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5obn Cleveland IRobtneon 


publisbeo bg Butborftg of tbe State ot "Hew 12orfc, tlnoet tbe Supervision of tbe 

j^lRew lorft /Monuments Commission 

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SDeoication of Monuments 

JErecteb b tbe State of mew J^orfc 
in Commemoration ot tbe 
Services ot 

flfeajotXSeneral Hbner 2)oubleba& TXl. 5- ID. 


Brevet fll>ajot>(Seneral 
3obn Cleveland IRobinson, 1DL 5- H, 

Hnfc tbe 1Rew IPorf^ Groops in tbeir CommanDs 

on tbe Battlefield of (Bett^burg 

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New York Monuments Commission 


Gettysburg, Chattanooga and Antietam 


March 4, 1918. 
To the Legislature: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith report on the dedication 

of the monuments erected on the battlefield of Gettysburg to Major- 

General Abner Doubleday, U. S. V., and Brevet Major-General 

John Cleveland Robinson, U. S. A. 

Respectfully yours, 



Uable of Contents 


Introductory - - - - - - - - - . -13 

The Dedications - - - - - - - . -171 05 

Prayer Rev. Win. T. Pray --------26 

Address Col. Lewis R. Stegman -----._ 28 

Oration Gen. H. S. Huidekoper -------39 

Address Francis M. Hugo, Secretary of State - 50 

"Guns of the Old and the New" Joseph I. C. Clarke - - - 53 

Address Col. Meredith L. Jones ------_ 55 

Biographical Sketch of General Doubleday ------ gl 

Oration Corporal James Tanner - - - - - - - 106 

Address Col. Hilary A. Herbert - - - - - - -112 

Address Col. S. M. Morgan - - - - - - - 118 

Biographical Sketch of General Robinson - - - - -121 



Portrait of General Abner Doubleday ----- Frontispiece 

Portrait of General John C. Robinson ----- Facing 105 

The Doubleday Statue - - - . . . . . -41 

The Robinson Statue -----.__. ]gQ 

The Doubleday Inscription Tablet ------- 52 

The Robinson Inscription Tablet -----.. 1^8 

New York Monuments Commission - - - - _ _ -19 

Col. Lewis R. Stegman 

Col. Clinton Beckwith 

Gen. Horatio C. King 

Brig. Gen. Charles H. Sherrill 
Speakers at the General Doubleday Dedication ----- 30 

Gen. H. S. Huidekoper 

Gen. John A. Reynolds 

Col. Meredith L. Jones 

Francis M. Hugo, Secretary of State 

Joseph I. C. Clarke 
Speakers at the General Robinson Dedication - - - - -112 

Corporal James A. Tanner 

Col. Hilary A. Herbert 

Col. S. M. Morgan 

Rev. Wm. T. Pray 
Official Dedication Party at the General Webb Monument - - - 102 

Lutheran Seminary, Gettysburg -------.74 

Map of Battlefield of Gettysburg - - 136 

Chambersburg Road, Gettysburg -------96 

Bombardment of Fort Sumter _______ g3 

Map of Region between Fredericksbm-g, Ya. , and Gettysburg, Pa. - - 86 

Hn flfcemorfam 

Hbner Doubleoa^ 


3-obn Cleveland IRobinson 


PARALLEL incidents not a few some of them notable 
enough occurred in the careers of Major-General Abner 
Doubleday and Brevet Major-General John Cleveland 
Robinson. Born within two years of each other, the former in 1819 
and the latter in 1817, their fathers were natives of Connecticut who 
settled in New York. Just as General Robinson was completing his 
course at the military academv in West Point General Doubledav 
became a student there. Each of them took part in the " Military 
Occupation " of Texas, 184.5-46, and in the Mexican war following 
thev fought together at Monterev. General Doubledav took a 
leading part in the defense of Fort Sumter, and a week after its 
surrender General Robinson was successful in saving Fort McHenry, 
in Baltimore, from a similar fate. Thev led brigades in the Second 
Manassas campaign. Their commands fought at Fredericksburg, 
and, in the same corps, at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. In the 
latter field statues to their memories were dedicated the same dav, 
September 25, 1917. 

These statues, it is universally conceded, constitute well deserved 
tributes. In veteran circles for a long time it was a foregone con- 
clusion that the names of General Doubleday and General Robinson 
would be included, sooner or later, in the list of commanders to whose 
memories Xew York has erected monuments at Gettysburg. 

So far, the Empire State has bestowed statuary honors on seven 
of its Gettysburg generals. The first statue to be put up there by this 
State is that to General Warren, picturesquely displayed on a 
boulder on Little Round Top, which his prescience and timely action 
prevented from being seized by General Longstreet's troops in the 


1Rew jporfc flDonuments Commission 

second day's conflict. This was dedicated in 1888. Then, in 1902. 
came the statue to General Slocum, on Steven's Knoll, at Culp's 
Hill. General Slocum commanded the Twelfth Corps, the right 
wing of the Union army. It was he who said at the council of war 
held July 2d, " Stay and fight it out." New York's third statue, that 
to General Greene, was erected at Culp's Hill in 1907. General 
Greene's Brigade alone, with only 1,300 men, valiantly clung to its 
ground on Culp's Hill against assailants three times as many, the 
night of the second day, and thus saved that very important point 
from being lost to the Union army. The fourth monument, General 
Wadswortlrs, was put up in 1914. General Wadsworth's Division 
composed the first infantry troops to go into action on the Federal 
side at Gettysburg and scored the first triumph there. In 1915 a 
statue was erected at the Angle to the hero of that renowned spot, 
General Webb. 

The following list contains the names of New York's commanders 
at Gettysburg to whom no individual memorials have been erected 
there vet: 

Major-General Daniel E. Sickles, U. S. 

A. (wounded at Gettysburg). 
Major-General Daniel Butterfield 

(wounded at Gettysburg). 
Brigadier-General Adolph Von Stein- 

Brigadier-General M. R. Patrick. 
Brigadier-General Joseph B. Carr. 
Brigadier-General Francis C. Barlow 

(wounded at Gettysburg). 
Brigadier-General J. H. H. Ward. 
Brigadier-General J. J. Bartlett. 

Brigadier-General Samuel K. Zook 
(killed at Gettysburg). 

Brigadier-General David A. Russell 
(killed at Opequan, Va., Sept. 19, 

Brigadier-General Charles K. Graham 
(wounded and captured at Gettys- 
burg) . 

Brigadier-General R. B. Ayres. 

Brigadier-General Alexander Shaler. 

Brigadier-General S. H. Weed (killed at 

Also holding the rank of colonel and who commanded brigades 
at Gettysburg were the following New York officers: 

Charles R. Coster. 
William R. Brewster. 
Thomas C. Devin. 
Kenner Garrard. 
Patrick Kelly. 
W. Krzyzanowski. 
David J. Nevin. 

Archibald McDougall (mortally wounded, 
near Dallas, Ga., June, 1864). 

James C. Rice (killed at Spotsylvania). 

Eliakim R. Sherrill (killed at Gettys- 

George L. Willard (killed at Gettys- 

Philip R. DeTrobriand. 

George von Amsberg. 

IReport of tbe Commission 

The facts and figures in support of the claims of General Double- 
day and General Robinson to statues at Gettysburg were specially 
rehearsed by veterans on the battlefield in October, 1914, on the 
occasion of the dedication of the statue to General Wadsworth. 
Participating thereat was a large delegation representing the New 
York organizations in General Wadsworth's Division. Captain 
Albert M. Mills, of Little Falls, N. Y., who delivered the oration 
for the occasion, was well qualified to be spokesman for his comrades 
then revisiting Seminary Ridge, where little more than half a cen- 
tury before bullets whizzed past them and shrapnel exploded in their 
midst, and where also some four thousand of the Corps to which they 
belonged, the First, were killed or wounded. Captain Mills was 
with Gamble's Brigade, of Buford's Cavalry, when it encountered 
the Confederate advance west of Gettysburg the early morning of 
July 1, 1803, thus provoking the skirmish which precipitated the big 
three-day battle. None could fail to be deeply impressed with his 
narration of that unexpected first collision and the fierce contest into 
which it rapidly developed. Renewed admiration for what the men 
of the First Corps accomplished and reverent recollection of what 
they endured while striving strenuously to hold back the hosts that 
kept swarming in their front found frequent expression among the 
veterans visiting Gettysburg that day. There was testimony in 
plenty all around to convince them that Seminary Ridge and its 
environments are well regarded as hallowed ground. A monument 
to General Wadsworth was being dedicated, and close by it are the 
statues to General Reynolds and General Buford, while numerous 
regimental monuments have also been erected there. 

But why, it was asked, has there been no statue erected there as 
yet to General Doubleday, the foremost hero of the opening conflict, 
and who took the place of the ill-fated General Reynolds, or to Gen- 
eral Robinson, who is no less worthy as a Seminary Ridge hero? 

These questions were pending for a long time, had, in fact, been 
brought to the attention, often, of the New York Monuments Com- 
mission; and at a meeting of its Board, held October 23, 1914, at 
which all the members were present, the first formal action was taken 
on them. The military records of General Doubleday and General 
Robinson at Gettysburg and the other fields where they held com- 
mands were carefullv reviewed by the Commissioners at that session 
in their deliberations for the proposed statues ; and a resolution was 


IRevp IPork Monuments Commission 

adopted to the effect that as soon as practicable the Legislature would 
be requested for authorization to erect monuments to their memories. 

When submitting statement of its estimates to the Legislature of 
1916, the Commission made request for funds to erect those statues; 
and pursuant thereto, appropriations amounting to $5,000 each, for 
preliminary work, were granted, under chapter 646; and the Legis- 
lature of 1917, under chapter 181, allowed the additional sums of 
$3,000 required for completing the monuments. 

In conference with Colonel John P. Nicholson, chairman, and 
Colonel E. B. Cope, engineer, of the Gettysburg National Military 
Park Commission, sites for the monuments were selected by this 
Commission on June 26, 1916: the War Department in due course 
approving same, as well as the designs for the monuments and the 
texts prepared for the bronze inscription tablets. 

General Doubleday's statue stands on Reynolds Avenue, near 
the Springs Road, a little to the south of the spot where General 
Reynolds was killed. This place was the centre of a very active 
arena throughout the unequal contest of the first day. It is close 
to the McPherson Woods, where the Iron Brigade, that General 
Doubleday helped put into action, just as the combat commenced, 
scored the first triumph at Gettysburg. 

General Robinson's statue standing on the avenue that bears his 
name, at the northern extremity of Seminary Ridge, is located in a 
section of the field that was, perhaps, the most perilous and untenable 
during the conflict of the first day. A little to the north is the 
Mummasburg Road, across which were extended the five Confederate 
brigades that attacked General Robinson's two brigades. 

The models for both statues were designed and executed by 
J. Massey Rhind, of New York. The following sculptors, in com- 
petition with Mr. Rhind, also favored the Commission with designs 
from which to make selections: R. Hinton Perry, Henry Price and 
F. Landi, of New York, Louis A. Gudebrod, Meriden, Conn., 
and H. K. Bush Brown, of Washington, D. C. 

The sculptor's models and the inscription tablets were reproduced 
in bronze by Jno. Williams, Inc., of New York. Worden-Gilboy 
Co., of Batavia, N. Y., was awarded the contracts for furnishing the 

Both statues are nine feet in height. The pedestal of the General 
Doubleday monument is eleven feet six inches square at the base 

Report of the Commission 

and eleven feet in height; the General Robinson pedestal measures 
eleven feet six inches square at the hase and eleven feet in height. 
The stone used in their construction is dark Barre granite. 

Of the 88,000 appropriated for the General Doubleday monu- 
ment $7,527.68 were expended on it, leaving a balance of $472.32; 
the cost of the monument to General Robinson, for which the same 
amount was allowed, was $7,409.56, leaving a balance of $590.44; 
these balances reverting to the State Treasury. 

The monuments were constructed and erected under the super- 
vision of Commissioner Clinton Beckwith. 

be Dedications 

By chapter 181 of the Laws of 1917 the sum of $8,000 was appro- 
priated for the purpose of dedicating the statues to General Double- 
day and General Robinson. The ceremonies were held on Tuesday, 
September 25, 1917, and can well be counted among the most brilliant 
and impressive functions ever witnessed on the battlefield. Dele- 
gations numbering about 180 veterans, from the ten New York 
organizations in the commands of the two generals in the engage- 
ment, were in attendance. These are the Seventy-sixth, Eightieth, 
Eighty-third, Eighty-fourth, Ninety-fourth, Ninety-fifth, Ninety- 
seventh, One hundred and fourth and One hundred and forty-seventh 
regiments of infantry, and Battery L, First New York Light Artil- 
lery. Also present thereat were members of both branches of the 
Legislature, State officials, members of the family of General Rob- 
inson and relatives of General Doubleday. Colonel Lewis R. 
Stegman, of the One hundred and second N. Y. Veteran Volunteers, 
Chairman of the New York Monuments Commission, was master of 
ceremonies. Two of his colleagues on the Board were absent 
General Horatio C. King, on account of illness, and Brigadier- 
General Charles H. Sherrill, the Adjutant General, because of 
pressure of other business. The invocations were pronounced by the 
Reverend William T. Prav, of the One hundred and second N. Y. 
regiment. The procession was led by the grand marshal for the 
occasion, General John A. Reynolds, of Battery L. and the Adjutant 
General, Major Henry M. Maguire, with whom were aides from the 
different organizations represented. Through the courtesy of the 
War Department, Colonel F. B. Jones, U. S. A., assigned a large 


IRew Uork HDonuments Commission 

detachment of troops, with a band, from the training camp at Gettys- 
burg for escort duty, which greatly enhanced the exercises. Miss Alice 
Seymour Doubleday, of Quogue, L. I. (a grandniece), unveiled Gen- 
eral Doubledav's statue, and Mrs. Robert A. Hall, of Whitehall, 
N. Y. (a daughter), that of General Robinson. 

Corporal James Tanner, of Washington, D. C, whose regiment 
was the Eighty-seventh N. Y. (Robinson's Brigade, Kearny's Divi- 
sion), delivered the oration at the General Robinson statue. Corporal 
Tanner lost both legs in the campaign of the Second Manassas. He is 
widely known for his spirited addresses reminiscent and topical 
at veteran reunions, and fully sustained his reputation as an effective 
speaker on this occasion, when he had only to draw on his memory 
for battlefield happenings, while admiration for his old commander 
furnished inspiration in abundance. 

The oratorical honors at the Springs Road fell to General Henry 
S. Huidekoper, of Philadelphia. General Huidekoper lost an arm 
leading a gallant bayonet charge made by the One hundred and fiftieth 
Pennsylvania regiment, part of General Doubledav's Division, during 
the first day's conflict at Gettysburg. As the undoubted hero of Semi- 
nary Ridge, and for that matter, the hero of the first day at Gettys- 
burg, on the Union side, General Doubleday's military ability and 
splendid achievement were amply and enthusiastically set forth in 
General Huidekoper 's oration. Following him, Colonel Meredith L. 
Jones, of New York, who was on General Doubleday's staff during 
the battle, was no less emphatic in pronouncing the First Corps leader 
second to no other commander in the field where Southern aggression 
reached its high-water mark. 

Among the other speakers at the General Robinson statue was a 
Southern veteran, Colonel Hilary A. Herbert (former Secretary of 
the Navy under President Cleveland), of the Eighth Alabama, who 
had a command in A. P. Hill's Corps at Gettysburg. His address 
was a valuable contribution to the exercises, eliciting all-round 
applause, which could not be warmer if he were speaking to his own 
Alabama comrades. Colonel Samuel M. Morgan, commandant of the 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Bath, IV. Y., spoke interestingly at the 
statue to General Robinson, under whom he fought at Gettysburg. 
Colonel John H. Cochrane, of the Eighty-third regiment, belonging 
to one of General Robinson's brigades, recited a poem of his own 


IReport of tbe Commission 

All the addresses were by veterans, but one, that of Francis M. 
Hugo, Secretary of State, who appeared as the representative, for the 
occasion, of the Empire State, which, as he pointed out, won its title 
from Virginia a hundred years ago, the year, singularly enough, when 
General Robinson was born, General Doubleday being his junior by 
two years; and that New York has ever since maintained that pride 
of place goes without saying. At Gettysburg New York among the 
Northern states had the most troops and Virginia on the other side, 
so that they were both rivals and to the front again in 18G3, with New 
York once more pre-eminent. Mr. Hugo then drew attention to the 
fact that it was exactly a century ago since the first sod was dug for 
the construction of the Erie canal, of which the most that was pre- 
dicted when projected fell short long ago of the great benefits derived 
from it. Another item in the chronicle of that year, 1817, of which 
this State had additional reason to be proud was the enactment, 
during the administration of Governor Daniel D. Tompkins, of the 
law ordering the abolition of slaverv in all its counties after Inde- 
pendence Day, 1827. Mr. Hugo paid a glowing tribute to the 
memory of General Doubleday, at whose statue he spoke, for his dis- 
tinguished service at Gettysburg and other scenes of strife during that 
herculean struggle of the early sixties, the outcome of which has been 
to make this nation the foremost democracy in the world; and for 
anything and everything required to keep it so henceforth there was 
not the slightest doubt in his mind that the Empire State will be 
always available and advancing to an effective and exemplary degree. 

One of the most popular contributions to the literature of the 
Spanish- American war is a battle ballad by a Manhattan bard; and 
another poem by the same author, Joseph I. C. Clarke, recited by him 
at the General Doubleday dedicatory exercises, should also find room 
in anthologies to be compiled hereafter. Partly on Gettysburg, partly 
on the Civil War in general and its heroes, on both sides, and brought 
down to date by appropriate allusion to the new national and inter- 
national crisis, " Guns of the Old and the New " is a masterpiece. 

Hn Httenfcance at tbe BeMcattons 

Relatives of General Doubledav: Dr. J. Stewart Doubledav, 
Miss Alice Doubleday, Cecil M. Doubleday, J. Stewart Doubleday, 
Stephen Ward Doubleday and F. N. Doubleday. 


1Rew IPorfc flDonuments Commission 

Family of General Robinson: Robert A. Hall and Mrs. Hall, 
Miss Elizabeth Hall, Miss Eleanor Hall, Miss Marion Hall, Mrs. 
Cleveland Robinson, Mrs. J. Marshall Robinson, Miss Katherine 
Robinson, Mrs. E. C. Robinson, Wm. E. Cary, Mrs. Chas. L. Corbin, 
Clinton E. Collier, Mrs. Collier and Master Sherman T. Collier, and 
Victor A. Richardson. 

Senator James A. Emerson, Senator Alfred J. Gilchrist and 
Mrs. Gilchrist, Senator George A. Slater and Mrs. Slater, Senator 
John D. Stivers and Mrs. Stivers, Senator George L. Thompson and 
Mrs. Thompson, Assemblyman Robert P. Rush, Assemblyman Eras- 
tus C. Davis and Mrs. Davis, Assemblyman E. A. Everett and Mrs. 
Everett, Assemblyman Abram P. Lefevre and Mrs. Lefevre, Assem- 
blvman Bert Lord, Assemblyman Peter P. McElligott and Mrs. 
McElligott, Assemblyman H. Edmund Machold and Mrs. Machold. 

Francis M. Hugo, Secretary of State, and Mrs. Hugo, Merton 
E. Lewis, Attorney General, and Mrs. Lewis, Brig.-Gen. W. W, 
Wotherspoon, IT. S. A., Superintendent of Public Works, and Mrs. 
Wotherspoon, John C. Clark, Civil Service Commissioner, and John 
C. Birdseye, Secretary, Wm. B. Landreth, Deputy State Engineer, 
and Mrs. Landreth, Mr. and Mrs. L. G. DeCant, Mr. and Mrs. D. F. 
Griggs, Mr. and Mrs. Harold J. Hichman and Charles H. Dorn. 

Gen. H. S. Huidekoper, Gen. John A. Reynolds, Col. S. C. 
Clobridge and Mrs. Clobridge, Col. John H. Cochrane, Col. John H. 
Gribbel, Col. Hilary A. Herbert, Col. Meredith L. Jones, Col. S. C. 
Morgan, Col. S. C. Pierce, Col. Frank Sellers, Col. Frank West, 
U. S. A., Col. Americus Whedon, Major Alex. Barnie, Major 
George Breck, Major Charles E. Fiske, Major Henry M. Maguire, 
Captain George K. Collins, Captain George A. Hussey, Captain 
George P. Morgan, Captain C. St. John, Captain Arch. B. Snow, 
Corporal James Tanner and Miss Nettie Tanner. 

J. Quincy Adams, C. Loomis Allen, G. D. Bangs, Charles S. 
Barker, E. C. Burgess and Mrs. Burgess, H. W. Burlingame, Aaron 
N. Burr, Homer D. Call, Ramon Cardona, J. I. C. Clarke and Mrs. 
Clarke, Charles A. Dow, Francis J. Egan, H. M. Golden, Lewellyn 
J. Hall, M. D. Hartford, P. Kappesser, Wm. H. Lakeman and Mrs. 
Lakeman, F. N. Lewis and Mrs. Lewis, Mrs. Clara K. Litchfield, 
Miss Ethel Litchfield, Willis Litchfield, J. W. Lynch, Thomas J. 
McConekey, John H. McGean, H. D. Mack, Miss Nettie Maloon, 
Frank Martlock, Wm. Donald Mitchell, Frank E. Munson and Mrs. 

IReport of the Commission 

Munson, Enoch J. Nichols, Hiram Osborne, Peter W. Ostrander, 
Dr. Lewis S. Pilcher and Mrs. Pilelier, Wm. II. H. Pinckney, 
Wm. II. Powell, Rev. Wm. T. Pray and Mrs. Pray, J. E. Rafter, 
E. J. Robinson, Martin Rust and Mrs. Rust, Edward Schenck, 
Charles Schoeneck and Mrs. Schoeneck, John S. Seaman. C. A. 
Shaw, Wm. H. Shelton, George W. Steele, H. B. Sykes, Isaac 
Thomas, J. E. Toole, Wm. Vallette, James Whitlock. 

Col. Lewis R. Stegman and Mrs. Stegman and Col. Clinton 
Beck with. 

The official party for these celebrations also took part in the 
dedication of the monument to the One hundred and fourth Xew 
York regiment (Wadsworth Guards) at Antietam, Md. The cere- 
monies were held on September 27, 1917. U. S. Senator James W. 
Wadsworth, Jr., and State Senator John Knight, delivered interest- 
ing and spirited addresses on the great topic of the day and the 
engagement at Antietam, September 17, 1802. the severest one-day 
battle of the Civil War. Colonel Lewis R. Stegman and H. W. 
Burlingame, secretary of the One hundred and fourth Association, 
also spoke. They are both veterans of the battle. 


Commissioners: Executive Committee 


Col. LEWIS R. STEGMAN Chairman 


The Adjutant General Secretary 

New York Monuments Commission 


Gettysburg, Chattanooga and Antietam 


August 9, 1917 

Dedication of fl&onuments to General Hbner Bonblefca\> ant) 

General 3obn <L IRobinson 


By chapter 181 of the Laws of 1917 this Board of Commissioners 
is authorized and directed to dedicate the bronze statues that are to 
be erected on the battlefield of Gettysburg to the memories of Major- 
General Abner Doubleday and Major-General John C. Robinson. 

The dedication exercises for both statues will be held the same day, 
Tuesday, September 25, 1917. 

On the Union side, General Doubleday is admittedly the hero 
of the first day's fight at Gettysburg, and contributed as much, per- 
haps, toward the final result achieved on that field as any other com- 
mander in the entire engagement; and in the opening conflict there 
also General Robinson displayed valor and ability of the highest 

The site to be occupied by the General Doubleday statue is on 
Reynolds Avenue, near the Springs Road; and the statue of General 
Robinson will stand on Robinson Avenue, in the northern part of the 

That those dedications may be conducted with appropriate cere- 
monies, the Commission is asking the New York organizations of the 
First Army Corps, at Gettysburg, to send delegations to the battle- 
field to participate in them. 

IReport of tbe Commission 

Those organizations are: the 70th, 80th, 83d, 84th, 94th, 95th, 
97th, 104th and 147th Regiments of Infantry, and Battery L, First 
New York Light Artillery. 

Muster Roll blanks are being forwarded to the officers of the 
veteran associations concerned, for them to enter thereon the names 
of their comrades whom they desire to designate for going to Gettys- 
burg for this occasion. 

Transportation orders made out by the undersigned from the 
certified muster rolls will be forwarded to the organization officers 
for distribution among the veterans in whose favor they are drawn. 

Those transportation orders will not be accepted for passage on 
trains, but must be exchanged for railroad tickets; neither are the 
orders transferable; if not used they should be returned to the New 
York Monuments Commission. 

It is requested that the muster rolls be completed in time for 
returning to this office not later than Saturday, September 1st, in 
order that there may be ample time to transmit the certificates, and 
as well to notify the railroads of the stations for which transportation 
orders will be issued. 

Application has been made to the railroad companies, through 
the Trunk Line Association, to honor tickets for this occasion, from 
points in New York State, any day from September 18th to Septem- 
ber 24th, inclusive. 

It is requested that veterans attending these dedications will, as 
far as practicable, appear in the uniform usually worn on Memorial 

Badges, specially ordered for these functions, will be forwarded 
to the officers of the various organizations for distribution, at the 
same time that the transportation certificates are sent out. 

Flags and streamers will also be furnished at Gettysburg. 

Carriages will be provided by the Commission for conveying the 
veterans from Gettysburg Square to the ceremonies; and benches 
for them will be placed in front of the platforms. 

It is expected that a good many Civil War veterans other than 
those entitled to free transportation will travel to the battlefield for 
this event, and a cordial invitation is extended to them to attend the 

Preparations becoming these important battlefield events are 
being made by this Commission, and it is confidently expected that 


Hew tyovk HDonuments Commission 

each of the ten veteran organizations concerned will be worthily rep- 
resented at the ceremonies for them. 

The headquarters of the New York Monuments Commission will 
be at the Eagle Hotel, Gettysburg. 





rber of Exercises 


General Doubled flDonument 

"IRepnolos avenue, IRear Springs 1Roao, Gettysburg, pa. 

September 25, 1917, 2.00 p. fib. 

1. Music, Citizens Band of Gettysburg. 

2. Prayer, by Rev. Win. T. Pray, 102d N. Y. Veteran Volun- 


3. Introductory Remarks, by Chairman of Board of Commis- 

sioners, Colonel Lewis R. Stegman. 

4. Music, U. S. Military Band. 

5. Unveiling of the Monument, by Miss Alice Seymour Double- 

day, Grandniece of General Doubleday. 

6. Oration, General Henry S. Huidekoper, 2d Brigade, Third 

Division, First Army Corps. 

7. Music, Citizens Band of Gettysburg. 

8. Address, by Hon. Francis M. Hugo, Secretary of State, 

!Vew York. 

9. Music, U. S. Military Band. 

10. " Guns of the Old and the New," by Joseph I. C. Clarke. 

11. Music, Citizens Band of Gettysburg. 

12. Remarks by Colonel Meredith L. Jones, of General Double- 

day's Staff. 

13. Benediction, by Rev. Wm, T. Pray. 


flnvocatlon by tbe IReverenfc Mm, Z. pra\> 

102UD IR. H?. IDolS. 

ALMIGHTY GOD, we bow in Thy presence, in memory of 
/"% the veterans who have served valiantly in a comradeship, 
sacred and permanent. 

We halt to-day, O Lord, to express our affection for the pro- 
tectors of our flag and who have distinguished themselves especially 
and signally on this battlefield. 

We do not forget our commanders who led us to victory. We 
are here in remembrance of their heroism; we bring tokens of affec- 
tion, and we are reminded that the chronicles of the past are sug- 
gested by those of the present. Indeed, when we consider our 
departed heroes we call to mind the Divine assurance, " They being 
dead, yet speaketh," and all over the land we read the traditional 
epitaph, " In Memory of." Surely the names we recall to-day sug- 
gest an honorable soldiery. 

May God grant His blessing on the exercises of the hour while 
we speak of those who are not here who have responded to the taps 
for "lights out;" and yet we grip their comradeship with "hoops 
of steel." 

Thou, O Lord, hast made it possible to be here to praise Thee for 
the permanency of our republic. Indeed, we write our prayers and 
paeans of praise in celebration of victories achieved, as we rejoice with 
the valorous hosts we do not forget. 

We thank Thee, O God, in this hour of praise for the veterans 
whom our country seeks to honor. Significant, indeed, is the fact 
that the host of a new army is falling in line to perpetuate the prin- 
ciples of our forefathers, and thus uphold the life of freedom instituted 
by Washington and Lincoln. 

Be with us, O God, in this hour of sacred homage. Hear us while 
we pray for the kindred, in whose memory we gather, who gave them- 
selves living and dying that the nation might live. 

Bless our land. Preserve us from selfish interests. Bless our 
President in his high commission as he continues to administer with 
firm and loyal spirit. 

flDajor*(5eneral Doublets 

Be with all who occupy places of honor and responsibility. Be 
with the people in all homes, and may loyalty to our country's flag be 
manifested throughout the land. 

Grant that whatsoever is rendered here to-day, of speech, or word 
of song, or note of music, shall be born of a new consecration which 
shall be for the honor and glory of God. Amen. 


HW>res0 by Colonel Xewts 1R, Stegman 

i02n2> m. jb, vois. 
Gbairman, IRew H?orft /Hbonuments Commission 

Ladies and Gentlemen, Men of the Army of the Potomac, Men 
or All the Veteran Armies Present, and Men in Khaki: 

IN behalf of the New York Monuments Commission, under whose 
auspices the celebrations that have brought you here to-day are 
being conducted for the State of New York, I desire to extend 
to each and every one of you a hearty welcome, and at the same time 
to thank you also for helping make these dedicatory events, in respect 
to attendance, interest and enthusiasm, fully worthy of the occasion 
for which we have met. There is in to-day's proceedings here a good 
deal for New Yorkers to feel proud of. Veterans of the First Corps, 
this brilliant spectacle and the ardor that pervades it must surely 
bring solace to your hearts. Men in khaki, I do not doubt that you 
are deeply impressed by the ceremonies you are participants in 
to-day ceremonies whose object is none other than the commemo- 
ration and perpetuation of battlefield valor and battlefield devotion. 
The relatives of the two renowned commanders, Major-General 
Abner Doubleday and Major-General John Cleveland Robinson, 
whose statues we are now dedicating, do, I am certain, find much to 
be proud of and much to feel thankful for on this occasion, an 
occasion, doubtless, that they will be delighted to recall and rehearse 

General Doubleday is one of the Gettysburg commanders whose 
fame increases as the decades go by. On the Union side, he is pre- 
eminently the hero of Seminary Ridge, where we are at present 
gathered, and which was the scene of that momentous opening con- 
flict of July 1, 1863. Colonel Andrew Cowan, of Louisville, Ky., 
who had charge of the First New York Independent Battery on this 
field, in an address delivered at the dedication of General Webb's 
statue, at the Angle, in October, 1915, said: " I may even state my 
opinion now that if the First Corps had not fought so well all day on 
the first, and then effected a masterly retreat to this ridge, there would 
have been no second day at Gettysburg." Volumes could be written 

fH>ajor*(3eneral 2)oublefca\> 

on these significant words, and in fact what has already heen said and 
printed bearing on them would take a long time to peruse. One of 
the conclusions that invariably follows a study of their import is, that 
General Doubleday did great and good work commanding the First 
Army Corps on this field. Succeeding the ill-fated General Reynolds, 
who was stricken down just as the combat commenced, he emerged 
from the trials and troubles of the first day's fight a vanquished 
victor, if ever there was one. " The fewer the men, the greater the 
honor." All day long in the opening contest General Doubleday was 
vastly outnumbered. It was mainly owing to his genius and pluck 
and dogged determination, battling bravely for seven arduous hours 
against overwhelming odds and a constantly increasing enemy, that 
that invaluable vantage ground, Cemetery Hill, was held by the 
Union army when the evening reinforcements arrived. The posses- 
sion of that hill and the ridge south of it, which followed as a con- 
sequence, helped General Meade materially while doing much more 
than defending his ground during the violent and widespread opera- 
tions of the second day ; and in the tremendous and final trial of arms 
the third day the advantage of holding Cemetery Ridge was undoubt- 
edly an important factor in the Confederate repulse. 

A general of the first magnitude, whose career terminated at St. 
Helena, said that " War is a business of positions." The com- 
manders of the Third Union Corps and the Twelfth when they 
reached Gettysburg the evening of July 1, 1863, and joined the First 
Corps and the Eleventh the earliest engaged in the battle found 
positions waiting for them that could not be much improved if chosen 
bv themselves davs in advance. And so it was also with the other 
three corps, the Second, Fifth and Sixth, when arriving on the scene. 

General Doubleday in one of his publications on the battle says: 
" Before the Eleventh Corps came up the enemy could have walked 
right over the small force opposed to them." The remarkable success 
of the Union infantry troops in repelling the initial attack rendered 
the Confederate vanguard cautious for some time after. This open- 
ing contest formed a distinct and very important period in the battle 
of the first day. While it lasted General Doubleday had supreme 
command on the field. 

And it was not only in the morning but the rest of the day as well 
that General Doubleday justified the confidence placed in him by 
General Revnolds, of whom it has been said that he was the embodi- 


flew K?ork HDonumente Commission 

ment of all that is noble in a soldier. The difficulties that he encoun- 
tered leading the First Corps divisions on Seminary Ridge could not 
be exaggerated. Driven back finally, with the divisions of the 
Eleventh Corps General Howard's they occupied and held 
Cemetery Hill pending the arrival of reinforcements. Overwhelmed 
as the Union troops were they gave an excellent account of them- 
selves. Both General Ewell and General A. P. Hill have testified 
that that battle was stubborn and sanguinary so much so that they 
were unwilling in the evening to undertake further pursuit and 
endeavor to oust the Federals from the positions where they were 
intrenching themselves on Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill. 

It is true that General Doubleday was deprived of his command 
the very evening of the day that he made himself famous. But not 
all the orders ever issued could come between him and the ultimate 
reward that he earned by his noble work at Gettysburg. The second 
day and the third day, leading a division of the First Corps, he also 
gave ample proof, on Cemetery Ridge, that in an emergency no one 
could be more reliable. The brunt of the opening conflict was borne 
by his corps ; and his division did a large part of the fighting incident 
to the repulse of Pickett's charge the third day. That we are engaged 
in dedicating a statue to General Doubleday on Seminary Ridge, 
close to the monument of his very distinguished predecessor, General 
Reynolds, is another instance of the pride that New York takes in its 
Gettysburg generals. 

After General Doubledav, no commander on the Union side 
acquitted himself better than General Robinson during the first day's 
battle. The Mummasburg Road that day was a passage way for 
throngs of Confederate reinforcements, rushing down in overwhelm- 
ing numbers to participate in the fierce struggle there. General 
Robinson's brigades sustained the shock of forces that, finally, out- 
numbered them more than two to one. The casualties suffered by his 
division amounted to two-thirds of what it brought to the field. And 
the enemy, though finally triumphant, had no reason to brag. The 
tenacity with which the First Corps clung to its untenable positions 
is well exemplified by the part that General Robinson's men con- 
tributed to its heroic resistance. They were the last to yield their 
ground after the order was given to retreat to Cemetery Hill. The 
spot on which General Robinson's statue stands was scarcely second 
to any other part of the field the afternoon of July 1st when it comes 



Co.0 fit THLJO/i5 

cm fts./fo/>/(0Pfi 

Jossp/s / C ^ A ** Gf/v. JomAfawoi/)* 


flDajor*(3eneral Double^ 

to reckoning conditions of difficulty and danger. Right well did he 
hold off for four fearful hours the troops that kept swarming north 
and west of the arena that he was bravely defending. By what he 
and his men endured and achieved during those crucial hours and the 
inestimable benefit that accrued to the Union arms as a result of the 
prolonged and determined stand they made, General Kobinson, in a 
marked degree, earned the honors implied in this statue erected to 
his memory by his own State. 

The two monuments we are dedicating to-day bring the total 
number of statues to the credit of the Empire State in the Gettys- 
burg National Military Park to seven; and of regimental monuments 
our State has erected close on a hundred on this field. Then there is 
also the almost unrivaled State monument to crown them all. 

The record of New York at Gettvsburg will always remain one of 
the most brilliant chapters in the history of the battle; and it is meet 
that the valor and achievement and sacrifice of our soldiers should be 
fittingly commemorated and perpetuated in this the most important 
battlefield of the Civil War. From all States, over 40,000 men fell 
here. In the Union army of 85,600 troops to the number of 27,692 
were from New York. The loss sustained by the Federal forces 
amounted to 23,049, of which 6,773 was borne by New York more 
than thirty per cent. Quite one-third of the division and brigade 
commanders were New Yorkers, as were three out of the eight corps 

In the battle of the first day the six divisions of infantrv were led 
by New York commanders. 

In the First Corps, the corps that did the most and suffered the 
most the first day, there were nine Xew York infantrv regiments 
and one battery. All of those ten organizations, I am happy to say, 
are represented by delegations at these dedications. 

The Seventy-sixth Xew York, whose commander, Major Andrew 
Grover, fell in the battle, was " the first infantry on the field," and 
it had not been in action much more than half an hour when 169 of 
its men, out of a total of 375, went down. Altogether, its loss 
amounted to 232. The Seventy-sixth was part of the Second Brigade, 
General Cutler's, of General Wadsworth's Division. Dunn"" the 
Civil War it took part in thirty-five battles and actions. 

The Eightieth Xew York, or Twentieth Militia, called also the 
Ulster Guard, was commanded bv General Theodore B. Gates. It 


I&ew H?orft flDonuments Commission 

was strenuously engaged during the three days of the battle, and 
belonged to the First Brigade, Colonel Biddle"s, of the Third Division, 
which in the beginning of the battle was General Doubleday's. 
General Doubleday paid the Eightieth a very high compliment in a 
letter from him read at the dedication of its monument in 1888. In 
the 375 men that it had marching to the battle there was a casualty 
list of 170. Altogether, the Eightieth served in twenty-four battles 
and actions. 

The Eighty-third Xew York, or Ninth Militia, commanded by 
Lt.-Col. Joseph R. Moesch, and belonging to the Second Brigade, 
General Baxter's, of General Robinson's Division, suffered a loss of 
68 out of 1-18. It was one of the regiments that helped make 
prisoners of a thousand in the brigades of O'Xeal and Iverson, at 
the northern part of Seminary Ridge. Thirty battles and actions 
make up its Civil War record. 

The Eighty-fourth Xew York, or Fourteenth Brooklyn Militia, 
was led bv Colonel E. B. Fowler, and lost during the three davs of 
the battle 217 out of 3.56. Like the Seventy-sixth, the Eighty-fourth 
was one of the very first regiments to go into action, a little to the 
south of the railroad cut, and close to where the General Doubleday 
monument stands. In addition to sterling service on Seminary Ridge 
the first day it acquitted itself manfully at Culps Hill the other two 
days. From the beginning of the Civil War to its close the Eighty- 
fourth took part in twenty-eight battles and actions. The sad duty 
of removing the body of General Reynolds from this field was per- 
formed by men from the Eighty-fourth. 

The Xinety-fourth Xew York was another of the regiments in 
General Robinson's Division General Paul's Brigade, the First. 
With officers and men totaling 445 it lost 245 here. It was com- 
manded by Colonel A. R. Root, and when he was wounded by Major 
S. H. Moffatt. In the fierce fighting that took place around the 
ground occupied by General Robinson's monument the Xinety-fourth 
acted a gallant part. Its Civil War record shows that it was engaged 
in twenty-seven battles and actions. 

The Ninety-fifth Xew York, of General Cutler's Brigade, Gen- 
eral Wadsworth's Division, was commanded by Colonel George H. 
Biddle and after being wounded by Major Edward Pye. It brought 
250 men to this field, of whom it lost nearly one-half, or 115. It 
formed into line the same time and side by side with the Eighty- 

flDajoi>(5eneral oublcfca\> 

fourth, on this side of the railroad. The Ninety-fifth was one of the 
three regiments, the other two being the Eighty-fourth New York 
and Sixth Wisconsin, which made prisoners of hundreds from Davis's 
Mississippi Brigade. The second and third day it was posted at 
Gulp's Hill. During the Civil War it took part in thirty-nine battles 
and actions. 

The Ninety-seventh New York, or Conkling Rifles, commanded 
by Colonel Charles Wheelock, belonged to Baxter's Brigade of Gen- 
eral Robinson's Division. It sustained casualties totaling 126 out of 
little less than 300. It took a strenuous part in the fighting against 
Iverson's Brigade. When at last the Ninety-seventh retreated it 
had used up its last round of ammunition. During the Civil War 
it served in thirty-six battles and actions. 

The One hundred and fourth New York, or Wadsworth Guards, 
was commanded by Colonel Gilbert G. Prey, and was part of Gen- 
eral Paul's Brigade, General Robinson's Division. It was among 
the First Corps regiments that suffered the largest percentage of 
loss 199 out of 330. In repelling the fierce attacks of O'Neal's 
and Iverson's brigades, after they were reinforced by Ramseur's, the 
One hundred and fourth rendered signal service, capturing a large 
number of prisoners. Actions and battles to the number of thirty- 
two constitute its entire Civil War record. 

The One hundred and forty-seventh New York was commanded 
by Lt.-Col. F. C. Miller, and when wounded his place was taken by 
Major George Harney. With the Seventy-sixth New York and 
Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania it deployed north of the railroad at the 
very commencement of the combat. Those three regiments were sub- 
jected to such a galling fire from the start that they were soon com- 
pelled to retreat temporarily. The order issued for them to retire 
was belated in reaching the One hundred and forty-seventh, and in 
consequence it suffered to the extent of 207 in that early skirmish 
alone. Its entire loss in the battle was 301 out of 380 present with 
the colors. The One hundred and forty-seventh fought in twenty- 
five battles and actions. 

Battery L, First New York Light Artillery, was commanded on 
this field by Captain G. H. Reynolds. His predecessor in charge of 
the battery, until May, 1863, when he was transferred to the Army 
of the Cumberland, as chief of artillery of the Twelfth, and later 
Twentieth, Army Corps, was General John A. Reynolds, of Fair- 


1Rew jporfc monuments Commission 

port, who is grand marshal for the events we are celebrating to-day. 
Many of you will recall that it was General Reynolds who also acted 
as grand marshal at the General Wadsworth dedication three years 
ago. The men of Battery L fought quite close to us. Their com- 
mander, Captain Reynolds, was wounded in the eye, and his place 
was taken by Major George H. Breck, also with us here to-day I am 
glad to say. Comparatively speaking, Battery L did not suffer 
heavily one killed, fifteen wounded and one missing. Though 
severely wounded, Captain Reynolds refused to leave the field and 
remained with his guns. 

Pennsylvania had eleven regiments and one battery in the First 
Corps; and one of these regiments, the One hundred and fiftieth, I 
have occasion to mention specially now, for one of its commanders 
was General Henry S. Huidekoper, of Philadelphia, who has gener- 
ously come here to deliver the oration for the General Doubleday 
exercises. On this field the One hundred and fiftieth had five com- 
manders. General Huidekoper was the second of the officers leading 
it to be wounded, succeeding Colonel Langhorne Wister when he 
became disabled. This regiment was part of General Doubleday's 
own division, the Third, which was commanded by General Rowley 
after General Doubledav succeeded General Reynolds. The One 
hundred and fiftieth enjoys the distinction of having assigned his 
position on this battlefield to the well-remembered John Burns. 
General Huidekoper lost an arm leading a gallant bayonet charge 
made by the One hundred and fiftieth; and when wounded he did 
not call for an ambulance, but went on foot to the surgeon, nor did 
he ask for a tonic either before suffering the agony of having his arm 
amputated. The phases of the first day's battle, and for that matter 
those of the three days, are an open book to General Huidekoper, and 
there is no doubt that he will do full justice to the memory of his 
corps commander. This is far from being General Huidekoper's 
first assignment as a speaker at Gettysburg functions. That splendid 
historical work, " Pennsylvania at Gettysburg," contains his address 
for the General Meade dedication, eighteen years ago; and in 1910 
when the Pennsylvania State memorial on this field was dedicated it 
was General Huidekoper who made the address tendering it to 
Governor Edwin S. Stuart, in behalf of the Gettysburg Battlefield 
Memorial Commission, of which General Huidekoper was president, 


fIDajoixBeneral E)oublefca\> 

as well as chairman and treasurer. General Huidekoper is the 
recipient of a medal of honor. 

There is also another New York regiment that demands attention 
at this time., though it was not at Gettysburg, at least under its first 
name. This is the Eighty-seventh, one of the regiments that formed 
part of General Robinson's first command in the Army of the 
Potomac, and in which one of the orators of the day, Corporal James 
Tanner, of Washington, D. C, fought until the Second Manassas, 
where he lost both limbs. Corporal Tanner has kindly come all the 
way from the capital specially to speak at the statue to his old brigade 
commander. It is not alone because of his long practice as an eloquent 
speaker at veteran reunions that I say there is a treat in store for 
you while hearing Corporal Tanner; a less practiced speaker imbued 
with the spirit of admiration that he brings to his task could not fail 
to be impressive and interesting addressing you on such an occasion 
as this. As well as serving under General Robinson, Corporal Tanner 
was a life-long friend of his. 

Yet another veteran who was in General Robinson's command is 
also to be heard from to-day. He is Colonel Samuel M. Morgan, 
commandant of the Soldiers and Sailors Home, of Bath, an institu- 
tion that can well be described as a boon and a blessing to many a 
Civil War veteran. Colonel Morgan was Assistant Adjutant General 
on this field under General Robinson, and practically served on his 
staff from the time he took charge of a brigade until incapacitated 
at Spotsylvania in May, 1864, for further field activity. 

Also in our list of speakers for these exercises is Colonel Mereditli 
L. Jones, a native of Pennsylvania, but a resident of New York, who 
was on General Doubleday's staff at Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg. In General Doubleday's book on the last two 
battles he makes important mention of Colonel Jones, and so Colonel 
Jones is to reciprocate now by making worthy and eloquent mention 
of his old and respected commander. 

I am also glad to announce that our programme of exercises con- 
tains the name of a highly esteemed Confederate veteran, Colonel 
Hilary A. Herbert, who had a command in General A. P. Hill's 
Corps on this field, and who also was Secretary of the Navy in the 
administration of President Cleveland. Whatever Colonel Herbert 
is going to say on the Civil War and the North or the South, as a 
Northern veteran myself I desire to put on record once more my 


IRew U?ork Monuments Commission 

views on Southern soldiers during the four years of the disagreement, 
and that is that they very, very often proved during that time, defend- 
ing a eause which they implicitly believed in, that they possessed 
Spartan grit and determination seldom surpassed in history. Great 
generals led them one of them, it has been said, the greatest in the 
Civil War; and if I am correct in my understanding of the laws 
then established by Southern statesmen they laid the basis of a new 
constitution for the section included in their regime. 

If time was not an obstacle now, I would call on several other 
comrades to address you. We cannot, however, late as it is, forego 
the pleasure of listening to Colonel John H. Cochrane, of the Eighty- 
third N. Y., who has written a poem for the occasion ; and Dr. Lewis 
S. Pilcher, of Brooklyn, will also make a few appropriate remarks. 
Dr. Pilcher is one of the past commanders of U. S. Grant Post, 
G. A. R., Department of New York. 

Two distinguished civilians have courteously consented to supple- 
ment veteran talent and veteran ardor at these dedications. Repre- 
senting the Empire State, for the occasion, Francis M. Hugo, Secre- 
tary of State, will address you in due course. Mr. Hugo belongs 
to a generation a good many years behind the generation when the 
boys of '61 were in their prime. New York's Secretary of State may 
well be called a man " of Atlantean shoulders fit to bear the weight 
of mighty monarchies " such a man as General Hancock was, and 
General Hancock astride his charger on Cemetery Ridge the after- 
noon of July 3, 1863, during the repulse of Pickett's charge, and 
also during the cannonading that preceded it, could not easily be 

As well as earning high distinction as a soldier, General Double- 
day enjoyed the reputation of being a fine scholar and an accom- 
plished writer. A scholar and a poet I need not qualify these titles 
now has promised to recite an original poem specially prepared by 
him for the dedicatory events we are conducting to-day. Knowing the 
author, Mr. J. I. C. Clarke, of New York, and being familiar with 
many of his masterpieces, I feel sure that these exercises will be 
greatly enhanced by his contribution to them; and I even venture 
to say that the literature of Gettysburg and its battle will be 
enriched by it. 

General Horatio C. King, one of my colleagues on the Board 
of which I am chairman, and who, I regret to say, is prevented by 

fH>ajov*(Scneral E)oublefca\> 

illness from being with ns to-day and if he were able to come it is 
certain that you would hear from him something spirited and appro- 
priate for the occasion recited a poem, entitled "A Retrospect ", 
at the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the battle of Getty s- 
burg in July, 1913, when some 54,000 veterans -- more than 8,200 
of whom were from New York held their historic reunion here. 
This poem began with the lines: 

" The fleeting years, full fifty now, 
Are numbered with the past." 

Well, the " fleeting years ' referred to then bv General King 
have grown to be fifty- four, so that, comrades, in not a very long time 
from now instead of fifty long years ago, as it used to be, it will be 
sixty long years ago, since we Gettysburg soldiers had our first 
" reunion " on this famed battle ground. How many of us here 
to-day will be able to revisit Gettysburg six years from now, should 
there be another anniversary, and a jubilee with it, small or large, 
celebrated here then, is, perhaps, too bold and too prophetic a question 
to propound thus far in advance. For myself, however, I will say 
that, God willing, and if I should be able to undertake the journey, 
in the event of there being one more general reunion at Gettysburg 
in 1923, I would travel here with as much glee and alacrity as I set 
out from New York yesterday. If that should come to pass, com- 
rades, I hope to meet you all, or a great many of you, at Gettysburg 
that time again. We have grown old now, but we emerged unscathed, 
or else not too badly hurt, from the great Gettysburg struggle and 
struggles that followed it ; we can well call ourselves a hardy lot, and 
for another decade or more it is safe to sav that there will be many 
thousands of us fit and willing to travel long distances for the purpose 
of greeting each other at big reunions. As long as we survivors of 
the battle are in the land of the living, Gettysburg will not cease to 
fascinate us, to animate us, to inspire us and to attract us. 

This battlefield looms so large in the history of the nation that 
it has become a mecca for pilgrims, young and old, and from far and 
near. Not even Thermopylae or Marathon or Waterloo, or the scene 
of any other classic contest, ancient or modern, anywhere, will survive 
longer in story than Gettysburg. Abraham Lincoln's message to 
mankind, delivered here on November 19, 1863, and proclaiming the 
doctrine of " Government of the people, by the people, and for the 
people ", is sure to be repeated for many ages to come. 


Bew IPorfc flDonuments Commission 

And for what else, after all, but government of the people, by 
the people and for the people, are some of the nations in Europe, and 
this nation now with them, striving in a death-grapple to-day a 
death-grapple that makes all former wars dwindle, in comparison, 
into so many skirmishes, having in view the millions engaged and the 
havoc wrought. 

Until people the world over faithfully and conscientiously try to 
observe that great Christian precept, ' Do unto others as you 
would that the} r should do unto you," and follow it and practice 
it as closely as is, or should be, possible in this stage of universal 
civilization and brotherly love, it is to be feared that there will be such 
international misunderstandings, wrong-doing and brawls as will 
make big wars unavoidable. And do unjust or unnecessary wars pay 
in the end? A prominent Civil War general said that " War is 
hell." Then what must peace be in comparison? Why, it is heaven 
heaven on earth any way. The millions of victims suffering from 
the indescribable and almost inconceivable horrors of the present 
fierce and far-flung struggle in Europe must be praying night and 
day for this heaven on earth the peace that is to reign among them 
once more after the termination of the hostilities by which they are 
now scourged ; and let us earnestly hope that the tide of battle 
battles will take such a turn " over there," with the aid of our own 
troops, on whose flag victory has always perched in the end, that 
their prayers will be speedily answered. 


ration t> (Beneral Henr^ 5. Huifcefcoper, of Pennsylvania 

I50tb pa. Dole., SeconD JSrigaDe, UbfrD division, ffirst Corps 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies axd Gentuemen and Comrades: 

THE duty that has brought us here to-day is one conforming 
to a meritorious and time-honored custom the commemora- 
tion and perpetuation of achievement and valor on the field 
of battle. The hero whose memory is now being respected in that 
wise is a deserving candidate for statuary honors. By erecting this 
statue to Major-General Abner Doubleday the State of New York 
has put further evidence on this national park that it remembers with 
gratitude its sons who defended the integrity of the nation when it 
was threatened with disruption. The New York Monuments Com- 
mission, under whose auspices this fine monument was erected, is to 
be complimented once more for its success in presenting memorial 
work worthy of the great commonwealth for which it acts, worthy of 
this famed park, which is the pride of the whole country, and fully 
worthy of the commander whose noble work ranks him as one of 
Gettysburg's foremost generals. My friend Colonel Stegman, pre- 
siding at these exercises, as chairman of the New York Monuments 
Commission, is to be specially congratulated on the results that have 
crowned his efforts to have this monument and that to General Rob- 
inson erected, and the preparations and arrangements that he has 
caused to be made for having them appropriately dedicated are 
commendable in the highest degree. 

It is indeed a pleasure and an honor to have the privilege of partic- 
ipating in this dedicatory event, and for those who, like myself, served 
under General Doubleday on this battlefield it is especially so. As 
well as being in his command at Gettysburg, I can say with pardon- 
able pride on this occasion that I was always a favorite with General 
Doubleday. I admired him and reverenced him highly, and as I now 
look back more than fifty years I can say that he had personal charms 
which were fascinating. Our intimacy was kept up for a long number 
of years after the war, and I frequently called on him when he resided 
at Park Avenue in New York City. Then it was that I learned from 
him how keenly he ever felt the humiliation of the order which 


1Rew iporfc flDonuments Commission 

deprived him of his command in the Army of the Potomac, after the 
Gettysburg campaign, in which none had done more to make it the 
great success that it was. His heart and soul were in his profession, 
and his reputation as a soldier was as dear to him as life itself. 

Abner Doubleday was born at Ballston Spa, X. Y., on June 26, 
1819. He came of a soldier stock. At the age of eighteen, his grand- 
father, after whom he was called Abner, was in action at Bunker Hill, 
and he was also with General Wayne when the assault was made on 
Stony Point. Having become incapacitated from marching by reason 
of service in the field and the hardships that he endured while confined 
in the prison ship ' Jersey ", he was transferred to the navy and 
became an officer on an American privateer. General Doubleday's 
father, Ulysses Doubleday, was a native of Lebanon, Conn. Coming 
to New York he settled in Ballston Spa, where he established the 
Saratoga Conner. Subsequently, he moved to Auburn, where, in 
1819, he founded the Cayuga Patriot, the publication of which was 
continued for twenty years. During that period he was twice elected 
to Congress as a Jackson Democrat, representing his district from 
1831 to 1833 and again from 1835 to 1837. 

The subject of my discourse entered the military academy at 
West Point on September 1, 1838, and was graduated four years 
after. Lieut. Doubledav's first assignment was in the Third 
U. S. Artillery. He fought at Monterey and Buena Vista during 
the Mexican war. He was in Mexico again in 18.54 and 185,5, in the 
movements against the Apache Indians; and after being promoted 
Captain he took part in expeditions for quelling uprisings in Florida 
among the Seminole Indians, 1856 to 1858. Assigned to duty in 
Charleston Harbor in 1860, he took a prominent part, as second officer 
in the garrison, in the defense of Fort Moultrie and Fort Sumter, 
firing the first gun in answer to the assault on Fort Sumter, which 
practically began the Civil War. He was with Patterson before the 
first Bull Run, and was subsequently engaged on defensive work at 
Washington, until, in May, 1862, he took charge of a brigade under 
McDowell at Fredericksburg. His regiments practically received 
their baptism of fire in the Second Manassas campaign. Succeeding 
Hatch, who was incapacitated by a wound at South Mountain, Gen- 
eral Doubleday commanded a division in Hooker's Corps at Antie- 
tam, where he signalized himself holding the extreme right of the 
Union line. His brigades were actively engaged in Burnside's opera- 


fll>a|ot>(5eneral Doublefca^ 

tions at Fredericksburg, but at Cbancellorsville, fought under 
Hooker, with the rest of the First Corps, they were mostly held in 

But if the First Corps was comparatively inactive at Cbancellors- 
ville, in the next campaign, Gettysburg, it was in the vanguard and 
bore the brunt of the momentous opening conflict there. This was 
General Doubleday's greatest, and as it unfortunately turned out, 
his last battle. 

General Reynolds, who on June 13th at Falmouth was put in 
command of the left wing of the Union army, the First, Third and 
Eleventh Corps, with Buford's Division of Cavalry, reached Marsh 
Creek, five miles south of Gettysburg, on June 30th. He arrived on 
the battlefield with Wadsworth's Division of the First Corps just as 
Buford's men were being pushed back by the advancing Confederates 
the morning of July 1st. He met Buford coming down from the 
belfry of the Lutheran Seminary. Accosting Reynolds and saving 
" The devil is to pay, but we can hold on until the infantry gets up," 
they both rode out together on the Chambersburg Pike, to the point 
near the McPherson barn, from which they watched the cavalry (dis- 
mounted) trying to hold their ground against heavy odds. 

After viewing the field and concluding that the ridge they were 
on was suitable for infantry action, Reynolds sent his aide, Lieut. 
S. M. Weld (now General Weld, of Boston), to General Meade, 
then at Taney town, some fifteen miles away, to tell him that the Con- 
federates were approaching in great force, and that there was danger 
of the heights near the town being seized before he could get enough 
troops to defend them; also. that the streets would be barricaded, if 
necessary, and the ground contested all possible to keep the enemy 
in check. Meade's comment on this message was, "just like 
Reynolds. " These heights are what is known as Cemetery Hill, which 
did not escape the eye of the great soldier as he rode up from his 
night's bivouac. 

At the same time Reynolds sent an order to General Howard to 
move the Eleventh Corps to the scene as rapidly as possible and take 
position on Cemetery Hill. Howard always denied that any men- 
tion was made of Cemetery Hill in this verbal order, and claimed that 
his placing of the division of Von Steinwehr there on its way to 
Gettysburg was his own thought, and v/as in noways suggested to 
him. The matter is of importance only in that Howard received a 


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vote of " Thanks of Congress " for the foresight and action exercised 
by him that helped to give the battle of Gettysburg to the northern 

The message to Meade and the order to Howard having been sent, 
Reynolds rode back to his troops to hurry them forward. On the 
way he was told by an aide-de-camp that General Doubleday then 
on the field in advance of his own division was awaiting instructions. 
The answer was, " Tell General Doubleday I will hold on to this 
road " (the Chambersburg Road) " and he must hold on to that one ' 
(meaning the Hagerstown Road). These were the last words that 
passed between them. 

Cutler's Brigade, of Wadsworth's Division, was the first infan- 
try force on the Federal side to reach Gettysburg, and they were put 
into position by Reynolds himself. The Seventy-sixth and One hun- 
dred and forty-seventh New York and the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania 
were posted north of the railroad cut, relieving the cavalry; the 
Eighty-fourth and Ninety-fifth New York took up positions south 
of the railroad and between it and the McPherson Woods. About 
half past nine o'clock the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania fired the first 
infantry volley aimed at the enemy. 

As Archer's Brigade was seen advancing on the McPherson 
Woods, Reynolds placed himself at the head of the leading regiment, 
the Sixth Wisconsin, saying to them, " For God's sake drive these 
fellows out of the woods." Turning his face to see whether the other 
regiments were close at hand, he was struck in the head by a bullet 
and died instantly. This happened about a quarter past ten. 

General Doubleday took his place, and proved himself worthy 
of the tremendous responsibility that devolved on him. No general 
then in the Army of the Potomac was better qualified than he to direct 
a corps. In considering his ripe experience and skill in military science, 
together with his temperament, I am led to put him in the same 
class witli such commanders as General George H. Thomas. Like 
Thomas, lie was imperturbable, had a clear head at critical moments, 
and possessed the faculty of quick perception as to just what ought 
to be done in an emergency. The knowledge that General Doubleday 
was the trusted lieutenant of the great Reynolds had its influence on 
the men of the First Corps when they heard he was their new leader. 
They felt at once that it was to be a fight to the end no wavering 
on any part of the line. 

flDajor General Doubled 

After the cavalry withdrew, the three regiments north of the rail- 
road cut were fiercely assailed hy Davis's Brigade, and ere long the 
attack became so overpowering that Wadsworth ordered his men to 
fall back temporarily. These instructions were belated in reaching 
the One hundred and forty-seventh New York, and in consequence it 
suffered terribly. Then the Eighty-fourth and Ninety-fifth New 
York, with the Sixth Wisconsin, came to the rescue and drove Davis's 
men back beyond Willoughby Run, making a large number of them 

Returning to where we left the First Brigade, Meredith's, enter 
the McPherson Woods to grapple with the advancing Archer. It 
took sharp fighting to drive Archer's men back, but back they were 
compelled to go, Archer himself, with a large part of his command, 
being captured. 

From eleven to one there was a lull in the battle, which, up to the 
former hour had been decidedly in favor of the Federals, with trophies 
amounting to one general, two regimental flags and hundreds of pris- 
oners. During this interval each side was getting troops up, and 
preparing for the long hard fight that was to come in the afternoon. 
General Doubleday's own division, the Third, had already completed 
its march, followed by General Robinson's, the Second Division. 

During the lull General Doubleday rectified the lines of the First 
Corps, and put in position Stone's and Biddle's brigades, placing 
the One hundred and fifty-first Pennsylvania near the Seminary as 
a reserve. This same disposition was also at first made of Robinson's 
Second Brigade, which on its arrival there about noon was ordered to 
throw up breastworks. This wise precaution served in good stead 
afterwards when the troops were retreating. The Iron Brigade was 
brought back from Willoughby Run and placed in the woods in good 
position for defense, and Cutler's Brigade was advanced to a line 
where it could take more effective part in the impending struggle. 

The One hundred and fiftieth Pennsylvania regiment my own 
regiment of Stone's " Bucktail " Brigade, composed of regiments 
from the Keystone State, was posted on the ground first occupied by 
the Eighty-fourth New York, while the One hundred and forty-ninth 
and One hundred and forty-third Pennsylvania stood on the Cham- 
bersburg Pike, towards the town. Biddle's Brigade was stationed 
south of the McPherson Woods. 

About one o'clock the Confederate batteries of Pegram and 


1Rew H?ork Monuments Commission 

Mcintosh, at Herr's Tavern, out on the Chambersburg Pike, began 
a fierce fusilade, with twenty guns, while Heth, with his division now 
reorganized, advanced to renew his attack which had so signally failed 
in the morning. Behind Heth's line was Pender's strong division, 
extended also in line of battle and ready to cover Heth's retreat, if 
necessary, or to follow up his success if victorious. In Heth's Division 
there were eleven North Carolina regiments and in Pender's nine; 
these were considered the best troops in physique and in courage that 
any Southern State had on the field. Twice did Heth attack General 
Doubleday's men on the McPherson Ridge, but he was met with such 
stubborn resistance that his forces drew back, and eighteen fresh 
regiments taking their place there was a third and a fourth assault. 

At half past one a new element interposed. Guns on Oak Hill, 
a mile to the north of Stone's Brigade, were commencing to hurl their 
projectiles upon our men on the fighting line, and back of these guns 
were Ewell's troops the divisions of Early and Rodes returning 
from the vicinity of Harrisburg and Columbia. This was the first 
knowledge General Doubleday had of the actual presence of Ewell's 
Corps on the field, although, earlier in the day, Buford warned him 
that Ewell's proximity should be reckoned with. Earlv's infantry 
threatening Cutler's Brigade, now well to the front, General Double- 
day found it expedient to rearrange his lines. 

Accordingly, steps were taken to bring Cutler back to the crest 
of Seminary Ridge and to send Baxter's Brigade, of General Robin- 
son's Division, then in reserve, to a point three-eighths of a mile north 
of Cutler, where the Mummasburg Road crosses Seminary Ridge. A 
little after, Robinson's other brigade Paul's was ordered to 
reinforce Cutler and Baxter. General Robinson himself accompanied 

General Robinson was a capable and experienced soldier, of great 
courage. Spending three years at West Point, he received his com- 
mission in 1839. In the Mexican War, where a great many Civil 
War commanders received their first practical training. General Rob- 
inson acquitted himself very creditably. Just after Fair Oaks he 
succeeded to the command of a brigade. This he led in the seven 
days' battles, at the Second Manassas and Fredericksburg, and he 
commanded a division at Chancellorsville. 

General Howard came to the field before noon, but took little 
or no part at the time, as the successor of Reynolds, in directing the 

flDajor*(Seneral oublefca^ 

left wing of the army. The first and third divisions of his corps, the 
Eleventh, began arriving ahout one o'clock. Schurz, to whom 
Howard had entrusted the immediate charge of his corps, was under 
orders to occupy Oak Hill, but that point being already in the hands 
of the Confederates, his men were obliged to take up positions on the 
open fields, a half mile to the right of Robinson. The ground occu- 
pied by the regiments of the Eleventh Corps was extremely hard 
to defend, but thev made a determined resistance. The One bun- 
dred and fifty-seventh New York, of this corps, sustained a loss 
of 61 per cent., and the Forty-first, Sixty-eighth, Fifty-fourth, 
Forty-fifth, Fifty-eighth and One hundred and nineteenth Xew 
York also suffered severely. 

At half past three, Early came up with an overwhelming force 
and drove the Eleventh Corps back to the town, from whence it 
retreated to Cemetery Hill. This left Robinson's Division exposed 
to attack from the rear and it was compelled to withdraw from its 
position. This, for the time being, settled the fate of the First Corps. 
General Doubleday, realizing the danger that confronted his troops, 
asked Howard for reinforcements, or else permission to retire. 
Howard sent word that none of his regiments could be spared and 
that when General Doubleday found further resistance impossible he 
should take his divisions to Cemetery Hill. Howard gave no other 
order than this to General Doubleday during that day. Earlier in 
the day, Howard received what might be construed as an official order 
from General Doubleday, which was that Howard should keep Ewell 
from assailing the First Corps and that he himself would hold 
A. P. Hill's Corps at arm's length until the arrival of additional 

As this occasion has to do with General Doubleday principally, 
we will dismiss Howard from our minds for the present, and revert 
to the fine work that General Doubleday did directing the movements 
of the First Corps. 

Rodes seeing Baxter advancing was prompt to take the initiative. 
He hurled O'Neal's Brigade upon Baxter, but O'Neal was repulsed 
with heavy loss. Then Iverson's Brigade assailed Cutler, but 
Baxter's men from behind a stone wall sprang to their feet, and firing 
upon the enemy well-directed volleys five hundred of them fell, three 
more of the regiments, about a thousand men, having been made 


IFtew IPorfc flDonuments Commission 

General Doubleday watching these contests, at once sent Paul's 
Brigade, accompanied by General Robinson in person, to the assist- 
ance of Cutler. While Iverson was making his attack Rodes sent 
Daniels's Brigade against Stone's regiments on the Chambersburg 
Pike. Daniels made several fruitless attempts, by a frontal attack, 
to dislodge Stone, and then tried to accomplish his object by making 
a detour to strike him on the flank. Each of these endeavors was 
frustrated by the One hundred and fiftieth Pennsylvania, which had 
left its position temporarily, facing Heth towards the west, and, in 
quick strikes, drove Daniels back to the west end of the railroad cut. 

While this was going on, the enemy made a furious attack upon 
Biddle's Brigade, posted south of the Iron Brigade in the woods. 
General Doubledav sent the One hundred and fiftv-first Pennsylvania 
to Biddle's aid, and so gallantly did that nine months' regiment throw 
itself into its first real fight that it sustained a loss of 71 per cent, 
of its officers and men. 

The records also show that on July 1st, the One hundred and forty- 
seventh New York lost 70 per cent., the Seventy-sixth New York 
62 per cent., and the One hundred and fifty-seventh New York 61 
per cent., not to mention the great losses sustained by other New 
York regiments and regiments from Maine, Michigan, Wisconsin, 
Indiana, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Ohio. The 
fighting spirit of General Doubleday had surely animated the men 
whom he commanded. 

The right of the First Corps line being overpowered for lack of 
support, General Doubleday gave orders to begin a retreat. After 
reaching the Seminary, where intrenchments were thrown up early 
in the day, a further stand was made for half an hour, with the aid 
of the batteries. Then the retreat was continued to Cemetery Hill. 

Bearing in mind it was intimated in the report sent by Reynolds 
to Meade in the morning that the day's battle was likely to be against 
the Federals, the generalship displayed by General Doubleday 
throughout this tremendous duel was of the highest order. He acted 
his part with superb skill at every hour until his corps was safely 
lodged at Cemetery Hill. The splendid defense, also, that he made 
finally at the Seminary was one of the marked features of the day's 

When the First Corps joined the Eleventh at Cemetery Hill, 
Howard sent Wadsworth's Division to Culp's Hill, General Double- 

flDajot>(3eneral :ouble&a\> 

day taking the other two divisions to the cemetery, where they rested 
that night. 

Next day, again eonfined to the command of only one division, 
for Newton had been appointed to the command of the First Corps, 
General Doubleday was given position south of the Angle, where, 
on the third day, during the repulse of Pickett's charge, Stannard's 
Brigade of his division captured 2,000 of Longstreet's men and several 
pieces of artillery. 

In the great three-day battle no capture of men in any consider- 
able numbers was made except those taken by General Doubleday, 
who accounted for five thousand of the enemv in this manner. 

The field returns of June 30th show that the First Corps num- 
bered 9,403 officers and men, which, of course, included men in the 
rear with the supply trains, and it may be assumed that among officers 
and men it had about 8,500 in the battle of the first day. The casual- 
ties of the corps were 3,587 killed or wounded and 2,173 captured or 
missing. To its credit, as before stated, were prisoners of war to the 
number of 5,000, five regimental colors and one brigadier general. 
The First Corps lost no colors in the front, but the flag of the One 
hundred and fiftieth Pennsylvania was taken during the retreat. 
Jefferson Davis had this flag in his trunk when captured, and it is at 
present in Harrisburg, in the State flag room. 

The First Corps lost only one piece of artillery, and this was taken 
during the scrimmages of the retreat. 

General Doubleday was in height and weight considerably above 
the average. He stood six feet at least. He was a handsome man 
a brunette and so striking in his appearance that, whether riding or 
walking, he would attract attention anywhere. He was always digni- 
fied; his manners were pleasing and he was ever courteous to those 
who came into contact with him. Notable among his characteristics 
was the interest that he took in the comfort and welfare of those in 
his command. His modesty prevented him from having about him 
an unnecessarv number of aides, but he wanted those in his military 
family to be alert, neat and attentive to their duties. 

I could relate many interesting personal recollections of General 
Doubleday, but have onlv room for a few of them here. 

A brother officer in the artillery (who may have been Magruder), 
on account of an altercation, challenged General Doubleday to fight 
a duel. This was in his younger days. He declined, saying he had 


IRew iporfc flDonuments Commission 

no reason for killing any one. Then the challenger averred he would 
insult Doubleday at the first oj)portunity and force him to fight. 
Hearing this Doubleday said if that was to be he knew how to 
defend himself. They met each other many years after on a battle- 
field in Mexico, and honorable amends were then made when this 
unpleasant incident was recalled and mentioned. 

General Doubleday was so placid so free from any sudden 
impulse that the members of his staff used to call him " Forty- 
eight Hours." His habitual composure in a marked degree influenced 
the officers and men under him. 

As Stone's Brigade was reaching Gettysburg along the front of 
the grove west of the Seminary they passed General Doubleday and 
his staff. He was in the saddle, cool and motionless, absorbed in deep 
thought, and as each of the three regiments went by he called out to 
them, " Men, General Reynolds has been killed. To-day you are to 
fight in Pennsylvania. Do your best." These inspiring words still 
ring in my ears, and the figure of the general as he spoke them is as 
clear to me now recalling it as it was fifty-four years ago. 

At one time in the spring of 1863, when our soldiers, employed 
on expeditions beyond Falmouth, were bringing in large numbers of 
colored men, while more of them were arriving without any escort, 
General Doubleday asked me if I would not organize a regiment from 
the best of these escaped slaves. This was in advance of public opin- 
ion on the subject, but it was a scheme to which he had given much 
thought. I did not take to the idea of promotion to a full colonelcy of 
the kind he suggested, and that was, as far as I know, the end of 
his trying to work out the plan he had in mind. 

On one occasion I was engaged on a tour of duty in the picket 
line along the Rappahannock, and when making a report of it to 
General Doubleday he took me to task for allowing some of the men 
in my detail to milk a herd of cows that they happened to light upon. 
For defense, I told him it was a kind of " peace move," or compromise, 
on my part that they did not carry off the cows themselves and drive 
them into the camp, that I had flattered myself on the way I acted as 
an impartial umpire in the matter, saving the cattle, if less their milk, 
for the farmer whose fields were invaded. Then the general smiled 
and said, " I am only telling you what was reported to me." 

An enlisted man captured Archer on July 1. 1863, and brought 
him to General Doubleday. Holding out his hand as a token of no 

fl|}ajoi>(5eneral oublefcap 

ill will to a West Pointer, he said, "Archer, I am glad to see you." 
This cordiality was met with the reply, k Douhleday, I am not a 
damn bit glad to see you." 

A very delightful and encouraging feature of the dedications that 
we are conducting to-day is the participation in them by so many 
delegations representing the New York commands in the First Corps. 
And their successors, too, from several States, are with us, I am glad 
to say, in large and inspiring numbers. If my voice could reach each 
of the twelve thousand soldier boys in khaki now encamped on the 
plain near us, preparing for military service in war-stricken France 
and Belgium, I would tell them that upon returning home, after 
helping to crush autocracy in Europe, a grateful and appreciative 
country will have more than thanks in store for them. They cannot 
help pondering over the fact that they are witnesses to-day of valor 
and duty faithfully performed being honored with statues. And I 
would also remind them that among those who rendered soldier serv- 
ice to their country are the following, who rose in their turn to be 
Presidents of the United States: Washington, Monroe, Jackson, 
William Henry Harrison, Taylor, Pierce, Lincoln, Grant, Hayes, 
Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, McKinley and Boosevelt. The same 
high honor would also have fallen to Scott, Fremont, McClellan and 
Hancock but for political conditions that debarred their election. 


Bfcfcress by jfrands flD. Hugo, Secretary of State 

Colonel Stegman, Men of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
Ladies and Gentlemen : 

IT happens that for the State which I have the honor to represent 
on this occasion, this year of 1917 has rounded out some very 
interesting anniversaries. A hundred years ago, the year when 
General Robinson was born General Doubleday being his junior 
by two years it was a mooted question, which was the foremost 
commonwealth in this country, in point of population and wealth, 
New York or Virginia. The census returns compiled not long after 
gave the award to New York, and that it has ever since maintained 
its pride of place as the Empire State goes without saying. It is also 
an exact century since the first sod was dug for the construction of 
the Erie canal, and the most that was predicted of it then as an engi- 
neering and commercial project fell short long ago of what it actually 
accomplished Another item in the history of that year, 1817, of 
which New Yorkers have additional reason to be proud was the enact- 
ment, during the administration of Governor Daniel D. Tompkins, 
of the law ordering the abolition of slavery in their State on and after 
Independence Day, 1827. 

A little more than half a century since, New York and Virginia 
were again strenuously competing against each other, notably on 
this field where we are assembled to-day, for at Gettysburg New 
York had the most troops in the Union army and Virginia among the 
Southern forces. During the three days that that momentous struggle 
raged the men of the North and the men of the South noblest 
representatives of our race were in a death grip to determine 
whether this nation should be a Confederacy of separate states or an 
indissoluble union. The fate of our beloved country then hung in the 
balance. These rolling hills and plains gave back the echoes of the 
cannon's roar, the rattle of musketry and the clash of steel. The 
whole world was eagerly watching the result, and lo! the tide of 
Southern aggression, after reaching its highest wave, began to roll 
back, when Longstreet's historic assault was repulsed at the Angle. 

flDajor General Doublefca\> 

Waterloo was not more fateful for autocracy in Europe on June 18, 
181.5, than Gettysburg was for the advocates of disunion in America 
on July 3, 1863. 

We of the Empire State take just pride in commemorating the 
deeds and perpetuating the memories of its gallant sons who ven- 
tured their lives or lost their lives on this and other battlefields, that 
the nation should remain one and inseparable. We have made this 
pilgrimage to pay deserved tribute to two of New York's most illus- 
trious Gettysburg heroes Major-General Abner Doubleday and 
Major-General John C. Robinson. In them were to be found in a 
large measure the qualities of indomitable commanders. 

Born at Ballston Spa, N. Y., educated at West Point, and receiv- 
ing practical training in the school of warfare during the operations 
in Mexico, as well as in movements for quelling Indian uprisings, 
General Doubleday was well equipped by experience and study for 
the important part he was called on to act in Civil War conflicts. He 
took a prominent part in the defense of Fort Sumter, firing the first 
gun in reply to the assault made on it. He served with Patterson 
before the First Bull Run and marched with Pope from the Rap- 
pahannock to the Second Bull Run. His troops were actively 
engaged at South Mountain, and at Antietam he led a division in 
Hooker's Corps, posted at the right of the Federal lines. He was 
also at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. 

It was here at Gettysburg that General Doubleday got his first 
opportunity to command an entire corps. He is the acknowledged 
hero of the first dav's conflict on this field, at anv rate on the Union 
side. By his noble work in that initial contest the way was paved for 
the repulse of Pickett's charge, which decided the battle in favor of 
the Federal forces. 

This consecration is symbolic of the manhood which New York 
gave, in well nigh countless numbers, to the Union from 1861 to 
1865. We are proud of the splendid achievements and the heroic 
sacrifices to the credit of our State during the Civil War; and at 
celebrations such as we are holding to-day it is fully in order to 
rehearse and emphasize them. Proud also are we of the big quota 
the Empire State is contributing to the new army that is being raised, 
to the end that the cause of democracy may be upheld. New York, 
there is not the slightest doubt, will be always arrayed and in the 
forefront, to an effective and exemplary degree, against despotism 


IRew UJorfc flfeonuments Commission 

and plundering and in crushing the vicious doctrine that might makes 

There is a manifest destiny of this great nation, founded upon 
important principles and buttressed by a just constitution and 
equitable laws. Amid the tempests which have threatened to encom- 
pass its ruin, we glory in the thought that men have been raised up 
sufficient to meet any emergency, however great. It is the genius, 
the courage, the will to do, and the self-sacrifice, of such men as 
General Doubleday and General Robinson that have contributed 
more than anything else to make this nation the greatest democracy 
in the world. 


CUTt'Y* ! 


1> /. Kl AND 

mi; oi : 


tVauAt i.s;.A.M/.nci: f?.f&6$.1>OK 



(Suns of tbe R> anfc the IRew 

Gettysburg, 1863=1917 
By Joseph I. C. Clarke 

Gettysburg, ground where the deeds that are deathless are singing forever. 

Valley and heights where the battle lines wavered, the fierce armies grappled ; 

Men of the Union in shock against men who would rend it asunder ! 

Wild was thy charging and stout thy defending, and heavy thy roster of dead. 

Bellowed more guns on thy slopes, in thy hollows than war ever volleyed 

Gallant old field-guns that ate up their hundreds with grape-shot and canister. 

Field of high fate where the huge iron battle-scales tipped to the Union, 

Never to rise for the foe through the ruck of the dying rebellion. 

Glory sits proud on thee. Valor, devotion, and uttermost sacrifice 

Shout from thy story valor unshrinking of friend and of f oeman, 

Asking a sign in the heavens to answer their passion and strain. 

Answer was given as Lee stole away in the night and the shadows. 

Splendid in blood of thy dead was the mighty decision emblazoned: 

" I am Columbia, your mother; my Union unbroken; my liberty 

Golden and rock-ribbed, to live for mankind till the limit of time." 

Now, with the healing of years rounding out on the centuries' beadroll, 
Tense and united the nation stands blessing and guarding our mother. 
North and South, East and West, one in the throb of delight and endeavor, 
Grim though the call of the hour be, and fateful the roll of the drum. 

Not as aforetime they glanced down on Gettysburg, glance we to-day. 
Battle-smoke poisonous dims for our gazing the curve of thy parapets. 
Tyrants have risen to darken the sky line with menace of blight. 
Autocrats, soulless invaders and plunderers raping the nations, 
Rage in miasma and stench with their glittering dupes by the million. 
Armed and embattled the nations whose hearts beat for Freedom have risen. 
We of the West in our millions have answered democracy's call 
Legions of freemen to fight or to die for a world won to Freedom. 
Led by our wisest and bravest, we muster and sail oversea. 


IRew Ji)ork flDonuments Commission 

There from the seas to the mountains are battle-fronts writhing and bristling. 
Roaring a hundred times louder than ever broke thunder of battle, 
Rolls out devouring and crashing, the drumfire of Verdun and Flanders. 
Monster of mouth are the cannon through day and night hurling their war-bolts, 
Mightier howitzers belching in hundreds and crackling machine guns 
Screeching in chorus, mid bursting and shatt'ring of great shell and shrapnel 
Hell's diapason tremendous let loose as in salvoes volcanic. 
Seamed is the earth with the gulleys of craters and dugouts and trenches, 
Gashing the greensward with red-edged and sandbag revetment. 
Shudders the ground with the shock of explosions, and tremble the sky-spaces 
Reverberating, where birdmen on lightning wing dart dropping death. 
Suddenly thousands in steel caps with bayonets shining are over the top, 
Cheering and slaying. Falling in winrows, they reel but press forward, 
Over the No Man's Land, making it bloodily, once again, France ! 

Gettysburg ! Low sinks thine echo, for all thine artillery rattle. 

Millions strike now for the hundreds of thousands of brave men before. 

Yet while the cause counts and man counts, thy peak of red glory unshaken 

Rises but higher and clearer among the blue realms of the stars. 

How could this nation have risen to take up the sword for a world, 

But for thy days of hot battle ? Who would have courage to lead us ? 

Meade, Reynolds, Hancock; Doubleday, Slocum; Sykes, Howard, Sedgwick and 

Give us their lamps for our feet. Beyond them the grim strength of Grant, 
Vigor of Sherman and Sheridan's lightning are living to guide us. 
Genius of Lee, too, and spirits of Longstreet and Ewell and Hill 
Smile from their graves on our swarming battalions in counsel and cheer. 
Yea, in thy glimmering dusk shines a face sorrow-lighted, appealing, 
Voicing the psalm of thy heroes who died, yet who perished not, 
Here on the lap of their mother, that under God's willing the nation shall live. 
Lincoln's low lip-tones pealed out the great gospel that leads us to-day ! 

Stand we then here in the sun of September, recalling a day of July; 

Lee, turning baffled from fruitless invasion, was tramping back southward, 

Word of it sifting to westward where hovered the legions of Meade. 

Cavalry, foot and artillery hurrying came up through Maryland, 

Here to encounter them vanguard to vanguard. Thousands the stronger, 

Hill with his fighting men faced us. Cannon roared; Reynolds fell battling. 

Hard through the hours fell on Doubleday summons to ward off disaster. 


fll>ajoi>(Scneral E>oublefca\> 

Glorious his struggle and skillful his measures, but vainly they strove. 

Doggedly back they were pressed, dying bravely and halting and hoping. 

Night saw our armies on-swinging, and morning the Union arrayed. 

Went thence the story of battle in gory besetting to victory ; 

Peach Orchard, Devil's Den, Wheat field and Round Top soaking in carnage. 

Pickett in gallant charge failing and drifting back shivered and broken. 

Day of the nation's birth, waved the old banner supreme o'er the field ! 

Glory, strong Doubkday ! Ever may hours of impending calamity 
Fall upon shoulders like thine, and before thy memorial I swear it, 
Holding thee peer of them all who here thundered to fame and reward. 
Robinson, thou who in manfulness checked the fierce onset, thy statue, 
Bronze-breasted, finds 'mong the heroes none clearer of bronze than wert thou. 

Gettysburg, shrine where the pray'rs of the battle-dead cry out unceasing, 
Borne from thine altars of marble that rise in long lines where they bled, 
Pray as the nation on-marching forth flashes its sword from the scabbard. 
Glory enough if our serving win on to humanity's goal, 
Guns of the old and the new roaring rhythmic their war-song together. 


agrees b Colonel HDereMtb X. 3ones t of General 

Doublefcap's Staff 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gextlemex, axd Comrades: 

THE invitation to speak at these ceremonies for dedicating the 
statue to my old commander is an honor that I appreciate 
very much. I served on General Doubleday's staff in the 
battle of Gettysburg, and previously, and it was my privilege to be 
included in his circle of friends for a long number of years. You 
will therefore be able to realize my feelings now as I am about to 
contribute my share of respect to his memory. 

I have almost as clear a recollection of the troubles and trials 
centered around this spot on that morning and afternoon of July 1, 
1863. as I had when the battle was ended. Recalling the great 
struggle staged here I maintain now, as I have always maintained 
and the orator of the day, General Huidekoper, I have not the least 
doubt, will bear me out in this, for he was there, too that General 
Doubleday's was the ruling spirit in opposing and delaying the Con- 
federate advance on Gettysburg. It is only an eye witness and par- 
ticipant that is able to gauge accurately the difficulties and dangers 
encountered in that terrible ordeal. Eventually, of course, General 
Doubleday's troops were forced to give way, with the regiments of 
the Eleventh Corps co-operating with them on the right; how else 
could it be with such odds against them? but as it turned out in the 
end the end of the third day they were virtually vanquished 
victors; for by occupying and holding Cemetery Hill, where they had 
retreated, until further reinforcements arrived on the scene, they 
prevented the Confederates from securing the choice of positions for 
the ensuing conflicts. 

It is true that General Reynolds, than whom no commander in 
the Army of the Potomac enjoyed a higher reputation, did not fail 
to realize at the very beginning the great advantage of possessing 
Cemetery Hill and its environments: and it is recorded to his credit 
that while making disposition of his division first in action and send- 
ing orders to hurry the rest of the troops to the front he kept those 

flfeajoixSeneral Doublet^ 

important places constantly in his mind's eye; but it is no less true 
that General Doubleday, with his own sagacity and foresight, grasped 
the situation equally well, and his action all day long can be adduced 
in proof of this fact. 

Even a week before Meade secured his victory of the " high-water 
mark " General Doubleday jwirited Gettysburg out on the map as a 
place offering rare strategical advantage. This he did to his staff, 
and my own recollection of it can be confirmed by a document at 
present in my possession. Well do I remember his saying when we 
finished our march to the field, " We must hold this line to the last 

Early that morning he ordered me to ride to the McPherson 
Woods to observe the strength of the enemy and their doings on the 
Cashtown, or Chambersburg, Road. And what I told him on return- 
ing was not very encouraging I assure you. The Confederates were 
massed beyond Willoughby Run in numbers so much in excess of 
ours that the outlook appeared nothing short of appalling. It would 
seem as if we could not help being driven hack, if not surrounded, 
before there was time to offer much resistance. It was not so, how- 
ever, notwithstanding the disparity in numbers of the two opposing 
vanguards ; at least not for some time yet to come. For the first two 
hours or so, during which time General Doubleday held the chief 
command in the field, the advantage was clearly in our favor, and 
Heth's two brigades, after hundreds of them being captured, beat a 
hasty retreat beyond the ridges at Willoughby Run. 

Two divisions of A. P. Hill's Corps were reinforced by two 
divisions of Ewell's Corps for the big battle of the afternoon. The 
stubborn resistance offered them by the First Corps and the Eleventh 
for hours was abandoned at last and the Union forces retreated to 
Cemetery Hill. For every two men we had there were more than 
three against us. The retreat on the whole was made in good order. 
The losses suffered bv the Union forces reached awful figures; but 
we had enough men left, I believe, and certainly sufficient determina- 
tion, to give a further good account of ourselves had Ewell made up 
his mind to follow us farther and assail Cemetery Hill. 

As we reached the cemetery we turned in through the portal, on 
the west side of the road, and General Doubledav lost not a moment 
in making preparations for a possible renewal of the fighting. I 
was at that time under instructions from him to direct the officers of 


IRew l?ork Monuments Commission 

the different regiments where he wished them to post their men. 
Schurz, who had immediate command of the Eleventh Corps, was, as 
I remember well, also busy that hour finding positions for his troops. 
It did not take General Doubleday long to end all confusion and put 
his units in the best of order. He had the situation, as far as his own 
command was concerned, well in hand when Hancock rode up to 
consult him in the evening. 

The time that it is possible to allow me in the course of these 
exercises is not long enough to dwell on the contest of the first day; 
and anyway it forms a chapter in the story of the great battle with 
which you must all he more or less familiar; certainly, all my com- 
rades present who were with the Army of the Potomac at Gettys- 
burg are fully acquainted with it. One incident, however, I cannot 
forbear relating, for I was of the audience when it took place. In 
the scrimmage of the first morning a Confederate general was cap- 
tured. General Doubleday and he were old-time friends and as 
brother officers had met many a time and oft during piping times of 
peace; and now they had met as commanders of forces in strife with 
each other. " Why," exclaimed General Doubleday when he saw 
the prisoner being led towards him, " there is Archer," and a moment 
after he greeted him. " Why, how do you do, Archer, I am glad to 
see you." The response made to this salutation was, " Well, I don't 
know that I am so damned glad to see you." 

As well as being eminent in his profession and remarkably well 
versed in all its branches, General Doubleday's culture covered a 
wide field of attainments. 

It can also be well said of him that he was kindly, just and true. 
His manner was never assuming or harsh, and he was never unneces- 
sarily severe towards those under him. He was a gentleman of 
exemplary habits. Words of profanity ever remained strangers to 
his lips. Tobacco or liquor he never indulged in; but he did not 
object to others using them, provided they did not abuse them by 
going beyond the bounds of moderation. 

One night when I was on duty at Belle Plain, where we had 
headquarters, an officer, bareheaded, dashed toward me on a charger 
that seemed to me at first sight as uncontrollable as the horse that 
ran away with John Gilpin. Without dismounting, he demanded an 
interview right away with General Doubleday, who at that hour was 
fast asleep. It was easy to tell that our nocturnal visitor had been 

(lDajor*(5eneral E>ouble>a\> 

imbibing freely. His impatience and his persistency to accomplish 
his object, as well as his speech, left no doubt in my mind as to that. 
After a while advisory words softly spoken had their desired effect, 
and he galloped away as fast, if not faster, than he came. When I 
saw General Doubledav the next morning I told him about this 
incident. " Well, Mr. Jones, this was probably Captain -, 

from your description of him, and if that is the case I have only to 
say that an officer with his brilliant record may get drunk once in a 
while if he wants to." 

In his writings General Doubledav is not only lucid, but remark- 
ably so; and he was the same in speech. After issuing instructions 
to us seldom or never was it necessary for him to repeat himself. 
We alwavs knew exactlv what he wanted done and where he wanted 

ft V 

us to go. He had a very retentive memory and this was often shown 
during campaigns. There was not a thing pertaining to the units 
of his command and his officers that he wanted to know but was at 
his fingers' ends. While on marches one of his aides generally rode 
with him. and he used to shorten the hours and the distance con- 
siderablv bv telling stories, of which he had an inexhaustible fund. 
Reciting extracts from his favorite poets was another frequent 
pastime with him. 

It is most becoming that his own State should show its apprecia- 
tion as it has shown to-day, of General Doubleday's great services to 
his country: and the survivors of his command present at these cere- 
monies best know how deserving his memory is of the honor implied 
in them. 

I have just said that General Doubledav was wont to recite pas- 
sages from the works of his favorite poets; and I will conclude my 
remarks at the dedication of the statue to my commander on the 
battlefield of Gettysburg, with four lines by one of my own favorite 
authors, Bayard Taylor: 

" Sleep, soldier, still in honored rest 
Your truth and honor wearing, 
The bravest are the tenderest 
The loving are the daring." 


flDajot>(5eneral Hbner oublefca\> 

TO have been second in command defending Fort Sumter 
firing the first shot in reply to the attack made on it - - and 
to have been the mainstay of the heroic resistance made to 
the Confederate advance on Gettysburg, are two of the distinctions 
that have earned for Major-General Abner Doubleday a prominent 
place among Civil War commanders. 

" He was nerved to great deeds by the memory of his ancestors, 
who in former days had rendered service to the republic," these 
words from a passage in a book by General Doubleday, alluding to 
General Webb's part in repulsing Pickett's charge at the Angle, in 
Gettysburg, aptly enough suggest a motive that may have been 
often present in his own mind during crucial hours in battlefields 
where his skill and valor were put to severe tests. 

His grandfather, Captain Abner Doubleday, was a patriot 
soldier and fought at Bunker Hill and Stony Point. After being 
released from the prison ship "Jersey" he was transferred to the 
navy and became an officer on a privateer. He was a native of 
Lebanon, Conn. 

It was there also that Ulvses Freeman Doubledav, the father of 
General Doubleday, was born, on December 15, 1792. Coming to 
New York, he settled in Ballston Spa, and established the Saratoga 
Courier. From there he moved to Auburn and started another news- 
paper, the Cayuga Patriot, which ran its course for twenty years. 
During that period he was elected to Congress twice, as a Jackson 
Democrat, representing his district from 1831 to 183.5 and from 
1835 to 1837. For fourteen years, until 1860, he followed the busi- 
ness of bookseller and stationer in New York City. He died in 
Belvidere, Illinois, March 10, 1866. His wife, Hester Donnelly 
Doubleday, was born in Newburgh, N. Y., on August 30, 1788. 
They were married in 1814. Mrs. Doubleday died in New York, 
on November 14, 1859. 

Two other sons of Ulysses Freeman Doubleday, besides the sub- 
ject of this sketch, were also in the Civil War, Ulysses Doubleday and 
Thomas D. Doubleday. Ulysses joined the volunteers in 1861. He 


IRcw Ji)ork flDonuments Commission 

was made major in the Fourth N. Y. Heavy Artillery in January, 
1862; lieutenant-colonel in the Third U. S. Colored Infantry in 
September, 1863, and colonel in the Forty-fifth U. S. Colored 
Infantry in October, 1864. He commanded a brigade at the battle 
of Five Forks, Va., and was brevetted brigadier-general of volun- 
teers " for distinguished gallantry at Five Forks," in April, 186.5. 
After the war he was a banker and broker in New York City, and 
in 1882 he moved to North Carolina, as offering a climate better 
adapted to his health. There, at Asheville, he was engaged in the 
lumbering and building business. He died at Tryon, X. C, on 
February 11, 1893. It was his granddaughter, Miss Alice Seymour 
Doubleday, the daughter of Dr. Stewart Doubleday, of Quogue, 
L. I., who unveiled General Doubleday's statue at Gettysburg. 

Thomas D. Doubledav, General Doubledav's elder brother, was 
appointed colonel of the Fourth X. Y. Heavy Artillery in November, 
1861; a few months after he received a commission in that rank, and 
left the service early in 1863 on account of being disabled. His son, 
Stephen Ward Doubleday, now living in Mamaroneck, N. Y., also 
served with him in this regiment as lieutenant. He was wounded at 
Spotsylvania in May, 1864, in consequence of which he resigned 
from the army the following October. 

Doubleday is a name of Huguenot origin, and was originally 
spelled Dubaldy. Abner Doubleday, the member of the family who 
attained the highest military honors, was born at Ballston Spa on 
June 26, 1819. He attended school at Auburn, where his father was 
then residing, and attracted attention as a diligent and bright student, 
completing a course in civil engineering. After practicing his first 
profession for a brief period in Canada, as well as at home, he 
entered the military academy at West Point on September 1, 1838; 
and received a commission as brevet second lieutenant in the Third 
U. S. Artillerv on Julv 1, 1842. Lieut. Doubledav was on dutv in 
Fort Johnson, N. C, from 1842 to 1844; Fort McHenry, Md., in 
1844; Fort Moultrie, S. C, 1844 and 1845. He was transferred to 
the First Artillery, at Fort Preble, Me., in 1845. 

As an artillery officer he took part in the " Military Occupation " 
of Texas, 1845-1846. During the Mexican war he fought at Mon- 
terey, in September, 1846, and at Buena Vista (Riconda Pass) in 
February, 1847. On March 3, 1847, he was promoted to be second 


LW^tUWI IC'llIB llfiliS'lSjai 

M ,,!!. 












I J 



flDajor^encral Doublets 

In 18i9 and 1850 he was stationed at Fort Columbus, N. Y., 
from whence he conducted recruits to Florida. lie was assigned to 
duty at Fort Hamilton, N. Y., in 18.30; and for two years after that 
served again in Fort McHenry, Md. In 18.52, at the instance of the 
U. S. Senate, he served as a member of a commission appointed to 
investigate the matter of the Gardner mine claim in Mexico, and 
received the " Thanks of Congress " for his work on it. 

Sent to Fort Duncan, Texas, in 1854, that year and the following 
year his regiment was engaged with the troops that quelled uprisings 
among the Apache Indians. He was advanced to the rank of captain 
on March 3, 1855, and that year and 1856 he was at Fortress Monroe, 
Va. Captain Doubleday participated in the actions against the 
Seminole Indians in Florida from 1856 to 1858. 


At the end of 1859 and the early part of 1860 Captain Doubleday 
was absent from duty for a considerable time enjoying a vacation. 
The summer of 1860 found him stationed at the headquarters of his 
regiment, the First U. S. Artillery, at Fort Moultrie, in Charleston 

" Charleston/' he writes in one of his books, " at this period was far from being 
a pleasant place for a loyal man. Almost every public assemblage was tinctured 
with treasonable sentiments, and toasts against the flag were always warmly 
applauded. As early as July there was much talk of secession, accompanied with 
constant drilling, and threats of taking the forts as soon as a separation should 

The garrison at Charleston Harbor at that time had only eighty 
men. The work there called for at least three hundred. Captain 
Doubleday was the second officer in charge. Colonel Gardner, a 
native of Boston, was superseded in the supreme command by 
Major Robert Anderson. As the Presidential contest of that year 
drew nigh, the disunion propaganda in the South was prosecuted 
with increased vigor and the threats to seize the forts became more 
violent. The agitation at Charleston had already reached such a 
stage that the soldiers of the garrison could not go to the arsenal for 
fear of being attacked. Not many weeks after President Lincoln 
was elected, South Carolina seceded, and a few days after its seces- 
sion Major Anderson moved to Fort Sumter, as it offered better 


IRew IPorfc flDonuments Commission 

protection and was farther from the mob than Fort Moultrie. Fol- 
lowing is General Doubleday's description of Fort Sumter, from 
his volume entitled " Forts Moultrie and Sumter: " 

" The first thing that attracted the eye of the stranger, upon approaching 
Charleston from the sea, was Fort Sumter. It was built on an artificial island made 
of large blocks of stone. The walls were of dark brick, and designed for three 
tiers of guns. The whole structure, as it rose abruptly out of the water, had a 
gloomy, prison-like appearance. It was situated on the edge of the channel, in the 
narrowest part of the harbor, between Fort Moultrie and Cummings Point, distant 
about a mile from the former place, and twelve hundred yards from the latter. 
The year before, it had been used by us as a temporary place of confinement and 
security for some negroes that had been brought over from Africa in a slaver cap- 
tured by one of our naval vessels. The inevitable conflict was very near breaking- 
out at that time; for there was an eager desire on the part of all the people around 
us to seize these negroes, and distribute them among the plantations ; and if the 
government had not acted promptly in sending them back to Africa, I think an 
attempt would have been made to take them from us by force, on the ground that 
some of them had violated a State law by landing at Moultrieville." 

The removal of the garrison to Fort Sumter was construed by 
Governor Pickens of South Carolina as a pretext for engaging in 
war. He was bold enough to claim for his State then the status of 
an independent nation, and was fully determined already to have 
and to hold all its forts. Forthwith, he seized the evacuated fortifi- 
cations, with the arsenal, as well as the Charleston post office and 
custom house. 

Attention far and wide was now anxiously and constantly 
focused on Fort Sumter. Even dramas representing the plight of 
the garrison there were being produced in New York and Boston. 
But while this brought them distinction from outside it did not bring 
them what they were most in need of, troops for reinforcement. 

President Buchanan was very solicitous to complete his term of 
office without a collision occurring between the garrison and the 
newly organized forces around Charleston, though, on the other 
hand, he announced his determination to prevent the property of the 
government falling into the hands of the agitators. The responses 
made to Major Anderson's repeated application for additional 
troops were not encouraging: they have been characterized as little 
better than dillydallying. Major Anderson's position was becoming 
more and more untenable; in fact, it was anomalous as well, for 
while he was under instructions to cling to his island fortress at all 


HDajor General Double^ 

hazards, at the same time he was told not to molest his unfriendly 
neighbors, who were strenuously preparing to oust him by force. lie 
saw them day after day hard at work constructing batteries in his 
vicinity, at Fort Moultrie, Cummings Point and Morris Island.' 

Washington at last woke up to the necessity of reinforcing and 
revictualling Fort Sumter. For this purpose, the " Star of the West," 
an unarmed steamer, was chartered; but on reaching its destination, 
on January 9th, it was fired on from Morris Island and compelled to 
steam back. This brought a remonstrance from Major Anderson. 
Governor Pickens informed him that he assumed full responsibility 
for the act complained of, and also said that inasmuch as South 
Carolina was completely independent the retention of any of its forts 
by outside authority constituted in itself ' an act of positive hos- 
tility." Then he made a formal demand for the surrender of the 

President Buchanan was nonplussed by this turn of affairs to a 
degree that can easily be imagined. Floyd, the Secretary of War, 
resigned. An envoy representing Major Anderson and another to 
speak in behalf of Governor Pickens went to see the President. But 
protests and parleys resulted in nothing except further inaction and 
procrastination. The government was influenced above everything 
else by its anxiety to avoid any pretext for a general uprising. 

Whether in their immediate vicinity or at the capital of the Con- 
federacy in Montgomery, Ala., or else at Washington, there was 
hardly a day when something did not happen calculated to make the 
garrison despair of any relief reaching them. Meantime, they were 
busy preparing for the worst. As General Doubleday says: 

' We were hard at work, mounting guns, preparing shells to be used as hand 
grenades, stopping up surplus embrasures and removing the debris which encum- 
bered the passages from one part of the work to another. Amidst all this turmoil 
our little band of regulars kept up their spirits, and determined to fight it out to 
the last against any force that might be brought against them." 

Relief, or else an ending of some kind to their suspense and 
trials, hovered in sight when President Lincoln relieved President 
Buchanan. Like his predecessor, President Lincoln was unwilling 
to resort to violence, seeing what would be the consequence. At this 
time there was no mistaking the earnestness of the recalcitrants at 


IRew IPorfc flXmumente Commission 

A letter from Major Anderson was read at the first meeting of 
the new cabinet. He explained that his supplies were fast dwindling, 
and that in order to keep Charleston Harbor safe for the govern- 
ment an army of 20,000 would be necessary. Captain Doubleday 
put the number at 10,000, with the help of the navy. After much 
deliberation and consultation the President came to the conclusion 
that the garrison must be provisioned. Accordingly, on April 8th 
he informed Governor Pickens that an attempt would be made to 
revictual the fort, and that if no resistance was offered nothing would 
be done to land arms or ammunition there without further notice. 
The Confederacy immediately resolved on resisting any attempt to 
send provisions to Fort Sumter. 

Major Anderson, like his masters in Washington, felt very 
anxious all along to preserve peace. He had cherished the hope that 
the garrison would receive orders to withdraw quietly from their 
untenable position, but did not neglect for a moment putting the 
fort in the best condition for defense as far as this could be done. 
When at last the die was cast the officers and the men instead of 
being downcast felt jubilant. 

" The news," writes General Doubleday, " acted like magic upon them. They 
had previously been drooping and dejected; but they now sprung to their work with 
the greatest alacrity, laughing, singing, whistling, and full of glee. They were 
overjoyed to learn that their long imprisonment in the fort would soon be at an end. 
They had felt themselves humiliated by the open supervision which South Carolina 
exercised over us, and our tame submission to it. It was very galling to them to see 
the revenue cutter, which had been stolen from the United States, anchored within 
a stone's cast of our walls, to watch our movements and overhaul everything coming 
to or going from the fort, including our mail-boat." 

On the 11th of April, 1861, Beauregard (of Bull Run and West- 
ern fame), who had been on the scene since inauguration day, com- 
pleting arrangements for bombarding the fort, sent a formal demand 
to Major Anderson for its surrender. This was courteously, but 
firmly refused. At dawn the next day the Confederate batteries 
opened fire. On the 13th the barracks were set on fire by the 
red hot shot coming from different directions. The conflagration 
caused the magazine to be closed, depriving the gunners of a sufficient 
supply of powder to continue the defense. Major Anderson was 
thus compelled to surrender. The honor of the flag was well main- 
tained during the siege of thirty-four hours. Considering the small- 


fll>ajor*(5eneral 2>oublefca\> 

ness of its number the garrison made a spirited resistance. No one 
was killed at Fort Sumter during the bombardment. Following is 
General Doubleday's description of conditions at the fort shortly 
before the surrender: 

" By 11a. m. the conflagration was terrible and disastrous. One-fifth of the 
fort was on fire, and the wind drove the smoke in dense masses into the angle where 
we had all taken refuge. It seemed impossible to escape suffocation. Some lay 
down close to the ground, with handkerchiefs over their mouths, and others 
posted themselves near the embrasures, where the smoke was somewhat les- 
sened by the draught of air. Every one suffered severely. J crawled out of one of 
these openings, and sat on the outer edge; but Ripley made it lively for me there 
with his case-shot, which spattered all around. Had not a slight change of wind 
taken place, the result might have been fatal to most of us. Our firing having 
ceased, and the enemy being very jubilant, I thought it would be as well to show 
them that we were not all dead yet, and ordered the gunners to fire a few rounds 
more. I heard afterward that the enemy loudly cheered Anderson for his per- 
sistency under such adverse circumstances. 

" The scene at this time was really terrific. The roaring and crackling of the 
flames, the dense masses of whirling smoke, the bursting of the enemy's shell, and 
our own which were exploding in the burning rooms, the crashing of the shot, and 
the sound of masonry falling in every direction, made the fort a pandemonium. 
When at last nothing was left of the building but the blackened walls and smoldering 
embers, it became painfully evident that an immense amount of damage had been 
done. There was a tower at each angle of the fort. One of these, containing great 
quantities of shells, upon which we had relied, was almost completely shattered by 
successive explosions. The massive wooden gates, studded with iron nails, were 
burned, and the wall built behind them was now a mere heap of debris, so that the 
main entrance was wide open for an assaulting party. The sally-ports were in a 
similar condition, and the numerous windows on the gorge side, which had been 
planked up, had now become all open entrances." 

On Sunday, the 14th, after Major Anderson saluted his flag with 
fifty guns, the garrison was conveyed to the fleet in the harbor. 
Unbounded enthusiasm was awaiting them at New York, where they 
arrived on the 19th. The passenger steamers welcomed them with 
echoing whistles, and cheer after cheer went up from all the craft in 
the harbor. Several distinguished visitors boarded the steamer to 
give them a hearty greeting. For weeks after when a member of the 
garrison was recognized in the streets it became the signal for an 

It was none other than Captain Doubleday who made first 
answer to the bombardment, and on this incident he writes: 


1Rew Ji?ork flDonuments Gommtseton 

" In aiming the first gun against the rebellion I had no feeling of self-reproach, 
for I fully believed that the contest was inevitable, and was not of our seeking. The 
United States was called upon not only to defend its sovereignty, but its right to 
exist as a nation. The only alternative was to submit to a powerful oligarchy who 
were determined to make freedom forever subordinate to slavery. To me it was a 
contest, politically speaking, as to whether virtue or vice should rule." 

Captain Doubleday in particular among the garrison was an 
object of marked attention by his neighbors ashore during the 
troubles at Charleston Harbor. He it was of all the officers who 
incurred their displeasure most. With the better element there he 
seems to have been on friendly enough terms. He was the only 
officer in the fort who favored the candidature of Abraham Lincoln. 
His anti-slavery sentiments were well known at Charleston. Articles 
denouncing the authors of secession which had been erroneously 
attributed to him heightened the bitter feeling against him. Appar- 
ently, it was often well for Captain Doubleday in those days to be 
at a safe distance from Charleston whenever his name was mentioned 

Major Anderson, though, they regarded as a mild type of 
Unionist. He was a pro-slavery man and had close Southern ties. 
His brother-in-law in fact took part in the assault on Fort Sumter. 
But nothing could persuade or prevent Major Anderson from ful- 
filling his duty conscientiously as guardian of the government forti- 
fications. Says General Doubleday: 

" Major Anderson was neither timid nor irresolute, and he was fully aware of 
his duties and responsibilities. Unfortunately, he desired not only to save the 
Union, but to save slavery with it. Without this, he considered the contest as hope- 
less. In this spirit he submitted to everything, and delayed all action in the expecta- 
tion that Congress would make some new and more binding compromise which would 
restore peace to the country. He could not read the signs of the times, and see that 
the conscience of the nation and the progress of civilization had already doomed 
slavery to destruction. If he had taken this view of the situation, he would have 
made more strenuous efforts to hold on to the harbor of Charleston, and the one 
hundred and twenty millions of dollars, more or less, spent to regain it might still 
have formed part of the national treasury. 

' The applause which, both in the North and the South, greeted his masterly 
movement of the 20th of December (transferring the garrison from Fort Moultrie 
to Fort Sumter) made him feel more like an arbiter between two contending nations 
than a simple soldier engaged in carrying out the instructions of his superiors. To 
show the spirit in which he acted, it is only necessary to quote from his letter to 
Governor Pickens while the rebellion was still pending. ' My dear Governor, my 
heart was never in this war.' This sentiment was repeated by him in letters to 

rn>ajot>(Seneral Doubled 

other parties, and, strange to say, was actually sent in the form of an official com- 
munication to the adjutant-general of the army. 

' The difficulties he experienced in his unavailing attempts to defer hostilities 
impaired his health and spirits, and ultimately brought on the disease which kept 
him almost entirely out of service during the remainder of the war, and in all 
probability hastened his death." 

Of the other officers of the garrison, he says that they were all 
true to their trust throughout. Only one of them, Meade, joined 
the Confederacy afterwards. 

The authority that the Governor of South Carolina assumed to 
himself and his confidence in the cause he had so warmly espoused, 
General Doubleday sums up in words of Louis XIV of France, 
" L'etat c'est mois." 

Horace Greeley's early pronouncements on the right of the 
South to do as it pleased found an echo in Charleston embarrassing 
and discouraging to Major Anderson and his men. Fernando 
Wood, mayor of New York, especially astounded them when he 
expressed himself so much in favor of the propaganda then in vogue 
in the Palmetto State as to maintain that Manhattan Island would 
be also justified in proclaiming itself a separate entity, if a majority 
there desired to do so. 

The arch zealot in the days of beseeching and besieging at 
Charleston, as he appeared to General Doubleday, was Edmund 
Ruffin, a native of Richmond. Of him he says that " his love of 
slavery amounted to fanaticism." His speeches were extra fiery: and 
just as it was Captain Doubleday who fired the first shot in response 
to the bombardment, it was Edmund Ruffin who aimed the first shot 
at the fort. When it looked to Edmund Ruffin in the course of the 
Civil War that the South could not succeed he ended the debate bv 
committing suicide. 

Describing the attitude of the promoters of the agitation, gener- 
ally, towards the government, General Doubleday writes: 

"Although the secession leaders were preparing to meet coercion, if it should 
come, I will do them the justice to say that they determined to commit no overt act 
against the Union so long as the State formed an integral part of it. They soon 
found, however, that the mob did not recognize these fine distinctions. It was easy 
to raise the storm, but, once under full headway, it was difficult to govern it. Inde- 
pendent companies and minutemen were everywhere forming, in opposition to their 
wishes ; for these organizations, from their very nature, were quite unmanageable. 
The military commanders much preferred the State militia, because they could 
control it by law." 


1Rew Ji)orfe fflXmumente Commieeton 

General Doubleday's wife remained at the forts for many months 
during the defense. While the garrison was at Fort Moultrie she 
often helped them on sentry duty. At a time when Fort Sumter 
was practically without any lights, through her exertions a gross of 
matches and a box of candles were smuggled there. When finding 
it best, eventually, to leave South Carolina she went to Washington. 
President Lincoln paid her visits to read the letters that she used to 
receive from Fort Sumter, so as to form a better opinion of the con- 
ditions of affairs there, more especially in regard to the garrison's 
resources. Devotion to his wife, who was Miss Mary Hewitt, daugh- 
ter of Robert Morton Hewitt, a Baltimore lawyer, was one of General 
Doubleday's best traits. 

On April 14, 1865, four years after Fort Sumter surrendered, 
the United States flag was hoisted there again, and General Double- 
day was present at the ceremonies therefor. 

After Fort Sumter, Captain Doubleday spent a short time at 
Fort Hamilton, N. Y. He was then promoted to be a major in the 
regular army. Without getting much leisure for "buckling on his 
armor " for the future frays, he was put in charge of a battalion of 
artillery and infantry in the Department of Pennsylvania, under 
Patterson, who was then assembling troops at Philadelphia and Har- 
risburg for an advance on Harper's Ferry and Baltimore. He took 
part in the manoeuvres preceding the evacuation of Harper's Ferry 
by Joseph E. Johnston. 

Major Doubleday was also with Patterson in the Shenandoah 
Valley when his troops failed to prevent Johnston from marching 
from Winchester and joining Beauregard at Bull Bun, where, in con- 
sequence, the Union forces under McDowell were defeated on July 
21, 1861. In the official correspondence of this period Major Double- 
day's name is frequently mentioned. Bull Bun cost Patterson his 
command and it was given to Banks. Major Doubleday served 
under him for a couple of months. On August 30th, by command of 
McClellan, he was put in charge of the defenses from Long Bridge 
to Fort Corcoran, near Washington. On February 24, 1862, three 
weeks after being commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, he 
was assigned to duty as inspector of defensive works at the capital 
and to the immediate charge of those on the Maryland side. 


flDajor*(Seneral Doublet^ 


On May 21, 1802, General Doubleday took charge of a brigade 
at Fredericksburg, under McDowell, consisting of the Fifty-sixth 
Pennsylvania, Seventy-sixth New York and the Second Battalion, 
New York Artillery, Battery B. (These two infantry regiments 
belonged to his corps at Gettj T sburg, and it was their temporary 
retreat in the initial contest there which misled Howard when 
reporting that the entire corps was giving way.) 

General Doubleday's active service as a brigadier-general dates 
from a very critical juncture in the history of the Army of the Poto- 
mac. McClellan was then at the Chickahominy, after having expelled 
the Confederates from Yorktown, Williamsburg and West Point, and 
waiting to be reinforced by McDowell's Corps of about 40,000 men 
for an advance on Richmond. McDowell, most anxious to begin his 
march south, was to have left his base near the Rappahannock on 
May 26th, but the activities of Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah 
Valley caused so much anxiety in Washington that the order for 
the troops at Fredericksburg to join McClellan was countermanded. 
Instead, one-half of them was detained there and the other half 
detailed to help Banks and Fremont against Stonewall Jackson, and 
to assist in cutting off his retreat south. Then on May 31st and the 
following day McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston fought a stubborn 
battle at Fair Oaks, with the result in favor of the Northern Army. 
Johnston being wounded, Robert E. Lee succeeded him and began 
his historic career as chief commander in the Army of Northern 
Virginia. One of his first important orders resulted in J. E. B. 
Stuart's Cavalry riding round the Federal army on both sides of the 

Except that he was worsted by Shields at Kernstown, on March 
23d, Stonewall Jackson had remarkable success, and continued work- 
ing fearful havoc in the Shenandoah Valley and farther afield. 
On Mav 31st he defeated Milrov and Schenck at McDowell: he 
surprised and captured a garrison of about a thousand men at Front 
Roval on May 24th; the following dav he overcame Banks at Win- 
Chester and drove him across the Potomac. These successes he fol- 
lowed up with a victory over Fremont at Cross Keys on June 8th 
and the following day he got even with Shields by defeating him at 
Port Republic. Nor Banks, nor Fremont, with McDowell aiding 
them, could prevent Jackson, after weeks of destructive raiding, 


mew H?ork Monuments Commission 

returning to the main army. His principal object, and much besides, 
was accomplished stopping McDowell from going to McClellan. 
Leaving his pursuers behind him, he made the start for Richmond on 
June 17th and rejoined Lee on the 26th, in time for the seven days' 

During these operations by Jackson, General Doubleday, posted 
at Falmouth, conducted some reconnoitring expeditions, and detach- 
ments from his brigade had a few encounters with the Confederate 
cavalry about the middle of June. 

On the approach of Jackson, McClellan decided on transferring 
his base from the White House, near the Pamunkey River, to the 
James River. This movement brought on what is known as 
the seven days' battles. Beginning with Oak Grove, on June 2.5th, the 
fighting was continued next day at Mechanicsville, to McClellan's 
advantage. Lee, however, got the upper hand at Gaines Mill on the 
27th. The 29th at Savage Station and White Oak Swamp McClel- 
lan was forced to fierce resistance, and at Fraser's Farm on the 30th 
there were other severe encounters. The last of the seven days' bat- 
tles, and the most destructive, was fought on July 31st at Malvern 
Hill, near the James River, twelve miles below Richmond, and almost 
midway between it and Petersburg. Here Lee charged the Union 
army repeatedly and desperately, but could not dislodge it. 

McClellan withdrew his army to Harrison's Landing and pro- 
posed making another attempt on Richmond, capturing Petersburg 
at first as a means towards this end. Halleck, who was given general 
control over all the land forces early in July, opposed McClellan in 
his new resolve. This veto saved Richmond for nearly two years 
more from the disturbance of a Union army fighting fiercely in its 

A new army, called the Army of Virginia, composed of three 
corps, led by McDowell, Banks and Sigel, was organized on June 
26th, with Pope in supreme command. The result of McClellan's 
Peninsular enterprise compelled a revision of the work at first 
designed for Pope. Early in August he received further orders to 
cross the Rappahannock and threaten Gordonsville, from whence he 
hoped to be able to begin an aggressive movement on Richmond. 
Lee now was ready to launch another campaign. The advance wing 
of his armv under Stonewall Jackson marched to Gordonsville and 
meeting Banks at Cedar Mountain, coming from Culpeper, he 


flDajcnxSeneral Doublet^ 

attacked him there on August 9th. After a fierce battle, though 
having superior forces, Jackson retired to Gordonsville. Thereupon 
Pope resolved to concentrate his troops at Culpeper to give battle 
once more to Jackson, but his cavalry discovering that Lee's main 
army had already reached Gordonsville, he altered his plans and 
commenced a retreat to the Rappahannock. Meantime McClellan 
was under orders to hurry his troops from Harrison Landing. 
They began to move north on August 17th. Lee tried hard to engage 
Pope in a big battle before reinforcements could have time to reach 
him. He overcame Pope's endeavors to prevent him from crossing 
the Rappahannock. 

This was on August 21st, and it was then, at Rappahannock 
Station, that General Doubleday's regiments received their baptism 
of fire. In Pope's army his command was the Second Brigade of 
the First Division, King's, Third Corps, McDowell's, consisting of 
the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania and Seventy-sixth and Ninety-fifth 
New York. 

Halleck had calculated on the two Union armies being able to 
effect a junction at the Rappahannock, and it was decided that they 
should be led by Pope. There was considerable delay before the 
troops coming from Harrison's Landing reached their destination. 
After vainly trying for several days to turn Pope's flank, Lee 
ordered Jackson and Stuart to take a circuitous route across the Bull 
Run Mountains, at Thoroughfare Gap, post themselves in Pope's 
rear and destroy the railroad there. While Jackson, with 24,000 
men, was engaged on this hazardous venture Pope abandoned the 
Rappahannock as his base and sought to entrap Jackson. He was 
reinforced by a large contingent from the Army of the Potomac on 
the 27th. Skirmishes and actions took place at Silver Springs, Bris- 
toe Station, Manassas Station and Manassas Junction on the 26th, 
and on the 27th at Bull Run Ridge, Salem, Sulphur Springs and 
Janesville. Pope in his endeavor to interpose himself between 
Jackson and the rest of Lee's army discovered on nearing Manassas 
that Jackson had fled from there, after getting possession of immense 
quantities of supplies. 

The first big conflict in these complicated and momentous opera- 
tions took place on August 29th at Groveton. The line of battle 
extended from Bull Run to Gainesville, a distance of ten miles. 
Pope, to his great bewilderment afterward, did not know that Jack- 


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son was able to unite his forces with Lee's main army. The Fed- 
eral troops were handicapped by being entirely too far apart when 
going into action. Strenuous efforts were made by McDowell, Por- 
ter, Sigel, Reynolds, Hooker and Reno. Their lines formed a curve, 
while the Confederate line was almost straight and protected by the 
embankment of an unfinished railroad. By noon the whole of Lee's 
army confronted Pope's forces. Repeated attempts were made to 
dislodge Jackson from his position behind the embankment, all 
ending in failure and disaster. There was a semblance of Federal 
success in sight when McDowell charged Jackson's line, but the 
latter being strongly reinforced by a division that Porter was 
expected to take care of, this charge also ended in heavy loss. 
Evening found the Confederates triumphant along their entire line. 

Pope early in the afternoon of the following day, the 30th, massed 
his troops, under McDowell, Porter and Heintzelman, for an attack 
on the Confederate left. The attack was made with determination, 
but it was repulsed by the enemy's artillery, with fearful loss. Lee 
then advanced his whole line and literally crushed the Federal forces. 

Pope made good his retreat to Centreville, where he was joined 
by Franklin's Corps that had come from Alexandria. Jackson 
giving pursuit, attacked the L x nion troops at Chantilly on Septem- 
ber 1st. At first repulsed, Jackson came back to the attack and dis- 
lodged the Union troops, under Hooker. Kearny and Stevens were 
killed in this engagement. Jackson's advance, however, was checked, 
and Pope's army continued its march to Washington, where it arrived 
on September 3d. 

Pope, who began his disastrous campaign with the highest 
expectations, and with what is called braggadocio, complained that 
some of the generals, especially Porter, were lethargic and disloyal 
toward him. 

In his report he said that General Doubleday rendered him 
enlightened and generous service. McDowell also said of his part 
in this campaign that it was creditable. General Doubleday's 
Brigade was hotly engaged at Gainesville late in the afternoon of 
August 28th, in support of Gibbon. His regiments that evening lost 
half their number. Nearly all his men were under fire for the first 
time, and he reported of them that they behaved with commendable 
courage. He was active in the front during the big battles of August 
29th and 30th. At Gainesville, on the 28th, Hatch superseded King 















ni>ajot>(Seneral 2>oublefca\> 

as division commander, and on the 30th, when Hatch was wounded, 
the command devolved on General Doubleday. General Double- 
day's report on the Second Manassas campaign, the first appearing 
over his name as a brigadier-general, is characterized by the same 
scholarly and lucid style that has made all his official reports models 
for that class of writing. 


Scarcely had Pope reached Washington, after Chantilly, than Lee 
projected plans for another daring campaign, with Pennsylvania as 
his objective, if initial success encouraged its invasion. Accordingly, 
Jackson's Corps crossed the Potomac on September 5th, reaching 
Frederick the following day. Lee himself crossed the Potomac soon 
after, and from Frederick, on September 8th, issued a proclamation 
calling on Maryland to join the Confederacy. He cherished the hope 
that this border State would prove a fruitful recruiting ground for 
his army. The Confederates lost no time in replenishing their com- 
missariat in wholesale style. Early success greatly strengthened 
their confidence. A fortnight after the last of the battles of the 
Second Manassas was fought, at Chantilly, Harper's Ferry, with 
its garrison of 12,000 men, was taken by Stonewall Jackson. For 
more than four weeks now Lee and Jackson were counting a series 
of triumphs on both sides of the Potomac that might well make them 
think they were invincible. Practically, since McClellan stopped 
them at Malvern Hill, on July 1st, there was no effective opposition 
to their onslaughts. 

After the Second Manassas, McClellan assumed command of the 
Army of the Potomac, the Army of Virginia being then incorporated 
with it. His reputation as an able organizer was fully sustained by 
his immediate success in turning chaos into order and raising the 
morale of the troops. They felt that in him they had a leader more 
reliable as to calibre and caution than Pope. Leaving Washington 
under the protection of Banks, McClellan set out in pursuit of Lee. 
Passing through Rockville on the 7th of September he reached Fred- 
erick on the 12th. Here he had the good luck to discover a copy of 
Lee's general order, dated September 9th. The design on Harper's 
Ferry was clearly revealed in this important document, but notwith- 
standing, reinforcements were not sent there in time to prevent 
Jackson from capturing it. The left wing of the Federal army over- 


1Rew JPorfc flDonuments Commission 

took the Confederates under D. H. Hill at South Mountain. Here, 
at Turner's Gap, Fox's Gap and Crampton's Gap, on the 14th, there 
were lively encounters, much in favor of the Union forces, which, 
however, was poor consolation for the loss of Harper's Ferry the 
following day. 

Lee now contemplated recrossing the Potomac instead of march- 
ing north, but changed his mind again and concentrated his troops 
near Sharpsburg and the Antietam Creek for a big battle, Jackson 
fully concurring in this decision. Evidently, they expected to be 
attacked on the 16th, but the vanguard of McClellan's army did not 
come within striking distance until the evening of that day, when 
Hooker engaged them in a skirmish that lasted until darkness set in. 

With the first blush of dawn on the 17th, Hooker, holding the 
right of the Union line, renewed his attack. Jackson opposed him. 
Soon on both sides all divisions were falling into line or holding them- 
selves in readiness for orders. Porter was placed on the left of the 
Union line in reserve, and Burnside was posted at the Burnside 
Bridge. Mansfield, Sumner and Franklin were within supporting 
distance of Hooker's First Corps. Longstreet's Corps formed the 
right wing of the Confederate army. D. H. Hill's and Hood's 
divisions were in the centre. 

One of the most bitterly contested spots at Antietam was the 
Cornfield, an enclosure of some thirty acres. The persistent, 
obstinate and concentrated efforts to get possession of it are almost 
without parallel. Before night, it was literally soaked in carnage. 
Ricketts, Meade and Doubleday first drove Jackson out of it; Mans- 
field coming up to reinforce the Federal line was fatally wounded; 
Hooker rallying his own and Mansfield's divisions was put hors de 
combat by a painful wound in the foot. Sumner now personally 
brought Sedgwick's Division of his own corps with him, but he was 
thrice wounded and compelled to retire. Franklin then arrived with 
fresh troops and retaking the Cornfield it remained in Federal 

When Hooker's Corps was compelled to fall back its place was 
taken by the Twelfth Corps, led by Mansfield, who fell mortally 
wounded as his troops were deploying for action. They fought 
Hood's and D. H. Hill's men. and both sides suffered heavily. The 
Confederates gave way and retreated to the Dunker Church. 
Greene's Division of the Twelfth Corps pushed through the Corn- 


flDajor^eneral H)oublefca\> 

field and established itself beyond the Dunker Church, in the west 

Burnside made a successful attack on Burnside Bridge, and held 
the heights between it and Sharpsburg for some hours until the por- 
tion of the Confederate army that he fought was reinforced late in 
the day by the troojjs which took Harper's Ferry, when he was halted, 
but retained his general line, and Burnside Bridge remained in his 

Jackson in the course of the afternoon was ordered by Lee to turn 
the Union right and attack it in flank and rear; but after making 
a reconnoissance for this purpose he concluded that it was too 
strongly defended to hope for any success. 

Hooker said of the tussles in the Cornfield: 

" Every stalk of corn in the northern and greater part of the field was cut 
as closely as could have been done with a knife, and the slain lay in rows as they 
had stood in their ranks a few moments before." 

Lee marched his troops back across the Potomac on the 18th. 

Returns of the actual forces engaged on both sides vary widely. 
One authority states that the battle was fought by the Confederates 
with 45,000 men the early part of the day and an aggregate of 70,000 
later. McClellan states his strength as 87,164, including the cavalry, 
which was not of much account on such ground. Couch's Divi- 
sion, of 5,000, was absent in the direction of Harper's Ferry. A large 
number of other Federal organizations were also held in reserve, so 
that the disparity between the forces that did the fighting was not 
very great. 

The L'nion loss, as reported by McClellan, was 12,469. Lee 
reported a loss of 10,000, while his division commanders accounted 
for casualties numbering 13,533. 

Proportionately, the Confederates suffered the most. 

Though the battle was indecisive, both armies established new 
records there. It was the severest one-day struggle ever known in 
this countrv. 

Among the Xorthern states, New York had the most troops, with 
an aggregate of eighty-seven organizations, or 28 per cent, of the 
commands present. Its losses were 3,762, or 30.3 per cent, of the 
entire Federal casualties. Of the twenty regiments from eight 
states suffering most at Antietam seven were from this State, or 


1Rcw HJorfc flDonuments Commission 

35 per cent. Of the 191 officers of the Union army killed outright 
or dying subsequently of wounds 62 were from New York, or over 
32 per cent, of the total. Adding New York's losses at South Moun- 
tain to those at Antietam, this State's entire losses in the Maryland 
campaign amounted to 4,185. New York was also represented at 
Harper's Ferry by one regiment of cavalry, two batteries of artillery 
and six infantry regiments. 

Due to Hatch being wounded, General Doubleday took command 
of the First Division of Hooker's Corps, the First, at South Moun- 
tain, where, at Turner's Gap, his men routed Longstreet's forces. 
He arrived with Hooker at Antietam the evening before the big 
battle, taking part in the opening contest. His division, comprising 
the four brigades of Patrick, Gibbon, Phelps and Hoffman, held the 
extreme right of the Union line. In those memorable encounters 
with Stonewall Jackson a destructive musketry fire cut down 800 
of his men. He was in the thick of the fierce struggle centered at the 
Cornfield. The fire from the Confederate batteries beginning at 
dawn was answered bv his division. 

Three weeks after Gainesville, where his brigade was first actively 
engaged, as commander of a division sustaining a large part of the 
brunt of the fighting against the left of the Confederate lines at 
Antietam, General Doubleday proved conclusively that he had 
already measured to the requirements of any responsibility on a big 


Three davs after Lee returned to Virginia from his Marvland 
campaign, President Lincoln issued his preliminary proclamation 
of emancipation. On the whole, it got an indifferent reception at 
first. Notwithstanding the extent to which the Antietam result 
relieved the situation, there was considerable disquietude at Washing- 
ton yet. A further setback to Confederate aggression and a decisive 
victory in another big battle was anxiously desired. It was shown 
by Stuart's cavalry raid in Pennsylvania and Maryland early in Octo- 
ber, when he rode round the Union army, successfully eluding the 
forces employed to intercept him, that Lee had not yet taken his 
eyes off the north. In answer to the impatience evinced for another 
campaign, McClellan pleaded that his army wanted to be reorganized 
and equipped anew. The Federal forces began crossing the Poto- 


ADajotxScneral Doublefca^ 

mac at Harper's Ferry on October 26th. By November 7tli they 
were concentrated at Warrenton, getting ready for an advance on 
Culpeper, whither Lee had removed from Berryville and Win- 
chester. The dissatisfaction felt for some time at Washington with 
McClellan on account of his alleged ' over-cautiousness ' at last 
resulted in his being superseded. This happened on November 7th. 
He had the satisfaction of knowing that his successor, Burnside, took 
command of the armv with considerable reluctance, and that the rank 
and file were deeply affected when he took his departure from them. 
Political expediency, it is stated widely, was not without its influence 
when McClellan was deprived of his command. Whatever may have 
been his merits or demerits, it has been often said and written that he 
was the best-liked leader the Armv of the Potomac ever had. 

Richmond via Fredericksburg was the ambitious aim that Burn- 
side at once formulated and announced. McClellan's plans were 
thus reversed. Halleck did not approve of Burnside's plans. Presi- 
dent Lincoln gave them his consent. A week after the new com- 
mander took charge of it, the army was marching along the north 
side of the Rappahannock towards Fredericksburg. But Lee 
reached that objective before the Union troops could get there. Then 
concentrating at Falmouth strenuous preparations were begun by 
Burnside for the impending battle. 

Lee leaving Culpeper and taking a parallel line to the Northern 
army, along the south side of the Rappahannock, arrived at Fred- 
ericksburg on November 21st. Jackson coming from the Shenan- 
doah Valley joined him on the 30th. The Confederates set to work 
at once strengthening their defenses. 

Burnside's preparations for attack were completed by December 
10th. The following day the engineers were busy laying the pontoon 
bridges that had been brought from Acquia Creek. The Confederate 
sharpshooters made the task of crossing the river difficult and 

The battle began before noon on December 13th. Sumner's 
Grand Division held the right, Franklin's the ground in front of the 
low r er bridges, and Hooker was posted on the north side of the river. 
Franklin, facing Jackson at the weakest end of the Confederate 
lines, ordered Reynolds' Corps forward to seize one of the heights 
held by the Confederates. Meade's Division penetrated Jackson's 
line, but being reinforced the Confederates rallied and Meade and 


IRew IPorfc flfconuments Commission 

Gibbon were forced back, without being able to regain their ground. 
Sumner six times in succession made desperate efforts to capture 
Marye's Heights, defended by Longstreet, and though he was sup- 
ported in the end by Hooker it remained impregnable. In one of 
these desperate endeavors to capture the heights 2,000 of Hancock's 
men (including 156 commissioned officers), out of a total of 5,000, 
went down. 

At the end of the day's fighting the Federal casualties were 
12,653, those of the Confederates only 5,377. This was one of the 
most decisive and the least costly of all the Confederate victories. 
Lee did not realize at first the full extent of his success and expected 
that the battle would be renewed the following day. It would, too, 
had Burnside not been persuaded by his officers to withdraw from 
the field. The Federals though defeated in this battle displayed 
extraordinary steadiness and gallantry throughout. The persistent 
storming of Marye's Heights was hardly ever surpassed for heroism 
and sacrifice. 

General Doubleday, who was advanced to the rank of major- 
general two weeks before Fredericksburg, took a prominent part in 
that conflict. He commanded the First Division of the First Corps, 
under Reynolds. His brigades, preceded by those of Meade and 
Gibbon, crossed the river the day before the battle and formed the 
left flank of the army. As the battle progressed they were subjected 
to heavy and continuous firing. General Doubleday in his report 
says : 

' However deplorable the results of this battle may be considered, I have the 
satisfaction of knowing that my division drove the enemy before it for three miles, 
and held all the ground it had gained. For the good conduct of the men I feel 
myself much indebted to Colonels Gavin, Phelps, Cutler and Rogers, commanding 
the brigades, who set an example of coolness and heroism that never wavered under 
any emergency." 

Late in January, 1863, acting on his own responsibility, and 
without notifying Washington, Burnside sought to retrieve his 
reputation by making an attempt to turn Lee's left flank at the 
upper fords of the Rappahannock. This movement, on account of the 
inclemency of the weather and the state of the roads, is known as the 
' mud march." It has been called a farcical failure. A few days 
after, Burnside was relieved of his command and Hooker appointed 
in his place, 


fll>ajotv(3eneral Doubled 

The estimated number of the Federal forces at Fredericksburg 
is given as 116,000; that of the Confederates 78,000. 


When on January 2G, 1863, Hooker took charge of the Union 
troops, then encamjjed ne ar Falmouth, they were not in the best of 
spirits. The gruelling that they had been subjected to six weeks 
before while under orders to do the impossible, capture Marye's 
Heights, and the fiasco of the " mud march," from which they had 
just returned, left their payable effects on them. Hence it was that 
desertions were rife; for reasons not known, more Union soldiers 
were absent from their organizations, it was said, than Lee had in 
his entire army. But Hooker, to his great credit, with commendable 
energy, and administrative ability of the first order, ere long suc- 
ceeded in restoring the morale of the army to a high standard. In 
two months all the troops were together again, their numbers greatly 
increased. Their apparent efficiency made Hooker himself say that 
he had the finest army on the planet. Nor was he sparing in promise 
of what he intended accomplishing with it. With infantry over a 
hundred thousand strong, ten thousand in the artillery and cavalry 
forces not less than thirteen thousand, his confidence was justifiable. 
The Confederates at the same time had hardly half that total. They 
were posted at Fredericksburg, both armies being well within sight 
of each other. Chancellorsville, where they were next to fight, is 
about twelve miles west of Fredericksburg. 

The Union commander's manoeuvres and plans for carrying out 
his operations have been accorded high praise. The cavalry, under 
Stoneman, two weeks before the battle, was ordered to cross the 
Rappahannock at the upper fords and destroy Lee's communications 
with Richmond. The river being swollen, Stoneman was much 
delayed in fording it. The movement on Chancellorsville began on 
April 27th and the main army was drawn up there on the Confeder- 
ate flank on May 1st. Two of the Union corps, the First and Sixth, 
were left at Falmouth and Fredericksburg. That same day the Con- 
federates led by Jackson marched in the direction of Chancellors- 
ville. Strong as his position was and big as his army was, Hooker 
now decided on fighting a defensive battle. Lee and Jackson 
determined on attacking the Federal forces in detail. While 


IRew IPorfc fl&onuments Commission 

deliberating on the question as to which was the most vulnerable of 
the positions occupied by Hooker's men, Stuart arrived and satisfied 
them that this was the right, guarded by Howard's Eleventh Corps. 
Accordingly, early on May 2d, Jackson taking half the army with 
him, started on a long march through the Wilderness. His purpose 
was as well concealed as it was daring. The Federal generals thought 
he was retreating in the direction of Gordonsville. After a wide 
detour of fifteen miles, that took over half a day to travel, Jackson 
at five in the evening fell on the Eleventh Corps, whom he had sur- 
prised. After trying hard to resist the onslaught made on them, 
Howard's men, unprepared and vastly outnumbered, gave way. As 
soon as Jackson began his attack, Lee made a series of demonstra- 
tions against other parts of the Federal line, thus diverting attention 
from the havoc that was being wrought on the right of it. Jackson 
was fully intent on following up his advantage, and continued his 
vigorous advance towards Chancellorsville until darkness set in. 
Even then and well on to midnight the fighting was continued. 

The Confederates in the first encounter at Chancellorsville had 
gained a great victory. They had, however, sustained a big loss also, 
for Stonewall Jackson had fought his last fight. Riding back at 
dusk from the front of his line, where he had gone to make a recon- 
noissance, a company from one of his own regiments, the Eighteenth 
North Carolina, mistaking his party for Federal cavalry, fired on 
them and three of the bullets struck Jackson, from the effects of 
which he expired ten days later. This memorable incident recalls 
Schiller's words on the fall of Gustavus Adolphus, ' But oh how 
dear a victory! how sad a triumph!' Lee aided by Jackson was 
almost invincible. After Chancellorsville the flowing tide was no 
longer with the Confederates. 

The attack begun by Jackson was renewed by Lee early the fol- 
lowing day; and, according to his own report, by 10 a. m. he was 
' in full possession of the field." An hour previous, as the battle 
was raging, Hooker while leaning against a pillar was stunned by 
the impact of a ball that struck the Chancellor House. There were 
more than enough reserves to check the Confederate onset, but none 
of the commanders present when Hooker was temporarily unnerved 
and disabled cared to assume the responsibility of ordering them to 
the rescue, and hence Lee was triumphant again the second day. 

Sedgwick who had done good work near Fredericksburg by cap- 


fH>ajor*(Seneral Doublets 

turing important heights there was driven from his position on 
the 4th. 

The operations of the Union cavalry, strong as it was, were 
ineffective during the Chaneellorsville campaign. Stoneman, who 
led it, had principally in mind all along cutting off Lee's retreat and 
wasted his time and his forces scouring the country as far south as 

Both armies were back in their old places by INI ay 7th. 

The Federals lost 17,000 and the Confederates 13,000. 

At Chaneellorsville, General Doubledav's command was the 
Third Division of the First Corps. It was held mostly in reserve. 
When the Eleventh Corps was driven from its position the First 
Corps had completed a long march to the United States Ford, from 
whence on account of the communications of the army being endan- 
gered it was ordered forward to take up a position on the right flank 
at Elv's Ford. The Third Division, General Doubledav's, was com- 
manded by Meade before he was put in charge, in January, of the 
Fifth Corps. 


Gettysburg was General Doubledav's last campaign and also the 
one in which he earned the highest distinction. On account of the 
position held by him at Fort Sumter, he was of necessity prominent 
in the Civil War at its very inception; and though no longer leading 
troops on a field after Gettysburg he had the satisfaction of knowing 
that just as his active battlefield career ended the tide of Southern 
aggression began to roll back. 

Before this great battle was fought reverses and disappointments 
kept falling heavily for two years on the Federal forces in the East. 
In the Shenandoah Valley, the Peninsula, Manassas, Fredericks- 
burg, and Chaneellorsville, in their turn, Fremont, Banks, McClellan, 
Pope, Burnside and Hooker were baffled or beaten by Lee and 
Jackson, as well as McDowell by Johnston and Beauregard in the 
beginning. Antietam was a drawn or indecisive battle. 

On the other hand in the West at most times the trend of the 
fighting was against the Confederates. Battles fought in Missouri 
left that State practically under Union control at the end of 1861. 
In January, 1862, Thomas gnined a victory at Mill Spring, in Ken- 
tuck v. Fort Donelson, in Tennessee, defended bv Buckner, fell to 
Grant in February, as did Fort Henry a few days before. Pitts- 


Be\v J!)or& flDonuments Commission 

burg Landing was defended with signal success by Grant in April. 
It was in this big battle that Albert Sidney Johnston, the pride and 
the hope of the South, was killed. Island Xo. 10 and New Madrid 
yielded to Pope about the same time. Curtis held his ground against 
the Confederates at Pea Ridge, in Arkansas, in March. New 
Orleans surrendered to Farragut in April. In September, Grant, 
assisted by Rosecrans, defeated Price at Iuka, in Mississippi, and 
Rosecrans was successful against Price and Van Dorn at Corinth in 
October. That month also a sharp and indecisive battle was fought 
at Perryville. in Kentucky; and at Stone River, in Tennessee, Bragg 
was beaten by Rosecrans, the end of December, 1862, and the begin- 
ning of January, 1863. Vicksburg surrendered to Grant on July 4, 
1863, and a few days after Port Hudson surrendered to Banks. 

There were many setbacks, of course, to Federal progress during 
this time in the West, such as at Lexington, Columbus and Belmont, 
in Missouri, Chickasaw Bayou and Holly Springs, in Mississippi, 
Richmond. Lexington and Frankfort, in Kentucky, and Munford- 
ville, in Tennessee, but these notwithstanding the odds were heavilv 
against the Confederates in the Western conflicts. 

The almost invariable success of Confederate arms in the East 
might weil have caused anxiety when, not many weeks after Chancel- 
lorsville, Lee determined again on trvins; to invade Pennsvlvania. 
This movement caused the Governor of Pennsylvania to call for an 
emergency militia of 60,000 men and Philadelphia also took prompt 
measures to defend itself. The march for the intended invasion 
began on June 3, 1863, from Fredericksburg. A week after, a 
lively cavalry encounter took place at Brandy Station. Advancing 
down the Shenandoah Valley, the Confederates took Winchester, 
with 4,000 prisoners, on June 13th. That date Hooker's army left 
its headquarters at Falmouth and marched along the east of the Blue 
Ridge mountains. As the Federals proceeded in their pursuit fur- 
ther skirmishes took place between the cavalry forces. 

The vanguard of Lee's army, under Ewell, crossed the Potomac 
on June 22d, and his other two corps, Hill's and Longstreet's, two 
days after. By the 27th, Chambersburg, York and Carlisle were 
taken. Harrisburg was only saved by the burning of the bridge that 
spanned the Susquehanna at Wrightsville and Columbia. 

Hooker, with the left wing of his army, the First, Third and 
Eleventh Corps, reached Frederick on June 26th. Meade succeeded 


flDajoi><5eneral E>oublefca\> 

him on the 28th. The high pitch of efficiency, and what should have 
been effectiveness, to which Hooker had brought the Union army 
remained with it still, in spite of the disaster at Chancellorsville. His 

action thus far, to the extent that he was permitted to act, in coping 
with the new threatened invasion, displayed, it is freely conceded, 
commendable foresight and sound judgment. 

Meade at once withdrew the garrison of twelve thousand men 
from Harper's Ferry. It was the refusal from Washington to have 
this done at first that made Hooker resign his command. 

It probably did not surprise Lee very much to learn that he had 
a new antagonist to deal with, as he was used to such tidings now for 
a whole year. When this happened, June 28th, apparently he had 
already made up his mind to conduct a defensive campaign, with 
Cashtown as the rallying point for his three corps. Meade forthwith 
decided on Pipe Creek as base for his operations. The Confederate 
cavalry, under Stuart, made wide raiding detours away from the 
routes and locations of the main army. In Stuart's absence, Lee was 
unable to keep himself sufficiently advised of the movements of the 
Federal troops. Stuart had a sharp encounter with the Union 
cavalry under Kilpatrick at Hanover and Littletown on the 30th, 
and then he rode to York, only to find that Ewell was no longer 
there. Stuart did not reach Gettysburg until the afternoon of 
July 2d. 


On the 30th of June, the day before the battle began, the dis- 
position of the two armies was as follows: The Federal First Corps, 
Reynolds', was at Marsh Run, the Eleventh, Howard's, at Emmits- 
burg, the Third, Sickles', at Taneytown, the Second, Hancock's, at 
L T niontown, the Twelfth, Slocum's, at Littlestown, the Fifth, Sykes', 
at L T nion Mills, and the Sixth, Sedgwick's, at Manchester, thirty 
miles away. 

Ewell's Corps, of Lee's army, was at Heidlersburg, with the 
exception of Johnson's Division, which was at Greenwood; two 
divisions of Longstreet's Corps were at Fayetteville, and another, 
Pickett's, at Chambersburg. Hill's Corps had reached Cashtown 
and Mummasburg, all but Anderson's Division, which was at the 
mountain pass on the Chambersburg road. 

Following is General Doubleday's account of the battle, repro- 
duced from " Gettysburg Made Plain," by permission of James 
Drummond Ball, of Boston, Mass.: 


IRew H?ork Monuments Commission 


Lee determined to invade the Northern States for the following reasons: 

1. As the resources of the South were giving out while those of the North 
seemed virtually inexhaustible, Lee wished to bring on a decisive battle as soon as 
possible. He was encouraged to do so by his recent success at Chancel lorsville, by 
the arrival of Longstreet's Corps from Suffolk, Va., and by the fact that Hooker 
would soon lose a large part of his army by expiration of enlistments. To draw the 
Union army from its strong position among the Stafford Hills, he proposed to 
threaten Washington. 

2. Being a long distance from his main depots Lee was very much embarrassed 
to keep his men supplied with a proper amount of food and he coveted the rich 
flocks and herds of Pennsylvania. 

3. Lee saw plainly that Vieksburg was about to fall; that the Southern people 
would lose heart and give up the contest unless he achieved some great success in the 
North to counterbalance such a disaster in the West. 

Hill's Corps was ordered to remain at Fredericksburg, and the corps of Ewell 
and Longstreet to join Stuart's Cavalry at Culpeper. 

Hooker seeing a great diminution of tents in his front, suspected that the 
enemy were leaving Fredericksburg. He said to Sedgwick a life-long friend and 
classmate " John, go over there and see if the enemy have gone. They may have 
left merely their empty tents to deceive us." 

So, on the Oth of June, Sedgwick threw bridges out, under cover of his artillery, 
and crossed the Rappahannock. He sent back word to Hooker, " There is a pretty 
stiff opposition; I think their main body must be still here." 

Hooker directed Pleasanton to take all the cavalry that could be spared and go 
to Culpeper, to ascertain if anything unusual was going on there. All of Stuart's 
Cavalry and two-thirds of the Confederate army were in that vicinity. 

Pleasanton, who was at Warrenton Junction, backed by two infantry brigades, 
slipped quietly down to the Rappahannock and bivouacked there without fire or 
light. At dawn the next morning he crossed the stream, completely surprised 
Stuart's Cavalry and very nearly captured his artillery. Unfortunately, Colonel 
Benjamin F. Davis, who led the advance, was killed, and there was no officer at 
hand to take his place. This caused some delay and confusion, which gave the 
enemy time to rally and form line of battle. 

After fighting all day against Stuart's Cavalry, the enemy's infantry came up 
and Pleasanton retired. He reported to Hooker that two-thirds of the enemy were 
at Culpeper preparing to move on Washington. 

If Lee's cavalry had not been so badly cut up it is probable he would have 
attempted to advance directly north. As it was, Lee determined to make a circuit 
by way of the Shenandoah Valley. This left a mountain wall between him and 
Hooker, concealing his movements and enabling him, thereby, to gain time. 

As Lee held the passes he felt safe against a flank attack. 

Hooker sent troops up the Rappahannock to prevent Lee from crossing by 
direct route. 

Lee sent Ewell's Corps to the Shenandoah Valley with orders to clear out the 
Union troops under Milroy at Winchester and under Tyler at Martinsburg. 


flDajotvGeneral Boublcfcap 

Hooker started toward Washington. Ewell gained possession of Winchester 
and Martinsburg, but not of Harper's Ferry. 

There is a rocky and thickly wooded range of heights called the Bull Run 
Mountains, running from Leesburg south. As Hooker had not occupied them but 
was further to the east, Lee desired to do so, for it would give him a strong position 
on Hooker's flank and bring him (Lee) very near to Washington. He therefore 
directed his cavalry to reconnoitre in that direction. 

Stuart's reconnoitring party met the Union cavalry at Aldie, and after a hard 
battle retreated. 

A series of cavalry combats ensued, ending in the retreat of Stuart's Cavalry 
behind the Blue Ridge. 

Hooker was strongly posted east of the Bull Run range and could not be 
attacked with much chance of success. As Lee could not well remain inactive or 
retreat, he resolved to invade Pennsylvania. This was a hazardous enterprise, for 
Hooker might intervene between him and Richmond. Stuart's Cavalry was left to 
prevent this catastrophe by guarding the passes in the Blue Ridge. Stuart was also 
directed to harass Hooker and attack his rear should he attempt to cross the Potomac 
in pursuit of Lee. 

Lee reached Chambersburg with Longstreet's and Hill's Corps. Ewell's Corps 
was in advance at Carlisle and York, preceded by Jenkins's and by W r hite's Cavalry, 
threatening to cross the Susquehanna and take Harrisburg. 

In the meantime Stuart's Cavalry had crossed the Potomac near Seneca Creek 
above Washington, reached Rockville near Washington on its way north. Two of 
his brigades under Jones and Robertson were holding the gaps in the Blue Ridge 
without any enemy in front of them. Hooker's army was still at and near Frederick, 

The Pennsylvania militia were assembled at Columbia and Harrisburg; on 
June 26th a militia regiment occupied Gettysburg. 

On June 28th, Hooker determined to send Slocum's Corps and the garrison of 
Harper's Ferry- -the latter about 10,000 strong to operate against Lee's rear. 
This was an excellent plan, but Hooker's superior, General Halleck, refused to 
allow him to remove the troops from Harper's Ferry; and Hooker said if he could 
not manage the campaign in his own way, he preferred to give up the command of 
the army. Halleck gladly relieved him, and Major-General George G. Meade, com- 
mander of the Fifth Corps, was assigned to the command in his place. 

On June 28th, Lee learned from a scout that the Union army was in his rear 
and that his communication with Richmond was seriously endangered. A great 
battle would of course exhaust the Confederate ammunition, and if his line to 
Richmond was severed, he could get no more military supplies and would ultimately 
have to surrender. 

In this emergency he concluded to threaten Baltimore. As a preliminary 
measure, he directed his entire army to move on Gettysburg. This he hoped would 
induce Meade to concentrate in his front and leave his rear free; which was pre- 
cisely what Meade did do. 

As soon as Meade had assumed command, he made the same request that 
Hooker had done for permission to utilize the large garrison at Harper's Ferry. 


1Rew U?ork flDonuments Commission 

This was granted by Halleck, but instead of using this force to act against Lee's 
rear, Meade posted seven thousand of them at Frederick, Md., and sent the rest to 

Under the impression that Lee's army was spread out along the Susquehanna 
from Carlisle to York, Meade threw out his own forces fan-shaped to march in 
that direction. 

Stuart was intercepted at Hanover by Kilpatrick's Division of Cavalry, but 
managed to disengage himself from the contest and continue his journey to join 
Ewell at York. The latter was, however, on his way to Gettysburg, and Stuart 
passed almost within sight of him. Finding that Ewell had left York, Stuart pro- 
ceeded to Carlisle, hoping to find the main body there. He was again disappointed, 
and as he learned that a battle was going on at Gettysburg, he rode night and day 
to join Lee there. When he finally reached the field in the afternoon of the 2d, his 
horses were in bad condition from overwork, and his men were utterly exhausted. 

On June 30th Buford's Cavalry, and the First Corps, under Doubleday, were 
in a perilous position at Marsh Creek, six miles south of Gettysburg and about twice 
that distance southeast of Cashtown, where Hill was posted. General Reynolds 
commanded the left wing of the Union army, composed of the First, Eleventh and 
Third corps. 

Battle of the First Day 

The Union corps on June 30th occupied positions wide apart from each other 
and they were still marching and getting farther away that day; while Lee was 
then concentrating his forces. The advance of Hill's Corps on the morning of 
July 1st struck Buford's Division of Union cavalry a short distance to the west of 
Gettysburg, and in spite of a stout resistance forced it slowly back towards the town. 

The First Corps at this time was five miles south of Gettysburg. General 
Reynolds went to the support of Buford with the nearest division of the First 
Corps Wadsworth's and directed that the others follow. While forming 1 is 
line of battle he was killed. General Howard succeeded to the command of the 
field but did not issue any orders to the First Corps until the afternoon. In the 
meantime General Doubleday continued the contest, captured a great part of the 
forces that had assailed him, and cleared his immediate front of all enemies. 

Before the Eleventh Corps came up the enemy could have walked right over 
the small force opposed to them, but owing to the absence of Stuart's Cavalry they 
had not been kept informed as to the movements Meade was making, and fearing 
that the whole Union army was concentrated in their front they were overcautious. 

There was now a lull in the battle for about an hour. The remainder of the 
First Corps came up and was followed soon after by the Eleventh Corps under 
General Schurz. About the same time the Confederate corps of General Ewell 
arrived and made a junction with that of Hill. General Howard assumed command 
of the Union forces. 

Repeated attacks were now made against the First Corps by Ewell from the 

north and Hill from the west; but the Confederate charges were successfully 

repulsed. In one of these assaults the Confederate brigade of Iverson were nearly 

all killed, wounded or captured. Ewell's attack also struck the Eleventh Corps on 


flDajor*(5eneral Boublefca^ 

the right and front with great force. The continued arrival of fresli Confederate 
forces for the whole country to the north and west was covered with troops, and 
Longstreet's Corps was in sight rendered further resistance unavailing. 

Two small corps and Buford's cavalry could not contend with the whole 
Confederate army. 

The First Corps divisions were in a perilous condition at the close of the 
action. They were almost cut off from Cemetery Hill, which had been chosen by 
General Howard as the rallying point for the two corps, and had been partly 
occupied in advance. It was about half a mile south of Gettysburg. 

General Meade when he heard of Reynolds' death was fourteen miles from 
Gettysburg at Taneytown, preparing to form line of battle along Pipe Creek. He 
at once sent General Hancock forward with orders to assume command of the field. 

Hancock, perceiving that Cemetery Ridge was an admirable position for a 
defensive battle, determined to hold it if possible. This was not an easy thing to do, 
for the enemy were in overwhelming force, and the feeble remnants of the First and 
Eleventh Corps were not in a condition to make a prolonged resistance. Hancock, too, 
was embarrassed by the fact that General Howard did not recognize his authority, 
but General Howard approved his dispositions. General Doubleday carried out 
Hancock's plans in regard to the First Corps, and the Ridge was held, by strategy. 
Leaving the First and Eleventh Corps in the centre Hancock directed Doubleday 
to send a force to Culp's Hill on the right, while he instructed Buford to parade up 
and down on the extreme left with his cavalry. 

The enemy were thus led to suppose that the Union line was a long one and 
had been heavily reinforced. As the losses on both sides had been tremendous, prob- 
ably not exceeded for the same number of troops during the war, the enemy hesitated 
to advance, particularly as some movements of Kilpatrick's Cavalry seemed to 
threaten their rear. They therefore deferred action until Meade concentrated the 
next day. 

On General Hancock's recommendations General Meade ordered his entire army 
to Gettysburg. 

By dusk part of the Third Corps had arrived, and soon after the Twelfth 
Corps and the Second Corps were close at hand. 

Battle of the Second Day 

In the choice of positions secured for the continuance of the fighting the 
advantage was largely in favor of the Union troops, who were sheltered by a curved 
ridge. If it was desired to reinforce any part, it could be done by short lines 
chords of the arc and its movements behind the ridge would be hidden from the 
view of its enemies. 

As the Confederate army acted on the offensive it had to descend into a plain 
where all of its important operations were in full view of the Union signal stations 
on the heights, where were officers with powerful glasses. To reinforce any part 
of the Confederate line required a long march around, on the circumference of the 
circle, which consumed much valuable time. 

On the other hand the nature of the ground made the fire from the Union 


Iftew H?ork flDonuments Commission 

batteries diffusive, while the Confederate batteries were able to concentrate a heavy 
fire upon almost any point in front of them. 

Most of the troops, though worn out with hard marching, arrived by midday 
of July 2d. The Sixth Corps had thirty-four miles to march, and came later in 
the afternoon. 

The Confederates on the right of their line took the aggressive the second day 
by attacking the Third Corps, commanded by Sickles, who had moved his men 
three-quarters of a mile forward from the low ground they at first occupied, for 
better defense as he thought. Meade did not like the disposition Sickles had made 
of his divisions, but before there was time to rectify their positions they were fiercely 
assailed by Longstreet's Corps, and although Sickles was reinforced by two divisions 
of Sykes' Corps, the Fifth, and by Caldwell's Division of the Second Corps, all 
were forced back behind the main line, after very heavy fighting and severe losses 
on both sides. Longstreet followed up the pursuit, but the firm front of the Sixth 
Corps, which had now formed in line, and a brilliant charge by the Pennsylvania 
Reserves discouraged him from making any further attempts. 

General Warren, who was on General Meade's staff, was sent on his own 
suggestion to Little Round Top to see how the battle was going. He saw the enemy 
advancing to seize the peak he was on, and knew if they did so they would flank 
General Meade's position and render it untenable by their artillery fire. He rode 
down at full speed and succeeded in bringing back reinforcements in time to save the 
position, which was really the key of the battlefield. The struggle there, however, 
was very severe and cost the lives of several distinguished leaders. 

The attack as ordered by General Lee was to begin with Longstreet on the right 
and be made en echelon. That is, as soon as Longstreet was fairly engaged, Hill's 
Corps was to take up the fight and go in, and as soon as Hill was fairly engaged, 
Ewell's Corps on the right was to attack. The object was to keep the whole Union 
line in a turmoil at once, and prevent reinforcements going from any corps not 
engaged to another that was fighting; but Hill did not act until Longstreet's fight 
was over, and Ewell did not act until Hill had been repulsed. This was not 
carrying out Lee's programme. 

When Longstreet's battle with Sickles, Sykes, and Caldwell was dying away, 
Hill's Corps, preceded by R. H. Anderson's Division, assailed the Second Corps 
in front of Webb's Brigade, and the two Confederate brigades in advance those 
of Wright and Wilcox succeeded in penetrating the Union line and in gaining 
temporary possession of some guns. It is possible that if the remainder of 
Hill's Corps had come up promptly to their support they might have made a per- 
manent lodgment, and thus cut the Union army in two; but no one came forward 
to help them, they were soon driven back by part of the First Corps under Double- 
day, and by other reinforcements sent by General Hancock, who on this as on other 
occasions was always present wherever there was danger, or a weak spot in the line 
to be defended. 

General Meade was so startled by the fact that his centre had been pierced, 
that he took away nearly all the troops and batteries that held the extreme right 
Slocum's Corps and led them in person against the enemy. 

As the thunder of the guns repelling Hill's attack died away, two brigades of 

flDajor^eneral Doubled 

Early's Division of Ewell's Corps made a desperate assault against the Eleventh 
Corps under Howard on Cemetery Hill and captured several batteries but were 
driven back, with the help of Carroll's Brigade of the Second Corps, which Hancock 
had sent to aid Howard to repel the attack. 

Finally, the last echelon, General Edward Johnson's Division of Ewell's Corps, 
assailed the extreme right of the Union line at and south of Culp's Hill. 

General Meade, as has been already stated, had taken away the Twelfth Corps 
troops and batteries from that part of the line with the exception of one small 
brigade under General Greene. Greene, backed by what remained of Wadsworth's 
Division of the P'irst Corps, firmly held the line previously assigned to Geary's 
Division, but could not prevent the enemy from occupying the vacant intrenchments 
south of the hill which had been recently used by Ruger's Division of the Twelfth 

The enemy had so far failed in every attack against Meade's main line, with 
the exception of that portion south of Culp's Hill. Elated by the fact that he 
had made a lodgment there, Ewell determined to hold on at all hazards and sent 
heavy reinforcements during that night to aid Johnson to make an attack in the 

Johnson's position was one of serious import to the Union army, for it was 
near the reserve artillery, and not far from Meade's headquarters, but it was 9 p. M. 
when he took possession of the intrenchments ; the night was dark, he did not know 
exactly where he was and he preferred to wait until morning before making an 

Upon the return of Slocum's Corps to their former position at Culp's Hill, they 
were amazed to find Johnson in possession. They also waited till daylight before 
making an attempt to dispossess him. 

So ended the battle of the second day. 

The Battle of the Third Day 

At day-dawn General Warren, acting for General Meade, established a cordon 
of troops and batteries which drove Johnson out of his position on the right. The 
enemy fell back a short distance but still menaced the force on Culp's Hill. 

Lee having failed in his attacks both on Meade's left and right had to decide 
at once whether he would give up the contest and retreat, or make another attempt 
to force the Union line. 

As he had been reinforced by Stuart's Cavalry and as a fresh division under 
Pickett was available, he determined to try to pierce the left centre of the Union 
Army and disperse the force opposed to him. 

To this end he directed Longstrcet to form a strong column of attack to be 
composed of Pickett's Division and Pettigrew's Division and two brigades of 
Pender's Division, under Trimble, of Hill's Corps. To create confusion and prevent 
General Meade from sending reinforcements to the menaced point, Stuart was ordered 
to ride around the right of the Union army and make an attack in rear. And still 
more to facilitate the attack 135 guns were to concentrate their fire against the 
Union centre and disperse the forces assembled there. 


1Rew IPorfc flfeonuments Commission 

About 1 p. m. the terrific cannonade began and lasted for two hours, by which 
time the Confederate ammunition was nearly exhausted. This fire disabled several 
of the Union batteries that were opposed to it and killed or wounded many of the 

Eleven caissons were blown up, and as the dense column of smoke from each 
rose high in air the enemy's yells of exultation resounded for miles along their line. 

Stuart's cavalry attack proved abortive for it was met and frustrated by two 
brigades of Gregg's Cavalry aided by Custer's Brigade after a severe battle, which 
was hotly contested on both sides. Stuart's further progress was checked and he 
was forced to retreat. 

Kilpatrick with two brigades of cavalry charged the right of the enemy's line 
west of Round Top, to prevent Longstreet from weakening his right to aid Pickett. 

Pickett formed his great column of attack and came forward as soon as the fire 
from the Union batteries slackened. 

General Hunt, General Meade's chief of artillery, had withdrawn the batteries 
which had suffered the most, and sent fresh guns to take their place. The latter 
soon swept the ground over which Pickett moved, with fatal effect. 

Hancock rode along the line and made prompt dispositions to meet the coming 
storm. Gibbon's Division, of the Second Corps, received and repelled the shock, 
while part of Doubleday's command, principally Stannard's Vermont Brigade, 
struck the right flank of the main body and doubled it up in confusion so as greatly 
to impede its progress. 

General Hancock was wounded by the side of Stannard. 

Wilcox's and Perry's brigades which should have guarded Pickett's right flank 
became separated from it and attacked the First Corps commanded since the night 
of the first day by General Newton. Stannard turned about and took this second 
column in flank, drove it back and again captured a large number of prisoners. 

Still Pickett's main column pressed on in spite of all obstacles and the harvest 
of death it was reaping, and its advance under Armistead took temporary possession 
of one of the guns on the Ridge, but there its course was stayed. 

In the hnnd-to-hand fight that ensued within our lines General Armistead was 
shot down, Pickett's left wing, which was much more exposed than the right, melted 
away, and as Union reinforcements were coming forward and Pickett's supports did 
not advance, he was soon compelled reluctantly to give the order to retreat, which 
indeed had already commenced. 

The whole plain was soon covered with fugitives, but as no pursuit was ordered 
General Lee in person succeeded in rallying them and re-forming the line of battle. 

The Retreat 

The next day, July 4th, General Lee drew back his flanks and at evening began 
his retreat by two routes the main body on the direct road to Williamsport through 
the mountains, the other via Chambersburg, the latter including the immense train 
of the wounded. 

Gregg's Division (except Huey's Brigade) was sent in pursuit by way of 
Chambersburg, but the enemy had too much the start to render the chase effective. 


HDajor^Gcneral 2>oubleba\> 

Kilpatrick, however, got in front of the main body on the direct route, and, after 
a midnight battle at Monterey, fought during a terrific thunderstorm, succeeded in 
making sad havoc of Ewell's trains. 

Bufords Division of cavalry, aided by that of Kilpatrick, came near capturing 
Williamsport, defended by Imboden, with all the Confederate trains, and the fresh 
ammunition so much needed by Lee, which had been galloping from Winchester 
almost without an escort, to meet him. 

The opportune arrival of Stuart's Cavalry backed by infantry forced Buford 
and Kilpatrick to fall back. 

Lee concentrated his army in the vicinity of Williamsport, but as French had 
destroyed his pontoon bridge, and as the Potomac had risen, he was unable to cross. 
He therefore fortified his position. 

Meade did not follow Lee directly but went around by way of Frederick. 
After considerable delay the Union army again confronted that of Lee and were 
about- -under orders from President Lincoln to make an attack, when Lee 
slipped away on the night of July 14th to the Virginia side of the Potomac. 

This ended the campaign of Gettysburg. 

The Union loss was 3,072 killed, 14,41)7 wounded and 5,434 missing, a total of 

The Confederate loss was 2,592 killed, 12,700 wounded and 5,150 missing, 
total 20,451. 

General Doubleday acted a great and distinguished part at 
Gettysburg, and he has been long since accorded a high place among 
its foremost commanders. When on June 13th, at Falmouth, Rev- 
nolds was placed in charge of the left wing of the Union army, 
General Doubleday relieved him of the immediate command of his 
own corps, the First. General Doubleday readied the field in 
advance o? his division, the Third, and in time to help put part of 
Wadsworth's Division into action at the McPherson Woods. The 
opening contest had not been in progress above an hour when, on 
account of Reynolds falling mortally wounded, the chief command 
on the field temporarily devolved on him. His own words describing 
the situation at that juncture are: " The whole burden of the battle 
was thus suddenly thrust upon me." The fighting that developed in 
that struggle the prelude to the three-day battle was charac- 
terized by the utmost severity. For the two hours or so that it lasted 
General Doubleday's resources were sorely tried. Only two brigades 
were then at his disposal. Forces numerically superior opposed him. 
But he managed with superb skill and dogged determination to over- 
come them. The Confederate vanguard was driven back in signal 
fashion, and hundreds, including a brigadier-general, were made 


Mew H?ork flDonumente Commission 

prisoners. The first triumph scored at Gettysburg was thus the 
work of General Doubleday and his men. 

On the renewal of the fighting the afternoon of the first day, the 
First Corps and the Eleventh, Howard's, numbering between them 
about 18,000 men, had to give battle to forces estimated at not less 
than 30,000. Of valor and endurance the Union forces gave ample 
proof, but they were finally forced to yield their ground and fall back 
to Cemetery Hill. The brunt of the fighting in this unequal and 
violent conflict was borne by the First Corps, and their casualties 
were the heaviest. Coming to the field in the morning with 8,200 
men when the sun went down not half their number was available for 
further action in the Gettysburg campaign. A mountain of diffi- 
culty and a furnace of danger confronted them all day long. A. P. 
Hill, by whose corps they were attacked, as well as by part of Ewell's, 
said he had never seen the Federals fight as well as the First Corps 
did that day. 

The opening conflict at Gettysburg, by reason of its abrupt com- 
mencement, the disparity in numbers of the forces engaged in it and 
the doubt and delay that obsessed the victors at the close, robbing 
them of full fruition of the great advantage they had gained, 
together with the question of generalship and judgment of those in 
high command there, constitute a phase in the story of the entire 
battle around which the keenest interest has always centered. The 
manoeuvres on either side that preceded hostilities; what should have 
been done then and what should not have been done; the dramatic 
unexpectedness of that first minor collision between Buford's cavalry 
and two of A. P. Hill's brigades which precipitated the great battle 
and compelled Lee and Meade forthwith to abandon the places they 
had previously set their minds on for a concentration of their troops; 
the intensity of this early struggle and its outcome, resulting in Con- 
federate success, but with the choice of positions for continuing the 
fighting won by the Federals, these as facts in themselves or 
topics for speculation (a frequent diversion) lend much of its charm 
to Gettysburg's story. 

The first day's battle also brought a mixture of praise and blame 
to its commanders over which there has been much controversy. 
A. P. Hill and Heth have been taken severely to task for provoking, 
on their own responsibility, the early morning skirmish west of 
Willoughby Run, thus forcing Lee to alter his plans for defensive 


fIDatoixSeneral Doublefcap 

operations at Cashtown. The decision and action of Buford in inter- 
posing his small band of cavalry between the advancing Confederates 
and Seminary Ridge were also, apparently, whether right or wrong, 
contrary to the wishes of Meade, who had Pipe Creek primarily in 
mind for effecting a concentration of his troops. Reynolds shortly 
after bringing infantry reinforcements to the relief of Buford's 
hard-pressed cavalry fell from his horse mortally wounded, beyond 
the reach of praise or blame for his part in meeting the emergency 
that confronted him as soon as he came to the battlefield. Ewell has 
been censured for his failure to follow up, while practicable, the 
advantage he had gained, by pursuing the Federal forces farther and 
driving them from Cemetery Hill. Howard's handling of his own 
corj:>s, the Eleventh, and his not ordering, as the commanding gen- 
eral then on the field, all the troops to withdraw from their untenable 
positions much earlier in the evening than he did, seeing that they 
were hopelessly outnumbered, have also been the subject of con- 
siderable animadversion. 

So far, however, Ewell, except that he did not make the venture 
of capturing the valuable heights in his vicinity, proved himself a 
worthy successor to Stonewall Jackson; and A. P. Hill, who 
co-operated with him, had made full amends in the evening for the 
disappointments and reverses that worried him in the morning, when 
a detachment of his corps, on reconnoissance bent, was worsted by 
Wadsworth's Division of the First Corps. Howard, too, though 
otherwise taxed with serious error the first day, was given full credit 
for his foresight and action that helped save Cemetery Hill for the 
Union army. 

The first day's trial at arms at Gettysburg was an anxious ordeal 
for the four corps commanders engaged in it; and among them all 
the one leader who emerged from it with the highest honors to his 
credit, for splendid achievement, sterling ability and intrepid gal- 
lantry, was General Doubleday. The law was once facetiously, if 
not seriously, defined as the last guess of the supreme court, and 
battlefield conclusions are also often far from being satisfactory on 
the score of unanimity; but in the case of General Doubleday at 
Gettysburg, veterans of the battle and many of the ablest historians 
who have written at length on it have been so much in agreement in 
emphasizing his noble work on Seminary Ridge that the verdict in 
his favor is well nigh irreversible. Contending against overwhelming 


Iftew l?ork flDonuments Commission 

odds for seven arduous hours, all the time contesting every inch of 
his ground with desperate determination, until almost surrounded 
towards the end, he accomplished marvels everything but the 
impossible. Encomiums in plenty came to him for this brilliant 
exploit. Says Samuel P. Bates, a Pennsylvania historian: 

" It must be evident that the maneuvring of Doubleday was admirable and that 
it stamps him as a corps commander of consummate excellence. Where in the whole 
history of the late war is this skill and excellence of the commander or this stubborn 
bravery of the troops matched?" 

And Col. Wm. F. Fox, in " New York at Gettysburg ": 

' The last stand made by Doubleday and his men was marked by the same 
soldierly action that had characterized the First Corps throughout this remarkable 
battle of the first day. But Pender's men were American soldiers, too, and Double- 
day, beaten in the unequal contest, reluctantly gave orders for his corps to fall back 
through the town to Cemetery Hill:" 

Francis Marshall in his book on the battle also says: 

" From 9 a. m. until 1 p. m. the Federal First Corps was left under the com- 
mand of Major-General Doubleday without one superior order. With this attenuated 
and flanked line of battle covering one and one-quarter miles of hills and valleys 
of open woods, with a considerable stream threading, General Doubleday fought 
and maintained his position intact for seven hours, this entire time fighting off a 
superior and constantly increasing enemy, with his own force rapidly dwindling. The 
rate may be judged from the fact that the First Corps brought on the field in the 
morning 8,200 men, and at 4 p. m. nearly four thousand of them lay dead and 
wounded on the field, most of the remainder prisoners in the keeping of the Con- 
federates, with an unusually small proportion of missing. The battle made by 
the Federal First Corps on July 1st was as notable a feat of arms as its commander's 
action was of generalship. Doubleday was steady, alert and resourceful to a marked 
degree under most difficult and unnecessary conditions, forced upon him by the faulty 
handling and placing of the Eleventh Corps. These facts, in no manner chargeable 
to Doubleday, but to Schurz and Howard, forced Doubleday ceaselessly to shift the 
positions and formations of his fighting units a feat of generalship ! " 

To almost the point of redundance, it has been repeated that the 
indirect outcome of Confederate success the first day redounded 
ultimately to the benefit of the Union commanders. General 
Doubleday 's own words on this question are often cited in support 
of it: 

' The preliminary battle, however, had the most important bearing on the 
result of the next two days, as it enabled the whole army to come up and reinforce 
the admirable position to which we had retreated." 
























flDajoixSeneral oublefca^ 

As well as the First Corps and the Eleventh being much inferior 
in numbers to the forces arrayed against them, they were not able to 
act in effective concert in resisting the onslaught made on them. Also, 
it is well established that excessive and useless perseverance and 
sacrifice were demanded of them, especially the First Corps. The 
Comte de Paris and Schurz, to whom Howard had entrusted the 
immediate command of the Eleventh Corps in the opening conflict, 
are two of the authorities that conform to this view. And in allusion 
to it General Doubleday has said: 

' Nor could I have retreated without the full knowledge and approbation of 
General Howard, who was my superior officer, and who had now arrived on the field. 
Had I done so, it would have uncovered the left flank of his corps. If circumstances 
required it, it was his place, not mine, to issue the order. General Howard, from 
his commanding position on Cemetery Hill, could overlook all the enemy's movements 
as well as our own, and I therefore relied upon his superior facilities for observation 
to give me timely warning of any unusual danger." 

The smoke of the battle had scarcely vanished from the horizon 
of Gettysburg the evening of the first day when a cloud of misunder- 
standings began to hover around Cemetery Hill which put several 
generals in high command at odds with each other, and full light has 
not yet been shed on some of the obscurities that followed in the 
wake of those misunderstandings. Ewell, evidently, had not done 
what Lee wished (when subsequently pining over the lost oppor- 
tunity) he had ordered, instead of recommended, him to do, the 
capture while, as is thought, they could be taken, of the heights in 
his immediate front, where the First Corps and the Eleventh were 
intrenching themselves after being driven from their first positions. 
Howard was at odds with Hancock on the question of supreme com- 
mand on the field, to which Meade had just appointed the latter 
pending his own arrival from Taneytown. Misunderstandings at 
that juncture or shortly before also put Howard at odds witli Gen- 
eral Doubleday, and as a consequence with Meade as well, with the 
result that General Doubleday was adjudged unequal to the respon- 
sibilities of handling an entire corps; Newton was appointed in his 
place, and for the other two days General Doubleday was relegated 
to the position of division commander. 

Wadsworth, exercising his best judgment, at a critical moment 
the morning of the initial contest, ordered three of his regiments to 
withdraw temporarily toward the Lutheran Seminary, to prevent 


IRew H?ork flDonuments Commission 

their being surrounded and captured, and one of them, the One hun- 
dred and forty-seventh New York, narrowly escaped that fate 
what was left of it. Howard, misapprehending on the spur of the 
moment he had only just come to the field then this retreat of 
the two regiments, the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania and Seventy-sixth 
New York, came to the conclusion that the First Corps was giving 
way thus early in the day. This he reported to Hancock, and in all 
its inaccuracy it was conveyed without delay to Meade, who forth- 
with deprived General Doubleday of the command of his corps. 

The evening of the second day when the Union center was tem- 
porarily dented by the brigades of Wright and Wilcox, of A. P. 
Hill's Corps, General Doubleday conjointly with Webb drove them 
back from Cemetery Hill, retaking four of the guns that had been 
lost and capturing two of the enemy's guns. 

In the repulse of Pickett's charge, the third day, General Double- 
day took a notable and effective part. The following is taken from 
his book, " Chancellorsville and Gettysburg": 

' Before the first line of rebels reached a second fence and stone wall, behind 
which our main body was posted, it was obliged to pass a demi-brigade under Colonel 
Theodore B. Gates, of the Twentieth New York Militia, and a Vermont brigade 
under General Stannard, both belonging to my command. When Pickett's right 
became exposed in consequence of the divergence of Wilcox's command Stannard 
seized the opportunity to make a flank attack, and while his left regiment, the Four- 
teenth, poured in a heavy oblique Are, he changed front with his two regiments, the 
Thirteenth and Sixteenth, which brought them perpendicular to the rebel line of 
march. In cases of this kind, when struck directly on the flank, troops are more 
or less unable to defend themselves, and Kemper's Brigade crowded in toward the 
centre in order to avoid Stannard's energetic and deadly attack. They were closely 
followed up by Gates' command, who continued to fire into them at close range. 
This caused many to surrender, others to retreat outright, and others simply to 
crowd together. Simultaneously with Stannard's attack, the Eighth Ohio, which 
was on picket, overlapping the rebel left, closed in on that flank with great effect. 
Nevertheless, the next brigade that of Armistead united to Garnett's Brigade, 
pressed on, and in spite of death-dealing bolts on all sides, Pickett determined to 
break Gibbon's line and capture his guns. * * * 

' While this severe contest was going on in front of Webb, Wilcox deployed 
his command and opened a feeble fire against Caldwell's Division on my left. 
Stannard repeated the manoeuvre which had been so successful against Kemper's 
Brigade by detaching the Fourteenth and Sixteenth Vermont to take Wilcox in flank. 
Wilcox thus attacked on his right, while a long row of batteries tore the front of 
his line to pieces with canister, could gain no foothold. He found himself exposed 
to a tremendous cross fire, and was obliged to retreat, but a great portion of his 
command were brought in as prisoners by Stannard and battle-flags were gathered 
in sheaves." 


flDajoivGcncral 2>oublefca\> 

Towards the close of Pickett's charge General Doubleday was 
struck by a shell, but not seriously wounded. 

As well as being deprived of the command of the First Corps on 
the evening of the opening conflict and reduced to the rank of divi- 
sion commander during the other two days, by a special order dated 
July 5th, General Doubleday was relieved from duty with the Army 
of the Potomac and instructed to report to the Adjutant General of 
the Army at Washington. 

"Truth crushed to earth shall rise again." After the real facts bear- 
ing on the achievement and sacrifice of the First Corps on Seminary 
Ridge were revealed at headquarters and Howard's erroneous version 
of the affair that misled Meade was exploited and exploded, Meade 
sought to make full amends for the injury he had done General 
Doubleday at Gettysburg. Interviewing him some time after at 
Washington, just before Grant's overland campaign was launched at 
the Wilderness, Meade not only expressed his sense of the humilia- 
tion to which he had unintentionally subjected General Doublday, 
but as well urged him then and there to accept another important 
command in the Army of the Potomac. Encouraged thereby, Gen- 
eral Doubleday made application to go to the front once more. He 
would have been with Grant and Meade in the overland campaign 
begun in May, 1864, had not the War Department refused his appli- 
cation to go back to the Army of the Potomac, on the ground that his 
services could not then be spared from AVashington. 

It is a singular coincidence that the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania 
and Seventy-sixth New York, on whose temporary retreat the first 
day at Gettysburg Howard made an erroneous report, composed the 
infantry part of the first brigade which General Doubleday com- 
manded when, in May, 1862, he joined McDowell at Fredericksburg. 

After Gettysburg, General Doubleday was engaged on defensive 
work at Washington, serving also on military commissions until the 
end of the war. On July 12, 1864, he was detailed to organize and 
command the loyal leagues of Washington City; and during Early's 
raiding close to the capital at that time he was assigned to command 
the defenses south of Anacosta Creek. 

General Doubleday was mustered out of the volunteer service 
on August 24, 1865, just after having been brevetted brigadier- 
general and major-general, U. S. A., " for gallant and meritorious 
services during the war." 


IRew ]ork Monuments Commission 

It is worthy of note that he served in the same regiment with 
Stonewall Jackson and A. P. Hill before the war. His command 
fought the former's forces at Antietam and the latter's at Gettysburg. 

General Doubleday was in command of the United States forces 
at Galveston, Texas, in 1866, where he remained on duty in connec- 
tion with the Freedman's Bureau until August, 1867. He was in 
Xew York in 1865, serving on the retiring board of the United States 
army; and from 1869 to 1871 he was at San Francisco on recruiting 
duty. While at San Francisco, he originated and obtained a charter 
for the first street railway operated by the cable system in the United 
States. He was in charge of the Twentv-fourth Infantry Regiment 
at Fort McKay ett, Texas, from April, 1871, to August, 1872, when 
with his regiment he was transferred to Fort Brown, Texas, remain- 
ing there until June, 1873. He retired from the army on December 
11, 1873. 

General Doubleday died on January 26, 1893, at his home, Sumter 
Cottage, in Mendham, X. J., from whence his remains were first 
carried to the City Hall in Xew York, and from thence to Arlington 
Cemetery, near Washington. Lafayette Post, G. A. R., Xo. 140, 
of Xew York, of which he was a member, took charge of the remains 
en route to Arlington. 

General Doubleday was a member of the Union League Club for 
nearly twenty years before his demise. 

General Doubleday, as well as being uncommonly well versed in 
military science, was a man of large attainments in the general field 
of knowledge. He can well be styled an accomplished writer and 
scholar. He was extensively acquainted with French and Spanish 
literature and deeply interested in the study of Sanscrit. In addi- 
tion to articles on military subjects, he contributed a good deal to 
the magazines on scientific and economic matters. His official reports 
during the war are models of composition. His two books entitled 
" Forts Moultrie and Sumter " and " Chancellorsville and Gettys- 
burg " are among the best known standard works dealing with the 
Civil War. They have, too, a style that for clearness, force and 
precision is hardly excelled bv any American historical work. His 
disagreements with Meade and Howard at Gettysburg and his opin- 
ion of their commanding qualities are reflected with a tinge of 
bitterness in " Chancellorsville and Gettysburg." 

In fact General Doubleday was never able to dismiss from his 


m>ajoi>(5eneral S)oublcfca\> 

mind the chagrin and disappointment that he suffered when deprived 
of his command at Gettysburg 1 , and it cannot be wondered at that 
he should feel somewhat vindictive at times towards the two com- 
manders by whom this humiliation was inflicted on him. That he 
contributed as much as General Meade himself or any other com- 
mander in the Gettysburg campaign towards the final result achieved 
there is now one of the undisputed facts in the story of that great 

Exception has been taken not infrequently to some of the com- 
ments and conclusions contained in General Doubleday's book on 
Gettysburg where he refers to General Meade. A well-known pub- 
lication criticising General Doubledav somewhat severely on this 
score drew from him the following refutation that appeared as a 
letter addressed to the New York Times in April, 1883: 

"A short time since a quotation was given in The New York Times from the 
appendix to Swinton's ' History of the Army of the Potomac ', to the effect that 
there is not 'a scintilla of evidence' to sustain my statement that Genera] .Meade 
contemplated a retreat at Gettysburg. As this is calculated to discredit the account 
of the battle given in my work on Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, I hope you will 
allow me a few words by way of reply. I would have answered it in the second 
edition of my book but, unfortunately, that was already in print before I saw the 
article which reflects so seriously on my fairness and generosity. 

" Mr. Swinton takes the ground that it is an attack on General Meade's repu- 
tation to assert that he ever thought of falling back. I am aware that it may seem 
ungracious to speak thus of General Meade's intentions. As he did remain to fight 
it out. he is entitled to the credit of doing so. I therefore would not have mentioned 
the subject at all if it had not been for a circumstance that has escaped Mr. Swin- 
ton's notice. The desire to retreat was supplemented by acts which form part of 
the history of the battle. He sent for General Pleasanton on the 2d of July --his 
chief of cavalry and directed him, late in the afternoon, to collect what cavalry 
and artillery he could, proceed with it to the rear, and take up a position to cover 
the retreat of the army. As a faithful historian, if I refer to General Pleasanton's 
movement at all, I must state the origin of it. 

" Mr. Swinton forgets that the Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the 
War reported that there was evidence that General Meade designed to retreat. 

" On the evening of the second, after sending Pleasanton off. General Meade 
called a council of war and put the question to the corps commanders whether they 
were in favor of remaining on the ridge or retreating. Our losses had been heavy 
and the enemy were then attacking our right, which was denuded of troops. Never- 
theless the council voted to remain and endeavor to hold the ridge. General Meade 
dissented from the conclusion and expressed his strong dissatisfaction. Mr. Swinton 
and others deny this. They seem to assume that such action on his part must needs 
denote timidity or bad generalship. It does not necessarily indicate anything of the 


1Re\v Ji?ork flDonumente Commission 

kind. As the right of the enemy overlapped our line for a considerable distance, it 
is stated that Longstreet was in favor of turning that flank. This would not only- 
force the Union army from the ridge, but would enable Lee to intervene between 
Meade and Washington. Meade feared that this would be done. He was doubtless 
apprehensive that Lee would steal a march on him in the night and thus endanger 
the safety of the capital. I do not suppose that Mr. Swinton in his zeal to defend 
General Meade will assume that Pleasanton's movement is a myth. The statement 
is sworn to before the Committee on the Conduct of the War, but as it is in a different 
volume from the mass of the testimony, it has probably escaped Mr. Swinton's notice. 
The following letter addressed to me by General Pleasanton, written from Washing- 
ton under date of February 8, 1883, reiterated this statement: 

" ' Your note of the Gth instant is received. In answer to your question, I have 
to state that General Meade on the 2d of July, 1803, at Gettysburg, about five 
o'clock in the afternoon, gave me the order to get what cavalry and artillery I could 
as soon as possible, and take up a position in rear to cover the retreat of the army 
from Gettysburg. I was thus occupied until ten o'clock at night, when I was 
recalled by an order from General Meade. This absence accounted for my not 
being at the council of war held at Meade's headquarters early in the evening.' 

" By way of rebuttal, Mr. Swinton parades the following declaration of General 
Meade. A very slight examination will show that it refers to a different period of 
the battle, to the morning of the second, and not to the evening. General Meade 

" ' I utterly deny, under the full solemnity and sanctity of my oath, and in the 
firm conviction that the day will come when the secrets of all men shall be made 
known I utterly deny having intended or thought for one instant to withdraw that 
army, unless the military contingencies which the future should develop during the 
course of the day might render it a matter of necessity that the army should be 

" I will now give the reason for this emphatic declaration on the part of Gen- 
eral Meade. On the morning of the second he directed his chief of staff, General 
Butterfield, to study and mark out the lines of retreat. It was subsequently asserted 
that this was a positive order for the army which had j ust formed on the ridge 
to withdraw before the enemy assailed it. General Meade denies that it was any- 
thing of the kind; it was merely a necessary precaution to avoid confusion in case 
he lost the position and was driven back. 

"I did not make the statement that he intended to retreat at that time, nor 
did I refer to his desire to do so in the evening of the second in either a carping 
or accusing spirit. I am astonished that it should be criticized so harshly. Mr. Swin- 
ton states that the only foundation which I have for asserting it is the evidence 
of General Butterfield before the Committee on the Conduct of the War. He then 
assumes that General Butterfield had a grievance; that he had been displaced as chief 
of staff to General Meade, and had made up this story to injure the latter. General 
Butterfield is fully capable of taking care of his own reputation. As, however, he 
is absent in South America. I will state for the information of non-military readers 
that the office of chief of staff is not a permanent one. Whoever fills it must neces- 
sarily hold the most intimate and confidential relations to the commander of the 

" , . : 

41 * 























fll}ajot>(Scneral Boublefca\> 

army. Hence, a personal friend is always selected for the position. General Butter- 
field, who had been chosen for this position by Genera] Hooker, never for a moment 
supposed that he would be retained in the same capacity by General Meade, and, 
therefore, offered his resignation at once. It was not accepted until the battle was 
over. It is as absurd to suppose that he cherished animosity on this account as it 
would be to imagine that an ex-secretary of state would be bitterly hostile to a new 
administration because he was not continued in office. 

" Mr. Swinton says that Butter field's evidence is not confirmed by any member 
of the council of war. The fact is, they were not questioned as to the specific 
language quoted by General Butterfield, and no subordinate will volunteer informa- 
tion which may seem to reflect on his superiors. Facts of this kind are usually 
drawn out in cross-examination. 

" General Slocum, who commanded the right wing of the army at Gettysburg, 
ought to be pretty good authority as to what occurred at the council. The following 
letter bv him to me under date of February 19, 1883, sustains General Butterfield's 
statement in its essential particulars: 

" ' Your favor of the 14th instant received. I have not read what Swinton 
says in his new edition of " The Army of the Potomac ", and having thus far avoided 
being drawn into any of the controversies about the events of the war, 1 feel averse 
to writing anything on the subject. 

" ' That a council of war was called by General Meade on the evening of July 
2d is well known. The names of all present are well known. The question sub- 
mitted was: "Is it advisable for the army to remain in its present position or to 
fall back " ? The opinion of each corps commander was asked, commencing with 
the junior in rank. A majority were of the opinion that we should remain in the posi- 
tion then held by us. When each officer had expressed his views, General Meade 
said: "Well, gentlemen, the question is settled. We will remain here, but I will 
say that I consider this no place to fight a battle." I do not believe any officer who 
was present at this important meeting has forgotten General Meade's words.' 

" This statement of General Meade's views does not by no means rest solely 
upon the testimony quoted above. There is additional evidence to the same effect 
which I might give, but that several witnesses are averse to coming to the front and 
being pelted with partisan mud. I have no hesitation, however, to affirm that General 
Birney, as he rode home from the council that night with his staff officer, Major J. B. 
Fassitt, commented upon Meade's statement that Gettysburg was no place to fight 
in. He subsequently made the same remark to General Sickles when the latter was 
convalescing from his wound. Both Major Fassitt and General Sickles reside in 
New York. 

" Mr. Swinton assumes that I am unable to write an impartial story owing to 
the hostile relations which he supposes to have existed between General Meade and 
myself, founded on my criticism of the latter in my testimony before the Committee 
on the Conduct of the War. I freely admit that I was unnecessarily harsh in my 
language at that time. The fact is that before the battle of Gettysburg I was 
applied to by an officer of high rank, a confidential friend of General Meade, to 
give him a list of such officers of my division as had made strong demonstrations 
when General MeClellan was removed from command. The object of the inquiry 


IRew JDorfc Monuments Commission 

was to promote these men over the heads of others equally deserving. I looked 
upon this as a plot to change the army of the Union into a partisan force, which 
was to become the personal appanage of an individual. Believing General Meade 
to be a party to this arrangement, I thought he intended to carry out this policy, 
and testified accordingly. I afterwards ascertained that I was mistaken in this 
respect; that he had no intention of reorganizing the army in the interest of 
General McClellan. Indeed, he could not have done so without displacing himself. 
When I understood the circumstances I did not blame him for his action towards 
me at Gettysburg. Nor is it true that he was not willing that I should serve under 
him again. Indeed, I applied to go down to the army to resume command of a 
division, and I never would have done so if I had not been certain that I would be 
welcome. General Meade frequently made friendly inquiries concerning me of a 
relative who was there. I also received a message which came through Lieut. 
Lambdin, formerly of my staff, to the effect that I would be well received by him 
in case I returned to the army. The War Department refused my application to 
go, on the ground that my services could not be spared from Washington at that 

" Mr. Swinton's rose-colored narrative of the war might properly be called the 
' History of the Army of Northern Virginia.' " 



rber of Ei erases 


(Beneral IRobinson flDonument 

"Robinson avennc, Gettysburg 

September 25, 1917, 4.00 fl>. /!&. 

1. Music. U. S. Military Band. 

2. Prayer, by Rev. Win. T. Pray, 102nd N. Y. Veteran Volunteers. 

3. Introductory Remarks by Chairman of Board of Commissioners, 

Colonel Lewis R. Stegman. 

4. Music, Citizens Band of Gettysburg. 

5. Unveiling of the Monument, by Mrs] Robert A. Hall, Daughter 

of General Robinson. 

6. Oration, Corporal James Tanner, 87th N. Y. Vols., Robinson's 

Brigade, Kearny's Division, Third Army Corps. 

7. Music. U. S. Military Band. 

8. Address, Colonel Hilary A. Herbert, 8th Alabama, A. P. Hill's 

Corps, C. S. A. 

9. Music, Citizens Band of Gettysburg. 

10. Address. Colonel Samuel M. Morgan, Assistant Adjutant Gen- 

eral of General Robinson's Division, Army of the Potomac. 

11. Music, U. S. Military Band. 

12. Poem, by Colonel John H. Cochrane, 83rd N. Y. Vols. 

13. Remarks by Dr. Lewis S. Pilcher, Past Commander U. S. 

Grant Post, G. A. R., Department of New York. 

14. Benediction, bv Rev. Win. T. Pray. 


Bfcfcress t>p Corporal 3ames banner 

S7tb n. 13. Dole. 

Mr. Chairman, Men in Khaki, Comrades, Ladies and Gen- 
tlemen : 

I PL ACE you men in khaki in the front, hecause you are there 
you are the front of the nation to-day; our hearts are with you; 
our prayers are with you; our hope is in you; and when you go 
over the top " over there " our cheers will be with you; and when you 
return home triumphant our thanks will be tendered you, with 
vociferous cheers. 

I hold it a great honor, sir, to be invited by the New York Monu- 
ments Commission, of which you are chairman, to deliver an address 
at the exercises for dedicating the statue erected on the field of 
Gettysburg to the memory of my old commander, Major-General 
John C. Robinson. 

It was during the Peninsular campaign, ending with Malvern 
Hill on July 1, 1862, that the regiment in which I served was intro- 
duced to General Robinson. I was then a mere soldier stripling and 
probably about as verdant a country lad as could be found in the 
Army of the Potomac. The first railroad train that I ever boarded 
was the one that took me from my home when, as a boy of little more 
than seventeen, I started in search of a uniform and a gun to put on 
my shoulder. In due course, I got the desired training and had the 
good fortune to belong to a regiment, the Eighty-seventh New York, 
that was part of the First Brigade of the Third Division, Third Corps. 
The division commander was none other than the renowned and 
valorous General Kearny. Up to Fair Oaks, fought the end of 
May, 1862, our brigade was led by an officer from the State of Maine, 
General Jameson. He was a splendid soldier, and in that battle was 
injured so seriously, on account of his horse falling on him, that he 
was obliged to return home ; to recuperate, as we all earnestly hoped, 
but alas it was not so, for death ere long put an end to his sufferings. 

Those were stirring days near Richmond, and I might say not 
far from Washington also. A few days before our new commander 
received his appointment, the early part of June, a very important 


flftajor^cSeneral IRobtneon 

event in the history of the Civil War took place, General Lee suc- 
ceeding General Joseph E. Johnston as commander of the Army of 
Northern Virginia. General Robinson succeeded General Jameson. 
I was with him in many a strenuous encounter until, at the Second 
Manassas, on August 30, 18G2, I was mustered out of service, never 
to go back again, by Stonewall Jackson's artillery. 

The last time I saw General Robinson was when my comrades 
were carrying me to the rear that day. Years afterwards it was my 
good fortune to meet him again, and this was the beginning of a 
renewed acquaintanceship and a friendship that lasted until he died. 
After Spotsylvania, in May, 1864, when General Robinson lost a leg, 
he was retired from active duty on the field and placed in command 
of the district of Northern New York, with headquarters at Albany. 
When in the capital one day I ventured to call on him, and, introduc- 
ing myself as one of the members of the old brigade, told him about the 
incident that compelled me to leave it. He recalled it immediately, 
and the first thing he said was, " My God, the last time I saw you 
was when they carried you by me in a blanket." 

After General Robinson was retired from the army his friends 
in Broome County brought him forward as a candidate for lieutenant- 
governor, on the ticket headed by General John A. Dix, in 1872. 
That time I had left mv own countv of Schoharie and was a resident 
of Brooklyn. I had, I am glad to say, an opportunity to be of some 
help to my brigade commander in that election. Though no longer 
in my native county I was in close touch with prominent politicians 
there, as well as with the Brooklyn leaders. Revisiting Schoharie, 
I pleaded as best I could the cause of my choice for lieutenant- 
governor, and succeeded in securing Schoharie's delegates to the 
State convention. Through them and the co-operation of Albany, 
both forming one Congressional district, we managed to win the 
Albany delegation. This was quite an important result, as Albany 
took the lead in the roll call. In Brooklyn subsequently I was sub- 
jected to some close questioning as to what I knew about the general. 
They wanted to know how much he knew about politics. I told them 
frankly that I did not think he was much more of an adept at the 
political game than an eighteen-year-old boy, and said further : * But 
I can vouch for the fact that he is conscientiously devoted to the 
principles of our party: he holds it his duty to support it ener- 
getically; and I can say that all through his career he has never 


IRew tyovk fIDonuments Commission 

swerved from the straight path of duty, whether in military or civil 
life." I also told them that General Robinson was not long over us 
on the battlefields when we gave him the complimentary sobriquet 
of " Old Reliable "; that he was ever trustworthy and capable leading 
a brigade or a division; that I felt sure he would be no less so as a 
contestant in a political fight, and that if elected he could be depended 
on to give a good account of his stewardship. Well, he was elected, 
and when his term of office expired friends and opponents testified to 
his integrity. 

In 1877 General Robinson stood as candidate for another office, 
that of commander-in-chief of the Grand Army; and veterans still 
with us who were familiar with the affairs of that organization then 
will not charge me with any egotism or exaggeration when I say that 
I did much towards having that honor conferred on him. 

To have been helpful or instrumental in conferring any honor 
on General Robinson was always an honor in itself: it is a pleasure 
and an honor to have the privilege of participating in the ceremonies 
for dedicating his statue here to-day. To have served under him and 
his division commander. General Kearny, in the Peninsular and 
Second Manassas campaigns, is a distinction that I always feel proud 
of when recalling it. The day after Stonewall Jackson mustered me 
out of service General Kearny was mortally wounded. A few years 
ago his own State, Xew Jersey, woke up to the fact that her greatest 
soldier had not vet been accorded a grave bv the countrv for which 
he gave up his life. His remains rested for fifty years in the vault 
of a kinsman in Trinity church vard, Xew York Citv, from whence 
Xew Jersev had them transferred to Arlington Cemeterv. The cere- 
monies incident to the reinterment were attended by the President 
of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, members of his cabinet, mem- 
bers of the Congress and the Senate, and a large concourse of people 
from far and near. I had the honor on that occasion of pronouncing 
a eulogy over the remains of General Kearny at Arlington Cemetery, 
and felt that I was engaged on one of the most important duties of 
my whole life. 

And to-day I find myself here helping to dedicate the statue to 
General Robinson. He was my brigade commander from the 10th 
of June until the 30th of August, 1862, one of the most strenuous 
and momentous periods in the long struggle between the two great 
armies contending against each other in the East. So you will realize, 


ADajotxBeneral IRobtnson 

my friends, what emotion must be mine addressing you on this 

Everywhere and at every time General Robinson won the respect 
and the admiration of all who came into contact with him, whether 
in military or eivil life. As a commander, he continued without inter- 
ruption, until dangerously wounded, to play an important part in 
the Civil War. After retiring from the army lie was recognized in 
Binghamton and Broome county as their most important citizen, and 
hosts of friends all over the State believed in him implicitly. In vet- 
eran circles, he was always regarded as one of the idols of the Grand 
Army of the Republic. 

General Robinson was born at Binghamton, New York, on April 
10, 1817; so that the span of an exact century covers the time since 
he first saw the light and the erection of a statue to his memory on a 
battlefield. His parents, natives of Connecticut, settled in Bingham- 
ton in 1810. Dr. Tracy Robinson, his father, was prominently iden- 
tified with Binghamton's growth and prosperity for forty years. 
General Robinson's military career of thirty years carried him from 
cadet to major-general. The battlefields in which he served ranged 
from Palo Alto, in Mexico, to Grant's great struggle in the Wilder- 
ness and Spotsylvania, where his leg was shattered. He was fre- 
quently commended by his superior officers for gallant conduct and 
commanding ability. 

On this field, the morning of that historic day of July 1, 1803, he 
heard the beckoning call of Doubleday's guns thundering on Semi- 
nary Ridge while at Marsh Creek, six miles away. He rushed his 
division to Doubleday's assistance and so consummately did he handle 
his troops that for four hours he held vastly superior forces at bay. 
Two horses were shot under him during that ordeal. 

For the purpose of this day, I epitomize General Robinson's 
military career by saying that from every field on which he trod he 
plucked the flowers that yield to valor's touch. 

We stand here on a field where, a little more than fifty-four years 
ago, one of the greatest scenes in the history of the nation was staged. 
The victory achieved at Gettysburg did not completely insure the 
perpetuity of the integrity of the United States, but it went a long 
way towards it. The gratitude of our people towards those who 
fought so gallantly here, an immense number of them " giving the 
last full measure of devotion," is finding constant expression. The 


IRew l!?ork flDonuments Commission 

splendid array of monuments, markers, memorials and tablets all 
around us, and farther than our eves can reach, furnish evidence 
indisputable that the great work done here and the sacrifices sus- 
tained here will always be remembered. Put all the monuments 
erected in all the battlefields of Europe in one place and after counting 
them you would not have a total half as big as the number of monu- 
ments in the Gettysburg National Military Park. 

Memorials and statues count for but little if they do not convey 
to succeeding generations lessons valuable in public and private life. 
Go over this battlefield where you will, and wherever you see a memo- 
rial you will find that the true import is to commemorate character 
in the individual or individuals honored. This is true of the votive 
stone and bronze erected here to the memory of the Gray no less 
than to the memory of the Blue. 

The numerous monuments with which this far-famed field is 
adorned furnish a large measure of inspiration. They are reminders 
of what was achieved and endured during that tremendous period of 
strife in the early sixties. It strikes me forcibly as I gaze on the boys 
in khaki now before me, happily participating in these ceremonies 
the boys who are getting ready for the frays to come that they can 
contemplate dedications such as these with great advantage to them- 
selves. Spectacles such as these cannot help but give them consider- 
able inspiration and enthusiasm, which are never found wanting in the 
brave soldier. We exhort our young friends in khaki to be resolved 
and prepared to do their utmost, as their fathers and forefathers did, 
for maintaining and perpetuating the principles of democracy and 
the freedom of mankind the world over. We call, and call confi- 
dently, on the American youth of to-day to do their full duty to 
the nation and its leaders, as we, who were the youth of the early 
sixties, feel that we did ours when our turn came and when we were 
able to serve. The government of the day demands of them the same 
devotion and sacrifice that we in our youthful days gave the then 
government. To the appeal of President Wilson they should 
respond with the same alacrity and loyalty that we did when 
President Lincoln asked the nation to help him. 

It is worthy of note, too, that we have to-dav some of the adverse 
conditions that were a handicap to the government of President Lin- 
coln. At that time we were cursed by the indifference, and even 
opposition, of a class of individuals who were of us but not with us. 

flDajot>6eneral IRobineon 

They had hut little love for the nation's cause, and many of them who 
favored the cause ostensibly had not the pluck to wear a uniform and 
defend the flag. We styled them Copperheads, and this name is still 
used by writers of American history. I have heard people of the 
younger generation express surprise that they were not called Rattle- 
snakes; but, my friends, you must not forget that a rattlesnake is 
a somewhat gallant and fair-minded reptile. He never strikes until 
he has sounded a preliminary warning. We have now their lineal 
descendants to contend with. They are variously designated as 
>acifists, anarchists, socialists, I. W. W.'s the I won't work 
workers individuals who as a class strike in the dark and who do 
not hesitate at murder to accomplish their foul designs. I sincerely 
trust if it turns out to be at all necessary to do it that President 
Wilson will not hesitate to pursue the same course deemed advisable 
by Abraham Lincoln, that is, suspend the writ of habeas corpus and 
declare martial law in districts found to be infested. Then I would 
have him seize these despicable creatures, hale them before a military 
court, give them a fair trial, and, if convicted, give them forthwith 
their deserts. 

The one thing I deem of supreme importance is to arouse the 
American people to a consciousness of the fact that the world war 
now raging in the European fronts is as much our war as if it were 
being fought within our own shores. It is the cause of mankind the 
world over. I have no doubt of the ultimate result. The cost will 
be mighty in blood and treasure, but the happy result will be to 
crush and end autocracy in Europe, and in that devoutly-to-be- 
wished-for consummation America will act its part. 

I have enough faith to believe that among our hosts of soldiers to 
cross the water there will develop many an aspirant to the honors and 
distinction won by John Cleveland Robinson many a man who 
will be stimulated by the single idea of absolute loyalty to the cause 
for which he is to fight, and fully determined to do his best and 
strike his hardest, with no thought whatever of personal consequences 
to himself. 


Hfc>fc>re06 t>s Colonel Ibtlar^ a. Iberbert 

8tb Alabama, B. fl>. Ibill's Corps, C. S. B. 

Ladies and Gentlemen and Comrades: 

WHEN I last met you, veterans in blue, on this battlefield, we 
were enemies. That was four and fifty years ago. To-day 
I am here calling you " comrades," helping you to honor 
two of the great soldiers against whom I was then in arms. Colonel 
Stegman, whom I sincerely thank, as I do Comrades Stedman 
and Tanner, for the privilege of being here to-day, has intro- 
duced me as a former head of the navy of the government I was 
trying here in 1863 to dismember. How strange to you how 
impossible to me all this would have seemed in July, 1863! Here 
are twenty-two square miles of as neat and well-kept a park as the 
sun ever shone on. Here are driveways, leading to the various 
positions occupied during the great battle by the Union army and 
by the Confederate army. Here are tablets, as neat and costly for 
one army as for the other, marking the position, and telling as fairly 
as may be, the exploits of every brigade, squadron and battery in 
both armies. These markers have been put up by the government 
whose solidarity was at stake here in 1863. And here are monuments 
erected by States, proud of their sons, and by other organizations, 
proud of their leaders. Here on this side, where his headquarters 
was, is the statue of General Meade, the commander-in-chief of the 
great Army of the Potomac. Over there where his position was, is 
the statue of Lee. Of that I can speak, for I was one of the followers 
and worshippers of Lee, and I believe with Theodore Roosevelt who 
said that, without any disparagement of those world-famous soldiers, 
Grant and Marlborough, Lee was the greatest general the English- 
speaking race has produced. There, on Seminary Ridge, sits Lee 
on Traveller, man and horse just as they were when, after Pickett's 
repulse, General Lee rode slowly along our line, with a single orderly 
following him, calm and as imperturbable as is that bronze statue 
to-day. Colonel Roosevelt is not singular among Northerners in his 
admiration of the great Confederate leader. 



fll>ajoi>6cneral IRobineon 

Years ago General Lee was put up by Northerners among the 
great Americans whose names were entitled to be enrolled in the 
" Hall of Fame," and it was that brave Union soldier and courage- 
ous historian, Charles Francis Adams, who said that the government 
of the United States ought to erect a monument to Robert E. Lee 
for this: that to his decision, his influence, his advice and his example 
was due the amazing fact that after the surrender of Johnston's army, 
quickly following Appomattox, the many thousands of Confederates 
who were then in arms, instead of continuing the fight as guerillas, 
at the behest of their commanders quietly disbanded, took the oath 
of allegiance to the United States and kept it from that day to this. 
The unanimity with which the Confederate armies, at the command 
of their leaders Lee and Johnston turned from war to the arts 
of peace, has no precedent in history. The spectacle amazed the 
world, but it was distinctly American. To abide bv the decision of 
the tribunal to which we have submitted our cause is the law of our 
civilization. The American stands by decisions made, whether at the 
ballot box, by a court of justice or on the field of battle. 

So absolute was the submission of the Confederates to the results 
of the war, so faithfully did they follow the advice of their great 
leader to become good citizens, that Charles Sumner, of Massa- 
chusetts, carried away by enthusiasm, introduced a resolution in the 
United States Senate to burn all battle flags to enable our country 
to come together and forget forever the war and all its horrors. 
That was all very fine for sentiment, but the American people, and 
particularly those of us who fought each other, knew better than 
Senator Sumner how to secure a lasting peace and a perfect union. 
That way we took soon after the war closed, and we have traveled it 
ever since. 

It was absolutely impossible for either the South or the Xorth to 
forget the sacrifices that had been made by its soldiers and its citizens 
for its ideals. The one way to bring the two sections together was, 
for each to recognize fully the sacrifices made by the other, do justice 
to the motives that had prompted these sacrifices, and to withhold no 
just meed of praise from the citizens and the soldiers who had upheld 
the ideals of its adversary section. In this great movement, the 
soldiers of the two sections, they who had tested each other's mettle 
on the field of battle, were in position to lead. They have led, and 
our Union is now more perfect than it was even in the era of good 


mew Ji?ork Monuments Commission 

feeling when Monroe was President. But the eredit for this does 
not all belong to our soldiers. 

Congress blazed the way long ago when it provided for the publi- 
cation of all the official records of our great war, both Federal and 
Confederate, that all the world might know fully of the deeds of the 
American soldier, and Congress was pursuing that same policy when 
it afterward provided for these memorial battlefields. Here, even 
the wayfaring man who never stops to read history, will read as he 
passes and talk to his children of the valor of his countrymen. 

Grover Cleveland was helping to bring his countrymen together 
when, in both his first and his second administration, he threw the 
doors wide open and called on Confederate and Federal soldiers, 
alike and without distinction, to serve their government in judicial 
and executive offices, at home and abroad. And it was Grover Cleve- 
land who first brought together as one man in the House and Senate* 
every member, Northerner and Southerner, Democrat and Republi- 
can. That was in 1896, in answer to his Venezuela message. Every 
man then stood up for the Monroe Doctrine, democracy in America, 
just as Woodrow Wilson has called upon them in 1917 to stand up 
in this world war for democracy against autocracy. 

William McKinley, the soldier-president, was bringing the South 
and North together when he appointed Oates and Fitzhugh Lee and 
Wheeler, who had been Confederate officers, to be Federal officers 
in the Spanish-American war. And again, when, in a speech in 
Atlanta, after the close of that war, he said the time had come when 
the United States government should take care of the graves of the 
Confederate dead. That speech brought into existence the beautiful 
monument erected by the Daughters of the Confederacy to the Con- 
federates who are now sleeping side by side with the Union dead in 
the national cemetery at Arlington. 

When the corner-stone of the monument was being laid in 1912 
I was master of ceremonies. Seeing Comrade Tanner sitting among 
the spectators, I called him to my side to put his spadeful of mortar 
on the corner-stone, asked him then and there to speak briefly after 
the orator of the occasion, and in a five-minute extempore speech he 
carried away from us all, as his habit is, the laurels of the day. 
Roosevelt in all his writings, and when lie was President, and Taft 
when he was President, used all their great powers to help forward 
the growth of kindly feeling between the two sections. So also for 

fIDajoixBeneral IRobinson 

many years now have broad-minded historians and writers for the 
press. But behind all this mighty onward movement and making it 
possible has been the soldier who fought the battles, not the horse- 
holder or the slacker, but the real soldier - Federal and Confederate. 
I have no time here to enumerate the numerous reunions of the 
Blue and the Gray. I mention now only the great fiftieth anni- 
versary of the battle on these grounds, and one other that is abso- 
lutely unique in history. In 1906, the survivors of the Twenty-third 
New Jersey put up on the field where the brave fight of Salem 
Church, part of the battle of Chancellorsville, took place in 1803, a 
monument on one side of which was a just tribute to their own gallant 
dead, and on the other a brass plate with this inscription : 

' To the brave Alabama boys who were our opponents on this field and whose 
memory we honor, this tablet is dedicated." 

The mortuary literature of the world furnished no parallel to this 
magnanimous tribute. I commanded a regiment of the Alabama 
boys thus commemorated and some of the results of this monument 
were visits between General Grubb, the head of that association, and 
myself, a contribution by that association to the Confederate monu- 
ment at Arlington, and my election as an honorary member of the 
Twenty-third New Jersey Survivors Association. Comrade Tanner 
here with us, was, so far as I know, the first veteran of the war to be 
elected honorary member of an association composed of his former 
enemies. That occurred many years ago in Richmond, Virginia, and 
was the result of services he had rendered to Confederates. I should 
have called him " Corporal." That was the title he held when, at 
the Second Manassas, he was mustered out of active service bv Stone- 
wall Jackson. He has made the title since held by him as famous by 
his eloquent speeches for comradeship between the Blue and the 
Gray as Napoleon made the title " Little Corporal " on the battle- 
fields of Europe. 

Mr. Chairman, I find that I am talking, and further on will be 
impelled to talk more about myself and it seems that, if not an 
apology, at least an explanation is necessary. So far, I have been 
speaking chiefly of what Union soldiers and Union Presidents have 
done. I am, I believe, the only Confederate here, and am now to 
contend that the Confederates have also done their duty fully in 
bringing about present happy conditions. It has been my good 


1Rew IPorfc Monuments Commission 

fortune to have many opportunities to help forward in this cause. 
If I had not availed myself of them, I should have misrepresented 
the constituents who gave me these opportunities and for whom I am 
speaking now. They stood by me and kept me in Congress for six- 
teen consecutive years, because they approved my course and especi- 
ally my determination (and I adhered to it) to indulge in no debates 
that would keep alive the passions of the war. Twelve of the best 
years of my life, I devoted to the building up of the navy, eight con- 
secutive years in the naval committee of the House of Representa- 
tives, which originated naval appropriation bills, and four succeeding 
years as Secretary of the Navy, superintending the construction of 
ships, when authorized. When I became chairman of that com- 
mittee, in 1885, the new navy consisted of three little ships. When 
I turned over that navy to my successor in 1897, it was the navy that 
in two battles crushed the naval power of Spain. Every naval vessel 
that fought the battle of Manila, under Admiral Dewey, except one, 
I had a hand in, either as helping in the naval committee to authorize, 
or else supervising its construction as Secretary, and in some cases, 
in both authorizing and constructing; and so of every single ship 
that fought at Santiago, with the single exception of the little con- 
verted yacht Gloucester. Not a dollar for the building, equipping, 
or provisioning of that navy was going South, yet my constituents 
at home approved my course and my southern colleagues in the 
House followed me all the while we were demonstrating to the people 
of the North that the country had no stauncher friends than the 

After all, Mr. Chairman, it is not strange that when the war was 
over all the good soldiers, North and South, those who had learned 
on the battlefield to respect each other and admire each other, 
earnestly desired that we should all become one people again. 
Slavery, about which we had quarreled, was eliminated, and the 
question of secession, about which we honestly differed, had been 
settled, and there was nothing left to divide us. You were some- 
what inaccurate, Mr. Chairman, when you said in introducing me 
that we Confederates had framed a constitution for ourselves. We 
took one already framed, the old constitution of the fathers, and 
changed it only enough to make it read as Ave understood Madison 
and Jefferson had expounded it. You were fighting for that same 
constitution as you thought Washington and Jackson understood it. 


flDajoixBeneral IRobinson 

We were all fighting for democracy. No American has ever 
shouldered a gun for the right of kings to rule since the last army of 
George III surrendered at Yorktown. 

Our family dispute settled, peace and prosperity came to us. 
Fifty years of luxurious living have, unfortunately, bred among us 
pestilential broods of cowardly pacifists and envious anarchists, but 
in this hour of peril, thank God, we can rely upon the stalwart 
Americanism that has come down to us from the Blue and the Gray 
and is standing solidly behind Woodrow Wilson. 

The climax in this story of the brotherhood of the Blue and the 
Gray to-day was the annual reunion of the Confederate veterans held 
in the Capital of their country on the oth, (5th and 7th of June last, 
the hearty and generous welcome extended to them by those who 
represented the nation and the genuine rebel yell of delight with 
which that welcome was greeted. I have no time to expand upon it. 
Congress will print all the speeches that were made and a description 
of the reception, that the nation may see for itself. That reunion 
was the conception of Colonel Andrew Cowan, commander in 1863 
of the famous battery now commemorated over there on Cemetery 
Hill. Among the welcoming speakers was Corporal Tanner. The 
President and somebody representing everybody else spoke, but 
Corporal Tanner had to speak again at night. 

Thousands of Confederates had been provided for, but thousands 
more than had been expected came. The exigencies of the war pre- 
vented to some extent the government aid that was expected, but in 
spite of a rainstorm and other difficulties the Washington reunion 
was the most successful and enthusiastic of all those ever held bv the 

I was grand marshal at that reunion, aiding in the arrangements, 
and, of course, very anxious about what might be the results of the 
parade. The veterans were old and the weather was likely to be hot. 
Phvsicians were in attendance, ambulances were on hand, and every 
provision was made for sicknesses and deaths that might occur, but 
there was not a single death. On the contrary, there were marriages 
three of them it is said one of the veterans bringing his intended 
with him. There is nothing that attracts the girls like the gay old 
soldier boy. 


Hfcfcrees b Colonel Samuel flD flfcorsan 

assistant &Djutant=(3eneral in eneral IRobfnson's Division, Bring ot tbc Potomac 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, and Comrades: 

I APPRECIATE indeed very much this opportunity to say a 
few words at the dedication of the statue to General Robinson. 
I was on his staff from the time that he took charge of a brigade, 
at Newport News in May, 1862, until he was wounded at Spotsyl- 
vania two years after. In the battle fought on this field I was 
assistant adjutant-general of his division. The difficulties and perils 
that General Robinson's regiments encountered on this ground on 
Julv 1, 1863, are therefore well known to me. For four hours on 
that day his two brigades had to bear the brunt of the attack made 
by five Confederate brigades. We are now in a part of the field 
where some of the most intense righting of the opening contest took 

On the whole, the first day's conflict at Gettysburg was seldom 
surpassed for intensity and casualty during the Civil War. The 
First Corps was the first to go into action on this field and the heaviest 
part of the resistance made to the Confederate advance fell on its 
three divisions, one of which was commanded by General Robinson. 
I verily believe that if it had not been for the gallant defense made 
by our corps that day on Seminary Ridge, from the Hagerstown 
Road right up to the place where the monument we are now dedi- 
cating stands, the battle of Gettysburg would have been claimed as 
a Confederate victory. 

With less than 8,500 men, the First Corps, I have authority for 
saying, was, the afternoon of that day, attacked by forces four times 
as numerous. In 1867, it was my privilege to accompany General 
Robinson and others with him when they were trying to locate the 
positions of the First Corps regiments on Seminary Ridge. It 
happened that a Confederate participant a staff officer was 
here the same day. We had very interesting talks with him on the 
battle. He asked General Robinson how many men were holding 
the Federal positions on Seminary Ridge the first day. When told 
not more than 8,500, he turned round with an air of surprise, and 


flDajor^General IRobineon 

said: ' I do not wish to contradict you, but how could that be, for 
you held from thirty to forty thousand men at bay for several 
hours." He also made the remark then that Lee attributed his 
failure at Gettysburg to the losses suffered by A. P. Hill's Corps in 
the first day's fight. 

General Robinson's Division was made up of Paul's and Baxter's 
brigades. They were in the thick of the fierce encounter of the even- 
ing of the first day, from start to finish. Well do I remember seeing 
part of F well's Corps coming down the Mummasburg Road - - a 
little to the north of where we are at present assembled - - and 
attacking our right flank. That was about three o'clock. Our 
division was last on the retreat to Cemeterv Hill. Finally, and after 
battling away to the bitter end, the enemy rushing on us in swarms 
from, the Mummasburg Road, Ave fell back under this hill. Just then 
Captain Stewart, commanding Battery B, Fourth U. S. Artillery, 
rode up to us saying that the troops on the left had all gone and 
asking what he was to do, as his battery was still holding its ground. 
General Robinson instructed him to withdraw his men as soon as 
possible and at the same time sent him assistance. When we saw 
Stewart's men hurrying away to the rear the Second Division con- 
tinued its retreat, with the enemy in hot pursuit. 

Up to the time of receiving orders to fall back, we lost but few 
prisoners, but our list in killed and wounded was a terribly long one. 
And so was that of the brigades we fought. In the retreat to Ceme- 
tery Hill the brigade of Coulter first led by Paul, who was 
wounded took position on the left and rear of Baxter's. Then 
Baxter's men were withdrawn and as the last of his regiments had 
passed to the rear of Coulter's the enemy again came to the attack, 
but they were held in check by a well-directed fire. The last forma- 
tion in our division was made by the Ninety-fourth New York at the 
railroad cut. As we were approaching the town Confederate troops 
were massed on our right and left. When we came within sight of 
the streets we saw that large numbers of the Eleventh Corps were 
thronged there and so were obliged to march through a lane that led 
to Cemetery Hill. We remained a little to the left of Ziegler's grove 
that night. The next morning early we were relieved by Hays's 
Division of the Second Corps. About midnight a roll call was 
ordered, and it was found that the casualties in our division num- 
bered 1,667, of which 124 were commissioned officers. 


mew !?ork flDonumente Commission 

The First Corps by its stubborn resistance to A. P. Hill's Corps 
and part of Ewell's the first day paved the way for Federal success 
the second day and the third day at Gettysburg. 

General Robinson was a grand man and a brave and able com- 
mander. I take great pleasure in stating now before his statue, as 
one of the veterans present here who served under him, that he 
invariably exercised the greatest care in looking after the comfort of 
his men. In battle he was always up with his troops. Two horses 
fell under him the first day at Gettysburg. I loved General Robinson 
as a man and I admired him as a soldier. 

Comrades, we should feel very proud and very thankful that 
after fifty odd years we are enjoying to-day this magnificent reunion 
of First Corps survivors. We have come here to pay tribute to two 
of the finest generals of the Civil War. I thank God for you and 
myself for being spared to avail ourselves of this opportunity to meet 
each other and greet each other once more on the famed field of 



HDajotXBeneral 3obn Cleveland IRobineon 

JOHN CLEVELAND ROBINSON was born in Binghamton, 
N. Y., on April 10, 1817. He came of a good New England 
colonial stock. He was a lineal descendant, in the seventh 
generation, of the Reverend John Robinson, the pastor of that body 
of Puritan exiles which, after having first found refuge in Leyden, 
Holland, landed on the shores of Massachusetts in 1620, and founded 
the colony of the Pilgrim Fathers. 

His parents, Dr. Tracy and Sarah (Cleveland) Robinson, natives 
of Connecticut, settled in Binghamton, N. Y., in 1810. From the 
time of making it his adopted home until his demise, forty years 
after, Dr. Robinson was prominently and continuously identified 
with Binghamton's growth and development. As well as practicing 
his profession, he opened a drug store there. He was made associate 
judge and justice of the peace; and the honor of being the first judge 
appointed from Broome county was also his. Dr. Robinson was one 
of the founders and one of the first members of Christ Church in 
Binghamton; and for a dozen years after Andrew Jackson became 
President he was postmaster there. 

The fact that it was exactly a hundred years from the date of 
General Robinson's birth to the erection of a statue to his memory 
on the battlefield of Gettysburg, invites a little retrospection at the 
beginning of this sketch. It was in the year 1817 that James Monroe 
was inaugurated President. Daniel D. Tompkins resigned the 
Governorship of New York to become Vice-president in his adminis- 
tration. One of his last acts as Governor was the signing of the bill 
whereby slavery was to be abolished in New York after Independence 
Day, 1827. Immediately on succeeding him, Governor DeWitt 
Clinton signed the act authorizing the construction of the Erie 
Canal, work on which was begun on July -4, 1817. In that year also 
it was a mooted question as to which was the premier State, New 
York or Virginia. The census returns issued shortly after showed 
that New York had won the title of Empire State, by becoming first 
in population and wealth. 

Binghamton, picturesquely situated at the confluence of the 


IRew H?ork flDonumente Commission 

Susquehanna and Chenango rivers, and now one of the most impor- 
tant cities in the State, being the county seat of Broome county, with 
extensive manufacturing interests, handsome public buildings, and 
parks, and a busy railroad center, was but a small place a century 
ago. Known as Chenango Point when founded, in 1787, it got its 
present name in 1800, and was not incorporated as a village until 

The school that John C. Robinson first attended had the dis- 
tinction of being conducted by a teacher who was also an author. 
One of the text books used in his classes was his own work "John 
Olney's School Geography and Atlas." His studies were continued 
at home in a more advanced school, from whence he went to Oxford 
Academy, at that time one of the principal educational establish- 
ments in the State. 

In 1885. when eighteen years old, John C. Robinson entered the 

7 Cj * 7 

military academy at West Point. Three years after he left West 
Point, intent on studying law, but a military career ere long re-allured 
him and he relinquished jurisprudence for it. 

Among the cadets at West Point while he was there, and who 
held important commands during the Civil War, were Halleck, 
Hooker, Sedgwick, Ricketts and Stevens; and Ewell, Early and 
Edward Johnson, of the South. 

Receiving a commission as second lieutenant in the United States 
Infantry on October 27, 1839, he served in Madison Barracks, 
Sacketts Harbor, from November of that year to April, 1840. He 
was at Fort Howard, Wis., from May, 1840, to August, 1841; Fort 
Crawford, Wis., to September, 1841 ; at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., to 
October, 1841; Fort Brady, Mich., to June, 1842; on leave to 
August, 1842; at Fort Brady, Mich., to July, 1843; at Fort Macki- 
nac, Mich., to May, 1845, and at Fort Brady, Mich., to June, 1845; 
on leave to September, 1845. 

During the troubles preceding hostilities in Mexico, he was 
ordered to the Rio Grande, and joined " The Army of Occupation," 
under General Taylor, at Corpus Christi, Texas, in September, 1845. 
In Mexico, he took part in the engagements at Palo Alto, Reseca 
de la Palma, Monterey and Vera Cruz. He was honorably men- 
tioned for distinguished service in the battle of Monterey. On June 
18, 1846, he was promoted first lieutenant. 

He was engaged in recruiting service to April, 1848; and with 


flftajotxscneral IRobtnson 

his regiment in Mexico to July, 1848; in Mississippi to October, 
1848. At Fort Smith, Ark., to January, 1849, and at Fort Gibson, 
Indian Territory? to July, 1850. He was at Clear Fork of the 
Brazos, Texas, to September, 18.53, and in the field in Texas to 
November, 18.53. On leave to May 6, 18.54, and at Ringgold Bar- 
racks in Texas to September, 18,54. Scouting in 18.5.5. On leave to 
April that year. With his regiment at Ringgold Barracks, Texas, 
to February, 18,56, and on leave to xVugust that year. In Florida to 
June, 18 57. En route and at Fort Bridger, Utah, to April, 18.58, 
and at Camp Scott to September, 18.59. 

In 18.50, when he was promoted captain, his regiment, the Fifth, 
went to the headquarters of the Brazos river, in Texas, and built 
Fort Belknap and Fort Phantom Hill. Three years later it marched 
across the country to Laredo, on the llio Grande, serving there from 
headquarters at Ringgold Barracks against hostile Indians until 
18,56. Subsequently, he commanded an expedition to the Ever- 
glades, Florida, during which he made a trip of three hundred miles 
against rebellious Indians. About this period also he led three com- 
panies in an expedition through the Big Cypress Swamp. 

In the summer of 18.57 Captain Robinson's regiment was ordered 
to Utah, with the Johnston expedition. This march took him through 
Fremont's route and through the South Pass. That winter being 
severe, he remained in Fort Bridger, Wyo., with three companies, 
having the army supplies in his charge, while the rest of the regi- 
ment, under General Johnston, encamped in the vicinity at a place 
called Black Fork. 

Captain Robinson, who had now come east, was on leave until 
February 12, 1861, when he was ordered to Fort McHenrv, Md., to 
take charge of the garrison. This was two months prior to the 
bombardment of Fort Sumter. The impending struggle found him 
with twenty years of military training, which included considerable 
active service, in Mexico and at various places putting down Indian 


The Sixth Massachusetts Regiment on its way to Washington 
was attacked in the streets of Baltimore on April 19, 1861. Three of 
the soldiers were killed and the troops firing on their assailants killed 
eleven of them. The rioters then contemplated seizing Fort Mc- 

1Rew H?ork flDonuments Commission 

Henry. Notwithstanding that it had but a garrison of sixty, Cap- 
tain Robinson felt able from the beginning to defend himself. In 
an advice to the Adjutant-General at Washington, dated April 
20th, he said: ' I shall probably be attacked to-night; I believe I 
can hold the post." This coolness and confidence were fully justified. 
Many years after, in a published letter by him on the subject, he told 
of that threatened attack and the means taken to cope with it: 

" I felt confident the next movement would be an attempt to get possession of 
Fort McHenry, and although it was scarcely in a defensible condition, I immediately 
prepared for an attack, determined to hold it as long as possible. I also sent as 
many men as I could spare, with two pieces of artillery, to take possession of Fort 
Carroll. The same evening I received a call from Police Commissioner John W. 
Davis, who brought a letter from Mr. Chas. Howard, president of the Board, stating 
that I would be annoyed that night by disorderly and unauthorized persons and 
proposing to send the ' city military ' to help protect the fort. It did not require 
a second reading of this letter to see through it, and I said to the bearer, ' Mr. 
Davis, I am aware that I am to be attacked to-night. I received notice of it before 
dark. In the meantime, I have not been idle. If you will walk out on the parapet 
with me you can see that I am ready. You will find men standing at the guns, and 
every gun loaded. I intend to hold this fort against the whole city of Baltimore. 
I shall not allow your city military to come here, for I am acquainted with some of 
the officers of the Maryland Guards, and know what their principles are.' ' Why, 
Captain,' said he, ' we are anxious to avoid a collision.' 

' Very well, sir ; if you wish to avoid a collision place your city forces any- 
where between Federal Hill and that Roman Catholic chapel about half a mile off, 
but if a man steps this side of there I shall fire on him.' 

"He laughingly asked, 'Would you fire into the city of Baltimore? ' 

" I replied, ' I should be sorry to do so, sir, but if it becomes necessary in 
order to hold this fort, I shall not hesitate about it one moment.' 

" He then became angry, and shaking his fist, said, ' I assure you, Captain 
Robinson, if there is a woman or child killed in that citv, there won't be one of you 
left alive here, sir.' 

' Well, sir,' said I, ' of that I will take the chances. Now, I assure you, Mr. 
Davis, if your Baltimore mob comes down here to-night, you will not have another 
mob in Baltimore for ten years to come, sir.' He then left, apparently satisfied 
that I meant what I said. 

" During the night the steamer Spaulding came into the harbor and anchored 
under the guns of the fort. She had been carrying troops from New York to 
Fortress Monroe, and did not dare to run up to the city, where a perfect reign of 
terror existed, and where no man dared to open his mouth in favor of the Union. I 
took advantage of the arrival of this vessel, and caused a report to be circulated 
that she had brought me a reinforcement of eight hundred men. I closed the gates 
of the fort, established a picket guard on the causeway leading to Baltimore, and 
cut off all communication with the town. I collected and put up all the tents I 

nDajor*(3eneral IRobinson 

could find, set my men at work, mounting and dismounting guns, and made as great 
a display of force as possible. 

" Ten days after, the citizens learned for the first time that no reinforcements 
had been received. I had, however, by that time attained my object. A reaction 
had taken place- -the reign of terror was over; Union men began to show them- 
selves, and Baltimore became a quiet and orderly city. When this trouble com- 
menced I had not more than a week's rations on hand, but by a successful ruse, 
succeeded in getting into the fort a three months' supply of provisions. Many 
interesting incidents occurred during this time which I cannot relate in this sketch. 
For more than a week I slept only during day time. Had the rebel elements been 
able to get possession of Fort McHenry, Washington must have fallen; Maryland 
would have passed an ordinance of secession and would have been the seat of war 
instead of Virginia." 

On May 5, 1861, two days after President Lincoln's second call 
for volunteers, Captain Robinson was sent West on mustering duty 
in Ohio and Michigan. In the latter State he was on familiar 
ground, having been there on duty when a lieutenant. He had con- 
siderable success on this recruiting mission, and was made colonel of 
the First Michigan Volunteers in September. Henceforth, further 
promotion and increased responsibility came to him in quick succes- 
sion. He was raised to the rank of major in the regular army in 
February, 1862, and was appointed two months after a brigadier- 
general cf volunteers, just a year following his tour de force at Fort 
McHenry. When advanced to be a general he was at Portsmouth, 
in the Department of Virginia. 



General Robinscn was transferred to the Army of the Potomac 
on June 10, 1862, and at once took command of the First Brigade, 
Third Division (Kearny's) of the Third Corps (Heintzelman's), 
succeeding Jameson who was dangerously hurt at Fair Oaks. 
At that time, the Peninsular campaign was in full swing. McClellan 
was feeling the disappointment of not being reinforced by Mc- 
Dowell's Corps, which was to have marched south from Fredericks- 
burg on May 26th. Fear at Washington that Stonewall Jackson 
would be more than a match for Banks and Fremont in the Shenan- 
doah Valley resulted in half of McDowell's Corps being detained at 
Fredericksburg, the other half being detailed to help stop Jackson's 
raiding and cut off his retreat to Richmond. Lee was now command- 


mew IPorfe fIDonuments Commission 

ing the Southern troops in the East, having succeeded Joseph E. 
Johnston, who was wounded at Fair Oaks. The Confederates were 
being reinforced and concentrated at Richmond, awaiting Jackson. 
A detachment of the Union army had been within sight of the spires 
of the Southern capital. The Confederate cavalry commander, 
J. E. B. Stuart, made a successful raid around McClellan's army, 
capturing numbers of prisoners, destroying much property, and 
returning in safety to his chief, with much valuable information. 

Jackson nearing Richmond, as if on regular schedule time, in the 
absence of support from McDowell, McClellan made up his mind 
to change his base from White House near the Pamunkey river to 
Harrison's Landing on the James. Lee now took the offensive and 
fighting was resumed on June 25th at Oak Grove the first of the 
Seven Days' battles. All along their line of retreat the Federals 
were pursued vigorously and destructive encounters took place for 
a whole week, ending with Malvern Hill, on July 1st. Advantage 
of good defensive ground enabled McClellan to compel Lee to cry 
halt to his pursuit at Malvern Hill, and a week after Lee marched 
his troops back to Richmond, McClellan in the meantime making his 
headquarters at Harrison's Landing. 

In the fierce conflicts of the Seven Days battles General Robinson 
acquitted himself manfully. His brigade fought at Oak Grove, 
Glendale, Frazier's Farm and Malvern Hill. General Kearny 
wrote in his report of the engagement at Frazier's Farm, June 30th: 

" I have reserved General Robinson for the last. To him this day is due above 
all others in this division the honors of this battle. The attack was on his wing. 
Everywhere present by personal supervision and noble example he secured to us 
the honor of victory. Our loss has been severe, and when it is remembered that 
this occurs to mere skeletons of regiments there is but one observation to be made 
that previous military history presents no such parallel." 

After Malvern Hill, the Army of the Potomac remained 
encamped at Harrison's Landing for six weeks, and then it was 
ordered north to participate in the new campaign, launched under 
Pope. Meantime, Lee was leaving Richmond to join the vanguard 
of his army, under Stonewall Jackson, who, on August 9th, encoun- 
tered Banks at Cedar Mountain, the forces engaged being 20,000 
Confederates against 9,000 under Banks. 

Lee and Jackson were now to match their skill and daring against 
a new commander, for Pope was given McClellan's place as com- 


flDajor*(5eneral IRobinson 

mander of all of the forces in Virginia. Forthwith, there was stren- 
uous concentration of the units of both contending armies, with 
intermittent righting as they were drawn in the direction of Manassas. 
Pope was instructed to make a stand at the Rappahannock, where it 
was thought at Washington he could be strengthened soon enough 
by the troops that had left Harrison's Landing. The Confederate 
leader was in a hurry to precipitate a big battle before all the Union 
troops could effect a concentration and he pressed Pope hard at the 
Rappahannock. Failing in this then, Lee ordered Jackson and 
Stuart to place themselves in Pope's rear. In this hazardous move- 
ment Jackson reached Manassas and seized large quantities of sup- 
plies there. Then leaving Manassas, just as Pope was nearing it, he 
succeeded in coming within supporting distance of the rest of Lee's 
army. In the fighting that ensued, the Second Manassas cam- 
paign, the L T nion troops were worsted. Pope, who began his opera- 
tions with what has been styled braggadocio, resigned on reaching 
Washington, and McClellan was restored to his command. Lee 
throughout this campaign had not more than .55,000 men, of whom 
10,000 fell, and Pope's forces finally numbered from 70,000 to 7.5,000, 
of whom 7,000 were taken prisoners, the killed and wounded amount- 
ing to over 13,000. The Confederates also captured thirty guns and 
20,000 rifles. 

In this campaign, at Bristoe Station, Groveton and Bull Bun, 
General Bobinson's regiments were hotly engaged. Pope, who 
had not many good words for some of the commanders that 
came to him from Harrison's Landing, Porter especially, who 
was dismissed from the service not long after, said of General Bob- 
inson that " he commanded his troops with zeal and gallantry." In 
another report on these battles an unsigned document by one 
of the victims of the engagement at Chantilly, on September 1st, 
General Kearny, General Bobinson is also favorably mentioned: 

" It makes me proud to dwell on the renewed efforts of my generals of brigade, 
Birney and Robinson." And again, " I must refer to General Hooker to render 
justice to the part taken by my first brigade under General Robinson, and Randolph's 
Battery, in the affair of the 27th at Bristoe Station." 

In an encounter at Bull Bun General Bobinson was struck by a 
shell, though not injured. 

General Bobinson did not participate in the battle of Antietam, 
September 17, 1862. This was the only important field in which he was 


1Rew IPorfc flDonuments Commission 

not with the Army of the Potomac during the time that he held com- 
mands in it. On that occasion his brigade was with Banks guarding 
the defenses at Washington. But he was in Maryland a month 
later, in pursuit of Stuart when he raided Chambersburg on October 
10th, afterward making a circuit round the Federal army and 
escaping unmolested to Virginia. 


At Fredericksburg, where a disaster similar to that which befell 
Pope at the Second Manassas was repeated under Burnside, the 
middle of December, 1862, General Robinson was in the thick of the 
fighting, his horse having been shot under him. In his report of this 
battle he savs: 

" Entering the field at double quick, I formed line of battle in rear of Liv- 
ingston's and Randolph's batteries, toward which the enemy was still moving, and 
which were in danger of being captured. As soon as I had two regiments in line, 
I pushed forward to meet him. These regiments, the 1 1 1th Pa. Vols. (Collis' 
Zouaves) and the 03d Pa. Vols., advanced beautifully, delivering a galling fire into 
the face of the enemy, and, cheering at double-quick, drove him in confusion, back 
to his works. The other regiments were now drawn up, and I formed my brigade 
in line on the crest of the hill fronting the enemy's intrenchments, and, sending a 
party of skirmishers as far as the ditch in front of my line, captured in it one 
colonel, one captain, and sixty non-commissioned officers and privates of a Georgia 
regiment. This capture was made by Captain Eliot, of the 114th Pa. Vols. Other 
prisoners were taken and among them Captain Lawson, assistant adjutant-general 
to Major-General Ewell." 

In this battle General Robinson's Brigade was part of the rein- 
forcements that Burnside sent to Sumner while he was bravelv, if 
vainly, trying to oust the Confederates from their impregnable posi- 
tions at Marye's Heights. When his men went into action the battle 
was raging in all its fury. 

Says Birney, the division commander, in his report: 

" I have to mark out for the high commendation of the general in chief. 
Generals Berry and Robinson and Ward. To the reputation they have established 
on other fields they have added great lustre." 

And the corps commander. Stoneman: "A portion of Ward's Brigade, under 
its general, was sent by General Birney to the support of General Meade, and they 
in their turn were driven back, but immediately re-formed in rear of Robinson's 
Brigade, which had arrived and was just then deploying in line of battle in front 
of the batteries of Livingston and Randolph. The enemy was now advancing in 
strong force, but the brigades of Berry and Robinson, together with the three regi- 


John Cleveland RQbinson 


1817 - 1897 



JULY 1-3. 1863. 

1866: RETIRED MAY 6.1869. 


SERVICE SEPT. 1,1866. 







flfeajoixSeneral IRobinson 

ments of Ward's Brigade, on the extreme right, by a well-directed fire, first checked 
the advancing foe, and then drove him back into the wood beyond the railroad, 
taking a considerable number of prisoners." 

Fredericksburg was the last battle in which General Robinson's 
command was confined to one brigade. By order of Burnside, he 
was put in charge of the Second Division of the First Corps, 
Reynolds'. This took effect on December 29, 1802. 


Notwithstanding the high casualty list and the utter failure that 
it was Burnside's painful duty to record when writing his report of 
Fredericksburg, it did not take long for the Army of the Potomac 
to be in splendid fighting trim again, both as to strength and morale ; 
and none of its commanders so far entertained higher hopes of success 
than Hooker, who succeeded Burnside, when, early in April, 1863, 
he had formulated his plans for new operations. 

Hooker was one of the officers that Burnside wanted to be 
dismissed for disloyalty towards him at Fredericksburg. There was 
a strong sentiment at Washington against his promotion to the chief 
command. Reynolds, it is believed, was consulted as to his willing- 
ness to lead the army, but declined because he asked more freedom 
of action, if appointed, than the War Department wished to give 
him. Meade was also mentioned as a likely successor to Burnside. 
Hooker was finally selected. 

He began his campaign with commendable cleverness and kept 
Lee guessing for a considerable time as to his real intentions. Chan- 
cellorsville, twelve miles from Falmouth, on the opposite side of the 
Rappahannock, was his ultimate objective, and by May 1st his main 
army was concentrated there. 

Perhaps if, as was the case with his successors, Hooker did not 
have to contend with the indomitable and almost invariably victorious 
Stonewall Jackson, he would have a different and better story to 
relate of his soldiership at Chancellorsville. In one of his greatest, 
as it was his last, manoeuvres, Jackson swooped down unawares on 
the right of the Union army the evening of May 2nd, after having 
made a roundabout march of fifteen miles, and drove the corps posted 
there, Howard's, before him in confusion. The infantry and artil- 
lery interposed themselves between Jackson's men and Hooker's 


ittew l?ork (TDonuments Commission 

headquarters and checked their advance. In returning from a 
reconnaissance that he made toward dusk Jackson was wounded by 
his own men, and died ten davs after. 

The battle was renewed on May 3rd, with the odds still in favor 
of Hooker if his superior forces were adroitly handled. From the 
very beginning Hooker in this campaign seems to have been obsessed 
by indecision and hesitation. He started from Falmouth intent on 
taking the offensive, and no sooner had he reached Chancellorsville 
than he made up his mind to act on the defensive. Lee in this conflict 
of the 3rd of 3Iay took the aggressive vigorously and just as it was 
raging Hooker was stunned by the concussion of a ball from one of 
the Confederate batteries that struck a pillar of the Chancellor House 
against which he was leaning. While incapacitated from this shock, 
none of his subordinates ventured to give directions on his own 
responsibility, with the result that the Confederates were able to 
claim another decisive victory. 

While the fighting was going on at Chancellorsville a portion of 
the Union army under Sedgwick achieved considerable success at 
Salem Church and Fredericksburg, but being attacked on the -4th 
Sedgwick was compelled to recross the Rappahannock. Lee then 
decided to attack Hooker again, but by this time the latter was dis- 
couraged, and disinclined for further action, and he marched his 
troops back to their old positions at Falmouth. Here they were 
intrenched on the 7th. The Confederate forces also withdrew to 
their former ground at Fredericksburg. 

General Robinson's Division, on account of the First Corps being 
principally held in reserve and the positions it occupied remaining 
comparatively immune from attack, was not actively engaged at 
Chancellorsville. His pickets seized about a hundred prisoners. The 
casualties of the First Corps in this engagement were only 292, of 
which 7.5 were sustained by General Robinson's Division, the Second. 
Wadsworth commanded the First Division and Doubleday the Third. 


But if the First Corps was inactive at Chancellorsville and 
suffered little there, in the movement on Gettysburg, the next battle, 
it was in the vanguard, and bore the brunt of the opening conflict. 

As a hero of Seminary Ridge, where the First Corps co-operat- 


fIDajoixSeneral IRobinson 

ing with the Eleventh on its right, gave battle the first day at Gettys- 
burg to vastly superior forces, General Robinson is worthy of high 
honor. Marching his men to the sound of cannon from Marsh Creek, 
six miles away, his two brigades came on the scene just as the initial 
contest between Wadsworth's Division and the two brigades of 
Heth's Division was ended. In the memorable struggle of the after- 
noon of that da3 r General Robinson's Division, posted far out in the 
firing line in the northern part of the field, held the right of the corps 
line. He defended a position that was particularly prominent in the 
zone of danger. There his two brigades contending against parts 
of five Confederate brigades, for four hours, encountered opposition 
and sustained casualties that were hardly surpassed during the three 
days that the battle raged. No more, considering the handicap of 
numbers that beset him, could any other division claim better achieve- 
ment than his. Early characterized the onslaught of the first day and 
the resistance made to it as " an obstinate and bloody conflict." This 
was well exemplified by General Robinson's Division. As one of 
his feats of generalship, five hundred fell in one of the brigades 
opposed to him and a thousand were made prisoners: this, in open- 
field fighting. One of his brigades, the Second, was led by five suc- 
cessive commanders, four of them having become incapacitated by 
wounds. General Robinson himself had two horses shot under him. 
When finally ordered to retreat his men were all but outflanked right 
and left and in imminent danger of being surrounded. His last act 
before withdrawing to Cemetery Hill was thoroughly characteristic. 
Observing that Stewart's Battery, of the Fourth U. S. Artillery, hard 
pressed and liable to be captured, he formed his men in line and sent 
them to its rescue. 

Following is General Robinson's official report of this battle: 

"On the morning of Wednesday, the 1st, the division marched from Emmits- 
burg, bringing up the rear of the column, and when about three miles from Gettys- 
burg, hearing firing in front, it was pushed rapidly forward, and, arriving on the 
field, was placed, by order of the major-general commanding First Corps, in 
reserve, near the seminary. Almost immediately after taking this position, I 
received notice that the enemy was advancing a heavy column of infantry on the 
right of our line, when I sent the Second Brigade, under Brigadier-General Baxter, 
to meet it. Orders being received at this time to hold the seminary, the First 
Brigade, under Brigadier-General Paul, was set to work to intrench the ridge on 
which it is situated. I then rode to the right of the line, to superintend the opera- 
tions there. On my arrival, I found my Second Brigade so placed as to cover our 


IRew Uorfc flDonumente Commission 

right flank, but with too great an interval between it and the line of the First 
Division. I at once directed General Baxter to change front forward on his left 
battalion, and to close this interval, toward which the enemy was making his way. 
By the time this change was effected, the whole front of the brigade became hotly 
engaged, but succeeded in repulsing the attack. The enemy, however, soon after 
brought up fresh forces in increased masses, when, finding the position so seri- 
ously threatened, I sent for and brought up the First Brigade, and placed part of 
it in the position first occupied by Baxter's Brigade, and the remaining battalions 
as a support to his second position. The enemy now made repeated attacks on the 
division, in all of which he was handsomely repulsed, with the loss of three flags 
and about a thousand prisoners. 

" In one of these attacks I was deprived of the services of the veteran com- 
mander of the First Brigade, Brigadier-General Paul, who fell, severely wounded, 
while gallantly directing and encouraging his command. 

"The division held this position on the right receiving and repelling the 
fierce attacks of a greatly superior force, not only in front, but on the flank, and, 
when the enemy's ranks were broken, charging upon him and capturing his colors 
and men from about noon until nearly Ave P. M.. when I received orders to 
withdraw. These orders not being received until all other troops (except Stewart's 
Battery) had commenced moving to the rear, the division held its ground until out- 
flanked right and left, and retired fighting. 

" From the nature of the enemy's attacks, frequent changes were rendered 
necessary, and they were made promptly under a galling fire. No soldiers ever 
fought better, or inflicted severer blows upon the enemy. When out of ammunition, 
their boxes were replenished from those of their killed and wounded comrades. 

" The instances of distinguished gallantry are too numerous to be embodied in 
this report, and I leave it to the brigade and regimental commanders to do justice 
to those under their immediate command. Where all did so well, it is difficult to 
discriminate. As. however, they came under my personal observation, I cheerfully 
indorse the remarks of General Baxter in commendation of Colonel Coulter. Eleventh 
Pennsylvania; Colonel Wheelock, Ninety-seventh New York; Colonel Lyle, Nine- 
tieth Pennsylvania; Colonel Bates and Lieutenant-Colonel Allen. Twelfth Massa- 
chusetts; Lieutenant-Colonel Moesch, Eighty-third New York, and Major Foust, 
Eighty-eighth Pennsylvania. 

"After the fall of General Paul, the command of the First Brigade devolved 
successively upon Colonel Leonard. Thirteenth Massachusetts. Colonel Root. Ninety- 
fourth New York, and Colonel Coulter, Eleventh Pennsylvania, all of whom were 
wounded while exercising the command. 

"After withdrawing from this contest. I took up a position on a ridge to the 
left of the cemetery, facing the Emmitsburg road, and remained there until after- 
noon of the next day. when I was relieved by a division of the Second Corps, and 
ordered to the support of the Eleventh Corps. In the evening I was ordered to the 
left of our line, but was soon after directed to return. 

" On Friday morning. 3d instant, the division was massed, and held ready to 
push forward to the support of the Twelfth Corps, then engaged with the enemy on 
our right. 


flDajor*6eneral IRobineon 

"About noon, I was informed by tbe major-general commanding the army that 
he anticipated an attack on the cemetery by the enemy's forces massed in the town, 
and was directed to so place my command that if our line gave way I could attack 
the enemy on his flank. I proceeded to make this change of position at the moment 
the enemy commenced the terrific artillery fire of that day. Never before were 
troops so exposed to such a fire of shot and shell, and yet the movement was made 
in perfect order and with little loss. 

" Later in the day, the enemy having made his attack on our left instead of 
the center, I was ordered to the right of the Second Corps, which position I held 
until Sunday, when the line was withdrawn. 

" My thanks are due to Brigadier-Generals Baxter and Paul for the able and 
zealous manner in which they handled their brigades. The officers of my staff were 
actively engaged during the whole of the three days' engagements. Lieutenant 
Samuel M. Morgan, acting assistant adjutant-general; Lieutenant Frederick M. 
Hallock, aide-de-camp, and Lieutenants Bratton and Mead, acting aides, were at 
all times distinguished for their gallantry and good conduct. Captain John G. 
Hovey, acting assistant inspector-general, was wounded and taken from the field 
early in the fight. Lieutenant Smith, ordnance officer, was diligent in the perform- 
ance of his duty, and collected and turned in 2,251 muskets and a large number of 

" It affords me pleasure to call special attention to the gallant conduct of one 
of my orderlies, Sergeant Ebenezer S. Johnson, First Maine Cavalry, whose chevrons 
should be exchanged for the epaulette. When we make officers of such men, the 
soldier receives his true reward and the service great benefit. 

" This division went into battle with less than 2,500 officers and men, and 
sustained a loss of 1,GG7, of which 124 were commissioned officers." 

Like General Doubleday, General Robinson had occasion to 
complain against belated action in giving himself and his division 
proper credit for what they accomplished and endured in the Gettys- 
burg campaign. Under date of November 18, 1863, he addressed the 
following letter to General Meade: 

Headquarters, Second Division, First Army Corps 

November 15, 1SG3. 
Major-General George G. Meade, 

Commanding Army of the Potomac; 

General: I feel it is my duty to inform you of the intense mortification and 
disappointment felt by my division in reading your report of the battle of 

For nearly four hours on July 1st we were hotly engaged against overwhelming 
numbers, repulsed repeated attacks of the enemy, captured three flags and a very 
large number of prisoners, and were the last to leave the field. 

The division formed the right of the line of battle of the First Corps, and 
during the whole time had to fight the enemy in front and protect our right flank 


IRew U?orfe flDonuments Commission 

(the division of the 11th Corps being at no time less than half a mile in rear). We 
went into action with less than 2,500 men and lost considerably more than half our 

We have been proud of our efforts on that day, and hoped that they would be 
recognized. It is but natural we should feel disappointed that we are not once 
referred to in the report of the commanding general. 

Trusting that you will investigate this matter and give us due credit, I am, 
general, very respectfully, your obedient servant. 


Official recognition, in full measure, if delayed, was given to the 
three divisions of the First Corps for what they dared and did at 
Gettysburg, and they and their commanders are rightfully classed 
among the most courageous and effective agencies in Meade's 
successful operations against Lee in that battle. 


Lee had a more anxious task on hand effecting a retreat from 
Gettysburg and crossing the Potomac than when withdrawing to the 
other side of that river from Antietam, some nine months before. 
The effort to overtake him and intercept him, however, was not 
pushed as vigorously as might be expected. Ten days after turning 
southward his forces were on Virginia soil again. The Federal army 
after crossing the Potomac in its pursuit occupied the northern passes 
of the Blue Ridge, threatening the Confederate communications with 
Richmond, while at the same time guarding Washington from attack. 
Lee continued his march to Culpeper and remained there for a while. 
Then he moved to a position behind the Rapidan and Meade intrenched 
his army at Culpeper. Early in October an attack by the Confeder- 
ates caused Meade to recross the Rappahannock. A few days after 
Lee's troops were at Warrenton. The Confederates endeavored to 
get in rear of one of the Federal Corps, but were repulsed with heavy 
loss. This made Lee abandon the pursuit and he marched back to 
the south bank of the Rappahannock, where, at the Rappahannock 
Station, on November 7th, a portion of his army was assailed and 
driven off by a Federal Division. Followed by Meade, Lee went to 
Culpeper Court House and then crossed the Rapidan. The end of 
November, on account of wide clamoring for another strenuous 
engagement. Meade began a movement with that end in view. A 


fIDajotxSeneral IRobinson 

corps from each of the contending armies fought a heavy duel on the 
27th. The following day the two armies were confronting each other 
on the opposite side of Mine Run. Meade planned a grand attack 
for the 30th on the Confederate intrenchments, but it did not 
materialize. Lee now seeing that Meade's army was in a difficult 
country and a considerable distance from its base, at an unfavorable 
season, decided to take the offensive. The attack was to be made on 
December 2nd, but during the night of the first Meade withdrew 
his whole army to the north bank of the Rapidan and the cam- 
paign was thus ended. Both armies then went into winter quarters, 
the Confederates to the south bank of the Rapidan, with head- 
quarters at Orange Court House, while Meade's army encamped 
near Culpeper. 

During these various movements and skirmishes in Virginia the 
last five months of 1863 Meade compared very favorably with Lee 
in skill and judgment. 

General Robinson's Division was engaged in the affair at Liberty 
on Xovember 21st, in the Mine Run manoeuvres and in the actions 
following them. 

When, in March, 1864, Grant was made lieutenant-general and 
the Army of the Potomac reorganized, the First Corps became part 
of the Fifth, under Warren. General Meade retained the immediate 
command of the Army of the Potomac. Having conferred with 
Sherman to lay out plans for the march to Atlanta from Chatta- 
nooga, Grant returned to Virginia, and at the Wilderness began 
the overland campaign to Richmond. He encountered Lee's forces 
on May 5th. Here for three days a vigorous attack was made on the 
Confederates, but thev could not be driven from their intrenchments. 
Grant's first trial at arms with Lee resulted in heavy casualties. 
Quite a number of Gettysburg commanders were wounded daring 
those three days, and three of them, Wadsworth, Jones and Jenkins, 
were killed. Grant continued his drive on the 7th, intent on cap- 
turing Spotsylvania; but the Confederates arrived there in advance. 
Earthworks that Lee had thrown up w r ere taken, and five separate 
charges were made to regain them, but without success. In prisoners 
alone, the Confederate suffered a loss of five thousand at Spotsyl- 
vania. Lee withdrew his army to other ground in the vicinity and 
fortified it. It was at Spotsylvania, on May 8th. that Sedgwick, 
commanding the Sixth Corps, was killed. Notwithstanding the set- 


mew J?orfc flDonuments Commission 

backs and the heavy losses suffered, Grant declared in a dispatch sent 
to Washington on May 11th, " I propose to fight it out on this line 
if it takes all summer." 

Advancing further south, the armies encountered each other again 
on the 1st of June, at Cold Harbor, where in a terrible three-day 
engagement the Union forces came perilously near suffering a 
defeat. Up to this time the Union army had lost 60,000 men and the 
Confederates 3.3,000. Reinforced by the Army of the James from 
Fortress Monroe, Grant determined to advance against Petersburg, 
which McClellan would have tried to take two years before if per- 
mitted. The first assault on it failing, a regular siege was begun, 
which lasted all fall and winter. Meantime, hoping to draw Grant's 
attention from Petersburg, Lee sent a large detachment of his army 
under Early to threaten Washington. A series of raids occurred, 
and then Grant sent Sheridan after Early. He defeated Early at 
Winchester on September 19th. While away from his headquarters, 
at Cedar Creek, his forces were taken by surprise on October 19th. 
Returning in time, he rallied them and routed the Confederates. 
On April 2, 1865, the works at Petersburg were carried. The follow- 
ing day Richmond was occupied by the Federals. The Confederate 
army fled to Farmville, on the Appomattox, pursued by Grant. 
Here Grant proposed that Lee should surrender and avoid further 
bloodshed. On the 9th of April the two leaders met and agreed on 
terms of surrender. 

In the meantime, Sherman was completing his march northward 
from Savannah, the Confederates vainly trying to stop him. Colum- 
bia yielded on his approach and Charlotte was abandoned the same 
time. Sherman pressed on to Charlotte, N. C, and took possession 
of it on March 11th. On April 13th he entered Raleigh. Here 
Johnston being notified of Lee's surrender also agreed to end hos- 
tilities, which closed the Civil War. 

Spotsylvania was General Robinson's last battle. His division 
led the Fifth Corps in its strenuous march to that place the night of 
May 7th. In his report of the battle he says: 

"At 9 P. M. on the 7th the army commenced the flank movement to the left, 
the Fifth Corps leading, with my division in advance. Our march was impeded by 
darkness, bad roads, small streams, and fallen timber; yet, knowing the importance 
of reaching Spotsylvania Court House before the enemy, the troops were urged 
forward as rapidly as possible. At daylight on the morning of the 8th I overtook 

Jkt^l'-W/ As 


jfifftrt/yr Foritions ?uZcL 
JULf I?r2i&3? 1863- 

= - Union, Lines. 

Scate of 1 Mile, , 

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fll>ajor*(5cneral IRobinson 

the advance guard of the cavalry, which was engaged with the enemy. I immedi- 
ately deployed two brigades, holding the third in reserve, pushed by the cavalry 
(commanded by Brigadier-General Merritt), and drove the light troops and artillery 
of the enemy from one position to another, through woods and across open fields 
about three miles. Coming to another field I could plainly see the enemy's line in 
the edge of timber beyond. I here halted and re-formed the division, and again 
advanced to the attack. The division was soon checked, and it became evident that 
here was the enemy's main line, but his strength was undeveloped. Knowing that 
my brave men Avould follow, wherever I led the way, I placed myself at their head 
and led them forward to the attack. At this moment a part of Griffin's Division 
advanced out of the woods on my right. Cheering my men on, we had arrived within 
fifty yards of the works when I received a musket-ball on the left knee, resulting 
in amputation of my leg. This unfortunate wound caused the result I feared, for 
as I was borne off the field I saw that our troops were repulsed and the attack had 
failed. Our loss this day was heavy." 

Of this action Warren, the corps commander, reported as follows : 

" In the flank movement to the left, begun at dark of the 7th of May, the 
Fifth Corps again had the lead, with General Robinson's Division again in the 
advance. Delayed as we were by darkness and bad roads, crowded with troops, 
until it was probable the enemy had anticipated us in reaching the desired point, 
yet urged by the importance of time to our success, General Robinson marched 
rapidly on, driving the light troops of the enemy before him, till charging directly 
the desired position, himself animating the advance by leading in person, he fell 
dangerously wounded and his command was repulsed by the opposing infantry, 
arrayed in strong force." 

Meade in his report of this battle, mentioning General Robinson, 

"Warren immediately attacked with Robinson's Division that gallant officer 
being severely wounded early in the action pushing the enemy back and taking 
position in front of him at the Block House." 

From Alsop's Farm General Robinson was carried in an ambu- 
lance to Acquia Creek, from whence, with four hundred others who 
were wounded, he was taken to Washington. There he was met by 
his brother, Henry L. Robinson, in whose house he remained during 
convalescence. His leg was amputated by Surgeon-General Barnes, 
U. S. A. Immediately following the operation he became so weak 
that much anxiety was felt for his recovery. President Lincoln 
called on him often and those kindly visits afforded him much con- 
solation during his suffering. It was not very long, however, until 
he was able to go to Binghamton. 


IRew JPorfc flDonuments Commission 

He returned to duty on September 24, 1864, having been 
appointed to the command of the district of Northern New York. 
After the war he was transferred to the district of Northern and 
Western New York. In 1866 he was commander of the State 
of North Carolina, and the same year he was commissioner of 
the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands. He 
was commander of the South in 1867, and in 1868 commander and 
judge advocate in the Department of the Lakes. He was in com- 
mand of Fort Wayne, Michigan, a regiment being under his charge 
there, in 1869, the last of his many assignments, extending over a 
period of three decades. On May 6, 1869, General Robinson retired 
from the United States Army, with the rank of major-general. 

When free to go back to civil life, he made his home in Bingham- 
ton, where he was born, and where his parents had settled sixty years 
before. Here as a citizen it can be well said of him that he followed 
the example of his father. For a great many years before his demise 
he was accorded the honor of being Binghamton's most distinguished 

It was not long after settling down in Binghamton that General 
Robinson was " ordered " to bestir himself for another strenuous cam- 
paign this time a political one no less an ordeal than trying to 
beat Chauncey M. Depew in an election for the important post of 
lieutenant-governor, and he won the battle too. This was in 1872, 
when General Dix was returned as governor. General Robinson 
served his term of two years in office with credit, and his integrity 
was recognized by all who came into contact with him. He was 
renominated in 1874 and opposed by William Dorsheimer, in the 
ticket headed by Samuel J. Tilden, whose party received a majority 
of the votes. 

After completing his two years of office in Albany General 
Robinson was nearing three score years, and assuredly worthy then 
of enjoying some rest and leisure. During the remainder of his life 
he thought it wise for him 

" To husband out life's taper at the close, 
And keep the flame from wasting by repose." 

In his declining years outside of his family his greatest 
interest was centered in veterans and their associations and reunions. 
Binghamton and its vicinity were well represented in the Civil War, 
so he had frequent opportunities to meet his comrades, and it was 


flDajot>(5eneral IRobinson 

they among all his youth's compeers that cheered him most. He was 
deeply interested in the Society of the Army of the Potomac, of 
which he was president in 1879. In 1877 he was chosen commander- 
in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic. 

Gazing once from a platform on a large reunion of veterans, he 
exclaimed, as his face beamed with delight, " What a grand assembly 
of the dear old boys." 

General Robinson was a man of striking appearance. As he 
advanced in vears his beard turned as white as snow. Towards the 
end his sight became dim and finally he was totally blind. Many 
surviving members of the Loyal Legion have still a vivid recollection 
of a pathetic scene at one of their banquets held in New York City, 
when General Robinson, standing with sightless eyes, bid his old 
eompanions-in-arms a last farewell, and with hearts softened by 
emotion the six hundred veterans present cheered him loudly. He 
died a few months later, on February 18, 1897, at his home in 
Binghamton, having reached the age of seventy-nine years. 

The funeral services were held in Christ Church, of which his 
father was one of the founders. Several veteran organizations were 
represented. The ceremonies were conducted with military honors. 
Full justice was paid to his exemplary career and sterling qualities 
at a special meeting held not many days after he was laid to rest. 
The esteem in which he was held was ardently and eloquently set forth 
at that gathering of his friends, comrades and admirers. The follow- 
ing tribute, among others, was paid to his memory by Senator 
Edmund O'Connor, of Binghamton: 

" General Robinson was our most eminent and esteemed citizen. He acted a 
conspicuous and glorious part in an important epoch: in fact, the most important 
since the struggle of combined Christendom with the Turk to determine whether 
Europe should belong to the followers of Christ or Mahomet. The contest in which 
he participated with so much credit to himself and honor to his native city and 
State was not only to determine whether the nation should live and freedom instead 
of slavery be the heritage of its people, but whether the experiment of a ' govern- 
ment of the people, by the people and for the people should perish from the earth.' 

" It is indeed fitting that we should assemble in public meeting when one of 
these grand personalities passes away and recount his ercat achievements and per- 
sonal merits, not so much to extol the dead a to impress the living with the example 
of his life and to inspire them to emulate his virtues. 

"General Robinson was indeed every inch a thorough soldier; he was modest, 
kind hearted, patriotic, loyal, obedient and brave. Tike Tord Cardigan at Balaklava, 
had his superior officer ordered him to assault the battlements of the infernal 


IRew H?ork flDonuments Commission 

regions, he would have led the charge with the same heroic and sublime courage he 
displayed in leading his forces on the bloody field of Spotsylvania. In the soldier, 
obedience and courage are twin sisters. Neither is of much value without the other. 

" General Robinson knew how to obey as well as to command. He possessed 
in an eminent degree, in addition to courage and a disciplined mind, the other 
qualities so characteristic of all great soldiers, viz., modesty, a generous heart and a 
firm belief in the Christian religion. It was next to impossible to induce him to 
talk of his own important services during the war. It was only after the most 
persistent examination that you could extract anything like an admission from him 
that he personally had anything to do with suppressing the rebellion. 

"A man without strong convictions will be a coward in war, a failure in peace 
and a hypocrite everywhere. General Robinson was the reverse of all these. 

"As a citizen, General Robinson was ideal. With a proper amount of civic 
pride he was earnest and interested in the prosperity of his native city. He took 
an active interest in all public improvements, and although not possessed of great 
means he cheerfully voted for any tax which was designed to improve the beauty 
and further the prosperity of Binghamton. He never had any of the spirit of com- 
mercial greed, the vice so characteristic of our age and which is surely sapping our 
patriotism and love of country. Long years of patriotic service had secured him a 
modest competence, with which he was contented. He never indulged in vulgar or 
unseemly display. He was a simple, unassuming Christian gentleman. He loved 
God and his fellow men. He was loyal to his country, to his party, to his church, 
to his family and to his neighbors. His life was an example and an inspiration to 
those who knew him. He filled to the brim the measure of every duty. He died 
as he lived, in peace with God and mankind. He left as a legacy to his children 
and their descendants an untarnished name and a splendid record as a soldier, a 
statesman and a Christian gentleman. This is a heritage in which they have a right 
to take just pride, because neither rust can corrode, moths consume nor the ill 
winds of fortune scatter it a legacy that should and will be more precious to 
them than the wealth of all the Caesars." 

General Robinson was one of a family of ten, six of whom grew 
to maturity. His sister Ambrosia was the wife of Major Augustus 
Morgan. His four brothers, Sidney P. Robinson, Erasmus D. Rob- 
inson, Henry L. Robinson and Charles L. Robinson, attained good 
positions in business or professional life. Henry L. Robinson was 
brevetted brigadier-general during the Civil War and served in the 
quartermaster's department. 

General Robinson's wife was Sarah Pease Robinson, daughter of 
Judge Lorain T. Pease, a native of Hartford, Conn., and sister of 
Governor Elisha M. Pease of Texas. They were married at Green 
Bay, Wis., on May 12, 1842. Mrs. Robinson was born on Septem- 
ber 10, 1822, and educated at the Hartford Female Seminary. She 
died on March 28, 1892. 


flDajor^eneral IRobineon 

Seven children were born of this marriage. Of these, Lieut. John 
Marshall Robinson, was in the United States Navy, having received 
his appointment from General Grant in 1809. lie was retired with 
the rank of commodore in 1908, and died on November 27, 1910, at 
Washington, D. C. It is there that his widow, Mrs. J. Marshal] 
Robinson, and daughter, Miss Katherine Robinson, now reside. 
Cleveland Robinson, another son of General Robinson, died at his 
home in Binghamton on June 20, 1916. His daughter, Julia M. 
Robinson (Mrs. Clinton Collier) and widow, Mrs. Cleveland 
Robinson, reside in Binghamton. Caroline Pease Robinson, who 
unveiled her father's statue at Gettysburg, is the wife of Robert 
Atherton Hall, of Whitehall, N. Y. They have four children, 
Elizabeth Hammond Hall, Marion Marshall Hall, Eleanor Morgan 
Hall and J. C. R. Hall, who is now serving as a lieutenant in the 
United States Army. 



This book is under no circumstances to be 
taken from the Building 

torm 41