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Sergeant Charles Floyd 


Floyd Memorial Association 


Committee on Publication 






' ..- 













Sergeant Charles I loyel 


Floyd Memorial Association 


Committee on Publication 







Table of Contents. 

PART I.— Floyd's Like and Death. pack. 

1. Floyd's Antecedents, ------ 1-3 

2. Floyd as a Sergeant of Lewis and Clark, - - 3 

3. Floyd's Journal, ..-..- 3_9 

4. Floyd's Death and Burial, Aug. 20, 1804, - - 9-12 

5. Floyd's Grave, before 1857, ----- 12-14 
PART II.— Floyd's Reburial in 1857. 

6. Floyd's Grave Exposed, ----- 14-17 

7. Floyd's New Grave, ------ 17-18 

8. Floyd County, for whom named, ... - 18-21 
PART III. — The Floyd Memorial Association. 

9. Origin of the Association, - 21 24 

10. Organisation of the Association, - 24-27 

11. Proceedings of the Association before Aug. 20, 1895, - 27-32 

12. Incorporation of the Association, Aug. 20, 1895. - 32-35 

13. The Obsequies of Aug. 20, 1895. ... - 35 

a. Afternoon Exercises, ----- 35-44 

b. Evening Exercise. 1 -, - - - - - 44 4~ 

14. Proceedings of the Association after Aug. 20, 189S, - 55 58 


No. 1. 

Washington, D. C, Jan. 1, 1896. 
Hon. George D. Perkins, 

Chairman Committee on Publication, Floyd Memorial Association, 
Sioux City, Iowa. 

I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Floyd Memorial 
Association which I was requested to prepare on behalf of your committee. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Elliott Coues. 


No. 2. 

Sioux City, Iowa. Jan. 4, 1896. 
John H. Charles, 

President Floyd Memorial Association, 
Sioux City, Iowa. 

We have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Floyd Mem- 
orial Association, with the preparation of which the Committee on Publication 
was charged by resolution of the Board of Trustees of Aug-. 24, 1895. 

This report contains: 1. All that is known of Floyd's antecedents, life 
and death. 2. All accounts of his reburial in 1857. 3. A full account of the 
origin, organization and proceedings of the Association before, during and 
after the memorial exercises of Aug. 20, 1895. 

Your committee believe that this report represents a valuable contribu- 
tion to permanent history, and that it will serve to promote the purposes of 
the Association; they therefore recommend its immediate publication. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

George D. Perkins, 
Elliott Coues, 
Mitchell Vincent, 
George W. Wakefield, 
Constant K. Marks, 

Committee on Publication. 


Sergeant Charles Floyd 


Floyd Memorial Association 


Section 1. Floyd's Antecedents. The Floyds were early pioneers in 
Kentucky. Their descendants were numerous, and it is not known with cer- 
tainty to which line of descent the subject of the present biography belonged. 

Colonel John Floyd was the most prominent of these pioneers. He was 
the son of William and Abidiah Floyd. He had brothers, Robert Floyd, 
Charles Floyd and Isham Floyd; also, brothers-in-law named Lemaster and 
Sturgis; but little is known of any of them. Charles Floyd, brother of Col- 
onel John Floyd, resided at Floyd Station when he first came to Kentucky, 
about 1780, and afterward in whal was Known as Pond Settlement, in present 
Jefferson County, Ky., where he had a farm on Mill Creek, a few miles from 
Louisville. It is probable but not certain that ho was tbe father of Sergeant 
is Floyd of the Lewis and Clark expedition. The only direct allusion 
to the Sergeant's father we have found is a remark contained in Capt. 
Meriwether Lewis' official muster-roll of his party, dated .Ian. 15, 1807, now 
in the archives of the War Department at Washington. Speaking of th< 
geant's decease, Lewis adds: "His father, who now resides in Kentucky, is 
a man much respected, tho' of but moderate wealth. As the son 

lost his life while in this Bervice I considered his father entitled to 
gratuitj in consideration of his loss, and also, thai the deceased being noticed 
in this way will be a tribute but justly >\\\>- to his merit."' This shows that 
the Sergeant's father was still living In 1807, but unfortunately omits to give 
his full name. 

Se ■ Lew is and Clark: Ed. 1893, i>. 254. 



Col. John Floyd was among the brave volunteers who flocked to the 
siandard of George Rogers Clark, to repulse Indian hostilities. He was mor- 
tally wounded by Indians near Floyd Station and died the same day, April 12, 
1783. His brother Charles carried him off the field. For the circumstances 
of his death, and view of the monument which now stands on the town pike 
between Middletown and Simpsonville, Jefferson County, Ky., "erected by 
the commonwealth of Kentucky to the memory of fourteen brave soldiers 
who fell under Capt. John Floyd in a contest with the Indians in 1783," see 
English's Conquest of the Northwest, 1896, p. 751; also, preceding pp. 748- 
750, for report of Col. John Floyd to the Governor of Virginia, April, 1781, 
on the condition of affairs in Kentucky, etc. In September, 1781, Col. John 
was wounded in an Indian ambuscade, on hurrying to the rescue of settlers 
after the disaster at Squire Boone's Station, near present Shelbyville. Col. 
John was also under Clark in 1782. 

George Rogers Clark Floyd (son of Col. John), afterward distinguished 
at the battle of Tippecanoe, was the one who caused the drum and fife to be 
played during the amputation of Clark's leg at Clarksville, Ind., early in 

Henry Floyd appears as a lieutenant in the forces raised by George 
Rogers Clark for the famous Illinois regiment, for the reduction of Kas- 
kaskia, Cahokia, Vincennes, etc., 1778-9. He was among those allotted land 
in severalty in the Clark grant of 149,000 acres for their services in that 

Isham Floyd appears as a private in the same connection. 

George Rogers Clark was an elder brother of William Clark (of Lewis 
and Clark), and in this association of the Floyds with the Clarks we are 
evidently close upon the record of the antecedents of our Sergeant Charles 
Floyd. He is known to us simply as one of "the nine young men from 
Kentucky," as the Lewis and Clark history styles them, who joined the 
famous expedition. As Col. R. T. Durrett of Louisville, says, in a letter to 
the present writer, of November 16, 1895, the Sergeant was simply "a young 
man of the times," of neither fame nor fortune, but closely enough connected 
with persons then prominent to secure a place on the expedition as one of 
its non-commissioned officers. Col. Durrett knows of no contemporary news- 
paper which gives a notice of his death, but adds: "I think it possible, how- 
ever, that something might have teen said of him in the 'Farmers' Library,' 
a, weekly paper then published at Louisville; but unfortunately no file of 
this paper is in existence. * * * His father (believed to be the Charles 
Floyd already mentioned) was a respectable farmer in Jefferson County, who 
appeared frequently as an appraiser of dead men's estates, as witness, as 
juror, as magistrate, etc., all of which goes to show that he was a solid man 
of good standing in the community. I have not been able to find among the 
descendants and distant relatives of the Floyds, who still exist in this vicin- 
ity, any person who could tell me anything about Sergeant Charles Floyd. 
There are no near relatives here, however, and I think that it is very strange 
that he should have passed entirely away from the memory of the liv- 
ing * * *." 

The date and place of birth of Sergeant Floyd are unknown. He was 
no doubt born in present Jefferson County, Ky., about 1780-85. 


The foregoing is the sum and substance of all that is known on the sub- 
ject, prior to Floyd's connection with Lewis and Clark. Of this brief con- 
nection, and its termination by death, our information is ample and precise. 

Sec. 2. Floyd as a Sergeant of Lewis and Clark. Floyd was a civil- 
inn, and never a soldier of the United States army, except as enlisted in the 
particular service of the Lewis and Clark expedition. He no doubt joined 
that expedition with others in the fall of 1803, at St. Louis, Mo., and went into 
the winter camp of the party, 1803-4, on the east bank of the Mississippi, at 
the mouth of Du Bois or Wood river, in Illinois, nearly opposite but a short 
distance above the entrance of the Missouri. From this point the expedition 
sailed in a barge and two perogues at 4 p. m. on Monday, May 1 :, 1804. It 
proceeded up the Missouri to near the site of present Sioux City, Iowa, where 
Floyd died on the afternoon of August 20, 1804. Exclusive of his duties in 
Camp Du Bois, the duration of his actual service on the expedition was thus 
brief— a period of 99 days. That he did his duty faithfully and ably, we 
know. It is believed that he was the first citizen-soldier of the United States 
ever buried west of the Mississippi, after the acquisition of Louisiana. 

Sec. 3. Floyd's Journal. Both of the commissioned officers of the 
expedition, the four non-commissioned officers (Floyd, Pryor, Ordway, and 
Gass), and at least three of the privates, kept journals. Those of Capt. Lewis 
and Capt. Clark were edited by Nicholas Biddle and first published in 1814 
as the authentic History of the Expedition. This went through many edi- 
tions, the latest one of 1893. The manuscript journals of Pryor and of Ord- 
way were utilized for the History by Biddle; but all further trace of them 
has been lost. The journal of Patrick Gass was first published at Pittsburgh 
in 1807, under the editorship of David McKeehan, and went through more 
editions than the Captain's own history ever did, including translations in 
French, German and Dutch. NoUiing was known of Floyd's journal till Feb- 
ruary 3, 1894, when it was discovered by Reuben G. Thwaites, Secretary of 
the Wisconsin Historical Society, at Madison, Wis., in Lyman C. Draper's 
collection of documents relating to George Rogers Clark and William Clark. 
This is the verj volume mentioned by Capt. Lewis in his letter to President 
Jefferson from Fort Mandan, of date April 7. 1805, communicated by Jefferson 
to Congress in a message dated February 19, 1806, and repeatedly published. 
The original publication misprinted the date as April 17, L805, and it has 
generallj been so given; but the original letter is on file among the Jefferson 
papers in the Department of Mate al Washington, and the wrong date is 
thus easily corrected. In this letter Capt. Levis Bays: "l have sent a jour- 
nal, kept by one of the Sergeants, to Capt. (Amos) Stoddard, my agent al 
St. Louis, in order a. issible to multiply the chances of saving 

something." This is the Floyd journal we now possess. Announcement of 
its discovery was promptly made in the New York Nation of February 15, 

!. The identification of the manuscript is beyond question. The dis- 
covery was communicated to the American Antiquarian Society of Worcester, 
Mass.. al the semi annual meeting held in Boston, April 25, 1894, and pub 
Hshed in full in the proceedings of thai Society, Vol. X.. N. s.. Pari 2, pp. 225- 
252, under the editorship of Prof . J. D. Butler, who prefaced it with some crit- 
ical and explanatory matter, including the manuscripl prospectus of Robert 
Frazer's never-published journal, and a Mandan letter of William Clark to his 


brother-in-law, William Croghan. In this form the article was reissued as 
a separately paged pamphlet, Svo.. pp. 30, Worcester, Mass., press of 
Charles Hamilton, 1894, with the title: "The New Found Journal of Charles 
Floyd, a Sergeant Under Captains Lewis and Clark." 

This journal is an interesting historical relic, and on a few points it has 
value as a check upon the official history and upon the narrative of Gass. 
The most important items it contains are found on the inside of the back 
cover, where, among some other names (chiefly relating to the Sergeant's 
detail of a guard for a prisoner), occur three and possibly four names found 
nowhere else in all the annals of the expedition. Two of these names, 
"Thomas M. Winn" and "Pall," are perhaps not finisberl out; a third is 
"William Lebouch;" the fourth is "Lasuness," possibly standing for La Jeu- 
nesse. But nothing is known of any such persons in connection with the 
expedition. A memorandum inside the front cover has the date of May 13, 
1S04; otherwise the 53 manuscript pages of the journal run from May 14 to 
August 18, 1804 — two days before the Sergeant's death. As printed in 8vo. 
it makes 14 pages, or less than half of Prof. Butler's pamphlet. The print is 
intended to be verbatim, literatim et punctatim, and no doubt renders the 
original with fidelity. Through the courtesy of Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, we 
are enabled to present three fac-similes of portions of the manuscript, as 
first printed in the Sioux City Journal of August 21, 1895, these being taken 
from the first and last pages, and from the inside of the back cover, where 
occurs the Sergeant's autograph signature — probably the only one in exist- 



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The Above is a Fac-simile of the Signature Written by Sergeant Floyd on the 

[nside of the Cover of His Journal Carried on the Expedition. 


The eccentricities of Floyd's orthography, capitalization, and punctua- 
tion are great, as will be observed; but not greater than those of manuscript 
written by persons of average education at that time. Capt. Clark's, for ex- 
ample, is little different in this regard. A few of Floyd's geographical 
names require explanation with regard to the corresponding ones used by 
Lewis and Clark, or by Gass. They are chiefly the following: May 22, 
"Bonnon" is Bonhomme creek. May 23, "wife of Osage" is Femme Osage 
river. May 25, "St. Johns" is an alternative name of La Charette. May 27, 
"Gasganade" is Gasconade river. May 30, "Painter river" is the Grindstone 
creek of Lewis and Clark of same date, where no "Painter" river appears. 
June 2, "Granosoge" is Grand Osage river. June 3, "Grown hog" is ground- 
hog. June 4, "Sidder" is Cedar river. The "Creek Called Zon Cer" is conjec- 
tured by Butler to be for Joncaire; a similar word occurs in Clark's Codex of 
this date, but nothing like it is in Biddle's text, and the case remains obscure. 
Another of Floyd's names of this date, "Batue de charra parie" is also prob- 
lematical. June 5, "Kensier" is Kansas river. June 6, "Rock" creek is Split 
Rock creek, Roche Perce of the French; and "Sallin" is for Saline creek. 
June 7, "River of the Big Devil" is present Big Manitou creek. June 8, 
"Big River mine" is Mine river. June 10, "Deer Lick" is the Deer creek of 
Lewis and Clark of this date. June 12, "Plumb" is Plum creek. June 13, 
"Saukus" is Sacs (Indians). June 14, "Poneye" is Pawnee. June 15, "Indian 
Creek" is one not named in the Lewis and Clark text. "Gran Ossags" are 
Grand Osages. June 19, "tabor" is Tabo or Tabeau creek. June 21, the 
two creeks "Called Deulau" have occasioned an error on the part of Prof. 
Butler, who curiously brackets ("Dieu l'eau") as the proper name. The 
name should be Eau Beau, as rendered by Lewis and Clark, otherwise Clear- 
water Creek: see the full explanation of this case given in the 1893 edition of 
Lewis and Clark, p. 29. June 22, Floyd's remarks about the Fire Prairie 
creeks clear up an obscurity in the Biddle text of Lewis and Clark. June 24, 
"Hay" is Hay Cabin creek of Lewis and Clark; Floyd's "Creek of the Bad 
Rock" does not occur in Lewis and Clark. June 25, Floyd gives occasion 
for a mistake on Prof. Butler's part. The expression "un batteur La benne 
River" does not mean La Charbonniere creek, as Prof. Butler states, since he 
brackets ("La Charboniere"), but La Benite creek of Lewis and Clark, Lebe- 
nile of Gass, so called for a hunter (batteur) named Benite or Benet: see the 
explanation of this case in the 1893 edition of Lewis and Clark, p. 32. July 1, 
"Frog Tree" is the Remore creek of Lewis and Clark. July 2, "Parques" is 
Pare creek of Lewis and Clark. July 4. "Independance" is also Fourth of 
July creek in Lewis and Clark. July 6, "Whipperwill" creek is in Gass, but 
not in Lewis and Clark. July 9, "Monter" is Monter's creek of Lewis and 
Clark, the correct form of the name being probably Montour. July 10, 
"Pope" is Pape's creek. July 11, "Tarcio" is Tarkio, and "Granma Mohug 
Creek" is the Grand Nemaha river. July 13, "Tarkue" is Tarkio. July 14, 
"Neeshba" is the Nishnahbotna river of Lewis and Clark. July 15, "Plumb 
Run" is not in Lewis and Clark, and "Nemahaw Creek" is the Little Nemaha 
river. July 18, "Elke Sine" is Elk Sign. July 19, "Cherry Run" and "Wil- 
low Isd" are not in Lewis and Clark, but the latter is in Gass. July 20, 
"Crys Creek" is the Weeping Water of Lewis and Clark; "Piggen Creek" 
is not in Lewis and Clark. July 21, "Grait River Plate" is the Platte. July 
28, "Beaver Creek" is the Indian Knob creek of Lewis and Clark. August 4, 


''Council Creek" is named as seven miles above the place (Council Bluff — not 
present Council Bluffs, Iowa) where the important councils occurred; but no 
name appears in Lewis and Clark for this stream. August 7, we have the 
full name of Moses B. Reed, who is nowhere mentioned by name in the Biddle 
text, and not even in the Clark codices except as "M. B. Reed." August 8, 
''Littel Soue" is the Little Sioux river. August 11, "Waie Con Di Peeche or the 
Grait Sperit is Bad" is Waucandipeeche creek of Lewis and Clark — the pres- 
ent Blackbird creek, at Blackbird Hill, Neb. August 12, "Red Seeder Bluffs" 
are Cedar bluffs, not so named by Lewis and Clark. August 15 and 16, the 
number of the fish caught is not quite the same as Lewis and Clark give 
(1.118), or as Gass gives (1,096). 

Sec. 4. Floyd's Death and Burial, Aug. 20, 1804. As we have seen, 
the last entry in Floyd's Journal is of August 18, 1804, two days before his 
death. The official record of August 20 stands as follows in the Biddle His- 
tory of the Expedition, 1814, p. 48: 

"Here we bad the misfortune to lose one of our Sergeants, Charles Floyd. 
He was yesterday seized with a bilious colic, and all our care and attention 
were ineffectual to relieve him. A little before his death he said to Capt. 
Clark, 'I am going to leave you;' his strength failed him as he added, 'I want 
you to write me a letter.' He died with a composure which justified the 
high opinion we had formed of his firmness and good conduct. He was 
buried on the top of the bluff with the honors due to a brave soldier: the 
place of his interment was marked by a cedar post, on which his name and 
the day of his death were inscribed. About a mile beyond this place, to 
which we gave his name, is a small river about 30 yards wide, on the north, 
which we called Floyd's river, where we camped." 

To this curt and precise record the Journal of Patrick Gass (who was 
made Sergeant August 22, vice Floyd, deceased) adds some particulars. We 
quote from the original edition of 1807, p. 29: 

"This day (August 19) Sergeant Floyd became very sick and remained 
so all night. He was seized with a complaint somewhat like a violent colic. 

"Monday, 20th. Sergeant Floyd continued very ill. We embarked early, 
and proceeded, having a fair wind and fine weather, till 2 o'clock, when we 
landed for dinner. Here Sergeant Floyd died, notwithstanding every possi- 
ble effort was made by the commanding officers, and other persons, to save 
his life. We went on about a mile to high prairie hills (!. e., to Floyd's 
Bluff) on the north side of the river, and there interred his remains in the 
most decent manner our circumstances won hi admit; we then proceeded a 
mile further to a small river on the same side and encamped. Our command- 
ing officers gave it tin- oame of Floyd's river; to perpetuate the memory of 
the first man who had fallen in this important expedition." 

Here ii is een thai, contrary to the general belief, Floyd did not die at 
Floyd's Bluff, where he was buried, hut a mile below— say one-third of the 
distance between thai bluff and the presenl site of the (own of Serg 
Bluff, Woodbury County, la. The hour of death is nol given; bul ii was aftei 
'-' i>- m- The place of death was lowland, and the Captains proceeded for the 
I to the hist point above where the bluffs strike the river. 

The two foregoing notices remained the only known published record! 
of the death till is;):;, in the revised edition of Lewis ami Clark published 
thai -.ear by Dr. ("ones, some extracts are given, verbatim, on p. ?.'. from the 


original manuscript of Clark's Journal, at dates of August 19 and 20. These 
are to the same effect as the Biddle text of 1814, but reproduce Clark's quaint 
spelling, etc. The original manuscripts, making 3,056 pages, are those upon 
which Biddle worked, and are now preserved in the archives of the American 
Philosophical Society at Philadelphia. They were in Dr. Coues' hands when 
the 1893 edition of the History was prepared, and a literal copy of the whole 
of them is now in his possession. We thus possess the whole record pre- 
cisely as written by Capt. Clark on the spot at the time. The matter for the 
week ending with Floyd's death, August 13-20, is found in Clark Codex A, 
pages 176 to 179, for August 13 and 14; and in Clark Codex B, pages 3 to 14. 
for August 15-20. We will condense this record to August 18 inclusive, and 
then give verbatim all that is said of Floyd. 

Monday, August 13, 1804. From a camp on the boundary between pres- 
ent Monona and Woodbury counties, Iowa, the expedition passed on the left 
the boundary between Blackbird and Dakota counties, Neb.; passed on the 
left the site of Fort Charles, where the trader James Mackay had had a 
post in 1795-6; passed on the left the old mouth of the creek on which the 
Omahas resided; and camped on a sandbar on the left. This camp is de- 
scribed in a way which enables us to recognize the spot as having been in 
what is now the river-bottom on the Iowa side, directly opposite the present 
mouth of Omaha creek. The details of the place have changed considerably, 
but not irrecognizably, since 1804. Clark calls this camp, where they were 
to stay a week, Camp Fish, and Fishing Camp, from the circumstances pres- 
ently to be given; he makes it 3 miles northeast of the "Mahar" (Omaha) 
village. As soon as the expedition arrived here, Sergeant Ordway, Peter 
Cruzatte, George Shannon, William Werner and another man were sent with 
a flag and some tobacco to the village to invite the Omahas to a conference. 
Gass says, however, that only "a Sergeant and one man were sent to the 
village." Floyd says: "Sent Som of ouer men to Se if aney of the natives 
was at Home." 

August 15th. The men returned at noon, but had found no Indians. 
Capt. Clark and ten men went fishing with a drag in the creek, and caught 
318 fish of different kinds, according to Clark; Gass says 387; Floyd says: 
"Capt. Clark and 10 of his men and my Self went to the Mahas Creek a fishen 
and Caut 300 and 17 fish of Difernt Coindes." 

August 16th. Capt. Lewis and 12 men went fishing; Clark says this 
catch was "upwards of 800"; Gass says 709; Floyd says 709, too. In the re- 
ports of these two exploits, Clark and Floyd agree to a single fish for the 
15th; Gass and Floyd agree exactlj for the 16th. We may therefore con- 
clude that Gass is far out for the 15th, and Clark still further so for the 16th; 
the total of the two catches being 1.026 or 1.027, but neither the 1,096 that 
Gass counts, nor the upwards of 1,118 that Clark reports. It is quite possi- 
ble that the wetting Floyd got on the 15th in dragging the creek led to his 

August 17th. In the evening "Labieshe" (Francois La Biche), one of a 
party who had been sent to the Ottoes on the 7th to arrest Moses B. Reed, a 
deserter since the 4th, returned. He said the rest of the party were coming 
in with the deserter, Reed; that they had also caught another deserter, a 
French boatman named La Liberte, but that he had given them the slip: and 
that they were bringing in three Otto chiefs. 


August 18th. The rest of the party, consisting of George Drewyer, Reu- 
ben Fields, and William Bratton, arrived with their prisoner, Reed, and 
with the party of Ottoes and Missouries. Biddle's text of 1814 says not a 
word of this deserter; but the Clark Codex B, p. 7, this date, supplies the 
missing information, which Coues inserted in the edition of 1893, p. 77: 
"Proceeded to the trial of Reed, he confessed that he 'Deserted & Stold a 
public Rifle shot pouch Powder & Ball' and requested we would be as favour- 
able with him as we could consistantly with our Oathes — which we were, 
and only sentenced him to run the gantlet four times through the Party & 
that each man with 9 switchies should punish him and for him not to be 
considered in future as one of the Party." 

August 19th. A council was held with the Indians. These were Ottoes 
and Missouries, not Omahas. The last entry in Floyd's journal, August 
18th, describes the party as "the Grand Chief of the ottoes and 2 Loer Ones 
and 6 Youers of thare nattion," i. e., the head chief, 2 lower ones, and 6 
others, a total of 9; he does not mention the French interpreter who was 
with them. Gass simply says, "Eight Indians and a Frenchman," which 
is right. The ninth man was the interpreter, whose name is given in the 
''lark Codex B as "Mr. Fanfou." The principal chief was Little Thief, an 
Otto, named as Weahrushhah on August 3; the other chiefs were: Shongo- 
tongo or Big Horse, an Ottoe, also mentioned on August 3; Karkapaha or 
Crow's Head, a Missouri; Nenasawa or Black Cat, a Missouri; Sananona or 
Iron Eyes, an Otto; Neswaunja or Big Ox, an Otto; Stageaunja or Big Blue 
Eyes, an Otto, in the Codex called "Stargrahunja;" and Wasashaco or Brave 
Man, an Otto; total, eight. The Clark Codex gives nine, but this total in- 
cludes the interpreter. The Indians at conference received medals, certifi- 
cates, and other presents, including some liquor; "those people beged much 
for whiskey," says the Codex, p. 12. We have no word of the cause of 
Floyd's fatal illness. The Codex for August 19th finishes abruptly in these 

"Serjeant Floyd is taken verry bad all at once with a Biliose Chorlick 
we attempt to reliev him without success as yet, he gets worse and we arc 
much allarmed at his situation, all attention to him." 

August 20th. "Sergeant Floyd much weaker and no better, made Mr. 
Fanfou the interpter a fiew presents, and the Indians a Canister of Whisky. 
we set out under a gentle breeze from the S. I'], and proceeded on verry well 
Sergeant Floyd as bad as he can be no pulse and nothing will stay a mo- 
ment on his stomach or bowels — Passed two Islands on the S. S. (starboard 
side, or right hand) and at the first Bluff on the S. S. Serg. Floyd Died 
with a great deal of composure, before his deathhe said to me I am going 
away I wanl you to write me a letter' We buried him on the top of the bluff 
\k mile I mall river to which we gave his name, he was buried with 

the Honors of War much lamented a seeder post with the Name Sergt. 
C. Floyd died here 20th of August. 1804 was fixed at the head of his grave 
This man at all times gave us proofs of his firmness and Deturmined resolu- 
tion to doe Service to his countrey and honor to himself after paying all the 
honor to our Decesed brother we camped in the mouth of floyd's river about 
30 yards wide, a butifull evening." 

Such is the simple yet touching language' in which the death is recorded. 
It is our only original record, except the still briefer one already transcribe I 


from Gass; for the Biddle text is of course based on the Clark Codex. It 
will be observed that the two accounts differ in some particulars. We are 
inclined to think Gass' account is closest to the facts; it seems most probable. 
Poor Floyd is dying on the boat, by noon of the 20th; the party lands as the 
end approaches; it is soon all over with the brave Sergeant. But this place 
is unsuitable for interment, being on low ground. They proceed a short 
distance, to the first bluff that reaches the river. There the sad ceremony 
is performed, late in the afternoon; the spot is named Floyd's Bluff; and the 
bereaved expedition proceeds to camp at the mouth of the first stream 
above, which they name Floyd's river. 

Both the bluff and the river have retained and will forever keep the 
name thus given them. The little distant town of Sergeant's Bluff shines 
with a reflection of Floyd's name. Floyd's river and bluff are within the 
present limits of Sioux City. The bluff is to be set apart and beautified as a 
public park, graced with a monument, to perpetuate the name and fame of 
Charles Floyd, the martyr sergeant of the Lewis and Clark expedition. 

Sec. 5. Floyd's Grave before 1857. On the return of the expedition 
from the Pacific ocean, the spot where Floyd had been buried was visited, 
September 4, 1806. The grave had been disturbed, it was thought by Indians, 
but perhaps it was by wolves. They filled it up again, and passed on their 
way to home and friends, leaving the dead to his lonely vigil in the wilder- 
ness. One would have thought the memory of this humble young "man 
with a musket" destined to perish. But it was ordered otherwise. Floyd 
was temporarily forgotten; but Floyd's grave, marked with an enduring 
cedar post on a bold headland of our mightiest waterway, was never lost 
sight of; it became in the course of time a well-known landmark, allusions 
tc which are frequent in the records of Missouri voyaging before 1857. We 
select three references to noted travelers. 

On the 10th of May, 1811, the overland Astorian expedition under W. P. 
Hunt reached the Omahas. In this party were Mr. Bradbury, whose work is 
well known, and Mr. Thomas Nuttall, the subsequently famous botanist. 
The same season of that year Mr. Henry W. Brackenridge voyaged up the 
Missouri with Manuel Lisa, the noted fur-trader. Brackenridge was on the 
spot May 19th, 1811, at which date he notes in his Journal (Svo., Pittsburgh, 
1814, p. 230): 

"Encamped near Floyd's bluff and river, fourteen miles above the 
Mahas. Sergeant Floyd, one of the party of Lewis and Clark, was buried 
here; the place is marked by a cross." 

This is the only author who calls the post a "cross;" probably he saw it 
only at a distance, and mistook the object; or did not observe it particularly, 
and had heard it so described. But that is immaterial. 

In that year, and for some time afterward, the post over the grave of the 
celebrated Omaha chief Blackbird was still standing on Blackbird Hill. 
The two were almost within sight of each other — two similar memorials, yet 
of opposite symbolism. The one stood for the outgoing of the Indian, the 
other for the incoming of the white man. How emblematic were these 
graves! Barbarism was decaying in the grave of Blackbird; in the last 
resting-place of Floyd lay the germ of civilization. 


The great painter and panegyrist of the Indian, George Catlin, ascended 
the Missouri to the Yellowstone in 1832, in the first steamer which ever 
went so far as that. On his return voyage, in a canoe with two men, he 
passed Floyd's Bluff and Blackbird Hill. He stopped at each, that his facile 
pencil might portray them; and his sketches form plates 118 and 117 of 
his celebrated series. They are in juxtaposition on the same leaf, opposite 
p. 4 of Vol. II. of the fourth (London) edition of his work, as if to accentuate 
the symbolism just said. Each shows the landmark surmounting the grave; 
and the text of Letter 32, accompanying these plates, is in part a rhapsody 
on the natural beauties of the scene, in which the enthusiastic traveler gives 
full vent to the feelings which surcharged him. His apostrophe to Floyd 
may be here transcribed; for Catlin's "prophetic soul" felt no more than we 
realize today — Floyd's name will never die! 

'"Where heaven sheds its purest light, and lends its richest tints — this 
round-topped bluff, where the foot treads soft and light — whose steep sides, 
. n nd lofty head, reach to the skies, overlooking yonder pictured vale of 
beauty — this solitary cedar-post, wiiich tells a tale of grief — grief that was 
keenly felt, and tenderly, but lorg since softened in the march of time ami 
lest. Oh, sad and tear-starting contemplation! Sole tenant of this stately 
mound, how solitary thy habitation! Here heaven wrested from thee thy 
ambition, and made thee sleeping monarch of this land of silence. Stranger! 
Oh, how the mystic web of sympathy links my soul to thee and thy afflictions! 
I knew thee not, but it was enough; thy tale was told, and I, a solitary 
wanderer through thy land, have stopped to drop familiar tears upon thy 
grave. Pardon this gush from a stranger's eyes, for they are ail that thou 
canst have in this strange land, where friends and dear relations are not 
allowed to pluck a flower, and drop a tear to freshen recollections of en- 
dearments past. Stranger! Adieu. With streaming eyes I leave thee again, 
and thy fairy land, to peaceful solitude. My pencil has faithfully traced 
thy beautiful habitation; anil long shall live in the world, and familiar, the 
name of Floyd's Crave." 

Catlin states that the cedar post bore only "the initials of his name." 
■\Ybether this be a fact, or a figure of speech, cannot now be determined; but 
it is against the express statement of Capt. Clark that "the name Sergeant 
C. Floyd" was incised, together with the date of death. Catlin's plate will 
be rei ' by residents of Sioux City, and especially those who knew 

the bluff before it suffered the double encroachment of the river and the 
railroad. It looks up river, with the site of Sioux City in the background; 
and the artisl represents live persons climbing the side, nearly in the same 
path as thai by which the procession of August 20, 1895, passed up t<> th< 
ceremonies of thai memorable day. it is invaluable as a portrayal of the 
unaltered bluff and original grave; probably no other such picture exists. 
The original painting has been supposed and said to be now in the Catlin 
collection in the United stales National Museum at Washington; but our 
correspondence with the director <>t' the Museum on this subjeel shows that 
such is not the case. The painting, however, may still exist elsewhere, and 
be brought to light hereafter. 

i'! L839, the eminent scientist, .lean x. Nicollet, discoverer of the tin.. 
source of the Mississippi in 1836, ascended the Missouri, lie was from April 


4 to June 12, or 69 days, in going from St. Louis to Fort Pierre. At some 
time in May, the exact date not given, he passed Blackbird Hill and Floyd's 
Bluff. We read as follows on p. 34 of his Report (Senate Doc. No. 237, 26th 
Congress, 2d Session, February 16, 1841, pub. 1843, and 2d edition as House 
Doc. No. 52, 28th Congress, 2d Session, January 11, 1S45, pub. 1845): 

"The next day we passed before the magnificent amphitheatre of bills, 
the summit of that nearest the river being surmounted by the tomb of 
Blackbird, a celebrated Maha chief, and murderer by poison, whose history 
was told in Maj. Long's first expedition, but has been since reproduced with 
various versions in many public prints. Several miles higher up, we got 
a glimpse of the vale watered by the Maha creek, in which is the principal 
village of the Maha nation. The hills on the left bank of the river, of which 
we had lost sight, again came into view towards the close of the afternoon, 
covered by a soft and grateful verdure. We stopped for the night at the foot 
of the bluff on which is Floyd's grave; my men replaced the signal, blown 
down by the winds, which marks the spot and hallows the memory of the 
brave Sergeant, who died here during Lewis and Clark's expedition. Our 
steamboat then started under full blast to take shelter at the mouth of the 
Tchan-kasndata, or Sioux river, against an impending storm, that soon after 
broke over us, and lasted during the night." 

Nicollet's beautiful map, by far the best in existence at that time, 
marks "Floyd's Grave," just below "Floyd's R." 

We could multiply references prior to 1857, but the citations made must 
suffice. We therefore pass at once to Part II. — the reburial of Floyd in 1857. 


Sec. 6. Floyd's Grave Exposed. Sioux City extends along the left 
bank of the Missouri from the vicinity of Floyd's Bluff up to the Big Sioux 
River. The bluff is situated in lot 8, section 1, township 88 N., range 48 
W. Somewhat less than a mile higher up, Floyd's River empties into the 
Missouri on the same side; this courses through the city. A little higher up 
than this, a small creek also flows through the city. This was noticed by 
Lewis and Clark, with their usual accuracy of observation, and called by 
them Willow creek; it is now known as Perry Creek. A year or two before 
1857, probably in 1855, a squaw-man settled with his wife at the mouth of 
this creek; he is still living, and known to many persons as "Joe Lionais," 
his proper name being Joseph Lyonrais. Up to this period, when the germi- 
nation of a great city was but begun, travel through the country had mainly 
been up the waterway of the river — the main artery of the Great West, the 
principal avenue of approach; but with the founding of the city came roads, 
and thoroughfares by land were established. One of these passed by the 
bluff where Floyd had been buried half a century before. But the bluff was 
no longer the "round-topped" one of Catlin, on whose culminating brow the 
cedar post had been erected over Floyd's grave. The insolent and turbulent 
Missouri, ever restlessly turning in its bed, ever exploring its flood-plain for 
new channels in which to wind its way along, ever making new bends and 
cutting off old ones, had exerted its incessant and irresistible force upon 
this miscalled one of the "eternal hills." The frontage of the bluff was fretted 


and worn out in the struggle against the flood. Constant dropping will wear 
away a stone; and it was not many years before the water exacted a tribute 
from this land. During a freshet, early in the spring of 1857, the bluff was 
so far washed away that Floyd's grave was exposed on the face of the 
now nearly venical precipice, sixty feet or more above water level; the post, 
if still standing to this time, was dislodged and fell to the foot; and the re- 
mains of the deceased were in imminent danger of falling, to be swept away 

It is impossible to say now exactly when this precarious condition of 
the grave was first noticed, or by whom the discovery was made, or the 
precise state in which the remains were found by those who rescued them 
from impending destruction. Many persons now living witnessed the ceremo- 
nies with which the bones were recommitted to the earth in the safe place 
further back from the river; some of these persons also assisted in the res- 
cue; and the present writer has conversed or corresponded with several. 
But memory is treacherous after a lapse of years, and accounts differ in de- 
tails. Yet there is such a substantial agreement with circumstantial differ- 
ence in the testimony we possess, that a reasonably accurate account can 
be given, as a contribution to permanent history. 

It is not probable that there was any sudden wash-out or down-fall of 
the face of the bluff, to attract immediate attention and cause a general 
alarm about the historic spot. It was gradual, and may have been noticed 
bj degrees, so to speak, before the imminence of the danger aroused the 
community to action. The alarm appears to have been sounded late in 
April or early in May. Mr. M. L. Jones,* of Smithland, la., a gentleman 
now living at an advanced age, was one of those who observed the condition 
of the grave, and sent word to Sioux City. When in 1895 the subject was re- 
opened a number of old citizens placed their recollections on public record, 
among them the following: 

S. T. Davis, of Sioux City, in a letter dated June 1st, 1895, printed in the 
Journal next day, states: 

"Thirty-eight years ago last Tuesday the residents of Sioux City par- 
ticipated in an event of no little historical importance — the reburial of the 
remains of Sergeant Floyd. The river had washed away the foot of the 
bluff on which he was buried by Lewis and Clark, so that the end of the cof- 
fin protruded over the water, and perhaps a hundred feet or more above it. 
It was proposed by some of the citizens of Sioux City to take up the remains, 
and re inter them further back on the same bluff." 

*Since penning the above we It ive received an important letter addressed bj Mr. Jones to 

Dr. Coues, dated Smithland, Ta., December 28 1895. It app-ars fr bis letter thai the writer 

is the person who discovered the exposure and gave the alarm to Sioux City. We transcribe in 
substance: ■'] Rrstsaw the grave in May, 1854. Che cedar post was almosl intacl then, though 

pieces had been cut ofi? by relic hunters. I passed the place frequently in 1854 55. The post si I 

in sight <>f a fool trail thai ran along near the river, thai the wagon road had to go round. It was 

som ■ 100 feel or '•■ fro n the edsre of the bluff overlooking the river. Late in the fall ol 1*56 I 

passed thai way, and ao1 seeing the posl in it - accustomed place, I w 'tit feo examine it . and found 
that it had been cut away till only a few nches remained above ground. Late in Vpril, I as ] 
was going that way from Sioux City, [ was seized with chill and fever; bu1 noticed thai the river, 
thru very high, was cutting into the bank. 1 walked as close t<> the edse of the bluff as 1 could; 
the ground had caved in, the posl was gon>, and it looked as if the grave had lt- >ti.-. too. 1 Has 
quite dizzy from my sickness bu1 laid down and crawled to the edge, where, 1 oking over, I saw 

some bon^s projecting from the ground. I o itin I on my way to the house ol a I rra- 

versier. a Frenchman, with whom Dr. F. Wixon was stopping We senl word to the Sioux City 
post-office, and Floyd's remains were secured next day. I was nol preaenl at t in- rescue, nor at the 
reburial, as I was sick for --"in- time; bu1 I understood that amone the number who secured the 

remains were Dr. A. M. Hunt, long since deceased, and Dr. J . J . Sa\ ill.-." 


The Charles City Intelligencer prints a letter, which is reprinted in the 
Sioux City Journal of June 23, 1895, addressed to Maj. E. B. Dyke by Dr. S. P. 
Yeonians, an old settler familiar with the location of the grave, and one 
who has often seen the post. Referring to the washing away of the face of 
the bluff by the river, Dr. Yeomans states that in 1856 (a slip of the pen 
for 1857), it was discovered that the box containing Floyd's remains was 
exposed for one-third its length, and being thus suspended over the river 
was in imminent danger of falling. To prevent this catastrophe the citizens 
of Sioux City formed a large party, which went to the spot to rescue the 
remains. Dr. Yeomans further says: 

"A strong cable was prepared to attach to the box, and Dr. Sloane, father 
of our fellow townsman, editor of the Citizen, being light of weight, volun- 
teered to accept the post of danger. With a rope tied around his waist, se- 
curely held by strong hands, he was let down over the brink of the precipice 
until the box was reached and the cable adjusted. The remains were then 
brought to a place of safety," etc. 

A still more circumstantial account of the finding of the remains is 
given in the Sioux City Journal of June 23, 1895, with refei'ence to the An- 
nals of Iowa of October, 1863. This is from the pen of N. Levering, chair- 
man of the committee appointed to rescue the remains in 1857. Mr. Levering 
is still living, in Los Angeles, Cal. His account may be condensed in the fol- 
lowing terms: 

In March, 1857, when the snow was rapidly melting, the water ran so 
high that Floyd river and the Missouri came together and overflowed what 
is now called South Sioux City. About this time it was discovered that the 
Missouri was encroaching on Floyd's Bluff, and that the grave with its 
contents was likely to be precipitated into the turbid flood below. A meet- 
ing of citizens was soon called and a committee appointed to rescue the re- 
mains. The committee consisted of N. Levering, chairman; Hon. M. F. 
Moore, Dr. S. P. Yeomans, George Weare, and Capt. J. M. White. They re- 
paired to the spot, accompanied by a large number of other persons (among 
whom were ex-Gov. C. C. Carpenter, of Fort Dodge; Hon. Addison Oliver, 
ex-M. C, of Onawa; C. B. Rustin, now of Omaha, Neb.; and Augustus Gron- 
inger, then and now of Sioux City. They found that the rushing waters 
had robbed the grave of a part of its contents. With much labor, and not 
without danger, the remains not already washed away were secured; they 
included the skull with its lower jaw, a thigh bone, a shin bone, and various 
others (see the list of bones found in 1895, as given beyond). These were 
taken charge of by the committee for reinterment. The coffin appeared to 
have been made with small oak slabs, set up on end around the body, with 
a covering of similar form and same material. The red cedar post originally 
erected by Lewis and Clark had slid into the river. It had seemed to be per- 
fectly sound, but had been whittled down till it was no larger than a walk- 
ing-stick by travelers anxious to preserve a relic of Floyd's grave. Accord- 
ing to some published accounts, a piece of the post had been carried to Lon- 
uon and deposited in a museum in that city by an English traveler. 

According to a letter written by Mr. Levering at Sioux City, July 25, 
1863, and published in the Annals of Iowa as above said, it appears that he 
then transmitted to the Rev. Samuel Storrs Howe, librarian of the State 


Historical Society, Iowa City, la., a small piece of the coffin. The English 
traveler above mentioned was probably George Catlin, but possibly Mr. 
Pr ad bury. 

Such, in effect, is the sum of the information on record concerning the 
exposure of the grave and the rescue of its contents from destruction, in 
April or May, 1857. Some few more bones than Mr. Levering specifies were 
certainly recovered, for they were in evidence on opening the new grave in 
1895. It is probable that some of them were scattered down the bluff, and 
that all those finally collected were not gathered at once. The body appears 
to have been laid head-on to the river; and in this case the skull, from its 
shape, would be likely to fall among the first. It is believed with some rea- 
son that the skull was in fact not found till after other bones had been taken 
to the city. None of the arm bones were ever recovered; and none of the 
skeleton above the lumbar region or middle of the body was found in 1895, 
except the skull with its jaw, one collar bone, and fragments of some ribs. 
But the large bones of the lower limbs were mostly preserved. These facts 
tend to confirm the belief regarding the position of the body. The tradition 
that the original cedar post, or any fragment of it. is still extant is not sup- 
ported by satisfactory evidence. The record is clear to the time of Catlin's 
visit, 1832, but soon becomes obscure. Nicollet's statement that in 1839 his 
men "replaced the signal, blown down by the winds," may mean either that 
the original post was set up again, or that it was replaced by a new one. 
Certainly a post — whether Lewis and Clark's of 1804, or Nicollet's of 1839, 
was a familiar object to passers-by down to 1857. At this date, Mr. Levering 
tells us that "it had slid into the river;" yet he describes it as being per- 
fectly sound, though whittled down. It may be that he thus speaks of the 
post as he had known it to be down to 1857, when it was finally lost, and 
not that he saw it at this late date; or else the expression "slid into the 
river" may mean only that it had fallen to the foot of the bluff, where it 
might have been recovered when some bones that accompanied its descent 
were collected. In 1895 Mr. A. M. Holman, of Sergeant's Bluff, gave some 
members of the present publication committee some bits of sound wood 
which he affirmed in good faith had been cut from the post. But these 
proved to be pieces of oak. It is not impossible that these were from a slab 
of the original coffin; but their soundness seems against such a supposition. 
The new grave of 1857 was marked with a headboard and footboard, which 
had been broken off or burnt off to the ground when this grave was opened 
in 1895, leaving no trace above ground, though crumbling remains of them, 
as of the new coffin of L857, were found. In short, your committee has never 
been able to reconcile conflicting statements regarding the post, or recover 
the missing links of evidence since is.39. 

Sec. 7. Floyd's New Grave. On the 28th of May, 1857, the remains 
thus recovered were reburied with appropriate patriotic and religious cere 
monies. We are again indebted to Mr. N. Levering for the most circumstan- 
tial account which has reached us of this occasion. To this your committee 
is able to add a few names and some other particulars. 

The weather was propitious, and the exercises were conducted accord 

ing to the programme which had I □ devised by the committee In charge 

of the proceedings, a new grave had been prepared on the same bluff, 



about or rather within two hundred yards further back from the river. 
The occasion was of the greatest public interest to the then young town; 
an event in its very earliest days, destined to make permanent history. 
A large concourse of citizens of both sexes participated in the ceremonies. 

"Capt. James B. Todd, late of the U. S. Army,"* officiated as marshal. 
Under his' direction a procession was formed at 2 p. m. in front of the 
United States Land Office in Sioux City. The new coffin, six feet seven or 
eight inches long, was neatly finished, and draped with the flag. The pall- 
bearers were eight, seven of whom represented as many different states. 
Mr. N. Levering himself was one of them, on the part of Ohio. The others 
whose names he remembers were: W. Craft, Virginia; T. Griff y, Kentucky; 
L. Kennerly, Missouri; W. H. Levering, Indiana; and D. W. Scott,** of the 
U. S. Army. The coffin was borne at the head of the procession, which 
marched to the levee, where the steam ferryboat "Louis Burns" was wait- 
ing to carry all who could get aboard down river to the bluff. Many per- 
sons also repaired to the bluff in carriages or on foot, as the boat was too 
small to carry them all. At the proper time the coffin was lowered into 
the grave by Captains Todd and Scott, Mr. W. H. Levering, and Mr. Craft. 
Impressive funeral services were conducted by the Rev. Thomas Chestnut, 
of Illinois. The orator of the occasion was the Hon. Marshall F. Moore,*** 
who delivered an address which, says Levering, "was very appropriate, 
able, and eloquent, and reflected much credit upon the honorable gentle- 

Even at this early day, the question of erecting a suitable monument 
to Floyd was raised and freely canvassed. The proposition met with gen- 
eral favor, and some steps were taken to that end; but they failed of their 
purpose, and the matter was dropped. Evidently, the time for such a noble 
consummation had not arrived. Another long interregnum was to intervene 
before the sleeping Sergeant should reawake and come into his kingdom 
in the memories of men. 

Sec. 8 Floyd County, For Whom Named? This question seems to 
your committee pertinent, and may be properly considered in connection 
with the events just narrated, as there is naturally an impression in the 

*So given by Levering'- The name is not to be found in Heitman's Register, 1789-1889. The 
nearest to it is that of John Blair Smith Todd, of Kentucky, appointed to the army from Illinois: 
Cadet Military Academy at West Point, July 1. 1832; Lieutenant and Captain Sixth Infantry, 
1837-56; resigned September 16, 1856; Brigadier General of Volunteers, September 19, 1861; appoint- 
ment expired July 17, 1862; died May 14, 1871. 

Capt. Todd was elected first mayor of Sioux City and well known by many old residents, and 
he always signed his name J. B. S. Todd; so Levering merely forgot the correct name. 

;; "'The only "D. W." Scott whose name appears in Heitman's Register is David W., of Vir- 
ginia, appointed from Indiana, a First Lieutenant of Infantry, March 10, 1847, and honorably 
mustered out July 20, 1848. If this be the man, he was not in the army in 1857. 

***Of New York, who had come to Sioux City to practice law in 1855, and was in the spring 
of 1857 elected district judge of the district which included all the northwestern part of Iowa. 
Judge Moore was then a young attorney, a graduate of Yale college, and fairly equipped for his 
profession. "His duties as judge somewhat interfered with his gay and festive disposition, but no 
one doubted his honesty, though many did his legal knowledge: and he. no less than the public, 
rejoiced at the close of his term in December, 1858," sa}'S Mr. J. C. C. Hoskins. in aletter to Mitchell 
Vincent, November 21, 1895. Judge Moire was early a partner in the banking house of Casady. 
Moore & Clark, of Sioux City. He be.-ame allied by marriage with the Ewings and Shermans of 
Ohio. At the breaking out of the war he was appointed from Ohio Lieutenant-Colonel of the Sev- 
enteenth Ohio nfantry October 4, 1861; he resigned February 14, 1863, and was reappointed as 
Colonel of the Sixty-ninth Ohio Infantry February 23, 1868; he was brevetted Brigadier-General of 
Volunteers March 13. 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, especially at the 
battle of Jonesboro, Ga., and M ajor-Ganeral of the same for the same at the same date, and re- 
signed November 7. He went to Olympia, Wash., became Governor of Washington, and died in 
office February 27, 1870. 


minds of many persons that the county was dedicated to Sergeant Charles 
Floyd— which is not the case. We propose therefore to discuss the evi- 
dence bearing upon the no fewer than four persons named Floyd for whom 
the county has been claimed, and hope to be able to settle the case in favor 
of the rightful recipient of this honor. 

1. The letter of Dr. S. P. Yeomans, already noted in these pages in 
another connection as having been published in the Charles City Intelli- 
gencer, and in the Sioux City Journal of June 21, 1895, proceeds to discuss 
the origin of the county name, Floyd, which was given by legislative enact- 
ment in 1851. It appears that ten years afterward, on the outbreak of the 
war in 1861, an effort was made to change the name, because it was sup- 
posed to have been given in honor of John Buchanan Floyd, Governor of 
Virginia 1850-53, Secretary of War 1857 to December, 1860, and afterward a 
General in the Confederate Army. Thus, the County History of Floyd re- 
cords some proceedings of the State Legislature of 1862, to the following 

Senator Redfield, of Dallas county, introduced a bill to change the 
name of Floyd county to Baker county, in honor of Gen. Edward Dickinson 
Baker, the gallant soldier who fell at the battle of Ball's Bluff, Va., Octo- 
ber 21, 1861. Senator Ainsworth moved to amend by changing the name 
to Lyon. Senator Holmes objected to this amendment, because he lived 
in Jones county, the name of which he desired to change to Lyon. Senator 
Duncombe, of Webster county, stated that Floyd county was not named 
for the J. B. Floyd "we hear so much about nowadays," but for "a Sergeant 
of Lewis and Clark's expedition." (This shows that the tradition con- 
necting Sergeant Floyd's name with the county had been established in 
1862.) Senator Woodward, of Muscatine county, inquired if the senator 
from Dallas county had introduced his bill in pursuance of the express de- 
sire of the people of Floyd county. Senator Redfield replied that he had 
not done so for that reason, but because he was under the impression that 
this county had been named for "that infamous traitor, John B. Floyd;'" 
and he withdrew the bill, upon the assurance of Senator Duncombe that 
the county had been named for Lewis and Clark's Sergeant. 

The County History states furthermore, that one B. B. Steenburg, for- 
merly of Floyd, was once a member of a commission to ascertain the origin 
of the name. The conclusion was reached in this instance that Floyd 
county had been so called in honor of a certain topographical engineer who 
died near Sioux City before the war, about the time his labors as surveyor 
had been completed. But it further appears from Dr. Yeoman's letter that 
Mr. Steenburg once told Maj. Dyke, editor of the Intelligencer, that he had 
no doubt in his own mind that the name was given in honor of Sergeant 
Floyd; that it could hardly have been given for John B. Floyd, a young 
man of no national reputation in 1851; but that possibly the name referred 
to William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. 

It thus appears that thirty years ago there were already four different 
theories regarding the origin of the county name, all irreconcilable, and none 

2. An unpublished letter of Mr. J. C. C. Hoskins, dated Sioux City, la., 
November 21, 1895, addressed to Mitchell Vincent, Esq., of Onawa, and by 


the latter transmitted to Dr. Coues. includes the following statements, in 

"I have always supposed that Floyd county was named for the traitor. 
J. B. Floyd; I think there can be no doubt of it. In the early days Iowa 
was overwhelmingly Democratic. In 1850, when the state was divided into 
49 counties their names were with two exceptions (Cedar and Des Moines) 
Indian or personal. Of the 34 personal names, 14 were of Democrats active 
and distinguished at that day, Jeff. Davis among them; three or four were 
of democratic saints who had gone to their rest; others were of distin- 
guished soldiers of the Revolutionary or later wars; one was of Julien Du- 
buque, the pioneer; one of Henry, the orator; one of Marshall, the jurist (if, 
indeed. Marshall county was named for this judge). In or about 1852. 49 
more counties were named in a similar method, though the scope of the 
names were wider — Adair, Bancroft, Brewer, Butler, Calhoun, Cass. Craw- 
ford, Dickinson, Floyd, Guthrie, Grundy, Hardin, Howard, Shelby, Wood- 
bury, Worth, and Wright, — at least these 17, were dedicated to Democrats: 
Adams, Clay, and Webster, were statesmen, not Democrats; Emmett and 
O'Brien, Irish refugees; Franklin, Montgomery, and Greene, were of the 
Revolution; Kossuth was the Hungarian patriot; Audubon was John James, 
the famous ornithologist; Humboldt was the scientist: of Mills and Mitchell 
1 have no present recollection." 

The opinion of our veteran pioneer fellow-citizen certainly carries weight: 
but in this instance it must yield to conclusive evidence to the contrary. 

3. In our desire to sift this matter thoroughly, and perhaps not without 
hope of being able to establish the claim of our hero to the honor of the 
county name, we have corresponded with our much esteemed friend and 
fellow-member of the Floyd Memorial Association, Hon. Charles Aldrich, 
curator of the State Historical Department at Des Moines. The result of 
his inquiries in our behalf would seem to show conclusively that the county 
was named for William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence 
(b. Suffolk county, N. Y., December 17, 1734, d. at Western, Oneida county, 
N. Y., August 4, 1821). We have pleasure in presenting Mr. Aldrich's letter 
in full, without further comment: 

Historical Department of Iowa, 

Des Moines, November 8. 1895. 
Dear Dr. Coues: 

On receipt of your letter relating to the naming of Floyd county. I tele- 
phoned and secured an interview at our rooms with my friend, the Hon. 
P. M. Casady, of this city, who was a state senator in 1850. and a member 
of the committee on new counties. At that session he introduced the bill 
which had for its purpose the erection and naming of 50 new counties. He 
is a thoroughly well-preserved man of 76 years; his mind is clear, and his 
recollection of events of those days seems perfect. In fact, he is the active 
and hard-working president of one of our largest city banks. He says: 

"It was at first in contemplation to name the present county of Wood- 
bury in honor of Sergeant Charles Floyd, and that territory was so designated 
in the original bill which I introduced. But this was not agreed to. and 
the Indian name Wahkaw was substituted for that of Floyd. The county 
bore the name Wahkaw for three years, when it was changed to Wood- 
bury, as it stands today. Later on in the session the present county of 


Floyd was so named in honor of William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence from the State of New York. This I am certain was done 
at the suggestion of some member of the House of Representatives who had 
come from the Empire State. There was a disagreement over some section 
or sections of the bill, and it went to a committee of conference, undergoing 
first and last considerable discussion upon several of the suggested names." 

In this state there are no stenographic reports of the debates and dis- 
cussions in the Legislature, and the early Journals of the House and Senate 
are very meager. Much of the general consideration of the measure oc- 
curred in Committee of the Whole, where no records whatever were kept. 
Floyd, the rebel, was then a young man and unknown. So was Floyd, the 
civil engineer. Neither of these men was mentioned in that connection. 
There is no positive written or printed contemporary record of this matter 
in existence. I take Judge Casady's recollection to be final and conclusive, 
and I accept it the more willingly because I heard him make this same state- 
ment many years ago. Much confusion has arisen over the subject through 
the lapse of years, and from the similarity of names, but I believe that 
Judge Casady sets forth the exact truth. He is a most intelligent, excellent 
gentleman, and I am glad that he has been spared to this day to set the 
matter right 

Very respectfully yours, 

Dr. Elliott Cones. 1726 N Street, Washington. D. C. 

P. S. — Since the above was written I have conferred with Hon. George 
G. Wright, ex-Chief Justice of our Supreme Court, and ex-United States Sen- 
ator, who was a member of the State Senate with Judge Casady in 1850. 
Though his attention was then more especially given to other topics of legis- 
lation, he now in a general way strongly supports the statement of Judge 
Casady. and expresses himself as having no doubt of its truth. 

C. A. 


Sec. 9. Origin of the Association From the foregoing excursion to 
Floyd county we return at once to Floyd's Bluff— to the discovery of Floyd's 
grave of 1857 — to the founding of the Floyd Memorial Association, and espe- 
cially to the memorial exercises of August 20, 1895, on the 91st anniversary 
of Floyd's death — to the end that Floyd's monument may be erected in 
Floyd Park, while the memory of these interesting contemporaneous events 
is still fresh in the minds of our patriotic and public-spirited fellow-towns- 
men of Sioux City. 

The honor of originating the Association can be rightfully ascribed to 
no single individual. If the idea of such an association for the purpose of 
erecting a monument be referable to any single occasion or event, it is dis- 
tinctly traceable back to 1857. It was" fruitless then, but bided its time to 
fructify during the many years when the thought was "in the air," as may 
be said with literal exactitude of the position in space which the original 
sepulture of Floyd now occupies, suspended like Mahomet's coffin between 
heaven and earth. The purpose has never faded entirely from the minds of 
those now living who witnessed the ceremonies of thirty-nine years ago; to 


them and their descendants it is familiar. No doubt the interest reawak- 
ened in Lewis and Clark by the republication of the History of their Expedi- 
tion in 1893 contributed to the quickening of the idea. Doubtless, also, the 
discovery of Floyd's Journal by Mr. Thwaites, its publication by the Amer- 
ican Antiquarian Society, and the comment upon it by such papers as the 
New York Nation (February 15, 1894), tended to the same result of crystal- 
izing an already saturated solution of the thought. The desirability of 
marking Floyd's grave was expressed by the writer in correspondence with 
Mitchell Vincent, Esq., of March 4, 1894. From the first the project has 
been one of national rather than local historical significance. But the real- 
ization of the noble purpose remains entirely to the credit of the citizens 
of Sioux City and vicinity, and more especially redounds to the honor of 
the older residents. It would be invidious to particularize by name in such 
a case, where all worked together to the common end in view, and where 
the greatest praise that could be desired is to come from the fulfillment of 
the single purpose, for the accomplishment of which there has been but a 
single mind. 

Among the means to this end, none has proved more effectual than the 
course pursued by the Sioux City Journal from the beginning. The interest 
taken in the project by this paper, and the liberal policy which showed that 
interest by putting unlimited space at the service of the Association, not 
only tended to arouse public sentiment, and stimulate public endeavor, but 
has preserved the best record extant of the origin and progress of the Asso- 
ciation, both before and after the pivotal date of Augast 20, 1895. Your 
committee desires to express its obligations to the Journal for much of the 
material, without which the present memoir could hardly have been pre- 
pared. We shall draw heavily upon this contemporaneous record, as con- 
firming, amplifying and supplementing the minutes of meetings and other 
official documents which have been placed in the hands of the publication 

The Journal of May 16, 1895, devotes a column to Sergeant Charles Floyd, 
with the caption "An Association for Paying the Honor Due to His Mem- 
ory" — perhaps the first express announcement of the fact of such a proposed 
organization. This notable article is unsigned, but was prepared by Mi'- 
A. F. Statter, of the editorial staff. Among other items of interest it says: 

"A number of old settlers have been discussing the matter of forming 
a society to visit on August 20 of this year the present site of the grave, 
which was moved many years after Floyd's death, and hold appropriate 
ceremonies in honor of the first white man to be buried in this neighbor- 
hood. D. A. Magee is acting as secretary until an organization is formed, 
and a number of old settlers, such as Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa: A. M. 
Holman, of Sergeant Bluffs; and John H. Charles, of this city, have inter- 
ested themselves in the matter, and are making every effort to carry forward 
the undertaking. The object of the association will be to secure state legis- 
lation to buy the historic spot, and erect a monument to the memory of the 
first soldier to die on this soil after the Louisiana purchase, and to promote 
enough interest in this city to secure good driveways to the spot and make 
it a point of interest as well as of history." 

This article continues with extracts from Capt. Clark's original manu- 
script journal of dates August 19 and 20, 1804, as printed in the Coues edition 


of the history of 1893, and other extracts from Floyd's own journal, as 
printed by the American Antiquarian Society in 1894; and concludes with an 
account of the not then successful search for the grave of 1857 by D. A. 
Magee and others. 

The Journal of May 26 follows up this announcement with a four-column 
article on the "Proposed Floyd Monument," noting conspicuously the "wide- 
spread interest in the organization for its erection," and giving an extended 
description of Floyd's Bluff, illustrated with a double-column view from a 
photograph which Mr. D. A. Magee had caused to be taken. This article 
is unsigned; it was prepared by Mr. A. F. Statter. It announces that "the 
promoters of the Monument Association propose to organize it on Floyd's 
Bluff on the 91st anniversary of the day of his death, August 20 of this year. 
Much enthusiasm is developing. Not only the people of Sioux City, of Ser- 
geant Bluffs and of the surrounding country are interested in it, but the 
interest extends to all who are absorbed in the history of the United States, 
and especially the Western half of it." The same article concludes with a 
letter from Dr. Coues, dated Washington, D. C, May 22, 1895, noting the 
Lewis and Clark expedition, and earnestly urging "the proposition made by 
Mitchell Vincent and others to purchase a tract of 20 or 30 acres, to be sef 
aside for a public park, upon the culminating point of which the monument 
is to stand." 

The Journal of May 29, 1895, says: "The duty of the people of Sioux 
City and Woodbury county in the matter of properly honoring Sergeant 
Floyd, whose grave is on a high bluff in the southern part of the city, is 
clear. The letter published in the Sunday (May 26) Journal, from Prof. 
Elliott Coues, of the Smithsonian Institution, ought to arouse every one to 
the importance of some immediate action. Several old residents have taken 
hold and intend to do something, and they ought to be supported by others." 

The New York Nation of May 30, 1895, publishes a letter from Dr. Coues. 
noting the steps already taken at Sioux City for a monument to Floyd, and 
continuing the general subject of Floyd and his journal, with remarks by an 
unnamed correspondent. 

The Journal of June 2, 1895, speaks of the "wide interest" the move- 
ment had already attracted, and of the applause it had won from scientists 
and historians, citing the New York Nation of May 30th. The Journal's 
article is mainly a contribution to the early history of the subject from 
Mr. A. F. Statter, who writes upon Brackenridge, Catlin, Nicollet, and the 
American Antiquarian Society's publication of Floyd's Journal. Mr. S. T. 
Davis also contributes to this article the letter we have already mentioned and 
used on p. 17, regarding the removal of Floyd's remains in 1857. 

The Kansas City Star of June 8, 1895, publishes an extended historical 
article under the caption "A Hero of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." 
About this first week of June the movement thus started at Sioux City ac- 
quired great impetus and far-reaching effect. National publicity was se- 
cured by an Associated Press dispatch, which immediately went the rounds 
of uncounted newspapers. By misprint this dispatch appeared with the 
heading, "Grave of Sergeant Lloyd." This error was corrected in the Wash- 
ington, D. C, Post of June 13, by a special letter from Dr. Coues. It is 
curious to remark in this connection, that the apparent mistake of "Lloyd' 


for "Floyd" simply reverts to the original spelling of the Welsh surname, of 
which "Floyd" is a later form. 

Such in brief, is the published record of the origin of this Association. 
The first stage of its formation was ended with the rediscovery of the grave 
of 1857, to which we now turn. 

Sec. 10. Organization of the Association. Meanwhile, on Memorial 
Day, May 30, 1895, Floyd's grave of 1857 was found; and on June 6 the Floyd 
Memorial Association was first formally organized, on the spot. The official 
account of these events was furnished by Hon. C. R. Marks to the Sioux City 
Journal of June 10, in substance as follows: 

The late Dr. Wm. R. Smith was always interested in the subject, and 
left a bequest to assist in erecting a suitable monument. The late Mr. W. P. 
Holman. of Sergeant Bluffs, had often thought that something should be 
done, and had conferred with Dr. Smith for that purpose. Several years 
ago, during Congressman Struble's term of office, they had petitioned Con- 
gress for an appropriation for a. monument, having obtained many Iowan 
signatures; but the matter was not pressed, lest it might conflict with a 
desired appropriation for the public building in Sioux City. 

Mr. C. J. Holman and Mr. A. M. Holman, sons of W. P. Holman; Mr. 
Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa; Judge Geo. W. Wakefleld, of Sioux City, and 
others, recently visited Floyd's Bluff, but discovered no sign of the grave. 

"Others present: D. A. Magee, J. D. Hoskins, J. L. Follett, jr., C. R. 
Marks visited the bluff, and after nearly two hours fruitless search were 
rewarded by the discovery of the grave, at Mr. Marks' suggestion that it 
should be identifiable by some difference in the color of the soil. To verify 
this, considerable ground was tested in various spots with hatchet and 
trowel. Mr. Geo. Murphy finally picked out a place which answered to his 
recollection of the site, and on testing it with his cane found light-colored 
earth. Further exploration with a trowel disclosed the contour of the grave, 
as shown by a line of demarkation between yellow and black earth, and the 
gentlemen felt sure they had found the right spot. Desiring to have other 
witnesses of the discovery, among those interested in the case, and espe- 
cially to have as many as possible of those who had been present at the re- 
burial in 1857 meet on the bluff, the appearance of which had been much 
modified by removal of trees and a railroad cutting through its northwest 
end. they desisted from further excavation at this time. 

Following are the proceedings of the meeting of citizens at the grave 
of 1857 on Floyd's Bluff, in Sioux City, June 6, 1895, at 3 p. m.: 

Present: J. C. C. Hoskins, S. T. Davis, J. D. Hoskins, D. A. Magee, 
George Murphy, L. C. Sanborn, H. D. Clark, A. Groninger, A. M. Holman, L. 
Bates. E. R. Kirk, W. L. Joy, T. J. Stone, C. J. Holman, John H. Charles. J. 
P. Allison, W. B. Tredway, J. L. Follett, Jr.. and C. R. Marks. 

The persons assembled recognized the place as Floyd's Bluff, most of 
them having been either present at the reburial of 1857, or at that time fa- 
miliar with the ground and the grave, as the then traveled road, the signs 
of which were still visible, passed from the Missouri river bank up the 
ravine on the north side of the bluff. No depression of the ground was 
visible: but the persons who had been on the bluff on May 30 pointed out a 
spot where the surface soil was light-colored or yellowish, in contrast with 
the surrounding black earth. On excavating this to the depth of a few 


inches, the whole contour of a grave was plainly visible. The western end 
of this was dug deeper, and the original walls of the grave in the dark- 
colored earth were disclosed as the mixed yellow and black soil was thrown 
out. At the head and foot, a few inches under ground, were found pieces 
of oak board about a foot long, much decayed. About four feet below the 
surface the coffin appeared, still in form, but so much decayed that the lid 
caved in when struck with the spade. The skull, including the lower jaw, 
and some other bones were found, in a good state of preservation; but no 
farther exhumation was made, as the identification was deemed complete. 

Thereupon the informal gathering was called to order. J. C. C. Hoskins 
was elected President; and C. R. Marks, Secretary. 

It was moved by A. M. Holman, seconded by E. R. Kirk, and carried, 
"that we do hereby organize ourselves into the FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSO- 

It was moved, seconded, and carried, that an Executive Committee, 
composed of A. M. Holman, Mitchell Vincent, and George W. Wakefield, be 
hereby appointed to act with the President and Secretary to arrange for 
future meetings, perfect an organization of the Association that shall seek 
to perpetuate the memory and grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, and espe- 
cialy to hold a meeting August 20, 1895, the ninety-first anniversary of his 

In view of the fact that the grave had been opened, thus attracting 
public attention, and that persons might consequently remove the bones or 
relics, it was moved, seconded, and carried, that the skull be taken charge 
of by the President and Secretary for safe keeping until the Association 
should redeposit it in the properly secured grave on the occasion of the 
proposed memorial services of August 20. The remaining bones which had 
been uncovered were left in the grave, which was then filled up flush with 
the surface of the ground. 

Thereupon a paper was signed by the persons present; a copy of the 
same being ordered to be spread upon the minutes of the meeting, and the 
original to be preserved. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned, subject to call. 

The following is a copy of the paper which was signed, as printed in the 
Journal of June 10: 

"We, the undersigned residents of Sioux City and Sergeant Bluffs, Io.. 
and vicinity, do hereby certify that we were present on the afternoon of 
June 6, 1895, at Floyd's Bluff, where the meeting was held to identify the 
location of the grave where Sergeant Charles Floyd's remains were rein- 
terred by public ceremony May 28, 1857. The location is where, coming up 
the Missouri river on the Iowa side, the first high bluff roaches the river 
hank, and below the mouth of the Floyd river. The grave is on the crest of 
the ridge of the bluff which extends back from the river and hollows north 
ami south of it, and about 3(50 Tfeet back and east from the top of the railroad 
<ut (if the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, and in a slight depression of the 
ridge between two higher points, and the grave runs east and west. That 
while the yet unbroken prairie shows at first no sign of the grave, still, 
guided by the memories of some of those who assisted at such burial, and 
still others who have visited it frequently since, which (when) the stones and 

r post placed there remained, and from surrounding local objects, and 


especially from digging for the coffin, and finding parts of it, and from 
searching the surface and disclosing the exact outline of a grave 8% feet by 
4V 2 feet, shown by the lighter colored dirt with which the grave was filled 
at the time at the top, contrasted in well defined lines with the surround- 
ing black surface dirt all around it. And we dug open a part of the grave 
to the coffin and found bones and the skull. We identify it as the place of the 
reburial of Sergeant Charles Floyd. And such of us as (are) so indicated 
below were either present at such burial or were familiar with the ground 
at that time in 1857 and prior. And that the original grave (of 1804) was 
then a well known landmark, and by the undermining of the foot of the 
bluff by the river the bank had caved so that part of the coffin projected out 
of the river side of the bluff, which was the occasion of the reburial. And 
we thus fix the place where now lie the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd, the 
first soldier of the United States who died in the service of the new terri- 
tory purchased from France. 

"Names of those who were present at the reburial in 1857, or who then 
knew the old and new grave: Wm. L. Joy, H. D. Clark, W. B. Tredway, 
George Murphy, John P. Allison, John H. Charles, T. J. Stone, E. R. Kirk, 
J. C. C. Hoskins, C. J. Holman, L. Bates, L. C. Sanborn, A. Groninger, A. 
M. Holman. 

Others present: D. A. Magee, J. D. Hoskins, J. L. Follett, jr.. C. R. 

In connection with this discovery and identification of the 1857 grave, 
and formal organization of the Association, June 6, 1895, may be noted the 
exact location of the grave with reference to the changes undergone by the 
bluff in consequence of the railroad cut of 1867-68. This information is rep- 
resented by the accurate plat, made by Mitchell Vincent, Esq., July 29, 1895, 
of the ground suggested for the Floyd Memorial Park, belonging to the 
Credits Commutation Company, of Sioux City, comprising a part of Lot 8, 
Sect. 1, Township S8 N., Range 48 W., containing 21% acres. When the 
Sioux City and Pacific R. R. was brought into town, Mr. Vincent, the engi- 
neer in charge of the earthenwork, ran the line to strike the face of the 
bluff close to the river's edge, and then cut through this point for 400 feet 
or more. The greatest depth of the cut, where the line passes the crest of 
the bluff, is 60 feet. The face of the cut is nearly sheer or vertical on the 
land side; on the water side is left for a little distance a lower irregular ele- 
vation, representing the ragged edge of the bluff as it was in 1857, now 
still further disintegrated and continually crumbling away. As stated ear- 
lier in this Memoir, p. 23, the location of the original grave of 1804 is now 
in the air, over the water, higher than and to the west of these crumb- 
ling fragments of the former solid face of the bluff. The railroad profiles 
show the summit of Floyd's Bluff to have been 97 feet higher than the 
mouth of Floyd's river. Allowing one foot fall of the Missouri from Floyd's 
river to the bluff, and making some other slight adjustments, we may say 
with confidence that the position in space of the 1804 grave is now in the 
air 100 feet over the surface of the Missouri. From the solid edge of the rail- 
road cut to the grave of 1857 is now a distance of about 360 feet, in a direc •• 

*In the copy of these proceedings as printed it appears that nineteen persons were present, 
but the list of signatures has but eighteen names, that of S. T. Davis not appearing. 



tion about S. E., this distance representing probably about 600 feet from the 
position of the grave of 1804. The new grave is in a very slight depression 
of the main crest or "hog back" of the bluff, which runs about N. W. and 
S. E. for 866 feet from the edge of the cut to the road back of the whole 
bluff. This crest or ridge is separated on the N. E. by a gulch or ravine. 
10 to 20 feet deep, from another bold prominence, shorter but somewhat higher 
than Floyd's Bluff proper. The culminating point of this spur is 591 feet N. E. 
of the middle of the railroad cut, and nearly as far N. N. E. of the new grave. 
All these points, and others necessary to an understanding of the situation, 
will be readily perceived on examination of the accompanying plat, reduced 
in size from the original, first published in the Journal of August 21, 1895, 
and herewith reproduced by the kind permission of our chairman, the editor 
of the Journal. 

Plat of Floyd's Bluff and Grave. 

Sec. 11 Proceedings of the Association, Before August 20, 1895. 

i Abstract of Minutes.) 

Sioux City. la.. June 24, L895. 

The Executive Committee which was formed on June 6, at Floyd's Bluff, 
met in Mr. Marks' office. Present: President J. C. C. Hoskins; Secretary C. 
R. Marks; Messrs. A. M. Holman, Mitchell Vincent, G. W. Wakefield. 

President Hoskins resigned on account of ill health and probable ab- 
sence. His resignation was accepted with regret. Mr. John II. Charles 


was elected President; and being present, entered upon the duties of pre- 
siding officer. 

Messrs. Horace G. Burt, of Omaha; L. Bates, of Dakota City; and D. A. 
Magee. of Sioux City, were added to the Executive Committee. 

Mr. D. A. Magee was elected Treasurer of the Association. 

Secretary Marks was instructed to correspond with Dr. Elliott Coues, of 
Washington, D. C, and Prof. J. D. Butler, of Madison, Wis., to ascertain 
whether either or both could be present to deliver addresses at the pro- 
posed exercises of August 20. 

Messrs. Geo. W. Wakefield, C. R. Marks, and D. A. Magee, were ap- 
pointed a committee to confer with the owners of the ground where Floyd's 
grave is located, and procure a proposition for the conveyance to some au- 
thorized association of the ground there between the present highway and 
the Missouri river, for a permanent park. 

Messrs. A. M. Holman, Geo. Murphy and E. R. Kirk were appointed a 
committee to procure a suitable receptacle for the reburial of Floyd's bones, 
and a proper stone to mark the grave temporarily. 

The officers of the Association were instructed to procure the necessary 
stationery, and to send out circulars inviting subscriptions and memberships 
in the Association, upon contributions of $1.00 or more, to defray expenses 
of the memorial exercises of August 20, and for subsequent use in the erec- 
tion of a monument, etc. 

Adjourned to July 6, in the Court House, the members of the Association 
and the public to be invited to attend. 

(Abstract of Minutes.*) 

Court House, Sioux City, July 6, 1895. 

The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m., pursuant to adjournment. 
Present: President John H. Charles, in the chair; Secretary C. R. Marks, 
Treasurer D. A. Magee, Messrs. A. M. Holman, Mitchell Vincent. E. R. Kirk, 
Geo. Murphy, A. Groninger, Thos. J. Stone, F. C. Hills, W. Stinson, L. Bates. 
Geo. W. Wakefield, C. D. Bagley and Dr. J. Perrin Johnson. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

Photographs of Floyd's skull, and of the landscape in the vicinity of 
his grave, were exhibited. 

Letters were read from Hon. Charles Aldrich, of Des Moines, la.; Dr. 
Elliott Coues, of Washington, D. C; Mr. K. G. Burt, of Omaha. Neb.; Dr. S. 
P. Yeomans, of Charles City, la., and others, expressing their interest in the 
matter and in several instances their intention to attend the memorial ex- 
ercises on August 20. It seemed probable that the Committee could secure 
the services of Prof. J. D. Butler, of Madison, Wis., on that occasion. The 
letter from Dr. Coues related in part to the Catlin painting of Floyd's Bluff, 
and questioned the wisdom of reburying Floyd's skull, which he thought 
would be better preserved in some historical depository. This question gave 
rise to considerable discussion, at the conclusion of which it was decided 
that all the remains should be recommitted to the grave. The letter of Dr. 
Yeomans expressed his intention to be present on August 20. 

*Based on the Secretar3''s manuscript in the minute book, but supplemented from the ac 
count furnished to the Sioux City Journal of July 7 


Secretary Marks exhibited the old petition* to Congress, signed by 780 
citizens of Iowa, which was to have been presented by Congressman Struble 
during his term of office; but this matter had finally been allowed to drop. 

The Committee on the Stone (Messrs. Holman, Kirk, and Murphy) re- 
ported that a suitable slab, 7x3 feet and 8 inches thick, properly inscribed, 
could be delivered and securely laid on the grave, for $40. The report was 
accepted, and it was voted that the stone be prepared, and laid on August 20. 
This committee further reported that they were having made of pottery an 
urn to hold the remains. 

The Committee on Grounds desired and were allowed further time to re- 

The Secretary was instructed to correspond with Francis P. Harper, of 
New York, the publisher of Dr. Cones' edition of the History of the Lewis 
and Clark Expedition, in order to secure a list of the subscribers to that 
work for the use of the committee.. 

The participation of military and civic officials in the ceremonies of 
August 20 was discussed by Messrs. A. M. Holman, F. C. Hills and others. 

On motion that a Committee of five on Finance be appointed to act with 
the Treasurer to raise needed funds, the President appointed Messrs. F. 
C. Hills, Chairman; E. \Y. Skinner, Secretary; Mitchell Vincent, L. Hates. 
and C. A. Bagley. 

It was voted that President John H. Charles, Judge Geo. W. Wakefield. 
Mi-. E. R. Kirk, Treasurer D. A. Magee. and Secretary C. R. Marks be consti- 
tuteil a committee to arrange the programme for August 20th. 

Voted, that Dr. Elliott Cones, of Washington, D. C; Prof. J. D. Butler, 
of Madison, Wis.: Hon. Charles Aldrich, of Des Moines, la.: ami Mr. F. C. 
Hills, of Sioux City, be added to the Executive Committee; and that five 
members of this committee be considered a quorum for the transaction of 

Adjourned to meet in the same place at 2 p. m.. July 20. 

(Abstract of Minuti 

Court House. Sioux City, .Inly 20, L895. 

The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m.. pursuant to adjournment of 
July 6. Present: President J. H. Charles, in the (hair: Secretary C. R. 
Marks, F. R. Kirk. .Mitchell Vincent, A. M. Holman. C. D. Bagley, W. Stin- 
son, and F. W. Skinner. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The Secretary read several letters, including one from Mr. P. B. Weare. 
of Chicago, enclosing a check for $25, offering another $25 if needed, and a 
third $25 to mark the grave of the Indian chief War Eagle, on the Sioux 
Bluff. The Secretary also stated that he had written to A. C. Floyd, of 
< hattanooga, Tenn.. said to be a relative of Sergeant clinics Floyd. 

The Committee on Grounds reported that thej had conferred with F. 
I.. Eaton, of the Credits Commutation Company, who represented the desired 
ground, and H. J. Taylor, the Company's attorney; that thej had visited 
the ground; that the opinion had been expressed thai in anj evenl a parcel 
of ground large enough for the proposed monument could be obtained; and 
moreover, that a larger tract, sufficient lor the proposed park, mi 

a briel noticed this meeting' appears in the Journal ol July 7. 


granted on certain terms, if the Floyd Memorial Association could give 
satisfactory assurances of ability to equip and maintain such a park. The 
committee were allowed further time. 

The Committee on Stone reported on prices ranging from $30 to $40, 
according to quality, etc. They were authorized to use their own judgment 
in selecting a suitable stone, which was directed to be engraved with the 
following inscription: 

(Inscription follows in the minutes: see beyond, p. 45.) 

Adjourned to meet August 3, at same time and place. 

(Abstract of Minutes.*) 

Court House, Sioux City, August 3, 1895. 
The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m., pursuant to adjournment of 
July 20. Present: President John H. Charles, in the chair; Secretary C. R. 
Marks. Messrs. G. W. Bagley, Mitchell Vincent, G. M. Pardoe, G. W. Wake- 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 
The Committee on Ceremonies for August 20 reported the following pro- 

A. For the Afternoon, at the Grave: 

I. Procession from the railroad train to the top of the bluff. 1. Gen. 
Hancock Post, G. A. R., with fife and drum. 2. Old Settlers. 3. 
Officers of the Association, speakers on the occasion, and other in- 
vited guests. 4. City and county officials. 5. Other organizations 
which might be invited and wish to participate. 6. The public. 

II. Viewing the remains in the urn, and examining Floyd's Journal. 

III. Short address by Judge Wakefield, on behalf of Sioux City. 

IV. Short funeral sermon by Prof. Butler. 
V. Singing of "Nearer My God to Thee." 

VI. Prayer. 
VII. Ceremony of reburial of the remains, conducted by the G. A. R. 
VIII. Short addresses by Dr. Coues, Dr. Yeomans, and others. 
IX. Setting of the stone over the grave. 

B. For the Evening, at the Young Men's Christian Association Audi- 

X. Address on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, by Dr. Coues. 
XI. Address on Serjeant Floyd, by Prof. Butler. 

This programme was carried out, without material modification: see 
date of August 20, beyond, p. 37.) 

On motion this report was adopted, and it was voted to invite the 
Gen. Hancock Post, G. A. R., to take charge of the ceremonies of reburial. 

The officers of the Association were authorized and instructed to extend 
invitations to be present at the ceremonies to such persons as they might 
desire as guests, and also to formally invite the speakers to deliver the ad- 
dresses contemplated in the programme. 

A committee consisting of Messrs. G. W. Wakefield, G. M. Pardoe, and 
C. H. Lewis, was appointed and authorized to prepare for execution articles 
of incorporation of the Floyd Memorial Association, to be ready August 17. 

' A short notice of this meeting- appears in the Journal of August 4. 


Mr. Mitchell Vincent was appointed a committee of one to arrange for a 
railroad train to transport the Association, its guests, and the public, from 
Sioux City to Floyd's Bluff, on August 20. 

Adjourned to meet at the same time and place, August 17. 

(Abstract of Minutes.*) 

Court House, Sioux City, August 17, 1895. 
The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m. pursuant to adjournment of 
August 3, President Charles in the chair, and Mr. E. W. Skinner acting as 
lecretary in the absence of Mr. Marks. This meeting was a public one, at- 
■«nded by about 40 persons, in addition to the officers and committees of 
the Association. Among those present were Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, 
Mitchell Vincent, D. A. Magee, F. C. Hills, A. M. Holman, Dr. Elliott Coues. 
Prof. J. D. Butler, Rev. H. D. Jenkins, W. L. Joy, James F. Toy, Capt. and 
State Senator J. S. Lothrop, H. C. Cheyney, representing Supt. H. G. Burt, 
of the S. C. and P. R. R., Dr. J. Perrin Johnson, Arthur F. Statter, H. A. 
Johns, Hon. Geo. D. Perkins. 

Before the meeting was called to order. Dr. Coues and Prof. Butler were 
introduced to the persons present. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 
Mr. Vincent, the Committee on Transportation, reported that arrange- 
ments had been made with H. G. Burt, General Manager of the Sioux City 
and Pacific Railroad, and with H. C. Cheyney, the local agent, for a train 
to leave the station at 1:35 p. m. on August 20, to convey members of the 
Association and their guests to Floyd's Bluff and return, free of charge, and 
to transport the public at the rate of 15 cents for the round trip. The report 
was approved and accepted. 

Mr. Skinner, on behalf of the Committee of Arrangements, reported that 
they had sent out about 450 invitations to prominent persons throughout 
the country, and read extracts from many of the letters of acceptance or 
regret. Among those from whom replies had been received were: Governor 
Frank D. Jackson, Des Moines, la.; R. A. Smith, of Okoboji, an old settler 
of Northern Iowa; Henry Sabin, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Des 
Moines; United States Senator Win. V. Allen, Madison, Neb.; M. W. Davis, 
Iowa City, la., Secretary of the State Historical Society, who desired that 
the Board of Curators of that Society should be represented on the occasion 
by Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, a member of that board and the editor of the Sioux 
City Journal: ex-Governor C. C. Carpenter, of Fort •Dodge, la., who had 
been present at the Floyd ceremonies of 1857; Hon. J. Sterling Morton, Sec- 
retary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C; Maj. W. V. Lucas, Superintendent 
of the Soldiers' Home at Hot Springs, S. D.; J. F. Duncombe, of Fort 
I lodge; the veteran Gen. Geo. W. Jones, first United States senator for Iowa; 
I" H. Halsell, Sioux Rapids, la.; Hon. P. M. Cassady, Des Moines, State 
Senator in 1850; H. G. McMillan, Rock Rapids, la.; Fletcher Howard. Com- 
missioner of Pharmacy, Sheldon, la.; State Geologist Samuel Calvin, Iowa 
City; H. W. Trimble, Keokuk, [a.; Adjutant General John R. Prime, Des 
Moines; B. F. Gill, Des Moines: H. c. Wheeler, Odebolt, la.; I'nited States 
Senator Wm. B. Allison, Dubuque, la.; United States Senator John H. Gear, 

\ lull report <>f this importanl meeting, tin- last one held before the ceremonies •>! the 20th, 

appears in the Journal "f August is. from the pen <>( Mr. Arthur P. Statter, and has i a used 

!>v your committee to supplement the official manuscript minutes. The unsigned <lr;ift c.( the A r- 
t i,-ics of Incorporation also appears t here. 


Burlington, la.; Representative D. B. Henderson, Dubuque; J. K. P. Thomp- 
son, Rock Rapids; Hon. Chas. Aldrich, Curator State Historical Department. 
Des Moines; C. L. Davidson, Hull, la.; Judge G. S. Robinson, of the Supreme 
Court, Sioux City; Rev. T. M. Shanafelt, Superintendent of Baptist Missions. 
Huron, S. D.; Prof. J. E. Todd, State Geologist, Vermillion, S. D.; Thomas 
Thorson, Secretary of State, Canton, S. D., and many others. 

Mr. A. M. Holman, on behalf of the Committee on the Stone, in the ab- 
sence of the chairman, E. R. Kirk, reported that the stone had been cut and 
inscribed, and was ready to be laid on August 20; and also, that the earthen- 
ware urn had been made to contain the remains. The report was accepted, 
and the committee was instructed to have everything in readiness for set- 
ting the stone at the appointed hour. 

Judge Wakefield, chairman of the committee appointed to draft for exe- 
cution Articles of Incorporation of the Floyd Memorial Association, read 
the said Articles, which had been drafted, and which on motion were ap- 
proved and accepted. 

(For these articles, see below.) 

On motion of Mr. G. M. Pardoe, at the suggestion of Rev. H. D. Jen- 
kins that seats should be provided at the grave and photographs of the 
scene be taken, the chair appointed for those purposes a committee consist- 
ing of C. J. Holman, D. A. Magee, and H. A. Johns, who were authorized 
to engage a photographer, and requested to select the persons to be seated, 
including certain Omaha Indians. 

On motion of Mr. E. W. Skinner, the chair appointed the following 
persons a Committee on Reception for Tuesday, August 20: Mayor C. W. 
Fletcher, Messrs. F. C. Hills, W. L. Joy, John P. Allison, Mitchell Vincent. 
Geo. D. Perkins, T. J. Stone, C. J. Holman, C. A. L. Olson, J. Perrin Johnson, 
and Geo. W. Wakefield. 

Judge Wakefield offered the following resolution which, on motion of 
Mr. Perkins, was adopted: "Resolved, that the Mayor and Common Coun- 
cil, city officers, and county officers, be and they are hereby invited and re- 
quested to attend the memorial services at the grave at 2 p. m. on August 
20; and that ladies and gentlemen and the public generally be also invited 
to participate." 

Judge Wakefield reported that the members of the Hancock Post, G. 
A. R., would meet at the Post Hall at 1 p. m., on the 20th, in uniform and 
wearing their badges, and march in procession to the railroad station, with 
fife and drum. 

Adjourned to meet at the grave on Floyd's Bluff on Tuesday, August 20, 
at 2 p. m. 

Sec. 12. Incorporation of the Association, August 20. 1895 

Know all men by these presents, that we, the undersigned, hereby asso- 
ciate ourselves and agree to become a corporation under Chapter Two, Title 
Nine, of the Code of Iowa of 1873 and amendments thereto, and for that 
purpose we have adopted, agreed to, signed and do hereby certify the fol- 
lowing Articles of Incorporation. 



The name of this corporation shall be "The Floyd Memorial Associa- 
tion," and its principal place of business shall be at Sioux City, Woodbury 
County, Iowa. 


The business and object of this corporation shall be to commemorate the 
death and burial of Sergeant Charles Floyd, and the Lewis and Clark Ex- 
pedition, of which Sergeant Floyd was a member, and for that purpose 
to acquire and hold necessary real estate and other property, to erect a 
monument and establish and maintain a public park and to exercise such 
powers as are given by statute to corporations other than those for pecu- 
niary profit. 


This corporation shall commence on the twentieth day of August, A. D. 
1895, and the members thereof shall be the undersigned, together with such 
other persons as have contributed or may hereafter contribute the sum of 
one dollar or more to the support of this corporation. / 


The business of this corporation shall be conducted by a board of seven 
trustees, who shall be elected annually at the annual meeting of the mem- 
bers on the twentieth day of August in each year, except that when said 
date shall fall upon Sunday, then such annual meeting and election shall 
be upon the Monday following. Ten members shall constitute a quorum at 
corporate meetings. The trustees shall hold for one year, or until their 
successors are. elected and qualified. Each member shall be entitled to one 
vote in person or by proxy. 

Until the twentieth day of August, A. D. 1896, John H. Charles, C. R. 
.Marks, Mitchell Vincent, A. M. Holman. L. Bates, D. A. Magee and Geo. 
\V. Wakefield shall be and constitute the first board of trustees and shall 
conduct said business. 


The board of trustees shall elect from their number a president, and 
from the members of the corporation fifteen vice presidents, a secretary and 
a treasurer, appoint subordinate officers, fill vacancies in said board. caM 
special meetings of the members, make and adopt by-laws for the manage- 
ment of corporate affairs and do any and all things necessary for the trans- 
action of the business of the corporation. Written contracts and convej - 
ances of the corporation shall be signed by the president and attested bj 
the secretary, and in cases of Instruments requiring an acknowledgment, 
the same shall be made by the president in the name of the corporation. In 
case of absence or inability of the president one of the vice presidents shall 
sign and acknowledge such contracts and conveyances. The duties of the 
era! officers of this corporation shall bo such as are usually performed 
by like officers, and orders on the treasurer shall be drawn by the secretarj 


This corporation is not for the pecuniary profit of its members, and the 
private property of the members shall in no case be liable for corporate 




These articles may be amended at any annnal meeting of the members, 
by a vote of two-thirds of the members present. 

Witness our hands this twentieth day of August. A. D. 1895. 

James Davie Butler. 
Elliott Coues, 
Charles Aldrich, 
T. M. Shanafelt, 
S. P. Yeomans. 
Jno. K. Charles, 
Geo. D. Perkins, 
A. M. Holman, 
Geo. W. Wakefield, 
C. R. Marks, 
Arthur F. Staffer, 
Henry J. Taylor, 

C. J. Holman, 
J. C. C- Hoskins, 
W. C. Davenport. 
L. Bates, 
Wm. L. Joy, 
(Mrs.) D. A. Crockwell, 
T. C. Tees. 

F. L. Ferris, 

Mrs. Frances X. Davis. 
Bertha Wakefield, 
Frederick C. Hills, 
Frank A. Magill, 
R. Buchanan, 
John M. Pinckney, 

G. S. Robinson, 
H. D. Jenkins, 
Mitchell Vincent, 
C. A. Benton. 

STATE OF IOWA. Woodbury County— ss. 

Be it remembered, that on this 20th day of August, 1895, before me, 
George W. Wakefield, Judge of the District Court in and for the Fourth 
Judicial District of Iowa, personally appeared James Davie Butler, Elliott 
Coues. Charles Aldrich, T. M. Shanafelt, S. P. Yeomans, John H. Charles, 
Geo. D. Perkins, C. R. Marks. Mrs. Francis X. Davis, and Bertha Wakefield, 
to me personally known to be the persons who respectively signed said 
names to the foregoing articles and certificate of incorporation, and sever- 
ally acknowledged said instrument to be their voluntary act and deed. 

In testimony whereof. I have hereunto set my hand this 20th day of 
August. A. D. 1895. 

(Signed) GEO. W. WAKEFIELD. 
District Judge in and for the 4th Judicial District of Iowa. 


STATE OF IOWA, Woodbury County— ss. 

Be it remembered, that on. this 20th day of August, 1895, before me, the 
undersigned, C. R. Marks, a Notary Public in and for said Woodbury County, 
personally came A. M. Holman, Geo. W. Wakefield, Arthur F. Statter, Henry 
J. Taylor, C. J. Holman. J. C. C. Hoskins. W. C. Davenport, L. Bates, W. L. 
Joy. Mrs. D. A. Crockwell. T. C. Tees, F. L. Ferris, Frederick C. Hills. 
Frank A. Magill, R. Buchanan, John M. Pinckney, G. S. Robinson, H. D. 
.1' nkins, Mitchell Vincent, and C. A. Benton, each to me personally known 
to be the persons who respectively signed said names to the foregoing arti- 
cles and certificate of incorporation and severally acknowledged the said 
instrument to be their voluntary act and deed. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my 
Notarial Seal at Sioux City the day and year last above written. 

(L. S.) Notary Public in and for Woodbury County. Iowa. 

STATE OF IOWA. Woodbury County. 

Filed for record this 20th day of August. A. D. 1895. at 6 o'clock p. m., 
and recorded in Book 27, Miscel.. Page 514. 

W. C. HILLS, Recorder. 
T. C. Tees, Deputy. 

Section 13. The Obsequies of August 20, 1895.* 


Floyd's Bluff, Sioux City, la., 2 p. m., Tuesday, August 20, 1895. 

The Association met pursuant to adjournment of August 17, on the 91st 
anniversary of the death of Sergeant Charles Floyd, in the presence of a 
large concourse of citizens, to conduct the solemn ceremony of laying his 
remains in their final resting-place, with the military honors due the brave 
.soldier, and befitting civic tribute to his memory- The day was fine, and 
the order of exercises which had been determined upon was carried out 
<>rding to the programme. No untoward incident marred the occasion. 
The assemblage numbered fully five hundred persons; among them were the 
following, who attended or participated in the event as officers and members 
of the Association and its invited guests, officers and members of the Han- 
cock Post, G. A. R., other civic and military officials, members of the press, 
old settlers, and the public: 

Hon. Charles AJdrich, Curator State Historical Department. Des Moines, 

Mrs. Ains worth, Onawa, la., journalist. 

C I). Bagley, Sioux City. 

Charles Baldwin, Sioux City. 

L. Bates. Dakota City. Neb 

C. A. Benton, Credits Commutation Co., Sioux City. 

> iur committee's relation ol these imposing ceremonies i- based i On their participation 

in the programme, all the numbers of the committee having 1 a present on the occasion, ami 

three ol thi le speakers; J On Secretary Marks' official minutes of the exercises, con- 

sidered as procea.Hnys ol the Association; and ) On the very full accounts published in the Sioux 
Citj Journal and Tinuso! August 20 and 21. These papers printed eleven columns of illustrated 
articles on th ■; event, oae o unpre sdented local interest ami just local pride, a- well a-- ..t national 
historic significance. The Associated Press dispatch from Sioux City ol August ." was very gen- 
erall} used by papers throughout the United States, four committee acknowledge with thanks 
their iniebteiaawto thseiitor of th; Journal ail his reporto ia id particularly to Mr. 

vard furnish:1 Dr. Cojes with a much mire extensive list "i names of persons 
present than had before been prepared. 


Ellis Blackbird, otherwise Shongoska or White Horse, grandson of Chief 
Blackbird, Omaha Agency, Neb. 

L. M. Brown, Sioux City. 

C. A. Bryan, Sioux City. 

R. Buchanan, Sioux City. 

A. H. Burton, Sioux City. 

Prof. J. D. Butler, Madison, Wis., bearer of Floyd's Journal, and deliv- 
erer of the funeral oration. 

Miss Butler, Madison, Wis. 

President John H. Charles, Sioux City, presiding over civic ceremonies. 

Mrs. John H. Charles, Sioux City. 

R. J. Chase, Sioux City. 

H. C. Cheyney, Sioux City and Pacific R. R., representing Maj. Horace 
G. Burt, of Omaha, Neb. 

Col. A. D. Collier, Sioux City. 

Dr. Elliott Coues, Washington, D. C, speaker on behalf of Lewis and 
Clark's Expedition. 

Mrs. Elliott Coues, Washington, D. C. 

E. E. Crady, Sioux City. 

Mrs. D. A. Crockwell, Sioux City (or Mrs. Dr. Crockwell, Salt Lake City, 

W. C. Davenport, Sioux City. 

M. B. Davis, Sioux City, comrade G. A. R. 

E. G. Dilley, Sioux City. 
James Doughty, Sioux City. 

David Douglas, Sioux City, locomotive engineer of the train. 
Henry Fontanelle, Omaha Agency, Neb., in charge of the Omaha Indians, 
Shongaska and Sindahaha. 

F. L. Ferris, Sioux City. 

G. M. Gilbert, Sioux City, leader of the choir. 
Rev. Elinor E. Gordon, Sioux City. 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Green and family, Sioux City. 

August Groninger, Sioux City. 

Mrs. A. Groninger, Sioux City. 

J. W. Hallam, Sioux City. 

J. H. Hamilton, Sioux City. 

Atlee Hart, editor North Nebraska Eagle, Dakota City, Neb. 

Dr. J. L. Hanchette, Sioux City. 

Mr. Herman, Sioux City. 

Frederick Clark Hills, formerly Sergeant Company E, 117th New York 
Volunteers, Senior Vice Commander Hancock Post, No. 22, G. A. R., and 
President Board of Education, Sioux City. 

A. M. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. 

Mrs. A. M. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. 

C. J. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. 

Mrs. C. J. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. 

Frederick Holman, cadet U. S. N., Annapolis, Md. 

J. C. C. Hoskins, ex-President of the Association, Sioux City. 

Mrs. J. C. C. Hoskins, Sioux City. 

J. D. Hoskins, Sioux City. 


James Hutchins, Sioux City. 

Robert Ingersoll, Sioux City. 

Rev. H. D. Jenkins, Sioux City, deliverer of the prayer and benediction. 

Mrs. H. D. Jenkins, Sioux City. 

Miss Anna and Miss Ruth Jenkins, Sioux City. 

Paul Jenkins, Sioux City. 

Frederick Johnson, cadet U. S. A., West Point, N. Y. 

Dr. G. A. Johnson, Sioux City. 

Dr. J. Perrin Johnson, Sioux City. 

Wm. L. Joy, Sioux City. 

E. R. Kirk, Sioux City. 

L. D. Letellier, Sioux City, a pioneer. 

C. H. Lewis. Sioux City. 

D. S. Lewis, Sioux City. 
John W. Lewis, Sioux City. 
Arthur Linn, Canton, S. D. 
\Y. G. Linn, Sioux City. 

Geo W. McGibbons, Sioux City, comrade G. A. R. 

F. A. Magill, Sioux City. 
Treasurer D. A. Magee, Sioux City. 
J. A. Magoun, Jr., Sioux City. 

Secretary C. R. Marks, Sioux City, in charge of the remains. 

Mrs. C. R. Marks, Sioux City. 

Russell A. Marks, Sioux City. 

George Murphy, Sioux City. 

Capt. C. O'Connor, Homer, Neb. 

Charlotte O'Connor, Homer, Neb. 

G. M. Pardoe, Sioux City. 

Judge Isaac Pendleton, Sioux City. 

Miss May Pendleton, Sioux City. 

Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, M. C, Sioux City, speaker on behalf of the Board 
of Curators of the Iowa State Historical Society. 

Mrs. Geo. D. Perkins, Sioux City. 

Mrs. H. A. Perkins, Sioux City. 

Prof. J. L. Pickard, Burlingame, Kas. 

John M. Pinckney, Sioux City. 

Mrs. John M. Pinckney, Sioux City. 

John S. Potts, city editor Evening Times, Sioux City. 

Commander Eugene W. Rice, Hancock Post, No. 22, G. A. R., Sioux City, 
presiding over military ceremonies. 

Judge G. S. Robinson, Sioux City. 

Dr. Grant J. Ross. Sioux City. 

Rev. Mary A. Safford, pastor Unitarian Church, Sioux City. 

Robert H. Sayre, South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Rev. T. M. Shanafelt, Superintendent of Baptisl Missions. Huron. S. I). 

Sindahaha, otherwise Glistening Tail, Omaha Agency, Neb. 

E. W. Skinner, Sioux City. 

Arthur F. Statter, reporter Sioux City Journal. 
Whitfield Stinson, Sioux City. 
Thomas J. Stone, Sioux City 


S. W. Swiggett, Sioux City. 

Henry J. Taylor, Sioux City. 

T. C. Tees. Sioux City. 

Prof. J. E. Todd, State Geologist, Vermillion, S. D. 

Mitchell Vincent, C. E., Onawa, la. 

J. P. Vincent. Onawa, la. 

Judge George W. Wakefield, Sioux City, speaker on behalf of the city. 

Mrs. Lycurgus Wakefield, Sioux City. 

A. J. Westfall, Sioux City. 

B. P. Yeomans, Sergeant Bluffs. 

Mrs. B. P. Yeomans, Sergeant Bluffs. 

Dr. S. P. Yeomans, Charles City, la., speaker on behalf of the old settlers. 

George W. Young. Sioux City, chief of police. 

The train on the Sioux City and Pacific R. R. was advertised to leave 
the station at 1:30 p. m. At that hour, when the Hancock Post had marched 
with drum and fife to the station, and the citizens had also assembled, 
it was found that the means of transportation were insufficient to con- 
vey the throng. But Mr. H. C. Cheyney procured two additional coaches 
in a few minutes, and at 1:45 the train started, with the veteran engineer, 
David Douglas, at the throttle. The train soon stopped in the cut at the 
foot of Floyd's Bluff, and its 400 passengers alighted. Fully 100 others 
came in private conveyances. The procession from the train ascended to 
the top of the bluff, headed by the Hancock Post. A photograph of the 
ascent was taken as the procession moved up the south face of the acclivity. 

When all had gathered about the grave, beside which stood two urns 
containing the remains of Sergeant Floyd, President Charles opened the 
exercises in a few fitting words, and introduced Judge George W. Wake- 
field, who spoke on behalf of Sioux City, in substance as follows: 


"We have met today to mark an historic spot in memory of a volunteer 
citizen soldier of the early days of the republic. On this occasion the pres- 
ent clasps hands with the past, today with the days of Washington and 
Jefferson. It is well for us to stop in the midst of our labors and take a 
momentary retrospect and thereby realize the rapidity of our nation's growth 
and the importance of the Louisiana purchase. When Sergeant Floyd died 
and was buried on this bluff the frontier was along the line of the Allegha- 
nies, and the lower end of Lake Ontario was an almost unbroken wilder- 
ness. From that frontier our civilization has extended westward by rapid 
strides down the Ohio, across the Mississippi, over the great plains and the 
heights of the Rockies and down to the Pacific ocean. Sergeant Floyd was 
one of the pathfinders exploring for this civilization a vast region, an empire 
in extent, stretching from the "Father of Waters" to the wave-washed 
shores of Oregon. We meet to commemorate the life and death of this man, 
a volunteer soldier, enlisted in the service of the United States. It is very 
largely the names of generals and great captains that occupy and engross 
the historic page and memorial slab, but today our hero is the man with 
the musket, and without the stalwart service of such there would be no 
generals or great captains. 


"The man with the musket who is faithful to every call of duty is the 
true hero. The people of Sioux City have a just pride in preserving this 
historic spot and the memory of this pioneer soldier. 

They have, with other interested friends, organized the Floyd Memorial 
Association and planned this memorial celebration. They extend to all a 
most hearty invitation to join in this work to the end that at no distant 
day we may dedicate a monument where today we place a simple slab. It 
is the duty of the present to preserve the ancient landmarks. Let us do 
our duty." 


President Charles next introduced Prof. James D. Butler, who appeared 
carrying in his hand the original manuscript journal of Sergeant Floyd, to 
deliver the funeral oration. Prof. Butler spoke in substance as follows : 

"All ye that are about him bemoan him, and all ye that know his name 
say: 'How is the strong staff broken and the beautiful rod.' — Jer. xlviii.. 17." 
"Let us roll back the tide of time and imagine ourselves standing ninety- 
one years ago on this selfsame spot. About noon a flotilla comes in sight — 
three boats, one of twenty-two oars, the others each of six. They come to 
land at the base of the bluff and bring ashore a man at the point of death. 
They try in every waj inventive love can dictate to relieve and rally him. 
He revives a little and says to the leader of the party, T want you to write 
me a letter,' murmurs a few words of father and mother far away in Ken- 
tucky. Then, looking around at many an eye tearful though unused te 
weep, he enters his last agony, cries. 'I am going to leave you.' and all is 

With noiseless step death steals on man. 

No plea, no prayer delivers him; 
From midst of life's unfinished plan 
With sudden hand it severs him. 
Ready, not ready, no delay. 

Forth to his judge's bar he must away. 
"All are in silence, some one perhaps pours out audible prayer for the 
parting spirit and for those around, none of whom in such a moment can 
forget their own brittle thread of life. 

"The little utmost that can be done to honor the dead is done at once. 
that in paying last honors saddened hearts may throw off something of their 
burden. Boards provided for mending the boats are shaped Into a coffin, 
one of the (lags, broughl along to show nationality in councils, serves for 

a winding sheet, and Strong arms hear the lifeless loved one. pew loved 

more than ever, up to the heighl of land. A grave has alreadj i □ fash- 
ioned then' and two ropes from the boats lower it into its last resting place 

In the face of death all men have serious moments. Committing dust to 

dust, all fee] what shadows we are and what shadows we pursue. All thank 

Ood for him who hath abolished death and broughl the life of Immortality 

to light. Bui grief is restless and finds a solace jn action. The tallest cedar 
within reach, topped With the stars and stripes, is set up over the grave, 
and the words "Charles Floyd, August 20, L804," are cui Into it. A dis- 
charge of muskets follows as a requiem. Then the whole hand, too broken- 
hearted to linger, with folded hands, casting a last look at the heaped up 


earth, go clown the slope, launch their boats and the same evening push 
on further into the great lone land. They do with their might what their 
hands find to do, realizing as never before that there is no work in the 

"Two years must drag their slow length along before Floyd's fellow- 
soldiers can return from the farthest west and behold his memorial post, 
which, let us thank God, was predestinated to be proof against undermining 
waters below, prairie fires sweeping around, and cyclones assailing from 
above, till it insured everlasting remembrance to the site of Floyd's inter- 


Geo. D. Perkins, who represented the Board of Curators of the State 
Historical Society, was then introduced by President Charles. 

"Standing here," he said, "on the verge of this new-old grave, we are re- 
minded that it is the unexpected that happens. The Louisiana purchase in 
1803 was unexpected. It was the state of war between France and England 
that rendered that purchase possible. Out of this purchase an empire west 
of the Mississippi river has been created, controlling in large measure the 
destinies of the great republic. Without this acquisition it may be doubted 
if the government of the United States could have long survived. The rapid 
settlement of this vast territory was the unexpected, for prior to the pur- 
chase the steamboat and the steam railway were unknown. The mighty 
transformation since Lewis and Clark and their faithful companions made 
their slow way up the Missouri river, here, was beyond all the thought of 
that time. The occasion was one of pride to the people of Sioux City, and 
of honor to the state and to the country." 

With a few remarks touching the marking of Sergeant Floyd's grave, 
and the obligation of caring for it, he brought his brief address to a close. 

At this point in the programme the exercises were placed in charge of 
Gen. Hancock Post, G. A. R., and the military ceremonies were formally 
opened by Post Commander Eugene Rice. Dr. H. D. Jenkins then offered 
prayer, which was followed by the singing of "Nearer My God to Thee," by 
a chorus led by Mr. G. M. Gilbert. 


Post Commander Rice then delivered the following address: 
"Comrades: One by one as the years roll on we are called together to 
fulfill the duties of respect to our country's dead. The present — full of the 
cares and pleasures of civil life — fades away, and we look back to the time 
when the heroes of our republic gave their lives in its service. As in the 
conflict of the 60s, when we, too, were soldiers of the republic, and gave our 
service for the maintenance of the Union and for the triumph of the cause 
represented by the Stars and Stripes — the flag so dear to our hearts — so in 
the earlier years of our nation's life was this same flag dear to the heart 
of this soldier of the republic, Sergeant Charles Floyd, who gave his life 
to his country in this then newly discovered wilderness, almost a century 
ago. and whose remains we today reconsign to the bosom of our common 
mother — earth — thus giving in these ceremonies a tardy recognition of serv- 
ice to his country. 


"As time rolls on we too shall have fought our hattles through and be 
laid to rest, our souls following the long column to the realms above. 

•'Let us so live that when that time shall come to us those we leave 
behind may say above our graves: 'Here lies the body of a true-hearted, 
brave and earnest defender of the republic' " 

Following Commander Rice's address Comrades G. W. McGibbons, F. 
C. Hills and M. B. Davis made short responses, and each dropped a flower 
upon the urn containing the remains. The G. A. R. exercises were con- 
tinued by the Rev. H. D. Jenkins, who spoke as follows: 


Comrades of the Grand Army of the Republic: We who are accus- 
tomed to meet from time to time to pay funeral honors to the brave, are 
met today to deposit the ashes of an old soldier of the republic in a more 
fitting sepulcher than they have heretofore received, over which in due 
time shall rise a lofty monument or commemorative shaft. 

"Beside the beautiful waters of the Potomac rests the father of his 
country, in a tomb from whose site the visitor looks out upon the capital 
of a great nation and the marble palaces of its representatives. Beside the 
noble stream of the Hudson lie the mortal remains of that great general 
whose sword, followed by your muskets, preserved the liberties so dearly 
won. and that mausoleum by the most famous of our eastern rivers has 
become already a sacred Mecca to the great Empire State. Beside the broader 
flood of the Missouri, upon this glorious height, we redeposit today the ashes 
of that humble soldier who carried the flag of Washington into new and 
unexplored regions, and whose sacrifice and toil helped to make possible 
the victories of Grant. No one can read the story of that heroic band who 
in 1804 pushed its bateaux up this river in the face of unknown dangers and 
well known foes, without recognizing in it the pioneers of civilization, of 
freedom and of faith, for all of which God had destined this vast continent. 

"You know the story of Arnold von Melchthal, called Winkelried, who 
in 1308 gathered into his arms a sheaf of Austrian spears, by sacrifice of 
his own life making way for the advance of freedom in the persons of his 
compatriots who pressed forward where he fell. So it was with this man 
whose name we speak with reverence, confronting an inhospitable wilder- 
ness, but opening it up to free labor, free schools and free states. 

"Upon this lofty eminence, looking out over three states whose joint 
population is nearly 3, 500, Don. under a sky as genial as that of Italy, amid 
farms bursting with opulence, beside railways burdened by our present 
harvests, beside a city whose palaces of trade are builded of marble, jasper 
and chalcedony, we recommil his bodj to the grave, leaving it In the keep- 
ing of that God who will reward every man according to his work, and there 

may it rest undisturbed until the last day. In the nan [ the Father and 

the Son and the Holy Spirit. Amen and Amen." 


President Charles having resumed charge of the exercises, at the eon 
elusion of the military programme, I>r. Elliott Coues, the eminent Lewis 
and Clark historian, was the next speaker Introduced. He spoke briefly on 
behalf of the Expedition, as follows: 


"Ladies and Gentlemen: Instead of any poor remarks of my own on 
this interesting historic occasion, we will hear the very words which were 
penned on this spot by Capt. William Clark, on the day of Sergeant Floyd's 
death, August 20, 1804: 

" 'Died with a great deel of composure, before he died he said to me I 
am going away I want you to write me a letter — We buried him on the top 
of the bluff y 2 mile below a small river to which we gave his name, he 
was buried with the Honors of War much lamented, a seeder post with the 
Name Sergt. C. Floyd died here 20th of August 1804 was fixed at the head 
of his grave — This man at all times gave us proofs of his Determined reso- 
lution to doe service to his country and honor to himself after paying all 
honor to our Decesed brother we camped in the mouth of floyd's river about 
30 yards wide, a butiful evening.' " 


Following Dr. Coues, Dr. S. P. Yeomans, an early pioneer of Sioux City. 
who was present at the reburial of Floyd's remains in 1857, was introduced 
by President Charles, to speak on behalf of the old settlers. We give a 
synopsis of his interesting and appropriate address: 

"The occasion of this assemblage, with all its connecting incidents, is 
so unique as to be rarely, if ever, paralleled in human history. We are here 
to consign to their final resting place the remains of a fellow-being who 
died nearly a hundred years ago: to pay the last tribute of respect to one 
of whose life and history we have little knowledge beyond the fact that he 
fell at his post of duty in the service of our country. 

"These honors to one of whom we know so little fittingly exemplify the 
great cardinal doctrine of the Christian world, the kinship of the race, the 
brotherhood of man. Charles Floyd is a stranger to us, belonging to another 
age; probably no living being has ever looked upon his face, or grasped 
his hand. But 'a man is a man for a' that,' having a common origin and 
a common destiny with us, and the claims of our common humanity for 
sympathy and such aid as we may bestow in the time of calamity and help- 

"It is not extravagent to assume that Sergeant Floyd, with all the others 
composing the expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1804-06, were as truly heroes 
as thousands of others whose names are emblazoned upon the pages of 
history. This expedition was esteemed of great national importance; it was 
authorized by act of congress upon the urgent recommendation of President 
Jefferson. Ample time was taken to select the men composing it, who. by 
their courage, prudence and physical endurance were fully qualified to per- 
form the arduous duties required. It involved an entire separation for two 
years from every vestige of civilization, a traversing of two of the longest 
and most important rivers in North America, with no means of transporta- 
tion, aside from their frail boats, propelled with their own strong arms, with 
no knowledge of the rapids and cataracts that were before them. It in- 
volved the scaling of mountain heights, whose towering peaks were capped 
with everlasting snow. It involved encounters with savage beasts, as fero- 
cious as those found in the jungles of Africa, and the meeting with Indian 
*ribes in overwhelming numbers, who could be conciliated only by shrewd- 
ness, tact and diplomacy. 


"There can be no question that men who voluntarily assumed perils and 
hardships like these belonged to the highest type of heroes. 

"As we stand by this open grave there comes to us a sense of a mystical 
association between the opening and closing years of the century, which 
seems naturally to lead the mind to the contemplation of existing condi- 
tions at these remote periods of time, comparison with which will indicate 
the growth and development of our nation. 

"We have in our immediate presence an object lesson that epitomizes 
this general process of change and development. Forty years ago I came 
to Sioux City in the first stage coach ever seen north of Council Bluffs, to 
establish a United States land office. Upon the banks of the Floyd, within 
your city limits, was a camp of 300 Indians, and for a considerable time 
thereafter all the eating was done at the table of the late Dr. John K. Cook. 
Within these four decades there has grown up this magnificent city, with 
a system of railroads radiating in every direction, stately mansions, hotels 
and business blocks, churches, school houses, and a teeming multitude of 
busy and prosperous citizens. I am glad to greet so goodly a number of 
the old settlers that were here at the beginning, who endured the toil of 
sowing and planting, and who, in their declining years, are reaping in rich 
profusion the reward of their labor." 

Upon the conclusion of Dr. Yeoman's address, the participants in the 
ceremonies were grouped about the open grave and photographed in several 
different views. 

The two receptacles containing the remains were then lowered into their 
final resting-place. One of these was an urn-shaped jar made for the pur- 
pose by Holman Brothers, of Sergeant Bluffs; but as this proved too short 
to hold the long bones, the latter were placed in a similar but narrower 
and higher earthenware jar, which had been provided by Secretary Marks. 
The remains thus interred were: The skull, including the lower jaw: the 
right femur, 18 inches long: a tibia, 15 inches; a fibula, 14% inches; part of 
the other fibula; one vertebra; one clavicle; and portions of several ribs 
all in good preservation. The inscription upon the urn was: 

Dikd August 20, 1804. 

Reinterred May 28, 1857. 
Memorial Services August 20, 1895. 

A wreath and other floral offerings were placed upon the grave, which, 
after it had been filled up, was covered with the large stone slab ma 
M. ('. Carlstrom, laid flat upon the ground. The inscription reads: 




Aug. 20. 1804. 

Remains removed from 600 

Feel West ami Reburied at 

This Place May 2s. 1857. 

This Stone Placed 

Aug. 20. 1-'' : . 


The articles of Incorporation of the Floyd Memorial Association were 
numerously signed at the grave, as well as earlier in the day; and after the 
henediction had been pronounced by Dr. Jenkins, the assemblage dis- 
persed, and the Association adjourned to meet at the Auditorium of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, in Sioux City, for the exercises of the 
evening programme, at S p. m.. the same day. 

Y. M. C. A. Auditorium. Sioux City. la.. S p. m., Tuesday. August 20. 1S95. 

The large audience which gathered in the Y. M. C. A. Auditorium for the 
evening exercises was called to order by President Charles at S o'clock. 
The stage was occupied by the speakers of the occasion. Dr. Coues and 
Prof. Butler, by President Charles. Prof. J. E. Todd. Prof. Pickard. Rev. 
Dr. Jenkins, and Mr. J. C. C. Hoskins. 

Secretary Marks, at the suggestion of Dr. Coues. offered the following 
resolution, which was unanimously adopted: 

Resolved. That the special thanks of the Floyd Memorial Association 
be and they are hereby tendered to Mr. H. G. Burt, of Omaha. General Mana- 
ger of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, for the many courtesies and 
favors by which he has shown his interest in the Association, and greatly 
promoted its purposes. 

The following resolution was also introduced by Secretary Marks and 
unanimously adopted: 

Resolved. That the thanks of this Association be and they are hereby 
tendered to the Gen. Hancock Post. G. A. R.. for its cordially rendered serv- 
ices in honoring the grave and memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd, in re- 
depositing of his remains and placing a stone over the grave this day. 

President Charles then introduced Dr. Coues as the historian of the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition, who had been invited to deliver the address 
of the evening on that subject. 

Dr. Coues arose and delivered a most interesting address upon the famous 
Lewis and Clark Expedition. Dr. Coues. as the historian of these explorers, 
probably knows more about their travels, hardships and adventures than 
any other living man. and his words were listened to with rapt attention 
by the audience. Dr. Coues has a strong, clear voice, and the faculty of 
keeping his hearers in perfect sympathy with him in his subject. At the 
close of his address he was tendered a hearty round of applause. Dr. Coues 
spoke substantially as follows: 


"Mr. President. Ladies and Gentlemen: Lewis and Clark's Expedition is 
our national epic of exploration, conceived by Thomas Jefferson, wrought 
out by the great pioneers who showed the way from the Mississippi to the 
Pacific, and first given to the world by Nicholas Biddle in the year 1814. 
Being the latest historian of this ever memorable enterprise. I have been 
asked to give you some account of a journey which, from the day it was 
finished until today, has never ceased to be on the tongues of men. has 
never ceased to be a model of all such undertakings, and will never cease 
to bear fruit until our great West is no longer great. 

"In the year 1S03 we had nothing west of the Mississippi. In that year 
one of the greatest statesmen America ever produced bought from the great 


founder of the Napoleonic dynasty the whole of the country between the 
British and the Spanish possessions, which had been called by the French 
Louisiana, and was almost entirely unknown. By a stroke of the pen. with- 
out a drop of blood, and for much less money than Sioux City represents to- 
day, this vast possession became ours — as we trust forever. 

"Jefferson naturally wished to know what sort of a bargain he had made 
and determined to find out. For this purpose he appointed his private secre- 
tary. Meriwether Lewis, of Virginia, a captain in the army, gave him carte 
blanche to organize an expedition, gave him a letter of credit addressed to 
all the world, and minute instructions for the conduct of the enterprise — 
which was nothing less than a journey across the continent, by the principal 
waterways — the Missouri on this side of the great divide, the Columbia 
thence to the Pacific, ('apt. Lewis selected his friend, William Clark, of 
Virginia, as his associate — and thus were linked two names which will live 
so long as men love to hear of deeds of greatness. 

"The winter of 1803-4 was passed in camp at the mouth of Du Bois or 
Wood river, in Illinois, nearly opposite the mouth of the Missouri, and on 
Monday, May 14, 1804. the expedition started with forty-five men all told, in 
one large and two small boats. Besides the two captains, there were nine 
young Kentuckians, fourteen United States soldiers, two French watermen, 
one hunter, and a negro slave; besides which, a corporal and six soldiers 
and nine watermen were engaged to go only as far as the Mandans. There 
were afterward several changes in the composition of the permanent party, 
so that when it left the .Mandans, April 7. 1805. it consisted of thirty-one 
men. one woman, and her new-born baby. 

"The lecturer said he should be obliged to condense to the utmost, to 
bring up even a part of the most important facts of so long protracted an 
expedition. Passing over the early stages in a few words, he brought the 
expedition to the vicinity of the Little Sioux. Inyan Yankey, or Eaneahwa- 
depon river, on August 7, 1804. In thus approaching Sioux City, the lecturer 
called attention to an interesting chart of the Missouri flood-plain in Monona 
county, drawn by Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa, which showed how great had 
been the changes in the river since the time of Lewis and Clark. Some 
places they navigated in their boats would now require "prairie schooners," 
being scleral miles to the right or left of the present channel. Several 
camps were pointed out as the explorers passed the present site of Decatur 
and Blackbird hill, and on Augusl 11 found themselves on the Omaha creek 
a few miles below this city, where they remained until the 20th, to hold a 
council with otto ami Missouri Indians. Here Sergeant Floyd was taken 
violently ill with the disease which ended his life aexl day, about noon, 
when the expedition had almost reached the blufl where he was buried and 
which still bears in o the river close by, where the expe- 

dition camped after paying the last honors to their deceased comrade. 

"To show how minute and exacl were the observations made on lin- 
age the lecturer cited the case of the little creek now called Perry, Bowing 
through the city, which, together with Prospect bill, was duly and recogniza- 
bly described, before the explorers reached the Big Sioux. Tchankaandata, 
or Watpaipakshan riser. 

"On August 22 Patrick Gass was elected a sergeant to All the vacancy 
caused by Floyd's death, and subsequently became one of the historians of 


the expedition, whose published narrative antedated that of Lewis and Clark 
by seven years. 

"The following October saw our travelers safely at the villages of the 
Mandan and associated Indians, at and a little below Knife river, about 65 
miles above Bismarck, now the capital of North Dakota. Here they spent 
the winter in quarters which they built and named Fort Mandan, awaiting 
the opening of navigation. They raised our flag for the first time among 
these Indians, cultivated friendly relations with them, entered also into 
diplomatic relations with British traders, and the following April saw them 
ready to resume their arduous journey toward the setting sun. On the 7th 
of that month they sent the large boat back clown the Missouri, bearing dis- 
patches to the president and others, which was the last word heard from 
or of the party till they returned to St. Louis in September, 1806. 

"They soon passed the mouth of the Little Missouri, and were then be- 
yond any point which white men had ever reached. The mouth of the Yel- 
lowstone was reached April 25. They went on and discovered Milk river, 
which they named from the color of the water; they passed the Musselshell; 
they reached Judith's river, which Capt. Clark named for the lady he after- 
ward married; they reached Maria's river, which Capt. Lewis named for a 
lady whom he never married; and on June 13 the roar of the Great Falls 
was first heard by Capt. Lewis, who had gone ahead of the main party. No 
white man's eye had ever rested before on these cataracts, or on the won- 
derful fountain which there bursts out of the ground with water enough to 
make a sizable river. 

"They were occupied a full month in making a portage past the falls, 
dragging their boats and baggage seventeen and three-fourths miles to the 
place where they could be launched again in smooth water. They went on 
again and named Smith's and Dearborn's rivers for the then secretary of 
the navy and of war respectively. They soon entered the stupendous chasm 
they called the Gates of the Rocky Mountains, swept past the present site 
of Montana's capital; and then Capt. Clark, who was in advance, at one 
moment discovered the three great rivers which unite to form the Missouri — 
the Jefferson, the Madison, and the Gallatin, so called from the president 
and two of his cabinet— names they bear today. With an unerring instinct, 
the explorers chose the Jefferson as the main continuation of the Missouri, 
and went up it as far as they could push or drag their boats. In passing its 
three principal branches, they named them Philosophy, Philanthropy and 
Wisdom rivers, in recognition of the three great qualities to be found in 
Jefferson; but a later age ("which knew not Joseph") changed these names 
to Willow creek, Stinking Water and Big Hole river. 

"Arrived at the end of possible navigation, the captains fortunately fell 
in with some friendly Shoshone Indians and learned something of the terri- 
ble route before them across the continental divide and through the huge nest 
of mountains in Idaho. They had "bucked against the Rockies" in about the 
worst place they could have found. They, however, went quite easily over 
Hie first and main divide at a point now known as Lemhi pass, which Capt. 
Lewis, first of white men, surmounted on the 12th of August. They were then 
on the Pacific water-shed, and Capt. Clark made a reconnoissance down the 
Lehmi and Salmon rivers, but found that route impracticable. The expedi- 
tion was then conducted northward over a mountain range and into the pleas- 


alley on the east side of the Bitter Root mountains, which they de- 
scended northward nearly to the present site of Missoula, Mont. There they 
west up the stream they call Traveler's Rest creek, now known as the 
Lo Lo fork, and were soon involved in the terrible mountains already men- 
tioned, where they suffered much from hunger and cold. 

"But on the 24th of September they found themselves once more on navi- 
gable waters — on the Kooskooskee or Clearwater river — at the junction of 
its north fork with the main stream. There they built boats and pre 
for the dangerous navigation to the ocean. Down the Kooskooskee they 
came to the mouth of the Snake or Lewis river, and down this till October 
16, when they reached the Columbia itself. No foot of white man had ever be- 
fore been set on the mountains they had thus passed — no canoe of white man 
had ever cleft the Columbian current above tide-water. Sweeping on rapidly 
they reached the great falls of the Columbia; they glided through the Dalles; 
they were soon on tide-water, and on the 7th of November the Pacific ocean 
burst upon their view. 

"Hugging the north shore, and at one place barely escaping shipwreck, 
they kept on till, on the 14th of November, Capt. Lewis stood upon the shore 
of the ocean at Cape Disappointment. Then after a few days, during which 
Capt. Clark pushed explorations along the coast, the expedition ascended 
the Columbia to a place where it was narrow enough to be crossed in their 
frail boats, passed to the south side and came clown to the mouth of a little 
stream they called the Netul, up which, about three miles, they found a good 
i i for winter quarters. They built a fort, which they called Fort Clat- 

Prof. Elliotl Coin 

sop and prepared to pass a dismal winter. My this time they were of course 
out of provisions; bul they managed to live by shooting elk, and trading 

what odds anil ends they possessed with the Indians for lish and root- 


"They had expected to find here some trading vessel, and it had been 
intended that some of the party should come home by way of Cape Horn or 
the Cape of Good Hope, perhaps. But no vessel came that year; and so, on 
Sunday, March 23, 1806, they abandoned Fort Clatsop and set their faces to 
recross the continent. They ascended the Columbia to the falls in boats, 
and thence went on horseback to the mouth of the Walla Walla river. 
There, striking across country, they reached the Kooskooskee at the pres- 
ent site of Lewiston, Idaho. They kept up this river to near the place now 
known as Kamai, and there settled down in Camp Chopunnish on May 14 
for a month, to wait till the snow should be sufficiently melted to permit 
them to repass the fearful mountains by the same trail as before — what has 
since become known as the Northern Nez Perce trail. Having safely accom- 
plished this, they found themselves once more at the mouth of Traveler's 
Rest creek, July 1, 1806. 

"Here it is important to remember that the expedition was divided in 
two, to proceed by different routes to the Missouri, and meet again on that 
river below the mouth of the Yellowstone. 

"Capt. Lewis took nine men and w^nt by Missoula, up the Big Black- 
foot river, and crossed the continental divide July 7, at what has since be- 
come known as Lewis and Clark's pass — though Capt. Clark was never there. 
This brought him to the headwaters of Dearborn river, and he easily passed 
thence along Sun river to the old camp at the Great Falls of the Missouri. 
Leaving here all his men but three, Lewis started with George Drewyer and 
the two Fields brothers to explore the source of Maria's river. He went 
up this river within ten miles of the place where it issues from the Rocky 
Mountains, and thus attained by far the northernmost point ever reached 
by any member of the expedition. Soon after he started to return there oc- 
curred the only serious collision with Indians during the whole expedition. 
A party of treacherous Blackfeet who had come into camp with professions 
of peace rose up in the night to kill the four white men. The result was 
that Capt. Lewis killed one Indian. Reuben Fields killed another, and the 
Indians were whipped out of sight, leaving their horses and equipments in 
the hands of the brave whites. The fight occurred July 17, near the conflu- 
ence of Two Medicine Lodge and Badger creeks, in the vicinity of the pres- 
ent Blackfoot agency and Piegan postoffice. Capt. Lewis then beat a hasty 
retreat and by a forced march reached the Missouri at the mouth of Maria's 
river. There to his joy he met those of his men he had left at the Great 
Falls, and some of Capt. Clark's men with them. But how the latter got 
(here we must now inquire. 

"When the parties separated at the mouth of Traveler's Rest creek, 
Capt. Clark and all his men pushed up the valley of the Bitter Root river 
southward, and then turning eastward crossed the continental divide at a 
new place — that since known as Gibbon's pass, from having been used by 
Gen. John Gibbon when chasing Chief Joseph in our last Nez Perce war. 
Capt. Clark was thus on the old Bitter Root and Bannock stage route. He 
made this pass July 6, came by Bannock, and July 8 was again at the place, 
at the head of navigation of the Jefferson, where the whole party had been the 
August before. He descended the Jefferson to the junction of the Madison and 
Gallatin. There he sent a sergeant and a few men to continue down the Mis- 
souri and effect a junction with the men Capt. Lewis had meanwhile left at 


the Great Falls; and it was this party which, continuing down the Missouri, so 
fortunately re-enforced Capt. Lewis at the mouth of Maria's river. 

"But Capt. Clark had his own exploration to make. This was the ex- 
ploration of the Yellowstone river. He ascended the Gallatin, passed Boze- 
nian, and on making the Bozeman pass, July 15, he soon struck the Yellow- 
stone at the present site of Livingston, Mont. In all this exploration the 
Indian woman Sacajawea, who knew the country well, was of the greatest 
possible assistance, and Capt. Clark praises her highly. Ho continued 
down the Yellowstone on horseback till he found Cottonwood timber large 
trough for boats, built a couple and navigated the whole river down to its 
junction with the Missouri on August 3; but he did not, as some have 
thought, see anything of the Yellowstone above Livingston, nor was he or 
any member of his expedition ever in Yellowstone Park; though John 
Colter, one of the men, did enter the park and discover Yellowstone lake in 

"The two great captains had planned to meet at the mouth of the 
Yellowstone, and so well had they arranged matters that they got there 
nearly at the same time. Clark was a little ahead, however, and he kept on 
slowly a little distance, knowing that Lewis could not be far behind. And, 
in fact, the latter was soon on hand, but in a sad plight. He had been 
shot by accident by one of his men with whom he was hunting, who had 
mistaken him for an elk. The wound, which was through the hips, was 
severe and painful, though not dangerous. 

'The expedition was happily reunited on the Missouri, a little above the 
mouth of the Little Missouri. August 12, and proceeded on to the Mandans. 
They found that their fort of the first winter had been destroyed by lire. 
Here John Colter was discharged at his own request, and the interpreter, 
Chaboneau, and his wife were also discharged. An Indian chief named 
Shahaka and some other persons were taken aboard, to be carried to the 
sr at of government to visit their great father, and the expedition continued 
to descend the Missouri. 

"One little known date which interests us in the present connection is 
September 4, on which day the expedition returned to Sioux City. The journal 
notes that Floyd's grave was examined on that day. It was found dis- 
turbed, as they thought, by Indians, but perhaps it was by wolves. They 
filled it up again and passed on. 

"No special incident marks the rest of the journej borne. The hardy 
explorers swept rapidly down the swelling current of our mightiest river. 
and reached St. Louis in safety about noon of the 23d of September, 1806. 

"Thus was brought to a happy conclusion the most memorable expe- 
dition in the history of our country — one accomplished at Hie utterlj insig- 
nificant expense of about $2,500, which Congress had appropriated for the 
purpose, and with the loss of hut a single life thai of him whom we honor 


President Charles next introduced Prof. Butler, the aged scholar, who 
displayed the original journal of Bergeanl Floyd, discovered by Mr. R. G. 
Thwaites, among the manuscripts of the State Historical Society, at Madi- 


son, Wis. Prof. Butler's subject was "Sergeant Charles Floyd," and a synop- 
sis of his remarks is as follows: 

"What do we know about Sergeant Floyd? We know little, but we 
know enough to make us lament that we know no more — enough to believe 
him worthy of a lasting memorial — the best memorial that we can secure. 

"He enlisted in Kentucky among the choice and goodly young men 
picked out there by Capt. Clark for exploring the vast and unknown West. 
He was selected by the captain of that corps of explorers as the fittest man 
tor his second in command. These Kentuckians, joining a party under Capt. 
Lewis, started from near St. Louis May 14, 1804, on a transcontinental ex- 
pedition which no white man had ever accomplished, and which it is not 
likely that any Indian had ever undertaken. Floyd was from the first a 
sergeant among these adventurers, and on the 99th day after starting up 
the Missouri he was brought ashore near the foot of his bluff, having been 
prostrated the day previous with mortal sickness, and he died there on that 
same day, Monday, August 20, 1804, just ninety-one years ago. 

"He was buried on Floyd's Bluff, a cedar post erected to mark the spot, 
and the branch which empties into the Missouri just above was named 
in his honor Floyd's river. He was the first soldier, and probably the first 
citizen, of the United States who died in the Louisiana purchase. His toma- 
hawk, stolen on the Pacific slope, was sought out with great pains and ran- 
somed with a great price for carrying home as a memento to his friends 
in Kentucky. We have other proofs in what high estimation he was held 
by his officers and his men. The Washington records of the war office fur- 
nish a touching testimonial in his favor from Capt. Lewis. When Con- 
gress was about to give a land and money bounty to the survivors of the 
expedition, that officer urged granting to the heirs of Charles Floyd as 
many acres and dollars as fell to either of the sergeants who had served 
all the way to the western ocean and back. 

"Sergeant Floyd, amid infinite difficulties, kept a journal day by day of 
the toilsome advance up stream — a chronicle unbroken till within two days 
or" his death. We know much about that journal. We find Capt. Lewis 
describing it as "one of the best of the seven which had been kept by his 
men," and transmitting it to St. Louis in the barge which, on April 7. 1805, 
he dispatched down the Missouri from the Mandan villages. This manu- 
script was buried, as it were, in a Kentucky grave, but at length resurrected 
by Lyman C. Draper, a man beyond all men sagacious of such quarries from 
afar. When this heart's core of Floyd's life had been exhumed and borne 
safely to Wisconsin, it lay hidden for a generation in Draper's fire-proof 
at Madison. Floyd's narrative would never have been recognized but for 
itf self-evidencing testimony — bearing witness to itself — that this unique 
relic, so long lost, so wide wandering, so ready to perish and so long sleep- 
ing soundly in its own sheets, accidentally caught the eye of Reuben Gold 
Thwaites, secretary of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, on the 3d 
of February, 1893. This discovery was made known to the American Anti- 
quarian Society in Worcester, Mass., the mother and model of all similar 
institutions in America. A request was made by that Association to James 
D. Butler, one of their members, that he would deliver an address on the 
new-found treasure trove at their next Boston meeting. On hearing the ad- 


dress the Antiquarian Society voted to print every word of the Floyd journal 
verbatim, literatim et punctuatim. 

"Brackenridge. journeying on a vessel of the American Fur Company in 
1811, speaks of the cedar post. In 1832 George Catlin was a passenger on 
the first steamer which ever ascended the great river as far as the Yellow- 
stone, and he came down the same season in a canoe with two half-breed 
oarsmen; he landed at the bluff, found the cedar intact, sat on the mound, 
plucked flowers there, wrote a page in description of the same, and from 
sketches then drawn painted a picture which was exhibited in London and 
Paris, as well as in our Atlantic States. In 1839 Nicollet, making the first 
accurate map of the Missouri, under orders from the secretary of war, 
found the monumental cedar fallen down, but, although a cyclone was im- 
pending, would not let the steamer scud for shelter till his men had set it 
upright. In 1857 the mighty river broke the banks that bind her in and 
tore in pieces this fettering bluff. When the dwellers near came hither they 
found that undermining water had caused a landslide, so that one end of 
the Floyd coffin projected from a sheer precipice, and a man lowered by a 
rope reported the skull to have fallen out. It was immediately discovered 
below, and. with the other bones, reinterred at a safe distance from the 

"You all know the rest, how all dwellers in this region who knew 
the story of Floyd have felt that in neglecting to honor Floyd they were 
themselves dishonored, 

"You know how the sacred spot of interment through the trampling of 
horses and cattle had become indistinguishable, and how discordant on that 
matter were the opinions even of those who had assisted at the reburial. 
You remember last Decoration Day, what a gathering on the bluff, what a 
testing the earth with trowels, the discovery of the hallowed ground by its 
color and shape, the disinterment, and the organization on June 6 of this 
Floyd .Memorial Association. 

"It is a great joy to me that I am permitted on this anniversary to show 
you here the autograph, yes. the autograph journal of Floyd, not a line 
erased, not a word obscured, a writing thai in some particulars serves to cor- 
rect, complete or illustrate the official reports of Lewis and Clark, a work 
that will yet he reproduced in photographic lac similes l>\ Iowa and per- 
haps .Missouri as unsurpassed in antiquitj by any of their literary remains 
or written chronicles. Nor can I without emotion bring again to the bones 
Of its author this manuscript, so often ready to perish, or to lurk unknown 
forever, hut which, after well-nigh a centurj of wandering, comes home to 
do him homage. Such a reunion moves our wonder like thai vision of the 
prophet in the valley of dry hones when there was a shaking and the bones 
came together. ,;i,-h to his fellow, b to his hone. 0, that Floyd, when 

io perish here ninety y< could have forseen tins day, this con- 

course, his remains bo cared tor. and this hook which i now bring t<> it> 
author coming hack from adventures Btranger than Fiction! The vision 
would have sweetened even tin bitterness of death. 

"What is the aim of our Association? 

"We propose to erect such a memorial over the hones we now deposit in 
God's acre that henceforth there shall be no uncertainty where tiny lie. a 
memorial slab already provided we today place over the dust we delight to 


honor. Its marble will naturally last longer than the cedar post, and can 
defy the pocket-knives of relic-hunting vandals. But it is nothing to what 
we expect. We view it as the first stone in a structure worthy of the hero 
who here fell, and of his endeavors stretching to Pacific shores. 

"In a small Vermont mountain town the best monument in the grave- 
yard commemorates a minister who died there very poor. Its history as told 
me was this: For a long time after the minister's death he had no grave- 
stone, but one morning a large lump of slate was observed on his grave and 
found to have been rolled there by a half-witted laughing-stock of the vil- 
lage, who had rudely inscribed it with these lines: 

'This simple stone may mark the spot 

Where our dear pastor lies, 
Till a better one shall take its place, 
Or till the dead shall rise.' 

"The fool roused the wise to their duty. Our hopes are sanguine that 
this history will be seen to repeat itself in regard to the Floyd memorial. 

"Floyd who was in the forefront of our crusaders who first bore a line 
of light into and through the thick darkness that had hitherto brooded over 
all the trans-Mississippi. It was not the will of God that he should be frost- 
bitten during the winter among the Mandans, nor share in the frequent 
famines with no food but the flesh of dogs, horses and whales, and not much 
of that, nor was he, like his survivors, worn out in the month long portage 
at the Great Falls, nor did his eyes fail through vainly watching for a sail 
to succor amid want of all things on the Pacific. 

"But he was ready and eager for all this, and even more. He is proved 
to have been so not only by his being preferred to many good men for an 
arduous position, and by his disappointing no expectation, and by his loss 
being so greatly lamented, but by the touching testimonial to his character 
from his commander, a captain as sternly just as Cato the Censor, or the 
first Brutus. Therefore, the willing mind that was in him — let it be ac- 
cepted for the deeds he would have done had not his Maker been pleased 
to cut him down in the midst of his days. I see Floyd's shadowy ghost 
among us today, rejoicing to join in our gathering for doing him honor. 
With reason does he claim a memorial in the goodly land he laid down his 
life in spying out for us. The Eschol cluster he plucked for us there I 
bring you today in his journal, a bunch of grapes that shall never decay or 

"Our memorial will have a national significance. In commemorating 
Floyd we do our best to honor the discovery of that trans-Mississippi Amer- 
ica which, world famous for the wonders and wealth of nature, is fast filling 
with millions of men, and may yet control and shape the destinies of the 

"Exploring the trans-Mississippi was in Jefferson's thoughts before the 
Revolutionary war ended. Despairing of penetrating the Spanish cordon 
from the east he sent Ledyard to Russia, hoping to enter the terra incognita 
by way of Bering straits. No half-faced fellowship in the great West could 
content him. He held that the valley of the Mississippi must remain value- 
less to us all till we became masters of its mouth. There is one spot on the 
globe, said he, where the people must be our natural and necessary enemies, 
and that is the kingdom which holds the entrance of the Mississippi, our 


front door, our only gateway from the West to the commerce of the world. 
For thai gateway he was ready to fight not only England that he hated and 

In to which he was indifferent, but France which he loved. 

"Spain, viewing the trans-Mississippi as a greater Mexico, would have 
made a Fearful fight against us in order to retain it. Her infatuated sover- 
eign gave it away to Napoleon. That emperor, needing money more than 
i wilderness he could not defend against England, sold it to us. As soon 
as Jefferson indulged any hope of securing such an inestimable jewel he 
began preparations to prove its value. The purchase, completed April 30, 
1803, was not known to him before the 2d of July, and three days after- 
ward his private secretary. Capt. Lewis, started from Washington, adven- 
turing to the shore washed by the fartherest sea — an exploration which, 
as Humboldt once said, revealed to the world a vaster and more valuable 
region than any other party of explorers had ever brought to light. In 
1890 more than 14,000,000 already inhabitated that wilderness, to whom and 
their children, the Floyd monument here will be a focus of historic interest. 

"The expedition in which Floyd was a martyr drew a line of light along 
the Missouri nearly to its fountainhead. It doubled the strength of our 
claim to the Pacilic slope for a thousand miles further west. In subsequent 
negotiations we claimed Oregon and Washington because we were the first 
to discover the mouth of the Columbia. But the British had a counterclaim, 
for they had first ascended that river above tidewater. This claim would 
have had weight and might have cost us a war had not the comrades of 
Floyd been foremost in descending the Columbia to the ocean. 

"In honor, then, of our first soldier who died on the Missouri, one who so 
did his duty for a hundred days that we know he would have done it well 
for a thousand, as moved by shame that you have ignored and neglected 
his grave so long, as glorying in the earliest grave of trans-Mississippi 
America, that of one of our foremost pathbreakers hitherward, build ye 
for Floyd a worthy monument, an ornament to your city, seen afar on land. 
'The path of duty is the way to glory.' " 

At the conclusion of this address resolutions complimentary to both 

Iters were passed, and the audience dispersed. 

On motion the Association adjourned for one year or at the call of the 
President, the Board of Trustees, to unci in the Court House at 2 p. m. on 
August 24, to perfect its organization bj the election of permanenl officers. 
and transact other business. 

On the following day, August 21, the Sioux city .Journal, in publishing 
the s'uii report of th«- foregoing exercises, presented an editorial leader, 
which we transcribe tor its intrinsic Interest, and to complete the record 
of the occasion. It is as fol li 


"The reburial of the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of 
the Lewis and Clark expedition of ninety-one years ago. conducted tinder 
the auspices of the Floyd Memorial Association of Sioux City, yesterday, 
was a historical event of great Interest. The presence of hi-. Coues, of 
Washington, i>. C, and Dr. Butler, ol Madison, Wis., added vastly to the 
public interest. 


"The Louisiana purchase, under the Jefferson administration, stands as 
the most important acquisition of territory ever made by the government 
of the United States. Indeed, it may be suggested that but for this fortu- 
nate outcome with France the young republic would not have long sur- 
vived. It was the fear of England that induced Bonaparte to hastily con- 
clude the treaty by which this vast territory, exceeding in extent the territory 
wrested from the British by the revolution, became annexed to the domain of 
the United States. 

"Mr. Livingston, who represented this government, joined by Mr. Mon- 
roe, had no authority to negotiate for the territory included in the purchase. 
Communication with Washington would require at least three months, and 
the European complications were such that immediate action must be had. 
Understanding President Jefferson's views, and having confidence in his 
approval, the treaty was negotiated. The purpose Mr. Jefferson had was 
to secure the free use of the Mississippi river, particularly at New Orleans; 
but such was the attitude of England that Bonaparte felt that in order to 
keep the Louisiana, territory out of the hands of the British it was the part 
of wisdom to dispose of it to the United States. 

"The purchase was made for $15,000,000. The population of the United 
States at that time numbered about 6,000,000, and the pledge of $15,000,000 
was probably equal to a pledge of more than $500,000,000 at the present 

"Mr. Blaine, in his 'Twenty Years of Congress,' speaking of the good 
fortune of the country in that matter, says: 

" 'England's acquisition of Louisiana would have proved in the high- 
est degree embarrassing, if not disastrous, to the union. At that time the 
forts of Spain, transferred to France, and thence to the United States, were 
on the east side of the Mississippi, hundreds of miles from its mouth. If 
England had seized Louisiana, as Bonaparte feared, the Floridas, cut off 
from the other colonies of Spain, would certainly have fallen into her hands 
by easy and prompt negotiations, as they did, a few years after, into the 
hands of the United States. England would thus have had her colonies 
planted on the three land sides of the union, while on her ocean side the 
formidable navy confronted the young republic. No colonial acquisition ever 
made by her on any continent has been so profitable to her commerce, and 
so strengthening to her military position, as that of Louisiana would have 
proved. This fact was clearly seen by Bonaparte when he hastily made the 
treaty ceding it to the United States. That England did not at once attempt 
to seize it, in disregard of Bonaparte's cession, has been a source of sur- 
prise to many historians. The obvious reason is that she dreaded the com- 
plication of a war in America when she was about to assume so heavy a 
burden in the impending European contest. The inhabitants of the union 
in 1803 were six millions in number, of great energy and confidence. A large 
portion of them were accustomed to the sea and could send swarms of pri- 
vateers to prey on British commerce. Independent citizens would be even 
more formidable than were rebellious colonists in the earlier struggle with 
the mother country, and, acting in conjunction with France, could effectively 
maintain a contest. Considerations of this nature doubtless induced the 
Addington ministry to acquiesce quietly in a treaty whose origin and whose 


assured results were in every way distasteful, and even offensive, to the 
British government.' 

"This negotiation enabled the United States, in course of time, to settle 
territorial disputes with Spain, and enabled the government finally to ex- 
it-mi its borders to the Pacific ocean. It is impossible to measure the im- 
portance of the Louisiana purchase. The country then acquired forms to- 
day the States of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, 
Minnesota west of the Mississippi river, Colorado north of the Arkansas, 
North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming and Montana. 

"The history of this transfer, and its correlatives, forms a most inter- 
esting study in our national history. The negotiation preceded the intro- 
duction of steam navigation, and the settlement of the country west of the 
Mississippi was regarded as extremely remote. Indeed, Mr. Livingston as- 
sured the French that settlements would not be made beyond the Missis- 
sippi river for one hundred years. 

"Lewis and Clark organized their expedition in 1803, starting from St. 
Louis. They were absent two years and a half. Sergeant Charles Floyd, 
one of the party, died just below Sioux City and was buried by his compan- 
ions on the bluff overlooking the Missouri river on the 20th of August, 1804. 
The Floyd river was named in honor of the dead sergeant. The body was 
moved back from the edge of the bluff by citizens of Sioux City in 1857, 
and the grave in time was obliterated. It was discovered this summer and 
the remains have now been placed in a secure casket, and in yesterday's 
ceremonies a marble slab, suitably inscribed, was placed to mark the spot 
of burial. It is the purpose of the Association to care for the grave and to 
further improve the ground. E. P. HEISER. 

Sec. 14 Proceedings of the Association Aftei' August 2 J, 1895. 
(Abstract of Minutes.) 

Court House, Sioux City, August 24, 1895. 

The Board of Trustees of the Floyd Memorial Association met at 2 p. m.. 
pursuant to adjournment of August 20. 

Present: President John H. Charles, in the chair; Secretary C. R. 
Marks, Treasurer D. A. Magee, Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, Mitchell Vincent, 
Esq., of the Board; also, Dr. Elliott Coues, Hon. Geo. D. Perins, R. Buchanan, 
I Arthur F. Statter, R. J. Chase, C. A. L. Olson, and Wm. Huddleson. 

The minutes of several previous minutes were read and approved. 

The election of permanent officers being in order, and the necessarj 
motions having been carried, the following persons were unanimously 


President — John H. Charles, Sioux City, la. 

Vice-Presidents— 1. Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, Sioux City, la. 
_'. Prof. .1. I>. Butler, Madison, Wis. 

3. Dr. Blliotl Coues, Washington, i>. C. 
i Horace G. Burt, Omaha, Neb. 

5. Mitchell Vincent, Esq., Onawa. la. 

6. Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, Sioux City, la. 

7. Dr. S. I'. Veomans, Charles Cit> . la. 
Hon. Charles Aldrich, i>< Moines, la. 

9. Rev. T. M. ShanalVIt, Huron. S. D 


10. W. P. Garrison, Esq., New York, N. Y. 

11. Col. Wm. Hancock Clark, Detroit, Mich. 

12. George Murphy, Esq., Sioux City, la. 

13. Vacancy. 

14. Vacancy. 

15. Vacancy. 

Secretary — Hon. C. R. Marks, Sioux City, la. 

Treasurer — D. A. Magee, Esq., Sioux City, la. 

President Charles was desired to nominate three persons to fill the 
vacancies in the list of Vice-Presidents. The chair requested and was al- 
lowed time to consider the case. (The appointments subsequently made 

13. Col. Meriwether Lewis Clark, Louisville, Ky. 

14. Maj. John O'Fallon Clark, St. Louis, Mo. 

15. Jefferson Kearney Clark, Esq., St. Louis, Mo.) 

A letter was read from Col. Wm. Hancock Clark, of Detroit, Mich., eld- 
est grandson of the celebrated explorer, William Clark, regretting that, 
owing to misdirection, the invitation to the ceremonies of August 20 did 
not reach him in time for him to attend, and expressing his trust that the 
Association would "bring forth good fruit in so noble a cause." 

It was voted that a set of the photographs taken of the memorial cere- 
monies of August 20 be presented to Dr. Coues, Prof. Butler and Dr. Yeo- 

It was suggested to publish in book form the obsequies of August 20, 
together with such other historical and official matters as should show the 
origin, organization and proceedings of the Association, as a report for use 
in promoting the final objects in view — the erection of a Floyd monument, 
and the establishment in perpetuity of a Floyd park. The suggestion took 
the form of a motion that the chair appoint a Publication Committee for 
this purpose. This motion being carried unanimously. President Charles 
appointed thereupon the following committee: Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, chair- 
man; Dr. Elliott Coues, Mitchell Vincent, Esq., Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, and 
Secretary C. R. Marks. On further consideration of the subject, Dr. Coues 
was requested to prepare the report for the press, in consultation with 
Chairman Perkins. 

The By-Laws for the government of the Association, having been 
drafted, were read, and on motion unanimously adopted, as follows: 


Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall meet annually on the Saturday 
following its election at 2 o'clock p. m., and shall also hold regular meetings 
on the last Saturday of January, April, July and October at 2 o'clock p. m. 
Special meetings may be called at any time by the President, or in his ab- 
sence from Sioux City by a Vice-President, notice of such special meeting 
to be given each Trustee personally or by written or printed notice mailed 
to each Trustee at least twenty-four hours before the time of such special 
meeting. A majority of the Trustees shall constitute a quorum. 

Section 2. Special meetings of the members may be called by the Board 
of Trustees, notice of such special meeting to be given by one publication 
in a newspaper published in Sioux City on the day prior to such meeting. 


Section 3. In addition to the officers provided for by the Articles of In- 
corporation there shall be appointed by the President annually the following 
standing committees of five members each: On finance, on grounds, on leg- 

Section 4. These By-Laws may be added to, altered, modified or amended 
at any meeting of the Board of Trustees, provided that a majority of the 
Trustees vote in favor thereof. 

The appointment of standing committees by the chair being in order, 
President Charles said that he desired time to consider this important mat- 
ter, and would therefore defer the appointments for a few days, when he 
would communicate them by letter to Secretary Marks. 

There being no further business, the Board adjourned sine die. 

The following standing committees were appointed by President Charles, 
per letter to Secretary Marks, dated Sioux City, September 11, 1895: 

Committee on Finance — 1. E. W. Skinner, Chairman, Sioux City. 

2. James F. Toy, Sioux City. 

3. Wm. H. Beck, Sioux City. 

4. A. M. Jackson, Sioux City. 

5. T. A. Black, Sioux City. 

6. Geo. M. Pardoe, Sioux City. 

7. Robert Buchanan, Jr., Sioux City. 
Committee on Legislation — 1. Geo. W. Wakefield, Chairman, Sioux City. 

2. Geo. D. Perkins, Sioux City. 

3. J. S. Lothrop, Sioux City. 

4. C. H. Lewis, Sioux City. 

5. Charles Aldrich, Des Moines. 
Committee on Grounds— 1. C. R. Marks, Chairman, Sioux City. 

2. John P. Allison, Sioux City. 

3. George Murphy, Sioux City. 

4. Mitchell Vincent, Onawa. 

5. A. M. Holman, Sergeant luffs. 

(Abstract of Minutes.*) 

Court House, Sioux City, December 28, 1895. 

The Board of Trustees of the Floyd Memorial Association met at 3 p. m., 
pursuant to call of the President. Present: John H. Charles, in the chair; 
Geo. D. Perkins, Geo. W. Wakefield. Mitchell Vincent, Whitfield Stinson, 
B. W. Skinner, Robert Buchanan, Jr., and Secretary C. R. Marks. 

The chair stated that the meeting had been called to consider the reports 
of the Publication Committee, and of the Committee on Grounds, and to 
transact other business. 

Hon. Geo. n Perkins, chairman of the Publication Committee, mad'' a 
report of progress in the preparation of the proposed report. He had con- 
ferred with Dr. Coues, In Washington, i>. c, who had informed him thai 
the report was practically completed, and would be transmitted to the 
committee In :> few days. 

Hon. c. R. Marks, chairman of the Committee on Grounds, reported that 
nothing had been done toward purchasing the ground for the desired park, 
and he had no figures lo submit from the owners of the property. Mr. 

,i ^n', ported In the Sioux City Journal ol December 2'. 1895. 


Marks and Judge Wakefield were requested to call upon the Credits Com- 
mutation Company, to ascertain definitely upon what terms the land could 
be purchased. Three propositions were to be made: (1) Asking a donation 
of a small piece of ground about the grave. (2) Offering to buy 2V/ 2 acres 
at a certain price. (3) Offering to buy the 2iy 2 acres, conditional upon a 
rebate by the owners upon the making of certain improvements by the Asso- 

An interesting letter, addressed to Dr. Coues by Reuben T. Durrett, 
LL. D., of Louisville, Ky., President of the Filson Club, and transmitted 
to Judge Wakefield for any use he might wish to make of the information 
it contained, was read to the Board. It related to the parentage and early 
life of Sergeant Floyd, as presented in the opening pages of the present re- 

Other letters were also read; and there being no further business, the 
Board adjourned. 

biiIiIBb 910