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Full text of "In Memoriam, Alexander Stewart Webb: 1835-1911"

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\7EB B 

AND HIS BRIGADE 

AT THE ANGLE 

GETTYSBURG 




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•VT. MAJOR-OENEIIAL ALEXANDER 8. WEBI U. & A. IN WAR TIME 



f n Abemotiam 



Blejran^er Stewart TKlebb 



1835-lOtl 



* 



publtobed Int Butbofft!^ ot tbc State of flew VorKt TBnder tbe Super^fon of 

Sflll^lew Votk Aonumente Commlgelon 



♦ 



ALBANY 
J. B. LYON COMPANY, PRINTERS 

1916 



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5>e&icatfon of /ftonument 



Btcctcd bi2 tbe State ot lUw Vork 

in aommemocatfon ot tbc 

Serviced ot 



JStevet /l>aiot«(3enetal 

fileianber Stewart Mebb 

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TKObo Comman&e& tbe pbila^elpbia Brioabe 

on tbe Sattlefielb of (Betti^bura 

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1863 






New York Monuments Commission 

fOK THB BATTLETIILDt OT 

Gettysburg, Chattanooga and Antietam 



New York, March 8, 1916, 
To the Legislature: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith report on the monument 
erected on the battlefield of Gettysburg to Brevet Major-Greneral 
Alexander Stewart Webb, U. S. A., and the dedication proceedings 
thereof, October 12, 1915. 

Respectfully submitted, 

LEWIS R. STEGMAN, 

Chairnian, 



XTable of Contents 



Page 

Introductory — Report of Monuments Commission - - - - - 1 1 

Order of Day — Military Parade - - - - - - - 27 

Programme of Exercises - - - • • - - -35 

Prayer — Rev. Wm. T. Pray SG 

Introductory Remarks — Col. Lewis R. Stegman - - - - - 88 

Oration — Governor Whitman ------- 47 

Oration — Gen. James W. Latta --..---50 
Poems — Gen. Horatio C. King - - - - - -- 60 

Address — Col. Andrew Cowan --..---63 

Address — Dr. G. J. R. Miller .-..--. 70 

Address — Col. Joseph R. C.Ward - - • - - - -81 

Remarks by Gen. Theo. S. Peck 85 

Remarks by Captain John D. Rogers -.---- 88 

Benediction — Rev. O. L. Severson ------ 90 

General Webb in the Army ---.----93 

General Webb in Civil Life 107 

Supplement— Address Delivered by General Webb at Gettysburg, 1883 - 112 



1Utt6ttatton9 



Brevet Maj. Gen, Alexander S. Webb, U. S. A. (In War Times) - FrontUpUce 
Brevet Maj. Gen. Alexander S. Webb, U. S. A. (At Maturity) - . - 1 1 

New York Moniunentfl Commission - - • • • • vg 

Speakers at the Dedication ----••-•85 

The Philadelphia Brigade 92 

The Webb Stetue ..89 

Inscription Tablet ----•-... 41 

His Excellency, Charles S. Whitman, Governor - - - • - 47 

Official Dedication Party, at Wadsworth Monument • • • • 52 

Official Dedication Party, at Webb Monument - - • • - 5T 

Family of General Webb ---....• ^3 

General Webb's Headquarters, Culpepper, Va - • • • • 70 

Henry House, Bull Run -----.-. gi 

Chancellorsville, May 8, 1868 •--••••* 85 

Landrum House, Spotsylvania ..••.•. 98 

McCool House, " Bloody Angle," Spotsylvania - • • » • 100 

The Angle, Cvettysburg - - • • • • • • n^ 

The Crater, Fort Stedman, Fair Oaks, Va. • - • • • •117 






1. 



i '. 






■VT. MAJOR-QENERAL ALEXANDER 8. WEBt, U. 8. A. 



In Aemodam 

HIexan6etr Stevoart Mebb 



1ntro^uctorl? 

WHEN Major-General Alexander Stewart Webb resigned 
from the United States Army, in 1870» to become president 
of the College of the City of New York, there was to his 
credit in the War Department a record of fifteen years of continuous 
military service; and that his career during that time was replete 
with action and incident such as tend to make stirring history is 
shown by the following synopsis of the account of his soldiership^ 
prepared by the War Department itself: 

"He was a cadet at the United States Military Academy July 1^ 1851, to 
July I, 1855 f when he was graduated and appointed brevet second lieutenant^ 
Fourth Artillery, July 1, 1855; second lieutenant, Second Artillery, October 20, 
1855; first lieutenant, April 28, 1861; captain. Eleventh Infantry, May 14, 1861; 
major. First Rhode Island Light Artillery, September 14, 1861; lieutenant colonel, 
A. I. G. (by assignment), August 20, 1862; brigadier general of volunteers, June 28, 
1868; honorably mustered out of volunteer service, January 15, 1866; lieutenant 
oolonel. Forty-fourth Infantry, July 28, 1866; transferred to Fifth Infantry^ 
March 15, 1869; unassigned, March 24, 1869. 

" He received the brevets of major, July 8, 1863, for gallant and meritorious 
■ervioes at the battle of Gettysburg, Penn.; lieutenant colonel, October 11, 1868, 
for gallant and meritorioiis services at the battle of Bristoe Station, Va.; colonel. 
May 12, 1864, for gallant and meritorious services at the battle of Spotsylvania, 
Va.; brigadier general, March 18, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services in the 
campaign terminating with the surrender of the insurgent army under Gen. R. E. 
Lee; major general, March 18, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during 
the war, and major general volunteers, August 1, 1864, for gallant and distinguished 
conduct at the battle of Gettysburg, Penn., Bristoe Station, the Wilderness and 
Spotsylvania, Va. 

" He was awarded a medal of honor ' for distinguished personal gallantry in 
the battle of Gettysburg.* " 

11 



Blezan^er Stewart vneDD 

SERVICE 

" He was on dutj at the Military Academj, July 5 to August 28, 1855. 

" He joined his regiment January 9, 1856^ and served with it in Florida, in 
operations against hostile Seminole Indians, to November 19, 1856; at Fort 
Independence, Mass., to July 8, 1857; absent side to September ftO, 1857; with 
company at Fort Snelling, Minn., to October 81, 1857. 

"On duty as assistant professor of mathematics at the United States Military 
Academy, November 10, 1857, to January 7, 1861, and on duty with the West Point 
Light Battery to April 5, 1861; with battery at Fort Pickens, Fla., to July 4, 
1861; in the field in Virginia to August 12, 1861; assistant to chief of artillery, 
Army of the Potomac, to August 20, 1862; inspector general and chief of staff 
Fifth Army Corps to November, 1862; inspector of artillery, camp of instruction, 
Camp Barry, D. C, to January 18, 1868; inspector general Fifth Army Corps to 
June 26, 1868; commanding Second Brigade, Second Division, Second Corps 
(temporarily commanding Second Division, Second Corps, August 16 to September 
5, 1868), to October 7, 1863; commanding Second Division, Second Corps, to 
April 5, 1864, and First Brigade, Second Division, Second Corps, until severely 
wounded at the battle of Spotsylvania^ Va., May 12, 1864, absent sick on account 
of wounds to June 21, 1864; superintendent of recruiting for Second Army Corps, 
and on courtmartial duty in New York City to January, 1865; chief of staff to 
General Meade, headquarters Army of the Potomac, January 11 to June 28, 1865; 
acting inspector general. Division of the Atlantic, July 1, 1865, to February 21, 
1866, and on leave of absence to June 18, 1866. 

" Principal assistant professor of geography, history, and ethics at the MUitary 
Academy, July 1, 1866, to October 21, 1868. 

''He joined his regiment October 24, 1868, and commanded it at Washington, 
D. C, to March 80, 1869. 

"At Richmond, Va., commanding First MUitary District, April 2 to 20, 1869, 
after which latter date he performed no duty, having been, at his own request, 
left without assignment in the consolidation of infantry regiments. 

** On November 25, 1870, he requested to be discharged from the military service 
under the provisions of section 8, Act July 15, 1870, to take effect December 81, 
1870, and was honorably discharged accordingly. 

During his service he participated in the following battles, actions, etc. : 
Siege of Yorktown, April and May, 1862; Mechanicsville, 1862; Hanover 
C. H., May 27, 1862; Gaines Mill, June 27, 1862; Malvern Hill, July 1, 1862; 
Antietam, September 17, 1862; Sheperdstown, September 19, 1862; Snicker's Gap, 
November 14, 1862; ChancellorsviUe, May 2 to 5, 1868; Gettysburg, July 1 to 8, 
1868; Bristoe Station^ October 14, 1868; Mine Run campaign, November 26 to 
December 2, 1868; Morton's Ford, February 6, 1864; Wilderness, May 5 to 6, 
1864; Spotsylvania, May 8 to 12, 1864; siege of Petersburg, January to April, 
1865; Hatcher's Run, February 5 and 6, 1865." 

Numerous and noteworthy also are the individual tributes to his 
worth that continued to come to Grcneral Webb, during the Civil 

12 



99 



Blexan^cr Stewart WlcDb 

War and afterwards, from field and corps commanders, as well as 
division and brigade generals, under whom and with whom he served 
in the strenuous and prolonged campaigns of the Army of the 
Potomac. The few extracts quoted here by way of introduction are 
but specimens of the many enccmiiums contained in Civil War 
literature where mention is made of General Webb's part in the 
engagements described or referred to. 

On the occasion of a medal being presented to General Webb, in 
1866, Creneral Meade, in a letter addressed to him, said: 

"In selecting those to whom I should distribate these medals, I know of no 
one general who has more claims than yourself, either for distinguished personal 
gallantry on that erer memorable field (Gettysburg), or for the cordial, warm and 
generous sympathy and support bo grateful for a commanding general to receive 
from his subordinates. Accept therefore the accompanying medal, not only as 
commemoratiTe of the conspicuous part you bore in the great battle, but as an 
eridence on my part of reciprocation of the kindly feelings that hare always 
characteriaed our intercourse both official and social/' 

General Hancock, to whose Second Corps the brigade commanded 
by General Webb at Grcttysburg belonged, referring to that battle 
at a dinner given some years after the Civil War, stated in the course 
of his remarks : 

" In every battle there must be one point upon which the success of either side 
must hinge. At such a position every earnest or brave general must hope to be 
posted. It was General Webb's good fortune to be posted at that point at Gettys- 
burg, and he held it.*' 

In his book, *' Chancellorsville and Grcttysburg,'* telling of the 
final struggle at Crcttysburg, the third day, in which he played an 
important part himself, General Doubleday has devoted a few 
pointed paragraphs to (rcneral Webb: 

"AHhouf^ Webb's front was the focus of the concentrated artillery fire, and 
he had already lost fifty men and some valuable officers, his line remained firm 
and unshaken. It devolved upon him now to meet the great charge which was to 
decide the fate of the day. It would have been difficult to find a man better 
fitted for such an emergency. He was nerved to great deeds by the memory of 
his ancestors, who in former days had rendered distinguished services to the Republic, 
and felt that the results of the whole' war might depend upon his holding of the 
position. His men were equally resolute. Cushing's Battery A, Fourth United 
States Artillery, which had been posted on the crest, and Brown's Rhode Island 
Battery on his left, were both practically destroyed by the cannonade. The horses 
were prostrated, every officer but one was struck, and Gushing had but one serviceable 
gun left 

IS 



HleIan^er Stewart VOebD 

" As Pickett's advance came very close to the first line, young Gushing, mortally 
wounded in both thighs, ran his last serviceable gun down to the fence, and said: 
' Webb, I will give them one more shot ! ' At the moment of the last discharge he 
called out, ' Good-by ! ' and fell dead at the post of duty. 

"Webb sent for fresh batteries to replace the two that were disabled, and 
Cowan's First New York Independent Battery came up just before the attack, and 
took the place of Cushing's battery on the left. 

"Armistead pressed forward, leaped the stone wall, waving his sword with his 
hat on it, followed by about a hundred of his men, several of whom carried battle- 
flags. He shouted, 'Give them the cold steel, boys!' and laid his hands upon a 
gun. The battery for a few minutes was in his possession, and the rebel flag flew 
triumphantly over our line. But Webb was at the front, very near Armistead, 
animating and encouraging his men. He led the Seventy-second Pennsylvania 
Regiment against the enemy, and posted a line of wounded men in rear to drive 
back or shoot every man that deserted his duty. A portion of the Seventy-first 
Pennsylvania, behind a stone wall on the right, threw in a deadly flanking fire, 
while a great part of the Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania and the remainder of the 
Seventy-first made stem resistance from a copse of trees on the left, near where 
the enemy had broken the line, and where our men were shot with the rebel 
muskets touching their breasts.'' 

Greneral William F. Barry, under whom General Webb served 
as an artillery officer in the early stages of the Civil War — in the 
Peninsula campaign and subsequently — commended him frequently 
in both despatch and private letter. In a letter written to General 
Webb's father at this period General Barry said, among other things : 

"In conclusion, I beg to assure you that in all soldierly attributes of sub* 
ordination, intelligence, energy, physical endurance and the highest possible courage, 
I consider your son to be without his superior among the young officers of the 
army. I also consider that both aptitude and experience fit him to command — 
and command well — anything from a regiment to a division/' 

Greneral Webb died on the 12th of February, 1911. He had 
reached the ripe old age of three score and sixteen years. His, 
unmistakably, was a finely-rounded career. His lifetime was dis* 
tinctively one of important and never-failing accomplishment, as 
a soldier, scholar and citizen. By his brilliant record in the War 
of the Rebellion he had grown, to a certain extent, to be a national 
figure. In his own State, and more especially in the City of New 
York, of which he was a native and resident, he was regarded as one 
of its most prominent citizens for a long number of years. He left 
the army to occupy an exalted position in civil life. For thirty-three 
years he was president of the College of the City of New York» 

14 



IUexatti)er Stewart TUlebl) 

and what he did for the cause of higher education in his maturer 
years was no less marked and recognized than his success on the 
battlefield as a comparatively young man. General Webb took part 
in seventeen battles and engagements during the Civil War, includ- 
ing such important conflicts as the siege of Yorktown (where he got 
his first opportunity to signalize himself, as an artillery officer), the 
battles fought at Mechanicsville, Malvern Hill, Antietam, Chancel- 
lorsville, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station, the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, 
Five Forks and Appomattox. 

Immediately after General Webb passed away, it was felt in 
veteran circles far and near — those who knew him by reputation 
as weU as those who were counted among his veteran friends — that 
as a final tribute to his prowess and achievements on the battlefield 
a statue should be erected to his memory. 

Colonel Andrew Cowan, of Louisville, Ky., who, as commander 
of the First New York Independent Battery, co-operated with 
General Webb when Pickett's charge was repulsed at the Angle, in 
the battlefield of Grcttysburg, addressed the following letter, dated 
February 14, 1911, to the New York Monuments Commission: 

*' I learn that General Alexander S. Webb is dead. He was a noble type of the 
American soldier and gentleman. God rest his soul! His military career was 
splendid^ and his civil life one of distinction, bnt so modest that it did not impress 
the multitude. I am a living witness of the great service he performed on the 
battlefield of Gettysburg July 8, 1868. His small brigade, posted behind a low 
stone wall, two or two and a half feet high, in the Angle, at the clump of trees, 
on Cemetery Ridge, repulsed the assault of Pickett's Confederate Division. I would 
not detract in the least from the credit due to the forces on our line, at the left 
of the Angle, but the statement I have made is the simple truth. 

" It has been claimed by, or for, other officers engaged in that struggle, that 
their services were very creditable, but to no man, nor to any score of men of rank, 
was the credit of the victory due in the degree that belonged to General Webb. 

" I trust that since he has gone from this world there may now be a fitting 
recognition of the great service for our country which he rendered on that memorable 
day. I know bow prompt the New York Monuments Commission has been to give 
honor where honor was due ; and I feel that I am taking a liberty in even suggesting 
that the New York Legislature be promptly asked to provide the means for placing 
a fitting monument in honor of General Webb within that famous Angle at 
Gettysburg*- not an equestrian statue, bnt one which the Commission shall deem 
worthy and fitting.'* 

From Burlington, Vt., came another letter to the Commission 
on this subject, written by General Theodore S. Peck, under date 

15 



Bleianber Stewart TROebb 

of March 8, 1011» in which he spoke of (Tcneral Wehb in fhe wannest 
terms, and expressed the hope that the State of New York would 
not fail to erect a statue to him on the battlefield of Gettysburg. 

At a special meeting of the officers and council of the Military 
Service Institution, held at Governor's Island, X. Y., February 18, 
1911, the following resolution, among others then adopted, was put 
on record: 

"That in his intrepid and conspicuous gallantry as a commander on many a 
hard-fought field of the Civil War, his unswerving loyalty and patriotism during the 
darkest hours of the Republic, his steadfast and untiring devotion to duty in the 
highest sense as a soldier and citizen, ceasing only with his death, and in the 
never-failing dignity, broad charity and unsullied purity of a long life. General 
Webb will stand as a shining example of all that is highest and best in American 
manhood for the emulation of succeeding generations." 

Grcneral Webb was a member of the New York Monuments 
Commission for many years, and at a meeting of the Commissioners 
convened February 19, 1911, to take appropriate action on his death 
the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted: 

'* Whereas, The members of this Board of Commissioners have learned with 
profound sorrow of the decease of their colleague^ Brevet Major General Alexander 
Stewart Webb, United States Volunteers, on Sunday, Februarj 12, 1911, at his 
residence, Riverdale-on-Hudson, this city; and 

" Whereas^ General Webb has been a member of the New York Monuments 
Commission for the past sixteen years, having been appointed April S, 1895^ by his 
Excellency Levi P. Morton, Governor, in the place made vacant by the death of 
Brevet Major General Joseph B. Carr; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That we unite in this unanimous expression «f our sense of the 
bereavement we have suffered; and that we, in true fraternal spirit, join our 
comrades of the Union Army in the War of the Rebellion, and especially with the 
surviving veterans of the State of New York, in placing on record:- 

*'Our deep appreciation of his distinguished and meritorious military service, 
and his unswerving loyalty, sturdy patriotism and earnest devotion as a soldier; 

"His scholarly attainments and the high sense of honor and rectitude that 
marked all his conduct in an active and most useful civil career, reflecting by a 
dignified bearing and courtly manner what is best in our American manhood; 

" His valuable and generous services rendered as a member of this Commission. 

" Resolved, That the Secretary enter this action upon the minutes, and forward 
a copy to the widow and family o{ the deceased." 

At that meeting also it was regularly moved and adopted that 
the Chairman, in behalf of the Board, be empowered to make appli- 
cation to the Legislatm*e for an appropriation to erect a monument 
to GSeneral Webb. 

16 



Blexan^er Stewart TIIBel>& 

This resolution was transmitted to the Legislature on April 8, 
1911, and pursuant thereto, by chapter 547 of the Laws of 1912, 
the New York Monuments Commission was authorized and directed 
to procure and erect on an appropriate site in the battlefield of 
Gettysburg, in the State of Pennsylvania, a bronze statue to Brevet 
Major-Greneral Alexander Stewart Webb, at an expense not to 
exceed the sum of Eight thousand dollars. By the provisions of this 
Act the sum of Three thousand dollars became available for immediate 
use; and by chapter 581, Laws of 1914, the balance of Five thousand 
dollars required to complete the work was allowed. 

In view of the frequency that General Webb's distinguished and 
gallant conduct at Grettysburg was eulogized, it was, of course, a 
foregone conclusion that when the time came to honor his memory 
with a statue that field was the most appropriate place for erecting 
it, and of all other spots there, too, the far-famed Angle, on Cemetery 
Ridge. 

What Greneral Webb accomplished at the Angle is an oft told 
story. This was the scene of his greatest exploit as a commander. 
It was there that he found his great opportunity to show the heroic 
stuff of which he was made, and he emerged from the ordeal with 
such honor and glory as will echo along the corridors of time while 
Gettysburg survives in story. This is the consensus of opinion among 
historians, and it has been corroborated through official channels. 

Senator Proctor, chairman of the committee on military affairs in 
1895, when reporting a bill introduced that year to place General 
Webb on the retired list of the United States Army submitted the 
following statement among other data bearing on the matter: 

'* General Webb's conduct at Gettysburg^ July 3, 1S6S, is particularly worthy 
of mention. He was in command of the Second Brigade of the Second Division of 
the Second Corps, and had been with the color*guard of the Seventy-second Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, of whom every man was wounded or killed. General Webb left 
the color-guard and went across the front of the companies, to the right of the 
Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania, all the way between the lines in prder to direct the 
lire of t&e latter regiment upon a company of rebels who had rushed across the low 
stone wall, led by the rebel general Armistead. Thus, General Armistead and 
General Webb were both between the lines of troops, and both were wounded; but 
by this act of gallantry General Webb kept his men up to their work until more than 
one-half were killed or wounded. In this action he was wounded by a bullet which 
struck him near the groin. General Meade, in his letter presenting a medal to 
General Webb, mentions this act as one not surpassed by any general on the field." 

IT 



Hlexanber Stewart TROebl) 

The particular spot in the Angle where the statue should stand 
was studied by the Commissioners early in their deliberations for 
its construction and erection. At first, Webb Avenue — called after 
General Webb — was thought to be the logical location for it. This 
is a short side avenue in the Angle, west of Hancock Avenue. In 
the enclosure within its bounds are the markers indicating where 
Armistead and Gushing fell. Closer proximity to the stone wall 
over which the Confederates leaped when they encountered General 
Webb's men was another factor in favor of the spot on Webb Avenue 
primarily in mind for the monument. At a subsequent meeting of 
the Board, however, it came to light that General Webb while visiting 
the Angle in company with the members of the Gettysburg National 
Park Commission, not very long before he died, was consulted by 
them, in a casual way, as to the exact location where he would like 
his statue to stand in the event of its ever coming to pass that the 
State of New York should decide to honor his memory in that manner. 
Thereupon — though at first with some hesitation and reluctance, 
it is related — General Webb examined carefully the positions 
occupied by the regiments constituting his brigade when grappling 
with their Southern assailants. It goes without saying that there 
were several points worthy of consideration for the object in view, 
because General Webb when he saw Armistead and his warriors 
approaching and crossing the stone wall, fronting the groimd he held, 
practically continued ubiquitous in his movements until the charge 
was completely repulsed. There was, however, for reasons that he 
explained then and there one central point which demanded more 
effort and attention from him in the emergencies that arose than any 
other part of the arena. That place, which is situated on the eastern 
side of Hancock Avenue, facing the Angle, he pointed out, and 
forthwith it was marked by Colonel John F. Nicholson, Chairman of 
the Gettysburg National Park Conunission. Eventually, it was 
formally approved by the Secretary of War as well as the Gettysburg 
National Park Commissioners. 

Piirsuant to letters and specifications addressed to various sculp- 
tors of established reputation, inviting them to submit sketch models 
for the proposed statue to General Webb, the following artists 
favored the Commission with designs for it: R. Hinton Perry, J. 
Massey Rhind, Robert G. Eberhardt, of New York, L. A. Gudebrod, 
Meriden, Conn., and Solon Borglum, Norwalk, Conn. 

18 



NEW YORK MONUMENTS COMMISSION, 1915 



THE NEW YORK 

[*aBLIC LTBPARY 

ASTOR, L^^.•ox 
^^^^^ fOUf.OATIONS 



Blexan^er Stewart Wuhb 

Their proposals were examined at a meeting of the Commission 
convened March 10, 1918, with the result that the design prepared 
by J. Massey Rhind was selected. Dm'ing the month of Jmie, 19149 
Mr. Rhind's full-size model was inspected by the Commissioners and 
Mr. Alexander S. Webb, son of General Webb, and being found 
satisfactory and conforming to specifications it was approved and 
accepted. 

In the memorandum furnished the sculptors who took part in 
the competition for modeling this statue, attention was called to the 
fact that General Webb was the recipient of a gold medal com- 
memorating his distinguished personal gallantry on the scene at 
Gettysburg where it was intended to erect the monument, and that, 
therefore, a figure fittingly portraying the general in action at that 
historic conflict was desired. In Mr. Rhind's creation the expecta- 
tions of those responsible for the statue and interested in it were 
fully realized. His work is regarded as a splendid artistic effort. 
The head is finely poised on a sinewy frame, depicting in heroic lines 
both strength and courage. Dressed in the full uniform of a major 
general, U. S. A., the open collar gives the lungs a chance for air 
without as well as within. In the stalwart stand and proud pose and 
in the fire and resolve of the eyes there44^trepidity and alertness — 
a commander ready for any emergency and resolved to conquer or die. 

The sculptor's model and the inscription tablet were reproduced 
in bronze by Jno. Williams, Inc., of New York. Worden-Crawford 
Co., of Batavia, N. Y., were awarded the contract for the pedestal. 
A. J. Zabriskie, deceased, who was engineer and secretary of this 
Commission, prepared the design for the pedestal. 

The statue is eight feet high. The pedestal is nine feet, nine and 
a half inches in height, measuring twelve feet by eleven feet, three 
and a half inches at the base. It is composed of dark Barre granite. 

Of the $8,000 appropriated for the monument, the sum of 
$6,678.85 was expended on it, leaving a balance in the State Treasury 
of $1,821.65. 

The construction of the monument was superintended throughout 
bv Commissioner Clinton Beckwith. 

By chapter 726 of the Laws of 1915, the sum of ten thousand 
dollars was appropriated for dedicating, with appropriate ceremonies, 
the statue to General Webb erected on the battlefield of (yettysburg. 
Provision was thus made for transportation to and from Grettysburg, 

19 



Blexanber Stewart HOel^b 

Pa., of two hundred and fifty survivors of the New York commands 
engaged conjointly with the Philadelphia Brigade — General Webb's 
Brigade — at the Angle, in the battlefield of Grettysburg, July 8, 
1868, to be designated by the respective veteran associations, upon 
an apportionment fixed by this Commission, to attend the dedication 
of General Webb's statue; for transportation of the Governor and 
Military Secretary, the Lieutenant Gk)vemor, the Comptroller, the 
State Treasurer, the family of General Webb, the Speaker of the 
Assembly, the President pro tem of the Senate, the members of the 
Finance Committee of the Senate and the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee of the Assembly, this Board of Commissioners and invited 
guests; and for the preparation, printing, interspersed with photo* 
graphic views, and binding of one thousand copies of the rei>ort and 
proceedings of the dedication. 

At a meeting held July 28, 1915, the Board authorized the Chair- 
man to proceed with the necessary arrangements for carrying out 
the provisions of this Act ; and a resolution was adopted at the same 
time, whereby Tuesday, October 12, 1915, was designated as the 
date for the ceremonies. 

Under date of July 9, 1915, the Chairman addressed a letter to 
His Excellency, the Grovemor, calling his attention to the Act 
empowering the Commission to conduct this dedication and inviting 
him as well to deliver an address to the veterans in attendance thereat. 
The Grovemor in his reply advised that it would give him great 
pleasure to go to Gettysburg to take part in those ceremonies, that 
Mrs. Whitman would accompany him, and that, as suggested, he 
would speak to the veterans and their friends assembled at the statue. 

From the official records and other sources, as well as maps of 
the battlefield, it was found that the following New York regiments 
and batteries co-operated with General Webb's Brigade in the repulse 
of Longstreet's assault at and in the vicinity of the Angle, and hence 
by the Act their respective organizations were entitled to representa- 
tion at the dedication : 

Forty-second, Fifty-ninth, Eighty-second (Second N. Y. S. M.), 
Tenth, Eightieth (Twentieth N. Y. S. M.), One hundred and eighth, 
Thirty-ninth, One himdred and eleventh. One hundred and twenty- 
fifth and One hundred and twenty-sixth regiments of infantry; the 
First, Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth independent batteries, 
and Batteries B and K, First New York Light Artillery. 

so 



Hlexan^er Stewart Mcbb 

Accordingly, a circular that had been prepared was forwarded 
to the officers of those veteran organizations, notifying them of the 
date set for the dedication; the arrangements tlntt were to be made 
with the railroads for furnishing their dri^gations with transporta- 
tion to the battlefield, and other particulars regarding this event. 
With the circulars were enclosed muster roll blanks for the officers 
to enter thereon the names of the survivors whom they desired to 
designate for going to Gettysburg. Many of the regiments and 
batteries concerned not having veteran associations of their own their 
survivors were communicated with direct from this office and the 
mustet rolls for them made up by the Comimission. 

Transportation for the official dedication party was furnished by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, on a special train, which 
started from New York at 9:40 Monday morning, October 11th. 
At Gettysburg, the party was accommodated at the Eagle Hotel 
and the (rettysbiurg Hotel. 

General Webb's command at Grettysburg being composed of 
Pennsylvania troops — the Sixty-ninth, Seventy-first, Seventy-second 
and One hundred and sixth infantry regiments — known as the 
Philadelphia Brigade — the Commission was anxious that the Key- 
stone State should be offered every facility and encouragement for 
co-operating with the Empire State in the ceremonies contemplated 
for this function. Accordingly, correspondence was opened with 
the Philadelphia Brigade Association, through their adjutant. Major 
John D. Worman. With commendable enthusiasm and energy, they 
at once commenced organizing a delegation to represent them and 
participate in the dedication of the statue to their old commander. 
In fact, as soon as announcement was made of the date set for it they 
were ready to take the initiative in the matter themselves. On 
August 24, 1915, Colonel Lewis R. Stegman went to Philadelphia 
to confer with them at a special meeting called to effect arrangements 
for the part which they were to take in this event. Admiration for 
Greneral Webb and a desire to do everything in their power to honor 
his memory were much in evidence at that conference. Consequent 
on their deliberations then and afterwards, they were determined 
that at least fifty of their members should go to the battlefield; while 
Dr. G. J. R. Miller, Joseph R. C. Ward and Captain John D. Rogers 
volunteered to deliver addresses there. 



Hlexan^er Stewart TRZIel>l> 

To supplement Pennsylvania's quota to the occasion, Greneral 
James W. Latta, of Philadelphia, a Civil War veteran, responded 
with alacrity to an invitation to be orator for his State. 

Colonel Andrew Cowan, of Louisville, Ky., also promised to 
contribute an address. 

Colonel Zan L. Tidball, of Buffalo, a member of the Fifty-ninth 
Regimental Association, and Department Conunander, 6. A. R., of 
the State of New York, was appointed grand marshal, and Captain 
James Ross, of the Eighty-second X. Y. Volunteers, who resides at 
Westfield, X. J., adjutant general. 

The statue was to be unveiled by Mrs. Bayard Cushing Hoppin, 
of East Islip, X. Y., granddaughter of Greneral Webb, but illness 
preventing Mrs. Hoppin from going to Grcttysburg that honor was 
reserved for Miss Anne R. Alexandre, of Lenox, Mass., also a 
granddaughter. 

Pursuant to request made by the Commission, in behalf of the 
State of Xew York, to the War Department, under date of July 26, 
1915, there was present for duty at the exercises a company from 
Battery E, Third U. S. Field Artillery, Captain Clarence X. Jones 
commanding. Major-General Leonard Wood, U. S. A., command- 
ing the Department of the East, who was intimately acquainted with 
General Webb, and a great admirer of his, took a special interest in 
this assignment of the battery. 

There were 208 transportation orders furnished veterans of the 
various regiments and batteries entitled to send delegations to the 
dedication. Of these forty were returned unused. Some of the 
organizations concerned had but very few in attendance. As the 
years go by and as veterans become feebler, they seem less and less 
inclined to revisit Gettysburg, much as they liked to go there formerly. 
The Philadelphia Brigade contingent present numbered sixty-five. 

It was sought in advance to have the dedication of General Webb's 
statue conducted in a manner fully worthy of his memory, and the 
occasion proved to be a battlefield event which put the town of 
Gettysburg and the Angle in gala. As part of the printed itinerary, 
the veterans and the official party devoted the early part of the day 
to visiting salient points along the northern part of the field. The 
first stop was made at the Wadsworth monument. Here Colonel 
Lewis R. Stegman described leading incidents of the opening of the 
battle. Before resuming the journey, a group photograph was taken 

22 



Hlexan&cr Stewart THOebl) 

of the party. Another halt was made at Gulp's Hill, where it was 
told how General Greene, with his small brigade of 1,850 men, 
gallantly held his ground on the night of the second day against over- 
whelming odds. Many other famous spots and beautiful memorials 
in this territory were also passed and pointed out by the guides. 
Socm after midday the processicm that was to go to the Angle began 
to assemble ; and at the appointed time — half past one — the start 
was made for the monument. The route of the parade was along 
Baltimore Street to the Taneytown Road and then Hancock Avenue. 
Captain Clarence X. Jones, with a detail from his battery, acted as 
escort. The Governor and his party drove from the Eagle Hotel — 
the headquarters of the Commission. The veteran organizations were 
in charge of the grand marshal. Colonel Zan L. Tidball, Captain 
James Ross, adjutant general, and a large number of aides appointed 
from among the veteran associations. As the carriages passed along 
the streets greetings in plenty were given their occupants. There 
was no mistaking the fact that it was a holiday in Grcttysburg — 
Columbus Day and General Webb day. At two o'clock, as the 
exercises were about to commence, grandeur characterized the scene 
around the statue, at the Angle. The '" High-water Mark '' or its 
environments have seldom witnessed anything so impressive. Hun- 
dreds of people from Gettysburg and adjacent towns joined the 
procession, thus making quite a concourse present. As a dedicatory 
preliminary, the ** boys " of the Philadelphia Brigade alighted from 
the carriages within four hundred yards of the stand; then, escorted 
by the band, they marched proudly to the statue, and on reaching it 
the " boys " all the way from New York, who had arrived in advance, 
welcomed them with cheers and gave their comrades a rousing 
reception. The guests as they arrived were shown to their places by 
men from the U. S. Battery. Colonel Lewis R. Stegman, Chairman 
of the Xew York Monuments Commission, acted as master of 
ceremonies. The Citizens Band of Grettysburg furnished the music. 
The opening prayer was pronounced by the Rev. William T. Pray, 
a veteran of the field. Miss Anne R. Alexandre, of Lenox, Mass., 
granddaughter of General Webb, unveiled the statue. Then 
the U. S. Battery began thundering a major general's salute of 
thirteen guns, which solemnly resounded over the slopes of Cemetery 
and Seminary Ridges. The oration for New York State by 
Grovernor Whitman was a special feature. When he was introduced 



HIexander Stewart Tllllel>l> 

as not only (rovemor of the Empire State, but also as the son of 
one of the angels in human attire who hastened to Grettysburg 
immediately after the combat was over, to give consolation to the 
dying and help to the wounded, the veterans did not fail to show their 
appreciation of this coincidence. The orator for Pennsylvania, 
General James W. Latta, in his eloquent address took a compre- 
hensive and philosophical view of war in general and the Civil War 
in particular — giving prominence to (^ettysburg. He paid a glow- 
ing tribute to Grcneral Webb and the Philadelphia Brigade that he 
so ably commanded. General Horatio C. King recited two poems 
of his own composition, which were listened to with interest. Colonel 
Andrew Cowan's address was a vivid word picture, and to those who 
had the privilege of hearing him it was an interesting and historical 
object lesson. Colonel Cowan enjoys the distinction of being one 
of the heroes of the Angle, and this imparted rare significance to his 
narration of the melee which took place there. Soldiers and civilians 
reverently watched him and heard him throughout — some of his 
audience being members of his own battery. At the conclusion of his 
remarks, when he came to bidding a last farewell at the Angle to his 
comrades, they were overcome — many of them could not speak and 
tears streamed down the cheeks of many miore. Dr. G. J. R. Miller 
treated his audience to a very interesting address on the history of 
the Philadelphia Brigade and the numerous engagements in which it 
was actively engaged, including its never-to-be-forgotten resistance 
to Pickett's charge, of the brunt of which it bore a heavy part. 

The State of New York has organized many functions for Gettys- 
burg similar to this, but never was a celebration conducted under its 
auspices that evoked greater enthusiasm than the dedicaticm of 
General Webb's statue. 

On the afternoon of the dedication Governor Whitman held a 
reception at the home of the president of the Pennsylvania College, 
where he made a brief address to the students, for which he was 
warmly thanked and applauded. 

On October 18th the official dedication party visited the battlefield 
of Antietam — about forty miles distant from Gettysburg. This trip 
proved very enjoyable and interesting. The rendezvous at Antietam 
was the celebrated Dunker Churdi. Here, after luncheon was served. 
Colonel Stegman spoke on interesting incidents of the battle. From 

S4 



TI'E NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY f 



ASTOR, LFZN'OX 
TILDEN !'OUi\D.\TIONS 



SPEAKERS AT THE GENERAL WE8B MONUMENT DEDICATION 



Blexan^er Stewart Mebb 

the Dunker Church the party went to the historic Bumside Bridge, 
at which point the operations of the left wing of the army were 
described. 

The total of the expenditures incident to the dedication of General 
Webb's statue was $7,710.10. 

uncial VeMcation ^itf 

His ExceUency, Governor Charles S. Whitmant and Mrs. Whit* 
man, Brig.-Gren. Louis W. Stotesbury, The Adjutant General* 
Major Francis L. V. Hoppin, Captain Lorillard Spencer, Captain 
Alvan W. Perry. 

Senator A. J. Gilchrist, Senator Charles J. Hewitt and Bfri. 
Hewitt, Senator Samuel J. Ramsperger. 

Hon. Thaddeus C. Sweet, Speaker of the Assembly, and Mrs. 
Sweet, Col. S. C. Clobridge and Mrs. Clobridge, Assemblyman 
Harold J. Hinman and Mrs. Hinman, Assemblyman John Kerrigan, 
Assemblyman Peter P. McEUigott, Assranbljrman William J. Maier 
and Mrs. Maier, and Assemblyman Heber E. Wheeler and Mrs. 
Wheeler. 

Brig.-Gen. W. W. Wotherspoim, U. S. A^ Superintendent of 
Public Works, and Mrs. Wotherspoon, Hon. James L. Wells, State 
Treasurer, J6tm C. Birdseye, Secretary, Civil Service Commission, 
Hon. Willard D. McKinstry, Civil Service Commissioner, and 
Mrs. McKinstry, Hon. Alexander Macdonald, of the Conservation 
Commission, and Mrs. Macdonald, E. Walter Moses, First Assistant 
to Clerk of Assembly, and Mrs. Moses, Hon. Lewis F. Pilcher, 
State Architect, and Mrs. Pilcher, Hon. William G. Rice, Civil 
Service Commissioner, Hon. Frank M. Williams, State Engineer, 
and Mrs. Williams. 

Gen. H. D. Hamilton, Grcn. H. S. Huidekoper, Gen. James W. 
Latta, Grcn. Anson G. McCook, Crcn. Theo. S. Peck, Mrs. Peck and 
Miss Peck, Col. Andrew D. Baird, Col. Peter S. Bomus, U. S. A., 
Col. E. B. Cope, Col. Andrew Cowan and Mrs. Cowan, Col. Chas. I. 
DeBevoise and Mrs. DeBevoise, Col. Henry W. Knight and Miss 
Knight, Col. John P. Nicholson and Mrs. Nicholson, Col. Frank 
Sellers, Col. W. H. M. Sistare, Col. Zan L. Tidball, Col. John W. 
Vrooman, Col. Frank West, U. S. A., Major W. H. M. Barker, 
Major George Breck, Major Ira H. Evans, Captain Chas. E. Fiske, 

25 



HIeIan^cr Stewart Tiniel>b 

Captain C. St. John and Mrs. St. John, Captain Wm. T. Ziegler, 
Rev. Wm. T. Pray and Mrs. Pray, Hon. John F. Murtaugh. 

Family of General Webb: Alexander S. Webb, son; Mrs. John 
E. Alexandre, Mrs. George B. Parsons, Miss Anne R. Webb and 
Miss Caroline LeRoy Webb, daughters; Miss M. C. Alexandre 
and Miss Anne R. Alexandre, granddaughters; Major G. Creighton 
Webb and J. Louis Webb, brothers; F. Egerton Webb, brother, 
and Mrs. Webb; Mrs. Seward Webb, Louis B. Souter, Mrs. H. V. 
R. Kennedy and Major Charles E. Lydecker. 

John Quincy Adams, Hartwell B. Baird, J. E. Baker, Charles 
S. Barker, William T. Briggs, Alexander L. Brodhead, Mrs. Brod- 
head and Master Alexander L. Brodhead, E. C. Burgess and Mrs. 
Burgess, R. G. Conover and Mrs. Conover, Ralph Devendorf, H. M. 
Golden, T. M. Grogan, M. D. Hartford, J. V. Hemstreet, Harold J. 
Hichman and Mrs. Hiehman, Frank Horn and Mrs. Horn, Stephen 
E. Jaekman, Mrs. H. B. Knight, Charles W. Lake, Mrs. Clara K. 
Litchfield, J. W. Lynch, C. A. McCreery, Frank Martlock, 
H. G. Munger, F. E. Munson, John F. O'Connor, J. E. Rafter, 
Charles E. Reid, J. Massey Rhind, Sculptor, Charles Schoeneck and 
Mrs. Schoeneck, Charles A. Shaw, Daniel Smiley and Mrs. Smiley, 
D. F. Strobel. 

Col. Clinton Beckwith, Col. Lewis R. Stegman and Mfls. Steg- 
man, Gkn. Horatio C. King and Mrs. King. 



26 



GommlMloiMn: Ez«cutlT« GommlttM 

Col. CLINTON BECKWrm Col. CLINTON BEGKWITH Col. LOUIS R. STBGHAN 

Col. L£WIS R STEGMAN ChalmiaB 

G«i. HORATIO C. KING Brift.-Gcn LOUIS W. STOTBSBURY 

Brig.-G«i. LOUIS W. STOTESBURY J. W. LYNCH 

Tho Adjutant-Gonoral SocroCarjr 



New York Monuments Commission 

FOR THE BATTLEFIELDS OF 

Gettysburg, Chattanooga and Antietam 

ROOM M15, 116 NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK 



July 26, 1915. 

SeMcation of flDonument to ®en« Blexan^er Stewart JKleJyJ^ 

Circular No. 1 

By chapter 726 of the Laws of 1915, this Board of Commissioners 
is authorized to dedicate, with appropriate ceremonies, the bronze 
statue which is to be erected to the memory of Brig. Gen. Alexander 
Stewart Webb, at The Angle in the battlefield of Gettysburg. 

The dedicatory exercises will be held Tuesday, October 12, 1915. 

As is well known, General Webb commanded the Philadelphia 
Brigade, which took such a distinguished part in the repulse of 
Pickett's charge at The Angle, July 8, 1868. 

The New York regiments of infantry and batteries of artillery 
which fought conjointly with the Philadelphia Brigade, at and in 
the vicinity of The Angle during the critical period of Longstreet's 
assault, will be asked to send delegations to this dedication ; and for 
this purpose the State will furnish free transportation to Grettysburg 
and return. 

Muster roll blanks will be forwarded to the officers of the veteran 
associations, for them to enter thereon the honorably discharged 
survivors of their regiment or battery whom they desire to designate 
for participation in this event. 



Blexander Stewart Webb 

Transportation orders, filled out by the undersigned from the 
certified muster rolls furnished by the ofiicers of the different organi- 
zations, will be forwarded to those ofiicers for distribution among 
the veterans in whose favor they are drawn. 

Those transportation orders will not be accepted for passage on 
trains, but must be exchanged for railroad tickets; neither are the 
orders transferable; if not used they should be returned to the New 
York Monuments Commission. 

The officers are requested to send in the muster rolls so that same 
will be received at this office not later than September 20th, in order 
that there may be ample time to transmit the certificates, and also 
to notify the railroad companies of the stations for which transporta- 
tion orders have been issued. 

Application has been made to the railroad companies, through the 
Trunk Line Association, to honor tickets for this occasion, from 
points in New York State, on any day from October 6th to October 
11th, inclusive. 

It is requested that veterans attending this dedication will, as 
far as practicable, appear in the uniform usually worn on Memorial 
Day. 

Badges specially gotten up for this function will be forwarded 
for distribution to the officers in charge of the muster rolls, at the 
same time that the transportation certificates are sent out. 

Flags and streamers suitable for the occasion will be furnished 
the organizations at Gettysburg. 

On the day of the dedication carriages will be furnished by the 
Commission for conveying the veterans from Gettysburg Square 
to the site of the monument and return; and they will also be given 
a free ride aroimd the battlefield. 

It is expected that a good many Civil War veterans, other than 
those entitled to free transportation, will travel to Gettysburg for 
this event, and a cordial invitation is extended to them to be present 
at the ceremonies. 

Benches will be provided in front of the platform to seat the 
veterans and those accompanying them during the dedicatory 
exercises. 

The War Department will be asked to furnish a squadron of 
cavalry and a battery of artillery for duty at the ceremonies. 

28 



Blexait&er 9tewart VOebb 

Governor Whitman and the Military Secretary, the Lieutenant 
Governor, the State Comptroller, the State Treasurer, the family 
of Greneral Webb, the Speaker of the Assembly, the President Pro 
Tem of the Senate and members of the two Finance Committees of 
the Legislature are among those who will constitute the official party 
at the dedication of General Webb's statue. 

Elaborate preparations are being made for this dedication, and 
the Commission is endeavoring to secure for it worthy representa- 
tion from the New York regiments and batteries engaged with the 
Philadelphia Brigade, under General Webb, in the great Grcttysburg 
struggle which culminated at The Angle. 

The headquarters of the New York Monuments Commission 
will be at the Eagle Hotel. 

Fraternally, 

LEWIS R. STEGMAN, 

Chairman. 

HEADQUARTERS OF GRAND MARSHAL 

Eagle Hotel, Gettysburg, pa. 

October 11, 1015. 

Having been appointed Grand Marshal by the New York 
Monuments Commission for the Battlefields of Gettysburg, Chat- 
tanooga and Antietam, on the occasion of dedicating the statue to 
Brevet Major-General Alexander Stewart Webb, at the Angle, 
on the battlefield of Gettysburg, October 12, 1915, I hereby assume 
command. 

The following staff appointments are announced: 

Captain James Ross, Adjutant General. 

Aides: 

Dennis McGowan 69th Penna Vols. 

William M. Bukeows. . . 71st Penna Vols. 

Charles P. Charlton . . . 72nd Penna Vols. 

Joseph R. C. Ward 106th Penna. Vols. 

Charles W. Cowtan. . . 10th N. Y. Vols. 

Herman Kopp 89th N. Y. Vols. 

James Elson 42nd N. Y. Vols. 

2d 



Bleian^er Stewart TlOlebb 

James Dillon 59th N. Y, Vols. 

William Vallette 80th N. Y. Vols. 

David McMunigle 82nd N. Y. Vols. 

Alfred Elwood 108th N. Y. Vols. 

Howard Servis 111th N. Y. Vols. 

Clinton E. Taylor 126th N. Y. Vols. 

Harrison Smith First N. Y. Ind. Battery. 

John M. Stiner Eleventh N. Y. Ind. Battery. 

John White Thirteenth N. Y. Ind. Battery. 

Theodore C. Taggart . . . Battery B, First N. Y. L. A. 
Edward W. Harbison . . . Battery K, First N. Y. L. A. 

They will be obeyed and respected accordingly. 
The hour for assembly will be One and a half p. m. 
The carriages and wagons conveying the official party and 
veteran delegations to the site of the statue will form as follows : 

1. Grand Marshal and Staff. Orator for the occasion* 

2. Detail from Battery E, 8rd U. S. Field Artillery; Captain 
Clarence N. Jones, Commanding. 

8. Official Party, New York Monuments Commission, and 
Invited Guests. 

4. Citizens Band of Gettysburg. 

5. Veteran Division, namely: 

69th Penna. Vols Andrew W. McDermott, Conmiand- 

ing. 

71st Penna. Vols Isaac Tibbens, Commanding. 

72nd Penna Vols John D. Worman, Commanding. 

106th Penna. Vols G. J. R. Miller, Commanding. 

10th N. Y. Vols William McKee, Commanding. 

89th N. Y. Vols Adolph Hess, Commanding. 

42nd N. Y. Vols George S. Walsh, Commanding. 

59th N. Y. Vols Daniel A. O^Maba, Commanding. 

80th N. Y. Vols Enoch J. Nichols, Commanding. 

82nd N. Y. Vols Henry Mann, Commanding. 

108th N. Y. Vols Franklin B. Hutchinson, Com- 
manding. 

111th N. Y. Vols Robert L. Drummond, Commanding. 

126th N. Y. Vols Jordan Snook, Commanding. 

First N. Y. Ind. Battery Andrew Cowan, Commanding. 

so 



H[eIan^er Stewart Mel>b 

Eleventh N. Y. Ind, Battery . Jacob H. Folmsbee, Commanding. 
Thirteenth N.Y.Ind. Battery, John P. McGurrin, Commanding. 
Battery B, First N. Y. L. A. Chester Cooper, Commanding. 
Battery K, First N. Y. L. A . Matthew Ellis, Commanding. 
Veteran of G. A. R Thomas J. McConekey, Commanding. 

The officers named will take charge of their respective organiza- 
tions, to facilitate such movements as are required. 

The U. S. Battery of Field Artillery will form on the south side 
of Washington Street, with its right resting on Chambersburg Street. 

The Official Party will form on the north side of Washington 
Street, with its right resting on Chambersburg Street. 

The Veterans will form on York Street, with right resting on 
Gettysburg Square. 

There will be no marching on foot, and it is expected that every 
one participating will be prepared to start promptly on time 
announced. 

The line of movement from the public square to the site of the 
monument will be through Baltimore Street to the Taneytown Road 
and Hancock Avenue. 

Regiments and batteries will follow each other from the place 
of formation, as indicated, commencing with the regiments of the 
Philadelphia Brigade. 

Division and brigade flags and regimental and battery pennants 
for each organization will be furnished, to distinguish the various 
sections on embarkation. 

At the monument during the exercises the Veterans are requested 
to keep the flags well displayed. 

A special guard from the U. S. Artillery will keep the speakers' 
stand entirely free imtil the arrival of the official party. 

Seats in front of the stand will be provided for the veterans and 
their friends. 

At the conclusion of the exercises, the Veterans and Official Party 
will be brought back to Gettysburg in the same conveyances that 
carried them to the Angle. 

ZAN L. TIDBALL, 
Official ' Grand Marshal. 

James Ross, 

Captain and Adjutant General. 

SI 



y 



icn: Bx«aitl^ GommlttM: 

CoL CLINTON BBGKWITH Col. CLINTON BBC K WITH CoL LBWI8 R. 8TBGMAN 
Col. LEWIS R. STBGliAN Chalnuui 

G«ii. HORATIO C. KING . Brig. G«n. LOUIS W. 8TOTBSBURY 

Brig. Gm. LOUIS W STOTBSBURY Jl. W. LYNCH 

TiM AdJttCaat-G«i«nl Smcftmtj 



New York Monuments Commission 

FOR THB BATTLBPIBLD8 OF 

Gettysburg, Chattanooga and Antietam 

ROOM If tSt 116 NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK 



ITINERARY OF OFFICIAL PARTY AT DEDICATION OF STATUE 

OF GEN. ALEXANDER STEWART WEBB 

Gettysbubo, Pa., October 11, 12, 18 and 14, 1915. 

flDon&ai?t October ittb 

The special train will leave the Pennsylvania Station, 82nd Street 
and Seventh Avenue, at 9:40 a. m., Monday, October 11th; arriving 
at Grettysburg 8 *A5 p. m. Depot only one block from Eagle Hotel. 

Tags should be tied to grips and valises. Articles not desired to 
be held in the parlor cars will be taken to the baggage car, and 
transferred from there to the proper rooms at the hotel. 

Lunch will be served on the train from 11 a. m. to 2 p. m. Dinner 
at the hotel from 6 to 8 p. M. (With so large a party to make arrange- 
ments for, a little patience on arrival is requested.) 

ZCucdbai?, October t2tb 

Bbeaefast at 7 o'clock 

Wagons to convey the official party to salient points on the 
battlefield will be in readiness at the hotel 8 a. m., and will start 
promptly at 8:80; proceeding to the Fairfield Road, to the left of 

82 



THE PHILADELPHIA BRIGADE 




A ^ 



U^ 



J3 



Blexan&er Stewart Mc})b 

the First Corps line (Doubleday's Division in the first day's contest), 
and passing the spot where General Reynolds was killed, and where 
Archer's Confederate Brigade was captured, in the initial engage- 
ment. A brief halt will be made at the Wadsworth monument, near 
the railroad cut, and a description given of the battle in which the 
First and Eleventh Corps took a memorable part. From thence along 
the lines of the cavalry formation and the right of the First and 
Eleventh Corps lines — through the Mummasburg Road — reaching 
the place where General Barlow was wounded. 

From this point to Culp's Hill, by East Confederate Avenue — 
the line of Confederate attack on Slocum's Twelfth Corps and the 
right wing of the Union Army. Here another halt and description; 
after which Cemetery Hill, where the " Louisiana Tigers '* charged, 
will be reached. Through the National Cemetery, on to the Taney- 
town Road, and then to the Eagle Hotel for dinner. 

Wagons for conveying the official party to the dedicatory exercises, 
at The Angle, will be prepared to. join the column of march — follow- 
ing the U. S. Battery of Field Artillery — at 1 :80 sharp. There 
will be no delay. 

The ceremonies of dedication will commence promptly at 2 o'clock. 
Immediately on reaching the Angle, the Official Party will take 
their places on the main stand provided for the occasion. 

After the ceremonies, the party will drive along Hancock Avenue, 
to the Little Round Top — the left of the Union Army line the 
second and third days. Brief halt and description of the battle. 
From this point, a view can be had of the entire battlefield. Thence 
through the Devil's Den, the Wheatfield, the Loop and Peach 
Orchard — the lines of the Third and part of the Second, Fifth and 
Sixth Corps — Sickles' defensive position the second day. Back to 
the hotel for supper. 

TIXIle^ne0^al?, October t3tb 

Breakfast at 7 o'clock 

Automobiles, for conveying the party to the battlefield of Antie- 

tam, Md., will be ready at the hotel at 8 o'clock, and the start for 
Antietam will be made at 8:80; setting out by way of the Fairfield 

Road, and going over the Catoctin Mountains, a spur of the Blue 

Ridge, passing through a beautiful country — over and into the 



Blezjinder Stewart Wtm 

Cumberland Valley. In going over the Fairfield Road, the line of 
retreat of part of Greneral Lee's Army will be practically followed. 
Through Waynesboro to Hagerstown, and from thence to Antietam 
battlefield. 

At Antietam, a halt will be made near the historic Dunker Churdi, 
and the New York State Park. Here refreshments will be served 
and a brief narrative given of the severe engagement which took place 
September 17, 1862. Then to the village of Sharpsburg, over the 
Hagerstown pike; reaching the left of the Uni<m line (Bumside's 
command) , where the salient positions of both Union and Confederate 
troops can be plainly seen. Antietam Creek and the famous Bum* 
side Bridge next. Between the Dunker Church and Sharpsburg, the 
centres of the Union and Confederate lines are indicated by tablets 
and markers. 

A brief stay at the National Cemetery, and then to the turnpike 
by General McClellan*s headquarters; through Keedysville and 
Boonsboro, and the scene of the battle of South Mountain, September 
14, 1862; over the National Turnpike, through HagerstowUt to 
Gettysborgy arriving at the hotel in time for supper. 

tnmrtdaf t •ctetcr t4 

Guests wishing to visit the scene of the cavalry engagement at 
Bonatigfaville will be furnished with wagmis f cnr this purpose. Con- 
veyances used October 12th will be at their disposal. Only the time 
limit should be kept in mind. Dinner will be served at 12 o'clodc 
The train will leave Gettysburg on the hcmieward journey at 2 o'clock. 
Supper on the train after 5 o'clock. Train readies New York about 
8 o'clock. Grood night then and there. 

Throughout the railroad trip, Grcn. Louis W* Stotesbury will 
be in charge of Cars A and B; Col. Lewis R. Stegman, Car C; 
Cren. Horatio C. King, Car D, and Col. Clinton Beckwith, Car £. 

NEW YORK MONUMENTS COMMISSION. 



S4 



9xbct of Bxetddcs 

mt 

6encral VOcDi) nDonument 

Ube BndlCt Oett^dbnro 

•ClObCt 12, 19t5» 2*00 p. A. 



1. Music, Citizens Band of Gettysburg. 

2. Prayer, by Rev. Wm. T. Pray, ia2nd New York Veteran 
Volunteers. 

8. Introductory Remarks by Chairman of Board of Commis- 
sioners. Colonel Lewis R. Stegman. 

4. Music, Citizens Band of Gettysburg. 

5. Unveiling of the Monument, by Miss Anne R. Alexandre, 
Granddaughter of General Webb. 

6. Major General's Salute, by Battery £, Third Regiment, U. S. 
Artillery; Captain Clarence N. Jones, Commanding. 

7. Oration, Ckivemor Charles S. Whitman, of New York. 

8. Music, Citizens Band of Gettysburg. 

9. Poem, ** Grettysburg,'' General Horatio C. King, of Sheridan's 
Cavalry. 

10. Oration, Crcneral James W. Latta, of Pennsylvania. 

11. Music, Citizens Band of Gettysburg. 

12. Address, Colonel Andrew Cowan, Commander of First New 
York Independent Battery of Artillery. 

18. Address, Dr. G. J. R. Miller, of the Philadelphia Brigade. 

14. Music, Citizens Band of Grcttysburg, " Star Spangled 
Banner.*' 

15. Remarks, by Comrades of the Philadelphia Brigade. 

16. Remarks, by Gen. Theo. S. Peck, of Vermont. 

17. Benediction, Rev. Oscar L. Severson, 187th New York 
Volunteers. 

$5 






OUR Father who art in Heaven; Ahnighty and Everlasting 
God: The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, who hast 
given us grace at this time and with one accord to make our 
common supplication unto Thee, hear us now as we give thanks 
for the protection and guidance which Thou hast thus far vouch- 
safed us. 

We praise Thee that while we assemble to give tangible, sub- 
stantial and permanent expression of our love and veneration for the 
memory of our departed Commander, we are assiired of the Divine 
presence and blessing, in order that we may be guided in the exercises 
of the hour and thus glorify Thee and enjoy a comradeship with one 
another that shall be sacred and enduring. 

We thank Thee for the opportunity and high privilege of gather- 
ing to honor the name of one whose patriotism, character and use- 
fulness have been recorded in the annals of our country. We thank 
Thee that we are here to dedicate this monument to his memory. 
We praise Thee that it has a place on these historic grounds where 
names famous for valor and distinction are seen on every hand: 
and, we would cherish his memory as a brave and loyal soldier, an 
efficient educator, a useful citizen, and a friend whose far reaching 
influence presents a career that is best known to those who love and 
revere his name: and we would not forget the honorable citizenship 
that commended him to the respect and love of vast numbers of his 
fellow men in time of peace. 

We implore Thy blessing upon the kindred of the valiant General, 
who are honored by his name, and the sacred association of family ties. 
Hear us for the rank and file, who fought by the side of their Com- 
mander, who may yet linger on the shores of time — and the families 
who, perhaps, rehearse the heroic deeds of the brave men who have 
ended life's march and have gone to their reward. 

Hear us, O God, for our nation, in all its exigencies and welfare. 
Hear us in our supplication for those who are in authority, that wise 

36 



Blexan^er Stewart Wlebi) 

counsels may prevail and our great country shine forth in all its 
historic honor and glory. 

Grant Thy blessing upon the chief magistrate of our land. 
Remember him in all the intricate and trying problems of the hour. 
Grant him wisdom, patience and courage. 

Bless the commonwealths that have made this occasion possible, 
and may their governments and all in authority and all our popula- 
tion be crowned with Thy benediction. Let Thy blessing be with 
those who are in charge of the exercises of this important event and 
upon all who contribute in any way to make this day memorable in 
our country's history: and thus may the pleasure of the Heavenly 
Father rest upon us, and the brotherhood and comradeship of ineh 
become stronger and more hallowed than ever. 

Hear us O Lord for the coimtries engaged in war. Hasten the 
day of peace, that the tread of the war god shall not be heard 
throughout the world. 

Fulfil, O Lord, the desires and petitions we bring to Thee, as may 
be best expedient for us: Granting us in this world knowledge of 
Thy truth, and in the world to come, life everlasting. All of which 
we ask in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy 
Ghost. Amen. 



•T 



I 






B^^re00 J^ Colonel Xcwis 1R. Stegman 

t02nb m* V« VoU. 

dbafmuifi, lUw SotH Aonttmait0 CommfMion 



Ladies and Gentlemen, Comrades of the Army of the Potomac, 
AND Comrades of all the Armies Present: 

WELCOME to Gettysburg — welcome to the Angle — and 
welcome to the dedication of the statue of Major General 
Alexander Stewart Webb. Once more, it is pleasant to 
remark, a brilliant concourse, astir with interest and enthusiasm, has 
assembled at this picturesque and famous scene, to honor the memory 
of one of its many heroes. It is a source of pride and gratification, 
as well as thankfulness, to see this event so becomingly celebrated. 
New York and Pennsylvania have reason to rejoice at this splendid 
demonstration, — the Empire State, because the distinguished com- 
mander to whose memory we are now paying our respects was one 
of its foremost Gettysburg generals, and the Keystone State, because 
of the brigade he led on this field having been composed of Pennsyl- 
vania regiments; and never before, I venture to say, did that 
brigade — the Philadelphia Brigade — feel prouder of their old 
conmiander than they do to-day. 

We meet on hallowed and historic ground. In the entire range of 
American history — whether in Revolutionary or Civil War annals — 
there is not another spot on this continent, identified with the story 
of battle, more renowned than the Angle. It was here that the most 
spectacular, and, for the time it lasted, the severest conflict of the 
Civil War occurred. For the Army of the Potomac, their part in 
the engagement that culminated in victory for them on Cemetery 
Ridge is expressed in the words, " High-water Mark of the 
Rebellion ;" while for the Army of Northern Virginia, though beaten, 
it is attested that they evinced deeds of daring and determination 
that have seldom been equalled anywhere, or in any time, not even 
in the days of old when Greek met Greek. The battle waged here 
will be talked of for ages to come, not alone for its intensity, but 

88 




PUBLIC LIBrAKY ■ 

I 

AbTOa, L-IN'JX "i 



i « ■ *' — ti.ifc 



THC OCNCRAL Wltl MONUMINT 



Blezan^er Stewart VOeDb 

for the great issues then at stake and the far-reaching results involved 
in the outcome of it. For the historian, the scene enacted here remains 
the most alluring topic of the War of the Rebellion : it has furnished 
inspiration for classic painting, and it has been enshrined in song. 

" They fell who lifted up a hand 
And bade the sun in heaven to stand; 

They smote and fell who set the bars 

Against the progress of the stars. 
And stayed the march of Motherland. 

They stood who saw the future come 
On through the fight's delirium; 

They smote and stood who held the hope 

Of nations on this slippery slope, 
Amid the cheers of Christendom.'* 

Nor have the States whose soldiers were destined to take part in 
the mighty contest focussed here been unmindful of their claims to 
remembrance. Numerous and beautiful memorials, shaped in endur* 
ing bronze and granite, and conspicuously in evidence everywhere 
on this field, demonstrate this. 

And, Comrades of the Army of the Potomac, not a few of these 
memorials deserve to be specially mentioned now, for you are your* 
selves pleasant and interested reminders of them. There is not a 
veteran organization represented here, I am glad to say, but has its 
part in the drama staged on this ground and its environments recorded 
in lasting inscription. 

Right here, also Comrades, let me express a renewal of my thanks 
to you, in behalf of the New York Monuments Commission, for 
enhancing these ceremonies with your presence, and traveling so far. 
as most of you have, notwithstanding the long years that now separate 
you from your youthful days. 

Gettysburg all over and its salients, where crucial conflicts were 
centered during the three days that the battle raged, put heroes by 
the score, both of the North and the South, into history. There are 
heroes of Seminary Ridge, the Round Tops, the Peach Orchard, the 
Wheatfield, the Devil's Den, Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill; but 
because it was fortuitously reserved for those engaged at the Angle 
to be in the fi^t at the finish they seem to abide more in memory 
than the successful defenders of other prominent arenas. Conceding 
that Grcneral Hancock is the hero of Cemetery Ridge, if the question 

59 



H[exan^er Stewart Wc})b 

should be asked, " Who is the hero of the Angle? " for myself, I 
think we have the answer in the statue we are dedicating to-day. 

Even in an arena of heroism, General Webb was a hero of heroes. 
It is not easy to point out in battle annals a situation fraught with 
more peril, or presenting greater difficulty, than that which confronted 
General Webb when Armistead and his gallant band forced their 
way to the Angle. For the moment, it looked as though Longstreet's 
assault was to materialize and cut the Union line in twain. The 
Confederate charge at that juncture has even been credited with 
achieving a semblance of success. The bravest troops, seeing that they 
were to be outnumbered and overwhelmed, could not, at first, help 
being temporarily dispirited, if not overawed, to some extent, when 
their assailants came surging toward them, with a fury and despera- 
tion verging on frenzy. A crisis then arose that needed a man of 
mettle and rare resources to cope with it. Strategy, valor, vision, the 
power to command and the genius to employ every means at his dis- 
posal in prompt and effective resistance — these, exerted by General 
Webb, were largely instrumental in keeping the onslaught in check 
pending the arrival of reinforcements. History and the ofiicial records 
have done full justice to General Wpbb for his noble work at the 
Angle. But his fame is far from being confined to Gettysburg. He 
shared the vicissitudes of the Army of the Potomac in all its campaigns 
and rose to be a division commander. When the war ceased he was 
only thirty years old, and for so young an officer his record was 
decidedly brilliant. At that time he was a brevet major general, 
U. S. A., and a brigadier general in the volunteers. He won six 
brevets, and in all took part in seventeen battles and actions, in two 
of which, Gettysburg and Spotsylvania, he was wounded. In the 
second day's fight his brigade was also actively engaged on Cemetery 
Ridge, and part of it at Gulp's Hill, but what they did then is some- 
times overlooked in thinking of the herculean task set them the third 
day. I was at Gettysburg myself, but in a different part of the field 
from the Angle, and it did not take long for us boys at Gulp's Hill 
to learn what the Philadelphia Brigade and its commander had accom- 
plished. For a great many years it was my privilege to know 
General Webb intimately as a comrade, a colleague and a friend. 
As a member of the New York Monimients Commission, I had fre- 
quent occasion to meet him in business. In his maturer years, there 
was something beautiful and grand in the character of this remarkable 

40 



t::£ new ycrk | 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

TILDHN l-C)UiNL)AT10:4S ' 



INSCRIPTION TABLET 



Blexanber Stewart TKUbD 

man. Time and again have I stood with him at this Angle, and it 
is one of my pleasantest recollections of the field, listening to his 
recital of the struggle that took place here. Throughout his life, 
Greneral Webb's career as a soldier, scholar and citizen earned for 
him frequent encomium, but, as a soldier, the Angle and what he 
did there ha^e always been first in mind when his name was mentioned, 
and so it will be also, beyond any doubt, for the generations to come. 
As president of the College of the City of New York, General Webb's 
name became as familiar in educational circles as among Civil War 
veterans. I need not dwell on his splendid reputation as a leader 
in the cause of higher education. Thousands of graduates from the 
great institution over which he presided testify to that. When put 
in charge of the College of the City of New York, in 1870, he found 
it with only 768 students, and when he retired from his collegiate 
duties three decades later the rolls of the college contained 1,969 
names. 

Happily for this occasion, and happfly above all else for them- 
selves, the family of General Webb is here in ample attendance ; and 
to them this statue and the dedicatory exercises for it signify more 
than words can convey. They are to be congratulated on the felicity 
which this event affords them and the pleasure that must be theirs 
in recalling it during the years to come. 

It was almost on the eve of the battle of Grettysburg that Greneral 
Webb was made commander of a brigade. This was the Second 
Brigade of the Second Division, Second Corps, or as it rejoiced in 
calling itself, and does still, the Philadelphia Brigade, composed of 
the Sixty-ninth, Seventy-first, Seventy-second and One hundred and 
sixth Pennsylvania regiments of infantry. When it is stated that 
this brigade bore the brunt of a heavy part of Pickett's charge, that 
they emerged as victors from the turmoil and terrible trials they had 
to undergo then, and that their commander on that occasion was 
General Webb, enough is implied therein to cover anybody of 1,100 
men with undying honors. In his report of the battle General Webb 
said of his brigade : '" I feel that the general commanding has had 
abundant proof that as a brigade the Second can be relied upon for 
the performance of any duty which may be required of it." At 
Gettysburg and after General Webb had good reason to feel proud 
of the regiments he commanded there, and that they on their part 
were ever ready to reciprocate his admiration for them we have glad 

41 



BleIan^cr Stewart Webb 

testimony to-day. The most encom'aging and pleasantly reminiscent 
feature of this dedication is the proud participation in it by such a 
splendid contingent from the Philadelphia Brigade Association; and 
not only that, but its success is largely due to their co-operation in 
making preparation for it. Major John D. Worman, the adjutant 
of the association, is deserving of special thanks by reason of his 
eagerness and activity in rallying his comrades to take a prominent 
part in these ceremonies. As announced in our programme. Dr. G. J. 
R. Miller, of the One himdred and sixth Pennsylvania, is to speak 
in behalf of the Philadelphia Brigade Association, and time per- 
mitting other worthy members of the brigade will also contribute to 
these exercises. I have no doubt that they will give a good account 
of their brigade, and show that on other fields as well as Gettysburg 
they maintained a high reputation for fearless and foremost fighting. 

A good part of to-day's honors has fallen to Pennsylvania, and 
it is apt and just that this is so. The orator for this occasion also 
belongs to the Keystone State. He is General James W. Latta, of 
Philadelphia. When first requested to prepare his oration he 
responded cheerfully, and we are much obliged as well as very thankful 
for his coming here. General Latta is a Civil War veteran. His 
regiment was the One hundred and nineteenth Pennsylvania, and 
he was assistant adjutant general of the Third Brigade of the First 
Division, Sixth Corps, and later of the Fourth Division Cavalry 
Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi. General Latta is no 
novice in the oratorical line. He is a veteran speaker as well as a 
veteran soldier. His effort at the dedication of the memorial to his 
regiment, on this field, and also his address delivered here, in behalf 
of the infantry, at the dedicatory exercises for the Pennsylvania State 
monument, are fine examples of eloquence and analysis. This was a 
good many years ago, and though his health and strength are not 
what they used to be, all the same I do not doubt but he is still fully 
capable of rising to the height of a battlefield dedication, and that, 
in the words of another veteran among us, he will prove that " There 
is vim in the old men yet." 

Longstreet's assault was deliberately planned and as confidently 
and defiantly begun. The desperate endeavor of 15,000 men — the 
flower of the Army of Northern Virginia — and most of them fresh 
troops — to gain their objective and seize Cemetery Ridge, was not 
to be easily foiled, and it took more than one of the Northern States 

42 



Hlexan^er Stewart Webb 

to defeat them. A word or two on each of the units of the Empure 
State engaged in the repulse, inasmuch as they are represented here 
to-day, is quite in order. 

AVhen the Confederates were seen coming over the stone wall the 
Forty-second New York (also called the Tammany Regiment), 
conmianded by Colonel Joseph E. Mallon, rushed forward to meet 
them and they took an active part in the melee. Their color sergeant, 
Michael Cuddy, fell mortally wounded, and Private Michael 
McDonough captured the flag of the Twenty-second North Carolina. 
In the fight of the second day this regiment also sustained severe 
losses. 

" Boys, bury me on the field," was the last command issued by 
Lieut.-Colonel M. A. Thoman to his regiment, the Fifty-ninth. When 
he fell Captain William McFadden took his place. This regiment 
contributed strenuously to the repulse of the charge and seized the 
colors of the Eighteenth Virginia. 

The Eighty-second Regiment (Second N. Y. S. M.) lost 158 men 
in the battle of the second day and sixty-nine the third day. Its 
commander, Lieut.-Colonel James Huston, was killed. Captain John 
Darrow succeeded him. The Eighty-second was effectively in 
evidence at the clump of trees. The second day they captured the 
flags of the Forty-eighth Georgia and the third day those of the First 
and Seventh Virginia. 

Willard's Brigade, consisting of the Thirty-ninth, One hundred 
and eleventh. One hundred and twenty-fifth and One hundred and 
twenty-sixth regiments, directed a deadly flank fire on Pettigrew's 
men, and in their counter attack captured prisoners by the score and 
a large number of battle flags. Colonel G. L. Willard, of the One 
hundred and twenty-fifth, was killed the second day, and the conunand 
of the brigade devolved on Colonel Eliakim Sherrill, of the One 
hundred and twenty-sixth, who was also killed. Then it was put in 
charge of Lieut.-Colonel James M. Bull, also of the One hundred and 
twenty-sixth. Lieut.-Colonel James G. Hughes was commander of 
the Thirty-ninth. This regiment lost fifty per cent, of its men at 
Gettysburg. With one exception, the One himdred and eleventh sus- 
tained the greatest losses of any Union regiment at Gettysburg. It 
was first led by Colonel Clinton D. McDougal, and after he was 
wounded by Lieut.-Colonel Isaac M. Lusk and Captain A. P. Seeley. 
Colonel Levi Crandall commanded the One hundred and twenty*fifth. 

4S 



lUexan^er Stewart WibJ) 

The Tenth X. Y. Battalion, Major Greorge F. Hopper in com- 
mand, had the honor of receiving directions from General Meade 
personally. It was in service as provost guard, and after the failure 
of the assault 1,800 prisoners were committed to its care. 

The Eightieth Regiment (Twentieth N. Y. S. M.) divided its 
attention and its firing between Kemper's and Gamett's brigades, and 
the end of the assault found them at the clump of trees. General 
Doubleday, to whose division this regiment belonged, complimented 
them warmly for their valor and sacrifice during all three days of 
the battle. 

The One hundred and eighth Regiment, with Colonel Charles J. 
Powers, in command, supported WoodrufiT's Battery I, U. S. Artil- 
lery and Willard's Brigade, at Ziegler's Grove. Its casualties at 
Gettysburg were 118 men out of 200. 

The batteries that helped the Empire State to loom large in the 
repulse are also well represented here. We have delegations from the 
First, Eleventh and Thirteenth K. Y. Independent Batteries* and 
Batteries B and K, First N. Y. Light ArtOlery. 

Captain James M. Rorty, fated to fall, oHnmanded Battery B 
and Captain Robert H. Fitzhugh Battery K, while Lieut. William 
Wheeler commanded the Thirteenth Battery. The Eleventh Battery 
was attached to Battery K and the Fourteenth, Captain Rorty's, to 
Battery B. 

Only one of the officers commanding the New York regiments and 
batteries, engaged at the Angle and near it the third day, remain. 
That surviving officer is Colonel Andrew Cowan, of the First X. Y. 
Independent Battery, who, all the way from Louisville, Ky., is with 
us here, and a hundred welcomes and many thanks to him for this 
honor. Colonel Cowan is going to speak to you not only in behalf of 
his own battery, but also on other batteries that wheeled to the front 
when danger threatened Cemetery Ridge. As you will soon learn, he 
is an authority on what took place here a little more than fifty-two 
years ago. Unlike most of the regiments and batteries massed on this 
ridge when Longstreet made it his objective Colonel Cowan's com- 
mand did not belong to the Second Corps. His corps was the Sixth, 
and that corps' reputation for forward and telling work was well 
sustained by Colonel Cowan not only at Gettysburg but before and 
after Grcttysburg. 

44 



BleMll^er Stewart TKUbb 

Though the Angle when it resounded to the f urioui rush of com* 
batants and their hand-to-hand conflict was immune from the charge 
of squadrons, the cavahy was not far off then, nor, as is well knowut 
idle either. That important arm of the service, I am glad to announce, 
has a worthy representative at this dedication, and he is going to 
recite some appropriate verses of his own composition. As secretary 
of the Society of the Army of the Potomac for many decades past 
and also a member of Sheridan's Cavalry, the name of General 
Horatio C. King became well known to you long ago, and I believe 
there is hardly a veteran present that has not seen him or heard him 
at Grcttysburg ere this. I know you will appreciate his contribution 
to these exercises. 

While this dedication immediately concerns Pennsylvania and 
New York, nevertheless, now, as always, there is glory enough in 
Grettysburg — even in that part of it at which Longstreet*s assault 
was directed -— to go all round; and a good share of that glory has 
fallen to Vermont. Three of Stannard's Vermont regiments — the 
Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Sixteenth — with 6ates*s Demi-brigade 
— the Eightieth New York and One hundred and fif ty*first Pennsyl- 
vania (both brigades belonging to Doubleday's Division) — gave 
battle to Kemper's regiments as they manoeuvred to tiie clump of 
trees, and together did most effective work at the final encounter. I 
mention this because a gentleman from Vermont, General Theodore 
S. Peck, is going to address you in behalf of his State. Grcneral Peck 
when the war commenced joined the First Vermont Cavalry, from 
which he was promoted to a lieutenancy in the Ninth Vermont Infan- 
try, and he served with such gallantly that he was awarded a gold 
medal of honor by the United States government. Grcneral Peck was 
a life long friend of General Webb and an ardent admirer of his. 

How often on this battlefield have visitors not of veteran years 
found pleasant reminiscence in the thought that they had a relative 
or a father who contributed his share of good work here during those 
memorable days of July, 1868. This I know to be a fact in the case 
of a distinguished gentleman by whose presense we are especially 
honored to-day. His father, however, though at Grettysburg was 
not there as a soldier, but, as has been well said, ^ Peace hath her 
victories no less renowned than war.** Though seldiHn talked of 
nowadays, the after scenes at Gettysburg, just as the combat was 
ofvcTf art not yet forgotten, and tliey never eould be by ukyont who 

45 



BlcIan^er Stewart TtOebb 

witnessed them. All around lay the victims of the fray for whom 
there was nothing more left in this world but a soldier's grave, and 
soldier sacrifice to remember. All the men that could be spared were 
aiding the doctors and bringing the helpless of both armies to the 
hospitals improvised for the occasion; and, oh! it was piteous hear 
those poor fellows groaning and to think of their agonies — a large 
number of them beyond aid and dying by the score. It did not take 
long for the news of the battle to be talked of far and near, and, 
without losing a moment, from the North and East, and every direc- 
tion, came angels in human form — angels clothed in male and female 
attire — brethren and sisters of the Christian Mission and members 
of the Sanitary Commission, all zealously and untiringly engaged in 
the benevolent work of rendering what relief they could to the 
wounded and consolation to the dying. And among those heroes and 
heroines of peace and ministers of compassion who hastened to that 
after scene, intent on corporal and spiritual works of mercy, was a 
young clergyman from Boston, the Reverend John Seymour ^\Tiit- 
man, the father of His Excellency, Charles Seymour Whitman, 
Gk)vemor of New York. 

Not all of you, probably, have heard Governor Whitman before, 
but you have all often heard of him, as you often will again, too, I 
have not the least doubt. New York, as to its attitude regarding 
other States, is sometimes accused of being provincial, but in the past, 
as I hope it will also be in the future, governors of New York have 
frequently been identified with possibilities in national affairs by no 
means provincial. I know that Governor Whitman is not going to 
include in his remarks a short account of his stewardship as chief 
magistrate of the Empire State. That is entirely unnecessary, for 
his administration speaks for itself, and speaks laudably too. Prior 
to assuming honors and responsibilities gubernatorial. Governor 
Whitman was engaged, in the capacity of district attorney, in conduct- 
ing a campaign against lawlessness and unearthing dangerous con- 
spiracies, in New York City, and his great success in that work has 
earned for him gratitude. He showed then that he was not the man 
to be deterred by any consideration from carrying out his resolution, 
that the law should take its course and that crime — heinous crime — 
should not remain unpunished and shovdd be forcefully discouraged. 

I now take great pleasure in introducing to you Governor Whit- 
man of New York. 

4C 



1 ..E\V v\ -i 



HIS CXCELUNCV CHARLU «. WHITMAN, QOVCRNOII 



B^^re00 b^ Oovemor Cbarles $». TUnbftman 



Ladies and Gentlemen : 

THIS place of many monuments erected by the Federal govern- 
ment, by States and by military organizations, represents, 
as perhaps no other field in the world represents, the effort 
of the living to glorify a Nation's heroes and forever to perpetuate 
iheir memory. 

Time was when the very word " Gettysburg " stood for all that 
was terrible in war. The horrible combat here waged cast a shadow 
over thousands of American households, which the long years have 
slowly dispelled. 

All the misunderstanding, the enmities created, the rancor and 
bitterness engendered, indeed all that was evil and wrong during the 
most imhappy years of our National life — all is forgotten now. The 
splendid heroism, the firmness for the right, as God gave them to 
see the right, the faithfulness unto death — these qualities character- 
ized both armies — the Blue and the Gray. The record is the common 
heritage of a united American people and never can be forgotten. 

These wonderfvd hills and valleys, precious to the Nation, are 
becoming of ever increasing interest and value to our people as the 
years go by, as monument and tablet in bronze and in stone, telling 
the story of heroic deeds and heroic lives, perpetuating memories, not 
of a brutal conflict but of noble self sacrifice and devotion, fittingly 
mark historic spots on this " The Nation's Holy Ground." 

New York has erected many monuments here — over a himdred, 
so I am told — and they testify to the prowess and the patriotism of 
those whom she sent to battle and to death that the nation might live. 
In no other battle of the war were so many of the troops engaged 
drawn from the Empire State, and nowhere else in the North were 
so many homes made desolate or so many called upon to mourn the 
loss of the dearest and the best, as a result of the three days' conflict 
here waged. 

We come to-day to unveil a stately figure, cast in bronze, per- 
petuating, so far as the skilful sculptor can, the form and features 
of a great soldier and a great and good man. 

47 



HIezanber Stewart Wcbl) 

Two states share in the glory of achievement with which General 
Webb's name will be forever associated here. For although he was 
a son of New York, the brigade which he commanded was composed 
of Philadelphia regiments. The men who beat back the charging 
hosts of the enemy at the Angle were sons of Pennsylvania, and the 
survivors of those regiments, the Sixty-ninth, Seventy-first, Seventy- 
second and One hundred and sixth, who are here to-day, honor us 
and our State by their presence and by their devotion to the memory 
of their old commander. 

Great in war, his service to the State was no less real and no less 
distinguished in time of peace. 

Thousands of young men, even many in middle life, in New York, 
will hardly recognize in the stem, set face and heroic figure, clad in 
the miiform of Imajor general, his right hand firmly dashing the 
sword-hilt, the dignified, kindly, scholarly instructor, who for so many 
years was the president of the College of the City of New York, who, 
with his splendid qualities of mind and heart, impressed his wonderful 
personality upon a great number of our citizens, graduates of that 
institution, in whose lives and in whose hearts he lives and ever will 
live. 

General Webb was the son of a soldier and the grandson of a 
soldier. His grandfather was wounded in the battle of Bunker Hill. 
Against a savage foe on our then Western frontier, his father defended 
the Flag and the liberty, the civilization and the enlightenment which 
the Flag embodies and represents. 

He was true to his inheritance, loyal to the country's traditions 
and institutions. He realized the value of all that the Nation and the 
Flag stood for. He recognized the peril to both, and he came to their 
defense without hesitation and without thought of personal danger, 
as did the hosts who followed him. 

The noble qualities which he possessed were in no sense unusual. 
The capacity for the most heroic eflfort displayed by all in this terrible 
conflict glorified the American name and is the common heritage of 
the American people. 

I am not one of those who believe that the qualities of patriotism 
and heroism have departed from the youth of our land. The splendid 
traits of the noble character, to which we here do honor, are possessed 
to-day by the young men of the Nation, North and South and East 
and West. 

4S 



Bleianber Stewart WcJ)Jj 

We honor ourselves when we do honor to the heroes of the past. 

Gettysburg has offered for the emulation of succeeding generations 
many a shining example of all that is highest and best in American 
manhood. Among them all there is no name more worthy of remem- 
brance than that of the man whose loyalty and patriotism never 
wavered during all the darkest hours of the Nation's life, whose 
steadfast and imtiring devotion to duty as a soldier and a citizen 
ceased only with his death, the man whom the State of New York is 
proud to own as her son, in whose honor to-day she gives this statue 
to Gettysburg and to the Nation. 



49 



Oration b^ General 3amed Wi. Xatta^ of pennai^lvania 

n9tb pa. tt)ol0.; B^dtotant BMutanti^BencraU Cbir^ JStida5e, f fret 'BMBiotif Sinb 
Cotpd, anD later ot fourtb Df vision Cava Iris Corps, AfUtans WviBUm 

of tbe Aiddiesippi 



COMMISSIONEBS, COMBADES, FkIENDS: 

SOMEWHERE it has been said that there are two kinds of 
public speakers — those who come with a long message, and 
others who come with a long memory, I hope not to weary 
you with the matter of the message, nor tire you with its length, 
but the memory — my memory — will be long, ever long in its 
cherished recollections of this place of undeserved prominence to which 
your invitation has so generously assigned me in these proceedings. 

" Wars are wars of creed or wars of greed." Under which does the 
present war fall? was the postulate recently assumed by a magazine 
writer of some repute. He did not attempt to sustain his postulate, 
nor seem even satisfactorily to give answer to his interrogatory. 
Possibly in the self-imposed limitation of his assumption he rendered 
his interrogatory the less susceptible of categorical disposition. In 
our military nomenclature there is no place fop the phrase. 

Religious warfare disappeared in the long ago. By those out of 
touch with the much alleged aggressor in this big world's war, it would 
emphatically be declared to be a war of greed. Religion, however, 
has its place everywhere throughout these war-ridden lands, and 
though the participants are of discordant and different creeds, and 
divers professions, all worship the same God, the God of revelation, 
the God who some day must bring them all to judgment. " The 
judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether." 

But in the minds of those who have had some share in war's 
actualities, this war can scarcely be recognized as an old acquaintance. 
Decimation, destruction, annihilation, follow so closely in its path 
that a new word must be found to give it distinctive definition. 
General engagement, skirmish, affair at arms, the camp, the march, 
the bivouac have but scant recognition. Siege, blockade, traverse, 

50 



aieianber Stewart Me&l) 

salient, still serve a purpose, while the trench, said when properly 
defended to be irreducible, is given a new and conspicuous recognition. 
All names are now shadows, for the romance of great leaders, the 
magic of personal combat, has long vanished out of this war, which 
has resolved itself into " a slow grinding of anonymous masses against 
each other." The battle, murder, and sudden death from which the 
Litany prays deliverance, though still maintaining its full and intended 
significance, should now be modernized to be of essential import and 
peculiarly adaptable to present conditions, when an explosive from 
a forty-two centimetre announces its unwelcome presence. The 
monotonous detail in the East Indies in the whilom davs, with neither 
promotion to encourage energy, nor duty to stimulate activity, 
prompted the British officers to frequent repetitions of the impious 
supplication, " Oh! for a bloody war or a sickly season." The long 
delayed answer to the impious prayer of the ancestor has f oimd puni- 
tive response to his progeny of a later generation. 

The romance of the fight is out of it, the poetry of the charge has 
lost its rhythm ; the clang of the sabre and ring of the molineaux is a 
lesson of the past ; the rapid fire gun sounds an impending doom for 
the hitherto indispensable infantry; the long range cannon and the 
high explosives make the battlefield a holocaust and the trench a sepul- 
chre; the shout, the cheer, the defiance are hushed in the avirful 
slaughter in the moment of the deadly impact. All the blessed 
memories of a storied past are suppressed for the time in the conduct 
of this " bludgeon war ", with which the European nations impair the 
promise, hinder the progress and still the activities that greeted the 
opening years of this splendid twentieth century civilization. 

But this war of ours, this w;ar of which some still remain, as living 
exponents of what is was, how it was, and who fought it, was a war 
of neither creed or greed, neither conquest nor subjugation, it was a 
war to determine whether a free, liberty-loving representative 
democracy shoiild be nationalized or denationalized, whether its free, 
liberty-giving piu*pose and principle should be for all peoples — all 
creeds, all faiths, regardless of color, condition, or servitude — or 
whether the Caucasian alone should be the full participant of its bless- 
ings and its benefits. Here, here on this field was the issue decisively 
determined, and here with its Marathon on Roimd Top, and its Ther- 
mopylae at the Angle, will Gettysburg — great Gettysburg — be 
and remain forever immortal as the ages. 

51 



Blcxan^er Stewart MctJ) 

The Empire State and the Keystone State united to save the 
nation, in the forum and on the battlefield, both in the State of 
Pennsylvania, on two occasions — critical periods in our country's 
history. James Wilson, of Pennsylvania, a leader at the bar, eminent 
on the bench, was a strenuous and potential factor in framing the 
Constitution of the United States, adopted in September 1787 by the 
Convention at Philadelphia. Alexander Hamilton, of New York, 
deserted by his colleagues, who had returned to New York to defeat 
its ratification, still remained a dominant force in the Convention. 
Anxious moments, serious thoughts, followed the strenuously con- 
ducted campaign against ratification. Hamilton with his ^* masterful 
power of exposition and persuasion " in the end brought his campaign 
to a successful issue and by a narrow margin New York cast her vote 
for adoption. 

And the other occasion was on this decisive battlefield, at three 
o'clock on the afternoon of the third day of July, 1868. Here on this 
spot, where was the ** stress and strain " of the conflict, here where the 
enemy fought tenaciously to drive in his " fiery wedge." Here met 
by Alexander Stewart Webb, of New York, with Owen's Philadelphia 
Brigade — the Second Brigade — of the Second Division, of the 
Second Corps — Pennsylvanians all — he was driven back routed, 
defeated, discomfited, and American democracy, with all its vast and 
comprehensive meaning, was re-assured of that perpetuity for which 
the " founders " had given in preamble and text of their Constitution 
their written guarantee. 

The great Alexander sighed for more worlds to conquer. The 
" two " Alexanders were content, each in his day and generation, and 
in his sphere, with the opportunity that had been given them to con- 
tribute so substantially to the making of the one great world power, 
that no seceder from within can dissever, nor foe from without disturb. 

Alexander Stewart Webb — soldier, scholar, sage I His standing 
in his classes through his cadetship, his after achievements in the field, 
his higher scholarly acquisitions, ultimately brought the promise of 
his early years to a full fruition, in the military honors he secured and 
the masterful leadership conceded him in the educational world. 

Rarely has the presence of a general officer been ever so distinc- 
tively marked in a common concensus of commendation, in book, 
pamphlet, or official report, as an indispensable personality, as has 

52 



n 

Si 

o 1 



I; 1 " 
PU£' : JC 



T Vx/ 



■T" 



Blexan^er Stewart TRIlel>l> 

been that of Greneral Alexander S. Webb on the battlefield of Gettys- 
burg at the moment of the deadly impact. 

Comte de Paris says : " Owen's Brigade, commanded by General 
Webb, is on the right of the Angle. The shock is terrific; first it 
falls upon the brigades of Hall and Harrow, then concentrates upon 
that of Webb against which the assailants are oscillating right and 
left. The latter general in the midst of his soldiers encourages them 
by his example." 

And this from a participant from what he saw: " Webb's men are 
falling fast and he was among them to direct and encourage." 

And from Banes' History of the Philadelphia Brigade: *^ Greneral 
Webb won the esteem of his soldiers for his skilful management and 
for the extraordinary coolness he displayed in the midst of danger." 

Gibbon in his official report says : " The repulse of the assault 
was most gallant, and I desire to call attention to the great gallantry 
and conspicuous qualities displayed by General Webb and Colonel 
Hall. Their services were invaluable, and it is safe to say that without 
their presence the enemy would have succeeded in gaining a foothold 
at that point." 

And Hancock follows : " They were by the personal bravery of 
General Webb and his officers immediately formed behind the crest. 
♦ * ♦ Brig. Gen. Webb and Colonel R. Penn Smith performed 
in like manner most distinguished services in leading their men 
forward at a critical moment of the combat." 

And then as if to strengthen and confirm with proper sequence 
and with concurrence of the highest authority, the Congress awarded 
to General Webb its medal of honor '' for distinguished personal 
gallantry at the battle of Gettysburg." 

Webb was graduated from the West Point Military Academy in 
the dass of 1855. Who were his classmates? And what has history 
to say of them? With his own, the names of many of his fellows were 
at one time as familiar to the country as are those of men prominent 
in the nation's life to-day. 

Cyrus B. Comstock never lost first place in all his classes as he 
passed through the Academy, as he never lost first place in the trust 
and confidence of both Grant and Sherman in the delicate and 
responsible duties he was called upon to perform in his services upon 
their respective staffs. 

5S 



Bleianbcr Stewart TRIIebb 

Greorge D. Ruggles and Samuel Breck rose to the head of their 
department; each in turn was The Adjutant Greneral of the Army. 

Alfred T. A. Torbert commanded the cavalry corps of the Army 
of Potomac and won name and fame for himself and his corps. 

Godfrey Weitzel, who was Xo. 2, commanded the Twenty-lSfth 
Army Corps. 

William W. Averill was a famous general officer of the cavalry 
arm of the service. 

William B. Hazen with his capture of Fort MacAllister made the 
fall of Savannah inevitable, and thus permitted Sherman to conclude 
his march to the sea with its occupancy, on December 25tht and send 
it with his greeting as his Christmas gift to the nation. 

And then these dedication services not only tend to give a true 
historic value to a singular coincidence, but as well to bring into 
distinctive prominence another significant battlefield toudi of the 
Keystone and Empire States. 

While Webb was sending the enemy back from the Angle, routed, 
defeated, discomfited, David McMurtrie Gregg, of Pennsylvania, his 
fellow classmate, with his cavalry command was making like summary 
disposition of Stuart at Rummel's Farm. Gregg was a leader in his 
profession of arms, a masterful spuit in the trade of war, the faithful 
public servant, the exemplary citizen, the truly Christian man. 

These troops of Webb were seasoned soldiers all of them. Not 
only were they all from the same State, but they were all from the 
same city. State brigade organizations were familiar — notably the 
Vermont Brigade, the New Jersey Brigade, the Michigan Brigade; 
but Philadelphia has alone carried its City designation. Sickles' 
Excelsior Brigade, of New York, probably came nearest to it in this 
respect. Made up of Owen*s Sixty-ninth, Baker's Seventy-first, 
Baxter's Seventy-second and Morehead's One hundred and sixth 
Pennsylvania, it was known successively and it never lost its City 
identity through all its change of commanders — as Bums', Owen's, 
Webb's — Philadelphia Brigade always, at all times, and on all 
occasions — tested, tried and true. 

The brigade was originally the conception of former residents of 
the Pacific Coast, who, desirous that California should have its repre- 
sentation with the Eastern troops, secured the authority of the War 
Department to raise a brigade, which eventuated in the recruitment 
and muster of the Seventy-first Pennsylvania — first known as the 

54 



Hleian^er Stewart Webb 

California Regiment. Edward D. Baker^ the distinguished senator 
from the State of Oregon, was made its colonel, and Isaac J. Wistar, 
of Philadelphia, its lieutenant colonel; the three other Pennsylvania 
regiments assigned to it completed its organization. Colonel Baker 
was killed at Ball's Bluff, October 21, 1861. Colonel Wistar suc- 
ceeded him, and Pennsylvania now claiming its own, as is so quaintly 
said by Frank H. Taylor, author of the official history, '' Philadelphia 
in the Civil War." " These four so called California regiments were 
destined to win honor and glory as the Philadelphia Brigade." 

The Second Corps was a famous corps for fight — for its fighting 
qualities — its fighting generals. It could administer punishment and 
receive punishment with equal aptitude. It gave it and took it with 
like stolidity. What it gave was more than what it had to take. 
Sumner, Couch, Hancock, Humphreys. No military association ever 
grouped so forcefully, courage, capacity, valor, achievement. Not a 
blemish to mar the splendor of its memories, nor cloud to darken the 
brightness of its recollections. 

Recalled after so many years, when this group had seemingly 
passed out of mind, there comes a touch of self reproach that such 
forgetfulness has been permitted. " But the greatest of these (is) 
was " you cannot answer, you won't answer, the more you press for 
an answer the more reluctance there is to give it. Sumner so intense 
to every sense of responsibility and with all his years, so eager for 
the field. His two sons have attained the same high rank as the 
father — a most unusual happening — but true to manhood as they 
are, they will never be their father; Couch, the intrepid, as he threw 
brigade after brigade against the impossible at Fredericksburg. 
Besides the reverence and respect in which his soldiers held him, his 
home State, Massachusetts, honored him with responsible official pre- 
ferment. " Hancock was superb ", as McClellan had styled him at 
Williamsburg. He did not like the word, but he could not help it; 
everybody else did and it was true in the highest conception of its 
meaning. Walker in his " History of the Second Corps," says of 
him when he left the corps finally, as if he were writing at the very 
moment of the happening of the event and was still of his military 
family — so impressively is it said — " Hancock left the Second Corps 
* forever * ". He must pass to the realm of the reader and the student, 
for the world will never know him as his soldiers did, and they are 
nearly all gone. Humphreys, so profound as a scholar, so thorough 

55 



Bleian^er Stewart TKOebi) 

a soldier. Humphreys at Fredericksburg, Humphreys at Gettys- 
hbrg; Meade, of a scientific bent himself, when he found the scholar 
ana the soldier assimilate so well as they did with Humphreys and 
wit^Webb sought them out to do him special service. So when 
Humjphreys went from chief of staff to command the Second Corps, 
WebbVwas chosen to succeed him. " But the greatest of these was " 
you carniot answer, you won't answer, you may know, you may think 
or belieVe you know, but you have too much love for each and all 
and everyone of them to disclose or reveal your conviction. Pardon 
this appatent digression. The moment was too auspicious to be lost. 

It was\of this distinctive gathering, this Second Corps combina- 
tion, that the Philadelphia Brigade was a conspicuous unit. York- 
town, Fair\Oaks, the Peninsula, The Seven Days' Fight, Pope's 
Campaign, \ Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville — march, 
bivouac, camp, fatigue, exposure, disease, wounds, death, disaster, 
defeat, triumph and victory. It was through and after all this genuine 
service that the brigade came to the fateful day — fortuitous is better 
— in the early July days of '68, to its own home State, to find itself 
again affront its old antagonist, the Army of Northern Virginia — 
there to do battle once more — this time decisively, on what is now 
the far-famed field of Gettysburg. 

Eanglake, when his " Crimean War " was in course of preparation 
is said to have interviewed such of its survivors as he could con- 
veniently reach. Its thoroughness, especially in the two volumes of 
Balaclava and " That Inkerman Sunday," quite conclusively show 
that he did. The work is replete with expressions that could only 
come from the living witness. A notable illustration is Cardigan's 
'' damn that Nolan." So incensed was he that a staff officer should 
with his " there is your enemy," pointing to a new direction, attempt 
to thus confuse his movement, that he continued to repeat his denun- 
ciation all the way down the valley. And another was Lord George 
Percy's awful implication, as he first saw Cardigan when he rode 
out of the fight, whom he had not happened to see in it. '^ My Grod, 
Cardigan, where were you? " If Gettysburg's already voluminous 
literature — valuable as it is — had received like treatment its pro- 
portions would be scarce conceivable. 

And yet with all this Gettysburg literature, complete as it is — 
and there will always be more or less contribution yet to come — there 
still seems something wanting. With all the well-deserved prominence 

56 



PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOR, LENOX 

TILJXEN rOUNBUPIONS 

■tW.r. ■ 



! 



BleIan^er Stewart Wcb'b 

given fhe valor of those who made the charge, a like prominence has 
not been as freely accorded those who received it. The soldier is 
coming to the fore again, in this season of purposeful preparedness ; 
it is wise to preserve the past, as well with a rigorous accuracy as with 
an appreciative recognition. 

The designation, " Pickett*s Charge," seems to leave naught else 
for appreciation but Pickett's men. To the distant observer, there 
seems to be more of the pomp and pageantry and trump of war in 
a column moving forward to strike a foe, appreciably sustained by 
its own enthusiasm, than there is in the knitted brow, the hard-set 
countenance, the hushed voice, the watchful eager eye of those whom 
this steadily advancing foe is about to strike. Nerve, endurance, 
determination alone sustain the one, while the quick movement, the 
rapid stride, urgent appeal, stirring speech of officer, field and line, 
so largely tend to help, encoiu*age and sustain the other. Casualties 
left behind as a column passes on have not the depressing effect of the 
casualty that remains while the engagement continues. 

Discipline has been epitomized '' as the endiu^ance of loss under 
fire." A few excerpts from the History of the Second Army Corps 
by General Francis A. Walker, so eminent as a scholar, so reliable as 
an authority, show, through an orderly sequence, the intensity of the 
moment, with equal recognition of the efficiency and valor of friend 
and foe alike. An attempt to break an enemy's centre was never 
viewed with favor. The excerpts follow: 

'*One Confederate division remained unbreathed. This was the division of 
Pickett, comprising the brigades of Gamett, Kemper and Armistead — in all fifteen 
Virginia regiments — the very flower of the Southern chivalry. This was justly 
the most distinguished of that splendid armj for discipline and valor/' 

" Upon the Sixtj-ninth and Seventy-first Pennsylvania of Webb's Brigade^ posted 
on the low stone wall^ falls the full force of Longstreet's mighty blow." 

"Like leaves in the autumn gale, the Philadelphians drop along the line." 

*' And now the collision for which these thousands of Confederates have crossed 
the bloody plain and for which those soldiers of the Union have watched through 
all that anxious time comes with a crash and clamor that might well appall the 
stoutest heart" 

" It must be evident, even to one who knows nothing of war, that such a strain 
as this could not long continue, something must give way under such a pressure. 
If one side will not the other must, if not at one point then at another. The 
time has come to advance the standards of the Second Corps. With loud cries 
and a sudden forward surge, in which every semblance of formation is lost the 
Union troops now move upon the faltering foe. One moment more and all is over." 

57 



Blezan^er Stewart Webb 

Every battlefield has it gems and treasures that brighten with a 
new lustre as time goes on, Gettysburg with its great treasure house 
full to repletion tenders a contribution from its Second Corps jewel 
case. 

As the sun was within a couple of hours of its daylight limit on 
that sweltering second day, off yonder near where the Third Corps 
had fought so hard, the One hundred and sixth, Lieut.-Colonel Curry 
in command, with other troops of the brigade, perceiving that volley 
after volley had checked the enemy's advance and set his lines to 
wavering, " fixed its bayonets in the presence of the fleeing foe " and 
still so pressed the charge that the enemy retiring in much confusion, 
to his original lines, a confusion that was indeed so far a rout that 
the colonel, major, five captains, fifteen lieutenants and two hundred 
of the men of the Forty-eighth Georgia were captured on the way. 

And again the contribution runs of the Sixty-ninth, with O'Kane 
and Tschudy gone and Duffy severely wounded, directing to the end 
— a regiment " that always stayed where it was put." It is isolated 
for the moment with the enemy in its rear, nothing but its "' shouts 
and shots " indicates just where it is as the ** terrific shock " intensifies. 
With its heavy casualty score of fifty-four per cent, it won its place 
that day with its other days of fight, among the Three Hundred 
Fighting regiments, three of the field, twelve of the line, one hundred 
and twenty-four of the men, clubbed muskets, a crushed skull, personal 
encounters. 

And another relic from the treastire house tells of how the Seventy- 
second — its place about the hottest, where the " fiery wedge " hit 
hardest — fighting " steadily and persistently ", with Baxter sorely 
wounded the day before — when with the One hundred and sixth it 
had then pursued the enemy so vigorously that many of them throwing 
down their arms cried out with oaths, "' Let us out of this, it is too 
hot *' — and Hesser in command, Armistead mortally wounded, right 
beside the colors. With casualties the heaviest numerically and per- 
centage score of forty-four per cent., that with its other losses on 
other fields won for it also a place with the three hundred fighting 
regiments out of the two thousand that made up the aggregate of 
the Union Army. 

And with these jeweled treasures, the Seventy-first too had its 
gem-like place, not alone for holding its position while the enemy was 
still in its rear, and other eminently distinctive instances of valor, 

^8 



HleIan^er Stewart Webb 

but also for the official recognition that came to Colonel Smith by 
the corps commander '* for most distinguished services in leading his 
men forward at a critical moment " and as well also from Grcneral 
Webb for making, as he said, '" such important disposition of two of 
his companies at a moment of imminent peril in the action as showed 
him to be the possessor of true military intelligence on the field." 
With casualties of twenty-four per cent, and many another heavier 
loss on other fields, the noble three hundred fighting regiments 
claimed the Seventy-first for their own and there it has its place 
to-day. 

Mine Run, the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, Peters- 
burg, were yet to follow, until July 20, 1864, when the Seventy-first 
and Seventy-second, honorably mustered out by expiration of term, 
the Sixty-ninth veteranized and the One hundred and sixth reduced 
to a battalion, the Philadelphia Brigade, its perpetuity assured with 
the distinction it had won, ceased to be forever. 



50 



Bt Oetti^sbttrg in 1913 

Ms eenettl Moratfo C* Ictnd 



MY mind reverts first to the wonderful reunion held in 1918, 
where the men who confronted each other in battle met here 
to celebrate a restored Union. One of the number and my 
friend of many years, Capt. John H. Leathers, a Confederate, was 
with them. He was in Johnson's Division, at Gulp's Hill, and was 
wounded in this battle. On his return I was tempted to a bit of 
rhythm, which I will present now before giving my poem on Gettys* 
burg. I feel that it will touch the hearts of my old comrades* 

WeVe tramped the famous battlefield 

Where fifty jears ago 
The Boys in Blue and Boys in Gray 

Were met as deadly foe ; 
The son was piping hot, dear John, 

With some their steps were slow. 
But fierce the beat and swift the feet 

Some fifty years ago. 

We climbed the Little Round Top, John, 

And panted up Gulp's HiU, 
Then back to War's High Water Mark 

Where Cowan's guns are still. 
That tore the columns thro and thro. 

Ah, John, how well you know. 
For you were in that awful fight. 

Some fifty years ago. 

Six hundred monuments to-day 

Bedeck that sacred field. 
And erery foot of that rich soil 

Its tales of Talor yield; 
Full fifty thousand valiant men 

Poured out their blood, you know; 
It was, dear John, a gruesome sight 

Some fifty years ago. 

60 



aiexan^er Stewart WcJab 

But now, dear John, throughout the land 

The voice of peace is heard, 
V^liile North and South in sweet accord 

Repeat the joyful word; 
The gulf is bridged, the hatchet lost, 

But still through memories flow 
The deeds that thrilled the world, dear John, 

Some fifty years ago. 

Gettysburg has been immortalized in song and story and my own contribution 
is presented with becoming modesty. 



GETTYSBURG 

By General Horatio G* King 

Fair was the sight that peaceful July day 
And sweet the air with scent of new mown hay. 
And Gettysburg's devoted plain serene 
Resplendent shone with wares of emerald green. 

The western heights, where close embowered stood 
The sacred shrine, near hidden in the wood. 
Recked not of war, but echoed with the tread 
Of God's meek messengers of peace, who led 
The thoughts from earthly things to things above. 
And taught the wayward heart that God is love; 
While far across wide fields of golden grain 
Another ridge uprose from out the plain; 
And in its bosom, freed from earthly woes. 
The dead of ages lie in calm repose. 

Two bloody days across the stricken field, 
Two angry hordes in ghastly combat reeled; 
And welcome night its dusky mantle threw 
In pitying love to hide the scene from view. 

Again the bu^e with its piercing call 
Awoke the soldier from deep slumber's thrall; 
With anxious waiting, nerved by conscious power, 
All stood impatient through the morning hour. 
Till from the throats of every shotted gun 
The smoke of hell obscured the biasing sun; 
Then silence deep, and every soldier knew 
The charge was near, and tight his buckle drew: 

01 



i 



Blexan^cr Stewart WeDD 

Lo! from their midst a stem command; and then 
The quick advance of twenty thousand men; 
A solid line of veterans clad in gray. 
With iron nerves and earnest for the fray. 

In thought a new-bom nation rose to sights 
With " stars and bars *' unfurled in glorious light. 
On^ on they came, nor faltered in their tread. 
Each man a hero — giants at their head. 
We stood amazed at courage so sublime. 
No braver record on the page of time. 

With bristling bayonets glistening in the sun. 
The stubborn ranks, inspired by victories won. 
Pressed grimly on, unmindful of the storm 
Of shot and shell that felled full many a form; 
The maddened roar of angry cannon massed 
Rocked the red field as if an earthquake passed. 



Still on they come; the gaps they quickly close; 
*' Now steady, men ! '* and from our ranks there rose 
A mighty cry, -and thick the leaden hail 
Fell on the wavering lines. " See ! now they quail ! '' 
** Strike ! strike ! for freedom and your native land ! " 
And bayonets clashed in conflicts hand to hand! 
Oh, fierce the stmggle; but they break! they fly! 
And God to freedom gives the victory. 

Here on this consecrated spot 

Where fiery courage filled the air. 
When dead and dying ghastly lie 

And brave men fought with grim despair; 
Here gallant Webb led on his men 

To meet the bold and reckless foe 
And drove them back; and on his brow 

The crown of victory bestow. 



62 



t:;;; izv-r york 
PUB 'C FBRARY 



A^TO'\ LCNOX 
TTLDr;. : -i^DATIONS 



H^^re00 b^ Colond Bn^rew Cowan 

#of met daptain of tbe ytc^t mew Hotk f ndcpcndeut JSattetii at 0etti20btit0, an^ 

ComtnanDer ot tbe BrtiUetii JSrlaabe ot tbc Sixth ffori^ 



CoMBADES, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

WE have heard an eloquent and inspiring oration from Governor 
Whitman of the Empire State, and a beautiful tribute by 
Colonel Stegman to the Governor's reverend father, who 
ministered unto our sick and wounded in the hospitals and on battle* 
fields, as an angel from the Christian Commission, 

We have heard the fine oration of your beloved and distinguished 
comrade. General James W. Latta, of Philadelphia, and the stirring 
verses of General Horatio C. King, of Sheridan's Cavalry. So 
having heard from two of the infantry and one of the cavalry, the 
New York Monuments Commission expects me to speak for the 
light artillery. The cheers you gave so heartily for the First New 
York Battery, and again for its captain on that memorable day 
more than fifty years ago, affected me deeply. 

Colonel Stegman, Chairman of the New York Monuments Com- 
mission, wrote me that I would be expected to say something to-day, 
and that a chair would be provided for me to speak from, for he had 
learned that I was crippled, as you see me, by reason of infection of 
an old wound, which woke up again over a year ago. When asked 
here: '* Colonel, what is the matter, rheumatism?" I answered: 
"" No, kicked by a mule. I am from Kentucky." 

I replied to Colonel Stegman that I should prefer to be used as 
an exhibit only, but I could not decline an honor so kindly meant. 

Until I received a copy of the printed programme of exercises 
last Saturday, which has me down for an "" Address ", I had expected 
to speak in an off-hand way about the fight here in the Angle, where 
the Philadelphia Brigade, of four veteran regiments, numbering less 
than fifteen hundred men, lay behind that low stone wall, which was 
the only breastworks, here where the soil was too thin to build an 
earth-work as high as our shoetops. You will remember that the 
Philadelphia Brigade invited Pickett Camp, U. C. V., to meet them 



Hleian^er Stewart TKOel)!) 

here on the twenty-fourth anniversary of the battle, and that the 
First New York Battery Association, being here for the dedication 
of the Battery's monument — escorted by Capt. Will Kirby's hand« 
some militia company and a splendid band, from Auburn, N. Y. — 
joined with you in cordially greeting the Confederates in the town 
square, when they arrived and in shaking hands ** across the wall " 
here in the Angle the following day. 

Colonel Bachelder and I, while standing in this Angle that day, 
heard an officer telling a group of his comrades in gray about the 
fight. He said : " After we had carried two strong lines of breast- 
works, we came to a fort, about where we are standing. My horse 
was killed and fell with me into the ditch of the fort, but in some 
way, which I cannot recall, I scrambled up the slope and got inside, 
where the Yankees took me prisoner.*' I told that officer, when I 
was introduced to him later in the day, that there were no breastworks 
nor any fort here. He rode out from town with me and became 
convinced that the low wall, just about as you see it now, was the 
only protection that the Philadelphia Brigade had. He knew, as 
every soldier does, that breastworks and a fort could not be built 
where there was so little earth. 

Here, at the right of a large copse of small scrub oaks, of which 
yonder umbreUa-shaped clump of trees is the remnant, was Cushing's 
United States Battery and one gun of Cowan's First New York 
Battery, and at the immediate left of the copse were the other five 
guns of my battery, from the time the enemy, fifteen thousand strong, 
began to advance from the trees that lined Seminary Ridge, about 
a mile away, under the fire of more than a hundred cannon, from 
the Cemetery at our right to the Little Round Top on the left. 
The artillery front was about where Hancock Avenue is now. 
Battery caissons were conveniently parked to the rear for safety. 

The repulse of Pickett's Virginians was your part in the panoramic 
battle of July 8rd, 1868, which defeated General Lee's hopes of 
breaking the center of Meade's Army and forcing its retreat. 

You may ask how a battery of the Sixth Corps had the good 
fortune to be with your Second Corps at that critical time. Your 
patience would be taxed if I began my story with our arrival at 
Rock Creek on the Baltimore Pike, at one o'clock p. m. the second 
day. I was ordered, very early on the morning of the 8rd, to report 
with my battery to General John Xewton, near Little Round Top. 

64 



Hlcian^er Stewart WebJj 

He then commanded the First Corps. We got our breakfast and 
rested until a few minutes after the Confederates opened the can- 
nonade, with about one himdred guns, and we replied with about 
one hundred and fifty guns. 

I was then directed to a position behind the extreme right of 
Stannard's Second Vermont Brigade, First Corps, this side of where 
the Pennsylvania monument now stands. The ride from the Taney- 
town Road, at the junction of the granite school house road, under 
that tempest of shot and shell, was thrilling, but the enemy's fire 
was far too high. The position assigned us was farther away from 
the breastworks than that of Pettit's Battery B, First New York 
Light Artillery — conunanded that day by Captain J. McKay 
Rorty — which was the first battery to my right. The battery on 
Rorty's right was Brown's Battery B., First Rhode Island. 

We fired, deliberately, to the left oblique at the enemy's batteries 
along the Emmitsburg Road, until an ofiicer, riding at a run from 
the right toward our left, shouted to me as he passed: ** Cease firing, 
hold your fire for the infantry." We ceased firing, but I wondered 
what he meant by "hold yoiur fire for the infantry." Before the 
smoke which enveloped us was entirely blown away, another o£Scer, 
riding in the same fashion, called to me as he passed : " Report to 
General Webb at the right." I hesitated because I was under 
General Doubleday's orders, directly behind the extreme right of his 
division, with two of the guns overlapping the left of the Second 
Corps. But I saw an ofiicer standing at the copse of trees, waving 
his hat toward me, and I saw that the battery was withdrawing from 
the position at the right of Rorty's guns and left of the trees. The 
officer was General Webb and the battery was Brown's B, First 
Rhode Island, which was out of ammunition. It had been engaged 
in the great battle of the afternoon before, when Lieut. T. Fred. 
Brown, in conmiand, was shot in the neck and fell from his horse 
wounded, between here and the Emmitsburg Road. I instantly gave 
the order : " Limber to the right, forward ! " We wheeled into 
Brown's position at a gallop. Then, at a glance over yonder, I saw 
the enemy's skirmish line advancing from the trees with colors flying. 
I gave the distance and the time for fuses before I saw that one of 
my six guns had passed to the right of the trees in our furious gallop. 
I rode there and found my gun in position for firing, within a few 
yards of the left gun of the battery posted there. An officer came 

65 



Bleian^er Stewart Webb 

limping down to see what was the matter and I recognized him as 
Lieut. Alonzo Gushing, who had been slightly wounded in the thig^, 
probably by a small shrapnel ball. He heard my hurried explanation, 
made some pleasant reply and gave the order to his left gun : ** By 
hand to the front.'* As I saw his gun being pushed down toward 
the wall, making room for mine to fire, I turned away, and saw him 
no more alive. After the fight, when looking for my gun, which had 
disappeared, I saw his dead body lying beside a gun down at the 
wall. A rifle ball had hit him in the mouth, doubtless killing him 
instantly. 

The enemy seemed to be developing three lines — their skirmish 
line with two strong lines following — and were keeping a splendid 
alignment, guiding left. We fired rapidly from our five guns; 
I left the gun at the right take care of itself under acting Sergeant 
Mullaly, a brave soldier. Presently, I saw a body of Confederates 
appear, topping the ridge where Alexander's artillery was in action. 
It was Pickett's Division of Longstreet's Corps, five thousand strong, 
which had only arrived during the previous night, and therefore had 
not been engaged the first or second day. They dressed their lines 
before advancing, and from there they came on steadUy in three lines 
at brigade front. 

I could see them perfectly, for there were no trees then along the 
wall to obstruct the view. The trees on the little knoll over there 
in the front have grown from stumps of small trees that were cut 
down there the second day. As gaps opened in their lines, when men 
fell under our cannon fire, they closed to their left and kept a splendid 
front, as described in my official report. Their direction was oblique, 
and it seemed that they were marching to this copse of trees, as 
indeed they were. The Codori House and bam hid them from my 
sight for a minute, and when I saw them again they were coming 
at a run, without regard to alignment. There was a little elevation, 
covered with bushes as it then seemed to me, just where yonder bunch 
of trees beyond the wall has grown from suckers. A few hundred 
of the Virginians fell down behind that brush-covered knoll and 
opened fire on us. But the large body of them, to their left, rushed 
forward in the direction of the Angle, to our right of the trees. 

General Hunt was on horseback in my battery, and I was stand- 
ing at the left side of his horse, when I opened with canister on the 
crowd lying down. He soon began firing his pistol at those rushing 

66 



Blexan^et Stewart VSUcbb 

oUf exclaiming: *' See *eml See 'em! "» when in a moment his horse 
fell dead mider him. We extricated him and quickly momited him 
on our Sergeant Van Etten's big bay, on which he rode away toward 
the right of the trees, calling over his shoulder to me : " Look out or 
you will kill our men ", meaning our infantry behind the low wall 
in front of my five guns; but I had no thought of firing over their 
heads at such close range. 

Then, in a flash, our infantry behind the wall in front of my guns 
arose and rushed to the right through the trees, for some cause I 
could not see. Quite a number of them ran away through my guns. 
One was a captain, with his sword tucked under his arm, running like a 
turkey. I swore at him as he passed me. But it was a circus to 
hear and see oiu* Corporal Flunkett, swearing like a pirate and 
prancing like a mad buU, striking at the runaways with his fists, until 
I saw L pick up something from the gromid and smash it over 
the head of one of the frightened boys. It was a big tin coffeepot, 
the loot from some Dutch Frau's kitchen. The blow broke in the 
bottom. I can still see that fallow running with the tin pot well 
down over his ears. 

Then the enemy, that had found shelter behind that little rocky 
knoll covered with brush, rushed forward toward our uncovered front. 
I had given the order: ^'Load with double canister '\ just as my 
Lieutenant Wright, standing at my side, fell, shot through the body. 
Young Jake McElroy, No. 2 at the gun near the trees, called to me : 
" Captain, this is our last round '\ and I replied : " I know it, Jake." 
As he stepped outside the wheel he fell, and when we lifted his body, 
after the fight, there were three bullet holes in his face. The five 
guns, double loaded with canister, were ready, their muzzles run down 
to the lowest point, when I saw a young officer, waving his sword, leap 
the wall, followed by a number of men, and heard him shout : '^ Take 
the gun ", meaning our gun closest to the trees. I shouted : "' Fire ! " 
The bronze bas-relief on our battery monument here tells the story 
of that gun. 

Samuel Wilkeson, the great war correspondent with the Army 
of the Potomac, whose son, Lieut. Bayard Wilkeson, was killed the 
first day at Barlow's Knoll, commanding the United States Battery 
there, wrote to the New York Times, describing the " awful " effect 
of the canister from Cowan's guns, and bestowing exaggerated praise 
on our battery. At his request, when he was walking along the line 

67 



Blcian^er Stewart Mcbb 

the same evening before dusk» I escorted him across the wall and 
left him there talking with woimded Confederates. On our left side 
of the wall, Blue and Gray were lying; beyond it, " only the gray 
clad Virginians, immortality their guerdon " ; as I said to my son when 
we were here twenty-three years afterwards. I did not know about 
Mr. Wilkeson's letter until that visit, when I found extracts from it 
in Professor Werts' " Hand Book of Gettysburg Battlefield ", one 
of the first guide books which was published. The entire letter was 
re-published in the New York Times on the fiftieth anniversary of 
it first appearance. We buried that young ofiicer in a separate 
grave, and we buried Captain Rorty, Battery B, First New York 
Light Artillery, in a grave beside him, marking both with cracker 
box head boards. I returned that young officer's sword to a repre- 
sentative of Pickett's Camp, U. C. V., at the dedication of the First 
New York Battery's monument, on the twenty-fourth anniversary. 
I had his belt also, but some one had stolen it before that time. 

Pickett's Division, as I said, came on in three lines, brigade front, 
(yeneral Gamett was killed. General Kemper wounded, and a few of 
them indeed, except the rear brigade, commanded by General 
Armisted, got as far as the wall here in the Angle. General 
Armistead, followed by a hundred or two hundred of his bravest men, 
crossed the wall in the Angle. He fell mortally wounded where the 
granite slab stands. That break was the cause for the left companies 
of the Philadelphia Brigade, in front of my guns, being ordered to 
the right to repel the enemy. Most of our infantry must have retired 
as far as this place, on which Cushing's guns stood when I first came 
up, for I saw the colors of three regiments and an Irish flag, close 
together, surrounded by our men, firing " at will ", as fast as they 
could load. I did not see a panic such as Lieutenant Haskell, of 
Gibbon's staff, described in a letter home, published years after his 
heroic death when leading his regiment at Cold Harbor. Pickett's 
five thousand brave men were repulsed with fearful loss and the 
battle of Gettysburg ended. 

Remember, Comrades of the Philadelphia Brigade, that I have 
only told the story of what I saw while serving with your brigade, 
commanded by that accomplished soldier and gentleman. General 
Alexander S. Webb, whose memory and service this monument, just 
unveiled, fitly commemorates. Others may tell about Hall's and 
Harrow's Brigades, of your division, to the left, whose services on 

6S 



BleIan^er Stewart VIlel>I> 

both days were just as heroic as yours here; also of the assault by 
Stannard's Second Vermont Brigade on Pickett's right flank, south 
and east of the Codori House, which I did not see. 

Your Third Division, commanded by General Alexander Hays, 
held the higher wall from the right of this Angle to Ziegler's Grove 
and beyond. General Hays, in his official report — which I heard 
Major C. A. Richardson read two years ago — describes the advance 
of the enemy from the trees along Seminary Ridge in his front, until 
they came in splendid order to within two or three hundred yards 
of his wall, when, as he relates, his men could be restrained no longer. 
They arose in four ranks and poured such a withering fire upon the 
Confederates that their lines cnmibled, and in a moment they were 
running for their lives. No hostile flags were planted anywhere on 
Hays' wall; no Confederates ever crossed it except as prisoners. 
Here, where General Armistead fell, was the "high-tide" of the 
battle. 

Do not imagine that the Second Corps fought and won the battle 
of Gettysburg, magnificent as was its part and great its losses on 
the two days. I heard General Sickles once say, at a meeting of his 
corps, " the battle of Gettysburg was fought and won the second 
day ", after which I mentioned to him the fierce fight at Culp's Hill, 
all the forenoon of the 8rd, and the desperate and picturesque assault 
of Longstreet's fifteen thousand veterans, to break the centre, on the 
third afternoon. I may even state my opinion now that if the First 
Corps had not fought so well all day on the 1st, and then effected 
a masterly retreat to this ridge, there would have been no second day 
at Grettysburg. 

Walk along Seminary Ridge to its junction with the Mununasburg 
Road, and stand with uncovered heads : yes, you may remove the shoes 
from your feet, like Moses of old, for the place you stand on is holy 
ground. There, in the late afternoon of that day, when the First 
Corps, after fighting against overwhefaning and increasing numbers 
in front and on its right flank, must retreat or be annihilated. 
General Doubleday ordered four small veteran regiments to form 
at right angles to his line and hold their ground at all hazards, until 
the corps had crossed to this ridge. They did it; nothing in this 
battle surpfu$ed their heroism. 

Remember also, the Third Corps, on the second day, late in the 
afternoon, attacked by Longstreet's great divisions, supported by 

69 



BIeIan^ct Stewart Mcl^t 

Anderson's, of Hill's Corps, to smash the salient made by Sickles' 
advance to the commanding gromid along the Emmitsburg Road, 
and bending around to the vicinity of Big Roimd Top. In that 
tremendous contest, lasting until darkness put an end to it, the Third 
Corps fought with desperate valor and sustained fearful losses. Part 
of your corps and part of the Fifth, Sixth and Twelfth went to their 
assistance before the day ended. Over yonder, beyond United States 
Avenue, Captain John Bigelow sacrificed his Ninth Massachusetts 
Battery, to check Barksdale's Mississippians, until Major McGilvery 
had placed more than twenty guns from the Artillery Reserve along 
Trostle's Lane, as a rallying ground for a new line of infantry. 
Bigelow was carried back, seriously wounded. Barksdale's riflemen 
killed eighty of his battery's horses and many of its men. 

Recall also. Little Round Top, which by some oversight was left 
undefended, after Gkary's men marched from there to Culp's Hill. 
General Warren, Meade's chief of engineers, discovered the imminent 
peril and rushed troops and a battery (which fortunately were march- 
ing out the Taneytown Road) up its steep and rocky eastern side to 
the summit, just in time to save the key to the entire battle line. 
The first to gain its top was the One hundred and fortieth New York 
Regiment, led by its splendid West Point Colonel, Paddy O'Rorke, 
who fell dead, almost at the feet of the colonel of the leading Alabama 
regiment, which had nearly climbed to the summit up the rough 
western side of the hill. 

I must not omit mention of the assault upon East Cemetery 
Hill that evening, by Early's Texans and Louisiana "' Tigers," 
driving our men from its foot and winning its summit and two of 
our batteries; only to be repulsed, with slaughter, by our rallied 
infantry aided by the First Division of the Second Corps. Greneral 
Edward Johnson's Division had attacked and had been repulsed by 
Greene's New York Brigade at Culp's Hill, and Johnson had entered 
the breastworks of part of the Twelfth Corps which had been sent to 
the aid of Sickles, and still held them at daylight on the third day. 
It cost a fierce battle, lasting until noon that day, to regain them. 
Hundreds of trees along Culp's Hill were girdled, and died, due to 
the continuous rifle fire there. 

Remember Slocum's Twelfth Corps, along Culp's Hill from the 
right of Wadsworth's Division of the First Corps to McAllister's Hill 
at Rock Creek, the extreme right of the battle line of the army. 

70 



THE r:EW YORK 
PUBLIC LIB PAR Y 

ASTOR. LENOX 



Bleimbcr Mcwart VBkM 

It was oompriaed of two small diviskmc^ oomiiiaiided by General 
Cieary and General Williama, and was confronted by General Edward 
Johnson's Confederate Division, ecxnnianded until after Chanoellors- 
ville by General Stonewall Jackson and believed to be unsurpassed 
by any otiier division of Lee's Army. 

Johnson^s Division included fourteen regiments of Virginians, four 
of Louisianians, two of North Carolinans and a battalion of Mary* 
landers — veterans all — who had never yet known defeat, and all 
fresh, having come up too late to take part in the great battle of the 
first day. 

I have already mentioned the assault upon East Cemetery Hill, 
the evening of July 2d by Early's Texans and Louisiana '" Tigns **, 
which was repulsed after gaining the crest and capturing our batteries ; 
there Johnscm's Division simultaneously advanced against the line of 
the small Twelfth Corps, but was not to meet it. 

Late in the afternoon, Creneral Meade had ordered Slocum to 
abandon his entire line and march to the relief of our left wing which 
was in sore need of reinforcements. General Slocum secured permis- 
sion to leave behind one brigade of (reary's Division to hold the breast- 
works. He diose Greene's Brigade, of five Xew York regiments, 
which extended from the right of Wadsworth. 

Xow, that little brigade, numbering about 1,800 men, was left to 
defend the entire line of the Twelfth Corps, and before as much as 
a skirmish line could be extenHeS by Gl*eene along the breastworks 
which had been abandoned, Johnson's Division was upon them. 
Greene's Brigade, of five regiments, held its line» as extended, against 
four direct assaults by at least seventeen regiments of Johnson's 
Division. As the fierce assaults were repulsed, and repeated four 
times, up to the very front of the breastworks, Wadsworth sent two 
New York regiments and the Sixth Wisconsin to Greene's assistance. 
The Eleventh Corps sent the Forty-fifth and One hundred and fifty*- 
seventh New York, the Sixty-first Ohio and Eighty-second Illinois. 

Therefore, eleven small regiments, of which eight were New York, 
one Ohio, one Illinois and one Wisconsin, numbering all told less 
than two thousand men, withstood seventeen regiments of Confed- 
erates, of fully five thousand men, in a three-hour fight, as fiercely 
waged as any of the tremendous contests of the three days. 

Comrades, I have described in a simple manner the battle we 
fought here on the third day, which has been accorded world-wide 

71 



Blcian^er Stewart HSIebl) 

praise. The names of Pickett and Webb were written high on the 
scroll of fame, for what they did here with their Virginians and 
Pennsylvanians. But, let me say, that in my opinion, Greene's Bri- 
gade saved our army from disaster on that night of Jiily 2d. It is 
my firm opinion, as I have said, that if the First Corps had not fought 
so bravely and then eflFected a masterly retreat to Cemetery Ridge 
on the first day, there would have been no second day at Gettysburg, 
and if Greene's Brigade had not repulsed Johnson's Division the 
night of the second, there would have been no third day, because 
Johnson would have gained our rear, and with reinforcements within 
easy reach, our line along Culp's Hill and East Cemetery Hill and 
on Cemetery Ridge, as far at least as Ziegler's Grove to the south, 
would have been taken from us. 

It is believed by some, that if Lee had taken Longstreet's advice 
and turned our left flank on the second day without any fierce battle, 
as was quite practicable, the Army of the Potomac would have been 
forced to fall back to the Pipe Creek line near Westminster. But 
we could then have fallen back with our army intact, weakened only 
by the losses of the first day. 

I ask what would have happened had we been forced to retreat 
about midnight on that bloody second day? Honor then to Greene's 
New York Brigade, as high as that bestowed on the Philadelphia 
Brigade for its splendid work in repulsing Pickett's assault, to break 
the centre here on the third day, thereby bringing the great battle to 
its successful end. 

The Twelfth Corps, which had been sent to reinforce oiu* left wing 
late in the afternoon, returned about midnight to re-occupy its breast- 
works along Culp's Hill. They found their works on the right, 
extended from Greene's Brigade to McAllister's Hill, were in pos- 
session of the Confederates, who had simply marched into them that 
evening imopposed. Promptly at dawn, the Confederates were 
fiercely attacked, but they were not driven out of our earthworks until 
after some seven hours of desperate and bloody battle. 

I have not time to tell you the story, but if you would care to 
know it, read "Recollections of a Confederate Soldier," by the 
Reverend Randolph H. McKim, of Washington, D. C, who took a 
conspicuous part as a fighting ofiicer and has written a most brilliant 
and thrilling description of that sanguinary struggle. 

72 



Blcxan^er Stewart Mcbb 

** There was Glory enough at (xettysburg to go all around,- ' as 
President Lincoln said to Creneral Sickles. It is a pity that some of 
the high o£Scial reports spread the glory in spots. Slocum got the icy 
hand and Greene's Brigade never has had its due. 

Comrades, I cannot stop until I have said something that it is 
in my mind and heart to say about the Gettysburg Battlefield Com* 
mission. I remember very well the appearance of this battlefield when 
I visited it the twenty-third year after the battle. A few regimental 
monuments and markers had been erected on small spaces acquired 
through the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association, formed by 
patriotic citizens of this town and a number of former officers and 
soldiers who had been invited to join with them. To that little asso- 
ciation, doubtless, is due much of the credit for the acquisition of the 
battlefield by the National Government. To the United States (rct- 
tysburg Battlefield Commission is due the honor and credit of its 
splendid development, which we witness to-day. Under their wise 
control nothing has been done to mar its natural beauty; while the 
lines of the battle have been shown with accuracy, and made accessible 
by grand avenues and side avenues all the way around and across. 
Besides that, the Commissioners deserve greatest commendation for 
their impartiality. Every organization, from the corps unit to the 
single battery, had their claims accorded careful and fair consideration 
by the Commission and were settled according to ascertained facts. 

When the battle lines of the Army of Northern Virginia were 
studied and mapped out the Commission built Confederate Avenue, 
which sweeps grandly from the Confederate left to right, around and 
beyond Devil's Den, that was won by Longstreet on that bloody 
second day, to the foot of Round Top. The positions of the Confed- 
erate organizations, along that great avenue and elsewhere, have been 
located correctly, and are marked with pedestals of polished granite, 
on which bronze tablets are mounted^ bearing the names of brigades, 
regiments and batteries which occupied the ground nearest them. We 
might let this grand work be the Commission's monument, but it seems 
to me, since there are already hundreds of splendid monuments on the 
battlefield to commemorate great deeds and in honor of the great 
commander of this army. General Meade, also of corps, division, 
brigade and regimental officers who led us in the battle — no one 
more worthy than the commander of the Philadelphia Brigade here 
in the Angle — a monument for the Battlefield Commissioners who 

7S 



« 



Blexaiidcr WUmun VttO^ 

have done so much to develop and mark it, should be erected in doe 
time. I declare that a grateful country ought to erect a monument 
of bluish-gray granite, bearing on its faces bronte tablets with the 
names of the commissioners and their able civil engineer, Cokmel 
E. B. Cope, and surmounted by a statue of Colonel John P. Kidiolson, 
who has been the chairman of the Commission from the first The 
captain of the First Xew York Battery was under twenty*two, — 
the old veteran you look upon now is seventy-four, and lame. He 
may never pass this way again, but many of you are younger and 
strong. Remember what he said here. 

Comrades, when you return to your homes and firesides, per- 
chance in the long winter evenings to come, you may dream of the 
heroic days of your youth, when you fought to save the Union and 
cleared the way for building this great Nation. 



LISTEN ! 

Listen^ the trumpet if telling 

Of fields where we fought and won — 
What? Am I only dreaming 

Now that the day is done? 
I dreamt I heard it callings 

Heard every clanging note 
That leapt with the march's cadence 

From its battered, gleaming throat ! 

From its first clear notes in the dawning 

To the last low call at night 
Through the battle years it led me — 

Through drill and march and fight; 
Through war with its pomp and glory 

And its pride and martial power 
And through war in its darkest moments 

Through the crushing, blinding hour. 

I heard it singing so often 

Those terrible, blood-stained years; 
It told me so many stories, 

Of fight, of laughter, of tears — 
From the crashing charge of squadrons 

To the last sad notes at the grave, 
That it seems like an old time comrade, 

Old and tried and brave. 



74 



Blezan^er MevMrt WOob 

It seemed that I lieard it calling 

To memory'a blue-clad ghosts 
That marched to its ringiog music 

With the War God's vamshed hosts — 
But its gleaming sides are battered 

And the firelight softly plays 
Where it hangs among the trophies 

Of the by-gone battle days/* 

Comrades, farewell ! Two years ago I said : *' Auf • Wiedersehn 1 
(Goodbye until we meet again) — Now, I say "' Farewell/' 



>» 



75 



B^^re00 bi? Dn 0. 3. K. flDiller 



Mb. Chairman, Comsades and Fbiends: 

I HAVE the honor to speak to you in behalf of the Phikdelphia 
Brigade, on this important occasion of the dedication of the 
statue to the distinguished man who commanded our brigade 
in the battle of Gettysburg. 

We have just been called, by the orator of the day, Grcneral James 
W. Latta, " The Old Philadelphia Brigade." Now I do not think 
we are so very old. Our years are but fifty-four — just in the prime 
of life. The brigade holds a rather unique position in its history. 
First we were thought to be Califomians, then United States troops, 
and lastly we came to be included in the ranks of the grand old 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

We were really brought into existence by a speech made by United 
States Senator E. D. Baker, of Oregon — a speech that was delivered 
in New York City on May 21, 1861. The senator felt at that time 
that the Northern States had a long war on their hands; and while 
other States were recruiting men for only three months, under the first 
call for troops, he said he would enlist a regiment for three years, with 
the authority of the State of California and the approval of the 
President of the United States. He realized that the war would last 
that time. His intention was to recruit a regiment in New York City. 
I do not know the reason for his change of plan, but he went to 
Philadelphia afterwards, and it was there that he did his recruiting, 
early in the summer of 1861. It did not take him long to get the 
regiment together. Thereafter, California gave him authority to 
recruit a whole brigade in the East, as it would have taken too long 
a time to recruit the regiments in California and trahisport them to 
the theatre of war. As soon as the wishes of California in this matter 
were conveyed to President Lincoln he at once commissioned Senator 
Baker as the colonel of the First California Regiment. During the 
summer and fall of 1861 the other regiments were organized and 

76 



pUced under his command. We were then known as Baker's Cali- 
fornia Brigade, consisting of four regiments, the First, Second, 
Fourth and Fifth Infantry Regiments. We were also to have a 
regiment of cavalry and a battery of artillery, but the death of 
General Baker prevented the consummation of that plan. In the 
fall of 1861 we were taken to Washington and sent into camp at 
Camp Observation, at Poolesville, Maryland, where the recruiting 
still continued. 

Here we thought it was fine to be soldiers. We were well treated. 
In the morning, after roll call, we were given a cup of hot coffee 
and a couple of allowances of hard tack. Before and after dinner 
we had drill exercises, and in the evening dress parade; all very fine, 
but it was not to last long. 

On the night of October 20, 1861, something began to happen, and 
the following day found the brigade in its first battle, at Balls Bluff, 
Virginia, not far from Leesbiurg. Colonel Baker was commissioned 
a brigadier-general of United States Volunteers the day before the 
battle. The means of getting troops across the river were very 'bad 
and not all of them were able to take part in the engagement. The 
First California Regiment crossed the river, and with the other 
regiments present fought bravely and lost fifty per cent, of their 
numbers. It was here that General Baker lost his life as he gallantly 
led his men in the charge. With the tremendous odds against us there 
was no chance to win. Our men were vastly outnumbered by the 
Southern troops, who had more cannon as well as occupying a better 
position. Retreat became inevitable, and nearly all those who escaped 
were obliged to swim the river, many of them being shot while in 
the water. By this time we began to realize that there was not so 
much fun in being a soldier after all. 

Now I wish to give a part of our history in the war that is not 
so well known. The War Department records show that the First 
California Regiment, commanded by Colonel Edward D. Baker, 
fought at the battle of Balls Bluff, Virginia, on October 21, 1861, 
its commander being killed in action. On the other hand, the records 
of the State of California have it that the State recruited the First 
California Regiment, but never left California soil. That came about 
in this way. In the East our brigade was never recognized by Cali- 
fornia ; and after the battle of Balls Bluff, having lost our commander 
there, the link between the East and the West was broken, and 

77 



aicxander Mewwt VBebb 

Pennsylrania claimed the brigade as her own. The men constituting 
it were all from Pennsylvania, and none of its officers was ccha* 
missioned. As far as the army was concerned, we belonged to no 
State in particular. We received our pay as United States volunteers. 
Governor Curtin of Pennsylvania offered to ccmunission the officers 
and place the brigade as part of Pennsylvania's quota to the Northon 
armies. 

The first man to accept a commission was Colond Joshua T. Owen, 
of the Fourth Infantry, the figures '* 69 " being given him as his 
number in the line. Only a few days after Colonel Isaac J. Wister 
received his commission, and his regiment, the First, became the 
Seventy-first. Then Colonel D. W. C. Baxter, of the Second Regi- 
ment, was commissioned, and the Seventy^seccmd Regiment was put 
in his charge. Colonel Turner G. Morehead, of the Fifth, did not 
want so hig^ a number then, but delay in accepting made it necessary 
to give him the One hundred and sixth. On account of these high 
numbers we were often taken for new regiments, and nearly all of 
the men being from Philadelphia, we were christened the *' Phila« 
delphia Brigade '*, and have been known by that name ever since. 

Upon the organization of the Army of the Potomac, we became 
the Second Brigade, of the Second Division, Second Corps, with 
Grcneral William W. Bums as brigade commander. General John 
Sedgwick as division commander and Grcneral Edwin V. Sumner 
corps commander. 

The brigade took part in all the campaigns of the Army of the 
Potomac, notably doing its duty whenever called upon to serve. 
At Fair Oaks, Virginia, on May 81, 1862, it supported Kirby's 
Battery, when charge after charge was made to capture it, tiie 
enemy being driven back every time with heavy losses. It performed 
brave and meritorious service at Antietam, on September 17, 1862, 
losing 545 of its numbers in killed, wounded and missing. On Fred* 
ericksburg's memorable field, December 18th the same year, it stood 
its ground and remained there all that long cold winter's day until 
night brought relief. And here on this hallowed ground, the Angle, 
made famous in the world's history as the greatest battle of the Civil 
War, a little more than fifty-two years ago, commanded by New 
York's illustrious soldier, Alexander S. Webb, it did more than heroic 
work when it fell to it to bear the brunt of that magnificent assault 
of Pickett's noble Virginians. 

7S 



■I<xiu0er fttewirt VSUVb 

Pickett's men formed on the edge of yonder wood, on Seminary 
Ridge, about a mile from this ground. When they first appeared 
they seemed to move as if cm parade. Proudly advancing to this 
position, in close column, and numbering about 15,000 men — made 
up of the best regiments in Grcneral Lee*s Army — troops that had 
not yet been in action on this field — they were met with a rain of grape 
and canister, shrapnel and shell from our batteries. Spite of rifle and 
artillery fire that mowed them down like grass before the reaper — 
commanders leading and cheering their men in the diarge — they 
continued to pursue their objective, but with all their determination 
they did not succeed. They either fell or were captured or slain and 
but a remnant of them returned to Seminary Ridge. The melee was 
fierce beyond description, but it was over in twenty minutes. The 
enemy left four^fifths of their men upon this field; of their brigade 
commanders two wen killed and one wounded; seven of their colonels 
fell and one was wounded; three lieutenant colonels were mortally 
wounded and nine wounded not so seriously. In fact, <mly one field 
officer, besides Grcneral Pickett, was left of the number they had when 
the charge began. The casualties among the company officers were 
no less. Thus ended, practically, the battle of Crcttysburg, and 
history finds few such great combats to record. 

The Philadelphia Brigade followed the fortunes of the grand 
old Army of the Potomac until the end came at Appomattox. It 
was at the battle of Bristoe Station and at Locust Grove, the Wilder- 
ness, Po River, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Weldon 
Railroad, Ream's Station, Boydton Plank Road, Hatchers Run, 
Sailor's Creek, Farmville and Appomattox. 

Grcneral Latta has said in his address that the Philadelphia Brigade 
had done its duty all through the years of the great war, but that it 
ceased to exist in the spring of 1864. To that remark I take exception. 
The Philadelphia Brigade has not, and will not, cease to exist, and it 
will not until the last man claiming to belong to it answers the final 
roll call. We keep and have kept up our organization, as the survivors 
of the brigade, ever since the close of the war. We hold meetings 
and reunions and keep alive the memories of the past. We have had 
great influence in bringing the North and the South closer together 
as brothers. Over twenty-five years ago, the Brigade Association 
entertained the survivors of Pickett's Division upon this historic 
ground, — the same men who fought us so hard here on July 3, 1863; 

TO 



Bleian^cr SMewact TRBebb 

and we gave them the hand shake at the same spot and over the same 
stone wall where so many of their brave comrades gave up their lives 
fifty*two years ago; and in return we were entertained by Pickett's 
men in the City of Ridmiond, Virginia, on October 5, 1888. We 
captured the city then and did not lose a man. Again, on May 27» 
1889, in the City of Washington, the brigade presented a beautiful 
United States flag to Greneral George E. Pickett's Camp Confederate 
Veterans of Ridmiond. They carried it back home with them, proud 
to march once more under the old flag, and some of them told me 
then that should there ever be another war you would find the South 
and the North marching shoulder to shoulder and elbow to elbow 
in the same cause and under the same old flag. And so it came to 
pass. In the Spanish- American War we had no North or South, 
but one reunited country. So you see that we still keep up the Asso- 
ciation of the old Philadelphia Brigade, and with the survivors of 
Pickett's Grand Division will cement the friendship of the North 
and the South for all time, under One Country, One Flag and 
One GkxL 



80 



PU 



•/ I 



i ^ ' ^ V 



-:n b'JL-'N'DAl' 



tMtb 9a. vote. 



Mk. Chahman, C0MIADE8 ANB Fbdsnm: 

IT would be impossibk for me, in the short time allowed, to even 
briefly recount the most valuable services rendered by the 106th 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, or even mention 
in detail the many brave and heroic deeds performed by its members 
during its four long years of service, for it was the only regiment 
of the Philadelphia Brigade that kept its organization until the end 
of the war, when it was finally mustered out on June 80, 1865. 

It had enrolled 1085 officers and men and lost in killed, wounded 
and missing 518, just fifty per cent, of its membership. So I must 
confine myself to tiie services rendered by the regiment on this famous 
battlefield. 

On the first day of the great battle, July 1, 1868, we were on the 
march from seven o'clock in the morning, when we left our camp at 
Frizelberg, Maryland, until nine o'clock at night, and then went into 
camp on the eastern slope of Round Top, west of the Taneytown 
Road. 

The next morning, July 2nd, we were awakened at three o'clock 
and told to get ready to move at once. After a short march, the brig- 
ade was massed in a field on the right of the Taneytown Road, and 
addressed by Greneral Alexander S. Webb, our new brigade com- 
mander. He told us we would be called upon to defend our native 
State, and it would require every man to do his full duty. He 
expected each man to do his duty; anyone found shirking would be 
severely dealt with ; he would shoot any man he saw leaving the line 
and cdled upon any man to shoot him if he failed to do his duty. 
He won the hearts of the boys and had them all with him. 

About six o'clock that morning we were moved into position on 
this, then known as Granite Ridge, but now known as East Cemetery 
Ridge, at what is at present known as the Angle. The Sixty-ninth 
and Seventy-first were placed in line along the stone wall here, the 
Seventy-second behind them and the One hundred and sixth in rear 

81 



Blexan^cr Stewart HSIebb 

of the Seventy^second, just over beyond the road. At onee Com- 
panies A and B of the One hundred and sixth were sent out as 
skirmishers, under the command of Captain John J. Sperry; Com- 
pany A deployed and Company B in reserve. 

During the morning. General Meade rode up, and in consultation 
with General Webb said he would like to know the strength of the 
enemy in front. General Webb at once volunteered to advance with 
his brigade and ascertain for him. To this General Meade said " No ", 
the movement of so large a force might bring on an engagement and 
he was not ready yet. Then he said *' send that company ", pointing 
to Company B of our regiment out front, commanded by Capt. James 
C. Lynch, who at once advanced his company almost up to that large 
wood on Seminary Ridge, and was met with a heavy fire, but he 
pushed on and uncovered the enemy in large force in that wood. He 
withdrew his company and reported to Greneral Webb. 

In the meantime a force of the enemy had taken possession of 
the Bliss House and bam, beyond the Emmitsburg Road and had 
succeeded in killing and wounding some of the men of Company A 
by their enfilading fire, and when Captain Lynch returned with his 
company Captain Sperry told him to go and dislodge them. Captain 
Lynch found a much larger force there than he expected. This was 
the Sixteenth Mississippi Regiment. Captain Lynch placed his men 
behind a stone wall and sent to Greneral Hays, in whose front he was, 
for reinforcements. General Hays furnished four companies of the 
Twelfth New Jersey Regiment, and together they captured the house 
and bam, taking a large number of prisoners as well. The house 
and bam were biuned to the ground. While accomplishing this 
Captain Lynch lost one officer and eleven men. 

In the afternoon, General Wright with his Georgia Brigade had 
passed the right of Humphreys' Division, at the Emmitsburg Road, 
southwest of the Codori House, and pushed on up to our position, 
capturing the four guns of Brown's Rhode Island Battery in our 
front. At that moment General Hancock rode up to our regiment 
and asked what regiment it was, and when told by Colonel Curry 
ordered him to charge at once upon the advancing enemy. Colonel 
Curry rushed the regiment over the stone wall at the left of our 
brigade, poured a volley into Wright's men and then charged and 
drove them back beyond the Emmitsburg Road, capturing at the 
Codori House, Colonel Gibson, 20 line officers and 200 men, 

82 



Btexandcr Stewart HSIebb 

principally of the Forty-eighth Greorgia Regiment. Captain Ford 
who received their surrender came back with his arms full of the 
officers' swords and turned them over to Colonel Curry. 

The regiment then returned to its position with the brigade, but 
had hardly done so when an urgent appeal came from General O. O. 
Howard, commanding the Eleventh Corps on East Cemetery Hill, 
for his old brigade to come to his assistance. He had formerly com- 
manded the brigade and knew them well. His line had been pierced 
by the famous " Louisiana Tigers '% who had driven his men from 
their position at a stone wall, and forcing their way up the hill had 
captured the guns of Wiedrick's New York and Rickett's Pennsyl- 
vania batteries. Grcneral Webb at once ordered the iSeventy-first and 
the One hundred and sixth regiments to report to General Howard. 
Unfortunately, the Seventy-first went too far to the right and ran 
into Johnson's men, then occupying the works recently vacated by 
General Geary, who was ordered to reinforce our line on Round Top, 
and the Seventy-first lost one officer and twenty men, as prisoners, 
and Colonel Smith brought his regiment back to the brigade; but 
the One hundred and sixth proceeded as directed and reported to 
General Howard, just as the "' Louisiana Tigers " had been repulsed 
and were being driven from the field, and our regiment was ordered to 
take position at that stone wall, with instructions to hold it. As they 
passed by General Howard, he turned to Major Osborne, of his staff, 
and said. " Major, your batteries may be withdrawn when that regi- 
ment runs away." 

Before leaving the brigade, a detail of fifty men from all the 
companies, under Captain Robert H. Ford, was sent to relieve Com- 
panics A and B on the skirmish line. Captain Sperry had been 
wounded, and Captain Lynch commanded both companies. All the 
lieutenants of the two companies were either killed or wounded. He 
reported to Grcneral Webb that his men were entirely out of ammuni- 
tion. General Webb told him to take them back to the train and 
replenish his ammunition, and when they returned the regiment had 
gone over to General Howard. Captain Lynch asked General Webb 
if he should take his men and report to the regiment. The general 
told him to stay where he was, and that is how the two companies 
and that detail of fifty men came to be here at the Angle and helped 
to repulse Pickett's charge, when the rest of the regiment was doing 
good service with the Eleventh Corps. 

83 



When Pickett*! diarge was made that portioii of tiie Out Inrndbned 
and sixth regiment lay there just behind that now eekbrated dump of 
trees, and Captain Ford being wounded during tiie terribk artillery 
duel that preceded the infantry assault. Captain Lynch was again 
incommaiuL When General Armistead, with some of his men, pierced 
our line here at the Angle, General Webb, with his cap on his sword 
called for his men to follow him, leading them into that terrible hand* 
to*hand conflict. Captain Lyndi called out, "' Crcneral, the One hun- 
dred and sixth is with you *', and rushed his men down over the stone 
wall and took part in that hand-to-hand fight as General Webb, said, 
'" Boys, the enemy are ours," and passed orer two Confederate flags 
on the ground without stopping to pick them up. 

Pickett's repulse ended the battle of Grcttysburg, and that night 
General Lee Ivithdrew his army and began his retreat, and early 
the next morning Grcneral Howard sent forward the One hundred 
and sixth Regiment into the town to see if the enemy had vacated it. 
The regiment moved down into the town, driving before them the 
enemy's pickets, and found the last of General Lee's Army going out 
of the other end of Grcttysburg. Thus Was the One hundred and 
sixth regiment the first of our troops to enter Grcttysburg after the 
battle. 

My comrades you will then see that the services rendered by the 
One hundred and sixth Regiment were different from those of any 
other regiment. ^ 

In the first place, it was the only regiment of our brigade that 
furnished the skirmish line for the second and third days of the battle. 
One company of it was selected by Grcneral Meade for reoonnois- 
sance. Later, that same company joined in the assault on the Bliss 
House and assisted in the capture of it and the many prisoners taken. 
That same afternoon Greneral Hancock ordered the regiment to repel 
Wright's assault, which they did, with the capture of 250 prisoners. 
After that the regiment was sent to the assistance of General Howard, 
at his special request, leaving 100 men here, who helped repulse 
Pickett's charge. And, finally, it was the first of the troops to enter 
the Town of Grcttysburg after the enemy had evacuated it. Glory 
enough for one regiment. The One hundred and sixth brought into 
this great battle 28 officers and 268 men, and lost one officer and ten 
men killed, ten officers and 58 men wounded and two made prisoners, 
making a total of 75. 

S4 



r 



""^w 



PU 



fi 



VbbWM ^ Oeneral JOKctoon %. pecH 

•C SufUnatra, Vt 



CoMBADES, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

V£RMONT is highly honored in being invited to participate in 
the dedicatory exercises of this beautiful memorial to one 
whose name is so weU known to the veterans of the Green 
Mountain State, — Major Grcneral Alexander Stewart Webb, one of 
the most distinguished officers of the United States Army during the 
war for the Union and the gallant commander of the Philadelphia 
Brigade, Second Corps, which bore such an important part in the 
Battle of Grettysburg. We feel a particular pride in what it repre- 
sents, due to the fact that the Second Vermont Brigade, whose monu- 
ment, surmounted by the statue of its intrepid c(mmiander. Major 
Greneral George Jerrison Stannard, you can see in the distance, also 
bore an important part in that terrible struggle, which proved to be 
the high-water mark of the Rebellion, and has become Imown as one 
of the most desperate ever recorded in history. 

For many years it was my privilege to enjoy the friendship of 
Greneral Webb, and to repeatedly hear from his own lips the details 
of that terrific combat which took place on this spot on the afternoon 
of July 8, 1868. 

Greneral Webb never forgot to praise the brilliant and rapid move- 
ment of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Sixteenth Vermont Regi- 
ments, under the leadership of General Stannard, who, as the Con- 
federate troops appeared over the crest of the hill in their advance 
upon the Union lines, realized the importance of immediate action, 
and, without orders, changed his battle line and poured upon Pickett's 
right flank such a destructive fire, in addition to that of Greneral 
Webb's Brigade, that a probable defeat was changed into a decisive 
victory. Ever after General Webb had the highest regard for Greneral 
Stannard as a commanding officer, and their warm friendship was 
terminated only by death. 

Of the wonderful gallantry of Lieutenant Gushing, commanding 
the battery of artillery which bore his name, Greneral Webb often told 

S5 



BIezan&cr Stewart TUebb 

met ftnd also of the heroic action of First Sergeant Frederick Fuger, 
who, when Lieutenant Gushing and the other officers were killed and 
woundedf took command of what was left of the battery and per- 
formed deeds of valor for which Grcneral Webb recommended him for 
a lieutenancy in the United States Army and for the Congressional 
medal of honor, both of which he received. It was characteristic of 
General Webb to see that others were rewarded for their bravery, 
and it is a source of gratification and pride to his many friends that 
Congress did not fail to bestow upon him the cherished medal of 
honor for distinguished gallantry at Grettysburg. 

Upon the field of battle at Spotsylvania General Webb again met 
the Vermont troops, — the First Vermont Brigade, well known as the 
'' Old Vermont Brigade,*' Second Brigade, Second Division, Sixth 
Army Corps, commanded by General Lewis A. Grant. It was here 
that Grcneral Webb received the severe wound in his head, from 
which he suffered the remainder of his life. The valor of the Ver- 
monters during the engagement and their ready response to the 
now famous command of Grcneral Sedgwick, ** Put the Vermonters 
ahead and keep the column well closed up," brought forth renewed 
praise from General Webb, and of him they could not say too much 
as a commanding general and a man. 

Time forbids me speaking at length, but as a Vermonter and a 
friend and admirer of General Webb I take this opportunity to 
express to Governor Whitman the appreciation of the Vermont 
veterans of what the great Empire State, which he so admirably 
«pre«„t^ h« don. to hom.r L mmory of her mmtriou, J. 
Vermonters remember with much pleasure that Grovemor Whitman 
when a boy lived in Lyndon, Vt., where his father was a minister of 
the gospel. To Major Grcneral James W. Latta, of Philadelphia, 
the Assistant Adjutant Grcneral of the Third Brigade, First Division, 
Sixth Corps, and later of the Fourth Division, Cavalry Corps, Mili* 
tary Division of the Mississippi ; to Colonel Cowan, of Louisville, Ky., 
a distinguished soldier who rose from a private to the rank of lieuten- 
ant colonel and commanded a battery and later a battalion in the 
Sixth Army Corps, and is now President of the Society of the Army 
of the Potomac; and to General Horatio C. King, of New York, a 
brave ofiicer upon the staff of General Sheridan — a medal of honor 
man — and for many years the able Secretary of the Society of the 
Army of the Potomac, our thanks are due for their admiration always 

86 



Hlezan^er Stewart Ulebl) 

expressed for the Vermont troops, espedaUy the '"Old Vermont 
Brigade " and First Vermont Cavalry, which regiment at five o'clock 
on the afternoon of July 8, 1868, some two hom^s after Pickett's attack, 
made the terrific charge in front of Romid Top, in which some two 
hundred men were led by their gallant commander. Major William 
Wells, later a major general commanding a division in Sheridan's 
Cavalry Corps, and suffered a loss of sixty*seven men, killed and 
wounded, in less than thirty minutes. 

Especially do I congratulate Colonel Lewis R. Stegman, diair- 
man, and the members of the New York Monuments Commission 
upon this noble and lasting tribute which has been dedicated to^y. 
Colonel Stegman was one of our bravest soldiers, whose record is 
full of battles and wounds, promoted from captain to the grade of 
colonel in the One hundred and second New York Regiment, serving 
in the Army of the Potomac and in Sherman's Army, and receiving 
wounds at Cedar Mountain, Grcttysburg, Ringgold and Pine 
Mountain. 

Under the kindly and watchful care of the Grcttysburg National 
Park Commission, of which Colonel John P. Nicholson, of Phila* 
delphia, is chairman and Colonel E. B. Cope engineer, the many 
monuments on this historic battlefield will forever stand as silent 
witnesses to the valor of those brave heroes who here paid to the 
nation their uttermost tribute of devotion, but none speaks more 
worthily than this which has brought us together to-day. 

In closing, may I add my tribute to him whose record is a price* 
less heritage, not only to us but to future generations. As a soldier — 
a noble and mighty defender of his country — as a citizen — a leading 
college president; and a Grod*f earing man whom to know was to 
honor and to love. 



ST 



Ketiiarlit bv Captain 3obn 9. Vosera 

7M tn. Vol*. 



COMBADES AND FeLLOW CITIZENS : 

MY talk today is one of love. My text is, *' Hope is often like 
a butterfly flitting from flower to floww, but memory is 
like a sweet-voiced angel, which hovering by our side forges 
the links in the chain which binds our hearts to sanctified memories.'* 

We here dedicate this statue to the memory of one of nature's 
noblemen. As a military hero he towered high, and as an educator 
he established a reputation that will be no less remembered* 

It was my good fortune to know General Webb intimately. My 
regiment belonged to the brigade that he commanded on this field; 
and during the years that he was president of the College of the City 
of New York it was my privilege to meet him frequently. The ability 
with which he discharged his duties as the head of a great institution 
of learning reminded me forcibly of the genius that he displayed on 
the battlefield as a commander. 

To*day we are concerned with Creneral Webb's career as a soldier. 
Perhaps it will not be out of place for me to tell of my first impressions 
of the general as commander of the Philadelphia Brigade, a few days 
before the battle of Gettysburg. My regiment was not far then 
from the scene of the contest. We all felt that a great struggle was 
not far off. Our marching was strenuous, and in consequence our 
uniforms were anjrthing but fit for a parade. Not so though with 
our commander. His dress and personality attracted us the moment 
we first laid eyes on him. Compared to him we must have looked 
shabby ourselves then. 

The last day of June General Webb issued an ofiicer's call of 
the Second Brigade by regiments, and he addressed his officers as 
follows when they appeared before him : 

" I presame you are all officers as you attend the call. There are but few of 
you whom I am able to recognise as officers, as you have no insignia of office 
except your swords." 

88 



Btexatibor flMewirt THIebb 

Our experience in battle led us to know that we were safer if we 
were not conspicuously dressed^ as officers were the first to be picked 
off by the enemyt and hence we tried to be as little conspicuous as 
possible in our dress. 

The general ordered us to go to our conunands and prepare our* 
selves with insignia, as we were entitled to, so that when he met us 
he would know our rank. We thought this order was far f etdied, but 
we must obey. The next day another officer's call brought us before 
the general again. This time he told us he was informed that there 
was frequent straggling in the regiments. He ordered that the officers 
should arrest any of the men found straggling and to bring them to 
him and he would shoot them like dogs. This last order, thoi^;fa severe, 
was doubtless just. Many thought him untempered and fresh. 

We arrived on the field the night of July 1st. Most terrific 
fighting had been going on all day. Our brigade laid on its arms 
that night, but whm day came we had several contests; and finally, 
the second day, we came into combat near the Angle, where the 
enemy captured two of our guns, but we soon recaptured thraiL The 
thing was so adroitly handled by the general that he with the men 
engaged at this point broke loose with the wildest shouts and yells. 
All could see that the general had a lot of grit and sagacity as well 
as grace and he won our confidence and admiration. 

And now about the fight the third day at the Angle, in which the 
Philadelphia Brigade was foremost. Our brigade occupied positions 
near the Angle when Grcneral Lice commenced the great artillery duel 
at Seminary Ridge. The Southern artillery destroyed scmie of the 
batteries posted in our vicinity. During the cannonading General 
Webb stood in the most conspicuous and exposed place, leaning on his 
sword and smoking a cigar, when all around the air was pierced by 
screeching shot and shell. Our appeal to him was not heeded. He 
stood like a statue watching the movement of the enemy. No greater 
valor was ever shown in battle than that displayed by Grcneral Webb 
at the Angle. That was enough for us. General Webb was no longer 
the dress parade soldier that we supposed him to be at first, but the 
great hero. We who knew him and served under him at Gettysburg 
loved him. 

General Webb lives to-day in sanctified memory. His latest sun 
did not set in the darkened west but melted away in the brightness 
of heaven. 

89 






« «' 



Benediction J^ tbe Veverend ®0car X. Skverson 

I37tb KL V* Vol0« 



MAY the spirit of Abraham Lincoln, who when leaving Spring- 
field, Illinois, for Washington, asked his neighbors and 
friends to pray to the Divine Person, in whom we all believe, 
for wisdom, guide us in our duties. 

And may the Blessing of Almighty God, Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost rest upon us all forever. AMEN. 



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Xite of General TIfilebb 



:Bv General Woratio C. 'King, X.X.9. 



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Srevet nDaiar#(Beneral aleIan^er Stewart vne&b 



IT is a pleasure to write of a manly man after an acquaintanceship 
of more than half a century. Handsome in physique, genial in 
approach, warm-hearted in action and bright in intellectual 
resources, he made and carried hosts of friends through life. 

In our Republican government we are more or less democratic, 
but I think it will not be denied that human nature generally enjoys 
a good ancestry. Even the self*made man is proud of his creator, 
that is of himself, and the humblest will not reject his affiliation with 
higher lights in history. 

Samuel Blatchley Webb, the grandfather of General Webb, was 
bom on the 15th day of December, 1758, at Wethersfield, Connecticut. 
His ancestor was Richard Webb, of Gloucestershire, England. He 
settled in Boston in 1682, and became a member of the Hooker Colony 
to Hartford in 1685. His descendant, Samuel B. Webb, became a 
lieutenant in the Colonial Army, was wounded at Bunker Hill and 
complimented in General Orders. He was an aide to General Put- 
nam and then secretary and aide-de-camp to General Washington. 
It is of him the story is told that going down the New York Bay to 
meet a flag of truce, he was presented with a letter written by General 
Howe and addressed to Mr. George Washington. Webb declined 
to receive the letter. His subsequent services in the Revolution, his 
capture, his promotion to brevet brigadier-general, and his death at 
Claverack, Columbia County, N. Y., in 1807, can have but a slight 
reference here. 

In 1802, at the place just named, was bom James Watson Webb, 
the father of our subject. He was of a military turn of mind, and 
at the age of seventeen ran away to Washington and obtained an 
appointment as second lieutenant in the Fourth Artillery. At twenty 
he performed the remarkable feat, in the company of one reliable 
companion and an Indian guide, of crossing Illinois in eight inches 
of snow, and reached Fort Armstrong in time to warn Fort Snelling 

95 



Bleian^er Stewtrt Webb 



of an intended raid and slaughter, which was prevented. In 1825 
be was made an adjutant of the Third Infantry. Two years later he 
resigned and bought the New York Morning Courier, of which he 
was principal editor. The Enquirer was added to the Courier, and 
the Courier and Enquirer started a new method of news getting and 
became a leading paper. In 1861 he was appointed Minister to 
Brazil, where he served eight years. Returning to New York, he 
passed the remainder of his life there, and died on the 7th of June, 
1884. 

It is not surprising that from such ancestors Greneral Alexander 
S. Webb inherited fine military and masterly qualities. He was bom 
in New York City on the 15th of February, 1885. From private 
schools he entered the Military Academy at West Point, where he 
graduated in 1855. In his class were General (^eorge D. Ruggles, 
General A. T. A. Torbert and Greneral William B. Haasen. He was 
commissioned a lieutenant in the Second Artillery and ordered to 
Florida, where he took part in the operations against the Seminole 
Indians. In this expedition he had some of the most exacting and 
dangerous experiences of his life. Thence he was ordered to 
Minnesota, on frontier duty, from 1855 to 1857. He was then 
detailed as assistant professor of mathematics at West Point, and 
was a junior officer in Griffin's West Point Battery. This company, 
under the command of Captain, afterwards Creneral, Griffin, was 
ordered to Washington, where it paraded in the inauguration cere- 
monies of President Lincoln. The announcement that the guns were 
loaded with grape and shrapnel doubtless prevented the threat of the 
Secessionists to stop the inauguration. From this company Webb 
had a guard in citizen's clothes to protect General Scott at his 
headquarters. 

At the outbreak of the War he was assigned to Light Battery A, 
Second Artillery. Its commanding officer, Captain, afterwards 
General, William T. Barry, speaks of Webb in the highest terms. 
The battery moved to Fort Pickens and saved that defensive work 
to the Union. " He rendered me," says Captain Barrj% " that 
intelligent, faithful and energetic assistance that gave promise of the 
still greater soldierly qualities that distinguished him later in the 
War." 

At the first battle of Bull Run he was an officer of the B Batterv 
which he raised at West Point. Under the command of Captain 

94 



Hlexan^er Stewart TKlebb 

Griffin, it held a dangerous and critical position at the Henry House. 
Rickett's Battery was there too. Then occurred one of those errors 
which caused the disabling of both batteries, whose fine discipline, 
wonderful daring and matchless skill were the prime features in the 
fi^t. On Griffin's right a regiment emerged from the woods and 
was supposed to be a support from Heintzelman. A deadly Con- 
federate volley ensued and every cannoneer was killed or disabled, as 
well as many horses. The guns fell into the hands of the enemy. 

(general Webb was appointed Assistant Chief of Artillery of the 
Army of the Potomac. His selection as Major of the First Rhode 
Island Volunteers he was obliged to decline. In the summer of 1862 
he served with the Army of the Potomac and was active in the 
Peninsula campaign. His excellent account of McClellan's move- 
ments are given in his volume of the Scribner's Series, entitled ** The 
Peninsula.'* 

AVhen General Barry took the field with the Army of the Potomac, 
in March, 1862, the subject of this sketch accompanied him as inspec- 
tor-general on his staff. Of his duties at Yorktown, General Barry 
says: '^ He exhibited not only energy but also very great coolness 
and gallantry.'* In the battles of Hanover Court House and Gaines 
Mill '" he rendered gallant and efficient service.*' 

During the masterly retreat of McClellan from the front of 
Richmond to Malvern Hill, generally known as the seven days* battle, 
Webb was always conspicuous and became so exhausted on the sixth 
day as to fall fainting from his horse. The day before the engagement 
and bloody repulse of the Confederates from Malvern Hill, he dis- 
covered and reconnoitred an unknown road into which the train was 
turned and saved it from capture. 

In September, 1862, General Barry was transferred to other 
duties. Webb preferred to remain with the Army of the Potomac. 
In parting, his official head wrote of him: 

''In conclusion^ I beg to assure you that in all the soldierly attributes of 
subordination, intelligence, energy, physical endurance and the highest possible 
courage, I consider him to be without his superior among the younger officers of 
the Army. I also consider that both aptitude and experience fit him to command, 
and to command well, anything from a regiment to a diTision." 

He was at Camp Barry, at Washington, D. C, until January, 
1868, when he reported to General Meade, Fifth Corps, as assistant 
inspector-general. 

05 



A 



HIexan^cr Stewart MeDb 

At Chancellorsville he was conspicuous, and General French in 
his report of his division in the battle writes: '' Having been thus 
hotly engaged for more than an hour, I discovered a body of troops 
taking a position which flanked and turned my own. I therefore 
sent to the general commanding the Army (General Couch, com* 
manding the Second Corps, being at a distant point on the field), 
informing him of the fact. Very soon a brigade, commanded by 
Brigadier-General Tyler, led in very handsomely by Lieutenant* 
Colonel Webb, of General Meade's staff, formed line of battle, con- 
necting with my right, and immediately engaged the enemy." 

A most brilliantly planned battle was lost by mismanagement. 
Greneral Couch in his account in the ** Battles and Leaders of the 
Civil War " says : 

"In looking for the causes of the loss of Chancellorsville the primary ones 
were that Hooker expected Lee to fall back without risking battle. Finding 
himself mistaken he assumed the defensive, and was outgeneraled and became 
demoralised by the superior tactical boldness of the enemy/' 

(rcneral Pleasanton in the same work, in *^The Successes and 
Failures of Chancellorsville," writes: 

" It is useless to speculate what General Hooker would have done if he had not 
been disabled. Up to the evening of the 2d of May the enemy had suffered 
severely^ while the Army of the Potomac had but comparatively few killed and 
wounded; but the unfortunate circumstances that contracted the lines of our Army 
enabled the enemy to inflict the severest punishment upon all the troops that were 
engaged. In fact the greatest injury was inflicted on the 8d day of May, while the 
Army had no commander. Had the First Corps, which had not been engaged, and the 
Fifth Corps, still fresh, been thrown into the action in the afternoon of Sunday, the 
3d of May, when Lee's troops were exhausted from the struggle, they would 
certainly have made Chancellorsville what it should have been — a complete success. 
Those two corps mustered from 25,000 to 80,000 men. There was no one to order 
them into the fight and a second golden opportunity was lost." 

I have heard it stated often that had Greneral Couch taken com- 
mand of the Army as soon as Greneral Hooker was disabled, the 
victory would have been ours. 

Webb was promoted to brigadier-general on June 28, 1868, and 
placed in command of the Second Brigade, Second Division of the 
Second Corps. This was only seven days before the battle of Gettys- 
burg. His troops were known as the Philadelphia Brigade, consisting 
of the Sixty-ninth, Seventy-first, Seventy-second and One hundred 

00 



Hleimtder Stewart Tnaebb 

and sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and facetiously known as '" Faddy 
Owen's Regulars.'* 

His official report of the engagements of July 2d and July 8d 
shows that his brigade at 6 :80 a. m. on the 2d was posted on Granite 
Ridge, its right resting on Cushing's Battery A, of the Fourth U. S. 
Artillery, and its left on Battery B, First Rhode Island Artillery, 
Lieutenant Brown conunanding. During the day both of the batteries 
on the flanks of the brigade as well as the infantry engaged the enemy. 
The shelling wounded but few. But the desperate contest occurred 
in the afternoon of July 8d, in the famous charge of Pickett's troops. 
At 1 P. M. the enemy opened with more than twenty batteries on the 
centre* This indicated the direction of their assault. 

'* The Seventy-first Pennsylvania Volunteers were moved to the waU on the right 
of the Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

"About 1 p. M. the enemy opened with more than twenty batteries upon oar 
line. By 2:45 o*clock had silenced the Rhode Island Battery and all the g^ns but 
one of Cushing's Battery, and had plainly shown by his concentration of fire on 
this and the Third Brigade that an important assault was to be expected. 

** I had sent, at 2 p. m.. Captain Banes, assistant adjutant general of the brigade, 
for two batteries to replace Cushing's and Brown*s. Just before the assault. Captain 
Wheeler's (Cowan's) Battery, First New York Artillery (First New York Inde- 
pendent Battery) had gotten in position on the left, in the place occupied by the 
Rhode Island Battery, which had retired with a loss of all its officers but one." 

"At three o'clock the enemy's line of battle left the woods in our front; moved 
in perfect order across the Emmitsburg Road ; formed in the hollow in our immediate 
front several lines of battle, under a fire of spherical case from Wheeler's (Cowan's) 
battery and Cushing's guns, and advanced for the assault." 

" The Seventy-first Pennsylvania Volunteers were advanced to the wall on the 
right of the Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Three of Cushing's guns were 
ran down to the fence, carrying with them their canister. The Seventy-second 
Pennsylvania Volunteers were held in reserve under the crest of the hill. The 
enemy advancd steadily to the fence, driving out a portion of the Seventy-first 
Pennsylvania Volunteers. General Armistead passd over the fence with probably 
over one hundred of his command and with several battle-flags. The Seventy-second 
Pennsylvania Volunteers were ordered up to hold the crest and advance to within 
40 paces of the enemy's lines. Colonel Smith, commanding the Seventy-first Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, threw two companies of his command behind the stone wall on 
the right of Cushing's Battery, 50 paces retired from the point of attack. This 
disposition of his troops was most important. Colonel Smith showed true military 
intelligence on the field. The Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers and most of 
the Seventy-first Pennsylvania Volunteers, even after the enemy were in their rear, 
held their position. The Seventy-second Pennsylvania Volunteers fought steadily 
and persistently, but the enemy would probably have succeeded in piercing our 

97 



BIexan^cr Stewart uniebl) 

lines had not Colonel Hall advanced with several of his regiments to my support 
Defeated, routed, the enemy fled in disorder. General Armistead was left, mortally 
wounded, within my lines, and 42 of the enemy who crossed the fence lay dead. 

" This Brigade captured nearly 1,000 prisoners, battle flags (4 have been 
turned in), and picked up 1,400 stand of arms and 90S sets of accoutrements. 

" The loss of the Brigade on the 2d and Sd was 48 commissioned officers and 
482 enlisted men. But 47 enlisted men are missing." 

General Webb in his report confuses Andrew Cowan's with 
Wheeler's Battery, a mistake which he later took pains to correct. 

A more detailed accomit of the part taken by him and his brigade 
wiU be found at the close of this volume, in an address delivered by 
General Webb to the Seventy-second Pennsylvania Volunteers, at 
the dedication of their monument at Gettysburg. 

Greneral Walker in his splendid history of the Second Corps 
presents this final charge in most graphic form. It is a fine word 
painting of a decisive event in history, and I shall copy it here in full. 

*'The cannonade has lasted an hour and a qnarter, and the ammnnition of the 
artillery is getting low. Brown's Battery, which had suffered severely on the previous 
day, is ordered from the field, and Cowan's New York Battery takes its place. The 
other batteries are directed to cease firing, that they may be ready for the infantry 
charge soon to follow. From right to left our fire dies down, which the Confederates 
interpret to mean that our guns have been silenced by their greater weight of metal; 
and, for a few minutes, they lash our lines with redoubled fury. 

"And now in the edge of the woods, the column of attack is seen forming. 
There stand the Confederate chiefs, grim and resolute for their great emprise. 
Well they understand the desperate hasard of the struggle to which they are called; 
Longstreet, to whom has been assigned the conduct of the day, hesitates. He has 
to be reminded more than once that precious minutes are passing. At last the die 
is cast, the word given, and the splendid column, fourteen thousand strong, is 
launched against the Union line. 

" Of Pickett's Division, Gamett and Kemper are in the first line, Armistead in sup* 
port On Pickett's left is the division of Pettigrew. The advancing line ofi^ers a 
tempting mark to the artillerists on the Union centre and left; but, with an hour and a 
half of such work behind them, and with what is plainly before them in the next half 
hour, it behooves our men to husband their strength and their ammunition. And 
so, for hundreds of yards, this column moves in full view, almost unmolested, on 
its hostile errand. The Second Corps batteries have a special reason for being silent. 
They have nothing but canister remaining, and must await close quarters. But 
now the brigades of Pickett, making a half wheel to the left, in order to bring 
themselves directly face to face with Hancock, expose their right flanks to McGilvray*s 
and Haslitt's guns, while Osborne's batteries, from Cemetery Hill, open on Petti- 
grew's Division. Undaunted by the sudden and tremendous outburst, Longstreet's 
men rush forward over fields and fences, without wavering or staying in their 

98 



HIexan^er Stewart XKUbb 

coane. But Wilcox^ who should hare been on their rights has failed to move in 
time^ exposing thus the flank of the main column. And now the moment of collision 
is approaching. Pickett's Division and a portion of Pettigrew's are directly in front 
of the position occupied bj Gibbon's (Second) Division of the Second Corps. The 
main body of Pettigrew*s Division is equally close to Hays' (Third) Division of 
the Second Corps. Behind Pickett are the brigades of Lane and Scales. 

" Up the slope the Confederates rush with magnificent courage. At two or three 
hundred yards the Union infantry opens its deadly fire, but still the assailants push 
forward, undaunted, though Gamett falls dead in the van. And here appears 
the first serious consequences of Wilcox's failure to come up on the right. This 
has left open Pickett' flank on that side, and Hancock, easily the best tactician of 
the Potomac army, and always on the front line of battle, eagle-eyed, sees and 
seizes his opportunity. Galloping to Stannard's Brigade, he directs him to move 
his regiments to the front and attack the flank of the assailing forces. And now 
the collisions — for which these thousands of Confederates have crossed the bloody 
plain, and for which those soldiers of the Union have waited, through all that 
anxious time — comes with a crash and clamor that might well appall the stoutest 
heart. Upon the Sixty-ninth and Seventy-first Pennsylvania, of Webb's Brigade, 
posted on the low stone wall, falls the full force of Longstreet's mighty blow. 

'* Like leaves in Autumn gales the Philadelphians drop along the line. Now the 
position of the Seventy-first is carried, and the right of the Sixty-ninth is thrown 
over upon its centre; now the Confederate flags wave over the stone wall; the men 
of Kemper and Armistead, of Gamett and Archer, pour in through the gap, led 
by Armistead in person, and beat down Cushing's gunners over their pieces. The 
gallant and accomplished young commander of the battery gives one last shot for 
honor and for country, and falls dead among his men. For the moment that great 
and long-prepared charge is successfuL Meade's line is broken. In the very centre 
of the Union position, crowning Cemetery Ridge, wave the flags of Virginia and 
the Confederacy. 

*' Meanwhile Pettigrew's brigades are engaged at close range with Hays' Division* 
Deployed at fifty to two hundred yards, they maintain an unavailing f usilade, which 
is responded to with fearful effect by the cool and hardy troops of Hays. The 
regiments of Smyth*s Brigade, now commanded by Colonel Pierce, of the One 
hundred and eighth New YoA, for Smyth has been wounded in the cannonade, 
bear themselves with a gallantry that cannot be surpassed. The Twelfth New 
Jersey, First Delaware, and Fourteenth Connecticut, on Smyth's left, poor in a 
deadly fire, before which the Confederate line curls and withers like leaves in 
the flame. While Pettigrew is thus engaged. Lane and Scales, of Pender's Division, 
moving rapidly up from Pickett's rear, thrust themselves into the fight, finding 
a place where they can, among the fighting brigades. Wright, Thomas and McOowan 
advance nearer the scene of conflict, to cover the retreat or to crown the victory. 
And so, for an awful quarter of an hour, the two lines stand confronting each 
other, here two hundred yards apart, there but forty, pouring upon each other a 
close and unremitting fire. 

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BUxall^cr Stewart THOebb 

** Let nt now past in thought to a point behind the Union line shaken by this 
moat gallant aasault, and see what is doing there in that moment of suspense. When 
the Seventy-first Pennsylvania was forced back, and Cushing's guns had fallen 
into the hands of the exultant enemy, no panic seised the veteran troops of the 
Second Corps, which, from the rear and from the flank, behind the Confederate 
flags waving on the stone walL With one spontaneous impulse oflkers and men 
bend themselves toward the point of danger. Gibbon has already fallen, severely 
wounded. The gallant Webb rallies the Seventy-first Pennsylvania and forms it 
on his remaining regiment, the Seventy-second. Hall, whose brigade lies on Webb's 
left, moves a portion of his command promptly to attack the enemy's column in 
flank, while Harrow, of the First Brigade, throws his veteran regiments forward 
to help restore the line. So eager are the troops to join in the fray that men break 
from the ranks and rush toward the point where the head of the Confederate 
column, giving and taking death at every, blow, stiU lies within the Union lines, 
incapable of making further progress, and fast being walled in by a force against 
which it may not long contend. It is a moment for personal example, and personal 
examples are not wanting. Hunt, Chief of Artillery, rides along the line and fires 
barrel after barrel of his revolver into the faces of the enemy; while two young 
officers, bravest of the brave. Major Mitchell, of Hancock's staff, and Lieutenant 
Haskell, of Gibbon's, ride mounted through an interval between the Union battalions, 
and call upon the troops to go forward. 

'* It must be evident, even to one who knows nothing of war, that such a strain 
as this could not be long continued. Something must give way under such a 
pressure. If one side will not, the other must; if not at one point, then at another. 
The Union infantry has come up somewhat tumultuously, it is true, but courageously, 
nay enthusiastically, and has formed around the head of Longstreet's column four 
ranks deep. Armistead is down. Every field-officer in Pickett's Division, except 
Pickett and one lieutenant colonel, has fallen. 

'* The time has come to advance the standards of the Second Corps. With loud 
cries and a sudden forward surge, in which every semblance of formation is lost, 
the Union troops move upon the now faltering foe. One moment more and all 
is over. The most of the surviving Confederates throw themselves on the ground; 
others seek to escape capture, and retreat hurriedly down the hill and across the 
plain, which is once more shrieking with the fire of the artillery, now reinforced 
by Weir's, Wheeler's, Kinsie's, and other batteries. 

** Then did the Second Corps go forward, ' gathering up battle-flags in sheaves ', 
and gathering in prisoners by thousands. Thirty-three standards and four thousand 
prisoners are the fruits of that victory. And so Fredericksburg is avenged! Yet 
not without frightful losses. Hancock has fallen, desperately wounded; in the 
moment of victory. Gibbon and Webb are also wounded; while in the Second 
Division, on which fell the utmost weight of the great assault five battalion com- 
manders have been killed. Scarcely any regimental field-officers remain unwounded. 
The corps artillery, too, has suffered an extraordinary severity of punishment. 
Cushing is dead, and Woodruff and Rorty ; Brown is wounded, Arnold alone remains 
at the head of his battery." 

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Blexan^er Stewart Mcbb 

For his great and specific gallantry here he was brevetted major 
in the regular army and was awarded the Medal of Honor. 

General Meade in presenting to General Webb a replica of the 
gold medal given to him by the Union League Club in Philadelphia, 
in 1866, wrote: 

" In selecting those to whom I would distribute these medals I know of no 
one general who has more claims than yourself either for distinguished personal 
gallantry on that ever memorable field, or for the cordial, warm and generous 
sympathy and support so grateful for a commanding general to receive from his 
subordinates. Accept therefore the accompanying medal^ not only as commemorative 
of the conspicuous part you bore in the great battle, but as an evidence on my 
part of reciprocation of the kindly feelings that have always characterized our inter- 
course both official and social." 

■ 

In reporting the bill to place General Webb on the retired list. 
Senator Proctor, chairman of the committee on military affairs, said: 

"General Webb's conduct at Gettysburg^ July 3, 1868^ is particularly worthy 
of mention. He was in command of the Second Brigade of the Second Division 
of the Second Corps^ and had been with the color guard of the Seventy-second 
Pennsylvania Volunteers^ of whom every man was wounded or killed. General 
Webb left the color-guard and went across the front of the companies to the right 
of the Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania all the way between the lines in order to direct 
the fire of the latter regiment upon a company of rebels who had rushed across 
the low stone wall^ led by the rebel general^ Armistead. Thus^ General Armistead 
and General Webb were both between the lines of troops, and both were wounded; 
but by this act of gallantry General Webb kept his men up to their work until 
more than one-half were killed or wounded. In this action he was wounded by 
a bullet which struck him near the gproin. General Meade, in his letter presenting 
a medal to General Webb^ mentions this act as one not surpassed by any general 
on the field." 

During the year following the battle of Gettysburg, General Webb 
was twice in command of the Second Division of the Second Corps. 
He was division commander at Bristoe Station, where he captured 
from Hill's Corps five guns, a large number of prisoners and two 
battle-flags. 

An incident at Bristoe Station is pleasantly told by General 
Walker. The sharp rattle of musketry indicates that the flanking 
regiment, the First Minnesota, has encountered the skirmishers of 
the enemy and that a smart fight was at hand. He writes : 

" A pretty to do it is ! A moment more discloses the Confederate infantry form- 
ing upon the crest on the left, to advance against the flank of our column. Those 

102 



Blcxan^er Stewart Tiael>l> 

are the brigades of Cooke and Kirkland^ coming fast into line to face the rail* 
road instead of the stream^ while Poague's pieces^ diverted from their practice apon 
the rear of the Fifth Corps column^ are galloping into battery on a new Une, to 
turn their fire upon Webb, who, discerning the importance of securing the crossing 
of Broad Run, moves at double-quick toward the Ford. 

" Brown's B, First Rhode Island, was marching literally at the very head of 
the column. Upon the discovery of the enemy the bugle cry, 'Cannoneers, mount!* 
rings out, and, with ' trot, march ! ' the battery dashes across the plain, goes splash- 
ing through Broad Run and comes at once into action from the other side. The 
race has been a sharp one, with the Confederates moving squarely down on Webb's 
flank; but Webb gets to the stream, and even crosses the Ei^ty*second New Yoik, 
to hold the opposite bank with Brown, while he faces his remaining regiments to 
the left to meet the impending blow." 

He adds in conclusion of this contest : 

** It is dark, and ' Bristoe Station ' has passed into history. It can be no longet 
written that the Second Corps threw off the first attack of Heth, but was crushed 
beneath the gathering masses of Hill and Ewell. The corps has accomplished its 
difficult and perilous task; and is now at liberty to withdraw, as fast as the weary 
legs of the men will carry them, to join their comrades behind Bull Run. Its 
spirited young leader has made himself a reputation of the first class; and, though 
only temporarily assigned to the command, it cannot be doubtful that he will find 
a place among the permanent corps commanders of the Army of the Potomac" 

General Webb's own official report of December 4, 1868, of the 
campaign at Mine Rmi tells modestly what his division did and the 
principal part is here given: 

" At daylight on Thursday, November 2C, in accordance with orders, this dirision 
marched from camp near Ross' Mills to Germania Ford on the Rapidan River, 
crossed the river at 2:30 p. m., marched four miles, and camped during the night 
near the Chancellorsville plank road. On the morning of the 27th marched to 
Robertson's Cross Roads, at which point the Third Division, which preceded, was 
skirmishing with the enemy, who was endeavoring to get possession of the ridge 
which commanded the crossing of the turnpike and Raccoon Ford road. The 
Second and Third brigades were immediately placed in position on the right of the 
Third Division; the Seventy-first and Seventy-second Pennsylvania and two com- 
panies of the Nineteenth Massachusetts were ordered forward as skirmishers. 
A brisk skirmish took place, during which the Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania and Fifteenth 
Massachusetts were deployed on the right of the Seventy-second. At three p. m., 
the enemy's skirmishers were reported coming around the right of the skirmish line. 
The First Brigade, Colonel Baxter commanding, was directed to take up position 
on the right, which movement checked the enemy's advance. The skirmish line was 
then ordered to advance, supported by the First Brigade, and wheel to the left and 
feel the enemy. The line advanced 600 yards, and, not meeting with opposition, 

102 



BlexanDer Stewart VJUcbb 

was halted and dispositions made for the night The line of battle connecting on 
the left with the Third Division at Robertson's Cross-Roads extending along the 
ridge to Jacob's Ford road^ connecting on the right with the Sixth Corps. 

**On the morning of the 28th^ the division marched in line of battle to Mine 
Ron^ near Old Verdierville, in which position it remained until 5 p. m. of the 80th^ 
when it was relieved by the Second Division^ Fifth Corps^ General Ayres command- 
ing. It then marched past the rear of the Sixth Corps and rejoined the First and 
Third divisions of the Second Corps at Robertson's Cross-Roads^ marching toward 
New Verdierville, and halting on the plank road two miles from the enemy's works 
at 8 p. M. Here the Third Brigade, Colonel Morehead commanding^ was ordered 
to report to General Caldwell, as the enemy was reported coming around his right 
flank. The Nineteenth and Twentieth Massachusetts were deployed and skirmished 
with the enemy until darii. The division camped for the night near the plank road. 
At 4 A. M. oh the 50th, the division moved to a position between the railroad and 
plank road, where it was concealed from the enemy and placed in two lines, for 
the purpose of storming the enemy's works; its right connected with the Second 
Division, Third Corps; the left rested on the railroad and connected with the 
Third Division, Second Corps. Remained in this position until dark, when it 
retired to the woods directly in its rear, and camped for the night, with the 
First Division, Second Corps, on its right. It remained in this position until 
8 p. M. December 1, when the division was moved in rear of the corps^ left in 
front, toward Gold Mine Ford, on Rapidan River. Crossed the river at Gold Mine 
Ford at 9 a. m. December 2d, and reached camp, left on the 20th of November 
at dark." 

In the campaign of 1864 when Grant took command of all the 
armies and made his headquarters with General Meade, General 
Webb participated. In his brilliant recital of the events of that 
advance, in the "' Battles and Leaders of the Civil War," he gives a 
graphic accomit of what the Army did. Grant's officers and men 
numbered nearly one hundred and fifteen thousand. Such a number 
disposed for battle would cover a line of twenty*one miles, two ranks 
deep and one-third in reserve. Lee had sixty-two thousand, which 
would cover twenty miles. But Lee had the interior line and could 
at any moment reinforce a point of attack. 

In this struggle, at the Wilderness, Grcneral Webb's Brigade, on 
the 6th of May, advanced and found itself engaged with Field's 
Division, consisting of Gregg's, Benning's, Law's and Jenkins' bri- 
gades, on the north side of the Orange Plank Road. The Second 
Corps was hotly engaged. He says : 

*' One of Bnmside's dirisions, under Stevenson, moved up the plank road in 
our support and I placed four of his regiments, taken from the head of his column, 
as my right, then pressed to the right and changed my whole line, which had been 

103 



Hlexan^er Stevmrt MeDl> 

driven back to the plank road, forward to its original line^ holding Field's Division 
in check with the twelve regiments now under my command. Now at this very 
moment. General Wadsworth (who had assumed command over me because he stated 
that Stevenson ranked me and he must take us both in his command) had given 
to me the most astonishing and bewildering orders, — which was to have the twelve 
regiments under my command at his (Wads worth's) disposal, and to go to the 
left and find four regiments and stop the retreat of those troops of the left of 
our line, who were flying to the Brock Road. When I rode ofi^ to obey this 
unfortunate order, General Wadsworth, in order to stop the enemy's attack upon 
Birney on his left, sent to the Twentieth Massachusetts of my brigade and ordered 
that regiment to leave its log-works and charge the enemy's line, a strong breast* 
work on the west side of the ravine on Wadsworth's front. 

"General Wadsworth was told that the regiment could not be safely moved, 
that I had changed my front on the regiment and held the line by means of it. 
Wadsworth answered that the men were afraid, leaped his horse over the logs and 
led them in the charge himself. He was mortally wounded and my line was 
broken by Field and swept off as by a whirlwind." 

"Bimey's line was also broken under an attack led by General Lee 
in person. When the general returned from his endeavor to carry out 
General Wadsworth's order, he held this position. Colonel Connor 
was shot in the leg, in the logworks, and his regiment remained until 
Webb gave the order to retreat to the Brock road. 

"May 6th was the last day of the battle. Ewell had stopped the movement 
of the right wing of Meade's army and Hill and Longstreet had defeated Hancock 
on the left. The Second and Ninth Corps had been driven in detail and the 
Fifth and Sixth were blocked. The confidence of the troops in their officers was 
much shaken." 

The movement towards Spotsylvania was begun, led by the Fifth, 
and followed by the Sixth Corps. General Webb*s notes show that 
his part of the Second Corps obeyed orders implicitly. " We waited 
to cover the movements of the rest of the army and then took our 
place at 4 p. m. on the eighth of May on the Brock road, about one 
mile southeast of Todd's Tavern." 

Of his principal work in this engagement at Spotsylvania, he 
states that Hancock, after repulsing the enemy, crossed to the north 
side of the Po river. One gun, the first ever lost by the Second Corps, 
was jammed between the trees and had to be abandoned. Meanwhile, 
Warren determined to attack. This was on the 10th of May. The 
colrmin included Crawford's Division, Cutler's (formerly Wads- 
worth's) Division and Webb's and Carroll's brigades, of the Second 
Corps. Many gained the Confederate works but were driven back. 

104 



Blcxant)er Stewart Tllllebb 

At half past five, Hancock returned and ordered another attack at 
seven, but was driven back. On the left, Wright had found a 
vulnerable point. Emory Upton was to lead the attack. " Upton,*' 
he writes, "' formed in four lines. The Sixth Corps batteries played 
upon the left of the enemy's salient, enfilading it, and as they ceased 
firing, Upton charged. Rushing to the parapet with a wild ' Hurrah ', 
heedless of the terrible front of flank fire he received, his men passed 
over the enemy's breast works after a hand-to-hand fight, and passing 
forward took the second line of rebel entrenchments with its battery." 

Mott did not support Upton and the latter retired imder orders 
taking with him several standards and twelve hundred prisoners. 

On that day the Second, Fifth and Sixth Corps lost forty-one 
hundred men killed and wounded, with very few missing. 

On the 11th, dispositions were made for the grand assault at the 
*^ Bloody Angle." During the night three divisions of the Second 
Corps were to move to the left, behind the Sixth and Fifth, and join 
the Ninth Corps in an attack at 4 a. m. on the 12th. The attack was 
made at 4:85 a. m., and General Johnson, four thousand of Ewell's 
men and twenty pieces of artillery were captured. At this time. 
General Webb was dangerously shot and carried to the rear. In 
respect to this he said, that in the Wilderness he was speaking with 
Wadsworth, explaining why he thought it useless to look after men 
who were shot in the head. He thought such cases were past cure, 
unless a man could lift up his head, and when he himself was wounded 
at Spotsylvania the discussion recurred to him. The bullet which 
struck him had passed through the comer of his eye and came out 
behind his ear. When he struck the ground after falling from his 
horse, he made an effort to raise his head and when he succeeded he 
made up his mind that he would not die of the wound — and fainted. 
In January, 1865, he returned to active service as chief of staff to G^n. 
George G. Meade, commanding the Army of the Potomac, and served 
as such until after Lee's surrender at Appomattox. 

He was mustered out of the volunteer service on January 15, 1866, 
and after some reconstruction duties as Military Governor of Virginia 
was made Assistant-Professor of Geography, History and Ethics at 
West Point. When the Army was reorganized, he was appointed 
Lieut.-Colonel of the Forty-fourth Infantry. In December, 1870, 
he was, at his own request, discharged to accept a civil position as 
President of the College of the City of New York. 

105 



Bleian^er Stewart TUlebb 

Several brevets were conferred upon him. Lieutenant-Colonel, 
October 11, 1868, for Bristoe Station; Colonel, May 12th, 1864, for 
Spotsylvania, Brigadier-General, March 18, 1865, for the campaign 
ending with the surrender of Lee, and same date Major-General, 
August 1, 1864, for Grettysburg, Bristoe Station, the Wilderness and 
Spotsylvania. All of these were for gallant and meritorious services. 

His entire absences from the Army from April, 1861, to April, 
1865, including the time that he was recovering from wounds, did not 
exceed two months. After his woimd in 1864, he did court-martial 
and recruiting duty until he joined his command. It must not be 
overlooked that after Gettysburg and until April, 1864, he com- 
manded the division of which his brigade was a part. He was entitled 
to and should have received promotion at this time. 

Greneral Webb's system, weakened doubtless by his wounds, began 
to fail about a year before his death, and on the 12th of February, 

1911, he died. In three days he would have reached the age of 
seventy-six. He died on Lincoln's birthday and was buried on his 
own birthday, February 15th. After funeral services in New York 
City the remains were taken to West Point and interred with military 
honors. 

Mrs. Webb survived her husband until the 15th day of November, 

1912. General Webb's family comprised Mrs. Webb, Henry R. R. 
Webb, who died in infancy, and William Remsen Webb, who died 
in March, 1899; Helen Lispenard Webb (Mrs. John E. Alexandre), 
Elizabeth Remsen Webb (Mrs. (rcorge B. Parsons) , Anne R. Webb, 
Caroline LeRoy Webb, Alexander Stewart Webb, Jr., and Louisa 
De Peyster Webb (Mrs. W. John Wadsworth), who died in 1910. 



106 



Ocncral aiexati^cr %tcwm VHebb in CMi %iU 

»t Aajof abac ic« JB. l|?^ccltcf 



FROM his birth in 1885 to his entrance to the U. S. Military 
Academy at West Point, young Webb was in civil life, and 
had the education of a home where there was no lack of life 
and energy, and conspicuous Americanism, for James Watson Webb 
was a man of the strongest individuality. He also had the benefit of 
instruction in one of the best private schools, the Churchill School, 
at Sing Sing. From 1851 to 1869, his associations were emphatically 
military and these experiences left him a man of action, of kindly 
impulse, of just appreciation of the value of character, honor, 
patriotism, ability and industry. From July 1866 to October 1868, 
he was on detail to the West Point Academy as Instructor in Con- 
stitutional and International Law, and from there he was elected by 
the Board of Trustees of the College of the City of New York to the 
office of president of that institution. 

The college has always been moulded after the U. S. Military 
Academy in its course of study, particularly in science and mathe- 
matics, and it not only seemed logical to find a West Pointer to 
succeed the retiring president, Horace Webster, but the time was one 
when a gifted war veteran w,as most acceptable to the people of New 
York to manage the people's college. At that time he was a com- 
paratively slight, dark haired, swarthy faced man of thirty-four years, 
having a finely moulded head, erect upon a compact but nervous and 
active frame, displaying assertion and eagerness, in all his move* 
ments and speech. 

He early found that the educational authorities were yielding to 

the constant and unvarying cry for reform, change, reconstruction 

and economy, usually made by persistent theorists or self seekers, to 

. men who are too often uncertain in their own conceptions of what is 

most valuable and wise. 

The following was written in 1902 as a summary of the work of 
General Webb as president. 

107 



BIcxant)er Stewart XKUJoib 

He promptly set about acquiring a grasp of the situation^ and his 
report to the Board of Trustees, in October, 1869, shows how early 
in his new position the path of the college was made thorny. 

The Board of Trustees had resolved in substance October 4th, 
1869: 

1. To consolidate the chairs of English and of History. 

2. To consolidate the chairs of Mathematics and Mixed 
Mathematics. 

8. To require the President to teach all the Philosophy taught. 

4. To abolish all tutorships except one. 

5. To give professors $5000 per annum *' in view of their increased 
duties." 

It must have astonished the new president to see how many ways 
there were of criticising and balking the work of the institution. Of 
course the trustees listened to reason and the arguments of (xcneral 
Webb, and did not do any of the things threatened. But they put a 
firm limitation on the broadening views of the professors and president, 
and every one settled back to the old work. 

The following statements appear fairly to be sustained by the 
records of the Board of Trustees: 

General Webb at once suggested changes in the courses of studies, 
some of which were made in 1870. He reconunended that German 
be put upon an equal footing with the French and Spanish languages, 
and that those in the lower classes be given an opportunity to study 
that language. Theretofore the study of German had been limited to 
the comparatively few who became juniors and seniors. 

He advised that the students of the introductory class be on proba- 
tion the first ei^t weeks, and that those who clearly showed their 
lack of preparation, or their indisposition to enter upon the college 
work, be dropped. This effective change was made and relieved the 
college greatly. It also improved the tone of the sections. 

He early advocated the enlargement of the classical schedule of 
studies, and this has eventually resulted in separating the classical and 
scientific courses very markedly, so that the graduates of the college 
now have no cause to regard themselves as stinted in their collegiate 
training in the ancient languages. 

In 1878, the commercial course was added to the college, but this 
was never regarded as of a character to warrant its association with 
the regular courses, and after a few years it was abandoned. 

lOS 



Blexan^er Stewart TRaebb 

In 1875, through the advocacy of Professor Compton, a post- 
graduate course in civil engineering was created, but no degree was 
ever favored by the president. General Webb had early founded a 
manual instruction course by which students were given an opportu- 
nity after hours to perfect themselves in the use of tools. Ultimately 
the mechanical course was incorporated in the college schedule in 1881. 
Originally this was a three years' course, but in 1889 it was enlarged 
to a five years' course, and became a regular collegiate course, yielding 
to graduates the degree of B. S. 

General Webb always opposed those who considered yoimg men 
in the sophomore class ready to enter upon a proposed course of 
pedagogy. He was consistently against the establishment of the 
commercial course, and his aim was always to steady the work of 
the institution along the lines of its original foundation. He never 
believed that the average student attending college should be given 
early in the course too much indulgence in electives. 

When, in 1897, the high schools were established and inaugurated 
as a part of the public education of the city by those whose aims 
appeared to be hostile to the College, the foresight of the president 
forced the establishment of a College High School by the subdivision 
of the entrance classes, and an extension of their courses, so as to 
maintain the supply necessary to keep the College alive. 

During the years 1895 and 1897, when the earnest and successful 
efforts of the friends of the college, led by its Alumni Association, 
were made to procure the legislation for a new sitj. there was no one 
who gave more continuous and intelligent application to the accom- 
plishment of the work than the president of the College, never thwart* 
ing but always aiding that movement. When, finsily, in 1898, the 
supplementary act had to be passed to provide the additional sum of 
$200,000, Greneral Webb's personal aid on the floor of the Senate waS 
instrumental in having the bill taken up out of its course on the last 
day of the session, thus insuring its successful passage. 

It was an exciting moment, when, in the hurry and struggle and 
bustle of the last hours of the Legislature, Mr. Ellsworth, the leader 
of the Senate, taking the distinguished president of the College on 
the floor of the Senate, and introducing him as the hero of Grcttysburg, 
asked unanimous consent to pass out of its order the bill which had 
come from the Assembly, after over a week's careful watching and 
urging, and in a few minutes the work of its adoption was done. 

109 



Blexall^er fttewirc WcW 

The loyalty of Webb to the College idea, led him to be conservative 
toward the progress of events which have gone through something of 
a cycle. He wrote on one occasion: 

" Colleges will difTer according to their especial objects and location^ but not 
in the essential lines of instruction. Every college graduate is to-daj as good a 
man as any other college graduate^ or he is^ in his own estimation^ a little better 
than any other college graduate. The term is a well known one and we must respect 
the title^ and see to it that no reputable college reduces its course^ or changes its 
general course in any way to bring contempt on the Bachelor's degree. But the 
advocate of the elective course comes in and tells us that we are all wrong. Parts 
of our course studied in excess are better for this man and that man than the whole 
course. 

"One cannot conceive how the plan proposed could tend to produce harmony 
amid all these conflicting interests. We sincerely deplore that we must differ con- 
scientiously from high authorities in matters which refer to the policy to be adopted 
by our institutions of higher education^ but^ at this time^ it is especially necessary 
to be plain spoken against invasions of the present college course as arranged by 
the best minds of the country, and to express determined hostility to the abuse 
of the elective system, leading as it does to these discussions, when this 
system is applied to students not of the university grade." 

It was a great disappointment to General Webb not to continue 
in office until the great structures could be built upon the site acquired 
for the College on Convent Heights. He had seen the college grow 
beyond all power to care for its students; he had made an army of 
friends and admirers and the college was most firmly established as an 
integral part of the educational system of the City. 

On his retirement he received the highest tributes of respect from 
Students Alumni, Faculty and Trustees; and several years after the 
Associate Alumni gave him a most enthusiastic banquet, at which the 
decorations were his old corps flags, and the speakers his ardent 
admirers and friends. 

This was the students' tribute: 

" And we who have known the general so well, will ever remember that noble, 
gentle face and kindly eye, reflecting as it does a heart as big as the man himself. 
In him we have always found a staunch friend^ a wise counsellor, a merciful judge. 
Slow to anger, steadfast in the right, dignified, courteous, noble, generous, in fact 
an ideal man whom we all might well follow as a precept and example, for it can 
truly be said of him, ' He was a man the like of whom we shall not see again 



f f9 



The dominant trait which Webb, as president, represented, was 
a manly example of heroic, patriotic and worthy actions, 
no 



Hleianber Stewart Mebb 

General Webb took a prominent part in the ceremonies attendant 
upon the inauguration of General Grant as President of the United 
States; and was grand marshal of the funeral parade in New York 
City to the same distinguished person. 

After his retirement, General Webb was occupied in his home at 
Riverdale in working up some of his old army records, and in the 
Military Service Institution of the United States, of which he became 
the president. He particularly labored to foster attention to military 
education. The last year of his life was one of weakening strength, 
and he passed away, survived by his wife, a son and four daughters. 



Ill 



Bit W^€8B IMtvered at tfetttflmri 

BnaMt 27» 1883 

•eticnil aiexciidet Stewctc Webb 

at tbc VcMcstlon M AoMsmciil la tbc 9cvciitv«Sccoiid 9citii««lwiifa Vofuiitcccf 



TIESE CHiet of the Dead, ettaUiibed bj the Goremmeiit of the United 
Statei — preferred hj the loving handf of thoie who cherish the laddeit 
recoUeetions of onr late war — are the lasting moniunents we have reared 



to testify to our assurance that it was Ood himself who presenred this Union; 
they are the pledges we have given that we will be its conservators. 

We, therefore, approach in revere nti al respect and affectionate regret the graves 
of onr eomrades who have fallen, and, with tender recollection of our last companion- 
ship with them, we drop the tear of pride — jes, but of glorious pride — when we 
lecall the time and the circmnstance of their death— *tlie time of onr own salvatloii. 

And why boild monuments and pay loving respect and especial tribute to the 
memory of these men? Why claim for them a little more of these sad testimooials 
of onr devotion than we give to others? 

If from these few words of mine we may find left with os the ccmviction that 
these cold marbles are not yet sufficient to record, with anything like fidelity, the 
magnitude of the services rendered by the men who foo^t on this spot, we will 
have done no more than simple justice to their patriotism in this our act of 



It is proper, therefore, that it should devolve upon one who was present with 
you in onr glorious defense of "the main point of the Union line npon which 
General Lee ordered his columns to advance" (this is from Longstreet himself), 
it is proper, I repeat, to write that of which he can speak as an actor in the fray, 
with the certainty that no one will hereafter gainsay a clear statement of what 
we may all now testify to, and with the feeling that, in performing this labor of love, 
he does nothing more than pay a proper tribute to the memory of these who died a 
soldier's death while rendering to their country a service for which no adequate 
recompense can be or will ever be made, either to their heirs or to their companions 
stm living. 

For thus it is, and thus it always must be, with Republics; so that, expecting 
nothing and seeking nothing from our Oovemment, we come to engrave on imperiih- 
able marble our tribute to the faUen in your old Seventy-second Pennsylvania, 
knowing, as none others know, the time, the circumstance of their final devotion 
and gallantry, and death. 

112 



^1 



PUBLIC LIBRA.; 



.1 



y^^ ; 






Blexan^er Stewart Mctb 

You will; therefore^ gladly, no doubt, dwell with me for a few moments while 
I endeavor to place before you the facts and the circumstances which gave to the 
old clump of trees we so long defended, and which we never lost, the well-deserved 
name of " the turning point in the war." 

And who were these men whose graves are now so signally honored, and whose 
death we crown with historical tribute? 

Enlisted in Philadelphia, in August, 1861, by Col. D. W. C. Baxter, they 
served under our old chief McClellan, on the Peninsula, rendering signal service 
at Fair Oaks, where, under the war horse Sumner and gallant Sedgwick, they came 
to the support of General Heintselman, and with Sully and others checked the 
Rebel advance at a moment when all was confusion and much was panic. Thence 
to Peach Orchard and Savage Station, under their still honored and respected 
Oen. W. W. Bums, they passed to Glendale, displaying such staying qualities, and 
exhibiting such results of their discipline and drill, that they, together with the 
other regiments of the brigade, secured the promotion of their well-tried commander 
of the Sixty-ninth, Joshua T. Owen, to a brigadier-generalship. Tried and exposed 
to shot and shell at Malvern Hill, they rested at Harrison's Landing — veterans — 
with a history of which they might well be proud. Surviving the disasters and 
mismanagements of the second Bull Run, they covered the retreat from Chantilly 
to the defenses of Washington under Generals Sully and Sumner in person. 

And now we ask your attention to their next service, since some writers have 
been misled, and these men, who, on this spot, fought with me, and made me 
known as their commander, have the right to demand for their reputation the services 
of my pen and voice. 

Antietam was a scene of their success and of their bloody loss. It was not to 
them at any time a source of discomfort or of loss of reputation. Let Dunker 
Church, had it a voice, relate how they passed by it, across the open field, far, 
far into the wood, arrested only by the personal order of Sumner himself. Count 
the missing and the slain, and recall the promotion of Wistar, and then ask if all 
this can be, and this regiment and this brigade be charged with remaining in the 
rear or retiring without success. 

At this time I cannot stop to dwell upon Fredericksburg, where their services are 
acknowledged and recorded. Time fails me, and I hasten on to this historic field. 

The battle of ChancellorsviUe, May 2d to May 5, 1865, whereby Gen. Joseph 
Hooker lost much of his hard-earned reputation, was to the Northern patriots so 
severe a blow — and to the Southern rebel so just a cause for pride and elation-— 
that it is not a matter of wonder that Gen. R. £. Lee, taking into consideration 
the situation at Vicksburg, and almost certainty of the surrender of that city to 
General Grant, determined to " counterbalance that impending disaster ** by striking 
at once at the existence of the Army of the Potomac, and our possession of the 
Capitol at Washington by invading the North. 

In matters international, it is generally customary, and probably wise, to dis* 
semble in regard to our feelings toward all nations — but it will be better for us, 
if we study well the relations of the foreign powers to the United States during 
this portion of the year 1868 — before we give way to any very strong feelings of 

118 



mexan^er Stewart TKlebl) 

reverence or esteem for their policies^ their interest in^ or their appreciation of 
our institutions. And^ after such study^ if we find that the neutrality of the govern- 
ment of England (save on the part of her queen and prince consort) was shallow 
and pretentious; the position of France positively hostile; all other nations^ except 
Russia, inclined to rejoice in our defeats, it may be well, on such occasions as 
these, to give way to that which is the honest expression of a reasonable distrust 
of all their pretensions, past, present and future, and thus leave behind for the 
careful consideration of our posterity the soldier's maxim: 



" In peace prepare for War." 

That dissembling policy strongly characterized the condition of affairs so far as 
regards our foreign relations from May 3d to July 4, 1863; but Vicksburg and 
Gettysburg made it necessary for all these powers to continue dissimulation 
indefinitely. 

It may thus be understood that Lee did not lack good and sufficient reasons for, 
and moral support in, beginning his invasion, and he seems to have felt confident, 
and reasonably so, that with a force of 75,000 men, placed north of Baltimore 
and Washington — cutting or menacing all their conmiunications North, East and 
West — he would be in a position to receive sufficient aid from the Northern 
Copperheads and the foreign neutrals, to warrant the claim from his Rebel 
"Government," that England should throw aside her mask, and acknowledge ^* The 
(so-called) Confederacy of the South." 

What a day dream! With English guns, English Shenandoahs, English moral 
support, and now English loans. What was to stand between Rebel hopes and 
Rebel success? 

Just one power, Onmipotent in council, irresistible in the field — 



" The WUl of God." 

Why relate to you the incidents of the march from the Rappahannock to 
Gettysburg. You all took part in it, and remember it, and you care for little 
other than the remembrance of the facts as you now recall them. It is sufficient 
for us to repeat that, July first, we found the Rebels here, and that we knew 
that they had come to stay, if the right hand of the Government, the force in 
whom the people of the North had their wAe dependence did not drive them out. 
The people knew the qualities of the Army of the Potomac. They relied upon it, 
and not in vain. 

And now we near our subject, "The value of the sacrifice of these men — 
at this point of all others on this field — on the second and third days of the 
battle of Gettysburg." 

For nearly two months the disagreement between the War Department and 
General Hooker had been steadily approaching that point at which the resignation 
or relief of this General from the command of the Army was at last inevitable, 
and on the 29th of June, Major General George Gordon Meade was placed in 
command of the troops, who were destined under Divine Providence to drive Lee 
forever from Northern soil. 

114 



Bleiattt>er Stewart Webb 

Bid not farewell to Joseph Hooker without expressing for his memory that 
meed of praise which should he his — by reason of his services from the Peninsula 
to Gettysburg. He was willing and anxious to fight at all times — was an able^ 
impetuous commander in the presence of the enemy — was a warm friend of any 
one he considered a good soldier, and an able man in the field; but was most 
unwise in the selection of his surroundings. 

His was a sad fate. Stripped of his unwise counsellors, and surrounded by 
good men and able staff officers, he would have ceased to have been his own worst 
enemy. He is dead. His faults lie buried with him. He was a courageous, 
ambitious, fearless commander — an organizer of men, a fast friend. 

How can we of the Army of the Potomac speak in adequate terms of our last 
beloved commander. General Geo. G. Meade! 

He who addresses you, as you well know, knew him as a soldier as intimately as 
any one, serving with him night and day, in battle and in camp — how can he 
express to you one tithe of his love and respect for him ! 

The man, who was the first and only man who ever met Lee in his pride and 
strength in pitched battle, and defeated him, has, I know, been assailed for years 
by those whose military history will bear but little examination. And recently they 
have found a mouth-piece quite willing to repeat, without sufficient experience or 
any personal knowledge, the scandals to which these writers gave life, only after 
their final deposition from active commands or responsible duty in an army, to 
whose success, against Lee, they could have added, and did add nothing. 

But George G. Meade was, and is, known to have been the soul of honor, the 
Christian soldier and patriot, the modest, kind, scholarly friend, to all who approached 
him for counsel and support, the successful chief of the grandest army this continent 
ever has seen, or ever will see. How dare they tell us — on their hearsay— that 
such a man deliberately evaded telling the whole truth before the Committee of 
Congress, which was endeavoring to fasten upon him (by his own evidence) these 
malignant aspersions of those discharged, relieved, or retired officers— men who 
well knew that under such a commander as Meade, all the abuses practised during 
Gen. Hooker's rule, to which they owed their advancement, must cease. Gen. Meade 
then declared under oath, and called upon his God to witness to his then repeated 
declaration, that not one word of their charges against him was, or ever had been, true. 

Strong indeed is the testimony of Sedgwick, Howard, Newton, Sykes, Williams 
and Gibbon, and A. S. Williams, who were present at the Council of War, held 
July 2d, against Pleasanton and Doubleday, who were not present, and Slocum, who 
thought Gen. Meade said that, *' Gettysburg was no place to fight a battle." Stronger 
yet, for the truth of history, is the evident inability of Gen. Bimey to charge Gen. 
Meade with any other fault than "seeming indisposed to fight, or hazard a battle 
on any except the most favorable terms." Strong indeed, on the side of Meade, is 
the testimony of Generals Warren, Hunt, and Seth Williams, his trusted staff officers ; 
and finally, and last of all, and most powerful against the influence of the authors 
of these charges, are the circumstances surrounding their separation from this army, 
and the natural result therefrom, that some, or all of them, have been finally per- 
mitted to sink into oblivion after having failed utterly in their endeavors to detract 

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from the well-earned reputation of Geo. G. Meade. Their punishment is well 
deserved. 

This Christian soldier, on June 28th, took command of our dear old army, and, 
when he sent forth the following address to us, we well knew that he and we had 
come to succeed here or be sacrificed: 

" By direction of the President of the United States, I hereby assume 
command of the Army of the Potomac. As a soldier, in obeying this order — 
an order totally unexpected and unsolicited — I have no promises or pledges 
to make. The country looks to this army to relieve it from the devastation 
and disgrace of a hostile invasion. Whatever fatigues and sacrifices we may 
be called upon to undergo, let us have in view constantly the magnitude of the 
interests involved, and let each man determine to do his duty, leaving to an 
all-controlling Providence the decision of the contest" 

And believing in this all-controlling Providence, and relying on the skill, the 
soldierly ability, and the guidance of such a commander, the Army of the Potomac 
moved to this spot, ready to determine here in these open fields whether or not it 
was yet the will of God that the Union should be saved. 

And now for a brief allusion to the battle and to the part these fallen heroes 
took in it. Pardon me if I relate something concerning the details of it, which you 
may know even better than myself. For the sake of the truth in history bear with 
me for a little while. 

This three days' contest was a constant recurrence of scenes of self-sacrifice, 
and of exhibition of wise prescience, on the part of Meade, Reynolds and Howard 
on the first day; of Sykes, Warren, Weed, Hancock and Geo. S. Greene, the man 
who saved our right flank, on the second; and on the part of all engaged on the 
third and last day. Lee was ever active and pushed us sorely. 

The list of dead and wounded among our higher officers stands an ever present 
witness to the severity of these actions, and their loss was indeed to us, who had 
served with and had learned to respect and follow these men, most terrible. 

The history of the battle has been told and retold until we are all familiar with 
the well established particulars of it, as well as with most of the claims made by 
those who have not as yet been able to agree as to whether they were posted by 
themselves, by their commanders, or by individual skill and forethought, in localities 
calculated to repel Lee's and also any other army of the Rebel Confederacy. 

In the presence of the graves of our dead let us repeat that which I wrote of 
you about twenty years ago, sustained as I have been in my statements by the best 
of our historians, and conscious of my willingness and desire to acknowledge the 
rights and the claims of any and every soldier who may have participated in our 
triumph. 

Men of the Philadelphia Brigade held this position for the whole period of the 
battle, and were never driven from one rod or foot of it under any circumstance, 
save when the two companies of the Seventy-first, to which I refer in my report, 
others of the same regiment having been already removed to afford a space for 
artillery fire, were fairly overwhelmed, and driven back 100 to 150 feet by a mass 
of the enemy, now known to be equal in volume to a full brigade. Some men of 

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the other brigades of our dirisioii pasted in rear of our Sevent j-second Regiment 
to its right, and, after the assault, to our front, who were not at any moment in 
the inmiediate face of the rebels, and who yet daim to hare passed through that 
regiment. They did not 

Justice — simple justice — to these, our dead, require this declaration, and if 
I am to-day brought in direct conflict of statement with some of those who so 
patriotically endeavored to assist us on July 8d, it is not through a want of appre- 
ciation of their efforts. God knows that I was grateful enough to them; but it is 
simply through my sense of duty to the memory of these, over whose graves we 
hold this service. 

In loving commemoration of their devotion and daring, I must restrict these claims. 

You were posted, as yon will remember, early on July Sd, on this ridge,^ and 
on the right of our division, by order of Brigadier-General Gibbon, our commander. 
Our right rested on Lieut. A. H. Cnshing's Battery A, Fourth U. S. Artillery; our 
left on Battery B, First Rhode Island Artillery, Lieut T. Fred. Brown commanding. 
The Sixty-ninth Regiment was placed behind a fence, a little in advance of the 
ridge—- the remaining three regiments of the brigade under cover of the hill in the 
rear. Brown's Battery was in the course of the day removed to the front of the 
Sixty-ninth Regiment It remained at this point until the assault at 6:S0 p. m. 

Your position was well calculated to render you available for the work before you. 

Colonel Charles H. Banes, our adjutant general of brigade — than whom there 
is no better staff officer or military adviser, nor more self-possessed man on the 
hottest field — has, in his account of this day's fighting, written as follows: 

" Immediately after assuming this position, a detail, ordered from each 
regiment, was advanced as skirmishers beyond the Emmitsburg Road, and 
parallel with the Rebel line of battle on Seminary Ridge. This disposition 
was scarcely completed before the enemy opened with sharpshooters and 
artillery. During the day both of the batteries on the flanks of the brigade 
engaged those of the enemy, the shelling wounding but few on our side/' 

From our position, which gave us a commanding view of our front and left, we 
beheld the whole of the unfortunate advance of General Sickles and his subsequent 
discomfiture, and we knew at the time that it would devolve upon General Hancock's 
command to repulse the charge or assault the rebels were certain to make. Hancock 
had command of the First, Second and Third Corps, and it required all his energy 
and military promptness to save our broken line on that day, using for this purpose 
every man at his disposal. 

We cannot pause to speak in fitting terms of the deaths of Generals Weed and 
Vincent, of Colonel O'Rorke and Captain Hazlett, in saving for us our position on 
Little Round Top, or of the sacrifice of Colonels Willard, Cross and Zook, of our 
corps, in saving the Third Corps from total rout. Their names have been handed 



> Extending from the left of the cemetery, and falling off gradually towards Round Top, 
Granite Ridge formed the natural location for a line of battle. Defense there was none, except the 
low stone walls marking the field boundaries. In the centre of this line, and just below the crest, 
a small grove of peculiar shaped trees gave prominence to the landscape, and it was this copse 
Wbich was selected by General Longstreet as the point of direction for his columns of attack. 

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down to posterity as those of our dead heroes of Gettysburg whose deaths ensured 
to us our victory at the end. No efforts of the very best and bravest of our generals 
could stem the tide of Longstreet's attack, supported as he was by the " best fighting 
material in the rebel army," under Wilcox, Barksdale, Perry and Wright Not even 
the soldierly qualities of the brave Humphreys could secure more to the Third Corps 
than a sullen retreat. Thus were we of necessity brought into action at about six 
o'clock p. M. on the* 2d, and well was the honor of Philadelphia upheld by your 
regiments. 

" Our skirmishers had been holding their line and engaging the enemy during the 
past Jiour." 

" The enemy made the assault of the 2d at about 6:10 p. m. Their line of battle 
advanced beyond one gun of Brown's Battery, receiving at that point the fire of 
the Sixty-ninth, of the Seventy-first advanced to the support of the Sixty-ninth, and 
of the Seventy-second and One hundred and sixth, which had previously been moved 
to the left by command of Major General Hancock. Colonel Baxter, of the Seventy- 
second, while gallantly leading his command was at this time wounded. The enemy 
halted, manoeuvred, and fell back, pursued by the One hundred and sixth. Seventy- 
second and part of the Seventy-first. The Seventy-second and One hundred and 
sixth followed them to the Emmitsburg Road, capturing and sending to the rear 
about two hundred and fifty prisoners, among whom were one colonel, £ve captains 
and fifteen lieutenants." 

During the first assault we lost eighteen officers, and probably 200 men killed 
and wounded. We were thus well prepared for the work before us, and we were 
thus soon to be tried as men seldom had been or have since been in the presence 
of their fellow soldiers. 

Let us turn then to the consideration of the part we were about to take in the 
final contest for the maintenance of Rebel strength north of Washington. 

There is a point to which in any pursuit of life one may attain success beyond 
which he may not pass. With the sanguine hopes of his government, and the moral 
support of most of the rulers of the nations of the earth, R. £. Lee, the leader of 
the Rebel forces, was permitted to reach this, but till then little known Pennsylvania 
town — only to find that here all hope of success was to be lost, all assurances of 
carrying the war into the Northern States to be proven false. Bitter, bitter failure ! 
Thus far shalt thou go. 

Gettysburg in the political sense was, and is now throughout the world, known 
to be the Waterloo of the Rebellion. And thus it was of necessity most bloody. 
Both sides knew the importance of the results, and were prepared then and there 
to decide the issue. 

For two days Lee had contended to determine and to carry some weak point in 
Meade's line, and without success. He had crushed in our advance on the first, had 
driven back Sickles on the second, had almost turned both right and left on that 
day, and had retired only to determine upon some point upon which to renew his 
assaults. 

Once successful with one of his strong columns, he felt that the day would be his, 
and that the first step would be taken toward opening correspondence with the 

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Rebels of the North. And now the question in which you are most interested was 
to be settled^ and as Longstreet has himself given testimony it was settled in your 
favor. Your clump of trees was to be taken^ and to be assaulted by the flower of 
the Rebel host. This decision gave you your place in history; this stone wall its 
prominence. 

Before describing the main assault and its failure^ let us refer for the last time 
to some of the reports and histories which have been written with the desire to 
wrest your laurels from you. 

One writer thus describes the action of the enemy " after they found his " (the 
writer's) *' command too much for them." " I moved my command by the right 
flank to the foot of the 'bluff', delivering our fire as we marched, and keeping 
between the enemy and the object of his enterprise" (i. e., us). " He succeeded 
in reaching the fence at the foot of the bluff, but with ranks broken, and his men 
evidently disheartened. Some succeeded in getting over the fence," etc., etc 

This one we should be thankful to. He was the saviour of the clump. Can you 
find the bluff .> 

And now another: " The charge was aimed directly at my command, but owing 
apparently to the firm front shown them, the enemy diverged midway and came 
upon the line on my right." Then he took them in flank and probably without 
loss, captured not Lee, but the main portion of those Lee had dared to point towards 
him, " the larger portion of them surrendered and marched in not as conquerors but 
as captives." This all took place on our left, and beyond the position of those who 
really were with us in our hour of need. 

But in pleasant contrast let us look to the right. There was " old " Alex. Hays, 
a glorious fighter, probably a man without a newspaper in his interest. He tells 
of his front without one attempt to take from any one their laurels fairly won. 
Thus he writes: 

" Their march " (the enemy's) " was as steady as if impelled, marching 
unbroken by our artillery. . . . When within one hundred yards of our 
line, the fire of our men could no longer be restrained " . . . " before the 
smoke of our first volley had cleared away, the enemy, in dismay and con- 
sternation, were seeking safety in flight." 

With our right protected by Alex. Hays (than whom there was on that field no 
braver, and but few more observing officers), and with our left reinforced by Hall, 
Colonel Norman J. Hall commanding the First Brigade of our own division, I do 
not think we either looked for or asked for any one to dishearten the enemy before 
they reached us, nor did we expect any one to interpose their forces between our- 
selves and Pickett. Had these latter been near enough to the rebel line to know 
Pickett's men, they would never have permitted this absurd claim to have been 
made for them. 

It seems a little hard to be forced to state at this late day just what was the 
"point of attack of Longstreet's forces.'* But, in self-defense, it must be done. 
Will you accept Longstreet's own statements, and that of Colonel Harrison, General 
Pickett's adjutant general and inspector general, or that of General E. P. Alexander, 
of the Rebel artillery? Bachelder says: "While visiting the field with him at 

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Gettjsburg^ the copae of trees on General Webb's front was the point on which the 
troops were directed to advance. " These trees being relieved in clean outline against 
the sky, when seen from the Rebel line, formed an unmistakable landmark." 

Lieut.-General James Longstreet spent several hours, in 1868, in Mr. Walker's 
studio, examining the painting of the battle of Gettysburg, not then completed. 
After looking at it closely for some time, he turned with a sad smile to Bachelder, 
and said: " Colonel, there's where I came to grief." 

" I have called your assault the ' tidal wave,' and the copse of trees in the centre 
of the picture, the ' high-water mark ' of the rebellion," said Bachelder. *' You said 
rightly," Longstreet responded; ''we were successful until then. From THAT 
point we retreated, and continued to recede, and never again made saccessful 
headway." 

At a dinner given not more than Ere or six years ago. General Hancodi, in reply 
to a toast given to him, and referring to his success at Gettysburg, said: 

"In every battle there must be one point upon which the success of 
cither side must hinge. At such a position every earnest or brave general 
must hope to be posted. It was General Webb's good fortune to be posted 
at that point at Gettysburg, and he held it.*' 

Have you any doubts remaining in your minds to-day in regard to the culminating 
point on this field? Here, therefore, we claim were sacrificed the lives of these 
men, to whom all must give the highest honor, through force of position and cir- 
cumstance during the trying day, which decided forever the Rebel claim to rule this 
country — a claim which had never been more properly asserted, than when spoken 
in our National Legislature in this wise: "I shall yet call the roll of my slaves under 
the shadow of the Bunker Hill monument." I refrain from alluding to another 
author who wrote page after page to prove that those whom we met were exhausted. 

THE THIRD DAY 

The One hundred and sixth Regiment had been ordered to our right, to General 
Howard. They had won sufficient honor with us; they received a glad welcome, and 
a corresponding praise when parted from us. 

Our Sixty*ninth was on the left at the wall, and in front of the now renowned 
copse of trees. On their right was most of the Seventy-first Regiment, a portion 
of it retired to the wall, behind the Angle, placing it in echelon with the remainder. 

The Seventy-second was posted inunediately behind the crest of the mound or 
hill in support of Cushing's Battery and HalL 

On our right was glorious old fighting Hays, and on our left Hall and Harrow. 
Our strength was but 1,100 men and but seventy-four officers (of these we were to 
lose forty-three officers and 452 men, of which latter but forty-seven were inissing). 
As we now consider matters, we had not much more than one full regiment. 

We had heard and fully realized the severity of the morning's contest in regaining 
for our side Gulp's Hill, abandoned the night before in the darkness. We had 
rested, but we were not unmindful of the fact that the silence of the enemy forebode 
some severe and well-planned attack. If not retreating Lee was to be aggressive. 

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About one o'clock^ while the men were wondering what would be the next move- 
ment in this great battle, a single Whitworth gnn was fired from the left of Seminary 
Ridge, a distance of three miles. Then followed those signal guns, and at last 
that terrific fire from the Rebel artillery. Have you ever heard the like? Shell 
and shot from nearly 150 pieces falling among our batteries and regiments. We 
had little or no cover save a pile of stones not two feet high. Had the fall of missiles 
been likened to hail, the picture would not have been overdrawn. A hissing, fiery 
storm — every conceivable bolt of destruction striking in our midst— * the dreadful 
thud everywhere! Horse and carriage and dismounted gun lying where a little 
before had stood the Union battery. The wounded, suffering, and the dying still 
and quiet in the midst. The calm and brave Gushing and his brother officers of that 
noble artillery, standing by their remaining pieces to the last — our pride and our 
glory. When will it cease? When will they charge? for surely this is what it means. 
Can you not feel yet the heat of that bursting caisson; the stones and sand from 
that exploded shell? It will never be forgotten. And there in the wood they form 
"a solid front." Pickett and Pettigrew and Trimble — Virginia and Georgia and 
North Carolina, Virginia leading — are to take this clump of trees. Ah, well 
chosen was this gallant band! See them now as their lines descend toward us— > 
our countrymen, but our foes. With all, we cannot be other than proud of our 
enemies. They come to crown this crest or perish. 

Bring us now new batteries ! Let Wheeler and Cowan come to replace Woodruff 
and Cushing. These are to die, but, oh! such deaths, in every contact with the 
enemy. Let every man know now that the impending strife is to be for life or 
death, for Union or defeat 

Two lines of Rebel regiments, possibly 18,000 men, are moving on our line slowly 
and determinedly. They near the crest. Cushing, wounded, asks to have his 
remaining gun run down to the fence, and, glorious martyr, wounded, yea, sorely, 
stands by that piece the very picture of a soldier. Americans can well glory in the 
achievements of the Cushings. 

But Hancock, our glorious Hancock, ever near the front in action, was not to be 
easily overthrown by this mass of angry foes. He had the old Second Corps and 
Doubleday's Division of the First; and well he knew how to use us! Stannard was 
to be used to stay the supporting column on the Rebel right, and well he did it. 
Gates, of Rowley's First Brigade, was enabled to assist in this movement. Harrow 
and Hall, of our own division, were near to help us, and Hays on our right with the 
Third Division, with Smith's Brigade, was well able to hold his own. 

On, on they come with solid front! Line closing in upon line, as their right or 
left felt the pressure of Hancock's aggressive movements. And now they strike the 
Sixty-ninth, under Colonel O'Kane, and a portion of the Seventy-first, under Lieut- 
Colonel Kochersperger, and, halting under the withering fire of these brave men, 
pressed toward the open part of the wall, in front of the space held formerly by 
Cushing. Here, Armistead, waving his sword aloft, had rushed in with his men. 
Here, Cushing had died at his piece. Here, was to be the final struggle for the 
crest! But this crest was not to be taken from us, if, by self-sacrifice and by 
individual effort, it could be retained. 

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B(eIan^cr Stewart McbJj 

Presied bj a wedge-shaped colmnn of Rebels^ the right of those who guarded 
the wall on the left of Cashing was pressed to the rear, but not penetrated or driven 
to the rear. Thej were better for defense in their new position. The brigade 
commander himself pointed out to them the number of the Rebels who had passed 
to their right, and directed them to fire upon them, and to fight their right and rear. 

But past the wall — low enough for Armistead to step over — what had they 
to meet: First from our right the fire of the companies of the Seventy-first, under 
Colonel R. Penn Smith; then from the front the fire of the Seventy-second Regiment, 
perfectly organised and in line on this crest, and from our left, and left centre, 
that of the body of Hall's men, the guard or rear guard under Captain Ford and 
Lieut Lynch, of the One hundred and sixth, which hurried to be with their brigade 
in the fray, and finally also, the rush of Kochersperger's men pressed right and 
left With no hope of success in their front, and no hope of retreat, they surrendered. 
Armistead dying — their dead and wounded within our lines — killed and maimed 
in a hand to hand contest, those in rear had nothing else to do. Hall, Hays, Harrow, 
did much to aid in securing this result; in every battle it will be and has been in 
vain to try to claim all the praise and all success for any one brigade or regiment; 
but I defy ,you to find a contest in which any one brigade performed more nobly the 
part assigned to it. 

This is no description of tl^p battle at the crest No man on such an occasion 
as this .can enter into the details of a history which would require the limits of a 
volume to portray its incidents. 

We came to tell of the deeds of those who lie buried here; but pausing, find 
that the limits of this, my tribute to your patriotism, will not permit of it. Each 
name has been engraven on some paneL It may be, in what is to-day a place of 
obscurity; but in the near future I can see that history, so often called unreliable, 
will-— from some efforts such as this — be led to uncover these silent memorials, 
and in pages emblasoned with the symbols of truth, and breathing forth the imperish- 
able words of Justice, will seek near this spot to relate to the world, the deeds of 
those unconquered heroes, who gave their lives to their country, in order that the 
power of the fiat, *' Thus far shalt thou go, and no farther," might be proven to 
be in things temporal and in things spiritual, the will of Omnipotence. 

What words can better describe our feelings than those of our grand President, 
Abraham Lincoln, delivered on this spot: '* The world will little note, nor long 
remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here." 

*' From these honored dead we take increased devotion to the cause for which 
they gave the last full measure of devotion." 

Meade, beloved and honored, has passed from among us; but his name shaU live 
as the hero of Gettysburg. 

Lincoln is dead, but we well remember that we laid this, our offering, at his 
feet, acknowledging him to be for that, our National Crisis, the ordained saviour 
of the principles of American Liberty. 

Hancock still lives, we give to him his portion of our glory and respect for 
giving to us his unstinted praise. And can we here forget our citisen friend and 
companion, J. Warner Johnson, the quiet, thoughtful friend of each and aU of us. 
For his self-sacrifice, God has no doubt rewarded him. The man who shod and 

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clothed some of these very men, who wisely counselled and befriended so many, who 
cared for the wounded, who supported the widows, has engraven on our hearts a 
remembrance we will cherish to the end. 

To our brethren of the army we turn to do us justice. They who on this bloody 
field saw so much to try their patience and their valor, to them we look, as a soldier 
may look to soldier, to give to the memories of these, our comrades, their places in 
history. None, none but such brave men can estimate our work; few, few yet live 
to tell of the intensity and strength of our trial. O'Kane and Tschudy, Duffy, 
Thompson and Kelly, Steffan and Dull, McBride, Griffiths and Jones, from their 
silent graves call for our maintenance of their rights, our cherishing of their reputa- 
tions and their sacrifices. We will do our part. In this a memorial to all of them, 
we, rearing this monument to the dead of the Seventy-second Regiment of Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, do honor to all. 

The Rebel blow at our Unity, and the slave-holders' proud boast that the 
Northern artisan should yet succumb to their power and influence, found on this 
spot their death-knell. 

The dead knew not, it may be, all that they have done; but they died for us, 
and for our country. *' But ere the spirit fled, Heaven grant they saw that not in 
vain they bled." We approach their graves in reverence and in tears. We now 
know how much we owe to them. Rest! patriot spirits. Rest! We live to know 
how great was your sacrifice -— how great was our gain. History shall give to 
you the glory, and Memory (crowding upon us all that we can recall of your 
gallantry and worth) will secure to you from us, in the future, as now — love, 
affection and attachment, on occasions such as these. 

You have died that we might live, and this nation since your death honors annually 
'her nation's dead. We decorate in fond remembrance the graves of our nation's 
sacrificed. We find none who dare to withhold from them these symbols of the 
nation's gratitude. We speak of our Union dead as of the lost in our families; 
of their cause for which they died, as the cause of the salvation of our country 
and of her institutions; of their services and death as the sacrifices of her sons, 
that she might live. 

If the spirits of those who slumber here may be allowed to know of this, our 
tribute to their patriotism; if the spirits of those who sowed, but never reaped; 
who died for freedom; and for the fulfilling of God's will, may be allowed to 
commune with us to-day; we, their comrades and their survivors, can do nothing 
more fitting in our act of consecration of this humble memorial, than here to 
solemnly renew our oaths of allegiance to our Glorious Union; here to swear that 
this government, loved, honored, and preserved by us in the past, will be maintained, 
protected and conserved by all in the future. God gave and preserved the Union 
of the United States. Who shall dare to sever us ? 

Brothers before the war — brothers to-day — we deplore the cause of these sad 
remembrances; but we well know as few others can, that mementos such as these 
must be erected, that men may, in the sight of these hallowed graves, recall the 
errors of the past, and knowing the cost of rebellion against His will — resolve to 
foster and maintain the principles for which our fathers fought, for which their 
sons have died. 

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