. * Henderson Sloughs 

KY 2. *Murphy's Pond 



Habitat type 

F-l-Sw 
F-6-Ss, F-7-Sw. 



KY 1 . Henderson Sloughs. Acreage: About 5000. j* 

Location: Henderson and Union counties; Smith Mills and Uniontown quadran- 
gles; about 4 miles W of Smith Mills and 4 miles NE of Uniontown; reached via £s 
Rt. 268 and 136. % 

< 
Description: Area lies in a triangular bend of the Ohio River between the two 
above mentioned towns and Mt. Vernon, Indiana. It is typical river-bottom 
hardwood habitat, with oak-hickory, cottonwood, pecan, water-maple timber 
types and undulating terrain, with sloughs between low ridges subject to annual 
overflow. Deer and swamp-rabbit are present; formerly populated with wild tur- 
key, which might be restocked, if sufficient acreage were protected. These wet- 
lands are extremely valuable to waterfowl, primarily ducks, in pin-oak flats, and 
geese, in flooded cornfields. It is an important late winter, prebreeding season 
conditioning area. Regular census over the past 15 years shows counts of up to 
250,000 ducks and perhaps even more geese during early spring build-up. Fox 
and gray squirrel are abundant. Raccoon and furbearers are common to abun- 
dant. 

Encroachments: Public-funded agricultural practices and subsidies promote 
drainage and clearing, converting $20 swamp land into $400 farm land. Sloppy 
oil operations (spills and overflow of crude and salt water) cause chemical and 
mechanical damages to the area and wildlife. Also, wasteful timber harvest prac- 
tices persist. 

Ownership: Various private owners (names furnished if needed). Some slough 
lands are being purchased in addition to the 900 acres currently owned by the 
Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 
is acquiring title to some in Uniontown. 

Data source: Dan M. Russell, Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, 707 
Josephine Ave., Bowling Green, Ky. 42101. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Lee K. Nelson, Rt. 3, Owensboro, Ky. 
42301. 



Map on following page 



CD 



>■ 

o 

3 



UJ 



i , * 



*: ^ j*r ,J.***" 



_1 


m • * 





«r 




^ 



T -\ 



§m 












s*—4v 



m 



"•■--. >3Sp>»i> 



\ 



Wi 



=dfc- 



C 



M». 



°^ 



*** 








f 






4- 




f ^-~ 




*<> 


'"— ~' 


-:~y 


\s 


*--.„ 


^••~-~ 


X 


y 


'TfS 


-i:\ 



.•"* 



«•< 



»**, 



t 



"X C \ 



,^l 



% 



*«* 






°w 



yvefSoji 









X 



J>> « > <■ 3"" 



\ ^*fc 



■~ i. J. 1 1 "S** — 



---_>-..•.> *-.' 






v -X>o tS 



\ 



Cs 



j? / V E R 



^X 



V> 



rn; — -Xn 






\\ V 






KY 2. Murphy's Pond. Acreage: About 1000. 

Location: Hickman County; Dublin Quadrangle; 3 miles S of Beulah; reached 
via Rt. 307. 

Description: The main pond of about 40 acres probably dates from the New 
Madrid earthquake of 1812. Fifteen acres are virgin bald cypress, the remainder 
were cut over 30 years ago. An egret rookery and an unusual concentration of 
reptiles and amphibians are found. The density of the cottonmouth is especially 
noteworthy. Buttonbush, willows, and roses are the dominant shrubs around the 
pond and herbaceous species are exceedingly abundant making a 3-ft high 
thicket. 

References: Barbour, R. W. 1956. A study of the Cottonmouth, Ancistrodon 
piscivorus leucostoma Troost, in Kentucky. Trans. Ky. Acad. Sci. 17( 1 ):33-41. 

Encroachments: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has plans to dredge Obion 
Creek, within 0.5 mile of the pond. This might drain the pond. 

Ownership: TNC owns 235 acres. The remainder is private. 

Data source: Robert A. Kuehne and Dr. Roger W. Barbour, Department of 
Zoology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. 40506; F. H. Dibble, 320 
Woodlawn, Murray, Ky. 42071; William H. Casey, 1409 Forbes Rd., Lexington, 
Ky. 40505; TNC, 1800 North Kent St., Suite 800, Arlington, Va. 22209. 



m 



O 



i m i ^.y 






U^%Atfl}5 



\J 



,. v.. 






^a. 



-c 



\ \ 




fHV 



v t 



mi 




•V 



^rv 



LitU5 




l" \ixc~-* 



- ^ 



m 



/ ir^ / \>,V 




*m. --aS" 



-V 



^**c~ 



**, 



&t- ** 









-"7/ 



V 



\ry- 






s 

< LOUISIANA 

< 

CO General description: A large portion of the southern half of the state is wetland 

3 formed by the delta of the Mississippi River. An area estimated to be about 10 

3 million acres, consisting of swamps, lakes, and bayous extends almost continu- 

ously from the Pearl River and Lake Pontchatrain on the east to the Sabine 
River on the west. Northward, bottomland forests are found along the major 
river systems, the Mississippi and the Red. Shallow lakes are choked with sub- 
merged and floating aquatics. In places, especially along the coast, extensive 
marshes have developed. The bottomlands and swamps are mostly forested with 
cypress, tupelo gum, and other bottomland hardwoods. On slightly higher 
ground dwarf palmetto stands and cane brakes may be found. Extreme varia- 
tions in water levels, such as occur at Catahoula Lake, create unique growth 
forms and plant associations. On the uplands of the Kisatchie National Forest 
may be found seepage areas supporting bands of vegetation, known as bay galls 
(Hillside Bogs) with Magnolia virginiana as one of the dominant species. 

Status of the wetlands: The vast swamp forests of this state have all been cut 
over. Only fragments of the original timber remain and some of these are of 
poor quality. Other adverse impacts include oil exploration, pollution from 
paper mills and sewage, drainage, highway construction, siltation, and grazing. 

Sources of data: Personnel of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and 
university biologists have provided data. 

Recommendations: As is the case with most of the original habitat types that were once 
widespread in North America, the swamps and marshes of Louisiana have been 
exploited with little regard to preservation of undisturbed samples. Remnants of old- 
growth cypress may still be found at Spanish Lake, and in places along the Atachafalaya 
Floodway, especially around Lake Verret. Riverbank swamp forests, although formerly 
logged for cypress, may be found along the Blind, Amite, Tickfaw, and Pearl rivers 
(Honey Island). These areas should be reviewed to determine which are the most 
suitable to be designated as landmarks. Catahoula Lake represents a different habitat 
situation characterized by extreme fluctuations in water level. Landmark status for a 
portion of this bottomland might help preserve this public holding from encroachments. 
The same might be said of Coochie Brake, a large and varied swamp, fed by springs and 
underlain by bedrock, now partly held by the U.S. Forest Service. The bay galls 
(Hillside Bogs) of the Kisatchie National Forest are a unique habitat that should be 
considered as a landmark. The Ponchatoula Marsh, although disturbed by drainage, fire, 
and logging around the periphery, is the only habitat of this type for which a report has 
been received. Talisheek Creek in St. Tammany Parish has been reported as an outstand- 
ing undisturbed water course of great biological interest. It should be included in the 
landmarks program under the appropriate theme study. 



00 




O 

c 

CO 

> 

z 
> 



Wetlan< 


Is reported from Louisiana 


Habitat type 


LA 1. 


Amite River 


F-7-Sw 


LA 2. 


Atachafalaya Floodway 


F-7-Sw 


LA 3. 


Blind River 


F-7-Sw 


LA 4. 


Catahoula Lake 


F-l-Sw, F-l-Ss, F-l-M 


LA 5. 


Coochie Brake 

Grand Lake (See Atachafalaya 
Floodway) 


F-7-Sw 


LA 6. 


Hillside Bogs 


F-7-Sw 


LA 7. 


Honey Island Swamp 
Lake Verret (see Atachafalaya 
Floodway) 


F-l-Sw 


LA 8. 


Ponchatoula Marsh 
Six Mile Lake (see Atachafalaya 
Floodway) 


F-3-M 


LA 9. 


Spanish Lake 

Tickfaw River (see Amite River) 


F-7-Sw 



s 



< 
z 
< 

CO 



LA 1 . Amite and Tickfaw Rivers. Acreage: Undetermined. 

Location: Livingston Parish; Ponchatoula, Killian, and Springfield quadrangles; 
N and W of Lake Maurepas. 



Description: Riverbank swamps, similar to those of the Blind River, for several 
miles before they empty into Lake Maurepas. 

Ownership: Probably private. 

Data source: Clair A. Brown, 1 1 80 Stanford Ave., Baton Rouge, La. 70803. 







€*U fri S W it WH 






w 



',-p. 



:<Wa<Je^^rW 



*K *C 



>2 



% 



&&J&) 



«i 



«c 









\ 



%*J 




< 






^ 






r 



'" ss \~" eAmite River Light 



LAKE ^*^f 



t^ 



©*' 



MAUREPAS 



y'-^y 






4 









> 



f-JS 






mi - 



: ,t iH 






on? 



"St 



rtR 






I? t& 

3 









*\/ 



£ 






fOBffeW 

// 



00 
CO 



LA 2. Atachafalaya Floodway System. Acreage: Undetermined. 

Location: St. Martin, St. Mary, and Assumption parishes; N of Morgan City; 
reached via U.S. 90 and secondary roads. 

Description: A second-growth cypress swamp contains some original cypress 
and tupelo gum trees. Grand Lake-Six Mile Lake is silting up as a result of con- 
struction of a guide levee system. Lake Verret is the least spoiled portion. 

References: Pritchard, Kniffen, and Brown, edited by James Leander, 
Cat heart Journal, Publ. Louisville Historical Society; Hutton, James, manuscript 
Diary, Archives, Washington, D.C.; see Plates 12, 1 2C in Fisk, H.N. 1952, 
Geological Investigations of Atachafalaya Basin, Miss. River. Comm., U.S. 
Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg. 

Encroachments: Lumbering, guide levees, and oil exploration. 

Ownership: Lake bottom and some shoreline owned by the state of Louisiana. 

Data source: Clair A. Brown, 1 180 Stanford Ave., Baton Rouge, La. 70834. 



o 

C 

> 



■ . ' ■ 



** 



Sk 



%* 






. o : a -~ L. iP 






^•"+~-^\ 




rfh; Re 



00 



< 

CO 



LA 3. Blind River. Acreage: About 25,000. 

Location: Livingston, Ascension, and St. James parishes; Mount Airy Quadran- 
gle; about 14 miles W and NW of LaPlace. 

Description: Blind River is an abandoned river channel about 20 miles in length. 
It is deep but lacks current. It has many meanders. Cypress-tupelo forest of a 
typical "tide water" type occupies the land on both sides. The elevation varies 
between sea level and plus 3.6 ft. Hence there is almost no drainage and the 
land is flooded at the time of late winter and spring rains. The water level goes 
down during the hot summer. Animals include deer, mink, squirrels; Wood 
Ducks nest in the area. 

Ownership: Garyville Land Co., Inc., Garyville, La. 70051; Lutcher and Moore 
Lumber Co., Orange, Tex. 77630. 

Data source: Dr. Willis A. Eggler, Biology Department, Newcomb College, New 
Orleans, La. 70100. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Donald E. Copeland, Department of Biology, 
Tulane University, New Orleans, La. 70100. 



s 1 

s Jicst 



«* 



/ 









>■>— ii™._ 4.. 



m 






/ 






noftpf 






$ A u 

I 






1 j 
4 






<v 

s 

5 



G 
3; 



,*V, 



V? 






00 



O 

c 

CO 

> 



I 



?','&■ 






/ 



-J: 

.ex.. 



mm m 

alitor 






m J vi. 

/ 1 



AW* 9 " 






y 



■■o 



■t I 



1 



"FT"" 1 " 






j V 






mM*|a «** 



ol 



I 






\ 



v 









' ir 



'■fll'l . - c-. 



4 • , 

111'-' 

f ■ ■ I I 



CO 



< 

O 



LA 4. Catahoula Lake. Acreage: 40,000 estimated. 

Location: La Salle Parish; Jena and Buckeye quadrangles; about 20 miles NEof 
Alexandria. 

Description: A rim-swamp lake occupying a depression between bluffs on the 
northwest and flanking levees elsewhere. It has an extreme variation of water 
level of more than 40 ft and a normal seasonal variation of over 25 ft. In the dry 
season (July to November) much of the lake bed is dry, traversed by the mean- 
dering channel of the Little River. The following vegetation zones are found, 
beginning at the margins: mixed hardwood, cypress, water elm-swamp privet, 
dwarf shrub, and grassland. Especially noteworthy are the buttress bases of the 
cypress trees growing at the lower elevations as a response to flooding of the 
cypress zone. Water elm (Planera aquatica), swamp privet (Forestiera acu- 
minata), water locust (Gleditsia aquatica), and cypress are listed in order of 
abundance in the water elm-swamp privet zone. At lower elevations these spe- 
cies become dwarf shrubs. The grass zone is occupied by annuals as the water 
recedes. 

Publications: Brown, C. A. 1943. Vegetation and lake level correlations at 
Catahoula Lake, Louisiana, Geogr. Rev. 33(3):435-445. 

Encroachments: Oil exploration; grazing. 

Ownership: BSFW and State of Louisiana, below mean high water. At least a 
portion is a wild life preserve. 

Data source: Dr. Clair A. Brown, 1 180 Stanford Ave., Baton Rouge, La. 70708. 



00 

^1 




Sawmill 






& 



o 

c 

CO 

> 



\ 



-iNoftfc D oi"t 



1 



GO 
00 



< 
CO 

3 
O 



LA 5.Coochie Brake. Acreage: About 800. 

Location: Winn Parish; Calvin Quadrangle; about 18 miles WSW of Winnfield; 
reached via U.S. 84 and undesignated local roads. 

Description: An extensive swamp with varying wetness, and a wide variety of 
wetland trees and shrubs. There are cypress-tupelo brakes, oak flats, and 
streamside communities of red maple-hornbeam, and beech. The area is a 
geological peculiarity with a large wet area associated with numerous scattered 
springs adjacent to a layer of bedrock. Exposed bedrock is uncommon in Loui- 
siana. 

Encroachments: Scattered logging continues. Because most of the species of the 
lowland areas in Louisiana (similar to Coochie Brake) are presently not sought 
out, disturbance is generally not drastic in such areas. 

Ownership: Partly by USFS. 

Data source: George H. Ware, The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, III. 60532. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Hans Raun, Chief Ranger, Kisatchie National 
Forest, Alexandria, La. 7 1 301 . 




00 
CO 



LA 6. Hillside Bogs, Red Dirt Game Management Area. Acreage: 40 estimated. 

Location: Natchitoches Parish; Kisatchie Quadrangle; about 25 miles SE of 
Natchitoches; reached via Rt. 1 17 S of Hagewood to about 3 miles S of Bell- 
wood, then E about 6 miles on Longleaf Ridge Drive. The bogs are found along 
the sides of the ravines near the crest of the ridge. 

Description: In deep sandy, hilly areas, unusual concentrations of species are as- 
sociated with continuous seepage that may involve dozens of tiny springs, creat- 
ing an elongate, descending area of wetness. Locally, these hillside bands of 
vegetation are called "bay-galls." Sweetbay magnolia (Magnolia virginiana) is 
usually abundant. Poison sumac (Rhus vernix) reaches its southernmost point in 
the United States in the bay-galls. Smilax laurifolia often clambers over all of the 
woody plants. Two or three species of Lycopodium and several species of 
orchids are also present. 

Encroachments: The Red Dirt Game Management Area has been protected 
from grazing for 40 years. Controlled burning is practiced. There is probably no 
great problem of encroachment. The uniqueness of the "bay-galls" should be 
emphasized to the Forest Service. 

Ownership: USFS, Kisatchie National Forest. 

Data source: George H. Ware, The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, 111. 60532. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Frank Finison, Chief Ranger, Kisatchie Na- 
tional Forest, Pineville, La. 71360. 



O 

c 

C/) 

> 







o 
o> 

< LA 7. Honey Island Swamp. Acreage: About 5760. 

< 

rz Location: St. Tammany Parish; Nicholson, La. -Miss. Quadrangle; 5 miles E of 

^ Slidell; about 2 miles E of I- 10; reached via U.S. 190 (turn north to Boy Scout 

O camp); boat or airplane required. 

Description: Excellent example of a cypress-tupelo swamp. Large cypress was 
logged early in this century as it was everywhere in the Gulf-Coast area, but 
other than that it has been relatively undisturbed. Several tributaries of the Pearl 
River flow through the area. The swamp floods every spring when the river flow 
increases. It is this flooding which maintains the cypress-tupelo type vegetation 
by excluding upland trees. The rivers are fresh-water but because they empty 
into the Gulf of Mexico they reflect a daily tidal influence, at least in times of 
low water. Animals present include deer, black bear, mink, raccoon, feral pigs, 
squirrels, owls, hawks. "Indian Village" is an old Indian campsite in the 
southern part of Honey Island, an island of about 40 acres with an elevation of 
about 30 ft above swamp level. It supports a fine stand of mixed forest. It is the 
best stand Dr. Eggler knows of in southern Louisiana. 

References: Hall, T. F., and W. T. Penfound. 1939. A phyto- sociological 
study of a cypress-gum swamp in southeastern Lousiana. Am. Midi. Nat. 21:378- 
395. 

Encroachments: Interstate Highway 10 is now under construction across the 
area (SW to NE), and this will open it to increased fishing and hunting. These 
have been limited due to inaccessibility by most people. Pollution from the 
Crown Zellerbach paper mill in Bogalusa, La., and the Crosby Chemical Corp. 
in Picayune, Miss., and also sewage pollution from Bogalusa have been 
problems. Indian Village is being used as a Boy Scout camp and the forest is 
being literally hacked to pieces by little boys. It needs to be saved. 

Ownership: Poitevent and Favre Lumber Co. Contact Mr. Eads Poitevent, In- 
ternational City Bank, New Orleans, La. 70100. 

Data source: Dr. Willis A. Eggler, Biology Department, Newcomb College, New 
Orleans, La. 70100. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Daniel Stern, Department of Biology, Loui- 
siana State University, New Orleans, La. 70100; Dr. Al Smalley, Department of 
Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, La. 70100. 



CO 



IB 

to 

4 I o 

I r 




"«^%/,: s 



**" 






1> &«,-, 






§Mi 1 



* 



$< 



^Sb. « 









011 'x* wft : 'h iS 



^v 



"*,., 






">*V 









* 1 






i & X } ~ 

• V \\ ; _. 



& sis T „ • I M - 

«" - J - - *4 | -s a 



R» 



mc. c*t 



**- 







% 






\. 






27 



Oeer 
Island 



'I, 



2-4 



Hi. 4 



§ <* ?4 



* ** 




- ^x 


" ~ 


\ 




% 


"•--s#A^ir« oitch 


* « 


J?H 


?6 






-*> I* "%, \ Goo* J -£r— 



24 



% 



o 

c 

CO 

> 



CM 



< 
CO 



LA 8. Ponchatoula Marsh. Acreage: 4000 estimated. 

Location: Tangipahoa Parish; Ponchatoula Quadrangle; about 1 mile SE of 
Ponchatoula; reached via U.S. 51. 

Description: A fresh-water marsh with a cypress swamp border. Panicum 
hemitomon, with Typha, Sagittaria, and Pontederia, forms a thick mat over what 
was probably a former lake bed. 

Encroachments: A drainage canal was dug in part of the marsh about 10 years 
ago and the peat, which was 6 ft deep, is becoming compacted. The adjacent 
cypress swamp was one of the last major swamps to be logged in Louisiana. 
Trappers burn part of the marsh every year. 

Ownership: Not reported. 

Data source: Clair A. Brown, 1 180 Stanford Ave., Baton Rouge, La. 70803. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Earl Ray Wascom, Botany Department, 
Southeastern Louisiana, Hammond, La. 70401. 




CD 
CO 



LA 9. Spanish Lake. Acreage: 700 estimated. 

Location: Iberville Parish; Baton Rouge Quadrangle; about 14 miles SE of 
Baton Rouge; reached via Rt. 42. 

Description: An outstanding cypress swamp with large trees. The land adjacent 
to the lake area also has some rather large trees. Some of these trees are dead; 
all were so defective that they were not cut when the area was logged some 50 
years ago. The lake is too shallow for an outboard part of the year. 

Encroachments: Recent drainage canals have resulted in lowering the lake level. 
The new interstate highway may pass close by. 

Ownership: Not reported. 

Data source: Clair A. Brown, 1 180 Stanford Ave., Baton Rouge, La. 70803. 



O 

c 

C/5 
> 




^ 



rf ^jC 7 












W MAINE 

< 



General description: As a result of glaciation, Maine exhibits a vast network of 
poorly drained depressions and little lakes, where tree-covered bogs and heath 
vegetation have developed. Black spruce and larch are the typical bog trees. 
Shrubby ericads (members of the heath family) are especially abundant. Most of 
the areas reported are bogs. Some marshes may be found on the Moosehorn Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuge. 

Status of the wetlands: The inland wetlands of Maine are still in good condition. 
They are numerous and of low commercial value. Near the larger cities, such as 
Augusta, there is some danger of destruction due to development and the ex- 
ploitation of sand and gravel. 

Source of data: Personnel from Inland Fisheries and Game, university biologists, 
and others knowledgeable of the state's wetlands contributed the information 
summarized. 

Recommendations: The following bogs are outstanding and are recommended 
for landmark status. Orono Bog, comprising 1500 acres near the University of 
Maine, is readily accessible and in private ownership. Data on the potential of 
this bog as a Natural Landmark were submitted to the National Park Service in 
January 1967, by M. W. Coulter, University of Maine. Alton Bog, an excellent 
open heath of 2500 acres, is in the same vicinity. It is readily accessible and can 
be seen from Route 1-95, which bisects it. These two bogs are close to the 
University of Maine at Orono. The Passadumkeag Marshes are extensive heaths 
and marshlands traversed by Cold Stream. The Salmon Stream is a similar type 
of area. Meddybemps Heath, a large undisturbed sphagnum bog with black 
spruce, encompassing some 2000 acres, is extremely isolated, but may be 
reached by foot or boat during most of the year. The Caribou Bog of about 
1000 acres is another wetland noted for its rich orchid flora. Tyler Pond and Joe 
Pond are in a complex of marsh, bog, and upland sites, outstanding for its glacial 
features. This area is located near the new University of Maine campus. Our 
correspondents give Tyler Pond priority over Joe Pond. We feel the whole com- 
plex should be looked at. Landmark status would help to assure the preservation 
of this area as a future educational facility. Similarly, the Deblois complex 
should be given high priority for its bogs, potholes, and glacial formations. The 
Colby-Marston Preserve is a college-owned bog already under permanent pro- 
tection. The Sunken Bog Natural Area has been set aside as a research area 
within the extensive Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge. 



CD 




> 

Z 
m 



Wetland; 


» reported for Maine 


Habitat type 


ME 1. 


Alton Bog 


F-8-B 


ME 2. 


Caribou Bog 


F-8-B 


ME 3. 


Colby-Marston Preserve 
Crystal Bog (see Caribou Bog) 


F-8-B 


ME 4. 


*Deblois Barrens 
Fairbanks Pond (see Tyler Pond) 
Joe Pond (see Tyler Pond) 


F-8-B 


ME 5. 


Meddybemps Heath 


F-8-B 


ME 6. 


*Orono Bog 


F-8-B 


ME 7. 


Passadumkeag Marshes 


F-8-B, F-3-M 


ME 8. 


Salmon Stream 


F-8-B 


ME 9. 


Sunken Bog Natural Area 
Thousand Acre Bog (see Caribou 
Bog) 


F-8-B 


ME 10. 


*Tyler Pond and Joe Pond 


F-8-B, F-3-M 



CD 



lil 

Z 

< 

2 



ME 1. Alton Bog. Acreage: 2500. 

Location: Penobscot County; Orono and Passadumkeag quadrangles; 5 miles 
NW of Old Town. 

Description: Extensive, completely filled bog, largely an open heath community. 
It is quite spectacular and easily viewed from 1-95. 

Encroachments: Bisected by 1-95. 

Ownership: Probably private. 

Data source: H. E. Spencer, Jr., Chief, Game Division, Inland Fisheries and 
Game, State Office Bldg., Augusta, Me. 04330. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Botany Department, University of Maine, Orono, 
Me. 04473. 



\ V If! | 

"1 iSl 




-V \ *»Sh 



W\ t C € Z ^ !Z ^^^J, \ isH&fc 




(0 



ME 2. Caribou Bog (Thousand Acre Bog). Acreage: About 1000. 

Location: Aroostook County; Sherman Quadrangle; about 0.5 mile S of Crystal, 
chiefly on the east side of the abandoned B & A Railroad. 



> 

Z 

m 



Description: A calcareous bog with a rich flora of orchids (Cypripedium reginae, 
Pogonia, Calopogon, Arethusa, Habenaria leucophaea, H. hyperborea), dwarf 
birch (Betula pumila), Valeriana uliginosa, and many interesting sedges, includ- 
ing Carex exilis. 

Ownership: Probably private. 

Data source: Frederic L. Steele, Tamworth, N.H. 03886. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Well known to the late Dr. Merritt L. Fernald 
and to the late Dr. Arthur S. Pease of Cambridge, Mass. 






Mi 



V ■„' 



/ 






* k * <- 



S 



1/ < Y 



»$? 





PyE 






**.' 


vaU 


x x \ - 


**? -% 










r^ I 




, . 






g ., *^ Ikfi ; '■ 




* 




/ 1 A.' € 




~* 




■" -<> 


/ ~ 


•*• «.-V *\V 


<*&. 




1 


/ * 


<* * v x - 


w& 


"^ ;/ 


"V 


W~ 




<t- 






- "V 


/"» j 




aF J 




hf / 

Thousand A eft -aminigJ, 



H 



' ff Crystal 



\ 



£o£ 



s * 



i /V ki v 



**■■ *#<?-, 




/7 ./s 



I as {^* >«k .» 






7 £ 



^r 





C 0. 



SI - \r 









r 



c\ 



R-tPAA 



JSi, 



■50-" -\!« 



«f ) 



Wer 






V" 



■*» I ■*■/■■ ', ' ' « 

r r ) - -V v 



u 



I* C2> 




* 



* 






s 



LU 

Z 

< 



ME 3. Colby-Marston Preserve. Acreage: 21. 

Location: Kennebec County; Augusta Quadrangle; about 1 1 miles NW of Au- 
gusta; 0.2 mile N of Hamilton Pond and bounded on the E by Foster's Point Rd.; 
reached via Rt. 27. 

Description: A kettle-hole bog located on the side of an esker, with a 
Chamaedaphne-Picea mariana association, surrounded by a pine-hemlock- 
northern hardwoods second-growth forest. 

Ownership: Colby College (acquired by gift through TNC which holds a 
reverter interest). 

Data source: The Nature Conservancy. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Ronald B. Davis and Dr. Donaldson Koons, 
Colby College, Waterville, Me. 04901 . 



so < «><■ 







/ m 



CD 
CO 



ME 4. Deblois Barrens. Acreage: 200-600. 

Location: Twp. 18, Washington County; Cherryfield Quadrangle, NW corner; 
about 55 miles SE of Bangor; reached via Rt. 193 and a dirt road around 
Schoodic Lake. 

Description: A remarkable series of glacial formations; barrens, steep slopes, 
lakes without an outlet, potholes, sphagnum bog, and heath areas; in an un- 
developed area. 

Encroachments: None. 

Ownership: Probably private. 

Data source: A. E. Brower, 8 Hospital St., Augusta, Me. 04330. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Luther Davis, Maine Forest Service, Cherryfield, 
Me. 04622. 



> 

Z 

m 



v X 




o 
o 

CM 



LU 
< 



ME 5. Meddybemps Heath. Acreage: Approximately 2000. 

Location: Washington County; Calais Quadrangle, 15'; 25 miles SW of Calais; 
reached via routes U.S. 191 or Rt. 9. 

Description: A highly elevated sphagnum bog, with stunted black spruce, deep 
game trails, rocky island outcrops. Unspoiled. Accessible by boat and by foot 
with conventional footwear at most seasons of the year. 

References: County Soil Survey. 

Encroachments: None. Areas close by the heath consist of old farm fields and 
blueberry land. Most of the timber has been removed. 

Ownership: Robert Gillespie, Meddybemps, Me., and others. 

Data source: Robert V. Wade, Refuge Manager, Moosehorn National Wildlife 
Refuge, Calais, Me. 04619. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Lloyd Clark, 30 Baring St., Milltown, Me. 04619. 



' t 




\c\ im ;\ov &5k & 



ro 
o 



ME 6. Orono Bog. Acreage: 1500. 

Location: Penobscot County; Orono Quadrangle; 1 mile SW of Orono; reached 
via U.S. 95. 

Description: Good example of a northern bog. Easily accessible for study. Many 
similar areas in region, but few if any as easy to reach for general public or 
university community. 

Encroachments: Timber harvest. Area just missed by a recent new interstate 
highway. 

Ownership: Private; attempts to purchase (for public ownership) have failed to 
date. Owner apparently not willing to sell. 

Data source: Dr. Malcolm W. Coulter, 121 East Annex, University of Maine, 
Orono, Me. 04473. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Charles Richards, Deering Hall, University of 
Maine, Orono, Me. 04473; Dr. Albert Barden, Coburn Hall, University of 
Maine, Orono, Me. 04473. 



> 

Z 

m 




CM 
O 
CM 



LU 

z 
< 



ME 7. Passadumkeag Marshes. Acreage: 1000 estimated. 

Location: Penobscot County; Passadumkeag Quadrangle; 1-5 miles E from Pas- 
sadumkeag Village; reached via U.S. 2 and the country road on Enfield Hor- 
seback. 

Description: A prominent ridge ("horseback") with a huge expanse of heath 
and marsh land. Deep and cold Cold Stream and Little Cold Stream cross the 
area, which supports a variety of different plant habitats, with associated animal, 
bird, and plant life. Three areas are particularly marked, one the "Thousand 
Acre Bog" to the southeast, one on Cold Stream, and one south of the Pas- 
sadumkeag River. 

Encroachments: A very large area with no developments except the dirt road on 
the horseback. 

Data source: A. E. Brower, 8 Hospital St., Augusta, Me. 04330. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Ray Potter, R.F.D., Lincoln-Enfield, Me. 04457. 



— 111^ 


v^ 


\ 


a ""V" V ^lGSP*w C '-^r-' "-" 


♦ "* - 1^£ 


".( ! 




x ^,-^k"\ 


V. v*i-3 


^k\_ 


y\ 




" ■- . ! .. 


^^j 




\ViVv "%^~Mx 








'." V/' . v — s^^raESt 
















J — 


4-T 






t w 


A ^' ■* ■. ' * 


%': 


M y * 


-JRoekg 
JHpa 






O 
CO 



ME 8. Salmon Stream. Acreage: 1 200- 1 500. 

Location: Penobscot County; Sherman Quadrangle; about 2 miles W of 
Benedicta; may be reached via 1-95. 

Description: A slow-flowing, meandering stream in a wildland situation, bor- 
dered by bog and heath plants. 

Encroachments: None at present. 

Ownership: International Paper Co., Livermore Falls, Me. 04254. 

Data source: H. E. Spencer, Jr., Chief, Game Division, Inland Fisheries and 
Game, State Office Bldg., Augusta, Me. 04330. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Francis Dunn, Inland Fisheries and Game, 
State Office Bldg., Augusta, Me. 04330. 



> 

Z 

m 



HEESEY TOWN 



T 2 



a 

o 



ee® 



\ 






% 




row-f<? 



'592 



\. 



A 

••I 



l 



B M 
52 7 



■MT- '*- 



T 1 R 6 w; 

LitUp. Salmon/Stream Lake \ 



I 

r 



■ Pont 

i 

< 



s 

CM 



UJ 

z 
< 



ME 9. Sunken Bog Natural Area. Acreage: 10. 

Location: Washington County; Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge. 

Description: Bog lakes surrounded by sphagnum heath with black spruce and 
tamarack. 

Ownership: BSFW, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge. 

Data source: RNA-332. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Refuge Manager, Moosehorn National Wildlife 
Refuge, Box 285, Calais, Me. 04619. 



ro 
o 

Ol 



ME 10. Tyler Pond and Joe Pond. Acreage: 100-300. 

Location: Summer Haven area, Kennebec County; Augusta Quadrangle; S of 
Messalonskee Lake; about 8 miles N W of Augusta; reached via Rts. 1 1 and 27. 

Description: Surrounding Tyler and Fairbanks ponds, this area is believed to be 
the outstanding area for glacial formations in Maine, containing as it does 
several somewhat diverse water areas, potholes, eskers, drumlins, outwash areas, 
areas of assorted till, and other glacial phenomena of outstanding development 
and concentration. The area includes an unusual variety of plant life from rich 
upland to marsh and sphagnum bog. Less than 2 miles to the northward, 150- 
300 acres about Joe Pond, the next pond to the west, offer a most desirable area 
with less developed eskers, but better developed pothole bog pools, and as- 
sociated cold sphagnum bog plants. 

Encroachments: None as yet, but can be expected any time. 

Ownership: Probably private. 

Data source: A. E. Brower, 8 Hospital St., Augusta, Me. 04330. 



> 

m 



3 I . 




8 



g MARYLAND 



< 

2 



^ General description: The fresh-water wetlands of Maryland include ( 1 ) swamps 

GC in the Atlantic Coastal Plain on either side of Chesapeake Bay, some of which 

are dominated by northern extensions of bald cypress (Battle Creek Cypress 
Swamp and Pocomoke Swamp), and some by gum and pin oak (Zekiah 
Swamp); and (2) bogs and bog forest in poorly drained pockets in the western 
upland (Cranesville Swamp, Cranberry Swamp, and Cunningham Swamp). 

Status of the wetlands: Lumbering and drainage for agriculture have disturbed 
or destroyed some extensive wetlands in the Pocomoke River drainage. Peat 
mining, pollution from strip mining, and threats of flooding for water supplies 
are mentioned as taking place in the wetlands located in the mountains. 

Sources of data: Personnel of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland 
Fish and National Park Service Reports were the principal sources of informa- 
tion. 

Recommendations: The Pocomoke River and Swamp are chiefly an estuarine 
habitat and, hence, do not belong in this report. Most of the extensive fresh- 
water swampland lying upstream from tidal influence has been destroyed. What- 
ever remains, however, should receive high priority for recognition as a land- 
mark along with the outstanding downstream estuary. The two should comple- 
ment each other. Battle Creek Cypress Swamp, an outstanding outlier of a 
southern habitat, has already been designated a Natural Landmark. The Zekiah 
Swamp, as an oak-gum swamp would be a desirable landmark also, if it could be 
assured of protection. The Finzel Swamp is now being preserved by The Nature 
Conservancy. It is the only shrub swamp reported for the state and should be a 
landmark. The Cranberry and Cunningham swamps may also be worthy of 
recognition. McKee-Beshers Marsh is the only open marsh that has been sug- 
gested. More data on this area will be required before an evaluation can be 
made. 







2 

> 

33 

-< 

Z 
D 



Wetlands reported from Maryland 

MD 1 . Battle Creek Cypress Swamp 

Cherry Creek Glades (see Cranberry 
Swamp) 
MD 2. Cranberry Swamp 

Cranberry Swamp (see also Finzel 
Swamp) 

Cranesville Swamp (see West 
Virginia) 
MD 3. Cunningham Swamp 

MD 4. * Finzel Swamp 

MD5. McKee-Beshers Marsh 

MD 6. ' *Pocomoke River and Swamp 
MD 7. Zekiah Swamp 



Habitat type 

F-7-Sw 



F-8-B 



F-8-B 

F-6-Ss 

F-3-M 

F-7-Sw 

F-7-Sw 



CO 

o 

CM 

Q 

Z 

< 

_J 

> 

rr 
< 



MD 1 . Battle Creek Cypress Swamp. Acreage: 100. 

Location: Calvert County; Broomes Island and Prince Frederick quadrangles. 

Description: Registered Natural Landmark. Northernmost stand of bald cypress 
on the western shore of Chesapeake Bay. Lower sections of the swamp are 
under tidal influence. Although the original cypress was cut years ago, one huge 
specimen still remains intact, and a vigorous young stand is developing. This iso- 
lated remnant shelters an interesting fauna as well as a representative sample of 
the cypress swamp flora. 

Ownership: The Nature Conservancy. 

Data source: The Nature Conservancy. 




Point 



on 



MD 2. Cranberry Swamp (Cherry Creek Glades). Acreage: 663. 

Location: Garrett County; McHenry Quadrangle; 5 miles E of McHenry; 
reached via Mosser Rd. 

Description: About 400 acres are bog and the remainder, wooded swamp. Bog 
plants include Sphagnum, cranberry, leatherleaf, black spruce, Labrador-tea, 
and sedges. Animals include woodcock, mink, muskrat, beaver, fox, skunk, rac- 
coon, deer, cottontail rabbit, snowshoe hare, grouse, and turkey. 

References: Catalog of natural areas in Maryland. 1968. Maryland State 
Planning Dept. Listed under name of "Cherry Creek Glades and Peat Bog." 

Encroachments: A small area is being commercially mined for peat moss. Acid 
mine pollution has eliminated fish temporarily. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: J. R. Goldsberry, Biologist, Maryland Department of Game and In- 
land Fish, State Office Bldg., Annapolis, Md. 21401. 



> 

5 






■&K 






a ~ : S^ 




/ 


<5i 














4& 




■ / ,. 
, ) 


,/ / 




<\ 


ft ', 






4 


V . 


" "'- "I 






, '- 


■-,'*— \ *'■ 


\ 




t '* 


%>i ' 


i 


x 


**■<■' 


^"—*+. 


' 


\ 




/' *S, 



o 
c\i 

Q 

z 
< 

> 

< 



MD 3. Cunningham Swamp. Acreage: 134. 

Location: Garrett County; Bittinger Quadrangle; 2 miles S of Bittinger; reached 
via Rt. 495. 

Description: The bog vegetation includes cranberry, sweetbay, cotton grass, 
Labrador-tea, spruce, maple, and alder. Animals present include woodcock, rac- 
coon, skunk, fox, beaver, mink, muskrat, bear, turkey, grouse, squirrel, and cot- 
tontail rabbit. 

Encroachments: It could be destroyed if it were drained for pasture or flooded 
for water supply. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: J. R. Goldsberry, Biologist, Maryland Department of Game and In- 
land Fish, State Office Bldg., Annapolis, Md. 21401. 




IV) 



MD 4. Finzel Swamp (Cranberry Swamp). Acreage: 120. 

Location: Garrett County; Frostburg Quadrangle; 3 miles NNW of Frostburg; 
reached via Md. 546. 

Description: This is a shrub swamp. The vegetation includes cranberry, spruce, 
maple, alder, willow, birch, and poplar. Animals present include woodcock, 
muskrat, mink, fox, beaver, deer, turkey, cottontail rabbit, squirrel, and ruffed 
grouse. 

References: Catalog of natural areas in Maryland. 1968. Maryland State 
Planning Dept. 

Ownership: Private. Being acquired by TNC, including 230 buffer acres. 

Data source: J. R. Goldsberry, Biologist, Maryland Department of Game and In- 
land Fish, State Office Bldg., Annapolis, Md. 21401. 



> 

< 

> 

Z 
D 




CM 
CM 



5 

DC 

< 



MD 5. McKee-Beshers Marsh. Acreage: 3 to 10. 

Location: Montgomery County; Sterling, Md.-Va. Quadrangle; 5 miles SE of 
Seneca. 

Description: Open marsh with pickerel weed and Polygonum spp. 

References: Report on the wetlands of Maryland. Maryland State Game and In- 
land Fish Commission. 1968. Annapolis, Md. 

Ownership: Maryland Inland Fish and Game Commission. 

Data source: Frederick R. Swan, Jr., 204 East View Dr., West Liberty State 
College, West Liberty, W. Va. 26074. 










I 















<^m^ 



hi s 







G-A«,J 






—X 

CO 

MD 6. Pocomoke River and Swamp. Acreage: 20,000 estimated. S 

> 

Location: Worcester, Wicomico, and Somerset counties; occurs mainly along _< 

the lower 30 miles of the Pocomoke River between its mouth and a point above 

Snow Hill. 



Description: The mysterious "black water," the fine stands of bald cypress, the 
unusual fauna and flora, the practically bankless edges of the river, and the rich 
human history give the Pocomoke qualities that in many respects are equalled 
nowhere else in the United States. The river rises in what was formerly known as 
the "Great Cypress Swamp" of Delaware and Maryland and flows between nar- 
row banks for about 60 miles to its entrance into Pocomoke Sound. Thirty miles 
of the stream, from its mouth to Snow Hill, is navigable, ranging in depth from 
14 to 36 ft and having an average width of 100 ft. For much of its distance the 
river is virtually without a shore line, merging gradually into its swamp borders. 
The woody swamp occupies a narrow strip along each bank of the river and its 
tributaries. It is continuous for about 30 miles and varies in width from 0.5 to 
nearly 2 miles. The lower portion of the river is brackish and bordered by salt 
marshes. Both the river and adjacent swamp lands are affected by tidal flow up- 
stream to a point well above Snow Hill. Much of the upper swamp, especially 
that above tidal influence, has been greatly altered by drainage, lumbering, and 
agriculture. Little of the original swamp now remains north of Highway 50. The 
lower portions have been little disturbed. 

References: Beaven, G. F., and H. J. Oosting. 1939. Pocomoke Swamp; A 
study of a cypress swamp on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Bull. Torrey Bot. 
Club 66:367-389 ill.; Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. 1966. A report on the 
recreation aspects of the proposed Pocomoke River and Chincoteague Canal, 
Worcester County, Maryland; Kensey, C. 1966. The Pocomoke River. Tingle 
Printing Co., Pottsville, Md.; Mansueti, R. 1950. Extinct and vanishing mam- 
mals of Maryland and the District of Columbia. Maryland Nat. 20( 1-2): 1-48, ill.; 
Mansueti, R. 1953. A brief natural history of the Pocomoke River. Maryland 
Department of Research and Education; McCaui.ey, R. H., Jr. 1945. The 
reptiles of Maryland and District of Columbia. Natural History Society of Bal- 
timore. 194 p. ill.; Society of Natural History, Del. 1945. Annotated check list 
of amphibians and reptiles of the Del-Mar-Va Peninsula. 9 p.; Taylor, J. W. 
1967. The Pocomoke-Maryland's swamp wilderness. Maryland Conserv. July- 
August, 1967, p. 8-11; Williams, H. A. 1967. Maryland's big black water. Salis- 
bury Times. 

Ownership: Ownership is complex. Much of the swamp represents the lower ex- 
tremities of many farms bordering on the river. The Pocomoke State Forest with 
an area of 12,700 acres lies astraddle the river several miles below Snow Hill. 
Shad Landing State Park abuts the river on its eastern shore 4 miles southwest 
of Snow Hill. The Milburn Recreational Park on the opposite shore is approxi- 
mately 4 miles farther downstream. The 710 acre Pocomoke Wildlife Manage- 
ment area lies north of Pocomoke City. 

Data source: Pocomoke River and Swamp, a report by Ernst Christensen, In- 
terpretive Planner, NPS, 1968. 



> 

Z 
D 



Map on following page 



CM 



< 
2 




01 



MD 7. Zekiah Swamp. Acreage: 1000 estimated. 

Location: Charles County; Popes Creek Quadrangle; E of U.S. 301 and 
Faulkner. 

Description: This wooded swamp includes stands of pin oak and sweet gum 
traversed by clear swamp streams. Good stands of American holly and a Great 
Blue Heron rookery are special features. 

Ownership: Private; a portion by Dr. William Sill. 

Data source: Report on Natural History Survey of Property of William Sill by L. 
K. Thomas, Jr., Research Park Naturalist, NPS, 1966. 



> 
33 

-< 



Z 
D 



VS 

V 



WM% 



1 ^^»^%^p:s^ 



V 




«9 



* 







t*. 



V >** % 






<■>*■ 




CD 
C\j 

£2 MASSACHUSETTS 

h- 

(/) General description: A recent state survey reported 300,000 acres of significant 

^ wetlands in the Commonwealth. Among the fresh-water types reported are cat- 

q tail marshes, wooded swamps, and northern black spruce bogs. Swamp forests 

< are represented by deciduous and coniferous phases, the former dominated by 
J* red maple and its associates, the latter by southern white cedar. Flood-plain 

< types along the Connecticut and Sudbury rivers exhibit hardwood, buttonbush, 
•^ and alder swamps and cattail and sedge marsh communities. Small wetlands sur- 
rounding some of the fresh-water ponds of Cape Cod contain some northern ex- 
tensions of the flora of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. 

Status of the wetlands: Some of the threats to the inland wetlands include filling 
for dumps, developments such as shopping centers, draining for agriculture, and 
flooding for a pumped storage facility. In heavily populated areas treatment for 
mosquito control was also mentioned. 

Sources of data: The staff of the Massachusetts Audubon Society provided most 
of the data. Responses were also received from university biologists and State 
Game personnel. The Boston Office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in- 
dicated that voluminous files of wetland data were available, but that it was una- 
ble to supply information by mail on specific outstanding areas due to limited 
staff. An invitation was extended to use these files, which could provide an addi- 
tional source of potential areas. 

Recommendations: Among the northern bogs, one still in private hands seems 
especially worthy of preservation. This is the Congamond Bog on the Connec- 
ticut-Massachusetts border, reported as a typical lowland type. Hawley Bog, a 
northern spruce bog in the Berkshires, has been acquired for preservation by the 
Connecticut River Watershed Association and Black Pond (Vinal Nature 
Preserve), a southern white cedar bog, is being similarly protected by The Na- 
ture Conservancy. These two should qualify as landmarks. Poutwater Pond ap- 
pears to be another interesting boggy area in need of protection, and action 
should be taken to preserve it. Hockamock Swamp comprising some 6000 acres 
is one of the few remaining extensive white cedar swamps. It represents a wet- 
land type in vital need of protection at this latitude. Schenob Brook Swamp is 
reported to be an extensive wooded swamp with a great diversity of species. The 
ownership is private. An outstanding marsh and river-bottom complex (about 
2000 acres) lies within the Greai Meadows National Wildlife Refuge along the 
Concord and Sudbury rivers. The Lynnfield Marsh in Essex County and the 
marshes along the North River merit attention. At the headwaters of the Sudbu- 
ry River in Worcester County, several hundred acres of mixed wetland con- 
sidered of outstanding importance are threatened by development. We have 
received no data on the fresh-water wetlands of Cape Cod. There may be some 
good ones within the Cape Cod National Seashore. 







Wetlands reported for Massachusetts 



MAI. 



Habitat type 



MA 2. 


•MA 3. 


>fKMA4. 


MA 5. 


MA 6. 


MA 7. 


*MA 8. 


• MA 9. 


* MA 10 



Black Pond (see Vinal Nature 






Preserve) 






*Congamond Lakes and Bog 


F-8-B 




Cranberry Swamp (see Hawley Bog) 






Fanny Stebbin's Refuge 


F-l-Sw 


, F-3-M 


* Hawley Bog 


F-8-B 




*Hockamock Swamp 


F-8-B 




Lynnfield Marsh 


F-3-M 




Poutwater Pond 


F-8-B 




*Schcnob Brook Swamp 


F-7-Sw 


, F-3-M 


South Hanson Swamp 


F-8-B 




Sudbury River Headwaters 


F-6-Ss, 


F-7-Sw 


Vina! Nature Preserve 


F-8-B 





> 
c/> 

CO 

> 
o 



CO 

m 

CO 



F-6-Ss 



00 
CO 



LU 
CO 

X 
O 
< 

CO 
CO 

< 



MA 1 . Congamond Lakes and Bog. Acreage: 500 acres of bog, 700 acres of 
open lake. 

Location: Hampden County; Southwick, Mass. -Conn. Quadrangle; just N of the 
Connecticut-Massachusetts border, SW of Springfield and S of Southwick. 

Description: The best bog is located between South Pond and Spencer Pond just 
south of Rt. 190. It is one of the finest lowland bogs in the state, and distinctly 
different from Hawley Bog. The lakes are as yet fairly untouched for this area of 
Massachusetts, but are rapidly being developed. 

Encroachments: Some of the bogs have been filled in as garbage dumps, but 
some are still unspoiled. 

Ownership: Privately owned by summer residents. 

Data source: Bruce Lund, Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, Mass. 

01773. 



W6smr§ 4 




, JPf /M m^.v 



MA 2. Fannie Stebbin's Refuge. Acreage: More than 200. 

Location: Hampden County; Springfield South Quadrangle; within the limits of 
Longmeadow and Springfield; reached via Rt. 5. 

Description: Flood plain and terrace communities of the Connecticut River with 
numerous marshy areas including buttonbush, alder, and red maple-elm 
swamps, and cattail and sedge marshes. 

Encroachments: Longmeadow Town Dumps and privately owned agricultural 
lands. 

Ownership: Allan Bird Club and Longmeadow Conservation Commission. 

Data source: Bruce Lund, Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, Mass. 
01773. 



ro 



> 

0) 
> 

O 

I 

c 
m 



0) 



•j-'Y : \ 








?;!•• '*"' W 


-.*} *■' 


mk • : % 


,* •' ?&% 


i^tg^a* 


*t" '••'"'• SI 


* ^ 


' ? .* •* l\ * 


'- *> - 




.■#?*- 


~0'f; •|3i / 


#; 


;•/'/;: U'^ 


#•?&>■ 


-</ i 


•\ • "* '" "\ *J % 


~ 4- M- 


vN ' » , » * * t \ i i 


•°/ ■ »c 


\ f. N ~" 'X ' *• 




: jjr*Sfc si 


' <& 


^0*° %\ 




. 5$\ 


'« 


v. . v^s \ 


- v ■ - s .'. 


; s : m 


'" >• ; 




o 

CM 
CM 



CO 

t= 

LU 
CO 

I 
O 
< 

CO 

2 



MA 3. Hawley Bog (Cranberry Swamp). Acreage: About 100. 

Location: Franklin County; Plainfield Quadrangle; about 1 mile NW of Hawley; 
reached via East Hawley Road; altitude 1700 ft. 

Description: One of the best bogs in the Berkshires. With limited drainage, the 
basin is surrounded by high hills which make it an excellent area for ecological 
and palynological studies. The area includes a black spruce stand, heath com- 
munity, and sphagnum mat with unique flora (Sarracenia purpurea, Drosera 
rotundifolia, Vtricularia sp., orchids, sedges, etc.). Surrounded by upland forest 
dominated by hemlock-northern hardwoods. 

References: Moizuk, G. A., and R. B. Livingston. 1966. Ecology of red maple 
(Acer rubrum L.) in a Massachusetts upland bog. Ecology 47:942-950. 

Encroachments: None, other than for field trips from Amherst College, Univer- 
sity of Massachusetts, and other educational institutions. The area might be 
destroyed by construction of winter cabins built by winter sports visitors. 

Ownership: 45 acres owned by the Connecticut River Watershed Council; the 
remaining part of the bog lies in the Hawley State Forest and is owned by the 
state. 

Data source: Bruce Lund, Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, Mass. 
01773. Gene Likens, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850; Task Force for 
Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems (USIBP-PF). 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Robert Livingston, Botany Department, 
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass.; Mrs. Georgene Bramlage, Cave 
Hill Rd., Leverett, Mass. 01054; Connecticut Valley Watershed Council. 



— ' "v, .v 




W^mmM 






MA 4. Hockamock Swamp. Acreage: 6000. 

Location: Bristol County; Taunton Quadrangle; 3-4 miles N of Taunton; 
reached via Rt. 138. 

Description: An extensive cedar swamp, one of the few remaining white cedar 
swamps in the state. 

Encroachments: Attempts to purchase area have been thwarted by local busi- 
ness interests who wish to fill around the perimeter for industrial development. 

Ownership: Presumably private. 

Data source: Warren W. Blandin, Division of Fisheries and Game, Field 
Headquarters, Westboro, Mass. 01581. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Louis Schlotterbeck, District Manager, Mas- 
sachusetts Division of Fisheries and Game, Bourne, Mass. 02532; Norman 
Cousins, Department of Natural Resources, 100 Cambridge St., Boston, Mass. 
02202. 



> 
CD 
0) 
> 

O 

I 

c 

CO 

m 

H 
H 
CO 




CM 
CM 
CM 



CO 



UJ 
CO 

1 

5 



MA 5. Lynnfield Marsh. Acreage: 300. 

Location: Essex and Middlesex counties; about 1.5 miles NE of Wakefield; 
reached via Rt. 128. 

Description: Cattail marsh; traditional site for finding migrant marsh birds, sur- 
rounded by sprout hardwoods and numerous, scattered houses. 

Encroachments: Industrial and amusement park developments have come right 
up to the edge on two sides; a golf course is on a third. Parts may be in control 
of local conservation commissions but it is annually subjected to treatment for 
mosquito control. 

Data source: William H. Drury, Jr., Hatheway School of Conservation Educa- 
tion, Lincoln, Mass. 01773. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Bennett Keenan, 17 Hart Rd., Lynnfield Center, 

Mass. 01940. 



.vnfieM 
Such. rfeV. 




CO 



MA 6. Poutwater Pond. Acreage: 300 estimated. 

Location: Worcester County; Sterling Quadrangle; nearest city, Worcester. 

Description: The pond is in a large wooded area. Many interesting plants are 
found on a quaking bog, including Orontium aquaticum (near its northern limit), 
orchids, a number of species of Utricularia, and many pitcher plants. 

Encroachments: Probably none. It is located in a rapidly developing area. 

Data source: Edmund Schofield, Department of Botany, Ohio State University, 
1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210. 



2 
> 

CO 
CO 

> 

o 

I 

CO 

m 



CO 




CM 
CM 

J2 MA 7. Schenob Brook Swamp. Acreage: About 6000. 

I- 

W Location: Berkshire County; Bashbish Falls, Mass. -Conn. -N.Y. Quadrangle; 5 

3 miles N of Salisbury, Conn.; reached via Rt. 4 1 . 

X 

Description: An extensive wooded swamp with a great diversity of herbaceous 
(/) species. Wildlife includes mink, otter, beaver, muskrat, fox, bobcat, and deer. 

CO 
S Encroachments: Threatened by flooding as a pumped storage facility by 

Northeast Utilities. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: John H. Storer, Sheffield, Mass. 01257. 







> 

C/) 
(J) 
> 

O 

I 

c 
m 



o> 



CD 
CM 
CM 

CO 



CO 

z> 

I 

o 

< 

CO 
CO 

< 



MA 8. South Hanson Swamp. Acreage: 500. 

Location: Bristol County; Hanover and Whitman quadrangles; along the rail- 
road tracks between South Hanson and Monoponsett Pond. 

«^ Description: A large area of white cedar and red maple. 

Data source: William H. Drury, Jr., Hatheway School of Conservation Educa- 
tion, Lincoln, Mass. 01773. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mrs. Paul Anderson, R.F.D. 2, Winter St., Mid- 
dleboro, Mass. 02346; Ralph Bean and Richard J. Eaton, who have served on 
the New England Botanical Club herbarium committee; Albion Hodgdon, De- 
partment of Botany, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 03824. 



/. 






\ .-4io 



i!!(rm>! netm jt 
Pond ^ 



South Hanson* -,V a- 









o 






W4 



C\ 



"&s 



'V. 



JliMhxifh x 



^V 



X 



'A 



V 



Crar-b«fr> 









Barrage 
Pmd 



Bog 






-i 



\4 



8S~S 



Bur rage 
Po nd 



HA I/« P 


A. 


P 


i I 


',/- 


' £* * 


** ^? 7 ' / i4fr.'. . \. 

f J ■ ; M 

v -\_ £ 







h^^: 



rOOi 



(^ \- 



<X ,. 






o 



f! "^ 






ro 
ro 
^i 

MA 9. Sudburv River Headwaters. Acreage: 300-400. 2 

Location: Worcester County; Marlboro Quadrangle; 0.5 mile E of Westboro; w 

reached via Rt. 9. jj? 

Description: Mixed brush swamp, hardwood stands, and some cedar. ^ 

05 
Encroachments: None at present; possible threat from a shopping center [Tj 

development. The towns involved have rejected flood-plain zoning. 



Data source: William H. Drury, Jr., Hatheway School of Conservation Educa- 
tion, Lincoln, Mass. 01773. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Allen Morgan, Massachusetts Department of 
Natural Resources, 100 Cambridge St., Boston, Mass. 02202; James Baird, Mas- 
sachusetts Department of Natural Resources, 100 Cambridge St., Boston, Mass. 
02202. 



C/> 



Map on following page 



GO 
CM 
CM 



CO 

UJ 
CO 



o 
< 

CO 
CO 

< 



:4- 



"T 



.V-„- 






A 



s 



i ZXS 
*>* 




SJi % 




5 \V sV 


-J 




$ -■- 


\ - 


■ fk 





a: 










c 






k£& . <3u -, ,M/^^m^£M^>^&'^^ %\ 



MA 10. Vinal Nature Reserve. Acreage: 51. 

Location: Plymouth County; Cohasset Quadrangle; about 4 miles S of Cohasset. 

Description: A typical northern sphagnum bog surrounds a small, glacial, kettle ^_ 
hole pond. Southern white cedar, black alder, mountain holly, Labrador-tea, 
leatherleaf, and Andromeda are present. 

Ownership: The Nature Conservancy of Massachusetts, Inc. 

Data source: TNC. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. William G. Vinal, RFD 2, Vinehall, Grove 
St.,Norwell, Mass. 02061. 






> 

03 
0) 
> 

o 

I 

c 
to 
m 



C/) 




- V^^2*-— '-, ^> & *>-~M~Sm (3 i 



•a V \ 



^-i^feSSi fiiltlSk! >'^ 






o 

CO 
CM 

2 MICHIGAN 

g 

X General description: Michigan, as a glaciated state, has a very large number of 

O poorly drained, boggy wetlands. In addition, there are marshy areas as, for ex- 

2 ample, along the edge of Lake Huron (Tobico Marsh), in the Detroit- River 

(Celeron Island), and on the Upper Peninsula within the Seney Wildlife Refuge. 

Status of the wetlands: Encroachments on the wetlands include pressure for 
recreational use as on Celeron Island; timber removal and development around 
Grand Mere Lakes. In the case of a dedicated natural area in the National 
Forest such as the Virgin Cedar Swamp, where records regarding location have 
been lost or mislaid, the safety of old growth timber may be in jeopardy. 

Sources of data: Data were provided by the chairman of the Michigan Natural 
Areas Council and the National Park Service. Coverage of the state was very in- 
adequate. 

Recommendations: Of the areas reported, the Grand Mere Lakes Area, which is 
highly significant from an educational standpoint, has already been evaluated by 
the National Park Service as an eligible Natural Landmark. Presently in private 
hands, the integrity of this complex of bogs and lakes is threatened by en- 
croachments. Formal designation as a Natural Landmark should be helpful in 
encouraging restrictive zoning. Three outstanding areas — Dead Stream, Celeron 
Island, and the Tobico Marsh— are presently all or partly in state ownership. 
Designation as landmarks should be helpful in encouraging a policy of preserv- 
ing these areas for their natural area values and in restricting their recreational 
use. The Waterloo Spruce Bog is now owned by the Michigan Botanical Club 
and is worthy of recognition. The quality of Proud Lake Bog is inadequately 
documented. The Dead Stream Preserve is now being permanently protected by 
The Nature Conservancy, but this is only a portion of the area. Registration as a 
landmark might help to Firm up a commitment by the state on adjacent acreage. 
The wetlands within the Northern Hardwoods Natural Area, the Seney Wil- 
dlife Refuge, and the Virgin Cedar Swamp are on federally owned lands and 
have already been recognized and dedicated as natural areas by the agencies in- 
volved. 



ro 

CO 




O 

I 

O 
> 

z 



Wetlands reported for Michigan 



Ml 1. 
MI 2. 
MI 3. 
MI 4. 
MI 5. 
MI 6. 



Ml 7. 

MI 8. 

MI 9. 
Ml 10. 



*Celeron Island 

*Dead Stream Preserve 

*Dead Stream Swamp 

*Grand Mere Lakes Area 
Northern Hardwood Natural Area 
Proud Lake Bog 
Seney National Wildlife Refuge 
(see Strangmoor Bog Natural Area) 
Strangmoor Bog Natural Area 

*Tobico Marsh 

Virgin Cedar Swamp 
Waterloo Black Spruce Bog 



Habitat type 

F-3-M, F-4-M 
F-8-B 

F-7-Sw, F-8-B 
F-5-M, F-8-B 
F-8-B 
F-8-B 



F-8-B, F-2-M, F-3-M, F-7- 

Sw 
F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M, F-6- 

Ss, F-7-Sw 
F-8-B 
F-8-B 



CM 
CO 
CM 



< 

O 

I 

o 



MI 1. Celeron Island. Acreage: 500-600. 

Location: Wayne County; Rockwood Quadrangle; lower Detroit River. 

Description: A major wildfowl nesting area and feeding ground. Deer are abun- 
dant and bear are also in the area. Osprey are nesting; Bald Eagles and Sandhill 
Cranes have been seen. 

Ownership: State of Michigan. 

Data source: Professor Ronald O. Kapp, Department of Biology, Alma College, 
Alma, Mich. 48801. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Joseph Swan, 512 Hill St., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
48404. 



••V •' Gibraltar 



tv«. 


*.j8ni®\\ 




C ' 


L. 


<T3 




'XI \ 


__ 


~0 




C 




3 




* O 


Lights 


ct 



S57 



/ 



}\ Sturgeon Bar 
! Island 



XI 

.■■ I 

: h 




GO 
GO 



MI 2. Dead Stream Preserve. Acreage: 1600 estimated. 

Location: Benzie County; Frankfort Quadrangle; at the eastern end of the Platte 
Lakes. 

Description: Tamarack bog with some portions open, along Dead Stream, con- 
necting Little Platte Lake with Big Platte Lake. Orchids are found in the bog 
and water lilies and lotus in the slow-moving stream. 

Ownership: TNC owns 196 acres; outlined on the map within the area; state of 
Michigan; private landowners. 

Data source: TNC. 



O 

I 

O 
> 






ffei 




6,:6'-,.C>.-. ■ ~.. - 







fig . % w 



CO 
CM 



< 

g 



MI 3. Dead Stream Swamp. Acreage: 20,000 estimated. 

Location: Missauke and Roscommon counties; Houghton Lake Quadrangle; 
q NW of Houghton Lake; accessible by boat only. 

Description: Largely untouched and second-growth cedar swamp, with 
thousands of acres of wildlife cover and habitat. Important for migrating water- 
fowl; Osprey nesting; Bald Eagles and Sandhill Cranes have been seen. Deer are 
abundant and bear present. 

Encroachments: Protected to some extent by the state. The Michigan Natural 
Areas Council considers that this area needs further protection. 

Data source: Ronald O. Kapp, Biology Department, Alma College, Alma, Mich. 
48801. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 
Field Office, Houghton Lake, Mich. 48629, Attention of Dr. Duvendeck; Mr. 
Joseph Swan, 512 Hill St., Ann Arbor, Mich. 48404. 



CO 

01 




i**J/ IS 



/ «o 



"3 ' 



w 



01 



i / 



*s 



I 

J i 






'<• 



0/ 



*v 






m 



Wc 






«\« 



/» 



en 



o 

o 
> 






'2 a/fr 



K 






bhdi 



* d'ffi 



M 



& 



4*" 



«r 






f0 









^ V — « "^-- 






k 






js i 




! 


& 


L 




"I 


^ 
T 




— n 


% N 




£ J 







X 



O" 



a 






- 10 



■a 

a 



■43 



I N 



w 



Q 



s / °ss en 

f-f* v 



CO- 




03 






1 * 



«*~^ 



' ft '■ 



o 



■ <i_- — '(^' i. ^y i y ,^. .. 



IN 



%.o 



p 
Si 



I ''^- ' ^ \ 






m _ 



•' (XlC I 'fcSOi'i i P* : 



S 



CO 
CO 
CM 



< 

O 

I 
O 



MI 4. Grand Mere Lakes Area. Acreage: 1000 estimated. 

Location: Berrien County; Lincoln Township; Benton Harbor and Three Oaks 
quadrangles; 1 mile W of Stevensville; reached via 1-94. 

Description: An eligible Natural Landmark. A series of lakes and bogs illustrat- 
ing various stages in succession from aquatic to terrestrial plant communities. In 
addition to the range of plants typical of these communities, relict species, rare 
in southern Michigan, are found. Sand dunes and upland forest provide buffer 
protection. 

Encroachments: Some timber cutting. Threatened by development. 

Ownership: Three private owners. 

Data source: NPS, evaluation report, March 1968, by Earl W. Estes, Regional 
Naturalist, Northeast Regional Office. 




CO 



MI 5. Northern Hardwood Natural Area. Acreage: 47. 

Location: Marquette County; Skandia Quadrangle, northwestern corner; in the 
Hiawatha National Forest. 

Description: A white cedar swamp with balsam fir and black spruce. Portions of 
a 23 i -acre designated Natural Area. Probably not logged in the past 50 years. 
(SAF-37;RNA-16). 

Ownership: USFS, Upper Peninsula Experimental Forest. 

Data source: A Directory of Research Natural Areas on Federal Lands of the 
U.S. 1968. p. 7. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Director, North Central Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion, USFS, Folwell Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 55101. 



O 

I 

Q 
> 




8 

CM 



< 

g 

i 
o 



MI 6. Proud Lake Bog. Acreage: 100 estimated. 

Location: Oakland County; Walled Lake Quadrangle; 1 mile SE of Commerce. 

Description: No details available. 

Ownership: Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 



.--.-}*' »/C \ » .'**» /*~"*k.\ \ 



* 



m , 



T^^^ ? inane iS '.-. : || |iflFi\ 






■ • « « • III J*"* . 

♦- . _____ _» £-< y> 



•si •(; 

:* ' ♦ ■ 



X *_'\* * * 



• * • ■ 
« * * • • 



% 






93 






i \ v_ r * •* V / £ 3 



-^-^>^ 



:1 rt-fc^-r- 



>\N2W* 



<_ 



-* — r^ — . — < 



4> 



(5 1 




|Q/ 



to //" 






J! 

1 4-1 U fc__4 »oso wtr 





B*HB 


• _.. 


-Z 


1 y^^ 


o 




K 




Ii 




Ui 




R 



'9i?3 



M, , M 1 

V> ■ " ■ s s 

Stuart Lckke 



C E 



Glsrgery 



•>'V-:, ^ 



/?04C 



; 

■»9/6 



N \.y 



23 



ro 

CO 



O 



MI 7. Strangmoor Bog Natural Area. Acreage: 640. 

Location: Schoolcraft County; Seney. (No USGS Quadrangle available.) 

Q 
Description: Naturally treeless peatlands having a pattern of parallel micro- > 

ridges lying across the slope. Tamarack, grassy and sedgy areas, swamps, and z 

marshes. Dedicated as a Natural Area by the Michigan Natural Areas Council. 

Management is minimal. 

References: Kapp, R. O. 1969. Natural area preservation in the age of the 
megalopolis, The Michigan Botanist, 8:30-35. 

Ownership: Seney National Wildlife Refuge, BSFW. 

Data source: Ronald O. Kapp, Department of Biology, Alma College, Alma, 

Mich. 48801; RNA-324. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Refuge Manager, Seney National Wildlife 
Refuge, Seney, Mich. 49883. 



o 

CM 



< 

O 

X 

o 



MI 8. Tobico Marsh. Acreage: About 1000. 

Location: Bay County; Kawkawlin Quadrangle; 1 mile N of Bay City State Park. 

Description: A 326-acre lagoon, stabilized by a dike at the outlet, is surrounded 
by about 290 acres of dense marsh, some of it floating, in which bulrushes, cat- 
tail, pickerel weed, water willow, and Phragmites are dominants. Shrub thickets 
and swamp forest, in which white elm, black ash, red maple, silver maple, 
swamp white oak, and basswood are common, border the marsh. A rich aquatic 
fauna and large flocks of migratory waterfowl are present. Maintained as a 
Sanctuary by the Game Division of the Department of Conservation. 

Ownership: Chiefly by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources; small 
sections private. 

Data source: Michigan Natural Areas Council, Tobico Marsh Site Committee 
Report. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Joseph Swan, 512 Hill St., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

48404. 









V 



v.. Brissotte Beach 



+ 






13 



% 



\ 



-4. 



18-v. 



,\ 



santip 



24 



. \. •. Killamev Beaen 
x» •: 

\ • 



l<\ 



i'Vv 



TOBIC'O MARSH 



'•.Little Killamev Roach 



STATE <;aMK ARElA 



-*."- 



V 



25 



J 30 



\ Tohko Beach 

V 



•Golf c t ,.a£/>vxH' 




TO ^ 

I \ HAY", -A ITY 

'4 \ - 






o 



12 . -\ i 



> 



Csj 

CM 



< 

(3 



MI 9. Virgin Cedar Swamp. Acreage: 233. 



Location: Gogebic County; Ottawa National Forest; exact location not known 
q by USFS personnel now stationed at this forest or by members of the Michigan 

^ Natural Areas Council. 

Description: Dedicated as a Natural Area. Old growth northern white cedar 
stand. 

Encroachments: If the exact location of this area is not firmly established, any 
old-growth stands of timber are in jeopardy. 

Ownership: USFS, Ottawa National Forest. 

Data source: Michigan Natural Areas Council, Ronald O. Kapp, Department of 
biology, Alma College, Alma, Mich. 48801. 






MI 10. Waterloo Black Spruce Bog. Acreage: 40. 

Location: Jackson County; Waterloo Twp.; Stockbridge Quadrangle; about 3 
miles E of Munith; situated just N of the Munith-Waterloo Road between Mt. 
Hope and Parks Roads. 

Description: Lying in a broad shallow depression, this mature bog supports an 
extensive stand of black spruce near the southern limit of its range and such typ- 
ical species as tamarack, highbush blueberry, leatherleaf, chokeberry, poison 
sumac, cranberry, sundew, and pitcher plant. The bog is surrounded by a zone 
of swamp forest dominated by red maple which gives way to upland species on 
the higher ground. 

Ownership: Michigan Botanical Club. 

Data source: Michigan Natural Areas Council, Waterloo Black Spruce Bog 
Reconnaissance Report, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Paul W. Thompson, 
Chairman. 



O 

o 
> 




; 



Jfon*>\* 






'^ 




I 



.Parte* Stihf>Ql 



\< 



B ML 



\s\e 



R& 



t>r 




22 



PSi 



v M^His School 



/ 



5 

CM 

f* MINNESOTA 

O 

General description: The state of Minnesota lies in an east to west transitional 

Z region between forest and prairie. Within the eastern forested section there is 

— also a transition from deciduous to coniferous forest as one moves northward 

^ toward the Canadian border. 

Wetlands reported in a 1955 inventory by the Fish and Wildlife Service 
totaled 5,000,000 acres, including marshes, swamps, and bogs (USDI 1955). In 
the western part of the state, the prairie potholes represent the most significant 
wetland type. As one moves from the southern to the northern part of the 
forested region of the state, the swamp hardwood forests are replaced by the ex- 
tensive peatlands (Heinselman 1963, 1970) and coniferous bogs (Janssen 
1967). Ecologically, these peatlands represent a unique wetland type in North 
America. 

Status of the wetlands: In the prairie pothole country the major threat is 
drainage for agricultural use. In 1961 the Fish and Wildlife Service reported that 
approximately 20,000 waterfowl-habitat acres were drained by the Soil Conser- 
vation Service between 1955-58 (USDI 1961). This is still the most serious 
threat to the thousands of small potholes in the western prairie section of the 
state. 

Within the forested region, especially in the northern peatlands, cutting, road 
construction, and drainage are potential encroachments on some of the most 
remote wilderness wetlands in North America. 

Source of data: Information has been furnished by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, the Minnesota Department of Conservation, and ecologists with the 
U.S. Forest Service and at the state universities. 

Recommendations: Wetland data from the three major vegetation regions of the 
state have been received. In the western prairie region, three areas have been 
reported. Two are sizeable tracts — Waubun Prairie (640 acres) and Hellickson 
Prairie Tract (400 acres). The Waubun Prairie may be adequately protected 
under state ownership. It represents one of the finest wet prairie areas in close 
proximity to the Itasca Biological Station and is frequently used as an outdoor 
ecological laboratory. The Hellickson Tract, under private ownership, is under 
lease to the Fish and Wildlife Service. It represents a tract that should be given 
the very highest priority as a potential Natural Landmark. The third, Allie John- 
son Unit (40 acres) exhibits the typical prairie pothole terrain. In the vicinity of 
this unit, sizeable areas near Pelican Lake and Lake Christina should be in- 
vestigated, especially at the junction of the Otter Tail, Grant, and Douglas 
County borders. 

North of the University of Minnesota is the Cedar Creek Natural Area owned 
by the university. An outstanding mosaic of wetlands exists within the area, in- 
cluding the famous Cedar Creek Bog where Lindemann ( 1941 ) carried out his 
classical ecological studies. Although adequately protected, national recognition 
would add to the future status of this research area. Some habitat management 
occurs within the tract but the wetlands are probably not affected. 

Among the northern peatlands the Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area has 
already been designated as a Natural Landmark. Of the other three reported, 
two — Lost River Peatlands and North Black River Peatlands— occur in the 
vicinity of Lake Agassiz. Both have been studied by Heinselman ( 1963, 1970), 
who indicates that the exact acreage of these extensive areas is yet to be deter- 
mined. The Upper Red Lake Peatlands, which lie to the southwest, are as- 



o 



Oi 

sociated with the Upper and Lower Red Lakes. All the typical wetland commu- ^ 

nities are represented which makes this area an ideal candidate for Natural 2 

Landmark status. All of these areas are largely under either state or federal rri 

ownership. The North Black River Peatlands under the U.S. Bureau of Land CO 

Management should be given special consideration. 

The wetland complex of bogs, bog lakes, and swamps within the Itasca State 
Park currently provides ecological study areas for staff and students of the 
Itasca Biological Station. National recognition of the entire wetland complex 
within the park would lend further protection to this educational asset. 

Literature cited 

Conway, V. M. 1949. The bogs of Central Minnesota. Ecol. Monogr. 19:174- 

206. 
Heinsei.man, M. L. 1963. Forested sites, bog processes, and peatland types in 

the Glacial Lake Agassiz Region, Minnesota. Ecol. Monogr. 33:327-374. 
. 1970. Landscape evolution, peatland types and the environment in the 

Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area, Minnesota. Ecol. Monogr. 40:235-261. 
Janssen, C. R. 1967. A floristic study of forests and bog vegetation, 

Northwestern Minnesota. Ecology 48:751-765. 
Lindemann, R. L. 1941. The developmental history of Cedar Creek Bog, 

Minnesota. Am. Midi. Nat. 25:101-1 12. 
U.S. Dept. ok the Interior. 1955. Wetland Inventory of Minnesota. Fish and 

Wildlife Service Report, Office of River Basin Studies. 
. 1961. Waterfowl Production Habitat Losses Related to Agricultural 

Drainage, North Dakota, South Dakota and Minnesota — 1954-58. Fish and 

Wildlife Service Report. 



CD 
CM 



< 
I- 

o 

CO 
HI 




Wetlands reported from Minnesota 



MN 1. 
MN 2. 
MN 3. 
MN 4. 

MN 5. 
MN 6. 
MN 7. 
MN 8. 



Allie Johnson Unit 
*Cedar Creek Natural History Area 
*Hellickson Prairie Tract 
*Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural 
Area 

Lost River Peatlands 
North Black River Peatlands 
Upper Red Lake Peatland 
Waubun Prairie 



Habitat type 

F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 
F-7-Sw, F-8-B 
F-3-M, F-5-M 

F-8-B 
F-8-B 
F-8-B 
F-8-B 
F-3-M, F-5-M 



ro 



MN 1 . Allie Johnson Unit. Acreage: 80. 

Location: Douglas County; Ashby Quadrangle; T. 130 N., R. 40 W., S-30. Nl/2 
part; 4 miles SE of Ashby; reached via 1-94 and local roads. 

Description: The rolling topography exhibits scattered shallow prairie potholes 
and sections of unbroken prairie. Excellent waterfowl nesting habitat. Situated 
near the 4000-acre Lake Christina with historic duck migration history. 

Encroachments: The wetlands are protected by a Fish and Wildlife Service 
easement. The prairie sod is highly vulnerable to destruction. 

Ownership: Allie Johnson, Ashby, Minn. 56309. 

Data source: G. E. Mann, Wetlands Office, BSFW, Fish and Wildlife Service, 
P.O. Box 222, Fergus Falls, Minn. 56537. 



m 

0) 
O 




(ft M I2<**i I.' 5 ."*•"" 



iU*» 1235 (,• 






I 









I> E LI OJLJST 

23 



% 



N&5&.^^ 



••r-~ [ 



CO 
CM 

< MN 2. Cedar Creek Natural History Area. Acreage: 5400 estimated. 

O 

C/3 Location: Anoka-Isanti counties; Isanti Quadrangle; 40 miles N of Minneapolis; 

W reached via Rt. 65 and County Rd. 24. 

= Description: Biological research area of the University of Minnesota, it includes 

a variety of natural undisturbed environments such as Fish Lake, Beckman 
Lake, Cedar Creek Bog Lake, and the surrounding Cedar Creek Bog. Cedar 
Creek and its extensive swampy complex run north and south through the area. 
This is a truly outstanding mosaic of wetlands, where tamarack, white cedar, 
and black spruce are especially conspicuous — a southern outpost of boreal 
vegetation. The upland areas include prairie, oak savannah, northern hardwood, 
red pine, and jack pine stands as well as old fields on the Anoka sand plain. 
These are being maintained by prescribed burning. 

References: Marshall, W. H. 1963. Cedar Creek Natural History Area. Minn. 
Academy of Science, Univ. of Minn. This reference includes a bibliography of 
over 40 research papers relating to Cedar Creek Natural History Area, Anoka 
and Isanti counties. Among these are the classic studies of R. L. Lindemann on 
Cedar Creek Bog. 

Encroachments: Access by permit for research or educational purposes. The 
area is patrolled and unauthorized trespass is rare. Final acquisition program is 
now underway. Threat of a major SST airport to the north does not seem acute 
at present. 

Ownership: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 55455. 

Data source: Dr. William H. Marshall, Director, Field Biology Program, Univer- 
sity of Minnesota, 1 12 Snyder Hall, St. Paul, Minn. 55101. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Donald B. Lawrence, Botany Department, 
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 55455; Dr. A. C. Hodson, Head, 
Department of Entomology, Fisheries and Wildlife, University of Minnesota, St. 
Paul, Minn. 55101. 






if s 



' j 

ATHENS 



320 



1-2/ ' 



I 



v 



r ' 



ro 

CD 



m 

0) 

O 






> 






-*»••* ANOKA CO 



v. 



• 



: 



■ - ■ • I 

1 



w-: 



Late 



F 






; ■ r 






:; 



1 

— _ 



~a?0 






>ers Corner 



« 



Fix/j LaJfcf 







]&$ 



%F* 



.** 









' • 



2 



5« 

J 



»-a 



B 

Me:; 



J 






- \<<h Lake 






B 



16 



SrhOOt No 33 






i .. ... Kf.n Sch 

H E L 

saw 

■ i v - - : 



■ x : . \ 



12 



N - > 



1 c; 



•>. 



14 



. 1 -3, 9 o 



i ^ 



ID 



O 
lO 
CM 

^ MN 3. Hellickson Prairie Tract. Acreage: 400. 

O 

CO Location: Becker County; T. 142 N., R. 42 W., parts of sections 30 and 31; not 

yet mapped by the USGS: 24 miles N of Detroit Lakes; reached via U.S. 59 and 

township road. 

Description: Area contains scattered prairie wetlands and unbroken prairie sod. 
One of the very few such sites left in Minnesota. The topography is undulating 
and the depressions are shallow. Past economic use has been largely haying and 
grazing. The area is top quality waterfowl production habitat. More noteworthy, 
however, is its use by prairie chickens. It provides an essential part of their 
habitat in western Minnesota. 

Encroachments: Probably will not be destroyed under present ownership; how- 
ever, it is highly vulnerable to drainage and intensive farming. The wetlands on 
this ownership are protected by a Fish and Wildlife Service easement, but the 
sod could be broken, thus reducing the overall aesthetic and wildlife value. 

Ownership: Alfred and Hazel Hellickson, Ogema, Minn. 56569. 

Data source: G. E. Mann, Wetlands Office, BSFW, Fish and Wildlife Service, 
P.O. Box 222, Fergus Falls, Minn. 56537. 



en 

MN 4. Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area. Acreage: 22,000. <^ 

Location: Koochiching County; International Falls 1:250,000 Quadrangle; 30 Z 

miles S of International Falls. [J] 

O 
Description: Registered Natural Landmark. Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural H 

Area represents an outstanding example of the extensive peatlands which occu- 

py a major part of the bed of ancient glacial Lake Agassiz. It illustrates the 

process of peat accumulation in the 1 1 .000 or so years since Lake Agassiz 

receded. 

Myrtle Lake Bog in the southern portion of the area presents an unusual 
phenomenon. Ecological studies, peat borings and topographical surveys show 
that as the bog surface around Myrtle Lake was built upward, the water table 
also raised; thus elevating the surface by at least 12 feet, so that Myrtle Lake 
continues to exist, contrary to the usual successional process of Lake filling. 

A splendid example of a raised bog occupies some 5000 acres in the northern 
portion of the area. This bog type is characterized by an elevated peat dome 
which supports a cover of heath shrubs, sphagnum moss and stunted black 
spruce. Topographically oriented' communities of spruce radiate downslope 
from the summit of the peat dome. 

Fine examples of string bogs aggregating about 3500 acres occupy the 
drainageways leading to the two principal outlets of the peatland. These string 
bogs are characterized by elongated boggy ridges covered with shrubs, and 
tamarack, alternating with treeless, sedge covered hollows. The ridges and hol- 
lows lie across the slope at right angles to water movement. 

References: Hiinski man, M. L. 1970. Landscape evolution, peatland types and 
the environment in the Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area, Minnesota. Ecol. 
Monogr. 40:235-261. 

Encroachments: Administered by the State Division of Forestry as a natural 
area to be preserved without disturb., ze. 

Ownership: State of Minnesota. 

Data source: NPS. 



Map on following page 



CVJ 

in 

CVJ 



O 
CO 

LU 



Rarne* 



Jack fish Wind 
i Oram' itictrxl 
















MN 5. Lost River Peatlands. Acreage: Large — requires determination. 



ro 
01 

CO 



Location: Koochiching County; Rouseau 1 :250,000 Quadrangle; 20 miles SW of 
Big Falls; reached via routes U.S. 71 or Minn. 72. 

Description: Contains fine examples of string bog and island complex, patterned 
fens, raised bogs, and related patterned peatland features. This area is very inac- 
cessible except in winter, and no research has been done except the reconnais- 
sance work reported by M. L. Heinselman (1963). Also'contains a beach of 
Glacial Lake Agassiz and "disappearing" sections of the Lost River. 



m 

CO 
O 

> 



References: Heinselman, M. L. 1963. Forest sites, bog peatland types in the 
glacial Lake Agassiz region, Minnesota. Ecol. Monogr. 33:327-374. 

Encroachments: Timber harvest around perimeter, last 30 to 40 years. Road 
construction on Lake Agassiz beach. 

Ownership: Largely state of Minnesota. 

Data source: M. L. Heinselman, North Central Forest Experiment Station, 
USFS, Folwell Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 55101. 






y 



w.ite» tower i 



_ I z. \r~* 
5 1 = 

g a 

S I ■ Q 



/*<> 

K 



V 



* 



x. 



f > — .- 



»>*/. 



v. ~s ■ 



\ j l - 



1 * 



J ^J^S^p 333 * 2353 ^^^^^^ 






/-*"* 






17 



>s ! V 



JS& 



r 



> ' ft 



5 / 



./" 



J 



IS 



* 



ettnuni 


Co 


t 








j 














j | 






I 




/ 






j 














u 






! 
1 




> 






1 

1 
















""x. 


V\/ 


~\ 


v\ 






i 


! ' ' 




» 






1 












■0 








! 








u.yi 






















| 















\ 



b 





pa ^^ f^h - 



m 

CM 

< 

O 
en 
tu 



MN 6. North Black River Peatlands. Acreage: Large — requires determination. 

Location: Koochiching County; International Falls 1:250,000 Quadrangle; 25 
miles W of International Falls; reached via Minnesota Highway 1 1 . 

Description: Contains fine examples of patterned fens and some other patterned 
peatland features. See publication below for details. 

References: Heinsei.man, M. L. 1963. Forest sites, bog processes, and peatland 
types in the glacial Lake Agassiz region, Minnesota. Ecol. Monogr. 33:327-374. 

Encroachments: Timber harvest around perimeter, last 20 to 40 years. Winter 
haul roads across peatland at several points. Christmas tree harvest of black 
spruce in some areas. Gravel road crosses area to west and obstructs drainage to 
some extent. 

Ownership: Largely BLM. 

Data source: M. L. Heinselman, USFS, North Central Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion, Folwell Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 55101. 



~wm M 




t •;'- 



ro 
en 
01 



MN 7. Upper Red Lake Peatlands. Acreage: 192,000. 



Location: Beltrami and Lake of the Woods counties; Roseau 1:250,000 2 

Quadrangle; 30 miles N of Bemidji; reached via routes U.S. 71, then U.S. 72 f/) 

north from Blackduck. This peatland is traversed by U.S. 72 and can be seen O 

from the highway, but the best examples of the pattern are 5-25 miles W of this ^ 

highway and immediately N of Upper Red Lake. The better areas are reached 
by turning west off U.S. 72 about 13 miles N of Waskish onto a resort road and 
then onto a fire road. This combination of roads extends about 15 miles W of 
U.S. 72. From there it is 3-7 miles by special bog vehicle to the large water 
tract. 

Description: Extensive unbroken peatlands lying north of the Red Lakes. An ex- 
cellent example of a well-developed domed bog with a 12-ft cap of almost pure 
Sphagnum and with black spruce-feather moss-Sphagnum forest. Plant commu- 
nities present an intriguing flow pattern, including large stream-lined bog 
"islands" up to 4 miles long. To the west of this is a mile-wide fen, an essentially 
flat, shallow, gently-flowing river (similar to the Everglades in this respect), 
predominantly vegetated by sedges, with a cross-ribbed pattern of long, narrow 
ridges and furrows and stream-lined tree "islands that lie parallel to the water 
flow." This area is unique in being the most southern example of a type of peat- 
land characteristic of that extending across northern Canada to Alaska and 
across northern Eurasia. All the typical communities are present. It represents 
the best example of string bog and island vegetation complex. The area is of 
most interest for its rapid transition from wet, highly minerotrophic fen to more 
mesic, highly acidic and ombrotrophic bog; the peculiar tree "islands" with their 
streamlined shape; and the succession of wet furrows alternating with higher, 
less wet ridges, which function as small but highly effective dams to retain 
water. 

References: Heinsei.man, M. L. 1963. Forest sites, bog processes, and peatland 
types in the glacial Lake Agassiz region, Minn. Ecol. Monogr. 33: 327 

Encroachments: Eastern half ditched about 60 years ago. Western half is unaf- 
fected. Some timber harvest of spruce and tamarack along the south and east 
perimeter about 30 years ago. 

Ownership: State of Minnesota and the Upper Red Lake Indian Reservation. 

Data source: Ronald H. Hofstetter, Department of Biology, University of 
Miami, Coral Gables, Fla.; Dr. M. L. Heinselman, USFS, North-Central Forest 
Experiment Station, St. Paul, Minn.; Dr. Eville Gorham, Department of Botany, 
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 55455. 



Map on following page 



CD 

in 

CM 



< 

I- 
O 

CO 
LU 



\ 



jr 



> 



? 



s 



m 



/ A ~\ ) 

( 1 



-t" 



t tower 



AKt OF THf WOODS COUNTY 



^ITKAMI COUNTY 

"\ tffS 



A 



f&b 



H ' W 



/ 



\ 

\ 










MN 8. Waubun Prairie (Waubun Marsh). Acreage: 640. 

Location: Mahnomen County; Waubun Quadrangle; 3 miles SE of Waubun. 

Description: A typical low, wet prairie with highly productive prairie potholes 
utilized by a great diversity of waterfowl. The area is situated in the ecotone 
between eastern deciduous (maple-basswood) forest and grassland biomes. 
Used as an ecological study area by students from Itasca Biological Station. Site 
already evaluated as a Natural Landmark by Dr. Max L. Partch, St. Cloud, 
Minn. (Report submitted September 1968.) 

Ownership: State of Minnesota. 

Data source: David B. Vesall, Department of Conservation, State of Minnesota, 
St. Paul, Minn. 55101. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Max L. Partch, Department of Biology, St. 
Cloud College, St. Cloud, Minn. 56301 . 



m 

CO 
O 




00 
CM 

K MISSISSIPPI 

Q_ 

C/) General description: On the low-lying Coastal Plain extensive river swamps 

CO occur, especially along the Mississippi drainage. Penfound ( 1952) describes ex- 

££ tensive southern cypress-tupelo gum swamps (Taxodium distichum — Nyssa 

2 aquatica) along the flood plains of large rivers. In a forest inventory of southern 

hardwoods (Putnam et al. 1960), the practically pure stands of hardwoods 
found in the alluvial bottoms, hammocks, and swamps are recognized as one of 
four major vegetation site types within the state. Coastal white cedar 
(Chamaecyparis thyoides) represents another swamp type which reaches its most 
southeastern limit in this region. 

Status of the wetlands: Major threats to those wetlands still extant are logging, 
channelization, and industrial pollution. 

Sources of data: Data were provided by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wil- 
dlife and university biologists. 

Recommendations: Of the bottomland hardwood communities reported, the 
Pascagoula River Swamp is the most extensive wetland complex. Comprising 
some 50,000 acres, the area is relatively free from encroachments. It should be 
given high priority as a Natural Landmark. Foster Lake is a large swamp 
dominated by cypress and hardwoods. Although a self-contained ecological unit 
of high wildlife value, management by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers may 
encourage major land-use changes in the future. If these plans were held in 
abeyance, this area might be eligible for national recognition. 

Juniper Swamp represents a unique wetland type, where Chamaecyparis 
thyoides reaches its southern limit. It appears to be an excellent candidate for 
landmark status. Steens Swamp in northern Mississippi is dominated by a com- 
plex of beaver ponds and a cypress hardwoods forest. Under private ownership 
this tract is considered one of the few sizeable undisturbed areas in the state. 

Literature cited 

Penfound, W. T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. Bot. Review 18: 413- 

446. 
Putnam, J. A., G. M. Furnival, and J. S. McKnight. 1 960. Management and 

inventory of southern hardwoods. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, U.S. Forest 

Service Agriculture Handbook No. 181. 



ro 

CO 




CO 
CO 

CO 
CO 

tj 

TJ 



Wetlant 


is reported from Mississippi 


Habitat type 




Big Black Creek (sec Pascagoula 






River Swamp) 




MS 1. 


Foster Lake 


F-7-Sw 


MS 2. 


— ^Juniper Swamp 


F-7-Sw 


MS 3. 


Pascagoula River Swamp 


F-7-Sw 


MS 4. 


Steens Swamp 


F-7-Sw 



o 

CO 
CVJ 



QL 

CL 

CO 
CO 

CO 
CO 



MS 1 . Foster Lake Area. Acreage: 7000 estimated. 

Location: Wilkinson County; Woodville and Artonish quadrangles; 12 miles 
NW of Woodville; reached via Rt. 24 W of Woodville, turning N to Lake Mary. 

Description: The Foster Lake wetland is a large sump area dominated by 
cypress and bottomland hardwoods. The area provides the best waterfowl 
habitat in southwestern Mississippi and lies adjacent to the prime waterfowl 
areas of Louisiana. 

Encroachments: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers are studying the possibility of 
leveeing this and the adjacent area from the Mississippi River to provide farmers 
flood prevention and an improved drainage system. The proposed project will 
encourage land use changes. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Richard E. Eichhorn, Field Supervisor, BSFW, 409 Merchants 
Bank Bldg., Vicksburg, Miss. 39180. 






*« 


if\ 


■_ % 










.*--■' 


h \ 


i * 




a--* '*£ 


r 




P%4a^ ! \ 


. * V 


•t-iv 




•-*> 
t 


% 


*^i; 

.{'• 


-f 


g 


"«■>> 


■£> 




>,•% 


m 


.p» 




% 


•f / 


rS-*»lS 


■rjL 


&A 




J 




f Crip 


\ 

.-L 





ro 



MS 2. Juniper Swamp. Acreage: 800 estimated. 

Location: Pearl River County; Poplarville Quadrangle; 2 miles S of Poplarville; 
reached via County blacktop road 2.3 miles due S of the city limits. 

Description: In this lower coastal plain swamp is the most southwesterly exten- 
sion of Chamaecyparis thyoides, C. foenryae, or both. This genus does not cross ^ — 
the nearby Pearl River into Louisiana. The woody plants are in considerable 
part the typical broadleaf evergreens of the lower coastal plain bottomlands. 

Encroachments: Atlantic white cedar is cut for posts. Crown Zellerbach might 

decide to convert their part of the swamp to slash pine. Through natural succes-^ 
sion, white cedar is being replaced by broadleafed evergreens. 

Ownership: Private and the Crown Zellerbach Corporation, Bogolusa, La. 
70427. Dr. Roberts contacted Crown Zellerbach Corporation in 1962 and 
recommended that at least 40 acres of Section 18 be designated as a natural 
area. 

Data source: Edward G. Roberts, Box 1056, Mississippi State University, State 
College, Miss. 39762. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Dan Williams, Box 138, Prentiss, Miss. 

39474. 



CO 
CO 

CO 
CO 

T> 
TJ 




CM 
CO 
CM 



£ MS 3. Pascagoula River Swamp. Acreage: 50,000. 

Q. 

CO Location: Jackson County; Vancleave Quadrangle; 10 miles N of Pascagoula, 

22 along the Pascagoula River and Big Black Creek. 



CO 
CO 



Description: This area is predominantly bottomland hardwoods, ranging from 
salt-water marsh on the south to as much as 20 ft above sea level at the northern 
extremity. The major portion of the swamp is subject to periodic overflow. The 
vegetation in the fresh-water sector includes Q. alba, Q. nigra, palmetto, Acer 
rubrum, Nyssa sylvatica, Taxodium distichum, Carpinus caroliniana, Carya 
aquatica, Pinus taeda, Magnolia virginiana. Ilex, and Myrica cerifera. 

Encroachments: There are many campsites along the edge of the swamp and 
some along the streams within the area. 

Ownership: Pascagoula Hardwood Co., Laurel, Miss. 39440. 

Data source: Charles E. Bryan, 814 Forrest St., Moss Point, Miss. 39563. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Billie M. Coleman, Education Office, Court 
House, Pascagoula, Miss. 39567. 



ro 






t 



41 






V 



y-6 



IP 






37 






i? 



?er 












ISmtU* 






•ke 


,_iMke 


38 






■ 

Upper Hnmsey 
Lake 


"« 1? 




Do 

Ik 


%A 












fihstdfefc- 


.™ 


l 


Lover Ejpwmy 


ite^f 


V, 


39 





31 






* \?o 



37 



f35 1 



18 



38 



Lake 



20 

4 



ibaise 



PI 



<bl2 



r 



^ 



1 1 1 



! 43 



- ».j — 

6 3 "., 



Salem Ch »* 

P % 



7 J 



13? 



V 



» 1 

ST" 



£i£ 



37 






6 



31 



17 



! 26 v. 



2 

C73 
CO 

CO 
CO 

"0 



? logged 

Rimr 



B V 



39 



Berlmn 

Lake. 



& 



|7?<X*F 







25 


a m 

\ y* .-.-.■■ _ 

19 


Lake. 
Cutop 


g 



40 



30 



29 



._.... L 



« 



l\* 



^ 



41 



p. 






» 



•4 



36 



?3* * 






32 









CO 
CM 



Q- 

a. 

CO 
CO 

CO 
CO 



MS 4. Steens Swamp. Acreage: 1900 estimated. 

Location: Lowndes County; Caledonia Quadrangle; 8 miles E of Columbus; 
reached via Rt. 50. 

Description: A shallow, flooded, mature tupelo gum-bald cypress stand. A com- 
plex of beaver ponds are found within the swamp. This is one of the few rela- 
tively undisturbed areas of extensive size in Mississippi. 



Encroachments: Logging; channelization of the main watershed of the Lux- 
apalila River is planned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to start in 1972. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Dale H. Arner, Department of Wildlife Management, Drawer LW, 
Mississippi State University, State College, Miss. 39762. 



16 



f 






* 



j~— - 



i 



tV JilL 



a -r 






•/ u T.I >N "-— 3f 

/Pi wy Qri)<>4 Ch 2)f ' /' ^/i ' ; ' 




I /-^•« l 



y 



.:.-/ 



? f) f\ 



^iT 



V. 

J 



Gf««!frit.w^ ^ ^-pfeasant Hil! 



*0f 



<% ifl if 



■*&fc 






r.|*Su_ 






I 



lol^C >■>-. ^5> J 



u 



ro 
01 

MISSOURI S 

CO 
General description: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has inventoried q 

377,000 acres of wetlands within the state, including 55,000 acres of open water C 

(BSFW 1955). Wooded bottomlands, such as those found in the Mingo National 
Wildlife Refuge and in the Ten Mile Pond Area along the Mississippi River, ac- 
count for nearly half of this acreage. Twenty percent are in fresh meadows, ex- 
tensive samples being found along the Grand and South Grand rivers. Shallow 
and deep fresh marshes together account for less than \Q c /c. The shallow 
marshes are scattered across the state in small units; the deep marshes are 
chiefly in the river-bottom sloughs. Shrub swamps in the flood plains account 
for about \5 c 7c of the wetlands. Special situations such as springs (Pickle Springs 
and Boone's Lick) and sink holes (Lily Pond) support rare plants of botanical 
interest. 

Status of the wetlands: Encroachments on the wooded bottomlands include 
lumbering and drainage for agriculture. 

Sources of data: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has published a Wetlands 
Inventory (BSFW 1955). Only two major wetland sites have been re- 
ported — both by personnel of the Missouri Department of Conservation. Three 
unusual botanical sites have been reported by university biologists. 

Recommendations: The Mingo National Wildlife Refuge and the Ten Mile Pond 
Area should be examined to determine whether there are significant 
undisturbed portions worthy of landmark status. Since the latter is still in private 
ownership, landmark designation, if feasible, might have higher significance 
from the point of view of wetlands preservation. Samples of swamp, forest, 
shrub swamps, and deep marshes should be found in these areas. Further search 
should be made to locate suitable fresh meadows and shallow marshes. Of the 
special situations. Pickle Springs, now in private ownership, and Boone's Lick, a 
unique saline habitat lying within a state park, might profit most from recogni- 
tion as Natural Landmarks. Lily Pond is already being protected by The Nature 
Conservancy and may also qualify as a landmark. 

Literature cited 

Bureau ok Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Region III. 1955. Wetlands 
Inventory of Missouri. 



CO 
CO 
CM 



DC 

Z> 

O 

CO 
CO 




Wetla 


ids reported from Missouri 


Habitat type 


MO 1 


* Boone's Lick 


S-10-M 


MO 2 


Lily Pond 


F-5-M(ca), F-4-M 


MO 3 


Mingo National Wildlife Refuge 


F- 1 -Sw 


MO 4 


Pickle Springs 


R 


MO 5 


Ten Mile Pond Area 


F-l-Sw 



ro 



MO 1 . Boone's Lick. Acreage: 5. 

Location: Howard County; Glasgow Quadrangle; about 10 miles N of Bo- 
oneville; reached via 1-70, U.S. 40, and Rt. 67. 

Description: A small, low-lying area on Salt Creek, with sandy soil. The im- 
mediate spring area, including three separate flows, not exceeding 5 acres, is ap- 
proximately 2 miles from the Missouri River flood plain. The outflow of the 
springs all appear to be about equal. The spring water contains appreciable 
amounts of salts and hydrogen sulfide. Salt meadow grass (Leptochloa fascicu- 
laris) and saltbush {Atriplex rosea) are present as representatives of the 
phanerogamic flora; Enteromorpha, as a principal salt-tolerant alga. 

References: Weiland. 1962. Masters thesis. Botany Dept., Univ. of Missouri. 

Ownership: Boone's Lick State Park (acquired in 1960). 

Data source: Clair L. Kucera, 108 Lefevre Hall, University of Missouri, Colum- 
bia, Mo. 65201. 

Other knowledgeable persons: State Park Board, Jefferson City, Mo. 65 101 . 



C/) 
O) 
O 

C 
DO 




Jameson 

"34 



Isl'a 



-^SH- 






/y? f S^rf . 











mmm 



mirn^m- Ml 



W? :. 



CO 
CO 
CM 



rr 
o 

0) 
0) 



MO 2. Lily Pond. Acreage: 9. 

Location: Reynolds County; Lesterville Quadrangle; about 3 miles N of 
Redford. 

Description: A geologically and botanically unique upland sinkhole pond with 
unusual vegetation. 

Ownership: TNC. 

Data source: TNC. 



¥?*<&$ ' &■.' 




to 

CO 



MO 3. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge. Acreage: 21 ,646. 

Location: Stoddard County; Puxico, McGee, and Sturdivant quadrangles; 1 mile 
N of Puxico; reached via Rt. 5 1 . 



Description: Bottomland in the ancient channel of the Mississippi River, for- 
merly forested with cypress and black gum, with willow oak, overcup oak, and 
pin oak on the higher ground. Large concentrations of ducks and geese visit the 
area during migration. Wild turkeys and swamp rabbits are among the unusual 
wildlife. 

References: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1959. Rev. 
1966. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge. 

Encroachments: Before acquisition by the Fish and Wildlife Service in 1945, 
lumbering, drainage, fires, and farming seriously disturbed the area. The ecology 
around the refuge is continually changing. The area itself is being managed by 
the BSFW for waterfowl and to preserve its unique features. 

Ownership: BSFW. 

Data source: Clarence Daniel, Missouri Department of Conservation, Box 180, 
Jefferson City, Mo. 65101. 

Other knowledgeable persons: John E. Toll, Mingo National Wildlife Refuge, 
Route 1, Box 9A, Puxico, Mo. 63960. 



CO 
CO 
O 

c 

3J 



Wappapello > 
Reservoir 




POPLAR BLUFF 



CM 



o 

CO 
CO 



MO 4. Pickle Springs. Acreage: About 100. 

Location: Ste. Genevieve County; Sprott 7.5' Quadrangle; about 7 miles E of 
Farmington; reached via Rt. 32. 

Description: Narrow ravines surrounded by high sandstone bluffs shelter a 
mesophytic forest containing many plants rare in Missouri [Sword Moss, shining 
club moss, ground pine {Lycopudium tristachyum), hay-scented fern, rattlesnake 
plantain]. Dripping waterfalls and the upper part of Pickle Creek flowing 
through the ravine should qualify this area as a wetland. 

References: Redfearn, P. L. 1964. Bryophytes of Missouri, IX. Additions to the 
flora. Bryologist 67:201-203; Vitt, D. H. 1967. The Hepaticae of the Pickle 
Springs Area, Southeastern Missouri. Bryologist 70:437-439; Steyermark, J. A. 
1934. Bryoxiphium norvegicum in Missouri. Bryologist 37:47. 

Ownership: E. S. Womack, Rt. 3, Farmington, Mo. (owner or caretaker). 

Data source: Paul L. Redfearn, Jr., Department of Life Sciences, Southwest 
Missouri State College, Springfield, Mo. 65802. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Botanists at Missouri Botanical Garden; J. A. 
Steyermark, Instituto Botanico, Apartado 2156, Caracas, Venezuela; A. J. 
Sharp, Department of Botany, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 37900; 
R. H. Mohlenbrock, Department of Botany, Southern Illinois University, Car- 
bondale, 111. 62901. 




^1 



MO 5. Ten Mile Pond Area. Acreage: 2000. 

Location: Mississippi County; Bayouville and Charleston 15' quadrangles; 
reached via Rt. 102; 8 miles SE of East Prairie. 

Description: Ecological features similar to those of the Mingo National Wildlife 
Refuge. These wetlands are not only important to waterfowl but also for the 
preservation of the vegetation and wetland mammals, such as the swamp rabbit. 

Encroachments: Drainage for agriculture. 

Ownership: Big Oak Plantation, Inc., East Prairie, Mo. 63845. 

Data source: Clarence Daniel, Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson 
City, Mo. 65101. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Missouri Department of Conservation. 



CO 
CO 

o 

c 

2J 




CM 
CM 

< MONTANA 

< 

I- 



General description: The wetlands of Montana include bottoms along the rivers 
traversing the Great Plains and marshes around lakes within and close to the 
Rocky Mountains. 

Sources of data: Information was provided by two university biologists. 

Recommendations: The Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge appears to 
encompass the most extensive undisturbed wetland in the state. It is highly sig- 
nificant for waterfowl and is recommended as a landmark. The Pablo, Ninepipe, 
and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges have also been reported as out- 
standing wetlands. There may be some manipulation of water levels on these 
refuges. The pot-hole country north of the Ninepipe Reservoir, though ap- 
parently not within the refuge, would appear to be worthy of investigation as a 
landmark. The Freezeout Lake Game Management Area is now artificially 
flooded during the summer. It is therefore given a lower priority rating. Flathead 
Lake is the largest natural fresh-water lake west of the Mississippi and its waters 
are still of exceptional quality. It should be given consideration as a landmark, 
but more appropriately under another theme designation. 




Wetlands reported from Montana Habitat type 

MT 1 . Benton Lake National Wildlife 

Refuge F-3-M, F-2-M 

MT 2. Flathead Lake 

MT 3. Freezeout Lake Game Management 

Area F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 

MT 4. * Ninepipe and Pablo National 

Wildlife Refuges F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 

Pablo National Wildlife Refuge 
(sec Ninepipe Nat. Wildlife Ref. ) 
MT 5. *Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife 

Refuge F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 



•vl 
03 



MT 1 . Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Acreage: 12,383. 

Location: Cascade County; Great Falls Quadrangle; 7 miles N of Great Falls; 
reached via U.S. 87. 

Description: Prairie marshland and rolling grasslands. A waterfowl nesting and 
stopover site. 

References: Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. 1967. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C. 

Ownership: BSFW. 

Data source: Dr. Don Collins, Montana State University, Bozeman, Mont. 
59715. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Refuge Manager, National Bison Range, Moiese, 
Mont. 59824. 



O 

z 

> 

Z 
> 



i3*M? 


1 




1 


x-z 


chquteao co 


3 J 




3624 


_ r 




CJUfCJiOK CO 


1 



ask 



r § 



.... . j. 



BENTON LAKE 



10 



■;rf " " 



ii 



i? 



»*»* LI 



16 



15 



14 



13 



I 



367- 



' i 

.1 * 



Tjr.m 



u. 



NATIONAL, W 1 L D L IKK R E V U G E | \ 



20 



21 



mi . 



&■■■, 

-1 ■ -«■ - 






29 



*g# <- 



aa 



33 






22 



?4 






L 



1 

■• 

J^ - 

26 il 



25 



j< - - <«• - j^< ii • ■ 

">; '•,■«; 3690 



' 



ft*. 



- 



34 



3b 



36 18 >- 

'i 






I 



1 



CM 

< MT 2. Flathead Lake. Acreage: 130,000. 

< 

I— Location: Lake County; nearest city, Poison, on the south shore; reached via 

g U.S. 93. 

Description: Flathead Lake is the largest, natural, fresh-water lake west of the 
Mississippi. It is a very large and deep lake, and receives its waters from the west 
slopes of the Continental Divide (Glacier National Park, Bob Marshall Wil- 
derness Area, and several U.S. National Forests). The lake contains several 
islands that have biological interest. The U.S. Forest Service and the University 
of Montana currently are conducting ecological studies on these islands, as well 
as on the surrounding landscape. The waters of this lake are exceptionally high 
in quality, and local efforts have successfully prevented any extensive pollution 
in the lake. The lake has been the center of ecological studies since the early 
1900s as the result of the presence of the University of Montana Biological Sta- 
tion on the shores of the lake at Yellow Bay. This body of water functions very 
well as an outdoor laboratory for biologists of all kinds, and there exists exten- 
sive literature covering the results of current and past investigations. Its con- 
tinuation as an undisturbed ecosystem can be enhanced greatly by giving it 
Natural Landmark status. 

References: Dr. Richard Solberg has an updated list of these. 

Ownership The Lake is owned by the state of Montana. National Forest, State 
Forests and Parks, Indian Reservation, and some private and commercial 
developments currently surround the lake. 

Data source: Dr. James R. Habeck, Environmental Biology Department, 
University of California, Irvine, Cal. 92664. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Richard Solberg, Director, University of 
Montana Biological Station, Department of Botany, University of Montana, Mis- 
soula, Mont. 59801. 






MT 3. Freezeout Lake Game Management Area. Acreage: 1 2,000. 

Location: Teton County; Freezeout Lake Quadrangle; 2 miles NE of Fairfield; 
reached via U.S. 89. 

Description: This area has large populations of migrating and nesting waterfowl 
and shorebirds — 300,000 Snow Geese in spring and 20,000 Whistling Swan iij 
spring. Marsh habitat has been constructed to accommodate nesting birds and 
for public hunting. This area is very fertile, having great growth of emergent 
(Scirpus paludosus, S. validus, Typha latifolia) and submerged {Ruppia maritima) 
vegetation, as well as high population levels of microorganisms. 

References: Ellig, L. J., 1955. Waterfowl relationship to Greenfields Lake, 
Teton County, Montana, Mont. Fish Game Commission Tech. Bull. No. 1. 
Knight, R. R., 1960. Vegetative characteristics of two water areas in Teton 
County, Montana, in relationship to waterfowl usage. Thesis, Montana State 
College. 

Encroachments: Originally a glacial lake bed that dried up each summer, it is 
now flooded and managed for waterfowl and other wildlife. 

Ownership: State of Montana, Department of Fish and Game. 

Data source: Dr. Don Collins, Montana State University, Bozeman, Mont. 
59715; Dale Witt, Box 482, Fairfield, Mont. 59436. 



> 
> 




CO 

CM 



f 



MT 4. Ninepipe and Pablo National Wildlife Refuges. Acreage: 4500. 

Location: Ninepipe National Wildlife Refuge: Lake County; Fort Connah and 
Charlo quadrangles; 50 miles N of Missoula; reached via U.S. 93. Pablo Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuge: Lake County; Lower Crow Reservoir and Poison 
quadrangles; 64 miles N of Missoula; reached via U.S. 93. 



Description: Rolling marsh and upland grasslands at about 3000 ft elevation in 
the Flathead Valley, surrounded by the Mission and Cabinet Mountains. A 
waterfowl nesting and stopover site. 

References: Ninepipe and Pablo National Wildlife Refuges. 1969. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 

Ownership: BSFW. 

Data source: Dr. Don Collins, Montana State University, Bozeman, Mont. 
59715. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Refuge Manager, National Bison Range, Moiese, 
Mont. 59824. 



,1 






"/. 



^ 



'/. 



£. 






S-3 ->^| 

\ a 



■r- 



rfi 






«34 : 34 



4 



V 



35 



^s 



/, 






€> 



L 



id. l J 



x= 1 






■< 



<t> 






'<>, 



NATIONAL 



O, 



NINEPIPE 



WILDLIFE REFUGE 



\3i 



\0 



'J. - 

Kl 



\ \* 



§ 



^ 



il *w- 



/ 



xN*,! 



-»*•» 






igr-rez^s&smtmxxr^x- 



1 



*il 





•J- 








Id 


r^ 


*^~- 


C\l 


« 



5JJJ* > ^1A- ~^a}(4« A 





■vl 




■*J 


\ I! 5l\ 


2 


% \\ MX* 


o 


\\ I 


z 


\ '—- 


H 




> 

2 


II \ 


> 



"3- 



Ex3 




O 


1 


03 






u 




^S-kW® 



00 
CVJ 



MT 5. Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge. Acreage:40,000. 



< 

I— Location: Beaverhead County; Upper and Lower Red Rock Lake quadrangles; 

g 39 miles W of West Yellowstone; reached via U.S. 191 or 287. 

Description: Refuge for the Trumpeter Swan. 1 7,000 acres of marshes and lakes 
are within the Refuge. Pronghorn antelope, mule deer, moose, and elk occur on 
the uplands. Elevation 6600-9900 ft. Waterfowl production: ducks estimated 
future total use 8 million duck days; geese, 150,000 goose days. 

References: Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Montana. June, 1967, 
U.S. Dept. of the Interior. 

Ownership: BSFW. 

Data source: Dr. Don Collins, Montana State University, Bozeman, Mont. 
59715. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Headquarters, Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife 
Refuge, Mont. 



p • * .,«■• 



I -i 



en 



ft. 



A/ 






< >'» '■ 



,S S 



u. 



< Ox . 

CM .. ►-. < 



(j m v ... J 4 » < 4«„ 

as £ 



'4- f \ y 



a 

w 
as 






ii": 



-1 s 

« • ■•■/* ;.<"■;<«■ .v 

-;S5 " 






*V >1V », 






J> 







11 M 
1 "" 


■ *.f^ . 1 


.* 




ii 


r-* 






Or** A ?j 

•8 


10 


< 








C 




pi 
j 





1 ' a> ' 







•k 



o> 






to 



> 

z 
> 





> 






• 








IN 


Ul 






| 


i ■ _l 




&5 




.J -1 

< 

j 




*f 




> 







ft ^ 






J>v// 









IS 



mi 



^J^fffl^U^; 



" 8 



«t 



■<5r --< X_ 



o 

00 
CM 



< 



LU 



^ NEBRASKA 

CO 

f£ General description: Agricultural activities constitute the major land use pattern 

in this Great Plains state. As one moves westward, the Dissected Loess Plains 
are replaced by the rolling topography of the Great Plains. The Missouri River 
forms the eastern boundary of the state. The Platte and its many tributaries flow 
eastward through it. The flood-plain communities of the Central Missouri Valley 
and those along the Platte have been described by Weaver (1960). Hardwood 
flood-plain forests of elm and cottonwood occur with undergrowths of the 
roughleaf dogwood {Cornus drummondi). The river marshes support a diversity 
of emergents, including water plantain, cattails, bulrushes, bur-reed and ar- 
rowheads. 

Saline wetlands, such as the Lincoln Marshes, also occur. In these localities 
salts tend to accumulate, due to high evaporation and relatively low precipita- 
tion. 

The Sandhills in the northern part of the state represent a distinctive physio- 
graphic unit of wind-blown sands dotted with relatively undisturbed wetlands. 

Status of the wetlands: Two studies by the State Game and Parks Commission 
(McMurtrey & Craig 1967, 1968) give some insight into wetland destruction. In 
south-central Nebraska, of the 3943 basins surveyed 87% had been destroyed. 
In the 16 counties of the Sandhills region the loss has been considerably less. Of 
the original 10,302 wetlands 10,120 are still extant, comprising 143,150 acres. 
A total of 27,970 acres have been destroyed in the Sandhills, most of which 
were larger than 10 acres in size. 

Sources of data: Data have been obtained from the Nebraska Game and Parks 
Commission and university biologists. 

Recommendations: Information on only three wetland areas is reported. The 
Lincoln Marshes comprise an extensive saline area of considerable ecological 
interest. Its plant communities have been described by Ungar ( 1969). Every ef- 
fort should be made to designate it as a Natural Landmark. Unfortunately, the 
ownership pattern is unknown and its proximity to the city of Lincoln will only 
intensify potential encroachment unless immediately protected. 

Moses Hill Lagoon, surrounded by agricultural activities, supports both 
marshy and swampy forest communities. The area is heavily used by migrating 
waterfowl, notably Snow Geese. The impact of agricultural activities, especially 
siltation, is altering natural conditions. Pending site inspection, this area may be 
eligible for landmark status. 

The Valentine National Wildlife Refuge is recognized as a famous wetland 
complex in the Sandhills region of Nebraska. Within the Refuge most of the 
wetlands have been restored to their near-original natural condition. Although 
over 70,000 acres are currently under federal ownership, significant privately 
owned tracts should be sought, since over 25,000 acres of wetlands in the Sand- 
hills have already been destroyed. 



ro 
oo 



Literature cited 

McMurtrey, M. S., and R. Craig. 1 967. Surveys of habitat. Work Plan K-67. 

Pittman-Robertson Project W-15-R-23. Nebraska Game and Parks 

Commission. 
1968. Surveys of habitat. Work Plan K-66. Pittman-Robertson Project 

W-15-R-24. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. 
Ungar, I. A. 1969. Plant communities of saline soils at Lincoln, Nebraska. Am. 

Midi. Nat. 84:564-577. 
Wf.avf.r, J. E. 1960. Flood plain vegetation of the Central Missouri valley and 

contacts of woodland with prairie. Ecol. Monogr. 30:37-64 



m 
oo 

DO 

> 

CO 
> 




Wetlands reported from Nebraska 

NE1. * Lincoln Marshes 

NE 2. Moses Hill Lagoon 

NE 3. Valentine National Wildlife Refuge 



Habitat type 

S-10-M, S-ll-M 
F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 
F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 



00 
CM 



< 

CD 

HI 



NE 1 . Lincoln Marshes. Acreage: 2000 estimated. 

Location: Lancaster County; Lincoln and Davey quadrangles; 1 mile N of Lin- 
coln. 

Description: These saline marshes are unique for the prairie and represent a 
completely different vegetation type than that occurring on nonsaline soils. This 
area represents the southernmost migration of Salicornia rubra in the prairie re- 
gion. The marshes are dominated by large areas of Hordeum jubatum. 

References: Ungar, I. A. 1969. Plant communities of saline soils at Lincoln, 
Nebraska. Am. Midi. Nat. 82:564-577. 

Encroachments: City may fill these areas. Salt lake in Lincoln has already been 
taken over for a housing development. 

Ownership: Unknown. 

Data source: I. A. Ungar, Department of Botany, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

45701. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. P. J. Rand, Botany Department, University of 
Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr. 68504. 




ro 
oo 
w 

NE 2. Moses Hill Lagoon. Acreage: 500. Z 

00 

Location: Phelps County; 4 miles W and 4 miles N of Holdrege; reached via I- jj 

80 (Holdrege Exit), then along Rt. 1 83, then 4 miles W along section line road. > 

Description: The area is situated within a productive agricultural region. The > 

wetland contains a diversity of emergent vegetation such as roundstem bulrush, 
smartweed, sedges, and forbs. The periphery of the basin, in places, supports nu- 
merous cottonwoods. Water levels fluctuate, the sources being rain, snow, and 
some irrigation run-off. There is a rich fauna. Migrating White-fronted Geese 
use the area heavily during the spring. Actual counts range from 20,000 to 
45,000. 

Encroachments: Adjacent agricultural activities tend to result in an increasing 
siltation. It is expected that the agricultural interests will eventually fill in, by 
mechanical means, portions located around the lagoon. This has been the trend 
throughout the Rainwater Basin of south-central Nebraska. With the exception 
of a small dike, dug-out, some farming and grazing, and the siltation factor, the 
lagoon is pretty much in a natural state. 

Ownership: There are approximately eight owners. 

Data source: Robert A. Hietikko, Box 847, Hastings, Nebr. 68901. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. George Schildman, Nebraska Game and 
Parks Commission, State Capitol Building, Lincoln, Nebr. 68509. 



00 
CM 

< NE 3 . Valentine National Wildlife Refuge. Acreage: 7 1 ,5 1 6. 

CO 

< Location: Cherry County; Simeon and Brownlee quadrangles; 17 miles S on 

U.S. 83 and 13 miles SW on State spur 483 from Valentine. 



CD 
LU 



Description: Located in the famous Sandhills region, about 1 1 ,000 acres are 
lakes and marshes. Drainage and drought during the 1930s resulted in low water 
levels. Overgrazing further contributed to their destruction. They are now 
restored to near original condition. Heavy waterfowl use — 300,000 have been 
counted in October. Over 225 species of birds have been recorded on the 
Refuge. 

Ownership: BSFW. 

Data source: Ned I. Peabody, Refuge Manager, Valentine National Wildlife 
Refuge, Valentine, Nebr. 69201. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Dave Rose, Wetland Management Office, 
BSFW, Hastings, Nebr. 68901. 



00 



S) 



X 



U3 

i s- 5 

^ CO 



-m 






55 






en 

CM 



^> 



«£. 



m 
> 

> 



(2 



W 



CM jh. 






cs 









3 ? 



O. 



# 'as 



w 



=£* 



<r> 



t 



ait 



c$ 



« 



^ 






W?? 















35 

H *- 
CO 



.iaa 









XOH&i 



in 

CM 



J 



o i 



1 
G 






..~v 



2 -* ' 



,"> -• tc 



* 



< 



* 






1, 



CM 

CM 






. &7 



U) 



*h 



CM 
-1 



L. 



CO 



I 






N 



O 



CM 



^ 



V 



II 



s. * 



list;* 



CO 
00 
CM 

< NEVADA 

< 

^ General description: About 192,000 acres of wetlands have been inventoried in 

Z this state. About 56% of these are rated of high waterfowl value. They have 

been grouped into five regions: the Northwestern, which includes wetlands 
within the Charles Sheldon National Antelope Range; the Humboldt River 
Basin; the Truckee-Carson-Walker River drainage systems; the East-Central, 
which includes fresh marshes in the Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge and 
around Franklin Lake; and the Southeastern, containing the saline types of the 
Pahranagat Valley. 

Status of the wetlands: Diversion of water is probably the foremost threat to the 
wetlands of this state; grazing and watering of livestock would be second. Some 
of the unique aquatic ecosystems are threatened by the introduction of exotic 
species. 

Sources of data: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has published a wetlands in- 
ventory (1954, 1955). Four specific sites were suggested by professional biolo- 
gists. 

Recommendations: Reports on wetland types in this state are so fragmentary as 
to be worthless in recommending priorities. The Humboldt River bottoms 
should be carefully inventoried and appropriate sections brought under protec- 
tion. The same should apply to the fresh marshes of the Ruby Lake area and the 
saline wetlands of the Pahranagat Valley. The Washoe Lake Dunes area was 
specifically recommended for preservation, with the comment that sections of 
shoreline on other desert basin lakes also be included. Pyramid Lake itself was 
singled out by one of our respondents as a unique remnant of the Pleistocene 
Lake Lahontan. It should surely be included in the roster of sites worthy of land- 
mark status, under the appropriate theme category. It has special interest for its 
fisheries and its pelican rookery and is in some jeopardy from desiccation due to 
inadequate releases of water from the Truckee River. The springs and sloughs in 
the Ash Meadows support populations of several species of fish that are in 
danger of extinction. No data were obtained regarding the associated wetland 
vegetation of this arid region. 

Literature cited 

Fish and Wildlife Service. 1954. Wetlands inventory, Nevada. U.S. Dept. of 

Interior, Portland, Ore. 
Pish and Wildlife Service. 1955. Inventory of permanent waters of 

importance to waterfowl, Nevada. U.S. Dept. of Interior, Portland, Ore. 




IV) 
00 



m 

< 
> 

> 



Wetlands reported from Nevada 

NV 1 . Ash Meadows and Carson Slough 

NV 2. Hicks Station Natural Area 

NV 3. Humboldt River Bottoms 

NV 4. Washoe Lake Dunes 



Habitat type 

F-3-M 

F-2-M 

F-l-M, F-3-M,R 

S-10-M, F-3-M, F-5-M 



00 
00 
CVJ 



< 



LU 



pj NV 1 . Ash Meadows and Carson Slough. Acreage: 38,400 estimated. 

> Location: Nye County; Ash Meadows Quadrangle; about 50 miles SE of Beatty; 

reached via U.S. 95 from Las Vegas. 

Description: A large area along the nearly dry Amargosa River which contains 
many small desert springs, waterholes, and sloughs. Three fishes of very 
restricted distribution are found here: Cyprinodon diabolis (the one pool which 
contains the entire population of the species is now under disjoint control by 
Death Valley National Monument); C. nevadensis (a highly differentiated spe- 
cies with two recognized subspecies and numerous races found in the various 
discontinuous waters); Empetrichthys merriami (probably extinct). 

References: Denny, C. S., and H. Drews. 1965. Geology of the Ash Meadows 
Quad. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1181 -L; Miller, R. R. 1967. Status of populations 
of native fishes of the Death Valley System in California and Nevada. Comple- 
tion Report of Resource Studies Problem Undertaken for the NPS. DEVA-67. 

Encroachments: There have been past incidences of successful aquarium fish in- 
troductions in these waters; one person attempted to establish an aquarium fish 
hatchery in the area. There have also been attempts to divert water, and suc- 
cessful introduction of large mouth bass in some spots. 

Ownership: BLM, NPS, and private individuals. 

Data source: Alan M. McCready, 25 10. Rogue River Dr., Sacramento, Calif. 
95826. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Robert Miller, Museum of Zoology, Universi- 
ty of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48100; Dr. James Deacon, Southern Univer- 
sity, Las Vegas, Nev. 89100. 



IV3 

CD 
CD 



I 1 ■! 



I ft nj\ <f '••; 



i < 









—J* 

{ I 



16 



iifosrcrit'^'prwiy 



. 



15 



14 



9& I 



I />n(iAirett Spr\ 



^».i-«»r~. 



m 
< 
> 

> 






7 



20 



22 



t im\ 



l< 



■ i 



30,; 



*2'9S 






»9 - ; 



If) 






»8! 



8 '.j v <v-., 
ft ] V '~ 



i— + 



>7/ 



2$ J 



31 



Ct*y Pits*^ 



•'32 



*4*. 



°r\ & 



Eq 

5 



33 



4 

4 



a*97j 


i<>/Tf 


' 


a 


SS '* i 


* 


J 


| 


> * 






♦j 


' ^ 


34 






f 




'"V-^ 






: 


c 


• 


,( \ 



*, »» 



Slay 



35- 



Spring 



\ 7 



* 8 



^ 



10 



11 



O 



x. 



18 



x %> 



^ 



% 



1 




J> *W« 




V 


\ l9 


* 


h 




\ 







.4- V- - 



16 



20 






\ 

2lN 



o 

15 



^ 



14 



tf 



o 

C\l 



< 

< 

> Location: Nye County 



LLI 

Z 



NV 2. Hicks Station Natural Area. Acreage: 6. 



Description: Wet mountain meadow with sedges, rushes, and bluegrass. 

Ownership: BLM, Battle Mountain District. 

Data source: RNA-230. 

Other knowledgeable persons: BLM, District Office, Battle Mountain, Nev. 
89820. 



> 



CO 

NV 3. Humboldt River Bottoms. Acreage: Extensive. 2 

m 

Location: Humboldt County; Rose Creek, Eugene Mts. Area, Oreana, and j> 

Lovelock quadrangles; between Winnemucca and Humboldt Sink; reached via D 

U.S. 95 and 40. 

Description: An area of willows and other flood-plain vegetation extends south 
from Winnemucca along the Humboldt River and includes waterfowl nesting 
sites. Some sections south of Winnemucca may be only moderately disturbed. 
The area extends to the Rye Patch Reservoir and provides the only wetland in 
an otherwise dry area. A particularly interesting riparian site extends south from 
Rye Patch to Lovelock and is reported to have considerable wildlife. This is 
along the old Emigrant Trail. 

Encroachments: The river is bordered by many ranches which use it for water- 
ing livestock. 

Ownership: Numerous ranchers. 

Data source: Dr. N. Stark, c/o DRI, University of Nevada, Reno, Nev. 89507. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Martin Mifflin, Water Resources Research, DRI, 
University of Nevada, Reno, Nev. 89507. 



Map on following page 



CM 
C\J 



< 



Map/ml • 









WmdmHl 




test SP^pil t,*Mi^ / 



b7 



i£ 



Si 



« 






1 


„ .tench 

"< . 










s : 

B 1 / 




1 
\ > 
> 






>j»# 



Pi \ > t» 






CO 
CO 



NV 4. Washoe Lake Dunes. Acreage: About 100. 

Location: Washoe County; Mt. Rose and Carson City quadrangles; 8 miles N of 
Carson City; on the east side of Washoe Lake; reached via U.S. 395. 

Description: The area includes a series of ecologically unique dunes and semi- 
permanent ponds. These ponds provide wildlife breeding sites and are sur- 
rounded by dune vegetation. This area represents one of the stages of drying 
which can be found adjacent to Pyramid Lake and Walker Lake (Nevada), and 
Topaz Lake, Honey Lake, and Mono Lake (California). These lake areas all 
have some aspects of the Washoe Lake site, but the latter represents a wide 
range of conditions of salinity and vegetation types. 

Encroachments: The land is badly disturbed. It is used for cattle grazing and 
watering. 

Ownership: John K. Whitehead, Franktown Rd., Carson City, Nev. 89701. 

Data source: Dr. N. Stark, c/o DRI, University of Nevada, Reno, Nev. 89507. 



m 

< 

> 

a 
> 



I ! 



\-^ 4 ' 



1 

(9V ! 



E06 



35 

Ophif Mill Sits 



/Rowers 
Mansion 





1*/ 




o 


Frank town j 


£ 


\ to 


V) 


\ •'- ■•■'..■ 




\ : 





X 

w 36 



12 



p* 




13 
i 

W 



ff —v-San Antonio 
^JJSL=J ■ "Ranch 



G> l 



31 






6; 



J 



Washoe 
Lake 



\ 



x? 



IS 



WASHOE 



LAKE 



32 



8 



17 



17 



4<£< 2 
Sp-r-'" . 



*>js»-»t/vi <*• 



">A 



¥ 10 



o> 



£ NEW HAMPSHIRE 



C/) General description: Bogs, hardwood swamps, and beaver meadows are among 

fc the characteristic wetlands in New Hampshire. Although limited data have been 

< received on beaver-created wetlands, they are reported to be the state's most 

I important fresh-water type. Data received have been chiefly on the northern 

^ bogs. 

HI 

^ Status of the wetlands: Two types of disturbances are especially mentioned, 

timber operations and removal of sand and gravel in the morainal areas. 

Sources of data: State Fish and Game personnel and university biologists have 
provided most of the data reported. The publication Natural Areas of New 
Hampshire (Lyon and Bormann 1962) gives descriptive information on several 
of the areas. 

Recommendations: Among the bogs submitted for consideration, it would ap- 
pear that the wetland complex south of Lake Ossipee, which includes Heath 
Pond Bog, the Pine River, and adjacent eskers, should be given top priority for 
Natural Landmark status. The bog exhibits the greatest floristic diversity of any 
in the state. There are also excellent beaver meadows, and buttonbush and silver 
maple swamplands along the Pine River. Although Heath Pond and portions of 
the surrounding heath are under protection of state ownership, the two out- 
standing eskers and several miles of Pine River, bordered by the beaver 
meadows and fragments of swamp forest, are still in private hands. The whole 
wilderness complex should be established as a single preserve. Another exten- 
sive bog complex, including two senescent bog lakes, is the Pondicherry Wildlife 
Refuge, comprising 700 acres, and noted for its waterfowl and other wildlife. 
The ownership is divided between the Audubon Society of New Hampshire and 
private interests. Here, national recognition may help to protect the entire acre- 
age. Beaver ponds and wetland habitat created by these animals should be in- 
vestigated in specific detail through the State Fish and Game Department. Other 
excellent bog areas are the Moose Pasture at East Inlet, which has been recog- 
nized as a Natural Area by the St. Regis Paper Company, the Floating Island on 
Lake Umbagog, the Madison Bog Ponds, and the much smaller Spruce Hole 
Bog near Durham. The Black Gum Swamp in the Fox Forest is a mature swamp 
forest of Acer and Nyssa that has developed on a bog site. The Chocorua Lake 
Swamp, a portion of which is being preserved by The Nature Conservancy, is a 
fine complex of wetland types, including swamp forest growing on the delta of 
the inlet to Chocorua Lake. It is worthy of landmark status. 

Literature cited 

Lyon, C. J., and F. H. Bormann (eds. ). 1962. Natural areas of New Hampshire, 
Dept. of Biol. Sciences, Publ. No. 2, Hanover, N.H., p. 47. 

Lyon, C. J., and W. A. Reiners (eds.). 1971. Natural areas of New Hampshire, 
Rev. Ed., Dept. of Biol. Sciences, Publ. No. 4, Dartmouth College, Hanover, 
N.H.,p. 75. 



IV) 
CO 




m 
> 

TJ 
CO 

I 

m 



Wetlands reported for New Hampshire Habitat type 

Acer-Nyssa Swamp (see Black Gum 
Swamp) 
NH 1. Black Gum Swamp F-8-B 

Bollcs Nature Reserve (see 
Chocorua Lake Swamp) 
Cherry Ponds (see Pondicherry 
Wildlife Refuge) 
NH 2. *Chocorua Lake Swamp 

Drew Pond (see Madison Bog 
Ponds) 
NH 3. Floating Island-Lake Umbagog 

NH 4. *Hcath Pond Bog and Pine River 

Lake Umbagog (see Floating Island) 

Mack Pond (see Madison Bog 
Ponds) 
NH 5. Madison Bog Ponds 

NH 6 * Moose Pasture at East Inlet 

Pine River (see Heath Pond Bog) 
NH 7. *Pondicherry Wildlife Refuge F-8-B, F 

NH 8. Spruce Hole Bog F-8-B 



F-7-Sw, F-6-Ss, F-5-M 



F-8-B 

F-8-B, F-6-Ss, F-3-M, F-4- 
M, F-2-M 



F-8-B 
F-8-B 



5-M 



CO 

o> 

CM 
LU 

cr 

x 

C/) 
CL 

< 

I 

Hi 



NH 1 . Black Gum Swamp (Acer-Nyssa Swamp). Acreage: 5. 

Location: Hillsboro County; Hillsboro Quadrangle; 2 miles NW of Hillsboro, in 
the Fox State Forest. 

Description: A glacial pothole of about 2 acres, filled to a depth of 15-20 ft with 
peat, now supporting a mature forest dominated by red maple. Black gum rang- 
ing from saplings to trees 24 inches dbh is the second most important tree. 
Remnants of the open bog are still present. 

References: Baldwin, H. I. 1961. Succession in a black gum-red maple 
swamp — A twenty-five year record. Fox Forest Notes No. 86; Hehre, E. J. 1963. 
Pollen analyses in the Black Gum Swamp. Fox Forest Notes No. 101; Lyon, C. 
J., and H. F. Bormann (eds. ). 1962. Natural areas of New Hampshire, p. 40. 

Encroachments: None. 

Ownership: State of New Hampshire, Division of Resources Development. 

Data source: Paul G. Favour, Jr., Acadia National Park, Bar Harbor, Me. 
04609. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Henry I. Baldwin, Hillsboro, NH. 03244; 
Brian K. Simm, Fox State Forest, Hillsboro, N.H. 03244. 



\ \ % 



iff / « \ -XV" / . \ f\ , >X\- \ \ v H * ^ ,"> 




^p-<&Zg&Z 



\m 



■r 






& 



^v„ 






J 



"til*??*** 




S 7 






f J 




^ ^TA^&RE^T) .^f| / /> ' / 




, 1W .3 

Vic i . ^ \' Vj\ M 



CO 



NH 2. Chocorua Lake Swamp (Frank Bolles Nature Reserve). Acreage: About 
50. 

Location: Carroll County; Ossipee Lake Quadrangle; Tamworth Township; at 
the north end of Chocorua Lake, W of Rt. 16. 

Description: Bounded on the south by the shallow sandy shores of Chocorua 
Lake, the swamp occupies the flat delta of the inlet. Most of the swamp is 
wooded or shaded by thickets of alder, winterberry, and other shrub species. 
The lake level is very constant, maintained by a dam at the outlet. Beaver have 
been active along the inlet. A rich assemblage of herbaceous species of plants 
may be found. Aquatics in the lake and inlet include Lobelia Dortmanna, 
Eriocaulon septangulare, and Nymphoides cordata. The sphagnaceous woods sup- 
port abundant populations of orchids, including several species of Hakenaria, 
sedges, and ferns; and the more open beaver meadows, grasses, sedges, and 
composites. 

Encroachments: Some lumbering has taken place in the eastern portions of the 
area. The western portion is undisturbed. 

Ownership: The western portion belongs to the Frank Bolles Nature Reserve of 
The Nature Conservancy of New Hampshire, Inc. The southeastern portion, in- 
cluding the inlet, is owned by the Bowditch Foundation. North of the Bowditch 
Foundation, the Merrills own some of the wetland. A 20-ft right-of-way belong- 
ing to the Scott family separates the eastern from the western section. 

Data source: Dr. Richard H. Goodwin, Connecticut College, New London, 
Conn. 06320. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Frederick Steele, Tamworth, N.H. 03886. 



m 

:> 
> 

TJ 

if) 

I 

3D 

m 



Pequawket 

!bow:di > pch-runnells ■ 
state forest 




lY-ft*-^; ;■■ 



\ 



\ \ \ 



9 


• 
* 


\ - 

\ 
\ 




1 


■ \ 



GO 
CM 



LU 

gc 

I 

CO 
Q_ 



LU 



NH 3. Floating Island-Lake Umbagog. Acreage: 200. 

Location: Coos County; Errol Quadrangle; 3 miles NE of Errol; reached via Rt. 
16 and canoe. 

Description: Open tamarack-black spruce bog. Conditions possibly have been 
altered by damming of Magalloway River and the bog is said to be floating in 
part. It was investigated by William Brewster many years ago. It contains many 
northern bog plants, including an abundance of Calopogon. The Lincoln sparrow 
breeds here. 

References: The writings of William Brewster include lists of plants and animals 
of this area, especially birds. 

Encroachments: None reported. 

Ownership: Reported to be a paper company. 

Data source: F. L. Steele, Tamworth, N.H. 03886. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Tudor Richards, Executive Director, Audubon 
Society of New Hampshire, Concord, N.H. 03301 . 



j^<t~y 



^i 









\ 






4&* 



e a^ 



Jj 

<4ft> 




y » ^M\m/(l 



NH 4. Heath Pond Bog and the Pine River. Acreage: 1000. 

Location: Carroll County, Ossipee Lake Quadrangle; nearest city. Center Os- 
sipec; reached via Rt. 16 and E on Rt. 25. 



.Jk xo 




^i^~ v > , 




tt*CCOOT> 




0^ ■■> 








; 'V' '■' 




% Sfciilfonvii! 


; '" .- ■"■ 



B*>»>/i 




:^M 






B\MF 






4t?t • !i^.' f ---- :r Center Ossipwv^I . .*T. 

"V' 



ro 

CO 



m 
> 



Description: This bog has the greatest variety of plant species of any peat bog in Tj 

the state. The bog of about 70 acres contains a pond (Heath Pond) lying near its ££ 

northern side. Heath Pond is a classic example of bog succession. The 5-acre — 

pond is surrounded by a 10 ft-wide zone of floating Sphagnum, leatherleaf, cran- rn 

berry, Andromeda, Kalmia polifolia, and orchids of several species as well as 
Drosera and Sarracenia purpurea. Beyond this zone these species give way to 
various shrub species and picturesque dwarf spruce and larch. On the heath 
grow red, white, and pitch pine. Two spectacular eskers are covered with ma- 
ture timber. The Pine River meanders through extensive swamps and beaver 
meadows on the south and western edges. 

References: Lyon, C. J., and H. F. Bormann (eds.). 1962. Natural areas of New 
Hampshire, p. 35. 

Encroachments: There are various glacial formations adjacent to the bog in- 
cluding eskers. The gravel deposits are vulnerable, while there has been some 
threat of mining the bog itself for peat. Except for the new highway cutting 
across the northern end of the bog, the area is entirely natural and unspoiled 
and the highway has not affected the bog significantly. 

Ownership: The state of New Hampshire now owns Heath Pond and portions of 
the Bog. The adjacent eskers and the Pine River are still in private ownership 
and should be acquired. 

Data source: Albion R. Hodgdon, Department of Botany, University of New 
Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 03824; F. L. Steele, Tamworth, N.H. 03886. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Tudor Richards, Executive Director, Audubon 
Society of New Hampshire, Concord, N.H. 03301; Paul Boffinger, Society for 
the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, South State St., Concord, N.H. 
03301; Malcolm Thomas, State Parks Division, Concord, N.H. 03301; Paul G. 
Favour, Jr., Acadia National Park, Bar Harbor, Me. 04609; R. H. Goodwin, Box 
1445 Connecticut College, New London, Conn. 06320. 



, • t I ) V ^^- " -^ 



o 

8 



cc 

I 

C/) 

Q. 



UJ 



NH 5. Madison Bog Ponds (Mack Pond; Drew Pond) Acreage: 100 estimated. 

Location: Carroll County; Ossipee Lake Quadrangle. 

Description: Mack Pond and Drew Pond are excellent bog ponds. The water 
level of Mack Pond has recently been altered by beaver activity that has 
regressed the bog forest succession. The bog around the pond is dominated by 
sedges (Carex lasiocarpa and Cladium mariscoides). Drew Pond is surrounded by 
a typical bog heath with larch and black spruce. Orchids such as Arethusa and 
Calopogon are present in the area. 



Ownership: Presumably private. 

Data source: F. L. Steele, Tamworth, N.H. 03886. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Alexander Lincoln, Meredith, N.H. 03253; Dr. 
Albion Hodgdon, Dept. of Botany, University of N.H. , Durham, N.H. 03824. 



4921 



5S¥ 



&46 






MHJ 



pavik 

FonA 



I 



&M 



f>: 



-V 



O - 

J ) 



35 
O 



Crothersr 
Hill 



H 



Hedgehog 



*o 



\ 



^e 3i 



% 






-1.7 



x tem 







iiM 



i 






>itikt / 


CtAWgw- 


fw 




r 


/ s 

/ / / J® 


ifl / 


// /? 


• ■ ; 


'' / /4M ! / 


> v\U 






■ x x N\L€dgi6 


HjBm 


^ ''-f'"- ^ 


673^V 


- —-¥. -Sr~.V ■% 



A 'D 



•\* Madison Vy 



*"{.> & 



I 



V > 






•*XMa<$son Stja^M 

WTZ^. ) y' J \% Big 

."-Deer/ /"" 
.XlH i 



A 



i , 



\ 



-? St \ 

-J <3» ** 






V 



Bimba I 






X 






Durgin 



1 



?7 



£«$ 



> /*'* 



: fc>' 



. 



• ° ;^S . 



Iff 



CO 

o 



NH 6. Moose Pasture at East Inlet. Acreage: 100. 

Location: Coos County; Second Lake Quadrangle; 20 miles N of Pittsburg; 
reached via Rt. 3 and East Inlet Road. 

Description: This is an extensive bog containing dwarf black spruce and 
tamarack with maximum height less than 30 ft. Nonericaceous shrubs include 
Nemopanthus, Amelanchier bartramiana, Viburnum cassinoides, and Pyrus 
melanocarpa. Ericads include Gaultheria hispidula, Rhododendron canadense, 
Ledum, Kalmia angustifolia, K. polifolia, Cassandra, low blueberry, and Vaccini- 
um oxycoccus. Herbaceous plants include white fringed orchis, pitcher-plant, 
sundews, and cottongrass. A dung-inhabiting moss (Splachnaceae) was seen. 

References: Lyon, C. J., and H. F. Bormann (eds. ). 1962. Natural areas of New 
Hampshire, p. 36. 

Encroachments: Possible pulping operations in wooded parts. 

Ownership: St. Regis Paper Co., West Stewartstown, N.H. 03597. 

Data source: Albion R. Hodgdon, Department of Botany, University of New 
Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 03824; F. L. Steele, Tamworth, N.H. 03886. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Henry 1. Baldwin, Franklin Pierce College, Hill- 
sboro, N.H. 03244; Tudor Richards, New Hampshire Audubon Society, Con- 
cord, N.H. 03301. 



m 



> 

TJ 
W 

I 

ID 

m 



% 


•«v 






1 1 a_ 




\ 


t .- 

i ( 


SV\\! 


> ' 


\ i 


i 


1 \ 


-/ 
/ 

f n 


X ~ 


■ ■''/■ 


■>'/ 


J ' \ 


i 

■- 


'A 
f 

AM/- 




t 








, I B| 


[ ' Q 


^ r -~ 


\ '--■'*'*■ 


N^ 


c 


Y 


ii § 




I Mi | U.ffffiTf ^— i~-i~ . ,,Y\ ...... 



CM 

O 
CO 



LLI 

GC 

X 
CO 
Q. 



HI 



NH 7. Pondicherry Wildlife Refuge (Cherry Ponds). Acreage: 700. 

Location: Jefferson County; Whitefield, N.H.-Vt. Quadrangle; 5 miles E of 
Whitefield Village; reached via U.S. 3 and Rt. 1 15; from the Whitefield airport, 
drive 1 mile N along the Boston and Maine RR right-of-way and then follow the 
tracks 1 mile further on foot. 

Description: Two northern bog ponds including 87 acre Cherry Pond and the 
several acre Little Cherry Pond. Cherry Pond averages about 3 ft in depth. Both 
ponds are decreasing in size as bog development progresses. They attract 
Hooded Mergansers, Wood Ducks, and Pied-billed Grebes. The greatest con- 
centration of nesting Ring-necked Ducks in the state has been recorded for 
these ponds. Bald Eagles and Marsh Hawks have also been reported. Cherry 
Pond is the type locality for two water plants — Potamogeton robbinsii and 
Eleocharis robbinsii. Dr. J. W. Robbins discovered these plants in 1829. An ex- 
tensive, largely open, black spruce-tamarack heath surrounds Cherry Pond and 
a narrow floating bog mat surrounds Little Cherry Pond. Beaver activity has 
been about the only disturbance. 



References: Lyon, C. J., and H. F. Bormann (eds.). 1962. Natural areas of New 
Hampshire, p. 39. 

Encroachments: None currently; however, construction of flood control dams is 
possible at any time and lumbering is another potential threat to the area. 

Ownership: Brown Co. of Berlin, N.H. and New Hampshire Audubon Society 
(304 acres). 

Data source: Henry A. Laramie, Jr., New Hampshire Fish and Game Depart- 
ment, 34 Bridge St., Concord, N.H. 03301; Paul G. Favour, Jr., Acadia National 
Park, Bar Harbor, Me. 04609. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Tudor Richards, Executive Director, Audubon 
Society of New Hampshire, 63 North Main St., Concord, N.H. 03301 . 



/ .:'*■■ ■- 



.:, : :;: : :v:-^:V:.::::: N > : <^: 



£ ' V -'T'" 



At 



K;«r*t U*httoti«ldiKf.i>-' V- 



■H' is 



/ 



\ 



"v 



/■• 






i i ■ 






/ 



Id. \ 









s 



-/"• 



- r,r . n.J ! > 







' \ "K. ■ i" 



/ 



u 













NH 8. Spruce Hole Bog. Acreage: 20. 

Location: Strafford County; Dover Quadrangle; 2 miles W of Durham. 



• H ; ^j Turtle \^ ;2 r~s jf?-\m) ^^ v **' i am 

•Whedwri#ht\ / #»«? h ' WD I^^SS 

^xwedrtes^ay,^^ f^T ef ^ s \ Y* i* !. # 














Uem 















J'' X\ 






«*° .v ■> s&x- v 



' W,< ( ,' ; yl^swetx,. k . .-j" - \ «/ ^ 



CO 

o 

CO 



m 
> 



Description: A typical bog heath surrounds a pond 60-80 ft across. Dwarfed 
black spruce and shrubs, including poison sumac, witherod, highbush blueberry, 
mountain holly, and male berry fringe the mat. A broader peripheral zone, now ^ 

mostly vegetated by red maple, lies between the bog and the steep sides of the — 

depression. rtl 

References: Lyons, C. J., and H. F. Bormann (eds). 1962. Natural areas of New 
Hampshire, p. 38. 

Encroachments: A gravel pit is being developed nearby and will eventually ruin 
the bog. Efforts are being made to preserve it. White pine was removed from the 
surrounding forest several years ago. 

Ownership: Privately owned; name of owner can be obtained from Professor A. 
R. Hodgdon, Department of Botany, University of New Hampshire, Durham, 
N.H. 03824. 

Data source: F. L. Steele, St. Mary's-in-the-Mountains, Littleton, N.H. 03561. 

"Tu- ° $ J&. •* -'»2:r - .Win Cpnr> r> . 'Ji\ 

iZJ - Layrte if *. 1 • { : rTS 



o 

CO 

>j NEW JERSEY 

CO 

General description: The principal fresh-water wetlands of New Jersey include: 

~3 the wooded swamps and marshes along the rivers draining the pine barrens 

^ (notable among these are the Great Egg Harbor, Mullica, and Wading rivers); 

W swamps and marshes in the Passaic River watershed, occupying glacial lake 

basins dating from the Wisconsin period (Great Swamp, already a Registered 
Natural Landmark, and Troy and Great Piece meadows); and bog pockets in the 
glaciated section, such as Cedar Swamp on the Kuser Memorial Natural Area 
and the Helmetta Bogs. 

Status of the wetlands: Population pressure is great in New Jersey, and this is 
having an impact upon many of the wetlands. Developments are threatening the 
Great Egg Harbor River, Helmetta Woods, and portions of the Mullica and 
Wading River watersheds. Great Swamp was one of the sites selected for an in- 
ternational jetport. Its acquisition as a National Wildlife Refuge averted this dis- 
aster. The Troy and Great Piece meadows can be cited as classic examples of 
wetlands subjected to multiple encroachments. These include power line, 
telephone and gas pipe-line easements, filling for highways and developments, 
flood control works, and pollution. Sanitary landfill and construction of 
recharge impoundments are other destructive activities. Cranberry culture has 
modified other natural wetlands. 

Sources of data: Data were obtained chiefly through the New Jersey Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development. Some information was also obtained 
from university biologists. 

Recommendations: The wetlands along the rivers in the pine barrens should all 
be considered for landmark status. The Timber Beaver Swamp and the wetlands 
along Great Egg Harbor River would be easier to pinpoint than those along the 
Mullica and Wading rivers, although the latter have the advantage of larger size. 
The Great Egg Harbor River wetlands are under threat of development and, 
hence, are in the greatest need of immediate protection. Great Swamp is already 
a Registered Natural Landmark. Troy Meadows has been rated eligible for land- 
mark status and is a top priority area. Recognition would help Wildlife Preserves 
continue to protect the area from encroachments. Of the bog areas reported, 
Kuser Memorial Natural Area is presently the better protected. Helmetta 
Woods, however, is closer to educational institutions and is, therefore, of 
greater educational value. Both should be considered as potential landmarks. 
Lily Lake, already protected by the Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge, is too 
small to warrant consideration. The Trenton Marshes are fresh marshes, but 
subject to tidal fluctuation, and, hence, should probably be included under the 
estuarine theme. They are under County Park protection and may thus be 
worthy of landmark recognition. 



CO 

o 
en 




m 
m 

CO 

m 



Wetlands reported from New Jersey 

Cedar Swamp (sec Kuser Memorial 
Natural Area) 
NJ 1. *Great Egg Harbor River 

Great Piece Meadows (see Troy 
Meadows) 
NJ 2. *Grcat Swamp 



NJ 3. 
NJ4. 
NJ 5. 
NJ6. 
NJ 7. 
NJ8. 
NJ9. 



Hclmctta Woods and Bogs 
*Kuscr Memorial Natural Area 

Lily Lake Natural Area 
*Mullica River and Wading River 
"Timber Beaver Swamp 

Trenton Marshes 
*Troy Meadows and Great Piece 
Meadows 

Wading River (see Mullica River) 



Habitat type 



F-7-Sw, F-3-M, F-5-M 



F-7-Sw, F-6-Ss, F-3-M, F- 

4-M 
F-8-B 
F-8-B 
F-8-B 
F-7-Sw 

F-7-Sw, F-3-M 
F-4-M 

F-3-M, F-4-M, F-7-Sw 



NJ 1 . Great Egg Harbor River. Acreage: 1000. 



o 

CO 

> 

Lil 
CO 
OC Location: Lake Lanape and North Atlantic counties; Dorothy and Mays Land- 

W ing quadrangles; 2 miles N of Mays Landing; reached via canoe from 

> Weymouth. 

Ill 

Z Description: A clear, fresh-water stream with beautiful lakes and ponds on the 

flood plain; fresh-water fishing excellent; wood ducks and other waterfowl, 
otter, beaver, muskrats, and other wildlife abundant. This is one of the few 
remaining unpolluted streams in New Jersey. The vegetation includes river 
birch, white cedar, black gum, oaks, pitch pine, and swamp loosestrife. 

Encroachments: A development company plans to develop the entire flood 
plain. 

Ownership: Lake Lanape Land Co., and private individuals. 

Data source: Fred Ferrigno, Senior Biologist, Fish and Wildlife Management 
Area, Tuckahoe, N.J. 08250. 



X 



- 



^*"\. 



■a <^ 

.v ° 5?<£ 

\ , & ' % 

\ ■ .<■ Atlantic City 

- A o'\ f** r ' Sc-out Camp ^ v , 

( • \ f 

I EmmeMtkb ( 

rv /'"-v V *rV* 







\ 
X 



V 



IS 



.V 



f'9 



\ 



\ 



W 



/ 







V, 






V 


o 












w 

Q 






.6" /v' 


s 


j 
j 


' 


..%'■> 


' 




CO 

o 



NJ 2. Great Swamp. Acreage: About 5500. 

Location: Morris County; Chatham Quadrangle; 7 miles S of Morristown. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. Great Swamp occupies an oval- 
shaped basin now known as the Passaic Valley, the site of the post-glacial Lake 
Passaic, which later drained into the Passaic River. The central and eastern por- 
tions of the basin include extensive areas of low forest interspersed with marshes 
and shrub swamps that furnish food and cover for a wide variety of wildlife, in- 
cluding deer, muskrat, raccoon, and many species of waterfowl. 

Ownership: BSFW. 

Data source: NPS. 



m 



c_ 

m 

CO 

m 

-< 



Green j> 




yNew 
/j Providence 

512" 

Berkelel Hghts. 



CD 
O 
CO 



> 
LU 
CO 

cc 

LU 
LU 



4f NJ 3. Helmetta Woods and Bogs. Acreage: 200 estimated. 



Location: Middlesex County; New Brunswick Quadrangle; 12 miles S of New 
Brunswick; reached via Dunham's Corner Road and Helmetta Boulevard. Area 
is bounded by Washington Ave., Helmetta Pond, Helmetta Boulevard, and Port 
Street. However, wetland and forest areas are also outside these boundaries. 

Description: Vegetation typical of the Pine Barrens, representing an outlier. It 
includes sphagnum pools and bogs, cedar swamps, and an artificial lake with 
Chamaedaphne mat. 

References: Moul, E. T. 1961. Cyclonexis annularis in New Jersey, Bull. Torrey 
Bot. Club 88:416-417; Buell, H. F. 1968. Closterium gracile, Bull. Torrey Bot. 
Club 95:449-454. 

Encroachments: Probably housing development in the future; the 1954 USGS 
map shows this plan. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: E. T. Moul, Botany Department, Rutgers University, New Brun- 
swick, N.J. 08903. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Helen Buell, Rutgers University, New Brun- 
swick, N.J. 08903. 



v 




/ 



~;u^ 



A )< 



( • . GjUffiui 



/ 



BM/> i\£S 









/ 













CO 

o 

CO 



NJ 4. Kuser Memorial Natural Area (Cedar Swamp). Acreage: 200. 

Location: Sussex County; Port Jervis South Quadrangle; 5 miles S of Port Jervis; 
reached via Rt. 23. 

Description: The Cedar Swamp supports a variety of conifers, including large 
hemlocks, white pine, black spruce, and, surprisingly at this 1500-ft altitude, a 
fine stand of mature southern white cedar. The understory is largely 
rhododendron, with a few deciduous shrubs and lower plant life scattered 
throughout. The eastern border of the area follows a 1 700-ft ridge overlooking 
the swamp. A trail runs along this ridge and circles the area, and an old road 
cuts through the middle and around the perimeter of the swamp. Besides the sig- 
nificant plant life, Cedar Swamp is also known for its abundant and diverse 
population of wild animals and birds. 

References: Niering, W. A. 1953. The past and present vegetation of High 
Point State Park. Ecol. Monogr. 23:127-148. 

Ownership: State of New Jersey, Department of Conservation and Economic 
Development, Box 1889, Trenton, N.J. 08625. 

Data source: David F. Moore, Chief, Natural Areas Section, Department of 
Conservation and Development, Bureau of Parks, State of New Jersey, P.O. Box 
1889, Trenton, N.J. 08625. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Frank McLaughlin, Exec. Secy., New Jersey Au- 
dubon Society, 790 Ewing Ave., Franklin Lakes, N.J. 07417; Dr. Murray F. 
Buell, Professor of Botany, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. 08902; Dr. 
W. A. Niering, Department of Botany, Connecticut College, New London, 
Conn. 06320. 



Z 

m 

:> 

c_ 
m 

D 

m 

< 







7) (fh 



CO 

> 

LU 
CO 

cc 

HI 
LU 



NJ 5. Lily Lake Natural Area. Acreage: 3. 

Location: Atlantic County; Oceanville Quadrangle. 

Description: Red maple, alder, and southern white cedar swamp with stands of 
Loisel's twayblade orchid. The pine barrens tree frog occurs here. 

Ownership: Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge, BSFW. 

Data source: Research Natural Areas on Federal Lands of the U.S.A. 1968. 



ndiuoi wiy 



^ Port Republic ^ Great 

^ Motts Creek 

"\|^(^/H\^T H,Sbeet0wn ^Oyster 
x -**** ^ v -'' I -"° Creek Bay 




Brigantine 



Scull 

' Sea View f"\/ ( <f 

'Ocean B "> / J^/ 

Hts. „ //" Margate City 



Atlantic City ^ 



Longport 



' 8 T~~ Great Egg 

Tar t>or^\<j> / J w ° r *"" r 
< Inlet 

M 

/ . y^Ocean Citv 



14° or,' 



"7A° 



CO 



NJ 6. Mullica River and Wading River. Acreage: 5000 estimated. 

Location: Burlington and Atlantic counties; between Chatsworth and New 
Gretna; reached via Rt. 542, 563, 532, and 539. 

Description: The lower portions of the Mullica and Wading rivers are unique in 
supporting the best stands of wild rice (Zizania aquatica) along the Atlantic 
coast of New Jersey; associated wildlife includes thousands of ducks, geese, Sora 
Rails, a few Bald Eagles, etc. Upper reaches of the drainages are habitat of the 
pine barrens tree frog and curly grass (Schizaea pusilla). 

References: McPhee, New Jersey Pine Barrens. 

Encroachments: Cranberry and blueberry industry, population pressure, hous- 
ing, etc. 

Ownership: State of New Jersey including the eastern portion of the Wharton 
Tract State Forest and numerous private owners. 

Data source: William E. Shoemaker, 59 Parker St., Manahawkin, N.J. 08050. 

Other knowledgeable persons: L. G. MacNamara, Director, N.J. Division of Fish 
and Game, Box 1 809, Trenton, N.J. 08625. 



m 



m 

J3 

en 
m 

< 




<M 
CO 

>- 
LU 

OC 

HI 

UJ 

z 



NJ 7. Timber Beaver Swamp. Acreage: 300. 

Location: Cape May County; Woodbine Quadrangle; 1 mile SE of South 
Dennis; reached via Garden State Parkway, Rt. 55; accessible by old logging 
roads. 

Description: A relatively large area, typical of the forest and swamp lands of 
south Jersey. A small pond at the northern end introduces a different environ- 
ment than that of most of the tract. The greatest asset for natural area designa- 
tion lies in preserving this typical area before more alterations by man occur. 
Islands within the swamp contain untouched stands of beech, holly, and other 
typical Cape May vegetation. 

Encroachments: Rt. 55 Freeway. Soil Conservation Service plans for recharge 
impoundments for Cape May County. 

Ownership: State of New Jersey and private. 

Data source: David F. Moore, Chief, Natural Areas Section, Department of 
Conservation and Economic Development, Bureau of Parks, State of New Jer- 
sey, P.O. Box 1889, Trenton, N.J. 08625. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Lester MacNamara, Dir., Division of Fish 
and Game, Department of Conservation and Economic Development, P.O. Box 
1889, Trenton, N.J. 08625. 



VUUl IrtUUtBt. ^ 




r 






> ' 



1 : CK:l 

j * SKlipan.! 



^ 



^kS^&SSi%£^--'^ ^P" "^ ii 




— '— ' **"*si 


~-'*. 


,*SW*i* 


O v 


*■" . 




• — ■> 




_ ~~i*'' ~ 


'<>w- 




) 


• % 


r< 


. t 






S ^< 




f\ 


A 






~> .'■" % ') 








"-^-> L-. 










'^■» 




^o 














3»sLj 










j -; ; ) 






o 




IS 


»c- 


( 



TimfeJr »*d~8eover Swamp 



t 
i 
I 
I >' 



D 



D 



L 



E 



'KJZCs^Zr 



"%!&; ■$*>wc ; 



,J^bury Ch 



I 5 



CO 
CO 



NJ 8. Trenton Marshes. Acreage: 257. 

Location: Mercer County; Trenton East Quadrangle; about 1 mile downstream 
from Trenton near Bordentown, at the confluence of Crosswick Creek and the 
Delaware River. 

Description: A cattail marsh subject to about 18 inches of tidal fluctuation. 
Spatterdock is abundant. 

Encroachments: A small sanitary landfill operation is taking place outside the 
park, which is legally protected by deed of gift. 

Ownership: John R. Roebling Memorial Park, Mercer County Park Board. 

Data source: Allston Jenkins, Philadelphia Conservationists, Inc., 1500 Chest- 
nut St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Mercer County Park Board, Mercer County Court 
House, Broad and Markett Sts., Trenton, N.J. 



m 

c_ 
m 

33 
C/> 

m 

-< 




CO 

> NJ 9. Troy Meadows and Great Piece Meadows. Acreage: 5300. 

f£ Location: Essex and Morris counties; Pompton Plains and Caldwell quadran- 

LU gles; 2 miles east of Caldwell; reached via 1-80 and U.S. 46. 

^ Description: Troy Meadows and Great Piece Meadows are relict marsh and 

2 swamp portions of Lake Passaic, the large glacial lake of the Wisconsin period. 

Troy Meadows, a 2300-acre wetland, is considered to be one of the most 
productive inland wetlands in the eastern United States in wildlife. Both areas 
have been heavily disturbed by highways and utilities, but still remain two of the 
most important open space areas in the state. Pin oak forest and large areas of 
cattail marsh typify Troy Meadows; while flood-plain forest and swamp forest, 
interspersed with Passaic River meander scars, typify Great Piece Meadows, a 
3000-acre area. Eligible for Natural Landmark status December 1970. 

References: Jf.rvis, R. A. 1963. The vascular plants and plant communities of 
Troy Meadows — a fresh water marsh in northern New Jersey. N.J. Acad. Sci. 
Bull. 8(2). 

Encroachments: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and state of New Jersey flood 
control, industrial expansion, filling, water pollution, interstate highway, utility 
easements, etc. 

Ownership: Wildlife Preserves, Inc., state of New Jersey, and others. 

Data source: David F. Moore, Chief, Natural Areas Section, Dept. of Conserva- 
tion and Development, Box 1889, Trenton, N.J. 08625. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Robert Perkins, President, Wildlife Preserves, 
Inc., 1 54 E. Clinton Ave., Tenafly, N.J. 07670. 

- ::/ /'«) I I \ P A R SI P p'a S N rV - 







y I TROY- B1LW J,/ H^ 



I V 



X > iir »e,k 






... S • . Brook \ f*&- \ 



K 



V^~J ^#T 



s 



fe. 






A I / / ■:.*. 



■i)/- { ' k Jr. -..UV\.- • 3cV * 

l. V * / ...■' & r j •" I vil c - W/^. •'. " 



CO 

en 



M E A D IV S 




D W K 
\ 



& 



< 






r Pinf Rrook' V , •-":K'* 











•Clinton 








:f 








■\ .^__= 


— 


*** r 


*-*"' 










«fr-CKnton Ch 








%x3 ' 








% 




C 




A. ^ L 


^ 






"Vc> 


ft' 



m 
m 

CO 

m 

-< 



CD 

CO 

O NEW MEXICO 

O 

LU General description: New Mexico has few remaining wetlands, the most impor- 

2 tant of which are located in the headwaters of the Canadian River and along the 

^ Rio Grande and Pecos rivers. These have been subjected to serious destruction 

LU and modification by intensive exploitation of water resources. A few special 

situations exist in sink holes east of Roswell and in collapse depressions in lava 

flows, such as McCarty's Flow west of Laguna. 

Status of the wetlands: There is very little undisturbed wetland to be found in 
this state. Diversion of water and grazing and watering of livestock are the prin- 
cipal threats to this habitat. 

Sources of data: The wetlands of New Mexico have been inventoried (USFWS 
1954). Data have been submitted on two areas by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries 
and Wildlife and by academic biologists. 

Recommendations: As potential Natural Landmarks some of the Sink Hole 
group east of Roswell would seem to be the most promising. The San Simon 
Cienega may well prove to be already too disturbed and its protection too dubi- 
ous to qualify for recognition. The depressions in McCarty's Flow are unique. 

Literature cited 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1954. Wetlands inventory — New Mexico. 
Albuquerque, New Mexico. 



CO 



m 



m 
x 

o 
o 



3 



/ 



Wetlands reported from New Mexico 

NM 1. McCarty's Flow 

NM 2. San Simon Cienega 

NM 3. *Sink Hole Group 



Habitat types 
F-4-M, F-5-M 
F-3-M, R 
S-10-M,S-11-M 



CO 
CO 

O 

g 
x 

Hi 



ill 



NM 1. McCartys Flow. Acreage: 6 estimated. 

Location: Valencia County; McCartys Quadrangle; 1 .5 miles W of McCartys on 
U.S. 66. 

Description: Small, scattered collapse depressions in the recent McCartys lava 
flow form inaccessible and undisturbed pools and ponds that support aquatic 
and marsh vegetation and waterfowl. 

Ownership: Not known. 

Data source: R. H. Goodwin, Box 1445, Connecticut College, New London, 
Conn. 06320. 




w 

CO 



NM 2. San Simon Cienega. Acreage: About 5. 

Location: Hidalgo County; Vanar, Ariz.-N. Mex. Quadrangle; about 33 miles 
WSW of Lordsburg; reached via I- 10 and U.S. 80 from Lordsburg. 

Description: A small natural pond in the San Simon Basin and consequently a 
delicate aquatic ecosystem. The area around this cienega is typical Chihuahuan 
desert. Dominant plants are creosote bush (Larrea divaricata) and mesquite 
(Prosopis judiflora). The lake is shallow and apparently stocked by the Fish and 
Game Departments of Arizona and New Mexico. There is some marsh area as- 
sociated with the cienega. This small lake is surrounded by large cottonwood 
trees and represents a truly unique North American desert oasis. 

Encroachments: Historically, considerable acreage of marsh (100 acres) oc- 
curred in scattered tracts; however, because of cultural changes and a lowered 
water table, marsh area has retracted to several small tracts (less than 1 acre) 
currently maintained through pumping from established wells. Habitat develop- 
ment represents cooperative efforts of the BLM and various conservation agen- 
cies in an attempt to maintain suitable habitat for the rare and endangered Mex- 
ican duck production. Water supplies historically maintaining marsh areas have 
been altered through irrigation programs and other cultural practices. The 
general area surrounding the marsh is utilized for livestock grazing. 

Ownership: BLM. 

Data source: Walter G. Whitford, Department of Biology, New Mexico State 
University, Las Cruces, N.M. 88001; William T. Krummes, Regional Director, 
BSFW, Division of Wildlife Services, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, N.M. 87103. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Charles A. Davis, Assistant Professor, Wild- 
life Science, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, N.M. 88001; Dr. Vin- 
cent Roth, Director, Southwestern Research Station of the American Museum 
of Natural History, Portal, Arizona 85632. 



m 

m 
x 

o 
o 




o 

CM 
CO 

O NM 3. Sink Hole Group. Acreage: About 50. 

O 

X Location: Chaves County; Bitter Lake and Bottomless Lakes quadrangles; 15 

^ miles E of Roswell; reached via U.S. 380, U.S. 70, and county roads. 

^ Description: Sinks form an unique ecologic-geologic type, averaging in size 

2 from less than an acre to approximately 12 acres. Average depth generally 

ranges from 20-120 ft. Water is generally saline, supporting only limited fish 
populations and containing various groups of Chara, including the marine form, 
Batophora, found inland only in these sink habitats. Sink holes occur in rolling 
shad-scale, mesquite desert type, generally ringed with salt cedars. Major groups 
include: ( 1 ) Ink Pots ( 10 sinks with 4-5 total surface acres on the northern por- 
tion of Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, requested for inclusion in wil- 
derness area); (2) South Refuge Group (30 sinks with 20-30 total surface area 
acres, designated by Director, BSFW, as Natural Area status); (3) Bottomless 
Lake Group (12-15 sinks with 20-30 surface acres, managed as a recreational 
area by the New Mexico State Parks Department); (4) Nondesignated Areas 
(include various sinks occurring on BLM land). 

Encroachments: No serious encroachment problems exist. Refuge sinks are 
managed so as to retain an unique geologic phenomenon; however, state park 
tracts are managed as recreational sites and receive heavy public use. 

Ownership: BSFW, New Mexico State Park System, and BLM. 

Data source: William T. Krummes, Regional Director, BSFW, Division of Wil- 
dlife Services, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, N.M. 87103. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Ralph Little, Fisheries Biologist, New Mexico 
Department of Game & Fish. 



V 



* ! 348*> 



a n eh' 



16 A 

// 



\ 

\ 






,Cil W 



15 






m 



m 
>< 

o 
o 



-.1X57 



iSiSL 



N 



21 



►4 



05 






22 



^366? 



I'ottonwood : 






28 



33 



Mirror X&ki 

27 

bikiviil S.ak- 
Figure Eight 



-V, 



'•f- 



PaHtMre. 
Lake 



34 



'Laid: 



X 



i6 



J«»SK- 



T II S 
T 12 S 



Spr 



l : t n and Feather I 

Due, 



r\- ." ' -!-. 



z 



CM 
CM 
CO 

* NEW YORK 

DC 

o 

>- General description: The fresh-water wetlands of New York are, for the most 

^ part, a consequence of glaciation. The southward flowing river systems in the 

W central part of the state, dammed by morainal deposits, formed the Finger 

Lakes. These now drain northward through swamps and marshes such as the 
Montezuma Marshes, into the Mohawk Valley that formerly flowed into the 
Hudson River. Deltas, such as the Seneca Lake Swamp, have formed at the 
heads of some of these lakes. In sandy kame-moraine areas, poorly drained ket- 
tles and depressions have developed bog lakes and bogs (Moss Lake, Kennedy 
Bog in Mendon Ponds Park, Zurich Bog, the McLea n Bog s). Marshes have 
formed in broader depressions which were originally snallow lakes (Big Reed 
Pond and Thompson Pond). In others, wooded swamps have developed (Oak 
Orchard and Bear Swamps). In limestone areas, marl swamps (Bergen Swamp) 
and meadows (Quaker Pond in Mendon Ponds Park) have formed. Some 
depressions have lakes that have not filled in very much but have interesting 
aquatics (Kellis Pond and Long Pond). Bays along the shore of Lake Ontario 
have become cut off at the mouth by sand bars and have developed marshes 
(Dexter Marsh, Lakeview Marsh, Braddock Bay). 

Status of the wetlands: The wetlands of this state are subjected to various en- 
croachments. These include highway construction (Montezuma Marshes and 
Braddock Bay), logging (Bergen Swamp and McLean Area), developments (Big 
Reed, Kellis and Long Ponds and Braddock Bay), gravel and peat extraction 
(McLean Area, Moss Lake, Zurich Bog), airport construction (Seneca Lake 
Marsh), and channel dredging (Seneca Lake). 

Sources of data: Information has been provided by personnel of the New York 
Department of Conservation, Division of Fish and Game, by The Nature Con- 
servancy, and by various scientists familiar with the ecology of the state. 

Recommendations: The Bergen Swamp has already been registered as a Natural 
Landmark. This is certainly one of the outstanding wetlands in the state and 
preserves as an excellent sample the flora and fauna characteristic of calcareous 
marl beds as well as a diversity of other habitat types. The Oak Orchard Swamp, 
a portion of which is within the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, is being 
managed for wildlife. Since it is close to the Bergen Swamp, which has already 
been given landmark status, this swamp should not be given high priority. 

Bear Swamp has a noteworthy stand of rhododendron that is being preserved 
by The Nature Conservancy. As such, it should be considered for registration. 
The swamp forest along the Nissequogue River on Long Island is considered a 
very fine stand. 

Bogs may be found at Moss Lake, Mendon Ponds, the Zurich Bog, and in the 
McLean area. Moss Lake is being preserved by The Nature Conservancy and 
the Zurich Bog by the Bergen Swamp Preservation Society. Both are excellent 
examples and might be appropriately registered. The McLean Swamps and Bogs 
are still privately owned, and action should be taken to protect them. It is possi- 
ble that some of the owners might cooperate and that landmark status would 
serve as an encouragement. Mendon Ponds Park has several outstanding wet- 
lands — notably Kennedy Bog and the calcareous meadows around Quaker Pond. 
These should be given consideration as landmarks since recognition could be 
very beneficial in persuading the Monroe County Park System to give them pro- 
tection. 



ro 

CO 



m 

-< 
O 
DO 



Thompson Pond, partly owned by The Nature Conservancy, is an excellent 
example of a marsh around an undisturbed shallow lake. Big Reed Pond, ad- 
jacent to Montauk State Park, is a marsh under maritime influence. It is in 
private hands. It should be preserved and might then qualify for registration. O 

The marshes that have developed in bays around Lake Ontario are extensive 2J 

and of high quality. The Lakeview Marsh complex and the Dexter Marsh are 
more remote from urban centers and, hence, somewhat less modified by en- 
croachment than the Braddock Bay State Park marshes. They are probably all 
worthy of consideration as landmarks in the order listed. One of the finest cat- 
tail marshes in the state is at the south end of Seneca Lake. It is vulnerable to 
encroachment. The Montezuma Marshes on the Seneca River, 6820 acres of 
which are in the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge, include vast stands of 
cattails and some old growth of bottomland timber, 100 acres of which have 
been set aside as the Swamp Woods Natural Area. There is no question that this 
wetlands complex is outstanding. 



CM 
CO 



f£ 
O 

>- 

Hi 




Wetlands reported from New York 

NY 1 . Bear Swamp 

NY 2. *Bergen Swamp 



NY 3. 


NY 4. 


NY 5. 


NY 6. 


NY 7. 


NY 8. 


NY 9. 


NY 10 


NY 11 


NY 12 


NY 13 


NY 14 


NY 15 



NY 16. 



NY 17. 
NY 18. 



*Big Reed Pond 

Braddock Bay State Park 

Dexter Marsh 

Iona Island Marsh 

Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge 

Kcllis Pond 

Kennedy Bog (see Mendon Ponds) 
*Lakeview Marsh 

Long Pond 

McLean Swamps and Bogs 

* Mendon Ponds 

* Montezuma Marshes 
Moss Lake Bog 
Nissequogue River 

Oak Orchard Creek (see Iroquois 
National Wildlife Refuge) 

Quaker Pond (see Mendon Ponds) 

Salisbury Meadow (see Iona Island 
Marsh) 

Seneca Lake Marsh 

Swamp Woods Natural Area (see 
Montezuma Marshes) 
*Thompson Pond 

Zurich Bog 



Habitat type 

F-7-Sw 

F-2-M(Ca), F-3-M, F-8-B, 

F-7-Sw 
F-4-M, F-5-M, F-3-M 
F-4-M, F-5-M, F-3-M 
F-4-M, F-5-M, F-3-M 
F-3-M 
F-7-Sw 
F-5-M 

F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 

F-5-M, F-3-M 

F-8-B, F-7-Sw 

F-8-B, F-2-M(Ca),F-3-M, 

F-5-M 
F-4-M, F-3-M, F-7-Sw 
F-8-B 
F-7-Sw, F-4-M 



F-3-M, F-4-M 



F-3-M, F-4-M 
F-8-B 



ro 

en 



NY 1 . Bear Swamp. Acreage: 3 1 6. 

Location: Albany County; Greenville Quadrangle; about 3 miles S of Westerlo. 

Description: A notable stand of Rhododendron maximum at the northern limit of 
its range in a poorly drained swampy woodland. 

Ownership: TNC. 

Data source: R. H. Goodwin, Box 1445, Connecticut College, New London, 
Conn. 06320;TNC. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. George R. Cooley, Hickory Hill, Rensselaer- 
ville, N.Y. 12147. 



m 

:> 

-< 
o 




CO 
CVJ 
CO 

Q£ NY 2. Bergen Swamp. Acreage: 2000. 

O 

Location: Genesee County; Byron and Churchville quadrangles; between 
^ Bergen and Byron, S of Black Creek; reached via Rt. 33 and Rt. 262. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. An outstanding wooded swamp 
with extensive stands of white cedar, surrounding open marl deposits which sup- 
port a rich flora of unusual plants characteristic of calcareous wetlands. 

References: Slifer, M. M. 1961. A swamp story. New York; various authors. 
1946-51. The vegetation of Bergen Swamp I. -IX, Proc. Rochester Acad. Sci. 

9:64-137,237-264,277-347. 

Encroachments: A good deal of logging has occurred in the past. The area has 
served as a source of cedar fence posts. 

Ownership: The Bergen Swamp Preservation Society owns about 1200 acres; 
the remainder is in scattered private holdings. 

Data source: R. H. Goodwin, Box 1445, Connecticut College, New London, 
Conn. 06320. 



CO 

ro 




m 

-< 
O 

3D 



GO 
CM 
CO 



CC NY 3. Big Reed Pond. Acreage: 45. 

O 

>- Location: Suffolk County; Montauk Point Quadrangle; about 2.5 miles W of 

^ Montauk Point. 



HI 



Description: This pond, surrounded by oak-beech-hickory woods on hilly ter- 
rain, is the eastern terminus of fresh water available to white-tailed deer. It is 
fringed by emergent vegetation and has a large stand of cattails on the southwest 
end. The shallow, weedy coves provide fine habitat for migrating and breeding 
waterfowl. This pond is from 4 to 6 ft deep with a muddy bottom and supports a 
sizable fish population (especially black bass) as well as frogs and turtles. Mus- 
krats have been present on the marsh and may again be introduced to help con- 
trol the cattails. An area of several hundred acres including this pond, the near- 
by shore and dune region, and its drainage through Little Reed Pond are par- 
ticularly suited to preservation as a National Landmark because of its proximity 
to Montauk Point State Park and other federally owned land on the Point. 

Encroachments: The owner of the property is beginning to develop. Preliminary 
roads have been bulldozed approximately one-half mile from the pond but there 
is no indication of immediate plans for developing land closer to the pond. 

Ownership: Montauk Acreage, Inc., Frank Tuma, Plaza, Montauk 1 1954. 

Data source: Harold Knoch, Division of Fish and Game, Baymen's Building, 285 
Main St., Sayville, N.Y. 11782. 



Shagwong Point 



Shagwong is 
Point. 







5 £ 1 




VlrW § 






Wong 






... {, 


<? 


55'' 




£ * 


■ 


> 








«» 


:^ 




" 










' 






1 "^~~-' / 














ttle 










nd 






i 




•> \.<-_ 






! 









-X. 11.11 



'-. Esasthafnpton 

Gun Club 

\ 



CO 
N> 
CO 

NY 4Braddock Bay State Park. Acreage. 2073. j^j 

Location: Monroe County; Braddock Heights Quadrangle; lying between Lake 

Ontario State Parkway and Lake Ontario. q 

Description: Within Braddock Bay State Park are scattered wetland preserves, ^ 

including approximately 588 acres of open water and 1106 acres of marsh. 

Specific areas within the park lands are Round Pond Marsh Area, Northrup 

Creek Wildlife Sanctuary, Cranberry Pond Wildlife Area, Rose Marsh Wildlife 

Area, Braddock Bay Wildlife Area, and Buck Pond Marsh Area. Some of the 

animals in the wildlife area are opossum, muskrat, mink, and beaver. 

Encroachments: Highway and other encroachments are shown on the topo- 
graphic map. 

Ownership: New York State, Genesee State Park Commission. 

Data source: John M. Comerford. 



Map on following page 



o 

CO 
CO 



LU 






JfS 









4 : 









/ 



sir 

M 



r3 


fi ?:S 




se - 


L» 




i 


•c , l 




^# r ~ 






//? 


i * f ft ft 




r 




I 


;- 


1 f ""'" 


ffi 








is 




> w 


U 


c 


\ / 


V- 


m 


-; 


;fi k 






-- 


« I, • 




'* J* 




\ i 

\ \ 


) 





'■% 



I I' } ! 



> 










CI! 
v 




r - 


' ' i / n 


» > 


H 


,r',J Son 



NY 5. Dexter Marsh. Acreage: 1 200. 



GO 
CO 



m 



Location: Jefferson County; Clayton and Sackets Harbor 15' quadrangles; 7 

miles W of Watertown; reached via 1-8 1 , Rt. 3, 1 1 , 1 2, and 37. ^ 

DO 
Description: Dexter Marsh consists of typical deep fresh-water marsh with high ^ 

wildlife habitat value. Natural water channels meander through the marsh, 
reaching depths of 10 ft or less depending on Lake Ontario water levels. Stands 
of both common and narrow-leaved cattails occupy about two-thirds of the area. 
Wild rice is dominant in about one-fifth of the shallow water area in the marsh. 
The marsh bottom is predominantly silt, with large amounts of organic materials 
present. Fluctuating water levels cause changes in vegetative patterns. Approxi- 
mately two-thirds of the adjoining uplands are devoted to agriculture. The 
remaining area supports small woodlots of mixed mature hardwood and conifer 
stands. Dexter Marsh attracts large numbers of migrant waterfowl, representing 
a wide species range of both diving and surface-feeding ducks. Many species of 
shore and marsh birds are found in abundance along the shores of Black River 
Bay and within the marsh during the spring and summer months. 

Encroachments: At present, the area is largely an undisturbed natural area. 
Some private camps and cottages have been built along the south shore, but no 
major shore subdivision has occurred. The Division of Fish and Game has 
recently secured administrative jurisdiction to the state-owned underwater lands 
of Dexter Marsh, insuring further wetland preservation protection. 

Ownership: A portion of the area has been placed under the jurisdiction of the 
Conservation Department of the State of New York Division of Fish and Game. 

Data source: Thomas E. Brown, Box 84, Watertown, N.Y. 13601. 

Other knowledgeable persons: John E. Wilson, Regional Supervisor, New York 
State Conservation Department, Box 84, Route 37, Watertown, N.Y. 13601. 



Map on following page 



CM 
CO 
CO 



UJ 







^CN 



*>» 



^ 



** 



**\ 



:-, '1- 



« 



\ 



X 



\\ 




N\\> 



■Jr 



\V / 



\\ 



J" .. V-: 



CO 
CO 
CO 



NY 6. Iona Island Marsh (Salisbury Meadow). Acreage: About 160. 

Location: Rockland County; Peekskill Quadrangle; about 2 miles W of Peekskill 
on the west side of the Hudson River. 

Description: Listed in The Hudson Biological Resources, Hudson River Valley 
Commission, as a site for rare plants and rare ecological habitat. 

Ownership: Palisades Interstate Park Commission. 

Data source: Calvin J. Heusser, Department of Biology, New York University, 
Sterling Forest, P.O. Box 608, Tuxedo, N.Y. 10987. 



Z 

rn 

:> 

-< 
o 



\\ \ Bear \ 

' Mountain N 



i 



./Sewage 
^Disposal 



UoodUtawn 





% Ihyht ' > I* 

V vJl A* 

^\ ~^^k ,0na 

Standee Msiand 



W£t# 






m a 



.Round \ Fish island 
risland \ * 



si&N Creek 



Mid 2 



« 







r 



$ 



WA 






cT 




«p 



^ NY 7. Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge (Oak Orchard Creek). Acreage: 

§ 10,800. 



> 
2 



Location: Orleans and Genesee counties; Medina 15' Quadrangle; 5 miles S of 
Medina; bordered to the west by the Tonawonda Game Management Area and 
to the east by the Oak Orchard Game Management Area. 

Description: The lowland is flooded by Oak Orchard Creek during late winter 
and spring and provides rest and food for Canada Geese and ducks during their 
spring migrations. Species attracted to the area include Mallards, Black Ducks, 
Pin Tails, and American Widgeons as well as Green-winged and Blue-winged 
Teal, Wood Duck, Gadwall, Shoveler, Red Head, Ruddy Duck, Blue Geese, and 
Whistling Swan. The area serves as refuge for birds such as grouse, ring-necked 
pheasants, and woodcock as well as for mammals such as muskrats, beavers, 
white-tailed deer, raccoons, and red foxes. The area is managed to produce op- 
timum nesting and feeding conditions for waterfowl. 

Ownership: BSFW and New York State Conservation Department. 

Data source: BSFW. 



CO 
CO 
CJ1 



■■Vfc: 

SaaTJ 





<?►-<-.> * 





-?j 




}a& 




' ■ ' t-l . 


iw 






'•"-] 


"^ ^ 






Si 


^ -' v ' 






<* 


■ * 




* 

«? 

& 


k 


; h 





It. 



I* 



i^^^—i^ 



$S',V,'&4$ 






Mnos 



s 






x.- 






* j§i 






ft 




*fc - 4- 



fHAVlfO <' 



s 



■ ,nj.nos 



H^ 



* 



r 
i 

i 
i 



* 



^ 









a 



^ 



I 



t 



%\ 






S 

; & . . SI xN 

3 Jtt - * \ s ■ 

4 



o 



i 



! 



'*-©* 



I 



M 



, 5>ld 



ffilS 




' '* 



. % 



m 

-< 
O 

33 



CO 
CO 



LU 

z 



NY 8. Kellis Pond. Acreage: 19. 

Location: Suffolk County; Sag Harbor Quadrangle; 1 mile SW of Bridgehamp- 
ton; reached via Rt. 27. 

Description: This pond may be classified as a kettle hole. Although not the best 
example of this type on Long Island, it is one of the least desecrated. The pond, 
with its narrow wooded border, is surrounded by farmland. There is some float- 
ing and emergent vegetation near the shore, but the pond itself has the ap- 
pearance of being fairly deep. This pond is used extensively by migrating diving 
ducks and other waterfowl. 

Encroachments: A development road has been built to within 250 ft of the west 
shore. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Harold Knoch, Division of Fish and Game, Baymen's Building, 285 
Main Street, Sayville, N.Y. 1 1782. 



♦ . ». * 



Pun.! 




Hay ground 






. 


\ ^ 


^ 


• 


/ 




«!s 


* 


La 5/ 


' * * , 


N? 


% 


/ 


. i) 


V 




1r S A 






<?• .\ 






°o ^ 


- 


' . 


' + 0} 




est Meeox 


Sfj 




Vi!tagev\ 


... \ • 
• Q. 





PAULS 



LANE 



24... 






NY 9. Lakeview Marsh. Acreage: 3400. 



^1 



m 



* 



Location: Jefferson County; Henderson and Ellisburg 7.5' quadrangles; 20 miles 

SW of Watertown and 2 miles W of Ellisburg; reached via Rt. 3. O 

Description: The marsh is separated from Lake Ontario by a sand dune and bar- 
rier beach over 4 miles long and reaching heights of 60 ft above lake level. The 
basin is 2300 acres in size and averages 1 mile in width. Four streams draining 
264 square miles of upland meander through the area and unite at the "Big 
Sandy" which empties into Lake Ontario. Five open-water ponds within the 
marsh total 458 acres and range in depth from 1 to 14 ft. The remaining marsh 
consists of dense stands of cattail, reed canary grass, sedges, and other wetland 
plant species. The adjoining uplands are gently rolling hills where dairy farming 
is predominant. One 1 1-acre island is located in the south end of the marsh and 
is almost entirely wooded. Water levels are entirely dependent on Lake Ontario 
water conditions. Vegetative situations are controlled by these water levels. The 
marsh is typical of many natural shoreline marshes along the east shore of Lake 
Ontario. The barrier beach possesses important natural features and is being 
recommended for state dedication as a Natural Area. 

Encroachments: The marsh has been disturbed very little by human activities. 

Ownership: New York State Conservation Department, Albany, N.Y. 12200, 
administered by the Division of Fish and Game. 

Data source: Thomas E. Brown, Box 84, Watertown, N.Y. 13601. 

Other knowledgeable persons: L. Schmid, Henderson Harbor, N>Y. 13651; Ken 
Otis, Ellisburg, N.Y. 13636; Robert Southwick, Woodville, N.Y. 13698; John E. 
Wilson, New York State Conservation Department, Box 84, Watertown, N.Y. 
13601. 



Map on following page 



00 
CO 
CO 



LU 



E 



■. Lakeview 

X Pond A 

V- 

// 



M 



.1 ? 



I ') 



./.. 



i > 

/ ! 



1 f 

.1 

I J f 



^/ 




i 



N, 






» 






Qfc 



r^ 



*» e 



/^ 



nd 



• 'l / 




1 Vi 


North 


! ,v 


Colwell 


' « i 


Pond 


i ° ) 




■1 / 

( 

1 





South 

Colwell 

Pond 



j>** 



% 






fL > 




/ y 


\r\c 


, BM. 


? % ?6 



v' 



t^i i 




> ^ / .-*'*' 



CO 
CO 
CO 



NY 10. Long Pond. Acreage: 45. 

Location: Suffolk County; Sag Harbor Quadrangle; 3 miles N of Bridgehamp- 
ton. 

Description: This is a shallow pond with a sandy bottom, and an abundance and 
variety of submerged and emergent vegetation. The pond has a substantial 
fringe of grass around the edge and is surrounded by oak woods. This pond is 
very suitable waterfowl habitat and several muskrat houses are present. Little 
Long Pond (25 acres), though not as attractive as Long Pond, is still unspoiled 
and could be incorporated in this area. 

Encroachments: There are several houses on Sagg Road and further develop- 
ment is taking place in this area. Two houses on Toppings Path are visible from 
the pond as well as a power line south of the pond. There are several little-used 
access roads around the pond. 

Ownership: The town of Southampton owns the bottom of the pond, while the 
surrounding upland has several private owners. 

Data source: Harold Knoch, Division of Fish and Game, Baymen's Building, 285 
Main Street, Sayville, N.Y. 1 1782. 



m 

:> 

< 
o 

33 



-■> 






* 



liOltViU y^ 




Fowl 






o 

CO 

i£ NY 1 1. McLean Swamps and Bogs. Acreage: 2500 estimated. 



O 

>- 

UJ 



Location: Tompkins and Cortland counties; Groton 7.5' Quadrangle; im- 
mediately adjacent to Malloryville and McLean; reached via Rt. 1 3. 

Description: A notable complex of glacial deposits with kames and eskers, 
pitted by swamps and bogs. The area is traversed by Mud and Beaver creeks 
that are fed by large springs flowing from the glacial gravel. The swamps are sta- 
tions for boreal plants, rare in this region. There is an excellent stand here of 
Cypripedium reginae. 

References: Von Engeln, O. D. The Finger Lakes region, its origin and nature, 
p. 117. 

Encroachments: Some of the kames are being worked by the Highway Depart- 
ment for gravel. A swamp in the Cortland County sector has been considered 
for a city dump. There is some grazing and logging on the slopes. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, 422 Chestnut St., Ithaca, N.Y. 14850. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. J. W. Wells and Dr. William Dress, Cornell 

University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850. 



Map on following page 



CO 
4*. 




Z 
m 

:> 

-< 
o 

3 
7s 



«/-'*-/ 



3! 

CO 

J NY 12. Mendon Ponds. Acreage: 1000 estimated. 

O 

>- Location: Monroe County, Mendon Ponds Quadrangle; about 10 miles S of 

^ Rochester, and 3 miles NW of Mendon, in Mendon Ponds Park, reached via Rt. 

UJ 65. 

Z 

Description: An outstanding complex of glacial deposits with kames, eskers, and 
kettles. Ponds, marshes, marsh meadows, bogs, and bog forest fill the poorly 
drained depressions. Kennedy Bog has a typical bog heath completely filling its 
basin. A diversity of submersed aquatics, including 10 species of Potamogeton, 
arc found in the shallow water of the ponds. The marsh around Quaker Pond 
supports a notable assemblage of grasses, sedges, and herbs characteristic of 
marly habitats. These include 16 that are rare to the county. 

References: Goodwin, R. H. 1943. The flora of Mendon Ponds Park, Proc. 
Rochester Acad. Sci. 8(5-6):233-298. 

Encroachments: The area receives heavy recreational use. 

Ownership: Monroe County Parks. 

Data source: R. H. Goodwin, Box 1445, Connecticut College, New London, 
Conn. 06320. 



Map on following page 



CO 
CO 




m 

-< 
O 
J} 



CO 

^ NY 13. Montezuma Marshes. Acreage: About 6400. 

O 

>- Location: Seneca County; Seneca Falls, Savannah and Cayuga quadrangles; at 

^ the north end of Cayuga Lake, about 2.5 miles E of Seneca Falls. 



LU 



Description: Extensive cattail marshes and other wetland types. This area serves 
as an important wildlife refuge for migratory waterfowl on the Hudson Bay-At- 
lantic Coast flyway. Within the refuge lies the 100-acre Swamp Woods Natural 
Area, dominated by American elm, swamp white oak, and red maple, with scat- 
tered black ash. This is an old growth stand with most of the trees exceeding 30 
inches dbh and some of the oaks exceeding 40 inches dbh. 

Encroachments: In spite of its strategic position and importance, the refuge was 
bisected in 1951 by 1-90. 

Ownership: BSFW, Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. 

Data source: Clayton M. Hardy, Refuge Manager, Montezuma National Wildlife 
Refuge. 



Map on following page 



CO 

en 







ypem ?i v 1 J V^ 
o r 

a y a$ 






Sprmg LaT« 8 p J 




Z 

m 

-< 
O 



3 

CO 

rr 

LU 



NY 14. Moss Lake Bog. Acreage: 84. (About 30 acres are open water and bog.) 

Location: Allegany County; Houghton Quadrangle; about 2 miles SW of 
Houghton; reached via Rt. 19 or Rt. 243 and Sand Hill Rd. 

Description: A small lake is surrounded by a typical floating sphagnum bog, 
within which may be found blueberry, bog club moss, bog laurel, bog rosemary, 
cotton grass, leatherleaf, pitcherplant, Utricularia, rose pogonia, pondweed, 
smartweed, round-leafed and spatulate-leafed sundews, white water lily, and yel- 
low cowlily. 

Encroachments: A gravel pit has been worked about 2000 ft east of the 
preserve, which is now owned by TNC. 

Ownership: TNC. 

Data source: TNC; R. H. Goodwin, Box 1445, Connecticut College, New Lon- 
don, Conn. 06320. 



/ 



/ 



j;V"% 



BM1 



m 

lo 

m 



1029 



'JT 



s 



<o 



s 



>f 











CO 

^1 



NY 15. Nissequogue River. Acreage: 400 estimated. 

Location: Suffolk County; Saint James and Central Islip quadrangles; 1 mile W 
of Smithtown, reached via the Jericho Turnpike and Rt. 25. 

Description: Wooded swamp, portions of which are slightly affected by the 
tides. 

Data source: Richard B. Fischer, Department of Education, New York State 
College of Agriculture, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Anthony Taormina, 108 Glenwood Lane, Port 
Jefferson, N.Y. 11777. 



m 

:> 

< 

o 

J3 







3 






NY 16. Seneca Lake Marsh. Acreage: Over 500. 

Location: Schuyler County; Montour Falls and Burdett quadrangles; between 
Watkins Glen and Montour Falls; reached via Rt. 14 or 414. 

Description: A large cattail marsh at the south end of Seneca Lake. The famous 
Catherine Creek rainbow trout fishing extends the length of the marsh. All sorts 
of aquatic birds nest there—wrens, rails, gallinules, bitterns, ducks, red-wings, 
etc. Without doubt, it is one of (if not (he) finest of such marshes remaining in 
New York State that is not protected from encroachment or destruction. 

Encroachments: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has seen fit to tamper with 
the creek. While this aids landowners in their attempts to fill in the marsh, it has 
prevented further use as a spawning ground by Northern Pike. 

Ownership: Numerous private owners who would like to see it "reclaimed " 

Data source: Richard B. Fischer, Stone Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
14850. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Arthur Cook, Gunning Road, Ithaca, N.Y. 
14850. 




"v D I X 







£k r .*,-< : '4': ] 






w 



1 



M 







N 




Rl V • <? ^*~' '/ 



CO 



NY 17. Thompson Pond. Acreage: 250 estimated. 

Location: Dutchess County; Pine Plains Quadrangle; SW of Pine Plains; reached 
via Rt. 82A. 

Description: A shallow, glacial lake notable for its marshy and aquatic vegeta- 
tion and associated wildlife. 



m 

3D 
7s 



Ownership: 1 73 acres by TNC; the remainder private. 

Data source: TNC, 1800 North Kent St., Suite 800, Arlington, Va. 22209. 



■ /■ /// 



T/Hk 






/rl j ! 
/i 



• . ' %Lpmmi "fthj& 



*£.- 






> 



A/V 



Iff "N . E 






. * * 

©« 



3S.^- 



<?> 



* 



y 



hi 



■ 




BRIARCLIFF 

■ v 



i 



••■">< 



il 



V 



0~ l / 






f\ 



?$S4 



o 
10 

CO 



rr 
O 

> 

LU 



NY 18. Zurich Bog. Acreage: 480 estimated. 

Location: Wayne County; Palmyra 15' Quadrangle; about 1 mile W of Zurich. 

Description: A typical sphagnum bog lying in a poorly drained depression 
between steep drumlins, this area has been noted for its interesting flora which 
includes several species of orchids. 

Encroachments: There has been some commercial exploitation of the peat in 
this bog in the past. 

Ownership: A major portion of the bog is presently owned by the Bergen 
Swamp Preservation Society. 

Data source: R. H. Goodwin, Box 1445, Connecticut College, New London, 
Conn. 06320. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. E. T. Boardman, Rochester Museum of Arts 
and Sciences, 657 East Ave., Rochester, N.Y. 14600. 




3J 
O 



CO 

NORTH CAROLINA § 

General description: Along the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, one encounters ^ 

a diversity of wetland types. Dismal Swamp, dominated by cypress and hard- q 

woods, extends from southern Virginia into the northern part of the state (see > 

Virginia). Southern white cedar swamps also occur as a typical Coastal Plain 
type. One of the most unique wetland types is the distinctive evergreen shrubby 
vegetation referred to as "pocosin" or "bayland." These areas, characteristically 
associated with the Carolina Bays, have been subjected to considerable ecologi- 
cal study (Buell 1946a, b; Frey 1953; Wells 1928). The Bays are elliptical lakes 
or depressions, some of which have filled with peat in the process of vegetation 
development. Many still persist and there is considerable interest in their 
geological origin. Those that have been filled with vegetation exhibit a charac- 
teristic shrubby evergreen vegetation, with pond or pocosin pine (Pinus 
serotina) as the primary tree associate. Typical shrubs include inkberry (Ilex 
glabra), sweet gallberry (/. coriacea), zenobia (Zenobia pulverulenta), and 
leatherwood (Cyrilla racemiflora). A tall-growing grass-cane (Arundinaria tecta), 
a dwarf saw-palmetto, and a small-growing tree, Magnolia virginiana, are as- 
sociated with the "pocosin." In the Bay area, Buell ( 1946b) has studied Jerome 
Bog, primarily covered by "pocosin," and to the west Frey (1953) has docu- 
mented the palynological record of Singletary Lake in Bladen State Forest. 
Much of the Croatan National Forest also exhibits this "pocosin" flora. Other 
wetlands include the bottomland river swamps along the major rivers on the 
Coastal Plain and Piedmont. In the mountainous western part of the state, iso- 
lated mountain bogs are of special interest. 

Status of the wetlands: Data on encroachments is limited. Much of the wetland 
owned by lumber companies is being managed. However, tracts under state 
ownership are receiving a considerable degree of protection. 

Source of data: Data identifying specific areas is meager. Conversations with 
Dr. Arthur Cooper, Department of Botany, North Carolina State University, 
Raleigh, N.C., have provided invaluable general information concerning the 
state's wetlands. 

Recommendations: The single area reported, Long Hope Creek Spruce Bog in 
the western mountains, appears to be an isolated, undisturbed tract which needs 
further investigation. If adequately protected from future disturbance, it 
probably would be a logical candidate for landmark status, 

Among the other wetlands, the typical "pocosin" type should be included for 
national recognition. A representative stand should be identified south of 
Columbia, in and contiguous to Pettigrew State Park. Extensive tracts are also 
reported in the Holly Shelter Wildlife Management area. Since management is 
limited here to deer and bear, with some use of fire, it should be possible to 
designate a sizeable tract of this unusual shrub type which would remain free of 
any management that would disrupt its unique floristic composition. Certain 
forest lands owned by the University of North Carolina School of Forestry might 
also be eligible even though they are being managed for timber production. A 
vast acreage of "pocosin" vegetation is under the ownership of lumber compa- 
nies. Since this vegetation type is not normally productive of timber, the possi- 
bility of designating such natural areas on lumber company land should be ex- 
plored. Singletary Lake studied by Frey (1953) is protected within Singletary 
Lake State Park. Jerome Bog described by Buell ( 1946a, b), near the hamlet of 
Jerome, is unprotected. 



CM 
CO 



o 

DC 
< 

o 

I 
I- 
cc 
o 



In considering the southern white cedar type, it is reported that the Society of 
American Foresters has designated an old-growth cedar stand east of William- 
ston and south of Highway 64. The nature of its long-term protection requires 
investigation. 

It is likely that a thorough reconnaissance would turn up river bottomland 
forests comparable to those on the Congaree River (see South Carolina). This 
would be a most worthwhile venture. 

Literature cited 

Buell, M. F. 1946a. The age of Jerome bog, "a Carolina bay." Science 103:14- 

15. 
Buell, M. F. 1946b. Jerome bog, a peat-filled "Carolina bay." Torrey Bot. Club 

Bull. 73:24-33. 
Frey, D. G. 1953. Regional aspects of the late-glacial and post-glacial pollen 

succession of southeastern North Carolina. Ecol. Monogr. 23:289-313. 
Wells, B. W. 1928. Plant communities of the Coastal Plain of North Carolina 

and their successional relations. Ecology 9:230-242. 




Wetlands reported from North Carolina 

Dismal Swamp (see Dismal Swamp, 



NC I. 



Va.) 
Long Hope Creek Spruce Bog 



Habitat type 



F-8-B 



00 
CO 



NC 1 . Long Hope Creek Spruce Bog. Acreage. 380 estimated. 

Location: Ashe and Watauga counties; Zionville, N.C.-Tenn. Quadrangle; 1 1 
miles N of Boone; only access via trails; situated between Long Hope Mt. Ridge 
and Old Field Bald, 2 miles NE of Elk Knob. 

Description: Spruce-laurel bog with cranberry openings situated at an elevation 
of about 4200 feet. This area was only recently discovered and has not yet been 
studied. It is the largest bog in the mountains of North Carolina. Some mature 
timber still exists. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Albert Radford, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 
27514. 

Other knowledgeable persons: James W. Hardin, Department of Botany, North 
Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. 27600. 



Z 

o 

3} 



o 
> 

o 







CO 



CC 
O 



NORTH DAKOTA 



O 

^ General description: The state is spattered with a great number of small lakes 

Q and prairie potholes with associated marshlands. Many of these are fresh, some 

X saline. The Turtle Mountains represent a large stagnant ice moraine and present 

an outstanding sample of fresh wetlands. 



Status of the wetlands: Drainage and flood control projects are a major threat to 
the pothole country (Harmon 1970) and to some of the best marshes adjacent 
to Rock Lake and Rush Lake. Grazing was repeatedly cited as a disturbance at 
the margins of the wetlands. 

Sources of data: Personnel of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and 
university biologists have provided data. 

Recommendations: Some appropriate portion or portions of the Turtle Moun- 
tains should be given top priority for designation as a landmark. Some of this 
land is in public and some in private ownership. Outstanding marshes in private 
ownership are found at Rush Lake, Rock Lake, and Little Gurr Lake. Selection 
of these as landmarks should be contingent upon guarantees of their safety from 
drainage or other encroachment. Rush Lake and Rock Lake are already 
threatened by drainage projects. The Fischer Lakes exhibit outstanding water- 
fowl habitat and are unique for their wooded shores. Sibley Lake is a fine exam- 
ple of a somewhat saline lake heavily used by waterfowl migration. The Palermo 
Saline Wetland, an outstanding example of a strongly saline area, and the Karl- 
sruhe Bog, a most unusual western outlier of bog habitat in the prairie region, 
are two areas that should be given high priority for consideration as landmarks 
because of their special features. 

Literature cited 

Harmon, K. W. 1970. Prairie potholes. Nat. Parks Conserv. Mag. 45(3):25-28. 



CO 



5 « «6 



O 
3 



D 
> 

O 



Habitat type 

F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M, F-6- 

Ss 
F-8-B 

F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 
S-9 ,S-10-M 
F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 
F-l-M,F-3-M, F-4-M,F-5- 

M 
S-10-M,S-11-M 
F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 




Wetlands reported from North Dakota 

ND *Fischer Lakes 



ND2. 


* Karlsruhe Bog 


ND3. 


*Little Gurr Lake 


ND4. 


*Palermo Saline Wetland 


ND5 


Rock Lake 


ND6. 


Rush Lake 


ND7. 


Sibley Lake 


ND8. 


Turtle Mountains 



z 



CO 

m 

CO 

< ND 1 . Fischer Lakes. Acreage: About 400. 

^ Location: Stutsman County; Goldwin SW Quadrangle; 6 miles SE of Wood- 

< worth; reached via 1-94, U.S. 281. 
Q 

J Description: Two lakes, separated by a narrow willow-grass strip of land, re- 

f£ garded as one of the best diver passes in the region. The west lake is slightly 

O brackish, bordered by hardstem bulrush. A fine stand of green ash and willow 

arc found on the south bluffs. The east lake is brackish, containing luxurious 
beds of sago pondweed and attracting many waterfowl. A rather unique, 
wooded shoreline, unusual in prairie lakes, exists. 

Encroachments: Portions of the shoreline are overgrazed. Agricultural threat to 
the mixed grass hills surrounding the lake. 

Ownership: Loretta Redlin, Woodworth, N.D. 58496; Walter Holzworth, 
Woodworth, N.D. 58496; state of North Dakota (school lands). 

Data source: H. Kantrud, P.O. Box 1672, Jamestown, N.D. 58401; Clyde R. 
Odin, Wetlands Program Supervisor, P. O. Box 467, BSFW, Jamestown, N.D. 

58401. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Leo Kirsch, Biologist, BSFW, Woodworth, N.D. 
58496; Robert Eddy, Ray Eddy, Jr., and H. W. Lyons of Jamestown, N.D. 

58401. 







ND 2. Karlsruhe Bog. Acreage: 700. 

Location: McHenry County; Karlsruhe NE Quadrangle; 8 miles N and 4 miles E 
of Karlsruhe. 

Description: Large bog on the northwest-facing slopes of Souris River Valley. 
Extremely unusual flora for North Dakota, including Menyanthes trifoliata, 
Utricularia intermedia, Pedicularis canadensis and Betula pusilla. Bog contains 
the largest concentration of breeding Common Snipe (Capella gallinago) in the 
state (about 15 pairs). 

Encroachments: Mowed for hay around the edges; remainder with little danger 
of destruction. 

Ownership: Unknown; one landowner lives in SE quarter of Section 34. 

Data source: Harold A. Kantrud, P.O. Box 1672, Jamestown, N.D. 58401. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Robert E. Stewart, P.O. Box 1672, Jamestown, 
N.D. 58401. 



O 
J3 



> 
O 




CO 

m 

CO 



< 

I- 
O 

< 
o 

I 
I- 

o 

z 



ND 3. Little Gurr Lake. Acreage: 300. 

Location: Rolette County; Thome Quadrangle; 2 miles NW of Rolette; reached 
via Rt. 66. 

Description: A marsh of unexcelled natural beauty. Little Gurr Lake is an im- 
portant diving duck production area and an excellent brood marsh for all spe- 
cies of ducks. 

Encroachments: Intensive agricultural land use. 

Ownership: Alexander Gilje, James Gilje, Myrtle Tastad, Alfred Dubuque, all of 
Rolette, N.D. 58366; BSFW. 

Data source: Philip B. Aus, Devils Lake Wetlands Office, P.O. Box 159D, 
Devils Lake, N.D. 58301. 



12 



U&?<9 



- 







I Si 










13 






f^» 



18 



■ 



O.N 



CO 

ND 4. Palermo Saline Wetland. Acreage: Approximately 370. Z 

Location: Mountrail County; 2 miles E of Palermo and 1 1 miles E of Stanley; — { 

adjacent to U.S. 2. ^ 

D 
Description: This represents the extremely saline type of wetland scattered ^ 

throughout North Dakota. Salt clings to fence posts and wires and looks like O 

snow. H 

Encroachments: Salt mining. It had a mineral lease on it several years ago, but it 
is believed that it was never actually "worked." 

Ownership: John E. Anderson, 522 21st St., N.W., Minot, N.D. 58701. 

Data source: John R. Davis, 301 Federal Bldg., Minot, N.D. 58701. 

Other knowledgeable persons: John P. Peterson, Mountrail County Agent, Stan- 
ley, N.D. 58784. 



s 

CO 

f ND 5. Rock Lake. Acreage: 2500. 

O 

^ Location: Towner County; 3 miles N of Rock Lake; reached via U.S. 281 and 

q Rt. 5. 



O 



I— Description: An important duck and goose migration marsh. Goose concentra- 

te tions of 50,000-75,000 occur during fall migration. Excellent duck production 

and brood marsh, especially for Redhead and Canvasbacks, and also an impor- 
tant shorebird migration and production area. 

Encroachments: Area has been studied from a flood control project standpoint 
by both the Soil Conservation Service and the Army Corps of Engineers. Flood 
control construction would adversely affect the waterfowl value of Rock Lake. 

Ownership: Private; 17 owners. 

Data source: Philip B. Aus, Devils Lake Wetlands Office, P.O. Box 159D, 
Devils Lake, N.D. 58301. 






ND 6. Rush Lake. Acreage: 6000. O 

Location: Cavalier County; approximately 6 miles from the international border ZJ 

and 15 miles NW of Langdon; reached via Rt. 5 and Rt. 20. 

> 
Description: Rush Lake lies at the headwaters of the Snowflake and West Snow- 7\ 

flake creeks, which flow north and join in Canada to intersect the Pembina 
River. A considerable and extensive shallow marsh area exists adjacent to Rush > 

Lake. The lake is approximately 700 acres in size, but together with the ad- 
jacent marshland has a size of over 6000 acres. Most of the lake is 3.5 ft deep. 
The surrounding marshes have a depth of approximately 2.5-3 ft. A layer of soft 
organic muck blankets the bottom of the lake to a depth of 6-8 inches. The 
water of the lake is clear and alkaline. Submerged vegetation includes 
Potamogeton strictifolius and P. pectinatus, with lesser amounts of P. Richard- 
sonii and Utricularia. Emergents include hardstem bulrush (Scirpus acutus), cat- 
tail, Phragmites, Rumex persicaroides, Sagittaria, and Sparganium. The deeper 
vegetated portions are dominated by bulrush; the shallow, sometimes dried sec- 
tions, especially to the northwest, by white top grass (Flumminea). Within 2 
miles of the lake and its marshes are over 4000 small potholes and over 500 
small type 4 water areas. In 1960, 8695 ducks and 18,417 coots were observed 
on the lake during a breeding season count. Duck production was estimated 
between 12,000 and 15,000; coot, at 36,000. 

Encroachments: Major drainage projects proposed; one already constructed. 

Ownership: Private; 20 to 30 owners. 

Data source: Philip B. Aus, Devils Lake Wetlands Office, P.O. Box 159D, 
Devils Lake, N.D. 58301; Biological Reconnaissance Report: Rush Lake, Cavali- 
er County, North Dakota, 1 960. 



CM 

CO 
CO 



< 

I- 
o 

< 

Q 

X 
\- 

rr 
o 



ND 7. Sibley Lake. Acreage: 1000. 

Location: Kidder County; Tappen North and Steele NE quadrangles; 5 miles N 
of Dawson; reached via 1-94, then 6 miles of gravel road. 

Description: Large subsaline prairie lake, sandy shores dominated by Scirpus 
nevadensis, Distichlis stricta, and Puccinellia nuttalliana. A tremendous concen- 
tration of migrant Sandhill Crane, Whistling Swan, and diving ducks. Large 
numbers of geese usually use the lake also, as well as many species of shore- 
birds. 



References: Mftcalf, F. P. 1931. Wild duck foods of North Dakota Lakes. U.S. 
Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 221, 72 p. 

Encroachments: No drainage threat but about half of the shoreline is over- 
grazed by cattle and sheep. 

Ownership: Several owners; one named Zimmerman lives in western half of 
Section 22. 

Data source: Harold A. Kantrud, P.O. Box 1672, Jamestown, N.D. 58401. 



s\j 



<n 



->r~- 



T 



, 17*6 



'A 

IS 



I 



I, 






10 



10 



-f 






/*\ 



Jiii 



Sibley 



A, 
s 



/ ; 




| l* 


% 
^ 
x x 


c % 


■ 


C ,- -. < 


/ 


-o / 




f 

nfi .. . 





V 



& 

$ 



E 



R 



11 



u 



<(/7JS 
| 

ii 

y 



A 9 ■ 

1 IS 









1733 






I, . \s 



.y 



14 






i^v^. 



,- 



N 







N 



o 



A? y( ' ' *>/ 



00 
CT> 
GO 



ND 8. Turtle Mountains. Acreage: 20,000 estimated. 

Location: Bottineau and Rolette counties; Devil's Lake 1:250,000, and 
Metigoshe Lake, Boundary Lake, International Peace Garden, Carpenter Lake, 
Lake Upsilon, Bottineau, Lords Lake, Dunseith, Lake Upsilon SW, Lake Up- 
silon SE quadrangles; 10 miles W of Rolla. 

Description: The Turtle Mountains are a stagnant-ice moraine filled with all 
types of wetlands. It is impossible to describe a single one as being worthy of 
preservation, but a larger area containing a good representative sample of the 
potholes, lakes, and marshes would be highly desirable. Some areas are partially 
preserved, including Metigoshe State Park and the Wakopi Game Management 
Area. The mountains stand 200-300 ft above the surrounding Drift Prairie, with 
steep scarp slopes on all sides. Up on top the surface is rolling, with numerous 
depressions containing the wetlands. Natural vegetation is a mixture of hard- 
wood forest (aspen, elm, ash, oak) and mixed grass prairie (high knobs and 
south-facing slopes), along with the wetlands. The most frequently encountered 
wetland species are Carex atherodes, Typha latifolia, and Scolochloa festucacea. 

References: Disrud, D. T. 1968. Wetland vegetation of the Turtle Mountains of 
North Dakota. Ph.D. Thesis, North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, N.D. 

Encroachments: Some agriculture is practiced in the area and some lumbering 
goes on, but most of the habitat is in pretty fair shape. 

Ownership: Several private owners; Federal Government; some state land. 

Data source: Robert L. Burgess, Botany Department, North Dakota, State 
University, Fargo, N.D. 58102. 



O 
13 



> 

o 

> 




3 

CO 

O OHIO 

^ General description: Ohio lies in a transitional region between the Appalachian 

Plateau and the Interior Lowlands. Within this varied topography, five wetland 
regions have been recognized by the Fish and Wildlife Service (USDI 1958). 
These may be summarized as follows: 

A. Lake Erie marshes of lacustrine origin restricted to the southwest shoreline. Por- 
tions of shoreline developed for tourist trade and urban and industrial facilities. 

B. Level to rolling-glaciated topography in western part of the state. Intensively farmed 
wood lots are common. Considerable agricultural drainage. 

C. The "wetland region" of Ohio. Situated in the northeastern part of the state, the 
region is well supplied with wetlands. Soils are naturally poorly drained. 

D. Skirting northern Ohio along much of Lake Erie and continuing westward. Of 
lacustrine origin. Glacial Lake Maumee occupied the region during the glaciation. 
Topography flat, sloping gently toward the lake. Highly industrial. Most of the 
wetlands have been destroyed. 

E. West-central section of the Appalachian Plateau situated in southeastern part 
of the state. Considerable relief reaching over 1200 ft. . Agricultural land scattered 
in a well-forested region. 

Within the state three major wetland types occur — marshes, swamps, and 
bogs. Of the ten areas reported in this study it will be noted that seven occur in 
Region C, that part of the state noted for its wetlands. 

Status of the wetlands: As an important industrial and agricultural state, many 
of the wetlands have been drained or otherwise destroyed. Most of the original 
wetlands in Region D have been drained. Among the wetlands reported, drain- 
ing is still a continuing threat, as well as industrial and housing developments. 

Source of data: Dr. J. Arthur Herrick at Kent State University has provided 
most of the data reported. 

Recommendations: Four Registered Natural Landmarks have already been 
designated in Ohio. These are Brown's Lake Bog, Cedar Swamp, Cranberry 
Bog, and Mentor Marsh. These preserve three wetland types: acid bogs, a cal- 
careous northern white cedar swamp, and an extensive freshwater marsh. 
Although two bogs have already been given national recognition, a third, Cedar 
Bog, owned by The Nature Conservancy and located in the western part of the 
state, is also recommended. Its geographical location is more westward than the 
other bogs and under Nature Conservancy ownership future encroachment ap- 
pears unlikely. 

Since no hardwood swamp type has been yet designated, Mantua Swamp, an 
8000-acre tract including marsh, bog, and swamp forest, should be given serious 
consideration. Still Fork Swamp is another sizeable area (600 acres) including 
an alder shrub swamp and marsh habitats. Although some drainage attempts 
have been made, they have not seriously altered the vegetation. Here The Na- 
ture Conservancy already owns 62 acres, which makes this an especially attrac- 
tive candidate for landmark status if the privately owned sector can be com- 
mitted to preservation. Watercress Marsh, comprising an estimated 100 acres, 
includes a wide range of habitats, with a glacial pond in the middle of the area. 
It is considered one of Ohio's choicest natural areas. Privately owned, this tract 
is highly recommended for Natural Landmark status if protection from future 
encroachment can be assured. Frame Glacial Bog is of special botanical interest, 
with its characteristic bog flora. However, national recognition would be depen- 
dent upon assurance of its protection from future encroachment. The Lake 



CO 

en 



Abrams area with its glacial lake is considered the best remaining wetland in the 
county. Although surrounded by development, every effort should be made to 
preserve this tract as open space. Future encroachments might be minimized if 
the area were a Natural Landmark, but they may already be too heavy. 

Literature cited 

U.S. Department of the Interior. 1958. Wetlands Inventory of Ohio. Fish & 
Wildlife Service, Office of River Basins Studies. Region III. 



O 

o 




Wetlands reported from Ohio 


OH 1 


*Brown's Lake Bog 


OH 2 


*Cedar Bog 


OH 3 


*Cedar Swamp 


OH 4 


""Cranberry Bog 


OH 5 


Frame Glacial Bog 


OH 6 


Lake Abrams 


OH 7 


*Mantua Swamp 


OH 8 


*Mentor Marsh 


OH 9 


*Still Fork Swamp 


OH 1 


3. *Watercress Marsh 



Habitat type 

F-8-B 

F-8-B 

F-7-Sw(Ca) 

F-8-B 

F-8-B 

F-3-M, F-7-Sw 

F-3-M, F-7-Sw, F-8-B 

F-3-M 

F-3-M, F-6-Ss 

F-3-M, F-6-Ss 



CO 

O 

I 
O 



OH 1 . Brown's Lake Bog. Acreage: 80. 

Location: Wayne County; Shreve 7.5' Quadrangle; about 11 miles SW of 
Wooster. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. One of the few well-preserved, 
boreal acid bogs remaining in a region where wetland has been drained for 
agricultural use, filled by siltation, polluted by industrial or other uses, or other- 
wise changed in character. It contains a splendid example of undisturbed boreal 
acid bog vegetation and a rich variety of wetland vegetation and swamp forest. 
Persistence of this bog has been possible because low divides in the welter of 
eskers, kames, drumlins, moraines, and till plains isolate it from nearby wet areas 
which have been drained, filled, or otherwise altered. The bog possesses an 
unusually high degree of integrity as a typical example of a glacial depression in 
which the stages of ecological succession from open water to swamp woodland 
may be observed. Its potential for education and research in paleobotany and 
ecology makes it nationally significant. 

Ownership: TNC. 

Data source: NPS. 



v ~V-' -• ■ J-M I; 



c? 



) J A 



scP ■ s 





:i r ' H Late 



L 



v. 



s "i 



, to 



►4 ^f^r 



*r 



w 

> Gas 

Brown IjGfte !j ■— H~ T] W^weH 



9^9M 



Ltoog 



•<21 ! 



i 



1017^ •?. 






rf"^v 




CO 

o> 

OH 2. Cedar Bog. Acreage: 105. ^ 

Location: Champaign County. 
Description: Swamp forest and cedar bog. 
Ownership: TNC. 
Data source: TNC. 






00 
CD 
CO 



o 

I 

O 



OH 3. Cedar Swamp. Acreage: 400. 

Location: Champaign County; Urbana West Quadrangle; 4 miles SW of Urbana; 
reached via U.S. 68 to Woodburn Road. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. This excellent boreal marl swamp 
contains a magnificent stand of northern white cedar where it reaches the most 
southwestern limit of its range. These old-age cedars have undoubtedly 
dominated the swamp ever since water table conditions stabilized at their 
present level. The present shallow table of alkaline waters is sustained by the up- 
welling of ground water from a saturated substructure of calcareous dolomite. 
The variety of earth materials at the surface provides the range of soil condi- 
tions required to support the diversified flora. Among the species present are 
dwarf birch occurring disjunct to its range and showy ladyslipper orchids, a spe- 
cies now virtually extinct in Ohio. 

Ownership: State; administered by the State Archaeological and Historical 
Society as a state memorial. 

Data source: NPS. 




CO 
CO 



OH 4. Cranberry Bog. Acreage: 20. 

Location: Licking County; Thornville Quadrangle; E of Buckeye Lake Village. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. A cranberry-sphagnum floating 
island in Buckeye Lake, surrounded by hardwoods. 

Ownership: State; administered by the Division of Parks, Department of Natu- 
ral Resources. 

Data source: NPS. 



O 

I 

O 



rm 






-V 





^ » » « ! . • 


1 


0«i • 




sj»*v * 


\ 


1 ««« It • 


\ 




o 
o 


1 

1 * 



r 



* *jBSm%S 



■ »■** **. 






Oa 



« 



:^:« ^f|^ •"— XiRuck^vei Lake J J 






1 •»*«,!- \ 






• His »] " 



|. : . ... £f ?^W< . & • * •■£•*# 

S * •-!_.:__ "—.■.;.,/ jpVlI .^F^ t 




IT" .".{/«■' 



5e « "tits 




iON 9- 



arieston 
island 



Bn 



Beach 

Island 



Custers .; T19 N 



* 



Point-. T18N 



•»««4 s 



Gibson Island . 
Kimball Island* 



■?06| i I 



■xs 







SIP «,' 



^mdm^ .Iff: 



is J / \ 



u 



* • -• 



* Ejft-1 in • • l 



Fairfield) Beach 



a »M 

. H 



a ; a Hi 



!i, J 'U 






A./ 



s 

CO 



O 

I 

o 



OH 5. Frame Glacial Bog. Acreage: 80. 

Location: Portage County; Kent Quadrangle; 2 miles SW of Streetsboro; 
reached via Rt. 43 and Seasons Road. 

Description: Glacial bog lake with fringe of tamarack, sphagnum, cranberry, 
cinquefoil, and other characteristic bog flora. Included in the tract is a con- 
siderable area of swamp and second growth forest. 

Encroachments: May be developed unless acquired. 

Ownership: H. C. Frame, Seasons Rd., Streetsboro, Ohio 44240. 

Data source: J. Arthur Herrick, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State 
University, Kent, Ohio 44240. 






H^r*-" 



/ / 







H\ 



CH 53 ) 

^S ) f i 

-V — *o fffisz- Mrs* 



K I 




— — - 



/ 



>a nd 
Grave 



v " £ 



0> ■ J 

* 




J f f y' 



CO 



OH 6. Lake Abrams. Acreage: Several hundred. 

Location: Cuyahoga County; Berea Quadrangle; between Berea and Middleburg 
Heights; reached via Eastland Road. 

Description: A glacial lake swamp-forest and marsh, the best in the county. En- 
croachments: Surrounded by industrial and housing developments. 

Encroachments: Surrounded by industrial and housing developments. 

Ownership: Several private owners. 

Data source: J. Arthur Herrick, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State 
University, Kent, Ohio 44240. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. T. C. Surrarrer, 202 Fournier St., Berea, 
Ohio 44017. 



O 

o 




U£ ^ { RD 



CM 
CO 



o 

X 
O 



OH 7. Mantua Swamp. Acreage: 800 estimated. 

Location: Portage County; Garretsville Quadrangle; 2 miles N of Mantua. 

Description: Extensive wetland including marsh, bog, and swamp forest. Flora 
includes Philadelphia lilies, Indian paintbrush, azaleas, shrubby cinquefoil, and 
rare orchids. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: J. Arthur Herrick, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State 
University, Kent, Ohio 44240. 




'A 

\ ; - j • ■ ' 1> 

A W\(7¥ \ r . A f 






Manlurt ■ 






\ 

; 4 



* 1 
j 

ty f * — 

i 



■ 



/ 



•■ -...^ .. I 






. i - •< >< 



\ 



S3 

CO 

OH 8. Mentor Marsh. Acreage: 500. O 

Location: Lake County; 0.5 mile S of Lake Erie and 28 miles NE of Cleveland. O 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. The site includes about 500 acres 
of the entire 850 acre marsh, with distinctive marsh vegetation and swamp and 
bottomland forests. The area provides important year-round habitat for birds 
and mammals and serves as a migration stopover for birds in a heavily populated 
region. 

Encroachments: Salt works; developments; sewage. 

Ownership: Natural Science Museum of Cleveland. 

Data source: NPS: TNC. 



s 



o 

I 
o 




OH 9. Still Fork Swamp. Acreage: 600 estimated. 

Location: Carroll County; Minerva Quadrangle; 2.5 miles S of Augusta. 

Description: A filled valley dammed by a glacial moraine. There are several 
hundred acres of marsh and adjacent alder swamp. This is the best such area in 
the county. 

References: Conant. Reptiles of Ohio, Ohio J. Sci. p. 148. 

Encroachments: Much of the marsh has been partially drained, but without 
much impact on the habitat. 

Ownership: TNC owns 62 acres; the remainder is privately owned. 

Data source: J. Arthur Herrick, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State 
University, Kent, Ohio 44240. 



CO 
Oi 

O 

I 

O 



N \\ v 



"f/* 



\\Watheys / W ' ' i'// 



\ / 



\ 'too-/ M/ /'/Herrington Bethel 



^34 



'/ 



y!7? , 

• /"' ... r 

... j, 






/ ^f 114 ! 



so 



.]/ .'47^ 



7 



/ /'? 



S Y, 



vsf-f- — - 






re o: ; n 



nl 







-/ 



i 




r^ 

CO 



O 

I 
O 



OH 10. Watercress Marsh. Acreage: 100 estimated. 

Location: Columbiana County; Lisbon Quadrangle; reached via Rt. 9. 

Description: A wide range of habitats, including bog meadows, alder swamp, 
beech-maple woods, and a glacial pond in the center of the area. It has a rich 
flora of both northern plants and those characteristic of the latitude. It is one of 
Ohio's choicest natural areas. Over 200 species of vascular plants have been col- 
lected here for the State Herbarium. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: J. Arthur Herrick, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State 
University, Kent, Ohio 44240. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Allison W. Cusick, Department of Biological 
Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44240. 







'AisfT "' ; T~ • ■•~.'w!jA J 3 



CO 

OKLAHOMA O 

General description: Oklahoma lies in the east-west transition between the east- ^ 

em deciduous forest and the grasslands. Flood-plain forests are best developed q 

along the rivers in the eastern part of the state. Here can be found, especially in 2 

the southeastern part of the state, a northward extension of the southern ^* 

cypress, swamps such as the Little River Flood Plain included in this study. 
Hardwoods, including red gum, black gum, and river birch, are frequently as- 
sociated with flood-plain forest in the eastern part of the state. In central 
Oklahoma cottonwoods, elms, and ashes are more common, and in the drier 
western section cottonwoods, box elder, and elm are among the distinctive spe- 
cies (Bruner 1931). Boggy sites, such as Van Sickle Bog, are very localized. 
Saline areas, such as Great Salt Plains, are also represented. 

Status of the wetlands: Data are meager on encroachments. From information 
received, lumbering and public use are among the problems to be dealt with in 
protecting the more significant wetlands in the state. 

Sources of data: Data were obtained from college and university biologists. 

Recommendations: Information on three major types of wetlands was received. 
Eagle Lake and the Little River Flood Plain represent the swamp forest or 
flood-plain type communities in which bald cypress occurs with other lowland 
hardwoods. Some of the largest cypress in the state are found within the 640- 
acre Eagle Lake area. Both areas demand consideration. Information regarding 
the acreage of the Little River Flood Plain was not available. The Van Sickle 
Bog is defined as a hillside bog with marsh vegetation. Although the acreage is 
limited, including an upland buffer zone, such habitats are presumably rare in 
Oklahoma and therefore merit consideration for landmark status. The only 
saline area reported, the Great Salt Plains, is an outstanding federally owned 
wetland and presumably protected as a National Wildlife Refuge. Further field 
study should reveal additional flood-plain communities. 

Literature cited 

Bruner, W. E. 1931. The vegetation of Oklahoma. Ecol. Monogr. 1:99-188. 



CO 
CO 



O 

I 

< 

-j 

O 




Wetlands reported from Oklahoma 

OKI. *EagleLake 

OK 2. *Great Salt Plains 

OK 3. *Little River Flood Plain 

OK 4. *Van Sickle Bog 



Habitat type 

F-7-Sw 
S-9, S-10-M 
F-l-S, F-7-Sw 
F-3-M, F-8-B 



CO 

to 



OK 1 . Eagle Lake. Acreage: 640. 

Location: McCurtain County; Goodwater Quadrangle; 6 miles SE of Eagletown 
by county road. 

Description: This is a Y-shaped oxbow lake which was probably formed by a 
past confluence of Mountain Fork River with Little River. Around this lake are 
some of the largest bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) left in Oklahoma. Many 
other aquatic plants occur around the lake margin. It is possible that some 
aquatic animals exist here that have been exterminated elsewhere in Oklahoma. 
The anhinga is still found here. 

Encroachments: Local residents use this area for recreation, including fishing, 
and leave unsightly litter. 

Ownership: Weyerhaeuser Co., Dierks Division, Idabel, Okla. 74745. 

Data source: Dr. John Taylor, Biology Department, Southeastern State College, 
Durant, Okla. 74701. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. George Moore, Department of Zoology, 
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Okla. 74074. 



O 

E 
o 



G 



L 



■329 

2 



33/ 




11 



■<■ -. ~> r\ 



12 



o 

GO 
CO 



o 

I 



o 



OK 2. Great Salt Plains (Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge). Acreage: 32,000. 

Location: Alfalfa County; Woodward 1 :250,000 Quadrangle; 1 mile E of 
Cherokee. 

Description: Large unvegetated salt pan. Surrounding halophytic vegetation in- 
cludes Sesuvium verrucosum and Suaeda depressa. This is the largest inland 
saline area of the plains region. 

References: Ortenberger, A. I., and R. D. Bird. 1931. The ecology of western 
Oklahoma Salt Plains. Oklahoma Biol. Surv. Bull. 3:49-64. Baalman, R. J. 1965. 
Vegetation of the Salt Plains Wildlife Refuge, Jet, Oklahoma. Ph.D. Thesis, 
Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. Ungar, I. A. 1968. Species-soil relation- 
ships on the Great Salt Plains of northern Oklahoma. Am. Midi. Nat. 80:392- 
406. 

Ownership: BSFW. 

Data source: Irwin A. Ungar, Botany Department, Ohio University, Athens, 
Ohio 45701. 

Other knowledgeable persons: R. J. Baalman, Department of Biological 
Sciences, California State College, Hayward, Calif. 94546. 



1; I -- I 



1—44 m ">■*., A 



i^Ptigrouk 



P'pefljM 



M K i 




Staarfish Hatchery 



"M 






4ri- Hat!wige?> 

4 



\ 



- SALT PLAINS NATIONAL 



.1.1 v ' nin 8 



r ~"V. V.J 



^ 




03 
00 



OK 3. Little River Flood Plain. Acreage: Unknown. 

Location: McCurtain County; Idabel Quadrangle; 5 miles N of Idabel; reached 
via U.S. 70. 

Description: Hardwood forest including woodland ponds, cypress, and giant 
cane. This area is particularly rich in salamander and fish fauna. 

Encroachments: Too much use by biologists as a general collecting area; 
general public use; lumbering. 

Ownership: Unknown. 

Data source: Howard McCarley, Austin College, Sherman, Tex. 75090. 

Other knowledgeable persons: A. P. Blair, Department of Biology, University of 
Tulsa, Tulsa, Okla. 74100. 



O 

> 

O 




00 
CO 



< 

O 

I 

5 
o 



OK 4. VanSickle Bog. Acreage: 40, including adjacent land. 

Location: Bryan County; Antlers Quadrangle; 6 miles E of Bennington; reached 
via Rt. 70, S 0.5 mile and then E 0.5 mile on road to cultivated land. 

Description: This is a hillside bog covered by a relict marsh type of vegetation. 
The main bog area is only about 12 acres, but some of the adjacent forested 
areas should be brought under protection along with the bog. There are a 
number of plant and animal species that reach the western limits of their range 
in this wetland. 



References: Taylor, R. J. and C. Taylor. 1965. Comments on the vascular 
flora of Oklahoma. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 45. 

Ownership: Mr. "Hub" VanSickle, Bennington, Okla. 

Data source: Dr. John Taylor, Biology Department, Southeastern State College, 
Durant, Okla. 74701. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Frank Wade, Biology Department, Southeast- 
ern State College, Durant, Okla. 74701. 






■J—»iff » 



m 



M..JL 



.- 






V« 

n 



& 



X 

■■:■%■■ 1 



7j 



B M 



! 9 



••: * 1 I 

V *M ^^ 



GWr 






m 









,.,**** 



%~k 



& s «»*Ar„*fe 8 Vnf 



W 



.«=» 



fc* i** **£. ,-t 



ptethal Stained- . Pfl 

FSB tf - W 










Hunjior ScflMOl 



•f* 






vm, 



*"vk 






i V( 



^ ,5f \i haflA ^ 











OREGON O 

m 

General description: Although an impressive complex of state and federal wet- Q 

lands (Malheur National Refuge, Klamath Forest National Refuge, Klamath Na- ^ 

tional Refuge, Summer Lake Management Area, and Sauvie Island Management 
Area) have been established, most are under some form of management for 
waterfowl production. Among the areas for which data have been received are 
valley wetlands, primarily marsh habitats, situated in the desert or in more 
mesophytic surroundings. In addition, seepage areas with the unique insec- 
tivorous plant Darlingtonia, are included in the survey. 

Source of data: Information has been provided by the State Game Commission, 
by staff of the Department of the Interior, and by university biologists. 

Recommendations: Among areas specifically reported, McFadden's Marsh in 
the Willamette Valley is strongly recommended for landmark status, since such 
a small portion of this great valley still remains relatively unaffected by agricul- 
ture. Crump Lake and North Warner Valley in south-central Oregon represent 
sizeable wetlands, the latter typical of the high elevation desert sumps. Both are 
highly recommended as Natural Landmarks. The Darlingtonia marsh is small in 
acreage, but exceedingly valuable botanically. Few such undisturbed areas still 
exist. Located contiguous to the Siskiyou National Forest, its inclusion and fu- 
ture protection is recommended. One interesting high elevation bog in the 
Cascade Mountains that should be investigated is Gold Lake Bog, part of which 
has already been designated as a natural area. Communications from Dr. Ken- 
ton Chambers indicate that major wetlands worthy of consideration are the 
Klamath and Sycan marshes (formerly on the Indian Reservation, but present 
status uncertain) and parts of Silver, Summer, and Abert lakes. These may still 
be in private hands. For further information, contact Dr. Chambers at the De- 
partment of Botany, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 



CO 
CO 



z 

O 
<D 
ill 
□C 
O 




Wetlands reported from Oregon 

OR 1. *CrumpLake 

OR 2. *Darlingtonia Serpentine Seepage 

OR 3. *Gold Lake Bog Natural Area 

OR 4. *McFadden's Marsh 

OR 5. *North Warner Valley 



Habitat type 

F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 

Misc. 
F-8-B 
F-3-M 
S-ll-M 



CO 
GO 

en 



OR 1. Crump Lake. Acreage: 6000. 

Location: Lake County; Adel 1:250,000 Quadrangle; 30 miles NE of Lakeview; 
reached by U.S. 395, Rt. 140 to Adel, then 8 miles N. 

Description: A lake, marsh, and upland-complex supporting a rich spectrum of 
wildlife. Nesting waterfowl included White Pelicans, Canada Geese, and several 
species of ducks. Sandhill Cranes and shore birds also inhabit the area. An- 
telope, mule deer, and mountain sheep are found in vicinity. Surrounding 
vegetation is typical of the Great Basin desert with sage brush, juniper, etc. One 
of the more permanent and less disturbed Warner Valley Lakes. 

Encroachments: Susceptible to drainage and agricultural development. 

Ownership: State Land Board, several private owners, and BLM. 

Data source: John E. Chattin, U.S. Department of the Interior, BSFW, 730 N.E. 
Pacific St., P.O. Box 3737, Portland, Ore. 97208. 



O 

m 
O 
O 




CO 
CD 
CO 

Z 

o 
o 

111 

o 



OR 2. Darlingtonia Serpentine Seepage. Acreage: About 3. 

Location: Josephine County; Cave Junction Quadrangle; just W of Cave Junc- 
tion; 2 miles W on Eight Dollar Mt. Road from Rt. 199. 

Description: Serpentine marsh areas have a unique and endemic flora and fauna 
and are very rare. Since these are the only areas with adequate water, they are 
threatened first by grazing of cattle or by home site development. One of the 
most conspicuous features is the abundance of Darlingtonia californica and a 
fringe of Rhododendron occidentale. These are grassy glades within the Pinus 
jeffreyi forest. Although the area is limited in size, the display of this unusual in- 
sectivorous plant is an outstanding feature. 

Encroachments: This area is directly adjacent to the National Forest boundary, 
east of the boundary line and south and north of the Eight Dollar Mt. access 
road. Housing has started along this road, which was constructed in 1967, and 
currently the swamp is fenced in and used for cattle grazing. Danger of real 
estate development within the area is imminent. 

Ownership: Private rancher and home site developer, name unknown. 

Data source: Dr. Rudolf W. Becking, Department of Forestry, Humboldt State 
College, Areata, Calif. 95521. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Wm. A. Niering, Connecticut College, New Lon- 
don. Conn. 06320; District Office of the Siskiyou National Forest, Cave Junc- 
tion. 




.if — eoc 
I Free and Eas* 

I Pass y\ Jj 



r-A 



CO 

CO 

OR 3. Gold Lake Bog Natural Area. Acreage: 4. O 

Location: Lane County; Willamette National Forest. q 

O 
Description: Sphagnum bog lakes, 4 acres. Z 

Ownership: USFS, Willamette National Forest. 

Data source: RNA-334. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Director, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment 
Station, 6th Ave., Box 3141, Portland, Ore. 97208. 



8 

00 
CO 



Z 
O 

o 

HI 

O 



OR 4. McFadden's Marsh. Acreage: 350. 

Location: Benton County; Monroe Quadrangle; N 4415-W 123-15/15; 4 miles 
N of Monroe; reached by Rt. 99 W. 

Description: McFadden's Marsh is situated within a willow (Salix spp.) and 
Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia) lowland. The annual overflow of Muddy Creek 
during the winter floods supplies the water to the marsh. The marsh is a low flat 
site with a slope less than 3%. The soil is composed of a heavy clay and is dif- 
ficult to drain. The animals found throughout the marsh are beaver, muskrats, 
nutrias, black-tailed deer, bullfrogs, treefrogs, and during their breeding season, 
red-legged frogs. All of the swallows inhabiting the Willamette Valley are found 
here, along with occasional Vaux's Swifts and Purple Martins. This marsh is a 
traditional wintering area for dabbling ducks and dusky Canada Geese. The 
marsh is now composed of Phalaris arundinacea and, to a lesser extent, of mix- 
tures of Leersia oryzoides, and Panicum capillare. Because the water level of the 
marsh is dropped during the summer months through a network of drainage 
ditches, only a few true aquatic plant species are present the year around. Along 
the edges of a few permanent "holes" bur-weed (Sparganium simplex) grows. 
Pondweed (Potamogeton spp.) is found in the deeper water. Water purslane 
(Ludwigia palustris) and liverwort (Ricciocarpus natans) cover the mud of these 
small ponds. Near the edges of the marsh, slough sedge (Carex obnupta) is found 
in dense stands. Mild water pepper {Polygonum hydropiperoides) and common 
smartweed (P. hydropiper) grow in loosely defined colonies near the margins of 
this marsh. Western spirea (Spirea douglasii) may be seen on the elevated por- 
tions of the marsh. 

Ownership: This marsh is scheduled to become part of the William L. Finley 
National Wildlife Refuge. Current owners, the McFadden family, Portland, Ore. 
97200. 

Data source: E. Paul Peloquin, William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge, 
Route 2, Box 208, Corvallis, Ore. 97330. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Le Rea Dennis Johnson, Oregon State 
University, Corvallis, Ore.; Dr. Robert M. Storm, Department of Zoology, 
Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. 97330. 











.54 



/ 



% i - i 

I Is) 



I 

. ■ 

I 

'Barclay 
■ • • .* 

$ BM 267 






7=V 






CO 
00 
CD 



OR 5. North Warner Valley. Acreage: 109,000. 

Location: Lake County; Plush and Hart Lake quadrangles; 40 miles NE of 
Lakeview; reached by Rt. 140 and road to Plush. 

Description: High desert sump (4455 ft elevation). Many alkali lakes and 
potholes which are filled during years of peak spring runoffs, but dry after a few 
years of low precipitation. Valley fed by runoff from three streams. 

Encroachments: Loss of water through headwater impoundments and diversions 
to meadowland in South Warner Valley. 

Ownership: BLM; State Land Board; James Kiely and Warren Laird of Plush, 
Ore. 97637. 

Data source: Chester E. Kebbe, Oregon State Game Commission, P.O. Box 
3503, Portland, Ore. 97208. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dave Luman, BLM, 729 N.E. Oregon St., P.O. 
Box 2965, Portland, Ore., 97208; William D. Carter, Hart Mountain National 
Refuge; P.O. Box 111, Lakeview, Ore. 97630. 



O 
D 

m 
O 
O 



x 



k/ 



~j 



IC 1 , • 3 








* f 


■ymmju-mlj 


i 

1 


UJ 

-J 




("" 


-J 




; 


*•" < 


13 : 


j 


> 




! 






'; 

r.J;-- .- ■■_- 4QM ._- „. 

; 44". 





! .-.iv 



or 



UJ 



$a 






o 

CD 
CO 

< PENNSYLVANIA 

Z 

> General description: The Appalachian Mountains and Allegheny Plateau cover 

>i much of the central and western part of the state. They are primarily forested 

C/5 except for the major valleys, where agricultural, industrial, and urban develop- 

p ment are concentrated. Agriculture is also especially well developed in the 

LU Great Valley and along the Piedmont. The important wetland types found in the 

°- state are wooded swamps, marshes, and bogs. Swamps are scattered throughout 

the wooded, mountainous sections, wherever drainage is impeded. Bogs may 

also be associated with such sites especially in the northern glaciated portion of 

the state. Marshes occur along certain of the major rivers and elsewhere, where 

water levels favor marsh development. 

Status of the wetlands: Near the centers of urban and industrial growth the 
fresh-water wetlands continue to be destroyed. Some bog sites are also being ex- 
ploited for peat deposits. Among the specific encroachments threatening certain 
of the areas reported are highway construction, land fill, development, agricul- 
tural drainage, and grazing. 

Sources of data: Information has been received from the Philadelphia Conserva- 
tionists, Inc., the Carnegie Museum, and biologists at the state colleges. 

Recommendations: Of the 15 areas reported, three (Bear Meadows Natural 
Area, Presque Isle State Park, the Tinicum Marshes) have already been 
designated as Natural Landmarks. Bear Meadows, located in central Pennsyl- 
vania, considerably south of the terminal moraine, exhibits a typical bog flora. 

Of the dozen areas to be considered as candidates for landmark status most of 
them are bogs concentrated in the northwestern part of the state. One exception 
is the Cranberry Bog Preserve situated in the northeastern section. It is a low 
elevation black spruce-tamarack bog just a few miles north of the terminal 
moraine which crosses the region at the Delaware Water Gap. Through the ef- 
forts of The Nature Conservancy and Lafayette College over 100 acres have 
been protected. With some commitment from adjacent owners of the remaining 
acreage, designation of this tract would add further diversity to the bog flora 
now under landmark status. 

The most extensive bog complex reported is Hartstown Bog, an estimated 
3000 acres in western Pennsylvania. Data on the plant communities are too 
limited to fully evaluate this area. Since most of the land is state-owned, long- 
term protection can probably be provided. It should be site visited. 

Mercer Bog is reported to be the southernmost bog in glaciated terrain in 
western Pennsylvania, which makes it comparable in this respect to the Cran- 
berry Bog Preserve in the eastern part of the state. Under private ownership, it 
is currently being used rather heavily, an encroachment which could do ir- 
reparable damage to the bog mat vegetation. If adequate protection can be as- 
sured, it may be worthy of landmark status. Titus Bog and Wattsburg Bog are 
owned by the Botanical Society of Western Pennsylvania and the Western 
Pennsylvania Conservancy, respectively. Both exhibit an unusually interesting 
bog flora including certain very rare species. They should be investigated. The 
privately owned Boleratz Bog is only about 30 acres in extent but it, too, ex- 
hibits a rich flora worthy of preservation. It should be inspected along with the 
other western bogs. Data on Plain Grove Bog is too limited for recommendation 
but it should be field inspected. Reynolds' Spring, actually described as a bog, is 
located in an extremely isolated section of Tioga County. It, along with 
Tamarack Swamp lying on the Tioga-Lycoming County border (also shown on 



CO 



the map), should be site visited. This remote area under state ownership is 
ideally suited for future protection. 

Of the remaining wetlands, Otter Creek Swamp is an extensive wetland with 
boggy as well as swampy phases. It is privately owned and surrounded by open 
land. The encroachment problems would have to be investigated prior to land- 
mark commitment. Pine Swamp consisting of 700 acres, is a mosaic of wooded 
swamp, shrub bog, and open marsh. This privately owned tract in Mercer Coun- 
ty is recommended as a Natural Landmark. Periglacial Marsh, one of the best 
privately owned marshes in southeastern Pennsylvania, is a remnant periglacial 
lake and an excellent waterfowl area. If long-term protection can be assured, 
this tract would add an excellent marsh type to the state's Natural Landmark 
system. Schollards Run in western Pennsylvania is owned by the Western 
Pennsylvania Conservancy. It includes marsh, swamp and other natural features 
of ecological interest. Since it is permanently protected, field evaluation is 
recommended. 



tj 

m 



< 




Wetlands reported from Pennsylvania 


Habitat type 




PA 1. 


*Bear Meadows Natural Area 


F-8-B 




PA 2. 


Boleratz Bog 


F-8-B 




PA 3. 


*Cranberry Bog Preserve 


F-8-B 




PA 4. 


*Hartstown Bog 


F-7-Sw, F-8-B 




PA 5. 


* Mercer Bog 


F-8-B 




PA 6. 


Otter Creek Swamp 


F-7-Sw, F-8-B 




PA 7. 


* Periglacial Marsh 


F-3-M 




PA 8. 


*Pine Swamp 


F-8-B 




PA 9. 


Plain Grove Bog 


F-3-M, F-8-B 




PA 10 


*Prcsque Isle State Park 


F-3-M, F-5-M 




PA 11 


*Rcynolds' Spring 


F-8-B 




PA 12 


Schollards Run 


F-3-M, F-5-M, 


F-6-Ss 


PA 13 


*Tinicum Marshes 


F-3-M, F-4-M, 


F-5-M 


PA 14 


Titus Bog 


F-8-B 




PA 15 


Wattsburg Bog 

Weber's Bog (See Wattsburg Bog) 


F-8-B 





8 

CO 



< 

> 

-I 

>- 

CO 

z 
z 

LU 
Q- 



PA 1 . Bear Meadows Natural Area. Acreage: 550. 

Location: Centre County; McAlevys Fort Quadrangle; 6 miles SE of State Col- 
lege. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. The meadows include a shallow 
peat bog where plants of more northern climes, such as black spruce, balsam fir, 
yellow-flowered gold thread, and clintonia, are found. Peat deposits contain a 
rich pollen record of post-glacial vegetation types. 

Ownership: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Forest and Waters. 

Data source: NPS. 



R 




?Z68-^ 



\V 






&#& 



'4SS 



■ : - ■■ 



m. 



..-■■ jfi;-/ . ■'.'■■ > / -' /.'.- y --' //AT ■■■■,■:■■/*,': 



rS> 



\V 



W 
CO 
CO 

PA 2. Boleratz Bog. Acreage: 30 estimated. ~0 

Location: Erie County; Union City, Pa.-N.Y. Quadrangle; 4.5 miles NE of 
Union Cit 
page 410. 



Union City; reached via Rt. 6, Twp. Rd. 1463 and 1508 (left). Area B on map on CO 



Description: Sphagnum-shrub bog with larch (Larix laricina), high bush cran- 
berry ( Viburnum cassinoides), a fine stand of showy lady's slipper {Cyphpedium 
reginae), and a tall, white bog orchid (Habenaria dilatata). Also the tall, leafy 
green orchid (//. hyperborea), purple fringed orchid (H. fimbriata), Loesel's 
twayblade (Liparis loeselii), and adder's-mouth (Malaxis brachypoda). In addi- 
tion, there are water avens (Geum rivale), star-flowered Solomon's-seal 
(Smilacina stellata), buck-bean (Menyanthes trifoliata), cottongrass 
(Eriophorum viridi-carinatum), round-leaved sundew (Drosera rot undi folia), 
pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), and swamp saxifrage (Saxifraga pennsyl- 
vanica). 

References: Henry, L. K. 1950. Comparison of the floras of some western 
Pennsylvania bogs, Proc. Pa. Acad. Sci. 24. 

Ownership: Martin Boleratz, R. D., Union City, Pa. 16438. 

Data source: Dr. LeRoy K. Henry, Curator of Plants, Carnegie Museum, Pitt- 
sburgh, Pa. 15213. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. W. E. Buker, 3833 Oswego St., Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 15212; Dr. Kimball S. Erdman, Department of Biology, Slippery Rock State 
College, Slippery Rock, Pa. 16057. 



< 
> 



O) 

CO 

< 

z 

> Location: Monroe County; Mt. Pocono Quadrangle; 6 miles NW of Stroud- 

^ sburg. 

CO 



HI 



PA 3. Cranberry Bog Preserve. Acreage: 300 estimated. 



Description: One of the most southern localities for a northern bog at low eleva- 
tion (900 ft). Much of the bog is covered with mosaic of sphagnum-heath 
CL vegetation surrounded by stands of black spruce and larch. Leatherleaf and bog 

rosemary are dominant ericaceous shrubs. Bog orchids, pitcher plants, and sun- 
dews are frequent. Dwarf mistletoe can be found on the black spruce. Palynolo- 
gy has been studied by Clarence W. Gehris. Peat samples have been obtained to 
a depth of 47 ft. 

References: Niering, W. A. 1957. The Cranberry Bog Area— "a natural" for 
wildlife. Pennsylvania Game News 28(5 ):2 1-22. Fables, D., and S. Fables. 
1958. Descent to a boreal swamp. Audubon Mag. 60(5):206-209. 

Ownership: 121 acres acquired by TNC and conveyed to Lafayette College; 
remainder privately owned. 

Data source: W. A. Niering, Box 1511, Connecticut College, New London, 
Conn. 06320. 

Other knowledgeable persons: C. W. Gehris, 1059 Ogden-Parma T.L. Rd., 
Spencerport, N.Y. 14559. 



CO 
CD 

01 




m 



en 

-< 
r~ 
< 
> 



% v ^ 

^ / V 



CO 

00 

l£ PA 4. Hartstown Bog. Acreage: 3000 estimated. 

^ Location: Crawford County; Conneaut Lake and Hartstown quadrangles; 

^ between Linesville and Hartstown along the east arm of Pymatuning Reservoir. 

C/D 

Description: This area includes three bog ponds. Dollar Lake is a small bog 

pond with well-developed vegetation zones. The red spatter dock is known only 

from this locality in western Pennsylvania. This is an extensive wetland complex 

of considerable palynological interest. Pollen diagrams have been published. 

References: Walker, P. C. and R. T. Hartman. 1960. The forest sequence of 
the Hartstown Bog Area. Ecology 41:461-474. 

Ownership: Nearly all is State Game Land. 

Data source: Dr. Kimball S. Erdman, Department of Botany, Slippery Rock 
State College, Slippery Rock, Pa. 16057. 



LU 



CO 
CO 



\i\Sn 



^ 
^#^ 



> -._ 






^ 






5 I ,' A i*-*T* 






\ 



i ~ 
w-.*- 



«i!<S » 



-i 

•7 

Si" 



3H 



)A'# 



s i v - 



& U fc$4t 



*g 



;rfKS 









■,*\ 




V 






V 

^ 







./^. 



-T 



35 ■• - . i 



mm ±>3PfM 









vL 



\ 



\ 



|fe^ 



PPft 



a!in« i 



\ ^f$*; 



H^rtstcgiwJv 






\- 






lite _ - ct' /»* ♦•--» •■•!, 






RflHtSk^/U^' '^ 



k 



Hrf-( 



* 



13 

m 



0) 

-< 

< 
> 



1- : iw--j 



? 



>i 



00 

o> 

00 



-I 

> 

CO 



UJ 
CL 



PA 5. Mercer Bog. Acreage: About 50. 

Location: Mercer County; Greenfield Quadrangle; about 2 miles SW of Mercer 
onRt. 318. 

Description: A small kettlehole with well-developed bog flora. Reported as the 
southernmost bog on glaciated land in western Pennsylvania. Open water is sur- 
rounded by zone of Decodon and well-developed, floating mat with cranberry, 
pitcher plants, sundews, and other bog species. To the north and south of the 
bog are swampy areas of considerable interest. 

References: Masters Thesis on floristics and plant communities from Slippery 
Rock State College. 

Encroachments: Heavily visited. Some damage to the vegetation of the bog mat. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Dr. Kimball S. Erdman, Department of Biology, Slippery Rock 
State College, Slippery Rock, Pa. 16057. 




CO 
CO 
CO 



PA 6. Otter Creek Swamp. Acreage: 350 estimated. 

Location: Mercer County; Jackson Center Quadrangle; 5 miles W of Jackson 
Center; reached via U.S. 19. 

Description: Open swamp and bog with at least four open bodies of water, some 
supporting good stands of Utricularia. Reported to be a very interesting area 
botanically. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Dr. Kimball S. Erdman, Department of Biology, Slippery Rock 
State College, Slippery Rock, Pa. 16057. 



m 

z 
z 

CO 

< 

I— 




o 
o 

"3- 



S PA 7. Periglacial Marsh. Acreage: About 750. 

> Location: Chester County; Wagontown and Elverson quadrangles; 2 miles N of 



> 
CO 



LU 



Glenmoore and just north of the Pennsylvania Turnpike; reached via Rt. 401 



Description: One of the best marshes in southeastern Pennsylvania. It is the 
remnant of a periglacial lake and is the headwaters of Marsh Creek. The marsh 
serves as a breeding ground for Mallards, Black Duck, and Wood Duck, with 
Pintails, scaup, Shovellers, and geese present in season. 

Encroachments: The edge is threatened by an expansion of the Turnpike and 
also by future residential development. 

Ownership: Rev. and Mrs. Leon Shearer, Rt. LI, Glenmoore, Pa. and Mr. C. B. 
Moore. 

Data source: TNC. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Ruth Patrick, Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, 19th St. and Parkway, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103; Dr. Murray 
Shelgrin, Slippery Rock State College, Slippery Rock, Pa. 16057. 













v v 



/ Ocs\ \ \ A- '.\\N \ • — - x - 



i yT' I \ \^;:: 



m 



CO 

-< 



s 



< 

z 

§ 

_i 
> 

CO 



UJ 
Q. 



PA 8. Pine Swamp. Acreage: 700. 

Location: Mercer County; Sandy Lake Quadrangle; 5 miles SW of Sandy Lake 
between Rt. 62 and Rt. 173. 

Description: Swamp forest surrounds a central core dominated by a shrub bog. 
The center comprises some 60 acres covered with mossy hummocks and 
Gaultheria, Aronia melanocarpa. Viburnum lentago, and Vaccinium. Aspen and 
white pine are associated. The fringing area supports an abundance of Sphag- 
num, cranberry, and Woodwardia virginica (very rare in western Pa.). Surround- 
ing woods vary from aspen swamp forest to swamp forests of oak, maple, and 
elm, a mature beech-hemlock forest and an extensive open marsh. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Dr. Kimball S. Erdman, Department of Biology, Slippery Rock 
State College, Slippery Rock, Pa. 16057. 



Mine 
Dump 



.■: \ ::■::■:;.;.■: ■;:■::;. ::.i,- .::■ ■.*:■::,., 



J? 



Mine 

Dump 




* • 


i' 


'0fi 


'T 

Q' 

O 

or 



X ' 



Ts 



Q 
C 



ft 




03 



PA 9. Plain Grove Bog. Acreage: Not available. 

Location: Lawrence County; Harlansburg Quadrangle; about 4 miles W of Slip- 
pery Rock near Plain Grove. 

Description: An extensive bottom area with a sedge-grass marsh and some 
boggy areas with a sphagnum mat. Highly varied flora, including grass of parnas- 
sus and Trollius. 

Encroachments: Some pasturing. There has been an attempt to drain the area, 
but this has been unsuccessful. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Dr. Kimball S. Erdman, Department of Biology, Slippery Rock 
State College, Slippery Rock, Pa. 16057. 



-rj 
m 



CO 

-< 

i- 

§ 

z 
> 




o 



PA 10. Presque Isle State Park. Acreage: 1 200 estimated. 



> Location: Erie County; Erie North Quadrangle. 

_i 

^ Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. An extensive wetland extending 

Z into Lake Erie and including several open ponds. 

O^ Ownership: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

Data source: Dr. Kimball S. Erdman, Department of Biology, Slippery Rock 
State College, Slippery Rock, Pa. 16057. 



o 
en 



£ 



/ 



£*■ Si 






\ 






*~ **«». 


S ' \ S 




/ 


^55^ 








~~ *7i°* 


• 1 




.•*•** 


A ' -\ 


•$ 






*tLs .A 


/ 




-* C } 








*~' -C 



T) 

m 



0) 

-< 
r - 
< 
> 

Z 

> 



^ 



00 X 



K 



ui 



•<*c; 



-J 



S 

CD 

Ifl 



lO 



3Q 



\ 



%. 





| 2 


*>». 


';: 5(JiJ 






• '■— 




*>* 





J <*r 



s\ 



-s/ 



V 



o 



\ 



\ 



V A 



•^ »! 



a- 


o 








\^ 






X 



\ 






a 









\ 




&\ 




3 w 



<c : 



vfl 



% n 



o 



^ 



£*3 



rv* 



& 



\ 



& 



J 



\ 



V 



o- 






V 



^ 






■^ 



> *£ 






CO 

o 

■<fr 



> 

CO 

z 
z 

LU 

OL 



PA 1 1. Reynolds' Spring. Acreage: About 100. 

Location: Tioga Co., Elk Township; Cedar Run Quadrangle; 35 miles SW of 
Wellsboro; reached via a dirt road four miles NW from Rt. 414 at Camp Cedar 
Pines. 

Description: A Sphagnum bog at the headwaters of Morris Run. Calopogon 
pulchellus, Pogonia ophioglossoides, round-leafed sundew, pitcher plant, and 
buck bean are abundant. 

Encroachments: None. 

Ownership: Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters. 

Data source: Hon. Charles G. Webb, P.O. Box 35, Wellsboro, Pa. 16901. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Albert Mehring, Pennsylvania State Museum 
Building, Harrisburg, Pa. 17100. 




^ 



s 



/ 



\J 



Tamarack 





Swamp 



TI0GA\C(X 
LYCOMINOTCO 



■4 



*'*Oc 



i 

) 



S u 






»\ 



^ It 






PA 12. Schollards Run. Acreage: About 1000. 

Location: Mercer County; Mercer Quadrangle; just E of the junction of Rt. 19 
and Rt. 208. 

Description: Tract divided into two units. Schollards Run is an estimated 900- 
acre marshland, including open water, cattail marsh, and shrub swamp. The 
Springfield Falls section exhibits one of the finest waterfalls in this part of the 
state, and a hemlock-hardwood forest. Abandoned railroad bed throughout the 
length of property provides access. 

Ownership: Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. 

Data source: Dr. Kimball S. Erdman, Department of Biology, Slippery Rock 
State College, Slippery Rock, Pa. 16057. 



TJ 
m 



0) 

-< 

< 
> 

z 
> 




00 

o 



PA 1 3. Tinicum Marshes. Acreage: 1000 estimated. 



^ Location: Delaware County; Lansdowne and Bridgeport, N.J.-Pa. quadrangles; 

_l between Philadelphia and Essington. 

2? Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. The area may be divided into two 

"Z. sections of 500 acres each, one on either side of Darby Creek. One section is a 

[P fresh-water marsh and unpolluted; the other, tidal and polluted. The fresh-water 

marsh is famous for its birdlife and other flora and fauna. It is the winter refuge 

for thousands of ducks, and the summer habitat for hundreds of Herons, Egrets, 

Gallinules, and other marsh birds. 

References: Grant, R. R., Jr., and R. Patrick. 1970. Tinicum Marsh as a water 
purifier, p. 105-123. In Two Studies of Tinicum Marsh, Delaware and Philadel- 
phia Counties, Pa. The Conservation Foundation, Washington, D.C.; McCor- 
mick, J. 1970. The natural features of Tinicum Marsh, with particular emphasis 
on the vegetation, p. 1-104. In Two Studies of Tinicum Marsh, Delaware and 
Philadelphia Counties, Pa. The Conservation Foundation, Washington, D.C. 

Encroachments: Dumping, landfill, highway construction, and developments 
threaten the privately owned portions. A land use plan is under study by the 
Conservation Foundation. With Pennsylvania's clear water program well under- 
way, the tidal wetlands offer a great potential as a wildlife area. 

Ownership: Philadelphia Conservationists, Inc., owns 168 acres; remainder 
private. 

Data source: Philadelphia Conservationists, Inc., 1500 Chestnut St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 19102. 



o 

CO 




"0 

m 

2 
Z 
0) 
-< 
I - 
< 
> 



I * 



o 

5 



< 
> 

>- 

z 
z 

LU 
QL 



PA 14. Titus Bog. Acreage: 89. 

Location: Erie County; Union City, Pa.-N.Y. Quadrangle (Area A); 2 miles N 
of Beaver Dam; reached via Rt. 89 north to Twp. Rd. 1496 (left). 

Description: An open cranberry-sphagnum bog with scattered groups of shrubs 
and pines, surrounded by a shrub thicket. Here is found the best stand for 
Dragon's mouth (Arethusa bulbosa) in western Pennsylvania and one of two lo- 
calities for the white fringed orchid (Habenaria blephariglottis) in this part of the 
state, also the only known locality in western Pennsylvania for Scheuchzeria pa- 
lustris and for a variety of the Marsh Clubmoss (Lycopodium inundatum var. 
elongatum). Water lilies still grow and bloom in the sphagnum mat, but there is 
no open water. Some 60 years ago, the center of the area contained a lake 
which has now disappeared. 

Ownership: Botanical Society of Western Pennsylvania and the Erie Audubon 
Society, c/o Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213. 

Data source: Dr. LeRoy K. Henry, Curator of Plants, Carnegie Museum, Pitt- 
sburgh, Pa. 15213. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. W. E. Buker, 3833 Oswego St., Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 15212. 







PA 1 5. Wattsburg Bog (Weber's Bog). Acreage: 25. ^ 

Location: Erie County; Union City, Pa.-N.Y. Quadrangle; 3.5 miles SE of Watt- 2 

sburg; reached via Rt. 89, southeast. Area C on map on page 410. CO 

|— 
Description: A sphagnum-shrub bog with open water in one part. Many showy < 

lady's-slippers (Cypripedium reginae) in the shrubby part of the bog. The hooded ^ 

ladies'-tresses {Spiranthes romanzoffiana) is found here at the southern limit of ^ 

its range. 

Ownership: Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. 

Data source: Dr. LeRoy K. Henry, Curator of Plants, Carnegie Museum, Pitt- 
sburgh, Pa. 15213. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. W. E. Buker, 3833 Oswego St., Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 15212. 



X 



CM 

§ RHODE ISLAND 

< 

C/) General description: A number of extensive, poorly drained depressions are 

~ — > filled with southern white cedar bogs and swamps (Great Swamp, Indian Cedar 
Q Swamp, Newton Swamp, and around Ell Pond). Rhododendron maximum is 

O often abundant as an understory shrub. Other bogs are found in the Bowdish 

Reservoir and along Hunt River in East Greenwich (Potts Bog). Typical marsh 
flood-plain vegetation occurs along certain of the rivers such as the Blackstone 
(Lonsdale Marshes). The sluggish Wood River in the western portion of the 
state is handsome canoe country with adjacent wetlands. 

Status of the wetlands: Encroachments may be severe adjacent to urban areas, 
as for example on the Lonsdale Marshes north of Central Falls, along the Hunt 
River between U.S. Naval Reservations, and on the west side of Chapman Pond 
east of Westerly. Highway construction, filling for development, and city dumps 
are involved. Removal of timber has also been a disturbance in the more remote 
cedar swamps. 

Sources of data: The Division of Conservation and university biologists have 
contributed most of the data. 

Recommendations: Great Swamp, now under state ownership, is the largest wet- 
land in southern New England. Although some manipulation of water levels has 
modified a portion of the area, most of it is relatively undisturbed. It should be 
given high priority for landmark status. Newton Swamp, dominated by a white 
cedar bog vegetation, represents another extensive tract. Although large por- 
tions were burned over several decades ago, reestablishment of the cedar has 
been excellent. The state is interested in acquiring this area when funds become 
available. National recognition might help to protect this wetland, since a town 
dump is currently established at the western edge of Chapman Pond. Indian 
Cedar Swamp represents another large, state-owned boggy area, where land- 
mark status is recommended. Ell Pond is surrounded by a fine floating bog and 
an adjacent white cedar and rhododendron swamp. It is, as yet, almost 
completely undisturbed except for removal of the large cedars years ago. It 
should be given high priority if it can be permanently protected. The floating 
bogs in the Bowdish Reservoir may be too small to be suitable as a landmark. 
Potts Bog is reported to be a good area, but its preservation presents many 
problems. Flood-plain marshes along the Blackstone River are significant for 
their wildlife value, but encroachment, such as is occurring around the Lonsdale 
Marshes, is slowly eliminating them. 



-t> 







J) 

I 
O 
D 

m 
c/5 



Wetla 


nds reported from Rhode Island 


Habitat type 


RI 1. 


Bowdish Reservoir Floating Bogs 
Chapman Pond (see Newton 
Swamp ) 


F-8-B 


RI2. 


~-v> *E11 Pond 


F-8-B 


RI3. 


— > *Great Swamp 


F-7-Sw, F-6-Ss, F-3-M 


RI4. 


— > *Indian Cedar Swamp 


F-8-B, F-7-Sw 


RI5. 


Lonsdale Marshes 


F-3-M 


RI6. 


*-> * Newton Swamp 


F-8-B, F-6-Ss 


RI7. 


Potts Bog 


F-8-B 



5 



CO 

LU 
Q 

o 

X 

cc 



RI 1 . Bowdish Reservoir Floating Bogs. Acreage: 20 estimated. 

Location: Providence County; Thompson Quadrangle; 5 miles W of Chepachet; 
reached via Rt. 44. 

Description: Islands with typical bog species. They vary in size, but all are small, 
mostly less than 0.25 acre. 

Encroachments: Bowdish Reservoir is fairly well developed with summer and 
year-round homes. Islands normally are not in danger of encroachment unless 
they end up in an individual's bathing area, etc. It appears that these are too 
small to be considered Natural Landmarks. 

Ownership: Not known. 

Data source: John M. Cronan, Division of Conservation, 83 Park St., 
Providence, R.I. 02900. 




RI 2. Ell Pond. Acreage: 50. 

Location: Washington County; Voluntown, Conn. -R.I. Quadrangle; about 3.5 
miles W of Hope Valley; reached via West Rockville Rd. from Rt. 138 at 
Rockville. 

Description: A shallow bog pond surrounded by a floating mat with typical bog 
species, including sundews, pitcher plants, Woodwardia virginica, and Xyris. A 
20-acre Rhododendron maximum swamp, shaded by coastal white cedar, sur- 
rounds it on two sides; steep rocky outcrops, traversed by the Narragansett 
Trail, are on the others. 

Encroachments: The white cedar has been cut over a number of years ago. 

Ownership: Northern shore, private; partly by Sewall Butler, Cromwell, Conn. 
0641 6; southern shore, state of Rhode Island. 

Data source: R. H. Goodwin, Box 1445, Connecticut College, New London, 
Conn. 06320. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Elmer A. Palmatier, Department of Botany, 
University of Rhode Island, Kingston, R.I. 02881. 



cn 

13 

I 
O 

o 
m 

c75 






\ 



/*5 






y 



V 



toe 



\ 



<k\ \ 



)'ii icr/oo g Pond 






..*/. 3<*3 



«£ 













CO 

Q Rl 3. Great Swamp: Acreage: 3200. 

< 

—I Location: Washington County; Kingston Quadrangle; Great Swamp lies within 5 

— miles of the Atlantic Ocean and borders the North Shore of Wordens Pond, lar- 

LU gest body of fresh water in the state, into which it drains. Altitude: 33 meters 

q above sea level. 

I 

CC Description: Historically noted as the site of the decisive battle of the Indian 

Colonial Wars where the Narragansett Indians, the most powerful New England 
tribe, were defeated in 1675. Swamp forest covers most of the area which is un- 
derlain by shallow muck soils. Red maple, white cedar, black gum, black alder, 
rhododendron, sweet pepperbush, and blueberry are among the dominant spe- 
cies. Shrub swamp and marsh covers 1 0% of the wetland. Open areas support 
cattail and sedge marsh. Excellent stands of American holly occur within the 
area. Vertebrate fauna include the largest population of otter, mink, and 
snowshoe hare found within the state. It is reported by USIBP-PF Task Force to 
be the largest swamp in New England. The area is traversed by 9.7 kilometers of 
brooks and streams. 

References: Wright, K. E. 1941. The great swamp, Torreya 41:145-150. Federal 
survey report by the Federal Aid in Restoration Act, R.I. Project 17-B. 

Encroachments: Minimal, since state owns 2800 acres. 

Ownership: Acquired by state of Rhode Island in 1950 through participation in 
Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act by the R.I. State Division of Fish and 
Game. 

Data source: John M. Cronan, Division of Conservation, 83 Park St., 
Providence, R.I. 02900. USIBP-PF Task Force for the Conservation of Aquatic 
Ecosystems, International Scientific Areas-Description and Justification. 







J3 

I 

o 

D 
m 

0) 



00 

5 



5 

CO 

LU 

Q 

o 

I 

DC 



RI 4. Indian Cedar Swamp. Acreage: 1000. 

Location: Washington County; Carolina Quadrangle; 4 miles E of Bradford; 
reached via Rt. 91. 

Description: Large portions of the area consist of second growth white cedar, 
many large patches of mountain laurel, and some rhododendron. Good habitat 
for deer and snowshoe hare. 

Encroachments: None, due to state ownership. 

Ownership: 900+ acres owned by state of Rhode Island. 

Data source: John M. Cronan, Division of Conservation, 83 Park St., 
Providence, R.I. 02900. 






Ik 



*,;'?■" 



v ^v^; 



&SA 



'***, 



Af i§£rr' 



JSTs. 




m 



' >'L V 'I ' :V V //'''w 7 ' s-~s ■ ' 



~ i y * 



RI 5. Lonsdale Marshes. Acreage: 25. 

Location: Providence County; Pawtucket Quadrangle; adjacent to Central Falls; 
reached via Rts. 122, 123. 

Description: Open flood plain on the Blackstone River. Typical marsh vegeta- 
tion of various grasses and sedges. Excellent area for waterfowl and muskrats; 
good for many kinds of aquatic animals. 

Encroachments: Serious; lies in a highly developed area; is slowly becoming 
eliminated. 

Ownership: Many owners. 

Data source: John M. Cronan, Division of Conservation, 83 Park St., 
Providence, R.I. 02900. 

Other knowledgeable persons: George Lavallee, Lavallee Drive, Cumberland, 
R.I. 02864. 



CO 

I 
O 

a 
m 

CO 




o 

CM 



CO 

LU 

Q 

o 

I 



RI 6. Newton Swamp. Acreage: About 2000. 

Location: Washington County; Ashaway and Watch Hill quadrangles; 1 mile E 
of Westerly; reached via Rt. 91 or U.S. 1. 

Description: Major vegetation is white cedar and buttonbush, also some red 
maple and various grasses and sedges. Excellent habitat for waterfowl and other 
water birds as well as various mammals and amphibians. Three excellent streams 
flow through the swamp. Certain areas contain numerous pitcher plants and 
sundews. 

Encroachments: Minimal at this time; town dump on Chapman Pond adjoining 
this area. This area should be protected' State has long-range plans for acquisi- 
tion, when and if funds become available. 

Ownership: Many owners; 1 1 1 acres owned by the state of Rhode Island. 

Data source: John M. Cronan, Division of Conservation, 83 Park St., 
Providence, R.I. 02900. 







RI 7. Potts Bog. Acreage: About 400. 

Location: Washington and Kent counties; Wickford Quadrangle; East Green- 
wich, 4 miles NE; site may be reached via Rt. 2. 

Description: Bog adjoining Hunt's River, with typical bog plant species. 

Encroachments: Highway construction presently a problem. Since it is in an 
area that is being built up rapidly, it may have problems with various types of 
developments. 

Ownership: Many owners. 

Data source: John M. Cronan, Division of Conservation, 83 Park St., 
Providence, R.I. 02900. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Alfred Hawkes and Cal Dunwoody, 83 Park St., 
Providence, R.I. 02900. 



DO 

I 
O 

o 
m 

CO 



ffrt *». .•* 




CM 
CM 



CO 

LU 

Q 
O 

X 
DC 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

» 

General description: Extensive bottomland swamp forests are found along the 
major rivers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain — the Pee Dee, the Santee, the Edisto, 
the Combahee, the Savannah, and their tributaries. Outstanding areas include 
the Congaree River Floodplain Forest and Four Hole Swamp. 

Status of the wetlands: Channelization of the rivers is a major threat to the in- 
tegrity of the river bottom wetlands. The lower section of the Congaree has 
been altered in this way. Lumbering is another serious encroachment. 

Sources of data: Coverage of the wetlands of the state has been very in- 
adequate. Data have been provided by state personnel, university biologists, and 
The Nature Conservancy. 

Recommendations: Four Hole Swamp, presently owned jointly by The Nature 
Conservancy and the National Audubon Society, deserves top priority as a 
Natural Landmark. The Congaree River Floodplain Forest is truly outstanding 
and should be designated as a landmark if it can be preserved. More investiga- 
tion of other bottomlands on the Wateree, the Santee, and the Savannah rivers 
is needed. Two wetlands in the Francis Marion National Forest are listed as 
Research Natural Areas. 




Wetlands reported from South Carolina 

SC 1 . *Congaree River Floodplain Forest 

SC 2. *Four Hole Swamp 

SC 3. Guilliard Lake Natural Area 

SC 4. Little Wambaw Swamp Natural 

Area 



Habitat type 

F-l-Sw 

F-l-Sw, F-7-Sw 
F-7-Sw 

F-7-Sw 



Location: Richland and Calhoun counties; Hopkins and Eastover quadrangles; 8 
miles SE of Columbia; reached via Rt. 48. 



ro 

SC 1 . Congaree River Floodplain Forest. Acreage: 12,000. O 

C 
H 
I 

O 

> 
Description: A mature flood-plain forest periodically flooded to a depth of 6 ft. J} 

Oaks and gums comprise the dominant aspect, with occasional cypress. Trees 3- O 

4 ft in diameter are frequent. Large loblolly up to 150 ft tall occur along the ^ 

margins. This is one of the most extensive, relatively undisturbed river flood- > 

plains in the state. When flooded, entry must be by boat or special motorized 

vehicle. This area has been considered as a potential National Park. 

Encroachments: The lower section of the area has been used for channelization 
of the Congaree River by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; a hunting club has 
constructed a road to a hunting camp in another section. 

Ownership: Private; Santee River Cypress Lumber Co., 140 S. Dearborn St., 
Chicago, 111., Mr. Edgar R. Bourke, General Manager. 

Data source: Marion Burnside, Columbia, S.C. 29208; K. A. Argow, Box 5488, 
University of North Carolina, Raleigh, N.C. 27607; W. A. Niering, Connecticut 
College, New London, Conn. 06320. 

Other knowledgeable persons: W. E. Howell, Wildlife Resources Department, 
Columbia, S.C. 29208; Richard H. Pough, 33 Highbrook Ave., Pelham, N.Y. 
10803. 



Map on following page 



■<fr 
5! 



,-■ ;^V..;:'::.^. : :': : -.-,;.- :-.: ;:,:..::*;:■:: :\ ■: . L ;- : ^ : : 



o 
cc 
< 
o 

X 
H 
3 

o 

CO 




SC 2. Four Hole Swamp. Acreage: About 3400. 

Location: Dorchester, Orangeburg, and Berkeley counties; Bowman, Eutaw- 
ville, and Ridgeville quadrangles; about 35 miles NW of Charleston and N of 
U.S. 26. 

Description: One of the finest blackwater cypress swamps along the East Coast. 
Bald cypress up to 5 ft in diameter are present. A breeding ground for herons, 
Mississippi and Swallow-tailed Kites, and many other species of birds, possibly 
including Bachman's Warbler. Deer, alligator, black bear, bobcat, raccoon, 
opossum, and otter are present. 

Ownership: The Nature Conservancy and the National Audubon Society. 

Data source: TNC. 



ro 
en 



C/> 
O 

C 
H 
I 

O 
> 

33 
O 

|— 




-«* 

^ SC 3. Guilliard Lake Natural Area. Acreage: 18. 

q Location: Berkeley County, Francis Marion National Forest. 

DC 

< Description: Bald cypress and water tupelo (SAF-102), 14 acres; sweet gum, 

^ Nuttall oak, and willow oak (SAF-92), 4 acres. Slow meandering rivers and 

jE streams. 

O Ownership: USFS, Francis Marion National Forest. 

(fi 

Data source: RNA-49. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Director, Southeast Forest Experiment Station, 
223 Post Office Bldg., Box 2570, Asheville, N.C. 28802. 



Location: Charleston County; Francis Marion National Forest. 



ro 



SC 4. Little Wambaw Swamp Natural Area. Acreage: 60. q 



C 
H 
I 

Description: Bald cypress and water tupelo (SAF-102), 55 acres; water tupelo O 

(SAF-103), 5 acres. Rattlesnakes, cottonmou>hs, egrets, and other wading birds, 



> 
J3 



Z 
> 



deer, and bobcat present. O 

Ownership: USFS, Francis Marion National Forest. 

Data source: RNA-50. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Director, Southeast Forest Experiment Station, 
223 Post Office Bldg., Box 2570, Asheville, N.C. 28802. 



00 

5! 



f* SOUTH DAKOTA 

O 

< 



General description: South Dakota lies within a 300 square mile area, known as 

Q the pothole region, which extends from central Canada into the north-central 

X United States. The region is typically dotted with small lakes, around and within 

t which shallow and deep marshes develop (Red Lake). In addition, there are also 

O extensive sloughs, such as Cottonwood and Clubhouse, where extensive marshes 

W have developed in shallow elongated depressions. The vegetation of these 

marshy areas includes cattails, bulrushes, spikerushes, and smartweeds. From 

the state wetland inventories (Best 1963; Fredrickson 1967a, b), fresh deep and 

shallow marshes represent the typical wetland types, although those with high 

salt concentrations also occur. Ungar (1970) describes the saline areas in 

Codington and Day counties located on the Dissected Till Plain in the eastern 

part of the state. He recognized seven community types associated with Bitter 

and Stink lakes. These include: Salicornia rubra, Puccinellia nuttalliana, dwarf 

Distichlis stricta, Scirpus paludosus, Distichlis stricta — Hordeum jubatum, 

Potamogeton pectinatus, and prairie. Here sulfates make up 50% of the soil's 

total ionic concentration. The species distribution surrounding these lakes shows 

a distinctive zonation, which appears to be primarily due to differential salt 

tolerance. 

Status of the wetlands: Wetland inventories of three counties in eastern South 
Dakota give some indication of wetland status (Best 1963; Fredrickson 1967a, 
b). Of the 6574 natural wetlands in Deuel County, including primarily marshes 
and open water, drainage had affected 117 (Fredrickson 1967b). In Marshall 
County, 15,943 natural wetlands were reported, with 509 affected by drainage 
(Fredrickson 1967a). In Brown County, 21,634 were reported, 457 affected by 
drainage (Best 1963). It is within this prairie pothole country that wetland 
destruction has been especially severe, in part by the government farm price 
support policy (Goldstein 1971 ). It is hoped that this policy will be modified in 
the near future since the prairie pothole complex represents a unique resource 
in North America. 

Source of data: Data have been supplied by Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife 
personnel. 

Recommendations: In the prairie pothole region, Lynn Lake, Lake Thompson, 
and Red Lake all represent sizeable tracts with some type of state control on 
portions of the acreage. The least disturbed appears to be the 8872-acre Lake 
Thompson area. Lynn Lake is threatened by competing agricultural uses and 
Red Lake by water diversion. Among the three sloughs reported, Club House 
Slough and the contiguous Cottonwood Slough comprise nearly a 20,000-acre 
wetland with ownership divided between the state and private interests. Buffalo 
Slough, a 600-acre tract, represents a smaller wetland complex under state 
ownership. At least one of these sloughs should be included as a Natural Land- 
mark. 

Of the alkaline areas, Bitter Lake, a 4000-acre tract studied by Ungar ( 1970), 
appears to be least threatened. The shoreline is state owned. Swan Lake, a 
2000-acre area owned by the state, should also be investigated. At least one 
saline wetland type should be included as a Natural Landmark. Wall Lake 
located at the headwaters of the Crow Creek drainage is a flat-bottomed, shal- 
low lake with marshy vegetation. It should be field inspected to obtain further 
details on the nature of the marsh vegetation. 



CO 



Literature cited 

Best, E. F. 1963. Pilot study for wetlands. Progress report for Brown County. 
Inventory Pittman-Robertson Project 75-R-4 and 5. 

Fredrickson, L. 1967a. Marshall County wetlands inventory. South Dakota. 
Pittman-Robertson Project 75-VV-R-9. 

1967b. Wetlands inventory— Deuel County, South Dakota. Pittman- 
Robertson Project 75-W-R-9. 

Goldstein, J. H. 1 97 1 . Competition for wetlands in the Midwest. An economic 
analysis. Resources for the Future. 105 p. 

Ungar, I. A. 1970. Species-soil relationships on sulfate dominated soils of South 
Dakota. Am. Midi. Nat. 83:343-357. 



CD 

o 

C 
H 
I 

O 
> 

o 

> 



7 



2 



Wetlands 


reported from South Dakota 


Habitat type 


SD 1. 


*Bitter Lake 


S-10-M, S-ll-M 


SD2. 


Buffalo Slough 


F-4-M, F-5-M 


SD3. 


*Club House Slough 


F-3-M, F-4-M 


SD4. 


*Cottonwood Slough 
Dry Run (see Cottonwood Slough) 


F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 


SD5. 


*Lake Thompson 


F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 


SD6. 


Lynn Lake 

Mud Lake (see Club House Slough) 


F-3-M. F-4-M. F-5-M 


SD7. 


Red Lake 


F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 


SD8. 


Swan Lake 


S-10-M, S-ll-M 


SD9. 


Wall Lake 

Upper Lake Traverse (see Club 

House Slough) 
White Rock Slough (see Club House 

Slough) 


F-3-M, F-4-M, F-5-M 



CO 



< SD 1 . Bitter Lake. Acreage: 4175. 

^ Location: Day County; not yet mapped by USGS; 1.5 mile N of Waubay; 

^ reached via U.S. 12 and county road. 

J Description: Bitter Lake is mostly open water. It varies from a few feet to 4 or 5 

3 ft in depth and is seldom dry. Currently, the water is quite alkaline, limiting 

O vegetative growth except along the margins where fresh water seeps in. The 

shoreline is grassed and slopes up to a fairly steep bank on the east side. The 
area is generally undisturbed. Important wildlife include waterfowl and shore 
birds, with very high use during migration. The surrounding land is managed for 
upland game, and fur bearers are present. Canada Geese nest on the lake. The 
area has moderate public use, mostly by hunters. 

Encroachments: Not threatened unless public use becomes too high. 

Ownership: Shoreline is mostly owned by South Dakota Department of Game, 
Fish and Parks. 

Data Source: George M. Jonkel, 1848 Dakota Ave., South, Huron, S.D. 57350. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Rod Drewien, 614-6th Ave., W., Aberdeen, S.D. 
57401. 



CO 

03 
SD 2. Buffalo Slough. Acreage: 660. O 

C 
H 
I 



o 



Location: Lake County; not yet mapped by USGS; 1 mile S of Chester; reached 
via Rt. 1-29 out of Sioux Falls and then on county roads. 

> 
Description: Located in the upper Skunk Creek Watershed, this area includes ^ 

wetland (512 acres), agricultural land (30 acres), tree plots (18 acres), and 
grassland (100 acres). Open water normally covers about 309c of the wetland 
and emergent vegetation covers about 109c. The open water supports lush 
growths of floating aquatics valuable to waterfowl and fur bearers. The emer- 
gent vegetation is dominated by river bulrush, Phragmites, round-stem bulrush, 
and cattail. Normal water depth ranges from 3.5 to 4.5 ft. Shoreline has gradual 
slopes to moderately steep banks that are highest on the east and west sides. 
Wildlife using the area include waterfowl, deer, shorebirds, pheasants, and fur 
bearers, especially muskrats. The area has high public use. 

References: Best, E. E. 1963. Pilot study for wetlands inventory (Progress Report 
for Brown County, South Dakota), Department of Game, Fish, and Parks; 
Fredrickson, L. 1966-67. Marshall County wetlands inventory-South Dakota, 
Department of Game, Fish and Parks; Fredrickson, L. 1967. Wetlands invento- 
ry- Deuel County, South Dakota, Department of Game, Fish, and Parks; Twedt, 
C. M. 1963. Wetlands inventory (for several eastern South Dakota counties, 
Progress Report), Department of Game, Fish, and Parks; Twedt, C. M. 1964-65. 
Wetlands inventory-Progress Report, Department of Game, Fish, and Parks. 

Encroachments: Impounding by dam construction for water in lakes above the 
area and possible future tapping of aquifers for irrigation. 

Ownership: South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks, Pierre, S.D. 

57501. 

Data source: M. E. Anderson, BSFW, P.O. Box 250, Pierre, S.D. 57501. 

Other knowledgeable persons: W. C. Foss, 400 W. Kemp, Watertown, S.D. 
57201; Ellsworth Brown, Dell Rapids, S.D. 57022. 



CO 

"«* 

^ SD 3. Club House Slough (White Rock Slough, Mud Lake, Upper Lake 

O Traverse). Acreage: 16,000 estimated. 

q Location: Roberts County, S.D., Traverse County, Minn.; White Rock, S.D.- 

^ Minn.-N.D. Quadrangle; White Rock, S.D. is located at north end of the slough; 

t— reached via U.S. 81, which borders west side of the slough. 

2 Description: This slough lies both in the states of South Dakota and Minnesota, 

but the majority of the acreage lies in South Dakota. The slough runs south for 
approximately 10 miles from the town of White Rock which is located in the 
very northeastern corner of the state. It averages nearly 3 miles in width. The 
area is comprised of shallow and deep marshes which lie along the Bois Des 
Sioux River. This area is the headwaters of the Red River and during the early 
days of the railroad, it was the site of a rather famous duck club located in 
White Rock. The Bois Des Sioux River has now been channelized by the Corps 
of Engineers and there is a control structure on this channel. In spite of this 
channelization, the slough still retains most of its natural appearance. The area 
has a good population of white-tailed deer, pheasants, ducks, and geese. The 
map shows the area prior to manipulation. 

Encroachments: Some of the marsh is being converted into agricultural use. 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' manipulations of water levels could endanger 
the area. 

Ownership: Private; South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks Department. 

Data source: Rolf L. Wallenstrom, 115-5th Ave., S.E., Aberdeen, S.D. 57401. 



CO 
CO 






i 



-<*»- 



i i 



--**«' 



„ m*n5S 






■•—. i 



timiV ?'P" &— '"T" 










CO 

O 

c 

H 

D 
> 

o 



CO 

jf£ SD 4. Cottonwood Slough (Dry Run). Acreage: 2800 estimated. 

O 

^ Location: Roberts County; New Effington Quadrangle; reached via U.S. 81 

which crosses the Slough 4 miles W of Rosholt. 



< 

Q 



fZ Description: Cottonwood Slough is approximately 0.5 mile wide and 15 miles 

3 long. It is comprised of a series of lakes and shallow to deep marshes. The 

Q drainage is north and east and eventually ends in Club House Slough which is 

the headwaters of the Red River. Most forms of marsh and aquatic vegetation 

native to this area are represented. Area is well known in South Dakota for its 

excellent hunting. The primary game are pheasants, ducks, and deer. 

Ownership: Private and South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks Department. 

Data source: Rolf L. Wallenstrom, 1 1 5-5th Ave., S.E. Aberdeen, S.D. 57401 . 



CO 

01 










/^l 0/- 



25 






— no' 



5 ; 

^mmmmmERm 1 ■■ ■*• -•-- 




t 



C-V 



. In v? ^ >* F /i 






CO 

O 

c 



a 

> 

o 



CO 
CO 



O 



SD 5. Lake Thompson. Acreage: 8872. 



^ Location: Kingsbury County; not yet mapped by USGS; 5 miles S and 3. miles E 

q of De Smet; reached via U.S. 14. 

I— Description: Lake Thompson is the headwaters of the east fork of the Vermil- 

lion River. Greatest depth of the lake is 4.5 ft. The wetland vegetation varies 

yj with the low gradient from grasses on the edge to rushes, and then to round- 

stem bulrushes and cattails toward the center. Open water makes up 20% of the 
area, mostly in the center. Water quality is generally fresh, but tends to alkaline 
when low. The shoreline is flat except on the east and south. High wildlife use 
by ducks, geese, deer, pheasants, and fur bearers. 

Encroachments: Generally, the area is little disturbed. It has been burned and 
portions plowed during droughts. The Game, Fish and Parks Department con- 
structed level ditches in the northeast portion. It is not likely to be drained 
because it is meandered. It provides hunting for most of the southeastern part of 
the state. 

Ownership: Shoreline private; wetland portion meandered and under jurisdic- 
tion of the State Game, Fish and Parks Department. 

Data source: George M. Jonkel, 1848 Dakota Ave., South, Huron, S.D. 57350. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Maurice Anderson, Bureau of Sport Fisheries 
and Wildlife, P.O. Box 250, Pierre, S.D. 57501; Dr. Howard Shreves, Sioux 
Falls, S.D. 57101. 



■1^ 

CO 

C/5 
SD 6. Lynn Lake (Mydland Pass). Acreage: 3800 estimated. O 

C 
H 
I 



Location: Day County; not yet mapped by USGS; R. 1 12 N. R 57 W., sec. 3, 10, 
15, 22, 26, 27; 9 miles W of Roslyn; reached via Day County Rt. 4, which ad- 
joins the north end of the area. > 

Description: This wetland complex, approximately 1 mile wide and 6 miles long, 
lies within the Prairie Coteau of northeastern South Dakota. Representing the > 

typical prairie pothole country, shallow and deep marshes dot the undulating 
terrain. Marsh vegetation consists primarily of sedges, bulrushes, and 
cordgrasses. The area has long been famous for its waterfowl hunting and cur- 
rently supports a good population of white-tailed deer, pheasants, and ducks. A 
more detailed description and evaluation of eligibility for Registered Natural 
Landmark status has been prepared by Dr. David Holden. 

Encroachments: Some of the land still in private ownership is threatened by 
competing agricultural uses. 

Ownership: Private; South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks Department (1470 
acres estimated); BSFW (80 acres). 

Data source: Rolf L. Wallenstrom, 115-5th Ave., S.E., Aberdeen, S.D. 57401; 
Dr. David J. Holden, Route 1, Box 80, Brookings, S.D. 57006. 



00 



< 

I- 
O 

< 



o 

CO 



SD 7.Red Lake. Acreage: 3634. 

Location: Brule County; immediately south of Pukwana Quadrangle (not yet 
mapped); 2 miles S and 1 mile W of Pukwana; reached via 1-90. 

Description: The water ranging from 1 to 4 ft is covered primarily with bul- 
rushes over about one-third of the lake. Water quality is generally good. How- 
ever, it tends to be alkaline as the lake lowers; it has dried up twice in the last 10 
years. Surrounded by agricultural land, the area has been little disturbed in the 
past. Heavily used by waterfowl, shore birds, muskrats, and mink. Map shows 
typical nature of this prairie pothole country. 

Encroachments: Area is not likely to be drained. Greatest danger is diverting 
water from a proposed irrigation project to make it a fishing lake, thereby 
destroying its high waterfowl value. Public use area for hunting. 

Ownership: Shoreline mostly private. Lake is meandered and under jurisdiction 
of the Department of Game, Fish and Parks. 

Data source: George M. Jonkel, 1848 Dakota Ave., S., Huron, S.D. 57350. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Rod Drewien, 614-6th Ave., S.W., Aberdeen, 
S.D. 57401. 



9/ 




CO 



SD 8. Swan Lake. Acreage: 1968. g 

Location: Walworth County; not yet mapped by the USGS: 4 miles W and 0.5 H 

mile N of Lowry, reached via U.S. 83 N of Pierre and state and county roads. -*- 

O 
Description: The area is a typical shallow, natural prairie marsh located in the ^ 

upper reaches of the Swan Creek Watershed, which empties into the Oahe O 

Reservoir (Missouri River). The water is normally from 2 to 4 ft deep and al- CJ 

kaline. About 80% of the area is open water, with an abundance of floating 
aquatic plants. Emergent vegetation occurs along the margins of the lake and on 
some islands. Waterfowl and shore birds are the principal wildlife, although fur 
bearers, pheasants, and deer are common. Although the area is not located in a 
high human population area, public use is high for the number of people in the 
locality. 

Encroachments: Farming and ranching operations. 

Ownership: State of South Dakota. 

Data source: M. E. Anderson, BSFW, P.O. Box 250, Pierre, S.D. 57501. 

Other knowledgeable persons: W. A. Larson, Box 326, Mobridge, S.D. 57601 . 



o 

f* SD 9. Wall Lake. Acreage: 600. 

O 

^ Location: Hand County; not yet mapped by USGS; 17 miles S of Miller; 

q reached via Rt. 45 S from Miller. 

I_ Description: Located in the headwaters of the Crow Creek drainage, a tributary 

^ of the Missouri River, Wall Lake is a flat-bottomed, shallow lake varying from 1 

yl to 4 ft in depth. It seldom goes dry and has good quality water for vegetative 

growth. The shoreline is mostly grassed and rises fairly sharply from the lake, 
except where the streams enter or leave. It has high wildlife value for waterfowl, 
marsh birds, pheasants, deer, muskrat, and mink. It is a State Game Refuge and 
is very seldom used by the public. 

Encroachments: It has not been disturbed noticeably in recent years but in the 
past has been mowed and possibly portions have been farmed. Diverting water 
from the watershed for irrigation could largely dry up the marsh. Private acre- 
age could be diked off and farmed. 

Ownership: South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks; BSFW; and 

private. 

Data source: George M. Jonkel, 1 848 Dakota Ave., South, Huron, S.D. 57350. 



TENNESSEE ^ 

Z 

General description: Although the three major types of wetlands— swamps, m 

bogs, and marshes— are represented in the state, extensive undisturbed tracts CO 

are rare. One of the finest, Reelfoot Lake, has already been designated as a Re- m 

gistered Natural Landmark. Formed as a result of an earthquake in the early rn 

part of the last century, its vegetation pattern includes cypress swamps, sawgrass 
marshes, and water lily glades. Bogs are highly scattered and often limited in 
size, such as the one on Andrews Bald in the Great Smokies. Shady Valley Bog 
in eastern Tennessee represents one of the best bog sites in which the pollen 
record has been documented. The most extensive swamps occur along the Mis- 
sissippi River bottoms and in the valley of its tributaries in western Tennessee 
(Shelford 1954). Several wetlands associated with the limestone outcroppings 
have been included as representative of the state's liquid assets. 

Status of the wetlands: Many of the state's wetlands have been drained for 
agricultural use or flooded for dam sites. The original swamp forests along the 
Wolf, Loosahatchie, Hatchie, Forked Deer, and Obion rivers have been 
destroyed during the channelization projects which were in progress at least up 
to 1968 (H. R. DeSelm, pers. comm.). The Director of the State Game and Fish 
Commission, Fred W. Stanberg, has expressed alarm at the loss of wetlands in 
the lower valley of the Mississippi. 

Source of data: Data have been provided by biologists from the Tennessee State 
Parks Department and the state universities. 

Recommendations: Except for Reelfoot Lake, Sinking Pond, comprising 160 
acres, is the largest example of wetland development in karst topography. 
Although within a federally owned facility, designation as a Natural Landmark is 
highly recommended. A smaller area, Goose Pond, also underlain by limestone, 
represents a typical cattail-sawgrass marsh. A portion is federally owned. Nes- 
tled in an agricultural valley at 2400 ft, Shady Valley Bog is a rather unique bog . 
habitat. The past and present vegetation has been studied by Dr. Frank Barclay 
of East Tennessee State University. If adequate protection can be given the 
area, it should be designated as a Natural Landmark. Data on hardwood swamp 
forests are inadequate. The one reported, the Willow Oak Swamp Forest, 
represents a remnant stand of mature swamp oak. This tract is surely worthy of 
protection. Its suitability as a landmark should depend upon whether other more 
suitable sites of this type can be found. 

In the Cumberland Plateau swamp and bog vegetation has been highly 
modified by man. However, contact with Dr. Don Caplenor, Department of 
Biology, Tennessee Technological University, Cookville, Tennessee, is sug- 
gested, when on-site inspections are made. The swamp forests along the Cum- 
berland River should also be investigated. 

Literature cited 

Shf.lford, V. E. 1954. Some lower Mississippi Valley flood-plain biotic 
communities; their age and elevation. Ecology 35:126-142. 



CM 

LU 
LU 
CO 
CO 
LU 



HI 



4 

t 

1 




Wetlands reported from Tennessee 

TN 1 . Goose Pond 

TN 2. *Reelfoot Lake 

TN 3. *Shady Valley Bog 

TN 4. *Sinking Pond 

TN 5. Willow Oak Swamp Forest 



Habitat type 

F-3-M(Ca) 
F-5-M, F-7-Sw 
F-8-B 

F-7-Sw(Ca) 
F-7-Sw(Ca) 






TN 1 . Goose Pond. Acreage: 65. 

Location: Coffee County; Manchester Quadrangle; 6 miles N of Monteagle; 
reached via U.S. 41 . 

Description: A large sinkhole type basin in cherty limestone. It exhibits a cattail- 
sawgrass vegetation. The only known nesting station for Blue-winged Teal in the 
state. 

Encroachments: Drainage efforts have been unsuccessful. One owner would like 
to drain and farm the area. In a dry spell 2 years ago, he succeeded in cutting 
most of the specimen trees lining the area. 

Ownership: Private and Arnold Engineering Development Center (U.S. 
Government). 

Data source: Mack S. Prichard, Tennessee State Parks, 2611 West End Ave., 
Nashville, Tenn. 37200; H. DeSelm, Botany Department, University of Tennes- 
see, Knoxville, Tenn. 37900. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Albert Ganier, 2112 Woodlawn Ave., Nashville, 
Tenn. 37200; Ken Dubke, Chickamauga-Chattanooga National Military Park; 
Mr. Harry Hitchcock, Arnold Engineering Development Center (U.S. Govern- 
ment), Tullahoma, Tenn. 37388. 



m 

z 
z 
m 

CO 
CO 

rn 
m 




"36D.- r 






LU 
LU 
CO 
CO 
LU 



LU 



TN 2. Reelfoot Lake. Acreage: 23,000. 

Location: Lake and Obion counties; in the northwestern corner of Tennessee. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. Reelfoot Lake was formed in the 
winter of 1 8 1 1 - 1 2 as a result of a succession of shocks designated collectively as 
the New Madrid earthquake. It is a 23,000 acre area of cypress swamps, saw- 
grass jungles, water lily glades and scattered bodies of open water. At normal 
level 1 8,000 acres are covered with water to an average depth of five feet. 

Ownership: State of Tennessee; administered jointly by the Department of Con- 
servation and the Tennessee Game and Fish Commission. An area of 9,272 
acres in the northern section of the lake is leased to the BSFW for management 
as part of the Reelfoot National Wildlife Refuge. 







TN 3. Shady Valley Bog. Acreage: 10 estimated. 

Location: Johnson County; Shady Valley Quadrangle; 0.8 mile NW of Shady 
Valley. 

Description: A red spruce, hemlock, rhododendron association growing on peat 
up to 6.5 ft. in depth. Altitude is 2400 ft. 

References: Barclay, F. 1957. The natural vegetation of Johnson Co., Tennes- 
see, Past and Present. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Tennessee, 147 p. 

Encroachments: Threatened with submersion by dam site. The particulars of 
this area are well known by Barclay, who notes two other peaty areas in his dis- 
sertation. 

Ownership: Not known. 

Data source: H. DeSelm, Botany Department, University of Tennessee, Knox- 
ville, Tenn. 37900. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Frank Barclay, Biology Department, East Ten- 
nessee State University, Johnson City, Tenn. 37601 . 



m 



m 
(f) 
w 
m 
m 




UJ 
HI 

co 
co 

HI 



HI 



TN 4. Sinking Pond. Acreage: 160 estimated. 

Location: Coffee County; Manchester Quadrangle; 5 miles E of Tullahoma. 

Description: Sinkhole pond with forest cover, including Quercus phellos, Nyssa 
sylvaiica, and Acer rubrum. Water level reaches a depth of 4 ft during the 
winter. At present it is a biological reserve. 

Ownership: Arnold Engineering Development Center (U.S. Government). 

Data source: H. DeSelm, Botany Department, University of Tennessee, Knox- 
ville, Tenn. 37900. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Harry Hitchcock, Arnold Engineering 
Development Center, Tullahoma, Tenn. 37388. 



JL-/ JLi ^ JUd ±j \y X .IV JL 







TN 5. Willow Oak Swamp Forest. Acreage: 4. 

Location: Monroe County; Madisonville Quadrangle; 1.5 miles SE of Madison- 
ville; reached via Rt. 68 from Madisonville, turn east on Rocky Spring Rd. 

Description: Willow oak swamp forest is underlain by dolomite. Scattered large 
trees (to about 36 inches dbh) form a nearly complete canopy. Winter water 
level reaches about 18 inches in depth. Associated species include post oak, 
slippery elm, sycamore, and short leaf pine. 

Encroachments: Danger of cutting; timber is marked. 

Ownership: Heirs of the Estes Kefauver estate at Madisonville. 

Data source: H. DeSelm, Botany Department, University of Tennessee, Knox- 
ville, Tenn. 37900. 

Other knowledgeable person: W. H. Martin, Botany Department, University of 
Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 37900. 



m 



m 

CO 
CO 

m 
m 




00 

<* 

W TEXAS 

X 

y General description: Texas spans a vast region from the West Gulf Coastal 

Plain, where semi-tropical wetland elements occur, across the Central and Great 
Plains to the Basin and Range country of west Texas. 

Most of the areas reported are from eastern Texas. The semi-tropical swamp, 
marsh, and bog vegetation aspect may be found in Palmetto State Park. Typical 
hardwood swamps are represented in Cedar Springs and Swamp and the 
Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest. In east-central Texas, Falls County Bog 
exhibits a typical bog flora and fauna. 

In the southern tip of the state, the Laguna Atascosa Wildlife Refuge is well 
known as a wetland of high productivity. 

Two areas in the Great Plains — Los Lingos Canyon and XIT Springs — have 
marshy habitats and springs as the significant ecological features. 

The Great Thicket in Eastern Texas, including parts of Liberty, Polk, Hardin, 
Tyler, and San Jacinto counties, is a 300,000-acre wilderness in which semi- 
tropical and other wetland types occur (Flippo 1971 ). It has been referred to as 
the botanical crossroads of North America. Here are found wetland elements 
common to the Florida Everglades, the Okefenokee, and the Appalachian 
Mountain region. Among the wetland communities are palmetto-bald cypress 
hardwoods, bogs, and flood-plain forests. No specific data on this area were ob- 
tained. 

Status of the wetlands: Of the areas reported, cutting and grazing were among 
; the major encroachments. In the Big Thicket, lumbering interests and develop- 
ment have reduced the area from an original 3,350,000 acres to less than 
300,000. In fact, it is estimated that the Thicket is disappearing at the rate of 50 
acres per day. Although it has been recommended as a National Park, political 
maneuvers by the lumber interests have blocked its establishment. Currently, 
two bills have been introduced to establish either an 84,000 or 100,000 acre Na- 
tional Park (Flippo 1971). 

Sources of data: Data have been obtained from the Texas Chapter of The Na- 
ture Conservancy and college and university biologists. Data adequate for inclu- 
sion in this report were obtained for only eight wetlands. However, a listing by 
county of some 30 more areas by The Nature Conservancy might provide addi- 
tional wetlands for investigation. 

Recommendations: Of the semi-tropical wetland element, Palmetto State Park 
represents a unique flora and fauna of special ecological interest. Although 
under state protection, Natural Landmark status would add national recognition 
to this outstanding ecological area. The Big Thicket area previously described 
should be investigated for sizeable tracts of semi-tropical wetland for designa- 
tion as Natural Landmarks. 

Areas dominated by swamp hardwoods include the Stephen F. Austin Experi- 
mental Forest (USFS) and Cedar Springs and Swamp. Both are several thousand 
acres in extent. Since Cedar Springs is privately owned, this tract may be less 
secure from long-term disturbance than lands within the Experimental Forest, 
but might profit more from landmark status. 

Bog habitats are represented in the Gus Engling Wildlife Management Area 
and Falls County Bog. The former is under state management, the latter private- 
ly owned. Field inspections would be necessary to determine current status of 



CD 



The Laguna Atascosa Wildlife Refuge is currently protected as an outstanding 
waterfowl area. 

Los Lingos Canyon and XIT Springs represent wetlands in the panhandle re- 
gion. Los Lingos is estimated at 50,000 acres, with springs and marsh habitat. It 
is considered one of the state's outstanding natural areas. In the rolling plains 
country, XIT Springs, a privately owned tract, should also be investigated. Graz- 
ing encroachments may be a problem in this area. 

Data are inadequate on the significant wetlands of Texas. The lack of infor- 
mation especially in the Big Thicket region is a major gap. The western section 
of the state should also be more thoroughly investigated. 

Literature cited 

Flippo, C. 1971. Little Big Thicket — Pulpwood versus the people. Cedar Creek, 
April Ed. p. 23-27. 



m 

X 

> 

CO 




Wetlands 


reported from Texas 

Buffalo Springs (see XIT Springs) 


Habitat type 


TX 1. 


Cedar Springs and Swamp 


F-2-M, F-7-Sw 


TX2. 


Engling Wildlife Management Area 


F-7-Sw, F-8-B 


TX3. 


Falls County Bog 


F-8-B 


TX4. 


Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife 






Refuge 


F-3-M,F-4-M,F-5-M 


TX5. 


Los Lingos Canyon 


F-3-M 


TX6. 


Palmetto State Park 


F-3-M, F-8-B 


TX7. 


Stephen F. Austin Experimental 






Forest 


F-3-M, F-7-Sw 


TX 8. 


XIT Springs 


F-2-M 



o 
in 



CO 

< 
X 

111 

r- 



TX 1 . Cedar Springs and Swamp. Acreage: 3000 estimated. 

Location: Falls County; Cedar Springs Quadrangle; 1 mile from Cedar Springs, 
exact location not known. 

Description: Native post-oak vegetation with several rare species, one being the 
very attractive Murray pentstemon (Pentstemon murrayanus) with brilliant red 
flowers, growing up to 5 ft tall. Others of interest are the blue larkspur 
(Delphinium carolinianum) and a vast carpet of coreopsis (Coreopsis basalis). 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Edward C. Fritz, Texas Chapter, TNC, Dallas, Tex. 75201. 



8M\V f\ \ *dL 




ft 



TX 2. Gus Engling Wildlife Management Area. Acreage: 2000 estimated. 

Location: Anderson County; Tennessee Colony Quadrangle; 10 miles NW of 
Palestine; reached via U.S. 287. 

Description: Includes many small typical bogs and swamps. 

Ownership: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 

Data source: Dr. Clark Hubbs, University of Texas, P.L. 102, Zoology Depart- 
ment, Austin, Tex. 78700. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Howard Lee, Parks and Wildlife Department, 
Austin, Tex. 78700. 



H 

m 
x 

> 

CO 




CM 

in 



c/> 
< 
X 

LU 



TX 3. Falls County Bog. Acreage: 20. 

Location: Falls County; Cedar Springs Quadrangle; 4 miles NE of Lott on un- 
numbered dirt road ( 1 5 acres on the north side and 5 acres on the south side of 
the road). 

Description: The bog is located in post oak-black jack woodland that has been 
cut and leveled around the bog to make pasture. Texas bog-swamp flora and 
fauna. The bog, a depression in a grazed pasture, is apparently caused by a 
perched water table in Brazos River alluvium. The presence of Echinodorus, 
Ludwigia, Polygonum, and Boltonia is especially significant; the first and last are 
known no further west. Amphibia reported include Rana areolata, Pseudacris 
triseriata, and Amby stoma t. tigrinum. 

Encroachments: Acreage used as pasture and stock graze to the edge of the 
bog. 

Ownership: H. Stegmiller, Lott, Tex. 76656. 

Data source: Dr. Clark Hubbs, University of Texas, P.L. 102, Zoology Depart- 
ment, Austin, Tex. 78700. 

Other knowledgeable persons: F. R. Gehlbach, Baylor University, Waco, Tex. 
76700. 




V - 

S "J 


o sjr } 



\ 


4/6 1 


^ 


,- : 'tf/ 


\ 


S \f 


'"' s :-. 


S ft 




s 


X' 




s s 




s- ' 


' 


x 


1 i 


/' " x ; 





en 

CO 

TX 4. Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. Acreage: 38,759. zj 

X 

Location: Cameron County; Los Fresnos Quadrangle; 6 miles NE of Los > 

Fresnos. 

Description: This wetland supports one of the greatest concentrations of winter- 
ing birds in the world, and also a large variety of mammals, reptiles, fish, and 
Crustacea. The area has been reported to be rich floristically. 

Ownership: BSFW. 

Data source: Edward C. Fritz, Texas Chapter, TNC, Dallas, Tex. 75201 . 



Map on following page 



in 



to 
< 

X 

111 






O.S 



'REV 



4$ 



4F 



^ 



<^ 









%. £"«<*. •* 



■ft 



£ 4 



« 






•3df 



ife 



I 



pi 
g J 

tit ; r 

r 1 



?:■ 



H 
: -**' 



^ , 






.A* 



V* 



' c 
J re- 
in 



V 



/ 



« 



< 

© 

a 

<; 
£-< 



<5 



I 

i 

1 
t 

I 



81 t~> 






— _ W'iN.'- ioa son .m 



ft 

o> 

TX 5. Los Lingos Canyon. Acreage: 50,000. ZJ 

Location: Briscoe County; due west of Quitaque, in the west-central part of > 

Briscoe County; no road or trail leads directly to the canyon. *** 

Description: This is one of the state's outstanding Natural Areas. At least three 
springs occur at the head of the canyon with marsh habitat in places; a spring- 
fed rock pool is large enough to swim in. Many eastern species of birds nest 
here. Golden eagles have been nesting for 5 or 6 years. 

Data source: Edward C. Fritz, Texas Chapter, TNC, Dallas, Tex. 75201 . 



CD 



CO 
< 
X 

Hi 



TX 6. Palmetto State Park. Acreage: 3200. 

Location: Gonzales County; Ottine Quadrangle; 10 miles NW of Gonzales; 
reached via U.S. 183. 

Description: An isolated, somewhat semi-tropical marsh and peat bog region, an 
area of extreme importance to ecologists because of its unique flora and fauna. 
Western limits of bog habitat in Texas, with disjunct populations of Aus- 
troriparian species. 

Ownership: Texas State Parks and Wildlife. 

Data source: Dr. Clark Hubbs, Zoology Department, University of Texas, 
Austin, Tex. 78700; Edward C. Fritz, Texas Chapter, TNC, 909 Reliance Life 
Bldg., Dallas, Tex. 75201. 



i 



i 






\z 



, s o 



// 



s 






}■■/ 



m 









y 



>f 



Jf%o 







Y 

tal 



';-..^^L4t|«Hil|^ 




—| 

TX 7. Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest. Acreage: 2500. m 

X 

Location: Nacogdoches County; Douglass, Clawson, and Redland quadrangles; ^ 

9 miles SW of Nacogdoches. 

Description: Sawgrass swamp and mature hardwood forest, including such trees 
as Quercus nigra and Q. phellos. 

References: McCarley, H. 1959a. J. Mammal. 40(l):57-63; McCarley, H. 
1959b. Am. Midi. Nat. 61(2):447-469. 

Ownership: USFS. 

Data source: Howard McCarley, Austin College, Sherman, Tex. 75090. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Southern Forest Experiment Station, Stephen F. 
Austin State College, Nacogdoches, Tex. 75961 . 

ANGELINA NATIONAL FOREST £/ 

\ ' \ ) | 

\ ) f & 

\ \ & 

v \ -■ , ■ ■ , ' 

h \ / 



P& 



ft 1 ..g 



\s i 1 y % 



% \ r *•«* 



Lif*> Is \ I 

•V*^ ^ <A to x 



r- t 






\ 



H 






Ic 



^ .' \ k r ml 



StL 



\ 









a. ' <t. 



\ \/f ^ <& »* . Lor© 



.' 



V \ <*>X ^ 












a c n , 



o / f \ / ^— -— u. 



-•'~rt 




v* - 










\ 


^ i 














y 










„_^ 






- \ 
V 


V ~S l ' «*■ 










\ 




\ 


v r •'' t» j 




t 






W- 






' " ' 










I 




&. 




i 






" 


' \ to 







<* 



I 



,1 v > 

I 
I 

I 

I 



5*1 / 7 ... rX ' 



oo 



CO 

< 

X 

LU 



TX 8. XIT Springs (Buffalo Springs). Acreage: About 30. 

Location: Dallam County; Dalhart 1 :250,000 Quadrangle; 40 miles NW by road 
from Dalhart; reached via Rt. FM 296 from U.S. 385. 

Description: The XIT site consists of series of live springs in rolling plains 
country near the headwaters of Coldwater Creek. These springs provided the 
water supply to the original XIT Ranch headquarters. 

Encroachment: Ranch use. 

Ownership: Private Ranch. 

Data source: William T. Krummes, BSFW, Division of Wildlife Services, P.O. 
Box 1306, Albuquerque, N.M. 87103. 



to ^v>\ ' 

\Z -PC* 






u 



*32<4 



I ! 



•*2m 



h'a-''( h 



OKIAHQMA 



I £X;AS 



Wwdmii 



draiJr 

i 




<-.'9*> , 




Windmill X « 



Windmills 

^ ^Wsiidmi!: 



$?M 



Wmdmtll 



.-5'",. 



CO 

UTAH C 



General description: The wetlands of Utah include: salt flats; saline, brackish, 
and fresh-water marshes around the periphery of the Great Basin, fed by springs 
(Fish Springs, Locomotive Springs, Clear Lake); and run-off from the Wasatch 
Mountains (Bear River, Harold Crane, Ogden Bay, Howard Slough, and 
Farmington Bay Refuges) and the Sevier River watershed; river bottoms along 
the Green (Browns Park, Ouray Refuge) and Colorado rivers; and beaver 
meadows in the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains. 

Status of the wetlands: Owing to the scarcity of water in this region, most of the 
wetlands have been modified by human activities, which include diversion for ir- 
rigation and manipulation for waterfowl production. 

Sources of data: A description of the wetlands of Utah, with special reference to 
waterfowl values, has been published by Nelson (1966). Data have been 
furnished by personnel of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and of the 
Utah State Department of Fish and Game. 

Recommendations: Whether any wetlands in the Great Basin are to be re- 
gistered as Natural Landmarks will depend upon a policy decision as to the ex- 
tent to which landmarks may be under management. There may well be relative- 
ly undisturbed portions of some of the refuges or adjacent private holdings that 
would qualify. No data on this question are at hand. The marshes on the 
Locomotive Springs, Harold Crane, Ogden Bay, and Howard Slough Refuges, 
here listed, and also on the Bear River Refuge, are extensive and undoubtedly 
represent some of the best examples of various wetland types ranging from fresh 
to very saline. The Harold Crane Waterfowl Management Area has been 
established too recently to exhibit stable vegetative types. Fish Springs is a sig- 
nificant area and portions might appropriately be set aside as natural areas, if 
this can be accomplished before all of it is modified for a one-purpose 
(waterfowl management) program. Browns Park on the Green River is the only 
river bottom habitat that has been suggested as a landmark. The state should be 
further inventoried to determine whether other river bottoms might be found 
that are undisturbed. Examples of beaver meadows should also be sought. 

Literature cited 

Nelson, N. F. 1966. Waterfowl hunting in Utah, Utah State Dept. Fish Game 
Publ. No. 66-10, p. 100. 



> 



o 

CO 



3 



5 



3 

4 



Wetlands reported from Utah 



UT 1 

UT2. 
UT3. 

UT4. 
UT5. 
UT6. 



Browns Park Waterfowl 

Management Area 
Fish Springs 
Harold Crane Waterfowl 

Management Area 
Howard Slough 
Locomotive Springs 
Ogden Bay Waterfowl Management 

Area 



Habitat type 

F-l-M,F-3-M, F-4-M 
S-9, S-10-M, S-ll-M 

S-10-M,S-9 
S-10-M, F-3-M 
S-9, S-10-M, S-ll-M 

S-10-M, F-3-M 



UT 1 . Browns Park Waterfowl Management Area. Acreage: No data. C 

> 
Location: Daggett County; Clay Basin, Warren Draw, and Swallow Canyon X 

quadrangles; about 40 miles NE of Vernal. 

Description: This is a typical floodplain marsh that has developed along the 
Green River. 

Ownership: Part state; part BSFW, Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. 

Data source: John E. Nagel, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish 
and Game, 1596 West North Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah 841 16. 



Map on following page 



CM 

CD 



X 

< 



"4rf 



w 



»&1 



1 \ 



— + 




<te 



1*5 
05 



00 
CM 



CO 



<& 



CM 



V 4 



s 

l<0 



~4 6 



£ 



S 



; 



CM 
C\l 



o 







\ 




( 




\ 


. 


^4 


■s^ 


-*"- • 








CM 



CA 






fi 



-7- 



u 



CO 

UT 2. Fish Springs. Acreage: 7000-10,000. Ej 

> 

Location: Juab County; E of Topaz Mt. and Dugway Range quadrangles; on the I 

northern boundary of Juab County and 35 miles from the Nevada border; 
reached via Callao-Tooele Road. 

Description: Fish Springs is located in the harsh arid country of Western Utah, 
in the desert basin bordered by Fish Springs Mountains to the west and by 
rolling dunes along other perimeters, within the shorelines of ancient Lake Bon- 
neville. Inundation is confined to an area 6 miles long, 3 miles wide. Twisting 
depressions on the basin floor form shallow sloughs, many of which have been 
developed for waterfowl habitat. Three major and numerous lesser springs give 
a total flow of approximately 45-50 second-feet. Vegetative aspect includes 
desert, dune boundaries grading to Distichlis communities, Juncus meadows and 
borders, Phragmites communities, Eleocharis meadows, Scirpus, Typha emer- 
gents, and submersed communities of Chara and Ruppia. Fish Springs are rich in 
history. They were used intensively by the Goshute Indians, and later were im- 
portant as a way station in relation to explorations and developments, including 
the Pony Express. The area is used extensively by various waterfowl and shore- 
bird species. 

References: Bolen, E. G. 1962. Ecology of spring fed salt marshes. M.S. Thesis, 
Utah State Univ., Logan, Utah; Bolen, E. G. 1964. Plant ecology of spring fed 
salt marshes in western Utah. Ecol, Monogr. 34:143-166. 

Encroachments: Extensive early alteration of the site by numerous, short-lived 
attempts at farming and ranching. Currently modified through major develop- 
ments designed to improve existing habitat for waterfowl management purposes. 

Ownership: BSFW, Fish Springs National Waterfowl Refuge. 

Data source: William T. Krummes, BSFW, Division of Wildlife Services, P.O. 
Box 1306, Albuquerque, N.M. 87103. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Eric G. Bolen, Texas Technological College, 
Lubbock, Tex. 79400; Dr. Jessop B. Low, Leader, Utah Cooperative Wildlife 
Research Unit, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84321, and his former grad- 
uate student, Dr. Donald E. McKnight. 



CO 

< UT 3. Harold Crane Waterfowl Management Area. Acreage: 3500. 

Location: Box Elder County; Plain City SW Quadrangle; entrance 6.5 miles NW 
of Plain City; reached via Rt. 91, turn west onto 4000 N. north of Roy. 

Description: Water was first brought into this newly developed area in 1966; 
thus the area is unique from the standpoint of observing the ecological succes- 
sional stages that are taking place. Variation in elevation is so slight that im- 
pounding water over large areas proves both economical and beneficial to 
waterfowl. The unique process of leaching the salts out of the soil by impound- 
ing fresh water over alkali salt flats has improved soil conditions to the point 
that alkali bulrush and pondweed will grow in abundance, thus providing food 
and nesting cover. 

Encroachments: Recently developed (see above). 

Ownership: Utah Department of Fish and Game, 1596 West North Temple, Salt 
Lake City, Utah 841 16. 

Data source: Timothy H. Provan, Ogden Bay Wildlife Management Area, 
Hooper, Utah 84315. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Noland F. Nelson, Ogden Bay Wildlife Manage- 
ment Area, Hooper, Utah 84315; John Nagel, Utah Department of Fish and 
Game, 1596 West North Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah 841 16. 



*> 
01 

UT 4. Howard Slough. Acreage: 3000. 5 

> 
Location: Davis County; Ogden Bay and Antelope Island North quadrangles; ^ 

the entrance 2.5 miles SW of Hooper; reached via Rt. 7100 West in Hooper. 

Description: Howard Slough is water fed by surplus irrigation water. The 
managed unit is situated right next to Great Salt Lake. At times of heavy winds 
Great Salt Lake is pushed by the wind into the outlying marsh, thus setting back 
the ecological succession. 

References: Nelson, N. F. 1966. Waterfowl hunting in Utah, Utah State Dept. 
Fish Game Publ. No. 66-10. 

Encroachments: Under management. 

Ownership: Howard Slough Wildlife Management Area, Utah Department of 
Fish and Game. 

Data source: Timothy H. Provan, Ogden Bay, Hooper, Utah 84315. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Noland Nelson, Ogden Bay, Hooper, Utah 
84315; John Nagel, Utah Department of Fish and Game, 1596 West North 
Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah 841 16. 

/ j«0 Wei! ! 

^Hooper ; ^og 

Hot Springs , | 

^ ■""" Hales Bend ~~ r ~~ --».. 



•; ^ H () W A K D S \. O V G fl 

W A T E R \ O W L M A N A « K M E X 1 

i *»' 





.... 


25*\ 


' ,+Sii 


*^ 


s^' 9 ; 


m 
f 


Siphon Fie 
W« 


^ flowing 1 i 






\ 35 | A 

\ \<6 ■ 






i*h. x » 






T A R E.V 


, 


36 




\ ' 




4 

■y i 






£ 

< * 
4 


\ 




V 






/ 




•* \ ■* 






'*,\ 



CO 

i 

< 



UT 5. Locomotive Springs. Acreage: About 450. 

Location: Box Elder County; 80 miles W of Logan, and 20 miles SW of Snow- 
ville. 

Description: Water supplies originate on five large springs supplying water to 
two large impoundments providing valuable habitat for Great Basin Canada 
Geese and various other species of waterfowl. Site is in salt district habitat of the 
northern tip of Great Salt Lake. It served historically as a water and way station 
on the Union Pacific Railroad, and was used extensively by Indian tribes and 
early explorers. 

Encroachments: Site has been substantially altered for development as water- 
fowl habitat. 

Ownership: Utah Department of Fish and Game, and private holdings. 

Data source: William T. Krummes, BSFW, Division of Wildlife Services, P.O. 
Box 1306, Albuquerque, N.M. 87103. 




>// 



34 



*"* 



«* y* 



*' 



4* 



fori v ll'fJH 



o (; D K N 



B A Y 



*£* 



W L 



M A N A (i K M K N* T 



A K K A 









'«% ' 






UT 6. Ogden Bay Waterfowl Management Area. Acreage: 1 3,700. 

Location: Weber County; Ogden Bay Quadrangle; directly W of Ogden. 

Description: This area has been developed on the delta of the Weber River. The 
relatively fresh water draining off the Wasatch Range has leached much of the 
salt from the soil and allowed a more varied pattern of plant and animal life to 
develop than is common at Locomotive Springs. 

References: Nelson, N. F. 1966. Waterfowl hunting in Utah, Utah State Dept. 
Fish Game Publ. No. 66-10. 

Encroachments: Under management. 

Ownership: Ogden Bay Waterfowl Management Area, Utah Department of Fish 
and Game. Ownership of Great Salt Lake bottom lands under dispute. 

Data source: John E. Nagel, Principal Biologist-Waterfowl, Department of 
Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Game, 1596 West North St., Salt Lake 
City, Utah 841 16; Timothy H. Provan, Hooper, Utah 84315. 



C 
H 
> 



00 



VERMONT 



Z 

o 

jp General description: Vermont's wetlands consist chiefly of bogs in glacially 

Uj dammed depressions (Franklin Bog, Molly Bog, Peacham Bog, Stoddard 

> Swamp) and marshes and swamp forests in poorly drained deltas (Barton River 

Marsh) and drowned river valleys, especially along the eastern shores of Lake 

Champlain (Dead Creek, Kelleys Marsh, Little Otter Creek, the Missisquoi 

delta, Whitney Creek). 

Status of the wetlands: The wetlands of Vermont appear to have thus far suf- 
fered less damage from human activities than in most states. Grazing has en- 
croached on the margins of some of the marshes; the forested swamps have 
been harvested for timber and orchid collectors have taken their toll in the bogs. 

Source of data: The state has been well surveyed for natural areas of various 
types by Dr. H. W. Vogelmann ( 1964, 1969), who provided us with most of the 
data. 

Recommendations: Of the many bogs in the state, three should certainly be con- 
sidered as potential Natural Landmarks. The Franklin Bog is probably the lar- 
gest and Finest. It is now in private hands and should be permanently preserved. 
The Molly Bog, a classic example of a floating bog, is now held for scientific and 
educational purposes by the University of Vermont. Stoddard Swamp, owned by 
the state and administered by the Department of Forests and Parks, is outstand- 
ing for its orchid flora. A fourth, the Peacham Bog, may also qualify but needs 
to be surveyed. The best undisturbed marshlands in the state are the Barton 
River Marsh, the Little Otter Creek Marsh, the Missisquoi Marsh, the Sandbar 
Marsh and Swamp, and the Dead Creek wetlands, including the Dead Creek 
Waterfowl Area and the Panton Cattail Marsh. All but the last are held in large 
part by state or federal agencies. Each has its special features. All are worthy of 
landmark status. Kelleys Marsh and Whitney Creek Marsh should also be 
reviewed, especially the former. The Cornwall Swamp, although disturbed, 
represents the only sizeable swamp forest of its type in the state. The Dorset 
Marsh is the only wet meadow and shrub swamp reported. 

Literature cited 

Vogelmann, H. W. 1964. Natural areas in Vermont, Report 1, p. 1-29. 
Vogelmann, H. W. 1969. Vermont natural areas, Report 2, p. 1-30. 




CO 



< 

m 

3) 

O 

z 



Wetlands reported from Vermont 

VT 1 . *Barton River Marsh 

VT 2. Cornwall Swamp 

VT 3. *Dead Creek Waterfowl Area 

Dead Creek (see also Panton Cattail 
Marsh) 
VT 4. Dorset Marsh 

VT5. * Franklin Bog 

VT 6. Kelleys Marsh 

VT 7. *Little Otter Creek Marsh 

VT 8. *Missisquoi Marsh 

VT9. *MollyBog 

VT 10. * Panton Cattail Marsh 

VT 1 1 . Peacham Bog 

VT 1 2. *Sandbar Marsh and Swamp 

Shad Island Natural Area (see 
Missisquoi Marsh) 
VT13. * Stoddard Swamp 

VT 14. Whitney Creek Marsh 



Habitat type 






F-3-M, F-4-M 






F-7-Sw 






F-3-M 






F-2-M, F-6-Ss 






F-8-B 






F-3-M, F-4-M, 


F-5-M 




F-4-M, F-5-M 






F-l-M,F-3-M, 


F-6-Ss, 


F-7 


Sw 






F-8-B 






F-3-M, F-4-M 






F-8-B 






F-3-M, F-4-M, 


F-6-Ss, 


F-7 


Sw 






F-8-B 






F-4-M, F-3-M 







o 



ill 

> 



VT 1 . Barton River Marsh. Acreage: About 200. 

Location: Orleans County; Memphremagog 15' Quadrangle; about 2 miles S of 
Newport, reached from Rt. 5; at mouth of Barton River where it empties into 
South Bay of Lake Memphremagog. 

Description: Marshlands broad at the river mouth but extending for some 
distance up the winding river channel. The dominant species is the great bulrush 
forming extensive stands in shallow water. There are colonies of bur-reed, 
fringes of cattails, pond-lilies, pickerel weed, sweet flag, arrowhead, pondweeds, 
and waterweed. Clumps of willows, speckled alder, and red maple are present. 
A small portion of marsh is boggy, with sweet gale and leather-leaf. 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1969. Vermont natural areas, Report 2, p. 9-10. 

Encroachments: None reported. 

Ownership: Part Vermont Fish and Game Department; part private. 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401. 




y- '-Ji/Miu'v. ?r\ </M 






VT 2. Cornwall Swamp. Acreage: About 1000. ^ 

3) 
Location: Addison County; Township of Cornwall; Cornwall 7.5' Quadrangle; §[ 

15 miles N of Brandon; reached from Rt. 30. O 

Description: A vast swamp forest dominated by red maple on seasonally flooded 
flatlands bordering Otter Creek. Understory of royal and sensitive fem, arrow 
wood, white dogwood, speckled alder, red-osier dogwood, nannyberry, and 
highbush cranberry. This area may originally have been dominated by white 
cedar. 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1969. Vermont natural areas. Report 2, p. 11. 

Encroachments: Some past timbering, which is probably continuing. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401 . 



Map on following page 






Z 

o 

:> 

£T 
LU 
> 



<5<\ \ 



/ 



at \Scove 

R iwiii 



\\j 



I 



' ,0 



63 ; 



& 



i 



B M 



T- 



# 






\ 



\ 



/ 



y 



/ 
I 



r 
j 



>:l 



*! 



1 



I 



! i 



3*14'; 



In Jd 






School No 1 



1 j .' 

s 






X 



5 



a 






; js<h 



\ <£ 



r^ 



\ 

W hi twig 
S tramp 



\ 



X 



\ 

) 

L 

I 



i 



x 






"«J M \ 



B 



VT 3. Dead Creek Waterfowl Area. Acreage: About 1000. 

Location: Addison County; Port Henry, N.Y.-Vt. 15' Quadrangle; 9 miles S of 
Vergennes; reached from Rt. 17. This area contiguous with the Panton Cattail 
Marsh. 

Description: Largest waterfowl management area in Vermont. Dikes impound 
sluggish water of Dead Creek, forming a natural-appearing marshland. A large 
stand of cattails is a conspicuous feature; pondweeds, arrowhead, and water- 
weed in shallows; swamp-milkweed, bulrushes, wool-grass, and water-dock 
along the shores. 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1964. Natural areas in Vermont, Report 1, p. 
15. 

Encroachments: Dikes to maintain water levels. 

Ownership: Vermont Fish and Game Department. 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Robert Fuller, Department of Forestry, Universi- 
ty of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401 . 



-^ 

-n| 

CO 

< 

m 

33 



I f 

i*. 
y 

?**il^nBE3odriai 

SfC'orner 

_jfPott\ah 
'Seh 




si Addi«on B M 



Wil^riarth 



■<fr 
^r 



I- 
Z 

o 

LU 
> 



VT 4. Dorset Marsh. Acreage: About 150. 

Location: Bennington County; Equinox 15' Quadrangle; 3 miles S of Dorset; 
reached from Rt. 30. 

Description: Sedgy hummocks and thickets of speckled alder. Portions are 
seasonally flooded; portions covered with beaver ponds. Eelgrass and stonewort 
grow in the stream channel; red-osier dogwood, witherod, speckled alder, wil- 
lows, viburnums, meadow-sweet, mountain holly, and black alder, on the banks. 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1969. Vermont natural areas, Report 2, p. 13. 

Encroachments: None. 

Ownership: Henry van Loon (Manchester Center), Barbara and Herbert Raff 
(Dorset), Leonard Martin (Dorset), John S. Kelleher (Dorset), H. McKeever 
(Dorset). 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mrs. Henry van Loon, Manchester Center, Vt. 
05255. 



-4- 



/ 




Mother Myrick Mtn. 
4- J 



4>. 

-J 



VT 5. Franklin Bog. Acreage: About 150. 

Location: Franklin County; Enosburg Falls 15' Quadrangle; 1 mile NE of 
Franklin; reached from N. Sheldon via Rt. 120. 

Description: One of the largest and finest quaking bogs in Vermont. Mostly an 
open bog heath dominated by leather-leaf and, in the wetter portions, by marsh 
cranberry. Black spruce and tamarack occur in clumps on the mat and around 
the edge. About 5 acres of open water at the north end is dominated by cattails. 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1969. Vermont natural areas, Report 2, p. 13. 

Encroachments: None reported. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401. 



< 

m 

DO 

o 

z 



a 



. v - : : \ Ft aivkliii 



rfK 



- 'v',. 



.Mi nstes 
Hill 



&M A53; 



Ik. 



Shingle 
H.ll 



*v 




School NSyHtJL 



Ni Ij 
1 



I 



"•,"' 



V 



£ 



w V 



V' 



• -i. 

8 H 



© 



V 



Gates a .| 
Hill 



V 



CO 

-ST 

£ VT 6. Keileys Marsh. Acreage: About 1000. 

O 

2 Location: Washington County, N.Y., and Rutland County, Vt.; Whitehall, N.Y.- 

CC Vt. 7.5' Quadrangle; 4 miles N of Whitehall, N.Y., in the narrows between 

> South Bay and the main body of Lake Champlain. 

Description: Marshlands dominated by river bulrush lie on both sides of the 
dredged channel. Wild rice, hardstem bulrush, pickerel weed, arrowhead, and 
green water arum grow. Submersed aquatics include pond weeds, eelgrass, 
waterweed, bladderwort, and water milfoil. 

Encroachments: Channel dredging; trampling by cattle from bordering pastures. 
Water chestnut used to occur, but has largely been eliminated. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Robert Fuller, Department of Forestry, Universi- 
ty of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401 . 






C* ..--'' 



/] 




< 

m 

DO 

O 

z 



00 



o 

CE 
LU 

> 



VT 7. Little Otter Creek Marsh. Acreage: About 1000. 

Location: Addison County; Port Henry, N.Y.-Vt. 15' Quadrangle; 6 miles N of 
Vergennes, reached from Rt. 7; at mouth of Little Otter Creek. 

Description: Wild rice, bur-reed, and hardstem bulrush communities; eelgrass, 
bladderwort, water milfoil, and duckweed present. 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1964. Natural areas in Vermont, Report 1, p. 
13. 

Encroachments: Fishing access on site and some duck blinds; no disturbance to 
the marsh environs. 

Ownership: 800 acres, Vermont Fish and Game Department; 200 acres private. 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401 . 



iardi? c 
u H (tic kill 

Macaonough Xl 

* if Hl,i ' 

% Ipteole Champlain 



!3I*\> 




CO 



VT 8. Missisquoi Marsh (includes Shad Island Natural Area). Acreage: About 
500. 



< 

m 



Location: Franklin County; East Alburg 7.5' Quadrangle; 5 miles W of Swan- 
ton; reached via Rt. 7 and 104; at delta of the Missisquoi River. 

Description: Dominant species is great bulrush. White water-lilies, eelgrass, 
water milfoil, and bladderwort in open water; pickerel weed in shallow water; 
seasonally exposed muddy flats with arrowhead, water-plantain, water smart- 
weed, water parsnip, marsh fern, and sedges; button-bush stands, silver maple 
and swamp white oak at edges; black ash- American elm-red maple forest (SAF- 
39;RNA-23). 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1969. Vermont natural areas, Report 2, p. 8-9. 

Encroachments: None reported. 

Ownership: BSFW, Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge. 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Chandler at Missisquoi National Wildlife 
Refuge, Swanton, Vt. 05488. 



M 1 S S\l ,S Q V I 



HAY 



\ 


M*<t*:** 




\ 




< s 


1 \^ 




c 










**■• ^ 


' *f 


I 


'— <s. 






^v 


Metcaif* 

*i Inland 
•t- 


| 10' 


330 iXXJ Ff f T | 


V 






\ 


1 


Lontf 


\ 




.\Jar*h 


\ 


1 


Hay 





Sh#tf (stand 



jr^ 



Doraltftor- 
Perl; 



* 'VI 



r 1 






P. / 

'i ■ rWj'f. 



L *- 



rV 



>* 







Gander 
Bay 




\\ \\i'S. \,\ 



Coo» 



Marr,r3a;e 
Poirtl 



Bay 



tfarsk 









H 1 G H G A T E 



o 

CO 



I- 

Z 
O 

cc 

LU 

> 



VT 9. Molly Bog. Acreage: About 20. 

Location: Lamoille County, Hyde Park 15' Quadrangle; 4 miles N of Stowe, 
reached via Rt. 100. 

Description: In early stages of succession. About 2 acres of open water sur- 
rounded by a bog mat, comprised of sphagnum, sedges, leather-leaf, and sweet 
gale, with other typical bog plants including various species of orchids. Beyond 
the mat is a bog forest of tamarack and black spruce. 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1964. Natural areas in Vermont, Report 1, p. 
19. 

Encroachments: None reported. 

Ownership: University of Vermont. 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401 . 

Other knowledgeable persons: James W. Marvin, Botany Department, Universi- 
ty of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401 . 



r M 1*1 



f ■{• U\ *' ■'/ " ; ' /• j/ ; WPiifiW'' v ' '£ #"V 




00 



VT 10. Panton Cattail Marsh. Acreage: About 800. 

Location: Addison County, township of Panton, Port Henry, N.Y.-Vt. 15' 
Quadrangle; 4 miles S of Vergennes, reached from Rt. 7, extending from Rt. 17 
down Dead Creek about 8 miles to its confluence with Otter Creek; contiguous 
with the Dead Creek Waterfowl Area. 

Description: Cattails, wild rice, and bulrush stands; waterweed, pondweed, eel- 
grass, water milfoil, bladderwort, swamp smartweed, waterdock, water-plantain, 
and bur-marigold present. 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1964. Natural areas in Vermont, Report 1, p. 
16. 

Encroachments: Cattle trampling along the shores. 

Ownership: Kenneth Sullivan (Panton); William River (Ferrisburg); Gerald 
Hatch (Ferrisburg); Davis Drinkwater (Panton). 

Data Source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401 . 



< 

m 

DO 




1 '".. 





^3> 


ff 


i 


/ 






, 1 . 




f 







fi»J5f 



C\J 
GO 



z 
o 

rr 

> 



VT 1 1 . Peacham Bog. Acreage: About 100. 

Location: Caledonia County; St. Johnsbury, Vt.-N.H. 15' Quadrangle; about 3.5 
miles W of Peacham. 

Description: A typical bog, one of the two largest in the state. 

Encroachments: None reported. 

Ownership: Groton State Forest. 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401. 



, - _--.< 5 ^%\ j. > r . 



\ '2255 



< 



f 







■ '4. 

Mud. \Pd- \ 

a m «_ 



^fetf^A 



tsosL^--' 



1927 i i •'■" 

Jenmson 

Mtn 



m3f 





i 


"*>• - 


A 



<3W< 



/ 



ff***-"- 



Jerry Lunci 

20^5 ." Mtn 



rt* 



■■■i302 



*x 






/ 

// 

\ 









Wesson 



fiW 



140^, 



I 



■B 



■*> 



°**e* 



/46 4 



si 






00 
CO 



VT 12. Sandbar Marsh and Swamp. Acreage: About 100 natural and 500 
managed. 

Location: Chittenden County; Milton 15' Quadrangle; 12 miles N of Burlington; 
reached via Rt. 2; on the Lamoille River delta. 

Description: In ancient river channel near Lake Champlain, water depth fluc- 
tuating with lake level. Water-lilies, pond-lilies, pickerel weed, water milfoil, 
waterweed, pondweeds, and a fine stand of wild rice. Arrowhead, water-plan- 
tain, bulrushes, sedges, blue flag, and sweet-flag grow near the edges. Several 
acres of button-bush. Fine swamp forest (about 20 acres) grows on rich alluvial 
soils dominated by swamp white oak and silver maple. The managed area is 
diked to maintain water level and vegetated with bulrushes. Dead tree trunks 
present. 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1964. Natural areas in Vermont, Report 1, p. 
16-17. 

Encroachments: Route 2 divides part of the marsh and the area is traversed by 
power transmission lines. 

Ownership: Vermont Fish and Game Department. 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401. 



< 

m 

J3 






w 



pmk 







GREAT BACK? ft '':*±^ ~" "n}/'' '«V / N * 

If&frl fin ' S '■*' \ <V 



Clay Point •/>* 






00 



O 

cc 

LU 

> 



VT 1 3. Stoddard Swamp. Acreage: 1 2. 

Location: Caledonia County, Peacham and Danville townships; St. Johnsbury, 
Vt.-N.H. Quadrangle; 3 miles S of Danville and 0.5 mile E of Groton State 
Forest. 

Description: Bog forest dominated by white cedar, black spruce, tamarack, with 
scattered balsam fir. A small, open bog heath within the forest, with typical bog 
shrubs, shelters Arethusa, grass-pink, buck bean, three-leaved Solomon's Seal, 
small cranberry, and round-leaved sun-dew. A rich orchid flora grows in the 
cool mossy woods, including the large and small yellow lady's slippers, showy 
lady's slipper, calypso, early coral root, heart-leaf tway-blade, two species of 
lady's tresses, and three species of Habenaria. 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1964. Natural areas in Vermont, Report 1, p. 
20-21. Willey, H. D. 1962. Partial list of plants seen in the Stoddard Swamp, 
Peacham, Vermont (mimeographed); McDowell, L. L., R. M. Dole, M. 
Howard, and R. A. Farrington. 1969. Palynology and radiocarbon chronolo- 
gy of Stoddard Swamp, Caledonia County, Vermont. Soil and Water Conserva- 
tion, Research Division, ARS, USDA in cooperation with University of Missis- 
sippi, Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station, Vernon College, and Dept. of 
Forests and Parks, State of Vermont (mimeographed manuscript in draft). 

Encroachments: None that are serious at present. Orchid collecting, trampling 
of the delicate flora, deer browse are potential threats. 

Ownership: State of Vermont, administered by the Department of Forests and 
Parks. 

Data source: Paul G. Favour, Jr., Acadia National Park, Bar Harbor, Me. 
04609. 



*** \i«a » 3> \ i ~~ ■• 



B Misfits: . v x 






* 



"% 



'S-m^li BmiV#fe^C 4- 



»S^ 



IPRG 



V J»v if \ 







tme^f 



Vo 






4 






A 






00 

en 



VT 14. Whitney Creek Marsh. Acreage: About 200. 

Location: Addison County; Port Henry, N.Y.-Vt. Quadrangle; 15 miles S of 
Vergennes, reached from Rt. 17; at the mouth of Whitney Creek where it emp- 
ties into Lake Champlain. 

Description: Cattail, wild rice, river-bulrush, three-way sedge, umbrella-sedge, 
and bur-reed communities occur. 

References: Vogelmann, H. W. 1964. Natural areas in Vermont, Report 1, p. 
14. 

Encroachments: Camps and boat docks at one end; cattle trampling in shallow 
water. 

Ownership: Raymond Bodett (Addison); Charles (Veysey); Guy Smith 
(Bridport). 

Data source: H. W. Vogelmann, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401. 



< 
m 

O 

z 




PL, 



©' 



•" 



/ 



13! 






■ 



B 



2QI 



«. 






HawthornT-*-^ 
Sch •• 



> 



CO 

00 

< VIRGINIA 

Z 

rr General description: Extensive wooded swamps occur along rivers traversing 

the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Among these are the Blackwater, the Nottoway, the 
Chickahominy, and Dragon Run. The Dismal Swamp lies in a vast, almost un- 
drained region around Lake Drummond on the Virginia-North Carolina border. 
Fresh-water marshes occur somewhat above tidewater (Kanes and Neabsco 
creeks). Small bogs and swamps may also be found in pockets in the Appalachi- 
ans. 

Status of the wetlands: Timber operations are the major threat to the integrity 
of the river swamps. Sewage treatment plants, dumping, dredging for marinas, 
filling for development, and draining for agriculture are mentioned as en- 
croachments on wetlands near urban centers. Recreational disturbances, 
cutting, girdling of trees, bulldozing, drainage, damming, and spraying with her- 
bicides are mentioned as taking place in the bogs within the National Forest. 

Sources of data: Information has been received from personnel of the State 
Division of Parks and from professional biologists. 

Recommendations: The Seashore Natural Area on Cape Henry has already been 
registered as a Natural Landmark. The Dismal Swamp, despite encroachments, 
is one of the finest and most extensive fresh-water wetlands in the country. Over 
half of it lies in North Carolina. It should be given top priority as an area to be 
preserved and designated as a landmark. Outstanding swamps may also be found 
along Dragon Run, and the Blackwater and Nottoway rivers. An investigation of 
ownership and encroachments will have to be made in order to establish priori- 
ties. Chickahominy Swamp should also be investigated. Kanes Creek Marsh has 
already been preserved through action of The Nature Conservancy and should, 
hence, probably be given priority over Neabsco as a landmark. The five small, 
boggy wetlands reported from the George Washington National Forest have all 
apparently suffered some disturbances. It is difficult to establish any priorities 
from the data at hand. 



00 




< 

33 
Q 



Wetlands reported from Virginia 


Habitat type 


VA 1-S> 


Blackwater River 


F-8-B 


VA2. 


*Blackwater River Swamp 


F-7-Sw 


VA3. 


Bog (unnamed) 


F-8-B 


VA4. 


Chickahominy Swamp 


F-7-Sw 


VA5. — > 


*Dismal Swamp 


F-7-Sw 


VA6. 


* Dragon Run Swamp 


F-7-Sw 


VA7. 


*Kanes Creek Marsh 


F-3-M, F-4-M 


VA8. 


Middle Mountain Site 


F-8-B 


VA9. 


Mudhole Bog 


F-8-B 


VA 10. 


Neabsco Creek Marsh 


F-3-M, F-4-M 


VA 11. 


*Nottoway River Swamp 


F-7-Sw 


VA 12. 


Peters' Mill Run Bog 


F-8-B 


VA 13. 


Rhododendron Bog 


F-8-B 


VA 14. — $ 


►*Seashore Natural Area 


F-7-Sw 



00 
00 



VA 1 . Blackuater River. Acreage: 10,000 estimated. 



(5 Location: Nansemond County; Holland 15' Quadrangle; 4 miles S of Franklin; 

QC from Milk Landing S to Cathole Landing on Somerton Creek. 

> 

Description: Bogs and pine barrens with Chamaecyparis, longleaf pine, and 
many rare bog plants as well as xerophytic plants on well-drained sands. Both 
northern and southern relicts occur. 

Encroachments: Reforestation with loblolly pine and waste lagoons. 

Ownership: Union Camp Paper Co., Franklin, Va. 23851. 

Data source: A. M. Harvill, Jr., Longwood College, Farmville, Va. 23901. 



-fc- 
00 
CO 



p inauvV 




. 4fHAM PT0N C O V ^fciio^V 

















< 

DO 
O 



o 



eg 

> 



VA 2. Blackwater River Swamp. Acreage: 10,000 to 20,000. 



CD Location: Southampton, Isle of Wight, Surry, and Sussex counties; Franklin, 

Sedley, Zuni, Raynor, Runnymede, Dendron, and Waverly 7.5' quadrangles. 
Nearest city, Franklin; reached via U.S. 460 and 258. 

Description: The swamp contains abundant stands of cypress and other mar- 
ketable timber trees. It is navigable by canoe for approximately 40 miles up- 
stream from the city of Franklin. There are many species of fresh-water game 
fish and an abundant variety of flora and fauna. The color of the water is a dark 
amber tone, due to the cypress found along the stream. 

Encroachments: Timbering enterprises now in the area. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: R. G. Gibbon , State of Virginia, Division of Parks, Southern 
States Building, 7th and Main Sts., Richmond, Va. 23219. 



(O 




< 

J} 
9. 

2 
> 



CXI 

O) 

— VA 3. Bog (Unnamed). Acreage: About 1. 

O Location: Page County; Mt. Jackson Quadrangle; 5 or 6 miles E of Mt. Jackson 

£ at head of a feeder stream to Passage Creek. 

Description: Woodland boggy area. Lycopodium inundatum var. Bigelowii is one 
of the bog plants found. 

Ownership: Private; surrounded by the George Washington National Forest. 

Data source: Miss Lena Artz, Waterlick, Va. 2266 1 . 

Other knowledgeable persons: Marlin P. Krouse, 2025 N. Delsea Dr., Vineland, 
N.J. 08360; Dr. Raymond Fosberg, 3077 Holmes Run Rd., Falls Church, Va. 
22042; John W. Taylor, Box 158, Edgewater, Md. 21037. 



(O 
CO 



VA 4. Chickahominy Swamp. Acreage: 10,000 to 14,000. 

Location: Henrico, Hanover, and New Kent counties; Seven Pines, Richmond, 
Ouinton, and Yellow Tavern quadrangles. Nearest city, Richmond; reached via 
1-64, 1-95, U.S. 60, and 360. 

Description: Extensive wooded swamps along the unpolluted Chickahominy 
River fed by clear streams flowing from the rolling upland. 

References: Richmond Regional Open Space and Recreational Plan for the 
Richmond Region Planning Commission, 1015 E. Main, Richmond, Va. 23200. 

Encroachments: Urbanization of the counties, industrial development of the 
river, and timbering. 

Ownership: Private. Proposed as a state park by the Richmond Regional Open 
Space and Recreational Plan. 

Data source: R. G. Gibbons, State of Virginia, Division of Parks, 501 Southern 
States Bldg., 7th and Main Streets, Richmond, Va. 23200. 



< 

J3 
Q 

Z 

> 



i • - - ' i 



i 



°c>> 







" ;0 

, OlewJale* • {jltn 

fjXf \rSMfi. 

M, SB ' 

x - -^ 






h4 rte .S> i 



/ 



If j \ ^^'- - Wayside 

f j JyRy.fQifux Ba " ietts f 









Sffihag^ ■•' 



A 



/ 

r 


''•''Ruthvilile 


- 


*r 


1 


~ f 4 \ 



J-J 



9 



o 

> 



VA 5. Dismal Swamp. Acreage: Approximately 500,000 (200,000 in Virginia; 
300,000 in North Carolina). 

Location: Nansemond County and City of Chesapeake, Virginia; Camden, Cur- 
rituck, Gates, Perquimans, and Pasquotank counties, North Carolina; Norfolk 
1 :250,000 Quadrangle. 

Description: Thirty miles long, north and south, and 10 miles wide, the Dismal 
Swamp is as large as the state of Rhode Island. It now contains about 1000 
square miles, in addition to some 700 square miles of original wetland that has 
been reclaimed. The Dismal Swamp Canal, on the east, serves to keep the main 
swamp wetter than it would be otherwise. The Swamp has been described as the 
finest extensive outdoor laboratory of its kind on the continent, and a 
sportsman's paradise. Bear, bobcat, deer, raccoons, foxes, otters, and a wide 
variety of birds are found. 

References: Ariza, J. F. 1932. Dismal Swamp in legend and history. National 
Geographic, 62:120-130; Arnold, R. 1888. The Dismal Swamp and Lake 
Drummond. Early recollections. Greene, Burke & Gregory, Norfolk, Virginia; 
Byrd, W. 1922. Description of the Dismal Swamp. Metuchen, N.J. Printed for 
C. F. Heartman; Cocke, E. C, I. F. Lewis, and R. Patrick. 1934. A further 
study of Dismal Swamp peat. Am. J. Bot. 19(7):374-395; Kearney, T. H. 1901. 
Report on a botanical survey of the Dismal Swamp region. U.S. Department of 
Agriculture. Division of Botany. Vol. 5. Washington, D.C.; Stansbury, C F. 
1925. The lake of the Great Dismal. A. & C. Boni, New York; Sutherland, M. 
M. 1965. The Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia. Dept. of Conservation and 
Economic Development, Commonwealth of Virginia. 

Encroachments: Timber operations, ditching and clearing for farming and build- 
ing. 

Ownership: Multiple private ownership. 

Data source: R. G. Gibbons, Department of Conservation and Economic 
Development, State of Virginia, Division of Parks, 501 Southern States Bldg., 
7th and Main Sts., Richmond, Va. 23219. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Robert F. Foeller, Director, Southeastern Vir- 
ginia Regional Planning Commission, 339 Boush St., Norfolk, Va. 23510. 



CD 




< 

3J 
O 



CD 

o> 

< 

2 VA 6. Dragon Run Swamp. Acreage: 1000 estimated. 

c5 

2 Location: King & Queen, Middlesex, and Essex counties; Dunnsville and Tru- 

> hart quadrangles; 60 miles E of Richmond; reached via U.S. 360. 

Description: From U.S. 360 to tidewater Dragon Run is a wild, wide, fresh- 
water, wooded cypress swamp. The river channels have been dammed by beaver 
and the ponds so created support ducks, geese, and marsh birds. Muskrat, rac- 
coon, otter, and deer are abundant. 

Encroachments: Timber operations. 

Ownership: R. K. Walden, Eubanks, George T. Moore, J. G. King, Dr. Stanley 
T. Gray, T. Franklin Fary, and others. 

Data source: R. G. Gibbons, State of Virginia, Division of Parks, 501 Southern 
States Bldg., 7th and Main Sts., Richmond, Va. 23200. 



CD 



' ■':,.■ 



ismi r 







\ 



0?ea«a 



V 



Li ^t\^ 



v 

Tidewater ° , 






- 



/-- , 






,-VV 







O Sharps, ' ^ s*^ 



\ farpfey 
Pot'rtf 



Oafctey, 



\ 



1 Morat 



:-Vi GS 



A& 
&<&. 






;,.r I 




< 

33 



00 

< 

z 

O 
> 



VA 7. Kanes Creek Marsh. Acreage: 50. 

Location: Fairfax County; Belvoir, Va.-Md. Quadrangle; 8 miles E of Wood- 
bridge; reached via High Point Road on Mason Neck. 

Description: Fresh-water creek and marsh bordering the creek. Plant species in- 
clude Zizania, Typha, and Pontederia. 

Ownership: TNC and state of Virginia. 

Data source: Frederick R. Swan, Jr., 204 East View Dr., West Liberty State 
College, West Liberty, W. Va. 26074; TNC. 




f 



-— -—fi 



MU 



'#8M 30 



to 



VA 8. Middle Mountain Site. Acreage: About 3. 

Location: Page County; Mt. Jackson Quadrangle; between New Market Gap 
and Moreland Gap; reached via Rt. 678. See map, site A. 

Description: A pond has been made on top of the mountain in the center of a 
bog, surrounded by Rhododendron viscosum. The pond is covered with Brasenia 
Schreberi. 

Ownership: USFS, George Washington National Forest. 

Data source: Miss Lena Artz, Waterlick, Va. 22661 . 



< 

Q 




^nmmWA 







iJlfes 



■I ■ r^ m <■<■ 






o 
o 
10 

^ VA 9. Mudhole Rng. Acreage: About 2. 

Location: Shenandoah County; Strasburg Quadrangle; 4.5 miles S of Strasburg; 
~ just NW of Mudhole Gap. 

Description: A bog. 

References: Twelve native plants from Frederick and Shenandoah counties, Vir- 
ginia, Castanea 27:79-83; Rhodora 51(601 ):12. 

Encroachments: Encroachments by campers; part of bog has been drained. 

Ownership: Not stated. 

Data source: Miss Lena Artz, Waterlick, Va. 22661. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Marlin P. Krouse, 2025 N. Delsea Dr., Vineland, 
N.J. 08360; John W. Taylor, Box 158, Edgewater, Md. 21037. 



/ 
t 




/ ; 


4. 


l 

Strasburg < 

Resenxrir y 


/ 
/ 

o 


A 






/' 


2294 








V 






./v 







Mudhole Gap 



p,y. 



<"°S 



810 



(Mr 

bnJ 



_~j ^ Dilbeekv^. 

^\ Mine Gap ~ 






o 



VA 10. Neabsco Creek Marsh. Acreage: 1 50. 

Location: Prince William County; Ouantico Quadrangle; about 3.5 miles S of 
Woodbridge; between U.S. 1 and railroad bridge crossing mouth of creek. 

Description: Fresh-water marsh, dominated by Zizania, Typha, Pontederia, and 
Polygonum. 

Encroachments: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is under contract to conduct a 
20-acre fill operation next to the west side of the railroad trestle. This is not in 
the main part of the marsh. On the east side of the trestle, the District of Colum- 
bia wishes to fill in an extension of this marsh with refuse and build a sewage 
treatment plant and marina on the reclaimed land. 

Ownership: Private. 

Data source: Frederick R. Swan, Jr., 204 East View Dr., West Liberty State 
College, West Liberty, W. Va. 260y4. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. Gary Farley, Director of Recreation and 
Parks for Prince William County; Mr. Neil Hotchkiss, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Patuxent River, Md. 20670. 



< 

Q 
Z 
> 



MArumsf-o 




k 



Neabse 



I 



DC 

> 



VA 11. Nottoway River Swampland. Acreage: 5000 to 10,000. 



O Location: Southampton and Sussex counties; Franklin, Courtland, Capron, 

Vicksville, Sebrell, Littleton, and Sussex 7.5' quadrangles. Nearest city, 
Franklin; reached via U.S. 460 and Rt. 35. 

Description: This area contains an abundance of cypress. It is navigable by 
canoe approximately 40 miles upstream from Franklin, but only during high 
water. Game fish are abundant; small-mouth bass are caught in some reaches of 
the river. The water is clear and not discolored from any natural element found 
along the shores. 

Encroachments: Timbering enterprises now in the area. 

Ownership: Multiple private ownership. 

Data source: R. G. Gibbons, State of Virginia, Division of Parks, 501 Southern 
States Bldg., 7th and Main Sts., Richmond, Va. 23219. 










f Drake! >x 









' — 



I ■■ 




•"V \ -v 



en 

o 

GO 



< 

3D 
O 



o 
in 



> 



VA 12. Peters' Mill Run Bog. Acreage: About 1. 



(ij Location: Shenandoah County; Strasburg Quadrangle; nearest town, Wood- 

GC stock, 2.7 miles NW; reached via Rt. 50, 55, 678, 758. 



Description: A small, quaking bog with other boggy areas surrounding it. 

References: 1967. A Massanutten Muskeg, Castanea 32, (4): 1 90- 191. 

Encroachments: Spraying, slashing, girdling, and bulldozing. 

Ownership: USFS, George Washington National Forest. 

Data source: Miss Lena Artz, Waterlick, Va., 22661. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Marlin P. Krouse, 2025 N. Delsea Dr., Vineland, 
N.J. 08360; John W. Taylor, Box 158, Edgewater, Md. 21037. 

■ / " \ I 

<$? / WootfsfexH 

- ' / focreafiona? 

% w 



\ 




<c/ 



J/30 



^ Red Spring Gap % 



i 






2AG5 



Gofladays Gap ;/8 



C*n -^ 



o 

em." 






r 



Opechee Peak 8m>^ v, 



o 
en 

VA 13. Rhododendron Bog. Acreage. About 1. < 

3J 

Location: Page County; Mt. Jackson Quadrangle; about 0.8 mile N of New Mar- Q 

ket Gap, between Kerns Mountain and Middle Mountain; reached via Rt. 678. Z 

Area B on map on page 499. ** 

Description: Rhododendron viscosum abundant. 

Encroachments: Threatened by a recreation dam. 

Ownership: USFS, George Washington National Forest. 

Data source: Miss Lena Artz, Waterlick, Va. 22661. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Marlin P. Krouse, 2025 N. Delsea Dr., Vineland, 
N.J. 08360. 



CD 
O 

in 



eg 
> 



VA 14. Seashore Natural Area. Acreage: 1500. 

Location: Princess Anne County; Seashore State Park, Cape Henry, N of Vir- 
ginia Beach, reached via U.S. 60. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. Depressions between parallel rows 
of dunes are occupied by mature cypress-tupelo forest. Along the fringes of 
-— ^these pools are sweetgum, red maple, and cedar. The lakes and cypress pools 
are feeding grounds for migrating waterfowl. 

Ownership: State of Virginia; a part of Virginia's Natural Area System, within 
Seashore State Park. 

Data source: NPS. 



CHESAPEAKE 



w<y 




a Beach 



en 
o 



WASHINGTON 

General description: Only five wetlands have been reported that appear to 
qualify for inclusion in this study, one is the arid Great Basin, three in eastern 
Washington, and one in the Cascades. They include bogs, sloughs, and swamps. 

Status of the wetlands: Information is limited concerning the impact of man on 
the wetlands of the state. Grazing and heavy recreational use have been impacts 
reported. 

Sources of data: Data have been submitted by personnel of the State Depart- 
ment of Game and by university biologists. It is clear that the coverage of the 
state has been inadequate. 

Recommendations: Two bogs have been suggested for consideration. One is on 
the periphery of Huff Lake in the Kaniksu National Forest. The other, the 
Moxee Bog, in the arid Great Basin country east of Yakima, is owned by The 
Nature Conservancy. Both should be reviewed for inclusion as Natural Land- 
marks. Two sloughs, Reardan and Twelve-mile Slough, in eastern Washington, 
are in private ownership. They are reported to be productive of waterfowl and 
should be permanently preserved. 

In western Washington the Skagit and Nisqually deltas emptying into Puget 
Sound are reported as being highly productive. Since these are at least partially 
under tidal influence, they have been excluded from this study. Mowich Lake 
within Mount Rainier National Park has been suggested as a landmark. It should 
be given special consideration as a natural area by the National Park Service 
under another theme study. 




Wetlands reported from Washington 

WA 1 . * Cedar Flats Natural Area 

WA2. Huff Lake 

WA 3. * Moxee Bog 

WA 4. *Reardan Slough 

WA 5. Twelve-mile Slough 



Habitat type 

F-3-M, F-7-Sw 

F-8-B 

F-8-B 

F-3-M 

F-3-M 



> 

I 

z 
o 
-\ 
o 



GO 
O 

in 

q WA 1 . Cedar Flats Natural Area. Acreage: 50. 

O Location: Skamania County; Gifford Pinchot National Forest. 

X Description: Swamps and marshy areas. 

> Ownership: USFS, Gifford Pinchot National Forest. 

Data source: Research Natural Areas. 1968. GPO. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Director, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment 
Station, 6th Ave., Box 3141, Portland, Ore. 97208. 



o 

CO 

WA 2. Huff Lake. Acreage: ^ 

CO 
Location: Pend Oreille County; not yet mapped by USGS; Section 2, T. 37 N., 

R. 45 E.; beside the road connecting Nordman, Idaho, and Sullivan Lake, Wash. 

O 

Description: A shallow lake fringed with a floating sphagnum mat. q 

2 
Encroachments: Damaged by anglers when the lake is stocked. 

Ownership: USFS, Kaniksu National Forest. 

Data source: Dr. R. Daubenmire, Department of Botany, Washington State 
University, Pullman, Wash. 99163. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Charles Wellner, USFS, Ogden, Utah 84400. 



o 

r- 

z 

o 

I- 
(5 



03 





WA 3. Moxee Bog. Acreage: 14. 

Location: Yakima County; Yakima East Quadrangle; SW/4 of SE/4 of Sec. 9, T. 
12 N., R. 19 E.; about 3 miles S of Moxee. 

Description: A floating sphagnum bog, unique in this arid country. The only 
known colony of the silver-bordered fritillary (Boloria selene) in the state. 

Ownership: TNC. 

Data source: Dr. R. Daubenmire, Department of Botany, Washington State 
University, Pullman, Wash. 99163. 

Other knowledgeable persons: B. F. Goode, Moxee, Wash. 98936; Dr. George 
Hudson, Department of Zoology, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. 
99163; TNC. 




Ol 



WA 4. Reardan Slough. Acreage: 340. 

Location: Lincoln County; Reardan 15' Quadrangle; Sees. 9-10, T. 25 N., R. 39 
E.; just N of Reardan; reached via U.S. 2. 

Description: An extensive waterfowl breeding area. 

Encroachments: Lightly grazed. 

Ownership: Lillie E. Wegner and Martha Wegner Cox, Reardan, Wash. 99029. 

Data source: Dr. R. Daubenmire, Department of Botany, Washington State 
University, Pullman, Wash. 99163. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. George Hudson, Department of Zoology, 
Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. 99163. 



> 
CO 

I 
z 

Q 

H 

o 






I J ! 




CM 

to 



O 

I- 

(D 
Z 

X 
CO 

< 



WA 5. Twelve-mile Slough. Acreage: 1000 estimated. 

Location: Adams County; Benge 15' Quadrangle; Sections 9, 16, T. 17 N., R. 
38 E.; 5 miles NE of Benge. 

Description: An extensive waterfowl breeding area. 

Encroachments: Lightly grazed. 

Ownership: James Clinesmith, Benge, Wash. 99105. 

Data source: Dr. R. Daubenmire, Department of Botany, Washington State 
University, Pullman, Wash. 99163. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. George Hudson, Department of Zoology, 
Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. 99163. 



o 




M us St 



• 










A 

> A 

2 









1 c M W^ 



- w 



} 



■7B0 
WJCu. it '- - - - - - -- ■ f&Zk 



CO 

WEST VIRGINIA ^ 

m 
General description: Core ( 1966) recognizes three major physiographic regions _^ 

within the state, each with a distinctive vegetation. These are: Eastern Ridge- < 

Valley Section (oak-pine); the Allegheny Mountain and Upland Section 55 

(northern forests); and the Western Hill Section (central hardwoods forests). Q 

Among the 12 areas reported, most are bogs or glades concentrated in the two Z 

eastern sections. These glades are believed to be correlated with bedrock near > 

the surface, which impedes the drainage of mountain streams. Thus they differ 
from many of the bogs of the glaciated region farther north. Floristically, they 
exhibit many species typical of northern bogs. One such area, Cranesville 
Swamp Nature Sanctuary, has already been designated as a Natural Landmark. 
Another significant wetland type is the flood-plain forest. Examples are Blenner- 
hassett Island in the Ohio River and Granville Island at Morgantown, now part 
of the Arboretum of West Virginia University. Among the typical flood-plain 
species are black willow, sycamore, sweet gum, silver maple, and river birch 
(Core 1966). 

Status of the wetlands: Innumerable threats have been reported on the limited 
wetland resources of this state. Strip mining by electric power companies 
threatens Fisher Spring Run and Dobbin Slashing. A proposed pump-storage 
facility may also be constructed in the Dobbin Slashing area. Cattle and sheep 
grazing is occurring in Blister Swamp. Excessive public use by groups visiting 
Cranberry Glades Botanical Area is still another problem which the U.S. Forest 
Service is attempting to resolve. 

Sources of data: The State Department of Natural Resources, the U.S. Forest 
Service, and biologists at the state universities have contributed the data in- 
cluded in this section. 

Recommendations: With the exception of the Sinks of Gandy, all the other areas 
are bogs or glades. Among the larger tracts is Canaan Valley, a 20,000-acre 
mountainous wilderness with numerous bogs, glades, and beaver ponds. 
Although it is an outstanding area biologically, the potential encroachments 
must be resolved prior to designation as a Natural Landmark. Another extensive 
tract, Cranberry Glades Botanical Area, has been studied extensively and is part 
of the Monongahela National Forest. It is a logical candidate for landmark 
status. Red Run, comprising 100 acres, is also in U.S. Forest Service ownership. 
Red spruce and sphagnum with typical heath vegetation typifies this tract. 
Either Red Run or the nearby Canaan Valley tract should be designated as a 
Natural Landmark. Dobbin Slashing is an alder-sphagnum area with red spruce. 
Owned by the Western Maryland Railroad, future protection would have to be 
resolved prior to designation. Blister Run Bog, another northern outlier with 
balsam fir, is under U.S. Forest Service jurisdiction. One of the most southern 
such bogs in the state, this area should be given careful scrutiny. Fisher Spring 
Run, Moore Run, Yellow Creek, and Big Run of Blackwater River are bogs or 
glades of less than 50 acres on U.S. Forest Service land. As relatively high eleva- 
tion bogs, at least one of these four areas is recommended, if size is not a limit- 
ing factor. Blister Swamp — actually a sphagnum bog with balsam fir — is of spe- 
cial botanical interest since it is the southernmost locality for twin flower 
(Linnaea borealis). As a privately owned area, a commitment to long-term pro- 
tection from grazing and other disturbances would be required prior to land- 
mark designation. Within the limestone region, the Sinks of Gandy include a 
botanical and geological complex of considerable interest. If protection can be 
assured on a long-term basis, it should be considered for landmark status. 



10 





> 

I- 
0) 
LU 



Literature cited 

Core, E. L. 1 966. Vegetation of West Virginia. McClain Printing Co. 2 1 7 p. 




Wetlands 


reported from West Virginia 


Habitat type 


WV 1. 


Big Run of Blackwater River 


F-8-B 


WV2. 


♦Blister Run Bog 


F-8-B 


WV3. 


Blister Swamp 


F-7-Sw, F-8-B 


WV4. 


*Canaan Valley 


F-5-M, F-6-Ss, F-8-B 


WV5. 


*Cranberry Glades Botanical Area 


F-8-B 


WV6. 


*Cranesville Swamp Nature 






Sanctuary 


F-8-B 


Wv 7. 


Dobbin Slashing 


F-8-B 


WV8. 


Fisher Spring Run 


F-8-B 


WV9. 


Moore Run 


F-5-M, F-8-B 


WV 10. 


*Red Run 


F-8-B 


WV 11. 


*Sinks of Gandy 


F-7-Sw(Ca) 


WV 12. 


Yellow Creek 


F-8-B 



WV 1 . Big Run of Blackwater River. Acreage: 40. 

Location: Tucker County; Parsons Quadrangle; 5 miles NE of Parsons; reached 
via U.S. 219, Forest Road 717, then to 18. 

Description: High elevation sphagnum bog 3250 ft above sea level. Peat extends 
to more than 9 ft in depth. Hemlock and red spruce occur, as well as 
rhododendrons and other heaths. Pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) have 
been introduced. 

Ownership: USFS, Monongahela National Forest, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 
26241. 

Data source: E. M. Olliver, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 2624 1 . 

Other knowledgeable persons: Harry Mahoney, District Ranger, Cheat Ranger 
District, USFS, Parsons, W. Va. 26287. Dr. Earl L. Core, Department of Biolo- 
gy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va. 26505. 



:> 

m 

0) 

H 

< 

33 
Q 

Z 

> 




CO 

io 



O 
CC 

> 

III 



WV 2. Blister Run Bog. Acreage: 100. 

Location: Randolph County; Durbin Quadrangle; 4.5 miles NW of Durbin; ad- 
jacent to U.S. 250. 

Description: Typical sphagnum bog with balsam fir; this may be the southern- 
most extension of this species in the United States. Occasional beaver flooding 
occurs. 

References: Rigg, G. B. and P. D. Strausbaugh. 1949. Some stages in the 
development of sphagnum bogs in West Virginia. Castanea 14(4): 129- 148; 
Clarkson, R. B. 1966. Vascular flora of Monongahela National Forest, W. Va. 
Castanea 31 (1): 1-1 19. 

Ownership: USPS, Monongahela National Forest, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 
26241. 

Data source: E. M. Olliver, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 26241. 

Other knowledgeable persons: E. B. Vinoski, District Ranger, Greenbrier 
Ranger District, Bartow, W. Va. 24920; Dabney Kisner, Durbin, W. Va. 26264; 
Earl L. Core, Department of Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 
W. Va. 26505. 




• v 



en 

WV 3. Blister Swamp. Acreage: 40. < 

(Ji 
Location: Pocahontas County; Spruce Knob Quadrangle; 19 miles SE of Elkins; —I 

reached via U.S. 33, south of Forest Road 14. Map on page 526. < 

Description: Sphagnum bog with balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Fir forest extends O 

over 0.5 mile along the stream draining the swamp. Twin flower (Linnaea Z 

borealis var. americana) found here is in the southernmost known locality in "> 

eastern North America. For description of the ecological community see 
reference. 

Reference: Clarkson, R. B. 1966. Vascular flora of Monongahela National 
Forest, Castanea 31(1 ): 1-1 19. 

Encroachments: Grazed by cattle and sheep. 

Ownership: Truman Arbogast, Circleville, W. Va. 26804. 

Data source: E. M. Olliver, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 2624 1 . 

Other knowledgeable persons: E. B. Vinoski, District Ranger, Greenbrier 
Ranger District, Bartow, W. Va. 24920; Roy B. Clarkson, Department of Biolo- 
gy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va. 26505; Earl L. Core, Depart- 
ment of Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va. 26505; Dr. Eu- 
gene Hutton, Grandview Ave., Elkins, W. Va. 26241. 



00 

Ho 

< WV 4. Canaan Valley. Acreage: 20,500. 

1 Location: Tucker County, between N 39° 00' and N 39° 10' and between 

QC W 79° 20' and 79° 30'; Davis Quadrangle; 3 miles W of Davis; via U.S. 219 

> and Rt. 32. 

V) Description: Large flat basin 3000 ft in elevation, surrounded by 4000 ft moun- 

> tains. Contains numerous glades or bogs, some over 2 miles long and 0.5 mile 
wide, originally covered by mature spruce and impenetrable thickets of 
Rhododendron maximum in the moist sites. Natural stands of balsam fir and red 
spruce are represented, in addition to many other northern species. Supports 
numerous beaver ponds. 

References: Clarkson, R. B. 1966. Vascular flora of Monongahela National 
Forest. Castanea 31(1 ):29-3 1 . 

Encroachments: Now grazed, although livestock do not graze the bog areas. 
Canaan Valley State Park will preserve some of the area. Power Company an- 
nounced plans for a 7000-acre impoundment for a pump-storage project, using 
Dobbin Slashing Area for the upper reservoir. Vacation cabins and possibly strip 
mining. 

Ownership: Several private owners including Ben Thompson, Davis, W. Va. 
26260. Also Canaan Valley State Park and Monongahela Power Co. 

Data source: E. M. Olliver, P.O. Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 26241; J. C. Rieffen- 
berger, 101 Randolph, Elkins, W. Va. 26241. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Virgil Spitzer, Superintendent, Blackwater Falls 
State Park, Davis, W. Va. 26260; Harold Walters, Davis, W. Va. 26260; J. C. 
Rieffenberger, Game Biologist, Department of Natural Resources, Charleston, 
W. Va. 25305; M. L. Cooper, Davis, W. Va. 26260. 




<</ 



J 

^3 IS* 



Lift ! 





>• 






A r 




* 




k 


J° ■ 

^ .V 

<$ 


ft 

Run 



0* 



I ( 



en 

CD 

m 

CO 
< 

O 



I 



© 

CM 



WV 5. Cranberry Glades Botanical Area. Acreage: 750. 



CD Location: Pocahontas County; Lobelia Quadrangle; 9 miles SW of Marlington; 

£ reached via U.S. 219 and Rt. 39. 

> 

Description: Five glades comprised of bog forests. Underlying peat is up to 11 ft 
in depth. Here, a typical bog flora and fauna reaches its southernmost limits in 
the Appalachians. Several northern plants reach southernmost extension here, 
and several bird species reach their southernmost known breeding limits in east- 
ern North America. The USFS has a recording weather station nearby, collect- 
ing data on rainfall, humidity, solar radiation, wind velocities close to ground 
and at tree-top level, and soil temperatures. 

References: Brooks, M. G. 1930. Notes on the birds of Cranberry Glades, 
Pocahontas County, W. Va. Wilson Bull. 42:245-252; Brooks, M. G. 1945. The 
Muskeg farthest South. Audubon Mag. 42(4 ):2 16-223; Rigg, G. B., and P. D. 
Strausbaugh. 1949. Some stages in the development of sphagnum bogs in West 
Virginia. Castanea 14(4): 129- 148; Scott, B. H. 1949. The case of the misplaced 
Muskeg. Ford Times 41(2):40-44; Core, E. H. 1955. Cranberry Glades Natural 
Area. Wild Flower 31:65-81; Clarkson, R. B. 1966. The vascular flora of the 
Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia. Castanea 31 ( 1 ):1-1 19. 

Encroachments: Area classified as a Botanical Area by the U.S. Secretary of 
Agriculture. A boardwalk was built to inform visitors and prevent trampling of 
the bog vegetation. Written permits are required to get off the boardwalk. Col- 
lectors' permits are required and a legitimate reason must accompany the 
request. The USFS is still having trouble with group users, especially those on 
scientific visits, when the instructor or leader pulls plants and permits students 
to do likewise. The layman is not a problem except for occasional littering. 

Ownership: USFS, Monongahela National Forest, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 
26241. 

Data source: E. M. Olliver, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 26241. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Earl L. Core; Dr. Charles Baer, both of De- 
partment of Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va. 26505. 
Professor Maurice G. Brooks, Division of Forestry, West Virginia University, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 26505; Dr. H. C. Darlington, Professor Emeritus, Depart- 
ment of Biology, Marshall University, Huntington, W. Va. 25700. 



>af> 



K 



* 



X 

{ 

T- ) 




V- / 
1 1 ' *t> V 

) ■ ^m. 




cZ 


I ^W 




J| 






A 


l y 




•y 


mm 5 ■• 




en 
ro 



WV 6. Cranesville Swamp Nature Sanctuary. Acreage: About 560. 

Location: Preston County, W. Va., and Garrett County, Md.; Sang Run 
Quadrangle; 10 miles NNW of Oakland; reached via U.S. 219 to Swallow Falls 
Rd., to Crainsville Rd. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. An outstanding northern bog and 
bog forest with tamarack, black spruce, and associated northern flora and fauna 
at the southern limits of their range. 

References: Catalog of Natural Areas in Maryland. 1968. Maryland State 
Planning Department. 

Encroachments: A powerline crosses the area. 

Ownership: A portion is owned by TNC. 

Data source: TNC; J. R. Goldsberry, Biologist, Maryland Department of Game 
and Inland Fish, State Office Bldg., Annapolis, Md. 21401. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Earl L. Core, Department of Biology, West 
Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va. 26505. 



m 
in 

H 
< 

O 

Z 
> 



26/JTW* £ranesville 




<3> 



XS1 

p 

**3 




CM 
CM 



> 



CO 



WV 7. Dobbin Slashing. Acreage: 200. 



O Location: Tucker County; N 39° 04' 30" W 79° 21'; Davis Quadrangle; 7.5 



miles ESE of Davis; reached via Rt. 39, 42, or 28. Off Forest Road 75. 



Description: An alder-sphagnum bog with few if any trees. It originally con- 
Ill tained a dense red spruce forest which was logged and burned. A general 
^ description of area and photograph may be found on page 22 of the Clarkson 

reference listed below. 

References: Clarkson, R. B. 1966. Vascular flora of Monongahela National 
Forest, W. Va. Castanea 31( 1 ): 1-1 19. 

Encroachments: Site is in extremely hazardous situation. Area is included in fu- 
ture strip mine plans of Virginia Electric Power Co. installation on Stoney River 
just to the north. Area is also a potential site of a pump-storage project, which 
would flood 7000 acres of Canaan Valley, a proposal of the Monongahela 
Power Co. 

Ownership: Western Maryland Railroad. 

Data source: E. M. Olliver, Box 1 23 1 , Elkins, W. Va. 2624 1 . 

Other knowledgeable persons: J. C. Rieffenberger, Game Biologist, Department 
of Natural Resources, Davis, W. Va. 26260. Robert Kletzley, Game Biologist, 
Department of Natural Resources, Davis, W. Va. 26260. 






rg 

CO 

WV 8. Fisher Spring Run. Acreage: 40. ^ 

CO 

Location: Tucker County; N 39° 01' W 79° 20'; Davis Quadrangle; 1 1 miles SE H 

of Davis; reached via Rt. 32, 28, or 42 off Forest Road 75. < 

33 
Description: A sphagnum bog with beaver dams. Sphagnum-spruce community G> 

with cranberry and related heath-type vegetation. Z 

> 
References: Clarkson, R. B. 1966. Vascular flora of Monongahela National 
Forest, W. Va. Castanea 31(1):1-119; Evans, G. B. 1964. Blackwater Paradise. 
Field and Stream 69(7):29-3 1 ; 1 26-1 29. 

Encroachments: Area is in strip mine plans of the Virginia Electric and Power 
Co., Stoney River installation. 

Ownership: USFS, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 2624 1 . 

Data source: E. M. Olliver, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 2624 1 . 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Charles H. Baer, Department of Biology, 
West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va. 26505. 



CM 
lO 

< 

Z 

o 
eg 

> 
co 

UJ 



WV 9. Moore Run. Acreage: 25. 

Location: Randolph County; Horton and Parsons quadrangles; 6 miles SE of 
Parsons; reached via U.S. 219 and USFS 21. 

Description: A 25-acre glade with some beaver dams. Elevation about 3250 ft. 

Ownership: USFS, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 26241. 

Data source: E. M. Olliver, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 26241 . 

Other knowledgeable persons: Harry B. Mahoney, District Ranger, Cheat 
Ranger District, U.S. Forest Service, Parsons, W. Va. 26287. 




Ol 

WV 10. Red Run. Acreage: 100. ^ 

m 

Location: Tucker County, N 39° 04' W 79° 29'; Davis Quadrangle; 4 miles SW ^ 

of Davis; reached via U.S. 219, Rt. 32, and Canaan Loop Road 13. < 

Description: Shallow sphagnum bog at 3500 ft elevation. Red spruce-sphagnum q 

community with heath-type vegetation. Bracken fern found in drier areas. 2 

> 
Ownership: USFS. 

Data source: E. M. Olliver, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 26241. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Harold Walters, Davis, W. Va. 26260; J. C. Rief- 
fenberger, Game Biologist, Department of Natural Resources, Davis, W. Va. 
26260; Harry B. Mahoney, District Ranger, Cheat Ranger District, Monon- 
gahela National Forest, Parsons, W. Va. 26287. 



CM 
ID 



gc 

> 

HI 



WV 1 1 . Sinks of Gandy. Acreage: 50. 

Location: Randolph County; Spruce Knob Quadrangle; 18 miles SE of Elkins; 
reached via U.S. 33, 14, and 40 or 29 and 40. 

Description: Area so named due to the disappearance or sinking of Gandy 
Creek into a limestone cavern. The west glade is dominated by a sphagnum-red 
spruce community, mixed with hardwoods. Elevation 3500 ft. Twin flower, gold 
thread, skunk currant, dwarf cornel, and snowberry occur here. Gandy Creek 
flows underground for 0.7 mile through an unusual cavern, which can be 
traversed by the hiker when the stream is low. Hike is relatively easy for persons 
used to very rough terrain or spelunkers. 

References: Clarkson, R. B., 1966. The vascular flora of the Monongahela Na- 
tional Forest, West Virginia, Castanea 31(1 ): 1 -38. 

Encroachments: Area is grazed, but livestock avoid boggy areas. 

Ownership: Max Teter, Glady, W. Va. 26268. 

Data source: E. M. Olliver, Box 1231, U.S. Forest Service, Elkins, W. Va. 
26241. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. Eugene Hutton, Grandview Ave., Elkins, W. 
Va. 26241. 



1 / ^Sk^sxm0^ 

n v. r 

Wffr 

w 53503 /•. 



r b m 



-Krio$ 



is. 

3595*,/ 



THE 



C u A n in gharry 

Knob 



• 3652 





■ %>^tas fiS\^ 






V 



M 



7-1 i 



^Fstfa^B^K^ itiljS^, *&>.- 



tjm 



WV 12. Yellow Creek. Acreage: 30. 

Location: Randolph County; Horton Quadrangle; 9.5 miles NE of Elkins; 
reached via U.S. 33, then USFS Road 91. A 3-mile hike from nearest road ac- 
cess. 

Description: A 30-acre glade. Elevation 3150 ft. Little ecological information is 
available. 

Encroachments: Some coal in vicinity; may some day be mined if better access 
is available. 

Ownership: USFS, Box 1231, Elkins, W. Va. 2624 1 . 

Data source: E. M. Olliver, Box 1231, Monongahela National Forest, Elkins, W. 
Va. 26241. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Harry B. Mahoney, District Ranger, Cheat 
Ranger District, Monongahela National Forest, Parsons, W. Va. 26287. 



ro 



m 

CO 

H 

< 
O 



' f 


':^S~~~~' 


) 


N \ 

^ 








sil ^,;^„. ,-<»>* \ v\ ' " /; 



CD 
CM 



CO 



WISCONSIN 



^ General description: Much of Wisconsin has been glaciated, and many wetlands 

Q occur in the poorly drained depressions. Some of these are typical acid bogs; 

22 others, underlain by calcareous deposits, have developed into fens, dominated 

by sedges. Special wetland sites, found between ridges along the shores of Lake 
Michigan, have had a lacustrine origin. Some of these have developed into bogs 
(Ridges Sanctuary) and some into wet prairie (Chiwaukee Prairie). Extensive 
marshes occur south of Lake Winnebago (Horicon Marsh) and at the delta of 
the Bad River ( Kakagon Sloughs). Wooded bottomlands occur along the Missis- 
sippi and its tributaries, notably the Chippewa (the Nelson-Trevino, and Tiffany 
Bottoms). For a discussion of the vegetation of the state see Curtis ( 1959). 

Status of the wetlands: Some of the best of the state's wetland areas that have 
been reported have already been acquired for protection by various governmen- 
tal agencies and private organizations. Former disturbances on some of these 
areas, such as draining and damming, are now being corrected as in the case of 
the Horican Marsh and Cedarburg Bog. Timber removal occurred 30 years ago 
on the Chippewa Bottoms. This activity no longer takes place. Dumping was re- 
ported on the Hub City Bog. Wildlife management takes place on certain of the 
state and federal holdings such as those on the Horican Marsh. 

Sources of data: The Wetlands Inventory of Wisconsin (USDI 1955) provides a 
wealth of information, and the Reports on Wisconsin Scientific Areas (Scientific 
Areas Preservation Council 1968, 1970) list a number of wetlands selected for 
their outstanding values. There are also county inventories compiled by the 
State Conservation Department. Mr. C. E. Germain of the Department of Natu- 
ral Resources and Dr. Orie L. Loucks of the University of Wisconsin have been 
especially helpful in providing data. 

Recommendations: Of the many bogs in Wisconsin, those in the Ridges Sanctua- 
ry have already been designated as a Natural Landmark. The Mud Lake Wildlife 
Area is contiguous and adds additional interesting habitats. The Cedarburg Bog 
complex and Spruce Lake Bog are outstanding and also deserve high priority. 
The former is somewhat alkaline and the latter more typically acid. They are al- 
ready partly or entirely in state ownership. The Hub City and Hope Lake Bogs 
are good and need protection. The Black Tern Bogs may be too small to warrant 
consideration. The Chiwaukee Prairie may be the finest example of a wet prairie 
still in existence in this country. It is now preserved in the ownership of The Na- 
ture Conservancy and is administered by the University of Wisconsin. It should 
be a Natural Landmark. Of the marshes and sloughs, the Horicon Marsh is the 
largest. It has been restored following disturbance caused by drainage. The 
Kakagon Sloughs on the Bad River Indian Reservation are a more outstanding 
example of undisturbed habitat. The Endeavor Marsh is presently protected by 
The Nature Conservancy and is worthy of recognition as a landmark. Rice Lake 
has an outstanding example of sedge marsh with stands of wild rice. The Chip- 
pewa River Bottoms are the best examples of wooded swamps in the state. The 
Tower Hill Bottoms, although good, are much less extensive. 

Literature cited 

Curtis, J. T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin: an ordination of plant 
communities. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wis. p. 657. 

Scientific Areas Preservation Council. 1968. Wisconsin Scientific Areas. 
1968 Report, p. 22. 



to 



Scientific Areas Preservation Council. 1970. Wisconsin Scientific Areas. 

Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, Wis. p. 32. 
U.S. Department of the Interior. 1955. Wetlands Inventory of Wisconsin. 

Report. Office of River Basin Studies, Region III, Fish and Wildlife Service. 



CO 
O 

O 

z 

CO 




Wetlands 


reported from Wisconsin 


Habitat type 


WI 1. 


Black Tern Bog 


F-8-B 


WI2. 


♦Cedarburg Bog 


F-8-B 


WI3. 


*Chippewa River Bottoms 


F-l-Sw, F-2-M, F-5-M 


WI4. 


*Chiwaukee Prairie 


F-2-M 


WI5. 


Endeavor Marsh and Ladyslipper 






Island 


F-2-M(Ca); F-3-M 


WI6. 


Hope Lake Bog 


F-8-B 


WI7. 


*Horicon Marsh 


F-3-M, F-4-M 


WI8. 


Hub City Bog 


F-8-B 


WI9. 


*Kakagon Sloughs 
Ladyslipper Island (see Endeavor 
Marsh) 


F-4-M 


WI 10. 


Mud Lake Wildlife Area 
Nelson-Trevino Bottoms (see 
Chippewa River Bottoms) 


F-7-Sw, F-5-M(Ca) 


WI 11. 


Rice Lake-Thunder Lake Wild Rice 






Area 


F-4-M 


WI 12. 


*Ridges Sanctuary 


F-8-B 


WI 13. 


*Spruce Lake Bog 
Summerton Bog (see Endeavor 

Marsh) 
Tiffany Bottoms Wilderness Area 

(see Chippewa River Bottoms) 


F-8-B, F-7-Sw 


vi 14. 


Tower Hill Bottoms 


F-l-Sw, F-7-Sw 



o 

CO 
lO 

Z 
co 
z 
o 
o 

CO 



WI 1 . Black Tern Bog. Acreage: 25. 

Location: Vilas County; Minocqua 15' Quadrangle; 5 miles N of Woodruff; 
reached via U.S. 51. 

Description: Two small bog lakes totaling 6 acres, surrounded by open bog of 
approximately 20 acres. Nesting Black Terns, Mallards, Black Ducks, and Kill- 
deer. Bog flora includes Arethusa, buck bean, grass pink, bog laurel, rose 
pogonia, and sundews. 

Ownership: Wisconsin Conservation Department, Box 450, Madison, Wis. 

53701. 

Data source: Orie L. Loucks, Botany Department, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 53706. 

Other knowledgeable persons: C. E. Germain, Department of Natural 
Resources, Box 450, Madison, Wis. 53701 . 







CO 



WI 2. Cedarburg Bog. Acreage: About 2000. 

Location: Ozaukee County; West Bend and Port Washington 15' quadrangles; 3 
miles SE of Newburg; reached via town roads. 

Description: Considered one of the outstanding bog areas of southeastern 
Wisconsin, it includes six lakes of varying depths and a complex mosaic of 
vegetation types. There are marl deposits several feet thick underlying the peat 
in some places, and the pH values are higher here than for typical sphagnum 
bogs in Wisconsin. Eight major cover types include emergent aquatics, string- 
bog, bog birch-leather-leaf heath, dogwood-willow, shrub areas, dead tamarack, 
conifer forest, conifer-hardwood forest, and hardwoods. There is an excellent 
tamarack swamp with some white cedar and a few black spruce. Very rich in 
rare bog plants, including orchids, ericads, sundews, honeysuckles, and sedges. 
Sandhill Cranes nest in the bog. 

References: Grittinger, T. F. 1969. Vegetational patterns and edaphic rela- 
tionships in Cedarburg Bog. Ph.D; Thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. 

Encroachments: A dam at the outlet of Mud Lake, built in 1959 and sub- 
sequently removed, killed some trees in the bog. Deer enclosures have been 
constructed on two of the islands and some management to increase deer har- 
vest is planned. 

Ownership: Over 700 acres by state of Wisconsin, Conservation Department, 
Box 450, Madison, Wis. 53701. 

Data source: Orie L. Loucks, Botany Department, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 53706; Dr. R. Thompson, Technical Services Section, State of 
Wisconsin, Department of Natural Resources, Southern Area Headquarters, 
Route No. 4, Madison, Wis. 53711; C. E. Germain, Department of Natural 
Resources, Box 450, Madison, Wis. 53701 . 



O 
O 

CO 

z 



SKg "<*sjr a. V if ; 







,1 Haneptefn f|t <*,-«*«»»«,-"> */-s'<W 



CNJ 

CO 



CO 



WI 3. Chippewa River Bottoms. Acreage: 1 1 ,000. 



£ Location: Buffalo County; Wabasha, Minn. -Wis., Arkansaw, and Durand 

Q quadrangles; bottom lands of the Chippewa River between Lake Pepin and Du- 

£0 rand, 15 miles upstream. 

Description: This is a typical flood-plain hardwood forest of silver maple, Amer- 
ican elm, river birch, and ash, and open sedge meadows and oxbow lakes. 

Encroachments: Though timber was cut years ago, the area has been left alone 
for the past 30 years. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources plans to 
continue this approach on the acreage under its jurisdiction. 

Ownership: 410 acres owned and administered by the Wisconsin Department of 
Natural Resources as the Tiffany Bottoms Wildlife Area; the southern portion is 
part of the Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge, BSFW. 

Data source: C. E. Germain, Ecologist, and D. R. Thompson, Technical Ser- 
vices Section, Department of Natural Resources, Southern Area Headquarters, 
Route No. 4, Madison, Wis. 5371 1. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Orie L. Loucks, Department of Botany, Universi- 
ty of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 53706. 



w 

CO 




0) 
O 
O 

2 

z 



CO 



Z 

o 
o 

(0 



WI 4. Chiwaukee Prairie. Acreage: 150. 

Location: Kenosha County; Kenosha 7.5' Quadrangle; S of Kenosha; reached 
via Highway 32 S to Tobin Road, E 0.5 mile across RR to area S of Tobin Road. 

Description: A series of ridges and swales just behind the dunes of Lake 
Michigan, forming wet prairie and wet-mesic prairie habitat. This is the best 
prairie of this type remaining in Wisconsin. Over 250 species have been listed. It 
is part of old glacial Lake Michigan bed. Designated as a State Scientific Area. 

Encroachments: Dumping, hunting, and flower collecting have occurred. 

Ownership: 39 acres by TNC; administered by the University of Wisconsin, 
Kenosha Center, Kenosha, Wis. 53140. 

Data source: Orie L. Loucks, Botany Department, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 53706. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Dr. James Olson, Botany Department, Kenosha 
Center, University of Wisconsin, Kenosha, Wis. 53140; C. E. Germain, Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources, Box 450, Madison, Wis. 53701. 



leridan Road Schl« 



^Qd — 



Carol Bea 







WI 5. Endeavor Marsh and Ladyslipper Island (Summerton Bog). Acreage: 40. 

Location: Marquette County; Oxford and Briggsville quadrangles; 3 miles N of 
Endeavor; reached via Rt. 51, 3 miles N, then W on D 1.5 miles; take side road 
1.5 miles SW to the Marsh. 

Description: Water table differences of 4 ft across the island contribute per- 
manent springs on the lower side. Rare orchids are present. Oak Island in the 
marsh is an unusual example of till left in an ice crack. There are 30 acres of 
marsh, part of it a nonacid peat, or fen, and 10 acres of upland oak opening on 
the island with prairie plants. 

Ownership: TNC. 

Data source: Orie L. Loucks, Botany Department, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 53706. 

Other knowledgeable persons: James Zimmerman, Arboretum, University of 
Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 53706. 



O 
O 

z 

0) 



I 



R1 D 



IQpodhiie IJake\ 



s ' tV 



22 

*«6 



I 

Adv 



gm 





1 








\ 






) 1 




( 


V. 





"v 



'->- 




CO 
CO 

in 



CO 

Z 
O 

o 

CO 



WI 6. Hope Lake Bog. Acreage: 50 estimated. 

Location: Jefferson County; Lake Mills 7.5' Quadrangle; at the north end of 
Hope Lake, NE of Cambridge. 

Description: A floating tamarack bog at the north end of Hope Lake. The bog 
mat supports a good list of sedges and typical bog shrubs. 

Encroachments: Some harvesting of tamarack for fence posts. 

Ownership: Presumably private. 

Data source: Mimeographed report compiled by J. H. Zimmerman, H. H. litis, 
H. Mueller, 1962. 




CO 

^1 

WI 7. Horicon Marsh. Acreage: 40,000. § 

CO 

Location: Dodge and Fond du Lac counties; Horicon and Waupun quadrangles; 
lying between Waupun and Horicon. 2 

CO 
Description: An outstanding example of the restoration of a natural community 2 

following the disruption due to a change of drainage. 

Encroachments: Drainage disturbance subsequently restored. 

Ownership: Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, BSFW. and Horicon Marsh Wil- 
dlife Area by the state. 

Data source: C. E. Germain and D. R. Thompson, Technical Services Section, 
Department of Natural Resources, Southern Area Headquarters, Route No. 4, 
Madison, Wis. 53711. 



Map on following page 



GO 
CO 



CO 

z 
o 
o 

CO 




■y. — 



JP 











• / 












/ 




PON1 


1< 


rj( 


yt 


. / • 




6 




■ • 






i 


! 

■■I 


If 


2 



L4 



M 

: k v, \ , ■■"" 



2 
3 



1 - 



1 



S" 



.-:/„ 



li fS T 



S4 L 



HOUHON NATION Al . i V. I i PUFE K,EFC<..I- 



-1 35 



■" Si 



:. 1 . E j fur . < > V 

'. ■ . A )&*■■<> 



1 if-** 



a 



m 



IS" 



W I L L I Ui>: 



■ V' ij-f Kricr«l 



.0™ 



Km^ 



J 



ii \ 



^^f 



V: 



I! <) !i I c il N M * 'R S « V, I ;. !! L I K E A R E A 

\ - I 

5 1 



V7 • 

" ... r - 



ft 
it.. 



% 



~%z 



U R K 

23 






33 



M» 



\ 



ti 



IS ^ ?0 3lj 






'22 



i 



jfe '">7 * ; N* ' f 1 r HORtCON' MARSH Wtt.Ut.lVE -tRfA 

Wfo % • • A i _i iSS" i] 
V ' r i) % ' ■ x *L. ^ 



4^ - 
/ 

/1 ~ a f ^ 



-V r \ 

1 : % 



*<:?, 






W ! L ,vfi 4 ' A ( M 8 j Tf ;' 'J I 



tf 






if 32 : M. 



33 



34 



6 



i>j5*u^ri»\ \ n '- 







1 } J « 








.' ' ft ■ 




y, (_ 





r V^ <• 4' a*V r.j 5 -.. ^,-ijt*,! 



CO 
CO 



WI 8. Hub City Bog. Acreage: ca. 50. 

Location: Richland County, Richland Center 15' Quadrangle; 0.3 mile N of 
Hub City; reached via Rt. 80. 

Description: Contains a rare "driftless area" tamarack bog of 8 acres sur- 
rounded by shrub carr and grass marsh. Several small springs occur in the 
tamarack; also a north-facing sandstone bluff with excellent cover of hemlock, 
white pine, and other northern plant species along a small trout stream feeder of 
the Pine River. 

Encroachments: Part of the grass marsh had been cultivated in past years and 
an old sawmill exists on several acres of upland adjacent to the tamarack. The 
town of Henrietta has recently leased 5 acres of the tamarack for a refuse dump. 
Dumping has already covered some tamarack. 

Ownership: Lon and Minnie Spenser, Rt. 3, Richland Center, Wis. 53581. 

Data source: Orie L. Loucks, Botany Department, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 53706. 

Other knowledgeable persons: C. E. Germain, Department of Natural 
Resources, Box 450, Madison, Wis. 53701 . 



0) 
O 
O 

z 

CO 



A, 



ry 




^ms^m 






<f x^ twTA 







<} 



C I V a* 





li v Sz 





~r 



900- 



~ 'MP \A J /'if ( C 



{J ^u 



'X 



mMmt m *f? 

^ "-%.-. . 39/} 







o 
in 



CO 

z 
o 
o 

CO 



WI 9. Kakagon Sloughs. Acreage: Not given. 

Location: Ashland County; Odanah Quadrangle. 

Description: This river marsh and delta on Lake Superior have already been 
recommended for inclusion as a part of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore 
Project. Here are found excellent fish and game habitat and wild rice stands. 
240 species of birds have been reported. The area has been left completely wild 
and undeveloped by the Bad River Indians. 

Ownership: Bad River Indian Reservation. 

Data source: C. E. Germain, Ecologist, Technical Services Section, Department 
of Natural Resources, Southern Area Headquarters, Route No. 4, Madison, Wis. 
53711. 



28 



C- 2? 



#*>. 



9 



& 



4r 



o 



o 



34 



4/ 



/ft 



<$> 



> 



35 



T49N 
'\ T48N 



Kakagon W 



r u9' 



*«4 



tffm 



** 



*/ 


, 




2 


^ ? ! 






1 

' ! 
1 


1 



+ 



10 



11 



12 



S 6 ' 






3-6 










*> 15 






14 



13 



"> 



WI 10. Mud Lake Wildlife Area. Acreage: 750. ^ 

CO 
Location: Door County; Sister Bay 15' Quadrangle; between North Bay and Q 

Baileys Harbor; immediately N of the Ridges Sanctuary. O 

Description: Mud Lake is a shallow (5 ft) and elongate lake in a 750-acre tim- — 

bered swamp. The major water source is a spring-fed stream. Marl is the domi- 
nant bottom type. Trees in the swamp are white cedar, elm, and black ash, 
mostly of pole size. Northern pike and smallmouth bass spawn in the lake and 
trout frequent the lower part. Scaup and Redheaded Ducks are the most com- 
mon waterfowl. 

Ownership: State of Wisconsin, except for 20 acres owned by The Ridges Sanc- 
tuary. 

Data source: William Tans, Department of Natural Resources, Box 450, Madis- 
on, Wis. 53706. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Harold Shine, Department of Natural Resources, 
Green Bay, Wis. 54300; Roy Lukes, The Ridges Sanctuary, Baileys Harbor, Wis. 
54202. 



• ; . J. 

J 


:[ 






• , , 1 Sm^rftpo*,? 


i^ f . 4 i^p^q 


A 










r -,--.. 


A - 


"""\-/ North Buy 




r 


i 


\ 




- .34 ' • 


•«•• _ 


\ \ 




"1. 


t- 




I 


' 


\ fe 




j. 


I B 


\ 




'. 


r ,,J.. .:; ,.,. 


27 " \ 




* 1 ' 


!■ : - - • • s - 


\ 


* 


%■ 




V 


»*. > 






g. 




i 


\ 

v 




I 


. p _ __, ... .. ...... . 






| 




i> 






Bom l!35 "" / \ 


-=^* 




.1 


"T 1 W/ 




1 


* ■ : - 


r fe 


1 * 


•!.. • ' " ' 


) - " - -■ Mild 






Lake 


i i ' 






r 






JmJ 


■ srj «. [ / " G '" 


■el Pi» "i 
T \\ \ % 


1^ a? * 


I 


TTT I 


J 3QH 






f / 






* , 




\ i 


1 


i 1 




> "V 








i 

1 
i 


[ 






1* 


\ 












1 

• 1 

1 

1 








t 


/ 


\ 




1 1 


* ■! 


v ; 




1 B k\ L 


E V SX HyA K B R 


\ 




, -V- 














• : ):, ,,- - 








i ' " ■ 


'•»%' Baileys Harbor • a 







. Ca»ia Island 



CM 

in 



CO 

Z 
O 

o 

CO 



WI 1 1 . Rice Lake-Thunder Lake Wild Rice Area. Acreage: 240. 

Location: Oneida County; Three Lakes 15' Quadrangle; 1.5 miles NW of Three 
Lakes. 

Description: Sedge marsh and 1 18-acre lake with excellent rice crop. This is a 
rice production and waterfowl area. 



Ownership: Wisconsin Conservation Department, Box 450, Madison, Wis. 
53706. 

Data source: Orie L. Loucks, Botany Department, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 53706. 

Other knowledgeable persons: C. E. Germain, Department of Natural 

Resources, Box 450, Madison, Wis. 53701 . 






Rice 

La Per 



i^ 




BM16 



3t%% 



S5=* 



to y~ 



% 



k 

!63t*< 



•4 



[0 






V 



11 



12 



16 j>J; 



T Tr 31 S 



£ 






V 



£ 



N 




'^1, 






WI 12. The Ridges Sanctuary. Acreage: 700. 

Location: Door County; Sister Bay 15' Quadrangle; at edge of Baileys Harbor. 

Description: A Registered Natural Landmark. Abandoned beach ridges of Lake 
Michigan, with spruce-fir forest on the ridges and tamarack bogs between them, 
in long parallel lines. Very unusual habitat conditions have resulted in perhaps 
the greatest concentration of rare plants to be found anywhere in the Midwest. 
Especially rich in orchids, heaths, and club-mosses. 

References: Fuller, A. M. 1960. The Ridges Wild Flower Sanctuary at Baileys 
Harbor, Wisconsin. Wisconsin Acad. Sci., Arts, Letters Trans. 40:149-158. 

Ownership: The Ridges Foundation, Baileys Harbor. 

Data source: Orie L. Loucks, Botany Department, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 53706. 



oi 



CO 

o 
O 

z 

CO 

z 




_£_. f. -.. _ — «Ji -■*> A- •f\f r 

f- cm ! i T'Vlf 

CJVW Baileys Harbor 



03 



m 

2 Wl 1 3. Spruce Lake Bog. Acreage: 117. 

CO 

Z Location: Fond du Lac County; Kewaskum Quadrangle; about 2 miles NW of 

q Dundee, within the Kettle Moraine State Forest. 

Description: Lying in the Kettle Moraine State Forest, this undisturbed bog lake 
of 35 acres is surrounded by several acres of open bog, tamarack, white cedar, 
and black spruce. This is the southern limit for black spruce in Wisconsin. Ring- 
ing the swamp conifers is an area of swamp hardwoods including red maple, 
black ash, and elm, serving as an excellent buffer zone around the bog. A 
variety of orchids and sedges are found on the bog. 

Encroachments: The lake has no inlet or outlet and thus suffers a minimum of 
disturbance from surrounding agricultural lands. 

References: Germain, C. E. 1967. Scientific areas report, Spruce Lake Bog. 
Scientific Areas Preservation Council, Dept. of Natural Resources. 

Ownership: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 

Data source: C. E. Germain, Department of Natural Resources, Box 450, 
Madison, Wis. 53701. 






15 



S C 




~s£»r 



•- I mi 



'--"* • "\ 



******, «9«X*» 






u#rich 



s 



en 
01 



WI 14. Tower Hill Bottoms. Acreage: 25. 

Location: Iowa County; Spring Green 15' Quadrangle; 2 miles SE of Spring 
Green, N of Mill Creek, within Tower Hill State Park; reached via Rt. 23. 

Description: A flood-plain forest, primarily willow, cottonwood, silver maple, 
ash, and elm, along the Wisconsin River. 

Ownership: Tower Hill State Park, Wisconsin Department of Natural 
Resources. 

Data source: Wisconsin Scientific Areas, 1970. 



O 

o 

Z 
0) 



Spring Gneen yiiflhg 







•:\ ; 



^uiny 



Tahiti,** 






O //({ 

±, Hillside 

76?_. :: * J? ^ Unit* Chi 

i-' '¥■■-" 




728 _ - 1r^\ HT\ 






r 

o 

3= 



^5 _ / r> ^V «ft ^>v '°<= £ 



in 



CD 



WYOMING 



O 



General description: The wetlands of Wyoming are limited to river bottoms, 
some of which are in the semi-arid plains country, and beaver meadows in the 
mountains. Examples of both of these types are found in Yellowstone and Grand 
Teton National Parks. There are interesting willow bottoms and sloughs along 
the Snake River in Jackson Hole. 

Sources of data: Suggestions of wetlands to be considered for landmark status 
have come from the Southwestern Regional Office of the Bureau of Sport Fishe- 
ries and Wildlife and from a university biologist. 

Recommendations: The Snake River headwaters in the Teton National Forest 
represent an outstanding example of willow bottoms productive of waterfowl 
and game. The two other areas that have been suggested for landmark status are 
Pacific Springs and a section of the Sweetwater River at Independence Rock. 
Both of these areas probably warrant recognition more on historical grounds 
than on their ecological value as wetlands. No data on the ecology of these areas 
are available for this report, but they should be investigated. Further efforts 
should be directed toward locating significant wetland types outside of the Na- 
tional Parks. The Snake River in Jackson Hole should be worth investigating. 
The headwaters of the Green River, including the Kendall warm spring, the Two 
Oceans Pass area between Atlantic and Pacific creeks, the Sinks on the Popo 
Agie River, and Pickett Lake in the Great Divide Basin have also been men- 
tioned as worthy of attention. 



2 



1 



3 



Wetlands reported from Wyoming 

WY 1 . Pacific Springs 

WY 2. Snake River Headwaters 

WY 3. Sweetwater River 



Habitat type 

F-6-Ss 
R 



WY 1. Pacific Springs. Acreage: About 10. 

Location: Fremont County; Pacific Springs Quadrangle; SW of South Pass City; 
reached via Rt. 28. 

Description: Pacific Springs consists of a stable flow of approximately 0.5 
second foot, arising on the Pacific slope of the Continental Divide, situated in 
rolling sagebrush plains. This was a major stopover site for pioneers during 
Oregon Trail days, later serving as a holding pasture during wild horse hunting 
operations. 

References: Parkman. 1898. The Oregon Trail. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. 

Encroachments: Currently surrounded by a fenced enclosure serving as a 
seasonal livestock holding pasture. 

Ownership: John Hay, Rock Springs, Wyo. 82901. 

Data source: William T. Krummes, BSFW, Division of Wildlife Services, P.O. 
Box 1306, Albuquerque, N.M. 87103. 

Other knowledgeable persons: Mr. John Hay, Rock Springs, Wyo. 82901. 



2 

< 
o 



o 




GO 
lO 

C5 WY 2. Snake River Headwaters. Acreage: Not given. 

S Location: Teton County; Huckleberry Mt. Quadrangle; from the headwaters of 

P the Snake River in Yellowstone Park to Jackson Lake. 

Description: Willow bottoms. Excellent goose nesting wetlands and elk and 
moose calving terrain. 

Ownership: NPS and USFS, Teton National Forest. 

Data source: Dennis H. Knight, Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, 
Laramie, Wyo. 82070. 



CO 

WY 3. Sweetwater River. Acreage: Not estimated. < 

Location: Natrona County; Independence Rock and Fort Ridge quadrangles; 70 ^ 

miles SW of Casper; at Independence Rock; reached via Rt. 220. =, 

O 
Description: A portion of famous Sweetwater River which played such a signifi- 
cant role in providing water needs to pioneers traversing the historic Mormon, 
California, and Oregon Trails during the mid 1800s. Includes "Sweetwater 
Crossing," Martin's Cave where Mormom pushcarters were winter bound, and 
famous Independence Rock, known as the Register of the Desert. 

Encroachments: Little serious encroachment. Considerable recognition has al- 
ready been given as historic sites. 

Ownership: Unknown. 

Data source: William T. Krummes, BSFW, Division of Wildlife Services, P.O. 
Box 1306, Albuquerque, N.M. 87103. 



Map on following page 



o 

in 



O 



O 







OS 



°c 



SV 00 



\ 



•CxU.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1976-634-929 





Publication Number: NPS 144