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Full text of "Insecta maderensia; being an account of the insects of the islands of the Madeiran group"

INSECTA MADERENSIA: 



BEING 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE INSECTS 



OF 



THE ISLANDS 



OF 



THE MADEIRAN GROUP. 



y 



T. VERNON WOLLASTOK, M.A., F.L.S. 



6 SetTTTOTT;? yap fiov fierewpo'; alperai 
linnfhov eh rov akp eiri tov KavOdpov. 

Aristoph. Pax, 80. 



LONDON: 

JOHN VAN VOORST, 1 PATERNOSTER ROW. 

1854. 



Though never ase until a later day 

AssaQ'd thj' forests' huge antiquity. 

Yet elder Fame had many tales of thee — 

Wliether Pha?nician shipman far astray 

Had brought uncertain notices away 

Of islands dreaming in the middle sea ; 

Or that man's heart, which struggles to be free 

From this old worn-out world, had never stay 

Till, for a place to rest on, it had foimd 

A region out of ken, that happier isle, 

AVliich the mild ocean breezes blow around. 

Where they who thrice upon this mortal stage 

Had kept their hands from wrong, their hearts from gmle, 

ShoiUd come at length, and live a tearless age. 

, Teench. 




I'B1>"TED BY T-VYLOll AND FKANCIS, 
RED LION COtTHT, FLEET STREET. 



VIRO . REVERENDO 

RICARDO-THOMiE . LOWE . A.M. 

ECCLESItE . ANGLICAN/E 

IN . INSVLIS . MADERENSIBVS 

ANNOS . VNVM . ET . VIGINTI 

PRiESVLI 

NECNON . SIMVL 

SCIENTIA . NATVRALI . PERITISSIMO 

HOC . OPVSCVLViM 

QVALECVNQVE . GRATI . ANIMI . SIGNVM 

DICATVM . VOLVIT 

AVCTOR. 



PREFACE. 



It is not without some degree of hesitation that I am at length induced to bring 
together my notes on the Coleoptera of the Madeiran Group in a sufficiently 
connected form for the press ; and in offering them to the scientific Avorld, I 
would wish briefly to state for what pui-pose they were originally commenced. 

Having been advised in October of 1847 to leave England for the benefit of 
my health, I employed a seven months' residence at Funchal in collectiug such 
insects (and desultory information concerning them) as came beneath my notice, 
but without any ulterior design than that of a mere temporary amusement, and 
to relieve the monotony of a winter's exile in a distant land. 

In November of the following year, however, another migration being recom- 
mended to me, I decided on " making a vu-tue of necessity," and tm-ning my 
second banishment to a more practical account than the first one ; and con- 
sequently started with the full intention of accumulating matter for publication, 
— which I was bold to hope would at any rate so far expand, ia importance 
and extent, as to furnish a series of papers, at a future time, for some of the 
Natural History journals of the day. 

But having been rewarded, in this my second expedition, with more success 
than I had had reason to anticipate (owing in a large measm'c to my health 
having permitted me, not only to use greater diligence, but also to visit many 
remote rocks, and to ascend into regions, hitherto forbidden), and having 
convinced myself that I had obtained the major part of the species which were 



vi PREFACE. 

to be met Avith between the limits of October and Jime ; I felt that a summer's 
oljservation in situ was the main thing reqiined to render my knowledge of 
tlie Coleopterous fauna tolerably complete. Hence, in May of 1850, at the 
instigation of the E.ev. 11. T. Lowe (whose imremittiag services I shall have 
al)undant opportimities elsewhere of announcing), having procured a tent, I 
again set sail for the island, — prepared to take up my abode, diu'ing the hotter 
period, in districts as yet but imperfectly explored ; and, by thus applying myself 
in good earnest (at elevations, moreover, difficult of access except at that peculiar 
season), I conceived that 1 should be in a position, at the close of my thii'd 
sojourn, to attempt a more lengthened and systematic treatise than I had at the 
beginning ventured to contemj)late. 

My material having, in this manner, been gradually amassed, considerable 
leisure was afforded me, during the intervals of my return to England, not only 
of carefully studying the new modifications which had been brought to light, 
but also of sending them for comparison to the principal museums of the 
Continent, — by which means I was the better qualified to form a correct oj)iiiion 
on their several affinities. 

To those of my friends and correspondents who have aided me in this some- 
what difficult task, whether in the collation of specimens or in the loan of types, 
I would dcsu'c to express my sincere obligations. Particularly, however, would 
I draw attention to the valuable help which I have received from J. O. West- 
wood, Esq., whose pencil has been so elaborately employed in the figures which 
I am thus enabled to attach, and by Avhom many of the minutest of the dissec- 
tions were accomplished, — ^^ith a degree of delicacy, moreover, to which I did 
not myself at the commencement of this Work (though I haA'e since succeeded in 
anatomizing the larger portion of them, likewise) lay claim. 

From Frederick Smith, Esq., for the unwearied attention which he has 
bestowed, and the amoimt of skill which he has brought to play, upon the 
engraving, I have also more than common assistance to record. 

From A. H. Haliday, Esq., of Dublin ; from Messrs. Wliite and Watcrhouse, of 
the British Museum; and from E. ^\ . Janson, Esq., Curator of the Entomological 



PREFACE. . vii 

Society of London, I am bound to confess that I have received much useful 
information and practical hints, — apart from the many facilities of reference 
which they have most liberally afforded me. 

To Professor Heer, of Zurich, my especial acknowledgments are due, — not only 
for the handsome manner in which he has laid the whole of his Madeiran collec- 
tions at my disposal (refusing to describe even the novelties which he had himseK 
discovered), but also for putting me in possession of his private notes, compiled at 
Funchal during the winter of 1850 and the spring of 1851. 

To Dr. H. Schaum, of Berlin, who has spared no trouble in ministering to my 
entomological wants, and to whose unexampled kindness I shall have frequent 
occasion to allude throughout the present volume ; as well as to Professor 
Bohemann, of Stockholm, for his ^ comparison of my Bhyncophora with the 
Schonherrian types, I owe much. 

To MM. Javet, Chevrolat, Deyrolle, Jacquelin-Duval, Leon-Fairmaire, and 
Dr. Axibe, of Paris ; as also to M. Dohrn, President of the Entomological Society 
of Stettin, to M. Kiesenwetter of Leipzig, M. Motschulsky of St. Petersburgh, and 
to T. S. Leacock, Esq., of Funchal, my recognition of services, in various ways 
conferred, is gratefully conceded. 

And, lastly (though not least), to the Rev. R. T. Lowe, who, for upwards of 
twenty years British Chaplain and the sole guardian of natural science in 
Madeira, has not only consented to an invasion of his own field of research, but 
has even co-operated with me (directly and indirectly), during my successive visits 
to the island, to bring about the object which I had in view, I have incurred a 
debt which will not be easily repaid. The generosity moreover with which he has 
communicated, without reserve, both his local knowledge in the departments at 
which I have been labouring and the result of his long experience in everything 
connected with the country itself, demands my warmest thanks; whilst his 
unbounded hospitality, not only to myself, but to hundreds who have been 
similarly exiled under his control (too many, however, never to return), must not 
remain unnoticed. 



Viii PREFACE. 

If the follo^\•ing pages should be found of sixfficient interest to attract the 
attention of a few out of the unfortunate invalids who flock to Funchal, winter 
after mnter, for their health, and with whom the main lamentation which every- 
where resounds is the total absence of the ordinary enjoyments of a country life, 
and the want of some local amusement to divert theii* thoughts from the cmises 
of their lianislmient, one at any rate of the objects for which they have been 
compiled will have been fully realized. 

London, .Inly 14, 1854. 



INTEODUCTION. 



^VHEN we review the great questions arising out of the geographical distribu- 
tion of animals and plants, there can be no doubt whatsoever that the close inves- 
tigation of any given area, however minute, must contribute materially, provided 
its position be a significant one, to lighten the labours of those more comprehen- 
sive naturalists who are able to wield, with a master's hand, the scanty data 
gleaned by the humbler workers in the science to a practical account. And, since 
it has been said that whatsoever falls ■ndthin the sphere of knowledge is attached 
to a radius and tends towards the centre, there is reason to hope that no amount 
of truth, once faiiiy arrived at, will be eventually lost ; but that it will sooner or 
later find its way into the central mass, to be employed, whensoever chance may 
require it, for the general good. Hence it is that we are encouraged, in every 
branch of observation, to register what we see ; and to feel that the most trivial 
facts, if faithfully recorded, may become the basis from whence the soundest 
theories may arise, — such theories forsooth as have ah'eady arisen from the con- 
templation of circumstances apparently beneath oiu* notice, and which have grown 
up, step by step, into trees of gigantic dimensions, to embrace at last large prin- 
ciples within their shade. 

Such being the case, I have ventured to hope that the examination of islands 
even so small as those now under discussion may not have been altogether without 
profit. The intermediate situation of Madeira, which, whilst pertaining artificially 
to Europe, has nevertheless much in common with the north of Africa (from 
which in distance it is the less remote), imparts to it an interest, the importance 
of which the student of Zoological geography cannot faU at once to recognise : 
and, if we scan the results arrived at in the following pages, we shall perceive that 
there is positive ground for the belief that its Coleopterous fauna is, in a large 
measiu'e, of a very isolated type. Although partaking, in the main, of that par- 
ticular stamp which is usually acknowledged as Mediterranean, yet the number of 
endemic species (and even of genera) would seem to be so great, whilst tlie ncAv 
modifications wliich have been brought to light are so extremely characteristic, 

b 



X INTRODUCTION. 

and adjusted to the peculiar nature of the country in which they are placed, that 
we cannot resist the conclusion that, whatever may have heen the extent or con- 
dition of that ancient continent of which these several Atlantic clusters are the 
sure witnesses, that portion of it at any rate which the Madeiras may be supposed 
to represent was not only singularly rich in creations adapted specially to itself, 
but also that the various forms must have migrated but very slightly ere the land 
of passage was destroyed, — seeing that many of them had apparently not even 
reached those points of its area which are now the detached portions of the actual 
group. That this is really a fact, we may appeal, intei' alia, to such insects as the 
Tarphii (only a single one of which, out of 15, occurs beyond Madeii-a proper), to 
Argutor and Trechiis (of the same island), to Acalles (of which 12 members, out 
of 13, belong to the central mass), to the aberrant Atlantides and the Anemophili 
(almost exclusively Porto Santan), or to Deucalion (which reigns supreme on the 
nearly inaccessible heights of the two southern Dezertas). 

Although it is of com-se possible that some few out of the 270 species, and even 
of the 11 genera, which I have treated as novelties, may have l^een ah-eady made 
known, yet I believe it will be fovmd, on inspection, that such instances are rare ; 
whilst concerning the claims of the majority of them, being apparently of an 
endemic natm'e, there cannot be the slightest doubt. In addition to these 270 
species, there are 11 which had been pre\aously characterized as Madeiran ; thus 
raising the entire num1)er to 281, — which, out o/ 182, it must be admitted is a 
large proportion to possess cceii the chance of being peculiar to these islands. The 
genera of the present volimie amount, in aU, to 213 : one of these {Cossyphodes) 
had been lately described as jMad'eh-an ; and 9 at least (namely Calobius, Dactylo- 
sterimm, Xenostrongylus, Metophthalmus, Jflicrochondrus, Pecteropus, Deucalion, 
ArthroUps and Macrostethus), out of the 41 which arc indicated as new, I have 
reason to suspect have exponents elscAvhere, — which reduces the modifications 
which may, or may not, he endemic (but the larger portion of Avhich probably are) 
to 3-1. Amongst these 31, perhaps the most remarkable are Zargus, Cossyphodes, 
Eitrops, Aphanarthrum, Leijjarthrmn, Echinosoma, Xenorchestes, Gloeosoma, and 
Ellipsodes. 

It will be seen, on a reference to the Systematic Catalogue of this work, that the 
total absence of numerous genera (and even of whole families) which are looked 
upon as all but universal, constitutes one of the most striking featm'cs in om* 
entomological fauna. Thus, incredible though it may seem, not so much as a 
solitary \vitness of the Cicindelidce, Dujjrestida; or Pselaphidce has hitherto been 
l)rought to light ; whilst the great genera Carabits*, Nebria*, Silpha, Necro- 

* In Dejean's Catalogue there ia a Carahm registered as Madeiran, under the name of C interruptus ; 
aud a Nebria under that of N. dilatata : but, as no vestige of either one genus or the other has come 
beneath my notice, and since they have totally escaped the researches of the Ecv. E. T. Lowe for a period 
of twenty-six years, as also of the late Dr. lleinecken and of every other naturalist (so far as I am aware) 
subsequently ; I have not the slightest hesitation in pronouncing Dejean's insects (whatsoever they were) 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

phorus, Cetonia, Telephoriis, Tentyria, Pimelia, Acis, Asida and Otiorhynchus are 
altogetlier wanting. The vast race of the Thaler ophagous Lamellicorns {vid. p. 235), 
as also the immense department of the Elateridce {vid. p. 239), are represented 
apparently by but a single form, — as are also the SUphklie, Telepliorklce, Tenty- 
riadcB, and the (Edemendcs. 

Of the 13 primary sections into which I have distribvited the entire Coleoptera, 
the Bhyncoplwra contains the largest amount of species, and the Eucerata the 
smallest. Arranged numerically, they are as follows : Rhyncophora (104), Necro- 
pliaga (80), Geodeplmcja (63), Brachelytra (71), Friocerata (35), Atmchelia (29), 
Coirlylocemfa (22), Fhytophaga (21), Pseudotrimera (17), Philhydrkla (13), Tm- 
clieUa (11), Hydradephaga (7), Eucerata (6). Now there is an anomaly in these 
proportions, which it is not easy, at first sight, to account for, — namely, that, 
whUst Madeira is essentially a land of wood and streams, the Longicorns and 
Water-beetles should be the least shadowed forth of the whole. As regards the 
latter of these, however, the deficiency is not difficult to understand, — the rapid 
nature of the rivers, which are liable to sudden inundations from the mountains, 
and to deposit their contents in positions distant from their banks, or to poiu' in 
ceaseless torrents over the perpendicular faces of the rocks, being anything but 
favourable to insect life. 

Of the 56 families which enter our lists, the CttrcnlioHidcc, StaphyUnidce and 
CarabidcB (as miglit be expected) take the lead, — the first nmnbering 80 species, 
the second 73, and the thuxl 63. The next, in point of extent, is the Colydiadce, 
— which contains 19. The Galerucidce has 13 ; the Lathridiadce and Coccinellidce 
12 ; the Apthodiadce 10 ; the Melyridce 7 ; the Dytiscida;, Sisteridce and Ceram- 
bicidcB 6 ; the Chrysomelidce 4, and the ScydnKBuidce 1. 

Of the genera with which we have here to do, Tarpthius and Homalota (each of 
which have 15 representatives) rank first. Then comes Atlantis (which has 14) ; 
Acalles (13) ; Ptinus (10) ; Trechus and Helop)S (9) ; Bemhidium and L(Bmo- 
phlceus (8) ; Caulotrnpis, Apion and Philonthus (7) ; Bromius, Corticaria, Apho- 
dius, Longitarsus and Scymnns (6) ; Lixiis, Sitona, Psylliodes, Coccinella and 
Oxytelns (5), &c. 

In glancing over oru* catalogue, we shall be struck, apart from the dearth in the 
Hydradephaga and Eucerata (already commented upon), by the great scarcity of 
the flower-infesting tribes, — which, in a country like Madeira, where vegetation 
i& redundant, is not a little extraordinary. Thus, to take the various families, in 
succession, which may be considered as par excellence falling under that denomi- 



to have been incorrectly referred (as was also, I imagine, his Melanerus Amaroides) to the islands of our 
present gi-oup. Tliey may possibly have been Canarian, or (which is more likely stUl) from the Azores ; 
but until fiu-ther evadenee than that of a mere Catalogue (formed in another coiuitry, and subjected to 
all the chances of imcertaia information) be supplied, I confess I shall not be inclined to regard them as 
otherwise than apocryphal. 

62 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

nation, wc find that the Phalocridce are attested by 4 OUhri ; the entire Thalero- 
phagous Lamellicorns by a single Chasmatoptcrits ; the TeJephoridce by an insig- 
nificant IlalUiodes ; the Melyridce (which is the best indicated of the whole) by 
7 species (contained in 5 difierent genera) ; the Cleridm by an OjydHs and a 
Necrobia (the last of which is unquestionably naturalized) ; the Ilordellidce by a 
solitary Anaspis; the (Edemeridce by a Stenaxis ; and the Crioceridce by a Lema 
and a Crioceris (of which the latter, if not the former also, has been imported 
from Em-ope). 

Two of the principal features observable throughout the Coleoptera of these 
islands, are the general obscureness of colom-ing (gay tints being exceedingly rare) 
and the apterous tendency. As regards the second of these, so strongly is it 
expressed, that, out of the 182 sjiecies hitherto detected, 178 are either altogether 
apterous, or else have theii" wings so imperfectly developed that they may be prac- 
tically considered as such. About 86 moreover (out of the 482) may, I imagine, 
have been accidentally introduced from other countries ; and, as these belong well 
nigh exclusively to the winged forms, the winged species which are in all probabi- 
lity tridij indigenous are diminished to 218, — thus exceeding by onl}^ 10 those 
which are either apterous or nearly so. Numerous genera indeed (as Tarns, 
Loricera, Calathus, Olisthopus, Argutor, Trechus, Hydrohius. &c.) which are 
commonly winged arc here almost invariably apterous : whilst of the converse {i. e. 
of insects which have their wings ample, although in other countries they are 
usually obsolete) there is, I believe, but a single instance, — namely Pristonychus 
(concerning which, vide p. 218). As a corollary arising out of this peculiarity, we 
should a priori be led to anticipate that a large section of the Madeirau Coleoptera 
would be of a very local character, — since, where the means of self-dispersion are 
reduced below the ordinary standard, a widely-acquired range is of coui-se next to 
impossible. And such, on investigation, we find to be the case, — as a glance, in 
fact, at tlic Toi)0(jrophicol Tables will abundantly convince. 

Respecting the proportions which the several islands bear to each other, in the 
niunber of species observed upon them, the great difllculties attending even a tem- 
porary sojourn out of [Madeira proper should be borne in mind, as ser\-ing to 
explain in some measure the impeduuents which surround us in arriving at any 
positive data on the subject. Independently hoAvever of tliis, the immense super- 
ficies of the central mass as contrasted with the satellites of the group, — containing 
as it docs about ten times the area of Porto Santo (which last is, in its tvu-n, 
gigantic when compared with the barren rocks of the Dezertas), and not only 
aboundmg in wood and water, but rising to nearly four times the height, — must 
naturally give it an enormous preponderance in the faima of the entii'e region. 
Still, having (at three dilferent ]ieriods of the year) resided for more than a month 
in Porto Santo, for the sole ])urpose of research, and having twice encamp(>d for a 
week (in the winter and siunnier) on the Dezerta Grande, as well as on the llheo 
Chao, I believe that I am at any rate in a position to give some sort of an ojiiuion 



INTRODUCTION. XUl 

on this intricate question : and to any person who has a practical knowledge of the 
localities themselves, I think that the following numbers (unequal as they are) 
will not appear to be inconsistent with the opposite dimensions and aspects of the 
various portions of the cluster to which they respectively refer. Thus, in Madeii-a 
proper I have (up to the present period) ascertained 432 species to have occurred, 
in Porto Santo 111, on the Dezerta Grande 57, on the Northern Dezerta (or Ilheo 
Chao) 15, and on the Southern Dezerta (or Ilheo Bugio) 4. Or, if we choose to 
regard the Dezertas as one, the group will separate itself into three natm'al divi- 
sions ; and we shall have for Madeu-a proper 432, for the Dezertas 61, and for 
Porto Santo 111. Of the 61 species which I have found on the Dezertas, 44 have 
been detected in Madeira and 29 in Porto Santo. Tlie species which (so far as I 
have been able to ascertain) are peculiar to Madeira proper are 340, to Porto 
Santo 32, to the Dezerta Grande 6, to the Ilheo Chao 3, and to the Ilheo Bugio 0. 

The only insects of the existence of which I have been enabled to satisfy myself 
for certain on ei-erij island are the Scarites ahhreviatus and the Laparocerus morio ; 
nevertheless I am all but convinced that the Calatlms complanatus, Sarpalus 
vivklus and the Hadriis cinerascens (if we consider the H. illqtus as its Porto 
Santan analogue) are equally universal : whilst, at the same time, they may l^e 
regarded, in conjunction with the Tarns lineatus, Dromlits ohscuroyiittatus, 
OUsthopus Maderensis, Omias ventrosus, Helops JPluto and confertus, and the 
Anthicus trlstis, as amongst the species which are the most abimdant indicidually 
of all with which we are concerned. 

Taking a cursory view of the Coleoptera here described, the fauna may perhaps 
be pronounced as having a greater afiinity with that of Sicily than of any other 
country which has been hitherto projierly investigated. Apart from the large 
number of our genera (and even sj^ecies) which are diffused over more or less of 
the entu'e Mediterranean basin, this is especially evinced in some of the most cha- 
racteristic forms, — such as Ajwtomiis, Xenostrongylus, Tarpliius, Cholovocera, JSolo- 
p>aramecus, Bergimis, LUargus, Thorictus and Boromorphus. There is moreover, 
strange though it may appear to be, some slight (though decided) collective assi- 
milation with what we observe in the south-western extremity of oiu' own country 
and of Ireland, — nearly all the species which are common to Madeira and the 
British Isles being found in those particular regions ; whilst one j)oint of coin- 
cidence at any rate, and of a very remarkable natm-e, has been fully discussed 
{md. p. 320) under Mesites. Whether or not this partial parallelism may be 
employed to further Professor E. Porbes's theory of the quondam approximation, 
by means of a continuous land, of the Kerry and Gallician hills, and of a huge 
miocene continent extending beyond the Azores, and including all these Atlantic 
clusters within its embrace, I will not venture to suggest : nevertheless it is im- 
possible to deny that, so far as the Madeu'as betoken, everything would go to 
favour this grand and comprehensive idea. Partaking in the main of a Mediter- 
ranean fauna, the northern tendency of which is in the evident direction of the 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

south-western portions of England and Ireland, and with a profusion of endemic 
modifications of its own (bearing witness to the engorgement of this ancient tract 
with centres of radiation created expressly for itself), whilst geology proclaims the 
fact that subsidences on a stupendous scale have taken place, by which means the 
ocean grou^js were constituted ; we seem to trace out on every side records of the 
past, and to catch the glimpses as it were of a veritable Atlantis from beneath the 
waves of time, — being well nigh tempted to inquire, 

" And tliou, fairest Isle 

In the dayliglit's smile, 
Hast thou sunk in the boiling ocean, 

"Willie beyond tliy strand 

Rose a mightier land 
From tlie wave in alternate motion ? 

" Are the isles that stud 

The Atlantic flood 
But the peaks of thy tallest mountains, 

Wliile repose below 

The great waters' flow 
Thy towns and thy towers and fountains ? 

" Have the ocean powers 

Made their quiet bowers 
In thy fanes and thy dim recesses ? 

Or, in haunts of thine 

Do the sea-maids twine 
Coral wreaths for their dewy tresses ? 

" But we know not where, 

'Neath the desert air, 
To look for the pleasant places 

Of the youth of Time, 

Whose austcror prime 
The haunts of his childhood effaces." 

Regarding the arrangement which I have adopted, I would especially advert to 
the great assistance which I have derived from Mr. West wood's admii-able Intro- 
duction to the Modern Classification of Insects, — a work the merit of which it is 
dilficidt to overrate, and far surpassing every other in our own coiuitry (if not 
elsewhere also), in a systematic point of view, for the soimd impressions which it 
conveys, and for the masterly manner in wliich the subject has been treated as a 
ichole. It is a comparatively easy task to single out any one family or depart- 
ment, and to propound new doctrines on the collocation, inter se, of the various 
fragments which unite in composing it ; but to weigh the problem in extenso, to 
balance the difficulties of conflicting methods from beginning to end, and to extract 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

as far as may be possible the good from all (rejecting both what is superfluous and 
bad), is indeed a Gordian knot requii-ing a Solon to untie. And, whilst numerous 
portions have been subsequently taken in hand by others, and have here and there 
been modified (for better or worse), the general plan which Mr. Westwood has 
selected does still seem to offer (when contemplated in the mass) the fewest objec- 
tions, so far as I am able to judge, of any which has been hitherto proposed. I 
would mention this, not because I have altogether followed in his wake, — having 
departed from it in many (perhaps too many) instances, —but simply by reason of 
the fact that, having made his volume my text-book ab Initio, most of my ideas 
on the subject (and many even of the changes suggested) have arisen from a study 
of its contents : and, although I have not chosen to consider myself as bound 
implicitly to any particular author, yet I think it due to Mr. Westwood to 
afiu-m that my method of arrangement has been in a very large measure moulded 
out of his. 

The 13 primary sections which I have made use of are those adopted by Mr. 
Westwood ; nevertheless I have both transposed and inverted them, according as 
I have deemed it desirable (or where newly-discovered links rendered it necessary) 
to bring certain groups, formerly far asunder, into juxtaposition. Such has been 
the case with the Clssklce and Tomici, — a proceeding which, on account of the 
close aflfinity of the latter with the Cossonides, rendered the inversion of the Rhyn- 
cophora absolutely necessary. Then, the removal of the Brachelytra (from the 
Pentamerous departments) to the end, — a step which, after much reflection, I 
have thought it advantageous, even on its own account, to take, — has had the 
happy effect of bringing AiUhrenus (of the Dermestkla) into direct contact with 
the Byrrhi, with which it has so much in common ; whilst I have ventured to 
employ the Scydmceniclce (although not actually Brachelytrous) to effect a passage 
from Anthicus to the Fselaphi (which apparently however have no exponent in 
the Madeira Islands), and from thence (through Falagria) into the Staphylvnidce. 
The Trogositklce I have preferred to treat as a distinct family, and (for reasons 
stated at page 154<) as more akin to the CucujMce than to the NltkliiUdce, — with 
which it is now usually associated. The location of the Anisotomidce may perhaps 
require some apology; and I may add that I am not prepared to defend the 
situation which I have assigned to it as of necessity the most natural one. I do, 
rather, in fact regard it as in reality Necrophagous, and woiild not willingly 
disturb the position (near to the Silphida;) which it is generally supposed to 
occupy : still, the difficulty has been felt [vkl. p. 484) of disconnecting it from the 
Clypeastres ; and since these latter are almost universally acknowledged as insepa- 
rable from the Fseudotrimera (an hypothesis however which I am by no means 
incHned to accept as capable of positive demonstration, though I have tacitly 
endorsed it in the present volume), I have to a certain degree been coerced, con- 
trary to my inclinations, in regulating its site. 

It may perhaps be objected that I have sometimes been over-minute in de- 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

scribing my localities, and in recording the precise circumstances imdcr which 
many of the species were observed. And indeed, had I employed myself in 
writing for the scientific world only, far removed from the scene of action, there 
would liave been considerable force in the accusation, — for it can clearly matter 
but little to the universal collector to know even ichat iskoul his specimens are 
peculiar to (and, therefore, a fortiori, the exact spot in that island), so long as he 
be fully con^'inced that they have come from our present Group. But let it be 
remembered that one of my principal designs in the following pages has been, not 
only to aflford a complete catalogue, to the general naturalist, of Madeiran Coleo- 
ptera, but also to jiut into the hands of the sojoiu'ner there for a short period (of 
which there are several huncbeds every winter fi'om England alone, independently 
of those from other countries) a full and intelligible account of the actual stations 
in which he ■ndll probably be able to procm-e the several insects required. By this 
means, indeed, I am emboldened to hope that my researches may be tiu'ned to 
some practical account for the amusement of that unfortunate class of wanderers 
whose lot it is to submit, year after year, to an eight months' exile in Funchal. 
For, plainly, to point out one way (be it but one) in which even a few stray minds 
may find an ample field to sport in dm'ing a banishment under emergences not 
the most enviable, is a boon which ought not (for the sake of a useless brevity) to 
be overlooked, in dealing with a subject thus voluntarily undertaken (however 
small it be, and imperfectly performed) for the general good. 

And to those who are resident (as occasionally happens) for a longer season than 
that which is ordinarily appointed for invalids, and who have health and strength 
sufficient to tempt them beyond the limits within which the more cautious adven- 
turers are permitted to roam, I would add a few words, ere I close these desultory 
remarks, on the pleasures of a Tent-life. 

It will doubtless seem an insignificant thing, when contemplated here, to inves- 
tigate thoroughly such islands as those which we are now discussing. But the 
rambler in situ, who knows the difficulties attending even a single journey to the 
interior, and the almost physical impossiblity of visiting many localities except 
under the most auspicious circumstances and at particular times, and who has 
persevered in vain to reach distant rocks, and failed again and again in his efforts 
to obtain a landing on their inhospitable shores, he alone is in a position to imder- 
stand aright the numerous obstacles which are likely to intercept his progress. 
Yet such impediments, when sm'mounted, only go to increase the satisfaction 
derived from the object attained, and give to the explorer who has succeeded in 
overcoming them an adtlitional deliglit. 

The acbnirer of Nature who has passed a long winter at the mountains' base, 
contented merely to gaze upon the towering peaks, which, though clear and cold 
at night, seldom reveal themselves during the day with sufficient constancy 
(thi'ough the heavy canopy of cloud which hangs aroimd them) to warrant an 
ascent, hails AWth imbounded joy the advance of spring, — knowing that the time is 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 

at hand wlien he will be able to revel at large in this Atlantic paradise, in remote 
spots seldom visited by strangers, and at altitudes where the fierce elements of 
winter shall give way at last to perpetual sunshine and the fresh breezes of a 
calmer sea. There is something amazingly luxurious in betaking oneself to Tent- 
life, after months of confinement and annoyance (it may be entirely, — 'partially 
it must be) in the heat and noise of Funchal. We are then perhaps more than 
ever open to the favoiu'able impressions of an alpine existence ; — and who can 
adequately teU the ecstasy of a first encamjoment on these invigorating liills ! To 
turn out, morning after morning, in the solemn stillness of aerial forests, — where 
not a sound is heard, save ever and anon a woodman's axe in some far-off tributary 
ravine, or a stray bird hymning forth its matin song to the ascending sun ; to feel 
the cool influence of the early dawn on the upland sward, and to mark the thin 
clouds of fleecy snow uniting gradually into a solid bank, — aff'ording glimpses the 
while, as they join and separate, of the fair creation stretched out beneath ; to 
smell the damp, cold vapour rising from the deep defiles around us, where vegeta- 
tion is stni rampant on primaeval rocks and new generations of trees are springing 
up, untouched by man, from the decajing carcases of the old ones ; to listen in the 
still, calm evening au" to the humming of the insect world (the most active tenants 
of these elevated tracts) ; and to mark, as the dayUght wanes, the unnumbered 
orbs of night stealing one by one on to the wide arch of heaven, as briUiant as 
they were on the first evening of thek birth ; — are the lofty enjoyments, all, which 
the intellectual mind can grasp in these transcendent heights. 

It is needless however to pursue the picture further, for it is impossible to do 
justice to what experience alone can enable us to appreciate. And let not any 
one suppose that the varied objects and scenes of novelty which administer to our 
superior feelings, and charm the eye, in these upland solitudes are adapted only to 
the scrutiny of a naturalist, and are either beneath the notice of, or else cannot 
be sufiiciently entered into by the general mass, — for such is by no means the 
case. A single trial, we are convinced, T\all be more than enough to prove the 
reverse, pro\dded the adventurer be not altogether insensible to perceptions from 
without, or incurious as to the workings of the external universe around him. 
This however, we need scarcely add, is a sine qua non, — for it has been well said 
that " he who wondereth at nothing hath no capabilities of bliss ; but he that 
scrutinizeth trifles hath a store of pleasure to his hand : and happy and wise is the 
man to whose mind a trifle existeth not^ 

The great expense necessarily attending the pu.blication of a work Hke the 
present one will be a sufficient guarantee that it has been undertaken purely as a 
" labour of love," and with the sole aim (within its prescribed limits) of arriving 
at the truth. How far I have succeeded in this is a problem which must lie 
solved by others : meanwhile I apjpeal boldly to observation, in situ, as the test by 
which I would most desire to be judged, — having but httle fear of the experiment, 
and believing that we are never in so favourable a position for deciding on tlie 

c 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

relative importance of Zoological differences as when the local circiimstances con- 
nected mth them are taken into account. Where I have overlooked facts, or 
failed in my conclusions concerning them, I must crave that indulgence which is 
never denied to the honest inquirer even in a field so small as that tlu-oughout 
which my researches have been prosecuted, — researches which I am well aware 
can at the best add but an iota to our knowledge, 

" A drop dissevered from the boimdless sea." 



FAMILIARTJM DIAGNOSES. 



Ordo I. COLEOPTERA. 



"Alee quatuor; anticis cluris coriaceis, posticus membranosas (ante 

apicem transverse replicatas) obtegentibiis. 
Os ad manducationem factum. 
MetmnorpJwsis completa." (Van der Hoeven.) 



Sectio I. GEODEPHAGA 



Mandibula longje, exsertse, ad apicem acutse. 

Maxillarum lobus externus articulatus, palpiformis j internus 

imgue fixo terminatus. 
Antenna filiformes; ll-articiilatse. 

Pedes terrestrii (ssepius valde cursorii) ; tibiis bicalcaratis. 
Tarsi 5-articulati. 



Fam. 1. Caeabid^ ■< 



' Mcmdibulce baud vel leviter (rarius valde) dilatatse. 
Ligula porrecta, saepius cornea ; paraglossis aucta. 



I Habitant sub lapidibus foKisque arborum, dejectis, hrnni latitantes ; pJe- 
\^ rwnque valde rapaces. 



1. Tarus (2). 

2. Dromius (6). 



Subf. 1. BEACHnnDES. 

Hlj/fm apice truneata (pygidium vis obtegentia), saepius depressa. 

Prothorax plus minusve cordatus. 

Tibia anticcs intus emarginataB. 

Tarsi aniici maris le\-iter dilatati, subtus parce squamuloso-papillosi. 



3. Scarites (2). 

4. Jpotomus (1). 



Subf. 2. SCAETTIDES. 

Elytra sa?pius elongata, subcylindrica. Mandibula plerumque valde 

deutatae. 
Prothorax postice contractus. Mesotliorax elongatus, augustus. 
Antennce articulo primo saepius valde elongate. 
TibicB antica intus emarginata', plerumque pabnatte. 
Tarsi in uti-oque sesu simplices (rarius in mare dilatati). 

c2 



XX 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



5. Calmoma (1). 

6. Xoliophilui (1). 



7. Lorieera (1). 

8. Eiirygtmthus Q). 
3. Zarijus (3). 



10. Pristoni/chits {\). 

11. Calal/ius {3). 

12. Anchomeniui (2). 

13. Olist/iopus (Z). 

14. Anjutor (4). 

15. Omaseus (2). 

16. ^/mara (2). 



17. Ani-iodactylm {I). 

18. Ilarpalus (4). 

19. Opiwnus (1). 

20. Slemlnphm (2). 

21. Bradycellm (2). 

22. Trechm (9). 

23. Thalansophilus (1). 



24. Bembidium (8). 



Subf. 3. Caeabibes. 

Palpi articulo ultimo saepius magno, tnmoato, subsecuriformi. 
T/Jw omnes uitegTiB (uec antieae emargiuatoe). 
Tarsi o«itci maris valde dilatati. 

Subf. 4. Haepaiides. 

Elytra apiee rotimdata (pygidium plenimque obtegentia). 

Tibia anticce intus emargiuata?. 

Tfwsi maris, modo antici modo anteriores dilatati. 

Div. 1. CHL.a;NnDEA. 

Tarsi antici maris art. 2''"' vel S*""' dilatatis (rotundatis vel qua- 
dratic), subtus dense spongiosis. 
Unguiculi simplices. Pedes plerumque longiores. 
Mentum vel dente medio in,structum, vel edentatum. 

Div. 2. Pteeostichidea. 

Tarsi antici maris art:. 2'°' vel 3""" dilatatis (cordatis vel trian- 

gularibus), subtus biseriatim setosis. 
Unguiculi sa;pius serrati. 

Mentum dente medio (plerumque bifido) instructum, rarius 
edentatum. 

Div. 3. Habpalidea. 

Tarsi anteriores maris art. S""" vel 4 dilatatis, subtus plerumque 

biseriatim setosis. , 
Unguiculi sa-pius simplices. 

Mentum dente medio (plerumque integro) instructum, rarius 
edentatum. 

Subf. 5. BEiTBIDIADES. 

Palpi articulo ultimo minutissimo, subulate. 

Mentum dente medio integro instructum. 

TihicB anticce intus emargiuatfe. 

Tarsi a?itici maris ai-t. 2""" (sed praesertim 1°) dilatatis. 



Sectio II. HYDRADEPHAGA 



^ Mandibul<B breves, fere labi-o opertae, ad apicem latiusculae. 
Maxillarum lobus externus avticulatus, palpiformis (rarius e.x- 

articulatus, rariss. obsoletus). 
Antenna filiformes (rarius subfusifornics) ; 11-articulatae. 
Pedes natatorii [antici iuterdum subambulatorii). 
Ta?-si 5-articulati {anteriores rarius art. 4° obsolete). 



F&m. 2. Dttiscid^ . 

25. Colymbeles (1). 

26. Agabus^i). 

27. Hydroporta (2). 



Fam. 3. GYSiNiDiE 

28. Gyrinu* (1). 



' Ma-xillarum lobus externus palpiformis, biarticulatus. 
Antennw longiusculae, filiformes. Oculi duo. 
Pedes natatorii (posfici ad motum liorizontalem solum facti) . 
Tarsi 5-articulati {anteriores rarius art. 4° obsolete). 

Habitant in aquis. 

(Maxillarum lobus externus exarticulatus (interdum obsoletus). 
Antenn<B brevissimae, subfusiformes. Oculi quatuor. 
Pedes posteriores natatorii (antici elongati, subambulatorii). 
Tarsi o-articulati. 

Habitant in aquis quietis ; superjicie velocissime natanies {demergere 
•. nescii). 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



XXI 



Sectio III. PHILHYDRIDA 



f Mandibula breves, sjepius subopertae, robustse. 
Maxillarum lohus externus exarticulatus : palpi maxillares ple- 

rumque elongati. 
Antenna brevissimae, clavatse (rarius capitatse) ; 6-11-articulatie. 
Pedes subuatatorii (rarius omoiiio tcrrestrii). 
Tarsi 5-articulati. 



f 3IandibulcB ad apicem dentatse. 

Palpi maxillares brevissimi. 
-p, . p Pedes subuatatorii {tihiis cylindricis, muticis). 

^ Tarsi art. 4 baseoa subaequalibus, idtimo valde elongato. 



29. Pamus (1). 



Fam. 5. Htdkophilid^ 

30. Ochthebiiis (1). 

31. Calobius (1). 

32. Limnebius (1). 

33. Laccoblus (1). 

34. Hydrobius (1). 

35. Philhydrua (1). 



Fam. 6. Sph^eidiad^ 

36. Dactylostemnm (1). 

37. Spharidium (1). 

38. Cercyon (4). 



Sectio IV. NECROPHAGA 



Habitant in aquis quietis ; plantis adhcerentes ; {swperficie interdv/ni lente 
circumferuntur, natare nescii). 

Mandibulce plerumque ad apicem bidentatse. 

Palpi maxillares ssepius longissimi. 

Pedes subuatatorii (tibiis plus muiusve spiuosis, rarius uiuticis). 

Tarsi art. 1° brevissimo, 2° arete connato ; posteriores sfepius eiliati. 

Habitant in aquis ; plantis aquatiois vel lapidibus adhsrentes. 

' Mandihidm plerumque edentatae. 
Palpi maxillares antermarum longitudine. 

Pedes modo terrestrii, modo subaquatici (tibiis saepius valde spiuosis). 
Tarsi art. 1° elougato, libero. 

Habitant in stercm-e, vel sub quisquiliis per margines aquarum ; fo- 
L dientes. 

Maxillarum lobus externus exarticulatus (rarius obsoletus). 

Antenna clavatae vel capitatae. 

Pedes terrestrii (interdum subcontractiles) . 

Tarsi saepius 5-articulati. 



Fam. 7. SiLPniD.E 
39. Catops (1). 



■ MaxillcB bilobffi. 
AntenncB 11-art., apicem versus seusim incrassatae, vel clavatae (clava 

4-5-art.). 
Abdomen e segmentis ventraUbus 6 compositum. 
Pedes saepius subgraeiles, leviter elongati. 
Tarsi 6-articulati. 

Habitant in cadaveribus putrescentibus, quisquiliis, vel sub lapidibus; 
vorantes. 

r Maxilla bilobse : palpi maxillares art. ultimo minutissimo, acieulari. 
Antenncs 11-art., capillares, subclavatae (clava 3-art.). 
Abdomen e segmentis ventralibus 5-7 compositum. 
Corpus minutissimum ; alis lanceolatis, amplissimis, longissime ciliatis. 
Pedes gracUlimi. 
Tarsi 3-articuIati, 

Habitant in quisquiliis, sub foliis arboriim dejectis, vel in terra hmidd : 
velocissime cursitantes. 

r MaxillcB bilobae. 
Antenncs 11-art., clavatae (clava 3-art.). 
Abdomen e segmentis ventralibus 5 compositum. 
Fam. 9. Phalaceid^ ■{ p^j^^ grucHes. 



Fam. 8. PTiLiAB-a; - 

40. Acratrichis (3). 

41. Ptenidium (1). 



42. Olibrus (4). 



Tarsi 5-articulati (art. 4'° minutissimo). 
. Habitant inter flores vel in graminosis ; velocissime cursitantes. 



XXll 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



I'ani. 10. XlTIDrLID.T. < 

43. Carpophilus (3). 

44. Nilidula (4). 

45. Pria (1). 

46. Meligelhes (4). 

47. Xenostrongylm {\). 



J'":llli. 11. COLYDIAD.E 



4S. jTarpAiiM (15). 

49. Ciissijplmdes (1). 

50. r/(mxoma (1). 

51. Europs (1). 

52. iyc/iM (1). 



Fam. 12. TeogositidjE 
53. IVogosita (2). 



Fam. 13. CrcujiDiE 

54. Cryptamorpha (I). 

55. Ltemop/iUeus (8). 

56. Silvanujt (3). 



Fani. l-l. Crtptophauiu-e 

57. Cryplnp/iagtis (2). 

58. Diphyllua (1). 

59. Ilypocoprus (1). 

60. £/jAt«/emtu (1). 



' Maxillce loho singulo instructse (rarius bilobae). 
Antennte 11-art., capitatse (capitulo ssepiiis .3-art.). 
Abdomen e segmeutis veutralibus 5 composituin. 
Pedes robusti, brenuseuli, subcoiitractiles. 
Tarsi 5-articulati (art. 4'° minutissimo). 

Habitant infloribus, sub eortice arborum, inter fungos, vel etiam in ossibus 
{eartilaginem arrodentes). 

' Maxillm bilobse. 
Antennce lO-ll-art., clavatse vel eapitatas (clava sspius 2- vel 3-art.). 
Abdomen e segmentis ventralibus 5 compositimi. 
Pedes parum graciles, saepe subcontractiles. 
Tarsi 4-articulati (rarius subconici). 

Habitant sub truncis corticeve arborum marcido, inter lichenes ; vel in 
tenebris latentes. 

-Maxillce lolo singulo instructas {interna obsoleto). 
Antennm 11-art., filiformes vel subclavatje. 
Corpus plus minusve elongatum, depressuiii. 
Pedes sat robusti, pra^sertini antici. 
Tarsi sKpius 5-articulati (art. 1° miaimo). 

Habitant circa granaria et domes; inter eras diversas per commercium 
swpe translatw. 

Maxillce bOoba? (lobo interna saepius miuutissimo). 
Antennce 11-art., filiformes vel subelavatne. 
Corpus plus niiuusve elongatiun, plerimique valde depressmn. 
Pedes pariun graciles, antici s»pius robustiores. 

Tarsi saepius 5-art., iu maribus iatorduui beteromeri ; (art. l°pleruinque 
miuiuio). 

Habitant sub eortice arborum, in granariis vel circa domos ; commercium 
inferdum sequentes. 

C Maxilla bilobae. 
Antenna 11-art., clavatse. 

Corpus plus minusve oblongo-ovatum, convexiusculum. 
Pedes sa?pius parum graciles 
Tarsi 5-artieulati, in maribus iaterdum beteromeri. 



Habitant in fungis, quisquiliis, vel etiam in domibus ; 
destruentes. 



interdum semina 



Fam. 15. LA.TUEIDlA.BiE - 

61. Cliolovocera (1). 

1)2. I loloparamecus (1). 

63. Corlicaria (6). 

64. Lathridius (3). 

65. Meloplitlialmua (1). 



Fara. 16. Mtoetophagid.e 



f Maxillce bUobae (lobo interna ssepius obsoleto). 
Antennce 8-11-art., clavatse. 

Corpus minutum, plus minusve oblongo-ovatum, convexum vel depressum. 
Pedes subgracUes. 
Tarsi saepius 3-articulati (antici interdmn 4-art.). 

Habitant sub lapidibus, eortice, in loeis subttrraneis, vel in formicarum 
{^ nidis ; currcntes. 



66. 
67. 
6«. 
69. 



liert/imm (1). 
Microc/ioniinu (I). 
Typ/ia^a (1). 
Litargua (1). 



Maxillce bUobse. 

Antennce 11-art., clavatse. 

Corpus plus minusve oblongo-ovatum, convexiusculum, pilosuni, pictuin. 

Pedes parum graciles. 

Tarsi 4-articulati (antici in maribus saepius 3-art.). 

Habitant intey fungos, sub eortice arborum, vel in ligno antiqvo : sctpius 
agiliter moventes. 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



XXUl 



Fam. 17. Dermestid^ 

70. Dermestes (1). 

71. Attagerms (1). 

72. Anthrenus (1). 



' Maxillce bOobre. 
Antennce 11-art., clavatoe ; iu fovea prosterni interdum reponendse. 
Corpus plus minusve oblougum vel ovatum, crassimi, ssepius piloso- 

variegatum. 
Pedes parum graciles, subcontractiles. 
Tarsi 5-articulati. 

Habitant in pellihus et circa domos ; vel (rarius) inter flores in aperto, 
volare amantes. 



Sectio V. CORDYLOCERATA.. 



Maxillarum lobus externus exarticulatus ; internus vel minutus 

vel obsoletus. 
Antenna breves, capitatae, serrato-, vel lamellato-clavatEe (ssepe 

geniculatae) ; 8-11 -art. 
Pedes terrestrii (ssepe omnino contractiles). 
. Tarsi 5-articulati. 



Fam. 18. Btrbhidje 

73. Syncalypta (3). 



Fam. 19. Histeridje 

74. Hister (1). 

75. Paromalus (2). 

76. Saprinus (3). 



Fam. 20. Thobictidjd. 

77. Thoricttis (1). 



Fam. 21. ApuoDiADiE 

78. Aphodius (6). 

79. Oxyomus (2). 

80. Psammodius (2). 



Maxillce bilobaj. (Mandiiulce vis exsertae.) 

Antenna 11-art., clavatiB, breves ; in fovea prosterni reponendse. 

Corpus ovatum, crassum, serieeo-piLosiuu ; prosterno autice producto ; 

alis rarius obsoletis. 
Pedes robusti, contractUes ; (fe)noribus tibiisqyie longitudiaaliter ex- 

cavatis) . 
Tarsi 5-articuIati, ad tibias repoueudi. 

Habitant in graminosis, sub lapidibiis, vel in arenosis ; propter Immum 
L lente repentes. 

Maxilla biLobre. {MandibulcB saepius magnfe, exsertse.) 

Antennce 11-art., capitatse, breves, geniculatse ; scapo longissimo, in fovea 

sub margine capitis reponendo. 
Corpus rotimdato-quadratum, diu'um, glaberrimum ; prosterno antice 

ssepius producto ; elytris trimcatis. 
Pedes robusti, contractUes ; {tibiis plus minusve longitudiilaUter excavatis 

et dentatis). 
Tarsi 5-articulati, ad tibias sfepius reponendi. 

Habitant in cadaveribus et quisquiliis, vel etiam sub lapidibus ; lente 
repentes. 

r Maxilla bUobae. {Mandibulce vix exsertae.) 
Antennce 11-art., capitatae, brevissima?, robustfe ; ad marginem capitis 

reponendae. 
Corpus obtuso-subovatum, durum, politissimimi ; mesosterno brevissimo, 

scutello vix observando ; alis obsoletis. 
Pedes robustissimi, subcontractUes {tibiis setosis), ad basin vakle ap- 

proximati. 
Tarsi 5-articulati, breves, subeonici. 

Habitant informicarum nidis, vel sub lapiidibns ; latentes. 

r Maxillce biloba?. {Mandibulce labrumque membranaceum clypeo operta;.) 
Antenna 9-art., lamellato-clavata?, breves ; iu fovea ad margiuem capitis 

reponendse. 
Corpus plus minusve oblongum, couvexum ; scutello distincto. 
Pedes robusti, subcontractUes ; {tibiis anticis trideutatis, posterioribus 

setosis). 
Tarsi 5-articulati, ad tibias reponendi. 

Habitant in stercore, quisquiliis, vel in arenosis ; fodientes. 



XXIV 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



Fam. 22. Trogid^ 

81. Tro.r(l). 



Fain. 23. GLAPHYiiiDiE 
82. Chasmatopterus {\). 



Sectio VI. PRIOCERATA 



Fam. 24. Tueoscidje 

8,S. Trixagus (1). 



Fam. 25. Elateeid.* 

84. Co/itontef/ms (1). 



Fam. 26. Ctphonid.!; 

8;"!. Eueinetut (1). 



MaxiUce bilobse. (Mandibulcs labriMnque insequale cnistaceiim elj'peo 

baud opertfe.) 
AntentKB 9-10-art., lamellato-clavatae, breves ; in fovea ad margineni 

cajjitis repouendse. 
Corpus ovatiun, crassum, tuberculato-rugosum ; scuteUo distincto. 
Pedes pariun robusti, subcontractiles ; {tibiis setosis, anticis obscure 

deutatis). 
Tarsi 5-articulati. 

Habitant quisquilias in arenosis ; interdum etiam ad ossa allectee (carfila- 
ginem an-odentes). 

' Maxillm lobo singula dentato iustructse. {ALandibulw subopcrtae. Labrum 

crustaceum essertiun.) 
AntenncB 9-10-art., lamellato-clavat*, breves ; in fovea ad marginem 

ea^jitis repoueiidse. 
Corpus oblongiim, subcouvexvim, pilosum ; scutello distiucto ; elytris 

leviter trimcatis. 
Pedes elongati ; (tibiis anticis ad apieem internum oblique truncatis, 

excavatis) . 
Tarsi 5-articidati, gracUes ; unguiculis sspius dentatis vel bifidis. 

L Habitant super pJantas ; jlores foliaque devorantes. 

' Mawillarum lobus externus exarticulatus. 

Antenna mediocrcs, filiformes, serratse vel pectinatffi (rarius 
clavatic) ; sa'pius 11 -art. 

Corpus modo durum, prostcrno producto ; mode molle, prosterno 

simplici. 
Pedes terrestrii (interdum subcontractiles). 
. Tarsi plerumque 5-articulati. 

MaxillcB bUoba;. {MandibultB leviter exsertae.) 

AntenncB 11-art., clavatfe, breves ; in fovea prosterui reponendie. 

Corpus ellipticum, diu-um ; protliorace && augidos posticos valde producto, 

prostcrno antice producto. 

Pedes gracUes, contractiles. 

Tarsi 5-articulati, gracUes, recepti. 
I 

L Habitant infoliis arborum, inter lichenes, vel in arenosis ; currentes. 

r Maxilltp bUobse. (Mandibul<s ad apieem plerumque fissce.) 
Antenna 11-art., plus miuusvc breves et serrato-filifonnes ; in fovea 

prosterui sa'pius rejioneudic. 
Carpus plus minusve angusto-oblongum, durum ; prothorace ad augulos 
posticos valde ])roducto, 2>rosterno antice et posticc producto (postice 
i s])iniformi, spina in mcsosterniuu I'ccepta). 

Pedes breviusculi, subcoutractUes. 

Tarsi 5-articulati, simplices vel laminiferi ; unguiculis modo simplicibus 
modo serratis. 

Habitant super pJantas, vel in ligno antiquo ; (dorso inipositce) resilicntes. 

Maxillw bUobsB. (Palpi labiales in typicis furcati, sed in geuere nostro 

simplices.) 
Antenna 11-art., breves, fdiformes vel subscrrata-. 

Carpus plus minusve ovalum vel hemispliipricum (in typicis molle) ; 
■^ prosterno simplici. 

Pedes sat graciles, postici iutcrdum saltatorii. 
Tarsi 5-articulati. 

Habitant in paludosis, eel etiam sub cortice laxo ; interdum agre saltanftv. 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



XXV 



Fam. 27. TELEPHOBiDiB 

86. Malthodes (1). 



L 



■ Maxillw bilobaa. {Mandihulce graciles, acute.) 

Antennm 10-11-art., mediocres, filiformes ; ad basin plus minusve ap- 
proximate. 

Cm-pus sa^pius elongato-lineare, molle ; prostemo simplici ; elyfris Sfepe 

abbreviatis, alas detegentibus. 
Pedes longiusculi, subgraciles. 
Tarsi 5-articuIati, articulo penultimo bUobo. 

Habitant inter flores {prasertim tmlelliferos), velin apricis graminosis ; 
heiie volant es. 



Fam. 28. MELyEiD.E 

87. Malac/iius (1). 

88. Pecteropi(s (3). 

89. Dasyies (1). 

90. Melyrosoma (2). 



-Maxillce bilobae. (Ifandibulce latae, ad apicem ssepius acutfe, bifida?.) 

Antenna! 11-art., breviusculse, plus minusve serrato-iiliformes, (ui maribus 
interdiun pectiaatfe). 

Cor2ms plus minusve elongato-oblongum, Isete coloratum, molle ; prosterno 

simplici ; alis amplissimis. 
Pedes plermnque longiusculi, subgraciles. 
Tarsi 5-art. (aliquo articulo imo in maribus interdimi producto) ; ungui- 

culis membrana auctis. 

. Sahitant inflorihiis ; apricitate bene volantes. 



Fam. 29. Clehidje 

91. Opilus (1). 

92. Necrobia (]). 



MaxillcB bilobse. {Mandibulm infra apicem saepius unidentatse.) 
Antenna 11-art., breves, plus minusve clavatfe (rarius serrato-filiformes) . 
Corpus elongato-subcylindricum, pilosimi, lajte coloratum, pvmctatum, 

durusciilum ; prostertio simplici. 
Pedes longiusculi, pariun robusti, rarius subcontractUes. 
Tarsi 5-art. (modo omnes, modo aliquo pari uno pseudotetrameri), art. 3° 

vel 4° saepius bUobo. 



Habitant inter flores, 
ginem rodentes). 



ligno antiquo ; vel etiam in ossibus (cartila- 



Fam. 30. Ptinid.e 

93. Ptinus (10). 

94. Mezium (1). 

95. Gmium (1). 

96. Anobium (4). 



r Maxilla 'h^6hx> (lobo interno lato). (Mandibulce dente plus minus\e 
medio, obtuso instructs.) 

Antenna: 11-art., breduscuL-e, filiformes vel subclavatsB ; saepe ad basin 
ajjprosimatse. 

Corpus plus minusve orbiculato-ovatum vel oblongum, diu-um ; prosterno 
J simplici ; capite deflexo. 

Pe&s longiusculi, graciles vel robusti, plenimque subeontractiles ; (tibiis 
simplicibus). 

Tarsi 5-articulati. 

Habitant inter pelles, circa domos et in ligno antiguo ; vel inter lichenes in 
aperto latentes. 



Fam. 31. Cissidj: 

97. Cm (3). 

98. Oclotemnus (1). 

99. Ptilinus (1). 
100. Rhyzoperiha (1). 



^Maxilla bilobae {lobo interno pleriunque minutissimo). (Mandibula ad 
apicem ssepius bidentatae.) 

Antenna 8-11-art., clavatae (clava laxa 3-art.), breves, distantes, (rariss. 
flabeUato-serratae) , 

Corpus subcylindi'icum, durum ; protliorace antice producto, iuterdum 
rugoso, prosterno simjslici ; capite deflexo. 

Pedes breviusculi, subeontractiles ; {tibiis simplicibus, vel apicem versus 

externum dentatis). 
Tarsi 4-, vel 5-articulati. 

Habitant in fungis, ligno antiqno, vel {rarius) circa domos ; sapius tere- 
L brantes. 

Cl 



XXVI 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



C Lahrum ssepius obsolutum. 
Maxilla lobu sinyulo lato cxarticulato plerumque instructae {in- 

temo obsolete). 
Antennce sjepius geniculate (art. 1° elongato), capitatfe vel 
clavatse; y-12-art. 

SectioVII. RHYNCHOPHORA. \ Corpus plus minusve elongato-ovatum vel cylindricum ; capile 

(prEesertim in maribus) rostrato. 
Pedes terrestrii (rarius subcontractiles) ; tibiis uncinatis vel 

simplicibus. 
Tarsi pseudotetrameri (i. e. 5-art., art. 3° bilobo 4"™ minutiss. 
^^ recipiente), rariss. simplices. 



I':iii\, 32. ToMICID^S... - 

101. Tomicus (2). 

102. Aphatiarthrum (1). 
10.!. Leiparlhrum (4). 



f Jllaaillce lobo singulo lato setoso instructse {interno obsoleto). {Mandi- 

hulcB latae, obtusae.) 
Lahrum obsoletum. Falpi (prajsertim maxiUares) crassi, couici. Ligula 

elongata. 
Antennce 8-11-art., capitatoe, breves, geniculatae (scapo longissimo), ad 

margiuem capitis iusertiB. 
Corpus cyliudricum ; protliorace antice producto, saepius rugoso ; capite 

deflexo, vix rostrato. 
Pedes brevissimi, robusti, subcontractiles ; (Jihiis saepius compressis, 

extus dentatis). 
Tarsi 5- (rariss. 4-) art., simplices (art. 4° saltern minutissimo), ad tibias 

reponendi. 

^ Habitant in ligno, vel sub cortice arborum ; valide terebrantes. 



Fam. 33. Hylesinid.e 

104. Phlceophthorus {\). 

105. Ilijlurgus (2). 
lOG. Hylastes (2). 



Maxillce lobo singulo lato setoso iustructte {interna obsoleto). {Mandi- 

hulcB latae, obtusiP.) 
Labrum obsoletum. Palpi (j)ra?sertiiu maxiUares') crassi, couici. Ligiila 

elongata. 
Antennw 8-11-art., capitata;, breves, geniculatae (scapo lougissimo), ad 

marginem capitis iusertse. 
Corpus ovatum vel cylindricum ; prothorace leviter producto, rarius 

rugoso ; capite deilexo, seusini rostrato. 
Pedes breves, robusti, subcontractdes ; (tibiis saepius compressis, extus 

dentatis). 
Tarsi pseudotetrameri, ad tibias reponendi. 

■ Habitant in ligno, vel sub cortice arborum ; valide terebrantes. 



Vnm. 34. CUHCULIONID^B 



MaxillcB lobo singulo lato setoso instructae {interno obsoleto). {Man- 

dibiilcB latae, obtusiuscuLT.) 
Labrum obsoletimi. Palpi crassi, couici. Ligula elongata. 
Antennce 7-12-art., clavatie vel capitatae, geniculata) (scapo longissimo), 

rostro scrobiculato insertae. 
Corpus plus minusve elongato-ovatum, convesum ; capite saepius deflexo, 

(iuterdum valde) rostrato. 
Pedes modice elongati, rarius subcontractdes; {tibiis vel simplicibus, 

vel ad apicem imciuatis). 
Tarsi pseudotetrameri. 

Habitant super arbores et plantas ; folia, semina, vel etiam ramos, destru- 
entes. 



rBostrum cylindricum vel filiforme, plerumque elonga-"^ 

T^. , I turn (rarius 1 

Div. 1. ^ , , 

I Antennce ante vel 



tum (rarius thoracc brerius). " [ Mecorl.gncln. 



[^ oris) iusertic. 



pone medium rostri (nee juxta sinum 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



XXVU 



107. Rhyncolus (1). 

108. Ph'ioeophngns (1). 

109. Caiilofriipis (7). 

110. Caiilopfdlus {\). 

111. Stenotis (1). 

112. Mesites (2). 



U.S. Sitophilus (2). 



114. Oon!«(l). 



115. Cmiorhynchus (4). 

116. C»/!0*«(1). 

117. Acalles (13). 



118. Tychitis {i). 

119. P;ssorfe«(l). 

120. Unis{b). 



121. Ct/phoscelis (1). 

122. Laporoceruf (1). 

123. Jllanfis (14). 

124. Omms (3). 

125. Jtiemophilus (3). 

126. Licheiiophagtcs {2). 

127. Scoliocertts (2). 

128. Trachyphlams (1). 



Subf. 1. COSSONIDES. 

.^m^ewMiB breves ;/i«KCMZo7-art.; eZaDasubsolida,adapicemspongiosa. 
Pe(?es OM^ic* ad basin distantes vel approximati. 

Subf. 2. Ehtjtchophoeides. 

Antennce mediocres ; funiculo 6- (rarius 5-) art. ; elava subsolida 

vel 2-art. 
Tedes antici plerumque paulo longiores. 

Subf. 3. ClONLDES. 

Antenna breviuscuae ; funiculo 5-art. ; clavd 3-, vel 4-art. 
Pedes antici ad basiu vel approximati vel distantes. 

Subf. 4. Cbtptoehtnchibes. 

Antenna mediocres ; funiculo 7-art. ; elava 4-art. 

Bostrmn iuflexum, iu eaualiculam pectoralem distinetam appli- 

candmn. 
Pedes antici ad basin distantes. 

Subf. 5. Eeibhinibes. 

Antenna mediocres ; funiculo 7-art. ; clava 4-art. 
Pedes antici ad basin approximati. 



Div. 2. 



f Bostrum plus minusve crassum et deforme, brevius- 
euliun. 
Antenna prope apieem rostri (saepe juxta sinum oris) 
L insertse ; ssepissime 12 art* . 



■ Braclii/rhi/nchi. 



129. Eehinoaoma (1). 



130. Hypera (3). 



131. aemus (1). 



132. Sitma (5). 



Subf. 6. Ctclomides. 

Canalicula antennalis subrecta, versus medium rostri ascendens. 
Bostrum breve, subborizontale, lineare, teretiusculum (nonnunquam 

apieem versus subattenuatum). 
Corpus plerumque brevius, subovatiim, apterum. 

Subf. 7. Byesopsibes. 

Canalicula antennalis infra-ocularis, cui-vata vel obUqua, 

Bostrum breve, iuflexiun, in canaUculam pectoralem plerumque 

appUcandum. 
Corpus sajpius ovatiuu, convexum, inaequale, squamosum, apterum ; 

scuteUo nullo. 
Tarsi plerumque angustati, setosi. 

Subf. 8. MOLTTIDES. 

Canalicula antennalis infra- (vel subinfra-) ocularis, curvata vel 

obliqua. 
Bostrum longius, deflexum, subcylindricum, paulo areuatum. 
Corpus plus minusve oblongum, squamosum et pubescens, apterum 

vel alatum. 

Subf. 9. Cleonides. 

Canalicula antennalis infra-ocularis, curvata vel obUqua. 
Bostrum longiusculum, deflexum, apice saepius subincrassatum. 
Corpus plerumque sat magnum, squamosum et pubescens, alatum 
vel apteriuii. 

Subf. 10. Beachtbeeides. 

Canalicula antennalis infra-ocularis, curvata vel obliqua. 

Bostrum breve (interdiun brevissimum), subborizontale, fere capitis 

latitudine, plauiuseulum. 
Corpus elongato-oblongum (rarius ovatum), alatum vel aptenun. 

d2 



XXVUl 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



Fam. 35. Attelabid.e 

133. Apion (7). 

134. ^ulelet (1). 



■Maxilla loho singula lato setoso instructae (interno obsolete). {Mandibul<e 

lata?, obtusiusculiB.) 
Labrum obsoletiim. Palpi crassi, coiiici. 

Antenna il-12-art., clavata? vel subfiliformes, rectae, rostro vis scrobi- 
eulato insertie. 

Corjms sfepius ovatuin, convexum ; capite subdefleso, (saepissime valde) 

rostrato. 
Pedes modice elongati ; (tibiis plerumque simplicibus). 
Tarsi pseudotetrameri. 

Halitant super plantas et arbores ; folia dcvorantes. 



Fain. 36. BKrcHiD.s 



r- Maxilla bilobae. (Mandibul<s robustae, acutiuseulae.) 
Labrum distinetiim. Palpi sat elongati, filiformes. 
Antennce ll-art., subfiliformes vel ciavatfe, rectae, rostro baud scrobicu- 
lato insertae. 

Cmpus rotundato-ovatxun, convexum ; capite deflexo, le\"iter rostrato, 

lato ; elytris saepius abbreviatis. 
Pedes modice elongati ; {tibiis plerumque simplicibus) : postici iuterdimi 

vaUdiores. 
Tarsi pseudotetrameri. 

Habitant super plantas, semina destruentes ; inter lichenes, vel (rarius) 
sub cortice arborum laxo. 



135. Xetiorchestes (1). 



Subf. 1. Ajs'thkibides. 

Antenna apieem versus plerumque clavatse, (in maribus iuterduin 

lougiores) . 
Oculi integri. 
Pedes postici baud validiores (scd rariss. subsaltatorii). 



136. liruchus (3). 



Subf. 2. Betjchibes. 

Antenna filiformes, aut apieem versus leviter incrassatse et saepius 

subscrrataj. 
Oculi limati (i. e. intus profuude emarguiati). 
Pedes postici plerumque validiores. 



Scctio VIII. EUCERATA 



Labrum exsertum (rariss. obsoletum). 

MaxiUarum lobus externus exarticulatus ; intemus distinctus 

(rariss. obsoletus). 
Antenna plus minusvc longissimac, filiformes vel setaceae (rarius 

serratag) ; ssepius 1 1 -art. 
Corpus plerumque maguuui, elougatum ; oculis saepius lutus 

emargiuatis. 
Pedes terrestrii, lougiores; {femoribus SKpe clavatis). 
Tarsi pseudotetrameri. 



Fam. 37. Cehambicid.! 

137. Stromatium (1). 

138. P/iymalodes l\). 

139. niabifwlm (I). 

140. Trichofents (1). 

141. ayim{l). 

142. Deucalion (1). 



Maxilla bUobae {lobe interno sat magiio), submembranacea;. 

Antenna sjepius ll-art., lougissima;, filiformes vel serrata>, ad margiuem 

oeulorum iutemum insertae. 
Corpus magnum, plus ininusve paraUelum ; capite modo porrecto, modo 

deflexo. 
Pedes clougati ; (Jemoribus plus minusve clavatis) . 

Habitant intra lignum antiquum, sub cortice, vel injloribus ; sapius bene 
volantes. 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



XXIX 



Sectio IX. PHYTOPHAGA 



Maxillarum lobus externus seepius subarticulatus, pseudopalpi- 

formis. 
Antenrue brcviusculse, filifornies vel leviter incrassatae, plus 

lainusve approximatse ; ssepius 11 -art. 
Corpus ovale, crassura (rarius elongatum), ssepius Isete coloratuni 

et glabi'um. 
Pedes terrestrii ; {postici interdum saltatorii) . 
Tarsi pseudotetrameri. 



Fam. 38. Ceioceeid^. 

143. Lema (1). 

144. Crioceris (1). 



- MaxiUis bilobiE (lobis latis subsequalibus, externa hand palpiformi), sub- 

membranacea^. 
Atitennce 11-art., apicem versus ssepius vis incrassatae, ad basin parum 

distautes. 
Corpus plus Tninusve elongato-oblongum, paralleluin, pictum ; abdomine 

amplo. 
Protliorax elytris angustior, ssepius subcylLndricus. 
Pedes sat elongati ; {femorihus posticis interdum inerassatis, dentatis ; 

tibiis saepe subcurvatis). 

Habitant in plantis, prcesertim subaquaticis, vel inter flores ; folia et ramos 

destruentes. 



Fam. 39. Cassidid^: 

145. Cassida (2). 



' MaxillcB bilobas (loho ej;r angusto, recto, subpalpiformi ; inf parvo), cum 

labio, membranaceaB. 
AntenncB 11-art., breves, apicem versus sensim inerassati'e, ad basin 

approximatae. 
Corpus latimi, subtus deplanatimi, plus minusve rotmidatum ; prosterno 

antice le^■iter producto. 
Protliorax et elytra ad latera valde producti ; illo semicirculari, caput 

obtegente. 
P«c?es breves, retractiles ; #«>■« is latiuscuUs (art. 3° longe bUobo, 4"™ 5'"°""'- 

ineludente) . 

Habitant super folia plantarum, pracipiie in locis hiimidiusculis ; lente 
repentes. 



Fam. 40. GrALEErciD^ 

146. Haltica (2). 

147. Longi/arsics (6). 

148. Psylliodes (5). 



f Ifaxillcs bdobse (lobo exf angusto, fracto, subpalpiformi; into' lato, 
magno), membranaceae. 

AntenncB 11- (rariss. 10-) art., longiusculae, subfUiformes, ad basin ap- 
proximatae. 

Corpus plus miuiisve ovatum, convexiuscidum. 

Protliorax et elytra basi latitudiue ^■ix aequales. 

Pedes sat gracdes, longiusculi ; (femoribus posticis saepissime inerassatis, 
saltatoriis). 

Habitant super folia plantarum, prcesertim in graminosis ; plerumque for- 
titer salientes. 



Fam. 41. CHETSOMELiD.a; 

149. Mniophilosoma (1). 

150. Cryptocephahts (1). 

151. Chrysornela (1). 

152. Gastrophysa (1). 



^ Maxillce bdobae {lobo exf sfepius subpalpiformi, incurvo), submein- 

branaceae. 
AntenncB 11-art., breviusculae, filiformes vel leviter incrassatae, ad basiu 

distantes. 
Corpus rotuudato-, vel subcylindrico-ovatuni, convesum, crassum, saepe 

splendore suj)erbiens. 
Protliorax et elytra basi latitudine aequales. 
Pedes sat robusti, subretractUes ; tarsis latiuscuUs. 

Habitant in foliis plantarum ; apricitate gaudentes. 



XXX 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



Sectio X. PSEUDOTRIMERA. 



Fain. 42. Coccixellidje 

153. Coccinetla (5). 

154. Sci/7Hnus (6). 

155. Khyzobius (1). 



Fain. 43. Cortiophid:e ^ 

156. Cli/peaster (1). 

157. Arthrolip/i (1). 

158. Smcoderus (\). 

159. Cnrylophus (1). 
IGO. Gloeosoma (I). 



C Maxillarum lobus extemits exarticulatus ; internus iuterdum ob- 

soletus. 
Antenna plus minus ve brevissimse, clavatae (rarius subfiliformes) ; 

ssepius 11 -art. 
Corpus ovale vel hemisphsericum, glabrum aut tenuiter pubescens. 
Pedes terresti-ii (sajpius subcontractiles). 
Tarsi pseudotrimeri (i. e. 4-art., art. 2° bilobo, 3"" minutiss. re- 

cipiente). 

^Maxilla bilobse. (Mandibula ssepius apice bifidas et dcnte sub-basali 

iutemo instructae.) 
AntcnncB ll-art., breAnssimse, clavatae, ad basin distantes. 
Corpus plerumque hemispharicuin, supra convexum, subtus deplanatuni, 

Sfppius Isete maculatiini. 
Prothorax et elytra basi latitudine iequales. 
Pedes subeontraetiles ; unguiculis ssepius dente basali armatis (rarius 

apice bifidis). 

Habitant svper folia plantariim, in cultis, vel ad vias ; Aphides devoranies. 

Maxilla lobo sinpilo imgnsto, elongate, recto, apice denticulato, instructae 

(interna obsoleto). 
Mandibiilee plerumque apice denticulate, per marginem iutemmn in- 

terdum crcnulatte. 
Antennrs 9-11-art., breriusculae, elavata; vel subclavatae, ad basin distantes 

vel subapproximatae. 
Corpus ovatum vel hemispliiericuiii, minutiim, saepius supra et subtus 

subcouvexum ; alls plei'uiiique amplis eiliatis. 
Prothorax et elytra basi latitudine aequales ; illo ad latera et antice pro- 

dueto, caput obtegente. 
Pedes gracUes, subcontractUes ; (postici valde distantes). 
Tarsi 4-articulati, simplices. 

Habitant inter pJantas {prcccipue Endogenas) sub f bra stirpium, vel sub 
folia dejecta; cursitantes. 



Sectio XI. ATRACHELIA 



Fam. 44. Anisotomidjs 

161. Slagonomorp/ia (1). 



MandibulcE saepius ad apicem bifidae, et in medio fisso-sinuatse. 
Maxillarum lobus externus exarticulatus : palpi max. art. ultimo 

saepius sccuriformi. 
Antenna plerumque breviusculaj, filiformes, apice leviter incras- 

satae (rarius clavatae) ; saepius sub frontis margine insertae 

et ll-art. 
Corpus durum, plerumque baud pilosum et obscure coloratum > 

capite in cavo prothoracico usque ad oculos immerse. 
Pedes terrestrii ; tibiis bicalcaratis, et saepius ad apicem minute 

spinulosis. 
Tarsi beteromeri (i. e. anteriores 5-, postici 4-art.) ; rariss. omnes 

5-, vel 4-art. 

Maxilla bdobae (rariss. lobo singulo instructae). (Mandibulce apice in- 

tegrae vel bifida?.) 
Antenna 9-11-art., breviuseulae, cbivatae (articulo clavae seeundo saepe 

niiuuto). 
Corpus plus minusve orbiculato-ovatxim, glabrum ; capite sa;pe ad pectus 

arete appbcando. 
Prothorax et elytra valde convexi, basi l.itituduie aequales. 
Pedes subeontraetiles ; {tibiis plus minusve curvatis et spinosis). 
Tarsi modo 4-, modo 5-articulati, mode beteromeri. 

Habitant in innbrosis humidis, sub truncis arborum marcidis. vel inter 
quisquilias ; cursitantes. 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



XXXI 



Fam. 45. Diapeeid^ 

162. Ellipsodes (1). 

163. Phaleria (1). 



' MaxiUce bilobae {lobo inf simplici). Mentum\iAs\ plerumque angus- 
tatum. 
AnteniicB ll-art., breviusculfe, apicem versus plus minusve moniliformes 

et iiicrassatfe. 
Corpus elliptieum vel ovatum, alatum vel apterum, plerumque glabrum, 
■^ convexum, colore inetallico. 

Pedes breviusculi ; tihiis interdum spinulosis ; tarsis u7i(/uicuUsqae siin- 
pUcibus {his rariss. denticulatis). 

Habitant in fungis, sub cortice arborvmi laxo, vel etiam sub lapidibus ; 

latentes. 



Fam. 46. Tenebeionidj;. 

161. Cerandria (1). 

165. Tribolium (1). 

166. Boromorphus (1). 

167. Calcar{\). 

168. Tenebrio (2). 

169. Alphilobim (1). 



Fam. 47. Opatbid^ 

170. Opatrum (2). 

171. Hadrus(i). 



Fam. 48. Blapsib^ . 

172. Macrostethus (\). 

173. Blaps{2). 



Fam. 49. Tentteiad.s 

174. Hec/eter (1). 



Fam. 50. Helopidj; 

175. Helops (9). 



' MaxillcE bilobse {lobo inf simplici). Mentum basi plenunque leviter an- 

gustatum. 
AnteniKs ll-art., breves, apicem versus plus minusve moniliformes et 

leviter incrassatai. 
Corpus Uueari-elougatum (rarius ovale), plerumque alatum, depressius- 

culum, colore obscuro. 
Pedes longiuscuH, robusti ; tarsis unffuicuUsque simplicibus. 

Habitant in domibus,pistrinis mercatorumque repositoriis {prcssertim inter 
farinas') ; scepe commercium seqttentes. 

'Maxilla; biloba? (lobo inf plerumque simplici). Clypeus antice ssepius 
profuude bilobus. 
Antenna ll-art., breviusculae, apicem versus plus minusve moniliformes 
et vix incrassatse. 
<! Corpus oblongum vel ovale, apterum vel alatum, depressiusculum, in- 
terdiuu pilosum, colore obscuro. 
Pedes longiuscidi, sat graciles ; tai'sis unguiculisqae simplicibus. 

Habitant in aridis maritimis, prmsertim sub lapidibus, vel ad graminum 
radices ; latentes. 

Maxilla bilobse {lobo inf saepius biuncinato). 

Antenncs ll-art., breviusculse, apicem versus moniliformes et leviter 

incrassatse. 
Corpus maguum, elougatum, crassiun, plerumque apterum, nigrum; 

elytris counatis. 
Pedes elongati ; tarsis unguiculisqae. simplicibus. 

Habitant circa domes, vel {prcecipue in cavernis) per oram maritimam ; 
lucem fugientes. 

'Maxillce bOoba; {lobo inf saepius simplici): palpi max. art" ult" minus 

inflato. Mentum amplum. 
Antennm ll-art., breviusculfe, filiformes, vel apicem versus vis incra^f- 

satse. 
Corpus magnum, plus minusve crassum, plerumque aptenmi, nigrum ; 

elytris ssepius counatis. 
Pedes elongati ; tarsis unguictdisque simplicibus. 

^Habitant in cavernis maritimis, vel sub lapidibus in aperto ; sese abdentes. 

( Maxilla bilobiE (lobo inf sspius simplici, obtuso). Mentum minuseulum, 
subquadratiun. 
Antenna ll-art., longiusculae, fiUformes, apicem versus \ax sensim in- 

crassatse. 
Corpus magnum, ss'pius oblongo-ovatum, convexum, alatum vel apterum ; 

elytris liberis vel counatis. 
Pedes elongati; tarsis anterioribus in maribus saepe leviter dilatatis ; 
wnguicuUs simplicibus. 
^ Habitant sub lapidibus, cortice laxo, vel in cavernis ; sese occultantes. 



XXXll 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



SectioXII. TRACHELIA 



Mandibula ad apicem bifidse vel integrre, in medio 
sinuatfe. 



siepe 



Film. .51. QiDEMERID.K 
170. Stenarh (1). 



Fam. 52. Meloid.t. > 

177. Meloe{3). 
17«. Zonith {!). 



i'ain. 53. Moedellid^ < 

179. Anaspk (1). 



l";im. 51. 



AMiiicxD.r, < 



180. ArUhicta (4). 

181. XyUtphihts (\). 



Maxillarum lobus exf" exarticulatus ; int'" simplex, obtusus. 
Antenna plerumque longiusculae, filiformes (rariss. pectinatae) ; 

ssepius 11 -art. 
Corpus plus minusve moUe et Isete coloratum, plerumque ala- 

tum ; capite postice lato, truncato, in cavo prothoracieo 

usque ad oculos baud inimerso. 
Pedes terrestrii; tibiis srepius bicalcaratis [calcariis interduni 

mobilibus, sequalibus). 
Tarsi heteromeri (art. penultimo ssepe bilobo). 

"" Maxillw bilobse (apice interdum longe pencillatae) : palpi maa:. filiformes, 
vel art" idt° seciu-iformi. 

Antenna 10-12-art., longiuscidae, filiformes, vel etiam setaceas. 

Corpus angusto-elongatuin, la^te coloratum ; capite porrecto ; prothorace. 

elytris (postice subatteuuatis) augustiore. 
Pedes elongati ; femoribus masculis sjepe incrassatis ; tarsis plerumque 

art" penult" bilobo ; unguicuUs simplicibus. 

~ Habitant injlorihus; apricitate volare gaudentes. 

Ma-xiU<B bilobae : palpi max. subfiliformes (art" idt" vix inflate). 

Antenna ll-art., longiuscula;, filiformes, vel in medio incrassatse (in 
maribus interdum coutortre) . 

Corpus magnum, interdum pictum vel apterum ; capite defleso ; elytris 
Siepe abbreviatis, complicantibus. 

Pedes elongati ; calcariis sa>pe ina^qualibus ; tarsis simpHeibus ; ungui- 
cuUs bifidis (interdiun pectinatis). 

Habitant super folia plantarwm liwmilmm, pigrcB ; vel inter arboresflo- 
resque, bene volantes. 

Maxillw bUobfe : palpi max. art" ult" plerumque securiformi. 

Antenna ll-art., brcWusculae, filiformes ; vel apicem versus subserratse, 

pectinatiB aut flabellata;. 
Corpus arcuatiun, pietum, subtus subcarinatiun ; capite inflexo ; elgtris 

acuminatis, s»pe abbreviatis. 
Pedes (prjcsertini postici) elongati ; calcariis longis ; tarsis simplicibus ; 

unguicuUs simplicibus vel bifidis. 

_ Habitant injloribus (pracipue umbelUJ'eri^) ; vix assultim festinantes. 

' Maxillm bilobse : palpi max. art" ult° magno securiformi. 

Antenna ll-art., breviusculae, apicem versus sensim incrassatae. 

Corpus parvum, plus minusve elongatum et pictum ; capite peduneulato ; 

prothorace basi eonstricto. 

Pedes breviusciili, gracUes ; tarsis art" penult" ssepius bilobo ; unguicuUs 
simpUcibus. 

Habitant in graminosis et sub lapidibus, vel inter flores ; sese interdum 
congregantes. 



Sectio XI 11 . BRACHELYTRA. 



Maxillarum lobus extemus exarticulatus. 

Antenna breviuscula^, filiformes, vel leviter incrassatae (rariss. 
clavatse); 9-11-art. 

Corpus plus minusve angusto-clongatum • capite plerumque 
baud immcrso ; elytris abbreviatis (rariss. integris), abdo- 
men magnum, durum, mobile detegcntibus. 

Pedes terrestrii ; tibiis sa-jiius bicalcaratis. 

Tarsi plerumque 5-art. ; sed interdum 1. 5. 5 ; vel omnes 4-, aut 
etiam 3-art. 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



XXXlll 



Fam. 55. Sctdm^dnidje 

182. ScydnKBnus (1). 



Fam. 56. SiAPHrLTNiDiE < 



183. Falagria (1). 

184. Tackyusa (1). 

185. Xenomma (3). 

186. Hrmalofa (15). 

187. O.vj/poda (1). 

188. Almchara ^4). 

189. OUgota (1). 



190. Somatium (1). 

191. Conurus (3). 

192. Tac/ii/jiorus (2). 

193. Hahrocerus (1). 

194. Tachinns (1). 

195. Trichophya (1). 

196. Mycetoporus (1). 



197. OMras (2). 

198. Xantholinus (2). 

199. Staphylmus (1). 

200. Philunthus (7). 



201. Achenium (1). 

202. Lathrobium (1). 

203. Lilhocharis (3). 

204. Rugilus (1). 

205. Sunius (2). 

206. Mecognatkus (1). 



Maxilla; bilobse. Pa/j)j art" ult" minutissimo, subulato. 

Antenna! ll-art., longiiisculfe, sensim clavat® (clavii lasa, 3- vol 4-art.). 

Corpus miniitum, ovatimi ; prothorace basi constricto ; elytris abdomen 

totum tegentibus. 
Pedes longiusculi, graciles. 
T«r«i 5-art., simplices. 

Habitant in graminosis, cultis, vel inter muscos ; interdum una cum for- 
micis degentes. 

Maxillce bilobfe. Palpi art" ult" vel elongate, vel parvo subulato (rariss. 
seciu'iformi). 

AntenncB ssepiiis 11- (rarms 10-, rariss. 9-) art., filiformes vel leviter 

iuerassatse, iuterdum geniculata\ 
Corpus elongatiim (rarius ovatum) ; protliorace vel elj-trorum latitudine, 

vel lis (abbreviatis) vix angustiore. 
Pedes lougiusci.ili vel breviusciili ; {anteriores plerumqiie paiilo bre\-iores, 

vaUdiores). 
Tarsi S-S-art. ; vel ant' 4-, et posf 5-art. ; (sed plerumque omnes 5-art.). 

Habitant in quisquiliis, per margines aquarmn, vel in stercore ; scepius 
valde voraces. 

Subf. 1. Aleochaeides. 
MandibwlcB ssepius muticse. Palpi max. art° iilt" parvo, subidato. 
AntenncB 11- (rarius 10-) art., ad ocidorum margiuem internum 

insertfe, rectae, subfiliformes. 
Ligula angusta, porreeta, plerumque apice bifida. 
Corpus parvum, ssepius liueare, depressiuseulum ; Idbro integro. 
Tarsi 5- (rarius 4-) art. ; vel antici 4-, et posteriores 5-art. : {antici 
nonnunquam dilatati). 

Subf. 2. Tachtpoeibes. 

MandibulcB ssepius muticse. Palpii max. art" ult" vel parvo subulato, 

vel prscedente sequali. 
AntemicB 11- (rarius 10-) art., infra ocidos sub frontis margine iu- 

sertie, rectse, subfiliformes. 
Ligula lata, plerumque biloba. 

Corpus pai'vum, ssejiius fusiforme, convexiusculiun ; labro integro. 
Tibia (vel omnes, vel jjosteriores solum) ssepius spiuulosje. 
Tarsi 5- (rarius 4-) art. : {antici ssepe dilatati). 

Subf. 3. Staphtlinides. 
MandibulcB sfepius medio dentatse. Palpi max. art" idt" prseeedente 

subsequali. 
AntenncB ll-art., in frontis margine anteriore insertse, ssepe genicu- 

latfe et leviter incrassatse. 
Ligula parva, biloba vel iutegra. 

Corpus plerumque magnum, Uneare, depressiuscidum ; labro bilobo. 
TibicB (vel omnes, vel posteriores solum) ssepius sjjinidosse. 
Tarsi 5-art. : {antici, prsesertim in maribus, ssepe dilatati). 

Subf. 4. P^debides. 

MandibulcB tenues, elongatse, medio dentatse. Palpi max. art" ult° 

minuto, saspius subulato. 
AntenncB ll-art., iufi-a oculos sub frontis margine insertsB, plerumque 

rectse, filiformes. 
Ligula bUoba, lobis modo approximatis modo distantibus. 
Corpus parvusculiim, ssepius angusto-filiforme ; labro bilobo, vel 

bidentato. 
Prothorax immarginatus. Sctitellum distinctum, triangulare. 
Tarsi 5-art. : {antici iuterdiun dilatati). 



XXXIV 



FAMILIARUM DIAGNOSES. 



207. Slenux (4). 



208. Platijsthetus (2). 

209. Oxylelus (5). 

210. Trogophlceus (1). 



211. Omaliiim (2). 



212. ileffart/iriis {\). 

213. Metopsia (1). 



Subf. 5. Stehtdes. 

Mandlbulce tenues, elongatoe. pone apicem valde unideutatse. 
Palpi max. art" 1° elongato, ult" iniuutissimo {yrs. observaudo). 
Antennm ll-art., inter oculos (in fronte) plerumque insertse, reetse, 

clavatse. 
LiguJa levissime mento afSxa(quare, insecto moriente, cum cesophago 

ssepe prolabitur) . 
Corpus parvusculum, filiforme ; capite maguo ; lahro intcgro vel 

denticulato. 
Prothorax immarginatus. Scutellum vis distinctum. Coxa antica: 

minuta;. 
Tarsi 5- (rarius 4-) art., graciles. 

Subf. G. OxYTELIDES, 

Mandihulcd validiores, sa?piu3 dentata;. Palpi max. art" ult" j)le- 

rumque subidato. 
AntenntB 11- (rarius 10-) art., sub froutis margiuc laterali insertae, 

saepe refracta;, subiucrassatse. 
LiguJa apice sLuuata, vel bUoba (rarius integra). 
Corpus parvum, liueare, subcylindi'icum vel depressimi ; labro mem- 

braua utrinque acumiuata aueto. 
Tarsi 3- (in speeiebus aberrautibus 5-) art., plenunque gracUes. 

Subf. 7. Omaliakes. 
Mandibulw breves, sapius muticse. Palpi max. filiformes, art" ult° 

lougiusculo. 
Antennce ll-art., sub frontis margins laterali inserts, recta?, apicem 

versus vis iucrassata". 
Ligula lata, bUoba. Maxillarum lohus internus unco comco armatus. 
Corpitts parvum, Uueari-oblongum, depressum ; fronte oceUis duobus 

iustructa. 
Elytra pectore longiora, angidis exterioribus apicalibus rotundatis. 
Tarsi 5-art. : {aiitici rarius subdQatati) . 

Subf. 8. PEOTErNIDES. 

Mandibulce breves, mutica>. Palpi max. filiformes, art" ult" lougi- 
usculo. 

AiiteniicE 11- (rai-ius 9-) art., sub frontis margine laterali insertae, 
reetae, subclavatse. 

Ligula biloba (rariss. integra). Maxillarum hints internus unco 
(iuterdum dupUce) armatus. 

Corptts parvum, saepius ovatum, latiusciilum, depressinu ; fronte 
rarius ocello iustructa. 

Elytra pectore lougiora. Coxae antica cylindricsB, baud exsertse. 

Tarsi 5- (vel 3-) art., bre^^useuli. 



CATALOGUS TOPOGRAPHICUS. 



Sectio I. GEODEPHAGA. 

Fam. 1. Carabidae. 

(Subf. 1. Brachinides.) 

1. Tarus, Clairv. 

1. liueatus, Schon 

2. sutm-alis, Dej 



Dromius, Bon. 

3. insularis, Woll.. . 
■ sigma, Rossi, a. 
4.^ , |3. 



5. avenieolus, M^oll 

6. obscuioguttatus, {Anders.) Dufts. 

7- negrita, IVoll 

8. glabiatus, {Meg.) Dufts 



(Subf. 2. Scaritides.) 

3. ScARiTES, Fab. 

Tabbreviatus, {Koll.) Dej. a. 

9J 



y- 



10. Uumeralis, Woll. 



4. Apotomus, Hoffm. 
1 1 . rufus, Rossi . . 



(Subf. 3. Carabides.) 

5. Calosoma, Weber 

12. Maderse, Fab 



(J. NoTioPHiLus, Dum. 
1.3. gemiaatus, Dej. 



(Subf. 4. Harpa/ides.) 

(Div. 1. Chlecniidea.) 
7. LORICERA, Lat. 

14. WoUastonii, Javet 



8. EURYGNATHUS, Woll. 

] r f Latreillei, Lap 

■ t , var. /3. 



9. Zargus, Woll. 

16_ Schaumii, Woll. 
17 Desertfc, Woll . . 



1 q' / pellucidus, Woll. 



(Div. 2. Pterostichidea.) 
10. Pristonychu.s, Dp/. 

19. alatus. Woll 



11. Calathus, Bon. 

20. viviiUis, Fab 

C coniiilanatus, {Koll.) Dej. a 

(3 

• 7 



21. 



22. fuscus. Fab. 



12. Anchomenus, Ban. 

no J pallipes, Fab. . . . 

' \ , vai 

2-1. marginatiis, Linn. 



13. Olisthopus, Dej. 

oc / Maderensis, Woll 

■ \ , var. ; 



26. Erica;, n-oW 

27. elongatus, Woll. 



14. Argutor, {Meg.) Steph. 

28. robustus, Woll. . . 

29. gracilipes, Woll. . . 

30. dilaticollis, Woll. . . 



31 



■{ 



curtus, Woll. 



-, var. /3. 



15. Omaseus, (Ziegl.) Steph. 

32. nigerrimus, Dej. . . . 

33. Wollastoui, Heer . . . 



16. Amara, Bon. 



04 rtrivialis, Gyll 

"''^-l , var. /3.. 

35. superans, Woll 



(Div. 3. Harpalidea.) 
17. Anisodactylus, Dej. 

36. binotatus, Fab 



18. Harpallls, Lat. 

on / attenuatus, Steph 

' I • — — ■ — ■ , var. 

38. litigiosus, Dej 

39. distinguendus, Duffs. . . 

{vividus, Dej. a 
^ 
y 



19. Ophonus, {Ziegl.) Steph. 
41. obscurus, Fab 



20. Stenolophus, {Meg.) Steph. 

42. Teutonus, Schr. 

43. dorsalis. Fab 



S 



XXXVl 



CAT2VLOGUS TOPOGRAPHICUS. 



21. Bbadycellus, Erich. 

44. fulvus, Mshm 

r / exc-ultus, H'olt 

^■\ , var. 3- 



45. 



22. Trechl-s, Clairr. 

4C. timicola. IV'oll 

,- r nigrocruciatiis, IV'oll. 



■{ 



flavomar<»inatus, IV oil. 



var. fi. 



48 

49. (lilutiis, n'oK. 

r,, r umbricola, IVoll 

•""■ 1 , var. /3. 

51. quailrieollis, tt'oll 

52. custos, H'oll 

53. alticola, VV'oll 

54. cautus, VV'oll 



-, var. 3. 



23. Thalassophilus, WoU. 
55. Whitei, Wall 



24. 



(Subf. .). Bembidiades.) 

BEMiiinifM, Lat. 

56. bistriatum, {Meg.) Dufts. . 

57. curvimanum, JVoll 

5^. Luoasii, Diiral 

59. obtusum, Sturm 

Atlaiiticum, Jl'oU. a 

, 



60. 



61. tabellatum, Woll. 

62. elougatura, Dej. 

63. Schmidtii. Woll. 



Sectio II. IIYDRADEPIIAGA. 

Fani. 2. Dytiscida. 

25. CoLYMnETES, Clairv. 

64. Lanio, Fab 

26. Agabus, Leach 

65. bi])iistulatiis, Ijinn 

/-/- f uebiilosus, Forst 

\' I , var. ^ 

67. Mailerensis, H'oll 

27. IIvDROPORus, Clairv. 

68. vijiilaus, Holt 

69. contlueiis. Fab 

Fani. 3. Gyrinidae. 

28. GvRlNUS, Linn. 

70. uatator, Linn 



Sectio III. PniLlIYDllIDA. 

Fnm. 4. Pamidse. 

29. Parnu-s Fab. 

71. prolifcricoriiis, Fab 



Fam. ."). Hydrophilidae. 

30. OcHTHEBius, Leach 

72. 4-foveolatus, (Mots.) Woll. 

31. Calobils, Woll. 

73. Heeri, Woll 



32. LiMXEBits, Leach 

74. grandicollis, Woll. 

33. Laccobius, Erich. 

75. minutus, Linn. . . . 



34. HvDROBirs, Leach 

76. cuiiglobatiis, Woll. 



35. Philhydbus, Sol. 

-„ J melanocephalus, Oliv 

''•L , var. a. 



Fam. 6. Sphaeridiadse. 

36. Dactylosternum, Woll. 
78. Roussetii, Woll 



37- SPH.ERIDIUM, Fab. 

79. bipustulatum, Fab. 



38. Cercyon, Leach 

80. inquiiiatiim, Woll 

81. fimetarium, Woll 

O.J r ct'iitriniaculatum, Sturtn 



83. qiiisquilium, Lin 



Sectio IV. NECROPHAGA. 

Fam. 7. SilpMdae. 

39. Catops, Payk. 

84 . velox, Sj>ence 



Fam. 8. Ptiliadae. 

40. ACRATUICHIS, Mots. 

85. umbricola, /I 0//. .. 

86. fasoicularis, Ilerbst 

87. pumilaj Erich 



41. Ptenidium, Erich. 

88. apicale, {Sturm) Gillm. 

Fam. 9. Phalacridae. 

42. Olibri s, Erich. 

89. Cinerarias Woll 

90. l)i(()lor, Fab 

91. liquidus, Erich 

92. cousiiuilis, Mshm . . . . 



Fam. 10. Nitidulidae. 

43. CARroPHii.rs. [Leach) Steph. 

93. inutihitius, (Hoffm.) Erich. 

94 . auropilosus, 1 1 oil 

95. hcmipterus, Linn 



44. NiTiDi'LA, Fab. 

96. flexuosa, 0/ir. . . 

97. 4-pustulata, Fab. 



CATALOGUS TOPOGRAPHICUS. 



xxxvu 



98. discoidea, Fab. 

99. obsoleta. Fab.. 



45. Pkia, [Kirby) Staph. 

100. Dulcamarae, Scop. 



■]6. Meligethes, (Kirby) Steph. 
1Q1 J Isoplexidis, ]Voll. 



-, var. /3. 

102. tristis, (Schilpp.) Sturm 

103. picipes, Sturm 

1 j^ . J varicollis, IVoll 



-, vai-. 13. 



47. Xenostrongylus, Woll. 
105. histrio, IVoll 



Fam. 11. Colydiadae. 

48. Tarphius, (Germ.) Erich. 

106. parallelus, H'oll 

107. Lowei, IVoll 

108. inornatus, Wall 

109. spinipes, Woll 

110. sylvicola, IVoll 

111. rotundatus, (I'oW. .. 

112. Lauri, IVoll 

113. compactus, IVoll. .. 

114. nodosus, JVoll 

115. cicatricosus, JVoll. . . 

116. testudinalis, Woll. . . 

117. tnineatus, IVoll 

118. echinatus, IVoll 

119. brevicoUis, JVoll. . . 

120. rugosus, IVoll 



49. COSSYPHODES, IVestw. 

121. WoUastonii, JVestw. 



50. Phlceosoma, Wall. 

122. elliptieum, JVoll. 



51. EuROPS, JVoll. 

123. impressicollis, JVoll. 

62. Lyctus, Fab. 

124. brunneus, Steph. . . 



Fam. 12. Trogositidse. 

53. Trogosita, Oliv. 

125. niauritanica, Linn. 

126. serrata, JVoll 



Fam. 13. Cncujidse. 

54. Cryptamorpha, JFoW. 

127. Mus», JJ'oll 

55. L^MOPHLCEUS, (Dej.) Erich. 

128. Donacioides, JVoll 

129. granulatus, JJ'oll 

130. vermiculatus, JVoll 

131. pusillus, Schiin 

132. feiTugineus, (Creutz.) Steph. 

133. clavicollis, JVoll 

134. axillaris, JVoll 

135. Stenoides, Woll 



56. SiLVANUS, hat. 

136. Siirinamensis, hinn. . . 

137. dentatus, Mshm 

138. adyena, (Kunze) JValtl. 

Fam. 14. Cr3rptophagicL8e. 

57. Cryptophagus, Herbst 

139. affinis, Sturm 

483. Nitiduloides, JVoll. . . 

58. Diphyllus, Redt. 

140. lunatus, Fab 



59. Hypocoprus, Mots. 

141. Motschulskii, JVoll. 



60. Ephistemus, (JJ'estio.) Steph. 

142. dimidiatus, Sturm 

143. alternans, fVoll 



Fam. 15. Lathridiadae. 

61. Choloyocera, Mots. 

144. Madera, (JJ'estw.) JVoll. .. 

62. Holoparamecus, Curtis 

145. niger, (Chevr.) Aube 

63. CORTICARIA, Mshm 

146. rotulicoUis, JVoll 

147. crenicollis, Mann 

148. fidva, ( Cherr.) Mann 

149. rotuudicoUis, JJ^oll 

150. cuita, JVoll 

151. Fagi, HoM 

64. Lathridius, Herbst 

152. assimilis, Mann 

153. miuutus, Linn 

154. tiansveisus, Oliv 

65. Metophthalmus, (Mots.) JVoll. 

155. asperatus, JVoll 

Fam. 16. Mycetophagidae. 

66. Bekoinus, (Dej.) Erich. 

156. Tamarisci, (Dej.) JVoll. . . . 



67. MiCROCHONDRUS, (Gue'r.) JVoll. 
157. domuum, (Guer.) Woll.. . . 



68. TYPH.5SA, (Kirby) Steph. 
158. fumata, Linn 



69. LiTARGUS, Erich. 
159. pictus, JVoll. 



Fam. 17. DermestidsB. 

70. Dermestes, Linn. 

160. vulpinus. Fab. 

71. Attagenus, Lat. 

161. megatoma. Fab. 

72. Anthrenus, Geoffr. 

162. varius, Fab. . . 



XXX^Ill 



CATALOGUS TOPOGRAPHICUS. 



Sectio V. CORDYLOCEEATA. 

Fam. 18. Byrrhidae. 

73. SV.NCALYPTA, (Dillw.) Stepk. 

16.3. capitata, IVoll 

Ifi-I. ovulit'ormis, H'oll 

1()5. horrida, IVoll 



Fam. 19. Histeridae. 

74. HisTER, Lhiii. 

16(). major, Linn. 



75. Paromalts, Erich. 

1()7. minimus, (Dej.) Aube 
1()8. pumilio, Erich 



7(). Saprixur, Erich. 



169. 



r iiitiduliis. Fab. 



-, var. (3. 



170. chalcites, Illig. 

171. mctallicus, Herbst . 

Fain. 20. Thorictidae. 

77. Thorictls, Germ. 

172. Wcstwoodii, >KoH. 



Fam. 21. Aphodiada. 

78. .Vi>HODiis, lllig. 

17.'i. lIy(lroclia;ris, Fab.. 

\'4. nitidnlus, Fab. . . . 

1 75. nifus, lllig 

176. lividus, Oliv 

177- Pedrosi, do//. .. 

178. granarius, Linn.. . . 



79. OxYOMUS, (Esch.) De Casteln. 

179. Ileincckeni, f\'oU 

180. brevicoUis, JVoU 



80. PsAMMODIt'S, Gyll. 

181. sabulosus, (Dej.) Mulst 

182. ca;siis, Pnz 



Fam. 22. Trogidae. 

SI. Trox, Fab. 

18.3. scaber, Linn 

Fam. 23. Glaphyridae. 

82. Chas.matoi'terus, (Dej.) Lai. 
1 84 . uigrocinctus, IVoll 



Sectio VT. PRIOCERATA. 

Fam. 2). Throscidae. 

83. Trixagis, Kuf/ell. 

185. gracilis, H'oll 

Fam. 25. Elateridae. 

84. COPTOSTETIICS, l\'oll. 

186. femoratus. Wall 

Fam. 26. Cyphonidae. 

85. EUCINETUS, Schiipj). 

187. ovum, IVoll 



I 



Fam. 9.7. Telephoridae. 

86. Malthodes, Kies. 

188. Kiesenwetteri, iVoll. 

Fam. 28. Melyi-idae. 

87. Malaciiils, Fab. 

189. militaris, WoU 



88. Pecteropts, H'oll. 

} lladerensis, IVoll. 



190. 



191. nigosus, Wall. 

' rostratus. Wall. a. 



, var. B. 



192.|; 



89. Dasytes, Payk. 

193. illustris, {Mots.) IVotl. 



90. Melyrosoma, Woll. 

194. oceanicum, Woll. 

195. Artemisia;, Woll. 

Fam. 29. Cleridae. 

91. Opilus, Lat. 

196. mollis, Linn. . . . 



92. Necrobia, Oliv. 

197. nificoUis, Thung. 

Fam. 30. Ptinidae. 



93. 



Ptinvs, Linn. 

198. advena, Woll 

199. mauritanicus, Lucas 

200. Dawsoni, Woll 

201. pinguis, Woll 

202. orbatus, Woll 

203. nodulus. Woll 

204. pilula, Woll 

f albopictus, Woll. a. 

B. 



205. 



206. longicornis, Woll. 

207. fragilis, Woll 



94. Mezium, (Leach) Curtis 
208. sulcatum. Fab. . . . 



95. GiBBiLM, Scop. 
209. scotias, Fab. 



96. .\xoBifM, Fab. 

210. vdatum, Woll. . . 

211. jiaiiiooum, Linn... 

212. striatum, Olir. . . 

213. Ptilinoides, Woll. 



Fam. 31 
97 



Cissids. 



Ci.s, Lnl. 

214. Wolla.stouii, Mellie 

215. fuscipcs. (Cheer.) Mellii 

216. Lauri, do// 



98. Octotemxvs, Mellie' 
217- opacus, Mellie' 



99. Ptiunus, Geoffr. 

218. cylindripimiis, IVoll. 



CATALOGUS TOPOGRAPHICUS. 



XXSIX 



100. Rhyzopertha, Steph. 
219. pusilla, Fab. . . . 



Sectio VII. RHYNCHOPHORA. 

Fam. 32. Tomicidse. 

101. ToMicus, Lat. 

220. villosus, Fab 

221. T>ohrmi, IVoll 



102. Aphanarthrum, M'oH. 
222. Euphorbia:, JVoll. 



103. Leiparthrum, WoU. 

223. maiidibulare, JVoll. . . 
[ bitul)eiculatum, IVoll. 



1- 



22J. 



225. cm-tum, Wall.. . . 

226. Artemisiae, ll'oll. 



-, var. fi. 



Fam. 33. Hylesinidae. 

104. PHLCEOPHTHORr.S, l\'olL 

227. perfoliatus, IVoll. . . 



105. Hylurgus, Lat. 

228. ligniperda. Fab. 

229. piuiperda, Linn. 



106. Hylastes, Erich. 

230. Trifolii, MM. 

231. clavus, IVolt. 



Fam. 34. Curculionidae. 
(Div. 1. MecorhyncU.) 

(Subf. 1. Cossonides.) 

107. Rhy'NCOLUS, (Creutz.) Germ. 

232. tenax, Woll 

108. PHLfEOPHAGus, Schon. 

233. sulcipennis, Woll 



109. Caulotrupis, IVoll. 

234. lacertosus, JVoll. . 
( lucifugus, JVoll. a. 

235. ^- 

y. 

L d. 



236. impius, JVoll 

237. terebrans, JVoll 

OQQ / Chevrolatii, JJ'oll 



239. opacus, JJ^oll. 

,y,r, ( comcollis, Jl^oll 

■ \ , var. (i. 



110. Caulophilus, JJ'oll. 

241. sculptiiratus, JVotl. 

111. Stenotis, JVoll. 

242. acicula, JJ'oll 



112. Mesites, Schiin. 

■ Euphorbife, JJ'oll 

243. -1 , var. /3. 

, var. y. 



c,., J lladerensis, JJ'oll. 

■ L , vai-. I 






(Subf. 2. Rhynchophorides.) 

113. SiTOPHiLUS, Schiin. 

245. granarius, Linn 

246. Oiyza;, lyj'nn 



(Subf. 3. Cionides.) 

114. CiONUs, Clairv. 

247. pulcheUus, Herbst . . . 



(Subf. 4. Cryptorhynchides.) 

115. Ceutorhynchus, (Sckujip.) Schon. 

248. Echii, Fai 

249. quadridens, Pnj 

250. nigroterminatus, JJ'oll 

251. lineatotessellatus, JJ'oll 



116. CcELiODES, Schiin. 

252. fuliginosus, Mshm . . 

117. AcALLES, Schiin. 

253. saxicola, JJ'oll 

254. pulverulentus, JJ'oll. 

255. oblitus, JJ'oll 

256. nodiferus, JJ'oll 

257. Vau, JJ'oll. 



258. 



r terminalis, JJ'oll. 



\- 



259. oruatus, JJ'oll.. 

260. dispar. JJ'oll 

261. albolineatus, JJ'oll... 

262. globulipeunis, JJ'oll. 

263. lunulatus, JJ'oll 

264. cylindricolbs, JJ'oll. 

265. WoUastoui, Chevr. . . 



-, var. /3. 



(Subf. 5. Erirhirddes.) 

118. Tychius, {Germ.) Schon. 

266. robustus, JJ'oll 

267. albosquamosus, JJ'oll. 

268. filirostris, JJ'oll 



119. PissoDES, Germ. 

269. notatus. Fab. 



120. Lixis, Fab. 

270. Cheiranthi, JJ'oll. . . 

271. Chawneri, JJ'oll 

272. vectiformis, JJ'oll. . . 

273. angustatus, Fab 

274. nititarsis, Schiin 



(Div. 2. Brachyrhynchi.) 

(Subf. 6. Cyclomides.) 

121. Cyphoscelis, Woll. 

275. distorta, JJ'oll 



122. Laparocbrus, Schon. 
276. mono, Schon. . . . 



123. Atlantis, JJ'oll. 

277. ckvatus, JJ'oll. . . 
'27S. lamellipes, JJ'oll.. . 

279. calcatrix, JJ^oll. . . 

280. noctivagans, JVoll. 

281. lauripotens, JJ'oll. 

282. australis, JJ'oll. .. 

283. vespertimis, Jl'oll. 

284. lauatus, H'oW 



< 

a 



xl 



CATALOGUS TOPOGRAPHICUS. 



285. navicularis, Jl'oll. 
28(). incoustans, U'oll. 

287. mcndax, U'oll. . . 

288. iustabilis, U'nll. .. 
Qoq f excclsus, Jl'ort. 



/ excel 
290. 1 



var. p. 



Seliauinii, U oil 

,var.3.(=291 huj.op.) 



124. 



25. 



12«. 



O.MIAS, (Germ.) Schiin. 
2.92. veutrosus, IVoll.. 
29.1 aencscens, IVolt. . 

Waterhousei, U'oll. 



29-1. 1' 



Ane.moi'hilus, U'oll. 

295. orassus, U'oll 

296. siibtessellatus, U'oll. 

297. trossulus, Wall 



var. /3. 



LlCHENOI'HAGrS, U'oll. 

298. fritillus, U'oll 

299. acuminatus, U'oll. 



127. SCOLIOCERUS, U'oll. 

300. Madenr, U'oll. 

301. cunipes, U'oll. 



128. TRACHYPiiLfEUS, Germ. 
302. scaber, Linn 



(Subf. 7. Hi/rsopsides.) 

129. ECHINOSOMA, fToW. 

303. porcellus, fl'o/? 



(Subf. 8. Molytides.) 

1.'50. Hypera, Germ. 

30-1. lunata, H'oH 

305. inuriiia, Fuh 

306. viuiabilis, Herbst ... . 



(Subf. 9. Cleonides.) 

131. Cleonus, Schiin. 

307. plicatus, Oliv 



132. 



(Subf. 10. Brachy derides.) 

Sitona, Germ. 

gressoria, Fab 

latiju'iinis, Schbn 

■anibrica, (A.'4y) Steph. . . . 

liiicata, Jjiiin 

humeralis, (Kby) Steph. . 



308. 
309. 
310. 
311. 
312. 



Fam. 35. Attelabidae. 
133. Ai'loN, Herbst 



313. vcriialc, Fab 

31-1. sa<;ittiferuiii, ]\'oll 

315. Malva. F«6 

316. frumentariiim, 7y(nn 

chalybeipenne, (Schiin.) U'oll.. 

; var. /3. 



31 



318. Wollastoni, Chei-r. . . 

319. rotim(li])eune, U'oll. 



134. AuLETES, Schiin. 

■ Maderensis, U'oll 

320. ^ , var. 0. 

, var. y. 



»■{: 



Fam. 36. BrucMdae. 

(Subf. 1. Anthribides.) 

135. Xenorchestes, Wall. 

321. saltitans, U'oll 



(Subf. 2. Bruchides.) 

136. Bruchls, Geoffr. 

3'2'2. rutimanus, Schiin 

323. subellipticus, U'oll. . . 

324. lichenicola, U'oll 



Sectio VIII. EUCERATA. 

Fam. 37. Cerambicidae. 

137. Stromatium, Serv. 

325. imicolor, Oliv 



138. Phymatodes.3/h/67 

vaiiabilis, Linn. 



r,,-,r f vaiiabilis, J 



var. ^. 



139. Blabixotus, U'oll. 

327. spinicoUis, U'oll. 

140. Trichoferi s. U'oll. 

328. seue.x, U'oll. . . . 



141. Clytus, Fa*. 

329. Arietis, Linn . 



142. Deucalion, U'oll. 

330. Desertarum, Wolt. 



Sectio IX. PHYTOPHAGA. 

Fain. 38. Crioceridae. 

143. Lema, Fab. 

o.ji / melanopa, Linn. 



, var. /3. 



144. Crioceris, Geoffr. 

332. Asparagi, Linn 

Fam. 39. Cassididae. 

145. Ca.ssida, Linn. 

33.5. ncbulosa, Linn 

334. hcmisplia;rica, Herbst 

Fam. 40. Galerucida. 

146. IIaltica. Geoffr. 

335. siibtilis, U'oll 

336. Salicaria", Payk 



147- Longitarsus, I/o^ 

337. Isoplexidis, U'oll. 

338. Cinerari:r, U'oll. 
.339. saltator. U'oll 



CATALOGUS TOPOGRAPHICUS. 



Xli 



340. lutescens, Gyll. . 
oji f nervosus, H'oH.. 



342. nubigena, Wall. 



148. PsvLLioDES, Lat. 

343. chnsocepliala, Linn 

344. hospes. Wall 

345. umbratilis, Woll 

■ vehemens, Woll 

346. ■{ , var. /3. 

var. y. 



34". tarsata, Woll. 



Fam. 41. Clirysomelidae. 

149. Mniophilosoma, Woll. 
348. l»ve, Woll 



150. Cryptocephalus, Geoffr. 
349. crenatus, Woll 



151. Chrysomela, Linn. 
350. Fragaria;, Woll. 



152. Gastrophvsa, (Chevr.) Redt. 
351. Polygoni, Linn 



Sectio X. PSEUDOTRIMERA. 

Fam. 42. Coccinellidae. 

153. CocciNELLA, Linn. 

352. mutabilis, Scriba 

353. 7-p"iictata, Linn 

354. 14-pustulata, Linn 

orr f testudiuea, ( Hein.) Woll 

■ t — — , var. 0. , 



356. GenistsE, Woll. 



154. 



ScYMNUS, Kugell. 

or- f Duranta;, Woll 

' ■ I , var. /3. 



oro / marginalis, Rossi 



359. 



arcuatus, Rossi, a. 



, var. /3. 



360. flavopietus, Woll. . . 

361. mmimus, Rossi . . . . 

362. Limnichoides, Woll. 



155. Rhyzobius, Stepk. 
3g3 flitiira, F«6. 



Fam. 43. CoiylophidEB. 

156. Clype,\ster, (Anders.) Redt. 
364. pusillus, Gi/ll 



157- Arthrolips, Woll. 

365. piceum, {Kimze) Comolli 



.. * 



158. Sericoderus, Steph. 

366. lateraUs, [Meg.) Gyll. 

159. CoRYLOPHUs, (LeacA) S^epA 

367. tectiformis, Woll 

160. Glceosoma, Woll. 

368. velox, Woll 



Sectio XI. ATRACHELIA. 



Fam. 44. Anisotomidse. 

161. Stagonomorpha, Woll. 

369. spba;rula, Woll 

370. unicolor, Woll. . . . 



Fam. 45. Diaperidse. 

162. Ellipsodes, Woll. 

q-i / glabratus, Fab 

•^'^■\ , var.3. 

163. Phaleria, Lat. 

372. ciliata, Woll 



Fam. 40. Tenebrionidae. 

164. Cerandria, (Dej.) Lucas 
373. cornuta, Fab 



165. TjnaoLiVM, MacLeay 
374. ferrugineum, Fab. 



166. Boromorphus, (Mots.) Woll. 
375. Maderae, Woll 



167. Calc\k, (Dej.) Lat. 

376. elongatus, Herbst 



168. Tenebrio, Linn. 

377. molitor, Linn.. 

378. obsciu-us, Fab. 



169. Alphitobius, Steph. 

379. diaperinus, Kugell.. 



Fam. 48. Blapsidae. 

172. Macrostethus, Woll. 

385. tiiberculatus, Woll. 



173. Blaps, Fab. 

38o.{!2!!!iif!!;Var:0.:::: 

387. fatadica, (CreM<s.)S<Mrm 



Fam. 47. Opatridae. 

170. Opatrim, Fab. 

380. fuscum, Herbst * 

381. errans, iVoll 



171. Uaduvs, (Dej.) Woll. 

382. alpinus, Woll 

383. cinerascens, {Dej.) Woll. 

384. illotus, Woll 



/ 



xlii 



CATALOGUS TOPOGRAPHICUS. 



ih. 



Fam. 49. Tentyi-iadae. 

17t. Hegf.ter, Lut. 

.iSM. clongatus. Olic 



Fam. .iO. Helopidae. 

175. IIei.oi'.s, Fub. 

I Vulcanus, Woll. 



:m. 



;w(). ■[ 

.•S91. 1 
.392. i 

.•«3. 1 



y. 

8. 

confertus, iVoll. a. 

a. 



.391. Pluto, Woll 

.392. infeinus, iUll 

liieit'u<;us, Woll 

, var. i3. 

394 / congregatus, Woll. a. . 

•jiic f futilis, Woll. a 

.396. cinnamoineus, /f 0//. . . . 
.397. Portosanctanus. Woll. . 



000 



Sectio XIT. TUACHELIA. 

Fam. 51. (Edemeridae. 

176. Stknaxi.s, Schmidt 

398. Lowei, Woll 

Fam. ;V2. Meloidae. 

177- Meloe, Liiiii. 

39i). austrinus, Woll 

40(). rugosus. Mshm 

401. flavicomus, IVoll 

178. ZoNlTls, Fab. 

402 / 4-puuctata, Fab 

Fam. 53. Mordellidae. 

179. Anasims, iicnff'r. 

403 i ProtPus, Woll 

' ■ I , var. (3 

Fam. 54. Anthicidae. 

180. Anthicis. Pin/k. 

404. instal)ilis,( Hq/fm.) ScAniit// .. 

40."). litoralis, lieer 

40(!. hispidus, Rossi 

,.,- { tnstis, Schmidt 

' ' I , var. ^ 

181. Xvi.oPHii.is, (Boiielli) Lot. 

408. pallosoous. Woll 



Sectio XIII. BRACHELYTRA. 
Fam. 55. Scydmaenidae. 

182. SCYDM.KMS. Lnl. 

409. Ilolfon, Schnum 



Fam. .")(). Staphylinidae. 

(Subf. 1 . Aleoc/tariden.) 

183. Falagria, (Leach) Muiiii. 

410. obscura, Grav 



we; 



184. Tachyisa, Erich. 

411. raptoria, IVoll. . . 

185. Xexomma, Woll. 

412. ])lamfrous. U oil. 

413. fonniciinim. Woll. 

414. (ilit'onue, Woll. .. 



186. 



IIoMALOT.\, Mniin. 

,,r J sanguiuolcnta, (to//. 



, var. /3., 

416. granulosa. JVolI 

417. obliquepunctata, l\ oil 

41S. luticola. Woll 

419. gregaria, Erich 

420. Philontboides, Woll 

421. currens, Woll 

422. tautiUa. Woll 

423. pU-bfia, Woll 

424. sodalis. Erich 

425. umbratilis, Woll 

426. insiguis, Ji'oll 

427. atramentaria, [Kby) Gyll. . . 

428. longicoruis, Grav 

429. lividipenuis. Maun 



187. OxYPODA, Mann. 

430. litigiosa, Heer 



188. 



Aleochara, Grav. 
431. Armitagei, Ji'oll.. 
4.32. tristis, Grav. . . . 



^Qo J nitida, Grav 

• I , var. 3. 

404. morion, Grav 



189. Olioota. Mann. 

435. iuflata, Mann . 



190. 
191. 

192. 

193. 
194. 
195. 
196. 



(Subf. 2. Tachyporides.) 

Somatium, Woll. 
436. auale, Woll 



CONURUS, Stfph. 

437. pubcscens. Payk. . 

438. pcdicularius, Grav. 
j.,n finontioola, Woll. 

Taciiyporus, Grav. 

440. ccler. Wall 

441. bruuueus. Fub. 



var. 3. 



IIabrocerus, Erich. 

442. capillaricornis. Grav. 

Taciiinus, Grav. 

443. Silphoidcs, Linn. . . 



TRinioPHVA. Mann. 
444. Iluttoni, Woll. 

MvcETOPORVS, Mann. 
441 / P'"0"us> Erich. 



var. /3... 



CATALOGUS TOPOGRAPHICUS. 



xliii 



(Subf. 3. Staphylinifles.) 

197. Othius, (Leach) Steph. 

446, stri<;ulosiis, Woll 

447. Jansoni, Woll 



198. Xantholinus, Dahl 

448. punctulatus, Payh.. 

449. linearis, Oliv 



199. Staphylinus, hinn. 
4.50. maxillosus, LiHn. 



2(10. Philonthus, (Leach) Steph. 

451 . a!iicus, Rossi 

452. umbratilis, Grav 

453. sordidus, Grav 

454. bipustulatus, Pnz 

455. varians, Pyk 

456. atenimus, Grav 

457. filiformis, Woll 



(Subf. 4. Pcederides.) 

201. AcHENiUM, [Leach) Curtis. 
458. Hartungii, Heer 



202. Lathrobium, Grav. 

459. multipunetatutn, Grav. 



203. Lithocharis, (Dej.) Lacord. 

460. fuscula, (Zieyl.) Lacord. 

461 . ocliracea, Gruc 

462. melanocephala, Fab. ... 



204. RuGiLus, (Leach) Curtis 
463. affinis, Erich 



205. SuNius, (Leach) Steph. 

464. augustatiis, Payh. . 

465. bimaculafus. Erich. 



206. Mbcogn'athus, M'oll. 
466. Chima>ra, IIV;//. 



(Subf. 5. Stenides.) 

207. Stenus. Lat. 

467. guttula, M'Ml 

468. providus, Erich 

469. undulatus, Woll 

4yQ / Hceri, Woll 



var. li. 



(Subf. 6. Oxytelides.) 

208. Platysthetus, Mann. 

471. spinosus, Erich 

472. fossor, Woll 



209. 



OXYTELUS, Gruii. 

473. piccus, Linn 

474. sculi>tus, Grav 

475. complanatus, Erich. 

476. nitidulus, Grav 

477. glareo-sus, Woll. . . . 



210. Trogophlceus, Mann. 
478. nanus, WoU. . . . 



211 



(Subf. 7. Omaliades.) 

Omalium, Grav. 

479. ocellatum, Woll 

480. granulatum, Woll 



(Subf. 8. Profeitiides.) 

212. Meoarthkus, (Kby) Steph. 
481. longiconiis, Well 



213. Metopsia, Woll. 

482. ampliata, M'oll. 



<U I QJ 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 



OrdoI. COLEOPTERA. 

Sectio I. GEODEPHAGA. 

Fam. 1. CAKABID^. 
(Subf. 1. BEACHIXIDES.) 

Genus 1. TARUS. 

Clairville, Ihit. Helv. ii. 94 (1806). 

Corpus mediocre, oblongo-ovatum, depressum : prothorace subcordato : elytris apice truncatis : alls (in 
speciebusMadercusibus) obsoletis. Antenna filiformes, capita protboraceque paido longiores, articulo 
primo sequeutibus robustiore, secundo brevi. Labrum transverso-quadi-atum, antice vk emargi- 
natum et setis paucis longis instructum, angulis anticis rotundatis. Mandibulce incui-vse acutse. 
Maxilla bilobae : lobo externa palpiformi biarticulato : interna acuto incurvo, apice imeinato, intus 
valde ciliato. Palpi maxillares subtiliformes, articulo ultimo elongato subfusiformi apice truncate : 
labiales longiusculi, articulo xiltimo magno subsccm-iformi. Mentum transversum, antice profunde 
emarginatum et dente medio brevi integro instructum. Ligula cornea, apice truncata pilisque 
duabus aucta ; paraglossia membranaceis apice rotundatis, ei sequalibus. Pedes longiusculi : t arsis 
anticis in maribus \ix dilatatis : wiguiculis serratis. 

The entire central tooth of the emargination of its mentum, added to its elongated 
labial palpi, with theii' large subsecuriform terminal joiat, will be sufficient, ajiart 
from external differences readily apparent, to distinguish Tarns* from other allied 



* The names of Tarus and Cymindis were proposed at tlie same time, the former by Clairville, the latter 
by Latreille, for the present genus ; and the second of the above titles is the one more generally recognised 
by recent coutinental entomologists. Since neither of them, however, possess claims in point of priority, I 
have preferred retaining the first, as open to the fewest objections, Kv^irSis having been origiuaUy appHed by 
Homer, and early Ionic writers, to a certain bird supposed to be of the Falcon tribe. 

B 



2 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

groups. The Tari are, for the most part, prettily coloiu'ecl insects, their elytra 
being more or less ornamented with longitudinal lines or stripes. They reside, 
principally, beneath stones, and delight in open grassy spots. 

1. Tarus lineatus. 
T. piceo-niger punctatus, elyti'is punctato-striatis, prothoracis latcribus, clytrorum margine exteriore 

vittaque clongata subconfluenti, antennis pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 32^-4. 

Carahus lineatus, Sehou. Syn. Lis. i. 179. t. 3. f. 5 (180G). 
Ci/mindis Uneata, Dej. Spec, des Col. i. 207 (1825). 

vittata, Dalil. in litt. 

Lehia lineola, Dufour, Ann. Gen. Soc. Phys. ^^. 322 (1843). 

Habitat sub lapidibus in montibus Maderac, tempore hiberno et vernali, vulgatissimus. 

T. dark piccous-black, slightly shining. Head and prothorax deeply and rugosely punctm-ed ; the 
latter channelled, rather wide anteriorly, and with the extreme lateral edges dull testaceous. 
Elytra somewhat short, expanded behind the middle, regularly and finely striated, the strise 
minutely and uniformly punctiu-ed, the interstices also punctured ; with the lateral margin, and 
a longitudinal vitta anteriorly and posteriorly (especially the former) confluent with it, broadly 
testaceous, — lea\ing a wide band down the suture, constricted at the apex, and a narrow lateral 
postmedial stria, abbreviated at both ends, of the same colour as the head and prothorax, viz. 
piceous-black. Legs, palpi and antenna testaceous. 

The Madeiran specimens of this insect differ from Spanish and Algerian ones, in 
my collection, in bciug slightly shorter, in having their head and the disk of theu' 
prothorax somewhat darker, and in theu* elytral striae being less deeply impressed. 
In all other respects they agree sufiiciently well with the ordinary Eui-opean type. 
The T. lineatus is a species more especially peculiar to Mediterranean latitudes, 
being foimd in the south of France, Italy, Sicily, and on the coast of Earbary. 
Dejean, however, mentions that it has been also taken in the south of Russia. 
From the T. suturalls it differs in its rather smaller size, more darkly painted 
surface, in its wider prothorax (which, -odth the head, is more rugosely pimctvu-ed 
and less polished), and by its elytral striae being more decidedly pimctate than is 
the case in that species. Its ehi;ra, moreover, when A-iewed l)eneath the microscope, 
appear uniformly and finely reticulose, — a sculptvu'c \vhich is scarcely perceptible 
in the T. suiumlis, except imder a far liigher magnifying power. It is an exceed- 
ingly common insect, dm-iug the autumnal, Avintcr, and early spring months, 
tlu-oughout the movmtamous districts of Madeii-a, occurring for the most part 
beneath stones in open grassy spots towards the highest peaks. On the lofty 
uplands between the Pico dos Arieros and the Pico da Lagoa, as also on the Paul 
da Serra, and on the precipitous slopes at the edges of the Ciu'ral das Frcu'as, it is 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 3 

extremely abundant ; and it lias been, likewise, taken by Professor Heer near the 
Mount Cliureli. It makes its appearance about the middle of July, and lasts until 
the following spring. I have not observed it in any of the other islands of the 
group. 

2. Taras sutiu-alis. 
T. testaceus leviter punctatus, elytris striatis, capite prothoraceque parvo rufo-ferrugineis, elytrorum 

siitoi-a lineolaque postica abbreviata obscui'e fuscis. 
Long, coi'p. lin. 4-4i. 

Cymindis suturalis, Dej. Spec, des Col. i. 206 (1825). 

Habitat sub lapidibus in locis arenosis ad oram maritimam ins. Portus Sancti, tempore vemali, vulga- 
tissimus : unicum exemplai" etiam ad summum cacumen ins. Desertse Grandis mense Januario 
A.D. 1849 inveni. 

T. pale testaceous, elongate. Head and prothorax narrower tlian in the last species, and more finely 
punctured and polished, rufo-testaceous ; the latter channelled, small, and romided behind. 
Elytra slightly longer and narrower than in T. lineatus, depressed, regularly and distinctly 
striated, the striae impunctate, the interstices rather deeply punctured ; the suture, especially 
posteriorly, a short stria springing from it behind the middle (and extending, anteriorly, about 
half-way to the base), and a narrow lateral one, distinct behind but vanishing in front, more or 
less obscurely fuscescent, or piceous-black. 

The present Tarns, which has been hitherto known as peculiarly Egyptian, is 
evidently very nearly alKed, in a natiu-al arrangement, to the T. Uneata ; and so 
it was considered by Dejean, who, in his Species general des Coleopteres, in 1825, 
placed the two insects ahnost in juxtaposition. It is interesting therefore to find 
both of them inliabiting the Madeira Islands, and to remark moreover that they 
are the only Tavl, so far at least as I have hitherto observed, which the group 
produces. The T. suturalis is exceedingly abundant iu Porto Santo, occui'ring 
beneath stones in diy sandy spots about the sea-shore, particularly to the east and 
west of the Cidade and on the Campo de Baxo. It would seem to be especially 
common during the winter months. It does not exist, apparently, in Madeii'a 
proper, being there replaced by the previous species : but on the extreme summit 
of the Dezerta Grande I detected, dui-ing January 1849, a single specimen in the 
cre-vice of a weather-beaten rock. It is a common insect on the shores at Alex- 
andria, from whence I possess a fine series collected by my friend Dr. H. Schaum 
of Berlin. 

Genus 2. DROMIUS. 

Bonelli, Observat. Ent. i. tah. synopt. (1813). 

Corpxis parvum, oblongo-ovatum, depressum : protlwrace subcordato : elytris apice truncatis : ahs 
mode amplis, modo (ut in speciebus nostris plurimis obtinet) obsoletis. Antenna filiformes, 
capite prothoraceque paulo longiores, articulo primo sequentibus robustiore, secundo brevi, 

B 2 



4 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Labrum transverso-quadratum, antice setis paucis longis instructum. Mandibula incurvee acutae, 
basi subdenticulatK. Maxilla bilobse : lobo externo palpiformi biarticulato : intcmo acuto incurvo, 
apice uncinate, intus valde ciliato. Palpi articulo ultimo elongate, in maxillaribus ovato apice 
truncate, in labiulibus subacuminato-ovato. Mentum transversuni, antice profunde emarginatuui 
et dente medio nuUo instructum. Ligula cornea, apice retundata ciliata pilisque duabus longis 
aucta; paraghssis ci connatis, subcoriaceis. Pedes longiusculi : <arm articulo quarto integro : 
unguiculis serratis. 

Dromius contains some of the smallest of the known Carahklce ; and from 
Torus, the only other Madeiran genus of the subfamily Brachinides, it may be 
readily knoAvn by the comparatively minute size of the species ■which compose it, 
by the absence of a central tooth to the emargination of its mentum, by the rounded 
apex of its ligula, and by the acuminated terminal joint of its labial and maxillary 
palpi, especially the former. Althoixgh occurring, more or less abundantly, in 
most parts of the world, it is especially a European genus ; the species being found 
principally beneath the bark of trees, amongst moss, in crevices of the earth, and 
imder stones. They are extremely active in theu' movements, running with the 
utmost velocity (whence indeed their name) ; and they are occasionally, like the 
Tari, very gregarious. 

3. Dromius instdaris, WoU. 

D. lineari-elongatus testaceus parce pubescens subopacus, capita prothoraceque rufo-testaceis, hujus 

disco, elytrorum sutvu'a fasciaque pone medium abbreviata nigro-fuscis. 
Long. corp. lin. 2j-2f . 

Habitat sub lapidibus in insulis Maderje, Desertse Grandis, et Desertse Borealis, ajstate rarissimus. 

D. elongate, somewhat broad and parallel, testaceous, nearly opake, covered, especially on the elytra, 
with exceedingly fine, short, erect, distant hairs. Head large, broad, ovate, dark rufo-testaceous, 
lengituchnally strigose between the eyes. Prothorax subquadrate, narrowed behind, about as 
broad in front as the base of the elytra, deeply channelled, rufo-testaceous with the disk darker. 
Elytra elongate, parallel, deeply striated, the strife impunctate, or ^>'ith a few indistinct irregular 
impressions on the outer ones; the suture, and an abbreviated transverse fascia behind the 
middle, fuscous or black. IVings obsolete. Claws very powerfully toothed intei'nally. 

This large and interesting Dromius is perhaps one of the rarest and most truly 
indigenous insects which the Madeu-a Islands have hitherto produced. It would 
appear to represent the common D. linearis of Northern and Central Euroi^e, 
partaking liowever, almost equally, of the D. loiigiceps likewise, — althoiigh at the 
same time abundantly distinct, specifically, from them both. In its large size, and 
in the impunctate striae, dark sutui'e and obscui-e post-medial fascia of its el}i;ra, 
it approaches the latter ; nevertheless it recedes from it altogether (apart from its 
more opake and pubescent surface, and the less apical position of its elytral patch) 
in its broader and more ])arallel form, less elongated antennae, and in its wider and 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 5 

shorter liead and prothorax : whilst from the former (with which it agrees hetter 
in the length of its antennae, the shape and colom- of its head and prothorax, and 
in its striated forehead) it is no less evidently removed hy its much larger size, 
more parallel outline, hroader head, opake suhpuhescent surface, and by the im- 
punctate striae, dark suture, and abbreviated fascia of its elytra. It is, apparently, 
extremely rare, although widely distributed throughout the islands of the group. 
I have captured it twice, from under stones, on the Dezerta Grande (on the great 
western promontory beyond the head of the northern valley), — during May ; twice 
on the Ilheo Chao, or Elat Dezerta, — in June ; and once in Madeira, at the Feijaa 
de C6rte, — at the beginning of August : aU in 1850. 

4. Dromius sigma. 
D. testaceus nitidus, capite nigro-fusco, elytris substriatis, sutura fasci^que media dentate fuscis. 
Var. a. prothorace rufo-testaceo immaculato (ins. Partus Sanctus). 
Var. /3. paulo longior, prothoracis disco infuscato (ins. Madera). 

Var. y. subopacus, prothorace toto et elytrorum basi fasciaque media latissima fuscis (ins. " Ilheu 
de Fora," justa promontorium Sancti Laurentii Maderse). 
Long. Corp. lin. l|-2. 

Carahus sigma, Eossi, Fna Etrus. i. 226 (1790). 
Dromius sigma, Dej. Spec. Col. i. 235 (1825). 

fasciatus, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, vii. 42 (1827). 

sigma, hipetinifer et Sfurmii, Bab. Trans. Ent. Soc. Land. i. 85 (1836). 

sigma, Heer, Col. Sel v. 9 (ISil). 

Habitat insulas Maderenses, sub lapidibus, bine inde non infrequens : varietas a. una in Portu Sancto 
et nusquam nisi ilHc occurrit : varietas /3. montibus Maderse propria est : varietatis y. unicum 
exemplar vidi, in insula quadam jvurta promontorium Sancti Laurentii Maderse "Ilheo de Fora" 
dicta a meipso, d. 19 Mart. a.d. 1849, repertum. 

D. pale testaceous. Head narrow and rather elongated, dark brownish-black, or black. Prothorax 
subquadi'ate, a little narrowed behind, deeply channelled. Elytra most obscm-ely striated, the 
humeral angles considerably roimded-oflf; the suture, and a nan-ow submedial zigzag fascia, dark 
fuscous. Wings obsolete. 

Var. a. shining; the prothorax rufo-testaceous and immaculate. (The state peculiar to Porto 
Santo.) 

Var. /3. a little longer, shining ; the prothorax rufo-testaceous, with its disk and anterior por- 
tion darkly, and the region of the scutellum obscui'ely, infuscate. (The state peculiar to 
Madeira.) 

Var. y. opake ; the entire prothorax, and the base of the elytra, fuscous ; and the transverse fascia 
of the latter extremely broad. (Captured on the Ilheo de Fora.) 

Scattered sparingly, though principally at lofty altitudes, tliroughout Madeii-a 
and Porto Santo. In the former I have taken it from beneath stones at the 



6 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

edges of the Cui-ral das Freiras, and on the northern limits of the Paul da Serra, 
— near the extreme head of the Ptibcii'o do Inferno ; and it has been, likewise, 
captured by Mr. Kousset on the Pico d'An'ibentao, above Fimchal. It is an 
insect of wide Em-ojiean distribution, ranging from Lapland to the Mediterranean 
shores; and, licnce, its comparative rarity in oiu* island group would seem to 
imply that it has there reached, in aU probability, one of its most southern loca- 
tions, — an hypothesis which the consideration that, whUe in higher latitudes it is 
confined mainly to the lowest elevations, its normal Madciran limits are apjoarently 
from about 1500 to 6000 feet above the sea, would go far to corroborate. By a 
reference to the above diagnosis, it will l)e seen that the typical European state of 
the D. sigma does not occur at all in Madeu'a proper, l)ut only in Porto Santo. 
True it is that the modifications in the several islands present but slight diS'er- 
ences inter se ; nevertheless, being constant, I would lay particular stress upon 
them, since they go very materially to prove that the effects of isolation on 
external insect form are even more important, if possible, than those of latitude. 
That this is the case, in the present instance, appears clear from facts so minute 
as these. Por, out of the many specimens which have come under my observation 
from various countries of Europe, if there is one point more constant than another 
in this otherwise A^ariable species, it is, I believe, vmder all circumstances, its im- 
maculate prothorax. Now while this, we may almost say essential, character 
obtains ia Porto Santo, in Madeii'a it does not hold good : the prothorax there is 
invariably infuscate in the centre ; and on a small adjacent rock it is entii'ely dark. 
Nor let any one suppose that details apparently so trivial are beneath oui' notice, 
or the mere result of chance, since it is by the observation of such-like points, and 
by marking theu* development according to the cu'cumstances of the several lo- 
calities in which they obtain, that we arc alone able to appreciate thcii' importance, 
and so to form, in a A\'idcr and geographical sense, a correct estimate of theii" 
value. 

5. Dromius arenicolus, WoU. 
D. latus ater nitidus, elytris substriatis, lateribus, gutta elongata obliqua humcrali fasciaquc trans- 
versa, subapicali pallidis, tibiis tarsisquc piceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1^—2. 

Habitat sub lajjidibus in locis arenosis Portus Sancti, prsesertim per cram maritimam, tempore vernali 
\'ulgatissimus. 

D. broad, deep black, shining, sometimes with an obscure seneous tinge. Head broad. Prothorax 
short, subcordatc, much narrowed behind. Ehjtra rather faintly striated, with the lateral 
margin, an elongated obhque humeral \itta or stria (confluent with it), and a transverse fascia a 
little before the apex, very pale testaceous. Wings obsolete. Tibite and tarsi piceous. The pale 
jiortions of the elytra are sometimes indistinct, though never absent ; and occasionally they are 
altogether confluent. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 7 

Somewhat allied to the D. albomaculatus, Lucas, from Algeria (as may be seen 
by a reference to the splendid work on the insects of that country, published by 
the French Government, — p. 18. pi. 2. fig. 8), though at the same time with abun- 
dant specific characters to separate it therefrom. The present Dromius is peculiar 
to Porto Santo, in which island I captured it in great profusion, fi'om beneath 
stones, dm'iag April and May 1848 ; as also, subsequently, in December of the 
same year, and in April 1819. It is found in dry exposed spots of a low elevation, 
being especially abundant on the level of the sea-shore in the vicinity of the 
Cidade, and on the open plain of the Campo de Baxo. It is the Porto Santan 
representative of the D. obscuroguttatus ; and distinct as it is in coloiu^ing from 
that insect, I am by no means prepared to assert that it may not be, in reality, a 
local modification of it, brought about by isolation through a long series of ages on 
a calcareous soil. As such a concession, however, would at once entail a host of 
difficulties regarding the validity of other " species " (even of European genera) 
similarly circumstanced ; and siace out of many hundred specimens which have 
come beneath my notice, not a siagle intermediate liak has hitherto occurred to 
connect the two, I do not ventiu'e to amalgamate them ; — suffice it to record my 
conviction, in this brief remark, that if the time ever should arrive in which the 
real effects of latitude and climate on external insect form are better appreciated 
than is now the case, the present Dromius, along with other insects innumerable 
in positions nearer home, vnR in all probability be doomed, as species, to sink. 

6. Dromius obscurogmttatus. 

D. latus atro-subseneus, elytris substriatis macula obscui'issima humerali pallida, tibiis tarsisque piceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^. 

Lehia obscurofjutfata, (Anders.) Diift. Fna Austr. ii. 249 (1812) . 
Dromius spilotus, Dej. Spec. Col. i. 240 (1825). 

impunctatus, (Kby.) Stepli. III. Brit. Ent. i. 23 (1828). 

ohscuroguttatus, Ericli. Kiif. der Mark Brand, i. 32 (1837). 

Habitat sub lapidibus in montibus superioribus IMaderje, tempore biberno et vernali copiosissimus. 

D. broad, deep black, witb an seneous tinge. Head broad. Prothorax short, subcordate, much 
narrowed behind. Elytra very faintly striated, with an extremely obscm-e, somewhat oblique 
patch at the anterior lateral angles paler. Wings obsolete. Tibice and tarsi piceous. 

Apart from its somewhat smaller size and fainter striae, the present species may 
be at once known from the B. arenicohis by the total absence of pale patches on 
its elytra, — excepting a most obscure spot, sometimes scarcely apparent, towards 
their humeral angles. It is a common European insect ; and the Madeii-an speci- 
mens recede from the ordinary ones in being slightly larger, and in having their 
elytra more obscurely striated, with the humeral patch less distinct : then- entii-e 
surface moreover is of a deeper black,— a difference which is especially perceptible 



8 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

on the legs. I liave hitherto observed it in no islands of the group except Madeii'a 
proper, and only there at high elevations, — where however it is extremely abun- 
dant. It occurs in the greatest profusion, from the end of the summer to the 
early spring months, beneath stones, in the lofty mountain district between the 
Pico da Lagoa and the Pico dos Ai-icros ; as also on the flat alpine plain of the 
Paul da Serra, from 5000 to 6000 feet above the sea. Although so common 
throughout Eiirope, it is perhaps, when geographically considered, one of the most 
interesting of the Madciran Coleoptera, as affording another and even more 
striking example, not only of the modification of form in a normally northern insect 
when on its southern limit (the result, however, perhaps more strictly, as in the 
case of the varieties of the D. sigma, of isolation rather than of latitude) ; but as 
showing, likewise, how a species abundant on the low sandy shores and sheltered 
sea-cliffs of more temperate regions finds its position here only on the summits 
of the loftiest mountains. It is true that the aberration from the tj'pical state, as 
in the D. sigma, is not in the present instance very considerable ; yet, when the 
cii'cumstances producLng it are taken into account, I am persuaded that the 
difference is exactly of that nature on which too great stress cannot possibly be 
placed, when discussing the general question of geographical distribution as having 
a tendency, more or less directly, to affect both colour and form. It is well kno^^-n 
to naturalists that a multitude of insects from the New "World, receding from then- 
Em-opean analogues merely in certain excessively minute characters, have usually 
Ijeen pronounced at once as new to science, first because those differences are con- 
stant, and secondly because the specimens have been received from the other side 
of the Atlantic. And yet in instances like the present, as in many others which 
Ave shall have occasion to notice, — in an island which, while it belongs artificially 
to Europe, is yet, natm'ally, sufficiently distinct from it as to form at any rate a 
step])ing-stone to the coast of Afi-ica and the mountains of Barbary, — species 
similarly cu'cumstanced are not necessarily received as new (and rightly so, I ap- 
prehend), though in every respect affording differences not ovlj analogous to those 
already mentioned, but in many cases positively identical with them. If however 
a specific line of demarcation does of necessity exist between the creatures of the 
Old and New AVorlds, the problem yet remains unsolved, so long as intermediate 
islands present parallel modifications, where that line is to be di-a-sAii. Meanwhile, 
how far geographical varieties of this kind, concerning the non-specific claims of 
wliich confessedly but little doubt can exist, may lead to the explanation of the 
Transatlantic ones just referred to, I will not venture to suggest. Yet certain it is 
that tlic one case bears directly on the other; and that, if we can prove that 
common European insects when isolated in the ocean become in nearly all cases 
more or less modified externally in form, there is at least presumptive evidence 
that the law Avill hold good on a wider scale, and may be extended not only to the 
Atlantic itself, but even to cotmtries beyond it. The differences of the present 
Dromins from its more nortlicrn representatives arc, as just stated, small ; never- 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 9 

theless, since they are fixed, those naturalists who do not believe in geographical 
iufluence, might choose to consider them of sufficient importance to erect a new 
species upon. But after a careful comparison of this Avitli other insects similarly . 
circumstanced, I am convinced that the modifications in question are merely local 
ones, and such as may he reasonably accounted for by the combined agencies of 
latitude and isolation, and the consequently altered habits of the creatm-e, which is 
thus compelled to seek alpine localities in Ueu of its natural ones : — observations 
which I have been induced to enter into here somewhat at length, as likely to 
apply in numerous other cases hereafter to be considered. 

7. Dromius negrita, WolL 
D. atei- vel obscurissime subijeneo-ater, capite majore, prothorace subquadrato, elytris obsolete stnatis- 
Long. Corp. liu. 1|. 
Habitat ad vias vel sub lapidibus Maderfe, autumno sat frequens. 

D. deep black, or with a very obscure aeneous tinge, shining. Head rather large and broad. Pru- 
thorax subquadrate, rounded behind, with a deep central channel. Elytra very obscurely striated. 
TVmgs small. 

Known from the B. ohsmrocjuttatus by its smaller size, darker and more flat- 
tened siu'face, and by the entke absence of pale patches, whether at the shoulders 
or elsewhere. It is very nearly allied to the follo^\dng species, but may be distin- 
guished from it by its somewhat larger bulk, more robust head and prothorax, the 
latter of which is not quite so much narrowed behind as in that insect, and by its 
elytral striae, although obsciu-e, being sufficiently apparent. It is tolerably abun- 
dant throughout Madeii-a, between the Limits of about from 1000 to 3000 feet 
above the sea ; and it may be frequently observed darting rapidly across pathways, 
or in grassy spots amongst dead leaves, in company with the D. glahratiis. In the 
pine-woods of the Curral das Romeii-as, above Funchal, I took it very plentifuUy 
during the autumn of 18i7 ; and, subsequently, at the Ribeii-o Frio in August. 

8. Dromius glabratus. 

D. angustus ater vel obscure subicneo-ater, capite minore, prothorace subcordato, elytns Isevibus. 

Long. corp. liu. 1^;. 

Lebia r/lahrata, (Meg.) Duft. Fna Austr. ii. 248 (1812). 
Dromius glabratus, Dej. Spec, des Col. i. 244 (1825). 

, Stcph. III. Brit. Ent. i. 25 (1828). 

, Heer, Fna Col. Heh. 11 (1841). 

Habitat bine inde sub lapidibus vel ad vias in insulis Maderse, Portus Sancti, ac Desertse Grandis, toto 
anno frequens. 

D. deep black, or with an obscure seneous tinge, exceedingly shining. Head slightly smaller and 
narrower than in the last species. Prothorax short, subcordate, a little smaller than in the D. iie- 

C 



10 INSECTA MADEREXSIA. 

yrita, and rather more rounded behind; deeply channeled. Elytra usually unstriatedj though 
occasionally with indications of strise just perceptible. Wings sufficiently ample. 

Tlio smallest of the Madeiran Dromii, differing from the last species in its 
sUghtly narrower and shorter head and prothorax, the latter of which is more suh- 
cordate than is the case in that insect, and in its usually total fi-eedom from ehiiral 
strise. It is common throughout the islands of the group, or at any rate in 
Madeira, Porto Santo, and on the Dezerta Grande, in all of which I have captui*ed 
it ahimdantly, although generally at a rather low elevation. It is universal 
throughout Europe ; and occurs also in Algeria and in the Canary Islands. 



(Suhf. 2. SCAEITIDES.) 
Genus 3. SCARITES. 

Fabricius, Syst. Eat. 2i9 (1775). 

Corpus magnum, oblongum, subdepressum : mesothorace cylindrico elongato angusto : prothorace 
antice lato truncate, postice contracto : alis obsoletis. Antenna filiformes, apicem versus pilosse 
et vix incrassatre, in maribus longiuscula; ; articido primo valde elongato subflexuoso-conico, 
secundo breviore (tcrtii quartique conjunctim fere longitudinc), quiuto ad ultinium pilosissimis 
subrcqualibus. Labrum breve transversum trilobum, lobis externis pihs incui'vis ciUatis, omnibus 
setis paucis mediis longissimis intra marginem instructis. Mandibula maximee, validjc, porrectae, 
iutus fortiter dentatee. Maxilla bilobre, elongatse, flexuosse: loho externa palpiformi biai-ticulato : 
interno apicc incurvo, intus valde et dense ciliato. Palpi filiformes, articulo ultimo subcylindi'ico. 
Mentum jugiilo connatum, transversum, trilobum, lobo medio carinato et ad apicem acuto inflexo. 
Ligula brevis, lata, pilosissima, emarginata. Pedes robusti : tibiis anticis valde palmatis, inter- 
^ mediis ante apicem externum spinis (plerumque duabus) armatis, posticis simphcibus : ta)-sis in 
utroque sexu unguiculisquc simplicibus. 

Some of the largest Carabideous insects are included in the genus Scarifes ; the 
species of which may be at once known by their narrow, cylin(U-ical mesothorax, 
which, by disconnecting the prothorax from the base of the elytra, causes the 
former, which is itself usually roimded off behind, to appear pedunculated. Their 
strongly palmated fore-tibisc enable them to bui'row into the ground willi consider- 
able dexterity, and their greatly developed mandibles give them no slight ad- 
vantage over the smaller insects on which they feed. They are chiefly nocturnal 
in then- habits, residing Ijcneath stones, logs of wood, or imder dead leaves, from 
which in the daytime they seldom wander ; and on being exposed to the light 
they quickly recede into their bmi'ows, out of which, from their great depth, it is 
not always easy to extricate them. In the mountains of Madeira, where detached 
blocks of basalt lie confusedly together, and become gradually overgro-mi with 
vegetation, the caverns thus formed are well adapted for the residence of tlie 
Scantidce ; and we accordmgly find the single species which (although not peculiar 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 11 

to them, yet which) alone ascends to a sufficient altitude to embrace those regions, 
in the greatest profusion. It occupies the loftiest peaks of nearly all the islands, 
and was probably once abundant over the entire ancient continent, whatever its 
limits may have been, of which the Madeu'an Group forms but an isolated part. 
There are traces of it in the Canary Islands, from whence occasional specimens 
have been brought, and which, from the want of local data and of sufficient 
numljers to reason upon, have in their turn been severally regarded as distinct. 
The fact however is that the species in question is an extremely variable one, 
assuming diiferences of size according to the altitude at which it lives, and differ- 
ences of sculpture according to the cu'cumstances of the spot on which it is isolated. 
That such is actually the case, a careful observation of the many minute changes 
which the insect has undergone in the varioiis islands and altitudes of the Madeu'an 
Group will, I think, prove to a demonstration. ~Eoy it is impossible to su.pposo 
that every rock contains its own species, that is to say, has had a separate creation 
expressly for itself, — a conclusion at which we must assuredly arrive, if small and 
even constant differences are of necessity specific. Rejecting therefore this hypo- 
thesis as utterly untenable, and as contrary to all experience, we are driven to 
acknowledge that isolation does, in nearly every instance, in the course of time, 
affect, more or less sensibly, external insect form; — which being admitted, we 
have at once an intelligible principle whereby to account for modifications innu- 
merable, each of which, when viewed simply as a difference, independently of the 
circumstances producing it, might have been regarded as sufficient to erect a 
" species " upon, had the desu*e for multiplying them overbalanced the love of 
truth. 

9. Scarites abbreviatus. 

S. ater nitidus subdepressus, elytris ovatis impunctato-striatis, marginibus granulatis et seriato-tuber- 

culatis, angulis Lumeralibus vix prominentibus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 8^—16. 

Var. a., politissimus ; elytris brevi-ovatis, margin e basali nigose granulato tiiberculisque distinctis 

obsito. — Long. 9-13 lin. (ins. Madera). 
Var. (3. politus ; elytris brevi-ovatis, margine basali obsoletissime granulato tuberculisque parvis 

obscuris obsito. — Long. 8i-13 lin. (ins. Partus Sanctus). 
Var. y. politus ; elytris ovalibus, margine basali parce granulato tuberculisque obsito. — Long. 

10-12 lin. (ins. Ilheo de Fora dicta). 
Var. I. politus ; elytris elongato-ovalibus, margine basali obsoletissime granulato tuberculisque valdc 

distinctis obsito, tuberculo humerali majore. — Long. 12-16 bn. (ins'' Deserta Borealis et Deserta 

Grandis) . 

Scarites ahlreviahis, (Kollar) Dej. Spec, des Col i. 379 (1825). 
Habitat sub lapidibus in insulis Madcrensibus, sat frequcns : in Madera propria atque in Deserta 

c2 



12 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Grandi montes inde a 1000' s. in. usque ad cacumina prsecipuc occupat ; sed in Portu Sancto, 
Deserta Boreali, et in insula prope promontorium Sancti Laurentii Maderse " Ilheo de Fora " dicta 
fere ad maris litus descendit. 

S. black, shining, slightly depressed. Head large, with two deep longitudinal depressions on the fore- 
head. Prothorax transverse, wide in front, narrower and rounded posteriorly, with an impressed 
transverse line behind the front margin, and a channel down the disk. Elytra ovate, with the 
humeral angles a little prominent, but not projecting beyond the outer margin, deeply striated, 
the striae being impunctate ; with the entire margin (basal as well as lateral) thickly and more or 
less coarsely granulated, aud with a single row of tubercles (more or less distinct) throughout. 
Antenna and le^s (especially the tibia and tarsi) piceous ; the last seven joints of the former 
densely clothed with a fine yellowish pubescence, and the latter thickly fringed with strong 
golden or rufous bristles. 

Var. a. extremely shining. Elytra short, ovate, expanded behind the middle; the basal margin 
thickly and coarsely granulated, and with a row of distinct tubercles. {Madeira.) 

Var. /3. shining. Elytra short, ovate, expanded behind the middle ; the basal margin with scarcely 
perceptible granules, but with a row of rather distinct tubercles. [Porto Santo.) 

Var. y. shining ; with the head and prothorax rather narrower than in the other varieties. Elytra 
rather longer, and a little expanded about the middle ; the basal margin granulated (though not 
very distinctly), and with a row of tolerably distinct tubercles. [Ilheo de Fora.) 

Var. 8. shining, very large. Elytra long, and a little expanded about the middle ; the basal margin 
with scarcely perceptible granules, but with a row of exceedingly distinct tubercles, the outer or 
humeral tubercle being the largest. [Northern and Central Dezertas.) 

This is the commou Scarltes of the Madeira Islands, and it may be known, in 
all its varieties, from the S. hmneraUs by its brighter surface and less parallel 
form, by its humeral angles, although a little prominent, never projecting beyond 
the outer edge of its elytra, and by the more granulated margins of the latter, 
which have, in every case, a row of tubercles, more or less distinct, along their 
entire lengtli, lateral as well as basal. It ranges from the sea-shore to the extreme 
summits of the loftiest mountains. In Madoii-a proper, however, it is most abun- 
dant between the Kmits of about 2000 to 5000 feet a1)ove the sea ; whilst in Porto 
Santo, the Plat Dezerta, and on the Ilheo de Pora it descends to the level of the 
shore. On tlic Dozerta Grande it is attached principally, as in Madeira, to the 
higher altitudes, Ijcing extremely common in the fissu^res of the weather-beaten 
rocks of the most elevated peaks ; where the specimens moreover attain a very 
large size, — although they are scarcely perhaps so gigantic as those on the nortliern 
island, in which the average length is from 13 to 16 lines. The Madeiran speci- 
mens are smaller, and more shining, than any of the other varieties. 

10. Scarites humeralis, Woll. 
S. ater plenimque opacus depressus, elytris elongato-ovatis impunctato-striatis, marginibus granulatis 

et apiccm versus solum obscure sei-iato-tuberculatis, angulis humcralibus valde promincntibus. 
Long, corp.lin. 11-15. 

Habitat sub lapidibus ins. Portus Sancti, cum prjccedenle sed illo multo rarior. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 13 

S. black, usually opake, depressed. Head rather large, with two deep longitudinal depressions on the 
forehead. Prothorax transverse, wide in front, narrower and rounded posteriorly, with an im- 
pressed transverse line behind the front margin, and a channel down the disk. Elytra elongate- 
ovate, with the humeral angles very prominent and distinctly projecting beyond the outer margin, 
deeply striated, the striae being impunctate ; with the entire margin (basal as well as lateral) 
most minutely and obscurely granulated, and with a single row of tubercles (always minute) to- 
wards the apex only. Antenna and legs as in the previous species. 

Readily distinguished from tlie S. abhremattis, Avitli wMcli however I had for 
some time eoufotmded it, by its more elongated, depressed, and straightened form, 
usually opake surface, by its prominent humeral angles which project perceptibly 
beyond the outer margin of its elytra, and, more especially, hj the minuteness of 
the granules and the total absence of tubercles, except at the extreme apex, along 
the edges of the latter. Although the above characters are more than suiRcient, 
of themselves, to establish the species, yet the fact that it is found in company with 
the S. abbreviatus is additional evidence, were such necessary, that it is in reality 
distinct, and no local variety of that insect. It seems to be peculiar to Porto 
Santo, where it occurs, beneath stones, along with the car. (3. of the aS*. abbreviatus, 
in the low sandy plains near the coast. It is however by far the rarer of the tAvo. 



Genus 4. APOTOMUS. 

(Hoffmansegg) Illiger, Mag.firr Ins. vi. 348 (1807). 

Corpus parvum, subcylindrico-oblongum, pubescens : mesothoi-ace cylindi-ico elongate angusto : protho- 
mceparvo subgloboso, postice constricto : alis obsoletis. yin/en?!« longiusculfe filiformes, articulo 
primo crassiusculo vk elongato, secundo reliquis subsequalibus cyliudricis breviore. Labium 
Iseve transversum emarginatum, angulis anticis leviter productis. Mandibula vix porrectae. 
Maxilla! bilobs, intus ciliatEe. Palpi filiformes : maxillares longissimi, articulo ultimo elongato- 
cylindrico : labiales breviores, articulo ultimo acuminato piloso. Mentuni jugulo connatum, 
transversum, antice emarginatum et dente medio acuto instructum. Pedes longissimi : tibiis 
simplicibus baud palmatis, posterioribus ad apicem oblique excavato-truncatis spinisque munitis : 
tarsis articvdo primo elongato, anticis in maribus leviter dilatatis : unguiculis simplicibus. 

The little genus Apotomus is confined chiefly to Mediterranean latitudes, and 
the two or three species of which it is composed appear to be nowhere abundant. 
The A. rufiis, — the only Madeu-an representative, — has been recorded in Spain, 
Portugal, Italy, Sicily, the south of France, and in Algeria : and I possess, like- 
wise, specimens from Corfu ; as also a species very nearly allied to it from Egypt, 
collected at Cau-o by my friend Dr. H. Schaum of BerHn. The group recedes from 
the typical Scaritides in having the tibiae simple and unpahnated, the maxillary 
palpi extremely long, and the terminal joint of the labial ones pilose and acumi- 
nated, — a cu'cumstance which caused Latreille to place it near to BembicUum, in 
which the palpi are distinctly subulatcd. It is evidently however more nearly 
allied to Difomus, a position universally conceded to it by recent entomologists. 



14 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Unlike Scarites, the species are extremely active, running with the utmost velocity. 
They are very voracious, and reside principally l)eneath stones in moist spots. In 
the south of Europe they are usually taken at the edges of rivers and streams, Imt 
the only specimen wliich I have myself captured in the Madeu'a Islands was in a 
decidedly di'y locality. 

11. Apotomus rufas. 

A. rufo-ferrugineus pubescens, elytris profunde punctato-striatis, pcdibus elongatis testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2. 

Scarites rvfiis, Eossi, Fna Etrus. i. 229. pi. 4. f. 3 (1790). 

, Oliv. Ent. iii. 30. 15 (1795). 

Apotomus rufus, Hoffimansegg, HI. Mag. fur Ins. vi. 348 (1807). 

, Dej. S/iec. (les Col. i. 450 (1825). 

, Bndle, Hist. iTa^. des Ins. v. 88 (1835). 

Habitat sub lapidibiis pvope urbem Fuuchalensem Maderse, rarior : species a meipso semel tantuBi, ad 
Praya Formoza d. 8 Mai. a.d. 1818, rcperta ; sed nupcr ad oram niaritimam juxta Gorgulho 
Januario ineunte el. Dom. Hear, Turici, detexit. 

A. rufo-testaceous, ^•cl•y pubescent. Head and prothorax exceedingly shining ; the former narrow ; 
the latter small and globose, constricted behind, and with a slight dorsal channel which is more 
particularly apparent in front. Elytra somewhat cylindrical, regularly and deeply punctate- 
striated. Antenna dusky testaceous. Legs long, and very pale. 

Apparently rare. The only specimen which I have myself liitherto captm-cd was 
from beneath a stone, on the 8th of May 1848, on the rocky ledge immediately 
above the Praya Formoza, near Funchal. It has been subsequently, however, 
taken by Professor Heer, at the Gorgulho, in the vicinity of the same spot ; as also 
by M. Rousset. It rims with extreme rapidity, and has more the appearance, at 
first sight and when in motion, of a j)ale-coloiu'ed ant than of a Coleojiterous 
insect. 

(Subf. 3. CAR^UBIDES.) 
Genus 5. CALOSOMA. 

Weber, Observat. Entom. 20 (script. Callisoma) (1801). 

Co)-pus magnum, parallelo-ovatum : prothorace brevi transverso : alls amplis. Antenna filiformes, 
apicem versus pilosse, in maribus capite prothoraceque paulo longiores, in foeminis breviores ; 
articulo jirimo robusto, sccundo brevi, tertio elongato, reliquis subncqualibus. Labntm breve 
transversum bilobum, lobis ciliatis. Mandibula exsertee substriolata;, intus ad basin dcntc obtuso 
instructse. Maxillee biloba; : lobo externa palpifonni biarticulato : interna apice subito incui-vo 
acutissimo, intus valde et dense ciliato. Paljn longissimi, articulo ultimo subsecuriformi-truncato. 
Mentum transversum trilobum, lobo medio brevi aouto. Ligula brc\issima, pilosa ; paraglossis 
coriaccis, ci contiguis caniquc supcrantibus. Pedes longiusculi, robusti : tibiis intus baud emar- 
ginatis : tarsis anticis in maribus articuhs quatuor valde dilatatis : unguiculis simplicibus. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 15 

The present genus contains insects of a large size, most of which are more or less 
brilliantly ornamented with metallic tints ; which even in the black species are 
scarcely ever altogether absent, being there replaced by minute golden punctm-es, 
or lines. The only representative which the Madeira Islands possess belongs to 
this latter division. The Calosoniata are exceedingly voracious ; and may be often 
observed either crawling rapidly over the ground in grassy spots, or else mounting 
the trunks and branches of trees, where they can obtain with greater facility the 
smaller insects and larvae on which they subsist. It is one of the most mdely 
distributed genera in the world ; nevertheless the species composing it are not so 
numerous as might be expected. North and South America, the "West Indian 
Islands, the Cape of Good Hope, the western coast of Africa, China, Siberia, and 
even the little island of St. Helena, have however each of them, like Em'ope, their 
peculiar forms. The Madeu-an species is found thi'oughout central and southern 
Europe, but is nowhere abundant ; nevertheless it would seem to be commoner in 
Mediterranean latitudes than elsewhere. It occurs likcAvise in the Canarian 
Group. 

12. Calosoma Maderse. 

C. nigrum, elytris substriatis obsolete transversim undulato-rugosis punctisque viridi-seneis seriatim 

impressis, tibiis posterioribus inctu'vis. 

Long. Corp. liu. 10^-13. 

Carahiis Madera, Pab. S;/st. Ent. 237 (1775). 

Indagator, Fab. Mant. Ins. i. 197 (1787), 

Jiorteiisis, Eossi, Fna Etrus. i. 205. 1. 1. f. 3 (1790). 

■ auropimctatus, Eossi {nee Payk.) Mant. i. 75 (1792). 

Maderce, et Indagator, Oliv. Ent. iii. 35. 31 et 42 (1795). 

Maderce, et Calosoma Indagator, Fab. Sgst. Eleu. i. 175 et 211 (1801). 

Calosoma Indagator, Dej. Spec, des Col. ii. 205 (1826). 
— , Heer, Col. Helv. 33 (1841). 

Habitat in montibus JIaderee Portusque Saucti, sestate et autumno frequens : ad Eibeiro Frio per 
plures annos copiosissime colligebat Rev. Dom. Lowe ; atque etiam a Cabo Gerajao prope Funcbal 
cl. Dom. Heer, Turici, mibi nuper communicavit. 

C. black, veiy slightly shining. Head and prothor ax rather roughly punctiu-ed ; the latter short and 
small, regidarly rounded at the sides, and with a very obscure longitudinal channel which vanishes 
in front. Elytra finely striated, the strise usually punctui-ed, but both punctures and striae occa- 
sionally almost obsolete ; the interstices with minute, transverse, curved reticulations, having 
much the appearance of imbricated scales ; with three rows of bright golden or greenish im- 
pressed points. Four hinder tibice long and sUghtly curved*, the anterior ones short and robust. 

The Carabus Maderce and Carabus Indagator, both of Fabricius, are unquestion- 



* It seems to have been overlooked by Dejeau, as well as by the other uatiu-alists who have described 
the present msect, that it is not merely the intermediate tibis which are ciun-ed, but the hinder ones also. 



16 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

ably the same species ; and as the former was estahKshed first, we are bound, in 
right of jjriority, to retain oui" present insect, specifically, under that name, although 
the latter is the one by which it has been hitherto universally recognised. It 
appears however that the insect was first descril)ed by Eabricius, from a Madeiran 
specimen in the Banksian collection, in the year 1775, as Carabus Maderce ; and 
that in 1787 he gave the name of Carabus Indagator to examples of the same fi-om 
Barbary. There is no doubt whatsoever that the two insects are one and the same 
species. There is not the remotest difference between them in any single respect, 
except that the head and prothorax of the Madeii-an specimens are a little more 
roughly jiunctured (nevertheless abnost imperceptibly so) than is the case in the 
Eui'opean and African ones. And we can only sujipose, either that Fabricius de- 
scribed them hastily (as indeed would appear to be the case, since he registers them 
])otli as apterous, whereas they are powerfully winged) and without comparison 
Uiter se ; or else that the single Madeiran example from, which he A.vii\\ up his 
diagnosis chanced to be some slight aberration from the normal tyjic. The former 
of these suppositions, however, is probably correct ; for although no tUlference 
whatever exists between the insects in question, yet in 1801 he places them, in his 
Systema Eleutheratorum, in different genera, retaining the Maderce as a Carabus, 
and raising the Iiidagalor to the rank of a Calosoma ! Be the cause of the mistake 
however what it may, it is probable that, having once described them as distinct, 
th(>y wcvc never afterwards re-examined, but wcyg retained as such m the whole of 
his later works, — from Avhence they have been transcribed into nearly every cata- 
logue that has been subsequently published. Being an insect which finds its maxi- 
mum in Mediterranean latitudes, it \Aould, even a priori, seem far from unlikely 
that Madeira and the opposite coast of Barbary should produce it in common : and 
such, on investigation, we find to be the case. It occiu"s likewise in Spain, Italy, 
the south of France, and in the Canary Islands. The Calosoma Indagator of 
Gyllenhal, and of other northern entomologists, is not the Fabrician species, 
but the Carabus auropimctatus of Paykvill, — nearly allied to it. The true C. Inda- 
gator of Fabricius (/. c. our present species, Maderce, — by which name it must 
stand) does not occur apparently in northern Eurojoe at all. 

It is tolerablv abundant throughout Madeira and Porto Santo, both at interme- 
diate and lofty altitudes. In the former, it has been taken in great i)rofusion by the 
llev. R. T. Lowe at the llibeiro Frio, particvdarly during August of 1819, and I have 
myself captured it sparingly in the same district. Dm-ing my encampment in the 
upland region of the Fanal, in July 1850, I observed it in considerable numbers, 
both there and on the Serra of Seisal, crawling rapidly over the short grass in the 
hot sunshine, especially after showers. I have not myself detected it 1)elow the 
elevation of about 3000 feet above the sea; nevertheless I possess specimens 
collected by Professor Heer, at the end of May, on the Cabo Gerajao, near Funchal ; 
and others by M. Rousset, on Ihe lUieo de Baxo of Porto Santo, — the lowest alti- 
tudes, so far as I am aware, in which it has hitherto been found. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 17 

Genus 6. NOTIOPHILUS. 

Diuneril, Consid. gen. sur les Ins. 169 (1823). 

Corpus parvum, parallelo-oblongunij politissimum : cap'ite lato, oculis maximis promincntibus : pro- 
thorace trausvcrso-quadrato : alls amplis. Antenna filiformes, breviusculae. Labrum rotundatum, 
margine antico parce ciliato. Mandibulce arciiatse acutse, margine interno dentato. Maxilla 
bilobse : lobo externa palpiformi biarticulato : interno incurvo acutOj intus ad basin valde ciliato. 
Palpi robustij articiilo ultimo subovato-truncato. Mentum transversum trilobum, lateribus rotun- 
datis, lobo medio brevi emarginato. Ligula antice dilatata, in medio acute producta ; paraglossis 
angustis incurvis, ligulam vix superantibus. Pedes sat graciles : tibiis iotus baud emarginatis : 
tarsis anticis in maribiis articulis tribus vix dilatatis : unguiculis simplicibus. 

The singular little insects whicli compose the genus NotiopJiilus are well known 
by tlieii" depressed, brilliantly polished surfaces, parallel outline, large transverse 
heads, prominent eyes, and by theu' square prothoras. Although specifically not 
very numerous, yet abounding as they do, individually, throughout the whole of 
Europe, they must be familiar to almost every eye, theu' small glittering bodies so 
often observed darting across our pathways, or by the field-sides, especially after 
showers, either from beneath clods of earth or out of crevices of the soil, sparkling 
like coats of mail to the sun, giving them a character peculiarly their own. They 
are extremely variable both in theii- sculptiu'e and hue, being subject to consider- 
able local modifications, though more particularly affected, it would appear, by 
altitude. Thus, for instance, in our own country, the common representative of 
the plains is found likewise on the summits of the mountains, but at that elevation 
it becomes liable to great alternations of colour, ranging from pale brassy-brown, 
Avith the apex testaceous, mto deep black. The sculptm'e however, perhaps, is 
nearly as much dependent on other circumstances, for its modification, as on alti- 
tude, since it seems tolerably clear that proximity to the sea-shore, especially 
where the localities are saHne, will frequently produce a more faintly impressed 
surface, — a peculiarity indeed which I have remarked in other insects besides the 
Notiophili. 

13. Notiophilus geminatus. 

N. viridi-ffineus nitidus, protborace quadi-ato, dense prsesertim ad latera punctato, elytris leviter punc- 

tato-striatis plaga longitudinali suturali nitidissima, tibiis testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2\-2h- 

Notiophilus geminatus, Dej. Spec, des Col. v. 589 (1831). 

Habitat in montibus Maderse ac Desertse Grandis, prsesertim ad vias vel sub lapidibus, hinc inde non 
infrequens, 

N. brassy-brown, usually with a greenish tinge. Head wide, with deep longitudinal striae between the 
eyes, which are large and prominent. Prothoro.x short, transverse-quadrate, slightly produced in 
the centre of the front margin, and with a deep longitudinal channel; punctured all over, though 
obscurely so on the disk. Elytra much depressed, finely punctate-striated, the second interstice 

D 



18 INSECTA MADEREXSIA. 

irom the suture extremely broad and much pohshed. Tibice, and base of antenna testaceous. 
Apex of the latter, the femora, and tarsi black. 

A somewhat rare insect in Madeira, where I have only taken it sparingly, and 
at an altitude from about 3000 to 4000 feet above the sea. The few examples 
which I possess are principally from the mountain-slopes at the edges of the 
Curral das Freu'as : it has however been captiu'cd by M. Rousset on the Pico 
d' Ai'ribentuo, above Punchal. On the Dezerta Grande, Avhere the specimens attain 
a larger size, it is far more abundant, occurring in tolerable profusion beneath the 
small cluster of fir-trees which have been planted, in the red volcanic soU, on the 
flat portion of the summit near to the commencement of the western promontory. 
It is found throughout Southern Eiu'ope, and in the north of ^yrica ; and it has 
been recorded by "\^'cbb and Berthelot in the Canary Islands. 



(Subf. 4. HARPALIDES.) 
(Div. 1. CHLiENIIDEA.) 

Genus 7. LOEICERA. 

Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Ins. i. 224 (1806). 

(Subgenus ELLIPT0S03IA, Woll) (Tab. I. fig. 2.) 

Corpus mediocre, elongato-ovatum : prothorace subcordato : elytris (in Loricera typica parallelo-ovatis, 
sed in nostr^) ellipticis : alis obsoletis. Antenna (I. 2 a) ciuratse setacea;, articulis quinque 
baseos setis longissimis munitis, rehquis dense pilosis setisque debilioribus paulatim evanescen- 
tibus instructis : articulo primo longissimo robusto subfusiformi, secundo brevi subnodoso, tertio 
(in specie nostra) valdc elongate trinodoso, quarto paulo brenore binodoso, quinto (secuudo sub- 
jequali) subclavato, reliquis lougitudine subsequalibus (sexto obconico, sequeutibus subcyliudi-icis) . 
Labrum (I. 2 b) porrectum, subovatum, postice late truncatum et antice truucato-emarginatum. 
MandibulcB (I. 2 c) curtae acutissimse incuiTa:, basi intus denticulatse, extus (in nostra) profunde 
fissa;. Maxilla (I. 2 d) biloba;, cxtus ad basin spinoso-fiss?e : lubo externa paljnfomii biarticulato : 
interna apice acutissimo intlexo, intus valdc sctoso-ciliato. Palpi elongati iiliformcs, articulo 
ultimo elongato subfusiformi-truucato ; labiates (I. 2 e) articulo penultimo valdc elongato sub- 
curvato, intus leviter binodoso pilisque longissimis duabus aucto. Mentum transversum, antice 
profunde emarginatuin et (in typicA dente medio obtuso, scd in specie Maderensi) dcnte medio 
nullo instructuui, lobis rotundatis et ad latera externa pilosis. Ligula apice leviter acuminata ; 
paraglossis eam vix superantibus. Pedes (in typica breviusculi, sed in nostr&), pnesertim postici, 
longissimi : tarsis anticis in maribus articulis tribus baseos valde dilatatis : unguiculis simplicibus. 

The Madeiran representative of the common Loricera xnUcornis is one of the 
rarest and most interestui£r of all the indigenous Carabidee. "VMiilst totaUv distuict 
from that insect in species, it even recedes from it genericaUy in some respects ; 
and I am by no means convinced that it has not as great a claim to constitute a 
genus as many other forms have which arc noAV universally admitted, — although 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. ' 19 

in reality they are but offshoots, in like manner, from central groups. Trvie it is 
that the singular structiu-e of its antenna? (which have nevertheless, however, 
peculiarities of theii' own in the proportions of then- joints) would tend to identify 
it T\dth Loricera ; but still there is no reason why that very character may not be 
typical of a small cluster of collateral forms, in precisely the same manner as is the 
case with Habrocerus and Tricliophya amongst the StaphyUmdce. To say nothing 
of the modifications sufficiently evident in some of its antennal articulations 
(amongst which, however, the very long and trinodose thu'd one should be par- 
ticularly noticed), our present insect differs from Loricera proper, primarily, in 
the construction of its mentum, which has no uidication whatsoever of a tooth in 
the centre of its emargination, and has its lobes moreover externally pilose and in- 
ternally increased by a small lateral projection.. The oater fissures, likemse, of its 
maxilljB are different from those of the true Loricera ; its mandibles have a deep 
external incision at their base ; its upper lip is very distinctly trimcated and emar- 
ginated at the apex ; and the penultimate joint of its labial palpi is much elongated, 
subflexuose, and has the rudiments of nodules on its inner edge. In its outward 
aspect also the insect unquestionably recedes from Loricera, its elliptical elytra 
and extremely elongated legs giving it a very peculiar appearance. StiE, I have 
thought it better, in the present instance, not to isolate it ; and have merely pro- 
posed a subgeneric name, in case that future investigations, as is not improbable, 
should bring to light other, collateral, forms, ranging beneath a similar type, and 
so render its separation desirable. 

14. Loricera WoUastomi. (Tab. I. flg. 2.) 
It. piceo-brunnea, elytris ellipticis impunctato-striatis, antennis pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 4. 

Loricera Wollastonii, Javet, Bull, de la Soc. Ent. ile France (2'*'>'« serie) x. 2.3 (1852). 

Habitat sub lapidibus truncisque arborum prolapsis, vel ad fontes, per regionem Maderse sylvaticam, 
inde a 3500' s. m., toto anno ; rarissima. 

L. dark piceous-brown, slightly sbining. Head and prothorax with a greenish or seneous tinge ; the 
former broad, with a depression down the forehead, and constricted behind the eyes, which are 
prominent ; the latter narrow, cordate, with a deep fovea on each side behind. Elytra elliptical, 
much rounded off at the shoulders and acuminated posteriorly, flattened, deeply striated, the 
striffi being impunctate, and with three, sometimes obsolete, depressions down the disk of each. 
Mouth, legs, and antenna testaceous. 

Apparently extremely rare, although widely distributed thi-oughout the sylvan 
districts of Madeu-a, above the altitude of about 3500 feet. It occm-s under stones 
and fallen tunber in moist spots, especially in the immediate vicinity of the minute 
trickling streams which issue from out of the crevices of the rocks in the dense 
ravines of a hi^h elevation. I fii-st discovered it, on the 18th of February 1849, 

d2 



20 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

near the upper extemity of the Boa Ventura : and in May 1850 I again detected it, 
beneath logs of wood, at the edges of the Levada of the Ribeu-o Frio ; and dui'ing 
my encampment in the lofty uplands of the Cruzinhas and the Fanal, in July of 
the same year, I obtained several specimens from beneath dead leaves and under 
the decaying trimks of trees with which those remote forest regions everywhere 
aboiind. 

Genus 8. EURYGNATHUS, WoU. (Tab. I. fig. 1 et 3.) 

Corpus magnum, oblongo-ovatum, depressum, Licino affine : capita magno, in fceminis latiore et ple- 
rumque maximo : prothorace subquadrato : ehjtris connatis : alls nullis. Antenrue filiformes, 
capite prothoraceque vix breviores, articulo primo robusto, secundo brevi, tei-tii apice et sequen- 
tibus pilosis. Labrum (I. 1 a, et I. 3 a) transversum, anticc setosum integrum. Mandibula 
validffi latfe robustse crassae obtusissimae, superficie superiore insequali, intus baud dentatse. 
Maxilla (I. 3 b) bilobae, breves : lobo externa palpiformi biarticulato : interna flexuoso, parum 
obtuso, intus valde ciliato. Palpi articulo pcnultimo elongato, ultimo subsecuriformi-truncato. 
Mentum (I. 3 c) transversum, antice profuude emarginatum et dente medio nullo instructum. 
Ligula ampla elongato-quadrata, apice integra ; paraglossis ei aqualibus. Pedes elongati, vix 
robusti : tarsis aniicis in maribus (I. 1 b) articulis primo et secundo valde dilatatis (illo elongato- 
subquadrato, hoc breviore transverso-quadrato), tertio quartoque parvis ; ultimo in omnibus 
elongato subelavato : ungidculis simplicibus. 

A €vpv<; latus, et yvddo^ mandibulum. 

The singular insect, so abundant in Porto Santo, from which the above diagnosis 
has been di'a^vn, ymtglit prima facie be mistaken for a gigantic Licinus ; neverthe- 
less a closer inspection will at once show that it possesses many important distinc- 
tions which must tend to separate it altogether from that genus. Thus, for 
instance, its mandibles are extremely broad, obtuse, and thick, -n-ithout any appear- 
ance of teeth internally ; its upper lip, unlike that of Licimts, is perfectly entii-e ; 
its ligula is more elongated ; and its inner maxillary lobe is short, and blunt at 
the apex. Its greatest pecidiarities, however, arc unquestionably external ones, 
for, in addition to its apterous body and connate elji;ra (in both of which respects 
it recedes from Licimis), it presents a most anomalous character, — and one un- 
paralleled in any other Coleopterous form "with wliich I am acquainted, — in the fact 
that the females have the head usually greatly developed and broad, wliilst in the 
males it is comparatively narrow and small. So unusual a circumstance as this 
led me to suppose, before I had seen the insect in suificieut profusion, that there 
were two distinct species, and that I had only obtained one sex of each : Init diu-ing 
my residence in the island of Porto Santo, in the ^\'inter of 1818, I had an oppor- 
tunity not only of obser-vdng them in situ, but also in coitu ; and of remarking 
likewise, from the examination of many hunchvd specimens, that the (Ulatcd tarsi 
(the essential characteristic of the males) invariably accompanied tlie small heads, 
— and vice versa. It was not, however, in every instance that the heads of the 
females were largely developed; nevertheless the tendency to become so was 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 21 

apparent in them all, and in about two-thircls of the entire number ■\vliieh came 
beneath my notice, it was literally immense. This character is so remarkable, that 
we should naturally have expected, even a priori, that others would be found, in 
conjunction with it, of sufficient importance to establish the lAcimis Latreillei of 
Laporte as a distinct genus. 



15. Eurygnathus Latreillei. (Tab. I. fig. l et 3.) 

E. ater nitidus, prothorace subquadrato angulis posticis punctatis, elytris ovatis striatis, striis vix 
punctatis, antennarum apice pedibusque piceis. 
Fmm. capite plerumque latiore magno. 
Long. Corp. lin. 9i-12. 

Var. /3. opacus, prothorace latiore lateribus valde recurvis, angulis posticis vix punctatis, elytris 
parallelo-ovatis, punctato-striatis. (Ins. Deserta Grandis.) 
Long. Corp. lin. 11-13. 

Licinus Latreillei, Laporte, Utud. Ent. i. 83 (1834). 

Habitat sub lapidibus in Portu Sancto, tempore hiberno et vernali, vulgaris : varietatem /3. in insula 
Desertse Grandis soli, nieuse Januario a.d. 1849, inveni. 

C deep black, shining. Eyes small, remote from the prothorax, wbicb is subquadrate, and a little 
narrowed behind, with the lateral edges (especiaUy posteriorly) recurved upwards ; with a longitu- 
dinal channel down the disk, and with a few large, shallow, scattered punctures towards the basal 
angles. Elytra deeply striated, the strioe being scarcely perceptibly punctate. Antenna (the basal 
portions of the first and second joints excepted), palpi, a depressed segmental space behind the 
labrum, and the feet, more or less brown or piceous. 
Vai-. /3. larger and more parallel, opake ; the prothorax rather wider, especially in front, with its 
edges more broadly recurved and its hinder angles less distinctly punctured ; whilst the elytral 
striae are more perceptibly punctate. (The state peculiar to the Dezerta Grande.) 

A common insect beneath stones in Porto Santo, dui-ing the winter and early 
spring months. I have usually found it in greater profusion towards the eastern 
extremity of the island than in any other position, especially on the grassy slopes 
of the Pico de Baxo (the high conical hiU, on the coast, to the eastward of the 
Cidade), and in the dry, sandy, fossUiferous district immediately below it, to the 
north, knowTi as the Zimbral d'Areia, — at the mouth of the Kibeii'o de Serra de 
Fora. On the open plain of the Campo de Baxo, which extends across the island 
to the westward of the iovna., it UkcAvise occvirs, though more sparingly : whilst on 
the large adjacent limestone rock of the Ilheo de Baxo, where I first discovered it, 
it is tolerably abuudant. The specimens on the Dezerta Grande assume a distiact 
variety, — the insect ha-ving apparently become modified by long isolation on that 
island, where it not only attains a much larger size than in Porto Santo, but is 
invariably also more parallel and opake, has the sides of its prothorax more 



22 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

recurved, with the punctures towards the lateral angles almost obsolete, and the 
striae of its elytra somewhat more evidently pimctate. It is exceedingly rare on 
the Dezerta Grande, the only spot in which I have hitherto observed it bcuig, 
under stones, at the upper edge of the precipitous gorge which descends to the 
eastern shore from the immediate head of the long northern vaUey. On the Flat 
Dezerta, or Ilheo Chao, I have not succeeded in detecting it ; nor as yet in any 
part of Madeira proper. 

Genus 9. ZARGUS, TTW. (Tab. I. fig. 4, 5 et 6.) 

Corpus mediocre, clongato-ovatum, deprcssum, Calatlio habitii generali proximum sed ab eo certe 
distinctum : pruthorace subcordato : ehjtris plus minusve inteiTupto-striatis : alls obsolctis. An- 
tennee filiformes gi-acillimse, capite prothoraceque paulo longiores, articulo primo elongate sat 
robusto clavato, secimdo brevij tertio primo breviore. Labrum (I. 4 a) prominulum transversum, 
antice profunde bilobum, lobo quoque seta longissima apicali instnicto. Mandibula porrectse 
elongatse angustatas^ ad apicem subito intlex;e acutse, infra apicem dente magno acuto basi 
latissimo munitaj, margine interno valde ciliato. Maxilla (1.46) bilobse, angusto-elongatse : 
lobo externa pali)ifornii biarticulato, articulo primo elongato flexuoso, secundo crassiorc clongato- 
subovato : interno huic paulo longiore, angusto recto, ad apicem subito ineurvo acutissimo, intus 
dense ct fortiter ciliato. Palpi elongati subfiliformcs : maxiUares articulo primo minuto, secundo 
elongato subcurvato, tertio quartoque longitudine fequabbus, hoc elongato fusiformi-ovato : la- 
hiales (I. 4 c) c scapis ligulaj connatis surgentcs, articulo primo minuto, secundo tertioque sub- 
ajqualibus, illo setis duabus internis aucto, boc elongato fusiformi-subovato. Mentum transver- 
sum, antice profunde emarginatum et dente medio nullo instructum. Ligula elongata apice 
truncata, membranacea, in media parte antica subcornea setisque duabus omata; paraglossis 
tcnuissimis acuminatis, cam supcrantibus. Pedes longiusculi, gracilcs : tarsis anticis in maribus 
(I. 4(f, 4e) articulis primo, secundo et tertio valde dilatatis subtus lacinioso-papillosis (primo 
obtriangulari angulis anticis rotundatis, secundo tertioque subrotundatis), quarto parvo triangu- 
lari ; ultimo in omnibus elongato subclavato : unguiculis simplicibus. 

Huic generi nomen dedi in honorem Zargo, insignis viri Lusitanici, qui, a.d. 1419, !Maderam primus 
invenisse apud historic scriptores memoratur. 

There is perhaps no genus which it has been found necessary to establish, in the 
present work, for the reception of new Coleopterous forms from the ]\[adeira 
Islands, more interesting, or which may be said to be better defined or more 
strictly uidigcnous, than the present one ; for not only docs it differ in many of its 
most essential characters from the subfamily Uarpalides (to wliich, nevertheless, 
it evidently belongs), but, — if we except a portion of the Scaritides, — it recedes, in 
its powerfully dentate and ciliated mandibles, fi'om every member of the entire 
Carabidce \nih. which I am acquainted. "VMiilst however there can be no doubt 
but that it is correctly referred to Wxa Uarpalides, its exact position therein is not at 
first sight altogether intelligible. From the Fterosticliidea (the second of the three 
great divisions of the HarpaUdes), to some of the genera of Avliich, particidarly 
Calatlnis, it most nearly, in its outward aspect, approximates, the rounded form of 
its dilated tarsal joints, which are densely clothed beneath with ragged appendages, 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 23 

arranged promiscuously and not distributed in a double row ; added to the un- 
toothed emargination of its mentum, its simple claws, its deeply bilobed upper lip, 
membranaceous Ugula, and its largely developed paraglossre, entirely remove it. 
And although the first four of the above details (namely, the structure of its male 
foot, above and below, its unserrated claws, and its mentimi destitute of a central 
tooth) point to the Chlceniidea as its more natm^al. location ; yet the remaioing 
three (namely, the remarkable form of its upper Hp, its thin imperfect ligula, and 
its ample paraglossae), in addition to its porrected, strongly dentate, and ciliated 
mandibles, are altogether as unrepresented in that division as they are iu the 
Pterostlchldea, and would seem almost to debar it from entrance even there. Still 
there is no other section of the Harpalides which, as usually defined, could so Avell 
receive it ; and since it is necessarily a choice between difiiculties in assigning it a 
position at all, we must be content to accept that one which offers the fewest 
obstacles to its admission. Whilst therefore it must needs present anomalies 
wherever it be placed, yet I believe that it wiU be found, upon the whole, lohen at 
the end of the Chlceniidea (and immediately before the commencement of the 
Pterostichidea) to be nearest to those genera with which it has the greatest 
affinity*. And strange as it may appear in a geographical poiat of view, I am 
inclined to suspect that it has perhaj)s a closer connection with the little genus 
Homethes, Newman, from Australia, than with any other form liitherto discovered. 
The Zargi are extremely voracious, and have as much the habits as they have the 
external aspect of the Calathi. They reside, almost exclusively, beneath stones 
in grassy spots, and are more particularly abundant at low and intermediate 
altitudes. 

16. Zar^s Schaumii, Wall. (Tab. I. fig. 5.) 

Z. nigro-piceus, supra piceus opacus valde depressus, protliorace subelongato angusto cordato niar- 
ginibus infuscatis, elytris profunde interrupto-striatis, lateribus antenuisque infuscatis, pedibus 
pallidis. 

Loug. Corp. lin. 5-5|. 

Habitat in graminosis Madcrse, sub lapidibus, uon infrequens : in Madera australi iuter 500' et 3000' 
s. m. prsedominat, sed in Madera boreali usque ad maris litus descendit. 

Ob gratias mihi amicissime oblatas banc speciem Zargi eximiam in bonorem Entomologici peritissimi 
H. Schaum, M.D,, Berolini, stabilivi. 

Z. beneatb dark piceous-black ; above piceous, opake, and exceedingly flattened. Mouth prominent, 
and rufo-piceous. Prothorax narrow, somewhat elongated, cordate, widest in front, much 



* Ti'ue it is indeed that its extremely membranaceous ligula, with the minute subcomeous centre, 
finds an analogue in the genus Bracldnus ; and that the papillose under surface of its male tarsi, its un- 
toothed meuttmi, simple claws, and subclavate palpi are, likewise, severally represented in the other 
genera of the Braclunides ; nevertheless I cannot persuade myself that it has any real aflSnity whatsoever 



24 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

wrinkled, and vnih an obscure longitudinal channel ; the margins broadly infuscate, a good deal 
flattened, and recurved, especially behind. Elytra ovate, very much depressed, most finely and 
minutely gi-anulated, and very deeply striated, — the strife interrupted at regular intervals, and 
consisting of a series of elongated impressions which cause the surface to appear pitted or em- 
bossed ; the lateral margins obscurely infuscate, and with a series of large ocellated impressions. 
Antenna and legs long and slender ; the former fuscous ; the latter, especially the femora, very 
pale testaceous. 

A very elegant and peculiar insect, and at once distinguished from tlie other 
Zargi by its large size, flattened form, piceous hue, by its long, slender legs and 
antennae, by its subcordate and comparatively elongated prothorax, and by its 
deeply pitted elytra. It is found, beneath stones, in most parts of Madeira, though 
seldom above the altitude of about 3500 feet. On the northern side of the island 
it descends to the sea-shore, but on the southern its range does not commence so 
low. It occurs very plentifully at times, making its appearance about the end of 
summer and lasting until the following spring. On the western slopes of the Pico 
do Cardo, near Tunchal, in the Chestnut-wood in the vicinity of the Mount Church, 
as also in the north of the island, at the Passo d'Areia near Sao Vincente, on the 
level of the beach, I have myseK captured it in considerable abundance. It seems 
to be a species peculiar to Madeira proper, it not having been hitherto observed in 
any of the other islands of the group. 

17. Zargus Desertse, Woll. (Tab. I. fig. 4.) 

Z. piceo-niger opacus depressus, prothorace parvo angusto rotundato-subcordato marginibus obscu- 
rissime subinfuscatis, elytris leviter subinterrupto-striatis, lateribus antennisque subinfuscatis, 
tarsis fuscis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4-4|. 

Habitat sub lapidibus in ins. Desertse Grandis, una cum Calatho complaiiato dcgens, — Januario 
exeunte a.d. 1849 a meipso detectus. 

Z. black, with a very slightly piceous tinge, opake, and depressed, though not. quite so much so as 
the last species. Mouth exceedingly prominent, and piceous. Prothorax short, small, much 
rounded at the sides, being widest about the middle, slightly wrinkled, and with a tolerably 
distinct longitudinal channel ; the margins very naiTowly and most obscurely infuscate, scarcely 
at all flattened, and very slightly recurved behind. Elytra ovate, less depressed than in the 
Z. Schaumii, most finely and minutely granuled, and lightly striated, — the stria: having gene- 
rally a little tendency to be interrupted, though far less so than is the case in the last species ; 
the extreme lateral margins most obscxirely infuscate, and with a series of large ocellated im- 



with the insects of that division of tlie Caralicla, since its entire general habit recedes from them altogether, 
and bespeaks, m every respect, an intimate relation to the JI(n-j)alides. Added to which, the largely- 
expanded and rounded joints of its male tarsi wovdd, even alone, at once remove it from the whole race of 
the Brachinides. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 25 

pressions. Antenna and legs shorter and rather more robust than those of the Z. Schaumii ; 
the former fuscous ; the latter piceous, with the tarsi rufo-fuscous. 

An exceedingly well-marked species, intermediate, both in size and sciili^ture, 
between the Z. Scliaumii and the Z. pellncklus, though with abundant distinctive 
characters of its own. Its dark, black hue (its extreme margins, its mouth, and its 
tarsi being alone. somewhat fuscescent), added to its short, laterally-rounded pro- 
thorax (which is widest about the middle), and its lightly impressed, scarcely 
interrupted elytral striae, will serve prinid facie to separate it from the rest of the 
genus; whilst from the Z. Schaumii in particular its shorter legs and antennae, 
and its less depressed form will still fui'ther tend to remove it. It occm's exclu- 
sively, so far as I have hitherto observed, on the Dezerta Grande, where I captured 
it m tolerable abundance, in company with Calatlms complanatus, during January 
1849, from beneath stones at the head of the great northern valley. They are 
extremely active, and apparently very voracious (as indeed their prominent, thickly 
ciliated mandibles would seem to indicate), attacking indiscriminately everytliing 
with which they may chance to be enclosed, not even sparing theii' own kind. I 
possess a remarkable example of a hybrid between the Z. Desertce and the C. com- 
planatus, in which one of the elytra is that of an ordinary Calatlms, whilst the other 
is much shorter and precisely that of the former insect : the claws moreover are 
very imperfectly formed, and some of them are not developed at all. It was'taken 
under a stone, in company with a profusion of specimens of the two species in 
question, of which there can be no doubt but that it is the common progeny. 

18. Zargus pellucidus, Woll. (Tab. I. fig. 6.) 

Z. nigro-piceus, supra luteo-infuscatns nitidus subdepressus, prothorace parvo angusto subquadrato 
marginibus pallidis, elytris diluto-infuscatis striatis, lateribus, antennis pedibusque pallidis. 
Var. (3. vis major et obscurior (ins. Deserta Grandis). 
Long. corp. lin. Z\-'i^. 

Habitat sub lapidibus IMaderse, in eonvallibus umbrosis declivibusque humidiusculis, tempore hiberno 
et vernali, rarissimus : var. /3. in ins. Deserta Grandi et tantum illic occurrit, qua mense Januario 
A.D. 1849 duo specimina in rupium fissuris apricarum detexi. 

Z. beneath dark piceous-black ; above yellowish-brown, though of an unequal or irregular intensity 
in different parts, which gives it a diluted or somewhat transparent appearance ; shining, and 
about as much depressed as the last species. Mouth prominent, and pale testaceous. Prothorax 
very small, narrow and subquadrate, a little wider before than behind, with very slight indications 
of wrinkles, and with a deep dorsal channel ; the margins broadly and distinctly pale, leaving a 
square patch on the disk alone dark. Elytra ovate, a little more depressed than in the Z. Deserta, 
regularly and rather deeply striated, — the striaj having apparently no tendency to be interrupted ; 
with two small depressions on the disk of each, and occasionally one or two extra, irregular ones, 
which however appear to be accidental rather than typical ; the lateral margins (particularly the 

E 



26 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

large ocellated impressions) always, and the shoulders and suture occasionally, more or less pale. 
ATitenn<2 and legs slender, but not very long, and exceedingly pale testaceous. 
Var. jS. a little larger and darker. (The state peculiar to the Dczerta Grande.) 

An extremely rare insect, and known at once from the other Zargi here de- 
scribed by its comparatively small size, by its shining, yollowish-bro^^Tl and iiTegn- 
larlv clouded sui-face, by its niiuutc, narrow, and snl)quacbate prothorax, wliieh 
has the margins broadly and distinctly pale, and by its elytra being imiformly 
striated, and free from the pitted appearance which is so evident in the Z.Schanmii, 
and is indicated, thovigh more obscurely, in the last species also. It would seem 
to be of the greatest rarity, the only four specimens which have as yet come beneath 
my observation ha\dng been captured l)y myself, — two in Madeira proper, amongst 
small stones and vegetation at the base of the damp perpendicular rocks about 
half-way up the Ribeu'o de Santa Luzia, dvu-iug the early spring ; and two on the 
Dczerta Grande, from out of the cracks of the exposed weather-beaten eminences 
of red volcanic soU (so well known to all who have landed on the island by their 
loose rotten struct m'c, and worn, rounded forms) at the extreme head of the great 
northern valley, dm-ing January 1849. 



(Div. 2. PTEROSTICIilDEA.) 
Genus 10. PRISTONYCHUS. 

Dejean, Species des Col. iii. 43 (1828). 

Corpus sat magnum, elongato-ovatum, depressiusculum : prothorace subcordato : alis (in typicis 
obsoletis, sed in specie Maderensi) amplissimis. Antenna filiibrmes, capite prothoraceque paulo 
longiores, articulo primo sequentibus robustiore, sccundo brcv-i. Labrum quadi-atum, antice 
leviter emarginatum et setis paucis longissimis instructum, angulis anticis rotundatis ciUatis. 
Mandibidm incurvoe acutie, intus basi denticulatre. Maxilla bilobse : loho extenw palj)iformi 
biarticulato : internn acuto incurvo, apice uncinato, intus valde eiliato. Palpi iililbrmes, articulo 
ultimo fusifornii-truncato. Mcnium transversum, antice profunde emarginatum et dente medio 
brevi bifido instructum. Ligida cornea, apice truncata pihsque duobus longissimis aucta : para- 
fflossis mcmbranaceis linearibus, earn longe superantibus. Pedes longi, graciles : tarsis anticis in 
maribus articulis primo, sccundo et tertio leviter dilatatis, triangularibus et subtus biseriato- 
setosis : unguiculis basi leviter serratis. 

Pristoiii/c/iKS in nearly all piu'cly structural points is coincident with CaUdhus, 
its more elongated paraglossic, which are linear, and stretch out to a considerable 
distance beyond the apex of its ligula, added to its less powerfully serrated claws, 
being apparently the sole distinctive characters, apart from external ones, a\ hich 
remove it from that genus*. In real fact however, the whole of this section of the 

* I have not seen it elsewhere remarked, but I imagine that it is, in all probability, owing to the want 
of this prolongation of the pai-aglossa; in Calathus that the ligula of that genus is described by Erichsou, 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 27 

Carahidce presents so few, and such sliglit modifications in the oral organs that it 
is positively necessary to depend in a great measm-e on outward details even for 
generic purposes, unless we are content to amalgamate many grovips which are 
universally received. As some compensation however for the deficiency in struc- 
tm'al differences, the Frlstonychi are most easily separated from the Calathi exter- 
nally, being not only larger and darker insects (their colour being for the most 
part black, with a violet or pm-plish tinge), and with much longer legs, but their 
prothorax is in every instance more or less narrowed behind, instead of (as is the 
case with the latter) in front. The Fristoiii/cM are of a more darkling nature 
than the Calathi, being, like the genus Spliodrus, often found in houses, or at any 
rate in the immediate vicinity of habitations : and even when this is not the case, 
the same kind of propensity seems to be indicated by the peculiarity of the localities 
which they select, — a marked preference being sho^vn for caves, and other partially 
sheltered spots, beneath the stones in which they frequently delight to congregate. 

19. Pristonychus alatus, WoU. 

P. alatus, niger, prothorace subcordato, elytris subpuuctato-striatis obscure cyaneis, antennis pedi- 

busque plus minusve picescentibus, tibiis in utroque sexu rectis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 6-9. 

Habitat sub lapidibus in colliuis Maderpe maritimis atque in cavernis tufae, sat frequens : ad Ribeiro 
Secco prope ui'bem Funclialensem d. 13 Feb. coUegit cl. Dom. Heer, necnon baud procul a 
Sancta Cruce egoniet deprebensi : in insula Portu Sancto usque ad maris litus descendit, qua 
prope oppidum mense Decembri exeunte a.d. 1848 copiosissime legi. 

P. dark piceous-black, and very sligbtly shining; above witb an obsciu'e bluish tinge, especially on 
the elytra, where it is occasionally comparatively brilliant. Head and prothorax nan-ower than 
the elytra ; the former with two deep longitudinal impressions on the forehead ; the latter sub- 
cordate, with an obscure dorsal channel, and with a deep longitudinal fovea on either side at the 
base. Elytra striated, the striae being most obscurely punctured. JVings greatly developed. Legs 
palpi and antenna more or less picescent ; the apex of the last, and the tarsi, brownish. Tibia, in 
both sexes, straight, and very slender. Claws distinctly serrated. 

Eor a long time I had conceived the present JPristonychus to be identical Avith 
the European P. subcijaneus, for it bears so strong a resemblance primd facie to 
that insect, that, without exainination, it is not easy to separate the two. A more 
careful inquiiy however has since convinced me that the Madeiran species is un- 
questionably distinct, since the structui'al differences wliich it exhibits are such as 
can scarcely be accounted for by the agency either of isolation or of latitude. Thus, 

and by most entomologists after him, as " ligula apice rotmidata." In real troth the hgula of Calathus 
is as much ti-uucated in front as that of Pristonychus and of the allied genera ; but the fact of its para- 
glossae being short, and consequently not projecting at the angles, gives the entire labium a somewhat 
roimded appearance anteriorly. 

E 2 



28 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

in its largely developed ^ings it recedes, I believe, from e-\-ery Pristonycluts yet 
described, whilst its straightened and slender tibia?, in both sexes, will serve, 
additionally, to distinguish it from the P. subcyanens, in which the intermediate 
and hinder pair (especially the former) are decidetlly curved, as well as more 
densely ciliated towards their internal ajiex. The claws, moreover, of the P. alatus 
are more powerfully serrated at then- base than is usual in the other representatives 
of the genus. It does not appear to be a very abundant insect in Madeii'a, although 
pretty generally distributed along the southern coast in positions sKghtly elevated 
above the shore. On the liills between Machico and Sancta Cruz I have captm-ed 
it, not uncommonly, diu'ing the winter months ; and it has been, likewise, taken 
by Professor Heer in the llibeu'O Secco, near Eunchal. In Porto Santo it is com- 
Ijaratively plentiful, where, at the end of December 1848, I obtained it in con- 
siderable profusion from the vicinity of the Cidade. 

Genus 11. CALATHUS. 

Bonelli, Observ. Ent. i. tah. sgn. (1809). 

Corpus mediocre, elongato-ovatum, plcrumque depressiim : prothorace subquadrato, antice ssepius 
angustato : alis (in tj-jiicis amplis, sod in speciebus Maderensibus) obsok-tis. Antenna filiformes, 
capite prothoraceque paulo longiores, articulo primo sequentibus robustiorc, secundo bre\i, tertio 
primo multo longiore. Labrum quadi-atum, antice leviter emarginatum et setis paucis longissimis 
instructum, angulis anticis rotundatis ciliatis. Mandibula breves incurvre acutte, intus basi den- 
ticulatEG. Maxilla biloboe : loho externa palpiformi biarticulato : interna acuto incurvo, apice 
uncinate, intus valde ciliato. Palpi filiformes, articulo ultimo subfusifonni-truncato. Mentum 
transversum, antice profunde emarginatum et dcnte medio bre\-i bifido instruetum. Ligula 
cornea, apice truneata pilisqiie diiobus longissimis aucta ; parar/lossis menibranaccis, ei asqualibus. 
Pedes longiusculi, graciles : farsis anticis in niaribus articulis primo, secundo et tertio le\iter 
dilatatis, subtriangularibus : unguiculis valde serratis. 

The distinctions between the present genus and the last have been already 
pointed out,— theu' main difference, so far at least as theii" oral organs are con- 
cerned, consisting in the form and development of their respective paraglossae, 
and the consequent modifications in the general aspect of then- labia. So greatly 
indeed, in the parts of theu" mouth, do the whole of these immediate groups 
resemble each other, that both Calathus and Pristouychits approximate almost as 
much to Argntor as they do inter se; and, in fact, if that genus could be severed 
from Ptei'oslichits, it would constitute, in the structure of its trophi, a very gradual 
passage between the two, since its paraglossae are shorter and less porrccted than 
those of tlic latter, but more developed than those of the former, — wliilst in the 
truncation of their ligula? the whole three are almost coincident. Externally how- 
ever both Pyistoiiychits and Calathus recede very e"\"idently from Argvtor, though 
especially perhaps in having their fore-tibitc and male tarsi less dilated than is the 
case Avith the latter and its allied groups. The Calathi reside principally beneath 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 29 

stones in grassy spots, and in Madeira are most abundant at intermediate and 
lofty altitudes. 

20. Calathus vividus. 

C. apterus fusco-piceus, prothorace augusto elongato-quadi'ato lateribus valde reflexis ferrugiiieis, 

elytris ovatis profunde striatis, siugulo punctis tribus vel quatuor impresso, antennis pedibusque 

longissimis testaceis. 
Long. corp. lin. 6-7. 

Carahus vividus, Fab. (testibus D.D. Scliaum, AVestermann et Scbiodte) Syst. Eleu. i. 194 (1801). 
Sclion. Syn. Ins. i. 199 (1806). 

Habitat sub lapidibus truncisque arborum prolapsis in montibus JMaderse, sat frequens. 

C. apterous, light brownish-piceous, rarely dark ; the males slightly shining, the females opake. 
Head and pruthurax elongated ; the latter narrow and nearly parallel, mth the sides usually much 
reflexed and ferruginous ; longitudinally channelled in the centre, and with a large impunctate 
fovea on either side at the base. Elytra ovate, broadest about the middle, deeply striated, and 
each with three or four usually distinct impressions down its disk near the third stria from the 
suture. Legs and antenna exceedingly long, and, with the palpi, usually pale ferruginous, or 
testaceous. 

The present species may be cUstinguished from every variety of the C. con/p/a- 
natiis by its larger size, by the greater length of its legs and antennse, and by its 
narrow, elongated, parallel prothorax, which has the lateral margins usually much 
recurved. The colour also is generally somewhat paler than in that insect, and its 
legs and antennse are more testaceous. It is decidedly rarer than either of the 
other Madeiran Calathi, nevertheless it is sufficiently abundant in certain districts 
of a lofty elevation. I have taken it near the summit of the Pico Ruivo, at al)out 
6000 feet above the sea ; and it was captured by Professor Heer on the Pico dos 
Bodes and at the Jardina de Serra, ia 1851. That the insect is correctly identified 
I am enabled to state on the authority of my fi'iend Dr. H. Schaimi of Berlin, wlio 
examined the original type in the Royal Museum of Copenhagen in the year 1815. 
This conclusion has been recently corroborated by a communication from M. Dohrn 
of Stettin, who forwarded my own specimens for comparison to Copenhagen, where 
they were pronounced, by both "VYestermann and Schiodte, to be imquestionably 
the true Carohus vividus of Fabricius. It is -wi'ongly stated in the Systemu Eleu- 
tliemtorum to be winged, since, like the rest of the Madeiran Calathi, it is invari- 
ably apterous : and had not the original tyjies been stUl in existence, it would ha-\e 
been impossible to have recognised oiu^ present insect in the miserably poor 
diagnosis there given of it, which would seem indeed, — if it conveys the slightest 
idea of anything at all, being equally applicable to about two-thirds of the entire 
CaraUdce, — to be better adapted perhaps to the Sarpalus which Dejean erro- 
neously, though not unnaturally, afterwards referred to it, than to the Calathvs 
now under consideration. 



30 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

21. Calathus complanatus. 
C. apterus piceuSj prothorace subquadi-ato antice et posticc leviter angustato lateribus subreflexis vix 
fernigineis, elytris ovatis profimde striatis, singulo piinctis tribus vel quatuor impresso, antennis 
pedibusque ferrugineis. 
Long. cor]), liu. 4J-5|. 

Vw. a. depressus piceus, in utroque sexu prsesertim foemineo subopacus, prothorace angustato. 

Long. 5-5i lin. {Madera; usque ad 4000' s. m. prsedominans.) 
Var. /3. depressus nigro-piceus leviter angustatus, in utroque sexu prajsertim fcEminco subopacus, 

prothorace angustato. Long. 5-6 hn. {Deserta Grandis.) 
Var. y. valde depressus piceus latiusculus brevis, mare parum nitido, fcemina valde opaca, prothorace 

latiusculo. Long. 4^5i hn. [Partus Sancttis.) 
Var. 8. subconvexus piceus latus breviusculus, in utroque sexu prjesertim raasculo nitidus, pro- 
thorace lato. Long. 4|— 5 hn. {Madera; a 4000' s. m. usque ad cacumina montium ascendens.) 
Long. corj). hn. 4>-G. 

Calathis complanatus, (Kollar) Dej. Spec, dcs Col. iii. 73 (1828). 

Habitat insulas Maderenses, sub lapidibus trancisque arborum projectis, ubique vulgatissimus, ab ora 
maritimS, usque ad cacumina montium ascendens. 

C. apterous, usually dark piccous ; the males slightly shining, the females more or less opake. Head 
and protliorax less elongated than in the C. vividus ; the latter subquadrate, slightly narrowed 
both before and behind, with the sides less reflexed than, and not so ferruginous as, in that 
species ; longitudinally channelled in the centre, and with an impunctate fovea on either side at 
the base. Elytra ovate, broadest about the uiiddle, deeply striated, and each with three or four 
rather obscure impressions down the disk near the thu-d stria from the suture. Legs and antenna 
much shorter than in the last species, and, with the paljii, generally dark ferruginous. 

Var. a., depressed, piccous; prothorax narrow; both sexes, especially the female, nearly opake. 
{Madeira : the typical state below 4000 feet.) 

Var. /3. depressed, dark piccous, not quite so wide as the last, and the elytra rather more faintly 
striated ; prothorax narrow ; both sexes, especially the female, nearly opake. [Dezerta Grande.) 

Var. 7. exceedingly depressed, piccous, generally broader in proportion and shorter than the other 
varieties; prothorax rather wide, and a little convex anteriorly; the males very distinctly shining, 
the females exceedingly opake. {Porto Santo.) 

Var 8. rather cou\ex, light piccous, broad and short ; prothorax wide, convex in front ; both sexes 
shining, especially the male, which is often very bright. {Madeira : the usual state in the loftiest 
altitudes.) 

The present insect is perhaps one of the most variable of all the Madcu-an 
Colcoptcra, there being scarcely an altitude or a single rock which has not its own 
modification of it, although the aberrations, it is true, are oftentimes but small. 
Stni, since their outer limits are exceedingly far apart, they become, in the general 
question concerning the influence of locality on insect form, extremely important, 
and show but too clearly how great a number of so-caUed species might be erected 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 31 

on a single one, when they are not viewed in the mass, and where only a few 
examples, received from a distant country and without any local data to reason 
from, constitute the whole of our knowledge concerning them. I have not of 
course attempted, in the ahove diagnosis, to indicate all the varieties of this pro- 
tean species, for they are so numerous that such would be impossible ; but I have 
endeavoured to alight vipon those more prominent forms which are characteristic 
of the islands and altitudes in which they severally obtain. Nevertheless they 
must be regarded only as resting-points on the way, since the intermediate linlvs, 
and even occasionally perhaps monstrosities at either extremity, can be supplied 
without difficulty by observation on the spot. It will be perceived that those 
specimens which have been isolated on the Dezerta Grande have, as usual, attained 
a somewhat larger size than those on the other islands ; whereas the Porto Santan 
representatives, in addition to the flatter surface which they have assumed, have 
slightly diminished in stature : whilst in the less uniform island of Madeira, where 
alone we have sufficient altitude to influence them, we observe a range of structm'e 
proportionably large, — in length, breadth, colour and sculpture, according to the 
cii'cumstances of the respective districts. 

22. Calathus fuscus. 

C. sub-alatus piceus, prothorace quadrato antice leviter angustato lateribus ferrugineis, elytris sub- 

parallelis siibtiliter striatis, singulo punctis duobus impresso, antennis pedibiisque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 5. 

Gar abus fuscus, Fab. Ent. Syst. i. 158 (1792). 

■ amhiguus, Payk. Fna Suec. i. 165 (1798). 

Harpalus fuscus, Gyll. Ins. Suec. ii. 126 (1810). 
Calathus fuscus, Dej. Spec, ties Col. iii. 71 (1828). 

Habitat sub lapidibus in montibus superioribus Maderse, inde a 3500' s. m., copiosissime. 

C. apterous, or with the wings very rudimentary ; piceous, the males exceedingly shining, the females 
rather more opake. Head and prothurax much polished ; the latter quadrate, wide behind and a 
little narrowed in front, with the sides scarcely at all reflesed, though brightly ferruginous ; lon- 
gitudinally but not deeply channelled in the centre, and with a very shallow impunctate fovea on 
either side at the base. Elytra nearly parallel, slightly broader in the middle than at the base, 
finely striated, and each with two imjjrcssions on the disk, the anterior one being near the third 
stria, and the posterior one near the second, from the suture. Legs, antennce and palpi 
testaceous. 

A conxmon European insect, at once distinguished from the two preceding species 
by its comparatively parallel form, wide prothorax, glossy sm"face, by its shorter 
legs and antennge, and by its more finely striated elytra, which have only two 
punctures, and those often very indistinct, upon the disk of each. It occurs 
abundantly beneath stones in the mountains of Madeira, though only at liigh 
altitudes, making its appearance at about 3000 feet above the sea, and ascending 



32 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

to the summits of the loftiest peaks. Diu'ing the autumnal and "winter months I 
have observed it in the greatest profusion in the elevated region between the Pico 
da Lagoa and the Pico dos Arieros ; and on the extreme summit of the Pico 
Ruivo, 6100 feet above the sea, in the middle of the siimmer. It is abundant in 
most parts of Eui'ope, being recorded in Sweden, Germany, France, S^vitzerland, 
Russia and Dalmatia. In cooler latitudes it would appear to seek the lower 
lands, — in England being found more particularly on the southern coasts ; and on 
the sandy sea-shores in Wales. The Madeiran specimens differ from their more 
northern representatives in having their wings either very rudimentary or else 
entirely obsolete. 

Genus 12. ANCHOMENUS. 

Bonelli, Ohservat. Enf. i. tah. sipi. (1809) . 

Corpus mediocre vel uiinusculum, elongato-ovatum : prothorace vel (iit in typieis) angustato sub- 
cordato angulis posticis subrectis, vel (ut in aberrantibus) latiore subtransverso angulis posticis 
rotundatis : alls modo (ut in spccicbus nostris) amplis, modo obsoletis. Antennce filiformes, 
capite protlioraccque paulo lougiorcs, articulo primo sequentibus robustiore, secundo brevi, tertio 
primo longitudine sequali. Labrum quadratum, antice \i\ cmarginatum et setis paucis lon- 
gissimis instructum. Mandibulce incurvBe acutffi, intus basi denticulatse. Maxilla biloba; : lobo 
externa palpifornii biarticulato : intcrno acuto incurvo, apice uncinato, intus valde eiliato. Palpi 
filifornics : maxillareti articulo ultimo subf'usiformi-truncato : lahudes articulo ultimo vel (ut in 
typieis) subacuminato, vel (ut in aberrantibus) subfusiformi-truncato. Mentum transversum, 
antice profunde cmarginatum et dente medio acuto integro instructum. Ligula cornea, apice 
truncata pilisque duobus longissimis aucta; paraglossis membranaceis, ei subsequalibus. Pedes 
graciusculi : tarsis anticis in maribus articulis primo, secundo et tertio dilatatis : unc/uiculis 
simplicibus. 

Lilvc so many of the allied genera, Anclwmemis does not in its oral organs 
present any very decided modifications peculiarly its ovm, — its principal character 
consisting in the shape of the central tooth of the cmargination of its mentum, 
which, instead of being bihd, is acute and entu-e. In external aspect the species 
ha^'c a tendency to arrange themselves under two tyjies of form, which however, 
since they merge imperceptibly into each other, cannot be considered as of more 
than sectional importance. In the first of these, which are usually looked upon 
as the normal members of the group, the prothorax is comparatively narrow and 
subcordate, and with the hinder angles well defined and more or less approaching 
to right angles ; the labial palj)i moreover arc slightly acuminated at theii- apex : 
whilst in the second the prothorax is broader and more transverse, the posterior 
angles are consideral)ly rounded, and the terminal joint of the labial palpi is, like 
tliat of the maxillary ones of both divisions, subfusiform-truncate. Tliis latter 
group has been ordinarily knoAvn under the generic name of Agonnm, but its 
distinctions are so gradually lost sight of in those of the foi'mer that it cannot 
possibly be retained as separate, although in coimtries where the intermediate 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 33 

links do not exist, it may be convenient to regard it as at any rate a section of 
Anchomenus proper. In the only two Madeiran specimens which I have hitherto 
been able to detect, it so happens that we have a typical representative of each of 
these divisions ; and hence the above remarks seem almost necessary, in order to 
account for the juxtaposition of insects apparently so dissimilar under a common 
genus. The Anchomenl occm- beneath stones in damp localities, and are especially 
partial to the margins of streams and swampy imdi-aiiied spots. 

§ I. Protliorax angustatus subcordatus, angulis posticis subrecfis : palpi labiales a.vticuh ultimo sub- 

acuminato. 

23. Anchomenus palUpes. 

A. nigro-piceus, prothorace postice punctato, elytris striatis, antennis pedibusque pallidis. 

Var. /3. piceus, elytrorum margine, antennis pedibusque pallidis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3^. 

Carabus obhngus, Fab. i:nt. Si/sf. i. 140. 72 (sed vid. 71) (1792). 

pallipes. Fab. Syst. Eleu. i. 187 (1801). 

albipes, Illig. Mag.fdr Iiisekt. i. .54 (1801). 

Ancliomenus albipes, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, v. 175 (1824). 

palUpes, Dej. Spec, des Col. iii. 119 (1828). 

, Heer, Fna Col. Helv. 58 (1841). 

Habitat per litora fluviorum atque in locis humidis Maderse, sub lapidibus, toto anno vadgaris. 

A. pitcby-black, slightly shining. Head and prothorax much narrower than the elytra ; the latter a 
little convex, subcordate, with an obscure dorsal channel, and coar.sely punctured behind. Elytra 
striated, the strise being impunctate. Antenna, palpi and legs pale testaceous. 
Var. /3. less deeply black, with the margins of the elytra, and occasionally also the suture, pale fer- 
ruginous. 

Rather a common insect, beneath stones, at the edges of most of the small 
moimtaiu streams of Madeira, though more particularly abundant between the 
limits of from 2000 to 4000 feet above the sea. I have not myself observed it ia 
the other islands of the group, but I possess an old and pale-colom-ed specimen 
from the collection of the late Dr. Heiaecken, and labelled as a " Stomis," which 
appears to have been taken in Porto Santo. It is universal throughout Eiu-ope, 
and occurs likewise in Als^eria. 



"^O^ 



§ II. ProtJiorax latior, plus minusve transversiis, angulis posticis rotundatis : pa^pi labiales artieulo ultimo 
{ut in maxillaribus) subfusiformi-truiicato. (Agonum, Bon.) 

24. Anchomenus marginatus. 
A. aeneo-viridis depressus, prothorace postice utrinque impresso, elytris subpunctato-striatis, singulo 

punctis tribus impresso, margiue tibiisque testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 4i-4i. 



34 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Cardbus marginatus, Linn. Fna Suec. (nee Sifst. Nat.) 222 (1761). 

, Fab. Eiit. Syst i. 158 (1792). 

Sarpaliis marginatus, GyU. Fna Suec. ii. 154 (1810). 
Agonum marginatum, Dej. Spec, des Col. iii. 133 (1828). 
, Ei-ich. Klif. der Mark Brand, i. 109 (1837). 

Habitat snb lapidibus in liumidis cditioribus Madera;, rarissime ; a meipso ad Lagoam Fanalensem 
mense Julio a.d. 1850 inventus. 

A. green, with an seneous tinge, and slightly shining. Head and prothorax broader than those of the 
last species, but nevertheless narrower than the elytra; the /o/v«e?- very green ; the latter de- 
pressed, the sides and hinder angles rounded, with a dorsal channel, and with a deep impunctate 
fovea on either side at the base ; the extreme lateral margins sometimes obscurely pale. Elytra 
very delicately granulated ; striated, the strife with very minutely impressed points ; with three 
large impressions down the disk of each, the anterior one of which is on the third stria, and the 
two posterior ones on the second, from the suture ; the margins broadly testaceous. Antenna at 
base, and the femora, somewhat piceous. Tibia, except at the extreme apex, testaceous. Tarsi 
and apex of antenna usually piccous-black. 

Although SO ahundant an insect throughout Europe and in Algeria, the A. mar- 
ginatus is ajiparcntly of the greatest rarity in Madeh-a, occurring only at a very 
lofty elevation. The upland district of the Fanal (ahout 5000 feet above the sea) is 
the only region in wliich I have hitherto observed it, where, during my encamp- 
ment in July 1850, I eaptui-ed several specimens from beneath stones in moist 
spots, especially at the extreme head of the Ribeiro Fundo and at the bottom of 
the round crater-like basin, known as the Lagoa, immediately before the descent 
of the movintain-road towards Porto Moniz. 



Genus 13. OLISTHOPUS. (Tab. I. fig. 7, 8.) 

Dcjean, Spec, des Col. iii. 17G (1828). 

Corpus minusculum, plus minusve elongato-ovatum : prothorace subcordato, angulis posticis rotun- 
datis : alis (in spcciebus Maderensibus) obsoletis. Antenna filiformes, capite prothoraceque 
paulo longiores, articulo primo scquentibus robustiore, secundo brevi, tertio priuio longitudine 
sequali. Lahrum (I. Sa) quadi-atum, antice integrum et setis paucis longissimis instructum. 
Mandifmla acutrc rcctiuscula;. Maxilla (I. 8 b) bilobse : lubo externa palpiformi biarticulato : 
interna acuto incurvo, apice uncinato, intus valde ciliato. Palpi articulo ultimo fusiformi-acumi- 
nato. Mentum (I. 8 c) transversum, antice profunde emarginatum et dente medio uuUo instruc- 
tum. lAgula cornea, apice truncata pilisque duobus longis aucta ; para^/ossis membranaceis, earn 
paulo superantibus. Pedes graciusculi : tarsis anticis in maribus (I. 8 d) articuhs primo, secundo 
et tertio Icviter dilatatis : unguiculis simplicibus. 

The Olisthopl in outward aspect approach some of the aberrant members of the 
last genus ; nevertheless they recede from the Anchomenl altogether in having no 
central tooth to the cmargination of tlieu- mentmn. The species, which are few in 
number, arc usually extremely shining and of a broA\'nish-brassy tinge. They 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 35 

would seem to play a rather important part amongst the Carahidce of these islands, 
the whole three species being, apparently, not only peculiar to Madeira, hut two 
out of them being so excessively abundant A\dthin their restricted limits, as, in all 
probability, to answer some especial purpose in the insect economy of those remote 
regions. They reside beneath stones and the bark of trees, principally at a lofty 
elevation, making their appearance in the autumn and lasting until the end of the 
following spring. 

35. OUsthopus Maderensis, WoU. (Tab. I. fig. 7.) 

O. ovatus subconvexiis uigro- vel aeneo-fuscus, prothorace rotundato, elytris striatis, singulo punctis 

tribus impresso, interstitiis obsoletissime granulatis, margine et sutura plus minusve nifo-flaves- 

centibus, antennis pedibusque pallido-testaceis. 
Var. (3. major rufo-fuscus opacus, prothoracis lateribus, elytrorumqiie margine et suturS, late flaves- 

centibus, singulo punctis tribus obsoletissime impresso, interstitiis distincte granidatis. (Ins. 

Deserta Grandis.) 
Long. Corp. lin. 3-3g^. 

Habitat sub lapidibus in montibus Maderse, a 2000' s. m. usque ad cacumina ascendens, tempore 
hiberno et vernali, copiosissimus : var. /3. sola in Deserta Grandi, et tantum illic, nisi fallor, 
occurrit, qua mense Januario a.d. 1849 plurima specimina in summa insula detexi. 

O. ovate, very shining, a little convex, usually dark brassy-brown, or else brassy-black. Head and 
prothorax darker than the rest of the surface ; the former elongated ; the latter rather large, wide 
in front, and much rounded posteriorly, rugosely punctured at the sides and behind, and with a 
channel Aovra. the disk ; the extreme margin very obscurely paler. Elytra finely striated, the 
interstices, under a high magnifying power, being most minutely granuled ; with three more or 
less distinct impressions down the disk of each near to the third stria from the suture ; the margins, 
especially about the shoulders, distinctly, and the sutui'c more or less obscurely fuscescent. Legs, 
antenna and palpi pale testaceous. 
Var. /3. larger and opake ; reddish-brown, the margins of the prothorax and elytra, and the suture 
of the latter, broadly and distinctly pale : the prothorax scarcely at all punctured behind : the 
interstices of the elijtra very distinctly granuled, and tlie three impressed points on the third stria 
of each from the suture almost obsolete. (The state peculiar to the Deserta Grande.) 

I had for a long time considered the present Olisthopns to be identical with the 
O. glahratus, of Brull^, from the Canary Islands, of which indeed I still think it 
not impossible that it may turn out eventually to be a local state. Nevertheless, 
not having been able to procure specimens for comparison, and since the present 
species by no means answers to the short and unsatisfactory description given by 
Brulle in the Sistoire Ncdurelle cles lies Canaries of Webb and Berthelot, I am 
induced to retain it as separate, until at any rate fiu-ther e\ddence shall decide the 
point. In the absence in fact of actual examples to judge from, it is impossible 
to reconcile the Madeiran insect with the diagnosis, as there enimciated, of the 

f2 



36 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Canarian one. Thus, for instance, no mention is made whatsoever of the pale 
suture, which (though occasionally ohscure) is never absent from the O. 3Iaderensls : 
nor can I at all recognise the greatly produced humeral angles of the elytra, and 
the fiexuose hinder margin of the prothorax, wliich in that description constitute 
two of the most important features. The elytral strise, likewise, are said to be 
deep, and the interstices convex, neither of Avhich is the case in those of our 
present insect, — which woiild appear moreover to be larger than the one there 
detailed. Hence, I conclude, either that the two are in reality distinct, or else 
(assimiing M. BriUle's diagnosis to be a generally correct one) that the Canarian 
form is a very decided variety as compared with the !Madeiran one. Be this how- 
ever as it may, the Avant of any certain information on the subject renders it not 
only desu'able, but even necessary not to amalgamate them. The O. Madei'ensis 
may be at once known from the O. ErlccB by its larger, broader, more ovate, and 
convexer body, by its darker colour, wider and more posteriorly-rounded pro- 
thorax, and by the three impressed points on the disk of each of its elytra being 
smaller and less evident than those of that species. It is usually also more glossy, 
and its pale elytral margins are sometimes only ajiparent at the shoulders, since 
the lighter colour has always a tendency to vanish posteriorly. In their liabits 
the two species are altogether dissunilar, the first occurring, almost exclusively, 
under stones in open grassy spots, Avhilst the second harbours beneath the bark 
and fibre of trees -within the sylvan regions. The O. Maderensis, moreover, 
inhabits a wider extent of country, not only making its appearance at a lower 
elevation than the O. EriccB, but ranging to a higher one. The former indeed 
may be said to commence at 2500 feet above the sea, and to continue to the 
summits of the loftiest peaks ; whereas the latter is not found in any profusion 
below 4000, and, after passing through its maximum at an even higher level, it 
almost ceases at an altitude of about 5000 feet. Ovu* present Olisthopus seems to 
be more particularly abundant from the end of the summer to the following spring, 
existing in large numbers on most of the grassy mountain slopes and exposed 
upland districts of the interior of the island, in company with the numerous other 
insects which delight in such localities. The var. ft, from the Dezerta Grande, is 
particularly interesting, as not only supplying another example of the results of 
isolation on external form, but as showing, in addition, the singular tendency 
which most of the insects cxhiljit on that rock to attain a somewhat larger than 
the average size. So great indeed is the change which the O. JIadereiisis has 
undergone, through a long scries of ages, on the Dezerta Grande, that had tlie 
case been a solitary one, I should not have hesitated in regarding the specimens 
obtained from thence as specifically distinct ; nevertheless, with the knowledge 
both of the modifying eff'ects of isolation, and also of the kind of modification 
essentially ])oculiar to that island, I am perfectly satisfied that it is a mere local 
state, although a very remarkable one, and has no claim whatsoever to be other- 
wise considered. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 37 

26. Olisthopus Ericse, TT'oU (Tab. I. fig. 8.) 

O. elongato-ovatus depressus fusco-aeneus, prothorace elongato-rotundato, elytris striatis, singiilo 
piinctis tribus magnis profunde impresso, interstitiis distincte granulatis, margine et sutura plus 
minusve flavescentibus, antennis pedibusque pallido-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2i-2|^. 

Habitat per partem Maderse sylvaticam, prsecipue sub cortice Erica scoparia, L., et E. arborea, L., 
inter 4000' et 5000' s.m. crescentiunij sestate non infrequens : in regione Fanalensi necnon ad 
Cruzinhas abundat, qua mense Julio a.d. 1850 copiosissime deprehensi. 

O. narrower than the last, elongate-ovate, sliining, depressed, and pale brassy-brown, — occasionally 
almost Ecneo-testaceous, and sometimes with a slight metallic splendour of blue or green. Head 
and prothorax darker than the rest of the surface ; the former shorter than that of the 0. Made- 
rensis; the latter narrow, and attenuated posteriorly, nevertheless with the hinder angles not 
completely rounded oiF; very rugo^ely punctured at the sides and behind, and with a deep 
channel down the disk ; the sides sometimes a little pale. Elytra faintly striated, the interstices 
distinctly granuled ; with three very large and distinct impressions down the disk of each near to 
the third stria from the sutm-e ; the margins and suture more or less distinctly and broadly pale, 
the lighter colour being occasionally so much diffused as to leave an elongated \'itta on the disk 
alone slightly darker. Legs, antenna and palpi very pale testaceous. 

The smaller size, and narrower and flatter body of the present species, added to 
its paler and more metallic surface, more quadrate prothorax, and the larger and 
deeper punctures down the disk of each of its el}"tra, will be sufficient to separate 
it at first sight from the last. Its interstices, moreover, are more evidently 
granuled than those of the O. Maderensis, its prothorax, at the sides and behind, 
is more roughly punctured, and its antennae are distinctly shorter. It is also by 
far the rarer insect of the two, or at any rate more local, its range, as already 
stated, being both smaller and confined to portions of the island less easy of 
access. It does not appear to be ever very abimdant either below the altitude of 
4000, or above 5000, feet, although dm-ing the winter-time I have taken occa- 
sional specimens so low do^ii in the Boa Ventura as about the midway point 
between the coast and the Bocca das Torrinhas, which is scarcely elevated perhaps 
more than 2500 feet above the sea. It is evident however that it attains its 
maximum in a much loftier region, since on many of the extensive Serras between 
the Limits of 4000 and 5000 feet it exists in actual profusion. Diu-ing my encamp- 
ment at the Cruzinhas, in July 1850, I had an opportunity of witnessing this, on 
a large scale, in the dense forest uplands known as the Serra de Seisal. That 
district is principally clothed with the gigantic Tree Heaths {Erica scoparia, Linn., 
and JE. arhorea, Linn.) ; and beneath the fil^rous outer envelope of these the O. Ericce 
literally swarmed. Nor indeed did it preponderate in any one particular spot, 
but extended over the whole of those sylvan tracts. It is a remarkably active 
insect ; and the only successful way in which I could seciu^e them was, by placing 
a large net beneath the trunks and branches of the trees (an operation which their 
singularly distorted and flexuose forms rendered extremely easy), and peeling off 



38 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

promiscuously the clry, loosely-attached, external fibre, when the OUsthopi would 
fall out hj hundi-eds from beneath it. They were generally accompanied by the 
pupa and imago of a minute Blatta, which, if possible, was even the more agUe of 
the two. They were seldom to be obtaiaed by any other means, although aberrant 
specimens might here and there be seen, beneath stones, or the chippings of 
timber, — the too frequent indications of the woodman's axe in those remote 
regions. 

27. OUsthopus elongatus, WoU. 

O. parallelo-ovatus depressus fusco-seueus, prothorace subquadi-ato-rotundato, elytris striatis, singulo 

punctis tribus impresso, margine obscure siibflavescenti, antennis pedibusquc pallido-testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2|. 

Habitat sub lapidibus in pinetis Madera, necnon in collibus apricis maritimis, bine inde autumno non 
infrequens. 

O. elongate-ovate aud considerably parallel, a little shining, depressed, and brassy-brown. Head 
and /jroMorr/a' rather darker than the elytra; the. former somewhat short; the latter subquadrate, 
and with the hinder angles a little rounded, rugosely punctured at the sides and behind, and 
with a channel down the disk. Elytra distinctly striated, with three rather large impressions 
down the disk of each near to the third stria from the suture ; the margins, especially at the 
shoulders, obscurely fuscescent. Let/s, antenna and paljii pale testaceous. 

Apart from minor characteristics sufiiciently apparent, the O. elongatus may be 
known from its Madeu'an allies by its narrower aud more parallel outline, and by 
its subquadrate, concolorous prothorax. It would seem to be the representative 
in these islands of the European O. fuscatus, although at the same time pre- 
senting too many distinctive peculiarities of its own to allow of its being identified 
with that insect. Thus, it recedes from it in its much smaller size, narrower and 
more parallel form, in its pale teneous surface, in its more quacbate and rather 
shorter prothorax, and in its less deeply striated elytra. Nevertheless it has 
clearly a greater affinity with the ordinary OUsthopi of more northern latitudes 
than either of the other species. It is, apparently, not very common, and con- 
fined to lower altitudes than the O. Ericce and the O. 3Iaderensis, occurring, 
beneath stones, either on the grassy slopes in the viciaity of the coast, or else in 
the pine-woods of intermediate elevations. I have obser^'cd it fi-equcntly, dm-ing 
the autumnal months, on the exposed sunny cliffs towards the Brazen Head, and 
in the fii*-plantations below the Palheiro,— a position in which it has been likewise 
captm*ed, subsequently, by M. Rousset. 

Genus 14. ARGUTOR. 

(Megerie) Steph. W. Brit. Ent. i. 102 (1S28). 

Coifus mediocre, plus minusve oblongo-quadratvim, dcpressum : prothorace quadi-ato, postice (in 
nostris saltern) lato : alts modo amplis, mode (ut in speciebus Maderensibus) obsolctis. Antenna 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 39 

filiformes, capite protlioraceque paulo longiores, articulo primo sequentibus robustiore, secundo 
brevi. Labrum traasverso-quadratum, antice vix emarginatum et setis paucis longissimis in- 
structum, angulis anticis rotundatis ciliatis. Mandibulce incurvje acute, intus basi denticulatse. 
Maxilla bilobse : lobo externo palpiformi biarticulato : inteimo acuto incurvo, apice uncinato, 
intus valde ciliato. Palpi filiformes, articulo ultimo fusiformi-truucato. Mentum transversum, 
antice profunde emarginatum et dente medio brevi bifido instructum. Ligula cornea, apice 
truncata pilisque duobus longis aucta ; paraglossia membranaceis liberis, earn paulo superantibus. 
Pedes robusti : tibiis masculis * (in speciebus Maderensibus) modo intermediis, modo posteri- 
oribus plus miuusve cui-vato-dilatatis et intus ante apicem interdum ampliato-distortis : tarsis 
anticis in maribus articulis primo, secundo et tertio dilatatis, cordatis et subtus biseriato-setosis : 
unguiculis simplicibus. 

Both Argutor and Omaseus, although formerly located far apart, are now 
universally allowed to be but sections of the great genus Pterostichus ; and 
perhaps rightly so, since it must be admitted that theu- distinctive characters are 
(like those iadeed of all the subdivisions of the latter, as now received,) so small, 
and, being merely external ones, merge into each other by such slow and imper- 
ceptible degrees, that it is impossible, except under a very lax system and some- 
what unaginary laws, to regard any of them as of generic importance. Neverthe- 
less, since it is equally true that the several subsidiary modifications into which 
the Tterostichi have a tendency to distribute themselves are well enough defined 
in their normal states to be made use of with much convenience, for more than 
subsidiary purposes, in countries where the intermediate connecting links do not 
exist, and since the few representatives of the entu-e group which I have hitherto 
detected in the Madeka Islands belong essentially to Argutor and Omaseus as 
formerly enunciated, I have preferred in the present instance keeping them sepa- 
rate, — deeming this brief remark as sufficient to point out how far they have any 
real claims for isolation when a wider system of arrangement, so as to embrace 
the whole of then- allies kno^vn to science, is entered upon. The Madeiran species 
of Argutor differ very materially from those of boreal and temperate climates, as 
radiating from a larger and apterous type which appears to attain its maximum 
in Mediterranean countries, though especially perhaps in the north of Africa, on 
the elevated Serras of Spain and Portugal, and m the Pyi-enees. To this section 
belong the A. Abaxoides, Amaroicles, Barbara, Hispanica, and other such-Hke 
forms, which would abnost seem, prima facie, to merit the right of removal from 

* Species hujus generis quae insulas Maderenses colunt secundum tibiarura maris structuram hoc modo 
apte dissolvi possimt : 

§ I. TiUce intermedin ante apicem intus valde ampUato-distortcB. 

1. Tibi» posticae ad apicem dilatatse robustus. 

2. Tibiae posticse ad apicem fere simplices dilatieollis. 

§ II. TibicB intermedicB aid simplices, aut ante apicem intus dbscurissime ampliato-distortce. 

3. Tibiae posticse ad apicem simplices gi-acilipes. 

4. Tibiae posticae ad apicem obscure dilatataj cm'tiis. 



40 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

the smaller members of the group. After a careful exammation, however, of their 
oi-al organs, I can perceive nothing in structiu-e which intlieates the slightest 
aljerration from the normal state ; and it is probable therefore that there may be 
many specific gradations yet undiscovered in the mountains of central Eiu'ope, 
wliich will unite the comparatively gigantic individuals of the south viixh. the 
minute ones of northern regions. Some such steps indeed do actually occiu" in 
the SavIss Alps, where I have taken, at a high altitude near the head of the 
St. Gothard Pass, species (the A. sjiadicens, Dej., for instance, and the ^. alpestris, 
Heer) having much the habits and outline of our present type, but inferior as 
regards size. 

The Ai'gutors of Madeira, although not positively peculiar to the upland por- 
tions of the island, are more particularly abundant between the limits of from 
2000 to 4000 feet above the sea. On the southern side indeed they seldom make 
their appearance below 1500 feet, although in the north, where the climate is con- 
siderably colder, I have observed occasional specimens, dui'ing the winter months, 
even on the level of the shore. In both instances however they begin to diminish 
in numbers above 4000 feet, and at 5000 they have usually ceased. The sylvan 
district in fact, properly so called, may be said to be tlieir range ; a definition how- 
ever which, while it is actually true as regards altitude, is only partially so as 
regards position, — since, in addition to their normal habitat, beneath stones, logs 
of wood, and fallen leaves, Avithin the forest regions, they do also occiu* on the 
grassy slopes and moist cloudy plains of the ojien covmtry. Up to the present 
period I have not remarked a single Argutor in any of the other islands of the 
group, from which indeed it is far from imjiossible that the genus may have 
partially at any rate, if not entu-ely, disappeared since the destruction of the ancient* 
timber, which is recorded, at least in Porto Santo*, to have been once luxTiriant. 

28. Argntor robustus, Woll. 
A. robustus nigro-piceus subconvexus, prothorace quadrato, elytris profunde striatis singulo punctis 
duobus minutissimis imprcsso, antennis pedibusque rufo-piceis. 
Mas, nitidus, elytris parallelis ; tibiis intermediis curvatis ante apicem intus valde ampliato-distortis, 

posticis subrectis ad apicem dilatatis. 
Fcem. subopacus, elytris ovatis ; tibiis posterioribiis simplicibus. 
Long. Corp. liu. 5:^-6j. 

Habitat per regioncm Madera; sylvaticam, sub lapidibus truncisque arborum prolapsis, pi-resertirn a 
.2000' usque ad 5000' s. m., toto auno frequens. 

A. robust, dark piccous, and a little convex. Protlwrax large, quadrate, with a slight dorsal channel, 
and with a distinct subpuuctatc fovea on cither side at the base. Elytra deejily striated, the 



* Cf. Hktaria Insulana das Wios a Portugal Sugeytas no Oceano occidental. Composita par Antonio 
CordvTo da Compagnia do Jcsu : Lisboa, 1717. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 41 

striae impunctate, and the interstices convex ; mtli two exceedingly minute impressed points on 
the disk of each, the anterior one being near the third stria, and the posterior one near the 
second, from the suture. Antenna, palpi and leys rufo-piceous ; the last strong and robust. 

Male, shining, and with the elji:ra parallel; the intermediate tibia slightly curved, greatly ddated 
at, and suddenly distorted internally a little before, the apex ; and with the hinder ones nearly 
straight, likewise (though less powerfully) dilated at theii- apex, but not distorted internally. 

Female, rather opake, and with the elytra ovatCj being somewhat expanded posteriorly ; and witli 
the/oM?' hinder tibia simple. 

This large Argutor may be at once known from the remainder of tlie genus here 
described by its robnster form and more quadrate prothorax (which has moreover 
the basal fovese perceptibly, although not deeply, ptmctured), and by its four 
hinder m.ale tibiae being, all of them, especially the intermediate ones (which are, 
likeA\ise, curved and inwardly distorted), suddenly and distinctly dilated at their 
apex. The degree of tlilatation and curvatiu'e indeed of their fotu- hinder tiljise, 
added to the relative amount, and the peculiarity, of the distortion of the imier 
edge of the intermediate pau", is at once sufficient whereljy to distinguish the males 
of all the Madeiran species from each other ; but the females, in which these tibial 
modifications do not hold good, are, inter se, proportionably less easy of identifica- 
tion. The females of the present insect, however, may be easily recognised by 
theu" large size, those of the A. gixtcilipes alone even approaching them in statui-e, 
with which however they cannot possilily be confounded, theii" thick and less 
parallel bodies, added to their more powerful legs, at once preventing such a con- 
tingency. The A. robustus is by no means an uncommon species thi'oughout 
Madeu-a, occurring beneath stones and dead leaves in most parts of the island, 
especially Tvithin the sylvan districts and between the altitudes of al)out 2000 and 
5000 feet above the sea. 

29. Argutor gracilipes, WoU. 

A. parallelo-oblongus angustus gracilis nigro-piceus depressus, prothorace subquach-ato, elytris striatis 
singulo punctis duobus minutissimis impresso, antennis pedibusque rufo-piceis, tibiis poste- 
rioribus in utroque sexu simplicibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 5-5|-. 

Habitat in iisdem locis ac prsecedens sed illo paulo rarior : in Madera boreah usque ad maris litus 
descendit, qua per oram maritimam prope Sao Vincente tempore hiberno sub lapidibus observavi. 

A. parallel-oblong, slenderer and nan'ower than the last species, dark piceous, depressed ; the males 
shining, the females somewhat less so. Prothorax rather short, subquadrate, slightly narrowed, and 
with the angles a little produced, in front ; with a dorsal channel, and with a distinct impunctate 
fovea on either side at the base. Elytra elongate, parallel, or sometimes just perceptibly 
attenuated behind, deeply striated, although not quite so coarsely so as the last species, the stria; 
impunctate, and the interstices a little convex ; with two exceedingly miaute impressed points in 
the same positions as those on the A. robustus. Antenna, palpi and legs rufo-piceous ; the last 
long and slender, and with the four hinder tibire simple in both sexes. 

G 



42 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

An exceedingly well-defined insect, and one wMch may be readily recognised by 
its comparatively slender and more parallel form, and by its foiu' binder tibiae 
being simple in botli sexes. In fact, witb the exception, of course, of the dilata- 
tion of the anterior tarsi, the sole difference between the males and the females 
is that the former are just perceptibly the more shining of the two. In its large 
size it recedes from all the Madeu-an Ai'gutors except the A. robiistus, from which 
nevertheless its more depressed and narrower body, added to its much slenderer 
legs, will, apart from the structm'c of its tibiae, at once remove it. It is not quite 
so abu^ndant as that species, although widely distrilmted over the island at inter- 
mediate altitudes. On the northern side indeed it descends to a low elevation, 
since I have observed it, diu-ing the winter months, at the Passo d'^U'eia near 
Sao Viucente beneath stones on the level of the sea-shore. On the southern, how- 
ever, I l)elieve it seldom occurs below the elevation of about 1500 feet. 

30. Argutor dilaticoUis, Woll. 

A. oblongo-ovatus latus nigro-piceus valde depressus, prothorace subquadrato postice lato, elytris 
Icviter striatis singulo punctis duobus distinctis impresso, antenais pedibusque rufo-piceis. 
Mas, nitidus ; tibiis intermediis longe ante apicem iatus valde ampliato-distortis, posticis subrectis 

fere simplicibus. 
Fcem. vix minus nitidus ; tibiis posterioribus simplicibus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 4^-5. 

Habitat sub lapidibus foliisque arborum dejectis per partem Maderse sylvaticam restate non infrequens : 
ad Lombo dos Pecegueiros abundat, qua mense Julio a.d. 1850 copiose deprebensi. 

A. broad, oblong-ovate, robust, dark piceous, and mucli depressed. Prothorax large, subquadi'ate, 
usually very broad bebind and a little narrowed in front ; witb a slight dorsal channel, and with 
a somewhat obscure, impunctate fovea on either side at the base. Elytra ovate, broad at the 
extreme base and attenuated posteriorly, where moreover there is scarcely any appearance of 
trimcation or of excavation ; finely striated, the stria; impunctate, and the interstices much flattened ; 
with two very distinctly impressed points in the same positions as those of the last species. 
Antenna, palpi and legs rufo-piceous ; the last robust. 

Male, shining; the intermediate tibice considerably curved, a good deal dilated at, and suddenly 
distorted internally a long way before, the apex ; and with the kinder ones straight and almost 
simple. 

Female, scarcely less shining ; and with the four kinder tibia simple. 

The present Argutor and the foUo^^•ing one, from then- smaller size and com- 
paratively ovate forms, are not likely to be confoimded with either of the pre- 
ceding species, and it is consequently only necessary to be able to distinguish them 
inter se. The males can of course be at once recognised from the characters 
given ill thcii- respective diagnoses, — the iutermeiUate tibia? being much curved in 
those of the A. dilaticoUis, and with the ianer edge considerably distorted or 
developed at a distance from the apex ; whilst in those of the A. ciirtm the whole 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 43 

posterior four are nearly simple. But there is a mucli greater difl&culty in sepa- 
rating tlie females, since, from then' similarity of outline, the smaller varieties of 
the former and the larger ones of the latter do certainly approach each other at 
times very closely, and might almost be supposed, were it not for the great struc- 
tui'al peculiarities afforded by the males, to belong to one and the same species. 
Still, even in the case of the females, it is only in these intermediate links, Ijeing 
the extremes of each, aberrant in the opposite directions, that there is any real 
difficulty in separating the two, since tyjiicalhj the prothorax of the A. dilaticolUs 
is so much wider behind, in both sexes, than is the case with that of the A. curtns, 
and its elytra are so much broader at their extreme base and more attenuated 
posteriorly (there being moreover scarcely any tendency to the apical excavation 
which is more or less apparent in nearly all the states of the A. curttis), and the 
entire insect is so mvich flatter, larger, and more robust (especially in the deve- 
lopment of its legs), that in its normxd state even the female characters are easUy 
grasped. But, as touching the externally approxunating varieties of each above 
mentioned, I must confess that, after a careful examination of more than eighty 
specimens in my possession, there are but few points on whicli to lay hold in 
drawing the liiie of demarcation between them ; and I think perhaps that the 
somcAvhat less truncated ehi:ra and more robust legs of the A. dilaticolUs are the 
most important facts to be observed, in such sjyecimens, while endeavoiu-ing to 
identify them. And we may here just remark, that the near resemblance of the 
insects in question, in these intermediate but fortunately not very numerous 
female links, does not in any way affect their specific validity, which is already 
proved to a demonstration by the invariable structiu'al differences in the tiluoe of 
theu' respective males. And, proceeding therefore on the positive conviction that 
differences do exist, even though we may not always be able at once to appreciate 
them, we are compelled to attach the greatest weight to minute (and, in ordinary 
cases, perhaps trivial) characters which may afford the slightest clue towards a 
right adjustment of the specimens before vis. 

The A. dilaticolUs is, apparently, much rarer than any of the other Madeu'an 
representatives of the genus, being found principally beneath stones and logs of wood 
in the dense ravines of intermediate altitudes, especially towards the north of the 
island. During my encampment at the Lombo dos Pecegueiros, in July 1850, I 
captured it in comparative abundance throughout the whole of that remote district. 

31. ArgTitor curtus, WoU. 

A. oblongo-ovatus graciusculus nigro-piceus subdepressus, prothorace subquadrato postice ssepius 
latiusculo, elytris leviter striatis singulo pucctis duobus sat distinctis impresso, antenuis pedi- 
busque nifo-pieeis. 
Mas, nitidus ; tibiis intermediis leviter cun'atis ante apicem intus obscurissime anipliato-distortis, 
posticis vix eurvatis ad apicem obscure dilatatis. 

g2 



14 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Foem. paulo magis depressus, interduni subopacus ; tibiis posterioribus simplicibus. 
Var. /3. paulo angustior coiivexiusculus, prothorace subelongato, elytris apice minus truncatis. 
Long. coij). lin. 3|-4|. 

Habitat in convallibus declivibusque Maderse humidiusculis, praesertim sub lapidibus truncisque arbo- 
runi ])rojectis, tempore vernali frequens. 

A. oblong-ovate, narrowei' tban the last species, and less robust, piceous, or dai'k piceous, and some- 
times with a just perceptible aeneous tinge. Prothorax subquadrate, not quite so broad behind 
as that of the last si)ccies, and more narrowed anteriorly ; \\\t\\ a slight dorsal channel, and with 
an iuipunctate fovea on either side at the base, — about which however a few exceedingly obscure 
and irregular punctures are souiutimes evident. Elytra ovate, in most instances broadest a little 
behind the extreme base, and rather more truncated at the apex than those of the A. diluticullis, 
where they are usually also (especially in the case of the females) a little excavated ; finely 
striated, the striaj impunetate, and the interstices sometimes rather convex (and, although tlatter 
in the females than in the males, never so much depressed as those of the A. dilaticol/is) ; with 
two distinctly impressed points in the same positions as those of the other species. Antenna-, 
palpi and k(/s rufo-piceous ; the las-f slenderer than those of the A. diliiticollis. 
Male, shining; with the intermediate tibice slightly curved, a little dilated at, but most obscurely 
distorted a little before, the apex ; and with the hinder ones also slightly cm-ved, and a little 
dilated, though not distorted, at tlieir apex. 
Female, a little more depressed, and sometimes (though not always) slightly opake ; the elytra rather 
more distinctly excavated at their a])ex, and with the interstices a little tlatter; with the four 
hinder tibia simple. 
Var. /3. a little narrower and darker, without any indication of the obscure aeneous tinge which is 
just perceptible in most of the other specimens. Prothorax slightly longer. Elytra more oval 
and narrow, the widest jiart being about the middle, instead of immediately behind the front 
margin ; and less truncated behind. Both sexes equally shining, and their intermediate tibise 
less pilose internally. 

Notmthstandiny the uiKloubted specific clilTereuce between the present insect 
and the last, as proved not only by the very dissimilar structure of theu- male 
tibite, but also by the well-defined aspects of their respective normal forms, their 
females, as already stated, are apt occasionally to become difficult to sepai'ate, 
()\\ing to the near approximation in size and outline of some of their extreme 
aberrant specimens. As regards these female varieties, they have been ali*eady 
discussed ; and it will l)e sufficient therefore to remark here, that the A. curtns, 
tjqiically, may be at once recognised from that species by its smaller size, narrower 
and less depressed form, by its usually somewhat apically-truncated or excavated 
elytra, and by its slenderer legs. It is \A"idely distributed over the mountain regions 
of Madeira, and in the moist dense ra'STJies of a high elevation, although nowhere 
very abundant. Towards the upper extremity of the liil)eu'o de Santa Luzia, 
diu'in^ the early spring, I have found it more commonly perhaps than in any 
other locality, — principally amongst the loose stones and grass at the immediate 
base of the lofty perpendicular rocks by which that iiarro\\- gorge is laterally 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 45 

enclosed. The var. (5. is somewhat scarcer than the ordinary state, and confined 
more exchisively to the higher altitudes. 

Genus 15. OMASEUS. (Tab. I. fig. 9.) 

(Ziegler) Steph. III. Brit. Ent. i. 112 (1828). 

Corpus mediocre, plus minusve elongato-oblongum, ssepius convexiusculum : prothorace subcordato : alls 
modo (ut in speciebus Maderensibus) amplis, modo obsolctis. Anlennie filiformes, capitis pro- 
thoracisque longitudine, articulis primo et tertio reliquis longioribus subsequalibvis (illo robus- 
tiorc), secundo brevi. Lahrum trausverso-quadi-atum, antice vix emarginatum et setis jjaucis 
longissimis instructum. Mandibula incui-vge acutse, intus basi denticulatse. Maxilla bilobae : 
loho externo palpiformi biarticulato : interno acuto incurvo, apice miclnato, intus valde ciliato. 
Palpi filiformes, articulo ultimo truncato, in maxillaribus breviusculo, in lahialibus elongato. 
Mentum transversum, autice jirofunde emarginatimi et dente medio brevi bifido instructum. 
Ligula cornea, apice truncata ; paruglossis membranaceis liberis, earn paulo superautibus. Pedes 
robusti : tarsis anticis in maribus articulis primo, secundo et tertio dilatatis, cordatis et subtus 
biseriato-setosis : unguiculis simplicibus. 

Although, as above stated, the present genus and the last cannot strictly be 
looked upon as distinct, since in their oral organs they differ in no essential respect, 
and even externally merge into each other by gradations almost imperceptible ; 
yet their normal aspects are so dissimilar, that I have preferred, since none of the 
Madeiran species are aberrant, treating them here as separate. And indeed, when 
thus viewed, detached from the intermediate connecting links, they are so readily 
identified, and possess so few outward points in common, that they would seem in 
reality to be altogether isolated groups. The large elongated outline and the deep 
black colour of Oniaseus proper contrast sufiiciently with the shorter, comparatively 
broader, more quadrate, and depi'essed body, and the piceous hue of Aryiitor, as 
represented in these islands, to render the chance of confounding them inter se 
utterly impossible. 

32. Omaseus nigerrimus. 
O. elongatus ater subuitidus convexiusculus, prothorace subquadrato basi utrinque foveolato, elytris 

apice rotundatis profunde subpunctato-striatis singulo punctis tribus magnis valde distinctis 

impresso, pedibus elongatis robustis. 
Long. Corp. liu. 7. 

Feronia nifferrima, Dej. Spec, des Col. m. 291 (1828). 
Pterostiehus simplieipunctatus, Kollar, in litf. 

Habitat sub lapidibus in locis humidis Maderae australis, rarissimus : exemplar unicum, prope Funchal, 
egomet tantum deprehcnsi, sed alteram a cl. Dom. Heiuecken M.D. olini captum in mnseo 
Loweano vidi ; necnon tertium, ad Eibeiro de Joao Gomez lectum, nuperrime communicavit 
Dom. Rousset. 

O. elongate, deep black, sligbtly shining, and a little convex. Head large, elongate, irnpuuctate, and 



46 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

with two very deep longitudinal impressions between the eyes. Prothorax large, subquadrate, 
slightly rounded and narrowed behind, broadly margined, the margin (especially towards the 
posterior angles) being much recun^ed j convex in front ; with a longitudinal channel down the 
disk, and a deep, wide, punctured, rounded fovea on either side at the base. Elytra nearly 
parallel, rounded posteriorly, deeply striated, the strise being scarcely perceptibly punctate ; and 
with three large and distinctly impressed points, or fovese, down the disk of each, of which the 
anterior one is near to the third stria, and the two hinder ones to the second, from the suture. 
Legs long and robust. 

The present insect is closely allied to the common O. aterrinms of northern and 
central Europe, of which it is not impossible that it may be in reality but a geo- 
graphical variety. Still, it is usually retained as a species, and as such therefore it 
must stand. It differs from the O. aterrinms in being larger and less sliining, lq 
having its prothorax less quackate (the sides and hinder angles being a little more 
rounded), by its elytra being more deeply striated, Init ^^•ith the striae less evi- 
dently punctate, and by the three fovese down the disk of each being much smaller. 
It has been foimd in Spain, on the Pyrenees, and in. Tangier ; but in Madeira it is 
extremely rare. I have myself taken, hitherto, but a single specimen, — from be- 
neath a stone in a boggy piece of ground in the Rev. R. T. Lowe's garden at the 
Levada. I possess however one more example, lately communicated by ^M. Rousset 
from the Ribeiro de Joao Gomez, near Fimchal ; and I have seen a third, in the 
collection of the Rev. R. T. Lowe, which was captured many years ago by the late 
Dr. Heinecken. 

33. Omaseus Wollastoni. (Tab. I. fig. 9.) 

O. elongatus ater nitidissimus depressus, prothorace subeordato basi utrinque bifoveolato, elj-tris apice 

aeuminatis profunde punctato-striatis singulo punctis nullis impresso, pedibus brevioribus 

gracilioribus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 6a. 

Pterostichus WoUastoni, Hcer, i)i litt. 

Habitat sub lapidibus Maderje australis, in collibus declivibusque niaritimis, rarior : species valde 
distincta, et a Entomologo pcritissimo Os''° Heer, Turici, super promontorium Cabo Gerajao 
dictum d. 25 Feb. a.d 1851 primo inventa, unde etiam nuperrime communicavit Dom. Rousset. 

O. elongate, narrower than the last species, deep black, exceedingly shining, and depressed. Head 
small, short and narrow, much constricted behind the eyes, which are very prominent ; punctured, 
though sparingly so upon the disk, and with two short and very obscure longitudinal impressions 
between the eyes. Prothorax small, subcordatc, much narrowed behind, and rounded at the 
sides, with the extreme hinder angles produced into a minute tooth, narrowly margined, the 
margin not being recurved ; depressed, punctured behind ; with a longitudinal channel dowTi the 
disk, and two distinct, narrow, rugosely-punctured fovese on either side at the base. Elytra 
nearly parallel, acuminated behind, deeply striated, the stria: being distinctly punctate ; and 
without any indications of impressed ])oints, or fovese, on their respective disks. Legs slenderer 
and shorter than those of the last species : the setae at the extreme apex of the tibue (especially 
of the four hinder ones) golden-yellow. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 47 

The discovery of this very distinct and beautiful Omaseus is due to my friend 
Professor Heer of Zurich, who, during his residence in IMadeii'a in the winter of 
1850-51, captiu'ed several specimens from beneatli stones on the Cabo Gerajao, or 
Brazen Head; in Avhich locality it has been subsequently taken by M. E-ovisset. 
It is one of the few Coleopterous insects which appear to have escaped my obser- 
vation during my repeated researches in these islands. It may be at once distin- 
guished from the O. nigerrimus by its slenderer, more shining and depressed body, 
by its much smaller head and prothorax (the latter of which is more subcordate, 
much more narrowly margined ; and has moreover two fovese on either side at its 
base, and its extreme hinder angles produced into a minute tooth), by its shorter 
and more delicate legs, and by its elytra having no appearance whatsoever of im- 
pressed foveas on their disks, and thek striae very distinctly punctm"ed. 

Genus 16. AMARA. 

Bonelli, Ohservat. Ent. i. (1809). 

Corpus minusculum, plus minusve ovale : prothorace saepiiis subquadrato : alls amplis. Antennce 
filiformes, capitis prothoracisque longitudine, articulo primo sequentibus robustiore, secundo 
brevi. Lahrum quadratum, antice leviter emarginatum et setis paucis longissimis instructum. 
Mandibula breves validse, intus basi denticulatse. Maxilla bilobae : lobo externa palpiformi bi- 
articulato : interno acuto iucurvo, apice uncinato, intus valde ciliato. Pulpn filiformes, articulo 
ultimo fusLformi-subtruncato. Mentuni transversum, antice profuude emarginatum et dente 
medio bifido (rarius integro) instructum. Ligula membranacea, apice truncata pilisque duobus 
longis aucta ; paraglossis earn baud superantibus. Pedes validiusculi : tarsis aiiticis in maribus 
articulis primo, secundo et tertio dilatatis : uiiguiculis simplicibus. 

The Amarce, so abundant in our own country and throughout the whole of 
Europe, are too famUiar to every eye to requii-e comment. Then* sinning brassy 
surfaces and more or less oval forms, seen so constantly darting across oiu- path- 
ways, in fields and by the road-sides, in the hot sunshme, are associated with our 
earliest recollections, and can have scarcely failed to have attracted the attention of 
the most unobservant. In the details of tlieh' mouth they recede but slightly from 
the allied genera ; but their external aspect is fortunately so weU defined as to 
render us independent of structm*al characters even in our generic definition of 
them. I have hitherto detected but two species in the Madeii'a Islands, one of 
which however would appear to be peculiar to the group. 

34. Amara triviaUs. 
A. ovalis fenea, prothorace antice angustato angulis posticis acutis, basi impunctato utrinque foveolato, 
elytris striatis, antennarum basi rufo-ferruginea, tiljiis rufo-piceis. 
Var. /3. caerulescenti-, vel viridescenti-micans, nitida. 
Long. Corp. lin. 3-3i. 



48 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Harpalus trivialis, Gyll. (nee Duft.) Ins. Snec. ii. 140 (1810). 
Amara trivialis, Dej. Spec, des Col. iii. 4G4 (1828). 

, Erich. Kqf. der Mark Brand, i. 87 (1837). 

, Heer, Fna Col. Heh. 94 (1841). 

Habitat ad vias vel sub lapidibus Maderse Portusque Sancti, usque ad 4000* s. m., hinc indc non 
infrequens. 

A. somewhat parallel-oval, slightly depressed, very shining, and seneous. Head rather narrow. Pro- 
thorax narrowed in front, with the posterior angles acute and somewhat produced, concolorous ; 
obscurely channelled down the centre ; impunctate, mth a narrow distinct fovea, or impressed 
line, on either side at the base, and sometimes a very obscure smaller one towards the hinder 
angles. Elytra finely striated, the striae being most minutely and almost imperceptibly punc- 
tured. Antenna vdth the first' three joints and the base of the fourth bright rufo-ferruginous. 
Tihia dull rufo-piceous. Femora, tarsi and apex of antenna nearly black. 
rVw. /3. with the upper surface adorned with more or less of a dark bluish, or gi'cenish metallic 
splendour. 

The size, form, colour and sculptiu'e at once clistinguish tliis common Eiu-opean 
Amara from the following one. It is a species of very Avide geographical range, 
occurring in all parts of Europe, and in Algeria ; and it has been likewise recorded 
from Si1)cria and North America. It is hj no means an al)undant insect in 
Madeira, although distributed sparingly over the island fi'om the gardens of 
Funchal up to the mountain slopes of the Great Curral. At the Ribeu'o Frio I 
have found it, during the winter and spring, in comjiarative profusion, — especially 
crawling across the road diu'ing the gleams of sunshine, after rain. In Porto 
Santo I have likewise captured it, though somewhat rarely. 

35. Amara superaus, Woll. 

A. oljlongo-ovalis lata picea, prothorace antice latiusculo angulis posticis subobtusis, basi punctate 

utrinque bifoveolato, elytris striatis, antennis pedibusque rufo-ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 4. 

Habitat sub lapidibus in montibus superioribus Maderae, ultra 5000' s. m., tempore hiberno et vernali, 
rarissime : Amara valde indigena, ct propc summum montem Pico dos Arieros dictum mensibus 
Januario ct Februario a.d. 1819 a mcipso detecta. 

A. oblong-ovate, broad, slightly depressed, shining, and piceous. Head rather wide. Prothorax 
somewhat broader in front than behind, with the ])osterior angles slightly obtuse, and the 
extreme lateral margin a little rufesccut ; obscurely channelled down the centre ; coarsely and 
deejily punctured behind, and with two distinct fovea; on either side at the base, the inner ones of 
which are the largest. Ehjtra faintly striated, the striae being impunctate. Legs and antenna 
uniformly pale rufo-ferruginous. 

A large and truly indigenous Amara, and apparently extremely rare, the only 
spot in which I have hitherto observed it being the exposed alpine ridge, over- 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 49 

looking the Meyo Metada, between the Ice House Peak and the Pico dos Arieros, 
at an elevation of between 5000 and 6000 feet above the sea, where, dm-ing January 
and Pebruary of 1849, I detected sevei-al specimens, in company with Trechus 
alticolus, beneath stones. It would seem to be the representative in these islands 
of the European A. patricia, which I have captuxed in situations precisely similar 
on the Swiss Alps. It presents however abundant distinctive characters to 
separate it from that insect,^as, for iastance, its more parallel and flattened form, 
the impunctate and comparatively lightly impressed striae of its elytra, and the 
less acute posterior, and more produced anterior angles of its prothorax ; added to 
which, its uniformly pale piceous hue would tend even further to separate it. 
Prom its size and general outline it might at first sight be almost mistaken for a 
Sarpalus ; nevertheless its male tarsi being dilated in the anterior pau' alone is of 
course at once sufiicient, apart from less e\ddent diiferences, to remove it from the 
whole of that extensive group. 



(Div. 3. HARPALIDEA.) 
Genus 17. ANISODACTYLUS. 

Dejean, Spec, des Col. iv. 132 (1829). 

Cor])us mediocre, oblongum : prothorace subquadrato : alis amplis. Antenna filiformes, capitis pro- 
thoracisque longitudine, articulo primo sequeutibus robustiore, secundo brevi. Labium quadra- 
turn, antice leviter emarginatum et setis paucis longissimis instructum. Mandibula breves, dente 
medio iuterno obtuso armatse, basi denticulatse. Maxillce biloba; : lobo externo palpiformi biarti- 
culato: interna acuto incurvo, apice iincinato, intus valde ciliato. Palpi filiformes, articulo 
ultimo fusiformi-subtruncato. Mentum transversum, antice profunde emarginatum et dente 
medio nullo instructum. Ligula apice trancata; paraglossis coriaceis acuminatis. Pedes validi : 
tarsis anterioribus in maribus articulis quatuor subtus dense spongiosis, secundo, tertio et quarto 
valde dilatatis, primo minore : unguiculis simplicibus. 

Anisodactyhis differs from Barpalm in having the first joint of the fom- anterior 
tarsi of its males small and narrow, whilst the following three are greatly dilated : 
then* under surface moreover is destitute of the double row of seta? usually apparent 
in the present division and in the Fterostichidea, beuig densely spongiose instead, 

in which respect it assimilates the typical members of the Chlaniidea. Its 

mentum, likewise, has no tooth in the centre of its emargiaation, a structure of 
extremely rare occ\irrence amongst the Harpali, in which the tooth, although 
obtuse and short, is nearly always distinct. 

36. Anisodactylus binotatus. 
A. ater, antennarum basi et palporum tarsorumque apice rufo-ferrugineis, elytris profunde striatis. 
Long. corp. lin. 5-5 i. 

n 



50 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Caralus binotatus, Fab. Enf. Si/st. i. 151 (1792). 
Harpalus hinotatus, Gryll. Ins. Suec. ii. 122 (1810). 
Anisodactylus hinotatus, Dej. Spec, des Col. iv. 140 (1829). 
, Heer, Fna Col Helv. 100 (1841). 

Habitat sub lapidibus per litora rivTiloram atque in locis humidis Maderse, infra 3000' s. ni., toto anno 
vulgaris. 

A. elongate, deep black ; the males slightly shining, the females a little opake. Head with two 
irregular longitudinal impressions between the eyes, and sometimes with a very obscure rufous 
spot in the centre of its forehead. Prothurax subquadrate, a little narrowed posteriorly, the 
hinder angles nearly right angles; with a longitudinal channel down the disk, and a large, 
shallow, roughened fovea on either side at the base. Elytra elongate, rather convex, deeply 
striated, the stripe being impunctate, and the interstices convex and likewise impunctate. Legs 
deep pitchy-black. Antenna at base and extreme ape.x, palpi at apex, and the tarsi also at apex, 
rufo-ferruginous. 

A most abundant insect throughout Eurojie and the north of Africa ; and 
tolerably common in most parts of Madeii'a below the altitude of about 3000 feet 
above the sea, where it occurs beneath stones at the edges of the streams. At the 
Curral das Romeiras, and in the other raiines above Funchal, I have at times 
observed it in considerable profusion. 

Genus 18. HARPALUS. 

LatreiUe, Gen. Crust, et Ins. i. 201 (180G). 

Corpus mediocre, oblongum : prothorace subquadrato, postice plus minusve attenuate : alis ssppius 
amplis, sed in specie Maderensi una obsoletis. Antenna tiliiormes, capitis prothoracisque longi- 
tudinc, articulo prime scqvientibus robustiore, secundo bren. Labrum subquadi-atum, antice 
leviter emarginatum et setis paucis longissimis instructum, angulis anticis rotundatis ciliatis. 
Mandilmlu' breves acuta;, dentc medio brevi interno obtuso instructae, basi subdenticulatae. 
MaxilUe biloba; : lubo exienio palpiformi biarticulato : interno acuto incurvo, apice uncinate, intus 
valde ciliato. Palpi filiformes, articulo ultimo fusiformi-subtruncato. Mentum transversum, 
antice profunde emarginatum et dente medio brevi obtuso (rarissime obsoleto) instructum. Ligula 
cornea angusta, apice truncata ; pai-aylossis amplis membranaceis rotundatis, earn j)aulo supcran- 
tibus. Pedes validi : tarsis anterioribus in maribus articulis quatuor dilatatis, subtus biseriato- 
setosis : unguiculis simpUcibus. 

The present genus, so AAddely distributed over the world, has apparently Imt foui* 
representatives in the Madeu-a Islands, thi-ee of which arc common Em-opean 
species, whilst the other, which belongs to an altogether dilferent type of form, is 
peculiar to this region. There is but little fear of confoimding the Harpcdi Avith 
any other insects witl\ wliich we are here concerned, theii' oblong bodies, and 
usually l)lack or obscure surfaces, added to the four powerfully dilated anterior 
tarsi of their male sex, beins; of themselves sufficient wherel)v to distim^uish them 
from the allied groups. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 51 

§ I. Aim ampla ; elytra libera ; mentwm dente medio hrevi obtuso instrtictvm. 

37. Harpalus attenuatus. 

H. elongato-oblongus niger, prothorace subquadrato basi attenuate, angulis posticis subrectis et 
utrinque distincte foveolato, elytris profunde striatis, antennis fusco-ferrugineis, tibiis tarsisque 
rufo-piceis. 
Var. /3. paulo longior et nitidior. (Ins. Deserta Grandis.) 

Long. Corp. lin. 3^—4^. 

Harpalus aUeimafus, Steph. III. Brit. Mnt. i. 1.52 (1828). 

consentaneus, Dej. Spec, des Col. iv. 302 (1829). 

desert us, Steven, in litt. 

Sardeus, Dalil, in litt. 

Habitat sub lapidibus in montibus Maderae necnon in ins. Desert^ Grandi, sat vulgaris. 

H. elongate-oblong, black ; the males shining, the females opake. Head rather wide, with the impres- 
sions between the eyes exceedingly obscure. Prothorax subquadrate, and with a deep dorsal 
channel ; narrowed towards the base, where it is very rugosely punctured and with a distinct 
fovea on either side ; the hinder angles nearly right angles. Elytra elongate-subovate, deeply 
striated, the strife being impunctate ; and each with a very minutely impressed point, on the 
third interstice, behind. Antenna and palpi dull ferruginous, tibia and tarsi rufo-piceous. 
Var. 13. slightly larger, and both sexes a little more shining. (The state peculiar to the Deserta 
Grande.) 

The present Sarpalus is closely allied to the following one, but differs from it 
in its uniformly smaller size, in its somewhat less convex and more elongated pro- 
thorax (in which, also, the central channel and basal foveae are more evident, and 
the hinder angles better defined), in its more coarsely striated elj^ra, and by its 
femora being usually of a deeper black, which causes the tibiae and tarsi to appear 
very distinctly rufescent. It is rather a common insect in Madeii-a, occm-ring 
beneath stones on the grassy mountain- slopes, especially between the Ihnits of 
from 2000 to 3000 feet above the sea. On the Dezerta Grande it is likewise 
tolerably abundant, where however the specimens are a little larger and more 
elongated, and just perceptibly more shinmg. It is a species of very wide geogra- 
phical range, being recorded in England, Erance, Dalmatia, the Caucasus, Sardinia, 
Spain, the Canary Islands, and in Algeria; and existing I believe in nearly all 
parts of Europe. I possess specimens from the Scilly Islands, captm-ed by the 
late E. Holme, Esq., of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 

38. Harpalus htigiosus. 

H, elongato-oblongus niger antice subangustatus, prothorace convexo transverso-quadrato basi vix 
attenuate, angulis posticis obtusiusculis et utrinque vix foveolato, elytris striatis, antennis fusco- 
ferrugineis, femoribus piceis, tibiis tarsisque rufo-piceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4J-5|. 

h2 



52 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Harpahts litigiosui, Dej. Spec, des Col. iv. 361 (1829). 
, Heer, Fna Col. Helv. Ill (1841). 

Habitat Maderam australem, in saxosis planiu.sculis prope sinum Praya Formoza dictum tempore vcr- 
uali A.D. 1848 a meipso sub lapidibus iuveutus : in Portu Sancto semel tautum legi. 

H. elongate-ovate, black, and somewhat narrowed anteriorly; both sexes almost equally shining. 
Head rather wide, with the impressions between the eyes more distinct than those of the last 
species. Prothorax subquadrate, rather wide and short, convex in front, and with its extreme 
margins often most narrowly and obscurely rufescent ; with an indistinct dorsal channel ; a little 
rounded at the sides, and less narrowed towards the base than in the H. abbreriatus, where it is 
distinctly punctured and transversely impressed, but with the foveae exceedingly shallow and 
obscure ; the hinder angles more obtuse, or at any rate rather more roxmded and less defined 
than those of the last species. Elytra elongate-subovate, rather less deeply striated than in the 
last species, the strife not being perceptibly punctate ; and each with a very minutely impressed 
point, on the third interstice, behind. Antennce and legs nearly the same as those of the H. ab- 
breviatus; but the latter rather longer, and with the femora more piceous. 

Differs from the preceding species in its larger size, in its rather more anteriorly- 
narrowed outline, in its proportionably somc^^hat shorter, convexer, and less 
posteriorly attenuated prothorax (on which, moreover, the central channel and 
Mnder fovese are exceedingly indistiact), in its more tinely striated elytra, and in 
its femora being usually of a less decided black. It Avould seem to be a scarce 
insect in Madeu-a, or at any rate extremely local, the only spot in which I have 
observed it being the Ioav, rocky, and comparatively flattened ledge immediately 
above the Praya Formoza, near Funchal, — where however diu'ing the spring of 
1848 I captiu-ed it, from beneath stones, in tolerable abundance. In Porto Santo 
I have taken hitherto but a single example. It occurs sparingly thi'oughout 
central and southern Europe, and is recorded in Switzerland, Prance and Dalmatia. 

39. Harpalus distinguendus. 

H. elongato-oblongus niger, supra aut viridis aut viridi-aeneus, prothorace subquadrato basi leviter 
attenuato, angulis posticis subrectis et utrinque distincte foveolato, elytris striatis, femoribus 
plerumque nigrescentibus, tibiis ad basin ferrugineis, ad apicem tarsisque rufo-piccis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4^5. 

Carahus distinguemlus, Duft. Fna Aust. ii. 76 (1812). 
Harpalus dUtinguendus, Dej. Spec, des Col. iv. 274 (1829). 

, Ei-ich. Kaf. der Mark'. Brand, i. 48 (1837). 

, Heer, Fna Col. Helv. 106 (1841). 

Habitat ad vias vel sub lapidibus jNIaderie, sat vulgaris : in Portu Sancto praedominat, vineta cam- 
posque aridos prope oppidum colcns. 

H. elongate-ovate, beneath black, above green, brassy, or brassy-green ; shining, especially the males. 
Head moderate, with two impressions between the eyes. Prothorax subquadi-ate, and the extreme 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 53 

lateral margins generally obscurely and narrowly rufescent ; a little narrowed towards the base, 
where it is coarsely punctured and with a distinct fovea on either side; the hinder angles almost 
right angles. Elytra somewhat parallel- ovate, deeply striated, the stripe being sometimes very 
obscurely punctate, the interstices impunctate ; a little excavated at the apex, and each with a 
very minutely impressed point, on the third interstice, behind. Femora usually dark : tibia at 
base ferruginous ; their apex, and the tarsi, more or less rufo-piceous, or piceous. Antennte 
fuscous, with the base bright rufo-ferruginous. 

The H. distinguendus is very closely allied to the common European S. ceneus, 
and, although easily separable from it when in its normal state, yet the frequent 
occurrence of connecting- Links between the two would seem to imply that it may 
perhaps, in reality, be biit a local variety of that species. Still, it is usually 
acknowledged to be distinct, and as such therefore I would retain it, more espe- 
cially since the Madeu'an specimens are in their general aspect exceedingly typical 
ones. It differs from the K. (enetis in having its elytra only just perceptibly ex- 
cavated at their apex, and in theii- submarginal interstices beiag unpunctm-ed and 
almost free from pubescence, in its hinder prothoracic angles being less obtuse, in 
the prothorax itself being more deeply punctured, and foveolated, towards the 
base, and by its femora being for the most part darkly coloured, — whereas in the 
JS. ceneus it is the tendency of the legs to be altogether pale. It is a common 
insect throughout Madeii-a, occui-ring beneath stones at nearly all elevations ; and 
in Porto Santo it is even more abundant still, where I have at times observed it 
in the low sandy vineyards behind the sea-beach in the greatest profusion. It is 
found in most parts of central and southern Europe, and is recorded by Dejean as 
having been brought even from the Brazils. 

§ II. Ala nullcB ; elytra interdum subconnata ; mentiim deiite medio nulla instructum. 

40. Harpalus vividus. 
H. oblongus piceus, vel nigro- vel fusco-piceus, prothorace transverso-subquadrato basi attenuato, 
angvdis posticis rectis et utrinque plus minusve leviter foveolato, elytris striatis, singulo ad apicem 
suturalem extremum obUque truncato, antennis pedibusque pallidis. 

Var. a. angustus convexiusculus plerumque fusco-piceus; mas politus, foemina ssepius subopaca; 
prothorace ad basin valde attenuato, chstincte et creberrime punctulato et utrinque sat profunde 
foveolato ; elytris liberis subovatis profunde striatis, interstitiis convexiusculis, antennis pedibus- 
que pallido-ferrugineis. Long. 4i-5T lin. (Per regionem Maderee sylvaticam varietas prjedo- 
minans.) 

Var. /3. latior depressus piceus vel ferrugineo-piceus ; mas politissimus, foemina polita ; prothorace 
omnino latiore ad basin attenuato, obsolete punctulato et utrinque foveolato; elytris ssepius 
connatis truncato-subovatis striatis, interstitiis depressis, antennis pedibusque ferrugineis. 
Long. 4f-5i lin. (Status Desertam Grandem et Desertam Borealem colens : necnon per oroiu 
maritimam atque in sumniis montibus Madera plus minusve obtinens.) 



54 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Var. y. latus dcpressus plerumque nigro-piceus ; mas subopacus, foemina opaca ; prothorace lato ad 
basin minus attenuato, impunctato et utrinque vix foveolato ; elytris sfepius comiatis truucato- 
subovatis leviter striatis, interstitiis depressis, antennis pedibusque diluto-fermgineis. Long. 
4f-55- lin. (Portui Sancto insulisque parvis adjacentihus propria.) 
Long. corp. lin. 4|-5J, 

Harpalics vividus, Dcj. (nee Fab. 18U1), Spec, des Col. iv. 332 (1829). 

Habitat sub lapidibus omnium insularum Maderensium, ab era maritima usque ad cacumina montium 
copiosissime ascendens. 

H. oblong, of either a dark-, or a more or less brownish-piceous, occasionally (especially when imma- 
ture) almost ferruginous, usually depressed ; the males more or less shining, the females gene- 
rally, though not always, a little opake. Head rather large, with scarcely any indications of the 
usual longitudinal impressions between the eyes. Prothorax more or less subquadrate, and 
narrowed posteriorly ; also, in most of the varieties, more or less punctured towards the base, 
and with a fovea on either side, — both the punctures and fovepe having a tendency in the several 
states to become more and more obsolete ; generally with the extreme lateral margins obscurely 
and narrowly rufescent. Elytra more or less ovate, and striated, the striae being impunctate ; a 
little excavated behind, and each of them obliquely truncated off at its extreme apex, causing the 
two to divaricate very minutely at the extremity of the suture ; and each of them with a most 
minutely impressed point, on the third interstice, behind. Legs, antenna and palpi ferruginous. 

Var. a. comparatively narrow and rather convex, generally of a brownish-piceous hue ; the males 
shining, the females a little opake. Prothorax narrow, and much attenuated behind, closely, 
finely, and distinctly punctured towards the base, and with a deep fovea on either side. Elytra 
not soldered together, subovate, and a little acuminated behind, deeply striated, and the inter- 
stices rather convex. Legs, antenna and jmlpi \'ery pale ferruginous. {Madeira : the typical 
state throughout the sylvan districts.) 

Var. (3. distinctly broader and more depressed, piceous, and sometimes with more or less of a ferru- 
ginous hue ; both sexes shining, the males being very highly polished. Prothorax broader than 
in var. a, and not quite so much attenuated behind, most obscurely punctured towards the base, 
the punctures being almost evanescent, and the fovea; more obscure. Elytra generally soldered 
together, a little broader and shorter, in proportion, than those of the var. a, and more truncated 
both before and behind, less deeply striated, and the interstices flattened. Legs, antenna and 
palpi fcrniginous. {Northern and Central Dezertas ; and more or less apphcable to the maritime 
and alpine specimens of Madeira.) 

Var. y. of nearly the same form as the var. (3, but darker, being usually piceous-black, and de- 
pressed ; both sexes opake, though especially the female. Prothorax broad and subquadrate, 
being less attenuated behind than in cither of the other varieties, impunctate, and the basal foveae 
almost obsolete. Elytra generally soldered together, broad and short, much truncated both be- 
fore and behind, lightly striated, and the interstices flattened. Legs, antenna and palpi darker 
than in the other varieties, being dusky-ferruginous. {Porto Santo, and the small adjacent 
islands.) 

A truly indigenous species ; and since it is perhaps one of the most variable with 
which we have here to do, it may be well selected as an example of the modifying 
influence of isolation and local cii'cumstances on external insect form. "Whether 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 55 

we consider its peculiarity to the Madeiran group, or the singular type of struc- 
ture which it chsplays, it may appropriately be termed the Harpalus of this region : 
and, judging from its existence on every rock, large or small, and at aU altitudes, 
and from its capability of adapting itself to contingencies of every kind, we are led 
to believe that it was probably abundant over a great portion of that ancient con- 
tinent of which these islands are amongst the many surviving witnesses. Ranging 
from the sea-shore to the extreme summits of the loftiest moimtains, accom- 
modating itself at one time to a low barren rock of twenty yards circumference, 
tenanted only by Helopidce, Hadri, Lizards and Gulls, at another to the deep 
wooded ravines of intermediate altitudes, around which the clouds perpetually 
cUng and where vegetation and decay are ever rampant, or harbouring beneath 
the rough basaltic blocks of the weather-beaten peaks, 6000 feet above the sea, — 
we should naturally expect, a priori, to discover some slight modifications of out- 
ward structure according as the respective localities differed in condition. And 
such we find to be everywhere the case. I am satisfied moreover that it is only 
by a careful observation on the spot that an insect like the present one can be pro- 
perly understood ; for to anybody acquainted with it practically in aU its phases it 
is hut too evident how many " species," so-caUed, might be established on un- 
doubted varieties, where there exists a desu-e for creating them, and where our sole 
knowledge is gathered from a few stray specimens collected by another person, and 
unaccompanied by local information to render the aberrations intelligible. Tor it 
must be tracked from the sea- shore to an elevation of more than 6000 feet before 
we are enabled to discern the causes by which its development is controlled, or 
even to connect by slow and easy gradations its opposite extremes of form. And 
it is an interesting fact that the distance between its variations does not increase 
in proportion to the distance between its altitudes. On the contrary, it would 
seem to pass through its minimum of size and maximum of sculpture at about the 
elevation of from 3000 to 4000 feet ; both above and below which, that is to say, 
as it recedes from the upper and lower limits of the sylvan districts, it becomes 
gradually modified, and almost in a similar manner. Thus, to a person who had 
visited Madeira and had picked up specimens on the coast, and to another who had 
perchance penetrated into the interior, as passing visitors from the vessels are 
accustomed to do, and had brought away examples from the wooded movmtain- 
slopes, the two insects would appear altogether distinct. Eor, commencing on the 
level of the beach, the usual type is broad, flat, more or less opake, with the pro- 
thorax almost impunctate, and the elytra soldered together. As we ascend higher, 
the breadth invariably diminishes, the brightness and depth of sculpture, up to a 
certain altitude, seem to increase, and the elytra are seldom or but very imper- 
fectly united ; untU, on entering the lower limits of the forest region, at an eleva- 
tion perhaps, ore rotundo, of 3000 feet, we find that it has gradually put on a veiy 
different aspect (var. a.), being small, narrow, bright, convex, comparatively ovate 
and deeply striated, the legs and antennae have become exceedingly pale, tbe pro- 



o(5 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

thorax has altered considerably in shape, being much narro-\ved behind and punc- 
tured, and the eMra are nearly always free. In this state it continues for about 
1500 feet, when again emerging into the broad daylight of the open hills, it 
recommences to mould itself as it did below ; until, having reached the summits 
of the loftiest peaks, more than COOO feet above the sea, it has almost (though not 
entirely) assumed the features which characterized it on the shores beneath. Tliis 
is of coiu'se only a general account of the changes which take place during its 
upward progress ; yet, although exceptional cases, as to every other rule, "nill now 
and then Ijc met with, I beHeve it to be perfectly true on a large scale. That 
modifications of a slightly different kind occm- at parallel altitudes in the other 
islands of the group is also certain ; but we must not forget that the disappearance 
of the dense forest everywhere except in Madeu-a proper may have re-adjusted for 
those particular spots the law which there also in all probability once ol:)tained. 
^Moreover, whatever the caiises may be which operate in these remote spheres to 
affect the insect life wliich has 1)ecome isolated upon them, it is certain, from 
observation, that theu* working is not accidental, but depends on the peculiar 
circumstances of the respective localities, since species of even opposite natiu'es 
are affected in a smiilar manner on the same rocks. Thus we accordingly find, in 
tlie present case (as in others which I have ah'eady liad occasion to comment U2)on 
under the genera Scarites, Uiiri/r/inft/uis, Calathus and Olisthopus), that the speci- 
mens wliich have been detached on the tAvo northern Dezertas have attained a 
larger size than those on any other island, that the Madeiran ones are the smallest, 
whilst those in Porto Santo are unusually depressed. Although confined to the 
sylvan districts and less abundant than any of the remainder, I have nevertheless 
assiuned var. a. to be the normal state ; fu"st, because, judging from the description, 
I believe it to be the particular form descri])ed by Dejean in 1829, and secondly, 
because the ]\Iadeira Islands, as theu* name implies, being by natm-e islands of 
wood, it is the variety in all probability which would have formerly predominated 
throughout the group, — the other modifications being the result in some measm'e 
of the destruction of the timber, and partially therefore, though indii'cetly, refer- 
able to the agency of man. I have contented myself, in the above diagnosis, by 
indicating three varieties only, since it is impossil)le to define the limits and ranges 
of subsidiary modifications, my sole object having been to give a generally correct 
idea on a broad scale. 

This species, which, in all its phases, is well distinguished from the rest of the 
genus inhabiting these islands, presents a type of structure peculiarly its own. 
Thus, for instance, it is universally apterous (whereas the others are winged), the 
nienlum lias no tooth in the centre of its einargination (a structure of very rare 
occm-rence in the trvie HarpaU), and the extreme apices of each of its elytra are 
always truncated ol)liquely, causing them to diverge minutely, or divaricate, at 
the termination of the suture. But perhaps its most singular character, and in 
which it (lilTcrs from every other Ilarpalus with which I am acquainted, consists 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 57 

in the tendency of its elytra to become united or soldered together. I say " the 
tendency," because it is not always the case that they are joined (which, since the 
law exists at all, is perhaps the more remarkable), although in most instances, 
especially in localities much exposed and but slightly elevated above the sea-shore, 
they are. I have examples, however, from the upper as well as the lower regions, 
in which both states are represented; and others again in which the elytra are 
only partially connected, being fi-ee at the apex though fii-mly attached towards 
the scuteUum. In every instance, however, even where they are united through- 
out theii- entire length, a little force will succeed in separating them, showing 
their structure, as I have indicated in the diagnosis, to be subconnate rather than 
connate. But that it does require force to effect the disjunction, when they are 
reaUy in the condition described, is proved to a demonstration to any one who has 
seen the remains of the insect beneath the slabs of stone on many of the small 
adjacent islands where it most abounds, or drifting about over the surface of the 
j^ocks, — under which circumstances I have observed them in immense numbers, 
apparently the accumulation of two or three generations, which the violence of the 
elements had not been able to sever. It is rare in the sylvan districts to find 
them joined, nevertheless such is sometimes the case, — thus proving that the 
peculiarity is not actually essential, but merely one which it is the tendency of the 
species to assume, and which is more developed in some specimens, and under 
certain conditions, than in others. 

The Carabus vividm of Pabricius, although in description best according with 
the present insect, is proved, from specimens still in existence in the Royal Mu- 
seum of Copenhagen, as already stated, to be a Calatlms. The Harpalus now 
under consideration was in fact first described by Dejean, in 1829, who appears to 
have mistaken it for the Tabrician C. cividus, and to have quoted it as such. 

Genus 19. OPHONXJS. 

(Ziegler) Stepb. lU. Brit. Ent. i. 159 (1828). 

Corjms et instrumenta ciharia fere ut in Harpalo, sed illud subtiliter pubescens et undique punctu- 
latiim J necnon pedes plerumqiie paulo graciliores. 

There cannot be the slightest doubt but that the Ophoni do not in reality consti- 
tute more than a section of Sarpalm, then* minutely pubescent and punctulated 
bodies, added to their somewhat longer and less robust legs, being the sole cha- 
racters on which their isolation was ever made to rest. And it was therefore well 
remarked by Dejean, in his Species general des Colcopteres, that the genus, as 
defined by Ziegler, was founded on an inadequate diagnosis and could not, conse- 
quently, be upheld. Still, as it is not altogether expunged even by recent ento- 
mologists, and since its only Madeiran representative is a peculiarly tjqncal member 
of the group as formerly received, I have preferred retaining it in the present 



58 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

instance as distinct, deeming it sufficient to have pointed out thus far the real 
natvu'c of its generic claims. 

41. Ophonus obscurus. 
O. oblongus subpubescens punctatus, infra niger, supra subcyanescenSj prothorace transverso-sub- 

quadrato lateribus rotundatis, elytris striatis depressis, interstitiis minutissime punctulatis, an- 

tennis pedibusque rufo-ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 5^. 

Carabus obscunis, Fab. Unt. Sj/st. i. 151 (1792). 
Sarpalus ohscurus, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, iv. 85 (1818). 
Ophonus ohscurm, Stepb. III. Brit. Ent. i. 160 (1828). 
Harpahcs obscunis, Dej. Spec, des Col. iv. 197 (1829). 

Habitat in locis bumidis Maderse, rarissimus ; sub lapide ad fornacem exoletam calcariam juxta Sanc- 
tum Vinccntium " Forno de Cal " dictam a meipso d. 2 Jul. a.d. 1850 semel tantum repertus. 

O. obloug, very sligbtly shining, punctured all over, and a little pubescent ; beneath dark pitchy- 
black ; above with the head and prothnrax of a very obscure bluish tinge and coarsely punctured ; 
the latter rather smoother on the disk, and mth a faint dorsal channel, somewhat transverse- 
quadrate, a little narrowed behind, and with the sides and angles slightly rounded. Elytra rather 
more distinctly blue than the rest of the siu'face, depressed and striated, the strise being impunc- 
tate, and with the interstices thickly and finely punctulated. Legs, antenna ani palpi rufo- 
ferruginous. 

A tolerably common insect throughout Europe and the north of Afiica. In 
Madeira however it would appear to be of the greatest rarity, the only indigenous 
specimen which I have seen haiing been captiu'ed by myself from beneath a stone 
at the edges of the small stream which issues from out of the limestone rock (so 
well knoMTi to geologists from its isolated and elevated position amidst the siir- 
rounding basalt) at the Forno de Cal, near Sao Vincente, on the 2nd of July 1850. 

Genus 20. STENOLOPHUS. 

(Megerle) Steph. III. Brit. Ent. i. 165 (1828). 

Corpus parvum, oblongum : prothorace subquadrato : alis amplis. Antenna filiformes, capite pro- 
thoraceque paulo longiores, articulo primo sequentibus robustiorc, secuudo brevi. Labrum sub- 
quadratum, antice truncatum et setis paucis longissiniis instructum. Mandibula breves acutae, 
intus basi subdenticulatje. Maxilla bilobse : lobo externa palpiformi biarticulato : interna acute 
incurvo, apice uncinato, intus vakle ciliato. Palpi articulo ultimo penultimo majorc, fusiformi- 
subacuiiiinato. Mentum transvcrsum, autice profundc emarginatum et deute medio nullo in- 
structum. Ligula cornea, apice truncata j paraglossis membranaceis rotundatis, eam baud supe- 
rantibus. Pedes vix robusti : tarsis anterioribus in maribus articulis quatuor dilatatis, subtus 
biseriato-setosis : unguiculis simplicibus. 

The present genus is somewhat intermediate between the preceding one and 
Trechus; nevertheless it may be at once known from the former by the much 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 59 

smaller size, and by the more ornamented, prettily painted surfaces of the species 
which compose it, by the more acuminated terminal joint of theu' palpi, and by 
the central tooth of their mentum being always obsolete, — whilst from the latter 
and Bradycellus, to which in general aspect it is far more intimately related, it 
differs in the simple emargination of its mentum, in its ligula being straightly 
truncated at the apex, and in having the whole /o?/r anterior tarsi, as in Harpalus, 
dilated in its male sex. The StenolopU are insects eminently peculiar to damp 
localities, residing for the most part amongst wet moss, and beneath stones, at the 
edges of ponds and streams, or burrowing into the loose mud at the roots of rushes 
and grass in marshy spots, — thus in then- habits (as well as in then- structure) 
making an evident step towards the coming genera, which are more and more 
subaquatic as we approach the BemUdiades, and, through them, the truly 
Hydi'adephagous groups. 

§ I. Tarsi antici maris articulo penuUimo profimde emarginato, liloho. 

42. Stenolophus Teutonus. 

S. oblongus niger, prothorace quaclrato mfo, elytris riifis macula postica communi maxima subcya- 

nescenti-nigra ornatis, atitennarum basi pedibusque rufo-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3-3|-. 

Garabus Teutonus, Schrank, Enwm. Ins. Atisir. 214 (1781). 

vaporariorum, Fab. (jiec Linn. a.d. 1761) Eiit. Si/st. i. 164 (1792). 

, Diift. Fna Austr. ii. 141 (1812). 

Stenolophus vaporariorum, Dej. <S^;ec. des Col. iv. 407 (1829). 
— , Heer, Fna Col. Seh. 115 (1841). 

Habitat sub lapidibus per litora rivulorum atque in locis bumidis Maderse, sat frequens : in convallibus 
supra Fuucbal autumno abundat, necnon in Madera boreali, ad Sanctam Annam, mense Maio 
observavi. 

S. oblong, black, sbining. Prothorax, above and below, bright rufous ; quadrate ; with a faint dorsal 
channel ; and with a very obscure impunctate fovea on either side at the base. Elytra rufous 
(being usually however a little paler than the prothorax), and with a large hinder patch, common 
to both, and covering nearly two-thirds of their entire surface, dark bluish-black ; deeply striated, 
the strise being impunctate. Legs, palpi and base of antenruB i-ufo-testaceous. 

By no means an unconunon insect both in the north and south of Madeira, 
between the limits of from 1000 to about 3000 feet above the sea, occurring be- 
neath stones in moist spots and at the edges of the streams. At the Curral das 
Romeii'as, and in the other ravines above Funchal, I have taken it in tolerable 
abundance during the autumnal months, and in equal profusion, at the end of 
May, on the damp ledges of the perpendicular rocks towards the upper extremity 
of the Piibeiro de Santa Luzia ; as also, about the middle of May, on the northern 
side of the island, at Santa Anna. It is found in nearly all parts of Eui'ope, and 
is recorded in Algeria and the Canary Islands. 

i2 



()() INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

§ II. Tarsi antici maris articido peniiltimo leviter emarginato, suhcordato. 

43. Stenolophus dorsalis. 
S. oblongus niger, prothorace subquadi-ato postice leviter attenuato, testaceo in discum late nigro. 

infuscato, elytris testaceis plaga postmedia communi magna plus minusve suffusa subcyanescenti- 

nigra ornatis, antennarum basi pedibusque testaceis. 
Long, corp.lin. 1|. 

Carabus dorsalis, Tab. JEnt. Si/st. i. 165 (1792). 
JIarpaJus dorsalis, Gyll. Ins. Siiec. ii. 16-t (1810). 
Acupalpus dorsalis, Dej. Spec, des Col. iv. 416 (1829), 
Stenolophus dorsalis, Erich. Kaf. der Mark Brand, i. 61 (1837). 

Habitat ad ripas fluviorum Maderensium, rarissime, — sub lapidibus ad " Forno de Cal " a meipso Julio 
ineunte a.d. 1850 una cum Ophonu obscuro (sed multo copiosior) detectus. 

S. oblong, black, shining. Prothorax testaceous, with a large patch on the disk (which is sometimes 
so much developed as to leave only the extreme margins paler) brownish-black ; subquadrate, and 
a little narrowed behind ; with a faint dorsal channel ; and an obscure subpunctate fovea on 
either side at the base. Elytra testaceous, with the region of the scutcllum occasionally, and an 
elongated, more or less suffused, postmedial patch, common to both, bluish-black ; striated, the 
strife being impunctatc. Leys, palpi and base uf antentue testaceous. 

Apparently extremely rare in Madeira, or at any rate local. The only spot in 
which I have observed it is the Forno de Cal, near Sao Yinceute, where, on the 
2nd of July 1850, I captured several specimens, in company with the hitherto 
unique example of Ophonus ohscurus, from imder stones at the edges of the stream 
immediately adjoining the famous limestone rock. Like the S. Teutonus, it inhabits 
most parts of Europe, and is found likewise in the Canary Islands and in Algeria. 

Genus 21. BEADYCELLUS. (Tab. II. fig. 4.) 
Erichson, Kdf. der Mark Brand, i. Gl (1837). 

Corpus parvum, plus minusve oblongo-ovatum : prothorace subquadrato : alis (in speciebus Maderensi- 
bus) obsoletis. Antenna filiformes, capitis prothoracisque longitudine, articulo primo sequentibus 
robustiore, secundo brcviusculo. Labrum (II. 4 a) subquadratum, antice truncatum et setis 
paucis lougissiiiiis iustructum. Maiidibttla (II. 4 b) breves acutie, intus basi dcnticulatae. 
Maxilla (II. 4 c) bilobse : lobo externa palpiforrni biarticulato : interno acuto incurvo, apice un- 
cinato, intus valde ciliato. Palpi articulo ultimo penultimo majore, fusiformi-subacuminato. 
Mentum (II. 4</) transvcrsum, antice profunde emarginatum ct dente medio acuto intcgro in- 
structum. Ligula cornea, apice in typicis sinuata, rarius truncata; paraglossis membranaceis 
subacuminatis, earn paulo superantibus. Pedes vix robusti : tarsis anticis in maribus articidis 
quatuor dilatatis, subtus biseriato-setosis (primo ssepius subquadi-ato) : unguiculis simplicibus. 

Bradycellus agrees with Trechus in haidng the emargination of its mentum 
toothed in the centre, and in its male tarsi being only dilated in the front pair of 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 61 

legs : nevertheless it recedes from it in having the terminal joint of its palpi large 
and fusiform (instead of conical), in its males having four joints of theii- feet dilated 
(instead of two), and in its ligula l^eing more or less sinuated at the apex (instead 
of rounded), with the paraglossse scarcely extending beyond it, whereas in Trechus 
the latter are exceedingly long and linear. 

§ I. Ligula apice sinuata, paraglossis earn vix sitperantibus ; tarsi antici maris a/rticulo prvnio subquadrato. 

44. Bradycellus fulvus. 
B. oblongo-ovatus rufescenti-piceus, prothorace subquadrato postice leviter attenuate, elytris piceis 

profunde striatis, antennis pedibusque ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2\. 

Carabusfulms, Marsh. Ent. JBrit. i. 456 (1802). 
Trechus fulm,s, Stepb. Bl. Brit. Ent. i. 169 (1828). 
Acupalpus harpalinus, Dej. Spec, des Col. iv. 471 (1829). 
•, Heer, F/ia Col. Helv. 118 (1841). 

Habitat in convallibus Maderse humidiusculis, necnon sub lapidibus in graminosis editioribus, bine 
inde, autumno prsedominans. 

B. oblong-ovate, rufo-piceous, shining; when immature almost ferruginous. Prothorax somewhat 
short and subquadrato, slightly narrowed and transversely impressed behind, and with the sides 
and posterior angles a little rounded; with a faint dorsal channel, and with a deep coarsely- 
punctured fovea on either side at the base. Elytra often a shade darker than the prothorax, 
deeply striated, the striae being impunctate. Legs, palpi and antenna ferruginous ; the last short 
and robust. 

The B. fulvus, so abundant throughout Europe, occurs in Madeira only at 
intermediate and lofty elevations, ranging from about 1500 to 5000 feet above the 
sea, although attaining its maximum, apparently, towards the lower rather than 
the upper extremity of those limits. At the Cui-ral das Romeiras, and the other 
ravines above Funchal, I have taken it rather commonly during the autumnal 
months, both by brushing the rank vegetation in damp spots and from amongst 
loose shingle at a short distance from the streams. It is also found sparingly, 
beneath stones, on the exposed mountain-slopes of higher altitudes, under which 
circumstances I have observed it on the descent to the open plain of the Fateiras 
from the Pico Poizo. The Madeiran specimens differ from their more northern 
representatives in having the wings invariably obsolete. 

§ II. Ligula apice frwncafa, paraglossis earn parum swperantibus ; tarsi antici maris articulo prima via- 

■subquadrato. 

45, Bradycellus excultus, ww. (Tab. II. fig. 4.) 
B. oblongo-ovatus pieeus, prothorace subquadrato postice attenuate, testaceo, in discnm leviter infus- 



62 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

cato, elytrorum margine et sutur^ obscure pallidioribus, antennarum basi pedibusque pallido- 
testaceis, tarsis plerumque obscurioribus. 
Var. fi. piceus, prothoracis limbo elytrorumque siitura solum pallidioribus. 
Loug. coi-p. lin. li-lf. 

Habitat in locis cditioribus jMaderfe, sub lapidibus, prsesertim per partem sylvaticam, a 2500' s. m. 
fere ad cacumina montium ascendens : ad basin rupium excelsarum in Ribeiro de Santa Luzia, 
inter radices graminum ibidem crescentium, necnon in regione Fanalensi (5000' s. m.) mense 
Julio A.D. 1850, rarius deprehensi. 

B. oblong-ovate, piceous, sbining, sometimes with a just perceptibly bluish tinge. Prothorax testa- 
ceous, with a more or less dusky cloud on its disk ; a little longer in proportion than that of the 
last species, and rather more naiTowed behind, where it is slightly punctured but not transversely 
impressed; the posterior angles obtuse; with an obscure dorsal channel, and a narrow fovea on 
either side at the base. Elytra less deeply striated than in the B.fulvus, the strise however, as 
in that insect, being impunctate ; the suture and lateral margins, especially the former, a little 
paler. Antenna fuscous towards the apex ; their base, the palpi, and the legs pale testaceous, — 
the tarsi and the extremity of the tibia being usually a little darker. 
Var. fi. entirely piceous-black, with the extreme margins of the prothorax and the sutui-e of the 
elytra, alone, very obscurely paler. Legs, palpi and antenna as in the normal state. 

A most distinct and beautiful Bradycelhis, and apparently of the greatest rarity, 
being confined, so far as I have hitherto observed, to remote upland spots more or 
less difficult of access. I have taken it, during the winter and early spring, 
towards the upper extremity of the Eibeiro de Santa Luzia, especially from amongst 
loos(^ stones at the roots of the vegetation at the immediate base of the lofty 
periJcncUcular rocks : and in July 1850 I captured it sparingly in the bed of a 
dried-up stream in the elevated region of the Fanal, more than 5000 feet above 
the sea : and a specimen has been recently communicated to me by M. Rousset, 
from the Pico d'Arribentao, above Ftmchal. 

Genus 22. TRECHUS. (Tab. II. fig. l, 2, 3.) 

Clairvillc, Ent. Reh. ii. 23 (180G). 

Corpus parvum, plus minusve ovatum, vel oblongo-ovatum : prothorace subquadi-ato : alts typice amplis, 
sed in spcciebus Jladerensibus plurimis obsolctis. Antenna filiformcs, capitc prothoraceque 
paulo lougiores, articulo primo scquentibus robustiore, secundo breviusculo. Labruni (II. 1«, 2rt) 
transversum, antice plus minusve emarginatum et setis paucis longissimis instructum. Mandi- 
bula (II. 1 a) prominula; acut?e, intus basi denticulatpc. Maxilla (II. 1 6, 2 b) bilobre : lubo 
externa palpiformi biartieulato : interna acuto incurvo, apice uncinato, intus valde ciliato. Palpi 
articulo ultimo penultimo paulo minore, in typicis couico, sed in nostris plerumque subfusiformi- 
conico. Mentum (II. 1 c, 2 c) transversum, antice profunde emarginatum et dente medio vel (ut 
in spcciebus typicis) integro, vel (ut in aben-antibus) bifido instructum. Ligiila cornea, apice 
rotundata, rarius truncata ; paraylassis linearibus, cam louge supcrantibus. Pedes graciusculi : 
tarsis aniicis in maribus (II. 1 d) articulis primo et secundo dilatatis atque intus productis : un- 
guiculis simplicibus. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 63 

In spite of the large number of TrecM described below, there is but one amongst 
them of the ordinary European form, the remainder beiag moulded on a type 
•which would seem to be peculiarly IMadeiran, and almost in fact to merit separa- 
tion from the normal members of the genus. In its usual state Trechus is winged, 
has the central tooth of the emargiaation of its mentum entu-e, and the ultimate 
joint of its palpi very decidedly conical (being of the same breadth at the base as 
the penultimate one is at the apex) ; whereas, with the single exception just men- 
tioned, all oiu' present species are apterous, the tooth of then* mentimi is imiver- 
sally bifid, and the terminal articulation of then palpi has a tendency to become 
rather more fusiform than conical. StUl, since in then- very elongated linear 
paraglossae, and in the two internally-produced dilated joints of then male tarsi, 
they retain the essential characters of the true TrecM, I would not regard the 
above aberrations as indicative of more than a weU-defined subsidiary section,— 
especially since the non-development of wings may be ahnost looked upon as a 
geographical deficiency amongst the Coleopterous population of these islands, — 
and have therefore merely proposed a subgeneric name in case that it should be 
found desu-able, at any futiu-e period, to isolate it as a distinct group. The Trechi 
are particiLlarly partial to damp spots, nevertheless they are not so subaquatic in 
then- habits as the BemhicUa, being found beneath stones, logs of wood, and dead 
leaves within the sylvan districts, more than at the edges of streams and on wet 
mud,— the localities eminently selected by the latter. In Madeii-a they are nearly 
exclusively confined to the dense ravines of intermediate and lofty altitudes. 

§ I. Alatus : mentum deiite medio iiitegro instructum : paJpi articulo ultimo conico. 

46. Trechus fimicola^ Wall 
T. oblongo-ovatus depressus cliluto-testaceus, capite nigra, piothorace subcordato basi utrinque vix 

impresso angulis posticis subrotundatis, elytris substriatis, antennis pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. corp. lin. I5-I7. 

Habitat Maderam borealem, stercore bovino arido in castanetis Sanctae Annte Junio exeunte a.d. 1850 
a meipso sat copiose repertus. 

T. oblong-ovate, flattened, shining, and brownish- or lurid-testaceous. Head black. Prothorax 
somewhat cordate, or subquadrate and nan-owed behind ; the posterior angles a little rounded ; 
with a faint dorsal channel ; and a scarcely perceptible impression on either side at the base ; 
sometimes a little rufescent, and with the extreme lateral edges generally dark. Ehjtra with very 
obsolete indications of striae towards the suture, but almost unstriated towards the margin ; and 
with two very minutely impressed points on the disk of each. Antenna, mouth and legs testa- 
ceous; the first short and robust. 

Of aU the Madenan Trechi which I have hitherto detected, the present one is 
the only species which may be said to be truly typical of the genus. It may 



64 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

perhaps be regarded as the representative of the common European T. minntus in 
these islands ; which indeed in general aspect it somewhat resembles, though at 
the same time with abundant distinctive characters of its otvti. Thus, for instance, 
it is always very much smaller than that insect, and its colour is invariably pale 
lurid-testaceous (instead of rufo-piceous), whilst its head is of a deep black ; its 
prothorax is subcordate (instead of transverse), and proportionably much longer 
than in that species ; its cl;v'tra are almost impercejitibly striated, and its antennae 
are extremely short and robust, being scarcely more than half the length of those 
of the T. mvmiUis. It is apparently extremely rare, the only spot in which I have 
observed it being at Santa Anna, in the north of the island, where, at the end of 
June 1850, I captured many specimens, on several occasions, beneath the chestnut- 
trees in the vineyard of Senhor Louiz Acciaioly, and invariably in the perforations 
of di'ied cow-dung, — a somewhat singular liabitat for a Trechiis ; nevertheless I was 
not able to procui-e it under any other circumstances. 

§ II. Apterus : mentwm dente medio bifida instruct urn : palpi articulo ultimo subfusiformi-conico. 

(Subgenus CALOTEECHUS, WoU.) 
A. Elytra phis minusve varier/afa. 

47. Trechus nigrocruciatus, n^oll. (Tab. II. fig. l.) 

T. ovatus nigro-piceus, prothorace subquadrato basi lato et utrinque impresso angulis posticis sub- 
acuminato-rectis, eljrtris mox pone basin convexis leviter striatis rufo-testaceis cruce maxima 
nigro-picea ornatis, antennis infuscatis, pedibus pallidis. 
Var. fi. omnino pallidior, prothorace ad latera testaceo, elji:ris pallidis fascia subapicali dentata 
nigrescenti ornatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2j-2j. 

Habitat in Madcnl sylvatica excelsa, sub lapidibus foliisque arborum dejectis, circa 5000' s. m., raris- 
simiis : in locis humidiusculis prope Cruzinhas, nccnon ad summam originem convallis Ribeiro 
Fundo dicta>, quai in regione Fanalensi sita est, mense Julio a.d. 1850 primus inveni. 

T. ovate, shining, and piceous-black. Prothorax subquadrate, wide behind and narrowed in front ; 
the posterior angles somewhat acuminated and nearly right angles ; with a deep dorsal channel ; 
and a wide, somewhat wrinkled fovea on either side at the base ; the lateral margins a little 
rcflexc'd, and in most instances vciy obscurely rufcscent. Elytra convex just behind the base, 
rather lightly striated, and with two minutely impressed points on the disk of each near the 
third stria from the suture; rufo-testaceous, with a broad, immensely developed black cross in 
the centre, occupying the greater portion of the entire surface, and leaving only an elongated 
patch about the shoulders, the apex, and a narrow ill-defined marginal line (connecting the two), 
pale. Antenna infuscatcj their basal joints, the pulp i and the legs pale testaceous, — the tarsi at 
base and the tibia at apex being usually a little obscurer. 
Var. /3. altogether paler ; the lateral margins of the prothorax being dull testaceous ; and the 
elytra, with the exception of a zigzag postmedial fascia which is more or less black, entirely pale. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 65 

A most elegant species, and apparently one of the rarest of all the Madeiran 
Coleoptera. It may be at once known from the remainder of the genus here 
described by its large ovate outHne, by its posteriorly widened prothorax, and by 
its brightly spotted elytra, — which last indeed might almost have been described 
as quacU-ipunctate did not the existence of the pale varieties seem rather to imply 
that they should be regarded, more correctly, as testaceous, with two darker bands 
(the one sutural, and the other postmedial, — and iatersecting each other at right 
angles) placed vipon them, and which are so immensely developed as to cover the 
entire sm*face except a conspicuous spot at each of the shoulders, the apex, and a 
narrow connecting line along the margin. It occurs only at very lofty elevations, 
its range being the vipper limits of the sylvan districts, and extending perhajjs 
from about 4500 to 5000 feet above the sea. It is found beneath dead rotting 
leaves in the vicinity of the springs and small trickling streams ; imder which 
circmnstances I captured it at the Cruzinhas, during my encampment there in 
July 1850, as also at the extreme head of the Ribeu-o Fundo, — on the northern 
edge of the Fanal. 

48. Trechus flavomarginatus, WoU. (Tab. II. fig. 2.) 

T. oblongo-ovatus depressiis nigro-piceus, prothorace subquadrato basi vix angustato et utrinque im- 
pressD angulis posticis subrectis, elytris striatis ad marginem prsesertim antice et postice flavo- 
testaceis, antennis infuscatis, pedibus paliidis. 
Var. /3. paido major et latior, valde depressus, elytris minus profunda striatis atque latius flavo- 
marginatis. 

Long. Corp. liu. l^^-li. 

Habitat per regionem Maderae sylvaticam, sub lapidibus truncisque arborum projectis, prsesertim in 
locis humidiusculis, toto auno frequens. 

T. oblong-ovate, depressed, shining, and piceous-black. Prothorax subquadrate, rather wider in front 
than behind ; the posterior angles nearly right angles ; with an obscure dorsal channel ; and a 
distinct fovea on either side at the base. Elytra deeply striated ; and with two distinctly im- 
pressed points on the disk of each near the thu-d stria from the suture ; with the margins, espe- 
cially about the shoulders and apex, more or less distinctly testaceous-yellow ; and the suture also 
just perceptibly pale. AntenncB darkly infuscate; their basal joints, the palpi and the legs very 
pale testaceous, — the tibia at apex, especially the hinder ones, being a little dusky. 
Var. /3. rather larger, and proportionably wider, also somewhat more depressed ; the elytra less 
deeply striated, and with the margins and suture more broadly and distinctly testaceous. 

Appareiitly the most abundant of all the Trechi peculiar to these islands ; and 
it may perhajjs be regarded as especially characteristic of the Madeii^an type, — 
occupying somewhat of a central position from which most of the others would 
seem to radiate. It presents, in common with the T. dilutus, a very evident inter- 
mediate link between the large, ovate, spotted form of the T. nigrocruciatus and 



66 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

the more elongated, deeply-coloured, and concolorous ones represented by the 
T. umbricola, ciistos, alticola, and cautns. It may he readily known from the 
remainder of the present section by its small size, and by the imiversally testa- 
ceous margin of its cl}i;ra ; -which is never entirely absent, and which, as though 
to recognise the same principle of colom-ing which obtains in the last species, is 
somewhat expanded at the humeral angles and apex, — thus calling to mind in a 
slight degree the four large and weU-defined patches so conspicuous in that insect. 
StUl, these spot-like expansions are so doubtful and suffused, compared with those 
of the T. nigrocvHciatus, that they can scarcely be looked upon as more than mere 
dilations of the pale marginal Une, — and not therefore as the jiri'^ai'l/ tint of the 
elytra, left uncovered by the darker central cloud imposed ujion them. And, 
although it is almost immaterial by which method we choose to consider the present 
arrangement of the light and dark portions of the surface to have been produced, 
yet the fact that the former is the most probable is worthy of notice, as showing 
the maimer in which tlie law of colouring would appear to change at tliis midway 
point between the two specific extremes. It is essentially a sylvan insect, ranging 
from al)Out 2000 to nearly 5000 feet above the sea, and aboimding throughout the 
wooded districts in most parts of the island. I have observed it in great profusion 
at the Ribeiro Frio, dm-iug the spring and early summer; at the Lombo dos 
Peccgucu'os, and at the Cruziuhas, in July ; and at the FeijJva de C6rte in August ; 
and I have like\^'ise captured it in the Boa Ventura in January. It would appear 
to attain its maxinimn at an altitude of from 3000 to aI)out 4000 feet : and in the 
upland region of the Fanal it is comparatively scarce, — its place being there 
supplied by the T. cnstos, which is the prevaiHng species. The var. ji. I have 
hitherto only taken in the Boa Ventura and at the Cruzinhas. 

49. Trechus dilutus, JVoll. 

T. oblongo-ovatus depressus fusco-piccus, prothorace subcordato basi utrinque profunde impresso 
angulis posticis acuminato-siibrectis, el\i;ris profunde striatis fusco-testaceis macula postica 
maxiniA antice valdc suffusa fusco-picca ornatis, antennis iufuscatis, pcdibus pallidis. 

Long. Corp. lin. lj-l§. 

Habitat cum prgecedcnte, sod illo miilto rarior, locos magis editiores pra;cipue colens. 

T. oblong-ovate, depressed, shining, of a dirty piceous-brown, irregularly clouded in parts, giving the 
surface a somewhat transparent appearance. Prothurax subcordate, or subquadrate and nan-owed 
behind ; the posterior angles sensibly acuminated, and nearly right angles ; with a dorsal 
channel ; and a deep fovea on either side at the base. Elytra more deeply striated than in the 
last species; and with two larger and more distinctly impressed points on the disk of each near 
the third stria from tlie suture; dull brownish-testaceous, shading off gradually behind into a 
large cloudy fusco-piceous patch, which is more or less distinct in the different specimens, and 
which usually covers the entire hinder portion of the surface. Antenna and legs as in the last 
species, though generally not quite so pale. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 67 

A very distinct little species, and readily known from the remainder by its com- 
paratively subcordate protborax, wbicb has the hinder angles prodviced into a 
minute point, and by its diluted, cloudy surface, — the darker portions shading off 
so gradually, and yet so unequally, into the lighter ones as to give the insect 
somewhat the appearance of tortoiseshell. It is more deeply striated than any of 
the rest, and the impressed points on its elytra are usually larger and more 
apparent. It is generally taken in company with the T. flavomarginatus, which 
at first sight it slightly resembles. It is however by far the rarer of the two, and 
occm's in lofty rather than in intermediate altitudes. My specimens are princi- 
pally from the Lombo dos Pecegueii'os, the Cruzinhas, the Lombo das Vacas, and 
the Fanal. 

B. Eh/tra, suturd ohscurissimd excepta, concoloria. 

50. Trechus iimbricola, Woll. (Tab. II. fig. 3.) 

T. oblongo-ovatus subconvexus nigro-piceus, prothorace subquadrato basi utrinque profunde impresso 
angulis posticis subrectis, elytiis striatis, antennis pedibusque pallidis. 
Var. |3. paulo minor et interdum picescentior, elytris profuudius striatis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2|-2§. 

Habitat Maderam borealem sylvaticam, sub lapidibus truncisque arborum prolapsis, a 3000' s. m. 
usque ad 5000' prsedominans : ad Lombo dos Pecegueiros abundat, qua mense Julio a.d. 1850 
sat copiose collegi. 

T. oblong-ovate, rather convex, shining, and piceous-black ; when immature more or less ferruginous. 
Prothorax subquadrate ; the posterior angles a little thickened, and nearly right angles ; with a 
dorsal channel ; and a deep fovea on either side at the base. Elytra rather lightly striated ; and 
with two impressed points on the disk of each near the third stria from the suture, which is just 
perceptibly paler than the rest of the suiface, especially behind. Antenna ferruginous ; palpi 
and the legs testaceous, — the femora at base and the tibice towards the apex (especially the hinder 
ones) being usually a little dusky. 
Var. j3. rather smaller, and a little more piceous ; the prothorax a little narrower, and the elytra 
more deeply striated. 

Readily known by its large, elongated outline and dark piceous hue, — its legs 
and antenna3, and the suture behind, being alone pale. Although not so broad, in 
j)roportion, as the T. nigrocruciatus, it is the longest of the Madeii'au Treclii ; and 
it would appear moreover to be one of the rarer, or at any rate the more local, 
species. It is confined to the damp sylvan districts of intermediate and lofty 
elevations ; and seems to be commoner in the region of the Lombo dos Pecegueiros 
than in any other portion of the island which I have had an opportunity of inves- 
tigating, — where, diu'ing Jidy 1850, 1 captured it from beneath stones and decaying 
logs of wood in comparative abundance. I have Likewise taken it, though more 
sparingly, on the Lombo das Vacas, in June ; as also at the Cruzinhas and the 

Fanal. 

k2 



68 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

51. Trechus quadi-icollis, Woll. 

T. ovato-oblongus subdepressus rufo-ferrugineus, prothoracc subquadrato basi utrinque profunde im- 

presso angulis posticis rectis, elytris profunde striatis, antennis ferrugineis, pedibus pallidis. 
Long. CGI-]), lin. 2g. 

Habitat Maderam australem, rarissimns; — ad Curral das Romeiras, autumno exeunte a.d. 1847, sub 
cortice Lauri Indicte laxo semel tantum repcrtus. 

T. ovate-oblong, slightly depressed, shining, and pale rufo-testaceous. Prothorax subquadrate ; the 
sides almost straight, and the posterior angles nearly right angles ; w-ith a distinct dorsal channel ; 
and a deep fovea on either side at the base. Elytra somewhat parallel, deeply striated, the striae 
being just perceptibly punctate; and with two very obscurely impressed points on the disk of 
each near the third stria from the suture, which is behind just appreciably paler than the rest of 
the surface. Antennce, palpi and leffs, especially the last, pale testaceous, — the tibiee being 
scarcely more dusky than the femora and tarsi. 

The specimen from which the above description has been compiled is hitherto 
unique ; nevertheless it presents so many distinctive features of its own that there 
can be no doubt as to its true specific claims. Apart from its pale rufo-ferru- 
ginous hue, which in the absence of further examples to judge from can scarcely 
be pronounced for certain to be an invariable character, its somewhat oblong, sub- 
parallel outUne, its rather large and square prothorax, which is scarcely at all 
narrowed behind, and its deeply striated elytra, wUl at once serve, in conjxmction, 
to remove it from the remainder of the Madeiran Trechi. It was captured by 
myself, m the autumn of 18 i?, from beneath the loose bark of an old vinhatico at 
the Ciu-ral das Romeiras, above Funchal. 

52. Trechus custos, TJ'oU. 

T. oblongo-ovatus subconvexus piceus, prothorace subquadrato basi Icviter angustato et utrinque 

impresso angulis posticis subrotundatis, elytris striatis, antennis pedibusque pallidis. 
Long, coi-p. lin. lj-2. 

Habitat in iisdcm locis ac T. jlavoinarginatus, sed etiam paulo ultra regioncm sylvatieam hinc iudc 
ascendens. 

T. oblong-ovate, a little convex, shining, and jjiceous ; rarely piceous-black. Prothorax subquadrate, 
and narrowed behind ; the sides distinctly, and the posterior angles obscurely, rounded ; with a 
dorsal channel ; and a rather obscure fovea on either side at the base. Elytra ovate, lightly 
striated ; and with two rather distinctly impressed points on the disk of each near the third stria 
from the suture, which, es{)ccially behind, is a little paler than the rest of the sui-face. Antemue 
ferrugineous, and generally a little infuscate towards their apex; the palpi and the legs pale 
testaceous, — the /e/nora at extreme base, and the tibia towards the apex, being a little dusky- 

Next to the T. Jlavomarginatus, this is vmquestionably the commonest of the 
Madeiran Trec/i^, beiag found beneath stones and decaying logs of wood through- 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 69 

out tlie entire sylvan regions, and occasionally indeed extending even a little 
beyond them. It is the prevailing species in the upland district of the Fanal, 
and on most of the alpine Serras where the forest, although on a gigantic scale, is 
less dense, and is gradually becoming extinct. Xevertheless, though attaining its 
maximum in these elevated tracts, it is by no means peculiar to them, since it 
exists, more or less abundantly, at all altitudes between the limits of from 2500 to 
5000 feet above the sea ; and at all seasons of the year. I have taken it in great 
profusion, in July, at the Lombo dos Pecegueiros, the Cruzinhas, and the Fanal ; 
as also, more sparingly, at the head of the Ril^eiro de JoRo Delgada ; at the Feijaa 
de C6rte, in August ; and at the E-ibeiro Frio diu'ing the mnter and early spring. 
I possess an example from the south of the island (I believe from the Cui'ral das 
Romeiras) which is somewhat larger and more convex than the ordinary type, and 
has its prothorax proportionably a Kttle smaller and more quackate ; bvit I con- 
ceive it to be merely a local state of our present insect, and without even the claim 
to be regarded as a permanent variety. 

53. Trechus alticola, WoU. 
T. oblongo-ovatus subconvexus nigro-piceus politissinms, prothorace subquadrato basi vix angustato 

et utrinque impresso angulis posticis obtusis, elytris leviter striatis, antennis pedibusque pallidis, 

tibiis distincte infuscatis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2. 

Habitat sub lapidibus in montibus superioribus Maderse; — supra fastigium saxosura in ascensu 
mentis Pico dos Arieros dicti, Meya Metade prospiciens, tempore hiberno et vernali a.d. 1849 a 
meipso captus. 

T. oblong-ovate, a little convex, exceedingly shining, and piceous-black. Prothorax subquadrate, not 
quite so much narrowed behind as that of the T. ciistos ; the posterior angles obtuse but scarcely 
at all rounded; with a dorsal channel; and a distinct fovea on either side at the base. Elytrii 
ovate, very lightly striated ; aud with two distinctly impressed points on the disk of each near 
the third stria from the suture, which is somewhat more perceptibly pale than in the last species, 
especially behind. Antenna and legs as in the T. custos, only with the tibiee, particularly towards 
their apex, more evidently infuscate. 

This is the only Madeu'an Trechus of which I have the slightest doubt as to the 
true specific claims, since it unquestionably approaches the T. custos very closely : 
nevertheless since the minute points wliich separate it from that insect appear to 
remain constant, and since in its habits it recedes from the rest of the genus here 
described, I have thought it better not to unite the two, until at all events further 
evidence shall decide the question. It is the only one, so far as I am aware, in 
Madeu'a proper, the normal range of which would seem to be extra-sylvan, the 
single locality in which I have hitherto observed it being the lofty uplands be- 
tween the Ice House Peak and the Pico dos Arieros, — at an elevation of not less 



70 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

than 5600 feet above the sea, and far removed from the highest forest limi ts in 
that portion of the island. The spot moreover being one which, from its exposed 
nature, could never have been wooded at any time, there is the less reason for 
suspecting that the T. alticola may be merely a state of the T. citstos, gradually 
assvuncd since the disappearance of the native timber from the region which it 
inhabits. '\Mien such causes as these can be shown to have operated, I would at 
all times make abundant allowances for them, since their effect in certain instances 
has been already proved to a demonstration : but where there is equally decisive 
evidence that they could never have been brought into play, small differences must 
frequently be regarded as of primary importance Avhere, under other cii'ciun- 
stances, even greater ones might be comj^aratively worthless. For these reasons I 
am induced to believe that the two insects under consideration may be in reality 
distinct ; and, until intermediate links, both in aspect and habits, shall have been 
foiuid to connect them, I think we have sufficient grounds for retaining them as 
such. The T. alticola tlifi'ers from every form of the T. ciistos which has come 
beneath my notice in being more brightly polished and of a uniformly darker hue, 
in haA-ing its prothorax slightly less attenuated behind, its elytra more obscm-ely 
striated, and its tibia) in all instances much more CAddently infuscate, — more so in 
fact than is the case with any of the other species. I captm'ed it, on several 
occasions, dm-iug the ■winter and early spring of 1819, in company with Amara 
superans, on the bleak exposed ridge, overlooking the head of the Metade valley, 
between, as abeady stated, the Ice House Peak and the Pico dos Arieros. 

54. Trechus cautus, WoU. 
T. ovatus antice subattenuatus, convexus piceus, prothorace convexo subquadrato basi vix angustato et 

haud iinprcsso angulis posticis obtusis, elytiis striatis, striis ad latera evanesccntibus, antenuis 

pedibusque rufo-ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. liu. 2. 

Habitat in montibus Portus Sancti, sub lapidibus in declivibus graminosis, tempore biberno et ver- 

nali, rarior. 

T. ovate, rather attenuated anteriorly and expanded behind, convex, shining, and piccous. Prothorax 
convex, subquadrate, the posterior angles obtuse ; with a veiy obscure dorsal channel ; and with 
no appearance whatsoever of fovea; at the base. Elytra ovate, distinctly striated towards the 
suture but almost unstriated towards the margin ; with two impressed points on the disk of each 
near the third stria from the suture, which is obscurely paler than the rest of the surface, espe- 
cially behind. Antenna, palpi and legs rufo-ferruginous. 

An exceedingly Avell-marked species, and rt'adily known from tlie rest of the 
genus here described l)y its ovate and somewhat anteriorly-acuminated form, by its 
convex prothorax, aaIucIi has no appearance whatsoever of foveas or impressions 
behind, and by the stria? of its elji;ra, although distinct near the sutm-c, being 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 71 

evanescent towards the outer margin. It is the only Trechns which I have 
hitherto observed in any of the other islands of the group; being apparently 
peculiar to Porto Santo, where, dviring the winter and early spring, I have ob- 
served it in tolerable abundance, beneath stones, on the grassy mountain- slopes at 
an elevation of about 900 feet above the sea, — though especially on the green 
exposed ridge which connects the Pico de Faclio with the Pico do Oastello. 

Genus 23. THALASSOPHILUS, Wall. (Tab. II. fig. 5.) 

Corpus parvum, lineare : prothorace cordato : alis obsoletis. Antenme filiformes, capite prothoraceque 
multo longiores, articulo ])rimo sequentibus robustiore, secundo breviusculo, reliquis sub- 
aequalibiis. Lahrum (II. 5 a) transvei'sum, antice profunde emarginatum, aut potius bilobum, 
lobo quoque apice barbato et setis paucis longissimis instructo. Mandibulee (II. 5 b, o c) longse 
porrectse acutae, intus basi denticulate. Maxilla (II. 5 d) bilobse : lobo externa palpifonni 
biai'ticulato : interno acuto iucurvo, apice uuciuato, intus valde ciliato. Palpi articulo ultimo 
penultimo minore, in maxillaribus eonico, in labiulibus (II. 5 e) subfusiformi-conico. Mentum 
transversum, antice profunda emarginatum et dente medio brevi bifido instructum. Ligula 
brevis subcornea, apice rotundata pilisque longissimis ornata; paraglossis angustis linearibus, 
cam superantibus. Pedes robusti : tarsis anticis in maribus (II. 5 /) articulis primo et secundo 
dilatatis atque intus productis : unguiculis simplicibus. 

A OaXaaaa mare, et ^tXo? amicus. 

The very interesting insect for which the present genus has been established 
approaches slightly, in its outward appearance, to the Cillenum laterale of oui- owti 
country ; nevertheless the large terminal joint of its palpi wiU of com-se remove it 
from the whole section of the Bembidiudes, whilst from that species in particular the 
bifid central tooth of its mentum and deeply bilobed upper lip, in conjimction with 
its elongated antennae (which have the foui-th joint not shorter than the pre^dous one) 
and the peculiar dilation of its male tarsi, will serve additionally to distinguish 
it. In the proportions of its palpi indeed, and of its upper Hp, as well as in its 
freedom from Avings, ThalassopUlus is perhaps more nearly related to Aepus than 
to anything else with which I am acquamted. StiU, its comparatively gigantic 
size and dissimilar form, added to the bifid tooth of its mentum, will readily 
separate it from that genus also : and it may not inappropriately be regarded as 
constituting a passage between the Hmyalldes and the Bembidiades, — for whilst 
the greatly developed ultunate joint of its palpi must needs place it amongst the 
former, yet its general habits and aspect are so intimately allied to some of the 
early members of the latter as to render its affinity with them Likewise scarcely 
less obvious. 

55. Thalassophilus WMtei, Woll. (Tab. II. fig. 5.) 
T. rufo-ferrugineus nitidus depressus, capite picescenti, prothorace cordato lateribus postice sub- 



72 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

reflexis, elytris diluto-testaceis striatis, striis ad latera evanescentibus, fascia subapicali obsciira 
nigrescenti ornatis et singulo punctis duobus distinctis impresso, pedibus testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 12. 

Habitat insulas Maderenses, in subsalinis ad ostia rivuloram, vel per litora maris, inter lapillos 
fodiens ; rarissimus : duo specimina tantum vidi, unum so. in ins. Portus Sancti Decembri 
mense a.d. 1848 a meipso inventum, et alteram a Dom. Rousset ab ora Funchalensi maritima 
nuperrime communicatum. 
Aniico cl. A. White, Arm., Musei Britannici comiti, hoc insectum valde indigenum et certe no\um 
tribiii. 

T. elongate, parallel, depressed, shining, and rufo-ferruginous. Head large, more or less riifo-piceous, 
with two very deep longitudinal furrows down the forehead; eyes jn'ominent. Prothorax cordate, 
margined, especially towards the base, where it is a little retiexed; the extreme posterior angles 
rather prominent and acute ; with a distinct dorsal channel ; but with no appearance of fovese 
behind. Elytra testaceous, striated, the striae not being perceptibly punctate and vanishing 
towards the margins ; with two deep impressions on the disk of each ; and with an obscure, 
cloudy, ill-defined patch, common to both and forming an almost obsolete subapical fascia, 
slightly infuscate. Antenna infiiscate towards their apex. Legs testaceous. 

Apparently one of the rarest of the Macleiran Coleoptera, residing, like the 
European Blenuis areolatus and its allies, beneath shingle in brackish spots, into 
which it burrows with great dexterity. In spite of my constant researches in 
these islands I have hitherto captured but a single specimen, — detected, during 
December 1848, at the edges of a small stream in the island of Porto Santo, knoA^-n 
as the E-ibeiro de Serra de Fora, at a short distance l)efore it empties itself into 
the sea. A second example however has been recently communicated to me by 
M. Rousset, — discovered, I believe, on the beach near Funchal. The Madeii-an 
representative is somewhat more highly coloured than the Porto Santan one, its 
suliapical fascia being more distinctly developed; but whether this is merely 
accidental, or would hold good on a larger scale, I am unable, in the absence of 
further evidence, to decide. 



(Subf. 5. BEMBIDIADES.) 
Genus 24. BEMBIDIUM. (Tab. II. fig. 6.) 

Latreille, Oen. Crust, et Ins. i. 183 (script. BembiiUon) (1806). 

Corptis parvum, plus minusve oblongum : alls amplis. Antenna filiformes, capite prothoraccque 
siepius ])aulo longiores, articulo priino scqucntibus robustiore. Lahrum breve transversum, 
antice plus minusve leviter emarginatum et setis jiaucis longissimis instructum. Mandibula 
porrecta; arcuatse acutre, intus basi plerumque denticulatse. Maxilla (II. 6 a) biloba; : Ivlw 
externa palpiformi biarticulato : interna acuto incurvo, apice uncinato, intus valde ciliato. Palpi 
articulo penultinio maximo subelavato, ultimo minutissimo subuliformi acuto. Mentum (II. 6 b) 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 73 

transversum, antice profunde emarginatum et dente medio integvo instructum. Ligula cornea, 
apice subrotundata ; paraglossis siiblinearibus, earn parum superantibus. Pedes robusti : tarsis 
anticis in maribus (II. 6 c) articulis primo et secundo dilatatis (iUo magno siibquadrato) : -un- 
guiculis simplicibus. 

The immense genus Bembiclium, with its numerous subdivisions (proposed suc- 
cessively as genera by Megerle, Ziegler and Leach), would seem prima facie to 
include many well-defined types of form ; nevertheless the sections which the 
several modifications tend to compose merge into each other by such slow grada- 
tions, that, like the divisions of Pterosticlms, it is not possible ia a general arrange- 
ment to ujihold them. In the structure of their oral organs they present, inter se, 
scarcely the slightest difference, every one of them being moulded on a pattern so 
nearly similar as to be almost coincident. The minute, subulated terminal joint 
of their palpi, the entire central tooth of their mentum, and the largely dilated 
basal articulation of their two anterior male feet are the principal distiactive 
features which the group displays ; — the fii'st of which moreover is clearly the 
most imjiortant, as ser^dng even of itself to isolate the Bembidiades from the 
whole of the other subfamilies of the Carabidce. In their habits the species are 
essentially subaquatic, being peculiar to moist spots, and especially abundant 
beneath stones and shiagle at the margins of ponds and streams. 

(Subgenus TACHTS, Ziegl.) 

56. Bembidivun bistriatum. 
B. fusco-piceum depressum, prothorace subcordato angulis posticis subrectis, elytro singulo striis 

duabus suturalibus punctoque impresso, antennarum basi pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. |. 

Elaph'us histriatus, (Meg.) HvtSt. Fna Aitstr. ri..2Qo (1^12). 
Tachys minutissimus, (Leacli) Steph. III. Brit. Ent. ii. 7 (1829). 
Bemhidium bistriatum, Dej. Spec, des CoZ. v. 42 (1831). 
, Heer, Fna Col. Reh. 123 (1841). 

Habitat Maderam, vel ad margines rivulorum, vel super oras rupium humidarum exstantes, inter 
muscos lapillosque degens, a vere novo usque ad autumnum, sat vulgare. 

B. minute, not very shining, depressed, and brownish-piceous ; sometimes almost ferruginous, or 
even with a vei-y slight testaceous tinge. Prothorax subcordate, the posterior angles nearly 
right angles ; vrith a deep dorsal channel ; and an impression on either side at the base. Elytra 
ovate ; with two distinct striae on each near the sutm-e, the outer ones being evanescent ; and 
with a single, rather distinctly impressed point on the disk of each before the middle. Antemice 
infuscate ; their basal joints, the apex of the terminal one, the palpi and the legs testaceous. 

Rather a common insect beneath small stones and moss on the damp ledges of 
the rocks, and amongst loose shingle by the margins of the trickling streams, both 



74 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

in the north and south of Macleii-a, at somewhat low and intermediate altitudes. 
About half-way up the Ribeii'o de Santa Luzia, from Funchal, I have taken it in 
considerable abundance during the spring ; and in June and July at Sao Vincente 
and the Forno de Cal. It occurs thi-oughout the greater portion of central and 
southern Eui'ope. The Madeiran specimens differ from their more northern 
representatives in being a little narrower and less depressed, and in having their 
legs and antennae not quite so robust. 

57. Bembidivun curvimanimi, iroU. (Tab. II. fig. 6.) 

B. nigrum angustiusculuin, prothorace subquadi'ato angulis posticis rectis, elytro singulo striis 
quatuor punctatis suturam versus impresso et plagis duabus obscui-is, una magna, subhumerali et 
altera minore subapicali, valde suflFuisis rufcscentibus ornato, antennarum basi pcdibusque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1. 

Habitat in ins. Portus Sancti, rarissimum ; — sub lapide ad marginem riviili cujusdam Ribeiro de Sen-a 
de Fora dicti semel tautum, Decembri mensc a.d. 1848, repertum. 

B. rather narrow, shining, and black. Prothorax longer in proportion than that of the B. Lucasii, 
and more quadrate, the posterior angles being right angles ; with a distinct dorsal channel ; and 
an obscure impression on either side at the base. Elytra elongate-ovate ; with foui' striae, and 
the rudiments of a fifth, on each towards the suture, the outer ones being evanescent ; the striae 
distinctly punctured, the sutural one being the longest, and the others gradually abbreviated, 
though less abruptly so than in the B. Lucasii; the two impressed points (so thstinct on the disk 
of each in that species, on the third stria from the suture) being here almost, if not altogether 
obsolete ; each with a large, obscure, ill-defined, suflFiised, rufescent blotch near the shoulder, and 
a smaller one, even more indistinct still, behind the apex. Antenna at base, palpi and legs testa- 
ceous : the first ferruginous, or slightly infuscate, towards their apex : the two anterior tibite 
suddenly bent inwards at a short distance from their extremity. 

A very peculiar and interesting little BeinbicUian, and hitherto unique, — the 
specimen from which the above description has been compiled haA"ing been cap- 
tured by myself in Porto Santo, at the edges of the small stream known as the 
llibeu'o de Serra de Fora, during December 1848. It would seem to be the repre- 
sentative of the B. Lucasii in that island, to which in some respects it is allied, 
although abundantly distinct from it specifically. Thus, it not only recedes from 
it, as indeed it does from all the Bemhidia here described, in the singular con- 
struction of its anterior tibiae, which are so suddenly bent inwards at a short 
distance from their extremity as to give the insect a most unusual appearance, 
but it differs likewise in its minuter size, and in its narrower and more parallel 
outline, in its total freedom from the brassy-green tinge which is there so con- 
spicuous, in its squarer and proportionably longer prothorax, which is much less 
narrowed bchmd, and in its elytra having two patches on each, — which are more- 
over large (especially the humeral one), rufescent, and so extremely suffused as to 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 75 

be only just tlistingiushable. The striae of its elytra are also perceptibly punctate, 
and at least four in number (tbere being the rudiments of even a fifth), whereas in 
the B. Liicasii there are merely three ; and the impressed points on the disk are 
apparently obsolete. 

58. Bembidium Lucasii. 

B. Beneo-viridescenti-nigrum, prothorace transverso-subquadi'ato basi attenuato angulis posticis sub- 
rectis, elytro singiilo striis tribus suturam versus pimctisque duobus impresso et macula subapicali 
parva rotundata valde distincta testace^ ornato, antennarum basi pedibusque testaceis. 

Long. covp. lin. \\-\l. 

Berribiditmi Lucasii, Duval, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France (2'^™« serie), x. 137 (1851). 

Habitat in bumidis Maderse, ad Sanctam Annam Maio exeunte a.d. 1850 copiose collectum; necnon 
exemplar unicum etiam in Madera australi, prope urbem Funchalensem, el. Dom. Hear detexit : 
in viciuitate aquarum desilientium prfedominat, nunc in luto sepultum, nunc per superficiem 
velocissime cui-rens, — quapropter difficilius capiendum. 

B. larger than the last species, shining, dark greenish-black, and generally with a very obscure brassy 
tinge. Prothorax short, subcordate, attenuated behind, nevertheless with the posterior angles 
nearly right angles ; with an obscure dorsal channel ; and an impression on either side at the 
base. Elytra ovate; with three deep striae on each towards the suture, the outer ones being 
evanescent ; the strise not perceptibly punctured, the sutural one being the longest, and the 
others successively shorter and abruptly terminated anteriorly ; with two impressed points on the 
disk of each on the third, or outer stria ; each with a small, rounded, well-defined patch, behind 
the apex, testaceous. Antenna at base, palpi and legs testaceous : the first rather longer than 
those of the B. curvimanum, and more darkly iufuscate towards then- apex: the tivo anterior tibiae 
just perceptibly bent inwards at a short distance from their extremity, though very much less so 
than in the last species. 

The distinctions between the present species and the last have been ak-eady 
pointed out. The B. I/iicasii is strictly a Mediterranean insect, having been 
hitherto only recorded in Algeria and Spain. Although not rare, it is apparently 
extremely local in Madeira, the only spot in. which I have observed it in any pro- 
fusion being at Santa Anna, in the north of the island, where, during May and 
June of 1850, I captured it in great abundance at the edges of the small stream 
which crosses the pathway down to the sea, at about a thu-d of the distance, from 
the Quinta of Senhor Louiz Acciaioly. On the southern side of the island I have 
not as yet, myself, detected it ; but I possess a specimen, communicated to me by 
Professor Heer of Zurich, collected diu'ing the winter of 1850-51 in the vicinity of 
Funchal. 

59. Bembidium obtusum. 

B. subviridescenti-, vel subpicescenti-nigrum, prothorace subquadrato angulis posticis rotundato- 

L 2 



7G INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

obtusis, elytris leviter punctato-striatisj singulo punctis duobus impresso, antenaarum basi pedi- 
busque ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. l^^-lf . 

JBembidium obtusum, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, vi. 165 (1825). 
TacJii/s obfusiis, Steph. HI. Brit. Ent. ii. 6 (1829). 
Bembidium obtusum, Dej. Sj^ec. des Col. v. 177 (1831). 
, Heer, Fna Col. Helv. 136 (1841). 

Habitat insulas Maderenses, sub lapidibus vel ad vias, Line inde ab orS, maritima usque ad summos 
montes ascendens : in graminosis Portus Sancti abundat ; neenon in ins. Ueserta Grandi, qua 
speeimina amplitudine acerescunt. 

B, elongate-oblong, shining, black, and with a just perceptibly greenish, or piceous tinge. Prothorax 
large, subquadrate, the sides and posterior angles being somewhat rounded; with a dorsal 
channel ; and an impression on either side at the base. Elytra somewhat parallel ; finely punc- 
tate-striated, the striffi being evanescent towards the margin ; and with two minutely impressed 
points on the disk of each near the third stria from the sutm-e. Antenna at base, and legs ferru- 
ginous ; the former darkly infuscate towards their apex. 

The B. obtusum, so universal throughout Europe and the north of Africa, occurs 
in most of the islands of the Madeii-an group, though not very abundantly in any 
of them. It is found at all altitudes, but is commoner in low, or but slightly 
elevated localities than in the higher regions, existing beneath stones in grassy 
spots, and occasionally to be seen, especially on the wing, even in the gardens of 
Funchal. On the cliffs to the eastward. of the town, towards the Cabo Gerajao, I 
have taken it constantly, during the autumnal months ; as also, late in the spring, 
at Santa Anna,; and, during July, in the lofty district of the Fanal, — upwards of 
5000 feet above the sea. It has been likewise captui'ed by Professor Heer at the 
Campan.'irio and on the Pico da Cruz. On the mountain slopes of Porto Santo it 
is by no means rare ; and I possess a tolerably extensive series from the Dezcrta 
Grande, obtained, during my encampment there with the Rev. E. T. Lowe, in 
May 1850, and ranging somewhat above the average in point of size. On oil the 
islands indeed the insect attains a larger stattire than it does in more northern 
countries, and presents other differences likewise, which it is evident however are 
merely geograpliieal ones. Thus, it is not only longer than the ordinary i\])c but 
projiortionably more parallel, the hinder angles of its prothorax are a little more 
rounded and less thickened, its elytral striae are much less deeply impressed, and 
its entire surface is more brilliantly polished. It is in fact the particular state 
which appears to obtain, more or less CAridently, tlu'oughout the greater portion of 
southern Eru'ope, — and is, consequently, the result of latitude rather than of 
isolation. I am informed by my friend Dr. H. Schaum of Berlin that he has 
observed precisely the same variety at Nice, as the Madeii-an one, where it is 
extremely abundant. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 77 

(Subgenus PERYPHTJS, Meg.) 

60. Bembidium Atlanticum, WoU. 

B. subcyaneo-, vel subsenescenti-v-iride, prothorace parvo cordato basi valde attenuate angulis posticis 

rectis, elytris punctato-striatis fascia communi subapicali rufo-testacea (interdum obsoleta) 

decoratis, singulo punctis duobus distinctis impresso et plaga subbumerali suffasa rufo-testacea 

(interdum obsoleta) ornatis, antennarum basi pedibusque rufo-testaceis. 
Var. a. subcyaneo-viride, elytris fere immaculatis, fascia plagisque obsoletis. (In Madera Boreuli 

status typicus.) 
Var. ^. subcyaneo-, vel subsenescenti-viride, elytromm fascia plagisque valde indistinctis. (In 

Madera Boreali et in Portu Sancto ; rarior.) 
Var. y. cyaneo-viride, elytrorum fascia plagisque valde distinctis. (In Fortu Sancto status typicus; 

sed in Madera Boreali rarissimus.) 
Var. i. cyaneo-viride, elytris leete coloratis, fere testaceis, fascia distincta et plagis valde sufFusis 

confluentibus. (In Portu Sancto, rarior.) 
Var. e. paulo majus et latius, cyaneo- senescent!- viride, elj-tris fere immaculatis, fascia omnino et 

plagis fere obsoletis; pedibus, prsesertim tibiis, iuEequaliter infuscatis. (In Madera Australi, 

rarissimus.) 
Long. corp. lin. 2i-2f. 

Habitat per litora rivulorum Maderae, prsesertim Borealis; necnon in ins. Portu Sancto, tempore 
biberno et veraali, frequens : var. a. in Ribeiro de Sao Jorge, baud procul a Sancta Anna, 
abundat, qua d. 17 Mai. a.d. 1850 copiosissime collegi; varietatis ^. exemplar unicum bactenus 
vidi, a meipso ad Curral das Romeiras in Madera AustraU autumno exeunte a.d. 1847 
detectum. 

B. sbining, more or less of a bluish-green bue, and occasionally with a brassy tinge. Prothorax 
small, cordate, convex, and highly pohshed, much attenuated, and transversely punctm-ed, be- 
hind, the posterior angles being right angles ; with a distinct dorsal channel ; and a deep fovea 
on either side at the base. Elytra parallel ; uniformly punctate-striated ; with two distinctly 
impressed points on the disk of each near the third stria from the suture ; with a large sublunu- 
late fascia behind, common to both, and a diffused patch on each about the region of the 
shoulders, more or less obscurely rufo-testaceous, — either the fascia or the patches, and occa- 
sionally both, having a tendency to become obsolete. Antenna at base, palpi and legs rufo- 
testaceous : the fii-st more or less infuscate towards their apex. 

Var. a. bluish-green; and with the elytra almost immaculate,— there being scarcely the slightest 
indication of either the fascia or patches. (The typical state in the north of Madeira.) 

Var. fi. bluish-green, or green with an jeneous tinge; the elj-tra with both the fascia and patches 
perceptible, although indistinct. (Abnormal both in the north of Madeira and in Porto Santo.) 

Var. y. bluish-green, or greenish-blue ; the elytra with the fascia and patches exceedingly well 
defined. (The typical state in Porto Santo, but extremely rare in the north of Madeira.) 

Var. 8. bluish-green, or greenish-blue ; the elytra abuost testaceous, the fascia being exceedingly 
bright, and the patches large, and so much diffused as to be almost confluent, and to cover the 



78 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

greater portion of the surface. Antennae less infuscate than in the other states. (The extreme 
pale variety of Porto Santo.) 
Var. e. somewhat larger and broader than any of the above states ; brassy-green, and with a bluish 
tinge unequally distributed over the surface ; the elytra almost immaculate, the fascia being 
obsolete, and the patches only just indicated. Legs, especially the tibiae, more or less infuscated 
in parts. (Ravines in the south of Madeira.) 

Throughout all the Madeii-an Coleoptera there is perhaps no insect which dis- 
plays such an extraordinary range of colouring as the present one does ; and 
although it is true that the section of Bembidhim to which it belongs is essentially 
a A'ariable one, yet I am not acquainted "nith any Feryphns in which the paler 
liatches of the elytra are so remarkal)ly unstable, or which appear to be so com- 
pletely under the control of external circumstances, as are those of the B. Atlan- 
ticum* : and indeed unless viewed in the mass, we should scarcely be inclined to 
recognise the same species in the many diflferent aspects which it puts on between 
its extremes. The examination however of a very large number of examples, and 
a carefid consideration of the several localities and altitudes in which they were 
taken, has convinced me that there is unquestionably but a single type of form 
amongst my entire series, since the whole are so intimately connected, by success- 
ive gradations both of outhne and colom% that it is perfectly impossible to isolate 
even a single specimen, or to draw a line of specific demarcation between any two 
consecutive members of the chain. It will be perceived, by a reference to the 
above diagnosis, that the insect in question passes unperceptibly from nearly a 
pure green, thi-ough a well-defined spotted state, into one which has the ehi;ra 
abuost testaceous, — the paler portions being at last so largely developed as to 
become confluent and almost to cover the entire sm-face. In Madeii"a proper the 
darker varieties would seem to be tyjiical ; whereas in Porto Santo the brightly 
coloured ones preponderate, and in fact are all but universal. Both extremes do 
nevertheless occur in both islands, the tendency being merely, in either case, to 
assmne the particular modification characteristic of the spot. In the north of 
Madeira the specimens are somewhat narrower than either the southern or the 
Porto Santan representatives. I have taken it abimdantly in tlie Eibeiro de Sao 
Jorge, Avhere, on the 17th of May 1850, I observed it va literal profusion, near the 
old road from Santa Anna to Ponta Delgada, AAhich crosses the valley at a greater 
distance from the sea than the present one does, and consequently at a somewhat 
higher elevation. In the south of the island it is far scarcer, — the tributary 
ravuie to the Curral das Romcu-as being the only spot in which I have hitherto 
detected it. In Porto Santo it is tolerably common : and, at edges of a small 
stream which finds its way over the abrupt rocks of the northern shore, from the 

* Our present insect is jjrobably allied to (lie B. Ltmtanicum, Putzeys (Entoni. Zcit., a.d. 18-15, 
p. 139) ; nevertheless I should state that I forwarded speeiiiicus to 51. Duval, of Paris, duinng the time 
in which he was preparing liis monograph on the European Bemhidia, who pronoimced them to be un- 
questionably new. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 79 

open plain of the Campo de Baxo, I captured an extensive series, during December 
of 18i8. 

61. Bembidium tabellatum, WoU. 

B. valde depressum nigro-viride subopacum, protborace cordato basi attenuato angulis posticis rectis, 
elytris profunde subpunctato-striatis, singulo punctis tribus magnis distinctis impresso, antenna- 
rum basi pedibusqiie rufo-piceis. 

Long. Corp. bn. 3. 

Habitat Maderam australem, ad marginem rivub cujusdam parvi prope Curral das Romeu'as, sero 
autumno a.d, 1847, inventum : in Madera boreaU mibi adbuc non obvium. 

B. very mucb depressed, dull blackish-green, and nearly opake. Prothoraoe small, cordate, much 
attenuated behind, the posterior angles being right angles j with a distinct dorsal channel ; and 
a veiy deep, roughened fovea on either side at the base. Elytra less parallel than in the last 
species, and rather acuminated behind ; very deeply striated, the strijE being minutely punctm'ed 
and the interstices rather convex ; with three very large, distinct, and deeply impressed points on 
the disk of each near the third stria from the suture. Antenna elongated, their base rufo-piceous 
or ferruginous; darkly infuscated, or almost black, towards their apex. Leffs more or less 
piceous, or fusco-piceous. 

Apparently the representative in these islands of the common B. tihiale of more 
northern latitudes, of which indeed it is just possible that it may be a geogra- 
phical variety. Still, it presents so many small distinctive characters peculiarly 
its o"\vn that it is scarcely safe to refer it to that insect. Thus, it differs from it in 
its extraordinarily depressed body, in its uniformly opake and darker surface, in its 
small, short, and cordate prothorax, which is exceedingly attenuated behind, and 
in its more deeply striated and apicaUy acuminated elytra, which have moreover 
three very large and distinctly impressed points, instead of only two, on the disk 
of each. Its antennte also are somewhat longer than those of that species, and its 
tibise are not sensibly paler than the femora and tarsi, — its legs being entu'ely 
picescent, It would seem to be local, occui"ring at the edges of the streams 
towards the south of the island. In the ravine immediately to the westward of 
the Curral das Romeiras, towards the Mount Church, I captm-ed it sparingly 
during the autumn of 18i7, but I have not since succeeded in detecting it. 

62. Bembidium elongatum. 

B. angusto-elongatum subaenescenti-viride, prothorace elongato-subcordato basi valde attenuato angulis 
posticis rectis, antice posticeque punctato, elytris subcyanescentibus subcylindricis profunde 
punctato-striatis, striis apicem versus evanescentibus, singulo punctis duobus impresso et macula 
submarginali testacea. longe intra apicem ornato, antennarum basi pedibusque paUidis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2-2A. 



80 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Bemhiditim elongatum, Dej. Spec, des Col. v. 148 (1831). 
— , Heer, Fna Col Heh. 134 (1841). 

Habitat Maderam, vel ad ripas fluviorum vel sub lapidibus in locis humidis, toto anno frequens : in 
Madera boreali fure ad maris litus descendit, sed in australi vix infra 1500' s. m. hactenus 
observavT. 

B. elongated and narrow, shining, dark obscure green, and with a slightly jeneous tinge. Prothorax 
elongate-subcordate, convex, and highly polished, much attenuated behind, the posterior angles 
being right angles ; with a cluster of large, scattered punctures in front, and a greater number 
across the hinder margin ; with a distinct dorsal channel ; and a small fovea on either side at the 
base. Elytra with a slightly bluish tinge ; subcyliudrical, with the sides nearly parallel ; deeply 
punctate-striated, the striae vanishing near the apex, which is obscurely testaceous ; each with two 
impressed points on its disk near the third stria from the suture (of which the anterior one is 
large and distinct, and the posterior one almost obsolete), and a rounded, submarginal, testaceous 
patch at a considerable distance behind the apex. Antenna at base rufo-testaceous, darkly infus- 
cated towards their apex. Legs (except the extreme base of the tibiae, which is darker) pale 
testaceous. 

The narrow, elongated outline and subcylindi-ical body of the present Bem- 
bidium, added to its (not posteriorly only, but) anteriorly punctured prothorax, 
its dark green sui-face, and the pale submarginal patch with which each of its 
elytra is ornamented at a considerable distance behind the apex, will be sufficient 
to distinguish it, even prima facie, from the remainder of the genus here described. 
It is a tolerably abimdant insect in Madeii-a, being widely distributed over the 
island at intermediate and lofty elevations, and occui-ring beneath stones by the 
edges of the streams, at nearly all seasons of the year. Towards the north it is 
less peculiar to the mountain districts than it is in the south, being not imconmion 
in the -sicinity of Sao Vincente and at the Forno de Cal; whereas the lowest 
altitude at which I have hitherto observ^ed it in the latter is the Cui-ral das 
Romeiras, above Funchal, where dm'ing the autumn of 1847 I captiu-ed it in 
considerable profusion. It would seem to attain its maximum, however, in much 
higher regions, being very plentiful in damp spots on the mountain-slopes imme- 
diately below the summit of the Paul da Serra, — both on the ascent from Sao 
Vincente, and likewise, on its north-western Kmits, towards the Fanal. It is 
recorded ia Spain, France, S^vitzerland, Styria, and Dalmatia ; and I have seen 
specunens, in the collection of J. B-ix, Esq. of St. Neots, which were taken in 
Jersey. 

(Subgenus LOPIIA, Meg.) 

63. Bembidium Schmidtii, WoJl. 
B. suba:nescenti-atrum, prothorace cordato basi valde attenuato punctato angulis posticis rectis, 
elytris antice profunde punctato-striatis, striis pone medium evanescentibus, singulo punctis 
dunbus magnis impresso et maculis duabus diluto-testaceis, una magna triangulari subhumcrali 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 81 

et altera minore longe intra apicem sita, ad marginem fere coufluentibus ornato, antennarum 
basi pedibusque rufo-picescentibus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2-2^. 

Habitat ad margines aquarutn, vel stagnantium vel fluentium, in Madera excelsa sylvatica, rarius : ad 

Cruzinhas prfedominatj qua mense Julio ineunte a.d. 1850 plurima specimina cepi. 
In honorem Entomologici periti Dom. Ferd. Jos. Schmidt nomen triviale dedi. 

B. shining, and deep feneous-black. Prothorax cordate, a good deal wrinkled in front, coarsely- 
punctured and much attenuated behind, the posterior angles being right angles ; with a dorsal 
channel ; and a small fovea on either side at the base. Elytra oblong-ovate ; deeply punctate- 
striated anteriorly, the striae being almost evanescent about the middle ; with two large, though 
not very deeply impressed points on the disk of each near the third stria from the suture, and 
each with a large subtriangular patch about the shoulders, and a smaller, somewhat rounded one 
at a considerable distance behind the apex (the two almost united towards the lateral margin), 
dull testaceous. Antenna at base and legs more or less rufo-picescent. 

The present Bemhidium would seem to be the Madeiran representative of the 
B. callosum, Kust., of central and southern Europe. It is not impossi])le indeed 
that it may be an extreme local state of that insect ; nevertheless, like the B. tabel- 
latum, it possesses so many peculiarities essentially its own that I prefer retaining 
it as separate to incurring the risk of conceding too much to geographical effects. 
It differs from the species in qiiestion in being larger, and proportionably broader, 
ia its more brassy hue, in the obscurer patches of its much more deeply striated 
elytra, and in its legs being uniformly darker and more piceous. It is, apparently, 
exceedingly rare, or at any rate local, its normal range being the edges of the 
streams and pools towards the upper limits of the wooded districts. The only 
occasion on which I ever observed it plentifully was, in the lofty region of the 
Cruzinhas, during July 1850. I once indeed caj)tm'ed a few specimens even on the 
level of the shore, on the coast-road leading from Sao Vincente to Seisal, — in the 
vicinity of the first large waterfall, which issues from the ravines above and finds 
its way, over the beach, into the sea. From the nature of the spot, however, I 
have not the slightest doubt but that they had been washed down by some of the 
floods Avhich occur so frequently in Madeira, and with such violence, especially 
towards the north of the island, as occasionally to carry almost everytliing before 
them; — a supj)osition which is rendered the more probable from the fact that 
other insects, unquestionably alpine, were found in company with them, which 
could scarcely have existed in such a position except by accident. 



M 



82 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 



Sectio II. HYDRADEPHAGA. 
ram. 2. DYTISCID^. 

Genus 25. COLYMBETES. 

ClairviUe, Ent. Helv. ii. 198 (1806). 

Cm'pus vel mediocre, vel (ut in specie nostra) magnum, plus minusve oblongum : alis amplis. An- 
tenna filiformes. Labrum brevissimum, antice Icviter emarginatum. Mandibula; breves, apice 
lato-emarginat?e, intus basi bidentatse. Maxilla bilobse: lobo externa palpiformi biarticulato : 
inferno acuto incurve, ad apicem uncinato, intus valde ciliato. Palpi maxillares articulo ultimo 
elongato-truncato : labiales articulo secundo elongate, ultimo paulo brcviore subarcuato. Mentum 
transversum, antice profunde emarginatum et dente medio brevi trancato instructum. Liyula 
quadrata, antice ciliata. Pedes natatorii : tarsis anterioribiis in maribus articulis tribus dilatatis, 
subtus acctabulis obsitis : unguiculis anterioribus magnis valde curvatis sequalibus, posticis sub- 
rectis inaequalibus, superiore fixo. 

The genus Cohjmhetes, embracing Uybitts and Agohns, Avhich are now regarded 
as distinct, was established by Clau-ville in 1806 ; but it was not until 1817 that 
it was restricted (as above defined), by Dr. Leach, to the larger members of the 
group. As thus limited, it has, apparently, but a single representative in the 
Madeii'a Islands ; namely — 

64. Colymbetes Lanio. 
C. oblongus nigro-piccus, capitis parte antica maculisque duabus in fronte sitis et prothoracis lateribus 

rufo-testaceis, elytris testaceis densissime nigro-irroratis, singulo longitudinaliter profunde 

triseriato-punctato, antennis pedibusque rufo-ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 10. 

Dytiscus Lanio, Fab. Ent. Syst. i. 190 (1792). 

•, Oliv. Ent. iii. 40. 19. pi. 2. fig. 9 (1795). 

Cohjmhetes Lanio, Aube, Hydroeanth. 221 (1838). 

Habitat in aquis Maderse, prsesertim fluentibus, a 1000' usque ad 4000' s. m. ascendens : in rivulis 
supra Funchal, necnon in Madera boreali in ascensu a Sao Vincente ad campum ilium Paul da 
Serra dictum, a-state et autumno abundat. 

C. large, oblong, and somewhat convex; both sexes shining; piceous-black. Head and prothorax 
(especially in the male sex) somewhat rcticulose : the former with its anterior portion (com- 
mencing from the insertion of the antenna?), and two large transverse patches on the forehead, rufo- 
testacoous, and with a sinuated impression on either side, between the eyes : the latter transverse, 
impressed behind and before, and with the edges broadly rufo-testaceous. Elytra testaceous, and 
exceedingly densely besprinkled with minute, black, and more or less confluent spots, wiiich 
almost obscure the entire surface ; with three longitudinal rows of large and deeply impressed 
points on each, the outer one of which is the least apparent. Legs and antenna rufo-ferruginous. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 83 

A largo and beautiful Colymbetes, and apparently peculiar to Madeira, — having 
been first described by Pabricius, from a specimen in the Banksian collection, in 
the year 1792. It is universally distributed, beyond the elevation of about 1000 
feet, but is more especially abundant between the limits of from 3000 to 4000, 
above the sea. Owing to the rapidity of the mountain torrents, water insects are 
comparatively scarce in Madeira ; and the pi'esent species would seem to be one of 
the few which is able to exist indiscriminately, its powerful and greatly developed 
wings enabling it to take refuge in the most isolated pools, and in other spots 
which it could not possibly reach except by flight. In the streams which issue from 
the Paul da Serra it is common ; and I have observed it, likewise, in most of the 
rivers flowing towards the south of the island, particularly in the Ribeiro de Santa 
Luzia and at the Curral das Romeiras, — where it occurs in profusion at nearly all 
seasons of the year, though especially dui'ing the autumnal months. 

Genus 26. AGABUS. 

Leach, Zool. Miscall, iii, 69, 72 (1817), 

Corpus fere ut in genere prsecedenti, sed minus. Palpi labiates articulis secundo et ultimo subsequali- 
bus : mentuin antice dente medio brevi subemarginato instructum : et unguiculi postici (ut 
anteriores) aequales curvati mobiles. 

Agabus may be readily distinguished from Colymbetes proper by the smaller 
size of the species which compose it, by the second and thii'd joints of its labial 
palpi being of almost the same length, and by its two hinder claws being, like the 
remainder, equal and moveable, — instead of unequal and with the larger one fixed. 
So far as I have hitherto observed, the genus has three representatives in Madeii-a ; 
one of which, moreover, is peculiar to the island, 

65. Agabus bipustulatus. 

A. oblongus subdepressus subseneacenti-nigropiceus, minutissime longitudinaliter strigulosus, ore et 

capitis maculis duabus obscurissimis in fronte sitis ferrugineis, elytro singulo longitudinaliter 

confuse triseriato-punctato, antennis pedibusque picescenti-ferrugineis. 

Variat colore plus minusve picescenti, — prsesertim in foemina, cujus superficies plerumque opacior 
est. 

Long. Corp. lin. 5-5i. 

Dytiseus bipustulatus, Linn. Si/st. Nat, ii. 667 (1767). 

_, Fab, Syst. Eleu. i. 263 (1801). 

Cohjmletes hipusttclatus, Steph, III. Brit. Ent. n. 80 (1829). 
Agabus bipustulatus, Aube, Hydrocan. 357 (1838). 

Habitat in rivTolis Maderse, necnon in aquis quietis ; ubique vulgaris, sed supra 1000' s, m. prsedominans. 

A. oblong, and somewhat depressed, dark piceous-black, and with a shghtly seneous tinge ; the entire 

m2 



84 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

surface most closely and minutely strigulose ; the males shining ; the females opake, and usually 
of a somewhat more piccous hue. Head with the parts of the mouth, and two very obscure 
transverse patches on the forehead dull feiTuginous. Prothoraw sparingly punctured along its 
hinder margin towards the posterior angles. Elytra with three very irregular longitudinal rows 
of impressed points on each. Legs and antenna more or less rufo-piceous, or rufo-ferruginous ; 
the latter being the paler of the two ; and the former with the femora generally somewhat darker 
than the tibise and tarsi. 

The A. hipustulatus, so abundant througliout the whole of Eiu'ope and the north 
of Africa, occiu's in nearly all the streams and pools of Madeira, and at all alti- 
tudes, — though perhaps it is more common above the elevation of 1000 feet than 
below it. Being an insect of such wide geographical range, we should not expect 
it to be much affected by either latitude or position ; and accordingly we find that 
the Madeiran specimens do not in any respect differ from the usual type. 

66. Agabus nebulosus. 
A. ovatus convexus nitidus uigro-piceus, capitis parte antica maculisque duabus in fronte sitis obscure 
rufo-testaceis, prothorace rufo-testaceo in di.scum bimaculato, elytris testaceis, macidis plurimis 
ininutis inajqualibus nigris plus minusve confluentibus undique iiToratis, singulo longitudinaliter 
obsolctissime triseriato-punctidato, antennis pedibusque rufescenti-testaceis. 
Var. /3. maculis frontalibus vel obsoletis vel confluentibus, prothorace immaculate. 
Long. Corp. lin. 4-44. 

Bytisctis nebulosus, Forster, Nov. Spec. Ins. 56 (1771). 

bipunctatus, Fab. MaiU. Lw. 190 (1787). 

, Oliv. i:nf. iii. 40. 22 (179.5). 

Colymhetes nebulosus, Stopli. lU. Brit. Ent. ii. 72 (1829). 
Agabus bipunctatus, Aube, Hydrocan. 328 (1838). 

Habitat Madcram, in aquis prope urbem Funchalensem a Dom. Ilousset nuper detectus. 

A. ovate, rather convex, beneath piceous-black ; both sexes shining. Head dark behind, its anterior 
portion (commencing from about the insertion of the antenna;), and two obscure transverse 
patches on the forehead, dull rufo-testaceous. Prothorax rufo-testaceous, rather mottled, or 
clouded, in parts, and with two small darker patches on the centre of its disk ; most minutely 
and sparingly punctured along its hinder margin towards the posterior angles. Elytra testaceous, 
and more or less densely mottled, or clouded (especially behind), with small, U'regular, partially 
confluent, black patches or spots, — which leave however a large, ill-defined blotch upon each, 
behind the middle of the lateral margin, entirely pale ; with three longitudinal rows of most 
minutely impressed pointsjust perceptible on each. Legs and antenna rut'o-testaceous. 
Var. /3. with the frontal patches either obsolete or confluent j — in the latter case causing the head, 
except the hinder and lateral margins, to be entirely ferruginous : and with the prothorax im- 
maculate, the two small discal spots being absent. 

Apparently somewhat scarce, and confined, so far as I have been able to ascer- 
tain, to the streams in the vicinity of Fuuchal, from whence I have lately received 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 85 

several specimens captured by M. E,ousset. It is one of the few representatives 
of the Coleoptera which appear to have escaped my own observation in these 
islands. Judging from the examples before me, the only local peculiarity which 
the sjiecies would seem to possess is, that the state in which the prothorax is 
immacvilate, and which in most countries is aberrant, is apparently, in, Madeira, 
the commoner of the two. StUl, as I have not had an opportunity of myself 
observing this in situ, 1 am scarcely in a position to decide whether or not it is 
the case generally ; and hence I have preferred considering the darker form as the 
typical one, as being more in accordance with our usual notions regarding the 
insect. It is abimdant throughout the whole of Em'ope ; and it is recorded by 
Webb and Berthelot in the Canarian Group. 

67. Agabus Maderensis, Woll. 

A. oblongus pariim nitidus, nigro-piceus, ore, capitis maculis duabus obscurissimis, prothoracis late- 
ribus, antennis, pedibusque ferrugiueis, elytroruin superficie paulo insequali, profunde subseriato- 
punctata. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3-3i. 

Habitat in aquis ^Maderse, pr;esertim ultra 2000' s. m., toto anno frequens : in Madera boreali prsedo- 
minat, qua fere ad mavis litus descendit. 

A. oblong, less convex tban the last species, but more so than the A. bipustulafus, dark piceous ; both 
sexes shining, although not very highly polished. Head with the parts of the mouth, and two 
very obscure transverse patches on the hinder portion of the forehead dull ferruginous. Prothorax 
broader in front than is the case with any of the other species (its sides being much less oblique) ; 
with a slightly impressed transverse line along its hinder margin ; considerably roughened, 
and with a few scattered punctures, towards the posterior angles ; with the lateral edges more or 
less distinctly ferruginous. Elytra with their surface rather uneven, and more or less roughened 
with large, scattered punctures, which have a tendency to arrange themselves in three or four 
longitudinal rows on each, of which the sutural one is generally the most evident. Le(js and 
antenna entirely ferruginous. 

An exceedingly indigenous insect, and readily distinguished from the previous 
two by its smaller size and piceous coloui*, by the ferruguious edges of its 
anteriorly-broader prothorax, and by the somewhat uneven surface and large 
punctures of its elytra, — the latter of which are extremely irregvdar and diffused, 
having for the most part merely a tendency to arrange themselves in longitudinal 
rows. It is abundant in all the mountain torrents of Madeira, from an elevation, 
on the southern side of the island of about 1000 feet, and on the northern from 
nearly the level of the shore, up to the highest point at which water is found to 
exist. It is rarer however towards the south than it is in the north. In the 
former I have not detected it much below the upper extremity of the Ribeiro de 
Santa Luzia ; but at Sao Vincente, in the latter, I once took it sparingly even on 
tlie sea-beach, by the edges of a small stream which issues from the perpendicular 



86 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

cliflFs over the road to Seisal, — wliere however it is more than probable that it had 
been -washed do^ii from the lofty ravines above. On the upland plain of the Paul 
da Serra, 5000 feet above the sea, I have captured it in profusion, from under 
stones in the shallow pools and springs which feed the waters of the valley beneath ; 
as also in similar positions at the Cruzinhas, in the Eibeu'O de Seisal, and at the 
respective heads of the Ribeu'O Fundo and the Ribeiro de Joao Delgada : and Uke- 
vnse, very plentifully at times, in. the levada of the Eibeu'o Frio, amongst moist 
leaves and rubbish in spots from whence the water had retu'ed. 

Genus 27. HYDROPORUS. 

Clairv-iUe, Mit. Heh. ii. 1S3 (180G). 

Corpus ])arvum, oblongiim vel ovatum : prothorace basi in mcflio proclucto : alls amplis. Anfenrus 
filiforraes. Labrum brevissimuiu ti'ansvcrsum, autice profunde euiarginatum. Mandibula breves, 
apice late emarginatre, intus unideiitatse. Maxilla bilobiB : lobo externo palpiformi biarticulato : 
interna acuto incurvo, ad apicem uucinato, intus ciliato. Palpi articulo ultimo elongato robusto 
subtruncato. Mentum traiisversum, aiitice profunde emargiuatum et dente medio brevi acuto 
instructum. Liyula subquadrata. Pedes natatorii : tarsis anterioribus 4-articulatis, in maribus 
articulis tribus dilatatis ; posticis 5-articiilatis : unguiculis omnibus aequalibus mobilibus. 

The minute size of the Hydropori, added to then- foui- anterior tarsi being 
quadi'iarticulate, will, apart fi-om minor characters, at once distinguish them fi-om 
the members of the aUied groups. Up to the present period, but two represen- 
tatives of this large genus have been detected in Madeu-a, which, for an island 
abounding with streams, and in a genus so widely distributed and extensive, is 
somewhat remarkable. It may be indeed that the excessive rapidity of the 
torrents, which arc constantly liable, from the hea^-y rains, to overHow then- 
limits and to precipitate then* contents on to distant and isolated spots (which 
quickly afterwards, either by evaporation or absorption, become di'y), is anything 
but favourable to aquatic life ; but whether such be the case or not, it is certain 
that the Hydradephaga are extremely scarce. 

68. Hydroporus vigilans, Woll. 

H. oblongus subdepressus fusco-piceus, capitc, prothorace, elytrommque liueis inteiTuptis, plus 

muiusve rufo-testaceis, antennis pedibusque pallido-ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2i-2|. 

Habitat in rivulis Maderse, praesertim per regiones superiores, toto anno \'ulgaris. 



H. 



oblong, somewhat depressed, dark brownisb-piceous ; the males shining, the females opake. 
Head and prothorax i-ufo-testaccous ; i\\c former large, and more or less dusky about the region 
of the eyes ; the hitter regularly and equally rounded at the sides, being broadest in the middle, 
distinctly punctured along its anterior and posterior margins, and with a narrow transverse 
portion before and behind (and occasionally the disk also) more or less cloudy or infuscate. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 87 

Elytra with a few faint, irregular, interrupted longitudinal lines dull testaceous ; and with three 
longitudinal rows of impressed points on each,— the two inner ones of which are distinct, and 
disposed in depressed stria;, whilst the outer one is almost obsolete. Prothorax beneath, legs, 
antenna, and parts of the mouth pale ferruginous. 

A rather coiiimon Si/drojoonis in nearly all the streams of Madeira, above the 
altitude of 1000 feet ; and on the northern side of the island descendinar to a much 
lower elevation. In the Ribeiro de Santa Luzia, and at the Cui-ral das Romeii-as, 
above Punchal, I have observed it in great profusion ; and in the rivulets issuing 
from the Paul da Serra it is equally abundant. Its normal range however would 
appear to be from about 2000 to 3000 feet above the sea. Near Sao Vincente 
indeed I have eaptm-ed it, occasionally, on the level of the shore ; but, like the 
Agabus Maderensis with which it was found in company, it is possible that such 
specimens had descended from the lofty ravines above, which terminate at that 
particular point, as indeed they do ahnost everywhere along the northern coast, in 
abrupt sea cliffs, over which the mountain torrents pour in constant waterfalls. 
In such positions it is clear that insects of a normally higher range might, and in 
all probability would, be continually washed down, — especially dm-ing the severe 
floods to which the island is subject, — and so become naturalized below. 



69. Hydroporus confluens. 
H. ovatus nigi-o-piceus, supra flavus capite postice leviter infuscato atque elytris apicem versus lineis 

interruptis nigris ornatis, antennis pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1^. 

Bytiscus conjluens, Fab. Ent. Syst. i. 198 (1792). 
Hyphydrus confluens, GyU. Ins. Suec. i. 522 (1808). 
Mygrotus conflttens, Steph. III. Brit. Ent. ii. 47 (1828). 
Hydroporus confluens, Aube, Hydrocan. 557 (18.38). 

Habitat Maderam australem, rarissimus : in stagno quodam parvo baud procul ab urbe Funchalensi 
sito exemplar unicum nuperrime collegit Dom. Rousset. 

H. ovate, shining, beneath piceous-black, above pale yellow. Head of a deeper yellow than the rest 
of the surface, being almost testaceous ; dusky behind, and about the region of the eyes. Pro- 
thorax very short and small, narrower than the elytra, being attenuated in front, and with the 
sides (though oblique) straight ; punctured before and behind. Elytra exceedingly pale, with 
the suture, and four irregular lines towards the apex of each, deep black, — of which the one 
nearest to the suture is short ; the second longer, extending to a little before the middle ; the 
third somewhat shorter than the first ; and the fourth long but broken, the lower portion beino- 
contluent with the third, and the upper (which in the common European type is well-defined, 
and only just detached) almost obsolete, being merely indicated by a minute dash considerably 
in advance of the former : with two or three longitudinal rows of impressed points (disposed in 
strise) on each, and some large scattered puiictui-es about the region of the suture. Lens and 
antennce pale testaceous. 



88 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Readily kno^\Ti by its small size and ovate form, by its pallid hue, and by the 
abbreviated black lines A^ith which the apical portion of its elytra are decorated ; 
— but which are somewhat shorter and less distinct in the single Madeiran 
specimen which has hitherto come beneath my notice than in the ordinary type. 
It is to M. Uousset tliat we are indebted for the admission of tliis species into our 
fauna, a unique example (Avliich is just perceptibly narrower than is usually the 
case with its more northern representatives) having been lately discovered by him 
in the immediate vicinity of Funchal. It is an abundant insect throughout the 
whole of Em'ope and in the north of Africa, — being recorded in Egypt, Algeria, 
and Barbary. 

Fain. 3. GYRINID^. 

Genus 28. GYRINUS. 
Linnaeus, S_i/st. JS'af. ii. 567 (1767). 

Corpus parvum, ovatum : ocu/is quatuor : prothorace basi in medio producto : alls amplis. Antenna 
lO-articulatse, brevissimse, articulo primo minuto, secundo maximo globoso extus in lobum pro- 
ducto, reliquis brevissimis inter se arete applicatis, clavam fusiformem eflBcientibus. Labrinn 
transversum, antice levitcr emarginatum. Mandihula breves, apice emarginato-dentatne. Maxilla 
bilobse : lubo extei-no angusto subulate, exarticulato : interno acuto incurvo, ad apiceni uncinato, 
intus valde ciliato. Palpi breves, articulo ultimo in maxillaribus magno ovato, in labialibus 
graciliore. Mentuni transversum, antice profunde emarginatum. Ligula brcvis lata, apice 
truncata. Pedes posteriores uatatorii, breves compressi ; postici elongati : tarsis postcrioribus 
articulis primo, secundo et tertio intus valde productis, ultimo minutissimo. 

The Linnsean genus Gi/riuiis presents such remarkal)le featm-es in the struc- 
tiu-e of its tarsi, antennae and mouth, that it is hardly necessary to point out its 
ilistinctions from any of the ncighbom'ing forms. The species are indeed too well 
known, from theu' habits, to require comment : tlicir small, brilliant l)odies so 
constantly to be seen on the sm-faces of the stUl pools, ditches, and quiet waters of 
nearly every country, — weaving cu'cles, and clustering, in the sun, — can scarcely 
have failed to have attracted the attention of tlie most casual observers. I am 
doul)tfid whether the group is truly indigenous to these islands, not having myself 
succeeded in detecting it, and the only representative which I have hitherto seen 
being an example of the common G. natator, given to me by the Eev. R. T. Lowe 
from the collection of the late Dr. Heinecken, but unaccompanied by the details of 
its capture. 

70. Gyrinus natator. 
G. ovatus subviridesccnti-nigcr nitidus, elytris striato-punctatis, prothoracis elytrorumque marginibus 

inflc.xis, pectore, ano, pedibusque rufo-testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin, 3. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 89 

Dytiscus nniator, Linn. Fna Suec. 779 (1761). 
Oi/n'nus natator, Linn. Sysf. Nnt. 567 (1767). 

, Eab. Ent. Syst. i. 202 (1792). 

• , Aube, Hydrocan. QQi (1838). 

Habitat Maderam, niilii non obvius : exemplar unicunij a Doin. Heinecken olim captum (e.x Anglia 
cum plantis aquaticis introductus ?) in museo Loweano vidi. 

G. ovate, black, with a slightly greenish tinge, shining. Prothorax short, produced iu the centre 
behind; and transversely furrowed in front, especially towards the anterior angles. Elytra 
truncated at their apex, and finely striate-punctate ; their inflexed margin (with that of the pro- 
thorax), the breast, the apex of the abdomen underneath, and the legs riifo-testaceous. 

As just stated, it is not Avitliout hesitation that I admit the common European 
G. natator into our present fauna : nevertheless, since there cannot be any doubt 
that Dr. Heinecken's specimen was captured in the island, it is possible that the 
species may be truly indigenous, although rare, and that it has hitherto escaped 
the observation both of myself and the other naturaUsts who have been working 
during the last few years in the Madeiran group. I tliink it far from unlikely, 
however, that the unique example on which its admission must be considered to 
rest may have been accidentally introduced with aquatic plants, from more northern 
latitudes, which were formerly imported into the gardens more generally than 
they are now by the English residents ; — -an idea which is rendered the more pro- 
bable, since I am informed by Mr. Lowe that Dr. Heinecken's collection was 
principally made in the immediate vicinity of Eunchal, where the fresh-water 
tanks, attached to nearly every house, would afford ample facilities for an insect 
like the present one to become temporarily naturalized. 



Sectio hi. PHILHYDRIDA. 
Fam. 4. PARNID^. 

Genus 29. PARNUS. 

Pabriciua, Ent. Syst. i. 215 (1792). 

Corpus minusculum, subcylindrico-oblongum, villosum : alis amplis. Antennae 1 0-articulatae bre- 
vissimse, articulis primo et secundo majoribus, hoc maximo extus valde producto, reliquis bre- 
vissimis, clavam elongato-fusiformem subserratam efficientibus. Lahrum amplum transversum, 
antiee leviter emarginatum. MandibulcB acutfe, apice dentatee. Maxilla bilobse membranacese : 
lubo externa latiusculo : interna angusto, intus ciliato. Palpi brevissimi, articulo ultimo robusto, 
in maxillaribus subovato, in lahialibus subgloboso. Mentum transversum, antiee leviter emar- 
ginatum. Ligula ampla. Pedes ambulatorio-subnatatorii, graciles elongati : tibiis cylindricis 
muticis : tarsis articulis quatuor subaequalibus, quinto longissimo. 

N 



90 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

The genus Parnus, concerning the location of which entomologists are stUl so 
much divided, may be readily known by the subcylindi-ical, villose bodies of the 
few species which compose it, by their slender elongated legs and unarmed tibiae, 
and by their subnatatorial habits, — their legs not being formed for s-ndmming, but 
for walking on muddy banks, or adhering to the submerged aquatic plants of 
ditches and pools. They are of an extremely sluggish natiuT, and possess the power 
of remaining a great length of time imder water, theii- woolly smfaces enabling 
them to retain a sufficient quantity of air for respii-ation dm-ing submersion. 

71. Parnus prolifericomis. 

P. subcylindrico-oblongus fusco-uiger, infra albido-holosericeus, supra olivaceo-v'illosus, elytris obso- 

Ictissime subpunctato-striatis, tarsis elongatis piceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2-2j. 

Parnus prolifericomis, Fab. Ent. Si/st. i. 245 (1792). 

, GyU. Ins. Suec. i. 139 (1808). 

, Steph. III. Brit. Ent. ii. 103 (1829). 

, Zett. Ins. Lap. 125 (1840). 

Habitat in aqiiis quietis Maderje, plantis aquaticis adhferens, vel sub lapidibus ad margiues rivulorum, 
toto anno frequens. 

P. elongate, subcylindrical-oblong, brownish-black with a just perceptibly sneous tinge; densely 
clothed beneath with a short, whitish, and above wth a lougj woolly, olivaceous pubescence ; 
minutely punctured. Prothorax convex on the disk; and with an impressed longitudinal line 
on either side. Elytra very obsoletely striated, the strife having obscure indications of being 
punctured. 7am long and piceous. 

Abundant at aU seasons of the year at the edges of the pools and streams of 
Madcu-a, ranging fi-om about 1000 to 5000 feet above the sea. My own specimens 
are principally from the Cm-ral das Romeiras, Santa i\jina, the Cruzinhas, and the 
Panal ; but there is scarcely a district in the island in which I have not observed 
it to exist. It is a common insect tlu'oughout Eiu'ope and Algeria ; and the 
Madeii"an specimens do not appear to differ in any respect fi'om the ordinary type. 



Farn. 5. HYDROPHILIDiE. 

Genus 30. OCHTHEBIUS. 

Leach, Zool. Miseell. iii. 91 (1817). 

Corpus niinutum, elongato-ovatum : prothorace subcordato, plus minusve foveolato : alis amplis. 
Antenna 9-articulat;e brcvissimae, articuhs primo et secundo robustis, illo elongate flexuoso, hoc 
breviore subovato, tertio gracillimo subspatulato, quarto brevi minutissimo, reliquis clavam 
oblongam jjubescentem quinque-artieulatam apicc obtusam efficicntibus. Labrum transvcrsum, 
antice leviter euiarginatum cihatum. Mandibutte breves latir, apice fissK, basi membranacea; 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 91 

dente trifido armatse. Maxilla bilobfe : lobo externa articulato angusto, apice acutissime 
uncinate : interno breviore, ad apicem acuto iuciirvo imcinato, iutus spinuloso ciliato. Palpi 
maxiUares \vs. longiusculi, articulo ultimo minuto subulato : lahiales (in tj-picis brevissimi, sed 
in specie Maderensi) parum elongati, articulo primo brevissimo, seeundo longissimo btflexuoso, 
ultimo brevi subovato. Mentum amplum subquadratum, margine antico rotundato. Ligula 
brevis lata, apice vix emarginata. Pedes subnatatorii, robusti, antici breviusculi : femoribus sub- 
cylindi'icis : tibiis rectis spinosis, aniicis apicem versus Icviter dilatatis : tarsis baud cibatis, 
articulo primo brevissimOj seeundo arete connate, quinto elongato curvato. 

The little genus Ochthehhis may be known by its 9-jointed antennae, by its 
subcorclate and more or less foveolated protborax, and by its comparatively sbort 
maxillary palpi, with tbeir minute, subulated terminal joint. I have not been 
able to detect more than a single species in Madeira, \vi. — 

72. Ochthebius 4-foveolatus. 

O. eloDgato-ovatus nigro-seneus parce pubescens, protborace subcordato canaliculato utrinque linea 
longitudinali interrupta, foveolas duas eiSciente, instructo, lateribus rugose inaequaliter impressis, 
elj^tris profunde punctatis baud striatis, antennis pedibusque rufo-testaceis. 

Long. corp. lin. 1^^. 

Ochthehius 4:-foveoJafus, Motsebulsky, in litf. 

Habitat jMaderam borealcm, — in rivulo Ribeiro de Sao Jorge dicto, baud procul a Sancta Anna, d. 17 
Mai. A.D. 1850 a meipso copiosissime inventus. 

O. elongate-ovate, dark feneous, sbining, and very sparingly pubescent ; clotbed beneath with a fine, 
white, decumbent pile. Head with two very deep rounded depressions on the forehead. Pro- 
thorax subcordate ; with a dorsal channel, and two short, deep, distinct fovese on either side, 
placed one over the other as though formed by an interrupted longitudinal line ; rugosely and 
deeply impressed towards the lateral margins (a small portion of which behind is transparent and 
white), where there are indications of one or two other abbreviated, though irregular fovese. 
Elytra coarsely punctured, but not punctate-striated. Legs, antenna and palpi rufo-testaceous. 

Clearly the Madeu*an representative of the O. punctatus of more northern lati- 
tudes, although with too many distinctive characters of its o^\^l to allow of its 
being identified with that species. It differs from it, principally, in its greater 
bulk and comparatively broader outline, in its more brassy and less pubescent 
svu'face, in its legs being longer and more robust, and in its protborax being 
altogether larger and more distinctly foveolated. I have observed it hitherto only 
in the north of the island; where, on the 17th of May 1850, I captm-ed it in 
the utmost profusion in the Hibeu'o de Sao Jorge, close to the ascent of the old 
road to Santa Anna. I have retained the name which was proposed for it by 
M. Motsebulsky during his late visit to England. 



N 2 



92 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Genus 31. CALOBIUS*, WoU. (Tab. II. fig. 7.) 

Corpus minutum, gracile, elongatum : cajiite prodiicto ; oculis magnis, valde prominentibus : pro- 
thorace subquadrato, postice rotundato : elytris ad apicem pygidium vix tegentibus : alls amplis. 
Antenna {II. 7 «) 9-articulat:E brevissimEB, articulis primo et secundo robustisj illo longissimo 
bitlexuoso, hoc breviore obpyrit'ormi, tertio gracillimo subspatulato, reliquis clavam paraUelo- 
oblongam sex-articulatam apice obtusam efficientibus (quarto transverso brevissimo, intus in 
mucronem minutissimum acutissimum producto). Labrum (II. 7 b) maximum durum corneum, 
valde porrectum, subquadratum, antice in medio profunde incisum, aut potius bilobum, baud 
ciliatum. Mandibula (II. 7 c) breves latissimae, basi mcnibranaceBe, apicem versus internum 
denticulatse. Maxilla (II. 7 d) bilobse : lobo externa brevi lato subrecto, apice intus mucronato : 
interna paulo longiore graciliore, ad apicem acutissime uncinato, intus in medio setoso-pencillato. 
Palpi maxillares articido primo minutissimo, secundo curvato, tertio vix longiore robustiore 
subclavato, ultimo minute subulate. Labium totum (II. 7 e) valde imperfectum : palpos et 
ligulam detegere baud potui, et nisi fallor omnino obsoleti sunt : patella magna mentiformis, 
utrinque in angulum medium acutissimum producta, sola apparet, sed antice est magis tenuis ac 
dense ciliata, fitquc inter pilos fortasse partium oris inferiorum rudimeuta lateaut, sed vere abesse 
credo. Pedes subnatatorii, elongati gracillimi : femoribus cylindricis : tibiis linearibus, baud 
spinosis sed subtilissime pubescentibus : tarsis (II. 7/) baud ciliatis, clongatis, articulo primo 
brevissimo, secundo arete connate, quinto longissimo curvato. 

A Kokot formosus, et /3to9 vita. 

Throughout all the Madeu'an Coleoptera there is no form more truly interesting 
than Caloblns, which so completely unites the essential characters of Ochtliebius 
and Hydvicna, that, at first sight, it might almost be referred to either of those 
groups. In reality, however, it is perhaps more nearly akin to the latter than to 
the former, agreeing ^\ith it in its porrectcd, dccply-incised, and unciHated upper 
lip, in its long slender legs, and in its antennoe being composed of seven articula- 
tions only : but the enormously lengthened maxillary palpi of that genus, with 
their large, somewhat thickened, and fusiform terminal joint, are eutu'ely unre- 
])r(>seuted in our present insect, which possesses the short and apicaUy-subulated 
l)alpi wliich constitute one of the maui distinctive features of OcJdhehius. XeA"er- 
theless, whilst it appropriates so many of the most important structural details of 
the two genera in question, it offers very decided peculiarities iu which it recedes 
from them both, since its short, broad, and mucronated outer maxillary lobe, and 
its subelongated and powerfully hooked inner one are exceedingly remarkal)le in 
this doi)artmont of the Philhijdrida, in Avhich the maxilla? are not generally so 
liighly developed : added to which, its perfectly unfurrowed and posteriorly 
roimded protliorax, and its granulated, unpunctured surface give it an unusual 
appearance, which we are altogether unaccustomed to in the ordinary modifica- 
tions of its immediate allies. And it is worthy of observation that its habits are 
as anomalous as its aspect ; for, although many of the Ochthehii and Hydraince, it 
is well known, delight in brackish spots, yet I am not aware that any of thcni 

* The present genua is written Hahhim in the plate by mistake. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 93 

reside in water that is purely salt, — whereas Calobim occurs amongst marine 
ConfervcB in the pools formed by the actual sea. 

73. Calobius Heeri, WoU. (Tab. II. fig. 7.) 

C. gracilis glaber et fere opacus, crebre granulatus, subsenescenti- vel subcuprescenti-niger, pro- 
tboracis limbo pellucido et angulis posticis valde rotundatis, elytris obsoletissime substriatis, 
antennis tibiisque diluto-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1. 

Habitat Madcram maritimam, mihi non obvius : ad " Gorgulbo," baud procul ab m-be Funchalensi, 
inter confervas in staguantibus aquis marinis crescentes, primus detexit cl. Dom. Heer, cujus in 
honorem nomen triviale dedi. 

C. slender, elongated, glabrous, and almost opake, brownish-black, and with either an seneous or a 
slightly coppery tinge. Head and prothorax closely and minutely granulated ; the former a good 
deal produced, with the eyes very large and prominent, and with an impression on either side of 
the forehead ; the latter subquadrate, being truncated in front and rounded behind, without any 
appearance of grooves or sulci, — even the dorsal channel being in most instances imperceptible ; 
the extreme margins (anterior, posterior and lateral), especially towards the anterior angles, 
transparent. Elytra rather more roughened than the head and prothorax, and (under a high 
magnifying power) with a few very minute, distant punctures, disposed in longitudinal rows, 
and with the interstices just perceptibly raised. Anteimx exceedingly short and slender, usually 
not at all apparent from above; flavescent. Palpi and legs piceous-black,— the latter having the 
tibicB, especially the two anterior ones, obscurely flavescent. 

It is to Professor Heer that we are indebted for the discovery of this very 
interesting little insect, which entirely eluded my own researches in these islands. 
It was first detected by him, on the 6th of February 1851, adhering to marine 
CoiiferviB in salt-water pools at the Gorgulbo, near Funchal, — in which position it 
has been since captui-ed, abundantly, by M. Rousset. I am informed by my friend 
Dr. H. Schaum, of Berlin, that it is very closely allied to the Ochthebms quaclri- 
collis, Mulsant (Ann. de la Soc. Royal d'Agricult. de Lyon, a.d. 1844, p. 377), 
from Corsica and Dalmatia, though specifically distinct ; and that in all probability 
the above species will be found, on dissection, to be a true Calobius. 

Genus 32. LIMNEBIUS. 

Leach, Zool Miscell. iii. 93 (1817). 

Corpus minutum, plus minusve ovatum vel ellipticum : prothorace brevi, postice lato : elytris apice 
leviter truncatis, pygidium vix tegentibus : alis amplis. Antenna 8-articulat£e brevissimae, 
articulis primo et secundo elougatis, tertio, quarto et quinto miuutis, reliquis clavam triarticu- 
latam efficientibus. Labrum transversum, antice leviter emarginatum. Mandibula breves lat?e, 
apice fissffi. Maxillts bilobse : lobo externa lato, apice dense barbato : interno paulo longiore, 
angusto, recto, ad apicem uncinato, intus ciliato. Palpi filiformes, articulo ultimo elongato 



94 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

fusiformi-cyliiidrico ; maxillares longissimi ; labiales mediocres. Mentum amplum, transverso- 
qnadratum. Lii/ula brevis lata, a])ice fissa. Pedes subuatatorii, robusti, antici brc\'iusculi : 
femuribus iihiisqiw corapressis : his curvatis; anticis extus soriato-spinulosis, apicem versus 
dilatatis ; posterioribus leviter spinosis, vix ciliatis : tarsis articulo primo brevissimo, secundo 
arete connate ; posterioribus ciliatis. 

The minute size and somewhat elliptical outline of the Limuebil (which, unlike 
Ochtheh'ms and Calob'ms, have their prothorax broadest behind), added to their 
8-jointed antennae and their entire freedom from metallic lustre, wdll be sufficient, 
— a])art from the distinctive peculiarities of their oral organs, which, although 
considerable, are, necessarily, in insects thus small, less easy of observation, — at 
once to separate them from the members of the neighbouring groups. In theu- 
habits, they prefer stagnant water to streams, residing in shallow pools and ponds, 
especially towards the margins, and attaching themselves to stones and decaying 
leaves, or whatever other sul)stances chance may place in their way, — the form of 
theu' bodies, which are flattened beneath, and arched and polished aboAC, being 
eminently adapted for the kind of adhesion which is characteristic of the greater 
portion of this department of the Fh'dhydnda. 

74. Linmebius grandicoUis, Woll. 

L. subclliptico-obovatus niger, minutissime et parce pubescens, subtiliter punctulatus, prothorace 

elytrisque obscure pallido-marginatis, antenuis, palpis pedibusque ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. t. 

Habitat in aquis Madei"se, vol stagnantibus vel lente fluentibus, — ad Cruzinhas (5000' s. m.), foliis 
arborum madidis adhferens, Julio ineunte a.d. 1850 repertus. 

Ij. somewhat ovate or elliptical, and rather acuminated posteriorly, black, slightly shining, minutely 
and sparingly pubescent, and most delicately but rather closely punctulated. Prothorax large 
and broad, being widest behind ; the lateral margins, especially about the hinder angles, dull 
rufo-ferruginous ; without any appearance of a dorsal channel. Scutellum rounded and very 
minute. Elytra acuminated behind, with the extreme margins very obscui-ely ferruginous. 
Legs, antenna and palpi pale ferruginous. 

The present insect differs a little from all the European Limncbii which have 
hitherto come beneath my notice, and cannot, I think, be consistently referred to 
any of them ; its comparatively pubescent and distinctly punctulated upper surface, 
its large prothorax, its very minute scutellum, and its much posteriorly-acumi- 
nated clvtra combining to indicate what I have but Httlc doubt is an additional 
species, — though one Avhich is evidently closely allied to some of the more northern 
members of the group. It is extremely rare, — or, at any rate, local, — being appa- 
rently confined to lofty altitudes, and to spots more or less diilicult of access. 
The only district in fact in which I have observed it is the region of the Cruzinlias 
(about 5000 feet above the sea), — where, during July 1850, I captm'ed many 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 95 

specimens, adhering to the under sides of decaying leaves, in the small shallow 
pools and trickling streams with which those densely wooded uplands everywhere 
abound. 

Genus 33. LACCOBIUS. 

Erichson, Kaf. der Mark Brand, i. 202 (1837). 

Corpus parviim, subhemisphaericum : prothorace brevi, postice lato : alis amplis, Antennce S-articulatse 
breves, articulo primo longiusculo, secundo breviore crasso, tertio minutissimo, quarto quintoque 
latioribus transversis arete connatis (hoc subpoculiformi), reliquis clavam oblongam pubesceatem 
triarticulatam efficientibus. Labrum transversum, antice vix emarginatum. Mandibula breves 
latse, apice incurvae fissse. Maxilla bilobte : lobo externa lato ovato, apice barbato, ungue minu- 
tissimo incurve terminali munito : interno paulo breviore angustiore, intus ad apicem barbato 
eiliato, margiue interno membrana instructo. Paljn subfiliformes, articulo ultimo elongato-sub- 
ovatoj maxillares longiusculi; labmles mediocres. Mentum amplum, transverso-quadratum, 
margine antico rotundato. Ligula brevis lata, apice fissa, aut potius biloba. Pedes su^bnatatorii, 
robusti, antici breviusculi : femoribus tibiisque compressis : his spinosis, valde calearatis, baud 
ciliatis ; anticis apicem versus leviter dilatatis ; posticis curvatis : tarsis filiformibus elongatis 
parce ciliatis, articulo primo brevissimo, secundo arete connato. 

Laccobms may be known by the convex and somewhat hemispherical form of 
the insects composing it, — which are not only of a much larger size than the 
Limnebii, and have their elytra entirely covering their abdomen, but the articula- 
tions of their antennae and the lobes of their maxillae are differently constructed 
from those of that genus ; their tibiae also (the hinder pair of which are alone 
curved) are more powerfully spurred and spinulose, and their tarsi are more 
elongated and slender. Erom Hi/drohius (to which, in general aspect, it approaches 
nearer than it does to Llmneb'ms), its 8-jointed antennae, the minute terminal claw 
with which the outer lobe of its maxillae is furnished, added to its hinder tibiae 
being slightly curved, will readily separate it. 

75. Laccobius minutus. 
Ii. rotundato-ovatus couvexus niger punctulatus, prothoracis lateribus elytrisque pallido-testaceis, his 

dense substriato-punctatis et plus minusve, prsesertim in discum, nigro-irroratis, antennis pedi- 

busque pallido-ferrugineis. 
Long. corp. lin. 1|-1|. 

Chrysomela mimita, Linn. Fna Suec. 166 (1761). 
Hydvophilus hipunctatus, Fab. ^yst. Eleu. i. 251 (1801). 

minutus, G-yll. Ins. Suec. i. 116 (1808). 

Laccobius minutus, Erich. Kaf. der Marh Brand, i. 203 (1837). 

Habitat Maderam excelsam sylvaticam, in locis similibus ac Limnebius grandicoUis, sed illo multo 
frequentior. 

L. short-ovate, convex, black (sometimes with a just perceptibly aeneous tinge), and slightly shining. 



96 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Head and prothorax densely and minutely punctulated ; the latter with the sides hroadly testaceous. 
Ell/Ira closely substriate-punctate (the punctures having generally only a tendency to arrange 
themselves in longitudinal rows) ; pale testaceous, and more or less densely mottled, or be- 
sprinkled (especially on the disk), with black. Lec/s, palpi and antenna either testaceous or else 
very pale ferruginous. 

The Madeiran specimens of this common Evu-opean insect differ in being a little 
larger and less shining than the ordinary type, and in having the pimctui-es of 
their elytra somewhat less distinct and not quite so regularly disposed in striae. 
It is decidedly rare, being confined almost exclusively, like the lAmnebius gran- 
(JicoUis, to lofty positions Avithin the sylvan districts. I have taken it at the 
Ribeiro Frio, in the spring; in the small trickling streams of the Cruzinhas, 
adhering to submerged leaves ; and in similar spots at the head of the Eibeii'o 
Fundo, on the northern edges of the Fanal, — during July. 



Gemis 34. HYDROBIUS. 

Leach, Zool MisceU. iii. 93 (1S17). 

Corpus vel mediocre, vel (ut in specie Maderensi) parvum, oblongo- vel rotundato-ovale : prothorace 
postice lato : mesnsterno carinato : alls (in typicis amplis, scd in specie nostra) obsolctis. An- 
tennce 9-articulat:c breves, articulo primo elougato crasso flexuoso, secundo paulo breviore sub- 
cylindrico, tertio brevi, quarto quintoquc brevissimis, sexto lato subpoculiformi, reliquis validiori- 
bus, clavam magnam oblongam pubescentem triarticulatam efficientibus, ultimo (in typicis vel 
acuminato vel oblongo, sed in nostra) globoso. Labrum transversum, antice leviter emarginatum. 
MandibuliB breves latie obtectfc, apice incurvre acutie fissa;. Maxilla bOobpe : lobo externa brcvi 
lato, apice dense barbato : internu paulo breviore angustiore, intus ad apicem barbato eihato, mar- 
gine intemo membrana instructo. Palpi inaxiUares breviusculi robusti, articulo ultimo penultimo 
lougiore ; labiates mcdiocres. Mentum amplum, transverso-quadratum, margine antico rotundato 
sed ad summum apicem ssepius le\iter emarginato. Ligula lata, apice fissa, aut potius biloba, 
lobis rotundatis ciliatis. Pedes subnatatorii, robusti, antici vis breviores : femoribus tibiisqae 
subcompressis : his roctis spinosis, valde calcaratis, apicem versus (prjesertim anticis) leviter 
dilatatis : tarsis {prxcipue pusteriuribus) parce ciliatis, articulo primo brevissimo, secundo arete 
connato. 

In addition to minor points of distinction, sufficiently apparent, Hi/drobius may 
be known from Laccohins ])y its 9-jointed antenna?, by tlie absence of any indica- 
tion of a cui'ved hook to the outer lobe of its maxillye, and by its miiformly 
straightened tibise. The minute and suborbicular form of a few of the species 
which compose it (represented in Madeira by the only member of the group 
which I have hitherto been able to detect) gives them, at fii'st sight, a strong 
resemblance to Ch(etorthria, Waterh. (Stcph. ///. Brit. Ent. a.d. 1832 •,= CiiUidh(m, 
Erich. Kdf. der Jlar/c Brand, a.d. 1837) ; but the simple sternum of that genus, 
added to the slender and very elongated basal, and the short, thick, and globose 
second, joints of its antennaj, and the large penultmiate (and small, truncated 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 97 

terminal) one of its labial palpi, will be more than sufficient to prevent the possi- 
bility of confounding it, on closer examination, with Hydrobius. 



76. Hydrobius conglobatus, WoU. 

H. subglobosus nitidiusculus niger, minutissime punctulatus, prothoracis lateribus diluto-testaceis, 
elytris confertissime et subtilissime granulatis, singulo stri^ suturali postica leviter impresso, ad 
marginem anguste, sed ad apicem late testaceis, pedibus rufo-piceis. 

Long. corp. lin. 1-li. 

Habitat Maderam borealem excelsam sylvaticam, rarissime, — ad summam originem convallis Ribeiro 
de Joao Delgada dictje d. 19 Jul. a.d. 1850 a meipso detectus. 

H. short, subglobose, black, and slightly shining; regularly punctured above with somewhat distant, 
but excessively minute points. Prothorax with the sides broadly testaceous. Elytra with a 
very lightly impressed sutural stria on each behind, but none whatsoever in front ; rather less 
shining than the prothorax, and, in addition to the punctures (which are not disposed in strife), 
most minutely and closely granulated (a sculpture, however, which is only apparent under a high 
magnifying power) ; the lateral margins narrowly and obscurely, but the apex broadly, testaceous, 
— the junction of the darker and lighter portions being usually somewhat abrupt and oblique, 
(the suture also, when the elytra are upraised, appearing sUghtly pale). Wings entirely obsolete. 
Palpi and antenna testaceous. Let/s rufo-piceous. 

A most distinct and interesting little Hydrohms; and one which, from its 
minute size and subglobose body, bears a considerable prima facie resemblance (as 
ah-eady stated) to the genus Chcetarthria. Its antennse and trophi however prove 
it to be a true Hydrobius : and it would appear to be the Madehan representative 
of the common S. globulus of more northern latitudes, — although abundantly 
separated from that insect, specifically, in structure, sculptiu'e, and form. Thus, 
to say nothing of its behig apterous, it is much shorter, more globose, and less 
highly polished than the S. globulus ; the pale apex of its elytra, instead of 
shading off gradually and imperceptibly into the darker base, is usually well- 
defined and abrupt, terminating ol)liquely at about one-third of the distance from 
the extremity ; and the large and deep punctiu-es which are so apparent on the 
upper surface of that species are, in the S. conglobatus, far apart and excessively 
small ; whUst the elytra are (in addition) most closely and finely granulated, — or, 
more strictly perhaps (for it is only beneath a very high magnifying power that it 
is perceptible), densely crowded Avith an under-series of most dehcate and minutely 
impressed points. This peculiarity of sculpture indeed (although a microscopic 
character) is exceedingly remarkable, and one which I do not see developed, to 
the same extent, in any other member of the FMlliydrida with which I am 
acquainted. From the S. globulus it likewise recedes in the club of its antennae, 
which is large and perfoliated, and with the ultimate joint (instead of being 
acuminated) exceedingly globose. It is, apparently, of the greatest rarity, and 

o 



98 IXSECTA MADERENSIA. 

confined to high altitudes. The only tlu'ee specimens which I have seen were 
captured by myself, on the 19th of July 1850, in the bed of a smaU trickling 
stream Avhich issues out of the rocks at the extreme head of the Ribeu'O de Joiio 
Delgada. 

Genus 35. PHILHYDRUS. 

Solier, Ann. Je la Soc. Ent. de France, iii. 315 (1834). 

Corpus fere ut in Hydi-obio, sed luajoris magnitudinis et luinus convexum; alls amplis; palpis 
maxillaribus longissimis gracilioribus, articulo ultimo penultimo bre^dore. 

Fhilhydriis is sometimes regarded as a section of the last genus ; but it 'oould 
appear to have as great a claim for isolation as at any rate many other gi'oups 
which are universally received. It differs from Sydrobms in the less convex form 
of the insects which compose it, and in the much greater length of their maxillary 
palpi, — which are slender, and have the terminal joint always shorter than the 
penultimate one. In the ^Madeira Islands, moreover, the great disparity of size 
between the single representatives of each genus wiU serve additionally to di- 
stinguish them. 

77. PMLhydrus melanocephalus. 
P. ovalis nitidus niger, supra fusco-testaceus, capite posticc nigricanti, prothorace in discum plus 
rainusvc obsolete infuscato, clytro singulo stria suturali postica impresso ct plaga parva basali 
obscura longe intra huuierum sita nigrcscente ornato, tibiis tarsisque piccscenti-ferrugineis. 
Var. /3. supra late nigrescens, limbo solo obscure pallidescenti. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2\-^. 

Ht/drophilus melanocephalus, Oliv. Ent. iii. 39. 14 (1795). 

, GyU. Im. Suec. i. 119 (1808). 

Hydrohius melanocephalus, Ericli. Eiif. der Mark Brand, i. 209 (1837). 
Philhydrus melanocephalus, Mulsaut, Palp. 137 (IS 14). 

Habitat Portum Sanctum : in ri\'ido quodam parvo Ribeiro de Serra de Fora dicto, lapidibus adhae- 
rentem, Aprili exeunte a.d. 1848 copiose collegi : iu Madera propria mihi adhuc non obvius. 

P. oval, rather convex (though depressed compared with the H. conglobatus), and shining ; most 
minutely and closely punctiu'cd all over ; piceous-black. Head with a large subtriaugidar patch 
in front of each eye paler. Prothoraa: and elytra brownish-testaceous ; the former generally more 
or less obsoletely infuscatcd on its disk, slightly punctured in front of its posterior angles, and 
with an impressed point on either side of its disk behind ; the latter with just perceptible indica- 
tions (under a high magnifying power) of punctured striic, but with a deep sutural one on each 
behind, with a small obscure dash at the extreme base of each, rather nearer to the shoulder than 
to the suture, and occasionally a still fainter and more elongated one close to the shoulder itself, 
more or less dusky-black. Femora piccous ; tibia, tarsi, palpi and antenna rufo-ferruginous ; 
the first two more or less picescent. 
Var, fi. with the entire upper disk darkly and broadly infuscatcd, or almost black, — the patches in 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 99 

front of the eyes, and the lateral margins of the prothorax and of the elytra (especially the 
former) being alone paler. 

Found only, so far as I have liitlierto observed, in tlie island of Porto Santo ; 
where I captiu"ed it in profusion, during April 1848, adhering to the undersides of 
stones in the little stream known as the Ribeu-o de Serra de Pora. It occurs in 
nearly aU parts of Europe, and is abundant in Algeria. 



Fam. 6. SPH^RIDIAD^. 

Genus 36. DACTYLOSTERNUM, WoU. (Tab. III. %. 1.) 

Corpus minusculum, oblongum, subdepressum : p7-othorace postice lato : elytris pi'ofunde striatis : 
metasterno (III. 1 a) piano, antice in mucronem subsagittatum (III. 1 «*) producto : alis amplis. 
Antenna (III. 1 h) 9-articulat8e geniculatje, ante oculos sub margiue capitis iusertse, articulo 
prime longissimo ad basin flexuoso, secundo brevi subconico-truncato, tertio, quarto quiutoque 
minutissimis, sexto latiore subpoculiformi, reliquis clavam magnam pubescentem elongato- 
ovalem triarticulatam efficientibus. Labrum (III. I c) breve transversum, antice emarginatum 
et dense ciliatum. MandibuJce (III. 1 d) validse, apice incurvfe acutfe, louge intra apicem 
unidentatse et margine interno membranaceo ciliato. Maxilla (III. 1 e) bilobse subcoriacese : lobu 
externa brevi lato, apice dense barbato : interno paulo breviore, intus membranaceo, apicem 
versus pvibescente. Palpi maxillares longiusculi, articulo secundo robusto subclavato, ultimo 
subfusiformi : labiates (III. !_/) e scapis ligulte connatis surgeutes, mediocres. Mentum amplum 
transverso-quadratum angulis anticis acutis, margine antico subrotundato sed ad apicem ipsum 
leviter bilobo. Liyula lata, profunde biloba, lobis divergentibus pubescentibus. Pedes (III. \g. 1 h) 
subfossorii, robusti: femoribus tibiisqae subcompressis ; his parce seriato-spinulosis, valde calcaratis, 
apicem versus leviter dilatatis : taisis, ■pr?ese]:tim postez-ioribus (III. 1 A), articulo primo elongato 
libero : unguiculis (III. 1 k) simplicibus, subtus ad basin rotundato-ampliatis. 

A BdKTv\o<; digitus, et urepvov pectus. 

The very anomalous insect for the reception of which I have established the 
present genus is perhaps one of the most remarkable of all the Madeu-an Coleo- 
ptera. It would appear to constitute a connecting link between Cercyon and 
Cijclonotum, agreeing with the fii'st in the subsolid club of its 9-jointed antennte, 
and in its deeply punctate- striated elytra ; whilst in its emargmated labrum, in its 
transverse-quadrate mentum, and in its simple meso-, and anteriorly produced 
meta-stema it assumes to a certain, extent the peculiarities of the second. In its 
mandibles however it is central between the two. For one of the most important 
characteristics of Cyclonotum is its apically bifid mandibles, — a structm-e which it 
possesses in common \Ai\\ the members of the preceding family, the llydropliiUdcp 
(to which in fact in many respects it more strictly belongs). In the remainder of 
the Sphceridiadce however (a group almost purely, with the exception of Cyclo- 
notum, terrestrial) this modification is lost sight of, the mandibles being edentate. 
Now, the habits of Dactylostermmi are exactly intermediate between those of 

o2 



100 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Cyclonotum and Cercyon, since it combines the subaquatic propensities of the one 
^vith the stercoraceous tendency of the other ; and hence it is extremely inter- 
esting to find an intermediate state of mandible corresponding, as it were, to its 
double nature, — for the tooth which, in the former case, by being placed at the 
extremity causes the mandibles to be cleft, and by being removed altogether, in 
the latter, to be unarmed, being situated so far fi'om the termination in JDactylo- 
stermim as to indicate, almost of itself, a tj^oe of form midway between the ex- 
tremes. The general aspect of the insect under consideration is that of an enormous 
Ccrcyon ; nevertheless, although coinciding Tvdth that genus (as ah-eady stated) in 
the detads of its antennae, and in its punctate-striated elji:ra, — it wants, not merely 
the edentate mandibles, but Hkewise the entu-e upper lip, the semicircular mentum, 
and the simple meso-, and the keeled meta-sterna, the most essential featiu-es of 
that group. 

It will be perceived, by a reference to the plate, that the anterior metasternal 
appendage of oiu- present genus is of a very singular kind ; since it not only differs 
from that Avhich exists in Cyclonotum, but from every other corresponding process 
with which I am acquainted. 

78. Dactylosternum Roussetii, WoU. (Tab. III. fig. l.) 

D. oblongum subdeprcssum nitidum nigrum, miuutissime et creberrime punctulatutn, elytris pro- 
funde (prsesertim postice) punctato-striatis, antennis pallido-testaceis clava infuscata, palpis 
pedibusque rufo-piceis, tarsis prsesertim anticis pallidioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2^. 

Habitat Maderam australem, mihi non obvium: exemplar unicum, a Rev''° Dom° Lowe munifice 
donatum, fere ad hoc tempus solum possedi; sed plui-ima specimina sub lapidibus crastaceisque 
vacuis niariiiis in liumidis per Oram Funclialensem maritimam, sed prresertim ad stagna circa 
stabula suilla, nupcrrimc detcxit Dom. Rousset, insectorum jMaderensium scrutator, cujus in 
honorem speciem stabilivi. 

D. oblong, and a little depressed, black, and shining ; most closely and delicately punctulated all 
over. Prothorax sometimes narrowly and very indistinctly piceous at the extreme edge of its 
front emargination. Scutellum large and triangular. Elytra deeply punctate-striated, especially 
behind. Antennae at base pale testaceous, their chtb infuscatcd. Palpi and legs rufo-piceous ; 
the tarsi (particularly the two front ones) being a little paler. 

The present insect is one which altogether escaped my own observations in the 
Madeira Islands. i\jid indeed untU witliin the last few months but a single 
example had come beneath my notice, captm-ed many years ago by the late 
Dr. Ileinecken, from whose collection it was presented to me by the Rev. 11. T. 
Lowe. It is therefore Avith great pleasiu-e that I have just received a large series 
from M. Rousset, collected in moist spots on the beach near Funchal, — especially 
(as he informs me) in the em})ty shells of crabs, and other marine Crustacea, 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 101 

which had accumulated about the pig-sties and sewers, and other such-like filthy 
receptacles of the rejectamenta of the town. At the base of the sea-wall at the 
Santiago Fort he states that it is exceedingly common. 

Genus 37. SPH^RIDIUM. 

Fabricius, Si/st. JEleu.i. 92 (1801). 

Corpus miuusculum, subhemisplisericum, minus convexum : prothorace postice lato sinuato : ehjtris 
fere baud striatis : mesosterno carinato : inetasterno piano, antice baud producto : alls ampbs. 
Antenna S-articulatae breviusculse, articulo primo longissimo ad basin flexuoso, secundo brevi 
subconico-truncato, tertio quartoque minutissimis, quinto lato brevissimo subpoculiformi, reliquis 
clavam maguam pubescentem subperfoliatam elongato-ovalem triarticulatam efficientibus (ultimo 
apice oblique truncate). Labrum breve transversum, antice integrum et dense ciliatum. Man- 
dibulce validse, apice edentate incurvre, intus membranacese ciliatse. Maxilla bilobje membra- 
nacese : lobo externa brevi lato, apice dense barbato : interno angustiore brevissimo, intus 
membrana (ad apicem pencillata) instructo. Palpi maxillares lougiusculi, articulo secundo robusto 
subclavato: labiales mediocres, articulo ultimo minuto, penultimo majore crasso. Mentum 
amplum transverso-subquadratum anguiis anticis rotundatis, margiue antico subrotundato. Lujula 
lata, profunde biloba, lobis divergentibus pubescentibus. Peies fossorii, robusti: femoribus 
tibiisque compressis ; his valde spinosis et calcaratis, apicem versus dilatatis : tarsis articulo primo 
elongato libero, anticis in maribus artieulis quatuor brevissimis, ultimo ad apicem valde uncinato- 
ampliato. 

Then- 8-jointed antennae, and powerfully spined tibiae, added to the singularly 
distorted and hooked terminal joint of their male fore-feet, will at once distinguish 
the SphcsricUa from the members of the allied groups. They are larger and less 
convex than the representatives of the following genus ; and their elytra are either 
altogether unstriated, or else have the strise so excessively obsolete that they may 
be practically regarded as such. In their habits they are purely stercoraceous, 
not even having, apparently, the subaquatic tendency displayed by some of the 
species of Cercyon. 

79. Sphseridimn bipustulatum. 

S. subhemisph?ericum sub-opacum nigrum, minutissime et crcberrime punctulatum, prothorace 
elytrisque angustissime pallido-marginatis, his ad apicem late rufo-testaceis, singulo stria sutiu-ali 
postica impresso et macula subhumerali rubescente obsoletissima vix perspicua ornato, pedibus 
rufo-ferrugineis. 

Long. corp. lin. 2\-2\. 

8pli(rridium hipustiiJatum, Fab. Spec. Ins. i. 78 (1781). 
Dermesies 4i-7naculatus, Mskm, Ent. Brit. 66 (1802). 
Sphceridium marginatum, Heer, Fiia Col. Helv. 488, var. d. (1841). 
bipustulatum, Mulsant, Palp. 154, var. B. (1844). 

Habitat Maderam, prajsertim infra 2000' s. m., in stercore bovino, toto anno frequens. 



102 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

S. hemispherical, black, and somewhat opake; most closely and delicately punctulated all o\er. 
Prothorax and ehjtra with their extreme lateral margins narrowly rufo-testaceous ; the latter with 
the apex broadly, and more or less brightly rufo-testaceous ; each with an impressed sutural line 
behind, and with a most obscure and obsolete patch (generally scarcely perceptible, except when 
the elytra are upraised) towards the shoulders rufescent. Legs rufo-ferruginous. 

The Macleiran state of tliis common European insect would appear to be that in 
which the subhumeral patches of the elytra are aU but evanescent ; since it is only 
in very rare instances that they are distinctly perceptible. It is abundant thi-ough- 
out Madeii'a, in the dung of cattle, though priacipally at rather low elevations. 
Tn the -\-icimty of Fiinchal, and at Santa Anna in the north of the island, I have 
o])sorved it very plentifully at most seasons of the year. 

Genus 38. CERCYON. 

Leach, Zool. Mwcell. iii. 95 (1817). 

Corpus parvum, convexum : prnthornce postice lato : eli/tris ])lerumque profunde striatis : mesosterno 
carinato : vietasterno \t\-Ano, antice baud producto : «/wamplis. ^H<e7i««'J-articuliitfebreviuscul;e, 
articulo ])rimo longissimo ad basin flexuoso, secundo brevi subconico-truncato, tertio, quarto 
quintoque minutissimis, sexto latiore subpoculiformi, reliquis clavam magnam pubescentem 
subsolidam oblongo-ovalem triarticulatam efficientibus. Luhrum breve transversum, antice 
integi-um et dense ciliatum. Mandibulte valid.T, apice edentata; incurvae, intus membranaccfe 
ciUatse. Maxilla bilobse membranacese : lobo externa brevi lato, apice dense barbato : interna 
angustiore brcvissimo, intus membranil (ad apicem pencilhita) iustructo. Palpi maxillares 
longiusculi graciles, articulo secundo robuslo subclavato : lahiales mediocres. Meittum amplum 
semicircularc. Liijula lata, profunde biloba, lobis divergentibus pubescentibus. Pedes fossorii, 
robusti : femoribus tibiisqnc compressis ; his seriato-spinulosis, apicem versus (pi-asertim poste- 
rioribus) dilatatis : tarsis (prsesertim posterioribus) articulo primo elongate libcro. 

Cercyon may be readily known fi-om SphcericUum by the smaller and convexer 
l)odies of the insects which compose it, by theii' more or less deeply striated elytra, 
by theii' less powerfully spiued tibia3, and by the somewhat more solid club of 
their 9-jointcd antenntx;. ^Mthough ty|)ically stercoraccous, some of the species 
have a decidedly subaquatic tendency, residing amongst moss and decaying 
vegetable matter in marshy spots, and at the edges of ponds, — into the mud and 
refuse of which their powerful tibiae enable them to bm-row \nth considerable 
dexterity. It is a genus more particularly abundant in northern and temperate 
latitudes. Like the Homalotcc however, and many of the smaller dimg-iiifestmg 
Brachclytra, the Cercya are constantly liable to become naturalized thi'ough the 
agency of cattle ; and I think it far from improbable that two at least, out of the 
four Madeiran representatives, may have been originally introduced into the 
island, either from south-western Europe or else fi'om England. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 103 

80. Cercyon inquinatum, WbU. 
C. i-otundato-oblongum convexum nigrum nitidissimum, prothorace plus minusve subpicescenti, elytris 

profunde subcrenato-striatis, pedibus rufo-fen-ugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1t-1|. 

Habitat Maderam australem, a Dom. Rousset ab ovk Funchalensi maritima nuper communicatum. 

C. roundisli-oblong, convex, black, and exceedingly shining ; most delicately, but not veiy closely 
punctulated all over (the punctures appearing, under the microscope, smaller and more remote 
than those of any of the other species). Prothorax more or less perceptibly picescent, especially 
at the margins. Elytra deeply crenate- (scarcely punctate-) striated, particularly behind ; and 
^^•ith slight indications of a cm-ved, or lunate, portion a little behind the apex, and common to 
both, dull rufescent or infuscate. Antmnm at base, and the jialpi, rufo-testaceous ; the former 
with the club (which is more elongated than in the other species) infuscate. Legs rufo- 
ferraginous, or rufo-piceous. 

An exceedingly distinct species, and one which may be readily known fi-om the 
rest of the Cercya here described by its larger, somewhat rounder, and more highly 
poHshed body, by its elj^tra being more evidently cme«ife-striated, and by the 
comparatively elongated club of its antennje. It 'is moreover of a darker hue,— 
the tendency of its prothorax to become picescent being at times so slight as to 
be scarcely perceptible; whilst the obscui-e sublimate portion, or patch, towards the 
apex of its elytra is, likewise, occasionally nearly obsolete. It is an insect which 
entii-ely escaped my own observations in the Madeu-a Islands, the only specimens 
which I have seen having been lately commimicated by M. Eousset, who captui-ed 
them on the sea-beach at Eunchal. It recedes from all the Em-opean members of 
the genus with which I am acquainted, but is more aUied perhaps to the common 
C.flavipes than to any other;— fi-om which nevertheless its differently colovu-ed, 
less punctiu-ed, and more shining surface, added to its crenate-striated elytra, wUl 
be sufficient, apart from minor characteristics, at once to remove it. 

81. Cercyon fimetarium, Woll. 
C. obovatum (postice acuminatum) convexum nigrum subnitidum distincte punctulatum, elytris 

profunde punctato-striatis ad apicem late testaceis, pedibus pallido-ferrugineis. 
Long, corp.liu. 1. 

Habitat Maderam, in stercore bovino ubique vulgaris, ab ora maritime fere ad cacumina montium 
ascendens. 

C. obovate (being somewhat acuminated behind), convex, black, and but slightly shining ; rather 
closely and distinctly punctulated all over. Pruthorax concolorous, the margins having no 
tendency to be paler. Ebjtra deeply punctate-striated ; with the apex, and more or less of the 
lateral edges, broadly and brightly testaceous. Antenna at base, and the palpi testaceous ; the 
former with the club, and the latter more or less in parts, infuscate. Legs pale ferruginous. 



104 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Known from the last by its diminished Ijulk, and by the broadly and distinctly 
paler terminal portion of its elytra; whilst its posteriorly-acuminated, more 
deeply punctured, and less shining body, and its entu'ely dark prothorax will at 
once separate it from the whole of the genus with which we have here to do. It 
is somewhat allied to the common Eiu-opean C. ancde, — from which however its 
smaller size, much more coarsely sculptured siu-face, and its very brightly testa- 
ceous hinder apex will readily remove it. It is pretty generally distributed 
tlu'oughout Madeira, occurrmg, in the dung of cattle, in nearly all parts of the 
island. I have observed it in the neighboiu-hood of Eunchal, as also at Santa 
Anna and Sfio Vincente, dm'ing the summer months ; and in the lofty region of 
the Cruzinhas Ln July. 

82. Cercyon centrimaculatum. 
C. subrotundato-oblongum subconvexum nigrum nitidum, prothoracis lateribus elytrisque diluto- 
testaceis, his subpunctato-stiiatis macula magna postmcdia communi infuscata plus miuusve 
suiFusa ornatis, pedibus rufo-ferrugineis. 
Var. /3. prothoracc elytrisque diluto-testaceis, illo in discum solum obscure ini'uscato, horum 
macula postmedia communi fere obsoleta, pedibus pallidioribus. 
Long. Corp. lin. |-], 

S])h<sridiwm centrimaculatum, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, ii. 23 (1807). 

pygmcstim, Gryll. Ins. Suec. i. 104, var. h. (1808). 

Cercyon centrimaculatum, Erich. Kiif. der Mark Brand, i. 218 (1837). 
, Mulsant, Palp. 169 (1844). 

Habitat Maderam, in iisdem locis ac prsecedens sed illo multo copiosior. 

C. short and oblong, but not quite so much rounded as the C. inquinatum, and somewhat less convex 
than cither of the foregoing species ; black or piceous-blaek, and shining ; closely and delicately 
punctulated all over. Prothorax with the lateral edges narrowly testaceous. Elytra sub- 
punctate-striated ; dull testaceous, and with a large, usually ill-defined and suffused, postmedial 
fascia or cloud, eonunon to both, infuscate. AntenntP, palpi and legs as in the last species. 
Vnr. /3. with the prothorax and elytra dull diluted-testaeeous ; the former having only an obscui-e 
cloud on the disk infuscate, and the postmedial patch of the latter being almost obsolete. Limbs 
altogether a little paler. 

The smallest and by far the most abundant of the Madeiran Cercya. It is of 
an exceedingly variable hue ; nevertheless the most essential featm-e which it 
possesses, namely the liinder fascia or cloud Avith Avliich its elytra are adorned, is 
more or less expressed throughout aU its varieties, and wall serve to distinguish it 
from the remainder of the genus here described. The paler state (which I liave 
indicated as var. /3) is to a certain extent the result of immatm-ity ; 'nhilst the 
extreme darker ones, especially when they happen to be below the average in size, 
approach at iii-st sight to the common C. pygmcBum of more northern latitudes. 
Even such specimens as these however, — that is to say, where the postmedial 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 105 

patch is so largely developed as to cover nearly the whole of the elytra,— a small 
erubescent portion at the base (which in the C. pygmcevm, a species pale only 
behind, does not exist) is sufficient to point out the law of colouring, and thus, 
independently of minor cUfferences, to cUstiuguish them from that insect. It 
occm-s in most parts of Madeira, and at aU seasons of the year. In the vicinity of 
Funchal, and at Santa Anna in the north of the island, I have observed it in 
great profusion ; as also on the edges of the Paul da Serra. It is found through- 
out the whole of Europe, and is recorded by Mulsant as having been brought 
even from South America. 

83. Cercyon quisquUium. 
C. oblongum subconvexum nigrum nitidum, prothoracis lateribus elytrisque flavis, his subpuactato- 

striatis, pedibus rufo-ferrugiueis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1-1^. 

ScarabcBus quisquilius, Linn. Fiia Suec. 138 (1761). 
SjplKBridium imipunctattim, var. 'Eah.Hnt. Syst. i. 82 (1792). 
Cercyon quisquUium, Stepb. III. Brit. Eiit. u. 153. <j (1829). 
, Miilsaut, Palj}. 166 (1811-). 

Habitat in stercore bovino Maderae Portilsque Sancti, vulgaris: circa Funchal interdum abiindat, 
etiam in ipsa m-be occurrens qua tempore sereno per aerem volare sEepissime videatur. 

C. oblong, and about as convex as the last species, black, and shining ; closely and deUcately punctu- 
lated all over. Prothorax with the extreme lateral edges dull testaceous, or fen-uginous. Elytra 
subpunctate-striated; bright testaceous-yellow. Antenna, palpi, and leys as in the last species, 
except that the first two are rather more darkly infuscated in parts. 

Readily known from the last two species by its rather larger bulk ; and from aU 
the Cerci/a here described by the colour of its elytra, which are uniformly of a pale 
testaceous or yeUow hue. The common C.wivpmictatus, L., is supposed by some ento- 
mologists to be the female of the present insect : but, if such is the case, it is at least 
remarkable that I should not have detected that sex in the Madeii-a Islands, where 
the present one is extremely abvmdant. A jn-iori therefore, I shoidd rather be 
inclined to agree with Mulsant in considering them as distinct. It occurs plenti- 
fully in most parts of Madeira, in the dung of cattle, my own specimens being 
principaUy from the neighbourhood of Funchal, Santa Anna, and from the upland 
district of the Fanal. In Porto Santo it is equaUy common. It is universal 
throughout Europe and the north of Africa,— from the former of which it has 
probably been introduced into these islands. 



lOG INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Sectio IV. NECROPHAGA. 
Fam. 7. SILPHID^. 

Gemis 39. CATOPS. 
PaykuU, Fna Suec. i. 342 (1798). 

Corpus minusculum, plus minusve ovatum, subtilissime pubescens : prothorace magno convexo, basi 
lato, angulis posticis acutis : alis amplis. Antenna capitis prothoracisque longitudine, apicem 
versus leviter incrassatae, articulo octavo contigiiis paulo minore, ultimo ad apicem ipsum acuto. 
Labrum transversum, antice leviter emarginatum. Mandibulce cornc;e acutae, apicem versus 
unidentatfc. Maxilla bilobse : lobo externa lineari, apice truncato : interno paulo breviore, ungue 
cornco terminali munito. Palpi maxillares articulo ultimo conico acuminato : labiales breves, 
articulo ultimo ovato. Mentum transverso-quadratum. Ligula profunde biloba. Pedes elongati 
graciles : fciiioribus anticis in maribus interdum dente obscuro obtuso subtus armatis : tarsis 
anticis in maribus articulis tribus subdilatatis. 

A single member of the present genus is the only representative of the entire 
SilphklcB wliich I have hitherto been able to detect in the Madeira Islands. 
Strictly spcaldug, it falls under Ftomophagiis of lUiger ; but the distinctive 
characteristics of that group are so trifling, — depending almost exclusively on 
the shorter antennae, the more acute hinder prothoracic angles, and the less 
evidently striated elytra of the insects which compose it, — that they can scarcely 
be regarded, at the utmost, as of more than sectional importance. In theu* habits, 
the species of Cotops arc exceedingly active, and reside, for the most part, beneath 
decaying vegetable substances, and stones ia damp, sylvan spots. 

84. Catops velox. 

C. obovatus fuscus, prothorace diluto-ferrugineo, elytris plus minusve nigrescentibus, singulo stria 

suturali impresso, antennarum basi pedibusque ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. H. 

Ckoleva velox, Spence, Linn. Trans, xi. 154 (1809). 
Ptomophagus velox, Steph. ///. Brit. Ent. iii. 6 (1830). 
Catops velox, Erich. Kaf. der Mark Brand, i. 243 (1837). 

Habitat in Madera sylvatica excclsii, rarissime; — ad Ribeiro Frio sub stipitibus madidis propc 
marginem aqufc ductus " Lcvada " Lusitanice dicti jacentibus tempore veruali captus. 

C. obovate (being rather acuminated behind), obscure rusty-brown (when immature, almost ferru- 
ginous), very slightly shining, and densely clothed throughout with a minute yellowish pile. 
Prol/wrax dull ferruginous, and very convex. Elytra darker than the prothorax, and generally 
a little darker than the head also, — being more or less of a blackish-brown ; each with a deeply 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 107 

impressed stria near the suture. Antemue very slightly incrassated towards their apex ; their basal 
joints and the legs ferruginous. 

A common European insect, but apparently of the greatest rarity in Madeii-a, 
the only two indigenous examples which I have seen having been captiu'ed by 
myself at the edges of the Levada of the Eil^eiro Frio, during the early spring. 
They differ in no respect from the ordinary type, except that their antennse are 
perhaps just perceptibly longer, and somewhat less incrassated at their apex. 



Fam. 8. PTILIAD-Sl. 

Genus 40. ACRATRICHIS. 

Motsehulsky, Bull, de la Soc. Imp. de Moscou, xxi. 569 (1848). 

Corpus minutissimum, latum, punctatissimum, pubescens : prothorace maximo convexo, basi plerumque 
latissimo, angulis posticis plus minusve produetis : ehjtris subdepressis, apice truncatis : meso- 
sterno carinato, scutello maximo : abdomine ex segmentis ventralibus sex composito : alls 
amplissimis lanceolatis, pilis longissimis instructis. AntenncB rectae capillares pilosse, articulis 
primo et secuudo robustissimis subquadratis, tertio ad octavum graciUbus latitudine eequalibus, 
reliquis sensim crassiores, clavam laxam valde elongatam triarticulatam efficientibus. Lahrum 
amplum porrectum subtriaugulare. Mandibula acut?e, intus bidentatse. Maxilla biloboe mem- 
branacese : lobo externo elongato, intus crenulato : interna breviore angustiore, intus ciliato. 
Palpi maxillai-es articulo penultimo maximo lato subpyriformi, ultimo minutissimo aciculari : 
labiates biarticulatl gracillimi, ad apicem ligulfe inserti. Me/iium angustum transversum. 
Ligula elongata, apice fissa, basi paraglossis aucta. Pedes valde cursorii, graciles : coxis posticis 
laminatis distantibus : tarsis 3-articulatis, articido ultimo elongato. 

The excessive minuteness of the insects comprehended luider the Ptiliada; wdll 
at once distinguish them from the members of every other family. The entire 
group indeed is one of the most isolated and best defined within the whole range 
of the Coleoptera, its unique characters of -uing and foot being of themselves 
sufficient to remove it from every other department. Nor are its oral organs 
less remarkable, theii* singularly developed paraglossse and palpi displaying modi- 
fications of structm'e exceedingly anomalous. It is under the appellation of 
Trlchopteryx (proposed by Kirby, for the SilpJia minutissima of Marsham, in 
1828*, and first defined, by Stephens, in 1830) that the present genus is usually 
recognised. That title however hai-ing been preoccupied in the Lepidoptera, by 
Hubner, in 1816, it is clear that (whether afterwards retained or not) it cannot 
strictly be employed in another Order ; and hence it was that Motsehulsky in 1848 
published the name of Acratnchis instead, — which ought therefore, in accordance 
with the laws of priority, to be received. "When their microscopic dunensions are 
considered, the species of Acratrichis may be regarded as amongst the most active 

* Vide Int. to Ent. iii. -il, — note. 

P 2 



108 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

of the whole annual kingdom, the velocity with which they run heing perfectly 
prodigious. Like Catops, they delight in moist and shady spots, occurring imder 
dead leaves, logs of wood, and other rotting sulistances of a vegetable nature ; as 
weU as at the roots of grass, and amongst moss, in damp localities beneath trees. 

85. Acratrichis vunbricola, WoU. 

A. obovata lata valde pubescens fusco-nigra subopaca, protborace amplissimo elytris latiorc, sub- 
picescenti, angulis posticis dilutioribus et valdissime productis, antennis pedibusque palbdo- 
testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. \. 

Habitat in montibus Maderae, sub foliis arborum madidis, — prope lacum crateriformem Lagoa dictum, 
in regione Fanalensi, d. 12 Jid. a.u. 1850 parcissime lecta. 

A. broad, and obovate (being mucb wider in front tbau behind), brownish-black, and with a just 
perceptibly yellowish or aeneous tinge; closely punctured, subopake, and exceedingly pubescent. 
PrutJiorax very large, and wide (especially behind), surpassing the elytra in breadth; convex, 
and usually rather more fuscous, or picescent than the rest of the surface ; with its posterior 
angles much produced, and (together with its extreme basal edge) somewhat flavescent. Elytra 
short and wide, with their hinder margin a little paler. Antennce and legs pale-testaceous ; the 
former rather long. 

A large and well-marked Acratrichis, somewhat approaching to the A. grandi- 
collis and the A. atomaria of more northern latitudes : nevertheless it differs from 
both of those species in its superior size, in its wider (though proportionably 
shorter) form, in its very pale legs and antennae, and in its greatly developed and 
somewhat picescent prothorax, — which, at its base, far exceeds the el}i:ra in 
breadth. It is apparently extremely rare, and confined to lofty sylvan spots where 
tlie constantly accumulating leaves are in a state of perpetual decay. In such 
localities I have taken it, diu'iiig July, in the upland region of the Fanal (more 
than 5000 feet above the sea), especially at the edges of the rovmd crater-Uke basin, 
known as the Lagoa, immediately before the descent of the mountain-road to the 
Ribeiro da Janella and Porto Moniz. 

86. Acratrichis fascicvdaris. 
A. oblongo-ovata pubescens nigra nitida, prothorace amplo ad basin elytris paulo latiore, angulis 

posticis valde productis, antennis infuscatis, pedibus testaceis. 
Long. corp. Hn. \. 

Latridius fascicularis, Herbst, Kaf. v. 8. t. 44. f. 7 (1793). 
Tricliopteryx fascicularu, Heer, Fna Col. Helv. i. 374 (1841). 
graiuUcolUs, Erich. Xat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 20 (1848). 

Habitat Maderam, sub stercore foliisque arborum marcidis, sestate minus frequens. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 109 

A. smaller than the A. umbricola, and more oblong (being neither so wide in front nor so acuminated 
behind), and, likewise, of a deeper black ; a little more coarsely punctured and shining, but not 
nearly so pubescent. Prothurax large, but not so greatly developed as that of the last species, 
and only slightly exceeding, behind, the base of the elytra in breadth ; convex, and concolorous 
with the rest of the surface ; with its posterior angles produced, but not so much so as those of 
the A. umbricola, and apparently not at all flavescent, though the extreme basal edge in that par- 
ticular region is just perceptibly paler. Elytra with their hinder margin a little paler. An- 
tenncE shorter and darker than those of the last species, being infuscate. Legs testaceous. 

I can perceive no real distinctions between the present AcratricMs and the 
common European A. fasclciilaris ; though it is due to my friend M. Motschulsky 
to state that he was able to detect some minute difference (unappreciable by myself) 
sufficient, as he supposed, to separate it from that iusect, — and hence the specific 
title of brevicornis was proposed for it by him. An accurate measurement how- 
ever will show that its antennse are not in reality shorter than those of the ordi- 
nary A. fascicularis ; and, rather therefore than incur the risk of multiplying 
names unnecessarily in these microscopic tribes, I prefer ascribing it to that 
species, especially since I cannot, myself, discover any characters important enough 
to warrant its removal from it. 

87. AcratricMs pumila. 
A. ovato-oblonga pubescens nigra subnitida, prothorace elytrorum latitudine subsequali, angulis 

posticis leviter productis, antennis fusco-piceis, pedibus testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. ^-|. 



Ftiliwm sericans, Schupp. in litt, 

Trichopteryx sericans, G-illm. in Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xvii. 52 {nee Heer, 1841) (1845). 

pumila, Erich. Nat. der Ins. DeutscTi. iii. 22 (1848). 

Acratricliis fumila. Mots. Hull, de la Soc. Imp. de il/bscoi«, xxi. 568 (1848). 

Habitat Maderam, et borealem et australem, ad radices graminum vel sub foliis arborum marcidis, 
infra 3000' s. m. ubique vulgaris. 

A. the smallest of the three species, and more oblong than either of the others, being of almost equal 
breadth before and behind, — though, if anything, rather more expanded posteriorly than in front ; 
deep black; rather distinctly punctured and pubescent, but not quite so shining as the A. fas- 
cicularis. Prothorax less developed than in either of the other species, being scarcely perceptibly 
broader behind than the base of the elytra ; less convex than in either of the other species ; and 
entirely concolorous with the rest of the surface ; and with its posterior angles very much less 
produced. Elytra with their hinder margin a little paler. Antenna and legs as in the A. fasci- 
cularis ; except that the former are a little more darkly infuscated, or picescent, and have their 
apical joint rather more acuminated. 

The smallest of the Madeiran FtiUadce ; and I believe I do not err in referring 
it to the A. ]}umila of Erichson. It may be readily kno-mi from the other two 
species of the present genus by its more oljlong and narrower outline, and by its 



110 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

liindor pvothoracic angles being scarcely at all produced*. It is an abundant insect 
througliout Madeira, l)elo\v the altitude of al)Out 3000 feet, during the summer 
and autumnal months, — occui'ring principally at the roots of grass, and beneath 
leaves and other decajdng vegetable substances. In the vicinity of Funchal, and 
also at Santa Anna, I have observed it at times in great profusion. 

Genus 41. PTENIDIUM. 

Erichson, JVo^ der Lis. Deutsch. iii. .Si (1848). 

Corpvis minutissimum, ovale, convexiusculum, nitidissimuru, subglabrum : prothorace lateribus rotun- 
datis, antice et postice subfequaliter angustato, angulis posticis plus minusve rotundatis : ebjtris 
apice iiitegris subacuminatis : mesosterno vix carinato, scutello magno : abdomine ex scgmentis 
ventralibus septem composito : alis amplissimis lanceolatis, pilis longissimis instructis. Instru- 
menta cibaria fere ut in Acratrichi. Pedes valde cursorii, graciles : coxis posticis simplicibus 
distantibus : tarsis 3-articulatis, articulo ultimo elongate. 

The present group may be known from the previous one by the more oval, con- 
vex, and polished bodies of the minute insects which compose it, — the ehi;ra of 
which cover the whole of their abdomen, instead of being (as in Acndrichis) 
aln'uptly truncated behind. Theii' upper siu'face, moreover, is almost entirely free 
from punctures and pubescence, and theii' prothorax (instead of being dilated) is 
constricted at its base, Tvith the posterior angles more or less rounded and obtuse. 
In their habits, the species are similar to the members of the last genus. 

88. Ptenidium apicale. 
P. oblongo-ovale convexum subglabnim nigrum nitidissimum remote punctatum, prothoracis angulis 

posticis lateribusquc rotundatis, clytris apicem versus late flavescentibus, antcnuis pedibusque 

pallido-testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. |. 

Ptilium apicale, Stunii, in Utt. 

Trichopteryx apicalis, Grillm. in Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xvii. 85 (1845). 

Ptenidium apicale, Erich. Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 3G (1848). 

Habitat Maderam, ad radices graminum, vel sub lapidibus foliisque arborum marcidis toto anno 
vulgaris : ctiam in ins. Deserta Grandi occui'rit, qua Maio exeunte, a.d. 1850 pauca specimina 
cepi. 



* Tlie present Aci-atrichis varies the eightli of a line iu length, and a little in outline, according to the 
altitude and cLrcimistauces imder which it is found, but it retains the same characters of coloiu-, scul])- 
ture, and pubescence throughout, — as 1 have been able to ascertain from the examination of a very large 
series of specimens collected from .ill parts of the island. I should mention however that it was separated 
into three species by ^l. ^rotj^chulsky, two of them being considered as new. for which he proposed the 
names of nigricornis and ovatula; whilst the third (dcj)eudiug on a single indixidual, without a head) he 
identified with the minutissima of Linna>us. In my opinion, however, they are all referable to one ; and 
T am inclined to think that the common A. pumila la the species to which they must be assigned. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. Ill 

P. oblong-oval, convex, and exceedingly highly polished; deep black; remotely punctured and very 
sparingly pubescent. Prothorax rounded at the sides, being broadest a little behind the middle 
and narrowed at its extreme base ; the posterior angles rounded. Elytra with the punctures 
more perceptible than those on the prothorax ; broadly flavesccnt towards their apex, — though 
more or less distinctly so in different specimens. AntenruB and legs pale testaceous. 

The only Ftenidium* , apparently, in the Madeira Islands ; and exceedingly 
ahundant below the elevation of about 3000 feet. It resides principally at the 
roots of grass and beneath fallen leaves, under which circumstances I have 
captured it in. the utmost profusion in the Chestnut-woods at Santa Anna, and 
in the dense forest region of the Lombo dos Pecegueiros, during the summer 
months. On the southei'u side of the island it is equally common ; and it may 
be often observed in gardens about Funchal. In that of the Rev. R. T. Lowe, at 
the Levada, I have taken it in great abundance ; as also on the Pico do Cardo, 
from under stones beneath the Tir-trees : and even, though more sparingly, on 
the Dezerta Grande. 



Fam. 9. PHALACRIDJl. 

Genus 42. OLIBRUS. (Tab. II. fig. 9.) 

Erichsou, Nat. der Ins. Beutsch. iii. 113 (1848). 

Corpus minusculum, obovatum vel ellipticum, convexum, nitidissimum, glabrum : prothurace postice 
lato : alis amplis. Antenna (II. 9 a) breviusculse, articulis primo et secundo (illo prsecipue) 
crassis, tertio longiore graciliore, quarto ad octavum paulatim brevioribus sed latitudine vix 
crescentibus, reliquis clavam magnam laxam oblongam triarticulatam efficientibus. Lnbrum 
breve transversum, antice integrum ciliatuui. Mandibula (II. 9 6) validte incurvse, apice fortiter 
bidentatse, intus basin versus membrana instructae. Maxilla (II. 9 c) bilobfe membranacese : 
lobo externo longiusculo lato, apice dense barbato : interno brevi angusto pencillato. Palpi 
maxillares (II. 9 c) breviusculi filiformes, articulo ultimo elongato-ovato : labiates (II. 9 d) breves, 
sat robusti, articulo ultimo acuminato. Mentuni amplum transverso-quadratum membranaceum. 



* I cannot observe the slightest diflerence in any of the Madeiran specimens of this insect which I 
have hitherto examined : nevertheless M. Motschulsky, since his late visit to England, has distributed 
my series under three species, bearing the names of P. punctatvm, Gyll., elongatulum. Mots., and atoma- 
roides, Mots. After a careful comparison however of the whole of them beneath the microscope, and 
a consideration of the circimistances imder which they were taken, anything like specific distinctions 
appear to me to be simply imaginary, since I am unable to detect so much as a single aberration out of 
the entire number of sufficient importance to be regarded as even a variety. I have consequently 
sunk them : and I believe that they are more correctly referred to the P. apicale, Stimn, than to any 
other member of the genus. From the P. punctatum they diiier {vide Gyll. Ins. Suec. iv. 29.3, and 
Stiurm's Beutsch. Fna, xvii. 8-1) in having the apex of their elytra always flavescent, and their punctiu-es 
less apparent, — those moreover on the prothorax being the faintest and exceedingly few in niunber : 
whereas in that insect the pimctm-es are described as being numerous, and more deeply impressed on the 
prothorax than on the elytra. The prothorax also of the P. punctatum is of a different form. 



112 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

anticc Icviter angustatum ct temiissimuin, utrinquc in lobum medium lateralem productum. Ligula 
lata biloba, lobis rotundatis ciliatis. Pedes cursorii, subgraciles : femoribus libusque compressis, 
his apice lenter spinulosis ct calcariis internis sat distinctis munitis : tarsis (II. 9 e. 9/. 9^) 
articulo tertio bilobo, quarto minutissimo ; posticis (II. 9 e) elongatis, articulo secundo longiusculo. 

Olibrus was established by Ericbson, in 1848, m. order to contain those members 
of Phalacrus which had the terminal joint of their maxillaiy palpi slightly robuster 
than is the case with the ordinary representatives of the group, their tibial spurs 
distinctor, and their two hinder tarsi somewhat more produced, and ■nith the 
second articulation the longest. To these characters however I think the con- 
struction of the mentiun should certainly be added, since, if my observations be 
correct, it is the most invariable, and therefore the most important, feature which 
the several species possess. Thus, in all the Olibri which I have dissected it is 
narrowed anteriorly (where it is extremely thin and membranaceous), and has the 
sides produced, about the middle, into a large rounded lobe ; whereas in the true 
Phalacri it is broader in front than behind, truncated at the apex, and altogether 
more transverse and of a thicker textm-c. In fact, with the exception of the 
peculiarity of their mentum, it seems to me that the Olibri, as defined by Erich- 
son, are apt to merge almost imperceptibly (especially as regards the spines of 
theu- tibia?) into the normal Fhalacri, — of which the common Em-opean P. coruscns 
is supposed to be the type : and it is far from improbable moreover that in some 
of the forms an intermediate state of mentum may exist likewise, — in which case 
none of the elements of Olibrus can be considered as sufficiently constant to be of 
more than sectional significance. They are insects which are subject to con- 
siderable instability, both in size and colour, and are consequently in many 
instances extremely difiicult to determine, specifically. There are few genera 
indeed amongst the entire Coleoptera in which an extensive series of examples 
is more positively required in order to investigate the species aright, and to 
discover tlie boundaries between which some of them would appear to range. 
They are almost exclusively of flower-infesting habits ; and rim with the utmost 
agility. They are excessively gregarious, and may usually therefore be taken in 
large numbers where they exist at aU. 

89. OUbnis Cmerariae, Woll (Tab. II. fig. 9.) 
O. subrotundato-obovatus subviridescenti-niger nitidus, capite prothoraceque rufo-testaceis, elytris 

substriatis ad apicem testaceis, singuli striis duabus suturam versus reliquis paulo distinctioribus, 

antennis pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. coq). lin. I^. 

Habitat florcs Cineraria aurita { = Senecionis Maderensis, De Cand.) in rupibus Maderse crescentis, 
proosertira per partem sylvaticam aestate, rarissimus : ad Cruzinhas est paulo copiosior, qua Julio 
incunte a.d. 1850 plurima speciniina collcgi. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 113 

O. roundisli- ovate (being but very slightly wider in front than behind), convex, shining, and black, — 
with a just distinguishable greenish tinge. Head and prothorax bright rufo-testaceous. Elytra 
obscurely substriated, the striae (as in the other species) vanishing in front, the two on each 
which are nearest the suture being more distinct than the rest : their apex more or less pale 
testaceous. Antenna and legs testaceous, or rufo-testaceous, — being usually only a shade paler 
than the head and prothorax. 

A large and most elegant OUbms, and at once distinguislied by its compara- 
tively hemispheric form, by its bright rufo-testaceous head and prothorax, and by 
its deep black elytra, — which have a just perceptibly greenish tinge on their 
sui'face, and of which the extreme apex is alone pale. It is apparently exceedingly 
rare, or at any rate local, occurring principally at high elevations, and in remote 
spots, within the sylvan districts. It would seem to be confined to the flowers of 
the Cineraria aurita, the j^m-ple clusters of wliich are so conspicuous on the damp 
perpendicular rocks of lofty altitudes. I have captiu-ed it, sparingly, near the 
head of the Ribeu'o de Santa Luzia in May ; and, more abundantly, in the upland 
region of the Cruzinhas, diu'ing Jvily. 

90. Olibrus bicolor. 
O, obovatus subsenescenti-nigropiceus nitidissimus, elytris substriatis, apicem versus obscui'e diluto- 

rufescentibus, singuli striis duabus suturam versus distinctioribus, antennis pedibusque subdiluto- 

testaceis. 
Long. corp. lin. 1^-1|^. 

Splusridium bicolor, Fab. Iltit. Si/st. i. 82 (1792). 
Fhalacrus bicolor, Sturm, Deutsch. Mia, ii. 77 (1807). 

, Gvll. Ins. Suee. iii. 431 (1813). 

Olibrus bicolor, Erich. Mit. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 116 (1848). 

Habitat in floribus Maderaj, bine inde, tempore vernali, vidgatissimus. 

O. obovate (being distinctly wider in front than behind), convex, exceedingly brilUantly polished, and 
more or less of a dark rufo-piceous, or piceous-black hue, — with a very perceptibly seneous tinge. 
Elytra obscm-ely substriated, the two striae on each nearest to the suture being alone tolerably 
distinct : more or less obscurely, and very gradually dull brownish-rufescent, or somewhat chest- 
nut, towards the apex. Antenna and legs dull testaceous. 

There can be no doubt but that the present insect and the following one ap- 
proach each other very closely, and it is not Avithout hesitation that I have treated 
them as separate. For some time indeed I had considered them to be but modi- 
fications of the O. bicolor ; nevertheless a careful comparison of a very large series 
of specimens has subsequently induced me to believe that they are truly distinct, 
since there is no difficulty whatsoever in discriminating them in a general way, 
even though it is equally certain that about two examples out of every forty which 
I have examined are doubtful, and might apparently be referred to either. StiU, 

Q 



114 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

the normal states are so clearly expressed that I cannot regard these occasional 
links as more than exceptional varieties from either side, and Avhich Avould fall as 
unmistakeahly into their proper spheres as any of the remainder, were we better 
able to grasp their exact characteristics, and to appreciate small shades of differ- 
ence which are not the less real because obscure. Nor must we forget that in our 
ignorance of even the nature of " species," so called, we may sometimes err in 
attempting to define too rigidly the boimdaries of theii- attributes ; for, whilst, as 
a matter of com-se, we must unquestionably assume them to be absolutely micon- 
nected (that is to say, to have descended from common parents, — each of their 
pecidiar kind), yet it is difficult to assert positively that creatures which in out- 
ward points are thus intimately allied are of necessity so opposite in their endow- 
ments that they may not now and then intermix, and produce those very aberra- 
tions (all)eit perhaps not able, themselves, to perpetuate their race) which we are 
apt to lay hold of, even when occm-riug thus sparingly, to destroy the specific 
claims of the insects which have accidentally given them bii-th. And I shoidd 
frequently, therefore, be inclined to look upon such-like media as lapsus natures 
rather than as connective, — at any rate where they are only of rare exiwrience and 
exist between forms the limits of wliich are other^-ise clear and unambiguous. 
With these few remarks, which I have somewhat prolonged, as likely to apply in 
instances besides the present one, it will be sufficient to add that the O. bicolor 
(which, if my identification of it be correct, would appear to attain a rather larger 
size in Madeira than the ordinary type) may be distinguished, for the most part, 
from the following species, not merely by its superior bidk, but by its less poste- 
riorly-aciuninated outline, l)y its usually just perceptibly darker and less brassy 
hue, and by its legs and antenna? being, almost invariably, both of a more diluted 
testaceous tinge and (proportionably) a trifle longer. It is an abundant insect, 
diu'ing the spring and smnmer months, in certain parts of Madeira, at rather low 
and intermediate elevations. In May of 18i9, wliUst encamped in the Eibeii-o de 
Santa Luzia with the Rev. 11. T. Lowe, I captiu-cd it in the utmost profusion from 
amonsrst the loni? cjrass and flowers immediatelv outside my tent, — and in com- 
pany with the O. Uquidus, which thus, at all events, cannot be a local variety of it. 

91. Olibnis Hquidus. 

O. obovatus postice paulo magis acuminatus, subjeuesccnti-uigropiceus uitidissinius, clytris sub- 
striatis, apicem versus diluto-rufescentibus, singuli striis duabus suturam versus distinctioribus, 
antennis pedibusque testaceis, illis breviusculis. 

Long. Corp. lin. -f^-l^. 

Plialacnis ovaiiis, llott'iii. in mm. 

Olibrus Uquidus, Erich. Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 117 (1848). 

Habitat Maderam, in locis similibus ac 0. bicolor, uua cum illo degens. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 115 

O. similar to the last species, but smaller and of more variable stature, a little narrower in proportion, 
and rather more acuminated behind, also, for the most part, with a little more perceptibly brassy 
tinge. Elytra as in the O. bicolor, but generally a little paler, or more brightly chestnut, 
posteriorly. Antennm and legs testaceous, being a shade paler than those of that insect. 

The cUstinctions between the present insect and the last have been ah*eady fully 
pointed out, not only under that species, but likewise in the above comparative 
diagnosis. It is equally abundant, occui-ring on flowers and amongst grass, and 
usually in company with it. I believe it to be correctly referred to the O. Uquidus 
of Erichson, with the description of which it appears to agree sufficiently well. 

92. Olibrus consimilis. 
O. rotundato-oblongus infuscato-rufopiceus nitidissimus, elytris apicem versus late testaceis, singulo 

stria suturali valde profunda impresso, antennis pedibusque testaceis, illis breviusculis. 
Long. corp. lin. 1-1|. 

Dermestes consimilis, Mshm, Eiit. Brit. i. 75 (1802). 
Phalcicrus geminus, Illig. in Panz. Krit. Mev. i. 27 (1805). 

testaceus, Gyll. Ins. Siiec. iii. 432 (1813). 

Olihrus gemmus, Erich. Nat. der Ins. Deutscli. iii. 120 (1848). 

Habitat in graminosis Maderse, rarissimus : tria specimina adhuc vidi, unum sc. ad summam originem 
convallis Kibeiro de Santa Luzia dictse Maio exeunte a.d. 1849, et duo ad Lombo dos Pecegueiros 
mense Julio a.d. 1850, a meipso reperta. 

O. roundish-oblong (being but very shghtly wider in front than behind, but neither quite so broad 
nor so rounded as the O. Cinei-aria), not quite so convex as any of the other species, exceedingly 
brilliantly polished, and of a pale, brownish-rufopiceous hue. Elytra almost unstriated, with the 
exception of a single, very deeply impressed sutural stria on each : their apex broadly and 
brightly testaceous. Antenrus and legs, also, testaceous : the former rather short. 

A most abundant European insect, but apparently extremely rare in Madeira, 
which in all probability is one of its most southern stations. During my constant 
researches in all parts of the island I have hitherto taken but three specimens ; — 
one in 18i9 in the Ribeno de Santa Luzia, and two at the Lombo dos Pecegueiros 
in July 1850. It may be readily known from the rest of the Olibri here described 
by its pale fusco-piceous hue, by its short and comparatively oblong form, by its 
rather abbreviated antennge, and by the single deep stria with which each of its 
elytra are impressed close to the suture. 

Fam. 10. NITIDULIDiE. 

Genus 43. CARPOPHILUS. 

(Leach) Steph. III. Brit. Ent. iii. 50 (1830). 

Corpus minusculum, phis minusve subcylindi-ico-oblongum : prothorace subquadrato convexo : elytris 

Q2 



116 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

abbreviatis, apice truncatis : alts amplis. Antenna breves, articulo primo magno crasso, secundo 
ct tertio longioribus et (hoc praecipue) graeilioribus, quarto ad octaviim minutis latitudine 
paulatim vix crescentibus, reliquis capitulum magnum solidum orbiculato-ovatum triarticulatum 
efficicntibus. Labrum semicirculare ciliatum, antice fisso-emarginatum. Mandibula valida;, 
apice bidentatse. Maxillm lobo singulo pubescenti instructaj. Palpi liliformes, articulo ultimo 
elougato, ill maxillaribus subacuininato, in labialibus crassiorc ovato-truncato. Mentiim trans- 
verso-quadratum, antice angustatum. Ligula apice biloba, lobis divergentibus pubescentibus. 
Pedes subcontractiles : tarsis articulo quarto minutissiino. 

Apart from the modifications of its trophi, which may be gathered from the 
above diagnosis, but which differ however but slightly from those of the neigh- 
l)ouring genera, Carpopliilus may be known by its abbreviated elytra and its more 
cjuadratc prothorax, — which last is usually convex throughout, instead of having 
the margins flattened or recurved, as is more or less the case in Xifidida proper. 
It is a genus which subsists mainly on articles of commerce, especially sugar and 
cb'ied fruits ; and hence, as might be expected, is widely distributed over the 
world, follo^\•ing everjT^here in the track of man. The species are often very 
abimdant on board ship ; and in all probability the three Madeiran representatives 
have been imported into the island from other coimtries, being found either in 
Fuuchal itself, or in houses where merchandise is stowed away, in its immediate 
vicinity. 

93. Carpophilus mutilatus. 

C. subcylindrico-oblongus nifo-ferrugincus pubescens, prothoracc magno subquadrato, elytris vix 

jiallidioribus, abdomine supra ct infra subfuscescente. 

Jjong. corp, lin. 1§. 

mtidula hemiptem, Fab. {nee Llnu. 1767) Ent. Si/st. i. 261 (1792). 

Ca)popkilus mutilatus, (Hoffiu. in mus.) Erich. Germ. Zeitsch. fiir die Ent. iv. 258 (18i3). 

Habitat in domibus Maderfc, prsesertim propc Funchal, minus frequens ; in ipsd urbe mercatorum 
repositoriis frequentior, forsan ex Americse meridionalis insulis illuc saccharinis introductus. 

C oblong, somewhat parallel and subcylindric ; punctured, rufo-ferruginous, and clothed with paler 
pubescence. Prothorax large and subquadrate, being almost as broad before as behind. Be- 
neath with the meso- and meta-thoraces and the abdomen (the last above as well as below) 
slightly darker. Elytra a little paler than the remainder of the surface. 

Evidently imported into IMadeu-a ; occm-ring on the waUs of houses in and near 
•Fimchal, though nowhere abundantly. In granaries and warehouses, however, it 
is less scarce, where it Avoidd appear to feed more especially on sugar and dried 
fruits, in company with the C. hemlpterus. It is foimd under similar circmn- 
stanccs in the south of Europe, — where it is recorded in Spain, Portugal and 
Sicily : I also possess specimens from Italy. It was ^\Tongly referred by Ea- 
bricius to the Dermestes hemipterus of Linntcus, which is a totally different insect, 
as may be seen from tbe diagnosis given below ; and hence it is that tlie name of 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 117 

mntilatus (fli'st proposed by HoflFniansegg for a specimen from Portugal) was 
retained by Erichson for the present species. 

94. CarpopMlus am'opilosus, WoU. 

C. oblongus fusco-niger pubescens, prothorace magno subquadi-ato convexo, antennis pedibusque 

ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. It. 

Habitat urbem Funchalensem, unde exemplar unicum Dom. Kousset nuper misit. 

C. oblong, punctured, black mtli a slight bro-miish tinge, and densely clotbed ^\'itb pale yeDowish 
pubescence. Prothorax large, convex and subquadi-ate, being nearly as broad before as behind. 
Elytra with the extreme apical margin a little infuscate. Mouth, legs and antenna ferruginous, 
the last with their club somewhat dusky. 

Distinguished from the C. nmtilatus and the C. hemij^terus by its somewhat 
smaller size and uniformly dark hue, — its antennae and legs, added to the golden 
pubescence wdth which it is clothed, being alone pale. The only specimen which 
I have seen was lately communicated to me by M. Rousset, by whom it was 
captm-ed in the ^-icinity of Funchal. Like the other Madeiran CarjwjiMli, it is 
probably an introduced insect : nevertheless, not having been able to identify it 
with any known species, I have been compelled to describe it as new. 

95. CarpopMlus hemipterus. 
C. subovato-oblongus nigro-fuscus pubescens, prothorace minus quadi-ato, elytro singulo maculis 

duabus, una sc. humerali sinuata et altera apicali magna, flavis interdum confluentibus ornato, 

antennarum basi pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. corp. lin. lA-lf. 

Dermestes liemipterus, Linn. Sysf. Nat. ii. 567 (1767). 
Nitidula himaculata, Oliv. Ent. ii. 12. 6 (1790). 

, GyU. Ins. Suec. i. 244 (1808). 

Carp(^hilus hemipterus, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, sv. 36 (1844). 
. , Erich. Nat. der Ins. Beutsch. iii. 135 (1848). 

Habitat Maderam, cum C. mutilato sed illo multo copiosior. 

C. oblong-ovate, punctured, blackish-brown, or black, and clothed with a yellowish pubescence. 
Prothorax large, but somewhat transverse, being a httle narrower before than behind, and with 
the margins occasionally slightly paler than the disk. Elytra rather shorter than in either of 
the preceding species, with two zigzag patches on each, — viz. a small one at the shoulder, and a 
large one occupying more or less of the entire apical half, — pale yellow ; the latter sometimes so 
broad as to be almost confluent with the former. Mouth, base of antenna and legs testaceous. 

Found in company with the C. nmtilatus, but much more plentifully : amongst 



118 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

di'icd figs I have observed it occasionally ia the greatest profusion. It is common 
tlirougliout Em-ope and in Algeria, but was, originally, in all probability, a native 
of a colder climate than the C. mutilatus, since the latter has not been able, ap- 
parently, to establish itseK in northern Europe, whereas the present insect occou-s 
in equal abimdance both in the north and the south. 



Genus 44. NITIDULA. 
Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 77 (1775). 

Corpus minusculum, plus minusve depressum et laete coloratum : prothorace in discum subconvexo, ad 
latera plerumquc complanato necnon ssepius subrecurvo : elytris apice truncatis, pj'gidium vix 
tcgcntibus : alls amplis. Antenna bre\iusculffi, articulo primo magno crasso, secundo ad octavum 
multo gracilioribus (tertio ssepe reliquis lougiore graciliore), reliquis capitulum maguum subsoli- 
dum orbiculato-ovatum triarticulatum efficientibus. Lahrum antice ciliatum. Mandibula valida;, 
apice bidentatffi. Maxilla lobo singula pubescenti instructse. Palpi filiformes. Mentum trans- 
verso-subquadratum, antice vel leviter emarginatum vel productum. Ligula apice biloba, lobis 
magnis pubescentibus. Pedes subcoutractiles : tibiis extus integris : tarsis articulo quarto minu- 
tissimo, anticis articulis tribus saepius dilatatis. 

The Nitiditlce, subdivided by Erichson, as I camiot but believe, into too many 
genera, may, apart from the distinctive characters of theii* oral organs (which will 
be gathered from the above diagnosis), be usually recognised from theii- allies by 
their comparatively depressed bodies, and by the more or less flattened edges of 
their prothorax. In their economy they are midway between Carjiophilus and 
MeUgethes, combining the ossiphagous, or almost omnivorous, propensities of the 
former -ttdth the flower-infesting habits of the latter. And, since we have such 
opposite modes of life indicated in the same genus, we find, as would natm-aUy be 
cKpected, insects of intermediate tendencies likewise, — which are perhaps the 
most numerous, and may be considered as constituting the normal members of the 
group. Such species reside between chippings of wood or under the bark of trees, 
feeding on decaying vegetable matter, more particularly in spots where recent 
womids have caused the sap to exude and the bark to have become loose. Of 
the fom" representatives however which I have hitherto detected in the ]Madeii'a 
Islands, tkree belong to the ossiphagous, and one only to the strictly subcortical 
division : and it is more than probalile indeed that the former may have been 
accidentally imported from more northern latitudes, since they do not appear to 
exist at aU in the uncultivated regions, but merely in the A-icinity of the to-mas, — 
positions in which they would be the more easily naturalized, from the constant 
supply of theii- proper food with which such localities must necessarily abound. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 119 

§ I. Labrum transversum, antice leviter emarginatum : ^alpi articulo ultimo subammiinato : mentum antice 
plus minusve productum, (Nitidula et Omosita, Ericli^. Habitant prsecipue in cadaveribus. 

96. Nitidula flexuosa. 

N. lato-oblonga depressa subfusco-nigra, protborace antice vix emarginato, lateribus testaceis ciliatis, 
el3ftris macula media communi abbreviata necnon plaga magna (postice dentat^) ad humeruni 
singuli sita pallido-testaceis ornatis, antennarum basi pedibusque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. li-2|. 

Nitidula flexuosa, Oliv. Ent. ii. 12. 7 (1790). 

, Fab. Ent. Sysf. i. 258 (1792). 

, Heer, Fna Col. Relv. 397 (1841). 

• , Erich. Nat. der Ins. Beutseh. iii. 159 (1818). 

Habitat in cadaveribus Portus Sancti, tempore biberno et vernali non infrequens. 

N. broad and oblong, depressed, dull brownisb- or piceous-black, most minutely punctulated, and 
pubescent. Prothorax very slightly emarginated, or arcuated, in front ; large and wide, rounded 
at the sides, and broadest a little behind the middle ; the lateral edges testaceous, and fringed 
with a fine silken pubescence. Elytra with a transverse abbreviated central patch, common to 
both, and a large flexuose (posteriorly ragged) portion at the shoulder of each (usually enclosing 
a minute isolated one within its concavity) pale testaceous. Antenna at base and the legs testa- 
ceous ; the former with their club infuscate. 

Owing probably to its habits, which, would favour its dissemination over the 
civilized countries of the world, the present large and beautiful Nitidula is an 
insect of very wide geographical range. It occurs (though scarcely in such 
abundance as some of the allied species) thi-oughout the greater portion of Eiu-oj^e 
and the north of Africa ; and it has been even received from Syria, and other parts 
of Asia. Hitherto I have not observed it in Madeira proper, but only in the 
island of Porto Santo, where, during December of 1848, I captui'ed it in great 
profusion, adliering to the dried skeleton of a goat, on the edges of the Campo 
de Baxo, to the westward of the Cidade. 

97. Nitidula 4-pustiilata. 

N. angusto-suboblonga fusco-nigra, prothorace convexo antice vix emarginato, lateribus ciliatis, elytro 
singulo maculis duabus, una sc. subrotundata longe intra humerum sita necnon altera majore 
oblonga obliqua postmedia, testaceis ornato, antennarum basi pedibusque ferrugineis. 

Long. corp. lin. 1-1^. 

Nitidula i-pustulata, Fab. Ent. Sgsf. i. 255 (1792). 

, ULig. Mag. fur Ins. i. 88 (1801). 

■ , Heer, Fna Col. Relv. 401 (1841). 

, Erich. Nat. der Ins. Deufsch. iii. 160 (1848). 

Habitat jNIaderam, et borealem et australem, tempore hiberno et vernali, passim, — etiam m hortis 
Funchalensibus interdum abundans. 



120 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

N. narrow and nearly oblong, less depressed than the last species, brownish-blaek, most minutely 
punctulated, and pubescent. Prutlwrax scarcely at all cmarginated in front (being even less so 
than in the A^. flexuosa), narrower in proportion than that of the last species, and straighter at 
the sides ; the lateral edges fringed with a fine silken pubescence. Elytra with a small roundish 
patch a long way within the humeral angle of each, and a larger, oblique and somewhat oblong 
one a little behind their respective disks, testaceous. Antenna at base and the legs ferruginous ; 
the former with their club infuscate. 

In all probability an imported insect into Madeira, occm-ring principally in the 
immediate vicinity of Funchal, — especially in gardens, where it may be often 
captured adhering to bones. I have however taken it, likewise, in the north of 
the island, at Santa Anna, though more sparingly. It occui-s throughout the 
greater portion of Europe, but is not usually so abundant as the N. discoidea. 

98. Nitidula discoidea. 
N. liito-suboblonga nigra, prothorace antice profunde emarginato, insequali, pone discum bifoveolato, 

limbo plus minusve fcrruginco, elytris in discum latissime testaceis, antennis pedibusque infus- 

cato-ferrugincis. 
Long. corp. lin. 1^-lj- 

Nitidula discoidea, Fab. Ent. Si/st. 78 (1775). 

, Elig. Kaf. Pre«s.3Sl (1798). 

— , GyU. Ins. Suec. i. 219 (1808). 

, Heer, Fna Col. Heh. 398 (1841). 

Omosita , Erich. Nat. der Ins. Deiitseh. iii. 168 (1848). 

Habitat in ossibus prope Funchal, una cum praicedente degens sed ilia rarior. 

N. broad and oblong, a little more convex on the disk than either of the preceding species, black, 
rather coarsely punctulated (especially on the prothorax), and somewhat sparingly pubescent. 
Prothorax deeply cmarginated in front, short and transverse, the entire margins (especially about 
the anterior angles) more or less dusky ferruginous ; its sui-face uneven, being considerably 
flattened and a little recurved at the sides, and with two short rounded foveje behind the centre 
of the disk. Elytra with a large, ragged, pale testaceous blotch, common to both, upon the 
disk, — leaving only the margins, the apical portion, and a few broken lines or spots within the 
paler region, black. Antenna and legs brownish-feiTuginous. 

One of the coimuonest European Nitidulcc, and, like the N. '^-jmstulata, pro- 
bably natm-alizcd in Madeira, where it is apparently exceedingly scarce. I have 
taken it from out of bones in the neighbourhood of Funchal, during the whiter 
and spring, but have not as yet observed it in any other portion of the island. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 121 

§ II. Labrum semicirculare, antice anguste fisso-emarginatum : palpi articulo ultimo in maxillarihus suh- 
ovato, in lahialihus crassiore subrotundato-triincato : mentum antice leviter einarginatmn. (Epurasa, 
Srich.) Habitant pleniinque sub cortice arborum vel etiam in floribus. 

99. Nitidula obsoleta, 
N. oblonga depressa diluto-testacea, in discum plus minusve subinfuscata, prothorace antice profunde 
emarginato, elytro singulo maculis duabus obsoletissimis vix observandis pallidioribus ornato^ 
antennarum basi pedibusque testaceis. 

Variat colore omnino pallido-testaceo. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1^-li. 

Nitidula obsoleta, Eab. Ent. Sgst. i. 256 (1792). 

, Gyll. Lis. Suec. i. 223 (1808). 

, Hear, Fna Col. Helv. 398 (1841). 

Epurcea , Erich. Nat. der Ins. Detitsch. iii. 148 (1848). 

Habitat Maderam sylvaticam, sub cortice arborum truncisque recenter sectis, tempore vernali et 
sestivo, rarissima : ad Ribeiro Frio necnon in Madera boreali, in castanetis Sanctse Annse, bine 
inde observavi. 

N. oblong, depressed, testaceous, minutely punctidated and pubescent. Prothorax very deeply 
eniargined in front (being ratber more so than even that of the last species), rather straightened 
at the sides, and broadest a little behind the middle ; the disk generally slightly infuscated. 
Elytra, likewise, a bttle darker on the disk ; and each with an exceedingly obscure (sometimes 
scarcely perceptible) patch behind the centre of its disk, and another (still obscurer) about the 
region of the shoulder, paler. Antenna and legs usually of a rather paler testaceous shade than 
the rest of the surface ; the former with their club inf uscate. 

Likewise a common European insect, but exceedingly rare in Madeii^a, being 
found sparingly tliroughout the sylvan districts beneath the bark and chippings 
of trees, or adhering to the under sides of recently felled trunks. I have taken it, 
during the summer months, at the Ribeiro Frio and in the Chestnut-woods of 
Santa Anna ; as also at the head of the Ribeiro de Santa Luzia, during my 
encampment there with the Rev. R. T. Lowe, in May 1819. 

Genus 45. PRIA. 

(Kirby) Steph. III. Brit. Ent. iii. 49 (1830). 

Corpus minusculum, subconvexum : prothorace leviter marginato : ehjti'is apice truncatis, pygidium 
totum vix tegentibus : alis amplis. Antenna, prsecipue in maribus, longiusculoe, clava mascula 
4-articulata laxa subserrata (articulis octavo, nono et decimo intus productis), clava fceminea 
3-articulata solidiore. Labrum prominulum, antice ciliatum et profunde bilobum. Mandibulte 
validpe, apice denticulatse, basi latissimse. Maxilla lobo singulo brevi pubescenti instructse. 
Palpi filiformes, articulo ultimo subacumiuato-truncato. Mentum subquadi'atum antice angus- 
tatum, summo apice emarginato. Ligula apice biloba, lobis angustis divergentibus pubescentibus. 

E. 



122 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Pedes contractiles : tibiis anticis atl marginem externum minutissitue spinulosis : tarsis articulo 
quarto minutissimo, anticis articulis tribus dilatatis. 

Of the present genus but a single species has been hitherto discovered, namely 
the Luria Dulcaynarce of Scopoli, — for the male of which (supposed erroneously to 
be distinct from the female) the group was originally proposed. It is on account 
of the structure of its antennae that the mistake as regards the sexes appears to 
have arisen, — those of the male being the longest, and having their clul) com- 
posed of four loosely-attached and (with the exception of the apical one) internally- 
produced joints, whereas in tlie female it is subsoHd and merely triarticulate. 
Such characters as these are of cotirse sufficient, evjen of themselves, to separate 
Tria from the allied forms ; and we need only therefore add that it would seem, 
externally, to constitute somewhat of a connecting link between Nitidula and 
3Ieligethes, its partially pale surface and submargined prothorax leading us very 
gradually from the variegated and flattened bodies of the former to the darker 
and convexer ones of the latter, — to which in its flower-infesting habits however it 
is the more nearly allied. 

100. Pria Dulcamarae. 

P. oblonga iiifuscato-ferruginea, regione scutellari, pectore, abdomine antennarumque clava plus 

minusve nigrescentibus, antennarum basi pedibusque diluto-testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. f-1. 

Laria Duleamarce, Scop. £nt. Cam. 22 (1763). 

NitiduU Dulcamara, III. Kaf. Preus. 387 (1798). 

Silpha truncatella, Mshni, Ent. Brit. i. 123 (1802). 

Pria trimcatella et MeUgethcs DulcamarcB, Steph. ///. Brit. Ent. iii. 45 et 50 (1830). 

DulcamarcB, Stiu'in, Deutsch. Fna, xv. 127 (1814). 

Habitat in tloribus jMadcra;, tempore vcmali et sestivo, non infrequens : ab hortis Funchalensibus fere 
ad summos montes ascendit, sed in locis intermediis (e. g. castanetis Sanctae Annse) pi-secipue 
abundat. 

P. oblong, slightly convex, brownish-ferruginous, or testaceous-brown, minutely punctulated and 
pubescent. Prothoraa: subquadrate. The region of the scutellum, the breast, the abdomen, and 
the antenna at apex more or less dark, or nigrescent. The last at base, and the legs diluted- 
testaceous. 

A \videly distributed insect over Europe, but apparently somewhat scarce in 
Madeira ; — occiu'ring however sparingly in most pai-ts of the island, and at nearly 
all elevations. I have taken it from out of flowers in the gardens aroimd Fimchal, 
in INIay, — especially in that of the Rev. R. T. Lowe at the Levada ; as also in the 
Chestnut-woods of Santa Anna, more abimdantly, in Jime ; and in the upland 
region of the Cruzinhas (nearly 5000 feet above the sea), dui-ing July. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 123 

Genus 46. MELIGETHES. 

(Kirby) Steph. Ill Brit. Ent. iii. 45 (1830). 

Corpus minusculum, convexum, colore ssepius obscuro vel submetallico : prothorace vix marginctto : 
ebjtris apice truncatis, pygidium totum \{x tegentibus : alls amplis. Antenrue breviusculse, 
articulis primo et secundo (illo praecipue) magnis crassis, tertio reliquis longiore graciliore, inde 
ad octavum paulatim brevioribus crassioribus, reliquis capitulum magnum subsolidum orbiculato- 
ovatum triarticulatum efficientibus. Labrum antice ciliatum et profunde bilobum. Mandibula 
valida;, apice denticulatpe, basi latse. Maxilla lobo singulo elongate pubescenti instructse. Palpi 
subfiliformes, articulo ultimo subacuminato-truncato. Mentum transversum antice angustatum, 
summo apice emarginato. Ligula apice biloba, lobis magnis pubescentibus. Pedes contractiles : 
tibiis (prjesertim anticis) ad marginem externum sfepius spinulosis : tarsis articulo quarto minu- 
tissimo, anticis articulis tribus dilatatis. 

Ileligethes, altliougli differing but slightly in real stritcture from the neigh- 
bouring genera, has nevertheless, as may be gathered from the above diagnosis, 
small distinctive features of its own (amongst which the elongated lobe of its 
maxillge should be especially noticed) even in the details of its oral organs. In 
its deeply bilobed upper lip and in the truncated apex of its labial palpi it coin- 
cides with Pria ; whilst, on the other hand, its transverse mentum and the short- 
ness of its antennae would tend to strengthen its relation with Nitidula. Exter- 
nally, however, there is but little fear of confounding the species which compose it 
with those of any of the neighboui'ing groups, their convex and usually darkly 
coloui'ed bodies, which are generally either entirely black or else ornamented with 
a slightly metallic tinge, in conjunction with the comparatively unmargitied 
edges of their prothorax, at once serving, even prima facie, to identify them. Of 
the four Madeu-an representatives which I have hitherto succeeded in detecting, 
two would appear to be undescribed, and are probably peculiar to these islands. 

101. Meligethes Isoplexidis, Woll. 
M. oblongo-ovatus subdepressus niger longe olivaceo-pubescens, elytris ad apicem magis abbreviatis, 
antennis pedibusque infuscato-ferragineis, tibiis anticis apicem versus subdilatatis atque extus 
valde pectinato-serratis. 
Var. /3. subcyanescenti-niger et cinereo-pubescens, prothorace paulo latiore, antennis pedibusque 
pallidioribus. 
Long. Corp. lin. li-H. 

Habitat Maderam, in floribus necnon super folia Isoplexidis Sceptri, ad rupes locis editioribus 
nascentis, sestate baud infrequens : ad Feijaa de Corte mense Augusto inwnte a.d. 1850 
utrumque sexum (in copula) copiosissime cepi. 

M. oblong-ovate, somewhat acuminated before and behind, comparatively depressed, black, finely and 
closely punctulated, and densely clothed with a long, and rather robust, olivaceous (sometimes 
nearly golden-yellow) pubescence. Prothorax subquadrate. Elytra more truncated behind than 

R 2 



124 INSECTA MADERENSIA, 

is the case with any of the following species, exposing the pygidiura, which is usuallv somewhat 
acuminated. AnienruB and leys dull brownish- or picco-fciTuginous : the former with their base 
a little paler: the latter with their fore-tibia shghtly dilated towards the apex, and with the outer 
edge very powerfully serrated, — ha\ing usually about nine large teeth (diminishing in size), and 
about six more (very minute ones) which extend to the extreme base. 
Var. /3. with a slightly bluish tinge, and ■nnth the pubescence on the upper surface cinereous 
(instead of olivaceous) : the prothorax rather larger and broader than in the ordinary type ; and 
the legs and antenrue somewhat paler. 

A large and distinct 3Ieligethes, and one wliich may be readily known from the 
rest of the genus here described, not only by its anteriorly and posteriorly sub- 
acuminated outline, and by its more abbreviated elytra, but likemse by the dense 
olivaceous, or almost golden pubescence wdth Avhich its uj)per sui'face is clothed, 
and by the structure of its fore-tibiae, wliich are more powerfully serrated than in 
any of the other species, and have nine exceedingly robust (though unequal) teeth 
on the apical half of their outer edge, and about six or seven extremely minute 
ones extending to its base. I have as yet only detected it on the flowers and 
foliage of the Isoplexis Sceptriim, where, during the summer months, it would 
appear to l)e far from uncommon at intermediate and lofty altitudes in the momi- 
tains of Madeira, — although, from the precipitous and almost inaccessible nature 
of the rocks on which that magnificent plant prmcipally fioiu'ishes, it is usually a 
somewhat difficult insect to obtain. On the abrupt declivities at the Feijaa de 
C6rte, and in the remote adjoining ravine of the Ribeu-o da Quebrada, I took it in 
great a])undance, at the Ijeguining of August 1850. Of the var. /3. but a single 
specimen has liitherto come beneath my observation, — captiu'ed, by myself, at the 
extreme head of the Ribeiro de Joao Delgada during July of the same year. 

102. MeUgethes tristis. 

M. oblongus subconvexus niger cinereo-pubescens, autennarum basi vix conspicue pallidiore, tibiis 

anticis sublinearibus, extus pectinato-serratis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1-1^. 

Nitidula tristis, Schupp. in litt. 

Meligethes tristis, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xvi. 40. t. 309. f. a. A, h (1845). 

, Erich. Nat. der Ins. Betitsch. iii. 190 (1848). 

, Eodt. Fna Aiistr. 1G9 (184.9). 

Habitat insulas iladercnses, tempore vernali in floribus ubique vulgaris : in Portu Sancto necuon in 
ins. Descrta; Grandis abundat : " Funchal in rosis," teste Dom. Heer. 

M. ahnost oblong, rather narrower and convexer than the last species, black, finely and closely punc- 
tulated, and densely clothed with a delicate cinereous pubescence, — which has sometimes a 
slightly yellowish tinge. Prothorax subquadratc. Antemue at base only just perceptibly paler 
than the rest of the surface. The legs with their fore-tibite comparatively linear, being less 
dilated, or extemally rounded, towards the apex than is the case in any of the other species, and 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 125 

with the outer edge powerfully serrated, — haWng usually six large teeth (of unequal sizes), and 
about five more (very minute ones) which extend nearly to, although gradually diminishing at, 
the base. 

The present Mellgethes may be at once known from the other species with 
which we are here concerned by its smaller size and ahnost entirely black hue (the 
basal portion of its antennse being alone just perceptibly paler than the rest of the 
surface), as well as by the structure of its comparatively linear fore-tibise, — which 
have six very powerful teeth along the apical half of theu- outer edge, and about 
five or six other, very minute, ones gradually diminishing towards their' base. 
The relative proportions of the teeth are not precisely the same as those which are 
figured in Sturm's Deutschlands Fauna, but tyjncal specimens of the M. tristis 
which I have received from Berlin agree sufl&ciently well with the Madeiran 
insect as to leave but little doubt, in my ot\ti mind, that the two are specifically 
coincident. It is extremely abimdant throughout most of the islands of the group, 
occurring in flowers during the sj)ring and early summer months. In the imme- 
diate vicinity of Punchal, especially towards the upper extremity of the Ribeiro de 
Santa Luzia, I have at times observed it in the greatest profusion : and in Porto 
Santo and on the Dezerta Grande it is scarcely less common. 



103. Meligethes picipes. 
M. subrotundato-oblongus convexus niger cinereo-pubescens, antennis pedibusque anticis fusco- 

picescentibus, posterioribus fere nigris, tibiis anticis ante medium dilatatis, extus subtiliter 

serratis. 
Long. corp. lin. 1^. 

Meligethes picipes, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xvi. 47. t. 310. f. a, A, b (1845). 

, Erich. Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 199 (1848). 

, E^dt. Fna Austr. 170 (1849). 

Habitat in floribus Maderse, una cum M. t)istl degens, vulgatissimus. 

M. roundish-oblong, being a little broader and convexer (and, on the average, a trifle larger) than the 
M. tristis, deep black, finely and closely punctulated, and clothed (more or less) with a delicate 
cinereous pubescence. Prothorax just perceptibly more transverse than that of the last species. 
Antenna and the two fore-legs dark brownish-ferruginous, or picescent ; the four hinder legs 
being always of a darker tinge, and generally nearly black : the fore-tibia considerably dilated a 
little before the middle, and with the outer edge very finely sen-ated along its entire length, — the 
teeth which are situated on the broadest portion being slightly larger than the rest. 

Like the last, a common European Meligethes. It may be kno^\Ti from the 
other Madeiran species by its colom- being almost entu'ely black A\ith the excep- 
tion of its front-legs and antennae, which (although sometimes obscui-ely so) are 
always paler than the two hinder pair. It is, at first sight, very closely allied to 



126 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

the M. tristis, Avith which it is usually found in comjiany ; nevertheless, the j^oints 
just enumerated, in conjunction with its slightly larger size, its comparatively 
broader and convexer form, its somewhat less pubescent el)i;ra, and the more 
rounded and finely serrated external edge of its fore-tibise, ^ill, on examination, 
readily separate it from that insect. It is abundant throughout Madeira, at nearly 
all altitvules below about iOOO feet, occurring on flowers, for the most part in com- 
pany ■with the M. tristis, during the spring and early summer months. In the 
neighbourhood of Funchal, in the Ribeiro de Santa Luzia, in the north of the 
island (at Santa Anna), and in the district of the Ribeiro Frio I have observed it 
in considerable profusion. 

104. MeUgethes varicollis, WoU. 

M. subrotundato-oblongus convexus Beneo-viridis subcinereo-pubescens et profundius punctulatus, 
antennis pedibusque ferrugineis, tibiis anticis ante medium dilatatis, extus subtiliter serratis. 
Var. /3. (an sexualis distinctio ?) prothoracis lateribus, anteunis pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1^-1 j. 

Habitat Maderam sylvaticam, in floribus, — a meipso ad Ribeiro Frio d. 22 Mai. a.d. 1850 repertus. 

M. large and robust, roundish-oblong, convex, brassy-green, rather coarsely punctulated (especially 
on the elytra), and more or less clothed with a cinereous pubescence, — which has sometimes a 
yellowish tinge. ProtJiorax wider and more transverse than in any of the other species. 
Antenna and ler/s brownish-ferruginous : the latter with their fore-tibite considerably dilated a 
httle before the middle, and the outer edge finely serrated along its entire length, — the teeth 
gradually diminishing in size from the apex. 
Vai-. /3. with the lateral margins of the prothorax broadly testaceous ; antennse and legs paler than 
in the ordinary state, being testaceous. 

An exceedingly well-marked and truly indigenous species. It may be at once 
recognised from the remainder of the genus here described by its brassy-green 
surface, more distinctly pimctulated elytra, and, — in the case of the variety (a 
state which, if indeed it be not a sexual modification, of which I am by no means 
certain, it seems constantly liable to assume), — by the broadly pale margins of its 
prothorax. In its general outline, and in the structure of its fore-tibiae, it 
approaclies the M. picipes ; but the above characters, independently of its larger 
size and its much paler limbs, will immediately distinguish it from that insect. 
It is, apparently, the rarest of the INIadeii-an members of the group, or at any rate 
the m.ost local ; and would seem to be confined to sylvan spots of intermediate 
altitudes. The only occasion on wliich I have liitherto observed it was on the 
22nd of May 1850, at the Ribeiro Frio, — where both varieties were tolerably 
abundant, in flowers, at the edges of the Levada. Its season is probably of short 
duration, since later in the summer I searched for it, in exactly the same position 
and under the same circumstances, in vain. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 127 

Genus 47. XENOSTRONGYLUS, Woll. (Tab. II. fig. 8.) 

Corpus parvum, convexum, valde pubescen.s : prothorace vix marginato : elytris abdomen totum tegen- 
tibus : alls amplis. Antenna prothovacis longitudiiie, articulis primo et secundo (illo prscipue) 
magnis crassis, tertio reliquis longiore graciliore, quarto ad octavum paulatim brevioribus scd vix 
crassioribus, reliquis capitulum magnum subsolidum rotundato-oblongum triarticulatum effici- 
entibus. Labrum prominulum transversum, antice profunde bilobum, lobis rotiindatis extus 
ciliatis. Mandibula validae, in medio lata;, extus basi sinuate, intus membrana pubeseenti 
instructs necnon ad apicem dentibus quatuor armats. Maxilla lobo singula elongato, apice 
subdilatato pubeseenti, instructfe. Palpi subfiliformes, articulo secundo tertio longiore, ultimo 
subfusiformi-truncato. Ligula elongata, apice biloba, lobis rotundatis ciliatis. Mentum trans- 
verso-quadi-atum, antice profunde emarginatum. Pedes subcontractiles : tibiis ad marginem ex- 
ternum integi-is : tarsis articulo quarto minutissimo, anticis articulis tribus dilatatis valde cordatis. 
A ^€vo9 mirabilis, et Strongylus (genus Coleopterorum). 

The peculiar little insect, so singularly variegated externally, from which the 
above generic diagnosis has been drawn out, woidd appear to be intermediate 
between Meligethes on the one hand, and Thahjcra and Cychramus on the other ; 
partaking of the former in its deeply bilobed upper Hp and in the construction of 
its mandibles, whilst its very convex body, its extremely pubescent and variously- 
coloui-ed sm-face, and its imserrated tibise would tend to associate it more evidently 
with the latter. Its lichen-infesting habits however would indicate a closer affinity 
with the StrongylincB than with any of the preceding forms ; nevertheless its oral 
organs are so nearly similar to those of Meligethes that it clearly ovxght not to be 
far removed from that group : — and I woi.dd therefore place it immediately after 
it, in which position it constitutes a very natm'al passage to the Strongyli, which 
in their tm*n lead us gradually on into the Colydiadce. From Cryptarcha, to 
which it might be supposed at first sight to be related, it is readUy distinguished 
by the remarkable construction of the antennae of that genus, which have not 
only their basal joint inserted beneath the lateral margins of the head, but, like- 
wise, the terminal articulation of their (perfoliated) club spongiose and greatly 
truncated at its extremity, — where it is siu-mounted moreover by a smaU conical 
excrescence. It seems to be the representative of a type which exists sparingly 
in Mediterranean latitudes, but which has not hitherto, apparently, been charac- 
terized. Thus, I am informed by M. Leon Fairmaire, of Paris, that he has lately 
received the X. histrio fi'om SicUy ; whUst a second species* has come imder my 

* This species is closely allied to the Madeiran one, though unquestionably distinct from it specifically. 
It may be briefly described as follows : — 

Xenostrongylus Canariensis, Woll. 
X. brevis rotundato-ovatus subconvexus niger, pube nigrescenti, subcinerea et fulva subdepressa va- 

riegatus, antennis pedibusque infascato-testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. §. 

Habitat in insulis Canariensibus, a Teneriffa a Itev''" Dom. Armitage commTinicatus. 

X. smaller than the X. liistrio, and not quite so convex, also of a much darker coloiu-, the surface being 



128 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

observation, fi'om the Canary Islands, where it was discovered by the Rev. AV. J. 
Armitage in Teneriffe, 

105. Xenostrongylus histrio, WoU. (Tab. II. fig. 8.) 

X. rotimdato-ovatus convexus piceiis, pube ciuerca, fidva et nigra robusta depressa Isete fasciato- 

variegatus, antennis pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. corp. lin. 1. 

Habitat insulas Maderenscs, pra;sertini inter lichenes in rupium fissuris crescentes, hinc inde vul- 
garis: in Portu Sancto necnon in Deserta Grandi abundat; sed etiam in hortis culinaribus 
vinetisque Maderfe australis, vix ab urbe Funchalensi remotis, super folia plantarum tempore 
vernali interdum legatur. 

X. roundish-ovate, convex, piceous, finely punctulated (but not punctate-striated), and densely 
clothed with a long, exceedingly robust and decumbent pile, — which on the under side of the 
insect is uniformly cinereous ; but above cinereous, fulvous, aud black, intermixed, and occasionally 
with a slight addition of golden-brown, which gives the entire upper surface a beautifully varie- 
gated and histrionic appearance. Prothorax and elytra ornameutcd with more or less confluent 
patches and broken fascia; ; which on the former are arranged principally on the hinder j)ortion, 
and have their concavities turned towards and resting upon the base ; whilst on the latter it is 
their main tendency to shape-out a large arcuated postmedial one, parallel to the curvature of 
the margin and enclosing a darker central portion behind the scutellum (which is, itself, however, 
always clothed with pale pubescence). The pubescence of this large arcuated fascia (which is 
often a good deal broken and interrupted) is normally, like the scutellum, composed of pale 
cinereous hau-s ; and there are usually indications of a smaller transverse zigzag band (of the 
same colour) between it and the apex. The space between these two fascia;, as also an ob- 
scure subsidiai-y ill-defined arch in fi-ont of the disk {i. e. in the dark space behind the 
scutellum), with the pubescence, tj-pically, of a fulvous or golden-brown tinge : — but, although 
these are the positions and tints of the fasciae and patches in well-developed and brilliant speci- 
mens, the whole arc often so much obscured and shaded-off into each other as to be but indi- 
stinctly defined ; in all instances however the large and comparatively dark portion of the elytra 
behind the scutellum is at once apparent. Antenna and legs testaceous; the former with their 
club generally a little dusky. 

One of the most elegant of the Madeiran Coleoptera, the interrupted, arcuated 
fascial, and broken patches, of variously coloured pubescence, with which its upper 
surface is densely crowded, giving it, at first sight, an almost histrionic appear- 
ance. It occurs throughout most of the islands of the group, and in certain 
positions in the greatest abundance. Tjiucally, it is an inliabitant of lichen 



apparently almost black. The pubescence likewise of an altogether darker nature, and neither quite 
so robust nor so completely depressed, — a larger portion of it being black ; with distinct indications, 
nevertheless, of a paler, variegated, arched subapical fascia on the el^-tra. Anteiime and Irys darker 
than those of the JT. histrio ; the former having their club considerably infuscated. 

As already mentioned, it was detected by the 'Rev. AV. J. .irmitage in Teneriffe ; but the circumstances 
of its capture I have not been able to ascertain. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 129 

(particularly of the RamaUna scopulonim and the Evernia prunastri), — in the 
bunches of which on the exposed weather-beaten rocks of Porto Santo and the 
Dezerta Grande I have observed it, hybernating, literally by thousands. As the 
season advances, however, it would appear, partially, to leave the rocks, when it 
may be found in grassy spots in theii* vicinity, — and frequently taking flight to 
more distant localities. Thus, diu*ing April 18i8, I captured it even in the 
gardens near Fuuchal, on the leaves of plants (especially those of the Sinapis 
tribe) and in an exceedingly active state. A few weeks later however it was in 
far greater abundance on the mountain-slopes of Porto Santo, where immediately 
below the extreme summit of the Pico de Pacho it existed in the utmost pro- 
fusion. In May of 1849, whilst encamped mth the Hev. R. T. Lowe high up in 
the Ribeu'o de Santa Luzia, I took it in considerable numbers from amongst the 
vegetation which clothes the lofty perpendicular edges of the ravine. As already 
stated, it varies a good deal in the brightness of its colouring : and I have usually 
remarked that the Porto Santan representatives are, on the average, of an obsciu-er 
hue than the Madeii'an ones ; whilst those from the Dezerta Grande are somewhat 
intermediate between the two. 

Fam. 11. COLYDIAD^. 

Genus 48. TARPHIUS. (Tab. III. fig. 4, 5 et 6.) 

(Germar) Ericli. Nat. der Ins. Beutscli. iii. 256 (1848). 

Corpus minusculum, subconvexum vel gibbosum, ssepius rugosum et lutosum : capite prothoraceque 
granulis (plerumque crebris et valde obtusis) obsitis, granulo quoque setula parva, mediS, munito ; 
illo prothoracis excavatione fere ad oculos inserto ; hoc amplo, in discum convexo, lateribus valde 
complanatis, antice profunde emarginato caput recipiente : scutello minutissimo (vix observando) : 
alls obsoletis. Antenna (III. 4 a) prothoracis longitudine, distantes, rectse, ante oculos et sub 
margine capitis insertae, per otium sub lateribus concavis reponendie, articulo primo magno 
crasso superne vix conspicuo, secundo sat robusto, sed primo paulo graciliore, subclavato apice 
truncato, tertio gracili reliquis paulo longiore, quarto ad nonum longitudine decrescentibus vix 
paulatim crassioribus, decimo et undecimo clavam magnam laxam abruptam biarticulatam 
efficientibus, illo subpoculiformi intus interdum obscurissime producto, hoc subgloboso. Labrum 
(III. 4 b) subquadratum angulis anticis rotundatis, margine ciliato. Mandibula (III. 4 c) validse, 
apice edeutatfe acutae, intus medio leviter sinuatse ac lacinia niembranacea pubescenti instructse. 
MaxilldE (III. 4>d) bilobje : lobo externa apice dilatato truncato, dense barbato : interna angustiore 
vix breviore, valde ciliato, apice uncinato. Palpi maxillares articulo primo minuto, secundo et 
tertio incrassatis, subfequalibus, ultimo robusto ovato, ad summum apicem subcarnoso et vix 
oblique truncato : labiates articulis primo et secundo subfequalibus, illo gracdi, hoc subclavato, 
ultimo ovato robusto ad apicem subcarnoso-subtruncato. Mentum (III. 4 e) subquadratum. 
Ligula subrotundato-quadrata, antice valde ciliata. Pedes (III. 4/, 4^) cursorii, subcontractiles, 
distantes : femoribm tibiisc[ne compressis, his gracilibus, extus ssepe obsoletissime erosis, aut 
potius subserratis, et mox pone apicem subito subconstrictis, apicem subdilatatum efFormantibus : 
tarsis (III. 4/, -iff, et 6) 4-articulatis, articulis tribus baseos subsequalibus intus valde barbatis, 

S 



130 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

primo interdum (in sexu masculo, ut opinor) in lobuni spiniformeni plus minusve obtusum 
subtus producto (III. 4/, et 6), quarto valde elongato flexuoso subclavato, unguicuUs simplicibus 
munito. 

There is perhaps no Madeiran genus more interesting geograpliically, or better 
defined, than Tarphius. In its general contour and habits, and in its 4-jointed 
tarsi, it is intimately related to such groups as Diodesma, Coxelus, ColoMcus and 
Synchita, though with abundant distinctive characters of its O'vro.. It is with the 
first of these howcA'er that it would seem to possess the strongest afl&nity, since it 
not only approaches it in the details of its antennae and mouth, but likewise in its 
freedom from wings. Nevertheless, in many of its most important features it 
recedes from the whole of them, and in none more so than in the structiu-e of 
its feet, — which have a tendency in (what I believe to be) the males of most of 
the representatives to have theu" l)asal articulation produced beneath into a more 
or less acute spiniform lobe, and which in some instances is so exaggerated as 
to be at once conspicuous even to the naked eye. As regards their outward 
configuration, the Tarphil are either brightly maculated on theu- elytra or else 
armed with nodules, — the one state appearing to be normal and the other 
aberrant. T\Tiere the patches are well-marked* there is seldom any indication 
of protuberances ; but, as the former are gradually removed the latter begin to 
arise t, — until, at last, in those species | where the patches ai'c altogether cither 
evanescent or suffused, the projections have attained theii- maximum and become 
detached humps (concolorous with, the rest of the body) in the exact positions 
occupied by the sjiots. These prominences however are generated in a rather 
singular manner, and should perhaps, more strictly, be defined as broken ridges 
than isolated nodes; for as the blotches vanish the alternate interstices (which 
have always a faint tendency to elevation) become not only more perceptibly raised, 
but, at the same time, interrupted, especially behind, — thus lea^dng larger or 
smaller gibbosities, which have every appearance, at first sight, of having been 
independently developed. In rare cases § indeed there is a pale tinge even on the 
nodules, but in such the colour is more or less distributed over the entire elytra 
also, — diluting their surface and giving them a somewhat transparent aspect. 
^Vnother modification || occurs, in which the short rigid pubescence with which the 
insect is clothed takes a partially golden tinge, and im^iarts to the himches, even 
in the absence of under-patches, a dirty-yello^^■ish cast, — so keeping up the analogy 
of the latter in a very peculiar way. 

The males of the Tarphii, if I be right in my identification of them, are for the 
most part a little smaller than the females ; and, since tliis is in accordance mth 
what we observe throughout the Coleoptera generally, it is probable, thus far at 

* E. g. T. rotundafus, Lauri, and Lowei. t T. echinatns and compactus. 

X T. testudinalU, nodosus, and rugosus. § T. cicatricosus, truncatus, and hrevicollU. 

II T. nodosus and testudinalis. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 131 

least, that the sexes have been correctly determmed. Nevertheless, if snch be 
true, the ordinary law of development would seem in one respect to be departed 
from, the tubercles being frequently more particularly enlarged in i\iQ females : at 
any rate this is so uninistakeably carried out in a single instance* that the fact 
ought not to remain unnoticed. The whole of the members have a tendency to 
be more or less covered with a scaly substance resembling dii-t, and which at times 
so completely enveloijes them as nearly to conceal even the brighter portions of 
the spotted forms. They are, likewise, as regards at all events their elytra, more 
or less wriukled and rugulose, — although (considering the T. Lcmri as a specific 
centre from which most of the others appear as it were to radiate) it wUl be per- 
ceived that a few indeed become comparatively smooth, — even whilst the greater 
number recede so manifestly in the opposite dii'ection that they become at length 
almost difficult to characterize from the accumulation of protuberances, ridges, 
granules, and setae with which they are beset. The sculptiu'e of their heads and 
prothoraces (the latter particularly) is exceedingly anomalous, and constitutes in 
fact a significant item even in theii' generic diagnosis. Thus, our fu'st Lmj)ression, 
on examining one of the outer limits of its variations, would probably be that it 
was widely and oj)enly reticulose : nevertheless a closer inspection (especially of 
the subcu'cularity of the " reticulations," and of how they gradually contract, and 
become, during the process, more and more elevated) would at once explain the 
nature of the structure, which may be pronounced, under all circumstances, to be 
granulate. "WTien thus enunciated, the successive modifications are easily in- 
telligible, — the extreme state in one direction being that in which the pustules 
are so closely set, broad, and flattened as to cause the surface to appear reticu- 
lated; whilst that in which they have diminished so far in breadth as to leave 
spaces between them, and have become proportionably more upraised and acute, 
is the ultra condition in the other. The former of these obtains in that section of 
the genus which I have assumed (for Madeu*a) to be normal, whereas the latter is 
indicative of those members which are al:)errant. In Sicily however, where the 
only representative which has hitherto been discovered occiu-s, it is not imj)ossible 
that the second of these states may prevail, since the T. gibbulus of that island has 
the granules comparatively minute and few, and with a more decided appearance 
of being truly isolated and distinct than in any of the species mth which we are 
here concerned. "V^liilst the insects are at rest their antennae recline backwards 
beneath the dilated edges of their prothorax, which, although not channeled, is 
concave, or slightly hollowed out, on the under side in order to receive them. In 
the Sicilian T. gibbulus, this cavity, owing partially to the excessive prominence of 
its pronotmn which causes the sides to descend like a roof, is remarkably evident, 
■ — nevertheless even there it can scarcely be considered grooved, as described by 
Erichson. I have observed that several of the species (as, for instance, the T. ro- 
tundatus, nodosus, and cicatricosus) are liable to be affected with an extremely 

* T. nodosus. 

s2 



132 INSECTA MADERENSIA, 

minute, elliptical, and almost microscopic parasite (III. 4*), which attaches itself 
so firmly to the body, especially about the thoracic region, that it is not -u-ithout 
considerable force and perseverance that it can be removed. 

As already stated, there is perhaps no genus throughout the whole of the 
Coleoptera with which we have here to do, more important, in a geographical 
sense, than Tarphiiis. Represented hitherto by a single European species of the 
greatest rarity, — the T. gibbulus-\ , from Sicily (of which a short notice is given in 
Erichson's Nat. der Ins. Deutschlands, vol. iii. p. 25G, A.u. 18i8), — it was abnost 
unknown to science ; and hence the detection of a series thus extensive iu the 
Madeiran islands, moulded on a pattern so similar to the Sicilian type, becomes 
doubly interesting. Of the influence and economy, in situ, of such an assemblage 
it is not easy to speculate, — suffice it therefore to remark that the enormous 
numbers in wliich they exist, when compared with the limits within which they 
arc confined, would seem to poiut to some especial end which they may be pre- 
sumed to fulfil amongst the insect population of those remote upland districts. 
Meanwhile it is far from improbable, that, like many of the Nitidiilidce and the 
Xylophagous groups, they may assist materially in the decomposition of the 
superfluous masses of loose, rolling timber M'ith which the damp ravines and dense 

t I am indebted to J. O. "Westwood, Esq. for the loan of a specimen of the true TarpJiius gibbulun, 
which was captured by the late Mr. Melly in Sicily : and as Erichson's brief notice of it is hardly suffi- 
cient to serve for even a generic diagnosis, and therefore, a fortiori, a specific one, I subjoin tlie I'ollo^s-iiig 
description, in order to point out in what manner the Sicilian species differs from the fifteen Madeirau 
ones : — 

Tarphius gibbulus. 

T. gibbus cylindricus piceus pilosus lutosus ; prothorace amplo antice subtruncato, pone medium dilatato, 
in discum valde convexo, lateribus rotundatia vix complanatis, granulis dispersis obtusis obsito, 
obsolete canaliculato et marginc postico (pra;sertim ad angulos) iinpresso ; elytris rugoso- (sed ^ix 
seriato-) punctatis, antice et postice obsoletissime submaculatis ; auteunis pedibusijue ferrugiueis. 

Long. corp. lin. 1^. 

Eecedes from all the Madeiran Tarphii in its very convex and cylindrical form ; in its long, flexible and 
pilose (instead of rigid and setose) pubescence ; in its prothorax having the hinder margin deeply im- 
pressed transversely (especially towards the posterior angles), the disk exceedingly convex, and the sides 
but slightly flattened, — and although scarcely grooved beneath yet considerably concave, or hollowed out, 
for the reception of the antennae. The closely-set, large, and obtuse granules which on the prothorax of 
most of the Mad(Mran species are so apparent (and whicli give it an almost reticulated sculpture), are liere 
entirely wanting, being replaced by minute and distant ones. There is no indication on the el_\-tra of 
either ridges or nodules ; but the bright patches with which most of the Madeiran representatives are 
more or less adorned (or, rather, which it is their tendency to possess) are here faintly expressed by the 
somewhat paler hue of the basal and apical portions, which is gradually shaded-oft' into the darker central 
disk. Although differing widely in detaU from all the species described below, I am inclined to consider 
the T. gihhuhis as possessing a greater affinity with the T. Lowei than with any of the others, from which 
indeed in size, scidpture, colour and contour it is not very remote : — a fact of considerable interest when 
we remember that, of all the Madeiran Tarphii, not only does the T. Lowei recede farthest in aspect and 
habits from the local t}i)e, but that it is, likewise, of a wider distribution than the remainder, being the 
only one, so far as I am aware, which is found out of Madeira proper. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 133 

mountain- slopes of Madeii"a everywliere abound. To such localities it is that they 
are exclusively assigned, occm-ring in the greatest profusion in those spots which 
are the least accessible, and where consequently the primaeval timber is, except by 
the hand of time, most untouched. In then- habits the Tarpkii are strictly 
noctiu'nal, adhering to the imder sides of moist decaying logs of wood, felled 
timber, and even stones dm*ing the day, and Ijeing only active, apparently, by 
night. From 2000 to 5000 feet above the sea may be said to include their range ; 
nevertheless they are more peculiarly abimdant from 3000 to 4000, and it is perhaps 
towards the upper edge of those bounds that they find their maximum. Out of a 
large assortment of specimens, collected in nearly all parts of the sylvan regions, I 
have succeeded in detecting fifteen distinct forms ; and, although this nimiber may 
appear considerable for an island thus small, yet I have but little doubt, fi'om the 
evident local importance of the race, that its extent is even greater still, and that 
other species will yet be brought to light different from any of those described 
l)elow. Considering however the inaccessible nature of theu* favourite haunts, it is 
far from unlikely that many of them will remain for ever undiscovered, — a possi- 
bility which is not lessened by the fact either of the remarkable manner in which 
they are able to counterfeit death, and so to elude observation, or of tlie near 
resemblance of the dull rusty colouring of their uneven and inanimate-looking 
surfaces to the stones, lichen, and portions of rotting wood to wliich in the day- 
time they remain firmly fixed*. 

* Out of 486 specimens which I have lately been examining, I find the species distributed in the pro- 
portions indicated in the annexed table, which I cannot but consider worthy of insertion, not merely 
because so large a number of examples will perhaps never be brought together again for comparison, but, 
more especially, because the remote and nimierous positions in which I have collected induce me to be- 
lieve that it will give a very correct idea of the comparative rarity of the several members of the group ; — 
T. parallelus 8 

— Lowei 6 

— inomatus {3 5, ? 14) 19 

— spinipes 1 

— sylvicola 4 

— rotundattis 148 

— Lauri {S91, ? 107) 198 

— compactus 17 

— «oiosM« ((? 24, ?29) 53 

— cicatricosus 14 

— testudinalis 5 

— truncatits 5 

— echinatus 4 

— hrevieollis 3 

— rugostts 1 

486 
I should state that this eniuneration is entirely of Madeiran specimens, and does not include those of the 
T. Lowei from Porto Santo, which on several occasions have occm-red iu indefinite niunbers. Nor does 
it contain the entire mass even of those which I have captured in Madeira proper, since many have been 
distributed amongst my friends in the course of the last three years. But I believe it will, nevertheless, 
present a fair estimate of the comparative abundance of the species which I have described. 



134 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

106. Tarphius parallelus, Tf'oU. 

T. parallelo-oblongus opacus ferrugineus, prothorace amplo ante medium dilatato, rugoso, granulis 
obtusis obsito, vix canaliculate, elytris concoloribus rugosissime (sed vix seriato-) punctatis, 
interstitiis alternis leviter elcvatis, tarsis in utroque sexu simplicibus. 

Long, coi-p. lin. l|-2. 

Habitat in Madera sylvatica excelsa, sub stipitibus truncisque arborum projectis, sestate, rarior ; — per 
regionem Fanalensem necnon ad Lombo dos Pecegueiros mense Julio a.d. 1850 a meipso lectus. 

T. large, oblong, and parallel, dull rusty ferruginous, more or less covered with scales, and opake. 
Head and protlwrax rough, and beset with obtuse granules : the latter sometimes distinctly, but 
generally very obscurely, channeled, broader in front than behind, though most dilated a little 
before the middle ; the sides much flattened, and the front edge a little raised along the central 
emargination. Elytra concolorous, very rugosely punctured and transversely wrinkled, — the 
punctures however having scarcely any tendency to be disposed in striae ; the suture and alter- 
nate interstices most obscurely raised. Antennce and leys a little paler : the latter with their 
tarsi simple in both sexes. 

A large and most distinct species, its parallel outline and anteriorly T^idened 
prothorax, in conjunction \d\h its pale rusty colour, and the sculptiu-e of its upper 
surface, — which is extremely rugose, and yet without the slightest indication of 
nodules, — being at once sufficient to separate it from the remainder of the genus 
here described. It is apparently exceedingly rare, and confined to moist shady 
spots of a lofty altitude. During July of 1850 I captured it sparingly both at the 
Lombo dos Pecegueiros and in the uj)land region of the Fanal. 

107. Tarpliius Lowei, WoU. (Tab. III. fig. 5.) 

T, subparallelo-oblongus intcrdum vix opacus subinfuscato-niger, prothorace sublunulato (angulis 
posticis rotundatis), granulis dispersis obtusis obsito, elytris rufo-maculatis rugose seriato-punc- 
tatis, tarsis in utroque sexu simplicibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^-1^. 

Habitat lichenes in truncis ramisquc arborum emortuis crescentes per partem lladerre syhaticam, 
rarissimus : in Portu Sancto abundat, qua Decembri mense a.d. 1848, prsesertim in ascensu 
montis Pico d'Anna Ferreira dicti, e rupium fissuris copiosissime coUegi. 

In honorem Rev"^ Dom. Lowe, A.M., qui in insulis ^laderensibiis, per tot aunos longe lateque 
Celebris, scientire naturalis solus investigator eluccbat, hanc Tarphii speciem e.ximiam valde di- 
stinctam nuncupa\'i. 

T. small aud rather parallel, black or brownish-black, gi'ncraliy much iucrusted with dirty scales, and 
not quite so opake as the last species, — being often perceptibly shining. Head and prothorax 
rough, and beset with somewhat distant, small, dark, and obtuse granules : the latter not 
channeled, but sometimes most obscurely transvcr.sely-impresscd behind, sublunulate (being 
widened a little before the middle and with the hinder angles nmch rounded-off, — as well as 
indistinctly excavated towards the posterior margin). Elytra linear, rugosely punctured, and 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 135 

transversely wrinkled (the punctures when the scales are removed appearing in very evident 
rows) ; each ornamented with rufous or rufo-testaceous spots, which are arranged, typically, as 
follows : — a large oblong one at the inner base, parallel to and alongside the suture ; a rather 
narrower one (likewise elongated) towards the margin and in front of the shoulder, but extending 
nearer to the apex than the last ; a small roundish one on the inner disk ; and two large ones 
behind, — one towards the suture and the other towards the margin, — which usually, as in most 
of the spotted species, become confluent, and form an irregular arcuated fascia which has its 
concavity turned towards the apex of the elytron. Antenna and tarsi ferruginous : the latter 
simple in both sexes. 

The smallest of the Tarphii here described, and readily known (apart from its 
maculated surface) by the rounded hinder angles of its comparatively sublunulate 
prothorax. It is the only member of the groixp wliich I have hitherto detected 
out of Madeira proper, — being extremely abundant, during the winter and spring, 
amongst lichen in the fissures of the exposed weather-beaten rocks of Porto Santo. 
I first discovered it in April 1848, on the northern side of the extreme summit of 
the Pico de Pacho ; and diuing December of the same year it occurred in literal 
profusion on the ascent of the Pico d'Anna Perreii'a from the east. In Madeira it 
would appear to be extremely rare, although widely distributed over the sylvan 
districts between the limits of from 3000 to about 4500 feet above the sea. It 
seems to be more peculiarly attached than any of the other species to lichen, 
ascending, in the forest regions, to the highest branches of the trees, — as I have 
proved (not without some risk) l)oth at the Ribeiro Prio and the Panal. During 
my encampment at the Lombo dos Pecegueiros in July 1850, I captm-ed it by 
brushing the rank vegetation immediately outside my tent, in the dusk of the 
evening, — at which time its nocturnal wanderings, like those of the other repre- 
sentatives of the genus, may be said to commence. 

108. Tarphius inomatus, Woll. 

T. subcylindrico-oblongus subnitidus nigro-piceus, prothorace subquadrato, granulis crebris magnis 
obtusissimis obsito, vix canaliculate, elytris concoloribus seriato-punctatis (puuetis magnis 
distinctis), interstitiis alternis leviter elevatis. 
Mas, tarsis posticis articulo basilari in lobum elongatum spiniformem subtus producto. 
Foem. tarsis simplicibus. 
Long. Corp. lin. mas, lf-2 : foem. 2. 

Habitat Maderam sylvaticam, sub tiamcis arborum putridis hinc inde humi jacentibus, non infvequens. 

T. large, oblong, parallel and somewhat cylindric, dark piceous, generally but slightly covered with 
scales, and a little shining. Head and prothorax rather smooth, and closely beset with large and 
very obtuse granules : the latter not channeled (or, occasionally, most obscm-ely so), subquadrate 
(the sides being comparatively straight), and in its widest point scarcely equalling the elytra in 
breadth. Elytra concolorous, seriate-punctate (the punctures being large, particularly in the 
female, — though rather shallow upon the disk), and but very slightly (especially in the male 



136 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

sex) wrinkled transversely ; the suture and alternate interstices most obscurely raised. Antenna 

and tarsi ferruginous. 
Male, with the basal joint of the two hinder tarsi produced beneath into a vei-y elongated, spiniform 

lobe, — which to the naked eye appears like an acute articulated spine, but under the microscope 

an elongated lobe, narrowed towards the apex though rouudcd, aud furnished with a pencil of 

minute hairs, at the extreme jioint. 
Female, \\ itli the tarsi simple. 

Easily distinguished by its robust and somewhat cylindrical form, by its dark 
subglabrous sui'face, and by the large, though somewhat shallow punctures of its 
clj'lra. Apart from which, the males may be of course at once known by the 
structure of their tarsi, — of which the four anterior ones are simple, whUst the 
posterior 2»ir have their basal joint developed beneath into a long spiniform lobe. 
It is apparently one of the rarer forms, or at any rate partial in its distribution. 
My specimens were chiefly captured at the Ribeiro Frio and at the Peijaa de 
C6rte, — during August. It is the only Tarph'ms which I have hitherto observed 
in the Ribeiro de Santa Luzia, where, at the extreme head of the ravine, close to 
the great waterfall, it is still tolerably abundant vmder the bark, and amongst the 
remains of the old trees with wliich that gorge must have been once densely 
clothed, — but which are now rapidly disappearing, as in so many other parts of 
the island, before the woodman's axe. 

109. Tarphius spinipes, Woll. 

T. subovato-oblongus vix opacus nigro-piceus, prothoracc subquadrato, granulis crebris magnis obtu- 
sissimis obsito, elytris concoloribus seriato-punctatis (punctis minus profundis), interstitiis 
alternis leviter elevatis. 
Mas, tarsis anticis et posticis articulo basilari in lobum (in posticis elongatissimum) spiniformeni 

subtus producto, intermcdiis vix simplicibus. 
Fmm. adhuc latet. (Specimen unicum, sc. masculuui, tantum habeo.) 
Long. corp. lin. If. 

Habitat in Madera sylvatiea, semel tantum repertus. 

T. rather smaller than the T. inornatus, also less parallel and rather more ovate, dark piceous, a good 
deal obscured with scales, and but very slightly shining. Head and protfwrax closely beset with 
large and very obtuse granules : the latter apparently unehannclcd, and subquadrate. Eli/tra 
concolorous, lightly seriate-punctate, and a little wrinkled transversely, — the puuctiu'cs being less 
distinct than those of the last species ; the sutui*e and alternate interstices most obscurely raised. 
Antenna and leffs ferruginous : the latter with their femora and tibi?e only slightly darker than 
the tai'si, — beiug merely a little more picescent. 
Male, with basal joint of the fore-tarsi produced beneath into a robust, elongated, spiniform lobe, — 
which appears under a high magnifying power to be obtusely roimded and furnished with a 
pencil of hairs at the apex : the intermediate ones nearly simple, the basal joint being most 
obsciu-ely produced beneath : the posterior pau- with the basal joint produced into a very long, 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 187 

spiniform and somewhat acute lobe, — likewise surmouutcd at the extremity (as in all the other 
joints of the tarsi throughout the genus) with a small tuft of pile. 
Female, as yet undiscovered. 

Hitlierto unique ; nevertheless the remarkable structure of its feet, — the speci- 
men happening fortunately to be a male, — will prevent the possibility of its being 
confounded vrith any of the other species hitherto discovered. It may be at once 
knovpn, so. far as that sex is concerned, by its intermediate tarsi being almost 
sinij)le, vt^hilst the anterior and j)Osterior ones are produced beneath into a long 
and robust spiniform lobe. I am not quite certain as to the exact position in 
which it was taken ; l3ut I believe that I captured it either at the Ribeu'o Frio or 
at the Lombo dos Pecegueu-os, during the summer of 1850. 

110. Tarphius sylvicola, Wall. 

T. rotundato-ovatus brevis subnitidus niger, prothorace antice attenuato, granulis crebris magnis 
obtusissimis obsito, elytris concoloribus profunde seriato-punctatis, pone medium leviter nodosis, 
tarsis in utroque sexu simplicibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. li-lj. 

Habitat in Maderse sylvaticis, ad Ribeiro Frio necnou ad Lombo dos Pecegueiros sestate media 
A.D. 1850 deprehensus. 

T. short and round, of a deeper black than any of the other species, almost free from scales, and a 
little shining. Head and prutliorax beset with very close, large and exceedingly obtuse granules : 
the latter not channeled, short, much dilated behind and narrowed in front (the sides, although 
oblique, being comparatively but very slightly curved). Elytra concolorous, short and much 
rounded behind, deeply seriate-punctate, and without transverse wrinkles, — the punctures being 
large, regular and distinct ; with three or four rather obscure nodules between the apex and the 
centre of the disk. Antenrue and tarsi (which are simple in both sexes) pale fen-uginous : the 
femora and tibiee darker, though paler and more piceous than the rest of the surface. 

A well-marked little species ; and one which may be known by its short rounded 
form and dark concolorous hue, — the elytra moreover being armed with small 
protuberances towards their hinder region. It is more allied to the T. rotmidahis 
than to any of the other Tarphii here described ; nevertheless its smaller size and 
anteriorly-attenuated prothorax will, apart from the nodules of its unspotted 
surface, readUy separate it from that insect. It is one of the rarest of the genus, 
four specimens being all that I have hitherto captured of it, — two of which were 
taken at the Ribeu'o Frio, and two at the Lombo dos Pecegueu'os, diu'ing July 
1850. 

111. Tarphius rotundatus, Woll. 

T. rotundato-ovatus subnitidus piceus, prothorace transverso circa vel pone medium leviter ddatato, 

T 



138 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

gramilis crebris magnis obtusissimis obsito, elytris rufo-maculatis profunde seriato-punctatis, tarsis 
in utroque sexu simplicibus. 
Long. corj). lin. l^-lf • 

Habitat in Maderjc unibrosis excelsis, sub truncis arborum prolapsis vel ligno rcccnter secto, sestate 
vulgaris, — ad Ribeiro Frio priiedominans. 

T. roundish-ovate (being however neither quite so round nor so short as the T. syhkolu), light 
piccous (sometimes rufo-piceous), usually pretty free from scales, and slightly shining. Head 
and prothorax beset with very close, large, and exceedingly obtuse granules : the latter not 
channeled, rather short, and dilated either about or (more often) behind the middle. Elytra 
somewhat rounded behind ; each ornamented wth large, bright, rufous, or rufo-testaceous patches 
(the number and positions of which are much the same as those of the T. Lowei), which some- 
times however arc dull, one or more (especially the subhumeral one) having even a tendency 
to disappear, — the subapical ones nearly always confluent, forming a large bright fascia behind ; 
deej)ly seriate-punctate, and without transverse wrinkles, — the punctures being large, regular, 
and distinct. Antennce and leys ferruginous : the former, and the tarsi of the latter (which are 
simple in both sexes), being paler than the femora and tibia;. 

The T. rotumlatus clilfers from tlic other spotted species in its comparatively 
rounded form, in its short and broad prothorax, and in the smooth interstices, 
and the deep and regular pvmctiu'es, of its elytra. Next to the T. Lauri, it is 
certainly the most common of the genus, abounding beneath logs of decaying 
wood, felled timber, and stones in nearly all the dense ravines of intermediate and 
lofty altitudes, though especially between the lunits of from 3000 to ioOO feet 
above the sea. I have taken it plentLfully, during the summer months, both at 
the Cruzinhas and the E,ibcii'o Prio, — particularly the latter. 



112. Tai-phius Lauri, WoU. (Tab. HI. fig. i.) 

T. ovatus vix opacus piceus vcl mfo-piccus, prothorace longiusculo postice angustato et mox ante 
medium dilatato, granulis crebris obtusissimis obsito, elytris rufo-maculatis rugose seriato- 
punctatis. 
Mas, tarsis, praesertim posticis, articulo basilari in lobum brevissimum obtusum (apice barbatum) 

subtus producto. (III. 4/.) 
Fmm. tarsis simplicibus. (III. 4.) 
Long. corp. lin. ly-1^. 

Habitat in iisdem locis ac T. rotundatus (una cum illo degens), toto anno vulgaris. 

T. ovate, piceous or rufo-piceous, usually not much covered with scales, and less perceptibly shining 
tiian the last species, — being nearly opake. Head and prolhurax beset with vcrj' close and ex- 
ceedingly obtuse granules : the latter not channeled, rather long, abruptly expanded just before 
the middle, and narrowed before and behind. Elytra ornamented with bright rufous or rufo- 
testaccous patches (the number and positions of which arc the same as in the T. rotundatus), 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 139 

which occasionally however become rather obscure ; deeply seriate-punctatCj and much wrinkled 
transversely ; the suture and alternate interstices most obscurely raised, — sometimes but just 
perceptibly so. Antenna and legs of the same colour as those of the last species. 

Male, with the basal joint of all the tarsi (though especially perhaps of the posterior ones) produced 
beneath into a very short and rounded lobe, — which however, from being terminated by an un- 
usually distinct tuft of convergent pile, has the appearance under an insufficient magnifying 
power of being longer and more acute than it really is. 

Female, with the tarsi simple. 

The present species, the T. rotmidahis and the T. Loicei are the most tlistinctly 
spotted of the group, the patches on each of them occasionally becoming obscure 
but never being altogether absent. The T. Lauri is at once distinguished from 
the T. Lowei by its comparatively gigantic bulk and its altogether different form 
(especially of the prothorax) ; whilst from the T. rotundatus its more lengthened, 
ovate outline, and elongated, posteriorly narrowed prothorax, in conjunction with 
its very rugosely punctured and somewhat more brightly maculated elytra, will 
equally remove it. Apart from which, its male sex may be recognised, even prima 
facie, from the rest of the genus by the sjiort rounded lobe into which the basal 
joint of all its tarsi is produced. The females are, in every respect with the 
exception of the feet, similar to the males. It is unquestionably the most abun- 
dant of the Madeiran Tarphii; and, in a certain sense, it is a kind of central 
modification from which most of the others would appear as it were to radiate. 
It is common in all the damp ravines and on the densely wooded mountain-slopes 
of intermediate and rather lofty elevations. In the districts of the E-ibeiro Prio, 
the Cruzinhas, and the Fanal I have taken it in the greatest profusion ; and, 
during June, sparingly, in even the chestnut-woods of Sao Viucente, — the lowest 
position (about 1300 feet above the sea) at which, so far as I am aware, any 
member of the genus has hitherto been observed. 



113. Tarphius compactus, Woll 
T. subquadrato-ovatus breviusculus compactus piceus, prothorace subquadrato postice minus angus- 

tato, granulis crebris obtusissimis obsito, elytris concoloribus latiusculis ragose seriato-punctatis, 

pone medium vix nodosis, tarsis in iitroque sexu simplicibus. 
Long. Corp. lin. I5— 1^. 

Habitat Maderam excelsam sylvaticam, sestate minus frequens. 

T. a little larger than the T. Lauri, and somewhat more quadrate and compact, dull piceous, generally 
much incrusted with dirty mud-like scales, and but very slightly shining. Head and jjrothorax 
beset with very close and exceedingly obtuse granules : the latter not channeled (or very ob- 
scurely so), somewhat square, — the sides being regularly, though only slightly, rounded, and the 
front edge a little raised along the central emargination. Elytra concolorous, rather wide and 
straight at the shoulders, and rounded behind ; seriate-punctate, and wrinkled transversely ; the 

t2 



140 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

suture and alternate interstices a little raised and interrupted, — forming, generally, most obscure 
nodules behind, which are more or less sparingly clothed with a dull olivaceous pubescence. 
Antenna and leys ferruginous : the latter with their femora and tibiae a little darker than the 
tarsi, which are simple in both sexes. 

Less distinct, prima facie, than any of the remainder; nevertheless it may be 
known by its compact, rather short, and squarish form, by its obscou-e and gene- 
rally much incrusted surface, and by its subconcolorous and subnodose elytra. 
Although without many decided characters to separate it from one or two of its 
allies, yet, after a careful examination of many specimens, I am inclined to believe 
tliat the T. compactus is a true species, being somewhat intermediate between the 
T. nodosns, on the one hand, and the T. Lauri and rotundatus, on the other, — 
partakmg slightly of the characters of the whole tlu-ee, though merging into none. 
It is not very common, but is found occasionally, during the summer months, in 
the damp ra^-incs of intermediate altitudes, in company with the rest. My speci- 
mens were taken principally at the Ribeu-o Frio. 

114. TarpMus nodosns, WoU. (Tab. III. fig. 6.) 
T. subquadi-ato-ovatus robustus nigcr, prothorace subquadrato, granulis crebris obtusissimis obsito, 
elytris concoloribus rugose seriato-punctatis, interstitiis alternis elevatis interruptis, nodos 
formantibus. 
Mas, elytrorum nodis minoribus, tarsis anterioribus articulo basilari in lobum longissimum spini- 

formem acutum subtus producto, posticis simplicibus. 
Fmm. elytrorum nodis majoribus, tarsis simplicibus. 
Long. corp. lin. mas, 1^-1^ : fcem. \^-2\. 

Habitat per regionem Maderse sylvaticam, sub truncis arborum prolapsis necnon sub lai)idibus, sestate 
baud infrequens. 

T. large and robust, and somewhat quadrate, dull black, not much clothed with scales, and with the 
setifi of an obscure golden-brown tinge. Head and pruthurux beset with very close and obtuse 
grannies : the latter obscurely channeled, rather wide and subquadiate, — being widest however a 
little before the middle. Elytra concolorous, rugosely seriate-punctate, and wrinkled transversely ; 
the suture and alternate interstices elevated and interrupted, especially towards the outer disk 
and apex, forming distinct nodules. Antenna and legs of the same colour as those of the last 
species. 

Male, rather smaller than the female, and with the nodules less apparent : the basal joint of the 
fore and intermediate tarsi produced internally into a very long, spiniform and acute lobe ; the 
hinder tarsi simple. 

Female, large and robust, with the surface more uneven, the nodules being greatly developed : the 
tarsi simple. 

Distinguished from all the Tinph'ii here described; — as regards the males, by 
its four front feet having theii- basal joint produced beneath into a very elongated, 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 141 

spiniform lobe, which does not exist in the hinder pair ; and, in the case of the 
females, by its large, subqnadrate and robust form, and by its greatly developed 
nodules. The females might sometimes be confounded with the T. cicatricosns, 
did not the more diluted and piceous hue, and the anteriorly -narrower outline of 
that insect, in conjunction with the pale, subglabrous tubercles of its somewhat 
less deeply sculptured elytra, at once separate it from the present one. After the 
T. Lauri and rotimdatus, it is the most abundant and widely distributed member 
of the group. I have taken it, during the summer months, in the region of the 
Ribeiro Frio, the Cruzinhas, at the Lombo dos Pecegueiros, and the Fanal. 



115. Tarphius cicatricosus, Woll. 

T. subovatus piceus, prothorace lateribus dilutioribus, granulis crebris obtusissimis obsito, vix canali- 
culato, elytris submaculatis rugose (sed vix seriato-) punctatis, interstitiis alternis elevatis inter- 
ruptis, nodos rufescentibus subglabros formantibus, tarsis in utroque sexu simplicibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. l|-2. 

Habitat in locis similibus ac prsecedens, sed illo rarior. 

T. a little smaller, more ovate, and nan-ower (especially in front) than the T. nodosus, piceous, and 
often more or less diluted or rufescent, and nearly free from scales. Head and prothorax beset 
with very close and obtuse granules : the latter not channeled (or very obscurely so), rather 
shorter than in the jjreceding species and not quite so wide, and with the flattened sides often 
of a paler or more rufescent tinge, — which imparts to them a somewhat transparent appearance. 
Elytra more or less indistinctly spotted, rugosely seriate-punctate, — the punctures being obscurer 
and smaller than those of the T. nodonts ; the suture and alternate interstices raised and inter- 
rupted, forming (in the usual positions) distinct, but not veiy large, subglabrous nodules, which 
are always paler than the rest of the surface and often of a bright rufous tinge, — especially the 
hinder, broken fascia, which is at times large, and diffused over the entire apical portion of the 
elytra. Antenna and leffs a little paler than those of the last species : the latte)- with the tarsi 
simple in both sexes. 

Somewhat allied, at first sight, to the females of the T. nodosus, though easily 
separable from them, on examination, by its more diluted or rufescent hue, by its 
rather shorter and narrower prothorax, and by the smaller and more lighily-im- 
pressed punctures of its elytra, — which last have the tubercles always paler than 
the remainder of the surface, being usually (together with the hinder noduled 
fascia) of a distinctly rufous tinge. It is one of the rarer species, and is fovmd in 
the same localities as the last. 

116. Tarphius testudinalis, WoU. 

T. c'longato-oblongus subnitidus piceus, prothorace amplo lateribus valde complanatis, granulis 
crebris obtusis obsito, canaliculato, elytris concoloribus insequalibus ad apicem magis acuminatis. 



142 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

profunde et rugose seriato-punctatis, interstitiis alternis elevatis iutcrruptis, nodos magnos for- 
maiitibus, tarsis in utroque sexu simplicibus. 
Long, coi'p. lin. 2-2j. 

Habitat in Madera sylvatica excclsa, sestate rarior. 

T. very large and robust, squarish-oblong, light piceous and a little shining (and sometimes with a 
slightly transparent appearance, which gives the insect rather the aspect of tortoiseshell), not 
much covered with scales, but more or less clothed with short and distinct golden-brown setae. 
Head and prothorax beset with close and obtuse granules : the lattei- channeled, large and wide, 
dilated before the middle, and the sides much flattened and somewhat diluted in colouring, or 
subtransparent. Elytra concolorous, much acuminated at the apex, very uneven, deeply and 
rugosely seriate-punctate, and wi'inkled (the punctures being exceedingly large and distinct) ; the 
alternate interstices much raised and interrupted, forming large nodules in the usual positions, 
which are more densely beset with the golden-brown setae than the remainder of the surface. 
AntenruB and leys as in the last species : the latter with the tarsi simple in both sexes. 

Well distmguishcd from its congeners by its robust, though proportionably 
elongated form, by its pale rusty-piceous (or almost tortoiseshell-coloui-ed) hue, by 
the widely flattened edges of its prothorax, and by the large regularly-disposed 
punctures and fully-developed nodules of its exceedingly xmeren and apically- 
aeuminated elji:ra. Although one of the rarest of the Madeu-an Tarphli, it is 
nevertheless widely distributed over the sylvan districts of the island, occurring 
during the summer months, in company with its allies, in the damp woods of lofty 
altitudes. My specimens are principally from the Cruzinhas, the Lombo dos 
Pecegueiros, and the Fanal. 

117. Tarphiiis tnmcatus, WoU. 

T. parallelo-oblongus valde setosus piceus, prothorace rugoso, ante medium leviter dilatato, granulis 
crebris obtusis obsito, canaliculato, elytris submaculatis postice truncatis, profunde et rugose 
seriato-punctatis, interstitiis alternis leviter elevatis interruptis, nodos formantibus, tarsis in 
utroque sexu simplicibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1*. 

Habitat in echtioribus sylvaticis Maderae, una cum aliis degens, sestate rarissimus. 

T. parallel-oblong, being very much smaller and (comparatively) narrower than the last species, 
bright rusty-piceous, not nmch covered with scales, but densely clothed with somewhat short 
and rigid set«. Head and prothorax rough, and closely beset with obtuse granules and set» : 
the latter channeled, not much dilated, — but widest a httle before the middle, where it is about 
the breadth of the elytra; the posterior portion a little attenuated, and the sides not much 
curved. Elytra submaculated, parallel, a little narrowed and rather more shortened behind 
than in the other species, very rugosely seriate-punctate ; the alternate interstices raised and in- 
terrupted, forming nodules and ridges in the usual positions, which are somewhat more lightly 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 143 

coloured than the rest of the surface. Antenna and leffs as in the preceding species : the latter 
with the ta7-si simple in both sexes. 

The small size and parallel outline of the present species, in conjunction with 
its rigidly, though somewhat shortly setose surface, and the comparatively trun- 
cated, or abruptly-shortened hinder portion of its elytra, will suffice to discrimi- 
nate it from its allies. In its submaculated and nodose elytra it approaches the 
T. brevlcollis; nevertheless its comparatively short setre, added to its narrower 
and less ovate form, and its entirely different prothorax, at once remove it from 
that insect. It is one of the rarest of the genus, and is taken in company with 
the other species, — although, as will he perceived by a reference to the umnerical 
table given above, exceedingly sparingly. 

118. TarpMus echinatus, Woll 

T. ovatus valde et longissime setosus ferrugineus, prothorace brevi rugoso, circa medium dilatato, 
granulis obscuris obsito, elytris submaculatis rugose seriato-punctatis, interstitiis alternis leviter 
elevatis, nodos vLx formantibus, tarsis in utroque sexu (nisi fallor) simplicibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. l^-l^^. 

Habitat Maderam sylvaticam, in iisdem locis ac prsecedens, rarissimus. 

T. short and ovate, more or less ferruginous, not much incrusted with scales, but densely clothed with 
very long, erect and rigid setae. Head and prothorax rough, and beset with rather small, obtuse 
granules, — which, from the bristles and scales with which they are intermingled, are usually 
somewhat obscure : the latter not channeled (or very indistinctly so), rather short and wide, 
most dilated about, or a little before the middle, but with the sides not greatly curved, — the 
anterior and posterior portions being subequally attenuated. Elytra rather rounded behind, 
submaculated, — having exceedingly obscure patches in the usual positions, which appear, 
normally, to be much diffused over the elytra (thus diluting their surface) and to take the form 
of ill-defined blotches rather than distinct spots ; rugosely seriate-punctate, the punctures being 
large and distinct ; the suture and alternate interstices a little raised and somewhat interrupted, 
though scarcely sufficiently so as to form nodules. Antennce and legs rather paler than those of 
the last species : the latter with the tarsi (I believe) simple in both sexes. 

The present species and the T. brevlcollis are readily separated from the re- 
mainder of the genus by the comparatively long and erect bristles with which 
they are beset. At first sight they would appear to be, inter se, a good deal 
allied ; but a more accurate inspection will disclose abundant characters by which 
they may be distinguished from each other. Thus, the more rounded, or ovate 
outline of the T. ecldnatus, in conjimction with its ferruginous hue, the greater 
length of its bristles, and its much less basally-constricted (or medially dilated) 
prothorax, ■ndll, apart from minor points, be more than sufficient to prevent the 
possibility of confounding it with that insect. 



144 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

119. Tarphius brevicoUis, WoU. 

T. quadrato-ovatus piceo-ferrugineus valde et louge sctosus, prothorace rugoso bre\issimo lato, circa 
medium subito dilatato et postice angustato, granulis obscurissimis obsito, canaliculato, clytris 
submaculatis rugose subseriato-grauulatis, interstitiis alternis leviter elevatis interruptisj nodos 
formantibus, tarsis in utroque sexu (nisi fallor) simplicibus. 

Long, coi-p. liu. li-lg^. 

Habitat in locis similibus ac T. echinatus, sestate rarissimus. 

T. short, more quadrate and oblong tlian the T. echinatus, and of a sligbtly darker, or more rusty, 
ferruginous hue, not much incrusted with scales, but densely clothed with long, erect and rigid 
seta;, — which however are shorter than those of the last species. Head and prothorax rough, 
and beset with obscure and rather distant granules, which are so mixed up with bristles and 
scales as to be but indistinctly perceptible : the latter deeply channeled, very short, suddenly 
and greatly dilated in the middle, and narrowed before and behind, especially the latter, — which 
causes the sides to be considerably cui-ved. Elytra more or less indistinctly spotted, more 
parallel at the base than those of the last insect, rugoscly granuled (rather than punctured), and 
wrinkled transversely, — the granules being more especially perceptible towards the outer margin, 
and appearing to replace the punctures which are more or less evident in the whole of the pre- 
ceding species, although somewhat intermingled with, and merging into, punctures towards 
the suture; the alternate interstices slightly elevated and interrupted, forming small but very 
distinct nodules in the usual positions, which with the ridges are rather more lightly coloured, 
or rufescent, than the rest of the surface. Antemue and leys as in the last species. 

The distinctions between the present insect and the last hare been already 
pointed oiit, — its more parallel, or oblong outline, added to its somewhat shorter 
setue and darker hue, its more noduled, granulated, and less e^'idently pimctiu'ed 
elj'ira, and the totally different form of its (deeply channeled) prothorax, being- 
sufficient, even prima facie, to separate it from that species. It is extremely rare, 
I)eing found, in company with its allies, in the damp wooded districts of lofty 
elevations. 

120. Tai-phius nigosiis, Woll. 

T. oblongo-quadratus nigro-piceus, prothorace rugoso amplo, ante medium valde dilatato, lateribus 
subajqualiter rotundatis, granulis dispersis obtusis obsito, canaliculato, elytris concoloribus rugose 
granulatis, interstitio juxta suturam costato-elevato, reliquis valde interruptis, nodum exstantcm 
longc pone apicem singuli situm formantibus, tarsis in utroque sexu (nisi fallor) simplicibus. 

Long. corp. lin. \ix 2. 

Hahitat in Madera sylvatic^, semcl tantuni (ad Ribciro Frio) repcrtus. 

T. large, squarer than any of the other species, piceous-black, rough, apparently a good deal incrusted 
with scales, and quite opake. Head and prothorax very rough, and beset with rather small, 
distant granides, which are more or less concealed amidst the very short and robust seta^ with 
which they are intermixed : the latter deeply channeled, very large, and much dilated about the 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 145 

middle, and witli the sides almost equally rounded before and behind. Elytra concolorous, 
rough, quadrate, rather suddenly shortened behind, very densely crowded with granules, bristles 
and scales, — the first of which preponderate, but are apparently not disposed in rows ; the inter- 
stice of each elytron nearest to the suture raised, and scarcely at all interrupted, though more 
especially apparent (in the form of an elongated prominent ridge) behind the middle, — and 
the remaining ones hardly perceptibly elevated except towards the apex, where a very prominent 
isolated projection (nearer to the outer margin than to the suture) is the principal fragment of 
them which is evident, although a few, exceedingly obscure ones about the disk are just indicated. 
Antenrue and legs a little darker than those of the last insect. 

Au exceedingly distinct and large species, and one which may be readily known 
from the remainder of the genus here described by its wide, quadi'ate form, by its 
greatly dilated and anteriorly-roimded prothorax, by its dark rugose sm^face, and 
by the very prominent outer, and costate inner protuberances of its elytra, — which 
last are extremely roughly granulated, and with no indications of punctures inter- 
mixed. It is hitherto unique, the specimens from which the above description 
has been compiled having been captm-ed by myself at the E,ibeu-o Erio, — where I 
have since frequently searched for it, but in vain. 



Genus 49. COSSYPHODES. (Tab. III. fig. 3.) 

Westwood, Trans. Ent. Soc. of Loud. (New Series) i. 168 (1851). 

Corpus parvum, valde depressum, subparallelo-oblongum, ad latera complanatum, Cosstjphi formam 
simulans, sed ab eo aflSnitate longe distans : capite magno semicirculari, fere piano, margine 
laterali paulo elevato atque ad basin impressione parva obliquo-longitudinali utrinque instructo ; 
oculis obsoletis, aut saltern baud detectis (an in fossulis duabus lougitudiualibus reconditis ?) ; 
subtus (III. 3 a), jugulo utrinque porrecto, fossulas duas pro receptione antennarum formante : 
prothorace et elytris in dorso longitudinaliter carinatis et utrinque carinis gracilibus (aut potius 
striis elevatis) notatis ; illo transverso-quadrato : smtello baud observando : alis obsoletis : ab- 
domine (III. 3 b) ex segmentis ventralibus quinque (paulatim longitudine decrescentibus) com- 
posite. Antenna (III. 3 c) brevissimte distantes geniculatae, sub margine capitis insertee et inter 
otium sub lateribus reponendse, articulo primo maximo crasso elongato superne recondito, secundo 
parvo breviter ovato, tertio ad nonuui brevissimis transversis latitudine leviter crescentibus, 
decimo et undecimo magnis arete aj)plicatis, capitulum magnum abruptum ovalem biarticulatum 
efficicutibus. Labruni (III. 3 d) sub clypeo reconditum, transverso-quadratum, angulis anticis 
rotundatis ciliatis. Mandibula (III. 3 e, 3/) breves validre cornea?, apice bidentatfe, intus medio 
sinuatfe. Maxilla (III. 3^) bilobse, processu exteruo porrecto (basin palporum dcfendente) 
munitfe : lobo externa brevi, apice truncate pubescenti : interno huic vix breviore, valde ciliato. 
Pa/pi maxillares articulis penultimo et antejienultimo brevibus latis, ultimo multo longiore 
subovali-subacuminato : labiates (III. 3 h) articulis primo et secundo minutis subaequalibus, 
ultimo longiore apice subacuminato. Mentuin amplissimum subquadratum, lateribus in medio 
eraarginato-incisis. Ligula brevis angustior, angulis anticis ciliatis. Pedes (III. 3 A, 3 /, 3 in) 
valde cursorii brevissimi compressi, antici paulo longiores : tibiis gracilibus, ad femora inter 
otium applicandis : tarsis anticis (III. 3 k) 5-, posterioribus (III. 3 /, 3 »i) 4-articulatis ; articulis 
in omnibus (ultimo acuminato excepto) brevibus, magnitudine vix sensim decrescentibus. 

U 



146 IN SECT A MADE REN SI A. 

The extraordinary little insect for wliicli the present genixs was established by 
Mr. Westwood, is perhaps one of the most remarkable as yet detected within the 
whole range of the Coleoj)tera, its total freedom, apparently, from eyes, in con- 
junction with the singular numerical variation of its tarsal joints, presenting 
anomalies of a very peculiar kind. Mr. Westwood has so ably discussed its affi- 
nities, that I will not enter into them afresh, but prefer gi^'ing the result of his 
conclusions on the subject in his owa words. " This is altogether," says he, " one 
of the most anomalous genera hitherto described amongst Coleopterous insects. 
At fu'st sight, it possesses so strong a resemblance to the Heteromerous genus 
Cossi/plms, that it was for a time regarded as merely a minute species of that 
genus, — for the outline of the head and pronotum are nearly continuous, so that 
it was not until a more careful examination was made that the ordinary exposed 
condition of the head, and its division from the prothorax, was observed. The 
tarsi arc not, however, heteromerous*. The structure of the anteunai, moreover, 
at once removes this genus from the whole of the Seteromera, — since they are 
ellwwed at the extremity of the large first joint, and have a nearly solid 2-jointed 
terminal club. It is, I apprehend, amongst the genera originally placed by La- 
treille amongst the Xylophaga (but separated therefrom by MacLeay, by whom 
they were introduced amongst the Necrophaga) that we must look for the true 
relations of this insect, some of which are already known to exhibit various nume- 
rical peculiarities in respect to the joints of theu* tarsi, often varying in the sexes 
in this respect. Biphyllns, as the name implies, has a 2-jointed clava to the 
antennae, and some of the species of Cerylon have similarly polished bodies. Bi- 
toma has also a biarticulate club to the antennae, as well as a carinated pronotum 
and elytra. This last-named genus, in fact, notwithstanding the various very 
striking points of disagreement mth Cossyphodes, may perhaps be regarded as 
most nearly allied to it of any known genus ; indeed the parts of the mouth of 
Bitoma, as figured by Mr. Ciu-tis, present a strong general conformity with those 
of Cossyphodes." 

121. Cossyphodes Wollastonii. (Tab. III. fig. 3.) 

C. latus subparallelo-oblongus valde dcpressus fcrrugineus Isevis subnitidus, antennis pedibusque 

concoloribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1?. 

Cossyphodes Wollastonii, Westn'. Trans. Ent. Soc. of Land. {I^ew Series) i. 170 (1851). 

Habitat in Mader^ australi propc urbem Funchalensem, rarissimus : ad Praya Formoza exemplar 
unicum sub lapide, Maio cxeunte .\.d. 1848, primus inveni; sed nidos (Ecophthora pusilla colere 



* Strictly speaking, the tarsi are heteromerous, — that is to say, they do not consist of the same num- 
ber of articulations in all the legs : but in the true Heteromera the hinder feet alone are -l-jointed, — 
whereas in the genus before us the four posterior tarsi are quadriartieulate, the front pair only being 
pentamerous. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 147 

apud cl. Dom. Heer, Turici, dicitur, qui plurima specimina ad Gorgulho, necnon etiam in ipsa 
lu'be, mensibus Januario et Februario a.d. 1851 detexit. 

C. broad, parallel-oblong (the outline of the head, prothorax and elytra being nearly continuous) , 
much flattened (especially at the sides), ferruginous or of a somewhat pale chestnut hue, spotless, 
and very slightly shining, — the surface appearing beneath the microscope to be densely beset 
with an excessively minute and short decumbent cinereous pubescence, which gives the entire 
insect a peculiar kind of opacity, or, more strictly perhaps, bloom, which is perceptible even to 
the naked eye. Head large and semicircular, almost flat, the margin (especially towards the 
hinder angles) a little elevated, impressed on either side at the base with a small oblique longi- 
tudinal line, occupying the positions of the eyes, which are apparently quite obsolete, — although 
it is just possible that they may be imperfectly develoj)ed, and concealed within these depressions. 
Prothorax large, transverse-quadrate, much flattened at the sides, and obtusely keeled down the 
centre of its disk, — also with three smaller, very delicate carina?, or raised strise, on either side of 
this central elevation. Elytra, likewise, keeled along the suture and much flattened laterally, 
but v!'ii\\ four delicately raised carinas on either side, — instead of three. Antenna and kffs con- 
colorous with, or perhaps a little paler than, the remainder of the surface. 

Apparently extremely rare, — or, at any rate, local ; and, from its peculiar habits, 
somewhat difficult to obtain. A single example was first discovered by myself, on 
the 8th of May 1848, beneath a stone on the flat ledge of ground immediately above 
the Praya Eormoza, near Funchal, — the only specimen in fact which I have hitherto 
taken. It is to the researches of Professor Heer of Zurich that we are indebted 
for a knowledge of its habits, who informs me that he has captiu'ed it in the nests 
of CEcophtliora pusilla both at the Gorgulho and even in Punchal itself. Having 
collected a portion of the earth in which the nests of that ant were situated, and 
having carefully placed it in his house va. Funchal, he states that he used fre- 
quently to observe a specimen of Cossyphodes adhering to the small loose stones 
which he had allowed to remain on the surface. But, even when thus sought 
after in its legitimate position, it would seem to be far from common, since Pro- 
fessor Heer, dui-ing his winter's residence in the island, did not obtain, I believe, 
more than seven or eight examples iu all. It runs with such prodigious velocity 
that more than ordinary dexterity is required in securing it, — which, for a hlind 
insect (if indeed its eyes be in reality altogether wanting, as would certainly 
appear to be the case) is very remarkable. 

Genus 50. PLCEOSOMA*, WoU. (Tab. IX. fig. 9.) 

Cm-pus parvum ellipticum glabervimum : capite in cavo prothoracico usque ad oculos immerso : pro- 
thorace postice lato elytris arete applicato : abdomine ex segmentis ventralibus quinque composito, 
segmento basali amplo : scutello distincto subtriangulari : alls obsoletis. Antenna (IX. 9 a) 
breviusculse (capitis prothoracisque vix longitudine) distantes capitatse, articulo primo robusto 



* Genus Ceryloni aifinitate proximum, sed labro bilobo valde membranaceo, tibiis siibcurvatis excalca- 
ratis, alis obsoletis, necuou forma \\x punctata elliptica ab eo sat distiuctum videtiu". 

u2 



148 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

crasso, secundo huic longitudine subjequali at multo graciliore subcylindrico, tertio breriore, iude 
ad nonum latitudine vLx crescentibus longitudine sub;equalibus, reliquis capitulum magnum 
abraptuni ovale solidissimum obscure biarticulatum efficientibus. Labrum (IX. 9 b) amplum 
membranaceum pilosum, antice bilobum, marginibus membraneo-tenuissimis. Mandibula 
(IX. 9 c) inagnse validae elongatse cornese, basi lata;, apice bidentatse, inde ad medium sinuatse et 
membrana auctae. Maxilla (IX. 9 d) bilobae membranacese : lobo externa elongatissimo gracili 
recto, apice leviter pubescenti : intenio breviore gracillimo recto, apieem versus ciliato. Palpi 
maxillares articulo primo longiusculo flexuoso, secundo crassiore jiaulo breviore, tertio maximo 
inflato subovato, ultimo primi longitudine sed recto aciculari : luhiales (IX. 9 e) articulo primo 
flexuoso, secundo maximo inflato subovato, ultimo primi longitudine sed recto aciculari. Mctitum 
elongato-subquadratum, antice acuminatum, lateribus ante basin constrictis. Ligula apice bifida, 
lobis latis membraneo-tenuissimis aucta. Pedes sat validi : libiis (pra?sertim anticis) subflexuosis 
apieem versus dilatatis vix calcaratis : tarsis (IX. 9/) 4-articulatis pilosis, articulo primo levater 
elongato, secundo et tertio brevioribus iBqualibus, ultimo longissimo subclavato unguiculis sim- 
lilicibus munito. 
A ttXoIov navis, et auifia corpus. 

The little insect on which I have erected the present genus is perhaps one of the 
most truly indigenous of all the Madeiran Coleoptera. After a careful considera- 
tion of its habits, and of the ditferent points of its structure, I have not the 
sliglitcst doubt l)ut that it is correctly placed amongst the Colydiadcc, with which, 
in its four-jointed tarsi, bidentate mandibles, and its biarticulate antenual club 
(the essential characteristics of that family) it entu*ely coincides. It is in fact 
closely allied to Cerylon, not only in its general habit {Floeosoma being not merely 
subcortical, but also, like that genus, found in the very centre of moist decaying 
Avood) and glabrous surfiice, but more especially in the elongated, narrow lobes of 
its maxiUa!, quadriarticulate feet, in the shape of its mentum, in the extremely 
solid club of its antennae, and iu the largely inflated penidtimate, and aciculated 
ultimate, joii^ts both of its labial and maxillary ijaliii. Still, in spite of this 
evident approach to Cerylou, it is not possible that it can be actually associated 
with it, since in its deejily bilobed, membranous upper lip, in its slightly cmwed, 
unspurred tibial, in its obsolete wings, as well as in its elliptical form, and in its 
comparatively impunctate surface it recedes from that genus entnely. It is certain 
however that it should be placed near to it, since it evidently forms one of those 
small attendant genera so often observed as offshoots from a central type, tlie 
importance of which, when geographically considered, it is difficult to overrate. 

122. Ploeosoma ellipticum, Woll. (Tab. IX. fig. 9.) 
P. ellipticum couvexum piceum Iscve nitiduui, prothoracc leviter puuctato, elytris vLx puuctatis apice 

rufeseentibus, antennis pcdibusque feiTugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1-1}. 

Habitat sub cortice, in ligno putrido, vel sub truncis arborum marcidis in locis humidiusculis Maderse, 
inter 2500' et 5000' s. m. toto anno non infrcqucns. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 14.9 

P. elliptical (being widest about the middle, and almost equally attenuated before and behind), convex, 
bright piceous, shining, and free from pubescence. Prothorax ample, wide behind (whore it is 
closely applied to the elytra), more or less rufescent, and covered, both above and below, with 
shallow but rather large punctures. Elytra generally rufescent towards their apex, extremely 
minutely and distantly punctured, — the punctm-es being scarcely perceptible except under a high 
magnifying power ; when they will be observed moreover to be slightly disposed in rows. 
Mouth, antenna and legs ferruginous. 

The small size, in conjunction with the glabrous, shining, and elKptical body, of 
this interesting insect will readUy distinguish it from the remainder of the Coly- 
diadcB here described. It is confined exclusively to the forest districts of Madeira, 
where it would appear to range between the limits of from about 2500 to 5000 
feet above the sea, occurriag more especially, as might be expected, in those spots 
which, from the difficulty of access, have been least disturbed. It is found either 
beneath bark or in the interior of rotting wood, — occasionally even adhering to 
the undersides of wet decaying logs, particularly in regions where the moisture is 
excessive, and where consequently decomposition goes on the most rapidly. I 
have taken it at the base of the Pico Grande and in the Boa Ventura, durino- 
February ; on the Lombo das Vacas, in June ; at the Lombo dos Pecegueiros, in 
July ; and at the Feijaa de C6rte, at the beginning of August. 

Genus 51. EUROPS*, Woll. (Tab. III. fig. 1.) 

Corpus parvum, subcylindrico-liueare : capite subpedunculato, in maribus (III. 2) magno, in fceminis 
medioci'i, oculis magnis prominentibus, subtus (III. 3 a), jugulo (prsesertim in maribus) lateribus 
utrinque valde dilatatis, projecturam subconcavam (superne, ante oculos, conspicuam) formante : 
prothorace elongato, lineari-quadrato : mesothorace superne subobservando, scutello minuto : 
elytris apice truncato-abbreviatis, abdomen baud tegentibus : alls amplis : ahdomine ex segmentis 
ventralibus quinquc composito, segmento apicali reliquis paulo longiore. Antenna breves (capite 
paulo longiores) distantes rectse, articulis primo et secundo robustis subglobosis, illo majore cras- 
siore, tertio ad octavum brevibus subtransversis subsequalibus, reliquis clavam magnam abruptam 
ovalem biarticulatam efficientibus (nono magno subpoculiformi, ultimo maximo subgloboso obscu- 
rissime biaunulato atque ad apicem leviter tuberculato-subacuminato). Labrum brevissimum, 
vix conspicuum. Mandibula (III. 2 a, 2 b) magnse validse cornese triangulse, extus basi sinuatse, 
apice incurvse acutse, intus pone medium lacinia pubescenti instructfe. Maxilla (III. 2 c) bilobse : 
lobo externa gracillimo aciculari curvato : interno huic longitudine requali, lato, valde pubescenti. 
Palpi maxillares articulo primo brevissimo, secundo et tertio robustioribus subeequalibus, ultimo 
multo longiore subconico-subacuminato : labiales (III. 2 d) articulo primo brevissimo, secundo 
paulo majore crassiore, ultimo elongato robusto subovali-subacuminato. Mentum elongato- 
quadratum, apicem versus angustatum. Ligula elongata linearis, apice rotundata. Pedes parum 
robusti : tibiis apicem versus leviter dilatatis : tarsis (III. 2 e) 4-articulatis pilosis, articulis primo 
et secundo latis crassis, tertio minuto, quarto longissimo subclavato unguiculis simphcibus 
munito. 

A evpv<; latus, et oip' vultus. 



* Genus masiUarum forma elji^risque trimcatis Rhyzopliago simillimum, sed tarsorum struetura et 
habitu general! Colydiadis affinitate proximmn videtur, et cum illis, nisi fallor, recte poneuduni est. 



150 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

The insect for the reception of which the present genus is founded bears, at fii-st 
sight, a strong resemblance to a Bhyzophagus, but the details of its mouth and 
tarsi point out at once its true location, amongst the Colydiadce, — from some of 
the members of which it is not very remotely distant. Still, there are a few points, 
it must be confessed, in which it approaches i?%co/;//r'^?/*, especially in its slender, 
aciculated outer maxillary lobe, and its truncated el)i:ra; though the abundant 
characters in which it recedes from it are sufficient to remove it altosrether from 
that group. Thus, the structiu-e of its antennae will at once be noticed, which are 
not only shorter and more robust, but want likewise the elongated thii-d joint of 
Rhyzopliagus, and have their club, in lieu of a solid one, much perfoliated, — beiag 
composed of two subequal, loosely-connected parts, the fli'st of Avhich is large and 
cup-shaped, and the second globose and obscurely annulated (as though made up 
of two). It differs moreover very considerably in the form of the largely developed 
head of its males, which is not only (as indeed is the case in both sexes) constricted 
into a tolerably distinct neck posteriorly, but is, likewise, broadest just behind the 
eyes. The edges of the jugulum, underneath, are so much developed laterally as 
to be apparent from above, the projecting portion seeming, at first sight (especially 
in the males, where it is largest), to belong to the lateral margins of the head 
itself. The eyes, ujilike those of Bhyzophagus, are large and prominent ; and the 
entu'e insect, instead of being glal)rous, is, both above and below, pilose. The 
elytra are much more abbreviated posteriorly than in any of the Rhyzophagl, being 
broadly and transversely truncated, — exposing the pygidium, which is greatly elon- 
gated. The legs arc slenderer also, and somewhat shorter, and without any 
appearance on the tibite of external teeth ; wliUst the feet, instead of being hetero- 
merous in one sex, are, as in most of the Colydiadce, quadi-iarticulate throughout. 

123. Em-ops impressicoUis, WolJ. (Tab. III. fig. 2.) 

E. angustus subcylindi'ico-linearis rufo-ferrugineus et parce pubescens, capite prothoraceque remote 
punctatis, hoc elongato-quadrato in disco profunde longitudinaliter impresso, elytris punctato- 
striatis pallido-testaceis sed ad apicem nigro-infuscatis, pcdibus testaceis. 

Long. corp. lin. li-l?. 

Habitat in insula Desertae Grandis, rarissimus, — Maioexeunte a.d. 1850, apricitate volitans, a meipso 
deprehensus. 

E. narrow, linear, somewhat cylindrical, sparingly pubescent, shining, and rufo-ferruginous. Head 
and prothorax remotely but rather deeply punctured : the former large (especially in the males) 
and wide, — though widest immediately behind the eyes, and from thence suddenly constricted 
posteriorly into a neck, which is tolerably apparent when the head is at all protruded ; gradually 
a little dilated, on either side, in front of the eyes, and, likewise, elevated into somewhat of a 
ridge, out of which spring the antennse, — these ridges causing, in conjunction with the slightly 
convex clypcus, two oblique depressions, or sulci, to appear on the forehead ; the lateral portions of 
the Jugulum, underneath (III. 2 a), are so much produced, or swollen (particularly in the male sex), 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 151 

as to project beyond the margin of the head in the form of a rounded concave prominence, which, 
when viewed from above, it is not easy, at first sight, to separate from the sides of the upper 
surface itself,— an arrangement which causes the lateral expansion in front of the eyes (at which 
pomt this under-process makes its appearance) to seem larger and more irregular than it really 
IS : — the latter {i. e. the prothorax) extremely narrowly margined at the sides and behind, long 
and parallel, just perceptibly narrower than the elytra, and with a broad and deep elongated 
longitudinal depression on the disk, — which however scarcely extends to either the anterior or 
the posterior margins. Elytra pale testaceous, deeply punctate-striated, and much abbreviated 
and transversely truncated behind, exposing the pygidium,— which, together with the apex of the 
former, their extreme lateral margins, and sometimes even their suture, is more or less black (in 
quite mature specimens rather deeply so, but in others merely infuscated or picescent). An- 
tmrm ferruginous. Legs testaceous. Beneath dark ferruginous, with the underside of the head 
and the three hinder segments of the abdomen paler. 

Of the greatest rarity,— the few specunens which I have hitherto seen having 
been captiu-ed by myself on the Dezerta Grande, diu-ing my encampment there 
with the Rev. R. T. Lowe at the end of May 1850. They were taken on the 
outer canvass of my tent, — whither they had Aotvti, in company with other insects 
(particularly the minute ArfliroUps 2nceus), in the hot sunshine, — on the high 
ridge at the commencement of the long northern valley, immediately above the 
precipitous gorge which constitutes the only ascent of the island from the landing- 
place below. 

Genus 52. LYCTUS. (Tab. IY. fig, 3.) 
Pabricius, Unt. Si/st. i. ii. 502 (1792). 

Corpus minusculum, lineari-cylindricum : capite lato ; oculis magnis prominentibus : prothorace elon- 
gato-subquacbato, postice interdum (ut in specie Maderensi) leviter angustato et anguKs anticis 
amphato-productis ; lateribus plus minusve crenulatis : ehjtris integris : alls amplis. Antenna 
(IV. 3 a) breviusculae (capitis prothoracisque vix longitudine) distantes, articulis primo et 
secundo robustis, illo majore crassiore, tertio ad nonum longitudine paulatim vix decrescentibus 
latitudme subsequalibus, decimo et undecimo clavam magnam ovalem biarticulatam eiEcientibus 
(articulis subsequalibus, illo subpoculiformi, hoc paulo angustiore ovato basi truncate). Labnmi 
(IV. 3 h) amplum porrectum, antice leviter bilobum, lobis rotuudatis ct longe ciliatis. Mandi- 
bular (IV. 3 c) validse cornese, apice incurve bidentata;. Maxilla (IV. 3 f/) biloba;: lobo externa 
elongate, apice valde pubescenti : interna breviore recto, intus pubescenti ciliato. Palpi maxillares 
elongati, articulis primo et secundo longitudine subsqualibus (illo flexuoso, hoc subclavato), 
tertio paulo breviore, ultimo elongate apice plus minusve acuminate : labiales (IV. 3 e) e scapis 
Ugulae connatis sm-gentes, articulo primo lengiusculo subflexuoso, secundo paulo breviore sub- 
clavato, ultimo elongato apice plus minusve acuminate. Mentum semicirculare, ad sunimum 
apicem vel integrum, vel (ut in specie nostra) leviter truncatum. Ligula subovata antice acumi- 
nata, lobis longis teuuissimo-membranaceis aucta. Pedes parum graciles : tibiis anticis (IV. 3/) 
apicem versus leviter dilatatis, ad apicem externum in angulum exstantem productis, ad internum 
unco robustissimo munitis, pasterioribus (IV. 3 g) rectis gracilibus : tarsis 4-articulatis, articulis 
primo, secundo et tertio longitudine subsequalibus (primo vix longiore, et subtus ante basin 
leviter constricto, — ahum articulum, sc. basalem, fere simrdanti), quarto longissimo subclavato 
unguiculis simpHcibus munito. 



152 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

The insect wliich represents Lyctm in !Madeii"a constitutes the genus Xylotrogiis 
of Stephens, which was established in. 1830 to receive the identical species now 
under consideration, which appears to be liable to importation throughout the 
civilized world, and in which the prothorax is more constricted behind, and \vith 
its anterior angles more developed and produced, than is the case with the acknow- 
ledged tj^ie. IMi'. Stephens's characters being merely external ones, it would have 
Ijccn difficult mthout dissection to have offered an opinion as to theii- real value, 
or whether they were accompanied by corresponding differences of positive struc- 
tiu'c. In addition however to the Madeiran examples, I have lately received fi-om 
Mr. Westwood (by whom the specimen wMch is figured was dissected) a true 
X. brtmneus (captured, many years ago, at Paris by M. Che\Tolat, — who, beheving 
it to be im described, proposed for it the name of Jj. Gli/ci/rrJiizce), and have conse- 
quently been enabled to examine minutely its oral organs and other details. After 
comparing them carefully with those of the i. cancdiculatKs, I cannot perceive 
any decided distinctions whatsoever between the two, — the slightly more elongated 
and apically-acuminated palpi of the X. hrunneus, in conjimction with its rather 
less robust antennae, being the sole points, unless I am much mistaken, in which 
(apart from the shape of its prothorax) it recedes from the normal state ; — and it 
is clearly impossible to regard such trivial modifications as of more than specific 
importance. In defining its palpi as " very short," and its prothoracic margins as 
"not crenatcd" (the main features selected in order to separate it from Lyctus), 
Mr. Stephens was unquestionably in error, since its palpi are distinctly longer 
than those of the L. canaliculutus, whilst the edges of its prothorax are certainly 
crenulated, — albeit more obscvu'cly so than in the common generic type. So com- 
pletely indeed are the structvu'al minutiae of the L. canalicidatus possessed by the 
X. brmmeus that it is almost needless to enumerate them : suffice it therefore to 
obsene that, in the proportions of theii- antennae, in their bUobed upper Hps, 
bidentate mandibles, as also in theu* maxiUae, semicii'cular menta, pecviliar, apicaUy- 
acumiuatcd ligula?, in theu' powerful and ciuiously armed anterior tibite, and in 
the constricted basal joint of theii- quadiiarticulate feet, the tAvo insects are 
actually identical. 

124. Lyctus bnmneus. (Tab. IV. fig. .3.) 

Ij. angustus cylindricus pubescens bnmneus, capite prothoiaceque crebre punctatis, hoc postice leviter 
angustato angulis anticis productis obtusis, elytris ferrugineis obsolete substriato-pvinctatis (striis 
suturam versus evanescentibus), interstitiis minutissime punctulatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^— 2i. 

Lyctus parasiticus, Steph. Syst. Cat. of Brit. Ins. 94 (1829). 
Xiilotrogus hninnciis, Steph. 777. Brif. Ent. iii. 116 (1830). 
Lyctus Colydioides ? Dej. Cat. (edit. 3) 338 (1837). 
OlycyrrhiziB, Chev. in Dej. Cat. (edit. 3) 338 (1837). 

Habitat Maderam, circa oppida et vicos, vcl etiam iu urbe ipsa Funcbaleusi, hinc inde, rarior : in 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 153 

domo quadam ad Seisal, mense Julio a.d. 1850, primus detexit Rev''"'' Dora. Lowe ; sed plmima 
specimina a Dom. Hartung Madera ablata nuper cl. Dohrn communicavit. 

L. narrow, linear, cylindrical, brown or reddisb-brown, pubescent, and but very slightly shining. 
Head and jn'othorax coarsely and rather closely punctured : the former widest about the eyes, 
which are very large and prominent : the latter elongated, a little narrowed and straightened 
posteriorly, and with the anterior angles considerably enlarged (although obtuse) and downwardly 
produced; the sides minutely crenulated; convex in front, where there is no appearance of a 
dorsal channel, but with a wide and more or less shallow longitudinal depression on the hinder 
disk. Elytra ferruginous, being paler and more rufescent than the head and prothorax; obso- 
letely and finely striate-punctate, — the strise being tolerably apparent towards the outer portion, 
but vanishing near the suture ; the interstices minutely punctulated ; entire and roimded at the 
apex. Antenna and legs concolorous with, or perhaps a little darker than, the elytra. 

The present Lyctus lias in all probability been naturalized in these islands, it 
being an insect which, from its habits, is liable to constant transmission through- 
out the world : nevertheless, since it would appear to establish itself with greater 
facility in subaustral than in northern regions, it may perhaps be truly indigenous 
on the southern Mediterranean limits, — in which case it is just possible that 
Madeh-a may come within its legitimate range. It is my belief, however, that it 
has been imported from other countries, — an hj^iothesis which is somewhat 
strengthened by the fact that it is never found, so far at least as I am aware, 
except either in or near the villages and towns, whilst most of the specimens 
which have hitherto turned up were captured in the houses themselves. The 
first example which came beneath my notice was detected by the Rev. E. T. Lowe, 
dm-ing July 1850, in a Quinta at Seisal : and it was not untU June of the follow- 
ing year that it again occm-red, — when a second was communicated by M. Dohrn 
of Stettin, which had crawled out of a di-ied skin which had been prepared in 
Madeii-a by M. Hartimg. About the same time, moreover, I received it from 
Mr. Leacock, — taken in Funchal; and within the last month M. Dohrn has 
informed me that it has been reared in abundance at Konigsberg, from larv« 
which have been lately brought away from the island. In its habits, it would 
seem, to a certain extent, to combine the dermaphagous tendency of Trogositu 
with the Hgnivorous propensities of the true I/ycti, since it is, apparently, able to 
adapt itself to even dried animal food. Still, like the common European L. cana- 
liculatus, it is normally attached to wood, — from out of which indeed M. Dohrn 
states that the Konigsberg specimens were produced. 

Fam. 12. TROGOSITIDiE. 

Genus 53. TROGOSITA. 

Olivier, Ent. ii. 19 (scrip. Trogossita) (1790). 

Corpus mediocre, elongatum : protkorace ssepius subcordato, angulis anticis productis : alts amplis. 

X 



154 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Antenna breviusculae (capitis prothoracisque vix longitudine), artieulo primo robusto, secimdo 
minuto, reliquis usque ad apicem sensim crassioribus (rarius subclavatis), Labrum transverso- 
quadratunij antice integrum et valde ciliatum. Mandihulce magase valida; cornese porrectje, basi 
lata", apice fortiter bidentatse. Maxilla lubo sincjulo elongato valde ciliato ad apicem obtuso 
instructse [intemo obsoleto). Palpi artieulo ultimo elougato, subfusiformi-truncato. Mentum 
transversum, apice late emarginatum. Ligula ampla cornea integra, antice pilosa. Pedes validi : 
tibiis anticis apicem %Trsus lev'itcr dilatatis, calcari intemo maximo robusto unciformi (externo 
reliquis fcquali, miuuto) : larsis artieulo primo minutissimo, ultimo elongato subclavato. 

The elongated and more or less flattened bodies of the Trogositce, in conjunction 
with thcu- obsolete inner maxillary lobe, and the extraordinary enlarg-emcut of 
one of then' two front til)ial s^jiu's, as compared with the other, will be sufficient 
whereby to distinguish them from theii" immediate allies. In the construction of 
theu" mentum, and in the minute basal joint of theu* tarsi, as well as in the small- 
ness of the second articulation of their antennae, they approach the Lcemophloei 
and other t}q>ical members of the Cuciijidce, — Avith many of which in habits, 
likewise, they essentially coincide. Hence, I have preferred the present position 
for them to placing them amongst the Nitidididce, with which they are now 
usually associated, — deeming the above peculiarities of greater importance than 
even the non-development of the inner lobe of their maxillae ; and especially so since 
several of the Ciicicjidce have that lobe so far reduced in size as to indicate, even 
in this respect, a no very distant relation vdih Trogosifa. "N^'ere its habits indeed 
alone to be taken into account, the present genus might be supposed to have some 
affinity with Teuehno and other representatives of the Seteromera ; but its penta- 
merous feet, and the total absence of an internal emargination to its mandibles, 
apart from other points no less evident, will at once remove it m toto from the 
whole of those groups. 



§ I. Prothorax subcordatus, angulis ipsis postiois exstantihus : antenna apicem versus sensim incrassata. 

125. Trogosita mauritanica. 
T. depressa picea subniticTa, elytris post medium leviter dilatatis, subpunctato-striatis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 4. 

Tenebrio mauritanicus, Liun. Syst. Nat. ii. G74 (17C7). 
Trogossita mauritanica, Qi]i\.Ent. ii. 19. 6. pi. 1. tig. 2 o, i (1790). 
Trogosita carahoides, Fab. Ent. Syst. i. 115 (1792). 

mauritanica, GyU. Ins. Suec. i. 72 (1808). 

, Erich. JVat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 243 (1848). 

Habitat in grauariis douiibusque Maderje, prsesertim circa Funcbal, vulgaris : interdum in ipsa urbe 
(mercatorum rcpositoriis) abundat, e.x alienis certe introducta. 

T. elongated, much depressed, dark piceous, and slightly sinning. Head and prothorax deeply 
punctured : the latter somewhat short aud cordate (being broad in front and narrowed behind), 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 155 

with the anterior angles produced, and the extreme posterior ones distinctly prominent. Elytra 
widest behind the middle, and faintly jjunctate-striated ; the interstices each with two rows of 
minutely impressed points. Bodij beneath, and the legs bright rufo-piceous. Antenna darker 
(especially in the middle), and gradually incrassated towards their apex. 

The common T. mauritanica is one of those insects Avhich follow in the wake of 
commerce, and it is consequently fonncl, at times, in nearly all countries of the 
world. It is not only with flour and grain, but even amongst skins and fiu's, and 
such like merchandise, that it is liable to become introduced ; and in England it 
has been frequently received, alive, in boxes of natural curiosities from India and 
China. In Madeu-a it is, in lilve manner, at intervals abundant, — occurring in 
granaries and warehouses in and near Funchal ; and I have occasionally captured 
it on board vessels which have been lying at anchor in the bay. 



§ II. Protliorax sulqmdratus, angulis ipsis posticis vLv exstantihus : anfennce breviores, ad apicem clavafce 
{articulis nono, decimo et undeoimo clavam distinctam intiis serratam e_fficientibus). 

126. Trogosita serrata, Woll. 

T. angusto-subcylindrica picescenti-ferruginea subopaca, elytris parallelis profunda punctato-striatis. 
Long. corp. lin. 3|. 

Habitat Maderam ; mihi non obvia, sed duo specimina benigne communicavit ReV^^^ Dom. Lowe. 

T. narrower, more cylindrical and parallel than the T. mauritanica, also less depressed, of a pale 
piceo-ferruginous hue, and much more opake. Head and prothorax deeply punctured : the 
latter much more quadrate than that of the last species (being narrower in front and broader 
behind,— and consequently with the sides straighter) ; with the anterior angles rather obtuser and 
less produced, and the extreme posterior ones not so much thickened or prominent as those of that 
insect. Elytra narrow, parallel, and deeply punctate-striated ; the interstices each with two rows 
of most minutely impressed points. Antenna and legs concolorous with the rest of the surface ; 
the latter rather shorter than those of the T. mauritanica, and distinctly clavated at their apex, — 
the terminal three joints forming a tolerably abrupt and internally-serrated club. 

In its distinctly clavated antennae and comparatively subquadrate prothorax the 
present insect recedes from the normal members of the genus. As regards the 
former indeed its structure is very remarkable, the ninth, tenth and eleventh 
joints forming an abrupt and internally-serrated club : — nevertheless there can be 
no doubt but that it is a true Trogosita, since in aU other respects it retains the 
essential characteristics of the group. I have not, myself, succeeded in detecting 
it in the Madeira Islands, the only two specimens which have hitherto come 
beneath my notice having been presented to me by the Rev. R. T. Lowe from the 
collection of the late Dr. Heineeken, by whom they were captured many years ago 
near Funchal, — and where it is far from improbable that they may have been 
accidentally introduced with corn or merchandise. 

x2 



156 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Fam. 13. CUCUJID^. 

Genus 54. CRYPTAMORPHA, WoU. (Tab. IV. fig. 1.) 

Corpus minusculuni, parallelo-elongatum, depressum, Psammoeco affine : prothorace subcylindrico, 
lateribus (pncsertiin ad aiigulos anticos) creiiulatis : scutellu distincto, transverso : alls auiplis. 
AntenruE capite prothoraceque paulo longiores, parum robustse, subfiliformes (apicem versus vix 
sensim incrassatae), articulo primo sat elongate, secundo brevi, rebquis ad dccimura longitudine 
vix decrescentibus, undecimo ovato basi truncato. Labrum (IV. I a) porrectum transversuni, 
anticc integrum ciliatum. Mandibulce (IV. 1 b) vabdae, basi latae, ad sumnium apicem (ut in 
Dendi'opbago) bidentatse, necnon infra apicem dente minuto instructse. Maxillx (IV. 1 c) 
bilobae : lobo externa lato, apice valde j)ubescenti : interno minuto angusto valde pubescenti 
membranaceo. Palpi maxillares articulo j)rimo minutissimo, secundo magno crasso subclavato, 
tertio minora transverso, ultimo fusiformi-subacuminato basi truncato : labiales (IV. 1 d) articulo 
primo minutissimo, secundo magno crasso subclavato, ultimo maximo brevi latissimo securiformi- 
transverso apice truncato. Meiiliim breve transversum, antice angustatnin, ad summum a])icem 
excavato-emarginatum et angulis lateralibus porrcctis acuti.s. Ligula membrauacea, antice pilosa. 
Pedes valde cursorii : tibiis muticis : tarsis (IV. 1 e) pilosis (in maribus, nisi fallor, heteromeris), 
articulo primo leviter abbreviate, secundo et tertio longitudine subsequalibus (illo subcordato, 
boc profunde bilobo), quarto minutissimo inter lobos tertii inimerso, ultimo clougato unguicuUs 
siiupHcibus niunito. 

A Crypta (genus Coleopteroruni) ct fJ.op(f)Tj figura. 

I had for some time regarded the insect on wliich the present genus is founded 
as a true Fsammoecus {= Crypta, Steph. a.d. 1830), to which both in its habits 
and outline it is very closely allied. A more careful examination, however, of its 
oral organs and feet has subsequently con'vinced me that it is impossible to asso- 
ciate it ^ith that group, as usually defined (and of which the Anthicusbipimctatus 
of Fabricius is supposed to be the typo), however much it may resemble some of 
the meml)crs of it externally, — since it is wanting in many of the most essential 
structural characteristics on which it is made to depend. Thus, the enormously 
developed secm-iform joint \\'\.t\\ which the maxillary palpi of Psamiiioecus are 
terminated is here narrow and fusiform, and even acuminated towards its apex ; 
whilst the labial ones have their ultimate articulation immenselv swollen, and 
more abruptly hatchet-shaped than is there the case. Its mandibles also, which 
are bidiMitate at their extremity, and have a small additional subapical tooth 
within, recede from those of Fsainmoecm, and coincide almost entirely with the 
modification which obtains in Dendrophagxs. Then, the mentum likewise is of a 
very different form, being deeply emarginated anteriorly, instead of produced; 
whilst, lastly, its tarsi (instead of being quadriarticulate) arc pentamerous in the 
females (the minute fourtli joint being concealed between the greatly enlarged 
lobes of the third), and heteromerous (unless indeed my observations deceive me) 
in the males. U])on the whole, therefore, I should consider Cryptamorpha as an 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 157 

undoubtedly new genus, — intermediate perhaps between Psammcecus and Dendro- 
phagus ; since it partakes of the former in its general habits and aspect, in its 
prominent upper lip, and in the construction of the inner lobe of its maxillae and 
thh'd tarsal joint ; whilst in its mandil)les and maxUlary palpi, and in the number 
of the articulations of its feet (in one sex at all events, if not indeed in both) it ap- 
proaches the latter. In the shape of its nientum and labial j)alpi, on the other 
hand, it agrees with neither, — although the first more nearly resembles that of 
Dendrophagus than of PsammoecKs, whilst the second assimilate those of Psani- 
moeciis rather than of Dendrophagus. 

127. Cryptamorpha Musse, Woll. (Tab. IV. fig. l.) 

C. elongata depressa pubescens rufo-testacea, elytris profunde punctato-striatis testaceis macula sub- 
scutellari fasciaque postmedia, necuon linea plus minusve coujungenti vel sufTusa (in singido 
prope suturam sita), nigre.scentibus, antennis pedibusque pallido-testaceis, illaruni articulis sub- 
apicalibus infuseatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. If. 

Habitat in Madera australi, circa urbem Funcbalensem, rarissime : in horto EcclesiEe Anglicanse (qua; 
in Bcco das Arliubas sita est), sub libra Musa sapientitm, Linn., Augusto ineunte a.d. 1850 pri- 
mus inveni ; et tempore vernali a.d. 1851 in floribus Calocasiee cl. Dom. Heer detexit. 

C. elongated, depressed, very pubescent, and rufo-testaceous. Head rather large and prominent, 
finely punctulated, and with a deep and narrow longitudinal impression, or groove, on either side 
between the eyes, which however terminates abruptly on the hinder portion of the forehead. 
Prothorax elongated and subcylindrical, a little narrowed behind, and with the hinder disk a 
good deal flattened ; rather more deeply punctured than the head (the spaces between the punc- 
ttu'es appearing beneath a high magnifying power to be very delicately roughened, or somewhat 
granulose) ; with the lateral edges minutely crenulated, — especially about the anterior angles, 
which are a little downwardly-produced. Elytra deeply punctate-striated ; testaceous, with a 
somewhat triangular patch in front of the scutellum, and a transverse postmedial abbreviated 
zigzag fascia, common to both, — as also a narrow connecting line close alongside the suture of 
each (but which is often suffused, or even evanescent, especially in front), — black. Antenna and 
legs pale testaceous : the former with their subapical joints more or less infuscated, — the terminal 
one being always pale. 

A most elegant insect, and apjoarently extremely scarce ; being confined, so far 
as I am aware, to hot sheltered spots in and immediately around Funchal. It was 
first discovered by myself, early in August 1850, in the garden of the English 
Church in the Beco das Aranhas, beneath the outer fibre of the stems of the 
Banana {Ilusa sapientmu,, Linn.), — where it would appear more especially to reside, 
subsisting (much in the same manner as the Psammcecus bipimctatus does on the 
Carex acuta of central and northern Europe) on the sap with which that gigantic 
Monocotyledon abounds ; — a mode of life for which its unarmed and densely 



158 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

pubescent maxill83 and its deeply bilobed antepenultimate tarsal joint would seem 
to be peculiarly adapted. It is exceedingly rapid in its movements, running with 
such immense velocity when exposed to the light as not to be seciu'ed without 
some degree of dexterity. Professor Heer informs me that he met with it sparingly 
on the flowers of a Calocasia, in Funchal, during the spring of 1851 ; and I have 
lately received a specimen from M. Dohrn of Stettin, communicated to him by 
M. Hartunff. 



^O" 



Genus 55. L.ffiMOPHL(EUS. (Tab. III. fig. 7, 8 et 9.) 
(Dcj. Cat. edit. 2. 315) Erich. Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 315 (184:8). 

Corpus minusculum vol parvuni, parallelo-eloogatum, plcrumque valde deprcssum : capite pro- 
thoracequc stria longitudinali elevata utrinque ssepius instructis, hue angulis anticis plus minusve 
leviter productis : alls amplis. Antenna vel (III. 8) filiformes et (praesertim iu maribus) lon- 
giuscula?, vel (III. 7, 9) moniliformes breviores robustse et apicem versus sensim subincrassatse ; 
articulo primo sat elongato robusto, secundo bren, reliquis modo (III. 8) latitudine a-qualibus et 
lougitudiue subcrescentibus, modo (III. 7, 9) longitudine suba'qualibus et latitudine leviter 
crescentibus (ultimo interdum subturbinato, aut potius ad apicem ipsum tuberculato). Labrum 
(III. 8 a) porrectum, subscmicirculare, antice ciliatum. Mandihuhe (III. 8 b) validie, ad sum- 
mum apicem bidcntata; et infra ajiicera excisce, basin versus niembrana tcnui auct?e. Maxilla 
(III. 8 c) bilobse : lobo extemo lato, apice valde pubescenti : intemo minutissimo brevi angusto, 
ad apicem acutissimo-uncinato. Palpi maxillares articulo primo minutissimo, secundo majore 
crassiore subclavato, tertio brevi, iiltimo secundo vix longiore fusiformi basi truncate : labialcs 
(III. 8 d) e scapis ligula; connatis surgentes, articulo primo minutissimo, secundo et ultimo 
elongatis longitudine subrequalibus (illo subclavato, lioc subfusiformi basi truncato). Mentum 
breve transversum, antice excavato-emarginatum. Liyula cornea, antice pilosa. Pedes sat 
robusti : tibiis calcari terminali, praecipue iu anticis (III. 8 e), armatis : tarsis simplicibus (in 
maribus heteromeris), articulo primo minutissimo a;gre observaudo, ultimo elongato unguiculis 
simplicibus munito. 

In addition to the structure of their oral organs and feet, — amongst the details 
of which the excessive minuteness of theu- (imciuated) inner maxillary lobe (as 
though to connect them with the Trogositid(B, in which that lobe is obsolete), and 
the heteromerous condition of the male sex should be especially noticed, — the 
Lcnmophloei may be at once recognised by many external characteristics peculiarly 
their own. Thus, their usually small size and exceedingly flattened bodies, in 
conjunction witli the elevated submarginal stria wliich (although occasionally 
increased by a second one) is seldom, if ever, entu'ely absent from the edges of 
either theu* forehead or prothorax, as also the singidar tendency which a portion 
of the species possess to have the terminal joint of theu* antennae so distinctly 
tubercled at its apex as almost to seem (beneath a high magnifying power) to be 
composed of two, are nearly sufficient, even alone, to separate them fi-om the 
members of the allied groups. Nevertheless, in some other respects they present 
considerable diversity inter se, — so much so indeed, that, were the extremes of form 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 159 

merely to be taken into account, they might appear to arrange themselves under two 
well-defined sections ; in the first (III. 8) of which the antennae are long (especially 
in the males) and filiform (the articulations being inclined, if anything, rather to 
increase hi length and dimiaish in breadth), and the forehead is terminated abruptly, 
and hollowed out, immediately before the point of their insertion : wliUst in the 
second (III. 7, 9) the antennae are comparatively abbreviated, moniliform, and roliust 
(the joints becoming, for the most part, gradually thicker from the base), and the 
forehead is much more produced anteriorly, being truncated only at its extremity, 
— and generally moreover in a straight line instead of an incui'ved arc. These 
modifications however, although remarkably apparent in the extremes, are so far 
lost sight of, and merged into each other, in the means as to be scarcely traceable ; 
and hence it is not possible to make use of them, for even subsidiary purposes, in 
a universal arrangement. Still, since aU the representatives which I have hitherto 
been able to detect in the Madeira Islands are unmistakeable members of one or 
the other of these ojjposite types, the divisions may be employed hi the present 
instance with great convenience. 



§ I. AntenncB longed filiformes, articulo ultimo dehiliore tuherculiforml (quasi ex articulis duobus composito) : 
frons ad antennarum insertionem late subemarginato-truncata : elytra apice truncata. 

128. Laemophloeus Lonacioides, Wall. (Tab. III. fig. 8.) 

L. plumbeo-piceus granulatus opacus, capite prothoraceque subtiliter punctatis, hoc breviusculo sub- 

quadrato, angulis antici-s subexstantibus, posticis subrotundatis, margine antico lineis duabus 

brevissimis politis submediis notato, elytris testaceis striatis ad apicem valde truncatis, sutura, 

striis et interdum margine plumbeis, antennarum basi ferruginea, pedibus testaceis. 

Mas, antennis longissimis, prothorace pone discuni punctis duobus magnis (rarius evanescentibus) 

utriuque longitudinaliter impresso. 
Foem. antennis minus elongatis, prothorace haud impresso. 
Long. Corp. lin. mas, If : fmm. I3— 1|. 

Habitat Maderam sylvaticam, sub cortice arbonim, rarissimus : in sylvis convallis Boa Ventura dictse 
d. 18 Febr. a.d. 1849 primus iuveni ; necnon in castanetis Sanctse Annse sestate media a.d. 1850 
parce coUegi. 

Ij. large, exceedingly depressed, dull piceous with a lead-coloured tinge, opake, and almost free from 
pubescence. Head and prothorax very closely and rather coarsely granulated, and with fine 
punctures intermixed : forehead with the anterior edge truncated, and hollowed out immediately 
in front of the antennse ; with a raised marginal stria, and a very distinctly impressed central 
one down the disk. Prothorax rather short, subquadrate, and slightly narrowed behind; the 
posterior angles somewhat rounded, and the anterior ones a little prominent; with two small, 
polished, longitudinal spaces in the centre of the front margin, — resembling very minute portions 
of glabrous lines. Elytra more delicately granulated than the head and prothorax, very shortly 
and most sparingly pubescent ; very much truncated behind, exposing the pygidium ; distinctly 



160 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

striated upon the disk, — the strhe vanishing towards the base and apex, especially the latter ; 
testaceous, with the suture, the strije, and occasionally also the external margins, darker. 
Antenna at base ferruginous ; and with their apical joint very distinctly tubercled at its extremity. 
Legs testaceous. 
Male, with the antennae exceedingly long ; and with two large punctures, or rounded fovese (rarely 
evanescent), placed longitudinally on either side of the hinder prothoracic disk. 

A large and most beautiful Lccmophlcc)(s, and one which recedes in many ini- 
jjortant particulars from the other members of the genus here described, — its dark 
and comparatively variegated surface, and the great length of its antemiae, in con- 
junction with the two abbreviated polished spaces at the anterior margin, and the 
four rounded impressions (in the male sex) on the hinder disk of its prothorax, 
giWng it a character essentially its own. It is, apparently, very rare, and confined 
to intermediate altitudes within the sylvan districts. I have taken it during the 
summer months, on more than one occasion, from beneath the bark of the Spanish 
chestnuts in Senhor Louiz Acciaioly's vineyard at Santa Anna ; and, likewise, in 
the Boa Ventura, on the 18th of February 1849. 

129. Lsemophloeus graniilatus, WuU. 

Ij. rufo-ferrugineus granulatus opacus, capite prothoraceque parce leviter punctatis, hoc elongato- 
subquadrato angulis subaequaliter exstantibus, elytris striatis ad apicem leviter truncatis, pedibus 
rufo-testaceis. 
Mas, antennis longioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-1^. 

Habitat per regionem Maderse sylvaticam, non infrequens : in convalle Boa Ventura dicta mense 
Februario, necnon tempore sestivo in castanetis Sancta Annie, sat copiose observavi. 

Ij. exceedingly depressed, parallel, rufo-ferruginous, opake, and almost free from pubescence. Head 
and prothorax very closely granulated, and with fine and very shallow punctures intermixed : 
forehead with the anterior edge truncated and hollowed out immediately in front of the antennae; 
with a raised marginal stria, and a very distinctly impressed central one down the disk. Prothorax 
elongate-subquadrate, and very slightly narrowed behind; with the anterior and posterior angles 
almost equally ])roniinent (the former perhaps, if anything, being rather the more so). Elytra 
rather long, similarly granulated with the head and ])rothorax ; much less truncated behind than 
those of the last species; striated, — the subsutural strise being generally obsolete in front. 
Antenna longer in the males than in the females (longer, in both sexes, than those of any of the 
following species, but shorter than those of the L. Donncioides) ; and with their apical joint very 
distinctly tubercled at its extremity. Legs rufo-testaceous. 

In their opake, granulated, and almost unpubescent sm'faces, and in the com- 
paratively great length of theu" antennaj (the apical articulation of which is shrunk 
and suddenly acuminated at its extremity, — so as to resemble a separate tubercle, 
or even an additional joint), as well as in the broad truncation (or somewhat 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 161 

emargined anterior edge) of theii- foreheads, the present insect and the last are 
coincident : but the small size and pale immaculate hue of the L. grannlatus 
would tend, 2)i'imd facie, to associate it more with the members of the second 
section than with the i. Donacioides. The above characters however will of 
cou.rse at once distinguish it from any of the following species, — from which, 
moreover, its deep fi-ontal stria and the subequaUy prominent angles of its 
straightened prothorax will serve even farther to remove it. It is widely distri- 
buted over the forest regions of Madeu-a, above the elevation of about 1500 feet. 
I have captiu-ed it from beneath the bark of trees, during the winter, in the Boa 
Ventm-a ; and, in the summer, at the Eibeu-o Prio and the Lombo dos Pecegueii-os, 
— as also, though more sparingly, in the Chestnut- woods of Santa Anna. 



§ II. Antenna: breviores, iilus minusve moniliformes {apicem versus interdum leviter incrassates), articulo 
ultimo fere vel omnino integro ; frons antice magis producta, ad apicem solum subrecto-truncata ; 
elytra apice Integra. 

130. Lsemophlceus vermicvdatus, Wall. 

L. angustus pallido-ferrugineus subnitidus parce subtiliter pubescens, capite prothoraceque (prse- 
sertim illo) subvenniculato-punctato, hoc postice attenuate, angulis anticis subobtusis, posticis 
rotundatis, elytris striatis vis pallidioribus, pedibus testaceis. 
Mas adhuc latet (exemplar umcum, sc. foemineum, tantum possideo) . 

Long. corp. lin. ^. 

Habitat Maderam borealem sylvaticam, — in castanetis SanctseAnnse sestate medi^ a.d. 1850 a meipso 
repertus. 

Ii. small and narrow, depressed, parallel, pale ferruginous, slightly shining, and very sparingly 
pubescent. Head and prothorax rather deeply, but somewhat irregularly punctured, — the 
punctures (especially on the former) being lengthened, or, more strictly, with a tendency to 
become confluent and to produce somewhat curved furrows, as though they had been scooped or 
eaten out : forehead considerably produced anteriorly, and with the extreme edge straightly 
truncated (as is more or less the case with all the species of this division) in front ; with a raised 
marginal stria, but with scarcely any indications of a central line down the disk. Prothorax 
long, rather more convex than that of the L.granulatus, and naiTOwed behind; with the anterior 
angles obtuse and scarcely at all prominent, and the posterior ones rounded oiF. Elytra rather 
long and parallel, a little paler than the head and prothorax ; entire at their apex ; and very 
distinctly striated. Leys testaceous. 

The present minute species, of which I have seen hitherto but a single example, 
may be kno^\Ti by its narrow and parallel outline, and by the singular punctxu'es 
of its head and (somewhat posteriorly-narrowed) prothorax, — which (especially on 
the former) have the appearance, when viewed beneath the microscope, of being 
carved or eaten out, rather than round and isolated. My unique specunen was 
captm-ed in the Chestnut-woods of Santa Anna, dui"ing the summer of 1850. 

T 



162 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

131. Lsemophlceus pusillus. 
I>. curtus pallido-ferrugineus subnitidus valde pubescens, prothorace subquadrato punctato, angulis 
anticis obtusis, posticis rectis, elytris striatis vix pallidioribuSj interstitiis obscure seriato-punctu- 
latis, pedibus testaceis. 
Mas, antennis paulo longioribus. 
Long. corp. lin. ^. 

Cueujus minutm, Oliv. {nee Kugell. in ScJineid. Mag. 1791-1794) Ent. iv. bia 8, 9 (1795). 

pusillus, Schou. Syn. Ins. iii. 55 (1817). 

LcemopMceus pusillus, Erich. Xat. cler Ins. Deiitsch. iii. 321 (1848). 
, Sturm, Beutscli. Fna, xxi. 50. tab. 383. fig. E, F (1851). 

Habitat in granariis domibusquc Maderse, priesertim in urbe ipsa Funcbalensi, toto anno vulga- 
tissimus, — foi'san e.x Europa vel Americse meridionalis insulis introductus. 

1m. very minute, short and comparatively broad, exceedingly depressed, pale ferruginous, slightly 
shining, and very pubescent. Head and prothorax rather unequally punctured : forehead less 
produced anteriorly than in the last species, but transversely truncated iu front ; with a raised 
mai-ginal stria, and sometimes with exceedingly faint indications of an abbreviated central line 
behind. Prothorax short, broad and subquadrate, scarcely at all narrowed behind, and with the 
disk much depressed ; the posterior angles right angles, and the anterior ones obtuse. Elytra a 
httle paler than the head and prothorax, very pubescent ; entire at then- apex ; distinctly striated, 
and with the interstices longitudinally (though obscurely) punctured. Antenna of equal thick- 
ness throughout, — short and rather robust in the females, and with the joints subglobose ; a 
little longer in the males, and with the joints rather less abbreviated. Leys testaceous. 

The smallest of the Madeii-an Lcemophloei, and readily knoTAii, apart from its 
diminutive hulk, hy its comparatively short and Ijroad outline and very puhes- 
cent siu'face, and hy the somewhat irregular pvmctm-es of its head and (ahnost 
quadrate) prothorax. It is unquestionahly an imported insect into Madeu-a, 
heing extremely common in the granaries and houses of Funehal ; and it may he 
frequently ohserved crawling up the outer walls, even in the city itself, in great 
l)rofusion. At tunes indeed it makes its appearance in actual multitudes, espe- 
cially during the autumnal months, — Avhen it may he seen emerging from the 
windows and doorways, especially of the shops in various parts of the town, the 
white-washed exteriors of the huildings, in conjimction with its somewhat sluggish 
moA^ements, rendering it, even though thus minute, remarkahly conspicuous. 
It has hecome natiu-alized in most parts of Europe, heing a species liahle to 
transmission amongst civilized countries Avith different kinds of stores, — though 
especially with corn and rice. It a])pears howcA'cr to he tridy incUgenous in certain 
districts of central and subaustral latitudes ; and it is not improbahle therefore 
that the southern Mediterranean limits may have heen one of its original centres 
of diflrision. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 163 

132. LgemopMoeus ferrugineus. 
L. pallido-ferrugineus nitidus piibescens, prothorace elongato punctate, postice attenuate, angulis 
anticis obtusis, posticis exstantibus, elytris striatis vix pallidioribus, pedibus testaceis. 
Mas mihi in Madera non obvius (focminam tantum habeo) ; sed differt solum antennis paulo lon- 
gioi'ibus (teste Lcemophlcei Monographid, in Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xxi. tab. 383. fig. B). 
Long. Corp. lin. 1. 

Cuciijus ferrugineits, Creutzer, in lift. 

testaceus, Payk. {nee Fab. 1792) Fna Suec. ii. 168 (1798). 

ferrugineits, Stepb. Bl. Brit. Ent. iv. 232 (1831). 

Lcemopliloeus ferrugineus, Ericli. JSTat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 322 (1818). 
■ , Sturm, Bewtsch. Fna, xxi. 53. tab. 383. fig. B (1851). 

Habitat in iisdem locis ac praecedens, semel tantum (in urbe Funchalensi) captus. 

I». a little longer, more parallel and shining than the L. pusillus, depressed, pale ferruginous, and 
clothed with a silken pubescence. Head and prothorax rather more finely punctui'ed than (and 
perhaps not quite so much depressed as in) the last species : forehead as in that insect, but with- 
out the slightest indication, apparently, of a central line. Pruthurax rather long, and narrowed 
behind ; the posterior angles prominent, and the anterior ones obtuse. Elytra a little paler 
than the head and protjiorax, rather longer than in the last species, very pubescent ; entire at 
their apex ; and distinctly striated. Legs testaceous. 

Somewhat intermediate between the L. pusillus and the L. clavicollis, — from 
the former of which however it may be known by its rather longer, more parallel 
and shining body, and by the totally different construction of its prothorax ; AvhUst 
the more distinctly prominent hinder angles of the last, which is of a more de- 
pressed and less posteriorly-narrowed form, in conjunction with the comparatively 
broader outline of the entire insect, will serve to separate it from the latter*. In 
its habits and general contour, however, it is clearly more related to the first of 
those species (with which it appears to be found in company) than to the second, 
it being liable, in the same manner, to importation, amongst grain, — under which 
circumstances it occasionally makes its appearance, in Europe, in considerable 
abundance. In Madeira I have hitherto captured but a single specimen; but, 
since that one was taken in Funchal, it is probable that it wotild be detected in 
sufficient numbers were the granaries and storehouses of the city to be properly 
investigated. 

133. Laemophloeus clavicollis, WoU. 

Ij. angustus pallido-ferrugineus subnitidus pubescens, capite prothoraceque subconvexis, illo postice 



* In size and outward aspect the L. ferrugineus approaches the L. duplicalus of Waltl; but it has not 
the slightest indication of the double protlioracic line which constitutes one of the principal distiuctiye 
featiu-es of that insect ; whilst from the L. vermiculatus it may be recognized by its broader and more 
pubescent siu-face, by the different character of the pimctuation of its forehead, and by the prominent 
hinder angles of its prothorax, 

y2 



164 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

lato, hoc punctate antice dilatato et postice valde attenuato, angulis anticis obtusisj posticis sub- 
rotundatis, elytris striatis vix pallidioribus, pedibus testaceis. 
Mas, antennis paulo longioribus, capite postice latiore. 
Long. Corp. lin. f-1^- 

Habitat Maderam sylvaticam, sub cortice arborum, prjesertim in castanetis ; — ad Sanctam Annam 
necnon ad Lombo dos Pecegueiros aestate media a.d. 1850 detectus. 

L. narrow and parallel, pale ferruginous, slightly shining, and pubescent. Head and prothor ax punc- 
tui-ed, and more convex than in any of the foregoing species : the former (especially in the male 
sex) wide between the eyes ; with the forehead produced, and trans\ersely truncated, in front ; 
\^^th a raised marginal stria, but usually without any indications of a central line. Prothorax 
long, wide in front and exceedingly narrowed behind ; with the anterior angles obtuse, and the 
posterior ones just perceptibly prominent at their extreme point. Elytra parallel, a little paler 
than the head and prothorax ; entire, or nearly so, at their apex ; and distinctly striated. An- 
tenna just iicrcejitibly thickened towards their extremities, — the joints being subglobose ; a little 
longer in the males than in the females. Legs pale testaceous. 

The peculiar shape of the head and prothorax of the present Lcemophloens, — the 
former of which (especially in the male sex) is vddc hetween the eyes, whilst the 
latter is very much attenuated posteriorly, — will serve to distinguish it, prima 
facie, from the remainder of the genus here described except the L. axillaris ; — 
from which nevertheless its much smaller size and pallid hue, in conjimction with 
its pubescent surface and different sculptiu-e, will equally remove it. From the 
L. ferrtigineiis it differs in its narrower outline, and in the more roimded hinder 
angles of its somewhat convexer and much more posteriorly-attenuated prothorax. 
In its habits it is quite distinct from that insect, being a truly indigenous species, 
and confined to the sylvan districts of intermediate altitudes. It is apparently 
however more attached to the chestnut-woods than to the native laurels, — my 
specimens being princijjally from the -sdneyards of Santa Anna and fi-om that 
portion of the dense forest-region of the Lombo dos Pecegueii"os kuoflTi as the 
Chao das Castanheiras. 

134. Laemophloeiis axillaris, Woll. (Tab. III. fig. 7.) 

li. angusto-subcylindricus piceus subopacus, capite prothoraceque convexis, illo postice latissimo pro- 
funde longitudinaliter striguloso-punctato, hoc subtilissime granulato et subruguloso-punctato, 
antice valde dilatato et postice attenuato, angulis rotundato-obtusis, elytris striatis subtilissime 
granulatis ad humeros liete rufescentibus, antennis tibiisque picescenti-ferrugineis, tarsis 
testaceis. 
Mas (III. 7), antennis brevibus moniliformibus robustis, apicem versus subincrassatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. \\. 

Habitat in ^Madera sylvatica, rarissimus ; ad Ribeiro Frio Augusto ineuntc a.d. 1850 semel tantum 
repertus. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 165 

L. long, narrow, and somewhat cylindrical, piceous with a slightly rufescent, or rosy tinge, subopake, 
but almost free from pubescence. Head and prothorax convex : the former rather suddenly 
shortened (or less convex) in front of the antcunse, exceedingly wide (at any rate in the male sex) 
between the eyes (which are small, and placed at a considerable distance from the anterior edge 
of the prothorax), and very rugosely punctured, — the punctures being somewhat confluent, or 
vermiculate, causing the sculpture to be almost longitudinally strigulose; with the forehead much 
produced, although transversely truncated, in front ; with a raised marginal stria, and a very 
obscurely depressed central one down the disk. Prothorax long, most delicately and minutely 
granulated, exceedingly wide in front and narrowed behind ; and with all the angles rounded or 
obtuse; the extreme front margin a little paler, or rufescent. Elytra subcylindrical, likewise 
most minutely granulated ; entire at their apex ; distinctly striated, and with the interstices 
longitudinally (though very obscurely) punctured; with an ill-deSned and sufiiised patch at the 
shoulder of each of a rosy or rufescent tinge. Antenna piceo-ferruginous, short, moniliform (the 
joints being subglobose), and robust (at any rate in the male, — and therefore probably, « for- 
tiori, in the female), and becoming gradually a little thicker towards their apex. Femora rufo- 
picescent : tibia piceo-ferruginous : tarsi testaceous. 

One of tlie most distinct and elegant of the Madeiran L(Bmo2Mcei. It may Ije 
immediately known from all the other species hy its long, narrow, and subcylin- 
drical form, by its excessively broad head and posteriorly-narrowed prothorax (from 
the anterior edge of which its unusually small eyes are placed at a considerable 
distance), by its deeply sculptured and longitudinally strigitlose forehead, and l)y 
the dark colour of its body, — a suffused, rosy, or rufescent portion at the shoulder 
of each of its elytra being alone paler. It is, apparently, extremely rare, the only 
specimen (a male) which has hitherto come under my observation ha\-ing l^een 
captured by myself at the edges of the Levada of the Ribeiro Erio, August 6, 1860. 

135. Lsemophlceiis Stenoides, Wall. (Tab. III. fig. 9.) 

L. antice subattenuatus rufo-ferrugineus opacus subtilissime subgranulatus, capite prothoraceque valde 
rugulosis (sed vix punctatis), hoc elongato-subquadrato, angulis anticis obtusis, posticis leviter 
exstantibus, elytris costato-striatis, pedibus rufo-testaceis. 
Mas adhuc latet (foeminam tantum habeo, — cujus antennse sunt valde robustse et brevissimse) . 

Long, coi-p. lin. \\. 

Habitat Maderam; una cum L. axillari, d. 6 Aug. a.d. 1850, ad Ribeiro Frio a meipso captus. 

L. somewhat attenuated anteriorly, depressed, rufo-ferruginous, opake, free from pubescence, and 
most minutely roughened, or very delicately subgranulated, all over. Head and prothorax (espe- 
cially the former) greatly wrinkled, but not punctured : forehead much produced, though trans- 
versely truncated, in front ; with a raised marginal stria, and with obscure indications of a 
slightly elevated central one, which vanishes however both before and behind. Prothorax elon- 
gate-subquadi-ate (being straight and very slightly narrowed behind) ; the anterior angles obtuse, 
and the posterior ones a little prominent. Elytra entire at their apex ; and with about four very 
distinctly raised strise on each. Antennce (at any rate in the female, of which I can alone speak) 



166 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

exceedingly short, monilrform, and robust, becoming sensibly thicker toyvards their apex. Legs 
rufo-testaceous. 

An exceedingly Avell-cleflned species, — its anteriorly subaciiniinated outline, in 
conjunction with the excessive shortness and robustness of its antenna?, the opake 
and greatly wrinlded (though tnqmnctured) siu-facc of its head and prothorax, and 
its raised elytral striae, at once distinguishing it from all the Lcemophlcei -nith 
which we have here to do. Like the L. axillaris, it is hitherto iinique, the 
example from wliich the above description has been cbaA^Ti out having been cap- 
tured Ijy myself, in company 'o-ith that insect, at the Ribeiro Frio, during August 
1850. 

Genus 56. SILVANUS. 

Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Lis. iii. 19 (1S07). 

Corptis minusculum vol par\'uni, plus niinusvc elongatum angustatum et dcprcssum : pruthorace 
angulis (prasertim anticis) sa;pius valde productis, ad latera plus minusve crenulato-dentato : 
alis amplis. Antenna spepius subclavatse, articulis inimo, secundo et tertio longitudine sub- 
sequalibus (prime sat robusto), quarto ad scptimum subglobosis, octavo ])aulo niinore, rcliquis 
clavaui plus minusve obscui-am laxam triarticulatam efficientibus. Labrum transvcrsum, antice 
integrum ciliatum. Mandibulee validaj acutse, infra apicem profunde excisse ciliatse. Maxilla 
bilobie : lobu externa lato, apice valde pubesceuti : interno minuto brevi angusto pubesccnti. 
Palpi maxillarcs articulo primo angusto flexuoso, sceuudo et turtio crassis subtcqualibus, ultimo 
elongato fusiformi basi truncato : labiates articulo primo minutissimo, secundo et idtimo elougatis 
longitudine subsequalibus (illo subclavato, hoc subfusiformi basi truncato). Mentum transvcr- 
sum, antice excavato-emarginatum. Licjula ampla subquadrata, apice valde pilosa. Pedes 
robusti : tarsis articulis primo, secundo et tertio magnis suba^qualibus (tertio cordato), quarto 
minutissimo. 

Not to mention minor points of distinction, which Avill be readily gathered from 
the above diagnosis, the genus Silcamts may be kno^\■n from Lcemophloeus by its 
usually less depressed form, by its shorter and more clavated antenna?, and by the 
structiu'c of its mandibles and tarsi, — the last of which are pentamerous in both 
sexes, and have their basal articulation comparatively large {iiot being percei)tibly 
more abbreviated than either of the following two), and their fourth one extremely 
minute. In their oral organs, as well as in their habits, the S'lhani approach veiy 
closely to the Cri/ptophagi (from wliieh indeed one or tAvo of the less tj-pical species 
are not, at first sight, very easily separable), — thus constituting a vciy natural 
link between the Cryptophagidce and the CucttJidcB, to both of which they are so 
intimately related that it matters but little, I conceive, to which of those families 
we choose to assign them. The most essential featm-es in wliich they recede from 
C'rfiptopliayus, apart from their narrower, flatter, and generally more sculptm'cd 
liodies, are the longer and subaciuninated terminal joint of their palpi, and the 
construction of theii' feet, — those of the Cryptophagl being heteromerous in the 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 167 

males, and with tlieir penultimate articulation, in both males and females, scarcely 
smaller than any of those which precede it. The Silvani are insects peculiarly 
liable to dissemination over the world through the medium of commerce, feeding- 
on sugar and other saccharine substances, — amongst which however (since they are 
more particularly indigenous to tropical climates) they are, in northern latitudes, 
more frequently perhaps to be found dead than alive. Some of the aberrant 
members of the group (represented by the S. advena in Madeira) are less restricted 
in theu- modes of life, occurring in various kinds of stores, and being partially 
attached even to farinaceous preparations and grain, — like some of the true 
Cryptopliagl. 

136. Silvanus Surinamensis. 

S. subparallelo-elongatus angustus fuscus opacus, capite prothoraceque crebre et profunde piinctatis, 
illo maguo, hoc tricarinato et dentibus sex lateralibus utrinque armato, elytris profimde sub- 
striato-puuctatis, interstitiis alternis leviter elevatis, anteunis minus clavatis, pedibus rufo- 
picescentibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. l^-ly. 

Dermestes Surinamensis, Lum. Syst. Nat. i. 2. bQ5 (1767). 

Anohium frumentarium, Fab. Mant. Ins. i. 39 (1787). 

Ips fntmentaria, Oliv. Ent. ii. 18. 10 (1790). 

Dermestes Q-dentatus, Fab. Ent. Syst. i. 232 (1792). 

Silvanus Surinamemis, Stepli. III. Brit. Ent. iii. 104 (1830). 

frumentarius, Sturm, Beutsch. Fna, xxi. 90. tab. 388. f. A. (18.51). 

Habitat urbem Funchalensem, in domibus et mercatorum repositoriis, illuc saccharinis introductus. 

S. elongated and narrow, subparallel (being very slightly narrowed anteriorly), less depressed than 
the S. dentatus, reddish-brown, exceedingly pubescent, and opake. Head and prothorax ven' 
deeply and closely punctured : the former large, wide at its base, and with the sides sinuous and 
considerably raised in front of the eyes, which are small : the latter narrow and elongated, almost 
equally attenuated before and behind ; with a straight central ridge down the disk, and an 
incurved one on either side ; the lateral edges armed, each, with six teeth, — those constituting 
the anterior and posterior angles being very long and acute. Elytra deeply substriate-punctate, 
and with the alternate interstices elevated. Antenna less clavated at their apex than those of 
either of the following species, Leffs bright rufo-piceous. 

A universally imported insect (though, in northern latitudes, never, I believe, in 
a living state), amongst sugar and other articles of commerce, tlu'oughout the 
civilized world, — and of constant occurrence in Madeira, under such circumstances. 
It may be known by its narrow, elongated outline, by its largely-developed head, 
minute eyes, and tricostate prothorax, and by its antennae being less distinctly 
clavated than those of the allied species. 

137. Silvanus dentatus. 
* S. parallelo-elongatus depressus fuscus vix opacus, capite prothoraceque crebre sed minus profunde 



168 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

subpunctatis, hoc amplo dentibus sex lateralibus magiiis utrinquc armatOj elytris leviter sub- 

seriato-punctatis, interstitiis alternis (prsesertim versus latera) elevatis, antennis robustis clavatis, 

pedibns rufo-picescentibus, femoribus denticulo minuto subtus miinitis. 

Long. Corp. lin. li. 

Corticaria dentata, Mshm, Ent. Brit. i. 108 (1802). 

Sihanits dentatus, Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. iii. 104 (1830). 

intermedins, Smith, Cat. Ins. Brit. Miis. {Cucujida:) 16 (1851). 

Habitat iu iisdem locis ac prsecedens, saccharinis introductus. 

S. larger, broader, more parallel and depressed than the S. Surinamensis, reddish-brown, pubescent, 
but not quite opake. Head and prothorax much less deeply and distinctly (although closely) 
punctured than in that insect : the former with the sides straight posteriorly, and raised from the 
extreme base to the insertion of the antennse, which causes a longitudinal groove, or depression, 
to be shaped out at either edge : the latter altogether larger and wider (especially in front) than 
that of the S. Suri/iamensis, much produced behind (in front of the scutellum), and compara- 
tively convex, — there being no appearance of ridges, although with two very obscure and shallow 
curved depressions on the hinder disk, which almost unite posteriorly ; the lateral edges armed 
each with six powerful teeth, — which are obtuser and wider than those of the last species, the 
ones which constitute the anterior and posterior angles (although greatly developed) not being 
quite so long and acute, compared w^ith the remainder, as iu that insect. Elytra more rufescent 
than the rest of the surface, very lightly subseriate-punctate, and with the alternate interstices 
(especially towards the margin) elevated. Antenna robust, and much more clavated than those 
of the last species. Legs bright rufo-piceous ; the two hinder femora being armed beneath with 
a small and acute tooth. 

Eoiind under the same circumstances as the S. Simnametisis, heing constantly 
liable to importation, amongst sugar and other saccharine substances, from 
tropical climates. As with that species, I have never been able, either in Madeira 
or elsewhere, to detect it in a living state, — it apparently not having succeeded in 
naturalizing itself in more noi'thern latitudes. 

138. Silvauus advena. 

S. oblougo-ovatus subconvexus pallido-ferrugiueus vel testaccus nitidus, capite prothoraceque minute 
puuctulatis, hoc convcxo subquadrato, angulis anticis valde ampliato-exstantibus, posticis sub- 
rectis, elytris vL\ pallidioribus obscure leviter subseriato-punctatis, antennis abrupte clavatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1. 

Cryptophagm ferruyineus, Sturm, Cat. 127 (1826). 

advena, (Kunze) AValtl, in Silb. Bev. Ent. ii. 256 (1834). 

Silvanus ferrugineus, Sturm, Cat. 235 (1813). 

advena, Erich. Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 339 (1848). 

, Stiu-m, Deutsch. Fna, xsi. 100. tab. 390. f. B. (1851). 

Habitat in granariis domibusque Madei-je, rarior, — forsan cum frumentariis in insulam invectus. 

S. smaller, broader, more ovate and convex than either of the previous species, pale nifo-ferruginous 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 169 

or even testaceous, shiuing, and pubescent. Head and prothorax very delicately punctulated, 
and closely so at the sides : the latter subquadrate, a little narrowed behind, convex and without 
any appearance of either ridges or depressions ; the anterior angles produced into a large, 
powerfid, and obtuse tooth, or projection, and the posterior ones almost right angles, — the edges 
being tolerably straight, and very minutely and regularly crenulated throughout. Elytra 
slightly paler than the head and prothorax, obscurely and very lightly subseriate-punctate ; and 
with the interstices very minutely punctulated, but not raised. Antenna exceedingly abruptly 
clavated at their apex. 

The present insect, in its general contoiu* and testaceous line, bears sucli a 
strong resemblance to a Cry2)to])hagus, that it might be almost supposed, at first 
sight, to be referable to that genus : nevertheless a more careful inspection of its 
structui-al characters will show it to be a true Silvanm, — although imquestion- 
ably a less typical member of the group than either of the preceding species. 
Apart from its pallid, more shining, and less sculptured surface, it recedes so com- 
pletely from the other Silvan I here described in its comparatively convex and 
oblong form, and in the construction of its (subquadi-ate) prothorax, — which has 
the anterior angles produced iato a large and obtuse tooth, and the hinder ones 
nearly right angles, whilst the lateral edges are minutely crenulated throughout, 
— as to render the chance of confounding it with either of them altogether im- 
possible. In its habits moreover, as well as in its outward aspect, it makes an 
evident approach towards CryptophciQus, — it being more general in its mode of 
Hfe, and often attaching itself to farinaceous substances and grain. Although, 
owing to its HabUity to transmission amongst articles of commerce, its proper 
country is not now easy to decide, it is evidently a native of more northern regions 
than either the »S. Surinamensis or the S. clentatus; and perhaps the southern 
Mediterranean limits may be regarded as, ui all probability, one of its origiaal 
areas of diffusion. It is apparently rare in Madeira, the only specimens which 
have hitherto come beneath my notice having been captured by myself in the 
garden of the Quinta d'iLaibrosio, near Punchal, during January 1848. 



Fam. 14. CRYPTOPHAGID^. 

Genus 57. CRYPTOPHAGUS. 

Herbst, Nat. die Kdf. iv. 172 (scrip. Kryptophagus) (1792). 

Corpus minusculum vel parvum, plus minusve oblongo-ovatum et convexum : prothorace angulis 
anticis elongato-ampliatis et subrecurvo-incrassatis, ad latera plus minusve deutato-creuulato ; 
alls amplis. Antenna clavatae, articulis primo et secundo (illo praecipue) parum robustis, tertio 
paulo longiore, quarto ad octavum brevioribus subsquahbus, reliquis clavam sublaxam triarticu- 
latam eificientibus (ultimo ad apicem oblique truncato). Labrum transversum, antice integrum 
ciliatum. Mandibulce validse acutae, infra apicem subcrenulatse, dein excisae ciliatae. Maxilla 
bilobBe : lobo externa Iato, apice valde pubescenti : interna minore angustiore pubescenti. Paljii 

Z 



170 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

maxillares articulo primo angusto flexuoso, secundo et tertio crassioribus subxqualibus, ultimo 
ovato : lahialcs e scapis ligulae connatis surgentcs, articulo primo flexuoso, secundo crassiore 
brevi, ultimo apice subtruncato. Mentum amplum, antice angustatum, summo apice excavato- 
emarginato. Li(jula subquadrata, apice membranri pilosa ancta. Pedes minus robusti : tarsis 
simplicibus (in maribus bcteromeris) ; articuiis omnibus, ultimo excepto, subjequalibus latitudiue 
vix decrescentibus. 

The Cnjptoj)hagi may be at once clistinguislicd by the stmctm-c of theii- pro- 
thorax, Avkich, throughout the genus, presents but slight successive modifications 
of a type which is common to the whole of it, — in which the anterior angles are 
developed into a more or less elongated shoulder, or ridge (which forms a kind of 
lengthened tooth, with the apex usually pointing backwards), whUst the remaining 
l)ortion of the edges are, either partially or altogether, subcrenulated, and have a 
small and more or less evident spine, on either side, about the centre. The 
species are generally somewhat pubescent and convex, and are principally of a 
testaceous, or pale ferruginous hue ; whilst the males, u nl ike those of the Silvani, 
are heteromerous, — the tarsal joints moreover, of both sexes, being (-nith the 
exception of the apical one) of almost equal length. They are insects of rather 
various habits, residing either in the open coimtry (amongst Bolcti, and beneath 
the loose bark and moss of trees), or else attaching themselves, like the Silcani 
and many of the Seteromera, to inhabited spots, — subsisting on grain, farinaceous 
substances, biscuits, and other articles of commerce, to which they fi-equently do 
considerable damage on board ship. The same species in fact wUl often adapt 
themselves to these opposite modes of life, — as is eminently the case with the 
single Madeiran representative of the group. 

139. Ciyptophagiis affinis. 

C. oblongo-oVatus convexus pallido-ferrugincus subuitidus et valde pubescens, capite prothoraceque 
profunde punctatis, hoc subquadrato-transverso dcnte medio lateral! utrinque armato et augulis 
anticis elongato-ampliatis, elytris vix pallidioribus undique (sed baud striato-) punctatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-1|^. 

Cryptaphagm affinis, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xvi. 79. tab. 31-1. f. C. (184:5). 

, Erich, ^^at. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 360 (1848). 

, Ecdt. Fna Austr. 192 (1849). 

Habitat ^iaderani, a domibus granariisque Funchalcnsibus usque ad rcgionem sylvaticam asccndeus, 
toto anno \iilgaris : in ipsa ui-be iutcrdum abundat, inter plantas Tea siccatas pi-xsertim latitans, 
quarum scmina dcstruit. 

C. obloug-ovatc, convex, pale ferruginous, or sometimes almost testaceous, slightly shining, and 
densely clothed with a long and silken pubescence. Head &\x<X prothvrdx deeply punctured : the 
latter more or less transverse-quadrate (varying a little in length in different specimens), with 
the anterior angles enlarged into an obtuse, shoulder-like projection, or ridge, and with a minute, 
subrecurved tooth about the centre of cither lateral edge,— the space between which and the 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 171 

hinder angles is very obscurely crenulated (the crenulations being only perceptible beneath a 
high magnifying power). Elytra usually a little paler than the rest of the surface, and punc- 
tured all over,— the punctures being rather smaller than those on the head and prothorax, and 
with no tendency to be disposed in strise. 

Out of the many examples of Cryptoj)lwgus whicli I have hitherto captured in 
Madeira, I have not heen able to satisfy myself that more than a single species is 
indicated, — although in some respects there is certainly a slight diversity (espe- 
ciaUy as regards the length of the prothorax) in the external outline of a few of 
them. Having carefully however examined the whole of my specimens beneath 
the microscope, I find that the shape and relative proportions of their lateral den- 
ticulations offer no essential differences throughout (even though they may occa- 
sionally be rather largely developed) ; and hence I have not ventured to draw 
lines of demarcation between consecutive shades of form, which, even if not alto- 
gether imaginary, are at any rate so nearly coincident as to be with difficulty 
separable, — and that moreover in a genus which I cannot but believe has been 
already too much subjected to a like abuse. Our present insect is, in its normal 
state, unquestionably referable to the C. affinis of Sturm,— a species very closely 
allied to the C. scauicus and cellaris, though differing in being a little more 
strongly punctm-ed, and in its (robuster) central prothoracic tooth having a 
tendency to be more perceptibly recurved (or backwardly directed) at its apex. 
As ali-eady stated, it is exceedingly varied in its habits, occurring at nearly all 
elevations, from the houses and granaries of Funchal (where it aboimds amongst 
Indian corn, and other stores) up to the sylvan districts of intermediate altitudes, 
— in which it is found xmder the loose bark of trees, and decaying logs of wood, 
or even stones. "With such a power of adaptation, it is not surprising that it 
should display some slight distinctive modifications according to the circimi- 
stances of its position ; and in fact we should « ^jr«ori expect that such would 
actually be the case. Although existing in such profusion at times in Eunchal as 
to have the appearance of having been imported, yet any doubt as to its claims to 
be truly indigenous are at once set at rest by the fact that I have taken it in 
almost equal numbers in distant spots, far removed from any traces of habitations. 
Thus, I have captured it, during May, at the edges of the Levada of the Eibeiro 
Frio ; at the Lombo dos Pecegueiros, in July (where I have observed it crawling 
rapidly up the outer canvass of my tent, towards the dusk of the evening) ; and 
at the Feijaa de C6rte, in August,— by brushing the rank vegetation beneath the 
gigantic chestnut-trees for which that remote region is so celebrated. 

Genus 58. DIPHYLLUS. 

Eedtenbacher, F/ia Austr. 188 (1849). 

Corpus minusculum, oblongo-ovatum, subconvexum : prolhurace vix simphci (adlatera minute sub- 
crenulato) et striis duabus elevatis utriuque instructo: alls amphs. Antenna breves clavatte, 

z 2 



172 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

articulis pniiio et secundo (illo prsecipue) robustis, tertio ad uonum brexdoribus subsequalibus 
latitudine vix crescentibus, reliquis clavam magnam laxam biarticulatam efficientibus (decirao 
magno subpoculiforini, undecimo paulo minore suborbiculato basi subtrimcato). Labrum trans- 
versum, anticc integruiu ciliatuni. Mandibula valida; acutse, ad basin exteniam fisso-sinuatffi, 
intus excisa; cilialie ct uietubraiia iustructse. Maxillie bdobie : lubo externa subovato, apice valde 
pubescent! : interno paulo breviore pubescenti. Palpi maxillares artieulo primo angusto flexuoso, 
secundo et tertio crassioribus subsequalibus, ultimo elongato fusiformi basi truncate : labiales 
artieulo primo subflexuoso, secundo paulo longiore crassiore, ultimo maximo crasso securiformi- 
truucato. Mmtum amplum, antice angustatum, summo apice excavato-emarginato. Liyula 
quadrata, apice membrana divergenti pilosa aueta. Pedes subgi-aciles : tarsis articulis primo, 
secundo et tertio subajqualibus (tertio subcordato), quarto minutissimo. 

The genus Diphyllm {=B'q}hyllus of Dejean's Catalogue, a.d. 1821), founded 
on the Bermestes lunatus of Fabricius, combines, to a certain extent, the cha- 
racters of Cryj)tophafjus and Sihanus, agi'eeing with the former in its general 
liabits and contom-, in its abruptly clavated antennge, and in the shape of its 
ligula ; whilst in the structure of its mandibles, maxillary palpi and feet it ap- 
proaches the latter. In its biarticulated club, and in the greatly developed, securi- 
form ultimate joint of its labial i)alpi, it differs from them both, — peculiarities 
moreoA^er which are sufficient, even of themselves, to distinguish it from the other 
allied groups. By a glance at the above diagnosis, it will be seen that Diphyllus 
has more in common \\dth Sih-amis than it has with Cvyptophagus ; so that it 
miijht, not without reason, be svipposed to lead us in the opposite direction to that 
winch I have endeavoured to make it indicate, that is to say, towards the prcA-ious 
family, the CucuJuIcb, — a supposition which the large and securiform termination 
of its labial palpi (in A\hich it assimilates Psammcecus and CryptamorplicC), and its 
elevated prothoracic striae (in Avhich it approaches Lcemophloeits) would not indeed 
tend to render the less probable. Still, however, it has so many points of agree- 
ment vi\i\\ Crypfojjhaffus likewise, that I have preferred placing it in the present 
position to breaking the link l)etween either Silcanns and Crtjptophagus or be- 
tween the former and Lcemophloeus, — which I cannot but believe are all too nearly 
related inter se to render it desu-able to interpolate a form like Diphyllus between 
them ; and it would be manifestly unnatural, I conceive, to assign it an earlier 
position amongst the CitcuJidfO, receding as it does in external structure and habits 
from the normal members of that division. In the selection of its food, Diphyllm 
does not appear to display any vegetable tendency, — bones, and other partially 
chied animal substances, being its favourite haunts. 

140. Diphyllus lunatus. 
D. oblongo-ovatus niger nitidus pubescens, capita prothoraceque pi-ofunde punctatis, hoc transverse 

postice lato, elytris punctato-striatis fascia media communi valde abbrcviata bilunulata albido- 

pubesccnte ornatis, antenuis pcdibusque piccscenti-ferrugineis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1|. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. l/o 

Dermestes lunatus, Pab. Ent. Syst. i. 232 (1792). 
Siljilia Sphcti-ice, Mslim, Euf. Brit. i. 122 (1802). 
BipliyUus lumtus, Stepli. ///. Brit. Ent. iii. 78 (1830). 
Biphyllus lunatus, Eedt. Fna Austr. 188 (1849). 

Habitat Maderam, rarissimus : unicum exemplar solum adhuc vidi,— baud procul ab origine convallis 
Ribeiro de Santa Luzia dictse, per aerem volitans, Maio exeunte a.d. 1849 a meipso de- 
prehensum. 

D. oblong-ovate, convex, black, with a just perceptibly bluish or subcyaneous tinge, shining, and ex- 
ceedingly pubescent. Head and pruthorax deeply and rather irregularly punctured : the latter 
short, wide behind and rather narrowed in front (the lateral edges being rounded and very obscurely 
crenulated) ; with two raised longitudinal lines on either side (the outer one of which is the more 
evident) towards, and parallel to the edge. Elytra deeply punctate-striated ; with a sublunulate 
patch on each (confluent at the suture, and forming, in conjuntdion, a transverse and exceedingly 
abbreviated zigzag fascia, common to both, on the centre of the disk) composed of whitish, or 
cinereous pubescence; and with a muiuter, and generally much obscurer, rounded one, of a 
sunilar character, near the apex of each. Antenna; and legs piceo-ferruginous, or rufo-piceous : 
t\ie, former short. 

The JD. lunatus, wliicli occm-s, tliougli not very abundantly, throughout the 
greater portion of Eiu-ope, would appear to be exceedingly rare in Madeira, a 
single example only having hitherto come beneath my observation. It was cap- 
tui-ed by myself, on the wing, towards the upper extremity of the Ribeiro de Santa 
Luzia, during my encampment there with the Eev. R. T. Lowe, at the end of May 
1849. It is just perceptibly larger than the average of British specimens ; as also 
of a somewhat deeper black, and with the discal fascia of a purer white. 

Genus 59. HYPOCOPRUS. 

Motschulsky, Bull, de la Soc. Imp. de Moscou, 72. tab. v. fig. d^W (1839). 

Corpus minutum, angusto-parallelum : prothorace simplici (ad latera baud crenulato) : abdomine ex 
segmentis ventralibus (longitudine paulatim decrescentibus) quinque composito : alis amphssimis, 
miuutissime punctulatis, ad basin angustis sed apicem versus dilatatis, per marginem inferiorem 
totam longe ciliatis. Antenna capitis prothoracisque longitudine, articulis primo et secundo 
(illo prsecipue) robustis, tertio (in specie typica minuto, quarti longitudine; sed in nostra) 
secundo vix breviore sed graciliore, quarto minuto globoso, quinto (in typica maximo obconico 
extus producto ; sed in nostrsi) magno crasso globoso ad apicem subtruucato, sexto, septmio et 
octavo Eequalibus (in typica subconicis ; sed in nostra) globosis moniliformibus pai-vis (quarto vix 
majoribus), reliquis clavam laxam elongatam triarticulatam efficientibus (nono et decimo in typica 
transversis, sed in nostra globosis apice subtruncatis ; ultimo in typica pyriformi, sed in nostra 
ovato). (Hujus generis, apud cl. Motschulsky primum indicati, instrumenta cibaria baud exa- 
minavi, at, si ex unico specimine indiscisso adjudicare licet, genus antennarum stractura, habitu 
geuerali absque valde anomalis amplissimis ciliatis sat distinctum videtur : transitum forsan 
inter Cryptophagidas et Ptiliadas constituat, sed Cryptophagidis affinitate proximum est et cum 
illis, nisi fallor, recte poneudum). Pedes cnviorn: femoribus sat incrassatis : izfins gracilibus, 
apicem versus vix dilatatis: tursis iiliformibus, articulo primo parvo ad basin subrecondito. 



174 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

secundo, tertio et quarto majoribus subsequalibus (quarto in posticis paulo minore), ultimo 
elongate vix subclavato unguiculis simplicibus munito. 

Possessing but a single example of the minute insect whicli constitutes the 
present genus, and being unwilling to sacrifice a unique specimen for dissection, I 
have not examined the details of its mouth. Unfortunately, the characters given 
by Motschvilsky in the Bulletin cle la Societe Imperiale de Moscou are, Ukewise, 
merely external ones : nevertheless they include so many points of peculiarity 
that there can Ijc but little fear of confounding Hijpocoprus with the members of 
any of the neighbouring groups, — its diminutive bulk, and narrow, elongated 
outline, in conjimction ^vith its pentamerous feet and the very singular conforma- 
tion of its antennaj (which have theu- fifth joint considerably enlarged, — thus 
calling to mind, as aptly remarked by Motschulsky, the little Pselaphideous 
Tychi, — wliilst the one A\'hich precedes, and the three which follow it are small), 
being abimdantly sufficient, when combiued, whereby at once to identify it. The 
anomalous natiu'c of its wings does not appear to have been noticed by [Mot- 
schulsky ; — a structure which in fact tends very considerably to confii'm his 
opinion that Uypocoprns may perhaps constitute a passage between the Crypto- 
phagidxB and the PtiUadce, theu' enormous dimensions and hau'-like appendages 
making a very decided a])proach to those of the latter family. In addition to 
thcii- unusual development, as regards size, the ^^ings of Uypocoprns are greatly 
narrowed at theu- base, and then suddenly tlilated, — theu* entii-e lower edge being 
strongly ciliated, mu.ch iu the same manner (although ia a less degree) as we 
observe in the Ptiliudce. They are nearly free from nerves, and delicately punctu- 
lated all over, — coinciding thus far ^"itli those of Ephistemus : whilst in some 
respects they are identical with the modification which obtains in Paramccosoma, 
— vdih. which genus indeed I am inclined to suspect that Uypocoprns has by no 
means a distant afiinity. 

141. Hypocopnis Motschvdskii, Woll. 

H. angusto-elongatus fuscus subnitidus pubescens, capite prothoraceque crcben-ime et minutissime 
granulatis punctisque obsoletissimis adspersis, hoc elongato-quadrato, elj'tris parallelis pro- 
thorace vl\ latioribus, singulo stria suturali postica impresso, antennis pedibusque diluto-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. Hn. \. 

Habitat ins. Portus Sancti, rarissimus : in asccnsu montis Pico d'Anna Ferreira dicti, inter graminum 
radices humi cursitaus, d. 21 Ap. a.d. 181-9 specimen unicum inveni. 

In honorem cl. Dom. jMotschulsky, Petropoli, nomen trinale dixi. 

H. elongated and narrow, dark brown, slightly shining, and pubescent. Head and prothorax closely 
and minutely granulated all over, and with large (although exceedingly shallow and almost 
obsolete) punctures intermixed : the former porrectcd and triangular, being almost as wide as 
the prothorax in its widest part, which is immediately behind the eyes, — which are tolerably 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 175 

large, and remote from the anterior margin of the prothorax : the latter elongate-quadrate, and 
very slightly narrower than the elytra (the lateral edges being nearly parallel, and the posterior 
angles scarcely more rounded or obtuse than the anterior ones) ; without any appearance of either 
a longitudinal channel or ridges, though with a small and obscure rounded depression, or fovea, 
in the centre of the hinder disk. Elytra elongated and parallel, rather more shining and less 
evidently sculptured than the head and prothorax, with their apex rounded, and each with a 
single impressed stria close alongside the suture, — more especially apparent behind. Antenrue 
and legs diluted testaceous ; the former with their club a httle infuscated. 

Apparently of the greatest rarity, tlie iinique example from which the above 
description has been th-awn out having been detected by myself in the island of 
Porto Santo, April 21, 1849, — running rapidly over the hot ground, in a diy and 
grassy spot on the ascent of the Pico d'Anna Ferreira from the west. I have 
dedicated the species to my friend M. Motschulsky of St. Petersburg, to whom we 
are indebted for our knowledge of the genus, —which was described by him from a 
specimen, to which he gave the name of H. LathricUokles* , captured out of a nest 
of the Formica riifa (into which he supposes that it had been accidentally intro- 
duced with the dung of mice, — though it seems more probable that the insect is 
in reality an attendant upon ants) on the prairies of the Caucasus. 

Genus 60. EPHISTEMUS. 

("Westwood) Steph. III. Brit. Ent. ii. 167 (1829). 

Corpus minutum, globoso-ovatum, valde convexum : protliorace postice lato, elytris arete applicato : 
alis plerumque amplis et minutissime punctulatis, sed in specie Maderensi una obsoletis. 
Antennm clavatse, basi subapproximatse, articulis primo et secundo (illo prsecipue) robustis, tertio 
graciliore (secundi fere longitudine), quarto ad octavum in speciebus typicis brevibus subglobosis, 
sed in specierum ]Maderensium una alternatim brevibus et longioribus (i. e. quarto, sexto, octavo 
brevibus, et quinto septimoque longioribus), reliquis clavam magnam laxam triarticulatam effi- 
cientibus. Lahrum transverso-subquadratum, antice leviter rotundatum et ciliatum. Mandibulm 
validse acutse, intus excisse et membrana ciliata auctse (necnon rarissime dente minuto infra 
apicem instructs). Maxilla bilobae: lobo externa apice valde pubescenti : interno paulo breviore, 
ciliato. Palpi maxillares articulo primo angusto flexuoso, secundo maximo crasso, tertio angus- 
tiore brevi, ultimo elongato fusiformi basi truncato : labiales articulo primo angusto flexuoso, 
secundo maximo crasso subgloboso, ultimo aciculari. Mentum amplum, antice angustatum, 
summo apice emarginato-sinuato. Ligula subquadrata, apice truncata Integra, angulis anticis 
(in Ephistemo alternante saltern) membrana tenuissima divergenti-acuminata auctis. Pedes 
graciles : tarsis articalis primo, secundo et tertio subsequalibus (tertio subcordato), quarto minuto. 



* Judging from the description and figiu-e, given in the Bull, de la Sac. Imp. de Moscow, our present 
Hypocoprus difters from the H. Lathridioides, — first, in the distinctive structural modifications of the 
joints of its anteunfe (which vriU be at once gathered from the above chaguosis ; but which do not appear 
to be of more than specific importance, siace the same essential character of the enlarged fifth articulation 
is equally expressed hi both) ; and, secondly, in its more granulated and pubescent sm-face, iu its poste- 
riorly-undilated prothorax, and iu its somewhat broader head. 



170 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

The little genus Ephistemns* {=Ps>/cJiidi>()n, Heer, Fiia Col. Helc. a.d. 1841) 
may be readily kno\\Ti by the basally-subapproximated antennse, and by the very 
incrassated second, and subaciciilated ultimate joints of both the labial and maxil- 
lary palpi of the few minute and subglobose insects which compose it. Of the 
two representatives wliich I have hitherto detected in Madeira one only is t\^ical, 
— the other, which is apparently peculiar to the island, being aberrant in so many 
j)oints of its structm-e as well nigh to merit isolation from the normal members of 
the group. Thus, in addition to the non-development of its wings (a local pecu- 
liarity however which seems to be almost a geographical one, since it obtains 
throughout the larger portion of the Coleoptera mth which we have here to do), 
its mandibles have a minute tooth immediately within theii* apex (which I do not 
ol)serve in any other Ejihistemiis which I have dissected), wliilst its antennse, 
which (with the legs) are very much longer than in the ordinary species, have 
their articulations, from the fourth to the eighth (inclusive), instead of being 
al)breviated and subequal, alternately long and sliort. The Ejthistemi occur prin- 
cipally amongst rank herbage beneath trees, or else luider decaying vegetable 
substances on the damp grou.nd, — theii" apically-subaciculated palpi moreover 
seeming to indicate a partiality for moist spots. 

§ 1. Alee amplee : antenncB pedesquc breves ; iUa articulis quarto ad octavum brevibus subglobosis cpqualibus ; 

mandibulw edentatm. (Epliistemi typici.) 

142. EpMstemus dimidiatus. 
E. brevis niger Isevis nitidissiinus et fere impunctatus, dytris ad apicem plus minusvc rufo-pices- 

centibus, antennis pedibusque testaceis. 
Loug. Corp. lin. j. 

Plialacrvs dimidiatus, Shirm, Deutsch. Fiia, ii. 85. tab. 32. fig. D (1807). 
EpMstemus confnis, Stepli. 111. Brit. Ent. ii. 169. pi. xv. fig. 2 (1829). 
Psychidium ghbulum, Heer, Fna Col. Helv. i. 433 (1841). 
Epistemus dimidiatus, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xnii. S3, tab. 343. fig. A (1846). 
, Erich. Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 401 (1848). 

Habitat ]\Iaderain, et borealem et australcm, prjesertim in cultis et graminosis unibrosis huniidiusculis 
infra 2000' s. m., liiiic inde nou infrequens : in vinctis prope Funchal intcrdum oecurrit, nccaon 
in horto Loweano ad Levada etiam in fungis emortuis parce observavi. 

E. short-ovate, acute before and behind, exceedingly convex and polished, black with more or less of 
a pieeous tinge, almost impunctate (a few most minute and distant punctures being only just 



* The title of the present group was altered by Eriehsou into Epi.<<temus, — though it is diifieult to 
understand why, since neither the laws of nomenclature required the change, nor have the numerous 
names similarly compounded ever been objected to : whilst the practical result of a proceeding thus 
arbitrar\- is to appropriate as his own a genus which has been .already fidly described by another. I have 
consequently restored its original orthography, and assigned it to its proper author. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 177 

perceptible beneath a high power of the microscope), and entii-ely free from pubescence. Elytra 
more or less reddish-castaneous, or rufescent, towards their apex. Antenna and legs short and 
testaceous : the former wnth their club a little dusky. 

The common Em*opean E. dimicUatus occurs sparingly, and at most seasons of 
the year, throughout Madeka, below the elevation of about 2000 feet, — though 
more particularly in damp shady spots in the immediate vicLoity of the Wneyards 
and other cultivated grounds. I have captiu-ed it at the Cm-ral das Romeii*as, 
and in the Eev, H. T. Lowe's garden near Eimchal, — in the last of which I have, 
likewise, observed it amongst dead fungi on the trunks of decayed peach-trees ; 
and also in the ueighboui'hoods of Sao Vincente and Santa Anna, towards the 
northern coast. 



§ II. Alw obsolete: antenn<e pedesque longiores ; itl<B articulis quarto ad ocfavum alternatim brevibus et 
longiusculis : mandibulcB max infra apicem dente minwto instructcB. 

(Subgenus ]\nCEOUM, Woll.) 
143. Ephistemus altemans, Woll. 

E. fusco-niger pubescens subopacus et distincte punctulatus, elytris ssepius ad basin rufo-castaneis 

ad apicem concoloribus, antennarum basi ferruginea, pedibus diluto-testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. |-|^. 

Habitat per partem Madera; sylvaticam, in graminosis humidiusculis, rarissime; — ad Ribeu-o Frio 
sestate a.d. 1850 a meipso captus. 

E. larger, more ovate, and rather more acuminated posteriorly than the E. dimidiatus, also subopake, 
both distinctly punctulated and pubescent, and vaiying from a brownish black into a light 
chestnut hue. Head and prothorax rather more opake and more perceptibly punctm-ed than the 
elytra, — their surface moreover appearing, beneath the microscope, to be closely and most 
delicately granulated. Elytra with their apex concolorous, but with their base (especially about 
the shoulders) usually bright rufo-castaneous. Antennce and legs veiy much longer than those 
of the last species ; the former (which have their joints, from the fourth to the eighth, alternately 
short and long) brownish-piceous, with their base ferruginous ; the latter pale diluted testaceous. 

A most elegant and truly indigenous Uj^histemus, and apparently extremely 
scarce. Apart from the peculiarities of its structure, which have been akeady 
pointed out, its large and comparatively elongated form, added to its distinctly 
punctulated, pubescent, subgranulated and partially opake surface, and the ten- 
dency of its elytra to become bright rufo-castaneous at their base (whilst the apex 
is concolorous), wiU serve, prima facie, to separate it from every other species* 

* In size and general contoiu- the -E. altemans approaches rather nearer perhaps to my species, the 
E. palustris {Ann. of Nat. Hist, xviii. pi. 9. fig. 2), than to any other : nevertheless the above structural 
characters, apart from its subopake, more pubescent, and differently coloured sm-face, will of coiu-se 
remove it altogether from that insect. 

2 A 



178 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

hitherto described. It is one of the rarest of the Madeu'an insects, the only spot 
in which I have hitherto observed it being in the district of the Ribeiro Frio, 
where, dm-ing May and August of 1850, I captm'ed five specimens, l)y brushing 
the rank grass at the edges of the Levada. 



Fam. 15. LATHEIDIAD^. 

Genus 61. CHOLOVOCERA. (Taj!. X. fig. 1.) 

Motschulsky, Bull, de Moscou, 177 (1838). 

Corpus minutum, ellipticum vel rotundato-ellipticum, politum : capite magno lato, oculis ex lentibus 
paucis compositis : pruthorace transverse, postice lato : scutellu distincto triangular! : alis obsoletis. 
Antenna (X. 1 a) vakle clavata;, capitis prothoracisque vix longitudiue, S-articulatse, articulis 
primo et secundo (illo pnecipue) longiusculis robustis, inde ad septimum latitudine a>qualibus 
(tertio in tjqjicis elongate, sed in specie Maderensi longiusculo tantum ; quarto ad septimum 
minutis), ultimo maximo apice latissimo, sccuriformi. Labrum, palpos labiales, mentwn ligu- 
lamqiic Laud examinare potui. Mandibula (X. 1 b) validae acuta;, mox infra apiccm dente valido 
instructs, margine interno arcuato et membrana aucto. Maxilla (X. 1 c) vix bilobae : lobo 
extemo magno lato recto, apice setoso leviter ineurvo ; interno minutissimo, fere obsoleto, 
uncinato. Palpi maxillares artieulo primo parvo, secundo et tertio majoribus incrassatis (hoc 
breviore), ultimo elongate subfusiformi-ovato basi truncate. Pedes vix rebusti : femoribus leviter 
clavatis : tarsis (X. 1 d) 3-articulatis simplieibus, artieulo secundo prime paule breviore, xdtimo 
elongate unyuiculis simplieibus munite. 

There is no genus the natiu-al position of Avhich has been hitherto more doubted 
than Cholovocera. Nevertheless, owdng partly perhaps to the extreme rarity of the 
few species which compose it, scarcely any critical remarks have ever been offered 
as to its affinities ; and, consequently, in the different European Catalogues Avhich 
have recently lieen published, it has been made, successively, to occupy positions 
altogether remote from each other, — until at last it has been entii-ely set aside, as 
one of the forms of almost impossible location. Upon the whole, however, it has 
been more often conceded to the Erotrjlidce than to any other diAdsion ; though it 
is difficult to understand why, since it is neither pseudotetramerous, nor has it 
the terminal joint of its palpi secm-iform. The apical articulation of its antenncB 
is securiform, it is true, — but the ErotyUda' have nothmg in common with this ; 
and we must clearly look for some other section therefore to receive it. Now the 
main u-rcgularitics of Cholovocera appear to lie in the reduced number of the 
joints of its antenna?, in its triarticulated, yet simple feet, and in the almost 
evanescent inner lobe of its maxillae. And there is but one family in the Cole- 
optera, so far as I am aware, in which these tlu-ee characteristics constitute, in 
conjunction, the chief distinguishing feature, — namely the Lathridiadcc. Thus, 
for instance, in Holoparamcctis the tarsi are simple and triarticulatc, the antennal 
joints vary from nine to eleven, the inner maxillary lobe is excessively small, the 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 179 

mandibles are bidentate at their extremity, wliUst the body is apterous, extremely 
smooth, and highly polished, — in all of which it is positively identical with Cholo- 
vocera. Again, in Corticaria and Luthridhts the feet are, likewise, trimerous; 
and, although the antennaj are 11-jointed, the inner lobe of the maxillae is wholly 
obsolete. Then, in Monotonia we also find a reduction in the antennal and tarsal 
joints (the former being curtailed to ten, and the latter to four), the inner maxillary 
lobe is absent, and the club of the antennae, though not securiform, is compre- 
hended in a single articulation. Whilst in the little genus Metophthalnms the 
number of the joints of the antennae is diminished, in like manner, to ten, the 
feet are triarticulated, the inner lobe of the maxillae is evanescent, the body is 
apterous, and the eyes are constructed, as regards the paucity and magnitude of 
the facets which compose them, on precisely the same anomalous type as those of 
Cholovocera. 

Thus, we perceive that the genera of the Lathridiadce contain cdl the elements 
(and more or less in conuexion) for which Cholovocera is especially remarkable ; 
and there can, consequently, be but little doubt, I imagine, that its proper 
situation is there. And, if we look even to external contour and habits, we shall 
find that this affinity is not the less indicated, since so many of the adjoining 
groups (as Monotonia, Langellandla, Myrmeconomus, and Iletoplitlialmus) are 
notorious either for their subterraneous or Ant-associating propensities, or else, 
like Soloparamecus, for then- minute bulk and glabrous surfaces. The largely- 
developed, securiform, one-articulated clava of Cholovocera cannot be regarded as 
of more than generic signiiication ; and it is therefore by no means necessary that 
we should expect to find even the rudiments of a similar organization amongst its 
immediate allies : nevertheless we may perhaps detect some slight expression of it 
in the ohliquelij-truncated last joint of the antennae of Koloparamecus, and in the 
uni-articnlated club of Monotonia. Upon the whole, however, I am inclined to 
suspect that it has a more intimate relation with Koloparamecus than with 
anything else hitherto described : and, although the Madeiran representative may 
seem, at first sight, in its rounded outline to recede very considerably from the 
normal members of the Lathridiadce ; yet the only two other species known 
(namely the C. formicarla, Mots., from Georgia, and the C. 2>i'nctaf a, Mnvkel, from 
Sicily,— typical specimens of both of which I have been enabled, through the 
kindness of Mr. Westwood, to examine, but which seem to be so nearly akin that 
it is not easy to assert in what they differ) approach them, in this respect, far more 
closely, — since in their narrower, and less convex bodies, and in then* basally-sub- 
constricted elytra they do in fact bear a very strong j)rimd facie resemblance to at 
any rate the Soloparameci (with wliich it has been akeady shown that in many of 
the most essential of their structural peculiarities they are actually coincident). 

This remarkable genus was first described by Motschulsky, from specimens 

discovered beneath stones (in the vicinity of Ants' nests) at Derbent, not far from 

the Caspian Sea. 

2 a2 



180 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

144. Cholovocera Maderae. (Tab. X. fii,'. l.) 

C. rotuiidato-elliptica convexa fernigiiiea glaberrima politissima et fere iinpunctata, protliorace 

postice lato, antennis pedibusque vix pallidioribus. 
Long. Corp. lin. |. 

Coccinella succina, Heinecken, in lift. 
Cholovocera Ifadens, Westw'ood, in litt. 

Habitat Maderam, rarissima, — formicarum nidos certe colens : unicum exemplar tantuni vidi, a 
jigydo Dom. Lowe e rnuseo Heineckeaiano mihi munifice donatum. 

C. roundish-elliptical, convex, pale rufo-ferruginous, exceedingly highly polished, almost impunctate, 
and perfectly free from pubescence. Head large and wide, with the eyes (which are of a most 
anomalous structure, being composed of merely a few large facets, set widely apai't upon a convex 
surface) prominent. Pruthorax transverse and convex ; widest behind, where it is of the same 
breadth as the elytra, on which excessively minute punctures are just traceable beneath the 
highest powers of the microscope. Antemue and legs scarcely paler than the rest of the surface. 

A single cxaniplc ouly of this most interesting little insect has hitherto come 
under my observation, — ^which was captured many years ago (probably near Fun- 
chal) l^y the late Dr. Heinecken, from whose collection it was presented to me by 
the Rev. H. T. Lowe. It differs from the Georgian and Sicilian representatives of 
the group (\\ hich however, as abeady stated, appear to be almost, if not indeed 
entirely, identical) in its larger size and almost impunctate surface, and in its 
broader, less apically-acuminated, and more roimded outline,^the prot borax and 
elytra being widest at their extreme bases, instead of, as there, a little constricted, 
or pinched in (a peculiarity which, we may just remark, is particularly evident in 
Holoparamecus, likewise). In addition to which, the third joint of its antennae is 
not quite so long as is the case with those of either of the above-mentioned species. 
Like them, it is unquestionably an attendant upon iVnts, — as in fact the general 
singularity of its structiu'e, more especially of its eyes, would lead us, a priori, to 
suspect. 

Genus 62. HOLOPAEAMECUS. 

Curtis, Ent. 2Iay. i. IsG (1S33). 

Corpus minutum, plus minusve subelliptico-oblongum, politum : jirothorace postice constricto et trans- 
verse impresso : alls obsoletis. Antenna clavata^, capitis prothoraeisque longitudinc, modo (ut 
in specie nostra) 11-, modo 10-, modo etiam 9-articulat<T, articulis primo ct sccundo (illo prse- 
cipue) elongatis robustis, indc ad nonum minutis longitudine suba-qualibus ct latitudine vix 
crescentibus, rcliquis clavam magnam laxam biarticulatam cfficicntibus (peuultimo subpoculi- 
formi, ultimo ovato ad apicem oblique truncato). Lnhrum amplum, scmicirculare, ant ice in- 
tegrum ciliatum. Mandibulte validae acutae, mox infra apicem dcute sat conspicuo instructse, 
membranS, basah auctse. Maxilla bilobae : lobo externo lato recto, apice incurvo valde ])ubescenti : 
interna angustissimo brevi, intus valde pubcsccnti. Palpi maxillarcs articulo primo miuutissimo, 
sccundo maximo crasso, tertio paulo angustiore brevi, ultimo elongato fusiformi basi truncato : 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 181 

labiales articulo priino parvo, secundo maximo crasso subgloboso, ultimo minore subconico. 
Mentum amplum, antice angustatum, summo apice (nisi fallor) emarginato. Ligula antice 
rotundata et lueuibrana tenuissima (ad apicem truncata ciliata) aucta. Pedes subgraciles : tarsis 
3-articulatis, articulo secundo primo paulo breviore, ultimo elongato. 

Soloparamecus {;=Calijptohium, Villa, Cat. Col. Eur. dupl. a.d. 1833) may be at 
once distinguished from Cortlcaria and LatlirkUus by the biai'ticulated club of its 
antennae; by its freedom from wings, by its apically bidentate mandibles, and by 
its perceptibly bilobed maxillae. The numerical variations also in the joints of its 
antennae are exceedingly remarkable, and present an anomaly which I am not 
aware that wc find, to the same extent, in any other genus of the Coleoptera. 
This peculiarity of structure has been ably discussed by Mr. Westwood in a very 
interesting paper, read before the Entomological Society of London in May 1845, 
and published in the fourth volvime of their Transactions. After tracing back the 
generic synonymy to its source, and pointing out the confusion which had arisen 
in three separate diagnoses (put forth, successively, by Mr. Curtis, himself, and 
Dr. Aub(^), in which different species had been accidentally selected as the type, 
he thus sums up the result of his inquiry, from which, I think (after a careful 
consideration of the several forms in question, externally and in detail), it is im- 
possible to dissent : — " We have therefore a genus in which the characters assigned 
to it by three different writers entirely agree, except that Mr. Curtis describes the 
antennae as 9-jointed, Dr. Aube as 11-jointed, and myself as 10-jointed. On 
examining these insects, and comparing them with Dr. Aube's figui-es, it is im- 
possible to arrive at any other conclusion than that they belong to one and the 
same genus, and that the variation in the number of the joints of the antennae is 
either a specific or a sexual character, a circumstance in itself of so unusual occur- 
rence in the Clavicorn Coleoptera, that I have considered it weU worthy of being 
brought l)efore the notice of the Society." Making use however of these varia- 
tions in the joints of the antennae for sectional purposes, which at any rate we are 
entitled to do, we find that the European representatives of the group arrange 
themselves imder three heads, — the first of which embraces the H. caularum, Aub^ 
(=:Pa)ikoucJdi, Guerin), and the S. niger, Aub6, characterized by their 11-jointed 
antennae ; the second the H. Kimzei, Aube, in which the antennae are but 10-arti- 
culate ; and the third the 11. singular Is, Beck. {=^depressus, Curtis, = Villas, Aub6), 
which has the antennae composed of nine joints only. 

Regarding the affinities of this genus various opinions have been entertained. 
Mr. Curtis imagines that, in conjunction with Eutheia, it may very likely consti- 
tute a passage between the LathridiadcB and the Scydmcenidce. Nevertheless, of 
its certain connexion with at all events the former there can, I think, be no 
reasonable doubt, its trimerous feet, and the largely develoj)ed second articulation 
of both its labial and maxillary palpi, apart from its general habits and aspect, 
bespeaking a very close relationship with Cortlcaria and Lathridius. Its palpi 
indeed correspond almost precisely with those of Atomaria and Ephistenius, 



182 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

amongst the Cryptophagidce, thus additionally strengthening the bond of union 
between that family and the present one, — which I cannot but believe are most 
intimately allied, even though placed by many recent naturalists far asunder. 
And in fact I should be even, further, inclined to suspect that, taking into account 
both its tarsi and oral organs, there is perhajis no form more evidently suggestive 
of the two (whilst belonging essentially to one of them) than JZoIojHiratneciis. In 
theu" modes of life the Soloparameci somewhat recede fi'om the Corticarice and 
Lathridii, being found more especially, like certain of the Cryptophagidce, in 
the vicinity of warehouses and dwellings, where they are frequently introduced 
with different kinds of stores (though it may be that they should be rather re- 
garded as inhabiting the crevices of the boxes in which the stores are contained 
than the stores themselves) : and in England they have often been received, in a 
living state, amongst insects and skins, from India and China. They are not 
however solely attached to such positions, since one or two of the species occur 
beneath stones in hot exposed localities, far removed fi'om any traces of habita- 
tions, — as is the case in many parts of the south of Europe, and \^■ith the Madeiran 
representative of the genus. It is only in rare instances that they ajipear to 
subsist, like the tj^ical Lathridiadce, under the bark of trees. 

145. Holoparamecus niger. 
H. subelliptico-oblongus angustus ferrugineus politus et subtilissime punctulatus, prothorace postice 

constricto et injequaliter transverso-signato, elytro singulo stria suturali subflexuosa profunda 

impresso, antenais pedibusque pallido-testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. |. 

Cdlyptohivm nigrum, Chevrier, in litt. 

, Aube, Ann. dc la Soc. Ent. Je France (2i*'"« serio) i. 246 (1843). 

Habitat in locis inforioribus Madcrre ct Portus Sancti, vol aprico bumi inter graminum radices cur- 
sitans vel sub seoriis lapidibusque latens, ab autumuo usque ad ver novum vulgatissimus : 
" Praya Formoza, sub lapidibus/' teste Dom. Heer. 

H. minute, narrow and elongated, and somewhat elliptical-oblong (the widest part being, although 
the sides are not continuous, a little behind the base of the elytra), varying from ferruginous 
into a reddish-chestnut hue, — the cf)lour being generally of a rather unequal intensity, which 
causes the surface to seem somewhat transparent, or pellucid ; exceedingly shining, and appearing 
beneath the microscope to be most minutely and distantly punctidated, and even perceptibly 
pubescent. Head long and convex, scarcely so broad as the anterior part of the prothorax, 
which is rounded at the sides, constricted behind, and with its posterior region broadly, trans- 
versely, and >nievcnly impressed, — the impressed band continuing to the hinder angles (which 
are almost right angles, and have their extreme lateral edge a little thickened, and produced 
backwards, in the form of an elevated and straight longitudinal ridge, to about a third of the 
distance towards the anterior margin), and being interrupted in the centre by a large and 
slightly raised portion, which, from being cloven by a medial line, has somewhat the appearance 
of two rounded tubercles in front of (but remote from) the scutellum. Elytra considerably 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 183 

acuminated posteriorly, and slightly so in front, being widest at a short distance behind the 
base ; and with a deeply impressed sutural stria on each, which is slightly curved (and more 
especially distinct) in front. Antenna and legs pale testaceous. 

The present Holoparameciis recedes from the S. ccmlarum (the only other 
member of the genus hitherto described which has eleven joints to its antennae) 
principally ia its darker and more pellucid hue, and ia its somewhat more pubes- 
cent and posteriorly-actuniaated form; whilst its hinder prothoracic constriction 
is of a different nature, — the raised, cloven portion in the centre beiag more 
distinctly developed than in that species, which has (instead of it) a twofold 
impression a little in advance of its place. Nevertheless it must be admitted that 
the two insects approach each other very closely. The S. niger was discovered in 
Sicily, in 1842, by the late Mr. Melly of Liverpool, beneath the bark of a fig-tree 
in the garden of a Convent near Catania, and was sent by Che\T.*ier, under the 
specific title which it still retains, to Dr. Aube for description, — by whom it was 
characterized in the Amiales de la Societe Entomologique de France in 1843. As 
its name would seem to imply, the Sicilian specimens are very much darker than 
the Madeiran ones, — which last appear to correspond better with a pale variety 
detected by Gene in Sardinia. On the simny slopes of Madeii'a, at low altitudes, 
it is exceedingly abiuidant, dvu'ing the autumnal and winter months, adhering to 
the under sides of stones and scorige, from the latter of which it is often almost 
impossible to extricate it, — its very minute size enabling it to retreat into the 
numerous cavities and air-holes with which they are everywhere ramified. I first 
took it, in October 1847, on the high cliffs between Funchal and the Cabo Gerajao ; 
and it has subsequently occurred to me in innumeraljle localities throughout the 
southern districts of the island, from the level of the shore at the Praya Formoza 
to the summit of the little hills of the Pico da Cruz and the Pico do Cardo. In 
dry exposed spots towards the south of Porto Santo, slightly elevated above the 
sea, it is equally common : but I have not as yet observed it, either there or else- 
where, in any other position except either beneath stones, or else crawling at the 
roots of grass on the hot ground in their immediate vicinity. 

Genus 63. CORTICARIA. 

Marsham, Ent. Brit. i. 106 (1802). 

Corpus minutum, plus minusve ovatum, convexiusculum, pubescens : prothorace subrotundato, ad 
latera interdum crenulato sed haud marginato : alls amplis. Antenna clavatse, capitis pro- 
thoracisque vix longitudine, articulis primo et secundo (illo, subgloboso, prsecipue) robustis, 
tertio secundi longitudine, quarto paulo brcviore, iude ad octavum paulatim brevioribus lati- 
tudine subjequalibus, reliquis clavam magnam laxani triarticulatam efficientibus (ultimo ovato 
apice oblique truncato). Labrum transversum, antiee integrum. Mandibula acutissimae eden- 
tatse incuiTfe, intus membraua tenuissinia ciliata auctse. Maxilla lobo singulo recto apice piloso 
instructse. Palpi maxillares breves, articulis primo et secundo minutissimis, tertio magno sub- 



184 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

globoso, ultimo minore subconico : labiales brcvissimi, articulo primo minutissimo brevissimo, 
sccundo maximo crasso subgloboso, ultimo minutissimo teauissimo aciculari vix perspicuo, ad 
apicem ipsum setis paucis munito. Mentum hexagonum, antice angustatuin. Lirjulu aiiij)la 
lata, apicc truncata Integra ciliata. Pedes subgraciles : tarsis 3-articulatis, articulo primo secundo 
longiorc, ultimo elongato. 

The CorticaricB are x'eadily separable, even prima facie, fi'oin the Lathridii by 
their more convex, ovate, pubescent, and less scul2)tm-ecl bodies, and by their 
prothorax bciag broader and more rounded, — occasionally crenulated at its edges, 
l}ut never margined like that of the latter ; neither are the angles at all produced, 
nor is the disk flattened and costate. In pui-cly structiu-al characters, abnost the 
only })oints in Avliich the groups differ inter se would appear to consist in the very 
slight distinctive proportions of the joints of their respective antennae and feet, — 
the former of which in Corticaria have the second articulation much less thickened 
than the first, and the third perceptibly longer than the foiu-th ; whereas in 
Lathridius the second joint is nearly as much iucrassated as the basal one, and 
the third is distinctly shorter than the foui'th : whilst, as regards their tarsi, the 
first articulation (if indeed my observations be correct) is always a little longer 
than the second in those of the Corticarice, but shorter in those of the Lathridii. 
In their habits, tlie members of the present genus are not so strictly subcortical as 
those of the following one, — which in fact their less hardened and depressed forms 
would seem to imply. They occur, for the most part, amongst heritage in grassy 
spots, hybernating more commonly under moss and lichen on the trunks of trees 
than beneath the bark. 

146. Corticaria rotiihcollis, WoU. 

C. clongato-ovata rufo-picea, capite prothoraceque profunde et crcbre punctatis, hoc ad latera valde 
crenulato, fovea, postmediii rotundat^ profunda impresso, elytris paulo obscuiioribus rugulose 
substriato-pvmctatis, antcnnarum basi pcdibusque rufo-testaceis. 

Long. corj). lin. |-1. 

Habitat Madcram, rarior, — a Rev''" Dom. Lowe prope Funclial primo detecta : sed plurima specimina 
nuper collcgit Dom. Hartung, qui inter bolctos in truncis laurorum nascentes invenisse apud el. 
Dohrn dicitur. 

C. elongate-ovate, rufo-piceous, pubescent, and very slightly shining. Head and prot/ioraj: deeply and 
closely punctured : the latter with the edges rounded, and powerfully crenulated throughout ; with 
a large, round, and deeply impressed fovea on the centre of the hinder disk. Elytra a little 
darker and less rufeseent than the head and jirothorax ; rather nigosely striate-punctate. An- 
teniue and leys rufo-testaceous ; i]ie former with their club infuscate. 

A large and well-marked species ; distinguished from the other Corticarice here 
descriljed by the rather deep and closely-set punctures of its head and prothorax, 
and by the greatly developed creuulations of the latter. It is apparently some- 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 185 

■what scarce, though taken occasionally near Funchal, from whence I possess 
specimens captured by the Rev. R. T. Lowe and Mr. Leacock : and several 
examples have been recently communicated to me by M. Dohrn of Stettin, which 
are stated to have been collected by M. Hartung from Boleti growing on the 
trunks of the native laurels. 

147. Corticaria crenicollis. 

C. elongato-ovata antice siibacuminata, fulvo-ferruginea, capite prothoraceque granulatis (sed vk, 
prajsertim illo, punctatis), hoc ad latera leviter crenulato, fovea postmedia rotundata profunda 
impresso, elytris substriato-punctatis, antenuis pedibusque vix pallidioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1. 

Corticaria crenicollis, Mann, in Germ. Zeitsch.filr die Ent. v. 37 (1844). 

Habitat prope urbem Maderse Funchalensem, in horto ad Quinta d'Ambrosio pertinente seinel tantum 
(mense Januario a.d. 1848) lecta. 

C. elongate-ovate, and rather acuminated anteriorly, bright fulvo-ferruginous, and sparingly pubes- 
cent. Head and prothorax almost opake, and very distinctly granulated : the former with 
scarcely any indications of additional punctures intermixed : the latter with them most obscurely 
develo]3ed,— merely imparting to its surface a rather rugose or wi-inkled appearance ; with the 
edges rounded and obscurely crenulated (though rather more evidently so behind than in front) ; 
the postmedial fovea well-defined and exceedingly deep. Elytra rather shining; and substriate- 
punctate. Antenna: and legs almost concolorous with, or a little paler than, the rest of the surface. 

At once known from the other Madeiran Corticarlce by its rather anteriorly- 
subacuminated outline and pallid hue, by its somewhat shining elytra, and liy the 
very distinctly granulated sm-face of its head and prothorax,— the former of which 
is almost entirely free from larger additional punctures, whilst even the latter (the 
hinder fovea of which is excessively deeply impressed, but the sides only obscm*ely 
crenulated) has them but imperfectly developed. It is very probably an imported 
insect into Madeira, the single example on which its admission into the Fatma 
rests having been captm-ed by myseK in the garden of the Quinta d'Ambrosio, near 
Funchal, during the winter of 1848. It is stated by Mannerheim to be common in 
Finland and France. 

148. Corticaria fulva. 

C. elongato-ovata magis pubescens fulvo-ferruginea, capite prothoraceque valde profunde punctatis, 
hoc ad latera crenulato, fovei postmedia rotundata minus profunda impresso, elytris substriato- 
punctatis, antennis pedibusque vix pallidioribus. 

Long. corp. lin. 1-1^. 

Latridius fulvus, Che\Tier, in lift. 

, Villa, Cat. Col. Eur. 45 (1835). 

Oortica/riafuloa, Mann, in Oerm. Zeifsch.fur die Ent. v. 42 (1844). 
, Eedt. Fna Austr. 209 (1849). 

Habitat Maderam, hinc inde in domibus et hortis, ex Europ^ forsan introducta : ad Sanctum 

2 B 



186 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Vincentium cepit Rev''"' Dom. Lowe, necnon prope urbem Funchalensem tempore hibemo egomet 
parce deprehensi. 

C. large, elongate-ovate, pale fulvo-ferruginous (sometimes almost testaceous), elothed with exceedingly 
long, and rather robust pubescence, and but slightly shining. Head and prothorax beset wnth 
very large, deep, but comparatively distant punctures : the latter with the edges rounded and 
distinctly crenulated (though not quite so powerfully so as in the C. rotulicollis), especially 
behind; the postmcdial fovea shallower and obscurer than in either of the preceding species. 
Elytra rather coarsely substriate-punctate. Antenna and legs a little paler than the rest of the 
surface. 

A rather common Eiu'opean insect, and in all probability naturalized in !Madeii"a 
from more northern latitudes. It may be immediately recognised by its large 
size and pallid hue, by its exceedingly pubescent and deeply pimctm'ed sm-face, 
and by the tolerably distinct crenulations (especially behind) of its prothorax. 
The Madeiran specimens differ in no respect fi-om the ordinary type, except that 
perhaps their postmcdial prothoracic depression is a little fainter. It appears to 
be somewhat scarce, occm-ring sparingly about dwellings and out-houses, in the 
immediate vicinity of the callages and towns. I have captiu'ed it, dm-ing January, 
in the garden of the Quinta d^imbrosio, near Funchal ; and it has been taken in 
the north of the island, at Sao Vincente, by the llev. R. T. Lowe. 

149. Corticaria rotiindicollis, iVolh 

C. ovata rufo-picea, capite prothoraceque granulatis et leviter punctatis, hoc circa medium dilatato ad 
latera integro, foveS, postmedia rotundata profundi impresso, elytris obscurioribus substriato- 
punctatis, antennaram basi pedibusque rufo-testaceis. 

Long, coi-p. lin. |. 

Habitat in montibus Madcr<e, rarissima: ad Lombo das Vacas solstitio sestivo a.d. 1850 duo speci- 
mina inveni. 

C. ovate, rufo-piceoiis, pubescent, and rather shining. Head sai prothorax distinctly granulated, and 
intermixed with rather obscure, shallow, and distant punctures : the latter with the edges 
rounded, but apparently not at all crenulated j widest about the middle ; the postmcdial fovea 
well-defined and deep. Elytra darker than the head and prothorax, rather convex posteriorly j 
and substriate-punctate. Antennce and legs rufo-testaceous ; the former with their club in- 
fuscated. 

The ovate outlines of the present species and the following one -will readily 
distinguish them from the remainder of the genus with which we have here to do. 
The C. rotundicolUs however recedes fi'om the C. curta in its darker hue (especially 
of the elytra), in its slightly larger size, and in its different prothorax, — which has 
its edges entu-e (and with no appearance of an excavation and tooth at the hinder 
angles), and its sm-face (like that of the head) very evidently granidated, the punc- 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 187 

tures with which, the granules are intermixed, being remarkably shallow and ill- 
defined. Its postmedial prothoracic fovea is, likewise, deeper, and the club of its 
antennae is more dusky than is the case in that insect. The only two specimens 
which I have hitherto seen were captured, by myself, on the Lombo das Vacas, 
June 21, 1850. 

150. Corticaria curta, Woll. 

C. ovata nifo-fusca, capite prothoraceque punctatis sed vix granulatis, hoc curto pone medium dilatato 
ad latera subintegro, circa angulos posticos leviter excavato (angulis ipsis exstantibus), fovea 
postmedi^ vel minus distinctS, vel obsoleta, elytris obscurioribus (paulo magis infuscatis) striato- 
punctatis, antennis pedibusque testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. |-|. 

Habitat sub lapidibus omnium insularum Maderensium, prsesertim in locis graminosis, vulgaris : in 
Porta Sancto necnon in Deserta Grandi tempore vernali abundat. 

C. short, ovate, reddish-brown, pubescent, and very shghtly shining. Head and prothorax much 
more deeply punctured and less evidently granulated than in the last species : the latter short, 
with the edges rounded and almost free from crenulations (or with very slight indications of 
them) ; widest behind the middle ; minutely excavated immediately before the hinder angles 
(which are, themselves, however, a little prominent) ; the postmedial fovea usually faint, and 
occasionally obsolete. Elytra rather darker and less rufescent than the head and prothorax, 
being of a purer brown ; and somewhat distinctly striate-punctate. Antenna and legs testaceous ; 
the former not having, usually, even their club iufuscate. 

The smallest of the Corticarice here described, and known by its short, ovate 
outline, by its more or less reddish-brown, or infuscated hue, and by the construc- 
tion of its prothorax, — which is broadest a little behind the midtUe, obsciu'cly 
excavated immediately in fi'ont of the postei'ior angles (which are, themselves, 
consequently prominent, — assuming somewhat the form of a minute tooth), and 
(unlike that of the C. rotundicolUs) is impressed with distinct and rather large 
punctures, the intermediate granulations being scarcely perceptible. Its antennee 
moreover are usually quite pale, and the postmedial prothoracic fovea is often 
entii-ely obsolete. It would seem to be the Madeiran representative of the common 
Eui'opean C.fuscula, although with too many distinctive characters of its own to 
aUow of its being referred to that insect. Thus, for instance, it is more ovate, and, 
in all cases, considerably smaller ; its prothorax is more suddenly dilated behind 
the middle, and less distinctly excavated at the posterior angles ; and its antennse, 
which are iuvariably more abbreviated and less robust, want the dusky apex 
which is there so conspicuous. It is the most abundant of the Corticarice of these 
islands, and a truly indigenous species, — beiag widely distriljuted throughout the 
group, and in positions for the most part far removed from cultivated spots. In 
Porto Santo and on the Dezerta Grande I have taken it ia profusion, from 

2 B 2 



188 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

beneath stones, durins^ the spring and early summer months ; whilst at interme- 
diate altitudes of Madeii'a proper, whether within the sylvan regions or out of 
them, it is ixniversal. 

151. Corticaria Fagi, WoU. 

C. elongato-parallela angusta fiilvo-fen'uginea, capite prothoraceque profuude et subremote punctatis, 

hoc ad latera postice crenulato, fovea postmedia magnii profundi impresso, elytris striato- 

punctatis, antennis pedibusque vix pallidioribus. 
Long. Corp. lin. §. 

Habitat Maderam borealem sylvaticam, ad Lombo dos Pecegueiros mense Julio a.d. 1850 copiosissime 
lecta. 

C. narrower, more elongated and parallel than any of the foregoing species, very pubescent, pale fulvo- 
ferruginous, and slightly shining. Head and prothorax beset with very large, deep, but some- 
what remote punctures : the latter with the edges rounded and finely crenulated posteriorly ; the 
postmedial fovea large and deep, but not quite so rounded as in the other species, — having a 
tendency to be a little curved, or arcuated in front. Elytra regularly and distinctly striatc- 
punctate. Antenna and legs concolorous with, or (especially the former) a little paler than, the 
rest of the surface. 

The narrow and linear outline of the present Corticaria, in conjunction Avith its 
pallid hue and its large hinder prothoracic fovea, will at once separate it from the 
whole of the preceding species. It is apparently the Madeiran representative of 
the C. elongata of Schuppcl, though clearly not identical with it, — since it is not 
only somewhat darker, and less parallel and pubescent than that insect, but its 
prothorax is less perceptibly crenulated posteriorly, and (together with the head) is 
beset with extremely large, coarse and deep punctures ; whereas in the C. elongata 
the punctures are so minute as to be scarcely perceptible. It is exceedingly local, 
and would seem to be confined to the forest regions of intermediate and rather 
lofty altitudes. The only district in which I have hitherto observed it is that of 
the Lombo dos Peccgueu-os, where, during July 1850, I captured it in profusion, — 
especially on the outer canvass of my tent towards the dusk of the evening and 
after showers. The particular spot in which I was encamped (known as the Chilo 
das Castanheiras) being thickly studded wdth enormous Spanish chestnuts, I am 
inclined to suspect that it was from off that tree, rather than the native laurels, 
that my specimens must have flowia. 

Gemis 64. LATHRIDIUS. 

Herbst, Natursyst. v. S (script. Lati-idius) (1793). 

Corpus minutum, plus minusve clongato- vol parallelo-ovatum, depressiusculum, calvum sed sculptu- 
ratum : protlioracc srcpius elytris angustiorc, clonguto-subquadrato aiigulis auticis plus minusve 
ampliatis, ad latera marginato et plus minusve complanato : alls amplis. Antenna capitis pro- 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 189 

thoracisque vix longitudine, articulis primo et secundo (illo vix prsecipue) subglobosis robustis, 
tertio secundo paulo breviore, quarto longiore, inde ad octaviim paulatim brevioribus latitudine 
subfequalibus, reliquis clavam magnam laxam triarticulatam efficientibus (ultimo subquadrato- 
ovato ad apicem oblique truncato). Labrum breve transversum, antice vix emarginatum. Man- 
dibulte acutae incui-vae, apice vix denticulatse, intus membrana tenuissima ciliata auctse. Maxillie 
lobo singula recto apice piloso instructfe. Palpi maxillares breves, articulo priuio minutissimo, 
secundo majore crassiore, tertio magno subgloboso, ultimo minora subconico : labiales brevissimi, 
articulo primo minutissimo brevissimo, secundo maximo crasso subgloboso, ultimo minutissimo 
tenuissimo aciculari vix perspicuo, ad apicem ipsum setulis paucis munito. Mentum hexagonum, 
antice angustatum. Ligula ampla lata, apice truncata Integra ciliata. Pedes subgraciles : tarsis 
3-articulatis, articulo primo secundo breviore, ultimo elongato. 

The distinctions between the Lathridii and the Cort'icarice have been already 
pointed out, — the flatter, usually less ovate, somewhat harder and more sculp- 
tui'ed (though unpubescent) bodies of the former being at once sufficient, apart 
from the minute characters to be gathered from the relative proportions of their 
antenna! and tarsal joints, whereby to sej^arate them, even at first sight, from the 
latter. As lately stated, they are more strictly subcortical in tliek habits than 
the members of the previous genus : nevertheless both groups are usually more or 
less abundant during the summer months (at which season the insects are in an 
active state) amongst dense herbage and vegetation, — particularly in shady 
localities beneath trees, and in waste spots adjoining cultivated grounds. 

152. Lathridius assimilis. 

L. parallelo-subovatus piceo-ferrugineus, capite prothoraceque subpunctato-rugosis, hoc ad latera 
valde complanato, angulis auticis rotundato-ampliatis, elytris profunda punctato-striatis, intar- 
stitiis altarnis elevatis, antennis pedibusque diluto-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1. 

Lathridius assimilis, Maun. i?i Germ. Zeitsch. v. 98 (1844). 
coUaris, Motschulsky, in litt. 

Habitat prope urbem Maderae Funchalensem, hinc inda, rarior. 

I». elongata-subovate, rather mora parallel than either of the following species, and more or less picao- 
ferruginous, or pale rusty-piceous. Head and prothorax rugosely punctured and wrinkled, — thf 
punctures being large, a good deal confluent and ill-defined : \h^ former almost unchannelad : the 
latter tolerably large, and narrowed behind ; the sides much flattened, and with the anterior angles 
considerably expanded, or rounded, outwards ; with an obscure impression (or wide abbreviated 
channel) on the fore part of the disk, and transversely impressed behind. Elytra rather parallel 
at the sides ; deeply punctate-striated, — the punctures being very large, distinct, and regular ; 
the interstices convex, and the alternate ones elevated. Antenna and legs a little palar than the 
rest of the insect, — being dull rusty-testaceous. 

The present Lathridius may be at once known from the L. mimittis by its rather 



190 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

larger and more parallel outline, by its paler and more rusty hue, Ijy its somewhat 
longer prothorax (which has the anterior angles more distinctly expanded, or 
rounded, outwards), and by the raised alternate interstices of its more deeply and 
regularly punctate-striated elytra. It is apparently scarce in Madcii-a, the only 
district in which I have hitherto taken it being the Weinity of Funchal, — where it 
may possibly have been accidentally introduced from more northern latitudes. It 
is not an imcommon insect throughout Eiu'ope, being recorded in Finland, Russia, 
Germany, Poland, and Switzerland ; it is however far less abimdant than either of 
the following species. 

153. Lathridius minutus. 
I*, ovatus nigro-piceus, capite prothoraceque (vix subpunctato-) rugosis, hoc ad latera complanato, 

angulis anticis minus rotundato-ampliatis, elytris punctato-striatis, interstitiis convexis, anten- 

narum basi pedibusque diluto-testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. |-|. 

Tenebrio minutus, LLim. Syst. Nat. ii. 675 (17C7). 
Ips minuta, Oliv. Ent. ii. 18. 22 (1790). 
Corticaria puUa, Mslim, Ent. Brit. i. Ill (1802). 
Lairidius porcatus, Steph. III. Brit. Ent. iii. 113 (1830). 
Lathridius minutus, Mann, in Germ. Zeitsch. v. 96 (1844). 

Habitat Maderam, usque ad 4000' s. m. ubique \Tilgaris. 

L. shorter and more ovate than the L. assimilis, and dark piceous-black. Head and prothorax ahnost 
as rugose as in that insect, but with the punctures even more irregular, being scarcely at all 
defined : the former with a distinct longitudinal channel down the centre : the latter rather short, 
and naiTowed behind; the sides flattened, and with the anterior angles expanded, or rounded, 
outwards, — though much less so than in the L. assimilis ; usually with a very obscure impression 
(or abbreviated channel) on the fore part of the disk, and transversely impressed behind. Elytra 
rounded at the sides, the widest part being about the middle ; punctate-sti-iated, — the punctures 
being smaller and much less distinct than those of the last species ; the interstices rather convex, 
but the alternate ones not more elevated than the remainder. Anteniue and legs diluted-testa- 
ceous; the former with their club often a little infuscated. 

Distinguished from the i. ossimilis, as alroadv stated, bv its smaller, more 
ovate, and darker body, by its more deeply channeled forehead and less anteriorly- 
dUated prothorax, and by the sculpture of its el}i:ra, — which arc not only more 
obscurely pimctured than in that insect, but want Hke^ise the elevated alternate 
interstices which are there so apparent. It is by far the most abundant of the 
Madeiran Lothridii, occiu'ring in profusion in nearly aU parts of the island below 
the altitude of about 1000 feet. In the llibciro de Santa Luzia, near Funchal ; 
in the chestnut-woods of Santa AixavL ; throughout the region of the Kibeiro Frio ; 
and at the Lombo dos Pecegueiros I have captured it commonly, dm'ing the spring 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 191 

and summer months —particularly in the last of these districts, where in July 
1850 I observed it by thousands on the outer canvass of my tent, whither it had 
flown, in company with the Cortlcaria Fagi, towards the dusk of the evening. It 
is a species of very wide geographical range, being recorded by Mannerhekn in 
Lapland, Sweden, Finland, Siberia, Russia, Germany, England, France, Italy, 
Armenia, the Caucasus, and even from Greenland. 



154. Lathridius transversus. 

L. ovatus antice subacuminatus, femigineus, capite prothoraceque (vix subpunctato-) rugosis, hoc 
parvo subquadrato (angulis anticis baud ampliatis), ad latera complanato necnon ad basin pro- 
fundius transversim impresso, elytris (antice sat profunde) punctato-striatis, antennis pedibusque 
nifo-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. |-|. 

Ips transversa, Oliv. Ent. ii. 18. 20. pi. 3. fig. 20 a, h (1790). 
Corticaria transversa, Mshm, I^nt. Brit. i. 109 (1802). 
Latridius transversus, Steph. III. Brit. Ent. iii. 112 (1830). 
Lathridius transversus, Mami. in Germ. Zeitsch. v. 94 (1844). 

Habitat Maderam, prsesertim prope ui-bem Funchalensem, rarior; una cum L. assimili a meipso 
captus. 

L. ovate, rather acuminated anteriorly, and bright ferruginous. Head and prot/iorax sculptured much 
in the same manner as those of the L. minutus : the former obscurely channeled down tlie centre : 
the latter smaller and narrower (especially in front) than in either of the other species,— being 
subquadrate, and with the anterior angles hardly more developed (although much more rounded) 
than the posterior ones ; with a tolerably distinct and rounded impression on the fore part of the 
disk, and with the hinder transverse impression deeper than in either of the preceding species. 
Elytra rather shining, and rounded at the sides, the widest part being a little behind the middle ; 
somewhat deeply punctate-striated in front, but with the sculpture altogether much fainter 
posterioriy,— the punctures towards the base however being rather large and distinct. Antenna 
and legs (especially the former) a little paler than the rest of the surface. 

The somewhat anteriorly-acuminated outline and pallid hue of the present 
insect, in conjunction mth the sculptm-e of its elytra (which is deep at theii- l^ase, 
but fainter towards their apex), and the more distinct transverse impression and 
less expanded front angles of its (comparatively small, narrow and subquack-ate) 
prothorax, will be at once sufficient to separate it, prima facie, from the other 
Madeii-an Lathrklli. Like the last, it is a species of wide geographical range, 
abounding in all parts of Europe, and being recorded, in Asia, from Siberia to the 
Caucasus. In Madeira it would seem to be decidedly scarce, or at any rate local, 
—the exceedingly few specimens which have come beneath my notice having been 
captui-ed by myself in the immediate vicinity of Fimchal and towards the upper 
extremity of the Ribeii'o de Santa Luzia. 



192 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Genus 65. METOPHTHALMUS. (Tab. IV. fig. 4.) 

Motsc'hidsky, in Jitt. (scrijjt. ^letaphthalinus). 

Corpus minutum, parallelo-subovatum, depressum, cal\Tim, sculpturatum, Lathridio babitu proximum 
sed ab co valdc distinctum : capite porrecto costatOj ad latera crenulato ; oculis minutis valde 
convexis subconicis, supra marginem capitis lateralem omnino sitis atque ex lentibus paucis com- 
positis : prothorace elytris angustiore, sulcato, ad latera crenulato rotundato et late complanato : 
alls obsoletis. Antenna (IV. 4 a) ad basin ab oculis remotre, et supra marginem (ad angulos 
anteriores) capitis insertfe, lO-articulatre, clavatse, articulis primo et secundo (illo praecipue) 
magnis crassis (illo subquadrato, hoc globoso), tertio brevi minuto, quarto longiore graciliore 
subclavato, inde ad octavum longitudine decrescentibus latitudine vix crcscentibus, rebquis 
clavam magnam laxam elongatam biarticulatam efficieutibus (penultimo brevi subpoculiformi, 
ultimo maximo elongato-ovato ad apicem internum oblique truncato et setis paucis munito). 
Labrum prominulum, breve transversum, antice rotundatum integrum. Mandibulas baud 
observare potui. Maxilla (nisi fallor) lobo singula pubescenti instructie. Palpi maxillares 
articulo primo niinutissimo, secundo magno crassiore, tertio maximo valde incrassato sub- 
globoso, ultimo tcrtii longitudine sed graciliore fusiformi apice truncato : labiales brevissimi, 
articulo primo minuto brevissimo, secundo maximo crasso subgloboso, ultimo minutissimo (aegre 
observando) mammuliformi apice obtuso setisque paucis obscm'issimis munito. Mentum trans- 
versum, in parte media transversim punctato-perforatum, antice leviter dilatatum, apice sinuato. 
Ligula ampla lata, apice vix emarginata. Pedes subgraciles : tibiis rcctis subclavatis r tarsis 
(IV. 46) 3-articulatis simplicibus, articulo primo secundo vix breviore, ultimo valde elongato 
fusiformi, ad ajjicem (in anticis saltem) miuutissimc bispinoso unguiculisque simplicibus magnis 
munito. 
A /u,€Ta post, et 6cp9a\fj,6^ oculus. 

The very interesting little genus for which Motschulsky has proposed the name 
of 3Ietaphthalmus, — hut which, since it has not yet heen either puhlished or 
defined, I have altered to Metophthalmns (as the more correct orthograj)hy), — is 
c-vidently nearly akin to Lathrklius, though at the same time with abundant 
distinctive cltaracters of its own which must altogether separate it, generically, 
from that group. Thus, its 10-jointed antcnnoe, ^ith then* biarticulated club, in 
conjunction with the remarkable construction of its eyes, which are exceedingly 
convex (although minute), and placed completely on the upper siu"face of the head 
(the lateral edges of a\ hich jn'oject perceptibly beyond them), are points amply 
sufficient, even alone, to separate it from the LctthrkUi, — with which nevertheless 
in the details of its palpi and feet, as well as in its general contour and deeply 
sculptured siu-face, it is coincident. A glance, however, at the diagnosis avlLI show 
that, apart from the more conspicuous points just aUuded to, there are other 
peculiarities, albeit less apparent, in ^^ liich it does in reality recede from Latliri- 
dius very considerably, — amongst which, its total freedom from \vings and the 
serrated margins of its hecal should be especially noticed. Still, it is unquestion- 
ably in its organs of siglit that its most extraordinary feature is indicated, which, 
from their anomalous situation and diminutiAc size, and in the paucity of the 
large facets which unite in composing them, are of a very unusual natiu-e. This type 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 193 

of eye (which is likewise carried out, in almost every respect except iti position, in 
Cholovocera) is of extremely rare occurrence in the Coleoptera : and since- the 
sides of the head entii-ely intercept it fi-om below, it follows that the insect must 
be incapable of perceiving what is immediately beneath it; and it would be 
interesting therefore to inquii-e whether its habits are in any way modified so as 
to meet this restricted arrangement for vision. In a certain degree this apparent 
deficiency has been compensated for by the great convexity of the eye, the remote 
lenses of which are so adjusted as to form somewhat of a cone, which thus not 
only gives the creature a more extended horizon, but causes also objects which are 
placed at merely a very short distance from it to come within its field of view. I 
tliink it far fi'om unlikely however that it is a native of Ants' nests, or at least 
subterraneous in its propensities, — the single example which has hitherto been 
detected being in all probability a chance specimen, astray from its legitimate 
haimts ; in which case, many of the above-mentioned irregularities become, if not 
actually intelligible, at any rate in accordance vriih. what experience tells us that 
under such cii-cumstances we may, in some measure, expect. 

In my dissection of this minute insect, I have unfortxmately failed to detect the 
mandibles : but the remaining particulars of its structiu'e will more than suffice to 
point out its a ffini ties, — if indeed there could, even a priori, have been any doubt 
regarding them. 

155. Metophthalmus asperatus, WoU. (Tab. IY. fig. 4.) 

M. parallelo-subovatus rufus, capite prothoraceque rugosis insequalibus, illo subacuminato-porrecto in 
fronte binodoso utrinque costato necnon ad latera serrato, hoc ad latera serrato rotundato et late 
complanato, pone medium transversim impresso, in dorse convexo sed in media parte ipsa longi- 
tudinaliter concavo, elytris rufo-piceis profunda punctato-striatis, sutm-a interstitiisque alternis 
valde elevatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. vix |-. 

Habitat Maderam borealem sylvaticam, ad Lombo dos Pecegueiros d. 22 Jul. a.d. 1850 a meipso 
repertus. 

M. elongate-ovate, narrow, somewhat acuminated anteriorly, rufous, and a little shining. Head and 
prothorax rough, and very uneven : the former elongated, and considerably acuminated in front j 
crenulatedj or more strictly perhaps serrated, at the edges ; with an elevated and slightly curved 
ridge on either side from the inner margin of the eye to the insertion of the antenna, and 
another, almost straight and less evident one (being perceptible only beneath a high magnifying 
power), between it and the lateral edge, and extending from the antenna to the outer margin of 
the eye ; the forehead with two very abbreviated strise (forming minute nodules) in the centre, — 
which are nearly confluent at their commencement, but which diverge outwards, in the direction 
of the mouth, and enclose within their angle a minute rounded impression somewhat resembling 
an ocellus ; eyes minute, and extremely convex, — placed on the upper surface of the head, the 
lateral margins of which project sensibly beyond them. Prothorax regularly rounded and crenu- 

2 c 



19 i INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

lated at the sides, although somewhat wider towards the posterior than the anterior portion ; 
Ukewise, excessively uneven and furrowed, — though it is not easy to perceive the exact direction 
which the impressions take ; the sides however are very broadly flattened, and the dorsal portion 
is elevated, though at the same time with an evident and wide channel, or lougitudinal groove, 
down its (otherwise) highest, or central portion (especially apparent in front) ; this groove is 
inten-upted behind the middle by a transverse one, which is somewhat more distinct, — the two 
intersecting each other in the form of a cross. Elytra considerably darker than the head and 
prothorax, being rufo-piceous ; rather undulating in its external outhne ; vei-y deeply jjunctate- 
striated (the punctures being exceedingly large and distinct) ; and with their sutm-e and 
alternate interstices considerably raised. Antenna, mouth and legs very pale rufous, or rufo- 
ferruginous. 

Apparently extremely rare ; the only specimen wliicli I liave seen liaA-ing been 
captured by myself in the north of Madeira, by brusliing the long and rank grass 
at the Lombo dos Pecegueiros, near the edges of the precipitous cliff-road Ijctween 
Sao Vincente and Seisal, — at a short distance from the eastern limit of the Ribcii-o 
de Joao Delgada, — on the 22nd of July, 1850. 



Fam. 16. MYCETOPHAGIDiE. 

Genus 66. BERGINUS. 

(Dejean) Erichson, Nat. do- Ins. Brutsch. ill. 405 (1848). 

Curpus minvitum suboblongo-cjliudricuni, pubescens : prothorace elytris paulo angustiore, ad latera 
minutissime crenulato-marginato (sed baud complanato) : alis amphs. Antenna capitis pro- 
thoracisque fere longitudine, clavatse pilosse, articulo primo robusto subgloboso, secundo longiore 
graciliorc subclavato, tertio huic longitudine requali sed graciliore, inde ad nonum paulatim vix 
brevioribus latitudine suba;qualibus, reliquis clavam magnam laxam perfoliatam biarticulatam 
efficientibus (decimo magno subpocidiformi, ultimo paido angustiore ovato ad apicem oblique 
subtruncato). Labrum porrectum subquadratum, antice rotundatum vLx emarginatum ciliatum. 
MundibuliE valida? triangulares, apice acuta bidentata;, intus basin versus membrana tcnuissima 
auctae. Maxilla biloba; : lobo externa magno lato subovato, apice vakle pubcscenti : iiiternu 
breviore angustissimo valdc pubescenti-pencillato. Palpi maxillares articulo ])riiuc) ))arvo, 
secundo magno elongato subcla\ato, tertio breviore, ultimo magno (fere subsecuriformi) sub- 
ovato apice oblique truncato : lubiales robusti, articulo primo parvo, secundo maximo crasso, 
ultimo vix breviore sed multo graciliore subcylindrico. Mentum amplum transverso-quadratum, 
antice integrum. Ligula ampla lata, apice truncata ciliata. Pedes graciles : tibiis rectis, apicem 
versus leviter dilatatis : tnrsis l-articulatis, articulo ])rimo Icviter elongato, secundo et tertio 
brevioribus suba;qualibus, hoc cmarginato ultimum elongatum recipiente ; unguiculis simplicibus. 

Berginus may, I think, be regarded as constituting a veiy natui-al passage 
between the Luthvidiada: and the ^lycetophagkhc, being allied to both of them in 
many particulars of its economy and structiu'c, whilst at the same time it cnil)races 
the entire essential characters of neither. It is usually however placed, and per- 
haps rightly, amongst the latter, as possessing a considerable affinity with such 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 195 

genera as lAtargus and Typhcea, — though it is almost equally impossible to over- 
look its relationship with LathricUus likewise, to which in its general contour and 
habits, as well as in the largely-developed penultimate joint of its labial palpi, it 
makes a decided approach. StUl, its tetramerous feet and pubescent body (the 
former of which, nevertheless, do not appear to be triartictdate in the anterior 
male pair), in conjimction Avith its distinctly bilobed maxillte, would seem (in a 
choice between the two families) to remove it into the Ilycetoplmgicla;, — where 
indeed it is stationed by Erichson, alongside the genus Typhcea, which is in all 
probability its most correct position. 

156. Berginus Tamarisci. 

B. suboblongo-cylindricus brunneo-ferrugineus pubescens, capite prothoraceque rugose punctatis, 
hoc elongato-subquadrato ad latera minutissime crennlato, basi foveola rotundata utrinque 
impresso, elytris rugose subpunctato-striatis, antennis pedibusque diluto-testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. ^1. 

Berginus Tamarisci, Dejean, in lift. 

Habitat in locis subinfevioribus Maderae australis, prsesertim in cultis vix ab urbe Funcbalensi remotis, 
tempore vernali uon infrequens : in Portu Sancto praedominat, qua Aprili exeunte a.d. 1848 in 
clivis graminosis mox infra summum ipsum montem Pico de Facho dictum copiose collegi. 

B. elongated, parallel, and rather cylindric, reddish-brown, pubescent, and nearly opake. Head and 
prothorax rugosely punctured,— the punctures being large, a good deal confluent, and not at all 
well-defined : the former with the eyes large and prominent : the latter somewhat elongate- 
quadrate (though with the hinder angles a good deal rounded) and convex; very minutely 
margined and crenulated at the edges ; and impressed on either side, at the base (towards the 
posterior angles), with a small, though distinct and rounded fovea. Elytra parallel, rugosely 
punctate-striated, — the punctures however being even less defined still than those of the head 
and prothorax ; and with the interstices (especially in front) a little raised. Antennce and legs 
(particularly the latter) paler, being usually dull rufo-testaceous. 

By no means an uncommon insect thi'oughout the southern districts of Madeii'a, 
below the elevation of about 800 feet, — though more attached perhaps to the 
immediate vicinity of Funchal than elsewhere. It occurs principally amongst old 
wood in waste neglected spots within the cidtivated regions, often frequenting 
gardens and vineyards, — under which circumstances I have once or twice captured 
it in that of the Rev. R. T. Lowe at the Levada, where, if I mistake not, it had 
issued from out of the rotten stalks of the Datura. On the little hill above Santo 
Antonio, known as the Pico do Cardo, I observed it plentifully, during March 
1848, in the decayed stump of a tree, in company with the Ftinus longicornis 
and orhatus : whilst in Porto Santo it is altogether more aloundant, and would 
seem likewise to be more strictly indigenous, — where, in April and May of the 
same year, I took it in profusion by brushing the short grass on the mountain- 

2 c 2 



196 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

slopes of the Pico tie Faclio (IGOO feet above tlie sea), facing the south. It is a 
species of Mediterranean latitudes, though apparently somewhat scarce. It is 
recorded in the south of France ; and I possess specimens, also, from Sicily, which 
agree in every respect with the Madeiran ones, except that they are just perceptibly 
darker in their colouring. 

Genus 67. MICROCHONDRUS. (Tab. IV. fig. 2.) 
Gueriu-Meueville, in litt. 

Corpus minutum, ovatum, convexum, pubescens, Jlycetscfe affinitate proximum sed ab eo (nisi fallor) 
distinctum : prothorace lato, ad latera minute subcrenulato-marginato : alis amplis. Antenme 
capitis pi'othoracisque longitudlne, clavatfe pilosa;, articulis primo et secundo (illo, subgloboso, 
pnecipuc) robustis longitudiiie subtcqualibus (hoc subclavato), tcrtio ad octavum parns sub- 
sequalibus, reliquis clavam magnam laxam perfoliatam triarticulataiu efScientibus (nono et 
decimo subsequalibus subpocuHformibus, ultimo niagno ovato ad apicem oblique truncato). 
Lnhrum (IV. 2 a) aiiipluin transversuni, antice membranaccum leviter emarginatum et ciliatum. 
Mandibula (IV. 2 b) validje incurva;, apice acuta fortiter bidentatsCj intus late cmarginata; et 
membrana tenuissima auctse. Maxilla (IV. 2 c) bilobse : lobo externa magno lato subovato valde 
pubescenti : interno brevissimo angusto valde pubesccnti, apice acutissimo incurvo. Palpi 
tnaxillares articulo primo minute, secundo longiore subclavato, tcrtio brenore transverse, ultimo 
clongato-subovato : labiahs (IV. 2 d) robusti, articulo primo minutissimo, secundo longiore 
crassiore subclavato, ultimo maxinio valde inflate globose apice truncate. Menium amplum 
transvcrso-subquadratum, antice leviter angustatum mcmbranaceum integrum. Liijula ampla 
lata, apice vix emarginata valde pubescens ciliata. Pedes graciles : tibiis rectis, apicem versus 
leviter dilatatis : tarsis (IV. 2/) 4-articulatis, articulis prime et secundo inter sc arete cou- 
junctis (suturS, segi-c observanda), ille hoc paido bre\dore, tertio secundi lengitudine sed paule 
angustiore, ultimo elongate subclavato unguiculis simplicibus munito. 

A fitKph'i pan'us, et ^j^ot'S/ao? granum. 

The insect from which the above generic diagnosis has been drawn out is inti- 
mately allied to 3Ii/cetceo, for which indeed it might, at first sight, be easily 
mistaken. After a careful examination however of the various parts of its struc- 
ture, I am inclined to believe that it may perhaps present sufficient differences to 
warrant its separation from that genus : — an hjqiothesis which is rendered the 
more probable since Mr. Westwood informs mc that it has in fact been already 
detached liy M. Gudrin-^M^ncAille, who had sui)plicd him with a copy of the 
dissections from his vmpubUshed manuscript, which appear miquestionably, in 
spite of certain discrepancies, to belong to the species now imder consideration. 
Although of an important nature, these incongruities are nevertheless such as 
may be readily accounted for in objects thus small and difficult of observation ; 
and it was not untU I had placed them beneath the highest magnifying poAver 
that I succeeded, myself, in detecting their actual condition. Thus, M. Gueriu's 
details represent the tarsi as composed of only three articulations, and the inner 
maxillarv lobe as obsolete : whereas in realitv the former are tetramcrous ; and 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 197 

the latter certainly exists, although in a very diminutive, or rutUmentary state. 
As regards the feet, the truth is that the fii'st two joints are so exactly connected 
mter se, and are so precisely of the same breadth throughout, that even the micro- 
scope does not show then* line of demarcation without some difficulty ; biit that it 
is to be perceived, when closely looked for, there cannot be the remotest doubt. 
Whilst it inust be admitted, therefore, that the points of deviation from Mycetcea 
are considerably reduced from what they were originally supposed to lie, yet there 
stUl remain many distinctive modifications in the minutiae of its oral organs 
which, when combined with external ones, will go far, I uuagine, towards render- 
ing its isolation desirable. Thus, for example, the enormously developed sub- 
globose termiual joint of its labial palpi (which, with that of the antennae, is 
obliquely truncated at its apex), added to its transverse, subemarginated upper lip, 
the excessive minuteness of the inner lobe of its maxillae, and the diflPerent con- 
struction of their palpi, are all of them features which recede from the parallel 
ones of Mycetcea : whilst its ?f«margined pvothorax (the sides of which, however, 
are obsoletely crenulated), and the total exemption of its elytral punctures from 
longitudinal distribution, would still farther tend to remove it from that genus,^ — 
to which in its general habits it manifestly approximates. 

157. Microchondrus domuiun. (Tab. IV. fig. 2.) 
M. ovatus rufo-testaceus nitidus longe sed parce pubescens, prothorace transverso subtilissime et 
pai-ce punctulato, ad latera minutissime subcrenulato, basi fovea valde profunda (extus siib- 
costato-terminata) utrinque instructo, elytris vix distinctius punctulatis, singulo stria suturali 
antice ilexuosa impresso, antenuis pedibusque paulo pallidioribus. 
Long. Corp. lin. |— 1. 

Microchonirus domuiim, G-uerin, in lift. 

Habitat in domibus Funchalensibus, rarissimus, — a meipso Novembri mense a.d. 1847 primo detectus : 
sed in Madera boreali, sub cortice arborum in castanetis Sanctse Annae, sestate a.d. 1850 paulo 
copiosiorem obseiTavi. 

M. ovate, obtuse both before and behind, rufo-testaceous, shining (especially the prothorax, which is 
brilliantly polished), and sparingly beset (more thickly so however towards the sides) with long 
pile. Head and prothorax almost inipunctate (most minutely impressed and distant points being 
only just distinguishable even beneath the microscope) : the latter broad, transverse, convex, and 
widest a short distance in front of its extreme base; with the edges rounded and a little recurved 
(and appearing beneath a high magnifying power to be most obscurely subcrenulatcd) ; and 
deeply impressed on either side behind with a large fovea, which is abruptly terminated towards 
the base of its outer limit by a slightly raised line, or costa (which however is apparent only 
when the insect is viewed obliquely). Elytra broad at the base, and with the lateral margins 
about the shoulders slightly and very narrowly recurved ; the punctures larger and rather more 
evident than those of the head and prothorax, but with no tendency whatsoever to be disposed ni 
rows; and with an impunctate stria on each alongside the suture, — and parallel to it, except in 



198 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

front where it is considerably curved outwards. Antenna and legs a little paler than the rest of 
the surface, being testaceous. 

Independently of the structural characters ali'eady enumerated, the present 
insect may be at once known from the common Mycetceu liirta, to which in many 
respects it is so nearly allied, by its broader and less acmninated outline (especially 
posteriorly), by its shorter, ^ider and more shining prothorax (on which the raised 
sublateral costa, which is so conspicuous in that genus, is but faintly expressed by 
a small, obsciu-e, and exceedingly abbreviated ridge on either side beliind), and by 
its vei-y much less sculptured smface, — its elytra (which are broad at their base, 
and hare a distinct sutural stria on each) displaying moreover no tendency what- 
soever to have thcii' pimctures even longitudinally disposed, and, therefore, 
a fortiori, of being deeply and regularly punctate-s^/v'«ie(Z as in Ilycetcea. It is 
apparently exceedingly rare, subsisting, for the most part, about, or in the imme- 
diate Wciuity of dwellings. I tii-st captui'ed it, in November of 1847, in a house 
in Funchal : and in the sunmicr of 1850 several specimens occurred to me beneath 
the bark of an old Spanish chestnut-tree in the north of the island, — in Senhor 
Louiz Acciaioly's vineyard at Santa Anna. 

Gemis 68. TYPH^A. 
(Kirby) Steph. III. Brit. Ent. iu. 70 (1830). 

Corpus par\Tim, oblongum, valde pubesccns : prothorace transverso, postice lato elytris arete applicato : 
alts aniplis. Antenna capitis prothoracisque longitudiuc, clavatie pilosa;, articulis primo et 
secundo longitudine subfequalibus (illo robusto subgloboso), tertio graciliore, inde ad octavum 
longitudine levitcr decrcscentibus latitudine crcscentibus, reliquis clavam magnam laxam elon- 
gatam perfoliatam triarticulatam efficientibus (nono et decimo subpoculiformibus, ultimo subovato 
basi trancato). Labrum transversum, antice vix integrum cdiatum. Mandibula vaUdse, apice 
acutse bifidae, intus late emarginatfc et membrana tenuissima auctae. Maxilla bilobae : lobo externa 
magno, apice dilatato valde pubescenti : interna breviore angusto, apice pubescenti-pencillato. 
Palpi maxillares articulo prinio parvo, secundo et tertio longioribus crassis subsequalibus, lUtimo 
elongato subfusiformi apice oblique tnmcato : labiales articulo primo minuto, secundo paulo 
longiore subclavato, ultimo elongato fusiform! apice recte truncato. Mentum subquadrato-trans- 
vcrsum, apice integrum. Liyula ampla lata cornea, apice pubesccns vix emarginata. Pedes 
graciles pilosi : tibiis sctosis et apicem versus parcc spinulosis, anticis vix rectis apice leviter 
dilatatis : tarsis 4-articulatis (anticis in maribus 3-articulatis) fihformibus, in utroque sexu 
articulo primo (praesertim in pasticis) longiusculo. 

Ty2>h(ca (characterized wrongly by Stephens in 1830, and rightly by Curtis in 
1838) is very nearly aUied, in its structural details, to Litargiis. It may however 
be known by its pallid hue, by its oblong and exceedingly pubescent body, and by 
its robust and corneous ligula. The basal joint of aU its tarsi is much less elon- 
gated than in Litargus, whilst that of the front male pair is, lilvcwise, not so broad. 
In its habits it is more fungivorous than subcortical; nevertheless it is often 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 199 

found in flowers, and is very active on the wing. Like the following genus, it 
retains all the characters of the typical Mycetophagida. 

158. Typhaea fumata. 
T. oblonga testacea subnitida valde pubesceus, prothorace traosverso, elytris rugulosis piloso-seriatis, 

antennis pedibusque vix pallidioribus. 
Long, coi-p. lin. 1;^. 

Dermestes fumatus, Linn. Sjst. Nat. ii. 56i (1767) . 

Mycetophagiis fumatus, G-yll. Ins. Suec. iii. 399 (1813). 

Typlima testacea et tomentosa, Stepb. 111. Brit. Unt. iii. 71 (1830). 

fumata, Ciirtis, Srit. Enf. xv. 702 (1838). 

, Sturm, Beutsch. Fna, xix. 35. tab. 318 (1847). 

Habitat Maderam, mibi non obvia ; nuperrime a Dom. Rousset communicata. 

T. oblong, testaceous, very slightly shining, and densely clothed with long and pale pubescence. 
Head and prothorax deeply punctured : the latter a little narrowed iu front, but wide behind, 
where it is of the same breadth as tlie elytra, and closely appUed to them. Elytra rather rough 
or wrinkled, obscurely punctured, the punctm-es having merely a very slight tendency to be 
disposed in rows ; and with the pubescence very distinctly seriate. AntenruE and legs a httle 
paler than the rest of the surface. 

Apparently very rare (although abvmdant throughout the whole of Europe), 
having hitherto entkely escaped my o\vn observations in the Madeka Islands. 
The only specimens which I have seen have been lately communicated to me by 
M. Rousset, to whom we are indebted for many additions to the entomological 
fauna of the group. There is a good deal of confusion regarding its synonymy, 
o^\dng partially perhaps to the Linnsean description and type not altogether 
tallying. That the Dermestes fumatus is really however the present insect is 
evident from a specimen still in existence, with the original label attached to it, in 
the Linnaean collection, — as was also remarked by Gyllenhal, on the au.thority of 
Kii'by, who, it would seem, likewise noticed the discrejmncy between the diagnosis 
and its representative. The Dermestes fumatus of Marsham, although supposed 
both by liimself and others to be the Linnaean species, is the Mycetcea hirta of 
European cabinets, — Marsham having apparently transcribed Linnaeus's description 
and referred a wronsr insect to it. 



■'o 



Genus 69. LITARGUS. (Tab. IY. %. 5.) 

Erichson, Nat. der Lis. Deutscli. iii. -±15 (1848). 

Corpus parvum, eUipticum, Isete picto-variegatum : prothorace transverso, postice lato elytris arete 
applicato : alis amplis. Antenna capitis prothoracisque vix longitudine, clavatse pilosfe, articulis 
primo, secundo et tertio longitudine subsequalibus (primo leviter robustiore, tertio graciliore 
subclavato), quarto ad octavum longitudine decrescentibus latitudine vix crescentibus, reliquis 



200 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

clavam magnam laxam elongatara perfoliatam triarticulatam efficientibus (nono subquadrato, 
decimo subquadrato-transverso, ultimo subovato basi truncato). Labrum transversum, antice 
integrum parce ciliatum. Mandibula valida;, apice acutse bifida;, intus late emarginatse et mem- 
brana tenuissima auctje. Maxilla bilobse : lobo extemo magno, apice dilatato valdc j)ubcscenti : 
interno breviore minuto angusto, apice pubcscenti-pencillato. Palpi maxillares articulo primo 
brevi flexuoso, secundo et tertio longioribus crassis subfequalibus, ultimo elongate subovato apice 
oblique tnincato : labiates articulo primo minuto, secundo paulo longiore subclavato, ultimo 
eiongato subfusiformi apice recte truncato. Mentum amplum subquaJi'atum, apice integrum et 
Icviter rotundatum. Ligula ampla lata membranacea, apice leviter emarginata pubescens ciliata. 
Pedes valde cursorii, graciles pilosi : tibiis anticis subrectis apice leviter dilatatis, posterioribus 
rectis extus sctosis et (in specie Madercnsi saltcni) ad apicem ipsura pectinato-spinulosis : tarsis 
4-articulatis [anticis in maribus 3-articulatis, articulo primo latiore), posteriuribus filiformibus ; 
omnibus in utroque sexu articulo primo eiongato (in anterioribus ultimi longitudine sed in posticis 
ultimo multo longiore), secundo minore, tertio paulo breviore, ultimo subclavato unguiculis sim- 
plicibus munito. 

The exceedingly elegant insect wliicli represents the present genus in Madeu'a 
(lilTcrs so ^^idely from every other member of the Coleoptera with which we are 
here concerned, that even its specific characters would more than suffice to identify 
it. Nevertheless, it may be desu-ablc to state that the main featiu-es Avhich eom- 
Ijiuc in separating Litargus from the rest of the typical Mycetophagidcc are, its 
entire eyes (which arc not emarginated anteriorly, as is the case vrith those of 
Mycetoj)h((gus and TrijjJiyllus), the triarticulated club of its antenna?, and its 
membranous and anteriorly-subemai-giaated ligida. It is the only normal genus 
of the Mycetophagidce (the discovery of TyphcBa being due to M. Eousset) which I 
have myself detected in these islands, — the construction of its tarsi, which are 
com])osed of three joints only in the anterior male pau-, the remainder being 
quacb'iarticulate, entirely according with the family diagnosis as rigidly defined. 
The group was established by Erichson in 1818, to embrace, amongst other species 
(extra-European), the Mycetophagus bifasciatus of Eabricius, an insect by no means 
uncommon in Germany and France, and with which in all its piu-cly structm'al 
details the one now under consideration strictly coincides. In external /rtc/^s how- 
ever there are a few particulars m Avliich it recedes fi'om it, such as, for instance, 
the basal angles of its pronotum not being produced, and its elj'tra being punctate- 
striatecl, as well as in the extreme apex of its four hinder tibiae being fringed with 
minute spines ; — but these are characters Avhich can scarcely be looked upon as 
of generic signification, and hence I have no hesitation in regarding it as a true 
Zitargiis. The Litargi seem to be more peculiar to Mediterranean than to northern 
latitudes ; and I have been informed by M. Leon Fairmaire, of Paris, that he has 
lately received two undescribed forms, somewhat allied to the L. picliis, from Sicily 
and Algeria. 



■T)^ 



159. Litargns pictus, Jfolt. (Tab. IV. fii,'. 5.) 
L. cllipticus niger vel nigro-piceus subnitidus pubescens, prothorace brevi trausverso, lateribus. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 201 

elytrorum punctato-striatorum maculis parvis fasciisque variis interruptis, antennarum basi pedi- 
busque rufo-testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. mas, ly-l|^ : fcem. l|-2. 

Habitat per partem Maderae sylvaticam, inter 2000' et 4000' s. m., sub cortice arborum laxo non in- 
frequens : specimen unicum etiam in horto Loweano prope Funchal (vespere volitans) deprebensi, 
— illic forsan e regione montana, arboratoribus casu deportatum. 

L. elliptical (or perhaps slightly more acuminated behind than before), black or piceous-black, slightly 
shining, and clothed with a short but robust pubescence. Head and prot/ioi-ax deeply punc- 
tured : the latter narrowed in front but wide behind, where it is of the same breadth as the elytra 
and closely applied to them ; the posterior margin nearly straight (the basal angles not being 
at all produced as in the typical Litargi) ; the edges, especially the lateral ones, more or less 
broadly and distinctly rufo-testaceous ; with a deep fovea on either side of the hinder disk, which 
does not however extend to the posterior margin. Elytra deeply punctate-striated, and with the 
interstices minutely punctulated ; with the lateral margins and a quantity of detached patches 
(which have rather the tendency to form aii interrupted anterior, and a somewhat less broken 
postmedial, fascia) bright rufo-testaceous. AntenruE at base, and the legs testaceous ; the former 
with their club (except the apical half of the terminal joint) darkly infuscated ; and the latter 
with their hinder tibife sometimes a little dusky. 

A triily indigenous and distinct lAtargus, and by no means uncouunon through- 
out the sylvan regions of Madeira between the limits of from 2000 to aboixt 4500 
feet above the sea. I have rarely observed it below the former of those altitudes ; 
although I once detected a single specimen even in the immediate vicinity of Fun- 
chal (in the E-ev. E/. T. Lowe's garden at the Levada), attracted by the light of a 
candle into an open window, after twUight : — that specimen however, I have but 
little doubt was an accidental one, brought dovni perchance from the moimtains 
through the agency of the wood-cutters, or by some other means equally the result 
of chance. It is found for the most part beneath the loose bark of trees, — under 
which circumstances I have taken it abundantly diu'ing the summer months in 
the districts of the Ribeiro Frio and the Panal ; as also, on the 18th of February 
1819, in the Boa Ventura : and in July 1850 it was extremely plentiful at the 
Lombo dos Pecegueiros, In point of size, the males are a trifle smaller than the 
females; but, as regards rarity, both sexes would appear to be pretty evenly 
distributed, since out of forty-six specimens fi-om which the above description has 
been compiled, twenty-five are males and twenty-one females. Although its 
habits are typically subcortical, it may be occasionally extracted from the very 
interior of soft decomposed wood, — a mode of life which would seem to be espe- 
ciaUy denoted in insects of an elliptical form ; and which is carried to its maximum 
in such genera as Flceosoma and Cerylou, in which the unangalar and boat-shaped 
bodies, so eminently adapted for forcing, rather than gnaicing theu- way (like the, 
more cylindrical, Xyloplmgi) through a spongy, or porous medium, is still further 
qualified by the excessive smoothness of their surface, which off'ers, consequently, 
no resistance to their progress. 

2d 



202 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 



Fam. 17. DERMESTID^. 

Genus 70. DERMESTES. 
Linnteus, Si/st. JS^at. ii. 501 (17G7). 

Corpus mediocre, oblongum, convexum : prothorace postice lato dytris arete applieato, necnon in 
medio obtuse lobato : alls amplis. Antennte breves (capite paulo longiores) clavatse pilosse, 
artieulo primo subovato crasso, secundo ad septimum paulatim miiuitioribus vix suba;qualibus, 
octavo brcvi transverso subpatelliformi, reliquis elavam magnam ovatam triarticulatam efficientibus 
(ultimo antecedente angustiore minore). Labrum transversum, antice emarginatum ciliatum. 
Mandihulte validse eurtse crassa;, apice vix bidentataj, intus ad basin emarginatse ct membrana 
pilosa aucta;. Maxilla bilobse : loho externa lato, apice valde pubesceuti : inferno ineurvo un- 
cinato, intus ciliato. Palpi maxillares, artieulo primo minuto, secundo et tertio majoribus sub- 
aequalibus, ultimo elongato subfusiforini apice truneato : labiules artieulo primo minuto, secundo 
magno subclavato, ultimo majore subcylindrico. Mentum amplum, oblongum postice truncatum, 
apice vix emarginatum. Ligula ampla lata cordata. Pedes gracdes retractUes : tibiis extus 
setoso-spinulosis, anticis subrectis apice versus leviter dilatatis, posterioribus rectis : tarsis articulis 
quatuor baseos subsequalibus. 

The common genus Dermestes may be kno^^^l by the thick, oblong forms of the 
insects which compose it, and which are ahnost equally roimded at either extre- 
mity, and are, most of them, more or less mottled with closely-set sericeous pUe. 
The club of their antenna; is ovate and does )iot vary in the sexes, and the first 
fom- joints of all then- tarsi are subcqual. The species are found principally in 
skins, or amongst bones, furs, and other animal substances, — whether in a par- 
tially dried state or prepared by art; as likewise about larders, and in houses 
generally, where they often commit considerable damage. 

160. Dermestes vulpinus. 

D. oblongus niger subflavcscenti-cinereo-pubescens, prothorace ad latera densius pubescenti; subtus 
niveo-villosus, segmento penultimo tuberculo medio rotundato picco instructo, et ultimo vitta 
media nigra longitudinal! lata ornato necnon ad apieem (cum scutello) fulvo-pubescenti ; elytro 
singulo ad apieem ipsum mucronato, antenuarum basi pedibusque picescentibus. 

Long. cOrp. lin. 3-45. 

Dermestes vulpinus, Fab. Spec. Ins. i. 6-1 (1781). 

, OUv. Ent. ii. 9. 8. pi. 1. fig. 6 (1790). 

, Gyll. 7«.s. Sure. i. 147 (1808). 

— , Steph. HI. Brit. Ent. iii. 123 (1830). 

Habitat in urbe Fuucbalensi, ex alienis introductus : specimen uuicum per acrem volitaus autumno 
A.D. 1847 deprehensit Rev''"' Dom. Lowe. 

D. oblong, black, slightly shining, closely and minutely puuctulated all over, and clothed with a short 
yellowish-cinereous, or somewhat griseous pubescence. Prothorax: with the pubescence towards 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 203 

the sides longer, much denser, and slightly paler than that of the elytra, — the disk being almost 
denuded. Body beneath densely beset with sno^vy-white pubescence, with a black, subdenuded 
marginal spot at either lateral edge of each of the abdominal segments, with a round piceous 
tubercle in the centre of the penultimate one, and with a broad longitudinal dark subglabrous 
vitta on the ultimate one, — the apex of which is more or less beset (like the scutellum) with a 
fulvescent, or golden-brown pile. Antenn(B and legs piccscent, — the basal portion of \\ie former, 
and the tarsi of the lattei- being paler, or more rufescent. 

An insect almost cosmopolitan in its distribution, being a universal attendant 
on commerce throughout the civilized world. It aboufids amongst merchandise of 
various kinds in Eiu'ope and America, and it was captured by Dr. Horsfield in 
Java. I have seen hitherto but a single Madeiran specimen, — which was taken in 
Funchal, on the wing, by the Eev. R. T. Lowe in the autumn of 1847 ; but as it 
is manifestly an imported species, no very great interest can attach to it, — since it 
would probal^ly be found in sufficient numbers were the proper localities inves- 
tigated which its destructive habits render bitt too necessary for its sustenance. 

Genus 71. ATTAGENUS. 

Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Lis. ii. 32 (1802). 

Corpus sat parvum, ovale, convexum : prothorace postice lato elytris arete applicato, necnon in medio 
ssepius subacute lobato : alls amplis. AnteniuE breviusculse clavatre pilosffi, articulo primo sub- 
ovato crasso, secundo miuore subgloboso, inde ad septimum minutis longitudine vix decrescentibus, 
octavo brevi transverso paulo latiore, reliquis clavam magnam elongatam triarticulatam efficien- 
tibus, ultimo in marc elongatissimo, in foemina ovato basi truncato, in utroque sexu antecedente 
multo longiore. Labrum transversum, autice integrum ciliatum. Mandibulm validse curtfe 
crassse, apice denticulatse, intus ad basin integrse et membrana ciliat4 angusta auctse. Maxilla 
bilobfe : lobo externo lato, apice valde pubescenti : interna incurvo uncinato, intus ciliato. Palpi 
maxillares articulo primo minuto, secundo et tertio majoribus (iUo hoc paulo longiore), ultimo 
elongate fusiformi apice acuminato-subtruncato : labiales articulo primo minuto, secundo majore 
crassiore, ultimo elongato fusiformi apice acuminato-subtruncato. Mentiim aniplum, subqua- 
dratum antice angustatum, apice leviter productum. Liyula ampla lata cordata. Pedes graciles 
retractQes : tibiis extus seriato-spinulosis, anticis subrectis apicem versus leviter dilatatis, poste- 
rioribus rectis : tarsis articulo primo minuto, secundo in posterioribus elongato. 

The Attac/eiii may be readily kno^vn from Dermestes by their smaller size, by 
the hinder margin of theii- prothorax being usually more acutely jDroduced, or 
sinuated, in the centre, and by the proportions of their antennae and trophi, — the 
former of which are dissimilar in the sexes, whilst the latter differ in having the 
upper lip entire, the mandibles less emarginated at theu* inuer base, and the ter- 
minal joint of the palpi longer and more aciuninated than is the case in that 
group. The four hinder feet, moreover, oi Attageniis have their second joint much 
more elongated than (the ultimate one, of course, excepted) any of the remainder, 
— a character indeed which at once separates it from the other genera of the 
Dermestid(^, 

2d 2 



204 IXSECTA MADERENSIA. 

161. Attagenus megatoma. 

A. ovalis piceo-niger, supra nigro-, iulra subcinereo-flavescenti-pubescens, auteiinarum basi pcdibus- 

que rufo-ferrugineis. 

Mas, antennanim articulo ultimo elongato subcylindrico. 

Long. Corp. lin. lf-2. 

Dermestes megatoma. Fab. Ent. Syst. v. Suppl. 71 (1798). 

, Dufts. Fna Austr. iii. 40 (1825). 

Attafjeiius megatoma, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xix. 76. tab. 355. fig. c (1847). 
, Ericii. .VaC. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 441 (1848). 

Habitat in domibus Madenc, rarissimus : duo specimina a Doin. Heinecken olim capta amicissiiue 
communicavit Rev*""' Dom. Lowe. 

A. short, oval, slightly shining, piceous-black, very closely and minutely punctulated all over (less 
distinctly so however than the D. vulpinus), and clothed (above) with a black pubescence. Body 
beneath more or less densely beset with a somewhat ashy-yellow pubescence. Antenna and legs 
rufo-f(M'rugiuous ; the former with their club somewhat darker. 

Two specimens only of this insect have hitherto conic beneath my notice, — 
which were captured many years ago (probably in Funchal) l>y the late Dr. Hei- 
necken, from whose collection they were presented to me by the Rev. R. T. Lowe. 
Being extremely old, and in a somewhat imperfect state, they are not very satis- 
factory subjects for examination : nevertheless I have no doubt but that they are 
correctly referred to the A. megatoma of European cabinets, — from Silesian 
examples of which in my jjossession they do not appear at all to differ, unless 
indeed it be that their blackness is slightly less intense (the result perchance of 
immatimty, — and answering to the var. /3. of Duftschmidt's Fauna Auslriaca), 
and that their ^irothorax is perhaps just perceptil)ly shorter than is there the case. 
Like most of the Dermestklw, it is a species liable to transmission -^-ith mer- 
chandise ; so that it has consequently obtained for itself a wdde geograjihical 
range, — being recorded by Erichson from Syria, North America, and the West 
Indian Islands*. 

Genus 72. ANTHRENUS. 

GKjoflroy, Hist, ties Ins. i. 113 (17G1). 

Corpus parvum, fere orbiculatum (subtus valde coiivexum), squamis dcciduis variegatum : capite parvo 
inflcxo, ad prosternuni applicando, et occUo frontali instructo : prothorace posticc lato clytris arete 

* In Dejean's Catalogue there is an insect quoted as coming li-oiu Jhuleira, mider the name of Noso- 
ilendron Maderense, Faldermami, and given as a synonym of the Attagcniis ohtusus of Gylleuhal. I 
possess specimens of the true A. ohttisus (Schonlierr) from Algeria, which are altogether distinct from the 
present species; and since I have no reason to believe that any Attageniis, except the megatoma, has 
liitherto occurreil in JNIadeira, I should be iucliucd to suspect that some mistake has arisen in either the 
identification or the locality of Faldermann's insect. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 205 

applicato, necnon in medio acute lobato (z. e. in angulum medium producto) : scutello minu- 
tissimo, ifigre observando : alts amplis. Antenna brevissimse (capitis longitudiiie) clavatse, in 
fovea sub margine pvothoracis inter otium repositfe, articulis primo et ^ecundo robustis, mde 
ad octavum minutis subaequalibus, reliquis clavam magnam subsolidam triarticulatam efficien- 
tibus. Labrum transversum, antice integrum rotuudatum ciliatum. Mandibula validre curtse 
arcuatjE acuta;. Maxilla bilobre : lobo externa pubescenti : interno setaceo, intus ciliato. Palpi 
iiliformes, articulo ultimo cylindrico apice truncato. Mentum amplum, subquadratum antice 
angustatum, apice \dx emarginatum. Li</ula lata cordata. Pedes breves gracillimi retractiles : 
femoribus tibiisqae (insecto quieto) corpori arete applicandis : tarsis liberis, articulis quatuor 
baseos subsequalibus. 

Anthreniis is supposed to constitute a passage between tlie present family and 
the ByrrUdcB, agreeing with the former ia the structiu-e and habits of its larvse, 
and in the squamose, variegated surface and slender Umbs of its imago ; whilst ia 
the contractility of its legs and antennse (which is more perfect than in the re- 
mainder of the Dermestklce, — albeit not complete, since the tarsi are free), and in 
its s-eneral subglobose contour it assimilates the latter. In their modes of life 
moreover the species are, likewise, somewhat intermediate between Dermestes and 
Byrrhus, being found not only amongst skins, bones, furs, &c., but also in the 
open country on the flowers of Umbelllferw, or even, occasionally, like the true 
Byrrlii, adhering to the undersides of stones in grassy spots. 

162. Anthrenus varius. 

A. suborbiculatus niger vel fusco-niger et squamis luteis variegatus, prothorace circa angulos posticos 
necnon ad angulum ipsum medium niveo-squamoso, elytris fasciis tribus undatis (plus minusve 
distinctis) niveo-squamosis ornato ; subtus squamis niveis dcnsius tectus ; antennis pedibusque 
nigris. 

Long. Corp. lin. \-\^- 

Anthrenus Verhasci, Oliv. (nee Liim. 1767) i:nt. ii. 14. 7. pi. 1. fig. 2a-d (1790). 

mriiis, Y&h.Snt. S//st. i. 262 (1792). 

, Stiirm, Deutsch. Fna, ii. 127 (1807). 



Verbasci, Hear, Fna Col Helv. i. 441 (1841). 

varius, Erich. Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 455 (1848). 

Habitat Maderam australem, circa domos vel inter flores in hortis Funchalensibus, tempore vernali 
vulgaris. 

A. suborbicular, black or brownish-black, and with the entire upper surface more or less densely 
clothed with luteous or golden-yellow scales. Prothorax with the region about the hmder 
angles, and a minute spot at the central angle of the posterior margin with the scales more or 
less snowy-white. Ebjtra with three transverse, flexuous, or zigzag fasciae (sometimes a good 
deal interrupted, and occasionally altogether obliterated), likewise, composed of white scales. 
Body beneath with the scales very thickly set, and almost entirely white, — a small basal space at 
either lateral edge of each of the abdominal segments (near which there are indications, also, of a 
few scattered yellowish scales) being alone dark. Antenna and legs black. 



206 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Much confusion seems to have arisen in the synonjiny of the Anthreni* , — 
owing partially perhaps to the perishable nature of theii" scales, and their conse- 
quent liability to become more or less denuded of them, under which cu-cum- 
stanccs many of the species exliibit, prima facie, but slight differences from each 
other. TMien in that condition the A. variiis and nutseorum might be ahnost 
confounded inter se, did not other characters than the arrangement of their 
pubescence exist to separate them. In aU instances, however, the entirely black 
legs and antennse of the former will, apart from its rather larger size and its 
normal tendency to be more densely clothed with golden-yellow scales, serve to 
distinguish it from the latter. The present insect is very abundant at times in 
the vicinity of Funchal, — particularly in gardens during the spring, where it may 
be often observed in the flowers of the common moutlily rose : and in April of 
1851 it was captm'cd by Professor Heer from the blossoms of apple-trees. It is 
universally distributed over Em-ope, and occm-s likemse in the Canary Islands. 



Sectio v. CORDYLOCERATA. 
Fam. 18. BYRRHIDiE. 

Genus 73. SYNCALYPTA. 

(DiUwyn) Stojili. 7//. Brit. Eiit. iii. 133 (1830). 

Corpus miuutum, orbiculato-ovatum, couvcxum, plus miuusve tomentosum setisque rigidis adspersum : 
capite retracto inflexo, ad prosternum applicando : prothorace postice lato elytris arete applicato ; 
prosterno antice producto : alis (in speeiebus Maderensibus) obsoletis. Antenna breves (capite 
paulo longiores) elavatfc, in fovea prostcrni inter otium repositse, articulis primo et secundo 
robustis subcylindricis, inde ad octavum (in speeiebus typieis niinutis sub;eqiialibus, sed in 
nostris) longitudine decrescentibus, reliquis clavam magnam subsolidam triarticulatam efficientibus 
(nono parvo transverse, deeimo majore, ultimo maximo globoso vel ovato). Labrum breve trans- 
versum. Mandibuhe curtre, apice denticulatfe, intus basi profundc sinuatse. Maxill<e biloba; : 



* The Anthreniis -with which we arc liere concerned has usually stood under the name of Verhasci, 
Linn., having been supposed to be identical with the Byrrhus Verhasci oi i\\e Systema Xaturce {x.it. 1767), 
— wliich in realitv' however is a totally diilcrent insect. In point of foct, Olivier was the first to charac- 
terize it (In 1790) ; but since he fell into the error (wliioli has since been generally endorsed) of referring 
it to the B. Verbasci of Linnaeus, liis description, so far at least as tlie name is concerned, becomes void, 
and we are compelled to accept the Fabrieian one of varius (published in 1792) instead. Linnseus's 
Byrrlius Verbasci is (as rightly conjectured by Erichson) the Altayeniis trifasciattis of modem authors 
(whicii title it ought therefore, in right of priority, to supei-sede),- — as may be seen by a reference to the 
Linnsean collection, where there are two well-preserved specimens stUI in existence of the B. Verbasci, 
with the original label attached to them, difiering in no respect from the Attagcnus trifasciatus of later 
times. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 207 

lobo externa ovato pubescenti : interno angustiore, intus ciliato. Palpi maxillares articulo vdtimo 
fusifoi-mi apice acuminato. Mentum ad basin, ad apicem, necnon ad latera emarginatum, angulis 
omnibus acutis. Ligula brevis, apicem versus angustata bifida. Pedes breves robustissimi, 
omnino retractiles (i. e., insecto quieto, corpori arete applicati) : tibiis latis compressis : tarsis 
longiusculis, articulis quatuor baseos longitudine leviter decrescentibus. 

The genus Sy)icalypta, containing the minims of the ByrrMdm, may be known 
by the minute, hispid bodies of the insects which compose it, and by the abrupt 
triarticulated club of their antennae. It is a group purely European, and of small 
extent, embracing (hitherto) four or five species only, which seem to be nowhere 
abundant. In Madeira it is represented by three closely allied forms, which 
recede from the more northern types in being invariably apterous. They reside 
for the most part beneath stones on the grassy mountain-slopes of a high eleva- 
tion, and are, apjoarently, somewhat rare. 

163. Syncalypta capitata, Woll. 

S. ovata nigra setis rigidis adspersa, prothorace erebre punctate, elytris punctato-striatis, pedibus 

rufo-piceis, antennarum ferrugineai-um clava testace^ magna subglobosa. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1^. 

Habitat sub lapidibus iu montibus Maderoe, rarissima; — prope summum montem Pico dos Ai-ieros 
dictum (circa 5500' s. m.) autumno a.d. 1848 a meipso reperta. 

S. ovate (being rather acuminated behind), slightly shining, black, more or less besprinkled with a 
decumbent cinereous pubescence, and with erect rigid bristles intermixed. Head and prothorax 
vei-y obscurely picescent, and closely punctulated. Elytra punctate-striated, but more lightly 
so than in either of the following species. Legs rufo-piceous. Antenna ferruginous ; with their 
club testaceous, large and subglobose. 

Known from the following two by its superior size, less deeply striated elytra, 
and by the large, abrupt and rounded club of its antennae. It is apparently 
extremely rare, the only specimen which I have seen having been captiu'ed by 
myseK, fi-om beneath a stone, in the lofty iipland region immediately below the 
summit of the Pico dos Arieros (about 5500 feet above the sea), during the 
autmBn of 1848. 

164. Syncalypta ovuliformis, Woll. 

S. ovata nigra setis rigidis adspersa, prothorace erebre punctate, elytris profunde striato-punetatis, 

pedibus rufo-piceis, antennarum ferruginearum clava testacea ovata. 
Long. Corp. lin. li. 

Habitat in iisdem locis ac prfecedens, sed ilia paulo frequentior. 

S. rather smaller than the S. capitata, and with the bristles perhaps not quite so dense, or so robust. 



208 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Head aud prothorax as in that insect, though with the punctures appearing, beneath the micro- 
scope, to be just perceptibly less deep. Elytra deeply striate-punctate, the punctm-es being more 
evident than in that species, — as also (on account of the strise being less deep) than those of the 
following one (even though they are not so large). Anteiincs and leys as in the S. capitata, 
except that the club of the former is smaller, more ovate and less abrupt. 

Apparently the most common of the Madekan Sy needy ptcB, though at the same 
time far from abundant. It may be distinguished from the ^S*. capitata by its 
smaller size, more deeply punctm-ed elytral stria?, and by the less abrupt and more 
ovate club of its antcnntc ; — whilst from the following species its less rounded 
outline and different sculptm-c will equally remove it. I have taken it sparingly, 
dm-ing the autumnal and winter mouths, beneath stones, on the grassy mountain- 
slopes between the Fonte das Mogas and the Pico dos Arieros (upwards of 5000 
feet above the sea) ; and in July of 1850 I even captm'cd it, at the Feijaa de C6rte, 
beneath the loosely attached bark of trees, — a position however into which it had 
e^ddently retreated by mere accident. 



165. Syncalypta horrida, Woll. 

S. brevi-ovata nigra setis valde rigidis adspersa, prothorace remote punctate (punctis magnis), elytris 

profunde punctato-striatis, pedibus rufo-piceis, antennarum ferr-uginearum clava testacea. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1^. 

Habitat sub lapidibus Portus Sancti, in locis inferioribus arenosis ; — prope oppidum tempore hiberno 
A.D. 1848 detecta. 

S. shorter than either of the preceding species, being less perceptibly acuminated behind, — but with 
the erect setse rather more closely set and distinctly robuster, being exceedingly rigid. Head and 
prothorax as in those insects ; except that the latter is much less densely punctured, aud with the 
punctures themselves very much larger. Elytra deeply punctate-striated, the striae being deeper 
than those of the last species, — and with the punctures rather larger, though perhaps (from being 
more deeply immersed) scarcely so apparent. Legs rufo-piceous. AntemuB ferruginous, with 
their club a little paler. 

The present species may be easily recognized from the previous two by its 
smaller size and shorter outline, by the deeper, more distant, and very much larger 
pimctures of its prothorax, and by its more coarsely striated elytra, — the punc- 
tures of which are, likewise, exceedingly large, though, on accoimt of the depth of 
the strite in which they are immersed, not proportionobly evident. It is hitherto 
unique, the specunen from which the above description has been di-awn out havmg 
been captm-ed by myself in Porto Santo, from beneath a stone in the immediate 
■\dcinity of the town, during the ^\-inter of 1818; — thus receding in its habits 
altogether from the other Syiicalyptce here described, the range of which is the 
grassy slopes of the loftiest altitudes. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 209 



Fam. 19. HISTERID^. 

Genus 74. HISTER. 

Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ii. 566 (1767). 

Corpus mediocre, plus minusve oblongo-quadratum, durum, glaberrimum : capite retracto : prothorace 
postice lato elj-tris arete applicato, mox intra latera striate ; prosterno antice in lobum corneum 
(capitis basin inferiorem obtegentem) producto : elytris ad apicem truncatis, striis subrectis 
(omuino vel fere integris) impressis : alls modo amplis, modo obsoletis. Antenna breves (capite 
vix longiores) capitatae geniculatse, articulo primo elongatissimo robusto flexuoso, in fovea sub 
margine capitis inter otium reposito, funiculo {i. e. articulis inter basalem et clavam sitis, — in 
hoc genera ex articulis septem composito) apicem versus paulatim incrassato, reliquis capitulum 
magnum solidum ovale triarticulatum eflScientibus. Labrum subquadratum niarginibus valde 
ciliatis, antice saepius integrum, sed interdum (ut in specie nostra) in medio profunde fisso- 
emarginatum. Mandibula magnae validae incurvfe exsertae, interdum inaequaies, infra apicem 
saepius dente valido instructae, ad basin sinuatae et pubescentes. Maxilla bilobae : lobo externo 
elongato recto, intus et apice valde pubescenti : inferno brevi pubescenti membranaceo, intus 
valde ciliato. Paljyi filiformes ; maxillares articulo primo parvo, reliquis longitudine subaequa- 
libus (secundo et tertio flexuosis subclavatis, ultimo fusiformi) ; labiales e scapis ligulae connatis 
surgentes, articulo primo parvo, secundo majore crassiore, ultimo elongato subfusiformi. Mentum 
transverso-subquadratum pilosum, apice leviter emarginatum. Ligula bipartita valde pilosa, lobis 
longis divergentibus membranaceis. Pedes validi retractiles : tibiis latis compressis, extus plus 
minusve fortiter dentatis [posterioribus necnon seriatim spinulosis) : tarsis filiformibus {anticis 
subreceptis), articulis quatuor baseos longitudine subsequalibus. 

The members of tlie present family, — whose power of contracting their limbs, 
and thus counterfeiting death, is so great as to have gaiaed for them the popular 
appellation of " Mimic-Beetles," and the generic name of Sister, — are almost too 
well known to require comment. Their hard, subquadrate, highly-polished bodies 
and usually deep black hue, in conjunction with the excessive robustness of their 
strongly-spiaed legs, are ia admirable accordance with their darkling nature and 
eminently burrowdng propensities, — the species residing principally ia putrescent 
substances (both animal and vegetable), which they assist in decomposing and helji 
therefore materially to remove. The representatives of the typical genus (the one 
now under consideration) may, apart from their external configuration and 
superior size, be known from the Paromali and Scqwini by the structure of their 
antennae, — which have the scape (though elongated and flexuose) less strictly 
clavated, and the funiculus (instead of being filiform) gradually and regularly 
thickened towards its apex, — by the last three joints of their maxillary palpi being 
of nearly similar length, by then." prothorax being impressed wdth one or more 
longitudinal lines towards either of its lateral edges, and the striae of their elytra 
being either altogether entu'e or else but very slightly abbreviated behind. In 
their anteriorly produced prosterna and dentate mandibles they coincide witli 
Paromalus ; whilst in the formation of tlieir inner maxillary lobe, in the subequal 

2 E 



210 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

articulations of thcii- feet, as ■well as in their general habits, they are more inti- 
mately related to Saprhms. It is somewhat remarkable that a group so \ndely 
and uniformly distributed throughout northern and central latitudes as Sister is, 
and indeed over a great portion of the knowTi world, shoiild be but sparingly 
indicated in islands only just removed from the Em-opean continent ; for in Ma- 
deu'a proper not so much as a single species has hitherto come beneath my notice, 
— a solitary specimen of the IT. major, fi'om the sea-shore of Porto Santo, con- 
stituting its soIq claims to admission into our fauna at all. 

166. Hister major. 

H. oblongo-subquadratus ater nitidissimus, prothorace intra latera unistriato necnon ad latera pills 
fulvis dense ciliato, elytro singulo striis quatuor (tribus fere rectis sed externa flexuosa fracta) 
impresso, abdomine crebre punctnlato, antennarum articulo ultimo fulvo. 

Long. Corp. lin. 5i. 

Sister major, Linii. Si/st. ^at. ii. 566 (1767). 

, Fab. Enf. Si/st. i. 72 (1792). 

, Payk. Mon. Hist. 11. tab. ii. fig. 3 (1811). 

, Heer, Fim Col. IMu. i. 4-52 (1841) 

Habitat per oraiu niaritimam Portus Sancti, semel tantum (a.d. 1848) repertus. 

H. somewhat squarisb-oblong, intense black, exceedingly highly polished, and with the faintest 
possible indications (rather more apparent however towards the sides) of minute punctures 
throughout. Prothorax with a deep submarginal stria on either side, and with the lateral and 
front edges (particularly the former) densely fringed with long fulvous pile ; and with a row of 
punctures along the extreme hinder margin, — which however are almost evanescent in the 
middle, though extremely evident midway between the centre and sides. Elytra very obliquely 
truncated behind ; and with four somewhat lightly impressed strife do\TO the outer disk of each, 
extending nearly to the apex, — of which the three inner ones are nearly straight, and that 
towards the margin greatly flexuose, and broken in the centre by a small oblique intersecting 
line. Abdomen closely and rather deeply punctulated. Antenrue shghtly piceous, with their 
apical joint fulvous. 

The deeply bilobed upper lip of this large and well-marked Ulster, — in which it 
recedes from the ordinary generic type, — in conjimction ^\ith the bright fulvous 
pile Avith Avhich the edges of its prothorax are densely fringed, will at once serve, 
even alone, to identify it from the remainder of the family here described. The 
only specimen which has hitherto come under my obserAation in these islands was 
captured by myself on the beach of Porto Santo, in 1818. It is an insect which 
does not appear to be found in northern Europe, being more especially peculiar to 
maritime spots of Mediterranean latitudes. In the south of Prance and Spain it 
is exceedingly common ; and it occurs also in the north of ^\irica and in the 
Canarian group : and it is recorded by Linnaeus as having been received even 
fi'om India. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 211 

Genus 75. PAROMALUS. 

Erictson, in Klug JaJirh. i. 167 (1834). 

Corpus parvunij plerumque quadrato-rotuudatum, durum, glaberrimum : capite retracto : prothorace 
postice lato elytris arete applieato, latera versus haud striate ; prosterno antice in lobum corneum 
(capitis basin inferiorem obtegentem) producto : elytris ad apicem recto-truncatis, striis subrectis 
(fere integris) ssepius impressis : alis amplis. Antenna breves (capite vix longiores) capitatse 
geniculatre, articulo primo elongatissimo robusto flexuoso clavato, in fovea sub margine capitis 
inter otium reposito, funiculo subfiliformi (articulis primo et ultimo majoribus, illo sat elongate, 
hoc latiore transverso), reliquis capitulum magnum solidum ovale triarticulatum eflBcicntibus. 
Labrum transversum, antice integrum vix ciliatum. Mandiliula magufe validfe incurvfe exsertse, 
infra apicem dente valido instructae, ad basin lataj pubescentes. MaxilLe bilobte membranaccEe : 
lobo externa elongato, intus et apice valde pubescenti : interno brevi angusto, apice incurvo 
uncinato, intus valde ciliato. Palpi filiformes ; maxillures articulo primo parvo, secundo et tertio 
majoribus crassioribus sequalibus, ultimo elongato fusiformi basi truncato : labiales e scapis ligulse 
connatis surgentes, articulo primo parvo, secundo majore cra.ssiore subclavato, ultimo elongato 
fusiformi basi subtruncato. Mentum parvum, apice fisso-emarginatum. Ligula bipartita valde 
pilosa, lobis longis divergentibus membranaceis. Pedes validi retractiles : tibiis leviter inciu'vis, 
compressis, modo angustioribus modo latiusculis, extus (prsesertim anticis) plus miuusve eroso- 
subdentatis {posticis fere integris) : tarsis filiformibus longiusculis (anticis subreceptis), articulo 
primo elongato. 

Apart from the minute bulb of the few insects which unite in composing it, 
Faromalus may be known from Sister proper by the proportions of its antennae 
(of which the scape is comi^aratively more robust and clavatecl, and the funiculus 
much more filiform, than is the case in that genus), by the smaller, narrower, and 
more uncinated inner lobe of its maxilla?, by the second and tliird articulations of 
its maxillary palpi bemg far shorter than the ultimate one, and by the somewhat 
different construction of its mentum, tibiae and tarsi, — the last of which have then* 
basal joint distinctly longer than (the fifth excepted) any of the rest*. It is iu 
their habits however, more than ia their structure, that the Paromali recede from 
■the H'tstri and Saprbii, since they are scarcely ever found, so far as I am aware, 
either in carrion or dung (the especial haunts of the latter), but in fungi, beneath 
the bark and moss of trees, or adhering to the under sides of stones even in the 
open country, — a position which may perhaps be partially accounted for by the 
fact, which has more than once been recorded, that some of the species occasionally 

* Paromalus approaclies very closely to the genus DendropJiihis, from wliich perhaps it is scarcely 
sufficiently distinct ; nevertheless, since it has been separated therefrom by Erichson, I have not ventured 
to re-amalgamate them. After a carefid dissection however of the two Madeiran Paromali., and also of a 
specimen of Deiulrophilus punctatiis (from Berlin), it appears to me that the only points in which the 
former recede from the latter are, fii'st, in the somewhat longer and less robust scape, and the more oval 
club, of their auteimse ; and, secondly, in the stitietm-e of their tibiae, which are a Httle incurved, and not 
quite so broad, — nor are they obliquely truncated towards their external base (a peculiarity which, — 
though but faintly expressed iu the anterior pair, — is exceedingly evident in the foiu' hinder tibite of the 
Dendrophili; and which gives them the appearance of being slightly angulated about the middle of their 
outer edge) . 

2 E 2 



212 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

associate ^vitli Ants. The second however of the two representatives described 
below would appear to be aberrant in this respect, occurring, like the true Histri, 
amongst putrescent substances, — of an animal as well as a vegetable nature. 



§ I. Corpus suhqtMdrato-rotundatum : tihiis angustiorihus, extus leviter eroso-subdentatis : iarsix articuJo 

primo valde elanqato. 

167. Paromalus minimus. 
P. niger nitidus imdique crebre punctulatus, elytro singulo striis quatuor (interna minus profunda, 

postice abbreviate sed antice fere ad suturam incurva) impresso, abdomine crebre punctulato, 

antennis pedibusque rufo-piceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. |. 

Ulster minimus, Dej. Cat. (edit. 1) (1821). 

Dendrophilm punctafus, Steph. (uec Eiif. Uefte) Til. Brit. Ent. iii. 159 (1830). 

minimus, Dej. Cat. (edit. 3) li3 (1837). 

Paromalus minimus, Aubc, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France (2'*"'« serie) viii. 322 (1850). 

Habitat sub lapidibus Maderae, prsesertim in clivis graminosis inter 2000' et 4500' s. m., hinc inde 
parum vulgaris, — formicarum nidos, nisi fallor, interdum colens. 

P. small and nearly round, black, often witb a piceous tinge (especially on the prothorax), shining, 
and closely punctulated* all over, — the punctures being rather larger on the elytra, and towards 
the hinder portion of the prothorax, than in front. Elytra with their extreme apex picescent ; 
and with four impressed and obscurely punctate stri;e down the outer disk of each, shghtly 
abbreviated behind, — especially the inner one, which is moreover very much fainter than the rest, 
and incurved in front (where it has the appearance, beneath the microscope, of being regularly 
and curiously undulated, or zigzaged) nearly to the suture, where it is suddenly terminated at a 
short distance from the scutellum. Abdomen closely and finely punctulated. Antenna and legs 
rufo-piceous ; the former with their club a httlc paler. 

A very distinct little Paromalus ; and kno^-n at once by its minute, roimded, 
and densely punctulated body, and by the innermost of it?, four elytral stria? being 
exceedingly lightly impressed, and arcuated in front almost to the suture. It is 
rather a common insect throughout Madeira, occurring for the most part under 
stones in grassy spots, between the limits of from 2000 to about 4500 feet above 
the sea. On most of the mountain-slopes above Funchal I have taken it in 
tolerable abundance, and at all seasons of the year ; as also in exposed positions at 
Camacha, and on the Paid da Scrra, in July. It is a species of central and 
Mediterranean latitudes, being recorded in France, Spain, SicUy and Algeria ; and 
I have, likewise, captured it along the southern shores of England and ^^'ales, 

♦ This sculpture, when viewed beneatli a liigli magnifying power, is of a very pccuhar nature, tlie 
spaces between the larger pimctures being muformly studded (especially on the elytra) \v\i\\ fasciculi of 
excessively minute impressions, — each fascicidus, or cluster, being usually composed of about three of 
tliese microscopic points, of which the centnd one is the largest. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 213 

and on one occasion even so far north as Lincolnshire. Dr. Aub6 states that he 
has found it beneath dried animal remains near Paris ; but I have not, myself, 
ever observed it in such situations, — though I think it far from improbable that 
it may be an attendant, at certain times, within the nests of Ants. 



§ II. Corpus subquadrato-oblongum : tibiis lafiusculis, extus profunde eroso-subdentatis : tarsis articido 

prima leviter elongato. 

168. Paromalus pumiHo. 

P. ater nitidissimus, prothorace versus latera parce punctulato (punctis magnis sed baud profundis) 
necnon per marginem ipsum posticum seriato-punctato, elytris ad apicem punctulatis, singulo 
striis septem profundis (suturali antice abbreviata) punctatis impresso, abdomine subremote 
punctulato, antennis pedibusque pieescentibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-1 1-. 

Pa/romalus pvmilio, Erich, in King Jahrh. i. 169 (1834). 

Habitat in marcidis Maderse australis, mihi non obvius : per oram Funchalensem maritimam primus 
collegit Dom. Rousset, qui plui'ima specimina nuper communicavit. 

P. larger than the P. minimus, squarish-oblong, of an intenser black, and much more brilliantly 
polished. Pruthorax much broader in front than in that insect, almost unsculptured on the 
disk, but with large (though shallow) and distant punctures towards the sides; and with a 
row of distinct punctures along the extreme hinder margin, — of which the central one is slightly 
advanced and the most apparent. Elytra with their extreme apex picescent and besprinkled 
with large shallow punctures ; and with seven deeply-impressed and distinctly punctate strise 
down each, extending almost to the extreme apex, — though with the inner, or sutural one con- 
siderably abbreviated in fi-ont. Abdomen more sparingly pimctured than in the last species, — 
the punctures however being large, though exceedingly shallow. Antenna and legs somewhat 
darker, or less rufescent, than those of the P. minimus. 

Readily distinguished from the P. minimns by its larger size, less rounded, or 
somewhat squarish-oblong outHne, by its more brilliant, intensely black, and less 
punctulated surface, and by the seven very deep and distinctly punctui-ed striae 
with which its elytra are impressed. It is an insect which I have not, myself, 
detected in the Madeira Islands, — the discovery of it being due to M. Rousset, 
who informs me that it occurs abundantly (in company vrvih. Dactijlosternnm 
Boussetii, Apliodlus obccenus, and Oxyomus sabulosus) beneath stones, amongst 
animal and vegetable rejectamenta, on the sea-beach of Funchal, especially at the 
outlets of the filthy drains which carry off the refuse of the town below the chui-ch 
of Nossa Sen^ do Calhao, towards the St. Jago Eort. It does not appear to be a 
species of very general European distribution : I possess however specimens from 
Berlin, given to me by Dr. H. Schavun, which differ in no respect from the 



214 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Madeiran ones, except that the single row of pimctui-es along the extreme hinder 
margin of theu* prothorax is rather less evident. 

Genus 76. SAPRINUS. 

Erichsou, in Klug Jalirl. i. 172 (1834). 

Corpus mediocre, \A\\% minusve ovato-quadratum (lateribus plerumque le\-iter undulatis), durum, 
glaberrimum, srepius punctatum : capite retracto : pruthorace postice lato elytris arete applicato, 
latera versus baud striato : prosterno antice lobo nullo iustructo : eh/tris ad apicem truncatis, 
striis obliquis (postice valde abbreviatis) inipressis : alis plerumque amplis. Antenna bre- 
vissimse (capitis longitudine) capitatse geniculatse, articulo primo clongato robustissimo flexuoso 
cla^•ato, in fovea ad margiuem capitis inter otium rejiosito, funieulo subfiliformi (articulo primo 
robusto globoso-quadi-ato, ultimo brevissimo lato lamelliformi), reliquis capitulum magnum 
solidissimum truneato-globosum triartieulatum efficientibus. Lahmm transversum, antice levitcr 
emarginatum, lateribus ciliatis. Mandibulte magnse valida; incurva; exsertae (dente infra apicem 
ssepius obsolcto), ad basin latse pnbcsccutes. Maxilf<e bilobse membranacese : lobo externa 
elongate latiusculo, intus ct apice valde pubescenti : interno brcvi pubeseeuti, intus valde ciliato. 
Palpi filiformes ; maxillares articulo primo parvo, secundo ct tcrtio majoribus crassioribus sub- 
ajqualibus (ultimo elongato fusiformi basi truncato) : labiales e scapis ligulse eonnatis surgentes, 
articulo primo jiarvo, secundo et tertio longitudine sub;cqualibus (illo subelavato, hoc fusiformi 
basi subtruncato). Mentiim subquadratum, apice emarginatum. Liyula bipartita valde pilosa, 
lobis longis divergentibus membranaceis. Pedes validi retractiles : tibiis latis compressis, extus 
plus minusve dentatis (posterioribus necnon biseriatim spinulosis) : tarsis filiformibus liberis, 
articulis quatuor baseos longitudine subrequalibus. 

SapHntts, in the size and habits of the species which compose it, as also in 
the construction of its inner maxillary lobe and in the subequal joints of its feet, 
brings us nearly back again to Il/sfer. Like the preceding group however, and 
others not found in the ]\Iadeii'a Islands, it would seem to be best understood 
when regarded as an offshoot from Sister proper. For ijerhaps we are too apt to 
be misled by names, and to imagine that genera, simply because they are so called, 
are necessarily of equal importance inter se : whereas it is well known to 
natm'alists, that, attendant upon great primary forms (such as Mister, Cicindela, 
OtiorJii/iichiis, &c.), which arc distributed over more or less of the known world, 
Ave almost invarial)ly discover a certain niunbcr of subsidiary modiiications, "which 
remain constant within theh' respective boixnds, and are often of geographical 
significance, shaping out, as it were, secondary though well-defined assemblages, — 
satellites around their central tjqies. It is just such a position as this that the 
genus before us would appear to occupy : — for, as the Ophoni arc distinguished 
from Harpalus, the Allcoitidcs from Laparocerits, and the O.vijomi ivom. uijjhodiiis, 
so the Saprini are moulded out of Uister, according to a fixed law which we can 
seldom fail even ijrimd facie to detect. Thus, theu* somewhat shorter, more 
ovate and rather undulated outliue, in conjunction AAith the more or less sub- 
metallic hue of theu* comparatively piuictulated surfaces, the very oblique and 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 215 

posteriorly-abbre\datecl strife of theii- elytra, and the iinimpressed edges of theii- 
prouotum, all tend to prove that this variation is steadfast, and therefore, — if Ave 
choose so to designate it, — a generic one. And, as regards less conspicuous points 
of structure, their anteriorly unproduced prosternuni, their perceptibly more 
robust and abbreviated antennae (the scape of which is clavate, and the funiculus 
nearly filiform, — the basal articulation however being large and squarish, and the 
ultimate one broad, extremely short, and compressed into a thin plate, — whilst 
the club is very sohd and globose), added to theii- subemarginated upper lip and 
their usually edentate mandibles, are abundantly sufficient, when combined, to 
separate the Scqorini, not only from the normal Histers, but also, equally, from 
the FaromaU and the remainder of theu- allies. 



169. Saprinus nitidulus. 

S. subovato-quadi'atus subsenescenti-niger nitidissimus, capite insequaliter punctulato, prothorace 
versus latera necnon per marginem posticum profimde punctato, eljiiro siugido striis quinque 
dimidiatis obliquis et una suturali recta antice obsoleta impresso, parte postica dimidia profunde 
punctata, antennis pedibusque picescentibus, tibiis anticis spinuloso-subdentatis. 

Long. corp. lin. 3-3i. 

Var. (3. minor, paulo magis rotundatus, tibiarum anticarum spinulis minoribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2-2i. 

Sister nitidulus, Fab. Syst. EJeu. i. 85 (1801). 

■ semistriatus, Ent. Sefte, i. 77 (1803). 

nitidulus, Payk. Mon. Hist. 58. tab. v. fig. 3 (1811). 

Saprinus nitidulus, Erich. Edf. der Mark Brand, ii. 670 (1839). 

Habitat Maderam australem, mibi non obvius : quinque specimina, a Dom. Heinecken M.D. olini 
capta, benigne donavit Rev'*'^ Dom. Lowe; necnon exemplar unicum ad cram Funcbalensem 
maritimam in marcidis detectum Dom. Rousset nuperrime misit. 

S. squarish-ovate, black with an aeneous tinge, and exceedingly shining. Head rather unequally 
punctm-ed (only sparingly so behind) ; and with the forehead most narrowly margined at the 
sides (the margin being totally evanescent in front) . Prothorax almost imperceptibly margined ; 
with the anterior angles (which have a wide shallow depression within each) regularly rounded, 
and with the front emargination shallow ; with large and rather deep punctures towards the sides 
and along the hinder margin. Elytra with their extreme apex sometimes a little picescent; with 
their posterior region (equalling about one-half of the entire surface, — and concave anteriorly) 
deeply and distinctly punctured ; and with five deeply-impressed, punctate and very oblique striae 
down the outer disk of each, extending but slightly behind the middle (of which the third is 
usually rather the longest, and the inner one incurved to within a short distance of the scutellum), 
as also a straight but anteriorly-obsolete one close alongside the suture, — the space between the 
third and fifth striffi being more or less punctured and rugulose. Abdomen rather acuminated, 
closely and coarsely punctured. Antenna and le(/s dark piceous ; the former with their funiculus 



216 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

a little more rufescent and their club infuscate ; and the latter with their anterior tibise spinulose 
externally, — the number of the spines being usually about twelve. 
Var. /3. smaller, and rather rounder in outhne; and with the anterior tibiae more minutely spinulose 
along their outer edge. 

The S. nitidulus may be at once known from the two folloAving species by its much 
larger, somewhat more ovate (or acumiuated) body, by the anteriorly-obsolete 
sutural striae of its elji;ra (the punctured portion of which is concave in front), and 
by the number of its fore-tibial spines being usually about twelve. It is an 
abundant insect thi-oughout Europe and in the north of Africa, and it is recorded 
l)y Weljl) and Berthelot in the Canary Islands. I have not myself succeeded in 
detecting it in Madeu'a ; but I possess five specimens, given to me by the Rev. 
R. T. Lowe, from the collection of the late Dr. Heinecken, by whom they were 
taken near Funchal. Three of these {var. /3.) are considerably smaller than the 
remaining two ; and from a label still attached to them, appear to have occurred 
in his garden at the Valle. A single recent individual only has come beneath my 
notice, — captured by M. Roussct, in company -with Faromahts imm'dio, amongst 
rejectamenta, in the immediate vicinity of the sewers and di-ains, on the beach of 
Funchal. 

170. Saprinus chalcites. 

S. subrotundato-quadratus seneus nitidissimus, capite crebre et subtiliter punctulato, prothorace 
versus latera Icviter, sed per margincm posticum profunde punctato, elytro singulo striis quinque 
dimidiatis obliquis (externa angulata fracta) et una suturali recta intcgra impresso, parte postica 
dimidia, punctata, antennis pedibusque rufo-piceis, tibiis anticis spinuloso-subdentatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. \\-2. 

Mister chalcites, lUig. Mag. fur Ins. vi. 40 (1807). 

rufipes, Gyll. Ins. Suec. i. 90 (1808). 

njinis, Payk. Hon. Hist. 76. tab. vii. fig. 2 (1811). 

Sa2)rinus chalcites, Erich, in Khig Jahrh. i. 182 (1834). 
, Lucas, Col de VAlgerie, 229 (1849). 

Habitat in marcidis insidarum ]\Liderensium, rarior : in Porta Sancto duo specimina (una cum 
Sf. metallico dcgcns), necnon unicum etiam in Dcserta Grandi (Maio cxcunte a.d. 1850) collcgi : 
in Madera propria mihi non obviu.«, sed exemplar possideo a Bom. Heinecken prope urbem Fun- 
chalenscm nisi fallor olim rcpertum. 

S. roundi.sh-quadrate, peneous (more or less bright, and occasionally with even a slightlv ])iceous 
tinge), and exceedingly highly polished. Head \evy closely and finely punctured; and with the 
forehead most narrowly margined at the sides (the margin being totally evanescent in the extreme 
centre in front). Prothorax, likewise, narrowly margined; with the anterior angles (which have 
a rounded shallow depression at a considerable distance within each) broad and somewhat ob- 
liquely truncated, and the front cmargination shallow ; with small and very lightly impressed 
punctures towards the sides, and deeper ones along the hinder margin. Elytra witli their 
extreme ape.x picescent, or ferruginous ; with their posterior region (scarcely equalling a half of 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 217 

the entire surface) finely but distinctly punctured ; and with five deep, subpunctate and oblique 
striae (not quite so oblique however as those of the S. nitidulus) down the outer disk of each, 
extending but slightly behind the middle (of which the second is rather the longest, the outer, 
or marginal one obscure, angulated and broken, and the inner one incurved to within a short 
distance of the scutellum, where it joins) a straight and entire (though anteriorly lightly im- 
pressed) one close alongside the suture, —the space between the third and fifth strife being a little 
punctured and rugulose. Abdomen closely and coarsely punctured. Antmna and legs bright 
rufo-piceous ; the la(/er with theu- anterior tibiae spinulose externally, — the number of the spines 
being usually about eight or nine. 

A very distinct species ; and one whicli may be known from the other Saprini 
here described by its more rounded outline and brassy hue, and by its bright rufo- 
piceous limbs ; by the anterior angles of its prothorax being wider and somewhat 
obliquely truncated (instead of uniformly rounded) at theii- apex, by the general 
fineness of its punctuation, and by the spinules of its front tibia; being about 
eight in munber*. It is apparently somewhat scarce. I possess an old specimen 
taken by the late Dr. Heinecken near Fimchal ; and I have myself observed it, 
sparingly, in company mth the ,S'. metallicus, in Porto Santo,— as also on the 
Dezerta Grande, where I captm^ed a single individual dm*ing my encampment 
there, with the Eev. R. T. Lowe, at the end of May 1850. It is an insect of rather 
wide geographical range, but is not very abundant tlu-oughout Em-ope, — occurring 
principally in Mediterranean latitudes. It is recorded as tolerably common in 
Barbary and Algeria. There are African examples in the British Museum ; and I 
have seen others, in the collection of Mr. Waterhouse, from the Cape of Good 
Hope : whilst it is stated by Paykull to have been received even from the East 
Indies. 

171. Saprinus metaUicixs. 

S. suboblongo-quadi-atus jeneus, vel aenescenti-niger, vel etiam subcyanescenti-niger, nitidus, capite 
fortiter margiuato impunctato sed antice rugoso, prothorace versus latera leviter substriguloso-, 
sed per marginem posticum profunde, punctato, elytro singulo striis quinque dimidiatis obliquis 
(externa angulata fracta) et una suturali recta Integra distincta impresso, parte postica (dimidio 
paulo majore) crebre punctata, antennis pedibusque picescentibus, tibiis anticis quinque-dentatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. ]|-1|. 

Ulster metallicus, Herbst, Xdf. iv. 32 (1792). 

, Fab. Syst. Eleu. i. 89 (1801). 

Saj>rinus metallicus, Erich, in King Jalirl. i. 195 (ISSi). 

Habitat per oram maritimam Portus Sancti, a meipso copiose repertus. 



* In general contour, the -S. clialcites slightly resembles the common European (S*. ceneus ; nevertheless 
a closer examination will show- that it does in reality recede from it in most of the distinctive characters 
above enumerated, — though especially in its elyti-al striae (which are altogether dissimilar), in the shape of 
its prothorax (with its peculiarly sub truncated anterior angles), in its less deeply pimctulated suiiace, and 
m the somewhat greater robustness of its frout-tibial spines. 

2r 



218 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

S. squarish-oblong, varj'ing from feneous into acneous-black, and often with a bluish or cyaneous 
tinge ; less shining than cither of the previous species. Head unpunctured ; but with the 
forehead strongly margined both at the sides and in front, and transversely wrinkled and pitted 
anteriorly. Protlwrax, likewise, more distinctly margined than in either of the preceding species ; 
with the anterior angles (which have no indication of a depression within them) porrected (though 
rounded), and the front cmargination comparatively deep ; verj' lightly roughened towards the 
sides with exceedingly faint and somewhat contlueut punctures (which causes the sculpture to be 
slightly strigulose), but with very deep ones along the hinder margin. Elytra with their extreme 
apex more or less picescent, or ferruginous ; with their posterior region (distinctly exceeding the 
half of the entire surface) very closely and dcejily punctured ; and with five deeply-impressed 
punctate and oblique strise do\vn the outer disk of each, extending but slightly behind the 
middle (of which the third is rather the longest, the outer, or marginal one obscure, angulated 
and broken, and the inner one incurved to within a short distance of the scutellum, where it 
joins), a straight, deep and entire one close alongside the suture, — the space between the third 
and fifth stritc being usually more free from punctures and wrinkles than in either of the other 
species. Abdomen closely and rather coarsely punctured. Antenna and legs dark piceous ; the 
former with their club fuscous ; and the latter with their anterior tibiae armed externally with five 
powerful teeth. 

An abundant insect throughout the whole of Europe and in the north of Afi'ica. 
It may be easily recognized from the previous two by its more oblong form, by its 
deeply pitted and strongly margined (though unpunctm-ed) forehead, by the more 
porrected anterior angles of its (laterally substrigulosc) prothorax (which do 7iot 
enclose a depression, as in the other sjiecies, Avithin them), by the pimctm-ed 
portion of its elytra rather exceeding the half of their entire sui'face, and by the 
front tibia? being each armed with five powerful and well-defined teeth*. I have 
taken it abundantly on the sea-shore of Porto Santo, but have not hitherto 
observed it in any of the other islands of the group. 



Fam. 20. THORICTID^. 

Genus 77. THORICTUS. (Tab. IV. fig. G.) 

Germar, in Silb. liev. Ent. ii. 2. 15 (1834). 

Corpus parvum, obtusum, dm-um, politissimum : prothorace amplissimo : mesothorace brevissimo, 
scutello min>itissimo (segre observando) : elijtris subeonnatis ad apicem rotundatis integris : alts 
obsolctis. AntenruB (IV. 6 a) brevissimre (caj)ite vix longiores) crassK capitata?, ad marginem 
capitis repositse, articulis prime et secundo (illo prsecipue) robustis, tertio ad octavum breubus 



* The present Saprinus diflers from the S. metallicus of the Entomohgische Hefte, of Gyllenlial, and 
of Paykull's Monograph (wluch, aecordiiig to Erichson, is the II. rugifrons of PaykuU's Fauna Suecica) 
in being a little smaller, and in having only five teeth, mstead of six, to its front tibia\ The insect which 
has usually stood in British collections imder the name of S. metallicus is (accepting Erichson's state- 
ment) the true rugifrons. But I think it for from improbable however that the two may be in reality but 
states of the same species, — in the same manner as we have two distinct modifications of the S. niiidulus. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 219 

longitddine aqualibus latitudine vix sensirn crescentibus, reliquis capitulum magnum solidissimuin 
ovatum apice oblique truncatum triarticulatum efficientibus (nono et decimo magnis trausversis, 
ultimo brevissirao subemerso oblique tmucato necnon ad apicem ipsum piloso). Labrum trans- 
verso-subquadratum, antice leviter bilobura, lobis rotundatis eiliatis. Mandibula (IV. 6 b) 
validre crassffi obtusa; latm glabra;, apice bidentatae. Maxilla (IV. 6 c) bilobse : lobo exlerno 
membranaceo latiusculo, intus et apice valde pubescenti : interno paulo breviore angusto, apice 
incui-vo unciuato acuto, intus pubescenti. Palpi maxillares articulo primo parvo subflexuoso, 
secundo et tertio crassioribus sequalibus, ultimo elongato-subovato basi truncate : labiales (IV. 6 d) 
articulo primo parvo subcarnoso translucido, secundo et tertio durioribus elongatis (illo sub- 
flexuoso clavato, hoc paulo longiore crassiore oblongo). Mentum (IV. 6 e) corneum valde 
anomalum, veluti e duplici parte formatum, alia sc. apicali quadrata ad apicem in medio leviter 
fissa, alia basilari (prioris stipite) latiore transverso-subquadrata ad apicem et latera (ilium pra- 
cipue) in angulum medium producta. Liffula (IV. 6 d) membranacea, antice leviter biloba 
ciliata. Pedes robustissimi subcontractiles, omnes basi subapproximati, anteriores breves : femo- 
ribiis subcurvatis : tibiis setosis, anterioribiis apicem versus dilatatis : iarsis (praesertim anteri- 
oribus) crassis subconicis (apicem versus sensim acuminatis), articulis quatuor baseos sub^qualibus, 
quinto paulo longiore subconico-truncato unguiculis simplicibus munito. 

The little genus Tliorictus, equal to Sphceropliorus of Waltl {Silb. Bev. Ent. 
A.D. 1836, iv. 150) and Xylonotrogus of Motscliulsky {Bull, cle Moscon, a.d. 1839, 
tab. 5. f. C), was established by Germav in 1834 to contain a large species, the 
T. castaneus, from Nubia. It is composed of a few, very anomalous, insects almost 
peculiar to Mediterranean latitudes (Sicily, Corfu, Smyi-na, Egypt, Algeria, &c.), 
and characterized by their obtuse, apterous, shining and nearly glabrous bodies, 
by their enormously developed prothoras and minute mesothorax, and by the 
excessive robustness of their legs and antennae, — the former of which, from the 
reduced length of the mesosternujn, approximate very closely at their base, and 
have their tibiae exceedingly setose, and their tarsi thick and acuminated (a struc- 
ture of very rare occurrence in the Coleoptera, but which is expressed, likewise, ia 
3IyrmecoUus, Cossyplwdes, and in a few of the msteridce) ; whilst the latter are 
remarkable for the terminal joint of their (particularly solid) club being unna- 
turally foreshortened (as though deeply immersed in the penultimate one), or 
obliquely lopped oif (and pilose), at its extremity. Theii- pro- and meso-thoraces, 
moreover, would appear to be very iatimately united, — a peculiarity which I have 
observed whilst dissecting them, having at times experienced no slight diflaculty 
iu accomplishing an incision between the two. In obscurer details also, the 
ThoiHcti present abundant distinctive features of their own, amongst which their 
broad, incrassated mandibles, and the extraordinary nature of their mentum 
should be especially noticed. Their mentum is in fact extremely anomalous, and 
recedes from that of every other genus with which I am acquainted ; being made 
up, apparently, of two portions, not articulated to each other, but springing out of 
the jugulum, side by side, at the same place, and so firmly bound together that 
the inner one (which is elongated and parallel, reaching beyond the other) wovdd 
have had all the appearance of having been engrafted on to the front margm of 

2f3 



220 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

the outer one, did not the transparency of the latter allow the former to be seen 
through it frotn its commencement, — thus disclosing the fact that it is really an 
additional plate (arising from then- common hase), and not merely an apical piece 
joined to the anterior edge of the true mentum, as prhnd facie it might seem to 
he. This rectangular internal lamina hears some resemhlance to a corneous 
lio-ula, — which indeed I should at first have heen inclined to have considered it, 
had I not succeeded in dissevering the undouhted ligula from it (with the palpi 
affixed), which is so exceedingly delicate as to he scarcely appreciahle whilst 
attached to the dark solid sm-face over which it is spread. 

There are hut few known species of Thorictus ; and as respects their hahits very 
little indeed has heen hitherto ascertained. I have no hesitation however in 
regarding them as inhahitants of Ants'-nests, — the few stray specimens which I 
have ever captured having been found beneath stones in positions very similar to 
those in which Cossyphodes occurs, and theu- very curious, subcorneal feet being 
precisely in accordance with what we are accustomed to perceive amongst insects 
of an Ant-associating tendency. 

172. Thorictus Westwoodii, JVuU. (Tat). IY. fig. 6.) 
T. obtusus mbescenti-badius iiitidissimus, punctis dispcrsis miuutissimis vLx (prsesertim iu elytris) 
perspicuis obsitus, prothorace maximo convexo ad latera valde rotundato-ampliato (in medio 
latissimo necnon ad basin ipsam fortiter constricto), elytris pone discum convexis, singulo costa 
basali abbreviata (mox intra humerum sitfi) iustructo, antenuis pedibusque obseurioribus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1. 

Habitat circa urbem Maderse Funchalcnsem, rarissime: duo specimina tantuiu vidi, unum sc. ad 
Praya Formoza Maio ineunte a.d. 1848 et alterum in coUe aprico prope Ribeiro de Sao Gongalo 
mense Januario a.d. 1819, sub lai)idibus a mcipso invcnta. Genus, ut structura tarsorum sub- 
conica atque habitus generalis valde anomalus indicare videntur, formicaruui nidos nisi fallor 
colens. 

In honorcm luminis Entomologicoruiii J. 0. Westwood, arm", qui jam per plures annos indagationi 
deditus Entomologise scientiam insulis Britannicis laudibus amplificavit, banc spccieni Thoricti 
ccrte novam institui. 

T. (ibtuse (especially in front), bright reddish-chestnut, exceedingly highly polished, and nearly 
glabrous (there being just perceptible indications, beneath the microscope, of a few short and 
scattered hairs towards the sides, — though especially about the humeral angles of the elytra). 
Prothorax very large, and widest about the middle (where it exceeds the eh'tra in breadth), with 
the sides uniformly rounded, though much constricted at the extreme hinder margin ; beset with 
minute and distinct punctures; extremely convex, particularly in front ; and sometimes with an 
obscure oblique impression (as in the plate) on either side behind, — which at others however 
would appear to be obsolete. Elytra very convex (and semitransparent) behind the middle of 
the disk, being comparatively depressed towards the anterior margin ; beset with most minute 
and distant punctures (even less perceptible than those on the prothorax, and only to be 
distinguished uuder the microscope) ; and with an exceedingly abbreviated costa, or ridge (and a 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 221 

fovea within it, which is continuous with the obUque impression, when present, of the prothorax) 
at the base (immediately within the shoulder) of each. Antewia and legs somewhat darker; 
except the extreme apices of the club and tarsi, which are more rufescent. 

Apparently one of the rarest of the Madeiran Coleoptera, the only two specimens 
which have come imder my notice having been captured by myself near Funchal, 
—one from beneath a stone (in company with Cossijpliodes TFoUastonii) on tlie 
rocky ledge above the Praya Pormoza, May 8th, 1818 ; and the other, in a sunilar 
position, on the cliff to the eastward of the town, immediately beyond the Ribeiro 
de Sao Gon9alo, in January 1819. Although most unquestionably distinct from it, 
it is very nearly alHed to the T. gramlicollis, Germar, from SicUy,— for a typical 
example of which I am indebted to Dr. H. Schaum of Berlin. In colour and 
general aspect the two insects are, at fii'st sight, tolerably sunilar ; nevertheless 
the Madeii-an may be easily recognised from the SiciHan one by the form of its 
prothorax, which is somewhat longer and less quadi-ate, and has the sides very 
much more rounded,— thus causmg its breadth at the extreme hinder margin to be 
considerably less than is the case in that species. This difference of structure is 
very perceptible when the respective insects are viewed obliquely. The elytra, 
also, of the T. Westwoodii are a little narrower throughout, and more parallel at 
the shoulders, than those of the T. grandicollis. In his generic diagnosis pub- 
lished, as already stated, in 1834, Germar remarked, concerning the Nubian 
T. castaneus (from which his oljservations were drawn up), that he was not al:)le to 
detect any traces of eyes. In the Madeii-an and Sicilian representatives, however, 
as well as in two others, fi-om Egypt and Algeria, which I have examined, the eyes 
are certainly apparent. 

Fam. 21. APHODIAD^. 

Genus 78. APHODIUS. 

lUiger, Kdfer Preuss. i. 28 (1798). 

Corpus mediocre, subcylindrico-oblongum, plus minusve Isete coloratura : clypeo punctato, plerumque 
semihexagono antice integro, sjepius (prajcipue in maribus) tuberculato ; prothorace iutegro {i. e. 
hand canaliculato) : scutello distincto : alis amplis. Antemm breves (capitis vix longitudine) 
lamellato-clavatfe 9-articulata?, ad marginem capitis inter otium repositae, articulis prmio et 
secundo robustis (illo longissimo subcyhndrico, hoc brevi), tertio ad sextum longitudine decrescen- 
tibus latitudine crescentibus, reliquis clavam magnam triphyllam efficientibus. Labrum trans- 
versum tenuissimo-membranaceum pilosum, apice in medio ssepius leviter productum et interdum 
fissura minutissima instructum, sub clypeo (una cum mandibulis) opertum. Mandibula latfe, basi 
corneBe, dein membranaceo-coriacese, apicem versus tenuissimo-membranaceae obtusse, margme 
interno ciliato. MaxillcehWoh?^ subcomese, lobis membranaceis ; externa latissimo subovato, apicem 
versus pilis breviusculis dense obsito; interno minuto piloso bifido. Palpi filiformes; maxillares 
glabri articulo primo minuto subflexuoso, secundo elongate subclavato, tertio brevi, ultimo elon- 
gate (secundi longitudine) fusiformi-cylindrico : labiates pilosi, e ligula ad lobos menti auticos 



222 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

surgentes, articulo primo longiusculo sat robusto, secundo paulo minore, tertio (primo vix breviore) 
subovato. Mentiim amplum subquadratum, pilis longissiinis munitum, antice leviter bilobum. 
Ligula mento fere occultataj tenuissimo-membranacea biloba ciliata. Pedes validi subretractiles : 
tibiis anticis dilatatis cxtus fortitcr tridentatis, posterioribus spinulosis : tarsis filiformibus, articulis 
secundo, tertio et quarto longitudine subzequalibus, primo in anticis saepius brevi, in posterioribus 
elongato. 

Theii- diing-infesting propensities and biuTOwing nature, in conjunction with 
their somewhat cylindrical and more or less maculated bodies, have rendered the 
species of the present group familiar to almost every observer. In northern and 
temperate regions, Avhere they supply the place of the larger Lamellicorns of 
warmer latitudes, and have the same office to perform, they are especially abmi- 
dant ; and hence it is that in Europe the Aphod'u are connected with our earliest 
associations, — making then* appearance at particular times in such vast multitudes 
as even to have attracted the attention of naturalists in recording the simultaneous 
development of animals and plants at stated seasons of the year. Well known as 
they are however from their habits and general outward aspect, they present 
structurally far greater pecuUarities, which will serve additionally to separate 
them, in common with the rest of the family to which they belong, from the 
members of the other genera of this department of the Coleoptera. Thus, theii' 
extremely thin, membranous mandibles and upper lip, both of which are concealed 
beneath their (in Aphodlus proper usually tubercled and unemarginated) clypcus, 
added to their powerfully tridentated anterior tibite, and the lamellated club of 
theii- 9-joiuted antennae, Avill more than suffice, apart from the obscurer featm-es 
of then- organization, to distinguish them from the whole of the other insects with 
which we have here to do. 

173. Aphodius Hydrochaeris. 

A. diluto-tcstaceus, clypeo (subruguloso), scutello (profunde punctate) et pedibus paulo rufcscen- 

tioribus, prothorace breviusculo antice marginato, sat crebre insequaliter punctulato, in disco 

antico late nigrescenti necnon latera versus nebula obscura conspurcato, elytrorum interstitiis 

minutissime punctulatis et sutura anguste nigrescenti. 

Mas subnitidus, tuberculo frontali medio valde distincto, prothorace paulo latiore subtibus 

punctulato. 

Foem. subopacus, tuberculo frontali medio minus cxstanti (lateralibus vix majore), prothorace paulo 

angustiore fortius et crebrius punctulato. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3-4J. 

Scarahceus ITi/droeJiaris, Fab. Eiit. Sj/st. Siipj)!. 23 (1798). 
ApJiodiiis Ili/drocha'ris, Illig. Mag.fiir Ins. ii. 103 (1S03). 

, Heer, Fna Col. Relv. i. 522 (18il). 

, Muls. LamelL de France, 217 (1842). 

Habitat in stereore bovino Maderfc Portusque Sancti, sat vulgaris, — ab autunmo usque ad ver 
primum prxdominans. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 223 

A. diluted-, or somewhat dirty-testaceous : with the chjpeus (which is tubercled, somewhat rugulose, 
recurved at the edges, rounded in front, and usually a little infuscated behind), the scutellwn 
(which is deeply punctured), and the legs, rather more rufescent, or sometimes rufo-picescent. 
Prothorax (which is rather short, and has the extreme front edge distinctly margined) unequally 
and rather closely punctulated ; with a large and broad patch on the fore disk, and an obscure 
and ill-defined cloud on either side, towards the middle of the lateral edges, more or less black or 
brownish-black. Elytra crenate-striated, with the interstices most minutely and indistinctly 
punctulated ; and with the suture narrowly darker. Body beneath rather coarsely punctured. 

Male slightly shining ; with the central frontal tubercle exceedingly prominent ; and with the 
prothorax rather wide, and (together with the interstices of the elytra) less distinctly punctulated 
than that of the female. 

Female subopake; with the central frontal tubercle much less developed (being scarcely more 
evident than the lateral ones) ; and with the prothorax narrower, and more deeply and closely 
punctulated. 

The largest of the Madeiran Apliodii ; and known from the rest by its less 
shining sui-face and dirty yellowish hue, and by the greater sexual variation in the 
breadth and sculpture of its (anteriorly margined) prothorax. From the A. niti- 
dulns, in addition to the above characters, it may be distinguished by its slightly 
paler legs, smaller (and posteriorly-abbreviated) prothoracic patch, and by the 
visually somewhat convexer, and even more minutely punctulated, interstices 
of its elytra. It is rather a common insect, both in Madeu-a and Porto Santo, 
occurring in the dung of cattle at most seasons of the year, though more especially 
during the autumnal and winter months. It does not appear to be very generally 
distributed throughout Europe, being more particularly confined to subaustral 
and Mediterranean latitudes. Thu.s, in Germany and Switzerland it is scarce ; 
whilst in the south of Prance, Spain, Italy, Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily it is 
tolerably abundant ; — as also in the north of Africa (Algeria and Tangier), from 
whence indeed the specimens described by Pabricius, in 1789, were obtained. 

174. Aphodius nitidulus. 
A. nitidus testaceus, clypeo et scutello (profunde punctato) picescenti-nigris, prothorace sat crebre 
insequaliter punctulato, in disco latissime nigro (latera versus sola pallido), elytrorum interstitiis 
minutissime punctulatis et sutura anguste nigrescenti. 
Mas, tuberculo frontali medio distincto, prothorace vix latiore paulo subtilius punctulato. 
Fcem. tuberculo frontali medio minus exstanti (lateralibus vix majore), prothorace vix angustiore 
fortius et crebrius punctulato. 
Long. corp. lin. 2i-3. 

Scarabceus nitidulus, Pab. JUnt. 8i/st. i. 30 (1792). 

ictericus, Payk. Fna Suec. i. 17 (1798). 

Aphodius nitidulws, Gryll. Ins. Suec. i. 28 (1808). 

, Steph. III. Brit. Ent. iii. 192 (1830). 

— ■ , Heer, Fna Col. Relv. i. 523 (ISll). 

Habitat Maderam et Portum Sanctum, in stercore bovine, vulgaris. 



224 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

A. testaceous and shining : with the clypeus (which is tubercled, recurved at the edges, and truncated 
and i-ufescent in front) and the scutellum (which is deeply punctured), piceous-black, or some- 
times almost black. Pruthorax unequally and rather closely punctulated ; with an extremely 
largely developed patch on the disk (which covers the entire surface except the sides, and is con- 
fluent with the dusky cloud-hke blotch towards the middle of the lateral edges) black. Elytra 
crenate- striated, with the interstices most minutely punctulated (though rather more e\'idently so 
than in the A. Hydrochteris) ; and with the suture narrowly black. Body beneath dusky brownish- 
testaceous, and rather coarsely punctured. Legs rufo-piceous. 
Sexual distinctions the same as in the last species (only in a less degree), except that both sexes are 
almost equally shining. 

A common. European Aphodius ; and one whicli may be distinguished from the 
other species here described by its almost entirely dark head and prothorax, and 
pale testaceous el}i:ra, — the last of which have merely their sutm-e black. It is 
the most abundant of the Madeirau representatives of the genus, being found at 
all seasons of the year and in nearly every island of the group, — though more 
especially plentiful (as indeed its stercoraceous habits would lead us to expect) in 
Madeu-a proper and Porto Santo. The specimens recede from the northern type 
in being usually a little paler and more distinctly punctulated. 



175. Aphodius nifus. 

A. angustus nitidus rufo-ferrugineus, clypeo nx tuberculato posticc infuscato, prothorace sat crebre 
insequalitcr punctulato, in disco antico subinfuscato necnon latcra versus nebula pan^A obscu- 
rissimd conspurcato, elytris rufo-testaceis, interstitiis minutissime sed paruni crebre punctulatis, 
pedibus paUido-rufo-piceis. 

Long. corp. lin. 2. 

Aphodius rufus, Illig. Mag.filr Ins. ii. 195 (1S03). 

, Sturm, Beutsch. Fna, i. 144. tab. 14. fig. D (1805). 

, Dufts. Fna Amtr. i. 127 (1805). 

, Erich. Nat. der Ins. Beutsch. iii. 836 (1848). 

ferrugineits, Dalil, in lift. 



Habitat ad vias necnon in vinetis Maderae, in stercore bovino et equino, rarior : propc urbcm Funcha- 
Icnscm atquc in castanetis Sancta; Annie restate obscrvavi. 

A. narrow, pale rufo-ferruginous and shining : with the clypeus (which is almost untubcrcled, slightly 
recurved at the edges, and truncated in front) infuscated along its posterior portion. Prothorax 
unequally, rather closely, but somewhat finely punctulated ; very obscurely infuscated on the 
fore disk, and with exceedingly faint indications of a smaller patch, iu the usual position, towards 
the middle of either lateral edge. Elytra a little jjaler than the head and prothorax, being 
rufo-testaceous; crenate- (or almost punctate-) striated, with the interstices most minutely, but 
quite perceptibly and rather closely, punctidated. Body beneath infuscate. Legs pale rufo- 
piceous. 

Known readily l)y its narrow outliae and iiallid luio (the hinder regions of its 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 225 

forehead being the only portion which is invariably infnscated), and by its clypeus 
being ahnost entirely free from any indications of tubercles. It occui-s both in 
the north and south of Madeira, but is apparently somewhat scarce ; I have how- 
ever captured it in the neighbourhood of Funchal, and (on two occasions) at Santa 
Anna, in comparative abundance. It occurs, though sparingly, throughout the 
greater part of Europe ; and is recorded in Germany, Portugal, Sicily and the 
Tyi-ol. 

176. Aphodius lividus. 

A. brevis, nitidissimus livido-testaceus, cljrpeo postice nigro-infuscato, prothorace utrinque parcissime 
punctate, in disco antico late et suffuse nigro-Lnfuscato necnon latera versus nebula obscura con- 
spurcato, elytro singulo in disco longitudinaliter obscuro-, et per suturam late nigro-infuscato, 
interstitiis impunctatis, pedibus pallido-rufopiceis. 

Long. cprp. lin. 2. 

Scarabceus lividus, Oliv. Etit. i. 3. 86 (1789). 
ApJtodius Anaclioreta, Fab. Syst. Eleu. i. 74 (1801). 
Scarabceus bilituratus, Mslim, Unt. Brit. i. 15 (1802). 
Aplodius lividus, Stepb. III. Brit. Ent. iii. 192 (1830) 
, Heer, Fna Col. Heh. i. 524 (1841). 

Habitat Maderam, rarissimus : duo specimina tantum vidi, unum sc. a meipso sestate media a.d. 1850 
in stercore bovine ad Sanctam Annam, et alterum a Dom. Heinecken prope urbem Funchalensem 
d. 20 Jul. A.D. 1829, reperta. 

A. ratber short and broad, livid-, or pale brownish-testaceous, and exceedingly shining : with the 
clypeus (which is tubercled, recurved at the edges, and truncated in front) rather rufesceut 
anteriorly, but darkly infnscated along its posterior portion. Prothorax almost impunctate, 
though with an exceedingly few scattered punctures towards the sides ; with a large cloudy, or 
suffused patch on the fore-disk, and a dusky cloud, in the usual position, towards the middle of 
either lateral edge, more or less darkly infuscated. Elytra crenate-striated, with the interstices 
almost impunctate ; with the suture broadly and darkly, and a large longitudinal dash down the 
disk of each obscurely, infuscated. Body beneath rather coarsely punctured. Legs pale Tufo- 
piceous. 

The rather short and wide outline of the A. lividus, in conjunction with its 
extremely glossy, lurid, and comparatively unpunctured surface, its broadly infus- 
cated sutm'e, and the cloudy longitudinal dash down the disk of each of its elytra, 
will at once distinguish it from the other ApJiodii with which we have here to do. 
Although conmion thi-oughout Europe, and occurring also in the north of Africa, 
it is decidedly rare in Madeira, two specimens only having hitherto come beneath 
my notice, — one of which was captui-ed by myself in the north of the island, at 
Santa Anna, dm'ing the siunmer of 1850, and the other by the late Dr. Heinecken 
near Funchal (according to the origbaal label, still attached to it), on the 20th of 
July 1829, from whose collection it was presented to me by the E,ev. U. T. Lowe. 

2g 



226 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

177. Aphodius Pedrosi, WoU. 

A. brevis antice subangustatusj nitidus nigro-piceus, prothorace utrinque valde profunde punctato ad 
latera paulo rufescenti, elytris nifo-piceis, interstitiis fere impunctatis, pedibus pallido-rufo- 
piceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1|. 

Habitat in arcnosis Portus Sancti, semel tantum (sub lapide prope oppidum) Decembri mense a.d. 

1848 repertus. 
In honorem illustrissimi Dom. Pedrozo, qui ab antiqua stirpe in agro Portosanctano oriundus per tot 

annos nomen Lusitanicum omavit, hunc Aphodium valde indigenum denominavi. 

A. short, and ratlier narrowed anteriorly, piceous black, and shining : with the clypeus (which is 
rather wide, roughened, tubercled, recurved at the edges, and truncated in front) rather rufescent 
about the anterior margins. Prothorax a little narrowed in front, with exceedingly large, deep, 
and distinct punctures, — especially towards the sides, which are (particularly about the anterior 
angles) obscurely rufescent. Elytra rufo-pieeous, being much paler and more rufescent (especially 
posteriorly) than the head and prothorax ; crenate-striated, with the interstices almost impunctate. 
Legs pale rufo-piceous. 

A veiy distinct little Aphodius, and hitherto unique. It may be recognised from 
the rest by its smaller size, shorter and anteriorly-subacuminated outline, by its 
dull-rufescent elytra, and by the extremely large and deep punctures of its pro- 
thorax. The only specimen which I have seen was captm*ed, by myself, from 
beneath a stone in the \'icinity of the Ciddde of Porto Santo, dm'ing December 
1848. It was taken, in company with other insects, towards the dusk of the 
evening, — whilst burrowing into the sand which forms so prominent a feature 
throughout the southern district of the island. I have dedicated the species to 
Senhor Pedrozo, to whom I am indebted for much kindness and hospitality during 
my sojourns in Porto Santo. 

178. Aphodius granarius. 
A. breviusculus, nitidus niger, prothorace amplo utrinque parce profunde punctato necnon latera versus 

plaga rufescenti obscurissuna ornato, elytris postice intcrdum levitcr rufescentibus, interstitiis 

fere impunctatis, pedibus piceis. 
Long. corp. lin. 2-2j. 

Scaralceus granarius, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. ii. 547 (17G7). 

, Oliv. Ent. i. 3. 82 (1789). 

Aphodius granarius, Ulig. Mag. fur Ins. ii. 192 (1803). 

, Steph. //;. Brit. Ent. iii. 197 (1830). 

, Heer, Fna Col. Helv. i. 519 (1841). 

Habitat in stercore bovine Maderse et Portus Sancti, ab oris maritimis usque ad cacumina montium 
ascendens : in hortis Funchalensibus, ad vias, vel etiam in ips^ urbe tempore serene per aerem 
volitans ssepissime observetur. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 



227 



A. rather short, deep black, and shining : with the chjpeus (which is rather roughened, tubercled, 
recui-ved at the edges, and truncated in front) completely dark. Prothorax ample, with large 
and scattered punctures (which however are not so large as those of the A. Pedrosi, though 
larger and much more numerous than those of the A. lividus), — especially towards the sides, 
which have obscure indications of a rufescent patch (sometimes scarcely perceptible) at about the 
centre of either lateral edge (the position occupied by the darker cloud which is more or less 
apparent in the whole of the previous species). Ely Ira crenate-striated, with the interstices almost 
impunctate ; and with their extreme apex sometimes a httle rufescent or piceous. Body beneath 
coarsely punctured. Leffs piceous. 

Its deep-black surface, in conjunction with the just perceptibly rufescent patch, 
on either side of its prothorax, about the centre, wall more than suffice to 
distinguish the common European A. grcmarius from the other Apliodii here 
described. It is a universal iusect throughout Madeu-a and Porto Santo, — 
occurring at all elevations, fi-om the level of the sea-shore and the streets of 
Funchal (where it may be frequently captured on the wing) to within a short 
distance of the extreme summits of the peaks. During July of 1850 it was 
tolerably abimdantiu the upland region of the Tanal. 

Genus 79. OXYOMUS. 

(Eschscholtz) De Castehi. Hist. ii. 98 (1840). 

Corpus minusculum, oblongo-ovatum, plerumque nigrum : chjpeo spepius semi-hexagono antice leviter 
emarginato, punctato sed hand tuberculato : profhorace modo integro, modo postice canaliculato : 
scutello distincto : elytris plerumque profunde sulcatis : alls amphs. Antenna, labrum, mandibula, 
maxillm, mentum et ligula fere ut in Aphodio, sed maxillarum lobo externo apicem versus pectinato- 
piloso. Palpi vix filiformes ; maxillares glabri, articulo primo minuto subflexuoso, secundo 
longiore subclavato, tertio brevi, ultimo elongate (secundo longiore) fusiformi-ovato sed per mar- 
ginem internum areuato : labiales leviter pilosi, e ligula ad lobos menti anticos surgentes, articulo 
primo breviusculo, secundo paulo crassiore, ultimo elongato (primo multo longiore) ovato. Pedes 
valitU subretractiles : tibiis anticis dilatatis, extus fortiter tridentatis, posterioribus spinulosis: 
tarsis filiformibus, articulis secundo, tertio et quarto longitudine subsequahbus, primo elongato. 

The present genus may be considered as constitutiag a passage between the 
Aphodii proper and the Psammodii, approaching the former in its general outline, 
in the lightly impressed sculptiu'e of its clypeus, in its apically-mucronated tipper 
lip, and in the membranous and largely dilated outer lobe of its maxillse ; whilst in 
its freedom from frontal tubercles, in the deep striation of its elytra, siibclavated 
palpi, and in the elongated basal joint of all its feet, as well as in the obscm^e 
colour of the insects which compose it, it agrees more evidently with the latter. 
In its slightly bUobed clypeus, however, and in its sometimes entire, sometimes 
channeled prothorax, it is intermediate between the two, 

2 g2 



228 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

179. Oxyomus Heineckeni, WoU. 

O. latiusculus subnitidus niger vel piceo-niger, prothorace transverse (ad latere subrecto et ciliato) sat 
profunde et parum crcbre punctate, elytris profunde crenato-striatis, interstitiis latiusculis postice 
convexis, pedibus piceis pilosis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2?-25. 

Habitat prope urbcm Funchalensem, rarissime; mihi non obvius, sed insulis JIaderensibus certe 
indigenus : duo specimina, a Rev''° Dom. Lowe munificc donata, sola \idi, quae pridem invenit 
Dom. Heinccken, M.D., cujus in memoriam nomen triviale dedi. 

O. broad and much depressed, black or piceous black, and slightly shining : with the clypeus (which has 
no indication of tubercles, but is convex in the centre, a little recurved at the edges, and slightly 
emarginated in front) somewhat picescent, and almost unpunctured, anteriorly ; but rather deeply 
and closely punctured behind. Prothorax short and broad, of nearly the same width before and 
behind, — the anterior and posterior angles being subequal, and the lateral edges (which are 
distinctly ciliated) consequently comparatively straight ; rather closely and deeply punctured, — 
especially towards the sides, where the punctures are larger and the surface wrinkled, or uneven. 
Elytra very slightly narrowed at their base (where they are not quite so broad as the prothorax) ; 
just perceptibly notched (or each obliquely subtruncated) at the extreme apex of their suture ; 
deeply crenate- (or almost punctate-) striated ; with the interstices impunctate, broad in front, 
but gradually narrowed and slightly more elevated behind, — where however they are scarcely 
costate. Legs piceous, or rufo-piceous, and pilose (especially the femora, which have a row of very 
long hairs down the centre of their inner sui-face) : fore tibia with three minute serrations 
towards the base of their outer edge (beyond the larger teeth), — which are exceedingly distinct 
under a moderate magnifying power : tarsi with the second, third and fourth joints subequal, but 
longer than those of the following species. 

The present Oxyomus approaches very closely, at first sight, to the O. breci- 
collis ; from wliich nevertheless it will be perceived, on examination, to be abtin- 
(lantly distinct, — receding from it not only in its greater bulk, in the different form 
of its laterally setose prothorax (wliich has the hinder angles much less rounded-olf, 
and the sides therefore comparatively straight), and in the ^"ider, more depressed, 
and less posterior ly-costate interstices of its elytra ; but, slightly, even in the 
structure of its legs, which are, apparently, more pUose (particularly the femora), 
have the minute serrations towards the outer base of their fore-tibia? much more 
e\-ident, and their three intermediate tarsal joints perceptibly longer than is the 
case in that species. It is one of the insects which I have not myself succeeded in 
detecting, during my researches in these islands ; nor indeed have any recent spe- 
cunens hitherto come beneath my notice, — the only two examples which I have 
seen having been presented to me by the Rev. R. T. Lowe from the collection of 
the late Dr. Heinccken, by whom they Avere captured, many years ago, near 
Fimchal. Possessing as it does, however, so much in common with the O. brevi- 
colli-s, I have but little doubt that it avlU be found to inhabit similar spots, — 
towards the southern coast. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 229 

180. Oxyomus brevicollis, WoU. 
O. subniticlus niger, prothorace transverso (angulis anticis deflexis, posticis truncato-rotundatis) paiilo 

crebrius punctato, elytris profunde crenato-striatis, interstitiis angustioribus postice costato- 

convexis, pedibus piceis minus pilosis. 
Long, coi-p. lin. 2. 

Habitat Maderam aiistralem, non infrequens : plurima specimina Junio ineunte a.d. 1849, in horto 
Loweano ad Levada, primus inveni ; atque alia, per oram Funchalensem maritimam sub lapidibus 
in cloacis detecta, nuperrime communicavit Dom. Rousset. 

O, smaller, and not so broad as the O. Heineckeni, and not quite so depressed, black, and slightly 
shining : with the clypeus as in that species, except that it is not quite so distinctly punctui-ed 
behind. Prothorax short and broad, rather narrower behind than before, — the anterior angles 
being more defiexed and the posterior ones much more truncated, or gradually rounded-ofF, than 
is the case with the last species ; a stracture which causes the lateral edges (which are not ciliated) 
to be comparatively oblique (this difference becoming particularly apparent when the respective 
insects are viewed laterally) ; rather more closely, and perhaps not quite so deeply, punctured as 
in the O. Heineckeni, and less perceptibly wrinkled towards the sides. Elytra as in that insect, 
except that they are a little more narrowed at their base, have their striae rather less evidently 
crenated, and their interstices narrower and more convex, — being distinctly elevated, or costate, 
behind. Legs much less pilose than in that species (the femora having their inner row of hairs 
short, and scarcely apparent) : fore-tibiee with two or three most minute serrations towards the 
base of their outer edge (beyond the larger teeth), — which are but just indicated even beneath a 
very high magnifying power : tarsi with the second, third and fourth joints snbequal, but shorter 
than those of the O. Heineckeni. 

Both of the Oxyotni here described may be known from the remainder of the 
Madeiran members of the present family by theii" comparatively broad and de- 
pressed bodies, finely sculptm'ed, untubercled and slightly bilobed clypei, and by 
tlieu- short and thickly punctnlated prothoraces : whilst fi'om the O, Heineckeni 
the O. brevicollis is readily distinguished by its smaller and somewhat narrower 
outline, by the different construction of its prothorax (which, moreover, is free 
from the lateral cilia which are so evident in that species), by the posteriorly 
costate and less widened interstices of its elytra, and by its more glabrous legs. 
Although exceedingly local, it appears to be rather a common insect m the imme- 
diate \icinity of Funchal, — where I first discovered it, early in June 1849 (abun- 
dantly), in the garden of the Hev. R. T. Lowe at the Levada : and many specimens 
have been lately communicated to me by M. B-ousset, captiu-ed from beneath 
stones and amongst rejectamenta on the beach of Funchal ; where it would seem 
to reside, in company ^vitli Dactylosternum Roussetii, FaronialKS j^tonilio, Psam- 
modius sahnlosus, and other insects which delight in such localities, in the neigh- 
botu'hood of the drains and sewers, which constitute the general receptacles of the 
animal and vegetable refuse of the town ; — precincts, which, from their uninviting 
nature, I have not prevailed upon myself to examine, but which in all probability 
would amply repay an investigation. 



230 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Genus 80. PSAMMODIUS. 
Gyllenhal, Ins. Suec. i. 6 (1808). 

Corpxis minusculunij oblongo-ovatum vel subcylindricum, plerumque nigrum : clypeo ssepius semi- 
circulari anticc sat profunde emarginato, granulato-aspcrato scd baud tuberculato : prothorace 
postice canaliculato : scutello distincto : ehjtris plerumque profunde sulcatis : alis amplis. An- 
tenrue, mandibulce , mentum et ligula fere ut in Aphodio. Lahrum in medio integrum. Mawillarum 
lobu extemo comeo, apice dentate. Palpi vLx filiformes ; maxillares glabri, articulo prime minute 
subflexuoso, secundo longiore subclavato, tertio brevi, ultimo elongate (secundo longiore) fusi- 
formi-evato sed per marginem internum arcuate : labiates leviter pUosi, c ligula ad lobes menti 
anticos surgentes, articule prime parvo, secundo majore crassiere, ultimo elongate (reliquis lengi- 
tudine sequali) ovate. Pedes validi subretractiles : tibiis anticis fertiter dilatatis, extus tridentatis, 
posterioribus spinulosis ; tarsis filiformibus, articulis secundo, tertio et quarto lengitudine sub- 
sequalibus, prime elongate. 

Psammodius is distinguished from Ajjhoclins by the smaller size and universally 
dark colour (as in Oxyomiis) of the insects which compose it, — which have their 
elytra more deeply sulcatetl, their clypeus coarsely granuled, untubercled, nearly 
semicircular, and considerably bUobed in front, their prothorax invariably grooved 
l)ehind (and beset with large punctures, remote and deep), their upper lip entu*e 
(not being produced into a cleft central mucro), the external lobe of theii* maxillae 
horny, and powerfully toothed towards its apex, their palpi (like those of Oxyomtts) 
slightly clavate, and the basal joint of all their feet elongated : whUst from the 
last genus, its more semicu-cular (though anteriorly emargiuated) and roughened 
clypeus, in conjimccion with its posteriorly channeled pronotum, the apically- 
dentated and corneous structure of its outer maxillary lobe, will, apart from minor 
differences, equally remove it. The Fsanimodii slightly recede, moreover, even in 
theu' habits (as indeed is likewise the case, though less apparently, with the iater- 
mediate Oxyomi) from the normal members of the present family, exhibiting less 
stercoraccous propensities, and residing either in sandy spots beneath stones, or, 
occasionally, amongst putrescent animal (as well as vegetable) substances, — iuto 
which their largely developed fore-tibiae, which are stUl more powerful than those 
of tlie Aphodil proper, enable them to burrow with considerable dexterity. 

181. Fsammodius sabulosus. 
P. subcylindrice-ovatus nitidus nigcr vcl piceo-niger, prothorace antice subattenuato valde profunde 
sed remote punctate (punctis masdmis), utrinque trausverse-sulcato, el}i;ris piceis profunde 
crenato-striatis, interstitiis convexis, pedibus nifo-piceis. 
Variat colore omnino rufescenti vel etiam ferrugineo. 
Long. Corp. lin. Ij-lf. 

Oxyomui sabulosus, Dej. Cat. (edit. 3) 163 (1837). 
Platytomus sabulosus, Muls. Lamell. de France, 310 (1842). 

Habitat in locis inferioribua Madene Portusque Sancti, hinc inde ^Igaris : in Portu Sancte abundat, 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 231 

qua Aprili exeunte a.d. 1848 in arenosis prope oppidum sitis primus detexi ; sed per oram 
Funchalensem maritimam, prsesertim in cloacis circa stabula suilla, nuper collegerunt DD. 
Rousset et Heer. 

P. somewhat cylindric-ovate, and convex, being slightly narrowed in front, black or piceous-black 
(varying into more or less of a rufescent or ferruginous hue), and shining: with the clypeus 
(which has no indication of tubercles, but is a little recurved at the edges, and emarginated at its 
apex) rufescent, and very rugosely granulated, anteriorly, but almost smooth behind. Prothorax 
very convex, broader behind than before ; beset with exceedingly large, deep, and remote punc- 
tures ; with a deep transverse groove on either side, towards the anterior angles, and a second, 
usually obscurer one, behind it ; and with a distinct, though vei-y abbreviated, longitudinal 
channel on the hinder disk. Elytra usually more picescent than the head and prothorax ; 
narrowed at the base and widest behind the middle; deeply crenate- (or almost punctate-) 
striated ; with the interstices impunetate and rather convex, — the suture being more flattened, 
and sometimes (together with the apical portion of the elytra) very distinctly rufescent. Legs 
and antenna rufo-piceous ; the latter with their club ferruginous. 

Readily distinguished by its ovate, anteriorly-acuminated form, more or less 
picescent elytra, and by the enormous and very deep punctures of its prothorax. 
It is a tolerably common insect, in certain positions, both in Madeira and Porto 
Santo. It was in the latter island that I first, myself, discovered it ; where, at 
the end of April 1848, it occxirred in great profusion, beneath stones in sandy 
spots, in the immediate vicinity of the Cidade. It appeared to be more especiaUy 
active during the evenings, biirrowing into the loose soil with considerable dex- 
terity. In Madeira it seems to be principally confined to the southern shore, and to 
the neighbourhood of Funchal, — where it has been captured abundantly both by 
M. Rousset and Professor Heer, amongst animal and vegetable rejectamenta, on 
the sea-beach. It is a species almost peciiliar to Mediterranean latitudes, being 
recorded in the south of France and in Algeria ; and I possess specimens from 
Spain, collected by Professor Heer near Seville. 

182. Psammodius caesus. 
P. angusto-subcylindricus nitidus niger, prothorace subquadrato-transverso profunde sed remote 

punctato, utrinque transverso-sulcato, elytris crenato-striatis, interstitiis minus convexis, pedibus 

rufo-piceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. l^-lf • 

Scarabteus ccesus, Pauz. Fna Germ. 85. 2 (1796). 
Aphodius ccesus, Fab. St/st. Elew. i. 82 (1801). 

, Heer, Fna Col. Meh. i. 530 (1841). 

Psammodius cmsus, Erich. Nat. der Ins. Beutsch. iii. 913 (1848). 

Habitat Maderam, rarior : in boreali, baud procul a Sancta Anna, atque etiam in urbe ipsa Funcha- 
lensi egomet parce deprehensi ; necnon per oram maritimam australem cl. Dom. Heer detexit. 

P. cylindrical and very narrow, being of almost equal breadth throughout, black, and shining (espe- 



232 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

cially the males) : with the clypeus as in the last species. Prothorax convex, and more quadrate 
than that of the P. sabulosus, being of almost equal breadth before and behind (though perhaps, 
if anjihing, a little widest in front) ; beset with large, deep and remote punctures (though not so 
large or so deep as those of that insect) ; with a deep transverse groove on either side, towards the 
anterior angles, and a second, obscui-er one behind it ; and with a distinct, though very abbre- 
viated, longitudinal channel on the hinder disk. Elytra parallel, of equal breadth throughout, 
crcnate-striated (but less deeply so than in the P. sabulosus) ; with the interstices impunctate 
and rather flattened, — especially the suture, which is sometimes obscurely picescent. Legs and 
antenruE rufo-piceous ; the latter with their club ferruginous. 

The very narrow, elongated and cylindrical body of the P. ctestis will at once 
distinguish it fi'om the remainder of the Aiihodladce ^^ith wliich we are here con- 
cerned. The piinctTU'es of its prothorax are not quite so large and deep, nor are 
the interstices of its elytra so convex as is the case with the P. sabulosiis. It 
does not seem to be a very abundant insect in Madeira, though widely diffused 
over the island at low and intermediate altitudes. I have taken stray specimens, 
occasionally, in the streets and gardens of Funchal ; and a single example occiu'red 
to me in the north of the island, during the summer of 1850, beneath a stone on 
the lofty sea-cliif which constitutes the eastern boundary of the Ribeiro de Sao 
Jorge, at its termination : and it has been captured sparingly on the beach of 
Fimchal by M. Rousset and Professor Hecr, — where its habits are in all proba- 
bility similar to those of the last species. It is pretty generaUy distributed 
throughout Em'ope ; and is recorded, likewise, in Algeria. 



Fam. 22. TROGID^. 

Genus 81. TROX. 

Fabricius, Ent. Syst. i. 86 (1792). 

Corpus mediocre, plus minusve obtuso-ovatum, crassum, tuberculato-rugosum et setis rigidis ad- 
spersum : capite deflexo : prothorace brevi lato, per marginera posticum sinuato : scutello distincto : 
alis amplis (rarissime obsoletis). Antenna breves (capite vix longiores) lamellato-clavat;e 10-arti- 
culatee, ad marginem capitis inter otium repositse, articulis primo et secundo robustis sctisque 
elongatis instructis (illo longissimo subclavato, hoc brevi subgloboso), tertio ad septimum parvis 
longitudine suba;qualibus latitudine vix crescentibus, reliquis clavam magnam tri])hyllani effici- 
entibus. Labrum subscmicirculare crustaceum pilosum exsertum, ad apicem plus minusve 
ina;qualiter emarginatum. MandibulcE validse cornese crassse, estus valde pUosEe, apicem versus 
incurvJE acutre, margine intcrno in media parte ])rofunde fisso-sinuato et lacinia parva sub- 
coriacea pubescenti aucto. MaxilUc biloba; subcornea!, lobis subxqualibus ; externa apice setis 
incurvis longissimis munito; intemo leviter arcuato, apice valde uncinato, intus setoso-ciliato. 
Palpi leviter clavati; maxillares articulo primo minuto, secundo elongato subclavato, tertio 
brcviorc, ultimo elongato (secundo longiorc) fusiformi-ovato : labiates articulo primo minuto, 
secundo longiorc flexuoso subclavato, tertio crassiore elongato subovato. Mentum auiplum sub- 
quadratum, pilis longissimis munitum, anticc arcuato-emarginatum. Ligula mento occultata. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 233 

membranacea biloba. Pedes parum validi svxbretractiles : femorihus anticis valde dilatatis : tibiis 
anticis extus leviter tridentatis, omnibus setosis : tarsis filiformibus, articulis quatuor baseos lon- 
gitudine subsequalibus. 

Apart from their thick, obtuse, more or less setose and rugosely tuberculated 
bodies, the Tvoges have many points of peculiarity which will serve to separate 
them from the neighbouring groups. Thus, for instance, their 10-jointed and 
basaUy -pilose antennae, in conjunction with their ««eg'««Z/?/-emarginated upper 
lip and singular maxillas, the inner lobe of which is powerfully uncinated at its 
tip, and scarcely smaller than the outer one (a structure of very rare occurrence 
in the Corel ylocerata, in which the interior division is usually minute, and often 
altogether ol^solete), are more than sufficient whereby to identify them. From 
the Aphodiad(B the members of the present family are immediately distinguished 
by the robust nature of their corneous and incrassated (though apically acute) 
mandibles and hardened labrum (both of which are imconcealed by the clypeus, — 
though, at the same time, on account of the deflexion of the head, they are not 
very apparent from above), and by their broader anterior femora and less dilated 
fore-tibige. In then- modes of life the Trogklce somewhat recede from the Cordijlo- 
cerata generally, carrying out the subnecrophagous tendency which is faintly 
indicated in the aberrant Aphodiadce to a much greater extent; though it is 
scarcely possible however to regard them as strictly necrophagous, since they 
partake almost equally of the normal habits of the Fsammodii, in frequenting 
putrescent vegetable matter in maritime or sandy spots. Still, their constant 
lialDility to be attracted by di'ied animal remains compels us to regard them as 
at any rate partially osslpliagous ; siuce, whatever may be their means of suste- 
nance in positions where such food is not to be obtained, it is certain that they 
not only feed, but feed voraciously on the cartilaginous portions of bones when 
placed within their reach, — a propensity which their strong, pointed mandibles 
and uncinated maxillae would seem in fact especially to favoui*. 

183. Trox scaber. 

T. obtuso-ovatus niger, setulis fulvis adspersus necnon ad latera ciliatus, prothorace transverso 
injequali, elytris leviter pimctato-striatis, inteistitiis longitudinaliter fasciculato-tuberculatis, 
antennis ferrugineis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3. 

Silplta scahra, Limi. ^st. Nat. i. ii. 573 (1767). 
Trox a/renarius, Fab. Ent. Syst. i. 87 (1792). 

, G-yU. Ins. Suec. i. 11 (1808). 

scahei; Hear, Fiia Col HcJv. i. 533 (ISil). 

Habitat Maderam, mihi non obvius : exemplar unicum, a Dom. Heineckeu prope urbem Funchalensem 
jam pridem captum, amicissime communicavit Rev"^"^ Dom. Lowe. 

T. ovate, obtuse and thick, dull black, convex, and more or less beset with short, rigid, fulvous setse, 

2h 



231 IXSECTA MADERENSIA. 

— with which the extreme edges of the body are uniformly cihated. Prothorax verj' short and 
transverse, and with the hinder margin sinuated ; thickly, but confusedly punctured, and densely 
setose ; uneven, being roughened with obscure elevations and depressions, — amongst which how- 
ever a broad longitudinal canal down the centre is exceedingly apparent. Elytra widest (and 
very obtuse) behind ; lightly punctate-striated ; and the interstices, each, with a longitudinal 
row of small tubercles, which are densely beset, or fasciculated, with rigid fulvous setae, — of 
which the alternate series are somewhat the largest. Anteniue dull ferruginous. 

A common insect tliroughout Europe, and in the north of Africa ; Ijut apjia- 
rently of the greatest rarity in ^Madeira, — if indeed (of Avhich I am by no means 
certain) it be in reality indigenous. A single example only has hitherto come 
beneath my notice, which was captured, many years ago, by the late Dr. lleincckcn, 
from whose collection it was presented to me by the Eev. R. T. Lowe. It differs 
in no respect from the ordinary type, except that its prothorax is perhaps a trifle 
less distinctly punctured, and the tubercles of its elytra are almost equal through- 
out, — the alternate series being scarcely at all larger than the intermediate ones. 



Fam. 23. GLAPHYRID^. 

Genus 82. CHASMATOPTERUS. 

(Dejean, Cat.) LatreiUe, Eeff. An. iv. 567 (1829). 

Corpus mediocre, plus minusvc oblongo-ovatum et valde hirsutuni : capite subdeflexo, oculis antice 
profunde emarginatis : elytris apice truncatis : alls amplis. Antennce breves (capitis vix longitu- 
dine) lamellato-clavata; 9-articulatDe, ad marginem capitis inter otium repositre, articulis primo 
et secundo robustis setisque valde elongatis iustructis (illo longissimo clavato, hoc brevi sub- 
globoso), tertio ad sextum parvis longitudine nx decrescentibus latitudine leviter crescentibus, 
reliquis clavam magnam triphyllam eflScientibus. Labrum breve transversum crustaceum 
exsertum, apice vix integrum pilisque longissimis munitum, Mandibula validae cornea;, extus 
pilosse, apicem versus incurva;, margine interno arcuato. Maxilla lubo singulo coi'nco valde 
biuncinato ad apicem pilosissimo instructje [interno obsoleto). Pa^i vix filiformes ; maxillares 
artieulo primo parvo subflexuoso, secundo et tertio robustioribus longitudine suba-qualibus (illo 
paiilo majorc), ultimo valde elongate (reliquis conjunctim vix longiore) fusiformi-subovato : labiates 
e liguli'l ad angulos menti antieos surgentes, artieulo primo parvo, secundo longiore subclavato, 
tertio paulo gi-aciliore elongato fusiformi-subovato. Mentum amplum subquadratum, pilis lon- 
gissimis munitum, Ligula mento fere occultata, membranacea, lobis elongatis divergentibus 
introrsum ciliatis aucta. Pedes elongati pilosi : tibiis posterioribus extus mox^ante medium 
angulato-unisubdentatis ; anticis ad apicem in lobum elongatum productis, subtus concavis 
articulum tarsorum basalem louge pone apicem ipsum recipientibus : tarsis filiformibus articulis 
quatuor baseos longitudine decrescentibus, primo (pra'sertim in anterioribus) elongato, quinto vix 
subclavato unyuiculis divisis niunito. 

Chasmatopterits (which, ha it observed, contains the only member of the 
Thalerophagous Cordylocerata hitherto detected in the Madeii-a Islands) may 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 235 

be known from the other genera with which we are concerned by its extremely 
hairy hodj and sub-abbreviated elytra, by its long and comparatively slender legs 
and divided claws, and by its blossom-iafesting habits. None of its kindred forms, 
so numerous in Mediterranean latitudes, existing in the present instance to con- 
trast it with, there is but little fear of confoundiag it with any of the groups which 
it is necessary here to notice : sufidce it therefore to remark, that its strong and 
arcuated mandibles, the apically biuncinated outer, and the obsolete inner portion 
of its maxiUa?, in conjunction Avith the largely divergent lobes of its ligula and the 
singular construction of its fore-tibise (which are much produced at thek extre- 
mity, and obliquely scooped-out within, — the basal joint of their tarsi being 
received into the cavity at a considerable distance l)ehind the tip), wUl be amply 
sufficient, apart from other characteristics readily apparent, to distinguish Chasma- 
topterus from the remainder of the Coleoptera descril:)ed in this work. 

And w^e may here briefly advert to the extraordinary circiunstance, that the 
immense department of the Thalerophagous Lamellicorns (or those which subsist 
on living vegetable substances), so -widely diflPused throughout the world, shoiild be 
represented in Madeira by, apparently, but a solitary species, — and even that one 
of such extreme rarity that, during my constant researches in these islands, at 
nearly aU seasons and extending over a period of about three years, not so mu.ch 
as a single example should have occurred to me ; its sole admission into our fauna 
resting on an isolated specimen captured by the late Dr. Heinecken, many years 
ago, near Eimehal. Wlien we consider the vast importance of the Thalerophagous, 
or Melitophilous, section of the Cordylocerata in promoting the fecundation of 
plants (the hau-iness of the numerous creatm-es which compose it, in connection 
with their almost exclusive attachment to flowers, constituting them especial media 
in the distribution of poUen), it does certainly seem imaccountable that, in islands 
where sunshine is the ruling power and where the flora is literally redundant, so 
gross an oversight in the economy of Nature should present itself. In the 
Saprophagous division (or those which feed on decomposed vegetable matter, as, for 
instance, the Aphodiada:), our species, on the contrary, attain a very fail- average 
in point of number, — especially when the natui-e of the country and the smaUness 
of the island cluster is taken into account ; and we are naturally therefore led to 
inquire why it is that the Thalerophagous type is so sparingly indicated. To a 
certain extent, the large preponderance of Hymenopterous and Dipterous insects 
may compensate for the deficiency, and enable us to arrive at a partial solution of 
an enigma otherwise difiiciilt ; — since it is more than probable that the dispersion 
of the pollen is abundantly effected (so far at least as it is dependent on insect 
agency at all) by the extra amount of individuals which those enormous Orders are 
here made to embrace. StUl, be the explanation what it may, the fact must ever 
remain strange, that so significant a portion of the Coleoptera, and one which is 
scarcely less universal than profuse, should be but thus faintly expressed amongst 
" upwards of a thousand members of a subau.stral fauna. 

2 h2 



236 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

184. Chasmatopterus nigTocinctus, JVoU. 

C. oblongo-ovatus niger subnitidus et pilis longissimis pallidioribus vestitus, prothorace convexo 
profunde punctato, elytris subrugidoso-punctatis rufo-testaceis, sutura, margine, humeris et 
scutello nigris, antennis tarsisque picescentibus. 

Long, coi-p. lin. 85. 

habitat Maderani, rarissime : specimen unicum tantum \ idi, e niuseo Heincckeniano a Rev**" Dom. 
Lowe benigne communicatum. 

C. oblong-ovate, deep black, with a just appreciable tendency to take an obscure bluish tinge, very 
sliglitly shining, and sparingly clothed with exceedingly long and flexible griseous pile. Head 
thickly, but rather confusedly punctiu'cd ; and with the front and lateral margins of the clypeus 
raised and recurved. Prothorax convex, and rather narrower than the elytra (being widest about 
the middle, though slightly broader behind than before) ; with just perceptible indications of a 
dorsal channel jiosteriorly ; and uniformly beset with large, deep and distinct punctures (which 
are dcc])er, and much more remote and defined, than those upon the head). Elytra subrugulose; 
and co\ ered with large, but rather shallow and not veiy well-defined, punctures (which are not 
however disposed in strise) ; testaceous, — with the suture, the lateral and apical margins, and the 
shoulders (which are exceedinglv prominent), together with the scutcllum, black. Antenna and 
tarsi slightly picescent. 

Apparently extremely rare ; and hitlierto unique, — tlie specimen from wliich the 
above description has been draAin out having- been communicated to me by the 
Rev. H. T. Lowe from the collection of the late Dr. llciuccken, by Avlioni it was 
captiu'ed, many years ago, near Eunchal. 



Sectio VI. PRIOCERATA. 

Fam. 24. THROSCID^. 
Genus 83. TRIXAGUS. 

Kugelaun, in Schneid. Mag. v. 534 (1794). 

Corpus parvum, ellipticum, pubescens : prothorace postice lato lobato elytris arete applicato, angulis 
posticis valde acuto-productis ; prosterno antice leviter producto : alis amplis. Antenna brevius- 
culae (capite jjrothoraceque breviores) perfoliato-clavatae, in foveA sub margine prothoracis inter 
otium repositK, articulis prime et secundo robustis (dlo clongato subclavato, hoc brevi sub- 
globoso), tertio ad octavum parvis subrrqualibus, rehquis clavam magnam elongatam snbper- 
foliatam triarticulatam efficientibus. Lalmim subsemicirculare jjilosum. Mandibulte validse, 
extus leviter pilosse, apicem versus incurvae acuta;. Maxillce bilobse : lobo externa lato, intus et 
apice valde pubescenti : interna angusto incurvo ciliato. Pa/pi clavati; ma.riUarcs articulo primo 
parvo, secundo et tertio majoribus crassioribus (illo hoc paulo longiorc), ultimo magno subsecuri- 
formi ; labiates articulo priuio parvo, secundo paulo longiore subclavato, tertio magno subsecuri- 
formi. Mention anipluni trausversum, antice in lobum medium productum. Lir/ula magna 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 237 

subquadrata, apice truncata. Pedes graciles contractiles : tihiis sublineari-compressis : Uasis 
filifonuibus gracilibus in foveis tibiarum receptis, articulo primo elongate, quarto leviter bifido. 

The little genus Trixagns {=Throscus, Lat., Gen. Crust, et Ins. ii. 36, a.d. 1807) 
is so doubtful in its affinities, that entomologists are still at variance as to its 
correct location ; some placing it near to, or mth the J3i/rrhid(B, some with the Der- 
mestidce, others amongst the aberrant Eucnemidce, whilst by Linuseus and Latreille 
the ElateridcB were selected to receive it. In real fact however it partakes in certain 
respects of the essential characters of all ; so that it becomes a matter of no very 
great importance to which of them we choose to consider it as the most nearly 
allied, — and, esj)ecially, since it cannot be actually admitted into any of the above 
divisions, but must constitute a separate family in the immediate vicinity of one or 
the other of them. In M. Gaubil's recently published Catalogue of the European 
Coleoptera it is associated with Myrmecobiiis and TJiorictus, and made to perform 
the passage from the Bijrrhidce into the Sistri : but, although it is imquestionably 
desu-able that it should be regarded as the type of an isolated group, I am by no 
means convinced that it possesses anything in common with the latter, — whUst 
with Thorictus it does not appear to me to have even the most distant connection. 
To the ByrrhklcB it is manifestly akin in many particulars of its structure (its 
clavated antennae, for instance, — which are received diu-ing repose into grooves of 
its miteriorly jyrodiiced prosternum, — and ia the contractility of its legs) ; and it is 
impossible to deny that it approaches very evidently towards the ElateridcB like- 
wise (as its general contour, and the extremely acuminated hinder angles of its 
prothorax obviously indicate) : so that it is, in all probability, between those two 
families that it forms a connecting link, — and it is shnply therefore a question of 
degree to which of them it is the more closely related. For my own part, I am 
inclined to accept the position assigned to it by Mr. Westwood, in his aditiirable 
Introduction to the lloderii Classification of Insects, as by far the most natural 
one, — believing, with him, that " the least important of its characters as family 
characteristics are those which separate it from the Elateridce." The Trixagi are 
Em'opean insects, and exceedingly few in species, — three only having been hitherto 
described. They occur normally in fimgi; though in reality they are more 
frequently to he found, in an active state, amongst dense herbage, or on the flowers 
and foliage of plants, in shady spots beneath trees. 

185. Trixagus gracilis, Woll. 

T. ellipticus rufo-brunneus dense cinereo-pubescens, protliorace punctulato angulis posticis valde acuto- 
productis necnon ad basin lobato, elytris leviter subpunctato-striatis, interstitiis distincte punc- 
tulatis, anteunis ferragineis, pedibus testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. ]^. 

Habitat Maderam australem,— in horto Loweano ad Levada, inter lichenes una cum Ephistemo dinii- 
diato degens, a meipso repertus. 



238 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

T. elliptical, reddish-brown, and densely clothed with a decumbent cinereous pile. Head and pro- 
thorax regularly punctulated : the latter broad behind, with the posterior angles exceedingly pro- 
duced and acute, and with the basal margin lobed in the centre. Elytra very finely striated 
(the strife being most obsoletely punctured) ; and with the interstices rather thickly and distinctly 
jnuictulated, — the punctures being larger and more oblong than those of the prothorax. An- 
tenrut fcrniginous. Leys testaceous. 

Readily distinguished from the common European T. clemiestoides by its smaller 
and narrower body, by the almost imperceptibly punctate striae, and very distinctly 
punctulated iaterstices, of its ehi:ra, by the absence of the two raised ridges which 
arc so conspicuous on the forehead of that insect, and by the less abrupt and 
differently formed club of its much slenderer antennae. It is intermediate between 
the T. clemiestoides, Linn., and the T. 2ii(siUtis, Heer; and I should have been 
inclined to have referred it to the T. elatero'ules of the latter author, had not that 
species been described as " pronoto longiore, anterius multo angustiore [quam in 
T. dermestokIes~\, basi in medio impresso; elytris striatis, striis ad suturam valde 
obsoletis," — none of wliicli characters appertain to the Madeu-an representative of 
tlie group ; wliich has its elytral striae unquestionaljly punctate, A\'hUst the shape 
of its prothorax differs in no respect from that of the T. dermestoides. Its size 
moreover exceeds by the third of a line that given by Professor Heer for the 
T. elaterokles, — of which I have not been able to procure a specimen for com- 
parison ; and with which I am consequently unable, with such points of apparent 
discrepancy, to identify it. It is exceedingly rare, the only example which I have 
seen ha\-ing been captured by myself, in the garden of the Eev. R. T. Lowe, at the 
Levada, in company ^vith Ephistemus dimidiatiis and Cis fuscijpes, amongst lichen 
and fungi on the rotten stump of an old peach-tree. 



Fam. 25. ELATERID^. 

Genus 84. COPTOSTETHUS, Woll (Tau. IV. fig. 8.) 

Corpus pamim, elongato-subovatum, undique dense villosum : prothorace magno, elytris arete appli- 
cato, angulis posticis valde acumiuato-productis ; jirosterno antice producto et postice in spinam 
acutam attenuato (spina in mesosternum recepta) : alls obsoletis. AntenruB longissimse (capite 
prothoraceque multo longiorcs) subfiliformes, basin versus subserratae, ad prosterni superficiem 
inter otium arctc reposita^, articulo primo robusto, secundo brevi subgloboso, tcrtio majore 
(sed hand quarti longitudine), reliquis latitudine vix decresceutibus longitudine \vs. crescentibus. 
Labrum subsemicirculare pilosum. Mandihula validce aroiatse angustae acutissima?, ad basin 
lata; cxtus pilosa;, margine intcrno basi coriaceo leviter pubescenti necnon apicem versus dentc 
\alido instructo. Maxilla (IV. 8 h) biloba; memhranacere : lobo externo lato, apice valde pubes- 
centi : interno breviore, minus pubescenti. Palpi subfiliformes ; maxillares articulo primo parvo, 
secundo majore crassiore, tertio breviusculo (secundo paulo graciliore), ultimo (secundo vix lon- 
giore sed crassiore) subfusiformi apice oblique truncato : labiales (IV. 8 c) e scapis ligulse connatis 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 239 

surgentes, articulo primo parvo, secundo paiilo longiore crassiore, ultimo elongate subovato apice 
vix truncato. Mentum amplum subquadratum membranaceum, antice integrum tenuissimum. 
Ligula magna membranacea, antice lata, apice truncata pilosa bifida. Pedes elongati : femo- 
ribus (prsesertim posticis) incrassatis : tibiis gracilibus : tarsis filiformibus simplicibus elongatis, 
articulis quatuor baseos longitudine decrescentibus, quinto longissimo unguiculis simplicibus 
munito. 

A KOTTTO'} sectus, et <TTrj6o<i pectus. 

The very interesting insect from which the above structural diagnosis has been 
compLled Avould aj^pear, in its habits and general affinity, to be the Madeiran 
analogue of Cryj}tohypmts, though at the same time with too many distinctive 
features of its own to allow of its being referred to that genus. Thus, for instance, 
its apterous and excessively villose body, in conjunction with its largely developed 
prothorax, the enormous length of its antennae (of which the second joint only is 
minute, — the third being scarcely smaller than the foUoAving one), and the unusual 
tliickness of its posterior femora, w^ill more than suffice, apart from the modifica- 
tions of its oral organs, to separate it, even prima facie, from the members of that 
and the immediately adjoining groups. It would seem to be of the greatest rarity, 
two specimens merely having come beneath my notice, — captured by myself in 
Porto Santo during the winter of 1848 : and since it is the only representative of 
the Elateri(l(B which enters into our fauna, it follows that in Madeira j)roper the 
family, so far at least as our researches up to the present period would tend to 
prove, is literally not even indicated, — a fact so perfectly astounding as, a priori, 
to be well nigh incredible. It cannot of course be positively affirmed that a 
department so vast and important as the Elateridce is actually non-existent in 
an island thus extensive, and abounding in every condition and requisite for its 
subsistence, inasmuch as it is not possible to prove a negative proposition ; but I 
can add with certainty, that, diu'ing my repeated investigations of it, distributed 
over an interval of nearly three years, and those of the Rev. R. T. Low^, tkrough- 
out a far longer period, and from amongst the constant collections which have 
been from time to time communicated to me by friends on the spot (which how- 
ever have not added, in all, more than about thirty species, in the Coleoptera, to 
those which I had myself detected), not so much as the fragment of an Elater has 
been hitherto Ijrought to light ; and we are therefore at least entitled to conclude 
that, should any member of this widely-distributed race be present, it must occur 
in very scanty numbers to have escaped oiu* combined observations thus far. We 
have ali'eady had occasion to advert to the remarkable circumstance that the 
Thalerophagous Lamellicornes should have but a single form, apparently, to bear 
them witness in the Madeii-an group : but strange as that u.nquestionably is, in a 
coimtry where sunshine may be said to be the one controlling element, it is 
perhaps surpassed by the total absence (if such be indeed the case) of the Elate- 
ridce from the central mass ; — whilst even in the smaller adjacent island of Porto 
Santo it is but just expressed. 



240 IXSECTA MADERENSIA. 

186. Coptostethus femoratus, JVoII. (Tab. IT. fig. 8.) 

C. elongato-subovatus subsenescenti-nigro-brunneus densissime cinereo-villosus, prothorace magno in 
disco convexo, ante mediimi lato uecnon ad latera rotuudato, elytris Icviter striatis, antennis fer- 
rugineis, pedibus testaceis, tibiarum parte media infuscata. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1|. 

Habitat in montibus Portus Sancti, rarissimus : duo specimina iu cavernfi quadam basaltica mox inii-a 
cacumen mentis "Pico d'Anna Ferreira" dicti sit^ d. 7 Dec. a.d. 1848 sub lapidibus inveni. 

C. elongate-subovate, blackish-brown, with a very obscure feneous tinge, minutely and indistinctly 
])unctulated all over, and densely clothed with a long and soft cinereous pile. ProtJiorax very 
large, widest before the middle, and narrowed behind (the sides being rounded) ; veiy convex 
on the disk ; and with the hinder angles exceedingly produced and acuminated. Elytra obtuse 
at the apex, and rounded at the sides, — being broadest just behind the middle ; and very lightly 
striated. ^?i/enn« exceedingly long, and ferruginous, iej'* testaceous, with the /emora (which, 
especially the hinder ones, are somewhat thickened) slightly infuscated, and with the tibia 
infuscated in their centre, — their base and apex being testaceous. 

Ap])arently of the greatest rarity ; the only two spechnens which I have seen 
lia\ing ])een captured by myself, December 7th, 1818, in the island of Porto 
Santo, — from beneath loose stones in a large basaltic cavern immediately below 
the extreme summit of the Pico d'x\.nna Perreii-a, facing the south. 



ram. 26. CYPHONID^. 

Genus 85. EUCINETUS. 
Schuppel, in Germ. Mag. iii. 255 (1818). 

Corpus parvum, ovatum, supra \alde convexum, infra planum ; fegre saltatorium : cnj/ite inflexo, ad 
prosternum inter otium applicando : prothorace parvo lato rotundato, elytris arete applicato ; 
prosterno simplici : alis sat amplis. Antenna; breviuscuhe (eapite prothoi'acequc paulo longiores) 
tiliformes, articulo primo vix robusto cylindrico, secundo, tertio et quarto paulo gracilioribus lon- 
gioribus obconicis, reliquis (ultimo ovato exccpto) requalibus suboblongis apice truncatis. Labrum 
transversum pilosum, anticc integrum. Mandibula compressfe subcornese arcuatiB, ad basin lata; 
extus Icviter pilosse, apicem versus aeutissim;e bifid;e, intus late emarginata; et mcnibranii 
tcnuissima instructae. Maxillie biloba; : lobo externa mcmbranaceo brevi lato, apice valde pubes- 
centi : interno longiore validiore angusto recto, apice incurvo acutissime uncinato, intus pilis 
longis ciliato. Palpi subfiliformes pilosi; maxillares articulo primo parvo, secundo crassiore 
leviter clongato, tertio huic paulo broviore, ultimo elongate subfusiformi apice acuminato ; 
labiates articulo primo parvo, secundo paulo longiore crassiore, ultimo clongato subfusiforuii- 
ovato. Mentum amplum subcorneum pilosum transverso-subquadratum, antice angustatum 
uecnon ad apicem integrum. Ligula transversa membranacea, basi valde constricta, ajiicem 
versus dilatata vix sub-biloba. Pedes elongati pilosi subcontractiles : femnribus anticis gracilibus 
cylindricis, posterioribus crassioribus subovatis : tibiis anticis gracilibus subcylindrieis, apice vix 
calcaratis vel spinulosis; posterioribus robustioribus apicem versus dilatatis, apice valde spinu- 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 



241 



losis {intermediis breviusculis calcariis duobus sequalibus, posticis longiusculis leviter incurvis cal- 
caribus duobus inrcqualibus, munitis) : tarsis subacuminato-filifomubus (posterioribus longissimis), 
articulis quatuor baseos longitudine decrescentibus necnon ad apicem ipsum valde spinulosis, 
quinto gracili-subcylindrico (in posterioribus parum brevi) unguiculis minutis minus validis munito. 

The subsaltatorial powers of Eucinetus {=Nycteus, Lat., a.d. 1825), its convex 
and anteriorly-obtuse body (the head being inflexed, and very closely appUed during 
repose against the chest), in conjunction with its minute prothorax and largely 
spurred posterior tibire (with their exceedingly long, spinulose and subsetiform, or 
slightly aciuniuated*, feet), will readily distinguish it from every other genus vni\\ 
which we have here to do. As regards the obscui-er details of its structure, its 
internally membranous and apically-bifid mandibles, added to the basal constric- 
tion of its ligula, and the peculiar form of its inner maxillary lobe (which, although 
narrower, is perceptibly longei' than the outer one, — and is, likewise, more corneous, 
and armed at its tip A\dth a robust and extremely acute claw), shovild be especially 
noticed. Its capability of jumping, which would appear to reside principally in 
the greatly developed calcaria of its four hinder legs, is singularly imperfect, and 
often degenerates into a mere shufaing motion, the insect not being ordinarily 
able, even during its most successful attempts, to rise much higher than an inch, 

as in fact its very moderately incrassated posterior femora, as compared with 

those of the bounding groups generally, would seem to indicate (the strong 
muscles which are so evidently denoted in the Salticce not being here present to 
require the extra support). Nevertheless, the four hinder thighs are considerably 
more thickened than the front ones, — which last indeed are unusually slender ; 
the whole leg being weak, almost destitute of spinous appendages, and enth-ely in 
accordance with the smallness of the prothoracic segment for which the Eucineti 
are so remarkable. The only other point to which I would particularly direct 
attention relates to the spurs and spinules of the four posterior legs,— the first of 
which are equal in the intermediate, and unequal in the hinder pair ; — whilst the 
second fringe the extreme apices of the tibiae, and of aU the joints, except the last, 
of the tarsi, with a dense cii-cle of rigid bristles, which in all probability assist 
very materially, in connexion with the two larger spiu-s, in enabling the creatm-e 
to perform its (more or less abortive) leap. In their modes of life the Eucineti 
would seem to be in accordance with the ordinary Cyphonidce, delighting in damp 
and rather shady spots,— and often secreting themselves beneath the loosely- 
attached bark of trees, or in the grooves and crevices which indent the outer 
surfaces of the trunks. 

* This structure of foot must not be confoimded with the (likewise) acuminated one already discussed 
under the genera Cossi/phodes and TJiorictus—vrhich. we see so often expressed in insects of an Ant-asso- 
ciating tendency, hut which is of an altogether different nature. The modification which obtains in 
Eucinetus is long and sefifonn, and is especiaUy indicative of subsaltatorial, or shuffling, habits (like 
those, for instance, of the Mordellida); whereas the other is short, thick and conical, and completely free 
from 'anything like adcUtional spinulose appendages,— being usuaUy m fact constituted out of a less 
hardened, or more elastic, material than those of the present type. 

2 I 



242 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

187. Eucinetus ovum, WoU. 
E. ovatus convexus infra planus, infuscato-niger necnon cinereo-pubescens, prothorace parvo fere 

impunctato, clytris dense et minute punctulatis, postice obsoletissime substriatis, apicem versus 

dilutioribus, antennarum basi pedibusque diluto-testaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. l§-2. 

Habitat per regionem Maderae sylvaticam, ab autumno usque ad ver novunij rarior : sub cortice 
arborum laxo ad Curral das Romciras primus detexit Rev'''"' Dom. Armitage ; necnon ad Lombo 
dos Pecegueiros, in Madcnl boreali, egoiuet parce collegi. 

E. ovate (being exceedingly obtuse in front), very convex above (especially anteriorl)') and flattened 
beneatli ; brownish-black, and densely clothed with a cinereous pubescence. Prothorax small ; 
wide behind, and with the basal margin rounded and closely applied to the elytra, — which it 
exactly equals in breadth ; highly polished, and almost impunctate ; and usually a little diluted 
in colouring towards the sides. Elytra closely and minutely ])uiictulated all over (the punctures 
appearing beneath the microscope to be rather obliquely impinged, but with scarcely any indica- 
tion on the surface of the transversely-reticulated sculpture which is so conspicuous in the 
European species) ; less shining than the prothorax ; very obscurely substriated behind (though 
rather more evidently so towards the suture than towards the margins) ; and more or less gradu- 
ally diluted, or of a paler brown hue, at their apex. Anlennte at base, and the legs diluted- 
testaceous ; the latter with the circlet of spinules which fringes the extreme apices of their four 
hinder tibia, and of all the joints except the last of their /owr hinder tarsi, black. 

A large and very distinct Eucinetus ; and one which may he readily known 
from the European E. hcemorrhous by its much greater bulk, wider and less 
apically acuminated form, by its less deeply black, or more fuscescent, hue, and 
by its almost total freedom from any appearance of the transverse reticulations, 
and by the entii'c absence of the briglitly rufescent terminal patch, which are so 
conspicuous on the elytra of that sjiecies. It is exceedingly rare, being found 
sparingly beneath the loose bark, or in the cracks and iudentations on the outer 
surfaces, of trees, during the autumnal and winter months, throughout the sylvan 
districts of intermediate altitudes. It has been captu.red by the Rev. W. J. Armitage 
at the Curral das llomciras, near Funchal ; and I have, also, taken dead specimens 
in the north of tlie island, at the Lombo dos Pccegueii'os, dvuing July. 



Fam. 27. TELEPHORID-E. 

Genus 86. MALTHODES. 
Kiesenwetter, in Linn. Ent. vii. 265 (1852). 

Corpus parvum, angusto-lineare, molle : cnpite panim convcxo, postice constricto, oculis magnis : 
prothorace parvo subquadrato-transverso : elytris saepius valde abbreviatis, alas amplissimas baud 
tegentibus. Antenna (prsesertim in maribus) elongate filiformes basi subapproximata;, mox infra 
oculorum nuirgiuem internum iusertre, articulo primo levitcr robusto longiusculo subclavato. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 243 

reliquis latitudine sequalibus longitudine (secundo vix breviusculo excepto) subsequalibus. Man- 
dibulce cornefe elongatfe arcuatfe, apiceiu versus acut,T, intiis baud dentatfe. Maxilla; bilobse 
membranacese : lobo externa lato, apice pubescenti : inlerno brevi barbato, lacinia tenuissimo- 
membranacea ciliata instructo. Palpi subfiliformes ; maxillares (ut mihi videntur) articxdo 
primo parvo trarislucido, secundo elongato subclavato, tertio huic paulo breviore subilexuoso, 
ultimo elongato (sccundi longitudine) leviter iucrassato subfusiforrai, ad apicem valde acuminate 
translucido ; Icihiales omuiuo translucidi articulo piimo parvo subgloboso, secundo elongato vix 
subclavato, ultimo subfusiformi ad apicem valde acuminato. Menlum membranaceum. Ligula 
tenuissimo-membranacea. Pedes graciles : tibiis subcylindricis : tarsis articulo pi-imo (prsesertim 
in posterioribus) elongato, quarto valde bilobo, quinto breviusculo subtlexuoso unguiculis sim- 
plicibus munito. 

MalthocJes, recently established by Kiesenwetter to contain a portion of Mal- 
thimis of Latreille, differs principally from the latter in having the head more 
convex and less suddenly constricted behind, in the antennae being inserted slightly 
nearer to the inner margin of the eyes, and in the mandibles being simple inter- 
nally, instead of (as in that genus) armed with a powerful tooth. It possesses 
however many characters in common with MaWi'mus, — as, for instance, its linear- 
elongate form, its delicate and flexible texture, its apically abbreviated elytra and 
its exposed wings, — which apart from the peculiarities of its oral organs (amongst 
which, their ahnost membranous general structure, and the subfusiform, ex- 
tremely acviminated terminal joint of the palpi should be especially noticed), will 
serve at once to distinguish it from every other allied grouj). They are insects 
nearly, if not quite, peculiar to temperate latitudes, upwards of forty species 
having been described as European ; but, owing to the extraordinary softness of 
their outer envelope, which is liable to shrivel, or collapse, when dry, they are 
not always easy of determination. They occur for the most part amongst dense 
vegetation and flowers, and are often remarkably gregarious. 

188. Malthodes Kiesenwetteri, WoU. 

M. angusto-linearis subnitidus infuscato-niger et cinereo-pubescens, prothorace brevi, elytris valde 
abbreviatis vix pallidioribus necnon ad apicem obsolete flavo-terminatis, antennarum basi pedi- 
busque paulo dilutioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. l-l^. ; 

Habitat per partem Maderse sylvaticam, sestate non infrequens : usque ad 5000' s. m. ascendit, sed in 

gramiuosis intermediis prjedominat. 
Species M. brevicolli, Payk., valde affinis, ab illo tamen esse vere diversa apud cl. Dom. Kiesenwetter, 

Lipsise, dicitur, cujus in lionorem nomen triviale proposui. 

M. narrow and linear, very sligbtly shining, most delicately and remotely punctulated, obscure 
brownish -black, and densely clothed with a rather robust cinereous pubescence. Head convex. 
Prothorax very short. Elytra usually a little paler than the head and prothorax, and exceedingly 
abbreviated ; rather wrinkled, and with the apex of each terminated with a very obscure (some- 

2 I 2 



2iJ- INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

times only just perceptible) yellowish spot. AntenntB ut base, and the legs more diluted, or 
fuscescent. 

The Madeiran representative of the common M. brecicollis of more northern 
latitudes, to which it ap^n'oximates very closely : nevertheless, ha^-ing recently 
sent it for examination to M. Kiesenwetter, of Leipzig, — the author of an elaborate 
Monograph of the genus,- published in the sixth volume of the Liniuea Entohiolo- 
gica, — who pronoimces it to l)e distinct from that species, I have retained it as such. 
It appears to he tolerably abundant throughout the sylvan districts of the island, 
occurring in grassy spots, and amongst flowers, during the spring and summer 
months, — though, from its small size and obscure, delicate frame, it is very liable 
to be overlooked; its exposed wings, moreover, and general contonr giving it 
rather the aspect, at first sight, of an Hvnnenopterous than of a Coleopterous 
insect. I have taken it at the head of the Ribeiro de Santa Luzia, and in the 
Chestnut-woods of Santa Anna, in May ; on the Lombo das Vacas, in June ; and 
at the Cruzinhas, and the Lombo dos Pecegueiros, in July. 



Fam. 28. MELYRID^. 

Genus 87. MALACHIUS. 
Fabrieius, Etit. Si/st. i. 221 (1792). 

(Corpus mediocre vel parvum, plus ininusvc lineari-oblongum, molle, plerumque late coloratum : capite 
])arum convexo subrotundato, uculis magnis prominulis, clypeo plus minusve membranaceo, trans- 
verso : prothorace ssepius subquadrato, ad latera (cum abdomine) interdum flabellato : alis am- 
plissimis. Antenna (prsesertim in niaribus) longiusculff, filiformcs (ut in specie nostra), vel 
serratse ; modo in utroque sexu simplices, modo in masculo articuiis basilaribus intus productis ; 
basi plus minusve approximatse, infra oculorum marginem anticum insertse ; articulo primo 
leviter robusto subclavato, reliquis (secuudo breviusculo et ultimo ovali exceptis) subajqualibus, 
vel latitudino leviter deerescentibus. Lahnim corneum limbo coriacco, transverso-subquadratum, 
antice plus minusve rotundatum. Mandibula magnae corner lat;e, apicem versus acutissimae 
bifidse. Maxilla biloba;, apice leviter pubescentes : lobo externa apice dilatato submembranaceo : 
interno paulo breviore, omnino suhmembranaceo. Palpi filiformes breviuscuh ; maxillares articulo 
primo parvo, seeundo et tertio crassioribus subwqualibus, ultimo longiusculo fusiformi-conico ad 
apicem ipsum truncate; labiales articuhs primo et seeundo parvis, ultimo paulo longiore fusi- 
formi-conico ad apicem ipsum truncato. Mentum (nisi fallor) veluti e duplici parte formatum, 
alia terminali magna subquadrato coriaceO apice membranaceri, alia basali (prioris stipite) mem- 
branacea brevissima transversa. Ligula mcmbranacca pilosa, apice rotundata. Pedes elongati 
graciles : tibiis cyliiuU-icis : tarsis articuiis quatuor bascos subtus leviter oblique productis (primo 
et seeundo sequalibus, tertio vix breviore, quarto bren), quinto elongato clavato, ad apicem mem- 
brana tenuissima biloba unffuiculisqne parvis validis munito. 

The common genus Malachins, well kno^v^l by the gaily coloui'ed (though not 
usually metallic) surfaces, soft texture, and the flower-infesting habits of the active 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 245 

insects which compose it, is represented in the Madeira Islands by, apparently, 
but a single species, — wliich, perhaps, from the short and very membranous 
strvicture of its clj^eus, may fall, more strictly, under the genus Attains of Erich- 
son. The characters however on wliich this latter group is made to rest are so 
small, that it is scarcely possible to regard them as of more than sectional import- 
ance ; and I have preferred therefore quotrag the present insect as a Malachiiis, — 
with which in every essential particular (as may be gathered from the above 
diagnosis, drawn solely from the Madeiran tj^Q) it unquestionably agrees. 

189. Malachius militaris, WoU. 

M. lineari-oblongus nitidus subviridescenti-ater et subtiliter ciuereo-pubescens, prothorace elytro- 
rumque apice ruSs, illius disco nigro, antennarum basi pedibusque anticis obscure infuscato- 
picescentibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. lf-2. 

Habitat iu floribus Maderse australis, prsesertim in urbe ips^ Funchalensi, tempore vernali non 
infrequens : in horto Ecclesiae Anglicanae mense Maio a.d. 1849 plurima specimina e rosis 
coUegi. 

M. narrow, linear-oblong, shining, deep black with an obscure greenish tinge, and clothed with a very 
delicate cinereous pubescence. Head convex behind. Prothorax bright rufous, with a dark patch 
in the centre of the disk (very rarely absent) . Elytra with the apex bright rufous. Mesothorax 
underneath rufous. Antenrus at base, and the two front legs usually very obscurely fuscescent. 

Not an uncommon insect in gardens near Funchal dtiring the spring. It 
ajjproaches a little, in general external aspect, to the common 31. pulicarms of 
more northern latitudes. Nevertheless it is abundantly distinct from that species, 
not only in its smaller and narrower form, shorter legs and antennse, more 
glabrous surface, and less dilated prothorax, but likewise in many points even of 
its structm'C, — amongst which its shorter and slenderer feet, with their more 
oblique joints, are at once apparent. I took it abundantly in May 1849 out of the 
flowers of the common monthly rose, in the garden of the EngHsh Church, in the 
Beco das Aranhas, at Funchal ; and it has been subsequently captured, in similar 
positions, by Dr. Albers of Berlin. 

Genus 88. PECTEROPUS, Woll. (Tab. IV. fig. 7 et 9.) 

Corpus mediocre vel parvum, plus minusve elongato-subovatum, moUe, metallicum : capite modo (ut 
in P. Maderensi, Tab. IV. fig. 7) subrotundato convexiusculo oculis prominuhs chjpeoqne brevi, 
modo (ut in P. rostrato, Tab. IV. fig. 9 a) subelongato depresso oculis minus prominuhs clypeo- 
que longiusculo, modo (ut in P. rugoso) intermedio (?'. e. subrotundato depressiusculo oculis pro- 
minuhs clypeoqae leviter longiusculo) ; clypeo in omnibus membranaceo : pi'othorace rotundato- 
subquadi-ato : alis amplissimis. Antenna (prsesertim in maribus) longiusculse subserrato- 
filiformes (in utroque sexu simplices), basi minus approximatse, infra oculorum marginem anticum 



246 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

(et ab illis remotse) insertse, articulo primo leviter robusto clavato, reliquis (secundo breviusculo 
et ultimo ovali exceptis) subsequalibus. Lubrum vix coriaceum, limbo merabranaceo, transverso- 
subquadratum, antice rotundatum. Mandibulte magUK corncfe longiuscuhe, apicem versus 
acutissimee bifida, intus membrana angusta tenuissim^ auctse. Maxilla (IV. 9 b) bilobse, apice 
leviter pubescentes : lobo externa basi angusto subcoriacco, apice subito dilatato submembranaceo : 
inferno breviorc, omnino submembranaceo. Paljji filiformes, breviuseuli vel elongati ; maxillares 
articulo primo parvo, secundo et tertio crassioribus suba?qualibus (mode, ut in P. Maderensi, 
brevibus; modo, ut in P. rostrato et i-ugoso, longiusculis), ultimo elongate fusifornii sub- 
acuminato ad apicom ipsum vix truncato; labiahs (IV. 9 c) conici crassi, articulis primo et 
secundo latitudine sub.-equalibus (illo brevi lato, hoc paulo longiore), ultimo augustiore longiusculo 
subfusifomii-conico ad apicem ipsum truncato. Mentum (ut mihi vidctur) veluti e duplici parte 
formatum, alia terminali magna (subquadratii ad latera rotundata) coriacea antice membranacea, 
aliil basali (prioris stipite) cornea apice subcoriacea (transverso-subquadratu ad latera in angulum 
medium producta pilisquc duobus longissiniis instructii). Ligula clongata membranacea pilosa, 
apice truncata. Pedes elongati graciles : tibiis cylindricis : tarsis (IV. 9 d) articulis quatuor 
baseos subtus leviter oblique productis (primo et secundo ajqualibus, tertio vix breviore, quarto 
brevi), anticis in maribus (IV. 7 a, et 9e) articulo secundo in lobum elongatissimum concavum 
subgaleiformcm apice subito incur\'um (introrsum plus minusve valde nigro-setoso-pectinatum) 
supra-producto, quinto (in omnibus atque in utroque sexu) elongato valde clavato, apice mem- 
bran^ tenuissima biloba unffuiculisque majoribus validis muuito. 

A TreKrrjp pectinator, et iroOv pes. (Tj-pus — P. Maderensis.) 

A very interesting and well-marked genus, being one moreover of the most truly 
indigenous and characteristic throughout the Madeiran Coleoptera. Apart from 
the metallic lustre of the insects which compose it, it may be readOy known from 
the allied forms, as indeed from every other Avith which T am acquainted, by the 
very peculiarly constructed second joint of its anterior male tarsi, which is oblique 
in an opposite direction to the remainder, being produced on the upj^er side into 
an extremely elongated, subgaleiform or concave process, Avhich is deflected, and 
strongly pectinated within with dark and powerful bristles, which are more or less 
numerous in each of the species hitherto discovered, — remaining constant, in one 
case (P. 7'iigosus) to the extreme apex only, in another (P. rostratiis) to the apex 
and a small portion of the sides, whilst in a third (the P. Maderensis, which I should 
regard as the tj^ie) they fringe the terminal and lateral margins along very nearly 
theii' entire distance. All three representatives moreover difi'er a little in the relative 
proportions (the length especially) of then' head, cl}7)eus and palpi, — which, being 
structural points, have rendered it convenient to arrange them under separate sec- 
tions. Yet, retaining as they do all essential characters in common, and, more par- 
ticularly, preserving unimpaired the feature which is so remarkable in theii- anterior 
male feet (the modifications in the number of the inner bristles, and the breadth of 
the lobe, being of course merely specific), it is impossible to regard them in any 
other light than as members of a single (and perhaps geographical*) group. 

* Belonging evidently to the present genus (though I have not been able to procure a male specimen, 
and therefore to examine the anterior tarsi of that sex) is a very interesting and distinct species, detected 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 247 

§ I. Caput subrotundatum latum suhconvexum, clypeo hrevi, oculis prominulis : palpi maxillaresbreviusculi, 
articuJis secundo et tertio breviusculis : tarsi antici maris articulo secundo in lohum elongatwn 
{margine apicali lateribusque intus peetinatis) supra producto. 

190. Pecteropus Maderensis, Woll. (Tab. IV. fig. 7.) 
P. antice subacuminatusj parce pubescens nitidus viridescenti- vel cuprescenti-seneus, capite pro- 
thoraceque parce punctatis, elytris leviter subpunctato-rugulosis, antennarum basi pedibusque 
rufo-testaceis. 
Mas sjepius viridescenti-seneus (Interdum etiam omnino viridi-micans), an tennis pavdo longioribus, 

femoribus (prsesertim posterioribus) plerumque subinfuscatis. 
Fcem. sjepius cuprescenti-aeneus, antennis paulo brevioribus, femoribus rarius iafuscatis. 
Var. /3. capite protboraceque crebrius punctatis necnon subtuberculatis. 
Long. corp. lin. 1|-2|. 

Habitat Maderam, tempore sestivo, bine inde \Tilgaris, a 2500' s. m. usque ad caciimina montium 
ascendens : ad Lombo das Vacas die solstitiali a.d. 1850 primus inveni, et plurima specimina e 
floribus Cineraria aurita {■= Senecionis Maderensis, De Candolle) ad Cruzinhas crescentis mense 
Jubo ejusdem anni cepi; aba etiam in summo ipso monte (6100' s. m.) Pico Ruivo dicto, flores 
EriccE cinerete circumvolantia, Augusto ineunte deprebensi. 

P. elongate-ovate (being rather dilated behind and acuminated anteriorly) ; pubescent and shining ; 
seneousj with a more or less brilliantly greenish or coppery splendour. Head and prothorax brightly 
polished, and sparingly punctured : the forrner roundish, convex behind, and with two rather deep 



by the Eev. W. J. Armitage in Teneriffe : — so that it is far from improbable that Pecteropus may em- 
body a type of form which obtains, more or less, throughout the whole of the islands of this portion of 
the Atlantic. The following short description may serve to characterize the Canarian representative : — 

Pecteropus pelluoidus, Woll. 

P. antice subacuminatus, pubescens nitidus feuescenti-mger, capite protboraceque parce pvmetatis, illo 
subrotundato latiusculo, hoc parvo ad angidos posticos pallido-pellucido, elytris leviter subpunctato- 
rugulosis, antennarum tarsorumque basi subinfuscata. 

Long. corp. Un. 1§. 

Habitat in insula Tenerifia Canariensi, a Eev''° Dom. Armitage communieatus. 

P. elongate-ovate (being dilated behind, and rather acuminated anteriorly) ; piibescent and shining ; black 
with a greenish-brassy tinge. Head and protJim-ax rather brightly polished, and very sparingly and 
minutely punctured : the former roimdish, nather convex behind, but with very slight indications of 
frontal impressions ; vrith the ei/es prominent : the latter small, and widest about the middle ; and 
with the hinder angles pale whitish-testaceous and pellucid. Elytra very lightly rugulose and sub- 
punctate. AntenncB at base, together with the extreme apices of the tibia and the bases of the tarsi, 
infuscate. 

A most elegant little species ; approaching more nearly, in its general outline and sculpture, to the 
P. Maderensis than to either of the other Madeiran members of the group : nevertheless, its comparatively 
dark siu-face (which is black, with a greenish-brassy tinge), in conjunction with the pale and curiously 
transparent portion of its margin at either posterior angle, will at once abundantly characterize it. 



248 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

longitudinal impressions in front ; with the eyes prominent : the latter widest about the middle. 

Elytra rugulose (but not very coarsely so) and subpunctate ; usually expanded behind. Antenna 

at base (rarely at the apex also), and the legs rufo-testaceous. 
Male, usually greener than the female ; with the antenna;, also, a little longer ; and with the femora 

(especially the four hinder ones) generally more or less infuscated. 
Female, generally more aeneous, or else more coppeiy, than the male ; with the antenna; a little 

shorter ; and with the legs usually altogether pale, their femora being rarely infuscated. 
Var. /9. with the head and prothorax (of both sexes, though especially of the female) more closely 

and coarsely punctured : and likewise subgranulate, particularly towards the sides. 

Known readily from the foUofldng members of the genus by its usually more 
brilliant colour (the greenish lustre, which is seldom very apparent on either of its 
Madeii-an allies, being here, especially in the male sex, often exceedingly con- 
spicuous), and by its brighter and less roughened sm-face, — the closely-set granules 
which are so evident on the head and prothorax of the P. rugosus and rostratus 
being represented by distant punctures (even though in extreme varieties a ten- 
dency to tubercles, at any rate towards the sides, may be occasionally detected). 
In its broad head and prominent eyes it approaches the former of those species 
more nearly than the latter ; so much so indeed, that aberrant females (where 
granulations are slightly indicated) might sometimes be mistaken, jr/'imd facie, 
for those of the P. rugosits : nevertheless, the rather larger size and more apicaliy- 
expanded form, in conjunction with their convexer head (which has two deep 
longitudinal impressions in front), more shining, metallic body, and fainter sculp- 
ture, will always serve, on inspection, to separate them from that insect. It 
recedes from it very decidedly, moreover, even in its habits ; being confined 
exclusively to the mountains, and ranging from about the altitude of 2500 feet to 
the highest peaks. It would seem also (as in fact its alpine natvu-e Avould lead us 
to expect) to come into existence later in the season than the P. rugosiis, occui-ring 
pecidiarly during the summer months. It is more especially abundant within the 
sylvan districts, and is much attached to the flowers of the Cineraria aurita 
{=Senecio Madcrensis, De Cand.), which hang in clusters over the damp rocks of 
intermediate and lofty elevations. I have captvu-ed it on the Lombo das Vacas, in 
June ; at the Cruzinhas, the Fanal, the llibeiro de Joao Delgada, and the Lombo 
dos Pecegueiros, in July ; and at the Ribeu'O Frio, in August. "Whilst encamped 
on the summit of the Pico Ruivo (6100 feet above the sea) in August of 1850, I 
observed it rather commonly during the heat of the day, — at Avhich time it Avas 
exceedingly active witli its wings, flying rapidly from flower to flower ; especially 
those of the Erica cinerea, which attain to such perfection on that remote upland 
tract. The Pico Uuivan specimens have their femora almost invariably dusky, — a 
state which I have generally remarked to be the excejition, rather than the rule, 
in lower regions. As would appear to be the case with most insects, the greater 
the altitude at which it occurs the moi-e ready it is as regards flight, — the rarefied 
atmosphere seeming to invest it with additional strength. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 249 

§ II. Caput suhroUmdatum latum subdepressum, clypeo minus brevi, oculis prominulis : palpi maxillares 
longiusculi, articulis secundo et tertio longiusculis : tarsi anfici maris articulo secundo in lobum 
elongatum latum (rnargine apicali intus pectinato) supra producto. 

191. Pecteropus rugosus, Woll. 

P. antice minus acuminatus (subparallelus),- pubescens subnitidus cuprescenti- (rarius viridescenti-) 
seneus, capite prothoraceque crebre tuberculato-asperatisj elytris profmide subpunctato-rugulosisj 
antennarum basi pedibusqiie rufo-testaceis, femoribus plus minusve infuscatis, antennis in 
utroque sexu brevioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1|-1^. 

Habitat in locis inferioribus Maderse, prjesertim circa urbem Funchalensem, tempore vernali, rarior : 
ad Praya Formoza mense Martio a.d. 1848 plurima specimiua e floribus collegi. 

P. elongate- subovate (being however rather broader anteriorly, and therefore a little more parallel, 
than the P. Maderensis) ; more thickly pubescent, and rather less shining, than the last species ; 
aeneous, with a coppery (rarely with a greenish) additional tinge. Head and prothorax thickly 
and coarsely granulated : the former roundish, less convex than in the last species, and \v\i\\ 
scarcely any indications of frontal impressions ; with the eyes prominent : the latter widest about 
the middle, usually a trifle larger than that of the P. Maderensis, and with the anterior angles 
perhaps a little more rounded. Elytra coarsely rugulose, and subpunctate ; very slightly 
expanded behind. Antenna at base, and the legs rufo-testaceous ; the /onwe;- rather short, and 
scarcely longer in the males than in the females ; the latter with their femora (in both sexes) 
more or less infuscated. 

A species confined, apparently, to low altitudes, occurring during the spring 
months in the immediate vicinity of Funchal. It appears to vary but little either 
in sculptiu'e or coloiu', — the former being universally coarse, and represented on 
the head and prothorax by closely-set tubercles ; whilst the latter is seldom 
brilliant, being generally of a dull coppery-, or almost brownish-brassy hue 
(having only a tinge of green), and but very slightly shining. The males of all 
the Fecteropi here descril^ed differ so essentially in the structure of the second 
joint of then- fore-feet, that there is but little fear of confounding them (even when 
their other distinctive characters are aberrant) inter se. Nor indeed is there any 
difficulty as regards the opposite sex, except now and then, in rare cases, when (as 
lately stated) the females of the present insect might not always be at once recog- 
nised from those of the last one. A more careful examination, however, will never 
fail to separate the two, since the smaller size and broader outline (that is to say, 
less expanded posteriorly, and therefore less narrowed in front) of the P. rugosiis, 
in conjimction with its flatter head (which has scarcely any indications of the 
longitudinal impressions which are so conspicuous in the P. lladerensis), and its 
usually rather shorter antennge, will aU tend (apart from its more obscure, coppery 
and roughened sm*face) to remove it, even at first sight, from every variety of the 
P. Maderensis. It seems to be somewhat scarce, or at any rate local ; occurring 

2 K 



250 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

amongst flowers in the neiglil)oiu'liood of Fimclial, especially in low positions 
towards the coast. On the rocky ledge above the Praya Formoza I took it in 
tolerable abundance during March of 1848 ; since which time I have not succeeded 
in detectuig it. 

§ III. Caput ovatum angustum depressum, clypeo longiore, oculis demissis : palpi maxilhres longksimi, 
articulis secundo et tertio longiorihus : tarsi antici maris artieulo secundo in lohum elongatum 
(apicem versus intus valde pectinatwm) supra producto. 

192. Pecteropus rostratus, Woll. (Tab. IV. fig. 9.) 

P. antice acuminatus, pubescens subnitidus subviridescenti- vel subcuprescenti-aeneus, capite pro- 
thoraceque creberrime tuberculato-asperatis, elytris profunde puuctato-rugulosis, antennarum 
basi pedibusque rufo-testaceis, illis iu marc longioribus. 
Var. a., plerumque subviridescenti-seneus antice valde acuminatus, prothorace antice angustato, 

pedibus omnino pallidis. (Ins. Partus Sanctus.) 
Var. fi. plerumque subcuprescenti-seneus antice acuminatus, prothorace antice minus angustato, 
tibiis intcrdum vix obscui-ioribus. (Ins. Deserta Grandis.) 
Long. Corp. lin. 2-21. 

Habitat in floribus Portus Sancti et Desertse Grandis, tempore vemali, non infrequens : var. a., sola in 
Portu Sancto solo occurrit ; scd var. /3. ad Desertam Grandcm, et tantum uisi fallor ad banc 
insulam, pcrtinet, qua Maio c.xeunte a.d. 1850 plurima specimina inveni. 

P. elongate-ovate (being more acuminated anteriorly than either of the preceding species) ; thickly 
pubescent and very slightly shining ; fencous, with either a slightly greenish or a slightly coppery 
tinge. Head and prothorax very thickly and coarsely granidated : i]i& former ovate (being longer 
and narrower than in either of the other species), exceedingly depressed,, and with scarcely any 
indications of frontal impressions ; with the eyes hardly at all prominent : the latter widest cither 
about or a little behind the middle. Elytra coarsely rugulosc, and more distinctly punctui'cd 
than in either of the previous species ; rather expanded behind. Anteniue at base, and the legs 
rufo-testaceous ; the former very distinctly longer in the males than in the females. 

Var. a. generally of a greenish-brassy tinge, and much acuminated anteriorly, — the prothorax being 
usually widest a little behind the middle and considerably narrowed in front; the legs entirely 
pale. (The state peculiar to Porto Santo.) 

Var. /3. usually of a more coppery tinge, and less acuminated auterioi'ly, — the prothorax being 
generally widest about the middle and but very slightly narrowed in front ; the tibia: generally 
a little dusky. (The form on the Dezcrta Grande.) 

A very interesting Pecteropus, and one which has been liitherto only detected, 
so far as I am aware, in Porto Santo and on the Dezcrta Grande. It may be 
immediately recognised from the P. Jluderensls and rtigosus, th'st, by the strtictiu'e 
of the second joint of its male fore feet (the peculiarities in the distribution of the 
inner setoe of which have been ah'eady pointed out) ; and, secondly, by its some- 
what larger and anteriorly tapering outline, — its narrow, ovate and exceedingly 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 261 

depressed head, in conjiinction Tvitli its iinprojecting eyes, giving it an almost 
rostrate appearance. This distinctive conformation is especially evident in the 
Porto Santan tj^jc (Tab. IV. fig. 9), which has moreover the front region of its 
prothoras considerably more acuminated (being defiexed and compressed at the 
sides) than is the case with the Dezertan specimens, — a difference indeed which, in 
connection with its imiversally greener hue and paler legs, I might have been 
inclined to have regarded as specific, had not the examination of a great quantity 
of examples, from both islands, presented a suflicient number of intermediate links 
to convince me that they are in reality but local states of the same insect. The 
»«r. a. I captured, abundantly, in Porto Santo, in April of 1848 ; and the var. ^. 
on the Dezerta Grande, dui'ing my encampment there with the Rev. R. T. Lowe, 
at the end of May 1850. 

Genus 89. DASYTES. 

PaykuU, Fiia Siiec. ii. 156 (1798). 

Corpus mediocre vel parvum, plus minusve lineare vel lineari-oblongum, vix duram, sfepe (ut iu specie 
nostra) viridi-splendens, pilosum : prothorace ssepius subquadi'ato : alis amplissimis. AntenruE 
breves subserrato-filiformes vel omnino intus serratse, infra oculorum marginem anticum insertae, 
articiilis primo et secundo intus svibclavato-nodosis (illo robustiore longiore), reliquis (ultimo ovali 
excepto) subsequalibiis plus minusve obtuse serratis. Labrum vix corneum limbo submem- 
branaceo, transverso-subquadratum, antice integrum sed vix rotundatum. Mandibula niagnae 
cornese latfe, apieem versus acutissimse bifidse, margine interno integro ssepius minute crenulato. 
Maxilla bilobse, apice pubescentes : lobo extemo subcoriaceo : interno paulo breviore submem- 
branacco. Palpi \ix filiformes; maxillares articulo primo parvo, secundo longiore erassiore, 
tertio buic paulo breviore, ultimo longiusculo subfusiformi ad apieem oblique truncato ; labiales 
articulis primo et secundo (illo prscipue) parvis, ultimo erassiore longiusculo fusiformi-ovato ad 
apieem oblique truncato. Mentum (ut mihi videtur) quasi e duplici parte formatum, alia ter- 
minali magna membranacea apice coriacea, alia basali (prioris stipite) cornea brevissima trans- 
versa. Ligula membranacea pilosa, apice vix emarginata. Pedes elongati : tihiis subcylindricis : 
tarsis pilosis plerumque simplicibus, articulis quatuor baseos subtus leviter oblique productis 
longitudine paulatim decrescentibus (quarto minore), quinto clavato unguiculis validis (intus 
membrana angusta pilosa auctis) munito. 

Dasytes, like most of the genera of the Ilelyridce, is composed of insects 
remarkable for theu' flower-infesting habits. They recede however from the gaily- 
coloured, more or less painted, and often spotted, or fasciated, Malachii in being 
either of a duller hue, or else brilliantly (and generally vniforwli/) ornamented 
with metallic tints, — the only Madeiran representative being, like several of its 
more northern allies, of a resplendent brassy-green lustre. In the details of then- 
structui-e they do not offer any great peculiarities ; nevertheless their broad (though 
apicaUy-acute) mandibles, which have the internal edge scarcely at all emarginated 
and, in most instances, very minutely crenulate, added to the obliquely truncated 
last joint of their palpi, then- pubescent feet, and the narrow ciliated membrane 

2k 2 



252 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

whicli is attached along the inner curvature of each of their claws, should be 
especially noticed. Their bodies are usually more or less elongate, narrow, and 
pilose ; and there is nearly always some slight tendency to metallic ii'idescence, 
even on the darker members of the group. 

193. Dasytes iUustris. 

D. angusto-siiblinearis pubescens viridi- vel subKnesccuti-viridi-si)lendcns, capite prothoraccque pro- 
funde punctatis, hoc brevi traasverso-subquadrato, elytris punctato-rugulosis, auteiinis (versus 
apicem) tarsisque nigrescentibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2—2'. 

Doii/tes iUustfis, ilotschulsky, in litt. 

Habitat in floribiis onniium insularum Maderensium tempore vernali et sestivo, vulgatissimus ; ab or^ 
maritima usque ad 400U' s. lu. ascendens. 

D. narrow aud sublinear, thickly pubescent, shining, and of a brilliant bluish-, or brassy-green hue. 
Head and prothorax very thickly and coarsely punctured (the punctures being exceedingly large) : 
the former roundish, rather convex behind, aud with the eyes prominent : the latter short and 
subquadrate, though rather widest a little before the middle. Elytra very slightly expanded 
behind (sometimes almost entirely parallel), punctured and coarsely I'ugulose. Antenrue towards 
their apex, and the tarsi blackish. 

The Madeiran representative of the common European D. nobilis, — of which it 
is possible indeed that it may be an extreme geograpliical variety. Eor some time 
in fact I had regarded it as such ; but, since it tmquestionably dilfers in many 
minute; jjarticulars from that insect, and since moreover it has been carefully 
compared with t\-|iical specimens at Berlin, by my friend Dr. H. Schaum, who 
considers it as distinct, I have retained it under the name which was proposed for 
it ])y M. Motschulsky diu'iug his late visit to England. It differs from the D. nobilk 
in being smaUer, of a greener, or more golden hue, in its prothorax being shorter 
and rather more quadrate, and in the punctiu*es of its (more rugulose^i elytra not 
])eing so clearly defined. I possess a species from Corfu, which in some respects 
approaches the Madeiran one; but it is even smaller still, has its prothorax 
distinctly longer, aud more narrowed behind (as in the D. nobilis), and its punc- 
tures altogether less developed. It is an abimdant insect throughout most of the 
islands of the Madeiran group, occurring in flowers dm'iug the spring and early 
summer months, and at nearly all elevations. In low grassy s.])ois towards the 
coast it may l)c observed at times in great jirofusion, esjiccially in the vicinity of 
Funchal, — making its appearance in sucli situations in the spring, but in higher 
altitudes somewhat later. Thus, at the Ribeiro Frio and the Eeijaa de C6rte, I have 
captiu'ed it in August. In Porto Santo it existed by thousands dui-ing April of 
1819 ; and in May 1850 it was equally common on the Dezerta Grande. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 253 

Genus 90. MELYROSOMA, Woll (Tab. V. fig. l et 2.) 

Corpus parvum, plus minusve elongato-suboblongum, molle, nigrum, Melyricli affinitate proximum 
sed ab illo certe distiuctum : capite leviter rotundato, ocuHs pvoininulis, cli/peo brevi mcmbranaceo : 
prothorace rotundato-subquadrato : ehjtris phis minusve costatis : alis ami)lissimis. Antenna 
(V. 2 a), pi'sesertim in maribus (V. 2), longiusculse serrato-filiformes, in utroque sexu simplices, 
infra ocuiorum marginem anticum (et ab illis remotse) insertse, articulis primo et secundo intus 
subclavato-nodosis (illo robustiore longiore), tertio brevi gracili extus oblique leviter producto, 
reliquis (ultimo ovali excepto) sequalibus intus acutissime et subrequaliter serratis. Labrum 
(V. 2 b) eoriaceura limbo membranaceo, transversum, antice rotundatum. Mandibula (V. 2 c) 
magnse cornese latte, apicem versus acutissimoe bifidae, intus minutissime subcrenulatse et mem- 
brana angusta tenuissima auctse. Maxilla (V. 2 d) biloboe, lobis membranaceis apice pubescen- 
tibus : externa latiusculo : interna breviore angustiore. Palpi subfiliformes ; nmxillares articulo 
primo parvo, secundo et tertio crassioribus subsequalibus, ultimo elongato subfusiformi basi 
truncato ad apicem aeuminato ; labiales (V. 2 e) e scapis submembranaceis ligulfe connatis 
surgentes, articulo primo parvo, secundo paulo majorc crassiore, ultimo elongato subfusiformi 
basi truncato ad apicem aeuminato. Mentum (nisi fallor) veluti e duplici parte formatum, alia 
terminali (ad latera rotundata) coriacea antice membranacea, alia basali (prioris stipite) subcornea 
apice coriacea (ad latera in angulum medium plus minusve producta). Ligula elougata mem- 
branacea pilosa, apice biloba. Pedes longiusculi graciles : tibiis subcylindricis : tarsis (V. 2/) 
articulis quatuor baseos (primo et secundo prjecipue) subtus leviter oblique productis (primo bre- 
viuscvilo basi subrecondito, secundo, tertio et quarto sequalibus paulatim minus obliquis), quinto 
elongato vix subclavato imguiculis (V. 2 g) niagnis valde bifidis munito. 

A Melyris (genus Coleopterorum), et crco/ia corpus. 

A very interesting little genus, approaching closely, in general affinity and 
contour, to 3Ielyris, though at the same time with abundant distinctive features 
of its own. Thus, the structure of its antennae and palpi should be especially 
noticed, — the former of which have theu' third joint (which is the longest of the 
whole in Melyris proper) excessively small and obliquely produced e^rternally, the 
fourth to the tenth being very acutely (and equally) serrated within ; whilst the 
latter are greatly attenuated at their extreme apex, instead of (as in Ilelyris) 
robust and obtuse, Added to which, its bifid and more acute mandibles, the short 
and j)artially concealed basal articulation of its feet, and its deeply bipartite claws, 
in conjunction with the less transverse prothorax, slenderer legs, and the small- 
ness of the species which compose it, are all of them characters which wUl serve 
to separate it from the members of that group. 

194. Melyrosoma oceanicum, Wall. (Tab. V. fig. l.) 

M. robustum nigrum et pilis brevibus subdepressis parce vestitum, capite prothoraceque ruguloso- 
subpunctatis, elytro singulo costis tribus (externa fere obsoleta) longitudinaliter instructo, inter- 
stitiis profunde, crebre et rugose (sed vix seriatim) punctatis, antennarum basi tarsisque fusces- 
centibus. 
Mas vix minor, antenuis paulo lougioribus. 

Long. corp. lin. li-2. 



251 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Habitat in locis editioribus Maderae, tempore sestivo, hinc inde vulgare : in summo ipso monte 
Ruivenso (GIOC s. m.), flores Erica cinerea (una cum Pecteropo Maderensi) circumvolans, necnon 
in ascensu montis a Feijaa de Corte Augusto ineunte a.d. 1850 copiosissime coUegi. 

M. elongate and robust, deep black (rarely with a piceous tinge), and beset (although not very densely) 
with a short, nearly decumbent and somewhat cinereous pile. Head and prothorax rugulose and 
subpunctate : the former tiattencd : the latter convex, and narrowed in front. Elytra with the 
suture raised, and also with three costse down the disk of each, — which are abbre\iated posteriorly, 
and the outer one of which is usually nearly obsolete ; the interstices deeply, very closely and 
coarsely punctured (the punctures being vei-y large, but with only a slight tendency to be disposed 
in rows). Antenna at base, and the tarsi just perceptibly paler than the rest of the surface. 
Male a little smaller than the female, and with the antennae distinctly longer, — though not so long 
as those of (both sexes of) the M. Artemisia, 

Readily known from the follo^\dng species by its larger and more robust form, 
and by its more intensely black bue. It is also far less pubescent, its forehead is 
flatter, and its antennae (in. both sexes ; and therefore, a fortiori, in the female) 
are proportionably shorter than those of that insect. It is, apparently, peculiar to 
the mountains ; and, so far as I have hitherto observed, to Madeira proper, — 
whore it occtu's, throughout the summer months, in flowers, from an altitude 
of about 3000 feet to the summits of the loftiest peaks. I fii-st detected it, 
August 2nd, 1850, on the ascent of the Pico Ruivo from the Curral das Freiras, 
where it was extremely abundant, — especially on a precipitous projecting buttress, 
known as the Lombo das Portaes, overlooking the Feijaa de C6rte : and during 
my encampment on the Pico Ruivo itself (GlOO feet above the sea), I captured it 
in almost equal profusion (La company with the Tecteropits Maderenms) out of 
the flowers of Erica cinerea, — or else, on the wing, in thcu' immediate vicinity. 

195. Melyi'osoma Ai-temisiae, Woll (Tab. V. fig. 2.) 
M. gracile infuscato-nigrum et pilis subolivaceis longissimis mollibus suberectis vestitum, capite pro- 
thoraceque leviter subruguloso-subpunctatis, elytro singulo costis tribus longitudinalitcr instruct©, 
interstitiis profunde, crebre et rugose (sed vix seriatim) punctatis, antennarum basi, tibiis tarsisque 
fuscescentibus, antennis in utroque sexu elongatis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1-lj. 

Habitat iusulas Desertas, restate novft sat frequens : in Desert^ Grandi rarius occurrit ; sed in Boreali 
abundat, qua inter plantas Artemisia argentea, Herit., fere per totam insulam nascentes, Junio 
ineunte a.d. 1850, plurima speciuiina depi'ehensi. 

M. smaller, slenderer, and rather less e\])andcd posteriorly than the M. oceanicum, also of a less 
intensely black hue (being more infuscated or piccscent), and densely beset with an exceedingly 
long, silken, nearly erect, and yellowish cinereous (or somewhat olivaceous) pile, — which often 
imparts to the surface an obscure subseneous tinge. Head and prothorax less distinctly sculj)- 
tured than in the last species (being only slightly rugulose, and with veiy faint indications of 
pimctures) : the former rather broader in proportion than that of the M. oceanicum, and a little 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 255 

more convex behind : the latter narrowed in front. Elytra as in the last species, only with the 
two inner costa; not quite so much elevated, and the outer (or submarginal) one proportionably 
rather more so ; and with the punctures of the interstices, if anything, even larger than those of 
that insect. Antenna at base, and the legs (especially the tibia and tarsi) more or less paler, or 
fuscescent. Antenna in both sexes of nearly equal length, and considerably more elongated (in 
proportion to the size of the insect) than those of the M, oceanicum. 

A well-defined species, and apparently peculiar to the two northern Dezertas. 
It differs from the preceding one in its smaller and slenderer form, and in its 
less intensely black hue, in the long, silken, somewhat olivaceous and almost erect 
pubescence with which it is beset, and by its more infuscated legs and less abbre- 
viated antennse, — which last are of nearly equal length in both sexes. It appears 
to be scarce on the Dezerta Grande ; where, nevertheless, I fii-st discovered it,— 
on the outer canvass of my tent, during the hot sunshine, at the end of May 1850. 
On the Flat Dezerta, or Illieo Chao, however, it is far more abundant,— where a 
few days later (i. e. at the beginning of June) it occurred to me in profusion ; 
principally from amongst the large masses of AVormwood {Artemisia argentea, 
Herit.) with which that remarkable little island is in certain spots densely clothed. 
It woLild seem to be less decidedly attached to flowers than the 31. oceanicum ; 
and indeed less so than is the case with the Ilelyridce generaUy,— in whicli 
respect, as weU as in many minor details of its economy, it makes an evident 
approach towards the following family, the Cleridce. 



Fam. 29. CLERID^. 

Genus 91. OPILUS*. 

Latreille, Hist. Nat. cles Ins. iii. Ill (script. Opilo) (1802); 

Corpus mediocre, plerumque lineari-elongatum, vix durum, pubescens, Isete coloratura et punctatum : 
prothorace angusto, subcylindrico postice leviter constricto : alis amplis. Antenna pilosae, apicem 
versus leviter incrassatse, articulo primo robusto, secundo brevi, inde ad octavum obconicis lati- 
tudine subjequalibus, reliquis leviter incrassatis, clavam laxam elongatani baud abruptam tri- 
articulatam efficientibus. Labrum vix coriaceum, transversum, antice bilobum valde pdosum. 
Mandibula magnje cornese validffi acutissimse, extus valde pilosa;, infra apicem umdentatfe. 

* Strictly speaking, the title of the present genus is Opilo ; but since it has been usually quoted as 
Opilus, I have not considered it worthwhile to create confusion by adhering to the original orthography : 
nevertheless I think it exceedingly questionable how far we are justified in sanctioning the change, so 
long as other terminations in o (as, for instance, HeUiio, Pi/tho, Tenelrio, Cehrio, Crabro, &c.) are per- 
mitted to remain ; and whether we do not lay oui-selves open to the charge of inconsistency by smgHng 
out any one of them as objectionable, whUst,"at the same time, we endorse the rest. A similar absurdity 
presents itself in Bembidion of Latreille, which is mvariably coiTected into Bemlidium ; and yet Omopliron 
and Cerylon, of the same author, are retained. If however the Latm terminal is alone admissible in these 
Greek compounds (and I am by no means prepared to contend that it is not to beprefen-ed, and therefore 
far letter adhered to in the comage of new generic names), why is it that we countenance such terms as 
Borcadion, Unnearthron, Pentodon, Urodon, Lymexylon, GymnaHron, Cercyon, &c., which at any rate 
should be governed by the same law, — be it of rejection or sidferance ? 



256 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Maxilla bilobse, lobis submcmbranaceis, apice pubescentibus ; extemo latiusculo ; inferno bre- 
viore angustiore. Palpi vakle clavati ; maxillares articulo primo parvo, secundo elongate, tertio 
breviore subflexuoso, ultimo maximo dilatato securiforini ; luhiales articulo primo parvo, secundo 
elongato, ultimo maximo dilatato triangulari-securiformi. Mentuin pan'um subquadratum, 
antice membranaceum. Liyula elongata membranacea, valde pilosa bifida. Pedes elongati 
robusti hirsutissimi : tarsis articulis quatuor baseos subtus oblique productis laciniisque spon- 
gioso-submembranaceis pilosissimis (modo, ut in specie nostra) bifidis (modo integris) auctis 
(primo brevi ad basin recondite superne vix obsen'ando, secundo, tertio et quarto longitudine 
decrescentibus, obliquitate crescentibus necnon paulatim caudatioribus), quinto breviusculo minus 
clavato unguiculis simplicibus munito. 

Single species of Opilus and Necrohia are the only representatives of the 
CleridcB which have been hitherto detected in the Madeira Islands ; and even of 
these, the latter at any rate would appear to have been naturalized from more 
northern cotintries, — occurring, only, either about houses or in the immediate 
vicinity of the towns, and at aU times under doubtful circumstances. Opilus may 
be readily known by its linear outUne, hirsute and prettily fasciated siirface, and 
by the largely developed securiform joint with which the whole of its palpi are 
terminated. The somewhat spongiose structm-e, and membranous adjimcts, of 
the soles of its feet should be especially noticed, — the joints themselves moreover 
being oblique, with the basal one extremely small and (on account of its obUqmty) 
scarcely perceptible from above ; wliilst the penultimate one (as also, though in a 
less degree, the antepenultimate) has its under appendages distinctly bUobed (a 
peculiarity* wliich is remarkably apparent in the INladciran member of the group). 
The O^nli are found principally in rotten wood, or beneath the loose bark of trees, 
— on which, nevertheless, they are supposed not to feed, but rather on the minute 
insects and larvae with which such localities necessarily abound. 

196. OpUas moUis. 

O. lineari-elongatus subcylindricus fusco-piceus et pilis longissimis mollibus suberectis adspersus, 
capite prothoraceque ruguloso-punctatis, hoc postice constricto ad apicem pallidiore, elytris pro- 
funde seriatim punctatis, fasciis duabus (unS, sc. basali obliqud, sed altera media transversa) et 
apice pallido-omatis, antennis pedibusque pallidis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4^6. 

Attelahus mollis, Linn. Fna Sure. 186 (1761)." 
Notoxtts mollis, Vab. Unt. S^st. i. 211 (1792). 
Opilo mollis, Lat. Sist. JVa/. des Ins. ix. 149 (1804). 
Opilus mollis. Staph. III. Brit. Ent. iii. 323 (1830). 

Habitat Maderam, sestate, rarior : ad Ribciro Frio mense Julio a.d. 1851 detexit Rev''"" Dom. Lowe, 
necnon tria specimina prope Funchal reperta nuperrime Dom. Leacock communicavit. 



* In a few, less typical species which do not concern us here,— as, for instance, the O. porcafus. Fab., 
and the O.fasciculatus, Schreib., — this bilohed structure does not appear to hold good ; the appendages 
of the tarsal joints being there undirided. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 257 

O. narrow, elongated and somewhat cylindrical ; dark piceons brown, and beset (on the limbs as well 
as on the body) with an exceedingly long, very soft, woolly, and nearly erect paler pile. Head and 
prothorax closely and roughly punctured : the funner broad behind : tiie latter wide in front and 
constricted posteriorly ; with its anterior edge rufo-testaceous, and with indications of a small 
and oblique tubercle on either side of its fore-disk. Elytra very distinctly seriate-punctate (the 
punctures being large, regular and deep) ; with an oblique fascia (commencing at the shoulder 
of each) at the base, a transverse one about, or immediately behind, the middle, and the apex 
itself (the whole of them being interrupted along the suture) pale testaceous. Body beneath with 
the abdomen rufescent. AnteniitB, pa/jji and leffs bright rusty-testaceous, — except the basal two- 
thirds of the femora, which are extremely pale. 

A common insect throughout central and southern Eui-ope, and in the north of 
Africa. In Madeira however it woukl appear to be rare ; occurring, nevertheless, 
diu'ing the summer months, in positions far removed from each other. I have 
not myself detected it in these islands : but I possess specimens from the col- 
lection of the late Dr. Heinecken ; and others, -n hich were captured by the Rev. 
E;. T. Lowe, in July 1851, at the Eibeiro Frio ; whilst three more have been 
recently communicated to me by Mr. Leacock,— found in his house at Santo 
Antonio, near Funchal. 

Genus 92. NECROBIA. 

Olivier, IJntom. iv. 76 bis (1795). 

Corpus parvum, oblongum, sat durum, pubescens, laete coloratura et punctatum : prothorace convexo 
subquadrato-rotundato : alls amplis. Antenna prothoracis longitudine, clavatse, articulo primo 
sat elongato robusto clavato, secundo brevi, tertio elongato, quarto ad octa\'um brevioribus lati- 
tudine vix crescentibus, reliquis clavam magnam subovatam triarticulatam efficientibus (nono et 
decimo breviusculis transversis, ultimo maximo crasso subquadrato ad apicem oblique truncato). 
Lahrum corneum limbo coriaceo, transversum, antice bilobum pilosum. Mandibulce magnse 
comese validse acutissimse, infra apicem dentat<e. Maxilla bilobfe, lobis submembranaceis apice 
pubescentibus ; externa latiusculo ; interna breviore, paulo angustiore. Palpi filiformes ; maxil- 
lares articulo primo parvo, secundo longiusculo, tertio breviore subflexuoso, ultimo elongato 
fusiformi apice subacuminato ; labiates articulo primo parvo, secundo longiore, tertio elongato 
fusiformi apice subacuminato. Mentum subquadratum, margiue antico producto. Ligula ampla 
membranacea pilosa cordata. Pedes robusti subcontractiles : tarsis articulis tribus baseos sfibtus 
oblique productis laciniisque spongioso-membranaceis, pilosissimis integris auctis (primo bre- 
viusculo, secundo et tertio sub?equalibus, illo subcordato, hoc valde cordato), quarto minutissimo 
inter tertii lobos recondito, quinto elongato clavato unguiculis in medio unidentatis munito. 

Necrobia is by some entomologists amalgamated with Conjnetes of Herbst 
(established in 1792, and therefore the older name) ; but it seems to me to be more 
natural to regard them as separate genera, since their antennge and palpi pre- 
sent, both of them, sufficient characters to preclude the chance of confusing, inter 
se, the species which severally compose them. Thus, the former are thicker, and 
somewhat more abbreviated, in Necrobia than in Corynetes, and have their club 

2l 



258 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

(instead of being oblong, narrow, and composed of three equal and loosely-attached 
parts) robust, broad, ovate and more compact, — the first two joints being short 
and transverse, and the last extremely large, wide and subquadrate, and obliquely 
truncated at its extremity : whilst, as regards their palpi, the apical articulation 
in Necrohia is fusiform and subacuminated (not exceeding the prcAaous one in 
breadth) ; whereas in Corynetes it is dilated and securiform. In other respects, 
the groups are almost coincident ; unless indeed it be that the minute fourth 
articulation of theu* feet is perhaps even smaller in Necrohia than it is in Corynetes, 
— which mav possibh' in fact be the reason wliy it was overlooked bv Cm'tis, who 
gives " the tarsi i-jointed " as one of the distinctive featiu'es of the Necrohice. 

197. Necrobia ruficoUis. 
N. oblonga cyanea pubescens et pilis longissimis mollibus suberectis adspersa, capite prothoraceque 

punctatis, hoc elytrommque basi rufis, thorace subtus pedibusque rufo-testaceis, antennis abdo- 

mineque nigrescentlbus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2-2i. 

Anohium ruficolle, Thung. Nov. Spec. i. 8. fig. 7 (1781). 
Dermestes ruficoUis, Fab. Ent. Si/sf. i. 230 (1792). 
Necrobia ruficoUis, Oliv. Ent. iv. 76. 2. pi. 1. fig. 2 a,b (1795). 
, Stcph. lU. Brit. Ent. iii. 327 (1830). 

Habitat in domibus Maderse (mihi non obvia), ex alienis certe introducta : duo specimina e nmseo 
Heineckeniano a Rev''" Dom. Lowe munifice donata sola possideo; sed in ipsa ui-be Funchalensi 
mense Aprili a.d. 1851 collegit cl. Dom. Heer. 

N. oblong, cyaneous (or shining blue), very pubescent, and beset with exceedingly long, soft, nearly 
erect, paler additional pile. Head and prothorax regularly punctured : the latter, together with 
the base of the elytra (which arc finely punctate-striated, and rugulose), rufous. Body beneath 
with the entire thoracic segments pale rufous, or rufo-testaceous, and with the abdomen black. 
AntenruB nearly black. Legs rufo-testaceous. 

An insect of very wide geographical range, occurring in all parts of Europe, and 
in the north of a\ii'ica; and being recorded as ha^-iug been received even from 
India. In real fact however, it is a species attendant upon commerce, being liable 
to constant transmission tlu'oughout the ci^olized world, amongst skins and other 
articles of merchandise, — on portions of which it subsists : and it is probably, in 
fact, through some such agency that it has insinuated itself into Mademi. It is 
found priucii)ally about dwellings and warehouses, in and near Funchal ; but, as 
my own researches have been but slightly prosecuted in such positions, I have not 
myself succeeded in detecting it. I possess however two very old siiecimens from 
the collection of the late Dr. Heinecken, — from a label still attached to which, the 
insect appears to have been "common [about the year 1828] in rotten cheese;" 
and it has been recently taken by Professor Heer, in Fimchal. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 259 

Fam. 30. PTINID-ffil. 

Genus 93. PTINUS. (Tab. V. fig. 4, 5 et 6.) 
Lmn»us, Si/sf. Nat. ii. 565 (1767). 

Corpus parviira, oblongum vel sphsericum, durum, plus minusve pubescens vel squamosum : capite 
deflexo, sub prothorace vix abscondito : scutello modo distincto, modo baud observando : pro- 
thorace vel gibboso ad basin constricto, vel convexo : alls modo amplis, modo obsoletis. Antenna 
plus minusve approximatpe, aut filiformes aut siibclavatse, articulo prinio robusto, seeundo vix 
breviusculo, reliquis vel Eequalibus ultimo elougato-ovato, vel latitudine sensim crassioribus 
ultimo ovato. Lahruui corneum transversum, antice pilosum leviter emarginatum. Mandihula 
maguse cornefe validfe latoe subtriangulares obtusse, intus medio dente obtuso instructse. Maxilla 
bilobffi, lobis submembranaceis apice pubescentibus ; externa leviter incurvo ; interno paulo 
breviore latiore. Palpi subclavati; maxillares articulo primo vel parvo, vel (ut in Mezio et 
Gibbio) longiusculo subflexuoso, seeiuido et tertio crassioribus subsequalibus, ultimo clongato 
robusto fusiformi apice acuminato ; labiates articulo primo gracili, seeundo lougiore crassiore, 
ultimo robusto subovato apice vix acuminato. Mentum corneum, modo subrotundatum, modo 
elongatum antice acuminatum. Ligula membranacea elongata, apice dilatata Integra pilosa. 
Pedes longiusculi subcontractiles, graciles vel robusti : femorihus apicem versus subito incrassatis : 
tarsis modo longiusculis articulis quatuor baseos (primo longiusculo) longitudine leviter decres- 
centibus, modo breviusculis articulis quatuor baseos (prsesertim in anterioribus) subsequalibus ; 
quinto vel longiusculo vel breviusculo unguiculis simplicibus munito. 

The great diversity, both in structure and outward contour, of the Ptini renders 
the group an extremely intricate one to define ; and the gradual manner ia which 
many of its variations are apt to merge into each other makes it almost equally 
useless, without an intimate acquaintance Tvdth all the forms hitherto described, 
to attempt to dissever any portion of it from the remainder. Yet some of the 
species do nevertheless exhibit, in habits as well as detaU, such obvious differences 
inter se, that it is possible that a careful examination of their oral organs, on a 
comprehensive scale, might succeed in detecting sufiicient characters for generic 
subdivision : but until this is done it would be lost labour to chalk out lines of 
demarcation, — especially in a work like the present one, which, having but a few 
memliers to deal with, must of necessity be confined withia very restricted bovmds. 
StUl, the Madeiran representatives (from the want, it may be, of intermediate 
links to unite them) do at any rate arrange themselves imder two clearly-defined 
heads ; the fii-st of which, like the ordinary Ftini of central and boreal Europe, 
has the body comparatively elongated and pubescent, and for the most part 
winged, the prothorax more or less gibbous (or nodulose) in front and transversely 
contracted behind, the scutellum large, and the antennae and feet slender and 
filiform (the last of which, moreover, have their basal joiat perceptibly longer 
than any of the folloAving three) ;— whilst in the second (a most abundant modifi- 
cation along the southern Mediterranean limits) the shape is altogether more 
spherical, the surface more or less densely scaly (but free from pile), the body 

2l2 



260 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

apterous, the prothorax, instead of being humped, is sinii^ly convex, and (though 
rounded off) not at all constricted posteriorly, the scutellum is so minute as to be 
barely visible, the antennae are shorter (generally very robust), and with their 
apical joint invariably (and the subapical ones freqviently) more or less incrassated, 
and the legs are often unnaturally thickened, with their tarsi (in which the iirst 
four articulations, especially of the two anterior pair, are subequal) shorter and 
proportionably broader (though more acuminated) than is the case in the usual 
northern t\^e. 

How far these distinctions will obtain on a more extended ^new, observation 
can alone prove ; — Ijut I am inclined to suspect that a critical analysis of the 
genus, with reference not merely to the structure but also to the modes of life of 
the several insects which now compose it, Mill rather tend to uphold the divisions 
just alluded to than to re-amalgamate them. The members of the first of these 
sections are peculiarly aggressive in their nature, attaching themselves to inhabited 
spots, and occurring about dwellings and out-houses, — especially in the vicinity of 
merchandise ; wliilst those of the second prefer the open coimtry, existing almost 
exclusively, so far as I am aware, in positions remote from any traces of civiliza- 
tion, — as, for instance, in the decayed branches of trees, in the crevices of weather- 
beaten rocks, or amongst lichen and beneath the stones of exposed mountain sum- 
mits. For the latter of tliese the name of Sphtsricus was proposed by !Motschulsky, 
during his late visit to England ; — which I have accordingly adopted (although 
in a subsidiary sense, liolieving it to be scarcely prudent, in so widely distributed 
an assemblage and with our imperfect data, to employ it in a stricter signilication). 
The representatives of both of the above departments are subject to very great 
variation in size and colour ; and since even tlie sexes themselves often display 
consideralile incongruities inter se, it is not surprising that the boundaries between 
some of the species which are nearly allied should be occasionally difficult to trace 
out. Such being tlie fact, it is impossible to overrate the importance of studying 
them in »itu, — so as to be enaldcd not only to connect the numerous aberrations, 
but even, at times, perhaps, in a certain measm-e to account for them : since it is 
by this process of inquiry that we are more likely to arrive at the truth than by 
the collation of treble the amount of individuals at a distance, where anything 
like local pboenoinena in connexion with them must of course be entirely over- 
looked. So completely indeed are some of the Madtm'an Ffini affected by isola- 
tion, and by exposure to a perpetually stormy atmosphere, that they do not attain 
half the bidk on many of the adjacent rocks that they do in the more sheltered 
districts of the central mass ; and so marvellously is this veiified in a particular 
instance, that I have but little doubt that five or six " species " (so called) might 
have been recorded out of one, had only a few stray specimens been brought home 
for identification, without any regard having l)een paid to the respective circum- 
stances under which they were found. Judging from many hundi'cd exami)les 
which I have submitted to a close comparison, the most constant of their cha- 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 261 

racteristics would seem to be outline and sculptiu-e, — whilst size and colour are 
apparently the least to be depended upon : and hence trifling differences may be 
often of speciiic indication in the former case, where in the latter much larger 
ones are worthless. 

A. Anteniice hasi approximated. 

§ I. Corpus plus minusve oblonc/um pubescens alatum, prothorace gibhoso ad basin valde constricto, scutello 
distincto : antenncB Jiliforines : tarsi longiusculi JtUformes, articulo primo leviter elongato. (Ptini 
per Eiiropce partem majorem typici). 

198. Ptinus advena, WW. 

P. ferrugineus valde (prsesertim in prothorace) subsetuloso-pubescens, scutello squamis subfulveseenti- 
cinereis tecto, elytris ellipticis punctato-striatis, antennis pedibusque elongatis graciUbus parce 
squamosis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1|. 

Habitat in domibus Maderse, rarissimus : exemplar uuicum, a Rev''" Dom. Lowe ad Sanctum Vincen- 
tium captum, solum vidi. 

P. ferruginous, and densely beset (especially on the prothorax) with a long, stiff, suberect, robust, 
somewhat setiform, and rather ragged pile. Pj-uthorax gibbous (but scarcely subnodulose) on 
the fore-disk; and suddenly and greatly constricted behind. Scutellum distinct and round; and 
clothed with brownish-, or rather yellowish-cinereous scales. Elytra almost elliptical (being but 
very slightly more acuminated behind than before) ; and punctate-striated. Antenna and legs 
elongated and slender, and rather sparingly clothed with dull yellowish-cinereous scales ; the 
former filiform, with their apical joint acute; the latter with their tarsi narrow, — the basal 
articulation being distinctly longer than any of the following three. 

A Ptinus of the ordinary northern mould, and one in fact of the common type 
of form which is so constantly liable to transmission throughout the civUized 
world ; nevertheless, not having been able to identify it with any of the species to 
which I have had access, I have been compelled to describe it as new. It 
possesses, in conjimction with the P. mauntanicus, abundant characteristics (as, 
for instance, its comparatively large, pubescent, and more oblong body, distinctly 
developed scutellum and wings, its gibbous and posteriorly constricted prothorax, 
and the subelongated basal joint of its tarsi) which will at once separate it from 
the other members of the group with which we have here to do ; — whilst from that 
insect in particular its coucolorous, ferruginous hue, and its slenderer and more 
filiform antennae and feet will immediately remove it. It is apparently exceed- 
ingly rare, the only specimen which I have seen having been captured in the north 
of the island, at Sfio Viucente, by the Rev. R. T. Lowe. 

199. Ptinus mauritanicus. 

P. piceo-niger, prothorace (fortiter quadrituberculato) scutelloque squamis cinereo-fulvescentibus varic- 



262 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

gatis, elytris parallelo-oblongis punctato-striatis rugulosis, fasciis duabus (un& sc. sub-basali 
undulata, sed altera longe ultra medium sita) nivosis ornatis, antennis pedibusque elongatis 
robustis ferrugineis et dense (prsesertim his) squamosis. 
Long. Corp. lin. lf-2. 

Ptinus mauritanicus, Lucas, Col. de VAlgerie, 208 (1849). 

Habitat Maderam, et borealem et australem, rarissimus : duo specimina sola vidi, unuin sc. sestate 
A.D. 1850 in horto Loweano ad Levada, et altcrum ad Passo d'Areia prope Sanctum Vincentium 
(ad radices Seiiipcrvivi tahuliformis, Haw., in rupibus crescentis latitans) tempore hiberno .\.d. 
181-9, a meipso reperta. 

P. piceous-black, and sparingly beset with short and decumbent set?e. Prothorax extremely gibbous 
on the fore-disk, where it is armed with four powerful nodules (the two outer ones of which are 
far apart and exceedingly prominent, whilst the inner ones are smaller, placed nearer together, 
and slightly in advance of the others) ; suddenly and greatly constricted behind ; and densely 
variegated with yellowish-cinereous, deep fulvous-brown, and whitish scales. Scutellum distinct 
and rounded, and with the scales uniformly yellowish-cinereous (being unmingled with either 
darker or lighter ones). Elytra ample, oblong, and parallel at the sides; punctate-striated and 
rugulose ; and with two transverse fasciae (one of which is more or less undulated and placed 
l)ehind their base, whilst the other is straighter and situated midway between their apex and 
the centre of their disk) pure snowy-white. Antenna and le(/s elongated and robust, and 
densely clothed (especially the latter) with yellowish-cinereous scales; the former filiform, with 
their apical joint more obtuse than that of the P. advena ; the latter with their tarsi broader 
than those of that insect, — the basal articulation however being, as there, distinctly longer than 
any of the following three. 

The largest of the Madeiran Ftini; and (apart from the sect iona I characteristics 
enumerated under the preceding species) it may he at once recognised hy its wide 
and parallel outline, hy the briglit fulvescent scales of its scutellum and (quadri- 
tuljcrculate) prothorax, and by the two conspicuous and snowy-white fasciae with 
which its elytra are adorned, — the anterior one of which moreover is not basal (as in 
the other decorated members of the group), but sub-basal, and usually well-defined. 
It is exceedingly rare ; and in its habits (though not in its structm-e) would appear 
to be somewhat intermediate between the ordinary I^tini of northern latitudes and 
the more southern tyjie (indicated under the following section), since it occurs 
both in the vicinity of old houses and, likewise, in the open country. Thus, out 
of the only two examples which have hitherto come beneath my notice (and which 
were captured by myself), one was taken near Funchal, dm-ing the smnmer of 
1850, in the garden of the Rev. Ft. T. Lowe at the Levada ; and the other in the 
north of the island, in February 1819, at the roots of the Scniperciciim luhuli- 
forme. Haw., which stud the perpendicular rocks at the Passo d'Areia near Sao 
Vincente. It is apparently a Mediterranean insect, having been recently described 
by ^I. Lucas in the magnificent work published by the French Government on the 
Natm-al Histoi-y of .iUgeria. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 263 

§ II. Corpus plus minusve sphcericum squamosum apterum, prothorace convexo, scutello vix ohservando : 
antennm ad apicem plus minusve subclavatce : tarsi hreviusculi subacuminati, articuUs quatuor haseos 
longitudine suhceqwalibus. (Ptiiii aberrantes, sed in insults Maderensibm typici.) 

(Subgenus SPH^EICUS, Mots, in litt.) 
200. Ptinus Dawsoni, Woll. (Tab. V. fig. 5.) 
P. piceus squamis fulvescenti-cinereis adspersus, elytris rotundato-ovatis profunde seriato-punctatis 
(punctis maximis), fasciis duabus (una sc. ad basin ipsam posita et postice valde iniequaliter 
lacero-indentata, sed altera longe ultra medium sita) per sutm-am late interruptis albidis ornatis, 
antennis pedibusque robustissimis ferrugineis et dense squamosis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1^. 

Habitat in ins. Deserta Grandi, sub lapide JVIaio exeunte a.d. 1850 a meipso repertus. 
In honorem el. Ricardi Dawson, M.D., Londini, ob gratias mihi per plures annos amice oblatas caris- 
simi, hoc insectum pulchritudine superbiens et valde distinctum citavi. 

P. piceous or brownish-piceous, and more or less besprinkled with yellowish-cinereous scales. Pro- 
thorax convex, rounded at the sides, — and therefore narrowed (although not constricted) both 
before and behind. Elytra roundish-ovate (being widest a little behind the base) ; less densely 
clothed with scales than the prothorax; very deeply seriate- (but not striate-) punctate (the 
punctures being exceedingly large and distinct) ; and with two transverse fascise (one of which is 
placed at their extreme base, — and is exceedingly ragged, and unequally produced backwards, 
posteriorly ; whilst the other is straighter, and situated midway between their apex and the centre 
of their disk), which are widely interrupted in the middle, white. Antennce and legs extremely 
robust, ferruginous, and densely clothed with yellowish-cinereous scales ; the former nearly fili- 
form, with their apical joint thick and ovate; the latter with their tarsi short and broad, — 
though (as in most of the other members of the present section) rather acuminated. 

A most elegant and weU-defined Ftinus ; and one which is hitherto unique, — 
the only specimen which has been detected, so far at least as I am aware, having 
been captured l)y myself, from beneath a stone, on the lofty weather-beaten ridge 
which constitutes the northern extremity of the Dezerta Grande, during my 
encampment there with the Rev. R. T. Lowe, at the end of May 1850. As already 
stated, the whole of the members of the present division of the genus may be 
recognised from those of the preceding one by their more spherical, scaly (but 
unpubescent) and apterous bodies, by their ahnost obsolete scutella, by their 
convex (though not posteriorly constricted) prothoraces, and by then- antennae and 
legs being more abbreviated and robust, — the former of which moreover have 
their apical joint universally (and occasionally the subapical ones likewise) incras- 
sated ; whilst the latter are remarkable for their shorter and subacmrdnated feet, 
the basal articulation of which (especially in the two anterior pair) is scarcely 
longer than any of the following tliree, whilst the terminal one is unusually 
minute. Apart from which characters (which are sectional and not specific), the 
P. Dawsoni may be at once distingxushed by its excessively thickened limbs, and 



264 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

l)y the enormous punctiires and conspicuous fasciae of its comparatively ovate 
elytra. I have dedicated the species to my friend Richard Dawson, Esq., M.D., of 
London, to whom I have been indebted for much kindness throughout many years ; 
and whose microscopic researches, in a higher department of natural science, have 
been long made known. 

201. Ptinus pingTiis, Wall. 

P. piceus squamis cinereo-fulvescentibus dense tectus, clytris rotundatis impunctatis, fascia posticA 
obsoletissima (saepe omnino obliterate) ornatis, antennis pedibusque ferrugineis et dense squa- 
mosis, illis in man; (?) robustioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. ^l^- 

Habitat Madcram, rarior : prope Funchal egomet parce coUegi, necnon exemplar unicum possideo a 
Rev''° Doin. Lowe a Madera boreali communicatum. 

P. Ijfownish-piccous, and densely clothed with yellowish-cinereous scales (which often assume, espe- 
cially on the prothorax where they are more thickly set, a slightly golden tinge). Prothorax 
rather convex, tian-ow, and scarcely at all rounded at the sides ; and, normally, with obscure 
indications of a white line down the centre, and another on either side. Elytra exceedingly 
round and convex (being widest about the middle) ; rather less densely clothed with scales than 
the prothorax ; impunctate ; and, in highly coloured specimens, with a very obscure paler 
posterior patch on each (to indicate the usual hinder fascia, — the basal one being quite obsolete). 
Antenna and legs robust, especially in the males (?), ferruginous, and densely clothed with 
yellowish-cinereous scales ; the former nearly filiform, with their apical joint thick and ovate ; 
the latter with their tarsi not very short, but rather broad at the base. 

Easily distinguished from the remainder of the genus here described by its 
entirely unpunctate svu-face; — a peculiarity which, in connexion with its obese, 
extremely roxmded form, and the yellowish and somewhat silken scales with which 
it is uniformly clothed, gives the insect, jiHmd facie, a rather greasy, or oily 
appearance. Like the following species, it would seem to be scarce : nevertheless 
I have captured it near Eunchal (I believe in the Eibeiro de Santa Ltizia), and I 
possess an old specimen from the collection of the late Dr. Heinecken ; wliilst 
another has been recently communicated to me by the Rev. R. T. Lowe, by whom 
it was taken in the north of the island, at Sfio Vincente. 

202. Ptinus orbatus, Woll. (Tab. V. fig. 6.) 

, P. ferrugineis squamis subfulvescenti-cinereis parce tectus, elytris subovato-rotundatis subseriato- 
punctatis (punctis magnis rcmotis), fascia subpostica obsoletissimA ornatis, antennis pedibusque 
brevibus robustis et \-ix dense squamosis. 
Long. Corp. lin. vLx |. 

Habitat ^Lideram, rarissimus : in colic quodani parvo (Pico do Cardo dicto) baud procul ab urbe 
Funclialensi sito, e trunco arboris emortuo (uni cum Ptino lonijicbrni degens), tempore vemali 
A.D. 18-18 specimen unicum cepi. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 265 

P. ferrun-inoiis, and apparently not much beset with scales. Prothornx rather convex, small, narrow, 
and scarcely at all rounded at the sides. Elytra roundish, — though rather more ovate than 
those of the P. pinguis (being widest a little before the middle) ; subseriate- (but not striate-) 
punctate (the punctures being very large, though not deep, and exceedingly far apart ; and with 
only a tendency to be disposed in rows). Antenna and legs short and robust; the former nearly 
fihform, with their apical joint thick and ovate; the latter with their tarsi short, and rather 
broad at the base. 

Tlie ferruginous hue, in conjunction with the large, shallow and distant punc- 
tures of its (slightly ovate) elytra, and the comparative shortness of its limhs, will 
at once suffice to separate the P. orbatus from its immediate allies. The paucity 
of scales on the unique example from which the above description has been com- 
piled may possibly be the result of accident, — since, from then- deciduous nature, 
they are very liable to Ijecome obliterated ; and hence I would not lay any great 
stress on that particular circmnstance, as a specific character. Its outline, sculp- 
tm-e and proportions, however, will more than suffice to identify it. My specimen 
was captured in the dead stump of a tree, in company with the P. longicornis, on 
the little hill, known as the Pico do Cardo (about two miles to the north-west of 
Eunchal, in the parish of Santo Antonio), diu-ing the spring of 1848. 

203. Ptinus nodulus, WoU. 

P. nigro-piceus squamis subcinereis tectus, elytris rotundatis leviter subseriatim punctatis (punctis sat 
magnis remotis), fasciis duabus plus minusve obsoletis (sc. basali et subposticii) per suturam late 
interruptis albidis ornatis, antennis pedibusque robustis ferrugineis et dense squamosis. 

Long. Corp. lin. |-^. 

Habitat in montibus Portus Sancti, inter lichenes in rupium fissuris nascentes, tempore vernali vul- 
garis : in ascensu montis illius Pico d'Anna Ferreu-a dicti mense Aprili a.d. 1849 copiosissime 
observavi. 

P. dark piceous, and more or less densely clothed with cinereous or yellowish- cinereous scales. Pro- 
thorax convex, narrow, and scarcely at all rounded at the sides. Elytra round and convex 
(being widest about the middle) ; lightly subseriate-punctate (the punctures being rather large, 
but exceedingly shallow, and somewhat distant ; and with only a very slight tendency to be 
disposed in rows) ; and with a very obscure, interrupted, transverse band at their extreme base, 
and with a rather more evident, though equally interrupted, posterior one (in the usual position), 
more or less white. Antenn<e and legs robust, ferruginous, and densely clothed with yellowish- 
cinereous scales ; the former nearly filiform, with their apical joint considerably thickened and 
ovate ; the latter with then tarsi rather short, and broad at the base. 

In the large, remote and lightly-impressed punctures of its elytra the present 
Ftinus is som'ewhat allied to the P. or5ai«5,— nevertheless, they are neither so large 
nor so wide apart as those of that species ; whUst, on the other hand (as regards 
profundity), they are even stiU shaUower. In other respects the two insects are 
verv distinct,— the more rounded oittUne of the P. nodalus, in conjimction with 
^ 2m 



266 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

its darker hue, lai'ger prothorax, and its longer and more robust limbs, being 
at once sufficient to characterize it ; whilst the peciiliar nature of its scvdptvire 
will, of itself, immediately separate it from the remainder of the genus here 
described. I have hitherto only observed it in Porto Santo, — where however it is 
at times exceedingly abu^ndant, during the early spring months, amongst lichen in 
the fissures of the exposed rocks, especially towards the mountain summits. In 
such positions, diu'ing AprU of 1819, I captured it in the greatest profusion, in 
company with the F.fragilis and the Tarphius Loicei, — particularly on the ascent 
of the Pico d' Anna Perreira from the east. 

204. Ptiaus pilula, WolL 

P. fusco-piceus squamis subcinereis tectus, elytris rotundatis subruguloso-punctatis (punctis minoribus 
crebris), fasciis duabus (sc. basali obsoletissima et subpostica plus minusve obsoleta) per suturam 
late intcrraptis albidis ornatis, anteniiis pedibusque subgracilibus pallido-ferrugineis et parce 
squamosis. 

Long. Corp. lin. ^. 

Habitat Maderam ; seme! tantum, a meipso prope urbcm Funchalensem, detectus. 

P. brownish-piceous, and more or less densely clothed with dirty cinereous scales. Prothorax rather 
convex, short, and rounded at the sides. Elytra round, short and convex (being widest about 
the middle) ; very obscurely punctured and subrugulose (the punctures being small, ill-defined 
and rather close together; and without any tendency, apparently, to be disposed in rows) ; with 
very obscure indications of paler scales in the usual positions, — to represent the basal and post- 
medial fascife. Anteniue and legs rather long and slender, ])ale ferruginous, and very sparingly 
clothed with scales ; the former nearly filiform, with their apical joint elongate-ovate ; the latter 
with their tarsi (which, with the tibia, are paler than the femora) rather longer and narrower 
than those of the last species. 

The present insect approaches very closely to the P. alhopictus, with which 
nevertheless it can scarcely be associated, — differing as it does (even though 
sHghtly) in the most constant characters which this section of the Ptini appears 
to possess. Having unfortunately but a single individual to judge from, I should 
not have ventured to have regarded it as distinct, had not the examination of a 
very large mass of specimens of its nearest ally inclined me to suspect that the 
minute peculiarities which it possesses are just of the nature to indicate an 
additional species, — Avhich as yet however we reqiiire greater niunbers of in order 
to appreciate. The main points which separate it from the P. albopictus are its 
outline, proportions and sculptxu'e. Thus, its elytra are shorter and more spherical 
than in any of the varieties (especially the Madeiran one, — an important con- 
sideration, as coming from the same island) of tliat insect, its prothorax is rather 
more al^brcviated, and rounder at the sides, the sculptm-e of its elytra is more 
rugulose (and has the punctures, although equaUy small, less clearly defined), and 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. • 267 

its legs and antennse, particularly the latter, are less robust, — the former of which 
moreover have their tibite and tarsi paler than the femora, whilst the terminal 
joint of the latter is more elongated and less apically obtuse than in the P. albo- 
jnctiis. The only specimen which I have seen was captured by myself in the 
vicinity of Funchal (I believe in the Ribeiro de Santa Luzia) during the spring 
of 1849. 

205. Ptinus albopictus, Woll. (Tab. V. fig. 4.) 

P. fusco- (rarius nigro-) piceus squamis cinereis variegatus, elytris subrotundatis dilutioribus punc- 
tatis (punctis minoribus crebris), fasciis duabus (sc. basali, vel omnino diffusa vel obsoletissima ; 
et subpostica, plus minusve distincta) per suturam interruptis albidis ornatis, antennis pedibusque 
subelongatis pallidioribus sed vix squamosis. 

Var. a. nigro-piceus parce cinereo-adspersus, elytris rufescenti-brunneis, fascia basali obsoleta sed 
subpostica distincta, pedibus obscuris. Long. 1-1^ lin. (In Madera propi-id stains typicus.) 

Var. j3. fusco-piceus cinereo-variegatus, elytris paulo dilutioribus, fascia basali diffusa sed sub- 
postica distincta, pedibus rufo-testaceis. Long. |-1 lin. (In Desertd Grandi status typicus.) 

Var. y. fusco-piceus vel fusco-ferrugineus dense cinereo-variegatus, elytris paulo dilutioribus, fasciis 
omnino diffusis confluentibus, pedibus plerumque rufo-testaceis. Long. 'i-\ lin. (In Desertd 
Ch-andi status aberrans, sed in Porlu Sancto typicus.) (Tab. V. fig. 4.) 

Var. S. fusco-ferrugineus dense cinereo-variegatus, elytris dilutioribus (interdum etiam subflaves- 
centibus), fasciis diffusis sed subposticS, ssepius leviter distincta, pedibus rufo-testaceis vel etiam 
testaceis. Long, vix i-§ lin. (In Desertd Boreali.) 
Long. Corp. lin. vix ^-1^. 

Habitat in insulis Maderensibus, usque ad 3000' s. m. ascendens : ror. a. ad Maderam propriam 
solam (nisi fallor) pertinet : var. /3. Desertse Grandi propria est, qua. caules Silybi Mariani, Grtn. 
( = Cardui benedicti, antiquorum) destruit : var. y. in Portu Sancto prsedominat, lichenes in 
rupium fissuris crescentes colens : var. S. in DesertS, Boreali, et nusquam nisi illic, occurrit, qua 
Junio ineunte a.d. 1850 copiosissime observavi. 

P. brownish- (rarely dark) piceous, and more or less densely variegated with cinereous scales. Pro- 
thorax rather convex, a little longer than in the P. pilula, and very slightly rounded at the sides. 
Elytra subrotundate, — being, throughout all the varieties, less decidedly spherical than those of 
the P. pilula (nevertheless not ovate, since they are widest about the middle) ; more or less diluted, 
or rufescent, in colouring ; punctured (the punctures being small, and close together ; and with- 
out any tendency to be disposed in rows) ; and with more or less obscurely defined paler scales 
in the usual positions, to represent the fascise, — the basal one of which however is usually im- 
mensely diffused, so as to lose its fascia-form character, and often entirely confluent with the 
posterior one (being only in rare instances evanescent) ; whilst the hinder one is generally better 
defined (being seldom entirely suffused). Antennae and legs rather slender, more or less pale, 
and almost free from scales ; the former nearly filiform, with their apical joint thick and ovate ; 
the latter with their tarsi rather long, but not very broad. 
Var. a. usually large, dark ])iceous, and only sparingly besprinkled with (rather small) cinereous 

2m 2 



268 • INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

scales ; elytra dull reddish-brown, with the basal fascia almost obsolete, but the posterior one 
distinct ; antennjc and legs darker than in any of the following species, — being scarcely paler 
than the prothorax. (The typical state in Madeira proper.) 

Var. /3. a little smaller, brownish-piceous, and rather more densely variegated than the last variety 
with cinereous scales ; elytra a little paler, with the basal fascia traceable, but a great deal diffused, 
and with the posterior one usually very distinct ; antennee and legs rufo-testaceous. (The typical 
state on the Dezerta Grande.) 

Var. y. (PI. V. fig. 4) a little smaller still, brownish-piceous or brownish-ferruginous, and very 
densely variegated with cinereous scales ; elytra a little paler, with the fascia; for the most part 
altogether diffused or confluent, — mottling the entire surface ; anteunaj and legs generally rufo- 
tcstaceous. (The aberrant state on the Dezerta Grande, but typical in Pur/o Santo.) 

Var. 8. extremely variable in size (being sometimes, especially in the male sex, excessively minute), 
generally brownish-ferruginous, and often with an obscure yellowish (or almost aeneous) tinge, 
and very densely variegated with cinereous scales ; elytra a little paler (being occasionally, par- 
ticularly when immature, almost testaceous), with the fasciae generally greatly diffused, — the 
posterior one however being at times sufficiently apparent ; antennae and legs rufo-testaceous, or 
even altogether testaceous. (The state peculiar to the Northern Dezerta, or Ilheo Chao.) 

The commonest of the Madeiran Ftini ; and by far the most variable, having a 
separate radiating-form for aknost every island of the grouji, — wliilst, at the same 
time, the whole are so intimately connected together (and merge into each other) 
by innviniorable intermediate links, that it is impossible to regard them, in spite of 
the opposite contour of the extremes, in any other light than as different aspects 
of a single species, according as circumstances may favoiu-, retard, or otherwdse 
regulate its development. Instability in fact (in its broadest sense) may be con- 
sidered to be one of its most promineiit characteristics, since it appears to be more 
sensitive to isolation and altitude than any of the other members of the genus with 
which we have here to do, — as mav be proved to a demonstration l)v a careful study 
of its hal)its on the spot, where the influences of position and exposure are, in nearly 
all instances, more than sufficient to account for the successive phases assiuiicd. 
Thus, commencing wdth var. u, which reaches its maximum in the sheltered 
ravines of the central mass, the bulk is usually large, and the tints comparatively 
intense. Var. (3. is likewise Ijrightly Aaricgated, but it is smaller. jS'ow, if oui* 
premises be correct, that locality and the action of the external elements have 
much to do with the changes in question, we might have expected a priori that 
tills state, from its peculiarity to the Dezerta Grande, would not only have been 
reduced in dimensions (which it is), but in colour also (which it is not). Here, 
therefore, observation i/i, situ becomes extremely imjiortant ; since such does at 
once convince us that its almost exclusive attachment to the interior of the stalks 
of the Sill/bum Marianum, Grtn. (the Hohj Thistle of the ancients), witli A\hich 
the more protected portions of that island everyAvhere aboimd, affords it ample 
conditions, even on so bleak a rock, for its completion. Nevertheless, its stature 
(as ah-eady stated) is slightly diminished in spite of this : and when we come to 
examine the individuals which infest the lichen of more open situations (aberrant 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 269 

however on the Dezerta Grande, and answering to the car. y. of the above diagnosis), 
we immediately perceive that both of our requii-ed results are indicated, — the 
reduction not being limited to size, but extended also to hue. In Porto Santo 
this modification is the normal one, — where the insect, likewise, displays the same 
lichenophagous tendency, and where the districts in which it exists are equally 
barren. But, if its maximum be attained in Madeu-a proper, and a certain 
number of minor delations range throughout Porto Santo and the Dezerta 
Grande, it still remains for us to show where its m'mhmim is to be obtained :• — 
which, true to the modus operandi by which we have conjectured its divers 
degrees of abortion to have been brought about, would seem to be centred on the 
Northern Dezerta, or Ilheo Chao. When we bear in mind the minute dimensions 
of that flattened rock, which does not include so much as a single valley, or 
depression, within its bounds, and is consequently seldom free from the violence 
of the ^vinds (Avhich sweep across it incessantly, from whatever qviarter they may 
arise) ; it could hardly be supposed that an insect which is so obviously subser- 
\dent to atmospheric control should not have become materially affected, in its 
outward guise, through long seclusion on such a spot : — and accordingly Ave are 
not astonished to find the race which has been thus cut off for ages on this extra- 
ordinary little island, itself as extraordinary. It is indeed very remarkable to 
trace out how clearly the agencies we are discussing have here operated on the 
species under consideration, — for both sexes (though especially the male) descend 
on the Ilheo Chao to somewhat less than half a line in length, being literally of 
scarcely greater magnitude than some of the larger representatives of the FtiUadce ! 

After an accurate examination of a great mass of specimens of the P. alboplctus, 
collected in dissimilar quarters and at nmnerous elevations, fom- principal phases 
are all that I have been able to detect, — and which it will be perceived are mainly 
dependent on geographical causes. To register every intervening gradation would 
be superfluous ; nor, practically, could any advantage ensue from such a step, 
since the very existence of varieties presupposes, from the nature of the case, the 
media wliich are requisite to unite them to their parent type, — for, were such 
indeed absent, we could have no warrant in pronouncing them to be varieties at 
all. The utmost therefore that we can hope to do in an instance like the present 
one is, to select those more conspicuous forms which stand forth as it were from 
the rest, and constitute local foci from which subsidiary rays would seem in a 
measure to branch out. 

Regarding the distribution of the Ptiims under consideration, it would appear 
to be rarer on the large than on the small islands of the group. Thus, in Madeira 
proper it is, so far as I have hitherto remarked, decidedly scarce. In Porto Santo 
it is far less so, occurring from intermediate altitudes to the very siunmits of the 
movmtains, — where I have taken it, during the early spring, from amongst the 
dense Hchen (particidarly Ramaliua scopu'lorum and Evernia prunastri) which 
gathers around the crevices and inequalities of the weather-beaten peaks ; and I 



270 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

have, likewise, brushed it from off the short grass on the southern slopes of the 
Pico de Facho, IGOO feet above the sea. On the Dezerta Grande it abounds in the 
stems of the Silyhum Mcmamim, on the pith of wliich (in common -ndth the Caido- 
trirpis impiiis) it subsists ; whilst on the Ilheo Chao it absolutely teems ; — as I had 
an opportunity of witnessing during my encampment on that interesting little 
island, with the Rev. R. T. Lowe, at the beginning of June 1850. So perpetually 
(as lately mentioned) is that remote table-rock played over by the breezes of the 
ocean, that even a temporary resjiite is almost an anomaly ■^^'ithin its desolate 
area ; and if so be that such a crisis should chance at times to arrive, it is curious 
to note how every species of life, taking advantage of Nature's repose, comes forth 
to enjoy the cabn. I shall not indeed forget the pleasure I derived, on the 5th of 
June 1850, from the sudden effects of a lull, after an exposui'e to the blasts diu"ing 
several successive days, on this iron-bound isle, — how all things seemed to par- 
ticipate in the change, and literally to rejoice. Even the vegetation, as though 
released from its suffering, began to look up ; whilst insects, unthought of before, 
filled the atmosphere as it were on the instant, — as though experience had taught 
them that such tranquillity was of but short dm-ation, and that, if it would be 
enjoyed at all, not a moment was to be lost. It was on that particular afternoon 
that I fii'st appreciated the prodigious numbers of the Hliputian Ptimis under con- 
sideration, — which, though apparently scarce diu'ing the more boisterous period, 
commenced now to emerge, by thousands, on every side. From whence they 
came it would liave been difiicult to conjectiu'c, had not analogy led me to con- 
clude that it was from out of the stalks of some of the softer plants. I believe 
that I obtained more by beating the Artemisia argentea, Herit., than by any other 
means ; nevertheless they were in greater or less profusion everywhere, — until, as 
the evening approached and the winds began to return, as quickly as they came 
every one of them vanished. 

206. Ptinus longicomis, WoU. 

P. fiisco-piceus squamis cinereis variegatus, elytris subelongato-rotundatis dilutioribus punctatis 
(punctis minoribus crebris), fasciis duabus (sc. basali obsoletissiina diffusa et subpostica, plus 
minusve distincta) albidis ornatis, antenuis pedibusque elongatis pallidioribus sed vix squamosis. 

Long. Corp. lin. §-^. 

Habitat ^laderam, et borcalem et australem, hinc indc non infi-equens : in graminosis humidiusculis 
per regioncm sylvaticam sitis prajdouiinat, sed ctiani in horto Loweano propc Funchal acstate 
parce observavi. 

P. brownisli-piceous, and more or less densely variegated with cinereous scales, — which however arc 
somewhat less dense than those of the P. albupidus. Prothorax and elytra the same as in that 
species, except tliat the luttrr are rather more elongated (or less spherical), and not quite so 
suddenly shortened bchiiul. Antenna: and legs paler than in the var. a. of that insect, but darker 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 271 

than those of any of the other varieties ; also rather longer (especially the former, which are per- 
haps a little more gradually incrassated towards their apex) and more robust, and almost free 
from scales. 

I believe the present Ftinus to be truly distinct from the P. albopictus, never- 
theless it must be admitted that it approaches it very closely. It is however much 
smaller than the Madeiran form of that species, as also somewhat less spherical 
and a little less shortened at its apex ; and its antennae and legs (especially the 
former) are proportionably a trifle longer and more robust. It is possible indeed 
that it may be but a state of the P. albopictus ; nevertheless, since I possess so 
large a series of that insect, and have connected its numerous modifications in all 
the islands in which I have hitherto observed it, and (which is more particularly 
important) since the P. longicornis differs materially, both in size and outline, as 
well as in the length and proportions of its antennae, from the Madeiran variety of 
the P. albopictus, I have not hesitated in retaining it as separate. It appears to 
be widely distributed over the island, although nowhere very abundant, — attaining 
its maxhnum however in the moist ra\TJies of intermediate altitudes. Thus, I 
have captured it at the Ribeiro Frio in August, at the Lombo dos Pecegueiros in 
July (especially by brushing the rank grass and fern towards the edges of tlie 
Ribeiro do Inferno), in the chestnut-woods of Santa Anna during June, in the 
dead stump of a tree on the Pico do Cardo (to the north-west of Fuuchal) during 
the early spring ; and, on one occasion, even close to Punchal itself, — namely, in 
the Rev. R. T. Lowe's garden at the Levada. 



B. AnteniKB hasi distantes, articuUs ultimo et penultimo rohnstis, clavam efficientihus. 

207. Ptinus fragilis, Woll. 

P. ater, squamis albidis (praesertim in capite prothoraceque) incrustatis, elytris subquadrato-rotundatis 
punctatis (punctis distinctis et parum crebris), an tennis pedibusque fragilibus subpicescentibus 
sed vix squamosis. 

Long. corp. lin. |-^. 

Habitat in Portu Saucto et Deserta Grandi, inter lichenes in rupium fissuris nascentes, a vere novo 
usque ad sestatem vulgaris. 

P. deep black, and more or less incrusted (especially on the head and proihorax, on the latter of which 
they are often dense) with pui-e white scales. Prothorax slightly rounded at the sides, and 
widest behind the middle. Elytra rather less spherical than in the preceding species, and with a 
slight tendency to be somewhat quadrate (the anterior angles being less rounded-off) ; very 
convex, and punctured (the punctures being sufficiently distinct, and tolerably close together ; 
and without any tendency to be disposed in rows) ; just perceptibly pubescent, and apparently 
but very sparingly clothed with scales, — though, these latter being of a very deciduous nature, 
it is possible that fresh and recently developed specimens might possess them to a greater extent. 
Antennae and tarsi shorter than in any of the other species, and remarkably fragile, slightly 



272 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

picescent (especially in the Porto Santan specimens), and almost free from scales; the former 
distant at their insertion, and with their last two joints distinctly and suddenly thickened,-^ 
forniins: a biarticulated club. 

The deep black siu'face of the present anomalous little Tt'mns (which has its 
head and prothorax, especially the latter, incrusted with sno\^y-white scales), in 
connection with its comparatively quadrate (though very convex) form, would 
even of themselves at once distinguish it from the remainder of the genus here 
described. Its structural details hoAvever are far more important, and altogether 
remove it from the other Madeiran members of the group, — its antennae not only 
l)eing distant at their base (of very rare occurrence amongst the Ptiiii, though one 
of the essential characteristics of Hedobia, — with which nevertheless in other 
respects it does not coincide), but having likewise their last ^?t'o joints so distinctly 
and suddenly thickened as to constitute a tolerably well-defined Inarticulated club. 
It displays moreover a very remarkable feature (which observation however in situ 
can alone appreciate) in the exceedingly fragile nature of its Hmbs, Avhich are so 
delicate and easily removed, that it was with the utmost difficulty that I could 
procure so much as a single perfect specimen out of a very large number wliich I 
have, on various occasions, captured during my researches in these islands. And 
I would lay particular stress on this peculiarity, since the limbs of the Ptini are 
generally not only remarkably robust, but so fii-mly attached to the liody that it 
requires consideralde force to disengage them ; — and the present species may con- 
sequently be regarded as entirely aberrant from the normal representatives of the 
genus. I have not hitherto detected it in Madeira proper ; but it is abundant in 
Porto Santo and on the Dezerta Grande (esjiecially the former), where it resides, I 
believe exclusively, amongst the dense masses of lichen which choke up the 
fissures and besprinkle the surfaces of the exposed weather-beaten rocks. It 
occurs during the spring and early siunmer months, in company Avith the 
P. nodulus and (ilboplctns, Tarphius Loicei, Xenostrongylus hi^trio, and the 
numerous other insects of similar propensities. 

Genus 94. MEZIUM. 
(Leach) Curtis, Brit. Ent. v. 232 (1828). 

Corpus parvum, durum : capite deflexo, sub prothoracf abscondito : protlwrace squamoso gibboso, mox 
ante basin valde dilatato sed ad basin ipsam subito constricto : scutello baud observando . elytris 
politissiiuis compresso-ovatis subconnatis : alls obsoletis. Antenna approximatae setuloso-squa- 
mosic filiforuics, articnlo primo magno robusto intus producto, secundo paulo breviore graciliorc, 
reliquis (ultimo ovato oblique subtruncato excejjto) suba>qualibus. Labrum corneum, antice 
pilosum valde emarginatum. MandibuUe et maxilla fere ut iu Ptiuo. Pulpi subclavati ; maxil- 
lares articulo ])rimo longiusculo subgracili ilcxuoso, secundo et tertio crassioribus subwqualibus, 
ultimo elougato-ovato robusto ; labiales articulo primo longiusculo subgracili flexuoso, secundo 
crassiore, ultimo ovato robusto. Mentum corneum triangulare pilosum. Ligula elongata sub- 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 273 

membvanacea, apice integra pilosa. Pedes robustissimi elongati et dense subsetuloso-squamosi : 
femoribus apicem versus incrassatis : tarsis articulis quatuor baseos longitudine leviter decres- 
centibus. 

Neitlier Ilezimn nor GihUum differ very materially in the structure of their oral 
organs from Ftim(s,—smcQ their emarginated upper lip, then* triangular form of 
mentum, and the slender, arcuated first joint of their palpi are exhihited, to a 
certain extent, in many of the aberrant members of that group also. Yet ex- 
ternally they may be easily recognised, since both of them possess characters 
sufficient (thus far) to AAarrant their isolation from theii' central type,— though 
perhaps not more important ones than those which constitute the subgenus 
SphcBncus, which in fact would appear to be related to Ftinus proper in about the 
same degree as the two now imder consideration. As regards outward contour 
however, Mezium may be readily distinguished by its extremely glossy, and an- 
teriorly setose and compressed, elytra, by the yellowish-white scales with which 
its head and prothorax are densely clothed (the latter of wliich is strongly nodose 
and sulcate, and cUlated behind the middle, though suddenly constricted or 
shortened immediately before its extreme posterior margin), and by the excessive 
thickness of its antennse and legs,— the former of which have their basal articula- 
tion large and internally produced, and theii- apical one somewhat obliquely trun- 
cated ; whilst the latter have their thighs (although more robust) less abruptly 
clavated than is the case in Gibhium (with which however in its invisible 
scutellum, subconnate elytra, and freedom from wings it nevertheless coincides). 
In habits both genera agree precisely with the normal Ftmi,—heing found in and 
about houses, or amongst dried animal substances. 

208. Mezium sulcatum. 
M. castaneo-piceum, capita protboraceque squamis albido-cinereis dense vestitis, boc longitudinaliter 

valde nodoso et sulcato, elytris politissimis et basin versus setis erectis parce obsitis, antennis 

pedibusque robustissimis et dense subsetuloso-squamosis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1-1|. 

Ptinus sulcatus, Fab. Sjjec. Ins. i. 73 (1781). 

, Mshm, Enf. Brit. i. 91 (1802). 

Mezium sulcatum, Curtis, Brit. Ent. v. 232 (1828). 
, Stm-m, Deutsch. Fna, xii. 31. tab. 217 (1837). 

Habitat in domibus Maderse, prsesertim circa oppida, bine inde non infrequens. 

M. piceous or castaneo-piceous, and impunctate. Head and prothorax closely beset with cinereous, or 
yellowisb-wbite, scales ; tbe latter large, greatly expanded behind, though suddenly constricted 
at its extreme base, and with three wide longitudinal furrows, — shaping-out broad ridges between 
them, which are greatly elevated and nodule-shaped on the hinder dilated portion. Elytra 
laterally compressed, especially in front, and exceedingly highly polished; and more or less 

2 N 



274 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

sparingly besprinkled towards their base with short, erect and rigid bristles. Antennoe and legs 
long, and densely clothed with paler scales (with indications of setse intermixed) ; the /onner with 
their apical joint rather short, and somewhat obliquely truncated at its extremity. 

An abundant insect throughout most parts of Etu'ope, — being, like many others 
of similar habits, lial)lc to transmission through the medium of commerce. In 
Madeira it occurs sparingly, in houses, in and around Funchal ; and I have, like- 
wise, captured it at Machico, and (ui the north of the island) at Sao Yinceute. 

Genus 95. GIBBIUM. 

Scopoli, Lit. ad Hist. Nat. 505 (1777). 

Corptts parvum, ovatum, durum, glaberrimum, politum : capite deflexo, sub prothorace abscondito : pru- 
thorace parvo, basi late elytris arete applicato necnon in medio producto : scutello baud observando : 
elytris subconnatis : alis obsoletis. Antenrue approximate dense squamosa; subsetaceie, articulo 
primo parvo, secundo ])aulo niajore, tertio leviter elongato, reliquis (ultimo elongato acuminato 
excepto) longitudine subiequalibus, latitudine vix decrescentibus. Labrum corneum, antice 
pilosum emarginatum. Mandilm/te et maxilUe fere ut in I'tino. Palpi filiformes ; maxillares 
articulo primo longiusculo subgracili flexuoso, secundo et tertio crassioribus sub;pqualibus, 
ultimo elongato leviter robusto apice subacuminato ; labiules articulo primo longiusculo subgra- 
cili flexuoso, secundo crassiore, ultimo elongato ovato robusto. Mentum corneum triangulare 
pilosum. Ligula elongata submembranacea, apice cordata pilosa. Pedes robusti clongati et 
dense squamosi : femorihus apicem versus sub-abrupte incrassatis : tarsis articulis quatuor bassos 
louffitudine leviter decrescentibus. 



''D' 



As already stated, the present genus and the last arc in the structm'e of their 
trophi almost identical ; nevertheless in external distinctions they are so well 
defined, that it is perhaps desirable not to amalgamate them. Apart from its more 
ovate and less laterally-compressed form, Gihh'mm may be known from Mezium by 
its extremely minute and glabrous prothorax (which is narrowed in front and 
broad behind, — where it is closely applied to, and continuous with, the elytra ; and 
is angulated, or produced backwards, in the centre, into the place of the scutellum), 
and by its rather less thickened limbs, — of which the antenna; somc^\■hat taper 
towards their extremity, and have their basal articulation much smaller, and their 
apical one longer and more straightly acuminated, than is the case in that genus. 
The single known species of Gibbium is a very remarkable insect, — its smooth and 
semi-transparent surface, in conjunction with its posteriorly-uiflated, ovate body, 
and its peculiar colour, giving it somewhat the appearance, when its limbs are 
closely applied beneath it, of a drop of blood. 

209. Gibbitmi scotias. 
G. ovatum rufesceuti-castaneum pohtum glabrum, prothorace brcvi mmuto, autennis pedibusque 

robustis et dense subflavcscenti-squamosis. 
Long. Corp. lin. H. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 275 

Ptinns scotias, Fab. .S/)ce. Ins. i. 74 (1781). 

, OUv. Iliit. ii. 17. 9 (1790). 

Gibhium scotias, Kugell. in ScJmeid. Mac/, iv. 502 (1794). 
, Sturm, Beutscli. Fna, xii. 32. tab. 248 (1837). 

Habitat in iisdem locis ac praBcedens, sed illo paulo rarius, 

G. ovate (being attenuated in front and inflated behind), bright reddish-chestnut, impunctate, glabrous 
and shining. Head with an abbreviated costa on either side, behind the insertion of the antennae, 
— terminating abruptly in front. Prothorax short and minute, narrowed anteriorly and broad 
behind (the sides being continuous with the base of the elytra) ; and 'produced backwards, or 
angulatcd, in the centre of its posterior margin into the place of the scutellum. Elytra some- 
what translucent, and with indications of being longitudinally dappled. Antenna and kffs long 
and robust (though not (juite so thickened as in Mezium), and densely clothed with fine, yellowish, 
and rather silken scales; i\x& former with their apical joint long, and straightly acuminated at its 
extremity. 

Likewise a common Em-opean insect, although perhaps not quite so generally 
distributed as the 31. sulcatum. It occurs under the same circumstances as that 
species,— namely in and about the houses of Funchal ; and has unquestionably 
been imported into the island from more northern latitudes. 



Genus 96. ANOBIUM. (Tab. V. fig. 3.) 
Fabricius, S^yst. Unf. 62 (1775). 

Corpus parvum vel mediocre, subcylindrico-oblongum, sat durum : capite deflexo, sub prothorace vix 
abscondito : scutello distincto : alis amplis. Antenna distantes leviter clavatse, artieulis primo et 
secundo robustis (illo longiore crassiore), tertio ad octavum minutis subsequalibus, reliquis lon- 
gissimis snbrequalibus, clavam elongatam laxam intus subserratam efficientibus (ultimo elongato- 
ovato). Labrum corneum transversum, autice pilosum integrum. Mandibula magnje cornese 
validse latae subtriangulares obtusse, infra apicem dente robusto obtuso instructse. Maxilla 
bilobae, lobis submembranaceis apice pubescentibus ; externa leviter incui-vo ; interna paulo 
breviore angustiore. Palpi subclavati ; maxillares articulo primo parvo, secundo et tertio 
crassioribus subaqualibus, ultimo elongato robusto subfusiformi-ovato ; labiates artieulis primo et 
secundo longitudine subsequalibus (illo graeiliore), ultimo elongato robusto subsecuriformi-ovato. 
Mentum corneum subtriangulare, apice truncatum. Ligula membranacea cordata, apice pilosa. 
Pedes parum graciles subcontractiles : femoribus hand clavatis, sidcatis (tibias subrecipientibus) : 
tarsis artieulis quatuor baseos longitudine decrescentibus. 

Although typically somewhat more lignivorous, the Anohia, in their habits, 
have much in common with the Ptini. They may however be easily recognised 
from the members of that genus by their more cylindrical and longer bodies, by 
their distant and subclavated antennae, and by their apically-bidentate mandibles, 
—in all of which respects it will be perceived that they make an evident approach 
towards Cis. The proportions indeed of their anteunal joints (the first two of 
which are rather robust, the following six very minute, and the terminal three 

2 N 2 



276 IXSECTA MADERENSIA. 

exceedingly elongated and forming a loosely-connected club) are very remarkable, 
and woiild suffice even alone to characterize the group. "Whilst apparently 
attaining theu- maximvun in temperate and northern latitudes, they are insects of 
a ^Tide geographical range, — the result partially perhaps of their liability to trans- 
mission amonecst ci^"ilized countries with timljer and various articles of merchandise 
and commerce, on which they principally su.bsist. The peculiar noise which some 
of the species are accustomed to make duriug their season of pairing, by striking 
then' robust jaws against the wood within which they are situated, — supposed to 
be a signal for the opposite sex, and wliich, from its measured repetition, some- 
what resembles the ticking of a Avatch, — has rendered them famous in the annals 
of oiu" popular suijerstitions, and gained for them the name of " Death-watches." 

210. Anobimn velatum, JFuU. (Tab. Y. fig. 3.) 

A. subcvlindrico-oblongum rufescenti-bruuneum et valde hirsutuui, pi'othorace eequo (in disco con- 
vexo) et granulis inagnis crebris obsito, autice truncato nccnon ad latera minus rotundatOj elj-tris 
profunde punctato-striatis, interstitiis subrugulosis, antennis pedibusque obscuro-ferrugineis. 

Long. Corp. liu. lf-2j. 

Habitat in locis inferioribus Madera?, astate non infrequeus : iu horto Lowcauo propc Funchal niense 
Augusto deprehensi ; necnon ad Sao Vincente in Madera boreali collegit Rev'*'" Dom. Lowe. 

A. subcylindrical-oblong, brown with more or less (especially on the elytra) of a rufescent tinge, and 
densely and uniformly clothed with exceedingly long, almost erect, very soft and flexible pile. 
Prothorax closely beset with rather large and coarse granules ; short and wide, truncated in 
front, and with the sides straightcr than in any of the other species, — both the anterior and 
posterior angles (particularly the former, which are almost right angles) being distinct ; convex 
on the disk, but without any Jippearance of elevations or nodules, — though with a glabrous lon- 
gitudinal line down the centre, which is more especially evident behind. Elytra deeply punctate- 
striated (the punctures being very large and well-defined) ; and with the interstices rather convex 
and roughened, though scarcely perceptibly punctulated. Antenna and k(/s dull ferruginous. 

Intimately related, in general contour and size, to the A. villosum of Mediterra- 
nean latitudes, though differing from it very materially, on examination, in the 
structm-e of its prothorax, — which (instead of bemg largely rounded oil' behind, 
and so extremely convex as to l)e almost nodose in the centre of the disk) is nearly 
straight at the sides (the anterior and posterior angles being almost equally pro- 
minent), and without any appearance of elevations in any portion of its surface ; 
whilst, at the same time, it is uniformly studded with much coarser and more 
closely-set granules. The pubescence, likcAvise, is even more dense and erect than 
that of the A. rillosnm (and without the slightest tendency to be disposed, as is 
there the case, in fascia?), and the interstices of its elytra are altogether more 
flattened. Although I have not been able to procm-e specimens for comparison, I 
am inclined to suspect that the Anohiiim which is quoted by Brulle in AVebb and 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 277 

Bertlielot's Sistoire Natiirelle des lies Canaries as the A. villostmi may be iden- 
tical with the present one, — which bears so strong a prima facie resemblance to 
that species, that, without a careful inspection, it might be almost mistaken for it ; 
and especially so, since the very short and loose descriptions given in that work are 
more than sufficient to warrant the conclusion that no great pains can have been 
bestowed on the determination of any of the Coleoptera enumerated in it. At all 
events, whether such be the case or not, the Madeiraii insect is unquestionably 
distinct from its European ally. It is tolerably common, both in the north and 
south of the island, at rather low elevations, dm*ing the sumnaer months, — making 
its appearance about July. It occurs principally in vineyards and near neglected 
buildings. I have taken it around Funchal in August ; and it has been captured 
by the Rev. R. T. Lowe at Sao Vincente, later in the season. 

211. Anobium pauiceum. 

A. subcylindrico-ovale rufescenti-brunneum vel ferrugineum et pubescens, prothorace fequo et granulis 
minutissimis subremotis obsito, aiitice producto necnon postice sinuato, elytris leviter subcrenato- 
striatis, interstitiis minutissime seriatim punctulatis et subtilissime subrugulosis, antennis pedi- 
busque vix pallidioribus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1-1|. 

Dermestes paniceum, Lirm. Fna Suec. 431 (1761). 
Anohiiim paniceim, Oliv. Ent. ii. 16. 10 (1790). 

, Fab. Ent. Syst. i. 237 (1792). 

, GyH. Ins. Suec. i. 293 (1808). 

, Stepli. III. Brit. Ent. iii. 340 (1830). 

Habitat circa domos Maderse, prsesertim in pane diutius asservato, ex Europ^ certe introductum : in 
domo amici cl. A. Ross, M.D., in ipsa urbe Funchalensi sita, Januario ineunte a.d. 1848 
copiosissime observavi. 

A. subcylindrical-oval (being smaller and proportionably shorter than the A, velatum), varying from 
reddish-brown into pale ferruginous, and densely clothed with short and nearly decumbent pile. 
Prothorax beset with rather distant and exceedingly minute granules ; short and rather wide, a 
little produced and rounded in front, and slightly sinuated along its hinder margin, — the central 
portion being somewhat produced backwards in front of the scutellum ; without any appearance 
of nodules, — though with an abbreviated, glabrous, and very obscurely raised central keel behind. 
Elytra finely crenate- (scarcely punctate-) striated ; and with the interstices perfectly flat, most 
delicately rugulose, and with a longitudinal series of exceedingly minute punctures down each. 
Antenna and legs a little paler than the rest of the surface. 

Known from the other Anobia here described by its shorter and more oval 
form, by its usually paler (or more ferruginous) hue, and by the sculpture of the 
interstices of its (finely cre««^e-striated) elytra, — which are most delicately rugu- 
lose, and have a longitudinal series of most minutely impressed points down each. 
In the length and decumbency of its pubescence it is intermediate between the 



278 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

A. velatiim and striatum ; but the above characters will, of themselves, suffice to 
distinguish it. In its habits it is less strictly lignivorous than any of the re- 
mainder ; being evidently an imported insect into Madeira, where it is found about 
houses and amongst stores, especially biscuit and bread, — on which, as well as on 
different kinds of merchandise, it appears to subsist. It is occasionally tolerably 
common around Funchal ; and I once captured it in abundance in the city itself, 
— on the walls of the house belonging to my friend Dr. Ross, in the Rua da 
Carreii'a, — at the beginning of January 1848. 

212. Anobium striatum. 

A. subcylindricum brunneum et subtilissime pubescens, prothoracc infecniali (postice carinato-nodoso) 
et granulis minutissimis punctisque obscuris obsito, antice acuniinato-prodiicto necnon ad 
angulos posticos sinuato, elytris punctato-striatis, antennis pedibusque feiTugineis. 

Long. corp. lin. \\-2. 

Anobium striatum, OYw.Ent. ii. 16. 9. (1790). 

pertinax. Fab. (nee Linn. 1761) Ent. Syst. i. 237 (1792). 

striatum, Gyll. Ins. Suec. i. 291 (1808). 

, Steph. lU. Brit. Ent. iii. ,340 (1830). 

Habitat Maderam, bine inde sat frequens, — ex alienis forsan introdtictum. 

A. subcylindrical (being proportionably rather narrower, especially anteriorly, than either of the pre- 
vious species), of a more or less obscure broflu, and densely clothed with most minute and 
decumbent pile. Prothorax closely beset with veiy small and obscure granules and punctm-es ; 
rather elongated and narrow, — particularly iu front, where it is both constricted and rounded 
(which gives the sides an unequal, or undulating, appearance) ; with the hinder angles sinuated, 
or scooped out; with a slightly impressed longitudinal channel, and a greatly elevated keel- 
shaped nodide in the centre of the hinder disk, — on either side of which the surface is trans- 
versely impressed. Elytra a little paler than the prothorax, punctate- striated; and with the in- 
terstices rather convex, though scarcely punctulated. Antenna and legs more or less ferruginous. 

A most abundant Eui'opoan jlnohunn ; and one which has in all probability, 
like the last species, been naturalized in Madeira from more northern latitudes. 
It is an insect in fact peculiarly liable to dissemination over the world through 
the agency of commerce, — being attached to rotten wood, and often making its 
appearance in considerable numbers on board shi}). It is widely distributed OA'cr 
IVIadeira, though it does not seem to occur anAn\'here in profusion. I have cap- 
tured it in the vicinity of Funchal during the early spring, at Canical in ^lay, at 
Santa Anna and Sao Yincente in Jime, and at the Ribeiro Frio and the Feijaa de 
C6rte in August. 

213. Anobium Ptilinoides, WoU. 
A. cylindricum rufesccnti-brunneum et subtilitcr pubescens, prothoracc fcquo convcxo et granulis 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 279 

minutis creberrimis obsito, antice vix producto, elytris paulo dilutioribus leviter punctato- 
striatis, anteuuis pedibusque ferrugiueis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2^-3. 

Habitat IMaderam, mihi non obviixm : tria specimiua, prope urbem Funchalensem capta, nuper misit 
Dom. Leacock. 

A. cylindrical, brown with more or less of a rufescent tinge, and densely clothed with short pile, — 
which is dark and erect upon the prothorax, but pale and almost decumbent on the elytra. 
Prothorax very closely beset with minute points or granules, — which, in conjunction with the 
short pile, give the surface an almost velvety appearance ; convex, slightly produced m front, 
and with the sides rounded ; perfectly even, having no appearance of elevations, nodules, or even 
of a central line. Elytra a little paler than the prothorax, — the colour and decumbency of the 
pubescence however causing it to seem paler than it really is j rather lightly punctate- stiiated ; 
and with the interstices wide (but not quite flattened), though scarcely punctulated. Antenna 
and legs ferruginous. 

Readily known by its large size and extremely cylindrical form (in wliich 
respect it bears a very strong prima facie resemblance to a Ptilinus), and by the 
small thickly-set granules and somewhat velvety surface of its (comparatively 
globose) prothorax, — the pubescence of wliich is darker and more erect than that 
of the elytra. It is one of the insects which entii'ely escaped my own observations 
in these islands, — the only tlu-ee specimens which I have seen having been recently 
communicated to me by T. S. Leacock, Esq., by whom they were captured near 
Fimchal. 

Fam. 31. CISSID^. 

Genus 97. CIS. (Tab. V. fig. 7 et 8.) 
Latreille, Precis des Caract. Gen. des Ins. 50 (1796). 

Corpus parvum, subcylindrico-oblongum vel subcylindi-icum, durum : capite subdeflexo : prothorace 
antice plus minusve producto, interdum cornuto : alis parum amplis. Antenna (V. 7 a, 8 a) 
10-articulatfe clavatse, articulis primo et secundo robustis (illo longiore crassiore), tertio lougius- 
culo (vel gracili vel parum robusto), quarto ad septimum vel longitudine paulatim decrescentibus 
(V. 8 a), vel minutis subsequalibus (V. 7 a), reliquis clavam magnam elongatam perfoliatam 
triarticulatam efficientibus (octavo et nono subaequalibus, decimo paulo longiore ovato ad apicem 
tuberculo acumiuato instructo). Labrum corneum subquadratum, basi leviter angustatum. 
Mandibula (V. 8 b) cornese validse latge subtriangulares, intus dentibus (uno sc, mox infra apicem 
sito, robusto ; et altero, basin versus posito, robustissimo obtuso) instructse. Maxilla (V. 8 c) 
bilobse, lobis subcoriaceis apice setosis ; externa magno lato apice incurvo ; interna brevissimo 
minuto. Palpi maxillares clavati, articulo primo parvo, secundo et tertio longioribus crassioribus 
(hoc majore crassiore subclavato), ultimo robusto elongato-ovato : labiates (V. 8rf) articuHs primo 
et secundo latitudine sequalibus (illo brevissimo, hoc longiusculo), ultimo gracili subovato- 
cylindi-ico. Mentum tenue \dx coriaceum subquadratum. Ligula subcoriacea elongata, apice 



280 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

levitcr rotundata. Pedes parum graciles subcontractUes : tibiis saepius (V. 8 e) simplicibus, sed 
intcrdum (V. 7 b, 7 c) apice levdter dilatatis et in anticis (\ . 7 h) extus denticulatis : tarsis 4-arti- 
culatis, articulis tnbus baseos minutis subaequalibus, quarto longissimo subclavato unyuiculis 
simplicibus munito. 

The genus Cis may be readily kno^^^^ by the subcylindi-ical and more or less 
glabrous bodies of the species which compose it, and by the structure of its an- 
tennae and feet, — the former of which are but 10-articiilate, and have their clava 
(although perfoliated) abrupt, and fui'nished with a minute tubercle at its tip ; 
whilst the latter are made up of four joints only, the basal three being extremely 
small. It may be considered as forming a very gradual passage between the 
Ptinid(B and the Xylophagous Fseudotet.ramera : for whilst, on the one hand, it 
evinces a close relationship with the ylnoiia (as its apically-bidentate mandibles, 
its loosely-connected club, and its generally simple tibiae would, apart from 
external featiu-es, abundantly indicate) ; yet, the almost obsolete inner lobe of its 
(subsetose) maxillae, in conjunction with its elongated ligula, and the diminished 
number of its antennal and tarsal joints, alike combine in pointing towards the 
Toinicldce and Ilylesini, — in which the whole of these peculiai'ities, although more 
developed, are amongst the most essential characters possessed. And indeed I 
cannot but believe that the system, not uxifrequently adopted, which would remove 
that extremity of the Fseudotetramera to a distance fi'om the Cissidce is an}i:hing 
Init a natm-al one ; — and more especially so, since there are connecting links 
(shortly to be noticed) which effect, even more evidently than Cts, a transition 
between the groups. 

214. Cis Wollastonii. (Tab. \. fig. 8.) 

C. oblongo-subcylindricul^iceus subnitidus leviter subruguloso-punctulatus et subtilissime pubescens, 
prothorace s-bquadrato, antice subtruucato necnon ad latera subrecto margiuato, hiuc inde 
inaquaiiter rufescenti, elytrorum basi apiceque nifcscentibus, antennis pedibusque ferrugineis, 
illarum clava infuscata. 

Long. Corp. lin. H-2. 

Cis Wollastonii, Mellie, in Giier. Jiev. de Zool. (2'^""' serie) i. 586 (1849). 

Habitat IMaderam sylvaticam, prsesertim inter 3000' ct 4500' s.m., sub cortice arborum laxo, hinc inde 
non infrequens. ^ 

C. large, elongated and subcylindrical (being however a little narrowed anteriorly), not very convex, 
piceous, a little shining, and rather sparingly clothed throughout with au exceedingly minute, 
delicate, and decumbent cinereous pubescence (wliich however is scarcely perceptible except 
beneath a powerful lens). Head large, but very slightly deflexed (and therefore a good deal 
exposed), rounded and margined anteriorly, with a very faint transverse impression in front, and 
obscurely convex in the centre of its forehead behind. Prothorax subquadrate (the sides being 
nearly straight) ; truncated (or scarcely at all jiroduced) anteriorly ; finely and closely punctulated 
(the punctures being shallow and not very well defined) ; the lateral edges very broadly margined, 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 281 

and the hinder one very narrowly so ; the anterior angles rather obtuse ; without any appearance 
of a dorsal channel ; and with its surface more or less unequally rufescent, or diluted, in parts, 
— the extreme fore-margin, a patch in front of the scutellum, and a larger (transverse) one 
towards the anterior angles being the positions which it is the tendency of the paler por- 
tions to occupy. Ehjtra punctulated like the prothorax, but a little more rugulose or uneven 
(neither the punctures nor pubescence having any tendency to be disposed in rows) ; broadly, 
though more or less obscurely, rufescent at their base (especially about the shoulders) and apex, 
— the paler portions being generally interrupted along the suture, which in occasional (highly 
coloured) specimens causes them to assume somewhat the appearance of four large patches. An- 
tennce and legs pale ferruginous ; the former with their club a little dusky. 

A very interesting and most elegant Cls ; and one which may be known from 
every other species with which I am acquainted by its large and elongated body, 
which is less convex than is usually the case with the normal members of the 
group, and by the more or less brightly rufescent patches with which its surface 
is ornamented, — its entire general facies somewhat calling to mind, at first sight, 
the Heteromerous genus Hypophlceus. It is widely distributed over the sylvan 
districts of Madeira, between the limits of from 3000 to about 4500 feet above the 
sea ; but does not appear to be very abundant, — although, from its gregarious 
nature, here and there tolerably common. It is usually to be met with beneath 
the loosely attached bark of felled timber or of decaying trees. I have captured 
it, dm'ing the spring, in the region of the E-ibeu'o Frio ; and, in the su m mer, at 
the Cruzinhas, the Lombo dos Pecegueiros, and the Fanal. 

215. Cis fascipes. 
C. ovali-cylindricus fuscus subnitidus ruguloso-punctulatus et dense setuloso-pubescens, prothorace 
transverso subconvexo, antice leviter producto necnon ad latera subrotundato marginato, elytris 
vix pallidioribus, antennis pedibusque omnino testaceis. 
Mas, capita leviter tuberculato. 
Long. Corp. lin. l^-l^^- 

Cw/««c«>es,(Chevrolat)MelUe,^m8. JeZaSoc.^w<.&i?Va»ce(2'^™serie)vi.271.tab.2.fig.25(1848). 
Habitat Maderam australem, inter lichenes in horto Loweano prope Funchal a meipso repertus. 

C. shorter and more oval (and likewise rather more convex and cylindrical) than the C. Wollastonii, 
brown, a little shining, and clothed throughout with rather long, suberect and rigid setae of a 
cinereous (or sometimes yellowish-cinereous) tinge. Head rounded and margined anteriorly, 
with a transverse impression in front ; and slightly tubercled behind in the males. Prothorax 
more transverse and convex than that of the last species (the sides being slightly rounded) ; 
rather produced anteriorly (where it is a little paler than the rest of the surface) ; more rugosely 
and deeply punctured than in the C. Wollastonii ; the lateral edges very broadly margined, but 
the hinder one almost simple ; the anterior angles rather porrected and acute ; and with very 
faint indications of a dorsal channel. Elytra punctured like the prothorax, but considerably 
rugulose or uneven (both the punctures and pubescence having a tendency to be disposed in 
rows) . Antenna and legs entu'ely pale testaceous. 

2o 



282 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

A species which recedes in no respect from the ordinary generic type of more 
northern latitudes. It may be distinguished from its only allies ■ndth which we 
are here concerned, by the brown hue and setose surface of its more parallel and 
cylindrical body, by the somewhat porrected anterior angles of its prothorax, and 
by its entu'ely pale limbs. I am not altogether satisfied that it is truly indi- 
genous to the Madehan group, the only specimens which I have hitherto seen 
having been captui-ed by myself close to Funchal, in the garden of the E,ev. 
R. T. Lowe at the Levada (a spot in which I once however observed it in abun- 
dance), — from amongst lichen and fungi on the decayed stump of an old peach- 
tree. On several occasions I have detected it either in or near the same locality : 
— but, as it has been recorded by M. !MeUi6, in Ms exceUent Monograph of these 
immediate genera, as American, it is possible that it may have been accidentally 
imported into the island, and thus become established in the vicinity of the toAvn. 

216. Cis Lauri, Woll (Tab. Y. fig. 7.) 

C. ovato-subcylindricus curtus fusco-piceus opacus leviter punctulatus ct dense pubescens, prothorace 
amplo convexo, antice valde producto necnon ad latera rotundato et angustissime marginato, 
elytris (prxsertim postice) valde convexis, antennis pedibusque ferrugineis, illarum clava infuscata- 
Mas, capite leviter tuberculato, prothorace antice sub-bidentato. 
Long. Corp. lin. ^-1. 

Habitat per partem Maderae sylvaticam, sub cortice arbonmi vcl in fungis, ubique vulgatissimus. 

C. short and minute (being more ovate than either of the preceding species), a little truncated behind 
and exceedingly convex, dull brown ish-piceous or reddish-brown, opake, and clothed with a rather 
fine and suberect pile of a somewhat cinereous hue. Head rather small, rounded and margined 
anteriorly, with a faint transverse impression in front ; and, apparently, slightly tubercled behind 
in the males. Prothorax large and extremely convex (the sides being rounded) ; the anterior 
portion very much produced over the head (where it is generally a little paler than the rest of the 
surface), and divided in the males into two small rounded prominences or obscure teeth ; very 
finely, uniformly, but not very closely punctured ; the lateral and hinder edges most narrowly 
margined ; both the anterior and posterior angles much rounded off; and ijithout any appear- 
ance of a dorsal channel, — though faint indications of a line may be sometimes traced by the 
absence of punctures along a uan-ow central portion. Elytra rather more deeply punctured than 
the prothorax (neither the punctures nor pubescence having any tendency to be arranged in 
rows). Antenna and legs pale ferruginous; the former with their club a little dusky. 

A tndy indigenous Uttlc Cis*, — recedmg in its minute size, somewhat ovate, 
thickened, exceedingly convex, and posteriorly-subtruncated form, in its opake 
and finely punctulated siu-face, and in its largely developed prothorax (the angles 
of which are very much rounded off, whilst the anterior portion is produced into a 

* I ought perhaps to state that I forwarded specimens of this CU for comparison to 'M. JleUie, of 
Paris, immediately after the publication of his elaborate Monograph, -who pronounced them to be 
unquestionably new. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 283 

distinct hood over the head), from the other members of the genus here described. 
In conjunction mth the Octotemnns opacus, it is perhaps one of the most abimdant 
and destructive of all the Madeu-an Coleoptera, — occurring, often by thousands, 
beneath the bark of the native lam^els at intermediate and lofty elevations. In 
some of the damp sylvan districts which are difficult of access it literally teems, — 
undergoing its changes, generation after generation, imtouched. In such positions 
it does not confine its ravages to the trees alone, siace the fungi are equally its 
food, — some of the larger species of which may be occasionally observed almost 
alive with it. I have captured it in profusion on the Lombo das Vacas, and in the 
regions of the Boa Ventura and the Eibeko Frio : and it has been taken by the 
Rev. R. T. Lowe in the nearly inaccessible mountain-ravine between the Sao Vin- 
cente valley and the Ribeiro do Inferno. 

Genus 98. OCTOTEMNUS. 

Mellie, Ann. de la Soc. i:nt. de France (2i^""<= serie) \\. 384 (1848). 

Corpus sat minutum, subfusiformi- cylindricum, durum : capite deflexo : prothorace antice levitei- pro- 
ducto integro : alls amplis. Antenna 8-articulatse clavatse, articulis primo et secundo robustis 
(illo longiore crassiorc), tertio longiusculo subgvacili, quarto et quinto minutis subajqualibus, re- 
liquis clavam magnam elongatam perfoliatam triarticulatam efficientibus (articulis subsqualibus, 
sexto et septimo vix majoribus globosis, octavo globoso-ovato). Instrumenta cibaria fere lit in 
geuere prsecedenti ; sed palpi paulo graciliores, maxillarium articulo ultimo valde elongato. Pedes 
pamm graciles subcontraetiles : tibiis apice leviter dilatatis, per marginem externum minutissime 
serratis : tarsis 4-articulatis, articulis tribus baseos minutis subtequalibus, quarto longissimo 
subclavato. 

Octotemnns differs from Cis, priacipally, in ha^ing but eight joints to its 
antennae (the club of which moreover is exceedingly abrupt, and has its extremity 
free from the acute tubercle which is so conspicuous in that genus), and in its 
tibiae being very minutely spiuulose along theu- entire outer edge. The size also 
of the only two knowTi species (the Madeiran representative being one of them) 
which compose it is smaller, the body somewhat more fusiform, and the palpi 
rather slenderer, and more acuminated at thek apex. In other respects it coin- 
cides almost entu'ely with Cis. 

217. Octotemnns opacus. 
O. fusiformi-cylindricus piceus subopacus tenuissime punctulatus et parce subtiliter pubescens, pro- 
thorace antice producto necnon ad latera rotundato et angustissime marginato, elytris plerumque 
(prsesertim basin versus) pallido-castaneis, antennis pedibusque testaceis, illarum clava nigrescenti. 
Long. corp. lin. 1. 

Octolemnus opacus, IMellie, Ann. de la Soc. Eni. de France (2'^'°^ serie) vi. 386 (1848). 

Habitat per regionem Maderfe sylvaticam, in fungis vel sub cortice arborum, toto anno vulgatissimus. 

2 o 2 



284 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

O. somewhat fusiform-cylindric (being a little narrowed both before and behind), convex, dark piceous, 
slightly opake, most delicately granulated all over, and very sparingly clothed with a minute, 
decumbent, and somewhat cinereous pubescence. Head rounded and slightly margined anteriorly, 
and with a deep transverse impression in front. Prothorax convex (the sides being rounded) ; 
rather narrowed and produced anteriorly (where it is of a bright reddish-brown) ; very minutely 
and uniformly punctulated ; the lateral and hinder edges most narrowly margined ; both the 
anterior and posterior angles, especially the former, much rounded off; and with slight indica- 
tions (sometimes only just traceable) of an obscure central ridge. Elytra rather more shining 
than the prothorax ; also with the punctures smaller, and with the surface towards their base a 
little roughened ; of a more or less bright chestnut-brown, — the humeral region of each being 
often exceedingly pale. Antenna and lec/s pale testaceous ; the former with their club darkly 
infuscated. 

A species closely allied to the common European 0. ghibriculns (wliich, as 
already stated, is the only other member of the genus hitherto described) ; never- 
theless it may be recognised from that insect by being larger, more opake, and 
distinctly pubescent, by ha\ing the produced anterior portion of its pronotum 
bright reddish-brown, by its elytra being of a much more diluted hue (especially 
at theu" base) than the prothorax, and by the extreme paleness of its antennae and 
legs, — the former of which however have theu- club uniformly dark. M. MeUie's 
diagnosis of it, in the Annales de la Societe Entomolofjique de France (compiled 
from a single specimen wliich I forwarded to him after my retiu-n from the 
Madeu-a Islands in 1818), is not quite correct, — since it is there stated to be 
glabrous ; whereas the existence of a Avell-defined (though sparingly scattered) 
pile is one of the most important of the characters which serve to separate it from 
its more northern ally (on ^^•hich I am unable to detect the smallest traces, even 
beneath a liigli magnifying power, of any pubescence at all). It is abundant 
throughout the whole sylvan districts of Madeira, especially between the limits 
of from about 3000 to 5000 feet above the sea. Like the Cis Laiiri (with w^hich 
it is often found in company), it is occasionally to be met with by thousands, par- 
ticularly in a species of gigantic fimgus which occm-s in the dense raWnes of inter- 
mediate altitudes. At the Lombo dos Pecegueu-os, the Feijua de C6rte, in the 
region of the Ribeu-o Frio, and at the Cvu-ral das Eomeii-as (above Funchal) I 
have observed it in the utmost profusion. 

Genus 99. PTILINUS. . ^^^^ 

Geoffroy, Hist. Abr. des Ins. i. 65 (ITe^S- 

Corptts sat parvum, elongatum, cylindricum, durum : capite dellexo : prothorace subgloboso convexo, 
antice producto et scabroso : alls amplis. Antenna intus in foeminis serratae, in maribus valde 
llabcilatie ; articulis primo et sccundo (in utroque sexu) simplicibus (illo leviter robusto, hoc 
parvo brcvissimo intus subnodoso), tertio ad dccimum in foemin.i intus scrratis, in mare in lobos 
(primo bre\i obtuso, reliquis longissimis) lincaribus intus productis, ultimo in foeminis ovate, in 
maribus liiicari longissimo. Lahrum comeum trausversum, antice ])ilusum. Mandibulce cuxtie 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 285 

cornese validse latje subtriangulares, apice acutse bidentatse. Maxilla bilobse, lobis submem- 
branaceis apice pubescentibus ; externa magno lato, apice truncato ; intemo brevissimo minuto. 
Palpi subclavati; maxillares articulo primo longiusculo subgracili, secundo leviter elougato 
subclavato, tertio breviore (primi longitudine), ultimo elongato robusto fusiformi apice aciiminato ; 
labiales longissimi, articulo prinio parvo, secundo longissimo subflexuoso clavato, ultimo vix 
breviore robusto fusiformi apice subacuminato. Mentum corneum transversum, antice bilobuni. 
Ligula membranacea cordata, apice pilosa. Pedes breviusculi graciles : tibiis anterioribus {anticis 
prsecipue) extus minutissime subserratis necnon ad apicem externum in angulum leviter exstantem 
subdentiformem productis : tarsis articulis primo et secundo elongatis, tertio, quarto et quinto 
brevibus (tertio et quarto subtus leviter oblique productis, quinto crasso paulo longiore clavato). 

Ptllimts may be readily known botli by external and structural characters, — 
the narrow cylindi-ical bodies and globose prothoraces of the species which com- 
pose it, in conjunction with the two elongated basal, and the three abbreviated 
remaining, joints of theu* feet, and the singular flabeUated antennae of the male 
sex, being at once suflS.cient to distinguish it from its allies. Although easily 
recognised however as a genus, it is one of rather doubtful position in a general 
arrangement, since in the modification of its antennae and tarsi it altogether 
recedes from the present family, and has more in common with the Ptinidce. 
Still, in its apically bidentate mandibles, in the excessive minuteness of the inner 
lobe of its maxillae, and in its almost simple tibia? it agrees unquestionably with 
Cis ; and since in some respects it is suggestive of groups even beyond it (pecu- 
liarities moreover which are supposed to be of greater importance than those by 
which it is attracted to the Ft in Idee, — and which its very cylindi"ic form and its 
anteriorly rugulose pronotum would especially represent), I believe it is more 
natural to keep it nearer to this extremity of the Cissldce than to the other, — its 
tendency (as just stated) being rather in the dh-ection of the departments in 
advance of us than of those which we have left behind. The Ptilini reside abnost 
exclusively in rotten wood, and are most frequently to be found about houses, — in 
the timber of which their rounded perforations are often but too conspicuous. 

218. Ptilinus cylindripennis, Woll. 

P. cylindricus rufescenti- vel fuscescenti-brunneus et dense subtiliter pubescens, prothorace sub- 
globoso convexo granulato necnon antice mucronibus dispersis asperato, elytris vix punctulatis, 
antennis pedibusque pallidioribus. 
Mas, paulo minor, antennis valde flabellatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^-31. 

Habitat Maderam, ab ord maritima usque ad 3500' s. m. ascendens : in vinetis circa urbem Funchalen- 
sem sitis, ad Sanctam Annam, necnon etiam in aperto bine inde observavi. 

P. elongated and cylindrical, varying from a dark fuscous hue into a bright reddish-brown, and 
densely, though very minutely pubescent. Prvthorax exceedingly convex and globose ; minutely 



286 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

granulated, and with coarser tubercles or points scattered over its anterior region, — which is 
produced and a little acuminated, and has its extreme apical margin slightly reflexed ; with a 
longitudinal, abbreviated, subglabrous dorsal line behind, and with obscure indications of a small 
irregular elevation on either side of it. Elytra usually rather paler than (and a little naiTower 
than the central portion of) the prothorax ; free from longitudinal costae, and almost impunctate, 
— or with very slight indications of ill-defined punctures just perceptible towards the outer mar- 
gins. Antenna and legs generally pale ferruginous ; the furvier usually (particularly the flabel- 
lated processes of the male articulations) a little infuscated. 

The Madoiran representative of the common Eixropean P. ^jec^mecorwis, although 
most unqucstionalily distinct from it, — being not only, on the average (for both 
species are exceedingly variable in size), larger and more rufescent than that 
insect, but hlvcwise differing in the sculpture of its elytra, which are (though 
[)ubescent) comparatively smooth and almost impunctate ; whereas in the P. pec- 
tmicornis the punctures are large and conspicuous. It is decidedly scarce, — 
nevertheless widely distril)uted over Madeu'a, from the vineyards of the southern 
coast to about 3500 feet above the sea. I first captured it in the garden of the 
Quinta d'Ambrosio, near Punchal, during the spring of 181-8 ; and in June of 1850 
I met with it in the north of the island, — in the house of Senhor Louiz Acciaioly, 
at Santa Anna. It is not attached exclusively however to the -vicinity of the 
towns and villages, — since, during July of 1850, I took it in the dense forest 
region of the Lombo dos Pecegueiros ; and, in August of the same year, in the 
(Equally remote, though more open, district of the Feijaa de C6rte. 

Genus 100. RHYZOPERTHA. 

Stephens, ///. Brit. Ent. iii. 3o4 (1830). 

Corpus parvum, elongatum, cylindricum, durum : capite deflexo : prothorace subgloboso convexo, 
antice producto ct scabroso : alls amplis. Antenna lO-articulatse clavata;, articulis primo et 
sccundo robustis (illo paulo longiore crassiore), tertio ad septimum minutissimis suba;qualibus, 
reliquis clavam magnam abruptam perfoliatam triarticulatam cfficientibus (octavo et nono sub- 
aequalibus intus productis, decimo obliquo-ovato). Labrum subcorneum amplum hexagonum, 
apice valdc pilosum. MandihuLf magnne cornere valida? arcuatre, infra apicem dente obscuro, 
necnon ad basin membrana, iustructai. AlaxilUe bilob:e, lobis submcmbranaccis valde pubcscen- 
tibus ; externa elongato angusto ; inteiiw paulo brcviore angustissimo. Palpi subfiliformes ; 
maxillares articulo primo parvo, secundo longiore crassiore clavato, tertio huic paulo brenore, 
ultimo longissimo subacuminato-cylindrico ; lahiales articulo primo parvo, sccundo longiore cras- 
siore, ultimo elongato subcylindrico-ovato. Mentum corneum transversuni, antice levitcr rotun- 
dato-productum. Ligula mcmbranacea longiuscula, apice valde pdosa. Pedes breviusculi sub- 
graciles : tibiis extus sparse fortiter serratis (ad apicem externum in spinam majorcm, pntsertim 
in aniicis, productis) : tarsis articulis quatuor bascos miuutis suba?qualibus (primo paulo brcviore, 
in tibiarum apice immerso, supernc vix couspicuo), quiuto longissimo subclavato. 

Tthyzopertha is in many respects quite as discordant as Ftilinus, — combining 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 287 

the cliaracters of the present family, and to a certain extent even of the previous 
one also, with the outward fades of the Tomicidce. Like it, however, its tendency 
would appear to he towards the last of these ; and, in spite therefore of the many 
points of discrepancy Avhich it displays with the incipient Pseudoietramera, we are 
compelled to place it here, as, upon the whole, the best position which we can 
assign to it : — and which is rendered the more natural from the consideration that 
both it and Ptilimis are perhaps nearer akin to Apate than to anything else (a group 
which leads us very gradually on, particularly tlu'ough the medium of its accom- 
panying links, in the dkection of the Tomicl). Thus, for instance, the 10-jointed 
antennoe of Rhyzopertha, with its perfoliated club, in connection with its distinctly 
developed upper lip and slender legs, would go far to establish its afl&nity with 
Cis, and its farinaceous and store-infesting habits might indicate some relation 
even mtli the PtiuklcB ; yet, on the other hand, in its extremely cylindrical form, its 
anteriorly roughened and produced prothorax, the obliquely subtruncated apex of 
its elytra, and in its serrated tibiee, it offers so strong a prima facie resemblance 
to Tomicus, that, were it not for its loosely-connected clava, it might be almost 
mistaken at first sight for a species of that genus, — from which, consequently, it 
Avould seem desirable that it sliould not be further removed than is necessary. It 
occurs usually in and about houses ; and since, like many of the typical Ptinidce, 
it attaches itself to different kinds of provisions and articles of commerce, it is 
liable to become diffused, in various ways, throughout the civilized world. 

219. Rhyzopertha pusilla. 
R. cylindrica ferruginea, prothorace convexo valde scabroso uecnon antice niucrouibus asperato, elytris 

nitidis profunde substriato-punctatis (punctis magnis), ad apicem oblique subtruncatis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1 ~. 

Si/nodendron pusilkim. Fab. Hut. Si/sf. v. (Siq^jil.) 156 (1798). 
Ptimis Jissicornis et piceus, Mslim, Hut. Brit. i. 82 et 88 (1802). 
Bhyzopertha inisilla, Steph. III. Brit. Ent. iii. 354 (1830). 
, Lucas, Col. de VAlgerie, 468 (1849). 

Habitat in domibus mercatorumque repositoriis Maderse, prsesertim in urbe ipsa Funchalensi, — in 
insulam ex alienis farinariis et radicibus invecta. 

R. elongated and cylindrical, bright ferruginous, and nearly free from pubescence. Prothorax ex- 
ceedingly convex, roughly scabrous or granulated, and with coarser tubercles or points (which 
have a tendency to arrange themselves in concentric folds) densely scattered over its anterior 
region, — which is slightly narrowed, produced and rounded (but not at all acuminated), and has 
its extreme margin roughened and slightly reflexed ; and without any appearance of a dorsal 
channel. Elytra shining, very distinctly and regularly substriate-punctate (the punctures being 
exceedingly large and deep, but the striae excessively shallow) ; and with a slight tendency to be 
obliquely truncated at their extremity. Antenna a little paler, and the le^s usually a trifle darker, 
than the rest of the surface. 



288 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

Evidently an imported insect into Madeira, occuiTing principally in tlie houses 
of Funclial, — where it attaches itself to articles of commerce, though more espe- 
cially to farinaceous preparations and di-ied vegetable sul)stances of various kinds. 
It is under such circumstances that it is found throughout Europe generally ; and 
in England I have obserA'ed it, in great abimdance, in powdered arrow-root. It is 
stated by Kii-by and Spence to have been detected amongst roots of Turkey 
rhubarb in the East India Company's warehouses in London ; and both Marsham 
and Stephens have remarked that it is constantly liable to be introduced with roots 
and seeds from India, — from whence indeed the specimens described by Fabricius 
in 1798 were brought. Hence, its original centre of diffusion was probably extra- 
European : nevertheless, if not truly indigenous, it would appear to have esta- 
blished itself more completely on the southern Mediterranean limits than in cooler 
latitudes, since M. Lucas, in his accoimt of the Coleoptera of Algeria, records its 
existence beneath the bark of the Quercus suber and Cytisus spinosiis dui-ing the 
winter and spring months, in the vicinity of Oran. 



Sectio vii. rhyncophora. 

Fam. 32. TOMICID^. 

Genus 101. TOMICUS*. 

LatrciUe, Hist. Nat. des Ins. iii. 203 (1802). 

Corpus parvum, cylindricum : capite subdeflexo, vix producto : prolhorace amplo convexo, aiitice pro- 
ducto et scabroso : elytris apice plus minusve obliquo- truncatis : alis amplis. Antenna capitatae; 
scapo (i. e. ai-ticulo primo) longissimo clavato ; funiculo [i. e. articulis inter scapum et capitulum 
sitis) 5-articulato, articulo primo robusto apice truncate, reliquis brevissimis a basi angusta 
latitudine paulatim crescentibus ; capitulo solidissinio, obscure quadri-annulato. Labrum ob- 
soletum. Mandibula comese validse subtriangulares obtusse, infra apicem dente obtuso instructae 



* It is difficult to understand on wliat principle many of the European entomologists sfill persist in 
appropriating the title oi Bostiicliu.i iV)r the Tomici, except ou the unfair partiality which exists of em- 
pl()\ing everything Fahrician at the expense of priority. If indeed the term of Bostrichns is to be used 
at all (and there is no reason why it should not), it is clear that it should be applied to the Bermestes 
capiicinus, Linn., for which it was originally established by Geoftroy inl764, — and to which, eleven years 
afterwards, Fabricius chose to give the name of Apate. The fact of Fabricius ha\'ing cited (in 1792) 
some of the members of the present group as Bostriclii cannot be the slightest excuse for endorsing his 
falsification of G^eoflroy's generic name, — which appertains to the Bermestes capminus (and to whatsoever 
allied species may have been since discovered) exclusively. Bostrichus therefore having been correctly 
disposed of (and moreover conceded to its projyer author, which in common justice we are bound to do), 
it is evident that Latreille's appellation of Tomicm, proposed for these insects in 1802, should, ui accord- 
ance with the laws of precedence, be accepted. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 289 

necnon ad basin sinuatfe. Maxilla lobo singula lato setoso instructse [interno obsoleto). Palpi 
conici crassi ; maxillares articulo pi-imo brevissimo lato, secundo longiore vix graciliore, tertio 
brevi, ultimo mimito conico; labiates articulis primo et secundo crassiusculis subsequalibus, 
ultimo minuto conico. Ligula membranacea elongata subtriangularis. Pedes brevissimi validi : 
iibiis compressis, apicem versus dilatatis, extus fortiter dentatis, ad apicem interuum spina recta 
armatis : tarsis articulis tribus baseos longiusculis crassiusculis subsequalibus, quarto minu- 
tissimo, quinto longissimo subclavato. 

The TomicidcB, which by some entomologists are amalgamated with the Hylesi- 
nidce, would appear to supply a very natural passage into the typical lihynco2)hora 
from the departments which we have just left behind us ; for, whilst in all essential 
respects they are Pseudotetramerovis, yet the peculiar characteristics of that 
section (and especially of the E-hyncophorous portion of it) are unquestionably 
less developed in them than in the more advanced forms. Thvis, whilst they 
almost coincide as regards theii' oral organs with the modification observable in 
the Hylesinldce, yet the head, which is distinctly elongated in that family (a struc- 
ture which reaches its maximum in the Curculionklce), is here scarcely at all pro- 
duced ; — and, whilst their tarsi, on the other hand, display the minute penultimate 
joint which is so universal throughout the entire province of the Pseudotetrmnera, 
yet the antepenultimate (which is, normally, in that division, deeply cordate, so 
as to receive the following one between its lobes) is here simple, — as though to 
connect the genera towards which we are approaching with the preceding (penta- 
merous) ones. Such are the featm*es on which I would lay more decided stress 
in detaching the TomicidcB from the HylesinidcB ; and it must be admitted that 
they are very important, as being of all others perhaps the most prominent 
which we make use of in framing om' actual definition of the Bhyncophora. 
Nevertheless, essential as they are, they do not constitute all, since in the minor 
details of their organization there are a few particulars wliich may serve, albeit in 
a general way, to separate the two groups in question. Thus, for instance, the 
more cylindrical bodies of the Tomicidce, the more produced and rugose front 
region of their pronotum (singularities, be it noticed, which are broadly expressed 
in the later Cissidce), in conjimction with their more (obliquely) truncated extre- 
mity, are sufficiently evident, when contrasted with the corresponding points of 
the Sylesmidce, to be at once appreciated. 

Tomicus proper may be known from its immediate allies by its 5-articulated 
funiculus, and l^y the powerful denticulations of its tibiae. It possesses also those 
two primary diagnostics of the ordinary members of the family, — namely the 
anteriorly roughened and hooded prothorax, and the obliquely terminated elytra, — 
more positively than is the case with either of the other Madeiran genera ; both of 
which indeed are extremely anomalous, — whilst one of them, in the subemarginated 
tliird joint of its tarsi, is so far aberrant as to form a connecting link with the Sy- 
lesinidcB. The Tomici are of eminently lignivorous habits, — attaching themselves to 
the larger trees, and being in nowise connected with the stalks of smaller plants. 

2p 



290 INSECTA MADERENSIA. 

220. Tomicus villosus. 

T. lato-cylindricus subnitidus piceo-ferrugineus et pilis longissimis erectis subfulvescentibus adspersus, 
prothorace undique rugose scabroso-granulato, anticc rotundato sed vix asperato, elytris rugose 
seriatim punctatis (seriebus alternis ex punctis maximis compositis), ad apieem obliquo-truncatis, 
antennis pedibusque tcstaceis. 

Long. corj). lin. 1^-li. 

Bostrichus villosus, Fab. Unf. Si/st. i. ii. 367 (1792). 

, Payk. Fna Siiec. iii. 154 (1800). 

Ips villosus, Mshm, IJnt. Brit. i. 53 (1802). 

Tomicus villosus. Staph. III. Brit. Ent. iii. 356 (1830). 

Habitat Maderam, sub cortice arborum, rarissimus : tria specimina, in castanetis Sanctse Annae Junio 
exeunte a.d. 1850 a meipso reperta, sola vidi. 

T. rather short, tiiick and cylindrical, slightly shining, ferruginous or pale piceo-ferruginous, and 
densely besprinkled with exceedingly long, erect and fulvescent hairs. Prothorax not very 
convex, uniformly and roughly scabrous or granulated, but scarcely more roughened in front 
than elsewhere, — where however it is rounded and produced ; and without any appearance of 
either a dorsal channel or ridge. Elytra rough, and very deeply seriate-punctate (the punctures 
being extremely large and distinct), and the interstices with a longitudinal row of very minute 
punctures down each ; abruptly truncated behind, — where there is a deeply-impressed stria on 
either side of the suture, which gradually vanishes in front, but without any tendency to addi- 
tional asperity. Antenna and legs testaceous. 

A large and well-marked Tomicus; and readily known from the following 
species by its (proportionably) short, thick and robust form, pale rufo-piceous, or 
almost ferruginous, hue, by its extremely hairy and roughened sui-face, and by 
the sculpture of its prothorax and el}i;ra, — the former of which moreover is not 
expanded anteriorly, whilst the latter are comparatively mitch truncated at their 
hinder extremity. It is a tolerably common insect throughout boreal and central 
liurope, Ijut Avould appear in Madeu-a to be decidedly scarce, — where it is just 
possible indeed that it may have been introduced from more northern latitudes. 
Three specimens only have hitherto come beneath my notice, — all of which were 
captured by myself, during the s umm er of 1850, from under the bark of Spanish 
chestnut-trees in Senhor Louiz Acciaioly's vineyard at Santa Anna. 

221. Tomicus Dohmii, Woll. 

T. angusto-cylindricus nitidus nigro-piccus et pilis brevioribus subcrectis cinereis adspersus, pro- 
thorace amplo subtilissime et parcc punctulato, ante medium subnodoso-convexo, antice dilatato 
obtuse rotundato necnon mucronibus asperato, elytris minute seriatim punctatis (seriebus alternis 
vix observandis), ad apieem leviter obliquo-truncatis, antennis pedibusque palUdo-tcstaceis. 

Long. corp. lin. 1-1 i. 

Habital in Mader^ (pi-jesertim boreali) excelsd sylvatic^, sub cortice arborum, hinc inde vulgatissimus. 



INSECTA MADERENSIA. 291 

Species valde indigena, et in honorem illust. C. A. Dohrn, qui in Gennania per plures annos scientise 
Entomologicse patronus exstitit, a me denominata. 

T. narrower, and comparatively more elongated, than the T. villosm, cylindrical (though a little 
expanded anteriorly), shining (especially the elytra), dark piceous, and besprinkled with fine, 
erect and cinereous hairs, — which however are much shorter, and not all of them so erect, as 
those of the last species. Prothorax large, straightened behind and dilated in front ; with a small 
convexity (almost resembling the rudiments of a nodule) on its fore-disk ; most delicately and 
distantly punctulated behind, — where it is nearly glabrous, and sometimes of an obscure rufescent 
tinge ; greatly roughened in front with coarse and somewhat transverse tubercles and points, — 
where it is produced, and (on account of the expansion)