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Z. P. METCALF 

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LIBRARY OF 




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Z P. METCALF 

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INSECT LIFE 



LIFE AND LOVE OF 
THE INSECT 

By J. H. FABRE. Translated by Alexander Teixeira de 

Mattos. Containing 26 Illustrations, 11 of them full-page 

from Photographs. Price 6s. net (by post 5s. 4d.). 

" Rarely have we come across a book on natural history written 

so attractively. He invests his subject with a fascination which 

should attract many readers who are now outside the ranks of 

students of natural history. The illustrations are excellent and 

most illuminating."— Cc'««0' GentUvtan. 

HIGHWAYS AND BYWAYS OF 
THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

By CONSTANCE INNES POCOCK. Containing 32 full- 
page Illustrations from Photographs and a Frontispiece in 
colour. Small square demy 8vo., cloth, price 6s. net. 
Extract from a Press Opinion.— " And so, with a profusion 
of ' domestic' touches such ai these, Mrs. Pocock carries us through 
the principal sections of the Gardens in her attempt to — as she 
des ribes it— 'carry the Zoological Gardens to those who are unable 
to go to them.' In that description there is something lacking of 
justice to herself, for undoubtedly those who can go to the Gardens 
will find the pleasure attached to their visit greatly enhanced by a 
previous perusal of these ^2.%^i."— Horse and Hound, 

THE ZOO 

By A. W. PETERS. In the " Artists' Sketch Book " Series. 

Large square demy 8vo., with Artistic Covers and Wrappers, 

bearing a design by the artist and containing 24 reproductions 

in facsimile from pencil drawings. 
Difficulties of reproduction have hitherto hindered the employ- 
ment, for illustrative purposes, of the pencil, which artists have 
always found the most sympathetic and responsive medium at their 
command for sketching purposes. In the ''Artists' Sketch Book" 
Series the publishers venture to think they have successfully over- 
come these difficulties. 



PUBLISHED BY 
A. AND C. BLACK, LTD., 4, 5 AND 6 SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W. I 



AMERICA .... THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

64 & 66 FIFTH AVBNUH, .N EW YORK 

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300 Bow Bazaar Strbbt, CALCUTTA 



PLATE I 







1 1 i Y I 



1. Mylabris capensis o. Pinielia angiuata i8. Mordella penata 

2. Pyrocliroa coccinea 10. Camaria sp. 19. Fterohela-iis sp. 

3. Neloeproscarabseus 11. Zophobus sp. 20. Rhipiphorus sp. 

i. Calopiis serraticornis 12 .Mylabris trifasciata 21. Phrenapates bennetii 

5. Gonitis qiiadripiinctata 13 Nictobates gigas 22. Tetraonyx sexguttatus 

6. Hypaiilax ovalis 11. Mylabris transversalis 2J Odontopiis ciipreus 

7. Psammodes spinolae 15. Ciiiroscelis passaloides 24. Cantliaris dives 

8. Helaeus Hopei 10. Cantliaris quadrimaculata 25. Coelociiemis obesa 

17. Anomalipes dentipes 



INSECT LIFE 

BY C. A. EALAND, M.A., 

WITH 74 FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS 

24 BEING FROM PHOTOGRAPHS 

BY THE AUTHOR AND 50 IN COLOUR 

FROM NATURE 



PUBLISHED BY 
SOHO SQUARE 




A. & C. BLACK, Ltd. 
LONDON, W.I 1 92 1 



INTRODUGTIOlN 

" Insect Life " breaks new ground. It is an attempt 
to provide a textbook of Entomology, useful alike 
to the serious student and to the reader who takes 
up the subject as a hobby. 

As far as possible technicalities have been avoided, 
but the probable utility of the book to teachers has 
not allowed of them being altogether eliminated. 
The more important species of a very large number 
of families have been dealt with ; it is clearly im- 
possible, however, in a book of but three hundred 
odd pages, to cover the vast field of present-day 
Entomology. 

To my publishers I am indebted for many kind- 
nesses in the production of the book. To Messrs. 
Jansen I express my appreciation for the loan of 
many specimens illustrated in " Insect Life." 

C. A. E. 

London, 1921. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

PAOE 

INTRODUCTION, CLASSIFICATION, AND METAMORPHOSIS - - 1 

CHAPTER II 

SOCIAL HABITS, COLOURING OF INSECTS, AND ECONOMIC 

QUESTIONS - - - - - - - 29 

CHAPTER III 

COLLEMBOLA, THYSANURA, MALLOPHAGA, ANOPLURA, ODONATA, 
PLECOPTERA, EPHEMEROPTERA, ISOPTERA, AND ORTHOP- 
TERA ..-..- 



59 



CHAPTER IV 

EUPLEXOPTERA, EMBIOPTERA, PSOCOPTERA, THYSANOPTERA, 

RHYNCHOTA - - - - - - 98 

CHAPTER V 

PLANIPENNIA, TRICHOPTERA, AND LEPIDOPTERA - - 127 

CHAPTER VI 

COLEOPTERA AND STREPSIPTERA . - _ . 173 

CHAPTER VII 

HYMENOPTERA ------- 223 

CHAPTER VIII 
siphonaptera and diptera ----- 279 

Appendix .-----. 316 



24 
66 

81 

84 



LIST OF FULL-PAGE PLATES 

MOSTLY IN COLOUR 

Tliose viarlied with an asterisk (*) are in blade and white 



PLATE FACTNO PAGE 

I. MYLABRIS CAPENSIS, PYROCHROA COCCINEA AND 

TWENTY-THREE OTHER BEETLES - Frontispiece 

*II. LAPPET MOTH AT REST AMONG DEAD LEAVES] 
GIANT COCKROACH - - - -/ 

III. A GROUP OF DRAGON-FLIES - - - 66 

*IV. STICK insect] 

MANTIS J 

*V. HEAD OF MANTIS 1 

LONGICORN beetle/ 

*VI. HEAD OP STICK INSECT, HIGHLY MAGNIFIED - 88 

*VII. LEAF INSECT - - - - - 91 

*VIII. NEW ZEALAND CRICKET - - - - 94 

*IX. GIANT WATER BUG - - - - 113 

*X. CICADA - - - - - - 115 

IX. A GROUP OF HOMOPTERA - - - - 116 

*XII. HEAD OF CICADA, UNDER SIDE, HIGHLY MAGNIFIED 118 

*XIII. LANTERN FLY - . - . . 120 

*XIV. A MEMBRACID WHICH MIMICS A THORN - - 123 

*XV. ALDER FLY -.---- 126 

XVI. ORNITHOPTERA BROOKIANA, MALE AND FEMALE - 129 

XVII. ORNITHOPTERA HEPH^STUS, MALE AND FEMALE - 132 

|ix 



PLATE 

XVIII. 



XXI. 



XXII. 



XXIII. 
XXIV. 



XXV. 
XXVI. 



XXVII. 



XXVIII. 



XXX. 



XXXII. 
XXXIII. 



INSECT LIFE 

F.v.-isi; PAGE 

THAIS RUMINA, LASIOCAMPA TRIFOLII AND EIGHT 

OTHER BUTTERFLIES - - - - 136 

EPICALIA NUMILIA, PAPILIO SARPEDON AND SEVEN 

OTHER BUTTERFLIES - - - - 138 

VANESSA URTIC.^ (SMALL TORTOISESHELL) OVA, 

LARViE, PUP^ AND IMAGO - - - 140 

VANESSA ATALANTA (rED ADMIRAL), VANESSA CARDUI 
(painted lady) AND THREE OTHER BUTTER- 
FLIES .-.--- 142 

MELIT^A CINXIA (GLANVILLE FRITILLARY), MELITiEA 
ATHALIA (heath FRITILLARY) AND FIVE OTHER 
BUTTERFLIES - ... - 145 

KALLIMA INACHIS (a LEAF BUTTERFLY) - 147 

COLIAS EDUSA (CLOUDED YELLOW), GONEPTERYX 
RHAMNI (brimstone) AND SEVEN OTHER BUTTER- 
FLIES - - - - - - 148 

MORPHO ACHILLES - ... - 150 

MELANARGIA GALATHEA (MARBLED WHITE), EREBIA 
EPIPHRON (MOUNTAIN RINGLET) AND EIGHT OTHER 
BUTTERFLIES - - - - - 152 

COENONYMPHA PAMPHILUS (SMALL HEATH), THECLA 
RUBI (GREEN HAIRSTREAK) AND TEN OTHER 
BUTTERFLIES - - - - - 155 

DELIAS PYRAMUS, TERACOLUS JOBINA AND SEVEN 

OTHER BUTTERFLIES - - - - 156 

PALILIO MACHAON (sWALLOW TAIL), APORIA CRATAGI 
(black veined white) AND SEVEN OTHER 
BUTTERFLIES - - - - 158 

PAPILIO cenea (red variety), (male and female) 

AND THREE OTHER BUTTERFLIES - - 161 

LYC^NA BELLARGUS (CLIPDEN BLUE), LYC^INA 

CORYDON (CHALK-HILL BLUE) AND ELEVEN OTHER 

BUTTERFLIES - - - - - 163 

ACTIAS SELENE - - - - - 164 

ATTACUS ATLAS ( ATLAS MOTH) - - - 166 



LIST OP FULL-PAGE PLATES xi 

'^^'^'^^ FACING PA015 

XXXIV. ACHERONTIA ATROPOS, SPHINX CONVOLVULI AND 

SEVEN OTHER MOTHS - - - -163 

XXXV. CHiEROCAMPA ALECTA, DEILEPHILA VERPERTILLIO 

AND FIVE OTHER MOTHS - - _ I'Jl 

XXXVI. COSSUS LIGNIPERDA, ZEUZERA PYRINA AND FOUR- 
TEEN OTHER MOTHS - - - - 172 

XXXVII. PLUSIA CHRYSITIS, HALIAS PRASINANA AND NINE 

OTHER MOTHS - - . . . I74. 

*XXXVIII. A STAG BEETLE (mALE) - - - - 176 

XXXIX. DICRANURA VINULA, LOPHOPTERYX CAMELINA AND 

TWENTY-TWO OTHER MOTHS - . . ^79 

XL. MACROGLOSSA STELLATARUM, MACROGLOSSA FUCI- 

FORMIS AND TWENTY-ONE OTHER MOTHS - - 180 

XLI. UROPTERYX SAMBUCARIA, RUMIA LUTEOLATA AND 

THIRTY-ONE OTHER MOTHS - - - 182 

*XLII. THE LONG-HANDED BEETLE 
*XLIII. HERCULES BEETLE - 
*XLIV. HEAD OF HERCULES BEETLE (MALE) 
*XLV. GOLIATH BEETLE 

*XLVI. GOLIATH BEETLE - - . 

*XLVII. GOLIATH BEETLE 
*XLVIII. GIANT TIGER BEETLE 
*XLIX. FIDDLE BEETLE - - -^ 

L. XYLOPHASIA MONOGLYPHA, DIPTERYGIA SCABRIUS- 

CULA AND TWENTY-FIVE OTHER MOTHS - - 187 

LI. MELANTHIA BICOLORATA, HYPSIPETES SORDIDATA 

AND FORTY-FIVE OTHER MOTHS - - - 188 

LII. MANIA MAURA, MANIA TYPICA AND TWENTY-THREE 

OTHER MOTHS - - - - . igQ 

LIII. SILPHA THORACICA, SILPHA RUGOSA AND TWENTY 

OTHER BEETLES ----- I93 

LIV. GNORIMUS NOBILIS, MELOLONTHA VULGARIS AND 

EIGHTEEN OTHER BEETLES ... ^95 



} Between 184-185 



xii INSECT LIFE 



PLATE FACING PAGE 

LV. AMAURODES PASSEEINI, DICRANOCEPIIALUS WALLICHI 

AND FOURTEEN OTHER BEETLES - - 195 

LVI. A GROUP OF TIGER BEETLES - - - 198 

LVII. DICHIROTRICHUS PUBESCENS, HARPALUS .IINEUS AND 

EIGHTEEN OTHER BEETLES - - - 200 

LVIII. PANAG^US 4-PUSTULATUS, CICINDELA CAMPESTRIS 

AND THIRTEEN OTHER BEETLES - - - 203 

LIX. DYTISCUS PUNCTULATUS (FEMALE), ACILIUS SULCATUS 

(female) and twelve OTHER BEETLES - 204 

LX. PHILONTHUS JENEUS, OCYPUS MO RIO AND SEVEN- 
TEEN OTHER BEETLES - - - - 206 
LXI. A GROUP OF CLICK BEETLES - - - 209 
LXII. CYPHOGASTRA JAVANICA, CONOGNATHA PRACTIOSSIS- 

SIMA AND FOURTEEN OTHER BEETLES - - 211 

LXIII. DONACIA CRASSIPES, DONACIA SEMICUPREA AND 

TWENTY-ONE OTHER BEETLES - - - 212 

LXIV. ZOPHOBAS SP., ERODIUS ORIENTALIS AND TWENTY - 

FOUR OTHER BEETLES - - - - 214 

LXV. MOLURIS GIBBA, GONOPUS TIBIALIS AND NINETEEN 

OTHER BEETLES . . - . 216 

LXVI. LAMPYRIS NOCTILUCA (MALE), TELEPHORUS RUSTICUS 

AND THIRTEEN OTHER BEETLES - - - 219 

*LXVII. HEAD OF PALM WEEVIL, GREATLY ENLARGED - 220 

LXVIII. ITHOCRITUS RUBER, SPHINGNOTUS MIRABILIS AND 

NINE OTHER BEETLES - . - . 222 

*LXIX. COCOON OF PALM WEEVIL - - - - 224 

LXX. A GROUP OF WEEVILS - . - . 228 

LXXI. A GROUP OF BEES .... 236 

*LXXII. NEST OF LEAF-CUTTER BEE - - . - 248 

LXXIII. A GROUP OF DIPTERA . _ . . 299 

LXXIV. BRITISH FLIES . - . _ . 302 



INSECT LIFE 



CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTION, CLASSIFICATION, AND 
METAMORPHOSIS 

Introduction. 

The entomologist of to-day is a scientist; lie bears no 
manner of semblance to his predecessors, who, long- 
haired and bespectacled for choice, garbed in apparel of 
uncommon cut, roamed the countryside in search of — 
plunder. There is no other word for it; the old time 
" bug-hunter " was out to kill: he helped to make some 
of our uncommon insects wellnigh extinct. And the 
object of his depredations was merely the filling of some 
tawdry, pendant glass-topped case with specimens 
arranged in bizarre patterns. 

Nowadays these one-time sportsmen are as extinct 
as the Dodo; they do not exist outside musical comedy, 
and their musty hotchpotches of specimens have either 
gone the way of their sponsors or are accumulating dust 
in forgotten corners of antique shops. 

Entomology is slowly but surely coming to the fore; 
even our most conservative Universities have admitted 
the subject to their curricula, and, the world over, 
trained entomologists are gathering knowledge that will 

1 



2 INSECT LIFE 

enable their fellows to combat harmful and destructive 
insects. 

For a reason difficult to explain the sister sciences 
of botany and entomology are often looked upon as 
being somewhat effeminate. The idea is fostered in our 
public schools. The boy who takes up chemistry or 
physics is, in the eyes of his schoolfellows, except those 
super-youths who scan their small horizon through 
glasses of classic mould, merely foUomng a natural, 
healthy bent. The budding botanist or entomologist 
is usually a butt for crude sarcasm, or worse. 

Let the lover of plants and insects take heart; his 
hobby may carry him to realms of real utility. Putting 
aside systematic work for the moment, we are learning 
more and more each day the immense importance of 
economic entomology. The medical man knows that 
many of the most deadly human diseases are carried 
from patient to patient solely by insects. Despite this 
knowledge, it is a most astounding fact that there are 
an almost infinitesimal number of medical men who 
possess even a, so-called, nodding acquaintance with 
entomology. Many of the most brilliant discoveries 
in this branch of the science have been made by laymen. 

The fruit-grower knows, or should know, that only 
by a knowledge of the life-histories of the harmful insects 
that take toll of his crops is he able to deal with them 
effectually. The market-gardener and the farmer are 
in like case. The latter, if he be also a stock-keeper, 
has a double watch to keep, for there are many insects 
which bring disease and even death to his cattle. 

In the farm, the orchard, the poultry-yard, even in 
our homes, the ubiquitous insect is waging constant 



INTRODUCTION 3 

warfare against man and his belongings. How, tlien, 
can a science whicli enlightens us concerning the means 
best fitted for combating the common enemy be other 
than important ? It is hardly necessary to labour the 
point that, the more we know of our enemies, the more 
effectually we are enabled to render futile their m&,china- 
tions. 

Numerically insects far exceed the combined total of 
all the other living creatures on this earth of ours. In 
size they vary from giant stick insects and Moths, 
measuring several inches in body-length and wing-span 
respectively, down to minute Beetles, invisible to the 
naked eye, and much smaller than Cheese-mites, which 
were once thought to be the smallest creatures. Their 
lives may be spent almost wholly in the air, in water, 
and on or in the soil. Many dwell during one period of 
their lives in one element and in another during the 
remainder of their existence. There are few substances, 
natural or man-made, which will not af!ord a home to 
some insect species. 

In taking up the study of entomology seriously, 
whether as a hobby or as a profession, one is at once 
confronted with the problem of selecting which branch 
of the science to pursue. Maybe systematic work will 
appeal most strongly, or medical entomology. The 
student who already possesses a knowledge of botany 
will probably be attracted to the study of insects destruc- 
tive to crops. This, however, is a point that need not be 
laboured beyond the reminder that we live in an age of 
specialists; and the all-round entomologist is as rare as 
the quondam " bug-hunter.'' 

Systematists may be called the foundation-stones 



4 INSECT LIFE 

of tlie entomological edifice ; they are tlie indispensables 
of tlie science. It may appear stale and unprofitable 
to sit, day by day, within tbe four walls of a museum 
studying a single order of insects, or, perchance, merely 
a small group, picking out here and there minute but 
important details which may or may not be essential to 
the better ordering of their specimens. From the time 
of the great Swedish naturalist Linnseus to the present 
day, the systematists have laboured to the advantage 
of entomology in general. The medical entomologist 
must either know something of systematic work or turn, 
time and again, to the systematist for help; so, perforce, 
must the student of agricultural entomology and all 
others who would study the lives of insects ; for of what 
avail is it to know how some six-legged creature spends 
its days if one remains ignorant of its relationships or 
even of its identity ? 

In the pages which follow we have essayed a review 
of the more salient features of insect life. The text is 
arranged on strictly scientific lines and with the greatest 
attention to accuracy, for it is hoped that ** Insect Life '' 
may appeal to teachers and students of entomology. 
We are, however, mindful that many of our fellow- men 
will only take kindly to a new subject when they feel 
assured that no attempt is being made to ofEer them a 
surfeit of dry-as-dust facts. On that account every 
endeavour has been made to keep paramount the 
innate interest of insect life. 

No single volume could ever deal with every form of 
insect life; our pages, perforce, only treat of a relatively 
small number of types. A knowledge of the structure, 
relationships, and habits of these typical insects will, 



CLASSIFICATION 5 

it is hoped, lead to a closer study of entomology in 
general, a consummation whicli will render the writing 
of " Insect Life '" worth while. 



Classification. 

Very many years ago, in the middle of the eighteenth 
century to be exact, Linnaeus laid the foundations of 
modern zoological classification. Seeing that more 
than a quarter of a million different kinds of insects are 
known to entomologists, it is evident that their orderly 
and methodical arrangement is a matter of necessity. 
It is unfortunate, however, that entomologists are not 
agreed and apparently cannot agree upon a definite 
scheme of classification. 

As in the case of all animals, insects are arranged in 
orders, suborders, families, subfamilies, genera, and 
species. They are placed in these categories according 
to their apparent relationships with one another, as 
judged, mainly, by their anatomical structure. Even 
at the present day there is considerable difference of 
opinion as to the characters which are of sufficient 
importance to warrant placing certain insects in the same 
category. Some authorities recognize but eight orders, 
others more than a score, and between the two there is 
ample choice. Before proceeding to a consideration of 
the reasons for this diversity of opinion, it is as well to 
be clear concerning the fundamentals of classification. 

The placing of insects in various groups is not a mere 
arrangement for the sake of convenience. Such is our 
knowledge at the present day that, even with our 
imperfect and ever-changing schemes of classification, 



6 INSECT LIFE 

they are arranged, or should be arranged, according to 
their descent. Mere external appearance is no sure 
guide in making a classification. Various modifications 
for particular modes of life will often so change the 
outward aspect of an insect that, judging by externals 
alone, the most distantly related forms would be grouped 
together. A study of development and internal ana- 
tomy is absolutely essential, and will alone reveal true 
relationships. In any group , then, whether the members 
outwardly resemble one another or not, if they are 
correctly placed, they are all blood relations. Being 
relations, it is highly probable that they will, for the 
most part, be somewhat similar to one another, but 
there are aberrant forms in many groups. 

The first step in classification consists in dividing the 
animal kingdom into branches, and insects are placed 
in the branch Arthropoda because their bodies are more 
or less distinctly segmented and their appendages 
(legs, etc.) are jointed. The branch Arthropoda com- 
prises five classes: 

I. Crustacea (Lobsters, Crabs, Shrimps, etc.). 
II. Onychophora (Slime Slugs). 

III. Myriapoda (Centipedes, etc.). 

IV. Insecta (Insects). 

V. Arachnida (Scorpions, Spiders, Ticks, etc.). 

Of these, Insecta only need be considered. In certain 
books the class is known as Hexapoda, for the reason 
that adult insects are always provided with six legs — ■ 
in fact, the number of legs and the division of the body 
(not always apparent) into head, thorax, and abdomen, 
distinguishes insects from all other creatures. 



CLASSIFICATION 7 

The class Insecta is divided into three subclasses : 

A. Apterygota (the members of this subclass never 

develop wings). 

B. Exofterygota (the members of this subclass have 

wing-rudiments visible throughout growth). 

C. Endopterygota (the members of this subclass have 

hidden wing-rudiments) . 

The Apterygota are wingless throughout life. There 
are other so-called wingless insects which do not belong 
to the subclass, but they possess the rudiments of wings, 
as careful examination, either external or internal, will 
show. 

The Exopterygota always have their wings, or at least 
rudiments of wings, visible during their periods of growth. 
The common Cockroach belongs to this subclass, and 
the young Cockroach, in common with all other insects 
similarly classified, emerges from the egg provided with 
the rudiments of wings. 

The Endopterygota includes all those insects which 
pass through a caterpillar stage. During this stage 
growth takes place, but no amount of investigation will 
give any hint of the wings with which the insect is to be 
provided at a later stage of its development. 

The three subclasses are divided into orders, and at 
this point there is considerable diversity of opinion as 
to the degree of subdivision which should take place. 
Linnaeus recognized but seven orders; the American 
practice is to make use of nineteen orders. Carpenter, 
a noted authority, divides his insects into twenty orders. 
For convenience sake the orders dealt with in " Insect 
Life " are tabulated, and a brief description of each 



8 



INSECT LIFE 



order follows tlie table. Three of the orders, Protura, 
Zoraptera, and Zeugloptera, are merely of academic 
interest, and are only included to make the scheme of 
classification complete. 



Orders 
I. Protura. 
II. CoUembola 



III. Zoraptera. 

IV. Thysanura . . 



CLASS INSECTA OR HEXAPODA 
Subclass After ygota 

Families. 



(i.) Aphoruridse, (ii.) Poduridse, (iii.) 
Entomobryidse, (iv.) Papiriidse, 
(v.) Smynthuridae. 

(i.) Campodeidse, (ii.) Japygidse, (iii.) 
Lepismatidse, (iv.) Machilidse. 



Subclass Exopterygota. 



Orders. 
V. Mallophaga 

VI. Anoplura . 
VII. Odonata .. 



VIII. Plecoptera . . 
IX. Ephemeroptera 
X. Isoptera 
XI. Orthoptera . . 



XII. Euplexoptera 

XIII. Embioptera 

XIV. Psocoptera . . 
XV. Thysanoptera 

XVI. Rbynchota. 



Families. 
(i.) Trichodectidse, (ii.) Philopteridee, 

(iii.) Gyropidse, (iv.) Liotlieidae 
(i.) Pediculidae. 
(i.) Calopterygidse, (ii.) Agrionidae, 

(iii.) Gompbidse, (iv.) Cordu- 

ligasteridse, (v.) -ffisclinidse, (vi.). 

Cordulidee, (vii.) Libellulidse. 
Perlidse. 
Ephemeridae. 
Termitidse. 
(i.) Blattidae, (ii.)Mantidse, (iii.) Phas- 

midee, (iv.) Gryllidse, (v.) Locus- 

tidse, (vi.) Acridiidse. 
Forficulidee. 
Embiidse. 

(i.) Psocidae, (ii.) Atropidee. 
Thripidae. 



CLASSIFICATION 



Suborder Heteroptera. 

Orders. Families. 

(i.) Pentatomidse, (ii.) Coreidae, (iii.) 
Lygseidse, (iv.) Pyrrhocoridse, 
(v.) Tingidae, (vi.) Aradidse, 
(vii.) Hydrometridse, (viii.) Heni- 
cocephalidse, (ix.) Reduviidae, 
(x.) Cimicida), (xi.) Capsidee, 
(xii.) Nepidse, (xiii.) Belosto- 
midse, (xiv.) Notonectidse, (xv.) 
Corixidae. 



Suborder Homoptera. 

Orders. Families. 

(i.) Cicadidae, (ii) Fulgoridae, (iii.) 

^^ Membracidae, (iv.) tJercopidae, 

O (v.) Jassidae, (vi.) Psyllidao, (vii.) 

Aphidae, (viii.) Aleurodidae, (ix.) 

Coccidae. 



Subclass Endopterygota. 

Orders. Families. 

XVII. Planipennia . . (i.) Sialidae, (ii.) Ehaphidiidae, (iii.) 

Mantispidae, (iv.) Conioptery- 
gidae, (v.) Myrmelionidae, (vi.) 
Hemerobiidae, (vii.) ChrysopidsB. 

XVIII. Trichoptera . . (i.) Phryganeidae, (ii.) Limnophilidae, 

(iii.) Rhyacophilidae, (iv.) Hy- 
droptilidae, (v.) Sericostomatidae, 
(vi.) Leptoceridae, (vii.) Hy- 
dropsychidae. 
XIX. Zeugloptera. 
XX. Lepidoptera. 



10 ' INSECT LIFE 

Suborder Rhopalocera. 
Orders. Families. 

(i.) Nymplialidse, (ii.) Erycinidae, (iii.) 
Danaidse, (iv.) Satyridse, (v.) 
Morphidse, (vi.) Brassolidse, (vii.) 
Heliconiidse, (viii.) Lycsenidae 
(ix.) Pieridse, (x) Papilionidse, 
(xi.) Hesperiidse. 

Suborder Heterocera. 
Orders. Families. 

(i.) Castniidse, (ii.) Saturniidse, (iii.) 
Bombycidse, (iv.) Eupteroptidse, 
(v.) SpMngidee, (vi.) Notodon- 
tidae, (vii.) Cymatophoridae, (viii. ) 
Sesiidse, (ix.) Zygsenidae, (x.) 
PsycMdae, (xi.) Cossidae, (xii.) 
Hepialidas, (xiii.) Drepanidae, 
(xiv.) Limacodidae, (xv.) Lasio- 
campidae, (xvi.) Endromidae, 
(xvii.) Lymantriidae, (xviii.) Hyp- 
sidae, (xix.) Arctiidae, (xx.) Geo- 
metridae, (xxi.) Noctuidae, (xxii.) 
Pyralidae, (xxiii.) Pterophoridae, 
(xxiv.) Tortricidae, (xxv.) Tin- 
eidae. 

Suborder Lamellicornia. 
Orders. Families. 

XXI. Coleoptera. 

(i.) Passalidae, (ii.) Lucanidae, (iii.) 
Copridae, (iv.) Melolonthidae, (v.) 
Rutelidae, (vi.) Dynastidae, (vii.) 
Cetoniidae. 

Suborder Adephaga. 
Orders. Families. 

(i.) Cicindelidae, (ii.) Carabidae, (iii.) 
Pelobiidae, (iv.) Dytiscidae. 



CLASSIFICATION 11 

Suborder Polymorpha. 
Orders. Families. 

(i.) Paussidse, (ii.) Gyrinidse, (iii.) 
Hydrophilidse, (iv.) Platypsyl- 
lidse, (v.) Leptinidse, (vi.) Sil- 
phidse, (vii.) Pselaphidse, (viii.) 
Staphylinidae, (ix.) Histeridse, 
• (x.) Nitidulidse, (xi.) Trogositidse 

(xii.) Cryptophagidse, (xiii.) My- 
cetophagidse, (xiv.) Coccinellidse, 
(xv.) Dermestidae, (xvi.) Byr- 
rhid8e,(xvii.) Bostrychidse, (xviii.) 
Ptinidse, (xix.) Malacodermidae, 
(xx.) Cleridse, (xxi.) Dascillidae, 
(xxii.) Elateridse, (xxiii.) Bu- 
prestidse. 

Suborder Heteromera. 
Orders. Families. 

(i.) Tenebrionidse, (ii.) Cistelidse, (iii.) 
Meloidee. 

Suborder Phytophaga. 
Orders. Families. 

(i.) Bruchid39, (ii.) Donacidse, (iii.) 
Sagridse. (iv.) Crioceridae, (v.) 
Clythridse, (vi.) Cryptoceplia- 
lidae, (vii.) Eumolpidae, (viii.) 
Chrysomelidse, (ix.) Halticidse, 
(x.) Galerucidse, (xi.) Hispidae, 
(xii.) Cassididae, (xiii.) Prionidae, 
(xiv.) Cerambycidae, (xv.) Lami- 
idae. 

Suborder Khynchophora. 
Orders. Families. 

(i.) Anthribidae, (ii.) Curculionidas, 
(iii.) Scolytidae, (iv.) Brenthidae. 
XXII. Strepsiptera .. Stylopidae. 

XXIII. Hymenoptera. 



32 INSECT LIFE 

SUBORDEE SeSSILIVENTRES. 

Orders. Families. 

(i.) Tentliredinidse, (ii.) Siricidse, (iii.) 
Cephidse. 

Suborder Pbtiolata. 

Orders. Families. 

Series 1. Parasitica: (i.) Ichneumo- 
nidse, (ii.) Brachonidse, (iii.) 
Evaniidse, (iv.) Chalcididse, (v.) 
Proctotrypidse, (vi.) Cynipidse. 

Series 2. Tubulifera: Chrysididse. 

Series 3. Aculeata — Division Antho- 
phila: Apidse. 

Division Diploptera: (i.) Eumenidse, 
(ii.) Vespidso. 

Division Fossores: (i.) Mutillidee, 
(ii.) Thynnidse, (iii.) Scoliidse, 
(iv.) Sapygidse, (v.) Psammo- 
cliaridae, (vi.) Splirgidse. 

Division Heterogyna: Formicidse. 



Orders. Families. 

XXIV. Siphonaptera Pulicidse. 

XXV. Diptera .. .. Series OrtliorrhaphaNeurocera:(i.)Ce- 

cidomyiidae, (ii.) MycetopMidse, 
(iii.) Culicidse, (iv.) Chironomidse, 
(v.) Psychodidse, (vi.) Dixidse, 
(vii.) Tipulidse, (viii.) Bibionidae, 
(ix.) Simulidae. 
Series Orthorrhapha Brachycera: (i.) 
Stratiomyidse, (ii.) Leptidse, (iii.) 
Tabanidse, (iv.) Scenopinidse, 
(v.) Bombyliidse, (vi.) Asilidse, 
(vii.) EmpidsB. 



CLASSIFICATION 13 

Orders. Families. 

Series Cyclorrliapha Aschiza: (i.) 

Pipunculidse, (ii.) Conopidse, 

(iii.) Syrpliidse. 
Series Cyclorrhapha Scliizophora — 

Group Calypteratre : (i.) CEs- 
\ tiidse, (ii.) Tacliinidse, (iii.) Sarco- 

phagidae, (iv.) Muscidse, (v.) An- 

thomyiidee. 
Group Acalypteratse : (i.) Scatopha- 

gidse, (ii.) Sepsidse, (iii.) Ortalidse, 

(iv.) Trypetidse, (v.) Diopsidse, 

(vi.) Oscinida3, (vii.) Drosophi- 

lidse, (viii.) Agromyzidae. 
Series Pupiparia: (i.) Hippoboscidae, 

(ii.) Braulidse, (iii.) Nycteri- 

biidee. 

Formidable as this list may appear, it is by no means 
complete as far as tlie families are concerned. To deal, 
however concisely, with even a few members of all the 
recognized families would require a volume of enormous 
dimensions. 

The members of the various families are again divided 
into genera and species, and further division may occur 
into subgenera, subspecies, or varieties, but we have 
travelled far enough along the badly metalled road of 
classification. One or two examples may make matters 
more clear. The common House-fly is known to 
entomologists the world over as Musca domestica, L. 
To assign a high-sounding title to so common an insect 
may appear to savour of pedantry. A moment's con- 
sideration, however, will show that popular names are 
likely to lead to misunderstanding. The House-fly 
occurs in practically every part of the world where man 



14 INSECT LIFE 

has taken up his abode, and the insect has a different 
popular name in every language. How is the Britisher 
to know that the Typhoid-fly of America and the House- 
fly of his own country are one and the same insect ? 
Popular names often differ in neighbouring counties, 
yet Musca domestica is the one title which denotes the 
common House-fly everywhere. This Fly, then, belongs 
to the genus Musca and the species domestica. The 
letter L. which follows its name shows that it was first 
described by Linnaeus. 

The name of the author responsible for an insect's 
title is often omitted, but such omission may cause con- 
fusion. For instance, there is a common yellow 
Humble-bee called Bomhus mmcorum ; there is another, 
equally common, yellow and black Humble-bee 
of the same name. The former was described by 
Kirby and the latter by Smith. Were the author's 
names appended, the expert entomologist would know 
to which Humble-bee reference was made. In any case, 
it is confusing to have two closely related insects bearing 
similar names. In the examples we have quoted this 
source of confusion is removed by the fact that the 
B. muscorum of Kirby had been previously described as 
B. venustus by Smith, and the B. muscorum of Smith 
had been named B. agrorum by Fabricius, and the name 
of the prior author always stands. This is a strict and 
necessary rule in classification, for, with many workers 
in the field, it is no uncommon occurrence for a scientist 
to describe some form which has already been described. 
No animal can have more than one generic and one 
specific name, so its first published name is the one by 
which it is known. 



METAMOEPHOSIS 15 

To return to the House-fly ; its place in our classifica- 
tion is made clear by the following brief table : 

Branch: Arthrofoda. 

Class: Insecta. 

Subclass: Endo'pterygota. 

Order: Diptera. 

Suborder: Cyclorrha'pha schizophora. 

Genus: Musca. 

Species: Domestica. 

Metamorphosis and Growth. 

The reader who scans our pages cannot fail to be 
struck with one outstanding feature^ — all insects pass 
through some sort of a change in the course of their 
complete lives. In a few, a very few, cases the change 
is very slight; the newly born insect is practically a 
replica in miniature of its parent, and by increase of 
size alone it attains the adult stage. In many cases, 
and they are more familiar, the insect only completes 
its development by a series of abrupt stages, totally 
dissimilar to one another. There are also several 
intermediate forms between the two, and a few excep- 
tional phenomena which do not rightly fit into any class. 
These changes, of whatever their nature, are known as 
metamorphosis, and a few typical examples may make 
the following pages more comprehensible. 

Taking the case of the Common Cabbage White 
Butterfly, Pieris brassicce, we have an insect whose 
life-cycle — ^the complete round from perfect insect to 
perfect insect — may be observed without difficulty. 
After pairing, the female deposits her eggs upon some 



16 INSECT LIFE 

plant whicli will form the food of the next stage in the 
life-cycle. The egg is the first stage in the metamorphosis 
of this insect. In due course the eggs will hatch and 
caterpillars will emerge. Caterpillars are technically 
known as larvae, and they form the second stage. They 
feed ravenously, for the larval stage is a growing stage. 
By degrees they grow to such an extent that their skins 
are in danger of becoming too small. They cease 
feeding for a short period, their outer skins are shed, 
and below they are clad in a new and larger skin. Once 
more feeding commences, and continues till this skin 
also is too small, and the operation is repeated. The 
operation of skin-casting is known as moulting, and the 
number of moults are constant in each species, but 
variable in different species. Some larvae moult but 
twice, others as many as twenty times. 

Here we may fittingly attempt to remove a very 
popular misconception: that adult insects — that is, 
insects in their last stage — grow. We often hear the 
remark, " Oh, there is a young House-fly!'' as a small 
Fly is indicated. As a matter of fact, the individual 
usually described as a small House-fly invariably proves 
to be another species altogether, the Lesser House-fly, 
Fannia canicularis. Someone may here remark that 
in a collection of insects it is possible to find several 
individuals, which expert entomologists describe as 
being all of the same species and sex, of varying size. 
This is true, but is easily accounted for; the amount 
and quality of food in the larval stage has a very great 
bearing upon the ultimate size of the perfect insect, 
but we shall return to this subject on another page. 

After this digression, let us return to oux larva, which 



METAMORPHOSIS 17 

we will presume is fully fed — that is to say, it has com- 
pleted its growth and passed through its last moult. 
The larva becomes restless, seeks a place where it may 
undergo its next transformation, makes itself secure by 
means of silken threads, and passes into the resting 
pupal stage. The pupa is usually inert; it possesses 
but feeble powers of movement, and in our example 
never moves from its original position. At any rate 
this, the third stage, is outwardly a dormant stage. 
Within the pupal case wonderful changes are taking 
place, but it is not within our province to deal with them 
here. When these changes are complete the pupal 
skin splits and the perfect insect or imago emerges, 
having completed its life-cycle and possessed of full 
sexual characters. 

A life-cycle of the nature described above, therefore, 
consists of four stages— (1) The dormant egg, (2) the 
active growing larva, (3) the dormant pupa, and (4) the 
active, non-growing imago. Such a metamorphosis is 
said to be complete and is the rule among Hyme^ioptera, 
Lepidopera, Dipera, Si'phonaptera, Coleoptera, Trichop- 
tera, and Planipennia. 

The life-cycle of the Cockroach, Blatta orientaUs, is 
quite different. The female deposits her eggs. The 
eggs give rise to active larvae, which grow and moult, 
as do those of the White Butterfly; but whereas the 
latter larvae bore no kind of likeness to their parents, 
the Cockroach larvae are very similar to the adults, 
except that they are smaller. By a series of moults 
they attain nearly the adult stage; at the final moult 
they are so similar to their parents that it requires an 
expert to say whether they are adults or nymphs, as 

3 



18 INSECT LIFE 

they are called at this stage. The final moult produces 
the sexually mature imago. 

The metamorphosis of the Cockroach is incomplete; 
it includes no resting pupal stage. 

There are many other forms of incomplete meta- 
morphosis; the transformations of the Dragon-fly may 
be cited. The egg gives rise to the active larva, quite 
unlike the parent insect. The larva transforms into the 
active nymph, which bears considerable resemblance 
to the imago into which it will develop. Again there is 
no resting pupal stage. 

Incomplete metamorphosis is the rule among Orthop- 
tera, Rhynchota, Odonata, Mallophaga, Euplexoptera , 
Plecopterttj Isoptera, and Ephemeroptera. 

There are some insects, species belonging to the 
Collembola and Thysanura, which might correctly be 
described as exhibiting incomplete metamorphosis. As 
a matter of fact, their transformations are so slight that 
they hardly deserve the appellation, for the larvse simply 
grow to the adult stage by a series of moults. 

The time taken for an insect to pass through its life- 
cycle depends on its species, and, in the same species, 
depends upon external conditions, such as climate and 
food-supply. 

The Seventeen Year Old Locust (p. 119) requires seven- 
teen years to pass through its life-cycle; many Aphidce 
complete their cycle in a week. Again, certain species 
which in this country have two broods a year — i.e., pass 
through a complete life-cycle twice in twelve months — 
perform the same operation three times in a similar 
period in a warmer climate. The Ant Lion may 
undergo its metamorphosis rapidly when food is plentiful; 



METAMORPHOSIS 19 

should tlie larva be starved, however, the larval stage, 
and hence the life-cycle, is much protracted. 

There are many species of insects which contrive to 
shorten the period of their transformations, or, more 
correctly, their transformations are habitually shortened. 
The Sheep Bot-fly, CEstrus ovis, deposits young living 
larvae, thus missing the egg-stage; the same phenomenon 
is common amongst the Sarcophaga, or Flesh-flies. 
Still more time is saved by the Tsetse-flies, Glossina, 
whose larvae at birth are almost fully grown and ready 
to pupate. The Pupiparia were so named because they 
were supposed to give birth to pupae; as a matter of 
fact, their larvae at birth are in such an advanced stage 
of development that they pupate immediately. 

All insects producing living young are said to be 
viviparous. The common Aphides afford striking and 
easily observed examples of viviparous insects; in them 
also may be studied the phenomenon of parthenogenesis 
— ^.e., reproduction without pairing. This phenomenon, 
rare amongst the Animal Kingdom in general, is fairly 
common amongst insects. 

Paired female Aphides lay hard, black, winter eggs on 
shrubs, etc., likely to provide food for their young. In 
the spring the eggs hatch, and after a series of moults 
the young grow into wingless females. These wingless 
females, unaided by males — indeed, there are none 
early in the year — ^produce brood after brood of living 
wingless females similar to themselves. Later in the 
year winged females are born, and they migrate to other 
plants, and so spread the race far and wide. Towards 
autumn both winged males and females arrive on the 
scene ; they pair and as a result the winter eggs are pro- 



20 INSECT LIFE 

duced. It is evident tliat this parthenogenetic mode 
of reproduction is a great time-saver. 

A stiU more remarkable variant of the normal life- 
cycle occurs amongst certain Cecidomyiidce of the genera 
Miastor and OUgarces. The females lay one or two 
exceptionally large eggs, from which, in due course? 
a larva emerges. This larva, however, is no ordinary 
individual, for within its body other larvae develop — 
other larvse of the same species. The phenomenon 
must not be confused with any kind of parasitism, 
where larvse of another species or genus or order may 
develop from the body of some luckless larva. These 
larvse devour the interior of the parent larva, pierce its 
empty skin, and come into the world as ordinary larvse. 
In exceptional cases these larvse too may give birth to 
other individuals, and so on for several generations. 
The final generation of larvse behaves in the ordinary 
manner, pupates, and gives rise to the adult Fly. A 
phenomenon of this nature is known to scientists as 
psedogenesis. 

Of all these time-saving devices designed by Nature, 
evidently with the object of bringing a large insect 
population into the world rapidly, nothing is more 
extraordinary than the story of the TermitoxeniidcB. 
These wingless insects are allied to the Pupiparia; they 
dwell in Termites' nests, and they are hermaphrodite — 
that is to say, there are no separate males and females, 
but each individual possesses the characters of both 
sexes. These strange creatures lay large eggs, whence 
arise, in nearly every case, fully developed adults. 

There are a considerable number of insect life-cycles 
which cannot be completed without the assistance of 



HYPERMETAMORPHOSIS 21 

some other, probably non-related insect. Under this 
heading, of course, must be included all cases of para- 
sitism; many of these are referred to in the following 
pages. One of the most curious of these histories is 
that of certain Blister Beetles, Meloidw, and to the 
phenomenon the name of hypermetamorphosis has been 
given. To Fabre we are indebted for the life-story of 
Sitaris humeralis, a Blister Beetle which in its immature 
stages is dependent upon Bees of the genus Anthophora. 

The Beetle deposits its eggs, to the number of about 
two thousand, near the Bee's nest; this occurs in the 
summer. Towards autumn small black larvse, called 
triungulins, because they have three claws on their 
tarsi, emerge from the eggs. These larvae hibernate 
where they are hatched, and do not feed at all. In the 
spring they awake to activity, and their one object is 
to become attached to the hairy body of the Bee, at 
the door of whose nest they are waiting. 

Now, these larvae have no powers of discriminating 
between the hairy body of the Bee and any similar 
object; as a consequence many of them are carried away 
on other objects, maybe the body of a mouse, and never 
reach the haven where they would be. It is fortunate 
that the mother Beetle is so prolific, for many of its 
larvae never attain maturity. It is a general rule in the 
Animal Kingdom that in the species whose progeny 
normally undergo many risks, great fecundity is shown. 

Let us follow the fortunes of a successful triungulin. 
It becomes attached to the body of a female Anthophora , 
who, if the larva be fortunate, has stored her honey in 
her brood-cell and is about to lay her single egg therein. 
As the Bee lays her egg, so the larva releases its hold of 



22 INSECT LIFE 

her hair, and floats upon the egg as upon a raft. The 
Bee closes the cell, and the triungulin is left in sole 
possession of the egg and a store of honey. The larva 
makes its first meal of the egg, and occupies about a 
week in the devouring of it; all this time it remains 
floating on the shell, for immersion in the honey would 
be fatal. On the remnants of the egg-sheU the larva 
moults, and appears as a totally different creature, able 
to float on the honey. For about six weeks it lives in 
the honey, which it consumes the while; at the end of 
this time, having devoured all the stores which the cell 
contained, the insect changes into a pupa within the 
larval skin, and either emerges as a perfect insect in 
about a month or delays the advent for a longer period. 

Hyper metamorphosis is common amongst the Meloidce; 
our common Oil Beetle, Meloe proscarahceus , has a very 
similar life-story to the one just described. It also 
depends upon Anthofhora for the upbringing of its 
larvae, but it does not deposit its eggs near that insect's 
nest. The risk of misadventure, therefore, is far greater 
than in Sitaris; as a consequence the female Melee is 
still more prolific, ten thousand eggs being no unusual 
number for a single female to lay. 

An American Blister Beetle, Epicauta vittata, has a 
very similar life-story; the unwilling foster-parents, if 
we may use such a term, of its larvae are Locusts of the 
genus Caloptenus. In one important particular Epi- 
cauta differs from both Sitaris and Melee; its triungulins 
are active. Their early Hfe is spent in the egg-cases of 
the Locust, and the young triungulins hunt hither and 
thither for the object that is to form their home. 
Nothing is left to chance ; if a Caloptenus has oviposited 



INSECTS AND PLANTS 23 

near the Beetle larvae, they will discover the eggs. As 
the risk of failure is diminished, so we find that 
Epicauta is not so prolific as the other Blister Beetles. 

It must strike the entomologist as strange that female 
insects, who have no opportunity of learning by experi- 
ence, always lay their eggs either on the food-plant of 
their larvae or near it. This habit led to some interesting 
experiments quite recently to determine, if possible, 
by what means the mother insect was guided in her 
choice. Extracts were made from various plants, and 
pieces of fabric were soaked with the substances extracted. 
It was found that insects in the habit of ovipositing 
on, say, Cruciferous plants would oviposit on fabric 
soaked with the extract of those plants. The experi- 
ments were interesting because they showed, at least, 
how insects are guided to certain plants for purposes 
of egg-laying. They did not show, however — and the 
phenomenon still remains to be demonstrated — how 
the insects know which plants will form suitable food 
material for their larvae. 

The larvae of many species, it is true, are not always 
confined to one species of plant for their food. Some 
larvae are fairly catholic in their tastes, but there are 
species whose needs are satisfied by one kind of plant 
alone. Of these latter insects none are more remarkable 
than the Yucca Moths, Pronuba yuccasella. These 
Tineid Moths can only obtain their food from the yucca- 
flower, their larvae can only live on the yucca-plant, 
and the plant can only become fertilized with the 
assistance of this one species of Moth. The female is 
provided with a peculiar sickle-shaped process on her 
maxillary palps, whose use we shall see in a moment. 



24 INSECT LIFE 

After pairing, the Moth flies to a yucca-flower, collects 
pollen from its anthers by means of her sickle-shaped 
process, and rolls it into a ball. Next she visits another 
flower, and by the aid of her long, pointed ovipositor 
she lays an egg amongst the ovules within; at the same 
time she places the ball of pollen in a hollow at the apex 
of the stigma. The pollen fertilizes the ovules, and the 
seeds, to the number of about two hundred, begin to 
develop. When the larva emerges, it feeds upon the 
ripening seeds; its larval period, however, is of short dura- 
tion, and after devouring about twenty seeds pupation 
takes place, and the rest of the seeds develop for the 
benefit of the yucca-plant. 

" The whole proceeding is of great interest . . . 
giving us an example of two species absolutely dependent 
upon each other for their continued existence. If the 
Moth had not the structure to form the pollen-ball and 
the instinct to put it on the stigma, the ovules would 
not be fertilized and her offspring would have no food; 
and if the plant was not prepared to sacrifice some ten 
per cent, of its brood, the rest would never develop at 
all." 

Such a larva as that of the Yucca Moth could not 
exist in any other situation but in the ovary of the 
yucca-plant. Startling as its life-story may appear, 
a moment's consideration will show that all larvae are 
beautifully adapted for their particular mode of life. 
Dozens of examples are to be found in our pages, 
thousands more can be studied in the world around us, 
with little effort. The Eat-tailed Maggot, whose 
appetite must be appeased with decaying vegetable 
matter from the bottom of some pond, yet whose 



PLATE II 




LAPPET MOTH AT REST AMONG DEAD LEAVES 
An example of proteciive colouring 




GIANT COCKROACH 



Faoc 83 



ALTEENATION OF GENERATIONS 25 

respiratory apparatus needs air, is marvellously con- 
trived to perambulate his muddy home the while he 
breathes pure air. The Caddis-fly larva, so delicate 
that he would be an easy prey for predatory creatures 
which frequent his stream, must perforce build for him- 
self the coat of armour which Nature has omitted to 
supply. The Vapourer Moth larva, whose mother, 
being wingless, has little chance of distributing her 
progeny over a wide area, has such nomadic habits 
that he, in part at least, makes up for his parent's 
deficiency. But there is no need to quote more; a 
moment's thought will show that insect larvae are given 
every chance to succeed in the world; some do so better 
than others, and they are the species that are best 
adapted for their particular mode of life. 

In addition to what may be termed the normal life- 
cycles, and to the exceptions mentioned on the foregoing 
pages, there is another form which is worthy of mention. 
This form of life-cycle, termed " alternation of genera- 
tions," is particularly prevalent among the Gall-flies, 
CynifidcB. Let us take the common spangle gall of the 
oak as our example. On the under-sides of oak-leaves, 
towards autumn, we can very often find little reddish 
plates, thicker in the centre than at the edges; these are 
the spangle galls of the Gall-fly Neuroterus lenticularis. 
With the leaf fall the spangle galls come to the ground, 
and as the leaves decay they become separated. In 
spring female Flies emerge from the galls; they are able 
to reproduce their kind parthenogenetically, and they 
do so by depositing their eggs in the young leaves and 
leaf-buds of the oak. The result of their efforts is the 
formation of the so-called currant galls, also well known, 

4 



26 INSECT LIFE 

whicli closely simulate red currants. From these galls 
emerge males and females of the Gall-fly Sfathogaster 
baccarum. After pairing, the females lay their eggs 
in the young oak-leaves, and another colony of spangle 
galls arises. 

The familiar oak-apple is another gall formed by a 
Cynipid with alternating generations; its winter form 
makes root galls on the same tree, and the insects in 
their subterranean home are efficiently protected against 
inclement weather. This question of hibernation is 
interesting, and the reader who studies the life-histories 
given in our pages will soon realize that the winter may 
be passed in almost any stage. Even with such delicate, 
or apparently delicate, insects as the Butterflies and 
Moths, it is easy to select species which winter respectively 
in the egg, larval, pupal, and imago stage. Whatever 
the stage, it is always well adapted to withstand severe 
weather. Either the eggs have tough, hard shells; or the 
larvae live underground or in burrows in trees, etc.; 
or the pupae are well protected by tough pupal-cases or 
warm silken cocoons; or, should the imago itself hiber- 
nate, it is either an insect little affected by a fall in 
temperature, or it so contrives to hide itself that it is 
well protected from the elements. 

The weather, however, has a marked influence upon 
insect life. The least observant among us cannot fail 
to have noticed that the pulse of the insect world quickens 
during the warm summer months. Insect life is con- 
siderably influenced by its surroundings. Entomologists 
have shown that certain Lepidoptera, not long since 
considered to be different species, are in reality wet and 
dry season forms of the same species, the appearance 



SEASONAL DIMOEPHISM 27 

of the adults having been " modified by the cHmatic 
environment of the pupa/' 

Even our native Lepidoptera show this seasonal 
dimorphism, as it is called, to a lesser degree, the spring 
brood differing ** slightly but constantly from their 
summer offspring." Take the case of any of our Garden 
Whites. The wings of the females especially are marked 
with black spots. In the spring these spots are grey 
or are much reduced, but in the later summer brood the 
spots are much darker-coloured and the wings are 
yellowish instead of pure white. 

Again, Pieris rapce is really the summer form of 
Pieris napi, the Green- veined White; in the spring the 
greenish veins from which the Butterfly derives its name 
are broader and more distinct than in the summer form. 

** The two forms of this insect were discussed by A. 
Weismann in his classical work on * The Seasonal Dimor- 
phism of Butterflies.' He tried the effect of artificially 
induced cold conditions on the summer pupse of P. napi^ 
and by keeping a batch for three months at the tempera 
ture of freezing water he succeeded in completely 
changing every individual of the summer generation 
into the winter form. The reverse of this experiment 
also was attempted by Weismann. He took a female 
of bryonies, an Alpine and Arctic variety of P. napi, 
showing in an intensive degree the characters of the 
spring brood. The female laid eggs, the caterpillars 
from which fed and pupated. The pupse, although 
kept through the summer in a hothouse, all produced 
typical bryonicB, and none of these, with one exception, 
appeared until the next year; for in the Alpine and 
Arctic regions this species is only single-brooded " 



28 INSECT LIFE 

Similar experiments were performed with Araschnia 
levana, whose summer, more brightly coloured, form is 
known as A. prorsa. After refrigerating the summer 
pupse, most of the insects appeared as the winter form, 
but the converse experiment of warming the winter 
pupse failed to convert levana into prorsa. " Weismann 
argued from these experiments that the winter form of 
these seasonably dimorphic species is in all cases the 
older, and that the Butterflies developing within the 
summer pupae can be made to revert to the ancestral 
condition by repeating the low-temperature stimulus 
which always prevailed during the geologically recent 
Ice Age/* 



SOCIAL HABITS 29 



CHAPTEK II 

SOCIAL HABITS, COLOURING OF INSECTS, AND 
ECONOMIC QUESTIONS 

Social Habits and Guests. 

The majority of insects are solitary in their habits; each 
individual, or at most a pair of individuals, lives its life 
irrespective of the activities of others of its kind. Some 
few are gregarious, the larvse of Processionary Moths 
and of many Sawflies, Aphis, and Psocid adults. The 
number of social insects can be counted on the fingers 
of one hand: they are Bees, Wasps, Termites, and Ants; 
and of these, none have carried the social habit to so 
high a state as the Ants. 

These insects are practically ubiquitous ; from pole to 
pole, from the summits of the highest mountains to 
sea-level, they may be found. Compared with other 
social insects, their colonies are both more populous and 
more stable; worker Ants have been known to live for 
seven years, and queens more than twice as long. Of 
the other social insects, Bee and Wasp colonies "are 
merely annual growths," whilst Termites are practically 
confined to the tropics. 

" Ants have either never acquired, or have completely 
abandoned, certain habits which must seriously handicap 
the Termites, Social Wasps, and Bees in their struggle 
for existence. The Ants neither restrict their diet, like 



30 INSECT LIFE 

the Termites, to comparatively innutritions substances 
such as cellulose, nor, like the Bees, to a very few sub- 
stances like the honey and pollen of evanescent flowers, 
nor do they build elaborate combs of expensive materials 
such as wax. Even paper as a building material has 
been very generally outgrown and abandoned by the 
Ants. Waxen and paper cells are not easily altered or 
repaired, and insects that are wedded to this kind of 
architecture not only have to expend much time and 
energy in collecting and working up their building 
materials, but they are unable to move themselves or 
their brood to other localities when the nest is disturbed, 
when the moisture or temperature become unfavourable, 
or when the food- supply fails." 

Ants, again, have few enemies; true, they are the 
hosts of various guests, of which more anon, but of 
deadly foes they have few. Forel, the great authority 
on these insects, said: "The Ant's most dangerous 
enemies are other Ants, just as man's most dangerous 
enemies are other men." 

Before considering the social habits of Ants, it will be 
well to devote some space to one of the most striking 
peculiarities of these insects — their polymorphism. 
Strictly speaking, polymorphism means many shapes, 
and, equally strictly speaking, all animals exhibit poly- 
morphism, for no two organisms are precisely alike in 
every particular. As used here, however, the term is 
" merely a synonym of variation," and in its restricted 
sense is only to be observed amongst social animals, 
" where its existence is commonly attributed to a 
physiological division of labour." Wheeler enumerates 
no less than twenty-seven polymorphic forms of Ants; 



ANT COLONIES 31 

needless to say, these forms never all occur in one colony, 
nor are they to be found in any one species. It is quite 
common, however, to find five polymorphic forms, more 
usually called "castes," in one Ant community; they 
are winged males and winged females, major and minor 
workers, females so named on account of their size, and 
soldiers — workers specially adapted to undertake any 
fighting that may be necessary. Another interesting 
*' caste," only found in a limited number of species, is 
known as " nasuti." The function of the nasuti, or 
nosed ones, is to build the nests and repair them when 



In describing the typical Ant colony, it must always 
be borne in mind that the habits of Ants vary tremen- 
dously — in fact, no two species have precisely similar 
habits . Our description , therefore , is one of generalities , 
and appUes only to the ground-nesting species. 

In colonies where there are winged males and females 
pairing, with rare exceptions, takes place in the air 
during a nuptial flight. This is always a period of the 
greatest excitement; even the wingless workers come to 
the surface along with the winged males and females. 
*' The winged forms move about in tremulous indecision, 
but finally venture forth, run about on the stones or 
climb about on the grass-blades till they have filled 
their trachese with a plentiful supply of oxygen. Then 
they spread their wings, and are soon lost to view high 
in the air." 

Although the performance is comparable to the 
swarming of Bees, there are several important differences. 
In a Bee-swarm there is only a single female, here there 
are many; the female Ant rarely returns to the colony 



32 INSECT LIFE 

in which she was born; in both cases, however, tlie males 
die down after pairing. 

Wrhen the earth is reached once more, the fertihzed 
queen detaches her vnngs by rubbing them against grass- 
blades or stones, by pulHng them ofi with her legs, or 
even biting them off. Having divested herself of wings, 
which henceforth would be useless to her, she makes a 
short burrow which terminates in a chamber; then she 
closes the mouth of the burrow. " The labour of 
excavating often wears away all her mandibular teeth, 
rubs the hairs from her body, and mars her burnished or 
sculptured armour, thus producing a number of mutila- 
tions, which though occurring generation after generation 
in species that nest in hard, stony soil, are, of course, 
never inherited." 

In the chamber she has made, the queen awaits the 
maturation of the eggs, which takes place at the expense 
of her fat body and degenerating wang- muscles. She 
may have to wait months before they are ready to be 
laid, but eventually she oviposits, her eggs being fertilized 
by spermatozoa stored in her spermatheca since the 
nuptial flight. The eggs are tended by the queen till 
they hatch as minute larvae; then she feeds them with 
a secretion of her salivary glands, derived from the same 
source as the eggs themselves — from her fat body and 
wing- muscles. These larvae dif!er from those hatched 
later, they grow very slowly, pupate before their time, 
and give rise to very small workers. " In some species 
it takes fully ten months to bring such a brood of minim 
workers to maturity, and during all this time the queen 
takes no nourishment, but merely draws on her reserve 
tissues.*' 



ANT COLONIES 33 

These small workers do not belie their name : they soon 
" get busy "; they break down the entrance to the nest; 
they build other chambers and galleries ; they sally forth 
to hunt for food for themselves and the exhausted queen. 
She in her turn changes her nature from this point; she 
no longer takes any interest in her progeny, but leaves 
them to the care of the workers, and limits " herself to the 
laying of eggs and imbibing liquid food from the tongues 
of her attendants. . . . With this circumscribed 
activity she lives on, sometimes to an age of fifteen years, 
as a mere egg-laying machine." 

The later broods of larvae, as we have said, are tended 
by the early workers, but when the colony is in going 
order each worker has her appointed duties to perform. 
Some act as nurses; they feed and clean the young; 
they also transport them from one part of the nest to 
another according to the varying humidity and tempera- 
ture of the different galleries. Also, in the event of the 
nest being broken open or of an attack by some other 
species, the workers remove the eggs, larvae, and pupae 
to a place of safety. " This freedom in dealing with the 
brood is certainly one of the most striking manifestations 
of the plasticity of Ants."" 

It is very unusual for the immature Ants to be brought 
into the light; apart from other considerations, workers 
always remove the brood to the dark recesses of the nest 
when an accident befalls it. Wheeler , however , says that 
in the dry deserts of Western Texas, he has seen Ishno- 
myrmex cocJcerelli bring its larvse and pupae out on to 
the large crater of the nest about 9 p.m., and carry them 
leisurely to and fro much as human nurses wheel their 
charges about the city parks in the cool of the evening. 

5 



34 INSECT LIFE 

The workers carry out their duties solely by their 
highly developed tactile and olfactory senses. The 
brood, eggs, larvae, and pupae are arranged in groups 
according to their age and condition. During the 
warmer hours of the day the brood is brought nearer 
to the surface of the soil; at night it is removed to the 
deeper recesses of the nest. As Ants' eggs are very 
minute, it is hardly surprising to learn that they are not 
carried about separately; the workers constantly lick 
the eggs, and this causes them to adhere together in 
little packets; their saliva may have a further use in 
preventing the growth of moulds. 

The larvae are very soft and white, almost transparent 
— in fact, in shape they resemble a " crook-necked " 
gourd, the curved end terminating in the head; of eyes 
and legs they have none, but they are usually hairy. 
The hairs probably serve a number of ends; they prevent 
the delicate skin of the larva from coming in contact 
with the moist soil ; they are a protection against assault 
by other larvae, and they hold their owners together in 
packets and thus assist transport by the workers. 

The feeding of the larvae is carried out by the workers, 
and according to many authorities " the quantity or 
quality of the food, or both, determines whether the larva 
hatching from a fertilized egg shall become a worker or 
a female." The food supplied to the larvae varies 
according to the species; many species feed their larvae 
solely upon regurgitated food; some feed them upon 
solid food, portions of insects, or in the case of the 
Harvesting Ants, portions of seeds and the Fungus- 
growing Ants on fungus hjrphae; some species, again, 
feed their larvae on both solid and regurgitated food . 



ANT COLONIES 85 

Many Ant larvse pupate without spinning any cocoon; 
other species, however, spin silken cocoons, but they 
are unable to do so without assistance from the workers. 
The larvse can only perform the operation if they are 
buried in the earth or covered by soil, that there may be 
a solid foundation to which they can attach their silk. 
The workers, therefore, bury their charges, await the 
spinning of the cocoons , and unearth them again. These 
cocoons, by the way, are the commodity usually sold 
as ants' eggs for the purpose of feeding fish, cage birds, 
etc. When the time arrives for the adult to emerge, 
the workers once more lend their aid; they cut open 
part of the lower surface of the cocoon, draw out the 
contained insect, and strip the inner skin from its body, 
antennae, and legs. At first the adult Ant is pale in 
colour, and is known as a " Callow.'* 

Briefly, this is the history of a typical Ant colony. 
Wheeler, in his work on Anta, whence much of our 
information is derived, gives an excellent account of 
the doings of these interesting insects, with details of 
the peculiarities of different species which depart from 
the normal. 

Symbiosis among insects is nowhere better illustrated 
than by certain social species, and the Ants have raised 
the practice of living with other species — for that is what 
symbiosis means — to a very high standard. For pur- 
poses of convenience, at any rate, the symbiosis of Ants 
may be considered from two points of view. First there 
are those cases in which Ants, of their own accord, gather 
together a varied assortment of insects, Green-fly, 
Scale-insects, Plant-lice, and the hke — insects upon 
which the Ants are almost parasitic. Then there are 



36 INSECT LIFE 

insects which, without encouragement from their hosts, 
settle themselves to life within an Ants* nest. Insects 
of the first category all excrete honey-dew, a sweet 
liquid which is eagerly devoured by Ants; in return, the 
Ants perform certain services for their captives, so that 
this is more nearly true symbiosis than is the case with 
the insects in the second category, who, in many cases, 
do not benefit or may even harm their captors. 

On a later page we have mentioned briefly the relation- 
ship of Ants to A f hides. A few more details may 
fittingly be included here. It perhaps occasions some 
surprise that any Ants should trouble with insects so 
small as Af hides, whose yield of honey-dew, one would 
thinl?:, could not be excessive; but recent investigations 
show that a Maple Aphis will secrete forty-eight drops 
of the liquid in twenty-four hours. " A drove of 
Aphids, especially when it is stationed on young and 
succulent leaves or twigs, may produce enough honey- 
dew to feed a whole colony of Ants for a considerable 
period. Huber has observed the method by which 
the Ants procure their honey-dew from the Aphids; 
we have not space to quote his words, but the usual 
proceeding is for the Ant to stroke the abdomen of the 
Aphis with its antennae, and the latter voids the sugary 
liquid. When the Ants neglect their charges, the latter 
void their excretion on to the plant without any assist- 
ance; should the Ants, however, become too pressing 
in their attentions, the Aphids become exhausted and 
can yield no more nutriment ; but the Aphids are by no 
means parsimonious, and if they have anything to give, 
never fail to respond to the Ants' solicitations. 

With regard to the excretion of honey-dew very many 



ANTS AND APHIDS 37 

erroneous statements have been made, and some of 
them have found their way into scientific literature. 
On the sides of the sixth abdominal segment of many 
Aphids there is a pair of protuberances, called " siphons/' 
Linnaeus stated, and others have copied his statement, 
that the Ants derive their honey-dew from the siphons ; 
the liquid, however, is the excrement of the insects, and 
does not come from the siphons. 

Biisgen, in describing the attack of a Lacewing larva 
on an Aphis, pointed out the use of the siphons to their 
owners. " When the attack," he says, " happens to be 
rather awkward, the Aphid has time to smear the 
secretion, which is at once discharged from the siphons, 
over the face and forceps of the larva, which is thus, at 
least temporarily, disconcerted and frightened. . . . 
The secretion hardens on the larva immediately, and 
thus forms a most uncomfortable coating, causing the 
creature to desist from the chase while it cleanses its 
forceps and forehead. This consumes time, and can 
only be accomplished by the Aphis-lions seizing some 
slender object, like the tooth of a leaf, for the purpose 
of rubbing off the secretion." Another authority has 
shown that the siphons are more highly developed 
amongst those Aphids that live singly and not in droves, 
and are not attended by Ants; in such circumstances 
there is more risk of attack. 

The relations of Ants to Coccidce are very similar to 
their relations to Afhidw. The Psyllidce, which void 
both soHd and liquid honey-dew, are closely attended by 
Ants, and in some cases are protected under sheds built 
by these insects. Wheeler sums up the relationship 
with Ants and Aphids very concisely. On the part of 



38 INSECT LIFE 

the Aphids, he says that they do not attempt to escape 
from or defend themselves against the Ants; they yield 
their honey-dew gradually, and some species, habitually 
dwelling with Ants, have developed a circlet of hairs to 
support the sweet drops till they can be imbibed by the 
Ants. Aphids attended by Ants extract more plant- 
juices than unattended individuals, and the reduction 
of the protective siphons is usually more marked in 
those species which are visited by Ants. Ants, on their 
part, never kill Aphids as they do other defenceless 
insects ; they stroke their charges in a particular manner 
to make them yield their liquid store ; they protect their 
charges, and even carry them to a place of safety when 
danger threatens; also, not only the adults, but even 
their progeny, eggs, and larvae, are cared for by the Ants. 
More remarkable than any of the cases just described 
is the fact that Ants are known to attend the larvae of 
no less than sixty-five species of LyccenidcB, or " Blues,"" 
representing twenty-nine genera. Twenty-three of these 
species belong to Lyccena. These larvae, as all Lepidop- 
terists know, are rounded at their head and tail ends, 
somewhat depressed, and clothed with fine hairs. In 
the case of Lyccena hcetica, there is a median dorsal 
gland on the eleventh segment, and a pair of protrusile 
tentacles on the twelfth. The median gland can be 
protruded through a transverse slit, and the tips of the 
tentacles are fringed with stiff hairs. The Ants caress 
the flattened posterior of the larva and a drop of 
colourless liquid is given off by the median gland; this 
is evidently relished by the larva's attendants. The 
tentacles probably give off an odour which is attractive 
to the Ants, but this has never been shown of a certainty. 



ANT GUESTS 39 

There are a few other insects to which Ants pay more 
or less assiduous attention; but we have briefly outlined 
the more important. In every case the insects upon 
which so much care is lavished are those which have the 
power of yielding some sugary liquid, in return for the 
attention bestowed upon them. 

It has been truly said that " Ants have such a plastic 
organization that they are not only able to assume an 
active role towards the Aphids and a passive role 
towards the Myrmecophiles, or Ant guests, but they may 
even enter into manifold active and passive symbiotic 
relations to other species of Ants.'' Their relations with 
Aphids have been considered; those with other insects 
may here have some attention. That the subject can 
only be dealt with cursorily here is evident from the 
fact that there are known to be at least fifteen hundred 
species of Myrmecophilous insects, one thousand of them 
being Beetles. The Coleoptera mainly belong to the 
StaphylinidcB, Pselaphidw, Pamsidce, and Histeridw. 
Wheeler supposed that this extraordinary number of 
Ant guests arises from the fact that their hosts' nests 
are usually permanent abodes, at a higher temperature 
than the surrounding soil ; that there is plenty of refuse 
food and fresh fare in the shape of larvae and pupse ; that 
the Ants protect their guests in protecting themselves; 
and that they are always ready to lavish their affections 
upon any insects that resemble their larvae. 

Many of the guests closely resemble their hosts; by so 
doing they probably avoid the fate that should justly 
befall them. The Black Kove Beetle, Myrmedonia 
funesta, is of the same colour as its host Lasius fuli- 
ginosus ; the black and red M. humeralis simulates 



40 INSECT LIFE 

Formica rufa, with which it dwells. These Beetles 
live on dead or dying Ants, and luik near the entrance 
to the nest to destroy solitary individuals coming in or 
going out. Five or six Beetles will fall upon a single 
Ant, " tear her limb from limb, and then quarrel with 
one another over the fragments, like a pack of hungry 
hounds. The Ants detest these jackals, and rush at 
them with open jaws; but the latter merely turn up 
their flexible tails and emit a disagreeable secretion.'" 

Certain Ant guest Beetles of the genus Clythra only 
dwell with their hosts in the larval stage, but they are 
cunning individuals. They build cases in which to 
dwell, and then, when they are hungry, withdraw their 
heads within the case. The worker Ants, ever watchful 
for convenient hiding-places in which to store their egg- 
packets, deposit them within an apparently empty case. 
The Clythra larva wastes no time in devouring the meal 
so obligingly placed before it. 

Few Ant guests are more crafty than a little Lepismid 
Atelura formicaria. This creature is very similar to 
its near ally the Silver Fish; it does not seem to be a 
welcome guest, for the Ants often make attacks upon it, 
but, being exceedingly agile, it rarely comes to any harm. 
In our chapter on Ants we have mentioned the common 
practice of one Ant feeding another by passing regurgi- 
tated food from mouth to mouth. This is Atelura' s 
opportunity for appeasing its hunger ; when two Ants are 
face to face and about to pass the sugary Hquid, their 
guest glides up with astonishing rapidity, steals the drop 
as it passes, and makes off. 

Certain wingless Crickets of the genus Myrmecofhila 
live on the oily secretions from the bodies of their hosts. 



ANT GUESTS 41 

The Cricket nibbles the legs of the Ant and seems to 
delight in so doing. ** At first the Ant disregards this 
nibbling, which probably resembles the attentions of 
the toilet habitually received from sister Ants; but the 
Cricket's scraping mandibles soon grow to be annoying, 
and the Ant either moves away or turns her head, 
opens her mandibles, and makes a lunge at the Myrme- 
copJiila, like a large dog annoyed by a puppy. . . . For 
obvious reasons, the Cricket avoids nibbling at or even 
approaching the Ant's head. It is always alert, as if 
perpetually aware of danger, and ready to dodge at the 
slightest movement of the Ant." 

The Crickets may also be observed nibbling at the 
walls of the nests ; probably they derive therefrom some 
greasy matter rubbed from the bodies of passing Ants. 
Certain minute Cockroaches, of the genus Attaphila, 
dwell in the nests of fungus-growing Ants, and, in habit, 
closely resemble Myrmecophila . They, however, live on 
friendly terms with their hosts and climb upon their 
heads and backs in search of nutriment, an event 
rendered the more strange because they are the only 
insects known to live on intimate terms with these Ants. 

Of the true Ant guests, as distinguished from the 
tolerated or persecuted guests already mentioned, we 
have Uttle space with which to deal. They are Beetles 
for the most part; in colour they are usually red, and 
they frequently bear tufts of yellow or red hairs, which 
are licked by the Ants with evident dehght. Wasmann 
believes that the Ants are so fond of the secretion from 
these hairs ** that it must affect them very much as a 
good cigar affects a smoker.'* 

Many of the guests are moved from place to place in 

6 



42 INSECT LIFE 

the nest by their hosts, usually by pulling at their legs 
or antennsB, fed with regurgitated food, licked and 
fondled as though they were blood relations of the 
members of the colony. The Staphyhnids of the genus 
Atemeles and Lomechusa are especially favoured, for not 
only are the adults carefully tended, but their larvse are 
treated in every respect with the same attention as their 
hosts' larvae. 

Concerning the true parasites, whose energies are 
devoted to thinning the ranks of the Ant colonies, we 
have no space to deal with them; nor can we describe 
in these pages any of the many Ant species which dwell 
together in perfect harmony and to their mutual advan- 
tage. Perhaps it is natural, but we are conscious of 
the fact that these insects have already absorbed more 
than their duly allotted space in our pages. 

The Colours of Insects and Mimicry. 

It is not necessary to have studied entomology very 
deeply to be aware of the fact that the colours of insects, 
in the majority of cases, harmonize so nicely with their 
owner's usual surroundings as to render him more or 
less inconspicuous, or, on the contrary, are so brilliant 
that he forces himself upon one's attention. Both 
descriptions of colouring have their uses in the insect 
economy; let us consider them in their order. 

Colours which harmonize mth an insect's environment 
are usually designed for purposes of concealment; they 
render their owner inconspicuous, and on this account 
they are called " protective." In many cases protective 
resemblance is a better term than protective colouring, 



PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE 43 

for often tliere is a similarity of form as well as colour 
between the insect and its surroundings. 

No better examples of protective resemblance can be 
found in the insect world than is exhibited by the Leaf 
Butterflies of the genus Kallima; when at rest, these 
insects are almost indistinguishable from the surrounding 
leaves. Certain of our native Lepidoptem exhibit pro- 
tective resemblance in a minor degree. The Green 
Hair streak, Thecla ruhi, is dingy brown on its upper 
surface, but when it settles on green herbage, with its 
wings folded, its emerald lower surface efficiently matches 
the verdure. To the tropics, however, we must turn 
once more for really striking examples. The female 
Leaf Insect, PhylUum crurifoUum, is almost as perfect 
in its protective resemblance as the Leaf Butterfly, but 
whereas the latter simulates a dead leaf, the former has 
the colour and form of a green leaf. These insects 
(described on p. 90) have been known to bite pieces from 
the tegmina of their sisters; can they themselves be 
deceived ? It is remarkable, at any rate, that their 
attacks upon one another are always confined to the 
leaf-like portions of their bodies. Of the Stick insects 
and the Geometrid larvse, which resemble twigs, we have 
spoken elsewhere. 

Bastin, in his book "Insects," describes an interest- 
ing case of protective resemblance observed by Pro- 
fessor Gregory in the Great Rift Valley. He says: 
** The insect in question is a species of Flata—a genus 
comprised in the family Fulgoridce. It is found in 
British East Africa, and is dimorphic, a certain number 
of individuals being bright pink in colour, while others 
are bright green. The insects frequent the stems of 



44 INSECT LIFE 

plants, from which they suck the sap; and the order of 
their grouping is very remarkable. The pink ones sit 
upon the lower part of the stem, while the green ones 
take up positions above, towards the extremity. More- 
over, the developing larvae — which secrete long waxy 
filaments, and are quaint, fluffy objects quite unlike 
their parents — sit beneath the pink individuals at the 
lowest part of the stem. In this way the exact appear- 
ance of a spiked inflorescence, such as that of the fox- 
glove, is produced. The fluffy larvae look like seeds; 
the pink individuals resemble drooping flowers; while 
the green ones, higher up the stem, play the part of so 
many unopened buds. Professor Gregory was completely 
deceived by the first cluster he saw, and attempted 
to gather it, when the mock flowers and buds jumped off 
in all directions.'" 

Other examples of protective resemblance are easily 
discovered. There are Beetles that resemble tufts of 
lichen and those that resemble larval excrement, to 
mention but two from one order. 

Protective colouring, as distinct from resemblance, is 
far more common, and there are examples on every side. 
The green larva feeding on a green leaf is so coloured, 
but there are more subtle forms than this. Amongst 
the Lefidoftera we have the larvae of the Pine Beauty 
Moth, Panolis pini'perda. Away from their food-plant, 
the pine, they are striking-looking green insects with two 
dorsi-lateral white lines; when feeding on the pine 
needles, they harmonize so admirably with their sur- 
roundings that they are difficult for bird or man to 
discover. Another green-striped white larva, that of 
the Privet Hawk Moth, S'phinx ligustri, is even more 



PROTECTIVE COLOURING 45 

conspicuous when viewed in the hand, but, large though 
it is when fully fed, it harmonizes well with its food-plant, 
the privet. 

Not only the colouring, but the light and shade upon 
an insect assist in rendering it inconspicuous. In this 
connection we may well quote Professor Poulton upon 
the pupa of the Purple Emperor, Apatum iris: "The 
most extraordinary thing about this resemblance is the 
impression of leaf -like flatness conveyed by a chrysalis, 
which is in reality very far from flat. In its thickest 
part the pupa is 8-5 millimetres across, and it is in all 
parts very many times thicker than a leaf. The dorsal 
side of the pupa forms a very thin, sharp ridge for part 
of its length, but the slope is much more pronounced in 
other parts and along the whole ventral side. But 
exactly in these places, where the obvious thickness 
would destroy the resemblance to a leaf, the whole effect 
of the roundness is neutralized by increased lightness, 
so disposed as just to compensate for the shadow by 
which alone we judge of the roundness of small objects. 
The degree of whiteness is produced by the relative 
abundance of white dots and a fine white marbling of 
the surface which is everywhere present mingled with 
the green. The effect is, in fact, produced by a process 
exactly analogous to stippling. The degree of lightness 
produced in this way exactly corresponds to the angle 
of the slope, which, of course, determines the depth of 
the shadow. By this beautiful and simple method the 
pupa appears to be as flat as a leaf which is only a small 
fraction of 1 millimetre in thickness." 

The protective colouring of certain Lepidopterous 
larvae varies with their surroundings; thus, the larvae of 



46 INSECT LIFE 

the Peppered Moth, Amphydasis hetularia — ^larvae of one 
brood, when fed upon green leaves, become green in 
colour; others of the same brood and fed in a similar 
manner, when compelled to live upon brown twigs, in 
nearly every case became dark brown. 

There are insects, too, which, apparently instinctively, 
seek to hide themselves where they are least likely to be 
observed . The Cotton Boll Weevil , Anthonomus grandis , 
is a case in point. Of a dull earthen brown, this Weevil 
is by no means difficult to detect as it climbs over the 
cotton plants. In the presence of danger it at once 
drops to the earth, a common Weevil habit, by the way, 
and so closely resembles its surroundings that it is easily 
overlooked. This is but one example of hundreds. 
Many Lepidoptera , when at rest, so arrange their wings 
that their colouring may afford them the maximum of 
protection. Species with brightly coloured hind- wings 
but sombre fore-wings will invariably be found resting 
on some lichen-covered post or tree or a rock, with their 
wings so folded that the bright colours are hidden from 
view. Species whose under-sides harmonize with their 
surroundings rest with the upper surfaces of their wings 
in contact, so that only the lower surfaces can be seen. 
Other species, if their upper surfaces afford the best 
protection, sleep with their wings horizontal, and there 
is a case on record in which one species of Butterfly rests 
in one district with its wings vertical and in another 
district with them horizontal, for the evident reason 
that the positions it has chosen afford the best protective 
colouring for the respective districts. 

Many larvae spinning silken cocoons have the power 
of making the colour of the silk approximate closely to 



MIMICRY 47 

that of their surroundings. With all their wonderful 
protective colouring, however, no adult insects have the 
power of varying their colours at will to suit their environ- 
ment, after the manner of chameleons. 

The brightly coloured, conspicuous insects mentioned 
at the beginning of the chapter are to be found every- 
where. What is the object of their brilliant colouring ? 
A few words will suffice to explain. Their ornate hues 
are designated warning colours for the reason that in 
almost every case the brightly coloured insect is un- 
palatable . Animals of various kinds , insectivorous birds , 
reptiles, and the like, all avoid the brightly coloured 
insect as an article of diet. Many of these insects emit 
noxious acid or alkaline substances when touched, and 
the young predator, whatever be his kind, soon learns 
by experience to avoid such bedecked individuals 
Bright colours are not an absolute protection to every 
individual, for animals only learn by experience, and 
many insects are sacrificed that the majority may enjoy 
immunity. 

Mimicry is another form of colouring worthy of 
consideration. Critics will decry the remark that 
mimicry is a form of colouring, but that is all it amounts 
to in many cases . Usually , however , in cases of mimicry 
form and colour go together. The object of mimicry 
appears to be either protective or aggressive : protective 
if the weaker, harmless insect mimics some more power- 
ful species; aggressive if a predatory species mimics the 
insects upon which it preys. 

Examples of protective mimicry are not hard to find. 
The Wasp Beetles mimic Wasps very closely in colour, 
and to some extent in form; we have a common British 



48 INSECT LIFE 

species, Clytus arietis. There is, however, an exotic 
species which carries its mimicry much further, for, 
in addition to its black and yellow colouring, its two 
membranous wings are so deeply indented that they 
closely resemble the four wings of a Wasp. Our Hornet 
Clearwing Moth, Trochilium crahroniformis, ca.n hardly be 
excelled as an example of protective mimicry, for its 
resemblance to the Hornet Vespa crabro could hardly 
be more perfect in an unrelated insect. Many other 
examples are mentioned in our pages; in every case the 
mimic is benefited by its resemblance to a more aggres- 
sive species or to a distasteful species. Experience has 
taught the animal world in general that such species 
are best left alone; the mimic therefore shares in the 
comparative immunity enjoyed by the species it simu- 
lates. 

On looking for the first time at any extensive collection 
of insects of various orders, the observant entomologist 
will notice that over and over again the same colour- 
schemes are repeated in widely separated families 
or even orders. The resemblances of one group to 
another cannot be designated mimicry, and the matter 
has been summarized by Professor Meldola as follows: 
" From groups of species within the same order, such as 
Butterflies and Moths, groups of different genera of 
Wasps or Beetles, and so forth, we can gather a more 
widely abstract idea of types of warning colours common 
to whole tribes of insects, irrespective of the orders to 
which they belong. In other words, we can discern 
over and above the actual mimetic resemblance, which 
may be more or less exact, a kind of general similarity 
in design which suggests that certain types of patterns 



MIMICEY 49 

have been fixed by the action of natural selection as 
outward and visible signs of distastefulness. Thus, the 
yellow and black banded pattern so frequently observed 
in Wasps, Flies, Beetles, etc., is a very good example of a 
common warning type of pattern ... it is only neces- 
sary to add that from the insects inhabiting one district 
it is often possible to detect similar arrangements of 
colour and marking among Beetles of various families. 
Flies, Wasps and Bees, Bugs and Moths — a most hetero- 
geneous assemblage of orders, none of the species being 
exact mimics of each other, and yet all presenting a 
general uniformity of colouring and pattern.'* 

Aggressive mimicry is perhaps not quite so frequently 
met with as protective; still, it is common enough to 
be observed without much difficulty. Amongst the 
Eobber-flies, ^s^7^£?CB, some of the most striking examples 
occur. Deromyia annulata bears a striking resemblance 
to the solitary Wasp, PoUstes metricus; Bumble Bees are 
simulated by Robber-flies of the genera Mallofhora and 
Dasylis — in fact, to such lengths is the mimicry carried 
in the former genus, that the hind-legs of the FHes 
resemble the pollen-bearing legs of the Bees. Many 
other examples could be quoted from the Robber-flies. 

The little Sphegid, Oxyhelus uniglumis (see p. 268) 
closely resembles, in appearance and habits, the Flies 
upon which she preys. In every case of aggressive 
mimicry the resemblance of predator to prey is of 
service to the former ; it enables him to go amongst his 
prey without arousing suspicion, and to capture them 
without undue effort. It is only fltting to remark that 
there are those who will have none of the theory of 
aggressive mimicry. They argue that insects so well 

7 



50 INSECT LIFE 

endowed for tte capture of their prey as are most of 
these insects require no adventitious aid, but that their 
mimicry serves to protect them from still more powerful 
predators. We would remark, however, that the 
African native who, when hunting, covers himself with 
a skin, does so in order that he may approach nearer to 
his quarry, not that he may be protected from some 
unknown enemy, or, as Howard remarks, " We should 
not fear grizzly bear if they looked like peaceable 
human beings/' 

Not all of the aggressive mimics are active insects like 
the Eobber-flies and Oxyhelus; certain flower-like Mantids 
are also mimics of this type. Nearly all species of 
Mantis closely resemble their usual surroundings in 
colour; thus, the brown Mantids frequent brown vegeta- 
tion, the green ones lurk on green leaves; but there are 
much more subtle mimics in the family than this. 
Hymenofus bicornis, a pink-and- white Mantid with 
flattened legs, is sufficiently flower-like to deceive nectar- 
seeking insects; Dolium diaholicnm, with four green legs 
and purple-and- white fore-legs and prothorax, is equally 
deceptive to insects. The Indian Mantid, Gongylus 
gongyloides, however, carries its mimicry further, and 
has been thus described from living specimens : ** On 
looking at the insects from above they did not exhibit 
any very striking features beyond the leaf-like appen- 
dages of the limbs, both of which, like the upper surface 
of the insect, are coloured green; but on turning to the 
under-surface the aspect is entirely different. The 
leaf-like expansion of the prothorax, instead of being 
green, is a clear, pale lavender-violet, with a faint pink 
bloom along the edges of the leaf, so that this position 



HAKMFUL INSECTS 51 

of the insect has the exact appearance of the corolla of 
a plant, a floral simulation which is perfected by the 
presence of a dark, blackish -brown spot in the centre, 
over the prothorax, which mimics the opening to the 
tube of a corolla. A favourite position of this insect is 
to hang head downwards among a mass of green foliage, 
and, when it does so, it generally remains almost motion- 
less, but at intervals evinces a swaying movement as of 
a flower touched by a gentle breeze ; while in this attitude, 
with its fore-limbs banded violet and black, and drawn 
up in front of the centre of the corolla, the simulation 
of a papilionaceous flower is complete. The object of 
the bright colouring of the under-surface of the pro- 
thoracic expansion is evident, its purpose being to act 
as a decoy to insects, which, mistaking it for a corolla, 
fly directly into the expectant, serrated, sabre-like 
raptorial arms of the simulator." 

Economic Questions. 

Frequently we read of plagues of Caterpillars, which 
devour every green thing as they advance like a destroy- 
ing host; more frequently tidings reach us of some 
infantile epidemic which carries off young lives by 
hundreds. Do we ever give the matter a second thought 
unless it is brought home to us by personal loss ? What 
matters it that Antler Moth larvae are destroying the 
herbage on the Cumberland fells ? Cumberland is far 
away. As for infantile diseases, how are they connected 
with entomology, anyway ? The ordinary man, the 
well-educated man, has much to learn of insects, if he 
would play his part in making our land more habitable. 
What is true of Britain is doubly true of the tropics. 



52 INSECT LIFE 

Here the insect menace is bad enough; in tropical 
countries, where insect life attains its zenith, the matter 
is far more urgent. 

From an economic point of view insects may be 
divided into two groups. There are insects which 
damage crops, either by using them as food or by 
destroying them for nesting purposes and the like. 
There are also insects which carry disease, from man to 
man, from animals to man, and from animal to animal. 
Examples of these destructive insects are mentioned 
here and there in our pages, but now we propose to 
review some of the more noxious, and to learn a little 
of their machinations. 

The crop pests are countless. Every herbivorous 
insect might be described as noxious; the very fact that 
it eats vegetation is proof that it does harm, unless it 
be such an exceptional creature that it confines its 
attentions to noxious plants. The entomologist, how- 
ever, is fair in his judgment; no insect is considered 
injurious unless by weight of numbers it does serious 
damage. The larvae of the SwaUow-tail Butterfly, 
Papilio machaon, feed upon the leaves of carrot, parsley, 
celery, fennel, and the like, but they are not common 
enough in this country to be classed as injurious 
insects. For the same reason, no one could consider 
the larvae of the Death 's-Head Hawk Moth, Acherontia 
atropos, to be injurious, though they feed upon potato- 
leaves. 

Crop pests are mainly confined to the Lepidoptera, 
Orthoptem, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Thysanop- 
tera, and Rhynchota, a formidable array, to be sure, 
to which we may add the Isoptera, for we use the word 



HARMFUL INSECTS 53 

"crop'* in its widest sense, to mean any vegetation 
grown by man for his benefit. 

The Lepidoptera may be considered as the most 
generally injurious. The adult insects are incapable 
of doing any damage; none of them have mouth-parts 
designed for biting, so they could do no harm if they 
would. Moths are the chief offenders, though our 
common " Whites," Pieris spp., are injurious to a limited 
extent. 

Amongst the Noctuidw there are many noxious species. 
The larvae of nmny of these Moths, known in America 
as Cut- worms, hide beneath the soil by day and sally 
forth at night to feed; hence they are very difficult to 
deal with, and may be present in considerable numbers 
before the husbandman is aware of their presence. 

Other damage done by Lepidopterous larvae consists 
in defoliating trees and shrubs. Notorious species with 
this habit are mainly members of the GeometridcB , but 
it is by no means confined to this family, for several 
of the LymantridcB are voracious leaf-eaters. The 
CossidcB are noted wood-borers in their larval stages, 
and their immature existence is so prolonged that 
they are more harmful than insects of similar habit 
with a less extended life-cycle. Wood-boring larvae 
also occur among the Sesiidce, and many of them are 
capable of doing considerable harm. 

Another description of injury, very common amongst 
certain Lepidoptera, is caused by the larval habit of 
leaf-mining; the TineidcB are the chief offenders. Lastly 
there are the destructive leaf -rollers of the Tortricidw, 
and the obnoxious " tent-makers," also mainly Tineidce. 

There are certain Lepidoptera which cannot accurately 



54 INSECT LIFE 

be described as pests of crops, yet must be mentioned 
here, for they can still less be classified with the disease- 
carriers. Eeference is made to such species as the 
Clothes Moths of the Tineidce, Moths with grain-eating 
larvae of the PyralidcB, and the Bee Moths. 

Orthoptera are unsurpassed as crop pests when they 
descend upon their feeding-grounds in thousands, a 
habit common to several species of Acridiidce. Certain 
of the Phasmidce are destructive to coconut-trees, and 
for the rest many Gryllidce are minor pests, and all 
BlattidcB are obnoxious soilers of food. 

The injurious Coleoptera are nearly as numerous as 
the Lepidopiera. Wood-borers there are in plenty 
amongst the Scolytidce, BostrychidcB, Lucanidce, Ceram- 
bycidcB, and Lamiidm, to mention a few families. The 
leaf-eaters are almost as numerous; ChrysomelidcB, 
HaliicidcB, and Galerucidce are the worst offenders, not 
forgetting a large number of the CurculionidcB. Then 
there are many species whose larvae live for long periods 
underground, and levy toll upon the roots of growing 
plants; MelolontJddcB, RutelidcB, Dynastidce, Cetoniidce^ 
and ElateridcB are the offenders here. There are 
ravagers of stored grain amongst the Curculionidce, the 
TenebrionidcB, and other families. There are twig- 
girdlers amongst the Bwprestidw , creatures of evil habit 
who kill the twigs of trees by eating away circular strips 
of bark. There are Lamiidce of almost similar habit 
who prune the twigs instead of ringing them. The evil 
ways of many Coleoptera are too diverse to be recounted 
in detail. 

Amongst the Diptera there are TipulidcB with sub- 
terranean root-feeding larvae. There are root and stem 



HAKMFUL INSECTS 55 

feeding larvae and leaf-miners too, but it is mainly on 
the medical — or shall we say disease-bearing — side that 
Diftera make their presence felt. 

The Hymenoftera are notorious as crop pests, almost 
solely on account of the damage done by Tenthredinidce 
larvae. To a lesser degree, the Siricidce, with wood- 
boring larvae; the Cephidae, with larvae which tunnel in 
smaller stems; and the gall-forming CynipidOy, are 
noxious. 

The Thysanoftera are almost all of them injurious 
to growing crops, whilst the Rhynchota include some of 
the most harmful of all insects. With a few — a very 
few — exceptions, all the CoccidcB are noxious; there is 
probably no family containing so many injurious species: 
the AphidcB are a good second. The Cotton-stainers 
of the genus Dysdercus are dreaded in every cotton- 
growing district. The Aleurodidce and PsylUdcB con- 
tain more harmful than harmless species. The TingidcB 
and JassidcB are harmful in a minor degree, a remark 
which applies to some of the Capsidw. From their 
egg-laying habits the Cicadidw cause indirect injury, and 
the leaf-eating species of Pentatomidm are not above 
suspicion. 

Before passing to the medical aspect of economic 
entomology, let us see whether there is not a ray of hope 
amongst the wreckage. It is cheering to be reminded 
that nearly all these evil-doers have enemies amongst 
their own kind, often very closely related enemies. 
They belong, for the most part, to the Hymenoptera , 
Diptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, Planipennia, and Rhyn- 
chota. 

Many Hymenoptera live at the expense of other 



56 INSECT LIFE 

insects. The IchneumonidcB, Brachonidce, and Chalci- 
didw, and in a lesser degree the Evaniidce and Procto- 
trypidcB, do immense service to mankind in keeping the 
numbers of noxious insects within reasonable bounds. 
In addition, there are many predators, such as the 
Fossorial Wasps, the Social Wasps, and the Ants, who 
levy no small toll on the insect world. 

Several Di-ptera are parasitic, notably the TachmidcB, 
and of predators none are more energetic or voracious 
than the AsilidcB. 

The friendly Coleoptera form a limited band. Pride 
of place must be awarded to the CoccinellidcB, who in 
their varied species wage continual warfare upon 
AfhidcB, Coccidce, and the like. Then there are pre- 
datory species of Carabidw — a few species are plant- 
feeders — and the still more useful CicindelidcB. 

The Odonata, as an order, are useful; they all devour 
insect fare, and most of them are indefatigable in their 
search for food. 

The Planipennia include the Chrysopidce, those in- 
veterate enemies of Afliidce; and amongst the Rhynchota 
there are some carnivorous species, mostly Reduviidce^ 
which do some duty towards maintaining the balance 
of Nature. 

The disease-bearing insects are confined to four 
orders — Diptera , Siphonapera , Anoplura, and Rhynchota; 
nevertheless, they are all too numerous. 

Amongst the Diptera we find the largest number of 
blood-sucking insects which affect man and his belong- 
ings . The CuUcidce , in the main , are harmful , and all are 
annoying. Malaria and yellow fever are transmitted 
by these insects. The Muscidm are equally objection- 



HAKMFUL INSECTS 57 

able ; the House-fly is responsible for tlie spread of several 
diseases. The Tsetse-flies transmit sleeping sickness 
and an allied disease to animals. The SimulidcB are 
more than suspected of conveying pellagra, and certain 
Psychodidce of performing the same office for the un- 
known germs of three-day fever. The TabanidcB, too, 
are under suspicion in connection with the transmission 
of disease. The (Estridw are all of them noxious to 
animals, though not disease-carriers. Other parasitic 
Diftera occur in the Hiffohoscidce and alhed famihea 
in the Muscidw and Sarcophagidce, species of some of 
these two families being parasitic on man. 

Certain species of the Sifhonaftera are notorious as 
vectors of the plague bacillus ; other species are internal 
parasites of men and animals; most species are annoying 
partial parasites. 

The Anoflura include disgusting, disease-bearing 
human parasites, and the Rhynchota are notorious 
because they include the Cimicidce, of which family the 
common Bed-bug, suspected of transmitting recurrent 
fever, and a disgusting creature at best, is a member. 

These insects, in common with their crop-devouring 
relations, have their enemies, both parasitic and pre- 
datory; were it not so, there would be no place for man 
upon this earth. 

There are a certain number of insects from which 
we derive direct benefit; they can almost be counted 
upon the fingers of one hand. True, the enemies of our 
enemies — insect allies they may be termed — ^are beneficial 
to us but indirectly. 

The Silkworm and the Honey Bee, semi-domesticated 
insects both, are the chief insects from which we derive 

8 



58 INSECT LIFE 

benefits in kind. Then there are a few lesser-known 
species. Curiously enough, from the highly injurious 
family of CoccidcB these insects are mostly derived. The 
Lac insect, an Asiatic species, provides us with shellac; 
the Cochineal insect was once the medium of a thriving 
industry in the Canary Islands, till the discovery of 
aniline dyes sounded its death-knell; the Chinese pela 
wax insect provides a high-grade wax — and these three 
insects are all Coccidae ! Certain CynipidcB which make 
galls, used in the production of ink, and a limited number 
of species of various orders which provide food for 
people of depraved taste, complete the list of directly 
beneficial insects. 



SPKINGTAILS 59 



CHAPTER III 

COLLEMBOLA, THYSANURA, MALLOPHAGA, 

ANOPLURA, ODONATA, PLECOPTERA, EPHEME- 

ROPTERA, ISOPTERA, AND ORTHOPTERA 

Order Collembola, or Springtails. 
Wingless, minute insects; antennae with few joints; six 
segments to the abdomen; biting mouths; metamor- 
phosis slight. The springtails form a much neglected 
order, and there is a considerable divergence of opinion 
as to their classification. 

APHORURiDiE. — Distinguished from all the other 
Collembola by the absence of any ventral spring on the 
abdomen. They are soft-bodied, slow-moving insects. 

PoDURH)^. — Ventral spring on the fourth abdominal 
segment. 

Very common insects, but overlooked on account of 
their small size; some of them measure only a thirtieth 
of an inch in length. Achorutes duhius is a common 
British species, found on damp soil or even upon the 
surface of water. A. nivicola^ an American species, 
occurs on snow. 

EntomobryiDuE. — ^Ventral spring on fifth abdominal 
segment; abdomen cylindrical, much longer than broad. 

Species of this family frequent greenhouses, bark of 
trees, damp soil, etc. The American Lepidocyrtus 
americanus is found in houses. 



60 INSECT LIFE 

Papiriid^. — Ventral spring on fifth abdominal seg- 
ment; abdomen very little longer than broad; last 
segment of antennse short. 

These insects frequent moss. 

Smynthurid^. — ^Ventral spring on fifth abdominal 
segment; abdomen very little longer than broad; last 
segment of antennae long. 

Many species are brightly coloured; they frequent 
fungi, decaying wood, and similar situations. Lubbock 
described the behaviour of the common yellow Smyn- 
thurus luteus as follows : " It is very amusing to see these 
little creatures coquetting together. The male, which 
is much smaller than the female, runs round her, and 
they butt one another, standing face to face, and moving 
backwards and forwards like two playful lambs. Then 
the female pretends to run away, and the male runs after 
her, with a queer appearance of anger; gets in front and 
stands facing her again; then she turns coyly round, but 
he, quicker and more active, scuttles round her, and 
seems to whip her with his antennae; then for a bit they 
stand face to face, play with their antennae, and seem 
to be all in all to one another.'* 

Order Thysanura. 

Wingless, minute insects with many -jointed antennae; 
ten abdominal segments; slight metamorphosis; biting 
mouth-parts. 

Campodeid^. — Body hairy and terminated by two 
long appendages. 

Minute insects, frequenting damp earth. 

Japygid^. — Body hairy and terminated by a pair 
of forceps. 



BIRD LICE 61 

These insects resemble miniature Earwigs; they 
frequent moss, but nothing is known concerning their 
habits or Hfe-histories. 

Lepismatid^. — Body covered with scales and ter- 
minated by three filamentous processes. 

These are the well-known " Silver Fish." Lepisma 
saccharina is a common sight wherever starchy or 
sugary material is stored. It avoids the light and is 
difficult to catch, for its scales are easily shed and it slips 
from the grasp. Lepisma domestica, the "Fire Brat," 
haunts bakehouses and other warm situations. 

Machiled^. — Machilis maritima is frequently met 
with on the sea-shore. Very little is known about the 
mode of life of these insects. 

SUBCLASS EXOPTERYGOTA. 
Order Malloplaga. 

Wingless, parasitic insects with biting mouths; bodies 
hard and flattened; large flat heads; antennae three to 
five jointed; eyes simple; legs strong, the fore-legs not 
used for walking; metamorphosis incomplete. 

These insects are known as Bird Lice in contradis 
tinction to the Anoplura, or true Lice. The majority 
are parasitic upon birds, but several have mammals as 
their hosts. Unlike the true Lice, they are not blood- 
suckers, but find their sustenance on scurf, scales of 
feathers, etc. 

The order comprises four easily recognized families. 
The species of two families have clubbed, four- jointed 
antennae, and of these the species with one tarsal claw 
belong to the Gyropidw and are parasitic on mammals; 
those with two tarsal claws belong to the Liotheidce 



62 INSECT LIFE 

and are parasitic on birds. The members of the family 
Trichodectidce, parasitic on mammals, all have three 
jointed, filiform antennae and a single tarsal claw; whilst 
those of the remaining family, Philo'pteridcB , also have 
fihform antennae, but with five joints; and their tarsi 
are armed with two claws; they are parasitic on birds. 
From these remarks it is clear that the two-clawed 
Mallofhaga are bird parasites, and the one-clawed 
species have mammalian hosts. 

The typical life-history of a Mallofhaga may be taken 
as representative of the whole order. The female 
deposits her elongate, oval eggs singly upon a feather 
or hair, according to her host. The immature Lice 
break off a lid from the free end of the egg, and come 
into the world not very dissimilar in appearance to their 
parents. Naturally, they are smaller, their heads are 
larger in proportion, and their body-markings are not 
distinct. By a series of moults they attain the adult 
stage. Bird Lice never wander from the body of the 
living host; it is true they will pass from host to host 
when they are in actual contact with one another, and 
then only. It is remarkable, therefore, that the same 
species of MallopJiaga may be found on totally dissimilar 
hosts in both the Old World and the New. 

Aquatic birds have their biting Lice, not specially 
modified for life in the water, but protected, probably, 
by the close-growing feathers of their hosts. One species 
feeds upon the epidermal scales inside the pouch of the 
pelican, but the student of biting Lice would be well 
advised to begin with the domestic hen, which may 
harbour five species of three genera, amongst them the 
typical Menopon pallidum. 



TRUE LICE 63 

Order Anoplura, or Lice. 
Minute insects with large abdomens; antennae five- 
jointed; wingless; mouth suctorial; tarsi with one claw. 
The order is composed of the single family PedicuUdce^ 
or True Lice; there are four genera and a Hmited num- 
ber of species. All the Pediculidm are parasitic upon 
mammals, and three of them are the particular adjuncts 
of man. Till comparatively recently but little has been 
known of these insects, but with the attention that is 
now being paid to medical entomology, and the un- 
doubted connection between Lice and the spread of 
disease, more and more of their history is unfolded. 

Concerning the exact systematic position of these 
insects there is still some doubt. Certain authorities 
look upon them as degraded Hemiptera — degraded 
through a long period of parasitic existence. Others, 
again, consider them to form a distinct order, to which 
the names Si'phunculata and Ano'plura have been 
applied. 

There are three species of human Lice, belonging to 
two genera, or, according to Meinart and some others, 
two species of difaent genera. The Head Louse, 
Pediculus capitis, as its name indicates, makes its home 
on the heads of human beings. Its eggs, which are 
laid singly on the tips of the hair, are the all too famihar 
** nits." It is a curious fact that the Head Lice affecting 
men of various races vary in colour according to the 
hue of their host's skin. This has given rise to the yet 
unproven theory that there may be a number of species 
of P. capitis. The Body Louse, P. vestimenti, is very 
similar to the Head Louse, so similar that doubts have 



64 INSECT LIFE 

arisen as to its being a distinct species. In habits, at 
any rate, it differs markedly from capitis ; it does not 
dwell in the human head, but in clothes, from which 
it sallies forth to take its toll of human blood. It is 
one of the most prolific of insects. The Crab Louse 
Phthirius inguinalis, frequents the coarser hairs of the 
human body, and in serious cases may even extend to 
the beard and eyebrows; but it never infects the head, 
for the good reason that its claws are unfitted for 
grasping fine hair. It is a shorter, broader insect than 
either of the species of Pediculus, and not unlike a 
small crab. 

It is a peculiarity of true Lice that they do not attack 
mammals promiscuously; each Louse species is con- 
fined to a special species of mammal or to closely allied 
species. The Lice of domestic animals belong, for the 
most part, to the genus Hcematopinus ; dogs, hogs, 
horses, cattle, and sheep, all have their particular Lice. 
Monkeys, though never attacked by Fleas in a state 
of nature, are infested by a Louse of the genus Pedicinus^ 
which is peculiar in having only three joints to its 
antennae. It is a curious, though unimportant, coin- 
cidence that the Elephant Louse, Hcematomyzus ele- 
phantis, is, like its owner, possessed of a long proboscis. 
The Horse Louse, Hcematopinus asini, is not unlike the 
Crab Louse, but larger and armed with much more 
formidable claws. Even aquatic mammals are not free 
from the attentions of these degraded insects. Seals 
have a genus of their own — Echinophthirius , and none 
of the individuals suffer the slightest inconvenience 
from the lengthy submersion to which they are sub- 
jected by their hosts. 



DEAGON-FLIES 65 

Order Odonata, or DRAGON-rLiES. 

AVings devoid of scales and never folded, elongate, 
of nearly equal size, and much veined; eyes large; 
antennae small and short; legs not adapted for walking; 
jaws well developed; larvae and pupae aquatic. 

The Dragon-flies are among the most beautiful of 
our native insects; many are so swift of flight that it is 
often difficult to observe all their beautiful metallic and 
iridescent colouring, as they dart hither and thither in 
search of their prey. Although perfectly harmless to 
man and his belongings, some of the larger species are 
of fearsome aspect, and this has given rise to many 
ill-founded stories. In some parts of England these 
insects are known as " horse-stingers ,"" despite the fact 
that they could not sting had they the desire to do so. 
They are also called " Devil's darning-needles," because 
they are reported to sew up the ears of bad boys; 
" snake-feeders "" they are called too : they are supposed 
to supply food to water-snakes. In Scotland they are 
often referred to as " flying adders.'' In truth they are 
very beautiful, harmless insects. 

A few details concerning the general structure and 
habits of the Odonata may not be out of place, especially 
as these insects difier from all others in certain essentials. 

Although all Dragon-flies bear a certain family like- 
ness to one another, there are, as in all orders, great 
differences in size and build. They vary in size from 
Mecistogaster lucretia, a South American species, which 
measures six inches in length and five inches from tip 
to tip of its wings, down to minute S3nnpetrums; in 
stoutness, even among our own species, from the portly 

9 



66 INSECT LIFE 

Libellula depressa to slender Agrionids. In all species 
their heads are remarkable for their large size and the 
inordinate amount of rotation of which they are 
capable. 

Structurally, the most interesting feature of the adult 
males is the separation of the ejaculatory ducts from 
the intromittent organs. The former are situated on 
the penultimate abdominal segment; the latter on the 
ventral side of the second abdominal segment. When 
copulation is about to take place, the male curves his 
abdomen so that its penultimate (ninth) segment is in 
contact with the second, and pours the semen on to the 
intromittent organ. During copulation the male grasps 
the female round the neck with the claspers at the end 
of his abdomen, and she curls the tip of her abdomen 
round, in contact with the second abdominal segment 
of the male. Frequently the male retains a hold of 
his mate even during egg-laying, and should she be 
one of the species given to laying her eggs under water, 
he will follow her into that element rather than relax 
his hold. 

The means by which Dragon-flies capture their prey 
is uncertain. That it is always captured on the wing 
is well known, but the flight of these insects is so rapid, 
they change their direction so suddenly, that the actual 
capture is a matter of conjecture. The small insects, of 
which Dragon-flies consume a quantity, are apparently 
seized in the jaws; the larger ones are probably seized 
by the legs and devoured during flight. At least, their 
legs are well placed for such a happening; they are all 
placed well towards the front of the thorax, and are 
curved forward in flight. 



PLATE 11 



^ 








^ 



A GROUP OF IJRAGOX FLIES 



DRAGON-FLIES 67 

" Flies seem to be their commonest food, but large 
dragon-flies will eat small ones. Leaf-hoppers and 
even small butterflies and moths are captured by them. 
Some forms will occasionally pick up a moth from a 
weed or a grass stem on which it is resting, and even 
one of the large swallow -tailed butterflies has been seen 
captured by a dragon-fly, while Williamson states that 
he once saw one holding a large wasp in its jaws. The 
voracity of a large dragon-fly may easily be tested by 
capturing one and holding it by its wings folded together 
over its back, and then feeding it with live house-flies. 
I should hesitate to say how many it will accept and 
devour, as I never tried one to the limit of its capacity. 
Beutenmiiller found that one of the large ones would 
eat forty house-flies inside of two hours, while a smaller 
one ate twenty -five in the same time. It ia an odd 
fact that a dragon-fly will eat its own body when 
proflered to him. Even when insufficiently chloro- 
formed and pinned, if one revives, it will cease all 
efforts to escape if fed with house-flies, the satisfying 
of its appetite making it apparently oblivious to the 
discomfort or possible pain of a big pin through its 
thorax." 

The life-histories of the various species of Odonata 
differ from one another in minor details, but in general 
they are very similar. The female deposits her eggs in 
water, either by dropping them on its surface, by 
attaching them, enclosed in a mucilaginous envelope, 
to some water-plant, or by inserting them in the stems 
of aquatic vegetation. The species which have the 
last-named habit are provided with pointed or roughened 
sides to the vulva. The females, enclosed in a film of 



68 



INSECT LIFE 



air, descend the stem of the plant they have selected 
to a point well below the water-level, cut or file a slit 
in their plant tissues, and deposit their eggs therein. 

The larva appears in about a month, and at once 
takes to a predatory life, walking slowly on the bed 




Fig. 1. — Head of Laeva of Blue Deagon-Fly (viewed feom 
Below). (Much Magnified.) 

I, With mask folded up ; //, with the same unfolded. A , eyes ; F, antennre ; 
01, labram; Ok, mandibles; Uk, maxillae; Ul, labium, having the form 
of a mask; 1 and 2, its two elongated portions; 3, the pincer-shaped 
portion. 

of the pond as it stalks its prey. Its colour renders it 
inconspicuous on the mud, and its mouth-parts are 
well adapted for its mode of life. The lower lip, which 
is hinged below the mouth, is elongate, and when at 



DRAGON-FLIES 69 

rest extends below the head; at its distal end there is 
hinged another long segment with two sharply curved 
teeth (forceps) at its free end. This second segment, 
at rest, lies below the first; the whole covers the 
lower face like a mask — in fact, it is usually so called. 
" When it is folded, the head of a dragon-fly larva, 
seen from the front, looks like that of a bull-dog. 
It is more innocent-looking than that of a bull-dog 
simply because we know what a bull-dog can do; but 
the moment that the larva approaches near enough to 
its prey, the innocent-looking mask is unfolded and 
darted out, and the probably unsuspecting aquatic 
insect or small fish is seized by the teeth at the ex- 
tremity and drawn back into the mouth." 

The respiration of the larva varies according to the 
species. In some there are external gills on the tail 
and sides of the abdomen; in others there are so-called 
** rectal gills,'' and for their aeration water is sucked 
into the rectum. Frequently the larva ejects this 
water so violently that it propels itself for a considerable 
distance. 

Many moults are passed through by the Dragon-fly 
larva, and after the third or fourth the wing rudi- 
ments, in the form of two minute lobes, appear on 
a pair of horny plates which were visible in the earlier 
stages. The larva has now become a nymph. Many 
more moults are accomplished before the nymph is 
ready to change into the active, aerial Dragon-fly; 
during this time the nymph breathes by means of 
thoracic spiracles. When at length the change is about 
to take place, the nymph, deserting its aquatic home, 
climbs up the stem of a water-plant and clings firmly 



70 



INSECT LIFE 



thereto. After a space, the nymphal skin splits down 
the back, and the wings, head, and thorax are freed, 
but the tip of the abdomen still remains within the skin. 
The next part of the process is the backward bending 
of the Dragon-fly, and in this apparently uncomfortable 




Fio. 2. 

A, The anterior portion of the body of a dragon-fly freed from the nymphal 

Bkin; B, The tail being extricated. 

From "Zoology of the Invertebrata," by A. E. Shipley. 

position it will remain for several minutes, waiting for 
its legs and wings to harden; then, bending forwards 
once more, the old skin is seized by the insect's legs, 
its abdomen arched, and its tip carefuUy withdrawn 
from the nymphal skin. Now completely free, the 
adult Dragon-fly crawls away from its abandoned 



DRAGON-FLIES 



71 



covering, but its wings and abdomen are still in an 
imperfect stage. For some hours the newly awakened 




Fig. 3. 
C, The whole body extricated; D, the perfect insect Mschna cyanea, the 
wiiigs having acquired their full dimensions, resting to dry itself, 
preparatory to the wings being horizontally extended. 

From " Zoology of the Invertebrata," by A. E. Shipley. 

insect clings to its support, the while its wings expand, 
its abdomen assumes its normal proportions, and the 
full splendour of its brilliant colouring comes to it. 



72 INSECT LIFE 

In general, Dragon-flies are beneficial insects. Their 
larvae may do some damage to fish-fry, but the adults 
are highly destructive to insects, many of which would 
prove injurious if allowed to increase to a great extent. 
Unfortunately, the Dragon-fly is an insect likely to 
become, more and more scarce as drainage becomes 
more common. From the nature of its life-history 
water is an essential to its existence. Sometimes, when 
ponds dry up, these insects migrate in enormous num- 
bers. Mandt, describing one of these migrations, says: 
** The air for miles around seemed literally alive with 
these dragon-flies {Msclina heros) from a foot above 
ground to as far as the eye could reach, all flying in 
the same direction, a south-easterly course, and the 
few that would occasionally cross the track of the- 
majority could all the more easily be noticed from the 
very regular and s-wift course they generally pursued; 
but even these few stray ones would soon fall in with 
the rest again. Very few were seen alighting, and all 
carefuUy avoided any movable obstacles.'^ 

The order is divided into seven subfamilies, which 
are easily distinguished by the characters given below. 

Calopterygid^. — ^Fore and hind wings similar, held 
vertically in repose; eyes constricted at the base; at 
least five cross-veins between the first and second 
longitudinal veins, running from the node (the apparent 
break on the front margin of the fore-wing) to the base. 

The species of this family are noted for their beautiful 
colouring. We have two in Britain, known as 
" Demoiselles " or " Kingfishers." Calopteryx virgo has 
beautiful metallic blue wings in the male and brownish, 
often tinged with green, wings in the female. The 



DRAGON-FLIES 73 

females of C. sflendens have greyish wings, but the 
males have their transparent wings broadly banded at 
their centres with deep blue. One of the most beauti- 
ful species, however, is the common East Indian, C. 
chinensis, whose males have transparent fore- wings and 
brilliant green hind- wings. The American genus 
Hetcerina may be recognized by the blood-red patch at 
the base of the transparent, somewhat narrow wings of 
the males. 

Our British species may often be seen flying low over 
streams ; the larvse of all members of the family breathe 
by means of tracheal gills. 

AGRiONiDiE. — Similar to CalopterygidcB, but with only 
two cross-veins between the first and second longi- 
tudinal veins running from the node to the base. 

This is a large family of slender, graceful insects. 
Most of them are small, though some of the South 
American forms equal any of the Odonata in size. In 
an order of active Flies they can only be described as 
poor on the wing. 

Our two commonest native genera are Agrion and 
Lestes, and they are easily distinguished, though both 
have transparent wings. At, or near, the tip of the 
fore-wing of all Dragon-flies there is an opaque spot, 
known as a stigma. The size, shape, and often the 
colour of the stigma vary in different species. Species 
of Agrion have small lozenge-shaped stigmas; in those 
of Lestes they are large and oblong. 

The bodies of all the species of this family are highly 
ornate, metallic blues and greens being the predominat- 
ing colours; the larvse breathe by means of tracheal 
gills. 

10 



74 INSECT LIFE 

GoMPHiD^. — ^Front wings dissimilar from hind- wings, 
held horizontally in repose; eyes not constricted, but 
wide apart. 

These insects are sometimes referred to as the true 
Dragon-flies; by many authorities they are considered 
to form a subfamily of the JEschnidce. Most of the 
species are large, and many possess abdomens of peculiar 
swollen form ; this is well seen in Gomfhus vastus. They 
are not good performers on the wing, and the females 
only take to flight at infrequent intervals. The eggs 
are deposited on the surface of the water, and not upon 
aquatic plants. 

CoKDULEGASTERiDiE. — Similar to GomphidcB, but their 
eyes touch at a single point at the top of the head. 

These Dragon-flies are moderately large insects, and 
they have been given their family name because of 
their club-shaped abdomens, which are narrower in the 
middle than at either extremity. They also are often 
considered as a subfamily of the Mschnidce. 

All of them are strong fliers; their wings are usually 
clear or nearly so, and they lack the beautiful metallic 
colouring which renders the species of other genera so 
attractive. Their bodies are usually banded with 
brown or yellow. Our common Cordulegaster annulatus 
is a large, powerful insect, measuring upwards of four 
inches in wing-span. It is black in colour, and has its 
abdomen banded with yellow and its thorax striped 
with the same colour. 

jEscHNiDiE. — Similar to Gom^hidce, but their eyes 
meet on the top of the head for some distance, and the 
three ocelli are arranged in a straight line on the front of 
the head. These are among the largest and most powerful 



DRAGON-FLIES 75 

of all Dragon-flies ; all the species are exceedingly strong 
on the wing, so much so that they may often be observed 
flying far from the neighbourhood of water. 

Mschna cyanea is one of the most beautiful of our 
native insects. In general colour it is reddish-brown; 
on either side of the thorax there is a large green spot, 
and there are pairs of similar coloured spots along the 
abdomen of the male; the female is distinguished by 
yellow spots. The hind- wings are larger than the front 
wings, and both are transparent. The equally common 
A. grandis is as large as its relative, but reddish-brown 
in colour with smoky yellow wings. The genus Anax 
also contains some striking species. 

CoRDULiD^. — May be distinguished by the presence 
of a single tubercle on the hind-border of each eye. 

Very closely allied to the LibellulidcB, and frequently 
considered as a subfamily. Many large species exist, 
and the wings of most of them are banded with brown, 
marked at the base with the same colour or clear. 

LiBELLULiD^. — Similar to Gom'phidcB, but the three 
ocelli are arranged in a triangle. 

Many of these Dragon-flies have broad bodies, which 
give them a somewhat clumsy appearance; this is 
specially the case with the common Lihellula depressa, 
of which species the males are blue and the females 
brown. L. quadrimaculata is equally common, but 
more elegant; it is yellowish-brown and has a dark 
spot at each node and on each wing- tip — hence its 
name. 

The genus Syni'petrum includes species of more slender 
build, and the black S. scoticum is not uncommon. 
Orthetrum is another genus with British species. 



76 INSECT LIFE 

Order Plecoptera, or Stone-flies. 

Perlid^. — Four membranous wings; the hind- wings 
much larger, though not longer, than the front wings — 
folded when at rest; antennae long and thread-like; 
body long, soft, and often broad, bearing a pair of short, 
moderately broad filaments at the apex. 

The order consists of but a single family whose species 
bear a superficial resemblance to the Caddis-flies. The 
common British species is Perla bicaudata. It is a very 
sluggish pale brown insect, and may often be seen 
basking on stones near water in the summer. It rarely 
takes to flight, and is a poor performer. Anatomically 
these insects are interesting on account of the well- 
marked divisions between the three segments of the 
thorax — in fact, the head and thorax of the common 
Stone-fly equal half the length of the whole insect. 

The minute eggs are contained in a membranous 
capsule, and are carried for a while by the female before 
she deposits them in the water. Each female may 
deposit upwards of six thousand eggs, a necessary 
proceeding, for the larvae are favoured food of fishes, 
so that their mortality is great. The larvae are very 
similar to the adults, except that they lack wings; they 
possess anal filaments and long antennae. Although 
capable of swimming, most of their time is spent 
beneath stones in swift-running streams, a position 
which their flattened bodies enable them to take up 
with ease The mortality among the larvae is increased 
by the fact that their larval life is protracted and, as so 
often happens in such cases, the adults live but a few 
hours. 



MAY-FLIES 77 

The food of the " creepers/' as Perla larvse are called, 
consists of minute aquatic animals, and hicaudata 
breathes by means of paired tracheal gills. In some 
species there are neither gills nor spiracles, so that 
respiration takes place through the skin. This mode 
of breathing is uncommon among insects, and is only 
found elsewhere in the larvse of Chironomidw and of 
some parasitic Hymenoftera. 

The nymphs leave the water before changing to adults ; 
they climb on to some near-by stone, their skin splits, 
and the Stone-fly emerges. Although the prevailing 
colour of Stone-flies closely approximates that of the 
stones on which they bask, there is an Australian genus, 
Chloroferla, whose species are green. 

Order Ephemeroptera, or May-flies. 

Ephemerid^. — Hind- wings much smaller than front 
wings, and not folded when at rest; abdomen bearing 
two or three long, slender filaments; antennae short. 

These insects are usually known as May-flies, some- 
times as Day-flies, and by fishermen they are called 
Green or Brown Drakes. Their larvse and nymphs are 
aquatic There is but one family in the order, and our 
common May-fly, Efhemera vulgata, is a typical species. 

The females, after pairing, an act which takes place 
in the air, deposit their disc-shaped eggs on the surface 
of the water, and they sink to the bottom. The larvse, 
as soon as they hatch, bury themselves in the mud and 
start on their long larval life, which extends as long as 
three years; during this time they undergo at least 
twenty moults. Their food consists mostly of vegetable 
matter, and respiration is carried out by tracheal gills 



78 INSECT LIFE 

assisted by three filamentous outgrowths from the tip 
of the abdomen. 

Then, when the larvae have changed into nymphs and 
the latter are ready to take to the air, there happens 
an event which is not paralleled among any other 
insects. The nymphs rise to the surface of the water, 
there is a brief pause, their nymphal skins split, and 
they fly into the air, not as perfect insects, but as sub- 
imagos. The young subimagos seek some near-by 
resting-place, and another skin is shed and the grey 
adult May-flies appear. 

The adults of vulgata have three tail filaments and 
very short antennae; their fore-legs, which are useless 
for walking, are carried in front of the head, and at a 
distance might be mistaken for antennae. They have 
incompletely formed mouth-parts, and are incapable 
of taking in food; could they do so, their intestines are 
not capable of digesting any nutriment. The lives of 
the adults are short, though not so short as is popularly 
supposed and as their family name — derived from the 
Ephemerides of Greek mythology, who lived but a day. 
A case is on record of an adult Ephemerid which lived 
for three weeks, but it must have been a particularly 
robust individual. 

Kirby relates that the European OUgoneuria rhenana^ 
a white species, " appears in such vast numbers on the 
Rhine after sunset as to resemble snowflakes."' 

Order Isoptera, or Equal Wings. 

TERMiTiDiE. — All four wiugs of equal size; males and 
queens winged, workers wingless; biting mouths well 
developed; body oblong and depressed; social insects. 



TERMITES 79 

The order is composed of the single family TermitidcB, 
and its members are known popularly as Termites; a 
more common, but incorrect, name is White Ants — 
the Termites are neither Ants nor are they white. 
They are more nearly related to the Perlidce and Ephe- 
meridcB than to the Formicidce ; probably the fact that 
they are social and dwell in colonies has given rise to 
their popular name. 

None of the species occur in Britain; a few are found 
in Southern Europe, but the order attains its highest 
development in the tropics. They are amongst the 
most injurious of all insects, and there are few timbers 
proof against their attacks. To be Termite-proof is 
one of the greatest recommendations that can be 
claimed for a wood destined for tropical use; there are 
a few such timbers, but not many. 

Speaking of these insects, Gates in his " Matabele- 
land '* says: " The White Ants kept tumbhng over me 
all night, and knocking down leaves from the roof. 
These White Ants are the curse of all African travellers 
and settlers, devouring everything except iron and tin, 
whilst in time even houses succumb to their ravages. 
They form, however, an article of food in many places 
amongst the natives, by whom they are much esteemed 
on account of their slightly acid flavour. The enormous 
structures they erect are frequently carried up the 
trunk of a high tree, or may sometimes be seen standing 
alone at a height of eighteen feet. 

" The Dutch Boers and others make use of these 
Ant-hills for cooking purposes, hollowing out the loose 
portion of the heap, and filling the hollow thus formed 
with wood, which is lighted, and, when consumed. 



80 INSECT LIFE 

renders the receptacle an admirable oven, retaining its 
heat for a great length of time." 

In tropical Australia, Asia, and America, there are 
enormous colonies of Termites, and often their nests 
are structures as large as houses. 

There is a great deal to be learned of the habits of 
these tropical Termites ; so far as they have been studied 
the economy of one colony appears to be very similar 
to that in any other. Termes flavifes is one of the 
commonest European species; T. lucifugus is by no 
means rare in the Mediterreanean region; T. tuhi- 
formanff, a Texan species, has the curious habit of con- 
structing tubular shelters of cow-dung round the stems 
of plants. Another Texan species makes nests of the 
same material on tree-trunks. Of this species Buckley 
wrote : " They marched in dense columns along path- 
ways leading to a hole near the base of a stump, into 
which they entered. . . . They dwell in the ground, 
where they have rooms, seldom more than one to two 
inches long, connected by tunnels. . . . After rains — 
which are of rare occurrence in that climate — they 
make semi-cylindrical tubes, which lie on the ground, 
with a length of from three to six inches. These arched 
ways sometimes intercept each other, being connected 
with chambers; but they rarely work by day above the 
surface, and never in bright sunshine." 

The formation of a new Termite colony commences 
with the nuptial flight, in which winged males and 
females issue from the old nests in enormous numbers 
and come to the surface to pair. After pairing, the 
wings of both sexes break off, and the females either 
start new colonies of their own or, falling in with wing- 





STICK INSfXl 



Pnge 



TERMITES 81 

less workers from another colony, start their new home 
with their assistance. 

Enormous numbers of Termites perish during these 
flights; as with the Seventeen- Year Locust (p. 119), the 
advent of innumerable individuals is the signal for all 
manner of enemies to gather to the feast so freely 
provided. That some fertilized females escape every 
danger is shown by the survival of the race. 

Having reached a place of safety, after pairing, the 
female, who is now a queen and is probably assisted 
by workers, seeks a hiding-place where her new colony 
may be formed. For the rest of her life she becomes 
little more than an egg-laying machine ; by the workers 
she is enclosed in a special royal cell in whose walls 
there are numerous holes, through which the workers 
may pass when carrying the eggs provided by the 
queen to other parts of the nest. In some of the 
tropical species the appearance of a fertile queen is 
extraordinary Her abdomen, distended with eggs, 
swells to the size of a small potato, thirty thousand 
times as large as that of a worker Termite. Her head 
and thorax form a mere spot at the end of this in- 
ordinately large organ. Her egg-producing capacity is 
prodigious, and is estimated at sixty a minute, or 
eighty thousand a day. 

The larvse are not nearly so helpless as those of the 
social Hymeno'ptera, and they are very soon able to 
fend for themselves. Their food varies, and may either 
consist of wood-fibre, their own cast skins, their own 
excrement, or regurgitated food. " When a Callotermes 
wishes for food," according to Grassi, " it strokes the 
posterior part of the body of another individual with 

11 



82 INSECT LIFE 

its antennae, and by some sort of a reflex action the 
contents of the alimentary canal of the individual stroked 
issue from the anus, and are devoured by the stroker." 

In each colony there are always a queen, workers 
of at least two castes, and winged males. The workers 
are wingless females; they look after the queen and her 
eggs, and carry out other domestic duties in the nest; 
some of them become supplementary queens, capable 
of carrying on the duty of stocking the colony should 
any accident befall the true queen. The second caste 
consists of soldiers; they are individuals with enor- 
mously developed jaws; they are often five times the size 
of the ordinary workers, and, being unable to partake 
of ordinary food on account of their huge jaws, have 
cannibalistic tendencies, frequently making a meal off 
their fellows. In certain species there is yet a third 
caste, whose heads are modified into snout-like processes. 
These individuals are known as nasuti, or " nosed " ones, 
and their sole duties consist of mending the walls of the 
nest when they are broken, a feat which is accomplished 
by the aid of a fluid which exudes from the hollow snout. 

A striking feature about every Termite nest is its 
extreme cleanliness; the insects even eat their own 
excrement again and again till all the nourishment is 
removed. Another feature, which the reader will 
probably have surmised already, is the presence of 
guests — ^they frequent the nests of all social insects. 

Order Orthoptera, or Straight Wings. 
Insects with biting mouths; front wings (tegmina) 
much narrower than the hind-wings and of a leathery 
texture; hind-legs of many species designed for leaping; 



COCKEOACHES 83 

metamorphosis incomplete; eggs often enclosed in a 
case. 

This large order contains some of the most interesting 
insects; in habits they differ considerably from one 
another: some, the Mantids, are predaceous; others, 
the Locusts, are herbivorous; yet others, the Cock- 
roaches, are practically omnivorous. In all the families 
— there are six in the order — metamorphosis is incom- 
plete; the larvse, except that they are wingless, are in 
all essentials miniatures of the adults. Although the 
Orthoptera receive their name from the straight margins 
of the tegmina which cover the membranous hind- 
wings, there are some species with functionless wings 
and some that are wingless. 

We have remarked that many of the Orthoptera are 
of great interest; to this order belong the curious Stick 
and Leaf insects, the wary Mantids, and a large number 
of musical insects. There is, in fact, no order con- 
taining a larger number of species exhibiting either 
protective or aggressive mimicry or singing powers. 
Despite their innate interest, many species are exceed- 
ingly harmful. Crickets are not the insects that the 
ordinary man would welcome in his house, Cockroaches 
are noxious creatures, and Locusts have been notorious 
since bibhcal times. 

The six families of Orthoftera are easily distin- 
guished; the earlier systematists separated the families 
with leaping powers {Saltatoria) from those whose 
members run over the ground (Cursoria). The same 
characters are still used in the classification of these 
insects. 

Blattid^.— Hind-femora similar to the others; head 



84 INSECT LIFE 

nearly horizontal ; body flattened and oval (occasionally 
round); ovipositor concealed. 

The Cockroaches, commonly but erroneously called 
Black Beetles, are all too familiar. The common 
Cockroach, by the way, is neither black nor is it a 
Beetle; how it came by its name is a mystery. Maybe 
the genius who founded the family is in part responsible, 
for the term Blatta means a Beetle. 

In Britain we have at least two Cockroaches, the 
common species, Blatta orientalis, and the American 
Cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Neither of them 
is a native species, but of the various Blattidce that are 
introduced from time to time, they alone seem to have 
become established. P. americana is a chestnut-brown 
insect, considerably larger than its more common 
relative. 

The common Cockroach is a dark brown insect, 
beautifully adapted for its peculiar mode of life. Both 
sexes are clad in a leathery armour, so smooth that they 
can only be held captive with difficulty. Their bodies 
are considerably flattened; in consequence they have 
no difficulty in crawling through narrow chinks in 
floors, etc. Their antennse are long and thread-like, 
their long legs well armed with spines. The wingless 
females are longer and, in consequence, apparently 
narrower than the winged males. 

A more detailed study of this insect will well repay 
the time spent upon it. The position of the head, 
typical of the Blattidce ; the long antennae, continuously 
vibrating, unless their owner is cleaning them by 
running them through his jaws; the bristles on the 
legs, used as body-combs (the Cockroach is clean in 



PLATE V 




HEAD OF MANTIS 




LONG I CO UN DEETLE 



COCKKOACHES 85 

person, though his habits be repulsive); the padded 
feet, enabHng their owner to walk up moderately smooth 
surfaces — these and a hundred other details may be 
learned from little more than a superficial examination 
of this famihar insect. 

All Cockroaches appear to like warmth, and most of 
them shun the light; our common species is no excep- 
tion. Breeding with orientalis takes place in the 
summer months. Each female lays sixteen eggs, and, 
as usually happens amongst the OrtJioptera, they are 
enclosed in an egg-case. The Blattid egg-case is very 
similar to a purse with a snap opening; it is a small 
oblong sac, closed at the bottom and sides and capable 
of opening at the top, though held together by the 
tension of the edges. The egg-case is formed within 
the body of the mother Cockroach, where also the 
sixteen eggs are arranged in two rows, with the ends 
from which the larvae will emerge pointing towards the 
top of the case. The female runs about, often for some 
considerable time, with the egg-case partly projecting 
from her abdomen, and not till she finds a suitable 
shelter will she deposit it. The larvae, when they 
emerge, push their way through the opening of the 
case; they closely resemble the adults, but, of course, 
they are very small and have no wings; also they are 
pale in colour. They pass through a number of moults, 
and with each one they become more and more like 
their parents, darker and darker in colour, and at the 
final moult they attain their full sexual characters. 

Cockroaches have many enemies, predaceous and 
parasitic; of the latter, the curious Evaniidce are the 
best known. 



86 INSECT LIFE 

f Although the prevailiDg colour scheme of the order 
is some shade of brown, grey, or black, there is an 
American genus, Panchlora, with pale green species. 
Certain exotic species are brightly coloured; the Indian 
Corydia 'petiveriana. is black spotted with yellow, and 
it is exceptional also in being round instead of oblong 
in outline. The giants of the family belong to the 
American genus Blaherus, and B. giganteus far exceeds 
all other Cockroaches in bulk. 

Mantid^. — Hind-femora not swollen; front legs 
designed for grasping; head oblique, generally tri- 
angular; prothorax long and slender. 

The Mantis is an insect around whose supposedly 
pious habits a considerable amount of romance has been 
woven. Mantis religiosa, a common, green South 
European species, is so devout in its attitude that it 
has been named religiosa by scientists and " praying 
Mantis " by laymen. In truth, all the species of 
MantidcB are predaceous, and not only so, they are 
cannibalistic; the females never hesitate to seize and 
devour their mates if the latter are too pressing in their 
attentions. They are all exceedingly voracious, and 
Slingerland relates how *' One Sunday a Green Mantis 
ate three Grasshoppers, each seven-eighths of an inch 
long, a daddy-long-legs, and then tackled another 
Mantis, and I was obliged to interfere with them." 

The Praying Mantis has earned its name from its 
habit of remaining motionless for long periods with its 
front legs raised in the air, as though in the act of 
supplication. Its attitude, however, is not one of 
devotion, but of anticipation; in this position the 
Mantis awaits its prey, and should an unwary insect 



MANTIDS 87 

come witliin reacli of the cruel, spiny, grasping fore- 
legs, they are shot forward with lightning rapidity, the 
insect is seized, conveyed to the mouth, and eaten. 
All the Mantids capture their prey by stealth; they 
creep towards their victims at times so slowly and 
cautiously that their movements are imperceptible, but 
ever the grasping fore-legs await the moment to seize 
their prey. 

Certain beautiful tropical species very closely resemble 
brilliant orchid flowers in colour and in form. These 
species bask on the orchid-plants, hopeful that insects 
bent on floral visitations will mistake them for blossoms. 
Though the majority of Mantids are sombre in their 
colouring — green is a favourite hue — some species are 
quite ornate. The genus Harpax contains some striking 
forms, H. ocellaria, a West African species, having dark 
green tegmina, with a bright yellow eye-spot in the 
centre of each one. 

As with all the Orthoftera, the metamorphosis of 
Mantids is incomplete. There is nothing very striking 
in their life-histories except the pecuHar form of the 
egg-masses. These vary in form and minor details 
according to the species, but in every species the eggs 
are laid in parallel rows in hard and horny cases. The 
egg-masses, usually oval in shape, are attached to a 
tree-branch or other support, and the eggs are arranged 
on end down the centre. At first it was puzzling to 
know how the females could deposit their eggs so neatly 
within so hard a substance as that composing the body 
of the egg-mass. Further investigation showed that 
the horny substance is deposited by the female at the 
same time as her eggs, and that, when first formed, it 



88 INSECT LIFE 

is semi-liquid and|frot]iy, only becoming hard in con- 
tact with the air. Despite the apparently impenetrable 
covering of the Mantis eggs, they are not without their 
Hymenopterous parasites. 

Phasmid^. — Femora of hind-legs not thickened, front 
legs similar to the other legs; head nearly horizontal, 
generally quadrangular. 

These are the great mimics of the insect world; the 
Stick and Leaf insects belong to this family. In point 
of size they are exceedingly variable; some of them are 
quite minute, while some of the tropical species measure 
as much as a foot in length. 

All the Stick insects are sluggish in their habits ; all are 
vegetable feeders, and many are highly destructive to 
crops; Lopafhus cocofhages^ a brown insect, is a notori- 
ous pest of coconut-palms, and when alarmed it has the 
objectionable habit of squirting an irritant fluid for 
some distance. In this connection, Kirby states that 
*' one of the South African species is able to eject an 
offensive fluid a distance of five feet." 

The Stick insects are remarkable anatomically for the 
great variation in the development of their tegmina and 
wings. Some species have short tegmina and well- 
developed wings; again, there are species whose wings 
and tegmina are both short; and there are other species, 
and they are many, which are completely wingless. 

The life-history of a Phasmid is particularly interest- 
ing and very easy of observation. Hibernation takes 
place in the egg, and the young Stick insects hatch in 
the spring. They immediately make their way from 
the ground where they hatch to the twigs of some 
near-by tree or shrub, and then they remain motionless 



PLATE VI 




STICK INSECTS 89 

for days or weeks on end, their fore-legs stretched out 
in front of their heads to increase their resemblance to 
a twig, their green colour harmonizing with their sur- 
roundings. They moult but twice, and growt.h is 
rapid. At the last moult all the females and some of 
the males abandon their green colouring and become 
brown— at least, this is the case with many non-tropical 
species. The change is not without interest, for the 
plants upon which the Stick insects live are by this 
time losing their leaves, and will soon be little more 
than masses of bare, brown twigs, on which green Stick 
insects would be conspicuous. That all the males do 
not change their colour simply means that they are 
" following the rule, which holds more or less through- 
out nature, that the male sex is not so well protected 
as the female, since upon the latter depends the all- 
important function of reproduction.'' 

The eggs of Phasmidce are not enclosed in cases, nor 
are they attached to leaves, twigs, or other supports. 
Contrary to the usual Orthopteron rule, the eggs are 
laid singly and merely dropped on the ground. The 
eggs of all species bear a striking resemblance to seeds; 
some are of extraordinary form, and all have little lids 
which the larvae raise when they are about to emerge 
Once, in New York, the Thick-Thighed Stick insect, 
Diapheromera femorata, increased to such an alarming 
extent " that in autumn the dropping of the eggs on 
the leaf-covered earth sounded like a heavy shower of 
rain.'' 

Among the winged Phasmids, the Brazilian Cypho- 
crania semirubra is the most striking; it has yellowish- 
green tegmina and large pink wings. Curiously like a 

12 



90 INSECT LIFE 

bamboo-stem is the green, wingless Phihalocera pytho- 
nius, and rivalling the Stick insects in bizarre form are 
the Asiatic Leaf insects of the genus Phyllium. 

In habit and life-history the Leaf insects are very- 
similar to the Stick insects. They are strikingly leaf- 
like, with their flattened, expanded, green tegmina, and 
the resemblance is heightened in some species by the 
possession of leaf-like appendages on the legs. Some 
species have the outline of their leaf-like expansions 
so that they appear to have been eaten by larvae round 
their edges; others are so marked that holes appear to 
have been bitten out of the inner portions. 

Gryllid^. — Hind-femora stouter than the others; 
tarsi three-jointed; antennae long and slender; wings 
laid flat over the back. 

This is the family of the Crickets, of which we have 
five species in Britain; three of them, the House Cricket, 
Gryllus domesticus, the Field Cricket, G. campestris^ 
and the Mole Cricket, Gryllotalfa vulgaris, are quite 
common. The family is by no means large, and a 
study of the species wiU show that they fall naturally 
into three groups of types . There is the true Cricket type , 
as exemplified by G. domesticus ; the burrowing type, 
with feeble or no wings, and front legs modified for 
turning up the earth : of these Gryllotalfa vidgaris is an 
example; the nocturnal Tree Crickets, which spend all 
their lives in trees: of these we have no native species. 

Among the exotic Gryllidce there are some formidable 
and repulsive-looking species . The Indian Schizodactylus 
monstrosus, a brown species, about an inch and a half 
long, is a hideous insect. Its wings and tegmina, which 
are longer than its body, are coiled in spirals at their 



PLATE VII 




/ 



LEAF INSECT 



CEICKETS 91 

tips; its tarsi bear curious leaf-like expansions which 
make the creature appear almost web-footed. The 
Australian Anostostoma australasice is but little more 
inviting-looking; the largest species of all, however, 
belong to the genus Deinacrida, and dwell in trees in 
New Zealand. " They are sometimes four or five inches 
in length, and their legs are very large and set with 
rows of very formidable spines, resembling those of a 
brier. The natives are afraid to climb the trees on 
account of these insects, which are able to inflict a very 
severe bite." From the same country comes Macro- 
pathus filipes, one of the most remarkable species of 
the family. The body of the insect is of reasonable 
proportions, not exceeding about an inch in length, 
but its antennae often exceed the body-length by six 
or seven inches. 

Among the wingless Crickets there are some curious 
forms, mainly belonging to the genera Callimenus and 
Brachyporus. They are quite unlike all other Crickets 
in appearance, and might be mistaken for enormous 
Wood Lice. Of the Tree Crickets, many species are 
exceedingly destructive to vines, raspberries, and other 
plants, for they all have the noxious habit of laying 
their eggs in the stems of these plants. 

LocusTiDiE. — Somewhat similar to GrylUdce, but 
tarsi four- jointed and almost identical in structure on 
all legs; ovipositor resembles a much compressed, 
sword-shaped blade; wings and tegmina roof-like. 

The name of this family is likely to lead to confusion, 
for the members of the family are not true Locusts, as 
might be expected, but Long-Horned Grasshoppers. 
The true Locusts belong to the Acridiidce^ and, apart 



92 INSECT LIFE 

from any other feature, may be distinguished from the 
members of this family by their short antennae. To 
avoid confusion this family is often known as the 
PhasgonuridcB ; but, for reasons which do not call for 
explanation here, Locustidce is the better term. 

Nearly all the Locustidce have leaf -green tegmina, 
frequently veined with yellow or white, so that they 
have a very leaf-like appearance. There is a South 
American species, Pterochroza ocellata, which rivals the 
Leaf insect in its mimicry of foliaceous structures; its 
tegmina not only closely resemble leaves, but are so 
marked that they appear like leaves damaged by 
insects and upon which fungoid growths have settled. 
Another species, Myrmeco'phana fallax, mimics Ants in 
its colouring. 

The largest British Locustid — our largest Orthopteron, 
in fact — is the Great Green Grasshopper, Locusta 
viridissima. It measures fully four inches in wing- 
span, but, despite its large size, it is rarely seen — not 
because it is uncommon, but because it is nocturnal in 
its habits. 

In America certain species of Long-Horned Grass- 
hopper are known as " Katydids," from the supposed 
resemblance of the male song to that word. To call 
the note of these insects a song is somewhat of an 
exaggeration, despite the fact that many species, 
notably Chloroscelus tanana, from South America, are 
kept in cages on account of their musical powers. Not 
long ago certain Japanese Locustidce were on sale in 
London, and probably elsewhere; in their little wicker 
cages they were a novelty and caught the public fancy. 
Their " singing^" powers were feeble and monotonous, 



GRASSHOPPERS 93 

although the stock of one enterprising dealer bore the 
legend, " Sing like Canaries ''—but there are canaries 
ttTid canaries. 

The note of Locustidce and Gryllidce is made by 
rubbing file-like patches on the under-surface of the 
tegmina against a ridge on the upper surface of the 
wing. The males alone ''sing/' and their song is 
always a love song. In both families auditory organs, 
in the form of oval membranous depressions, are found 
on the front tibiae. 

Many Locustids have tegmina curiously and regularly 
marked with black dots. The green Australian, E'phip- 
■pitytta triginguitata, for instance, has a double row of 
these dots upon its tegmina. 

Several curious forms occur in this family; some 
species of Stenofelmatus are of evil mien, and the 
genus Cyrtofhyllum has one or two species, notably 
C. crepitans, which are not remarkable for their beauty. 
The life-history of Microcentrum retinervis, so called 
from its reticulate tegmina, has been described by 
Howard. In America the insect is known as the 
Angular-Winged Katydid. Winter is passed in the 
egg stage, and the most curious fact about this insect 
is its curious method of oviposition. The flattened, 
oval, slaty-brown eggs are often deposited in the 
strangest situations: on the edge of a fence, for instance, 
and some '' have been found on the edge of a freshly 
laundried collar which had been laid for some time in 
a bureau drawer. Riley records oviposition on the edge 
of a piano cover and on a long piece of cord." They 
are usually deposited, however, in double rows on 
twigs, and each egg slightly overlaps its neighbour, like 



94 INSECT LIFE 

slates on a roof. In the warmer States they are laid 
on the edges of leaves, " in which case one row will 
be found on one side of the leaf and the other row on 
the other side." Whatever the situation selected, the 
surface of the material on which the eggs are to be 
placed is first roughened in the jaws before the batch 
of from two to thirty eggs is laid. From one hundred 
to one hundred and fifty eggs are deposited by each 
female. The young Katydids, very pale in colour, 
emerge in the spring from the upper edges of the eggs. 

Acrid iiD^. — Antennae much shorter than the body; 
hind-legs with enlarged femora formed for leaping; 
ovipositor, a double pair of short plates divergent at 
the tip. 

The family of the Locusts contains some of the 
largest as well as the most destructive insects. The 
South American Acridotheres dux is probably the largest 
insect known. Many individuals measure fully a foot 
in wing-span, with a body-length of four inches, but 
they are not nearly so destructive as their smaller, 
more active relatives. 

In Britain we have several representatives of the 
family. The common Rhammatocerus biguttatus is a 
brownish or frequently greenish insect, with yellowish- 
green legs. An interesting account of its habits ap- 
peared several years ago in the transactions of the 
Devonshire Association. The eye-witness of the pro- 
ceedings said: " I have frequently observed our most 
abundant Grasshopper, 22. biguttatus, sounding his music 
in the presence of and hopping round a female. Some 
years ago I was greatly amused as well as instructed 
by observing several insects of the same species, both 



PLATE VIII 




NEW ZEALAND CRICKE1 



LOCUSTS 95 

males and females. I was drawn to the spot by the 
extraordinary noise made by these creatures. It was a 
very hot day, and on a bare portion of a hedge-banl? 
between Exeter and Budleigh Salterton. I cautiously 
crept up to the place from whence the sound proceeded, 
and there, to my delight, I first saw how these insects 
produced the sound which I had heard. In the centre 
of this group were several females, apparently listening 
to the concert; the males were, some hopping, some 
walking, and others gesticulating in the most ridiculous 
fashion around these ladies, and each playing to the 





Fig. 4. — Hind-Leo of Field Locust. (After Landois.) 

r. Row of chitinous teeth on the inner side of the femur. Opposite: some 

of the teeth strongly magnified. 

best of his abilities on his peculiar musical instrument, 
no doubt to their great amusement and dcHght." 

The sound-producing apparatus of the true Locusts 
and Grasshoppers is totally distinct from that of the 
Locustidce and Gryllidce. On the inner side of the hind- 
femora in the males there is a file-like ridge; this is 
rubbed against a ridge on the outer edge of the tegmina. 
The auditory organs are, as in the species of the other 
families, membranous depressions, but they are situated 
on the first abdominal segment. So far as we know, 
only the smaller species of the family are capable of 
producing sound; there are, however, auditory organs 



96 INSECT LIFE 

on many species whose note has never been detected 
by the human ear. 

Some of the Acridiidce are of extreme beauty, and 
some of curious form. The large South American 
Titenacris albipes is one of the most beautiful members 
of the family. Its tegmina are duU green; the front 
margins of its wings are of the same shade, graduating 
into pale blue and then into a brilliant purple, the last- 
named being the prevailing wing colour. Here we 
may remark that, apart from their colouring, the wings 
of these insects are of great beauty. They are large 
and fan-shaped, veined with a number of veins radiating 
from the base, and with many smaller cross-veins. 
When not expanded, they are folded fanwise beneath 
the tegmina. 

Of the curious forms, the species of the genus Truxalis 
are remarkable by reason of their elongate bodies and 
snout-like heads. The species of Cefhalocoema are very 
similar in form, but their heads are more sharply pointed 
than those of Truxalis. In Tettix we find curious 
attenuated forms, whose general dorsal outline may be 
said to resemble two triangles placed base to base, the 
equilateral triangle forming the anterior part of the 
insect and the isosceles triangle forming its posterior 
part. 

Concerning the harmful species volumes have been 
written. They are migratory in habit, and their 
migrations are undertaken in search of food. Adults 
and immature forms of these migratory Locusts will 
travel in countless thousands from district to district. 
While on the wing they darken the sky ; on the ground 
nothing but the seething masses of their bodies can be 



LOCUSTS 97 

seen; when they have passed, vegetation is destroyed 
over the whole area, not a green blade remains; no 
human army retreating before its foes could lay bare 
the land more completely. ** Voet-gangers," or '* foot- 
goers,'' as the immature Locusts are called in South 
Africa, are equally destructive. True, they have no 
wings, therefore they cannot fly, but they often migrate 
on foot, despite their disability. South Africa, North 
Africa, and the Mediterranean region, are the districts 
most affected by Locust migrations. Formerly the 
vegetation of the Mississippi Valley was destroyed by 
migrations of the Eocky Mountain Locust, Melanoflus 
spretus, whose breeding-grounds were situated on the 
elevated plains of the Rocky Mountains. All the 
migratory species are provided with large wings, by 
means of which they can make a peculiar crackling 
sound at will. The non- migratory species can always 
be distinguished by their attenuated wings — ^the North 
American Dictyophorus reticulaius, an ungainly, small- 
winged creature, is an example; on the other hand, by 
no means all of the larger-winged species are in the 
habit of making migrations. 

The life-histories of all the AcridiidcB are very similar. 
The females lay their eggs in masses, below the surface 
of the ground, and each egg-mass is covered with a 
sticky semi-fluid excretion, which soon hardens and 
forms a capsule protecting the eggs. The larvae emerge 
in the spring, and, by a series of moults, pass through 
the nymph to the adult stage. 



13 



INSECT LIFE 



CHAPTEK IV 

EUPLEXOPTEEA, EMBIOPTEKA, PSOCOPTERA, 
THYSANOPTERA, RHYNCHOTA 

Order Euplexoptera, or Earwigs. 

The order includes a single family — 

FoRFicuLiD^. — Tegmina short; wings, when present, 
large and ingeniously folded when at rest; abdomen 
terminated by a pair of forceps. 

Everyone knows the Earwig, but, despite the fact that 
it is so common, there are some startling discrepancies 
and differences of opinion concerning its habits. This 
is by no means an uncommon happening; very little 
was known of the ubiquitous House-fly till rather less 
than ten years ago, when attention was drawn to its 
insanitary habits. 

The common British Earwig, Forficida auricularia, is 
widely distributed over the world. How it came by its 
popular name no one seems to know. It is commonly sup- 
posed that Earwigs are in the habit of entering the ears of 
human beings, with dire results. That such a happen- 
ing has never taken place it would be foolish to deny; 
to state that it is the usual practice of Earwigs would 
be equally absurd. These insects are in the habit of 
entering any dark cavity they can find, for they are 
nocturnal in their habits. In their search for shelter 



EARWIGS 99 

they might enter the human ear, but their doing so 
would be purely accidental. Other authorities state 
that the wing of this creature, wl:en unfolded, is much 
hke an ear, and that is the reason for its name. The 
fact remains that all over Europe and in America the 
insect has popular names relating to an ear. 

On the subject of its food, opinions are also divided; 
one party holds that the Earwig is a destructive insect, 
doing much harm to vegetation; by the other party it 
is said to be a carnivorous insect, feeding upon harmful 
creatures. This much is known of its life-history : Its 
eggs are laid in batches, and the mother insect takes 
the greatest care of them, moving them from one place 
to another wherever she deems best for them, and 
brooding over them between whiles. The appearance 
of the larvae, which are similar to their parents, though 
smaller and paler coloured, is the signal for the female 
Earwig to leave her progeny to their own devices. 

Another British species. Labia minor, is also quite 
common, and, unlike auricularia, it flies by day. 

Many of the exotic Forficulidce are large insects — 
large, that is, compared with our native species; the 
peculiar forceps with which their bodies terminate is 
the most striking and constant character of these insects. 
The forceps of the different species differ considerably 
in form: some are stout and nearly straight, others 
very slender and much curved, and there is every 
intermediate stage. Their precise use is open to some 
doubt; they are often opened in a threatening manner 
in the presence of danger, but in most species the 
forceps are useless for defence. Some species un- 
doubtedly use these organs to assist in folding their 



100 INSECT LIFE 

wings. The latter are large, and when not in use are 
packed into a small space by fanwise folds followed by 
a couple of transverse folds. Several species of Earwig, 
however, are wingless; why, then, do these insects, 
having no wings, possess a pair of forceps ? The 
question is one which must be left unanswered for the 
moment. The wingless forms follow the rule usual in 
the family, that the forceps of the females are smaller 
and more simple than those of the males. 

Order Embioptera. 

EMBiiDiE. — Head large; antennae slender; its joints 
varying in number from eleven to thirty; tarsi three- 
jointed; all four wings of equal size; metamorphosis 
incomplete. 

These insects are closely allied to the Termitidce^ and 
have the appearance of being small individuals of that 
family. Little is known of them, though they appear 
to be fairly widely distributed. The brick-red Egyptian 
species, Embia savignyi, is one of the best known of the 
Embiids. 

Order Psocoptera. 

PsociDiE. — Head very large; long, slender, thread- 
like antennae; tarsi with two to three joints; hind- wings 
smaller than fore- wings; metamorphosis incomplete. 

Some species of this order frequent old books and 
papers, probably feeding upon the starchy materials in 
the bindings — these insects are popularly known as 
Book Lice; other species dwell out of doors, on old 
lichen-covered trees or on leaves, living together in 
colonies. 



BOOK LICE 101 

The Psocids are tlie non-house-frequenting members 
of the order. Some of them are so minute that 
they would be difficult to observe were they not in the 
habit of collecting together in clusters. The two- 
spotted Psocus, P. bifunctatus , is a common British 
species, dull yellow in colour and of about a quarter 
of an inch in wing-span; it frequents the stems of old 
apple-trees. 

Howard gives an interesting account of P. venosus, 
a common American species: " It is small and smoky- 
brown in colour, and is seen upon the trunks of trees 
in flocks numbering from a dozen to forty or fifty 
individuals. They feed in companies and browse upon 
the lichens, which they cleanly remove from the bark, 
leaving a clear space behind them. The colonies consist 
of one or more families, and include individuals of all 
ages, the wingless young herding with the adult insects. 
The adults, though winged, do not readily take to flight. 
When alarmed, the whole troop huddles together, 
apparently for mutual protection, like sheep, but when 
seized with a sudden panic they scatter in every direc- 
tion and run rapidly over the bark, their colour har- 
monizing so closely with that of the bark that they are 
not easily distinguished. Soon after they reassemble 
and begin to eat the lichens. 

*' The eggs are oval, glistening white, and are laid upon 
the bark in batches of fifteen to thirty, deposited on end 
in several rows and each cluster is protected by an 
oval, convex shield of gna wed-up wood which adheres 
closely to the eggs. The females brood over the eggs, 
see that they are not disturbed, and, when they hatch, 
lead the young ones forth to pasture.'' 



102 INSECT LIFE 

Psocus citricola, living on orange-leaves, has very 
similar habits. 

Atropid^. — Similar to Psocidce, but mngless. 

All the Book Lice are small, almost colourless insects. 
Our common Atwpos 'pulsatoria is only a twentieth of 
an inch in length, and must be known to most of our 
readers, though it may not have been recognized, as it 
runs rapidly over the leaves of old books or about old 
furniture. 

There is little reliable information concerning these 
insects, but they are certainly injurious in libraries, 
museums, etc. 

Order Thysanoptera, Fringe- Winged Insects. 

Very minute insects with mouth-parts intermediate 
between a biting and a sucking mouth; four wings, 
when present, fringed with hairs, but may be much 
reduced or absent; two- jointed tarsi terminated by a 
bladder-like vesicle. 

These minute insects, which are generally termed 
Thrips, average about one-thirtieth of an inch in length. 
The largest species is the PiM^tis^Mo^nldoloiJirifssfectrum^ 
and it only attains a length of one-third of an inch. 

Thiips have received scant attention from ento- 
mologists; rather more than one hundred and fifty 
species are known, but it is surmised that there are 
probably a vast number of species as yet undescribed. 
Although neglected as an order, these minute insects 
are by no means devoid of interest. Their mouth-parts 
are peculiar in that they cannot be described as true 
sucking mouths, nor yet as true biting mouths. They 
are still more unusual on account of the fact that they 



THRIPS 103 

are not tlie same on either side. This bilateral asym- 
metry is very unusual in insects. 

The wings of these tiny creatures are very character- 
istic; the fore and hind wings are always placed wide 
apart, and both pairs are always fringed with hairs. They 
are very fragile, and often the fore and hind wings are 
of different colours and texture. The very curious 
feet resemble little bladders, membranous and pro- 
trusible structures which probably give their owners 
a better hold on smooth leaf-surfaces than would claws 

Metamorphosis is striking, and is intermediate between 
complete and incomplete. The larvse resemble the 
adults fairly closely and precisely as regards their 
mouth-parts. The nymphs are not active, as is usual 
with nymphs, but are enclosed in a skin and take no food. 

The majority of these insects appear to feed upon the 
pollen of flowers; some of them, however, are notorious 
pests. The Pea Thrips, Kahothrifs robustus, lays its 
eggs in pea and bean flowers, upon the stamens or 
young pods. Both larvae and adults are injurious, and 
in bad seasons no pods are formed. The Orange 
Thrips, Eutlirifs citri, causes a considerable amount of 
trouble in California by causing white marks on the 
fruit, which, while not actually injurious to the oranges, 
lowers their market value. In the same State the 
Pear Tlnips, Euthrifs pyri, is a very serious pest. It 
is particularly partial to pears, prunes, and cherries, 
and injures them by passing to the tenderest parts of 
the buds and killing them. 

Some species of Thrips, like certain species of Aphis, 
spend part of their time on one food-plant and part 
on another. Such an insect is the Flax Thrips, Thrips 



104 INSECT LIFE 

lini, whicli, after taking up its abode on the roots of 
flax for a period, migrates later to other food-plants. 
In many respects these insects have much in common 
with Aphids; for instance, there are winged and wing- 
less females, and also parthenogenesis is of common 
occurrence. 

Order Khynchota, or Bugs. 

The RhyncJwta are all provided with hard, horny, 
jointed sucking beaks, usually with two pairs of wings, 
and their metamorphosis is incomplete. The young 
resemble the adults, more or less, at birth, and with 
each successive moult the similarity becomes greater. 
The order is divided into two suborders — (1) Heteroftera^ 
possessing fore-wings thickened at the base and mem- 
branous at the tips, also with beaks inserted at the front 
part of the head; (2) Homoptera, possessing uniformly 
thickened fore-wings and beaks inserted at the hinder 
part of the head. 

The number of species in the order is very great, 
more than twenty thousand being known to science. 
In point of age they were amongst the earliest insects 
to appear on this earth, their fossil remains being found 
in Palaeozoic rocks. Popularly known as " Bugs," 
though in America many insects of other orders are 
so named, the Rhynchota are of the greatest economic 
importance. A large number of them, such as the 
Aphids or Green-flies, the Coccids or Scale insects, the 
Aleurodids or White-flies, and the Psyllids or Jumping 
Plant Lice, are exceedingly destructive to vegetation. 
There is, in fact, no single family of insects containing 
a greater number of injurious species than the Coccidce. 



BUGS 105 

Some " Bugs " are carnivorous and prey upon other 
insects; of these ilesh-eaters, the Reduviids are the 
best known. In the main, however, the order is com- 
prised of enemies of the human race, so much so that 
one eminent entomologist has stated that " if anything 
were to exterminate the enemies of Hemi'ptera, we our- 
selves should probably be starved in the course of a 
few months/' 

There is one pecuHarity of the Heter opera, or true 
" Bugs," which soon makes itself apparent to the student 
of these insects. Many of them are possessed of a 
peculiar and characteristic odour. The Bed Bug has 
a decidedly disagreeable perfume. " Others smell like 
very ripe or overripe fruit, especially pears, while in 
some Coccidce the odour is aromatic and in others it 
is spicy like cinnamon." In every case the odour 
arises from a volatile oil which is exuded from orifices 
known as "stink-glands;" its object is probably pro- 
tective, for few enemies would relish an evil-smeUing 
Bug. 

Suborder Heteroptera. 

The members of this suborder dwell either upon land, 
upon water, or under water. The suborder contains 
two series — (a) Gymnocerata, with conspicuous antennae; 
and (b) Cryptocerata, with hidden, inconspicuous an- 
tennae. Curiously enough, the purely aquatic forms all 
belong to the latter series, and the dwellers on land 
and water to the former. 

Series Gymnocerata. 
Pentatomid^ may be recognized by the fact that 
the bases of their five- jointed antennae are not visible 

14 



106 INSECT LIFE 

from above, the scutellum is large — at least half as 
long as the abdomen, often larger — the beak is four- 
jointed, and two ocelli are always present. 

The family is the largest of the Heteroptera, and the 
species are as varied in form and size as in colouring. 
Many are as brilliantly attired as the most gaudy 
tropical Beetles; some are sombre in the extreme; others, 
again, are so delicately tinted that their appearance 
soon changes after death. For the most part, they are 
plant-feeders, but some appear to eat vegetable and 
animal fare impartially. 

Although the family is a large one, very little is 
known concerning the habits and life-histories of the 
species of which it is comprised. There are nearly forty 
species of PentatcnnidcB in Britain, and one, Acanthosoma 
griseum, is interesting in that it is one of the few insects 
known to mother its young. 

In the United States, the Harlequin Cabbage Bug, 
Murgantia histrionica, Hahn, is a serious pest of cruci- 
ferous crops. The insect goes by the curious popular 
name of the " Abe Lincoln Bug " in Georgia, and the 
" Third Party Bug " in Texas. 

The green Pentatomids of the genus Nezara, common 
in many parts of the world, are known to feed upon 
either plants or insects as opportunity offers. 

CoREH)^. — Scutellum less than half the length of the 
abdomen; beak and antennae four-jointed, the latter 
inserted on the sides of the head; the membranous 
portion of the wing-cases with a number of forked, 
longitudinal veins. 

This is another large family of which only about two 
dozen species occur in Britain. In the main, the 



BUGS 107 

Coreidce are of sombre hue, though many species atone 
for their lack of brilHant colouring by their eccentricity 
of form. In some species the antennae bear flattened 
dilatations, and in many the femora or tibiae of the 
hind-legs are either much swollen, armed with formid- 
able spines, or are ornamented with flattened, disc-like 
structures, brightly coloured and of unknown use. The 
South American Diactor hilineatus has leaf-like hind 
tibiae. In Leftoglossus phyllopus we see the same 
abnormality, less highly developed. Metapodius femor- 
atus has thickened spiny femora, but of all the Coreidce 
none is more curious than the South European Phyllo- 
morfha laciniata. The back of this creature forms a 
hollow, by reason of the upturned edges of its body 
In the hollow of its back the male carries his mate's 
eggs, held in place by numerous spines. None of the 
British species exhibit any pecuHarities of structure. 

The Coreidce are all plant-feeders, and many of them 
are exceedingly destructive to crops. The American 
** Squash Bug,'' Anasa tristis, De Geer, is a noted pest 
of Cucurhitacece. 

Lyg^id^. — The characters of this family are very 
similar to those of the Coreidce. The Lygseids, however, 
may be distinguished by the fact that the antennae 
are inserted " well down on the sides of the head," 
whilst the veins, on the membranous portion of the 
wing-cases, are unbranched and four or five in number. 
This is another large family with more than fifty British 
species, though most of our native forms are small and 
drab. The Lygaeids are not so ornate as the Penta- 
tomids, or of such peculiar structure as many of the 
Coreids. The prevailing colour of the family is black 



108 INSECT LIFE 

relieved with yellow or red. Like the Coreids, all the 
species are plant-feeders; some of them are among the 
most notorious of crop pests. The Chinch Bug, Blissus 
leucoftenis , Say., of Northern America and the West 
Indies, is exceedingly injurious to cereals, especially 
to maize. The insects collect in thousands on the stems 
of their food-plants, and, by sucking their juices, cause 
them to wilt. Having destroyed one crop, they migrate 
to another, not by flying, though they possess the power 
of flight, but by walking. In certain favourable seasons 
the Chinch Bugs are kept in check by a fungoid disease 
which kills them off in large numbers. 

Pyrrhocorid^ are very similar to LygcBidce, but 
whereas the latter have ocelli and unbranched wing- 
veins, the members of this family lack ocelli, and the 
membranous portions of their wings show more than 
six forked, longitudinal veins. 

The family is much smaller than any of the three 
we have already mentioned, and there is but one British 
species, Pyrrhocorus apterus, and it is by no means 
common. For the most i^snt, PyrrJiocoridce are tropical 
or subtropical. These insects are plant-feeders, and 
many of them are of economic importance, especially 
the Cotton-Stainers, Dysdercus spp., and the Lessei 
Cotton-Stainers, Oxycarenus spp. Of the former we 
may take Dysdercus suturellus, H. Schf., as our type. 
The insect is common in the Southern States of America 
and in the West Indies. It is doubly injurious, for not 
only does it feed upon the juices of oranges, causing 
the fruit to decay where its beak pierces the rind, but 
it feeds upon cotton bolls. The Cotton-Stainer has 
earned its title from its habit of dyeing the cotton in 



BUGS 109 

tte bolls witli its yellow excretions. " Experiments 
have been made with this insect looking toward its use 
as a dye, and the whole substance of the insect can be 
converted into a rich orange-yellow dye, which can 
readily be fixed on woollens or silk by the alum mordant 
liquor/' 

The Lesser Cotton-Stainers, Oxycaremis spp., are 
natives of Africa and India. They, apparently, only 
attack cotton bolls which have already been damaged 
by other insects. When they do enter the bolls, how- 
ever, they destroy large numbers of unripe seeds. Un- 
like the true Cotton-Stainers, these insects do not damage 
the cotton with their excrement, but become crushed 
during ginning, thereby staining the fibres. This 
contretemps may be avoided by spreading the cotton 
in the sun before ginning, when the insects will take 
to flight. 

TiNGiD^. — Like the Pyrrhocoridce , they have no 
ocelli, their fore- wings are longer than the abdomen, 
the penultimate antennal joint is much elongated and 
the last joint is knobbed. The tarsi are two- jointed. 

The Tingids are known in America as " Lace Bugs," 
and for once the title is apt. For the most part delicately 
formed insects, many of them are so beautifully sculp- 
tured and so bizarre in appearance that they form 
interesting objects when magnified. They are well 
represented in Britain, for of a small family no less 
than a score are native to this country. Our commonest 
species is Tingis pyri, destructive to pear-trees. All 
are plant-feeders; some dwell in malformations of 
flowers; others assemble in such numbers on the leaves 
of certain trees and suck the plant juices so vigorously 



110 INSECT LIFE 

as to cause a general wilting to take place. Their eggs 
are usually laid on the leaves of their food-plants ; little 
barrel-shaped structures they are, and so firmly affixed 
to the leaf that it is impossible to remove them without 
lamage to their support. 

Aradid^. — Flat, broad insects, without ocelli; their 
/dng-cases are shorter and narrower than the abdomen. 
Often deeply sculptured, and always of a brown or 
reddish-brown colour. 

These Bark Bugs cannot readily be mistaken for any 
other insects; they are so abnormally flat that one 
noted entomologist has said that they look as though 
they had been stepped upon. There is good reason for 
their flatness and their drab colour, for they live beneath 
bark and feed upon the fungi which they find there. 
Being flat, they can easily crawl into the narrowest 
chinks, and their brown colour renders them less easily 
observed. Only five species occur in Britain. 

Hydrometrid^. — Antennae four-jointed; tarsi two- 
jointed; wings often absent or possessing no mem- 
branous part; legs often greatly elongated; body often 
pubescent. 

The HydrometridcB are of interest on account of their 
habit of living on the surface of water. In form they 
are exceedingly diverse. A common British member 
of the family, Hydrometra stagnorum, popularly known 
as the Water-Measurer or, erroneously, as the Water 
Gnat — it is not related to the gnats — is a creature 
worthy of study. Its body is narrow and stick-like, 
its head much elongated, and its wings are never 
developed. Though by the aid of its long, slender 
legs it is enabled to walk on the surface of the water, 



BUGS 111 

holding its body aloft, should misfortune occur and the 
creature become wet, it will drown more readily than 
many purely terrestrial insects. 

Another British insect, Velia currens, the Water 
Cricket — it is not alhed to the Crickets — is also perfectly 
at home on the surface of the water, and the two longi- 
tudinal orange stripes which ornament its back render 
it somewhat conspicuous. 

Members of the genus Gerris, common on our ponds, 
differ in habit from the two preceding forms, in that 
they do not spend all their time on the surface of the 
water, but often dive. The pubescence with which their 
bodies are clothed prevents them from getting wet. 

Halohates spp. are ocean-dwellers, many of them 
having been found on the surface of the ocean, far 
from land. The family contains many aberrant forms, 
and all of them, so far as is known, feed upon animal 
matter, though probably few hunt and capture living 
prey. 

Henicocephalid^ are distinguished by a globular 
swelling of the head behind the eyes, very short beak, 
and much- veined, wholly membranous fore-wings. 

There is no British representative of this order; in 
fact, only about a dozen, though widely distributed 
species are known. " A Tasmanian species dances in 
the air after the fashion of Midges or May-flies, and 
dispenses an agreeable musk-like odour." 

Reduviid^ very closely resemble HenicocephalidcB, 

but there is no globular swelling behind the eyes; beak 

short and forming a loop below the head when at rest; 

tarsi three-jointed. 

The Reduviids are as variable in form as the Hydro' 



112 INSECT LIFE 

metridcB, and far more variable in colour. All of them 
are predaceous, even to the extent of attacking man; 
on this account they have been named " Assassin," 
" Pirate/' and " Cannibal " Bugs. The family is a 
large, important, and mdely distributed one. 

The " Blood-Sucking Cone Nose," Conorhinus san- 
guisuga, sometimes called the Giant Bed Bug — though 
the Bed Bug is not a Keduviid — normally lives in the 
nests of field mice. In the South- Western States of 
America it enters human dwellings and sucks the blood 
of the inmates, causing painful, festering sores. 

Another species, Reduvius 'personatus, which occurs 
in Britain, may be called a friend of mankind, for it 
preys upon Bed Bugs and Cockroaches. The miniature 
forms of this insect, and of closely allied species, have the 
curious habit of covering their backs with any portable 
matter that may be at hand. The house-dwellers use 
dust, and some of the outdoor species make use of 
lichen. 

All the members of the subfamily EmesidcB are deli- 
cate, elongated, long-legged insects, resembling minia- 
ture Stick insects. Their movements are slow, and 
they have the common habit of raising and lowering 
their bodies as they progress. " Their front legs are 
peculiarly formed for capturing and holding their prey, 
and have long coxae, like Mantis, so that these insects 
are commonly mistaken for small or young Mantises, 
from which their sucking proboscis at once distinguishes 
them." 

Certain Eeduviids exhibit remarkable mimicry of 
other insects. " According to Seitz, there is found on 
the Corcovado in Brazil a Keduviid that exactly re- 



PLATE IX 





I ^ 


.^^ 


^^^Hk 


9 |HH 


■ 1 






[ 





GIANT WATKK DUG (BALOSTOJ/A SP.) 



Parens 



BUGS 113 

sembles one of the dark stinging-wasps of the genua 
Pefsis, and the bug makes the same movements as 
the wasp does, though these are of a kind quite different 
to those of ordinary bugs/' One of our native species, 
Nabis lativentris, in its immature stages, closely mimics 
an Ant. Like many other Ant-mimiking Bugs, Nahis 
lives amongst the insects it so closely resembles, thereby 
in all probability preying upon them the more easily. 
It is a remarkable fact that the adult Nahis in no wise 
resembles an Ant. 

CiMiciD^ have no ocelli on their short, broad heads; 
wing-cases rudimentary; three-jointed tarsi; and a beak 
which fits into a groove under the head. 

The family comprises a dozen species, of which the 
cosmopolitan Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, L., is the 
best known. The Bed Bug is a flat-bodied, wingless 
creature, parasitic upon man. In Elizabethan times 
it was common in every house in the country; now the 
abolishment of the four-poster bed, a favourite haunt of 
the insect, and greater attention to cleanliness have 
combined to oust this pest from our dwellings. Like 
all parasite insects. Bed Bugs can exist for extra- 
ordinarily lengthy periods without their normal food- 
blood. When they pierce the human skin they do not 
secrete any poison, but their bite is painful. They are 
suspected of carrying recurrent fever and leprosy. 

Man is not the only enemy of this loathsome insect; 
Reduvius 'personatus is its inveterate foe; several species 
of Ants and, in addition. Cockroaches prey upon it. 

Capsid^ have relatively large wings and wing-cases, 
the latter with only two cells (sometimes only one) in 
the membranous portion. The four- jointed antennae have 

15 



114 INSECT LIFE 

very long second joints, and the two basal joints are plainly 
stouter than the two end joints. Tarsi three-jointed. 

This family is probably the largest of all the Rhyn- 
chota, and there are nearly two hundred species in 
Britain. Most of them are plant-feeders, though some 
few attack and feed upon other insects, notably Campo- 
hrochis grandis, which preys upon the Elm-Leaf Beetle, 
Galerucella luteola, an American forestry pest. 

Poecilocafsus lineatus, F., the Four-Lined Leaf Bug, 
is a common American pest of garden plants, such as 
currants and gooseberries. It is interesting on account 
of its method of oviposition, a method which is common 
to many Capsids. Longitudinal slits are made by the 
female in the stem of some food-plant. Each slit, 
which may be an eighth of an inch in length, is so deep 
that it passes half way to the pith. From two to 
fourteen eggs are deposited, side by side, in every slit. 

Capsids of the genus Helopeltis are very destructive 
to tea-plants in India. 

Series Cryptocerata. 

Nepid^. — The end of the abdomen is provided with 
two grooved filaments, forming a respiratory tube; the 
long, raptorial front legs are affixed to the forward end 
of the prothorax. 

There are only two, widely distributed, genera in the 
family, and both are represented in Britain. The genus 
Nepa comprises flat, oval forms, whilst all the members 
of the genus Ranatra are elongate. The filamentous 
appendages of the abdomen, so characteristic of the 
family, are important and interesting. Each filament 
is grooved in such a manner that when brought into 



PLATE X 




WATER BUGS 115 

contact with its neighbour the two form a hollow tube, 
along which air passes to the respiratory apparatus 
within the insect's abdomen. 

Nefa cinerea, L., the Water Scorpion, is a common 
inmate of our stagnant ponds. It is not easy to detect; 
in appearance it resembles a small dead leaf as it floats 
on the surface of the water. On the muddy bed of its 
home where it seeks its prey it is still more difficult to 
observe. A sluggish creature, it rarely flies, though 
provided with wings. Prey, in the form of small water- 
frequenting creatures, is seized and held by the fore- 
legs, which are admirably adapted for the purpose. 
Along the inner side of each of the femora on the fore- 
legs there runs a deep groove; into this the tibiae fit 
much after the manner of the blade of a pocket-knife 
in its handle. The inner edges of the tibiae are sharp, 
and there is little chance of any creature escaping when 
once firmly in the grasp of the " Water Scorpion." 
The eggs of Nepa are peculiar. They are inserted into 
the stems of water-plants, much in the same manner 
as are those of the Capsids. The body of the egg 
remains buried in the plant tissues, but from its apex 
there project seven thread-like protuberances, which are 
possibly connected with the aeration of the egg. 

Ranatra linearis is not nearly so common in Britain 
as its relative Nepa. It is popularly known as the 
Water Stick insect, and is a much more active creature 
than the Water Scorpion, being frequently observed 
on the wing. In other respects the habits of the two 
insects are very similar, but the eggs of Ranatra only 
possess two thread-like protuberances, instead of the 
seven invariably found in Nepa. 



116 INSECT LIFE 

Belostomid^. — Hind-legs adapted for swimming; no 
ocelli or respiratory filaments. 

This is a small family of aquatic Bugs, and no species 
occur in this country. Some of the South American 
species are among the largest of insects, measuring 
nearly five inches in length. They are predatory, and 
the larger species prey upon fishes, which they catch 
in their powerful, grasping fore-legs. They are strong 
fliers, and readily take to wing. All of them are mud- 
coloured, unattractive-looking creatures. 

The genus Zaitha comprises some active, free-swim- 
ming species. It is the habit of these creatures to carry 
their eggs from place to place, firmly cemented to their 
backs with some insoluble substance. For a long time 
it was thought that the females were thus solicitous of 
their progeny, but later researches have shown that it 
is the male who obligingly performs the duties of nurse. 
At times his burden becomes irksome to him, and then 
he does not hesitate to attempt to relieve himself of 
his load; his efforts, however, are usually unavaihng. 
These eggs, by the way, are looked upon as a delicacy 
by gourmets in some parts of South America. 

NoTONECTm^. — ^Fore-tarsi with two claws; head 
inserted into prothorax. 

These predaceous aquatic Bugs are commonly known 
as " Water Boatmen."' They all swim upon their backs, 
propelling themselves by means of their long hind-legs, 
which they use as oars. Notonecta glauca, a dem'zen of 
nearly every stagnant pond, is an active swimmer, 
strong on the wing, and exceedingly rapacious. When 
these Water Boatmen dive beneath the surface of the 
water, they carry with them a film of air which renders 



PLATE XI 




A GROUP OF HO.MOFTERA 

Nos. 1, 2, i and 5 are Cicadas, tlie last being- the only British species; the other figures 
represent [•"nlgorida', No. 3 being the so-called Candle fly ; Nos. 7, 8 and i) are Flatidse. 



WATER BUGS 117 

them buoyant, so much so that they are compelled to 
anchor themselves to some water-plant, lest they should 
rise, willy-nilly, to the surface. 

Plea minutissima , another British member of the 
family, is a minute, inactive creature which dwells in 
the muddy beds of some ponds. 

CoRixiD^. — Closely allied to Notonectidw, but the 
fore-tarsi have no claws, being adapted for swimming, 
and the head overlaps the prothorax. 

These insects resemble the Water Boatmen in habits, 
with the important difference that they swim in the 
normal manner and not upside down; moreover, they are 
not so buoyant in the water as the Boatmen. The 
commonest of the many British species is Corixa geoffroyi 
a brown, yellow-spotted creature, which retires to the 
mud, in which it buries itself, on cold days. Sigara 
minutissima is the sole representative of another British 
genus. 

" The eggs of two Mexican species (Corixa mercenaria 
and C. femorata) are laid in enormous numbers in lakes 
near the city of Mexico, and are made into cakes with 
meal and are eaten by the Indians and half-breeds. 
They are said to have an agreeable acid flavour. ' I 
ate some once, but it was a stale museum specimen 
and had anything but a pleasant taste. These Mexican 
species are imported into England by the ton as food 
for game and song birds, poultry, and fish. Kirkaldy 
has computed that one ton contains 25,000,000 of these 
insects." 
. ^ -, , , Suborder Homoptera. 

3 u^n CiCADiD^. — Between the compound eyes there are 
•• ' three ocelli arranged in a triangle; antennae, except for 



118 INSECT LIFE 

the basal joint, are minute and bristle-like: front femora 
thickened and toothed. 

Most of the Cicadas are large, showy insects, with 
membranous, prominently veined wings. Some of them 
are brilliantly coloured, vieing with the tropical Butter- 
flies. Nearly all are inhabitants of the warmer parts of 
the earth; there is one British species. 

The two outstanding features of this family are the 
well-developed vocal powers of the males of practically 
every species, and the extraordinarily protracted life- 
cycle of one species. 

There are no insects capable of making more noise — 
song some would call it — ^than the Cicadas. ** A curious 
difference of opinion prevails as to whether their song 
is agreeable or not; in some countries they are kept 
in cages, while in others they are considered a nuisance. 
The Greeks are said to have decided in favour of their 
performances, the Latins against them.'' An American 
entomologist, describing the " song " of a native Cicada, 
says: *' The general noise, on approaching the infested 
woods, is a combination of that of a distant threshing- 
machine and a distant frog-pond. That which they 
make when disturbed mimics a nest of young snakes 
or young birds under similar circumstances — a sort of 
scream. They can also produce a chirp somewhat like 
that of a cricket, and a very loud, shrill screech, pro- 
longed for fifteen or twenty seconds, and gradually 
increasing in force then decreasing.'' 

The song is produced by the rapid vibration of 
certain complex vocal organs, which are situated on 
either side of the base of the male abdomen. The 
females either have no vocal organs or structures of so 



PLATE XII 




HEAD OF CICADA, UNDP:R-SIDE, HIGHLY MAGNIFIKD 



CICADAS 119 

rudimentary a nature that they are incapable of emitting 
a sound. This latter fact led the Greek poet Xenarchus 
— evidently a married man — to write, " Happy the 
Cicadas' lives, for they all have voiceless wives/' It is 
probable that the vocal efforts of the males are intended 
to attract the females. 

One of the most romantic of life -histories in all the 
insect world belongs to the Periodical Cicada, Vicada 
septendecim, L., sometimes wrongly named the Seven- 
teen Year Old Locust. 

The females are armed with powerful ovipositors, 
and by their aid the eggs, in enormous quantities, are 
deposited in the twigs and young stems of trees, caus- 
ing, needless to say, considerable damage. When the 
larvae emerge from the eggs, they at once fall to the 
ground and burrow beneath its surface, constructing 
for themselves little subterranean chambers. For seven- 
teen long years the larvae live below ground without 
seeing the light of day. They move but little and 
slowly, and the nature of their food is uncertain. Four 
moults are passed through before the nymph stage is 
reached, then a general migration to the surface of the 
soil takes place. Sometimes the nymph at once ascends 
the neighbouring trees; sometimes they build little 
earthen chimneys on the surface of the soil, in which 
they await a favourable opportunity to show them- 
selves. In any event, they reach the near-by trees 
sooner or later, the nymphal skin splits, the adults 
emerge in their hundreds of thousands, and the air 
resounds with the cries of the males. The arrival of 
the adult Cicadas is the signal for the advent of hosts 
of enemies; even the English sparrow, a typical grain- 



120 INSECT LIFE 

eater, cannot resist a meal of a plump Cicada. Their 
periodical visitations, their innumerable enemies, and 
the fact that the whole aspect of the earth's surface 
may have changed, during the seventeen years of larval 
life, all combine to render the extinction of this interest- 
ing insect merely a question of time. The females 
which survive their short stay upon earth lose no time 
in mating and depositing their eggs; in a few weeks 
the larvae have travelled to their subterranean dwellings, 
and the district knows the periodical Cicada no more 
till the passage of seventeen years. There is a race, 
however, which only spends thirteen years below 
ground. 

The American Bureau of Entomology has mapped 
out the sites of all the broods in the continent. " The 
largest of the North-Eastern broods made its last 
appearance in 1902, and is due again in 1919." 
^ ^^ FuLGORm^. — ^Very variable. The antennae and ocelli 
(usually two) placed beneath the eyes; the former 
usually two-jointed, terminated by a filament. 

A large family of very varied forms, both in size and 
general structure. Some of these insects of the sub- 
family FlatidcB are remarkably like Lepidoptera at a 
casual glance; others have the front of the head pro- 
duced into an enormous snout or a large bulbous growth, 
which early travellers wrongly asserted to be luminous. 
Members of the tropical American gemis Phenax, and 
notably P. auricoma, are remarkable on account of the 
relatively enormous masses of waxy threads which they 
secrete. In auricoma these threads are sometimes six 
inches long and harbour Lepidopterous larvae which 
devour the wax, being transported from place to place 



PLATE XIII 



1^ 




-V^' 








FEOG-HOPPEES 121 

tlie while by the accommodating Bug. Of what use this 
wax may be to the Fulgorids is unknown, but in China 
the secretion from a native Bug is made into candles. 

About seventy species of Fulgoridce are known in 
Britain; all, British and exotic, are plant-feeders. 
^ Membracid^. — Prothorax prolonged backwards into 
a horn or shield over the abdomen; two ocelli between 
the eyes, and the antennae inserted in front of these 
organs. 

Of all insects, the Membracids are the most bizarre 
in form. " Nature must have been in a joking mood 
when tree-hoppers {MemhracidcB) were developed.*' 
They are mainly tropical, only two species being known 
in Britain, and they are all relatively small in size and 
of sombre coloration. 

It is probable that the quaint forms of the majority 
of Membracids serve for their protection; many of 
them very closely resemble the structures of various 
parts of the plants, such as seeds, thorns, etc., on 
which they live. All of them deposit their eggs in 
slits made in some favoured plant by the ovipositor of 
the female. This habit causes them to be looked upon 
as pests by gardeners and farmers. 
Cercopid^. — Two ocelli, placed on the vertex; 
antennae inserted in front of and between the eyes; 
prothorax not prolonged above the abdomen; hind- 
tibise with one or two stout teeth below. 

This is the family of " Frog-Hoppers '' or " Cuckoo- 
Spit '' insects. They are so called because, in the first 
place, they all have the power of leaping to consider- 
able distances, and, in the second place, the larvae have 
a habit of surrounding themselves with a frothy secretion. 

16 



122 INSECT LIFE 

Our native Cuckoo-Spit insect, Philcenus sfumarius, is 
well known to everybody. The female deposits her 
eggs on plant-stems in autumn, and the young hatch 
in the spring. They at once proceed to dig their beaks 
deep into the tissues of the food-plant, and from the 
end of the abdomen a clear liquid exudes. By dint of 
violent agitation of the abdomen this liquid is beaten 
into a froth, which completely hides the larva. 
Although hidden, the position of the young insect is 
thus rendered more conspicuous, and certain Hymen- 
opera do not hesitate to drag him from his hiding-place 
to serve as food. " The phenomena known as weeping- 
trees are often due to Cercopidce ; some of the species 
make such copious exudations of this kind that the 
drops have been compared to a shower of rain. In 
Madagascar it is said that Ptyelus gondoti exudes so 
much fluid that five or six dozen larvae would about 
fill a quart vessel in^an hour and a half. ... In 
Ceylon the larva of Machcerota guttigera constructs 
tubes fixed to the twigs of the tulip-tree, and from the 
tubes water is exuded drop by drop." 
^' Jassed^. — Closely allied to' Cercopidce, from which 
they may be distinguished by the fact that their hind 
tibise are armed with numerous spines. 

A large family of minute, fragile insects; all are 
vegetable-feeders, and it has been computed that fre- 
quently on an acre of pasturage there are about a million 
Jassids which consume as much, if not more, grass than 
a cow. 

^ Proconia undata, an American species, owing to its 
habit of ejecting a spray of liquid when disturbed, is 
also responsible for " weeping-tree '* stories One of 



PLATE XIV 




A MKMBRACID WHICH MIMICS A THO:<N 



GREEN FLIES 123 

these mysteries, which occurred in Texas some time 
ago, " set the State agog with various explanations of 
the phenomenon, ranging from the superstitious credence 
of the supernaturally inclined to the positive denial 
and derisive laughter of the constitutionally sceptical. 
It took a brave newspaper reporter to solve the 
mystery, since he alone dared to climb the tree and 
investigate." 

Many of the Jassids, though so small and frail, are 
beautifully and brilliantly coloured. 

PsYLLiD^. — Ocelli three; antennae with eight to ten 
joints; tarsi two- jointed and femora frequently swollen; 
wings transparent. 

These minute insects much resemble minute Cicadas. 
They all possess the habit of jumping, and they all 
secrete a sweet, sugary liquid, known as honey-dew, 
which is much sought after by Ants, Bees, and Wasps. 
Some of them form galls, in which part of the life-cycle 
is passed. 

About fifty species occur in Britain, of which the 
Pear- Tree Psylla, Psylla pyricola, is a well-known pest. 
The larval and pupal stages of these insects are strikingly 
unlike the adults. 

Aphed^. — Winged or wingless; antennse three to 
seven-jointed. A pair of tubes often project from the 
upper surface of the fifth abdominal segment. Tarsi 
two-jointed, legs long and slender. 

The Aphids, or so-called Green-flies, are notorious 
plant pests, yet, withal, exceedingly interesting to the 
biologist by reason of their peculiarities of reproduction. 
So rapidly do they increase that Huxley computed that 
" the uninterrupted breeding of ten generations of Plant 



124 INSECT LIFE 

Lice from a single ancestor would produce a mass of 
organic matter equivalent to the bulk of five hundred 
millions of human beings, about the population of the 
Chinese Empire/' 

The most notorious members of the family are the 
'Phylloxera, Phylloxera vastatrix, which, rather more than 
fifty years ago, destroyed more than a third of the French 
vineyards, and the Woolly Apple Aphis, Schizoneura 
lanigera, a well-known pest wherever apples are grown. 

For a complete account of the reproduction of Green- 
fly readers must refer to the larger textbooks; space 
forbids more than a brief survey in these pages. From 
the winter egg, which is deposited on a food-plant, an 
individual arises which quickly, and without pairing, 
produces living young. Its progeny do likewise, with 
the result that, the egg stage being omitted, the numbers 
of Green-flies increase very rapidly. Most of these 
youngsters are wingless; some are winged, and migrate 
to other food-plants; all are females. Towards autumn, 
more and more winged forms appear, some of them 
being males, some females. Pairing then takes place 
for the first time, and the eggs, destined to survive the 
winter, are deposited in suitable sites. 

In some Aphids, notably in the genus Chermes, the 
life-history is far more complicated. In Chermes ahietis 
there are six generations, some being spent on spruce 
and some on larch. 

All the Aphids are constantly beset by enemies : they 
would increase out of all bounds were this not the case. 
Ladybirds, Syrphid-flies, Lace wings, various Hymen- 
oftera, and blue-tits, all serve to keep them in check. 
The relations of Ants to Aphids is treated elsewhere. 



WHITE FLIES 125 

Aleurodid^.— Opaque white wings; antennae seven- 
jointed. 

These minute four-winged insects cannot easily be 
confused with other Bugs, though in their early stages 
they bear some resemblance to Ccccidce. They are 
known as White-flies, on account of the mealy covering 
of their wings. Some of them are somewhat serious 
pests in orange-groves, not on account of the damage 
they do themselves, but because of a fungus which 
grows profusely on the honey-dew they secrete. The 
most harmful of these White-flies is Aleurodes citri. In 
Britain there are three species, of which the commonest 
is J. brassicce, and is frequently met with on cabbages. 

The metamorphosis of the White-flies is complex, and 
has given rise to considerable confusion. 

CocciD^.— Feet with but one claw; males winged and 
lacking mouth-parts; females wingless, and usually 
scale-like or gall-like. 

This large and widely distributed family contains 
some of the greatest pests of the husbandman. Popu- 
larly known as Scale insects or Mealy Bugs, many of 
them are of great biological interest. 

The typical female Scale insect remains stationary 
during almost the whole of her life, with her beak 
pierced deeply into the tissues of the plant on which 
she dwells. Her body becomes covered with a waxy 
scale, and beneath this scale she either lays her eggs 
or produces living young. The larvse at once wander 
to other parts of the tree, and become anchored to a 
new position, by means of their beaks. The females 
go through from three to five moults before becoming 
adult and truly scale-like. Eventually they become 



126 INSECT LIFE 

eyeless and legless. The males, however, after the 
second moult, assume relatively large wings and long 
antennae. Their eyes are large and their legs are long, 
and, curiously enough, where one would expect to find 
the mouth, there are ocelli. 

The female becomes an egg-producing machine and 
little more; the one function of the male is to discover 
and fertilize some female. 

Among the important species of this family may be 
mentioned the San Jose Scale, Asfidiotus ferniciosus, 
introduced into America from China, and a serious fruit 
pest; the Cottony Cushion Scale, leery a purehasi,mtio- 
duced into California from Australia, and responsible 
for an enormous amount of damage in the orange-groves 
till the Ladybird, Novius eardinalis, its inveterate enemy, 
was brought from the Antipodes to keep it in check; 
the Black Scale Saissetia olece, another orange pest 
controlled, partially at any rate, by the Hymenopteron, 
Seutellista cyanea ; the Mealy Bugs, unprotected by 
any scale and common in our greenhouses, the best- 
known being Pseudoeoecus eitri. 

Some of the Coccids are useful. From Carteria laeea 
is derived lac, from which shellac is obtained. Coceus 
mannifera secretes an edible honey-dew, the manna of 
biblical times. Cewplastes ceriferus and Erieerus pela 
both produce wax of commercial value in India and 
China respectively. Dyes are also obtained from various 
Coccids — Cochineal, Coecus eacti, being known to every- 
body. 



PLATE XV 




Page 128 



ALDER-FLIES 127 



CHAPTER V 

PLANIPENNIA, TRICHOPTERA, AND 
LEPIDOPTERA 

SUBCLASS ENDOPTERYGOTA. 

Order Planipennia. 

Heads of moderate size; antennae filiform or clubbed 
and many-jointed; four scaleless wings; hind- wings 
sometimes with long appendages; metamorphosis com- 
plete. 

This order includes a number of families which, with 
others, made up the old order Neuroftera. It is but 
poorly represented in Britain, but the exotic Plani- 
pennia include some very interesting and a few decidedly 
beautiful species. 

SiALiDiE. — Four large membranous wings of approxi- 
mately equal size; neuration simple; antennae long. 

Species of this family are known as Alder-flies in 
this country; in America they are variously referred to 
as Dobsons, Fish-flies, and Hellgrammites. Our com- 
mon species, Sialis lutaria, may often be seen near 
water in which its larvae dwell. It is a smoky -black 
insect with prominently veined wings, spanning about 
an inch and a half. The upper wings fold over the 
lower in characteristic manner, and diverge at their 
apices. Its head and thorax are broad, and when 



128 INSECT LIFE 

discovered it is more likely to seek safety by running 
away than by taking to flight. 

The life-history of the Alder-fly can be summed up 
in a few words. The female deposits her eggs upon the 
leaves of some plant, which may or may not grow close 
to the water. About a hundred cylindrical, elongated 
eggs are laid in groups. When the larvae emerge, they 
crawl to the nearest water without loss of time; there 
they settle in the mud for about a year, and gain their 
sustenance by devouring other aquatic animals. The 
full-grown larvae measure about an inch in length; their 
arge thoraces plainly show division into three segments. 
Seven pairs of tracheal gills are appendages of the ten- 
segmented abdomen; the last abdominal segment is 
modified into a pointed double air-tube which acts as 
a supplementary gill. 

Pupation takes place in an earthen cell at some 
distance from the water; the pupal stage lasts nearly 
a month, then the membranous pupa-case is split and 
the Alder-fly emerges. 

The American Dobson, Corydalis cormita, does not 
differ very markedly in its life-history from our native 
species. Howard says that it has more popular names 
than any other American insect. " They are: Dobsons, 
crawlers, amby, conniption bugs, clipper, water gram- 
pus, goggle goy, bogart, crock, hell devils, flipflaps, 
alligators. Ho Jack, snake doctor, dragon, and hell 
diver ."" We mention this, not because of its importance, 
but because it serves to emphasize a remark on another 
page, that the entomologist should learn to rely on 
scientific names, and not to bear upon the broken reed 
of popular nomenclature. 



PLATE XVI 




ORNITHOPTERA BROOKIANA See paiie 140. 
1. Male i. Female 



ALDEK-FLIES 129 

Corydalis is an evil-looking creature with a wing-span 
of more than four inches. The females have very 
powerful jaws, capable of inflicting a severe bite; the 
males, though more formidable-looking, with long, 
curved jaws more than an inch in length, are really 
harmless, and their jaws are used to hold the females 
during pairing. 

In one respect, inadvertently, perhaps, these insects 
show more consideration for their young than do their 
British relatives. Their eggs are always laid upon some 
object overhanging the water, so that the larvse, when 
they hatch, can fall straight into the element which is 
to be their home. These convex egg-masses, white and 
chalky -looking, each contain about three thousand 
minute eggs set on end. " Sometimes they are so 
abundant as to make the rocks look as though someone 
had splashed whitewash upon them profusely with a 
brush." The larval life of C. cornuta lasts nearly three 
years. 

Kaphidiid^. — Closely allied to Sialidce ; head long; 
prothorax long and tapering in front. 

On account of the curious structure of their heads 
and prothoraces, these insects are known as Snake-flies. 
Very little has been learned of their life-histories; the 
larvae live under bark and are exceedingly voracious; 
the naked pupse, which closely resemble the adults, 
except that their necks are not long, occur in the same 
situations. 

MANTispiDiE. — Hind- wings without an anal space; 
front legs formed for grasping. 

These insects receive their family name from their 
remarkable resemblance to the MantidoB. Their necks 

17 



130 INSECT LIFE 

are long, their fore-legs are similar to those of Mantis 
but their wings, apart from many other characters, 
show that they are not closely related to the insects 
they simulate. 

We have no British species of the family; so far as is 
known, many of these insects appear to be semi-parasitic. 
A South American species lives in Wasps' nests; a 
European species preys upon Spiders and their eggs. 
Each of their very small and very numerous eggs " is 
placed at the tip of a long stalk, very much the same 
way as are the eggs of the lace wing-flies. The eggs are 
laid in the autumn and the larvae hatch before winter, 
but remain hidden, without food, until spring. Then 
they search for the egg-cocoons of certain spiders, pierce 
them, and enter among the eggs. When the eggs are 
nearly ready to hatch they eat them, and the young 
spiders as well, until they are full grown, moulting only 
twice and changing to pupae or nymphs within the 
larval skin."" 

CoNiOPTERYGiD^. — Minute insects with mealy wings. 

These little white insects are remarkable for being 
the smallest of the Planiyennia. Their larvae prey upon 
Scale insects and A f hides, and are usually met with 
upon conifers. 

MYRMELEONiDiE. — Superficially resemble Dragon-flies, 
but their bodies are shorter, their short antennae are 
clubbed, and their fore- wings are devoid of nodes. 

The life-story of the Ant Lion is known to most 
people, though the insects themselves may be un- 
familiar. The larvae of this family are among the most 
curious and interesting of all insects. 

Sand is an essential to Ant Lions, for without sand 



ANT LIONS 131 

their larvae could not form the pits which are essential 
to their existence. The gauzy-winged females deposit 
their eggs in the sand, and directly the larvae hatch 
they lose no time in setting to work to construct the 
traps which will provide them with food. 

Needless to remark, the structure of the larvab differs 
according to the species, but, speaking generally, they 
are all somewhat flattened, almost circular six-legged 
creatures, with flat heads and formidable jaws. It is 
said that they scrape the sand on to their flat heads 
with their fore -legs, and then, jerking their heads back- 
wards, throw the load to some distance. The first 
operation is the making of a circular groove in the 
sand and the throwing away of the excavated materials. 
More and more concentric grooves are made within the 
original one, till the final operations result in the forma- 
tion of a steep-sided pit, shaped like an inverted cone. 
The larva then descends to the bottom of the pit and, 
with the exception of his powerful jaws, buries himself 
in the sand. Any small insect, finding itself on the 
shifting sands of the pit-sides, promptly rolls to the 
bottom, is seized by the ever- watchful larva, its juices 
are sucked from it, and its carcass is jerked from the 
pit. A larger insect, on finding itself slipping to the 
bottom of the pit, may make efforts to escape — efforts 
which in ordinary circumstances would be successful. 
The Ant Lion, however, is not so passive as he appears; 
he showers sand upon the struggling insect and hastens 
its descent. 

Although larval Ant Lion habits have been witnessed 
and described time and again, there is little reliable 
information concerning the deposition of the eggs, the 



132 INSECT LIFE 

number of larval moults, pupation, etc. One fact is 
known of a certainty: the larval period may be ex- 
tended almost indefinitely, and its duration depends 
largely upon tbe amount of food tlie individual is able 
to obtain. Plentiful food shortens the time; long fasts 
— and the Ant Lion, in common with most predaceous 
larvse, can fast for inordinately lengthy periods — entail 
a protracted larval existence. Silken cocoons are spun 
in the sand by the fully fed larvse; they are always 
studded with sand. 

Hemerobiid^. — ^Very similar to Myrmeleonidce , but 
their antennae are beaded. 

These insects are called Aphis Lions, for the reason 
that the larvse of many species prey upon Aphides. It 
is another family concerning which very little is known. 

The largest of the British Planipennia, Osmylus 
fuhiceflialus, belongs to this family. Its broad trans- 
parent wings span nearly two inches, the fore-wings 
are slightly spotted with brown, and it frequents the 
neighbourhood of streams, for its larvse are semi-aquatic. 
Larvse of the genera Climacia and Sisyra are also 
aquatic in their early stages. 

The most interesting feature concerning the terrestrial 
larvse of the HemerobiidcB is the curious habit possessed 
by some of them of ornamenting their bodies with the 
skins of their victims. All the land-dwelling larvse are 
active, voracious creatures; all have long, powerful, 
grooved jaws. Their prey is seized in the jaws and the 
life-juices sucked therefrom through the grooves. Many 
of the larvse are ornamented, over their backs and sides, 
with bristle-covered tubercles. Species so clothed take 
great pains to disguise themselves by firmly attaching 



PLATE XVII 




ORXITHOPTERA HEPH.-ESTUS See pat/e 140. 
1. Male 2. Female 



LACEWINGS 133 

the remains of their insect food to the tubercles; no 
Red Indian ever gathered scalps more assiduously than 
some of these insects collect the remains of their feasts; 
heavily laden larvae cannot be recognized as insects. 

Chrysopid^.— Characters very similar to Hemero- 
biidcB, but antennae bristle-shaped. 

The delicate Lacewings or Golden Eyes are familiar 
to most people. Their pale green, filmy wings, their 
slender bodies, their long setiform antennae, and their 
brilliant metallic-looking eyes, render them unmis- 
takable. Despite their delicacy and beauty, they can 
emit a most unpleasant odour, a habit which has earned 
them the name of " Stink-flies " in some quarters. 

Several species of Chrysopa are common in Britain, 
and the life-history of C. vulgaris may be taken as 
typical of them all . The female lays her eggs in clusters, 
usually upon a leaf, almost invariably amongst a colony 
of Aphides. The eggs are worthy of particular atten- 
tion. Each egg is raised from the leaf -surf ace upon a 
thin stalk; the egg-mass resembles a number of minute 
pins piercing the leaf-surface. The eggs are not of this 
peculiar form without good reason; all Chrysopid larvae 
are exceedingly voracious, none of them object to feeding 
upon their own kind, so that, were the eggs of more 
ordinary mould, the young larvae, when he entered the 
world, would make his first meal of his still unborn 
relatives. The stalked eggs prevent such a catastrophe. 

The larva emerges by biting a hole in the top of his 
egg; he descends to the leaf, and at once begins to prey 
upon the Af hides which surround him. His jaws are 
hollow and powerful, like those of the Hemerobiid 
larvae; he seizes his prey in the softer portions of their 



134 INSECT LIFE 

bodies and sucks tliem dry. Some non-Britisli species 
possess the habit we have just described of ornamenting 
their bodies with the remains of their victims. The 
Chrysopid larva, whatever its species, " always seems 
hungry and always to be feeding when it can find any- 
thing upon which to feed, and its rapidity of growth is 
limited only by the abundance of the food-supply.'* 
Vulgaris, when fully fed, is about half an inch long and 
of a peculiar pinkish colour. 

The cocoons are of silk and nearly globular; the 
larval spinnerets are situated in the tail, and the jaws 
are used to arrange the silk in position. When the 
adult Chrysopa emerges, the top of the cocoon lifts up 
and remains attached to the base like a lid. Few 
insects are more beneficial than the Lace wings; un- 
fortunately, they are much preyed upon by parasites. 

Order Trichoptera, or Caddis-flies. 

Antennae long and slender; four hairy wings; mouth- 
parts not fully developed; tarsi usually five-jointed; 
metamorphosis complete. 

With the majority of orders the perfect insects are 
more familiar than the larvae; here the reverse is the 
case. Everyone knows the curious larval cases of these 
insects; few have seen or recognized the moth-like 
** flies."' The order has been strangely neglected by 
entomologists, and there is a considerable diversity of 
opinion as to its proper subdivision. It may be well 
to study the typical life-history of a Caddis before 
considering the peculiarities of the various families. 

The female lays her eggs during the summer in a 
mucilaginous mass, and they are usually, though not 



CADDIS-FLIES 135 

invariably, attached to a water-plant. These egg- 
masses may assume varied forms according to the 
species: they may be disc-shaped, rope-hke, or horse- 
shoe-shaped; green they always are, owing to the 
colour of the eggs, which shows plainly through the 
mucilage. 

In less than a month the larvse emerge, and, being 
soft-bodied and a likely prey for voracious creatures, 
they lose no time in constructing their dwellings of 
leaves, sticks, shells, sand, or similar material, and they 
are always characteristic of the species. The case, what- 
ever its design, is so made that the larva need never 
expose more of its person than its horny head and 
thorax. Kespiration is performed by means of nine 
pairs of tracheal gills, and the larva keeps its place 
within its home by means of a pair of formidable re- 
curved hooks on the end of its body and by three fleshy 
protuberances, capable of retraction and extension, on 
the first abdominal segment. 

The larvse, with the exception of those of one group, 
are all vegetable-feeders; their existence continues 
through the winter, pupation taking place in the spring. 
When about to pupate, the larva spins a silken web at 
either end of its case, and, thus secure from its enemies, 
it passes into the next stage. The Caddis pupa is an 
extraordinary creature and quite unlike the " fly."' It 
is white; its legs, wings, and antennae are free; upon 
its abdomen are respiratory organs; and its mouth is 
armed with powerful mandibles. The latter organs are 
used to bite a way through the ends of the case when 
the time of emergence arrives. Then the semi-active 
pupa floats to the surface of the water, climbs to some 



136 INSECT LIFE 

near-by plant, its pupal skin, along with the formidable 
mandibles, is shed, and the Caddis-fly emerges with 
startling rapidity. Of a pale greenish hue at first, the 
insect soon assumes the grey, brown, or black colouring 
common to British Trichoftera. 

Phryganeid^. — Distinguished by having four spines 
on middle tibiae; three ocelli. 

This family contains the largest of the Trichoftera. 
The larvae all construct cylindrical cases of spirally 
arranged material; the cases are open at both ends. 
Our common Phryganea grandis is a brown insect, 
measuring two inches in wing-span. Its larval cases 
are made of minute fragments of leaf cut by the larva, 
and arranged in a spiral manner to form an open-ended 
cylinder. Some of the Asiatic species are quite ornate; 
a Japanese Phryganea has yellow-bordered brown hind- 
wings; an Indian species has purple hind- wings, tipped 
with yellow. 

LiMNOPHiLiD^. — Two or three spines on middle 
tibia); three ocelli. 

A family with very varied larval cases. Many species 
construct their cases, wholly or in part, of small Water- 
Snail shells. Sometimes these shells contain living 
Snails, which "are afforded comparatively rapid trans- 
portation, whether they desire it or not.'' The British 
Limnofhilus flavicornis has this habit; L. rhomhicus 
arranges small sticks transversely to form its cylindrical 
case; other species of the genus construct their cases 
of sand. 

To this family belongs the only non-aquatic Caddis- 
fly larva; it frequents damp moss, often at the bases of 
trees far removed from water. 



PLATE XVni 




8. Colias phicomene 



2. Lasiocampa trifolii 
5. Terias simulata 
7. Papilio podalirius 
9 Tliecla rubi 'underside' 



3. Thais polyxena 
(i Pararge macra 



111. Gonopteryx cleopatra 



CADDIS FLIES 137 

EHYACOPHiLiDiE. — Male palpi five-jointed; last two 
joints of palpi not flexible. 

The larvae of this family all frequent running water, 
and in consequence they all make cases, which they 
attach to rocks by means of silk. None of the cases 
are of a very elaborate nature, and are all very similar 
to those of the common Steno'phyhx. The pupse of 
Rhyaco'phiUdce are protected by thin but tough brown 
cocoons. 

Hydroptilid^. — Male palpi four-jointed; no spurs 
on anterior legs; no ocelli. 

The smallest of the TricJioptera. The larval cases 
are made of silk, studded with grains of sand, and have 
an opening at each end. The larvae probably breathe 
through their skins, for they have no visible breathing 
organs. 

SERicosTOMATiDiE. — As HydroftiUdcB, but spines on 
anterior legs. 

The flies are very hairy; their larvae live in running 
water, but they construct free cases of sand or pebbles, 
some of them very closely resembling helical Snail- 
shells. 

Leptocerid^. — Last joint of palpi long and flexible; 
base of antennae long and large; no ocelli. 

The species are conspicuous on account of their very 
long antennae; the larvae usually live in running water, 
and build cylindrical, slightly carved cases of sand. 

Hydrops YCHiD^. — Similar to Leptoceridce, but an- 
tennae shorter and wings broader. 

These are the only carnivorous TricJioptera ; they 
live in running water, and the fixed larval cases are 
formed largely of silk. The larvae of Plectrocnemia 

18 



138 



INSECT LIFE 



build funnel-shaped hiding-places with silken webs 
about the entrance, very similar in design to the Broad- 
land Duck decoys. Insects caught in the webbing are 
eagerly devoured by the Caddis larvse. 

Order Lepidoptera, or Butterflies and Moths. 
The Lepidoptera are four- winged insects, and in the 
majority of cases their wings are covered with scales; 
bodies with scales having the appearance of hair; 




Fig. 5. 
A, Piece of wing of the White Cabbage Butterfly (much magnified to show 
the scales). R, Margin of wing; the scales covering it are very long. 
The dark scales are of black colour, the hght ones white. B, A scale 
(more strongly magnified). It is fixed by a small peduncle in a 
depression of the wing membrane, F. 

mouth-parts of adults adapted for imbibing liquids, 
never for piercing or biting; larvse with biting mouths; 
metamorphosis complete 

The order is subdivided into two series: 



PLATE XIX 




1. Epicalia numilia 
4. Clilorippe cherubima 
7 Junotiia orythia 



2 Papilio sarpedon 
5. Menelaides hector 
8. Papilio ganesa 



3. Uismorphia nemesis 
6. Callidryas neleis 
9. Ageronia velutina 



BUTTERFLIES 



139 



Series 1. Rhopalocera, or Butterflies, with knobbed 
antennae or swellings towards the tips of these organs. 
Usually diurnal. 

Series 2. Heierocera, or Moths, with antennae which 
are very rarely knobbed. Usually nocturnal. 

With the exception of a few aberrant forms, there 
are few Butterflies or Moths which even children cannot 




Fra. 6. — Head of the White Cabbage Butterfly (Magnified), 

AND ON THE LeFT A PORTION OF THE PROBOSCIS (MORE HlGHLY 

Magnified). 

F, Antennae; A, eye; R, proboscis; Lt, labial palpi. 

recognize as such. Owing to their brilliant colouring, 
their active habits, and, in many species, their large 
size, they are familiar objects everywhere. ** In respect 
of intelligence the order is inferior to the Hymenoftera ; 
in the mechanical adaptation of the parts of the body 
it is inferior to Coleoptera ; and in perfection of meta- 
morphosis it is second to Diptera," 



140 INSECT LIFE 

Despite the fact that one of the most useful of all 
insects, the Silkworm, belongs to this order, the Lepi- 
doptera are decidedly injurious. With a few unim- 
portant exceptions, the larvae are all vegetable-feeders; 
many of the species are prolific, and in consequence 
crops are frequently ruined by the depredations of the 
immature insects. 

The adults are harmless, as a rule; their mouth-parts 
are only adapted for imbibing nectar and similar liquid 
food. There are, it is true, one or two species with 
peculiar and noxious habits; a species of Noctuid, for 
instance, is in the habit of drinking its fill from the 
eyes of cattle, and, as it passes from one beast to another, 
it is presumed to transmit ophthalmia. 

Though no order has been more assiduously hunted, 
captured, and preserved than the Lepidoptera^ it is 
remarkable that, up till quite recently, less real scientific 
knowledge of these insects had been acquired than of 
many other less attractive orders. It is small wonder 
that Butterflies and Moths have been much sought after 
by collectors. Some are drab, some bizarre, but the 
majority are of surprising beauty. They owe their 
attractiveness to the scales, arranged slate-wise, on their 
wings, and, in the typical Lepidoptera, the wing-expanse 
is large compared to the insect's body. It has been 
estimated that there are as many as one and a half 
million scales on the wings of some species. Each scale 
is a little flattened, bag-like structure, stalked at its 
base, and fitting into a cup-shaped cavity on the wing- 
membrane. 

One of the most interesting phenomena connected 
with Lepidoptera is the *' seasonal dimorphism " of 



PLATE XX 




VANESSA URTIC-E (SMALL TORTOISESHELL) 
Ova, larvae, pupae and imago 



BUTTERFLIES 141 

certain species. This has been fully described elsewhere 
(p. 26), but it is of the greatest interest to the scientist 
and often the cause of much trouble to the collector. 
Mimicry, also, is very common in this order, but this 
phenomenon is also referred to on another page (p. 47). 

Series 1. Rhopalocera, or Butterflies. 

Although the series is a large one, it is curiously 
uneven in its distribution . South America is particularly 
rich in Rho'palocera ; New Zealand, with less than two 
dozen species, particularly poor. We have rather more 
than sixty native species, practically all of which we 
are fortunate enough to be able to illustrate in colour. 

Nymphalid^. — Front pair of legs small; tarsi of 
male with one joint, of female with five; claws absent. 
Pupae pendulous; larvae either spined or smooth, but 
even in the latter case the head bears spinous appendages. 

There are eighteen species of this family native to 
Britain; it includes the Fritillaries, the Red and White 
Admirals, the Peacock, the Tortoiseshells, and the 
somewhat aberrant Purple Emperor. Among the exotic 
species of the family are the Leaf Butterflies, Kallima 
spp., and the South American species of Ageronia, with 
the un-Butterfly-like habit of making a noise. 

In point of numbers the genus Vanessa far exceeds 
all others in this country. The Small Tortoiseshell, 
Vanessa urticce, is the commonest of all our Butterflies, 
and it is of the greatest interest to the biologist. It is 
usual amongst the Lepidoftera for the females to lay 
their eggs and leave them to their fate. In some species 
the winter is passed in the egg stage; others, again, 
may elect to winter as pupae, and there are species with 



142 INSECT LIFE 

hibernating larvae. The Small Tortoiseshell, however, 
is original, for the adults themselves hibernate, becoming 
active again in early spring, maybe before the nettles, 
food-plants of their larvae, are far above ground, but 
knowing instinctively that they will be well advanced 
before the hatching of the spring-laid eggs. The Large 
Tortoiseshell, F. polychloros, whose larvae feed upon 
elm, cherry and willow, is less common, and, though 
very similar to its smaller relative, a comparison of our 
two figures will show that the careful entomologist need 
never confuse the species. 

The Peacock Butterfly, F. io, an aptly named insect, 
is too common to need description; its larvae feed upon 
nettles. Another nettle-feeder is the Red Admiral, 
F. atalanta, one of the most beautiful of our native 
butterflies. Its habits are the subject of some con- 
troversy and by many it is presumed that we are in- 
debted to the Continent for our annual supply of this 
insect. It is certain that the migratory habit is by 
no means uncommon amongst the NymphalidcB, and 
in no species is the nomadic instinct more pronounced 
than in the Painted Lady F. cardui which has spread 
and is still spreading to distant regions of the world. 
Its larvae may be taken on thistles, nettles, and various 
other food-plants. The Comma Butterfly, Y . c. album, 
may easily be distinguished from all the other native 
species of the genus by the indented outline of its wings. 
When in repose, it approaches most nearly to the dead- 
leaf mimics by the colouring of its lower wing-surfaces. 
Its larvae are not confined to one food-plant, as is so 
often the case; they feed on nettles, hops, willows, 
sloes, elm, and even gooseberry. 



PLATE XXI 




1 Vanessa atalanta (Red Admiral 



imemtis sihylla I White Admiral 



.'1 Annsia erippus (Milk Weed) 



Vanessa cardui (Painted Ladyl 



5. ApatLira iris (Purple Emperor) 



BUTTERFLIES 143 

The rarest of all our Vanessas is the Camberwell 
Beauty, V. antiopa, a summer visitant to these islands. 
It is an insect of striking beauty and commanding size ; 
well-grown specimens may measure well over three 
inches in wing-span. 

Lack of space forbids more than a passing mention 
of our native Fritillaries. The larvae of the Pearl- 
Bordered and Small Pearl -Bordered Fritillaries, Argynnis 
eufhrosyne and A.selene,Sind of the Queen of Spain, the 
Dark Green and High Brown Fritillaries, A. lathonia, 
A. aglaia, and A, adifpe, all feed upon species of 
Viola. Those of the Silver-Washed Fritillary, A. 
pa'phia, feed on wild raspberry as well as upon Viola ; 
and those of the Greasy, Glanville, and Heath Fritil- 
laries, Melitcea aurinia, M. cinxia, and M. athalia^ 
feed upon the narrow-leaved plantain, the first-named 
also favouring scabious, foxglove, and speedwell. 

The White Admiral, Limenitis sihylla, becomes more 
and more rare each year. Its larvse, which may be 
looked for on honeysuckle, are gaily clad green creatures 
with red heads and reddish spines. The Purple Em- 
peror, Afatura iris, is a handsome insect which may 
be looked for on oaks. Its larvae feed upon willows 
and poplars, and they are quite characteristic. They 
are slug-like in form, green in colour, and armed with 
a pair of horns on their heads. They hibernate 
through the winter, and in consequence the period of 
pupation is much reduced in this species. 

The Dead-Leaf Butterflies are wonderfully interesting 
from the fact that when at rest they very closely 
resemble dried leaves. When they settle they place 
their wings close together in a vertical position; their 



144 INSECT LIFE 

under-sides, in contrast to their upper surfaces, are a 
dull brown colour. Each hind-wing bears a short tail, 
and these tails, placed together and resting on the 
twig upon which the insect has elected to settle, simu- 
late a leaf-stalk. The deception is heightened by a 
dark line which runs from the tail to the tip of the 
fore-wing; nothing could resemble more closely the 
midrib of a leaf. One would imagine that the mimicry 
could be carried no further, but on each wing there is 
an " eye,'' consisting of a transparent spot, destitute of 
scales. When Kallima folds its wings, the eyes coincide, 
so that a semi-opaque patch is left right through the 
wings of the resting insect, just such a patch as might 
be found on a leaf from which some creature had 
gnawed a portion. 

EKYCiNiDiE. — Females with six perfectly formed legs, 
though the front pair are smaller than the others. 
Coxae of fore-legs on the male form a spine, and the 
unjointed tarsi are devoid of claws. 

This is largely a tropical American family; there is 
only one European species which is found in Britain — 
the Duke of Burgundy Fritillary, Nemeohius lucina, 
which is not a true Fritillary. It may easily be identified 
from our figure, and its larvae may be sought on primrose. 

Danaid^. — Front foot of female ending in a corrugate 
knob; larvae smooth with fleshy protuberances. 

These Butterflies are nearly all large insects and 
boldly marked. None of them are native to Britain, 
though Anosia eripfus, an American species, known 
as the Milkweed Butterfly or the Monarch, has occa- 
sionally been taken in this country. Its larvae feed 
upon Asclepias, 



PLATE XXII 




WW 



1 Melitea cinxia Glanville Fritillary- 

2 iMelita;a athalia (Heath Fritillary 

3. Vanessa c. album Comma) 

4. Vanessa urticae (Small TortoiseshellJ 



5. Vanessa polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell) 
6 Vanessa antiopa (Camberwell Beauty) 
7. \'anessa io vPeacock) 



BUTTERFLIES 145 

SATYRiDiE. — Palpi prominent; the veins at the base 
of the fore- wings often swollen. 

There are eleven British species of Satyridce, all of 
which are figured and are easily identifiable. Their 
larvae all feed upon grass, and the adults, though 
provided with large wings, are generally poor per- 
formers in the air. Many species of Satyridce frequent 
highlands; the Marsh Ringlet, Gcenonym'pha typJion, is 
only at home in sphagnum bogs and similar situations, 
whilst the Grayling, Satyrus semele, is a lover of the 
sea-shore. 

MoRPHiD^. — A purely tropical family, noted for the 
brilliant hues of species belonging to the tropical Ameri- 
can genus Morpho. The larvae of many species are 
gregarious. 

Brassolid^. — A small South American family with 
somewhat moth-like habits. The enormous larvae of 
Caligo eurylocJius are green in their early stages ; accord- 
ingly they take up their residence on the similarly 
coloured leaves of the banana. As they approach 
maturity they become brown, and then retire to the 
dead leaves of the same plant. 

Heliconiid^. — Another tropical American family, 
mentioned here because the individuals of one species, 
Heleconius erato^ exhibit the exceedingly uncommon 
phenomenon of " trichroism " — that is to say, indi- 
viduals of the same brood may be any one of three 
colours. In this particular case the hind-wings of these 
Butterflies may be either green, blue, or red. 

Lyc^nid^. — Front legs almost as large as the others; 
male tarsus one- jointed and terminated by a single 
claw without teeth. 

19 



146 INSECT LIFE 

The family includes the well-known " Blues " and 
*' Hairstreaks/' The larvse of some of the former are 
said to be carnivorous, feeding upon Green-flies and 
Scale insects. The pupse, like those of the Nym'phalidcB, 
hang downwards from their support, but they are 
usually still further supported by a silken thread which 
surrounds the centre of the pupa and is fixed to some 
object near-by. 

There are eighteen British species of this family, of 
which the Large Copper, Polyommatus dispar, is now 
but a memory, the last native specimen having been 
taken in Norfolk about sixty years ago. The Small 
Copper, P. pJilceas, is still common; its larvae feed on 
sorrel. 

Of the ** Blues,'" ten species are figured. The Long- 
Tailed Blue, Lyccena bcetica, cannot really be classed 
as a native species, but should rather be considered as 
an occasional visitor. It occurs in many parts of 
Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and the West Indies. 
The Common Blue, L. icarus, is known to everyone, 
its larvae feed on clover. A very similar insect is the 
Clifden Blue, L. hellargus. The Chalk-Hill Blue, L. 
corydon, as its name implies, is confined to chalk soil. 
The Silver-Studded Blue and the Azure Blue, L. cegon 
and L. argiolus, are of distinctive hue; the larvae of 
the former feed on leguminous plants, those of the 
latter on the flowers of ivy, holly, or buckthorn. The 
Mazarine Blue, L. semiargus, is exceedingly rare; its 
larvae feed upon thrift, and, as may be surmised, the 
insect is to be sought by the seaside. The Little Blue 
and the Large Blue, L. minima and L. arion, may be 
recognized by the fact that they are respectively the 



PLATE XXiri 




BUTTEEFLIES 147 

smallest and the largest of our Blues. The larvae of 
the former feed on leguminous plants, those of the 
latter on wild thyme. The Brown Argus, L. astrarche^ 
is brown in both sexes; its larvae feed on Helianthemum. 

The five British Hairstreaks are all dull-coloured on 
the upper surfaces of their wings; for their identifica- 
tion it is necessary to examine them below. The 
Purple Hairstreak, Tliecla qiiercus, is the commonest 
species, and the Black Hairstreak, T. fruni, the rarest. 
The larvae of the former feed on oak, those of the latter 
on the same tree or on sloe. The Green Hairstreak, 
T. ruhi, is the smallest species of the genus in Britain. 
For so drab an insect as this appears to be when its 
upper surface alone is viewed, its brilliant green under- 
surface is somewhat surprising. Its larvae may be 
taken on bramble and broom. The Brown Hairstreak, 
T. betulcB, is the largest British species, and the White 
Letter Hairstreak, T. w. -album, is easily recognized by 
the white letter iv at the basal angle of the under-side 
of each hind- wing. Its larvae feed on elm; those of 
betulcB prefer birch or blackthorn. These curiously 
named Butterflies are so called on account of the 
narrow, pale-coloured lines which traverse the lower 
surfaces of their wings. 

PiERiD^. — All the legs well developed in both sexes; 
claws are toothed. 

This family is remarkable for the small colour varia- 
tion which occurs in the different species. Nearly all 
of them are decked in some shades of yellow or red or 
white combined with black. The larvae of most species 
are green and smooth, or clothed with a fine pubescence, 
though those of the Orange Tip, Euchlo'e cardamineSj 



148 INSECT LIFE 

are armed with forked bristles when young, which give 
place to fine hairs later. 

Of our ten British species, the Large and Small 
Whites, Pieris hrassicce and P. rafce, are familiar even to 
dwellers in large towns. Their larvse feed upon cruci- 
ferous plants. The Green- Veined White, P. nafi^ is 
equally common, but not in towns; Cardamine spp. 
provide food for the larvae. Two rarities of this family 
are the Bath White, P. daplidice, and the Black-Veined 
White, Aforia cratwgi. The small, fragile, Wood 
White, Leucofhasia sinapis, w^hose larvae feed on 
leguminous plants, cannot be mistaken for any other 
Butterfly. The Clouded Yellow and the Pale Clouded 
Yellow, Colias edusa and C. hyale, are quite distinct, 
despite their similarity of name. They are strong fliers 
and of migratory tendencies; their larvae feed on 
Leguminosw. The Brimstone, Gonepteryx rJiamni^ is 
an elegant insect w^hich is easily recognized, among 
British Lepidoptera, by its form quite apart from its 
colouring. The tips of its fore-wings are curved out- 
wards and terminate in an acute angle; its hind- wings 
are slightly tailed. The females hibernate through the 
winter and deposit their eggs on buckthorn in the spring. 

Papilionid^. — All legs well developed; claws large 
and not toothed; front tibiae padded. 

These are the most ornate of all the Butterflies, the 
males of some species being truly dazzHng in their 
brilliance, whilst the females are comparatively dull- 
coloured. Beautiful velvety blacks relieved with bril- 
liant greens and blues and gold are the predominating 
colours amongst the males of the ornate genus 
Ornithoptera, 



PLATE XXIV 




1 Colias edusa (Clouded Yellow) 5, Argynnis adippe (High Brown Fritillary) 

2. Goneptoryx rhamni (Brimstone^ C. Arygnnis lathonia (Queen of Spain Fritillary"! 

3 Argynnis paphia (Silver-washed 7 Argynnis selene (Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary) 

p-ritillary) 8. Argynnis eiiphrosyne (Pearl-hordered Fritillary) 

4 Argynnis aglaia (Dark Green Fritillary) 9 IMclita'a aurinia (Greasy Fritillary)' 



BUTTEKFLIES 149 

Most of the Swallow-Tails, as the Papilionidce are 
called, are South American, nearly all are tropical. In 
Britain we have but a single species, Papilio machaon^ 
and it is by no means common. It is one of our largest 
Butterflies, and cannot be mistaken for any other 
insect. The larvae, which feed upon the leaves of 
carrot, fennel, and the like, are as beautiful as the 
adults. They are green, with belts of black, and the 
belts are studded with crimson. The pupse of all the 
Papilios are affixed head upwards, the reverse of the 
rule amongst the Nymphalidce. 

Hesperiid^. — Six walking legs, the front legs not 
short; stout short claws; tibiae padded. 

The Butterflies of this family are known as 
" Skippers,'' on account of their short, rapid, and 
jerky flights. As a family they are somewhat puzzling; 
they resemble Moths rather than Butterflies in many 
respects, and the general consensus of opinion is that 
they form a connecting link between the Rhopalocera 
and the Heterocera. Some entomologists would place 
them in the latter series. 

There are eight British species, all of which are 
figured in colour. Confusion is likely to arise between 
the Small Skipper, Hesperia thaumas, and the New 
Small Skipper, H. lineola ; the larvae of both species 
feed upon grasses. The Lulworth Skipper, H. actceoUy 
is very local, and is confined to a few localities in the 
South-West. The Checkered Skipper, Cceterocephalus 
palcemon, is even more uncommon. The Large Skipper, 
H. sylvanus, is by no means uncommon and easily 
recognized, though it is not very dissimilar to the 
smaller, rarer Pearl Skipper, H. comma. The Dingy 



150 INSECT LIFE 

and Grizzled Skippers, Nisoniades tagos and Syrichthus 
nialvcB, are very distinctive. 

All the Skippers have the peculiar larval habit of 
rolling leaves in which they live; pupation also takes 
place in the same shelters. 

Series 2. Heterocera, or Moths. 

The classification of Moths is by no means satisfactory. 
This is hardly the place to enter into a discussion on 
the subject; as far as possible, the arrangement here 
follows the lines of the collection of Heterocera in the 
London Natural History Museum. 

Castniid^. — Antennae knobbed or hooked. 

These Moths are nearly all confined to tropical 
America and Australia. They are diurnal, and bear a 
very close resemblance to the Skippers; some of them 
are agricultural pests. 

Satukniid^. — These are the Atlas Moths, and con- 
tain some of the largest examples of Lepidoftera. The 
North Australian, Coscinocera hercules, " is a huge Moth, 
which, with its expanded wings and the long tails 
thereof, covers a space of about seventy square inches." 

Nearly all the species are remarkable by the posses- 
sion of large transparent areas on their wings or circular 
eye-like markings. They are the Moths whose larvae 
spin the coarse Tussore silk. 

Our only British representative of the family, the 
Emperor, Saturnia pavonia, is one of our largest native 
Moths, but one of the smallest of the Saturniidce. It is 
to be found usually upon heather, the plant upon which 
its larvsB feed. The latter are as beautiful as the Moths, 
being bright green studded with red protuberances. 



PLATE XX\' 




MOTHS 151 

BoMBYCiD^. — Moths without a proboscis. 

A family of uninteresting but useful Moths; they are 
the true Silkworms. 

The Silkworm, Sericaria mori, is a native of Northern 
China. It has so long been domesticated that it has 
practically lost the power of flight. 

EuPTEKOTiD^. — A family which contains the remark- 
able Processionary Moth, Cnetliocamfa frocessionea, 
whose larvae march in columns, each one headed by a 
leader. 

The larvae of Palustra, a South American genus, are 
aquatic, being helpless on dry land. 

Sphingid^.— Hawk Moths. These insects are of 
large or moderate size; most of them are possessed of 
a long proboscis; their wings are never large and usually 
narrow; antennae stout. 

The members of this family all possess a very charac- 
teristic appearance which renders them distinct from 
all other Moths. Our largest native Moth, the Death's 
Head, Acherontia atropos, belongs to the family. It 
derives its name from the markings on its thorax. The 
larvae feed on potato-plants, and, were they more 
common, they would be classed as injurious insects. 
The adults can make a noise, when at rest, by rubbing 
their palpi against their proboscis. The Convolvulus 
Hawk Moth, Sphinx convolvuli^ is more often taken 
than the Death's Head; it is the most sombre of our 
Sphingids. Somewhat similar is the common Privet 
Hawk Moth, Sphinx ligustri, w^hose larvae feed on the 
plant from which the Moth derives its name. The 
Spujge and Bedstraw Hawk Moths, Deilephila euphorhicB 
and D. galii, bear considerable resemblance to one 



152 INSECT LIFE 

another, but not so much so that they cannot easily be 
distinguished. Both our native species of Elephant 
Hawk Moths, the Large Chcerocam'pa elfenor and the 
small G, forcellus, feed on bedstraw in the larval stage; 
the former also eats willow-herb. The Eyed Hawk 
Moth, Smerinthus ocellatus, is easily recognized by the 
** eyes " on its hind- wings; no other British species has 
these markings. Its larvae should be looked for on 
willows and poplar. On the same trees may be found 
the larvae of the Poplar Hawk Moth, Smerinthus populi, 
which possesses particularly broad wings for a Sphingid. 
The Humming Bird Hawk Moths are always provided 
with an expansible tuft or tufts of long, hair-like scales 
on the tip of their abdomen. Our native species, 
Macroglossa stellarum^ is quite common in certain 
seasons. Its larvae feed on bedstraw. Quite distinctive, 
with its clear wings, is the little narrow-bordered Bee 
Hawk Moth, Macroglossa fuciformis, whose larvae should 
be sought on scabious. 

NoTODONTiD^. — Very closely allied to the Noctuidw, 
and remarkable for the curious forms assumed by many 
of the larvae. 

We have nearly two dozen native species, of which 
the Puss Moth, Dicranura vimda, is the best known. 
The larvae feed upon willows, and curious-looking 
creatures they are. In their young stages their heads 
are of moderate size, two protuberances project above 
the head, a single hump on the forward half of the back, 
and the tail is long and forked. As they grow older, 
their heads assume large proportions, and from the 
forks of the tail two long, whip -like structures can be 
ejected; their object is presumed to be for the protection 



PLATE XXVI 







W M 



Melanargia galatliea (Alarbled White 
Erebia epipliron IMountain Ringlet 
Krebia aethiops iScotch Argus! 
Pararge aegeria Speckled Wood) 
Pararge megsera AN'all Brown) 



r>. Satyrus semele (Grayling) 

7. Epinephele janira (Meadow Brown") 

8. Epinephele tithonus Small Meadow Browi 

9. Epinephele hyperanthus (Ringlet) 

10. Ccenonympha typhon (Marsh Ringlet) 



See pages 144 ami loo. 



MOTHS 153 

of the larva from enemies. The cocoons of the Puss 
Moth are hard and formed of wood chips and saliva. 
When the time arrives for the Moth to emerge, it softens 
its prison wall with an alkaline fluid and pushes its 
head, which is protected by a portion of the pupa-case, 
through the softened part. 

More peculiar still is the larva of the rare Lobster 
Moth, Stauropus fagi, which the lucky entomologist 
may find on young beech-leaves. The Dragon of old 
Sepp, Hyhocampa milhauseri, has larvae equally bizarre. 
Commoner British species are the Coxcomb Prominent, 
Lophopteryx camelina, with curious larvae which feed 
on birch. On the same tree may be found the red 
and yellow larvae of the Iron Prominent, Notodonta 
dromedarius, whilst those of the Swallow and Pebble 
Prominents, N. dictcea and N. ziczac^ feed upon poplar 
and willows. The Buff Tip, Phalera biicephah, is our 
commonest Notodont, and a fairly destructive forestry 
pest of oaks. The Chocolate Tip, P. curtula, is less 
common and much smaller; its larvae devour poplar 
and sallow. 

Cymatophorid^. — Closely related to the Noctuidce, 
though bearing many resemblances to the Notodontidce, 
this small family is represented in Britain by three species. 

The Buff Arches, Thyatira derasa, is a quaintly 
marked little Moth whose larvae feed upon Euhus spp.; 
on the same plants may be found the larvae of the 
Peach Blossom, T. hatis. The Yellow Horned Moth, 
Asphalia flavicornis, may often be overlooked, for, 
evidently recognizing that its colouring is protective, 
it rests on tree-trunks and old wood. Its larvae feed 
on birch and oak. 

20 



154 INSECT LIFE 

Sesiid^. — Clearwings. The majority of species in 
this family have wings without scales, and many have 
the tip of the abdomen tufted. 

The commonest British species is the Currant Clear- 
wing, S. tifuliformis ; less common is the Hornet 
Clearwing, Trocliilium crahroniformis . The larvae of 
these species are white, and they burrow into the stems 
of their food-plant immediately after they are hatched. 
Hidden within this shelter they spend the whole of 
their larval and pupal lives. 

Zyg^nid^. — Burnet Moths. The commonest British 
species of this family of beautiful Moths is the Six- 
Spotted Burnet, Zygcena fili'pendnlcB. All the members 
of the family have somewhat similar brilliant metallic 
colouring, crimson and greens or blues predominating. 
The Six-Spotted Burnet is a seaside species. Less 
common is the scarce Forester, I no glohularice, a little 
gem, resplendent in bronze or blue-green. Its larvae 
feed upon the greater knapweed. 

All the Burnet Moths construct peculiar cocoons, 
which they fasten securely to some support such as a 
grass stem; they are remarkable for their great powers 
of movement. The pupa forces itself partly from the 
cocoon at the time of the emergence of the Moth. 

PsYCHiD^. — Bagworm Moths. For the most part 
small Moths, they are of the greatest interest. The 
females are wingless, and in some species they are 
devoid of legs as well, so that they appear like the 
larvse of Diptera. The males are usually provided with 
bipectinate antennae. 

The females live all their lives within " bags "'; there 
also they lay their numerous eggs, and the larvae, when 



PLATE XXVI 




HWp 




9 



w w 



1. Cfenonymplia pampliilus (Small Heath) 

2. Thecia riibi (Green Hairstreak) 

3 Thecia quercus (Purple Hairstreak) 

4 Thecia w-albiim (White-letter Hairstreak) 

5. Thecia pruni (Black Hairstreak! 

6. Thecia betulae (Brown Hairstreak) 



7. PBlyommatus dispar (Large Copper) 

8. Polyommatus phteas (Small Copper) 

9. I. ycaena gaetica (Long-tailed Blue) 
10. Lycaena/Egon (Silver-studded Blue) 
IL Lycaena astrarche (Brown Argus) 

12. Lycaena icarus (Common Blue) 



. MOTHS 155 

they emerge, start life by devouring the body of their 
mother. Having done so, they feed no more till they 
have constructed the " bags " in which they are to 
live. These " bags '' vary in form and texture accord- 
ing to the species constructing them. Sometimes they 
are made of silk; more frequently of sticks or other 
vegetable material or earth. They are always in- 
genious. In one species the " bags " resemble shells, 
but the usual form is a variant of a helix. The sticks 
of which some of the bags are made are all of the same 
length, sometimes arranged longitudinally, more often 
transversely, but always with a regularity and neatness 
which no human fingers could excel. When the larva 
has made its " bag " it crawls inside, and there spends 
the rest of its days, if it be destined to develop into a 
female. The males are active and short-lived. 

CossiD^. — The Goat Moths have no proboscis, are 
covered with a dense vestment of scales, and are all 
either moderate or large-sized insects. 

These Moths are of interest on account of the wood- 
boring habits of the larvae and their protracted existence 
in this state. The Goat Moth, Cossus ligniferda, 
deposits her eggs upon the trunks of willow, poplar, 
ash, or elm, for choice, and the young larvae, directly 
they are hatched, bore into the stems and dwell therein 
for three years. When fully fed, they are of consider- 
able size, nearly the colour of a boiled prawn, with a 
broad mahogany stripe down the back. They exude 
an odour strongly reminiscent of that of the goat, and 
for this reason they have earned their popular name. 
It is reputed that in former days these evil-looking 
larvae were considered a table delicacy, though it is 



156 INSECT LIFE 

hard to believe the truth of the statement. When fully 
fed, the larvae leave their burrows and seek a spot for 
pupation. They make a hard cocoon of chipped wood 
and saliva. It is easy to imagine that larvse so large 
and long-lived are capable of doing considerable injury 
to timber trees. 

Hardly less injurious are the larvae of the Wood 
Leopard Moth, Zeuzem fyrina. They are long-lived 
and have the same wood-boring habits as Cossus. 
Fruit-trees are much favoured by them. Fortunately, 
they are not very common. 

Hepialid^. — Ghost and Swift Moths. The species of 
this family vary tremendously in size ; some might aptly 
be described as minute; others span as much as seven 
inches from tip to tip of their wings. In colour they are 
usually sombre, but some of the exotic species, on the 
contrary, are gorgeous. The South African Leto venus 
has wings studded with metallic spots; species of the 
Australian genus Charagia are also brightly coloured. 

Of our British species, the Northern Swift, Hepialus 
velleda, is by no means uncommon; it should be sought 
among the bracken, on which the larvae feed. Here 
it may be mentioned that all the Hepialids are difficult 
to capture; their flight is low and rapid. More difficult 
still is it to obtain perfect specimens. The Gold Swift, 
H. hectus, is a much smaller insect, also found near 
bracken. The Ghost, H. pumuU, is the commonest of all. 
The larvae feed upon roots of grasses, dock, and ragwort. 

A glance at our figures will show that the males 
differ markedly from the females in colour. That this 
colouring serves a useful purpose is shown by Sharp, 
whom we quote: " The male is an insect of exceptional 



PLATE XXVI 1 1 








'-'■'0m- 



i_ 







rt d P. 

cuu< 




MOTHS 157 

colour, being white above, in consequence of a dense 
formation of imperfect scales ; the female is of tbe brown- 
ish tints usual in Swift Moths. In the month of June 
the male selects a spot where he is conspicuous, and 
hovers persistently there for a period of about twenty 
minutes in the twilight; his colour has a silvery- white, 
glistening appearance, so that the insect is really con- 
spicuous notwithstanding the advanced hour. Females 
may be detected hovering in a somewhat similar manner, 
but are not conspicuous like the male, their colour being 
obscure; while so hovering they are ovipositing, drop- 
ping the eggs amongst the grass. Females that have 
not been fertilized move very differently, and dash 
about in an erratic manner till they see a male; they 
apparently have no better means of informing the 
hovering male of their presence than by buzzing near, 
or colUding with him. . . . There can be little doubt 
that the colour of the male attracts the female." 

The male of H. hectus, according to the same authority, 
gives off from his swollen hind-legs an odour of pine- 
apple, which attracts the females. 

There is very little authentic information concerning 
the life-histories of species belonging to this family. 
The larvse mostly live underground or in wood; the 
pupae, which are very elongate, are active. 

Drepanid^. — Hook Tips. Nearly all the species of 
this family have outwardly directed, acute-angled tips 
to their fore- wings. They are all moderate-sized insects. 

In Britain we have half a dozen species, of which the 
common Hook Tip, Drepana lacertinaria, is the most 
frequently met with. Its larvae feed on birch and 
heather, and are remarkable in possessing a long tubular 



158 INSECT LIFE 

process in place of the usual hind-claspers. The Pebble 
Hook Tip, D. falcataria, is but little less common; its 
larvae dwell within shelters which they construct of 
birch and alder leaves. Cilix glaiicata, when at rest, 
closely resembles bird excrement. 

LiMACODiD^. — Small, stoutly built Moths, nearly 
always of an apple-green colour, often edged with 
brown. There are only two British species, of which 
Afoda testudo is the commonest. As may be gathered 
from the scientific name of this insect, the larva is a 
footless, slug-like creature. Owing to their structure, 
they glide rather than walk over the leaf-surface on which 
they feed. This peculiar larval structure, combined with 
the exceedingly ornate appearance of many species, makes 
the family of great interest. The cocoons of Limacodids, 
too, are interesting; they are provided with lids through 
which the Moths may escape without difficulty. 

Lasiocampid^. — The species of this family are all 
large insects, and are densely covered with scales; 
antennse of males pectinate. These Moths are easily 
recognized; they are, for the most part, heavy insects 
and clumsy in flight. The commonest British species 
is the Drinker, Odonestis potatoria, so named on account 
of the curious dipping flight of the adults, which, when 
their course is over water, makes them appear to be 
swooping down for a drink. The females are consider- 
ably bigger than the males and a lighter colour. Differ- 
ences in size between the sexes in this family are 
common, the females of some species being more than 
three times the size of the males. The large, brown, 
hairy Drinker larvfe may be found feeding upon grass 
in autumn and spring. 



PLATE XXIX 




1. Papilio machaon (Swallow Tail) 

2. Aporia crateegi (Black-veined White) 
3 Pieris brassies LarRe Garden White) 
4. Pieris raps 'Small Garden White) 



5. Pieris napi (Green-veined White) 

6. Pieris daplidice (Bath White) 

7. Eiichloe cardamines Orange Tip) 

8. Leucophasia sinapis (Wood White 

9. Colias liyale (Pale Clouded Yellow) 
See patie 14S. 



MOTHS 159 

Almost as common is the Lacl^ey, Bomhyx neustria. 
Its eggs and larvae, at any rate, are only too well known 
to most fruit-growers. The former are deposited in 
neat rings round the smaller twigs of some favoured 
tree, probably an apple, and the larvae, which hatch in 
the spring, are very destructive to the foliage. There 
is another closely allied Moth, known as the Ground 
Lackey, B. castrensis ; it is a somewhat local insect and 
is not injurious, for its larvae feed on seaside plants. 

The Oak Eggar, B. quercus, is one of our handsomest 
Moths. The females, as is usual, are larger than the 
males and paler in colour. There is, however, con- 
siderable colour variation in this species; the oak- fed 
larvae produce paler-coloured adults than those fed 
upon heather. This Moth is supposed to take its 
peculiar popular name from its close-spun cocoon, 
which is not unlike egg-shell in appearance. The larval 
hairs of this species are easily shed, and are particularly 
irritating to the skin. The Fox, B. ruhi, is so called 
on account of the colouring of the male; the females are 
grey. As its name implies, it is a lover of bramble 
in the larval state. The Lappet, Lasiocamfa querci- 
folia : this handsome Moth is not common except in 
the South. It is somewhat inert, but escapes attention 
as it rests on some branch, because it very closely 
resembles a dead leaf. Its larvae feed upon bramble 
plum, sloe, amongst other plants. Of the December 
Moth, Poecilocampa fofuli^ it is said that it sometimes 
remains in the pupal state for several years. 

Endromid^. — The British Moth popularly known as 
the Kentish Glory, Endromis versicolor, is the sole 
species of the family. It is by no means common, but 



160 INSECT LIFE 

may be taken by day in birch woods. The larvae are 
almost destitute of hairs; they feed on birch, and super- 
ficially resemble Sawfly larvae. 

LYMANTRimiE. — This is a most interesting family of 
sombre-coloured Moths, many of which have highly 
injurious larvae. The Moths are mostly white, grey, or 
brown, the first-named colour being the most frequently 
met with. The larvae are hairy and often beautifully 
coloured; the hairs of most species are irritating to the 
skin. It is said of the larvae of the Nun, Psilura 
monacha, and of the Gipsy Moth, Ocneria dispar, that 
when newly hatched they have hairs provided with 
air-bladders. These air-bladders are supposed to so 
lighten their owners that, by launching themselves into 
the air from a height, they are distributed for a con- 
siderable distance by air-currents. Hair forms a con- 
siderable portion of many Lymantriid cocoons, and, 
more unusual still, the pupae of some species are hairy. 

We have about a dozen species in Britain, and of 
these the Vapourer, Orgyia antiqua, is very common 
even in London. Although common, the Vapourer is 
well worth a little attention. As our figure shows, 
there is a striking difference between the sexes. The 
male is strong on the wing and an active insect; the 
un-moth-like female is a small, hairy, heavy-bodied 
creature, with wings so minute as to be useless for 
flight. She rarely strays far from her cocoon, and on 
it she often lays her eggs. The larvae are among the 
most beautiful of our native species, of a peculiar 
bluish-grey colour with a paler strip down the back, 
on which there are rows of red dots; they bear a couple 
of tufts on their heads and four yellow tufts on their 



PLATE XXX 




5 = S 



\ 



PROPERTY OF 

p, METCALF 

OTHS 161 

backs, in addition to numerous smaller tufts. They 
are catholic in their tastes, and there is little vegetation 
that they will not devour. Occasionally, even in 
London squares, the trees are completely defoliated 
by these voracious larvse, and were it not for the activi- 
ties of an Ichneumon parasite they would speedily 
increase to an alarming extent. 

The Gold Tail, Porthesia similis, is equally common, 
though not a town-frequenting species. A glance at 
our figure will show how appropriately this insect is 
named. The larvae may be found on hawthorn and 
various fruit-trees in the summer; they are prettily 
marked with black and red. 

The Black Arches, Psilura monacha, is also known 
as the Nun. It is not common in Britain, but on the 
Continent, and in Germany especially, it is a serious 
forestry pest, for the young larvae feed upon the leaves 
of many trees, but especially upon those of the Coniferce. 
The Pale Tussock, Dasychira pudibunda, also known 
as the Hop Dog, because it does a considerable 
amount of damage to hops, is a noted forestry pest 
in France. 

The most notorious Lymantriid, however, is the 
Gipsy Moth, Ocneria dispar. Exactly fifty years ago 
an American enthusiast who was studying various 
Lepidoptera, with a view to making use of their silk, 
accidentally released some imported Gipsy Moths. For 
many years the insects merely held their own; then 
they seemed to awaken to a new life; they increased 
enormously, though they did not spread quickly. 
Every effort was made, and is being made, to keep 
them in check; a million dollars a year are spent on 

21 



162 INSECT LIFE 

their control. Parasites and enemies have been im- 
ported from Europe, but still the Gipsy Moth holds its 
own as America's greatest forestry pest. Nearly as 
injurious is the Brown-Tail Moth, Ewproctis chrysorrhcBa^ 
also imported from Europe. The adult is not very 
dissimilar to the Gold Tail, but brown takes the place 
of gold on the tip of the abdomen. A near relative of 
the Pale Tussock, known as Dasychira rossii, is note- 
worthy because it inhabits the Arctic regions. 

Hypsid^. — A small family of tropical and sub- 
tropical Moths, which do not resemble any European 
species. Most of them are straw-coloured, with white 
dots or lines. 

Arctiid^. — This is a large family, and many of the 
species are highly ornate. Everyone knows the " woolly 
bears," those long-haired active larvae which may be 
met with on all manner of vegetation in the early 
summer, or may be seen walking rapidly over garden - 
paths or even roads. They are the larvae of the Garden 
Tiger, Arctia caia. The long hairs of these larvae are 
not without their uses; they serve as a protection for 
their owners against many enemies, and they are used 
to form the cocoon, for which purpose the owner bites 
them from its body before pupating. The Cream-Spot 
Tiger, A. villica, is a very similar insect to the Garden 
Tiger in appearance, though easily distinguished. Much 
more similar, however, are the larvae; those of the 
former species may be known by their red heads, those 
of the latter species are black. Both will eat almost 
any vegetation. 

The Ruby Tiger, S'pilosoma Juliginosa, is quite a 
different-looking insect — in fact, this genus bears some 



PLATE XXXI 



wl^ 

%./^ 

w 



fo 



3 

WW 







1. Lyceena bellargiis (Clifden Blue) 

2. Lyesena corydon (Chalk-hill Blue) 

3. Lycaena minima (Little Blue) 

4. l.ycaena argiolus (Azure Blue) 

5. Lyccena arion (Large Blue) 

6. Nemeobius lucina (Duke of Bur- 

gundy Fritillary) 



7. Nisoniades syrichthus malvae 

(Grizzled Skipper) 

8. Nisoniades tagos (Dingy Skipper) 

9. Hesperia thaumas (Small Skipper) 

10. Hesperia actjeon (Lulworth Skipper) 

11. Hesperia sylvanus (Large Skipper) 

12. Hesperia comma (Pearl Skipper) 



Cseterocephalus palzemon (Checkered .Skipper) 



MOTHS 163 

resemblance to certain species of Hypsidce. It is usually 
met with on high ground, and heather is a favourite 
food-plant of the larvae. The Buff and White Ermines, 
S. lubricipeda and S. menthastri, are common every- 
where. The Buff Tiger, Nemeo'phila russula, is a 
daintily marked insect, a dweller on moorland. We 
figure the male. Its larvae feed on heather and heath, 
and hibernate through the winter. The Scarlet Tiger, 
Callimorpha dominula, though a member of a different 
subfamily, bears considerable resemblance to the Garden 
Tiger. The Cinnabar Moth, Euchelia jacohwcB, has a 
livery which, in colour, is strangely reminiscent of the 
Burnet Moths, though there the similarity ends. Its 
larvsD, black with conspicuous yellow bands, are common 
on ragwort, and literally cover their food-plants, for 
they are gregarious. 

The little Muslin Moth, Nudaria mundana, is a frail 
creature with feeble powers of flight. Its larvge feed 
upon lichen, a favomite food of the species of this sub- 
family. The "Footmen," of which we figure three 
species, are all light-bodied, somewhat narrow- winged 
Moths. They fly by day, and their livery is usually 
some shade of yellow marked with black. The Common 
Footman, Calligenia lurideola, is not easy to find in 
its larval state, for the insects closely resemble their 
food-plants in colour. Less common is the Eosy 
Footman, Calligenia miniata, and quite local the Four- 
Spotted Footman, Gnophria quadra, which, by the way, 
is not spotted in the male; our figure is of a female. 
The larvae of both species feed on lichens. 

Geometrid^. — This is an immense family, and, 
curiously enough, the larvae are usually better known 



164 INSECT LIFE 

than the adults. The former are known as Loopers or 
Geometers on account of their curious looping gait, 
necessitated by their anatomical structure. They 
possess thoracic legs, a pair of claspers, and but one 
other pair of abdominal legs, on the ninth segment. 
When walking, they clasp their support with the 
thoracic legs and draw up their abdominal legs so that 
their bodies are looped; then, after making firm with 
their hind-legs, they advance the fore-part of the body 
and repeat the operation. When at rest these larvae 
assume curious attitudes. Being thin and hairless and, 
some of them, coloured like a dry twig, they frequently 
clasp their support with their hind-legs and rest at 
an angle of about 75 degrees thereto. When in this 
position there is always a life-line of silk from the 
larva to some near-by twig. This silken thread serves 
a double purpose: it lends additional support to the 
larva, and when danger threatens the insect can drop 
from the tree and remain suspended by its thread till 
the danger be past. After an interval the larva returns 
to its original support by means of the thread. Many 
Loopers, when at rest, bear a remarkably close resem- 
blance to twigs, green or dry, according to their colour. 
The adults are all night fliers; they are somewhat 
delicate insects, but nearly all of them are provided 
with relatively large wings, with the exception of the 
females of certain species, which are wingless or nearly 
so. The family includes the numerous Moths known to 
entomologists as " Pugs,'* " Carpets,'' and " Waves," 
etc. Many species are decidedly injurious to crops and 
forest trees. 

Lack of space forbids even a cursory view of the 



PLATE XXXII 




ACTIAS SELENE 



MOTHS 165 

fifty-seven species we figure in colour, and these are 
but a fifth of the British species. 

The Early Thorn, PericalUa bilunaria, is interesting 
because it belongs to a genus whose larvae, when resting, 
resemble thorns or small branches. They should be 
sought on hawthorn and oak in the summer. The 
Pale Brindle Beauty, Phigalia pedaria, is a species with 
wingless females. The females of this order are much 
more active than are those of the Vapourer Moth. 
Many of them ascend the highest trees, and it has even 
been asserted that the males carry them thence. Oak 
and beech are the favourite trees of the female and 
their larvae. 

The Magpie Moth, Abraxas grossulariata , is often a 
serious pest of gooseberries and currants, and on that 
account is sometimes called the Gooseberry and Currant 
Moth. 

The most notorious pests of the family are the Mottled 
Umber, Hyhernia defoUaria, and the Winter Moth, 
Cheimatohia hrumata. Both of them are well named; 
defoUaria speaks eloquently of the Mottled Umber's 
defoliating propensities, and the Winter Moths are on 
the wing in November and December. The females of 
the former species are wingless; those of the latter have 
wings only slightly developed. This lack of wings does 
not appear to affect the geographical distribution of the 
Winter Moth, for it is found almost everywhere in 
Europe and in North America. 

NocTuiD^.— Another unwieldy family of Moths, con- 
taining a large number of species which are very similar 
to one another. Often, in such cases, the larvae are 
quite distinct, a statement which may be verified by 



166 INSECT LIFE 

an examination of the larvae and pupse of Acronyda fsi 
and A. tridens. The larvae of some of the Dart Moths 
(Agrotis spp.), on the other hand, are so much alike 
that it is impossible to identify them with certainty, 
though the Moths themselves are quite distinct. 

As may be surmised from the name of the family, 
nearly all these Moths are night-fliers; the larvas, too, 
of many species remain hidden by day and come out 
at night to feed. 

We figure no less than sixty-five Noctuids, but a 
tithe of which we can mention here. 

The Antler Moth, Charceas graminis, is an exception 
to the usual Noctuid rule, in that it often flies by day. 
It is exceedingly common and very prolific, and, seeing 
that its larvae feed upon grasses, it is not surprising to 
learn that in certain seasons it becomes a serious pest. 
Very frequently we read of plagues of Caterpillars 
which devour all the herbage of our pastures; usually 
the culprits are the larvae of the Antler Moth. 

The Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicce^ is another 
serious pest, though, fortunately, it is not so prolific 
as the last-named species. Its larvae refuse little that 
is green, but appear especially partial to cruciferous 
plants, cultivated for choice. 

The genus Agrotis is noted for its evil-doers, and every 
husbandman knows the Turnip Moth, A. segetum, and 
the quaintly named Heart and Dart, A. exclamationis. 
The larval attacks of these species are exceedingly 
insidious, for they are subterranean feeders upon roots 
of grasses, cruciferous plants, and the like. Very 
frequently the total failure of the crop is the first indica- 
tion to the farmer that anything is amiss, for the larvae 



PLATE XXXIII 




MOTHS 167 

rarely show themselves. A near relative, the Australian 
Bugong Moth, A. S'pina, was formerly used as an article 
of food by the natives. 

Very interesting are the Plusias ; they are frequently 
devoid of the usual complement of larval legs, and on 
that account they progress in a manner very remin- 
iscent of the Geometers. This trait has earned them 
the name of Semi-Loopers. Many of the Moths have 
wings, beautifully marked with metallic gold or silver 
spots and blotches. The Gold Spot, Plusia festucce, 
affords but a hint of the lovely ornamentation to be 
found in some exotic species. 

The Orange Under wing, Brofhos parthe^iias, is a 
diurnal Moth, and is on the wing in early spring. Its 
near relative, B. notha, has the peculiar habit for a 
Noctuid of spinning two or three leaves of its food- 
plant (aspen) together and living within the shelter. 
When fully fed, it seeks some soft wood, into which it 
bores, there to pupate. Before doing so, however, it 
takes the precaution to close the hole by which it has 
entered with a double door of silk. 

In a family containing so many injurious species, it 
is pleasant to mention one which is useful. The South 
European Noctuid, Erastria scitula, as a larva preys 
upon the Peach Scale, Lecanium olece. The larvae are 
small, the scales are large. The former eagerly devour 
the latter, and eventually add to the scale by means 
of silk, so that it forms a shelter beneath which they 
can pupate. 

The story of the Noctuids could be unfolded to con- 
siderable length; from the giant American Erebides, 
which may span as much as eight inches from tip to 



168 INSECT LIFE 

tip of their wings, to the most minute forms, all are 
interesting and many of extreme beauty. We must, 
however, leave the family with the remark that the 
larvae of the Marbled Beauty, Bryofhila perla, share 
with certain of the Arctiids the very uncommon habit 
of feeding upon lichens, and, as is usual in such cases, 
their colouring closely resembles that of their food- 
plants. 

Pykalid^. — An enormous family of small or medium- 
sized, long-legged, somewhat fragile Moths. In Britain 
about a hundred and fifty species are known; many of 
them are injurious, and some are among the most 
interesting of all the Lepidoptera. 

The Scoparias, of which we figure the Hoary Grey, 
Scoparia dubitalis, are, like the species we mentioned 
above, lichen-feeders. The Ephestias, and notably the 
Flour Moth, E'phestia Kuhniella, are many of them 
serious pests of stored grain, which they not only eat, 
but damage by matting together with their silken webs. 
A species of E'phestia also attacks dried figs, and its 
larvae are by no means strangers to our dinner-tables. 
The Meal Moth, Pyralis farinalis, is very similar in 
habit to the Flour Moth. 

The Grass Moths of the genus Cramhus are very 
common. They may be seen in thousands during a 
walk through meadowland in summer — little pale- 
coloured Moths, which only seem capable of flying a 
short distance without resting. Their pointed heads, 
owing to the shape of their palpi, and their method of 
resting with wings tightly folded over their backs, 
render them unmistakable. 

Of the British Pyralids, the most remarkable are the 



PLATE XXXIV 




1 Ai-herontia airopu 

2 Splimxconvolvul^ 

3 Sphinx liBii>.tri 



4 Ueilephila eiiphorbiie 
.') Deilepliila galii 
(J CliEErocampa porcellus 
See i/at/e 151 



7. Chaerocampa elpenor 
3. Smeriiithus ocellatus 
9. Smerinthus populi 



MOTHS 169 

China Marks Moth— we figure one species, Hydrocam'pa 
stagnata. Their larvae are aquatic, and not only so 
their life-histories are of absorbing interest. For a 
very full and interesting account of the life-history of 
the Brown China Marks Moth, H. nympheata, the 
reader is referred to Miall's ** Natural History of Aquatic 
Insects/' In brief, the Moths deposit their eggs upon 
the leaves of some aquatic plant. When the larvae 
emerge they tunnel into the leaves and appear oblivious 
of the water which surrounds them. After a moult 
the larvae forsake their burrows and make dwellings by 
cutting out pieces of leaf and fastening them to the 
under-sides of other leaves. These shelters are not 
waterproof, but the water causes the larvae little incon- 
venience. More moults occur, and hibernation takes 
place below water. In the spring the larvae each take 
a couple of pieces of leaf and fasten them together in 
the shape of a double convex lens. At this stage the 
water seems to trouble them for the first time, and they 
contrive to make their lens-shaped shelters watertight. 
In them they complete their development. 

Despite their aquatic environment, these larvae are 
not provided with gills or any organs for respiration 
below water; they apparently breathe through their 
skins. In certain closely related, though not British 
species the larvae are provided with branchial gills.* 
The larvae of the Small China Marks Moth, Cataclysta 
lemnata, live in little cases which they form by binding 
together the leaves of duckweed with silk. 

Of all the Pyralids, the most extraordinary is the 
genus Acentropus. " This insect is apparently the most 
completely aquatic of all the Lepidoptera, and was for 

22 



170 INSECT LIFE 

long associated with tlie Trichoftera in consequence of its 
habits and of the scaling of the wings being of a very- 
inferior kind. The males may sometimes be found in 
large numbers fluttering over the surface of shallow, 
but large, bodies of water; the females are rarely seen, 
and in some cases have no wings, or have these organs 
so small as to be useless. The female, it would appear, 
comes quite to the surface for coupling, and then takes 
the male beneath the water. The larvae have the 
usual number of Lepidopterous feet, and apparently 
feed on the leaves of plants below water, just as Lepi- 
dopterous larvae ordinarily do in the air. They have 
no trace of gills, and their mode of respiration is un- 
known."' 

Species of the genus Galleria — there are three in 
Britain — are much dreaded by bee-keepers. These 
Moths enter the hives at night and deposit their eggs 
near the combs. The larvae greedily devour the wax, 
and at the same time spin tough silken webs wherever 
they go. 

Pterophorid^. — The Plume Moths are easily dis- 
tinguished on account of their deeply divided wings, 
the hind-wings especially — the fore-wings are some- 
times nearly entire, and in one genus, Agdistes, the 
wings are quite undivided. These are delicate little 
Moths, many of them white, and their chief interest lies 
in their coloured, soft, and hairy pupae. There are 
thirty species of these little Moths in Britain. 

ToRTRiciD^. — Minute Moths whose larvae all live 
inside their food, which may consist of either fruits, 
seeds, roots, or leaves. When leaves are the food, the 
larvae roll them most ingeniously and fasten them with 



PLATE XXX\- 




1. Chserocampa alecta 
5. Deilephila lineata 



2. Deilephila vespertillio 3. Smerinthiis tilli 

4. Chserocampa nerii 

6. Deilephila dahlii 7. Sphinx pinastri 



MOTHS 171 

silk in such a manner that they will remain in a per- 
manently rolled state. As the larvae are all very small 
and the leaves are often large, the exact methods by 
which they accomphsh their object have been the cause 
of considerable conjecture. Of the " leaf-rollers/' the 
commonest, in Britain, are the Green Tortrix, T. viri- 
dana, a not inconsiderable pest of oak, and T. ribeana. 
The most serious pest of the family is the Codling 
Moth, Carpocafsa fomonella. The female lays her eggs 
on young leaves of apple, about May, and the larvae, 
when they hatch, bore into the young fruit at the calyx 
end and penetrate to the core. Here they live and 
feed and collect a nauseating mass of frass which ruins 
the fruit. When fully fed, the larvae tunnel their way 
out of the fruit and pupate beneath the loose bark of 
the apple-tree. The closely related C. splendam infests 
acorns, and 0. Juliana Spanish chestnuts. 

The most curious of these Tortricidce are those whose 
larvae live in the seeds of Euphorbias and give rise to 
the so-called " jumping beans." Carfocapsa saltitans^ 
for instance, lives in the seeds of Croton coUiguaja. It 
hollows out most of the interior, from one end to the 
other, and by various movements, which have not yet 
been observed, it causes the centre of gravity to shift 
from time to time and the seed to move. 

TiNEiD^. — A very large family — there are seven 
hundred British species— of minute Moths. Their hind- 
wings, which are small, are usually fringed. 

Perhaps the most remarkable fact about the majority 
of species of this family is the nature of their food. 
The larva of the Clothes Moth, Tinea tapetzella, feeds 
upon clothes and builds cases of its food-material in 



172 INSECT LIFE 

which to dwell. The larvae of the Woollen Moth, 
T. pellionella, have similar habits, whilst those of 
T. hiselliella appreciate the same food, but do not make 
cases. Of the exotic species, T. vastella feeds on the 
horns of living antelopes, and another species ** has 
been found in abundance in the hair of a live Sloth, 
Brady pus cuculliger, under circumstances that render 
it possible that the larva feeds on the creature's hair, 
though it may feed on minute vegetable matter found 
in the hair.'' 

Many of the Tineids are " leaf- miners.'' The larvae, 
quite early in life, burrow between the upper and lower 
epidermis of the leaf of their food-plant. There they 
feed on the leaf- tissues, secure from most enemies, and 
there also they pupate. The common Oak-Miner, 
Nepticula ruficapitella, is frequently seen, or rather the 
workings of its larvae. 

The Small Ermine, Hyponomeuta padella, a beautiful 
little white Moth with black markings on the fore- 
wings, is better known by the activities of its larvae 
than by the appearance of the adults. Its gregarious 
larvae are known as " tent-caterpillars " from their habit 
of spinning dense silken webs on the branches of their 
food-plants — apple and hawthorn. Within these tents 
they dwell when young, and to their shelter they retire 
when alarmed in later life. 



PLATE XXXVI 




1. Cossus ligniperda 

2. Zeuzera pyrina 

3. Bombyx riibi 

4. Bombyx quercus 

5. Odonestispotatoria 

6. Porthesia similis 



7. Ocneria dispar 

8. Psihira monacha 

9 Dasychira pudibunda 

10. Orgyia antiqua 

11. Orgyia antiqua (female) 

See page 152. 



12. Bombyx castrensis 

13. Bombyx neustria 

14. Lasiocampa querifolia 

15. Endromis versicolor 

16. Saturnia pavonia (male) 



BEETLES 173 



CHAPTER VI 
COLEOPTERA AND STREPSIPTERA 
Okder Coleoptera, or Beetles. 
Beetles are four-winged insects; their fore-wings 
(elytra) are usually hard and horny, and serve as shields 
for the membranous hind- wings. In almost every case 
the hind edges of the fore-wings are placed together 
when not expanded, so as to form a suture down the 
insect's back. Mouth-parts designed for biting; meta- 
morphosis complete. 

Although there can be few readers of these pages 
who do not possess a general idea of Beetle anatomy, 
as far as externals are concerned, at the same time, 
mainly on account of their mode of life. Beetles are 
not nearly such famihar creatures as FHes or Moths. 
For the most part, they are ground dwellers, and the 
Coleopterist must needs know something of their habits 
to be able to come upon them. They form, in fact, by 
far the largest order of insects; about seventy thousand 
species are known, and of these more than four thousand 
are native to this country. 

Coleoptera may be found of every conceivable form; 
some of the most bizarre insects belong to this order. 
In colour they vie with the Butterflies and Moths, some 
of the Lamiidce being brilliantly attired; certain of the 
Weevils are of exquisite metallic hue, veritable gems 



174 



INSECT LIFE 



of the insect world; the Eose Beetles, the Ladybirds, 
the Leaf Beetles, and many others, cannot fail to arouse 
our admiration in the adornment of their armour. On 
the other hand, the species of several families are nearly 
all black, or at any rate of sombre shades; the Tene- 
hrionidce and the Bostrychidce are of this nature. Some 
Beetles have elytra so smooth that they have the appear- 
ance of being polished daily; others have pits, more or 




Fig. 7 External Anatomy of a Beetle. (Upper Side.) 
1, Head stretched forward; 2, prothorax; 3, mesothorax, scutellum; 
4, metathorax; 5, abdomen; 6, anterior wing (elytron) of right side, 
turned forward; 7, posterior wing of right side, expanded; 8, maxillary 
palps; 9, femur of third right leg; 10, tibia of third right leg; 11, tarsus 
of third right leg. 

From " Zoology of the Invertehrata" by A. E. Shipley. 

less deep all over their surface or arranged in longi- 
tudinal rows, or in some other definite pattern. Other 
species have furrowed or crinkled or hairy elytra; 
indeed, it is hard to set a limit on the various forms 
which this vast order exhibits. In size there is every 
stage between the tiny SfhceridcB, of which S. acaroides 
occurs in Norfolk, no longer than one-fiftieth of an inch, 
or Nanosella fungi, but half that size, up to the giant 



PLATE XXXVII 





.> . / 



S 
W 




^^ 



1. Plusia chrysilis 

3. Zygsena exulans 

6. Eurraiithis plumistaria 

9. Hylophila bichlorana 



■i. Bombyx qiiercus (Female) 
7. Odonestis potatoria {Female) 
10. Ocneria dispar 'Female) 



2. Halias prasinana 
5. Zygffina lavandulae 
8. Callimorpha Hera 
11. Utethesia pulchella 



BEETLES 



175 



Goliath Beetles or the South American Prionids, Titanus 
giganteus, which may measure between two and three 
g ab p inches in length. 

The habits of Beetles 
are as varied as their 
forms. There are 
species which are per- 
fectly adapted to an 
aquatic life in the adult 




Fig. 8 —External Anatomy of a 
Beetle. (Under Side.) 
A, Ligula; B, paraglossus; C, labial palp; 
D, maxillus, or lower jaw; E, labrum, 
or upper lip; G, mandible, or jaw; H, 
antennae; I, mentum, or chin; K, buccal 
fissure; L, gula; M, prosternum; N, 
prosternal episternum; O, prosternal 
epimeron; P, coxae; Q, mesosternum; R, 
mesosternal episternum; S, mesosternal 
epimeron; T, metasternal episternum; 
U, metasternum; V, metasternal epi- 
meron; W, trochanters; XI to XG, seg- 
ments of abdomen; Y, femur; Z, tibia. 
From "Common British Beetles,'' by 
C. A. Hall. 




Fig. 9. — Head and Mouth 

Parts of a Beetle. 
A, Mandibles; B, labial 

paljii; C, maxillary palpi; 

D, antennae; E, labrum. 

1, Lacinia; 2, galea, or 

palpiform lobe; 3, palpi; 

4, stipes. 

From " Common British 
BeeUes," by C. A. Hall. 



stage; others dwell in decaying animal or vegetable 
matter; others are purely leaf-eaters; others, again, are 
carnivorous. The mode of life of the larvss has not 



176 



INSECT LIFE 




been so thorouglily studied in this order as in, say, the 
Lefidoftem ; sufficient is known, however, to render it 
quite impossible to sketch one larval history which will 
apply to all. The most curious larvae, in point of view of 

their behaviour, are those 
of the Oil or Blister Beetles 
{Meloidce) ; but as they are 
fuUy described elsewhere 
(p. 21), the point need not 
be laboured here. 

It is natural that so 
immense an order as the 
Coleoftera should be con- 
siderably subdivided; it 
is unfortunate that there 
should exist so much differ- 
ence of opinion concern- 
ing its correct subdivision. 
We have elected to follow 
Sharp, who recognizes six 
series. 

Series 1. Lamelli- 

CORNIA. — The terminal 

joints of the antennae are 

leaf-like, or at least broader than the rest, and when 

at rest and not expanded appear as a club. Tarsi 

five-jointed. 

Series 2. Adephaga. — Antennae with their terminal 

joints never leaf-like. Well-developed mouth-parts. 

Six or more ventral abdominal segments visible. Tarsi 

five-jointed, with the fourth joint quite distinct. 

Series 3. Polymorph a. — Antennae with the terminal 



Fig. 10. — Types of ANXENNiB. 
1, Moniliform (beaded); 2, filiform 
(threaded); 3, serrate (saw-like); 
4, pectinate (comb-like); 5, capi- 
tate (with ahead); 6 and 7, clavate 
(clubbed); 8, perfoliate clavate; 9, 
lamellate (plated); 10, geniculate 
(elbowed). 

From " Common British Beetles,^'' by 
C. A. Hall. 



PLATE XXXVIII 




A STAG BEETLE {CLADOGNATH US GIRAFFA), MALE 



BEETLES 177 

joints clubbed or, from the third joint, saw-like, on the 
inner face. Other characters very variable. 

Series 4. Heteromera.— Hind tarsi four-jointed, 
other tarsi five-jointed. 

Series 5. Phytophaga. — Fifth tarsal joint usually 
so small that the members of this series appear to have 
four- jointed tarsi. Lower surface of the feet may be 
pubescent, bristly, or naked. 

Series 6. Khynchophora. — Head prolonged into a 
beak. Tarsi five-jointed, but, owing to the small size 
of the fifth joint, apparently four-jointed. 

By some authorities the series Polymorflia is not 
recognized, and, instead, there is a series Glavicornia, 
with clubbed antennae, and a series Serricornia, with 
serrate antennae. 

In the six series of the Coleoptera there are recognized 
more than eighty families. To deal with such an 
unwieldy horde in these pages is an impossibility. We 
have elected to survey sixty of the families, either 
because they are well represented in Britain or because 
they contain remarkable exotic species. 

Series 1. Lamellicornia. 

It is a remarkable fact that, so far as is known, the 
larvae of all the seven families comprising this series 
are very similar in habit. They are all six-legged 
creatures with their bodies curved into the shape of 
the letter C, and swollen at the hinder end. They live 
underground or in rotten wood, feeding upon their 
surroundings, or upon living roots, or upon excrement. 

Passalid^. — Large dark brown or black Beetles, with 
parallel-sided elytra, for the most part deeply furrowed. 

23 



178 INSECT LIFE 

These Beetles are mainly tropical and aU live in 
decayed wood; none are Britisli. They are only men- 
tioned here because of the remarkable fact that, though 
the adults are incapable of producing a sound, the hind 
pair of legs in the larvse are in the form of modified 
hands, the fingers of which scrape on an adjacent file- 
like surface and produce a distinctly audible note. 
Exactly why the larvae should possess these sound- 
producing organs it is hard to say. 

LucANiDiE. — ^Mandibles of the males highly developed 
and often of enormous size. Ten- jointed antennae, 
usually elbowed and terminated by a comb-like club. 
The elytra entirely cover the upper surface of the 
abdomen. 

The Stag Beetles are noteworthy on account of the 
remarkable development of the mandibles in the males ; 
in some species the mandibles equal the body of the 
insect in length. It has been stated that this mandi- 
bular growth is of little or no use to the insects; be 
that as it may, a couple of male Stag Beetles, when in 
the mood, will use every effort to damage one another 
with these weapons, and their manoemTes on such 
occasions are highly entertaining. 

There are three common species of Stag Beetle in 
Britain: the Small Stag Beetle, Dorcus 'parallelopipedus , 
a dull black insect without the excessive mandibular 
development of the Stag Beetle Lucanus cervus. Its 
larvae live in decaying elm and beech, whilst those of 
the Stag Beetle are partial to decaying oak. The 
larvae of the latter Beetle — our largest British insect, 
by the way — are very similar to those of the common 
Cockchafer. They do not become fully fed till the 



PLATE XXXrX 






-v^^ 



fc-^ 



f' 












1. Dicranura vimila 

2. I.ophopteryx camelinj 

3. Thyatira derasa 

4. Drepana falcataria 

5. Drepana lacertinaria 

6. Asphalia flavicornis 

7. Thyatira batis 

8. Notodonta dictsea 



9. Acronycta riimicis 

10. ISIoma Orion 

11. Notodonta dromedarius 

12. Leucania conigera 

13. Acronycta psi 

\i. Notodonta ziczac 

15. Hydraecia nictitans 

16. Diloba ceeruleocepliala 

See page 133. 



17. Phalera bncephala 

18. Hydraecia micacea 
I'J. Leucania impura 

20. Phalera curtula 

21. Tapinostola fulva 

22. Bryophila perla 

23. Gortyna ochracea 

24. Xylophasia rurea 



BEETLES 179 

fourth year, and even then, after pupation, the adults 
often remain in hiding for some months. Like the 
larvae of Passalidce, those of the Stag Beetle are capable 
of producing sound. The smallest native Stag Beetle, 
Sinodendron cylindricum, should not be placed in the 
family according to some authorities; in place of the 
usual over-developed mandibles, the males of this species 
possess a single horn on the head. 

CoPRiD^. — Terminal joints of the antennae capable 
of wide separation and well coadapted. Pygidium 
usually exposed; six (usually) visible ventral abdominal 
segments. Abdominal segments placed in a line, and 
entirely covered by the elytra. 

The Dung Beetles comprise an enormous family. 
Unfortunately, we do not possess in this country any 
of the Scarab Beetles, sacred to the ancient Egyptians 
and immortalized by Fabre. The French entomologist's 
description of the life and habits of the sacred Beetle, 
ScarahcBus sacer, is so admirably conceived and so 
charmingly narrated that it should be read by every 
insect lover. 

In Britain the commonest Dung Beetles are the little 
Onthofhagus fracticornis, a dull yellow Beetle, whose 
head and thorax are of a greenish metallic sheen; the 
small Dung Beetle, Aphodius fimetarius , with red elytra 
and a shining black thorax; the much larger, shining 
black Aphodius fossor ; the black red-legged Aphodius 
niflpes ; and Copris lunaris, a near relative of the Scarab. 
Of all the species in this family, the most familiar is 
the "Dor," " Dumble-door," or "Clock'' Beetle, 
Geotrupes stercoranus . This is one of the few Beetles 
that habitually takes to flight; its heavy, noisy efforts 



180 INSECT LIFE 

in aviation are a familiar sight on calm summer even- 
ings; its defunct, mite-ridden carcass is by no means 
rarely observed. The closely related Geotrupes spiniger 
possesses an unpunctured ventral plate, which is absent 
from the " Dor "' Beetle, whilst the equally common 
Geotrwpes sylvaticus has much less deeply gi'ooved and 
more metallic blue-coloured elyta. 

Beetles of the genus Geotrwpes can emit sounds by 
rubbing a rough surface on the hind-coxae against a 
ridge on the under-surface of the abdomen, whilst those 
of the genus Trox do so by rubbing a pair of ridges, 
situate on the upper surface of the last abdominal 
segment but one, against a pair of somewhat similar 
structures which occur on the inner face of the elytra. 

Melolonthid^. — Characters similar to those of the 
CopridcB, but the abdominal spiracles are not all in one 
line and the terminal spiracle is not usually covered 
by the elytra. 

By far the most frequently encountered of the Cock- 
chafers, not only in Britain, but on the Continent, is 
the so-called Common Cockchafer, Melohntha vulgaris. 
It is injurious both in the adult and larval stages, and 
in certain districts of France and Germany the adults 
appear, in some years, in such enormous numbers as to 
defoliate all the trees on a wide area. The chestnut- 
coloured Cockchafer is so distinct from all our other 
native Beetles that it may be identified by means of 
our illustration. The female deposits her eggs below 
the surface of the ground, and the larval life extends 
over from three to five years, according to the climate. 
During this period feeding takes place without inter- 
ruption, except when hard frost drives the insects deep 



PLATE XL 



^%# 










1. Macroglossa stellatariini 

2. Macroglossa fuciformis 

3. Trochiliiim crabroniformis 

4. ZyRcena filipenduljE 

5. Sesia tipuliformis 

6. Inoglobularia 

7 Xiidaria mundana 
8. Calligenia miniata 



9. Calligenia lurideola 

10. Gnophria quadra 

11. Kuclielia jacolxea 

12. Callimorpha dominula 
Vi. Arctia villica 

li Spilo>oma tuliginosa 

15. Nemeophila riissula 

16. Nemeophila plantaginis 

See pai/e 102. 



17. Arctia caia 

IH. Spilo^oma lubricipeda 

I'J. Spilosoma menthabtri 

20 Hepialiis hiimuli 

21. Hepialus luimuli (female) 

22. Hepialus velleda 

23. Hepialus hectus 



BEETLES 181 

into the soil. Eoots of herbage and trees form the 
staple food of the Cockchafer larvae. Rhizotrogus 
solsiitialis is more local, but equally common in some 
districts. Serica hrunnea is a much more uncommon 
Beetle than its near relative, whilst our single repre- 
sentative of the genus HopUa, H. fhilanthus^ is rare in 
most localities. 

EuTELiD^. — As MelolonthidcB, but the abdominal 
spiracles are in two lines. Tarsal claws unequal. 

Little is known concerning the life-histories of the 
Rutelidce. The British June Bug, Phyllopertha horticola, 
is very similar in habit to the Common Cockchafer, and 
like that insect is an annoying garden and farm pest. 
Anomala friscJm is rather less common. The members 
of this family are remarkable for their wide colour 
variations, and afford a striking lesson to the budding 
systematist that but little reliance can be placed on 
colour as a characteristic. 

Dynastid^. — As Rutelidw, but tarsal claws equal and 
front coxae transverse and hardly prominent; head and 
thorax nearly always more or less horned, especially in 
the males. 

This, the smallest, family of the Lamellicorns contains 
some of the largest individuals — in fact, there are no 
Beetles of greater bulk than some of the typical Dynas- 
tids. There are no British representatives of the 
family. The most remarkable feature of these Beetles 
is the curious and often unwieldy outgrowths which 
occur on their heads and prothoraces, especially those 
of the males. All the Dynastid larvae feed upon 
wood, after the manner of Longicorn and Lucanid 
larvae 



182 INSECT LIFE 

The Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, is a for- 
midable and striking-looking insect, black in colour and 
about two inches in length. From his head grows a 
long upwardly curved horn, and from the front of his 
thorax a double-pronged projection. The smaller brown 
South European 0. nasecornis has very similar head 
adornments. The giant of the family is Dynastes 
hercules, a West Indian species with enormous head 
and thoracic appendages. The length of a well-grown 
male often exceeds six inches. 

Cetoniid^. — As Bynastidce, but the front coxae are 
more prominent and shorter transversely; head broad 
and flattened; ten- jointed antennae with a compact 
three- jointed club. 

The most beautiful Lamellicorns are to be found in 
this family. Even the Common British Rose Chafer, 
Cetonia aurata, rivals many tropical Beetles in the 
brilliance of its elytra. It is very destructive to roses. 
Gnorimus nohilis is a less common native species, and 
still less frequently met with is the black, white-spotted 
Oorythyrea stictica. The Rose Chafers are sun-lovers; 
in sunshine they readily take to flight by raising the 
tips of their elytra and so allowing the wings to be 
spread; they never separate their elytra in the usual 
manner. In the genus Trichius this peculiarity is not 
exhibited. These are pubescent Beetles, and one native 
species T.fasciatus, a black insect with orange markings 
on its elytra, frequents thistles. 

One of the most beautiful Cetoniids, if comparison 
can be made among such resplendent insects, is the 
very common West African Cetonia marginata, a velvety- 
black creature margined with orange. From the same 



PLATE XLl 









1¥ ■ 



^^ 9 ^J^ 



7 




30 



31 ^ 



32 



33 



Uropteryx sambucaria 
Rumia luteolata 
AnHCroiia prunaria 
Pericallia bilmiana 
Metrot-ampa marRaritaria 
Crocallis elinguaria 

7. Pliigalia pedaria 

7a Phigalia pedaria (female) 

8. Larentia cjesiata 

9 Kmmelesia albiilata 

10 Larentia didj-mata 

11 Zanosoma punctaria 
12. Amphidasi'S betularia 



Amphidasys strataria 
Acidalia bisetata 
Cheimatobia brumata 
Cheimatobia brumata 

(female) 
Abraxas grossulariata 
Geometra papilionaria 
Cabera piisaria 
Acidalia ornata 
Cleora lichenaria 
Halia vauaria 
Larentia viridaria 
Teplirosia biundularia 

See ixiiie ItiS. 



Bupalus piniaria 
Hybernia margrinaria 
Hybernia marginaria 

(female) 
Eupithecia venosata 
Oparobia dilutata 
Ematurga atomaria 
Eupithecia oblongata 
Hybernia defoliaria 
Eupithecia satyrata 
Acidalia aversata 
Boarmia gemmaria 



BEETLES 183 

country hail the GoHath Beetles, which often measure 
as much as four inches in length. Their heads are 
armed with horns. 

Series 2. Adephaga. 

The families comprising this series form a very 
natural group. The species are all carnivorous; on that 
account the series is sometimes known as Carnivora, a 
title which is obviously misleading. 

CiciNDELiD^. — Eleven- jointed, filiform antennae aris- 
ing above the base of the mandibles; tarsi five-jointed; 
legs long and usually very slender ; eyes prominent. 

The Tiger Beetles are among the most active of the 
Coleoptera ; some of them are powerful fliers, all are 
swift of foot. Bates, describing a South American 
species, said: " Their powers of running exceed anything 
I have ever observed in this style of insect locomotion; 
they run in a serpentine course over the smooth sand, 
and when closely pursued by the hand they are apt to 
turn suddenly back and thus baffle the most practised 
hand and eye.'' All the species are predaceous both 
in the larval and adult stages. 

Most of the Tiger Beetles are resplendent in mail of 
metallic sheen, greens and blues predominating. Four 
species occur in Britain, and our green Tiger Beetle, 
Cicindela camfestris can hold its own mth its tropical 
relatives as far as colour is concerned. The Wood 
Tiger Beetle Cicindela sylvatica is of more sombre hue. 

So far as is known, the larval habits of all the species 
in this family are similar. The female Beetles deposit 
their eggs in the ground. The larvae, when they emerge, 
excavate deep vertical burrows and station themselves 



184 INSECT LIFE 

so that their hard, horny heads cover the mouth of their 
subterranean home. In this position they remain 
motionless till some passing insect comes within reach 
of their powerful jaws; then the victim is seized and 
devoured. All the known larvae are well adapted for 
this mode of life. Their eyes are keen-sighted; their 
relatively enormous heads serve as excellent stoppers to 
their burrows; their slender, distorted bodies are armed 
with a pair of formidable hooks on the back of the fifth 
segment; by the aid of these hooks and the hind end 
of their bodies they can easily remain at the mouth of 
the burrow awaiting passing prey. Tiger Beetles are 
certainly useful in keeping down the numbers of harmful 
insects. 

Carabid^. — Antennae filiform, terminal joints pubes- 
cent, arising from behind the base of the mandibles; 
tarsi five-jointed; legs long and slender. 

The Ground Beetles form one of the largest families 
of Coleoptera, about thirteen thousand species having 
been described. They rival the Tiger Beetles in activity 
and voraciousness, though the majority of British 
species do not take to flight readily. Nearly all species 
are carnivorous both in the larval and adult stages; but, 
unlike the Tiger Beetles, the larvae are active and fleet 
of foot. 

Amongst the Ground Beetles with vegetarian tastes 
there are several species in Britain. Ldbrus gibhus is 
a grain-eater, and its larvae devour roots. Amarafulva 
and^. aulica are common. Most species of the genus 
Har'palus are not wholly carnivorous, and H. ruficornis^ 
H. ceneus, and H. latus may be met with in most gardens, 
probably near the strawberry-beds, for they are partial 



PLATE XLII 




THE LONG-HANDED BEETLE (EUCHIRUS LONG/MANUS), MALE 



PLA.TE XLIII 




HERCULES BEETLE {DVIVASTF.S NERCULES), MALE 



PLATE XLIV 




PLATE XLV 




OOLIATH BEETLE {GOLIATHUS DRURVl), MALE 



PLATE XLVI 




GOLIATH BEETLE {GOLIATHUS GIGANTEUS), MALE 



PLATE XLVII 




GOLIATH BEETLE {GOLIATH US CACICUS), MALE 



PLATE XLVIII 




GIANT TIGER BEETLE {MANTICHORA HERCULEANA) 



PLATE XLIX 




FIDDLE BEETLE (MORMOLYCE PHVLLODES) 



BEETLES 185 

to the ripe fruit, as also are many species of the genus 
Pterostichus, of which we figure P, cwpreus, P. madidus^ 
P. picimanus^ and the wingless P. striola. A volume 
of considerable dimensions could be filled with descrip- 
tions of the wonderful forms and varied habits of 
Ground Beetles. The most ciu'ious members of the 
family are, perhaps, the British species of A'^pus, 
A. marinus and A. rohinii, dwellers by the sea, which 
spend part, at least, of each day below water, yet they 
are not aquatic Beetles. The European and American 
cave-dwelling species of Anophthalmus are remarkable 
in that they are blind. One would imagine this a 
handicap to a free-roving predaceous Beetle, but so 
well are these insects furnished with tactile bristles that 
the loss of sight causes them little inconvenience. 
Maybe, like the Ants, they possess a sense of which we 
are not conscious. Other Carabids haunt the nests of 
Termites, and one species, Glyptus sculftilis^ according 
to Horn, very closely mimics the queen of Termes 
hellicosus. One of the most beautiful Carabids is the 
golden-green Calosoma sycophanta. It is very rare in 
Britain, but common on the Continent. It haunts oak- 
trees and feeds upon the larvse of the Processionary 
Moth. It was introduced into America to control the 
Gipsy Moth. 

The most striking British species undoubtedly belong 
to the genus Carahus ; the Violet Ground Beetle, Carabus 
violaceus, is a beautiful insect and one of our largest 
Beetles. Other species are the copper-coloured C. 
arvensis, the purple C. nemoralis^ and the nearly black 
C. catenulatus. 

A Ground Beetle which always claims attention is the 

24 



186 INSECT LIFE 

curious little Bombardier Beetle, BracJiinus crepitans 
Witli many Carabids it is a common habit to eject a 
caustic liquid as a protection against enemies. The 
Bombardier Beetle performs this feat so rapidly when 
alarmed, and the ejected fluid is so volatile, that a 
slight explosion ensues; hence the popular name of the 
Beetle. The ejection of an evil-smelling acid or alkaline 
fluid is a well-known protective device in the Animal 
Kingdom, from the notorious skunk downwards. 

There is no more puzzhng family for the entomological 
student than the Carabidce. We have figured a large 
number of British species, but, however well executed, 
no figures will serve to identify the Ground Beetles. 
With accurate descriptions and even authentic named 
specimens before one, it is by no means easy to be sure 
of one's ground when attempting to identify some 
species of Ground Beetles. 

PELOBiiDiE. — Antennae not pubescent; hind-legs 
slender, adapted for swimming; tarsi longer than tibiae. 

This small and unimportant family consists of but 
one genus and foiu* species, of which one, Pelohius 
tardus, is British. Its chief claim to our notice lies in 
the peculiar adaptation of the larvae to a purely aquatic 
hfe, and the remarkably loud note which the adults are 
able to sound. 

Dytiscid^. — Antennae fihform and quite naked; legs 
adapted for swimming and useless for walking. 

These true Water Beetles are beautifully adapted for 
an aquatic life. Their legs could not be more perfectly 
contrived for propulsion through the water; their 
method of breathing, while below water, is ingenious 
in the extreme, yet many authorities, including Sharp, 



PLATE L 




Xylophasia monoglypha 
Dipterygia scabriuscula 
Neuronia popularis 
Charaeas trraminis 
IMamestra brassicK 
Apamea basilinea 
Apamea didyma 
Miana fascinuncula 
StUbia anomala 



10, Caradriiia quadripunctata 

Jl. Agrotis suffu^a 

12 Agrotis segetum 

VS. Agrotis exclamatioiiis 

14. Agrotis tritici 

15. Agrotis strigula 

16. Agrotis praecox 

17. Noctiia plecta 

18. Noctua augur 

See pai/e 165. 



19. Noctua C. nigrum 

20. Noctua f estiva 

21. Noctua zantliographa 

22. Triphsena ianthina 

23. Triphsna fimbria 

24. Triphffiiia comes 

25. Panolis piniperda 

26. Triphsena pronuba 

27. Tseniocampa gothica 



BEETLES 187 

consider them to be but modified terrestrial insects, for 
the reason that (1) in general, they are very similar to 
the CarahidcB in their organization, and they drown 
more quickly than the majority of land Beetles; (2) the 
adults can exist perfectly well on land, and are capable 
of taking long flights; (3) so far as is known, the pupse 
are always terrestrial. 

In some species the males and females differ from 
one another considerably; in Acilius sulcatus, for 
instance, the male has smooth elytra, whilst those of 
the female are deeply ridged. Of the hundred or so 
British species, the commonest are Agahus nehulosus 
and A. bipustulatus , Ilyhius fuliginosus, I, ater^ the 
interesting Dytiscus functulatus and D. marginalis. 
The last named, the Margined Water Beetle, is well 
worthy of some study by every nature-lover. Its 
method of carrying a supply of air beneath its well- 
fitting elytra; the suckers on the fore-legs of the male 
by which he is enabled to hold the female during the 
breeding season ; the oviposition of the female ; and the 
curious, predaceous larvae, somewhat reminiscent of 
those of the Dragon-flies, will supply material in abund- 
ance for the enlightenment of the field naturalist. 

Other common pond frequenters of the family are 
Colymhetes fuscus, the sole British representative of the 
genus, and the minute, rust-red Hyphydrus ovatus. 

Series 3. Polymorpha. 

Paussid^. — Antennae usually two but sometimes six 
or ten jointed and of extraordinary form; tarsi five- 
jointed; pygidium exposed. 

These are amongst the most extraordinary of all 



188 INSECT LIFE 

Beetles. Much remains to be learned of their life- 
histories, but, as far as our knowledge extends at 
present, all of them dwell in Ants' nests. As a family, 
they are easily recognized by their remarkable antennae, 
which assume various bizarre forms. Some of them 
eject volatile liquids, after the manner of the Bombardier 
Beetle (p. 186). 

The exact relations of the Paussidce to Ants are 
difficult to determine. " When observed in the nests 
they frequently appear as if asleep, and the Ants do 
not take much notice of them. On other occasions 
the Ants endeavour to drag them into the interior of 
the nest, as if desirous of retaining their company; the 
Paussus then makes no resistance to its hosts; if, how- 
ever, it is touched even very slightly by an observer, 
it immediately bombards. The Ants, as may be 
imagined, do not approve of this, and run away." It 
is thought that the Ants derive some nutriment from 
the Beetle's secretions; it is certain that the latter 
devour the Ants' eggs and larvse. 

Gyrinid^. — Antennae very short; eyes four; mid 
and hind legs adapted for swimming. 

The Whirligig Beetles are as common in our ponds as 
are the Bytiscidce. Their evolutions on the surface of 
the water are always attractive, and they are the best 
adapted of all insects for their peculiar mode of life. 
There are many aquatic insects, a host of terrestrial 
ones, and but few that dwell normally on the surface 
of the water. Our common species is Gyrinus natator, 
sometimes called the " Shiner." When alarmed, its 
surface capers cease and it dives beneath the water, 
where it clings to some water- weed. Soon it rises again 



PLATE LI 






k^^f ^^■ 






r^v?"..»* 



8 




43 ^^ - 

42 ' 46 47 



1 Melanthia bicolorat: 

2 Hypsipetes sordida 

3 Thera obeliseata 

4 Melanippe hastati 

5 Melanippe tiuctuata 

6 Anticlea liadiata 

7 Melanthia ocellata 

8 Melanippe montana 

9 Eucosmia undulata 

10 Cidaria siderata 

11 Eupithecia nanata 

12 Coremia designata 



25 Chesias sparti; 



Cida 



L.ffim 



Anaitis plagiata 
' Eubolia liniitata 
Cidaria populate 
Cidaria fulvata 
lirephns parthenias 
Eurrhypara urticata 



28 Py. 

29 My 



I, .phi 



tyla 



30 Platyptiliagon. 

31 Scoparia diibitalis 

32 Piunea forficalis 

33 Cranibus pratelliis 

34 Pyrausta purpuralis 
33 Hydrocampa stagnata 
36 Carpocapsa pomonella 



37 Torlrix viridana 

38 Aciptilia galactodactyla 

39 Hnnychia octomaculata 

40 Scopula lutealis 

41 Tortrix ribeana 

42 Mixodia Schiilziana 

43 Argyresthia brochella 

44 Dictyoptcryx 

liergmanniana 

45 Gracillaria alcheiiiiella 

46 Elachista argentella 

47 Dasycera sulphurella 



BEETLES 189 

to the surface, for the Whirligig Beetle cannot remain 
submerged for long; lack of air forces it to ascend. 

The larvae are purely aquatic, breathing by means of 
gills, which serve the double purpose of acting as 
breathing organs and as a means of locomotion. They 
are provided with formidable jaws, and are carnivorous. 

There is one British species of the genus Orectockilus , 
but this is a less familiar creature than Gyrinus, for the 
reason that it only performs its aquatic evolutions at 
night. The giants of the family occur in the tropics, 
in Asia and Brazil. 

Hydrophilid^.— Antennae short, consisting of one or 
two elongate joints at the base, two or more small 
intermediate joints, and a terminal part of broader, 
pubescent joints; tarsi five-jointed; abdomen with five 
visible segments. 

This moderately large family of unattractive Beetles 
has been but little studied by entomologists. Some 
of the genera are aquatic, some are terrestrial. Of the 
ninety odd British species, by far the most interesting 
and the best known is the Silver Water Beetle, Hydro- 
fhilus ficeus—with. the exception of the Stag Beetle, 
the largest of the British Coleoptera. " This insect 
breathes in a most peculiar manner; the spiracles are 
placed near bands of delicate pubescence, forming 
tracts that extend the whole length of the body, and 
in this particular species cover most of the under- 
surface of the body; these velvety tracts retain a 
coating of air even when the insect is submerged and 
moves quickly through the water. (This gives the 
Beetle a silvery appearance, from which it has earned 
its popular name.) It would appear rather difficult to 



190 INSECT LIFE 

invent a mechanism to supply these tracts with fresh 
air without the insect leaving the water; but, never- 
theless, such a mechanism is provided by the antennae 
of the Beetle, the terminal joints of which form a 
pubescent scoop, made by some longer hairs into a 
funnel sufficiently large to convey a bubble of air. The 
insect therefore rises to the surface, and by means of 
the antennae, which it exposes to the air, obtains a 
supply with which it surrounds a large part of its body; 
for, according to Miall, it carries a supply on its back, 
under the elytra, as well as on its ventral surface/' 

The female constructs a curious egg-cocOon, shaped 
like a chemist's retort. In this she deposits about fifty 
eggs, attaching them in rows to the side which will 
float uppermost. Then she sets the cocoon free to float 
on the water, with the portion which represents the 
neck of the retort projecting into the air. The larvae 
are aquatic and feed upon animal food; from time to 
time they are compelled to rise to the sm-face for pur- 
poses of respiration. 

Platypsylled^. — Curious parasitic Beetles of which 
little is known. They live amongst the fur of European 
and American beavers. 

Leptinid^. — Another very small and little under- 
stood family of parasitic Beetles. The British Leftinus 
testaceus occurs in the nests of mice and of Bumble 
Bees. The mice probably carry the Beetles from one 
Bee's nest to another. 

SiLPHiDiE. — Antennae usually eleven- jointed (some- 
times with nine or ten joints); elytra may or may not 
cover the body ; usually five abdominal segments visible 
tarsi usually five-jointed, sometimes four-jointed. 



PLATE LII 







25 



1. Mania maura 

2. Mania typica 

3. Taeniorampa incerta 

4. Tsniocampa stabilis 

5. Zantiiia fulvago 
G. Zanthia flavago 

7. Calymnia trapezina 

8. Diantliaecia nana 



9. Dianthtecia capsincola 

10. Polia chi 

11. Miselia oxyacanthce 

12. Agriopis aprilina 

13. Phlogopliora meticulosa 
1-t. Hadena oleracca 

15. Calocampa vetiista 

16. CiicuUia verbasci 

17. Gonoptera libatrix 

See page 105. 



18. Habrostola tripartita 

19. Plusiachrysitis 

20. Plusia gamma 

21. Plusia testuca; 

22. Anarta myrtiUi 

23. F.uclidiagiyphioa 

24. Hypena proboscidalis 

25. Catocala nupta 



BEETLES 191 

This family contains the " Burying" or Sexton 
Beetles {Necrophorus) and the Roving Carrion Beetles 
{SilfJia); about a hundred species are known in Britain. 

Of the Burying Beetles the best known are Necro- 
phorus ruspator, N. vespillo, N. mortuorum, and, com- 
monest of all, N. humator, the Black Burying Beetle. 
All of them, as a glance at the figures will show, are 
brightly clad, except for the funereal-looking humator. 
They live upon carrion, and a dead bird or mouse 
attracts them from afar, just as larger carrion attracts 
vultures. Having found their prize, they assiduously 
remove the earth from below it, so that in an incredibly 
short time the carcass falls into the Beetle-made grave. 
Once buried, the carcass forms the home of the Beetle 
eggs, and, later, home and food for the larvse. 

Necrodes littoralis is another native member of the 
family. Silpha atrata and S. Iwvigata are sworn enemies 
of Snails, though not averse to carrion when other food 
is lacking. S. thoracica seems partial to dead nestlings, 
and is frequently found in birds' nests. S. sinuata and, 
commonest of all British species, S. rugosa feed on 
carrion. The four-spotted Carrion Beetle, S. quadri- 
punctata, is badly named, for instead of carrion it feeds 
upon insect larvae. Most curious of all, however, is 
S. opaca, which so far forgets its obHgations as a Roving 
Carrion Beetle as to feed entirely upon beet and similar 
crops, to which it is a very serious pest. 

The family contains several foreign species which 
dwell in Ants' nests, and some cave-dwelling species 
which are bhnd, but little is known of their life- 
histories. 

PsELAPHiD^. — Minute Beetles with short elytra; 



192 INSECT LIFE 

segments of the abdomen scarcely mobile; tarsi three 
jointed. 

Claviger testaceus appears to be a welcome visitor to 
Ants' nests. It is fed by the owners as they feed their 
own larvae, and transported by them from place to 
place. 

Staphylinid^. — Easily recognized by their short 
elytra and their elongated, exposed and mobile abdo- 
mens. Tarsi variable, sometimes five- jointed, some- 
times only three, and not always the same on all feet. 

The Eove Beetles are an enormous family, and in 
Britain alone there are more than eight hundred species. 
They vary greatly in size ; some of them are exceedingly 
minute, and our *' Devil's Coach Horse," Ocypus olens, 
ranks with the largest. 

The most interesting point in the life-histories of 
certain species of Eove Beetles consists in their habit 
of living in the nests of other insects. Atmeles and 
Lomechusa are obviously on good terms with the Ants 
among which they dwell. Some species of Myrmedonia 
are looked upon as unwelcome guests by Ants; there 
are species, again, which dwell in Termites' nests, and 
one species, Velleius dilatatus, whose only residence is 
the nests of Wasps and Hornets. From the host of our 
British species we figure no less than nineteen; but the 
entomologist bent on identification should supplement 
the figures with descriptions, if he would not be led 
astray. 

HisTERiDiE. — Neat, jet-black, shining Beetles; an- 
tennae short, bent, and clubbed; elytra hard and trun- 
cated, leaving two dorsal abdominal segments exposed; 
five ventral segments are visible. 



PLATE LIII 







1 Silpha thoracica 

2 Silpha r.igosa 
3. Silpha atrata 

i Hister unicolor 

5. Hister cadaverinus 

Anatis ocellata 

(F.yed Lady-bird I 
7. Coccinella 7-pimctata 

<,7-spot Lady-bird; 



Ips quadriguttata 
Tenebrioides mauritanicii 
Mycetophajjiis 4-pustiilatii 
Dermestes lardarius 

( Bacon Beetle) 
Byrrhiis pilula (Pill Beetle 
Lucanus cervus 

(Stag B-etle) 
Dorcus paralielopipedu'; 

(Small Stag Beetle: 
See iKiiic ISO 



In Sinodendron cylindricum 

16 Onthophagus fracticornis 

17. Aphodius fossor 

IS Aphodius fimetarius 

19 Aphodius riifipes 

2(1. deotrupes spiniger 

21. deotrupes stercorarius 

22. Geotrupes sylvaticus 



BEETLES 193 

The members of this family have been named Mimic 
Beetles, but the term is not a happy one, although 
derived from their scientific name — histrio meaning an 
actor or mimic. The origin of the name probably arises 
from their habit of feigning death, with heads retracted 
and all appendages drawn closely to their bodies. 

Of the forty British species, we figure Hister unicolor 
and H. cadaverinus, both predaceous on the larvae 
of Diftera and common in excrement. Another com- 
mon species, H. bimaculatus, has a brilhant red spot 
near the tip of each elytron. Some of these Beetles, 
of the genus Hololepta, live under bark, and they have 
curious flattened forms, well adapted to their mode of 
life. There are species, too, which dwell in Ants' nests, 
and some which live with Termites. 

NrriDULiDiE. — Small Beetles with eleven- jointed 
antennae, the last three forming a club; tarsi five- 
jointed, the fourth joint being smaller than the rest; 
elytra may or may not cover the body. 

These Beetles are of varied habit; nearly a hundred 
species are known in Britain; some live in flowers, some 
on carrion, and others on the sap of trees. Many of 
them have some resemblance to Rove Beetles, but they 
can be distinguished at once by the structure of their 
antennae. 

Meligethes ceneus, the Turnip Blossom Beetle, is 
common on the flowers of Crucifers, which it often 
damages to such an extent as to prevent the formation 
of seed. Pria dulcamercB lives in the flowers of Solanum 
dulcamem. Nitidula bipustulata, a small dull-black 
insect with a red spot on each elytron, is common on 
carrion. Ips quadriguttata is one of the sap-frequenting 

25 



194 INSECT LIFE 

species, and in common with others of the genus is remark- 
able in possessing sound organs on the front of its head. 

Trogositid^. — Closely related to the Nitidulidce, 
from which they differ by having tarsi of apparently 
four joints; in reahty they are five-jointed, with the 
first joint very minute. 

Of the three British species of this family, none are 
so well known as the imported Saw-Toothed Grain 
Beetle, Tenebrioides mauritanicus , which is now common 
everywhere. Whether it does more harm than good is 
a moot point; it certainly devours the larvse of a number 
of grain-eating insects, but it also devours a consider- 
able quantity of grain. 

Cryptophagid^. — Minute Beetles with the terminal 
joints of the antennae swollen; five-jointed tarsi; five 
ventral abdominal segments visible, of which the first 
is much longer than any of the others. 

A small and little understood family, whose chief 
interest lies in the fact that the larvse of some species 
dwell in Bees' nests, and that the adults, although good 
fliers, are transported thereto by attaching themselves 
to the Bees when they visit flowers. Other genera are 
dwellers in Wasps' nests. 

Mycetophagid^. — Five ventral abdominal segments 
visible; tarsi four-jointed, except in the front legs of the 
male, when there are only three. 

These Fungus Beetles are of little interest, except for 
the unusual anatomical character of the male described 
above. They mostly live either in fungi or below the 
bark of trees. There are about a dozen British species, 
of which Litargus bifasciatus and Mycetophagus quadri- 
fustulatus are amongst the commonest. 



PLATE LIV 





I I I I 



'^ '^ 16 17 18 19 ^' 

,4 ^^ 20 



Gnorimiis nobilis 
Melolontlia vuli^aris 
Cetonia aiirata 
Hopl'ia pliilanthus 
Anomala frischii 
Agrilus aiigiistaUis 
Serica brunnea 



Phyllopertlia horticola 
Athous licemorrhoidalis 
Corymbites tesselatus 
Lacon muriiuis 
Corymbites pectinicornis 
Corymbites Kiieus 
Melanotus riifipes 
See poj/e ISO. 



\frriotes obscurus 
0. Athous niger 

7. Dascillus cervinus 

8. Elater sanguinolentus 

9. Corymbites liolosericeus 
20. Campylus linearis 



PLATE LV 



I 







1. Amaurodes passerini 
4 Eccoptocnemis reliicens 
7. Neptunides polychrous 



2. Dicranocephalus wallich 

5. Cheirolasia histrio 

8. Coelorrliina polyphemus 

12. Ranzania petersiana 
15. F.udicella gralli 
See pane 1H3. 



3. Ceratorrhina oberthuri 
6. Coryphocera dohrni 
9. Smaragrdesthes certzeni 
10. Tlieodosia telifer 
13. Lomaptera jamesi 
16. Megalorrhina pereerrina 



BEETLES 195 

CocciNELLiD^.— Antennae eleven- jointed with ill- 
developed clubs; head almost covered by the thorax; 
tarsi four-jointed, the third and fourth joints being very 
minute; nearly hemispherical in outHne. 

Ladybirds are familiar everywhere and to everyone. 
We have more than forty species in Britain, and the 
family is well represented the world over. In the main 
Ladybirds are useful insects, for most species are 
predaceous upon Aphides and other soft-bodied insects, 
both in the adult and in the larval states Ladybirds 
of the genus Efilachia are vegetarians, and are there- 
fore harmful when they appear in numbers, as these 
Beetles are liable to do. 

Amongst the commonest British species are the 
Seven-Spotted Ladybird, Coccinella 7 -punctata ; the 
Two-Spotted Ladybird, Coccinella hi-punctata ; the Ten- 
Spotted Ladybird, Coccinella 10-punctata, and the 
Thirteen-Spotted Ladybird, Hippodamia IS-punctata. 
There is always a difficulty in identifying these Beetles, 
by reason of the fact that the number of the spots on 
the specimen does not always correspond to the number 
one might expect to find. The reason is that the spots 
are very often fused, sometimes to such an extent that 
the insect is almost black. Anatis ocellata, which we 
figure, is a rare Ladybird in Britain. 

The female Ladybirds, of the species named above 
at any rate, deposit their eggs upon the leaves of rose- 
bushes and the like, which are attacked by Aphides. 
The larvae, unlike those of tlie majority of Beetles, are 
very active and crawl about rapidly, devouring an 
enormous quantity of prey during tneir rambles. Pupa- 
tion is quite unlike that of other Beetles, and more akin 



196 INSECT LIFE 

to tlie same phenomenon in Lefidoftera. Tlie fully 
fed larva attaches itself to a support by its tail; its 
skin splits, and is pushed back to the tail end; the 
pupa remains suspended, after the manner of a Butterfly 
larva. 

One Ladybird has been of real service to mankind, 
the little Australian, Novius cardinalis. Some years 
ago the orange and lemon groves of California were 
threatened with destruction by the Cottony Cushion 
Scale, Icerya 'purchasi. Means were taken to find out 
whence this noxious Scale originated, and it was traced 
to Australia. In its native country it was not a serious 
pest, for the reason that it was kept in check by a little 
red Ladybird. The Beetles were shipped to America 
and released amongst the Scale insects in the Cali- 
fornian orange groves, with the happiest results, and 
the Cottony Cushion Scale is no longer a serious pest 
in America. Large breeding establishments have been 
formed where the Beetles are raised in quantity, and 
whenever an outbreak of the Scale threatens, the insects 
are sent to the scene, in order that they may carry out 
their good work. 

Dermestid^. — Antennae short, with well-developed 
clubs; tarsi five-jointed; five visible, movable, ventral 
abdominal segments. 

These are moderate-sized or small sombre-hued 
Beetles, many of them pubescent or bearing bands or 
patches of hair. Owing to the fact that nearly all of 
them find their sustenance on hides, furs, museum 
specimens, skins, cheese, bacon, and the like, they are 
known as " Leather '* or sometimes as " Bacon '* 
Beetles. There are fourteen species in Britain, and the 



BEETLES 197 

Bacon Beetle, Dermestes lardarius, is perhaps the com- 
monest species. As our figure shows, there is a broad 
whitish or yellowish pubescent band across both elytra, 
and six black spots, three on each elytron, make the 
Beetle easy to identify. Aitagenus fellio is destructive 
to furs; poor food for a Beetle, one would think, but 
some of these insects have been raised upon such 
uninteresting fare as horsehair, and all of them 
can survive for long periods without any food 
at all. 

Bykrhid^. — ^Round or oval Beetles; convex; tarsi 
five-jointed. 

The Pill Beetles are of little interest, and hardly 
anything is known of their life-histories. They are 
slow-moving insects, and, when alarmed, they draw 
their legs close to their bodies, retracting their heads 
at the same time. This habit has earned them their 
popular name. Our common Pill Beetle, Byrrhus 
pilula, is figured. 

BosTRYCHiD^. — Tarsi five-jointed, the first being 
very small; five visible, ventral abdominal segments; 
sides of elytra parallel. 

These Beetles are, with one exception, black or brown 
in colour, and their elytra are beautifully and charac- 
teristically sculptured. The ends of the elytra also are 
frequently peculiarly shaped, so that they have a curious 
truncated appearance. On these apical portions there 
are frequently spines. 

In size the Bostrychids vary from the large Californian 
species, which attain a length of fully two inches, down 
to microscopic specimens. All of them are wood- 
borers, and some are capable of doing a considerable 



198 INSECT LIFE 

amount of damage. For the most part, they are 
tropical or subtropical insects. 

Ptinidje. — Tarsi five-jointed, the first joint often 
longer than the second; antennae serrate; five visible, 
ventral abdominal segments. 

These Beetles are almost all of them harmful, either 
because they devour food or because they damage 
wood. 

The family is divided into two subfamilies, the 
Ptinidce and the Anobiidce. Of the former the best- 
known species is Ptinus fur, an inveterate enemy of 
museum specimens and all dried animal matter. The 
Anobiidce, as represented by Anohium paniceum, are 
little better. This common Beetle is very catholic in 
its tastes; opium, cinnamon, ginger, biscuits, and even 
cayenne pepper, do not come amiss. It is often called 
the Biscuit Weevil, though, needless to say, it is not 
a Weevil. 

Anohium striatum, Xestohium domesticum, and X. 
tessellatum, are only too well known in many of our 
houses, and are the origin of so-called " worm-eaten " 
wood. The latter is the insect which has wrought so 
much havoc in the beams of Westminster Abbey. 

The wood-boring Ptinids are known as " Death 
Watches,"' and are associated with much superstition. 
By beating their heads upon the walls of their tunnels, 
these insects are enabled to make a loud and inter- 
mittent ticking noise, which is said to presage death. 
As a matter of fact, the ticks are merely sex signals 
from one Beetle to another. The Beetle gives a definite 
number of taps, followed by a pause, and then repeats 
the performance. A captive " Death Watch " makes 



PLATE LVI 



f f * t 




J f ¥ 



I 




* 




I * 



1. Oxychila florida 

5. Tricondyla aptera 

9. Cicindela sp. 

13. Cicindela sp. 



A GROUP OF TIGER BEETLES 
2. Oxychila g-loriola 3. Pseudoxychila tarsalis 4. Tetracha Carolina 

6. Therates labiatus 7. Cicindela sp. 8. Cicindela chinensis 

10. Cicindela sp. 11. Cicindela sp. 12. Therates whitehead! 

14. Tetracha australasicE 15. CoUyris sp. IG. Cicindela sp. 

See paffe 1S3. 



BEETLES 199 

an interesting specimen. By tapping with a pencil or 
other object outside the box in which the Beetle is 
confined the insect will answer the taps, but only 
when the same number of taps is given as is usual 
with the Beetle. For instance, some of these Beetles 
give five taps and a pause; a signal to the Beetle con- 
sisting of ten taps would not be answered; a five-tap 
signal would receive an immediate reply. 

Malacojdermid^. — Tarsi five- jointed; always seven, 
and sometimes eight, visible, ventral abdominal seg- 
ments; leathery elytra. 

As the scientific name of this family indicates, these 
Beetles are covered with soft skins; the horny elytra 
of almost all the other families are wanting in the 
Malacodermidce. The most interesting species of the 
family belong to the Lampyrides, for the reason that 
they are luminous. In some species the males are the 
more luminous, in other cases the reverse is the case. 
With our common Glow- Worm, Lampyris noctiluca, 
every stage from egg to adult is luminous, and the 
females are more so than the males. 

Our figure shows clearly the striking difference between 
the sexes. The female is so unlike the commonly 
accepted notion of a Beetle that to her has been given 
the name of Worm. So far as is known, the adults do 
not feed; the larvae are carnivorous, and feed upon 
living or dead Mollusca. 

Other species of this family, belonging to the genus 
TelepJiorus, are very common upon wayside flowers in 
the summer-time. Frequently they appear in con- 
siderable numbers; the larvse of all these species are 
carnivorous and feed upon Earth- Worms, Snails, Slugs, 



200 INSECT LIFE 

etc. Our common species are T. 'pellucidus, T. Uvidus, 
and T. rusticus, all of wliicli we figure. 

Species of tlie genus Lyciis, wliicli hail largely from 
Africa, are curious yellow and black insects with almost 
leaf -like elytra. Though the genus cannot be mistaken 
for any other, the species are frequently so much alike 
that they are very difficult to separate. 

Clerid^. — Tarsi five-jointed, joints two to four, 
furnished with membranous pads; antennse arise from 
before the eyes; five or six visible, mobile, ventral 
abdominal segments. 

These Beetles are nearly all conspicuously marked; all 
are predaceous, and their larvae are exceedingly active. 

Among the commoner British species are Necrohia 
rufipes and N. ruficollis ; the former has been carried 
from one part of the world to another in hides, skins, 
etc., so that now it is practically cosmopolitan, whilst 
the larvae of the latter have acquired the curious habit 
of pupating within the puparia of Biftera. 

Thanasimus formicarius , a Clerid bearing more or less 
of a likeness to an Ant, as our figure shows, preys upon 
Beetle larvse, mainly those with wood-boring tendencies, 
Clerids of the genus Trichodes are predaceous on Bee 
larvse: T. apiarius on those of Honey Bees, and T. 
alvearius on those of Mason Bees. Other species are 
enemies of Locusts, and one of the most useful British 
members of the family is the beautiful metallic blue 
Corynetes coendeus, an inveterate enemy of the wood- 
boring *' Death Watches." 

Dascillld^. — Eleven- jointed antennae, rising from 
the front of the eyes; tarsi five-jointed; five visible, 
ventral abdominal segments; elytra somewhat delicate. 



PLATE LVII 



♦ I -* t 





« * I 1 1 




13 ^ ^"^ 15 V 



f t I « t 



19 20 



1. Dichirotrichus pubescens 8. Pterostichiis striola IJ. Zabrus gibbus 

2 Harpalus ceneiis 9. Pteropticluis madidiis 16. Ap-ibiis nebulosiis 

3. Harpaliis nificornis 10. Amara aulica 17. Ilybius fuliginosiis 

4. Harpahis latiis 11. Bracliinus crepitans IS. Aiiclumienus angu>ticollis 

5. Anisodactylus binotatus 12. Calathus ci.iteloides 19. Ilybiiis ater 

6. Amara fiilva 13. Pristonycluis terricola 20. Agabus bipustiilatus 

7. Pterostichus picimanus li. Pterostichus rupreus 

See page 184. 



BEETLES 201 

These little Beetles are not favourites with ento- 
mologists, and as a consequence but little is known of 
their habits and life-histories. Some of the larvae are 
aquatic, some live on fungi, and those of our common 
species, Dascillus cervinus, live underground and feed 
on roots. Of another British species, Eydrocyphon 
deflexicollis, it is said that the adults live upon shrubs 
overhanging streams, and that, when alarmed, they 
dive below the water. 

Elaterid^. — Antennae eleven-jointed, usually serrate 
on the inner margin, sometimes pectinate, and rarely 
filiform; tarsi five-jointed; the hind-angles of the thorax 
usually prolonged backwards; five visible, ventral 
abdominal segments. 

The members of this family are commonly known 
as Click Beetles, on account of the very curious habit, 
possessed by most of them, of jumping into the air with 
a click. These jumping Beetles bend themselves back- 
wards, so that the forward part of their heads and the 
hindermost part of their bodies alone touch the ground ; 
then, suddenly straightening themselves, they spring 
upwards. The leaping powers of these Beetles vary 
with the species; the common British Lacon murinus 
does not jump. 

Of our other native species we figure the Black and 
the Keddish Skipjacks, Athoiis niger and A. hcemor- 
rhoidalis respectively; the black pubescent Melanotus 
rufifes ; the beautiful, though rare, Elater sanguino- 
lentus ; and, most notorious of all, the Common Chck 
Beetle, Agriotes obscurus, whose larvae are known as 
** Wireworms/' These larvae are most injurious to the 
roots of growing crops. They are elongated, pale- 

26 



202 



INSECT LIFE 



yellow, six-legged creatures, and they spend all their 
time beneath the surface of the soil. 

There is a remarkable genus of Elaters which hails 
from tropical America. All the species of the genus 
Pyrofliorus so far described are luminous, but 
P. noctilucus is the best-known species. This insect, 
commonly known as the Firefly, bears a luminous 
patch on either side of the thorax, and another on the 
ventral surface of the abdomen. " The light given off 




mi.///. 7. 2. a -fe 

Fia. 11. — An Elater (Skipjack). 
At 1, lying on its back; at 2 and 3, in the act of skipping, and thereb}', as 



shown in 4, landing upon its legs, 
segment (prothorax). 



D, Spine of the first thoracic 



by these insects is extremely pleasing, and is used by 
the natives on nocturnal excursions and by the women 
for ornaments. . . . The light is said to be the most 
economical, all the energy that is used being converted 
into light, without any waste by the function of heat 
or chemical rays." 

BuPRESTrD.ffi. — Antennae short, serrate, and eleven- 
jointed; tarsi five-jointed, the first five joints with 
membranous pads; abdomen with five visible, ventral 
segments; eyes oval. 



PLATE LVIII 




1 Fanagaeus -t-pustulatus 

2. Cicindela campestris 

;i. Cicindela sylvatica 

i. Leistus spinibarbis 

5. Carabus catenulatus 



U Carabus iiemoraiis 

7. Carabus vioiaceus 

8. Clivinia fossor 

9. Carabus arvensis 

10. Notiopbilus big-\ittatus 
Sfe jiage l.s'o. 



C y( hrus rostratus 
Nebria brevicoilis 
3. Mlaphrus riparius 
■1 Broscus cephalotes 
5. Badister bipustulatus 



BEETLES 203 

These Beetles are remarkable for their brilliant 
colouring, metallic blues and greens predominating, 
though the species of the genus Capnodis are dull black. 

Sternocera is a genus containing some remarkably 
ornate species, including S. castanea, with black head 
and thorax, the latter studded with red, and rich brown 
elytra. 

The largest Buprestids are the Catoxanthas. C. hicolor 
is bright metaUic green, with a red spot on each elytron; 
C. opulenta, a very similar insect, with white instead of 
red spots. Julodis contains the most curious species, 
all of them ornamented with brightly coloured hirsute 
tufts on their thoraces and elytra. J. cirrosa is black 
with yellow tufts of hair. 

All of the ten British species are small and uncommon; 
Agrilus migustulus reflects little of the glory of his 
exotic relatives. In America the Red-Necked Cane- 
Borer, Agrilus ruficollis, is a considerable pest of black- 
berries and raspberries, whilst Agrilus politus attacks 
oak-trees, killing off the smaller branches. 

Series i. Heteromera. 

TenebrioniDuE. — Antennae eleven- jointed as a rule; 
front coxae short; tarsal claws smooth. 

These Beetles are nearly all black in colour; they 
form an enormous family, one of the largest of the 
Coleoptera, but few species are native to Britain. 

In form the Tenebrionidce are very variable; many 
of them are wingless, and most of them appear to feed 
upon vegetable matter. 

One of our commonest native species is Tenehrio 
molitor, whose larvae, known as " Mealworms," bear a 



204 INSECT LIFE 

striking resemblance to " Wire worms " — in fact, the 
similarity in general structure between the larvse of 
this family and those of the ElateridcB is remarkable. 
*' Mealworms " are of considerable economic importance. 
They are bred in millions as food for insectivorous 
birds, and sold to zoological gardens and private avi- 
culturists. As with several more important commodi- 
ties we in this country had relied altogether on foreign 
supplies, so that shortly after August, 1914, our stock 
ran out. Efforts were made to breed Mealworms in 
Britain, but we apparently did not know the secret of 
breeding the insects in large quantities, and the attempts 
were unsuccessful. 

Frequently in our cellars we meet with a black, 
funereal-looking Beetle, whose form is well shown in 
our figure. This insect is the well-known Churchyard 
Beetle, Blafs mucronata. If we are lucky we shall 
come across its much rarer relative, the Cellar Beetle, 
B. mortisuga. Many of these insects are very fleet of 
foot, and may be found running rapidly over the ground 
in dry, sandy places. One of the commonest of our 
sand-loving Tenebrionids is Heliofathes gibbus, but the 
species of this habit reach their greatest pitch of de- 
velopment in Africa, Central America, and the Western 
States of North America. The genus Strongylium 
contains some brilliantly coloured species. 

CiSTELiD^. — Claws comb-like, other characters as 
TenebrionidcB. 

This family is only mentioned because it is very 
closely allied to the last one, and by their claws alone 
is it possible to separate individuals of the two families. 
Their larvae also are very similar. 



PLATE LIX 




♦ Iff 

10 1, ' 12 \ 13 



14 



1. Dytiscns punctulatus 

(female! 

2. Aciliiis sulcatiis .female) 

3. Dytiscus marginalis (male) 

4. Aleochara fuscipes 



5. Tacliinus liumeralis 

6. CTeo,philu> maxillosiis 

7. Hydrophilus piceus 

8. Staphylinus pubescens 

9. Gyrinus natator 

See paije ISd. 



10. Leistotroplms miiriniis 

11. Leistotrophus iiclmlosus 

12. Colymbetes fufciis 

1.'}. Staphylinus erythropterus 
14. Staphylinus Ci-psareus 



BEETLES 205 

MELOiDiE. — Heads relatively broad, with abrupt 
necks; elytra short and soft; tarsal claws with closely 
applied appendages. 

The family is divided into two subfamilies, the 
wingless Oil Beetles (Meloides), and the winged Blister 
Beetles (Cantharides). They are easily recognized by 
the characters given above, and they yield to no other 
family in point of interest, mainly on account of the 
extraordinary metamorphosis of many species. The 
early life of one of these parasitic Beetles is fully 
described elsewhere (p. 21). Some larvfe, however, 
notably those of the genus Epicauta, do not trust to 
such happy-go-lucky methods as are usual with the Oil 
Beetles, but hunt their hosts, and thus make sure of 
attaining their ends. 

Many species of Blister Beetles are brilliantly coloured, 
yellows or reds and blacks predominating in the colour 
scheme ; others are of metalHc green or blue shades ; yet 
others are black with neat white stripes. All of them 
are amply protected, though conspicuous, by reason of 
the fact that they emit a powerful vesicant when 
disturbed. 

The common British Oil Beetles, Meloe proscara- 
bcBus, and the Violet Oil Beetle, M. violaceus, are 
famihar objects in the spring. The females especially 
are easily recognized, with their much-distended bodies, 
heavily laden with eggs. Each mother Beetle lays 
approximately ten thousand eggs in a season. Immense 
as this figure may appear, it is by no means inordinate 
when the numerous risks which must be overcome 
before the adult stage is reached are taken into con- 
sideration. 



206 INSECT LIFE 

Series 5. Phytophaga. 

The members of this series are easily recognized if it 
be borne in mind that " the tarsi have never the 
Heteromerous formula, the head is not constructed like 
that of Rhynchofhora^nov the mouth and feet like those 
of Adepkaga ; the antennae are different from those of 
the Lamellicorus." Practically all of them are vegetable- 
feeders; hence the name of the series. 

Bruchid^. — Presternum very short, perpendicular 
in front; hind-femora more or less thickened. 

AH the members of this family are seed-eaters; 
accordingly, many of them are looked upon as pests 
by farmers. Another result of this seed-eating habit 
is that many species have become so distributed over 
the world as to be practically cosmopolitan. Bruchus 
chinensis is a case in point. Hailing originally from 
Eastern Asia, this chestnut-brown Beetle is now found 
the world over, and in quantities too. 

The Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisi, deposits its eggs on 
pea-pods; the larvae tunnel in the pods till they reach 
the ripening peas. In the seeds they take up their 
residence, one in each seed; there they complete their 
larval growth and pupate. Bruchus oUectus is a com- 
mon bean pest which continues to breed amongst and 
feed on stored beans. Bruchus lentis, another pest of 
pulse, cannot complete its development in one seed, 
but requires two for the purpose. The largest members 
of this family belong to the South American genus 
Caryohorus. The family, though one of the most 
important economically, has been little studied by 
entomologists. But little reliable literature exists on 



PLATE LX 




1. Philoiitluis aeneus 

2. Ocypus morio 

3. Ocypus olens 

4. Ocypus cupreus 

5. Quedius lateralis 

6. Xantholinus jrlabratus 



I.athrobium elongatun 
Oxyporus rufiis 
I.atlirobium horeale 
Quedius picipes 
Olophrum piceuni 
\'ecrodes littoralis 
Necrophorus humator 
See pa ye lUl. 



14. Necrophorus niortuorui 

15. Siipha Itevifrator 

16. Necrophorus vespillo 

17. Siipha quadripunctata 

18. Necrophorus ruspator 

19. Siipha simiata 



BEETLES 207 

the BnichidcB, and their study is by no means easy. 
Owing to the fact that nearly all of these Beetles are 
clothed with a very transient pubescence, their identifi- 
cation, in the absence of well-marked characters, is 
rendered still more difficult. 

DoNACiD^. — Antennae slender; head narrowed behind 
the eyes; square thorax, much narrower than the 
elytra. 

These Beetles are interesting on account of the fact 
that they are aquatic in the larval stage. None of them 
are common in Britain, but the most likely species to 
be met with are Donacia cr assises and D. semicuprea. 
Still more curious are the members of the genus 
Hwmonia, which are aquatic in all stages; H. curtisi 
is a very rare British species. 

The extraordinary feature of Donacia larvae is not 
that they dwell below the surface of the water, feeding 
upon the roots of aquatic plants, but that they derive 
the air necessary for their well-being from the plants 
on which they feed. The roots and stems of all aquatic 
plants are well provided with air-channels, a fact of 
which the larvae are evidently well aware, for they 
puncture the plant tissues in order to tap the air- 
supply. When fully fed, they construct cocoons, 
which they affix to their food-plants. These cocoons 
are filled with air, for the larvae before pupating take 
the precaution of cutting a channel in the supporting 
plant in such a manner that an air-channel and the 
interior of the watertight cocoon are in communication. 
Sagrid^.— An unimportant but highly ornamental 
family. These Beetles are dazzHng in their splendour, 
competing even with the Bufrestidce in the brilliance 



208 INSECT LIFE 

of their metallic colouring. The only species of any- 
economic importance is Sagria splendida , which damages 
the stems of sweet potatoes. S. serapkica is a dazzhng 
violet-blue West African species, and the Javan S. 
huqueti, the largest species of the family, is emerald- 
green with a red suture to its elytra. 

Criocerid^. — Closely allied to the two preceding 
species; mandibles bifid at the tip. 

The larvae of many species of this family are remark- 
able in that the anus is dorsal instead of ventral or 
terminal. As a result the voided excrement is forced 
on to the creature's back, where it is retained by a 
viscid substance, to act as a protection. This curious 
method of self-preservation may be well studied in the 
larvae of Crioceris merdigera, a common pest of lilies. 

The most notorious member of the family is the 
Asparagus Beetle, Crioceris asparagi. The adults are 
conspicuously marked red and black insects, with four 
whitish dots on the elytra, so arranged that they form 
a cross. The females lay curious black, barrel-shaped 
eggs, in rows, on the asparagus heads. These eggs, 
projecting at right angles to the surface of the stem, 
are all too familiar objects. The larvae, which have 
not the habits of self -protection mentioned above, feed 
voraciously on the asparagus and ruin it for market 
purposes. 

Clythrid^. — Antennae serrated; eyes large; thorax 
short and, at the base, as broad as the elytra. Broad, 
oblong, parallel-sided Beetles. 

The species of this family are nearly all yellow and 
black in colour. There is only one British species, 
Clythra quadripunctata . 



PLATE LXI 



If 9 M 





IT 1 1 

' I I ^ " 

\ I 9 10 



M 



I 





A GROUP OF CLICK BEETLES 
le plate is designed to sliow the remarkable variety of form and colour in the far 
No. 9 is the so-called Fire-fly. 
See pape 201. 



BEETLES 209 

The most remarkable fact about these Beetles is 
that the females, when depositing an egg, hold it with 
their hind-legs till they have covered it with an en- 
velope of excrement. This envelope becomes leathery, 
and forms a case for the larva, in which it dwells, 
enlarging it from time to time, during the whole of 
its life. 

Cryptocephalid^. — Long thread-like antennae; ely- 
tra usually covering the abdomen. 

These are small Beetles which frequent flowers. 
Many of them are brilliantly coloured, and blacks, 
greens, blues, violets, reds, yellows, and metallic copper 
shades predominate. A by no means uncommon 
British species, Cryftocefhalus sericeus, is yellowish- 
green in colour. 

EuMOLPiD^. — Oval bodies; thorax only slightly nar- 
rower than the bases of the elytra; antennsG long, with 
terminal joints larger than those at the base. 

Another family whose species are resplendent in 
brilliant metallic armour. There are few European 
species; one of them, however, Adoxus vitis, a black 
insect with reddish tibiae and antennae, is a serious vine 
pest. The South American Eumolpus fulgidus is a 
beautiful Beetle ; its colours vary from brilliant metalHc 
blue to green, and in some lights it reflects a warm 
copper-red hue. 

Chrysomelid^. — Terminal joints of antennae barely 
longer than the others; head separated from thorax; 
elytra convex, oval, and entirely covering the body. 

The Chrysomelidce are a numerous family and contain 
some injurious species. They are often referred to as 
Leaf Beetles, and sometimes as Golden Apple Beetles. 

27 



210 INSECT LIFE 

Of the British species we figure Chrysomela nmrgiimlis 
and C. stafhylea. A more beautiful, but very rare, 
native Leaf Beetle is C. cerealis. It is brilliant golden- 
green, with a purple lustre; its thorax and each elytron 
are decorated with three deep blue bands, and its 
suture is of the same colour. It is one of the most 
ornate of a gaudy family. 

As an example of the varied hues of the Chrysomelas, 
Kirby says: " C hanJcsii is bronzy green; C. Umhata is 
black with a red border; C. rufa is pale brownish-red. 
C. goettingensis is dark violet, and C. scJiach is blue- 
black."' The tropical American genus Doryophora in- 
cludes some beautiful species. D. punctatissima , a large 
species, has a black head and thorax, and its pale 
yellow elytra are studded with small black spots. The 
most sombre species belong to the genus Timarcha, of 
which we figure the curious Bloody-Nosed Beetle, 
T. tenehricosa , so named on account of its similarity to 
some of the Tenebrionids. It is the largest European 
Chrysomelid, sluggish and wingless, and when touched 
it emits a blood-red fluid; hence its popular name. 
The North African T. turbida is a very similar insect. 
By far the most notorious of all the family is the dreaded 
Colorado Beetle, Leftinotarsa decemlineata. Originally 
finding its nourishment on wild SolenacecB in the Rocky 
Mountains, it later took to evil ways and became a 
very serious pest of potatoes. Though introduced into 
this country from time to time, it has always been 
eradicated before it could do serious damage. 

IlALTiciDiE. — Long cylindrical antennae inserted close 
together between the eyes; hind-legs longer than the 
others and with thickened femora. 



PLATE LXII 




1. Cyphogastra javanica 6. Sternocera orissa 12. CatONantha bicolnr 

2. CoiioKnatha practiossissinia 7. Sternocera pulclira j:i l l;ryi^ocl.rl)a buqueti 

3. Euchroma goliatli S. Chrysochroa fulmiiians 11, Julocis cirrosa 

4. Belionota snmptuosa !). (latoxantha opulenta l-^ I'liiloctcanus niaitlamli 

5. Sternocera eschscholzi 10. Jnlodis sp. l(i Dupre^tis gigantca 

11. Chrysochroa vittata 
See iinne 20'3. 



BEETLES 211 

Minute Beetles, usually of bronzy blue or black 
colour. They are agile jumpers, and on that account 
are usually known as Flea Beetles, Turnip Fleas, or 
even as Turnip Flies. There is no need to labour the 
point that the term " Fly " is a misnomer. The species 
of the two common genera, Haltica and Phjllotreia, are 
nearly all injurious to Cruciferous plants. 

Galerucid^. — Antennae long, slender, and cylindri- 
cal, ijiserted close together between the eyes; legs long 
and slender; femora never thickened; body long, usually 
somewhat depressed. 

These Beetles often resemble the Grioceridm in general 
form and colouring, but may easily be distinguished 
by their antennae. We figure Galeruca tenaceti, a species 
frequently met with on tansy flowers. Many species are 
injurious, notably the Elm Leaf Beetle, Galerucella liiteola. 
Hispid^. — Antennae inserted close together on the 
front part of the head, which latter organ is bent 
downwards. 

This is a small family of tropical Beetles. The 
members of the genus Hispa are peculiar in that their 
elytra and thoraces are covered with long and sharp 
spines. The pupae of many species are also spinous; 
the larvae, so far as is known, live between the upper 
and lower epidermis of some favoured leaf till nearly 
fully fed; then they invariably forsake their temporary 
home and tunnel into the midrib of a second adjacent 
leaf to pupate. 

CASsrDiD^. — Agree in most characters with the 
HispidcB, but the margins of thorax and elytra are so 
expanded that they have earned the name of " Shield " 
or " Tortoise " Beetles. 



212 INSECT LIFE 

Many Tortoise Beetles are beautifully coloured during 
life. Several, including tlie British species Cassida 
viridis and C. equestris, are green; others are black and 
orange or black and red, but most beautiful of all are 
certain iridescent species. Unfortunately, the colours 
in most cases fade soon after death; our figures are 
made from faded specimens. 

The larvae of these Beetles have the peculiar habit of 
covering themselves with excrement — not owing to 
their anatomical structure, as in the case of certain of 
the Crioceridw, but of set purpose, and by the aid 
of a forked appendage on the hinder portion of their 
bodies. 

Sharp records a most extraordinary costume which 
is assumed by the larvae of a South American Tortoise 
Beetle, of the genus Porfhyraspis. "P. tristis is 
apparently a common insect at Bahia, where it lives 
on a cocoa-palm. The larva is short and broad, and 
completely covers itself with a very dense coat of fibres, 
each many times the length of the body and elaborately 
curved, so as to form a round nest under which the 
larva lives. On examination it is found that these long 
threads are all attached to the anal extremity of the 
insect, and there seems no alternative to believing that 
each thread is formed by small pieces of fibre that have 
passed through the alimentary canal, and are subse- 
quently stuck together, end to end. The process of 
forming these long fibres, each one from scores of 
pieces of excrement, and giving them the appropriate 
curve is truly remarkable. The fibres nearest to the 
body of the larva are abruptly curled so as to fit exactly 
and make an even surface; but the outside fibres stand 



PLATE LXIIt 




~^ '^ 01 23 19 



21 
20 



18 > 22 '7 'S 



1. Uonacia crassipes ]l). Biaps mucronata 16. Otiorrhynchiis tenebri- 

2. Donacia semicuprea t'liurchyard Beetle") cosus 

3. Clythra quadripmictata 11. Heliopatlii-s gibbus 17. I.iophlcBus nubilis 

4. Trinarcha tenebricosa 12. Tenebrio molitor 18. Barynotiis obscunis 

5. Chrysorrn-'la iiiarBiiialis (Meal-worm Beetle) 19. Fhyllobius calcaratus 

6. Chrysomela stapliylea 13. Meloe proscarabceus 20. Hypera punctata 

7. Adimonia tanactti (Common Oil Beetle) 21. Cleonis sulcirostns 

8. Cassida equestris U. Meloe violaceus 22. Hylobins abietis 

9. Cassida viridis 15. Attelabus cnrculionoides 23. Balanimis g-landinm 

Sfie paffe 203. 



BEETLES 213 

out in a somewhat busliy fashion. The construction 
is much like that of a tiny bird's nest." 

The American genus Himatidium has longer and more 
slender antennae than the species of other genera, and 
its thorax does not conceal its head. H. latreillei is a 
beautiful bronzy-green colour, with an orange-brown 
thorax. The most remarkable Cassids are the tropical 
American species of Galas f idea. From Guiana hails 
C. grossa, with red elytra on which are depressed black 
dots and reticulations. 

Prionid^. — Front coxae large and transverse ; thorax 
with distinct side-margins; head not flattened in front; 
eyes kidney-shaped; antennae long; mandibles very 
large, especially in the males. 

These Beetles are somewhat reminiscent of the Stag 
Beetles (LucanidcB), but they may always be distin- 
guished by their antennae. Many of them are of large 
size and of a curiously flattened form, and chestnut- 
brown is the prevailing colour. The sole British species, 
Prionus coriarius, is by no means common; it is a dwarf 
compared to some of the tropical species, seeing that 
it measures little more than an inch in length. 

The largest species is the South American Titanus 
giganteus. Well-grown specimens measure as much as 
seven inches in length and two inches across the folded 
elytra. This Beetle has short but powerful mandibles 
and a formidable spine on either side of its thorax. 

From South America also hail some genera which 
depart from the sombre colouring usual to the family, 
and also the pale brown Macrodontias — insects with 
enormous toothed mandibles. All the larvae are wood- 
borers. 



214 INSECT LIFE 

CERAMBYcrD.s:. — Front coxae not greatly extended 
transversely; thorax not margined; head produced in 
front, but never vertical; eyes always concave and 
more or less surrounding the base of the antennsB. 

The largest British Cerambycid is the Musk Beetle, 
Aromia moschata, a metallic-green insect with a spine 
on either side of its thorax. It is a sluggish insect, and 
may often be found sunning itself on the decaying 
wood of willows, on which its larvae feed. When 
handled it emits a musk-like aroma; hence its name. 

The genus Clytus, of which there are several European 
species, is notable on account of its remarkable mimicry 
of Wasps. Nearly all the species are black with yellow 
markings; all are active on the wing. CalUchroma is 
a genus noted for the brilliant metallic blues and greens 
of most of the species. Some species of the South 
American genus Cosmosoma are peculiar in that their 
antennae bear dense tufts of hair about midway along 
their length. Coremia Mrtipes, another Cerambycid 
from the same country, has similar though denser tufts 
on the hind-tibiae. It flies slowly over dead timber in 
new clearings, and when on the wing resembles a large 
Culex. 

Lamiid^.. — Front coxae usually round and deeply 
embedded ; front tibiae with a slanting groove on the 
inner side; head vertical, flattened in front; wings 
sometimes absent. 

These Beetles may always be distinguished from those 
of the last family by the position of the head. The 
family is a large one, and contains some exceedingly 
ornate species. 

Our largest British Lamiid is Sa'perda carcharias, a 



PLATE LXIV 




1. Zopliobas sp. 

2. Erodius( 

3. Adesmia miLrocephala 

4. Tenthyria rotimdata 

5. Epitragiis fiiscus 

6. Zophenis mexicanus 

7. Eurychlora major 

8. Akis elongata 

9. Scotobius clathratus 



I). Blaps prodiicta 

1. Eleodes dentipes 

2. Aiachala biiqueti 
if. Asida bilplioides 

i. Gyriosomusluczoti 

5. Nyctaclia Itevis 

G. Prionotlieca coronata 

7. Epipedonota ebeiiina 

8. Trachynotus sp. 



19. Opatium sub;:iilcatiim 
£0. Scpidiiim wagiitri 

21. Praocls submetallicus 

2:^. Platynotiis excavatus 

23. Saiagriis IcevicoUis 

21 HcBcinonia filibiiiter 

20. Hcmicyclus grr.ndis 
2G. Uolichodcriis KIiiru 



BEETLES 215 

black insect densely clothed with yellowish down; its 
elytra terminate in a short spine, and it frequents willows 
and poplars. The largest species is the beautiful 
Brazilian Macropus longimanus. It is black marbled 
with red and grey, and its fore-legs are enormously 
developed in length; hence its name. Batocera is a 
common East Indian genus of large size, and most of 
the species are brown spotted with white. Nearly as 
large as any of the Batoceras is the African Petrognatha 
gigaSj a grey species with a large black patch on the 
outer edge of each elytron. Monohammus is one of the 
largest genera of the order; it is of almost world-wide 
distribution, and most of the species are of sombre hue. 
Any description is inadequate to portray the beauty of 
form and the brilliant colouring of these elegant Beetles ; 
a good representative collection alone can convey an 
idea of the wonders of the Lamiidce. 

Series 6. Rhynchofhora. 

Anthribid^. — Antennas with a short first joint, not 
elbowed and often long; third tarsal joint small and 
partially concealed by the second joint; pygidium 
exposed. 

Nearly all the species of this family are tropical, and 
one or two are agricultural pests of some notoriety. 
They are frequently confused with the Weevils, though 
the two families are quite distinct, as a comparison of 
our British Platyrrhinus latirostris with any Weevil will 
show. The species vary considerably in size; our 
native Choragus sheffardi is one of the smallest, and 
certain exotic species, with their antennse included in 
their measurements, attain considerable dimensions 



216 INSECT LIFE 

Certain of these " long-horned '* species bear consider- 
able superficial resemblance to Longicorns. 

All the AnthrihidoB are dull brown or grey coloured 
insects; frequently they are mottled, barred, spotted, 
or otherwise decorated with lighter shades. 

CuRCULiONiD^. — Antennse usually elbowed, first joint 
long; head prolonged into a beak of variable shape and 
dimensions; larvae legless and usually curved. 

The Weevils are undoubtedly the most harmful 
family of the Coleoptera. Larvae and adults are vege- 
tarians, and there is no part of a plant which is immune 
from the attacks of some species of Weevil; roots, stems, 
back, leaves, flowers, fruit, and seeds may any or all 
of them be attacked by Weevils. We can rarely eat 
our dessert without encountering the obnoxious larva 
of the Nut Weevil, Balaninus nucum. A near relative, 
the Acorn Weevil, B. glandium, does not force its 
attentions upon us to the same degree, because it feeds 
upon a fruit which is unfitted for human consumption. 

The Pine Weevil, Hylobius ahietis, has the character 
of being our worst forestry pest. It is peculiar for the 
reason that all the damage is caused by the adult 
Beetles, w^hich eat the bark of Coniferous trees, so that 
it has the appearance of having been attacked by some 
rodent. The larvae feed upon dead wood. 

Weevils of the genus Anthonomus damage flower- 
buds; Anthonomus grandis is the notorious Cotton 
Boll Weevil of America, a pest which had done more 
harm than any single species, and is only checked from 
further destruction by climatic reasons; it cannot with- 
stand the cHmate of the more northern cotton fields. 
A. signatus lays its eggs in the buds of strawberry- 



PLATE LXV 



f f i V 

I 3 

6 ^ 8 

I f 'If I 

II 12 

I T Y I 



1. Moluris gibba M rarUiutlnirax walckenffin 1 

2. Cionopiis tibialis i) SiiMiiSi Imni bicolor 1 

3. Spheniscus erotyloides h> St.oiitrylium sp. 17 l'\ tli. i dcinx-s: us 

4. Micrantereiis anomalus II Ne- (i;rcna pp. is. .\ i Ik, I.mmUis 

5. AmaryRrnus sp. 12 ,\ll"ciila sp. 111. I'lilo (itr\ .i rufipes 

6. Helops vulcanus 13. Omoplilus fp. 2ll. l.ajri la liirta 

7. Adelium sp. 14. Omoplilus betnlae 21. Statira sp. 



BEETLES 217 

flowers, with the result that no fruit is formed; sub- 
stituting apple for strawberry, similar remarks apply- 
to the Apple Blossom Weevil, A, fomorum. 

The Plum Weevil, Conotrachelus nenuphar, awaits in 
hiding till the fruit of plums, cherries, or peaches is 
formed. At this period the females make numerous 
holes in the fruit, and in each hole they deposit an egg. 
Needless to say, the larvae feed upon and ruin the 
ripening fruit. Other Weevils which prefer the fruit 
to the flowers from which the fruit should arise, are 
the Grain Weevil, Calandra granaria, and the Rice 
Weevil, C. oryzce. These little pests, like some of the 
Bruchids, have been carried all over the world in the 
grain upon which they feed and in which they breed. 

Some Weevils construct ingenious leafy nests for 
their larvse. Of these, the work of the Birch Weevil, 
Rhynchites hetulce, is a marvel of engineering skill. The 
ingeniously rolled leaves, cut and made into funnels by 
these insects, may often be seen upon young birch-trees 
during the summer months. Attelahus curculionoides 
is another, though less skilled, nest-builder. While 
searching for the Birch Weevil, there is every likehhood 
of finding a beautiful little emerald-green Weevil, 
Phyllobius calcaratus, which sometimes literally swarms 
upon our hedges. This little Beetle is one of our most 
beautiful native insects. Compared, however, with some 
of the exotic Weevils, exquisite insects of delicate blue 
and green hue, it is dingy. 

Of the more sombre-coloured native Weevils we 
figure Otiorrhynchus tenebricosus ; another hedge -fre- 
quenter in the shape of Liofhlceus nuhilis; Barynotus 
ohscurus, with a penchant for hiding beneath stones; 

28 



218 INSECT LIFE 

Cleonus sulcirostris, a harmless species confining itself 
to thistles; and Hypera punctata, which is often taken 
at considerable distances from any food-plant. 

Weevils are, for the most part, small or medium-sized 
Beetles. One or two species attain considerable dimen- 
sions, notably the Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus pal- 
marum, of the West Indies, whose fat grubs find some 
favour as human food. A short acquaintance with 
these insects in the field reveals a curious trait, common 
to nearly all species. When alarmed, instead of run- 
ning away or taking to flight, they fall to the ground, 
curl up their legs, remain motionless and sham dead. 
This trait is especially common amongst the dull- 
coloured species, which, on account of their colour, are 
exceedingly hard to detect when they reach the ground. 

ScoLYTiD^. — Antennse short and clubbed. 

These Beetles are closely allied to certain of the 
Weevils. Nearly all of them are wood-borers, and 
many are exceedingly destructive. 

To any but entomologists the Beetles are little known; 
to nearly everyone their w^ork is familiar. There can 
be few people so little observant that they have never 
seen some tree with bark so loose that it easily peels 
away. Where stem and bark come in contact, the 
Beetles have made their tunnels in all directions, so 
that both parts of the tree are marked. The tunnels 
or burrows are very characteristic of the species which 
make them, and an expert can tell at a glance, from 
the nature and direction of the burrows, what species 
of Scolytid had carried out the work. 

Some Scolytids, known as Ambrosia Beetles, fill their 
tunnels with a certain fungus, which thrives on the 



PLATE LXVI 



♦ I * I f 

^ / 5 

6 

I 






■« 





1 l.ampyris noctiluca (ma 

2. Telepliorus riisticiis 

'■i. Telepliorus lividiis 

4. Telepliorus pellucidus 

5. Lampyris noctiluca fen 



G. Tlianasimiis formicai 

7. Xecrobia rulipes 

8. Asemum striatum 
I). Prionus corinarius 

10. Strangalia armata 



1. Callidium viulacsum 

2. Aromia moscliata 

:i Rhagium bifasciatum 
-1. Saperda carcharias 
o. RhaRium inquisitor 



BEETLES 219 

exudations of tlie tree. The fungus serves as food for 
the Beetle larvae; it renders the work of the insects 
more obnoxious to the forester, for the growth hastens 
the decay commenced by the excavations of the insects ; 
it sometimes increases so rapidly as to choke up the 
tunnels and kill the inmates. 

Among the common British Scolytidce, the Elm Bark 
Beetle, Scolytus destructor, is a serious pest, causing the 
bark of its food-plant to peel of! in sheets. One species 
of tree may harbour several species of these Beetles. 
The Scots fir, for example, may have its uppermost 
shoots attacked by Pityogenes hidentatus, its young 
branches by Hylastes palliatus, its stem by Hylurgus 
piniperda, and its roots by Hylastes ater. 

Of the deep-boring Scolytids, Beetles which do not 
confine themselves to the bark and subjacent parts, 
species of the genus Trypodendron are the worst offenders, 
and in Britain we have T. domesticum, partial to oak, 
beech, and birch, and T. Uneatum, a pest of Conifers. 
Oaks are also frequently riddled by the all too common 
Xyleborus dispar. 

All these Beetles, as may be inferred from their habits, 
are of small size ; in colour they can show nothing beyond 
blacks and shades of brown. Though the injury caused 
by a single Beetle may be small, when, as is usual, the 
Scolytids appear in force their damage is widespread, 
and in America they have spread over areas so great 
as fifty thousand square miles and destroyed millions of 
feet of lumber. 

Brenthid^. — Antennae not elbowed; rostrum 
straight. 
These most bizarre of all the Coleopiera are practically 



220 INSECT LIFE 

all confined to the tropics. It would be difficult to 
imagine more curious insects than certain of these Beetles . 
In some species the snouts are prolonged to an extra- 
ordinary extent. There are species in which the males 
have no snouts, but formidable mandibles instead* 
The females use their snouts to bore holes in wood 
for egg-laying purposes, and in this connection Sharp 
says that, in one species, the snout of the female is apt 
to become fixed during the operation. " The male 
then extricates her by pressing his heavy presternum 
against the tip of her abdomen; the stout fore-legs of the 
female serve as a fulcrum and her long body as a lever, 
so that the effort of the male, exerted at one extremity 
of the body of the female, produces the required result 
at the other end of her body." 

Certain species are exceedingly thin, elongated, and 
delicate. It is believed that all these attenuated species 
are carnivorous, and that their forms are specially 
adapted to enter the burrows of wood-boring insects 
for the purpose of preying upon the larvse. The apices 
of the elytra in many species have curious prolongations 
whose utility is not known. The antennae of all species 
are freely mobile on a ball-and-socket joint; they 
remain mobile even in the dried state. 

Order Streps ipter a. 

Stylopid^. — Males small; fore- wings much reduced; 
hind- wings very large vnih radiating veins. Females 
minute sacs, the smaller end forming the head. 

These curious parasitic insects are placed with the 
Coleoptera by many entomologists, including Sharp; 
here, however, they are considered as a distinct order, 



PLATE LXVII 




STYLOPS 221 

according to Nassonoff and Von Siebold. They are 
most aberrant creatures; all of them are parasitic on 
either Hymenoftera or Rhynchota. Of the latter forms 
practically nothing is known; of the former much 
remains to be learned. 

Bees of the genus Ealictus and Andrena and Wasps 
of the genus Polistes are specially liable to become 
" stylopized "—i,e., attacked by the parasite. Unlike 
many parasites, Stylops does not kill its host. The 
females may be seen projecting from between the 
abdominal segments of the Bee or Wasp, and so slight 
is our knowledge of these anomalous insects that it is 
uncertain whether the head or the tail end projects. 
Undoubtedly the most extraordinary effect of " stylo- 
pization '' is that the secondary sexual characters of 
the host are affected. For instance, there are many 
species of Hymenoptera in which the males are of a 
totally different colour to the females. In the " stylo- 
pized ** individuals of such species the males or females 
may not only fail to develop their characteristic colour- 
ing, but may even assume the livery of the opposite sex. 

Exactly how the Strepsiptera reach their hosts has 
never been fully explained. In the genus Stylops, all 
the members of which are Hymenopterous parasites, the 
larvae attack their host larvae, penetrate below their 
skin, and both parasite and host develop concurrently. 
When the time arises for the host to pupate, the male 
parasite makes its change from the larval state in the 
manner common to other insects. The female parasite, 
on the other hand, remains within her host and at the 
right moment pushes her way between the latter 's 
abdominal segments. The female Stylops never moves 



222 INSECT LIFE 

from the position she takes up at this juncture. The 
active males are short-lived; those of the genus Xenos 
exist for but a quarter of an hour; they lose no time 
in accompHshing their one object, the fertilizing of the 
immobile females. 

Enormous numbers of larvae are produced by each 
female. They crawl about over the body of their host 
in such numbers as to give it a powdered appearance. 

In the case of social Bees and Wasps, it is an easy 
matter for the parasite larvae to reach the host larvae; 
in the case of the solitary Hymenoftera the young 
parasites must needs await some means of transport 
to the nest of a new host, for the '* stylopized "' females 
never build nests. Thousands must perish without 
ever finding a host; the fact that they are produced in 
thousands points to very considerable wastage. At 
any rate, the Stylops larvae somehow contrive to attach 
themselves to the hair of a healthy insect, and she 
unwittingly conveys them to her nest. 



PLATE LXVIII 




a tj o >, 



ANTS, BEES, AND WASPS 223 



CHAPTER VII 

HYMENOPTEKA 

Insects with four sparsely veined wings, often clothed 
with short bristles; mouth furnished with mandibles 
and proboscis; females with large ovipositors, often 
modified into a sting; metamorphosis complete. 

This order includes the well-known Bees, Wasps, and 
Ants; its members, without exception , are of the greatest 
interest to the entomologist. Bees, Wasps, and Ants 
of many species have the social habit highly developed 
— in fact, these insects and the Termites are the only 
species which dwell in colonies. The solitary species 
of the order are no less interesting. The nests of 
certain solitary Bees are ingenious in the extreme; the 
methods by which some of the Sand Wasps store their 
nests with living, though benumbed, food would be 
beyond belief had not reliable mtnesses testified to the 
veracity of the earlier observers. The story of Ants' 
guests, of Bee *' cuckoos,'' and other invited and un- 
invited hangers-on, would fill a bulky volume in 
itself. 

Most of the parasitic insects belong to this order. 
The life-histories of the Gall-flies, some species having 
a single generation of both sexes, some a single genera- 
tion of females only, and others two generations, one 



224 INSECT LIFE 

of females only, the other of both sexes; the study of 
their curious galls — these and a thousand other details 
combine to make the Hymenoptera a most attractive 
order to the student of insect life. 

The species comprising the order fall naturally into 
two suborders : 

I. Sessiliventr.es. — Hymenoptera with the basal 
segments of the abdomen not constricted to form a 
" waist " or petiole, and ovipositors designed for boring 
or cutting, never for stinging. 

II. Petiolata. — Hymenoptera with the basal seg- 
ments of the abdomen constricted to form a " waist '' 
or petiole; ovipositor usually a sting. 

The Sessiliventres form a small division of but 
three families. Apart from the structural characters 
of the adults, the larvae of the majority of these insects 
closely resemble those of Lepidoptera^ except for their 
greater number of legs. 

The Petiolata are divided into three series : 

Series 1. Parasitica. — Ovipositors exserted or con- 
cealed, frequently of very great length; larvae parasitic 
upon other insects. 

Series 2. Tubulifera. — Terminal segments of the 
abdomen forming a retractile tube, in which a small, 
imperfect sting is situated; larvae usually live in the 
nests of other Hymenoptera. 

Series 3. Aculeata. — Very frequently the ovipositor 
is modified into a sting. 

The Aculeata may be said to contain all the Hymen- 
optera which cannot be included in either the Parasitica 
or the Tubulifera. 



PLATE LXIX 











COCOON OF PALM WKEVIL 



SAWFLIES 225 

SUBORDER SESSILIVENTRES. 

This division is much smaller than Petiolata ; to the 
latter division all the better -known families of the order 
belong. Here there are but three families of insects ^ 
for the most part inconspicuous, but also, with few 
exceptions, highly injurious. 

TENTHREDrNiD^. — Antcnuse not elbowed, short; 
wings large and considerably veined; ovipositor saw- 
like; larvae resemble those of Lepidoptera in form, but 
possess six to eight, in place of five, pairs of legs. 

The Sawflies are so called on account of the structure 
of the ovipositor. Each of these organs consists of 
a pair of saws side by side, and their owner can move 
them up and down with a saw-like motion when she 
wishes to cut a slit in some plant tissue for the purpose 
of depositing her eggs therein. The majority of these 
insects are injurious pests among crops and in gardens. 

Amongst the British species, of which there are 
many, the commonest and most destructive are the 
Currant Sawfly, Nematus rihesii, and the Gooseberry 
Sawfly, N. ventricosus, whose larvae, being gregarious, 
rapidly defoliate currant and gooseberry bushes re- 
spectively. Two other common species of the same 
genus, N. galUcola and N. salicis-cinerecB, form galls on 
willow-leaves, for the reason that the larvae remain 
within the leaf-tissues instead of emerging to the 
surface. 

Lophyrus pini is a common pest of Conifers; Hylatoma 
rosce, in its larval state, defoliates rose-bushes; its green 
Caterpillars are remarkably similar to those of Lepi- 
doptera. There is no member of the family, however, 

29 



226 INSECT LIFE 

more interesting tlian tlie Pear Slug, Eriocampoides 
limacina. The adult Sawfly is a shiny black insect, 
about a fifth of an inch in length. The female slits 
the under-side of a pear-leaf and deposits an egg in 
the pocket-like cavity thus formed. The egg hatches 
in a short time, having previously increased in size, 
probably owing to the assimilation of some of the 
juices of the leaf. The larva escapes from its pocket 
by making a semicircular cut in the upper surface; at 
first it is very pale yellow, almost white in colour. 
Very rapidly, however, the larva darkens in colour, for 
the reason that it covers itself with a dark olive-green, 
shiny secretion. At the same time it alters consider- 
ably in shape; its anterior end becomes swollen and its 
head retracted into the enlarged portion. Feeding 
takes place on the upper surface of tbe leaf, and con- 
sists not only of the leaf-tissue, but of the larval skin 
after each moult. When the last moult takes place 
the larva makes no meal of its skin, but leaves it upon 
the leaf. In colour it has changed to orange, and its 
body is no longer covered with slime. Crawling down 
the stem to the ground, the larva builds a little earthen 
cell for itself just below the surface; in this cell pupation 
takes place. 

In addition to pear-trees, apple, cherry, and plum 
are also attacked by limacina. " Frequently the larvae 
appear in such numbers as to do serious damage. Some- 
times, when the slugs are very abundant, the sound of 
the eating of myriads of mouths resembles the falling 
of fine rain upon the leaves." 

Parental care is so rare, except among the social 
insects, that the case of Perga lewisii, an Austrahan 



WOOD WASPS 227 

Sawfly, is worth quoting. The female deposits her 
eggs in sHts near the midrib of a eucalyptus-leaf. " On 
this leaf the mother sits till the exclusion of the larvae; 
and as soon as these are hatched the parent follows 
them, sitting with outstretched legs over her brood 
protecting them from the attacks of parasites and other 
enemies with admirable perseverance." 

SiRiciD^. — Large insects with cylindrical, awl-like, 
exserted ovipositors; abdomens not constricted into a 
petiole at the base. 

The Wood Wasps are conspicuous-looking insects, 
which, owing to their formidable-looking ovipositors, 
often strike terror into the person beholding them for 
the first time. In reality they are quite harmless to 
human beings, for they possess no sting. 

The two species most frequently met with in Britain 
are the Giant Wood Wasp, Sirex gigas^ and the Blue 
Wood Wasp, S. noctilio. In form the two species are 
very similar; in colour, gigas is black banded with 
yellow on the abdomen, whilst noctilio is of a dark 
metallic blue colour. 

The females deposit their eggs in wood; they prefer 
Conifers, and usually only oviposit in felled timber. 
The larval life is considerably protracted, and all the 
while considerable tunnelhng takes place, to the ulti- 
mate ruin of the timber. 

In America the Pigeon Tremex, Tremex columba, has 
similar habits, but prefers living trees, especially maple. 

Cephid^.— Antennae long; wings large; ovipositor 
needle-like and exserted. Larvae live in stems of 
plants. 

The most notorious species of this family is Cephus 



228 INSECT LIFE 

fygmcBus. In some countries, on tlie Continent and in 
America, for instance, it does considerable damage. 
The female bores into wheat-stems with her o\dpositor, 
lays her eggs therein, and the larvae complete the work 
of destruction. Pygmwus is not common in this 
country. 

The American Phyllaceus integer has a more interest- 
ing life-story. The female punctures a willow-twig just 
below the growing point with her ovipositor; she then 
directs that organ obUquely into the pith and deposits 
her eggs. Wisely, lest the growth of the willow should 
injure her eggs, she girdles the twigs just below the 
puncture she has made; this causes the death of the 
shoot, and its ruin for basket-making. 

SUBORDEK PETIOLATA. 

Series 1. Parasitica. 

IcHNEUMONiD^. — Antennae with more than sixteen 
joints; abdomen constricted at the base into an elon- 
gated petiole, or not constricted; ovipositor often long 
and protruded. 

The Ichneumon Flies as these insects are often 
wrongly termed, for they are not Flies, are all parasitic 
insects. The family is a large one, and is divided into 
a number of subfamilies. The order is by no means 
an easy one for the entomological student, and those 
who wish to attempt systematic work should not essay 
the effort unless they have access to a representative 
collection. 

The methods of oviposition differ with the species; 
some deposit their eggs on the bodies of their hosts. 





f 




X 



I 



^ 



PLATE LXX 



I 

3 







A GROUP OF WFKVll.S 

The fiprures give a tiood idea of tlie striking colouring wliicli occurs in many species of tliis family. 

No. 7 is the Palm Weevil, the largest of the Curculionidae. 

See pane SlU. 



ICHNEUMONS 229 

some within them. In the majority of cases the larvsB 
of Lepidoftera are the hosts of these insects; a few 
species, however, prefer Beetles and others, Hymenoftera. 
Certain species of Pimpla, notably P. rufata and P. 
fairmairii, are known to be parasitic upon Spiders. 

The long ovipositors of many of the IchneumonidcB 
appear to be somewhat of a hindrance to their owners; 
there are species in which these organs measure as 
much as four inches. The true ovipositor is always 
protected by a sheath of four stylets equally as long 
as itself. Possibly all the species with inordinately 
developed ovipositors prey upon insects whose larvaB 
burrow in wood or some other medium. Certainly this 
is the case with the common British Rhyssa 'persuasoria , 
whose hosts are the larvae of the Wood Wasp. Now, 
the Wood Wasp deposits its eggs in timber, and its 
larvae make extensive and deep-seated tunnels in the 
same material. So deeply do they bore that it is 
impossible for Rhyssa itself to reach them; it accom- 
plishes its object, however, by the aid of its long ovi- 
positor, which it plunges far into the recesses of the 
Wood Wasp's larval tunnels, and deposits its egg in its 
victim. 

Braconid^. — Very similar to IchneumonidcB ; an- 
tennae generally with more than sixteen joints, the first 
and third being longer than the second; second and 
third abdominal segments fused. 

This family has been neglected by entomologists, and 
from a systematic point of view is in a chaotic state. 
The species are frequently so similar to the Ichneumons 
that only the expert can separate the two families. 
Many exotic Braconidce are exceedingly ornate insects, 



230 INSECT LIFE 

black and yellow or red and yellow being the prevailing 
colours of the family, though there are a number of 
self-coloured, red species. 

The genus Aphidius includes several species parasitic 
upon Aphides ; in consequence, they are insects to be 
protected. The commonest British species, at any rate 
the species whose activities are most easily observed, 
is Apanteles glomeratus, a parasite of the Cabbage White 
larvse. This Braconid lays a number of eggs inside the 
body of its host, and its larvse feed upon the fatty 
matter with which they are surrounded. When fully 
fed, the parasitic larvse leave their host to spin small 
silken cocoons, in which they pupate. A. formosus 
makes curious stalked cocoons. 

EvANiiD.^. — Antennae thirteen or fourteen jointed; 
abdomen attached to the upper part of the metathorax; 
ovipositor straight. 

Species of the genus Evania can always be distin- 
guished by their short, compressed abdomens attached 
by a slender petiole to the upper part of the thorax. 
In outline the female abdomen is triangular, that of 
the male oval. The colour of the Evaniids is invariably 
jet black. 

These insects are widely distributed, probably because 
they are parasitic upon the eggs of Cockroaches. Evania 
appendigader is the most widespread species. It is 
black; its fore- wings barely span an inch, and its hind- 
legs are quite twice the length of its body. The larvae 
of this parasite live within and feed upon the yolk of 
the Common Cockroach's eggs. 

The genus Foenus is remarkable for the long, slender 
abdomens of its species, in striking contrast to those 



PARASITIC WASPS 231 

of Evania. Fcenus jaculator, a by no means uncommon 
insect, frequents the nests of Crahro and oviposits in 
its larvae. 

CHALCmiDiE. — Antennae elbowed, usually six to thir- 
teen jointed; wings but little veined. 

This is the largest and most interesting family of the 
parasitic Hymenoftem. Nearly all the species are 
parasitic; a few, belonging to the genus Megastigmus, 
live in seeds, and some, of the genus Isosoma, are gall- 
makers. Till quite recently this fam^ily had been much 
neglected by British entomologists, for what reason it is 
difficult to say, unless the minute proportions of the 
majority of the species acted as a deterrent; it could 
not have been because the Chalcididce lacked interest. 
Howard, who has studied the family in America, says: 
" Nowhere in nature is there a more marked example 
of the correlation betv/een structure and habits than 
occurs in this family. This correlation descends to the 
relation between the parasites and their hosts, so that 
it is possible for an experienced person, on seeing a 
new species of Chalcis Fly, to tell precisely what kind of 
an insect it will be found to be parasitic upon."" The 
habits of these Hymenoftem are so varied that it is 
impossible to take one as a type of all the family. 
Some species are parasitic upon Lepidopterous larvae, 
some on Diptera, some on Bees — in fact, they are the 
most assiduous of all parasites, and the most cathoHc 
in their tastes. Many of them are of beautiful metallic 
sheen, and many also are interesting structurally. 
Species of Chalcis, for example, have their hind-femora 
so much thickened that they may equal the abdomen 
in size. Leucospis, a non-British genus, has species 



232 INSECT LIFE 

with ovipositors recurved over the back of the 
abdomen . 

The utility of ChalcididcB is not confined to their 
parasitic activities . In fig-growing countries the services 
of a species of Blastophaga are utilized to bring about 
the fertihzation of the fig-flowers. The inflorescence 
of the fig is pecuHar; the flowers grow within a hollow 
receptacle quite out of reach of the majority of insects. 
Blastophaga , however, enters the inflorescence, brings 
about fertilization, and thus causes the fruit to ripen. 
This semi-artificial fertilization of figs is known as 
" caprification." 

The life-cycle of many Chalcids is completed very 
rapidly. Howard has carefully noted the time taken 
by Ewplectrus comstockii to pass through its transforma- 
tions. The egg stage lasted two days, the larval stage 
three, the pupal stage the same length of time, a com- 
plete generation in eight days. " It is altogether the 
shortest development of any Hymenopterous parasite 
that has been studied." 

Podagrion fachymerus has the very interesting habit 
of sheltering below the wing of a female Mantis as she is 
forming her egg-mass. From this advantageous position 
the Chalcid can lay her eggs amongst those of the Mantis. 

Peoctotrypid^. — Antennae elbowed, ten to sixteen 
jointed; bodies long and slender; wings with very few 
veins. 

These insects are even less known than the ClialcididcB ; 
as a family they are the smallest of all insects. Some 
idea of their size may be gleaned when we learn that 
sometimes as many as six larvae may live within a 
single Lepidopterous egg, feeding upon the yolk and 



GALL FLIES 233 

undergoing all their transformations therein. Another 
genus, Trichacis, possesses species that " develop in the 
nervous system of one of the little gall midges, while 
the larvae of another genus, Polygnotus, develop in the 
digestive tract of the same insect." Spiders' eggs, also 
those of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, are parasitized by 
Proctotrypids ; they also live in the larvae of Diptera, 
Coleoptera, and small Hymenoptera. 

Marchal described a curious life-history of a species 
of Encyrtus. The insect lays its egg within that of a 
Tineid Moth, and, instead of a single Encyrtus larva 
appearing, as might be expected, a number hatch from 
the single egg, owing to this egg becoming divided into 
a number of embryos. 

Cynipid.^. — Antennae straight, thirteen to fifteen 
jointed; wings with few veins; ovipositor concealed. 

The Gall Flies, so called, are not by any means the 
only gall-makers in the insect world, nor, indeed, are 
all the CynipidcB gall-makers, for some species are 
parasitic upon Aphids and larvae of Diftera. 

For a long time it was thought that no male Gall 
Flies existed; to this day the males of some species have 
never been discovered, but it is highly probable that 
in these species time and research will show them to 
have a spring brood of females and an autumn brood 
of both sexes, a common happening with Gall Flies. 
The alternation of generations, so common amongst 
Cynipidce, has led to further confusion, and many of the 
spring broods have been described as different species 
to the autumn broods. The preponderance of females 
is of advantage to the insects, for they are much attacked 
by parasites, mainly Chalcididce ; this, again, is yet 

30 



234 INSECT LIFE 

another factor making the study of Gall Flies difficult, 
for frequently parasites instead of the rightful owners 
appear from the galls. 

" One of the most peculiar facts connected with the 
Gall Flies is that a particular part of the plant is always 
af!ected by the same species, and that each species of 
the same generation always produces a deformation 
or gall of exactly the same character, so that the gall 
alone identifies the species of insect, and, in fact, for 
a long time generic and specific names were given to the 
galls before the insects were named." 

Many theories have been suggested to account for 
the formation of galls by these insects. No gall begins 
to develop till the larva hatches from the egg, and it 
is probable that the larva excretes some substance 
which causes the rapid growth of the plant cells in its 
immediate vicinity. The oak is the tree most favoured 
by Gall Flies; there are twenty-four quite common oak 
galls, and many more less frequently met with. One of 
the most curious of our native galls is the Bedeguar 
Gall, or " Robin's Pin Cushion," formed by RJiodites 
rosw, which deposits its eggs in a leaf-bud, with the 
result that, instead of the formation of normal leaves, 
the well-known, characteristic green or red hairy galls 
are formed. 

Series 2. Tubulifera. 

Chrysidid^. — Cuckoo Flies or Ruby Wasps. Insects 
with hard, often deeply sculptured, metaUic green or 
blue dorsal integuments; antennae thirteen- jointed and 
elbowed. Terminal abdominal segments in the form 
of a tube, which can be retracted or extruded; hence the 
name of the series. 



RUBY WASPS 235 

Before going further, it is well to remark that these 
insects are not Fhes, as their popular name suggests. 
Many insects, Dragon-flies, May -flies, and Green Flies, 
amongst others, are not Flies, but still they bear titles 
to which they have no right. 

The Ruby Wasps are easily recognized; their brilliant 
colouring of metallic sheen, often with ruby-tipped 
abdomens, and their ceaseless activity, render them 
conspicuous. All the score of British species are small, 
and no members of the family attain large size. They 
are widely distributed over the world, and all of them 
deposit their eggs in the nests of other Hymenoptera ; 
hence their name of Cuckoo Flies. 

The majority of Chrysids are parasitic upon the Mud 
Wasps, Odynerus. These little solitary Wasps leave 
their nests exposed while they hunt for provender with 
which to stock their larders, so the evil work of the 
Cuckoo Flies is easily accomplished. Our native Chrysis 
ignita deposits its eggs in the nests of the Mud Wasp, 
Odynerus parietum ; G. hidentata favours the home of 
0. spinifes. The former Cuckoo Fly has been observed 
to deposit a single egg in the nest of its host ; the latter 
lays as many as ten in each nest, but invariably all 
except one are infertile. In both cases — in fact, in 
every observed case of parasitism by these insects — 
their larvae feed upon the larvae of their hosts. It is 
remarkable also that, except by colour, it is almost 
impossible to tell the white parasite larva from the 
yellow host larva. 

An American species, G. ccerulans, is parasitic upon 
the Potter W^asp, Eumenes fraterna. Sometimes, as 
Howard remarks, there is confusion in the host nest. 



236 INSECT LIFE 

Odynerus goes in search of food, and leaves its cell 
unguarded; along comes a Trypoxylon — a Sphegid 
with Cuckoo habits — and stores the host cell with its 
own provisions, closing the entrance against the return 
of the owner. On the arrival of the Odynerus her first 
care is to open the cell once more; having done so, 
further food must be found, and while she is away 
Chrysis comes on the scene, deposits an egg in the 
newly opened cell, from which a larva emerges that is 
destined to survive the progeny of host and primary 
parasite. 

To the genus Cleptes belong the only species of the 
family capable of stinging Not only so, but in general 
form they more closely resemble the aculeate Hymen- 
oftera than do the other Cuckoo FHes. They are 
parasitic upon Saw^ies. 

Series 3. Aculeata. 

This series is somewhat artificial, since it does not 
include all the Hymenoftera capable of stinging. Various 
other suggestions have been made for the better classi- 
fication, and many of them are worthy of every con- 
sideration. The arrangement adopted here, however, 
is generally accepted, so that at least it has the merit 
of popular approval. 

The Aculeates are subdivided into four divisions : 

1. Anthophila, or Bees.— Body clothed, in part 
with plumose hairs; mouth-parts elongated and usually 
tubular, flexible at the tip. Adults all winged. Often 
dwell in societies. 

2. DiPLOPTERA, OR Wasps .—Anterior wings folded 
longitudinally when at rest; no scales or nodes on the 



PLATE LXXI 



# 





^■ 



I 



■f 



» 





•#4!^|p^^ 




^■^^ 



6 

a 




1. Hombiis lepidariiis 
4. Bombus venii>tus 
7. Halictiis rubicundii 
9. Megachile sp. 
12 Bombus lucoriim 



A GROUP OF BEES 
2. Bombus hortorum 
5. Xylocopa sp. 

10. Bombus terrestris 
\A Xylocopa sp. 



3. Bombus muscorum 

(i. .Xnthopliora sp. 

N. Megacliile sp. 

1 1 . Cu?lioxys sp. 

14. Apathus vestalls 



BEES 237 

basal segments of the hind-body; hind-tarsi designed 
for walking. Either dwelling in societies or solitary. 

3. FossoRES, OR Digger Wasps. — No plumose hairs 
on body; no longitudinally folded wings; no scales or 
nodes on basal segments of the hind-body. 

4.'FoRMicn)^, OR Ants. — The segment or two seg- 
ments behind the posterior part of the thorax either 
small or irregular and very mobile; trochanters not 
divided. Live in colonies. 

Division 1. Anthophila, or Bees. 

Bees are nearly always hairy insects; they have 
peculiarly modified mouth-parts, which serve their 
owners and entomologists a good purpose in collecting 
nectar and in forming a guide to classification respec- 
tively; their hind-legs are modified — greatly so in some 
species. The pecuHar plumose hairs with which many 
Bees are clothed presumably assist in the collection of 
pollen, and the presumption is strengthened by the fact 
that many parasitic Bees, which gather no pollen, are 
destitute of these hairs. Some parasitic Bees, however, 
possess these hairs, and opponents of the pollen-collect- 
ing theory have not been slow to point to these species 
as confirmation of their own assumption that feathery 
hairs are not designed for gathering food. That pollen 
does adhere to these modified hairs is by the way. 

As already remarked, the tongues of Bees are used 
for taking up nectar. They are complex organs, and 
these pages are not the place to enter into minute 
anatomical details. There are three types of Bee 
tongue — (a) short and forked, (6) short and pointed, 
(c) long and pointed. With these organs the insects 



238 



INSECT LIFE 



take up nectar and swallow it; it passes to ttie honey- 
sac, where it remains till the Bee returns to her nest, 
where it is regurgitated as honey. During the period 
in the honey-sac part of the water is removed, and 
various secretions, including formic acid, which acts 




Fig. 12 



-Left Hind-Leg of a Working Female Honby-Bee 
(Strongly Magnified). 



On the left, viewed from the outer side; on the right, viewed from the 
inner side. S, Femur; Sch, tibia; F, foot; E, two pointed claws 
with balls between them; Kb, pollen-basket; B, brush. 

as a preservative, are added from glands of the bee. The 
regurgitated honey requires further treatment before 
it is fit for consumption. 

The legs of Bees are beautifully modified to suit the 
work of their owners. The hind-legs show the greatest 
variation from the normal, especially in the females, for 
on these organs the pollen is mainly carried. Those 
Bees which carry dry pollen have densely haired hind- 



BEES 239 

legs; those which carry the paste-like " Bee bread/' a 
mixture of pollen and nectar, have hollowed tibias 
edged with stiff bristles — " pollen-baskets'" — in which 
to carry their burdens. Males and parasitic Bees do 
not possess pollen-carrying modifications, and where 
drones exist they also are destitute of these appendages. 

The young larvae of all Bees, whether Solitary or 
Social, are reared in nests or cells constructed either 
by the parent Bee or by workers, or, in the case of 
parasitic Bees, by some other insect. They are never 
exposed and left to their own devices, as, for instance, 
are Lepidopterous larvse. The Social Bees feed their 
larvae upon honey and pollen, after the manner of birds) 
Solitary Bees store sufficient food for the needs of their 
young, deposit an egg on the stored food, and seal up 
the cell, leaving the larva to fend for itself. Parasitic 
Bees usually lay their eggs in the cell of some Sohtary 
Bee; their larvae always either hatch first or grow 
quicker than those of their hosts, so they are well 
provided for by their host's food store and, if necessary, 
its egg or larva. With the exception of these parasitic 
Bees, which sometimes eat their host's progeny, all 
larval Bees are fed upon vegetable matter or material 
of vegetable origin. 

The classification of Bees is in a most unsatisfactory 
state. To avoid confusion as far as possible, we treat of 
these insects in two sections — (1) the Solitary and (2) the 
Social Bees. 

1. Solitary Bees. 

Short Forked-Tongued Bees. — ArcJiiapidce of 
Friese. We have sixteen species of these Bees in Britain, 
all belonging either to the genus Colletes or to Prosopis. 



240 INSECT LIFE 

Of the latter genus there are ten British species; 
they have earned their generic name from the white 
faces of the males. They are all small, almost non- 
hairy creatures, and their hind-legs are not modified 
for carrying pollen. In general colour they are in- 
variably black, and most of them emit a pleasant odour. 
They usually construct their cells in the pith of bramble 
stems, and cut or broken ends of these stems are in 
much request by the little Bees. Each cell is lined with 
a thin membrane, and is stored with a mixture of honey 
and pollen. The latter is swallowed by the female 
along with the nectar, being swept to her mouth by her 
hairy front legs. Frequently a Chrysid larva usurps 
the Prosopid cell; they may often be found living on 
the stores of our commonest species, Prosopis signata. 

The genus CoUetes is smaller, so far as this country is 
concerned, for we can only boast of half a dozen species. 
In general appearance these moderate-sized Bees closely 
resemble the genus Andrena. With a single exception 
they are all well clothed with brown hair; the middle 
and hind legs of the females bear pollen-carrying hairs. 
Their nesting habits are peculiar. They burrow in the 
ground, making unbranched tunnels, which they line 
with a membranous substance, which, by the way, is 
of glue-like consistency when first formed; hence the 
name of the genus. The burrows are then divided into 
separate cells, six to eight in number, by the same 
material, and each one is filled with semi-liquid food 
in which an egg is deposited. 

CoUetes, of which our commonest species is C. suc- 
cincta, is subject to the attentions of a *' cuckoo," just 
as is Prosopis, but in this case it is not a Euby Wasp, 



SOLITARY BEES 241 

but a long-tongued Bee of the genus Epeolus, which 
shares, or rather usurps, its home. Sometimes host 
and parasite frequent the same flowers. Tansy is the 
favourite of Colletes daviesanus and its '* cuckoo," 
Efeolus variegatus. 

Andrenid^.— Short pointed-tongued Bees. 

This is the largest section of British Bees, no fewer 
than a hundred and twenty species belonging thereto. 
The largest native genus is Andrena, containing about 
fifty species. In appearance these Bees closely resemble 
Honey Bees, but they are smaller. They are among 
the first insects on the wing in the spring. Their nests 
are always made in the ground, frequently in gravel 
paths, and, though true Solitary Bees, they frequently 
nest in close proximity to one another. 

One of the earhest Andrenas to appear is the little 
red Andrena fulva, an attractive little creature, whose 
burrowing habits may easily be observed. These early 
arrivals have hibernated below ground through the 
winter. As soon as they arouse themselves they set 
to work to make nests for their own families. Tunnels, 
often a foot in length, are made in the earth, and from 
the main shaft numerous side-galleries are run; in each 
one, before it is closed, there is deposited an egg and 
a store of pollen and honey. By summer the eggs are 
hatched and the larvae are fully fed; in early autumn 
the perfect insects have emerged from the pupse, but 
they remain in their subterranean homes till the first 
warm days of spring summon them to activity. 

A. vicina passes through its life-cycle more rapidly, 
and the adults are on the wing in the summer. A. 
argentata, resplendent in its silvery hirsute clothing, is 

31 



242 INSECT LIFE 

another late Andrena, for it may be seen assiduously 
collecting nectar from heather-flowers late in August. 

The Andrenas are preyed upon by " cuckoos " of the 
genus Nomada. These Bees, which are invariably of a 
yellow and black or red and black colour, appear to live 
on the most friendly terms — at any rate, the attentions 
of the " cuckoos " are never resented. The Nomada 
have few hairs, and their legs are not adapted for 
carrying pollen. All the species are parasitic, and their 
hosts are always Andrenas. Friese relates that he has 
frequently seen Nomada latlihuriana and Andrena ovina 
flying about together. 

Reference has been made to the friendly relations 
of host and parasite, and the fact may seem strange. 
Further consideration shows that, after all, the pheno- 
menon is not so peculiar as it appears at first. The 
parasites do not interfere with their hosts, and the 
latter do not feed their larvae from time to time, as do 
the social insects. " The Wild Bee that seals up its 
cell when it has laid an egg therein, and then leaves 
it for ever, has no conception of the form of its progeny; 
never in the history of the race of the Andrena has a 
larva seen a perfect insect and survived thereafter; 
never has a perfect insect seen a larva.'' 

The genus Halictus includes our smallest British 
Bees, and they are interesting also from another point, 
for in them we see the beginnings of a social life. A 
common burrow serves for several females; each side- 
gallery is the preserve of one individual, but the single 
front-door is the thin end of the wedge. " A sentinel is 
often stationed at the entrance, and there is close behind 
the doorway a small recess into which the sentinel can 



SOLITAEY BEES 243 

step whenever she wishes to allow a member of the 
establishment to pass in or out." This semi-social 
condition is specially developed in Halictus lineolatus 
and H. sexcinctus. 

These Bees are but slightly clothed with hair, and 
some of them, especially the exotic species, are of dark 
metallic hue. Some species appear to have more than 
one generation a year, but our commonest species, 
//. morio^ is only one-brooded. A striking peculiarity 
of these Bees, which cannot fail to strike the collector, 
is that females only are taken in the spring, and that 
later in the year males preponderate. The nests of 
H. quadricinctus and of H. maculatus have been minutely 
described by Verhoeff, and it is to be regretted that 
lack of space forbids our quoting him. 

Just as Andrena had its " cuckoos," so has Halictus ; 
in this case they are Bees of the genus Sphecodes. These 
Bees appear to be on the border-line between criminal 
and decent living habits. Some authorities deny their 
parasitic propensities; they are ill-fitted for ordinary 
Bee labour, having very slightly developed pollen- 
collecting apparatus. It is doubtful, however, whether 
Sphecodes is, generally, degenerating into an evil-doer 
or is struggling to lead a better life as a law-abiding 
Bee. It is against them that S. ruhicundus has been 
taken from the nest of //. quadricinctus, and ;S. suh- 
quadratus has been observed fighting with H. malachurus^ 
prior to taking possession of the latter 's nest. Evidently 
the relations between Halictus and Sphecodes are not 
so friendly as between Andrena and Nomada. 

All the species of this genus are small, brilliant, 
polished insects with red and black or red abdomens; 



244 INSECT LIFE 

one of our commonest species, S. gihhus^ is very typical 
of the genus. 

The genus Dasypoda contains one of the most striking 
of our native Bees, D. hirtipes. A large Andrena-like 
insect, its body is heavily clothed with tawny hair, 
its black abdomen is banded witli white hair, and the 
hind-legs of the female bear exceedingly long, bright 
golden tufts of branched hairs, which give the insect 
its striking appearance. 

Dasypoda tunnels in the earth to the depth of two 
feet or so. At the end of her burrow she constructs 
half a dozen chambers, in each of which she places food 
and an egg. The pollen which forms the larval food is 
carried to the nest on the hairy legs of the mother Bee ; 
frequently her load weighs half as much as herself. 
In the nest she moistens her burden with honey, kneads 
it to a pasty mass, and rolls it into a ball. This opera- 
tion is repeated with load after load, each subsequent 
load being added to the first, as a schoolboy builds up 
a big snowball, till a large-sized pollen-ball is formed. 
Three feet are made of the same material, to raise the 
ball from the floor, and an egg is laid on the top. The 
larva hatches from the egg in a few days, and finds 
itself upon a food-mass nearly a hundred and fifty 
times bigger than its own body. It devours the food 
layer by layer, so that the mass may retain its shape, 
and it voids no excrement till the whole is eaten. 

Apid^. — ^Long pointed-tongued Bees. 

This section, so far as our native Bees are concerned, 
is rich in genera, but poor in species, there being less 
than fifty, including the social species. 

Anthophom is a large and widely distributed genus. 



SOLITARY BEES 245 

Our native A. 'pili'pes, a very early spring arrival, bears 
a remarkable resemblance to a small Bumble Bee. 
The black, hairy females have orange legs, and may 
easily be distinguished from the chestnut-brown males, 
whose middle legs bear long grey and black hairs. 
Their nests consist of short burrows in sand or clay 
banks, and the few cells they contain are lined with 
clay by the mother Bee. One species, A. fersonata^ 
is said to require two years to complete its life- 
cycle. 

This genus has its " cuckoos '' of the genus Melecta , 
and A. 'pilipes is favoured by the attentions of the 
closely related though dissimilar M. armata, a slightly 
hairy, somewhat elongated insect, whose black abdomen 
is marked laterally with white spots. In this case the 
relations between host and parasite appear friendly, 
but another species of Anthophora has been observed 
to resent the attentions of M. luctuosa. 

The Carpenter Bees, Xylocopa, are the largest mem- 
bers of the family, some of the tropical species measur- 
ing nearly two inches in length. They have broad, 
somewhat flattened bodies, sparsely clothed with hair 
on their abdomens, except on the edges, and in colour 
they are mostly black or blue-black. There are few 
European species, of which the most widely distributed 
is Xylocopa violacea ; none of them occur in Britain. 

Their popular name is derived from their habit of 
making tunnels in dead wood for nesting purposes. 
These Bees display an extraordinary amount of patience 
in making their cylindrical burrows and their galleries • 
All the work is accomplished by their powerful 
mandibles, and the cells of the galleries, each containing 



246 INSECT LIFE 

an egg and food, are all separated by partitions formed 
of saliva and wood shavings. 

Euglossa is a tropical American genus, noted for and 
named from the inordinate length of the proboscis, 
often exceeding the length of the insect's body. Flat- 
tened, plate-like tibise, highly polished on their outer 
surfaces and fringed with bristles, are also character- 
istic of the genus. The colouring of many of these 
Bees is beautiful in the extreme, metalHc greens, 
purple, violet, and gold, being mingled in perfect 
harmony. 

Chalcicodoma is another interesting genus not repre- 
sented in this country. The members of this genus are 
known as Mason Bees, a name, by the way, which is 
also applied to species of the genus Osmia. 

The nesting habits of Chalcicodoma muraria may be 
taken as typical of the genus. The nest is built upon 
some solid foundation, a stone for preference. At first 
a single cell is built of earth mixed with saliva and 
incorporated with carefully selected small stones. After 
the edifice has reached the height of an inch or so, 
food in the shape of honey and pollen — ^the latter 
carried on the ventral abdominal hairs — is placed 
within to the height of about half an inch, an egg is 
deposited on the food, and the cell is closed. Nearly 
a dozen of these cells are made, and the whole group is 
then covered with a dome-shaped cement shelter " about 
the size of half an orange.'* In spite of their protection, 
the larvae of these Bees are parasitized by the Chalcids 
Leiwosfis gigas and Monodontomerus nitidus, which 
perforate the shelters and cell caps; by the Bee Stelis 
nasula^ which does likewise; and by another Bee, 



SOLITARY BEES 247 

Dioxys cincta, which lays its eggs in Chalcicodomas 
stored food before the cells are completed. In fact, 
sixteen or more insects are known to prey upon 
G. muraria. 

Of the Carder Bees we have but a single species, the 
Wool Carder, Antliidium manicatum, in Britain. It is 
a sturdily built black Bee, with yellow abdominal 
markings which give it somewhat of a Wasp-like appear- 
ance. It uses the burrows of other insects, or seeks 
out some naturally formed hole which will serve its 
purpose, and lines its nest with " wool " derived from 
hairy plants. The nest-cavity is doubly lined, first 
with rough wool, then comes an inner, finer layer of the 
same material, which is cemented to retain the honey 
stored within. A. diadema lines hollow stems with 
vegetable wool, and divides the cavity thus lined into 
several chambers. A. sepemdentatum and A. hellicosum 
nest in discarded Snail-shells, and instead of using wool 
they close their nests with resin. These Bees all possess 
pollen-carrying hairs on their ventral abdominal 
segments. 

The genus Osmia is noted for the remarkably varied 
nesting habits of its species. They are all short, stoutly 
built insects with very long tongues, and their ventral 
segments are densely clothed with pollen-carrying hairs, 
which are frequently brightly coloured. 

Osmia hicolor frequently nests in Snail-shells, after 
the manner of some of the Anthidiums. 0. rufa, 
recognized by its orange coat and horn-like protuber- 
ance on its face, either selects a similar site or some 
cavity in a wall or bmTows in the ground. 0. leuco- 
melana usually and 0, tridentata invariably nest in 



248 INSECT LIFE 

bramble-stems after having hollowed out the pith. The 
cells of these nests are placed in line along the pith and 
always the farthest cell from the mouth is the first to 
be completed. This being so, it is not surprising that 
the Bee in the end cell is the first to be ready to emerge. 
It bites through the partition which separates it from 
the neighbouring cell, and if its neighbour be ready to 
depart also, all is well. If it encounters a pupa it will 
patiently await its development and departure. Should 
the vigil be long-continued, by biting away the sur- 
rounding pith it will attempt to make a larger hole 
and room to pass. Should failure ensue, further waiting 
is cheerfully accepted ; one individual will never damage 
another in its attempts to escape. This trait led 
Fabre to make the very interesting discovery that, 
though the Osmias are not averse to bringing harm to 
other insects, they will never injure their own species. 

The " cuckoos " of Osmia belong to the genus Stelis. 
We have already mentioned S. nasiita, which deposits 
several eggs in each cell of the Mason Bee, after breaking 
down the latter 's masonry. S. minuta deposits a single 
egg in the cell of 0. leucomelana. The larvae of host and 
parasite live for a time upon the stored food of the 
host mother; the Stelis larva grows quicker than its 
companion, and with the consumption of the last 
remnants of food host and parasite meet; a short 
struggle ensues, in which the latter is always victorious; 
he devours his victim. Stelis signata is parasitic upon 
Anthidium strigatum, which it closely resembles — so 
closely that this Stelis was for long considered to be an 
Anthidium. 

The Leaf-Cutter Bees, Megachile^ are the most 



PLATE LXXII 




NEST OF LEAF-CUTTER BEE 
The plate shows three series of ctlls arranged in borings in wood 



SOLITAKY BEES 249 

interesting of all tlie Solitary Bees. We have eight 
species in this country, and they resemble stout Honey 
Bees; they have wide heads, and their pollen-bearing 
hairs are situated on their ventral abdominal segments. 
As with Osmias, these Bees rarely make burrows of their 
own, but search for suitable natural resting-places or 
appropriate the discarded burrow of some other creature. 
MegacJdle alhocincta nests in old Earth-Worm burrows ; 
M. circumcincta bores a tunnel in rotten wood. All of 
the species, however, line their nests most ingeniously 
with portions of leaves or petals. The nests are com- 
posed of thimble-shaped cells formed of leaves and 
placed end to end along the burrow. The circular 
pieces of leaf are cut by the Bees with mathematical 
exactness; pieces of varying size are used for the end, 
the sides, and the top of each cell, and the leaf-edges 
are glued together by a waxy substance derived from 
the body of the mother Bee. Each cell contains a store 
of pollen and honey and an egg. 

The " cuckoos " of Megachile belong to the genus 
Cwlioxys, C. quadridentaia being the special ** cuckoo " 
of M. circumcincta. These Bees are quite distinct, 
usually of a black or dark blue ground colour prettily 
marked with pale blue; non- or very slightly hairy, 
and with rather acutely pointed bodies. 

Eucera longicorms^ the Long-Horned Bee, is a large 
insect of a chestnut-brown colour, and is rendered 
conspicuous by the enormous development of the 
antennae in the males. The females have these organs 
of ordinary proportions. It nests in the earth in an 
enlarged chamber at the end of a short burrow. 

Sawpoda bimaculata, another of our Solitary Bees, is, 



250 INSECT LIFE 

curiously enough, most easily recognized by the dis- 
tinctive high pitch of its buzz. It is an active insect 
which nests in the ground, and is possessed of lovely 
greenish-blue eyes. 

Social Bees. 

These insects differ from all the preceding species in 
the important fact that they dwell together in com- 
munities, in which there are at least a fertile female or 
" queen,'' small sterile females or " workers,'' and 
medium-sized males or partially sterile females called 
** drones." They differ also in that their larvae, instead 
of being sealed up in a cell along with a store of food, 
are subject to unremitting care and attention. 

The best known of all these social insects are un- 
doubtedly the semi-domesticated Honey Bees, Apis 
mellifica. They are considered to be the most highly 
developed of the Anthofhila. In point of interest no 
insects surpass and few equal them. Publishers, how- 
ever, even the most lenient, set a limit on an author's 
verbosity, and the Honey Bee does not lack its literary 
champions of every degree; its merits have been sung 
in verse and lauded in prose. A fair-sized library 
could be filled with works dealing with this industrious 
insect; on that account we perforce omit it from our 
pages. 

Bombus, the genus of Bumble or Humble Bees, has 
more than a dozen British representatives. The nest- 
ing habits of the species fall naturally into two classes; 
for some are subterranean nest-builders, others nest on 
the ground. They all differ from Social Bees of the 
genus Apis in that their workers are merely imperfect 
females, whereas those of the latter genus are struc- 



SOCIAL BEES 251 

turally different from either males or females. Again, 
each colony ends with the year; a few hibernating 
females begin new colonies in the spring. 

Of the subterranean nesting Bumble Bees, our com- 
monest species are the Earth Bumble Bee, Bombus 
terrestris, and the Stone Bumble Bee, B. lapidarius. 
The former is hairy, with a yellowish-grey tip to its 
abdomen and a yellow band across its thorax and 
fore-part of its abdomen; the latter is a big black hairy 
insect with a red-tipped abdomen; the males are dis- 
tinguished by a yellow band just behind the head. 

The nesting habits of the two species are practically 
identical. In early spring a hibernating female becomes 
active, and seeks a nesting-place. Usually a deserted 
mouse-hole or some hollow in the ground is selected. 
Moss is then gathered and stored in the hole, and under 
this moss a cell is placed, formed of wax externally 
and honey-saturated pollen internally; several eggs are 
deposited in the cell before it is closed. Other cells 
containing more eggs are added at intervals. Then 
the larvae in the first-formed cell hatch; the mother 
punctures the cap of the cell, and feeds them with 
regurgitated food. Later the larvae spin silken cocoons 
within their cells, and emerge at irregular intervals. 
The first of the new colony to appear are always smal] 
females, known as " workers."" The " queen '" now 
becomes little more than an egg-laying machine; she 
rarely leaves her nest, and often loses the power of 
flight. The workers build more and more cells, which 
the *' queen "' supplies with eggs; there is no food-store 
in these later cells, the larvae being fed solely by the 
workers. Stores of pollen and honey are laid up, 



252 INSECT LIFE 

however, in the discarded cells which the earlier members 
of the community have vacated. Some of the later 
females are fertile and capable of laying eggs, whilst 
towards the end of the summer the " drones '' or males 
appear, and mate with the females destined to hibernate 
through the winter and become the future queens. 

Some of these underground nests contain as many 
as four hundred individuals, poor architects all, but 
very industrious workers, being on the wing at three 
o'clock or so in the morning. It is stated, and the 
statement has frequently been confirmed, that each nest 
harbours a trumpeter whose duty it is to arouse the 
inmates when the hour arrives for their day's work to 
commence. 

Of the ground-nesters there are also two very common 
species, the Moss-Carding Bee, B. agrorum, and its near 
relative B. venustus, also a Carder. The former may 
be recognized by its tawny thorax and black abdomen, 
and the latter is wholly tawny. The cells are placed 
in a hollow in the ground, and after they are constructed 
the mother Bee drags moss to the site, shreds it with 
her mandibles, and scatters it over her cells, till they 
are covered, with her hind-legs. 

Bombi have their " cuckoos " like many other Bees; 
they belong to the genus Psithyrus, and, except for their 
larger size, very closely resemble their hosts. They 
collect no pollen or honey — in fact, they are not adapted 
for so doing. They are, however, not quite such arrant 
rogues as some of the " cuckoos," for they actually 
construct their own cells alongside those of their hosts, 
but they leave the duty of rearing their young to the 
worker Bombi. Towards the end of the season these 



WASPS 253 

" cuckoos " remain within tlie host nest and assiduously 
devour the stored honey. However similar host and 
" cuckoos " may be in all other respects, there is one 
infallible method of determining which is which. All 
species of Bomhiis have clear, unclouded wings; all 
Psithyrus species have smoky wings— the latter, more- 
over, have no pollen-collecting apparatus. 

The nests of these surface Bees have far fewer inmates 
than the subterranean species. From a hundred to a 
hundred and fifty is a fair average— in fact, the latter 
figure is above the average. 

Division 2. diploptera, or Wasps. 

The Diploptera are so named from the habit of its 
members of folding their front wings longitudinally 
when at rest. The division is split up into two families, 
the Eumenidce and the Vespidce ; the former are Solitary, 
the latter Social. 

EuMENiD^ .—Tarsal claws toothed; outer face of 
mandibles longitudinally furrowed. 

In Britain there are sixteen species of this family, 
one belonging to the genus Eumenes and fifteen to the 
genus Odynerus. 

Eumenes coarctata is a long-waisted, yellow and black 
insect. It builds its globular mud nests on the twigs 
of some shrub, usually heather, and stores them with 
small Lepidopterous larvae. In each nest it lays a single 
egg. Internally the mud nest is divided unequally into 
two parts; in the larger division the Eumenes larva 
lives and grows, in the smaller it deposits its excrement 
and wasted food material. 

Fabre has described the very interesting nesting 



254 INSECT LIFE 

liabits of E. fomiformis, which, by the way, except 
for the design of the nest, are very similar to those of 
Odynerus reniformis. The nest is vase-Hke and made 
of earth; in its walls small stones are embedded. The 
interior consists of a single chamber, which the mother 
Wasp stores with fifteen or sixteen partially paralyzed 
Caterpillars. Now, the Eumenes egg and larva are 
dehcate, and the wriggling Caterpillars would speedily 
bring about their destruction. The Wasp is equal to 
the occasion, for it suspends its single egg by a fine 
silken thread to the roof of its nest; here egg and larva 
are out of harm's way. WTien the larva emerges it 
can just reach its living food from its suspended position. 
As it grows older, by a marvellous provision of Nature, 
the egg-shell unfolds as a kind of ribbon, so that the 
larva clinging to it can reach food farther away. By 
the time the larva can no longer reach more food from 
above, it has grown big and strong enough to descend 
amongst the remaining Caterpillars without suffering 
any harm. 

Odynerus is a genus of insects very similar in appear- 
ance, but with very varied nesting habits. For the 
most part they seek out holes and crevices already 
made. 0. eallosus nests in clay banks; 0. sfinifes has 
similar habits, but builds a curved, dow^nwardly pro- 
jecting spout at the entrance. Other species favour 
door-locks, cotton-reels, disused screw-holes, and the 
like, and some nest in plant-stems, lining the interior 
with fine sand. Chrysidice are the " cuckoos '' of 
Odynerus. 

The Australian genus Ahisfa constructs immense 
nests with funnel-shaped entrances. 



WASPS 255 

Species of the genus RhyncMum, for the most part, 
nest in the pithy stems of plants. Some species, how- 
ever, build mud nests after the manner of Eumems, 
and R. hrunneum is said to " obliterate hieroglyphic 
inscriptions in Egypt by its babit of building mud nests 
amongst them/' 

VESPiDiE.— Claws not toothed, mandibles not fur- 
rowed. 

There are eight British species of Vespidw, and they 
build three distinct types of nests, or, to be more correct, 
they frequent three different situations. Vespa vulgaris, 
V. rufa, and V. germanica, nest underground; V. arborea, 
V. sylvestris, and 7. norvegica, build suspended aerial 
nests, and V. crahro seeks an intermediate site such as 
a hollow tree or beneath a thatched roof. Our eighth 
species, F. austriaca, is rare. 

All the Social Wasps build elaborate though short- 
lived nests, and the early building is always carried 
out by a single queen. The material for the comb is 
all of vegetable origin, which is gathered in the man- 
dibles of the nest-builders, made into pulp, and cemented 
with a secretion of the Wasps. " Nearly any oak fence 
in the open country bears upon it during the summer- 
time hundreds of marks as if it had been lightly scraped 
wath the finger-nail; these marks are made by the jaws 
of wasps.'* The early " queen "-made cells are of finer 
material than those formed later by the workers. The 
queen cements a single egg to the upper angle of 
each of the early cells, and in about a week the larvae 
emerge. As the Wasp cells are open and inverted, 
the legless grub keeps some of its hinder segments 
within the remains of the egg-shell, so that it may not 



256 INSECT LIFE 

fall out. In common with all other Wasps, as opposed 
to Bees, the larvae are fed upon animal matter in the 
shape of Green Flies, etc. As growth takes place the 
cells are added to by the queen. When fully fed the 
larvae spin a silken cocoon within their shell, and later 
the perfect Wasp appears. Her first act is to clean 
herself, and then to visit a well-grown larva, from 
whose mouth she obtains a drop of liquid food. Her 
early duties consist in helping the queen to feed the 
other larvae, but in a day or two she becomes a worker, 
and sallies forth to hunt for food for the inmates of the 
nest, or helps to build more cells and thereby enlarge 
her home. Often there are many thousands of inmates 
in a Wasp's nest; as many as twelve thousand have 
been counted at one time, and during a single summer 
one nest may harbour sixty thousand individuals — • 
" workers,'' " drones," and " queen." 

In the nests of our common Wasps there are several 
guests. The little Fly, Pegomyia inanis, which lays 
its eggs on the comb, is a useful member of the com- 
munity. Its larvae devour the Wasp excrement which 
always collects below the comb. The larvae of another 
Fly, Volucella sp., visit each cell in turn and feed upon 
the excrement of the Wasp larvae. The Beetle RMpi- 
fhorus 'paradoxus is a parasite. " The larva of this 
beetle is believed to leap upon the bodies of worker 
wasps when they are gathering woodfibre off the surface 
of timber. It is thus carried by the returning insects 
into their nest. It now eats its way into a wasp grub 
and devours the less important tissues of its host ; when 
it becomes of such a size as to threaten the life of its 
unfortunate victim, it passes out through the skin of 



DIGGER WASPS 257 

the wasp grub, plugging the wound with the skin which 
it itself moults as it issues, and now becomes an ex- 
ternal parasite upon the same host. It refrains from 
killing the wasp grub till the latter has spun its cocoon. 
Eventually the beetle larva completely devours the 
wasp grub, and accomplishes its own metamorphosis 
within the cocoon provided for it by its prey/' 

The genus PoUstes is mainly remarkable for the 
wonderful colour variations exhibited even by different 
individuals from the same nest. 

Polyhia species build neat little pear or apple-shaped 
nests, and suspend them from the branches of trees 
or shrubs; each nest is enveloped in Wasp paper, and 
has one or two more holes for the going and coming of 
the inmates. Some of these nests are ornamented 
externally. 

Chartergus chartarius makes its Wasp paper so solid 
and compact that it has the appearance of stone. Apoica 
pallida covers its nest with a specially fine paper skin. 

Division 3. Fossores, or Digger Wasps. 
All the Fossorial Wasps are carnivorous, all are 
solitary, and most of them display such remarkable 
instinct in their hunting, their nesting, and their provi- 
sion for the future, that, by their actions, they have 
drawn to themselves a host of observers and enthusiasts 
who have made of them a lifelong study. Lest the 
budding entomologist, on that account, should decide 
to direct his studies in another channel, we can assure 
him that much remains to be learned, and no class of 
insects will better repay the time that is given to their 
study. 

33 



258 INSECT LIFE 

The Fossores are sun-lovers, more so even tlian 
Butterflies; dry, sandy districts are the favoured haunts 
of most species, but, naturally, their habits vary — in 
fact. Sharp places them, according to their habits, in 
four groups: Parasitic or semi-parasitic species which 
usurp the nests of other insects; the potters — builders 
of earthen cells; ground burrowers; and wood-tun- 
nellers. All the work of tunnelling, building, or bur- 
rowing is carried out by the females; their mates take 
but little part in domestic affairs. 

MuTiLLiDJS. — Females wingless and without ocelli; 
males winged, ocelli present; tibiae spined; anteuDse 
thread-like. 

These insects are often called Cow or Solitary Ants. 
As is so often the case, both names are inappropriate, 
for the Mutillids are not Ants. All of them are clothed 
with a vestment of hair, and there is a standard colour 
scheme of deep red and black, relieved by white spots 
which is common to the females of the majority of 
species. 

The males are always totally unlike the females; they 
are winged, active creatures, whereas the females are 
apterous and sluggish — an uncommon event amongst 
the Fossores, whose females are usually exceedingly 
active. 

But little is known of the habits of these insects. 
The commonest European species, Mutilla europcea, 
appears to frequent the nests of Bumble Bees, especially 
those of Bombus agrorum and B. variabilis. It is 
probable that the Mutillid larvse are parasitic on the 
Bee larvae, and that the females feed upon the store 
of honey. The winged males leave the Bombus nests 



DIGGER WASPS 259 

immediately they emerge. There are three rare British 
species. 

Thynnid^. — Females wingless, stout, and thorax 
divided into three unequal parts; males winged, slender; 
legs spinous. 

By some authorities these insects are not separated 
from the MutillidcB. Most of them are black in colour 
with some yellow markings. Little is known of their 
habits, but they are believed to be parasitic on Lepi- 
dopterous larvsB. The males are so totally unhke the 
females that in many cases they have been described 
as different species. The sole British representative of 
the family, Methoca ichneumonides , is exceedingly rare. 

ScoLiiD^. — Antennae stout and short; legs stout with 
compressed and swollen femora and heavily spined 
tibiae; apical area of wings devoid of nervures. 

Many of the Scohas are large, powerful insects; most 
of them are hairy and of a black colour relieved with 
yellow or red spots and bands. For the most part, 
males and females are strong on the wing, but there is 
a curious Central Asian species, Komarovia vidoriosa^ 
in which the female has minute wings, useless for flight. 

With few exceptions, these insects are parasitic upon 
the larvae of Lamellicorn Beetles. Fabre has investi- 
gated the habits of Scolia bzfasciata, which oviposits 
on Cetoniid larvae, and of S. interrwpta, a parasite of 
Melolonthid larvae. These larvae dwell below ground, 
and it is necessary for the mother Scolia to burrow in 
order to find her prey. Having done so, she paralyzes 
it by stinging a particular nerve ganglion on the ventral 
surface of the larva. This ganglion controls the body 
movements of the victim, and the Scolia never stings 



260 INSECT LIFE 

till she is able to reach exactly the right spot. Having 
rendered her victim inert, she deposits a single egg just 
behind the fore-legs. When the parasite larva hatches, 
it at once buries its head in the skin of its host and 
feeds on the non- vital parts. Host and parasite never 
part company till there is nothing left of the former 
but an empty skin. 

EUs 4:-notata is said to depart from the usual Scoliid 
custom by preying upon Spiders, and still more curious 
is the story of S. atrata as related by Kirby. This West 
Indian insect is black, and its reddish wings are tipped 
with violet. " It is in the habit of provisioning its 
nest with a large grasshopper. It first digs its nest, 
and then goes in search of a grasshopper. Having 
partially disabled it with its sting, it mounts on its 
back and rides it up to its own grave, where it buries 
it. If the grave proves to be too small the wasp drives 
the grasshopper away while it enlarges it as much as 
is required, and then brings it back to the hole.'' 

There are but two British Scoliids belonging to the 
genus Tiphia — small black insects with red-brown legs, 

Saphygid^. — Closely allied to the ScoUidce ; antennae 
as long as the head and thorax and slender; legs slender, 
not spined; males and females winged. A family of 
which little is known, and that little is open to 
doubt. 

We have two British species, Sapyga b-functata, with 
black males marked with five transverse white spots 
on the abdomen; the markings of the females are similar, 
but their abdomens are red. S. clavicornis, our second 
native species, is black with yellow markings. The 
former species is said by Fabre to live in the nests of 



DIGGER WASPS 261 

Osmia and to feed upon the stored honey, whilst Smith 
states that it preys upon Caterpillars. 

PsAMMOCHARiD^ (till recently known as Pompilidw). 
— Pronotum reaches the tegulse laterally ; hind-legs long ; 
eyes elliptic; abdomen oval, attached to the thorax by 
a short petiole. 

The Pompilids include some of the largest, most 
active of the aculeate Hymenoptera. Their long hind- 
legs indicate the fact that they are probably fleet of 
foot, and this is the case. They may often be observed 
running hither and thither over the ground in search 
of prey. 

Many species of aculeate Hymencptera, although 
possessed of stings, are either incapable of piercing the 
human skin, or at worst they cause a wound which is 
of temporary duration. The larger Pompilids, some of 
them three inches in length, are creatures to be dreaded, 
and a sting from one of them may have really serious 
consequences. 

As a family these insects are remarkably uniform in 
colouring. Rich black with red legs, and sometimes 
anteimse and wings of beautiful iridescent blue and 
green sheen, is a general description which applies to 
many species, especially of the genus Pepsis. 

In Britain we have thirty species, half of which belong 
to the genus Pompilus. As a rule, these insects are 
diggers, using their large approximated coxae to shovel 
the earth from their burrows, a fact which they accom- 
plish by coming from their excavations backwards. 
Having brought the earth to the surface, it is scattered 
far and wide by their long hind-feet. Certain species, 
amongst them the British Agenia carbonaria, depart 



262 INSECT LIFE 

from the usual custom and construct vase-shaped mud 
cells, which they store with insect food for their larvae. 

An Australian species, Priocnemis hicolor, appears to 
be a vegetable-feeder — in part, at any rate. This insect 
seeks a Cicada in the act of sucking sap from a hole 
which it has punctured in a tree. " The Priocnemis 
has not the art of making the puncture necessary to 
procure sap, so the wasp seizes the Cicada and shakes 
it till it leaves its hold and flies away, when the 
Priocjiemis takes its place and sips the sap. The wasp 
never hurts the Cicada." 

With few exceptions, all the PsammocJiaridce prey 
upon Spiders, and each species appears to have a special 
species of Spider prey. Now, Spiders are by no means 
defenceless creatures, and the Wasps often display 
considerable ingenuity in their efforts to get the better 
of their victims. Certain species of Pepsis prey upon 
the enormous Tarantulas, and the battles between 
Wasp and Spider do not always terminate in favour of 
the former. 

According to Latter, these Wasps are in the habit of 
training for their encounters. " Frequently two females 
— note this is no love-dance, for both are females — 
may be seen to settle down face to face on a patch of 
sand, to move round and round as though searching for 
an opportunity to lean over first on one and then on the 
other side, and from time to time to lash round with 
their wonderfully flexible abdomens, as though delivering 
a stab from the venomous sting. In their actual 
encounters with spiders it behoves them ever to face 
the enemy, for the poison fangs of the spider are situ- 
ated at the head end, and it is thus from that quarter 



DIGGER WASPS 263 

that danger tlireatens." The females to which reference 
is made are of Pompilus viaticus, one of our largest 
native species, which, with P. rufipes, is common on 
inland sandy ground. By the coast one may find and 
observe the habits of another common species, P. 
plumheus, whose special prey is the Spider Lycosa picta. 

All the PsammocharidcB are characterized by a 
wonderful solicitude for progeny they w411 never see 
and " an acute memory for localities/' Their actions 
" seem to point to an intelligence higher than mere 
instinct; tlie insects adapt their conduct to meet various 
contingencies; they appear to have a definite purpose 
in view, and that purpose they achieve in a fashion 
which makes it difficult to deny them at least some 
glimmering of the reasoning faculty/' Fabre has 
written of these insects, and every entomologist should 
read his works. The bearing away by the Wasps of 
Spiders heavier than themselves, the battles with their 
prey and their overcoming by stealth, the hiding of their 
burrows that others may not plunder their stores are 
all related as only Fabre can tell them. 

Sphegid^. — Prothorax narrow in front and not 
produced backwards to the base of the wings; first and 
sometimes part of the second abdominal segments 
forming a petiole ; wings short. 

This is by far the largest family of Fossores, and is 
usually divided into ten subfamilies. In Britain we 
have at least ninety species. As with the preceding 
family, many of the Sphegids and their doings are 
charmingly described by Fabre, and, risking repetition, 
we would say again. Read him. 

Sphegides.— The Sphegides are, for the most part, 



264 INSECT LIFE 

parasitic upon Locustidw ; a few of tliem prey upon 
Spiders and some upon Caterpillars. 

The common habit of the genus Spkex is to construct 
a horizontal burrow about three inches in length; this 
is continued into a vertical burrow of about the same 
length, terminated by an oval chamber. The horizontal 
tunnel forms a shelter and resting-place for the insect; 
the oval chamber is a nursery for its larva. As soon 
as the terminal chamber is completed, an Orthopteron 
is caught, paralyzed, and brought therein and an egg 
deposited thereon. The chamber is then closed, and 
a second, third, and even a fourth, are made and 
similarly stocked. Then the insect starts a new burrow, 
till it has completed ten such structures; and as its 
period of activity extends but a month, it is obvious 
that the female Sfhex labours with unceasing energy. 
The larvae feed upon the stored Orihoptera and pupate 
within the subterranean cell. Their cocoons are in- 
teresting in that they consist of three layers, the inner 
one being waterproof, to prevent damage to the pupa 
from the damp earth. 

There are four species of Ammophila, or sand-lovers, 
in Britain. They are easily recognized by their elongate 
red and black bodies. They are burrowers, but they 
do not use their coxae for removing the earth from their 
excavations, after the manner of the Pompilids. All 
their tunneUing is carried out by their powerful man- 
dibles; the soil is loosened by these organs, and in 
them carried to the surface. 

Our largest species is Ammophila sahulosa ; its larvae 
are nourished upon Caterpillars, two evidently being 
the normal supply for one larva. After collecting her 



DIGGER WASPS 265 

small store and laying an egg upon one individual, this 
species covers the mouth of its burrow and leaves its 
progeny to its fate. The equally common A. campestris, 
however, does not provide all the larval food at one 
time, but returns now and again with fresh suppHes of 
Caterpillars for its growing family. 

The genus Sceliphron, not unlike the Ammophilas in 
form, but distinctively banded with yellow and black, 
possess the curious habit of selecting human habitations 
for their nesting sites. They build mud cells and store 
them with Spiders. A South European species, S. 
spirifex, selects a spot in an open fireplace; the Austra- 
lian S. Icetus attaches its cells to some article of furniture 
and decorates them with acacia bark. The Indian 
S. madraspatanus , which, by the way, feeds its larvse 
on Caterpillars and not on Spiders, decorates its nest 
in a peculiar manner with rays of mud, " exactly 
imitating a lump of mud thrown with some force." 

Ampulicides.— Closely allied to Sphegides, but all 
the species have elongated heads and necks, and the 
petiole is articulated with the thorax ventrally. 

This is a small but widely distributed subfamily. 
Many of the species are of gorgeous metallic green or 
blue colour. They have been studied but little; so far 
as is known, they prey upon BlattidcB. 

Bembecides. — ^Very Wasp-like insects, being for the 
most part black banded with yellow; their bands are 
always broken in the middle line, and this alone, apart 
from other more technical characters, at once distin- 
guishes them from the Wasps. 

Most species — there are none in Britain — ^prey upon 
Diftera. They build their nests in loose soil, and they 

34 



266 INSECT LIFE 

feed their larvae upon Flies wliich they bring to their 
nests from time to time. A North American species, 
Sphecius speciosus, provisions its nest with a paralyzed 
Cicada. As the Cicada is twice the size of its captor, 
the latter climbs with its prey to some high elevation 
before returning to its nest. With this advantage it is 
able to plane downwards to its destination without 
undue effort. 

Philanthides. — Head wider than thorax; inter- 
mediate tibiae apically armed with one spur; anterior 
tarsi ciliated. 

Wasp-like insects, usually of a black and yellow 
colour. The genus Cerceris preys upon Beetles, and is 
remarkable for the fact that each Cerceris species preys 
only upon a certain family of Beetles. Even though 
the victims be of varied form and colour, these Wasps 
are never misled as to their prey. 

Our common British Cerceris arenaria preys upon 
Weevils; another of our native species, 0. lahiata^ 
appears to select the " Flea " Beetle Haltica tabida ; 
whilst C. bupresticida, as may be guessed from its name, 
confines its attention to the Buprestidce. 

Certain species prey upon Bees of the genus Halictiis, 
and Philanthus triangulum is an enemy of the Honey 
Bee. After having killed its victim, the Wasp so 
kneads the Bee as to force the honey from its honey 
sac, and the sweet liquid is greedily imbibed. The 
Bee is then carried off to the Philanthus nest, a long, 
deep tunnel in the ground, and an egg is deposited 
upon its dead body. 

Mimes IDES. — ^Minute insects with petiolate abdomens; 
middle tibiae armed with a single spur. 



DIGGER WASPS 267 

These are minute insects which make their nests in 
hollow stems or in disused galls. Psen concolor preys 
upon PsylUdce. Our British Peni'phredon lugnhris bores 
into the decayed wood of beech-trees and stores its 
nest with Aphidce. Cemonus unicolor takes possession 
of an old Cynips gall for its home, or the late dwelling 
of the gall-forming Fly Lifara lucens on the stem of 
the common reed. 

Crabronides. — Large, squarehead; prothorax short; 
antennae often thickened at the apex; hind-tibiae 
frequently thickened; clypeus hairy. 

This is by far the largest subfamily of Sphegidw as 
far as Britain is concerned; there are at least thirty 
native species. 

We have mentioned that the hind-tibiae of these 
Wasps are frequently thickened; even in the British 
Crabros there are many species with curiously formed 
legs. Crabro tibialis exhibits swollen tibiae to a re- 
markable degree; G. gonager has swollen front tibiae; 
and for the rest, the legs of C. cribrarius^ C. peltarius, 
G. scutellatiiSj G. clypeatus^ G. inierruptus, G. cetratus, 
and G. palmamis, will all repay investigation. The 
uses of these extraordinary modifications have never 
been explained; but, as they occur only in the males, 
they are probably secondary sexual characters. 

The Grabros prey upon Flies. G. leucostomus preys 
upon the metallic green Ghrysomyia poliia ; G. podagricus 
upon Gnats; G. dimidiatus upon Bluebottles. Their 
nesting habits vary. G. quadrimaculatus bores a nest 
in decayed wood; G. wesmaeli and G. cribrarius burrow 
in sandy soil. The adult Wasps imbibe the nectar 
from various flowers, a habit which is shared by species 



268 INSECT LIFE 

of the genus Oxyhelus. This genus also preys upon 
Diftera, and one species at least, 0. uniglumis, forms 
an excellent example of " aggressive mimicry/' for it 
closely resembles its prey. Dark grey with a white- 
spotted abdomen, this Wasp as it basks in the sun might 
easily be mistaken for a House-fly. The female makes 
a short burrow in the soil and stocks it with nearly a 
score of Fhes, which she catches on the wing after the 
manner of a hawk, and amongst which she deposits a 
single egg. 

Division 4. Formicid^, or Ants. 

The most distinctive feature of all Ants is the mobile 
articulation between the thorax and the main portion 
of the abdomen. Another feature which cannot fail to 
strike the student is the extraordinary degree of poly- 
morphism which occurs among these insects, but of this 
we have spoken elsewhere (p. 30). Some forms are 
blind: this is never the case with winged forms; others 
have well-developed eyes and ocelli. Their heads are 
of variable proportions: in the forms of certain species 
they can justly be described as minute; other forms 
have heads apparently out of all proportion to their 
bodies. 

From a bionomical point of view no insects surpass 
the Ants in interest. Many of them are long-lived, so 
at least they may learn by experience; as a class they 
have brought the art of living together in a perfect 
social community to a very high state. They possess 
one qualification which is not equalled in any human 
community: each individual works for the good of its 
colony, never for the benefit of self. ** There can, 



ANTS 269 

indeed, be little doubt that Ants are really not only 
the ' highest ' structurally or mechanically of all insects, 
but also the most efficient/' To deal but cursorily 
with these remarkably interesting insects would require 
a volume larger than " Insect Life." Professor Wheeler 
has written an absorbingly interesting book on Ants; 
it should be read by those who would learn more of 
Ants than we can tell. 

Camponotides. — Constriction of the abdomen with 
a single protuberance (node); no true sting; cloacal 
opening circular. 

This is a large subfamily, and contains some of the 
most interesting species. None of them can sting, but 
they are able to eject a highly acid fluid to a consider- 
able distance, a habit which renders them formidable 
propositions for other animals to attack. 

By far the largest genus is Cam'ponotus, but it does 
not contain any exceptionally interesting species and 
no British representatives. C. ligni'perdus is the largest 
European species, and the allied American Carpenter 
Ant, G. pennsylvanicus , whose nests are built in tree- 
stumps, has been so minutely described by McCook, 
in his " Notes on the Architecture and Habits of the 
Pennsylvania Carpenter Ant," that readers who are 
interested will naturally turn to this account for fuller 
information. 

Even a superficial study of Formicidce will reveal 
wonder upon wonder to the student, and amongst such 
extraordinary insects as Ants it is difficult to know 
where to award the palm for ingenuity. Assuredly 
the Indian Tree Ant, CEco-phylla smaragdina, ranks with 
the most ingenious, and its doings were for years doubted 



270 INSECT LIFE 

by sober, or shall we say sane, scientists, till eye-wit- 
nesses of undoubted integrity testified to the truth of 
the earlier reports. In appearance the insect is remark- 
able, for it is green — ^the usual Ant colour is brown, 
black, or red. As (Ecofhylla lives in trees and nests 
amongst the leaves, its green colour is protective. It 
is, however, in its nesting habits that this insect is so 
extraordinary. Selecting several leaves growing in 
proximity to one another, their edges are brought 
together and fastened with silk, so that the whole forms 
a commodious abode for the Ant colony. These nests, 
which were discovered long before anyone had seen 
them in the process of construction, gave rise to much 
wonderment, for no Ant possessed spinnerets or had the 
power of forming silk. At length the mystery was 
solved, though the earlier reports were not believed. 
Nest-making was carried out by a band of Ants working 
together; having found a group of leaves suited to 
their purpose, hundreds of workers seized the edges and 
dragged them together — a feat beyond the powers of 
a single Ant, or even of a dozen individuals, was accom- 
plished, after much labour, by hundreds. Next came 
the most astounding part of the whole performance. 
When the leaf -edges were drawn together, a second 
host of Ants appeared, each bearing a larva in its 
mandibles. These Ants used the larvae as shuttles, 
applying them, now to one leaf-edge, now to another, 
and squeezing them gently the while, so that they might 
give forth the silk which, in normal cii'cumstances 
would have gone to the making of their cocoons. By 
this marvellous means the leaf-edges w^ere bound 
together and the new nest completed. 



HONEY ANTS 271 

Equally interesting are the American Honey Ants, 
Myrmecocystiis melliger and M. hortideorum. These 
creatures are provident, and they lay up stores for the 
inevitable rainy day. Other Ants do likewise, it is 
true, but none in such a curious manner as the Honey 
Ants. They live underground, and their nests are 
always constructed in the neighbourhood of the she- 
oak, a shrub which bears honey-secreting galls. In the 
nests a large chamber is constructed, and on its domed 
roof many individuals hang, suspended upside down, 
all their lives. By night the workers sally forth to 
steal the sweet fluid from the she-oak; on their return 
to the nest they feed the hungry individuals who have 
remained behind, and the surplus is regurgitated and 
fed to the individuals suspended from the roof of the 
larder. The operation is repeated time and again, till 
the honey-storing individuals become distended out of 
all proportion — their honey-crops attain the size of a 
small cherry. When the outside food-supply fails, 
these living honey-pots yield up their stores to their 
fellow- Ants, and thus enable the colony to survive 
periods of stress. Similar habits have been observed 
in a South African Ant of the genus Plagiolepis and in 
the Australian MelopJiorus inftatus. 

The genus Polyrachis contains species of remarkable 
form and habits. In form they are conspicuous in 
possessing a number of formidable-looking spines on 
various parts of their bodies; in habit they are peculiar 
in that they only form small colonies, sometimes as few 
as a queen and a dozen workers. 

The nests of many species are constructed on or 
within leaves. P. argentea, a beautiful Ant covered 



272 INSECT LIFE 

with silvery pubescence , builds a small nest of vegetable 
material on some broad tropical leaf; P. rastella bides 
its nest between two leaves; P. nmyri and P. nidificans 
construct minute paper-like nests on leaf-surfaces. 

Of the British Campanotides , the most interesting are 
Formica rufa and F. sanguinea. The former, variously 
known as the Wood Ant, Hill Ant, and Red Ant, lives 
for the most part in pine-woods. It forms a striking 
contrast to the genus Polyrachis, for its communities 
are formed of innumerable individuals. Its nest con- 
sists of a mound of vegetable matter, and frequently 
of large proportions. The mound is tunnelled by 
numerous galleries, leading to further galleries in the 
soil. The Wood Ant is one of the many species partial 
to Aphides, who supply it with sweet honey-dew. The 
most remarkable fact, however, concerning this insect 
is the enormous variety of guests which find a home 
in its nest. It has been estimated that any one of no 
fewer than fifty distinct kinds of guests may be met 
with in the Wood Ant's spacious nest. 

F. sanguinea, the Blood-Red Slave-making Ant, has 
been described as the most sagacious and the most 
courageous of all Ants. Whether it deserves these 
encomiums is another matter. Although a slave- 
maker, it is by no means dependent upon slaves, and 
can well exist without them. Its nests are made in 
banks, and harbour vast communities. From time to 
time the warriors sally forth and plunder the nests of 
F.fusca, F. cunicularia, and Lasius flavus, bearing off 
the pupse to its own abode. When the pupae hatch, 
the aliens faithfully serve their owners and carry out 
most of the duties of the community, for satiguinea is 



ANTS 273 

by nature lazy and has little stomach for anything but 
fighting and robbing his neighbours. 

The most notorious slave-maker, however, is the 
Amazon Ant, Polyergus rufescens, a European but non- 
British species. This Ant is made for fighting; its 
mandibles are designed for gripping its enemies to their 
undoing, and so unfitted are they for any other purpose 
that their owners cannot even feed themselves. To 
their slaves these Ants must look for every particle of 
food. F.fusca and its allied race, F.fusca auncularia, 
are mainly the individuals whose lot it is to be slaves 
of the Amazon Ant. 

The most numerous British genus of the Campanotides 
is Lasius, and the commonest species are L. flavus, the 
Yellow Meadow Ant; L. niger, the Black Garden Ant; 
and L.fuliginosus, the Jet Black Ant. 

The Yellow Meadow Ant and the Black Garden Ant 
are subterranean dwellers. They both form under- 
ground tunnels and galleries of a complex nature; in 
them they have nurseries, larders, and all the other 
chambers usual in an Ant community. The Garden 
Ant is one of the most assiduous guardians of Aphides, 
from which it obtains a sugary fluid known as honey- 
dew. Not only does this species frequent the haunts 
of Aphides, but it tends the subterranean forms as 
carefully as any farmer tends his cows. ''Many 
Aphidce exhibit the phenomenon known as alternation 
of generations — ^that is, there is a winged sexual brood 
and a wingless asexual brood ; and sometimes the former 
lives in the open air and the latter at the roots of 
plants. When, therefore, these ants meet with a 
winged Aphis about to lay eggs which will produce a 

35 



274 INSECT LIFE 

subterranean brood, they first clip ber wings to prevent 
ber escape, and tben open a way for ber, and guide ber 
down to tbe roots of tbe grass. But wben winged 
AphidcB are born in tbeir nests, tbey do not cbp tbeir 
wings, but open a way for tbem into tbe air, tbat tbey 
may fly to tbe plants on wbicb tbeir young are to feed, 
and tbus insure tbe perpetuation of tbe species/' Tbis 
statement brings us up against an important point in 
Ant economy. Tbougb few species of Ants can be 
termed barmful to agriculture in tbemselves, many 
species, by tbeir pernicious and wonderfully successful 
babits of cultivating Aphides, Coccidce, and otber 
noxious insects, are indirectly responsible for consider- 
able damage. In no case is tbis better exemplified 
tban in tbe Argentine Ant, Iridomyrmex humilis, wbicb 
actually constructs sbelters for barmful Scale insects, 
to protect tbem from tbe elements, and transports tbem 
from plant to plant as tbe needs of tbeir appetites 
dictate. 

DoLiCHODERiDES. — Similar to Campanotides, but all 
species possess a rudimentary sting. 

Tbis is a small and little-known subfamily witb but 
a single Britisb representative, Tapinoma erraticum. 
Tbis insect is carnivorous in its tastes, and, according 
to Forel, earns its living by stealtb. It attends tbe 
combats of otber Ants, and, after tbe encounter, seizes 
tbe corpse of tbe vanquished for a meal. Sbould tbe 
need arise for Tapinoma to defend itself it does so by 
touching its opponent witb tbe tip of its mobile abdomen 
and simultaneously ejecting a noxious fluid. 

A European species, Liometopum microcephalum, is 
more courageous tban its Britisb relative A minute 



ANTS 275 

insect, it lives in huge colonies in the disused burrows 
of wood-loving Beetles, and attacks other Ant colonies 
with hosts so countless as to bring about their dis- 
comfiture. 

Myrmicides. — Constriction of abdomen with two 
protuberances (nodes); sting present in most species. 

Belonging to this subfamily are various species of the 
greatest biological interest: dwellers in the homes of 
other Ants, and whose males or females are either 
aberrant or unknown. Space forbids the description 
of these Ants. We may mention, however, the British 
Formicoxenus nitidnlus, which occurs in the nests of 
Formica rufa ; and Anergates atratulus, a guest of 
Tetramorium ccespitum. For details of these species the 
reader is referred to Wheeler's " Ants."' 

Our commonest British species of the Myrmicides are 
the native Myrmica rubra and the introduced Mono- 
morium pharaonis Neither of them is of particular 
interest, but the latter is a household insect which 
sometimes swarms in hordes upon human food, especially 
sugary food. 

Among the most interesting of the subfamily are the 
Harvesting Ants, Aflicenogaster structor and A. barbarus, 
of Southern Europe; A. arenarius of Northern Africa, 
and Pogonomyrmex barbatus of North America. These 
Ants possess the uncommon habit of storing their nests 
with seeds of various kinds, and the last-named species 
removes the husks from the seeds and stores them on 
a special heap outside the nest, a proceeding that has 
given rise to the erroneous report that these Ants plant 
gardens outside their nests. Some seeds are probably 
dropped by the Ants, some are carried out with the 



276 INSECT LIFE 

husks, but tliat there is any attempt to sow the seeds 
has never been shown — in fact, all the efforts of these 
Ants are designed to prevent the sprouting of the seed 
taken into their nests; this they do by biting ofi the 
young roots as soon as they appear. 

Cremastogaster is a curious genus in that the insects 
can invert their abdomens over their heads, and thus 
assume an attitude more fearsome than dangerous, for 
they possess feeble stings. 

The genus Atta contains the most injurious and some 
of the most remarkable species of a remarkable family. 
They are known as Leaf -Cutting or as I'ungus Ants. 
For the most part they are tropical insects, of large 
size, dwelling in enormous colonies. They build sub- 
terranean nests, and sally forth to do damage to the 
neighbouring vegetation. This they do so effectively 
that in some parts of the world all idea of cultivation 
has been abandoned. Climbing the trees in their 
thousands, the workers cut pieces of leaf about the size 
of a threepenny-piece and return with them to their 
nests. After a raid of this description, many trees in 
the neighbourhood of an Atta colony are defoliated. 
The leaves, when removed to the nests, are cut up, 
rolled into balls, and form the medium on which a 
fungus, Rozites gongylo'phora , grows. This fungus is 
most carefully tended, and forms the food of the colony; 
the spores from which the growth arises are brought 
to the nest, in the first place, by the queen-mother. 
The story of the Fungus-Growing Ants forms one of the 
romances of entomology. 

Psevdomyrma hicolor^ a South American Ant of 
attenuated form, has a curious habitat. It dwells in 



ANTS 277 

the thorns of the buirs-horn acacia, which it enters by 
boring a neat round hole near the base. Its food is 
supphed by the plant in the form of honey secreted by 
glands on the leaves. In return for its food and lodging 
this Ant, which is armed with a formidable sting, drives 
away Attas and other insects with designs on the leaves 
of the acacia. 

PoNERiDES. — Constriction of abdomen with one pro- 
tuberance (node); abdomen elongated; well-developed 
sting. 

This is a large subfamily of which we possess but 
little reliable information. It includes the Australian 
Bull-Dog Ants, Myrmecia, armed with well-developed, 
powerful mandibles, and with stings capable of in- 
flicting serious wounds. 

The two British species, Ponera contracta and P. 
punctatissima , are of but little interest. 

DoRYLiDES. — Constriction of the abdomen imperfect; 
abdomen elongate and cylindrical ; antennae inserted near 
the front margin of the head. 

These Ants are remarkable for the great differences 
in form between the females and the workers, and for 
the non- Ant-like appearance of the males. Another 
striking feature of the Dorylides is that they are nomadic ; 
they build no permanent nests, but wander from place 
to place, a habit the more extraordinary when we learn 
that the females and workers are blind. 

Of these Ants, the genus Echiton is confined to the 
New World, the genus Dorylus to the Old. There is, 
needless to say, considerable confusion with regard to 
the systematic position of many members of the 
Dorylides. As Sharp remarks, fifty or sixty years of 



278 INSECT LIFE 

research has only produced as many females as may 
be counted on the fingers of one hand. 

So far as is known, the Driver Ants all have similar 
habits, wandering from place to place in search of food, 
and finding temporary shelter in hollow trees or the 
nests of other Ants. According to Belt, ** They make 
their temporary habitations in hollow trees and some- 
times underneath large fallen trunks that offer suitable 
hollows. A nest that I came across in the latter situa- 
tion was open at one side. The ants were clustered 
together in a dense mass, like a great swarm of bees, 
hanging from the roof, but reaching to the ground below. 
Their innumerable long legs looked like brown threads 
binding together the mass, which must have been at 
least a cubic yard in bulk, and contained hundreds of 
thousands of individuals, although many columns were 
outside, some bringing in the pupse of ants, others the 
legs and dissected bodies of various insects. I was sur- 
prised to see in this living nest tubular passages leading 
down to the centre of the mass, kept open, just as if it 
had been formed of inorganic materials. Down these 
holes the ants who were bringing in booty passed 
with their prey. I thrust a long stick down to the 
centre of the cluster, and brought out clinging to it 
many ants holding larvse and pupae."' 



FLEAS 279 



CHAPTER VIII 
SIPHONAPTERA AND DIPTERA 

ORDER SIPHONAPTERA, OR FLEAS. 
PuLiciD^. — Wingless insects, laterally compressed. The 
separation of head from body not conspicuous. An- 
tennae short and thick in depressions behind and above 
the eyes; metamorphosis complete. 

By some authorities these too familiar, blood-sucking 
insects are placed in three famihes : 

(i.) SarcopsyllidcB — the Chigoes, 
(ii.) PulicidcB — true Fleas, 
(iii.) Ceratopsyllidce — Bat Fleas. 

The general structure of the common Flea is too 
well known to need any description. Its hard chitinous 
covering is proof against all but the most severe squeeze; 
its powers of leaping are proverbial. " If man had the 
leaping powers of some fleas, they would bound with 
ease backwards and forwards over the cross on the 
top of St. Paul's Cathedral.'' What is not so well 
known is the fact that nearly fifty different species of 
Flea are known in Britain. 

The Flea peculiar to man is Pulex irritans, but other 
Fleas, notably the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalus felis , Bouche, 
and the Dog Flea, C. canis, Curt., are by no means 
averse to a meal of human blood. 



280 INSECT LIFE 

The human Flea lays her eggs, a few at a time, in 
the dusty corners of houses, and in a few days the 
larvae emerge. They are white and thread-like, and 
are furnished on their heads with a thin, knife-edged 
plate, which serves as an egg-opener. By rubbing the 
cutting edge against the egg-shell, the larvae split the 
walls of their temporary prison. The legless larvae 
moult several times during their short existence, feeding 
the while on decayed organic matter. When fully fed 
they spin cocoons, and after the lapse of a few more 
days the adult emerges. 

Certain Fleas appear to confine themselves to definite 
species of hosts, others are more catholic in their tastes. 
A study of the distribution of these parasites on their 
varied hosts is highly instructive: certain very closely 
related animals harbour different Flea species; other 
unrelated animals are hosts for the same species of 
parasite. 

The anatomical structure of Fleas affords most 
interesting study. They are beautifully adapted for 
crawHng through the furry coats of their hosts. The 
combs, toothed structures which occur on the heads of 
these insects, are used as additional aids in holding the 
host fur, and analogous structures are found on certain 
parasitic FHes and Beetles. 

All the Bat Fleas are blind, so also is the common 
Mouse Flea, Leftofsylla muscuU, Duges. In these 
blind Fleas a spine often takes the place of the 
eye. 

The antennae of Fleas are also well adapted to their 
mode of life. They fit into grooves at the side of the 
insect's head, so that when the Flea is crawling through 



FLEAS 281 

closely growing hair its antennse do not impede its 
progress. 

More truly parasitic tlian our common Flea is the 
Chigoe, Dermatophilus penetrans of South America. 
The female of this species burrows into the flesh of her 
host, a human being or some other mammal, and, being 
pregnant, swells to the size of a small pea, causing 
considerable pain and inflammation. The hinder parts 
of the insect project from the burrow she has made 
in her host's flesh, so that her eggs are laid outside 
the wound. After oviposition the Chigoe dies and 
shrivels up. 

The "Plague'' Flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, Eothsch., 
a subtropical species, but not unknown in Britain, and 
the common Eat Flea Ceratophyllus fasciatus, Bosc, 
are notorious as the carriers of the bacilli of plague from 
rats to man. The common human Flea, Pulex irritans, 
is also capable of transmitting the malady, but under 
natural conditions it is unlikely that it ever does so. 
The Bat Fleas all breed in the haunts of their hosts, 
and the larvae live upon their excrement. All of 
these Fleas are well provided with combs, not only 
upon their heads, but upon their abdomens. They 
are thus well provided with miniature grapphng irons 
to enable them to retain their hold on the active 
Bats. None of them are common, and their want 
of eyes is not surprising, seeing that their hosts are 
nocturnal. 



36 



282 INSECT LIFE 

OEDER DIPTERA, OR FLIES. 

The Diftera have two membranous, transparent, non- 
scaly wings (except some of the Mosquitoes, whose 
wings bear scales). Behind the wings are a pair of 
knobbed structures, resembling pins, called poisers, 
balancers, or halteres. The halteres are hidden by 
membranous shields, called " squamae ,"" and Flies 
possessing these structures are said to be calypterate. 
Mouth-parts adapted for sucking; metamorphosis com- 
plete. 

This large order, the largest of all, is very well defined; 
there are few other insects, except Diptera or true 
FHes, which are two- winged. A celebrated entomolo- 
gist has estimated that there are probably three 
hundred and fifty thousand species. In addition, Flies 
are undoubtedly the most highly organized of all the 
Insecta. 

In colouring the true Flies cannot, as a whole, vie 
with the Moths and Butterflies, Beetles, or even Bugs; 
nevertheless, some of them are of brilliant metallic 
sheen and many are pleasing to the eye. In the main 
they are inimical to man; it is true that many are 
excellent scavengers, some keep harmful insects in 
check, but others transmit some of our deadliest diseases. 
Malaria, yellow fever, and sleeping sickness are all 
Fly-transmitted diseases. Others, again, are pests of 
the farm— the Crane Fly, Frit Fly, Onion Fly, and the 
Celery Fly, to wit. 

With anatomical structures we are not concerned, 
but there are some points which can hardly be lightly 
passed over. Practically the whole of the head in these 



FLIES 283 

insects is occupied by tlie large compound eyes. In 
some species it will be found tbat the eyes of certain 
individuals are well separated, in the middle line above 
the head; in other individuals the eyes almost touch 
one another — the former are the females, the latter 
the males. There are, of course, many species in which 
the compound eyes show no difference in separation in 
the sexes. 




Fio. 13.— House Fly. 
L, Head and anterior part of thorax (X about fifteen times); At, A, 
Spiracle on thorax; F, antennae; Kt, maxillary palpi; R, proboscis; 
A, compound eye. 

The antennae are important, and much of the classi- 
fication of Diftera is founded upon the structure of 
these organs. In some families, the CeciiomyiidcB^ or 
Gall Gnats, for example, the antennae are relatively long 
and filamentous; in other families of the same group 
the antennae of the males only are heavily feathered; 
this afEords a ready means of distinguishing the 
sexes. 

The mouth-parts of Diftera show considerable variety, 
and, with the antennae, are important from a systematic 



284 INSECT LIFE 

point of view. Whetlier designed for piercing, as in tlie 
Mosquitoes, or soft and fleshy, as in tlie House Fly, 
they are all adapted for sucking liquid food. The Bot 
Flies provide the inevitable exception, for the majority 
of them have mouths so atrophied as to be useless for 
imbibing nourishment. 

The wings are, probably, more used by systematists 
than any other organs in classifying Diptera. The 
arrangement of the veins and nervures is very 
characteristic in the majority of families, and forms 
an infallible guide to the correct position of the 
owner. 

The larvae of Flies are all legless. Many of them 
possess spines or protuberances, which enable them to 
move from place to place to a limited extent. Com- 
pared with the larvae of many Moths, or even of some 
Beetles, those of Flies are relatively stationary. Some 
Dipterous larvae are aquatic, and in such cases they 
possess remarkable adaptations for their especial mode 
of life. None are more remarkable in this respect than 
the so-called " rat-tailed maggots " of the common 
Drone Fly, Eristalis tenax, a common denizen of stagnant 
water in this country. 

Pupae of Diftera are of two kinds — the one very 
closely akin to the pupa of Lepidoptera, the other simply 
formed of the hardened, shrunken larval skin. The 
former is typical of the OrthorrhapJia^ though it also 
occurs elsewhere; the latter is confined to the Cyclor- 
rhafha. 



FLIES 285 

Series 1. Orthorrhapha Nemocera. 

Flies witli pupse akin to those of Lepidoptera and 
filamentous antennse. 

CEcrooMYiro^.— Small, delicate Flies. Long an- 
tennae with hirsute whorls; wings usually three-veined, 
the hinder vein being forked; no apical spurs on the 
tibiae. 

The members of this family are known as Gall Flies, 
or Gnats, because many of them deposit their eggs in 
various organs of living plants, and the larvae which 
hatch out of the eggs cause the plant tissues to swell 
and become malformed. 

The most notorious of these minute insects is the 
Hessian Fly, Mayetiola destructor, a very serious pest of 
wheat, which, in America, destroys as much as fifty 
per cent, of the crop in bad years. This unwelcome 
ahen received its popular name because it was thought 
to have been introduced into America in the bedding 
of Hessian troops during the war of the Kevolution. 
The actual damage caused by this pest arises from the 
fact that the eggs are placed at the junction of leaf and 
stem. The larvae, when they come into the world, eat 
the wheat, causing a weak spot, with the result that 
the upper part of the stem breaks. 

Although the family is large, there is very little 
authentic information on the subject of its members. 
The most striking fact about these FHes, apart from 
their gall-making propensities, is that certain of the 
larvae exhibit the remarkable phenomenon of paedo- 
genesis (see p. 20). Another peculiarity is the posses- 
sion of a so-called '' breast-bone " by the larvae of some 



286 INSECT LIFE 

species. The use of this structure is not quite clear; 
it is probably connected witb locomotion. 

Mycetophilid^. — Larger tban the Gall Flies; wings 
more veined; no hirsute whorls on antennae; ocelli pres- 
ent; and a pair of apical spurs on the apex of each tibia. 

From their habit of breeding in decaying fungi — 
though some species select other putrid vegetable or 
animal matter — these Flies are called Fungus Gnats. 
More than a hundred species are known in Britain, and 
the little maggots so frequently encountered in mush- 
rooms are members of the family. 

The larvae of Fungus Gnats are more elongated than 
is usual with Dipterous grubs. Many of them have 
particularly interesting habits. The larvae of Sciara 
militaris migrate from time to time in enormous numbers 
in search of food. " Millions of the larvae accumulate 
and form themselves, by the aid of their viscous mucus, 
into great strings or ribbons, and then glide along like 
serpents; these aggregates are said to be sometimes 
forty to a hundred feet long, five or six inches wide, 
and an inch in depth." 

The New Zealand Glow- Worm is the larva of a 
Fungus Gnat, Boletophila luminosa. Not only is the 
larva luminous, but the Fly exhibits this peculiarity. 

CuLiciD^. — Wings long and slender, veins bear 
flattened scales; larvae aquatic. 

The Gnats or Mosquitoes are among the most im- 
portant of all insects. Most of them are annoying to 
man, many are harmful. There are about a dozen 
species in Britain. In the popular mind the Mosquito 
is a creature more to be feared than the Gnat — in 
reality they are one and the same thing. 



MOSQUITOES 287 

One of tlie most remarkable facts concerning the 
Mosquitoes is revealed by a study of their geographical 
distribution. While some species are confined to 
limited areas, there are many species of very wide 
distribution. The common British Mosquito, Culex 
pipiens, L., is equally common in many parts of Asia. 

Of the disease-carrying Mosquitoes, the most notorious 
are the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Stegomyia fasciata ; 
the Spotted Winged Mosquito, Anopheles maculipennis ; 
and other members of the genus; and Culex fatigans. 
The Yellow Fever Mosquito, sometimes called the Tiger 
Mosquito, on account of its characteristic markings, is, 
as its name implies, the carrier of yellow fever. Mos- 
quitoes of the genus Anopheles^ recognized from Culex 
and Stegomyia by their spotted wings, convey malaria ; 
Culex fatigans ^ and probably other species, carry filaria 
(minute Worms) which cause elephantiasis. 

It is a peculiarity of Mosquitoes that they are most 
active towards evening; this is exceptional amongst the 
Diptera, for most of them are lovers of sunshine. The 
habit is not without its advantages, because it has 
been proved that it is possible to work and live in a 
malaria-stricken area and yet remain perfectly healthy, 
provided one retires within Mosquito-proof shelters at 
sundown, remaining there till morning. The trans- 
mission of disease is carried out by the females only, 
for they alone suck blood. In many cases the mouth- 
parts of the males are too feeble to puncture the skin. 

We have mentioned that the larvae and pupae of 
Mosquitoes are aquatic; as a consequence the females 
lay their eggs in water, and the various species exhibit 
a wide choice of breeding-places. Stegomyia, for in- 



288 INSECT LIFE 

stance, might almost be termed a domestic insect 
The females deposit their eggs in various receptacles 
near dwelling-houses; in collections of water at the 
bottom of disused cans, in the hollow bottoms of up- 
turned bottles — anywhere, in fact, where there is a 
little water. There are Mosquitoes which breed in 
puddles by the roadside; their eggs are liable to come 
to a bad end in dry countries, owing to the evaporation 
of the water. Some provision, however, is made 
against such an untoward event by the life-cycles of 
these species being completed very rapidly. Most of 
these insects breed in ponds or fairly extensive sheets 
of water, but they usually select some sheltered part 
where their eggs are not likely to be disturbed. 

The eggs of the various genera exhibit remarkable 
differences. Some species lay their eggs singly, and 
they float so on the surface of the water; the eggs of 
other species sink to the bottom of the water. All the 
members of the genus Culex lay eggs in large numbers, 
and seal them together with their blunt ends, from 
which the larvae emerge, downwards. These egg- 
masses are known as " rafts." The eggs of Anofheles 
are laid singly, but they usually accumulate in clusters. 
Each egg is characterized by a pair of lateral floats 
containing air. 

The larvae are peculiar, almost pin-shaped creatures, 
which wriggle actively in the water, and either remain 
near the surface or come up constantly to obtain air. 
Although aquatic, these larvse cannot obtain the air 
they require from the gases dissolved in the water, after 
the manner of fish. This fact has been utilized in their 
control, and by covering the surface of Mosquito- 



MOSQUITOES 289 

frequented ponds with paraffin, millions of the larvae are 
killed. Respiration is carried out by means of a tube 
situated on the last abdominal segment, and the larvae 
constantly thrust the tip of this tube above the surface 
of the water to obtain the air they require. 

The pupae are comma-shaped creatures bearing a 
pair of trumpet-shaped breathing-tubes on the thorax. 
When the Mosquitoes are about to emerge, the pupal 
skin splits down the back, setting free the perfect insect, 
which usually rests awhile on the floating skin it has 
just vacated before taking to flight. 

CHiKONOMm^.— Small, fragile, Mosquito-like FHes, 
without the projecting mouth-parts so characteristic of 
the last family. 

The Midges are a larger, though less economically 
important, family than the Mosquitoes. The females 
are persistent blood-suckers, but, so far as is known, 
they do not transmit any disease, unless future researches 
show certain species of Ceratopogon to be the vectors 
of pellagra in the Nile Delta. 

The larvae of this family are not all aquatic; those 
of Ceratopogon bipunctatus, for example, live under 
moist bark. The larvae of Chironomus, the Harlequin 
Fly, of which genus there are more than two hundred 
species in Britain, are water-dwellers, but they differ 
markedly from Mosquito larvae. Owing to their intense 
red colour, due to haemoglobin, they are known as 
*' blood-worms. "" Haemoglobin possesses the property 
of absorbing the free oxygen in water and passing it 
on to the living individual as required. On this account 
the Blood- Worms are able to spend their time in the 
mud at the bottom of ponds without the necessity of 

37 



290 INSECT LIFE 

coming to tlie surface to breathe, after the manner of 
Mosquito larvae. 

The pupae of the aquatic species are comma-shaped, 
though not so markedly so as are those of Mosquitoes. 
The pupa of the " Splay-Footed '' Midge, Tanypus, 
might easily be mistaken for a Culicid; the Harlequin Fly 
pupa is easily recognized by possessing a pair of tufts 
of white, respiratory filaments, in place of the trumpet- 
shaped breathing- tubes common to Mosquitoes. The 
Horned Midge, Ceratopogon bicolor, so called because of 
the single protuberance which occurs on the hinder 
part of the thorax in the perfect insect, has a long, 
eel-like larva, measuring about half an inch. Its pupa 
is not curled into a comma shape, though it possesses 
the usual pair of trumpet- shaped breathing- tubes. 
This is a common British Midge. 

PsYCHODiD^. — Small, fragile Flies, resembling minia 
ture Moths . Bodies , wings , and antennae thickly clothed 
with hair. 

These insects are known as Sand Flies or Moth Flies, 
on account of their hairy covering; there are about 
fifty species in Britain. 

Most of the larvae are peculiar in that they are adapted 
for life either in water or on land; they have tracheal 
gills and spiracles. The larvae of the purely land- 
dwellers live in various substances such as dry cow- 
dung, rotten potatoes, and the like. The aquatic larvae 
either frequent pools or running streams, and the latter 
forms are possessed of sucker-like organs by which they 
anchor themselves to some support that they may not 
be carried away by the current. 

There is a South European species, Phlebotomus 



CKANE FLIES 291 

fappataci, wliicli of late has earned considerable 
notoriety by reason of its carrying to man tbe un- 
known germs of a very infectious disease, variously 
known as " three-day/' " sand-fly/' or " pblebotomus " 
fever. 

D1XID.E. — Flies with three forked veins in the outer 
half of each wing, and two cross- veins. Larger than 
any of the preceding species. 

These Flies are not of any great interest, but they 
are mentioned here because they form a natural link 
in the chain of families between the species already 
mentioned and those to be mentioned. They occur in 
damp, well- wooded spots; the larvae and pupae are 
aquatic, and the perfect insects do not bite. The 
immature species might easily be mistaken for those of 
an Anopheles Mosquito. There are four British species 
of the single genus Dixa which comprises the family. 

TiPULiD^. — The middle of the upper side of the 
thorax marked with a distinct V-shaped groove; wing 
venation complex. The largest Flies of the Nemocera 
are all possessed of exceedingly long legs. 

The Crane FKes, or Daddy-long-legs, are well known 
to everyone. They claim our attention for several 
reasons. The family contains the most primitive forms 
of living Diptera ; many species, notably the Chinese 
Tifula hrohdignagia, are of considerable size. There 
are a great number of forms which, superficially, bear 
little resemblance to the typical Crane Fly. Some, in 
fact, are wingless. Their habits are as varied as their 
forms; one species dwells in deep mines, and many 
species can only flourish at low temperatures. 

The common Daddy-long-legs, Tipula oleracea, is so 



292 INSECT LIFE 

well known that a description of it is unnecessary. 
One scientist has aptly termed it a silly insect, and 
certainly these clumsy creatures appear to fly about 
our rooms and gardens without any apparent object. 
When handled, they lose their legs as readily as certain 
of the long-legged, so-called Harvest Spiders; further- 
more, the loss of these limbs seems to cause them but 
little inconvenience. 

The female lays from two to three hundred eggs, as 
she flies vertically over the ground. The larvae bury 
themselves in the soil, and feed upon the roots of grasses, 
etc., doing a considerable amount of damage. When 
fully fed they are repulsive, earth-coloured creatures 
about an inch long, and with such tough skins that 
they have earned the name ** leather jackets." The 
pupae might easily be mistaken for those of some Moth? 
were it not for the pair of breathing- tubes which project 
from the head like a pair of horns. When the FHes are 
about to emerge, the pupae wriggle to the surface of the 
soil by means of the backwardly projecting spines with 
which they are armed. When their heads are well free 
of the soil they stop their efforts to travel fiu-ther, the 
pupal case sphts, and the Daddy-long-legs is free. 

Though many larval TipuUdce are earth- dwellers, 
some are aquatic, and possess remarkable elongated 
breathing filaments. An American Bittacomor'pha has 
these tailed larvae and pupae, and a British Ptycho'ptera 
has equally peculiar pupae. 

BiBiONiD^. — Antennae short, thick, and straight; 
ocelli present. Front tibiae often swollen or furnished 
with a long spine or a circlet of spines. Colours of the 
sexes frequently vary. 



BUFFALO GNATS 293 

The March Flies (they usually appear in the spring) 
are uninteresting, sluggish, hairy creatures. None of 
them are good fliers. 

Their greatest claim to notice lies in their Caterpillar- 
like larvae, with distinct horny heads — ^unusual among 
the Diptera ; the fact that males and females of the 
same species are frequently of different colours — these 
colour differences occur all over the world; and in the 
peculiar structure of the compound eyes of the males, 
consisting of a large, hairy upper portion and a much 
smaller, differently faceted lower portion. 

SiMULiiD^. — Small, thick- set, hump-backed Flies. 
Wings broad; antennse short and of the same width 
throughout their length, not hairy. 

From their peculiar hump-backed appearance, these 
Flies are known as Buffalo Gnats, owing to a supposed 
resemblance to the buffalo; they are also called Black 
Flies and Sand Flies — an unfortunate name, because 
it is also applied to the Moth Flies. There is only one 
genus (Simulium) in the family, and the females of all 
the species are persistent blood-suckers. In seasons 
favourable to the Flies they appear in enormous num- 
bers, and attack domestic animals and even man. 
Unlike Mosquitoes, they bite by day; unlike these 
insects, also, they live, during their immature stages, 
in swiftly running, well-aerated water. 

The life-history of a typical Simulium is one of the 
most romantic among the Diptera. The females appear 
in the spring and haunt swift-running streams in search 
of suitable places for egg-laying. Hovering for a 
moment above some slightly submerged rock, over 
which the water is flowing, the mother Fly will suddenly 



294 INSECT LIFE 

dart downwards and deposit lier eggs upon tlie rock. 
Owing to their jelly-like covering, the eggs adhere to 
the spot where they are deposited. The larvae are 
curious, somewhat elongated creatures with a sucker 
foot at the hinder end, by which they support them- 
selves in a vertical position on the rock. On the first 
segment there is another sucker-lilce protuberance; on 
the head there are a pair of fan- shaped, plumose struc- 
tures whose function appears to be to waft food material 
towards the mouth. For long periods the larvae do not 
move from their original positions; when, however, they 
desire to do so, they progress by a looping movement 
similar to that of a Looper Caterpillar, by attaching 
themselves to the rock with their forward and hind 
suckers alternately. In case of failure to obtain a firm 
hold of their support, they would be carried away on the 
stream, were not provision made against such an event. 
From their mouth -^ they spin a thin but strong life-line, 
and attach the free end to the rock; forced, by accident 
or alarm, to release their hold of their support, they 
remain suspended on the life-line till the danger be 
passed, when they haul themselves back again to their 
resting-place. 

When pupation is about to take place, the larva 
spins a slipper or pouch-shaped nest, either on the rock 
or on the submerged leaf of some water-plant. Within 
the pouch, its head alone projecting, the pupa dwells 
till such time as the Fly is ready to emerge. From the 
head of each pupa there project a pair of filamentous, 
branched gill filaments, which serve for respiration. 
As the time for the emergence of the Fly draws near, 
a tiny bubble of air collects within the pupal pouch. 



BUFFALO GRATS 295 

In this bubble the Simulium leaves its pupal skin, 
shakes the bubble free, and, within it, rises to the 
surface of the water without wetting its wings. 

The SimuUdcB are widely distributed, being practically 
cosmopolitan. The commonest British species are 
Simulium elegans and S. sericeum. In this country they 
never appear in such enormous numbers as in warmer 
climates. Obnoxious as the Buffalo Gnats are to 
cattle, they are also more than suspected of trans- 
mitting pellagra from man to man. This disease, 
common in Italy and spreading in America, is not by 
any means unknown in Britain. 



Series 2. Orthorrhapha Brachycera. 

Flies with pupse akin to those of Lepidoptera, and 
antennae usually composed of one, two, or three seg- 
ments, with a terminal appendage. 

Stratiomyid^. — Antennae three-jointed, often with 
an arista ; tarsi with small terminal appendages ; scutel- 
lum frequently spined. 

The members of this family are so variable that it is 
difficult to find a simple, non- technical description 
which will apply to all. The name Stratiomys means 
'* Armed Fly," so called on account of the pair of spines 
on the scutellum. All the species, however, do not 
possess these spines. In America they are called 
Soldier Flies, because of the bright colouring of some 
species. 

The most extraordinary species are those whose 
larvae live in the hot springs of Wyoming. So hot is 
the water in these springs that the discoverer of the 



296 INSECT LIFE 

larvae was unable to keep his hands immersed. Tlie 
larvae of many species are truly aquatic, but those of 
other species frequent the soil, moss, decaying wood, and 
Ants' nests; all of them appear to prefer damp places. 

Of the thousand odd species in the world, more than 
fifty occur in Britain; of these, the commonest is the 
Chameleon Fly, Stratiomys chameleon. 

The Chameleon Fly is a Bee-like creature, black with 
yellow markings. The female lays her eggs in clusters 
on the under- sides of water-plantain leaves, at a point 
above the water-level. As soon as the larvae emerge, 
they make their way into the water. They are elon- 
gated creatures, and their tails terminate in a circlet 
of hairs; in the centre of the circlet the spiracles are 
situated. The larvae float head downwards in the 
water, with their tails supported on the surface by the 
hairs. When alarmed, they wriggle downwards, retain- 
ing a bubble of air in their caudal appendages. Pupa- 
tion takes place either in or out of the water. In the 
former case the pupa floats on the surface, encased in 
the last larval skin. 

LEPTiDiE. — Antennae three-jointed and terminated by 
a bristle; squamae small or rudimentary; at least one 
pair of tibiae furnished with distinct spurs at the apex 
of the inner side. 

Known as Snipe Flies, the Leptidce bear a close 
resemblance to the Robber Flies. They are of sluggish 
habit when adult, and the predaceous larvae live in 
water, earth, or decaying wood, according to the species. 

About a score of species are known in Britain, the 
most frequently encountered being Leptis scolopacea. 
The larvae of Vermileo degeeri, a common European 



GAD FLIES 297 

species, construct pitfalls after the manner of Ant- Lion 
larvae (see p. 130). Another British species of curious 
habit is Atherix ibis. A female will deposit her eggs 
on the tip of some branch overhanging a pond, and, 
having done so, will cling to the egg- mass and die. 
Other females of the species do likewise, till, in time, 
a bunch of considerable dimensions is formed of dead 
Flies and their eggs. Eventually the mass falls into 
the water, the eggs hatch, and the larvae are set free. 

Tabanid^. — Antennae four-jointed, the second very 
small, the third annulated; squamae very large; tibiae 
with terminal spurs on at least one pair. 

With the exception of the Muscidce and GulicidcB, 
the Horse Flies, Gad Flies, Breeze Fhes, Cleggs, and 
Deer Flies, as the Tahanidw are variously termed, are 
by far the most important family of Diptera. They 
are powerful fliers, and the females are so bloodthirsty 
and so well armed for the purpose that, in the larger 
species at any rate, they are capable of inflicting serious 
wounds. 

The larvae of all the species are predaceous, feeding 
upon soft-bodied insects and worms. They are charac- 
terized by their cylindrical shape, pointed at either 
end, and surrounded with prominent rings. Some are 
aquatic, but the land-dwelling species appear to favour 
damp places. The adult Flies also frequent the neigh- 
bourhood of water, not only for breeding purposes, but 
because they are great water-drinkers. 

Our largest British species, Tabanus hovinus, is a 
formidable-looking nearly black Fly, with the ventral 
surface of its abdomen of a reddish hue; well-grown 
specimens are fully an inch in length. 

38 



298 INSECT LIFE 

The genus Hcematopota contains several British 
species, all of them bloodthirsty creatures which do not 
hesitate to bite man. 

All the species of Chrysops are beautifully marked, 
usually yellow and black Flies, about the size of the 
common House Fly. Their beauty is enhanced by the 
brilliancy of their eyes while they are alive. They are 
no less bloodthirsty than other members of the family. 
The Tahanidce are well represented in Britain, seeing 
that we have five genera and nearly a score of species. 

The most remarkable genus is Pangonia, widely 
distributed, though not known in Britain. The males 
live upon nectar, but the females of several species have 
long, needle-like proboscides, about four times the length 
of the insect's body, and capable of piercing clothing. 
These and other Tahanidce are the prey of Bembex. 

ScENOPiNiD^. — Small, non-hairy Flies. Antennae 
three-jointed, without any terminal appendage; the 
third joint longer than the others. 

The Window Flies form one of the smallest famihes 
of Di'ptera, and little appears to be known about them. 
Our common Window Fly, Scenopinus fenestralis , L., is 
a metallic-black insect, frequently found on windows, 
as its specific name indicates. Its larvae are predaceous 
and live under carpets and in dusty places; they are 
supposed to prey upon the larvae of Carpet Moths, 
though proof of this assertion is still wanting. 

BoMBYLiiD^. — Bodies fringed with or clothed with 
hair; wings usually mottled or banded; antennae three- 
jointed. 

The Bee Flies cannot very well be mistaken for any 
other Diptera on account of their characteristic hirsute 



PLATE LXXIir 



^f 





A GROUP OF DIPTF.RA 

Xos. 2. fi, 8 and U are Robber flics ; No. -1, Pai>!/ni,ia ^p. ; No. 5, the larpe British Gadfly ; No. 7, 

Male Stalk-eyed fly ; No 1(1, Femrde of the same species ; Xos. 9 an J U', IJritisli Bee flies. 



BEE FLIES 299 

covering. Though the family is large, but few species 
are found in Britain, Bombylius major being the most 
remarkable in appearance and in habit. Though 
possessed of formidable-looking mouth-parts, none of 
the species are blood-suckers. 

In the main, the Bee Flies are beneficial. Several 
species are known to devour the eggs of Locusts, some 
species are parasitic upon Bees. Fabre described the 
relationship between the Bombylid Argyromoeba tri- 
fasciata and the Mason Bee Chalicodoma muraria. The 
female Fly deposits an egg on the structure built up 
by the Mason Bee as a home for its family. From the 
Dipterous egg a minute, worm-like larva emerges. For 
more than a fortnight this larva remains quite motion- 
less, then begins the hunt to find a crack in the masonry 
through which to gain admittance to the interior. At 
length a way is found, usually at the time when the 
Bee grub is almost ready to pupate. When once inside 
the Bee's home, the Fly larva casts its skin and appears 
in a new form, well fitted for the object it has in view — ■ 
namely, to feed upon the Bee pupa without killing it. 
The mouth of trifasciata is merely a sucker, which is 
applied to the soft skin of the Hymenopterous pupa. 
At the end of a fortnight the pupa is sucked dry and 
the larva is fully fed. To be replete yet incapable of 
escape from confinement is hardly an enviable position, 
yet the larva is in such case. Patience is second nature 
with the larva. It displayed marvellous patience in its 
attempts to penetrate the Bee-made masonry; it dis- 
plays equal patience in this second emergency, waiting 
in a quiescent larval state till the following spring, 
when it again moults and appears as a pupa well fitted 



300 INSECT LIFE 

for its task. Its large head is armed with six formidable 
spines, its tail is provided with horns, and its body is 
clothed with backwardly directed bristles. The horns 
and bristles prevent the creature slipping backwards 
during its efforts to escape. Curving itself into a 
C-shape, it suddenly unbends and strikes its head 
against its prison walls. Eventually the wall is broken 
down, the pupa wriggles about till it fills the cavity 
which has been formed by its own exertions, the pupal 
skin bursts, and the Fly escapes. 

AsiLiDuE. — ^Flies with large, hard beaks tipped with 
stiff bristles. Feet and claws large; squamae absent; 
strongly built and hairy; antennae three-jointed, with 
a terminal appendage. 

This is one of the largest Dipterous families, containing 
more than three thousand species. Though the species 
assume varied forms, from short, stumpy, very hairy 
Flies to long, delicate, almost Midge-like individuals, 
there is a family likeness which cannot be mistaken. 
The AsilidcB are known, and rightly so, as Kobber 
Flies. An American entomologist says: *' These flies 
are inhuman murderers. They are savages of the 
insect world, putting their captives to death with 
merciless cruelty. Their large eyes, divided into such 
a multitude of facets, probably give them the most 
acute and accurate vision for espying and seizing their 
prey; and their long, stout legs, their bearded and bristly 
head, their whole aspect, indicates them to be of a 
predatory and ferocious character. Like the hawk, 
they swoop upon their prey, and grasping it securely 
between their fore-feet, they violently bear it away." 
The Robber FHes are all exceedingly voracious; their 



KOBBER FLIES 301 

prey is captured on tlie wing, and immediately tlie 
lancet-like mouth-parts are plunged into the body of 
the victim and held in place by the stiff bristles which 
clothe the tip of the beak. Their prey consists of Flies, 
including those of their own species. Bees, Wasps, 
Beetles, Moths, Butterflies, Grasshoppers, and even 
powerful Dragon-flies. 

A striking peculiarity about many of these Flies is 
that they frequently closely mimic the insects upon 
which they prey. One Bee-hunting species even goes 
so far as to have its hind-tibise so modified that they 
Besemble the pollen-carrying hind-legs of Bees. This 
aggressive mimicry, as it is sometimes called, is of great 
service to the Robber Flies; it enables them to fly 
amongst their victims without arousing suspicion, and 
their prey is thus the more easily captured. Although 
the adult Asilidce are totally unlike the adult Tahanidce, 
and the two families are but distantly related, their 
larvae are so similar that it is almost impossible to say 
definitely to which family they belong. 

Empid^. — Flies with small globular heads; antennse 
three-jointed, the third joint being long and pointed; 
legs long and often hairy. 

A large family of unimportant, uninteresting creatures, 
called Dance Flies, on account of their curious jerky 
flight. There are at least two hundred species in 
Britain, and they usually frequent well-wooded districts. 
The males of certain species possess the curious habit 
of carrying webs of some sticky substance during their 
dancing flights; the precise use to which these webs are 
put has never been ascertained. It has been suggested 
that they act as parachutes or aid in the capture of 



302 INSECT LIFE 

prey. One observer stated that the females, when 
selecting a mate, always decided upon the male with 
the largest web. 

Series 3. Cyclorrhapha Aschiza. 

Flies with pupa-cases formed of the hardened larval 
skin and no arched suture over the antennae of the 
adults. 

PiPUNCULiD^. — Small Flies with globular heads, 
covered almost entirely by the two large compound 
eyes. Antennae very short, bearing a long, non- 
terminal bristle. 

For want of a better name, these insects have been 
called Big-Eyed Flies. The family is a small one, and 
it has not received very much attention from entomolo- 
gists. About a dozen species are known in Britain. 
The larvae of some species are parasitic on the Homoptera, 
that of Pipunculus fuscipes attacking certain Jassidce. 

CoNOPiDuE. — Flies with large heads and three- jointed 
antennae, placed close together on a slight protuberance. 
The family consists of two divisions — (a) Conopince, 
with long antennae terminated by a small bristle; 
(6) MyopincB, with shorter antennae, the third joint 
possessing a non-terminal hair. 

The life-histories of the " Thick-Headed " FHes have 
not been fully elucidated. It is certain that many of 
the ConopincB, and probably also of the Myopince, are 
parasitic on Hymenoptera. Exactly how they attack 
their hosts does not seem clear. Some observers state 
that the Flies deposit their eggs in the bodies of the 
larval or pupal Hymenoptera ; others aver that the eggs 
are deposited upon the bodies of the adult hosts. One 



PLATE LXXIV 






•' ^'^ifc^'^^ ^^Jf^ 



f 




^ 



-i^- 








BRITISH FLIES 

Nos. 1, 2 and 4, Bee flies; Nos. 3 and 10. Blow flies ; No. 5, Robber fly ; No. 7, Drone fly ; No. 8, 

Cheilo!>i(i Jpucorum; No. 9, Flesh fly ; Nos. 11 and 15, Horn flies; No. 12, Housefly; No. 13, 

Golden-eyed Gadfly; No 11, Green-bottle; No. 16, FJiinma xp. ; No 17, Horn flv. 



HOVER FLIES 303 

fact is clear: the parasitic Flies always make their 
appearance from the bodies of adult Hymenoptera. 

Syrphid^. — Moderately large, usually flat-bodied 
Flies. Many of them mimic Bees and Wasps. Short, 
three-jointed antennae, with a non-terminal bristle; 
squamae never entirely covering the halteres. 

The HoVer Flies comprise one of the largest families 
of Diptera, and certainly the most important of the 
Cyclorrhapha Aschiza. They are as well known as the 
common House Fly; it is impossible to go into any 
garden or sunny glade on a bright summer day without 
observing numbers of these insects hoverio^ hawk-like 
above some favoured blossom. 

There is no more interesting family of Flies than the 
Syrphidw. Some species afford excellent examples of 
protective mimicry; at a casual glance these Flies 
may resemble Social or Solitary Wasps, Honey-Bees, 
Bumble Bees, and the like. One species, closely 
resembhng the Honey Bee, is wont to deposit its eggs 
in decaying animal matter. Seeing that no Honey Bee 
has ever been known to select such a site for its nest, 
there is good reason to suppose that this mimicking 
Hover Fly is the insect referred to in the Old Testament 
story of Samson. While most of the Syrphids are flat- 
bodied, yellow-banded Flies, some have elongated 
bodies, and some are of a metallic -green colour. 

The adult Hover Flies all feed upon pollen; their 
larvae are of most diverse habits. Some are aquatic — 
for example, Eristalis tenax and Myiatropa florea, both 
common in Britain; some live in Bees' and Wasps' nests 
— of these, Volucella inanis is well known in this country; 
some, and they are the useful members of the family, 



304 INSECT LIFE 

are predaceous upon Green Fly. Nearly every garden 
will show these individuals busy among the Aphids; 
Syrphus seleniticus is a species frequently met with. 
On the other hand, there are injurious species in the 
genus Merodon, the Narcissus Fly, M. equestris, being 
responsible for considerable damage to bulbs. Most 
anomalous of all, however, are the larvae of the genus 
Microdon, which live in Ants' nests, and are so unlike 
insect larvae that their appearance has deceived scientists, 
and they have been described as molluscs. 

The larva of the Drone Fly, E. tenax, is known as the 
" rat-tailed " maggot. The Fly, a creature of the sun 
and a lover of sweet-scented flowers, lays her eggs on 
the surface of liquid manure or of some evil-smelling, 
stagnant water. The larvae, when they emerge, crawl 
about on the bottom of the liquid, feeding upon the 
decaying matter, and keeping in touch with the air by 
means of their curious, telescopic tails. The full-grown 
larva measures about two-thirds of an inch long ; its tail 
can be extended to as much as five inches. At the tip 
of the tail is a circlet of bristles, and within the circlet 
are the spiracles, in communication with the maggot's 
respiratory apparatus. As the creature passes from one 
part to another of its liquid home, it contrives to keep 
this circlet of hairs always floating on the surface ; this it 
does, within limits, by extending its tail as the liquid 
becomes deeper, and contracting it when a shallower 
place is reached . Pupation usually takes place in the soil . 

The Hover Flies of the genus Volucella mimic Bees and 
Wasps. It was once thought that their larvae preyed 
upon Hymenoptera, but observation showed that the 
Flies were by no means unwelcome visitors. V inanis 



BOT FLIES 305 

mimics tlie common Wasp; its eggs are laid in Wasps* 
nests, and its larvae act as scavengers in their strange 
home, passing from cell to cell and devouring the 
excrement of the immature Wasps. V. homhylans^ 
another common British Hover Fly, mimics the Bumble 
Bee, and its larvae also act as scavengers. 

Of what use, if any, the larvae of Microdon are to 
Ants has not been ascertained. Observers have stated 
that the Ants try to prevent the Flies from laying their 
eggs in their nests. It is probable, therefore, that at 
least the Ants derive no benefit from the presence of 
their dipterous visitors. 

Series 4. Cyclorrhapha Schizophora. 

Flies with pupa-cases formed of the hardened larval 
skin, and having an arched suture over the antennae of 
the adults. 

By most authorities the series Cyclorrhapha Schizo- 
phora is divided into two groups: 

(a) CalypteratcB, with the lower squama distinct and 
usually projecting beyond the upper. 

(6) AcalypteratcB, with the lower squama minute or 
wanting and the eyes widely separated in both sexes. 

Group CalypteratcB. 
(EsTRiD^. — Large, robust flies; antennae very short 
and partially hidden in cavities; front of head prominent; 
mouth-parts often atrophied. 

The Bot Flies, though a small family, are of the 
greatest economic importance by reason of the fact 
that many of their larvae are parasitic on mammals. 

39 



306 INSECT LIFE 

Much remains to be learned concerning the life- 
histories of these extraordinary Flies. One thing only 
is certain: the larvae alone are harmful. The adults are 
not blood-suckers — ^in fact, few of them are able to 
feed at all, their short lives being devoted to the con- 
tinuation of their kind. The larvae feed upon the pus 
which is secreted by their hosts, in consequence of the 
irritation set up by the spiny larval skins. Pupation 
always takes place outside the body of the host. 

Of the ten British species of Bot Flies, the best known 
are the Horse Bot Fly, Gastrofhilus equi, the larvae of 
which, in common with others of the genus, live in the 
alimentary canal of their hosts; the Ox Warble Fly, 
Hypoderma bovis and H. lineata, living in the larval 
stage, as the generic name implies, beneath the skin 
of their host; and the Sheep Nasal Fly, CEstrus ovis ; 
the larvae of this genus live in the respiratory passages. 
Other interesting, though non-British members of the 
family are the Emasculating Bot Fly, an American 
species which attacks the scrotum of squirrels, rendering 
them sterile; and the members of the genus Dermatohia, 
which are parasitic on man. 

The Bot FUes are not easily observed; they spend 
much of their time resting; but when bent on egg- 
laying they display much activity. The Horse Bot 
Fly, for example, with much buzzing, will dart rapidly 
at the fore-legs of its chosen host, deposit a single egg 
upon a single hair, and fly away. This operation is 
repeated till a good complement of eggs has been laid. 
Each elongated egg is provided with a little lid at its 
free end. The presence of the eggs causes irritation to 
the horse, with the natural result that it resorts to 



BOT FLIES 307 

licking for relief. The friction of its tongue, aided by- 
its saliva, causes the egg-lids to open, and the larvae are 
set free. Once within the mouth of their host, they 
are well on the way to their appointed resting-place. 
They travel to the stomach, develop anchoring hooks, 
with which they attach themselves securely to the walls 
of that organ. Food they obtain in abundance, food 
intended for the nourishment of their host. When the 
time arrives for pupation, they release their hold on the 
stomach wall, pass to the outside world along with the 
horse's excrement, and pupate in the soil. 

The Sheep Nasal Fly is even more shy than the 
preceding species. It settles but a moment on the 
nostrils of some sheep and deposits its eggs, which 
hatch almost immediately. So short is the egg-stage 
that some authorities are of opinion that this Fly is 
viviparous and gives birth to living larvae. Be that as 
it may, the young larvae, by the aid of their spiny coats, 
travel upwards to the frontal sinus of their host, where 
they feed on copious secretions of pus. No amount of 
sneezing on the part of the sheep (sneezing is a common 
indication of the presence of these parasites) will dis- 
lodge them till they are ready to pupate, then they pass 
to the earth. 

The Ox Warble Flies deposit their eggs upon the hair 
of oxen, in such places as they are easily licked. The 
larvae, when in their host's mouth, do not pass into the 
stomach after the manner of the Horse Bots, but travel 
subcutaneously through the tissues till they reach a 
spot just below the hide on either side of the backbone. 
These larvae are the cause of the well-known warbles, 
which are not only harmful to the living oxen, but 



308 INSECT LIFE 

render the parts around tlie warble unfit for food and 
ruin the hide for leather. In North America certain 
tribes of Eed Indians are in the habit of squeezing the 
larv8B of Bot FHes from the backs of deer and using 
them as food. 

TACHmrD^. — Squamae large, covering the halteres; 
antennal arista bare or, at most, pubescent; upper 
surface of the body clothed with bristles. 

These Flies do not appear to have any popular name. 
By the uninitiated they might easily be mistaken for 
House Flies. Their chief claim to notice lies in the fact 
that nearly all of them are parasitic upon other insects 
— ^lepidopterous Caterpillars for the most part. In the 
case of the majority of parasites there is a definite 
relationship between the parasite and host species; 
among the Tachinidce, however, the same species of 
parasite has been observed to parasitize not only 
** insects of several different families, but of two or 
even three different orders.'' The usual procedure is for 
the female Fly to deposit an egg, or eggs, upon the 
back of some unfortunate Caterpillar. Most parasites 
will not trouble with a host which has already been 
attacked by some other parasite; these Flies, however, 
are not so particular. From the portion of the egg in 
contact with the host skin the larva emerges, and at 
once bores its way into its body, where it lives upon the 
fat and lymph, carefully avoiding the vital organs till 
the time of pupation arrives, when it leaves the host to 
pupate in the ground. Frequently the host Caterpillar 
sheds its skin before the parasitic larva has hatched; 
in this event the work of the mother Tachina is brought 
to naught, and the Caterpillar, unless again attacked, 



FLESH FLIES 309 

suffers no harm. Some of these Flies deposit their eggs 
upon the living insect food collected by Solitary Wasps 
for their larvae. A Japanese species, Ugimyia sericaricBy 
does considerable damage among the Silkworms of that 
country by attacking the larvae. Contrary to the 
usual Tachinid habit, this species deposits its eggs upon 
the leaves which serve as food for the Silkworms. The 
larvae probably hatch on the leaves and then attack 
their hosts, though some observers state that the eggs 
are swallowed by the Silkworms. 

In the main, the Tachinidce are beneficial to man, 
certainly the two hundred odd British species may be 
so classed. Entomologists will, perhaps, not agree with 
this assertion, knowing only too well how annoying it 
is when an attempt is being made to rear some treasured 
larvae to maturity only to be rewarded by the appear- 
ance of drab Tachinid Flies. 

Sarcophagid^. — Closely allied to the Tachinidce and 
the Muscidce, from which they may be distinguished 
by the fact that the arista is feathery at the base and 
hair-like at the apex. 

Flesh Flies — the name, though generally accepted, is 
hardly a good one, for many larvae live upon decaying 
vegetable matter and some are parasitic upon other 
insects. The most noxious Flesh Fly is the viviparous 
Sarcofhila magnifica, a European, though not British, 
species which deposits its young on the nostrils of 
mammals, including man. The commonest British 
species are S. carnaria, a heavy -bodied grey Fly, rather 
larger than a Blowfly, and the similar-sized, bright 
metallic blue Cynomyia mortuorum, 

" Many of these insects, when food is scarce, eat their 



310 INSECT LIFE 

own species with eagerness, and it seems probable that 
this habit is beneficial to the species. The parent fly- 
in such cases usually deposits more eggs than there is 
food for, thus ensuring that every portion of the food 
will be rapidly consumed, after which the partially 
grown larvse complete their development by the aid 
of cannibalism. It is thus ensured that the food will 
raise up as many individuals as possible." 

MusciD^. — Closely resemble Tachinidce and Sarco- 
phagidoB, but the arista is feathered. 

This family contains many of our conmionest and 
most familiar Flies; amongst them may be mentioned 
the House Fly, Musca domestica ; the Bluebottles or 
Blowflies, CalUphora erythrocephala and C. vomitoria ; 
the Greenbottles, Lucilia ccesar ; the Horn Fly, Hcema- 
tobia serrata ; and the Stable Fly, Stomoxys calcitrans. 
Amongst the important foreign Muscids mention must 
be made of the Tse-tse Flies, Glossina spp., and the 
Screw- Worm Fly, Chrysomyia macellaria ; the former 
genus belongs to Africa, the latter to North America. 

Many members of this family are harmful to man 
and his belongings. The Glossince transmit the blood 
parasites of sleeping sickness to human beings, and of 
Nagana to domestic animals. The Stable Fly is the 
probable carrier of surra, a disease which attacks camels, 
elephants, buffaloes, and dogs; it is probably not 
altogether innocent of transmitting human disease. 
No fewer than half a dozen maladies are known to be 
carried from patient to patient by the House Fly. The 
Screw-Worm Fly and the Horn Fly are both serious 
cattle pests in America, and the former has been known 
to attack man with fatal consequences. The Blue- 



TSE-TSE FLIES 311 

bottles cannot, at best, be considered in any other light 
than as nuisances. After this indictment it is only 
fair to add that, in general, the Muscidce are useful 
scavengers, owing to the fact that their larvae live upon 
decaying animal and vegetable matter. 

As it is our purpose to take a general survey, however 
brief, of all the more important members of the insect 
world, we cannot afEord the space to deal with the 
various Muscid species as we would wish. Dr. C. G. 
Hewitt's excellent little work on House Flies should be 
read by all who are interested in this family. It makes 
no mention, however, of the most important of all 
Muscids, the Tse-tse Flies, for they are not House Flies. 
These insects of the genus Glossina have earned their 
popular name from the African natives who think that 
Tse-tse most nearly approximates to the buzzing of the 
Flies. 

Sleeping sickness is caused by a blood parasite, known 
as Trypanosoma gambiense, and it is introduced into the 
human blood by the bites of either Glossina fdlfolis or 
G . morsitans. The latter species also transmits the blood 
parasite of Nagana, T. hrucei, to domestic animals. 

The GlossincB are mud-coloured creatures which carry 
their wings scissor- wise when at rest. They possess the 
curious habit, for Muscids, of producing living larvae in 
such an advanced stage that they at once change into 
pupae. 

Anthomyiidje.— Very similar to House Flies, but 
with a different wing venation, the fourth longitudinal 
vein running straight to the margin, not upturned, as 
in MuscidcB ; arista either feathered or bare. 

These Flies, which have no popular name, are, for the 



312 INSECT LIFE 

most part, unattractive. Their habits are so varied 
that experience will probably cause the family to be 
split up. Certain British species are harmful. Hyle- 
myia cefetorum^ the Onion Fly, lays its eggs on the 
necks of onions or on the soil near-by, and the larvae at 
once pass down into the stems and irretrievably damage 
the plants just above the swelling bulbs. The Cabbage 
Boot Fly, Aniliomyia brassicw, lays its eggs in close 
proximity to Cruciferous plants, and the young larvsB 
feed upon the roots, causing the plants to become dis- 
coloured, to wilt and die. Another species of Hylemyia, 
H. strigosa, is viviparous, whilst two species of AntJio- 
myia, A. cana and A. angustifrons, are enemies of 
Locusts. 

Growp Acalypteratce. 

ScATOPHAGiD^.— Slender Flies, yellowish or black in 
colour; smooth or hairy. 

The Dung Flies are of little general interest. The 
Common Yellow Dung Fly of this country is a familiar 
object on the excrement of cattle, on which it breeds. 

Sepsid^. — Small, slender, shining black Flies. 

The best-known species of the family is the Cheese 
Skipper, Piophila casei, L. The female lays her slender 
white eggs preferably on the best-quality cheeses. In 
a day and a half the larvae emerge. In a week they are 
fully fed; their most striking characteristic is that by 
bending themselves so that head and tail meet and 
then suddenly straightening themselves out, they are 
able to leap to a very considerable height. 

Ortalid^. — Wings brown, spotted or banded; bodies 
with metallic coloration. 



FRUIT FLIES 313 

Many of these beautiful little Flies, during the larval 
stage, live in fruit or vegetables, but they probably only 
do so after damage has been caused by other insects. 

Trypetid^e. — Beautifully spotted bodies in many 
species, and spotted or banded wings. 

The Fruit Flies are considerable pests in some parts 
of the world, and one species, the Mediterranean Fruit 
Fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the worst enemies of 
the fruit-grower, so much so that stringent regulations 
are enforced to prevent its entry into the United States. 

DiOPSiD^. — Very broad heads, eyes at the extremi- 
ties of stalks. 

The Stalk-eyed Flies are amongst the most curious 
of all Diptera in appearance, and there their interest 
ends. In many species the eyes are set upon very long 
stalks, a fact which gives their owners the appearance 
of possessing antlers. 

OsciNiD^. — Small, stoutly built Flies, often yellowish 
in colour. 

The most notorious member of this family is the Frit 
Fly, Oscinis frit, a serious grain pest, and only too 
common in this country. "Various members of the genus 
Chlorops damage crops by causing the plants to form galls. 

Drosophilid^. — ^Mmute and unimportant insects, 
known as Lesser Fruit Flies. The adults both feed 
upon and oviposit in decaying fruit, and the larvae of 
some species, white, eel-like creatures, are frequently 
found in vinegar and badly tinned fruit. 

AGROMYZID.E. — Minute dull-coloured Flies. Of little 
importance. The larvae of some species damage foliage 
leaves by tunnelling between the upper and lower epider- 
mis. The larvae of other species prey upon Scale insects. 

40 



314 INSECT LIFE 

Series 6. Pwpiparia. 

Flies with heads and bodies depressed, the former 
projecting forward and downward; wings present, 
rudimentary, or absent; claws large. 

HiPPOBOSCiD^. — ^Parasitic Flies upon animals and 
birds; they are peculiar in that they produce neither 
eggs nor larvae, but pupse, only a single pupa being 
produced at a time. 

Hifpobosca equina, the British Horse Fly or Forest 
Fly, is common on the ponies in the New Forest, though 
it is not confined to that district. It is a chestnut- 
brown, winged insect, and bears little resemblance to 
the commonly accepted typical Fly. Still less Fly-like 
is the Wingless Sheep Tick, MelopJiagus ovinus. This 
creature, by the way, is not a tick, for ticks are not 
even insects. It is truly parasitic and beautifully 
adapted for life amongst the wool of its host. The 
family has been neglected by scientists, and many 
species are probably as yet undiscovered. 

Braulh)^. — Only one species is known in this family, 
the minute Braula coeca, parasitic upon Bees. 

Nycteribiid^. — Eare and curious, Spider-like Bat 
Flies. 

The legs of these wingless Flies are long, their bodies 
are small, and their eyes are wanting. " They are 
rarely more than one-sixth of an inch in length, but 
the long legs, which are frequently banded with jet 
black and silvery white, render them quite conspicuous/* 
Of one species Sharp says: ** The form is very peculiar^ 
the insects looking as if the upper were the under 
surface." 



CONCLUSION 315 

Here our review of the insects of tlie world is ended. 
None of tlie important orders have been omitted and 
few of the famiUes; some, we fear, have been dealt 
with superficially, but we have tried to be just and 
devote the greater space to insects of major importance. 
A work of more than twenty volumes has been devoted 
to Lepidoptera alone; therefore, to compress all that 
one would say into 320 pages is not so easy as it may 
appear. For our shortcomings and omissions we crave 
pardon; our one hope is that readers who have borne 
with us thus far may feel a desire to go into the fields, 
to gain access to some representative collections, and 
learn, by the only satisfactory means, by personal 
observation and study, more of Insect Life. 



316 INSECT LIFE 



APPENDIX 

SOME BOOKS WHICH MAY BE BEAD WITH 
ADVANTAGE 

It is usual, when one wishes to draw attention to 
certain books, to enumerate a formidable list of works, 
in alphabetical or chronological order, under the heading 
" BibHography,'' and leave one's readers to pick for 
themselves. To the experienced entomologist such a 
list may appeal; he knows what he is looking for, and 
uses the list merely for reference. It is our object to 
be helpful and to point the way; at a later stage our 
readers will then be able to use a Bibliography to the 
best advantage. 

General Works. 

The student who wishes to gain a thorough insight 
into general entomology cannot do better than read 
the fifth and sixth volumes of the " Cambridge Natural 
History." Its information is, of necessity, more com- 
plete, but it is also far more technical than the subject- 
matter of " Insect Life." It is a standard work, but 
a new edition would be welcomed by every entomologist. 

Carpenter's " Life-Story of Insects " is brief, but 
excellent. 

" Insects," by Harold Bastin, is another book which 



BOOKS TO EEAD 317 

may be read with advantage by the most inexperienced 
student. It is accurate though popular, and well 
illustrated. 

The works of M. Fabre, most of which have been 
translated into English, are so delightful, so pregnant 
with romance, that even those whose interest in insects 
is superficial have read them and will read them. 

The " Insect Book,'' by Howard, is a splendid work 
as far as it goes. It deals with American types, how- 
ever, while Coleoptera and Lepidoftera are missing from 
its pages. 

Odonata. 

" British Dragon-flies," by Lucas, is the best work 
for the beginner. Practically all our British species are 
figured in colour. 

Orthoptera. 

So far as we know, there is no work dealing solely 
with this order and suitable for any but advanced 
students. All the general works we have mentioned 
deal with the order. 

Rhynchota. 

The remarks under the previous heading apply also 
to this order. 

Lepidoptera. 

" British Butterflies," by A. M. Stewart, and " British 
Moths," by the same author, will be found especially 
useful to readers of " Insect Life," for they contain 



318 INSECT LIFE 

concise and accurate descriptions of all tlie British 
species figured in '* Insect Life/' They are excellent 
little works. The volumes with similar titles to the 
above, by South, are also worthy of perusal. 

The " Butterfly Book " and the " Moth Book," both 
by Holland, are useful additions to any entomologist's 
library, but they mainly deal with American Lepidoptera. 

Works without number have been written on the 
subject of the Lefidoftera inhabiting practically every 
country in the world. Most of them, however, are 
profusely illustrated, and, in consequence, expensive. 

COLEOPTERA. 

The remarks we made concerning the two books on 
Lefidoftera by Stewart apply with equal force to 
" Common British Beetles," by Hall. He describes 
every British Beetle figured in our pages. 

Fowler's " Coleoptera of the British Islands " is an 
excellent though expensive work. 

The order has received almost as much attention as 
the Le'pidoptera, and there are innumerable works on 
the Coleoptera of various countries, in addition to books 
dealing with different famiHes. Water-frequenting species 
are described in Miall's " Aquatic Insects." 

Hymenoptera. 

Wheeler's " Ants " is a splendid work, which every- 
one interested in Formicidce should read and re-read. 

" British Hymenoptera Aculeata," by Saunders, gives 
excellent descriptions of the " stinging " Hymenoptera 
of these Islands, 



BOOKS TO READ 319 

*' Humble Bees," by Sladen, may be studied with 
advantage. 

" Bees and Wasps/' by Latter, is a sound little book, 
dealing with some of the commoner British species. 

SlPHONAPTERA. 

" The Flea," by Russell, is, so far as we know, the 
only popular account of these interesting insects. 

DiPTERA. 

Hewitt's " House Flies " is a splendid little book 
deahng with the various species likely to be met with 
in British households. 

Howard's " House Fly " is another good book on the 
same subject. 

Verrall's " British Flies " is a standard but expensive 
work. It cannot be excelled as a work of reference. 

" The Harlequin Fly," by Miall and Hammond, con- 
tains a wealth of information, though Hmited in subject. 

Diptera, with aquatic larvae, are all described in 
Miall's " Aquatic Insects." 

" Tse-Tse Flies," by Austen, is excellent and very 
well illustrated. 

Economic Insects. 

A library could be filled with works on harmful 
insects. 

Doane's " Insects and Disease " is American and 
good. 

Allcock's " Entomology for Medical Men " is a useful 
work. 



320 INSECT^LIFE 

" Insects and Man," by the author of the present 
volume, describes the relationship of insect to man 
over a wide field. 

Theobald's " Insect Pests of Fruit " gives a concise 
account, with photographs, of all our important fruit 
pests. 

Gillander's " Forest Entomology *' treats in a similar 
way of forest pests. 



INDEX 



The principal references are shown in black numerals. 



Ahispa sp., 254 
Ahraxaa grossvlaria'.a, 1G5 
Acalypterataj, 13, 305, 312 
Acanthosoma grisemn, 106 
Acentropus sp., 169 
Acherontia atropos, 52, 151 
Achoruies dubius, 59 

nivicola, 59 
Acilius sulcatus, 187 
Acridiidse, 8, 91, 94 

song of, 95 
Acridotheres dux, 94 
Acronycta psi, 166 

tridens, 166 
Aculeata, 12, 224, 236 
Adder, flying, 65 
Adephaga, 10, 176, 183, 206 
Adoxus vitis, 209 
JEpus marinus, 185 

robinii, 185 
Mschna cyanea, 75 

grandis, 75 

her OS, 72 
.^chnidse, 8, 74 
Agabus bipustulatus, 187 

nebulosus, 187 
Agdistes sp., 170 
Agenia carbonaria, 261 
Ageronia sp., 141 
Aggressive mimicry, 47, 49, 268 
Agrilus angustulv.s, 203 

politus, 203 

ruficollis, 203 
Agrion sp., 66, 73 
Agrionidas, 8, 73 
Agriotes obscurus, 201 
Agromyzidse, 13, 313 
Agrotis exclamationis, 166 

segetum, 166 

spina, 167 
Alder fly, 127 



Aleurodcs brassicoc, 125 

cjV/-i, 125 
Aleurodidie, 19, 55, 104, 125 
Alligator, 128 

Alternation of generation?, 25, 273 
Amara aiUica, 184 

fulva, 184 
Amby, 128 
Ammophila campestris, 265 

sabulosa, 264 
Amphydasis betularia, 46 
Ampulicides, 265 
Anasa tristis, 107 
Anatis ocellata, 195 
.4/iaa; sp., 75 
Andrena argentata, 241 

Cuckoos of, 242 

/Wt;a, 241 

ovina, 241, 242 
sp., 221, 240 

vicina, 241 
Andrenidse, 241 
Anergates atraiulus, 275 
Anobiidse, 198 
Anobium jtaniceum, 198 

striatum, 198 
Anomala frischii, 181 
Anopheles maculipennis, 287 

sp., 291 
Anophthalvms sp., 185 
Anoplura, 8, 56, 57, 61, 63 
.4nost« erippiis, 144 
Anostostoma cmstraliasice, 91 
Ant, 29, 56, 113, 123, 185, 188, 191, 
193, 200, 223, 237, 288, 2^6 

Amazon, 273 

and Aphis Lion, 37 

and Coccidse, 35, 37 

and Green fly, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 
272, 273 

and Lacewing, 37 
321 41 



322 



INSECT LIFE 



Ant, and Lycsenidfe, 38 

and Microdon, 304, 305 
and Plant lice, 35, 37 
and Paussidae, 39, 187 
Argentine, 274 
Black, 273 

Garden, 273 
Bulldog, 277 
Callow, 35 
Carpenter, 269 

Pennsylvania, 269 
castes of, 31 
colonies of, 31 
Cow, 258 
Driver, 278 
eggs of, 34 
food of, 34 
Fungus, 34, 276 
Garden, 273 
guests, 39 

reason far, 39 

tolerated, 41 
Harvesting, 34, 275 
Hill, 272 
Honey, 271 
Leaf-cutting, 276 
Lion, 18, 130, 297 

pits of, 131 
Meadow, 273 
minim workers of, 32 
nuptial flight of, 31 
nurses, 33 
parasites of, 42 
plasticity of, 33, 39 
polymorphism of, 30, 268 
pupation of, 35 
Queen, 32 
Red, 272 
senses of, 34 
Slave-making, 272, 273 

Blood-red, 272 
solitary, 258 
Tree, 269 

why, successful, 29 
Wood, 272 
worker of, 32, 33 
Anthidium hdlicosum, 247 
diadema, 247 
maniculatum, 247 
septendenfatum, 247 
strigatum, 248 
Anthomyia anguadfrons, 312 
brassicoe, 312 



Anthomyia cana, 312 
Anthomyidffi, 13, 311 
Anthonomus grandis, 46, 216 

pomorum, 217 

signatus, 216 
Anthophila, 12, 236, 237 
Anthophora, Cuckoos of, 245 

personaia, 245 

piiipes, 245 

sp., 21, 22, 244 
Anthribidse, 11, 215 
Apantdes fonnosus, 230 

glomeralus, 230 
Apatura iris, 45, 141, 143 
Aphcenogaster arenarius, 275 

barbarus, 275 

structor, 275 
Aphidffi, 9, 18, 19, 29, 36, 37, 38, 39, 
55, 56, 104, 123, 130, 133, 195. 
230. 233, 267, 272, 273. 274, 304 

enemies of, 124, 133, 233 

fecundity of, 19, 123 
Aphis Lion, 132 

and Ants, 37 

Maple, 36 

Woolly Apple, 124 
Aphidius sp., 230 
Aphodius fimetarius, 179 

fossor, 179 

rufipes, 179 
Aphoruridffi, 8, 59 
Apidffi, 12, 244 
Apis mdlifica, 250 
Apoda (estudo, 158 
Apoica pallida, 257 
Aporia cratcegi, 148 
Apterygota, 7, 8 
Aradidffi, 9, 110 
Araschnia levana, 28 

prorsa, 28 
Archiapid!B, 239 
Arctia caia, 162 

villica, 162 
Arctiida;, 10, 162, 168 
Argynnis adippe, 143 

agalaia, 143 

euphrosyne, 143 

lathonia, 143 

paphia, 143 

sdene, 143 
Argyromceba trifasciata, 299 
Aromia moschata, 214 
Asilidte, 12, 49. 56, 300 



INDEX 



323 



Asphalia flavicornis, 153 
Aspidiotus pcrniciosus, 126 
Atdura formicaria, 40 
Atemeles, 42, 192 
Atherix ibis, 297 

egg-laying of, 297 
Athous hcemorrhoidalis, 201 

niger, 201 
Atropid.-B, 8, 102 
Airopos pulsatoria, 102 
Atta sp., 276 
AUagenus pelleus, 197 
Attaphila sp., 41 
Atteldbus curculionoides, 2 17 

Balaninus glandiurn, 216 

nucum, 216 
Banjnotus obscurus, 217 
Batocera sp., 215 

Bee, 21, 29, 30, 123, 194, 221, 223, 
236, 237 

and Bee-fly, 299 

Bumble, 14, 49, 190, 250 
Earth, 251 
Stone, 251 

Carder, 247, 252 

Carpenter, 245 

Drone of, 250 

fly and Bees, 299 

and Locusts, 299 

head, 239 

Honey, 57, 200, 241, 240, 250 

Humble. See Bumble Bee 

Leaf-cutter, 248 

legs of, 238 

Long-horned, 249 

Mason, 200, 248, 299 

mimicry of, by Robber fly, 4?, 301 

Moss Carder, 252 

Pointed-tongued, 244 

pollen gathering of, 238 

prey of Robber flies, 301 

Queen, 250, 251 

Short Fork-tongued, 239 

Short Pjinted-tongued, 241 

Social, 222, 239, 250 

Solitary, 239 

swarming of, 31 

tongue of, 237 

Wool Carder, 247 

workers of, 250, 251 
Beetle, Ambrosia, 218 

and Ants, 39 



Beetle, Asparagus, 208 
Bacon, 196 

Black. See Cockroach 
Blister, 21, 22, 23, 176, 205 
Bloody-nosed, 210 
Bombardier, 186, 188 
Burying, 191 

Black, 191 
Cane-borer, Red-necked, 203 
Carrion, 191 

Roving, 191 
Cellar, 204 
Churchyard, 204 
Clock, i79 
Click, 201 

leaping of, 201 
Colorado, 210 
Dor, 179 
Dumble, 179 
Dung, 179 
Elm-bark, 218 

leaf, 114, 211 
Flea, 211, 266 
Fungus, 194 

growing, 218 
Golden Apple, 209 
Goliath, 175 
Ground, 184, 185 

violet, 185 
June Bug, 181 
Leaf, 174,209,211 
Leather, 196 
Luminous, 199, 202 
]\Iimic, 193 
Musk, 214 
Oil, 22, 170, 205 

fecundity of, 205 
violet, 205 
Pill, 197 
Prionid, 213 
Rhinoceros, 182 
Rose Chafer, 174, 182 
Rove, 192 

Black, 39 
Sacred, 179 

Saw-toothed Grain, 194 
Scarab, 179 
Ssxtou, 191 
Shield. 211 
Stag, 178, 189, 213 

Small, 178 
Tiger, 1S3, 184 
183 



324 



INSECT LIFE 



Beetle, Tiger, Wood, 183 

Tortoise, 211, 212 

Turnip Blossom, 193 
Flea, 211 

Wasp, 47, 214 

Water, 186 

Margined, 187 
Silver, 189 

breathing of, 190 
egg cocoon of, 190 

Weevil. See Weevils 

Whirligig, 188 
BclostomidcG, 9, 116 
Bemhex sp., 298 
Bembicides, 265 
Beneficial insects, 57 
Bibionida;, 12, 292 
Bittacomor'plia sp., 292 
Blahcrus gigantetis, 86 
Black Beetle. See Cockroach 
Blaps mortisvga, 204 

mucronata, 204 
Blastopharja sp., 232 
Blaita orientalis, 17, 84 
Blattidse, 8, 83, 265 
Blissus leticoj'tervs, 108 
Bloodworm, 289 
Bluebottle, 267 
Blue Tit, 124 
Bogart, 128 

Boletophila luminosa, 286 
Bombus agrorum, 14, 252, 258 

Cuckoos of, 252 

lapidariufi, 251 

muscorum, 14 

terrestris, 251 

variabilis, 258 

venustus, 14, 252 
Bombycida>, 10, 151 
Bombyliida;, 12, 298 
Bombylius major, 298 
Bombyx castrensis, 159 

neu&tria, 159 

qncrcvs, 159 

rubi, 159 
Bostrychida?, 11, 54, 174, 197 
Brachinvs crepitans, 186 
Brachonidai, 12, 50, 229 
Brachyporvs sp., 91 
Brassolidffi, 10, 145 
Bra-tla cceca, 314 
Braulida}, 13, 314 
Brenthid.-e, 11, 219 



Brenthidse, egg-laying of, 220 
Brophos notha, 167 
parthenias, 167 
Brown Drakes, 77 
Bruchidje, 11, 206 
Bruchus chinensis, 206 
lentis, 206 
obteclvs, 260 
pisi, 206 
Bryophila pcrla, 168 
Bug, Abe Lincoln, 106 
Ants mimicking, 113 
Assassin, 112 
Bark, 110 
Bed, 57, 105, 112, 113 

Giant, 112 

stink glands of, 105 
Blood-sucking Cone Nose, 112 
Cannibal, 112 
Chinch, 108 
Connoption, 128 
Harlequin Cabbage, 106 
Lace, 109 

Four-lined Leaf, 114 
Mealy, 125, 126 
Pirate, 112 
Squash, 107 
Third Party, 106 
Buprestidas 11, 54, 202, 207, 266 
Butterfly, 26, 138 

Admiral Red, 141, 142 

White, 141, 143 
Bhie, 146 

Azure, 146 

Chalkhill, 140 

Clifden, 146 

Common, 146 

Large, 146 

Little, 146 

Long-tailed, 146 

Mazarine, 146 

Silver-studded, 146 
Brimstone, 148 
Brown Argus, 147 
Camberwell Beauty, 143 
Clouded Yellow, 148 

Pale, 143 
Comma, 142 
Copper, Large, 146 

Small, 146 
Emperor, Purple, 45, 141, 143 
Fritillary, Dark Green, 143 

Duke of Burgundy, 144 



INDEX 



325 



Butterfly, rritillaiy, Glanville, 143 
Greasy, 143 
Heath, 143 
High Brown, 143 
Pearl-bordered, 143 

Small, 143 
Silver-washed, 143 
Grayling, 143 
Hairstreak Black, 147 
Brown, 147 
Green, 43, 147 
Purple, 147 
White Lottcr, 147 
Lsaf, 43, 141, 143 
Marsh Ringlet, 145 
Milkweed, 144 
Monarch, 144 
Orange Tip, 147 
Painted Lady, 142 
Peacock, 141, 142 
prey of Robber fly, 3}1 
Queen of Spain, 143 
Skipper, 149, 150 
Checkered, 149 
Dingy, 149 
Grizzled, 150 
Large, 149 
Lulworth, 149 
New Small, 149 
Pearl, 149 
Small, 149 
Swallow-tail, 52, 143 
Tortoiseshcll, 141 
Large, 142 
Small, 141 
White Bath, 148 
White, Black-veined, 148 
Cabbage, 15, 17, 27, 230 
Green-veined, 27, 148 
Large, 143 
small, 148 
Wood, 148 
Byrrhidaj, 11, 197 
Byrrhus piluia, 197 

Caddis fly, 25, 76, 134 

carnivorous, 137 
Ccenonympha typlion, 145 
Ccelerocephalus palcemon, 149 
Calandra granaria, 217 

oryzae, 217 
OcUigo eurylochus, 145 
OalUcliroma sp., 214 



Calligenia lurideola, 163 

miniata, 163 
Callimenus sp., 91 
Gallimorpha dominala, 163 
Galliphora erythrocephala, 310 

vomitoria, 310 
Gallotermes sp., 81 
Callows, 35 
Caloptenus sp., 22 
Galopterygidse, 8, 72, 73 
Calopteryx chinensis, 73 
splendens, 73 
virgo, 72 
Cahsoma sycophanta, 185 
Calypterataj, 13, 305 
Campodeidse, 8, 60 
Camponotides, 269 
Camponotus ligniperdus, 269 

pennsylvanicus, 269 
Camptobrochis grandis, 114 
Cantharides, 205 
Capnodis sp., 203 
Caprification, 232 
Capsidse, 9, 55, 113 
Carabidse, 10, 56, 184, 187 
Carabus arvensis, 185 
catenulatus, 185 
nemoralis, 185 
violaceus, 185 
Carnivora, 183 
Carpets, 164 
Carpocapsa Juliana, 171 
pomonella, 171 
saliitans, 171 
splendana, 171 
Oarteria lacca, 126 
Caryoborus sp., 206 
Cassida equestris, 212 

viridis, 212 
Cassididse, 11, 211 
Castniidae, 10, 150 
Gatadystalemnata, 169 
Gatoxantha bicolor, 203 

opulenta, 203 
Cecidomyiida;, 12, 20, 282, 285 
Gdaspidia grossa, 213 
Gemonus unicolor, 267 
Gephaloccema sp., 96 
Cephida?, 12, 55, 227 
Gephus pygmceus, 227 
Cerambycidce, 11, 54, 214 
Geratitis capitata, 313 
GerafophijUus fasciatus, 281 



326 



INSECT LIFE 



Ceratopogon bicolor, 290 

bipunc/aius, 289 
Ceratopsillidse, 279 
Cerceria arenaria, 266 

bnpresticiia, 266 

labiata, 266 
Cercopidse, 9, 121, 122 
Ceroplastes ceriferus, 126 
Ceto7iia aurata, 182 

marginata, 182 
Cetoniidae, 10, 54, 182, 259 
ChcBrocampa elpencr, 152 

porcdlus, 152 
Chalcicodoma muraria, 246, 299 
ChalcididcR, 12, 56, 231, 232, 233 
Charceas graminis, 166 
Charagia sp., 156 
Chartergus chartarius, 257 
Cheimatobia brumata, 165 
Chermes abietis, 124 
Chigoe, 279, 281 
Chironomidse, 12, 77, 289 
CMoroperla sp., 77 
Chlorops sp., 313 
Chloroscdus tenana, 92 
Choragus slicpphardi, 215 
Chrysididse, 12, 234, 240 
Chrysis ccerulans, 235 

bidentala, 235 

ignita, 235 
Chrysomela banksii, 210 

cerealis, 210 

gattingansis, 210 

limbata, 210 

marginalis, 210 

rw/a, 210 

schach, 210 

staphylea, 210 
Chrysomelidte, 11, 54, 209 
Chrysomyia macdlaria, 310 

po^fto, 267 
Chrijsopa vulgaris, 133 

eggs of, 133 
Chrysopidse, 9, 56, 133 
Chrysops sp., 298 
Cicada, 117, 123, 262, 266 

periodical, 119 

septendecim, 119 

song of, lis 

vocal organs of, 115 
CicadidsD, 9, 55, 117 
Cicindda campestris, 1S3 

sylvattca, 183 



Cicinddidce, 10, 56, 183 
Ct/ta; glaucata, 158 
Cimex lectularins, 113 
Cimicidse, 9, 57, 113 
Cistelidse, 11,204 
Classification, 5 
Clavicornia, 177 
Claviger testaceus, 192 
Clearwings. See Moths 
Clegg, 297 

Cleonus sulcirostris, 218 
C/ep^es sp., 236 
Cleridse, 11,200 
Climacia sp., 132 
Clipper, 128 
Clythra sp., 40 

quadrifunctata, 208 
Clythridse, 11, 208 
Clytus arietis, 48 

sp., 214 
Cnethocarnpa processionea, 151 
Coccidse, 9, 55, 56, 58, 104, 105, 
125, 273 

and ants, 37 
Coccindlabi-puvctala, 105 

1 -punctata, 195 

10-pM«ctofo, 195 
Coccinellidffi, 11, 56, 195 
Coccus cacti, 126 

mannifera, 126 
Cochineal, 58, 126 
Cockchafer, 180, 181 
Cockroach, 17, 18, 83, 112, 113, 230 

American, 84 
Caelioxys quadri-derttata, 249 
Coleoptera, 10, 17, 39, 52, 55, 56, 139, 

173, 220, 233 
Colias edusa, 148 

hyah, 148 
Collembola, 8, 18, 59 
Cdletes daviesanns, 241 

succincta, 240 
Colouring, 42 
Colours, protective, 42, 44 

warning, 47 
Colymbctes fuscus, 187 
Coniopterygida;, 9, 130 
Conopidao^ 12, 302 
Conopinse, 302 
Conorhimis sartgiiisitga, 112 
Oonotrachelns nenuphar, 217 
Coprida), 10, 179, ISO 
Copris lunaris, 179 



INDEX 



327 



Gordulegasier annitlatiis, 74 
Cordulegasteridae, 8, 74 
Cordulidae, 8, 75 
Coreidae, 9, 106 
Coremia hirtipes, 214 
Corixa femorata, 117 
eggs of, 117 

geoffroyi, 117 

mercenaria, 117 
Corixidse, 9, 117 
Corydalis cornuta, 128 
Corydia petiverana, 86 
Coryneies ccer ulcus, 200 
Cose inoc era hercules, 150 
Oosmosoina, sp., 214 
Cossidse, 10, 53, 156 
Cossus ligniperda, 155 
Cotton stainers, 55, 108 
lesser, 108, 109 
Courtship of Swift Moth, 157 
Crahro cetratus, 267 

dypeatus, 267 

cribrarius, 267 

dimidiatus, 267 

gonager, 267 

interruptus, 267 

leucostomus, 267 

palmarius, 267 

pdtarius, 267 

podagricus, 267 

quadrimaculatus, 267 

scutdlatus, 267 

sp., 231 

weitmoeli, 267 
Crabronides, 267 
Crambus sp., 163 
Crawlers, 128 
Creepers, 77 
Gremastogaster sp., 276 
Cricket, 40, 41, 83, 90, 111 

Field, 90 

House, 90 

Mole, 90 

singing of, 93 

Tree, 90, 91 
Crioceridce, 11,208,211,212 
Crioceris asperagi, 208 

merdigera, 208 
Crock, 128 

Cryptocephalidse, 11, 209 
Cryptocephalus sericen.t, 209 
Cryptocerata, 105, 114 
Cryptophagidse, 11, 194 



Ctenocephalus canis, 279 

fdis, 279 
Cuckoo fly, 234 
Cuckoo of Andrena, 242 

of Anthophora, 245 

of Bombus, 252 

of Halictus, 243 

of Megachile, 249 

of Osmia, 248 

Spit insect, 121, 122 
CuUx sp., 214 

fatigana, 287 

pipiens, 287 
Culicidse, 12,56,286 
Curculionidae, 11, 54, 216 
Cursoria, 83 
Cutworms, 53 
Cyclorrhapha Aschiza, 13, 302 

sohizophora, 13, 305 
Cymatophorida), 10 
Cynipidae, 12, 25, 55, 58, 233 
Cynips sp., 207 
Cynomyia mortuor^im, 309 
Cyphocrania semirubra, 89 
Cyrtophyllum crepitans, 93 

Daddy-long-legs, 291 
Danaidae, 10, 144 
Dascillidae, 11, 200 
Dascillua servinus, 201 
Dasychira pxidibunda, 161 

rossi, 162 
Dasylis sp., 49 
Dasypoda hirtipes, 244 
Day fly, 77 

Death watch, 198, 200 
Deilephila euphorUce, 151 

gain, 151 
Deinacrida sp., 91 
Demoiselle, 72 
Dermatobia sp., 306 
Dermatophilus penetrans, 281 
Dermestes lardarius, 197 
Dermestidffi, 11, 196 
Deromyia annulata, 49 
Devil's Coach-horse, 192 

Darning-needle, 65 
Diactor bilineatus, 107 
Diapherotnera femorata. 89 
Dicranura vinula, 162 
Dictyophorus reticulatus, 97 
Dimorphism, 43, 140 

seasonal, 26, 140 



328 



INSECT LIFE 



Diopsida;, 13, 313 

Dioxys cincta, 247 

Diploptera, 12, 236, 253 

Diptera, 12, 17, 52, 54, 55, 56, 130, 

193, 231, 233, 265, 282 
Disease and flies, 55 
Division of labour, 30 
Dixa sp., 291 
Dixidfe, 12, 291 
Dobson, 127, 128 

American, 128 
Dolichoderides, 274 
Dolium diabolicnm, 50 
Donacea crassipes, 207 

semicwprea, 207 
Donacidae, 11, 207 
Dorcus parallelopipedus, 178 
Dorylides, 277 
Dorylus sp., 277 
Doryophora pwictatissuna, 210 
Dragon, 128 
Dragon fly, 18, 65, 253 

capture of prey, 66 
emergence from pupa, 69 
pairing of, 66 
migration of, 72 
prey of Robber flies, 301 
Drepana falcatoria, 158 

lacertinaria, 157 
Drepanidffi, 10, 157 
Drosophilidae, 13, 313 
Dry season forms, 26 
Dynastea hercules, 182 
Dynastidffl, 10, 54, 181, 182 
Dysdercus sp., 55, 108 

sulurdlus, 108 

Dytiscidffi, 10, 186, 188 

Dytiscus marginalis, 187 

punctulatus, 187 

Earwig, 61, 98 
Echinophthirius, sp., 64 
E chiton sp., 277 
Economic entomology, 51 
Egg-laying of Brenthidc-e, 220 
Elateridaj, 11, 54, 201 
Elater-sanguinclentvs, 201 
Elephantiasis, 287 
Elis 4:-notata, 260 
Embia savignyi, 100 
Embiid«, 8, 100 
Embioptera, 8, 100 
Emesidse, 112 



Empidffi, 12 
Encyrlus sp., 233 
Endopterygota, 7, 0, 127 
EndromidiB, 10, 159 
Endromis versicolor, 159 
Entomobryidae, 8, 59 
Epeolus variegatus, 241 
Ephemera vxilgata, 77 
Ephenicridae, 8, 77, 79 
Ephemeroptera, 8, 18, 77 
Ephestia kuhnidla, 168 
Epicauta sp., 203 

viltata, 22, 23 
Ephippiitya trigingnttaia, 93 
Epilachna sp., 195 
Equal wings, 78 
Erastria scitula, 167 
Ericerus pela, 126 
Eriocampoides limacina, 226 
Eristalis tenax, 284, 303, 304 
Erycinidcr, 10, 144 
Eucera longicornis, 249 
Euchelia Jacob CBCB, 163 
Euchloe cardamines, 147 
Euglossa sp., 246 
Eumenes coarctata, 253 

fraterna, 235 

pojtiiformis, 254 
Eumenidse, 12, 253 
Eumolpidffi, 11,209 
Eiimdpus Jidgidus, 209 
Euplecirus comstocHi, 232 
Euplexoptera, 8, 18, 98 
Euproctis chrysorrhcea, 162 
Eupterotidae, 10, 151 
Euthrips citri, 103 

pyri, 103 
Evania appendig aster, 230 
Evaniidffi, 12, 56, 85, 230 
Exopterygota, 7, 8, 61 

Foenus jaculator, 231 

Fannia, canicvlaris, 16 

Fever, Phlebotomus, 291 
Recurrent, 57, 113 
Sandfly, 291 
Three-day, 57, 291 
Yellow, 56, 282, 287 

Filaria, 287 

Fire Brat., 61 

Firefly, 202 

Fishfiy, 127 

Flata sp., 43 



INDEX 



329 



Flatidae, 120 
Flea, 279 

Bat, 279, 280, 281 

Cat, 279 

ChigcE, 279, 281 

Dog, 279 

Human, 279, 280, 281 

leaping powers of, 279 
280 
Plague, 281 
Rat, 281 
structure of, 280 
Turnip, 211 
Flipflap, 128 
Fly and disease, 282 
Armed, 293 
Bat, 314 
Bee, 298 

and Bees, 299 

and Locusts, 299 
Big-eyed, 302 
Black, 293 
Blow, 309, 310 
Bluebottle, 310 
Bot., 284, 305 

Emasculating, 30G 

Horse, 30G 

Sheep, 305, 307 
Breeze, 297 
Cabbage root, 312 
Celery, 282 
Chameleon, 296 
Cheese, 312 
Crane, 282, 291 
Dance, 301 

webs of, 301 
Deer, 297 

Dragon. See Dragonfly 
Drone, 284, 304 
Dung, 312 
Flesh, 19, 309 
Forest, 314 
Frit, 282, 313 
Fruit, 313 

Lesser, 313 

Mediterranean, 313 
Gad, 297 
Gall, 283, 285 
Green. See Greenfly 
Greenbottle, 310 
Harlequin, 289 
Hessian, 285 
Horn, 310 



Fly, Horse, 297, 314 

House, 13, 14, 15, 16, 57, 
284, 298, 303, 308, 310, 
311 

Lesser, 16 

Hover, 303 

March, 293 

May. See Mayfly 

Moth, 290, 293 

Narcissus, 304 

Onion, 282, 312 

Ox Warble, 306, 307 

Pangonia, 298 

Robber, 49, 296, 300 

mimicking Bees, 49, 301 
prey of, 301 

sand, 290, 293 

Screwworm, 310 

sexes of, 283 

Sheep Bot., 19 

Sheep Nasal. See Sheep bot. fly 
tick, 314 

Snipe, 296 

Soldier, 295 

Stable, 310 

Stalk-eyed, 313 

Syrphid, 124 

Thick-headed, 302 

Tse-tse, 19, 57, 310 
name of, 311 

Typhoid, 14 

Window, 298 
Flying adder, 65 
Forester, 154 
Forficula auricularia, 98 
Forficulidse, 8, 98 
Formica canicularia, 272 
fusca, 272, 273 

auricularia, 273 

rufa, 40, 272, 275 

sanguinea, 272 
Formicidai, 12, 79, 237, 268 
Formicoxemis nitidula, 275 
Fossores, 12, 237, 257 
Fringe wings, 102 
Fritillary. See Butterfly 
Frog hoppers, 121 
Fulgoridse, 9, 43, 120 
Fungus gnats, 286 

Galeruca tenaceti, 211 
Galerucdla luteola, 114, 211 
Galerucidee, 11,54,211 

42 



330 



INSECT LIFE 



Gall, 5« 

Bedeguar, 234 

Currant, 25 

fly, 25, 223, 233 

formation of, 234 

Gnat. See Gall fly 

Oak-apple, 26 

Root, 26 

Spangle, 25 
Galleria sp., 170 
Gastrophilus equi, 306 
Geometers, 43, 164 
Geometridse, 10, 53, 163 
Geotrupes spiniger, 180 

stercorarius, 179 

sylvaticus, ISO 
G err is sp.. Ill 
Glossina sp., 19, 310 

morsitans, 311 

palpalis, 311 
Glow-worm, 199 

New Zealand, 286 
Glyptus, mimic of Termites, 185 

sculptUis, 185 
Gnat, 110,267,288 

Buffalo, 293 

Fungus, 286 

Gall. See Gall fly 

Water, 110 
Gnophria quadra, 163 
Gnorirrms ndbUis, 182 
Goggle goy, 128 
Golden eye, 133 
Gomphida;, 8, 74, 75 
Gomphus vastus, 74 
Gonepteryx rJiamni, 148 
Gongylus gongyloides, 50 
Grasshopper, 92 

Great Green, 92 

Long-horned, 91, 92 

prey of Robber flies, 103 

Short-horned, 94 
Grayling, 145 
Greenbottle, 310 
Green Drake, 77 

fly, 35, 104, 123, 235, 304 
and Ants, 35, 36 
and Ladybirds, 124, 195 
enemies of, 124 
fecundity of, 19, 123 
siphons of, 37 
Growth, 15 
Gryllidffi, 8, 90, 95 



Gryllotalpa viilgaris, 90 
Gryllus campestris, 90 

domesiictts, 90 
Gymnocerata, 105 
Gyrinidse, 11,188 
Gyrinus natator, 188 
Gyropidse, 8, 81 

Ha,matobia serrata, 310 
Hainatomyza dephantis, 64 
Ho.matopinus asini, 64 
Hmmatopota sp., 298 
HcEinonia curtisi, 207 
Hairstreak. See Butterfly 
Halictus, Cuckoos of, 243 

lineolatus, 243 

maculatus, 243 

malachurus, 243 

morio, 243 

quadricinctus, 243 

sexcinctus, 243 

sp. 221, 266 
Halohates, sp., Ill 
Haltica sp., 211 

tabida, 266 
Halticidffi, 11,54, 210 
Harpalus oeneas, 184 

latus, 184 

ruficornis, 184 
Harpax ocdlaria, 87 
Heliconiidse, 10, 145 
Hdiconius erato, 145 
Hdiopathes gibbus, 204 
Hell devil, 128 

diver, 128 
Hellgrammite, 127 
Hdopdtis, sp., 114 
Hemerobiidffi, 9, 132, 133 
Hemiptera, 63, 105 
Henicocephalida9, 9, 111 
Hepialidse, 10, 156 
Hepialus humuli, 156 

Jiectus, 156 

vdleida, 156 
Hesperia acicRon, 149 

comma, 149 

lineola, 149 

sylvanus, 149 

thaumas, 149 
Hesperiidse, 10, 149 
Hetserina, 73 

Heterocera, 10, 139, 149, 150 
Heterogyna, 12 



INDEX 



331 



Heteromcra, 11, 177, n03 
Heteroi^tera, 9, iDi, 105 
Hibernation, 26 
IHmatidium latreilli, 213 
Ilipfobosca equina, 314 
Hippoboscidae, 13, 57, 314 
Hippodamia 13-2miictata, 195 
HispidcG, 11, 211 
Hister himacnlatus, 193 

cadaver iims, 193 

unicolor, 193 
Histeridai, 11, 39, 192 

and ants, 39 
Ho Jack, 128 
Hololepta sp., 193 
Homoptera, 9, 104, 117, 302 
Honey dew, 36, 37, 38 

how obtained by ants, 38 
Iloplia philanthus, 181 
Hornet, 48, 192 
Horse stinger, 65 
Ilybernia defoliaria, 165 
Hybocampa milha^iscri, 153 
Ilydrocampa nympJieaia, 169 

stagnata, 169 
Ilydrocyphon deflexicollis, 201 
Ilydrometra stagnorum, 110 
Hydrometrid®, 9, 110, 111 
Hydrophilidae, 11, 189 
Hydrophilus piceus, 189 
Hydropsychidaj, 9, 137 
Hydroptilidse, 9, 137 
Hylastes ater, 219 

palliatus, 219 
Hylatoma rosce, 225 
Hylemyia cepetorum, 312 

strigosa, 312 
Hylohius abietis, 216 
Hylurgus piniperda, 219 
Hymenoptera, 11, 17, 52, 55, 77, 81, 
88, 122, 124, 126, 139, 221, 222, 223, 
302, 303 
Hymenopus bicornis, 50 
Hypcra punctata, 218 
Hypermetamorphosis, 21, 22 
Ilypliydrus ovatus, 187 
Ilypodenna bovis, 306 

lineata, 306 
Ilyponomeuta padella, 172 
Hypsidsc, 10, 162 

I eery a purcJiasi, 126, 196 
Ichneumon flies, 228 



Ichncumonida;, 12, 56, 228 
Idclothrips spectrum, 102 
Ilybius ater, 187 

fuliginosus, 187 
Ino globularius, 154 
Insects and disease, 51, 56 

definition of, 6 
Ip-i quadriguttata, 193 
Iridomyrmex humilis, 274 
Ischnomyrmex cockerelli, 33 
Isoptera, 8, 18, 52, 78 
Isosoma, sp,, 231 

Japygidae, 8, 60 
Jassidae, 9, 55, 122, 302 
Julodis cirrosa, 203 
Jumping beans, 171 
June bug, 181 

Kakothrips rohustus, 103 
Kallima sp., 43, 141, 143 
Katydid, 92 

Angular- winged, 93 
Kingfisher, 72 
Koniarovia vktoriosa, 259 

Labia minor, 99 
Labrus gibbus. 184 
Lac insect, 58, 126 
Lacewing, 124, 133 

and Ants, 37, 124 
Lacon murinus, 201 
Ladybird, 124, 126, 174, 195 

and Greenfly, 124, 195 

and scale insects, 126, 196 

2-spotted, 195 

7-spotted, 195 

10-spotted, 195 

13-spotted, 195 
Lamellicornia, 10, 176, 177, 181, 259 

parasites of, 259 
Lamiidfc, 11, 54, 173, 214 
Lampyrides, 199 
Lampyris noctiluca, 199 
Lasiocampa quercifolia, 159 
Lasiocampidse, 10, 158 
Lasius flavus, 272, 273 

fuliginosus, 39, 273 

niger, 273 
Leaf insect, 43, 83, 83 

miner, 53, 55, 172 

roller, 53, 171 
Leaping of Click Beetle, 201 

of flea, 279 



332 



INSECT LIFE 



Lecanium olece, 167 
Lepidocyrlus americanus, 59 
Lepidoptera, 9, 17, 26, 27, 43, 44, 46, 
52, 53, 54, 120, 138, 176, 196, 224, 
225, 229, 231, 284, 285, 295, 315 
Lepisma domestica, 61 

saccharinum, 61 
Lepismatidae, 8, 61 
Leprosy, 113 
Leptidae, 12, 296 
Leptinidse, 11, 190 
Leptinotarsa decemlineala, 210 
Leptinus testaceus, 190 
Leptis scolopacea, 296 
Leptoceridae, 9, 137 
Leptoglossus phyllopus, 107 
Leptopsylla musculi, 280 
Lestes sp., 73 
Leto venus, 156 
Leucophasia sinapis, 148 
Leucospis gigas, 246 

sp., 231 
Libellula depressa, 66, 75 

quadrimaculata, 75 
Libollulid^, 8, 75 
Limacodidse, 10, 158 
Limnetis sibylla, 143 
Limnophilidae, 9, 136 
Limnophilus flavicornis, 136 

rhomb icus, 136 
Liometopum microcephalum, 274 
LiopMmus nubilis, 217 
Liotheidse, 8, 61 
Lipara lucena, 267 
Lithargus bijasciatus, 194 
Locust, 22, 83, 91, 200 

and Bee flies, 299 

life history of, 93, 97 

migration of, 96 

parasites of, 22, 260 

Rocky Mountain, 97 

seventeen year, 18, 81 

song of, 92 
Lociista viridissima, 92 
Locustida;, 8, 91, 95, 264 
Lomechusa, 42, 192 
Looper, 164 

Lopaphus cocophages, 88 
Lophopteryx camelina, 153 
Lopliyrus pini, 225 
Louse, Bird, 61 

Body, 63 

Book, 100 



Louse, Crab, 64 

Elephant, 64 

Head, 63 

Horse, 64 

Human, 63 

Jumping Plant, 104 

Seal, 64 

True, 61, 63 
Lucanida, 10, 54, 178, 181, 213 
Lucanus cervus, 178 
Lucilia ccesar, 310 
Lyccena agon, 146 

argiolus, 146 

arion, 146 

astrarche, 147 

bdlargus, 146 

bcetica, 146 

corydon, 146 

tear us, 146 

minima, 14 

semiargus, 146 
Lyoaonidffi, 10, 38, 145 

and ants, 58 
Lycus sp., 200 
Lygseidse, 9, 107 
Lymantriidfe, 10, 53, 160 

3Iach(Brota guUigera, 123 
Machilidse, 8, 61 
Machilia maritima, 61 
Macrodontia sp., 213 
Macroglossa, fuciformis, 152 

stdlarum, 152 
Macropathus fUipes, 91 
Macropus longimanus, 215 
Maggot, Rat-tailed, 24, 284, 204 
Malacodermidse, 11, 199 
Malaria, 56, 282, 287 
Mallophaga, 8, 18, 61 
Mallophora sp., 49 
Mamcstra brassicw, 166 
Manna, 126 

Mantidae, 8, 50, 86, 112, 129 
Mantis, habits of, 86 

parasite of, 88 

praj'ing, 86 

rdigiosa, 86 
Mantispidse, 9, 129 
Mayetiola destructor, 285 
Mayfly, 77, 111,235 
Mealworm, 203, 204 
Miastogaster lucretia, 65 
Megachile albocincta, 249 



INDEX 



333 



Megachile, circumcincla, 249 

Cuckoos of, 249 
Megastigmus sp., 231 
Melano'plus spretvs, 97 
Mdanotua rufipes, 201 
Mdecta armata, 245 

luctuoad, 245 

Meligethes ceneus, 193 

Meliicea athalia, 143 

auricoma, 143 

cinxia, 143 

if e^cE Proscar abcev 3, 22, 205 

vidaceus, 205 
Meloidffi, 11, 21, 22, 176, 205 
Meldontha vulgaris, 180 
Melolonthidas 10, 54, 180, 181, 259 
Melophagus ovinus, 314 
Mdophorus inflatus, 271 
Membracidse, 9, 121 
Menopon pallidum, 62 
Merodon equesiris, 304 
Metamorphosis, 15 
Metapodi^is femoratus, 107 
Methoca ichneumonides, 259 
Miastor sp., 20 
Microcentrum retinervis, 93 
Microdon and ants, 304, 305 
Midge, 111, 223 
Horned, 290 
Splay-footed, 290 
Migration of Dragon flies, 72 
of Locusts, 96 
of Nymphalidte, 142 
of Sciara militaris, 286 
Mimesides, 266 

Mimic battles of Pompilids, 262 
Mimicry, 47, 141 

aggressive, 47, 49, 268 
of flowers, 44, 50, 87 
in Reduviida3, 112 
protective, 47 
Minim workers of ants, 32 
Monodontomerus nitidus, 246 
Monohammua sp., 215 
Monomorium pharaonis, 275 
Morphidse, 10, 145 
Morpho sp., 145 
Mosquito, 282, 284, 286, 290 
and disease, 287 
eggs of, 287 
common, 287 
pupae of, 289 
spotted winged, 287 



Mosquito, Tiger, 287 
yellow fever, 287 
Moth, 26, 138, 150 
Antler, 51, 166 
Atlas, 150 
Bagworm, 154 

life history of, 154 
Bee, 53, 170 
Black Arches, 161 
Brindled Beauty, pale, 165 
brown-tail, 162 
Buff Arches, 153 
Buff Tip, 153 
Bugong, 1G7 
Burnet, 154, 163 

6-spotted, 154 
Cabbage, 166 
Carpet, 298 
China Marks, 169 

brown, 169 
small, 169 
Chocolate Tip, 153 
Cinnabar, 163 
Clearwing, currant, 154 

Hornet, 48, 154 
Clothes, 53, 171 
Codling, 171 
Currant, 165 
Dart, 166 
December, 159 
Dragon of Old Sepp., 153 
Drinker, 158 
Early Thorn, 165 
Emperor, 150 
Ermine, Buff, 163 
small, 172 
white, 163 
Flour, 168 
Footman, 163 

4-8potted, 163 
Rosy, 163 
Forester, 154 
Fox, 159 
Ghost, 156 
Gipsy, 160, 161, 185 
Goat, 155 
Gold Spot, 167 

tail, 161, 162 
Gooseberry, 165 
Grass, 168 
Hawk, 151 

Bedstraw, 151 
Bee, 152 



334 



INSECT LIFE 



Moth, Hawk, Convolvulus, IGl 

Death's-head, 52, 151 

Elephant, 152 

Eyed, 152 

Humming bird, 152 

Poplar, 152 

Privet, 44, 151 

Spurge, 151 
Hart and Dart, 166 
Hoary Grey, 168 
Hook Tip, 157 

Pebble, 15S 
Hop dog, 161 
Kentish Glory, 159 
Lackey, 159 

Ground, 159 
Lappet, 159 
Lobster, 153 
Magpie, 165 
Marbled Beauty, 163 
Meal, 168 

Mottled Umber, 165 
Muslin, 163 
Nun. 160, 161 
Oak Eggar, 159 

Miner, 172 
Peach blossom, 153 
Peppered, 46 
Pine Beauty, 44 
Plume, 170 

prey of Robber flics, 301 
Processionary, 29, 151 185 
Prominent, Coxcomb, 153 

Iron, 153 

Pebble, 153 

Swallow, 153 
Puss, 152 
Swift, 156 

courtship of, 157 

gold, 156 

Northern, 157 
Tiger, buff, 163 

cream spot, 162 

Garden, 162 

ruby, 162 

scarlet, 163 
Tineid, 23 
Tortrix, green, 171 
Turnip, 166 
Tussock, pale, 161, 162 
Underwing, orange, 167 
used as food, 167 
Vapourer, 25, 160 



Moth, Vapourer, life history of, 160 

Winter, 165 

Wood Leopard, 156 

Woollen, 172 

Yellow-horned, 153 

Yucca, 23, 24 
Moulting, 18 

Murgantia histrionica, 106 
Musca domestica, 13, 14, 310 
Muscidcc, 13, 56, 57, 309, 310, 311 
Mutilla europcea, 258 
Mutillidse, 12, 258, 259 
Mycetophagidce, 11, 194 
Mycetophagua qnadripustulatus, 194 
Mycetophilidce, 12, 286 
Myiatropa florea, 303 
Myopinee, 302 
Myrmecocyrtus hortideorum, 271 

mdliger, 271 
Myrinecia sp., 277 
Myrmecophana fallax, 92 
Myrmecophila sp., 40, 41 
Mynnedonia funesta, 39, 192 

humeralis, 39, 194 
Myrmelionidfi', 9, ISO, 132 
Myrmica rubra, 275 
Myrmicides, 275 

Nobis lativentris, 113 
Nagana, 310 
Names, popular, 14 

priority of, 14 
N anosdla fuivji, 174 
Nasuti, 82 
Necrobia ruftcollis, 200 

rufipes, 200 
Necrodes littoralis, 191 
Necrophorus humator, 191 

mortuorum, 191 

ruspator, 191 

vespillo, 191 
Nematus gallkola, 225 

rihesii, 225 

salicis, ci ere<c ,225 

ventricosus, 225 
Nemeobius lucina, 144 
Nemeophila russula, 163 
Nepacinerea, 115 
Nepidffi, 9, 114 
Nepticiila ruficapitella, 172 
Nest of Bumble Bee, 251 

of Chalcidoma, 246 

of Dasypoda, 244 



INDEX 



335 



Nest of Eiimenes, 253 

of Loaf-cuttor Bee, 249 

of Tree Ant, 270 
Neuroptera, 127 
Neuroterus lenticular is, 25 
Nezara sp., 106 
Nisoniades syrichthus malvcr., 150 

tagos, 150 
Nitidula bipushUata, 193 
Nitidulidc-B, 11, 193 
Nits, 63 

Noctuidae, 10, 53, 153, 165 
Nomada lathburiana, 242 
Notodonta dicta a, 153 

dromedarius, 153 

ziczac, 153 
Notodontidje, 10, 152, 153 
Notonecta glauca, 116 
Notonectida3, 9, 116, 117 
Novius cardinalis, 120, 196 
Nudaria mundana, 103 
Nycterbiidse, 13, 314 
Nymphalidae, 10, 141, 149 

Oak apple, 26 
Ocneria dispar, 160, 161 
Ocypus olens, 192 
Odonata, 8, 18, 55, 56, 65 
Odonestis potatoria, 158 
Odynerus callosus, 254 

parietum, 235 

reniformis, 235, 254 

spinipes, 235, 254 
(Ecophylla smaragdina, 269 

nesting habits of, 270 
CEstridse, 13, 57, 305 
(Estrus ovis, 19, 306, 307 
Oligarces, 20 
Oligoneuria rhenana, 78 
Onthophagus fracticornis, 179 
Orectochilus sp., 189 
Orgyia antiqv.a, 160 
Ornithopterasp., 148 
Ortalidae, 13, 312 
Orthetruin sp., 75 
Orthoptera, 8, 18, 52, 54, 82, 264 
Orthorrhapha Brachycera, 12, 295 

Nemocera, 12, 234, 285 
Oryctes naseicornis, 182 

rhinoceros, 182 
Oscinidse, 13, 813 
Oscinus frit.., 313 
Osmia bicolor, 247 



Osmia bicoior, cuckoos of, 248 

leucomelana, 247 

nesting habits of, 247 

rafa, 247 

sp., 246, 247, 261 

tridentata, 247 
Osmylus fulvicephalus, 132 
Otiorrhynchus tenebricosus, 217 
Oxybelus uniglumis, 49, 268 
Oxycarenus sp., 108, 109 
Oxythyrea stictica, 182 

Psedogenesis, 20 

Palustra sp., 151 

Panchlora sp., 86 

Pangonia sp., 298 

Panolis piniperda, 44 

PapUio machaon, 52, 148 

Papilionidse, 10, 148 

Papiriidae, 8, 60 

Parasites, 21, 57, 61, 62, 113, 222, 231, 
232, 233, 235, 236, 246, 256, 259 

Parasitica, 12, 224, 228 

Parasitic fiies, 306, 307, 308, 314 

Parasitism, 20 

Parthenogenesis, 19 

Passalidse, 10, 177, 179 
song of, 178 

Pattern, types of, 48 

Paussida}, 11,39,187 
and ants, 39, 1S7 

Peach scale, 167 

Pear Slug, 226 

Pedicinus sp., 64 

Pediculidffi, 8, 63 

Pediculus capitis, 63 
vestimenti, 63 

Pegomyia inanis, 256 

Pela wax, 58 
Pellagra, 295 
Pelobiidie, 10, 186 
Pdobius tardus, 1S6 
Pemphredon luguhris, 207 
PentatomidB3, 9, 55, 105, 107 
Pepsi's sp., 113, 261, 262 
Perga lewisii, 226 

care of young, 227 
Pericalliabilunaria, 165 
Periplaneta americana, 84 
Perla bicaudata, 76 
Perliida;, 8, 76, 79 
Petiolata, 12, 224, 225, 223 
Petrognatha gigas, 215 



336 



INSECT LIFE 



Phalera curtula, 153 

bucephala, 153 
Phasgonuridae, 92 
Phasmidse, 8, 88 
Phenax auricoma, 120 

symbiosis of, 120 
Phibalocera pythonicua, 90 
Phigalia pedaria, 165 
PhUcenus spumarius, 122 
Philanthides, 266 
Philanthus triangulum, 266 
Philopteridge, 8, 62 
Phlebotomus pappataci, 290 
Phrygania grandis, 136 
Phryganeidse, 9, 136 
Phthirius inguinalis, 64 
Phyllaceus integer, 228 
Phyllium crurifolium, 43, 90 
Phyllohius calcaratus, 217 
Phyllomorpha laciniata, 107 
Phyllopertha hordeola, 181 
Phyllotr eta a-p., 211 
Phylloxera vastatrix, 124 
Phytophaga, 11, 177, 206 
Pieridse, 10, 53, 147 
Pier is brassicce, 15, J 48 

bryonioB, 27 

daplidice, 148 

«api, 27, 148 

mp(B, 27 148 
Pigeon Tremex, 227 
Pimpla fairmairii, 229 

rw/aia, 229 
Piophila easel, 312 
Pipunculidse, 13, 302 
Pipunctilus fuscipes, 302 
Pityogenes bidentatus, 219 
Plagiolepis sp., 271 
Plague, 57, 281 
Planipennia, 9, 17, 55, 56, 127 
Plant lice and ants, 37 
Platypsillida3, 11, 190 
Platyrrhinus latirostris, 215 
Plea minutissima, 117 
Plecoptera, 8, 18, 76 
Plectrocnemia, decoys of, 138 
Plusia festuccp, 167 
Podagrion pachymerus, 232 
Poduridse, 8, 59 
Poecilocampa populi, 159 
Poecilocapsus lineatus, 1 14 
Pogonomyrmex barbatus, 275 
Polistes metricus, 49 



Polls tes sp., 221, 257 
Pollen baskets, 239 
Polybia sp., 257 
Polyergus rufescens, 273 
Polygnotus sp., 233 
Polymorpha, 11, 176, 177, 187 
Polymorphism, 30, 268 
Polyommatus dispar., 146 

phlceag, 146 
Polyrachis argentea, 271 

mayri, 272 

nidificans, 272 

rastella, 272 
Pompilidse, 261 
Pompilus plumbeus, 263 

rufipes, 263 

viaticus, 263 
Ponera contractu, 277 

punctatissima, 277 
Ponerides, 277 
Porphyraspis iristis, 212 
Porthesia similis, 161 
Pna dulcamera, 193 
Priocnemis bicolor, 262 
Prionid£e, 11, 175, 213 
Prionis coriarius, 213 
Proconia undata, 122 
Proctotrypida;, 12, 56, 232 
Pronuba yuccasella, 23 
Prosopis signata, 240 
Protection of eggs in ClythridaJ, 209 
Protective colouring, 42 

mimicry, 47 
Protura, 8 

Psammocharidffi, 12, 261 
Pselapidse, 11, 39, 191 

and ants, 39, 192 
Psen concolor, 267 
Pseudococcus citri, 126 
Pseudomyrma bicolor, 276 
Psilura monacha, 160, 161 
Psithyrus sp., 252 
Psocidae, 8, 29, 100 
Psocojitera, 8, 100 
Psoctis bipunctatus, 101 

citricola, 102 

venosvs, 101 
Psychida-, 10, 154 
Psychodidae, 12, 57, 290 
Psylla, Pear tree, 123 

pyricola, 123 
Psyllida;, 9, 55, 104, 123, 267 
Pterochroza ocdlata, 92 



INDEX 



337 



Pterophoridaa, 10, 170 
Pteroslichus cupreus, 185 

madidus, 185 

picimanus, 185 

striola, 185 
Ptinidce, 11, 198 
Plinusfur, 198 
Pty diopter a sp., 292 
Ptyelus rjondoti, 122 
" Pugs," 164 
Pviex irritans, 279, 281 
Pulicidaj, 12, 279 
Pupiparia, 13, 19, 20, 314 
Pyralidt^j, 10, 54, 168 
Pyralis farinalis, 168 
Pyrophorus noctilucus, 202 
Pyrrhocoridcc, 9, 108, 109 
Pyrrhoconis apterus, 108 

Ranatra linear is, 115 
Rat-tailed Maggot, 24, 284, 304 
Beduvius personatus, 112, 113 
Reduviidae, 9, 56, 105, 111 
Reduviids, mimicry in, 112 
Rhamnatocerus higuttatus, 94 
RhapMdidae, 9, 129 
RhipipJwrus paradoxus, 256 
Rhizotrogus solstitialis, 181 
Rhodites rosce, 234 
Rhopalocera, 10, 139, 141 
Rhyacophilidge, 9, 137 
Rhyiichites betulce, 217 
Rhynchium brunneum, 255 
Rhynchophora, 11, 177, 206, 215 
Rhyiichophorus palmar um, 218 
Rhynchota, 8, 18, 52, 55, 56, 57, 104, 

221 
Rhyssa persiiasoria, 229 
Robin's Pincushion, 234 
Rutelidffi, 10, 54, 181 

Sagria huqueti, 208 

seraphica, 208 

splendida, 208 
Sagridse, 11, 207 
Saissetia olece, 126 
Saltatoria, 83 
Saperda carcharias, 214 
Sapyga clavicoryiis, 260 

5-punctata, 260 
Sapygida;, 12, 260 
Sarcophaga, 19 
Sarcophagidco, 13, 57, 309, 310 



Sarcophila carnaria, 309 

magnifica, 309 
Sarcopsillidse, 279 
Saropoda himaculata, 249 
Saturnia pavoiiia, 150 
SaturniidsG, 10, 150 
Satyridae, 10, 145 
Satyrus seniele, 145 
Sawfly, 29, 236 
Currant, 225 
Gooseberry, 225 
egg-laying of, 225 
Scale Insects, 35, 104, 125, 130 
and Ants, 35 
and Ladybirds, 126 
Black, 126 

Cottony cushion, 125, 196 
Peach, 167 
San Jos6, 126 
Scarahoeus sacer, 179 
ScatophagidsB, 13, 312 
Sceliphron Icetus, 265 
madraspalanus, 265 
spirifex, 265 
Scenopinidae, 12, 298 
Scenopinus fenestralis, 298 
Schizodactylus monstrosus, 90 
Schizoneura lanigera, 124 
Sciara militaris, 286 

migration of, 286 
Scolta atrata, 260 
bifasciata, 259 
interrupta, 259 
ScoliidK, 12, 259, 260 
ScolytidiB, 11,54,218 
Scolytus destructor, 219 
Scoparia dubilalis, 168 
Scutellista cyanea, 126 
Seasonal dimorphism, 26, 140 
Semi-loopcrs, 167 
Sepsidffi, 13, 312 
Sericabrunnea, 181 
Sericaria mori, 151 
Sericostoraatidse, 9, 137 
Serricornia, 177 
Sesia tipuliformis, 154 
Sesiidse, 10, 53, 154 
Sessiliventres, 12, 224, 225 
Sheep Tick, 314 
Shellac, 58 
"Shiner," 188 
SialidiB, 9, 127 
Sialis lutaria, 127 

43 



338 



INSECT LIFE 



Sigara mimitisswia, 117 
Silkworm, 57, 140, 151, 309 
Silpha atrata, 191 

IcBoigaia, 191 

opaca, 191 

quadripunctata, 191 

rugosa, 191 

sinuala, 191 

thoracica, 191 
Silphidaj, 11, 120 
Silver fish, 40, 61 
Simulidae, 12, 57, 293 
Simulium elegans, 295 

sericemn, 295 
Sinodeiidron cylindricum, 179 
Siphonoptera, 12, 17, 56, 57, 273 
Siphunculata, 63 
Sirex g>gas, 227 

noclilio, 227 
Siricidje, 12, 55, 227 
Sisyra sp., 132 
Silaris hmneralis, 21, 22 
Sliipjacks, 201 

Sleeping sickness, 57, 282, 310, 311 
Smerinthiis ocellatus, 152 

popvli, 152 
Smynthuridae, 8, 60 
Smynthurus luteus, 60 
courtship of. 
Snake doctor, 128 

feeder, 65 

fly, 120 
Social habits, 29 
Song of Cricket, 92 

of Locust, 92 

of Passalida;, 178 
Spathogaster haccarum, 26 
Sphmra acaroides, 174 
Sphaeridse, 174 
Sphecius speciostis, 266 
iSphecodes gihhus, 244 

ruhicundus, 243 

suhquadratus, 243 
Sphegida;, 12, 263 
Sphegides, 263, 265 
Sphex, nest of, 2G4 
SphingidiB, 10, 151 
Sphinx co7ivclvuli, 151 

ligiistri, 44, 151 
Spilosoma fvliginom, 162 

luhricipeda, 163 

menihastri, 163 
Springtails, 50 



Stauropus fagi, 153 
Staphylinidse, 11, 39, 192 

and Ants, 39 
Stegomyia fascia/a, 287 
Stelis ininvta, 248 

nasuta, 240, 243 

signata, 248 
Stenopelmatus sp., 93 
Stenophylax sp., 137 
Sternccera casianea, 203 
Stick Insects, 43, 83, 88, 112 

thick-thighed, 89 
Stink fly, 133 
Stink glands of Bugs, 105 
Stomoxys calcitrans, 310 
Stone Hy, 76 
Straight wings, 82 
Stratomyidse, 12, 295 
Siratomys chameleon, 296 

sp., 295 
Strepsiptera, 11,220 
Strongylium sp., 204 
Stylopidae, 11, 220 
Stylojjization, effects of, 221 
Surra, 310 
Symbiosis, 35 

of Phenax auricoma, 120 
Sympetrnm scoticum, 75 

sp., 65 
Syrphida), 12, 303 
Syrphus seleniticus, 304 

Tahanidm, 12, 57, 237, 301 

larvae of, 297 
Tahanus hovinus, 297 
Tachinidffi, 13, 56, 308, 309, 310 
T any pus sp., 290 
Tapinoma erraticum, 274 
Telophorus lividus, 200 
pellucidus, 200 
ruslicus, 200 
Tenehrio molitor, 203 
Tenchrioides mauritanicus, 194 
Tenebrionidse, 11, 54, 174, 203, 204 
: Tent caterpillar, 172 

maker, 53 
I Tcnthrcdinida3, 12, 55, 225 
I Termes hellicosus, 185 

flavipes, 80 
I lucifugus, 80 

I tuhiformans, 80 

I Termite, 20, 29, 30, 78, 185, 192, 223 
I castes, 82 



INDEX 



339 



Termite, cleanliness of, 82 

colony, SO 

Nasuti, 82 

nuptial flight, 80 

Queen, 81 

soldiers, 82 

workers, 82 
Termitidcc, 8, 78, 100 
Termitoxeniidse, 20 
Tetramorium ccespiium, 275 
Tetlix sp., 96 

Thanasimus forinicarius, 200 
2'heda betulce, 147 

pruni, 147 

quercus, 147 

rubi, 43, 147 

tc-album, 147 
Thripidte, 8, 102 
Thrips, 102 

structure of, 102 

Flax, 103 

Orange, 103 

Pea, 103 

Pear, 103 
Thyatira hatis, 153 

derasa, 153 
Thynnidse, 12, 259 
Thysanoptera, 8, 52, 55, 102 
Thysanura, 8, 18, 60 
Tick, Sheep, 314 
Timarcha tenebricosa, 210 

turbida, 210 
Tinea bisdliella, 172 

pelliondla, 172 

tapetzella, 171 

vastdla, 172 
Tineid^, 10, 53, 54, 171, 233 
Tingidje, 9, 55, 109 
Ti)igis pyri, 109 
Tiphia sp., 260 
Tipula brdbdignagia, 291 

oleracea, 291 
Tipulidffi, 12, 54, 291 
Titanus giganteus, 175, 213 
TUenacris albipes, 96 
Tortricidaj, 10, 53, 171 
Tortrix ribeana, 171 

viridana, 171 
Tree weeping, 122 
Tremex columba, 227 

Pigeon, 227 
Trichacis sp., 233 
Trichins fasciafiis, 1S2 



Trichodectida;, 8, 62 
TricJiodcs alvearius, 200 

ajnarius, 200 
Trichoptcra, 9, 17, 134, 170 
Trichroism, 145 
Triungulin, 21, 22 
Trochilium crahronijormis, 48, 154 
Trogositidse, 11, 194 
Trox sp., 180 
Truxalis sp., 96 
Trypanosoma brucei, 311 

gambiense, 311 
Trypetidse, 13, 313 
Trypodendron domcsdcum, 279 

lineatum, 219 
Trypoxylon sp., 236 
Tubulifera, 12, 224, 234 
Turnip flea, 211 

fly, 211 
Tussore silk, 150 
Types of patterns, 48 

Ugimyia serricaria, 309 

Vanessa antiqua, 143 

atalanta, 142 

c-album, 142 

cardui, 142 

io, 142 

polycMoros, 142 

urticoe, 141 
Variation, 30 
Vdleius dUatatus, 192 
Velia currens, 111 
Vermileo degeeri, 296 
Vespa arborea, 255 

austriaca, 255 

crabro, 48, 255 

germanica, 255 

norvegica, 255 

rw/a, 255 

sylvestris, 255 

vulgaris, 255 
VespidiB, 12, 253, 255 
Viviparous insects, 19 
Volucdla bombylans, 305 

Mianis, 303, 304 

sp., 256 

Wasp, 29, 123, 130, 192, 194, 221, 223, 
236, 253 
Digger, 56, 237, 257 



340 



INSECT LIFE 



Wasp, food of larva;, 256 

fossorial, 56, 237, 257 

Mud, 235, 253 

parasites of, 256 

Potter, 235, 258 

prey of Robber flies, 301 

Ruby, 234, 240 

Sand, 264 

Social, 56, 222, 255 
nests of, 255 

Solitary, 253 

Wood, 227, 229 
Blue, 227 
Giant, 227 
Water Boatman, 116 

Cricket, HI 

Gnat, 110 

Grampus, 128 

Measurer, 110 

Scorpion, 115 
eggs of, 115 

Stick insect, 115 
" Waves," 164 
Webs of Dance fly, 301 
Weeping trees, 122 
Weevil, 173, 215 

Acorn, 216 

Apple blossom, 217 

Birch, 217 

Biscuit, 198 



Weevil, Cotton Boll, 46, 216 

Grain, 217 

Nut, 216 

Palm, 218 

Pea, 206 

Pine, 216 

Plum, 217 

Rice, 217 
Wet season forms, 26 
White Ant, 79 

as food, 79 
White fly, 104, 125 
" Whites," 148 
Wintering of insects, 26 
Wireworms, 201, 204 
Worm-eaten wood, 198 

XenoTpsylla cheopis, 28 1 

Xe7ios sp., 222 

Xestobium domesticum, 198 

tessdlaium, 198 
Xyleborus dispar, 219 
Xylocopa violacea, 245 

Zaitha sp., 116 
Zeugloptera, 8, 9 
Zeuzera pyrina, 156 
Zoraptera, 8 
Zygmna filipendula, 154 
ZygvenidcB, 10, 154 



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