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The} Medieval Period, in ecclesiastical history, draws its 
interest exclusively from the Roman church. The Greek 
church is, indeed, never out of sight, and other Oriental 
churches appear at intervals ; but the popes are constantly 
found upon the alert to acquire power over them all. Thus 
the present volume of Mosheim's learned work is essentially 
a papal history. The facts, however, detailed in it are worthy 
of attentive consideration by studious minds of every class. 
The theologian, especially, should form a deliberate opinion 
upon them. One section of the learned world maintains that 
nothing happened in the middle ages, which did not naturally 
flow from the gradual development of a system ascending unin- 
terruptedly to Jesus Christ and his apostles. Another section 
attributes to these very ages the stealthy growth of religious 
usages and principles, which the holy founders of Christianity 
never sanctioned ; although much, undoubtedly, has their 
sanction, to which may reasonably be given a character utterly 
and irreconcileably opposite. It is idle, or insidious, to treat 
this question as a mere vent for the ill-humours, and a relief 
to the monotonous pursuits of recluse theologians. It is a 
question which bears most importantly upon the interests of 


mankind, both temporal and eternal. Religious minds are at 
no loss to see that spiritual interests of vital moment are in- 
volved in the differences between protestant and papist. Mere 
men of the world, who look a little below the surface, know 
that civil affairs in Europe largely turned for ages, upon the 
ascendancy of Borne, or that of her opponents, and that such 
ascendancies are even still in full operation upon society. To 
understand the real nature of the two rival religious systems, 
a competent knowledge of medieval ecclesiastical history is 

If this portion be taken as beginning with the sixth century, 
(which seems its natural opening,) it exhibits the Gospel 
triumphant over the Roman empire ; yet, at the same time, 
paganism by no means extinct. The ancient system was not 
only still cherished by the vulgar in secluded parts of the 
country : these were, indeed, its strongholds, and hence hea- 
thenism has long been denoted by a word which properly 
means rusticity \ But the old theology was yet powerfully 
tenacious of superior life. Superficial observers, who merely 
think of paganism as it appears in the poets of classical anti- 
quity, may be surprised at ite influence over any cultivated 
mind, except as a mere vehicle for fascinating imagery. But 
it should be recollected that the grosser parts of mythology 
were treated, by ancients of learning and discernment, as fitted 
only for the grosser elements of society, to which they might 
be conceded from radical unfitness for anything truly valuable. 
Philosophers themselves looked upon the various deities as 
nothing more than inferior mediators with the Great Supreme, 
and their current histories as allegories, or ill-preserved 
traditions. It is most probable, besides, that additional 
purity and lustre were given to the last years of classical 
paganism by its contact with Christianity. It is at least 
certain, that many of the best informed were among its ad- 

1 Paganism, from pug**, a country district. 


its, and that they advocated its cause upon the grounds 
of antiquity, end fitness for mankind ; much tlie same ground* 

that later ages ban i fawnanintn taking in their c.ontro- 

ith Protestants. The student of the earlier portions 
of medieval religious history will not fail to remark, that such 
arguments abl\ urged from quarters commanding public atten- 
tion, had their natural weigh! even upon the Ohuroh herself. 

Many Christiana, and often of considerahl>' eminence, display •-! 
a disposition for some sort of compromise between philosophy 
Bod Christianity. Thus the Platonic doctrines especially gained 
a footing in the Church, and an infusion of a spirit, originally 

i in direct opposition to it, acted extensively upon pea- 
feasors of the Gospel. These facts demand attentive eonsid. i 
ation from all who would understand the present aspect of tin* 
Christian body. 

Ill »ne who deny that this compromise with Pagan- 

ism went at least so far as to introduce permanently into the 

k and Latin Churches some of the external usages of the 
former system. These usages may be thought unimportant. 
or otherwise, as men's dispositions, or prc-pos&essions, may 
variously incline. But medieval religious history shows them 
to have produeed a natural, yet most laiuentahle re-act ion. 
as men have always been to a gross and theatrical wor- 
ship, they have never wanted some among them to represent 
a more spiritual system, as more agreeable to God, or rather, 
as alone agreeable to Him, and as more suitable to His rati- 
onal creation. Open the representations of this class, Ma- 

t. reared an inHuenee which eventually seemed a 
time to threat' he very existence of Christianity. Ex- 

r-rnall\. rh- Church began to wear an aspect little diH 
from the Paganism which she had supplanted. Her enemies 
•d her system under it-* present corrupt administra- 

Bfl really identical with the heathenism that she professed 

probate, and that must be reprobated by all acquainted 


with divine truth. Let her compliances be defended as they 
may, all must see them to have found here a fatal vantage 
ground for Oriental prejudices against the Gospel. As a mere 
historical fact, these compliances are also worthy of observa- 
tion, because they account for the appearance and success of 

Those who would fasten Pagan principles upon the Church 
of Borne, in addition to Pagan usages, may also consider the 
remarkable rejection of the deutero-Nicene council by Ger- 
many, Gaul, and Britain. Italy and the East had been 
stunned by the clamours of acute, able, _nd virtuous philoso- 
phy, in favour of the ancient system. The north-west of 
Europe knew it only as the gross and exploded superstition of 
barbarians. Hence that portion of the Christian world was 
startled and indignant at Roman patronage of image-worship, 
which missionaries had industriously decried. It was a wor- 
ship, however, so deeply rooted in the human heart, and in 
the lingering habits of the north-western nations, that they 
silently, but readily, received the second council of Nice after 
no very long interval. This fact, however, is rather impor- 
tant, as showing the proneness of mankind for Paganism. The 
rejection that Adrian and the East originally experienced 
among Christians to the West, affords a fair ground for infer- 
ring that heathen rites were introduced into the Church quite 
as much to meet the arguments of philosophers as to meet 
the cravings of a vulgar appetite for sensual worship. Hence 
it may be considered, whether the philosophers, in affecting 
the face of the Church, did not also affect her principles. 

The most prominent subject of this volume is, however, the 
papacy itself. It shows the bishops of Rome gradually becom- 
ing temporal princes, and eventually exerting a sort of para- 
mount authority over European affairs. There are those who 
would at once dismiss this remarkable picture as irrefragable 
evidence of some divine right. Others will rather seek to trace 


the steps by wliieh such striking results were accomplished. 
These are all clearly to be seen by the student of medieval 
religii oval of the court to Constantinople 

had left the very Opulent and iulluciilial bishop of the ancient 
capital in a situation that he never could have attained if his 
DBBtl r had Btffl tcuantcd the palatine hill. As years 
relied mi, that master wanted to suppre- ship. The 

K.>man pOflulaes nil outraged by this attack upon inveterate 

• , ami its bishop took the popular side. A revolt now 
annihilated the imperial authority over Home, thus rein I 

pope more powerful than ever. This power, gained its 

and its most important augmentation from the < -ai-loviii- 
giao usurpation of the l-'rankUh tlir< »ie •. To obtain an ap- 
proval of this from the most influential of christian pr 
was obviously desirable, and it was ■ ion which the. 

usurping family repaid, by most p refuse liberality to the 
Roman see. Thus Rome became a centre from whieh .such 

men as II. , Gregory VII., Innocent III., and 

lioniface VIII. could move the western world. It was under 

pontiffs, that the lb .man see took 
of that very lofty position which it occupied d 
four centuries. To the second was it indebted for the distinct 
enunciation of its enCTG laims. and for very con-id" 

success in their establishment. The third saw papal grin 

at it* height. The fourth exceeded even bis bold 

censors in the bone of bis pretensions. Hut a spirit of resist- 

was new abroad which he coul-1 D ind which 

lie I toman see. Prom the time of Bonl- 
he papal power declined. Thai volume, tier- lore, unfolds 
tl»e rise. pro g r c oD, and commencing decline of that remarl 

spiritual monarchy, which exercised BUefa a COmniaH 
influence 0?1C the affairs of men, both Spiritual and temporal. 

To trace the st-ps of thai not important merely, 

or even chiefly, as an interesting subject of historical inquiry. 


The fact is, that for many years the papacy was generally con- 
sidered as the supreme depositary of European power, even in 
temporals \ Papal partisans adduce evidence of that fact, and 
would fain refer it to the heavenly endowment of St. Peter. 
The student of medieval religious history will watch the cases 
in which this power was recognised. He will examine whether 
princes were thus complaisant to the see of Borne, unless they 
had some selfish end in view. The reason why Borne could 
serve them is obvious enough. It was the ancient metropolis 
of Europe ; it had retained a considerable degree of civilisation, 
when every thing else to the north and west was barbarous, or 
little better ; it contained the ablest divines and canonists that 
the west could boast ; it had been the scene of apostolic minis- 
tries and martyrdoms, which was a strong recommendation to 
superstitious minds. Its bishops had long been dear to infe- 
rior life, as the only effectual barrier against noble and 
princely avarice and oppression. Could princes, therefore, 
use an instrument so powerful upon occasions for their own 
purposes, they were willing enough to aid these purposes, by 
making, on the spur of the moment, strange and most impolitic 

It will be seen, too, that the papacy really derived great 
advantage from the crusades, and hence it may be worth con- 
sidering whether an opinion is well founded which has been 
advanced among protestants, that these ebullitions of military 
fanaticism were artfully promoted by the popes from sordid 
motives. The question, however, is of little moment, except 
for the sake of historical justice ; the crusades really having 
left fewer traces upon society than almost any other movement 
of equal magnitude, within such a distance of time. But it may 
be observed with little hesitation, that the popes in this case 
appear to have been unjustly blamed. They seem to have 

a For this may be consulted the of Gregory VII., a work that does 
abbe 1 Jager's Introduction to his something more than justice to the 
French translation of Voigt's Hidory memory of that very able pontiff. 


been hurried blindly on by the same stream of fanaticism that 
carried down their contemporaries, and only to have been 
actuated by that degree of selfishness which prompted a skilful 
use of such advantages as the folly of others threw in their 

With respect to the monastic system, which this volume 
traces to its origin, and through the whole of its most brilliant 
period, the conduct of Borne seems hardly capable of so favour- 
able a construction. To no institution does the papacy stand 
so deeply indebted, as to monachism. To suppose, indeed, 
that Borne, from interested foresight, stimulated the first 
movements of Benedict of Nursia, and undertook the guidance 
of his order, would be absurd, no less than uncharitable and 
untrue. But it is difficult to elude a suspicion, that when the 
monkish confederacies attained importance, their motions, con- 
trollable by a few superiors, their power to check the secular 
clergy, and their strong hold upon popular fanaticism and 
superstition did not tempt the Roman court to seek materials 
in them for its own aggrandisement. 

Means of judging upon this, and upon other questions, 
besides those already mentioned, that are not yet grown into 
mere matters of liberal curiosity, are offered in the present 
volume. It exhibits, therefore, a portion of history which 
must be studied by all who would understand, not only what 
immediately follows, but also the present state of European 
society. The middle ages have left a vivid impress upon the 
present age, and none can understand its religion, literature, 
and institutions, who want either means or inclination to make 
inquiries into their remains. 




Conversions of barbarous nations S 

Jews induced to profess Christianity 6 

Paganism yet entertained by men of learning 8 

Barbarian hostility to Christianity 10 

Monastic services to literature 12 

Decline of solid learning 13 

Platonic philosophy supplanted by Aristotelian . , .15 

Rival sees of Rome and Constantinople 17 

Rival bishops of Rome * . .20 

Increasing popularity of Monachism 21 

Benedict of Nursia 22 

The Benedictines 25 

Ecclesiastical writers 26 

Progress of doctrinal corruption 40 

Biblical expositors 41 

The three forms of theology 42 

Lives of saints 43 

Tenacity of Origen's popularity 44 

The three chapters 46 

The canon of the mass 50 

Increase of festivals 51 

Extinction of the Donatists 63 

Overthrow of Arian establishments 64 

Establishment of the Nestorians ib. 

Establishment of the Monophysitea 56 

New disputes about the body of Christ 57 

Tritheism 59 


Introduction of Christianity into China 61 

Augustine's mission to England 63 



Missions to the Netherlands and Germany 63 

Conversion of England 67 

Mahomet 73 

Western literature chiefly monastic 79 

Continued rivalry between Rome and Constantinople .... 82 

Ecclesiastical independence of Gaul and Spain 83 

Ecclesiastical writers 86 

Increase of superstition 93 

Decline of sound theology 94 

Concilium quinittztum (the seventh general) 98,111 

Mahometanism favourable to Oriental heresy 101 

Monothelitism 103 

The sixth general council 107 

TheMaronites 109 


Christianity propagated in Tartary 116 

Mission of Boniface to Germany 116 

Conversion of the Saxons, by means of Charlemagne . . .123 

Rise of the Turkish power 126 

Establishment of the Moors in Spain 127 

Progress of Aristotelian philosophy 128 

Intellectual eminence of the British isles 129 

Cathedral and monastic schools ib. 

Pecuniary commutations of penance 133 

Temporal rank given to the church 134 

Excommunication aided by Druidic prejudice 136 

Pepin's usurpation aided by the pope ib. 

Charlemagne's liberality to the papacy 139 

Constan tine's pretended grant 141 

Grecian hostility to papal greatness 142 

Canons instituted 143 

Imperial power over the popes 144 

Ecclesiastical writers 146 

Increasing value for religious externals 154 

Systematic theology taught among the Greeks 159 

Controversy on the worship of images 161 

Second council of Nice 165 

Controversy on the procession of the Holy Ghost 168 

Multiplication of religious ceremonies 1 70 

Sect of the Adoptionists 174 


Conversion of Scandinavia 178 

Mission of Methodius and Cyril 180 

Conversion of Dalmatia and Russia 182 

Power and success of the Saracens 183 



Progress of the Normans 184 

Learning cultivated by the Arabians 188 

Literary efforts of the West 189 

The times unfavourable to sound religion 193 

The alleged papess, Joanna 196 

Augmented power of the popes 198 

The decretal epistles 199 

Popularity of monachism 201 

Regular canons and canonesses 203 

Ecclesiastical writers 204 

Intellectual decline after Charlemagne 219 

Eagerness for saintly protection 220 

Canonization 221 

Passion for relics 222 

State of Biblical learning 223 

Renewal of the iconoclastic controversy 227 

Establishment of image worship 229 

Claudius of Turin 231 

Renewed controversy on the double procession 232 

The eucharistic controversy 233 

Godeschalc and the predestinarian controversy 236 

Brief controversy upon Tritheism 241 

Minor controversies 242 

Separation between the Greeks and Latins ib. 

Rise of Ritualists 247 

Ordeals 249 

The Paulicians 261 


Nestorian conversions 267 

PresterJohn 268 

Conversion of the Franco-Normans 269 

Conversion of Poland ib. 

Re-conversion of Russia 260 

Permanent success of Christianity in Hungary 261 

Conversion of Denmark 262 

Conversion of Norway 263 

Progress of Christianity in Germany 264 ' 

First projects of a crusade 266 

The Turks converted to Mahometan ism 266 

European Pagans hostile to Christianity 267 

Extreme pressure of ignorance 269 

Sylvester II 276 

Clerical degeneracy 277 

Increase of the papal power 283 

Ecclesiastical acquisitions of civil privileges 284 

Concubinage and simony 286 

The Cluniac order 286 



Ecclesiastical writers 287 

Increase of superstition 291 

Canonization begun by the popes 294 

The Festival of All Souls 298 

Worship of the Virgin Mary 299 


Gradual convention of the northern nations 908 

Sicily re-conquered by the Latins 306 

The Sicilian Monarchy 908 

The Crusades 307 

Importation of saints and relics 314 

Mahometan persecutions 316 

Increasing diffusion of education 320 

Rise of an exclusive taste for dialectics 321 

The RfjtlJ&tH *ud Nominalists 323 

Increase of the papal power • 326 

Popes 327 

Election of the popes. 331 

The cardinals ib. 

Gregory VII 336 

Concubinage and simony 340 

Clerical celibacy 342 

Investitures 344 

Quarrel between Henry IV. and Gregory VII 346 

Successors of Gregory VII 362 

Clowr connection between monachism and the papacy .... 363 

TheCluniacs 366 

The Carnal Julcnftians 366 

The Cistercians 367 

The (rrandiniontaiiB 368 

The Carthusians 369 

The order of St. Anthony 360 

Regular canon* of St. Austin . 361 

Ecclesiastical writers 362 

Rise of an opposition to popery 370 

Rise of scholastic theology ......... 372 

Earliest systems of theology 374 

Controversy between the Greeks and Latins 376 

Relative worship decreed to images 378 

The Euehariatic controversy 379 

Persecution of Berengarius 380 

Dispute upon the apostlc&bip of Martial 386 

Extension of the Roman ritual 387 

General attention to ecclesiastical fabrics 389 

Migration nf the Paubcians into the West 391 

Persecution at Orleans 392 

The council of Arras 396 



Roecelin's speculations on the Trinity ..... . 397 

Religious Condition of the Anglo-Saxons 899 

Primacy of Abp. Theodore 401 

Wilfrid 403 

Anglo-Saxon independence of the papacy 406 

Rejection of image-worship 406 

Subsequent reception of it ib. 

The Benedictine system 407 

Invocation of angelic and departed spirits 408 

Purgatory 409 

Penitential doctrines * ib. 

Transubstantiation 410 

Elfrio 411 

Episcopacy 414 


Conversion of Pomerania 417 

Military missions of Waldemar 418 

Forced conversion of Finland 419 

Conversion of Livonia ib. 

Subjugation and conversion of the Slavonians 420 

PresterJohn 422 

The second crusade 424 

The third crusade 427 

The military orders 428 

Christian reverses in Tartary 432 

Increasing cultivation of literature 435 

Rise of Universities 436 

Introduction of the civil law 438 

Study of the canon law 439 

Philosophical studies 440 

The Nominalists and Realists 441 

Opposition between the empire and the priesthood 444 

The Concordat of Worms 447 

Series of popes 448 

St Bernard 458 

Controversy between the Cluniacs and Cistercians 469 

Controversy between the monks and canons ib. 

The order of Fontevraud 460 

The order of Premontre* 461 

The Carmelite order 462 

Ecclesiastical writers 463 

Increasing trust in relics, saints, and privations 480 

Rise of the papal traffic in indulgences 481 

Low state of biblical information 482 

Paris the great school of theology 483 

Different sects of theologians 484 

vol. 11. a 



Rise of scholastic divinity 486 

Concurrent prevalence of mysticism 489 

Attempts to reconcile the Greeks and Latins 490 

Doubts upon transubstantiatUm, and the Virgin's impeccability. . 492 

Increase of ritual observances 493 

The Bogomiles 496 

The Cathari 498 

Peter de Brays, and the Petrobraasians 501 

Henry and the Henricians 601 

Tanquelm, and his party 602 

Arnold of Brescia, and the Arnoldists 603 

The Waldenses 606 

The Pcuagini, or the Circumcised 510 

The Caputiati, and the Apottolici 611 


Progress of Christianity in northern Asia 514 

Latin occupation of Constantinople 518 

The last crusades 617 

•Military missions of the Teutonic knights 521 

Successes of the Spanish Christians ib. 

Rise of religious scepticism 523 

Patronage of learning by European sovereigns 528 

Universities instituted 529 

Poets and historians < 530 

Aristotelian philosophy exclusively cultivated 533 

Study of the Decretal* 537 

Extravagant pretensions of the popes 539 

Iniquity of the papal legates 540 

Innocent III 541 

King John and the English interdict 545 

The papal series 548 

New monastic orders 553 

The Mendicants 556 

St. Dominic 558 

St. Francis 560 

Contests of the Mendicants with the university of Paris .... 563 

Their contemptuous treatment of other ecclesiastics 565 

Contests between the Dominicans and Franciscans ..... ib. 

Relaxation of their rule ... * 566 

The Book of Joachim 568 

Franciscan attack on the papacy 571 

The Coelestine Eremites of St. Francis 573 

The Fratricelli 674 

The BegharcU and Beguina 578 

Ecclesiastical writers 583 

Transubstantiation synodically decreed 597 



Auricular confession synodically decreed ib. 

The Flagellants *W 

'Dialectic theology 601 

Controversy between the Greeks and Latins 604 

Doubts as to trunsubstantiatioii 909 

Progress or a theatrical worship 907 

The feast of Corptu Ckritti instituted 901 

The Jubilee instituted 90Q 

Papal endeavours to obtain power in the East 919 

Papal contest* with opponents in the West ...... 011 

Origin of the 1 nquisition 919 

Crusades against the Albigenses 017 

Brethren and sisters of the free Spirit 638 

Wilkelinina, and her sect 628 

The sect of the Apostles • 629 

Error of Joachim, abbot of Flora • 939 


Abortive attempts to renew the crusades 881 

Progress of Christianity in China and Tartary 632 

Conversion of Lithuania 633 

The Moorish empire undermined in Spain 633 

Extinction of Christianity in China and Tartary 634 

Cultivation of literature by the Greeks 636 

Advance of learning in the West 639 

Great popularity of Aristotle 642 

Revived feud between the Nominalists and Realists 643 

Passion for astrology 644 

General call for a reformation of the church 646 

Philip the Fair, and Boniface VIII 647 

Transfer of the papal court to Avignon 649 

Papal exactions and interference with patronage 660 

Decline of the papal authority 662 

Lewis of Bavaria and John XXII 663 

Papal series 666 

The papal schism 667 

Popularity of the Mendicants, and their opponents 669 

Wickliffe 661 

The Wickliffites, or Lollards 664 

The Kymata of St Francis 666 

The Alcoran of the Franciscans 666 

Franciscan schism 667 

Persecution of the intractable Franciscans 670 

Dispute as to the property of Christ and his Apostles . . . .671 

Division of the Franciscans into two sects 679 

The apostolic clerks, or J emu tea >h. 

The CeUites, or brethren and sisters of St. Alexius 680 

Ecclesiastical writers *** 



General prevalence of scholastic theology 098 

The Scotists and Thomists 699 

Continuance of mysticism ib. 

Study of casuistry 700 

Attempts to reconcile the Greeks and Latins 701 

Controversy on the immaculate conception 702 

The Jubilee limited to fifty years 70S 

Ave Maria added to the prayers 704 

The Hesychasts, or Greek Qnietists 705 

Continued persecution of the anti-papal party 707 

Great persecution of the Beguins 710 

Revival of the Flagellants 711 

Sect of the Dancers ib. 

Suppression of the knights Templars 712 

Councils ... 714 

Popes 718 

Abchbishops of Canterbury 724 

Abchbishops op St. Andrew's 726 

Abchbishops op Abjuoh 727 

















1 1. Progress of Christianity in the East — § 2. and in the West. — § 3. Jews 
converted in several places. — § 4. The miracles of this century. 

§ 1. It appears evident from the historical records of the 
Greek empire, that several barbarous tribes, especially among 
those resident near the Black Sea, were converted to Christ- 
ianity by the efforts of the Greek emperors and the bishops of 
Constantinople. Among these were the Ahasgi, a barbarous 
nation inhabiting the country between the coasts of the Euxine 
sea and mount Caucasus, who embraced Christianity under the 
emperor Justinian l . The fferuli, who dwelt along the other 

1 Procopius, de BMo Gothieo, lib. iv. a church for them dedicated to the 

c. 3. Le Quien, Orient Chrutianut, virgin Mary: and he rendered the peo- 

tom. i. p. 1361, &c. [Their adoration pie more inclined to become christians, 

(like that of the ancient Germans) had by prohibiting their king from carrying 

been previously given to forests and on a shameful traffic in eunuchs. See 

lofty trees. The emperor Justinian the authors referred to by Dr. Mosheim. 

sent priests among them, and erected 7V.] 



side of the Ister [or Danube], became christians under the 
same reign s ; also the Alani, the Lazi, and the Zani, and 
some other tribes, whose residences are not definitely known 
at the present day*. But there is abundant evidence, that 
nothing was required of these nations except externally to pro- 
fess Christ, cease from offering victims to their gods, and learn 
certain forms to be repeated : the imbuing their minds with 
true religion and piety, was not even thought of. It is cer- 
tain, that after their conversion, they retained their rude and 
savage manners, and were famous for rapines, murders, and 
every species of iniquity. In most provinces of the Greek 
empire, and even in the city of Constantinople, many idolaters 
were still lurking in concealment. A great multitude of these 
were baptized, during the reign of Justin, by John bishop of 

§ 2. In the West, Remigius, bishop of Bheims, who has 
been called the Apostle of the Gauls, laboured with great zeal 
to convert idolaters to Christ ; and not without success, espe- 
cially after Clovis, the king of the Franks, had embraced 
Christianity \ In Britain, Ethelbert, king of Kent, the most 
distinguished of the seven Anglo-Saxon kings among whom 
the island was then divided, married, near the close of this 
century, a christian wife named Bertha, the daughter of Chere- 
bert king of Paris ; and she, partly by her own influence, and 
partly by that of the ministers of religion whom she brought 
with her, impressed her husband favourably towards Christ- 
ianity. The king being thus prepared for it, Gregory the 
Great, at the suggestion undoubtedly of the queen, sent forty 
Benedictine monks, with one Augustine at the head of them, 
into Britain, in the year 596, to complete the work which the 
queen had begun. This Augustine, with the queen's assist- 
ance, converted the king and the greatest part of the inhabi- 
tants of Kent to christian worship, and laid the foundation of 
the modern British church 6 . Among the Picts and Scots, 

* Procopius, de Bcllo Gotkico, 1. ii. * Jos. Sim. Asseman, BUJiotk. Orient' 

c. 14. Vatican, torn. ii. p. 86. 

■ [See Evagrius, Hid. EccU*. 1. iv. • HidoireLitttrairedelaFrance,tom. 

c. 20. 22, 23. All these conversions iii. p. 165, &c. 

took place near the commencement of • Beda, H idor. Eccleg. Gmtix Anplor. 

the reign of Justinian, about a. d. 430. lib. i. c. 23. p. 66, &c. ed. Chiflet. 

Tr.} Rapin Thoyras, Hid. d'AnglHerre, torn. 

< il. I.J NTS. .*) 

<ibas, an Irish monk, began the work of administering 

i. p. 222, I ■. ("in. iii. 

uar, p. 170. where w an m 
of Ethelbert, king 'if Kent. [Thcmar- 
riagc of Bertha is Mid to have been 
consummated *. X -7'* It had been 
dM should enjoy DOT 
own religion and worship. She there- 
fore had her private chaplain, and a 
■mall church. Gregory the Great, 
before he wan U '*M SO cap- 

tivar- of some KngUih 

i<. ut Hune as 
slaves, tin titnasu* 

aa a missionary to England ; lair tin 
in. He was 
creat in &90 ; and in 896, 

lailed Augustine, abbot of St. 

anion of the EugHah nation. Au- 
gustine wiiii a small retinue of monks, 

arwnrd ; hut be scan ■ 
Fnu. the courage of the 

whole party failed, and Augustine re- 
to abandon the 
cntei 1 

i" proceed, assigned him more assis- 
tant*, gave hiui letters uf fenixodn 
to bishops and prince* on the way, and 
dismissed him. Augustine now pro- 
l through France, erased (ha 
Channel, and landi-d with his forty 
monks on the isle of Than, t in Kent. 
met him, learned 
his object, gare him sevens to the 
in and 
■uatenance, but refused to embrace the 
n ligiou till \ami- 

\ugustinc aud n 

M capital, 
cmcii ling : Lord, ** bm e c k 

(AW, in (A* ijrrtft mrirj, to ranont thy 
fttry and My tmtih from tkis city, ami 
/mm tkine hit*-, fur we s«»jy »,. 
Ldl*imj>iM. For a considerable time, 
Augustine and hn monks • 

; aud fimu 
prayed, aud chanted hymua, almost 
constantly. Tlie next year, \. D. 897, 
the king had hi* mind made up, was 
baptized, and al! 

j«c-I, any of bin low his 

example. In a shon 
all Kent was nominally chri 
Having been so successful, Augustine 

this vi-tir iul, and « II 

prim 1 glsnd ; and returned 

with a fresh accession of monks. In 
■ ur Mil. ha MOl tarn monks, Lau- 
tt-ntius and IV:. -i, t" ROOM, to inf'-mi 
1 In- prosjMirouH state of the 
mission. < 
Cese, and scut hack the UMSSI D 

with additional labours, the pall fo 
new archbishop, numca -us Tor 

tin- cathedral, including holy relics, 

. He 

all I.i trim to proceed 

with liiH work, advised him not to dc- 

them with holy wab r ; for 

would love i" worship in the places 

ma 1 

be destroyed. He' also advised, thai 

assemble around the chur 

bOOthS| and there feast tin nisr-lvi-, 

much SJ during their D 

with. nit sacrificing to their idouv 

B0FJ likewise ai; 

tiuns of Augustine, advising him and 

bifl BBBOellA - tO *-»>:ir in u.- to lis- III 

monasters ry as 

Id seem best suit' d to tin- ooti 1 
and instructing him how thisvesa] 

I - :♦<• d, how Dsan BBttd 

I l iii tin- QffdilBlHOa "I -» I 1 

■dlic bishops, and what was I 

it of some ceremonial impuril 
In M2, Augustine huilt hi 
at Can 

nastery in whteb to train no 
ministry. In the year B04, he attempt 
ed to bring under his jurisdiction, and 
to a conformity with hia cum 
tin- elergy and ehurchi 
Britons, whom the Saxons had con- 
quered and driven chiefly into Wales, 
iiueil was In-Ill fur the purpose. 
But as Augustine was <\\u< 
and somewhat oiSl'llSUlillgj 

,. ■ .1 1 , 

1 the 

u <-l Ken . ' -urcess- 


larly a hi"! 
and another for Koclu I iuI's 




christian baptism T . In Germany, the Bohemian*, the Thn- 
ringians, and Bavarians, are said to have reccivr-d Christianity *; 
i t<> many, however, appears extremely doubtful. Of these 
holy UuluiUliBUH among the heathen, no one will form a hhjh 
opinion, when he shall have learned from the writers of this 
and the following ages, that these nations still retained a 
great part of their former paganism, and paid only such a 
i • v < rence to Christ as would comport with a rejection of his 
Bpta, hy their lives, their deeds, and their current usages*. 
§ S. A great many Jews, in various plat :aiu. 

-ion of Christianity. In the East, Jtuttmon per- 
suaded the Jews resident at Uorium, a city of Libya, I 
knowledge Christ 1 . In the West, many Jews yielded to the 
zeal and efforts of the kings of Gaul and Spain, and to those of 

chnreh in London was now founded ; 
and tin- m HCl VBtt t*S Writ tnontutrrp, 
(Westminster,) adjoining London. Iu 
the year '»7i Augustine died, and was 
succeed. 1 1 in flu* bpc of Canterbury 
Mis. See Bcda. 
L e, 23, Ac and lib. B 

3. Mabilk-n, Annul. Benedict, torn. i. 

!,<"7. tin li ■; n lorj 
of Augustine, both in a larger un<l a 
smaller form, by Goscelin, a monk of 
•n;iv be found in 
Drd. Bated. 
/ V. 1 
7 | Bona rays of light luid penetrated 
Ibtt sotithcrutun- - "(land 

at an earlier period. Ninia, urN'uiian, 
wo* bishop of Whithern,on the hnrflww 
of Scotland, in the year 400 ; and hi* 
•^ors sometimes extended their 
labour* as far north as Glasgow. 1 n- 
' r said to have actually 
removed bin ehair from Whithcrn to 
Glasgow, before the arrival "f Colombo, 
and to luoc invited this Irish mission- 
ary to visit him there. It was in the 
year 503, that Columba, with twelve 
i. tin i 1 from the north 

of Ireland t<i bum, Hii, I, or I-cohn- 
kill, an islet mi the outer *hotv of Mull, 
one of the larger of the Hebrides or 
Western isle*. The Scottish king of 
'••, Hrudr, or Bride, favoured his 
• nterpriM J ami Ai.lan, a successor of 
Bndo,ndd him the highest reverence. 
Colmnbo hod Um Bole jurisdiction of 
Ins liltle Und, which became o- 

with cloisters and churches, and was 

i<l. Miri- of a utimcruiLH and 1. 
ed body of monks. For several cen- 
turies lonn was the centre of the Scot- 
tish, and the j.liice when- most 
of her eta located. Then 

also the Scot I isl l kings, for i< 

rations, wen- IntazTea, Oolnnni died 

in the \ear 607. His memorable acta 
were recorded by Cuinmciuii* v I 
(abbul of I una from 057 to MO,) IBM 

•<• .seen in Mobillon, . / 
On. m. i. p. 34*J, \c and 

ife at large, in throe hooks, was 
written by AdamtutmiH, «rhl 
at Ions from f7J9 to 704. Sec. I 
Britamnififtr. Eedetiar. Antiq. cap. xv. 
p. 687— 709. '/>.] 

• Henry Canunus, Ixrtions* Antitpur, 
torn. iii. pt. ii. p. 308. Avcntinus, 
Annul. Boiorum ; and others. 

• As 10 the Fram-*, lhe Benedictine 
monks exprvaathemsc. n-l\ ; 

v Litt&rtrire >h l-i Prana , tan 
introd. p. H. II. 18. As to the Anglo- 
Saxons, see what Gregory the I 
himself allowed of, Epitt'Jor. lib. be. 
MB. 7'»- OjMjfc tam. ii. p. 1178. ed. Bene- 
dict. Among other tl rmit- 
tod tho people, on festal days, to offer 
to the saints such victims as they had 
before offered to their gods. Dav. Wil- 
kins. Concilia Magna Briton, t/>m. i. 
p. 18, &c. 

1 Pronuflfj </<• JSdifciu Jtutiniani, 
lib. vi. cap. 2. 

( H. I.] 


Gregory the Great, and Avitw [bishop of Clermont]. Hut it 
should be added, that far more nan induced to make an ex- 
ternal profession of Christianity, by tin* n wards offered by the 
princes, and by the fear of punishment, than h\ the faff 
Hgnau Ota. In Gaol, during the reign of Ch'thln-i,-, the J0W8 
were compelled to reci : and the same thing was 

done in Spain J . Hut On g o rjf the (.treat wished tins practice 
to he discontinued '. 

§ L It* credit were to be e^ven to the writers of this age, 
the conversion of barbarous nations to Christianity, mast he 
ascribed principally to the prodigies and miracles that were 
wrought. Bui an insjuetiun of the converted nations will for- 
bid our believing these statements ; for had these nations seen 
so many wonderful deeds with their own eyes, they would Iiave 
had a faith in Christianity, and wouM have more reli- 

1 its precepts. With the major part, th« 
ample and inHuenee of their kings presented the chief argu- 
ment for changing their religion. Nor were more solid reasons 
much needed ; for the first preachers of Christianity among 
them, required of them nothing very difficult, or crossing to 
their inclinations: they were Ollhf to worship the inv&gl 

'. and of hoi) men, instead of those of their gods, and for 
the most part, with the same ceremonies 4 ; and bo commit to 

* Gregory of Tours, Hittoria Fmn- 
Ooruot, lib. vi. c. 1ft. Ju. Latin* 

V<*<ri More Boptiaomdi Jwktos <t Infi- 
is Opp. torn. ii. pt. ii. p. 
7<ni 704. I All these Jewish conver- 
sions MVB n Moiorv of the christian*, 
which ili.l i vitus, 

for instance, tho buhop of Clin 
bapti Luni- 

etancca were those : a Jew having 
voluntarily received baptism, was pro- 
ceeding home in the- ei 
robe, when meeting with some Jews, 
one of them poured some fetid oil an 
his white robe. The people soon Ian- 
>uto a rage, and pulled down the 
synagogue ; and the bwhup sent word 
to the Jews, that they ruubt all submit 
to be baptized, or um»t quit the place. 
In this dilemma, fiOO preferred receiv- 
ini> baptism ; »n VUOVtQ 1 to 

.Marseilles, bee Gregory of Toutd, 
Hid U.\ 

* Bee his Epistles, lib. i. ep. 47, in 

j d. D 
[or the extract from it in Uao> 
Annal. ad ann. 591. turn. viii. p. 96, 
■I. Antw. IG00. Gregory cimuends 
Uie intentions of the Gallic I 
think-*, that aa l 

penevered,andtli • •Mdth.m- 

selves to a hea\ > 
other world than if they had D 

liarity to them rt«|uir- 
ed, tliat thai should iu»t be coin, 
to receive baptism. TV.] 

* [Mosheim cites no authority for 
this statement, and it might - 

far from unrceervedly adiui- 

ii tliat the Anglo-Saxons, Franks, 
and Germans, rejected image-worship, 
even under a recommendation from 
Rome, at a much later period. 1 1 is, 
then-fore, unlikely that they ha< 
(inally combined it will) Christianity. 



memory certain christian formulas. Some preachers, more- 
over, — as might easily be proved,— deemed it lawful and right 
to delude the senses of the ignorant people, and to palm on 
them natural events for divine interpositions. 



§ 1. Pagans still remaining among the christians. — § 2. Writers opposed to 
Christianity. — g 3. Persecutions and vexations. 

§ 1. Although the imperial laws ordained that no public 
office should be held by any one who would not abjure pagan- 
ism, yet there were many learned and respectable men who fol- 
lowed the old religion in the midst of the christians. The 
illustrious compiler of the Civil Law, Tribonianus ', is thought 
by some to have been averse from the christian religion. Of 
Procopius *, the celebrated and intelligent historian, the same 

1 [Tribonianus was a native of Side § 27, &c. and Gibbon, Decline and Fall, 

in Pamphylia, flourished about a. d. ch. xliv. vol. iv. p. 360, &c. ed. New 

630, and died about a. d. 646. Richly York, 1826. 7V.] 

furnished with Greek and Roman * [Procopius of Ceesarea, (different 

literature, he applied himself especially from Procopius of Gaza,) was a rhetori- 

to the study of law. He was advanced dan, senator, and historian. He was 

to various civil offices, and was in high secretary to the famous general Beli- 

favour with Justinian, on account of sarins, from 633 to 642, during his 

his eminent talents and his obsequious- campaigns in Asia, Africa, and Italy ; 

ness. The Codex Justiniantu was the and afterwards, being made a Roman 

J'oint work of Tribonianus and others ; senator, resided at Constantinople, and 

iut the compilation of the Pandedt and devoted himself to writing the civil 

Inditntet was committed to him as history of his own times ; viz. de Bello 

chief, with others to assist him. Tri- Perrico, 1. ii. de Bello Vandalico, L ii. 

bsnianus was avaricious and irreligious, and de Bello Qotkico, 1. iv. His mvrra- 

He had been accused of atheism and tion is elaborate and exact, and the 

paganism. The truth probably was, style not unacceptable. He also wrote 

that ho had no fixed religious princi- de JEdxficxu Jtutiniani, 1. vi. in which he 

pies. See J. H. Hermann, HUtoria displays the munificence and greatness 

Juris Ronani et Juttiniani, lib. ii. c. L of that emperor: likewise Aneodota, rive 

. II. II. I 


suspicion is entertained by not. a few. And it is Btill more 
certain, tliat Amthvu ' of Sim ma, an advocate at the bar, and 
also a historian, was an idolater. Indeed, as is commonly tli.- 
case even' where, the rigour of the laws fell only on those who 
had neither birth, nor wealth, nor the favour of the gn 
protect them. 

§2. Ir is still more strange that the Platonists, who 
universally known to be hostile to Christianity, should have 
been allowed publicly to instil their principles, which were 
totally inconsistent with our religion, into the minds of the 
i both in Greece and Egypt. This class of men affected. 
indeed, a high degree of moderation, and, for the most part, 
so modified their expressions as to make the pagan idolatry 
appear not very FBI n Christianity. This is evident 

tip exam] l and A fexander of Lycopolis i 

there were some among them who did not openly to 

attack the christian religion. Do* of his 

master It'ids/re, and elsewhere, casts many reproaches on the 

Hidoria Arcana, in which ho describes 
Im ami crimes of Justinian, and 
his I'lnprvan Theodora. Procoptan was. 
alive in the year fid"-' 

• leaning toward* pajran'iMii. He 
was probably a man of no religion ; 

•.UTimlly, a couformi-" 
ianitv. His works were publinh. 
and Lit. |n C. Malml. Turis, ]■ 

i-t Litterar. 
i p. MO. 
' | tgathias, an a.lvocate at Smyrna, 
ii. .1 ili. history of Proe 
from the year .Vili to a. D. 659, In 

easy but llm-iil 
Ho also ■ 

I. t Jr. unci 
Lat., Paris, 1600. fob Hut 
that o 
pus lUttoriaf I 

LardutT, Works, vol. tx, i 

* < I .ilci- 

I hove Bpd ■ on 


flourished about I und wrote 

.(in tiumdaliou of I'lalo'* T'umxiu, 


(as in I 

BUSH HUUU iiiui t.. h.i\. In, ii 

eon of Cartilage. See above, cent. iv. 
n, i. j; in. n , iw\. vol. 

i. ; and Cave, Hi*. Lit. torn. i. p. Hit). 

* The treatise of this philonO| 
i icktiiM, in Greek, wo*- i 
Uabed by Fran. Coinbcfis, AudariuiH 
Norm, liibiiuth. Patrx 

i | liin reUnkHL Is. <le BeauHohre 
ban gn ileal dbwrtatinu, IJ'w- 

ii. LhM-.our I i 236, dte. 

i, of Lyeoj 

Or, Inn. v was first a 

l>a truu and a lianichce, and i 
a catholic christian. Cave i- i 
same opinion (Hid. Lit. i 
■'■•trto! irtai'tM). I 
(ma $njTuj think* he was a n 
pagan. L.. trka, vol. iii. p. 

884; vol wii. j 

wasa e.. n i:l. •, hut w<ll acquainted \>iili 

lanichoe* and o una; 

thai be had BOB '<■:■■ "!' 1 1 » . - 

Old i 

oeeasiotia! I ; tie mania vitb 

respect ol Christ, ami th< In 
phil< been 



[part I. 

christians*, r, in his Impositions of Aristotle, not 

obscurely carps at the christian faith 7 . The Epid 

contra christianos, written by Procht*', were in i 
body's hands ; and, therefo r e, received a confutation bom J»fat 
PkUopoWm*. So much license would not liave been allow 

nun. had there not been among the magistrates many 
who win- christians in name and outward appearance, rather 
than in ivality. 

$ -*{. The christians in some places had occasion, even in 
thus century, to complain of the barbarity and cruelty of their 
enemies. Doting the greater part of it, the A n^lo- Saxons, 
who had seized upon Hriiuin, brought every kind of calamity 
and Buffering upon the former inhabitants of the country, who 
were christians '. The fiiaM having made an irruption into 
Thrace, (ireece, and other provinces, during the reign of Jnsti- 

• Photius, BMtotMxa, Cod. ccxhi. 
n. 1027. I .Damascius was a uail 
Damascus, but ■tndiedand taught phi- 
lOBOplty Ixiili n t I Alexan- 
dria. From tbt latter he Bad to Per- 
sia, du pei cation of tbe 
pagan philosophers by Iha emperor 
Justinian, about tbe year 630. Hi- 

wrote tin- live* < ' i '.bera, 

li ntaries on Pint", ami tour 

book* cm extraordinary event* : all «>f 

whirl) ar> iun calU bim tig 

'tfir'ic, $up<-rt'Uirriy ir- 
out, (Coder clxxxi.) and giroa an e'pi- 
• I his life of Isidore, <«>/. eexlii. 
T [Simplicins, a native of Cilicia, a 
Itomatciu*, ami . 
opher, was one of tboao who Bed 
Persia about tbe year 530. He 
returned a few years after, and Rl . te 
M of the philoeo- 
|>hit-al ami physiral works of Anatolia: 

also a Commentary on the Encktiridion 
of Bp hied, Oraalt and 

Latin, bv H. Wolf, Leyden. 1040. 4to. 


• [Proems wm born at Constanti- 
nople a. n. 410, studied at Alexandria 
and at Athena, and became head of 
ih.- philosophical school in the latter 

. in the year t-n ». He died *. n. 

II. wsa a man of murh philoso- 

l reading, n great enthusiast, a 

bold and whimsical speculator, and a 
most vi'luiiiiri-'ii-i writer. I |-,v eighteen 
Arguments against tbe christians, are 
bo many proofs that the world was 
eternal. Thin work, with the mnfuta- 
t John I'hili'i'onuB, was publish- 
ed in Qreel (85. fol.; and in 
Latin, Lyons, 1567. M. Tr.) 

• See •). V. Kabriei tlr. 

roL iii. p. 622, &.C. [and Brucki-r, Hi*- 
tnrxa frit. Flflst, lom. ii. ]•- -till, with 
Hamherger'n Zttrtrtiiifuje Nitchrickitiy 

taB.ifLp.80l. .s-a/.j" 

1 J; hromJoij. A*>iy. 

Ecd<*. Hritan. tut tins. 608, p. 1123 
[and Htill BON to the pQipesa, tti «l*». 

fill, p. n •_'.->, and ad mm. fi07, p- 1161, 
Ate, At rlir barimfagof Unseen! 

the Saxon* ban only Kent and Sus- 
sex, embracing about 
in the npntlh fit pun nf England ; all 
the nm of the country wa* inhuhit.-d 
by ehr.«tiaii Britons. But during this 

ay, the Saxons gradually extend* 
ed their conquests ; and before the 
century el.exil, the Britons were shut 
up among the mountains of Wales and 
Cornwall, except a few in Cumberland 
on the borders of Scotland, or were 
driven to take refuge beyond seas. 
Over all tbe rest of England pagan ism 

•I: the churches were deno 
ed, n into idolatrous I 

plea, and the public 

•d had ceased. 7V.| 

en. ii. 1 



treated the iJnaillaiui with cruelty'; yet they appear to 

have been influenced, not so iimdi by a hatred of Christianity. 

as by hostility t<» tin- Ghreeh empire. A great change in the 
state of Italy took place, about the middle of this century, 
under /eafiwiag I. Thin emperor, by Narses his general, 
ovi -it urned the kingdom of the Ostrogoths in that country, 
after it had stood ninety years, ami annexed Italy to his 
empire. But under tin- tUUpurur /ifflVll, the Lombards, a very 
warlike CKnilUI tribe, under their king Alboin, and accom- 
panied hy some other Merman people, broke into Italy 
l'aimonia. in the year 668; and having possessed themselves 
of the whole country, except Kern.- and Kavmna. founded 
a new kingdom at Pa via. Under new lords, who were not 
• oils I mi Karians, but averse from Christianity, the Italian 
christians fur a time endured immense evils and calamities. 
But the first rage of the rs gradually subsided, and 

I Lombards became mor d. An(/t'iri.<. their thud 

king, made a profession of Christianity, in the year 587 ; but 
hfl embraced the .\rian creed. His successor, however, 
induced by his queen, TAeodeli-ndfi . to abandon 
id join the catholics of the Nic.m- «•> 
OAoanM*, the king "1* led all others in barbarity; 

fa he publicly declared that be would make war, not up'.n 
but upon the God of the christians; and he eut off 
I amber of christians by various modes of execu- 
tion -. 

* Procophif, d* DeUo Pcrrico, lilt. ii. 

■ Pftulii^ i 

Jl!». 931, «•'. I itori, 

Ahtvj. lulut, luin. i. p. 14 ; t ... 

p. 207. && ; and Ann- 

p. sua, 

' Prccophia,d 





§ 1. The state of learning in the West.— § 2. The sciences badly taught.— § 3. 
The study of philosophy. — § 4. State of learning among the Greeks — § 5. and 
in the East. 

§ 1. Every one knows, that the irruption of the fierce and 
barbarous nations into most of the provinces of the West, 
was extremely prejudicial to literature, and to every species of 
learning. All the liberal arts and sciences would have become 
wholly extinct, had they not found some sort of refuge among 
the bishops and monks. To most of those churches which are 
called cathedrals, schools were annexed, in which either the bishop 
himself or some one appointed by him, instructed the youth in 
the seven liberal arts, as a preparation for the study of the 
sacred books '. The monks and nuns were nearly all required, 
by the founders of their houses,' to devote some portion of 
every day to the reading of the works of the ancient fathers of 
the church, who were supposed to have exhausted the fountains 

1 Claude Fleury, Dboomrt mr VH%$- &c. Herm. Conringius, Antiquit. Aca- 

ttnrt, Eccleeiattiqut dcpuis Van. 600, &c. demicce, p. 66 — 167. ed. Heumann. 

§ xxi. &c. in his H'utoire Ecdis. torn. [Gregory of Tours, lib. vL c. 36. 

xiii. p. 56. Hittoire Littimlre de la Schl.] 
France, torn. in. Introd. § xxxiL p. 12, 

II I! I'll. I.] IITKnATIKI \S'K «< II \TK. 


of sacred knowledge \ It was, therefore, necessary that 
libraries should l>c formed in thr fflOIIMtnrilH. and tli.U boohs 

should be mnHipHed In being teanaeribed. Tins labour of 
transcribing books was generally assigned to the morr 1 
bodied mould, who wen unaluV to encounter aovin labour. 

To HfcTMffl establishments, f the preservation <>f all the 

ancient . authois tl Dome down to us, both sacred and 

profane. Moreover, \n most of the monasteries, schools were 
opened, in which the abbot or some one of the monks in 
Btmetod the-ehililrcn Bud youth that were devoted to a monastic 
life \ 

§ 2. But, not to mention that many of the bishops and 
EB, who had control over the monks, were inatti-mi\<- to 
lin-ir «luty ; and that others had strong prejudices a«_ 

big and science, which the\ apprehended to be hazardous 
to piety, — a fault commonly attributed to Gregory the G 

'»" it is said, wished to have many of the 
at authors committed to the flames*; — not to mention 

* Benedict of Anian, Coacwvfto Re- 

,p,/nrimm, lib. ii. p. », 64, 7'- 77- BO. 

1ih». lib, iii. p. Id— 41, &C 
Menard. •!<>. Mahillon, /' 
rut. i. Ador. 8a tutor, t.trd. Baioi'xt. 

■ I'l . . lib, 

ii. p. 232. Joh. 

fitnmliai tan. i. p. 314, &c 

( tad yet it i those 

•h schools kept aloof from the 

source* of real learning, — I mean the 

'it classic authors ; and that the 

nd Tlwo- 

doniH of Mopeuestia, were loft to 
lust <>n the contrary, 
>ung monks were occupied with 
-■gaud tnm-crihinj: the HMfll silly 
h and h^rt-mln, by which tlnir un- 
derstanding* and their imaginations 
In the 
. it in expressly stated : 
, karrtlicontm, Utftre 
4 I 'fitto- 

[Thai I was opposed to all se- 


•«m liia conduct towards Deaide- 
. hilltop of Vienne. Thai biflhop 

was a man of great merit, virtues, and 
Hui he instructed same <»f 
bis friends in grammar and the fine 
art*, and nad with Una tin 1 pagan 
poet>. looked upon all this 

as horrible wickedness ; and, there- 
hesitated about sendi 
pall ; and reproved him v«ry nharply, 
in an epistl* which ia still e\i 

|Oty, r.}'i<. lib. ix. cp. 4K.) 
cause (says the honest pope, who es- 
teemed it no wrong to praise extrava- 
gantly the greatest villain* and the 
praises of 
l mnot 
j'laco in the sami* mouth. And 
•r, how enormous a crime it is 
for a hishop to ting! which would be 
unbecoming even in j lay- 

man. Tin is in a 

priest, the more earnestly and faith- 
fully should it be l aqei r o d. into. — if it 
should hereafter appear clearly that 
the reports which have reached me 
are false, u if 1 that TOO dfl not. study 
vanities and wcular literature (nee voa 

shall praise God, who lias not per- 
mitted your heart to be AsJUad with 

I loKphetnous praises of da 
rlbk one*,"— But whether it b»- 

1 1 



also, that MOM of the bishops, of set purpose, cultivated igno- 
rance and liarlftriftin, whieh they confounded with ehristiati 
simplicity ; to pass over these considerations, it remains to Ik: 
stated, that the branches of learning taught in these schools, 
were confined within very narrow limits ' ; and that the 
teachers were ignorant and incompetent. Greek literature 
was almost every where neglected ; and those who pro- 
feased to cultivate Latin, consumed their time on grammatical 
suhtilties and niceties; as is manifest from the examples of 
Isidoru* and Casmdoms. Eloquence had degenerated into a 
rhetorical parade, which was sustained by motley and frigid 
figures, and barbarous phraseology ; as is shown by those who 
BOmpond with most elegance, such as Bocthius, Cassiodorus, 
■■<lius, and others. The other liberal arts, as they were 
called, contained nothing elevated and liberal ; but consisted 
of only a few precepts, and those very dry. 

| 3. Philosophy was wholly excluded from the schools, 
which were under the direction of the clergy ; for nearly all 
supposed, that religious persons could do very well without it, 
or rather ought never to meddle with it. The most eminent, 
and indeed almost the only Latin philosopher of this age, was 
the celebrated Bo&Mu$, privy oonndflor to Thmdorir. king of 
the Ostrogoths in Italy. He embraced the PtaAmic system'; 
but, like most of the younger Platonists, approved also the 
precepts of Aristotle % and illustrated them by his writings. II. 
Efl therefore not improperly regarded as the man, whose labours 
brought the Aristotelian philosophy into higher repute, among 
the Latins, than it bad before D80O. 

§ 4. Airamg the Greeks, the liberal arts were cultivated with 
more zeal, in several places ; and some of the emperors en- 

aa John of Saliahury state*, (dr Ntt<ji$ 
I'urialium, lib. ii. c. 2(i ; and lib. viiL 
c, 19.) Uu»t ho cauaed the Palatini or 
Capitolinc library to be burned ; or aa 
inns of Ploreuee tells us, (see 
VoMtna, df BMorick Lmim'u, p. US.) 
that he committed to the flames Ury's 
1 1 mtory, moat bo considered uncertain, 
a* lli»> witnemca are ao modern. Yet 
it would not be improbable, in a man 
of aurh Naming zeal against the pagan 
writem. SekQ 

* See M. Casaiodorua, d* 
$n***n Z>i*ri;>/»»« L'Jvr ; among hia 


* Thia will he tttdfOl to any one 
who, with some knowledge of the 
views of tl i' la tomato, takes 
up hia booka df Cuiuoltaiout Pkikm- 
f+k*. See also Rcnai. Vallinua, AV** t 
p. 10. BO. Luc. Hufatiuiiliw, i 
Porvkyrii, p. 7- ed. Cantobr. ; likewise, 
Jo. J as. Mam-iiv, Ilittor'vi fimitommni, 
torn. ii. p. 102, Ac. [Bruckcr, /i'utori-t 


(II. I.] 


cournged with bonoun ami rewards every branch of leaim 
yet the numluT of the men of genius Ip p ote B much lyJffTj 
than in the preceding century. When tin* century I 
iu< 'need, the younger Platonum was flourishing in full splendour. 
The school-, of Alexandria and Athens were onto masters of 
hi^h credit. Damazcim* Isidoi 

meat, PrJaoUm i md others. But when the emperor Justinian, 
by an express law, forbade the tcachinjrof philosophy ut Athens , 
(which is undoubtedly to be understood of th 
philosophy.) and manifested peenliar displeasure against tilDM 
who would not renounce idolatry, all these philosophers took 
up their residence among the IVrsiuns. the enemies of the 
is'. They returned again, indeed) in the year 533, on 
the n-st oration of pence hetwecn the Persians and the Romans'; 
but they were never able to recover their former credit, and 
they gradually ceased to keep up their schools. Such was the 
termination of this sect, which had been a most troublesome 
one to the church for many centuries. On the contrary, the 
■>ft'lian philosophy gradual I - from its obscurity, 

and received explanations, particularly from the commentaries 
<ti John PftUvfHmw. And it became necessary tor the <i reeks 
to acquaint themselves with it. because the MoncpAysittB and 
the Xdttvrian* endeavoured to eonfhte the idhexenie feo the 
councils of Ejihisiis and Chalccdon, by arguments suggested 
his philosophy. 
J •">. For the Nettoriam as well as the Monophysitts* »rho 

RUb* torn. iii. p. 9%L Ax.; Mid 
llnniticr^T'H Zvtrrl'dtnft A 

i. liti. 
' : 

1 'otuhmtini/ji. ><n- 
MXad to liia Dm. de Antiynit. AtatU- 

' [an BrurUrV nceiuint (if Isidore, 
in In I rJ. 1'hUor. torn. ii. p, 

.141. Isidore was called liazceu*. 
bis naiiv. ii in I 'all 

and thin dJ 1 him from Isi- 

dore Mriiiiiiir, HUi[>al('tiHut, ami IVIu- 
MJOU. SrU.) 

• Johannes Malala, IJ'utnria I 
•lea, pt. ii. p. |H7 ..) 
testimony to tb« same point) derived 

from, I know not what, unpublished 
Cknmicv*, is adduced bjr NieoL Ale- 
mannus, ad Procoj>ii lli*t->ri*im Area- 
cap. *Jfi. p. 377- id. ^ '•■' 
Agathiofl, cap. 2, and Suidaa, 
art. ■w^tojivc, look i"i. p. 171. seem to 
refer to this event, by saying : Damaa- 
riua, SimpliriiiH. Bnml .tnua, 

Hrrmiaa, 1 »ini;i nest, and UJ 
tired to Persia, because • the) ooul 


' Agathias, itV Rdm* Juatin'utni, lib. 
1 >rpu* BipiHit. !"••>- •'«- !'• 9% ' ■•'. 

aeltDgiiiK, (M#rrr>it. Vnri<ir, 1*1. i | 
P- 117. 


! If Y U 


lived in the East, kept AriftotU in their eye; and to enable 

their adherents to be good disputants, translated his principal 

works out of Greek into their vernacular tonpuen. In the Syriae 
language. Kasaineusis, a Monophysitc and a philoso- 

pher, exhibited the writings of Aristotle \ In Persia, one 

>w, a Syrian. pflTfUBltl Hl his doctrines; and even instilled 
them into the inind of Chosroes, the king, who was studious of 
such matters \ Another, who was douhtless of the Nestorian 
sect (for no other in this age prevailed in Persia, the Greeks 

excluded), presented the king with a Persian translation 
q| Aristotle*. Yet there were among these christians some 
who, rejecting both Plato and Aristotle, chose to philosophize 
or speculate according as their own genius led them. Such was 
the Nestorian Coatiuu, called Indicopleustes ; whose opinions 
were <|iiit<* peculiar, and more consentaneous with those of the 
orientals, than with those of the Greeks*. Such also was the 

r. from whose Exposition of the <>etat.'iu-h. Photiu* has 
preserved some extracts \ 

1 fteorgius Ahulpharajus, HlMnrin 
DyunMinr. p. !M. 172. ni. uf Pocock. 

4 Agatlii H JuM'miani, lib. 

ii. |>. -48. That this Unuiiua accom- 
moiUt. ■(] the precepts of Aristotle to 
tin- F.ntychian controversies, appears 
fmm this that Atrathiii.** represents 
him at* deputing about the f»utH>Uii\) 
and mmu id. cai rb *a9tf- 

rbv xai aJLbyxirrov. [Uranius was in 
so high esteem with king Chosroes, 
that ho hud him constantly at Ul 
table. It, uted a 

set jitic ; hut mav more jtistljr he rank- 
ed among the Nestorian*, than among 
Um par o par philosophers. &**/.] 

& Agathiss, rfs /tow JnMiniani, lili. 
ii. p. G ictSD. 

• Bernh. de Montfaumn, Pro-/, tad- 
x. Ace, in his Cott«H>- 

[Thin Cosmos was 
.hi I'.gyptinn monk. In early life he 
was a merchant, and drove a traffic 
through the whole length of the Red 
Sco, and quite to India : whence he 

gtt tU. name of J Wt'cojilewta, an /*- 
■ .ir'ujtitor. After many years spent 
in this manne r, he took up i 
a monastery in Egypt, and dm 
himself to composing hooks. Mischief 
work is Topoyiviplma Chritt'uiM, tkt 
ChriMittnorum opinio tie mumlt, in 
tw.-lvc It ia his great aim t.i 
prove the earth not spherical, hut a 
vast oblong plain ; the length, east 
and west, bong double the breadth. 
Eld BtMl from scripture, reason, tes- 
timony, and the authority of the fa- 
thers. Hut while pressing his main 
point, he introduces much vail 
raphical inform; h hi 

had rolleoti- 1 in In- V"_va;'i-», He flou- 
rished, and pnblfeif wrote about a. d. 
lition if that of Mo:u- 
faiioui, Greek anil I- I ■Itsct. 

torn. ii. Paris, 1706. 
';«\e's //iiiirw LitUrarut, torn. i. 
p. 616, &c 

1 PI io<*. Cod. xxxvi. p. 


H ll. I I I1B1S. 




.tests bet* < ■ >pa of Constantinople and Rome. — § 2. I 

bJ flu lutf.i' to obtain supreme power. — § 3, 4. Corru| i, i-l.-rgy. — 

9 6. Thu muukH.— § R. Order of B | 7- I la propagation.— $ 8. I'rin- 

i Authors among the Greeks — § 9. Latin writers. 

Jl. I\ the constitution of tin* christian church there \\: change. Hut the two prelates, who consi I 
themselves, and were regarded by others, as standing a^ 
head of tin- whole church, the bishops "f Rome rod Constan- 
tinople, were dm ■minify contending for priority, and about the 
• itenl «if their territories and jurisdiction. The bishop «>f 

Cfonsturtinople not only rlMmnfl the primacy in the eastern 
OOUrobeB, hut maintained that his see was in no respect im 
to that of Rome. Ihit til-- pontiffs of Rome were exceedingly 
disturbed at this, and contended tliat their see held a rank and 
uce above that of Constantinople. In particular, the 
h'oman jMUitift", G/tVoiy the I ! rent, did so, in the year 587; 
when John of Constantinople, surnamed the /W. r. on account 
of the austerity of lii^ life, had by his own authority assembled 
a council of eastern bishops at Constantinople, to decide on 
MS brought BgRmst Peter [Gretjory] bishop of Antioch ; 
and tin this occasion had arrogated to himself the title of 
o x wmemcal or universal hitkop '. For. although the bishops of 

1 [I>r. M«*dieim hen? confounds 
dates, names, and transactions. Grv- 

bcing accused of incest and other 

S appealed fnun tin- tribunal of 

r nf 111.- I'.iUif, t.. th.- . m- 

ncror .j"emr 

i-atriarch Jolin.) called a 
coun- .l court of Com- 

miasiouurB at CwUlilluoyln, in 687, 
composed of patriarch*, (or thei > 
galea,) Roman senators, and meUo- 


politana, to liear and decide tlie ease. 
(See Kvapriun, Mitt. Etti,t. I. ri. e. 7- 
Kvagriu* was Ppter's counsellor at the 

trial, ain! ban piv< n ■ in -arly all the 
li has reached u 

■Ion, it is Mid, John, the patriareb of 
Constantinople, wii honoured '»itl. tlir 
title .if nnirrrmtl bitk>p, — a titk which 
had for some time born iwil I • 

pa of that see. The decisions of 
this council being sent to lYlagiua H. 

Oo mUnt inople hid bag nfled thia title, whieh was otpftMi 

harmless intorpi' t ;ii ion. yet Gregory conclude*!, from the time 

aii'l tl on "u whieh it tree now iraifl. that JUr wm 

ing at a supremacy over all christian churches ; and lie there- 
fun' wrote letters to the emj>erur, and to other*, in which he 
i 'lently inveighed against this title. Hut he could effect 
ootfaing .• and the btshopfl of Constantinople ouutinued to 
oaeame it. though not in tfa which Gnyon/ sup|>osed ■. 

{$ 2. The hishop of Bene pemmaDg hi ha oppoeitunt 

GBted ee UUII OtSon ••very where, in Order to bring the christian 

world under his own control. Ami he WBfl in BOme de 

st'u). csjH ciallv in the West : hut in the ICost, scarceh 
any would listen to him, unless actuated by hostility to the 
hishop of Cim>tantino]i!.- ; and this lasat was always in a rendi- 
tion to oppOM lii^ nmhitious designs in that quarter. How 
greatly the ideas of many had advanced res|»ectini: the powers 
Qf the bishop of Koine, cannot better bfl shown than hv the 

example of A the ineene flatterer of Gfrwn&okm : who, 

■moDg other extraYagant expressions, said, tfo j»jntij1' j«<l<m in 
the place of ( i»<l. vice Dei judicare 3 . lint, OB tin- Other hand, 
there are numerous proutk that the emperors, as well as some 
whole nations, would not patiently Uar fchia DOT yoke '. The 

(not 10 QngOtJ tlw Great,) hi-Jiop of 

lied (DC acquittal 

of lVt«.-r, hut remonstrated -i 

against tl< D to John. His 

"•-caexm are lost, but 

thev up- n by bis successor. 

In th« year 590, Pclagiua died, and 

was suit. I'h ,1 li\ Gregory tin- Great; 

and he, finding that John continued U> 

use this title, t<*>k up lbs busmen in 

earnest, al»>ut the vear 695, and for 

v«ars Uboured by in treaties and 

I applications to 

:p< rora and to the other eastern 

pel i is uike, to divest the Oonsftsatino- 

iii patriarchs of a title which he 

iuaintaii»-d to lx- fTuhiiu , aiil'i-rhruti<in, 

and infernal, bv whomsoever assumed. 

See Gregory the Great, Eytitoiar. lib. 

iv. ep. 3f>. !«. and lib. \\. - ' 

Bower's Lit** of the Pwixr, (Pelatfius 

II.) vol. ii. p. 459. and (Gregory) vr.l. 

ii. p. 505. 511. 617- ed. Lond. 1750. 

Natalia Alexander, II til. Eteie*. secul. 

vi. cap. ii. art. 1*2, 13. tool. x. p. J8. 26, 

J4X Tr.] 

■ Qregorj the I iataCm lib. 

iv. y. m. All the pasmgea in Uiese 

lea, relalii rtant 

subject, are c-ollected and illustrated 

.' I U 
S. .1/., t Ipp. torn. iii. pi 

SeS Mich. le t^uion, Orimi t'hrtiti- 
tinut, Ian. i. p. 07, co\ < ,'lir. Matth. 
l'fnff. Dim, 

• and 
the authors there mentioned. [As a 
sort of tacit n pnxif t«> tbs Fu*ter f Gre- 
gory rmniofthe Ser- 
mnis ii- A 
bv his suc ces so r s. Ann 88. Ord. Bene 

ne. /;/ 1 

■'•.yrtimm pro SfHodo, 
in the J ft i lgM. Mm. Pair. torn. xv. p. 
248. ed. Paris. 

DSt particularly respecting Spnin, 

Mich. < ; Me*. On 'A*'- / j <i/.j/ (5 
ehiefl) with elation to the ancient 
Spanish church; published anion < I | 
Miscellaneous Tracts, woi ii. p. 1, Ac. 

CM. II.] 



< 'Mtliic kings in Italy would not allow the bishop of Rome to 
■ I'M!.! taMLjr Hun ; nor would they allow any one bo 

be considered as pontiff whom they had not approved; and 
rhi-v wished to have his election controlled by their decision \ 
These kings also enacted laws r. dative- to religious matters, 
arraigned the clergy before their tribunals, and sunim 
ecclesiastical councils". And the pontiffs themselves paid 

■ ->■ to fthnni m WW reigns, and afterwards to the emp« l 
in a submissive manner; for they liad not yet become so lost 
to all shame, as to look upon ti-inporal sovereigns as tloir 

3. The clergy were previously in possession of high privi- 
leges and great wealth, and the .superstition of this century 
added considerably to both. Pot it was supposed, that sins 
might lw expiated by munificence to clnnehes and to ftMBkB : 
and that the pray- parted -aints. which wan most effi- 

cacious with God, might be purchased, by presents ollored to 
them, and by temples dedicated to their names'. This increase 
of wealth and privileges was accompanied with an o<|iial in- 
crease of the vices usually attendant OB affluence, in the el 
of all i.inks. i'rom the highest to the lowest ; as is man 
from tl< d <i d by oounoib and by the emperors 

• See Joh. Ja. Masco v, Hftriorfa 

mamcnuM, torn. ii. Dote, p, 113. 

• Ja. Baaua^r, JJut->irr >1r-* E<jlUm 
Rrfitrmiet, turn. i. p. 381, &C I 

■ he lutlian 
bishops at Rmn* 1 1 1 contested 

chair. (Waloh, ll\*> \nkm 

ttnammlmmrm, p. 347) The council 
of Orleans, in 611, ww bald by order 
©fClorm. (Ibid. p. 361.) Aiv.ti 
Orleans, in 533, l.v order <>f Childc- 
I p. 367.) And in the year 
Ml), (ll.i.l. p. 375.) Ind . 

l-brrt. ( Ibid, p. 30ft.) 

% e the eolleetioos fmiti C.rerory 


M>\irii*vp> Opp*ioai i pi 

fWI, See, and Ameriio in PrvnU- 

7'«« S. Mi'i<H'{i, Qpp, lOOBi iii | 

Ef«toifv At N'iplta, 

• (Thus, e.g. ' <i cap. xv. 

•lol.i, I. xii. v.. 23.) savm': " Whenever, 
after committing a crime, wr give alma, 
uh ttt 1 a* it whpo compensate for our 
wick I'd ace Im. in hix Epis- 

tles ( 98.): ••I'lio interces- 

sions in heaven of him, whose body 
you liave covered on earth, will pj 
you frrnn all sins," Ac. &rM.] 

9 [ Throphanua (on the aeeond year 
of Justinian's reinitiates, that Eaaias, 
b lriwp of Rhode*, and Alexander, bi- 
shop of Dioepolis in Thrace, wee 
lime of todomy, deprived "» 
ofla -, ;<<•■'■ - :. -ri.'ir. .1, by order "f thi 
emperor; and lb > aaa 

Hhnw, with a herald proclaiming: ■ All 
-lw>pK, bew.i your 

venerable nffiw.'' So in tni 

• •ccur 

e. g. 1. viii ep. 111. iii. >p. 28 and 
3. l.i.rp. 18. 42. FM] 


luiOK 11- — CEKTPR1 VI. 

i 11. 

to ngnfeta the Uvrs :ui<l mnrah of the ekrgy '. For what 
need wbq then of guarding the morals of these men with such 
ramparts of Imps, if they numifartuid only a moderate 1<»- 

Miinr and DO at the eiheaey of these laws was slight ; 

for so jrreat was the reverence for the clergy, that their most 

• itli the genttaet chastisement- ; 
and this enibuMene«l tliem to perpetrate any iniquity. 

§ 4. What sort of HMO tin- bishops of Rome were, who 
wished to be thought the chief's ami fathers of the whole 
christian church, and also the of the clergy under theni 
at I vi Ti is, best appears from the bog and violent contest be- 
tween Symmachws and L>> . which broke out in the 
!:>s. ;m«l was at length BoHtoi hy H* Gothic king Thc- 
Eaeh maintained that himself Wis the regu] 
stitutcd pontiff; and each accused the other of the most 
abominable crimes, and not without an appearance of truth. 
Three councils assembled at Rome, were not able to terminate 
the dreadful quarrel; in the fourth, T having taken 
up the business, soon after the commencement of the century. 
St/nunachu$ was at length pronounced innocent. Hut the 
adverse party continued to deny that justice had been done 
them by this decision ; and this led of Pavia to write 
his Apology for tlm council and /or okusK From this 

1 [Thn», e. p. in fin council of Agde 
in Gaul, (can. 41.) it was enacted, that 
a clergyman who should get drunk, 
■hovM Ik* excluded tin ••Imivh for 
thirty days, or undergo WBUHaaJ pun- 

nt: and (can. 42.) the clergy were 
forbidden i r tunc- 

g. Harduin'fl Concilia, torn. 
1002. Other law* forbid simony, eon- 
eubinage, perjury, usury, and gaudy 
dress, in the clergy. In Harduin's 
Concilia, torn. iii. p. &20. mention is 
made of many nuns, at the head of 
whom were two prtneeoses, Chrotildta 
and Basine, who DBBio frOJB the nun- 
nery at Poicti<rw, and who were a part 
of them found pregnant, and also cmii- 

I the mtwt -liameful acta «>i 
lance. And in page 531, he mentions 
one yEgid of RhafflMSj who 

l MniL-nts before tin- 
council of Mt-ts; and, for treasonable 
practices, was removed from office. 

See Fltiiry. MctiakaL Uirfnry j the 
German translation, vol. v. p. 413. 417- 

* Tlii» Apology is extant in tin 
UtdL Mti.jn. /' Mr. Nun. w. |». Mn «vc 
[and in most of the Collections of < i 
cils. — This OOBtMl may be worth de- 
eeribing more fully. — (>n the death »( 
the pontiff Ithanaaios, in tl 
not i" I :v, but the people and 

the senate of Rome , were divided about 
a successor. Symmachus a deacon, 
and Lauren tiuB tlie arch presbyter, were 
both chosen on the same day by their 
respective partizans: and so eager were 
1 "ili parties to carry their point, that 
the- whole riiv w*l in an uproar, and 
many batlli s and iniieh bloodshed took 

place in the streets and in the public 
places. To end the dire contest, tin: 
leading men on 

rafar I poiai u. tie- .i- . 

of Theodoric, the Arian king real 



treatise, which abounds in rhetorical colouring, wo may elearlv 
that the foundations of that exorbitant power which the 
lis Afterward! obtained, v "lylaid; but not tliat 

Stfiiimachus had bi en laoonaiderate^ and unjustly Bosmedi 

$ ">. Tin- progress of monkary mmm very ntvat, both in the 
East and in the West. In the East, whole armies of monks 
illicit have b oUfid, without any sensible diminution of 

the number any when-. In the West, lUfl mode of life ft 

HM and followers, almost without Dumber, in all 0M pro- 
vinces : as may appear from the various rules, drawn up by 
lit individuals, for regulating the lives of monks and 
nuns'. In (ireat Britain. 000 Oottffal is said to have pOrOOfl 
an immense number to alwuidon active life, and BpCttd their 
days in solitude, according to a rule which he pgQMJabod*. 

at Ravenna. He decided, tiimt the one 
who should be found to have had most 
vote*, and to hare been elected at 
earliest hour, should bo considered tho 
legal |>*»ntitf. This accurrd I 
of Syinraarhus. The king likewise 
ordered the bishop* to make regula- 
tion* I l of future popes, 
which should prevent the mm 

1 |i -. This was done 
in the year 4SW. Hut tho |>arty <>f 
Laur- i not yet i|ui.-t. In 

th>. year 600, they accused Synuna- 
chua of several heiuoua crimes before 
the king; and the tumults and < i •• > i 
warn of Rome a l with iu- 

ime senators in- 

a:nl i end a visit 

Rome, vith full power to settle all 

iillica. Peter, bishop 
was appointed. > I bo Rome, 

and at once hi: mnmachus, 

aud t<«iU ' i liun-li into 

his own hand*. This rnragrd tlie par- 
tizan . and 

Eated all order Uldanl 
apprised of the Mate of tilings, 
bg Dfl« repaired to Rome in 
pcoi« : *i\ months hi tran- 

quilli/.ini; lliat distracted oil v. II- 
ordi i bishop* ii! 1(. 

most ill council, and divide on the 
charges against Symmachua. The 
ig* in that 
njj years. Symmachua, 

when sent for, set out to go t. 
council, attended by a mob: a battle 
I ; several were 
Si inmachua luniself was w.. 
ed, tamed back, and refused to appear 
I. The council, after 
•MM delay, proceeded in his ftbei 
decree-] that the witnesses, being slaves, 
vera inoom 

and therefore dismissed the complaint. 
The friends of Laurentius protested 
against the decision. The eouneil met 
again, and adopted as their own the 
them drawn up 1>\ I 
Bower's I. l'apt» % 

(Symmachua) roL ii. p. S4o 
bond 1 7~>i». ii. . torn. 

■ MB. BBBl Tr.] 

• Most, of these Rules are extant, in 
Lu. Holhtein h ('ode* Reyuiamm, pt. ii. 

hud at Rome, iwn. fan '.i sola4lo, 
M artei ie and I'rsin. Du- 
raud, ThaHurta nuru*situoliAoram,ioiu. 
i. p. .1. 

* J a. 1. nher, Autiq. EeeUa. Britas. 

p. |)Sl 4ii. Ml. 

-, was .in Irish monk, who foi 
several monaM. i -st imjw.r- 

tant of which was that of Danchor, or 
Bangor, (o -horeof Carriek- 

l>ay, in the north -easterly part 
•ted about a. d. 5,10. 
Congo! ia said to have ruled over IMNM 
monks, living in different raocuM 

See Usher. /V.J 




His disciples filled Ireland. Gaul, Germany. Switzerland, and 
.■Hi. r countries, with convents of monks. The most famous 
of them was Cokmbamis, who has left us a rule of his own. 
distinguished fur its simplicity and brevity*. The whole 
monastic order abounded with fanatics and profligates. In the 
Orient*] monasteries, there were more fanatics than kna\ 

§ 6. A new order of monks, winch in time absorbed all the 
others in the West, was established at mount <Vta?/w«, in the 
year 529, by Benedict of Xursia, a devout and a distinguish**! 
man, according to the standard of that ape. His Rule is still 
extant ; and it shows that it was not his aim to bring all monks 
under his IHglllwllllIWi but rather to found a nev. more 

staUe. of better morals, and living under milder rules than the 
otln n monks; the member-; of which should lead a retired ami 
holv life, employed in prayers, reading, manual lalxmr. and tin- 
instruction of youth*. But his followers departed widely fn.m 

* J*. T'Aher. SfUag* Antuptnr. Ej»*- f/aVraimrvst, p Ibd- 

lom. ii. p. efl 

Maliili.iii, f'r,if. 

timed. Sown I. ii. p. iv. [St. Colum- 
banut* (a .1 ■:' -on from Colum- 

ns*, the apostle of .Scotland, mentioned 
pp. •"., 6. supra,) was | 

,i UO. Alter a 
good education in the liU-raiur. of that 
age, he became a monk in the monae- 
• ■f Bangor, under OngaL In the 
year 689, with twelve com pan i. 
passed through England into Gaul 
settled in Burgundy, when he built 
the monastery of LtuteoJ,ar Ltnunriunj 
and there spent about twenty years 
with great n putntion. Hut in the year 
• •l«i. owing offended Tliiifliiii 
king, by reproving his vices, be was 
. ritory; and after wan- 
dering a few years in different parts of 

:my along the I 
and spending three years war Dre- 
gentz, in Helvetia, he IN ut into Italy; 
waa received kindly by Airilulph the 
Lombard king, haul the inonast- 
Bobio 01 :ir l'uvui, | > « * - i • It • < I ciir 

• ii. I ili.n dad about a. p. 

He was a man of wij.ernir genius, and 

po*W2«ed vant influence. Ilia works, 

uiaining, are hie monastic rule; 

lis nonaatta ditripline; nonw pocma 

Matin; and m i nfe M D discourses; 

which were published at Louvain in 
l'ii.7. by Petri- . an Irish 

. written by Jonas, an 
abbot of Uohiuni, while several co- 
temporaries of Columbanus were yet 
. in extant in Mnlullon, 

'. Dnud. torn. ii. p. 9—26. 

• See Jo. Mabillon, Ado S.t*rl„r. 
itrA.llrned. torn. i. and AmmI, 
Bmtd ieL torn. L Hajyot, [Hkluiiv dm 

§«. in 8 vols. 4to. Paris, 1714— Hi. J 
and tin- other historians of the monas- 
tic oiden, — [Benedict whs bora 
j. ii table parents at Nnade, in Iter/, 
fonce an epiacofKil see, in the dnehy of 
Spoleto, a distrii i ■ dan |mpal 

state*. &l.) a. n. 4f*>. At the 
fourteen, lie was sent to Rome for edo> 
cation; but, disgusted with the dissi- 
pations of tlo- city and th,- school, M 
soon ran away, and concealed him- If 
three years in a cave st Sublaeum, 
[ SubiagoJ about forty miles fnun Rome, 
is discovered, and his 

ell became much frequented. He 

was now chosen abbot at a mon:i 

in tli.- \ieinit\ ; hut t!»._- ri_;..iir DJ 

discipline gavo o 

«]Uished the ortin, and retiin 

Hnhl n rnm , when h. continued tin about 

him, and he ha«t 



the priuciplcs of their founder; for, after they h.ul acquired 
use riches, from the liberality of princes and pious indivi- 

taining twelve monks, andcr hit jnris- 
the first Roman 
families |" r his 

instruction; and hia r- 
mud fur miracles procured him U 
unbounded respect. BVl bil fame rx- 
BTJ of some clergymen, anil 
i" plots against his life, 
twenty -live yean spent at Sublucum, 

ho retired to moant Gmb 

milee south of Suhlacum, and about 
as furfiiMn i rted 

a body of pagan mouAallMstBj and 
tunn <1 tin ir temple into u 
in whi.h In- ipenl r 1,. - remainder of his 
r. lie died 
MS. His life was writ ten 
1 ireat, and con- 
itttatei the ascend book of his Dia- 
logue: it in also inscrtis! in Mahilkm's 
• Sanctor. On/. Ibn. tnni. i. p. 1 — 

w limit at I 
iIh monks were to rise at 2 a. ». 
inter, (and in summer at Hueh 
direct,) re- 
pair to the place of worship for vigils ; 
and tin ii upend 

in committing fwalms, private 

ation, and reading. At sun rise, 

thej assembled for mat ~pent 

in reading; then dined, and read in 
■ idl half past two p. m. 

wanls laboured till their vespers, in 
vigils and matins, twenty-four 
I'aaluis were to he chanted each day ; 
so as to . Psalter ■■ 

week. Besides their social worship. 
■even boon each day were devc.t. 
labour, two ut least to private M 
one to private meditation, and the rest 
to meats, alee]), and rcfreshmeut. The 
labour was agriculture, gardening, and 
various mechanical trades; and each 
one was put to such labour as his 
superior saw lit ; for they all renounced 
I personal III 
a day st a common 
table; first, about DOOO, and then St 
IJ and tin 
quah' To 

each was allowed one pound of bread 
lay, and a small quantity of 

■it was al- 

lowed, but always two kinds of por- 

T the wck, Hesh was all 
W l.i!< si 1,1,1, all conversation was 
it'll; and some one read aloud 
the whole time. They all s-rvi-d as 
cooks and wn iters, by turns of a week 
Their clothing was coarse and 
simple, and regulated m Um disei 

abbot Each «a* provided with 

tVO -uits, a knife, a needle, and all other 

uecossaricH. They slept in common 

:i ur twenty, in se|>a- 

rate beds, without undressing, and had 

nutturji Tiny were 
allowed no conversation aft' I 
tireil ; DOT tit any time vm the\ |«t- 

I to jist, or to talk for men' 
amueenvri:. No one Ire s 

p r e s ent of any land, not even from a 
parent ; nor have any eOUDSpondeOOS 
with persuufl vk i monastery, 

* hy its passing under the inspec- 

: the abbot. A porter always sat 
at the gate, whicdi was kept looked day 
and night; and uo stranger was ad- 
mitted without leave h 

:,k could uo out unless he 

rrmlssiou from the mva 

i.od was K- ( i the walls. 

Thfl whole establishment wan under 
au abbot, whose power was despotic. 
Hi* uml.T-ollio.Tw were, a prior or 
deputy, a steward, a sii|H.-rinn-ndrnt of 
the sick and the hospital, an attendant 
on visitors, a poster] h\m\ with the 
necessary assistants, and a number of 

. or inspectors who 

attend- d the monk* at till tkBsaS 
abbot was elected by H 00 suf- 

frage of the brotherhood; and when 
inaugurated, ted and removed 

i ter-nffieers at pleasure. On great 
emergencies, be summoned the 
brotherhood to meet in council ; ami 
on more common occasions, only the 
ease, sftcr hear- 
ing what each one was pleased to sav, 

eision rested wholly with Inn 
For admission to tin society, a proba- 

i twelve montlis wa±- 
dining wl ; lieaut wa- 

and clothed, and employed in the 
meaner offices of the monks, and closely 



duals, they gft¥6 themselves up to luxury, idleness, and every 
vice ; became involved in civil affairs and the cabals of courts; 
intent on multiplying vain and superstitious rites, and 
most eager t" advance the authority and pome of the Roman 
pi'iitilfs. Nonfl <>!' these things were enjoin-. «1 DC permitted by 
St. Ftenedict ; whose Rule, though still high!) a« for 

many ages ceased to be observed'. Vet the institution of 
Benedict changed the state of monkery in the West, in various 
H Bpeetfl ; not the least important of which was, that the appli- 
cation, and profession, made by the monks, bound \hvn\ f»mer 
to observe his rules. : whereas, previously, the monks changed 
the ride and regulations of their founders at pleasure '. 

ntaW. At Vw- .u.i ,.!' i h § . *-- . i . . t i . ■!«, 
if approrpd, betook aolonn ami irre- 

ble vows of perfect chastity, abso- 
nvurty, ami implicit obedun 
bis superior^ in WHay thing. If he 
had p r oper ty , ha must give it all away, 
eitlu ■!• t.i 1 » j — f i i. ii<1s or the poor, a 
monastery ; and never after must |wa- 
aeas the least partook »! private pro- 
pcrty, nor claim any personal rights or 

iaa. For lighti r offaneaa. a 
maud was to lie administered by some 
iui-1. iMittictr. For greater offences, 
aft> r I 

debarred his privileges, not allowed to 
read ill his turn, ur tu ait at tal 
enjoy hia modicum of comfort.-. If Htill 
M expelled the monas- 
ter) ; JSl Bright bo restored on rt-jn-ut- 
aner. liuli-, al large, in Hus- 

{nnian, Opp. torn. iv. (./, MoWOtkU, 
il.ri vii.) p. 902—222. ad Gem*. 1668. 
fol.and aa abridged by I'l \\v\.f/irtuin 
. lib. axxfa. § 14—19. "Yet it is 
ionabla ub. ■ t Ji.-r- th.- fbace 
Iv what Pen 
1 [The modern Benedictines are 
than - ad to adroit, that the 

Bala of rh.-ir (bund 
till ly obeyed, lint thf-v resort to a 
1 distinction. The Rule, say 
tlii y.-, bai its tstcntud, and its Moid 

That the monks aliuuld labour, 
asm their own bread tVu- 

etl part, 
ewentol parts are the r*nt* ; 
nbi.-li «••• observe religiously, i 
famV aOnut freely, 

that the order is richer than in the 
days of it* found r Ib-nedioft 

would be amazed, should he rise out 
of lua grave, and instead of the mise- 
rable huts which he erected on n 
Cassino, find there a palaee, in which 
and prineaa might rewde ; and 
gee tli" 10001 transformed into a 
prince of the empire, with a multitude 
of subjects, and an income 
six htiuiln d thousand DOOBlS* S'/d. — 
On the present state of Uiis monastery, 
see Staudlin's Kirrhliche f»V*/ni/-Air, 

vol. i. p. :.<;:.. 7V.J 

I v u's Prof, ad Nasal. 

iv. pt. i. (j&tt&nm fiboeter . Otd, Bate- 

<ii<1. torn, v.) p, XMii. &e. [Benedict 
changed the state of monl 
cially, by restraining the- instability of 
the monk*, ami rendering their 

»-ab)e. It was not strange that 
tits order spread far and wide. His 
/.' ' was better calculated faff Ku- 
n>|H.'iuis tliau any other ; and the firat 

re < irtuoua, upi i 
and UHefu) people. Whei 

the wildenii-wi 
into a niltivntol oouUBTf : they pur- 
sued the bl . anJ agri- 
culture, laboured with their OH ■ hands, 
drained morasses, and cleared away 

ta. Tliese monks, — taking the 
W0r4 Ri-nvli'-liu,? in it* largest extent, 
as embracing lbs ramifications of the 
order, the ( arthu.sians, Cistcrsians, 
l'i 1 1 i iane, (.'anuililiilenaians, 

were of great advantage to all 
Barope, and partimhnij la Germany. 

By them (jenuaiiy was cultivate!!, aud 


§ 7. Only a short time elapsed before this new ord- g 
monks was in a most flourishing state in all the western 
countries. In (Jaul, it was propagated by 8t. Maunu; in 
Sicily and Sardinia, by Placidna and others ; in England] bf 
Augustiiu and Mdlitus; in Italy and in other parts, by 

• nt. who is reported to have lived soni' 
this order". In Germany, Huni/ace afterwards caused it 
ed '. This rapid progress of their order, tlu* Benedict 

rendered a fruitful country. They 
preserved for u* nil the books of 

3H nee* and learn I 
if ancients. For they were obh 
■>•• lihnirie* in tln-ir DBOOaot 
because their rule required them to 
read i each day. 

tli- books of the ancients; and hence 
. which Kill 
libraries of mo- 
nasteries. OOJO were 
vated no when; but in flcir . >wters. 
kept up schools there, be the 
monks, and nt nob a* were de 
monks. A i 

ilu had schools, in •■ 
the (M-opIv of the world wore uisU-uct- 

i these monasteries pro 
ed men of k'srniii 
in courts, as chancellors, Tint trill 
l<>r>, secretaries, &c, and these again 

•naateries. Ev. 
rbildrvn nf sovereign pRIIOOO 

Id up among the Benedictines, 

and .1 .mo to their thruues 


"in thej v.. 
ed for their education. The Bone- 
«■* were esteemed ssinte, and their 

Crayers were supposed to l>- partieu- 

powurful and rich. Bur us wk>u 

snd their 
snd wick- 
edness, [a worth century, 
hrder began to r* 

and il 

i :, in particular, 


i iprc&d E&uropu 

with noble and tasteful piles of I 
. indeed, an order t<- 
sation is much indebted. Il 

nd a cilad- 
all that i* most valuable in man. 1'n- 
dnuhtcdly, it was, even when most aer- 
vicesble, a stronghold of idlflSsBM 
iin|xi-«ture ; but it answer- I 
Brcat importance, at a time when no- 
ure »iili'-iit 
a protecting mantle of superstition. 

• 8*a Jo. Mabillon, Dm. & 

•*ica Ornorii Mtvpti t annexed 
tu lladr. ValeMiin, A n<il< <%' . 
ii. ; and M 

[Arhi StUUtor. /.Mi. J Btned'ul. p. \.\ix. 
BODM deny thin, au A 


Are.] on whose book, see Bid 
Lit/y* Choma, lOtt. iii. |>. i 
the moiiki-ry of QngOgy the 'ii. .it, 
after the invest: Hon, 

seam* liu 


and assigned tin in, out. of bb great 

. as much landed estate as was 

nccewtui-v fin- mail MlpfKVL Asrv.-nih 

moon nadeanJ Kerne, in bis 

. dedicated to St. Andi 
which Mill exists, and is in the h 


1 \ntmi. liitfiilim Altetaora, 
gitum Ilei Afomuiica', lib, i. cap. !'. p. 'M. 
the Ekoedic 
mi the various count ri I D 

rope, do. Mabillon lias o particular 

tor. "/--/. J / 

ettl. iv. j»t. i. [Wrf.i Stmdor, /Mi. /fane* 

| p, kii. \.-. | St. Ujsj 
whose name a distinguished congrega- 
ill bears, was one ot 


HOOK 11. fllNTl'UV VI. 

[PAMT 11. 

ascribe to the miracles of St, Benedict and his disciples, and to 

■liness and superiority of the rule* which he prescrilxMl. 

lint those who more flHtlffslrJ examine the causes of events. 

very nearly all united in the opinion, that the h 
shown them l»y the Roman pontiffs, to whose glory and exalta- 
tion this whole order was especially dovoted, contributed more 
causes to its vide a tension and grandeur. Vet 
it was not till the ninth e. nrurv. th;it nil other rules and 
.soeieties lieeame extinct, and the Ik •inflict inors alone reigned'. 
$ S. Among the Greek and Oriental christians, the most 
£ethlguisbed writers of thiscentmy MOM the following. Pro- 
coping of Gaza expounded some books of the bibto, not un- 
happily 3 . John Max*ntius s a monk of Autioeh, liesides some 
booka against the sects of his times, wrote 81 fHonysius 

A r.<>; AffOjptttt UKOOUPbd himself a plaee amonjr the wise 

men of the nge, b) Iniwrifl to the emperor 

Jaiftinuin*. Eulogiiu, a presbyter of Antiooh, was ardent and 

Plaridn* was an historian of this order. 

Of A 

taken. MrllitiiM PC— dual bo tbi eat* 

Saxons, arid mi afterwards arrhl • 

of Canterbury, and very active in pro- 

paga: < I.t. — The great and 

daMoiiiiatkn of tio-* ordaf wo* 

wonderful. Many particular and new 

— , dirtinguudicd from riu-h otli.-r 

! i ir drcm, their cap**, and forms 

of gPi mi it. 

-rersians, Ccrtes- 

,itcn5uin.H, Prwroonten- 

sians, Cluniacensians, Cninaldukmsiaiia, 

.\«-. were o oat of 

« i i ■ — i i>HiK'i|>:ii atock. Tk& dmmI ramet- 

up in it. Volatcrranus enumerates 900 
cardinal*, I MM) archhiahni*. HMO l-i- 
■hope, and l."i.7«Kl ahbota and mm of 
learning, who belonged to this order. 

2 Ja. I'Knfant, Hufoin- da GmciUde 

lance, torn. ii. p. 89 

J Bm Rich. Simon, Crilvme de la 

'*V Ecttina*. <U M. <in Pw, 

torn. i. p. 197. a teacher 

11 the reign of 

Justinian, a. 0, 680, fcc* has left us 

several Commentaries on tin.- scrip- 

wkich are chiefly 1 en 

earlier writers: via. on the Ucta- 

tciich, (extant only in Latin ;) on the 
book*, of BammA, King*, and Chrad* 

i Latin, I 
1620. 4i".; OB l.-'uiah, Greek and 1 
Paris, IftflO: on Proverbs, and the 
twelve Minor Prophet*; never pabl 
l !. AI*o many neat Epistles, published 

* [John Maxeutius was a Scythian 
monk, and a prcsbyu-r of Antioch,who 
flourished about tin- year 520. 8w 

of his epistle* and tract*, defending the 

tf uf Utf Trinity was 

crucified, and opposing the Pelagian 

• 'it in Latin, a 
BilJ'viilutH P.i/ruia, torn. ix. His 
scholia on Ihnnysius the Aroopajjite 
arc i,. . with 

that author. / | 

• [Agapetiia, a deacon in the great 
church at Constantinople, flourished 
*. i>. :>r, j in ^ liich year he eompoaod 
hia Inttrudumt for a prince, addressed 
to the nnjK'ror Justinian, then recently 
invested witli the purple. The book 
contains seventy-two heads of adtiiv, 
displaying good common sense, but not 
profound. It has hern nil. n puldiah- 

md with a 
r. 1608 
Franef. 1659. Ito, I | 1660. BrTH 



energetic in opy o du g to heresies of the times*, John, bishop 

of Constantinople, nailed the Fatter, on account of the austerity 

of hi* life, (list in^uished h'u mall treatises, and 

iitarh ■ liv his /V of I *.\ /-iiitiiini hai 

left ns a book I the heretic*, and some other writings '. 

irtlM, Scholastictis, has furnished us with an J.Wlmasdcal 

but it is disfigured with f; i bo I mis tales'. A iwtfasku, 

Siiiaita. is geDCClflj SU Up OBwl to be to author of a >vrll-kno\\n 

yet futile book, entitled HbdeffUi ■ *?os (a < 

against to Aeenhali '.) 

8 [Euloghal of Ant*n»rli was made, 
biah- , "Ina in the year 681. 

< and 

Latin, in e.Mnbofis, Auditor. Noe. 

i. | md huge extract* from lib 

u* and Severn*, 

boot aguinst ThcodoMiu* and Seve- 

ru*, nud an-.rhtr a^aiiwt tho eompro- 

•do»ian» an 
tJainaite*, are in I bliotX. 

. N o. 1 82. 208. 225—227- Tr. ] 
' |. after was a uaVt of 

•locia, and baa] nntan- 

fcbwpk from 885 to 696. Tin- title uf 
*r/ ti'inhiiy \i\\i'ii him in tin 1 coun- 
i-il nt with 


I I lomlHM m 

tant, Qret w and I 
ChryBoatotu ; and his 
rule* for treating peuiii.-nt-,) and a dia- 
cijur-' and pcnil 

M'ii in. ■/. Pb nil i'. 77- 


• [Leontius of Byzantium wan first 

OfOOalt, and BM a munk in a 

monaatery in Palestine, and Hoiiriahed 

». ii. • <■■ hia 


//m*. Or. lib. «v. e. 8.) thiiika he waa 
the aaiiir ii |«rua. 

II- • \i and 


iri*t<tr. lib, 
<aMW» Aryimcti/vrutH frrtri: I.Htbka* 

ru»t ft I fji ipti 

MhimC hi I'hru/n <im<u nntmrxu , extant, 
... U.jalao 

an Oration on the man blind from his 
birth, Break :. I<efif>, 

A*irtH'ir. S„r. mm. i. ; nit. I some othflV 
tract*, never pabttshed '■ I 

• [ Bvagi h . wa» born 

at Dpiphania, in Syria, a. n. ISd A i 
fbaryi an of ace lit n i 
after grammar he studied rl 

DM jiii advocate at :\\- bar ill \n- 
tiiH-h. ll»- waa nuii-h esteemed, and 
eapecinlly by (Jrecory, Dfcahop <>( An- 

cult enfli-fl. The emperor Ttbertua made 
him a qOBBMOT] BH .Maurice, nn hono- 
rary pnefert H l., that ha* 

read i '■*"»■», 

i a. It in .1 •••uiliiiii;iliiiii of 


ba I'miiicil of Bpheraa Ea 01, to 

■r AJI4. ItB chief fault in, that 
■ >f til,- |M, cn-dulity, and an over-esti- 
mation of ii 

i bed, Gtvafc and 

Latin, by Vukniua, among Ha other 

-k-sioatieal ! ; and 

haa been translate! int.. BngBaKGatB* 


i.'i h. Siiii..ii. ./< fa 

hiqu,' Erdc*. </.• M. <Ih I'in, t..m. 

i. D, 98l I and Bant, fWiafWww 
dowaj torn. ii. p. 81, Aw, | ] 

OB, eall.-.l Anaxtaxiua 
t^. The^Jrat, after beim; a 
iiioiwti ry on mount Smai, waa 
made |*triarch of A 

hut wu.i ha 

■ I ■ 
He waa reat* I 
m 609. He waa and 

UTtbodOI man, hii-1 | B O BaloV I 

ba tnxmd OJ . waa 
liatc aucot*fc- Rnt in 


' I K V \ I . 

[ I'AUT II. 

$ 9. Among the Latin writers, the most distinguished v 

the nac of Antioeh, frcim a. d. 699, to 
A. n. 600, when he waa murdered by 

th.- .1 I . • works of 

•at, on the Pastoral 

DWn Latin into Gnrk; lint the 

translation is lost. — The 'hint Anatfa- 

sius flourished about a. r>. 685. He 

was a mere monk of i. Ha 

wrote n comjtendious account of hero- 

siea,and of the council* that comlcmn- 

beBBj from the earliest times, to 

the year 680 ; which still exists in 

MS. -The Oc'ayoc. or Mtfh l„ n\un 

the AcephalL is a rhap»odv, without 

1, IM without, merit. It haa 

been ascribed to the r/u'n/ Anaatasins; 
because it contains .several allusion.-, to 
events posterior to the times of the 
first two of this name. Yet, as it re- 
lates to controversies in which the/rtf 
Anastanus is known to have been much 
engaged, some have supposed it was 
originally composed by him, or from 
his writings, with subsequent addition* 

> rpotaliona. It was printed, ' 
and Latin, by Greiser, lngol»t. 1604. 
The 164 QmettwHt ami An*Hrr*, 
respecting biblical subjects, ascribed to 
the fird Anawtasius, and published, 
. and Latin, by Gretser, 1617. 
4to, abto bear marks of a later aire. 
Cave supponea they were OOBpued 
from the works of the yirrt Anantoshis. 
Hi" eleven books of tontetnrJation* on 
tke Hfstumernu. In it in La- 

tin, Paris, 1609. Dr. Alix published 
the twelfth book, Greek and I^atin, 
I. on. I 1081 Iro.— His five doctrinal 
Ditcmtrtes, (on the Trinity, Inrania- 
t ••II, r r with all tin 

just 7\i'r. torn. ix. Six of his 
'i-/ nre extant. <Jr«.-k Mid Initio, 
in ('< ml.i I 

i. Anorln r tract of his, on tin 
QuadniReiiinne, is extant, Grwk and 
Latin ' i r, J/osnm. 2&<V. (1,-. 

M other tracts of his 
•uly in MS., and a 000 -i !• 
i -i are lost. [The 
phali were a branch of tlie Kutyi 
and appear u> have been called Am 
ither because they separated 
from their patriarch, or were altoge- 
ther without Dishopa, They were con- 
sidered as Semi- Lut vchiuM 
0* 'Aa-iOuAot. fiH] 

The following is a catalogue of the 
Greek anil oriental writer* of this cen- 
tury, i Dr. Mo-heim. 

lorus, a deacon at A!- 
dria, who probably flourished at the 
commencement of this century. Hi 
wrote several (Ximmmtariti on the 
seripturea. His short Comment m 
duCcutes is extant, Greek and Latin, in 
Fronto Ducavus, Anetnar. torn, ii His 
Comment on l*ittwnt<itioH*, Lat. U 
1508. 4to, and his Commentary tm 
is preserved almost entire, fa th 
tena on Job, published, Greek and La- 
I i'atr. Junius, Loud. 1637. fob 

Jut <>t I lalicarnasBus in 

Caria, a Kutvchian, wli A uu- 

der Anastaaius a.o. 610, and was m 
in the contests of his tunes. On the 
accession of Justin, a.d. 518, he fled 
to Alexandria ; where he advanced the 
idea that Christ'* body was always tit- 
le of corruption, and produced a 
<li> l-n'on and a party among the Mums 
tee. He wrote a Commentary «« 
. liieh is often quoted in 
Catena on Job, published Load. 1037. 

Tininthcu*, bishop of Conv 
a.d. 511 — 617, distin^i-li.-il for hia 
■Bind of hi* pred e c es s or Macedonia-. 
He wrote a bOH on the various Inre- 
fliea, whieh is extant, ftp, ami 1. 1 
Combens, Attetnar. A and 

■ I. in Col mm. 

Ecda. Or, tan. iii. p. 377. 

BtnnVjl leading man among the 
Aeepliali or Monophyaitcs, waa in his 
yOUth a ttW) and Htudied in tl»t! law 
school at Berytua : afterwards hi 
,t monk at Gaza, and embrn 
and propagating Eutychian prinoipl— j 
was expelled the mnnaatery. 11 
paired to Constantinople, and insinu- 
ated himself into the graces of the 
emperor Anasfosius, who favoured lln- 
Eutyehians. In the year 513, «n the 
expulsion of the orthodox Flavian, he 
was made patriarch of Ant inch, sub- 
acribed the Hcnoticon of Zeno, and 
condemned the council of CluUcedoo. 
Some bishop* withdrew from bis com- 
munion ; but, aided by Jews, he vio- 
lently \-- raeonted th , and 

Of i'aleslri 

whom he slew 350, aii'l left fb 

OOMOMd by beast* of prey. ( >u 

• II. If.] 



the following. Gregory the <Jrrat. Roman Pontiff; a man of 

the death of AnuUtius, and accession 
of Justin t -18, he was 

Sroscribed, and flea | here 

•• lived many year*. Dan he • " 

iii\.)lv..i imiIi Timothy !•.. 
Alexandria nud Gsinus his deacon, l.y 
asset-tin* that tlic body of Chrw. 

\ to its resurrection, was eor- 
ruptiblr. He now w !:inti- 

: ami persuadi tlie 

patriarch to embrace Kutyehian prin- 

; and was producing j/reat com- 
motioas, vhen Iwc eooufla i ■ n>;. i-i..-.i 
htm and Anthiiim-, \. t>. 636. 1 1 in 
hIkh J lit tlr known. He 

was a man of talents, ambitions, rent* 
!«•««, link can-fill to maintain consbv 
iti .-oii.ln.-t or I- li'C, a great 
writer, and possessed of vast tofto 
among the ttatychians. He wrote an 
immense number of epistles, many 

ics and tracts, and extensiv. 

in. Ol ■-. hieh 

an' pi .tin. hi-, work- having 

rdi red to be all, byaatbortty .<f Um mm 

\ tracts are preserved ; 
and boom whole treatises arc snpjiosed 
l«t The / 

aptiam and public worship In the 

m church, ninel 
ami Lat. Antw. |.'i"2. 4to, ba> 
iUrlbutod so him. His •'.unmentaries 
are often quoted in the ' haras Paintm. 
See Care, U'tMor. Litter, torn. i. p. 
480, &c. 

I Cappodocta, patriarch of 
Constantinople a. u. 617 Ma\ 
condemned uavvnil of Antioch in 618; 
and the uext year, by order - i 
emperor Justin, became reco 
with the Roman 
Epistles are extant in 

ir. and t. 

" rus, Lector, flourished at 

an Bccles. Hiatal "orates, So- 

aomen, and Theoiiorii, in two books: 

inexed a Continuation, 

in two additional books. Large extracts 

-itii.n, by Niecphorus 

1 as, are preserved, and published,, smoni; tin 


i., patriarch of Alex- 
andria, a. d. 611)— 638, a warm I 
chian, and protector of Sevcrus and 

Julian, till hfl f. m iv- 

astroni Sermons 
and theological tracts, large extracts 
which are preserved by Cosmas 
'!■!•• ostes. 
b]ii|.lianiuH, patriarch of Constanti- 
nople 1,0. 

een the *ees of 
nople, ma. I 
■••'ssor ; and approved 
the co< tialoedoo. Rreof hia 

I - to Hornnsdas, bishop of R 

an? extant, ui Cbsttiftor 01, It. 

I'ipliraini, patriarch of Antioch a. n. 
626—646. He was u "\vria, 

a civil magistrate, and v. nut od 
Bast, win n made hWinfi He wrote 

• JoncH*i t LU'ri iii.: which a* 
except copious extracts from tfai 
first books, in 1'hotius, BtbKolk 
22B, 229. 

- junior. In his child- 
hood li«- mounted ma pillar, near An- 
tioch, which In I 68 years, 
a. d. 627 — 698. He is often mem i 
by I .' lie knris him welt ffig 
fifth BpBrtle to thi nian, 
is extant <!r. and Lat. in the \t 

os of the ■) o da 60onoO| 

Art'ui V. Conciliw. torn, vii. Some 
Other tracts of Ui exist in M>. , 
Vatican library. 

Znrhariaa, Scholasticus, archbishop 
of Myt ili-iie. I lc was first a lawyer at 
I ta, then a bishop, an>l tlourifthed 
a. v. 636. While at 1 1 wrote 

a Dbaartntaon, or dialogue, again 
philosophers who maintain thai 

d is eternal ; extji : |^t. 

166-1. 4tn, and 

11<- alio wrote a dis- 
putation agafauri the too nn»t principles 
of all thin--., bald bj tin- Maiiich*«ana; 
extant, Lat. in H.-nr. C.iniw. Ant'upia 
m. torn. v. and both works, in 

JiiUi.- m. ix. 

inosus, Justinian's ambaiwador 
i e Saracens, the Auxumir*?, ami 
Homaritea, about *. i>. 040. He 

wrote a htstorv of his tin 

which Photfau baa preserved extracts, 

Isaac, bishop of Nin.v. . whotn 
monk, and travelled a* far as 
Ha flourished about the year 640, and 



' CMY VI. 

[t»AftT It. 

good and Upright intentions, fin tin* |«irt. but greatly 
lacking in judgment. mptmiJIiaOB, and opposed to all leai 

wrote 87 ascetic discourses, which still 
exist in MS. A bod Latin translation 
of 53 of them, much garbled, waenub- 
! in the BfMsO. M<ujn. Pair. 
torn. xi. 

Arcthas, archbishop of Csesarea in 
Cappadocia, is siip|M>acd to have lived 
about x. u. 540. lit- compiled from 
Andreas Cnaarieosis, an hfjta&ii 
tke Apocalyp* ; extant, Gr. anil Lai. 
\ed to" (ZtaiMfiiiNf, Paris, 1631. 

Gre»cnlius, archbishop of Taphar, 
the mttomouo of Um Homerites in 

Arabia Felix, (louri»hcd a. i». MS, and 
dii d 5AS. An account of his dispute 
with Herbanus, a learned Jew, im 
extant. Or. and Lat. Paris, 168o\ 

Ea It. Ibicasus, Auetwir. torn, i. 
I le also compiled a code of civil laws, 
for tin- Uomeritea, by order of Abram, 
their Hag ; which still exists in MS. 

Darsanuphius, an anchorite of Gaza, 
in the middle of this century, composed 
a large amount of ascetic wn: 
which still cxint ; but arc not thought 
worth publishing. 

Eutychius, a monk, and bishop of 
Cuiistantinnph' a. t>. 663 — 685. In the 
year 664 he wax isMftvod of his sea 
and banished, by Justinian, for not ad- 
mitting the incorrupiil'ilitN of Christ's 
body, while be was on ear' 
was restored in the year 678, and dlsd 
in 686, aged 73. 01 

\tant amony ibfl 
Acta of the fifth general council, a. d. 
. torn. v. p. 
<l, a monk of Palestine, who 
i. n. 657. He pompon 

of St. Juhn 
the Silent iary, of St. Euthymius, and 
..r st Babta ; mb M m 


Paul Cyrus Floras, a poet who 
-lied about a. u. 555. Hi- 
description of the atari SnjBiai 

at Constantinople, built by JtWininn, 
isstii \: and Lat. by Carol, 

da Preane, Paris, lC70 t subjoined to 
tin li.-t<<r\ <il ' innainus. 

John, Kurnamed Climacus, from his 
book, and Sinai ta, from hi* 
also Seholastieus ; a monk of Mount 
Sinai, who flnnrixhed about a. D 
He wrote i H*i, in 30 chap- 

ters, each marking a grade of virtue ; 
also Liber ad Paforrm: both published 
Gr. and Lat. bv Matth. Railer, Paris, 
1633. fol. 

John Scholasticus, a presbyter at 
to Constantinople, and 
>p there a. o. 664 — &78. He wrote 
/KWtfM, in 60 titles, and in- 
cluding the 86 Canons of the Apostles: 
also AowwK-tifM/M f which, beaides | 
lection of canons, contained an epitome 
of the civil laws concerning ecclesias- 
tical affair* : likewise, Capita EccUAm- 
All these tracts were pu I dished, 
Gr.and Lat., in JuatcHs H'MitAk.Juru 
. f.Ki. 603. 680. ed. 
Paris, 1662. 

Theodoras, bishop of Iconium,about 
\. ■ ."i(il. VfOtfl the ni:irt\nJiini of 
Julitta aud her son Cirycus, only three 
years old, in the pstaacotion of Hiocle- 
tiau : poMiabed j Gr. and La*. I>v Com- 
befis, Ada Martyr. Aniu/. Paris, 1660. 
ft* ,.. 231. 

Euatratius, a presbyter of the 
church at Constantinople, under I 
chius the patriarch, stool a. n. 678. 
He wrote n book in on of 

those who aay, the soul is inactive 
when separated from the body : pub- 
lished Gr. and Lat. by L. 
his historical work concerning purga- 
tory. Boom, l«65. R ML 
He also wrote the Life of E*i ythiiu the 
patriarch ( ] a by 
Suriuh, and by Papebi • 

Tlie"|du.i .tiuin,floun 

a. n. 680, and wrote a History of 
wars of the Romans with the Per " 
a. p. 667 — 573, in ten books ; an 
some other parts of the history of hft 
own times. Only extracts remain. 

John Maro, a very prominent man 
among the Maronites, who flourished 
about a. n. 5HO. He wrote Commen- 
taries on the Liturgy of St James, 
which are still extant in S\ 1 
have been much quoted by Ahr. Eche 
bntats, Morin. Nair.m, ami others. 

Leoutius, hi-ho|i off BfaapoHl 0T Hn- 
who nourished 

ahout \. i>. i'AH), UM died about a. D. 
lb ■ urote an Apology R> 
the christians, against tin 
which a large part is preserved in the 

I. II. I 

ilirilill OFKiri'.RS v\l> IVACHKIIS. 


as his Kpistlm tmd DmtopWM ibCNV '. Canari's. oi' Arlt - l-«uii 
posed Borne tracts on moral suljects, and a Rule for kofy 

fourth Act of the second Nicene coun- 
cil ; < < He 
> rote some homilies, and fal 
'.f saint*. Rut it is not easy to 
distinguish hi* v. in tlume of 
ii.- "f Hy/juitinra. 7V.] 
» Hi 
French Be I »• nyu do St. 

•, fnl. 
Pari*. 1700. Far an account of liim, 
idea*, ton. ii. Martii, p. 
LSI, tuo. [Gregory tin- liivnt, of ■cna- 
tnrian rank, was born at Rom* about 
1 i- a good education, 
being a youth of grail m was 

early admitted I .and made 

before Inr was 

thirty JTOBIO old. T/he d«-ath of his 

n possession of a vast 

e«tat« : which In droled wholly to 
haritable n*es. Rennui 

D0OHM a monk, built 
and endowed si* monarthric* in Sicily, 
and a seventh at Home, in wlm : 

:i hvi.l uriih r khfl control 'if till' 
abbut. In f»7!», he wan drawn from his 
monastery, ordained a deaci- 

tun /j ilc : where ho resided five years, 
and MOtOH ilar. Returning 

in i«l, im 1 : RHurv of i 

1 1 monastery, and his 
favon I n , r »lM), he was 

raised to the pn|«al chair, much against 
his will J and f" -an* and a 

lialf, was Mil 11. 

xealom reformer of the clergy 01. ! 
auaaateries, end n strenuous def' ml. 1 
of the prerogatives of his see. II- 
failed in hh attempt to B0OT00 fine 
"in bishops to condemn the thret 
c*.ii«f«r* ,- but ■Dcccvdei] in disturbing 

n tin Or h 
and I ho Douatiota in Africa. II. 
couraged nil BOOrahne measures for tin- 
conversion of the Jews ; endeavoured 

.tine the monks to thi 
•erica and to a more religious life; and 
attempted to eradicate the prevailing 
3 , and de- 
bauch' ry. Hi- m instrumental in 

aid in n-xii 
ravage* of tJtot waiiiln people. B 
uKorfcred in the discipline 

churches ; remonstrated against .-hi 

come monks ; laboured to effect a 
peace between tin l.<>ml«ards wd 

ron ; and 
terest of the church and 1 
under him. Yel ho claimed DO en ii 
authority : but il ted the mi- 

peTCn as his lords and master*. I n 

with the pati-i.11 

who had assumed the bonotwMf title 

of tinir,r«,t/ l>'uh, j 

main; uuti- 

christiau, and diabolical, by whomeo- 

-sumed. Hut he 

any of the orientals to fain with him. 
In 6J»fi. he sent Augustine and 

DOUveri the Anglo-Saxons ; 

b tin 1 'accomplish Dl. ho 

defended the use of imager iu churches | 

tin -if p.-ign: I nd 1 ndem 

the anci'-nt British churches. In tho 
same year, when I'lincae, the usurper, 
murdered all the imperii! I t 
clothed himself with the purpli . I 
gory obsequiously flattered him, and 
■nhni 'i-ui. At li-ugth, 

11I M ;lli ,;ii ; I :iJid disea.-- 

a March a.o. W)4, h:r- 

was exceed in l'1 

ouSfHympathi tie. and benevolent to all; 

monlu rv. 

and for the BOB MB. Hi-, 

other, Koinan pontiff. His 
idm which, 
he wrote 36 lfcs>k* ou Job, c 
CFreoon/'i Jferassj a /-Vuforo/.a treatise 
on the* duties of a pastor, in 4 hooju ; 
22 Ilomi iniliea 

1- UospeU ; 4 book* of DUoj 
U sre ascribed also, an Kxposi- 
tion of the first book of Samuel, in six 
books ; an 

I'salms; and an K.\p< 
-/..-. 1 1 i^ beet works are 

hi* PiuUroiJ slid his M*rralt. 1 1 i -* 
IHahvjlH in stnffrd with monkish tales; uf tin- p.nil D 

Psalms breathes the spirit of later 


ROOK II. \ vi. 

s\ FtUgentvui, ofBnspe in Africa, contended valiantly 
in numerous books, against the Pebgune and tin- An, 
bat his diction ii harsh and uncouth. like that of i cans. 

tnimt, of Pa via, was not contemptible among the writers 
of this age, either for prose or poetry; but he was an infatuated 
adulator of the Roman pontiff, whom he exalted to supreme 
t on earth, maintaining that lie was amenable to no 

times, and has been ascribed to On* 

■Olf VII. Tin? best edition is mid to 
lie that of St. Martin- : but that of de 
Sousaiuvilie, Paris, 1675. 3 rob*, fol. in 
esteemed ; the latest edition is that of 
Joh. Bapt <;.il!i.vio|li, Venice, I7»;;t— 

7U. in 17 vols. 4to. — His life by Paulns 
Diaconus, of the ninth century ; and 
another by John, deacon at Koine, 
about 880, in four (woks; are iu Mahil- 
'-. ( >nl. Bated, turn, i. 

;j> — -ill 4. Among tim moda aiiBj 
Pin, Bayla, and 
have Itaimbourg^ Hmoin cm i 

fiant ■ ' I 'aria, 

168C. 4to. : Denys Ac St. Marthc, Hit- 

4to. and in the ")>]>. firry. M. torn, iv. 

.■ al.-o DOm r, L 
flu Ftpm (Gregory I.) v..|. ii. j>. 463 
—643. od. Loud. 17 r '»>. and Sehrneekh, 
A'irMrtW*ri. vol. xvii. p. 243-371. 

1 The Benedictines have recently 
riven a I.-aroed account of Cwearius, 
in ii. 

torn. iii. p. l!Hi. [ Hi-. Iif«- written by his 
pupils, Cyprian, Messiun, and Stephan, 
111 two books, in extant in Mabillon, 
AdUi intdict. torn. i. p. tZUi 

— 664. Lie was born in Gaul, a. n. 
469. While a boy, he ran away, and 
• d the monastery of Let-ins ; 
whore lie lived many years, and M> 
ounc tin- butler. His health tailing', 
he retired to AtIcs ; of which place he 
was mailr bishop in the year 602. In 
■ear 506, he was falsely accused of 
treason, and d by Alaric, king 
of the Visigoths, to Bourdraiix ; but 
•oou recalled. In 608, Theodnric, king 
Of the Goths, sumiu< m Ra> 

venna to answer a similar charge. 
Being acquitted, he visited Italy, and 
1 !• d at the 
council of Aries in 524 ; anil at that -if 
Valencia in 629, he triumphantly main' 

tained the | liat a man ean- 

n it obtain Hnhutiou without yrsrvnt- 

iiuj grace. He And a. d. 642, aged 73. 

.1* zealous fur monkery, and a 

strenuous ad\ orate R tines 

of Augn«ine, respecting free grace 
and predestination. He has left us 
4»J Homilies, s Rfl | l.s, another 

f<>r nun-, a treatise on the ten virgins, 
an cxhortatinu to charity, an Ep 
and hi- WHL Ba ami wrote two 
bookB on grace and free will, against 
FanstoB, which are lost 11 in works 
are printed in the Bibtioth. 
viii. and vol. xxvii. See Cave, Hi*. 
Litter. t4«n. i. p. 402. Tr. ) 

4 S. 
Acta Sttnctor. tom. i. Januarii, p. S3, 
tsLC. [ He was born at Carthago, almut 
a. i>. 468. Hut father, who waa a sena- 
tor, died while lie WSJ young ". but his 

mother gave him an excellent educa- 
tion. While a boy, he had all Homa 
bv rote, and could talk Omen Bnw 
He was early made niocnmtm of tin 

ei*v. But soon weary of p 
he retired to a mona ma a 

monk and an abbot, changed his monas- 
tery, endured persecution from the 
Arians, went to Syracuse, and thence 
to Rome in the year 600 ; returned to 
Africa again, was e n of 

Rujipc in 507, w'ss banished to Sardinia, . 
by Thrasimiind the Aria 11 Ling of the 
Vandals, recalled by HUdi ric, tin 
ceeding king, and ruled his church till 
his death in MS. He was one of the 
most learned, pious, and intUnntial 
bishops of his ago. He wrote throe 
books i'l nfoaanam, (on p redes tins tiou 
and kindred doctrines ;) one book 
against ma Arians ; three book 
Tknmmuwiain Ifaym, (on the person 
and office* of Christ ;) ten Sermons on 
divan subjects ; de Fide (trtkodau^ 
Liber nd JkimitutM ; de Fide L'dxr, <td 
Pdr. Diacom.; eleven Epistles ; d* 

OR. II.] illlRlll OFFICERS AND Tl .Al HLIIs. 

authority of mortals". Hfiinlict of NubSa, whose name is 
immortalized by In ir a moBurtie life, Had tin- mini' 

families of monks VOO ha\e followed it ", iirnamcd 

r of his lowliness of mind, lias deserved well 
of his own age ami of posterity, by hie col 

>, and his chronological res Fuhjrnt'nm /•'/>.. 

an African, procured himself reputation Ivy some small treatises, 
especially by bis A mofU; but bis diction 

has no charms". Ebtf— rfnf, of Henniane, was a strenuous 

ider of ibe (ftref cfaptora, of vrhi icomri >\ill Ik- given 

hereafter*, Arator versified the -!<•,'*• utfo, in Latin, 

>>n Predestination and 

Tract* nm! Homilies: all of 

EubUahcd, Paris, 1684. 4( 
is lost works, wore seven books on 
grace and free will, nddtv*f 
Fanstus ; »nd ton books nn predeati- 
n and grace, ifpu 

Qm, flirt, /.if. tan. i. p. IBS. '/>.] 

* Bm Ibe //'.-''>' /.<'.' 

I liimodhis 
*u ■ Hsalsr 

family. He man ft»-r- 

wards deacon of Pa 


at Coiuttan 

pin; wan made bishop o| Pavia in f>l |, 

and died in oil 1 1 i in booki 

r ; unpob- 

I, and of little use to - 

kin;: of 111 ■■^Um 

for the Synod of Rome a. d. MKt ; 
lif.- of Fniphani'. 

Pavia ; life of Antony, a monk of 
Lcrins; two books of poem-" *<r epi- 
gram*; and various oth«r li 
all of which w< i y Ja. 

\.iis 1611. 8vo, ; and in 
•f Sirmond, vol. i. Paris, 
169*5 ; alt-. I'atc torn. 

• fSoo above, p. 22. § 6. and note •. 
II. has left mi nothing in writing, 

i hi- monastic ■ . two 

KpifttU'*, and two discourses; which nr»- 
hi the BUJiolk. Patr. loin. ix. p. b-W, 
A.- Jr.] 

Iiian extract, who 
brfor. He was intimate with 

I'ajwUodonw ; who give* him I 



ug the firsl 

lose of th. . 

some in Africa; 

tins from Siricius to AnoaUvmib II.; 

•lunt in J 

Jurii Canutiiei, torn. i. H<- likewise 

Muuusted I *JVI '"il of 

..udria; a pawlu.l Pi©. 

terin- I'a.-linmiiiH; an 

»it; and a history of 

tin' .: 

Hikptint ; and n.rnpoaed a Pu- 

of nii ' oars, enrnm 

In the lost work Ik- proposed that 
iattN Hhould mm l! ' i'rut't 

r <t<i • which proposal wsa 
allowed universally. I 

Bul Dfcmysiiu m 
•f Christ's birth, placing it four 
(aamoatwriui*- late. 

■ [Fulgentitui Ferrandus waa a pupil 
<■{ Fulgentioa Ruspensis, and a d. 
at Cart huge. 11«- Flourished a. n. A33 
and onwards. His Abridgment of the 
canons is a short dig. " «iaa- 

ticaJ law. i ads; it is 

4k. JurU Gas 
He also wrote the life of Fulgciitiu* of 
Ruape, and seven doctrinal Epistles. 

' | Farundiib was bishop of Hermianu 



[past II 

not badly '. Pritnasius, of Adrumetuui, wrote CvtnmmUlrim 
on the EpistUs of Paul, and a book on heresies; which ifi 
extant 1 . Liberatus, by his Breviariuin, or concise history of 
tli<- Nestorian and Eutychian controversies, merits a respectable 
place among the writers of these times \ Fortunai-us possessed 
a happy vein for poetry, which he employed on various subjects, 
so that he is read with pleasure at the present day '. Gregory 

In Africa, but spent many yean at 
Constantinople, as a representative of 
the African chu robes at the imperial 
court. It was lion.-, and in tile years 
«J4€» xiui 547, that hi- f<nii|M>w«-<l hi* 
twelve books pro Dtfeutume trium Ca~ 
f/ilulomiH, which he presented to th© 
■MR JuHtiniuii. He also wrote a 
book against Mutianus Scholar 
wbo had inveighed against the Afrieun 
churches for refusing communion with 
Vigiliu*. These, together with an Epis- 
tle in defence of the three chapters, 
ware published by Ja. Sirraond, Paris, 
1629. dvn. and annexed to Optatus of 
-Milcvi, p»ri», 167S. fol. and thence 
in the Bil>< -in. x. p. 1. 1U9. 


1 f Arator was first an advocate, 
then one of the court of king Atha- 
laric, ami tiiiully a suhdeacon at Home. 
I uurishod from a. i>. 527 to 544 ; 
in which latter year he presented his 
poetic version of the Acts, in two 
books, to Vigilius the Roman pontiff. 

Ha ma mooE Mtaoaed and honoured 

both by Athalaric and Vigilias. The 
poem was first published, with a com- 
iiu-ntary, at Salamanca, 1516; and after- 
wards in the BVAioth. Pair. torn. x. p. 
125. Tr.] 

* [Primasius, bishop of Adrumetum 
or Jii*tini.ui"|,. 1 |h in Africa, was a dele- 
gate to the court of Constant b 
*. t: 550 and 553, and defended the 
Art* chapter*. Hi* Commentary on the. 
EpittU* of Paid was compiled from 
Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine, and 
others. He likewise composed a iiyt- 
•icuf Eqxmtio* of tkt ApMalwtr, in 
fire books. Both are in the BUJioth. 
Pair. torn. x. He moreover wrote <U 
UorrttHmSy libri iii.; which are lost, 
unless they are those published in the 
Bibliotk. Pair. torn, xxvii. the author 
of which has been so much disputed. 
See Cave, Hi*. LiUrrxtr. torn. i. p. 

535, Ac. Tr.] 

* [ Liberatua was archdeacon of the 
church of Carthage. He waa sent twice 
as a legate to Rome, in 534 and 536. 
His Brcruirium is esteemed very au- 
thentic and correct, though not ele- 
gant. It contains the history of that 
controversy for 125 years, or to about 
a. d. 553 ; and was the result of great 
research and labour. It was pub- 
lished by Gamier, Paris, 1675. 8vo. 
and in most of the Collections of Coun- 
cils. Tr.] 

* JliMiAre LiUfrairt dt la France, 
torn. iii. p. 464. 1 Ycnantius Honora- 
rius Clctneutianus Fortunatus was born 
in Italy, and educated at Ravenna. 
Ali. mt the middle nf the century, hav- 
ing been cured of his diseased eyes by 
St. Martin of Tours, he determined to 
visit the tomb of that saint. From 
Tours he went t.i l'oictiera, where he 
lived to the end of the century ; wrote 
much, became a presbyter, and at last 
bishop of Poictiers. His poetic works 
are, two books of short ]»oeius, dedi- 
cated to Gr< : '' I 'oars ; I'mir l»ooks 
on th . Martin; and w\. 
other dMCfl p'H.nis. Th»y are in the 
BSMdtiL Pair, torn. x. and were puh- 

i by Brower, Mogunt. 1603, and 
1616. 4 to. His prose writings are, short 
Explanations of the Lord's Prayer, 
and of the Apostles' Creed; and the 
lives of eight or ten Gallic saints; viz. 
St. Albinus, bishop of Angers; St. Ger- 
manus, bishop of Paris; St. Radegund, 
a DUMB ; St. Ililariu*, binhup of Poic- 
St. Marccllus, bishop of Paris; 
St. Ainantius, bislu-p of Rode*; St. 
Remigius, bishop of Rheims; and St. 
Paternus, bishop of Avranchcs. The 
two following are doubtful : St. Mau- 
ritius, bishop of Angers ; and St. Me- 
dard, bishop of Noyon. All these are 
extant either in Surius, or Mabil Ion's 
collcetiona. Tr.] 


of Tours, the father of French history, wmiM liave been iu 
higher I'stn-m with the moderns if his A nnaU of the Francs, 
and his other writings, did Hot wrflihSt BO many marks of weak- 
ness and credulity \ GUdan, of Britain, Is not to be passed 
i.vrr, boGMM hi: U the most ancient of the Hritiwh writers, and 
because liia little book on the destruction of Britain contains 
many things worth being known \ Columbantts, nf Ireland, 
acquired celebrity by I for monks, some poems, and 

union zeal for the erection of monasteries \ It'uioru*, of 
Seville (Hix/nlmsui), composed various grammatical, theolo- 

* A particular account is given of 
him in the Hidoire Lilt train de la 
Fmiu-c, torn. iii. p. 372. For an ac- 
count of hiii faults, see Fran. Pag i. Dim. 
ds Ditmyio, Pari*. § xxv. p. 18, an- 
I to his Iireriar. Pontif. Jlnatamor. 
torn. it. But many of his defect* arc 
extenuated by Jo. Launoy, Opp. torn. 
i. |>t. ii. |i. 131, Ar. [Georgiu- 
rentinus Gregorius was born cif noble 
parentage, at Auvergnc, a. d. 54-i. After 
an education under hi wont 

to Tours in the year 656, became 
D 569, and bishop in 573, an*' 
in 696, aged 52. He wan much en- 
WIMJlKj and in theological 

utea, and at the nme time a great 
er. Orthodox, active, and rather 
indiscreet, ho was fimq >lved 

in difficult' was deflci' 

judgment and acumen. His great work, 
A nnnl/M Frnrtrorvm, (mn 

.-a, Grsfrt, ItiMorta, nrul HiMorin 

Ecd&iadica Francorw*,J in ten books, 

gives a summary history of the world, 

from the creation to the establishment 

of the kingdom of tin- Francs; and 

afterwards a detailed h'wtory to the 

year 691. He also wrote Miramlorum 

lihri vii.; contni.. miracle* of 

St. Martin, in four books; on the glory 

of Martyrs, two books; and on Una 

iifesaors, one book. Besides 

. lie wrote .7f V'\ii» Pal mm (m 

Litrr mmi Ifortl Vlt. 

Dnntintitftn ; and au tyitoiBC »f the 

v nf the Francs, composed before 

1 b AnnnJrt. All his Wi 
Lively, were beat edited byTb 
Ruinart, Paris, 1699- fol. fhev are 
UWuXh. Pair. torn, xi- TV.] 

• Concerning Gildasand Columbanus, 
none have treated more aeon 

than Uie Bern did men, m the /lutvire 
Littfrairt de la Franc*, torn, iii. ; 
and 606, [Gildas was surnained the 
Wise, and also Badonius, from the 
battle of Badoo (B&th) about tin 

• birth, which was a. d. 520. By 
these is distinguish.'! 

Gildas Albaniua, who lived a lifli- 
earlier. He was well educated, became 
I monk of Bangor, and is said to have 
risited and laboured some time in Ire- 
land. On hi- latum hi visited the 
monastery of Lhancarvan, Int. 1\ found - 
ed by a nobleman of South Wales; 
whoso example Gildas urged others to 
imitate. He spent some time in the 
northern part of Hriuim -anee 

and Italy; and returned and laboured 
as a faithful preacher. He is supposed 
to liavo died af *. n. 690 ; 

though some place his death twenty 
years earlier. His only entire work, 

now extattnj <-idio 

■ niaf, tt Co- ■ Hh'wEccU- 

naMki , in ulu.-h bi di pliSta and la- 

I total ruin of his 

eountry, and the profligacy of manners 

| ■revnilini;. It was first publiahrd 

by Polydorc Virgil* m 1526; but the 

best edition, is that of Tho. Gale, in 

the first vol. of his lluturir RriUm- 

m>«r, &uvMica<,$c. Seriptorr* tfui*d<ciM y 

Load. 1691 fol. H« also wrote several 

L and perhaps some other pieces, 

of wh xtmrts remain. Ses 

i 638, Ac. 

T f For a notice of Columbanus, see 
above, p. 22, note ». 7V.] 

D 'I 



:i:nti;iiv vi. 


•rical, and historical works; but shows himself to baffle lacked 

a sound judgment \ The lUt of Latin authors in this century 

•11 aland by two vcrv learned nn, the illustrious 
a philosopher, orator. p'M-t. and theologian, wlio wee 
second to no one of his times for elegance and acu 
genius * ; and M. A ">'• <>doru$ Senator, who was, in 

inferioc in many respects to the former, yet no contemptible 

■ [Isidorus llispalenai*, or /-■• 
was the sun or Serei 
Carthsgena in Spain, In orother of 
Falsi iitiii.-. biahop of Carthageun, ami 

I r : i. whom 111- Mice, i i]. il \. I». 

595, as bi-!' II pr 

in the 8011 ,; l!', anil in 

do ». d. 688, *nd mm 
aUC. He was u rolnminona wrj 
and has* left us a f'Ar. . 
creation to a. D. 626. Qctluh 

n**», l'i*/iitinim, el Svtrvnwt ,- Oli» 
yisww, #»f* Etymnloavtnim Wri xx. ; 
A ScriptorHw EocUikuticii, (a 
liiiatiuii of Jemine and GMUMMtB . 
bracn three writer?); <U Vita 

Sithiiiiruw utrinrnpu Tola- 
menl' famea- 

j-i ■jn-utatc Vrrt*/ntm. libri 
Hymurum, tire fo/jA-yMfornw, lilt, 
vkilotvpkieuB ; LUter ynrmirmm d 
Ores mlriuffw ffajfam ■ ■.*ta- 

rii in K&roi aOJtorigPI VeterU Tett. (a 
coui| 'Jeyorvmtm qwtrumiain 

/■JjpanNBj KM ii. ; Sentontiamm, fire 
de tmmmo bono, 

naeJkrrutm ; tie <\>n/i<lu riliirrum & «r- 

.iii.I miin.r 
treatises. To him u falsoh 
col). . 

Hi* work* were beet , 
1801. fol.. and Cologne, 1617. fol. 

• [Anicius Manlius Torquatus Seve- 
rinu* Boe'thius, born of an illustrious 
family at Buna* eboof \. i>. >7<', wan 
"Mi m hi oa for 

eduu 4 ra ho spent eighteen 

rears ; and then ret 1 
the most learned man uf the age. Mr in tin- \,-.,r- ".III mm, I 62*2. 
Soon after hi* return to Rom*, he was 
made a patrician, and admitted Ifl 

senate. V* I the 

red Koine, a. n. 600, 
thins was appointed l>v the senate to 
address him. The king soon after 
made him one of hi* council, and mas- 
ter of his pal* : 1 1 til! v 
_ an. I In- I 

more e years, he w " 

Ij sccused of a trcasoi 
napoBdanoaj Condon 1 on nil 

•ml .-sent to I'avia, where 1 
was kept in close com rear 

or more, and then prmu 

death b) ardor of the king. Ho was a 

voluminous writer. Beside* more than 
hooka of translations and com- 
rieaon Ari-toth-, I'orplnry, and 
CSearOj lit- « rote two books on 1 

books on in 1 -ooks 

.1 traetsag 
the liutvihlans, Nustorians, and < 
irmrists. Hut bil DO BOCK 

waa de ContolatutHf /'At/o*>/^io? libri v. 
written win d aj Pavia. Tl.i- 

was translated <■■ bj Alfred 

the Gnu 1, (printed, Oxford," 1098$ 
and into l.n.h-li I \ Chaucer, an 
qneeu Elizabeth. It was composed 
partly in verse and partly in prose ; 
and lias the form of u maJona 

1 Bnethhn himself and Philinopky 
person eooaolo 

mm with i not 

from christiauit\, hut from the d00- 
trines of Plato, Zeno, and Aristotle. 
The works of BoRhinS were published 
with notes, Basil, |:>7»>. f"! 
Hut. : , : and 

Mrueker. Hu<- < 1 if . Pfctfot, torn. iii. 
Gcrvaise, JiiMoirt de Jio'e'er, Paria, 
171ft. 2 vols. Bro. ; ami Sciiroeekh, 
Kirckmgmck, roL xvi. p. 99- ISI. 
Tr. — A new edition of king Alfred'a 
Bomiim. i.v .1. S. Cardale, was printed 
■t London, with an F.nglioh transla- 
tion, and notes, in 1829. L'l] 



autlior 1 . Roth have left us various productions of I 



' I' 

i .iml moo] 
i-MiruHv parent*, at B< 

aplea, pro- 
r. in 
4111, made him Oma rerun ptirat' 
M *i- Two year* 

after, hi-came ma*'- 

Italv. :i 1 1 < 1 mtdc hina nil private Merro- 
tary ; and* ralanqnanUy, gornxnox of 

and made him wjooowirol) 

■ .si prefect. 

siodoni* of hi> high rank ; 
Lul in 539, bains now abool 


OB in li'Mniiirahle nj- 

Hin work* are voluini:! 
\\/.. i ; \ii. (hi* official 

'.» Ecdrt. 

i the 
Latin traiwUitionn oi 

■hirt't. by K|<i|ihaniua 

•wr/** «</■ annum 519; CvouwttB 


i which we hare, m abridged by 


t'*diif» J' \J -Ii- 

lerlionta lihri ii ''••^ro- 


Ylll. txtriU/HM 


other worka 
an- • . and 

i ■ i • i r, i 

• | i ijitin wri- 

tes emitted b) Dr. Meebeim. 

• •hurch of 
■ !• . -> >N itli I 

in 198, 
end died in '»u. He hai 

]>ius ; and t wo '■ 
00 tli. II p! 

which . Bil>- 

Laurcntiua, biehop of Novam in the 
north of II \. n. 

507. Two of ha Hoinilit -. on pi nil 

and alms, are in tix Pair. 

hi Italian, 
aUuil a. n. 519, 

traimlaud the Ecelee, ffiita 
crates . ami Theodoret, into 

Latin; I nudum might t 

Eoda. Trij*-- 

il ti-ansla- 
tfe losL 
EDgyppine,ebbo4 ofe nwwuntwrj mar 
[•.511. Hi 
llf«- ol A N«- 

rieamj pabll 

Hoi men pontiff a. ii. ,'il4 

— 523; who mode poern. after i 

m ni rh< ori DteJ and west- 

Ii Bj end wine 1 1 

r. t'lui. iv. 

• •r Orienting, biauon of 
.'»lii. Hi wrote 
mi tt,UHI,u.*, aMfro llffiHCOf 
1 "he Bnrt boi 

. ii ; and both} 
with other abort pome, in Edui. Mar- 
. v. Paris, 
I vut, a deacon, who vigor* 

tinitf X. Jan I 'htifli. Lifer; 

worka oi" I 
ami in HUJukh. /Vr. torn. i\. 

tan pontiff a. i». 520— 

530. Thn ' /'/ '•'/•■«, in th 

• AMTilicd to him ; but. tin 

two flint are 

■"•27— 565. 

Beai-1' pm Jir'u Ctciii*, (viz. 

ImdtutionHiH lib. iv. {'ami 
ttiyeHonir* lih. I. CodM» lih. *ii. *. p. 




628—635 ; and NoteUm, after a. d. 
535,) he issued six Decreet and Ep'utU* 
relating to ecclesiastical affairs, which 
are in the Conoilior. torn. v. 

- "f Gallic extract, a monk, 
abbot, and archbishop of Treves a. d. 
627—568. He was distinguished for 
pit ty, and the confidence reposed in 
him'. Two of his tracts, de Vi-jiliie 
Serrnrum />*, and de Bona Pmrtmodin, 
were published by Dacherius, Spirits- 
<7inm, torn. iii. (of. nont, torn. i. p. -Jl . 
223) ; and two of his letters (to the 
emjuTor Justinian, and to queeu 
Chlosuinda) am in the Concilior. 
turn. t. 

Justus, bishop of Urgel, in Cata- 
lonia, Spain, Hi i i». 529. and 
died about a. d. 640. Hi* Commentary 
on the Canticle* is in the Biblioth. Pair. 
torn. ix. Two spoils f of his are also 

Boniface 1 1 . Roman pontiff a. d. 630 
— 532, has left us two JSpidlm ,- in the 
ConeUior. torn. iv. 

Cogitosna, an Irish monk, grandson 
<. Brigit, and supposed to have 

lircd about a. v. 630. He wrot. 
Saneta> Briefida- i which is published 
by Caninius, Surins, and Bolland. 

Monlanus, archbishop ..f Toledo in 
Spain, during nine years, about a. n. 
631. He has left us two EpotUt ; ex- 
tant in tli. • 

•J-hn II. Roman pontiff a. d. 532 — 
635. At the request of Justinian, he 
solemnly sanctioned the orthodoxy of 
the expression : One of tht Trinity mf- 
fered crmcifuion. One spurious and tiv 
genuine EpiMlss of his, arc in the Con- 
eUior. torn. iv. 

Marcellinus, Ctme* of Illyricum, 

naked a. d. 534. His Chronicon 

(from the year 379, where Jerome's 

closes, to the year 534,) has been often 

-lied ; and is in the BiU'yj'h. Pair. 

torn. ix. 

Agapctus, Roman pontiff a. n. 635, 
536. Sev»-n of Mi BpMtlM (one of 
them spurioun) are in the Concilior. 
v. and oue in torn. v. 

Vigilius, Roman pontiff a. d. 63" — 
555. He obtained his see by intrigue 
and duplicity ; conspired against his 
predecessor, whom be brought to the 
grave ; and when confirmed in his see, 
showed himself supremely ambitious, 
and ready to sacrifice consistency . 
science, the truth itself, to promote his 
own selfish designs. He issued the 

most solemn declarations, both for and 
against the three chapters. In 647 
Justinian called him to Constantinople, 
where he detained him seven years, 
and compelled him to condemn the 
three chapters, and himself also, for 
having repeatedly defended them. We 
have eighteen Epistles, and several of 
his contradictory Decretals, in the 
CoHcilior. torn. v. 

Gordiauus, a monk of Messina, car- 
ried off by the Saracens, in the year 
639, when they burned and plundered 
that monastery. Gordian escaped I 
the Saracens and returned to Sicily, 
where he wrote the vAm, 

the Benedictine abbot of Messina, who 
with many other* was Hlain in the cap- 
ture of that monastery. It is extant m 
Surius, and in Mabillon, A<*a Sanctor. 
torn. i. 

Victor, bishop of Capua, about a. d. 
645. He translated into Latin Ammo- 
niuM' Harmony of the Bm 
falsely ascribed to Tatian ; and extant 
in the BWioik. J'n'r. t..m. iii. p. 265. 

Cyprianus, a Gaul, and pupil of Cee- 
sarius of Aries. He flourished a. d. 
546, and wrote thc/rsf book of the lift 
on./ ■whirrs in* nit of Ca-tarius. Both 
books are in Surius, and in Mabillon, 
Arin Snmdnr. torn I 

Mutianus Seholasticus flourished 
a. n. 550. At the nuggextion of Cas- 
siodorus, he translated thirty -fmir Ho 
milies of Chrysoetom on the Kpistle to 
I Itdirews into Latin; printed at 
Cologne, 1530. 

RuHticus, a deacon at Rome, who 
accompanied pope Vigilius to Constan- 
tinople in 647, and ihowtd mure firm- 
ness than In- Hrf*Tfr His Dialotjtu 
tire ditjmhttu} advermt Acephalot, (in 
which he inveigh* it gainst V igilius,) is 
extant in the BUJkik. Pair, torn. x. 

Junilius, an African bishop who 
lived aUmt a. d. 550, has left as de 
P.iriibtu Dirina Le-ju libri ii. in the 
BifJpjtA. POtr. torn. i. p. HO. 

Jornandcs, or Jordanus, of Gothic 
extract, bishop of the Goths at Ra- 
venna. His one book de Rebue Gtticis, 
or HiMoria liotkornm, from the earliest 
times to a. d. 640, is an abridgment of 
the twelve books of Cassiodorus, on the 
same subject. Ilia de IlegnorHm ft 
Tempormn ntcomivne Liber, is tran- 
scribed from Floras. Both works are 
extant in Mnratori. Bentm Italian: 
Scriptom, torn. i. 1723. 



t uiryppius, an African presbyter 
and abbot, who flourished about a. o. 
663. iled fn>m the works of 

St. Augustine a collection of scntonees 
on various suhjeets, in 338 chapters; 
printed, Basil, 1342. 

Victor, bishop of Tunis in Africa, a 
resolute defender Of tin- three chap- 
(i prisons and banishments, from 
a. ii. 666—666. He wrote a Chronioon, 
from the creation to a. o. 66»i ; but the 
last 128 years of it are all that remain; 
iliger, with the Cfcr»>- 

moon of Botraftafc 

iiuums, (St. Germain,) born at 
Autun, France, a- n. 490 ; deacon, 
633 ; presbyter, 636 ; and bishop of 
Paris, a. D. 666—676 An epistle of 
I queen Bruncchild, written a. d. 
673, is in >r. torn. v. His 

I i n.iTitiiiN Forttinatus, 
U in Mabillon, Acta Banctor. 
Daufl. torn. i. p. 223, &c 

iVlaginM 1. Human pontiff a. d. 666 
— 669. He was papal legate at Con- 
stantinople a. i». 636 — 646; and a 
•traumas opposer of the three chap- 
ters. Sixteen of his Epistles are in 
the Concilior. torn. v. 

Martin, a monk, born in Pannonia. 
Ilr travelled in Palestine, preached 
and became an abbot in Spain, and 
finally bishop of Braga in Portugal, 
a. P. 563 — 683. He has left us Col- 
Urtin GifiOMim, (extant, in Conctiior. 
torn. v. ; and in Juste 11 '» Dibtk'th. Ju- 
rit Coses, torn, i.) Sentential Patrutn 
jfiytfttiorvmy (in Roswivd, oV Vitit 
Pair. J and Formula Honata Vila, 
extant in the BMiath. Pair. torn. x. 

a 21 us II. Homan pontiff a. d. 
679— 690. He had much contention 

with the western bishops, who defend- 
ed the three cliaptem ; and, after a. n. 
689, with John, bishop of Constantino- 
ple, who assumed the title of «nir*r*rt 
hukop. Ten of his Epistles, and six 
Decrees, are extant, in the Concilior. 
toiu. v. 

Mariua, bishop of Avencbes in 
Switzerland for twenty years, flourish- 
ed a. p. 581. He lias' left as a Ckro- 
Miaow, eentinning that of Prosper, from 
466 to 681. 

i mianns, bishop of Carthagena, in 
Spain, \. n. , r »84. lb- has left us three 
let ; in do Aguirre, Collect. Mas. 
Cbnri/. H'urjxin. torn. ii. 

John, a Spanish Goth, educated at 
Constantinople, returned to Spain a. p. 
684, became an abbot, was • 

I the Arian king, and died 
early I ' nv He has 

left a Chronica*, from a. d. 606 to 

Leander, archbishop of Seville (Hi«- 
jjalermin) in Spain, flourished a. p. 683, 
and died 596. He was a monk, an 
ambassador to Constantinople, and a 
pn mm pal means of the coinersion nf 
k rian Goths of Spain to the cath- 
olic faith. A monastic llnle is all 
we liave of him ; unless he was author 
of the Mioa Mvaarabmm. 

Dvuainius. collector of the rev' | 
of tne Homish church in Usui. 1 1 
flourished ». n. DM ; and wrote the 
lite gf m. Ma \imus, bishop of rlciz ; 
and the life "f St. Mantis, abbot of 

Kiitrupius, a monk, and bishop of 
Valencia in Spain, flourished A. o. 699. 
One of his Epistles is preserved by 
La. Holstenins, Codex Regular. Paris, 
1663. Tr.) 




§ 1. Continued sinking of theology. — § 2. This exemplified. — § 3. State of exe- 
getical theology. — § 4. Faults of the interpreters. — § 5. Dogmatic theology. — 
§ 6. Practical theology. — § 7- Lives of saints. — § 8. Polemic theology. — 
§ 9. Contests about Origenism — § 10. about the three chapters.— § 11. The 
fifth general council. — § 12. Contest about one of the Trinity being crucified. 

§ 1. The barriers of the ancient simplicity and truth being 
once violated, the state of theology waxed worse and worse ; 
and the amount of the impure and superstitious additions to the 
religion of Christ is almost indescribable. The controversial 
theologians of the East continued to darken the great 
doctrines of revelation, by the most subtle distinctions, and 
with the jargon of their philosophy. Those who instructed the 
people at large, made it their sole care to imbue them more 
and more with ignorance, superstition, reverence for the clergy, 
and admiration of empty ceremonies ; and to divest them of all 
sense and knowledge of true piety. Nor was this strange, for 
the blind, — that is, persons for the most part grossly ignorant 
and thoughtless, — were the leaders of the blind. 

§ 2. Whoever wishes to gain more distinct information on 
this subject, need only read what occurs in the epistles and 
other writings of Gregory the Great, among others, respecting 
the worshipping of images and departed saints, the fire which 
purifies souls after death, the efficacy of good works, that is, 
of human prescriptions and devices for attaining salvation, the 
power of relics to remove defects both of soul and body, and 
other things of the like character. A man of sense cannot 
help smiling at the generosity of the good Gregory in distribut- 
ing his relics; but he must feel pity for the simple, stupid 
people, who could be persuaded, that oil taken from lamps 
burning at the sepulchres of the martyrs, possessed uncommon 




virtues and efficacy, and added brth holiness and security to 
its poeseesoca 1 . 

$ ;>. Tc ma for expounding the holy script ni 

l»ject o( Junilins y in his two booki on the parts of the 
diet He law 9 . The treatise consists of a to questions, neither 
scientifically arranged, nor judiciously considered; for the 
author lacked the toning necessary for his undertaking. Cas- 
H likewise laid down .some rules tor interpretation, in his 
two books on the divine laws. Among the Syrians, Milwummt 
translated the books of the New Testament and the l'sal;. 
i iac '. The number of interpreters was con 
able. Among the Greeks, the beet wen Procopius of Lima 

(rather a pleasing expositor) \ Sterns of Antioch. Jt>licmU6 % 
Among the Latins, the more prominent 

■ ■'S of 

', and a few others. 

$ 1. All thtM expositors a few only excepted (and particu- 

i lit- Nestorians in the Kast, who. following tin- example of 

hrus of Mopsuestia, searched for the true sense and 

ffimnfng of the wotoa), ere scarcely worthy of the oeme of 

intei-pr. tors. They may be divided into two classes. Some 

Elected the opinions and interpretations ol ill ■ -arlier 

CB, in works widen* were afterwards called f'aterutJ (or 

Latins', Such is 1 1 npiodorus 

"ii Job, l i|»iia QO the pels, and the 

Commentary of Primamu on the Epistle to the Romans, com- 
piled ton Augustine. Jerome, Ambrose, and others. Nor is 

1 See the Lift of #trrt*l oil*, mhioli 

• Great sent to queen T I 

id i 
1 iaii'l 
', tOQI. ii. 
,.. \'.r, 

/u< >}. /-i 
hcym* tie 3/. l)tt J 'in, Ion. i. |». 

1 Joa. Sim. Aateniau, Il'At'nAk. Orient. 

* S' ■ ■ /not, 

■ ■ ■ 

i . 387, and • 

hUotkiow He M. Iht Pin, torn. L i». 

a Rich. Simon, 

7 ( Bella tor «u aaambyter, an 
of C* • 'id Hourinhetl a. n. b!A). 

>(•• wnrta uiiiii«Toiui Oommenbv 

in- books nn ErthcTi tivi' luniks on 
Tobit, "Ls on Jii'litli, . i-ia 

l>ook8 on the Wuulom I k, and 

On bookl «'H the Maccabees ; all of 

Ii are now lort. 7V.) 

» Bad Step. U> Movm, Prol+xm. (nl 

A Ii*. 

Fabriarua, /(UJi ■■ hi., y, eta. 

1 7 of *dL ^ ii- p. 7-7. 



I \ I IttY VI. 

[part II. 

/>i<u of Gaza to be wholly excluded from this class, 
although he sometimes followed his own judgment. The others 
followed the footsteps of Origen, and neglecting wholly the 
literal meaning, run after allegories and moral precepts, 
deducing whatever they wish or desire from the sacred books, 
In the aid of a roving imagination. Of this class, is Anastasius 
Sinai ta, whose A> us on the fiexacmeran 

expose the ignorance and credulity of the author; likewise 
Gregory the Great, whose Morals on Job were formerly ttltoBsrf 
undeservedly ; also Isidonts of Seville, in his Book of aW : 

and I'rimasiui, ED his Mystic exposition of the 
Apocalypse ; and many others. 

| & An accurate knowledge of religious doctrines, and a 
le and lucid exposition of them, no one will expect from 
the teachers of these times. Most of them reasoned, as blind 
men do about colours; and thought they acquitted themselves 
nobly when they had thrown out their crude and indigested 
thoughts, and overwhelmed their opposers with words. Yet 
among the writers of tliis age may be clearly traced some indi- 
cations and marks of that three/old manner of treating theology, 
which still prevails both among the Greeks and the Latins. 
For some collected together sentences from the ancient 
doctors and councils, backed by citations from the scriptures. 
Such was Isidore of Seville, among the latins, whose three 
Boole of sentences are still extant; and among the Greeks, 
Leowtius of Cyprus, whose Loci Communes, or Common-place- 
book, compiled from the works of the ancients, have been 
com mended. From these originated that species of theology 
which the Latins afterwards called Positive Theology. Others 
attempted to unfold the nature of religious doctrines by reason- 
ing ; which was the method generally adopted by those who 
disputed against the Nestorians, Eutychians, and Pelagians. 
These may be fitly called Scholastics. Others again, who 
believed that all divine truth must be learned by internal feel- 
ing, and by contemplation, assumed the name of Mystics. This 
threefold method of treating religions subjects, has continued 
down to the present day. A proper and complete system of 
Um -"logy, no one of this age produced; but various parte of 
theology were occasionally illustrated. 

I H. III.] 



§ (j. To illustrate and inculcate piety and christian duty, 
some gave precapU, while others employed examples. T 

save precepts for a pious life, endeavoured to form the 
christian chart her of persons engaged in the business of 

active life. or of those more perfect, and removed from the 
contagious influence of the world. A christian life, in the 
foam case, they represented as consisting in certain external 
virtues and badges of piety ; as appears from the homilies and 
exhortations of Casarius, the Monitory Chapters of Agapetus, 
and especially from the Summary of a Virtuous Life, by Martin 
of Braga'. In the latter case, they would separate the soul, 

• •temptation, from the intercourse and contagion of the 
body ; and therefore advised to macerate the body by watching, 

:, constant prayer, and singing of hymns; as is manifest 
from Fulgmiius on fasting, Niceiius on the Vigils of the 
servants of (Jod, and on the advantages of Psalmody. The 
Qreekfl followed as their leader in these matters, for the most 
part, Dionytins, denominated the Areopagite ; on whom John 
of Scythnpoli*. during this age, published annotations. How 
exceedingly defective all these views were, is visible to every 
one who is acquainted with the holy scriptures. 

§ 7. To inculcate piety by example was the aim of all those 
who wrote Lice* of the Saints. The number of these, both 
HOaog thr Greeks and the Latins, was very considerable. 
Ennv gffpi t io, Cyril of Scythopolis, Dionysius Exiywu, 

Coyi1o*it* % and others, are well known. Nearly all these solar* 
tain their readers with marvellous and silly fables ; and propose 
for imitation none but delirious persons or those of perverted 
minds, who did violence to nature, and adopted austere and 
fantastic rules of life. To endure hunger and thirst without 
repining, to go naked about the country like madmen 
immure themselves in a narrow place, to expect to behold with 
their eyes closed an indescribable divine light; this was 
I ted holy and glorious. The less any one resembled a 
man of a rational and sane mind, the more confidently might 

i>e to obtain an honoured place among the heroes and 
demi-god.s of the church. 

• See Acta &tneior. M*rtii t ui. p. SO, Ac. L*n«i BWtoih. Patr. torn. x. p. 382. 7Y.J 




§ 8. In efforts to settle theological controversies, many 
diligent, but none were lllllffflllftlf Scarcely an individual can 
be named who contended against the Kutychian«. tin- Nesto- 
rians, or the Pdagimw, with fairness, sobriety, and decoruin. 
IVilMSJMI and PI I rented of all the heretics: hut time 

has swept away their works. A book of Leontius, on the Beets, 
is extant ; hut it deserves little praise. Against the Jew-,, 

rt of Seville, and Lmntim of Neapoua, engaged in oontro- 

j uith what dexterity may easily be conjectured by those 
who reflect on the nrcuiu.stane< s of It will be b 

then lor.', to pmoi Uriel' account of the eeutrovciwes 

themselves, That disturbed the church in this century, tlian to 

in detail of these iniscrahle disputants. 

§ !». Although Orifjen lay under oond innation by many 

publk ees and -decrees, yet the attachment of numbers, 

and especially of the monks, to this man, scorned all limitation. 

In the West. one Bdk dated various books of Origeil 

Latin '. In the Kast, particularly in Syria and Palestine, 
which were the principal seats of Origenism. the monks were 
talons: and they had the approbation of certain 
bishops, especially of Tltevdonus of Cjesarea in I'appadoein, in 
defending the correctness and the authority of ' ' -<iiti- 

ments'. Tha subject was brought before the emperer J«.<t'>i>- 
inn ,- and be issued a long and full edict, addressed to M> , 
the bishop of (.'i.nstantiiui pie, in which he strongly OOllda 

R and Ins opinions, and forbade them to be taught 3 . The 

st about the three Chapters commenced BOOB after, and 
Origenism not only revived in Palestine, but spread and 
gathered strength. These commotions wen- brought to a 
tennination by the fifth [general] council, at Constantinople. 

M. d by year 568, when Orlgcn and his 

adherents wen- again condemned'. 

1 [Thin i* ftmndod on n i 
of II > " ■•", p. 262, 1 

aacrihe* the Lntin translation of ori- 
gin's Hun w, in par- 
ticular, to 1 1 MP. jSctA/.J 

1 See t'vril of Scyt h opolis, Vit-t 

Saba; in Jo. Bapt. Cotelier. Afowa- 

p. 370| flto. and 

II. ". Nora, Dim. rf< Synotta (fuint't, 

i. in his i)f/.. torn. i. p. 664. 
' Tln> di 'ant in Jo. Hnr- 

duin, touri/iiir. toin. iii. p. 243, &.C, 

| It was Ebal pabHahed by Raronius, 
Annul. EcH. ad ann. Mil ; :iti«l thence 
paaaed into nil the collections of coun- 
cil* Tr.) 

* Sr, tin- deeroc of the council, in 
Jo. Ilurtlum. < owiiior. t«un. iii. p 

CM. ill.] 



vj III. This controversy produced another, which was lunch 
lasting and violent ; hut which, as to the subject of it, 

•^ee also Evagrius, 1114. !CecU$. 
lil*. iv. i-.'.W, anil OB tl. 
Jo. Basnage, II u: 

<;. p. M7j 

ii p. 29 1. 
LihI. ! I 

MKtck. Vol. x»iii 

RfoJeh, //L<wv 
d«r h rad.viLp.618 — 7W. — 

This - 

ii: :l, I 'all -t ii. monks, 
jii 0n< Nonnoi 
ithcr tuouks belonging 
Laura (or cluster of cells), were 
! to hold and to be propa- 
gntin thas, 

'.and supervisor 

i? rejected 

again; and in s] -ition and 

in both Lfiunu to tl 

■lent, and expul. 

■OOa, li^liliiiU. and MondanOtl ensued. 

■ few 

iiu in':. m or 

neigh bourboods in Palestine. Jua- 
luium '<\ t" M' 

was probably issued about tin 

and it ban 
the council of Constantinople, which 
ana i h- ina t heed fifteen pitoi 
wwi an acridcntal ruuncil, held i 
• ar 5-11 ; and not the ge 
l ii held in *£& ill 

; iSi'iums in the 
year o46* cauaed th< 

i ii- ili\ iili'il, 
and to full into ■ dooli) The 

Id by 
i ban coiin 
to us, i« that of tin. fifteen anathe- 
ma* by tl»f con -Uiiiriin|i|.-. 

Yi t JuRtunufr docrao. «r lee- 
MfM*^ is nearly aa full ; and it ia 
precise and lucid, aa well ae 
i-rence* to 
the works of Origcn. In (Mi decree, 
after a concise n, the era- 

• proceed*, like u theologian, 
pages, to enuo 
and • 
then directs the patriarch Meunas, to 

assemble s ips and abbots 



. their doings to be afterward* 

I to all bishops and abbots 

; so that after 

■ '■ : 

i bop or nblmt mav be ordained) 


aa well as the other beroaotj. The lint 

oferr than mb* 

joined as follows. — I. If anyone says 
• human souhi 


and b ' :ue weary 

of divine OBntei 

lit into a worm- condition ; and 
lieenufto they dm . «'. <\ 

cooUd dov* as to tin- I . 

therefore called in Greek ^i'X u Ci 

that ia, tonl ; and were sent dot 

inhabit bodies, as a punishment ; let 

him iw (tntithftna. — 2. 1 1 

or believe*, that the soul of QW ( 

pre-existed : and that it wa 

his incarnation 

and birth I I .in ; Ui Aim A* 

oanilswui, — 3. If any one Hays or bc- 

t|i;i! till- I I .'I'll JeSlUt 

was first formed in the womb of 
the blesacd Virgin, as thov 
" r hat tfta ■ 

Ihe Word and I 

DM united with it ; I 
nttaduma. — 4. If any onu *uns or !■•- 
lioTe-, i the Word wax made 

IQn In ul! i>. that to 

and to the Seraphim a S raph, and to 
all the celestial Virtue* one like | 
hi Kim he <tniOh,-t*>i. — .'>. If an« 

That in ilie resurrer- 
I be raised 
: id does n«" 
shall be resuscitated rrrrt ,- 1/4 ).■ 

6. If any one says or be- 

-. that heaven, the sun, the moon, 

tarx, and the waters abo\ 

heavens, are ninmnt/ti. and are a sort 

of material Virtueaj hi kiml* on<ttkrm*. 

Lord ia to 

waa in tliia for men \Uthim I 

8. I f any one says or believe*, that the 


BOOK 11.- 


[I'AKT 11. 

was far leas important. The emperor Justinian burned with 
zeal to extirpate the more strenuous $fanophy sites, who were 
called Acephali. On this subject he took counsel with TKeo- 
dorus of I'jesarea, who was a friend to Origenism and also a 
Monophysitc: and he, to procure tranquillity to the Origenists, 
by stirring a new controversy, and to fix some stigma upon the 
council of Chaleedon. and inflict an incurable wound on the 
Nestorians, persuaded the emperor to believe that the Acephali 
would return to the church, provided the Acts of the council 
of Chaleedon were purged of those three passages, the three 
Chapters, in which Theodoras of Mopsuestia, Theodoret bishop 
of Cyrus, and Ibas of Edessa, were acquitted of error ; and 
provided that certain writings of these men, favourable to the 
Nestorian errors, were condemned. The emperor believed 
this ; and in the year 544. ordered those three chapters to be 
expunged, but without prejudice to the authority of the council 
of Chaleedon \ But this edict met with opposition from the 

power of God is limited \ and Uiat he 
created all thing* ho could compre- 
hend ; l*i him br unathetna. — 9. If any 
one says or believe*, that the punish- 
inent of devils and wicked men will be 
temporary, and will have an end ; or 
thai there will be a recovery and resto- 
ration of do vila and wicked men ; let 
Am* be anathema.— 10. And Anathema 
• *•», who is called Adainantiim, 
together with his nefarious, execrable, 
and abominable doctrine ; and t" I 
one who believes it, or in any manner 
presumes at all to defend it at any 
tune : iu Christ Jesus, our Lord, to 
whom be glory for ever and ever. 
Amen. Tr.) 

* This decree is extant in Jo. Har- 
duin, QwUflr. torn. iii. [>. 2K7 
Evagrius. I/i*t. fihnfor lib. iv. c. 38. 
(It is called Jtu4iniau'i t\r^{ • and 
professes to define the catholic faith, 
aa established by the four first general 
councils, those uf Nice, Constantinople, 
Epbeaue, and Chaleedon, and to con- 
demn the opposite errors. Dr. Mo- 
I- description of the rare; Chapter* 
would lead us to suppose that certain 
eJui/tter*, sections, or paragraphs, in the 
Art* of the council of Chaleedon, were 
the three thing*, condemned by Jus- 
tinian. But this was not the fact. 

His decree does not aroveeUy condemn 
any thing contained in the Acts of that 
council ; nor d<«es it use the phrase 
thrv. Chapter*. The phrase was after- 
wards brought into use, and denoted 
three mfyeU, (capitula, KtpdXaia.) 
which were condemned by the decree 
of Justinian ; vix. 1. the pertun* and 
tcritina* of Theodoru*, bishop of Mop- 
BUORtia, whom tfie decree pronounced 
a heretic, and a Nratoriau ; 2. the 
vritlng* of Thtndorei, bishop of Cyrus ; 
not universally, but only so far as they 
favoured Neetorianism, or opposed 
Cyril of Alexandria, and his twelve 
anathemas ; and 3. M Fpielt said to 
have been written by Was, bishop of 
Edessa, to one Maris a Persian, wlm-h 
censured Cyril and thp first council of 
Bpbesjn, and favoured the cause of 
Nestorius. The council of Chaleedon 
had passed no decree respecting Theo- 
dflrni ; and it had left all the three 
MahfifM in good standing, though the 
Bpisne of Ibas and some of the writings 
of Theodoret received censure. Hence 
Justinian's decree did not openly and 
avowedly contravene cms at 

Chaleedon ; though virtually, and in 
effect, it did so. To understand the 
contest about, the three Chapter*, it 
should be remembered, thai the Nes- 


I II. 111. I 



bishops of the West and of Africa ; and especially fan Vigi- 
lius the Roman pontiff, who maintained that great injury was 
done by it, both to the council of Chalcedon, and to deceased 
worthies who died in the communion of the church*. Justinian 
summoned Viyilius to Constantinople, and compelled him to 
condemn the three Chapters. Hut the African and lllyrian 
bishops, on the other hand, OOOpeBacI PtptftNJ to revoke that 
condemnation. For no one of them would own him for a 
bishop and a brother, until he liad IfJpEOVdd those three 
chapters. Justinian again condemned the three chapters by a 
new edict, in the year 551. 

§11. After various contentions, it was thought best to refer 
the conti ■■ the decision of a general council. Justinian, 

therefore, in the year 5.53, assembled at Constantinople what 
is called the fifth general council. In this council, the opinions 
of Origen \ as well as the three Chalcedonian Chapters, accord- 

lorians, who separated the two natures 
of Christ too much, and the Kutiehians 
or Monophysitee, who commingled 
them too much, wore the two extremes; 
between wfc hod ox took 

stand, condemning both. But th<- or- 
insclvea did not all think 
alike. Some, in their real against the 
nana, came near to the Mono- 

ite pround ; and these of course 

condemn the three 

' 'tlicrs, zealous only against 

Ibe MuiiophyhiteH, m DOt far being 

Nestorians; and these of OOOrss defann- 

three Chapters ; for Theodora, 

Theodoret, and Ibas bad been leading 

men ol character. Hern 

inu-rest shown by the oriental bishops 

in this controversy. Hut in the West, 

• NcHtorian and rJutychian 

contests had In-eu less severe, and 

where Uie person* and writings of 

■ lorus, Ibas, and Theodoret were 
little known ; Uie tkree CtuijUcn wero 
frit to he of little 000 
as the condemning them seemed to 
impair the authority of the decrees of 
Chalcedon, and to asperse characters 
once held vein ruble in the church. — It 
was doubtless a most rash thing, in 
Justinian, to condemn the three Chap- 
ters. Bat having done it, he resolved 
to persevere in it. The church was 
agitated long, and severely ; and at 

length, this precipitate act of the era- 
, Ix-ini: sanctioned by Uie requi- 
site authority, had the effect to shape 
the creed of the catholic church, from 
that day to this. , Uistorie 

■ turcyt*, vol. viii. p. 3 — 468, but 
especially, p. 437, &c. Tr.\ 

* Hen". Noria,</* tiynodv (/*i'n/<i,cap. 
x. Ac. Opm. tom. i. p. 679. Ja. Baa- 
nage, ZTurfoire oV Vh>jH*e y torn. i. I. x. 
c. vi. p. 523, Ac. [also Dr. Walch, ubi 
supra. | 

7 | According to the acts of this 
council, as they have enino down to us, 
Origen was no otherwise condemned 
by this general council, than by having 
his name insert* • I 

collectively anathematized in the 11th 
anathema. Hm ••■ I < heated 16 ana the - 
mas of as many Origenian errors, said 
to have been decreed by this couneil, 
are found in no copy of it* Acts ; nor 
are they mentioned by any U 
writer. Peter Larabecius first disco- 
vered thorn in the Imperial library at 
Vienna, in an old MS. of Photiua* 
SyiUayma Gotwmmnm, bearing the super- 
scription, u Canons of tbe 166 holy 
Father* "f the fifth holy council at 

Constantinople ;" and published them 
with a Latin translate - Ba- 

luae first introduced them into the Col- 
lections ol • I ut Cave, Walch, 

Valesius, and others, suppose 


ing to the wishes of the emperor, were judged to be pernicious 
to the church ; yet it was a decision of the Eastern bishops, for 
very few from the West were present. Vigilius, then at Con- 
stantinople, would not assent to the decrees of this council. 
He was therefore treated indignantly by the emperor, and sent 
into banishment ; nor was he allowed to return, till he acceded 
to the decrees of this fifth council a . Pelagius, his successor, 
and the subsequent Roman pontiffs, in like manner, received 
those decrees. But neither their authority, nor that of the 
emperors, could prevail with the western bishops to follow their 
example. For many of them, on this account, seceded from 
communion with the Roman pontiff; nor could this great 
wound be healed, except by length of time *. 

§ 12. Another considerable controversy broke out among 
the Greeks, in the year 519; namely, Whether it could properly 
be said, that one of the Trinity was crucified. Many adopted this 
language, in order to press harder upon the Nestorians, who 
separated the natures of Christ too much. Among these were 
the Scythian monks at Constantinople, who were the principal 
movers of this controversy. But others regarded this lan- 
guage as allied to the error of the Theopaschites or Eutychians; 
and therefore rejected it. With these, Hormisdas, bishop of 
Rome, when consulted by the Scythian monks, coincided ; and 
great and pernicious altercations ensued. Afterwards, the 
fifth council, and John II., a successor of Hormisdas, by 
approving of this language, restored peace to the church 1 . 
Connected with this question was another: Whether it teas 
proper to say, Christ s person was compounded; which the 
Scythian monks affirmed, and others denied. 

were framed in a council at Constan- Hen. Noris, de Smodo Quinta (Ecu- 
tinople, about a. d. 541. See note * menica ; yet Noris is not free from par- 
above, p. 44 ; Cave, Hid. Lit. torn. i. tiality. Also Christ. Lupus, Notes on 
p. 658; Walch, Hktorie der Ketzereym, the mth Council, among bis Adnotat. 
vol. vii. p. 644. 761 ; Valesius, note on ad Concilia. 
Evagrius, H. E. lib. iv. c. 38. TV.] ' See Hen. Noris, Hidoria Contro- 

• See Peter de Marca, Dim. de De- tenia de uno ex Trinitate porno ; Opp. 
ertto Vigilii pro Confirmatione Synodi torn. iii. p. 771. The ancient writers 
Quintal ; among the Diss, subjoined to who mention this controversy, call the 
his work, de Concordia Sacerdotii et Im- monks, with whom it originated, Scythi- 
perii, p. 207, &c. [and Bower's Livet of ans. But Matur. Veiss. la Croze, The- 
tke Pope*, (Vigilius,) vol. ii. p. 382 — $aur. Epittclar. torn. iii. p. 189, conjec- 
413. ed. Lond. 1750. TYv] tares, that they were Scetic monks 

* See in preference to all others, from Egypt, and not Scythians. This 

I II. [V.J 

KIM- A\l> ( I KI.MOMl v 




§ 1. Rit«-s multiplied. — 8 2. Explanations of the nremouies. — § 3. Public 
worship. The Eucharist. Baptism. — § 4. Temples. Festival". 

J 1. In proportion &s true religion ami piety, Brum various 
causes, declined in thin century, the externa] signs of religion 
and piety, is, rites and oerenonieB, wbw augmented, to 
tlu* Bast, the Nestorian and Kutvchian contests g 1 the 

invention of various rites and forms, which mi^ht 

i distinguish the contending sects, In the West, 

: was wi.ii'K ri'ullv dexterous and ingenious in 

amending new ceremonies. Nor vrill this 

appear strange to those who are aware that he WIS of the 

• (pinion that the words of the holy scriptures w . m of 

recondite things. For whoeter can believe this, can easily 
bring himself to inculcate all the doctrines and precepts of 

conjecture has mmc probability. [ But 
Pgp. YV.ili-h, I /-Mori* tUr K*lztrr*yc», 
.<.-. nf lh' 
;! i« not only impm). 
but » certainly false." Ami ;li- 

- relative to the controversy (of 
i he had th -■•'I the re- 

cital.) do appear, as Dr. Walch affirm*, 
. i bat these men 
raaUjr friwn 
with |] • -*ion rela- 

te,- l.. the Trinity, whieh th.y advo- 
cated, Uieae monks were atreuuous 
oapoaars of Pelaciani i ; had 

n< nt with Mil n of 

nee, particularly with rater- 

li.nus, a deputation of 

■nwtantinople with 

nnriplaint. Among the*. 

John Maxaottns, Leontius, and Arhil- 

l#-«, » i^ror 


rather favoured them; hut the bishops 
of the Eaat were not agreed. 
■mfMtOf "hligetl legates at 

the cause. Hut they 
were not disponed to decide it ; nt |i 

them now repaired t<i RtBM, I 

Mnd BUM than a year. Hor- 
mi«das disapproved their phraseology, 
but «M n"t very ready to condemn it 
■•die, these monks 
(I \tri<Mii 
Sardinia, ami 1>> taking i -art in 
contri labip. 

Tbcy certainly ha<l many friend* : but 
the MM • nnmnitted 

some slight notices of I 
history. " See Walch, Hi*. 
rryrn, VOL Ht p. 262—313. Bower, 
rmioda*,) vol ii. 
■*i-*H>. 7V] 




ri'KY vi, 

[part it, 

religion, by means of rites and signs. Yet in one res|wet, be 
is to be commended ; namely, that hi would not obtrude hk 
mociee upon others: — perhaps he would not, because he 
could not. 

§ '2. This multitude of -vi enmnirs required interpreters. 
Hence a new kind both in the EM and in the 

West, the object of which KM I gttl and explain the 

grounds and reasons of the sacred nifagi. Hut most of those 
who dadoce these rites faun scripture and reason, betray folly, 
and exhibit rather the fictions of their own brains than the 
true causes of things. Ii* they had been acquainted with 
ancient opinions and customs, and had examined the poo 
laws of tin- Qrooka and Romans, they would have taught much 
more correctly : for from this source were derived many of the 
rite* winch tin* christians regarded as sacr- 

§ 3. The public uorship of God was still celebrated in the 
vernacular language of each nation; but it was here and there 
more enlarged bv various ;md other circumstantial 

things. The new mode of administering the Lord's supper, 
magnificently, and with a splendid apparatus, or the ('mum uf 
the Ma*s< as it is called, was a prescription of Gregory the 
Great; or, if it will be more satisfactory, he enlarged and 
altered the old Cation. But many ages elapsed before the 
other Latin churches could be pre\niled on to adopt this 

Romish form '. Baptism^ except in case« of neceaaiiy, was 

co nfe rred only on the feast-days; and those also the greater 

>k or those of the highest class '. As to the Litanies to 

> Sw Theod. Chr. LilienthaL <fe 
Vanone Slimt Gngorkmo, Lugd. B»t. 
1710. Bra Hid the writers on Liturgies. 
[Different countries liad different 
aala. N'-.t i.ulv lh« Emit differed fn>tn 
the West, hut in both there were i 
si ties. 1 u Gaul, the old Liturgy cun- 
tinued till the time of Charlemagne. 
In Milan, tin' Ambroaian Liturgy (so 
named from St. Ambrose, l.i-li..p of 
Milan,) u. not yet a holly abainl 

.-•in, the Moaarabic, or ancient 
Spaniah, ia still used occasionally in 
certain places, though the Roman canon 
waa introduced partially in 1 ! 
and mure fully in the thirteenth and 
following centuries. In England, tho 

ancient Ihit'iis had MM Liturgy ; and 
the Anglo-Saxon* roceiTed another 
frnin their apiwtlc and In* 

Itonn. .nyiMt, Sec. 

ii. chap. 2—6*. Gregory the Great in- 
troduced the responsive chant; and es- 
tabliahed a school for church music, 
which was in existence at Rome aa 
late as the ninth TV.] 

3 [Especially Christmas, Epiphany, 

Easter, Whitsuntid--, ami St. JooB the 

Baptist; at least in G." '"gory 

.ra,dV Gloria Ccnfofor. c 09. 76. 

and Hittoria Franeor' lih. viii. c. 9. 

ill. iv. I 



the MUD I In y are called 3 , the varioiiK kinds of worshipping 

assemblies, and the stations of Oregon *, the formulas of cofuw- 
\ juid other rites invented in this century, to captivate 
the senses with a show nf religion; we shall pass over tin m 
to av«.i.l prolixity. This subject requires the labours and 
invi -'stiirationH of a special treat 

§ 4. The temples erected in memory and to the honour of 
the saints, were nnneaaeh numerous, both in the East and the 
West 1 . There had long been houses enough <•> 

uiiiodato the people with places of worship; but this age 

courted the favour of departed saints, with these edifices, as a 

kind of presents ; nor did they doubt at all that these a 

under their immediate protection sod care, the provinces, 

. towns, and villages, in which they saw such I 

prepared for them*. The Bomber of feast-days almost equalled 

that of the churches. In particular, the list of festivals for 

the wh.»le christian church was swelled by the consecration of 

the day of the p«, of the holy ri/yhi M<rr>/, that the 

people might not raiss their Lt//>>'/y>iti</. which they wereaecus- 

to celebrate in the month of February', and by the day 

3 [The Litanies, of w hi. h there m 
the lanjer and tl»c smaller, the common 
and the special, were, in the previous 
iries, addressed only to God ; but 
superstition now led men to address 
them to Man*, ami to the other saints. 

* [Stations denoted, in early t 
fcuti ; but afterwards, tho cA«rrA«», <ha- 
/W#, etmderim, or other places, where 
the people assembh >l * p (See 
•In Cnnge, (i^-mii . M a. Lit- 
timt. mo I u "I'y duicrtmi- 

•asion*, and 
places of public worship ; and Q 
a service for each. Thi* li the pr-in 
eipal ctuu of the fail multiplication 
of liturgical formulas in tin- I: 
church. Tr.) 

* [See Proeopius, </«• ZW/o Porting, 
i . and v.; also H* ASdiflcHs J>u- 

tiaiani , where is mention of many 
churches . i he virgin Mary. 

* [Thu», the Lombard queen, Thoo- 
delinrfs. built s chureh (or John the 
fUptint. that lie might prsy for her and 

her people. (Paul Dineon. Hut. Lon- 
■ !. I. iv. e. 7-) And the French 
kins:, Qothaire, built a splendid I 

cause lit- beUeved tMt 
saint bar] In 1| <-l him '." \»ni|uL«h the 
(Si-^lH-rt, r'Arosic.J For libi 
same reason rich present* were made 
tn the I'hurehm, ThusChildcbert, after 
conijuerui!* Alarie, gave to the church 

■ ii dishes, and t<< 
eases for lbs holy Gospels ; all of tho 

liii. -r getdj and act with COstly gems. 

gory of Tours, fTittoria Fniiteor. 
1 [This was instituted in tho reign 
of Justinian, and ti\> ■! to 
day of February. The Greek* called 
it Imavrij, or uwajrarrf), smmTisw 

n and Anna met the 
Saviour in the lite Latins 

call it the/n* »*, the pre- 

tm/alicm ofd* Lord* and Candlemau ; 
because uuiny candles were then Bghfc 
edup; an hail Iteen done on ihl 
perc;. ravishment 

of Proserpine, whom her mother Cere* 
scare I \A candles. See Hos- 




of the Saviour's conception*, the birth-day of St. John 9 , and 
some others. 

pinian, de Fedii Ckrvtiamor. p. 52, Ac. 

* [This feast is generally celebrated 
the 25th of March; and is called by 
the Greeks rifdpa aaxacpov, sire evay- 
ycXutyiov, the day of tie raUitation, or 
of tkt annunciation ; because on it the 
angel Gabriel announced to Mary that 
she should bring forth the Saviour. 
The Latins absurdly call it the annun- 
ciation of Mary. To avoid interrupt- 
ing the Lent fast, the Spaniards cele- 
brated it on the 18th of December, 
and the Armenians on the 5th of Janu- 
ary; the other churches kept it the 
25th of March. It is mentioned in the 
52nd canon of the council in Trullo, 
a.o. 691, as a festival then fully estab- 
lished and known ; but at what time it 
was first introduced is uncertain. See 
Suicer, Thetanr. Eodtt. torn. L p. 1234. 

* [I know not what induced Dr. 
Mosheim to place the introduction of 
this feast in this century. If the super- 
scriptions to the homilies of Maxim us 

of Turin (who lived A.D. 420.) are cor- 
rect, this feast must have been common 
in the fifth century ; for three of these 
homilies are superscribed, as being 
composed for this feast. Perhaps Dr. 
Mosheim had his eye on the twenty- 
first canon of the council held at Agde 
A.D. 506, (Harduin's Collection, torn, 
ii. p. 1000,) where the festival of St. 
John is mentioned among the greater 
feasts. Yet as it is there mentioned 
as one already known, it must have 
been in existence some years. More- 
over heathenish rites were mixed with 
this feast. The feast of St. John, and 
the dancing around a tree set up, were 
usages, as well of the German and 
northern nations, as of the Romans. 
The former had their Noodfyr, (on 
which Job. Reiake published a book, 
Francf. 1696. 8vo.) and the latter used, 
about this time, [the 24th of June,] to 
keep the feast of Vesta, with kindling a 
new fire, amid dances and other sports. 

<H. V.| 

sclllsMs svi) HERESIES. 



0N8 FROM Till 

§ 1 . Remain* of the ancient sects. Munichroans. Pelagians. — § 2. DuuatiMs. 
— S 3. Aruujx. — § 4. StaU: of tin- N'eatoruuia. — § 5. Eutvchian contests. 

■us. — § 6. Jac. Baradicus, the father of the Monophysitea. — § 7- 
slate. — § 8. Controversies among them. — § 0. The Agnoc'tec. — § 10. Tri- 


§ 1. Tin ancient sects, though harassed in numberless ways, 

• !iil ii" i ■amotions in various plaOOB. 

AmOOg thfl Persians, the Maniclueans are Raid to have become 

•>ei ful as to seduce the son of Cabades the monarch: but 

he avenged the crime, by making a great slaughter of them. 

t also hare bean troublesome in other countries ; fax 

Heradumw of Ghaleedon deemed it important to write a hook 

let them l . In Gaul and Africa, the contests between the 

Senu-Pelagiane and the followers of Augustine continued. 

The lhmatists were comfortably situated, so long as 

ih" Vandala reigned in Africa. But they were leas favoured 

when this kingdom was overturned, in the year 594. Vet 

not only kept up their diurch. but Dear the close of the 

or from the year 591, ventured to defend it with 

mora courage, and to extend its influence. These efforts of 

[garooily opposed by Gregory the Great ; who, as 

his Epistles', endeavoured in various ways to 

now raising its head again. Ami his 

doubtless, were successful ; far the Donatist church 

» 8ee PI id. exiv.p. 

» See his EpiMd<tr. lib. Iv. ep. 34, 

%%. p. 7i4. n*. n»'i Kb, vi. .;.. m p. 

mi. .-,,. ::: p, 63. 

ii. op. in. p. 811. Opp. 

• uipti-.ii- Man 

issued penal laws against them in the 
■!»;». It tea prat 

of Witsius, (Ifuiorin iMnuUiM. cap. 

| 9.) that tin- eoaajuetfe of the 

Saracens in Africa, in th. 7th c 
put an end to Uic Dountbt conl 


became extinct in this century ; at least, no mention is made 
of it after this time. 

§ 3. The Arians, at the commencement of this century, 
were triumphant in some parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe. 
Not a few of the Asiatic bishops favoured them. The Vandals 
in Africa, the Goths in Italy, many of the Gauls, the Suevi, 
the Burgundians, and the Spaniards, openly espoused their 
interest. The Greeks, indeed, who approved of the Nicene 
council, oppressed and also punished them, wherever they were 
able ; but the Arians returned the like treatment, especially 
in Africa and Italy*. Yet this prosperity of the Arians 
wholly terminated, when, under the auspices of Justinian, the 
Vandals were driven from Africa, and the Goths from Italy \ 
For the other Arian kings, Sigismwnd king of the Burgundians, 
Theodimir king of the Suevi in Lusitania, and Beccared king of 
Spain, without violence and war, suffered themselves to be led 
to a renunciation of the Arian doctrine, and to efforts for its 
extirpation among their subjects by means of legal enactments 
and councils. Whether reason and arguments, or hope and 
fear, had the greater influence in the conversion of these kings, 
it is difficult to say *. But this is certain, the Arian sect was 
from this time dispersed, and could never after recover any 

§ 4. The Nestorians, after they had obtained a fixed resi- 
dence in Persia, and had located the head of their sect at 
Seleucia, were as successful as they were industrious, in dis- 
seminating their doctrines in the countries lying without the 

' Procopius, de Bdlo Vandal. L i. such a people, conviction of the under- 

c. 8. and de Bdlo Gottico, lib. i. c. 2. standing is little to be expected. Argu- 

Evagrius, Hittoria Eodet. 1. iv. cap. menta of expediency would have more 

15, &c. effect. They were surrounded by or- 

4 See Joh. Ja. Mascovii Hidoria thodox Christiana, who would deprive 

Ger manor, torn, ii the subversion of them of their territories, on the ground 

the Vandalic kingdom, p. 76, of that that they were heretics. If therefore 

of the Goths, p. 91. On the accession they would enjoy peace and quietude, 

of the barbarians to the Nicene faith they must make up their minds to 

respecting God, see Acta Sanctor. torn, embrace the Nicene faith. Many of 

ii. Martii, p. 275, and torn. ii. Aprilis, these conversions also were brought 

p. 134. about by ladies ; for instance, thecon- 

* [The Utter is to me the most pro- version of Hermengild, a West Gothic 

bable. The kings of these nations prince, by his French wife Ingunda. 

were very ignorant ; and made war ScM.] 
rather than science their trade. Among 

en. v.J 



1 11 empire. It appeal's l'roiii unquestionable documents 

still exist fag, that there WHS numerous societies in all parts of 

lVrsi.i, in Indi;i. in Armenia, in Arabia, in Syria, and in other 

countries, under the jurisdiction of the icia. 

during this century*. The Persian kmgB wore not, indeed, all 

M\ well affected toward-, this sect; and they sometimes 

Iv persecuted all christians resident in their dominions 7 : 

'-tieraUy thev showed a marked pri 4 iff the N» 

ians befbre the nd howto to the ottuKri) of Bphesoa . for 

latter to be spies sent anions them by the Greeks, 
with whom they agreed as to reHgioo. 

$ ">. The .sect of the M otU p fomta was no less favourably 

situate .1 ; and it drew over to its side a great part of the Bast. 

In the tir-4 place, the SUILMi'Ul 1 \ naiftattius [a. d. 4!)1 — .518] 

8 sod and to the dogmas of the A&pkoU, dv 

rigid M ''*",' and he did not hesitate, on the 

removal of Flawanus from the chair of Antioch, fan 519, to 

eh \ ate to thai wrnt, learned monk of Palestine, who 

W8B devoted to that net, and from whom the Monopkysito had 

the name of ANflMMf*. This man exerted all his powers to 

destroy the credit of the council of Chalcedon in the East, and 

M the party -which profess •< I but "■ 

i . : and his zealous efforts produced most grieroue com- 

•ns ! . But the emperor Anastasius dying in the year 518, 

• I'moum Indicopleustca, VVpoyro- 

fikut Chris Eft. iu Bern. 

do M" •->! Pat-rum 

i, the Preface, p. xi. 

worth reading. 

t Joe. Sim. Afeeman, BiM'wth. (frien- 

p, n>:». 407. 

4) I. 141. 41:*. mid lOBIb iii. pt. ii. cap. 
V. § 2. |i I 

' Kragrius, Hutor. EceU*. Iil». iii. B. 
SeeUa. lib. U. p. 662. A cataloi. ••, 
the Work* of Severua, collected from 
copies, is "in liernh. df M'nt- 
faucon'« IHbluith. rVitWiNbifi - 
[According to Evagrius, /«.<•. <.-(.'. Ana- 
Atjuaiw wa« not zi-»loiin for am party ; 
:u» a great lover of peace, ID 

r to make, imr to auffcr, 
anr change in the ecclesiastical con- 
stitution ; that in, be adhered to the 

Ileuati&m of Zeno hi» predecessor. 
This was taking the middle nrmtiul \ 
for the more utrenuotifl Munoph writes 
rejected tli ii, and in: 

on a:> ! the 

coum i ; while tli.- more 

rigid catholics, who ahto dudiked the 
llaiotimm, were for holding fuat • 

of the decision* of * 
See Walch, U'utori* Ar A 
vol. vi. p. 930. 9443, 947, 948. 

9 See Jo*. Sim. Awn-man, BiMiotk. 
OrWnt. Valiant, torn. ii. p. 47. 321, See. 
Euaeb. Renandot, I tularin Patriarekar. 
AUmmdntor. p. 127, 128. 130. 136. 
138, etc. (See a n-.t ■■-•rue, 

. oh. ii. Note ' p. 28. IK] 

ii.H, Hid. flbofa lib. iii. e. 

39. l\rillus. Vila Sabas, in Job. , Bapt. 
Coteliers Monumemta Ecdt*. Groat, 
torn. iii. p. 312. JVommm DidUtf 




Severn* was expelled fans his see ; and the sect, which he had 
so zealously propagated, was restrained and depressed by 
Justin and tin SOOOI nling emperors, to such a degree, that it 
seemed verv near being ruined; vet it I »r its 

patriarch, in place of Sevenu*. 

§ fl. Whea tli. M."iiopliysit''S were nearly in despair, and 

very fan of their bUbopi remained, iobh of them being dead, 

and others in captivity, an obscure man, Jnrofnt.-t, 

■'fonts, or Z'l.r.'ihtj, to distinguish him from others of the 
name, restored their falhn state 3 . This indigent monk, a 
most indefatigable and persevering man, being ordained bishop, 
by a few bishops who were confined in prison, travelled 
all the East, on foot, constituted a vast number of bishops and 
presbyters, revived every where the depressed spirits of the 
Bfonophymtea, and was so efficient, by his eloqnenoa, and his 
astonishing diligence, that when he died, in the year 678, at 

be had been bishop, be left bio Met in ■ raq 

flourishing state in Syria, in Mesopotamia, In Armenia, in 
it, Nubia, and Abyssinia, and in other countries 1 . He 

ll'utor. Criliifv<, toin. i. art. ^MtoiM 
[There i* - 

abetnft ■tetemtnt Who «^ tMt 
that sjurtsd .i i"s ug&inut 

■ uin-il of Cliali-fluii ! Dr. Mae- 
Iniiir understood .M"-l 

np rar ObhWUk Bat «-tiii-r 
translator?- the smith 

wtA Seve- 
rn*, nitlior than . who per* 
seem See Eva- 
i to aboTft. Ii!». iii. ft. 
\V.l I r. 1 

I ulpharaji .Sri« Patriarch. 
Ani J Otk n , in As->'Li i 

i. ii. p. 3*23. ( Fur a 
full uii'l • 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 « j fxamiiiutiuii of Uie 

■ ■ >_ftn ; namflv, di 

I AAMfcudttB, veil. vi. 

MM ; UOdn Ju>liu, roL >ii. p 
128 ; and under Ju-Oai;ui, ibid. p. 12tt 

— ac •£ I 

* See Jos. Sim. A«*eman, BMitUA. 
i, torn. ii. cap. vtti. p. 
83. 73 938, S81. -414. fee I 
Rromdot, //;.- 

C- 11!*. 133. 188. &C. in id 

Uhnyia in B, p, BJ8. 

8 13. ftutOI Nuii.'K /• , id>» 

OtfM.Jif.r rj tSt/rvrttm MonuMsntit, i 
p. 40, 11. [Waloh. tfirforfe <fcr /■ 

\ul. viii. p. 481 — 490. Jacobus 
Baradams was a Syrian monk, and a 

mipi! lafAntibah. 

'- placed by som 
the year 84 n in 551. 

">78. Some 
call mm bishop of Edeeas.; others make 
him Ui hart been bishop si large. Tin- 
number "f bishops, priests, i 
ord.wnol b» him, L« n-jMi-n-d to U- 
100,000. f fu.t A- put fin sod to Ill' 1 

Dr. Mot 
ii- A in soy ui' tlic :iiiilinritii •> 


site*», all ov«-r th-- F.a-' 
called Jaool I Dtl is -!:■ 

Barn loi Greeks 

are called .\h-Ichito». frum tin- Svna<-, 
M. I. Iia, 'i kiity, a-H being .i>li 
ligionof th»» bljMUsl 
* For the Nubian* i 
see Amenta n, I- :i. p. aao 

liieron. I. olio, I ■>,"■<■ /'./'.iw/jiV, turn, 
ii. p. .'Mi. Job. Lull Ipli, | 
Bute p. p. 481, #81. 168 

I il V 




extinguish' (1 nearly all tlie dissensions among I i-liy- 

i .is their church disposed in the 

that the bishop of Antioch could not well govern them 

all. he a s soci ated with him a Mapkrkm or prinmt< of the East, 

whose residence was at 7 tyrii '">/>. on the l »• -i« 1< r» of Arm- 

Sorts wen not ■ little tided in Egypt and the neighbour- 
ing r< TAfodosivs of Alexandria. From this man, as 
the second father of the sect, ill the Monophysitcs in the East 
are called ./■ 

§7. Thus the imjii'ii the Greeks, and their iunm- 

sidcratc zeal lor maintaining the truth, caused the Idonophy- 

to become consolidated into a permanent body, From 

Ode period, fche whole community has been under the gov.rn- 

ment of two bishops or patrit mlf, one of Alexandria, ami the 
Other of Antioch, who, notwithstanding the Syrians 
Ekgrptfatia cEaigree in some particulars, are very careful to 
'ain communion with each oth«i I lettflEB and by kind 
Qndertfae patriarch of M ulria, is the UffMd 

Al.vssiniaiis; and under the patriarch of Antioch. 

■ni or [u <. whose residence 

is at Tagritum in Mesopotamia. The AiniOnijlM have their 

bishop, and are distmgaiahed from the other Mnnophy- 

sites by some peculiar rites and opinion 

J5j s II. .i of the Monophysitee had acquire.! 

ncy, various disagreements and eonfbro- 

, I kmongthem; ud particularly at Alexandria, 

a difficult, Knotty question was moved oosooraiug fche body of 

( 'hri.-t. J nil, 1 1< of HalicarnassusV in the year ol.O. maintained 
that \< bad so insinuated itself into the body of 

'. from the re hat this 

•d its nature, and became inourruvH6 U. With him 

! Alexandria; from whom the 
-rs in this sentiment w.r- called ( The advo- 

r [ ijujutiuh wa* archdeacon of \|. \ 
nii'lria, U i utriarch i 

BMM III.: mid on liia death, b 

.^34, elected patriarrii 
andri I u.nnlta mid tfao ■ 

ion to The- i 
bishop of the court party. (Jivat coin* 

Gnjauus hm MMI II' (W 

l'nr til , IM tli" writers 

- Jim. Sim. Assomsn, Iitf* 

I 110. II i Hi; lit.'- 
wbe his Irimrrt. d* AfotunAytitM, pre- 
' |.i 
u-r» • -'}«, nolo '. 






cates of this doctrine became divided into three parties; two 
of which disagreed on the q uestioii, whether Chrisfsbody Ml 
create md the third maintained, th;t 

body was indeed corruptible, but on account of fcfa nee of 

the divine nature* never became in fact corrupted. This sect 
was vigorously resisted bv the celebrated S&wrut of Antioeh. 
and Damianeg : who maintained that the body of Christ, bttfJBM 
his resurrection, was comtj- it is, was liable to all the 

changes to which human bodies in general are. Those who 
agreed with Julian, were called AfAAoHodoottm^ Doeetar, Phan- 
tasiastce^ and also Man I pinion it 

might be inferred that Chant did Dot nnfji/ suffer, feel hungry, 
fall asleep, and experience the other sensations of a man ; but 
that he only appeared to suft'er. to sleep, to be hungry. thir>t y, 
&c. Those who agreed with Seeeru^ were called Phthartolatrw % 
and Ktistolatrw or Creaticolar. This controversy was agitated 
.Treat warmth in the rata) of Justinian* who favoured the 
Aphthartodoceta : but it afterwards gradually subsided 8 . A 
middle path between the two parties was taken by A'emias, or 
Pkiloxenws of Maubug [or 1 1 ierapolis] ; for he and his asso- 
ciates held, that Christ really suffered the ordinary sensations 
of a man ; hut tliat in him this was not the effect of nature, 
but of choice*. 

§ 9. Some of the Curruptirola\ M they were called, particu- 
larly Themisiimt. a deacon of Alexandria, and Tkeodvsiu* n 
bishop of that city, in the ardour of disputation, fell upon 
another sentiment towards the close of this century 1 , which 
i amotions. They affirmed that while all things 

first to Carthage, an<l then to Sar- 
dinia ; ami we hear little more about 
bun. It is nut known tliat be wrote 
any thing. See LilH-ratus, Brrciar. 
cap. 30, and Leontius, aV &tfu, art. t. 


* TiuvAhvu*, <lt Reoeptiont Hwvticvr. 
in Jo. Bji|»i • }foHmmfnt<t Ee- 

eUtur Or. t...m. iii. p. 409. Liberatus, 
BrmtarmmtQmtrvr. cap. SO. Jo. Port**, 
1 tutrmctk*** U*d*rico-ti»oto.jica , lih. iii. 
::. 108, &c. Asseman, BMiotA. 
Oriental, torn. iii. pt. ii. p. 457. (The 
contests respecting the rurmjrfito/ify of 
Christ'* body, both among the Mmio- 
physitcs ana the Orthodox, are fully 

examined, inWalch, If'wtori 
revtH, vol. viiL p. 660— bl 4. IV. 1 

'Jos. Sim. Asacman, BiUidh. "no/, 
torn, ii. p. '2'-', and p. 1UH. &c. 

1 [This controversy began, before 
the middle of the iMUliurf ; for Themis- 
tiut was a deacon under Timotheos 
III., who di.-d in tin- y-ar ML Theo- 
dosius suceceded in that year; but was 
removed about a. n. 637. The heat of 
the controversy seems to have been 
about a. d. 660 or 660 ; yet it was rife 
in the time of Q gqgUKJ the Great, and 
isled till some time in the 
^.vinth century. TV. J 

CH. v.] 

BCUI8X8 AND 111 


) l\ the divine nature of Christ, to his / 
nature which was united vvitli it, many UuDgB wore unknown. 
As they bald to but one natuiv in Christ [or were Monophyt 
others poj -mi.'tion upon their doctrine, that they made 

i.iiii' natun* to |.;irtii ij.atc in this ij^norance : ami beOQB 
they «itc called At Hut tliLs new .scir mn feeble; and 

fore it. declined and became extinct, sooner than might 
» anrieipati d from the animated eloquence of the 

§ 10. I troveraies with the Mnm>ph\ sites, arose 

af the TritheiiU. Its author was une John 
ian philosopher, and a Aloimphysite *« Tins man iina- 
I then were in t»od three iiiuiierieally distinct DAl 

or Bubaiateoeiea, all perfectly alike, and connected by ao i 

uioii vinculum oi" , aaattt : from w h'o-li dojrina, I 

AlBQDg the patrons of this opinion, no 
one was in<ue celebrated than Joint, I'/tiloponus, a irraininarinn 
and philosopher of great fame at Alexandria: and hfiDO 
has by many been accounted the frwmdflT of fcfcfe aaat : and the 
ineinbers of it have been called Philojnnisto*. As tin 

• Jo. Rapt. Cotelicr, in the Mottu- 
mttda EoeUtice Gr. torn. iii. p. 641. 
Mitli. L« t^uin, on Dam 

IndrwiimHtM HUtoricoJhtiJ. lib. iii. cap- 
Pi. p, 11 

\. j>. HH2. I Walch ha* given ft 
full nml satisfactory account of 0M 
Apxvj oi Tta I ani, in hi* Ma- 
toru dtr KdatnyiW, vol. > iii- p. 04 i — 
884. It appears, that Uio AgnoVtaa 
liH-ri'ly iliiiicd that tin- httmOU i 

-■rtitnc otHHiKu Ht , by being 

nature ; — a doc- 

1 eon- 

r 'li'i tin i rarieft 

A understand them to go 

farther. Hut tho writers of the middle 

ih denying alto- 

oinniaeiunce of Christ: and 

,ih:iniju». in Jos. 

-..-. [Thh \x thu only 


Aacunage ; and hia statement is, that 
•lohn was a disciple of Bftl 
i ,a Syrian pMIoaopner who ' 


Bftdftd liiiu in tho 

i| -, v-nt bating advsBoed his hip 

.1. n'tnnr, be «u- by the em- 

1 ii. Alb. Fabrieius, BtiJlth. 
Or, lil». v. c. 37. torn. ix. 1 
liar I 1. iii. p. I 

'M IltWfti- 

Jo. Bftpt.Cofc Ywr'tMonuttKnta Ecetmai 
i. p. 414. John Dftmaaceuus, 
■■' rrsihiu, Opp. i. p. 108 

tuin. [John Philoponus waa 

and 1 \m lif--, at Alex- 

andria, lie wan a literary layman, 
and deeply tvad in the Platonic and 
DteuU philosophy Y. t fag waa 
a christian; and a ' ■■'. aa 

moat 1 .amlrians in In 

were- •>( his hirth and death 

is unknown : hut it appears, that he 
was a >vnt.-r faflfl ftbool k. i>. BOO. till 


Whether hi* ov 


BOM II. lESTUaV VI [I'AKl II. (II. v. 

advanced, it became dnided into two parties, tin.* Philoponists 
and tbo Cononites; the latter so named from its leader, Contm, 
bishop of Tarsus*. These parties agreed respecting the doc- 
trine of three Persons in the Godhead, but were at variance 
respecting the explanation of the doctrine concerning the 
resurrection of oui For Phihqxunts maintained tliat 

both the uuitUr and the form of all bodies were generate" 1 
corruptible \ and, therefore, that both would bfl (feted 

at the resurrection : but Conon held, tliat the matter only, and 
not the form, of IkmUcs was corruptible and to be resuscitated 6 . 
To both these stood opposed tin /'•■ \; so named from 

[the Monophvsite |>atriarch] of Alexandria. Tbflti 
discriminated between the divine essence and the three Persona 
of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. In other words, they 
denied that eacfa Person, by himself and in nature, was Qodj 
but maintained that, tlie three PeSBOOS had a common Gott or 
i undivided participation of* which, each one \n;<^ 
9o4 The Father. Son, ;ni<l Holy Spirit, tiny «1. nominated 
ffj//>utta$es [or Permit] ; and what was eonunon to them. 
substance, and nature 1 . 

books <>f John Aacunagu first led him 

ik Tritheiiuii, is uncertain 
work* BOW extant arc, I bool "n the 

gggtmtk Pnxltu, to prove the world not 

:.l ; a Injok ON 'A< Hr. >t'\.tfrcts ; 

Mml i''>irtinrHt<tri<i on various work* of 
Ariitto! ' 1 1 1 - lout work* were, on the 
fUsumdiun ; tujalnM tk? owwil afCkal- 
calvn ; (P/iintt the mmtimmt$ vf JiJm 
arckbukop of CowtunlimujJ', /-..«/ 
tkf Trim'y ," 'fcAii«*< JtuuUirktis rf« 8*- 
nmlnsri* ; 'Ujaxitut Srrmu ; and a hook 
on Union, entitled Ai<ur»;r/)i; *i> I 
biter; a valuahlc extract from wi 
pre*- . //■'•< Litteror. 

torn. i. p. 267, ft'ol W alrh. Ill/tori* drr 
KtUerryn, vol. viii. p. 702, &.c. TV.] 

I Photiu.% WiWi/rfA. Codex xxiv. Asae- 
man, DMwth. (httnt. Vat\e. torn. iL 
p. 329, &c. 

• [ For a full account of the disagree- 
I>etween the Cononites ana the 
-ts, respecting the re- 
surrection of the body, see Wul.h. 
Jlutxr. ./,.. Iittaeremrn. vol. viii. p. 
778. 7V.J 

' -foe. Sim. Assoman, Bihliotk. Orim 

tot. Vut'f. tom. ii. p. 7». IWLi, \c [the 
eontrovcrsiea respecting the Trinit y in 
unity, which arc the subject of thus 

ton, are minutely inveatijgafe 
Walch, liiMorie der A'rfwrejK*, rol. viii. 
p. 685— 762, He concludes, that Pl.ilo- 
DODtti and hies sect were really, though 
perlmps uiii-oii-'-iou-Iy, Trit heists : for 
rUlopann held to a merely ipMtjk 
unity in God, and not to a nvmrricttf 
aaity; ib. i' ht tliat the three 

Persons in the Trinity had a common 
mttnre, in the same sense that Paul 
and Peter had a common nature, and 
as all the angels have a common nature. 
(Walfb, L o. p, 7-'H. k*.) 'i'l... Da- 
mianista, on the contrary, rejecting the 
idea of a man riKcijic unity in tiod, 
held the three divine Persons b 


by certain ckoi\tct<Tlttk mark*: so that 
:is reallv on Sahclliau ground. 
( Waleh, lot Sec 

also M [Ayuunantnirht*, rol. 

iii. p. 312— 516. ed.'Marp. 1818. Tr.\ 






§ 1. Christianity propagated in China. — § 2. The English converted. — § 3. Also 
the Gauls, Suevi, Frieslanders, Franks, and Helretii. — § 4. Judgment con- 
cerning these apostles. — § ft. Jews compelled to embrace Christianity. 

§ 1. The christian religion was, in this century, diffused be- 
yond its former bounds, both in the eastern and western coun- 
tries. In the East, the Nestorians, with incredible industry 
and perseverance, laboured to propagate it from Persia, Syria, 
and India, among the barbarous and savage nations inhabiting 
the deserts and the remotest shores of Asia ; and that their 
zeal was not inefficient, appears from numerous proofs still ex- 
isting. In particular, the vast empire of China was enlightened, 
by this zeal and industry, with the light of Christianity. Those 
who regard as genuine and authentic, that Chinese monument 
of Sigan, which was discovered in the seventeenth century, 
believe that Christianity was introduced into China in the year 
636, when Jesujabas of Gadala presided over the Nestorian 


DOOK 11.- 

1T.Y VII. 

[part I. 

community ' And those who look upon this as a fabrication 
of the Jesuits, may be fully satisfied by other and unexcep- 
tionable proofs, that China, espec&afi? the northern part of it, 
contained in this eeutmy, or perhaps even earlier, mint 
christians, over whom presided, during several subsequent 
turies, a i/kiropofttan, sent out by the patriarch of tin (. lial- 
deans or Nestorians B . 

§ 2. The attention of the Greeks was so engrossed with 

1 This celebrated monument baa 
been published nnd explained by seve- 
ral person*; in particular, by A than. 
'•it') fUfuirata, p. 63. Andr. 
a distinct treatise, Berlin, 
4to. Euseb. Renaudot, R<ia- 
tiiiu AmrWnna dts l»dt* ft dt Ut Vkimr, 
de den* Voyageun MatmrnHmu, u. 238 

—271. Paris, 171*. 8vo. J<- 

Asseman, Bihliotk. Orients. V.itienma, 
torn. iii. pt. ii. c. iv. j 7. p. .'.38, Ac. A 
more accurate copy, with notes, wan 
expected from the v. rv learn- -dTheoph. 
Sigefr. Bayer, much abtmgnUiad for 
hi* knowledge of Chines* liter' 
I 'ut his premature death fru-n 
1 vpoctatiou. I see no reason why 
uld nut regard this inonunmnt as 
genuine ; nor can 1 conceive what ad- 
vantage the Jesuits could have pro- 
mised themselves, from a fabrication 
of this sort. S. ion, Siiypt- 

forties Uiitor. H Liltcroirtf, tow. ii. 

S.50O. :i1h.. TbO. Ycat***, In- 

tuit Chur.-h H'xAory, n. 86 — 1*6. I 
8m Kirclnr'fi translati- 
tin- inscription, with a comment and 
some notes, is th 

to M.wlieim's Uutoria Etd**. Tartaro- 
rum, p. 2—28. The monument i» aaid 
to be a marble slab, ten feet long, and 
five hroad ; dug up in the year I 
at a town near Si-ngan-fu, capital of 
loviniT Shen-ju. The top of the 
slab is a pyramidal cross. The en ; 
to the inscription consists of nine Chi- 
nese words, fonned into a square ; and 
is thus translated : ' Thi- *tonc was 
erected to the honour ami eternal me- 
mory of the Law of Light and Truth 
brought from Ta-ein, [ J odea, or Syria,] 
and promulgated in China." Tlw prin- 
cipal inscription in in Chinese charac- 
ters ; and < twenty-eigl 
lmnns,each containing nixty-two words. 

It first states the fundamental princi- 
ples of Christianity ; and then recounts 
the arrival of the missionaries in 836, 
their gracious reception by the king, 

labours and success, and 
principal events of the mission, for 
144 years, or till a. n. 780. There 

two persecution*, in the years 
090 and 713. Soon after the second 
persecution, some new missionaries 
arrived. Then follows the date slid 
erection of the monument, in a. d. 782. 
Oh the one nide of this principal in- 
scription there is a column of Chinese 
character* ; on the other fide, and at 
■ttoni, is a Syriac inscription, in 
l>trangelo character, conti. 1 
catalogues of priests, deacons, and 
others, with a bishop, arranged in 
Seven different classes. Tr.\ 

9 See Renaudot, loe. eii. p. •*>!. 68, 
Ac. et passim. Asseman, loc. fit. cap. 
i\. \>. 022. \c. Theori layer 

tell* u*. f Pr.rj'il. ad jftutvi* S'micum, 
p. 84.) that ho possesses some testimo- 
nies which put the subject beyond con- 
tiwerM [It 1- the constant tradition 
of the Syrian christians, that St. Tho- 
mas the apostle made an excursion to 
China; and the christians of Malabar 
celebrate this event in their ordinsry 
worship; and their primate styled him- 
self metropolitan of Hindoo and China, 
when the rnrtugncse first knew ■■ 
Set I'l.o. Veates, Indinn Church h 
p. 71 — 84. See also M. de l.iuignes, 
Disa. in the 30th vol. (p. 802. Ac.) Of 
the Mimv.' ■ d«$ 

IfajiMm d* r.-tctdiutie Royal' da Itt- 
ncriplwiu tt BMe$-L<ttrt* : which con- 
tains a defence of the genuineness of 
.•an monument, against the ob- 
jections of la Croze and Beauaobre. 
ivies Srhroeekh, Kirrhf MMflA, vol. 
xix. p. 291— tOft. 


«H. I. | 



their intestine diss* thai they were little sottehoafl abotri 

the [II IMJHgaliifln of Christianity among tfw heath" in the 

West, an Anglo-Saxons, Augustine, till his death in 

and afterwards, other monks sent from Borne, laboured 

to extend and enlarge the church. And the result of their 

labours ami eflbrts was. thai the other -;ix Anglo-Sai 

who had hitherto continued in DagaoJam, gradually • 
to tin- of Christianity, and all Britain became profee 
christian 4 . Vet we that this chl 

wholly awing to the sermons and « xhortatinns of these Roman 
monks and teachers ; a great part of it is rather to l>e ascribed 
to the christian wives of tin 4 kings and duels, who empll 
various arts to convert their husbands; and likewise to the 

His faff enacted against the worshippers of idols; not to 
mention other causes. 

•f the Britons. Scotch and Irish, in this <•< n 

agate the christian religion, visited the Basaviaa, 

lerman tribes, and bhei tded new clan 

And tills it was, that fed the Germans afterwards to erect so 

many monasteries for Scots and Irishmen ; some of which are 

still in being'. Gobtmbanus, with a few companions, had 

k, in the prece din g century, happily extirpated in Gaul 

and the contiguous regions, the ancient idolatry, the mots of 
which riouify struck deep every where : and he perse- 

I in these labours till the year <>l.*». in which his death is 
placed; and with the aid of his disciples, carried the name of 

saviour t<» the Dwalliaai) Bavarians. Franks, and 
nations of Germany*. St. fiat!, one of his companions, im- 

* t Y«t C0OBl»< |'h\TOg«Jll- 

Uu *Utr«, (iU Ailminutnn 
c. 31. n, i >ri*m- 

• Tiro- 
bates, (the CrofttUuui,) rab*- 
1 l>fthiwtin, from v Imd 
i v ovdai <>i i : 

Application M »l»»t '•!"; 

Ugtaui UwtrocUnni ; and ilr 

liricMtM for th«;iu from Rome, 
« •! them, and on<- <-f whom 
__jjbc ' Soe Sora- 

Ur't StUelo Cap. Hut. Eeetm. i< 

S. SO. l.mius tU li.ijH 
b. i. (I. II. Munit-'ti, BitBria !'■ 
and Jo*. Sim. Anvnun, hi Calendar. 

7SiWrt». Pju'evrwr, torn. i. p. 490, Ac. 

4 Badsa ll>M<>ri>* Eedm. ynti'u A»- 
< <-a|». iii. p. 91, &.>-. DU. dl . 
ft, I IK. HI', iii. liif. v\i. |>. ISO. «d. 
CUIWi H.-ipin Tli..yrnK, fli.tnir, . 
glttrrr?. torn, i. p- 2'2'J. 

• Ai*i Xiiwtor. torn. ii. Fi«bruar. 

' Jo. Mftliillnn, Acta Sandor. (Ml. 

B*»" Ii. p. 660, die. I'hii. iii. 

p. 72. 530. 600, Hid • I I -lam- 

i de S. ColamhkiKi. in Hml 

'itm* Antupur, torn. 

[See a brief account of Sr 

luml«nii», above, p. 22, not* K VV. | 


ported a knowlcrlfrc of Christianity t<« the B 1 And 

Swaluan.s 7 . St. h'tl'utn, a Scotchman. (SOnverted I i^ivat many 
to Christ, ainonjr the \Fntmconian* nr] r.'istorn Franl 

I Walafrid Strata, 0O0i; 

in Jo. Mabillon, Ad 
Beitedkti, torn. ii. p. 228. [.-I. \ 

.. 4tc] Bra I etkmm 

•in. i. p. 7B3. (St. G. 
• Ilua, was born in Ireland, • 
who early comin 
lii in bo Columbanna for education. He 
ie a in ink of Bangor, under Co- 
lumhanus, anil was one of the tmlvi 
Irinh monk9 who left Ireland with 
> ban us about tin- year 560, tra- 
1 tlirough England to the i 
and erected the monaster)- tif 
I.iiMiil in Burgundy. When Coluin- 
haims was driven from this monastery, 
twenty years after, St. <;ull accompa- 

Kliiue, Ihn penetrated the heart uf 
Switzerland, about the year 610, and 
took mfidence among pagans, at Tmr- 
gen, at the head of the lake of Zurich. 
Attacking idolatry, St. Gall here burn- 
ed the po , and cast their 
offerings into the lake. This enraged 
the people, and the monks had to flee. through the Canton i 

I the 
shore* of the lake of Constance. Herv 
Willimar, the UNatftl r af the i 
tTMted them kindly, ami aided tin in 
to fonn a settlement at Hrtgenta, at 
ttrcuiity uf the lake. 
Here the B '<• convert 

ill- surrounding pagans, and wan 
uiihout some success. Dot at the end 
• >f two years, the unconverted pro- 

i m order from the duke f.u 
monk*, m quit the country. Coluiuba- 
m reet now retired to Bob- 
bio, in Italy ; but St. Gall wax left be- 
hind, aide. Winn EMOWadL he re- 
mto the wilderness, with a few 
•ud orcctcd tlic monastery 
I tlie same 
name. Here he apen iudcr 

of hit days, in great reputation and 
honour. He refused | no of 

itanee, which ha conferred on his 
pupil John. Hi* monastery flourished 
much, and spread li^lit .ever the sur- 
rounding eountr)-. St. Gall died at 
Arbon, but was interred in his monas* 
:it the age of ninety -live, accord- 

ing to Mai sermon a 

ordination of John at Constance, and 
some epistles, are published b> I 

Mis lif,« by Walafrid 
Strabo, from which thai noti 

'• lary tales, 
Hon in a far bcttc-c«*tyle than the 
ordinary n ^rapines. It ap- 

pear*, according to Bl 

I *u almoat wholly pagan when 
first vUitcl by ("Intnl. air 
hut that Christianity had then made 
considerable progress in Germany, 
from the lake of Constance all along 
the right bank of the Id 
• Vita S. Kiliani, in 

<•>$ Antufuir, torn. iii. p. 1JI, tit, 

-I. Pat. de Ludiwig, Sariptorm rcrum 

DM. [Sac also the 

Life nf St Kilian, in Mabillon, Ad* 

i. p. 951 — 

MS. ••!. Venice, !":*:• in* to 

the authorities, St. Kilian. Chilian, 
Cylbui, Cilia.- 1. or Kylleua, was an 

ian. of honourable hirlh 
good education. In early life he had 
a great thirst for know ledge ; and, 
being very pious, and possessing a 
perfect knowledge of nu—ioiiary enter- 
prises, he planned one of his own. 
Taking with him Cidmnan. Gallon, and 
Donatua a dea- 
con, .-i- others, he penetrated 
into Kranronia, which was wholly pa- 
gan, and took residence at Hcrbipolia 
or Wiirtzhurg. rinding their pro- 
apeeta good, Kilian, Coloman, and 
Totnan, went to Italy, t-> obtain the 
papal sanction t.. tin ir enterprise; 
b having readily obtained from 
i , (who was pope eleven months, 
ending Sept. 686.) they returned to 
•burg, converted and baptized 
Gosbert. the duke, and a large number 
■ if his anUnttft But afterwards, per- 
suading tl»e duke that it was unlawful 
for him to have his brother's wife, 
Geilan, she seised an occasional ab- 
sence of her husband, and murder, I 
all the missionaries. This cruel act is 
I in the year 696. But the mas- 
sacre did not prev.'tit the progress of 
iinty ; l.-r the duchess became 
deranged, the assassins rajMnted ; wA 



nturv, in tin* y-.n 690, WWibrnrd, by birth 
:ni A .ith eleven of his eonntryi 

namelv. ttiiidhert, Wigbmi^ .lev/, II '//■' ! ><d*l. Lfbwin, 

the i ri, crossed 

OTOf to /• 'yi°g "lil» (, *it<' bO Itritaiu. with a view to 0*0- 

vert the Friealanden to Christianity. From tln-nce they went, 
in tlic year 692, to Fotidandia, which most writers suppose to 
be the island of Heligoland : being driven from there )v find 
/",'/. kiiiLi ol the riilMJiniii i who put Wigbert, one of tin- 
to death, they wandered over C'unbrui ami the adja- 
cent parts of Den mark. Returning to i in th. 

hey attacked the superstition of the country with fa 
raOOOBBi WUKbrord was now created by the Kouian |>ontitt', 
archbishop of Wifftburg, [since call. <l Utrecht,] Mid died, at 
■H idmnced Bge, among the Matavian.s ] while his associates 
Spread a knowledge of Christianity among the Westphalians, 
and the neighbouring nations*. 

St Kiiiuu beeun it nnJ "f 

WQrtxLur^. 7V.| 
• Al. «.,.., PUa WUUtnriit in Jo. 


' [5o», A' 

r.U.i, (an. ii- p. !W0, I //ijrf. 

lib. v. •■ i|. I-' Phis famous 
iniwuonary wu b Mlhtrobor- 

land, ttUiur a. n. B80, <>f pwna pun 

i tod in tlic monaster) 
( flripauaia) in Northumberland, ( York - 
, anciently in the kingdom of 
Nurlwuubrm,) at the ajje of twenty, he 
went to Ireland, where be studied 
twelve yean. At the age of UJ 
, be commenced bin misaioi- 
sailed up the Hi. i in the 

d..iiiiiii.ii- of Had bod, the pagan king 
of the Friesians. Soon alt- 
toFranee, and by advice of kng 1'ipiu, 
visited Italy, and obtained the tm\ 
«>f pope Benduo t<> bio enterpriae. Re- 

ed th' Itadbod and Ilia 

■ubjocta. Then, fore, proceeding north- 
ward, he landed at an inland called 
i was on the confines 
■ I !•• iimark and Prtesland, an 
sacred that its frnit, it* bjd 

holy, and i 
•VBT profaned than *BI kO be punudl- 
nli death. \Vi | l. n . r ,l and hil 

roin ii. 

!iy wholly dLwganlod the sa- 
crrdueas of the place, violated the 
laws, were arnu I; tdbodj 

who cast lota on thiir destiny, by 
uliioh one was doomed to death, and 
i hen disuiiisat-d. Tbey now pene- 
B irk. On th« ir i 
to lit.- i rtmnim of Franco, Pipin, who 

9 had vanquhdied R.i 
Willibrord again to Italy, to be conse- 
crated an- 1 i Utrecht. Popo 
s gave him the name of 
Clemens. Rotur» d with dig- 
nity, his friend Pipin aided him in hi* 
work ; and for about fifty years, from 
his leaving England, ho laboured, and 
win much aucccM, as the apotttle ..f 
tin Frieslanderw. He died alioiit the 
year 7-*o, »t flaj advanced age of 81. 
Thua far Alcuin's narrative goes, < »f 
his follower*, it is si. i two 
Ewalds (the one tailed the irhiff, and 
Iba Bfael Ewald,) wen- paj 
axon king, ninl their 
bodies costiiito th- Rhine; that 
liert nmflhad to the Bnntcri near 
Cologne, and at last at Ranarm 

trheve he died a. o. 

Id became biahnp of 
Ekhstadt in Bavaria; and M 
bishop of I 



n is v vii. 

[ha*t I. 

{j <-. Of tfisao ami other expeditions, undertaken far tin 

tension of Christianity, an impartial man. who adheres to truth, 
will not pass an indiscriminate judgment. That sonic of I 

hers wort- men of honest simplicity ami piety. DO one can 
doubt. But most of them show manifest proofs of varimi-, 
sinful passions, of arrogance, avarice, and cruelty ; and having 
received authoii'v from tin- llmnau pontiff to exercise their 
sacred functions among the barbarians. they did not so much 
collect holy congregations of devout christians, as proem- 
themselves a people, among whom they might act the part of 
sovereigns and lords. I cannot, therefore, strongly censure 
those who suspect tliat some of these monks, being desirous of 
ruling, concealed for a time their vicious propensities under the 
vt-il of religion, and imposed ujKin themselves various hard- 
ships, that, they might acquire the rank and honour* of b: 

and uehbtabopa. 

§ o. Of the Jews, very few. if any, voluntarily embraced 
Christianity. But the christians compelled many of them, in 
different places, by means of penalties, to make an outward 
profession of* belief in CkfUt. The emperor JlfrfwR**, being 
incensed against them, as is Reported, by the influence of 
christian doctors, made ha lie miserable nation; and 

ordered vast numbers of them to be dragged reluctantly to 
baptism \ The kings of Spain and Gaul had uo hesitation to 
do the same, notwithstanding the Roman pontiffs were opposed 
to it 1 . Such evils resulted from ignorance of the true prin- 
ciples of Christianity, and the barbarism of the age. 

• Kutyi-hiu*, Antnilrf EcH<$ur AUj- ject, quoted by Baroniua, imat 
amir, torn. ii. |\ IIS, Ike. rltr. ad aim fiu. torn, viii p. 

* [See some authorities OH this nuh- Jr.] 

. II. II.) 

I tKI). 




§ 1. Augustine despatched on * mission into England. — § 2. Its partial failure. 
— § 3. Christianity tatfahlhthed iu Kent.- ■. irthunibria, 

and eventual triumph of tho Roman party. — § 5. Conversion of Mercia. — § 6. 
Conversion of Emcx. — § 7« Conversion of East Anglia. — g R. Conversion of 
Wcsscx. — § 9. GuitfUnioO of Suwax. 

§ 1. Tiif. importance of Bngfamd, front political power, exten- 
sion of langua. ny eminence, and primitive ecclesia 
polity, demands a particular account of her conversion. le. 

;ijilement to notices of tho prosperous events of the 
h century. The known history of her christian profes- 
•n begins, indeed, at the close of the preceding age, when 
Augustine, the Roman monk, obtained a permanent footing in 
'. This devoted and indefatigable missionary had been 
prior of the monastery of St. Martin, at Rome. G reg or y 1.. 
or tho (mat. then pope, had meditated a mission into Eng- 
land, during several years, and being im:il»I»- t«» undertake it in 
looted Augustine for the honourable enterprise, 
ThetO were several reasons obviously encouraging expectation 
of success. Britain had been converted early, though the pre- 
cise period is unascortainahle. and a flourishing church there 
had been found by the pagan Saxon*. 1'nder the wei^lit of 
their long hostilities, and heathen *■;»!. it had necessarily 
fallen ; 1 mt still the Christian Britons WOre DOl extinct. They 
remained unsubdued in Wales, and in the farthest portions of 
Western England. Probably they remained also intemiii 

their Saxon conquerors, through every district of South 
Britain. But Greg ory eh icily calculated upon UGCeaB, from a 
'•able open in g at the Kentish court. Ktii.ll.. rf. km 
the A kitted chief among the Anglo- 

Saxon mm had espoused Berth*, daughter of 

. king of the Frank*, on condition of allowing h 

'An i-omroiui'i 

pO|m i* die n nival in Kont. 

M>7. W||| •«««•. Ar- 

riiirp. ' -'-"Tity i. fiW. 


HOOK 11- 

m vii. 

[l'A*T I. 

continue in the profession of chri>ti;initv. She, nrohaMv, soon 
Undermined thQ pag&Q jirejiuhccs of her hushnnd'. AugustiiR*. 
to have found little difficulty in converting 
••it. and in giving a christian face to the petty kkiL 
£ -2. But his views took a inueh wider range, thouuh no- 
tircly from misMunarv zeal. His employer, GregUlJ, mi anxious 

^anise a British church, .strictly confbrmabk to tli 
Rome. Me did not, indeed, wish to force the Roman ritual 
upon the insular christians. Augustine had his express par- 
ton to use any other that might seem more eligible*. The 
-. however, meant, for primate of Britain '. and 
all the island was to be rendered conformable with Roman 
Now these objects were obviously of n ttain- 

ment. The Welsh and West of England BrifcOfM had bishops 
of their mvn, were fllNHftil <f<fW*IH<mi j 01 kept Easter, according 
to (he ancient fashion of Asia Minor, and varied in some other 
particular-* from the religious habits of Ibune 1 . Augustine hid 
■ nt influence to obtain two conferences with their prelacy, 
and OOXneothe] resent their opinions. upoD the 1 m hi I 

Worcestershire. But disappointment closed both inter. 
ptioo was taken to his haughty manners ; and the Bl 
had evidently no thought of surrendering their independence or 
peculiarities. At Ins death, which apj>ears to have hapj 
short I\ after, Augustine had effected little more than the organi- 
zation of a church in Kent, in communion with that of II 

1 Gregory writ*-* to her thai 
imqkt I MM. fJBpitLS^ 

U.) Hi- probably knew that the h**t 

lone bo. 
1 Bed. JIuf. Exi. ed. Stevenson, 

L..M.1. issa ]>. 60. 

* Whether this was formally pro- 
posed to the British christian*, does 

, ppear. They were, ho 
aware m Attguetiue^l claim, and per- 
emptorily repelled it : Ntipu Ulttm pro 
arthispiteopo kabilurus esse rrpimn-l 

ii. id* ' 

1 " The peculiarities of the later 
chun i lin are an arguim ejl 

against it* deriving its origin from 
; for thai church departed frein 
the Romish in many ritual potato; it 
agreed far tnore uith the churehes of 

Asia Minor, and it withstood for a 
line the authority of the Hondas' 
i. This appear* tn pmve, tliat 
the British received, either imi 

nieaimof Caul, their Christ- 
ianity from Asia Mm..r, is huh may 
easily have taken place through their 
commercial intercourse." ( Itoac'* trans. 

of Neander'i Bid. »f th+ Christ. 

• k. p. 80.) " There are many 
traces of I ii having ex 

1" -nveen the christians in that part el 
the world" (the south of France) "and 
those of Asia Minor. It has been sup- 
posed that Polyearp sent missiouariea 
Into Gaul." Burtuu'a Hi*, tfiki Christ. 
Ck. Load. 1838. p. 237. 

• Wharton NMte Augustine'* death 
BD 094. r.u? the date U uncertain, and 

I II. II.] 



§ 3. Even this contracted nntiiHWiinfmt aeon ap[iearod on 
tibeti i-tinn. ESthflfiieri, in dedining agi 

l».itli.i. his christian wife, and then espoused a younger female. 
Wood be died himself, his own son, Eadbald, married the 
widow, and eluded christian objections to such indecency, by 
rulapenig into naganwm. LugenttuB, ^yfao roocoodod Am 

lane in the? see of Canterbury, not only found expostulation 
hopeless, but also saw very little prospect of retaining am 
upon the K'iiti>h population, He therefore made preparar 
■ withdrawal to the BOnsmeflt. When all was ready, 
he tried a last experiment upon the Beau-e&vage prine 
■ubmittiug to such a flagellation, aa left marks upon be 
ahouldenk Theae ha exhibited bo the king of Kent, assuring 

him that the chastisement had come from no meaner hand 
than that of St. Peter himself, who had, last night, thus added 
auunud\cr.-jons upon his proposed derelic- 
tion of duty. His hearer wan no match for this. Qerelin- 
pnafaed his incestuous connexion, became a christian again, 
<l Hi' K- atiafa church 7 . 
§ k A antes of his, named Kthelburga, or Tate, was married 
to Kdwin. king of Northumbrian and went into the north, as her 
mother. Bertha, did in under an express stipulation of 

allowance in the profession of christiani: Bj lier iullueuce, 

I bj the dexterity of Paulinas, her principal chaplain, the 

prinCfi and court of Northumbria became christian ; tn example 
which was imitated evti*nsi\ i-lx by the population', A sue 

t'ul pagan invasion, however, drove Bihelburga with Pauliuua 

back into Kent, and gave to the country its former heathen 
appearance'. Its final adoption of Christianity Sowed from the 
ex.n: 'swald, one of the old n.\al family, who liad 

•id, among BH <»f the ancient Bl 

church 2 . I le sent into that eount.ry for son ■• conduct 

and Aidan, a distinguished monk of I una, answered 
the summons. For him an episcopal see was founded at 

varkm* yean luvr been named, down 

I i: 
• II. 

■ I'auliniiB wa* lai'l t» ' .«< -m. 
■peart thtriy-ftix days in oatockMngand 

baptising 11 ; 

ml queen wow *iili 

' lb. 152. 

I 11). 1M. 


BOOK 11.- 

irv vil. 

[j'AKT I. 

Lindisfarne, and his high character was fully maintained in 
Northumbria. It was under this bishop and his two admirable 
successors, Finan and Colman. that the north of 1 was 

converted to Christianity. All the three wen not only uncon- 

1 with Rome, but also at variance n% ith her about 

r, and other matters . Her influence in that portie 
the island was finally established at the council or confer 
Of Whitby, in 6*64. This was convened by means of Oswy, 
king of Northumbria. wln» liad married Eanfleda, daughter of 
Edwin and Ethelburga, but educated in Kent, and immoveahly 

bed to the Roman usages. Oswy's education had been 
•mong the adherents of the ancient British church, in his 
native Northumbria, and he long withstood his wife's example; 
probably, also, her importunities. At length he seems to 
have been wearied out with opposition, and anxious only for an 
opening through which be oouM deoentlj give way. On : 
ing, accordingly, at Whitby, that St. Peter, who keeps the 
lo-vs of heaven, commanded the Roman Easter. OswVBaid that 
he must not disoliey him, for fear of having the door shut when 
he should require admittance'. 

$ 5. Still more free than even Northumbria from obligations 
to Roman missionary zeal, was the great kingdom of Hernia, Of 
all the centre of England. Its king, IVada, sought a wife 
from the court of his northern ueighUuir. But the Northum- 
brian family would only receive such a proposal, on condition 
of the suitor's conversion to Christianity. These terms being 
accepted. Peada renounced paganism, and admitted a prelate 

Northumbria, as the religious head of his people 4 . The 

next three bishops of Mercia were all members of the aneient 

iah church, and the whole middle of England was thus 

planted with a christian population, by means of missionaries 

in actual opposition to Rome. 

$ 6. To the ancient British church also did the kingdom of 

x really owe its conversion. This district had nominally 
become christian by means of Ethelbort, the Kentish sove- 
reign, whose name lias become so famous from its conn 
with Augustine. Hut the prospect of an escape from paganism, 


♦ II.. 205. 

ni. ii. j 



proved BO more than a deceitful gleam. Ethelhort's in- 
thienci having COiSOd at his death. Eases immediately relapsed 

into its Bonner heathenism. It was not until Bigebert, a sul>- 
s« .[ii. nf sovereign of the country, had been converted at tbe 

Northumhrian court, that tills portion id. event ually 

distinguished as tlic rite of London, was rendered permanently 

christian 1 . Tlius Northumhria. the religious pupil of anti 
Koman Scotland, again stopped forward as the successful 
enemy of Anglo-SAXOn paganism. Home had tried in vain. 
The GospeTfi triumph was reserved for native zeal. 

$ 7. Tlie ooantiea of Norfolk and Suffolk, the 

last Anglia, (bond their most zealous and effective 

uiisMoiian, in Fursey, an Irish monk 8 . Ireland long remained 
free Iron) papal influence; and records illustrative of her 
ancient religion, prove its general coincidence with the Pro- 
testantism of later times 7 . I'm-sey's evangelical la hours in 
Bail Anidia. [heron ire, connect the conversion of that country, 
rather with a native mission, titan with that which Gregory 

§ & To the SOOth of thfl Thames. Anglo-Saxon Christianity 
chiefly came from Rome. Not only was it entirely SO with 
Kent; hut in Wessex, like-. utually the dominant 

kingdom, Jiiriiius, a Iloman monk, instigated by Pope Hono- 

tlie lending instrument in evangelizing tl- 
But even this missionary's success appears to have I 

< !y facilitated by Northumhrian influence. While Birinus 

st niggled for a footing. Oswald, the zealous christian king of 

Northern England, but a member of the ancient national 

h, was in Wessex, for the purpose of marrying into the 

family there. He did BOi bfl country until he saw 

his father-in-law, and his bride, both members of the christian 

oh. To the former be stood sponsor at baptism \ and it is 

j doubtful his favourable interference was highly 

» !h. aoa. 

• Bed H. 19 p. ll>7. Fereey ap- 

ii En^lan-I a 
tli- \«:ii- li'£\, tn liavi- BUM " l ' t UiO 

Franc** in tI4K, and to h 
Mazier*-*, in Pofam, in 650. Nfl 
Stcrenaon't ifciiV, ut supra. 

r 8eo Al 

• ■* aHc'wntiy vmfrMtti by the Irish 
and lintitk. Tha waa re 
Mi ih U«e archbishop's si «mu\ i 
ami i pOpHJj hy the 

IU:. i ilitigalto- 

iii octavo > 1836. 

• Bed ni 7 p, 168 i ndon 

of Wrufx is referred to 036. 



[I'AET I. 

useful to Hirinus. Thus, although the mission was Roman, a 
power at variance with BotDfl seems to liave been Ha prineipal 
dependence. Nor did Ni'illuunhrian interest in the evan- 
gelisation of Wessex cease with Oswald. Oswy, who 

1 hiin, persuaded Agilbert. a French monk, to pmon 
the (Jospel in that counter*. Hut this missionary bad RpOlt 
no small timu in Ireland reading scripture '. He nui*t have 
brought across the channel sentiments in general unison with 
those of ancient Britain. 

§ 9. Sussex too may be considered as a Roman conversion *. 
The successful nn was not, indeed, sent from Rome; 

but it was no other than Wilfrid, a nature Saxon, famed for 
appeals to the pope, and an anient papal partisan through 

life*. Thus two Anglo-Saxon kingdoms only, and those the 

least, Kent and Sussex, wvn* converted entirely without aid 
from the ancient ehnrah of Britain. All the rest of England 
was, more or less, indebted for Christianity to native zeal. The 
northern and middle regions had hardly any tiling even of 
inee from Rome; the evangelists of those extensive <lis- 
triets being in acfiv. opposition to her pontiffs and pecu- 

• Rudhome, Hitt. May. H'lutea. 
■pad Wharton. A»jdta fibCTOj i. 192. 

» Bed. IB. rH p. 171. 

* Mr. St« vtiiwii, the recent editor 
of Bode, refers Wilfrid's coovervi 
Sussex to the year (Ml . 

1 For ihu ca*e of Wilfrid, and his 
appeal*, tin reader in referred |0 the 

Kditor'.s Amf/Uy&mm Ohmk 82. 89. 
Burnish writers represent him m an 
authority for appeals to Borne fn-m 
ancient Km: land. lie certainly i* an 
instance of such : but it appears that 
his countrymen disregarded them. Bb 
case really, therefore, makes against 
the e*taliii»hun-ut of papal gnuortt) 
Bnsfand. Hs lived, indeed, when 
Italian dexterity was only beginning to 

triumph over the rudeness of ancient 
Britain. Tin- supplauted party, though 
IniinMi-d, must hare emu 
Htinatc and nuim-ruu», during all his 
life. Hb ova applications to B 
weir evidently in intents dic- 

tated by existing difficulties. To say 

nothing of his on n identification with 

the Roman party, the ancient capital 
of Europe contained such canonists, 
and ith' r sources of information, as 
an ri lo bo bond no where slss in tits 
West. He might, therefore, plead, 
that a decision in hi* favour from a 
(juartcr so trustworthy, was entitled to 
a I. | i hat no domestic 

authority could challenge. 

« H. III.] 





HttaiiB. — f 2. Muhamnied. — § 3. Jud 

corning him. — £ I of tho rapid progress ot hi § 5. Dia 

position uf Iha Mulianunedaiuj ibtiana. — $ & Sects among 


§ I. Thk christians suffered bflfl in this, than in the preceding 

centuries. Bj the I an kings, they were at times pec- 

•d ; hot the rage against them soon subsided. In 
EfagttUld, some of the petty kings oppressed the new converts 

to «-liristianitv ! bttt 90011 aftvr. these kings themselves became 
professed christians. In the East, especially in Syria and 
PaN-srii. .-. ill' Jews sometimes rose upon the christians, with 
great violence ' ; yet so unsuccessfully, as to suffer severely 
for their temerity. Those living among the christians, who 
secretly consulted about restoring the pagan relupon, were too 
w.ak. to Neuture on any positive measures. 

$ 2. Hut a new and most powerful adversary of Christianity 
started up in Arabia^ a. n. 61*2, in the reign of //</•' 
Mn hammed was, indeed, an illiterate man ' ; but still an Arab 
nobleman, naturally eloquent, and possessing gnat aeutenessof 
mind ', He proelaimed that he was sent of (k>d, to overthn»w 

1 Eulvchiua, A*iu*l< 230, 

A.c. Jo. I It-it. 1 

iii. |". 12J», &C. 

kCnhaamnod roftwnrl r.. 

bo 'i 10a and learning, 

and even to bo uni. b I and 

oUqwoio hav« deduced 


i don which 

ttibh . 

that be wan ao rud«' and ignorant a 

i Uicro are some among Ufa 

adherent* who question the reality of 
the fact. Sec Jo. Chaplin, Voptgt* en 
J'rrfr, torn, iv. p. 33. 34. Indoeo, when 
1 eoiihidir tlu»t Mu hummed, for I 
i mi . piirHiiod a gainful taiwnm 
Arabia and the adja< I 

tliiiiL In- DUMl bl ivad, 

and ^ Mt account i 

chant* eannol dit<)>eu!M.- with thut degree 
nf kaowb 

•n hi* lifi and p Li| 

are enumerated \>y Jo. lib. Pabl 



[I'AHT I. 

all polytheism ; and also to purge and reform, first, th. 
gions of the Arabs, and next, those of the Jews and thfl 
christians : and having framed a law. which is called the 
gaining some victories over his enemies he DOB* 

DtUctiu <t Syllabus Aryumrutor. pro 
irritate rrliak>Ris Christ iitna> f cap. I. p. 

733, \r. Tm uhir ■Aih<\ 

count Boulanvillicrs, \"w. de MciiumH, 
Lond. 1730. Bvo. which, however, is 
rather a nirancc than a history. .1". 
Gagnier, Vie de Mahomet, two vols. 
llUO. Amsterd. 1732. is commendable 
Tor the ingenuousness of the author; 
he ntyle is dry. George Sale, a 
distinguished and very judicious author, 
in his preliminary discourse, prefixed 
l" Ui version of the K \L [p. 

45, &c. ed. Lond. 182o. H. lYuleaux, 
of Mahomet, lftitf. Bvo. Abul- 
feda, AumaUs MmJnu. At. and Lat. 
-> v..K. 4to. HafniK, 1790. Abulfeda, 
! ita tt Reins limit Mohammerlu, 
Arab.and LatOxon. 1723 Sohioeckh, 
ICin-hengctch. toI. xix. p. 327 — 4©5. 
Tr.] " 

* For an account of the Koran, see, 
in pr»-f<-ntn?<« in nil of Bole, 

Preliminary Discourse, prefixed to his 
English rerakNi of that book. Add 
i,Dixxrurf imrPAlfonin; annexed 
to the third volume of his History of 
„Ljht* of Malta, in Fn-nrh. Jo. 
Chardin, Voyage* em Perse, loin. 
281, new ed. The 600* which the 
M uhammedans call the Koran, is a 
of papen and discourses dis- 
i after the death 
of Muharntned ; and is not that Lav 
which he so highly extolled. Perhaps 
some parts of the true Koran are still 
found in the modern Koran : but that 
the Koran or Law, which Muhammcd 
prescribed to the AwMlt 
from the present Koran, is manifest 
from the fact, tliat Mulianiraeil in our 
Koran appeals to and extols that other 
the true Koran. A book win 
commended and extolled in any writing, 
must certainly he different from that 
in which it || commended. May we 
not ■• Qal th. mi. Koran 

WM H •/•■• ''■'■[ • ■ . wM h d 
recited to his adherents, and wished 
rli. hi to commit to memory, hut which 
hfl did not Vrfta out '. well 

1 , wire the law* nf the Gallic 

Druids; and such is said to be 
Indian law, which the Brahmin* learn 
and preserve in theirtncanoi 
conjecture* of I ; in »pj>ear 

wholly without ion. Th. 
no reason to believe tin re cv.r was a 
Koran essentially different from 
we now have ; or that Muhammcd de- 
clined committing lib pretended reve- 
lations to writ ins. The only argument 
adduced by Dr. Mosheim in 1 
at all, considering the mam 
the Koran came into existence. The 
book itself professes to have been com- 
posed by God, in the highest heavens ; 
and thence sent down to the 
heavens by the angel Gabriel; who 
commuuic: arc* Is, to Mu- 

hamm<-<l, during the i\» years 

that he claimed to be a prophet. More- 
over, the parcels revealed last, often 
revoked or modified what had been 
revealed before; and likewise rv| 
to the objections of infidels against the 
book. See Sale's Jfoms, vol I • •!. 
Lond. 1825. eh. vi. p. 159. and fn 
Ch. x. p. 31. ch. xvi. p. 107. eh. xx\. 
p. BU. eh. x.-vii. p. 4D7- The Muhain- 
mcdaii doctors say, the Koran c> i ■ 
together with the decrees of God, flOBJ 
all eternity, engraven on a tahlc of 
. liard by the throne of God, and 
called the Praerwl talJe ; tliat God 
sent the angel Gahriel, with a tran- 
script of the eutire Koran, down to the 
lowest heavens, where, during twenty - 
three rears, he revealed it by parcels 
to Muhammcd; that Muhammed caused 
these parcels to be writt.n down l.y 
his scribe, as they were received, and 
published them at once to hi» folio 
some of whom took copies, while 
Blaster pad tM th«-m nj heart; that 

the original MSS. of the art-ilx-, when 
returned, were thrown promiscuously 
into a chest, whence they were taken, 
after th. prophet's death, aud published 
collectively, in their present form and 
order, which is wholly without regard 
to dates, or a classification of Subjects. 
■ 'rtiim. Ihmxmrme, sec. iiL p. 

CH. III.] 



I an immense multitude of persons, first in Arabia, ami 
then in the neighlxmring countries, to assent to his doctrines. 
Elated with this unexpected success, he now began to think of 
founding an empire; and he effected Mb object, with as much 
success as boldness ; so that, at his death, he saw himself the 
sovereign of all Arabia, and of several of the neighbouring 

§ 3. No one can, at this day, form a perfect judgment of 
the entire character, views, and designs of Mnkammti, 
we cannot safely rely mi the Greek writers, who made no 
t ion to load their enemy with slanders and falsehoods ; 
n \w trust to the Arabians, who are the very worst his- 
torians, who conceal all his vices and crimes, and depict him 
as altogether a divine person. Besides, a very considerable 
part of his life, and that too, from which the motives and 
of Ins conduct would best app concealed 

from us. It is very probable, however, that ahhorri n< 
the su'rerstition, in which he saw his countrymen involved, so 
-lit upon him as to throw him into a disordered state of 
mind; and that lie really believed, lie was divinely commis- 
sioned to reform the religion of the Arabs, and re-instate 
Huang them t!i<' worship of the one true God. Hut it is also 
certain, that afterward*, when lie Mm his attempts going into 
aafbl operation) lie deluded the fickle, credulous multitude, 
with impious tricks and impositions, in order to strengthen his 
cause: and even feigned divine res clal ions, whenever OOQBSiOQ 
[Dire it, or any great difficulty occurred. .V>r 
was thi.** fraud cut with his being a fanatic; for most 

fanatics think deception, so far as seems necessary to their 
• be holy and approved of God; and they of course 
' ption, when they can do it safely*. The religion 

which he inculcated, is not what it would have Ik-en, if Ins 
designs had not been opposed. The pertinacity with which 

* Thii, in my jwl^ment, is fli< 
u»y . . ■ . . <s hich 

has ban I "-n tif 

■• : wlntliiT Mub&rnmcd *»m b 
f«u»tic, fir *n imp 

(hiviued of Syria, Pernio, a>- ' 
Uw Sanuyiu, torn. i. p. 68. Lund.' I 

count to his tran»Utiou of tin.* Koran, 
, vvr. ad. Lund. I 

. A'irr-*.-*K«**. Vol. vi 

nao, &c. 


BOOK I!.— i V V||. 

[lAUl I. 

the Arabians adhered to the opinions and customs of their 
ancestors, and the hope of gaining over the Jews and the 
christians to his cause, undoubtedly lad lain to approve and to 
ite many things, which he would have rejected and abro- 
gated, if he had been at liberty to pursue his own ch- 

§ 4. The causes of the rapid propagation nf fjiinnmi r> ligion 
among so many nations, are not difficult to be discovered. In 
the first place, the terror of arms, which M it It, t mimed and his 
successors carried with great success into different . couie 
compelled vast multitudes to receive his law. In the next 
place, his law itself was admirably adapted to th I dis- 

positions of men, and especially to the manners, the opinions, 
and the vires prevalent among the people of the Eaal 
was extremely simple, proposing very few things to be bell 

lid it enjoin many and difficult duties to be performed, or 
such as laid severe restraints on the propensities of men \ M OH - 
over, the consummate ignorance, which characterized, for the 
most part, the Arabians, the Syrians, the P md other 

nations of the East, gave a bold and eloquent man ready 
access to the minds of immense numbers. We may add, that 
the virulent contests among the christians, Wrecks, N 
Eutychians, and Monophy.sites, which filled a large part of 
the East with carnage and horrible crimes, rendered their 
religion odious in the ajBfl of many. And the Monophy- 
sites and Nestorians, whom the I J reeks Opproaood most 
t:riev<»usly, rendered assistance to the Arabians, and thus 
facilitated their conquest of some provinces 7 . Other causes 
will suggest themselves, to those who consider attentively the 
state of tin- world, and the character of the Muhammcdau 

§ 5. After the death of Afufanamm/, in the year 688, liis 
followers Issuing forth from Arabia, with their native fortitude 
stimulated by a furious fanaticism, and aided, as has been 

* Soo Hndr. R«-I.iwl, ■ /.' Religiont 
M'lhitmflioi, libri ti. L'tivclit, i"17- 
12mo. Geo. Sale, Prelim, bit* ■ 
tie Kura*, Me. iv. v. vi. (llan. 
\\>><>rv, Dictionary of alt firliyivM, art. 
Makomtai*, «d. 181 7. Sclirocckh, 
ATavftfffNft. voL xi\. |.. 8M 

Sto Euacb. Kcu&uilot, Uittoria 
Ptitri.m-h. A>..r,i„.] f .y. 168, 160 

n. Ii. 

win-re this i* ihowa bs the eofldotf 
• Copus or Jucobiu-s in Egypt 

ill. III. | 



el. by I istians who ware pimai 

the Greeks, mtnadfid their conquests over Syria, 1' 

Egypt, and BQmfl other countries*. Nor could llit* Gf 
harassed \vith intestine cninn and various wars, put 

forth bo check their lipid career. The victors, 

their prosperity with moderation ; and ware very 
indnlgeot towards the christians, especially to those who opp 

tlie decrees of Ephesus and Chalcedon. Hut, a* is eommon 

with those enjoying uninterrupted success. th< v insensibly 
swerved from this moderation into severity, and so loaded the 
christians with taxes and other burdens and injuries, that 

their condition more resembled that of slaves, than that of 

§ li. The civil dissensions among the Mohammedans, which 
arose soon after thfl death of their prophet, were not a little 
injurious to the success of their enterprises. Abuh<!.<r. Tib- 
ial her- in-law, and AIL the son-in-law, of Muhammed, had hard 

utinn about the right to the throne, Which each claimed 
to himself ; and this controversy being handed down to pos- 
terity, divided the whole race into two great parties, Bepar I 

iily by a difference in opinions and practices, but also by 

deadly hatred. Tin- two sects are called, the one 8qW*\UQ % 

and the i Tlie fanner contend, that Ahultektr 

was the true Kal'if ; the Utter, that J// was the legitimate 

Baser of Muhammad. Both regard the I of divine 

and the authoritative rule in rehgioD ; but the Svnniu* 

unite with it the Senna, a sort of oral law, derived from 

■nnmadi and serving to explain the Koran; which the 

SiiiUi wholly discard. The Turks, Tartars, Africans, and 

of the Indians, are & he Persians aud Mogores 

t the .Mogores seem to belong to neither 

Besidt fcwo ifniml divisions, there are among the Muham- 

ii. n i 

i. 36. 70. 71 B&. 


1 The iirinripk-B of the Sonnitfw 
may be learned from the tract i 
Ualird bj Adr, lo Land, ./• I 

lib. i. The religion and opt 
• Stuitdfl arc dearl v «tn I 
Chiirdin, PtfoyN m iVrw, torn, iv tht 


medans, four principal sects, and a great many subordinate 
ones ; which contend sharply respecting various subjects in 
religion, yet practise mutual toleration *. 

* On the Mohammedan sects, see Jo. Chardin, Voyage* em Pern, torn. 

Jo. Hem*. Hottinger, Hittoria Orien- ii p. 236. Geo. Safe, Prdimimary Dii- 

talit, lib. ii. cap. vi. p. 340. Ricaut, count to the Koran, sec. viii. p. 207, 

Etat de I'Empire Ottoman, lib. ii. p. 242. &c 





§ 1. State of learning. The monks its patrons. — § 2. Ignorance of the bishops. 
— § 3. History and other sciences corrupted. — § 4. State of philosophy. 

§ 1 . The profound ignorance and barbarism of this century 
will hardly appear credible to those who have not themselves 
inspected the productions it has transmitted to us. What 
little of learning and knowledge still remained, with a few ex- 
ceptions, was confined to the cloisters of the monks, especially 
in the western or Latin church. The laws forbid any one to 
be made an abbot, unless he had some learning. The monks 
were required to devote certain hours to reading; and that 
they might derive greater profit from this exercise, they were 
required, in most monasteries, to converse together, at stated 
times, on what they had read \ It was their business also to 
educate young men destined for the sacred office. But all the 
institutions of this sort were of little service to the cause of 
learning and to the church ; because very few had any just 
conception of the nature and utility of the liberal arts and 
sciences ; and most of them were more intent on the perusal 

1 Jo. Mabillon, Aria Sanctor. Ord. Benedict, torn. ii. p. 479. 513, et passim. 



of worthless writers, and the lives of saints, than on the study 
of valuable authors. Those who did best, were assiduous in 
perusing the works of Augustine and Gregory the Great ; and 
scraps gathered from these fathers, constitute the best produc- 
tions of the Latin church in this century. 

§ 2. Kings and noblemen were attentive to every thing, 
rather than to the cause of learning. The rude and unlearned 
bishops suffered the schools, which had been committed to 
their care, to languish and become extinct \ It was very rare 
to find among them such as could compose their own public 
discourses. Those who possessed some genius among them, 
garbled from Augustine and Gregory a parcel of jejune ad- 
dresses ; a part of which they kept for their own use, and the 
rest they imparted to their more dull and stupid colleagues, 
that they might have something they could pronounce. This 
is manifest from the examples of Ccesarius of Aries, and of 
Eligius of Noyon. There is extant also a Summary of Theo- 
logy, which was unskilfully compiled by Tajo, bishop of Sara- 
gossa, from the writings of Augustine and Gregory : and this 
insipid performance was so highly esteemed, that the other 
bishops did not hesitate to pronounce the author of it the true 
salt of the earth, and a divine luminary in the church *. Many 
such proofs of the ignorance of the times, may be easily col- 
lected by one acquainted with the writers of this century. 
England, however, was in a happier state, in this respect, than 
the other countries of Europe : for Theodoras, a Oilician, and 
bishop of Canterbury, of whom more will be said hereafter, in- 
troduced into that country some attachment to letters and 
learning 1 . 

§ 3. The Greeks who attempted to write, either in poetry 
or in prose, obscured very plain and simple subjects by their 
tumid and fustian style. The style of the Latins, with a few 
exceptions, was so base and corrupt, that it was not even 
capable of the same fault. History was wretchedly degraded 
and perverted, both by the Greeks and the Latins. Among 

a IVuto'm Littiraire dt. la France, par torn. ii. p. 77- 

fe» Molnrt Benedict. Srpt. Sicol*, torn. iii. • Dav. Wilkins, Concilia Magna- 

p. 428, Ac. Britannia!, torn. i. p. 42. Henn. Con- 

' Jo. Mabillon, Analttta Vdcrit ASri, ringius, AntiquitaU* Amdmica; p. 277. 

< II I I 


the Conner, AftsfllfM, SopkntnUu, and others, an<l eXDOQg the 
fOVJlO, Jonas an Hibernian, Audoontuf, Undo, and 
Adm hove transmitted to us biographies of m 

saints, which are insipid and ridiculous and destitute alike of 
an air of probability and of elegance of composition. The 

Grooka led the way in eommitting t<> writing whn sports 

in circulation among the vulgar, in regard to more 
ancient times, without discrimination : ami hence originated 
of fables, which the Latins afterwards so gree- 
dily caogbt up and retained. 

$ 4. Philosophy, among the latins, was at an end. Those 

who weiv unwilling to i I altogether, wen HilJHflort with 

memory ■ few worde ami sentences, taken from 

Boiithius and Casglodorus. For they were not disposed to 

reason on the subject ; and they wire unable to consult the 

!«s. from ignorance of their Language. The Greeks, aban- 
doning Plato I uks, betook themselves to 

eptfl were nearly indispensable, in the 

theologies] conie s ta «>f the age, with the Mommhysitcs. Nee- 

. and Monothelites : for all these resorted to the Stagi- 
rite for aid. whenever they were called to the 

I of Edcssa, a Monophysite of tliis century, translated 
ristotle's Dialectics into Syriac'. 

* S«« Joe. Sim. Attenuui, I tOBL L |>- 4.%. 




S 1. Disputes about pre-eminence, between the bishops of Rome and Constan- 
tinople. — § 2. The former opposed by many. — § S. Vices of the clergy. — § 4. 
State of the monks. — § 5. Greek writers. — § 6. Latin writers. 

§ 1. The contest for pre-eminence between the Roman and 

Oonstantinopolitan prelates, had gained such a height in this 

century, that we may clearly discern the commencement of 

I that unhappy schism which afterwards separated the Latins 

from the Greeks. It is commonly asserted, by men of the 

greatest learning, and best acquainted with ancient history, 

that the Roman pontiff, Boniface III. prevailed on that 

I abominable tyrant, Phocas, who, after murdering the emperor 

j Mauritius, mounted the imperial throne, to divest the bishop 

i of Constantinople of the title of oecumenical bishop, and to 

confer it on the Roman pontiff. But this is stated solely on 

f the authority of Baronius ' ; for no ancient writer has given 

\ such testimony. Yet Phocas did something analogous to this ; 

if we may believe Anastasius, and Paul Diaconus*. For 

1 [Baronius, Annalet, ad ann. 606, the see of the Roman and apostolic 

No. 2. Schl.] _ church should 6c the first, (primam 

* Anastasius, de Vitis Pontificum, eue,J whereas the Constantinopolitan 

(Boiiifacius III.) Paulus Diaconus, had before assumed to be the first of 

de Rebut gestu Longobardor. lib. iv. cap. all." — By being the firtt and the head, 

37* in Muratori, Seriptora Return Itafi- both the bishops of Constantinople, 

ear. torn. i. pt. i. p. 465. [Anastasius and the usurper Phocas, seem to have 

says, that "whereas the church of Con- understood merely priority of rank; 

stantinople had claimed to be the first and not that supreme authority and 

of all the churches, Boniface obtained dominion which the Roman pontiffs 

from the emperor Phocas, that the afterwards claimed. It was intended 

Romish church, the apostolic seat of as a oomjJiment ,- but it was construed 

the blessed apostle Peter, (caput estet into a grant of unlimited power. See 

omnium eccleeiarum) should be the head Bower's Lives of the Pope*, (Boniface 

of all the ckurche$." Paul Diaconus III.) vol. ii. p. 545, &c. ed.Lond. 1760. 

says : ** This emperor, Phocas, at the ZV.] 
request of pope Boniface, decreed that 

n. I i uriti u 0F1 i' QOA 


whereas the bishops of Constantinople had ined, that 

their church was not only fully equal to tliat of Rome, but had 
denee of all other ohurehea, Pkoeat foebade <1 de- 

termined thai the priority of rank and dignity should be given 
to the church of Rome. 

§ 2. The Roman pontiffs used indeed everj n k Dam* 

tain and to enlarge tin: power and dignity which they had ob- 
tained: j ntory of this period aflbfdB many \> 

Only that emperore and kings, but that nations alao 

Many indications of the existence of the 
regal power, hi relimona matters, and oven over the pope him* 
Belli may be i from the Byzantine history, and from 

nh$ of Marcuffuf. The Roman writers ten us, that 
Pogonahu formally relinquished the ri^ht of con- 
tinuing the election of a Roman pontiff: and they eirr Ancuta- 
M a witness ; who states, tliat Ityonatus ordered, that a 
BcMkM {ton* [tr >'>rt. sl'i.nhl h, f/tfoht'it forthwith a,-,! toUkoVl 
ddfof*. Hut this testimony does not reach the point to be 

1. Tt appears, however, to hare bo fact, that this 

emperor, in the time of the ponttfl remitted the cus- 

tomary payment to the court, of a sum of money for the con- 
firmation of a pontifical election '. The aneicnt Hritons and 

eould not be moved, for a long time, either by the 

ii or the promises of the papal legatee, fcoeubject them- 

bo the Boman decrees and lav nndantrj - 

fied by ZW«* *. The Gaufa and tin- Spaniards, as no one can 

• AnastaaiuR, dt \'i/it !*• 


AnactamiM ftrv : OMMflUt, «' /«-rwi«/i, 

</u,t .','.; h',,!t it. •■■,,/ ... J. , ;,,r. ■,!,,<_ 
«* mtuflv tihttpi- 

n- I < tttOJ I" »l'l" lit ( MIA! i .in i ( • I. 

I. in morel.) lo ni 

' -uport ihiN i 

|. 111. Compare »l<v Jft. Maa- 



it <\\>\ not trinity : 

iiv dnmni : : ttM 

■ ivlfvaia etit quaiUita*, qtuo 

■ » ilh fli,- 

on that (ho ancient 

'miil'I In? ofaMn "t'li- 

ii taUr plan- till tfa (MM -nt of 
the emperor kIkhiI'I In* fn>m 

(Aguti p. 131, a« oi i 

r. . I 

» [Bona, His!. | 
ni. r. 86. fibU.— The ow erf Wilfrid, 

boninl : >»p- 

but wm iiiii . and 




deny, attributed just so much authority to the pontiff, as they 
supposed would be for their own advantage*. Nor in Italy 
itself, could he make the bishop of Ravenna, and others, bow 
obsequiously to his will '. And of private individuals, there 
were many who expressed openly their detestation of his vices 
and his greediness of power. Nor are those destitute of argu- 
ments, who assert that the Waldenses, even in this age, had 
fixed their residence in the valleys of Piedmont, and inveighed 
freely against Roman domination *. 

§ 3. That the bishops of inferior rank, and all who were 
intrusted with sacred offices, as well those in the monasteries, 
as those without, lived in the practice of many enormities, 
is expressly admitted by every writer of any note in this cen- 
tury. Every where simony, avarice, pious frauds, intolerable 
pride, insolence to the people at large, and even vices worse 
than these might be seen reigning in the places consecrated 
to holiness and virtue '. Between the monks and the bishops, 

case in point. Sec Bower** Live* of ike 
Ptt/jts, (Agatho) vol iii. p. 98—106. 
TV. | 

• [ It in well known, that the French 
kingn often de|>o«cd bishops, whom the 
jkmx'm, by all their effort*, were not 
able to rewtore ; and that in Spain Ju- 
lianiiM, the bbthop of Toledo, freely cen- 
mircd pope Benedict II. for sending 
into Spain hut disapprobation of a syn- 
odic letter ; and accused his holiness 
of ignorance, negligence, and jealousy. 
Yet this Juliunus is a canonized saint. 
See the fifteenth council of Toledo, in 
Haniuin, Concil. torn. iii. p. 1761, &c. 

7 Mich. Geddes, Mi*cAlaneou* Tracti, 
vol. ii. p. 6, &c. [and Muratori, Hid. 
ofJUilif, vol. iv. p. 167; where is a di- 
ploma of the emjKTur Constantine IV. 
in which ho releattes Maurus, arch- 
bishop of Ravenna, from obedience to 
the |Hi|>e. At his death, this arch- 
bishop warned his clergy not to subject 
thcuiHclvcs to tho Roman pontiff, but 
to apply to the emperor for a pall for 
the new archbishop. And to the pre- 
sent time, the archbishopH claim a kind 
of independence of the Romish see. 
Even the abbot, St. Columbanus, de- 
fends the ancient Irish manner of keep- 
ing Easter, against the popes, with 

great intrepidity ; and likewise the 
subject of the three chapters ; and 
this, at the instigation of king AgUulph. 
He maintains, that Vigilius was not 
watchful enough, and that the pope 
ought to purge the seat of St. Peter 
from all errors, from which it was not 
now free. See his five Epistles, in the 
Bibliotk. mar. Patr. Lngd. torn, xii p. 
l,&c. Sckl.] 

• Anton. Legcr, H'utoire dee Edtaea 
Vaudomty lib. l. p. 16, &c. [and Span- 
heim, I nt rod net. pltn. torn. ii. p. 698, 
Ac. #*/.] 

9 [Thus we read of Desiderius a 
nobleman, that he assumed the garb 
of a beggar, and conducted Brunechild, 
who was expelled the court of The- 
odebert, in safety to tho court of Bur- 
gundy. At her solicitation, her faith- 
ful conductor was advanced to die 
bishopric of Anxerre ; (Daniel, HUtory 
of France, vol. i. p. 351. of the German 
translation;) a worthy candidate for 
the episcopal office I To the simony 
of the clergy, the national Synod of 
Toledo, a. n. 653, Can. 3. bears testi- 
mony; to their ararice, the provincial 
synod of Merida in Spain (Harduin, 
torn. iii. p. 997.) ; to their tioltnce, the 
council of Braga, a. d. 675, where they 
were forbidden to inflict blows. In 



many partllMMWMM (juarn-ls ( xisted in different places. For 
the latter laid their greedy hands on the rich noaei 
tl.r hi. »nks, they might support their own luxury. And 
the monks. feeling tins vary sensibly, first applied to the em- 
perors and kings ; but not finding their protection adequate, 
resorted to the Roman pontiff 1 . M there! readily took 
mulcr his care, and gradually exempted them boa 
the jurisdiction of the hishop*. The monks, in F8( 
fended the interest of the pontiff, as if it WON tl< . and 

e<»iiniinonded him as a sort of God to the ignorant .mul- 
titude, over whom their reputed sanctity gave them nreat in- 
lliii'iit'c. these exempt io as of the monks were the cause 
of many of their vices and disorders, is admitted hy many of 
the beat writers*. 

§4. In the mean time the monks, from the favour of the 
pontiff, and their display of* fictitious piety, were every I 
lasting sorpriamg progress, especially among the Latins. 
Parents eagerly consecrated their children to (,'<m1, with good 

'lis of their property made over to the monasteries : 
is, the\ devoted them to uhat was esteemed the highest 
on earth, — a life of solitude'. Those who had HNri ttwa 
in guilts deeds, hoped to expiate their crimes hy conferring 
the greater part of their property OH seme company of monks. 

And bnmense numbers, impelled fcg Bupervtiiion, robbed their 

of their richest possessions, in order to render <iod pro- 
pitious to them through the prayers of monks. Rules for mo- 
nastic' lif.- were drawn up hy FntfftMSftf, Isidont> 
dinensu, Columbanus, and others, among the Latins* : for the 

rear a council at Toledo cotn- 
mooii 1'ii.i.- 

on pain of excommunication (llarduiu, 
km. iii. pi 1017*)} wid raquuad • 

new bi&hop to make oath, that ho had 
I nor protnuiecl to pay money 
for hits lit-l papal chair 

wu not free from mmony. To the 
/*»<*»» /r.iM//*mu.Mt be n-ckoiuil th»« mul- 

fal>rieat»d. Quite a collection of them 


t ion is in (Ttarlam Immunti'i' 
w/jwi ; '-U'l'- torn. iii. pt. i. p. f»" 
liaJuzc, MisecUam. torn. ii. p. If>y. torn, 
iv. p. 10B. Muratori, AnivfrnU. > 
torn, ii. p. 944. 040, &c. 

1 Soe Jo. Launoy. f-JomuH /' 
Utjii S. Qermani; Opp. torn. iii. DC i. 

p. 282. Dav. WUlana, QmoOia Ifafr 

nas Brilanmia, torn. i. p. 43, 44. 40, 


1 Gcrvaia, HuUArt d< CAbU S*jer, 
(■•in. i. p. !»— 16. 
' Loom Hohitriiiii- 

ua, &.•-■. 




Rule prescribed by St. Benedict was not as yet become the 
universal and the only rule. 

§ 5. Among the writers, few can be named who were re- 
spectable for their genius or erudition. The best among the 
Greeks were the following : Maximus, a monk who contended 
very fiercely against the M onothelites, and wrote some ex- 
planatory works on the scriptures, was by no means destitute 
of native talent ; but he was a man of a violent spirit, and in 
that respect unhappy*. Isichius, bishop of Jerusalem, ex- 
pounded some books of scripture, and has left us a few Homi- 
lies, and other minor works # . Dorotheus, an abbot in Pales- 
tine, acquired fame by the Ascetic Dissertations, with which he 
would instruct monks how to live r . Antiochus, a superstitious 

* [MaximuB was born of noble pa- 
rentage at Constantinople, about ▲. D. 
680. The emperor Heraclius made 
him his secretary, and intended he 
should write the civil history of his 
times. But the emperor falling into 
the heresy of the Monothelites, which 
Maximus abhorred, either disagree- 
ment between them, or the propensity 
of Maximus to a monkish life, led him 
to retire from court, and take residence 
in a monastery at ChrysopoHs near 
Constantinople. Here Maximus became 
the abbot. Before the year 640, the 
prevalence of Monothelitic principles, 
or the political disquietudes of the 
country, led him to travel. He went 
to Egypt, where he had warm disputes 
with the principal Monothelites. In 
the year 645 he went to Rome, and 
enjoyed the intimacy of pope Martin I. 
In 653, the emperor Constans 1 1., who 
was a Mouothelite, caused him to be 
arretted and brought to Constantinople 
to be tried for seditious conduct. He 
was acquitted ; but refusing to promise 
silence, in the controversy then raging 
with the Monothelites, he was banished 
to Thrace, and confined in different 
places till the year 662, when he died 
in the castle of Schemra, on tho con- 
fines of the Alan*. His collected works, 
published Gr. and Lat. by Fran. Com- 
befis, Paris, 1675. 2 vols. fol. consist 
of about fifty small works, answers to 
biblical questions, polemic and dog- 
matic tracts, moral and monastic pieces, 
and Letters. Besides these, he has 

left us Commentaries on the Canticles, 
on Dionysius Areopagita, and on some 
parts of Gregory Nyssen. He is an 
inelegant, obscure, metaphysical, and 
mystical writer, yet learned and zea- 
lous. 2V.] 

• See Rich. Simon, Critique de fa 
BiUiotheque Ecdhiast. de M. Du Pin, 
torn. i. p. 261. [Hesychius, or Isy- 
chius, first a presbyter, and then bi- 
shop of Jerusalem, flourished about 
a.d. 601. A Commentary on Leviticus, 
in seven books, is extant in a Latin 
translation, about which there has been 
much discussion, whether it was a 
production of this Hesychius, or of 
some other. Sec LabbC, Die. Hidorioa ; 
in Bellarmin, de Scriptor. Ecdenatt. p. 
227, &c. ed. Venice, 1727. The works 
of Hesychius, which are extant in 
Greek, are arguments to the twelve 
minor prophets and Isaiah ; two hun- 
dred sentences on temperance and vir- 
tue; seven Homilies; a life of St. Lon- 
ginus; an introduction to the book of 
Psalms ; and a Comment on Ps. 77 — 
107, &nd 1 1 8. He also wrote an Eedee. 
Hietory; and some other Commentaries, 
which are lost. See Cave, Hid. Lit. 
torn. i. p. 671, Ac. TV.] 

7 [Dorotheus probably lived about 
a.d. 601. He wrote twenty-four ethical 
and ascetic dissertations, (SidaoicaXiai, 
sou Doctrina;, de Vita rtete ft pie Ituti- 
tuenda,) and several Epistles; which 
arc extant, Gr. and Lat. in the Ortko- 
dwxfraphitt, and in Pronto Ducaeus, 
Anctuarium, torn. i. 7V.] 

H. II.] 

eiiriiril OKK 


monk of St. Sanaa in Palestine, composed a Pamdui of f/i,; 
Hofy <. i Etofl of the Christian Religion, a 

mrrk of no great merit*. Sm - biohop of Jerusalem, 

it ion of after age* by his conflicts with those 
reputed ;ls heretics in his days, especially with the M< 
He was evidently the cause of the whole Mouothelite cmitm- 
>ts of Crete has left us several fl fcmflln , whicli 
are neither truly pious nor eloquent ; and whicli sunn \ I 
fore. 3B0ped were falsely ascribed to him'. Gnyon/ Pit 
o stan tinopolitan deacon, besides a History of //■,■ 
and of (fa Atares % composed a few poemB and other short 
pieces". Tfoodorwt of Raithu is author of a hook against 

• [ Auii'K-lius •.. \>. SI I. 

■I' tic 
christian religion and 
tares, comprised in 180 Homui 
1 1 alo Do 

l bo wrote (M I 
.tin! dt I 

* So© I Mar- 
tii, ad diem xi. p. T». [Soph 

was a n»ti\' of h.unascus, ami for 

bceai •'■ . iwl in 

this character he sat in the eooneS] of 

AliMiii-lriii, bald I v I :>atri- 

urch of that BM , 

of miiliii 
lites and the cfttln lii • .. II. i 

IppOeod the seventh of 
the < which I 

rtablish. I 
Iw went to Constantinople, to confer 
arch «if thnt see, 

ii after ho was 

l Jerusalem, anil wrote 

of the 

tin !: ,'iir. and to tin- other 

patriarch*. ouuulrjf h:i 

laid waste. The San 
quired all t Syria, 

to Jeraaalan tn 

•Olmd .liriisiliiii, treated So- 

iriironios » 
>im • the 

free exercise of their religion; and 

h.ivii. rders for ereeting the 

mosque of Omar I 

pie, iv tin d to A3 bronitn died 

a hw months uft-T. in the same year. 
His Murks arc, the EM •.•rta- 

ttoaabove mentioned; four Homilies^ 

an account of tin- labours and tn 

•>f the apostle Paul ; 

Mary, an Egyptian ; and a tract on the 

Incarnation. The best acorn 

and his writings is »i< of J. 

Alb. I BiUiotk. Or. vol 

p. 198 Care, Hut. Lit. torn. 

I. p. 6i ••. /,.| 

• [Andreas was a native of Damas- 
cus, became a monk at Jerusalem, a 
■ at Constantinople, and at last 
arehhiwhop of Crete. His age is not 

nj ion b« waa contemporary 


trred ttome years after. I : 
published, as his works, 1'aris, 1644. 
in fol. dr. and I-if. asrentaen H 

i ' i-iroh 

Hymns; and several shorter Ilvmus, 

1 1 
and some |mjuius, in his Auctuar- 

•puttu Ptuttolit, 

• tonus, de 

m ofaonM o4 tin-*"- pieces is bus- 
' I • . kther Goom 

a deaoon and e£ 


tinojilf, and than archbishop of Nico- 
media. Re Hoorished about a.d. 640 ; 


BOOK II — « BNTUftY vii. 


those sects, which were eonadared as corrupting rhristiauiiv 
by tlnir doctrines concerning the person of Jaws Christ*. 

and haft left us CmwptltSj an iambic 

. on the Hexaemeron, 11. 
I860 lines: and another |xx-m, ill SB 

. l>oth 
by Morel, Pari-. 

iis poems (Eulogy of 
Heraclius; on his Persian wars; and 
the assault of the Avarsa on Constan- 
tino; i mtnised to the | 
by Claud. Maltivt, but were OH pub- 
Schroeckh, h'ir-Jungtxk. vol. 
xix. p. IOC, fee. Cave, Eft*. Lit. i. p. 

1 [Theodorus, a presbyter in the 
Laura Ituithu, in Palestine, flourished 
A ". HI'.!, and wrote a short treatise on 
the incarnation of Christ, in oppo 
to the heresies \pollinaris, 

Theudonii ' ; ■ Luty- 

. Julian Hulicar., Sevcrus, and 
others. It is extant, Gr. and Lat. in 

l'r '.\, Lorn. i. 

m U' Um /JilJiotk.utau. ■ 
torn, viii. /',-.] 

\m following Qvoek writers of this 
:y are passed ov.r by l>r. Mo- 
Mliv-iin: namely, 

John Malala, a native of Antioeh, 

My flooriahad about *. o. 

601. lb. vroie Ul' J -chi i Iraaaaij from 

tilt • .till of Justinian 

I. *. .-. pubUabi ' 

and Lat. by Hamphr. Hod\, I 
1691. thro, Bm Cava, llitt. Later. \. p, 

568, A:-. 

About the sane 
bishop of The* nan. an op- 

poser of Juim PoSopOBas, an>i Tlioona- 

tiu* taxaamed CoUnyanasj all polemic 

'■Ron the side of the catholic*. Hut 

only (gagmanta of their oaaaya and e p a s 

reached us in rhotana and 

tli'- Acta of Caui 

a iple, 
'•<»8 — G39, a favourer of the Mono- 

famous Ecthesis of Honorius. IK- has 
I '('istles, extant in the 
Concilia, torn. vi. 

> us, l/whop uf I "basis a.D. 620, and 
patriarch of Alexandria a.d. 630—640. 
lie bald a hMH.,1 ut Alexandria in 633, 
in which ba proposed a LMUu *xt'm- 

■>ii, in nine chapter*., doaha 
unit' .i,»iw or Severians to 

the catholics. Bat his seventh chapter. 
ition, containing ine of 

tie- Bfonothelitea, was opposed, ui 
to tierce contests. He also a 

ca to bis friend 
■taotmopla. All these arc extant in 
tin- CoHcUit, torn 

Thcophylactus Simoeatta, an Egyp- 
tian, a sophist, and a prefect, who 
nourished a.d. 611— 629. lb- wrwte 
Iliri-ir'uB Itervm a Mavrkia (iatarvm 
libri viii. from the vear 
edited Gr. and Lat. lngolst 160.1 
and Paris, 1040. fob aln 
abort Epistles, (inter ICpittol, i 
r.r#, brag. I6M 

ma I'htfiioi, Gr. and Lat. Antw. 
1696. 8vo. 

rgius, an abbot in Galatia, a. u. 
til 4, vms, to the life uf hi* predeccMtur 

. in Surius and otln r i 
turn or pious Uvea. 

George, patriarch of Alexandria 
620—630. He wrote the I 
Chrysostuin, which is puhUshed with 
(. "hrysoHtom's works. 

About the year 630, that vain 
but anonymous work, called in- I 
aift/n A-Ux'twirittHHi, F*»tu.< 
L'hmnicon PtuchaU f was composed ; 
perhaps by George Piaidcs, or b* 

rg© Pair, of Alexandria. I 
from the creati. The 

best edition is that of du Fivsne, Purls, 
1680. lob 

John Moschus, Kvtrutuf, Off 
rat us, a monk <>! PaJaatfao, who 
ri shed a. a. 630, alter tr.i i 

wrote his moukish hi 
entitled Pnttmn Sf>irti*al>', II 
norut, Vim naarjaai, and Yiridarinm ; 
extant in It. Duca?us, Audita, 
ii. and in Coteliex, Momtm. &■< 

Thalassius, abbot of a monasu-i v in 
., about a. Dl 640, wrote several 
traets; Dai I 

temtinntm !. u /I", extai 

Lat. in the BiU'wlh. max. Pair. torn. \\\. 
and Gr. and Lat. in Fr. Uuocus, Anth 
NBi ii. 
Theodorus, hialiop of Pharau in Ara- 
spt.a Kiityehionaud '• 
thelite coutroversiaJ writer, from whose 

I H ii | 



§ 6. The most dbtiogoiBbed among the Latin writers were 
the following: lldefontut of Toledo, to whom the $| -anuria 
<•• itniii treatises wwifwrning the virgin st, 
Mary*. Two book* of K|>isileQ, hy Desiderius of Cahors, 
were edited by Hm. Gdniriiu "• YSligiu* of Limoges has left 
us some / r prodnetSooB '. The too fool 

Ffri umfiiii by M'trri'iphns, a Gallic monk, help 

us much 1 " wretched state of religion and leani- 

1 this age r . The Englishman .1 1 ' tposed various 

tracts large extracts occur in the Acta 

an and Muiio-uni-iix- ■ 

•|. of Dai 

i oil placed in the fuurth, 

and wreath centuries, and 

perhaps liv wrote 

; enterics, in Syriac, on the works 

ol I' ; •opagita, and go the 

1. Jno. 

t<>i-ia, say 

». i>. 6*7o ; wrv 

MacariuK, ;i EfoDDOtballte, patriarch 
OSO, whoM 
(vmmoii of faith, and extracts from Other 
works, ar- . torn. *i. 

iop of Theaaalonica, 

A. n. 6VH), has left ua 01 ■ part 

of another, a fragment of a H>mn, 

irti of a Dialogue between a pagan 

and a christian. '/'#-. ] 

* 3m thfl ./ ■•' - Soaotor. Januarii, 

torn. ii. p. Kio. [Ildefonaua was i 

boni at Toledo, educated at Seville, 

and ui a monk and ahbot at 

A^'li, became archhiabop of Toledo, 

66? 867« Bia ten spurious hemi- 

lies an *es, and one spa 

tnutt, >lary, 

with ouo genuine same 

1 ..uar- 

; and afterwards 

>n i' ■ . \ii. 

WY hat i- tram I 1 .art on the 

east writer-,, in coutinua' 

1 •• mutdiuM, 
audit ,'itmi. Sere- 

ral •■' 


are I" 

1 ( Dcsiderius was treasur 

! :., i.n. 0*1 1, and lii-hop of Labors 
in I'nuK-.-, a. n. 899—061, Hi- tirst 
llook of Epistles 

rim wrote to his Mends 
d contains those nddn 

They an extant En 
n. Attttfmr, torn. v. and in liitt- 
i'ttr. torn. viii. '/>.) 
• I Kligius was horn near Limoges, 
became a coldaraith there, and was 
esteemed the beat workman in all 
France. In 635, kin^ *cot 

him as ambassador to Brittany ■ • 
a layman, he erected several monas- 
ti 1 1 •- and e I lurches. Hewas bishop •' 

;. 1. 11. »; 10 — <J.*>y ; and 
to found monasteries and churches, 
snd besides laboured lo spread Christ- 
ianity amonj ng . * 1 1 - ■ I 1 
landers, and tho Swabians. He In 
us a tract d 

nrsolionw, ! ■ been aacni>< d 

to AuRtmtine,) and an Kplstle to Deal* 
deriuN ol 'Labors. Of tin: It* Hoi | 
aserilwil to him, and extant in 
flflWofi ami Artf Inm au-st 

part, if not the whole, are su| 
be Bpuriou-. 'liny are eompilati 
fan tin father*, and several of tin m 
bear marks of I 

Bwtifi Lin- > France, 

1:. p. |6i, [Ainnit the vi", 

Marculpliu*. tlnu seventy year 
at the request of the bishop of Paris, 
compiled tlii.H book of formula* of dif- 
ferent instruments and writings used 
eourta, and elsewhere, 
in the transaction of eeclesiastieal 
affairs, and in the management of 
operty. It »»:i-> published, 
Paii and 1667, hj ft 


BOOK 11 


[part II. 

poems, with no giM bo i subjects i- Eating to a christian 

life*. JulUinus Pomeritu confuted the Jews, and lias left us 
other Specimens of his jr.-nius. which are neither to be 
• praised, nor utterly contemned 5 . To these may 1m» 
added *'r. -■-,,„,',/.■< \ whose JRridgtnmt of the Canons is well 
known, Fr>. and a few others*. 

■ [ rt This prelate certainly des- 
a more honourable mention tlian is 
mail.- «if him 1 

His | j do means 

Ute most dislin irt of liis 

character. Ho waa prufoundl> v< 
in the Greek, Latin, ami Saxon lan- 
guages. He appeared aim with dignity 
iu the Paschal controversy, that «« I 
I the Saxon and British ch on 
Sec Collier's E<xUmu> ■ ,\. i. 

|«. 121." J/.i..'.-Aldhelm waa grand- 
son to Ina, kiti£ of the West Goths. 
nt:, he travelled orer Gaol 
and Italy ; and pursued study with 
audi ardour, that ho became one of 
an. Re- 
turnini: hi Knqlxmd, he Brad first as a 
moii'.. :ira aa the 

abbot of Mahnsltury ; afterward 
was I .ue a. ii. I' 1 -*' 

1'Ki. I- • ';.. (lih. v. c. ISjj M lie was 
m^Itcur^hc doctusim%t*. WhU«* ah but, he 

wrote, by requi *t of an English synod, 
a book in confutation of the sentiments 
and practice of the ancient Britons 
and Sols iu ntpml to Ea*t< r ; fffctil 

lost. Ha aUo wrote a tr.. 
praise of virginity, hoth in prow and 
in v ; be a book on the ■ Ighl 

principal virtue*; and a thousand verses 
Of Knigmas. These and some other 
■ pubhahfld at Mayenos, 
iSOl. Ova and in the HMiotk. MM 
•in. \iii. 7 V.] 
9 [Julian us Pomcriua was bishop 
Off T.lfd.i, a. d. 680—600. He wrote 
commentaries on Joshua ; a di 
stration that Christ has come, against 
th. Jow«j in three books ; on death, 
the place of dejwirted souls, the resur- 
■ and final judgment, three bonks; 
on the diacxvfianccs in the 
feM iM.ioka; a hi-: 

lition against Paul, the rebel duke 
i nd an taneadi 

<.u'. His 
are in the tv.' f the 

*. ih.u. Pair. IV.] 

1 [ Creaeoniua was an African hi 
and flourished a. n. 600. 11 
rittm Oamntmm is a metliodieul [i 
to the canona of councils and decrees 
i Kunian poiiliflk, digested under 
.'tOO heads. He afterwards wrote ( urn- 
c/irii'm *n J.Utrr Gswoesnsw wUeb i- the 
same thing, except that the canons and 
decrees are here recited at leu 

works are in Voellua, and Justcll's 
'■. Juris C'wHM. Tr.] 
* Uittoin) Littcntire dt la Fran", 
i. p. 806. [FreiU^arius Scholas- 
ricus was a Gallic monk, who nourished 
a. D. 640. He compiled a Chroo 
boa the cixation, to the year of Christ 
•141, in five bod ahrOS first 

books. I .». D. 561, aiv u 

compilation from Julius Afn 

ins as translated by Jeronn . 
others. 1 he fourth book, comprising 
a. 0k 561 — 664, is an abridemeut of 

/" th* 
r. The fifth book, froin 584 U. 
Ml, was composed by Fredegarius. 
The Chfomieou was afterwards con- 
tinued liy odUK hands, to a. i>. 

ftli lM..,k i- 

Sariptorrt Rtrutu I The other 

books are, partly in O 'ionai 

i. ii. and partly in Gregory 

MMor. Tr.] 

3 [Tlv lolloping catalogue embraces 

a in writers omitted by Dr. Mo- 

; hi l>il of Gregory the Great, 
and I Brescia, ahout x. u. 

601. He wruten Collection of scrip- 
ture testimonies, in three books ; two 
from I st. and one from the 

i nith the works of 
!\ the ' treat. 
Faustus, a monk brought up 1 
Benedict, and sent Into ••mil wit 
Mauru*. He wrote, a. n. 606, the life of 
St. Maurus ; and tin iii< • 
riiiu*. Both are extant in 

in. i. 
Marcus, a disciple and companion of 

in. II-] CffUSCH ni i-K i.its ami c.<.\ ki;.\'\ii:\ r. 


I et, and retainer of thi 
of Benedict by Uregoi : H. 

a. o. I 

Boniface IV., pope a. d. CI 5, has 
loft us »u Epi*tle lo kiiii; Elli-ll 

; and a Synodic Deci. 
Cornell, torn. v. 

Bttlganuuia, a Spanish Colli, and 

count, a. D. 601. Six of hi* Epistles, 

I, Rave bsn "ft--. it con- 

Gothic king in E 
A. D. *'<\'2 621. S<mimI ■-! his ESpfe 

•_' his 
life and martyrdom cd 

H. tope a. o. 620—626. 

: c\u ti- 
ter, soother to Edwin king of North- 
id, and a third to Edill 

in Baro* 
. AmttJrt, ad ami. 618 and 625, 

tub monk, and abbot 
of Da 

confounded with Effi 

wrote d* iVraru Briionim L ioer, tire 
Brrruirium, or a 

which u il ■ d at 

nan. i. p. (H 

Hi II,' 

•• til. I'.ti 


ftutruat. Hi*. Tkeotog. II 

and ti Vsyaaia. vol. xx. 

p. 461. 443, flic. 446] I 


:iii a inuuk ; wluch is in M 
li-n. . ' 

a nhoi which are 

|Hibliabi d with tin- wo r 1 <iv. 
JoBM I., and ati 

'xiut a. f. <»:w) 
II w row • . i 

Bobieorta,of Eaatatiux ahl» A • 


and allot ol a monastery, and 

Far., i I i ■■•as of 



tin > 

061 ■ He was a 
1 1, *>*,• add, bishop in 

Ireland ; and mots an Epistle to 
nua, abbot of My, pa the paschal 

■ ■■'(>.•■}. /•.)"'»- 
H>'» ]>. 24.) and a book dn 
i Km Mfiisui in the 

BifJiv' 1 

.i \w iv . po] i, 641. Ha 


CODd pa-sdml BOD 

i the snip i 
III., in apology for pope Boooctas; 

snd a third to Isaac, lii*li ■■■ 
cusc. The* 
torn. v. 

Ail i> of 

a, a. n. 646— ««:». IK- In 
■ ■<■ of 'Ml, and wrote tin- lid 

!. >n throe books ; j.nh 
. by Sttrius ; snd per- 

■ ■ I . 1 1." int.- 1 -. .>]•*>■' 

also an Epistle. 

Tli.. pops, a. pi 642- I 

Ho has U Bpiotlofl : in the 

ton. t. and HfaH. 

max. ]'■'<■■. 

Eta .'-il . arc 
646—667- He me tract*, 

in VOnpO anil |ir \Uinl 

iii (Ik li'ilJi. fa, . . ■, \ii. 

16. lb' was u j;rcat 

of Graaory the 
ul to Rome to obtaui • 


Martin I.. pope, a. l».640 — 665. K<r 
has t>j 

was a 


is jail I I 

HOIl, III * < llt.TIl 1)1 

arc en 

Lat an- ii si. 

nd isnuurss] 
harsh. Hi' adhered 
kJ shared in his 

■ i 

it pa- 

od also pr< 

was foumh r hi ni 






jiarticuUirly tl 
up two Rm'I.jI 

that of Alcala : and drew 
t for monks one in twenty- 
chapters, the other in fcwi 
Both are published by Lu. Holstouius, 
• Regular, pt. ii. 
'uinus, pope, x. v. 657 — 671. In 
md Maurus the areli- 

nicated each oth if hta Bpav 

ties are in the Cbavflfar. torn, \ i. 

Syr top of liareelona, about 

a.d. 6*57. He wrote two Epistles, which 
are extant in Lu. Daohier, iyj'lcUta. 
Loin. i. or, DM ed. torn. iii. 

Cuinmeneus, mirnamed Albus ; an 
Iri-di muuk, aud ahhoi '"'7 

rale tin' i 

Colutubu, the first abbot of 11 v ; wlneh 

mav be seen in Mabillon, ^/rfa Sautter. 

,;.W. lorn, i. 

Jonas, a disriple «if St. f'nhimluuiua, 

and an lb 1. . Eh wrote, 

about a.d. 684, tin- life and miracles 

John, abbot l^-omoiciiais, in two 

hooks. Thi' latter book is in Mabilkui, 

yr. loin. i. 

.I.inis, a native of Tarsus in 

Cilicia, whom the pope made areh- 

A. D. 668. He 

wan a man uf learning, and very erfB- 

• i' nt in action, Introducing a fiuo 

and Latin works into 

England, he gave au hmmlM to leara- 

Anglo-Saxon clergy. 

He abjO diil imie.h to bring the British 

adopt tin- Koiiiiiii 

method of keeping Easter. His only 
«%nrk, 1 Ai.M'pt .in I'lnsilr, is bJi /'teat- 
t* i*tial. , or directory for dealing with 
offender* in the cbui 

Agatbo, |m.]h-, a. o. 680, 681, has 
loft us throe Epistle* ; which are in 
fh. Cbariflgj torn* vi. 

AdaumanuB or Adainannus, a Scotch - 
: DWOk, and abbot of Ily, \.n. fJS 
—704. He was \ 

- mill and Irish !■» adopt tie 
nian practice respecting Eaater. Ilia 

life of St Colombanua, in three books, 
is given by Caniaiua and Suriun ; and 
[•'•graphical deacription of Jeru- 
salem and other sacr m he 
learned them from Arculphus a Gallic 
bitihop and traveller, in throe books, 
was publisher! by Mabillon. Ada Sane- 
Baaai. seeul. iii. ]>t. ii. or torn, 
iv. p. IBS— 479; 

Ceolfrid, abbot of Wetvmut 
Wiremuth, in England, about ».n. 6IU), 
and preceptor to Beds. He visited 
; obtained of pope Sergius, pri- 
vileges for Ilia moiui.-ti rv ; and brought 
home books for the use of 1 1 
A long Epistle of hi- to Y 

.in defence of the Roman 
method of keeping Easter, is extant in 
Beda, 1. v. c. 22, and in the Cumcii'vi, 

loin. \i. 

Apl • little known 

wipi»t«ed to bare lived about a. i>. 680, 
wrote a Commentary on the Cam 
in six luniks ; which Ls extant in the 
MB I'i'r. t.m. viv. 

Valerius, a Spanish monk 
in Gallieia, about a. i>. 680. H. 
of St. Pnetnoane, is extant in Knbfl> 

Ion, Ada &ttid<jr. Onl. BtBtd. torn. ii. 
Some oth. r lives and treatine* exist 
■ MS. 

Leo I L, pope, a. d. 682—684. I 
Epistles ascribed to him, are extant in 
the Qmcilia, torn. vi. lint Baronius 
and others think them BVUriutt . 
cause they represent pope 1 1 
have been a Mo> 

Benedict IE, pope, a. o. 684— 686. 
II' lias two Epistles in the Concilia, 

Bobolcnua, a monk and pn 
who probably lived nl>out a. d. 600. 
lie wrote the life uf St. lo rmnnus, 
first abbot Grandivallcnsis, in tie- 
bishopric of Basle, who was slain about 
<i66 : extant in Mabillon, Ada 
Bandar. Ord. Bated, torn. ii. Tr.) 

« M. III.) 

i:iT.i«:inv \\i> rHF.O 




ji I . Miserable state of religion. — § 2. Expositor* of the scriptures. — § 3. Dog- 
matic ttnology» — § 4. Practical theology. — § ft. Renewal of penitential 

HI 6. State <»f polemio theology. 

v> 1. Denote this century, true religion lay buried under a 
lees mass of BUperetitkmfl j ami was unable to raise her 
head. Tl christians had worshipped only God, and 

but those called christian* in this age, worshipped 
the wood of a cross, the bnagei <>f holy men, and bonea of 
dubious origin '. The early christians placed besyen and lull 

H of men ; these latter depleted a certain fire 
nil to burn off the imperfections of the soul. The for- 
■aught, that Uhrttt had made expiation for the sins of 
bj hk death and his blood; the latter seemed to ineul- 

the gates of heaven would 1m- closed against none, 

i-ioh the clergy or the church with their dona- 
lions*. The former WBVe Btndioue to maintain a holy BHnpB- 

1 I will lun- quote a passage, 

if this 
i i'V of St. FJigiua, 

1 a ::. |i !»_'. 

i I Lord eoufem>d upon Lhut molt 
IimIs nun, among other mini 

I searching and praying 
after them, with the mont ai 

i h-»lv martyrs, which 
had lain concealed for so many ages, 
discovered." Thin most succcs- 
ful carcaas-hunk-r uf saint-. 

i ,. ! ,!m m, 

m, Lucian, 
other* ; aa hi* r minutely 

narr: ' 

nf >%;»intx and mai 
who Mi-lml to he esteeniul l 
mid to amass riches. 

* Si. Kli^io*, a great man df this 
ago, > : 

ii. p. !Mi.) "1. 

wiui comes ofteti to* 

bt laid on 111 
; who does not taste of fan 
• lnr. , til] In- lin-s first offered Btn 
it t<- I .as often an the 

solemnities return, keeps himself for 
some clays before, pore even from his 
own wife, ao that he may oat 
altar of ' iod with a safe conscience ; and 
who finally has committed tomein<>r\ 

' reed, or tin- LcVtft I'mv.-r. — 

while \>- huv.-t hi- means in 
— present (dilations and tithes | 
ahea, hring candle* to the 
places, aroonlinir to y..ur wealth — and 
often to tin- church, and beg 
Hii]i|»tiantlv for tin- intercession of the 


city, and to follow a pure and chaste piety ; the latter placed 
the substance of religion in external rites and bodily exercises. 
Did any one hesitate to believe ? Two irrefragable arguments 
were at hand ; the authority of the church, and miracles ; for 
the working of which in these times of ignorance, but a mode- 
rate share of dexterity was requisite. 

§ 2. Few, either of the Greeks or Latins, applied themselves 
to the interpretation of the holy scriptures. There remain 
some commentaries of Isichius of Jerusalem, on certain books 
of the Old Testament, and on the epistle to the Hebrews. 
Maximus composed sixty-five Questions on the holy scriptures, 
and some other works of like character. Julianus Pomerius 
showed his wish, and his inability, to reconcile passages of 
scripture between which there is apparent contradiction, and 
also to explain the prophecy of Nahum. Compared with these 
writers, the worst of modern interpreters are manifestly to be 
preferred. The Greeks, especially those who would be thought 
adepts in mystic theology, ran after fantastic allegories; as 
may be seen by the Questions of Maximus above mentioned. 
The Latins had too little self-confidence even to venture on 
such a course, and therefore only culled flowers from the works 
of Gregory and Augustine ; as is manifest, among other works, 
from the Explanations of the Old and New Testament collected 
by Paterius from the works ^of Gregory the Great 3 . Thomas 
of Heraclea gave to the Syrians a new translation of the New 
Testament 4 . 

§ 3. As among the Latins, philosophy was nearly extinct, 
and among the Greeks, only certain points of theology were 
brought under discussion, no one thought of reducing the doc- 

saints. If ye do these things, ye may bringing offerings to the altar, lighting 

come with confidence, before the tri- candles in consecrated places, and such 

bunal of the eternal God, in the day of like vain services." Mad.] 

judgment, and say: Give, Lord, for * This useless performance has been 

we have given." [" We see here a usually printed with the works of Gre- 

large and ample description of the gory the Great ; and therefore the 

character of a good christian, in which Benedictine monks inserted it in their 

there is not the least mention of the recent and splendid edition of Gregory's 

love of God, resignation to his will, Works, vol. iv. pt ii. but with no ad- 

obedience to his laws, or justice, benevo- vantage to the public. 

lence, and charity towards men ; and in * Jos. Sim. Asseman, Bibliotk. Orient. 

which the whole of religion is made to Vatican, torn. ii. p. 93, 94. 
consist in coming often to the church, 

. II. BIX.] 

iikli D viihn 


trines of religion to a regular system, and of stating them plii- 
lo.-uphicalry. Yel QUA Ai<(hj<-!ni.<. I monk of enm- 

posed a al maty of rehgknM doctrines, which he c 

The Ponded of 'the. Holy Scriptures. But the rank and influ- 
ence duo to this author, may be inferred from the mournful 
n work, in which the author deplores in 
vful strains the fan of the wood of the [true] cross, 
wluch the PtllriHHB wire said to DAV6 eari-icd away. A move 
md judicious Latin .summary of the fchoologj "J* this age, 
has not come down to us, than that in fldefonmu? hook d 

lately brought to light by Balnn i; — a work 
iridee<l which ice do not need, hot One that contains some 
valuable testimonies for truths which were afterwards dis- 

V'/;/''. bishop of Saragossa, eompile i 
Books of Sentences, whh'U are a dry and insipid body of thefr 
ll anrl practical divinity, taken from Gregory the Great, 
though Augustine is sometimes taxed for contribution- 
that tgaeatwoed it an admirable perl' 

immortality *• On certain parts of Christianity, a lew indivi- 
duals employed their pens; m Afammut, whs 
and << nd likewise 0» 

and Theodorus of Baithn. who wrote 
M It But those acquaint**! with the 

character of that age, will easily conjecture what sort of 
dm-tors these were. 

$ 1. The Luiientabl'' state of practical theology is manifest 

v writer on the subject in this age. The l»est .»!" 

them were fforotheus, in his Ascetic DaatertatJOtttl ; M i.clmut 

bfl ; EmjfMm and , in their 

; and a few others. But in th'-se. how many and 

how gred imperi'ections ! how numerous th<- marks of 

1 Sco Unitize, Mm >. vi. 

p. I. i fArly 

thing*, that the 
doctriiif of (t'l 
railed, watt DBkn 

(oh, 137. l 

— Ill* "I I V 

•II christian*. > 

otb*i 1 1-1.- - 

fonmu carefully oxcludi-* philo 

anil rcimon as at .'ion ; 

and taMbn tiuit (Ik-iv are two sources 
of tlte 
an J the writings - 

i iittrututiooifl auctorilati m, et 




HUjM?rsti(inu ! what constant indications of a mind vacillating 
:ni"l uualili- to grasp the subject! The laity, as they were 

to tax their teachers with exe- 
sc\erity. For it was customary to confine the obligations of 
DUB to a very few virtues; as is manifest from Aldkelms tract 
on the eight principal vices. And those who Dflglceted these? 
duties, were to incur no very formidable punishment for 
offences. A life of solitude, as practised by the monks, : I 
adorned by no marks of true piety, was esteemed sufhYi- 
itself to atone for all kinds of guilt ; and it was therefore 
oalled, by the Latins, a second Baptism 7 . This one fat is 
sufficient to show, how little the precepts of ("'/,->> IM under- 
stood in this age. Among the swarms of Greek and oriental 
ruonks, very many laboured to attain perfection, by mea 
contemplation ; and these ond.-a\mired to transfuse into their 
\> v\ natures the spirit of Dionysiiuf, that father of the mystics. 
§ 5. 7 T heodorus the Cilician, a Grecian monk, restored among 
the Latins the discipline of penance, as it is called, which had 
fallen into neglect, and enforced it by strict rides, borrowed 
from the Grecian ecclesiastical jurisprudence. This man, 
being unexpectedly raised to the see of Canterbury in Eng- 
land, a. D. 668, among many other laudable deeds, reduced to 
a regular system, that part of am al law which is called 

fina pamitentiaria. For, by publishing his JY-nitential, a 
work of which kind the Latin world had never before seen, he 
taught the priests to discriminate between more heinous and 
lighter sins, and between such as were BQOrai Hid -uch as and likewise to measure and to estimate them ac- 
cording to the circumstances of time, place, the character and 
-ition of the sinner, his sorrow, &c. ; and pointed out 
the punishment due to the several kinds of sins and faults, 
the proper modes of consoling, admonishing, and absolving, ami, 
in short, marked out the whole duty of those who hear con- 

1 [Soc HarduuVs Concilia, torn. iii. 
p. 1771j wlMBBj in the Capitula of 
Theodore of Canterbury, we read : At 
the (irdiiMtion u/monh, the abbot ought 
to say maas, and utter three prayers 
.id ; tad flu monk should 
m >l In- !i<:id with a cowl seven days ; 
and on the seventh day the abbot 

should remove the veil from the monk's 

in baptism the pM 
removes the infant '- \ • enth 

day, §0 Hhotild the sbhot do to the 
monk: for it i* a Mcomi llij>iitiH t accord- 
ing m tli'- decision of the father* i umi 
nil nin$ nn for>rir**, at in B'ltAism. 



kki.k;iox and theology.'iii,'. Hna iuw iii-rij»|jii«' of pn bough it mi ••!" 

'•!•• ■•• origin, was \n\ acceptable to the Latins; aiul. in a 
h)ini1 time, it was diffused IV- mi Britain over the whole Latin 
world, ami enforced by Penitent ials drawn up after the pat- 
tern of the original one by Theodorux. Yet it gradually de- 
clined aLjain. in the eighth century, and by the new ■ystom of 
what are mil, <l I iidtUgenc68 y was at length wholly subvened. 

§ 6. Those who wrote against the fefig^OOB sects that 
departed from the oommon faith, are search worthy of being 
Damed ; and they would not bo worth reading, were it not fc& 
th- bo elucidate the history of their times. Against the 

pagans, Nicias composed two books'; and PkoiitU mentioiM 
i pereon unknown to ns. who he oaye contended against them, 
with i great array of argument! drown from the father* 1 . 
Against the Jews eontended Julianu» Pomcriu** All I 
heresies are described and assailed, in the little work of T'uno- 
thetu, on the Reception of Hen-tics. Of the theological con- 
tests among the orthodox tl little can be said. In 
this toe were scattered the seeds of those grievous contests 
which afterwards severed the Greeks iV'nn the Latins; nor 

m they merely scattered, bat likewise took root in Hi 
minds oj to whom the Roman domination appeared 

altogether msoflbrable. In Britain, the aoeieot christians of 

that country contended with the new or Romish christians; 
that is. of the BftSOn race, whom Augustine converted to VhriM, 
Thi-y eontended respecting various things; as baptism, and the 
insure, but especially about thfi time for the celebration of the 
feast of Easter \ But t! - did not relate to 

religion itself; and they wen- settled and determined, in the 
eighth euitiirv. by the Benedictine monks, and in accordance 

with the views ol the Romano*. 

chapter* of I'hiloponos. Sell.] 
' Phuttua, BMi 

* Cuinniamis' Epistle, in Ja. Usher's 

Ih'«hi, Jlutoria Ecda. 

0.85. Dar. Wilkinn, QmofUa 
Hrihimn. t-.fn. i. |>. SJ 
tSrmWor. Fvbruarii. hot UL ['. -1. M. 
.!•*«. Dr. Warn* i 'iail 

l/ut.-i/ E*>fand, W*\V ii. umliii. M 

• Jn afahiUon, 


• Th..- FnuUmHal ..f Theodora* u 

■UU eMuiil. (Ikki^Ii ; pub- 

i y J;., p to, Pmrk, 1070, 4t<>. 
with leanu-I I'i sad notes. 

W« liavf abx) the one hundred and 
twenty tbj 
same Theodoras, in Dachier, ,\ 

\. llunluiii, ( •)Hcilia, Una. 

1771, and else* I 

• 1 .' more ia 
known, than thai be mm » monk, and 
that hf wrote a hook I 

vol. II 




[PABT It. 


§ I. Rites multiplied. — § 2. Some examples. 

§ 1. Tuk Oro eJ m, En tin.* council which is called Q»inh<\rtmn, 
made various enactments respecting religioua rites ami forma 

Df worship, in whirii flier.' were scv.rnl deviations from the 
Roman usage. These canons were puhlicly renin >1 in all (he 
churches within the territories of the Gfoeek eiuji'-rors; and 
likewise hy all churches which accorded in doctrine and worship 
with the (« reeks, though situated in the dominions of barl 

'. Nearly all the Roman pontiffs likewise added some- 
thing new to the ancient ceremonies; as if they had supposed, 
that no one could teach Christianity with BO CCCBO, unless he 
eould delight a christian assembly with rare shows and mum- 

These rites and usages were, in the time oA 
moan*, propagated from Home among the other Latin churches; 
lor the arrogance of the pontiffs would not suffer them to de- 
viate from the Roman usage. 

§ '_'. A few specimens may serve for examples. The number 
of festivals, which was already oppressively great, w;> 
creased by the addition of ■ day consecrated to the wood of 

the QT08B 00 which the Saviour hung"; and another to the 

1 [ This council was held at Constan- 

093, and waa composed 

cliii-ily <>f oriental t>i*ln»p», or whom 

.-••cmbled. The 

place of the seasons was a lull in the 

ial palace, called Tnillua; * hence 

the council waa denominated (\mrUium 

TYv'/aaina, and GmeUium ia Tniilo. It 

waa pmperly the seventh flj n , d coun- 

id supplied canons for the church, 

which the fifth and sixth had ncgloeftM 

tn make. Being thux a kind or tmpfJf- 

vtcul to the fifth and h. . 

icila, it was called i 
Kslumx. See chap. v. | l_' 1 

1 TMa. festival ww instituted hy Ibfl 
eiupcnir llcnicliiis, in the u-ar 031, 
after he had vanquished the Persians 
and rv-eovon-1 from th«in the real 
cross, which Coaroea tlieir king had 
carried off Court • fore. The 

festival waa established hy pops EionO- 

and was introduced Into 
Weat in thin erninrv. I or (he H 

■ n under the dominion 

of 111. p. n.r>-, and were be- 

CHi t% | 



com menu >rntion of hi* ascent to heaven'. Bonifac* V. in- 
vested (In- churches with those rights of asylum, which affoi idn I 
to all villains a license to commit crimes without much dan 
trt of ornamenting churches magnificently, was peril 
with great diUgaiiee \>\ SmmHuaK For. m neitik ' nor 

his apostles had enjoined any thing on this subject, it was but 

jig gradually to withdraw them- 
selves fan The 
earli Ida festival, which 
1 'reeks call ffravpafavna, [ami ibi 
Latin-, aniUaio ere/rw, kept Sept, 14. 

i iua, AmnaLi$f ad ami 
I ■ \ ■ 

p-a, a. o. 060. Sec Baumgartcn's 
EridmUntn-i drrCArlMl. Altrrtkiim.-r, p. 

310. S-hL) 

5 [It is to ba wished, that Dr. Mo- 
ohoini had fa iy for 

placing the origin of the feast of 

Kg the 
fifty day* next following KaMrr, tliis 
raj had been observed by the 
ii»n»,with |K<uliarsolumiiit 
since the fututh century : as m. 
Inferred from Augustine, h'.yitt. 1 18. ad 
Januar. Chrysostom, Flomil. 62. torn, 
vii. an<l // •uNltf* 

tkmmJpottoL 1. vUL o, t& I. ». ■-. 19, 

and especially from t '<■ .{■)■(■ 

timm, a.v. 600, where 19m 21 -c I 

aaya : Paacha, 

pliania, yfavMioaan Ik/n-< 

eoaten et natah-m S. Johanni* BaptiaUv, 

Qtar, nonntai in civitatibus anl in 

'•- (Harduin, torn. is. p. 

lOOO.) Instead of tin* f< stivnl, might 
ntt, as 
nating in « 1 * •-* ••••ntinv, under pope 
Boniface. In the eastern churcl 

ury. on the • itfhrh flay after 
v, and war i feast 

of all the Martyrs. But in 

churches, it had the fnllo-u 

I In I'.uitli. .in :i| ! 


Man ami all the martyrs ; aa it had 
before been aarrud to all the god*, and 
particularly to Cybehs On thi 
caaion, he ordered the feaM 
apostles, to be lt< 

li was afterward* aaakjn 

Philip and James; anil the ft-astof all the 

n >li" 12th of May. Bat this 

last I liy a large 

concourse I V. in 

the year ft.'M, tm 

««f* the year when proi i more 

easily obtal> -, to the first day 

of November ; and also consecrated it 
to All faint*. 8oe Baumgartcn's 
<l>rUtr. AJUrtMmir, p. 313. BM.] 

4 [Temple* were i 
among pagans, places of safety for 
valuable goods, and for men in to 
war or oppreaaion. Among the ehris- 
- at first, only the aur and the 
■■fti-ir enjoyed thin privilege. After- 
wards the sow of the church, and 
finally the whole ituiotmrtt partici- 
pated in it. All persons under prosecu- 
tion, whether in civil .ir criminal causes, 

iniicht Chan ba paeon till their case 

waa investigated. But pnblie debtors, 
. rutiawsy slaves. mur- 

-. banditti, and adulterer*, apeM 

prohibited by law f r < lit -if 


this right of aayluro degem 

a source of the mo-; dia- 

orders ; and to them thi* regular 

.w, especially, gars t!ie occasion. 
Anastasius Rihlinthecarius aaya of him: 
" ll< i.i-'Imiij -'I, tlut no person, who 
had taken I eh, should 

be delist I 

* [See Anastaaius, in his Life nf this 
iv. Hi- aavs of him. among other 
. il the < 'onfea- 
Pcter with i' 

wliich neighed LI 

laid thr great doors at the ei 

the church.' 

also made twnlar 

tensions, v.. 1 1 62 

pounds. h« Dkawiaa made foi 
ehur' li idrewe, a >il 

befbiv koud v i tab 

! y.'l |xviiii I • U.) 

a 2 


reasonable that their vicar should confer this favour on man- 
kind. Of the sacerdotal garments, and the rest of the appa- 
ratus, which was deemed necessary in the celebration of the 
Lord's supper, and for giving dignity and grandeur to the 
assemblies for public worship, I shall say nothing. 



§ 1, 2. Remains of the earlier sects. — § 3. Nestorians and Monophysites. — § 4. 
Monothelites. — § 5. Their prosperous circumstances. — § 6. Their adversities. 
— § 7- Contests arising out of the UStaic and the Hurog. — § 8. The sixth 
general council. — § 9. Sum of the controversy. — § 10. Different opinions 
among that sect. — § 11. Their condition after die council of Constantinople. 
— § 12. The council called Qainitextun. 

§ 1. The Greeks, during this century, and especially in the 
reigns of Constant, Constantine Pogonatus, and Justinian II. 
were engaged in fierce combat with the Paulicians ; whom 
they considered as a branch of the Manichseans, and who 
lived in Armenia and the adjacent countries. The Greeks 
assailed them, not only with arguments, but still more with 
military force, and with legal enactments and penalties. For 
one Constantine, during the reign of Constans, had resuscitated 
this sect, which was then exhausted and ready to become ex- 
tinct ; and had propagated its doctrines with great success \ 
But the history of this sect, which is said to have originated 
from two brothers, Paul and John, will be stated more expli- 
citly under the ninth century, at which time its conflicts with 
the Greeks came to an open and bloody war. 

1 Photius, Contra Manichaot, lib. i. cka>or. p. 41, &c. George Cedrenus, 
p. 61. Peter Siculus, Hittoria Mani- Compend. Hidor. p. 431. ed. Venice. 

OB. v.] 



§ 2. In Italy, the Lombards preferrv.i itUOOB of 1 1 1 • - 

Arians to the doctrines of the Ni noil. In Genl and 

in Bngland, the Pelagian and J3m . ■■> /'• la ttroversiefl still 

produced sonic disipui'tude. In the East, the ancient 
which the imperial bus had repressed, but had by mill! 

enbdued mv\ cscti&giiiahed, MBomed coinage, in laces, 

and were aUe to secure adherents. of the laws and of 
punishment, induced ! If a trmporan row-rai- 

ment ; but when the power of their foes was somewhat 
abridged, they agam resumed ooumj 

>j .'». The condition of the Xnivrians and Mem 
under those n of the East, the . wa.s far hap- 

pier than before that, conquest ; indeed, while the Greeks were 

oppreaeed and Mf^i both thaae aeete were even where 
baton them. of the 

[ttded a treaty first with M and 

afterward- with Omar, and obtained many advantages for his 
sect*. There is likewise extant an m % OT JWf 

it is conn that is, a diploma of Mwkamntd hm> 

self, in w liieli lie promises full securih to all christian.- bring 

und-r his dominion : and though some learned men doubt the 

ntieity of this instrument, vet the Muhammedaus do not 

call it in queation*. The successors of Muhammad iu !'• HD a, 

1 Jos. Sim. Asaemau. -rUnt. 

•MM, torn. iii. l«t. ii. p, KcSv, .\<\ 
1 Thin famous ImametU of Muham- 
ined was brought into Europe fan 
East, in the eai 

bin uiwiik ; 
rita, Paris, liutu 
afterwards, the Lutherans, J 
it in Latin 
i , H'uttir. Urunttil. lib. 

Orient. Vatican, torn. i>i. pi. ii. p. xov. 

p, HJfl. Those who, «i^ 

'l'«wt it wu» 

and Arabia, tu dream luu*d 

maaeera, iIm Mnhammsdana. Nor is 

iiippositioii . the 

a similar edict uf no 

thoy said lie drew up while a private 
to tii. m, ami beyond 

fraiiduli-ntly drawn in hran, 

iaud was sufliciuutly muni 
v< t the Bfnhammi dan 
tut. of all i rudition, I ,.a« a 

no nrdinanoc of thai] 
and they bt Lb re m itUL Tln- 
rftion Lot! bj Dentate. Cnn* 

timir, Hut 

■ i.'iu nt 
tlu-n I'.r.-, which Bona 

, in favour of lbs ZmtOHMNJ iu 

questi"!!. from the aeknowledgmant of 

il> in ill Mill, 

is of 1 1 •au»e, iu ' 

impost*! upon, than the rude 
and illiu-rale Muhaiimu-daii*. Nor in 
the tKjgaai 

<|iuoaers of the Tt*tnmrmt draw 
difference of its 




employed the Xcstorians in tin mast important affairs and 
business both of the court and of the provinces ; nor | 
they suffer any patriae no who governed this 

sect, to reside in the kingdom of ftabylnn 4 . The Mnnophy- 
in Egypt and Syria, were equally fortunate. In Kgypt, 
Arum, having taken Alexandria in tlie you ol I. .lir. <t. d ben- 
jamin, the Monophysite pontiff, to occupy the see of Alexan- 
dria; and from that time, fur nearly a century, the Melchitea, 
or those who followed the opinions of the Greek church, had 
no prelate*. 

$ k Among the (J recks, who were otherwise greatly dis- 
tracted, there arose a new sect, in the year 680, during the 
raSgn of ITeracJitts, which soon produced btich commotion*, that 
both the Bast and the West united to put it down. An ill- 

1 effort at peace produced war. The emperor // / 
considering the iuunense evils resulting to the Greek empire 
from the revolt of the Nestorian* la the Persians, was e\ 
ingly desirous of reconciling the Monophgritt* to the (mvk 
church, lest the empire should receive a new wound by their 
departure from it. lie therefore, during his war with the 
ans, first had a conference, in the year <>**2*2. with QM 
Paul, a principal man among the Armenian Mnru.physitcs ; 
and afterwards, in the year 02',K at Hierapoli*. with Anarta- 

m or patriarch of the ftCoDophysHes, ree 
fag the means of restoring harmony. lloth of them suggested 
to the emperor, that the believers in one nature of Chrhi, 
might be induced to receive the decrees of the council of 
Clialcedon, and be reconciled to the Greeks; provided, the 

that of tin- K-rtn. Tut it is not 
necessary lo suppose, tliat Muham- 
in'-d hinwlf computed this '1' 
meet 1 his 

secretary. But how - the 

Tnt<iMnt it-elf may be, the ■object 
matter of it i- iul. For 

li-:ini«-d men 1i.iv.- provrd, by powerful 
arguments, that MnhamtiM a 
would allow no injury to be offei 
Um christian*, and especially to the 
This Testament is a 

tatnsj sompftet, between Muhammad 
sad iii'.- Ncstorians 



promise tO him loyalty and i 
diencc. He promisee i rrli- 

gious freedom ; and they promise him 
fiupjKirt ap ■ <■ mil*. Mu 

raed might have deemed it sound policy 
to conclude such a treaty with 
sectaries ; that, by their aid, be 
scbdui- Dm ooomtaneaof Asia subject to 
the flits k emperors. SrJtl.) 

* AjMcman, RWuJh. (frimt. PefiflM< 
torn. iii. pt. li. | . xrvii. ftc. Euscb. 

.-A. AUm- 
asMJriwor. p. I r»:t. I8B. 

• ■oaoh. H'tiaiidot. FJsjftria l'ntri- 
nrrh. Al>j<in4ri*er. p. 108, 

CM. V.] 



Greeks would admit and profess, M Jesus Christ, aft 
union './"//•, /,-■<> tmhir-.i. liimfl MSI fofl OIK "•//.'. 0*4 0M MJMfr 
tery operation. Hvradius stated wliat he liad learned fan 
these men, to Setyius the patriarch of Constantinople, who was 
a native of Syria, and dMCOodori from parent* that were M 
phvsites. This prelate gave it as his opinion, that it aright be 
hold and inculcated, without prejudice to the troth, or to the 
authority of the council of Chalcedon, that, after the union of 
two natures in re was but one will, and DM opera- 

tion of \sill. //'/•'/(-// a ft, therefore, in order to terminate the 
discord both in church and state, issued a decree, in th« 
faith should he received and taught*. 
$ •"'. At first the affair seemed to go on well. For. although 
some refused to comply with the imperial edict, yet the two 
patriarchs of the East, Cyrus of Alexandria, and At/miuuiiu 
of Antioeh. did not hesitate to obey the will of the UupWUT: 
and the see of Jerusalem was then vacant 7 . The consent of 
the Latin patriarch, or of the Roman pontiff, was perhaps not 
deemed necessary, in an affair which related so exclusively to 
ftfa oriental church. Ct/riis, whom the emperor had prom 
from the see of Pliasis to that of Alexandria, held a council, 
l»y the seventh decree of which, the doctrine of Monothel 
which the emperor wished to have introduced, was solemnly 
confirmed '. And fcbfc modification of the decree of Chalcedon 
was so influential with the Mono thelites in Egypt, Armenia, 

• The writers who give account of 
this sect, aw enumerated by Jo. Alb. 
FabriHu*, JJiU . vol. x. p. 

204. The account which I liave , 
in the text, is derived fp.m the original 
sources, and reata on the moat explicit 
testimony. [The most important of 
the ancient document*, art- bond in 
"I the Late ran, 
a. n. Did, and in thoao of the sixth 
general coum-il, bolt! nt Constant 
<»82. Among tho mo 

it full and candid ut 
Dr. (orie drr 1 

J-- Z\ — 007* Sue ulftoScJiin 

xx p, 986 

' f*, from I 
rioann to tho em! "f tin* <•■ ntnrv. / , . 1 
7 S- MB, Orim$ i'hruliantu, 

•••m. iii. p. 2U4- 

• [The di>cumenta of this council 
are in liarduiu'tt Cimcilia, torn. I 
1327, fctf. The intention of Cyrus was 

■ >A. II v.i! • I ■■■ ., it tho 

agr aria ns and the Theodoaians, who 
composed a large part of 1 1 1 
of Alexandria ; and he considered the 
doctrine of one *Ul and one oyeniti-jn, 
us the beat means for tint* • n-J. II- 
foro,in»rei poke of oik 

tingle tkeandric oj I iiioy 

ivtpyovyra rd S<owp*wi| *ai a'v3p«- 
iriva fuif Stavtptxy Ivkpyit?,) \t i, for 
the sake of peace, be refr.M 
affirming either one, or tiro teW 

with tin- boal intt nti-.n*, gave occasion 
afterwords lo tin neoJo- 

gical contests. »S .'■'. I 




ami otfaer jirovinccs, that a great pan of them returned to the 

church. Thfv seem, however, tf) have explained the do. 

of one ir'ill in Christ, wliich was certainly equivoeal, according 

>>wn viiws, and not according to the general 
■unfa of their sect. 

\j )•'. I Jut this fair prospect of peace and haminnv was 
blasted, and a formiduhlo OCPteri was excited, l>\ a single 
monk of Palest in < I Sophronius. He heing present at 

the council of Alexandria, held hy Cyrus in the year 
strenuously resisted the article winch related to on* will in 
Christ. A ii<l the next year, 634, behlg made patriarch of 
.Jerusalem, he assemhled a council, in which he condemned the 
Monothelites ; and maintained that, hy their doctrine, the 
error, n tig the amalgamation and confusion 

of natures in Clirist, was revived and brought into the church, 
lie drew over many, particularly among the monks, to hi- 
tinients; and he l rial efforts to gain over Horn 

the Roman pontiff t<» hi* side*. But Swytai of Constantinople 
a bong and di-nvet letter to // Inch induced 

him to decide, that these held sound doctrine who taught, tliat 
there was one mM Bad in Christ '. Ilmee arose 

> [Soplironius waa most sincere and 
In the council 
of Alexandria, In- fell imni ! 

i, iiii.I . iitii iid i| liiiu , 

Uoomi. h ■ doctrine. But he was alone 
in bit opposition, Cyrus treated him 
rly, advised hiii | with 

Seraius thepetriardiaf Con 
on the subject, end wrote a lei 

us for Sophranhwto carry. I 
arrived at I 

i oured to eoothe Inn, r 

■iiu :»s BncaemtieJ, egn eo t-> write 
toCyniMiottoalhov en rayon 

. hut to leave en 

peculate as he pleased 
about it. Siphruniun now agreed to 

Sol whea mad.- i 
arch or JerunaK-m, his i 
I I 

i ■!■ i i prorioeaal Brand, u» Dr. 

1 ! D I | 4 Ue !" flu Otfal I" |>:ilri- 

arche on oecasi. •:■ .,'mn. 

contained an elaborate discussion < ■ I 

i. and .t li from 

the fathers, in proof that i 

■■■• wi//» ami i WM tin 

Harduin's ' lorn. iii. p. 1867. 

'creuta to the Roman 
iflshave taken the utmost pains to 
disprove, list one- of the jKHitiffs should 
■•d in a matter d 
. ..mong many otl 
I . liimluiii. «'. Sneram a/o 
his I p. 25.'), A.c. And 

indeedj it m ii"t difficult either to ac- 
cuse or excuse the man. Per be ap- 

not to have known what fa 
think, on the Bull i Ct, and to 

d< finite ideas to the 
: whiidi Ik -:.■■ . 

tliar fore was bnl 

f Kill in < : 

itinnplv. He was therei 

■ . if it 

I II. \.) 



severe contests, which divided the commonwealth, as well a* 
tin* churrh, into two parties. 

§ 7. To. quiet thaw gro a t commotions, IhrciHins published, 

in the y»-ar 680, an EbAmU% drawn 1 1 1 » by Se/yhffi, that is, a 
formula of faith ; in which, while be bffbid all discussion of the 
question, whether there wen- ouh <///'•, or a t<r {l f„l,l 

'ion in Christ, be clearly stated, that there was but one 

Tin's new law was approved by nut a fow, in 

i ast, and first of all by Pyrr/uu of Constantinople, who on 

tta death of /SbryttM, succeeded t<« that sec in fcbe j 

he Roman pQOtiff«/oAfl IV., in a council held this year at 
Hum.', rejected the Ecthm^ and condemned the Monuthelitee*. 

be true that universal council* cannot 

! ' J) Unslo 

Iktiamikmu mum Ctmu GnU'uyittut, 

Pot&taK Eccimattica 

- pi. ii. lib. i ii. cap. 21, &e. p. 

182, Ac A 11 J a. Baanage, 7/u/oim 

I ptfeo, torn, i. \<. 101, £& | HoDO* 

rim* wan made acquaint' -1, by s,. r jriua, 

above mentioned letter, with the 

origin and whole progress of the eon- 

and he was so iin pressed, 

in hi* aiu»«r to BorgtlM, (which 

i^ in llarduin'tt Coucilui, torn. iii. p. 

ISIOj -v. .) he so far agreed villi S. as 

that he would tiut Rftv« 

i 'iont and divine wills i i r 

ed ; vit be did rOTJ clearly maintain 

at- trill in Chriat, expressed liia 

ftnnkl ' lironius,atid de- 

elan d the whole 008 to be 

i '••rtant and mere logomachy. 

vtant abK», (ibid. p. 13.1l".) 

•vtrart from a soeond loM 

to Sergiua, in which Im -till 
opinion. The 
> la ofl tin- BonUl church have 
; great pains to justify thia in 


general eooi corrupt 


,-, i Q| (OB 

'.•"•. II-' DMBBt 10 fleny 

■ ■,,..i'. m ilk 

rote only an a |n 

! not ae ■ bishop, and also 

Jormi I bj and 

■ i hi- 

ven eafboli 

Richer, Hut. Concil. General, p. 29«, 
Ac. ftn I'in, JliUi.Uh. I* mi. vi. p. 6*7, 

■ sixth general coun.-il. i.m 
in the seventh and eighth, and in 
that in Trullo, and Khowiai b> hi | 
Buceeasors (Agnthn, Leo II., Hudrian, 
Ac.) and in named in several Rll 
and particularly in the Breviary, and 
festival of Loo 1 1., toother with 
Sergius and Cyrus, as a person </<i«s- 
m*t<r manorur. This is manifest proof, 
tliat no -in- thru, orofl thought of an 
infallibility in the RorbMi pOPOB, 
withstanding in 

name of Honorius boa been erased from 

ScU. — See Bower's 

bo) vol. iii. 


' [This Eethesu is in Hardum's Cos- 
oiUttt torn, iii. p. 791, Ac. flbtt.1 

3 f I'li'vion-ly to this, Sergius as- 

and not only estahlisli' d 

eordat, but ordl 

men who sliould not udopt i; 

liable to deposition, and all monks and 

. i ullii'.iti'.i,. 

Extni i ; of tlii- council 

are given in tin- Act- of i 

D. U4:>.| in llarduin, torn. 
iii. p. 7!'-'». fte. I'yrrhu-. the Micceaoor 
iie received thia for- 
mula in an amemldy of the elergy, A.n. 
(140, and command, d all biahopa, whe- 
ther present or i 

• in Uaiiluin, toin. i i. p, 7!»7 
♦ I II. radius transmitted the S 




As the controversy still continued, the emperor Constant in 
the year 646, pdbttfhed, with the flHfMHWt oi* 1'aitl of Constan- 
tinople, a WV edict, called the Tyjms ; by which the Ecthteis 
was annulled, and silence enjoined on both the contending; par- 
ties, as well with regard to one xolU, as with regard to one 
of will in rhrist*. Hut by the impassioned monks, 
silence was viewed as a crime: and by their instigation, 
1 >ishup of Koine, in a BOOBcS of 106 biflbopB, in 
the year 1 1 fruimlillffll both the; Bd fatii and the Ti/pm, 

(but without naming the OOOpOron,) and likewise all patrons of 
the MonothetUm '. 

vj s. The audacity of Martin, in anathematizing the ixii; 
edicts, provoked Constant to issue orders for the arrest of the 
pontiff, by the exarch OiIH(ohx.<, and for hifl trans[>ortation, in 
the year 650, to the island of Naxia. Maximum the ring- 
leader of the seditious monks, was banished to liizyca; and 
others, not less factious, were punished in different ways'. 

tkent to pope Scvcrinus at Rome, by 
li Ixaariu". (Harduin, torn. 
iii. p. MS.) W 'h-tli.-r B OWBIH M sub- 
mitted to it ia uncertain. But that 
his envoys, * -lit In 1 Constantinople to 
obtain the confirmation of his election, 
could n i II they iiu'l en- 

Raged lie should receive it, is eertaiu. 
Hi» successor, John IV., rejected it, 
aoon after ■ , in a 

nril council, od vUefa we have 
only m iluliintis arc. mnts. On the 
side of this pope stood the island of 
ml Numidi .i. ie, the 

I'l-ovim-ia I'lMcoiMularis, and Maurita- 
nia; from all of whirh |U)UVlUHi synodal 
Bpirtlm an- still extant, which show 
that the bishops there paised resolu- 
tions against lbs Ectlx They are 
in Hanluin , torn, iii. p. 7'-7> 


* [This IVpM is io Hardum's Con- 
eUi<i, torn. iii. p. 112L1. A.e. .Vaf.) 

6 [This ootntall was lirl.l in tho 
ii of St. Join of tin- Luti r.n. 
m called th 
Acts of it an- in Haxduin'fl 
torn, iii. p. (UK— 946. The year l» 
pope Theodore had held a council :il 
Rome, in wliii-h ho roml.-inncd Pyr- 
rhus, who had lost the patriarchate of 
l'oii»Luiitiiu>|>l.\ iii eanMfMMfl of lib 

taking part in the offO commotions of 
that city at the election of a Be* 
peror, together with his successor I '.ml: 
and had mingled some of the sacra- 
mental wine with the ink, with which 
L'ned their condemnation. See 
"s H'mori* tkr Kinhentvnamtnl, 
p. 419. T*i : Consults hoped, 

liy means of his Tyj'ii*, to put an BM 
(•> all those>.; and he would 
undoubtedly have succeeded if he had 
had only candid and reasonable men 
to deal" with. B«l at Rome a de- 
termined .spirit of svlf-justificatii. I 

: ; and unfortunately, l'o[>e Mar- 
tin was a man who sought to gain a 
reputation for learning, by met*] 
ical wrangling. Ho condemned, in this 
council, the opinions of an Arabian 
bishop, Theodoras of l'liaran, a zea- 
lous Monophysite ; but toi 
lightly on the doctrines of llouorius, 
as not cvni to mention his name. 

T [Pope Martin, to give the pro- 

uig a less • bll .-'••[••<•!, 

us crimes, lie 

was ilmr-.d pftfe being a partisan of 

the rebel exarch < »l_i nipiu--, 

ing supplies «>f money t«> tin- Saracens, 
tbe. From Naxia. ho was brought to 

mtinoplr, and there subjected to 

< H. v | 



SQOOeeding Roman pontiff, Ivnaeniw and VitaliamuB, 
wen. 1 more discreet ami moderate ; especially the latter, who 
received Constant* upon his arrival at Home, in the year 663, 
with the highest honours, and idoptod meeoBrei to prevent the 
controversy troiu being rekindled*. It therefore slept in ail 
for several y» m .Hut U it was only a concealed fin that 
burnt d in secret, and as new commotions hazardous t<i tin* 
public peace were constantly to be feared, ( 'outfit utine Pogo- 
nat us. the eon of Constant, having advised with die Roman 
pontiff A<ji''h>, summoned a neutral council, in the 
which is oaDed the .«/.rM of the tecumcnical councils: and liere 
be permitted the Monothelites, ami tin- Unman pontiff / 
riut, to be condemned, in the presence oi I legates; 

and he confirmed bhfl decrees of the council, with the sanction 

oi* penal laws". 

a judicial trial. II' WOttM certainly 
Ma head, an a traitor, nd 
u-.t the dyiii-i patriarch Pan] 

iiniiti- his punishmi at 
inio k.nisl". 

soon after died in great distress. See 
his fourteenth and bUBwia 
in Ladlid, > 

i. xv. also Murntori, 
iv. p. 115, \e. 
£kU. — Also Bower'* Lim Of 
vol. iii. Tr. ) 

• (Vitaliunu*, as noon aa ho wad 
patched In-, envoys: V 

ion of Ilia faith to the 
|*»tria»vh. Tin discreet procedure of 
the pop* and tin- poHucal ein 
rtSOOSS Of the times, caused Iii- | | 

t<> he vn II r.e. ivt d, and to be sent 
back Ui BoBS by Constantino with 
splendid presents. The patriarch of 

"f ra- 

• fi«r union 

i cn»i>eror 

■ me to 

lion i . the 

ir than it is nn 
racier to show to on.- who had mur- 
dered hii 

i jilt 
thm, villi all his 

miles from Rome, and escorted him 

be city. Hut all tin- I 
showed l<> UM SmpSTOI 

him from earryinf off hi t tasftantmophj 
nil tlie hzMSWueii ornamented tli 

and even the plate* which DO 
roof of the Pantheon. .See A imstasius, 
i ; and Haulm* Diaco- 

Mpoanipr. lih. \ 

• [This council was sailed hj iii. 
emperor, who presided in it in person. 

biabOflf was small at 
first, but increased to near iWMh I 

eighteen sessions from the 7<h 
Nor. «80, to the Kith .Sept. 081. No 
one of the ancient councils wai 
ducted with mots dsenram and Etb> 

ness. Yet not the hihle, hut tie 
erees of former eoonefh), and the writ- 
ings of the Esthers, wen- the auti 
rsnsd Bpon. All ths great patriarchs 
were present, either personally si 
tin ir representatives. At first thf 
parties were nearly balanced. Hut in 

morion. March 7 I 
the ]4itiiareh of Constant in 
over t4i tin -1.!.' <•{ lhs orthodox i and 
was followed l»y all the clergy of his 
diocese. Maearius, the patriarch of 
•h. who Mood firm at the bead 
of tin ms was now 

iHii.nheliU^as >•< were 




:entdby vii. 

[faki II. 

§ 9. It is very- difficult tu define the real sentiments of the 
M..nothelites, or what it was their adversaries condemned. 
Pot neither partv m uniform in it-, statements, and both dis- 
claim the errors objected to them. I. The Monothelitea dis- 
claimed all connexion with the ant and the Monopky- 
and confessed that there were, in < 'hrist the Saviour, 
ttoo nature*, SO united, without mixture or confusion, as to con- 
stitute but one person. II. They admitted that the human 
soul of Christ wns endowed with a will, or the faculty of willing 
and QilOQeing; and that it did DOf IqM thi> power of willing 
and choosing, in consequence of its union with the divine 
nature. For they held and taught, that Christ was perfect 
man, as well as perfect God ; and, of course, tliat his human 
soul had the power of willini; and choosing. III. The\ de- 
nt d this power of Witting and choosing in the human soul 
of Christ, to be inactive, or inoperative : on the contrary- 
conceded that it operated together with the divine will. 
IV. They therefore, in reality, admitted two wills in Christ, 
and tliat both wer aid operative wills '. Vet V. 
maintained that, in a certain sense, there was but one. trill and 
one oj of will in Christ. 

5j 10. But these positions were not explained in precisely 
the same manner by all who were called M Some 

of them, as may be fully proved, intended no more than that 
the two wills in Christ, the human anil the divine, were alwavs 
>niow, and in this sense one : or that the human will 
always accorded with the divine will, and was. tlv Iways 

holy. Upright, and good. And in this opinion there i< nothing 

aii'l flmnfen rii< 1mm of Am i 

cil were finally carried by a unanimous 
vol.-. TIp .-iMrua of I'haran, L'vroa of 
Alexandria, Sergius, Pyrrhu* and Paul 
of Constantiimph-, H-.m.riuK of 1 
Maeariua of Antioch, and some others, 
condemned a* heretics; and the 
diKirine of two ttiltt, a human and 
di\ 'irie, and two 1Mb ■'</ r-Jnnlarg aoU 

Acts of tlii> council, Gr. and L;n 
in M;inlui lam. iii. jt. I04II 

— 1044; a- 1 not (u lei tied, as 

• alholica formerly a*- 
'fia, I>im*. i Attu *i. 

Of in his A IhtiL I'ulr. 

it'.r. torn. ii. p. fi3. Jo. Forbes, !»• 
itmetio J/i*. Tim J. 1. v. c. 10. Do 
Pin, Bibiiotk. ./. lom. 

vi. p. 61. Ckvtt, Hid. Lit. torn. 

605. Bower, Li res of the J'ojvm (A«a- 
n. 7'r.J ' 
1 (They 
voluutary /lomrf, a human and a di- 

nt.iii.i'd, that wh< u 
brought into action, llx \ operated as 
it th.y *< v> lu* mm. H\ ihe expres- 
sion MM WW, tl 

IMLYC il -<f I he 

will, and I.;. 'vm Uwy bat 

.;. Si v Walrh, UiMnrv. 
•1>t h TV.} 

ill. v.] 



censurable \ But. others, approaching nearer to the Monopht/- 
site*, supposed tliat the two wills in Gfarirtj kiuri Es, the two 
powers of willing, in consequence of the personal union (as it is 
called) of the two natures, were amalgamated and beoatD 

still admitted, that tlie two wills could be, and 
should be, discriminated in our conceptions. Th. 
put <>f the not, and ■ >ssessiiin the greatest acumen, 

supposed that the will of Christ's human soul was the hwtru- 
////•/// of fan diviim will: yet when moved and prompted to ftd 
it 0[>erated atid put forth volitions in connexion with the 
divine will \ From this supposition, the position so obstinately 
d by the Moiioth.'{it>'.<, was unavoidable, that in Christ 
was but one will and one operation of trill. For the 
fion of an instrument, and of him who uses it. is not two- 
fold, but one. Setting aside, t the suspicion of 1. 
chianum, and other things connected with that quest i«»n. the 
point in controversy was, irhrth 
times acted from its own impulsi. 

hi/ th. mttiffatwn of th; divine nature. This controversy is a 
BtrOril it ion of the fallacious ami hazardous nature of 

roligioi] which is made to rest on ambiguous 

phraseology. The friends of the council of Chalcedon en- 
ured t«» ensnare the Monop&fsUeM by means of a propo- 
sition of dubious interpretation ; and they thus impnul 

lie church and the Btatfl in long protracted contro- 

§11. The doctrine of the MbnotksUtt^ condemned and 
exploded by the council of Constantinople, found a j.l.i 

ge among 1 1 .-», a people who inhabited the moun- 

ns and AtUUibanua, and who about the conclu- 
sion of this century, received the name of M-tr>jnil>s. from Ju. 
Maro their first bishop, a naum wlueh they still retain. No 

I [8w WaJeh, HUtori* *r ffefer- 

rvym, p.M»'J,A:<'. where he names 

08.) Sergius, Houorius, 

an J the Ecthcais, as giving tlivsu view*. 


■ T According to Dr. Walch, Hleorit 

r**r*jws, vol. ix. p. MJ4. fee. tb« 

■ubordination of the kumw 

dmmt in Christ, wan explained by 

•acne to be altogether eafnafary, or a 

oojneo.wnce nf the pious resignation 

,i"<l tit-- f'.p-h .,t tht- man Christ Jesus; 

Awn supposed, that it resulted 

from the wa tm ntflitimioe by whi.h 

th.' human h'ltmrr- bceaniu Un- iuMru- 
men* by whioh the «/ 
id ; I i ostmted the n 

i -etion of man's 1ki«HU d 

I • is mind or soul. 



T II. 

one of the ancients, ifUJOflfl , lins mentioned this mail, as the 
bb who bruuglil the Lil>ani<it.« t*. wmtrwn Monnthnletism ; 

hut there are BtKHg reasons for believiiurthnt it was this . 
win iso HMBM of Mtiro passed over t«> tin- jienple of win mi he 
was bishop*. Tliis, however, is demonstrable, fan tin testi- 
mony nf William of Tyre, and of other unexceptionable 
witnesses*, that the Maronite-* vrvre*. for a bug tii" 'elii«t 

in sentiment ; and that it was not till tin- twelfth rentnrv. 
when they I weal no reconciled with the Romish church, m the 
year 1182. that they abandoned the error of one u \U in 1 'hrist. 

nost learned oi odern M aromtes have very stodii 

en<leavoured to wipe off this reproach from their nation, and 
have advanced many arguments to prove that their ancestors 
were always ohedient to the see of Rome, and never embraced 
the sentiments either of the MonophptiU*. or of the Mi>ix>th>'~ 
lite*. But they cannot persuade the learned to believe so ; for 
these maintain, that their testimonies are fictitious and of no 
validity \ 

* The Buniaino of Maro was \ 

|0 tlii-* in- -iik, became Ik- had li-.- I ifl 

monastery "f St. Maro, 

•r Oroutes. i took 

nee tunong the Mardaitce on 

mount Lebanon. A particular account 

i en of him by Jo. Sim. A woman, 

MUiotk. OnrnUd. Clement. 1'oOV. torn. 

i. p. 4!M». [(Jahricl Siunita, da Uritibut 

ft Moribtif Or'uitt'il. eap. H. dwifW th>- 

name of Maronite* from an ahhot Ma- 

BOBj whom he extols for his holiness 

and kJs virtaea j bul be will acJaunr- 

fedge no hen lira! M;ip>. 6 

* [The passage of William of I 

i« in i Rcrum >» Parfihus 

Tntnmvtrinit (Tatar. I 0. K. 

and is litis : " A Syrian nation, in the 
pravUMt Of Phenicia, inluihitin 
cliffs of Lebanon near the city B 
while enjoying temporal peace, ■ 
ri< need a great change in its state. 
For, basing followed the errors of one 
Maro, a luTmiurk, for nearly 500 years, 
and so as to be called after him Niaron- 
ittt«, and to be separated from the. 
church of the faithful, and maintain a 
ate worship, through divine infill* 
Dee, reluming now to a sound mind, 
the) put i>n n--wt|ution and joined i 

■all h to VtmerieH^ lbs pall I ml •-> 

AnUoch."— The Alexandrian patriarch 

, whose annals Poeock has 

translated from the Aral tie, likewise 

mantunaa amok latata, "who aaaafc> 

.it Christ our Lord had two svi- 
turts, and one tx ration and 

person, and corrupted the Gaitfa of men; 
and whose followers, holding the same 
sentiments with him, were called Ma- 
ronites, der; r name from his 

name Maro." .SrA/.J 

* The cause of the Maronites has 
id by Abrab* Kehelensis, 
-nita, and others of the 
Maronite nation ; hut by none of them 
more fully, than by Faustus Xairon, 
both to lua JH w rrf . de Qrfaj n e,l¥oaiftM 
ft IbtigioM Manmitanim, Ronie, 1670. 
Bvo. ; and in hi- / ' - pHa 
luxe u Syrorvm ft ChMaronm MntM 
Meafw, Rome, MM. flro. i 

d none to believe his positions, 
sxeepl Am. Pagi, I in 
nvin/i, ad aim. 004,} and P. 
Beoaos ; in whose Voyage. Ae 8yrie M 
. torn. ii. p. 88—138, there 
is a long Dissertation concerning the 
i of the Maronite*. Even Asse- 
man, who. Wing a Maronite, spared 
no pains to vindicate the character of 
his nation, ( Biblioth. Orfrafai. Paffotft. 


OB, v.] 



§ 1*2. Neither the .sixth [general] council, which condemned 
ikdfyt) nor the fifth, which had been held in the piv- 
ceding century, enacted any canons conn-ruing discipline and 
rite* Therefore, a new assembly of bishops was held by 
order «>t'./ //. in the year ti9*2. at Constantinople, in a 

toWM of the palace, which was called Trnllut. This council, 
from the place of meeting, was called Concilium TrnUanum; 
ami from mother circumstance, '. 106 the 

idered tte daera - n necessary to the perfection of 

\cts of the fifth and sixth councils. We have one 
hundred and two canons sanctioned by this asscmhly, on 
various Bubjeetfl peztafauBg to the external part of worship, the 

mi- nt of the church, and the conduct of christians. But 
six of these canons are opposed to the Romish opinions and 

•'is; and, therefore, the Roman pontiffs refused to 
approve the council as a whole, or to rank it among the 

ll councils, although they have deemed the greatest part. 
of ils canons to be excellent 7 . 

. t dOM BOfl nVny, that 
imi«"h i if what hiw been written by 
Naimn anil «»tlnrs, in behalf of tho 
Mnrouiu-s ii rithoul weight or i 
i in. Sm J". Moi 
Sacrh, p. 880, «\ • ikhi, //u- 


m|>. \iii. p. I -ii!. I 

140 ; '! 

- r \v Brin 
l„ M.-K+-, torn. ii. p, OJB, fee, I 'an*, 
1796. Bra. The arguments on both 
aide* are mut i • !. in : r)ir r- 

rin lii- own jndffBMBtt, |.\ M 

wAmm urimm, t«.m. iii. j». 

10, fte, [See also Wahh, Hut one *r 

\. p. 171 -488. '/>.} 

I "inc. Pagi, ItrsruirlHin }'»*• 

tif. i 1 1. p. 186.. < lir. Ltt- 

TrnU/tno: a 

- and E>is- 

i,.m, (i \» liich :i|<|irores 

ut : — 
the which :ill«>w s 

I-. f>> llM- i — I ll«- fijtlf- 

« hi. Ii mnilcmnii fa^tiiij" on 
rtoni allowed of in tin'l . 'y *. fV>./A (YJIH'N, 

whii-li earnestly enjoins abstinence 
from blood and from things strangled : 
— thv dgktff mow pro- 

hibita the painting • 
image of a Iamb : — and tin- rvjkip- 
rirtA aiimjm, oanMnriug tho equal] 
the ) 
pie, 1 Tir 

■ iisalem, Alexandria, 
Ii. and Jii>-tiiii:inn, with 
than 200 biHliopH, attended this 

<il. 'I !n II. .in., 1 < ; do proper 

legal- ordinary : 

aontativoH at tbl >t in 

the council, an- 1 

sinus ; and Basil, the aiviiliisl, 

. says in hi« wuhseri[iti..n, that lie 
and all 1 1 1 ■ 

nocewg attended the uuuuoil hi pag- 
inal subscribed its doerees. I n 
the «>rii>mal t a *pace was I 
aubeoni-ti-u td the Roman pan 
but when it was aent to Rom*', by the 
emperor, and poiie ScrgiuH was called 
on 1.. rabacribe, be ibowed -n.h ■ n 
fractory *t»irit, a* DOH B hil 

HImii iM>n waa, he fonn 

above mentioned canons t.. I,.- mtotntj 
|0 tin- prindpha and usages ol In- 
chiin-li Par the name ren^'ii. 


admirers of the Romish bishop, to this Adrian approved of it. On the other 

day, are not agreed, whether the hand, this council was recognized by 

whole council, or only the canons the Greeks as a valid one, and classed 

which have the misfortune to displease among the general councils. See Dr. 

them, should be rejected ; notwith- Watch's Hidorit der Kirokenvertamm- 

standmg, at an early period, pope lungm, p. 441. SoU.} 

















5: 1 . Propagation of Christianity in Hyrcania and Tartar}-. — § 2. Conversion of 
the Germans by Boniface. — § 3. Other expeditions and successes of Boniface. 
— § 4. Estimate of his apontleship. — § b. Other apostles of Germany. — § 6. 
Expedition of < 'i against the Saxons. — § 1. E*timat<< of hi-* conver- 

sions. — § 8. Tho reputed miracle* of this century. 

§ 1. Wim.K the Muhnmmodaus wnv falling upon and subju- 
gating tin provinces of -Wia. ami 'timin liking l 
wfaeTQ tho lustre ami reputation of ohristianiH. the Nostoriatis 
of Chaldea won* Messing with the Imowledgo of heavenly truth 
those barbarous nations, called Scythians by the a and 
by tho modems, Tartars, living on this sido mount linaus. and 
not subject to the Saracens. It is now ascertained, that Timo- 
thm$ the Nestorian pontiff, who attained that dignity A.n. 
imbued with a knowledge of Christianity, by the ministry 
nckal J«*u % whom he created a bishop, first tho Qtll 
Dailamites, nations of Hyrcania, and afterwards, by Other 
missionaries, the rest of the nations of Hyrcania, Baotria. Mar 

t 2 


giana, and Sogdiana l . It is also certain, that Christianity was 
firmly and permanently established in those countries for seve- 
ral centuries, although it was sometimes disturbed by the 
Muhammedans ; and that the bishops of these countries were 
always subject to the authority of the Nestorian pontiff. 

§ 2. In Europe, most of the German nations were still 
involved in the darkness of superstition ; the only exception 
being the tribes on the Rhine, the Bavarians, who are known 
to have received a knowledge of Christianity under Theodoric, 
the son of Clovis the Great, and the Eastern Francs [or Fran- 
conians], with a few others. Attempts had been often made 
to enlighten the Germans, both by kings and princes, for whose 
interest it was, that those warlike tribes should become civi- 
lized, and also by some pious and holy men ; but the attempts 
had met with little or no success. But in this century, Wini- 
frid, an English Benedictine monk, of noble birth, who after- 
wards bore the name of Boniface, attempted this object with 
better success. In the year 715, he left his native country, 
with two companions, and first attempted in vain to dissemi- 

1 Thomas Margensis, Hittorias Mo- dagos and Jabalaha, two other monks 

na»lic<B lib. iii. in Joe. Sim. Asseman's of Beth-Aben, and sent them with 

Bibliothcca Orient. Vatic, torn. iii. pt. i. fifteen assistant monks into the same 

p. 491. See also the Jiibliotheca, torn, countries. These also were successful 

iii. pt. ii. cap. ix. § v. p. cccclxxviii. missionaries ; and with the consent of 

(Dr. Mosheim, in his Hiatoria Tarta~ Timotheus, the two bishops ordained 

torum Ecclesiastic®, p. 13, &c. .relying seven of their companions to be bishops 

chiefly on the preceding authorities, of the East; namely, Thomas, who 

states that Timotheus, who was patri- went into India, David, metropolitan 

arch of the Nestorians from a.d. 777 of China, and Zaccheeus, Semus, 

to a. D. 820, planned the mission to Ephraim, Simeon, and Ananias. Tho- 

these nations, inhabiting the shores of mas Margensis relates, that Timotheus 

the Caspian sea ; and selected for its directed the two ordaining bishops, 

execution one Subchal Jesu, a learned first to ordain a third ; and to supply 

monk of the Nestorian monastery of the place of a third bishop at hi$ ordi- 

Beth-Aben in Assyria, well skilled in nation, by placing a copy of the Gospels 

the Syriac, Arabic, and Persian Ian- on the seat near the right hand. After- 

guagea; ordained him bishop, and sent wards they would have the canonical 

him forth. Subchal made numerous number of three bishops to ordain the 

converts among the Gelee and Dailam- others. These new bishops dispersed 

ites, formed them into churches, and themselves widely over the countries 

ordained ciders over them. This ac- of the East, and founded many churches 

tive missionary also travelled farther in India, Chathai, and China. But 

East, and spread the gospel extensively after the death of Timotheus, a.d. 820, 

in Tartary, Chathai, and China; but we learn nothing more respecting 

on his return from his mission, to visit these churches till a. d. 1000, when 

Timotheus and the monks of his con- the famous christian prince, called 

vent, he was murdered by the Bar- Presbyter John, came upon the stage, 

barians. Timotheus now ordained Kar- Tr.) 

(11. I, I 


oate christian dootrinai among the- Frie*luii<l»rs, who were 

subjects of kin<r RftfThflfl Afterwards, in the year 71!*, having 

mo commiasion frorn the Roman pontiff <•■ 
II.. Ik me ■ fully performed the fonctiona of a ffhrwrtaaa 

teacher among the Thuxinguma, the l-Yi<-land< is, and the 
I \\ ssians*. 

' All that could lie said of tin- i 
i num. ha* be 

S. 1 1 

I loll I 

Jo. Alt). Fabric! 

on. i. p, 7"!' 

!#•_'. .J.'. V 

Ion, i 

Schroeekh, and J. K. C Schmidt] 

■ In. r 
(i"am/yA Hit'. fimL 'iii. •-. r,.) i.s 
an admirer of Boniface. I 
anion. of thia 

fam-M W i! DM of hi* 

dtMuipItn* ; and :i German DDOOk uaiucd 
Othlou, who lived hi (Ik- eleventh cm- 
irioua letters of 
h inserted in his 
nam *e biogrn; 

with valuul. ii d in 

Mahillonii Ardt SdRCtor. Ofd. fi 

tan, iv. p, |— 4ML ad. Vmmt, 1784 

wasbornat hirt«.n(«r.-ht.- 

680. When but four 
in- thawed 

: srhicb l»i-* 
father nmt o odeavoui 

but aftorwanls favoured. He hV 

a monastery at Ex< I 
that, be removed liter seven years to 
llo 01 in liant«, 

■•n better place for study, H 
learned gramma i ,and 

biblical Inu 

•Id Hcnae of aei ■•. Mora 

is or- 
ok u volun 
rVfaaaaod| with i ■■••- m. ni • far eon- 
[•anion*. But 1 . the pagan 

,,t war wil 
Francs, and boatilfl la the ehrietiaoB, 


f erred a morearti' 

after, having nrojaetM a niiss«i 

tio- [rafann in uexmaa 

imparl t<» bis uuierjuiaei Daniel, 

i ol W inch" il in a 

letter of introdi ■ 1 1 1 i tT, 

who readily give him a comim 

to preach the Gospel .'ana, 

a/here owd Bnd them. Be 

i ' that 

od wai deao, be went to I 
land, and for three yean is* 
WUUbrord, the aged budiopofUt 

pel, nnd en 

i muring pa- 
gans. Willibrord proposed to h ■ 

anooeasor: bu I • • 
tin- ground ipe had Ini 

D nil'l labour in the more «. 
parts of Gentian v. He no 
Rome a second tatna. in 1 1 1 • - ynr 7--' ; 
lined bj the pOM| a* 

see of Rome; and DpCd 

perpetual allegiance t.. Chi 

was created a bi«h-.: d bis 

i vd from Winili i 

fare. \\i>i m letters of re- 

comn . and 

•■, and a good stock of holy ■• 

ice returned throu -h I n 

when- Charfam Mnrt.l ri -reived him 

tally, and furnished him with a 
safe conduct throughout Hm • mptre. 
He firs! w< ana; 

where he mi pprciwod 

idi.latry, and intrepiill 

hich broke 

into (I ii its (all. This 

.'>• silenced all objections; and out 
built. dodk ■ 
Hense he wool to Thuringin. 

in. and had 
who were accotn 

III. la chair, *.i>. 731, 1 



[l'AKT 1. 

§ 3. In the year 7*23, being ordained a bishop, at Romr 
gory II.. and being ■mpartad by the authority and the aid 
of Charles Mait> I, the Major Doinus of the Francs, Boniface 
returned to his Hessians and Thuringians. an<l resumed hi* 
labours among them with much success. Ue was now assisted 
il learned and pious persons of both sexes, who 
repaired to him out of England and France. In the war 73S, 
taring gathered more christian churches than one man alone 
could goran, he was advanced to the rank of an archbishop, l<v 
Gregory III. ; and by his authority, and with the aid of f 

face sent an embassy to Rome, giving 
account of his proceedings, and pro- 
pomng several questions respecting 
ecelaiiaatical law, for solution. The 
pope answered his inquiries, sent lum 
a fresh supply of relies, and also the 
archicpiscopal pallium, with instruc- 
tion* ;ir it. In 
the year "J'.i i k..nn a third 
time, attended by a large tulblM of 
priests and monks, and was graciously 
received by the pope. Ou his return 
through Bavaria, as papal 1< ttOjfc •, In 
ut. i four l.ishop- 

and placed bishops over them ; 

:., John, bishop of Saltebi 
Ehrv-uhcrt, btoho] : Goa- 

bald of Kogenaburg ; and Yivilu uf 
Paasau. lu the year J41, he n 
four more bishopries iii Germany ; 
Dandy, thoM of WUrtsborg, Eichstadt, 
Burahurg, and Lrfurtb ; over which 
he placed four of his fri 

'bald, Albinu*. and Adler. 

uf in. particular placv ; l.uf 
7 >•'>, ii- procured the deposition of 
of Menu, charg- 
iim, in a prormeial eoaneU, wan 
haviug slain in single combat the man 
who Itad slain his own father in bl 
and with having kept dogs and birds 
for sport. This council decreed tin- 
vacant w* of Mint/, to Boniface. As 
■fobbiobjOf "I III r -.!/. Ilonifaeo claimed 
jurisdiction ovi-r the bishrrp of Dtncbl ; 
« hich claim was contested by the arch- 
bishop of Cologue. Boniface, as arch- 
bishop, and as papal legate, pn 
iu several council* in France and 
many, and was very active in enforcing 
uniformity of rites, and rigid Adherence 
to the canons of tin chun-h of Rome. 

In the year ^b^, being far advanced 
in life, he left bis bishopric* at MelJtZ 
under the oajra of Lullus, whom he 
l successor, 
and undertook a mission among the 
landers, who were bat partially 
Converted to Christianity, 
aid of several Inferior eh-r^Mini 
monks, he bad I n*>ns 

of both sexes to i liaptism; 

and having app 
for a general meeting of th 

be rite of . too, at 

Deejcon on thi Bordne, betweei 
and West Friesland, on il> 
of the day appointed, and win' 

arrive, a 

1»arty of jngan Fi irehuin'oi ■ acani 
lis camp. His young men began to 
prepare for battle ; but Boniface for- 
bade it, and exhorted all to resign 1 1 

as martyrs. He aud 
bis fiftv-two companions were all twir- 

I : and tip ir camp was | 
But the banditti 
among themselves respecting the plun- 

and being intoxicate'. 
eilM tbev had gotten, they fought till 
I of tin u rare slain. 

The christian converts, enraged at the 
murderer* of their teach. i 

. and attacking their tillage*, 
slew and dispersed the men. plund. »■> .1 
their I lieir wive* 

and children. The mu r d e r ed christ- 
ians were removed I . and 
there interred. Afterwards, the re- 
mains of BonifftCe were carri' 

. to FuMa. — Boniface 

b hind him forty ea; a 

set of ecclesiastical nil' IX iu 

r: tifteen discourses; and a part 

of a »urk on penance. 7V. | 



man and Pi pin, the sons of Charles Martel, he establish I d 
various bnboptMi in <ierninnv; as those of W'urtJxo'q^ Bura- 
bvrg [near Fritzlar, in Ifesse-Cassel], Erfurt, and &iek* 
bo which he added, in the war 744, the famous monastery of 
Fulda. The final reward of his labour*, decreed to him in the 
year 746, by the Roman pontiff Z<irhnr\m y was. 
baled ■wTlbkhop of M.ntz. and primate 6f (o'linanv and JM- 
glBOBDL In his old age, he travelled onee more among the 
landers, that his ministry might terminate with the 
i among whom it commenced: but, in the year 7.">.*i, he 
ma mordered, with fifty clergymen who attended him, by the 

people Of that nation. 

§ 4. On account of his vast labours in propagating Christ- 
ianity among the <Temia,ns, liouifare has gained the title of the 
ApoitU of Germany ; and a candid estimate of the magnitude 
of his achievements, will show him to be not altog< 
unworthy «>f this title*. Yet, as an apostle, he was widely 
different from that pattern which the first and genuine bjm 

left us. For, not to mention that the honour and 

majesty of the Roman pontiff, whose minister and legate he 

was, was eouaflj bia care, — nay more so, than the glory of 

' and his religion*; he did not oppose superstition with 

1 [ 1 f the man deserves tho 
of an Apostle, who goes among the 
Ik 4th. ii, pNMMN 10 ''m m rl.r ' leapt ■'. 
according to hi* best knowledge of I 
counters inatty hardships, makes some 
inroad upon idol <■ churches, 

erects hon- tionae- 

tcries, and spends hit> 
new; then Boniface justly merit* this 
liut if that man ouly can be 
called an Apostle, who is in all respects 

a all 

tibrta, looks only l<» lbs honour of 

i Domination of truth 

and virtue ; and for attaining these 

• > means hut such as 

Bat ■nnstfcw of Christ nsed ; — 
then manifestly, Bonifaco was wholly 
unworthy "f this Dame. He was rather 
an Apusth ■•', tfuuT of Jesus 

■i : be had but one eye directed 
towards Clin-t ; the other was 

I tome, and on his own 
fanv' hi.) 


ingenuously acknowledge, that Bon i 
was a sycophant i 

and showed him more deference than 
was fit and proper. See li "utoire 
&»/V«i*«v, torn. iv. p. 106. " llexpriino 
son derouement pour le S. Siege quclq uc- 
foisendesU'i-Tiii-s ijui pa aosa pea oases 
proportionnea a la dignite* du am 
Episcopal." [Wo need only to read 
his epistle*, to be satisfied on this p 

i. p. 120. od. Serrar.) 
tliat nil he had (km*) for sfal and tliirty 
years, whil see, 

wan iutemh d far the advantage of tho 
church at Rome ; to the judgrn 
whirh, no far as he had erred in 
or il< Unit ted himself with 

all hi ringing enough fur an 

archbishop of th< h ! — 

In a letter to pope Zaehurios, 

cxvxii. p. 181.) he writes, tliat 

■died to maintain the general 
faith, and union with the chur | 

, and would not c ease to urge 
I rMiade all his pupils tliat 


HOOK 111. L'hNIUi Mil. 

(faui I. 

the weapons which the ancient ■poetiaB used, but he often 
coerced the minds of the people tee and terrors, and at 

nth. r times caught them l>\ artifices and fraud 4 . II 
also liettav here and there an ambit HUH and arrogant spirit, a 
crafty and insidious disposition, an immoderate eagerness to 
increase the honours and extend the urur\JUali?eB of the clergy*, 
aud a great degree of ignorance, not only of mam things winch 
an apostk OUght to know, hut in particular of the true charac- 
ter of the christian religion '. 

about I nt to Che see of 

Rome. — In another letter, addressed 
to Stephen 111., (/.)>. xcvii. \>. 132.) 
upon occasion of his contest with the 
tttsbojl ■■! Cologne. rcKjwctirig AM 
bishopric of 1 I senta 

the bishop of Cologne as wishing ex- 
ke the bishop who 
should preach to the Frienlai i 

Em of the bee of Rome ; whereas 
-, ( Boniface,) wan exerting all hi* 
rs, to malic the bishopric of 
Utrecht e ntir e ly dene la see 

* | It hi unquestionable, that this 

■post It- of the Qerosni mroihoi 

Thuringia, nt the head of an army ; 
and that, at the time he was mm 
by the Fricslauders, he had eoldlan 
with him as his body guard : and so, 
in all hi- OBfetforisso, be bed tin- nn> 
port of the civil arm, afforded to him 

n Obarlei Uerlet, < Ionian, ami 
Bipiu.— Mi* arguments also mn\ 

i be followed the 

direction* of Dnnii I. Win- 

Chester ; for « bODB, on his epistles 
show, he had a high Ntpeol 

p, 5. and the ep. of Daniel 
to him, h/>. Ixmi. p. 79, dba.) for 
hero Daniel advises him, to ask 
pagans, how they can believe, thai 
gods re wan I Hie righteous, and pmn-li 
the wicked in tl y see 

the christian*, who have destroyed 
th'-ii- iniie,'' - ISM prostrated their wor- 

drip nil over the world, mnilii »n- 

bedl — Ami, bow comes il to pass, 

that the christians poeecee the fruitful 

I produce wine and oil 

inabin . pagans in 

the cold and barren corners of die 

earth f —He must hImi rrproM-tit In the 

pagan*, that the christian* now ruled 

iota WOrM . ■rfaerOM tin pagans 

were ft* in immber and powerless: 
and this great change in their condi- 
tion, had taken place since the coming 
brfet; for before that event, the 
pagans had vast dominion. It is 
wiee undeniable, that Boniface gloried 
in fictitious miracles and wooden. 

* [Consider only his • ■ ards 

those bishops and presbyters, who had 
before n-ccivcd »rdinati<>n.and n-fuaed 
to receive it again from him according 
to the ttVnxdsfa rites, and would o< 
general, subject themselves . 
supremacy and Komish form- of WOT* 
■m These must be regarded me fait* 
h, hrniir*, M<u/Jwmrr9 y anrnm/f <>f 
ike oVri/, %w\ fort-runner* • f A *'i>Arwf . 
Th« y must beexcomm 
into prisons, and receive corporeal 

tiiiuisliiiHiib-. Bee «ith what vie 
ic breaksoutagaim-t A<I.Mm rt,t 'lemma, 
JSatnj ..ilk, Khrvmwolf, Vir- 

. and others, in his • j 
utterly be accuses them, before 
the popes, and in l :" councils, 

fee. ML] 

7 [A large part of tlie questions, 
which Boniface submitted to the con- 
■Ua pope s, betwybJei 

Bal -till ni'-i-.- s,., .loes hJede- 
• •f the cow 1 of i *hen 

a Bavarian priest, who did not n 
stand Latin, had » if h these 

words : Jiai4isv U is n<sni'sc ftttrin et 
film et rpirtfua tatnHa ; win 
he pn»nouneed to be null 

and likewise his p em ee nUo a of tin- 

priest Virgilius in Bavaria, who main- 

• the earth i*> globular, and 

eoneeouctitly, inhabits I ther 

u, and tin ti i oUghtou d b* the 

SOS end moon. Boniface lonlced BpOO 
this as a gross hei 

I to, b> lore the pope, who actually 

.■II. I.] 

1' 1( OS PJE HUUS IN K.N iS. 


$ .">. ftmWiwi Boniface, others also attempted to rescue the 
QOtuHQfl of Germany from the thraldom of super- 
stition. Booh was Corlinian, a French Henedictiue monk, 
prfao, after various labour.- for the instruction of the Hav. 

and other nations, became bishop of P^eyuugen*. Such also 
was /' : French monk, nearly contemporary with Boni- 

face, who taught Christianity amidst rarioufl Rlfierillgi in 
Helvetia. AllUfTft and Bavaria, and presided OTOf ■ 

monasteries'. Such, likewise, was . Jislunan, 

IllfljlllltlUlad him for a hi 
the tenth Ep. of Zncharias, in liar I 
Colin hi. |>. 1:0 'J. 

' liia, and the preceding note**, 
BoUagfll lias laboured with the leal of 
a prosecutor, to substantiate the In 
charges of Dr. Musla-ini agaiuat I 
face. I have carefully l i^inal 

lives of thia missionary, and aim . 

.rt of nil o.rri I] 
and 1 moat say, I think Dr M-.-di. im. 
and his an 

done impartial justice to thin eminent 
man. lie appear* t-» roe, to have bean 
• •nc of I!"- tnnHt sincere and honest 
own of hi* a£ be partook 

largelv in the common fault* of he- 

au excessive attachment tu nionken, 

and a m regard for tli 

i rli and the externals 

tgton. With all hi* imperfections, 

assed with those 

teoordlqu to •'••• 

id, and who did mtieh 
to advance true religion among men. 

■Hitls* Eetltt'vut. 

I udi 716\ E LO, fee. I 

I saint I'orhiniaii, in forty- 

laptcra, wa- of his 

pupils and successors, Aribo; snd may 

be aeon in Mahillon's Ada 8a*ttor. 


in MsScbelbaek, M*t. Frmtuj. torn. i. 

pi. ii. p. S— 21. I was born 

at Chart res, near Paris, about x. n. 

600. Ho early bDDMlf to a 

le, and acquired great fame 

bj 1 1 in miracle*. To escape from 

ude, ho tm 

Italy, about tlir year 717, and 

bcgg< | to assign him some 

I • - ordained 

liiiu | id Miit him \m 

France. His miracles snd hia tiur- 

vellou now drew aaeh crowds 

around him, that after BBVOB war*, he 

. and beg 

• him of the episcopal 

■\\ Bavaria 

and tin- 'I'mhI. ir caorht :i tiagi bear, 

which hail killed 

whipped him soundly, and compelled 
him to aarva in pnoa <-f Am pack 
horse. At Trent, and at I 'a via, ho 
had horses st"l "hieh the 

thieves paid the forfeiture of their 
..' of God TIm Dopa 
i not retean Una from the 1 1 
pney. He r» tm ■ win ba 

came, as far as I In Bavaria; 

"uoald, the reigning pi 
Ened him, for the l 

and subjects. After six year* IflJ 

at Freisingen, ho died, somewhai 

Moses, or at least in | 

nary manner. Eb foresaw hi*death, and 

having made arrangement- 

arose in tin ,1th, 

■ad lllm— If in hi- |mmiti- 
eals, performed public service, return- 
ed, ami pin 
drunk a BOD ad itnuieil .. 

I lis biographer makes no 

mention of hlS efforts to II I 
-[irrad tin ' 

Gospel. He was a mosl 
and • 

QQCQ hinted him to 'line. 

m aaid grace bafbra dinner, and 

la enaaorerChafood. 

While ri eating, (irimoald 

threw sum- lod 10 hi* dog. 

uian in a i 
tabic, and left t. i eJarfan to 

Um prince, that «<• dm 

I that was 
I . | 
• Henu. DniM-hii Vkrondogfa 




who laliouml with earnestness and zeal, though with little 
•ss, to persuade the warlike Saxon nation, the Frieslanders, 

the IMjye. and other nations, to emhrare Christianity '. < 
of less notoriety are omitted \ Neither shall 1 mention I 

tuutrr. German, p. 30. Anton. Pagi, 
Crkifii in Anuakt Zfriro/m, tom. LI 
ann. 769. § 9, Ac. H'vrimr.- Liitrmirc 
dr In Franet, torn, iv. p. 124. [The life 
of St. Pinnin, written by Warraann, 
btahop of Constance at the beginning 
of the eleventh century, may be aeon 
in MaWHf'l Acta Samctor. (Jrtk Bent- 
did, lam. iv. p. 124— VMI. According 
to this biography, Pinnin was first the 
bishop of either Meaux or Mctx in 
France, where he was a devout and 
zealous pastor. SinUax, a Suabian 
prince, procured his removal to the 
neighbourhood of Constance, wli. n- 
than was great need of an active and 
exemplary preach ••!•. !!-• established 
the monastery of lU-iehcnau, in an 
island near Constance ; and afterwards 
•thor monasteries in Swabia, 
Alaatia,aud Switzerland; and was vary 
active iii rTftnittflUj monastic pi- ty in 
is supjKjacd" to 

liad aJboofe A.D. 7fi& 'Jr.] 
1 Huebaldl I : *i,- in L. 

■r. iIih 12. Nov< i 

277 Jo. Molleri Cimf/ria LitUratOj 
i. j». 4/11. [Lehwin was an Eng- 
Itsh Benedictine monk and presh_\T«r, 
ion, in Northumlicrlaud, (York- 
sdiire, formerly a portion of the North- 
umbrian kingdom,) shout a. v. 090, 
with twelve companions, be went over 
|d VY. *• IVi' stand, on the borders of 
the pagan Saxons; and i 
years travelled and preached in that 
, ami in Heligoland. He once 
tra wiled tii the borders of Denmark. 

.he settled down at 1 1 
ri. hi Q»aiJ1u\ where he |. reached 

y*ith conaidarabie anccees till his death, 
*. i>. 740. Sea USQari dmb. 

pm. TV.] 

; imong these were the following. 

Bar, a German monk, fount I. 
tli. lncuustery of St. Gall, in Switw-r- 
huid. At the close of a long and ax* 
emplary life, he was maliriout 
cuaed of nnehaMtity, by some noblemen 
who had robbed his monastery, and 
was thrown into prison. * li 
guished four >eai>, and tin n died. 

Numerous miracles were wrought at 
his tomb. Hia life, written by ri 

friil Slnil>o, i* in M Acta 

I. vol. iv. p. 139, &.C. 
— Willi bald, bi.-l . was 

an Anglo-Saxon monk, of honourable 
birth, educated in a monastery near 
Wincliester. Wheu arrived at man- 
hood, be and his younger hr 
Wunebald left iTHnBed 

through France and Italy, sailed to 
Asia Minor, and the Holy Land, where 
seven years. Returning to 
Italy, they took residence in the mo- 
nastery of Moos Caesinus, during tew 
T.V.i. The pope then 

Item into Germany, to assir 
Boniface. WUlibald was placed at 
Ki -h-tadf, ordained priest a. n. 7-1". 
and bishop the year following. His 
death i« placed a. i>. "JOG. Hi 
written by « kinswoman, a l 
rary nun of Heidonln-im, is extant in 
Mabillou'a Acta SoMctor. (Mi. limcH. 
toui. iv. p. 330 — 334. — Saint Alto, a 

i monk, who travelled into Ba- 
varia, and there established the mo- 
nastery, called from him, all 
The moneatBty was endowed by kiug 
Pipin, and dedi> 
The I I I in M.ibii 

196, A:e.— St. Sturmiua, a native of 

urn, and follow, i face. 

i the direction of that archbishop 
he erw | presided ov. 

naatrn of Fulda, from a. i>. 744, till 
hi a death a. D, 779, except one • 
which be *•]*-• nt in Italy, to learn more 
perfectly the rules of St. Bent, 
and two other yeara, in which l'ipm 
king of the Francs held him prisoner, 
- false accusations of disloyalty. 
In the last years of his life, he aided 
Charlemagne in compelling the Saxons 
to embrace Christianity. Hia life, well 
writteu by F.igil, his pupil and aue- 
eessor, is extant in VahftBon, I. c p. 
242— 259.— St. Virgiliua, wliom Boni- 
face accused of i in tiering 
the world to be globular, was an 1 1 
man, of good education and talent*. 
lie went la France in the reign of 

Olt. I.] 



I and others, who commenced their missionary lalxmrs in 
the preceding century, and continued them with great zeal in 

$ & In the year 772, Charlemagne, king of the Francs, 
Undertook to tame and to \vitlxlra\s from idolatry the extensive 
nation of the SMEODB, who occupied a large portion of 
man\. and wore almost perpetually at war with the Franca, 
respecting their boundaries and other things; for he hoped, 
if their mind* should beoODU imhued with the christian doc- 
trines, th- n uould gradually lay aside tin ir fi rm-ity. and learn 
to yield sulmiission to the empire- of the Francs. The. first 

■': upon their heathenism produced little cn'eet ; being 
with force and arms, but by some bishops and 
monks, whom the victor had left for that purpose among the 
vanijn it'uui. Hut much better success attended the 

subsequent wars, which Charlemagne undertook in the years 
77*», and 7B0, against that In JTO le, so fond of 

liberty, and so impatient especially of sacerdotal domination J . 

HOW, those people who were attached to the bu[m r-ritions 
of their ancestors, were so effectually assailed with both 
rewards and the sword and punishments, that they reluctantly 

deeeed to resist, and suffered bhemeeivsi to be hoptfuecl by 

horn Cliarfei sent anmng them '. W&Utmd and 

10 patronized liim, and in rho 
T'Hi procured far nbop- 

till his 
7 in i. Whik il Si.ltsburR, 
be did much to extend christian 
the eastward of him, unon 
ronians and Huns. H i Ma- 

:• . 
3 1 cumiul ilispi-iimr with quoting a 
passage from a very BfdiWll author, 
Alruiii, whirli iho«rs, what it ww espe- 
cially that rendered the Saxons averse 

ously the missionaries sent amonL' 
conducted [themselves]. A 

• ■■. p. \t'» i ' i tanta 

in* tan tin l*V* ( hri*ti ju^iim et onus ejus 

uruwimo Saxonutn populo pntdi- 

uiita DECiMAKVX n-dditio vcl 

parr win* is quihuslibet cul- 

Els ecUelia neceeaitas exigebatur, 
matM nacramenta noit ahhorre* 


TOHIH FIDK1 »PO*Tni.iris rjimiTI BX- 

n rnicrroio.*. 
piuBDATonns. 1 1 l,i. I the easy yol 

t'hriHt, with liis li i; |it \n\; 

preached to tin- Rtunborn Saxona, with 
m much carorstnoas as the paym- 

' pal eatiafftt 
smallest faults, were e i rhap* 

thrv would imt havr alw.iniim. -I t 1 1 , - 
sacrament of Baptism. lM A* tknd'ui* 
lenrkm bum /mm tkt tjtn, < 
AfxxiU*. Lti tktm \* yrfuAm, not 
jtfunttrriTt,] Look Bt 1 ah of 

turv ! — Y-t they are said to haw 
t miracles. 
* Al.-iiii., m cited by W •Mi,. 1. 1 ,,f 
Mulnmhury, as oVsfa IU<i*tn .h></<.mti*, 
i. c 4, publish i ■'■■mm 

. tr. SerifXvm, Pnuicf. 1001, 
usee this language : ■ Tn 
Saxon* and alltli 





[fABT I. 

Albion, indeed, who wen> bwo of the most valiant Saxon cbiefift, 
renewed their former insurrections; and attempted to prostrate 

once more. h\ and war, that ehristi:mity which 

bMD set up hy violence. But the martial courage and the 
liberality ..f Charles at K'liirth hmu^ht thorn, in the 

'lare that they MM christians, and would 
tinue to be so*. Nov did the Saxons epoBhstiia 
BOB which thes i:u\s illin^Iy professed; and in various parts of 
their country liislmps Ptfl established, schools WON B0t Dp, 
and monasteries Were erected. The //"/..-. inhabiting Tan 
noma, were treated in the same way as the S 
10 ••\liaust« <1 and humbled them, hy successive wars, as to 
compel them to ])refer becoming christians to being slaves*. 

$ 7. For these achi I 'harlrinagne in behalf of 

Christianity, the giBtitade of posterity decreed him the honours 
of a mia/. And in the twelfth century, the emperor of the 
Romans, Frederic I., desired Paschal III., whom he had 
cn;ited BOfsYOIgD pontirV, to enrol him among the tutelar) 
■iflita of the •■hureh r . And he undoubtedly merited this 
honour, according to the \iews winch prevailed in what are 
called the middle ages ; w hen a man wa> aernunted :« 
wlio had enriched the priesthood witli goods and possessions*. 

sonic of them with reirttnh, and otliir* 
with ikttatf, (iiiKtanti rejjc Carolo, alios 
pyiwiniit, et alios minis SOllictU 

converted lo the christian faitli." 
Iho tin- * ''if.timltir'ui linpim FrattGDT. 
I . p. 246, and p. 262. Fro- 
fint of these passages, it appear*, tluit 
tin- Saaous who would renounce Idot- 
rtetorrd to thrir uhch-h' 
i ted by conquest, and were 
fr*d /rout all tribmU to the kino. 
bat of tbcae pfgn contains this 

Uw : // owe jrrtvn, of tkt flsjMi race, 
skull eijHlrmptuoiultf ivfutt to (time to 
ImtfJlfift^ in*-/ skoll nsoHs to continue a 
I* if in, If I kitn U put totiroj! 
penalties and reward**, the whole world 

kit be constrained to profeM d 
ianity without miracle*. Hut what 
sort of chrintiaiw the Saxons bo Mb* 
v< rted uiuxt ha | iic-d ii'-t 

I See Jo. Launo v, da Vtteri 
Mart ImptiioniU Jn-ia-ji et /«£/<•/«*, 
cap. \. >i. p. Joa, fc Ojp, t.'.m. ii. 

I't ''• "I :- na t that the 

Koman |Kintiir, Hadrian I. apfU 

«t thiit mode of converting the Saxons 


1 Eginhard, ilt Viio Cbrsfi M 

M Jirruu-ns. lib. i. cap. viii 
&e., and all t -n ...t the 

achievements of Charlemagne ; who 
•re enumerated by Jo. Alb. Fahri- 

p.IUB, \e. 

• Lj ■ 6k. Nafta*; in Il.ii. Caui- 
I -tionibus si hi ion U, ton 
p. 340, Ate. I'auli Detoeeeni BtMerUi 
oedema Reformat, in ff—yar .* 7Vni»- 
u<ir,m%a ; a Lampio *l 
|'. 10, A.c. 

; « :un-ii ImxHtrmm AntlpuT, 
■ i. l>t. ii. p. M7. Dr. Walrh, [of 


■ Sm lbs last WU1 ri 
iii Staph. Baltu il 


OH. 1.] 



and had extended, by whatever means, the boundaries of the 
church. But to those who estimate sanetitv. »CCOrdlDg fco the 

of chii>t. Ohaelemagne must appear to bo anything 

rather than a saint, ami a dr\..ut man. 1'or. not to mention 
his other vieis, whieh w i. set .onk not inferior to liis virtues, 

it is evident] that in compelling the Huns. Saxons, and I 
landers to profess rhri*uauit\ \ he did it more for the sake of 
training subjects to himself, than to JotUfl ( hrist. And I 
fore be did 00t hesitate to cultivate friendship with the Sara- 
cons, those enemies of the christian name, when he could hope 

to obtain from then some aid to weaken the empire of the 
Greeks, who were christians-*. 

§ 8. The numerous miracles which the christian missionaries 
t<> the pagaOS are reported to liavo wrought in this age, have 
HOW wholly lost the credit that thev once had. Tin- corrupt 
I principles of the times allow. <l the use of what are 
improperly called piotU frauds; and those heralds of Christianity 
thought it DO -in to lerrify or beguile, uilh fictitious inirael, s. 
those whom they were unable to envinee by reasoning. Yet 
I do n«it suppose that 'iff who acquired fame by these mil 
practised imposition. Pornot only wen th B nations so rude 
and ignorant as to mistake almost any thing for a miracle, but 
their instructors also were so unlearned and so unacquainted 
with the laws of nature, as to look urmn mere natural events, if 
they were rather unusual and tame upon them by surprise, as 
Bnsejsj interpositions of divine power. This will 1m 1 manifest 
to one who will read with candour, and without superstitious 

) Legends of the saints of tins 
And the subsequent ccntui i 

■ Sec Jac. Basnagc, //iatoirvt df* 
Juifr, t«*n. UK. cap. ii. p. 40, &c. 

1 |Tli<' miracle* of this age are, 
many pf th. -in, nlt<>ii rln r ridiculous. 
Take "K ae «>ecim<'ii-<. In 

Ion's Adit Sanclvr. (h i, am. UL 

!•« iwh a inini.l.', (lint 

I when 
an iic "nk looked through* 

crevice, to sec the wonder, lie was 

: blind for di* on itun] 
biographer of St. Parilulphtei (Ibid. 

p. 641, § 18) makes n child's cradle U» 
rock day after <lay, without bands ; 
vfaUe if touched, it would itnp, and re- 
main inunom ihie. In hi w i 
i.urii i, (Ibid. p. 90S. 

$ 19,) while the saint wan praying, at 
I VMt iuiimIk.'!' el 

tag out "f the ground, 

and ijwuino, thnui^h crevic- 

ful Mpoot] berrihli in fora, wilJi I 

countenances, squalid boards, hrist ly 
ear*. wrinkle*! thfeh— de f mail 
eyes, filthy mouuV, horses' teeth, 6re- 




§ I. In the East, from the Saracens and Turks.— § 2. In the West, from the 


§ 1 . The Byzantine empire experienced bo many bloody revo- 
lutions, and so many intestine calamities, as necessarily pro- 
duced a great diminution of its energies. No emperor there 
reigned securely. Three of them were hurled from the throne, 
treated with various contumelies, and sent into exile. Under 
Leo III., the Isaurian, and his son, Constantine Copronymus, 
the pernicious controversy respecting images and the worship 
of them, brought immense evils upon the community, and 
weakened incalculably the resources of the empire. Hence, 
the Saracens were able to roam freely through Asia and Africa, 
to subdue the fairest portions of the country, and every where 
to depress, and in various places wholly to exterminate, the 
christian faith. Moreover, about the middle of the century, 
a new enemy appeared, still more savage, namely the Turks ; 
a tribe and progeny of the Tartars, a rough and uncivilized 
race, which, issuing from the narrow passes of mount Caucasus 
and from inaccessible regions, burst upon Colchis, Iberia, and 
Albania, and then proceeding to Armenia, first subdued the 
Saracens, and afterwards the Greeks \ 

§ 2. In the year 714, these Saracens crossed the sea Which 
separates Spain from Africa, and count Julian acting the 

emitting throats, lantern jaws, broad they were threatening to confine him 
lips, terrific voices, ranged hair, high there, St. Bartholomew appeared ht 
cheek bones, prominent breasts, scaly glory to him ; the devils were affright- 
thighs, knotty knees, crooked legs, ed ; and he was conducted back to bis 
swollen ancles, inverted feet, and open- cell, by his celestial deliverer. — These 
ed months, hoarsely clamorous." These are only a few, among scores of others, 
bound the saint fast, dragged him which might be adduced. 7V.] 
through hedges and briers, lifted him * [See the historians of the Turkish 
up from the earth, and carried him to empire ; especially Deguigne, Hittory 
the mouth of hell, where he saw all the of ike Hutu and TWfa. SM.] 
torments of the damned. But while 


.\[>\ I 

traitor, thc\ routed the army of itoaVrifr the king of the 
ash Goths, and subdued the greater part of that country*. 

Thus was the kingdom of tin- W'cit Qotha in Spain, alter it 
had stood more than three Ce&turiee, wholly obliterated, by 
this cruel and ferocious people, Moreover, all the sea-coast of 
Gaol, from the Pyrenees mountains to the Rhone, was a 

by these Saracens ; who afterwards frequently laid waste the 

Deigbbooring provinces, with fire and sword. Chart 

Indeed, Upon their invasion of Gaul in the year 782, gained a 

I victory over them at P«iictiers 3 : but the vanquished 

■non after recovered their strength and coinage. Therefore 

//f, in the year 778, inarched a largo army into 

Spain, with a design to rescue that count iv from them. But 

•h lie met with considerable success, he did not fully 

accomplish hi From this warlike people, not 

; for they reduced the island of Sardinia to sub- 
jection, and miserably laid waetfl Sicily. In Spain, therefore, 
and in Sardinia, under these masters, the christian n I 
Buffered a great defeat. In Germany, and the adj ■■■ 
countries, the nations that retained their former supcistii' 
inflicted vaal evils and calamities upon the others who 

embraced Christianity*. Hence, in several plac. and 

fbrtreeaee leted, to restrain tlie awwraiopa of the bar- 


1 Jo. Mariana, Jfawm tfwpaxkwr. 
I uaeb. Rem 
I list or'** Patriarch. Alexandria, p. 253. 

• I 

In-, II 

ii. j>. I '-'7. lure*, that the 

Stht- Invasion of 
pain, -iraocnu. Ami it ap- 

pear* from Baron in*. (Anmil<$ Ecdts. 
ad win. 7"' • v ) that tho 

Spaniel king and rli-ryy wim in wiran 
collision with hi* holinow». Still, I win 
aeetiM I m the popOJ had 

I ammodan I 
it Julian, a dis- 
affa-i- ii. wait |.i 

n i t v <•> hb 

country. TV. J 

' Paultut Diacmuift, dt (intis Lamp- 

. Ha- 

riann. b. »ii. cap. 

3. Tot. Havh\ iM'uwiui'tn HiMorimtf, 
articli n i. \\, I 1. 

ii. p. 

183, ,\ . . [ ( HblKm, Hi*. <£ti* DmKm 

mil Fall of thr Hovuih h'wjj. eh. lii 

* Hiiir. do Riiiuti. '' ill-- 

'.hijtcrort •'. . [in 

German,) \<<\. ii. p. 31*2, 
reran, //irf. da CEiftatjHt) torn. ii. p. 
.".(Mi, . 

i ..|.i i '.v.. \v. /.,.■ 

30-1, ami uilu'PH. 





§ 1. The state of learning among the Greeks. — § 2. Progress of the Aristotelian 
philosophy. — § 3. Learning among the Latins, restored by Charlemagne. — 
§ 4. Cathedral and monastic schools. — § 6. They were not very successful. 

§ 1. Among the Greeks, there were here and there individuals 
both able and willing to retard the flight of learning, had they 
been supported; but in the perpetual commotions which 
threatened the extinction of both church and state, they were 
unpatronized. And hence, scarcely any can be named among 
the Greeks who distinguished themselves, either by the graces 
of diction and genius, or by richness of thought and erudition, 
or acuteness of investigation. Frigid discourses to the people, 
insipid narratives of the lives of reputed saints, useless discus- 
sions of subjects of no importance, vehement declamations 
against the Latins, and the friends or the enemies of images, 
and histories composed without judgment; such were the 
monuments which the learned among the Greeks erected for 
their fame. 

§ 2. Yet the Aristotelian method of philosophizing made 
great progress every where, and was taught in all the schools. 
For, after the many public condemnations of the sentiments of 
Origen, and the rise of the Nestorian and Eutychian contro- 
versies, Plato was nearly banished from the schools to the re- 
treats of the monks \ John Damascenm distinguished himself 

1 [See Bracket's HUtori* Crit. Pkilotopkur, torn. iii. p. 533. SeU.] 

CH. I.] 


beyond others, in pro mo tittg Aristotelianism. Up attempted 
to collect ;uii] to illustrate the dogmas of Aristotle, in several 
tracts designed fop the less informed ; and these led many 
persons in QrooOG and Syria more readily to emhrace those 
dogmas. The Neetorians and Jacobites were equally diligent 
in giving currency to the principles of Aristotle, which enaUi d 

i to dispute more confidently with the Greeks 1 
the natures and the person of < 

§ S. The history of the Latins abounds with so many 
examples of extreme ignorance as almost surprise us '. Yet 
the fault will he readily admitted by those who survey the 
state of Europe in this century. In Rome, and in some of the 
of Italy, there remained some faint traces of learning 
and science ' ; hut with this exception, what learning there was, 
had abandoned the continent, and retired beyond sea, among 
the Hritons and In 'landers 4 . Those, therefore, among the 
Latins who distinguished themselves at all by works of genius, 
with the exception of some few Francs and Italians, were 
Dearly all Britons, or Scots, that is Irelauders ; such . 
Ikd-u E<jl»vt. Clemen** Dtmpal^ Acca, and others. Prompted 

/<?!«"», Charlemagne, who was himself a man • 
attempted to dispel this ignorance. For he invited to his 
COW! L'raiimiaiians and other learned men, first out of Italy, 
and a fter wards from Britain and Ireland; and he laboured to 
rouse especially the clergy, or the bishops, priests, and monks, 
(whose patrimony, m this age, seemed b ung)i and by 

Dieafifl of his OWII example, the nobility also, and their SOD 
• dtivatinu of divine and human md learning, 

vj I. By his authority and requisition, most of the bishops 
i with their respective primary elm 
called cathedral schools ; in which children md youth devoted 

* See the annotations of Stcph. B»- 
<, j». 540. 
( I.vartiinir, nliii n have been 


be ran- ••\<-n HBO l.-ryy 

understood little or ri' uman 

acience, or «f lan^uagi* ; and ttu 

Armed them in this state. 

lion, than ■■ 
•tile w» read, to ring, and U» i 
vol.. II. 

Lord's pne ; IUt, 

and to ascertain t!»e t 
ignorance ttbowu by Donifaoe, and 
own I'v pop< Zaehan 
veray reapertin^ inflpodoa, and the 
figure <>f (l>«- outhj baa already bean 
1. Shi.) 

1 I. nd. An!. .Muml'iiii, .-tut \ 
i ill. p. 81 1. 

« J» Uaher, 


BOOK 111. — i F.XTIRY VIII. 


tu the church were taught the sciences. The more discerninn 
abbots, or rulers of the monasteries, likewise opened schools, in 
which BOOM of tlic fraternity taught the Latin language, and 
other things deemed useful and necessary for a monk or a 
preacher*. It was formerly supposed that Charlemagne was 
the patron and founder of the university of Pnris: but all 
impartial inquirers into the history of t host- times deny him 
this honour : vet it is ascertained that he laid a foundation 
upon which this celehrated school was afterwards emt« .1 c . To 
purge his iMiirt of ignorance, he established in it the famous 
scIkm.i, oafled the Paiatiau school; m whieh the children of 
Charlemagne and of his nobles were instructed by masters of 
great reputation T . 

§ 5. But the youth left these schools not much better or 
more learned than when they entered them. The ahili 
the teachers was small ; and what they taught was so meagre 
and dry. that it could not be very ornamental or useful to any 
man. The whole circle of knowledge was included in what 
9D liberal arts; namely, grammar, rhetoric, 
logic, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy '; of which. 

* Stepb. Baluzii Caj/itulutria Regun 
Fmitror. torn, i. p. 101, &c. Ja. BfaP- 
mond, (Wi/wi G*iUiaj, torn, ii. p. 191, 
Oca. Egasse de Boulav. hits. • /.- Sdto- 
lis Cla*0tmlihm4 at Epucopalibtu ; in 
hut Hitforia Acnl. /'uri*. (din. i. p. 7" 
Jo. Lauuov, dt Sekoiis a QoriL M 

,4. IfiMitmiU. llerro. Conrin^ii 
Antiquitato Academic*, p. 81. Sift. 
WdtArt Littct. lie la Frmm, torn. iv. 

?. 6, 6.p. ; mid other*. [In the year 
87, Charlemagne addressed an in i 
t'i the bishop* and abbots, roquir- 
ing them to set up schools ; which 

VtN U" *t iiitvii'l''l lV.-r lit | 
but for monks, who were i< 
the interpretation of Scripture, and 
Dg requisite for this purpose. 
He likewise often (H-nnittcd monks to 
come to his court school. His com- 
mands, and thi« example he exhibited 
in his court school, were very etticicnt ; 
and soon after, the famous school of 
Fulda was founded ; the reputation of 
which spread over civilized Europe, 
and allured numerous foreigners to it 
Next to Fulda, Hirschau, Corvey, 

PrUra, Wewsenburg, St Gall, and 
H« i.henau, became famous for their 
good schools ; which might be called 
the high schools of that age, and wore 
the resort of monks, designed for 
teachers in the inferior and ]K>orer 
monasteries. Charlemagne also exer- 
cised the wita of the bishops, by pro- 
posing to them all sorts of learned 
questions, for them to answer either 
in writing or orally. ScU.] 

• The arguments, to prove Charle- 
magne the founder of the university of 
Paris, are no where more fully stated, 
than in C. E. de Bounty's H'utoria 
Acad. Par. torn. I | Plj oVa But 
several learned Frenchmen, Mabillon, 
(Ada Samctor. Ord. Beitcd. torn. v. 
Pnef. § 181, 182.) Launoy, Claude 
July, (dt ScJkJU,) and many others, 
have confuted those arguments. 

1 Boulay, Hittoria Acad. Paris, torn. 
i. jfc Ml. MaUllvn, 1. c. § 179, and 

■ Uerra. Conringii Ata'ypiHatn Aca* 
den. Diss. iii. p. 80, &c. Ja. Thoma- 
tius, ProarunmaiOy p. S68. OUerta- 



(Ik- t I called the Tricium, and the four last, the 

Quadriviiiin. How miserably these sciences were taught, may 

nu-il from the little work of Alouim upon them', or fmni 
the tracts of Augustine, which red to be of the 

in-sf order. In most of the schools, the teachers did not 
venture to go beyond the Tricium : and an individual who had 
mastered both the Tritium and the Quadrivium, and wished 
to attempt .something still higher, was directed to study Camo- 
dorus ami ti< 



i nriteH. 

| 1. Vices 00 the religious teacher*. — § 2. Veneration for the clergy in the 
West. — § 3. Increase of their wealth. — § 4. They pom eased royal domains.— 
§ 6, Cauaes of extravagun; ir g?'» — § 6. and . 

the pone. — § 7' His good offices to Pipin. — § 8. The reward* of his ol»e- 
qniousuees to the French kings. The donation i I Donation at 

Charlemagne. — § 10. The grounds of it. — § 11. Nature of the DOpsAl juris- 
diction. — t 12- His prosperity checked by the Greek* ; origin flf the contests 
between the Greeks and Latins. — § 13. The monastic discipline wholly 
corrupted. — § 14. Origin of emoM^-j 15, 1G. Power of the popes circum- 
scribed l,y th. emperors. — g 17- Greek and oriental writers.— g 18. Latin 
and occidental writers. 

§ 1. I'm at those who in this age had tho care of the church, 
both in the East and in the \\ est. were of von* corrupt morals, 
is abundantly testified. The oriental bishops and doctors 
wasted their lives in various controversies and quarrel* ; and, 
disregarding the cause of religion and piety, they diaqtl 
the state with thei as clamours and seditions. Nor did 

tin*** Ha/ntm, torn. vi. Ob*er» 
p. IM 

• Al >. 1246. sd. 

Qnercetani. This litUe work is not 
imperfect, but is almost wuHMif 
trmnsenhed from CowMoru*. 

K 2 





they hesitate to imbrue their hands in the blood oF their dis- 
senting brethren. Those in the West, who pretended to be 
luminaries, gave themselves up wholly to various kinds of pro- 
fligacy, to gluttony, to hunting, to lust, to sensuality, and to 
war 1 . Nor could they in any way be reelahned, although 
■man, Pijtiu, and especially Charlermpne^ enacted various 
laws against their v ices \ 

| *2. Although these vices, of Hi-- [HUBBUB who DOgllt to have 
been examples for others, I • all, and 

gpffl occasion to various complaints, yet they <liil not prevent 
the persons defiled with them from being every where held in 
the highest honour, and being adored as a sort of delta 
the vulgar. The veneration and submission paid to bishops, 
and to all the t&Btgf was. however, tar gmttt in the West 
than in the Kast. The cause of this will be obvious to 
OOfl who considers tlie state and the customs of the nations, at 
this time bearing sway in Europe, anterior to their reception 
of Christianity. For all these nations, before they became 
christian were under the power of their priests, and dared not 
attempt any thing important, either of a civil or military 
nature, without their concurrence'. When they became 

1 Steph. Baluze, <k/ liofmon. Prtimi- 

'<:i. Wilkiufl' Osmeitia 
»tr He'tt-tHHut, torn. i. |>. 90, I 

" Steph. Baluie, Capitular. Rafum 
AnMor. torn. i. p. 189. 308. 275. 108, 
[Harduin, ('..,«'<',', Mm, iii. p. 
the iliru'v an- for- 
bidden to bear arms in war, ami to 
: ami severe laws* arc 
enacted again*! the « horedotn of the 
clergy, monks*, and nuns. Those laws 
were enacted under OtftoSBOP. *- D. 
742 Among the Capitularia of Charle- 
magne, cited by Harduin, are laws 
against clergymen'* loaning moni 

re per cent, interest, (llardnin, 
rol. v. p. 827, 0. 5) — aM 
haunting taverns, (p. 830. a 14) — 
against their practising magic (831. 
c. 18) — against lliatl UlllilflU liribee, 
to ordain improper persons (p. 831. 
c 31) bbboptj abbots, and abbesses, 
are forbidden to keep fucks of bounds, 
or hawks and falcons (p. 840. c. 15).— 
Laws were also enacted agaiiut cleri- 
cal druitkemiesM (p. 958. c. 14) — COH- 

cubinage (ibid. c. 15)— tavern-haunt- 
. 959. c 19) — and profane swear- 
-•<»]. 7V.| 
3 Julius Cteear, d* DMo Gallic*, lib. 
vi. c. 12. 13.}— says : " TIr Drafab 
are in great honour anions thnn s 
for they determine abut il 
troversieH, public and private: u 
any crime u* |>erpet rated ; if a mur- 
der its committed ; if there is a contest 
about an inheritance, or tcrrit. 
thej determine the rewards 

or punishments. Jf any nae, whether 
a private or a public will 

QOtstihmit t«> their decii lobar 

him from the sacrifices. — The Druids 
arc not accustomed to be pw e rt in 
battle; nor do they pay tribute uith 
the other citizens ; but ■ i 
fmm military service, and from all 
other burdens. Allured by men | 
leges, and from inclination, man; 
brace their discipline, and are sent to 
it by their parent* and Meat*," — 
Tacitu*, (</< MorUm* Qmrmamor. c. 7- p. 

384. «-d, QfOQtt ) Mj 

CM. II. J t lltllii It (iH'Ii r.US AND GOVERNMENT. 


■ian, they transferred the high prerogatives of their 
ancient priests to the bishops and ministers of the new reli- 
gion : and the christian prelates and clergy eraftily and »••, 

i and arrogated to thi these rights. And DJ 

originated that monstrous authority of the priesthood in the 
European churches. 

§ :5. To the honours and prerogatives enjoyed by the bishops 
and priests, with the concurrence of the people in the West, 

during this period, immense wealth and Ri 
The churches, monasteries, and bishops, had before been w« il 
supplied with goods and revenues ; but in this century, then 
arose a new and most convenient method of acquiring for them 
greater ri« Iks, and of amplifying them forever. Suddenly. — 
1>\ whose instigation ie not known, the idea baoutt u n ivetta Uy 

1 nt, that the punishments for sin, which God threatens 
t<i inflict, may be bought off by Kbenl gilts to God, to the 
saints, to the Unifies, and to the ministers of God and df 
glorified saint*. This opinion being every whsTG admitted, the 
; reus, whose li\«s were now most flagitious, con- 
r wealth (winch they had received by inheritance, or 
wrested from others h\ violence and war, according to the 
customs of the age), u, ■ -Willed saints, their mini- 

and the guardian* of their temples most ltountil'nlly, for reli- 
gious nam, in order to avoid the very irK-«»iiH' penances which 
were enjoined upon them by the priests*, and yet be secure 

to judge, to imprison, and to scourge, 

is all" 

■ hiimIi- 
meiil, or by <-•»•• . hut 

as if God coma p. 1 1. 



e. 36. p. !H>. says of 

I,; ■-!», li).. ii. »•. I 

335. M With them, a Iribg w in mode- 
rate estimation, compared with a 
• r Mks An 

«.— The lung and ill--- f»cople 
Theeu ii 
i.f Germany, Gaul, and i»f all 

sion • 

easy to answer tlie question, YA 
lated that vast power ol 
thood in Europe, t>f which thu 
iiau religion has no knowledge I 
• Suih as, long and severe fasts, 
tortures of ISA ImmIv, fn •pivot and 
long-ci'tiii : ■< ; pilgrimages to 

ti>.' tombi of 'li' b i i 

These were the penance*, imposed by 
ttM priests, oo persons who confessed 
to them their sins ; and they wool 
the most irksome, to such as had 

liv..-H. <Mth..ul restraint, amidst 
pleasures and indulgences, and who 

way. Bomb the op u l i l most eagerly 

by the sacrifice of a part of their 
estate*- , m irksume. 




against the evils that threatened to overtake them after death. 
This was the principal source of those immense treasures, 
which from this century onward, through all the subsequent 
ages, flowed in upon the clergy, the churches, and the monas- 
teries \ 

§ 4. The gifts, moreover, by which the princes especially, 
and the noblemen, endeavoured to satisfy the priests, and to 
expiate their past sins, were not merely private possessions, 
which common citizen* Bright own, and with which the 
churches and monasteries had often before been endowed ; but 
they were also puiUc property, or such as may proj>crlv l>elong 
only to princes and to nations, royal domains (renalia), as they 

.-died. For the emperors, kings, and princi 
to bishops, to churches, and to monasteries, whole provinces, 
cities, and castles, with all the rights of sovereignty over them. 
Thus the persons whose business it was to teach contempt for 
the world, both by precept and example, unexpectedly be- 
Dukes, Counts, Marquesses, Judy fofer*, sovereign J. 

and not only administered just iee t<> citizens, but evin marched 
out to war at the head of their own armies. An. I tlii- wn the 
origin of those great calamities which afterwards afflict ed 
Europe, tin? lamentable wars and contests about investitures and 
the naa^ut. 

| "). Of this extraordinary liberality, which was never bi 
of out of Europe, — not the vestige of an example can lx> found, 

j or to this century. There can. then-lore, be DO doubt 
that it grew out of the customs of the Europeans, and the form 

vernment most common among these warlike nations. For 
the sovereigns of these nations used to bind their friends and 
clients to their interests, by presenting to them large tracts of 
country, towns, and castles, in full sovereignty, reserving to 
themselves only the rights of supremacy, and a claim to mili- 
tary services. And the princes might think they were obeying 
a rule of civil prudence, in thus enriching the priests and 

* if— I tin- mil known phraseology, 

used by those who made offering* to 

the church** and the priests ; that 

maoV th< offering, tvdtinftitmi* 

animarnm tuarum iy>mm,/6r the rnirm/>- 

bnIi. Thf property ; • 

was likewise often called, prttium wc- 
Mtort- >■/ tin. SM Lad. Ant. 

Muratoni LH*t. <(r R^1t*Mptitmr Pm 
in his AittitptUnrrt l><tt. Mtdii 
.f.V', torn. \ . |'. 712, ice. 


bishops : and it is not probable that superstition was the sole 
cause of those extensive grants. For tli»y migfaj . that 

.vho were under the 1m. wis of religion, and eonseorat' 
Gfod, would 1m- more faithful to them lira civil chieftains and 
military men, accustomed to rapine and slaughter : and, more- 
over, they miijht hope to restrain their turhulent subjects, sod 
1 1. in to their duty, by means of bishops, whose denuncia- 
tions inspired so great terror'. 

§ 6. This great aggrandizement of clergymen in the countries 
• i I with their head, the Roman pOl 

and thence ext mled to inferior hishnps, priests, and frater- 
nities of monks. l\.r tin? barbarous nations of Europe, on 
their u to Christianity, looked upon the Romish bishop 

as succeeding to the plaee of the supreme head, or pontiff, of 
their Dntitb, or pgu priests; and as the latter had possessed 
immense influence in secular matters, and was exceedingly 
i. they supjMjsed the former was to be reverenced and 
honoured in the same manner 7 . And what those nations 

• I will hi [mn- 

aage from «.f \I.ilm-l.iii 
hi* fifth IhhiIc dt lifftit llftfum AmjliiT, 
p. 106, among the QarigLwm Rtmm 
j-lH-jlirtiHitnim jx>*< Iiolnm, Franef. 1601 . 
ml He i' tin.- reason for 

:n at donations t'» r 
l iii.*mn™n».', in onl^r to curb the 

i the churchea, 
wisely eonsideriii;*, thnt BUB »>f the 
sacred order would uot be **> lik • I 
laym- nice «iibjeeti»u to their 

eovemijm ; and moral i 

be able to hold than i the 

terroni of exeonununlcatian, ami the 
of their discipline. — I doubt 
ot, that hereii elated the mi e reason, 
tarlemagni i"uu 

a slave of priests. 
iu Human | 
and other countries which 
so mam estates, I 

That U, bo enlarged, immoderate ly, 
> nd resources of the clergy, 
that ho inicht , by means of r I 
restrain and kl-ep i • u his 

diiWi- i<1 Ini^l.i 

sialic- of Ik-ncvontum, 

and othem in Italy, 
inn. Ii «M to be feared, after the ex- 
tiru tii.n uf tin* Lombard monar 
and l> n faired a Large portion 

uf Italy upon the Roman |*MiUff, so 
that by hi* authority, power, and 
menaces, '»*• mijfht del •■'■»• r- 

fulandviit tees from sod 

or overcome th-m. it they dared rebel. 
That other kingsand princes, iu Bil 
reasoned in the same manner as Charles 
did, will DOt bfl MM StJOOedj bj 01 

t-s well tin- political constitii! 
and forms of government of tlmt age. 
That aggrandisement, 

lich era ahonld 
naturally aserih»> wholly ti» ■pajeajj- 
B>BJ also the result of rivil pru- 
dence, or state poftey. <>n the buIi- 

of r.«*tmm ion t, mention 
Malmshury, above, we shall hare some"- 

' JulitiH CbMB*i dt BMo Gall'" 
\\\. Mi* antem omnibus I 
prwest iiiuiH. <|iii mmmam inter eos 
rloriliUem. Hue m.jr 
aajoeedit. At *i plun-* pare*, t-utfru- 
a rui is de principatu couteii- 




.spontaneously gave, the bishop of Rome willingly received , 
ami li-Nt |t*rcluinee, on a change of circumstances, be might be 
despoiled of it. he supported his claims bf arguments, drawn 
from ami i « in', and from Christianity. This TOO the 

origin of that vast pre-eminence acquired by the B 
poetlA in this century, and of their gnat power in regard to 
civil affairs. Thus that most pernicious opinion, the cause of 
BO many wars and slaughters, and which establish. d and 
increased suij the power of the pontiff; namely, the 

In-lief that vhoeVOC U BlCJnflflfl from communion by him and 
his bishops, loses all his rights and privileges, not only as a 
citu.n, hut as a man, was derived t<» the christian ehiuvh from 
the ancient Druidic superstition; to the vast ut of 

■ |.e\ 
§ 7. A xtril inple of the immense authority of tlie 

pontiff in this age is found in the history of the French nation. 
■■■, the viceroy or major domus of ChilckriCy king of the. 
Francs, and who already possessed the entire powers of the 
king, formed the design of divesting his sovereign of the title 
and |fae honours of royalty ; and the French nobles, being 
assembled in council, a.d. 751, to deliberate on the subject. 

■ Though excommunication, from 

tin thin DC « '"i 7'.;intiiu tin I km ..I. 
■mom christians every when-, great 
inHueiu-v, je4 it had no where so great 
tie**, ur was so terrific, and ho 
distressing, as in Europe. And the 
difference between Jfiemnatai urvmrnm- 

nicUmm, and that of other christians, 
In. in tin' iiirliih -i ward, was 

imnu-iise. Those excluded fan 
aacrcd rites, or excommunicated, 
were indeed, nn abort] viewed as 
odious to God and to men ; y. I 
did DOl forfeit their riirhts as BMaVMO 
as citizens ; and much less, were kings 
and prince* supposed to lose their 
autliority to rule, by being pronounced 
I •• l.inhops, to be unworthy of commu- 
nion in aacrcd rites. Hut in Europe, 
from this century onward, a person 
■iroli b\ I bishop, 
and cs|H'ciall> by the prince of bishop*, 
was no le-uger regarded as u king, or a 
lord ; nor am a riti/ni, a husband, a 

lather, or even ms a man, but waa 

d as a brute. What wa^ the 

cause of this I Undoubtedly, tl< 
I* wing is the true cause. Those new and 
ignorant proselytes, confounded chris- 
tian crrvrnmuttictJiitHt with the old 
til.- .\..inn»unication, practised by" the 
pagan priests, i»r they suppose. 

the same nature and 
< hVct>, with Um latter; and the pontiffs 
and bishops did all ihcy could to eh- 
and • ■ en or, which was so 

useful to theiii. Bead the following 
extract from Julius lYtsar. ./« . 

c. Ill, and linn judye, 
whether 1 have mistaken the ori, 
LuiMjH'an and papal • 

|8J aut privatus aut publicus 
Druidum decreto non stetit, nw-i i 
inttnlicuut. 1 hi c puna apud cos'u 
gravisaiina. Quibuhila • ft > ■ 
ii numcro impiorum ae scoleratorum 
babentur, lis omnes d I turn 

hi. (in- dafugiunt, no 
•|uid ax contagione Lncomnn 

unt : in ijuc its |m t< ptlbua JSO rvddilur, 
lionos uIIuh coininuiucatur.'' 

CH. 11.] ftd OFFICERS AND uoV»;r< N MENT. 


demanded, that first of all, the pontiff should be consulted. 
whether it would be lawful and right to do what I'ipin d< ^iiv.l. 
■re despatched envoys to Zaehar\a* y who then 
presided over the church at Home, with this inquiry: Whether 
a \aliant and warlike nation might not, dethrone an Indolent 
and incompetent king, and substitute in his place oik- more 
worthy, and who liad already done great services to the- nation, 
without breaking the divine law ' Xacharias, at that tame, 
needed the aid of Pijtin and the Francs against the (.i reeks and 
the Lombards, who were troublesome to him; and heanewered 

notion according to the wishes of those who consulted 
him. This response being known in France, Dp QUO resisted; 

nhappy CftiMtricwaB divested of his royal dignity, and 
mounted the throne of his king and lord. Let the 

I of the pontiff 01 -w rh.-y cm just if} this decision 

of the vicar of Jesus Chritl, which is so repugnant to the Q0S> 
man! Saviour \ Z<ir},ar'ui£ successor, Sttpfirii II., 

feOOk a journey To 1'' ranee, a. n. 7">4, where he not only 000- 
finned what was done, but also freed Pi/>in % who bad now 

horn his oath of allegiance to : 

reign, and anointed or crowned him, together with his wife and 
his two BO 

sj 8. This attention paid by the Roman pontiffs to tine 

'•s, was of great advantage to the church over which they 

ided, For great eommotione and insurrections having 

I in that pari of Italy whicli was still subject to the 

Greeks, in ooneequence oft - of Lm the [aauriao and 

■intiiKi Copronymus against images: the Lombard kings 

• S itou tran»- 

tiiihiU$ Bo- 

■ ■ aiul 
.la. BeBL 
IIimchii-I, [irfciuio dcrl.mitM.nii 


ftimrrtiilioMi IJ iMcriamm ri i'riiijutt tnr 

JO. Dfaa. iii. p. 

■nd Ihe illtu- 



tnUMM-'tiutl IK l\ II |||<> nil till < 

IMUIIMT, *>V Nil (!i 

•reoplmiUhoi Up U<>mi«]i |>i»h»|> , 

^'••in-nillv misr.-|in"«-n(4 .1 ; for \\\>\ 

make Zach»ri;i- >■■ 

puwur, t» b»vc depot* . . ami 

to lmw I 

Thi*, the I'i- iu-Ii i|.-nv ; mi.t on 

gwitihi poold 

ouly niaku ili<- \»>\>-\ crime givatrr 
limn it wan. [S..- Bower's I 



trioun lliiiuiu, I 

Uim. • i MA*, [and B01 

Lit* . s..i. iii. |>. :i;,j 


BOOK 111.- 

:entury viii. 

[part II. 

so managed those commotions l,y their counsel and arm 
gradually to get possession of the <!recian provinces in Italy, 
which W&n undt-r tin* exarch stationed at Ravenna. ALitulphu*, 
the king of the Lomhards, elated by this success, endeavoured 
also to get possession of Rome, and its territory, and affected 
the empire of all Italy. The pressure of these circumstances 
induced the pontiff, Stephen II., to apply for assistance to his 
great patron, Pipin, king of the Francs. In the year 784, 
Pipin marehed an anm OVOT the Alps, and induced A 
to promise, by a solemn oath, to restore the exarchate of 

una, Pentapolifl*, and all that he had plundered. But the 
next year, the Lombard king having violated his promise, and 
also 1: Borne, Pipin again marched an army into 

Italy, compelled him to observe hi* promise, and with unparal- 
leted liberality, bestowed OH St. /'•'><. end his church, the 

ian provinces, namely, the Mxan-hate and the Penta] 
which he had v i -t -.1 from rlu- grasp of AUtulphus'. 

§ 9. After the death of Pipin, Destderiu*, the king of the 

li'jif, cap. i.ii. and Ait 

Jin, t.m. i. p. B4—6B. ytW. 9«7- But 

be is more cautious, ui km. v. m, 790. 

This controversy cannot easily be 

settled, except by recurrence to the 

deed of gift. Just, Knntauiui, Jkminio 

M/tcekio, Diss. i. 

c. 100. p. 346. e. «7. p. 242. represent* 

the deed of gift ok Mill in exist'' 

m quotes Home words from 

fat it* scarcely eredible : yet if it 

be true, it is unquestionably not for the 

lbs Eumiftn .rliunli. f<> have 

>ii|K>rtant sjk ' i'obw 

it. Nor could those who defended 

tlir interests of the pontifT against the 
emperor Joseph, in the controversy 
ting the fortress of Cotnacrhio, in 
our age, be persuaded to bffia 
forward, though challenged to ■ 
by tl ■'•* advocate*. Francis 

Ulanoliiiui", Ikih-.:'v<t, in h» PrvUoo- 
mena ad AnaMtmum de. V'tiis J'vnliji- 
cms* Rom. p. 56. has given ns s specimen 
of this grant, which bear* the marks 
of antiquity. The motive which led 
I'ipin to this great liberality, wan, ss 
appears from numerous testimonies, to 
nuke expiation for his sins, and espe- 
cially, the ;r- ui ria be hftd committed 
against his master Childirie. 

* [This territory lay along the Qnfll 
<■. from tin- i'o, southward as far 
as 1'ermo ; and extended back •• 
Ap|H'iiines. A< mi us, 

Baarehate KDctodra tk 

ci, Imola, Faera 
r 1 1 1 1 1 ■• 1 1 1 , Forli, OnnUL Bobbin, Fer- 
io, Adria, Cervia, and 
Secchia. The Pentapolis, now the 
Marca d'Anconn, comprehend Rimini, 
Pesaro, Cones. Fano, Siuigaglia, An- 
cona, Oshno, Unuuia, Jesi, Fosso m - 
brone, Montefi | tun, Cngli, 

Luceoli, and Eugubio. The whole ter- 
ritory mi^'lit bfl 150 miles long, and 
from GO to 80 miles broad. 

/• /iV : 7ao IttilUr, 
lib. iii. p. 202, iS . i 

count de liunau, Jlittoria Imperii *Ver- 
mnnici, torn. ii. p. 801. 3/><;. Mtiratori, 
Anmali d'Jtfdin, turn. iv. p. 310, &c. 
and many others. Hut what were the 
Ixmndariea of tins exarchate, thus dis- 
posed of by i'ipin, has been much eontro- 
mL and hlS been investigated with 
1 in the preaai 

Roman pontiffs extend the exarchate, 
- far as possible: other* 
cm nut it. to the narrowest II 
they can. See Lud. Am. Miiratori, 
Droits de rEmpin tmr r/lUti Borliiuu- 



Lombards, again boldly invaded the patrimony of St. Peter, 
namely, the territories given by the Francs to the Komish 
church. Ila<1iuiti 1.. who was then pontiff, had recourse to 
'<*, afterwards called the <ireat \('harl.wnqn<<\, tlu- BOO <>f 
Pij>in. Me crossed the Alps with a j»nwerful army in the year 
77 t. oM-rturiu-d the empire of the Lombards in Italy, whieh 
had stood more than two centuries, transported king Detideritu 
into France, and proclaimed Mmnelf king of the Lombards. In 
this expedition, when Ckarim arrived at Rome, he not onl\ 

firmed the donations of baa father to St. Peter, but front 

further; for he delivered over to the pontiffs, to be possessed 
i ml hv them, some cities and province* of Italy, 
it included in the ^rant of Pipin. Hut what por- 
tions of Italy Charles thus annexed to the donation of his 
father, it is very difficult, at this day. to ascertain '. 

* See Car. Sigonius, de Pajno Itulur, 
Iili. iii. p. "-'-' p Uim. ii. Henry 

count <le Biinau, Hi.'' 
mam. torn. ii. p. 3M 

perii, lib. i. cap. x ii. p. 07, A*. 

Viuratori, Drvti- rv wir 

VEtat EceUeiaMique l cap. ii- p, lA^ t, 

:. Conringioa, tU Imjhno Itimnmo~ 
trermnu. rap. vi. [Bower'* W*m of the 
Pepr-. i .»n I.J ond 

numerous others. Concern 
k lit of Charlemagne** new donai i 
ti».- pop«j there is the same warm 
teat I i ipacy 

ami those of the empire, as there is, 

cates for the pontiffs, maintain, that 

.», Sardinia, Sid ritory 

of Sahiuw, thf ilu.lis ( vj .Spoleto, be- 
sides many other tracts of country, 
by tli.' ren 

But tlie 
advi* '" claims of tli- < mp.- 

rora, diminlah aa far a» they ran the 
munificence of Char I.*, and confine 
tin* new grant witlnn DnCTOV limit*. 
reader may con- 
sult the writer- resent age, 

liave puhliahed work* on the 
claim* of th«« emperors and the popes, 

uccbio on'! 
renee, and I he iMOtaflf Parma and 
I'lacentia ; bat especially, the »ory 
learned treatise of Bcrret. . ntitlrd 

Dm. OtoroanpAiea <h Italia MMH 
The partialities of 
writer*, if I mitttuke not, have 

I 'In in from ifllUlliliiif in all 

cases, the real facts ; and it » easy to 

-tibjecls so long 

ed in obscurity. Adrian attirm*, 

that the object of QmU i- new 

don, was, r. 
he tli; to I ii the 

ninety-second Epistle, of the Caroline 
ratorL Seriptor. Rer. 

entss ad nos do Capua, quam Beato 
PatrOj \|M»-tnlornm l'rincipi, pr>i tmer- 
cede anim.T reetra at | iterna 

leris civHatibus obtn- 
listifl." I luive no doulit that t harles, 
'■ to be accounted pious ac- 
cord in*: bo the MtfanftlM "f that age, 
iJMJgn in hi* transfer, 
'•ut a person acquaint- 
ed with Charles and with the history 

was his only motive. 
Bj that donation, Charles aimed to 
prepare the way for attaining the 
■rain of the West, which he was 
•nneaTiiarinc to secure (for he was 
niont aralnti 
Init be earn irablyobtaj 

without the concurrence and aid 
Roman pontiff. Besides this, he aimed 
to secure and establish hi- new 0JBpfo 



[PABT It. 

§ 10. By this munificence, whother politic Of impolitic, I 
loavc to otln-rs to d'-tr-miine. Charles optted his way to the 
empin Od or rather, to the title (if emperor of tlie 

W eet, .'ui'i to siij»rvini' ilDininion OVte the city o| BuMfekfl and its 
territory, on whieh the empire of Uk Wart was thought to 
d« |»-nl\ II-' had, dmihtless, long had this object in view | 
and perhaps his father Pipin had also contemplated tlie same 
tiling- Bttt the circumstances of the times required procrasti- 
nation, in an affair of such moment. But the power of the 
KB being embarrassed, aftor the death of Leo IV., and his 
son ('on, -/an/? b*?, and when the impious Jnme, win* was very 
odious to Charles, liad gTMped the sripriv, in the yen 
he did not hesitate to carry his desiirns into execution. For 
diaries coming to Bomfl this year, the pontiff, Leo III., know- 
ing his wishes, persuaded the Roman people, who were then 
sed to be free, and to have the right of olocting an 
emperor, to proclaim and constitute him emperor of the 

§11. Ckartm, being made emperor, and sovereign of Borne 
and its territory, reserved indeed to himself the sopi 
power, ami the pr of BOW n-ignty ; hut the h>>hfiruif 

dominion, as it is called, and subordinate authority over the 

city and its territory, he enema to have conferred on the 

Romish church 7 . This plan was undoubtedly suggested to 

in Italy, bjf marsaBaag 1 1 i • • po s a cBsi ona 
of the holy Bee. On this point 1 have 
alreadv iouoheiL in a preceding note ; 
and I think, wl 

dera all the circumstances of the case, 
will coincide with me in jndgn 

* In reality, Charles was already 

tor of the Woo; tiwti is, iiir mort 

powerful <• II- 

I , fore oali lacked the title of ena- 
peror, and aovei m Sal 

ni country; 
both of which be easily obtained by the 
ai.i ..f L.i. III. 

6 !* i irians of those times, 

mnl especially, tin- U*t of them all, 
liiinau, ]Ji*iorv.i Imperii Romano-G*r~ 
amaai, Ion U i '>'■>", idvo- 

"f lliL- Roman pi >ul ill's U II U4 that 

Lao III by vfcrtua of the supreme 
povnr wiili which hi' was diri 
cl..(lir.l, COnteWll tin- empire ■•' 

West, after it waa taken from Uk 
ita, upon tin) French nation, and 
upon Charles tli< and hence 

ilu\ infer, that the Roman pontiff', i 
the vicar of Christ, is the sovereig of tin- wheal earth, a-* veil as i 
the BOUU '"I that ul 

poron rejgn m his authority. Dm 
absurdity of this reasoning, is learn- 
ed!) exposed by Fred. Span 
Ficta Trtitulatioite Imperii in Carol* 

■ III. in I 
ii. p. 557. I Sec also Bower's JArem 
ih, Fopdtj vol. iii. Life of Leo II I.] 
Other writers need not be named. 
7 That Qiarhs rutosMsItb 

orev tin- city Rome an< 
1 1 at he administered justice 
then- hs Iii- judges, and inflicted pun 
aVhmcnt* on malefactors, an<l IfeaJ 
exercised all the prerogatives of 
R iunty, learned men have de 

I II. II.] 

< iinim 0FFICEI19 \\n <.ov i- itNMKNT. 


him by the Iioman pontiff'; who persuaded the emperor, per- 

haps by showing him some ancient, though forged pajx>rs and 

ments, that ConstatUine the Great, (to whose place and 

anthority Qh a r kn now succeeded,) when he I the scat 

of empire to (.'onstmitinople, committed tin- old seat of emphv. 
Rome and the adjacent territor <<• Roman dukedom, to 

the possession and gOvOrailMOt of the church, LUMULving, lmw- 
his imperial prerogatives over it; and thai. RrOflB thi* 
Hid ordinance of t'ousttnitiix , Charles could not 
depart, without incurring the wrath of Clod and St. Peter*. 

«i rated by the moot tenable 

'..«. cap. vi. 

p. 77. (u> h !• '. ''■' • '• ''' 

i^lit in ihudtncH*, who maintain, 
with Justus Fontanin 

Dins, i. o. 95, 
08, &c.) and the other advocate* of 
tn. Kotiiun pontiffr. that Charles sus- 
tained at Koine. 

a sovereign, but that of patrvn vi tin- 
Botttiatt church, n-liinjuiMhiny tl 

>«i. t.i declare the whole truth, it is 
I of the Roman 
iff", in the city ami territory of 
Rome, was great ; and thai I 

many thinga ieearding 
and aa a 

latiom of it. ne little known, and 

>l. M i.. it. n j hrvits 
10*2.) maintains, that 

an <jvtr--A, QF uIbwPJ! of the BBMM. 

io to 

Clement XI.; nor do I regard it as 

com-- <-ir- 

PpOM Ihi Roman J..0I- 

I<1 tin- Roman pi <-\\\ 

••• M he .!• : 

i territories * 
liim 1 y t harles. that in, u n JUj , 
with Vtm eircu inscribed powers than 
ordinary fi mlal teniin 

nfiinion it (•«-!> • 

which will 

in t !»•■ (• ii I it 

the ancient writers and other docu- 

■ Most writers are of opinion, that 
Constantine's pretended grant was poe- 
I Tn thin period; and that it was 
forged, perhaps in the until century. 
Hut I lu-lii'w it agisted in thise< nUiry; 
and that Hadrian, ami hin 


Char I- ' over 

tin- city Rome, and its t. 
tin- Romish church. For tin* opinion 
we have tin- good M ' tin- 

Roman poi [Irian I. in 

his F.pi*t I. • t.» Charlemagne; which ia 
fcbfl t - . i ■ t v ninth in th- I 

hod in Momiori'a Mtrum liai 

ii. pi. ii. |i. \U1 ; and 
which' parnaaL Hadrian 

there exhorts Charles, who waa not 

DMnr, to arte 1 fbe restitution 

of all tin- Ii liad formerly 

been made the ehutvh 

Of Roiih . Ami ha v.-rv clearly dis- 

fmui • 

rors and princes; ami. what deserve* 
from tlu- donation of Pipin, whii I 

1 tile exarchate, and from the 
additions made I r's granta 

by i hai tomagno: »li , ilnwe, 

legitii Hadrian undo 

.n tine's grant to etnl 
city of Rome, and the tcnitoi 
ent on it. He first tin 
of Conatantinc the Great, thus : - 1 > 
dtJBMTWtl - ntiani — pl- 

ot ipsius clavigeri regni en?!. 
— nt wen 1 1 -»aioncm, quam 

|«»llii | 

amitutr rtjtrtt mcrrait et »talnlit»t< 1 

vestri, omnia noalria temporibus nd 

plerw jnheatia.- ' 

H.-ati Silvestri Romani I'omincta, a 



[PART »!. 

§ 12. Amidst these various accessions to their power and 
Iflfammn the Human pontiffs exp< he QB B o fc 

emperors, no inconsiderable loss of revenue and dignity. 
L*q the Isaurian, and his son Constantine Copronymus, being 
exceedingly offended with Gregory II. and HI. on account of 
their zeal for holy images, not only took from them the estates 
possessed by the Romish church in Sicily, Calabria, and 
Apulia ; but also exempted the bishops of those territories, 
and likewise all the provinces of Illvricum, from the dominion 
of the Roman pontiffs, and placed them under the prot« 
of the bishop of Constantinople. Nor could the pontiffs, after- 
wards, either by threats or supplications, induce 
ampeffOIB to restore these valuable portions of St. Peter's 
patrimony \ This was the first origin, and the principal 
cause, of that graat oontes' I the bahepa of Koine and 

«.f Constantinople : which, in the next century, severed the 
Greeks from the Latins, to the great detriment of Christianity. 
Yet there was an additional cause existing in this century ; 
namely, the dispute concerning tl >\*i<m of the Holy 

Spirit i of which we sliall treat in its proper place. Hut this. 

sanctst reeordatiouis pussuno Constan- 
tino Magna, Iiupcratorc, per cjui lanji- 
Utttm (sec the ^raiit of Constantino 
it«4-lf ) sancta Dei catholica ctapostolicn 
Romans eccleeia clevata stque exaltata 
eat, et potatoUm in his Hesperiie par- 
titas larairi dignatus est : ita et in his 
vestri* feliciasimis u-mporibus alque 
nostris, tancta Dei occlesia germinet — 
et ampliu*, atquc amplius exaltata |kt- 
maneat — Qnia ccce novus Chr*»tian- 
issixnus Dei Constantinun Imp 
(N. It. H>f ill-- fatJ/tt <l<-nominate$ 
Charles, who wm then only a kin 
mpmtr, and compares him with Con- 
stant im-) ma temjmribus *urrexit, per 
quern omnia Deus sanette m eccleaia? 
— largiri dignatus est. (Thus f.> 

rjwof Constant tm-'s donation. Next, 
pontiff notices the other donations; 
which h»- clearly discriminates from 
Una.) Sad * enmeta alia, quie per di- 
verse* lmperatoroa, pa im et 
alios Drum tiinentes, pro ecrraat aitimat 
m trt td $ A rtnia fMccmtorvm, in partibua 
Tuaeiw, Spnlcto sou Renevento, atquo 
Corsica, annul et Pst'iiu-iisi patrimonii ■, 

Beato Petro Apostolo, — ooneessa aunt, 
et per nefandam geutem Longobar- 
•Jiiruiu per amioruin spatia abstracts 
alque ablata sunt, vestris temporibus 
n-etituantur. (The pontiff adds, in the 
close, tltat all those grants were pre- 
served in the archives of the La' 
and that be had sent them, by bis am- 
baaaadort, to Charlemagne.) ' Unde et 
pluresdonationos in aacro noatro scrinio 
Lateranenai reconditas habetnua ; tanvm 
ct pro satisfscuone chnstianisaiini regni 
veatri, per jam fatos Tiros, ad demon- 
strandum eaa robin, direximns ; et pro 
hoe jutinius exiiniaxn ProceUentiam 
veatram, ut in integro ipsa patrimonia 
Beats nobia restituer*' 

Bj thjl u appears, that Constan- 
tine's grant was then in the LaUram 
archives of the popes, and was sent with 
the others to Charlemagne. 

• &«e Mich. Le Quien's Oritiu C'hri*- 
tiamut, torn. i. p. 96, «tc. Tbo G reek 
writers also, as Theophaoes and others, 
acknowledge the fact, but differ a little 
in respect to the cause. 

II. II.] 



perhaps, might hau- been easily adjusted, if the bishops of 
Rome and Constautinoplo had not bom nnc involved in a con- 
test respecting the limits of their jurisdiction. 

§ l.'J. Monastic discipline, as all tlie writers of that age 
testify, was entirely prostrate. Vi.-tli in the East and the W 
The beat «»!' the oriental monks were those who lived an austere 
life, rem- intercourse of men, in the deserts of 

Egypt. Syria, ami Mesopotamia : ami yet among them, imt 
only gross ignorance, but also fanatical stupidity, and base 
superstition, often reigned. The other monks, in the neigh- 
■Ofid of the cities, not unfrequently disquieted tlie state; 
and ( • < opronvnms, and other emperors, were obliged 

to restrain them r. ].• at. dly. I.y ■even edicts. Most of the 
western monks now followed tin- rule of ,S7. ften*<' 
there MR ttOIIMfllliliUH. in various places, in which other rules 
were preferred '. Hut when their wealth became increased, 
they scarcely observed any rule ; and they am themselves up 
to gluttony, voluptuousness, idleness and other vices 3 . Clutrls- 
magne attempted to cure these evils, by statutes; but he 
effected very little \ 

§ 14. This great corruption of the whole sacred order, pro- 
duced in the Wast a new species of priests, who Mere an inter- 
mediate class between the monks, or the regular eli roy, as they 
called* sad the aeouior primtt. These adopted, in part, 
the discipline and mode of lit'.- of monks; that is, :l 
together, ate at a common table, and joined in united pg 

tain hours; yet rbev did not take any vov* upon them, 

like the monks, and they performed ministerial functions in 

certain churches. They were at first called the Lovd'a 

> Sat Jo. Mai Ada 

Bmtetor. OH. AWm*', hbc. i. p. xxiv. 
and sstciv. pi i. p. J« 

■ Mabillon treats, ingenuous I v 
this corruption of the monks, and of its 
causes, in the nl f. <ul 

» Sec t ol • liarle- 

d by Balu/ . 
148. 157 237. 265. 366, 6ic. 376. ««, 
and in vari'Mi* ntJi.-r pUeee. These 
numerous law*, so often repeated, prove 
the extreme perverseneee of the monks. 
[See also the 90, 21, and St canons of 

the c lovtshoo, in England, 

a.v. 747- Monastcria — non ciut ludi- 
crarum artium recoptacu! 
poetarnin, citltoristaruni. muaicoruui, 
scurrarum — Non 

domicilia turpium confabulationuiu, 
i, ebrietatUB 
ujui ml. ilia. — Mona«tpriales sivc 
cccJoaiaaUci, ebrietatia malum non sec* 
Untur aut oxpetant — eed ncque alioa 
cogant tntemperanterbibere; aed pura 
ct sobria sint eorum couvivia, non luxu- 
rious, neque delicti* vel scurriiitatibun 
mixta, ft*. 7V.] 




| !' \HT II. 

orttArm (frntres Doiuiniei) ; liut afte.™ k th<- an 

canons (canonici) *. Tin* common opinii sites tin. insti- 

tution of this order to Chrodegang, bishop of Mot*: DOT is this 
opinion wholly without foundation \ For although there were, 
anterior to this century, in Italy, Africa, ami other pro voices, 
convents of priests who )i\ed in the maimer of canons* . 
Chrod'O'ui/L about the middle of this century, I the 

prints of his church, at Metz, to this m.-l. of living, reqi 
them to mag hymns to God at certain hours, and perhaps t«» 
observe otlier rites ; and by his example, first the Franca, and 
then the Italians, the English, and the Germans, were led to 
introduce this mode of living, in nnmeroufl places, and to found 
convents of canons. 

§ 16. Supreme power over the whole sacred order, and over 
all the possessions of the churches, was, both in the Eas' 
in th<- West, rested in the emperors and kings. Of the poww 
Of the GU e el emperors over the church, and its goods and pos- 
sessions, no one entertains a doubt 7 . The prerogatives of the 
Latin emperors and kings, though the Batterers of the popes 
labour to conceal them, are too manifest and clear to be 
coaled : as the wiser in the Roman community theme 
confess. JJaaViae I., in a council at Rome, conferred on 

C'/irtt'ltmapm&f and his successors, the right of appoii 
creating the Roman pontiffs'. And, although Ckonm\ and 

I S.-e Le Ileuf, Mcuunrts rttr f'lli*- 
''Atutrrt, torn. i. p. 174. Paris, 
1748. 4io. 

* lor an account of Chrodcgang, sec 

tlie IliM'i, ■tmrr i 

• '•in. ir, p. IS8. AMJ. Calnict, U'uloirt 
<U Lorni'ms, X«m. i. p, filli, n A>-i<i 
O— Ufui 9m, Una. i. MartU, p. 452. The 
rule which he prescribed to his canons, 
may he teen in Le Coiute's Annulet 
Fnmosr. EccUniutiei, torn. v. ad ann. 
7&7- § 35, ft*. •""' i"»'- ( btw tf aa, 

tom. \'n. \>. UN. [in Harduin'e Con- 
cilia, twin. o. |». II HI. ft*. 

rule, a> jui'i Lucas Dachery, 

r.l.r. Sriftfor. torn. i. |'. 

:,i.:> \.- bjh1< rtlu name of ClirodaglHfc 

was tin- unrk of another jhtsop,. 

neat summary of the rule is given by 

nival, IJ'i- L>jli*e 


• See Lud. Ant. Mumlnri, Anlu/Hi- 

tau» Us/ism Mmm\ Mm\ ton. v. p. 186, 
&.c. also Lud. TliouiaNsinua, dt I 
^Jimi Ecdrncf criere ae atmi, pt I 
iv. &c. Tlie design of this < 
tution was trul; >r ita 

authors, pained with the rices and 
fecta of the clergy. hop«d that tab 
mode of living would abstract th' 
secrated men from worldly earv* and 
business. But tlie event has shown 
how much the hopes of these goo-i 
ware disappointed. 

7 r < harfity of the Qrcell 

i ii 1 1.. ran hx n liiMou-un ktterSySee Won. 
Le Quien, Orism ('krutiumi*, torn. i. p. 

* Anastasius makes mention of this 
decree ; whieh i« preserved hot: 
Yro and Gratian. The auhject has 
heen discuaaed by very many. [Tie 
existence of this council, ami of Bach a 
grant to Charlemagne, is Tory linear- 



his son Leu*i*, dfldin osiqg this power; yet they re- 

jlit of accepting and confirming tfn 
election made hy tin- Roman people ami clergy ! nor could the 
consecrati-. . ..i ; , pope take place, milew tin topei-or* ambas- 
sadors were preeant'. The Romeo pontift obeyed tlw laws 

• •t' the empwoey Mid accounted all their decisions dcHni: 
The • and kings of the Francs, by th«ir extraordinary 

judges. whom they called Afteri, that is, Legates, inquired into 
tin lives and QOJMfoel of all the clerjry, the superior as well as 
the inferior, and decided causes and eontrm ffllODg 

tin in ; thev enact'd laWB reepe otlB g the modes and forms of 

lip; and pturiehed every species of crime in the pri 
just as in the otl The | l>elonging to 

rlunvhes and monasteries, unless exempted by the special in- 

dulgenoa of tkie sovereign, waa taxed, like other property he 

the common BBBH of the state*. 

\j l'». r riiat tin- preservation of religion, and the decision of 
respecting iloetrines, belonged to tin- Roman 
pontiff, and to t'h iaetical councils, was not denied hy 

tin- ei Mid K it i lt- of Uie Latins*. Hut. this power of the 

pontiff was CO&flned within narrow limits. For he WB1 
able to ■ •. his sole authority, hut was ■ 

assemble a council. Nor did the PTOVhlCCB Wail for his deci- 

: bat held conventions or councils at their pleaewe, in 
which the hishojis tivolv expressed their opinions, and gave 
decanons which did not acoord with the views of the pontiffs; 

tain. 'Die earliest ru 

I POSIOM, (ftiJ 
\. !>. 1111. 


. and 

ilf Marca, d< 

•i. c. 13. 
:ul nun. 77-*- M 
i,'-. //<•/ ,, /, ,• Kirr**ntvr*tmml. 
p. 47 

• Sec Jo. Mir .*rnt<tr. \* 

I* J!-*» I A 

\«\ Mil: ■' <le 


|li. I'-.jIu: 

dim. ix. |>. 470. 
C. x. p. 44. e. Mii. 1- llfi 
* See. especially, Muruiori, AaittL 
p. MM 

-, in tin- ci utcst it Lewii W. 
kiiij.' of Kruno . nntteting 
tii'ii o( \hu derg) Iron | nli- 

ii 1, in ii \iilumeft, 
under the li «r a eonim 

l,$ immumii 

, ■ 

lib. L cap. iv. p, 18. .-■! H» iniianri. 

\ tn If, 



[l-ART II. 

as is manifest from the French and German councils, in the 
controversy respecting images. Moreover, the emperors and 
kings had th<; Eight of calling the councils, and of presiding in 
them: nor could the decrees of a council have tho force of 
laws, unless they were confirmed and ratified by the reigning 
sovereign 1 . Yet the Roman pontiffs left no means untri- 
free themselves from these many restraints, and to obtain 
supreme authority, not only over the i-hurch, hut tfae 
kings and over the whole world: and time eflbrta of 
were greatly favoured by the wars and tumults of the fblhwing 

$ 17. Among the writers of this century, very few deserve 
much praise, either for their learning or their genius. Among 
tin- Greeks, Germanus bishop of Constantinople, obtained some 
celebrity by his talents, but still BIOTC l»y bis immoderate xeal 
in defence of images*. Cosmos of Jerusalem got renown by his 
skill in composing I The histories of George Syncdfos** 

5 All these points are well illus- 
trated by Buluze, Pruf. ad Capitu- 
lariu ; and In the CVlWWlf M III them- 
selves, that io, hy the* laws of th<> 
French kin^«». And all those who 
have dweussed tho rights of king* and 
princes in matters of religion, take np 
au>l illustrate tfafta UbJMt. See also 
Jac. Haanage, Uutoitv d< VEglix, torn. 

a Set? Richard Simon, Critinm 4* la 

BiUvrtiy* Badtma*. dr M. ./« />.«, 
torn, i. p. gfQ, (<icrmantui was the 
■on of Justinian, a patrician of 
stantinople, and wan deprived of hja 
virility by Constant inc Pogonntus. He 
was made bialiop of Cyzicum.and then 
patriarch of Constantinople, From k. p. 
715 to 730- During the four but yean 
of his patriarchate, he strenuously op- 
posed the amparor Leo, and defended 
image worship, until lie wag deposed. 
pw rulifM to a peaceful private 
life, till his death, about a. d. 7 1", 
when hi was more than ninety years 
old. His writings all relate to imagc- 
worship, and the hem. it due 
virgin Mary ; and consult of letters, 
orations, and polemic tracts ; which 
may be neon, in the Art* </ the 6eeo*ul 
A'uem C<m*cV. the BWkiketa Patntm. 
and other collections. His orations in 

praise of the holy virgin, are ascribed, 
by some, to another Gennanus, bishop 
pie, iu the thirteenth 
eenturv. & ll'uioria Ltttrrar. 

vol. i. * Tr.) 

7 [Cosmas was a native of Italy ; 
captured by Saracen pirates, he was 
carried to Datnawus, and there »oId 
to the fuller of John Damascenus, 
who made him preceptor to bus eon. 
He m afterwards n monli in the mo- 
nastery of St. Sabas, near Jerusalem ; 
and, at last, bishop of Majuma. He 
ft'urihhed about j>. v. 730, and has left 
us thirteen Hymns, on the priiiei|ml 
festivals, and some other poenw; « 
are extant only in Latin, and may be 
seen in the HifJlotft. 1'itr. torn. xii. 
See Cave's Hiitoria IAtteraria, 

* [George was a monk of Constan- 
la, and $yncMtu to Tarasiua tho 
patriarch. A tyturrllu* was a hi^ b 
cleaiastical personage, the constant 
companion and inspector of the bishop; 
and resident in the $ame cell with 
whence hi* name eV»y*iXXoc. 8< 
Cange, Mediet rt Infm. Latimi- 
tatU, sub voce Synoelliu. The Chr i 

Is from the 
creation to the times of Maximin : and 
is copied almost verbatim frotti tbe 

i !!. II.] . BUBCa OFFICER8 AND GOVERXM I \ 1 . 


and Tfwophanet'i hold some rank among the writers of 
liy/antinc history; but they must be placed far below the 
evUei SOd Latin historians. The most distinct 

of the (ireek and Oriental writers, was John Damascening a 
man of respectable talents, and of sun!.- nln i jpuwwil . lb- eluci- 
dated the Peripatetic philosophy, as well as the science of 
theology, by various writings ; but Ins fine native endow merits 
vitiated by the faults of his times, superstition, and ex- 
cessive veneration for the fathers ; to say nothing of his cen- 
surable propensity, to explain die christian doctrines conform- 
ably to the views tjt J/vV/VA '. 

Chnraieoii of Eusebiu*. Joe. Scalier 
made much use of it, for reoo\ 
the lost Greek of Eusebius'B work. It 
was published, Greek and Latin, with 
notes, by Jac. Goar, Pari*, 1862. foL 
See Care's Hi/tor. LkUrar. torn. i. 

* [Theophanca, surnamed Isaac i us, 
and Confeteor, wan a Constants 
tan, of noble birth, born a. v. 868. 
Loo, the patrician, obliged him in bin 
.to marry bis daughter : but his 
i ' >-d to nave no matri- 
monial iuU-tvourse ; and, on the death 
I r father, th*-y separated, and 
Iwuw* became a ui'-nk. II 
previously filled sercral iniportai it 
offices under the emperor Leo. He 
retired to the monastery of Poly eh ro- 
riana, a. d. 780 : and 
thence to the i»Iaml Culino iiiun, where 
he eun* ••rted hi* paternal estate into a 
monastery, and apeut six years. Than 
r» turning to .Singriana, he purchased 
the estate called 
into a monastery, and preti 
as the abbot. In tin- year 787. he was 
u • opvmU; 
where ho strenuously defended image- 
worship. Aft- 1- s,D. ma, Lao, tin' 
Armenian, required him to con- 
imsgr-wor h be resolutely 

refused to do. In 815, or a \ ear later, 
he was imprisoned for hi* obstinacy, 
though ii"' sing health; and 

was banished to the 
Island of Samothraoc, where he died 
at the end of twenty-three days, 
patrons of image-worship accounted 
him a nonfrmnr, and honoured him as a 
mtimt. His f 'srosioos, which embraces 
i.^iastical affair* 

IBM that of 
George Syucellu*, from a. n. 286, to 
H3. ' It is written in a dry style, 
without method, and with numerous 
mistakes. The Cknmicom of Anaeta- 
aius Bibliothecariua, is u mere Latin 
translation of this, so far as this ox- 
tends. It was published, Greek and 
Latin, with the notea of Goar and 
Com bens, Paris, 1666. fol. See Cave, 
J/utoria LUtcntr. torn. i. Tr. ] 

1 See Peter Uaylc, Dictiomtaire //«•- 
toriqut, torn. ii. p. 960, and Leo Alla- 
tius 1 account of bis liich 

Mich. Le Quien has published, with 
|ed. Paris, 1712, 
and Venice, 1748. 2 vols, fol.— also Da 
Tin, Billiatk. de* AuUurt Efdh. torn. 

101, be. Fafc bUodk. 

!. viii. ji.77-. Atc.;and&hrocekli, 
ayasawalSj SOL x\. p. 222, Ace. — 
•John iJaiuasceuns, called also Chrysor- 
rhoas by the Greeks, on account of his 
eloquence ; and by the A rata Mansur ; 
was born at Damascus, near the end 
of the seventh, or beginning of the 
eighth century. II ii father, Sergius, 
a wealthy christian, and privy-coun- 
cillor to the Kalif, redeemed many 
ivea, and among them, a learned 
Italian monk, named Cosmas, whom 
ho made preceptor to his only son 
John. Ou the deeease of his f;. 
John Mico'.'dt'il l.ini in office, at the 
Saracen court. Aliout the year | 
be wrote numerous letters, in del- 
of image-worship, which the emperor, 
Leo the I saurian, waa endeavouring to 
suppress. This, it is Raid, induced Leo 
to forge a treasonable letter from John 
to himself, which be sent to the Kalif, 
in order to compass the destructi • 

I. 2 


III. — I . Ill 

(I'AltT II . 

($ 18. At fcha head of the Latin writers stands - 

ror, who was a great lover of learning. Tu him KM 
ascribed the CbpteJMs, as they are called, several Epistle*, 
an. 1 four booh concerning images ,• yet there can l»- little doubt 
that he often uaed the pea and titer'. Nexl 

John. The kalif ordered his ri^ht 
hand to be cat off. John repine- ■ I 

of ill- Mr/m Man.-, had H 
restored, too ame night. This mira- 
nnooed the kalif of John V 
j a ii. I ha offered to restore him 
to hi* office and fir. lohn 

chose to retire t o -"Id 

»n«l gave i«»v all hi* property, and 

• ■'1 to the monastery of St. Sal •«.•«. 

near Jerusalem ; whore he OPOM the 

<>f hi.- lit'*- ia composing 

il works cm theology and m : 

Mi.i treatises are. numerous, con&u* ting 

tiOi re, awl Tracts ; chiefly 

p otarataj in defbnee of image-worship, 

and against herejue* ; yet wveral arc 

1 and narrative. But few of 

i ihical work* have been path- 

li-ll-d. II 

O rt ked o ea, lihri iv. ('BroWic urpo'3r)r 
tijc 6p9o36Zov arlVriwt), which is a 
n of therto 

fr>iiii tli- father*, and arranged in tin 

msm ■ lm> n. 

* See J««. A lb. Fabr 

!"m. i. |.. !i;Mi. 

iv. |.. :um. [Charlemagne was not 
a great general un>l slaleuman, 
but likewi 

III JX.-«~ - 

_•!» his very 

ieient In all 
Um hnDen 

rally puixu- d. Ha BMCMtOOOl both 
Latin and Greek, was well read in 

id «:f in iilouilitililo 

theologian Klmh1i.ii'. iiaus, 

' !■■ | having 
not undertaken it, till tOO farads 
in life. But if he could not ■ : 
fair band, be OOUM dlet n t B SO hi-tams- 
. ■*•* ; ami hy their aid, and that 
nf the learned men uhoin he always 
hnd abort him, he noninooofl and com- 
piled eHJ mueh, that Mel him great 
credit. Besides a great number of 
**<\f, 7W#, ami fr'nia/n, wliich nrr 

to be Men in various collections ; as 
those of Caniatus, Da ban 

Lion, &c. ; an. I nsmerooi LdUrt, 
interspersed in the later collection! of 

lis ; he wrote a 
book of H. • festivals 

of th- i Part Discnua* I 

piled by hi- order; also a large pa 
the E 

.1 affairs, which 

four Iviokh, entitled, t'/ei' 

were collected by the abbot 
a. d. N7, Afterwords, tin 

vita. The whole are beet pnbH 
by Buln/. . VfJi 8 vols. fol. 

The ■ limm is a collection of 

successive popes, 
l D ban anil tO his fa: NOli 

n to the pope*: made 
Mirlemagne *. p. 19%, 
This was d rreteer, In- 

gobL I*;i3. tax— -The fear t»ooka 
against image- iron hip. fdt I" 
futf,) called also flu 
lirum, if nut dictated entirely by him, 
was at leapt drawn up in hi* nam 
order, and in accordance with has 
lie caued it to be read in llw 
I of Pmneforfc, *. d. 78 »• 
it was approved ; and he 

t.i it. an befog the mn% of t'harie- 
ttngne. It woe lir-t pul 

Jehu Tillet (Ti!t 

Aeons, a. n. 1549: and la- 
C. A. Henmann, Hanover, 1731 
For • noes of Ihfin «rorl 

Schroeckh, KirelkmgaekUU 
p. 583, &.c. ; ami lav e. J I 
terar. torn. i. TV.— The cclel 

uijjes, so embarrassing 

I >manists, • 
really the ean of Alonin, though 
lished andor the nami 
'i u Ug dI U - Imperial m. 

image-worship, had I I with 

u.i ; but as the 



to him should be placed Beda, called the Venerable, on account 
of his virtues J ; dforffl, the preceptor of ( 'harlcmagne ' ; and 

I y was in deferential amity with 
null repulse was treat- 
ed, *» if bestowed apoa ■ oriental ; and Alcuin was chosen 
by lit-* ooiiTitrx iiit-ii far 'task 

He produced, accordingly, so 
t'j'h: lafified ap- 

ause. Tl 

rthat publication wnieh Charlemagnc 
ptrd. v.ork ilM-11. II 

emperor'* own subject* had no more 
respect fur image-worship than \l- 

r in- 
formation, sec rAr L 

Engl, traiibl. p, I II ; mid c 1 1 . ■ 
i Aim/Sow Left una, p, 172 ; 

* Concerning Beda, see the 
in. ii. April, p. 809. 

eras l>l<tioH*aifr Huh/ntfa- • 

■ |'. 17'h A t-at Iii* writings, 

drawn up by hinueo, 
ratori .f>*, 

■ ii. p. BJ6| ota [Doda <ir Ik-dan, 

at Jarrow, mar the mouth ••: 

land, and * 
the lerritortoa ><i the i 

iiat pint'.-. At l Ik- age of 
ven years, ho was soul to thn< 


tcne* In- Hjieiit hi* WUDfel lit- , • \«ept 
rig <.tlii i" i 

Lttonuv purpose*. At the age of 
and, at the age of thirty, n presl 

:u student ; yet 

mi monastery, and nttudli 

of the mor-i ol that 

age. Ilia works, pull i 

-ind again 1088, fill 
fol. They con--: 1 1 Ulrica oo 

the greater part of tin- < Qd 1*< sta l 

' torn ; a large number 
icts; and an 
Ireat Uritai i 
Julius <'ji*ar, i ». t>. ffl, 

Beda was a man of great learnin 

that age ; of consider;.: 
an *g recall. 

■tries and theological Tracts are 
little more tlu&n compilation* from the 
fathers. An a historian, he was honest, 
hut credulous. As a ilivine, he- was 
a mere OQVjint ; f<il lowing Augustine, 

■ 'Ii- Ureat, and I 
sound Greek (athsEBi His piety .stands 
un<|U.->ii"ii"l. Hi- Only work, now of 
much value, im his church 

lOBB. •■(litrd 1 1 y Wli.i IncL. < 

ill better, by 
i 1728, fol 
account of his own life and writings ; 
p. 2 ; ulwj 

.-. lorn. i. 


iii. p. 600—08 4, ad Vamos, 17:1-1 ; 
and J. Mii 


«.i-. | nl' 
Ushed in Bvo. urilli 
note*. iiti Htdorie 

in U13d, ui ius care of 

Mr. i 

should not he too nf ! with 

credulity Hi-, work does, indeed, 
contain son a- men tales as bet 
the age, hut hi talk "hat 

was current I \ believed, all' I 

•i ivally l 
i iIm- prevailing standard ol 
duiity. Ed. \ 

* JJigUtir* Litfntii/- "'SOS, 

-JK». iVosroiM Dictiuv 
IliMor. 1'rit. torn. i. p. 122. A 
i of the works nf Alcnin ii 
paring in Fronee by tatelinot, who 
lias discovered hi 
on (be rVuoussiuu of the Helj 3| 
See the Hittain 

1 ','/.».,, p. \ [Bll 
'i appears, was in 
and that of Du I .ii-, ln"l 7- 

•I is be used. 1'laoena 

i . Alchwin, or All mi, was a ua- 

u. 'land ; aud educated 

there. He was 

well acquainted with i 

and, some 

Hebrew. II- was a in 
and genius, of sound judgment, and ol 
c«m iii taste. Aa an oral bflo 




[part II. 

of Aquileia*; all of whom were distinguished for 
their industry, and their zeal for learning; and so treated of 
almost all the branches of knowledge which wen attended to 
in tliL-ir day, as to show, that it was not the want of genius, 
but the state of the times, that prevented their attaining to 
greater eminence. If to these we add Beni/ace* who lias been 
already mentioned'; Eginhard, the celebrated author of a 
biography of Charlemagne and of other works'; Paul, the 

haps, the most distinguished man of 
bis ago. His writings consist chiefly 
.•f i \[KMiitioasof the scriptures, letters, 
and treatises on theology ami science. 
His .\ positions, like those of Beds, are 

more than compilations from the 
fathers; particularly from Augu 
His I. n. >•* are numerous, well written, 

u*©ful for elucidating the history 
uf his timet*. Ills elaborate confuta- 
tion of Elipandus, is now littlo read, 
■en I by his bishop to Rome, 
Charlemagne niet with him, and be- 
came so pleased with him, that he 
allured him to his court, about a. o. 
780, tnudc him hi* preceptor, and his 
counsellor ; i liim to confute 

ill.' ernirists, Felix und Elipaiidus ; 
and to his care, not only 

the palatine school, but several monas- 
teries ; and particularly that d 
Martin of Tours. To this monastery 
he retired, *. Du 7*0, then advanced in 
years ; there he established in! 
after I of that at York, and 

spent the remainder of hi* days in Iul'Ii 
r. •jiutatioii aa a scholar, and a dovout 
christian. !!•• HOI. — See 

Hon, Acta Sanctor. Ord. Betted. 
torn. v. p. I'M -180: and Cave, 7/u- 
torio Litttr. torn. i. Tr. — Alcuin died 
at Tours, not iii 801, but in 804, on 
Wliiuuuday, Wing then about 70. 
Hi waa decidedly the first literary 
man of his age, and may be OOMUmm 
aa the founder of an improved conti- 
nental school of theology. liathor, 
pcriiaps, he transplanted from his own 
country a higher degree of knowledge 
than had been recently poss es s e d by 
the neighbouring nations. From the 
foreign ornaments of this school, have 
been supplied an invaluable cliain of 
testimonies against transubstantiation. 

* See Bktoit f Lkthairt d< h Franc, 

torn. iv. p. 280. Ada Semetor. torn, i. 
Januar. p. 713. [Taulinus is said to 
have been a native of Austria, and a 
celebrated grammarian. Charlemagne 
raised him to affluence, and thru made 
him archbishop of A<|uilf a iu m the year 
From the year 793 to the year 
709, in connexion with Alcuin. he was 
very active in opposing and confuting 
the error* of Felix and Elipandu 
made a considerable figure in the coun- 
cils of Fruuefort and Foro-Julii. Ha 
enjoyed the confidence of Charlemagne, 
und the respect of his contemporaries, 
and dii d v. i'. 804. His works are 
nearly all polemic, and opposed to the 
AdoptiouistN ; namely, a Tract on the 
Trinity, against Elipandus; three books 
against I ulix ; with several epi st le s . 
and a few poems, They were published 
at \ ..-nice, 1737- fol. See Cave, liit- 
toria LiUettir. torn. i. 'J V.J 

6 [See above, p. 117 of this volume, 
with the note ' there. 

1 [ Eginhard, or Einhard, was I I 
man of Franeonia, educated in the 
court of Charlemagne, made tutor to 
his sons, chaplain, pri\-y-councilkir, 
and private secretary to the emperor. 
He was also overseer of the royal build- 
ings at Aix-ln-Chapellc. Win titer his 
uili Emma, or Imma, was the natural 
daughter of Charlemagne, has boon 
questioned. After she had bono 
one child, they mutually agreed to 
separate, and betake themselves to 
monasteries. Charlemagne made 1 
hard his ambassador to Rome in 800. 
In 816, he became abbot of Fontan 
and th.- n< \t year Lewis the Pious 
committed his son Lotbaire to his in- 
struction. In 819, he became the abbot 
of Ghent; and in 826, abl 

Snstadt, when- he died about a. o. 840. 
e was a fine scholar, and as a histo- 
rian, the first in bin age. Besides 



Deacon, known to after ages by his History of tAe Lorn I 

MitGttta, ffomiliarium, and some other works'; 
Ambrose Authpe?1, who oxjwmnded the Ajiocalypsc of St. 
.1 i'h n ' ; and T/ww/n//J t u.< of Orleans 1 ; we have nearly all the 
writer* of any merit, who cultivated either sacred or profane 
learning \ 

sixty-two epistles, and several tract*, 
hi: wrote the Life of C'harleni:i 
which has been compared with 
touius' C:i'HarB for elegance; also An- 
nals of the reigns of Pipin. Cliarle- 
maguv, unci Lewis the Pious, from 
a. ii. 741. Ie LB. 829. The beat '. i 
of his works is that of J . H . ■ 

itt, 1711. 4io. 8m Can, W%*- 
torio LUtmir. torn, ii. and S'-lirocckh, 
Kirr.hri%*w/i. vol. xvii. p. lo«'. 

* (Paul Waruifrid, or Diaconus, a 
Lombard (n birthj and deacon of no 
church of Arpiilcia, was private secre- 
tary to 1). siiiirins. ling of the Lom- 
hards.- Wh.n that nation was 
quercil by Charh-magnv, *.r*. 77-tj l**ul 

was sent prisoner to France ; after- 
wards, living suspected of favouring 
the disaffected Lombards, he retired 
t" ilio south of Italy, and became a 
nvmk at mount Cassino, where he 
ended his days, some time in the follow- 
ing century. II the Lom- 
bard-. .I.S, is of considerable 
value. His fffcloHfl Jf&NMfieL in ti> 
four books, is a meagre thing. Tin- 
first ten books are those of I 
with some interpolations. The 
six were composed by Paul; and the 
remainder by too a less 

value, ilia IIomULiriuiM, 01 ' 

■ for all the Sundays and 
holy days of tli 
was couipil 
suppose, but by Paul, 
Charlemagne; and was intended 1 to 
frame discourses, some that they 1 1 

to their congregations. 'The col- 
li is made from Ambrose, A ugus- 
me, Origen, Leo, Gregory, 
i'iius, Bcila, Ac. Some iliscoursos 
idud to it, after the death of 
M,- also wrote the lift 
Benedict, and biographies of several 
other saints. Si ' j/orui Lit- 

bOOL i. and Bcllarmiu, S riptora 

Ewimfom, cl. Venice, 1728. fol. p. 258, 
Ac. 2V.] 

• [Ambrose Authpert, or Atr ; 
was a native of France, and became 
abbot i Al»ru//.i», Italy, 

1 a. ii. 780. He must not lie con- 
founded with an abbot of mount Cas- 
rino, of the same name, who lis. d in 
the ninth ce nturj. To him has been 

attributed I 

fli.-t of the Vires and Virtues, publi 
among the works of Augustinv, and also 
of Ambrose of Milini.and likewise some 
Hut his great work is 
bis Commentary on the Apocalyp- 
ton books. See Cave, Hi*' 
torn. i. and Mabillon, Acta Saitetor. 

Bdawf. torn. iv. p. 234, Ac. 7V.] 
1 [Thcodulphus, an Italian, whom 
Charlemagne patronized. Be first 
made him ury ; and 

then bishop of Orleans about a. i». 794. 
Lewis the Finn* grail j him. 

oyod him much at his court, and 
sent him as his envoy to the pope. 
But in the year 818. being susp 
of treasonable acts, he was deposed, 
and o the monastery of An- 

gers. He died about Lb 821. He 

P H-try ; DSJ 
inlnutn <ul </irvr»* libri vi. ; besides 

• >u x. His prose is inferior to 
Us poetnr; consisting of forty-six Co- 

i diocese; a Tr- 
tism; and another on (be Holy Spirit. 
Most i -ding were published 

bv Jae. Sirmood, Paris, 1646. 8vo. 
There is still extant an elegant MS. 

i ant ed to b 
and to which he prefixed a preface, 
and some poems, in golden letters. See 

Hufori.1 IMlemr. torn. i. an I 
larmin, Soriptora Ecdena*. p. 281, Ac. 

1 L Among the Grtdc mitrrr, on 
by Dip. Muaheun, were the following. 

John, patriarch of Con- 
under Philip Bardanca, the Moi 

id. 812—815. Being deposed, 


BOOK III.— < -ItNTl ;ilV viii. 

[fakt II. 

after the death of l'hilip, he wrote an 
Epistle to the liisliu}i of Rome, purg- 

which i* printed in tne Collections of 

Anastasius, abbot of St. Kuthymium 
in Palestine; against whom John I>a- 

a. v. 741. Be is author of u Tract 
again ; puhli«hed in a trans- 

lation a, I. at. Awtiq. torn, 

iii. and in the . torn. xiii. 

Taraaius, patrianh ofConetetttfa] 
I! WSJ of BoMe liirth, ami i 

eUlox to ii press 

Irene, a. D, 785, rat-. .1 him to the ace 
: . and . mployi «i him 
to restore hnage-wnndiip in the Kant. 
He j>i he nnnnnri Nioeu 

cil, A.n. 787; and wrote several It I 

• >ua of Councils. 
II- died a.i>. H(M). 

Basil, bi vra, a rtej 

Ilih n a i i tii ii. for I ••• in ; .'ppoeed 
llahed in tl 
• 'la. 
Elian, n i nou- 

rished a. n. 787- He note ( "imm-n- 
i i\ Naziaojcen's Ora- 
tions, sHU extent in a Latin trausla- 

Aneweri to nnes U o iiB on eases 

of ci .tant, 

«-r. and Lnt. 1 1 if* exposition of the 

Seal; Umax, u» paid still to 

The L'V'ut teriitvr, omitted by Dr. 
Mosheim, an: much more numerous. 
A ce«, a i' f agitata monk, of 

York, whfl 740, 

noil was an intinwto of Bed*. He ac- 
companied St. Wiltri.i t" lo'ine, became 
bishop of Hi Khun < 'Hagulatadicu*) in 
I ; and wrote Uvea of 
the saints of his diocese; several I 

John VII poMj «. i.. 706— 707; has 

• tressed to Ethel- 
red, kinjc .( ||| ■:■, i ;i , ;,i„l Alfrid, king 

•■i Diini, rasped 

York; in tin- Collections • 
Cos P°P*> a -"- 70H — 718 | 

WaSOt A . D 71". 

by tin nnd treated with 

respect. II i- Epitftli in BrihtwaJd, 

archb Lun .ant in 
id, | 

v. n. 71"' SI ; 
-.8 let Us opposition to Leo mi. 

the emperor, who endeavoured to *uj>- 
press image- worship. He! 

lies ; pubHebed fa 

lie. In bis i 
the /.I/kt JtiitrnuM, containing the an- 

1 ureh 
of Rome, ia supposed to nave bees o0a> 
piled. Bee Care, Hkhria LiUtrnr. torn. 
i. p. «20. A.e. 

i.\, an English who n\»u- 
i ».ri. 716, was a writer of BOOM 
the anchorite of ( roylan.1, i- aboi i 
ordiiui thai 

age. It i> in Mahillnn, ./,-/, % >,i,..-.,r. 
torn. iii. p. 266, Ac. 
lieddius, soman 
lish presbyter aud monk, well skilled 
in chuivh inuaic. Wilfrid, arch bi 
of York, invited bim ftom < anle sU nry, 

a. n. 720. Hi> eonij».*i'd an eialtorate 

Mubillon, . 

r, p. 031—700. [Tina am: 

in fact, a 
name vol foi bunt 11 i rsitt- 

able cont» n 
also pi 

101)1. It occupies 
pages. /;/.] 
utegorj ill. pope, a. d. 731— 7-*l 

He pursued the contest, begun by his 

net the 
111.; ami 

to aid him against the king of the Lom- 
bards. He has left us sev« 
and a Collection from tin ancient c*- 
: which an- extent in Hanhiin'-, 
Fi • 

r.. 7 4«'. wrote a B 
IfOnieon, dr. fjisjTei f'raocu- 
ntm, from a. v. 6U6 (where Gregory 
Tunm. emb.) to a.o. 73!*. It i- 


Cuthliert, an BneUafa ODOnk of DtX 
ham, a disci 

1 1 • ■ M i 


Zacharisfl, a Syrian monk, and pope, 
t.D, 741- 763. He bai 
Epistles; and a Greek tran- i 
I lialugues. 
Chmdt-gaud, 1*1 

,a Frank, of nubli birth, educated 
rlea Marte 
bishop of Met/ 



He first composed rules for regular 
canon*. See g 1 4, and note * of (his 
chapter, p. 144. 

\\ illibald,ai> English monk, trav< 
and liinliup of Eiclistadt in in-rmany. 
1U- was an assistant of St. Boniface, 
and wrote Iiim lit'.-. Sec not* ', p. 122, 


i •. 752 — 7^>7, has 

leettoa of Cbonci 

letdorue, bishop of i 
sis), in Sarin; flourished .*->». 164, Hi 

ruliliinii <l likiciuV mi|>.|'1ci:i- ■• i '" J> 

««>',», fi\nu x.ii. mm to 

i';.ul I. pope, a. ik 757— 7I»7. Tm 

d to him, are extant 
in the 1 

i-inyun, A.r>. 700 
— 783. He waa a numk, educated \>\ 
St. Corbinian ; whose IQGOenOT and r It.' was. SeeMni' 

U in. iii. p. 470. 
and M tyrvi Frmngm*. 

Floras, a monk of I 
dioces . who flourished al 

a. 11. 760, and enlarged Beda's 

:.«acalk, a deacon and can 
about a. ix 

of Lien in tlu» eentory. 1 

in Mai 1 Sanctor. ijr. torn. iii. 

Stepliou III. 1 768 77-. 

tlin_« ISpiotlee, and 

Hadrian, or Adrian I. pope, a.i>. 772 
— 795, lias left um eighteen Epistles; 

.1.1. ii-. bm <i bo t 'ii.ii !• magne; 1 < ■■•u. ■■ nan 

of canons for the u*e of Ingilnun, a 
bishop; and a lotto; in OQUftiltttti 

riinrkmagnc's books against imago- 


l>onatu», a deacon of Mot?., al»>ul 
A. D. "i'MK Who WDM tile life Of .St. 
Trudo; extant in Mahillon, Acta 8o*C- 

Bmtd. torn. D. p. 1022, Ac. 

I.iii.iiu-., ..t Reterine, hwlmp of 

Axunia in Spain, and BoatOB, ■ £ 

1 shed 
tbetneelvea by their o] the 

error of Bfipandns, which thei 
deevom ■•! in a work Kill 

extant, in the Ji\Ui.,-: 

Leo III. pope. a. n. 79ft — 816; lias 
left uh thirteen Epi 

LeidrndiiA, Of EcrdrnehuK, biini 

819] ru Mm moI 

Spain, by * ■ • ro* 

clnim He has 

left us three Epistles, and u Tru 

of An yyo "881; en mnon 

in enbaeek 
* Hairs, by Charlemagne and his suc- 
cessors. He WTOl 1 :■■ to 
1 1 in clergy, concerning aac 

1 ouvrly in relation to haptism ; 
taut in tin ZWottofAflM I'-Urum. 






| 1. The christian doatriM corrupted. — § 2. The piety and morals of this age. 
— § 3. Exeget ical theology.— % 4. Chnrttmi-uifu'$ zeal for sacred lean I 
§6. It led to neglect of the bible. — § 6. Manner of treating didactic theology. 
— | 7. Practical theology. — $ 8. Polemic theology. — % tt. Origin of the con- 
tr»>vei>y nl>out images. — § 10. Progress or it under Leo the Ittaurian. — § 11. 
Conflicts of the iinage-won»hii>iRTn with the Iconoclasts. — § 12. Progress 
under Copronymus. — § 13. Under Irene. — § 14. Council of Francfort. — ■§ 15. 
Controversy respecting the procession of the Holy Spirit. 

§ 1. Thk fundamental doctrines of the christian religion WGtG lyith by the Qviek and the Latin writers. This will 
appear unquestionable to one who shall inspect the work of 
John Damutceiivs, among the Greeks, on the orthodox faith ; 
and i\w jtrof fission of faith by Charlemagne, among the Latins'. 
But to tliis pure seed of the word, more tares were added than 
can be well imagined. The very nature of religion, and the 
true worship of (Jod. were corrupted, by those win) contended 
for iinage-wor.-diip, and for similar institutions, with such 
i less as excluded all charity. The efficacy of the merits 
of uur Saviour, all Acknowledged; and yet all tacitly depre- 
ciated them, by maintaining that men can appease Grod, 
by undergoing voluntary punishments, or by offering him gifts 
and presents; and by directing those who were anxious about 
their salvation, to place confidence in the works of holy men f . 

■ Cltarlcmagne's Treatise <fe It*a- 
gimUnu, lib. iii. p. 21*9. ed. Heumann. 
. tan 1111001 tli'.' Greeks, the Pro- 
m .I faith, by Mich. SyneeHaa, 
I'liMihli.'d bj Be rob. de Montfaucou, 
in the BibiioUitea Coulittiana, p. iKi, 6tc. 
— From among the Latin*, an Expo- 
sition of th nma of re- 
ligion, by Benedict of A riant-, in Ste- 
phen Boluxe's M torn. v. p. 
IS. and the Creed of Leo III. which he 

sent into the East; also in Baluze, torn, 
vii. p. 18. 

1 [We will quote a few passages as 
proof. Beda nays, {lib. i. on Luc. c. i.) 
Dccebat, ut, sicut per Buperbiam prims 
nnetra parentis mors in raundum in- 
tnivit, ita fame JMT hmnitifalcm Marice 
vitae introitus panderetur. — And (lib. 
iii. in Job. e. i.) ho says: Cum con- 
fectas homo atque consumptuh inorti 
i i iufcrnali bus ministris appropiuqua- 

1 1!, in.] 



To explain the other defects and superstitions of the times, 
would carry us beyond the limits prescribed in this work. 

$ 2. The whole religion or piety of this, and of some subse- 
quent rontnrics, consist* id in founding, enriching, embellishing, 
and enlarging churches and chapels ; in hunting after and 
veneratiug the relics of holy men ; in securing the patronage 
of (It-ceased saints with (rod, by gifts and superstitious rites 
and ceremonies; in worshipping the images and Btatues of 
saints ; in performing pilgrimages to holy places, especially to 
Palestine 1 ; and in other similar practices. In these services, 
whirli were supposed to have the greatest .efficacy, in procuring 
Bahratinn, the virtuous and good were equally zealous, with the 
vicious :in«l profligate; the latter, that they might cancel their 
crimes and wickedness ; and the former, that they mijrht • 1 1 * - 
tain earthly blessings from God, and secure a more ready ad- 
mission to heavenly bliss. The true religion of Jesus Christ, 
if we except a few ilffpnn contained in their creeds, was 
wholly unknown in this age, even to the teachers of the 
highest rank: and all orders of society, from the highest to 
the lowest, neglecting the duties of true piety, and tin 
tion of the heart, fearlessly gave themselves up to every vice 
and crime. Supposing that I lid easily be appeased and 

become reconciled to them, by the intercessions and prayers 

relit, jui-piam sanctorum, 

•iiii Bamea anno 

atur: i* pro luijiiHniodi. qui pro pee- 
catia cub a Dco ita • • 

re oporari debuerat, saltern unwn 
urn opH$ <jvi, quod tanquani sacri- 
fieian pro m dImmO* offerat, valinrit 
invenire. — Commenting on Psalm ir. 
he m \n of tho words, OWtr the *ur\fict$ 
tltfrtnuat*, that they mean: Ita 
dico, ut »r:i til peecatis, 

ut aacrificctia aacrineuim, id eat, mor- 
lijUvtig projrria ntia rvjfr . 
f roctua dignoa pamitentiip : (aiUttm tci- 
■'.juJu r<* ajR'uyiiirt, quam 
■ ligna expetit j»aint«niift : qiuni 
erii mvri/cim* butilkr, id est justum 
Bmcriticiiiii). Nam nihil justius eat, 

I 'i nk punit aliena peetata, Bl 
nisi p ro pr i a tantum se 

anligat, quantum fodata ejus a 

liurnit, et aic ac ipautn Deo fnciut 

suave snerifieium. Sckl.] 

* [Sueh pilgrimage* wen? likewise 
made to Rome ; and they RVi called 
pilyritmu/Ki for ('An- pcr- 

Many disorders al ieae pilgrim- 

age*. BtDM Bantfu terlo 

arehbiahop I 
(to be found among the Acts •■■ 


a. p. 7-*7») &iir«dj that women and 

••••M rained from their 

frequent pilgrimages to Home : allog- 

Quia magna ox parte 

pereun ivmanenubua integrta. 

rVrpauea* enim tea in Loo- 

gobardia, vel in Francia, aut in Gallia, 

in qui | ndultera tpI ineretrix 

genrri* Anglnrum : quod scandaloni 

eat et fcmpftndfl totiuaeccleaiaav o a Ua . 

tlarduin's On -in. iii. p. 

Ill 50. .VA/.) 




[fABT It. 

of the saints, and by the friendly offices of the priest - 
ministers of (tod. The whole history of these times avouche* 
the Truth of Hun remarks. 

§ li. The Greeks believed that their Ton fat hers had well 
explained the contents of tin- sacred volume ; and, therefore. 
that they should confer a great favour QH flu readers of the 
bible, by extracting from the writingB of the lathers, and 
embodying their interpretations of seripture. whether good or 
bad. How judiciously they did this, will appear, among 
others, from the Commentary of John. DomOSemUt on St. 
Paul*.-} epistles, compiled from I Mfc Tbe Lfltifl inter- 

preters are of two classes. Some, lib the Brook s, coA 
and embodied the interpn tatidis of the fathers. Among 
others, Beda took this OOUUftO in his exposition of the epistles 
of St. Paid, eompiled from Atiattstht< : and others*. The 
class made trial of tlieir own skill in expounding the sacred 
volume: ami amoni; these. AJnm^ /■ 'roe* Author t 

interpreter Of the apoeabpse), and a few othi 
conspicuous. Hut these lacked the ability requisite for this 
business; and m altogether the true import of the 

words, they hunted after recondite meanings, which they dis- 
tributed into the 'tV<-J'ji'><nK the ,/,,//./.„/;,•'''. and tin ' I'tpolo- 

; that is. they tell DB, not what the inspired writers fQjr, 
but what they \ainly suspect those writers would to us. 

As examples, we may name I 'onuucutary on John, 

Bedus allegorical Explanations of the Books of Samuel, and 
Ckarltniagnes Books on Images, in which various passages 
lipture are exjxjunded, according to the customs of the 

$ \, ( harlemagnes reverence for the sacred volume was bo 
great 7 , that it went beyond due bounds; and led him to 
believe, the fundamental principles of all arts and sciences to 
be contained in the bible; a sentiment whieh he imbibed, 
undoubtedly, from Aiawm, and the Other divines whom he was 

4 On the Commentariefi of Beds, 
seo Rich. SinMO, CrilUpu <l< l<i HiUiu- 
ikiqv* Ecditiad. <U M. <lu An, tom. i. 
[•. S80. A.'-. Bee also hi* Exposit 
ttcm i from tin fathers ; in 

ftlarteno'i Tkmc umu - in. v. 

!• 111. 1 10. 140 j 

of Halutkkul. : Bid. |>. 295, &e. 
5 See Cliarlcn iiwoWj 

• Seu Charlrmacm-, dt Im/uf. I 

p.84. !)l. \-i:\ i_'7- 131. 138. 138.138. 
L63, Hi». IOBj .v.-. bm 

7 I'!' ■ lib. 1 |>. 44. 

( a. in.] 

i.i i igion wi. Tnsoi 


accustomed to hear". Hence originated his various efforts to 

the clergy to b man diligent investigation and esplaDa- 

i i« tti <»f tin- sacred booke. Laws, enacted by htm for this 

purpose. an> still extant; and there are oiImt prooft that On 
no enhjecl wai ha more sincere*. That the errors in the I 
translation niii;I]t not be an obstacle to his designs, lit.' employed 

n to correct and improTe it ' : indeed, he himself spent 

aome time, dniing the last bis life) *• king such 

-\ Somsalso tall us, that he procured a tranalatioi of 

I books into German : but others attrihute this to bn 
son, L( \oii the l'i< 

§5. Tl ts of the emperor had th. 

some of the slothful and indolent to exertion. Vet it must be 

that some of his regiuV ' I plans tended to 

i. in pari 'llent purposes. In the first place, he 

sanctioned the practice, which had prevailed before his da\, of 

ud expounding only certain portkma of tl 
volume in the assemblies of Worship; and the diver.--- 
of the d if fer en t cbnrcbea he endeavoured to reduce to one uni- 
i '. In the next place, knowing that few of the 

• Idem, a lil . i. p. 831. 

• Sw Jo. Prill / tur. 

S n. 1H4. 

i ami. 

torn. i. p. 137. 
//«*'• . Uim. 

' .1 , IMteJ,. 

Maiii ./><. i"in. i. p. 960, •X-". J;u\ 

ati*, p. 110. \i-. [Seaalao : 

irmgnch. vol. xx. p. 196, ftc 7V. J 
* [See Dm < h IliM. 

ii. |.. SSS 7'r.) 

acknowledged, that it 
i* a nii'tak.-, to BU|>poM> the* ciiip. o»r 
Chariemapne to hav»« fimt ml 
Utoar portion* of the inn 
read and • 

tiHUJ. For it hi •'. .I 

-j..!.. I booin mi urigwd t-< lbs 
Jb. Ban* Turner, £Uk <o>V 

Qtlia ft J , roc*intMr • 

which hM • 

p. 1640, fce, | 1496, 

Yi t I'luirh niacin- hail ( 

thing to do in thia matt i i reaa, 

hin time, the Latin cbltr 

did not nil read and cx- 

il.|. ; 
ho fir* 
throughout hia ([■niiiuioii-. shouhl cfri- 

church. For QtOM OctBtU ami I 
tiff, an they are call'-'!, irhSch I 
been in pablk woi 

from his timet* to th . were 

umsi at Koine, as mrl\ n* the listta 
ci-nturv : ami it I" Wall known, 
ok (mills, to reii'l- 
Hominh form of vroraldp, ti 
form Latin*. 

down io thtsdaj 

ftdoptod th* 

um< for k'ssona < 

(1st, than IboM <>f "iii>, ami lM other 
Weatcro rhnrchiit, which Charles com- 
manded t. The church of 




clergy were competent to explain the Go$peU and Epistles, as 
the lessons were called ; he directed Paul Diacontu, and 
Alcuin, to collect Homilies, or discourses on them out of the 
fathers; so that the ignorant and slotlLful teachers might 
recite them to the people. This was the origin of what b 
called his Homili<irium< or Book of Homilies'. And Mi 
example led others, in this and the next age, to compile at 
their own pleasure similar works, for the encouragement of 
laziness among the teachers*. Lastly, he caused the lives of 
the most eminent saints to be collected into a volume ; M that 
tli. [tropic might have, in the dead, examples worthy of imita- 
tion, while they had none among the living. That all these 
regulations proceeded from honest and good intentions, and, 
indeed, that they were useful in that age, no one can doubt. 
But still, contrary to the intentions of the emperor, they con- 
tributed not a little to confirm the indolence of the public 
teachers, and to increase neglect of the sacred volume. I'"<>i- 
from tills time onward, most of the clergy directed their atten- 
tion exclusively to those portions of the bible, which u< 
be expounded to the people; and did not exercise them*< 
in reading and examining the whole volume of scripture. And 
not many were to be (bund who were inclined to compose their 
own public discourses, rather than resort to tin n //• ■•miiiarium. 
$ 6. The business of discussing formally and systematically 
the doctrines of Christianity, was scarcely attempted bv an 

Milan, in an example ; which retains 
\iuhrosian ritual ; likewise the 
church of Chur (Curia) ; according to 
.Miinitnti. Aftigikata ItaL tom. I 
836, and, undoubtedly, some others, 
Wliat GwpeU and EpMct were used, 
i" French and other Western 
churches, before the times of Ghttift- 
macne ; may be learned from tli. 
■Detent KaUndan, published by Mar- 
Uin. (among others), Tkf+mnu A*ec- 
dotor. torn. t. p. GC— and from Bcda's 
discourse**, ibid. torn. v. p. 339, Ac. 
from MnhilK'ii, d*. Antuput Litmnjia 
OsfKoMMj and from others. See also 
Wm. Peyrat, A*t*quilm dt la C%>pAU 

dm J; 

* See, WDMmunj this, tin- \eiy 
laborious and learned J>>. lliur. s 
Beefen, GWaoU LitUruriu, p. 252. 

• Halanua, or Alanu-s for example, 
an Italian abbot of Paris, compiled, in 
this same century, | niilia- 

rium ; the preface to which wa* pnli- 
lished by Ueruh. Fez. Thesaur. A$ut- 
tom. ri. pt. i. p. B3. In the next 
century, Hsymo of Halberetadt, made 
up a Homiiiarum ; which has been 
BriQftad, 1 fl tin- BON century, RahanuM 
Man rue, at the request of the emperor 
Lothaire, formed a Iltmiliaritm ; and 
likewise, llerieus ; mentioned by Pea, 
All these made use 
of the Latin language. The first that 
composed a German Homiliarium, I 
suppose, was tin- cd. br.iu-d « Utfrid, of 
Weissenburg. See Lambeoius, de Bib- 
liaAtca VimdoUm. Au<jud*, torn, 
v. p. 419. 

CH. III.) 



of the* rutins. For the essays of some few, respecting the 
person and natures of Christ, against Felix and A'///*/ «</«*•, and 
concerning the procession of the Holy Spirit, and Other things; 
exhihit n i us of thorough investigation. The whole 

theology nf tin 1 Latins, in this centnn. MQah&ed in collecting 
opinions and testimonies out of the flltiwi, that is, the 
logians of the six first centuries; nor did any of them venture 
to go beyond the views of the fathers, or presume to ivly upon 
his own understanding. Among the Irish only, who men 
denominated Scots in this age. some discerning ones employed 
philosophy, which was abhorred by others, in the explanation 
of religious doctrines r . But among the < J reeks. John Dama- 
i o m u* . in his /bur Books on the orthodo.i embraced the 

entire theology of the christians in a systematic form. In 
tlii> work, the two kinds of theology, which the I^atins call 
latNa and doffriuitir, were united. Fur the author uses 
■QDtfe rntiiie ination in explaining doctrines, and confirms them 
by the authority of th This work was received by 

T I was aware, that I Huh men, who 
in that age were called SerfcMmen, cul- 
tivated and amassed learning, beyond 
the other nations of 1 those 

dark time* J 0H 

various n Europe, for the 

purpoac of learning, but ^till m>>r 
that of teachin. f, in this 

century and the following, Irishmen or 
Soot-, be met with, 

, in Fran-. . « • ruiany, and Italy, 
discharging the 1 of teachers, 

with applause. Rut I was long 
rant, thai Irishmen were also the tirrt 

night trAtJiutur rA«W<»7y in lv 
mud that so early as this century, 
applii ':\ to the explan 

torn The fact, I 
learn < . i t of Aniane; 

lished by Stephen Baluze, Mitt dl amtor. 

v. 'He say*, in hfe firfrf. to < 
nariut, p. 54 iwrtrrmx xAUat- 

t*CW, (i. e. teaeh- >U,) majiww 

. (who held the first rank, 
among school •■■ 

mut rf</lwi»*M ' 

nt*l jurw nar wm, tin imt rulxtatUvtrm* ; 
(by a syllogism, which Benedict here 
call* oWiMiw, i. 9. sophistical and falla- 
cious, these Irishmen pg0»«4 the Per- 

sons in flu Godhead, to be fteWiiuv* .- 
but the syllogism was a very captious 
one, n* nppeare from what, follow;*, and 

brought |L need Into 

cullies ;) ataUm* l! «i*p 

nitatfm tme triun nWutoatia- 
rum Dram, trim* dtrngelmr tmltcr Dtu- 
rutn : ri autrt* abnutrit, pervmantm 
dstugator culpattir. Tina is, these phi- 
losophic theologians perplexed and 
troubled their bearers, with this nyllo. 
gMn. If any one amented to their 
reaaoii usonnd him of trithAsw; 

if he rejected* it, they taxed him with 
SabeUutnirm. Either grant, th:. 1 
three Persons in Qod an- three sub- 
stances ; or deny it. If you gr.r 
you doubtless axe a Iriihut, and wor- 

three Gods ; if you deny i 
destroy the Persons,' and fall 
SabellianisnL Benedict strong 

Srehends this subtlety, in theological 
henriont; ud room oditfaeioTa 

of simplicity. Srd htte it* fdf ti nmsM 
en/lvlitatu rtrmtui tiutjJ'wikit' fi>t 

■ '■ <■# pvrit'iU sjftmtfa, mm oaptumi 
i m terjettinite /i*/*ir»m, arvrm impotiiont 
fa. The pit i t ■Saso- 

liutic, theology, u» therefore much more 
ancient, among the Latin*, than is com- 
monl\ mip|>OHed. 



hook iii.- 

u Y vin. 

-s with great applause ; and gradually acquired sneh 
influence, that it was regarded u n as the only goidfl 

ne theology. \r\ many hare complained, that the author 
l more upon human reason and upon the faith of the the holy scriptim*, and that he thus 
verts the tin'' grounds of theology'. To this work mm 
added his Stomal Ptfruflisls, in which be carefully collects the 
opinions of the ancient doctors respecting the articles of (kith. 
We may t h ere for e boh upon this writer lfl the Thomas and 
the reeks*. 

{$ 7. Instructions for a christian life and its duties, were 
treated of in no appropriate work. John Carpathian 
the Qroefc g, left Bomc hortatory i < aj.ita,) 

containing little that deserves much commendation. In the 
monasteries, the opinions of the mystics, and of 
Arwpttoita the father of them, received exclusive approbation : 
and Jo/tti I >■ Syrian writer, in order to gratify the 

monks, translated Dioni/tim 1 . The Latins proceeded no far- 
ther, than to advance some precepts concerning I \ir- 
and external actions: and in explaining these, they kept 
near to the principles of the Peripatetics; as may be s< 
SOIDfl tracts of 7W*f, and in the treatise of 

•"*'. To exhibit examples of j'ietv ! 
public, several reputable men. as />'<>//. FTOfVff, . 1 1 tm ■■. Afar- 
.», and Ambrow A'tth/vrfs comjmsed biographies of per- 
sons who left high reputations for piety. 

$ S. Only a moderate number, in this age. entered into i 
trover>ies on important religious subjects; and, anions these. 
is hardly an individual who merits commendation. Most 

of the engaged in the contest about images; 

which they managed IllWiflnilrjr, and without precision. The 
Latins entered less into this controversy ; and expended ui'-re 
effort in oonftlting the opinion of Ettpund ruing the 

|ki-soii of ( 'hrist . John Vanuuc&nut assailed all the her* 
in a small, but not a useless tract. He also contended, reso- 

■ Jo. Ham Huttingrr. HUJiolherttr. 

i-ipiiri. lib. iii. cap. ii. § iii. p. 372. 

Martin Ouumitz, -/, I'm i / tiiitaU 

LoCOT. rVlMINMR. |l. 26. 

• I Thorn** A<|uitm*an<l f 

banl. Ed.] 

1 Jos. Sim. A*»i'raan, BV4vAk. Orim- 
Utl. Vttttom 120. 

* It u» extant in hi* WorU, >-u\ of 
*n#*, torn. ii. p. 1218. 

CH. III.] 


lately, against the ManichseanB and NeKtorians in particular j 
and ventured also to attack the Saracens. In these writings 

me ingenuity and suhtilty. but a vs;i 
clearness and simplicity. Anastaiit* Mjot of Pales 

attempted a confutation of the Jews. 

§ 9. Of the controversies that disquieted this age, the 
greatest and the most pernicious related to the worship of 
sacred images. Originating in Greece, it thence spread 
the lOast and the West, producing great harm both to the 
state and to the church. The first sparks of it appeared under 
blMV, win i was emperor of the ({reek* 
•''ginning of this ••< ntury. With the consent of the patri- 
arch John, in the year 712, he removed from the portico of the 
church of St. Sophia, a picture represent sag the sixth ganfl—l 
council, which condemned tin Mom. thelites, whom the em] 
was disposed to favour; and he sent his mandate to Rome, re- 
quiring all such pictures to be removed out of the churches- 
But Constantino, the Roman pontiff, not only protested against 
the emperor's edict, but likewise caused pictures of all the six 
general councils to be placed in the portico of the church of 
St. Peter ; and moreover, liaviug assembled a council at Koine, 
emperor himself to Ik* condemned, as an apostate 
from the true religion, These first commotions, however, ter 
minated the next year, when the emperor was boded from the 
throne '. 

• See Fred. Hijtoria 

lma/limum ratituin ; which wan puh- 

\ both Mpa i.l in his 

-. VOL ii. Main, 

ia controversy, in French, ia full 

of fable*., 

tooi. It. i i 

iwy.see Welch '« HtMor'u- fir, 1 
mrwfe m , vol. x. p. fifl — 828, . I 
p. 3— -400; nl*i BofcmeeVb, Klraiaa* 
guck. vol. xx. p. MS— 002, Mid 

p. 345 433. T ftbia 

'U carried 

back to tlio colliaioncrf Philippicim with 

EtoBMB pontifF. which relate'!, 
hap*, wh>>l ! loctrine* of tl>.- 

Monothelite* ; nor is there good p 
that the pontiff vein 
rauaicato the emperor. See B«. 

i lHO, ini. 

V<»!.. II. 

Tin- following remark* of Schlcgcl are 
worth hlllllljl iu this place.— In order 

llllallllll tft 
trover*)-, in iia vfao fc U 

neeeaaary to go back to (I 

jjate the origin ol inu ^--worship utnnng 

impartial ' lomaelvo* admit 

it, thai in the three &al oantariatyMid 
al«o " i 

picture-* were very rur. [bund 

among christian*. See Du 
l»- 1. *>•.». i 
I'agi. I '"i^. Barouii, ad ann. 

66. p 43, Indeed there w«re christian 
writers on moral*, who diaappn" 
a chrwtiair* pwwuinp thn trade of a 

r or atatuarj. See Tertullian, 




§ 10. Under Leo the Isaurian, a very heroic • 
another conflict ensued, which was far more terrific, m 
and lasting. Leo, unable to bear witli the extravagant super- 
stition of tin* (i reeks, in worshipping religious images, which 
rendered them a reproach both to the Jews and the Saracens, 
in order to extirpate tin .\il entirely, issued an edict, in the 
year 72(1, romm:mdm<: all images of saints, with the exception 
of that of Christ on the DTOttj to ho removed out of the 
churches; and the worship of them to be wholly discontinued 
and abrogated. In this proceeding, the emperor obeyed the 
dictates of his own feelings, wliich were naturally strong and 
precipitate, rather than the suggestions of prudence, whi< 
commends the extirpation of inveterate superstitions, gradually 
and insensibly. Hence a civil war broke out ; first in the 
islands of the Archipelago, and a part of Asia; and after, 
in Italy. For the people, either spontaneously, or being BO in- 
structed bv the priests and monks, to whom the images were 
productive of gain, considered the emperor as an apostate from 
true religion ; and therefore supposed, they were freed fi "in 
their oath of allegiance, and from all obligations of oba- 

§ 11, In Italy, the Roman pontiffs, Gregory II. and Gregory 

c. 3. Even in the time of the seventh 
general council, a. it. 7^7. the use of 

§t*tu*$ wm not pal introduced Into 
churches ; as appears from the Mveatb 
Article of that council. Still less did 
the ancient eluistlaM think of civirij* 
wnkip to images. Tin- occasion Of 
introducing images Into churches, was 
in great meiuiure the ignorance of the 
. which rendered pictureaa help 
JO them : whence, they have been 
called 0m fmmin Bm* On this 
ground it was, that Gregory rli< I 
censured Serenus. bishop of Marseilles; 
who had removed the pictures on 
the churches, on account of the misuse 
the people made of them. Gregory V 
Epulis, lit., ix. Op. 91. Qui* «i$ 
fiuuvjinrt) fitif<r*rr returned, ommino 
['}*{,i rumu ; fr«jmc mo reprthend'mu*. 
T«i thi« cause, may be added, the 
superstition of the people and flu 
monks; who were influenced f«fj 
much li_\ M-nnibl'- objects, and vfao 

began, as early as the close of the sixth 
century, to ascribe to the images mira- 
cles of various kinds. They DOW began 
to kiss the images, to bum UMBO) 
tliiiii, t" k n«.t'I before ttiv-m, to light 
op wiu candles for tb< 
woodon to In* wrought by than ; to 
place infants in their anna, at kkprisina, 
as if they were god-father 
iii'.'.hers ; to carr\ than Midi than in 
their milits ko Hecure a 

victory, and give BOBl D the 

soldiers ; and in taking an oath, t 

hand on tbem, just as upon the 
cross, and upon the Gospels. Indeed, 
nearly the whole of religion, in 

■>vy, consisted in the worship of 
images. In partirula I . ■ r*ti- 

txraa worship of image* pgoo eo oed so 
far, among the Greeks, that the rich, 
at Constantinople, used to 
bread to the churches, and ham 
held up before an tma ITJ to 

eating it. Schlegcl's note. 7V.) 

. B, in. | 

HFMf.lox \xn 1 

l »;:; 

I J I. were the principal authors of the revolt. The former of 
pontiffs, when L»o would not, at his command, revoke 
ii'cree against images, did not hesitate to say, that the 
emperor, in his view, had rendered himself unworthy of the 
name and the pfivflogBfl of a true tdiristian. This oj)inion 
being known, the Romans, and the other people of T t;i ly that 
subjects of the Greek empire, violated their iDeguuieej 
and either massaered or expel ltd the \ieeroya of Ltc. Exas- 
perated by these things, the emperor oonteamleted making 
mi upon Itals. and oopeoielly against the pontiff: bnf eireum- 

- pn v.-nted him. Henee. in the \ I with re- 

sentment and indignation, he vented his fury against images, 
and their worshippers, mueli more violently than i l-'nr, 

hauntr assemhled a rounril of hishops. he deposed <» rmanv*, 
hi-hop of Constantinople, wh<> favoured images, and nibstil 
Anastasius in his place ; commanded that images should Im» 
committed to the Haines ; and iiiHicted various punislui 
upon the advocates of then 4 . The consequence of this severity 
was, that the christian church was unhappily rent mid 
parties; that of the Tamoduii^ or / who adored and 

worshipped images; and that of the Iconomoc/.i or Ie<mocla*t<r^ 
who would not. preserve, bid destroyed them: and these parties 
furioi: nded, with mutual in B 1 »uses, and assas- 

sinations. The course commenced hy Qngoty I I irmly 

prosecuted by Cfreffory III.; and although we cannot deter- 
mine, at this diet! me, the pr.-eisc degree of fault in 

4 [ Loo was led on to one drgme of 
■HOB after another, by tin; oppo- 
i made to his measures, by tin- 
friend* or image*. At first, be pro- 
ceeded in the ordinary and le«al way. 
!!•• nisln-d (<i have 
rmwed and detennim-d, in a genonl 
pope would not agree 
tn H ; and nrged, that the emperor 
abooM remain ijuiet.and not bfinj 
•abject under ugitmtioo. Leo's first 
mm, that the i-hu^ should 
Im« kuit.) A i/L-r. in tin- churche*. But, 
lie, tn© patriarch German ua op- 
posed I M tli.' OtfUQatlkni of 
thin man was confined to no limits, be 
was deposed y.-i ibi- emperor allowed 
as we are informed by Theo- 
phnne», to apend hi* i In his 

fathers houw. Next followed. 

i for- 
bid the iKf-nA !/'/.•• 

I their rcsnovei, il the wosaUp of 

not bi previ ■ mere 

ibitioo. And it iv«» not. till after 

i rril>l<- tumult at Constantinople, 

and 1 1 . : ,|i»ti 

|>mvinees, that he unbred all Integra 

upon the church wall* to be 'Jfaetti, 

and the walla to bo whitewashed ; and 

mages, to be m 
away, and buru*l ; ami laid heery 
punishments uj- inks 

and blind Jtealots, who in-ulw-d hun to 
his face, with the riet, a 

second Judas, Ace. See SpauheiiP. 
cit. p. 116, An. and Bftsoai 
p. I8H, ,^*/.| 





either of fhnm prelates j thus much is unquestionable, the loss 
of tlu*ir Italian possessions, by the Greeks, in tins conteat, is 
to be ascribed especially to the zeal of these pontiffs in behalf 
of images \ 

§ 12. The son of Lt*u Constantine, who was suraamed Copro- 
nymus", by the furious bribe of luxiye-wrorshippert^ after he 
Otae la the throne a. d. 741, trod in his father's steps; for he 
laboured with equal vigour, to Brttfyliw the worship of images, 
in opposition to the machinations of the rvonian pontiff, and 
the monks. Yet hfi pursued the lmsines* with more modera- 
tion than bis father: and being aware that the Greeks wi-n- 
governed entirely by the authority of councils, in religious 
matters, he collected a council of eastern bishops, at Constan- 
tinople, in tfat year 754- to examine and decide this eontro- 
Bv the Sfeefco, this is called the seventh general council. 
Th.' bishops pronounced sentence, as was customary, according 
to the views of the emperor, and therefore condemned images'. 

» The Greek writers tell us, that 
both Gregorics debarred Leo, and his 
son Constantino, from the sacred er.m- 
•ii ; absolved the people of Italy 
from their oath of allegiance ; and 
.!■ their paying their taxes, or per- 
forming any act of obedience. And 
the ii the Roman |H;nUffs, 

Barn i*, (>1* Hi 

and numerous others, after 

Ifcou writers, admit, that all these 
thing* were facta. Yet sotne »erv 
learned nun, particularly among tin- 
h, maintain that the Gregoriea 
did not commit so gross offences: they 
■ either excom- 
municated the emperors, or absolved 
the jieople frvjin .nance and 

their duties to them. See Jo. Launoi, 
EpktoUtr. HI), vii. .p. vii. p. 4"H>. ; 
Upp- took v. pt. ii. Natal. Alex;.i 
H Am EeeUa. Stl«t. Capita, aneu I 
diss. i. p. 4641. Peter De Marea, oV 
CoMordia Sactrdotii * Imperii, lib. BL 
c. xi. Jac. Ben. Boasoet, Dt/nmo 
D*eUmtHomu CI. ri ikdlic. <<< PoU*. 
EecU$ia*iai, pt. I lib. vi. c. xii. p. 197. 
Giannone, HiAoirt OreUe d< XapU,, 
torn. i. p. 401). These rest chieriy upon 
the authority of the Latin writers, Ana- 
etaeius, Paulus Diaconus, and other* ; 
who not only are silent as to this auda- 

<-it\ of di.' pontiffs in assailing and ootn- 
hattinir the emperors, but also tell us, 
that i some proofs of their 

loyalty to ran. The facta 

cannot be fully ascertained, onov 
of tin- obscurity in the history of fhflM 
times ; and the question must b 
undecidtd. Yet Qui is certain, that 
those pontiffs, by their zeal for image- 
worship, occasioned the revolt of their 
Italian subjects from the 
perors. [The arguments adduced by 
the apologists for the popes, ■ I 
named, neem to lie conclusive aa to 
(i'u point, that the popes did not, then, 
feel themselves to have jurinlictiitn 
Lings and emperors ; or to have 
uulhuriiy to litfhnme them, and to 
transfer their d '-minions to other sove- 
reigns. In particui;> . 1 1 
stated very » II khfl hnillllTJ In- 1 ween 
Bhrfl and ecclesiastical power; an 
proaehed Leo, with overleaping tluit 
boundary. 'Jr. ) 

• ( I name waa givt 

Ht his liaving denied 
the sacred font at his baptism." M 

1 (This council waa composed n 
330 bishops ; a greater number than 
had ever before been assembled in any 
council. In his circular letter for call- 
ing the council, the emperor directed 

I'll. III. J 



Hut the |>crtinacity of the superstitious, who were borne on by 
tlnir zeal for images, was not to be overcome by these deci- 
sion-. None made greater resistance than the monks; who 
did not cease to disturb the public tranquillity, and to exoir< 
sedition among the people. I l*-in<r i 

with just indignation, punished many nf them in various ways; 
and, by new laws, bridled the turbulence of this restless class 
of people. Leo IV., who I to the throne, a. d. 77">, 

on tin >h . /iikuUtfW, entertained the same views as his 

father and grandfather had done. For when he saw that the 
■button of images wen- not to U» moved at all by mild and 
gentle DUMDUM, he coerced them with penal itatd 

§ 18- Bat 1*0 IV. being reinmvd by i»'ison. through the 

vsick hi- perfidious wife I r- n- . in the ft* lages 

now beOMDe triumpliant. For that guilty woman, who 

Ded the empire during the minority of her son Cot 

vital | sieu t>» establish her authority after entering into 

league with Ihnlrum, the Roman pentiH*. a.ssi-mblcd B e.mncil 

Hithynia. in the year 786, which is known by the 

of the SOOOUd ncil. Here, the laws of the 

the bishops to bold provincial councils, 

throughout th. empir, 

of ||a giihjcct ; so that when met in 
the }!- 

pan-d to declare the sense of the whole 
church. The council held its ses- 
sions, in the imperial palace of 1 

against tl. viatic 

short* ; ,m 

I he seventh of A ugort ; 
wba »"«y adjnarned to th* 

•laryad Lllachcrnau, in Conatan- 
I there published their dc- 
erecs. The (Mtlriareh of Constant) n 
Ana*ta%iu«, died a few days before the 
council met ; and the emperor sunlit 
not appoint a suoeessor to that see, 
till the i! of the council 

were cloned ; lest it sboold be tl>. 

(•sad a creature of his own at the 
head of it. Of course, two D 
bishops, namely, Theodoaiua, exarch 
of Asia, and Pant illua, metropolitan of 
Pampl idbd in tin ••■.. 

Seta and deliberations have all 
pri-whod, or rather, Im-.-h i|<*troyed by 

•itronaof image-. 

dm Nieooe 

council saw fit to quote, for the pur- 
pose of confuting them, in thoif 

Act (Elan W. p. 

32o — 444.) From these quotations it 

appears, that the council deliheratod 
soberly, and reasoned discreetly, from 
scripture and the Fathers ; that thny 
maintained, that all intrrhip of images 
was contrary to ■ilhtllllj ami to die 
sense of the elm urer aires; 

that it was idolatry, di . n by 

the second commandment. They also 
maintained, Uiat the. mm of images in 
churches and of wttaMpt was a 
custom borrowed from the pagans ; 
that it was of dangerous tendency, and 

to be abolished. They accord- 
ingly enacted canons, expressive of 
those views, an I corre- 

sponding practice. Sec Watch's Hut. 

n "rmimmtl. p. 4G3, 4c. C 
Hut. L%tt<nxtr*i, vol. i. p. MflL h.c. 
It,. \«i r '« Liret of thr J' 
367— 36«. id. 1764. Ba the aids of 
the Catholics, may l*> consulted, liaro- 

AmnaUt; and Pa^i, t'ritka, wi 

,4. YV.| 


HOOK 111. CEN'TURY Vlll. 


emperors, together with the decrees of the cuimcil of Constan- 
tinople, were abrotruted : the worship of images, and of th« 
cross, w;ts established; and niHUitiifl were denounced KgftioSt 
those who should maintain that MflBhip ami adoration VtlUB 
to be given only to God. Nothing can be conceived 
DON puerile and weak, than the arguments anil proofs by 
which these bishops support t lit ir decrees \ Nevertheless, the 

■ Martin Chemnitz, -iciiii 

at, pt It. lo r. p. 59. ed. 

Francf. 1707- Jae. Lenfant, 1'rcsrr- 

oemtre la Hum ion awe U Sitye tie 
Raw, pt. iii. li ■ ■ ' p. 446. — 

I Irene was, undoubtedly, an nng 
Dypoorjtleal, ambitious woman ; eager 
altar power, and bran this passion, 
rniilti<"> ; KM dM was, at the same 

uiui-h devoted to ima^e-worship. 
Her first step was, to grant liberty to 
one, to make use of images in his 
ata worship. She next removed 
Paul, the patriarch of Cotmtantinoplo ; 
because he* was an 1 conoclast ; and made 
Tarasius her secretary, who was devot- 
ed to images and to her, to be patriarch. 
And as the imperial guards were in- 

i lo iconoclaam, and might give her 
trouble, who caused them to be march- 
ed out of tin- city, under pretene- 
foreign imaHioii. and tlun dfcbt 
tin-in. At Li-t, o.'ill.-l, in the nnmo 
of h' -tantino, who was a 

minor, the eouucil uf Nice. Tarasius 
directed the whole proceedings. Yet 
there win- two papal em o_\* present, 
• Acts, which westill have entire, 
(in llanium's toM«tfio;i, t<-iu. h. p. 1 
820.) there is m tin- repre- 

sentatives ( to iror r|p 17 tuv) of the two 
eastern patriarcl Mexandria 

and Antioeh. Bo 

ble accounts, under tint high title, two 
miserable ionks were 

designated ; whom their I. -How m 
had arbitrarily appointed, ami whom 
forged letters legitimated. The bishops 
assembled, were at least 360. Besides, 
these, two officers of tbo court were 
present, as commissioners; and a whole 
army of monks. At first, i\m*tanti- 
noplc was appoint.-.! for tl 

ig. I Jut the Iconoclasts, who 
had the greater part of the army on 
their : micIi a tuniul'. 

the oqnMi postponed tin meeting, 

and changed the place to Nice. In 
the seventh Act of this council 
decree was made, that the ore* 
the images of Christ, Mary, the angels, 
aud the saintn, were entitled to religious 
nnoodnp (r«/iijrixi} Tpoirri'vijcric) ; that 
it was proper to kiss them, to burn 
IneaaM to them, and to light up can- 
dles and lamps before them 
asarc not entitled to .Hr, n . «-...,/ .^ 
(Xarpua). The proofs adduced by -i 
fathers, m support of their decree, and 
their confutations uf the contrary doc- 
trine, betray the gross e s t ignorance in 
these fathers, and their total want of 
al sagacity, if not also intentional 
ili-di< n- -i;. . Tin B Lata ftaj hi • t 
fabulous tales of the wonders wr- 
l>y images, uf appeals to apocryphal 
books, of perraniOfM of the declara- 
tions of the father?, aud of other false 
and puerile argument*. Kven Du Pin 
deny the fact. And it 
is strange, how it was possibl- 
doctrines supported by such fake rea- 
sonings, to become the pre- vailing doc- 
trines of the whole church. See 
\Valch\i //urf-7-.V ,Ur h'irrhrnrmiminl, 
p. 477, «te. >ScU.— l»u Pin really ex- 
poses the ignorance, or dishonesty, 
certainly the misrepresentations and 
absurdities, advanced by this council, 
at great length. {Nm EccUt. Hid. 
Engl Transl. vi. 130.) Undoubtedly, 
Whatever may be thought of the dect- 
fco which tins assembly committed 
no well-informed person can 
deny that more contemptible pleadings 
have rarely been heard with applause 
by any body of educated men. We 
cannot wonder that Mahometans throve 
and scoffed, when they were surround- 
ed by Christians wearing very much 
the appearance of Pagans, and at) 
justify a spectacle, so inconsistent with 
the letter of Serif 

reasons iLm tfaoM which gave satis- 
faction at Nice, ilil.) 

( II. III.] 



Romans would have those decrees held sacred ; and tha 
Greeks were as furious agaiust those who refused to obey 
rlwm, an if they liad been pMUOJdBU rind traitors. The other 
enormities of the flagitious lnn>\ and her end, which 
Bponded with her crimes', it b« longs not to this history to 

§ 14. In these contests, most of the Latins, — as the 
Britons, the QanUMS, and the Kreneh, took the middle ground 
between the romending parties: for they decided that images 
were to be retained, indeed, and to be placed in the 

hut that DO religion* worship could be offered to them, without 

dUbuaouring the 8upruuM) Being* In particular '<7**\ 

at the suggestion of the French bishops, who were disj ►leaned 
with the Nicene decrees, 6fBt caused four Itooh WHOM 

I to l>e drawn up by some learned man ; whieh he 
IB the year 790, to the Roman pontiff, Ho<friaii; in order to 
pr e vent his approving the decrees of NIOO* In this work, the 

arguments of the Nioene bishops to defense of snags- woruhjp, 

are acutely and vigor..!. Hut Hodria* was not 

to be taught by such a master, however illustrious; and he 

•re issued his fonnal confutation of the book. Charts- 

Slays* next assembled, in the year 794-, a council of 300 

• This inoBt atrocioua nuiiuui pro- 

>\ctiih of bar own wn Can* 

atantine, in order thai edit- mjgh.1 I 

• was 

1 torus, 

and of Lesbos; where she 

died Mi villi;. 

1 I'ur tin* alilKiiTf nc« of the Britons 

Mgl ■uuSJpi KM U'lir. Spelman, 

Ma>jm* Urit-inmHP, torn. i. 

p. ;:». fee. 

1 These booka of Charlemagne, de 
/mufinihtu, arc mill *>xtant ; r.puli- 
Ifa b rd , when become very scarce, with 
a vary learned prefaci-, by t'hrLstoph. 
Aug. Heumunn, Hamn.r, 1731. 8vo. 
The venerated nam* 
Charlemagne ie atudi. I to the 
hut it in easy I l was 

man. bred 
•- school* ; or of a theologian, and 
not or arued 


■un BmployM Mi-iiiM. In- preceptor, 
to draw up the bonk. See II- un 

Preface, p. 51, and the illustrious 
Hilnau, Oi d etia TmfUrU (rermanici, 
tom. i. p, 490. Nor would I contemn 
the oo < appears to 

me ■COM wa al doubtful; f<»r when these 
books wan written, A I ruin was reai- 
l .'land; an in manifest from 
his hiHtory,he having gone la England 
in 7H9, whence lie did not return till 
the year 792- [Alcuin seems to have 
ratmned at tin close of that, or at the 
beginning of the following year. In 
799. Efovaden aaya, Charlemagne nsnt 
to Britain that $ynodal hooky directed to 
| „it,iHt,t,«}.J,- y in trhicM WW 
ftmnd svmy thiw inconvenient and o»»- 
trary U* tkt trurfnitk, and against which 

twioli XuamimimbteepiMU. There 
was ample lima, lharafere, 
an anl 
rj>ijt'. I of Franc f" 

nil dates instead of Invalidating 

i tha inthnwhtp <»! iba 
■ •**, real ly confirm it. E< I . ] 



[fAET II. 

bishops, at Francfort QO the Maine; in order to re-examine 
tins controversy. The council approved the sentiments cm- 
tained n the book u letnagne ; and forbade th< 

of images'. For the Latins, v <li<l not. in that age, 

deem it impious to dispute the IWHJhJHW of the deeisions of 
the Roman pontiff, and to deviate from his o| unions. 

§ ],'». While these contests respecting images were raging, 
another controversy sprung up, between the Greeks and the 
Lit ins, respecting DMIMI of the Holy Spirit ; which the 

I contended, was from both the Father and the Son; 
but the tj reeks, that it was only from the Father. The origin 
of this controversy ■ inv.-l\«d in mueh oljsourity : but as it is 
certain Unit the suhj"et came up in the council of Gentilli, near 
Paris. A.n. 7<>7. and ma there agitated with the ambassadors 
Of thi inperor '. it ■ most probable that the contro\ersy 

originated in Qreooe, amidst the collisions respecting images. 
As the Latins defended their opinion on this subject. 1-v 
appealing to the Constantinopolitan creed, which the Spaniards 

and afterwards the Frcneh, had enlarged (though at what 
time, or on what occasion, is not known), by adding the words 
(Jiio/que) and from the Son, to the article concerning the Holy 
Spirit ; the Greeks charged the Latins with having the 
audacity to corrupt the creed of the church universal, by this 
interpolation, which they denominated sacrilege. From a 
contest about a doctrine, therefore, it became a controversy 
about the insertion of a word *. In the following century, this 

* See, especially, Jo. Mabillon, who 
is likewise ingenuous on this subject, 
in his Prtrf. ,ui Ada Samttvr. Or./. 
Bamd*. torn. r. p. r. Ac. also Geo. Dor- 
scheus, CoUatin ad Coscttiem /'Vuso- 
/ardiam, Argcutor. 1640. 4to. [The 
council of Francfort wm properly a 
amend council ; fur it was assembled 
from all the countries subject to Charle- 
magne; Germany, France, Aquitain, 
Gaul, Spain, and Italy. Delegates from 
the pope were present. Charlemagne 
[•raided. Two subjects were discussed: 
the heresy of Felix of Urgel ; and the 
subject of Image-wornhip. Charle- 
magne laid his books, de Im<i>rinibu$, 
before the council. The council ap- 
MfvJ of them; and passed resolves 
ufnnuitv witt iluru; (hat is, dis- 

approving of the dnrMone of the Ni- 
eene council ; and deciding, that w bile 
images were to be retained in churches 
as ornamental and inetructire, yet no 
kind nf worship whatever was to be 
given to them. See Walcha llutoric 

1 1 irckcntrmttHmlutfjrH, p. 483, and 
Uarduin's Concilin, tan. iv. p. 904. can. 


• See Car. le Cointe, Anmala EodU> 
tuut. Franeor. torn. v. p. 698. 

• Men of eminence for learning have 
generally supposed, that this contro- 
versy commenced respecting the word 
filioqw, which some of the Latins had 
added to the Conatantinopolitan creed; 
and that, from disputing about the 
troW, they proceeded to dupute about 
the thing. See, above all others, Jo. 

CH. III.] 



dispute became more violent, and accelerated the separation of 
the eastern from the western churches *. 

Mabillon, (whom very many follow,) 
Ada Sanetcr. Ord. Baud. torn. t. Prof, 
p. iv. Bat with due deference to those 
great men, I would say, the fact ap- 
pears to have been otherwise. The 
contest commenced respecting the doc- 
trine, and afterwards extended to the 
word jUioque, or to the interpolation of 
the creed. From the council of Gen- 
tilli it is manifest, that the dispute 
about the doctrine had existed a long 
time when the dispute about the word 
commenced. Ant. ^Pagi, Oritica in 
Baroniun, torn. iii. p. 323, thinks, that 
the controversy grew out of the con- 
test respecting images ; that, because 
the Latins pronounced the Greeks to 

be heretics for opposing images, the 
Greeks retaliated the charge of heresy 
upon the Latins for holding, that the 
Holy Spirit proceeded from the Son 
as well as the Father. But this is 
said without authority and without 
proof; and is therefore only a probable 

• See Pet. Pithoras, Hidoria Con- 
trorxnxas de Procmione Spiritui Sancti ; 
subjoined to his Codex Canonum Ecde- 
tux Roman, p. 366, &c. Mich, le Quien, 
Orient Chndiamu, torn. iii. p. 364. 
Gerh. Jo. Vossius, de Triims Symbol*, 
diss. iii. p. 66. but especially Jo. Geo. 
Walch, Hidoria Controwrtice de Pro- 
oetnone Spiritus Sand. Jena, 1751. 8vo. 






| I. Ceremonies multiplied. — § 2. Zeal of Charlemagne for the Romish rites, 

§ 1. The religion of this century consisted almost wholly in 
ceremonies and externa] maris <>f piety. It is, therefore, not 
strange, that every where, mere solicitude was manifested for 
multiplying ami regulating these, than for correcting the 
of men, and removing their ignorance and impiety. The mode 
Of celebrating tin.* Lord's supper, which was considered the 
most important part of the worship of ( rod, was protracted to a 
greater length, and defamed, rather than rendered august, by 
the addition of various regulations 1 . The manifest traces of 
ornate and solitary masses, as they are called, were now distinctly 
naihle; although it is uncertain, whether they w ioned 

by ec al law, or introduced by the authority of indi- 

viduals \ As this one practice is sufficient to show the igno- 

1 [Wi- Inn- subjoin a frw facts*, from 
which it will appear, how much super- 
stition then dishonoured thin holy ordi- 
nance of CIiHm. 1' III. 
among hi* decisions (in ilarduin'» I 'on- 
cil'va, torn. iii. p. 1826. uu. 28.) gives 
the '■■■ II' .my oni', through 
dewtroy the eucha- 
rist, i. e. the sacrifice, let him do 
|*-nanee one year, or tliree Q.uadri- 
geaimaa. If he let* it fall un the 
ground carelessly, he must sing fifty 
1'salma. Whoerer neglect* to take 
care of the sacrifice, so that worms get 
into it, or it lone its colour, ur taste, 
must do penance thirty or twenty days; 
and the sacrifice must he burned in 
the fire. Whoever turns up the OOp 
at tlic close of the solemnity of the 
maw, miwt do penance forty days. If 
a drop fit-ui tin- flop should fall on the 
altar, tlie minister must suck Of 

drop, and do penance three days ; and 
the imeaelolh, which 111 
must ho washed three times, over the 
rup, and the water in which it is washed 
be cast into the fire." This same pas- 
sage I i pi tula of The- 
odore, archbishop of Canterbury, cap. 
fJL 6WW.1 

a Bm Charlemagne, de Jmadfinit«u y 
lib. ii. p. 245. Geo. Calixtus, lb Mis- 
svSotitariis, § 12. and others. [The 
yrintfe, or solitary man, were so 
I to distinguish them from the 
public, or those in which the eucharist 
was imparted to the congregation; ami 
they were masses in wluch the priest 
alone partook of the eucharist. The 
introduction of these private masses 

o a more rare di-i 
eucharist to the assembly ; At first, 
only on th> Mips! festivals; 

auJ at length hut OOM a year. »SrA/.] 

I II. IV. J 

UlTKS ANU i EltKMll? 


ranco ami dtgOHSMf of the times, it is not necessary to 
mention otln 

§ 2. ('htirh'nuKtiw, it must be acknowledged, was disposed 
to impede the progress of superstition to .some extent. For, 
besides forbidding the worship of images as we have already 

he limited the number of t lu* holidays', rejected the 
secration of bells with holy water \ and made other com- 
HWadaMe regulations. Yet he did not ••flirt much, and 

chiefly from this cause, Eunong otln-rs, he was asoeaaively 

Led to the Boman pontiffs, who wen- the patrons of the 
lovers of ceremonies. llir> father. I'ipiu, had before re. i 
tin- mode of sfflgilag practised at Rome, to be every where 
introduced \ ig in his steps, Charlemagne in obedi 

to the repeated* exhortations of the |>ontitf Il'idrunt. took vast 
pains to induce all the churches of Latin christians, not only 
to copy after the Kumish church in this matter, hut to adopt 
ins of the Roiuiah worship". There were, how- 
ever, a few churches, as those of Milan, Chur, feth, which 
could not be Denuded b\ any arguments or inducements, to 
ohaege their old forais of religious mmilip. 

• | y. d. 

813. ' i iv. p. 1016. 

Con. 24— 2Ji.) the number of faat ami 

•lays was defined, according to 

I. asure of Constantine, as follows. 

second wink in 
Juiu-. tin- third <m n k in Sept e mber, 
and die but full week in December, 
u» to Christmas (lay. In all 
these weeka there were to be public 
litauicti and masse*, at nine o'clock, on 
the Wednesdays, Fridays, and Satur- 
days. The fatintls, in' addition to all 
the Sunday* of the year, were to bo 
Ewlir '!:i\ . Willi j AB- 

eenaion day iday; the nati 

(man • r and St. Paul; 

of St. John Dap Lin t ; the A -sun 
. Mary; the dedication : 

•1; nativities of St. Keinigiun, 

I'.'W; Christina*., 

linst day of January; 

tion of St. 

In r irtth tbs festivals of 

tli»- martyrs and confessors, interred 

in each parish; ami tbt dedication of a 

church. Tr. ) 

• (Among the CipituU of Charle- 
magne, a* given hy liarduin (< '>>*ciH* t 

iv. p. 846.) there is on*, No. 1H, 
EoOM mos bajniamtur." I\ | 

• [See Uie Capitular* yf owiajnvisea**, 
No. BO, in Hnrdum's Concilia', torn. iv. 
p. 843. 

• See Charlemagne. itmt, 
lil'. i p. 69 

Mutni % c. 20. p. 04. cd. Bcasel. and 

••tie am 



[fABT 11. 



§ 1. Ancient sect* recover strength. — §2. Cletneut and Adalbert. — §3. Fefix 
and Elipaudus. 

§ 1. The ancient sects, the Aria-tu, Manichwaits, and Mn- 
tei, though often depressed by the operation of peiinl laws, 
acquired new strength in the East; and allured many to join 
tin in, amidst those perpetual calamities under which the 
(iivik empire had to struggle 1 . The Monothdttes, to wlmse 
cause the emperor PJMKypJCWB and other persons of distinction 
u. 11 v, inborn, made advances in many places. The con- 
dition also of the Nestnrians'and Monophysites 3 was ea>- 
agreeable, under the dominion of the Arabians; nor were thev 
without ability to annoy the Greeks, their foes, and to pro- 
pagate their faith abroad. 

$ %, In the new Germanic churches collect. ,1 l.y Bofiifac*, 
tin it' were inanv perverse men, who were destitute of tru« 
gion ; if confidence can be placed in Boniface and his friends. 

1 Among the barliorous nations of 
Bdom also, there were some Arians 
remain in:,'. 

3 [From Asseman we obtain some 
knowledge of thcNestorian patriarchs; 
most distinguished of whom were 
the following- AflanjeBtt, BOdv whom 
gan monument wu erected, a. d. 
781. Timothinin, who succeeded Auan- 
iuid greatly extended the sect by 
the conversion of pagan nations near 
tin Caspian sea, and in Tartary. He 
left tunny sermons, an exposition of 
John's Uo* pel, ecclesiastical canons, 
polemic writings, a treatise on as- 
tronomy, and two hundred letters. 
I'mm liitn we get knowledge of several 
other writers, and of the division* 
caused by them. But as these had no 
influence on Uie churches of Europe, 

we may pass thtmbj. See Baum gar- 
ten's Atuaug drr KirchtwjcarJt. vol. iii. 
p. I3I5,&c. tkki.\ 

* [Of the MonophysHe patriarchs 
and writers, we also obtain some know- 
ledge from Asseman. Conspicuous as 
writers among them were, Kltas of 
■Sigara, who commented on the books 
• gory Nnziauzcn; ami TlaudosiuB 
of Eilessa. who wrote poems. Among 
the Marooites, the patriarch Th. 
lus obtained renown. He appears to 
have been the same person with that 
Maronite author of the same name, 
who Used shoal a.o. yHT», ami who not 
tCSJSdsJSSJ Homer into Syrisc. >»ut 
also composed large historical works. 
See Daumgarten, as above, p. 1318. 

t H. V.] 



But this cannot well be, because it appears from many circum- 
stances, that the |>ersons whom he calls patrons of error Rata 
Irishmen, Francs, and others, that would not subject them- 
selves to the control of the Ibnnan pontiff, which 
labouring to extend. Among others, the most troublesome to 
him were AdaU^ert, a Frenchman, who obtained consecration 
as a bishop, against the will of Boniface; and also Clement, a 
or Irishman. The former, who created disturhanee in 
•i onia, appears to have been not altogether i'r<<- from 
error and crime * ; for, not to mention other instances of his 
disregard to truth, there is still extant an Epistle, which he 
i was written by Jesus Christ, and brought down 
from human by Mfh-wlMtxe arcliangel \ The latter excelled. 

* See H'ytinrt Lktirair* dr la Fro**, 

• -', Ac. 

• Tho Epistle is published by Steph. 
Baluxe, in thoGapWariaRtftm I 

eurvin, t«m. ii. p. 1900. [Semi- 

hi* JO*. Bottm, *ir<i« QflfM. lam. ii. 
p. 185, &c. conjecture*, tliAt thi« Kpis- 
tli- was fabricated by tho enemies of 
Adalbert, and palmed upon him fur 
the sake of injuring him. Thi., :. 
ever, is doubtful. The option of the 
• purports, tluit it is an Kpistle 
of ou>- ■> Christ, tlie Son of 

God, whisk |. II down at Jerusalem, 
and was found by the arch-angel Mi- 
chael Dear the gate of Kphraim ; Uiat 
a priest read it, transcribed it, and 
sent it to another priest, who s*>nt it 
into Arabia. After poking through 
many hands, it came at length to Home, 
*ic. Accompanying this letter, aa 
transmit {.-.l by wonhoe to too 
waa a biography of Adalbert ; which 
stated, that his la marvel - 

loua dream, I* I h, video 

waa inta i pr ete d to signify, that her 
Ed bo a distinguished man: 
also a prayer, said to have been com- 
pose- 1 Eh whieh be invoked 
four or Hve angola by name, that are 
not mentioned in the bible. The letn r 
of Boniface, containing the accusation 
against both Adalbert and Clement, 
states, that Boniface had now laboured 
thirty years among the Franca, in the 
raidat of great trial* and opp<> 
from wick- bal htfl chief reli- 
ance had been oo the protection of the 


Roman |K>ntiff«, whose pleasure he had 
always followed; that his greatest trou- 
ble had been wiUi u two mo* Um jnto- 
lic herttk* and btatfkemen of Gt*l and 
th* oatAolie faith," Adalbert a Fi 
man, and Clement a Scotchman, «*o 
kdd difftnni vrrvn, but «m tqu 
amount of crimimility. And he prays 
the pontiff to defend him against these 
men ; and to restrain them by imprison- 
ment and excommunication from un- 
til.- ehurchea. For, said he, 
"On account of these men, 1 b 
persecution, and the enmity and curses 
of many people; and tho sj 
Christ suffers obstructions to the pro- 
graaa of the fiuth and holy .loitrin. ." 
.ilhert he says: " The people say. 
respecting him, that I have deprived 
tilt m fif ■ moot holy apo .. 
and intercessor, a worker of miracles, 
and a shower of signs. Hut 

Eietv *ill jnihrs from his works, after 
earing his lite, r ono 

clad in sh< bin a 

ravening \ be was a hypo- 

crite in early life, asserting that an 
angel, iu human form, brought i 
from distant com nmr- 

vellous sanctify, but of whom it was 
i lain; and that, by means of these 
relics, he could obtain from God what- 
he asked. And then, with Faul predicted, I 
ito many bouses, and led captiv 
women, laden with sius, and carried 
away by divers lusta; and he seek 
s multitude- of the rustic*, who said 



[fAKT II. 

perhaps, Boniface himself, in his knowledge of the true religion 
of Christ ; and he is, fc] not UuprUjMtty placed l>v many 

among the witneese* for the truth in this- harbarous age". 
Both were condemned by the Roman pontiff Zacharia*, at the 
instigation of lioniface, in a council at Rome, a.h. 7 IN. And 
both, it appears, died in prison. 

§ 8. Much grnri motions wore produced in Spain, 

France, and Germany, towards the close of the century, hy 
bop of Urgel, in Spain, a man distinguished for his 
piety. Being consulted by A" archbishop of Toledo, 

respecting his opinion of the toiuikip of Christ, the Son of <;<►<!, 
he answered, in the year 783, that Christy as Sod, was by 

that A<t wm a man of apostolic sanctity, 
and wrought signs and wonders. lie 
nasi hind some ignorant bishops to 
ordain him, contrary to the canons, 
without assigning him a specific charge. 
He now became so insolent, as to as- 
sume equality with the apostles of 
Christ; and disdained to dedicate a 
church to any apostle or martyr ; and 
reproached the people for l>eing SO 
eager to visit the threshold* of tin- holy 
apostles. Afterwards he ridiculously 
consecrated oratories to his own m 
orra'l 'hem. Ik- also erected 

small crosses, and houses for prayer, 
in the fields, and at fountains, and 
wherever he saw fit; and directed pub- 
lic prayers to be there offered; SO 
great multitudes, despising Ihfl hi-: 
and forsaking the ancient churches, 
held their religious meetings in such 
places, and would aay, Tfeu DM rits of 
leJbert will aiel Oa, He also gave 
his nails and locks of his liair to be 
kept in remembrance of him, HO 
be placed with the relics of St. Peter, 
the prince of apostles. Ax 
what appears the summit of Mi wicked- 
ness and blasphemy against God, when 
people came and prostrated themselves 
before him, to confess their sins, he 
said: I know all your sins, for all secrets 
are known to me; return securely, and 
in peace, to your habitations. And 
all that th lea as 

done by hypocrites he has imitated, in 
his dress, his walk, and 1; 
ment."— The Epistle then describe* 
the wickedness of Clement, thus: "The 

heretic, whose name is Clement, 
opposes the catholic church, ami re- 
nounces and confutes the canon* of the 
church of Christ. He refuses to abide 
l<v the treatises and discourses of the 
holy fathers, Jerome, Augustine, ami 
Gregory. Despising the d ecr ee s of 
councils, he affirms, that, in his opinion, 
a man can be a christian bishop, and 
bear the title, after being the t 
of two sons, begotten in adulter} 

•><</ wibdKj, Introducing Juda- 
ism again, ho deems it right for a 
christian, if he pleases, to marry the 
widow of ltis deceased brother. Also, 
eoutrary to the faith of the holy fu' ; 
he maintains, that C'i . i n Off 

God. di m ndV '1 into nellj and liberated 
all that we i i lined in pi 

believers and unbelievers, worshippers 
of God and worshippers of idols. And 
many other horrible tilings he affirms 
respecting divine pre d e sti nation, and 
contravening the catholic faith." See 
Harduin's f oncUia, torn. iii. p. IJ»:tl> — 
194a TV. J 

■ The errors of Clement arc enume- 
rated by Doiufacc, Ep'ut. exxxv. p. 1 It;*. 

them stated in the our- lading 
t-\ 7V.J Among 

• rrors, there is certainlv no One 
that is capital. See Jac. Usher, >V- 
/•**• Ep'niUnr. HVxrm'mr. p. 12. and 
$OHt«Ma Dietumnairr ll'utor. ( Hi 
i. p. 133, Jte. [For the history of the 
controversy with both Adalbert and 
Clement, see Walch's Iluturie <Ur I 
creym, torn, x. p. 3 — 66. TV.] 

BB, V.] 



nature, and truly, the .Son of God ; but that as a man, he was 
tli.- Smi of I tod only in name, and by adoption. This doctrine, 
bnbibed by Elipandua from his prei Elipandua diasemi- 

nated in the provinces of Spain, whili- Felix spread it in Septt 
mania [or Languedoe|. lint in the i< u *>l' the pi 
ETadriau, and of most of the Latin bishops, this ophlioil 

■ 1 to rrvivc the error attributed to Nestorius, and to 
divide Christ i imtgons. Hence Fdfo was judged guilty 

of heresy, and required to change his opinion; first, is 
council of Narhonne, a. d. 7<SS, then at I\;iti>l'-.n, in Germany, 
A.i). 7 l -f- ; also at Franefort on the Maim 1 . A.n. 7!)1: and 
afterwards at Rome, a.d. 799; and lastly, in the council of 
Aix-la-Chapelle. And he revoked his opinion ostensibly; but 
not in reality; for he died in it, at Lyons, where he was 

ii d by f'fniHemapne 7 . No rule of faith could In* enacted 
fur EKpamh$, by the christians, because he livvil under the 
Saracens of Spain. Many befieva, and not without reason, 
that the disciples of F> f i'\ who wore called Ad 
differed from other christians, not in reality, but only in wordfi, 
or in the mode of stating tin ir views*. Hut as Felix was not 
uniform in his language, those who accuse him of the Nestorian 
i , have some grounds of argument. 

7 Tlic author* who have feasted of 

Felix, are (.'numerated by 

Jo. Alb. Fuhricius, in hitt lii/Jujtltrca 

ii. |>. 682. To 

these, add Pt&W 99 M;ir<\i, in tin- 

I }fu}*irii<-<t, lili. iii. r. ML |»- 368, 

Ac Jo. de Ferrers*, I 


536. 500. Jo. Mabillon, Ada Smetor. 

\. Fnof. p. ii. fee, Of 

in particular, account is given 

ilia, HUt'iin: Liiiir. do 

Lyon, torn, ii. p. 7?* and by 

the Benedictine monks, in // 

ttrair* de la France, torn. iv. p. 434, tec 

[This wet is fully treated «>i in I 

f !*•'*, VOL 

607— 040. and in bin j/irforuj 
Adoptiaiiorum, Gottinr. 1765. 8vo. See 
*!•<.• S '.swjnek. vol. xx. 

p. 460—496. Tr.\ 

* I ions, Collai 

ConciHmut Frame j p, Ml. Sam. Wc- 
ranfala, de Loaomac&iu Eruditor. in bis 
Opp. p. 460. Jac. Baanage, /V 
Ewntm. in Henr. Canwii Leriioni/*** 

i. pt i. p. 204. Geo. 
Calixtus. in bin Tract on this subject, 
and others. [ Dr. Walch, in hi* //u- 

Advjttutnirr. MOB iix an 

not a NetOorian ; an.! ;arda 

tin- controversy a* not m.nlv 
words. The subetanc - iewa 

io* state*. Christ as a man, and 
witli. iut regard to the jtersotial I 

feWO nut ores, was born a terra nJ 
ofQodf though without I n tin- 

condition of a termmt, he passed into 
that of mfree person, when God, | 
bapti noed him hit dear Son. 

transaction was his adoption, and 
lik« wise his rvyrsenifiow. The title of 
IN longs to I: . >m ■ mnii ; 

but not properly, for 
numeuvntirely. Thus did Felix Q 
something unsuitable and new 
his innovation was not a ground for 
so great an alarm throughout the 

church, as if he had assailed the 
fundamental doctrines of chri«tiauin. 

• >•• 






Swedes, Danes, and Cimbriana converted. — § 3. The Bulgarian*), 
, and Moravians. — § 4. The Slavonian tribes, the Russians. — § ft, 

i;-timut. q| flaii uoaimluw. 

§ I. 8<j liinjr as Charlemagne lived. whieh was till the ymr 
.ins whieh In- dtt I to DTO 

[vacate ami establish I'lni^tianity among the Huns, the Saxons, 
rli« 1 'rieslandere, and others 1 . But it is to lx- regretted, that 

1 f Among these, belong the Carin- 
tlii;n i.-cd partially re- 

• IViruth, the duke "! Corin- 
'vhen lie committed his son Coras' 
it"- Hftvftrians, as a hostage, 
requested, that be 1 ba baptized 

and educated as a ehristian : and he 
also requested tin- same, in regard to 
his nephew Oietimar. both 

these afterwards became dukes of 
Cari i' !*• readily cvnei* •<!, 

that I had made 

eo»»der*lile prog ve aa ' iv this 

\oi.. ii. 

century. In the present century, a. r». 
800, < iiurl.ninjrne came to Ssitsburg, 
andcnnnrm<--l to Vrno bia eeeloVu 
jurisdiction over a Carintbia 

in low it I'oiuiouia. The presbyters, 
whom bishop Arao sent into Carintliia, 
trareoM then-, adopted 
a singular artiiire, IP n n.l. r . i 
respectable, and pnganisn 
in the eyes of the y> 

irttian slaves to sit at 
table with them, while their pagan 
masters had to eat their bread and 
meat without the doors ; and fa 
drink out of baV 




he (\\(] not omit to employ violence and war. His son, Lewi* 
Meek, had the same zeal for propagating eliristianitv, 
though greatly his inferior in other respects. Under his reign, 
a convenient opportunity KM presented for planting Christ- 
ianity among tin: nortluin nations, especially tlu- Danes and 
Swedes'. Hnrtihl Klack) a petty sovereign of Jutland, being 
eoqwHed hfa kingdom, by Itomer Lodbroct, in the year 826, 
applied to the emperor for his assistance. Lewis promised trim 
aid, on condition that he would eiuhrace Christianity himnfJf 
and admit teachers of the christian nfigfoo into his country. 
11.1,-tihl aoeeded to the terms, was baptised at Maveiuv. a.i». 
826, together with his brother, and took along with him to 
Jutland two preachers of Christianity, Ansgarius, a monk and 
schoolmaster of Oorbey fa Seotony, and Autbert^ a monk of 
Corlwy in France ; and then monks preacfted Bmong the 
inhabitants of Jutland and Cimbria, for two years, with graol 

sj 2. On the death of his fellow-labourer Aufbtrt, in the 
year 828. the indefatigable Aiuyarius went DVOr to Sweden; 
and there he pleaded the cause of Christ with equal success 8 . 

servants drank from gilded cups. For 
the presbyters told the masters; " Yon 
unb»]' ma are no! wort] 

' li those that are baptized." Tliis 
enkindled web a dean t" become 
christian*, that great numbers of them 
MM baptized. The *tory does as 
it t<> these inis*ioiuries, as to 
the Life of St. 
Kupreeht; in Cuaiaii Lectio*Unuj4niiq. 
Una. vi. of flit old I d. Ik) 

* f Ebbo, arobbtabon 'if Kh- ims, •.. ho 
had travelled as an imperial em 

the northera countries, made an at- 
-. to spread 
tianity there ; and, together 
llalitgarius <»f Camh: Mined 

fan pope 

pnr p ot s. See ./ 

:t I • bruar. and MakOBUfjictaBm 

Ord. Baud, stecul. iv. pi ii. p. 70. 00. 


* | Tin' olirfctians who were carried 

1-tivity by the Normans, iii tlu ir 
frequent plttndering expedition*, nn- 

aonbtedbj ib 

this |»eop|.' a favourable 

towards Christianity ; and especinil s 

by r. them the wealth 

power of the christian countries, w 

was ascribed to 

will aceount for whal bistonsnt affirm. 

that Swedish ambnssadorw QUM 

king Lewis, and stated among other 

things, that many of their 

an inclination tow 

tliat their king would cheerfully pannM 

' uin priests to reside am 
Auschariu* and I ilinani were ssni 
thither, with rich presents. Their 
voyage was unfortunate : fur t li ■ j. 
into iIil' hands of pirates, who plum 

I they firm I the 

port of Biork, v .< 
U ii»ir, Bern or Biorn. Then 

1 a congregation and loiilt ■ 
church, in the course of six mm 
the king having ghren liberty ID bin 

the new rel 
«»u the return or tins.- mi^i'-n i 
the eo i was with- 

out a tsaehar, till Bbbo tent tb. 
n-'I'b . who, at his ordiua- 

naey of thai 

(if. r.] 



Returning into (tcnnaiiv, L&Ottihe Meek const i tut ad him, in 
the year 8S1, archbishop of tin- new church of Efombntg *, and 
•if all ili'' North; and in the year 814, th< pft] see of 

llrrin.-n was tUflKgflri t«» that Clf ffftinhirry. The profits of this 

lii^ii station were small *, while ite peril* W8W very great, and 
its lain mrs immense. For An$$ Uk lie fared, too 1 - 

quont journeys among the Dams , the Oiinbrian.s. the 
and other nations ; and laboured, though at the peril of his 
• collect new churches, and to strengthen those previously 
bulled, till death overtook him, a. j>. S«: 

the rami i soon 

after. '!.\ 

' [Tiie sue of Hamburg wap 
very small, embracing but four parish 
churches. Lewis sent Anscharius to tlio 
popo ; who conferred oo him the archi- 
.[••1 pall, and constituted him his 
legate for Sweden, Denmark, the Faro 
bland i, Ac. as also anions 

i.mi. mid tin? northern and 
eastern tribes. 

i. nml Mnhillon, I. <•. ,VA/.] 

* [Lewis the Meek assigned him the 
rvTcnueaof s monastery in Brabant, in 
order to idk-i the expenses of his mis- 
sionary efforts. But the income i»f the 
monastery «•»» very small ; anil 
after ceased altogether, wh- ••• 
domfell into disorder. Anschariu 
therefore have been in want • 
sources. He at lant received a ■mall 
•state, from a pious widow, in It i 
slob near Bremen ; « ever 

a hut s small income. •So*/.] 

• I I iKTSecutions, to which 
di<' Ihmish christians were exposed, 
was one occasii'i t"i hi- r |" 
viridag Ui i He wm bin 

•Irin-n rrom Hi! hi invasion 

of thf Ni-nunii-.) ami th« oily 1>eing 

is laid wuhIc, ho lm-1 
some time at Bremen. Be was at 

i ark, 

E reach there, In i chnreh at 

860. Bui 
during the mini i 

1 M fnwh neraeen 
and th." rhoreh 

np, W'hi-ii this king began in 
in (MUM) ! 

i rihliaiiH, miiI iHTiniil. d Aiucha- 

rina to wtuiiij and to ati at ■ 


1 [To Sweden he sent the i 

and HkswiM wtnt than 

If, a second nn, ,in 1 1 1> character 
I'.oy from 
Olans ; who was Indue- • I bj •-•ems, 
to support AaarliwriiM in two bnnaM 

i li diets, at which the establitth- 
roent of Christianity was decided by 
casting lots. He now re-established 
christian worshi| . lad U -ft 

Heriml a« a christian teacher. 

■ The writer*, who treat Of th 
and labour-, 
parent of the Cimhrian, Danish, and 

Derated bj 
Jo. Alb. Fabricius, BVJiofh. 7 

i. i. p, 202, &C. and 
Lhj EmHijrlii CofS fhrf/i Terror, a- 
orient, p. 425, Ac. To these, add the 

monks' Flutoir. 
dt la Fromcr, torn. v. p. 277- Act<\ 
Saatdor. warn. Fehroar. torn. i. p, BMj 
Ac. Erie Ponti ■ 

im. i. p. 18, 

iii. p. R, 1(0, I i in Umh vritHB, a 
knowledge niay Ik- gaii 
also; namely, 1 -iar, Itcm- 

psnions and assistants of Anneluunus, 
• nors in tl. 

Himihiiri;, i« in .Mai il 

I i. p 
7K. v 

,(k>H'}f*h. Vol. iv. D. 
108 ll!>. 



hook iii.- 

i PRY IX. 

[part I. 

$ :;. About tbe midd artnry, I 

and fi/r!/, being N&t as missionaries from OoiU 
lipople, '' taught first the 

B, and Gazari, and afterwards the Itohcmians and 
Moravians. t«» renounce their false gods, and to embrace 
Ohmt 1 . Sumo knowledge of Christianity had indeed been 

vol. xxl v. 314, &lo. and archbishop 
Milliter'* Kimhrngnrh. ron I>'d*em.nnd 
Nonce*, vol. i. Lip-. KflB. '/>.] 

• J. 
e'ur Hutoria, Lib. ii. cap. ii. |>. 91, fte. 
Compere Jo. Peter Kohl, Intnui 

'"iiH et Rein Liti " u ,p. 

124. fee. ud others. [A Bfl 

I th<- missions nii'l ■' 
Many, mixta 

sections, is given by Schroeekh, 
i. |». 'MM, ftO. UU 
■ '. Schrnid . 
)•. 120, flte. also by Joa. Sim. Ass ■ 

iii. p i:.-, \~ t :>:.. \ 

following nummary, I I. do- 

Eram Sender and Baumgarten, 
ins the materia 

itioii. 7V.] The seeds 

of i-li bad Is en pret I 

scattered ai is, by 

some year 

814, Cruraiuus, I rian king, 

captured Adrianoplc, and carried the 

p, Maun.'!, with ottu r of the 

ns, into captivity : and his suc- 

rwarda pel 

other ehrfatian • death ; be- 

ili.v made proselytes among tin.- 

Bulgarians. After i -'am, 

ra*. who wa* a . iatooantrjj 

and i d iii-.- Unitarian 

Boron*, who had been taken prisoner 
and earned to Constantinople, i 

MM educated and taught the 
christian religion, ami th u < v. hanged 
for the monk 11 intrihutcd 

nadl to recommend Christianity to 
thiii |>' ople. The way I" ing thu 

antinople; m was 

tin' f.iiii-.ii.s painter Methodius, who 
neenes for 
ing, formed religions |i 

among tnt i 

and toetreoted him in the prim-ip! 

Christianity. Not long after, the king, 
in a time of fui 
rhristianitv. ami invite J tern 
abroad, nut hi- ado inaur- 

reetion against him for it ; and he 
caused fifty -two of the ring-leaders to 
be jnit to death) mid at Length tow 
the real to emfanee the nee 
In the war K4K, (for thus Amm 
has ascertained the true year, i 
Kalewiar. £/aV». f'siwrwr, ton. iii. p. 
13, etc. whereas Kold and Stredowsky 
state (lie vnir 043.) C.iiM.utithi- 
brother of this Methodme, had l»eeii 
sent among the Cliaznri, [or Gaxari.] 
whose king had likewise d e sire d to 
have christian teachers. Constat* < 
laid the foundation of the christian 
. translated 
the scriptures into fee .Slavonic lau- 
gnage,and taught that barbarous n 

. after thi 

to the aid of his brother, among the 

rians ; and 10 861, bap- 

rin, who aseumed .it 

the font the name of the Greet 

peroi. Tin' tWQ brother-, 

i.intine and Methodins, wen 
tives of Thessalonica. 'I! 
who was the oldest, afterwards 
tlw name of Cyril ; and, on aecount of 
Mb learning, was ■ornasned the Philo- 
sopher. The younger brother was dis- 
dngolahed as a painter. 

bable, tha4 b <h of lihi m. In onrh 

fled from ('••ii-taniiii"pl< , to avoid the 
he worship- 
pers of images, and especially 
painters of them ; and that thc> Hok 
rribe«, and 
their language, w 
was afterwards af use to them in tho 
propagation of Christianity. — Fr> I 

bulg: ated, 

travelled among the adjacent Dalma- 
tians and Croatian*, and baptized their 
king Itudiinir. Seo Baurngnn 
Ahjcu-i <hr Kirehengetch. vol. iii. p. 

«:». I.] 



piv\iuiisl\ imparted to tbei ODfi, through tbe iniuan« 

ind some of the bishops 1 ; but that knowledge 
pKodneed tittle dually beca binot. As the 

missionaries above named WH they inculcated mi 

those iii-w discipke the opinions <>f tit.- (iiv.ks, their forms of 
n'}» and tlnir rites'; from wfaioh the Koman pontiffa, 
afterwards, by their legates, were able but partially to BB- 
elaim thorn. And from this source great commotions occa- 
sionally arose. 

$ t. Under the (' n|»tror, //<mi7 the Macedonian, who 

- mlur'a SeUeta Hut. 
. «'.i;.i.M, torn, ii 169.— 

Aa to the Bohemians, the < %romeU» of 
, ad ana. •' 

l.< win Idog of tii.- Gexmaai 

Ir subjects, 
embraced the chri-ti.i ■ Ami 

il ■ w<ll know it, that t-.nanl-. tliecloae 

i eauUu^i t >»•• Ft-lt-mian prince 
tophic op 

aide rhion. 1 

been baptized himm-lf, be treated thin 
jtn^nii prim . while (welding 

at bis court ; on allow ban 

it his tahlt ; becani ■ . : - 
liim, it wis not suitable fur a pagan 
i«> ial willi chrintian*. Perhaps also 

may have mver- 


braccd chruaiai <-ome 

a greater b 

t.» be 


, with many 
other*, to receive baptism aleo ; and 
afterward*, with Inn wife, 

greatly promote.! I of ehriat- 

■anity ; and among other means, by 
erecting a fain 

See 3. The 


>r the. two 

Liua ; 

aiiJ l at Vetvar, 

most dia- 

r.mnlatcd many 
Ml up pul. lie wi 

particularly ut "linutz and Uriinii ; 
hut the) il also image wor- 

ship, to which they were ad ; 

■ •-••JK'nyctck. 
torn. iii. p. ! 

1 8 it. lib. i. cap 

p. 56, tVe. | \Vhi n ( Imi 1< magne, In 
hit wm with the Bona and [i 
was vietoriona. he compel), 
ravian king San 

I Aruo of Seitabl 
in particular, un 

tribea ; and in this hnaJnai 
nook G odw in vm employed ; 
uii.Iit Lanrig tl ' irolnn Dho 

arehhLdiup of Lorch alno. 

. ad aim. 82 i. 1 1 

mir, the successor of Samoslav, 
became a confederate of the an 



Mum BOOB int« r- 

"l« of Salisbury 
of I'aaaau ; ami L< w»l< ■•. the 
ignorance ol *.ln- christian in 

language, and their in- 
troducing the Latin formal u af war* 

And nt la«t, th 

fanner) put a full atop to the 

Urea* of the go*»pcl aim pie. 

1 Jae. Lenfant, Hi: 

compare th< 

i. p. 2—4. 



[PA JIT 1. 

ascended tho thro; J8T, the Slavonic nation*, the Ai.n- 

tani. and others, who inhabited Dahnatia, B6Ht UllliaflWilliil 
Oonatomfoogila, aixl voluntarily plaecd themselves in subjeetion 
to the Greek empire ; and, at the same tune, they profe- 
readiness to receive Christianity. Greek priests were therefore 
eeni among them, who instructed and baptized them 1 . The 
Bflme emperot, after concluding a peace with the warlike 
nation of the Banians, peranaded them by presents and 

S to promise him, by their ambassadors, that they would 
embrace Christianity. The nation stood to their promise, and 
admit ted, not only christian teachers among them, but also an 
archbishop, commissioned by Ignatius^ the Greek patriarch \ 
This was the commencement of Christianity among the Russian 
le. They were inhabitants of the UJcTONMi and a 1 i r 1 1 • - 
before hail fitted out a fleet at Kiow, in which they sp- 
peared before Constantinople, to the great terror of the 

g 5. The christian missionaries to the heathen, in this 

nen of more piety and virtue than most of those who un- 

>k the conversion of the pagans in the preceding century. 
They did not resort to coercive measures; they either disre- 
garded altogether, or promoted only in a moderate degree, the 
private interests of the Roman pontiff; and their lives were 

* This we learn from Constantino 
Porp ny rqg o nit u ^d* Admrnktrm I 

•uji. \\i\. ; in Ann hni Barnlurii 

mmi OrUm p, 7'J, ~,.i 

tantine also ralataa tin- Bame, m 

In tilb of hia grandfather, DomI the 

1 ram Hut. lijfzan- 

i I m. 
I'iut in the 

int. torn. kvL \>. 157 ; 
and dJunorvn ('uwur* 

stone \L bj l'm- 

duri, Iikj- riant ' 
I" I' I A>lm'%nifi 

Imperii,, torn, ii. p. 02. 

J Mieh. Le <^uhn, in his fkrift'uinu$ 
, torn. i. j>. 1257, jrivos account 
i 11 of tho Ilu««i 
I'lir^iijinitv, in ilio reign of Basil the 

Mac doniaa : tml be baa madi a mini- 
iL>», »* other* lia<l 

before him. He first tells us, tin i 
Riufluana hero intended, were those 
that ! i the Bulgarian.**, 

a little after, he tells us, the v won 
Gazari. For this ODOi - hut 

one reason, namely, that anion? Qm 
teachers Bent to mstracl the Hu^ians, 
wan that Cyril, who was active in the 
conversion of the Gazari. Tin- laa I 
author «u» ignorant of l.nth th«- Rus- 
sians and the Gazari. He has made 
also other mistakes. > t is 

iltvclojud iiuuh In tier, and more ac- 
curately, by T 

/>('«. •/> Ii«i*urtiiH l'nm>t EjrtxslUiona 
i : pubUsbea in tho 
volume of tli>' ' 

\/n, r Jlt-i„.e, i. n. 1738. it... 
[See also Schroeckh, /riri-iw/^' 

.'^•7. Ac. and .1 I 'i«it'« 

(II. It. I 


free from arrogance, insoUnc, and the suspicion of licentious- 
ness. Yet the religion they inculcated was very wide of tliat 
simple rule of truth and holiness which the apostles of I 
preached, and was debased by many human in\< i . 
sujiorstiti'ins. Ahi'.iilt fcfaa nations which they converted, also, 
these preachers allowed too many n • old BupelBtitiooa 

to ivinain ; and, in truth, they were inure earnest to inculcate 
an external fonn of pi<ty, than piety itself. Vet, it must be 
allowed, that thc.«*e 01001 an<l §OOd men were obliged to yield 

up several tisfigg to tlie rodenon of those swage imtions. 


IBM .\l)\ IS IX THE HISTORY OF Tilt (lie kill. 

§ 1. Success of the Saracens. — g 2, 3. Tho Norniun jiirntss. 

§ 1. The Saracens were in possession of all Asia, to the 
bord< i ia, a few regions only excepted. They also In Id 

the best parts of Africa; and in the West, Spain and Sardinia. 
In the year 827. relying oo the treason of individuals 

[gated the very fertile island of Sicily \ And near the 
okwe of the century, tho Asiatic Saracens got possession of 
many cities in Calabria, and Spread tenor quite to the walls of 

1 [Euphemius, a general in S 

no enamoured with a nun, and 

bed. Her 

.inod to the viceroy, 

laid the cajy the emperor; 

i'd the 
neiit to arrest him, and Hod to 
■ a. There be off n d ;ii 

i hini villi 

an army, and allow him to u 

:li-«.f a Roman Itn^emtor. Tin- 
governor consented; and Euirin 
fulfilled hi* promise. Hut m hail 
scare* > 1 1 - < i In- deaign wheu 

I'uropalsta, as? it niuH, 

Anmil. km. t& ad aim. «27. | 




the city Rome. They also either ravaged, or took posses- 
sion i if Crete, Corsica, and other islands. Qowgml the in- 
.11 cause, tm I from these successes 

of a nation accust«»nu<l to war* and rapine, and host i I 
christian- '•' GQULUfuhend. In 

especially, numberless families of chri>tians embraced th< 
gion of their conquerors, to nnder their lives comfortable. 
Those possessed of more resolution and piety, gradually sank 
into a wretched state, hein v stripped of the clu 

their property, but, what was still more lamentable, tiny fell 
by degrees into a kind of stupor, and an amazing igiicnmcr. 
so that they retained almost nothing christian, except the 
name, and a few religious rites. The Saracens in Europe, and 
particularly those of Sfjain, became divested in a great measure 
of their ferocitx j and ihev suffered the christians, their sub- 
jects, to live quietly, according to their own la>\s and insti- 
tutions. Yet instances of cruelty were not. wanting among 


§ 2. Another and a more direful tempest came open the 
BofOpean christians from the regions of the North. The 
Normans, that is, the people inhabiting the shores of the 
Baltic, in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, who were accus- 
tomed to rapine and slnughter, and whose petty kings and 

* Stv, fur example, thf martyrdom 
of Eulogius of Corduba, in llio Acta 
Afaaefor. ad d. xi. Mortii, ujiu. ii. p. 88. 
and those of Kodcric and 
Spanish martyr- mry, inthe 

ammc vol. ad il. \iii. Martii, y 
| The Saracen* of Spain were tolerant 
bo l Ik- christians so lone an they de- 
meaned thflnaehraa a* quiet and peace- 
>■ ; and ili«\ allowad 

the free exercise of their religion. But 
Ihey would not allow then 
Mohainmed and his religion. And this 
Wm the source of all the difficulties. 
Abdalrahman consulted Rcccafrid, a 
chrintuwi bishop, ou tlie subject. The 
bishop stated, that when christian* tra- 
dtacea the Muluunnedati religion, with- 

• m- 
induce tln-ir own in place of it.i: 

i th.ii- lives, the> could not 
bo accounted martyrs. A number of 

christians ajjreed with Reccafrid ; but 
the majority dissented. And Kulogtua 
wrote against R*.*ccafrid, m. 
hiatoi i tnart\rs- II--. 

and those in bis sentiments, everted 
all their efforts to run 
median], and to DO 
tianity. They also courted martyi 
and, in several instanc* ■-, invited the 
judges to put tli. -in to death. The jiar- 
tieular offenee of Eulogius, for " : 
he was jmt lo death, v. .• and 

secreting a Spaniab girl, whom he had 
converted from the Maaetdman to the faith, and not giving her up 
to her parents and fi his 

three books, >k Murtyrittu Cvnlabea d 
bus ; his +ijxJoif<ticiu , rUms 

adv. Caltmmiakirti ; an iatio 

ad JU.trtyrium ; in the BiUuJh. > 

i |H \«. and Schroeckh, 
Kirch* ttyrh. vol. am. p .2!M,&c. Tr.) 

III. 11.] 


elml'tains practised piracy, infested the coasts al< tog tin 
man and Gallic oceans, as early as the reign of <h<trl#ma$ne ; 
and that onperar established garrisons and camps to oppose 
them. But in this century they become much move bold, and 
mode frequent descents upon Germany. Britain, FrieflUnd, but 
especially France, plundering and ig, with fire and 

sword, wlicnvtr they v.nt. The t< rriiic inioads of tl 

savage BOfdoi extended ooi only t<. Spain', but even to tli.- 
(•• -litre of Italy: for it appears from the writers of those 
tames, that they destroyed tin- city of Luna, in the war S">7. 
and Pisa and other cities of Italy, in fcfae v< ;ir B60* The 
early hdstorisB of tli»- Francs detail and deplore, at great 
length, their horrid enorinities. 

$ 3. The first views of these savages extended only to col- 
lecting plunder and sla\es in the countries they invaded 5 , bol 
1>\ degrees, becoming captivated with the beauty and fertility 
of those Countries, they took up residence in them j nor could 
rhe BnropeSD kings and prino it tlieir doing so. In 

tliis very century the J fold was obliged, \. n. 850, to 

cede b considerable part of his kingdom to these bold invaders*. 
And | us after, in the reign of CharUs the Fat, Ki 

France, Q o d frtd^ one of their most valiant chieftains, \ 
vered in his military enterprises till he had subdued all I 
land T . Yet becoming peniiancutly settled among christians, 
tliey gradually became civilized ; and, intennaiTying with the 

' Jo. do Forreras, / -trait 

»j*e, torn. ii. |>. 503. Piracy wu 

rln ril ii:i- 

tfon ■ »wj ha \A linifatrli 

iiity aud 

na and the kindred of kings were 
iram.-il. Bfar «ill (his surprise us if 
we cuiwider lh« religion of those na- 

.iiitl tb«l barbarism of the | 
See Jo. Ilolherg, Histsrfa 
mormm et Norr*Mr%m natal*- , \n ».ln 

r*4V> iU'.l. \»hi-ro lie relates 

mam |g account* reap 

those maritime robberies from ti 
naU of tin- DftMB and Norwf^iana. 
■ ' - 
tatoii, iu rariou | 
* (Ttii» obji. 

(nu»Ul - ) occasioned the d<-- 

atrurtiun of a vajj numl-cr of rl lurches 

and monasteries in England, Prance, 

.my, ami Italy. Pag in I 

partlv belonging to tin- estal 
aud partly placed there far 

ally fortified ; and the bit I 
and abbottj wli 

■-■litrny M-; . '■>■ >r land*, 

were defend them against 

the iiicur-jiuti* of foreign emu 

• Annals, hy an nnknown autli- | 

. i'. 46. 
T Regiito Pruiaaweifl An <-■■'■ -, lib 
ii. p. »W, in I'istorii tkriptor. Hermit*. 


christians, they exchanged the superstitions of their ancestors 
for the religion of the christians. This was the case with 
God/red, the conqueror of Friesland, in this century, when he 
had received Gisela, the daughter of king Lothaire junior, from 
the hands of Charles the Fat, for his wife. 





I. State of learning among the Greeks. — § 8. State of philosophy. — § 3. 
Learning among the. Arabiaiw. — § 4. Stato uf learning under Charlemagne 
and his sons. — § &. Impedimenta to ita progress. — § 6. List of learned men. 
— § 7. John Scotus. 

§ 1. Tut: (J reeks experienced many things in this sj 
could not hut damp their ardour for learning and knowledge. 
Still, however, the munificence of the emperors, some of whom 
tin 'n ■ re devoted to study, and the precautions of the 

patriarchs, among whom rhotiua shone conspicuous for erudi- 
tion, prevented in Absolute dearth of Ben n, [particularly 
at Constantinople. Hence there were among the U reeks, some 
who excelled both in prose and in poetic eouiporition ; who 
showed tin ir skill in argumentation, by their writings eg 

the Latins and others; and who composed historic^ of 
own times, not altogether destitute of merit. Tn particular. 
thett djumtaa with the Latins becAine warm, many who 
would otherwise have suffered their talents to be eaten up of 
were roused to set about cultivating elegance and i 


^ "J. That the study of philosophy, among tliMirn 

century, continued for a bug time testified ex- 




i:ky i\. 

[part ii. 

\ by John Zonaras. But wider the emperors Tfooj 
ami his son Mickad III., tin? .study of it revived, through til-- 
iniluenee es|M.'eially of Bordm\ ;r'. who, though him- 

self not learned, was the friend of PhaHm\ who was a 
learned man and a great Maecenas, and In whoso eotmaal 
doubt, Bardas was guided in this matter. At the head of all 
the learned men. to whose protection he intrusted the interests 
of learning, JBardas placed Leo the Wise, a man of great 
learning, and afterwards bishoj. of ThfWBflJonica '. /' 
lumself expounded what are called the Categori rtle : 

and Mi> had Psellus wrote brief explanations of tin* principal 
booln of that philosopher. Others I pass 01 

§ 3. The Arabians, who hitherto had been intent oul\ on 
conquests, and had neglected the cultivation of science, being 
now excited, by the attachment of Al flfanMM, or .1 
Abdullah, to literature, and his patronage of learned men, 
made much greater progress. For this eaceUeni kaliph of 
Babylon and Egypt, who began to reign about the 
Ckarlemagne died, and ended his days a. d. Si uded cele- 

brated BChools at Bagdad, ltasora, and other places; 

drew learned men around him. by conferring on them gre. 
wank; i>tablished ample libraries; proeured, at great expense, 
the translation of the best works of the (J reeks into Arabic; 
and neglected DO means which would do honour to a prince 
greatly attached to literature and science, and himself a distin- 

gaiahed proficient \ Through lus influence, the Arabians 
began to find pleasure in Grecian science ; and to propagate 
it, by degrees, not only b Syria and Africa, but also in Spain, 
and even in Italy. Hence they celebrate a long list of re- 
nowned philosophers, physicians, astronomers, and mathema- 
ticians of their nation, extending through several oenturJ 

1 Afunlrt, torn. ii. lib. xvi. p, 120, in 
'. torn. x. 

* [Among the Gm*k emperors who 
adr*. <\ Rmq] tin- Macedo- 

uiuli slioul n. He was 

himself not without learning ; as 1 
dent from his speeches, letters, and 
counsels to hi* son Leo, that are fciill 
extant. Thin son of Inn, who was sur- 
muned the Wise, aud the Philoooph.-r, 
on account of his learning, OQnpoBOa 
largelv ; the most ini|>ortaii( of his 

WQtlo are the sixty books of his fiari/i- 
ton, or Imperial Law-., his Tactica, and 
bJBIB ! 9bfti.1 

* Abulpharaius, Huturia DymutLtr. 
p. 24»i niacin, Uidoria ■- 
ML lib. ii. p. 139. liarthol. ilerbelot, 
BifJioUi. Orientai<; article, Mam 


* See Lao KiriemaaSf Trad. tU Mitt 

PkUomwkk Arabia** , n pabfidnd 

br Jo. Alb J'wlk. 

i H. I.] 



WG must not take :ill tliat tin- modem Saraeenie historians 
ti 11 us, of the merits nnd endowments of these men, fa the 
most literal sense \ From t he Arabians, the christians after- 
1 fa the WBtonw For all the knowledge of 
mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy, propa- 
in Europe from the tenth century onward, was derived prin- 
cipally from the schools and the books of the Arabians in Italy 
\n<l In DOS, the Saracens may, in some measure, 
be considered as the restorers of learning in Em 

§ 4. In the part of I uhject to the Kranes, C7 

, while he lived, cherished and honoured learning of all 
irnestness. If 1 i B0XB ha<! foUl 

him with equal strides, or been capable of doing so, ignorance 
and barbarian would have D8BD expelled. Indeed, his example 

in some degree, imitated. Ztowu the Meek, oopying 
hfe lath t. devised and an sated sew caJ proj< eta, Buiti d to pro- 

DlOte and advance the useful arts and sciences*. His son. 
' .< the r.alil. went beyond bit father iii this matter: for 
this emperoi was a great patron of learning and learned men ; 
he invited men of erudition to his court from all quarters; 
tool delight in their 6 larged the Behoofa and 

made them respectable, and cherished in particular the Pala- 

or eonrt school 7 . In Italy* his brother, the emperor 

n a.d. 823, laboured to restore ill fallen 

and pro.-; i of learning* and founded schools in eight 

• | In the atMrtruAc acience*, 1 1 » • ■;. 
are wid to hare be I yivts, 
nr ratli'i- i 

and l ricuLirly fnun 

■ Avi- 

., nrhoM Canon, or ayatein of 

phyaie, wu classic i< ipeen 

ii .ilftchoobsnoUte aatheHixti-enth 

my, wc are told, advanced n 

bal ii to ba found 
in (iftti-n and uthrrs. I roomy 

wo« more p . or dirina- 

ti'-ll ll"iil tm atafl 

hengtitk. vol. xj 
270—202. Jr.] 

* B it la 

hi. iv. p, fiKi, Ac. [The 
inufd in li 
umli i many 
Mil ri. l WCT" ii ' -taM.-ln I. "r in 

n which the science* 
until .1. I I 
(in tlarduin 1 251. 

'.) may be ■ inm* thin 

emperor was ol \ \ learaiftg 

there aaya to the Li- 1 • to 

tioa of whoo|« i lace* 

for the education of ehildivn nnd the 

foMin-rly promised u», and which we 

' has 
en done, must nut ba ni-^leeted 
1 '•ringiua, AntujuitaUi 

Case. Egam. Ue 
Bouhn. // 
ji. 178. J 

I>. xi. xii. p. 17, \, ,'/ 
/jiiit, v. p. 483. 


BOOK 111. — (KNTritV IX. 

[part II. 

of the principal cities', lint his efforts appear to ha\e had 
little effort ; far during this whole century. Italy scarcely pro- 
dueed a man of genius". In England, king Atfimd 
peat renown, by promoting Bad honouring literary enter- 
prise 1 . 

jj ">. Hut the infelicity of the times prevented these pi 
and efforts from imparting that prosperity to learning, which 
the rank and power of the noble actors might lead us to 
expeot In the first place, the wars that the sons of Lettis the 
Meek waged with their father, and afterwards hot ween them- 
selves, interrupted that prosperity in a considerable degree, in 
the countries subject to tin- Prone* In the next place, the 
incursions and victories of the Normans, which afflicted a large 
portion of Kurope during the whole century, were such an <>l. 
st ruction to tli progren of learning, tliat at tin dose «.f the 
century, in most of these countries, and even in France itself, 
few remained who deserved to be called learned men \ What 
little incoherent knowledge remained among the clergy, was 
chiefly confined to the episcopal and monastic schools. I Jut 
the more the priests and monks increased in wealth and 
riches, the less they attended to the cultivation of their minds. 

courajjed by hi* protection and Ubo- 

rality such of his own subjects as made 
any progress iu the liberal arts and 
in foreign 
a hi hi d ■ in-ii <>f distinguished tai 

a !i. hxi -I In :t Mananurj al Ox- 
ford, and of consequence may U- I 

'- the (bander "f that nobai uni- 
versity. Johannes Scotu-^ 
who DM bam i'l Iha - itarlca 

lil, and < Jrimbald, a muni; c.f St. 
n in France, wera "tin? moat 
famous of those learned man vbo 
came from abroad; Anertas, VI 
friJ, Plegmund, Dnnwulf, Wulfaig, anil 
•f St. Neot'n, deserve the 
first rank anion li literati, 

Coiner's EocMaitQal oIT i. 

book iii. p. 186, HSti, &.< 
ras, in the reign of tin -mo- 

* Servattis Lupun, fl)fanjftfj p. » ; !'. 

Pp, XXXiv. Ci.l. I 

p. 882. Pnamsj 

torn. iv. p. Kl, «\r. 

• See l»ia orilinanee, or Cnpitnltirf ; 
which in published by Muratori, Ha- 
rum HaUoat Nan* I pi 
1">| the satperar 

4 literature 
o-s * holly pajaBHatC in the Italian states; 
in consequence uf the n f the 

clergy ami the eh il officers ; that he 
liad t beban who 

should give in- the lilwraJ 

arte; and whom hi had directed to 
use all possible to educate 

the rising generation. He also man* 
lion*. ' ii which he had sta- 

tioned these teachers ; namely, l'avia, 
Ivrea, Turin, Cremona, Floi 
ino, Varona, Vioanaa, and ro 
Join, Of. the modern CSvSdad del Friuli. 

• See Mum i ttfllal ttal. 

. loin. iii. |>. fl2f>, A.C. 
1 Bm Ant. Wood, An- 

('■//. I ■ bj Ub, i. p. i:; 

. , HiMoria 
|>. 2 1 Land \ 'l>*t«r. 

Orb. tarn. i. article 234. 

f** T<i 

I II. I.] 



§ 0, And yet a large part Of this century Ml a ton e d with 
the examples and the bdMHm ■ who derived a literary 

spirit irlemayne and his institutions and laws. A 

these, in Germany and France, Babanus Maurus hold pechapa 
the first rank ; and to bin lectures, the studious yontfa 
in great numbers. As historians, and not wholly vritl 
merit, appeared Eg*nhara\ Freadphus, Thepauus, 1/aymo, 
Anastasiwt, Aifo, and others. In poetry. Ffonif, WdtsfriA 

'">, BerthariuSy Babanus, and others, distinguished I 
selves. In languages and philology, Bdfteawt, (who wrote 
cmoerning the causes anil origin of languiige 
•. 11 /ihar'xi,*, and others, possessed skill. Of It reck and 
Hebrew literature. Wiffiam, Servattu Lupus, John Scotus. and 
not ignorant. In eloquence, or the art of speak- 
ing and writing with elegance, Servatus Lupus, 1 
Agobard, Hincmar, and others, were pr<.tkieiiU\ 
$ 7. The philosophy and logic taught in the I 

ib, in this century, scarcely deserved the name. "Sit 
there were, in various places, and 66p •< -irdly among the Irish, 
BObtle and acute men, who might not improperly \m called phi- 
loeophea, At the head of these was. <viui* Scofus* 

he Irishman, a companion and friend of Churhs the Bald, 
a man of great and needing genina, and not a stranger to 

Grecian and Roman learning. Being acquainted with Grl 

ponndad ArvsUAh to his pupils; and aho philosophized, 
with great aculeness, without a guide. His live hooks on tit 
■■hi of .\'<t1»r> (■!(• Diviflione Nature) arc still extant; an 
ahstruse work, in which he traces the causes and origination of 
all things, in a style not disagreeable, and with DO ordinary 
aotll&an ; and in which he so explains the philosophy of Christ- 
ianity. H to make it the great aim of the whole svstein. to 
tfl of men into intimate union with the Supreme 

Being'. To ax preaa the tiling En words better understood, — he 

•Fin of \\\>-** remarkn 

nmy ' from the / 



pcclaJty front Le 

, in hi* .' 

Eertii pour te-rrir rVtrialrritament k 
I'/li/t >>,rs, tom. ii. p. I. \<\ 

i ! ' ■• na m'gmfir* propeth si iue 

(he luioii-rit name of that Idnj 
M*d ) 



was the first of those who united Scholastic theology with that 
which is called Mystic. Some have viewed him, as not very far 
from the opinion, which supposes God to be connected with 
nature, as the soul is with the body. But perhaps he advanced 
nothing but what the Realists, as they were called, afterwards 
taught; though he expressed his views with less clearness*. 
He did not, so far as I know, found a new sect. About the 
same time, one Macarius, also an Irishman, or Scot, dissemi- 
nated in France that error concerning the soul, which A ver- 
roes afterwards professed ; namely, that all men have one com- 
mon soul : an error which Ratram confuted *. Before these 
men, and in the times of Charlemagne and Lewis the Meek, 
Dungal, a Scot and a monk, taught philosophy and astronomy 
in France, with great reputation '. Nearly contemporary with 
him, was Heiric, or Heric, a monk of Auxerre, a very acute 
man, who is said to have pursued his investigations in the 
manner of Des Cartes*. 

* This book was published by Thomas 
Gale, Oxon. 1681. fol. Chr. Aug. Heu- 
mann made some extracts from it, and 
treated learnedly of Scotus himself, in 
the German Acta Philotophomm, torn, 
iii. p. 868, &c. 

See Jo. Mabillon, Pro?/, ad Scecul-. 
iv. pt. ii. Acta Sanctor. Ord. Bemdicti, 
§ 156, &c. p. liii. &c. 

7 Jl'utoire Littcraire de la France, 
torn. iv. p. 493. [But Muratori, Hie- 

tory of Italy, vol. iv. p. 611. German 
ed. and elsewhere, thinks this Dungal 
taught in Pa via, Italy, and not in the 
monastery of St. Denys, France. 2V.] 
• Lc Beuf, Mhnoirr* pour PJIiMoire 
(TAtur^rrf, torn. ii. p. 481. Ada Sanctor. 
torn. iv. m. Junii, ad diem 24. p. 829. 
et ad diem 31 Julii, p. 249. For this 
philosopher obtained a place among the 




S I. The live* of the clergy very corrupt. — {$ 2. Causes of this. — § 3. Tl 
mu < 4. Tlwir frauds for i^tahlbliingtlu'tr power : papeaa Joanna. 

— §6, 6. 1 i t the popes for the kings of France. — .- :>erora 

■offered their ri Juziou to Im: irratted Bran tlum. The 

power of ' ; xiletl. — §8. Document* forged bj the Roman pontiffs. 

Decretal KpiHtles. — § 1). Sueeew of these frauds. — 9 W. Monka | 
to courts, alii (•• «ii ii office*. — § II. Atu-inptn to reform (hair | • rod iijate Uvea. 
— § 12. Canon* and canonesse*.— § 13. The j>riiicifial CitviU writers.— § 14. 
The more distinguished Ij, 

§ 1. Tiik ungodly KfOS of ID08t Of those entrusted with the 
ritiv ;in<l government of tin* church, lira ■ suhject of complaint 
with all the ingenuous an<l writers of this Bg6 '• In t ho 

East, Sim rancour, contentions, fend bg 

oven ulu re predominant. At Constantinople, or New B 

those were elevated i<» tlio patriarchal chair who were ia favour 

- rt ; and upon losing that favour, a decree of tin* emperor 

hurled then) from their elevated station. In the VVeet, the 

biahopi bung around the oourhi of princea, and indulged thi*m- 

in ererj species of voluptuousness': while tin- inferior 

1 8ee Agobard, I Privibgiit 4 Jure 
I p. 187. ton i. "i i la 
Opp. ad. am 

* See Ai ■tim; and lawa 

far canons) • nacta '1 in tin 

St rvaiua Lupua, .' 
xxxv. p. 73. 281, and t ti. - annot 

;;i. I'll., i 
i ii», a. d. 8oO. canon 
aayH: ■ It is our opinion, that bi a hopi 
should Ik i-crau 

■mwj/!»; and sl:..i.|.! imi i .-uesta 

to aat and la di I 
ample* of 

to dilfaiH'l 

' no ludii-nnis 
allows, no vain garrulity, n 

a, ip; .<•■ iirriUniH tricks, then find 
a place.' 1 Han'-' 


fit 26. In a toil 
bishops ' 
hawks for hunting ; and ill. ir having 

i lluoua trains of hor»cs and mi 
and gnndy dresses, for vain dil] 
"f'li- • ■ -• unci! of Aix-la»Chanelle, a ■ n. 89&I 
fatal bib, liar- 

duin, I p, U09 

And i 

liat aonieof thek 

charges, and irav. II. •! hers and 
there, not from mioioail 
their avariei , or their 


that ! 

to the great Sflmdft] of th»- uiio> 
and tin*, notwithstanding l&S. attrmpt* 
of fro i neai to tv- 



[part II. 

clergy and the monks were sensual ; and by the grossest vices 
corrupted the people whom they were set to reform. The 
ignorance of the clergy in many places was so great, that few 
of them could read and write, and very few could express their 
thoughts with precision and clearness. Hence, whenever a 
letter was to be penned, or any thing of importance was to be 
committed to writing, recourse was generally had to some one 
individual, who was supposed to excel common men by pos- 
sessing some dexterity in such matters. The example of Ser- 
ratus Lupus is evidence of the fact *. 

§ 2. Various causes operated in Europe to produce and to 
foster this corruption of the persons who ought to have been 
examples to others. Among the principal ones, must be 
reckoned the calamities of the times, such as the perpetual 
wars Ixitween Lewis the Meek, and his sons and posterity, the 
incursions and ravages of the barbarous nations, the gross 
ignorance of the nobility, and the vast wealth that was 
jxissessed by the churches and monasteries. To these leading 
causes, others of less magnitude may be added. If a son of 
a high nobleman lacked energy and talent, an elevated place 
was sought for him among the rulers of the church 4 . The 
patrons of churches not wishing to have their vices exposed 
and reproved, gave the preference to weak and inefficient men, 

move the evil. Also, that presbyters 
turn bailiffs, frequent taverns, pursue 
filthy lucre, practise usury, Is'havo 
shn nu 'fully ami lewdly in the houses 
they visit, and do not blush to indulge 
in revelry and drunkenness, [hid. p. 
13U7- No. 7, 8. They say of the nun- 
neries, that u in some places they 
seemed to be rather brothels than 
monasteries'' — qu:e in quibusdam lneia 
fnj»ninrhi potins videntur ew»c, quam 
wnaa/ttTM. Ibid. p. 1398. No. 12. The 
council of Mayenee, a. n. 888, decn-cd: 
" That the clergy be wholly forbidden 
to have females resident in their houses. 
Tor, although there wen* rations al- 
lowing certain females [mothers and 
sisters] to reside in clergymen's houses, 
yet, what is greatly to be lamented, 
we have often hi-ard, that by such per- 
mission numer« xis U( »tn of wickedness 
have Wen committed ; mo that some 

priests, cohabiting with their own lis- 
ten*, have had children by them. (Stepe 
audivimus, per illam concessionem plu- 
rima scelcrn esse commissa, ita ut qui- 
dam sacerdotum cum propriis sororibtui 
concuml >en tes, Alios ex eis generassent.) 
Aud therefore this holy synod decrees, 
that no presbyter shall permit amy 
female to live with him in his house ; 
so that the occasion of evil reports, 
or of iniquitous deeds, may be wholly 
removed." Ibid. vol. vi. p. 406. No. 
10. ?V.] 

s See his Works ; En. xcviii. xcix. 
p. 120. 148. 142; also his Lift. To 
these add, ltodolphi Bituricenaa Ca- 
I'Unlit ml i'temm mum; in Baiuze, 
Min-'ll'iitiu, torn. vi. p. 139, and p. 148. 

* Hinemar, Optu P<*terin* contra Gtt- 
lUfchnlcHM, cap. xxxvi. in his Opp. torn. 
i. p. 318. Servatus Lupus, Ej iitt. lxxix. 
p. 120. 



for ].:u minsters and guardians of the bouIs of mm J . The 
bithopfl Mid the heads of monasteries held much real estate or 
landed property by a feudal tenure; and, then fore, \vh i 
a war broke out. they were summoned to the field with the 
qOOti Of soldiers which they were hound to furnish to tin ir 
sovereigns*. Kin^s and princes, moreover, that, tliev might 
be able bo reward their .servant* and soldiers for their services, 
often seized upon consecrated property, and gave it to their 
ih'jM-udents; and the priests and monks, who had before been 
supported by it, t their wants, now betook them 

to every species of villany, and fraud, and Imposition '< 

§ 3. The Roman pontiffs wei I by the suffrages of 

the whole bodj of the clergy and people fat Home], but the 
emperors must approve of their appointment before tb'V were 
rated*. TL . extant an edict of Laris the 

Meek, dated a.i>. HI 7, in which this right of the emperors is 
relinquished, and power given to the Romans, DOi 
electing I pontitf. but of installing and consecrating him, with- 
out muting for the consent of the emperor": but eminent men 
have shown, by arguments entirely satisfactory, that this 
unit is n forgery 1 . Yet I readily ndmit, that after the 
' i the Hald, who obtained the imperial dignity 

1 Agobai 
tmrdotum, o»p. xi. in hi* Opp. torn i. p. 

n u ra tori, A *i i y/ . 
JtoJ. n. ii. |i. 446, &e. 

v i. p. 
587. f*» Frwww.AilJ'iiiivillii Hui.rvim 

mervioe «u not aJwaya required ftw 

- <-\prcaaly 
ynui liu 
Ion. I. r. Tr. | 

' A| ■<*. TiT»fK /. 

nut. £ 14. I»j.|». tr,m. x. p. 27U. Fin 

dnanJ, //.. WUi wifc, Mb. iii. 

cap. ix. Servatu- L Kv 

p. 87- 437, Ac. but e*pw.'ui I h , Lurt. 

■ M* t*t. *t mom tArw 

ronton) provailt-d alao anions the (ireck* 
and th« I^nnK. 

i, Orient Chritlia***, torn. i. \> 

• Sv ion '•• I'iinau, 27m- 
toria Imperii German, tora. iii. p. 28, 
fee. 32, A. o. 

• Hanhii !23f». 
Car. '- 'i.r AVix- 

niit. 1117. 8 6. B.' 
t'.t ,->■■■ m Fntitcor. vena. 


1 MuraUin. / Umpire mr 


. that thin 
doc ument «u forced in the nlwrenlli 

century ' ' nam, 

•i p, :U. An-1 1 ; >pi»(h 

writf! Ikix. 

1 miiiiiii.iI up In r/| iii 

fan*, ad aim 817. N 




I»\ t ho good offices of the Unman pontiff, the state of things 
was materially changed, and tin- consent off the cm[>erore was 
not asked by the RflUMllM It is at the same time true h 
a question, that from the time of Eupene III. 1 , who \wi» \ I 
in St. Peter's chair, .\.n. 884, the election of a pontiff was 
ixarlv destitute of any rule or order, ami for tile most part 
tumultuous; and this irregularity did not cease until tho times 
Of Otto the Qt 

§ i. Feu of those who, in this century-, won- raised to the 
highest station in the church, can he commenced for their 

wisdom, learning, virtue, and other endonaenAi peoper for a 
bishop. The greater part of them, by their numerous vices, 
and all of them, by their arrogance and lust of power, en 
disgrace upon their DOi Jietween Lev IV., who died 

a. ii. 855, and Benedict III., a woman, who concealed her sex, 
and assumed the name of Jnhn, it is said, Opened her way t'» 
the pontifical throne by her learning and genius, ami govt 
the church for a time. She is commonly called the papesa 

SO. During the five subsequent centuries, the witnesses 
to this extraordinary event are without numher; nor did any 
one, prior to the reformation by Lutksr, regard the thing as 

r incredible, or disgraceful to the church*. Hut in the 
seventeenth century, 1- arm d men. not only among the Konmn 
catholics, hut others also, exerted all the powers of their i 
unity both to invalidate tin nv on uhicli the truth of 

tl»e story rests, and to confute it by an accurate compute 
of dates 4 . But there still are very learned men who, while 

: [Here is a mistake, ll was Ha- 
drian II 1. who became mm in the year 
884; and nut Emm III. mho was 
ry till a. D. 1145. 
fJH A'tJWM.] 

' The argument* of those who hold 
the story to be true, are carefully ami 
learni-ill* eoUeeted and stated by r'n .1. 
Spauheiin, in his Jiirrcil. dc / J «i/ i 
MM . Cm turn. ii. |>. 5"7- and Jae. 
Lcn/uut lias • &hibited1 thcin in a French 
translation, letter arranged, and with 
various additions, in a third ed. at the 
n.-u. , I7W, Una. 

4 Dm ui 

a pips**, after David 
II fc appropriate treatise, and 

some others, a re ingeniously sU' 
Peter llavli', I'ictionnaire, Una. iii. art. 

, p, IlOt, Sea also i--. Bo- 
".-asckr Oriemtal. MOh 
x\x. § 1 18, Ave. p. 4ft 
however, so far as we know, h; 
lowed the reasoning >•( I 
the subject. Mi«-ha» I Ifl Quien, Orisns 
ChrirtHinvM, torn. iii. |>. 777 
Lutheran church, llrumann, 

in his .S'y/Ayr L>i*t. ft 

1 h>< urgumenta on bott 

by Christopher Wagaariet: in J--. 

horn'* Am>rni>i>* yX. i. 

I' I (0. Ave, and by Jae. Uaauage, ll'a- 
t>«r* <lr VE-flue, loin. i. p. 40H. 




they eoncede that much falsehood is mixed with the truth, 
maintain that iioursy ifl not wholly Bottled. Some- 

thing inn arily have taken place at Rome, to giro rise 

to this moot uniform report of so many ftgOS; hut what it was 
that iieciirrcd, does not yet appear'. 

names of the O ther writer*, who arc 

vi rv tiimi. -nmn, may he uecn in Caap. 

tarius, Iidroitulio in Hut. EccUt. 

and in the 

iheca lirrmentit, torn. riii. pi. v. 


<kr*M*h. vol. xxii. p. 76—110. 

,■ • *•/,. vol. i< . p. 
-71 -7! i 

1 - 1'sul Sarpi, Ltttrre 

bexxii. p. 132. •/.«••. 
1 i miutiMi, i' 
p. 27. 

w-si*. (.mi. \iii. pt. v. ji. 93."j. CI 
M..1.I1. Pffcfi Mil, //.> 

I in- added 
Wen .mi ml many 

others. I »ill i 

of jndge in this controversy, \< i I am 
there was b n this 

affair that 

in modem times 

xdtni , and 

Pope Joan ha* 

i-rovcrtoial epithet, for a fic- 

. which is too ridiculous 

i ■ 

lassage in 
AnaatatMUit liildi 

itt Rome, and wrote the Litvt of 

/*/ /'.'/«*, is undoubted!) -purions. 

• ■t have written, 

" /,* aj eaiat tliat a female succeeded 

M had known it a 
nnr would In- li. urreiicy to 

I faUthood, had he km 

'lie passage is an Interpol;.' 

before any 

affirmed the (act. Hut from 

•rmation it wae 

general K I . . mi iv rW/y , 

a* L'i. Mosluiiu Intimates. 1*1 


a tamen et 

mi. Hi- oh 

• tinucit.-r MDJafe 

fere omnce affirmant.'" Thin surely in 
•no who does not 

question the truth of tin- story. 

j'lutina wrote before Luther waa I 

— Tli tin* fOpm in 1-rii-riy 

the twelfth 

and following oculUli H tlio 

liah mhamsiiii 

who I among lha 

newlj i m waa bona 

at Ingelhciin; and,a< ■■ 

d Joanna, \ . 

and Jutt. She early ili 

■elf for pnbui and love of lean 

passion for her, which wan mo 

I from bar parent*, disguised her 

uastery of 
l-'ulda. Not BatiaAad \» ith the restraints 

. aha and bar tone eloped again, 
went to I'.iijl.unl. and then to Prance, 

. and finally to Allien* in Gi 
when • d Ihanm hrea to lite- 

rary pursuit*. On flat death of the, 
ximnk, Joanna was inconsolall . 

• . and repaired to Et 
There she opened a school, and ac- 
quired «ueh reputation lot h-aming 
and feigned eanc -leath 

of Leo IV. a. ii. 855, she waa chosen 
pope. iliim; nMM than two 

years she fiUed the papal ehair with 
reputation, no one suspecting her 
Hut hIic liad taken otic of li.r Imuae- 
liold, whom *he eould tm 

rid by him she b uant. 


sin had Muppoocd. ah 

Wiiit in the iuiuiuiI 

-.ion wilh all her clerjr>. VYhdu 


id the Amphitheatre, 

to the r.i ''on I, anridal ili.- .-i-..\.l, and 
while her attendants were ei 

of a as died, i.n.l some 

■ay, tiie mother loo, on I 

ly to prison, I universal 


LOOK I 11.- 

i L'HY IX. 


$ & Great as the vices ami enormities of many of the pon- 
tiffs were, they .lid not prevent the growth of the |»ontifical 
power and influence, l>oth in chureh and state, during 
unhappy Hfim It does not, indeed, appear, from any authentic 
documents, that they acquired any new UffHoii^S in addition 
to those tluy had received from the Ixmnty of the French 
kiiiLTs. Par, what they tell DB of the donations of Laril the 
Meek, is destitute of probability ° : nor is there more certainty 
in what many .state, that Claris the Bald, in the year 875, 
when John VIII. had enabled him to gain the rank of emperor, 
relinquished all right and all jurisdiction over tin- rity Rome 
and its territory, and bestowed various other gifts, of HD1B8M8 
value, upon the pontiffs. Vet it must he obvious, t<i all who 
read the history of those times, that the Roman pontiffs ad- 
vanced in power, influence, wealth, and riches, from the age of 

Lewis the Meek ; and especially after the commencement of 
the reign viOkarltB the liald 7 . 

$ o'. Upon the decease of Ltwii II., [a. I), 875,] ■ \ioIent 
out among the descendants of 091 Btflh of 

them contending for the inqierial dignity. The Roman pontiff 
John VIII.. and with him tin- Italian prim 
this Opportunity, to exclude the Foice of all foreigners, and 
make the election of emperors depend wholly on them. Hence 
be Bald, the king of the Francs, by a vast amount of 
money and other presents, and by still greater promises, ob- 
tained from the Roman pontiff and the other Italian pril 
to be proclaimed king of Italy and einj>eror of the Romai 
a public assembly, a. n. B76\ His successors in the kingdom 
of Italy and in the imjierial dignity, Gariamm ami CioHa the 
Fat, were likewise chosen by the pontiff ami the Italian 
prinoee. After th. in. turbulent times came on, in which hhOBfl 
wli«> promised most, or who gave mo>t. gBAenDj .-. ■< ■> g •{>■,{ the 
royal and imperatorial throne, by the aid of the pontiffs*. 

$ 7. The power of the Roman pontiffs in matters of a reli- 
gions nature, was augmented with equal rapidity and .success; 

execration. See Bower and Plana*, 
t.tii. Jr.] 

' BBOMIj 1/iMor'ui flnj 

!"iu. ui. p. iii'2, \.\ .1... Geo. 

Ecoard, JliMvria FtancUt <>< 
torn. ii. lib. \v\i. p. BOA 
" Thin is illusd i < uoLBto- 

wril-i u .,11.1 Ilj.lliOl hibtur) . 


and nearly from the same causes. The wisest and most impar- 
tial among the Roman OafehoUc writer*, acknowledge and 
i."m;i< fan) rlh times of /.-"•/.< tlie Meek, the ancient 
-tical law in Km ope was _ 
ami a in-Nv system introduced, by the policy of the conH of 
Home. The kings and empezon anHexed then righi . i n mat- 

-»' religion, whieh had been handed down to them from 
C/hirhmMxgne, to be insensibly taken from them. The coin- 
pefa oca of l)is]uj|»s. to make regulations in mttttnffl of religion^ 
oed : and the authority of ecclesiastical councils was 
diminished. For the Roman pontiffs, exalting in their 
prosperity and the daily accessions to their wealth, endea- 
voured to instil into the minds of all, and they did. notwith- 
Uppoaition '»f the reflecting, and of tlmsc ac- 
quainted with the aucient ecclesiastical constitution, actually 
iy, the sentiment, thai the hishoji of Home was 
iruted. byJmus Christ, a legislator and ji the 

church; and, t that other bishops derived all 

faheir authority solely from him; and that councils could d 

nothing without his ifii nd approbation \ 

§ 8. To bring men to listen to. and receiv. v system 

of eccleaiastioa] law, which was 90 very different from the 
was need of ancient documents and 
>ls, with which it might he enforced and defended against 
the assaults of opposers. Hence the Roman pontiffs proc 
the forgery, by their trusty friends, of conventions, acts of 
councils, epistles, and other documents; by which tiny might 
make it appear, that from the earliest ages of the church, the 
Roman pontiffs possessed the same authority and po\>er, which 
they now claimed 1 . Among these fraudulent supports of the 

• Sec tho excellent work of an un- 

11 uril'T, who tiffU liiniw'lf D. D. 

entitl 'mot- 

tigat 1'nM'vjut. Krunptu ; first published, 

Lopdoo, 1 7-*7- - rob. 8vo, and 

udidly in a larger form. 

.uthur nearly and acu 

out tin* ■taps, by which Iha Roman 

i iU advanced" their power. < H the 

h century, he troatn in vol. i. p. 

ISO, *c. [Bower** Lit** of tin i 

»oL Iv. mild v.— G. J. Planck, «rtoA. #/. 

draft. K'trcM.Gr*ll*ekii,ft*-V<rftumiy l 
vol. ii. and iii. 3V. J 

1 It \h no improbable eup|">sition, 
lieae and utht-r documents, Mich 
aa ibe donations of Constant in 
Lew< with 

the privity and approbation of the Ho- 
man pontiffs. For, who cm 
that the pontiff*, who made use of 
thoae writings daring many agw* to 
aubfftanttat their 

prcrogativea, would lwve - 


IWMiK Ilf.- 

i n ii nv ix. 

! i-Airr ii. 

Romish power, the so called D> faAf of the pontiffs of 

the first centuries, bold |WI<H| W the first rank. They were 

produced by the ingenuity of u ohmm man, "ii<» E 

assumed the name of Isidore, a Spanish bdflhop \ Some 
gGB of these fnhrie;tte«l e]>istles appeared in 'ding 

century 3 ; but they were first published, and appealed to in 
support of the claim* of the Roman pontiffs, in this century 4 . 
Of similar origin and \alue are tin do O T OM of a Roman council, 
said to ha bold un-l> Jk) hut which 

was never known of by any DUB till the ninth century ; and, 
than widen nothing could r suited to enrich and to 

exalt above all human authority, the Roman pontiff*. 

confront kings, princes, ecclesiastical 
of private individuals I 

lit that «• til of 

tlir church, and re doomed 

lawful ; mo that it in not «tranL!f, that 
tin- Roman plMlift should Rip] 
they did DO mi. ml v.rviiL\ by permit- 
ting and approving the fabrication of 
I -A per* as would bv a rampart and 
bulwark to thi .»■•■ ■•» >!. 1' 

1 That the author of these Epistles 
wished to be regarded as UaOfl 
distingubdud Spanish bishop of 

sixth ciutiuv •, or, bo apeak mora defi- 

1 L. null. 

world- ht'lieve, (h:tt these Epistles were 
ted by uidova; i« punetlj 
Ifsrfl v. p. 561. Tb.l 

were aecustoiiied, in token of their 
humility, to subjoin t" tit- ir names the 
wonl peceatur faiaM bane tin 
■oAm forgery uiuiexed the 

surn.i' to the o^-- 

iiatiu- of I | the tran- 

scribers, igiioi-ant of the HI 
tOBU anil lii.ra'in., i..rni]i(. d tin* 

S'\nn:. ^ing PeeoBlor Av 

itor. And hence the fraudulent 
compiler of tin- IkmWdaL £j utla, is 

callfd Udann Moreejlor. 

' See Aug. Calinct. Jl'uri.nrr it l.<>r- 
, loin. i. p. 188, dust. I 
EMunar, J'raj. ad Nora** I 

(.'u sos. torn. i. p. x. \i\. I 
[ Floury nays of litem, that ■ they crept 
to li-ht mar the don of the • i^hfli 
Fl-uiy, i •■ /.Veto, 

diss. iv. ? I Tr.) 

« The H|)tirionKnrew of these Epistles 
has been demonstrated, not mily by 
the Ctyturiotorm Mtii/lrtmiy**rt and 
some others, but most learnedly and 

i appropriati 
Blonds]], in his Pmtda~fmdanu si 7*r- 
rianni rajmlant S28 4to. 

And. i ills of 

the Roman pontiffs, who follow reason 
and truth, i 
Fran. Buddeus, Itngogc in Tkeologiam, 

m p. 70S. I Constant, 

Pr«l*JVlH. (id EjlUtiJtU I'oHl'tfiCHlH. bom. 

i. p. exxx. &c. FUury, Diss, prd 
to his Hutinre Ecdbnuttiyv- 
[and Mill better, in lii-^ BUtoin Ea&b- 
sUuli<jHs t itself, livro xliv. § xxii. i 

: Ilia name* of varum* 
1C. .in j-.l : li-diojK*, from Clement I. i" 
pauuunis I. a. D. 384, are in the early 
collection of councils \>\ >-.\. r. Hm- 
nini ; but are not married in Hu 
liirimn M<i<jhum of, pubKahod 
by authority of the Homo, 

near the dose ol con 

tury. It is believed, tlicy are now 
universally riven ii| 
Catholics. The oldest papal Epi 
now admi' . to bfl bbi 

arc those collected by I 
guus ; who says he c*" no by 

ii i ill's anterior to Sjjn iahai 

earl i i '.' •'fhirimm .\fiu/unm, are 

those of Leo I., x. p. 447- />•] 

* See Jo. Lauuoy , • ' ' totis 

nrjn /'iiw/vtv* <i J/uvrn*, cap. L 
mrr. i. p. b70, of bis <'/■/• torn. 
I i i .. h i-..- .1.. Cnnaesut, A 
i&ctoiaW. p. 198, and 

CH. II.) « llllli II 01 FICEH8 AM) GOVKUNMIS I . 


§ !). There were, indeed, among the western Mrfinpl). 

: ni«u, who perceive*! tluit designs were formed 

against tilt-in ami (lie church: in particular, the French bishops 

nslv ..pposed the admission of these Bptstlofl, and other 

similar spurious productions, among the books of SCC la aa ati cal 

law. Hut these men were overcome by the pertinacity of the 

la pontiffs, especially by Ntooku I. And as all M 
and learning, in tlie following period, retired from the Roman 
World, then. 1 scarcely remained any one capahlc, or even dis- 
posal, to move controversy respecting fcl auds. 
I low g*est the evils to wliich they gave rise, and how auda- 
cious!) the Roman pontiffs abused th v.Tthrow the 

ancient system of church sorarnment, to weaken the authority 

-. to increase their own revenues and emoluments, 

and princes, number- 
less facta in the history of the subsequent centuries will show. 
Nor ■ this denied, at the present day, h\ reapOOJablo and 
boaeat nun. even though in other respects favourably disposed 
towards the llomish church and its sovereiqn \ 

sj 10, The estimation in which I DJUUastM life was In Id, was 

!. both in t lie* eastern empire and in the 

western. In the former, this oxeossi\ had long 

but among the Latins, it lakes date only from the 

iiuy. Si and dukes, and ooanta, 

abandoning their honours and their wealth, voluntarily retired 
lo monasteries, to de\ote tfc bhl service of ( lod, Of 

it. ail aim. 321. 6 xvii. x^iii. who 
do not hesitate to prououiu- 

ion. IKj 
' «* Jo. Launoy.-V. R#M Putntote 
'■ ' 
p. 7' ;| and itant, 

1 ■ -'avi ftnem 

wiftili iavi :i>'tuiticra «*cclo- 

I concilia, 

t u|>|K'llAtii' 
. \m> Ui««**. i' r 1 '<• 

Sticrniulii • ' 
p. Ma. } I- 

ti'Mtroruni ilynatiUa 

HortiHt jtu n <~Jal- 

lifajinrn, (VO.UC aein< 

, Ultruduci caMittOB «'Ht, i»- 
r«**j/i.> i mppatilmH 

■ Mi ./lititJit, 
i.nit '|ihiiu plui in 

i other 

CuuVi iuiiu>noc- 

III* lit <\ a .-.ill- 

■titul ■■• eliurch, 

of I In 

mv, it wm anil Ihfl oommeneen- 

ii wraa not MHDpl 
till after tli<- put 

txtn of Gml "lur>\ 


BOOK 11!.- 



this, quite a number of examples occurred in Italy. Kroner. 
Spain, ami troriuany. dming nn ; an<l there 

also in tin- preceding century. Those who, in their life- 
time, DOuld not bring themselves to the resolution of ahan 
ing society, would yet demand the monastic garb, when dying, 
and actually put it on, be: left the world; that th.-v 

might enjoy the prayers and spiritual succours of the frater- 
nity, imong whom they were received. Another and a striking 
proof of the high estimation in which monks were held, is the 
custom i>1" the emperors and kings of the Francs, in this age, 
of selling monks end abbots to their courts, and entri 
them with civil ;ill it s, end husiness of great moment, both at 
home and in foreign countries. For those unsuspicious princes 
thought, that no persons could more safely he entrusted with 
the management of public affairs, than men of such sanctity 
end piety men who had sulxlued all their natural desire 

•c from all concupiscence. Mence it is, that, in the 
history of fchB0B times, we read of so many ahhots and m 
who performed the functions of ambassadors, commissioners or 
extra* irdinary judges, and ministers of state, sometimes indeed 
with good but not. seldom unsuccessfully. 

$ 11. And yet those who conferred such honours upon 
monks and the monastic life, did not deny, that most of that 
liv< d vicious lives; and they laboured to reform tlnir 
morals, and rccal them to obedience to their monastic rules. 
The efforts of Lmoii the Meek especially, in this particular, 
deserve notice. That emperor employed Ibnsd'wt, abbot of 
Aniane, and afterwards of Indre, a man distinguished for piety 
and the fear of Ciod, to reform the monasteries, first in A qui* 
taine, and then throughout the kingdom of France, and to 
purge them of the enormous vices which had crept into them \ 
and afterward a | council [of abbots assembled] at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, A.. D. 817, in which the same Benedict presided, he 
caused good canons to be enacted, for restoring the prostate 
discipline of the monasteries. This Benfrfirf, therefore, who 
has been called the second father of the western monks, sub- 
monks to the single rule of St. fit naflft ■■( of Monte 
Qaaabo, .suppressing all diversities of rites and customs, and 
introducing one uniform rule: he also banished the greater 

CH. II.] rirriuii 0FFI0BE1 and uoykknmknt. 

vices from the monasteries; and ha brought all associations of 
monks, who had b P l>ound together by no ties, to be- 

in a sense one l>o<ly or soci<'t\ 7 . This ilisciplinr ilourished 
for a while ; luit from variolic 6MHGI it gradually deciiai I : and 
at the end of this century, men devastations had every when 

uade. both in church and state, that only some 6 
traces of it resumed in a few places. 

§ 12. The order of canons, which was devised by Chrod&- 
and had been extensively introduced in the preceding 
century. Leufd the Meek cherished with great care, and >'\ 
tended through all the e of his empire, Be viae added 

rides had be- iWll in the christian 

World till that time*. A rule for each of these, he ra.u.- 
be drawn up in the council of Aix-la-< 'hapelle, Superseding the 

rul of ('hrodUgang ; and fcheee new rolee continued to be f«'l- 

lowed in most of the convents of canons and canonists, till the 
twelfth century, although they wen disagreeable to the court 
of Bome. The compiler of the rule for AM B undouht- 

e<lly Amdhriut, a presbyter of Metz; but whether he also 
drew up that for ot lionesses, is uncertain 9 . From this time 

- .; Jo. Mai till "it. Art* Functor. 

I'xncdict. atv«u!. iv. j.j, i. pn 
xwii . j.(. x\v. 

also his AnnaUt • liened. torn. 

I.'H), ice. mi ilior places 

in ihui volume. Aaf. Gelmet, J/idoir* 

generally, see the Acta Saactor. 

I - r . p. VA»i. and Jlu-t'ur. Lift 

■«<*, torn. iv. p. 4-17. &c. 

[Also, the Life of It. Ardo, 

one of hi.- > ii Maliillun,v/^i» 

&am<: pt, i. 

. p, 161 II&- Tl.w l'»nedict 

\tt 03 liavi- beYB a very mil. 

, und u great i if the 

monasteries ; that is, one who brought 

to greats I y in dress, 

, worship, and usages. Ho was 

hbnoajf most rigorous in voluntary 

01 ; and I he rule of St. D#* 

ncLtl. U if it luul come 

-I, and was the 

»2«, ice. 
9 Lud. Thomaasin, lh**pti* 

!"<<•# ft Nor/i, \>\. i. lih. iii. cap. 
42, 4:; tfaxaftoci, Aniiq\ 

v. p. Ift5 
&c. and all <> e*bo treat I I 

all of eq^ual value. The 1. u>t worthy 
of credit are, tltowe who bdougilf 
themselves to the order of eafl 
liave tr.-ar.-'i of the origin and progress 
of that order; as «. ./. ltuynmml Chap- 
I, JJ'utvirr dt* LXmoitK*, Paris, 
10!W. Hvo. For these writers are su 
attach. < I to Mm order, I -.uallv 

trace its origin back to Christ hn 
and his Apostle*, or at least loth 
ages of tli [ This 

ones of Lewi-, fur regwatfn 
of canons, is in Harduin'a Cun- 
rilui, kaa. iv. j». 105ft— I 1K». The 
followiii' abstract, by Seal 
taint* its most essential features. — M 1 1 
contains 145 article* ; ■ ■!' wUcal the 
M n« extracts from the 
fathers and Acta of council*, describing 
■ ■! hi»-ho|» and pricata. Theae 
are followed by two w-rmonaof Augus- 

im lit ■ 

eoniio in ■■■ Mo rule* framed by this 





onward, numerous convents of canons and canonosses wore 
founded in everv part of Europe, and endowed with ample re- 
venues, bj pious individuals. Hut this institution, like the 
Others, degenerated, and very soon became widely dit : 
from what it was designed to be \ 

§ 13, Of the writers among tin- (foots, the following were 
the most distinguished. Photim, patriarch of Ooosteatui 

a man of superior talents, and of various and extensive know- 
ledge. His H'xbUuihvca \ Kpistles, and other writings, at 

1. First, l hi- i i rror, 

that the prescript!' na of the Gospel 

I and 
ukuVJUM ii, i- OOnfated ; ami then the 

n monk* and canons 
may wear Ii 
eat He*li. bold private property, and 
enjoy ihnt of Hb< UN former 

cannot. Yet, equally with the m 

, and prac- 
tise rt y should I 
secured cJoi Mining dor 
rive, refectories, and ->sary 
apartmente, i <>f canons 

in eaehcloinfer. *h-iul.l !>.• proporti 

to ill It, to 

which it I iirww, 

-Ituul'l ■void th<- extravagances of 

ornament end finery, and likewise, un- 

eJsaolfnaai and nesSceBae, &.c. The 

second part of the rule relates to 
canontmes, and i 

articles. The six first are extracts 
from the fathers, and rnWffl t« 
duties of ladies who consecrate 

9od. They may have private 
property ; yet munt eomout tin- manage- 
Tn. -it! i-man or It 

by a poblie act or —ngjiTiiuiiL 3 

may M0O have waiting-maids, and est 
in i'ii v, and sleep in the 

dornritonr. Tiny are tn l»- reifc 
t<. <In as in black. Their bneineai n 
}«■ m tag, and labonrlngwUfa 

their handa: and espc 
fabricate their own clo 
flax and wool given to them." 7V.] 

1 Cl -ire oV Lorrainr, torn. 

i- p. B01. H- ' '<■ lo 

:. iv. p. 630, Ac. 

• See Cainuani, Hatpin da Jour- 

Una. i. p. »"• &e. [Ph. .tins was 

of noblo parentag .and 

5 be greatest c. 

Inly was a great scholar. 

While in civil life h d al) 

learning, sacred and profane, B 
commander of the imperial body gut 
lir^t eanatoT i>t I nople, and 

private secretar;. 
Ii>- nas also employed on embassies. 
Daring a Syrian embassy he 
famous, or Mepi6/3i/JAo»», 
.; a critical account of 280 authors, 

which It- had r»ad, and fn ijtunllv also 

■h A -- . • their eoBk sts, •> nit • ■•■i\ 
rabla extracts. As mam of these 
authors arc no k be ac- 

count of them by Phol stehr 

i the year R5fl, the .. ih|m n-r 
Mirhael III. dupcaud Ignatius, the 
patriarch of Constantinople; anil I 
tiua was ordained, nub-deacon, deacon, 
priest, and patriareh. i -*ive 

days. The friends of Ignatius, and 
the biahopt) of Koine, refused to ac- 
knowledge Photiu* i 
patriarch. Vet he held the office, till 
a. n. IMI7 ; when, having off 

• ■r, he was deposed, ami I gi 
was reatoretl. B rf in the year H77, 
Ignatiua died, ami Pbotini agafa 

n. B8G, when the new 
n the l'hilo^.pher, deposed 
and kmi-dud him B Ar- 

menia, where he died alHiut \. n. Hi*.), 
The "f l'hotiu 

Lat. with the notes of Ha-sohcliu- , 
v. rv t;Mi it ;. I :ttin by Sohott,) was first 
]>ti I'lir-1 ii,l 1001, tol. and has been 
several times reprinted. A bettered!* 
tiou was promised in the la*t century. 
but not produced. Hi* Kjn-'.lt -, to 
the nuraliernf *J40, wi I 
and bat., by R. I 

fob His iVcmoOiNoa, or collection of 
eeeL canons, embracing alv. Tttoli, 
with the Commentary of Theod. ltol- 
samon, «w put 
by both the Just'dl's ; tin laat to In 



highly valuable. — Nicphon^ also patriarch of Constantinople, 
wliu wiutc Bgaonefl the oppoaera of images, and some other 
flonis 6k tikewiae indebted to the oontro- 

respecting images, for the greater part of his rflfHl totJOT I 
MDOng those who have come after him \ Not much Del 
DOTS lamed were, Theodorwt i who suffered much in 

defence of brago-warship 1 ; M t t kodiu i, entitled flu Confessor, 

ieQ no penalties or pressure could induce him to abandon 
the defence of images'; Theodorm .!■'• Petrtu 

Bi}JuAk.Juri*Cn*nn. I'nn.s, 1863,(001. 

| • 
and tract-* have -i J ■ to H,-ht in dif- 


eommonUrics an scripture. Hit* large 

I, aiwl seven! nmalh-r v 
renuin Mill in MS. For anaccvn 

:■■ , in Fab 'ioti. 

i -ew. cm 

•i( s in wlii. 
wa» i< ii in 

• r .'hftpr.T. 77. | 

* See tin Mm*- 

lin. Norip- 

. -'in. ii. p. 2. Ai.e. j 

i.!n»j»li«, and in hiyh honour, 
1 fnmi the world, ami bea i 
niuiik. He was learned, devout, and 
exceedingly aealous for iraagt 
He wu made patriarch of ConMaiiti- 
niipli-, i. ii. tUt*} ; I. uI wan expelled hi* 
U tli.' «-iii|M'nir 
| ..-. .1 (o • I 

D 1128. 
ii a Ofmptmhotu //»•- 

: . i ii. 

ri it; tlir ' 

m». Ha also wrote a > 

among the Hebrews, (i reeks, Latins, 
Alc. and ■ Xrij ex of 

caniji' -i.isticul, and apocry- 

phal book - 

• r of lines (frige*) it eonl 

containing liis creed . -mall 

ill i ' -ii ■ • 

* [ I tet was born at 
Constantinople, a. d. ] u- a 

in 781, BO i 704) and 


hi- Minuu, II.- was zealous 

eren to madness, in fisVUllff of imagv- 
vranhip; ami for thirty yrsm II 
instigator of rebeUiuus, and the daunt- 
less leader of them (when nut of prin) 
against the goverument, which was 
0-vonuip. He died, 
». u. 820', aged I 

tracts on monkery, and unls, 

coup*--, an«l a v | '.iin- 

matorv letters, in defence of image- 
worship, rnnut of vbidb, >>i aj least 
parts of t)> > his has ins 

1 1 a « M a man of soma 
learning and tain 

strength on the oOBXta - tim* 

images. 77.] 

■rus Graptus was a monk 
of Palestine, w.-ut to Constant inn |>1>-, 
a. i>. B mage- 

VOfShipj wai Ixinudn d 
I ii.-* abuse and others, and 

his seditious m-> u- of 


10. II. has l.-fi us a hispid'-, 
an Kpwtle, 

• [Motbodini Confessor was 

Constantinople, and there became a 
nmnk. About a. o. 820, the |«atriarch 

- ijt liim ;^ In-* i ii. i'_. to Rome. Hen 
be was guilty of adultery, and did 
penance. RetnraJngtoCoeasjurtii 
he became very zealous in defence of 
image- worship ; was banitdii d, and im- 
prisoned, i 

was made patriiir liuoph-. 

II- died A. B. 847: and has left us live 

. and 


Some of his orations have passed for 

work- I'atarcnsis, w ii» 

Hisirwdicd a. ft. £*). TV.] 

1 T -iwiin-, tOB 


rook Tu- 

rin l\. 

, [part II. 

In**; Nicrtas David*, nnd others; whose names would per- 
haps haw m»t ben bande d down bo \h\< day, had not the 
•molved in contests with tho tattinH, on several 
subjects, and among themselves, respecting iina^e- worship. — 
Amoqg the Syrians, the name of Moses Barcepha is fan 
and not undeservedly. For he possessed genius, and skill in 
writing, beyond most others ; as his works evince \ 

p. 36, &c. [The word Abucara sig- 

Ctartei Hi' f" 
tli" party of Photius; but afterwards 
renounced it, and joined that of Ig- 

natiiu*. According to Cave, he flou- 
rished a. i>. 809 He haa left us about 
forty Dissertations, doctrinal and po- 
. against heretics, Jews, and Mu- 
hammedaas; which were publiahed, 
Gr. and Lot. by Jae. Gretser, with the 
ItixUgtu of Anastasius, I ngolstadt, 1 tiiHi. 

• [Peter Siculus, (flourished a. d. 
392.) was a learned nobleman, whom 
the emperor Basil 1. sent to uegoriatc. 
an exchange of prisoners in Armenia. 
Tin-re he became acquainted with tho 
sect of the new Mauicluvans, or : 
liciana; the history of whin* origin, 
progress, and decline, he afterwards 
MttB I I I ir. and Lat. 
I ngolstadt, 1804. 4 to. and partially in 
Latin, by Baroniuis Annal. torn. ix. : 
and in the B'tUlJh. Pair. torn. xxii. 

• [Xirctas David, a learned budiop 
Of I'.iphlagonia, flourinhrd about x. n. 
#80, and wsh strongly attached to tho 
party of Ignatius; Vftoae DA he com- 
poscni, full of reproaches against Pli<»- 
tiuH. Be also wrote encomium* on 

apostles, and several i 

saintx; a d. ( of the synod of Dial - 

cedon, and a eonuneutary on some 
parts of Greg. Naz. His life • 
natius was published, Gr. and Lat. 
with the Acts of the eighth ftMnJ 
ilt, 1604. 4to; and in 
Harduin'H | om. v. p. «J44 — 


1 Jo*. Sim. Aasemao, BMiotiL Ori~ 
tma, torn. ii. p. 127, &0. 
[ HoMi Barcepha »»••• 

h-ltaman, and I of the 

churches in Babylonia. He probably 
flourished near the clone of thi» century ; 
iaya, about a. d. 1*90.— His 1 

', in a Latin transla- 
tion ton the Svriac,by Andr. Masius, 

were published, Antw. 1509. 8vo; and 
then in the IiUJ'nAh. Pair. torn. I 

The Greek writers omitted by Dr. 
Moaheim, are the following. 

\irepliorus,Chartophyhvx, who flou- 

i, perhaps a. n. 80 1, and wrote two 
Epistles to Theodosius, a monk of Co- 
rinth, containing solutions of several 
difficult ijULtitiona in ethics: cxtai 
and in the Jus dr. et Itowim. lib. 
v. p. Ml. and the fiib!u>(h 


■phtis, archbishop of Tin aw 
lonica, brother of Theodora* .St' 
and alao a zealot for image-worship. 
Hi w :ia deposed, a. d. 809, exiled, and 

Tier a. n. 816. Gretzer f •!<• Untee, 
torn. ii. p. 1100.) has published. 
and Lat., an Oration of his, on tho 
Exaltation d 0M Hi 
Baronius ( A***tf*, ad ami. 808. § 
•22. ) has given us an Epistle of his in 

. a grammarian and deacon 

inst.-iiitinop'e, and then metro- 
politan of Nice. He flourished \. i». 
810, and was alive a. p. 828. His life 
nf the patriarch Tu rati us is extant, 
Lat. ui BUJ Bolland on 

Ills life of the patriarch 
pboruM was published, <Jr. anil Lat. 
faf I Ictinchenma, and Papebrooh, on 
ftutb 19th. 
.Nituci-utius, a monk of Constant!- 
active in favour of image- 
worship, for winch he ww uftin 

prisoned. He flourished from *. n. 
813, till after a. d. 890. Se* i 

+**1 to him are ghan us by 
Baroniua; and a \er f hia, 

..ii teoounl ol tlic uHar* 
ingfl of the ima^c-worshippcra, 
serted, Latin, in the BtbUoA, P<**r. 
torn. xiv. p. 008. Ckvs 
torn, ii.) gives a specir 
but did uot deem it worth publishing 

Theophanes, the brother of Theodo- 



§ 1+. At the head of the L.tin writr-rs may justly be pi 

//• »■''</ mm STotimt, nfoae las* ofltoe -.n.i^ Uwfe of icoUnabQp ef 

run GrnptuK, (nee DAM *, p. 206.) and 
of the same rharart* . and 

V -t be became mctrojtolitan 
. i). 845. We have a 
llyn ' i me- 

mory of bis brodk -I by Com- 

!>. -••J J. 

!uh, leader of the choir 
at Con U-, a zealot for im&ge- 

oise he aufl'civd 
niurh. II. ! ■hoof a. n. 830; 

ami wroii- an RoeoatiUDOfl 9i D6 
Arenp. ivlii.-li i-, estftnt, (Jr. and Lat. 
. DioMjfK. Arvop. torn. ii. p. 
307; also Encomium on the holy angels 
and areha I : extant, (Jr. and 

Lat. in Cotubefis, Auctuar. Nov, torn. 
i. p. 158ft. 

lamartolus, an Archiman- 
l. 842, 
ami v ,'«\>n from ll 

': MS. 

From it t "^i«t«, 

. <tc. 

DOOM all that is valuald-. 

Ignat!UM,«on ••! ror Michael 

rur.j.aliitu. castrated ami banished by 

Loo tlif Armenian, lived a im-nl; about 

thirty year*, Man made patriarch of 

Constantinople x. n. 847, quarrelled 

with I'.anb, and was nafloiod ami 

had ».i>. 86& In the year 807. 

I * 1 1 • ■ * v, mi deposed) 

ami -tored. lie died in 

87*1 aged 00 years. Two letters and 

me <if his are extant, I 
in II I n ilia, ("in. v. i. 701. 



108, 850, ami a. n. 087- 880. 

Bi was a strenuous opposer "f 1 'In>- 

tius, and roac a* Ik- It II. lit- ha* left 

an a letter, giving i: ry of 

870 1 which 

m%Ut, al nun. 8;'). ^ IM ; uih! • . 

Lat. ill i. v. p. 


.1 ill. M:if« douian, « ■ 

II- wrote 

i : ..;« ti. \\\\ Hfl I,ei>, kiiIih 

tloos, addressee, and cpistlns, still cv- 
lant j bentdea • li arc 


Michael PaeUoa, a pbiloa 
BomfcaWd a. i». 1*70, is supposed to have 

writt--- [eh go 

name of another Michael 
l'sellus that lived in the eleventh 

particularly a para phrase on in out 
tie, a Dialog) 
t 1 1 - - m]i. . m ■■ - • : <li moiiM, a trad 

bs -l. mons, &c. 

. surnaracd Mapa, u 
politan of NYo-Cesann in tin 
vineia KuphmtenMis, who Buurlibed 
alnjut a. ii. 870. He «M a Mtmng par- 
tizan of Ignatius, in opposite 
tius ; lor which 1 a tempo- 

rary depmatii'ii of hL« mt. He has 
left n two Epistles, Gr. and Lat. in 
liarduiu'K (Vmci/io, toin. v. p. 11 '»2. 

Uih (0 the 

• ivh Iguatiurt; flourished a. D. 878; 
and wrote an Eucomium oi 

cilia, torn. v. p. 1000; and a Ufa -if 
ran which Haro- 
••'$, has made various 

• liartophylax of the great 

OoDHBltaflpIo, and arch- 

. 880, 

11 •■ w aa a warm friend 

ral oration BSOf hi*, in 

Cise of saints, are extant, Gr. and 
\i% Auditor. A*or. Paris, 

Leo the PhOfli •! flu ■]•. Greek emperor 
fn.m a. n. 88li tu a. i». 911. II 
left us sixteen sacred orations; some 
letters and tract*; wp6\tipor vu/iwic, 
sive IkirtitU Lxfutti. in I 

huge digest of the la» < i the G 
4'iupirc, published, Pari-. I'll?- Or. and 

■ ■■* III.; and Taetiat, *-a tie. IU 
Mi/ltiiri '/pun. 

•laus, nurnamee , pa- 

triarch ol 

802 to a. D. 003, when he was itfund 
.•mil baiuabi <\ for opjn 

of tb< empress, and fi" mazriagt of 

n :MI be was real 

Ihrnd tfll Ml He hm left us 


iincils, or in Ilnmuiu*' Ammiit. 

HOUK I f I .— 


[part II. 

Monti. He WSJ the cimimnn preceptor of ■ and 

Franco; with whom no OOfl in tins century can Ik* compared, 
other for (renin* or extent of learning, or tin* multitude of 
books he composed. Whoever acquaints himself with the 
opinions of Babanufl Maurua, learns all that the best of the 
I ji tins thought and believed for about four centuries: for his 
writings were in the hands of all the learned 3 . AgobardtA 
B, a man of character and discernment, and not destitute 
of learning, would have deserted more commendation, if li 

not been a defender of the rebellion of the sous of LewU the 
M'rk igainst their own father'. HUduin obtained notoriety 

* See the Attn Sane* or. torn. i. 
DO. llmcnrt LiUtmii 
PVwMSj t.i.i v. |». IM. [Al*o, 

lon, Acta iSiw^' I -rdid. torn. 

ibanuR, or llrui 
suraained Maum*, was of I' ex- 
tract, and Imro nf nwpfciahlu parent- 
al Miiv.-n.-.-, i, i.. 77*;. Ho Mb* 
i first m Ful-la, whi-rt' he was marie 
rlL-aciifi in 801. Tin- oaxl var be rv- 
iii' \t-d to Tours, to study under the 
famouH Atruin. Aft**r MM 09P two 
years, he returned to Fulda, and was 
made head of the school there, at the 
age of twenty-fire. As an Instructor, 
ho wan so celebrated an to draw young 
men of talents from a great distance. 
Among hia pupil* wore, Walafrid 
Strabn, S-rvntu* Lupus, and others 
who won.- among the first scholars of 
their ago. B - -.. bt was 

DBldl ibbOl Of Kulda ; in which office 
he was for a lime popular; but at 
mania ootnphuoedj thai ha 
was so engaged in writing books, as to 
neglect h» active duties. He now re- 
signed his abbacy, and retired to a 
lit. ran KCa. TliLs was in JU2. Fife 
years after, he was made archbishop 
of Maypniw ; in which ofllee be ream* 
I till hi* death, *. n. U-"«7- — Hb 
wrote cnininentaries on all the canoni- 
cal hooks, and sercral of the apoery- 
£hal ; abo sorroona, letters, and tracts, 
lost of hia works, a* published, are 
comprised in six vols. r-*l t- ». Com 
1627- 7>-l— In bis / 
lished at IngolstA-It. bg 1*. rStcuart. in 
ii torn. Inri<r*i*tn AiKtomm tarn 
(fnaeonm qttam Latimtn-mm, is a muti- 
lated but most decisive testimony 
strain** transohRtantinii M it men- 

tions an idintifi.^ition of tlio aacra- 
mental dements with 
body <ind bloody bom of 

thing tln-n is kwt ; but he goes i 
say,'' or, in far m m 

writimj !<• abbot I 

trnli) In ir Itli' •torif. 

When transubstantiutioii was making 
its way lo genera] belief, a wito 

importance, branding it wit] 
\.'lt\ ami error, naturally became ob- 
noxious: and v. tfahnabory, 
in a li lented by Henry 
VI. to All 

BMaTtad then*, OttMJa Italian 
for attributing to the .Miehari*-' 
inialitie* of ordinary (bod 
Editor's Bamrdon Ltttvr*. 414. 41?. 

1 tolonia, Uutoitv Litttr. ,1 
d( Lyim, torn. ii. p. 9S. A'uveMM . 

i. p. 
l~H. f]vt»ir. /, 
lorn. iv. p. .">»;7. A-c. I 

. jubard was 
a Franc, called from Spain to be cuad- 

• i' Leidrad, 
a. n. 813, whom he afterwards 
ceeded. He was a man of an anient 
iiidcjM hd.-nt nn nlDg 

and wflexibility. He attacked the au- 
p. ■petition*, of ilie ng<\ ho far as he i 

d tht'in, with iHildnesa; wa> 
zeoloua against the Jewaj to whin 
French kings were disposed to grant 
privilege* ; ami Ulldllg 
thain- mid I'ipin against their father 
Lewi* the U ut so Car, that 

on a reconciliation bctw i 
reigns, he was deprived of his bishop- 
ric. However, be was restored, and 



by his work entitled Areopagitica*. K abbot ol 

genstadt, the celebrated author of the life of Charlemagne and 
of other works, \% n^ distinguished tor the neatness of his style, 

■fid Wafl DOS destitute of other excellences \ Claudia* of 
Turin is in reputation at this day, for hi* exposition of certain 
books of scripture, and for his Qhr tmology 6 . Freculphm of 

held hi* office till his death in «■!(». 
lie si wrote 

■gainst image-worship, against the 
trial by ordeal, and sgs ImUef 

that evil spirit* can produce storm* 
and hail and thuniler ; ami when iwme 
n arraigned be- 
HM him. he cau»ed them to he whip- 
ped, till they OOfdbmed that th. | 
eeived the people, in tin a 

livelihood. Ht-> works were Hrst pub- 
hed by Mniwon, Pari*, 1(KI.*>. fl 
mack bettor, U> 
bote of LtJtJTld his predecease! . 
Amnio ii Ba- 

bue, Paris, 1069. I veto. ftro. IV.] 

« HiMoir 
torn, iv p. <;«•; ktHa 

LlUmrui, torn. ii. — Hilduin wan made 
abbot of Bl i bout a. n. HU, 

near Pat I 
Jilt;; ;il-.. ar'"-h-«-li.ipl;tiri >-\ 1 1 1 • - pa] 

; in great favour with I 

the M I the rebellion of 

and bantobad to * orbaj in Bi 

a. o. I 898 •xm after ho «■ 

1 to his Parisian 

:» full bin 
l»itMi\«iiis, the found- 
bit monastery, and the reputed first 
bill»B of Tan ildutn exe- 

cuted in bis rami 1 1.- 

loan Lreopnglte, 

L 84, after being 
btoboa "f A tin- ii--, t>i lm\i travelled to 
% and at last to 
Pari*, where he founded the luonas* 
Dcnys (Dionysuis), convert- 
ed vaat numbers, was bishop of that 
region, and at length suffered martyr- 
in the reign of Dm i 
-iIbo, he ii the works 

that go under the name of Dionyaius 
Thia ia his famous 
Annpthfitica, a mere bu 
talcs, once indeed general) 
but m* uaiveraaUy rejected. IV.] 
1 Ilittoity L'xHirairt >it la Frame, 
vol.. n 

iv. p. f>. r »0 ; and hi* Lif' of 

(%irlrmaaue % as pobltshed by B 
[See shove, p, Low. do 

* >■ 
Biblktkhj* -.mi. 

894 [Claudius was a native of 
. and edueated under Pettx of 
In BIS "i 818, la- beeex 

oed writing b 

In BSI. I liiill 

bbhop uf Turin, He immediate! . 
himself against all iin. and 

tures, and image*, throughout Iim dio- 

eeee. Thin 

and him in y all 

his lif.-. V'-t be | 

image-worship u : hat 

i Ik hon-iiir. ■■!, il 
proved of pilgrimages 

emacy of the pope, eae, 1 It 
some have considered him as a great 
reformer, and SJ 
sect of the Waldense*. Hi 
opposed some of the snpei 
the b p 

preserve more inospimdai 

pope, and greater purity of doctrine 
and worship in flu Alpine SOUnl 
than in most other parts of Europe. 
The catholics have never been jiartial 
to him. Indeed, they tax him with 
great errors. Yet he wan m-rer ar- 
raigned aa a heretic; nor removed 
from his bishotn ii 
*. t.. JEW. 

epistle to the GaUtiana, is i 
Iwtk, Pair. torn. xiv. p. 114. His other 
commentaries, though not in 
haps to those of Kabanua, still 
.Ms. I'n'bably, they 

for it app< mein- 

and presbyters. He wrote on Geuesia 
three booka ; on Kx 

m the Gospel ol 
thew ; on the other epistles of Paul ; 


book in. — CF.NTrm 

[part a, 

n, whose t is still extant, compiled almost 

entirely in (lie very words of the MKBBnt writers'. Senates 
Lupus, whose Epistles and tracts art- still < xtant, ranks among 
the ino6t agreeaHe writers of those times ; nor was he so much 
lacking in suhtilty as in elegance and extent of learning'. 
Drtpanius Fforus, called also Florus Magister> has left us 
Poems, Kxpusitious of some hooks of scripture, and a lew 

writing- UfNM DmtktMf expounded the (■ 

of St. Matthew 1 . Godtschatrus, a monk of Orb.i lered 

a short *• hrouology ; and 

0O tin- worship of images and 

stunts, which ■! large 

EngVfc l by his antagonists. 

am Hut. LUmir'M: Fleury, 

I f'ufui r* iWUn*ut'mH< i, liv. xhii. cap. 

JO, _'» ._,V-7<. M.l. 

p. ail. 407. && ind Milncr*s 
( Ai/r.A 7/ id. cent, ix. ch. iii. IV. \ 

' [Frecalphoa was a Benedictine 
monk <»l I'nlilii, and was made liMeTD 
lieforc a. o. 824. Lewis the Mai I 
him as an envoy to the pope, a. d. 029. 
Ho was present iu various ••"">■' 
a. i>. 820, 83fi, 837, 840, and 849 : and 

BfiO, His • 
in tw. Ive boOBl ; tlu' seven first ex- 
1 ation to the christian 
'Jicr live reach to *. i>. 608. 
Tlw- work was put' 
1539. fol. Hetdclb. 1J97. 8vo. and in 
the Hibtiulk. Pair. torn. xiv. p. 1061. 


■ H'utoirt Litttniire A* la France, 
torn. v. p. 25"» *urnamed 

I tine 
mank.of Kvrrora. From about a.d. 
828, hi in mi .i^'lit years at Fulda, 
P Rahanus ; tin lie at 

ostadt, with Eginhard. II. next 
went to court, and in 842 was made 
■1,1m ' u lb- *•** hi Mcvfral 

councils, and once envoy to Rome, 
His death was after ». n. 881. He 
wrot< I ,'Jtu (fruxst'iOfiVms ; as. 

free-will, pi the super- 

abundance of '•• merits ; also a 

1 the same nubj 
Um life of St. Wigberl 

at; and 130 Lpistloa; 
all well edit d bj 8. Balti 
1004, Bra, and then in tb 
J'nir. Una, xiv. p. 1. — Dr. 
account of his style seems not very 

consistent. Lupus wrote in an easy, 

flowing style, tolerably chaMr BjK that 

bid not 1 -TV vigorous, nor very 

1 if, yet on agreeable. 


• Colonin . /-_**», 
t"in. ii. p. 13.' 

Fnuuf, torn. ▼. p. US, Sea, | Floras 
was ;i lunvh at Lyona, 

and flourished about a. d. 833 
was a writer as late an a. ». 852. Ilia 

ii >, imi nil th»- 1 
Fuu I, are printed as the ■on of Heda. 
They area oompilatioi : rian, 

llilarv, Ambrose, and about nine other 
ra. He also vmtc on Ota caaoa 
<>f the mass; on using compuhdon 

fowo ; on the election and duties 
bishop ; a commentary on the 
1 'na It us ; three books on predestination, 
against John Scot us : para- 

phrases of some Paaluis. Hymn* 
Epistles ; and five other poems. Some 
of these are published, in tl 

bun. \iii- nuil xv. Mob 
Awiltct. torn. iv. l> •«^y. 

torn. xiL Mau^i a OratitMf 

fca. 'Hi. rest were norer 

1. 7>.| 

• Uktoirt Litter, d* la Fmnot, lam. 

\. \>. 84. [Druthmar was a Ft 
BtnedielnM naooh of Qorbey, and 
flourished about a. d. 840. His com- 
mentary on Mattlu M is ao oppos* 
the doctrine of transubstantiatioii . 
Um friends of UuU 
laboured hard, to prove the work cor- 
the LtttOBBUa ; but in vain, 

hBshedjbefae Lathee 

1 flu- \eer 

l.'l I, by K'hu. Albertin. It is uow in 

frwwi, totn. xv. p. 88. 

See Cave, f/Ut.iria Liter. t«ni. ii. Tr.) 

• II. II.) 



immortal by the iXMltroVtEBfli respecting divine grace and pre- 
destiimlimi. GO whieh he gSJ8 rise'-. f itM ////./A 

man of fame iu the com - raspecttng the Lord"* tipper, 

R us, besides other works, a book OB that subject, wind) 
afforded matter for a long debate in that age \ ■■>, or 

/i'ldi-timn, a monk of CorW'Y, was the principal antagonist of 
HadfxiTi II i the Lord's supper, drawn up l»y Otto 

>rles the JJald, occasioned likewise much ilel>ate anxffig 
the learned', ffaymo of Halhcrstadt wrote Ixioks of various 

• [Godcscluilrus, or Gottcschulru , 
was of Sa •.■•>> 

in tite monastery of Fulda. Vr*bn 

arrived at manhood, he wished SO 

longer to lead a mona-sti •• life ; but wm 

i 'il.-.l t«> it, on tli-- grand 0m 

father had devoted him to sueli ■ life 
I, and that no human 
power could vacate tbo transa 
He now removed to Orhaie, waa or- 
dainrd a presbvtor, and waa so distin- 
guished an a scholar, that ho was sur- 
namcHl Fulgent iun. l'|K»n some 
affection between him and the ftWwp 
of the diocese, he travelled to Italy, 
and theucc to Dalniatia and Pannonia. 
AuzuMine was hie favourite nu 
and be now began to advance the 
opinions of Auguatino respecting divm.. 
grace, and a two-fold predestination. 
Many favoured thoae views : l>ut BNN 
The synod of 
Mayenre, a. D. H 17- I hia 

atmtiii :lic]>ntddent, Rnlianus 

iiar, oreh- 

bolonged. The 1 tf ar- 

■■' i bflfim the ay nod of Chicrsey, 
ihut up by 
monastery of Haute- 
I wenty-ono years' con- 
finetii'iii, flfd m pHno. Hi per- 
seve r e d to tin- last in hi* opinions, and 
waa denied ehriatian burial. He wrote 
two statementa of hi* faith, a longer 
and a shorter : both of which are 
extant. In one of then he offer 

1 hi- doctrine on the 
■fee wroi. .1 I. tier at 
and a tract, OB pvadaatfn 

are lost. '- flidoria 

Litrr. Manguin, l">V 
• .iilr, iota, ii 

•hroeckh, Kirchnujatk. vol. 

xxiv. p. fi, ice. J. Mill.. 1 , Okmk U\d. 

XX. eh. iv. 

' [ Paaeliaains Radbert «M a French 

monk, born about ». r>. 7'WJ. In the 

:44, he became ablrot of Corlx-v 

in France. Ha wm 1 the 

synod of Chiersey ; wh fined 

i>. 849: and died Apr. 
2tJ, A.n. 861. The Protestant* regard 
him an the man who 
doctrine of transubutuutiation into the 
ah church. Berengariua taxed 
him with thin ; and even Rellarmiu 
(.0 Sbfator. B&mmmX p. 288) says : 

MB auctor primus fuit, qui srrio «i 
oopioM terjpnt de veritate corporis ct 
sanguinis l)'-miiii iii Kucharistia. Rut 
Mabillon (Ada Sowior. Oni. />**/. 
torn. vi. DM B i\. \o.) i-n-li-nvi x 

rote expo- 
n of Mutt, i ■ book of 

Lamentations, of the 41th 
Rvrmnriito t'nrjxtris rt S>tiujuiui* I 


paHsiun of SS. Rutin rius : 

nil which were pubhal 
Paris, 1618. M. He also wrote the 
lif. of It Wain ; an. I PV- 

•jinis, liln'i ii. Blfl i .'a v.-, //.V. LMer. 
kd Mnbillon, A M Siincfor. 
Or*. B*n+i 1 H I H 7 • | 

• I "neerning both Radbert and Ra- 
fraiun, ace the Iliftoi h In, 

Front*, torn. v. p. 287 and 888. I 

tram, or Rat ram 

of olil (*orb«-v, ninl aftowwdf ablnil of 

Orliais. fie Aouriflhed as early as 840, 

ukl wm niill aHee in 87e. lie wm a 

' lost, and learned man : and 

Porta Vityin'w, proving that 

ivinnrwaa horn in the ordinary 

manner ; which Radbert anawerr»f, 

r e 


BOOK 111. < I NTtKV IX. 


sorts, which are Bpecuneaa rather of industry than of gi 
and learning B . Fl mi well of tip- church 

in that age, l»y liis \">,< in-, bifl UtW of Saints, ami his Bxpoai* 
(imi of difficult passages of scripture fl . Hiiirunir r»f Mum— 
deserves a very honourable place among the Latin writers of 
this century. EVlT his writings OH varim its show, that 

hi.s mind was not of the ordinary class, but elevated, indefM n- 
dent, and zealous for truth. But be at the same tim 
arrogant throw much 

light on both the civil and the ecclesiastical history of that age'. 

maintaining tin- |h -rpetual virginity of 

Mai •< fapJaoftilMM, libri ii. in 

vindication of the UUUtluieuftl of Gode- 
achaleus ; amlra Gnrcorttm Errort*, 
lihri ; '/tort et Sam). Ikmimi, 

in opposition to lladbert ; and de Anina 
Lilxr. Tr. — lib name neems really 
to have been Ilatramii. mid to have 
l>een eorruptcd into Bertram by join- 

■ it l>c, a contracti"]! 
Beotu$. His timet de Corpore et Sin- 
MMM fMmi*i y was first printed at either 
ne or Basic, iu 1532. It gave an 
imii . I tran- 

guhstantiation, and hawbftai represent- 
& (Ecolaxnpadius. This 
r, long been given up as 
utterly mat mists 

have endeavourinl to explain the piece 
in inch a manner as rather to make it 
appear unsl an. si, than sub- 

versive of their capital tcn.t. It has 

• •iifU imprlnllMl and trans- 
late.!. /•//.] 

1 t'f tin- works commonly ascribed 
to Haymo, a eimsidi'ruble part af 
htR, but the production* of KumigiuB 
of Auxerre. See Qeaimtr Oudin, 
memt. . EocUtkut. torn. ii. p. 

330. Ilu/nirr Liltarairt de In Fntnrr, 
torn, v. p. 111. torn, vi. p. It" 
Hnif, fimk dm Dim. imr I fli#i. 
ht France, torn. i. p. 278. [ Hay mo, or 
Aymo, was a di Alruin, an 

intimate friend and fellow student •< 
1 La barms Maurus, a monk of Fulda, 
abbot of llersfeld a. D. 830, and bishop 
of Halberatadt a. n. 841. He was at 
the synod uf Mayenri' in 848, and died 
bV>3. Among the writings ii 
him, are Commentaries on the Pisalm.*, 
on Ihniali. aa ' I '.ml, OH 

Sw Apocalypse; all of which are in- M 

compilations from the fathen ; ffaf- 

lorics Ertirr. Brrri/irium, *irr dr. V.krit- 
tinnerm* form* Memorin, libri x. a 
mere abridgment of Itunntt* ; - 
Hi .lm ; fa 'rttit, 

libri iii. ; and dt Carport et > 

■ irtattu. See Cave, I/iit. 

Ion. ii. and fcfabfllon, J--fi 8me 
tor. Ord, Bated, torn. v. p. 686, eke. 

• See llittoire I imer, 

to in. v. p. 59. [Walafrid 6 
Strabus, i. e. *j*imt-*tpd t ) was a 
hiau ; studied in tin - y of 

nan, then at 1-V i '.iba- 

nus; became head or ■■■., and 

at last abbot of Rfohewn, a. d. 
Hit death fit ptaaad fan the year mu. 

He was learned, and a pleasing writer; 
vet bathed in monkish superstition. 
He wrote de ttficiii dirimit, fire de E*- 
ordi'u et Ineramrttlit Jirmm i 
coram fjAtrj Lives ol" St. Gall 
Otho, BC Blahhraax, St. Mamma, 6ft. 
I' gar; and tl Bt, V\ ittin; 

various Poems ; a Tract on th- 
struct ion of JeruKalcm ; and the (riom 
Oniimtria JiUeriinearu in S. iJcriptv- 
rusi ,• which is extra- *nim 

th>- writinffi of Rabaawfl Mauraa. 

7 Hidmrt Litter/tire de /<i /''r-ia^v, 
torn. v. p. ;»44. ffinanaranaa Fn neh- 

tiutu, of noble birth, critical 
Hilduiii, in the monasi st. 

near Paris. He was distinguished as 
a scholar and a theologian, and in great 
favour at court. Int. 1 ). year 880^ In 
had leave to accompany Uildl 
his baniwhinent to Saxony. In the 
year 845, ho was made arehbisb 

ima, in which otti 
till hi* death, a. d. 882. Possessing 
talents of the first order, and great 

I It. tt.] 



uma Scotus, the friend and companion of the emperor 

Em the Bald, oombixied tin- study of philosophy with that 

of theology, and acquired great reputation and fame by 

MBB of his mind, and by his translations from 

Gree'k into Latin, as well as by his original compositions'. 

activity anil perseverance, hin inUiieiirc 

at court, and in all the eftnleeh 

transactions of that [tart of I hi 

waa immonae. Againat Augustiniau- 

bun, and in favour of the lil.rr! 

Ihe GallieeJi church, he was equally 

■tnHBOUt 1 'I hi' IIU not free from 
rapcTHtitinn ; as appears from hi 

■ f a trial bv Ofdealj ("//'■ 
torn. aliof in pur- 

ffatory ami vision*. (Ibid. p. 806.) 
JnloHt of his writings art? still extant, 
edited bj Sirmond, Paris, 1646. 2to1s> 
letters on in 

ecclesiastical rule*; confuuti- 
Gottesclialcus, A..-. //.Vr. 

- Iniwwfcli Klnkimgaek. 
roL i 

l "('•■juUata 
. p. 309. /■' 

ED. v. \y. 416, Ac. and 

often. [John Scotus Brigena, was a 

I ill or In land ; 

and a very profound scholar. Be 

passed most of 

at the court of •'harles the Bald. 
About the year 059, fa 

lehnkitm, in nineteen chapters. ) 
well eenu he ac- 

quired the subtlety of on Aristotelian, 
> mysticism of a 
niHt. His great work, he entitled 
s*ipi $vt»kvv /iipie/iaruvi "'< I'-iirinone 
iri», liliri v. 

■ bum l«tj: i 

-<tork* of the I**eudo-I>ioio»ius 
^Aulia of St. Ma i 
uii difficult passages of Gregory Naz., 
and composed a tract on the I . 

which i* loht, hut in which 
he is said to haw -1- ni< <1 tin- di 
of trauMib^tanti.i 

John, a Saxon 
red invited over 

• li in 

hia achool at < I id who v»a* 

by Ibe •rivuiim monks. But 

Malii'' /,,!. tknni. 

| 1 1 1, A.c ) showSj tliat he 

waa a different person ; and that there 
is no his going to England, 

a.d. 872. TV.— Mabillon, in bis An- 

mtirs IbnAlirlu,;, Lot Par. l/JMJ. torn, 
iii. MS, thuK Minis ■ 

I the Identity of F.ripcna, with 

John, Allrt -I's friiii'l. Erigena is railed 

by 1 1 income and A n a s ta s ius, 

thiit . . •! tjtnictkm, and born 

amoiHj the iScot*, "li urn genere, 

• n'ulaiw papa primus diserti 
plicat, et ; boa geaitua : 

I oelsl MlfttH priest or monk, in 

rh« | Ui bodka, nor is so 

is imniaiiiiwMiitai ha reach.- 
ad tin- pontificate <>f John VIII. | 
liut appears not to have outHw 

882.) be sraa phist, 

'• nonni&i sophisticain artenieallu 
be seeing to have written in 'tiling 
than some verses, which must be dated 
Define the end of 876. Whereas, John, 
1'k friend, was both pri« I 
: was from tit old Saxon Hock, 
, too* Am urijim from (M Ss> 

" Enid Saxonum genere, id eat, e I 

■ iunduui." th- ii fore, wan a 
ian Saxon: waa alivo in 806, 
being tben IdQed yet io his abrength : 
and anas not i the warliV 

Of th"*.- ivasons, Mabillon con- 
the place OJ l.irth QQib 

elusive aaaaaal hi ritn Alfred's 

Uy a 
natffi "i i 1 1 iland, 

mv. a Hao 
rel una r.ilioiic ornnino dintinpi. | 
eat hie Johannes a Johanne Bool 
But althoi. 

cilly nu an* the for- utal 

home . U do 

not ncccsnarily imply Uiu: 

his family came from thnt country, 

withfl ii her 


Istbly, be found little BOf 
Therefore, Mabneebury and Horedon 




Bemigius\ Bertkaritis\ A flu 7 , .l//«om\ fforic\ Regino of 
Prum\ and others, are here passed over, as a sufficient know- 
ledge of them 'may easily be obtained from common writers". 

may seem to have written correctly in 
calling Alfred's friend, J<J< i 

ian, Abp. Usher, Full. r. Ciller, 
and other moderns, may hare been 
quite right in following then. The 

ream ■ ire anxious 

to make it" appear otherwise, are ob- 
vious. John Soot ■ an early authority 
against transubstanti. 
great Alfred have patronised such a 
man ! /.'./. | 

• [Then* erase two eminent nv 
this notary, of the name of Ren 
The one, bishop of Lyons, and 
from a. D. Hot) to a. i>."«7A, in several 
councils, in In-half of August onanism, 
and Godeschalcua. He wrote De tri- 
bus Kp'ue<rt*>rum Rpidol'u Liber, sen 
/inpoutio Ecdff'ur LtujduMHsis <> 
jada ivirrnms / mi, ti 

ammtpni Episcopi Epistolat ; (in 
fence of Augustiiuanistn ;) LiUHu* 
tie tenrmht Scriptural ttritatt, et 8S> 
I'tVrum ouikoritat* sfcUtmla ; and Ab- 
roitttio ipiesiiunis de <jei< ■ ttnttm 

iiannatiQiK, et special* per Christum m 
fuirm crept m. These tracts 

arc in the flfflMj '"in. xv. ; 

and in Mauguin, (W/rrfio ' 
Printed imit '*> ««, S\e. torn. i. — The other 
K- rnL'i:i:\v.,-. ma monk of 

Be, (iermaiu, m Auxcnv ; and honco 
railed Autissiodoreusis, In the year 
HK'2. Of subsequently, he wag called to 

■us, to take charge of the bishop's 
school. He died ubout k.v. !J00. His 
unrLs art- ('inimiiotaries on all the 
realms of David } on u last 

minor prophets ; on the Epistles 
Paul ; (sometimes ascribed, tl 

> , t<i IhivTno of llalberstadt ;) 
and an exposition of the mass. All 
these are campUationi from the fa- 
thers. Tr.] 

tUarins was of noble 
French origin, and first a monk, and 

abbot of Monte Caaaino in Huh, 

Iroru 4,8. 8.V1, till fell death in the 
year 884. The SojaOettf freqni 

plundered that monastery, and at la*t 

slew Bartharhn at the altiu 

billon, Aei»\ S-infi'ir. Oni. [trued, torn. 

vi. p. 17'-. fee. !!«• erxote several dia- 

courses, poems, and lives or eulogies 
of eafi ->f which remain cd> 

published hi the archives of his tnonas- 
' [Ado, a Fn-nrh monk, l>orn i 
a. D. 800, made archbishop of \ i ■ 
a. u. BOO, ana died x. u. 876. He was 
much in several 

councils, in favour of Augustmianisrn. 

rote a M 
was a bishop, and afterwards, » I 
Chronol o gy, fp'in the creation to about 
a. v. 870 ; also the Uvea of some saints. 
■ lal.illon, I. c. torn. vj. p, 278 — 
8M. 7 | 

* [Almoin, a Benedictine monk of 
St. Germain, near Paris, near tin 

of the miracles and of Uie removal of 
tin- relies ol St. I i. rin.iin .in 
George; wl mt in Mahillon, 

1. e. •■ 4 K1, &c. ; and torn. vi. 

p. 4o, &.c. Tins Aiiuoin moot Bfl 
confounded with Aunoin ill 
tine monk of Fleury, in the eleventh 

or/| the author of 
rriMt 'jest is Fmneurum. See Lahbc, ds 

t. Eceiesiast. vsd IkUarmin- 
305, &c. TV.] 

' fUenieus or Krricua, born at 
Boj. a village near Auxorrc, and a 
Benedictine monk ut Auvrre, near 

the close of this century, 
six books of poetry, on the life l 
Germain ; and two books of prose, re- 
specting hi* miracles; besides in 
rous Homil i whtofa era now 

inserted in the Homiliarium of I'uul 
Diaconns. See Cove, Uist . 1 
u. 7V.J 

* [Itegino was a German, a monk 
of Prum, in the diocese oi 

cho*» re v.i). 892 ; opposed, 

and induced to resign a. n. 890- He 
died a. n. 1)08. His I 
the ehrisnan era to the year 907, and 
continued by another hand to a. n. 
i.\ 10 theaJTaira of thu 
Prance and Tontones. It i* prii 
among the Sonj .-wan, 

iriua, tom. i. Ilia two books 
He DisriiJiuis lCeclesuUtiris ti Rel+jkme 
I 'hrist'mHO, (a collection from BOO 



and U)e father*, n lating to ecclesias- 
tical law,) are best adffad hv Staph. 
Baluz-. I'm-. 10*1. BtD. IT.] 
• [Tim La/ia arifars omitted by Dr. 

Bonedictus Anianenais, born in 
Lower Lanxuedoc, a, p. 7^1, educated 
at court, and for some years employed 

I B the year 774, * 
tired to a monastery : and six 
after. to aroid being made abbot, with- 
drew to a cell near the river Anianc, 
where monks gathered around him, 
and he became abbot of that, and a 
dozen other monasteries pnijw 
from it. lb ilii il k. o.Jili. Baa his 
life, written by>, lii- disciple, in 

Ion, A<*a San.-' Baud, 

torn. v. p. 183—215. He « 

Itafttl'iniM M<miUtiMr* (a collection <■( 
tlii- rules >>f most 

to bis tun.) ; ..dite.l liy L. 1 1« .1- 
steiniua, 1(161, and Paris, 166-4. 4to.— 
Concordia lt*pUanm ; — a »•■ i 
exhortations io monks; M<»U» o U wrsa 
mm JWuii-nt'uinim i and some epistles. 
Ludger, a monk of I'tneht, who 
spent some rime in England, and tra- 
velled in Italy; became abb 
den, and bishop of Mimeguen, .». n. 
802, and died a. n. 809. See hi- 
written by Altfrid, the second I 
after luii), in Mabillon, 1. 
p. Is— 33. He wrote the lire of St. 
Gregory, bishop of Utrecht, and some 

tSj«tfQ extant. 

iiragdos, ablnit of St. IfiabjM 

I'lun; nourished about 
a. n. 810, and wroui commentaries on 
the Lessons from the Gospels and 
Epistles; Diodema MonacMormm ; a 
commentary on the Rule of St. Bsns- 
!t«jia ; a letter for CkarU- 
nuujne to the pope ; Acts of a confer- 
eneo at Rome a. p. 810 ; and a gram- 
matical commentary on Douatu 
fourteen books. The last never pub- 

AmabiriuH, a deacon, and perhaps 
rural biabojaof M.'.\ Ha flourished 
from a. p. 812, to a. d. 836 ; and wrote 
■ l*$ia*ku OfhUt libri 
iv. ; and <U Ordin* A mtii-lonarmm Li- 
bit; (both in the Mdiutk. Pat rum, 
torn. air. ;) also some epistle*, J. 
m Ihnotum Jtftmv, and ltttptla $tn In- 

ttltulin t 'Ife/AilOrWM. 

1 latto, abbot ol , and bishop 

•>f Ua«de a. o. nil- vroie 

some capituU for his diocosu, and an 

account of the visions of Wcttin, 11 il- 

rlettins or il p of 

Treves, a. u. 814, &o. has left ua two 

Frotlmrius, abbot of St. A per, and 
bashop of Toui. a. o. 817—837. Ha 

wrote Eputoktnun Lihrr, addressed to 
■ I l._s Du- 
chesne, among i mm 

jPrwaeiooruirt, torn. ii. p. ~l:i. 
I '.ill 1. 1 or I 

court, empli 
affairs, IB 
Romigius, and a. p. 810 ip of 

Rfaeii i ', I" went to I( 

and obtained a commission to convert 
the northeni nations ; in consequence 
of which ba made two jonnic;. 
Denmark. r 833, he j 

of Lothaire ngains« 
futher Lewi** ; for which he lost his 
nd wa» kept in custody at 
Fulda ami other places. In MO 
was restored to his see ; but loal it the 
■. • tar. In 844, be waa mad. bishop 

this resile?— 

remaining, but bL» AfoUx* 

i-. the council of Hill <h< im : 
and published in the collect io: 
■ lis. 
Halitgan of Cambra;. 

Arras, a. D. 816. 1 1 
Bbbo hi excursions to I 

mark. In 828, the emperor Lewis 

liim as envoy to Coin-: 
He returned the next vaar with abund- 
ance of relics ; snd al Ha 
wrote lhnt> VirtufJ.H . 
mnliii Per. < 

PirnitsnluT, a» Libri* almtlutvm ; pub- 
lished by H. Canisiua, and in the JSih. 
J'titmm, torn. xiv. p. 006. 
Paschal 11. pope a. p. 817—824, 
has left us three Epistles ; which are 
in the Collections of the Com* 

Seduhus, a Scot, who flourished 
about a. n. HI 8, and compiled from the 
fathers a CoUttiaifum, »m Erylanalio 
'•ili ; which is extant 
f A. Patmm, torn. ri. p. 494. 
to be distinguished f 
liut> the poet. See Labbc, <U Setip to r. 
EooUnatt. apttd B*tlarmin»m f de Scrip~ 
'. p. 140—152. 
Dungal, a monk of St. Denys, near 
I'aris. a. n. 821. He wrote a confuta- 
tion of Claudius of Turin, in vindica- 
of image-worship : which is in 



the BUJiotk. Ptitrum, torn. xiv. i 
and a letter to Charlemagne, de 1. 

.1 ina.-», bishop of Orleans, \.l>. 821 — 
843. He was in . uun- 

iiiid wrote against Claud; 
Turin, an ylf<J:/<j(1icHM for retaining 

without worshipping 
in 1 1 Insltimtiam 

-him, lihri iii. WD 



Eugeniua II, |»>|m-, a. d. 824— 827, 


Domta ; which are extant in the Col- 
Gregory IV. pope, A.t>. 828— «44. 

Three of hi-. F.pistles are in the I I 

tions of Council* ; and another, eon- 
nMkn of Bleary, in 

Baltizii Mitcell. ton), ii. |>. 145. 

Ansegifi. various monaa- 

m \.i>. 807, till bis 

■■Heeled the flees" 

I 4i Muujn i dc Iletm* proner- 

tun I. , in fun r books ; l>e«t 

d bj Steph. Belt 1677. 

2 turn. ful. Hi* Ufa, written by a eoii- 
ocarv. is ii 

t««m, \. p. :•!»:<, \.\ 
A nli i, called Smaragdua, abbot of 
Auiane, and author 01 <>f his 

reseor Benedictus Asian 
which is in Mabillun, 1. c. torn. v. p. 
183, Ac. >iv« BUM "Mil., have 
teen escribed (o h'un ; but some ad- 
judge tlieui to another of the same 
ii-nii- . 

T began us, a learned French gentle- 
man, and sufTragan to the archbishop 
ni Trcw*. H«- tlourishcd about a. i». 
Annate* de yett'u Lxtdo- 
',. 813 tifftu ad anm. 
Ki7 ; extant among the fian j ptprsi lie- 

rum 1 1. Ilu.-h.-- .jit-, tmn. ii. 

\ a. n. 841—8'-- 
longer. II- wrote / Thro- 

... exploding certain rvlic* and 
the venders of tin in : ad < «' •»liwhalrnm 
l.'jiistofti, disapproving fail opinions : 
and three tracts, mi free-will, prudes* 
'ii, and grace: all which wore 
bed by S. Dale 

•■rk* of Agobard, and in the Bib- 


Nithanlus, grandson ■ ; i ^ne ; 

first a courtier and sold 

monk. He nourished a. d. 843, and 

died in 808, lie has left Us four books, 

■aid U) fi/'urrvm Isitdttrici Pii, from 
a.d. 814 — 843; published b* Pith<i>u*, 
and by Duchesne, lie run Fmncicarum 
fjtortty torn. ii. p. 269. 

iu- 11. pope »• B. 814 — 847, has 

left one Epietle ; extant to fbe ( 
tiona of Council*. 

Prudent or Prudentius, a Spaniard, 
of Troves in France. He 
Bear Ma, end dl 

He wrote several tract* on pretlestina- 
V'' , against John .Scorns, EDn> 
mar, i are extant in the Bib- 

liotUeca Patrum, torn. xv. p. 698 ; and 
also in Mauguin, Yiwiirlr Gratia, 

, bi-li'.p of LeOOj ». n- HI7 

— 868. His Epistle to Ilmcuiar of 

Rhouns, is printed inter Optra llinc- 

fteOL ii. p. 838. 

Euknjiua of Corduba, flourished from 

%. D, 847 t.. 869, when he was behesd- 

ed by the Saracen*, for lus opposition 

ir laws. He wrote Memorial* 

rum, sice Libri iii. de Martyribtu 

'•enritm*; Avalnaeticus fmt Mm- 

tyril'ttf j Ejkort<Vu> <ui Martyrium ,■ and 

; all extent left 

ruin lliifktnicarum Scriptort*, torn. If. ] 
and in the IMJ'wik. I'tUrum, torn. vv. 
p. 242. 

Alvarus, a Spani»h christian of t'or- 
the intinxate friend of Eulogius. 
lie wrote the lif< oi Euktgios, -• 
epistles, and a tract ei mtUJat 

Patrum ; all of ^liich, oxoepl the last, 
an- published with the works of tulo- 

Leo IY. pope, a. n. 847—866, be 
us two entire epistles, and fragments 
of several others ; besides a good hot 
addressed to presbyters and deacons 
ou the pastoral duties ; extant in the 

\v '. i. i Dm rt, ■• n niowk of 

Pruiu, who thnirished a. n. 860. He 
wrote the life an Goar 

(in M 

e. ) ; also a nmri 
heroic verso, published anion 

nf Beds, torn. i. under the ti 

UN Beth*. 
ifiness, bishop of Paris, a. v. 864 — 
869. He wrote Adrerm* Objeeiiune* 

publi ' 

.sy.j'.-i/..;. t.»ui. > ii. and a short epistle 
i" Hinciuar. 

ill. popt, vf. 866—868. 
lour of In , in the 1'olh Q> 

lions of Councils. 




(Icrard, archbishop of Tours, a. u. 
856—871, has left us 110 <ii/*tofa, 
addressed i , and tome other 

papen*. in »li«- <<> nf Councils. 

Hiiiin.r, bWMp of I-aon, .\. u. 856 
— 871, when he w«a deposed. 

id and tyrannical prelate quarrelled 
with his unel. , Hincmar, urchhishop of 
Kin iin-., with tli.- kin::, with his clergy, 
and others; ap]waled to Rome, and 
obtaiiu d rapport from the pope. But 
wm finally pat down. Be deed about 
a. v. 881. I seve- 

ral epistle*, and document* relating to 
nun in the works of 
HiiKinar of llhcims, and in the I 
titms of Councils. 

AugelouitiH, a Bene' ok of 

'■il In Burgundy, who flourished 

A.n. BSft Ho wrote tftrvmiti'i, or (oin- 

itarJet on the foot booba of K 
and also o which are 

extant in the BMiutAtea Put mm, torn. 
K9. p. 

Nm . a. n. 868—867- H" 

began the MOtniVWV* with PI 
patriarch of Constantinople, and op- 
posed king Loti 
queen. He has left us ahOUl 

tics; a reply to the tateyrogaiori 
the Bulgarians in 106 Capitvla, beaidea 
decree© and rescripts oo i-nrimw sub- 
iect*. Hi- letters were published at 
How- .'•"■! with his other 

works aro now in the Collections of 

Isaac, bishop of Langrcs, a. d. 869 
— B7H, or longer. Be, or Isaac, abbot 
of Poietiers, wrote a long 

"S Mima ; published by Dm 
/. torn. xiii. Hi i* the author of 

a ColttCtiu CUHOHMM, lik<< 

Nomo-canon, compiled from the Ca- 

pitula or tlie French kings, and the 

one of council; which was pub- 

; by Sirmaod, and since in other 

CoUeetione a 

e, L'dulrie, or Hulric, bishop 
D, 860— WO. Ho was 
a distinguished prelate, and wrote a 
< • • pope N icolaus, repn > I 
/id enforcement of celibacy 
he clergy. This famous let! 
pope Gregory VI I, i- •udeiuiicd a- ( 

v lias been often printed 
ihi'lriun, or A -Irian. p"po, A. D. 867 

• its, and sssumed gn . 
France. Twenty -si v | -.ties, 

lei some addressee and papers, are 
extant in the ( • 

Anastasius abbot, 
and librarian :ii Hone, who 

WBS p:i|>:.l . BTOy tO I , Is, tO 

Naples, \t\ He was most 

• I men of h ; '70 — 

886.) slid well acquainted with 
Greek language. He irrjpfln dfflfl 
ci/ii (\>M»tiin(ituw. I V. in Latin, falsely 
ealhV n general Council, k. d, 

rs» //. A. D. 787, 

Latino versa; Hidorta JCtMlttiuika, 
eive Chrouotjraphvi Tripartita, eampUi a 
from Niceph. Pair, of i'| • 

$cn L eter to 

pope Nice!, i 

?]»ct'int ad HidoriatM MoiwthAitnrum ; 

I -us letters ami tn 
origiiutl, or translations and abstracts; 

; \,r is, L630 
Hi» Acts of councils, and his lives of 
i -lies, are inserted in the l l 
UM Us. 

John VIII. pope. v. i>. 87 2— 882. He 
•ras an active pope, but greatly harassed 
by the Saracens, who infested" all ■ 
era Italy. There are extant in the 
Collections of Councils, and ebewln n , 
326 of his epistles. 

Hat Hartmannuo, |] 

of St» Gall, a. o. 872—883. He wrote 
some poems and hymn*, published by 
Canisius, 1. in. v. also 

the lit' 1'orada, a virgin mar- 

ly r; extant in Mahillon, Aria »SS. Qrd. 
Benal. torn. vii. p. 42, &c. 

John, a dcaeoii si ITwirt a 'id the 
frien.l uf Aiuistasius BOwolh. fffcfl 
iluurodied *. o. 875. He wrote the lifu 
of St. Qieuuif die Gnat, in four 
books; which is in all the editions of 
the works of Gregory ; and in Mabil- 
lon, Ada SS. Ord. Baud. tow. 
380, &c. 

ardus,a French monk of St. Ger- 
main, near Paris, who Nourished a. n. 
876. Displeased with the brevity of 
Ihe martyndogiea of Jenim :ui 1 Beds, 
he wrote one more full and particular, 
r the countenance of Charles the 
Dald. It was pabnebed, Lottrain, 
1588. 8vo.; and with omissions of what 
displeased the Papist*, st Antwerp, 
1587. 8vo. 

A'.U),amonk of St. Germain, h | 
witnessed the siege of Paris by tin 
mans, in the year 887, composed a his- 




tory of it, in three books, of very un- 
couth venee ; published among the 
Scripiorea Hidoria Franc. 

Stephen V. pope, a.d. 885—091, 
has left us three Epistles, and part of 

Wolfhardus, a Benedictine monk 
and presbyter in the diocese of Eich- 
stadt, who flourished a. d. 886, has left 
us a life of St. Walpurga, or St. Wal- 
purgis, in four books; extant in Ma- 
billon, Acta SS. Ord. Betted, torn. iv. p. 
360, Ac. 

Herembertus, or Erchembertus, a 
monk of Monte Cassino, a. d. 887. He 
wrote a Chronicon, or a full History of 
the Lombards, continued to a. d. 888; 
an abridgment of which, made (it is 
supposed) by tile author himself, was 
published at Naples, 1626. 4to. together 
with three other Chronicons. 

Adrevaldus, or Adalbertus, a Bene- 
dictine monk of Fleury, a. d. 890 ; 
wrote the history of the removal' of 
the remains of St, Benedict and St. 
Scholastica from Monte Cassino to 
Fleury ; extant in Mabillon, Acta SS. 
Ord. Bened. torn. ii. p. 338, &c He 
also wrote de Corpore et Sanguine Domini, 
in opposition to the views of John Sco- 
tus; extant in Dachier, SpieUeg. torn, 

Asserius, a British monk, much em- 
ployed by Alfred the Great, and by 
him made bishop of Sherborne. He 
flourished a. d. 890, and wrote a his- 
tory of the life and achievements of 

king Alfred; which is published among 
the Soriptorm Rerum Anglicarnm, ed. 
Francf. 1602. p. 1, &c. [Asser was 
first published together with Walsing- 
ham, by Abp. Parka:, in 1574. In 
1722, it was published separately by 
Wise, at Oxford. Ed.] 

Gulielmus, librarian of the church of 
Rome, a. d. 890. He continued Anas- 
tasius' lives of the popes, from a. i>. 
867 to a. n. 891. 

Solomon, a German monk, abbot, 
and at last bishop of Constance, a. d. 
890—920. He left several poems; 
published in the BiUiotk. Pair. torn, 

Formosus, pope, a. d. 891 — 896. He 
had sharp contests with the citizens 
of Rome; and when dead, his suc- 
cessor, Stephen VII. dug up his re- 
mains, deposed him, mutilated his body, 
and cast it into the Tiber. Twoof his 
Epistles are extant in the Collections 
of Councils. 

Auxilius, a writer little known, who 
flourished about a.d. 894, and com- 
posed a history of pope Formosus, and 
the contests respecting him, in two 
books; in the Bibliotk. Patrum, torn, 
xvii. p. 1. 

The popes, Stephen VII. a. d. 896 — 
897» John IX. a.d. 898—900, and 
Benedict IV. a. d. 900—904, have left 
us the first two Epistles, the next four, 
and the third two ; which are in the 
Collections of Councils. 7V.] 

I H. III.] 





§ 1. The low state of religion and learning.— § 2. Causes of this evil. — § 3. The 
corri lie ago manifest in tbe worship of saints and relies. — §4. 

Canonization of saints. — § 6. Biographies of aaiofa. — § 0. AUachfnanJ t-» 
relics. — § 7- Regard for the holy scriptures. — § 8. Faults of the Latin exposi- 
tors. — 9 9. The Allegorists. — § 10. Method of treating tfasolqgfaal suhjecta,— 
§ 11. State of practical theology. — § 12. Progress of mysticism. — § 13. Pole- 
mic ihsnloflT , - J 14, 15. Controversy respecting images, among r 
—| 10. Among the Latins. — § 17- Icunoirbiat* am Mora, — § 18 

tanrersy respecting the procession of ilie 1 1 "1% Spirit oontinoidi — § 19. Pas- 
chasius Karihcrt'.* controversy respecting the Lord's supper. — § 20. His 
Mr, Bertram. — § 21. The involv».l .•..iilpiversv sbovt steivoranism. — 
§ 22. GuulHlfMSjr respecting grace and predestination ; Godeschalcus. — §23. 

toy of this contest. — §24. Judgment respecting it. — § 25. Hioean 
Godeschalcus contend alnxit a rl, | 96. Stril ■„- the 

parturition of St. Mary.— § 27, IB. First controversy Ik! 
and Latins, respecting Photius.— § 20, 30, 31, IS. T! .. ir second controversy. 

§ 1. So long as those persons survived, whom the liberal' 

'"mayne and Ids zeal for Christianity had prompted to the 
study of tbe bible and to a candid investigation of tnitli. l 
Imrri. 1 to the ingress of many errors and superstitions. 

And accordingly, not a few proofs may be collected out of the 
age showing that the truth had some strenuous 
vindicators. But as these men were gadluB y ; and 

"ism regained fa brum ascendency, i Hood of m 
stitioUB iod pioua follies, and of base and degrading opinions. 
I, all quarters. And none were more zealous and 
propagation of them than the professed tea 
and patrons of piety and religion ; win. \v< re corrupted, partly 
by t hi it* great ignorance, and partly by their selfish passions. 
The thing! was not mm £ in the East, and 

reeks, although here and there an individual 
■roes, who was disposed to succour the sinking cause of pure 

$ 8. Thfl cruises of this uuhappv -tut.- of things will rci 






be apprehended by those acquainted with the occurr- 

Dg christians in this century. The oriental doctors, wholly 
\itli their intestine broils and tlj.-ir foreign BOtttrO- 

versies, became disqualified lor mora sober investigations: and 

as one error general!} draws others in its train, it WM the 
natural consequence of the fierce disputes of the Orientals 
(among themselves respecting image-worslup, and with the 
Latins respecting the superiority of their discipline, and the 
divinity of their dogmas), that many other evils and E 
should exist. Moreover, the uncomfortable and irrational 

of lite pmned l>y those who retired to <l. 
solitary retreats, was inconsistent with a sound mind and a 
BObe? judgment. Yet the persons of this class were imm< 
numerous, and their intUienee by DO means small. In the 
West, the incursions of the barbarous tribes, the wars and 
abominable crimes of the sovereigns, the neglect of every 
branch of learning, the infatuated purpose of the Roman 
potltiflh to display and extend their power, and the impositions 
and falsehoods of the monks, were ruinous to the cause of 
virtue, of mental cultivation, and piety. 

$ •*>. I low great were the ignorance and perverseness of this 
century appears from the single fact of the extravagant 
Stupid veneration paid to saints, and to their bones and carcases. 
For in this consisted the greatest part of their piety and reli- 
gion* They all believed, that they should never find God propir 
tious to them, unless they obtained some intercessor and patron 
among the glorified saints. And each separate church, and 
almost each individual person, sought for some particular 
appropriate patron ; as if afraid, that a patron engaged to 
menage the concerns of others WOOld neglect theirs, if commit- 
ted to billl. For they were inclined to estimate the condition 
of the blessed according to the maxims and principles of com- 
mon life on the earth. And hence arose the rage for making, 
-l daily, new tutelar protectors. And the priests and 
monks were most successful in dispelling the darkness that 
concealed the wondrous deeds oi ooly men ; or rati 

tabulating the names and the histories of saints that I 
existed; so that they might have patrons enough for all the 
credulous and useless people. Many, however, provided for 

( H. III.] 



themselves, by committing their interests ami their salvation 

to phantoms of their own creati delirious persons, who 

i bad led vf-rv holy li\ m they had lived 

like fools and madmen. 

§} 4. To this licentiousness of mult i] Jj ing daily the number of 
ministers at that QttlfeBtBB] court which ill -informed nun pirtured 
to themselxes, the ecclesiastical councils endeavoured t 
bounds ; fat th> v ordained that in. person should be accounted 
I glorified saint, unless he was declared worthy of that honour 
1>\ B bishop and provincial council, in presence of the people 1 . 
This fallacious remedy laid some restraint upon the incon-ide- 

leeeofthe people. There were also some in this Bgc 
deemed it not absolutely necessary, though useful and 
that ; ions of bishops and councils should be sanctioned 

Bod eontiniteil by the approbation of the f/.-f bishop, that is. 
by the bishop of Koine. Nor will this excite surprise, if we 

i ler the great increase of the papal power, ia the unen- 

Ughtened, rude, and superstitious age. There is, indeed, no 
example extant, older than the tenth century, of any 
beinnr .solemnly sainted hy the Kotnish bishop': yet that he 
im.s consulted on such matters, and his opinion 

mg those to be i IOBBGGR& d, may be abowfl by 

homo testimonies ■ : and it was by such steps as these, that the 
bishops attained to that power of creating tutelar divinities, 
i is denominated 

1 Jo. Mabill"! 

m. vii.J Pnrf. p. 

xliv. 6i>\ [p. lv i. | Jo. 

Lftaari, Ma>jdalf no. <t Mar- 

<Ad* in ProritidanafffntJitt,vii\>. i. 5- \ii. 

torn. ii. pi nine. Patf, 

ii. p. 

see. (">». ni. p. 

• •• Dun. Pamtaodb, ii Solcnniuw 

Camomitatiammm Initiit d Progrtmt, in 

SS. w.tb*- Matt, p. 171, 

[JO, Mahillou. nlii supra. J. P. 
\ ro'huirriutQ, a*M 
uL&Uitrnu, i in hwj/ut- 

«il. B ufthen 

hy Jo. Alb. 
or. cap. vii. 
§ bt. p. 170. 
* *«■<. tlw vcrv temperate and 
incumiou of thta mtbj 
•mvewign pontiff. Benedict XIV. 

lv I'nwpwr Lunbertim 

Tttrum />• ' Batformn 

CanoHUfUiow, lib. i. cap. vii. in bin ( >pp, 

i. p. BO, >i\. Bon 
be wished the historian* of the chureh 
■ •t Room would Irani to hnitafc the 
dtecretinn ami fairneaa of 1 

narlieat solemn OHM 

rds, is that 
Angaburg, hy .1 

buhopft, metropolitans, and no> 
vinei.11 . were coueenuvJ in 

Hitch arta for more than 
after mil Ami it wa* DOC till 
pontificate of Alexander III. ». n. 1 100 
— 1181, that the |M»pe* claimci 

; .wcr of ad aiiita 

to tli See MabUloi 

supra, p. lix. § 111, and p. Ixviii. g 99, 

I r.] 

BOOK 111.- 



§ 5. The number of celestial or glorified saints lx»ing so 
preposterously multiplied, nothing better was to be exp 
than that their hinglfJlifin would be written, filled wilh false- 
hoods and fables; and that accounts should In? published <if 
transactions which no one ever |>erfnrmed. There is Mill 
extant a great mass of such idle talcs ; which, it appcara, was 
■reduced for the most, part by the idle monks. And tfefM 

vers of the simple were not ashamed to debase, with false 
accounts and fictitious miracles, the histories of those who 
really suffered persecution and death for the cause of Clin 
the earlier ages ; and there are not wanting some respectable 
writers of those times who chastise this their temerity *. BoBH 

led to practise these impositions by their false notions of 
religion. For in this rude and ignorant age, it was supposed 
that the saint-* in heaven delight in praise, and therefor./ -,liow 
■llllfall favours to such as proclaim abroad their deeds. Others 

prompted to such presumptuous conduct by their lust for 
honour or fof lucre. Because the rabble, in their pel -p|. \iti. | 
and seasons of danger, flocked in great numbers and with 
presents, to the temples of those saints who were said to be 

it and to have performed many wonders while alive. 
And hence, such as were appointed to write the history of the 
patnm saint of any ; »— ..eiated bnd>, deemed it necessary to 
practise deception, and to add false miracles to their account*. 
§ 6. In the bones of those who were accounted saints, and 
the utensils which they used while alive. BO the very 

ground which they had touched, there was supposed to reside 
a marvellous power of repelling all evils, both bodily and 
mental, and especially of paralyzing the maehinations of the 
prince of darkness. Hence, scarcely any one ventured to be 
ovided with these oseftd safeguards. The eagerness for 

4 See Servatus Lupus, Vila J/riri- 
fftini, p. 276, 27'.» ; »«"l tl>** ingenuous 
nn.l umwd nniarkR on thi* subject, 
made in several place* by John Lou- 

nnv; bLtfum-tw 1 

Mfl Chruti 

fid** rvwyAi, rap. \iv. p. 1 10. — Dissert!. 

• l'hri«(i'if i Hull ki 

ii. p. 142. 14 4. 14.'.. 14?. 

1*8, \HU. Maydai. 4 

M ■Dih.t in QdBiam <ifput*u, p. 340. — 

J »u* DumwiUy Ojip. torn. ii. |>t. i. 
p. §87. 629, 630. See also Mm 
ThfAwnu AmmHJOtoi\ torn. i. p. 161. and 
the Ilittoire LitUrain dt la France, iv. | . 27:1. 

* Aim me all ihe le«« of saintw, com- 
posed in this age, none are more to be 
suspected than those writ ton by Uritons 
and Arrooricaiia See Mabilior 
Smcior. Itrri. Bm-ii. torn. i. preface, 
p. viii. 

OB. in.] 



relics loci some to encounter severe toils and troublesome jour- 
ii. vs to no purpose; while others it promoted to delude the 
pooph With base hnpOBltiOBg, To obtain B sufficiency of relics 
to accommodate all who wore zealous tor them, the latent 
carcases of departed saints wore first BOOghl for by the priests 
with prayer and tasting, and then were discovered by the guid- 

and inoiiitioiis of God. The exultation M the disc 
of such a treasure was immense. Some made journeys into 
tlie East, and travelled over the regions and places made 
iamou* by the presence of Christ and hi* friends, in order to 
bring from them what would afford comfort to the faint- 
rtion to their country and their fellow-citi- 
zens. Nor « 1 i * 1 such travellers return empty; for the cunning 

KB, always versatile and knavish, took from the b 

Pennine coin, and sent them home loaded with 
spurious merchandise. In this way the numerous holy bodies, 
and parts of bodies, of Mxr/r. Jamas. I ^*ip, Cyprian, 

, anil others, in which the West still exults, were 
introduced UOOng the Latins. Those who were unable to 
procure these precious treasures, by either journeys. orpnners, 
or fr:i ' tf to MOM them 

ilence and robbery. For, whatever means were res 
to in such I cause M this, were supposed to lx> pious, and 
acceptal! • 1, provided th essful*. 

sj 7. There were few among the Greeks who attempted to 
explain the sacred volume, except Pkaiimei who has left 

Qututione ■ \ an ItlpltlVltillll Of St. Paul's 

OpfafcltB, a Other things of this nature, ife made use 

of his own reason and ingenuity; and yet he cannot be 
esteemed a good interpreter. All the other Qfwfes, who 
npted expositiioDJ of the scriptures, merely col: 

• B>»«1 ItwstOrij Anliquitat& Itati- 

• ;, Ace. who 
itM I1H with .'...nipl. «, 

' I 1'Iiik work > •jJiUix'Jtiay 


<A manuscript* • > 
it \im n#*vt»r lw«ii |itilili*ln-fl •« 

inc other large extr 
Wolf ha* 

l>n I ' : 

1711. He 
aIko give* account of Ibi VOrll in ti i^* 
preface to that volume. Y. 
question* relate to difficult texts in the 
< »M l '■«-; hut *ome of 

them are \i, phfloaopliiatf, 

(rrniniuati.-al. historical, ami litem*. 
- one-sixth part of ili<- whole is 
"f Photius, 
pohfished In M. M-»itague, Loo 

•j 2 \. 


■I'UY IX. 

[l*A*T I!. 

passages from the writers of preceding ages, and ott-e 
thorn to the (U ■durations of the sacred volume. Thus it was 
in this century, and among thi' Qieofc s, that what arc ■ 
cat&ia. that is, expositions of scripture compiled from the 
writing of the fathers, of which no small nuinhcr has 00000 
down to OB, first began to be drawn up. For most theolo- 

hsBng their incompetence to mors srdnoas Itb 
sup posed they could best ftccompbafa their object by colli . < 
togetln r the fmc thoughts of the ancient tat 1 

g 8. The Latin interpreters were far mom numerous : for 
''•magne had, in the preceding century. awakened an 
ardour for the study and exposition of tho sacred voluine. 
Awinmg these interpreters, ben and th : it wholly 

destitute of merit; as e. g. OkHMta* Dmlhmar, whose ( 
ineiitary on Matthew has come down to us 8 ; and Bertharius % 
to whom are ascribed two books reconciling difficult I 
(aiTiKiifiivw). But most of them were incmnpetent to their 
work ; and, like the interpreters «>f th« ■ age, may 1m? 

divided into two classes, those who trod in bfa of formes 

-ltors and collected tfaelr '•pinions, and those- who sea- 

mkI various reeon<lite meaning... in the plainest 
- and for the most part without much discrimination. At 
the heed of the former class stands ttabanus Maurus ; who 
BBBee, that he drew his expositions of Matthew and of 
Paul 9 from the writings of the father-. Of the like 

character were II V.//W</ Strain), author of what, is called tin* 
Gloisa Ordinaria, and who drew his materials chiefly from 
Rohan us ; Claudius of Turin, who followed . 
Origen; Bmcmat [of Rheim*J, whose Stromat-a on the bar 
Hooks of Kings, compiled from the fathers, are still extant | 
Remiaius of Auxerre, who elucidated the Psalms of David and 
other books of scripture from the same sour, who 

expounded the epistles of Paul according to the views of the 
fathers; Flvnt* Magistcr, who chose Augustine for his guide; 
ilfiymo of Halhcrstadt ; and other.-. 

§ 9. At the head of the latter class, we again find Rahanns 

* Sx*» Kicli. Simon, Zfiftofav i'ri/'upte i. p. 293, &.C. He treats of most of tin- 

d<$ I'rincifiuj LlwHiH-Hl'tt. <i* X. T. MAS i-i-innniitatoni I ■ i , iliiil. 

c»p. tXT. p. 34fl. Hid 1'riiKjne d* la cap. xxri. xxrii. 
litbliothiifiu- Ecdi$. par M. Dm Pin, torn. 

- n. in.] 



HflTil ; whose very diffuse work on the Allegories of the 
scriptures, is yet extant. EjEs ■ followed by Siiiaragdv*, 
lltt'/iiio, Hatflmt) and mam -vliose 

nanus it would he needless to mention. The expositors of This 

class all agree, that besides the literal import* there aif other 

n •!-< <1 hooks ; hut as to the number of 
meanings, they are not agreed. For some of them make three 

t, others four or A'/v ,• und one, who is not the H 
Latin interpreter of the age. Awjflome, a monk of Li^ieux, 
maintains that there are germ senses of the sacred books'. 

$ 10. In explaining and .supporting the doctrin ion, 

the Greeks and Latins were equally neglectful of their duty. 

Tin ii maniK t ai treating bqce subjects vaa 3ry, and I 

1 bo the Q tan to r)i.' understanding. The fl """ ,l, \ 

for the most part, followed DamOWmUt : fcfae Latins acquiesced 
in the decisions of A urrutfin*. The authority of the ancii nts 
was substituted for arguments and proofs; as may b«- el.-arly 
Been DJ the GoQt oto M U m de trihm qiUEstionibnt, b\ 
Lupus* and the Tract of RtmijfJMB OB holding tinnlv t«» the 
truths of scripture, and adhering faithfully to th ity of 

the holy and orthodox fathers. Those who appealed to the 
raony of the sacred writers, either construed their ■ 

in what is called the oih-iorical MMC, or flonmflfl it to 
put any other construction upon them, than had heen put on 
them by councils and the fathers. The Irish doctors alone, 
and among tin in John Scotus y ventured to explain the doctrines 
of Christianity in a philosophical manner. Hut they generally 
i r disapprobation ; for the Latin theologians af 
that age would allow no place for reason and philosophy in 
matters of religion'. 

{ 11. Practieal theology was treated negligently and 
fully by all who attended to it. Some j ■ ' BntaBOQI from 

the writings of the ancients, relating to piety and the duties of 

• See the Preface to hin Commentary 

booki of Ki llMiotkeaa 

, lorn. w. p. MB. Tlie 

eotm ■'■ 0M hook 

nusia, wan pnbiiihod \>y TV-mli. 

i Tlxnwnu . I ' |»t. i. 

Rut it would have hecii uo Io*i to 

VOL. It. 

saered literature-, had it remained in 

I intf the di-tike of Scotua, 

aee Boulay, Butoria Acadcm. Pari*. 

L p. ltt"2. Add tli.- lifr? of John of 

, in! 

Baud. Seucul. I [•■ 302. 




men; as may be seen fan the '<n Patruitmf Alpanu. 

( itlniv i ■« imposed treatises on the virtues and vices; as Halit- 

\ tiidxuiu* Maxims^ and Jonas of Orleans ; but it i> 
easy to discover in them a la ■■"»'■■ with the ])atterns left, us by 
Christ. S.iiiu endeavoured to unfold the will of God, and 
make it into Uiirible to (JM unlearned by a tissue of allegories; 

i hod, tin faults of which are manifest. Tli- of 
sermons and of treatises on penance, of whom the number was 
not inconsidt rahle among tlie Latins, I pass over in sil 
Some of the (inoks l>egan to apply themselves to the solution 
of are ealled rases of conscience*. 

§ 12. The doetrincs of the mystics, which originated from 

yWMi, falsely ealled the Areopagite, and whieli taught men 
to abstract their minds from all sensible things, and to join 
them in an inexplicable union with iiod, had long been in the 
hagheBt estimation among the flrrnim. and especially by the 
monks. Ami the praises of this Dionysitts were splendidly 
sung, in this century, by Michael Syncellus and Metkoa 
who thus eiiih'avournl to multiply the admirers and foil 
of the man. The Latins had hitherto been unacquainted with 
this imposing system. Hut when Mirh,i>f the Staniu 
emperor of the Greeks, sent a copy of V as a present 

to L'-iris the Meek, a. D. 824', at <mce the whole I,atin world 
beeaine remarkably attached to it. For Lewis, to put the 
Latins in possession of so great a DMM d the works 

of Dvmjmm to be forthwith translated into the Latin lan- 
guage 4 . Afterwards. MMum, abbot of St. Denvs, krj the 

* Sec Niccpborus Chartophylnx, 
EpfartftL ii. in il ! 

trust, tarn, iii. p. 418. 

J Jar. Uslni, >iJur. //i- 

1 Ti pHchh Uutglil by 

Htlduiii. in iperor 

Lewi* the M< ■ i . i Art- 

B6. ca. < 'oli -z-"\ 1663.8*0. 
in «l 

• ysius) pati 
ecrij- at petsntibu 

i ^ratiun et 

/•rtftato*, sorinia uostiv 

err, therefore, who tell ua thai 

translation or l>ionysiu» was not 


And those err nl*<> wbo my (with Jo. 

Ion, Ammil. Bnctiict. torn. ii. lib. 
xxix. § lix. p. 488. aiul the authors of 
llir I/Lttoirr lAttrrnin de ' 

tm.i- v. p. 426, *cc.) Mfemval ihe 
Stammerer eent to Le* i- tin 
Dionntosj AnanWo i •«/" 

• arly 

i ■ I |i_\ Ilihli 

< urn 

I cheolielegi 
ruaeti sunt — pro muncre tUSgUO SUS- 

I II. 111. I 


order of /.c/w, published his Areopaaiticu, or Life of 1 >iony- 
sius ; in which, according to the custom of the age, he not only 
my things void of truth, hut hi Dimly confounds 
Dionysius the Areopaaitey with Dionysius bishop of Tin-*. 
no doubt, to advance the glory of the I'r<nch 
nation 1 . And this fable, caught up by credulous ears, became 
ho firmly tixed in the minds of the French, that it is not yet 
fully eradicated. The first translation of Dionysius, made by 

of Lewis the Meek, was perhaps consid< 
and barbarous. Tlierefore, his son, Charles the Bald, procured 
a DSD and more DjftfiJ translation to be made by the celeb 

'is; and the circulation of this translation 
swelled the nuimVr of the patrons of mystic theology in 
o'rrnauy, and Italy. iprivated 

with this new system of theology, that he did not I 

nmodate his philosophy to its precepts, or rather to 
explain its principles by the rules of his philosophy". 

§ 13. In defence of Christianity, against -lews, pagans, and 
others, only a few took the field; lxcause the internal contests 

among christi- ossed all the attention who wen 

inclined to be polemics. AqoLanl inveighed against the arro- 
gance and otlni 'hi lie Jews in two short tracts. Amnio 
and Pa bantu Maunu likewise assailed them. The Saracens 
were confuted by the emperor Leo, by Theodora* Abucara, and 
by others, whose writings are lost. Hut these and other 
OppOSers df the Muhamiucdans, advanced various false and 
unsubstantiated statements respecting Muhammed and his 
ion : which, if brought forward designedly (as would seem 
to be tliat the writers rlid not aim so much 
at convincing the Ssrnoane as at deterring Christians from 

§ 14. Among themeeirefl the christians liad more strenuous 
Mid animat' d I •■utests, than against the common enemy; and 
these contests involved them continually in new calamities, and 

brought reproach upon the cause of true religion Upon the 

1 Jo. Launor, Z>u/. rtf Ditrrimin* 

D***P*\ A , arittmml*.m\ 


writing* of Uiu grrat man. and of 
oth*ra, runr«*rning liw tiro JHamytii, 

• f Seotua waa partial to the PU+mia 
philosophy; which, being one at the 
primary aoorcaa of the myHk ttutihyy, 
would eaiily amalgamate with it, and 
mtv«- to explain and enforrr 




.'ENTllRY IX. 


banishment of Irene [a.d. 802], tin- contest about image 
.sliip was renewed ftmODg the dnreks; and it continual, 
various sueeess, for nearly half this century. For Nicephorus 
[wbo boh in Ml fa i l fefafl throne], tboqgfe lie would nut revoke 
iln Nicene decrees, nor remove the images from the ten 
\. t l;nl i. -iraints on the patrons of images, and would not 
allow them to use any violence or do any harm to tin- DpfiOMm 
of imam- worship. His successor, Michael Curopalates, was a 
timid prince, who feared the rage of tin- monks and priooUl who 
contended for images, and Uiarefixra, daring his short 
[a.d. 811 — HIS], he favoured the cauae of qntgea, and p 
onto! the opposers of them. Leo the Armenian had more 
vigour 7 , and assembling a council at uinople, a. i>. M K 

\ plieitly rescinded the Nicene decrees r 
worship of tlie images of saints ; yet he did not enact any pflQi] 
laws against the worshippers of them". As this temjieraie 

1 [ And more ingenuousness too. For, 
befbn ootmciL tin i m|K.Tor, 

in jiii interview with i ., rc- 

trum tin- writinps of tin- apostles and 
of tli>- <-;ulier fathers, if, as tin- | 
arch asserted, the worship of images 
wan in early use in the church. The 
answer lit- i I ifM, that in Ihlfl 

cucv I'd witli unwritten 

tradition ; an<l that what had he. i 

I in a general council, «« mver 
I eoiitrovertcd. After this, the 
■ or brought the contending par- 
ties to a eonhjrviR'c Lu his on 
which Tin Kldanai Stnditesand hist party 
frustrated, by telling the emperor, to 
hi« face, that doctrinal Boattrowatai 
were not to bfl diaeu**ed in the | • 
but in the church; and that if an angel 
from heaven should advance a do* 
decrees of tin- v 
council, 01 ■ ili ab- 

horrence, Tho emperor punished this 
in->lenee | monk* 

baek to th'ir doietem, forbidding them 
to raiw- fiatoxhaneaa al>out images, and 
requiring them to l>e peaceable citizen*. 

* I According to Mansi (Svppl<m. 
'. U>m. i. p. 755.) there were w\e- 
ral councilu held at Constantinople, 
DJadat LaQ the Armenian, in ngt 

■■ die w:i- held under the pa- 
triarch Nicephorus, a. d. HI 4, ami 

demnod Anthony, bishop of Sfltoumi 

as an Iconoclast, and established image- 

worship. The next council was 

by Let : and 

this it wan, deposed 

declared him a heretic. The 

wan held under the new patriarch, 

Theodorus, nud established the 

trincaof the Iconoclasts. Images were 

now removed; and the unaabinu 

monks were ban 

again to their cloisters, as soon a> 

promised to remain quiet, and to hold 

eoiiiiimniiiri with the new patriarch 

There wore, how 
among them, blind zealots, who, with 

belched forth most shameful language 
against tluise bishops and monk- 
J ii Idl -1 ol«i ili. nee to the 
command*, and even against the em- 
peror himself. I 

to be enemies of Chi 
of him, and apostate*; the emperor 
Ifaai called an Amorite, another ' 
Baslian, the gn-at I>rag»n, a Teat 
wrath, an Ahab, I ilhvi ; BBe! 

toux< extolled theii images, 

niting fAriV pral 
public places. These indeed va*0 taken 
up and punislied; and Theodora* BlB> 
dites was sent into exile ; and, as this 
did m»t tame him, lie was imprisoned ; 
M as to lie allowed free corre- 
s]>ondencc by letters. »VA/. ) 

CH. III.] 


dure was not satisfactory to Nictphorus the pntrinreh, and 
to the nthnr frionds of images, and as dangerous tumults 
mmiiiml ready to break out. the emperor removed Sicrphonu 
from his office, and repressed The rage of some of his adherents 
His successor, Miclmd the Stainiiien i\ 
who was also opposed to image- worship, found it necessary fed 
pursue the same course; for although he at first showed great 
flfaaenoy to image- worshippers, he was obliged to depart from 
that clemency, and to chastise the restless faction that aerved 
images, and especially tin* monks". His son. Ti tOf kilut [juOi 
I j, bore harder upon the defenders of images, and 
even put some of the mere violent of them to death '. 

§ 15. Hut after the death of T/eophthn*. in the year M2, his 
n i -\iving consort. Tft>oil<>r«, who administered the government 
of tl . wearied out and deluded by the menaces, the 

entreaties, and the fictitious miracles of the monks, assen 
a council at Constant inuple, a. n. 842. and there re-established 

ilie daciafonaof the Kice&e council, and restored image-worship 
among the Greeks '. Thus, after a contest of one hundred and 

» I Notwithstanding Michael a*c. 
the throne under a very dubimiH tills, 
Uit- image-worshipper* deaeiibed him 
as a second l>avi j, mid a Jo»tah ; so 
ng ait they accounted hiui mm of their 
party ; h«cauac he rele—ed Ihos 
prisoned, aud recalled the exiles. He 

rt II .-aimed 

brasses to be bud, tor allaying tho 
controversi** : ud the*? proving in- 
effectual, he allowed them to retain 
their image*, though not to display 
and only 
I'm in Uiih parties, 
fnit>ht subside. This grulk-ucsa was 
Ihsmon n markable, aa the. mi|mt»U- 
tkm of the ima^- 

•■ grossest follies. 
(••ad of the 
cros* and lea before 1 1 

d incense 
i ; made so 

ir liap- 

ttaed i-liil-Ii-rii : aaraysd off It lours 

from Oi. |)ieturs% ami mixed them 
with |hs »»uii- i .i.irisi ; and 

placed tile bread of bcin die 

hands «>f the images, in order to ro- 
il UH fllMl 1 1 

hi uaportw Lewu the 

Meek, in BaroniuV Annul*, ad aim. 

■■•A.'. J 

1 [It w iujpot*ilih- to believe all that 

raek monk- tell m n • ltie,, 

of this emperor, against Um image 

iiippers ; n- 
spects, an upright mler. And 

known, that he was rety indul- 
gent and kind towards Theoktixta, the 
mother of hi* empress, who wnrtdi 1 1 

me, ami en d e SVU B JU J 
til tin- km <•! thiiii inf.i tlii' 
young princesses of t!i> And 

if some persona did actually null'.-r 
severely under him, they Buffered 
rather on account of their alaudorotu 
language, their disobedience to the laws, 
mid e us eondnol j to •.. 

they were pronij' 
tor pro) 

» iSi livl. S|, // 

risem, sect, n ui, < >\ p. 
845, Ace. Jac. Lent 

tlllll. r... 

x\hi x\x. p. MM, iVe 


nooic m. ry ix. 

[PAftT II. 

• are, image-worship gained the victory ; and all the East, 
except the Armenian «-hureh. embraced it; DOT did any one of 
the succeeding emperors ■Mffnilirl to cure tl | of their 

folly in this matter. The council of (..'nustantinople, held 
under Phutius. in the year xS7!>, and which is reckoned by the 
<t reeks the eighth general council, fortified imaL in by 

new and firm guards, approving and renewing all the decrees 
of the Niei ne council. The (greeks, a superstitious people, 
and controlled by monks, regarded this as so threat a blessing 

rred on them by heaven, that the\ resolved to consecrate 
an anniversary, in remembrance of it, which they called the 
Feast of Orthodoxy *. 

{$ 1 6. Among the Lathis, image-worship did not obtain so 

I victory ; although it was warmly patronized h\ the 
Koman pontiffs. For the people of the West still maintained 
their ancient liberty of thinking for themselves, in matters of 
religion ; and could not be brought to regard the decisions of 
the Romish bishops as final and conclusive. Most «i t!i 
European christians, as we have seen, took middle ground 
between the Iconoclasts and the image-worshippers. For they 
judged, that the images DBght be tolerated, as helps t«> (he 
memory ; but denied, that any worship or honour was to be 
paid to them. Michael the Stammerer, emperor of the < rreeks, 
when he sent an embassy to Lewis the M B24, for 

the purpose of renewing the con federation with him. instnieted 
his ambassadors, if possible, to draw fair-is over to the side of 
the Iconoclasts. Lewis chose to have the subject thoroughly 
discussed by the bishojis, in the couneil assembled at Pai -i>, 
a. d. 824*. Tiny decided, that they ought to abide by the 

* Sea Jac. (JtvtHer, tVmit. in > 
num de Ofirii* Aul*t H Ecdnki 
$t<i*timtf: lib. iii. rap. viii. au-1 
t'rrrtmminU Ji^antimmm, lately pul- 
ludied by Keiske, lib. i. cap. 28. p. 92, 


* (* Fleury, I-o Seur, and the other 
trfflMfaina, plnec nnaniiUMUulT this coun- 
cil in tin-- MB 1125. — It may be proper 
to observe hflK| that the procn 

of this council evidently dnVj that 
the decisions of the Roman pontiff were 
by no mean* looked upon, at thi* 
either as obligatory or infallible. For 

when the letter of pope Adrian, in 
favour of images, was read in the 
council, it was almost unanimously 
rejected, an containing absurd and 
•rrOUMUl opinion*. The decrees of 
the second •• oi Nioe, rvlati: 
image-worship, were also eenaur> 
thr ii'allicau bishops ; and the autho- 
rity "f tluif council, though Mean 
Nnul pipes as an trammioai ooe, 
alwolutelv r, I \nd what is re- 
markable is, that tli. t, on 
this account, declare the GaJlimu l-i 
shops heretics, i: >hcm from 

• 11. III.] 



opinion** of the council of Francfort ; namely. (lie images 
i»|* Christ ami the saints uvre not indeed t<> bt OHJfl "lit of the 
temples, yet thai religious worship should by no means be paid 
to them. Gradually, however, the Kuropean ehmtnaOBflWi 
from this Opinion ; and the opinion of fehe Roman pontiff, 
whose influence was daily increasing, got possession of tlieir 
mindn Near tin cloaeuf the century, the Fzoneh lii^t derided, 

that some kind of worship might be paid t" the H igeflJ 

and the < m rmans, and others, followed tlieir example*. 

§ 17. Still there were some among the Latins, who inclined 
ti> tlie side of the Iconoclasts. The most noted of these, was 
bishop of Turin, a Spaniard l»v hirth, and educated 
under f'Vlijp of Crgel. As soon as the favour of Lewis the 
Moc k had nited him to the rank of bishop, in the year 
he cast all the crosses and sacred images out of the churches, 
and broke them. The next year, he published a book, not 
only defending the procedure, but advancing other princi 
also, which wore at variance with the opinions of the age. 
Among other tilings, he denied the propriety of worshipping the 
cross, vshieh the Greeks conceded; spoke contemptuously off 
.-.II <rts of relics, and maintained that they had no effic 
and (Unapproved of all pilgrimages to the tombs ■ .-tints 

and to holy j .laces. Be was opposed by the adherents to the 
inveterate ■uperstition ; and tiixt, by the abbot Thsoti- 

and afterwards, by J)unpal y Scotus, Jonas of Orleans, WaUtfnd 
Bimbo, and otln HB, liut this learned and ingenious man de- 
fended Hi bmm with energy*; and thence it was, that long 

tli. communion of tho npootolio see. 
BtS Floury, liv. xlrii. § 4." M 

* M inhtiUt Bern 

ii. p. 488. Idn. .let* Same- 

viii. I'ur. [.<• Cmnte, AnmtUt Bod. 

Fraaror. totn. iv. ad ami. 8*24 : and 
many other*. 

• M Umtl* Betudi*. 

UW. PrasC ad SajcuL. iv. sidvr. 
Harnett. ttol. fount, p. viii. l/utoire 
.( ir. f. 401. 
Ami i 

rated, Jae. Uusuage, J/utnire da 
BMm llrj'vrmrOf torn. L period, iv. p. 
88, A.r. M. in I bO Iw re- 

gretted, that we haw ouly those tcsti- 

monies of Claudius Against tho nwta> 

tuition* of Ua time, a : ."Men, 

and especially Jonas of Orleans, hsve 

1 fn»m liia writings. Vet in these 

than is much that is solid, 

and expressed in a nenrims and niaiUr 

style. Against images, he thu- 

prosscs himself: " If a man ought ""t 

works of Godj much 

leas should ha worslni ivace 

ihr works of num. — W |>octe 

ue from pidum, mu-i l> classed 

with i In wo mentioned Rom, i. who 

serve the crmtmre, more than tin- 

^t tin' eroasj and fcba 

wonhip of it, he tho* taught •. ' 

":. — CENTl-KY IV. 


■Iter bil llwrtih. there was less superstition in the region about 
'rutin, than in the other parts of Europe. 

$ 1M. Tlit- controversy, whieh commenced in the preceding 
century, f^QBOtikag the pnx-ession of the Holy Spirit from the 
Father and the Son, and respecting the words, and the Son, 
UooMS)) inserted by the Latins in the Con*tuntinopohtan 
creed, broke out with greater vehemence in this century ; 
and from being a private dispute, gradually became a public 
i-'Uitroversv of the whole Greek and Latin cluuvh. Th<- monks 
of Jerusalem contended about this matter, and particularly 
about the word* BWogmj and one of their number, John, was 
despatched into France, to the emperor Charlemagne, a. n. 
This subject was discussed in the council of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, in this year ; and alio at Rome, before the pontiff 
111., whither Charlemagne had sent envoys. Leo III. 
approved the doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit 
from the Son ; but dis-ipprnw-d of the alteration of the . 
and wished the words J''iliotjue to be disused by degrees". And 
his successors held the same sentiments ; but the interpo- 
lation, being once admitted, retained its place, in spite of 
tlie pontiHs, and at leugth was received by all the Latin 
churches *. 

has commanded us to hear the cross ; 
not to /■'-'«_'/ I" it. ThoM aiv wil 
pray to it, whit arc unwilling to bear 
if, other in tin spiritual or in tin.' literal 
■owe. Thus to woi>1 ii] in fact 

to depart from him.' - i M fk» po 
said, (whan ioonwd for not yielding to 
hia authority,) « //. i» n..| t.'. be called 
too Apottoilcal* (* till,, then eoin- 
'. given to the Pop.,) •• who -it* 

in tin- ;i|K'Ni]<j's rliair; hut In- who 
forms the dutic* of mi isoetfc. ['or, 
of those who bold that place, yet do 
mil 1 <| u - Kurd soya : 

hTeojn*ooa»jfro,** Bob btabon 

Joua .. in tin- Bil 

. Mas. Lii<t-t. ton* \iv. p. 10ft 

- ■ Staph, Ualuze, Ml' 
vii. p. 14. 1'1'hi oi.cHsion of Uibtrana- 

ii was as follows: rouio I'; 
nionk-j, n-> id I ru<$alcuj a* pil- 

. nhanten the their 

wondup, m era 

que. The Greeks ccusiirt-d thwen- 
and the Franks sought the pro* 
and the determination of the einj 
* [The u a a fa r e o ca portal 

i!iv(.\s with pOM I. ni III., ia still 

extant, in HaxtUrin's C W oafc to n o/ O hio 

cih, fin. r. I-. iiyo. \i'. From thi* it 

appears, that Leo was displeased, not 

with the dootrin 

unauthorix'.'i tnti rpolatinM d 

and disapproved I 

the council eon* 

tirnuttion of which wa 
tlw nnpi rial BOVO 111., 

ina Ifti. i to Photaua, wonaatfll funln r; 
for hu called tin* cxprcaeUon, th..' 

II "In I 

Mon| • ■ ' lition of it 

wan Kttondad >vith dillicultv and Mi 

9 See Carl. L< 
Longu< vul. J/iy. 

i. p. lol, and th'' other 

• 11. 111.] 



§ 19. To these nni'ii nt controversies, new ones were ad 
MBODg the Latins. The first was, respecting ' 
whii-li bbe ImkIv and Mood <>!' Christ arc present in tin- simi] 
Upper. Though all christian- 1, that the body and 

blood of Christ MR presented to the communicants in the 
Lord's Supper, yet up to this time their views had beta 
various and fluctuating, respecting the RMMMP in which the 
body and Hood of I .'hrist arc present ; nor had any council 
ribed a definite faith on the subject. But in this century. 
Patch' l VMM /.'/<//"/ v. ■ monk and abbot of Corbev, in his 
treatise on the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, 
written ,\. d. 831, at d to give more clearness and 

stability to the views of the church 1 . Cpou the presentation 
of tliis book, enlarged and improved, to Charles the Bald, in 
the year 845, a great dispute arose out of it. Pascltasius 
taught, in general, that in the Lord's supper, after the OOnBfr 
ii, these remained only the form and appearance of bread 
and nine ; and that the real body, or the flesh and blood of 
Christ, were present ; and indeed, the identical body, that teas 
born of the virgin, suffered on ike cross, and arose from the tomb*. 

th above gited. [The pope had 
not, either in tli«' eighth century, or tin- 
fore part of the ninth, each inlli. 
Mid authority over the Spanish and 
French churches, as to he able t- 1 
pd them directly to expunge the inter* 
potation, tkkl. \ 

Itl Mabillon, AnnaUs Bntaiut. 
torn. ii. p. 699. The treatise of Pas- 
chairius wan published in a more accu- 
rate manner than before, by Edm. Mar- 

. AtHtJimma 1'ulitttiu Vtter. tkriy- 
lor. torn. ix. p. 978, lea The life and 
character of Paachaaiu* are formally <<f by Mahlllo metor. 

liened. Sneeul. hr, pfc ii. \>. I2ii, 
in die Acta 
tiaatior. Antw. ad diem 26. Api 
and by many otli- 

irpon t.i conceptions of 

I s body and blood 

in tin.- vucliariat ha<l | \>t\- 

- i* •-•! , jirnl 

aii ojl ^roaa 

>>\ved. no one bad before used; nor 
had any carried thrir concertinos bo 
far. In his liook, </. | Qbja> 

gtiine Domini, he aayu: Licet tigura 
pani» <-t vini hi.- nit, ..amino nihil 
quam caro et sanguis post conseemti. 
oiuin credenda sunt — uec alia (caro) 
quam qiuu uata eat de Maria, pama in 
cruee, resurrexit de f | hiee, 

inquam, ipaa «*t, it Idea dotal cam 
est, ^ikr pro vita mumii mOme 
offeriur. Schl. — " Tria |K>tis>iinnin do- 
c»t in Iiik: open l*ascluu»ius: DjBlfML 
Veruui < llmnini corpus, Vi-rum* 
que sanguineni existerc in tuuictiMMino 
fucliari"tiie aacramento: i'ania el rial 
auhatantiam, facta consecration. - ? nofl 
superesac: dcuiquc, I pawn corpus nnn 
alind cmh.', qiuim «ju<wl dc Maria Vir- 

aatum em" 
Ik*-' 'hill. <rt ooon 

great contest is, whether Radbert waa 
or not a rash ■peculator, who pal f..rth 
opinions bitherto unsdinit' 

vital to modern komanin 
>iu that be m 
I able than 



iL'RY IX. 

[PABT 11. 

This doctrine seemed to many, to bo new and strange ; and 
illy tlir last part of it. Rabanus Ma-urns therefore, 
MeribitM, and others, op]>osed it ; but on cliff* I < mills. 

And tin 1 • i'h,irl>.< the Bald, commanded two m» 

distinguished learning and talents, Hat mm n and John Scot us, 
to give a true exposition of that doctrine ulmli Uadbmi was 
supposed to have corrupted 3 . Iloth of thi-m did to ; but thr 
work of Scot it* is b>st ; and that of Jut t ram u. which is >till 
extant, has givon occasion tfl much disputation, both in fornur 
ages, and in the present *. 

§ *J(>. The writn-s uh«i en-raged in this controversy, were 
not agreed among themselves, nor were they self-consistent 
throughout their respective treatises. Iml 
the controversy, Iiadbert himself, was lacking in co 
and not unfi'iMjueiitly recedes, manifestly, from what he had 
asserted. His principal antagonist, Bertram or Rairamn y seems 
in general, to follow those who think, the body and blood of 
Christ are not truly present in the eucharist, but are only 
rep r ese nt ed by the bread and wine ; and yet he has passages, 
which appear to depart widely from that sentiment ; and 
it is not without some plausibility, that be bai been 
understood and explained diversely 5 . John Scotus only, as 

distinct i-mmctntor of a doctrine ever 
li"i<l- ii liv the chuivh. Ifabflko argues 
that a man of hit* learning must nfl 
known what the church thought. 
never could have been ao impudent as 
to f< iiiii reception for a belief which 

tin- rliuri-h did not entertain. He con- 
frwM-s, hot ndvenmries of 

Radbert's l»ook arone after a few years, 
Init he pronounces their exceptions to 
have been of a peculiar nature, unap- 
proved bj i I 

indeed rtjsoted bvtiwm, ami suggested 
not so much by the tiring it*elf, a* hv 
certain modes of speaking. Hut such 
representation* do not with 

tin- speedy afipQ»ASC4 of Ratramn and 
John Scot's tract*, under royal patron- 
age, n«>r with Raban Maur'a dt'iiuncta- 
tiin of Rndbeft'l theory as an error 
ami a norrUy. The archbishop <<f Mcniz 
was, perhaps, the most celebrated pre- 
1 fallowing Mabillon'H 
. it may be said, that 
he must have known what the church 

then thought, and BOTOX could liavc 
baan m> hrniMoni as to tax tliat with 
novelty wtUk had notorknialy been 
established time iminetnorial. ML) 

* Concerning Ratr.. nun, 

and his book, uiiith has caused to 
much discussion, see Jo. Alb. Fabri- 

i-iiiH, JViU'tUh, hit. ,M in. J. 

j>. Vol] fcc. [Concerning Katranin's 
book, there has been dispute as i 
genuineness, some ascribing it to John 
Scotua, and also as to the doctrine it 
contains. Tin- I ut holies would make 
itteach tranaub«tantiati..!i; tin- I. 
ana, consobstantiation ; and the Re- 
formed, only a mystical or sacramental 
p re se nce of ChrbL / 

4 This controversy is described at 
Icngtli rliout pari 1 

lUtuii. [tom. vi. ] ,S:ecul. iv. pt. ii. p. 
*i;i. teii With him, compare Jac. 
Basuage, Hidvire oV CEglm, toui. i. p. 
1 ( Bertram s Treatise, in s new 

I II. III.] 



being a philosopher, expressed his views perspicuously and 
•rly : teaching, that the bread and wine an.' signs and rc- 
prmntatiws of the absent body and blood of Christ. All the 
nthwn fluctuate, and assert in one place what they gainsay in 
another, and reject at one time what they presently after 
maintain. Among the Latins, therefore, in this age, there 
was not yet a determinate, common opinion, as to the mode in 
whieh the liodv and blood of Christ are in the eucharist. 

§ 21. The disputants in this controversy, as is common, 
taxed each other with the odious consequences of their opinions. 
The most considerable of these consequences, was that which, 
m the eleventh century, was denominated stercoranism. Those 
who held, with Radbert. that after tlie consecration, only the 
forms of bread and wine remained, contended, that from the 
entiments of their adversaries, who l>elie\ed that in the holy 
upper there was nothing more than the figure or signs of 
Christ's body and blood, this consequence would follow, namely, 
that the body of ( hrist was WIHJlwd from the bowels, with 
the other tieees. Oil the Other hand, those who i |> d the 
transmutation of the bread and wine into the body and blood 
fist, taxed ftl 4 tliis doctrine, with the same 

quence. Each party, probably, casts this reproach upon 
the other, without reason. The crime of st&rcoranism, if we 
io not mistake, was a fabricated charge; which coul I 
justly fall on those who denied the conversion of the bread 
into the body of Christ ; but which might be objected to those 
who Inhered in such a transmutation, although it was pro- 
bably DOVer admitted, by any one who was in his right mind''. 

Engli'li translation, was published at 

". 1763; uii'l with a learned 

ilaUirical Dim*- 1 1 Ma- 

!<>r. Mflrf, Il.n-,l. toni. 

I'nef. p. xxx. Ac.) OffeaOeO. tri- 

nphautlv, tin- garaineoeas or the 

i then goes into aa elaborate 

:i (ipputation to 

Jonil n.\nil«', that tli» author waa a 

■ *rw<v. Dm 

'"') ami can tain*, 

d, ilwi Dr. Mn 
*tat»«d the character ami content* of 
tliat work. Tr | 

■ Respect im; tin- S(< reoraniata, see 
Juhn Mahillon, Aria NN. Ord. BeutA. 
vi.] Pnrf. ad J>. ii. p. 

x.x i. Jtn\ Ua»Mai*i', If'uivi- 

p. 112*5, .-- | late 

tn:it.-.- of th-- ronorahto HWf.Tol 
1760. 4t". (It ia not caay to I 
mine the preciae form of Uiu indecent 
charge, aa advanced by either party. 
Th- Imlievera in trananbntantiationBup- 
I the sacramental c lemon ta not to 
paaa through the human liody like or* 
dinirv alimenta, but to In-come wholly 
tuoorpurated oil & i of th-' 

communicant*; no th'<< l '•iaci- 

b justly charged 




§ 22. At the very time the sacramental controversy was at 
£gfal, another coiitm\ers\ qttaag njt, which related to 
t/icinL< prate and predestination. Godeschalcus, a Saxon of 
nohle birth, and, against hie own choice, a monk, first at 
Fulda, and then at Qrbais in France ; upon his return from 
a journey to Rome, in the year 847, lodged with his friend, 
(and perhaps also, relative.) count Elwrald ; and there, in 
presence of X<>tJt',t,>ws. biafctOp of Verona, entered into discus- 
sion ITIH¥Tiinff predestination; and maintained, that Ood liad 
predestinated, from eternity, some to efWlUHting life, and 
others to the punishments of hell. When his enemy, I.'ifanus 
Mounts, In ani of this, he first by letter charged him with 
heresy ; and afterwards, when (wodesehaleui came from Italy to 
Germany, in order to purge himself, and appeared bflfora t In* 
council of Maye nee, a. d. 848, M aunts procured his condem- 
nation, and transmitted him, as one found guilty, to JJinrmar, 
archbishop of Bhsmfl in France 7 . Hincuinr, who was a friend 

with stereoranism. On the contrary, 
the oppoecre of transubatantiation sap* 
posed the substance of the saci .> 
tal elements to undergo the ordinary 
changes in the stomach and bowels of 
the communicant; ho that by assuming 
that these lhnitllfr liad becotn 
real body and hlood of Christ, 

-<1 with stereoranism; 
but it was only by assuming wha' 

mnmmbr denied, namely, (he truth 

<>f the (ioi-triii« M tran«ubstantiatioii. 
Thus ii'itlirr party could Ik- ju»tly 
taxed with this odious consequ 

• t a dextrous disputant, by resort- 

• a litUe perversion of his antago- 

ht easily cast upon him 
this vulgar and unseemly reproach. 
Tr. — The justice of this reproach is. 
however, distinctly admitted by Mnhil- 
lon. ^Teat prin- 

eipl« B by Kadbert, he says: 

'• Ad hiec, tria alia ex his consequentia 
ilfK. : mm in mydrrio 

quotidU wracUer imnwlari ; eucharis- 
tiara ft tcniatetH tmt d f-jHram ; 
que aeccMui obnoxiani mm esse." Am- 

'.WkW. torn. ii. p. 638. Thus this 
I-- really i)"t L.ft tin- 

I I I.'. BinTwffl liimself. It was 
nol, lad— d. Utah t<> ba tmnlool 
the gross diartiMions of such an age as 

hi-). He may be readily considered as 
•: lso than the formal enunriator 
positions which had obi 

rrency: tli.-ir authority is a 
very different question, lor then 
rency it is easy to account. The father* 
have intcnuiui;h-d with much unfa- 
vourahle to transubstantiation, many 
things tliat its advocates find highly 
serviceable, their object seemingly being 
to draw a atroug line of distinction be- 
tween the consecrated elements and 
DQSlfbod; l»n tiling which scoffers 
and the thoughtless would be im 
liable to < As critical dia- 

cernmcut declined, aud superstition 
advanced, such language could hardly 
fail of passing with many for assertions 
of sensilii--, though veiled divinity, in 
lis themselves, Bs\\ 
' Nothingus, by letter, gave Raha- 
nus an account of the tenets advanced 
by Godeschalcus. Upon this, 1 Li ban us 
wrote a long letter to .and 

another to . !d, loading the 

sentiments of Godeschalcus with re- 
proaches. Godeschalcus, ther ; 
set out immediately for Germany , in 
order to vindicate his assailed princi- 
ples. On his arrival at Mayeiiev, he 
pNMnlad to Knhanus his tract on a 
! prwlsellnetinii. Rahman 

(ii. m.] 

Kl-.l.lOinX AND THV.OI.OGY. 


of Rabanus, condemned him anew, in a council held at 
('hii rs4'v, a. n. 849 ; and as he would not minuncr his senti- 
nionts. which lie said, and said truly, 1 ><\ Avpwtint, 

deprived ham of bm prieetty offioe; orctaed him to 

hipped, till he should throw the statement he had made 
at Majanoe into tin* Hames; and then committed him U) 
prison, in the monastery of Haiit\illicrs\ In this prison, the 
unluippv iiuiriK. who waa ■ man of learning, but high-minded 

this before a synod ; w | . 

the acntim 

not venture to punish Godesch. 

because he did not Datona to their 

juruHlU-tioii, but to that of Kheims. 

■\acted from tiim an 
oath, not to it turn again to tin- terri- 
tories of king Lewis ; and Cranan 
I'ii ii, roer, to Hincmar, the 

archbishop of Kheims. The synodal 
epistlo 'if liahsmi-H acci>m| .a living the 
prisoner, contained this statu. 

l it known to your gladness, that a 
certain vagabond monk, naim iG 
scale 1 , who says lie was ordained priest 
oi \iiur diocese, came from Italy to 
tf yi"i introducing new sujK-iMi- 

bhe pradestination of I 

ig the people into error ; sttirm- 

inu BHt tin- | n-destination of G-> 

l.i(-'l i" • r'il ui will as to ourxi ; and 

tlmt there are sonic- in lbs world, who 

M n-elaim tlunim lv.-* from their 

1 1 and sins, on account of the pre- 

.. .1. which ei m 
' on to destruction ; as if God had, 
made them ui 
rigible and obnoxious to perdition, 
i therefore, in a 
synod bald find- 

ing the man irreclaimable, with the 
consent and dtreetioo of oar most 

to transmit i<r with bin per- 

demnation ; may put him in 

coofinemi • from 

h he has irregului . and 

that yon may not suffer him any 
to U*eh error, and seduce christian 
peoj.l liars learn- 

lias alresit a are 

negligent of their salvation, and who 
aay : Wliat will it profit m <■• 

myself iu the service of (i I |:. 

1 1 I am predestinated to death, 
I can never enc*!*- it ; but if pn 
nated to life, alth wickedly. 

I shall undoubtedly obtain eternal 
rest. In fl nttdw, Wl have 

written to iwu, doaeribing what we 
found his < ■ !• • , " flbe. See 

Hardum's Concitia, torn. *. p. 15, 10. 


• [The sentence upon < .' .hsehalcus, 
passed by the s\ iersey, was 

Uiuh worded : " Brother Gotescalc, 
know thou, that the holy U0M of the 
sacerdotal ministi > , wnmi thou hast 
irregularly usurped," (because, in a 

tained ordination of the sul.-lii-hop of 
Kheimh.) " ami bant not (band hitherto 
to abuse, by wicked manners and nets, 
and by corrupt doctrines ; 
tin- decision of the Holy ^>irit, (..f 
whose grace the sacerdotal office is the 
administration, by virtue of the I 
of our Lord Jesus Christ,) taken from 
thee ; it tli . and 

tli-iu art utterly prohibited from ever 
i ruing again to exercise it. More- 
Imcause thou hast presumed, con- 
trary to the design and the name of a 
monk, ami d ocleeiastieaJ law, 

t«. unite ami < (band the civil and ec- 
clesiastical vocations ; we, by our epis- 
doj ill awth - ii-ir -. . it ■ p . tlmt tli.-ii bi 

whipped with very SSI (du- 

iub), ami, aeeardlng to 
ecclesiastical rules, be kIhii op in pri 
son. And that thou HO BON B* 
(.. ■nrcisu the functions "i i teacher, 

. im- 
pose perpetual si 
See llsrdiiin, uIh mym, p. 'it). 

i- BXMUtl d without mil 

lion. TV. | 

HOOK 111.- 


[PA1T II. 

and |>ortinaeious. • • 1 1 « 1 « . 1 his days, in the year 868 or 869 ; 
retaining firmly, till his last breath, the sentiment* he had 

$ '2.*>. While Godetchalcus remained in prison, the Latin 
church was involved in controversy on his account. For dis- 
tingtBBhed and discerning -h as Bi I nrbey, 

tomekntiiu «.if Troyes, L w p m of 1-Vrn»".vs, Ffonu i daneon of 

Lyons, and Pemigius bishop of Lyons, together with his wfaole 
church, and many others, Mended with energy, bott orally 
and in writing, either the person or the sentiments of the monk. 
On the other hand, llincmar his ju.l Julm 

.rated philosopher, and others, by their writings, 
contended that lw>th he and his opin ions were justly dealt with. 
As the spirit (if controversy waxed hotter continually, Charles 
the Raid, in the year sr>:>\ ordered another oonventios ne 

council to he held at Chicrsey ; in which, through theinHi 
of f/incmar, the decision of the former council was confin 
and Godeschaleus was again condemned as a heretic \ But in 

• [In this couniil, tin- npposors of 
GodeachalrtiK act forth tkrir creed, in 
respect to the • itrinee, in 

tin- four following articles ; the. 

:ited man, with- 
out Min, uprignt, endued with free will; 
anil placed liim in Paradise ; and pur- 
posed his continuance in the holiness 
of uprightness. Man, ahu^ing free 
will, tunned, and fell, and the whole 
Imnian race became a maw of enrnip- 
li'in. but the good and righteous 
Qod elected, out Of tlmt mam of per- 
dition. MOnvdlBg to hi* foreknowledge, 
those whom be predestinated un; 
through grace, and foreordained eter- 
nal life for them : but the others, 

•iit.uuH Jaikueul ho 

lt-ft in the mass of perdition, nefortm* 

would pOlHl | l-nt .I'll not ('■■r. 

Out tlnv should |«erish ; yet, being 
lined eternal punish- 
ment to Ik* their jmrtinti. And thus 
we affirm but one predestination of 
God, which relate* either to the tr«f» of 
Grace, ur to Uie rctrihutions of jus- 

II. W« lost freedom of will in the 
first man ; which we recover by 
Christ, our Lord : and we hare free 
will to good, when prevented and aided 

by (Trace ; and have free will to eril 
whcn/or&ifera of grace. That we liars 
free will, is because we are made free 
by grace, and arc healed of corru | 

by it. 

III. A lmig h ty God wills, that all 
men, withoul exception, oVNiH become 
saved ; and vet all men will not be 
saved. And that some are saved, 
arises from the gratuity of him who 
saves ; but that 00OS |M-ru»h, ariur* 
from tlu-ir desert of perdition. 

IV. As there never was, is, or will 
l»e, n man, whose nature was not as- 
sumed by our Lord Jesus Christ : so 
there never was, is, or will be. a man, 
for whom Christ has not died ; and 
this, notwithstanding all are not re- 
deemed by the mystery of his passion. 

do o mod I'V flu' mys- 
tery of his passion, i-- nut owing to the 
f limited] magnitude and value of the 
price ; hut is tin- fault of, 
or of them who do DOt helieve with the 
faith that works by bve, K<«r the cup 
of human salvation, which il pVOvMofll 
for our weakness, and has dh lot •-•tfi- 
eacy, contain* what might benefit all ; 
but if it be not drunken, it wi!' 
produce healing. 

These doctrinal articles were agreed 

CH. III.] 



tin* jmr S55 u iim kfavas provinetB of Lv«»ns. Viniini i, iml rt ilw, 

OkUed in council at Valence, IU'immm presiding, and set 
forth Oth tans, in OppOftHJOD to those of O lueiaay, and 

defended the came of Godesc/tatcus ' . With the decisions of 

Mlb Lof fhie.rscy, a. u. 863; 

UiOOgl iee attributed' t>i tin' 

i! of Chleney fa dm fOmv flw. 
and printed as such in Ilarduiii. 

p. IK, 19 ) compare p. .*>7- 

1 The council nf Valence published 
v-throe canons; /lev of which 
contain the doctrinal views of the 
frii odn anil defex 

i i - •! it in. ' • •• ■ •'<>'. lam. v. p. «7t &c. 
These fi»i< tnfaOM m loo wing to be 
inserted bar*, without some abi 

Tho substance of them is as 

i.'. : 

II. "Tliat God foresees, and 

i illv foresaw, V.oth Km Rood which 

the righteous will ]«erform. and tho 

eril which the wicked will 'I"." I)an. 

• « W, hold fiuthl 
it fliMitM I 1 1 •saw, that 

jgHtOQUl would certainly become 
righteous through hi* grace ; and by 
the same grace itam eternal 

blessedness : and he foresaw, that e In- 
wicked would be wicked through their 
own pcrtccseness ; and would !>«• nob 
aa in : I by his iu 

ting to 
Pa. Wii. 12, and Book ii. 7—ii, and 
2 Thvss. i. 7—10. ■ Nor has the pre- 

iv bad 
man a niwinfy, that he ram • 
than bad ; but, what ho would become 
\i\ Itifl ow ii fr> ■ iod, as one 

who known all ih 
to pass, foresaw, by his 
and unchangeable uiajrso . 
■n believe tluit any one is condemned 
by a divin * .nt accord- 

inn to the deserts of his own « i 
nesa. Nor do the wicked jierish, be* 
eanse thev cvnl<l nut become good ; but 
•tlil pj<l become good, 
and tl i fault rein 

' condemnation, or in 

( '. HI. " ' destination 

Apoi bl, SI 


the elect unto life ; and a predestina- 
tion of ma ii. But in 
th<- oleetjoa of than to bo saved, the 
mercy of God /««/« their good de- 
serts ; and in tin- condemnation of 
those who are to perish, their ill dnrrU 
precede the righteous judgment of 
In bis pn I only 
i mined what he himself would do, 
either in his gratuit* >r in 
his righteous jadgmi nt."' — ■ In tho 

I, In- /'irwiir their wiekiil 
batmm it is from themselves ; hi 

ii not from 

him. The parisfament, indeed, conse- 

i moor ill desert, he foresaw, 

.-i God who foresees all things ; 

and also predating, because he is a 

juat God, with whom, as St. Augustine 

says, there is both a Bsod purpose, 

and a certain foreknow ledge, in regard 

to all thing* whatever."— " But that 

some are pndatinated to icidudttaa. by 

■OTj mi (hnt tktif cannot be of 

euHjtker ekoratttr, wo not only do nut 

re those wh- 

i e so great a wrong, we, a> 

■"■il of Orange, with all de- 
testation, dtelttr* tkem amathtma." 

Can. IV. In this canon they disap- 
proved the sentini' ntH of MHWj who 
bold "that the blood of « 'hri»t was 
vh. >\, even for those ungodly ones who 
had been punished with eternal damna- 
tion, from me beginning of tho 

briars passion." Ami 
price was paid 
••f whom our Lord has 
said : ' As Moses lifted DP the ser- 
pent," \. '.-rrlh 

fa him; fte, Jol I ti 

\ postle says : Christ was 
offered to boor tho sins of ma*; 
" Morooi • lea, adopted 

without duo com 

. mint tT their inutility, and in- 
tbeir inj' 
error, contrary ti i Ii ; as also 

"i her, (of i 
set forth in nineteen syllogi 

I oast, 


ROOK 111.- 

ixrtnv F\. 

r 11. 

(ho council of Valence, peinoided those of the couneil of 
Langres, a. d. 4-5JJ. composed of the same provinces; and 
likewise those of the council of Toul, a. d. 860, composed of 
the bishops of fourteen provinces'. On the chat h of (rodti- 
fffitfrfrif) the author of the contest, this vehement contr.- 
subsided 1 . 

§24, Thfl cause of Gadtschalcua is involved in some ob- 
scurity; and many ami eminent men have appeared, I- ; 
his patrons, and as his accusers. He taught, unqu«'Stioii,d>lv, 
that then.- Ls a two-fold j.redi stination, tin- one to eternal life, 
and the other to sternal death ; that God does not will the 
salvation of all nun. but only of* the eleot ; and that Christ 
suffered death, not for the whole human race, but only for tliat 

portion of it, to which God •' benal sahati.m. His 

friends put a favourable (HOSlniclion upon these propositions ; 
and they deny, that he held those whom God predestinated to 
eternal punishment, to l>o also predestinated to sin and guilt. 
On the contrary, they maintain, that he taught only this, that 
God from «t. -niity condemned those who, he foresaw, would 
become sinners ; and condemned them, on account of their 
sins voluntarily committed; and decreed, that the fruits of 
GtocTfl 1"\«- and of Christ's sufferings should extend only to the 
elect; notwithstanding, the love of God and the suffering of 
Christ, in themselves considered, have reference to <<<'' men. 
But his adversaries fiercely contend, that he concealed gross 

Unit tluy art- not the result of philoso- 
|»li\, UN appears t4» ho rather tho 
fabrication of the devil, than an ex- 
hibition of thi- faith ; we wholly ex- 
plode, km not to be listened to by the 
faithful ; and we enjoin, bjf the autho- 
rity nf tliL' Huly Spirit, that such, nml 
all similar statements, be looked upon 
a* dangeroan, and (o Ik avoid- d. Ami 
the introducer* of (»uch) uorelties, we 
judge, ought to be censured." 

Can. V. This canon maintain - 
necessity of a saint's persevering in 
bolinesv, in iinhr to lux nab;. 

Can. VI. In regard to Raving grace, 
**aml free will, which was impaired by 
•in, in the first raan ; but ia recovered 
and made whole again by Jcxum Christ, 
in all befimm in liii. iineil 

held with various councils and panlUh; 
ami n idl v. ml. .| !._<, various 

persona." 7>.] 

3 [The fivo doctrinal QMOOl of the 
council of Valence, were adopted, with- 
out site rat is of Lan- 
grea and of Toul. See Hu I 
oil. torn. v. p. 481, &c. 408. 

1 Besides the common writers, an 
impartial history of thi* controversy is 
pr an by Ctrsar Egasso do R 
Higtoria -J Paris, torn. i. p. 

178,o.e., by Jo. Main So««- 

iL iv. 
pt. ii. Pnef. p. \lviL in the Ill-tour 
Liu, nin •/• In V'Yii*«v, torn. v. p. 362. 
bv Ja<-. Usher, Uut 
Hanov. INS. Bva, and Dtxblin, l«31. 

Ho. ; and \,y (lerh. Jo. Vosmiuh, //i#f.>- 
/.1, lib. vii. cap. iv. Add 

.)... All.. Pabricras, BibUoti. L<U.M«iii 

. torn. iii. |i. Jlo, 




etron ondef wuMgomm pluoouulogy ; and in particular, that 

it believed, that God has predestinated the 
persons who will be damned, not only to suffer punishment, hut 
pTcewioi to UOIUUlil the sins by wliicli thc\ incur that punish- 
iiK-Mt *. This, at least, mm to be incontrovertible, that the 

true DOOM of this whole controversy, and of all the sufK | 

•adored by bhe iirtunry flflrfiwAnfttMij may bf traced to the 

private enmity, existing between him ami l Maurtu, 

who was hi- ahhot \ 

§ 2."). With this great controversy, another smaller one was 

interwoven, relative to tkt //!/" Ood, In the churches owe 
which he pivsid'-d. // brbftde the " ft y i> g nf the last 

wurds of I v. r\ alien at hymn : T< >>ita$^ vmaque ]D08- 

; [Of thee, ferine Deity, yet one, we nek, In.] on the 

■ground, that this phraseology subverted the simplicity of the 
divine nature, and implied the « \istence ol <l*. The 

did not obey Hue mandate of ffinc% 
ami one of their number. /,' >\rote a considerable 

volume, made up, according t<» the custom of the a_ 
quotations from the ancient doctors, in defence of a trin* 
n.ii.i < reoemng information of this dissen-ion, 

while iii prison, sent fortli a paper, in which he defended the 
causeof his fullow monks. Far this, he was accused by Jlinci/utr 
of ZVnMm; and was confuted in a book written expressly 
fbr tliar purpose. Hut thi> controversy s:>on subsided ; and 

Rw i'jiu.hij of (jndesclialcus ia 

■ ll>, in an appropriate 

• i Mauguin ; who pub- 

■ ■ 

lliih ■ ■■■ i. ached as, 


Veimtm Aurtormm, qui mono *»- 
v«6*iaaf«»M a Gntti* tariff- 
rrrn, ' ,<ynvnf<i,f«ui //urfonVi 


i ■ >• M<nr\ 

;'■'%* Hidor 

l». C77, A< 

a, All the Bo- 
il**, and J.-» 
t»i* muintuni. tlmt Godt-«chalcu» wa*» 
moat unju«tly oppressed and pet— 
anted l»> ltahaniiM and ' Th« 

Jnmttl ImI 


of them, Lewis I 

printed, Paris, l 1 i labours to 

show, that Godeachalcua wan moat 
•deachak-us, who wan commiit- d 
to tin* monastery •>{ I'iiMh Is bin 
parents, * Ink an infant, agreeably to 
...-.•. when ho i»tcanw 
• d to abandon a monastic 
lilf. Hut Rahanus retained linn, con- 
trary to hiit wmhes. I -da 
groat cont< h waa 
barminnted intoipodl 
Lewb Diane : 


an<i '•' ^**aLa /?«->. 

nun. U29. p. 523. 




in spite "1' Hiucmars efforts, those wonLs retained their place in 
the hymn*. 

sj ^h*. About tin* BOM time another controversy found its 
way from Germany into France, relative to the manner in 
which the blessed Saviour issued bom the wonihorhU mother. 

Some of the Germans maintained that Jem Christ did not 
proceed from tin- womb of Mary, according to the 

M in the CAM of other ptMOBB, but in a singular and 
extraordinary manner. When this opinion reached France, 
Ratramn opposed it ; and maintained that Christ came into 
the world in the way which nature has provided. J 

ii came forth in defence of the Germans, maintaining in 
a distinct that Christ was born, with no e\p:uiM"D f£ 

liis motharii body; and charging those who thought othen 
with denying the virginity of Marx. Hut this also was a short 
controversy, and gaM w;iy to greater ones'. 

$ -7. Of all the controversies that disturbed thi> 
the most famous and the most unhappy was, that which severed 

the Cheek and Latin churches. The biahope of I' 

Constantinople had long indulged, and soi deo mani- 

fested, great jealousies of each other. Their mutual animosit s 
became violent from the times of /_,»** the Isaurian [a. n. 716 — 
7HJ. when the bishops of Constantinople, supported by the 
authority :md patSOOageof the [Greek | emperors, withdrew 
many provinces from their subjection to the see of Rome'. 

* See the writer* «.f tin- Mrtsiy of 
ohalctift, who alao toueh opon 

7 S«t? Liicaa d'Ath.rv. Spic'dnf. 
reteruw frriptontin, torn. i. p. BSdi, 
Jo. M '"f. Ord. I' 

[torn, vi-1 Sa-cul. i\. |.t. ii. lV.t-f. [>. Ii., 

\ft. r riving mm tmH of iMi con- 
r*jr, Mnhili- ic his- 

of another, between Ratramn and 
Pawhasiiw Kadhcrt, respecting the 
unity of hunuin nsnfci The eontro- 
rerwy was of s«hort continuance, and 
■oenu to have arisen from a adm 
fltandintr of each oil er, in eaanai 
of their not clearlv diseriniiiuitiii. 
tween numerical unity and n t} 
unity. See Munition, vK rupni, |>. liii., 
Ate. — There was another contr<>\ i 
Charlemagne, respecting 

term-fold tfrace of the Spirit. Charle- 
magne asked the opinion of several 

ipe, whether I 
reeeive the sain 

of the Hotj Spirit. 'I'll' > idsu 
that Christ receh 

! ut that btliaivn rt-ceiri* 
each I r ,jij). The emperor, 

dissatisfied with their answer, v i 

h iet, i" i""- '. ii at ' >-.< -; received ill 
the rifts of the Spirit at once, an 

perjxtuum, without change ina 
or diminution : hut that betierera did 
not to reeeive them, though 
in some degree snjoy tin 
possession of them all. & 
I'r>*irtinwi. >ls limt'ui teytifarmi* 
rit*'t. s.D. 1755. 

• See liiannone. Jl'utoirr de Xttplm, 
i. p. 63ft. fl46. Peter de Marcs, 

i u. in. | 



But in the ninth century, the llOJthegid tire which had been 
burning in secret, broke out into an gnu flame upon occasion 
of the elevation of* Ph> most learned Greek of tlie age, 

to sue. « «l the deposed Ignatius in flu sec of Constantinople, 
by the emperor Michael, a.d. 852 [rather a D. BBS] ; and the- 
continuation of that elevation, as regular and BO lTO O t , by the 
council of Constantinople, in the year 861 '. Pear the Roman 
1 ». mt i !IL Nieolam L, whose aid had beeu .solicited by I'tnatto, 
in a eouncil at Home, a.d. 80S, pronounced Pkatiut (whose 

ion he maintained was uncanomVal), together \\ it li his 
adherents, to be unworthy of christian counnunion. This 
thunder was so far from terrify in _' that he gave hull 

ame measure he had received , and in return eveonummi- 

>laus, in the oaams Mtentinopfeof the year 866. 

^ 2d. The pretence Ear the war which Nicolawi I. com- 

(1, was the justice of the cause of Ignatius; whom the 

emperor had deprived of his BPTEOOpal office, upon a charge, 

true or false, of treason. But Nicolau* would have heen 

unconcerned about the injury done to Iftnatiu*, if lie could 

have recovered frorn the <Jreek emperor and from P/tofiir?. the 

•ices taken from the Roman pontiff by the Greek, namely 

lllyricum. Macedonia. Kpirus, Achaia, Thessaly, and Sicily. 

For he had before demanded them through his envoys at Con- 

Vml when the G aid no regard to his 

demand, he retorted to avenge his own, nither than A>, 

wn Mm, 

vj 28. In the midst of this warm conflict, llml the Mace- 
donian, a parricide, who had usurped the empire of the I ; - 
suddenly I M For he recalled A om exile, 

and ciumiiaiidi d /'//.. , life. This 

ion of the emperor was confine oil assembled 

i ' '« •ustantinoplo. \.i>. No'fi, in which the legates of the |>\ 

pontiff, Hadrian II.. had controlling influence 1 . The Latins 

de (hntard'mt 8momiot. *i |m 

cap. | •runt 

CflrMflMMj loin, i. p. N 

• [Some ••( tlw Hrcelo call this a 

ijfiwntl council. 1 1 waa attended by 

I its decrc<<a wt-re mib- 


I In Acta ni>« \o*t ; !>ably 

been destroyed by the adherent* to 
Ijfnati W | i li - A 

• Tl , i .i ,■:. -, .if llu- 

•mttwavj in mm Alb. 

Fabn< cap. 

xxaviii p Jfl 

R 2 



[PA*T II. 

will this the eighth general council. The religious contest 
between th- Greeks and Latins now ceased; but the strife 
tin_r tli" boundaries of the Bfflfltfl [pontifical] jurisdic- 
tion, especially in regard to Bulgaria, still continued ! nor 
could the pontiff, with all hi prevail on either hnatius 

or the emperor to give up Bulgaria, or any other ot 

^ 80. The first schi f such a nature, that it was 

It |o heal it. Hut PliotUu, a man of high feelings, and 
more learned than all the Latins, imprudently prepared mate- 
rials for interminable war. For in tin* first place, he in the 
year 866, annexed Bulgaria to the see of Constant i- 
which Xicofaus was eager to possess; and this was cxtreniclv 
off nsive to the Koiuan pontiff. In the next place, what was 
much more to he lamented, and unworthy of so great a 

'/■ fatten to the oriental patriarchs on the sub- 
thus converting his own private controversy into ■ 
public one ; and moreover accused in very strung terms, the 
Koiuan bishops MOt among the Bulgarians, and through them, 
the whole Latin church, of corrupting the true religion, or of 
heresy. In bis great irritation, hi tax -d the Romans with 
five ••nonnitics; than which, in their viow. tfafl mind could 
conceive of no greater. /7/\>>, that they deemed it proper to 
bri on the seventh day of the week or the Sabbath. 
that in the first TO S fc of Lent, they permitted the use of milk 
and cheese. Th'mUti, that they wholly disapproved of the 
marriage of priests. Fourthly, that they thought none but 
the bishops could anoint the baptized with the hol\ oil. or con- 
firm ; and that, of course, they anointed a second time. those 
who had been anointed by presbyters. And fifthly, that th.-y 
had adulterated the (.'"iMnutiunpolitan creed, by adding to it 
tike words Fttieqm : and thus taught, that the Holy Spirit did 
not proceed from the Father <>ohj. but also from the Son . 

* See an Epistle of Pbntiu* himself, 
which i* the ttomd of his Epistles, as 
published by Montague, p. 47 
Some enumerate teu allc^ntioiw of 
charge by Photius. But they un- 
doubtedly blend tbe firttt eimtr.. 
with Uie second, between the < i I 
■ml Latins ; and fash uiina- 

tkma which were made in the A 
Mirliael CVrulariti*, (patriarch in the 

oiiddl l» otntmq 

in it is, in the 
Photraa, from whkh than 
controversy b» to be {odced 

uly the firr beails of disagreement 
which we have (staled. 

I li. III.] 



:Wo/</,'>- I. sent this accusation to [Hwmar, and the other 
Gallic bishops, in the year 867; that they might deliberate in 
eouneils. i \ the proper bJJHfPUK to it. Holier Qdo of 

Ileauvais. lltttraih of Vienne. ASneas of Pari*, ami 

perhaps others ah 1 the Beta against the (J reeks, and 

nrarmfy defended the cause of the Latins in written 
\ indication* \ 

$ 81, In the year 878, T^matim died; and Photius was 
Mpa rai- war of the unperor, t<» the patriarchate 

of the <i reek church. The Human pontiff John VIII. gm 
his assent ; but it was on condition, that P&otiut would allow 

theBuIga > under the Boman jib 

[iiiiinieml the whole \ nor did the emperor *«-<>in opposed to the 

viihej of the pontiff*. Therefore, in the year 879, flu- l< - 

of Juht, VIII. were present at the council of Constantinople, 
and gm their miction to all ite ileerees*. Hut after the 
council, the emperor (doubtless with the consent of 7V" 
Would not permit the Hul^irian* to lx> transferred over to the 
in pontiff: — and it must be aekn I. there ware 

fen Btnmg i far BUCh a determination. II 

pontiff sent M'tr'ni't* hi nstantinople ; and 

Hi'i^nitiiel, that he persevered in the former sentence passed 
upon Pkotwe, The legate was thrown into prison by the 

* Mubdlou, Acta iSin<V'. 
n*d. t or Saecul. It. 

IV.if. B. Y 

. Hkh. U Qui.'n, (Mm Chrid- 
hmhiaia. i i'. io:i. , 

* I i !»ih council 

are in Harduin'* collection, torn. vi. 
pt. L p. 307—342. The council was 
called by order of the MUM rar Unsil ; 
ami by ttll Ui«« Ifrwkii it has be | 

• d a ovamW 00 il the 

loktiiiK do not so regard it. The num- 
• of bishops present was 383 : and 
I of the EL ff, and 

abto representatives of the thru- Orien- 
tal patriarchs, | i 
presidn] ; and tin- j.nnci(.;U ol 
W«n OOtu' ul diHiciiii 
■even aea»i ins was uiiaui- 
monaly »••>■ r |>a- 
triarch of « iplp ; and all tliat 
had h i again*! luni.ui 
and at Constantinople, «ui> imnllad 

and declared void. Such as should 
not acknowledge Ph« H io bo 

mmanloatad. Dm council 
eoeded to establish the true fairi 

raring the acted "i the fimt M- 
oenc, and the first Constantitmpolitaii 
ciMineiln, r 
(that i>«, in. 
and again enacting the decrees Oi 

BOCOU'I (flO 111 BOtUI 

iuiage-worHlii|>. OKU was 

clowil, by tut eulogy of Prooopios of 
Ceaarea on 1'Im I \m . uud bv a ■>! 
declaration, on the jkh *nan 

t whoever would sol ac- 
ImowlfldM the holy patriarch Ni..ti. 
and hold eoeJeaia with 

him. otiL'ht to be accounted an asso- 
ciate ul the traitor Judas, and no 
(.'hriMutu ; and llii* was assented to 
liv ih" whole council. See Wal 
A iixhenrienamm/. p. 67.V 


emperor, but was again liberated; and afterwards, on the 
death of John VIII., was created Roman pontiff; when, 
mindful of the ill usage he had received, he issued a second 
condemnation of Photius. 

§ 32. Six years afterwards, a. d. 886, the son of the 
emperor Basil, namely Leo, called the Philosopher, again de- 
posed the patriarch Photius, and exiled him to a monastery in 
Armenia, called Bardi; where, in the year 891, he died*. 
Thus the author of the contest being removed, if there had 
been due moderation and equity at Borne, the whole strife 
might have been quieted, and harmony have been restored 
between the Greeks and Latins. But the Roman pontifls 
required, that all the bishops and priests, whom Photius had 
consecrated, should be deprived of their offices. And as the 
Greeks would by no means submit to this, all the contentions, 
respecting points of religion as well as other things, were 
renewed with increased bitterness, and being augmented |by 
new grounds of controversy, continued till the unhappy 
separation between the Greek and Latin churches became 
absolute and perpetual. 

• [Photius had ordained one Theo- his brother. Yet, when he learned 
dorus a bishop, who was falsely accused the innocence of Photius, he seems to 
of treason. This circumstance brought have felt some relentings ; for he made 
the patriarch under some temporary his exile comfortable, and in a letter to 
suspicion. Besides, the new emperor the pope, spoke of him as having co- 
wished to raise his brother Stephen to IwUanly resigned his office, and gone 
the patriarchal chair. He therefore into retirement. TV. from ScM.] 
deposed Photius, and gave the office to 

I\ . I 





g I. Writers who explained the sacred rite*. — § 2. The rites themselves. — § 3. 
ratitiuns in civil slid privule life. 

$ 1 . That the* public rites and ceremonies were gradually 
multiplied wrv conaideiably, is evinced by tin- writer* who. in 
this century, began t<j compose end to publish explanations of 
them, for the instruction of the common people; nan 

ftirftii, (whose- Djnneroiifl explanations, however, are con- 
futed UlH Floras.) Johl , An*H'!ouu\ ' 
ffius of AiiX'TR', Witlufnil fitasdO, ;m<l others. These timtim 
Officii j : for, in the style of this age, a 
dfoitu office is a religious my. Tbougfa these works 
wer drawn op* undoubtedly, with ■■ it ■ 

difficult to Bay, whether they benefi te d) more than they 
injuivo\ tlw They contained ind 

ml aliment, for those who Btt D public WOT Shi pj 

hut it was, for the most part, crude and unw hoi. some. For 

th' alleged ground - of the various rites, are 

great degree, far-fetched, false, constrained, nay. ridiculous 

and puerile. Besi I rnal rife i 

increased and strengtln'iicd. by tfcifl elaborate explanation of 

tin in. to the detriment of real piety. For how could any one 

withhold res[)ec.t and reverence from that which he under- 

r.. be most wisely ordained, and full of mystery I 

$ '1. To describe severally all the new rites adopted, either 

by ehristu tally, or by particular chni (mid not 

comport with the designed brevity of this work. We U despatch the extensive subject in a f«w words. The 
Corpses of horj bher brought from distAnt countries, or 

by the industry of tb |iiired the appoint- 

ment of w-w feasi kd BOON variation in the eerem< 

rved on those days. And aj the successor the clergy 

LOOK III.— ll.NTI 111 IX. 

r it. 

depended on the ^prmirinim oftbe \- opk respecting i 

and tbe power of I ms, whom they were invited t«> wm-- 

fibip, it was necessary, that their eyes and ti should be 

fascinated with varioiiH ceremonies and ions. I 
splendid furniture uf the temples, the numerous wax-candles 
burning at mid-day, the multitude of pictures and statues, the 
decorations of the altars, the frequent processions, the splendid 
dresses of t lie priests, and m at s* a p propriate to the hononi "i 
saints'. The festival of AU BaUiU was added, bj IV., 

to the public holy day- of the Latins*. The fe.i 

Michael, which had long been observed with much reverenoa, 
by both the Greeks and the Latins, now began to be more 

JJ 8. In the civil and private life of christians. » specially 

anioiiLT the Latins, tli' | -1 uuu\\ Bl ;vtd from 

it pagani 'barons nations that embraoed 

Christianity, would not allow Hie CQStamfi and laws of Their 

ancestors bo be wrested from them, tbougb yerj alien fron 

nilcs of Christianity; n:>y. by their- example, they drew 

» Sec the Tract of Jo, Ficbte, <fc 

M'mi* I* ZTlWH'IWI S-incJ'H-' 

* Bm J«. Muhilloii. '"'■ma- 

tioa, p. 637- [This holds true, only of 
<oniuuiy and France. Fit, as to 
England, Bedu mentioned this feast, 
in the prwf rti nfl century ; and, ul 
Koine, it had been established by 
paps Bofufhes IV. See above, p. 61, 
note*. AIL] 

3 The Latins had but few feast- 
days up to this century ; as appears 

IBS BOSJU "I ! '. nt ill 

Martene's TK&aurnt t torn. v. p. 

fee, [Tli- a. d. 

thfl number 
•if Iwth fasts and feasts to be observed. 

D 34 dSa%MlSa Ule f'tftt ; UMUIl-Iy, 
the /,-.'.' «««k in Marrh, the 
week in June, the ffiinl w-ek in Sep- 
tember, and th* last full Weak prc- 
1 >n these 
srsjda u'.l wan to fast ; and were t-i 
alien. I church 00 W , Fri- 

<hty>s and Saturday*, at 3 o'clock, v. w. 

■ >u 'M> thu» ••' - 
tioiw J$ : " We on la i. 

celebration of tin- feast do 
year. That **, Raster 8onday b 

Ted with all honour and sobi 

and the whole of Easter WSsbj VI 

-hall be observed in like manner. 
uMuudaym< ! rated with 

full worship. Likewii , just 

as Feshir. In the natreitj (in. 
duui] of Peter and Puul, one "lay : the 
nativity of St. J<dm Baptist ; the aa- 

uiigiu*. st. Marin, St. Andrew; at 
ChrUtuuis, four dftVBj ilie oetavrs of 
our Lord, the epiphany of «>ui Lord, 

th. poriflo nxrr. kmi 

the observance of the festivals 
of those martyrs or confessors, whose 
1 bo dies repose in each diocese: 
in like man hit. the dedication of 
each church."'— The 37th canon ail-l» : 
'■ W, ordain the observance of all the 
Lord's day* [Sundays], with all ra- 
nee from 
work ; and th 

«>n those days ; nor do we ap- 
prove, that any ■ be at I 

OSaUl, or to punishment," on those 

Sec llanlu «, tun. is 

p. Iill.".. />.] 

Cll. IV.] 


nations, anions whom they li\««<l commingled, into tin- same 
absiinlitios. We haw examples, in the well-known meth'ids of 
«lein«in-.tratin<r rijrjit anil ie in civil and criminal Oft] 

old water*. by nngk combat 1 , by red-hot iron*, by a 

* Sec Jo. Alabillon, AnnUcia V.irr'u 
jfCri, tom. i. p. 47- H Minis 

iMm. p. in fTlu- Ordeal by iinim-r- 
siou in cold \\at-r. >sui very cuininnu 

in l! 

wpodliH) I ■• ulgnr rank 

in aooii-ty. It wu sanctioned by public 
me ta moat counfriee of Europe, And 

Uiuagl > <-il bj vai 

MlilSlI I BM «M ■Opposed to liaro 
been invented bj pop< Ku^rim. "J~I» •_• 
1 1 • 11 I" 

llw enures, and mod t/A maty adjarod 
to confess tin' f»ct, if ha wan iruilty. If 

d the 
sacrament, wan 

wafcn tooted to u rim it 

• priori tli 


niinal h»« now stripped naked 
1 , and ■ rope «a> tied 

:, if he sunk to a 
certain 1 1 • -| * c I • . When ea ' 


guilty ; but if DC MO 

marl ■ onetimes a yard 

and u lmlf.) be was instant U db 

out ; and was »•■• Sec 

a lame and vt-ry nattflfaetory eoooanl 

•al, in I >ii Caa ' 
Lmiu mi '. 1 thi ai 
A>iH\efri.y SOB— 

31 :i. cd. Pranef. 1710 
cceda to describe the ordeal by A<«/ 
trnUr. For this the preparatory reli- 
gions certmNinie* wen? the mmc 

rdcal by cold wat.r. \ ft. rwords 
i a caldron of m 
I. Than uking it .1 
fire, ho immersed in .IirIi 

Id suspended by a MB 

depth "f obb. two, <ir fare* |«iliii-« ; 
and tlie criminal must tlirunt in bi« 
naked band ami arm, ami soixiug the 
stooc, pull it out. Hi." hand mid arm 

1 !iat«U irrapped up in I 
cloths, and a bag draw 
and scaled, hand 

and arm wen? *SI 
not acabU'il. the num vn aeoatifltod 

innocent. This ordeal was nearly as 
uhk-Ii and aa the other ; but aju 
rid cr cd rather n per- 

Bons of quality. '/,-. | 

* Jo 
Gvtk 144. 

g men dad 1 
minu 1 1 

inide combat. Set: Just. 
Boehmcr's Jtu /><■/,... />,- 
torn. v. |). Mh\ Ac. (The trial 1>; 
bat originated among 1 1 rn bar- 

barian*, was in use bef 

era, and was brought by the Lombards 

1. It was uot 1 the 

trial of public offi at -.but was a mode 
uf settling: private disputeeand quarrels 
; lividoslfl) * li- 11 tli- re was 
• ease 
judge tin ir Umds, or goods to Kht 

(enure in caac they were east, and fur 
court. The judge also ap- 
ad tlie time for me eombaL 

back, ami armed a-* fur war, in 
eoamli le armour, and >\itli 11 

ii with mail. Common mi u 

■ -iilrj and ah 
In ir face* am! | 


. stead. S< 
full account in DuCange,(?/oa»r. / 
Bltlftlfl sew also llalhun'a 

K**w of Evrtij* .'. 
i. p. WS, ft 
mode of trial gradually Bank in 

but it was u 1 by legis- 

lative enactments, cither in France or 
Engl.. 1 , no late as the llMh 

eentui tit of challenging^ sin- 

gle combat was asserted in an Kngliah 
court, 'jr. — It has been since abolished. 

* Petrus LamUciuH, fifntti //uw- 

l>l.. ii. p. St. Jac. Ussher, iSV- 
• ■ijtJm: Ililvrnw.. p. 81. I 
nn L»r* -flh, BritM<"hiir*'J» t ti\r 



[ 1'Airr ii. 

cross 7 , and other methods, which were in general use H 
the Latin*, in this age and tin- following obcr man, at 

tin present day. entertains ■ doubt, that these equivocal and 
uncertain modes of deciding causes, originated from the 
OOStoma of barbarians; and tliat they are fallacious and 
abhorrent to I m of true religion. Vet in that age, the 

pontiffs and inferior bishope did not blush to honour and dignify 
tli- m with prayers, with the eucharist, and other rites, in ml. t 
to give them somewhat of a christian asj i 

extract* from them, in Mich, do la 

'in. viii. p. 89L [This was 
ii' very common ordeal, and was cs- 
i«l more honourable than the or- 
deals by water. ]'.raon 

wall, nine ur t\v«'I\f 

redd tot ploughsliares, I 
lint more frequently I i hot 

iron in hi* naked hands, nine times tho 
length of his foot. The religiou- 
Bttenfing this ordeal, wire very winii- 
lar to those of the ordeal by hot water. 
See Da Cange, QUm. Lot. articles 
Feubum camlcns. and Vomeres iaviti. 

7 & ■ Dtt 

1 ' "Htm Ltgem 
Qutnl'J-i'H. cap. i\. p. 114. Hicr, 

. •, ad formtUtts MarvuljJti, cap. 
\ii. Staph. Daluzius, ad A'j*A*irtlum f 
|>. 104; and others. [Uu QuUfe in 

is not able definitely to state what was 
the mode of this ordeal. He finds 
some instances of persons standing 
long with their arms extended hori- 
zontally, so as to present the form of a 
cross. If they grew weary, fainted, 
and fell, they were accounted guilty. 

II. also Audi ..thor modi* of trial by 
cross. Sometimes it was merely lay- 
ing the hand on a sacred atom, 
then uttering a solemn oath of purga- 
tion. -On nil the forms of orde-.i I 
Recs's Cyetoptrdi'i, art. OrdsaL — This 
mode of trying difficult and da 
causes, was denominated Jttdici MM 
ami was considered as a solemn appeal 
• I, to shun, bj his Special inter- 
position, whether a person wen- guilty 
or iimoi'.in. It was, there! 
MinptUDUl attempt toeefl forth a mira- 


both the iguuraucc and the supers! 
of those time*. And thus it was viewed 
by some of tb< more discerning; for 
instance, by A gobard, b Lyons. 

CM at the be 

>, || llincmar, 
bishop of RhafaBSj approved and 
defended both the ordeals, and the trial 
by oonbsL '/'/.— The ordtal 
comes from the old Frank i 
to jnd'fe. It is o<|tiiwili nt 10 lhr Judy- 
iHfMt y as if such a mode of terminating 
controversies wen 1 either more I 

itv satisfactory, than any other. 

I H. V.'| 




history of SSCTfl avi) in 

f 1. Ancient sects. — § 2. The Paulioituis. — § 3. Persecution of lh.«m. — § 4. 
Tlu-ir cMiiditiuu under Theodora. — § 5. Whetfu-r they were MjiiiiehueauB. — 
§ 6. Their religious opinions. 

$ l. Concerning the ancient christian sects, then • h little 

new to be said. Nearly all of them th;ii ruble for 

numbers, had their residence ind abettors beyond the bonii- 
daries of the Greek and Latin dominions. The Natorians, in 
particular, and the MonopKytites, who lived securely, under the 
protection of the Arabians, were lerj attentive to their own 
interests, and did not cease from efforts for the conversion of 
the nations still in pagan ignorance. Some represent the 
Ahyssinianfl or Ethiopians as being persuaded by the Egyptians 
to embrace the UbnophysHe doctrines, in the conzae of this 

century. But it was. undoubtedly, from the seventh century. 

if not earlier, that the Abvs>iniaus. who were accustomed to 

, e their bishop from the patriarch of Alexandria, embraced 

the tenets of the Moiiophv>it< 10 | foil iu that century, the 

Arabs connnared Egypt, oppressed the r oo ks [or Biefehi 

and 1 1 i i he advooates of OOfl nature in Christ; so that 

this sect was able to subject nearly the whole Egyptian 
church to fa jurisdiction '. 

§ 2. The Greeks were engaged with various success, during 

• this whole century, in erne! wan with the PauKtfiatu; 

a sect allied to the Mnnielucaus, and residing especially in 
Armenia. Thi tB said to bay e been formed in Armenia, 

by two brothers, Paul and John. iet of 

Saraosata ; and to hays received its name from them: some, 
ik that <»ne Paul, an Armenian who lived in the 
reign of Jutfiiioin [I,, gave name to the sect 1 . I 

Miiim,,, idmMlmioiu ■/. Din Lotofa Voyagt 

UI4 Hear, !• Grand, 

* IMmtiua, (oi 



i \ ri'RV ix. 

[fast 11. 

Constant^ in the seventh century, it was in an exhausted and 
depressed state, in consequence of penal laws and SppmiBioftfa, 
when one Couxtantin/' 1 RlS emperors, Co, 

Justiiihiir II., and £00 the [saurian, harassed them in various 
wa\ s, and laboured t'» extirpate the Best ; but they were 
utterly nnahle to Biihdue a jwirty so inflexible, and which 
despised all sufferings. In the beginning of the ninth century, 

their ( (lit ion was more prosperous. For the eni; 

Nfaphon* Loirotheta, [a. d. 802 — 811,] favoured the Pauli- 
eiaus, and gftVB thein free tub-ration*. 

5} S. Hut, after a f«u years of npOBB, the Paulieians 

again assailed, with increased violence, by tin- 

Mil-hud Curopalates, and L>o the Armenian, [a. d. 81 I — 820, | 

WOO commanded them to he eare fully searched after, through 

all the pro I Ibfl Greek empire, and, if they would n«>t 

1 to tin Greek ehureh, to be put to death. Driven 

to desperation by Hue cruelty, the Pauhcians of Armenia 

slew the imperial judges, and likewise ThomaA, the bishop of 

»nd then took refuse in the territories of the 

Sarae.ns : from which they harassed the neighbouring Greeks 

with perpetual incursions'. Afterwan.U this war. it seer 

\: 71, in WoITh AmttAuta Grata, torn. 
i I According to the HUtftiviit of I 
.Siculus, tbi 01 sect was 

an A 

suruamed Soloanm «. Coapl*llll was 
Bttdfl IgftlnSl him 1.- 1I1.- •111 jm-1' ■ 1 

suntijjf Pogontua in tin- fs. »i 'in i. 

turv. The elilp-r R MDt hi 

•ion Le the aub- 

j«-.-t ; ami h< put the leader of tb« 
to death, and diaper™*! Mb 
but bti—i yean enV c ho himaotf Mnad 

■ el ami beaano it> teacher. I 
Jii-lininn II. they were again com- 
plained of, and their pi in> ipal h-ader 
was burnt alive. Dut thin did not 
prevent flaatf growth. Par one Paul, 
with Iii» two sons, Genesius (who was 
also culhd Timothy) ami Theodoras, 
|ini|ia^at<'d tin; wrl in ( 

'llh tiivi of these was summoned to 
Constantinople by tin- ens 
but after n bearing be war acquit 
ami retired, wtth bio adherent*, into 
the territories of the Muhainiucdans. 

He wils followed by Jib* sou Zaeliariaa, 
who, with Joaeph hi* aaaistant, again 
took rcaideue* in 1 but 

whet 'led to 

Phrygia; and du ught 

at Antioch in I'iaidia. He wa^ 

'I by Pahanttt; under whom tin- 

aeet spread itself much in Asia, par- 
ticularh in Armenia, and ahn inTl 
Alter Rahane*, the prineipal teacher 

was Sergio 1 , who 

oppo-t il ii •! zealously 

under the empress Irene. Thev 

likewise cull. -1 Athinjrias, or Sepa- 
rates, because thev would have nu part 
in the abuse* of the times, especially 
in 1 11 tape- worship, and 

•mss and of the hierarchy 
reigning party. ScAl.) 

1 Sea Geo. ( '.■ aaw 

riar. torn. ii. p. 480. ed. 1 oris 
p. 379. sd. \ 

* I'hotiua, CoHir-i }[<i*if/t. lib. i. p. 
125, A.e. IVu-r Siculua, IJiMorli Mq 
nkkwr. p. 71- 

ans, or 

at. v.j 



gradually sul*>ided ; and the 1'nulicians returned to their 
fanlftfir habitations within tin- QfBOiafl t« rnt' 

§ 4. Jnit far greater calami t •! by the in- 

k-rate 1 and rash ml of the empress Theodora, [a. i>. St- 1 
— 8S5.] In the minority of her son, she governed as r« 
and decreed that the l'anlicians should be exterminated by 
fire and sword, or brought hack to the Q n»k church. The 
public offleen sent iutn Armenia nn this business. 
their commission, in the most cmel manner ; for they de- 
stroyed by various punishments, about a hundred thousand of 
this unhappy sect, and confiscated their property. Such ;ls 

<\ look refuge, onot more, imong 1 1 1 • - Saracens, Being 

there kindly received, they built themselves a city, called 
Tihriea ; and bhoOBEDg ( .'•/,-'> gfHj a man of \ery great valour for 
I heir leader, and fanning alliance with the Saracens, they 
waged fierce war with the flffnotw This war continued with 
various success, marly through the cenlury ; and in it an 
immense mmd* r of persons perished on both sides, and 
d provinces of 1 1; - were ruined'. During tbftt 

troubles, and near the close of the century, some of the 

* Geo. r Width 

ruir. p. f»41. ed. Paris, or p. 42.V ■■<!. 
Venice; mai \>. &4Q Of 4i!». Jo, /.••• 
nam- b. xvi. turn. ii. p. 12"2. 

■ •I I. \ I it the principal I 

riant- ulii-iatiH are, I'll 

. ituHt ; ami 
Siculus, whose Hit- 
mm «u |"' . and LaL 

idi Thh Peter Sieoloe, m ho bin 

ii* us, wa* i t lia»il tin- 

:;int» at Ti- 

i»jr fl70, aunt to nego- 

eiate with them an exchange of prison- 

en; and 1 h <l among 

nine iii'-t. th-. These faets alone show 

linw peal the power nf tin- Pnuliciajis 

was at that period. Prom 

it ap|nnr-, | arrowed hi* nc- 

■ I. p. 431. The 

rns, who treat of the l'.uiliciana, 

MM Pn| i ■ 

ck.r'urww n 

form emet, //{/- 

m dm gjft oa ProUft. 

fhv. \i. S IS, A.C.] torn, ii. p. 196, 
Hut this write* <vrti.inh >li«l not go to 
thf wturees ; ami ln-in 1 by 

I was willing to make 
mistakes.— [1'hotius four books 
aLTbin«t the Maniehieans or Paulicians; 

1 1 -h the /fart book givi h the hi 
of ifaem t.- a] oat ■,. i-. .:; | I i mb- 
nt books are ;• cm of 

their' .mil with the eoannov 

ar.t'ii' i i against th' 

ans. Tla- Motor) oi I 
oiinal !iti..n 

of it by 1 1 

need r e vision, Photiusand P 

hut Phottus is d< i- au- 

1:70. era inii-i go i" il: 

p, Ml. ed. Paris. BnSchroeckh 

rdk. v.. I. \- .<-. ami vol. 


BOOK 11 1. — < KM I l I!V I\. 

[i'.VRT If 4 

Paulieians i18wnmll>l1lix1 their doctrines among the Bulgarians; 
and among that peopfe, who wm !y converted to ehristi- 

. those doctrines easily took root*. 
| "i. Ulan P'i :!<■ by i ! ska called M 

chwans: but, aa Photiiu himself states, they declared their 
al-horrence of Manes, and of his doctrine T : and it is certain 
that they wire not genuine Manichseans: although they might 
hold some doctrines bearing a resemblance to I that 

sect. There were not among thein. as MBODg the Mani- 
clueans, bishops, presbyters, and deacons; they had no order 
of clergymen, distinguished from laymen by their mode of 
living, their dneft, and otlier things: nor had they councils, or 
anv similar institutions. Their teachers, whom they denomi- 
nated Synecdemi (Smtk-onjuoi, fellow-travellei*s). and [Noraplot] 
Notaries, were all equals in rank ; an«l MM distinguished from 
laymen by no rights, or prerogatives, or insignia \ But they 
had this peculiarity, that such as were made teachers among 
them, changed their names, and assumed each the name of 
holy man mentioned in the New Testament. They received 
the whole of the New Testament, except the two Kpistles of 
Pet i\ which they rejected for reasons not known; and they 

rod it unaltered, or in its usual form, as received h\ 
christians; in which, again, tin v differed from the Maniclm-vms*. 
Thrv inn! dd have these holy books to l>e read a- 

on>ly, and by all, and were indignant at Ks, wlio 

required the scriptures to be examined only by the priests 1 . 

• Perhaps tlittx' atill are Paulicians, 

uliaii* an some call them, n n 
bag in Thrace ami Bulgaria. IQkTC 
certainly were sorao there in 
teeuth century; and thev resided at 
Nicopolia, according to Urh. ( 
Et.u prfmt dt rEgt'yr Bomalm . p. 7-'. 
M, (true or falHn I know not) 
that . latus, archhishop of 

,. r.iiivinc .1 tin -in of tin ir.rror*, 
and < ban to the llomish 

h. — [The history «>f ftya P 
cian* ia of the ■ nnmwi ■■ 

they propagated their sect in v, 
countries of Kur»|«, in the tenth and 

ih t-i-nturics, and composed a 
large part of tin- dissentient* fruni tin- 
Inno cliurrh during those times. 

ah.. lies (aa Boatun-t, Variations, 
$c. liv. \\.) charge tin- l'mt-stants 
witli beiug j of tin Paoli- 

cians; and some Protestant «■ 
seem lialf inelinod to re^rd them as 
- - for Um truth in their times. 
Thi* subjeoJ will, of course, come nj* 
in the following to Jr.] 

r 1': tra IfaMdfcMtj III 

p. 17- G& «^- Peter SKuhis, Hut. 
Miitkh. p. 43. 

• Ph.ilius. ). d p. It, 89 Peter Si- 

■ I'ii.ini- 

II u*. I. c. p. 

r. r Bboi 

ml. p. 44. ' fedrai -. L c, i>. 191. 

p. 19. 

1 Photiua, I. e y- 101, Peter S 
p. 07. 

CH. v.] 


But niany parts of the- Beripenn fcbej euiBnWied elleyirinelly, 

llMOdoUOg til'.* literal 06080, l6Bt it should militato with their 
mes': and th' ruetinn they undoubtedly put upon 

tin- |>asaagee nixing to the Lord's BUppen, bapti-iii. the 
Old Testament, and some other subjects. Besides the New 
Testament, the epistles of one Sergius, a great doctor of tlie 
were in high esteem among fcb 
$ o". The entire umud of this Beat, though doubtless consist- 
ing of various articles, is no where described by tin 
who nnlffpf from it only six dognm, for which they decisis the 
I'aulicians unworthy to live, or to partake of I. 

denied that fetes lower end visible world was mated by 

Tiir Mipivine God; and distinguished the creator of the world 
and of human bodies, from the <iod whose residence is in 
It was on account of this dogma, especially, that 
the (j! reeks accounted them Manichcum ; and yet this was 
tlie common doetriin' of all the BQOtfl d«noniinat< d Gna 
What opinions they curcrtniucd respecting thi> creator of the 
world, and whether thev supposed him to be a different Being 
from the prince of evil or the Devil, no one lias informed us. 
This nulv appears from Phntlna. tliat they held the author of 
e\ils to have Ixt'ii procreated from darkness and fire: and of 
course, he RIB DOt eternal, or without beginning*. II. They 

■ PI a, p, 147. li m 

manifest that the I'&ulicians, with the 

i»l philosophers, those parents of 
and Manichjean sect-. 
sidcrcd ttcrnal matter to be Uio beat and 
•oarer of all . < thin tmtfU ■ 

many of tho GooatlM | |iosed 

to be endued fr>> lotkm 

and an animating pxineiple.aad toluvve 

:if«d tin ]niiu-r off ul! « • v it ; «hn 

wan the former of bodies, which are 
■ad «'f matter ; i the 

l«iTiit <>f soul.-. Those opinions are 
indeed allied t<> tin- Bdani. I 
trine*; yet also differ Iron than. I 
can believe thin tort to have been Dm 

partie«, which, though sadly oppressed 

.1 Um.s and in 

i rriwe d and 
were gitat 

myStfcal »|.r|.r. -tatioif. and 1..I I .-. I 

i iddan doetri made 

kimwn only t« the perfect, and as wo 
arc in possession of n < >r of 

any other writing or their doctors, we 

I always remain in llllUHtl 
ttbethr-rthev understood these GnoNtio- 
sounding doctrines literally, and so 

actually a branch from the old 

GuoMt \ ml for the same na- 

sou WO cannot place much confidence 
in the Greets who wrote their history; 
and we should always remi 
these writi i mp- 

nrchensiou, if m>t uls-> from their , 
tate tin ii 

At no ouni mm « . .is to 

mom of their d** ■■• 

ctn, more coi i 
of religion, of religious worship, i 

rnmenLthan the prevailing 
church at tluit day had; and thai 

, ami l-\ 
Of»fM)»ili"ii tO III. 


hook in. — cronrvsY i\. [fart n. « i 

contemned the virgin J/-'///, tin; mother -)»* /SNA tliat 

is, they would not adore and ■Jerssfp her as the Greeks did* 
Far they did not deny that Christ ma born of Man/; beoi 

saries expressly state, tluv taught that Christ 
brought his body with liiin from h flttffffl ; and that Mm ;>/, after 
the hirth of the Sn\iour, had other children In Jwjth. They 
there fo re l>elieved, with the Valontinians, that Christ passed 
through the womb of his mother, as water through a canal ; 
and that Mnru did not continue a Virgin to ' I life? — a 

i must have appeared abominable in the view of 

reeks. III. They did oat odontale the Lords sapper. 

For believing that there were metaphors in many parts of the 

N« i [Testament, they flagman 1 it proper to understand by the 

In-, ad and wine, which Christ is stated to have presented to his 
disciples at his last sapper, those divine discourse* of Christ, 
by which the soul is nourished and r.t'r. >h«d '. IV. They 
d tin- cross with contumely; that is, as clearly appears 
V-'iii what the <i reeks state. — they would not have any ivli- 
nous BOrsJiP paid to the wood of the cross, as was customary* 
among the Greeks. For, believing that Christ possessed an 
etherial and celestial body, they could not by any means admit 
that he was actually nailed to a cross, and truly died upon it : 
and this led them, of course, to treat the cross with neglect. 
V. They rejected, as did nearly all the Gnostics, the 
composing the Old Testament ; and believed that t lie writers 
fif them were prompted by the creator of the world, and not by 

the supreme God, V I. They excluded the presbyters or elders 

> " administrations of the church. The foundation of 

this charge, beyond all contn tVSXSy, WSS, that they would not 

allow their teachers to be styled presbyters; because thu 

was Jewish, and appropriate t«« those who persecuted and 
wished to kill Jesus Christ*. 

by fh»-ir other rwUgfawM opinioMk — So 

Dr. Semli r ji dg« - '■( ih in. mi In 

Ecdft. torn. ii. p. 

* The Circuits do i the 

I'nulifians with any . m>r in respect 

i<> tin* dootrina of baptism. Vel 
is no doulit that tli.y eofletnied 
alUgortf what the New TcetanM ui 

> Munich, lib. i. p. 29.) cx- 

preHBty My I <oil\ lua 

i understood by 

in, i. «•. lis the i pawn, 

tin 1. 

• Tl «n I 

Aram Petei f m kk, 

|>. 17, with whom I onus 

agree, tlhiii^h they are less disti 1 

lite. The reasonings and cxjilana- 
tion« are m\ 






I i'ropaK»tion of chrutianity. — 8 2. Presbyter John. — § 3. Hollo e-mbract* 
rhristianity. — §4. Coi -So. Cltristi.inity establislRil in 

Muncovy. — § 6. Hungary becomes a christian country.— § 7, Denmark. — 
§ 8. Norway.— § 0. Zeal of Otto the Great for Christianity. — § 10. 1'roji « t ,>r 
a crusade. 

§ I. Am. are agreed that in this century the state of Christ- 
ianity was every where most wretched; on account of the 

amazing ignorance, and the 0006600601 superstition and 
J morals of the age, ami also from other causes. But 
still there W6f6 not a fe>W things which may he placed among 
the prosperous events of the church. The Nestorians, living 
m <'liald<-a. introdaoed Christianity into Tartar)' Proper, 
"1 mount Imaus. when 1 1 1 i • • people had hitherto liwd 
• ill inly uncultivated an<l uncivilized. Near the end of the 
century, the same sect spread the knowledge of the Gospel 
RSlOOg that powerful horde of Tartars or Turks, which was 
rall<d Cant of Karit, and which bordered on Chat/m., 

VOL. II. s 


U V x. 

[part I. 

tlie northern part of China'. Tin- activity of tlii> aeot, and 

theb great /'-ai ft* Ike promotion of ehristianitv, del 
ptuae; and jfoi no one can aiiyuoaa that the eangion they 

instill.. I iota the minds of these nations, was the- pure Gospel 
of our Saviour. 

§ 2. This Tartarian king, who was comer; ristianitv 

by tlie NestorioOA, it hi said, bore the name of /oftn (after his 

l..i|.tism), and in token of his modesty, Bammed (he tiii 

f fUr], And Ii«*ihv. as learned men have oonjoe- 
tnred, his successors all retained this title, down to the 
1 1 century. 01 Knn, and 

uMiailv called nann John Prmbgttr*. Hut all thi- 
withont adeqoati authority or proof: nor did that />/v 

Jnhit. of whom there was so much Slid formerly, as also in 

modara times, begin ti» reign in this part of Asia, anterior to 
the iduse of the 1 1 w oth oentorj. And yet it is placed beyond 

mntroversy. that the KingB of the people eall.d <\trith. thing 
on the borden "I" r.itlmia. whom some denominate a tribe of 
Turk.-, and others of Tartars, constituting a considerable pOL* 
tion of the Mollis, did profits Christianity from this time 
OBWard j and that no inconsiderable part of Tartar}*, or Asiatic 

1 Jo. Sim. Aww man, RiUi/4hecu Ori- 
mtal. Vtil'intiut, torn. Hi. pi. ii. p. 482, 

im, HiMoria 
muL p. 23, 21. 1 1 i-> ( 

stated, that thin rartariau prim-' 
manded more than 200,<HKi 
allot !>raced chrtatiai 

•ar ». r». IKK). The OQl 
Ml in, a letter <>i I 
archbishop of Morn, addressed to John, 
th- Nntforian patriarch ; and prcserr- 
ed by Abulphar.. . .s'yr., and 

A: • -III. Ill, 

'ii. (h-ifut. i'l.,>.. I'/'., lom. ii. p. 
444, &e. i rtalea, that this 

Tartarian I. 

got lost in tli- wflderntaa, and was 
find hia »av out of it. 
A mint now appeared to him, and pre- 
mised to fthow him the way, if lie would 
tian. The Idng pr<> 
mi-.d (-• -1" BO. "n returning t-> Hi 
camp, he called the christian I 
chants who were thai to bin presence, 
received instruction from HMD, NH 

applied to I fa 

far I'.ipti-iii. kt his tribe fed only on 

flesh and milk] it became 

bow they were 

fast*. This led Ebed Jcsn to wro 

his pstrian the QBBBj and 

asking for the point. 

The i 

send two presbyters and t 

ainon^ th«- bribe, lo c on re r l and bap- 

hem, and to tea 
upon milk last flays. Dr. 

noshetm tti ; this 

of Tartars is too well . 
be calh <1 in <|ii.>ti<in ; hut ths imm- 
ner of it, he would divost somewli 
the marvi llnua. : -, thai the 

saint, who appc:< > B the 

1 NcMonaa in- 
eborite ar hermit, maiding then : 
was able and will king 

out «>f the wiidei 
stated. 7V. ] 
« See Asscraan, giaheH. fjriemtat. 
i iii. pt. ii. p 

< H. I.] 


iia. lived under bishops sent tBKMDg thn by the pontiff of 
the NestarJaJB'. 

vj 8, In the West, AVA/. the son of a Norwegian count, and 
an areh-pirato. who was expelled his country \ and who with 
his military followers took possession of A part of <«aul in the 
precedin-: embraced Christianity, with his whole army, 

in the year 912. The French king, fifcorfaths Simple, who 
was too weak to expel thi-. warlike and intrepid StmngBf from 
red him no inconsiderable portion of Ins terri- 
KUditwn of lils desisting from war, marrying C 
the daughter of Charles, and embracing the christian rehgioiL 
//'///'/ embraced these terms without hesitation; and his 
sr.ldiirs, following tfw •■x.-imple of th-ir general, yielded assent 
to a religion which tin v < I i« I not. un and readily 

submit!'i ii • '. These Norman pirates, as many 

facts w.-re persons of n«> hence 

they wore not restrained, by opinions embraced in early life, 

from embracing a religion which promised them great worldly 
advantages. From this Rollo, who assumed the DUB 

. ' at bis baptism, the eek-brated dukes of Normandy in 

France, are d e sc en ded; bra part of Nmutru^ with Urtiatfn^ 
which the Simple ceded to hn aon-fe-law, wa* from this 

time railed, after its new 1 mandy*. 

§ 4. M duke of Poland, was gradually Vroughl 

OpOO by his Wife l'" 'laughter of I duko of 

Bohemia, till, in the year 966, he renounced the i 

bots, and embraced Christianity. When the um 
\ 1 1 1., the Roman pout ill', 
f Tusculum, accompanied by many It: 
oh, and Qerm into Poav tight 

aid tbo duke and hii wife, in their design of instructing the 

1 T!, I p Itayer 

ha of Ghlaasnd nuriluu Ana, 

in whu-li I >t parttaata 

thrw NcMorUn in Tartary 

and rhinr. Preface to hi* 

Mtuemm St*ictt»*, p. 1 4ft. Hut * pre- 
mature dctl 

Of thi* ami other COB " 'irku 

t excellent niAii for tfaa illtiKtra- 
li'innf A-iatic OhrirtiftJ 

1 II 

tatit &• 357, 


• Boulay, Hi torn. 

6 I It una Neontria properly, and 
ntA fount npi tame 

1 1 ■'• ; • . i ionium 


HOOK in. — OFNTmY x. 

[part f. 

in thf precepts of Christianity. Hut the effort* of these 

•naries, who did oot understand the language of the 

country. \souM have been altogether fruitless, had not the 

commands, the laws, the menaces, the reward*, and the 

luncnts of the duke, ovnrcnmo tin- reluctant minds of the 

The foundations being thus laid, two archbishop- ;m«l 

Dps Wer I ; awl hv their lalxiurs and efforts, 

the whole nation van andnafy hrought to recede a little 

their ancient customs, and to make an outward profession of 
Christianity 7 . As to that internal and real change of mind, 
which Ckrvt requires of his followers, this barbarous age had 
no idea of it. 

s$ o. In Russia, a change took place during this cem 
similar to that in the adjacent country of Poland. For the 
ans. who bad embraced the religion of the Greeks, during 

the preceding century, in the time of Basil the Macedonian, 

soon afterwards relapsed into the superstition of their ;i 
tors. In the year !H)1, l! duke of Kussia and Mus- 

COVy, married Anna, the sister of the Greek emperor, Basil 
.Junior; aud she did not cease to importune and exhort 
her husband, till he, in the year 987. submitted to baptism, 
assuming the name of Basil. The Russians followed spon- 
taneously the example of their duke : at loast. WG do u<-f 
that any coercion was used'. From this time, the chri 

7 Dlugotts, Hiftoria PplnriaOL lih. ii. 
|i. 91, A.c. ; lib. iii. p, 115. 900. Re- 
gHijvolwins, JSRaoHa Bedm. tiforvit. 
lib. i. c. i. [i. H. Hen. Canisiu*. 

Antiaua, torn. iii. pt i. p. 41. 
Solijfnac, Higtob me, umi. i. 

S. 71, Alc. [Mi--' akuu i I .. os 
oath of hiit moth.-r Dumhrowka, a. i>. 
1177. married a nun, « Ma, the *fVtA&» 
of the Crrman marquis HmmOq Hc. 
nieanonical marriage wa* dudiki-d 
bv the bishops, yet was winknl at, from 
motives of pODSYj and the pious Oda 
became bo ieni' he church, 

that nhi> almost at >>ri>'i I fur the violation 
of her vows. Bm Kk-urv, // ■'...* 

n I>i. § 13. TV.'— "There 
U sufficient historical MttmML that 
til-.- n»VH of the Qosftal, which in the 
ninth century enlightened many Slavo- 
nian nations, had penetrated into Po- 
Inii'l long nAvc 1 1 » ■ -tin of 

puaw. n — Krasinaki'H //«'/'■ 
vftkt ICw, Pnyrrm, nnH /Wis* 

■rmation in Poland. Loud. 
1838. vol. i. p. 3.] 

■ SM Aston. I'affi, < Vif»A» in Bfl 

Qflft p. fift ; and ad 
ann. 1015. p, 110. fur. du Frame, 
Ftmitur B'jz.intii. >, p. I IS. ed. Paris, 
[The oooaafan uf Wlndimir's hup 
is variously stated. S 
captured the Creek fortress Com 

••d to restore it, if the prin- 
cess Anna were piven him to wife ; 
but that her brothers, Iluvcil and Con- 
stantinc, would not consent, unless he 
would engage to renounce pagan 
an 1 he accordingly was baptiv 
Corszyn, in preaence of the court. Hut 
the Greek writers know mithin 
these circumstances. Otben 
that Muhamuiedans, Jews, and Christ- 
ians, severally, endeavoured to 

< H. I.] 



religion obtained permanent establishment among the Russians. 
Wio dimir and bit wife wen ranked Knong saints .. 
highest order, in the estimation of the Russians; and to the 
lie worshipped with the greatest vePBIBtloBi 
at Kiow, whirr tluv wire UllttTTUd, The Latins, how 
hold \YUf('(ii,\,- to be absolutely unworthy of this honour'. 
$ *i. Some knowledge of c l the Songm 

and Avares, through the instrumentalitv of ( > ' rrlemapne ; tint 

it becaiM whollj extinct, after baa death. In this ce ntury, 
Christianity obtained a mote permanent eadetaDoe among those 

Warlike nations '. First, near tin- middle of tin- century, bwo 
dukes of the Turks on tJie Danube, (for so the Hungarians 
and rraneyivAmana vera oaBed by the Gfoeeka in tliat 
Bvlotude* and Gyula or tyfttt, received baptism at Constant i- 
nople. The former of these soon after returned to his old 
superstition : the latter persevering in Christianity, bj n 
Of lli'i'tthews a bishop, and a efo r o j pnaata, whom he took 

along with ban, oaoaad his — bjuula to be instructed in the 

christian preeepts and institutions. His daughter, Stirolta, 
was afterwards married to thjftUi the chieftain of the Hun 
garian nation ; aud she persuaded her husband to embrace the 
ion tangfaJ her by her fatlier. But Geysa again began to 
waver, and to incline to his former pollutions, when AdaX 
archbishop of Prague, near the close of the century, went 
from Bohemia into Hungary, and reclaimed the lapsed elm t 
tain; and likewise baptized his son Sttpkm. To this Stcpluu, 

suudc him to embrace their religions ; 
and tint lie, ^r.wlually becoming in* 

in nil, gav. 
fereuce to that of the Greeks. So 
much is certain, his marriage was the 
proximate cause of his conversion, 
conversion, be t-u-iotly en- 
joined Upon his subjects I 
paganism. And it is said, the bishop 
of Corszyn, and 

men, often adminbtercd baptism, and 
destroyed idols, at Kiow. A inctropo- 
lilail Of Kiuw, nairn-d Mirhael, who 
was sent from Constantinople, is re- 
ported to have gradually brought all 
Russia to submit to bantam. Churches 
win almi built. Ditinar doe* not cora- 
mi-nd ibu piety of Uii* prince ; who is 
represented as endeavouring to com- 

pensate for his transgressions, by tfu 
Dl of his aims. Moshctm says, 
that we no whore find coercion era- 
pkjad in tho conversion of the Rus- 
sians. Hut LUugosa states, Uiat \\ fa 
dimir compelled his subjects, by penal- 
tics, to submit tu bant'ism. An 

iw norUlarj tin *»«■— «— nodi oflhi 
spurious conversions. See Sender's 
cuiiniiiiti..!. .if Naumgarten's .-lssrs-7 
'/• r A'ireArs^r**. vol. iv. p. 433, Ac. 

9 Oitiuar of Merscburg, lib. vii. 
Chronic, in Leibnitz's collection ttf 
Brun !. p. 417. 

I'.iuli Dcbtvzcni flfaflOTU Et*U$. 
fcformator. is Vnyorvt, pt. i. cap. in 


the son of Gt-ysa, belongs the chief honour of converting the 
Hungarians. For he perfected the work, which was only 
begun by his father and grandfather ; he established bishops 
about the country, and provided them with ample revenues ; 
erected magnificent churches ; and by his menaces, punish- 
ments, and rewards, compelled nearly the whole nation to 
renounce the idolatry of their ancestors. His persevering zeal 
in establishing christian worship among the Hungarians, pro- 
cured him the title and the honours of a saint in succeeding 
times \ 

§ 7. In Denmark, the christian cause had to struggle with 
great difficulties and adversities, under the king Gormon ; 
although the queen was a professed christian. But Harald, 
surnamed Bktatand, the son of Gormon, about the middle of 
the century, having been vanquished by Otto the Great, made 
a profession of Christianity in the year 949 ; and was baptized, 
together with his wife, and his son Sumo, by Adaldag, arch- 
bishop of Hamburg, or, as some think, by Poppo, a pious 
priest, who attended the emperor. Perhaps Harald, who had 
his birth and education from a christian mother, Tyra, was 
not greatly averse from the christian religion : and yet it is 
clear, that in the present transaction, he yielded rather to 
the demands of his conqueror, than to his own inclinations. 
For Otto being satisfied, that the Danes would never cease to 
harass their neighbours with wars and rapine, if they retained 

■ The Greeks, the German*, the the aid of the Hungarian historians. 

Bohemians, and the Poles, severally In this we were, in part, preceded by 

claim the honour of imparting clirist- Gabriel do Juxta Hornad, Initia Rdi- 

ianity to the Hungarians ; and the tjionls Christ-, inhr Hunyiros Ecdttka 

subject is really involved in much ob- Qr'wntuli <«ltxrta. Francf. 1740. 4tt»^ 

scurity. The Germans say, that Gisela, who vindicates the credibility of the 

the sister of the emperor Henry II., Greek writers. The accounts of tho 

was married to Stephen, king of Hun- others are imperfect, and involved in 

gary; and that hIic convinced her bus- much uncertainty. [The book of Gottfr. 

hand of the truth of Christianity. The Schwartz, under the fictitious name of 

Bohemians tell us, that Adalbert of Gabriel de Juxta Hornad, gave ocea- 

Prague induced this king to embrace sion to a learned controversy, which 

the christian religion. The Poles main- continued several years after the death 

tain, that Geysa married Adclhcid, a of Dr. Mosheim. The result seems to 

christian lady, the sister of Mieislaus I. have been, that Schwartz's account is 

duke of Poland ; and by her was in- substantially true ; and, of course, the 

duccd to become a christian. We representation given by Dr. Mosheim. 

have no hesitation in following the au- See Schroeekh, Kirchi^tncA. vol. xxi. 

thority and testimony of the Greek p. 527, &c- Tr.\ 
writers, at the same time calling in 

(II. 1. 1 


the martial religion of their fathers, made it a condition of the 
peace with Harald\ that he and his people should btflftnMi 
Christiana'. After the oonrereion of the kin<r, Adaldag 
with good success, mged the fimbrians 
and Danes to follow his i sample. The stupendous niir:n-I< ■ 
performed by l^^po, are said to have contributed very much 
ti> this result: and yet those mir: ppOM to have 

artificial, and not divine; for they did not suq)oss the power* 
ure \ Harold, as long a I t" 0OB> 

finn his subjects in the religion they had embraced, by the 
establishment of bishoprics, the enactment of laws, wfoi 
bad morals, and the like, Hut his son Sueno [or »S'rrwn] 
apostatized from Christianity ; and, for a while. persecuted the 
christians with viol* Hut b< ing dri\t n from his kingdom 

and an exile among the Scot- netted t«. Christianity ; 

and as he was afterwards very successful, [and recovered Ufl 
throne,] he laboured, by all the means in his power, to promote 

that religion winch he bed Define betrayed'. 

§ <S. The conversion of the Norwegians commenced in this 
century; as appears, from the DlOSt unexc •ptioiiahle testimony. 

King f/itff&n Adchfotn, who had been educated 5 Huong the 
Engfcan, is s««ii'l to have first commenced this great work, \. n. 
933, by the aid of priests from England: but with little 
success; because the- ilentl] op 

the kind's designs. His successor, Harold Graufddt. pursued 
the begun work ; but with no better success'. After these, 

by thepefanaeknui of the Denial] king Handd, bo whom 
he owed his poaaeaaion of the tfai briat- 

ianity himself, but recommended it to his people in a public 
so. !H5\ But little success, 1 attended this 

* A dam us, Biwmcm. Ilutvr. lib. ii. 

cap. ii. iii. p. 16 ; •■.-»]•. \*. p. 20 ; in 

. lib. 
». cap. sx. Ludwig 

p. 10. Pontoppidfta, 


ii. p. "'•• Ad*- 
<i. p. 22 ; 
St.-pb. .Fa St«-pb»- 
■ I Stin*rmtirt»inmiiJ. 

A lnlrv.1. ad HiMor. Ckertoiua. 
Oimhr. pt. ii. • 1 4 ; and 

OttM i'. 

* Saxo. Gnunmnt. Bidor. Af 

.ppidan, ,U G**i* H 
\'<*i-rii» Dttnonm utra Dattiam, torn. 
. i. | |, .'. 

• 6 intdaa, A*wdi% 

Eodtma Damiece iPi/Jomtt. t 


' Tonn. Totfxus, Hitt«ria Nam- 
ijico, torn. ii. p. 183. 214, Ac. 



[I'AHT 1. 

effort among that barbarous and savage people. Sunn 'what 
Burn irwwful wen 1 1 1 # * attempts of CMomm, who is called am 
At leogtl] of Denmark, having vanquished Glaus 

7 V '/_'/_'//.">•- v. i • < 1 1 1 . j 1 1 1 -ii'il Norway; and published an edict 
(poring the inhabitants to abandon the godfl of their ancestors, 
and to embrace Christianity. The English priest GtUh*l>"l<L 
| be principal teacher at that time among them *. i 

Norway, the christian religion was transmitted to the Orkney 

islands, then subject to the kings of Norway : to 
and to old Greenlt inhabitants of which countries, to 

a great extent, made p I lir'e>tianky in this oenl 

as we learn from various sources'. 

§ 9. In Germany, the emperor Otto the Great, illustrious 
for I i J his piety, wits B OP suppressing the 

remains of the old superstition, which existed in various pro- 
vinces of the eiupiie. and for supporting Christianity, which 
was but imj>erfcctly established in many places. Jiy his bene- 
bceUCS and liberality, it was, that bishopries were erected in 
various places, as Brandenburg, H&Veiberg, ntciinmi, Magde- 
burg, and Naumburg ; so that there might be no want of 
spiritual watchmen, who should instruct the yet rude and half 
barbarous people in all the duties of religion'. In accordance 

• Torfa>u», lint. Nvrttgica^ torn. ii. 
p. -U>7. &C 

• OknR, /*iW'iCKm, published by 

Lodawjgi iii hi* fiwma M>mu- 

. torn. ix. [». 11. \(l, 17. — [Ac- 

cordin-^ to Si hn*-' kh, l\'\rchf»ijnrh. 

rol. xx'\. p. 376, &c, this * Maus Trrg* 

on, t be son of a pottj Norwegian 

• in. spent many yean in Kumia, 

n im wcodfah cuaat cif BtnuBfi 

liU> country revo !.irald 

Khiizahn, king of Denmark, mute 

llukon tin : 

Bucce*eful pirate, ad\;unvd in | 
and wealth ; became also a zealotix 
elm- . . !. ring BXpfr- 

10 iii tboee northern tea*, treated 
tin' I'.i-aiiN.iHiu-h n ttn'Muluunmodans 
■ lil dun ji-.inuna; that in, 

gave them tbo alt. niativ.' of baptism, 

nowrbosr him their king, and lwolted 
from ffnlw, <H a uB got poMciwk>n of 
iiw Wlwito imiintn inn i«> tonm! 


brace Christianity. This was just at 
1 DM of the eeuturv. Tr] 
1 Concerning die inhabitants of the 
Orkneys see form. Torfa na, Bwteria 

Oir.tdtnriiim, lib. i. p, 29. 
the Icelanders, iu addition to Ani 

■■wfitir, lib. L ; and Anns 
Multii-iUN fiftVrfai rf<? It/'inJit, p. 4"», 
&.c. ; see the a&im '!■ Erafajr. 

iVorrr./. torn. ii. p. 378, :t-#7. JlT 

Li run, 8ii ll'\t- 

tonq. Litter, torn. i. p. I'M. Conccrn- 

•iiiibiul, Torfenn al»o Ire:.' 
c torn. ii. p. 37t ; and in ' 
A*tw]vtt, cap. xvii. p, 1^7. Hafn. I7' M >- 

• I It is more probable, tliat Otto 

•reat liad Id PJ the 

1 •. . ■ flon ••! .1 ii- 1 ar ■'' i-li '!•' ■''•. '•• 
rnrtail the odiou* poi 

ip of Mayence. Therafony m the 
year !M0, he established tin- btahoprJe 
of llavelberg ; and, in 048. thai «'f 
liniiidi-nliiii -<_-. Un> 

archbishopric of Magdeburg, (aa we 

' H. l.j 



witli the relii' t the age, he also liuilt man) 

vents, for such as would prefer a monastic life; and be also 
la. If tlie illustrious ampem had exhibited as 

much wisdom and moderation, rs piety and >inc»ritv, in all 
this, he could scarcely be commended too much. Hut the 
superstition of his wife AtMaid#\ and the laments I -!■• igno- 
rance of the times, led this excellent prince to believe, that a 
man BCOUUod the friendship of Clod, by securing that of his 
ten and servants, with great largesses and pre 
I en-fore enriched the hi.shops. the monks, and religious 
associations of even kind, beyond all hounds: and subsequent 
generations reaped this fruit of his liberality, that these 
people abused their unearned wealth for pampering their vices, 
waging nod carrying on wars, and indulging thcmsehi 
luxury and dissipation. 

§ 10. To the account of these enlargements of the cln 
it in 'join. -d. that the European IrfngB and princes 

begen, in this century, to consider the project of a holy war. 
to be waged against the Muhammedans who possessed Pales- 
tine. For it was thought intolerable, and a disgrace to the 
Pflffowiiri of the christian religion, that the country in which 
■ id taught and made expiation for the sins of the 
human race, should be left under the dominion of his enei 
and it was de» seed most righteous, and agreeable to the dignity 
of the christian religion, to avenge the numerous calar 
Knd injuries, insults and sufferings, wliich the possessors of 
fine were accustomed to heap upon the christians residing 

are told \>y L'i dinar, p. 386.) Uie era- 
I '+ motives were, dtfentw torn- 
uti ii it fifrut, mid, *}*t rrinu,,. 

tin d T!u bishop of Hal- 

borrtadt, ami t!i Ma.v- 

ence, l«Kik*-i| Bpou tlii with 

iIIkIi!., In .ih|h mr 

of their preaeneo in Italy, 
whither they came to iwccdvt tin 

hire at lii- hand*, i.. obtain from 
I the troiwf. r of the suffragan 
hjahoprioM of Brandenburg and H 

iriadictiou of Mayenoe 
I lufd< bur|| and al- 
tnnaf«T of lary< itbartopos- 

av«m:d bj ill- bi bop «-f ||,, ii. i 

Adalbert, formerly a mbwionary, anil 
at thin tune abbot of Wrusenbnr^, 
was ordained fir> Mag- 

• B6S, bj i 
(•allium ; an.J, uiun-ii 

> pal envoy* and 1 1 

rg, and wan regu- 
larly inula 1 .. 1 1 mo, he 
consecrated tho new I 
M«TM-lnir£. llu^u of .'-'. Burk- 
ard of Meiawu ; who, togeUni 
the limliojiM uf Braiiik'iilmrjr, Havel- 

Lind Fobeu, wt re t<> roimtitute bit 
MiHra^aii-. \ uualiflt Saxo, ad 

ma W I 

M •»« r lift', id 1 1 v nr. < uiiisiu*, 
I Miptut, torn. in. pt. i. | 


in that country, or visiting it for religious purposes. Just at 
the close of the century, and in the first year of his pontificate, 
pope Sylvester II., or Gerbert, sounded the trumpet of war, by 
writing a letter in the name of the church at Jerusalem, 
addressed to the church universal * ; in which he solemnly 
adjured the Europeans to afford succour to the christians of 
Jerusalem. But none of them were disposed, at that time, to 
obey the summons of the pontiff; except the inhabitants of 
Pisa in Italy, who are said to have forthwith girded themselves 
for the holy war \ 



§ 1. Progress of the Turks and Saracens. — § 2. In the West, the barbarians 
distress the christians. — § 3. Effects of these evils. 

§ 1. No unchristian king of this century except Gormon and 
Sneno, kings of Denmark, directly, and with set purpose, per- 
secuted the christians living under his jurisdiction. And yet 
they could not live in security and safety, either in the East 
or in the West. The Saracens in Asia and Africa, though 
troubled with internal dissensions and various other calamities, 
were yet very assiduous in propagating thek* religion, that of 
Muhammed; nor were they unsuccessful. How much this 
diminished the number of christians, it is not easy to ascertain. 
But they brought over the Turks, an uncivilized people, inha- 
biting the northern shores of the Caspian sea, to their religion. 
This agreement in religious faith, however, did not prevent the 
Turks, when afterwards called in to aid the Persians, from 
depriving the Saracens, in the first place, of the vast kingdom 

4 This is the twenty-eighth epistle Scriptorc* Hitlor. Franc. 
of the first |>art, in the Collection of * Sec Muratori, Scriptores Rerum 

the Epistles of Sylvester II. ; publish- Italkar. torn. iii. p. 400. 
ed by Du Chcsnc, in vol. iii. of the 

.11. II. I 


of Persia; and afterwards, with astonishing celerity and 
success, invading and conquering other provinces subject to 
their dominion. Thus the empire of tli D8, which the 

(I reeks and Romans had for so many yarn in vain ntten 
to bold in chock, ma dismembered, and at Length bud* 
by their friends and allies ; and the very powerful empire of the 
a, irhiafa DM oot yi I pOMod t-i be terrible to christians, 
gradually took its place '. 

$ 'i. In the countries of the West, the nations that were 
still pagans wen in general very grievous foes to the christians. 
The NoTJ iring nearly half the century, inflicted the 

ieverefri Uowa upon the Franks and others. The Priiimiaiia. 

the Slavonians tin* r.ohemiaus, and others to whom Christ- 
ianity was unintelligible and hateful, not only laboured with 
to drive it from their countries, hut likewise 
frequently laid waste, in the most distressing manner, with fir. 
and sword, the neighbouring countries, in which it. was 
received. The Dams did not cease to molest the christians, 
till at hid conquered them. The Hungarians 

assailed Germany, and harassed various parts of the country 
with indescribable cruelties. The t\rauny of the Arahs in 

Spain, and ih< ir Sequent incursions upon Italy and the neigh- 
booring talanda, I paafl v ithotit farther notice. 

\ .'!. Whoever considers attentively the numberless calami- 
ties the christian nations suffered from those who were not 
christian, will perceive a sufficient cause for 

unwearied zeal of christian princes for tin* Bi D oftheflG 

furious and savage nations. They had the motives, nut merely 
of religion and virtue, but likewise of security and p< ace. Pot 

1 Thcac maaJo.>iu-i baa 

\ t.. .'Ill.ii!;i!r, i 

rutin itad. See 

nl«i QeOi Elmai-in, uhkn 

crmift, lib. ii. iii. ; . 190. JOS. 210, &C, 

* [Th 
especially, \>\ th it rage* thev i 

i-murrpcttotisaQ»intt their ell 
utrgrarea. llui 
at »!>' ; that 

Dod0O| the deceased biahop 

ir»ve, in order I sloth- 

1 Iml after cajitiirin^ tlw oU 


!i '.Im y all ili'il ; 
anil among these, Uddar, a provost, 
Mirtun >\ \<y ripfril 

in me form "f ;• i 
I an ; bo thai 

tmliat Saxo, ad aim. '.UM ; and Ditiuar, 


they expected, and with good reason, that those savage minds 
would be softened and rendered humane, by the influences of 
Christianity. Therefore they proffered matrimonial connexion 
with their kings and chieftains, assistance against their 
enemies, the possession of valuable lands, and other temporal 
advantages, if they would only renounce the religions of their 
ancestors, which were altogether military, and calculated to 
foster ferocious feelings : and those kings and chieftains, influ- 
enced by these offers and advantages, listened themselves to 
christian instruction, and endeavoured to bring their subjects 
to do the same. 





jj I. State of learning among tin- QrlnW — S 2. Few good writer* among tin in. 
— § 3. State of learning among the Saracens. — § 4, 5. The Western D I 
— § 6. The state of philosophy. — § 7« Sylvester a restorer of learning. — § 8. 
Arabian learning. 

(I, It is universally admitted that the ignorance of this on- 
tury was extreme, and tliat learning me entirely neglected. 
Ni>r ■ this greatly to be wondered at. considering what wars 
and distressing calamities agitated both the East and the West, 
and tn what a base Bel of beings the guardianship of truth and 
i nisted. Leo the Wise, who Elded the Greek 
empire at th<- Ix-ginning of the century, both cultivated learn- 
ing himself, and excited others to do so 1 . His son, Constantai* 

1 See Jo. Alb. FabriciuB, BifJiutk. 
lib, v. jit. ii. rap. v. p. 303. [Leo 
VI. reigned from *. n.HtKi t.» 911. The 
learn i id \wvn bin instructor. 

1 1 is learning procun .1 him 
the Wm, and the Philvty*r,: 
completed the begun revision of the 
rial laws by his father, and jrab- 

Barn' 'TiXicai ciarii^fic. It 

is a Greek translation of Justinian'* 

'II, With •■XtHK-l I 

the coiiniicntaric* of the Greek Jurists. 

-. nnd 

tip • U-cisions of eerie?-. ieils, 

I hit miu-1 
emitti/d, or changed, i»renlan:« -d. 0> 1>. 
Fabrotti published a Latin translation 
of forty -one books, anil »n abstract of 
the remaining books, Paris, 1647,M)vcn 
vols. foL This emperor's book n 
art of wai I from earlier 

bhdwd I'V Meonhak 

Hi* k-tt<r u. Qm Saracen OlBB 
favour of cbrisii 

lr"iii whi.h there is a Latin 
'i--n in Hm lUIJu-'k, P.tlr. Lttg- 


HOOK 111. CESTI KY \. 

I II. 

Porp hyrog e oilM, was still mn soliottons t*» reime literature 

and the arts'. For it appears that he supported learned men 
of various descriptions, at groat expense: he carefully colli 
the writ injrs of the earlier ages ; he was himself an author, and 
anpted otiten to write : he wished to have all that was 
most \;ilu;ibl" iu the works of the ancient* to be selected, and 
arrange"] under appropriato beads; and hs re-animated, ai H 

the study of philosophy which was extinct \ 1'ew of the 

Greeks, 1> liese noble examples; nor was 

any among the subsequent emperors win iiially 

friendly to literature and to the cultivation of the mind. In- 
deed, it is supposed, that Constantim I'orphyrogcnitus himseir, 
rlioiK^h the Greeks pronounce him the restorer of all faac 

of banning, undesignedly injured the cause of learning bj 

seal to advance it. For, having caused extracts and 
abridgments to be compiled by learned men. from the writers 
of preceding ages, in order to elucidate the various branches of 
ledge and render them serviceable to the world, the sloth- 
reeks now contenting themselves with these abridgment* 

•luii. torn. xvii. — Baronius (Annul, 
a. n. I Arm Account of thirty- 

three HIM0 "f thin *-t» i — 

I -<er has published nine 
. Ingnkt. 1600. 4to. They were 
ohi.-fly de*irncd for the feast days ; 
and are of little value. See M. 

Schrocekh, Kimhtm-yvh. vol. xxi. p. 

127, &.c. Jr.] 

• Wabrit&m, 1. ■> cay. v. p. 486. 
>l>liYTogenittw reigned 
'11 to 959. Heal, 

u), and moral compendium*, 
which he CattMd to In- made OOl from 
rliir ivrit.TH, were arranged un- 
der fifty-three heads or titles ; and 
were intended to embrace all that was 
most valuable on those subjects. Only 
fifly-tlirri' are now to be 
found ; namely, the twenty -seventh, 
relating to the diplomatic intercourse 
uf the Romans with foreign nations ; 
(published, parti \ Im 
and partly Aagwnrg 1608. -I t<>. ;) and 
the fiftieth, rcapecting virtue ami 
of which a part waft published bv Va- 
BM. 4 to. The titica «»f 
some of the others ore low 
OH tba prahunaiions of kings ; on 

heroic deeds ; on festivals ; on public 
addrcsaex ; ou manners ; on ecclesias- 
tical |«*rwon» and thine* ; on epistles ; 
chase ; on war ; on the esta- 
blishment of colonies ; on strange oc- 
currences ; fto. Among the emperor's 
i impositions were, a biography 
of his grandfather, Basil ; two hooka 
on the military stations and garrison* 
ist ructions to his son, 
respecting the state and the foreign 

, anil the DO 
it would be wine for him tn pursue; 


Christ found at Edcaaa ; 0D naval and 
military tactics ; on the mode of war- 
fare bj iifferanl nations ; and some 
compilations on farriery, agriculture, 
breeding en*' 

with a large worl ihe< 

uial of iht Court of (Xmjtitnlimopte, 
scribing m mutely all the eti-mc 

practia td. It waa published by 
Reiske, Lips, 1761—54. 3 vols, fol.— 
See Schrouckh, Ktrckewtnck. vol. xxi. 
p. 129, A. c. Jr.) 

* Tin* in cxprctady asserted by J". 

ran, Anmii. ten. lam. p. ISS 

< H. I.J 



of tin- emperor, neglected tin- writers from whom they Iran 

il.«l. And therefore many tx<-i!l«iit authors or the 
earlier period, became lost, through the neg bhe Gruels 

from this time onward. 

$ *J. Few writers, therefore, can be named among the 
Greek*, on whom a wise and judicious man will place a high 
valui. ■: and ED a abort time, the literary seed sown, which 
■ d to promise a rich harvest, was found to be dead. The 
phflnophen, if mch character* nourished among them, pro- 
dueed no immortal works, and nothing of pCKDa&a 
The body of learned (irei !. ifanOSt wholly con 

:i lev, rhetoricians, some grammarians, here and then- | pOSl 
who was above contempt, and a Dumber of historians who, 
though not of the first Older, v.eie DOi d« si : I mmt : 

for tin- Greeks Beamed to find pleasure almost exclusively in 

Of literature iu whieh the imagination, the 

.rv. and industry, ha' 
vj S. Egypt, though groaning under an oppress) ■ 

j.n.diieed SOU] | D h who mighl contend with the 

Qreeke for the palm of superiority. The example "f / 

to mention do others, will evince this; for that bishop of 

Alexandria did honour tO 1 1 *• • Sciences of DM 'dicine and fli 
by his various production?,. Among the Other Arabian-, that 
noble ardour for Useful knowledge, which mi awakened in the 
(fangSgS, d unabated through this wide century; 

so that there was hem a large Dumber of eminent phy- 

sicians, philosophers, and mathematicians, whose names and 
: . i hours are celebrated by Jo. Lao Afticttm* and by 


^ 1. All the Latins . k in great barbarism. \ 

rs are agreed, that this century desui'feu the name of the 
a- as respects literature and science; and that 

the Latin nations never saw an age more dark and cheerless*. 

* PfeBflA of tli»* ignorant* of the ago, 
boon eollod i. Fftanwn itn 

■ P< 

ii'iu. )ii. p. R3I, 

ll. B III;.:'.: 

■bar, in his work Ik fhriitutnarwm 
Etdetinntm Nnfmiam* H .State, i 
.1 primate* principal • 
in arraying tiicao tiwtlmnote'*, is to 

I ll lit |UV; :. 

lag tin- triumph of r..|Mr_v : vhieh Iti 

iilnry. J 


And though some excellent mpn have quest) i- l'a«i. it 

i« too finnly established, to be wholly disproved*. 8c 
BKiate d indeed, in most, countries of Europe, either in the 
monasteries, Of in tli which were the resides 

bishops; end there lik.ui.4e shone forth, in one place and 
another, especially al the close of the century, some di.-tin- 
gtnahed geniuses, who attempted to soar above the vulgar. 
these can easily be all counted up; ami the sraaltncss of 
their number evinces the infelicity of the times. In the 
schools, nothing was taught but the seven liheral arts, as the\ 
were ind the teachers were monks, who estimated the 

value of learning and science, solely by their use in matters of 

ij •>. The best among the monks who were disp 

tainly is remarkable, that, in the 
:itury, Rome first formally 
committed hers. If, in the eonleramv- 
, to the doctrine of 
transubstantiation. and in the person 
of Gregory VII. made Hone of those 
assertions of papal Riiprcmacy, which 
eventnally made so much noise. The 
4 transuhstnntiation is, un- 
doubtedly, the main pillar of Romish 
peculiarities ; and it rests upon tltat 
alleged infallibility of which the pa|>al 
see is cither the depository or the 

• .-nln . E>l.\ 

..Ifr. Wm. rilftnili, Pnrf. a,i 
•tunr t\ i/rs/iwNi Difdo- 
mat., maintains, that this tenth ouuurjr 
was not so dark as the following cen- 
turies, and, particularly, nut so dark as 
•In iH.-lfth and thirteenth. But he 
nly is extravagant, and labours 
in vain. More deserving of a hearing 
are, .In. Mabilloti, ,4ct'.i Stwctor. <>r<l. 
Btn«t. BmoL v. I'i-iI. p. ii. \<\ — the 
authors of the Litfrnry H'utory of 
.1. ^i. p. 1H, fee, Jac. te 
Heuf,* Kfc»/« L- nwpfa. 

•■to M. ad Retjriu fisftort»j and 
some others; who, whil tli. \ admit 
that the ignorance of thin age was 
great, contend that its barbarism was 
great as it is corn- 
supposed, in the proofs which 
they allege, there b considerable defi- 
ii -.till tea may admit, tliat 
all hcience was not entirely extinct in 
Europe ; ami that there was a number 

of persons who were wise abov- 
mass of |Kroph> ; but tliat the number 
was a very moderate one, nay, really 
small, may be gathered from the mo- 
intinents of the age, — [ The opinion of 
Leibnitz was embraced by Dr. Semler 
((' of Baunignrtcu's A'brA- 
fnijrtek. vol. iv. p. 463, &c ; and U'u- 
tor. Ecdat. tSflrVda Capita, torn. ii. p. 
626, &c.) His arguments seein 
easily answered. The tenth ecu 
afforded more writers, in whom sound 
reasoning was combined with some 
lea rnin g, than the twelfth and thir- 
teenth. It had great' r an. I better 
princes ; and in the yearn ami the 
countries in whi-h the Normans and 
Huns spread no geneseJ desolation, 
there were more numerous episcopal 
and monastic schools, in which the 
■He instruction, though 
and meagre. The most noted 
episcopal eehooa weM, those of May- 
Treves, Cologne, Magdeburg, 
V\ '-irt/.burg, Paris, Toon, Klicinis, 
Met?., Tool, am] Verdno ; ami an 
the monastic schools were those of 
Fleury, Cbuflij Laubcs, Gortz, Cor- 
bcy, rulda, .St. Emtncran, Epumaeb, 
St. Gall, &c — Every teacher, and 
nearly every chaster, procured a stock 
of the rlaaeical writers. — The Greek 
language was not wholly unknown ; 
although the individuals were becom- 
ing more and more rare who could 
understand liha ancient* in tlie ori- 
ginals. ScM.) 

I'H. I.] 



employ a portion of (fair leisure to some advantage, applied 

tbemafihres to writing annals and history of ■ mem fcaatem* 

instance, A ho \ Luifpra-tul ' , Witukiml\ Fukuin\ Joim 

of OtfJOft 1 , Jtatfieriut', FUtfluard*, Notkerm\ gflUfl e Tf *, and 

• [Ahho, Uirn nt Orleans, educated 
at Flenry, Faris, Kheims. and Orleans, 
was railed to England by the arch- 
. >rk, to preside over a mo- 
nastic school, before 
tw.« years, lie retanied bo Plea 

came abbot, and resided there till his 
death in 1004. lie wrote an Epitome 
at the live* of the popes, compiled 
from Anastasius; a lit- mini, 

king; uf Uie East Angles ; Collection or 
i ue of canons ; several Epistles 
and hliort tract*. See Cave, tlitt*>r. 
ii. ii. 7Y.J 
7 | l/iiitprand was bom at Pa via, or 
in Spain ; was envoy of Berengarius, 
kin-_' of Italy, to Constantinople-, a. D. 
94a ; created bishop of Cremona, be 
became odious* .iritis, aiul 

was deposed, a. n. IKKi, or earlier, and 
1 iii t'-rt in Germany. 

e m per o r Otho sent him again to Con- 
stantinople, a. o. 968. He wax 
a. n. ;>7<> II was a nmii of genius*, 
and of considerable learning. He un- 
derstood and wr- H KM well as 
Latin. His works are, a Hibtory of 
>• during bin < in six 
book- I > count \4 bis embassy 
(.. Conatantinople in 1)68. To him also 
are fulmjly attributed, a tract 011 the 
live- ■•( BM |" j'<-. B 

< 'bniiiiroii. AH these, 
together « 1 ,-.' -//-i'-j, or Note- 

1 i, vara printed, 1640. 

1 ave, 1. 0. 7V. ) 
■ I '■ mid, was a 

d i a imiiil. uf 1 nri.-'v in Qer- 
many, h bo flourished a. d. 940, and on- 
ward*. He wrote a History of the 

Snx.iriK, ( .r th- reigaa <-i Bear) (be 
low 1 1 1) three books ; 

published, Basil. lo32, Francf. 1577, 
and among the .Sri /rfons itmtm Gar- 
...... laWMSi , likewise m-m - p n - - 1 1 • ■ - 

•ions. See Cave, I c. 

• (Fubn l-iiin, abl».t -i 


990. I If wvulu a ill, 
lytli /. in'.., mri» r 

I 'namtri ; ami Viiit /•'..-/- 
.-Mini Ep. / trr.m, u«m. 

1 [John 1 bbot of Iti na 

\<n 1 

Cawrino, flourished from a. d. 9 1 
934. mrMfltfeaaoai 

imbii l\untunsis y [a Siractnoruut i 
(ions,) ft de Minimlu initii J>irtit y < 
nictm ntcoindw* : also, CAro»iron j-t- 
!«* Comitum Cotnur. See Cave, 

' [ Kathcriua, a monk of stem man- 

■sjiaj and Bbnoa, was 

ip of Verona a. d. aeed 

in 954, and mad 1 iegej rv- 

^iu'in-.l, 11 11 • 1 wu- again biabou of v.- 

win ; was again removed, ami retired 

to his monastery of Laubea, where he 

k. n. Jl7:i. His world, aa pub- 

: I iy L. Dachier, BptaStg. torn, ii., 

comprise various epistles, apologies, 

Ee tracts, a few sermons, and a 

nar of Laultes. His 

CkromoprxtpMa is said to liave existed 

>. in the monastery of lit-mbLours. 

See Cave, I. a, 7>.) 

' I Floduard, or Frodoard, a canon 
of Rl- ■iin», who died a. n. 966, aged 
'v-fhrec years. Hie 1 

»CCt t_ystnrntn, ab I 
l»l 9, ad ami. naqjo paUSabed, 

. IMS. Hvo, and Frnn.t. IBM. 
II Iluturi** Ecdttia; linnrhtU 
libri iv. was edit- nd, I'aris, 

1611. Hv.-. : ,,1 in 

tin- ) n. xvii. p. 600. 

His poetfa 

saints, in about twen 
never published !. ..-. Tr.\ 

« [Notker, or .V 1 1 -.I 

Liege, a. d. 9/1 — I007. He wrote 
(■oruM ']'ntj<Y<sHti«m f 
ftm L*odiaau&um t ) bul 
the same that was pi 



a Bondah preabj 

maelus, bishop of Utrecht ; and on the 

mirneleH of St. Reniaclus, two books. 

It was another Notgr: 

v, who die«l a i-. 91 |j 


Mui-tyrulogy wa- 

sius, torn. 1 , 1. c. 


IbeH, or rath.-r Eih.-lwerd, 
-ward, wa.*- of royal English blood, 




[part II. 

re; of whom, Rome an* indc-d battel than others, hut they 
all wander imuioiisi lv wide of tin- true method of com]" 

history. I tf their poetej one and another ehowa hiawdf to l>e 
not fold of gemOB; hut all arc rude, on account of the inie- 
licity of the times, which could relish nothing elegant or 

exquisite. The j.T.-miniariaiifi and rhetoricians of fahl 

en scarcely worthy to be mentioned ; for they either give on! 

nhsoluto nonsense, or inculcate precepts which are jejune and 
injudicious. Of their geometry, arithmetic, calculation oJ 
feast days, (Computus, ) BBt ra licfa had a | 

in their schools, it is unnecessary to gw -criptiou. 

§ H. The philosophy of the Latins was confined wholls fco 
logic; which was sup|io.-'d to contain the marrow of all wis 

dom. lit \ \\ Inch was so highly extolled 

Lj taught Without method and without clearness, accord- 
Iwiokon the .-, falsely ascribed 

an<l the writings of Po r p hyr y. It is true, that Plato** I iuueus, 
Arutot/ts tract rfo fuf loM, and his as well as Cicero % 8 

Topics, and j>erhaps some other treatises of the Greeks 
Latins, were in the hands of Some persons « hut they who 

inform ua of the fact, add that then wore nod douU 

understand theM books'. And yet, strange as it may Bp| 
it was in rli" midst «»f this darkness, that the subtle question 
was raised, rcsi>cctintf the nature of mrirrrsuk. [<}■ n-raf ,"> 
Bfl t hey are called ; namely, wlutlur th> // h<!„n>j >■ 

or art mere nautes. And this controversy wia 
violently agitated among the Latins, from this time onward i 

or at least, the incipient (botfitepfl of this protracted ami knotty 
dispute are discoverahle in the writing of the learned, as early 
as this century T . 

nnd fluuri*lK'<l a. n. 080. He wrote 
llxd'ifux brrr'u, Kbrfa iv. ; which i.i a 
concise Chronology, from the creation, 
to the Saxon invasion "i England : una 
I BUM full ami a homhnatic his- 
tOCJf of England, down U> a. k. §74 It 
wan | i>> Savill.-, wiili tin- 

IkrifitoM Ait'jltci, Loin I n, I '•!>«!. !<<|, 
p. 472 V 

• < 1 '. <ui Mtnutehm A 

«-»*•*, in Martene*» CUUctio <w}-i'utf. 
Mo»tmtrut(rrti$» Y'rtr. torn. iii. p. !«)4. 

1 (iunzo, a learned monk, I 0. \> 

304, aay»: a Arwtotelea gentis, sp< . 
iiifl\-tvntinm,propriun. sub- 

. 1 .• rial«-:'i .11I' ■ - 
Arwtoteli an PL 
nMffin i-n dcn.liim jmtafiH ! Mu_'ita Htt 
que aiii'ii 1' •am v ix aii- 

This is a clear 
KBpfa of discord unong Iha I. 

An* a wiln- 

ittmpted it afterward*. 

(II. I.] 



§ 7- At the close of this century, the cause of learning in 
Europe obtained a great and anergetfa patron, in GeH 

• •hniaii ; known BOWBg the BoBHUH ji«intilfs, as bearing 
the name of SjfhomUr II. Thi- »Teat md exalted genius 
jiursuod successfully all bunohoe of learning. I>nt especially 
mat hematic,, im ehanies. L, r eoinetry, astronomy, ant In 
and the kindred sciences; and l.ntli wrote upon them himself, 
and ronfled others to cultivate and advance them, to the utmost 
of his power, The effects of his efforts, anion*; the tJermnns, 

•h, and Italians, wen' manifest in this century, and the 
next ; for many individuals of these nations were stimu* 
by the writings, the example, and the exhortations of Gerbert, 
to the ze:ilons pursuit of philosophy, mathematics, med 

Dtfaflf I'luinhes of human seieneo. Q trbe r t cannot indeed 

nipared with our i^coinetrieians ami niatheniaticiaus : Bfl 

is manifest from his Qwouity, whi< -\\ is a plain and petBpieaoofl 

hut at the name time imperfect and ]\ And 

yet hi> knowledge was too profound, for the comprehension 

of that harharnus Ige, Pol the ignorant monks supposed his 
trical diagrams to be magical figures; and therefore, 
Hi down this learned man among the magicians and disci 

of the evil one'. 

• It was published by Bernh. Per, 
Tketaur. AnodaL loin, iii. j-t. ii. y. 7- 

• Sec the Wduuv LUUrak* I 
Fron&j torn, vi. p. 551' f/is- 


&c. Gab. Naud, AjkIimju j/our l-t 

ijrxtmi* homnua fwmamrnt 'tectum ./- la 

■■< , caji. xix. § 4. (fierbert wa« a 

of Aiivei-goc, and early devoted 

.f to -dudy 

iii France, he no liuota 

B araoatt in Spain; and ratal 
the moat scientific in 
church. In the year MHLtfacmf 
I. net with him in Ital\. 
made him abbot of l> «oon 

lial station to become Beeretai 
tdalbero. archbiah jt of Rheira*. Ho 
now t 

• 1 be wan 
ii« ; but «a* i1<|ki~(| l.\ i 

John \ V 

*h*f of Btnn. On 

>'f Gregory V„ a.d. 009, ho was, by 
influence, created pope, and aa- 
aumi ■; rlvwtu II. II- 

. d. ion.- -While .it Hh.ims lie 
wrote IW) Letters; »hi.-h wan pub- 
Uabed by Maason, Paris, loll. 4 to. 
and then in Din Frus- 

OOt i«- :n'il in WtBom, PcbV 
xvii. While pope, hi "Toto three 

lea, "ii.- of ■ . 
Jerusalem, call m to 

rescue t hit I eil> DNU0 lie ..f in- 
lb aw) (ifvmdria 


flpv copo nm Sermo ; and an 
L'l.nii: bceadea several nioon nevtz 
||. of St. Adalbert. 

arobbiabop oi Pi igv '• aa- 

I "wed not i- 
bis. Bui 'he tract, a* Corpora W Km- 
! .I Ui 

lb nigor, abbot of Lauhcs, is auppoaod 
t,i have been the production "I 
bvH. 7. I 


§ 8. For a part of his knowledge, especially of philosophy, 
medicine, and mathematics, Gerbert was indebted to the books 
and the schools of the Arabians of Spain. He went into Spain, 
to pursue science, and was an auditor of the Arab doctors at 
Cordova and Seville '. Perhaps his example, in this respect, 
had an influence upon the Europeans. This at least is most 
certain, that from this time onward, such of the Europeans as 
were eager for knowledge, especially of medicine, arithmetic, 
geometry, and philosophy, had a strong desire to read and 
hear the Arab doctors, resident in Spain, and in a part of 
Italy ; many of whose books were translated into Latin, and 
much of their contents was brought forward in the European 
schools ; many students also actually went into Spain, to get 
instruction immediately from the lectures of the Arabic 
doctors. And truth requires us to say, that the Saracens or 
Arabs, particularly of Spain, were the principal source and 
fountain of whatever knowledge of medicine, philosophy, astro- 
nomy, and mathematics, flourished in Europe, from the tenth 
century onward. 

1 See Boulay, Ilutoria Aoad. Paris, torn. L p. 314. 



< in iu li .»i i iifcus AM' GOVERNMENT. 



OF THE illL'lll'H. 

§ 1. The clergy corrupt — § 2. History of the Roman pontiffs, — § 3. Jolm \ 
— § 4. John XI. and John XII.— § 5. Fat* ->f the latter.- Jj 8. John 
XI I Land Benedict VI I.— § 7- John XIV. and John XV.— § R. Aggrru 
incut of the popes. — § 9. The bishops and abbots increase in power. — § 1 1>. 
Principal vices of tin- clergy.— § II. Low state of discipline in the monaste- 
ries. — § 12. Principal writers in the Greek church. — § 13. Writers in tho 
Latin church. 

$ 1. Nothing is more incontrovertible, than that the clergy, 
both in the East and in the West, was composed principally 
of men whii wi-re illiterate, stupid, ignorant of amy thing 
pertaining to religion, libidinous, superstitious, and flai^iti 
No? ran any one doubt, that those who wfahed to be regarded 
as the fathers and guardians of the universal church, were the 
principal cause of these evils. Nothing certainly can be con- 
ceived of, so filthy, or so criminal and wicked, that these 
DM bishops of the church would deem incompatible with 
their char nor was any government, ever, so loaded 

with vices of every kind, as was that which bow the appella- 
tion of the most holy". What the Greek pontiffs were, the 
single example of Theophyhict shows; who, as credible his- 

1 [Whoa lie convinced of 

Uris. need only look through the pages 
"I Katherius. In his Voittmtn Pet- 
jfendicubmm, sw <fc eoMrmj4u ctmo- 
mnim. for instance, he speaks of a clergy- 
man: " t^ui, cum otnnes mulieros dio> 
Cosifl sua? Bint ijwinn filiie npiritualcs, 
eujuslilK't forte illaruin eorrupliono 
poUtrtOI Brt," He tclla uh, that the 
its were more anxious to become 
bishops, than to serve the Lord ; and 
that th© example of the light -im 
bishops, who would recite passages of 
the bible, such iu* John x. I, with laugh- 
ter, led others to i itnUar 

Continual I 

Bauragarten'* Kirckmk'utw 

p. 507. flUULl 

1 [The reader is rvfern d to the tes- 
timony of uii upright Italian, Lewis 
Ant, Miirat"ri, in his Antv^. 
. «2. * In the 
tenth century, especially, alaaJ what 
unheard-of monsters filled not 
manv of the chairs of bishops and ab- 
bots, but likewise that or St l'.f.r! 
hvt rv where might be seen the pp-t'i- 
gate moral* of the clergy and monks; 
and not a few of the rulers of churches 
were I the appellation 

of wolves than of pastors.' — " Good 
thoologians were I i h boad." 

hook III. — i'KNTTIIY \. 

[pa I 

torians testify, mack- traffic of every thing sacred, and cared 
tnr nothing but his hounds and his horses'. Hut though the 
Greek patriarchs were very unworthy m possessed 

more dignity and more virtues than the Roman pontiff's. 

$ 2. That the history of the Roman pontiffs of this cent ury, 
is a history of monsters, a history of the most atr< 
villanies an<l crimes, is acknowledged hy all writers of distinc- 
tion, and even by the advocates of popery*. The principal 
cause of these enormities, is t<» be Bought for in the calamities 
of" the times, which ensued ujmjii the extinction of the family of 
f'hirhmagnt), in the greater part of Europe, but especially in 
Italy. Upon the death of Benedict IV., a. D. 903, Leo V. 
sleeted 1" But he reigned onlj forty days; 

when piOMB|[or Qtr triop far J cardinal of St. Lt\\r< 

dethroned him, and cast him into prison. In the fill 
'Will., a Roman presbyter, stripped Ckritttpl 

of the pontifical dignity, by the aid Z&ri, the very 

powerful marquess of Tuscany, who controlled every thin 
Rome according t<> his pleasure. Si-rprus died in .'.'1 I, and his 

* [This prelate, who wan of royal 
blood, wm possessor of the nee of Con- 

ii | lo ut the a^e of sixteen. 
Win! tb, he appeared 

grave ami decent ; but when an 
at maturity, In- bOQeflM hi • 
u.\tratae;aiit. Hi' Bold ccclcahuiUc&l 

offleaa ; and ba was «*» *tu<-lu il to 

horses and to liuittiiiLT, tli:it hi 

man Ann *jooo home*, which ii 

•>n nut* and fruita atotptd in odorous 

lib groom brought him int. 11 ; 
ttm man' had t> 
iy was so great, thai tiding 

the service, he ran lo tin- stable, m 1 
after view in.- the foal, returned b 
«rt-at temple, ami oomph lad the 
aarvioea. Ha death, which happened 
a. i». UMi, after ho had been bbh>>p 
twenty Ihree years, waa occasion' 
bis being thrown from his horn- against 
a wall. This brought on an b 
ptosis; he languished two years, hut 
without l« . i. nt, and 

then «licd "f a dropsy. I liua I 

In. Iv. ?m ..| 

* | Beronina, A an BOO, 
any* of tin ; U I to 

mlnste it the in»a tp>e, on set 
of it» barbarbm and barreuneas of aU 
good; also the Uadm <w, on aoo 
of the abounding wickedneai 

it wa> and the if<trlc <• ) 

account ol f <>l «rit« n 

can acareely bcueve, nay, j 
In t«-l > can "-ular 

what unworthy 
duct, what base and enormous di 
wliut exeexahk and abomiuublc traiu>- 

m the pivot on which the whole 

poral prinoesywho, though called chrisf 

tan, w. iv m..>I cruel t 
to tin :n Milvi '■• tin < Ii ction .-I the !;• i 
pontii! ihrstuune! Abu 

mischief ! What monsters, hoi . 

aee, which angels rorero ! What 
did i rate : what hoi i 

tragedies ensued f With what p 

was thjaact-, th'>ii:di itaelf without. 
■ v wriukli 

oorrupliona infected it; what riithi- 
> hat tnarka 

of pvqH-luul uifauiv ait vUblc UJ»ou 

•11.11.) « ill '111 II "J I li ins \\i» CDVKHNMKN f. 


successors, Anastasius 111. ami ZrtMlde, tilled the holy office 
only for a short time, end purftjimed nothing worthy of notice. 
5$ *>. Af'ti r the death of Lamlo, a. d. 914, the very rich ami 
lul manpicss or count of Tuseulum, Alhrric, hy the insti- 
gation of his mother-in-law, Thtixiora, a very lewd woman win. 
controlled all tilings at Rome, made Jv/ui X., who >n:ls arch 

i of Ravenna, eneeeed to the papal chair. For at bhia 

tame, nothing was conducted regularly at Koine, hut 
thing was carried by hrilx'ry, or violence \ This John, though 
otherwise n wry l>acl man, is commended fur one deed: he 
successfully attacked and vanquished the Saracens, who oc- 
cujiied a fortified mountain [on the banks of the] Guri/'mno. 

the daughter of Tkewfoni and in 
vas inimical to him. Therefore when aha, on the death of her 
lui.shaud J/^//V, ha<l married H7</", [oi I DUrUlMBB of 

Tuscany, she persuaded her new husband to seize hernioi 
loVer, \. ii. 928, and to imprison and kill him. Leo VI. now 
'•ded; and he dying six months after. u:is followed hy 
St. fJt, >t VII. After two years, or a. n. !>:>!, S/,j and 

M'i/o--.i'i procured for her son, Joh n X 1 . , whom she had by 

the Roman* pontiff AryAu 111., elevation to the chair of £ 
Peter, and the government of the church''. 

1 l At that tin . torn, 

with li.-r two daughters, Marozia and 
Theodora, rvftided at Koine. Tiny 

wen- wholly derated i«j vhal wu» e 

tin- Tum-uii party, of which tin- marqaeeB 
Ail. I D the ti Rl 

of Mosluim) — wu the head. Tbeee 
women not only lired in habit* or tin- 

lnuMl ahotuiltaM.- unchoMtitv. •.silli tin- 
dlM I had 

there. Lu in tnb n 

tin- princhtal lii-t.>rui». Eocard 


authority, and endeavoured to make 

hi* I 

Of tl: 


in hiis MC 

lu-ac bane feinal. 
I iiitprand'N narrative of tl, 
Join -X-. an tntn*Uu>d | 

In Ihoae day* l'cte r, arch 
l.iahi'ji "f Itaviuua, (MMa 

arcliii'pweopal see afti-r that i»f Roma,) 

no a 
deacon named John, to |ay his • 
aance to his holincee. Aa tile deacon 
wan a Tory coi |»-r>otiable 

man, Thi odora, filling paawooiU ly in 

low • j:ii;. .1 l.ini in | ■ 

nal intrii^ut- with hii . V, 

anther; Ihe Mahay of bo- 
logna died, and John liad interest 
ii to gel bimai II in hw 

i | .'..■una 


aaded him to wnlMiwj 
t Bologna for that of I lav 
i- waa accordingly, at her request, 
ordaii /•■ Laado, archhi 

of thai won after, 

and u|hjii i'heodora, c 

iii£ hi. 

mi- .<f two Inn 

i Ii. i lul. .1 . -••! Illli 


:ia is a woman in 



§ 4. John XI., who was raised to supreme power in the 

church. by the aid of his mother, lost it again, in the year 

i he enmity of Alh>rU\ hi.- Irother. I '<•>• 

Alberi' . being offended with his stepfather. Hugo kin^of Italy, 

to whom M-noz'ta was married after the death of FPufa, ex- 

I Hugo IVi'iii Ibune, and confined both his mother, to 
brother the pontiff, in a prison, where John died \. u. 936. 
The four pontiffs, who succeeded him in the government of the 
church, till the year })">o\ namely Lio VII.. Stephen VIII., 
Alarimut II., and Agapetus, are represented as better men 
than John : and it is certain, that they feigned more tranquilly. 
Hut on the death of Agapetus, a. d. 956, Al the 

nl of Rome, who controlled every thing there by his 
influence and wealth, raised his own son 
to the pontificate. Hub youth, utterly unworthy of the office, 
assumed the name of John XII.; and thus introduced the 
custom, which continues to the present day among the Koman 
pontiffs, of changing their name, on their elevation t»« that 
office 7 . 

§ 5. The exit of John XII. was as unfortunate, as his pro- 
motion had been scandalous. Being very uneasy under the 
haughty government of Jitrengantt* II., king of I tab. lie 
ambassadors to Otto the Great, king of Germany, a. d. 960, 
inviting him to march an army into Italy, and rescue the 
church and the commonwealth from cruel tyranny; and pro- 
mised, if he would do this, to invest him with the insignia 

the view of all historians, ancient and 
hi ; who tell us, that the pontiff 

John XI. wan her win, anil the fruit of 

an illicit intercourse with Scrgius 111. 

Yet on.- writer, .!•>. Geo, lie card, in his 
set Q*dpkiem t ton. Lift*, ii. p. Ml. 

dare* to vindicate bn character, and 

to represent Sergius as being her first 
hunt mud. I say dura, for it is auda- 
cious to acquit, without proof or reason, 
a w.i man whose actions condemn lx-r 
and show her to he destitute of || 
t«trntv and virtue-. 

7 | l»r. Moabafan ii bMUDeoJ in as- 
sorting that Alheric himself raised his 
son to tin- pontificate. This patrician 
and prince of Rome was in fact a tyrant, 
who had irregularly usurped lis- supn-- 
inacy at Rome; hut he died in the 

year 054, and while Agnpotua was still 
living; so that he transmitted to hi* 
sun only what he himself possessed, — 
the civil il'iinini.,11 of the i ity. (In the 
death of Agnpetus, in the year 966, 
Octaviu* was advised by his fries 
place himself in S hair; and 

this bfl found uol difficult to ncoui- 
pli-di, although his age rendered him 
unfit for the place: for h* was, pafl> 
haps, u. it then nineteen yean OUL Eta 
was the first pope, so far as is known, 
that changed hi- na >' was 

ritual attain, that hoaxt-i 
the tin i i; in all worldly mat- 

ters lu- -till retained hh former n 
See Muratori, ad aun. Ud4 and 950. 



confer on him the title of emperor of the Romans. Otto came 
accordingly, with his forces, and was declared emperor of 
Rome, by John, in the year 962. But the pontiff soon 
repented of what he had done; and, although he had bound' l>v solemn oath to the emperor, he formed a coalition 
with Adnlh,fi, the son of /krotaariu*, against Otto. The 
emperor therefore returned to Rome, the next year, and 
assembled a council, in which John was accused of numerous 
crimes, and perhaps also proved guilty, and formally deposed ; 
Leo Vlll. bung appointed to his place'. When Otto had 
left the city, John came to Home, a. d. 964, assembled anot In r 
il. and condemned the emperor's pontiff; but he soon 
after died a miserable death *. After his exit, the Romans 
elected Benedict V. j Imt the emperor carried him away to 
Hamburg, where he died 1 . 

§ 6. The Roman pontiffs after Loo VIII.. who died a. i>. 
965, down to Gerbert or Sylvester II., at the end of the century, 
were in different di Meritorious and successful j but no 

I them ■ !ii_'h commendation. John XIII. was 

placed in the chair of St. Peter, by the influence of Otto the 
(ireat, a. i>. 96& He but just entered on his functions, when 
i from Rome ; but the next year, the emperor 

■ [The charges against John XII. 
were, that he had said mass without 
communicating .; that he had ordained 
a deacon in a stable; that lie had taken 
tnon< , nations; and had or- 

dained, as u hndiop, a child only t -u 
yean* old ; that he carried on amours 
with various females, one of whom had 
been his father's eonruhim-; that ho 
turned the holy palace into a limthel ; 
that he was given t«» bi 
had put "ut In »-vee of hit god-f . 
and had rastrateil on of tin- cardinals; 
that he had set several houses on 
and had frequently 1" 
armour, with a PVJUld hy hll ki<1»* : that 
1 drunken to the health of the 
devil] that in playing Bt dice, he had 
'• enus.and other pagan 
a; that he never said mattii 
any other canonical hours, and never 
signed liini~-|f with ;, 
eras. See Bower's J. 1'<-1**. 

vol. v. |.. IBB, 160. I,.\ 

* [<hi a certain evening he relied 

! the city to spend tfie night in 
criminal converse with a mi 
woman. TIhtv he received a wound, 
perhaps from the injured husband, of 
which lie <li« 1 eight days after. Fleury, 
llirf'iir, IWU.-. liv. hi. I 10, sb 
authori ,«nd. 7V.J 

1 In tin* history of the pontiffs of 
this century, I have cowinUed the 
original authorities, moat of which are 
given by Muraturi, fed i-tort* 

and I have kJh 
amincd the wHlhlgp of others, who 
ha v.- consulted the sources of informa- 
tion, namely, Bamnius, PefeSf de Marca, 
Sigonius as Ruano lUil't-t, with tlie 
learned notes of Jim. Anton. Saxin-, 
Muratori'a A*m*l<* Iud'tai, Pagi, and 
others. The general correctness of 
theae state i ie can doubi 

many parts of this history undoubtedly 
need more light: ami lliat it may hav»- 
i i iwvrujrted hy the pan 

lUen ou whom we have to de- 
]- ml, cannot W d> I 


[hart h. 

arming in Italy, he was restored to his chair, ami held it 
il«!y, till Irifl death, in 972. His successor, Benedict VI.. 
MM miserably fftraiUjIH in a prison, into which he was thrown 
in the year 97+, by Crescent! it* the son of the very noted 
Theodora. Bar opal the death of Otto the Great, 
the Romans, who had been awed by lus power and sev. 
relapsed into their fonner licentiousness and disorderly viol 
p Benedict ', Franco a Roman, who assumed the nam 
Boniface V'll., held the pontifical chair, for a short time only : 
end of a month, he was driven from Koine, and 
Bonus II., of whom nothing is known hut his name, succ* 
DB the eluiir. Donut died in 975, and Benedict VII. gov 
the Komish church very quietly during nine yearn, or till a. d. 
984. Ili> prosp- l ga was, probably, to be asci 

wholly to the wealth and influence of the family from which he 
originated. For he was the grandson of that Att* < •>:. who had 
beon n powerful | prince, or tyrant rather, at Be 
$ 7. 1! is successor, John XIV.. previously bishop of Pavia, 

was destitute of the support derived from faniilv, ami VIM 
abandoned by Otto 111., by whose influence he had been 
elected. Heuee, his end was tragical ; for Bonifact VJ1.. 
who had thrust himself into the see of Borne in the yen .''7K 

and being B000 alter expelled, had retired bO Constantinople, 
now returned to Home, east John into prison, and there dis- 
patched him. \ »i Bon*fiio»''$ prosperity was of short nitration ; 
for he died but *i\ months after. He was succeeded by John 
XV.. who by many is denominated John XVI 
of another John, whom tluy represent as reigning at Rome 
four months. This Jnhn X V. or XVI. governed the church, 
during almost eleven years, from a. d. 985 to 990\ wii 
much prosperity, M the trembled state of the Roman affairs 

WOttld permit ; which was owing, not so much to his persona] 
virtues and prudence, as to his Itoman birth, and to the 
nobility of his house. Of course, hie German sue* 

/// V.. whom the emperor Otto III. commanded the 
Romans I ^»- 996, was not equally prosperous. For 

the Roman eonsal Ct umw m , expelled him the city ; and placed 
John XVI., who before was called I'ltilamthu^ at the head of 
the church. Hut Otto III., returning to Italy, a. i>. 998, with 


an army, deprived John of his eyes, his nose, and his care; 
and commit ti ng him to prison, restored Gregon/ to the chair. 
And Qrtffury dying soon after, the emperor raist d his pre- 
ceptor and friend, the eclehrated (Herbert, or St/lre*ter IT., to 
■ Kiir of St. PeteP, with the npprohation of the Koinans*. 
$ Bi Amidst these pnpetu] commotions, and the reiterated 
crimes and contests of those who called themselves Christ's 
rents on earth, so great was the jnjwer of the ignorance 
npttSBtitkn Of the times, that the pOfPtf and inthun 
the Hainan pontiff-, were gradually and imjiereoptilily ad van. -i 
OttO the OpOftt, indeed, introduced a law, tliat no R.un.-m 
pontiff should l>e created, without the knowledge and oiLsent 
of the emperor: and this regulation continued, as all admit, 
i ill the end of th And this emperor. 

BI H'll as his son and grandson of the same name, held 
uniformly the i iev over the city Koine and its 

territory, as well as over the Roman pontiff; as is demon- 

* The hwtory of the Roman 
tiff* • barren and 

oainl Is involved 

il'UlltV. I 

||fM i \.ni, I.udov. 

\ ii' Anmdrt luJ'ur, and 

I IroolMI Chronolif 


' f Vi t B 

he monasteriea are as 

• Will was > i 
by in | 
i.i lliehi lull In 


ml through bar 

the complaint | • nal 

. Tljr emperor app< n. 

lit l.i-li'|K.,wf whom Henry 
of Treves was the first eon 


Will. WaN lit* klHMII. ■ IH» 

■'.', cap. \\.) 
i'mi poptnlai'1 b"l'l nf\i\ 

■■• ■ r tin iiiaa- 

r ll.i 

that he arbitrarily dec land (hi- mouaa- 


tery of Lorsheim free from utlu r juris- 
diction ; and, that whims. | 

i In rooufci deviated from their 

pOBtiffj and if this wan not effectual, 
tli. emperor should Ik.* railed upon. 


Sliihiikm, Ah »>i .ecul. 

v. p. 43.— So also, in the year \i~, j 

Bailed the monastery 
whoan urivilegea had been c*tal! 
by t. ! .a daughter of 


it. i nuts tone, 

lower in treli'si- 

■ i ircitniiiit r 

. rnmny, > > > 
Hungary, \c. Tin- German churchea 

puaocawd al>" tin ri^'lit of elreliiij < 


lodged Ibe nghl of the Ocruum Idnga 

ir bbbops. 

. torn. vi. pt, i. 

p. UML oVpi where pope Mm A. mvh 

expH Cum |iri*ca ■ 

i bi rex, cut 

1 1 ii ii- » mode 

ilili. t parwhia Hpit9cu|ius Hit eon- 
•M.tralu.1." .VA/.J 




strable by many examples. And the more intelligent bishops 
likewise, of France. Germany, and Italy, throughout the 
tury, were on their guard, to prevent the Romish bishop from 
arrogating to himself alone legislative power in the church. 
But still the pontiffs, sometimes openly and directly, and 
sometimes by stratagems, invaded the rights both of amp 
and kings, and also of the bishops * ; and there were some 
among the bishops, who were their adulators, and favoured 
their designs. It has been observed by learned men, that 
there were bishops, in this century, though never before, who 
called the pontiffs bishops of llie irorld, instead of bishojw of 
Rome; and that some even unoog the French cloi 

I what had never beta hoard of, that bishops receive indeed 
all their power from God, but through St. Pfter*. 

§ 9. The inferior bishops eagerly copied after the example 
of the principal bishop, by laljouring to extend their authority. 
From the times of Charlemagne and his sons, many bishops 
and abbots hail obtained, for their tenants and estates, ex 
tion from the jurisdiction of the counts and other magistrates, 
and also from all imposts and taxes. But in this century they 
laboured to obtain also civil jurisdiction over the cities and 
districts of country subject to them, and coveted the functions 
of dukes, marquesses, and counts \ For whereas violent con- 

* Examples are adduced ii. tin- Z7i#- 
toire </« JM'U Ecclltbutujuc Fnimfuit, 
torn, i. p. 217- id. iii 8vo. 

* Tin. Benedictine monks, in Hutoire 
Littcrairt de la France, torn. vi. p. 78, 
79. 98. 188, &c. 

* [Among tlietie, mny bo reckoned 
the regulation of tolls and coinage, 
which some of them obtained. Thus, 
Bora xsmple, the archbishopric of Treves 
obtained these rights from kinu Lewis, 
a. D. 902. See Hmwer's Annul. Tretir. 
lib. ix. and Holder's ReirluJiutori*, p. 
64. — And in the year 946, the emperor 
Otto bestowed on the monastery of 
Gerabkmrs the control of the market 
and of coinage, the free election of their 
own abbots and advocates, and the 

\g ratifications. See 
MabiUno. AmaL utf. p. 483, 

484. I n like manner Otto II. conferred 
on Milo, bishop of M right 

of cpiiiniLr in-'ii.-v. Ci 

doit. p. IC6, 167. in Leibnitz's C 
tore* HruHnc. laBV i». An«l likewwe 
Adalgag, archbishop of Harabur 
eeived from the munificence of I 
great power, and direct civil domic 
namely, tin- judicial power, the 1 
to levy tolls and to coin money, and in 
short whatever related to die royal 
finance, to the exclusion nf all royal 
functionaries from Uiese affairs. See 
Lambecius, Orlf. UamlmrQ. p. 10, 11. 
Pagi, Crti. ad Baron. Antvil. aun. 988. 
§ 1, 2. ScM.— Pagi also tells us, (from 
lib. i. and the (3mm. Brtyc 
MatjH.) Uiat simiLar powers were grant- 
ed 'by Otto I. to the archbishopric 
logne and Mayence, and to the 
bixlioprie of Spin; and Mindeii. 11- 
adds, however, that it was not lawful 
fur bishops to preside pertw 

temporal eoextai but only by 
deputies. Tr.) 



tests, respecting jurisdiction and other tilings, frequently sprung 
up between the dukes, the governors ol cities, of the counts 
and marquesses on tin- om hand, and the bishopa on the other, 
these latter, taking advantage of favourable occasions, left no 
means unattcmpted to seentv to themselves those high offices, 
and the Iringl end not untrequently panted their 
petitions; sometimes in order to put an end to the contentions 
and broils among the civil and military magistrates, sometimes 
from their revereuce for religion, and sometimes with a view- 
to augment their own power by means of the bishops. And 
hence it was, that from this time onward so many baehopi 
and abbots were to be seen sustaining also characters entirely 
foreign from their sacred functions, and enjoying the rank of 
dukes, marquesses, counts, and viscounts '. 

(10. Beeidna their ignorance, which was extreme', the 
body of the Latin clergy were chargeable with two great vices, 
which an* deplored by most of the wTiters of those times; 
namely, concubinage and simony. In the first place, very gene- 
rally, not only tin* prieatei nuT the monks also, connected them- 
selves with women, some indeed in a lawful way, but others 
in an unlawful manner; and with these wives and concubines, 
and the children born of them, they squandered the property 
of the church 9 . In the next place, there was scarcely any 
such thing as the regular and canonical election of bishops and 
abbots; but the kings, princes, and nobles, eithr conferred 
scred offices on th'ir friends and ministers, for whom 
they had partiality, or sold them to the highest bidders '. 

r Ludor. Thomassin, in his Dfcftfplha 
EccUmB wtrns <t Mora, turn. iii. lib. i. 
cap. 28, p. 80, has collected much mat • 
order to evince that the fanet 
ikea and counts were sustained by 
bishops as early as the wis** century. 
And sonic of the bishops pretend to 
trace the origin of their secular POWflg 
back to the rujkth >■ But I 

greatly mistake,' if an) bdabhSbl 
stance can t of earlier date 

titan the Us 

1 lUtlne */*,(pub- 

lishcd by Dachier, fy i. p. 

381.) say riflSB <>i VYnnin: 

icitciiiilmt d I /V«- 

rlsu* u*pH ipMM mtfvrr i|mW««, </wi 

fair*- crtrttiur yifojttoiorum. 

9 That (i 'i commenced in 

tht* beginnh y, appears 

from I talis, and others, and 

particularly from an epistle of Mantio, 
bishop "f Chalons j poblhbed by Jo. 

Mabilloii, Amtl.'l-i Vtt<r. p. 429. «L 
iviva. of tin- Italian audit*, *li. 
ported wives and concubinc«, and lhas 
misused th- 

>f. IfanflCarfl FarfentU Drttnuiu .-,.■ 
Muratori'd AM to. tlaL Mtdii 
lorn, rt p. 178, • 

1 Very noticeable examples and tes- 
iiica may be seen in < 
Ckrid i. p. 23. 87. toni 

1 7* 17!' See also Abbo's Jfuliyrti- 



r 11. 

And hence, frequently, men the most unfit and Bagtt 
sometimes Beldiera, civil magistrates, and counts, were invested 
with spiritual 00886, of the highest (licciiit \ and influence. In 
the following r.iitmy QngOTjf V||. endeavoured to cure both 
of these evils. 

§ 11. Among t! and Oriental monks, there was 

more appearance of religion and decorum ; but among the 
Lotto it th<' boghoniig of this century, discipline was so 

low. that most of them did not even know that the rule they had 
bound themselw* to follow was called the rule of St, 
To this evil a n m« -K. not altogether unsuccessful, ms applied 
hv ()<!<>, a Freneh imlde mriii. who was a learned and & 
man, according to the standard of that age. Being made 
abbot of Otugai in Burgundia, a province of France, 
the death of Hrmc, n. D. 927 ( he not only obliged his monks 
to lite according to their rule, hut likewise bound them to 
observe additional I regulation*, which had an air of 

sanctity, but were in reality trivial, though onerous and in- 
convenient'. This new form of monastic life procured for 
its author great fame and honour; and in a short time it 
d over all Kurope. Pot WPJI many of the ancient 
monasteries in France, (.Jenuany. Italy, Britain, and Spain. 
adopted the discipline of Otngni; and the m u monasteries that 
erected, were, by their founders, subjected to Hie same 

discipline. Tints was formed, in the my, the 

rafale m fdtr of CUiqm, or that body of aaa ( luniaeensiaris 

which was very widely extended and renowned for its weaJth 
and power \ 

cunt; Subjoined to the Cod«g Canon. 
■i. p. S98. and Mnbillun, Anr^tU* 
Ucnoi. torn. v. and others. 
2 Bee Jo. Mfcbillottj if— aim Ilmai, 

;ii. p. rWtl>, fta. ami PrOffaHo ad 

MBOnL v. p. 

\wi. AuS. treats largely of 

I ■. ill" Bat abbot "f Clugui, and 

ill" fuuinUr of fhfl 'T'l-.T of Chimin, in 

■ e. v. 
n 09. and of Ode, DUd. p. 199, 
The general history of fas oedS 

prmtan fag Eitpp. ■ £ • - ) - 

\"t, 1/iMfin det I'r.lnr Hetty'* »**, tom. 

int. tut. Tbt patent Malta -»r 
ribed by Martene, Voy- 

in Li/'i'r. >U tUrus fieni.ltcfiiu, pt 
227. ftO, 

3 1 am mistaken if most of the wri- 
te!* mi accleaiastica] bistoi 

i preaendi il the impart is thevnrd 
as applird to the Cluniacutni 
it to menu I now monastic Mufttnl 
u now r.-r .,f monks ; in which 
■•! the teem with it* arii 

The term ornV, an uw><l I. 
n of that age, S4t Bi 

lm-rvh Mine |*iirtu-iihu firm o/MOOOOtk 

Itut fmni this use <>\ 
wnnl, another gradually aront: for tfm 

r ii. n.| cirnRru offk i» govf.vnmekt. 

§ 12. The more distinguished writers of thin century aiv 
easily en umerated. Among tlv mean Magitttt t 

chancellor of Constantinople Hetransei ; i arlier written 

lives of the So the Bake of girmg them a bettor form, 

and clothing them in a bettor Style | for which he ob ainrd 
the surname of 3frtapJkrgatm 4 . But in digesting, poJfehmg, 
and embellishing these lives of Saints, he is said to ha\ 
larged tho original narratives by the addition of man\ ofhifl 
own fictions ami silly fairs. AffoM, an Armenian monk, has 
left US a tract mi tin- religion oftht Armenians, which i- uol 
contemptible •. I'll- two authors of f^ttenai, Olympiodorus and 
/ieniue\ are placed by some in this century ; but it is 

word order denoted a tocidy or associa- 
tit.D gf Hi. i ieknnwledj(- 

ind following tho name 
ruM of lii-. Thfl -nhi i ;/ f '*«-;«« wa» 
HOf | dm monastic I 
i.f Cmtkmmtmtf Dominicam, ami; but ii .that mods 

of living winch i IiIm prescribed 

e monks of Chjgnii lad toon 

Ii okf innnbi r of in- n 

I uta of Borons, •hich • m- 

bra*-- illation* of Clugni, and 

i -.% Iiich 

Igol in France was the 

4 Sm I-' 1 '"' All.itin-'. >/ Si/mfimnm 
Gtri]->< . p. --». Ate, Jo. BoQud 

*<*/»■*»», Antw. g iii. p. 

mphrastcs was of 

l)irtli, ami a roan of both 

uiiil learning. I o nude 

hini 1 1 ]' cipal Bseretary. patri- 

maater of the palace He Hum 

1 \. i). 901 ; and devoted hi 
when 1 1 ■ « : Itiihinrxnoi' hia offices did nol 
nt, to the rewri' lives 

••f (he saints. How many nam 

If or r*'m|Mi*cd anew, it i ■ 
biographies of subaemn nt a 
been ascribed to him. ' »t th< 'i<:i oar- 
rati^. r'l't, NfUoh 

El £2 ar« actually of Im rv- 
1; 144 In- attributes to other au- 
thors whom he antivw ; and U't, ho 
thai ire, an 1 
net aaeerlaiu lo vhom 1 )•• 

rativesof Simoon liave found Ihoil way 
1 bo largo collection* of Snrius ana 
Uollnn>.l I ho 

whole were never printed. — Besides 
these noised 1 a ntonbav 

of orations, epistlce, ami ana 
-, &e. are extant as t 


ur, 1 mi. i'. and Floury, Huta'ur 

\ 31. 7r.'| 
a ( Si icon wan born in Po 
educated in a mona*t« rv m Sjbu 

rrontusand Pap tbout 

.trlMJl, hia abbot aanl him out 
as a christian missionary ; and he tra- 
velled in Armenia, and ran 
tries of the Coat, and 
was accounted a saint; and miracles 
are related of him. His book <l f-tnntn 
■nt Armemtrum, in a Latin trans- 
lation, in axfeVlt in the HibliolAir ■ 
trum. TV.] 
For an aooounl ol 

• . l i I v Bernh. 
fuiicon, BSdiaULComlm. p, 274 [< 
hop of Tricon faa Tin-., 
placed in 1 1 > erase boo, 

Photioa who lived in the ninl 
Imt mentions no later writer 

On tl inir- 

rnwed from the fatheni, ami BS| 
from Cbryoosioni. His <w 
printed si Paris, Or. and 1-it. 1 

in. 1 M 

monk and a deacon of Alcxandi i 

Gr. and Let. in 

Che <4ttru<t 




[l'\HT II. 

wholly on conjectural gToiimU With letter reasons Sttidas % 
the famous lexicographer, is placed among the writers of tliis 
ry 7 . The most distinguished author among the Arabian 
christians was Evti/chius, bishop of Alexandria ; whose Annals*, 
with oth«T writings, are still extant". 

§ 13. The best among the l^atin writers was Gerbsrf. Off 
Sylvester II., the Roman pontiff; of whom we have spoken 
before '. The rest deserve no higher character than that of 
iinlitfen nt writers. Odo, who laid the foundation of the Clu- 
niacensian association or order, has left some writings, which 
have tem marks of genius and discernment, but many of super- 
stition \ Some tracts of Baiherius of Verona are extant ; 

on Job, ascribed to him, is more proba- 
I'ly (be work of Niceta*, in the nrii 
Of rh. DJBSl e-ntury. It was published, 
dr. ami Lat. by Fr*. Junius, Lond. I 
fol. Ik] 

7 [That Suidas lived in tin? latter 
part of this century, it* inferred from 
muuUUiuni in the article 'Atittfi, 
whieh all terminate with the reign of 
the cmpcn>r John Zimiaccs, who died 
irton, a. D. 975. His Dictionary, 
which ia a kind of historical and lite- 
rary Ene}/oUip&dit%i waa best published 
by Kustcr, Cambridge, 1705. 3 rob. 
foL I 

• Baa J". All*. Fabrieiua, HVJiogra- 
vkia Jiiti'f'"iri.t, p. 179; and Eoscb. 

i 1' t, H'utorui PutruircA. 
dBBV. p. :*47- L RotjcMm waa a native 
>pt,and the melrhite or orthodox 
patriarch of Alexandria, from a. d. 033 
to 950. Ilia Arabic name was S.ii.l 
lhn Hatrik, that is, Said the son of 
Hatrik. Said signifies Blencii ; which 
in Orotic is Eoti-\<)-;, ->r E*tyekiu*. 
He Jived unhappily with Inn flock, and 
died at the ftge Of 7"'- "is prineipal 
work is his A muds, from ti 
toa.n. 937; ediU'd OT K. Pocook. Arab, 
and Lat. Oxford, 16A6. 4t<>. He alao 
wrote a bi> >iy, after it* bob- 

quest by the Saracens; a cUapi 
MtwMB the heterodox and christian*, 
in opposition to the Jaoobit*, and some 
medical tract* ; all of which still exist 
in manuscript. 

The 0nm trrtirr* of this r.ntnrv, 

tad by Dr. Moahcim, are the fol- 

John Camcniata, a reader in the 

church of Thesealonica. Wlien that 
city was taken and plunder**! by the 
ma, a. d. U04, John waa made 
prisoner, and carried to Tarsus, where 
■ Dpo—d a full and interesting His- 
tory of iJw. Atxtrurtta* of TbsxKuoHifiiy 
and of his own sufferings. It was pu fl- 
ushed, Or. and Lat. by Leo Albums, 
Symt*i<*. pt. ii. p. 180. 

Hippolytun of Thebes, who has been 
confounded with HipiHilytusrorfuenaia, 
of the thir«l e< iiturv. He nourished 
about a. n. 933. A Vkroniccm, or a part 
of one, composed by him , was 
Greek and Latin, by 11. Canisius, Lec- 
tion. An'*}, tom. iii. p. 35. He alao, 
it is probable, composed the 
notice* of the twelve apaatl 
hare gone under the name of the earlier 

Moses Bar-Ccpha. bishop of Beth- 
Raman, and supervisor of the churches 
in the regions i»f Babylonia. He 
in this century, but in what 
i» uncertain. H- OOfl^OHd, in SyilSiij 
three books. \rnHr. 

Maaius translateil into Latin, ami tln-n 
ihed his translation , Antw. 1568. 
8vo. It la :il.-«> in the li'iH'vjth. 1 
torn. xvii. p. 456. 

Siainnius, patriarch of Constantino- 
,S 984 :»y7, composed a tract 
' V/woruwrsin ; whieh I 
Leunelavius, Jus lir. ft Rot*, lil 
p. 197- Trj 

" [See the preceding chapter, § 7» 8, 
and Note •, p. 275. 

1 Uutoirt Ltoeraire A* la France, 
tern, ft p. 229. L"'* n ""» written ».\ 
John, one of his intimate friends, in 

HI. II.] I il» K« II OWTH li UN.Ml.N I 


which hndicste o mind «>f good powers, end inihiml with the 
anil integrity*, -4 Wo of Veroelli eornposed a 
iract on ecclesyutic't 1 grwtancm ; which throws light on tlte 
of those times'. /' an Knglrnhni ipDed, 

for the benefit of monks, a Sbfi «/<w 4 . .*/. 

of Canterbury deserved well of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain 
by a \arictv of tracts'. BuFCfard, LttShop *f Worms, aided 

three books, and the Mine revised by 
• - after, an» in 

I . IfiO 108 

which unit, 

bid, p. 124 

i man, brought tip in 

! William do ■ ■lain, 

ami educated at Toon and I'arLv He 

•arls i ■.sunk, mid a great ad- 

0M y ar !H'_», li!! In- d 


aiding in monasteries, makiii 

business. His works at* several la- 
nds, Mary 
gdal' i. .v.. :> lif<- of 9C. Uvrald, 
- ; an abridgment of 

inNikft ; and 

are ull published in the UilAioth, 

* Htff'.n> 

rl p, B09. [Sat note ' ' • ' 

: r p. 273. 7Y.] 

[Attn Bsamdasj was 

a nativ. of Lombard), u man of l''arn* 
lug and virtue, ;• the *tand- 

,'ustine VM 
favourite author. Bo pr- 
the church n a. d. 946, 

till bJl death in 1KJ0. His work- 
rvpuUi lied, more complete, in 2 vols, 
M. Vereolli. 17'.' rise a 

"t canons and ecclesiastical 
statute*, for the u— of Un el 

I'fr*Mrl* EctieriiutieiM, in three part* ; 

B, tlnir ordina- 
tiotui ; ari'l 

rut*;) saveral Homilies; and a i 
Comnu-ntary on 

* | Si. hunitati wan lM>rn i 
set, educated nl • 

>l yearn /»i court, was 
\oi 1 

Worcester a. n. W>, M- 

and arch- 
il of Canturb 961 t.. f»K8. 

Hi was u rat noalDU pi 
monkery and orted 

to lii, ■. Ilia 

ebapten, was pub r, as 

an Appendix t" lii- work on thi 

ic urder in Eur- 
Dusci. IC2fl 

../, »<il. i. oh. ii. i 
&C. Ili^ life and miracles COmpOai 

-, .i in. ml. i 
elew n . with oxtraoifl I 

. idas' be asaa in MaJblDoa, Ada 

d. v. 

p. 654— 7lf». 'Jr. — Dunstan's pro- 

urv In 916, by Etichai 
the annotntor anon Bp. I'todwin, th 
Front, pp. ttl.61. fit] 

1 f .-Klfric, ur ! Ifrie, arch- 

btshop of Oantaruary, bam s.8. 998 to 

IOOSjWM a monk Of \bingdon,and (as 
. r (nippom ( ral other 

years, before he was made archbishop 

of Canterbury. | 

generally nam bed to him, urv by some 

ascribed to anot 1 1 -amc 

name, who was made archbiohop of 

york, and died ▲. d. 1061. E 


in bis J'< ' '■ iii"n. 

p. 61, A.' 

. a Horn body and 

blood of Christ; fin which bi 

proves trail I on ;) an E| 

i.i Wulftn, hiahoj urno; ano- 

ther to W ulfsini . archbishop of \ 

Slid an Bpisti lo Wu] 

have been published ; and most of 

and Latin. Beside* 

them-, there exist in MS. s collection 


bonk III. — CENTURY X. 

[part II. 

the study of canon law by a volume of Deerdn. in twenty ImjoIcs. 
Hut ho was not the sole compiler; for he was aided by Olbert*. 
OdUo of Lynns has left us some frigid Ml 
things not much better 7 . Of those who wrote histories and 
annals, this is n« e to treat ". 

of eighty Sermon*; a Saxon Chronicle, 
a translation of the canons of tin \i- 
ccne council, a translation of St. < '.re- 
gory "s Dialogue, \»itli *0TBTJ|1 Ii- 
monkish saints, all in the Saxon lan- 
guage ; aluo a Latiu-Suxoii dictionary, 
a grammar of die Saxon language ; 
Extract** from Priseian, Jtc. See 
Cave's ifitforw tAUrar. vol. ii. Tr. 
— There is no pmhahilitv that u 

nrk-4 under tin- DIM of Elfric, 

were written by the orei 

Canterbury of that nam.-. Hei the 

translator is fully justified in ascribing 
them, after Wharton, to Elfric of 
N or* ; but he does not show much ac- 
quaintance with them, fid. ] 

• Bee the Cknmieom Wormittientr, in 
\tauateriptor. torn. 
ii ft, IS » and tan fl w h wn i lA U trn 
la I'r i.'(V, toni. vii. p. 595, Inc. [ Uur- 
chard, a Hessian, was first a monk of 
Laubes, ami linn bttbop of Worms, 
from v. ft, 996 to 10*20. Be <«m- 

Benoed hh great work on canon law, 

while in hi* monastery, and wHl 
aid of his instructor Olhcrt ; but com- 
ftn I. .-I it during Mi efnacopmta* It was 
hr*t published at Cologne. 15411. !••!. 
and afterwards In 8vo. Though mill in 
iv books, it eontaina not a sixth 
part of the original work. Its autho- 
rity i ■ ,, ,,|. ! ,| with- 
out due care, and often from spurious 
work*, The full tit Ii DOk is 

•runt (or QmommJ 
Vufumrn ; but it is often cited ' 
tiUe fWrrium; and also by thai of 
Brvcardica, or Brvatnliwrvm 
from the French and Italian Rrornnl, 
L e. Burchard. See SchroeeluYs A'ir- 
ekaujexk. voL xxii. p. 411, he. Tr.] 

f [St. «»ilil'j ;\an a native of Au- 
vergue, educated at Clugni, where ho 
became the abbot a. p. 994. He 
wards refused the srchiaahof) 
Lyons ; and died abbot of Gtagni 
1040, aged eight* -seven year*. His 
works, us published by l)n QmBOj in 
his JJibdoth. CVanuicmru, Paris, 1014, 

and thence in the liiUloth. P<ttr. torn. 

xvii. nisrisl ol fourteen wnnnone, on 

'a life of St. A 4 
and some let ten, Hisown tife,n 
li\ his pii|.il Jolftftlda hi two hooka, i* 

together o i 
long biographical preface, 
Sandor. Or* I* »"/. Bom. *iii. p. 031 — 
710. TV.] 

• [The Latin trrilm omitted by Dr. 
Mosheiin, were some of them mere 
author* of the Uvea of certain monks 
and saint*. Such were Stephen, abbot 
of Lnulx-s, and a. ii. 903, biahop of 
Liege; Hubald, or Hucbald, a French 
monk, who flourished under Charles 
the Bald, I mrd, dafti 

tbe el.ii-i. i of St. nfedard, \. ft. 089 ; — 
Fridegudus, a monk 
a. ft, 000 ;— and Adso, abbot of fcfoo- 
tier en Her, in Franc. 
Of the Othen were popes or bbdwps, 
who have left ua only some epistle**. 
vers John X. pope A.O. 915— 
MS ; -AgapetiiH II. pope, *. n. 946 — 
i i pup,-, l ft. 950 — 
963 >— John XIII. i ■ >65— 

972 ; — Pilgrim, or Peregrine, arch- 

i, a. n. 971—9!' 
Bene. ipo, a.u. 973— 974 j— 

Boned i.M VII. pope, a. d. 975 — 984 ; 
—John XV. pope, a. o. 900-996; — 
and Qregorj V. pope. a. i>. 99G — 909. 
To these classes of writers mav b 

1 the two fo ihi. 

Roswida, 1 Etoewithe, a learned 

and devout nun, of •Jandersht 
Germs iin, who floorjal *. o. 

Bbs understood Qreek, ft* well 
as the Latin, in which she M 
Her compositions are all in reroe ; 
namely, a panegyric nn Otto the 
(J reat ; eight Martyrdoms of early 
Saints ; aix sacred Comedies, on vari- 
ous subjects, but ehieflj in praise of 
I ints ; and s poem on the ceta- of her monastery. Thesu 
were best edit. 'I h\ II L Schurz- 
I7"7 ttO, Set? 

(If. in.] 





§ 1. The state of religion. — § 2. Contest* respecting predestination and the Lord's 
sapper. — § 3. Belief that the day of judgment waa at hand.— § 4. Multitude 
uf the ftainta. — § 5, 6. The dill, f theology neglected.— 4 7. 

Controversy between the Greeks and Latins. 

§ 1. That the most important doctrines of Christianity were 
misunderstood ami pel veiled, and that such doctrines as 

remained entire were obscured by the addition of the most 

unsound opinions, is manifest from every writer of tl 

Hie essence of religion was supposed, both by the Greeka and 

the Latins, to consist in the worship of images, in honouring 

departed saints, in og (or end preeerymg aacr 

an. I in heaping riches upon the priests and monks. Scarcely 
an individual ventured to approach God without first duly 
placating the images and the saints. And in searching after 

and hoarding them, all were zealous even to phr< 
and, if we may believe the monks, nothing was more an object 
of the divine solicitude, than to indicate to doting old women 
and bareheaded monks the places where the corpses of holy 
men were deposited. The fire, which burns out the stains 
remaining OO human souls after death, was an object of intense 
<ln ad to all ; nay. was more feared than the punishments of 
ball, floe the latter, it was supposed, might be easily es- 
caped, if they only died rich in the prayers end nn rits of the 
i g, or had some saint to intercede for them ; but not so 
the former. And the prie iving this dread to coo 

much to their advantage, endeavoured, hy their discourses, and 
by fables and fictitious miracles, continually to raise it higher 
and higher. 

Sehroeekh's KircbnotxJt. vol. n 
177- 1M. 

Heriger, or Hanger, abbot of 
Lstihca, *. u. 990—1007. H» W9IM 

'•ifgr ; a 
tract on the body and blood of Christ ; 
and the Uvea of St. Umniar, St. Ber- 
lendw. and St. Landoald. 


§ 2. The controversies respecting grace and the Lord's sup- 
per, which disquieted the preceding century, were at rest in 
this. For each party, as appears from various testimonies, 
left the other at liberty, either to retain the sentiments they 
had embraced, or to change them. Nor was it an object of 
much inquiry in this illiterate and thoughtless age, what the 
theologians believed on these and other subjects. Hence, 
among those who flourished in this age, we find both followers 
of Augustine and followers of Pelagius ; and perhaps as many 
can be discovered who supposed the real body and blood of 
Christ were literally presented in the eucharist, as there were 
who either had no established opinion on the subject, or believed 
the Lord's body to be not present, and to be received in the 
eucharist only by a holy exercise of the soul \ Let no one, 
however, ascribe this moderation and forbearance to the wis- 
dom and virtue of the age : it was rather the want of intelli- 
gence and knowledge which rendered them both indisposed and 
unable to contend on these subjects. 

§ 3. Numberless examples and testimonies show that the 
whole christian world was slirouded in immense superstition. 
To this were added many futile and groundless opinions, fostered 
by the priests for their own advantage. Among the opinions 
which dishonoured and disquieted the Latin churches in this 
century, none produced more excitement than the belief that 
the day of final consummation was at hand. This belief was 
derived, in the preceding century, from the Apocalypse of John, 
xx. 2 — 4 ', and being advanced by many in this century, it 

1 That the Latin doctors of this count of the opinions of the Saxon 

century held different opinions re- English church concerning the eucha- 

specting the manner in which the rist, see Collier's Ecclesiastical History 

body and blood of Christ are present of Great Britain, vol. i. cent. x. p. 204. 

in the sacred Supper, is very clearly 266." Mad.] 

attested : nor do learned men among * [" And he laid hold on the dragon, 
the Roman Catholics, who follow truth that old serpent, which is the devil, 
rather than party feelings, disavow and Satan, and bound him a thousand 
the fact. That the doctrine of tran- years," &c. They understood this to 
sultttantiation was at this time unknown refer to the times of the christian dia- 
to the English, has been shown from pensation. And as Satan was to be* 
their public homU'ws, by Rapin de loosed after the thousand years, and aa 
Thoyras, Histoirt a" AntjUttm, torn. i. the vision proceeds immediately to de- 
p. 463. Yet that this doctrine was scribe the general judgment, they con- 
then received by some of the French eluded tho world would come to aia 
and Gorman divines, may be as easily end about a. d. 1000. 77\] 
demonstrated. ("For a judicious ac- 


hi:ii iLOGY. 

spread overall Europe; end excited immense tenttf and s 

4 the people. For they supposed, licitly 

foretoM. that after a thousand yean from the birth of ' 
Satan would be let loon, Antichrist would appear, and the 
end of the world would Borne. Efcnoe immense nnml 

transferrin"; their property to the Huuvli.-s ami monast 

left all. and pro ce e de d bo Pa le s tin e, where they sup] 

t would descend from heaven to Judge the world. Others, 
by a solemn vow, eonaecrated themselves and all the] | 
to the eburches, the monasteries, and the 
ihem in the ehamoter of slaws, and perforating the daily tasks 
aeaigned them: for they hoped, the Bupreme Jtadge would 1h v 
note fav. i them, if they mode themselves servants to 

Benee also, whenever ai of t ho sun or 

moon took place, most people betook themselves to ea* 
and rooks, and caves. Wrv mairj also gave a large p 
their estates to God and tin to the priests and 

monks. And in many plae. s. r.iihV. a, both BBered and secular, 
wer ■ mi Hi -red to go to decay ; and in so mces, actually 

pulled down; from the ex pectation thai they would no I 

■ <led. Thai genera] delusion was opposed, in.! i 
few wiser individuals; but nothing could o vercome it, till the 
century had dosed. I Jut whin the century ended without 
any great ealamit . iter part began to understand, thai 

bad not really predicted what they «o much feared* 

§ 4. The ni linals of the hea- 

■ A!mn»»t all Ox- donation* oi 


««x|irt'a»n*«l : AppruvinquanU mniu! 
mlmi, £v, fi. e. nvrl& 

tximj »>*■ <tl k,\».i i' 

mwfr uf t < < iiion, 

(which wu 

1 Will U'I'lll.'.' • • 1 1 1 N oi M»- 

Mgv, from Abbo of PI 

(mSMI ■• Jo >" '<• ■■ ■'• I "if. which 


cntiturv,) I hwii 
dclivemi hi tin i 

ccniin that 

immo<luit»'ly after the thooaond ypnro 
terminated, Aotkhrta woold 
■lid nut long aft 
tadcnoDl would fellow. Tbjidod 

M far iu 1 »iu> 

-, tin KpoeaiyfB 
\t but, ray 

fullv I 


ringtail- vhi.-h 1 MM 

Miu-s ihoold lull oa 

WOllM <•'*• pi 


I 11 

venly court, and ministers of state in the world above, was 
generally very #reat *. For this extrwnely inconsiderate and 
BDfMntitaOHB age required a host of patrons and guardians. 
Besides, so great was the wickedness and madness of most 
people, that the reputation of being a saint, was obtained 
without much eftort. Whoever (IBfl fag nature rather au>-- 
uud of 'joarse manners, or was possessed of a stroug imagina- 
tion, appeared amidst such a profligate multitude, as one who 
had intimate converse with God. The Roman pontiff, who had 
before begun to assume to himsvli* the right of making new 
saints, gave the Hrst si»ecinion of the actual exercise of this 
power, in this century ; at least, no example of an earlier date 
is extant. John XV., in the year 993, by a solemn act, 
enrolled C<hiJr'n'h, bishop of Augsburg, among those to whom 
christians ini^ht lawfully address prayers and worship*. Yet 
this act must not be understood to imply, that from this time 
onward, none hut the Roman pontiff might enroll a saint*. 
For there are examples which show, that down to the twelfth 
century, the bishops of the higher ranks, and provincial coun- 
cils, without even consulting the pontiff, did place in I 
saints, such as they deemed to be worthy of it'. liut in the 

• [Yet it should be remarked, that 
the year 904, pravcrs to the 
saint*, and 10 th>- virgin Mary, are not 
n- <1 in t lw canons of the English 
church-*. Tiny are first enjoined in 
a collection of canons of this date ; 
which is in Wilkins's I i. p. 

265. We read, however, in a eircntar 
I • of John X V., in the year 0U3 : 
laramtn ct columns rdiiptiat mar- 
tyrurn it confessorum, ut cum. [Chris- 
tum,] cujus mnrtyres sunt, adoremus 
— siquH contradirnt, Anathema. Ilur- 
lont vi. j.t. i. p. 7-i»- 
Invocation of the sainted dead 
crept into tin- Church from an anterior 
hahit of praying to liod, that the sup- 
pliant might have t! of the 
prayers of these departed spirits. It 
is obvious, boUi, that we have no 
scriptural auUiohty tag iaivoling the 
dead, but rather the reverse, and also, 
tli..t at have no means of knowing 
ber th< y can hear our invocation. 
Thus, this UagB required the prepa- 
ration which it found, in an txa 

veneration for certain eminent christ- 
ians, or ascetics, and a corresponding 
r prayers. 
At first, this anxiety was to be allayed 
by means of Omniscience itself ; and a 
frame of mind was thus formed which 
naturally riffled into some sort of 
notion that the departed spirit micjit 
have its own powers of hearin 
suppliant, and that tins latter was 
piously employed in making use of 
them. /vV.J 

I ;-aue. I'agi, Brrriar. 1'ontij. Jiv- 
fuan. torn. ii. 

' This opinion was held by the fi I 
of the Kotnihh court : and in parti- 
cular, by ''hil. llonannu*, .\uwirmfit, 
. i\iniumor. torn. i. p. 41, &£. 

; Bos die remarks of Franc. I'agi. 
Drtvioritiiu Ponttf. Romanor. ton. 
260. Ian, iii. p. 30, and of Ann. Db la 
Chap- klijttf. Aiu/toi*'* u*m. 

x. p. 105, and Jo 

&m«7. v. Actor. &S. Ord. Btntd. p. Iiii. 
| The word canon, in l lie middle ages, 
led in general, a twitter or a uia- 

ni. in. J 



twelfth century, Alexander III. annulled this right of councils 
and biabopB; and mid Bfl it is called. t«« rank 

among the greater causes, or such as belong only to the j>«»nti- 

tical court. 

§ & Of (lie labours of the theologians in sacred science, aud 
the different branches of it, little can be said. The holv se rip- 
tun m im one explained in a manner that would ] 
hijjjh among even the lowest class of interpreters. For it is 
uncertain, whether O/ympiodorvs and (Ecumenius of 1 
behmg to this century. Among the Latins, Bemipiu* of 
Auxerrc continued his exposition of the M.-riptures, which he 
d in the preceding century. He BOMBS on 

tin- lit. nil >i-rniHi-ati-in. Imt v. r\ copious and prolix on the 
mystical sense; which he prefers greatly to the literal mean- 
ing. Besides, he t-xhihits not so much his own thoughts, as 
those of others, deriving his explanations from the early int«r- 
is. Odo't Moralia on Job, are transcribed from t he work 
of the same title by Gregory the tireat. Who were esteemed 
the best expositors of scripture in that age, may be learned 
from NotU'rue Balbulus, [or the Stammerer,] who wrote pro- 
fessedly an account of them*. 

§ 6. Systematic theology liad not a single writer, Greek or 
Latin. The Qffufa were satisfied with I>"<nascenus; and the 
and Gngoty the (iivat. who \\ * 

truMilatl<»D roll ; anil in a more limited 
sense, n li* nf Ikr mx'uU* ; and \ucammizt 
a I" ■i><>n, wjim to enroll bin name in (hia 
hook or ivgistfr of tbr ttaintM. In the 
earlier time*, none were recognized m 
nniiitM, except martyr* and coufessora. 
Hut im the times of ignorance, Uie 
• n selected and made 
-*iiit*, who did nut 
deserve the Dame. To remedy the 

he recognized as a saint, till the fa 
of tli'' place, after inveetigal 

I are him • was 

the practice in £0x01)0, from the 
seven . onward. The popes 

canonized, an well a* others ; but only 
in their own diocese. Bat at this 
the ataafiii *lmrg saw 

fit, t- n- pope to proii" 

u Mint fur all 
the churches. Tho bishop of Augs- 

burg who succeeded Ulrieh, might have 
canonized thin worth v man, fur the 
church of Augsburg: bat in thttl case, 

his own diocese, and not throughout 
the whole church. The pope complied 
with the requeat, witliout much inquirv. 


■ [His book is entitled, de InUryrt' 
titnu LHriMonun Litterurum ; and may 
lt.« found in IV/'h Tkt-xiur. Anmlut. 
Nona. torn. i. pi i. p. 1. It was ad- 
ilniw-il to Solomon, afterward* hi*hop 

■instance ; « 
atmly, not only of tip bJbttNl I 
ureters, but at" lesiaatica] 

hiatoriana, and the writers of biogra- 
phiea of the saints ; so that it m 
viewed as a thod 

of studying theology, agreeably to the 
taut • 1 Ihooj dmas. ftaC] 

s I I KY X. 


that age regarded as the greatest of theologian- 

also read litda, ami ffojQSTMfl Maurm. Man] mid praetic: 

thsologi ceaeived toasting than in almost any agi 

ceept some discourses, which are meagre 
drv, ami feftuB lives of saints, which were composed among the 
Greeks l»v Simeon Metaphrastes, and among the I*itii 
Hubaldi Ode, Stephen of Liege, and others, without fidelity, 
and iu wry bad taste ; there remains nothing more in this 
cestui in he placed under the head of practical theol 

Nor do we find, any one sought renown by polemic 
writings, or confutations of the enemies of truth. 

$ 7. The controversies between the Greeks and Latins. 
consequence of the troubles and calamities off the times, \\< 
carried OB with much less noise than before ; but Oil \ 
not wholly at rest*. And those certainly err very much. wl 
maintain, that this pernicious discord was healed, and that the 
Greeks for a time came over to the Latins 1 : although it is 
true, that the state of the times obliged them, occasionally, tu 
form a truce, though a deceptive 000. The Greeks contended 
violently, among themselves, respecting repeated marriages. 
The cm[H?ror Leo y surnamed the RPifc% or the Philosopher, 
boring had no male issue l>v thn <■ OOOOOBBVO wives, married a 
fourth, bom in humble condition, Zoe. i As sue 

marriages, by the canon law of the Greeks, were incestuoi; 
the patriarch Nteokn$ excluded the emperor from the oom- 
munion. The emperor, indignant at this, deprived X'tcolam 
of his office ; aud put Eiithifwiut into his place, who admitted 

mpcxOT, indeed, t-> the communion, but resisted the law 
which the emperor wished to enact, allowing of fourth mar- 
riages. Hence a schism and threat animosity arose among tl 
clergy; some siding with and others with k'/f/tymin 

£00 died soon after, and A lexander deposed E\ 

'■'us t<> hi I office; who now assailed the char 
i>\' the donoano d emperor with the severest mal and 

rations; and defended his opinion of the unlaw fulness of 

• Midi. Lo Qui«'ii, 7>iw. Li '. <>}<}: torn. ii. p. 529. 

.• ■./.(.■(, •'• 1 § 13. ' Leo AlUtiiiM, ./. /' 

p. IS. Fiv.l. Sjimiht-im. ■' !*$'vr Oritur lit,. 

Vit*t**'vo»< I ./«-»/. i-ap. vii. viii. |.. SftOj 

111. IV.j 



fourth marriages, in the most contentious manner. To put an 
tod to than commotions, so dangerous to the Greeks, Co> 
tine PorpliyruguiiHuH, the son of Leo, a&semhled an eeoleaiAsti- 
cal council, at Constantinople, in the year 980. This council 
prohibited fourth marriages altogether, hut allow 
marriages, under certain restrictions. Tin- puUication of this 
law restored the public tranquillity*. Some Other -mall con- 

of similar importance, aroee among the Qreeka ; which 

.show their want of discernment, their ignorance of true n li- 
aii'l how much deference they lia«l for the opinions of the 
fathers, without exercising their own reason and judgment. 



| I. Ti of ceremonies.— § 2. Feast dajs.--$ 3. Office of S». M*ry ; 

the Robot v. 

ij 1 I low groat a load of rites and ceremonies oppressed 
and stifled religion in this century, appears abundantly from 

the act of the councils held in Kngland, France, <A-rman\ 
The many iirw-ni; m, who 

daily enrolled, required the institution of new festal ' 

forms of worship, and nei religions rites. And in excogitating 
Ihfl priests, though in every thing else a stupid and 
ineffil D Of hcings, were womierfully ingenious. Some of 

their arrangement > Bowed from the erroneous opinion 

i- subjects, which the harharous nations 
1 from their ancestors, and incorporated with Christ- 
ianity. .\or did the guides of tl lunch oppose | 

but supposed they had fulfilled all their duty, when 
r honoured with BOOM christian forms what was 

!••*■ facto $urv faithfully eollscud < ■ r.iuimu'icua, Simeon LogoUtelra, and 

fr»»m Gedrocms, ! 

i. j. 104, 



:entury x. 

[part II. 

worthless and base in itself, or had assigued to it some far- 
fetched allegorical import.. Several customs, accounted Sacred, 
arose from the silly opinions of the multitm BfJQg God 

and the iuliahitants of heaven. For tin v supposed God, and 
those intimate with him in heaven, to be affected, just as 
earthly kings and their nobles are ; who are rendered pro- 
pitious by gpfil and presents, and are gratified with frequent 
salutations, and external marks of respect. 

$ '2. Near the end of this century, in the year 998, by the 
influence of Odilo, abbot of Clu^ni, the number of festal days 
among the Latins was augmented, by the addition of the 
annual celebration in memory of all departed souls. Before 
this time, it had been the custom in many places to 
prayers, on certain days, for the souls in purgatory : but these 
prayers were offered only for the friends and patrons of a ["ar- 
ticular religious order, or society. 0d&?$ piety was not to be 
thus limited ; he wished to extend this kindness to all the 
departed souls that were suffering in the invisible world '. The 

1 See Jo. Mabillon, Ado .*>>". '♦. ■■■■'. 

Brntd. (torn, viii.orj snr-cul. vi. pt. i. p. 
684 ; where ho gives the life of Odilo, 
and liis decree instituting this new 
ival. [The story of the hermit is 
dUhraid]j related. One Hays, Ik 
mit stated, that wandering MK Mount. 
Ktua, he overheard the souls burning 

il volcano, relate the benefit-, 
received from the prayer* of Odilo. 
Another n |irc»ciita tin- hermit, a* kiv- 

- imjilv, it was divinely revealed 

hi. One likewise represents the 
hermit as stating, that all the souls in 
purgatory enjoyed r*»/»i/<*, two days 
each week, namely Mondays and Tti. ■> 
days. Another says, he reprv* 
tliat several souls had been rAautd 

■ \y from purgatory, by kit prayers. 
And another, that many souk in'ujkt b$ 
released, A . i .l.illon, 1. c. p. 

C6«. 701. (ed. Paris, 1701.) and Fleni-v, 

tfslrira <i' VEgH*, livp. lix. g fi7. All 

agree, that the hermit made his reprc- 
aentatiuu to a French monk, then on a 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and bade him 
acquaint OdiJo with it ; which was ac- 
cordingly done. TV. — ** Sigebcrtus 
auctur est, Odibmem hoc anno (098) 
rum secunda die Novcnd>ri« m-titutase 

in sno monasterio, enjus exemplo ad 
cceteras ccclesias hn?c institntio per- 
manavit,tametdi jam in nonnulhsmonaa- 
teriis Ordinis nostri, scdalia die,recepta 
erat. Id ab Odilone factum dieitur 
hortatu cujusdam in Sicilia rcclusi, < ( ni 
defunctorum animas a piaculi 
Ha mm is C'luniaeenshim eleemosynis et 
|ireei < i. testa t us est enidoni 

•*0 leroeolyiuin reverteiiti, 
iihjue Odiloni ahhati rcnuntiari cura- 
vit." (Mai IsMst 

iv. 125.) Odilo, who was of knigi 
origin in Auvergnc, was pretty nearly 
head of superstition, in his age, 
so deeply smitten with it. He was 
complimented as the brujkt&t mirror 
plae&l Bf <<"i hi ifu norU, ** ijucm Dcus 
clnrisfimtu* qxculnm in niundo pool 
and the ttundard-Uartr of all rei. 
■ ille IflfiMI nii-ftonu $w*if?r OattoT 
When at Rome, he was the great mark 
of admiration, seeming really to be, aa 
he was occasionally called, tic arckawtd 
cfmrnkt, u re vera putares esse aren- 
angdum monachorum." He died in 
1049. (Ibid. 352. 100. 239. 409.) 
teiitlt and eleventh centuries hardly 
wanted *uch a man for riveting the 
Platonic helirf in purgafe 

(II. IV.] 


author of the suggestion was a .Sicilian recluse, or hermit, who 
caused it to be stated to Cklilo, that he had learned from a 
divine revelation, that the souls in purgatory might be released, 
by the prayers of the monks of Clugni 1 . At first, therefore, 
this was only a private regulation of the society of Clugni: but 
a Roman pontiff, — who he was, is unknown, — approved the 
institution, and ordered it to be even where observed. 

§ 3. The worship of the virgin J\Lny. which previously had 
been extravagant, was in this century carried much fart In r 
than before, Not to mention other things less certain. 1 
observe first, that near the close of tins century, the custom 
became prevalent among the Latins, of celebrating masses, 
ami abstaining from flesh, on Saturdays, in honour of St. 
Maty. In the next place, the daily office of St. Mary, which 
tin- Latins call the leaser office, was introduced; and it was 
afterwards ponHnneo 1 by Urban II. in the council of Clermont. 
Lastly, pretty distinct traces of the Rosary and Crown of St. 
Mary, as they are called, or of praying according to a nume- 
rical arrangement, are und in this century. For they 
who tell us, that St. Dominic invented the Rosary, in the 
thirteenth century, do not offer satisfactory proof of their 
opinion *. The Rosary consisted of fifteen repetitions of the 
Lord's pray<r. and one hundred and fifty salutations of St. 
Muri/: and \n hat the Latins called the Crown of St. Mary, 
• >f six or seven re p fltki o f l H of the Lord's prayer, and 
HXt] :\ .-alutatinns, according to t lie age ascribed by 
different authors to the holy virgin. 

> The pontiff Henedict XIV.. or 
' limiK, ui hii treatise 
Mnrur, « . s 
1 iii. t\ 22. \. \<. 

67L Tp ry wiser/ obe< • ■•> ro- 

und diiovputiililo 
origin of tliat anniversary ; and thus 

shows u», what h And 

in thin work of Be—did MV. are 
inanv ttprcimena of the author'* dis- 
.•- mm. -lit. 

• TIim >- f<-nnulU i 
Jo, Mul.illon, I'rtrf. >ui Actn Saueiur. 
OW. ik»c*i. Mceal. ▼. p. Wiii. &c 




§ I. The more ancient heresies. — § 2. The Paulicians. — § 3. Commotions 
excited by Leuthard. — § 4. The Anthropomorphites. 

§ 1. The amazing stupidity of the age, which was the 
source of so many evils, had this one advantage, that it 
rendered the church tranquil, and undisturbed by new sects 
and discords. The Nestorians and Monophysites began to 
experience more hardships, under the Arabians, than formerly; 
and they are said to have repeatedly suffered the greatest 
violence. But as many of them gained the good will of the 
great, by their skill in medicine, or by their abilities as 
stewards and men of business, the persecutions that occa- 
sionally broke out, were again suppressed \ 

§ 2. The Manichseans or Paulicians, of whom mention has 
been made before, became considerably numerous, in Thrace, 
under the emperor John Tzimisces. As early as the eighth 
century, Constantine Copronymus had removed a large portion 
of this sect to this province, that they might no longer disturb 
the tranquillity of the East : yet they still remained numerous 
in Syria and the neighbouring countries. Theodorus, there- 
fore, the bishop of Antioch, for the safety of his own flock, did 
not cease importuning the emperor, until he ordered a new 
colony of Manichseans to be transplanted to Philippopolis *. 
From Thrace, the sect removed into Bulgaria and Slavonia ; 
in which countries they afterwards had a supreme pontiff of 
the sect ; and they continued their residence there, down to 
the times of the council of Basil, or to the fifteenth century. 
From Bulgaria, they migrated to Italy ; and thence spread 

1 [Some Nestorians were private to put themselves under his protection, 

secretaries of the Kaliphs ; and the See Assemaii, Biblioth. Orient. Vatic. 

Nestorian patriarch had such influence torn. iv. p. 96 — 100. ScM.] 
with the Kaliph, that the Jacobite and ' Jo. Zonaras, Anna!, lib. xvii. p. 

Greek bishops, living among the Ara- 209. ed. Paris, p. 164. ed. Venice, 
bians, were obliged, in their difficulties, 

< ll. v.] 



into other countries of Bnrope b much trouble to the 

Roman pimtit 

§ 3. At the close of this century, a pfeheian man, of the 

name of L"rt/>>rr</. in the village of Y T irtu8 near Chalons. 

me innovations in religion ; ami, in a short time. 

■ large sliarc of the vulgar after him. 1 [i would allow of 

im Imn gOB , for BO H have hroken tin* ima^e of our 

loot, Be maintained, that lathee ought not t«» be •riven 

t«> tin- priests; and saiil. tliat in the f tli«- Old 

ime tilings ware true, and some tli 

He pretended to he inspired: hut hislmp ln»ve the 

iti.s; and he at last threw himself into a well*. 

i pose, the disciples of tliis man, who doubtless taught 

many other thingB, besides what are stated ahove. joined 

themselves with those who, in France, vara n3 called 

aattj and who are said to have leaned to tli of the 


§ 4. Some remains of the Arians still existed in certain 

3 And, as has been already obw n 

perhi ; ; lains of the sect mill 

txLst in Uulguria. 

'.i account "f these transactions 
is given by Glaber Radulnhws Wirt. 

. r. \i. [Flrury, lluiiih-r <i? 


tli.' «rbok the authority of 

llMHI, a plebeian mm EMI of 

v irtiiM and 
•■ nf Chalons, pretended t'. 
prophet, and i! 
at * c* rtaiil til 

n .1 with, he b 

rhen a great nwai-m of 
bees seemed to ower part of 

kin body, and to pan . mouth, 

with '-pan 

!.. iti 

tn.-ntnii! him awhile, i u him 

and tiimuianded hini 

which weio beyond human power, at 
returned I isted ; and with 

a view to 

immiwvtl Bfl I ifi 'I'l 

' Imrrh, a* if fi/r pmyr, lu- 
ll it, anil h»i/.. <1 nml broki 
image of the cm>-< •> o-etandcrs 

in! wppoied 0m man 

was deranged : but as they were r- 1 

l*ersuoded them, that 

a the deed n 

inn of a supernatural uiul divine 

I.. mtazd talked much, and 

! to be regarded as a grvat 

teacher. I' liftcourscs, r 

was untiling solid, and no truth. Be 


i, only in 

part ; and that tin- rent was tmclees. 

II.' neohtti dj thai B was of no uae to a 

us tithe*. Fame bow pxa 

' m a man of God | 

no small part of the vulgar Went after 

him. But Geboin, tli ami 

vise b maonad the 

man before him, and interrogated him 

him. lie began 

coal the poifton of his wickedness, and 
-vripturv*, which 
idied. The aaaai 

• •ekbead of 
htadwod nml modneap ; and, in part, 
recta i had 


!•« reputation ruined an -z the 

I nimself in awi 1 1 



parts of Italy; and especially in the region about Padua*. 
Ratkerius, bishop of Verona, had controversy with the Anthro- 
pomorphties, from the year 939, onwards. For in the neigh- 
bourhood of Vieenza, there were many persons, not only 
among the laity, Imt also among the clergy, who supposed that 
God possesses a human form, and sits upon a golden throne, 
in the manner of kings ; and that his ministers, or angde, are 

d men, clothed in white robes". These erroneous con- 
ceptions will not surprise us, if we reflect, that the people, who 
were extremely ignorant on all subjects, and espe«i:»llv on 
refigion, saw God and the angels so represented, every where, in 
the pnintiiuj* that adorned the churches. Still more irrational 
was the superstition of those, whom the same Ratkeriue 

<s; who were led, I know not how, to believe that St. 
Michael Bays mass, even- Monday, before God in heaven ; and 
they therefore resorted, on these days, to the churches that 
were di licated to St. Michael'. It is probable, that the 
priests, who performed service in the temples devoted to St. 
Michael, instilled this most absurd notion, as they did other 
errors, into the minds of the vulgar. In ar& rto gratify their 
own avaricious vie 

• [It appears from Ugell's Italia 
Sacra, tarn. v. p. 429 of the ncu 

that in the diocese of Peter, the 
bishop of Padua, who died x. n. '.t42, 
there were many Arians, whom that 
biahop -strvuuouuly opposed. And in 
the name work, p. 433, it is stated, that 
bishop Qoalin, <>r Gansunj who filled 
the Bl year 9$t till into the 

following century, eon axter- 

minated this suet. ScUL | 

• | We ought not to claw these poor 
creatures among heretics. The lan- 
guage of Ralherius does nut imply. 

that such opinions were taught in 

public. ] i 

tained by individuals in private, do I 

itute a heresy. And how many 
such Anthropomorphites should v 
now find, if we were to examine the 
conception* of our own common p, 
in regard to God and the angels I 

7 Kathcrius, Epittola Spnudioa, in 

Dacht'rii Spicily, fxripiar. Yd 

294, &c. Sigbert of Geiublours, 
Ckroml. ad aim. 939. 





§ 1. Propagation of Christianity.— § 2. Fruitless efforts of some, for the conver- 
sion of pagan nations.— $ 3. The Saracens driven from Sicily. The Sicilian 
monarchy. — § 4. fapadMon qgsiHl the Saracens in Palestine. — § 5. Progress 
of the holy war.— § G, 7- Tl I it. — § U. Causes of these expeditions. 

— § 9. Evih "1 ill* tn.— § 10. Injurious to the church. 

§ 1. The Hungarians, Panes, Poles, Russians, and other 
nation*, who in tin- preceding ceulorji had received a kind of 
knowledge of the christian religion, could not universally be 
brought, in a abort time, to prefer Christianity to the rehgions 

of their lathers. Therefore, during the greatest part of this 
\. tli«ir kings, with the teachers wlnun they drew art 

them, were occupied in gradually enlightening and converting 
nation*'. In Tartary * and the adjacent regions, the 

.•utnitv of the N oiitinued daily to gain 090 more 

people to the Bide of Christianity. And such is the niaaa of 

"* wUn>, ii r th I 

I, ii. Kebruar. p. 
113. 114: aii-1 f>r tin Hungarians, 
p. 117. 

* Tlio wonl Tartan,- i« hrre uwd in 

iU broadest sense ; for I am not inaen- 
thai the Tartan., propvriy so 
callcl ' from the 

Tangutianti, C'alniues, MungaLs 


book in. — (i:\ri i:v xi. 


testimony at the present day. that we cannot doubt, but that 

bishops of tli> highest order, or ifetnpcl 

inferior bishops subject t<> them, \wre established, at that 

!. in tlie uvuiiueei of Cashgar, Nuachet stan, 

<b-nda. Tan<jut. ami others'. Whence it wil] 
that there uas a vast multitude of christian*, in tin- eleventh 
ami twelfth centuries, in these countries; which are now 
either devoted to Muhammedism, or worshippers of imaginary 
gods. Ami that nil these c frr ig tBU M follow, d the Nestorian 

md ••'.tie subject to the supreme pontiff of 
torians residing; in ('haldea. is m certain, as to be beyond all 


§ 2. For the conversion of the European nations, who Mill 

I i % • -« 1 buried in superstition ami barbarism, as tl. ians, 

the Obotriti. the Wends, the Prussians, &£. some pious and 

good men laboured indeed, but With either \cr\ little or no 

-s. Near the close of the preceding century, Ada 
bishop of Prague, visited the ferocious nation of the Prussians, 
with a view to instruct them in the knowledge of Christianity ; 
ami the result was, that he was murdered, in the war 996*, by 
Siffpon, a pagan priest*. The king of Poland, H<>le*lau$ 
Chrobn/ y avenged the death of AddUbefl, by a seven. 1 war ; and 
laboured to accomplish bv arms and penalties, what 
could not effect by arguments *. Yet then' were not wanting 
BOme, who seconded the king's violent measures, by admoni- 
tions, instructions, and persuasions. In the first place, > 
told, one Boniface, of illustrious birth, and a disciple of St. 
Bomuald, and afterwards one Brv no, with eighteen eonv 
panioms. went from Germany into Prussia, as christian 

' Marco l':uil<i, the Pfmnthn 

a/ifas, lib. i. cap. 'Mi. 
■17. It, 1!». r,-2. 68j 84 : ! 
c 39. Euseb. Etanandot. Anciennt* 
ftstaiioM dts Intttt rt <h U Chiiw, p. 
:i-»<>. Joa. Sim. Assvamn, BSbi 

■ , torn. iii. |>t. ii. |>. 502, 

Ac Thp history u( this «-> meet 

nity by the Ncs- 
torian*. in China, Tartan.', and i 
adja< .•-•servos to 

be more thoroughly a pi or-.l, a I 
forth t i ih. wand, bv MM ninn w<-H 
acquaint' 1 with oriental history. Hut 

the task would be, on varirm.« account-*, 
very difficult of execution. It was at- 
tempted by an excellent man, Tli 

bo wm furnished mth 
a large number of documents fa 
purpose, both printed and manuscript. 
But tin- pninaturv draih of tins leant - 
e<l man intercepted his hi bourn. 

* I SawtOT. a. I .li- in t| 
Aprilis p. \~i, Slc. [and Jo. Mai. 
Aeta n*d. torn. vii. p. H4G t 


• Solignar, ItiMnirt fif Folqptt, torn, 
i. p. 133. 

CH. 1. 1 


sinnariee". But all these were put to death by tin- Prussians: 
nor could the valour of lioleslaus or of the subsequent kii 
Poland, bring this savage nation to abandon tin religion of 
tluir ancestors \ 

§ .*;, Tli<' BttWMMIiBUed upon Sicily, in tlu- ninth century $ 
DOI eould the Qxeefln or the LatUM hitln rt« • expel them from 
the country, though t to do it. 

But in this century, a. n. 10.11), T'olnit Gi(l<rnr<t. the Norman 
duke nf Apulia, with his brother l!<»i<i\ uinler the authority of 
the Roman pontiff Xicolau* II., attacked them with great 
valour; nor did Kotivr relinquish the WET, till he had g! 
poaBession of the whole island, and cleared it of the Saracens. 
After this great achievement, in the year 1090, Roger 'restored 

the christian religion, now almost extmgOBhed then by the 
Saracens, to ite former dignity j and established bishops, 
founded monasteries, erected magnificent churches, and put 
the dflKgy in possession of ample twenties lad honours, which 

they enjoy to fche preoent times-. To this heroic man, is 

• [Bruno and Boniface were, in fmet, 
MM and the same person : the first 
bring IiIh original and proper name, 
and Qbe other liis aanuued uauir 

ionka were then accuHtomed to 
take assumed name*. Be* Ditmar, 
Bb. \\. p. 82. Chnmicon QMc/liatan/. 
mid Sigcbert Gemblacens. ad auu. 
1009. TheamuT 

says expressly : " Stinrtu* Bruno qui 
rchicpiacopus gentium, 

abnrh. xvi. Kal. Mart, nuu I 

He was at tin- highest 
rank of Saxon nobility, a ni 

by him. Bruno served far ■ time at 

il ebajiel. llul in I ho year 

W7i !" i'"' ; ' rred a monastic life ; and 

liinitM-lf w 

whom lie accom|utnied fir 
Caaaino, and then to Perra near Ro- 
M nnissioii frum 
the pope to preadi la DM pagans; and 
ther- iditiatmii ns an 

archbishop. He [.narln-d to pagans 

till Dm tw. ifib v.-nr, and m 

the i km >f U 
siaiv* i.. 1000.] 

i Ftninn and bin 

pani' nrrham'd of the pagans, 

\oi . II. 

by ISolcslaua. .SdU.— See I 

I.Ml. Ada t&UUtBT. Orl. B<n.>l. vol. vui. 

p. 70—81. and Fli-urv, fftttfn 
rfipttMblrfr.lTiU.198. 'Jr.) 

'Anton. Pagi, I llinmium, 

torn. iv. ad ami. 10OK. p. 07, Ac. 
ri.i..i ii iiknocb,Hi*onQftin Pr*$- 
riati Church ; w« man, book 

i. .'Ii. i. a, I J, .Si- [S-. hi. of tin- prin- 
cipal Poles, also, to whom oliri-tianity 
was tarda ftftwunrf "f the 

many titlu- 

rli-rr' scain Into !'li>latry. 

See Dtiglofw,// ut. Polun. ad ami. I0JB. 
On tli.V .ith.r huud, Iba TniriHylya- 
niana wen I by Um king of 

Hun ran 1008 J and were 

i embrace cb . :ifler 

il.i. M itli Mi ■ ife and 
| t-igon. 
And the same IdttJ muiartook some 
successful campaigns against the Bul- 
garians, and the pagan Slavonians. 
See 1 i I rvn. Ilvm/ar. c. 

20, 30. Soil 1 

•'•r'arrnlc d* 
by the hiatoruuiH of those linn s. Among 

j s he in extolled for hi 
rant dispo h 

HOOK 111.- 


[fAKT I. 

traced the origin of what is called Ike Sicilian monarch 
the supreme power in matters of religion, whirh is claimed by 
the kings of .Sicily: for Urban II. is said to have created 
this Roger and his successors, hereditary legates of the 
apostolic see, by a special diploma, dated a. i>. 1007. The 
Romish court contend, that this diploma is a and 

n in our time*, those WV8BB contests. Iwtwwn tlie 
Roman pontiff's and tin- kings of Sicily, respecting the SiciUaH 
monarchy. The posterity of Roper governed Sicily down to 
the twelfth century ; at fat under the title of dukes, and then 
under that of kings ". 

Fur when he conquered Sicily, he 
allowed tli.- Saranene, *ho chose to 
remain in to live according 

to their own laws, and to follow their 
own religion, so long as »l 

In wheat Ruhjecta. 860 Mura- 
tori, AnifU. ItaL ad ann. IUD0. 

' See Ctes. Uaroniua, da Mono r c h i a 
lnn.1/,7, torn. xi. 

and Lad. KM. da Pta, IWm aV fa 

Mom [The famous 

hull of the iwa • iltf is sup- 

posed to hare been granted, at on in- 
terview "f pope Urhun 1 1, with Roger 
dnkt Hid Calabria, h- '■ 

to, \. P. lOtW. 'The DOM had ap- 
pototod Robert, bishop of Frani, his 
legato a I'ttir, in Sii-ily. Hut tin? Duke, 
no stranger to the authority claimed 
by Much legates, and !■• tit*- ditttur- 

oiaoai thry produeed, eon 

oka the commission, pi 
insinuating that he would softer uo 
legate in his dominions. Aa the duke 
had tendered signal services to 1 1 » * * 
apo*t l drtTon thr Siiracena 

quite out nf Sicily, and ml l' Ct 

tli.- ehnrebee of that island to the 

nod hy the patri- 
arch of Constantinople. U m po] 
only recall m he had 

given to the bishop, hut lo eOfOgi 
duke still RKVC in his favour. In- con- 
ferred upou A im all Ibonowev hi had 
granted to hit* ]egat> 
Ins Inn-*, ami hia aucouoMie, kertdtioty 
Ugatet, and vested with the- loga-tine 
power, in lOi lull ••M.'iit. The luill i» 
I at Salerno, Jul v. Indi 

i. i. v. liMlfl. Here is 
some mistake, as the <r of 

Urban coincided with the sixth year 
of tho Indi 1 this error lias 

been urged against the genuineness of 
the instrument, by Darouius, wl < 
Rcrtfl it, and andenvoam to prove it a 
forgery, in the eleventh volume of his 

lis. He also ure,. 
if genuine, related only to B 
his ■ imnif diatc descendants ; that it 
was a family privilege, given to reward 
the personal services of Roger. Tli 
many learned men regard the bull aa 
of very question b and espe- 

cially as the Sicilian inonan 
challenged to do it, havi not prat 
the original writi i.-n uf 

1 and exercised tli 
powi r, as being the successors of duke 
Roger. Ami th«y would not null 

ill volume of Hanuiius" .IhhuIm 

i lr domioii 
count of its elaborati on .if 

claims. The same power luve 
been lilv-wi— claimed, 

by nil the princes, who have 
been masters of that island, don 

u times. In I 171*', 

Clement XL, ! bushed two 

hulk, the one abolishing the jmosurvay, 
as it i- other estahl 

ing a new plan of ecclesiastical fUTeni- 
m< tit. tin duke 

•ily, banished all who rec< 
of the earn 
compromise hii 
place, but the supreme ecclesiastical 
I indfl of the ttin- 
poral sovereign of the country : that 
i-, he i- hupreme head of the church 
there . hoi pee 

ill. !.] 



C< 1. I i e* ill' Xt/IoMu- II., the Roman jxnitiH's 

had been meditating the extension <if the limits of the r-hnreh 

uia, and Mpnniftllj the expulsion of 1 1 i« - Mohammedans 

from l'alcstiiic : hut the friWWlWjl of Europe prevented tile 
. t ion of their designs. Q rtgory VII., the must daring 
of all the pontiffs that BWt sat in the chair of St. Pete*, 1 

excited bj tin- perpetual complaints of the Asiatic christians 

respecting? the <tu< Itv of the Mohammedans, wished to engage 
personally iua ln>K \\;ir; and more than hTtv thftllflMHi 
pOQpSJ SB for an expedition under him l , But his 

eonti' ith the emperor IJenn/ IN'., of which wo shall 

have occasion to speak hereafter, ami other unexpertcd events, 
obliged him to abandon the design. Hut near the close- of the 
century, a certain Frenchman of Amiens, Peter \ surnained the 
Hermit, was the occasion of the renewal of the design by 
Urimn II. Peter visited Palestine in the year 1093, and 
than beheld, with great anguish of mind, the extreme oppres- 
sions, w! christians, residing at the holy 
places, suffered from the Muhanunedans. Therefore, I 
wrought up to an enthusiasm, whieh he took to be a divine 
impulse, he first applied for aid to Simeon, the jwitriarch of 
Constantinople, | k patriarch of Jerusalem,] and to 
■ ,t II.. the Kninan pontiff, without success; and then 
began to travel over calling on both princes and 
people to make war upon the tyrants of Palestine. Hfl more- 
over carried with him an epistle on the subject, which same 

from heaven, was addressed to all christians, and wascalcu 
to awaken the sensibilities of the ignorant '. 

and almolvc all persona whatever, 
rcclcsiaatica an well an laymen, and 
cardinal** themselves, ir resident in 
the inland ; he lias a right to preside 
in all 1 1 k- |>n.\im-ul fonwOi »f Hi-- 
country, ai -•• all tin- juria- 

i»n of a It-gut i with 

•illcat legato n [ I thia 

power the anvei 

no of Aragnu and Castile ; ami 
< -ui alao hy 
a commiaalontr of his apt, 

mi ore convenient oat- robe of 
v, tk comniiaaioner, who ia 

styled tit- Juihy of th*. wioiM/vAy, is ap- 
pointed by the king, whr*e. tribunal is 
the supreme cecluauwical court, for 
Calabria, Tannin, 
Malta, am! l>;.iivU. \, t 

fn.m him lies an appeal to the rutal 
noe. Sec Bower'«» 2/fasi <■/ th* 
. vol. * p. MO. and Stludltn'i 


1 i IWfOn Nil., ht'i^fJtirHm 1:1 

en. 31, ami in Hard urn's CencUui, | 
ft pt. i. D. 

' Thia fact ia mentioned by the abbot 
Dodechinua, in hia Conii** 



:entirv xi. 


§ b. The jiuhlic feelings Ix'ing thus excited, Urban II.. in 
the year If 1! >. i, assembled a very numerous council at Placentia. 
in which In- first recommended this holy war*. But the 
mus enterprise was relished only by a few ; although 
the ambassadors of the Greek emperor. Alexins Comnenui, 
were i and in the name of their master represented 

tin* necessity of iFfffMWfrlg the Turks, whose power was daily 
increasing. The business succeeded better in the council of 
Clermont, which was assembled soon after. For the French, 
Ining more enterprising and ready to face dangers, than the 
Italians, were so moved by the tumid eloquence of Urban, 
that a vast multitude, of all ranks and ac.< 

o engage in a military expedition to Palestine*. This 
host s< cimd to be a very formidable army, and adequate to 
overcome almost any obstacles ; but, in reality, it 
weak and pusillanimous : for it was composed chiefly of monks, 
mechanics, fanners, persons averse from their regular occupa- 
tions. Spendthrifts, sp< <-ul;itors, prostitutes, boys, giife, servants, 
malefactors, and the lowest dregs of the idle populace, who 
hoped to make their fortune. From BUOfa troops, what could 
be expected ? Those attached to this camp were > 
Crusaders (crucial i) : and the enterprise itself was called a 
A (i.wpeditio crueiata) ; not only, because they pro- 
fessedly were going to rescue the cross of our Lord from the 
hands of its enemies, but also, because they wore opoo their 
right shoulders a white, red, or green cross made of woollen 
cloth, and solenmlv consecrated \ 

Mariaiti Sniti ; in the Scriptor. Gsr- 
mnnicor. Jo. Pistorii, torn. i. p. 462. 
For an account of Peter, see Car. Du 
Fresno, Nota ad Anna> Coruuftt.r Al<ji- 
nrt<m,D. 79. ed. Venet. 

a f Berthold, a contemporary writer, 
Bays, there were prNMd in tMsevoncti 
about four thousand clerjjymrn, and 
more than thirty AoOHSd laymen, and 
that ita nvflaion* wore hold in tho OBU 
1 1 ruuld contain 
tin multitude. See Harduin 
torn. vi. pi. ii. p, 1711, &e. IV.] 

« Theod. Ruiuart. \'ii„ thimi II. 

§ ccxav. Kc p. 221. HO. 84D. 272. 

174. BBS. 29«, <.f Om Opp. Pottimm. of 

lnhillon, and TheOOOn Human, 

toni. iii. Jo. Hartlnin'a Cnmrilia, Uim. 
vi. pt ii. p. 1726. Oiraar liaronims 
Amal. Ectte$. tom. xi. ad ann. 1005, 
No. wxii p. 648. [The number pre- 
sent at the council of Oprmnnt jh not 
definitely stated by the early writers, 
rh.y all agree that it wa.* 

thirteen arch- 
hundred and fifty bishops, 
besides abbots and inferior clergy, with 
a multitude af hymen. The Acts of 
a in- bQj v» ith tw-> speeehes of t"r- 
ban, are given by Harduin, Com 
torn. vi. pi. ii. p. 17m. Ate. Tr.] 

* Bee Ahrah. Bxovtas, (\mttHmat. 
A*nal. Baronii, tom. xv. ad ann. 1410, 
g ix. » ' fant. 

< a. i.] 

PilUSl'hllUI 18 


|$ 0. Eight hundred thousand pot-sons, therefore, asoremhle 
Bl infonn us, marched from Kuropc. in the year 1096, 
pODKUag different roujrs. and eOHdueted by different leaders, 
all of whom directed their way to Constantinople, that, receiving 
instructions and aid from Alexins Comnenus, the QiQOll emperor, 
they might pass over into Asia. The author oftht war, Peter 
the Hermit, girded with i rope, Bret led on a hand of < i 
thousand, through Hungary and Thrace. But this company, 
committing innumerable base deeds, were nearly all 
destroyed 1>\ the 1 1 imgarians and Turks'. Nor did better 
!'i!in 1 some other ;>nnies of those Crusaders; who 

roamed about, like robbers, under unskilful commanders, and 
plundered md hud waite the countries oh* 1 which they 

travelled. <u»lfnr/ of Bouillon, duke of Lorrain, a man who 
may be compared with the greatest heroCI of any age r , aud 
who mi .•ouimaiuler-in-ehief of the war, conducted, with his 
brother • \ \*« II organized body of eighty thousand 

horse and foot, through Germany and Hungary. Ai 
body, under the command of Raymond, earl of Toulouse, 
marched through Slavonia. Robert earl of Plat 

Uist.HH du Cmttik d< Pi*, torn. ii. 
livr. v. p. 60, &c. The writers who 
give •cooi'.' Crusades, are 

rated b \ J i ». Alb. Pk bricius, Lus 
Etottaeiii toti Orhi ■Brfafj cap. xxx. 

St. [Moat of tin: original writers, 
in or near the bom <-f tb 

Crusad d by Jac. Bon- 

an, in his Oata Dei per Fmncut, 
Hanov. 1011. 2 vote, hi CM 

<il writers, the most important 
an», Robert of Rheims, Baldricli or 
Rtiiilri of I'M, lUi> 

i hi' Six, Fulcher or Fiih-ard of 
>f Noffcnt ; but 

inllv William bishop «f Tyre, and 
Jsmos do Vitry. To these may be 

I Marino Sanuto of tin- thin- 
century. The best moderns are said 
to be 1. Bapt, Mailly, J'^prit da 
Croieada, <m llutoir? politique et mUi- 
taire da (hurra enterprma var la 
CkrkunejMtr \< <- 
nfoj*. Pari ola, ISmo. 

loirr da • 
Paris, -. ISmo. J I 

Mil'. • I. Q ft I, ' ; l\ "Hill, 

17*) ttrnk 

der Krmm. Up*. 1807—17. 3 vol*. 
8vo. I. Ch. Waken, (irmiildedtr Kreux. 
Francf. 1808— 10. 3 vol*. 8vo. A. li. 
I 'much c. Ekttticiclu, 
nMK (a prize essay,) 
ting. 1808. fivu. The English n«der 
may consult, (Jibbou's IJvi. •>/ ihf 
l>iii. lix. 11. . 
Pupa, vol. v. and % i. Mill's 
UiMory of ike ( rumula, jt. W. ) 

[Tin- annv under IVtcr tin- fit r 
nut vi-ntcd their rage especially against 
the Jews j whom Ihey either i 
to receive baptism, or put to death 
with horrid cruelty. The mbm thing 
was done I 

ries along the Rhine, a i 
Cologne, Treves, Worms, and Spier ; 
where, however, Uie Jews were ft 
times protected by the Mrfireiii 
tho Aitnalitfy Sax. ad aim. lOin.. in 
Eccard'e CorpueHiM. Afnlii AM, 
• hi.] 
J <)| thin illiuttrinu* I 

at profoMoi 

• ' • .'■'... '■ 

▼ iii. p. 508, Ac. 




duke of Normandy ', and //wo the Great, brother to Philip 

king of France, embarked with their forces at Bnmdi-< 

Tarento. ( Brundusium ami Tarentum.) ami landed at Durazzo 
( I Krrnchium). These were followed by Hoamund, duke of 
Apulia and Calabria, at the head of a numerous and - 
band of Normans. 

§ 7. This army, the greatest since the memory of men, 
when it arrived at Constantinople, though greatly iljnrinirfh d 
by various calamities, excited much alarm, and not without 
reason, in the mind of the Greek emperor. But his fears were 
dispelled, when it liad passed the straits of Gallipolis, and 
landed in Rithynia. The crusaders first besieged Nice, the 
capital of Bithynia ; which was taken in the year 1097. They 
then proceeded on, through Asia Minor iuto Syria ; and in 
the year 1098, took Ant inch [in Syria] j which was given, 
with its territory, to Boatnutul, duke of Apulia. They also 
captured Edeesa; of which B> lie brother of Cktdfrmf 

of Bouillon, was constituted the Huviveiglfc. Finally, in the 
year 1099, these Latins reduced the city of Jerusalem by 
their victorious arms. And here the seat of a new kingdom 
was established, and the above named Godfrey was declared 
the first king of Jerusalem. He, however, refused tin t 
kirufy from motives of modesty ; and retaining a few soldiers 
with him, permitted the others to return back to Europe. 
Hut this great man died not long after, and left his kingdom 
to his brother, AoJoM*, prince of Edessa; who did not 
hesitate to assume the title of king. 

§ 8. With the Roman pontiffs, and particularly with Croats 
11.. the principal motive for enkindling this holy war 
furnished, I ooooeive, by the corrupted religion of that age. 
Fur, according to the prevailing views, it was a reproach ujhjii 
christians fa sufler the land which had been consecrated by 
the footsteps and the . to remain under the 

power of hi» enemies; and moreover, a great and esse: 
part of piety to <.'od consisted in pilgrimages to the holy 
places; which were must hazardous undertakings, so long as the 
Muhammedans should occupy Palestine. To these relig 

• I lie mi the il.Ust MUJ..F William tin Conqueror, king of England. 7V.J 

• II. I.] 


31 1 

motives, then m added an ■n : |iinliiaiilim, that the Turks, 

who hud already subdued a large part of the » I reek empire. 
would march into Europe, and wmiM, in particular, 
Italy. Those mOBg the learned who suppose that the Honian 
if recommended this terrible war. for the Bake of extend- 
ing his own authority, and of weakening the powrrof tin' Latin 
••mporors and kin"; : and that the kx&gB and prinoefl of & 

anooorjaged it, in unlet rid of their powerful and warlike 

vassals, and to obtain possession of their lands and estates; 
brfag forward indeed plausible eoiijeetmv^. hut they are mere 
conjectures \ Yet afterward, when the pontiffs as well as the 

• The first of these motives, ascribed 
to tin Forward b) 

many, both Protestants and Catholics, 
as une not a I all to be questioned. See 
1. Accoltu- fiber* in 

Injuirlrt, li i - Jar. Basuage, 

fist. An Eglmt lUforn&a, Ism 

tot, Hi t'krral'un d* Moltht, 

torn. i. li!'. iii. p. 30*2. 30JI. lib. ir. p. 
128. KnA\ 

htt/U EcdtM.'Fntn^iis, 
p. 90S. 209, oiid many others, 
lint thai thi taon has no solid 

foundation, will bfl clear to iiuch as 
eonsM circumstances. The 

Roman poutiflh orald not oerta 
foresee, that so many princes, and 

| .r.-h 

f from Europe to Pales I 

• discover, beforehand, thai 
these expedition* would be so beneficial 
to themselves. For all the advantages 
accruing to the pontiffs and to tho 
clergy from these, wars, both the ex- 
teosi- Minority aod the in- 

crease of t , wore not ap- 

parent, at OOOG, ami kl 

■■ gradually 

rather of accidental circumstances, 
tlian of design. ] 

that the pontiffs who promoted these 
wars, could lue lit* of 

ii. It 
be general b 
aiMlHi .was, 

that business wa 

fuioplbdled ill ;i li, of 

on long continuance ; and that Ood 

himself would, by miracu 1 . 
positions. those enemies 

of Christianity who were the unjust 
possessors of Palestine. Besides, as 
soon as Jerusalem was taken, most of 
the European princes and soldiers ro- 
tunu-d back to Europ.; ; which tin- 
popes surely would not hare penal 
if from th- this war, 

Ql« anticipated great accessions to 
their weal 1 1 r. — But no con - 

j- it ure on this subject, is, in my view, 
BOM unfortunate, than that which 
supposes Urban It. to have eagerly 
pressed forward this holy war, in order 

lienry IV., with whom he was in a 

I e> -nlest respecting the iir- 
ture of bishops. The advocates of this 
> the first armies 
wlii-li marched against tin- Hal 
medans of • • raised ehl 

Pranks ami NoniKini, and 
(hat tin <;< nnanrs who Ml opposed 

to Urban II., wt-re at first tho most 
avoir ■ wars. Other argu- 

ment* are omitted, for the sal 
lir-M • the 

li relates to tho kings 
and prince > 

It Mi r. i of 

, (//m'-o - liv. iii. p. 


and eminent men, who think th- 

farther than other- into th 

excellent meu have no other argument 

to iiiiJui-i-, tun I '.iugs,esp«> 

ciaUj .inks, wen 

>wi rful, by the death 
and the misfortunes of thorn? who 




kings and prfnccs Iranud, l>v experience, the great advantages 
i» them from these \v:irs, new and additional motives 
for euumnurag them, undoubtedly occurred to them; and 
partiriilarlv that of increasing freer own power and aggrandise- 

§ 9. But these wars, whether just or unjust \ produced 
DM Bfflaof every sort, both in ehureh and state; and 
their effects are visible even to the present day. Km<<] • 
deprived of move than half of its population, and immense 
sums of money were exported to foreign countries ; and 
many families, previously opulent and powerful, 
extract, or were reduced to extreme poverty ; for the heads of 
families either mortgaged or sold their territories, posses 

engaged in these wire ; and thei • 
they craftily gave, not only permission, 
bat also a direct encouragement, |fl 
these ware. All can see the inconelu- 
wvenetw of this reasoning. Wt are 
too prone to ascribe more sagaeie 
tunning both to the Roman j ■■iititTM, 
and to and princes ..f those 

, than they really possessed ; and 
we too often judge of the omia* of 
transactions by their rmtUt ; which is 
a defective and uncertain mode of 
reasoning. I apprehend, that (ha 
Roman pontiffs 

would speak,) obtained their immense 
aggrandisement, not so much by 
shrewdly funning plans for cnlar^im; 
their power, a- by dexterously seizing 
the opportunities that oceni l 

1 The question of the j>Wi« of what 
are called the Crumvin, I shall not 
take upon me to discuss : DOT shall 1 
deny, that ii i-. "In vi.-wid impar- 
tially, an intricate and dubious quee- 
turn, nut I pUi the reader to be 
apprised,, that there was discussion 
among christians, as early a 
t'Arllth and thirteenth e.-uturii's, re- 
spoctinL; the justice and in 

8 holy wars. Poi the f<zMari, or 
the Albigynscs and Waldeuses, di 
their justice. The arguments they used, 
are collected and refuted by Ft. Moneta, 
a Dominican writer, of the thirteenth 

9bjMM ooalj 
ft W'tlden»r$, (which wan published a 
few years ago, at Koine, by Kii-liini.) 

lib. >. a am p. ML bo> Bm the i'<tlknri again- 

traumarine tiptditio**, (riam ultra- 
niarinaui,) as they called these wars, 
had not gr ; nor wen 

answers of the weU-ineanbu Moneta 

An example will maku 

apcaod the 
Itoly wars, by u words of 

Paul, I Cbr. x. 32. (sir* so*<r nffmce^ 
nr'uhtr to the Jer$, mat t« tk* «*•**•/' 

sterol o/ Got*. Bythepmfi 
they said, may be understood the Sara- 
ttrtu. Th e re fo re European christians 

not to make war upon the Sara- 
cens, lest they should ofa <-j< 
gtntUr*. The answer of Moneta t i 
singular argument, we will gjre in his 
own word-. " We read, am. xii. 7, 

that God said to Abraliam : To lAy mni 
tri// I yirv this land. But sv (the chris- 
tians of BttVOpej arc fl Vhr»- 
ham ; as says the apostle to 
B.9B. Tow therefore has that land 
■ (KMisession. II 
the duty of the civil power to 
labour to put us m possession of that 
land; aud it is tie diitj of the church 
t-> •skoal cfrrfl rulers i 
— A rare argument this, truly ! But 
lot us hear him out. — " Tie- ••' 
does D to harm the San" 
or to kill hare christian 
princes an) such design. And 

m ill Htand in the way of the -<■ 
of th. ley will he slain. Thr 

therefore is without 
offence, that i*. it injures no one in this 

matter, because it doea no one any 

, hut only defends it*ownrighta/' 
— Who can deny that here is ingenuity? 

i H. U] 



and estates, in order to dfa -'fi-.iv tlie expense of their exj>< >li 
tion ' : while others imposed such intolerable burdens upon 
thi-ir TMUlhl and tenants, as obliged thorn to abandon their 
houses and Ian'K ami Dunne themselves the badge of the 
cross. A vast derangement of society, and a subversion of 
every thing, took plan- throughout Europe : not to mention 
the robberies, murders, and ructions of life and property, 

cmtv where committee! with impunity, by these BoMienof 

■nd Jesus Christ, as they were called, and the HOW, and often 
very grievous privileges and prerogatives, to which these wars 
Lrave occasion s . 

§ 10. These wars were no less prejudicial to the ehureh and 
to religion. The power and greatness of the Roman pontiffs 
were greatly advanced l»y them; and the wealth of the churches 
and monasteries was, in many ways, much augmented \ More- 

* Many and very memorubl- 
amides of this occur in ancient r. ■ 

:-i duke of Normandy, mortgaged' 

the >'■< I nn'lr linn 

See Matthew 1' 

lib. i. J>. 21. fto* < 'do, vfaoOnBf 01 

Bourses, sold hi» territory to tin 
ranee. Se« 

by the Benedictines, torn. ii. | 
lor more examples, see Cor. I»n 
Fresno, Aduott. ad Jtnnrtfli ritum La- 
tknrM S. p. 52. Boulainvilliers, mr 

Malcts, Mimu'trtt d< Litter . <rt d<- ril'u- 

dt Juribiii tt Pnrrv-/ ■ 

the time 
therefore of these warn, naj many 
in- Dobflby, in all pai 

rope, boOUM the I th>- 

ami more [l 
the prinata and monk*., or of private 
1 Tbam who took the badge of Cru- 
isjlnfi soqnired . Mr.i"ii'l>iuii-y right! 
and privilege*, which 
to other citizen* I .iri*t* 

rly treat. I will only ol« 
tliat hence it became cuatoniary, 

p a pa i [tenet a loan. 

Of enter into any civil 

Dpact ; in molra "t him, to ve- 
nom deges of .i 

whether already acquired, or yet future 
(privilegto crocis MiuipLc ac BUID 

Beuf, M'tnoirr* 
rur I'JIuJoire d'Atuxrre, Ay 
ii. p. 80S. 
4 The acoeamona to the wealth and 
wer of the Roman pontiffs, arising 
from these wars, were too numerous 
and various to bo convenient^ 

I h pairticul. 
Hot mil v tli -1 of tlio ehureh, 

Imt likewise tl>" church universal, aug- 
•1 its power and resource* hy 
means of these wars. For 
assumed the cross, as they were aj 
lo pl.-iee their liven in great jeopardy, 
poodttotsd . r ui ineii .)«» when ah- 
die. They therefore generally made 
their will« ; and in them they gave s 
Of their property 10 a ehureh .-r 

monastery, in order t" obtain tin 
ii and favour of God. See PI 

in. ii. p. 7 1 ' 

111 torn. ii. | 

p. SI. Du 

r'thtm L> 

Sinrti, p. .ii. NumerouB examples of 

•re to be I 
in ancient records. Those who 

o iiivi-i. - eifth prietti or monks, 


cause or lawsuit, and yield ii|> the 

fi is in eonl who 

iad i hern-' I rty of 

BOOK lit. CEKITm \I- 

[I'AUT I. 

i.v« r. ;ls bfchops and ahliots in groat nunnVrs forsook their 
charges and travelled into Asia, the {.rusts and monks 
without restraint, and auMit'tnl thnnsrlvcs IV- •< -lv bo r\«-rv 
Suj..'rstition also, previously extravagant, now iomaBed greatly 
among the Latins. For the Kong list of tutelary saints was 
amplified" v\ ith new and oft ..mi fictitious saints of Gfoek and 
Syrian origin, In-fore UukfiUWU to the Europeans*; anrl an 
immense number of relies, generally of a ridiculous character. 
were imported to enrich our ohi l cha])els. For 

nied home from Asia brought with him, as the 
richest treasure, the sacred relics which he had purchased, at 
a high ptide, of the fraudulent Greeks and Syrians j and 
mitted them to the careful charge of some church, or of the 
members of his own family 6 . 

hurches or convents, or were told 
that their ancestors had done some 
wrong to the priests, frefly raatared 
what they had taken, and often with 
additions; and compensated for the 
injuries dune, whether real or imagi- 
nary, by their donations. See Du 
Freane, I. c. p. 52. [In general, die 
Crusades trero a rich mine for the 
popes. Whoever became a knight of 

riwa became subject to tin- | 

and was do calar 

power of his temporaJ lord. Whoever 

had taken the VOW U» maivli to the 

utd and afterwards wished to bo 

reican -1 fn>m it, could purchase an ta> 

rmption from the pope, who gave such 

■sntioiiK. &C. ScU.] 

3 The Itoman Catholics tliemsclves 

acknowledge, that in the time of the 

crusades many saint.s, before unknown 

ii Latins, were brought from Greece 

and the East into Europe, when 

were worshipped most religiously. And 

AntOf Iheaa new spiritual guardians, 

were some of whose lives and 

history there is the greatest reason to 

doubt. For e> barbae 

was introduced into Europe from Syria, 

as is admitted by Cies. Barouius, ad 

,ml. Rom. p. 728. by Geo. I 

1 Ipp. Faris, 1616. fol p. 178 

• this 
Catharine, the [■tron—QflflMncd men. 
ever existed. 
• The sacred treasures of relics 

which the French, Germans, Bl- 
and other nations of Europ 
preserved with such care, and which 
arc still exhibited with reverence, are 
not more ancient than the times of the 
crusades, and ware purchased at a great 
priee by kings, princes, and other dis- 
tingi; the Greeks and 

Syrian-. But that these avaricious and 
fraudulent dealers imposed 

erednlit) of the Latins, the most 
candid judges will not doubt. Hi. 
king of England, in the year 1 1 5 » 1 , 
chased of Salad in, the noted Muhntn- 
mi. |au Sultan, I I] Hi.- r, ttsj aj .I.tu- 
aalem. See Matthew Paris, Hut. i 
p. 138, who also tells us (p. BUB.), 
the Dominicans brought from Pal- i 
a white stone, on which Christ hail 
impressed the prints of his feet. Tho 
se possess, as a present fmm 
Baldwin, the second kingof Jerui 
the dish from which Christ at- 
paschal lamb with baa disciples ;, 
last supper. And this singular motiu- 
uient of ancient devotion is rid 
by Jo. Baptist Labat, Voyage cm Kt- 
, i tn IkJitj torn, ii. |». 63. Re- 

tag the great amount of relics 
lestine to Fraii' 
St, Lewis the Freuch king, 

I Lift of St. Isvi*., edi 
Frcsne. Flessis, Hittoln -/. Pfotfi* Jt 
Van 120. I.i 

ci. p. 17' r ». Christ's |k i 
kerchief, which It held sacred si 

III. II.) 





§ 1. Sufferings of christians from the Saracens and Turks in the East. — § 2. Also 

in the Wt*t. 

§ 1. The principal conflicts of the christians, in this century, 

were from the Saracens, and from the Turks, who were equally 

of both Saracens and christians. The Saracens, 

though at war among them Ofi unable 

to arrest the daily encroachments of t he Turks upon them, per- 

i inn subjects in a most cruel manner, putting 

some to death, mutilating others, and plundering others of all 

their property, The Turks not only pressed hard upon the 

Saracens, hut also subjugated the fairest provinces of the ( 

empire, along tlie Rum nil ravaged the remaining pro- 

1 with their perpetual incursions. Nor wore the (■. 

i.i oppose tlieir desolating progress, being miserably dis- 

(1 with intestine discords, and so exhausted in their 

finances, tl - could neither raise forces nor afford them 

pay and support when raised. 

§ 2. In Spain t'i us seduced a large portion of the 

christians by rewards, by marriages, and by compaoU, r.. . ni- 
brace And they would doubtless 

have gradually indnoed most of their subjects to apostatise from 
Christianity, had they not been weakened by the loss of various 
battles with the christian kings of Aragon and Castile, espe- 
cially with Fer din a n d I. of Aragon. and been stripped of a 


aancon, was brought frum Palestine 
a christian J t- wens, 
pt, ii. 
i. 108. an-! ' %ruti *i'u U m raii 

f-w/, oiip. ix. p. f>0. For other exam- 

rHrrii A£n t torn, il p '-77 

and specially Jo. Jae. (Iiifl.t, Cru'\M 
h'\0ori,r ,is /i*/Wj i'kriMi fpulcrnlUnu, 

.M»: "Sciendum 
l*rl>are '! ii 
r ii iu peracoutlonc, et imminent*.' < I 

tiamv rcligioni* in Orii-ute naufragio, 
i-«lueta e Bacrariis ot per Christ) 

- nioilu r i rum 

dirinis opibns 

pra? nlii-> '»;illi, WUBBCt, Aii^avo 

<|iia vi, .jua pretk) a dotinenti litis hac 

iliac • lis learned 

r brings man; ae proofs. 

1 J... H.m. Hottmgar, B i Mar k 

eU*. aowul. xi. ar<i ii. p. 481. MkIi. 

Mori /» ; pnbti 

ainonj: hi* Mi*:'lf>w 
p. 10 1 



[PAJtl 1. 

large part of the territories subject to them \ Among the 
Danes, Hungarians, and other nations, those who still adhered 
to their ancient BlliJHfWtitffllMI (and there were many of this 
iption among those nations) very cruelh pemeouted their 
fellow citizens, as well as the neighbouring nations who professed 
Christianity. To suppress this cruelty, the christian pfillOtt, 
in one place and another, made it a capital crime for then* ■ob- 
jects to continue to worship the gods of their apflCfltare. And 
this severity KM undoubtedly more efficacious for extinguishing 
the inveterate idolatry than the instructions gfr 
who did not understand the nature of Christianity, and who 
dishonoured its purity by their corrupt morals and their super- 
stitious practices. The still unconverted European nations of 
tins period, the Prussians, the Lithuanians, the Slavonians, 
the Obotriti. and others inhabiting the loww |>arte of <i>\- 
many, continued to harass the neighbouring christians with 
perpetual wars and incursions, and cruelly to destroy tin 
of many \ 

' Those wan between the christian 
king* of Spain and the M uhaiumedans 
or Moors, are descril *uan- 

ish historians, Jo. Mariana and Jo. 

J Uclmold, Chfottieom SUifor. lih. i. 

rap. xv. p. 52, Ac. Adam Bremenais, 

IliMur. lib. ii. cap. \w ii. [ Among these 

nations many penona Iiad prof ou s c d 

■t, on account of die- 

numberless taxes laid upon them, par- 
ticularly 1" . illl'l til.- ri U 
of the christian 

turned to paganism again, and 
pcraeeutodthc ehri»tian» without n 
Thus Hdmold {lib. i. rap. 10. SI 25.) 
and Adam Bremen*. (Jin. ii. cap. 32.) 

ularly in regard t 
Slavonians. .SfA/.J 

1>ART II. 



i >ute of learning minting the Greeks. — § 2. Their moot celebrated scholar*. 
— § 3. Stale of learning in the W«L — § 4. Dad in various places. 

— § 5. The Mfieiicea taught in Uieae schools. — § G, 7- Dialectic* in high repute. 
— § 8, 9. Disputes among tlie logicians. Nominalists and Realists. 

§ 1. Thk calamitous state of the Greek empire entirely sub- 
verted' the prosperity of literature en The Turks as 
a the BaraeeoB were deify depriving the empire more and 
more < I it- lion and power: and what they left , the 
i-ivil discords, the frequent insurrections, and the violent de- 
thron leznperore, gradually wasted and destroyed 
thfiv and there an individual that eherished and cn- 
eooraged the I rte, both among tli \i*mm 
Comnenus) and among the patriarchs and bishops. Nor would 

the coniro venSes of the Greeks with the Latins allow the forme* 

to spurn at all cultivation of the understanding and all love of 

learning. Owing to these cansee the G I this century 

not entirely destitute of men who were respectable for 

their l« nrning and mtdlectnel culture 

$ 2. I omit the names of their poets, rhetoricians, and 
grammarians • who, if not the beet, wen at least tolerable. 
Among their historians, Leo the Grammarian \ John S,y- 

1 (Ho was the rontinuator of Thft- 
om \. d. 819 to 
1013, du time when lie is «uppo- 
have lived and wrote. His work wa» 

published Gr. ami I. 

[•hanes, ed. ' 1855. 

Tr, ) 



fFAin n. 

litze$\ Cedrmu**, and una ntlui-s, art' not t«i \tv psissod l.\ in 
silence; although th«v adhered to tin- fabulous stories of their 

ci.iuitrvinrn. ami WtSK not free from partiality. Michael PttUiu^ 
a man in high reputation, was a pattern of exirelli'iice in all Hie 

bttramfl ami Bcknoe of his ago. So also laboured bo excite his 

countrymen to the study of philosophy, ami particularly <if 
Aristotelian ph il oM phy , which he attempted bo explain 

amend hy various productions of his pen*. Among the 
Arabians the loveof sch-iu'e still Bourished] as is manifest from 
those among them who, in this age, excelled in the sciences of 
medicine, astronomy, and mathematics \ 

$ .'J. In tin- West learnin I. in some measure, among 

those devoted to a solitary life, or the monks and the priests. 
Pol other people, and especially the nobles and the great, 
despised learning and science, with the exception of such as 
devoted themselves to the church, or aspired to sacred offl 
In Italy schools flourished here and there after the middle 
of this century ; and a number of learned men 
reputation as authors and as instructors. Some of these 
. ards removed to France, and especially to Normandy, 
and there taught the youth devoted to the if the 

* [John Srylitzcs,a civilian, and Cu- 
ropalatea at C'on»Unttnt>|'lr. Ho wrote 
a Jlufortf oftraiuattutiu is the E/*tt, from 
a. D. 811 to 1057 ; and afterward 
tin tied it to A. D. 1081. The whole was 
Mibbahod in a Latin i by J. 

I. and Hm 
latter part in Gr. by P. Gear, Paris, 
i ill. TV.] 
3 [Oeorge Cedreoaa, a Greek monk, 
compiled a chronicle, extending from 
the creation i.> v. p. 105J. It is a mere 
compilation, or transcript, from George 
SynccUus, prior lo the reign of 1 ' 

BIB ; thru from ThfophaiifS t«> \. n. 

813 ; and lastly, from John Sc ylitie e to 
*. t». 1067- It «a.H first published, Gr. 
and Lai., bj Hykndor, Basil, 1605. fol, 

and afterwards, rmx-li liSllWT and with 
note**. Hand Jae.Goar, Pari*, 

IbL '/>.] 

! '<Wu, 
p. 14. ed. Fahricius. fMlcAael I'm llu% 
junior, ww of noble birth, a senator at 
Constantinople, tutor to Mu-haH Duea*, 
afterwards emperor. He retired to a 


inona- I \. D. 1077, »nd * 1 i • - 1 

not long after. He wrote a metrical 
paraphrase, and a prose commentary 
on the CentSelee, a tract on the Trinity 
and the person of Christ, tracts on 
\irtur ;ui<l Vice, on Tantalus and i 
on the Sphinx, on the Chaldaic oracles, 
on the faculties of the soul, on diet, on 

on food ami reghoeo ; not** on pen 
of Gregory Nnzianzen, and on the eight 
books of arietouVe physics ; a para- 
phrase on Aristotle ir«pi «>uij>h'«( ; a 
'•[•• on BinMoa Mctaphrastea ; 
law tract* ; and </n the ea 
astical canons, on the four branch^ 

m- try, and astronomy,) several philo- 
oophieal tracts, Ate. &C. Many of his 
pieces were never printed, and most of 
those published -hed sepa- 

rately. TV.] 

4 Llmacin, Ituturia Same**, p. 
Jo. Hear. Hottmnr, //»>•■ 

. xi. j>. 4-1!), »\e. 

(II. 1. 1 



church*. The 1'ivn. -h. while they admit that tibej wore in- 
debted in a degree to learnt d men who QUI from I tady. pro- 
viso a respectable list of their own nitininn. who cultivated 
< Ivanced Learning in this age ; and they name quite a 
!itnul>er of schools. which were distinguished by the faun- of 
their and the multitude of their students 7 . And it is 

\iri(ju<^ti..n:ihle, that th<- PlMMlil ]-aid great attention to letters 
ii'l the arte, and that their country fthonmlftf in learned im ik 
while the greatest part of Italy was still sunk in ignorance. 
Far Robert- king of France, the sou of Hugh Capet, and a pupil 
rbert or Sylotsttr II., was himself a learned man, and a 
great patron of learning and learned men. His reign termi- 
nated in tfc 081, and his gTOfct zeal for the advancement 
of the arte and learning of every kind was not unsuccessful*. 
The Normans from Franco, after they ohtained possession of 
the lower provinces of Italy, Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily, dif- 
fused the light i<e and literature over those coun 

M same DOOpil l-elongs the honour of restoring learning in 
England. For William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy, a 
man of discernment, and the great Maecenas of his time, when 
he had conquered England, in the y«ar I Olio", made commend- 
able efforts by inviting learned men from Normandy and 

i banish from the country tiarbarism and ignorance, 
the fruitful sources of so many evils*. For those heroic Nor- 
mans, who had h< us and hostile to all learning, 
btfbn (braced Christianity, imbibed, nfr-i- their conver- 
uigh regard both for religion and for learning. 
j$ 4. The thirst for knowledge, which gradually spread 

Muratori, AwHjU, /'■'/. Mr.lii 
lorn, iii. p. 071- fmnnona, H'u- 

toirt d* Naples, l«un. ii. j>. 148. 

notikl, II u- 
toirt lAttir B. >ii. 

a. paMim. l'it«. %imo de 
lf<>uluv. Midori- 

dst Science* en France , liijm'u Lt mart 

nil is pill : . 
among hb bimrrtidiim* nr flJi 


| Among thiir ui»tta»i hat uf 

Bee in Komuuu)>, i-ii.l-Ii: bl l.unfranc 

AUMehn, was particularly cele- 

brated ; and among opal 

achoola wore thouc of HI., n i 

• S. U id-Are «/* I* France, 

ii. \: 68. 1 
Pari*, loin. L I'. 1>M, .-.' ixi.v 
» Sf the HiMoim I 
. Lom. \iii- p. 171 
•wv9 Mattlu-w Path 
major, i fun' 

me of S\ illiuin. wen mi illiterate, 
ii'- who uinli'i>f'>'«I gTuimnar, 
wa« ItMiL.-.i gpoa wiih antomanmrnt." 


I Vll'KY XI. 

among the more civilized nations of Europe, was att 
this consequence, tliat more schools were opened, and in 
various places better teachers were placed over them. Until 
the commencement of this century, the only schools in Europe 
were those attacli nd the cathedral 

churches: and the only teachers of secular as well as sacred 
learning were the Benedictine monks. But in the beginning 
of till** century, other priests and men of learning undertook 
th instruction of youth, in various cities of France and Italy : 
and they taught more branches of science than the monks had 
done ; and they adopted a happier method of inculcating some 
of the branches before taught. Amor nam teachers, 

those were the most distinguished, who either studied in the 
schools of the Saracens in Spain, (which was a very common 
tiling in this age. with such as aspired after a su]>erior educa- 
tion,) or at least read the books of the Arabians, many of 
which wen' translated into Latin. For such masters taught 
philosophy, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, and the kindred 
sciences, in a more learned and solid mann were 

taught by the monks ami by those educated under them. For 
the science of* medicine, the school of Salerno, in the kin 
of Naples, was famous in this century; and to this sch«»..|, 
medical students resorted from most of the countries of 
Europe. But all the medical knowledge possessed by the 
teachers at Salerno, was derived from the schools of the Sara- 
cens in Spain and Africa, and from the medical works of the 
A rate \ From the same schools and books, and at the same 
time, nearly all the nations of Europe derived those futile arts 
of predicting the fortunes of men by the stars, by the coun- 
tenance, and by the apj>oarance of the hands, which in the 
progress of time acquired such an extensive cam oej md in- 

$ "». In most of the schools, what were called the sewn 
r>/„ nil aftt were taught. The pupil commenced with gram- 

• Muratori, Ani'ufuin. Ital. Midi* 

tom. iii. p. IKift, &r. Gian 

//orf.iirr iir Nafim, torn. ii. p. 151. Jo. 

Iri.iMl. Ili*i(trtf of Pkyrir from tht limr 

■!<■*, Loot!. 1726. §TO. \\v\ who 

doe* not know, that the SduJa So/^mi- 
tiinn, or rules for preserving hralth, 
was written in this age, by the phv- 
woinn* <«f Palatini, at the request of 
the Idng nf Bnglan 

(II. ft] 



mar; then proceed hetoric, and afterwards to logic or 

dialectics. Having thus mastered the Tritium, as it was 
called, those who aspired to greater attainments. | 
with -dow steps tlu-MiiLjl, the Q>r>i<!r>cl>f>/t', to the honour of a 
tlv learned man. Hut this oomM of study, adopt- •■! in 
all the ■ebooll of the West, was not a little ch:»i r the 

middle of thi> century. For, ho%C (which included iji<f>ij>! 
at least in part,) having been improved by the reflection an<l 
skill of certain close thinkers, and being taught more fully and 
acutely, acquired such an ascendency in the minds of the 
majority, that they neglected grammar, rhetoric, and the Other 
'■os, both the elegant and the al>struse. and devoted their 
uhuli lifes to . or to logical and metaphysical discus- |\.r ivfaoevfet was wi U acquainted with dialectics, or 
what vve call logic and metaphysics, was supposed to jmisscss 
learning enough, and to lose nothing by being ignorant of all 
other branches of learning*. And hence arose that contempt. 
for the languages, for eloquence, and the other branch 

polite learning, and that gross barbarism, which prevailed for 
il e.ntmi.'s in 1 1 1 • ■ occidental schools, and which had a 
eOWUjlbiug influence on theology as well as philosophy. 

3 [The (juaitriifttM embrace*! itrith- 
metie, mtuic, ,jet*utry, and attronomy. 
* See tb hi Boulay'i Uh- 

tent. Pork Umt. i. p. 40H. 100. 
• r .l I. .'il'J. Tu ibo« bo* tm- tli.' vul- 
gar in nit tkrrr if »■►'/» \ng new 
under the **n, I here aubjoin a passage 
from the Metaltxiicum i 

ik writer of mi contemptible abilU 
• 741. ed. Lugd. 
Hal. 1630. 8vo. ** The poets an- 1 
birians were belli in I ■ at DHjK . i 
any one attidied the works of the an- 
cients, he was pointed at and ri'l 

-ly, as being more ntupid 
Mi of Arcadia, and BON 
bn than lend or a atom-. Pat 
one devoted himself exche ' 

Of thime of hia 
master."- wn Uvamr, at 

connammatii philosopher* 

did not oKually 

it takes young birds to |.> I 
fledged." " Bui who' 
vol.. il. 

taught by the- who 

i.:in waking 
ones, in the study of phDoBOpbjrl LOj 
all tli i iinniar was 

quite another tin -h assumed 

a new form ; rhetoric OM held h 

1 ; ami ;i new course tot 
Quadriviuin ww gut up, derived fn>ni 
the Tt-ry sanctuary e( philosophj 
rarmsr rules and principle** being 
carded. They la 
neat, (conveuieutia.) and rta+m. / 
(resounded from 

•Iff inept / or •-(-■/. A ;i 1 1 1 ! -i •. j J -> '• I oof 
— To aay or do any thing ntit'.Jily antl 
■»//y, was thought ••> M iniposd- 
express t/tftnttnt of 
the ruitoMnum and row* of it." The 
author aayi more on the aam* 
fur which see his work.— [The latter 
part of the extract a I 
aeure in the originnl Latin, at least 
when Una dsprl a lh« 

nontext. The translation bore i 
i» not offered with great confidence- 



§ 6. The philosophy of the Latins, in this ai*e, was confined 
wholly U) what they call. -1 : and tin- other branches 

of philosophy w(.iv unknown even hy lime 4 . Moreover, their 
was miserably dry and barren, so long as it was 
it either from the work mi tin- flM Cateaories^ falsely attri- 
buted to Augustine, or from the Introductions to ! 
Por p k j ff y and i4Mrroe9. Vet the schools hid, in the former 
part of this century, no other guides in this science; and the 
iOBChniB had neither the courage nor the skill to expand and 
improNr the precept.-, eontained in these works. I5ut after the 
middle of the century, dialectics assumed a n- w aspect, first in 
Trance. For MOBS of The works of Aristotle bcin^ mtrod 

from the schools of tin rtain 

eminent geniuses, as Berenaarivs, Roscdin. HUdtbm% and after- 
wards Gilbert of 1 tLbdmdj WOA "thers. feflowng the 
guidance of Aristotle, laboured to extend and perfect the 

$ 7. None, however, obtained greater fame by their attempt- 
to improve tile science of dialectics and render it practically 
useful, than Lanfranc, an Italian, who was promo D3 the 

abbacy of St. Stephen in ( be archbUln.pric of ranter- 

bury in England ; Anselm, whose last office ffU likewise arch- 
p of Osrrterbtny; and 0</o, who >>ecame bishop of Garn- 
et of these men was so distinguished in this 
science, that he was commonly called the Dialectician: and he 
applied the principles of the science, with aeut. , tin- 

controversy with his rival, litrwciarins, respect- 
ing tin- Lorcffl EHlppcr. The second, AimIm, in his dii 

Heo % amonrr other efforts to dispel the darkness of the 
dialectics of the age, investigated particularly the ( sub- 

1 In the writings of thin age, we find 
mint' | itomnAtn: 

Mancgohl tlic philosopher, Adalard 
ipher, ami runny tm»i> 

it would nnleM u, t<> attribute to lira 

t< mi tlm nvanirtir it had anoi»-ntly 

• ni Rrfwrant taa 

which it now ha*.. In the atyfe <>f tin- 
middle Age*, a phil«*-i4<.r in a man of 
learning. And thin title \t»» given to 
ivteni of arnpttirv, Qraugb 
ignorant ..r .v.-r\ thing which i.. pre 


perly called philosophy. Tho ( aroaiem 
friii rnti'tmtm (in Muni tori' 

p. 806.) «tates. that then kviy tkhig-tWO 
jJtil.+.j.Lr* at llcnrernt . in tin 
century ; at which t ht of 

■I in Italy. 
Bat what foUowa d nt,*hows, 

that h intended to d e sig n at e 

gramma rum*, and persona having some 
dps ol tht- lil>cral arts. 

< h. r.] 



and of qualities or attribute**. The third, Orfo, both 
taught dialectics, with great applause, and explained the 
science in three KOffa, </ f S,,p!tista, de Cample&ibus. and d 
f Ente ; which, h .ire not now extant '. The same 

fat, a man jjreat and renowned in many respects, and who 
hil-mi, ,1 to improve Hi of dialectics, was likewis 

first among the Latins tliat rescued metaphgwid* and not 
theology from obscurity and neglect; and explained, acutely, 
reason can teach us concerning God, in two treatises, 
which be entitled Mo*ohgi<M and P iwlogion 1 . He it was who 
vented what is commonly called tin- OaPimOM argument ; 
ich aims to prove the existence el" a (Jod. from the very 
; li'ii of an all-perfect Nature, implanted in the minds of 
The conclusiveness of this argument was assailed, in 
this very century, by tli 1 monk , whom 

Antelw attciuj.u-d to refute in a tract expressly on the 
subject \ 

$ S. hut the science of dialectics was scarcely matured, 
wlnn a Bflra contest broke out among its patrons respecting 
the subject matt>r of the science. This controversy w 
little importance in itself, and one that had long been agi' 
in the schools ; but considered in its consequences, it DO* 

and inuinentous affair; far the parties applied 
their different theories to the explanation of religious doc- 
trines; and they mutually charged each other with the most 
- consequences. They were all agreed in this, that dis- 
ss are occupied with the consideration and oonmsfiu 
peneral ideas (rebus univorsalihus) ; because; ■•and in 

dividual things. Ix-ing liable to chang 

j> et matter of fixed and invariable science, hut it was debated 
whether these general ideas, with which dialectics 

* This Di&lrtgUA is among lit- Work*, 
i I 'in. i. 

■ So© Herimaon, N trratia Rejourn- 
tirmii AU*ttut 8 

Dachcry** SjticiUyiwm Scriytor. V**> 

nrm, torn. ii. p. 880, &c. of tin* new 

•n. " Odo, though v.. II skilled in 

till tltn literal arts, WAS pnriicularU 
emiin '.rtlft, and for 

especially, hi* action! was < 
by the clergy." 

'I'" u*" 1 Mau lo g kmt a pewon in 
tvpresxmted as militating, or fomtmmg 
wUA kim»df ah**: in the PndogUm, 
Xhf tune penon i» represented m td- 
Arming Mm 

1 (■ ' net Against Anselm, 

as veil as 0m AMM> In it, >- I 
found in Anselm! Opp, p, .i'i, 90. 

v 2 


[part u. 

■VQ to lx» referred ' hfli of thiva*. or r«> tin- DfaflB «>l 

teottfr or nam**. Soma maintained that general idea* are 
that have real existence; and they supported their 
opinion by the authority of Plato^ Boethius, and others KB 
the aneienta. On the contrary, others affirmed that 
general ideas (universalia) are nothing DON than words or 
names; and these quoted the authority of An'*foff*\ Porj 
■ad others. The former were called Realists, and til 
NominaHtte. Each of these parties became, in process of 
subdivided into various sects, according to the different 
ways in winch they explained their favourite doctrine . This 
controversy filled all the schools in Europe for many i 
ami it produced frequently mortal combats among the theolo- 
gians ami the philosophers. Tts origin, some leaned 
trace back to the e<mtio\.-rsv with />'./., respecting thf 

Lords supper 1 ; and although they have no authority 
adduce, the conjecture is very probable ; because the opinion 
of the Xi.nHiiiaiiets might be used very conveniently, i 
fending the doctrine of Berengariua respecting the Lord"* 

| 9. The father of the Nominalist sect was one Jo! 
Frenchman, called the Sopkist; of whom almost nothing is 
DOH known except the name 1 . His principal l vezo 

8 Of the Nominalist*, mid likewise of 
the dialect -re is a fall 

account in Jac. Uriicker's /luioria 

Grit. FMEanpl. torn. iii. p. 904, fte. Ik- 
also, as his custom is, nwnnftw the 
other writvi-H ooBoanunf thia sect. 
Among these writers, is John Salahcrt, 
a nreugrtarof Agon; whose Pklteiafkf* 

Nowinalium Viwtieata, wa- 
at Paris, 16M. 8vo. None of > 
who have treated expressly of 
Nominalists, have mane use of thin 
very rare book. I have before me a 
manuscript copy, tmmrfbed fr<>mone 
in tin- library of the king of France ; 
Bob the prated work was not to be 
obtained in that country. Tim acute 
Salabert, bet it more pains to 

•'the philosophy 'it Ike Nomina- 
lists, Uiau to narrate its history. And 
yet he relates some facts, which an- 
generally lit' 

1 Boulay, Jlittoriu Aotd. Paris. 
torn. i. p. 443. Gerh. Du Ifciia, Ji'utoria 
Ecda. Pari*. Ion. i. p. 77"- 

■ This is stated by the unknown 
author of the Fmgmevtum UiMorkv 
FntHcicit a Roberto Raje ad Morfrm 
PkUifpi /. which is extent En .\i li. 

Du Cheque's Srrijitorrr Hirtor. Fran- 
eioa, torn. iv. p. DO. This writer says: 
In Dialeetioa bi potentee extiteruot 
BopMetie, Johanne*. qui artem Sophia- 
ticara tooalam ease disseruit, &e. Cm. 
Egasec De Boulay, in his Jiittor. Acad. 
Pari*, torn. i. p. 443 and 612, OM 
tttres that thiit John was John id* 
Chartres, surnamed the Deaf, an 

it physician, and first pbj 
to Henry I., the king Vnd 

li-* us, p. 377» that John's instruc- 
ts Giroldus of Urleans, an extra- 
ordinary poet and rhetorician : but of 
thin he hringv no proof, Jo. Mabillon, 



Paris, Jloscslin of Compeigne, and Arnulph of Laon ; 
and from these many other* learned the doctrine. Perhaps 
also w. ln.-iv reckon among the disciple* ofi/hfao, that R>.'.iinbsrt % 
who taught a school at L.i-1- En Inlanders; fof Km ■ said to 
have I ■ (» kit cfanfif-, in voce ; whereas O/o, of whom 

mention has boon made, mad it to his disciples, in re*. J hit 
Of all tin; AY,/, 4 this age, no one acquired greater cele- 

brity than Rmcelin: whence he ban been regarded, and is still 
regarded, by many, as the founder of this sect. 




f 1 . Corruption of the clergy. — ft 2, 9, 4, 6. The Roman pontiffs. — § 6. Proroga- 
■•!' the Cardinals in their tlMtlan. — § "J, 8. Their authority. — g 9. Hilda- 
brand a popo. — § 10, 11. His acta. — § 12. The decrees of Gregor, 
against simony and concubinage.- — § 13. Commotions arising from tin: severity 
of the pope against concubinage. — § 14. The enactments against simon 
duce the contest about iim -tiiures. — § 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. History of this 
contest — 8 21, 23. State of monkery.— § 23. The Cluniaccnsiana.— § 24. Tho 
Catnaldukuaiaaa, Valltunbroaiana, and Hirsaugiana. — § 25. T him.— 

9 96. New orders of monks ; the » J nun I mi on tensions. — § 27. The Canhuaiaus. 
—% 28. The order of St. Anthony.— $ 29. The order of Canons,— § 30. The 
more distinguished Greek writers. — § 31. The Latin writer*. 

$ 1. All the records of these times bear testimony to the 
vices of those who ira of the church ; and to 

it prostration of discipline and of all reli 
bishops, when nioad fco the rank of di 
counts, and nobles, and enriched with territories, r 

in his /ldw/« Ihnedictimi, torn. I 
Iwii. $ 78. p. 201, suppose* him to bo 
ikit John, who made known to Anaelm 

n»r of Ro 
three Persons hi ad. 

* l ■■■ria Rat** nit. 

MonatUrrii 8, M*rlini j' 
Dachery'a ^mhih Vder. Seripto- 
raw, torn. li. p. 889. 


[PAtT II. 

castles, and wealth of all sorts. Inc-une devoted to their 
pleasures, and to magnificence, and hovered about courts, 

attended by splendid retinues of serrBoti '. At the n tune, 

the inferior clergy, lew of whom exhibited any degree of virtue 
and integrity, gave themselves up, without shame, to frauds, 
debaucheries, and crimes of various descriptions. The Greeks 
practised ■ little more restraint.; for the calamities of their 
country would not allow them to indulge themselves extrava- 
gantly. Vet the examples of virtue among them are few and 

$ 2. The power and majesty of the Roman pontiffs attained 
their greatest height during tin's century; though it was by 
gradual advances, and through great difficulties. They excr- 
:it tin- commencement of this eeutury, very great 
pOWer in sacred and ecclesiastical affairs ; for tin 
by most MEMOS wasters of the icorld, (magistri mundi.) and 
popes, or universal fathers ; they presided also every wilON in 
the councils by their le_ I the functions of 

arbiters, in the controversies that arose respecting religious 
doctrines or discipline; and they defended in a degree the 
supposed rights of the church against tin* encroachments of 
kings and princes. Yet their authority had some limits ; for 
the iNJVUfUJgU prince's on the one hand, and the bjjffhffp 1 ! on the 
other, opposed such resistance, that the court of Bone could 
not overthrow civil governments nor destroy the authon 
councils'. But from the time of Leo IX. especially, [\.n. 
KM!).] the pontiffs laboured by various art »ve these 

examples of Adalbert, (in 

!>. iii. cup. 23. p. 38. 
III., iv. cap. :{.">. ; 

Hear. Caiusiua, Lettiontt Atttiu. x< in. 
iii. pi. i. p. 185.) or Maoasaee, (in Job. 

M:iliillon, JfttSMM [t'tl'u: torn, i. A. 

111.) ai:il tboM colli etad l-v Mnmtori, 

■ ; /'•//. Med i '. vi. p. 72, 

I tanong iln MdrvantB of trfsbopt, 

in these times, we meet with die • r-li- 
nary officers of courts. In Hard i 
> rmctn. torn. iii. p. 17 
we rend : " The omce of Brabanl 

tytrur to (he I p. "i I'm-cht. The 
his Austa*. 

The count or llullanil, i* MvK <l, and is, 

i I'trveht'a tnaraW. The 
fain. Count >}• l'». nth< m, in tbe \>. 
janitor. Lord de 

Lord do Choer, is lb 

r." SrfU. 
* A verj 

..l Iron tin- Rpfatka nf iw 
VII., by Jo. Lanoor, to ma .txtrrtio 
amir- \<i. ■■. 

cap. x\xi. Opp. turn. iii. pt. ii. p. 307. 
From nuy, it appears, that 

'his Uregory himself did not 
claim abaota - ver the ehureh. 

til II.] CIIURi'll Ol 1 (< I K> 4X0 UUVKHNWIKVr. 


limitations. With hlllHWWUlt efforts, they strove to be acknow- 
ledged, not . miiK the sovereign legislators of bbe ehmeh. snpe- 

li-ir !•• ;ill OOUDoQfl, and tin 1 divinely eonstitiit< d distributor* of 
all the offiea, ami dispensers of all the property , ng to 

the church ; but also — what wa nvme of amiirain 

to be acknowledged as lords of the whole world, jujdgee owr 
all judges, ox kingi ore* all kings'. These nnrighteou 

signs were DppOWi by the emperors, by the Idngp of Fi 
by WiUiam tie fiJMjJlJWW. now iBJDg of England, once duke of 
Normandy, a most vigorous a if the rights of I 

against the poiititts\ ami by other BOisreigDB. Nbs weee tlie 
bishops wholly silent, espceially tlmsr of France and (Jenuam . 
but others of fhim suecuinbed. being iuthienei-d either by 
suj>erstition or by motives of interest. Thus, although the 

I tills did not obtain all they wished for, yet they secured no 

small part of it. 

. Those who presided over the Latin church, from 
death of fylw&r II. in the year LOOfi, till a. D. 101% namely. 
John XV \1. Jo/ui XV III. and Sergitu IV. neither did BOX 
ed any thing great or noticeable. It is beyond a doul-t. 
however, that, tiny were elevated to the chair, with the appro- 
bation and by the authority of the emperors. li,n,<lict VI II. 
who was created pontiff in 1012, being driven from Bom 
Qrwgcty, bis competitor, implored the aid of the em] 

a llefure Leo IX., 
ample of a Komun pontiff*)? ajwuiuiiiK 
tin' power t<.!. i i and 

pronoaei "wwn to i 

i>ope generously 
gare to tin- Norman*, then reign i< 
die aouth of I i-i 

wbiefc <iiph>d, and also with 

as ilu-y might wrrmt ; recka 

■ad i lie Saracene. Gaufr. Malatcrra, 
1/iMoria Simla, lib. i. cap. xiv. in Mura- 
'. torn. v. p. 5A3. 
4 See Eadmcr, U'itior'vi 
lil.. i. 

mi L'autuar. Ai rwj 

i in, who «o openly and 

aud ■ i |>runf, 

po«. I I t, did imprudently 

I he lix>«t of dominion which reigned 

in the brcaata of the pontiffs. 

D be was preparing; to invade 
England, he Bent ambassador* t. 
rf, Alexander II., " in order 
Matthew Paria eaya, UiM. 
i p. riee migbt 

be sanctioned by Apostolic audi 

i hi- pope, after eow.ii 
clairn partio*,ecntaatand- 

ord to William a* the omen of kfttgb 
power." -And the Norman*, 1 
aupp<«e, ilid the sail 
bl) n qui -hi r on 

them me territories which they now 

id thorn ihey might I 
ward* seize. What wonder, then 

til. |K,:iJill-hl.'.ijldcl;i 

I nig* uii'l 

■ ■ s thenuelvea euggeatcd in them 
n» thing I 

BOOK lll.-fLMi m XI. 


i II., called tin- Saint 5 ; WM r wtowd by him, and reij 
■ -fully till L084, l/ii'lir his r«-i<r, u the colt'lirated 

Normans, who afterwards acquired mi much lame, came into 
ami suh<lu< «1 tli»- southern <v A it. liciudict was 

succeeded by his brother, John XIX.. who presided over the 
church till a. d. 1033. The five above-named pontiffs appear 
to have sustained respectable' moral characters \ But 
different from them, or a most flagitious man, and capable of 
every crime, way their successor, Benedict IX. The Roman 
citizens, therefore, in the year 1038, hurled him from St. 
hair: but he was restored soon after, bv the milfwrnf 
Conrad. As he continued, however, in his base conduct, the 
Romans again expelled him in the year 10 ±4; and gave the 
nment of the church to John, bishop of Sabina, who 
assumed the name of Sylvester III. After three months. 
Benetfiflt forcibly recovered his power, by the victorious arms 
of his relatives and adherents ; and Sylvester was obliged to 
flee. But soon after, finding it impossible to appease the re- 
sentments of the Romans, he sold the pontificate to / 

arch-presbyter of Rome, who took the name of Or 
VI. Thus the church now had two bends, Qyltueter sad Gre- 
gory. The emperor, /It/try III., terminated the discord : 
in the council of Sutri, a. d. 10 Hi, he caused Benedict, Gregory, 

* [This statement, that Benedict 

W us ■; :,, Runic by Gregory, 

and implored the succour of Icing 

II., ■ given also by Baronius, 

ad aim. 1012, § 6. ami l» Pagi, Ilrf-ruir. 

i Bmoi. viii. § 2. But it 

is founded on a misiuterpretaiion of 

llittmir's I'knmicon, Ub. iv. near the 

MbBVWfn " Papa Bene- 

ili.-tiis Qregorio nmhun in election* 

pnrvaluit. Obbooitff (nut Benedict, 

for he had the superiority ; bof 

I ad uativitat* m l>oniiniad rcgeui 
ilithi (l'uddi-) vi-nit C 
appnratu apostolico, expulsionem snam 
I'.oiitandoiiinutescens." — See 
M lira tori, ad nun. 1012, and the (Ger- 
man) traiuda tor's notes there. .Sea/. — 
But it is not ao certain, tluit G» 
was the suitor to king Hour}-. If he 
lost his election, how eoold M appear 

betas the king in Um pomli/ical fafrift- 

m*u t never having boon />■»/« f Hut 

suppose Benedict, after u prevailing in 
I being put in poasee- 
BJon of die pajracy, to have 1h*.-u van- 
quished and " expelled" from Rome 
by his antagonist, ha might weO nW 
to tlio kin;; in 
might there plead, that he had /*■*- 

I in the election, and cowpl.i 
hit rjpulmoH. Besides, it is certain, that 
it was Benedict who crov 
Henry, as ri»j*ror, upon his 
arrival at Home, Feb. 1014. It is 
therefore supposed, tliai the peo|> 

»>y the king, restored him of their own 
accord. See Schroeckh's Kinkfpgetek, 
ii. p. 382. flee. 7V.J 
• [Yet Benedict was rescued ben 
purgatory, hy the prayers of 
and •) > i<d the papacy by bene 

mean- i<>nius, ad 

ami. 1012. g i— 4. IV.] 

111. 11.] Ull'KCM MflCKM AND tiOVEBNMF Mfl 

and fij yfa i fo r , to be all declared unworthy of the pontificate; 
a ii. I he placed over the Romish church Suit/yer, bishop of 
Hambertf, who nmrriiiiorl tin- pontifical nuns of Clement II. 7 

g V On the death of Clement II., a. d. 1047, Benedict IX , 
«hd had been twice before divested of the pontificate, seized 
the tliinl time upon that dignity. But the year following, be 
was obliged to yield to Damaeue II., or Poppo, bisli 
Rrixen. whom the emperor Henry III. bad created pontih" in 
Germany, and sent into Italy. IfamatUB dying after a very 
n of twenty-three day-*. Ihvnj III., at the dial of 
WoiDtt, in ft i ')48, elevated Bruno, bishop of Toul, to 

the tlirone of St. Peter. This pontiff bears the name of Leo 
IX. in the pontifical catalogue, and. on account of his p 
virtues, and his public acts, has been enrolled among the 
Saints. Yet if ue except liis zeal for augmenting the wealth 
and power of the church of Home, and for 089 MUM 

more flagrant vices of the clergy, by the councils which he 

1 Germany, we shall find nothing in hi- 
racter or life to entitle him to such honour. At 1. .i-t, many 
of those who on other occasions are ready to palliate the 
faults of the Roman pontiffs, censure freely the last acts of his 
reign. Pot in the year 1063, In- rashly made war upon the 
rfinmUMl, whose dominion in Apulia, near his estates, excited 
his apprehensions. And the consequence was, that he heeame 
their prisoner, and was carried to Benevento. Here his mis- 
fortunes so preyed Upon Ids spirits, that he fell sick : but after 
a year's captivity, he was set at liberty, conducted to Rome, 
and thfi :i the IfHli of April, a. D. I0.V1 1 . 

vj •">. Lev IX. was succeeded, in the year 1055, by <i-rh<trd. 
bishop of Eichstadt, who assumed the name of Victor IL f , 

T in llu* account of the ]«ifitiff*, I 
the best hi-toriimft, 

n. I'aRi, Papain 
■■d Mumr ■'•» Italia ; 

<: irhal Barooiua and others 
• if Gregory V I. 

• B irtor. Ad d. 1U. 
Aprils, I. mi. iii. j>. U \2, A.i\ IJiMtrir>! 

lorn. \ ii. p 

NopUf, torn, ii. 

• (Ltoof OM« iUk-», that Hflda 

brand, a aubdeaeon of llu- RoiiumIi 
Ii, wm n-m iiy the clergy and 
r in 
Germany, requesting permumoo 

'l,«; tiaino of the EUji 
whutn I deem rair-' 

: mid the request 
Ilil.l- I 
K'uli ■■' 
rohalilc ; . tlml 

MaatH **** i 

acquainted with ' hu hUUc*, 





and he was Mo we d , 168, by Stephen IX.. brother to 

Ginlfrey, duke of Lorrain. Nei&er of tla-so. so far as is now 
known. jxrfnnned any thing worthy of notice. Qm 
britv was obtain fed by Nioolami II., who was prc\iously bishop 
of Florence, and was raised to the pontificate ii F'»r 

bishop of Yelctri. uh<>, with the appellation of Benedict 
X., has been inserted boipruou Sttpkm IX a&py II.. 

not deserve to be reckoned among the popoo; because, 
after nine months, he was oompeDed to renounce the ol 
which a faction at Koine bid induced him to Damp. In a 

council at Roma, which he aa o oni bled in the year 1<' 

lata sanctioned among other regulations calculated to remedy 
the inveterate evil.s in the church, a new mode of electing the 
Roman pontiffs; which was ioj led tO put an end to the 
tumults and civil wars, which so often took place at Rome and 
in Italy, and divided the people into factions, wh head 

of the church was to be app o JBte d. He also, in due form, 
toorol, ■ Norman, duke of Apulia, Calabria, 
and Sicily, on the condition that he would be a faithful vassal 
of the Romish church, and would pay an annual tribute. My 
what right Nitofam could <lo this, dors not appear; for he was 
not lord of those territories which he thus gave t.. the 
mans*. Perhaps he relied upon the fictitious donation of 
Constantino the Great : or perhaps with IlilMrand, tin* 
Romish archdeaeon, who afterwards became supreme pontiff 
under the title of fl fryftf W VII., he Mievcd that the whole 
WOrld belonged to the bishop of Koine, as Christ's vicegerent. 
For it is well known, that this Hildebramd guided him in all 
his measures. This was the commencement of tlie Neapolitan 
kingdom, or that of the two Sicilies, which still exists; and of 
tlut right of son reigntv over this kingdom which the Roman 
pontiffs assort, and the Neapolitan kings recognize from 
to year. 

(ad ann. 1054.) that the emperor lulil 
a council at Mayetic*-. 
11. m-jw» rlifU'd. It U> MM W 
of iiotir*', that thin [ki|h-, :iinl 1 « i.— in. - 
dae oroo rw. coiitimi»*d to boU \\\<-\r 
fciniHT lii.ihopncs, wlini » If vated to 
th.- |'«[wil throne. See Muratori, An- 
wit*, ad ann. 1065. N-*/.] 

1 Of Nieolaua 11., besides the com- 
mon historians of the pontiff*, the 
Benedi i eb hare treated |»r- 

AVymmv, torn. viii. p. SLA. 

* 8m Muratori, Aunnl. /'/ 
tout. vi. |i. 1HMJ. Barouiua, Annttlm, 
ad aim I WO. 

OB. n.] < iiik( ii o» I tcEB8 AND QOVBBMlfSKT. 


$ <;. Batae tiu- raigp «»f Wk tia m n , the Roman pontiffs 

iked) dot I'V the suffrage's of tin . hut by 

of tin whole Ronton stag) ; not by theirs .-done, fat the 

military gentlemen, tliat is, the nobles, and aJso the itizens, 
an.l nil the people of Rome, gave their ; Among sueli a 

I and heterogeneous multitude, it was luw o id able that 
there should l>e parties, cabals, and contests, NteoUnu tl 

ordered, that the- ntnlinalt, as well bishops as presbyters, 
shnul.l i'l,.<t the jiciifitl's yet without mfifagi^g the Bltabfi 
rights of the Roman limjinnim in this important business. At 

IBM time, he did not exclude the rest of the demy 
as and people, from a aban in the eleetion, far ho. 
required, that the assent of all these should be asked, and be 
obtained 1 . From this time onwards, the ■'-■■ ahrsya 

the principal part in the choice of a new pontiff: and 
yet, EOT a long time, they wen- murh impeded in their func- 
tions, both l»y the priests and the Roman chaienB, who either 

laid claim t«> their ancient rights, OX abused tin- power given to 

tliem of approving the election. These aHerdationa were at 

.initiated, in the following century, by Afewtiukr 111., 
whu was so fi.rtunatc as to perfect what was begun 

•n.l to t ran s fer the whole power of Creating a jwntiff to 
the cell-' ■'■<*. 

§ 7. From tine |Mri...l. he august college of 

Romish ca rtK*ab ) and that high authority which they possess, 

D this <lay. both in I ion of the p.. ni ins ami in 

other Batten, nnuw By 

stood the si the iiumediala \ieim 

Rome, or the ntfYagtou of the bebop of Borne, of whom the 

* The decree of NicoUua rcepeeting 
lh» «4ecti- DM |«mti( 

n many eti Mm tlio 

. on I have learned by roia- 
wihg thvui. ili'i- i 

iiiii;- m nhorter; Nome 

GuToiamg Uie imperitorUI p 
mod Rome le» 

■ of U hi Am 


I '. ii. p. 646. Very <tiff«rmt ftroi 

is thf Foi 

rt 8tCtnktaii d'vjnttaU; in I. 

cellatu". Ian i ■■■ >l the 

I v, agree iu the |toiiiU» 
we Imve *Ut« -I. 

♦ Si . .Id. Mul. ill. mi, CbMMtf. »"« 
Unl. turn. ii. i.f hm J/«*mm 

, oMrf ml ! 

■ II- t - MMh 





| r.utr li. 

bishop of Ostia wjls chief, and who were thence called card'uud 
bishops i together with the twenty-eight ministers of the 
parishes in 1! presbyters of the churches, who were 

called '' >-l, ,ls Qf in. shift, , >•. '\\> these, in process of 

time, others were added, first by Alexander II., and then by 

pontiffs; partly to satisfy those who complained that 
they were unjustly excluded i'n_»in a share in the elect Ki 
pontiffs, and partly for other reasons. Therefore, although the 
exalted order of purpled dignitaries in the Kentish church, de- 
nominated cardinals* had its commencement in thil century, 

did not acquire the s.Ttl< <1 cliaract. r and the form of a 
real college, before the times of Alexander III., in the next 
century *. 

* Concerning the cardinal*, their 
name, their origin, and their rights, 
very many persona have written tiva- 
tises ; and those are enumerated by 

Antiqnar. p. 455, 456. by Casp. Sagit- 
tarius, Jntrwimt. ,\d J lift. EccUt. cap. 
xxix. p. 771- and in J. A. Schmidt's 
ttapplrmeiU, p. 644. by Christ. Gryphius, 
Jtthjaa* ad Ilist. BmmU xvii. p. 430. 
To these I odd Lud. Thomassinus, 
fJucijrfimt Eccltrku re*, ft Bjpesj, turn. i. 
lib. ii. eap. OCT. e.wi. p. 616. and Lud. 
Ant. Muratori, whose d'ut. d* Orifme 
•talnlu* is in bis Jnt'ujuit. It'll. 
Mrtii JZri, torn. v. p. 156. — Among 
these writers are many who are both 
copious and learned ; but I an* 

in that any one of them is so lucid 
:u> • I precise ashc should be, in rcsp 
the grand points of in<iuiry, the origin 

lature of tlie office. Many expend 
much time and labour in ascertaining 
the import of the won/, and trucini; its 
use in am n ; which is not 

uiis»itj»l.h indeed for I 
is of little an to givu us clear views of 

i iinu "f tlie college and digni' 
sojvjhwk 1 1 is certain, that the word 
ctirdititd, whether used of things or 
nmwnt f or a* the appellative of a cer- 
tain clerical order, was of dubious im- 
ping used in various senses by 
the- writmof the middle ages, wi 

also know, tliat (kit title, anciently, 
was not [H'<-uliar to the priests and 
minister* of tin- church of Rome, hut 
was common to nearly all the churches 

of the Latins : nor was it applied 
to what are called aoouUir c 
but likewise to regular ones, as abbots, 
canons, and monks, though with some 
difference in rigniftcatfon. lint after 
the tiroes oi I u eom- 

mon IMS of tlie word was gradually- 
laid aside, and it becai ! naive 
and honorary ti had 
tlie ri^ht of Mooting the pontiffs. V 
we undertake to investigate the origin 
of the college of cardinal* at R 
the ini|uiry is not, who were they thai 
were anciently distinguished from the 
bj the mis v( cardinals, 

• mong the Latins generally, and 
at Rome in particuhtr ; nor U 
object to ascvrtaiii the original Imparl 
and the propriety of the term, m 
how many different senses it was l 
but the sole inquiry is, whom did 
Nicolaus II. understand by tlie appel- 
lation eardimils, when he gave t> 
cardinals of Koine the sole power of 
electing the pontiffs, excluding the 
other clergy, the soldiery, the citizens, 
and the people at large. If this can 
be ascertained, the origin of the co 
of cardinals will Ijc seen ; and ii 
likewise appear, how far the modern 
cardinals differ from those who first 
held the office. Now the answer to 

:i'|i;irv. in my riew, is manifest 
from the edict of N'ieolaus itself. ■ 
ordain," eays the pontiff, (according to 
i Baluac, Mi*vilanem 9 

iv. p. H'2?) " that on the demise 
of a pontiff of this universal Roman 


£& Notwithstanding Nicola** II. had fori •■« 1 any infriiiifr- 
moiit on the rijjht of tin. 1 emperor to ratify, at his pleasure, the 

church, the, canlinal Ouhoo*, in the IU-,1 
place, hold a solemn consulta lion a i 
ihemecivaa, and thru forthwith ad vino 
with tl ■' etsrh; and ho J. 

rest of the clergy and the people give 
their laeanl tu the iu The 


the cardinal* who are to dad a pope 
into two classes, cardinal bithift, and 
cardinal drrkt. The former, beyond 
all controversy, were the seven bishops 
of the city and Ha dependent lan 
the comprvtweiaU* Ef>'uroj/t, as Nice 
laus afterwards calls them, borrowing 
n phrase from Leo 1. [These seven 
UaklO] M seof Ostia (I 

' i'ortuciiWK), of A I bono (Ab- 
biuiciiMw), of 5t KuHua, or Silva Can- 
dida, <>f rraaaati (TuhcuIsjiuh), of Pa- 
>ia ( Proeneatinus), and of La 
na(Sabukensis). Tr. ) These 
bishops, long before this p 

tli. I, ,»al Intktft*. And the 

|<uts this constm 
beyoip -'tine, that 

ba uaihiialeod Ihaaarmadl liithoji* to be 
those to whom belonged the coeaecra- 
t'um of a pontifT after his election : 
" Becanse the apostolic see can 
no mctrop< it," fto whom, in 

that case, would bflfanj UK 
part in tin- ordination.) " the cardinal 
iHthnfm, undoubtedly, Mipply the place 
of a metropolitan ; fur they, it is, who 
raise tbo pontiff • I. -..-?, to the summit 
And that 
it was the custom, for those aeren 
bishops above named, to consecrate 
tli. Roman a f»«t known to 

These cardinal Aiakopw, there- 
fore, Nicohkus would liave to first hold 
a consultation by themselves, and dis- 
f the randiilates for 
t pontiff. Immediately 
after, they were to call in the cardinal 
cUrkn, and with them, as forming one 
•>f electors, they were to choose a 
pontiff! GEara Ion: i» the same as 
j-rrJtt/ier. And all admit that the car* 
ili n< J j-r,-fi,iftTi were the ministers who 

«-r pr All 

tlw remain ^hat- 

ever rank 

frnm the off)- 
ra of the |f»ntirTs. And y 
wonk v and (be |" 

give their a i tent to the new i 
that is, he leaves them, what is called, 
a netful ire rvice, or the right of approv- 
ing the election. It lather. ! 
that the college of electors of the 
Roman pontiffs, who were afterwards 
denominated cardinal! in a new and 
peculiar sense of the word, as this 

• ' was at first d by 
cus, embraced only ltn> orders of 

persona, n.: mil MdtqpVj and 

tl dcrh m And of 

coarse, we are not la follow « >nuphr. 
Panvinua, felted by Jo. MabiUon. Com- 
nu-ht. in Ordinem Roman, in his Mntrwm 
BoKoWlj toin. ii. p. cxv.) who undoubt- 
edly errs when he says, that Alexander 

111. added the cardinal birh>a>» I- 

college of cardinals. And ttiey, also, 
are to be disregarded, who suppose 
there were c.irdinaldracont in the 
toral ei i iliobeuiniiiiiL'. 1 

unhid th. n, and there had long 
been, as there are at the present day, 

d deacons nt Rome, that is, s m 
intendr.nta of the diakonur or ehm 

whose revenues the poor are sup- 
ported, and to which hospitals are 
annexed. But Nicolaua committed the 
'•"s»of sleeting the pontiff)* 
U* turn cardinals as were Iritnoi 
cltrkt; so that he e -rom. 

And hence in the diploma of tin 

* GUagaiv VI 1., i'»arc 
plainly distinguished fn«m deacons. 

Hut tiii-, daetaa af NSeolaM eauld not 

acquire at all the force of a fixed law. 

*• It i» .vid.-nt.*' *ay* Anselm of Lucca, 

{Librv ii. contra Wibrrtnm, . 

H ejus teqmaem ; in the Lettioms . i 

of 11. C'aniaiua, tutu, iii. pt. i. y. S 

■ It i* evident that lie 

ed deer. ■ -," (of Nioolana, for of tliat ho 

is speaking,) " in of M jlBPOrtl 

liave any fere... And 
hv sayine tlii-. I dfl pope 

NicobwUj af Met 

gate at all from hi> honour. — Iking a 
man, In- could not be secured against 
doing wrong." Anaabn w speaking 
especially of that part of the decree, 

nOOJC Til. — rKXTTBY X!. 

T II. 

f a pontiff, yet on the death <>i I, the 

ins. at the i n of ///•' then archdeacon, 

and afterwards pontiff of Rome, proceeded, with.»ut cnnstdting 
/ IV.. not only f«. elooft, but to consecrate Anaelm the 
bishop of Lucca, who Mourned Hie name of Alexander II. 
When the new -»f thi> «■• ached Agrut, the mother of Henry* 
through tin- tnehopa of bo mh o jdj, she assembled a e 
Basle ; and to maintain tin- majesty and authority of her son, 

which wcurra to the emperors the 
right of in .11 ti num.: tfai < of 

:1s : but what he says, is true of 
the whole decree. For those who were 
« -M-lmlt <l by it from this most impor- 
tant transaction ; namely, first, the 
u palatine iuiloa, as they were 
called, that is, the iVuswriw, Srcmn- 
diwriw, Arrorim, fruxt&truu, Prvio- 
trriniarius, 1'rimicrrUu Ikfrtuonim, and 
the Admimiculat or ; next, the higher 
clergy, who filled the more important 
offices, and also tl»e inferior clergy, 
priests, deacon, etc. and lasth 
soldiery, the citizens, and the common 
people. — c>iii|.lniii< d lhal injury was 
raised soamo- 
to the rar>Hi»il* 
whom Nicolaua liad constituted [sole 
electorsj. Th. r.ti. . to appease these 
tumults, Alexander ill. thought pro- 
jH-r to ext.-ml and enlarge the college 
of those now called cardimiU in the 
restricted sense. And he accordinu'ly 
added to the list of cardintdi, certain 
priests of high rank, namely, the 

. ->r anm*preabytar of the Lateraii 

churoh, the iirch-pruabytuit of St. 

Maria Itaggiore, and 

tiu- abbots of St. Paul and St. Laurence 

without the walls ; and after these, 

ut jttd.jt* which have 

been mentioned, See Cenni, Prof, ad 
Condi. Latrran. Strykani HI. p. xix. 
Mabillon, CummtiU. <td Ora\ Homan. «* 
Pntnim, p. 8Wr. By this artifice, the 
kicker cUrgy, or those rank, 

were vanquished, and ceased to disturb 
the elections of the cardinals, For the 
..I tlii- bod being ad- 

mitted into tho elcetoral college, the 

rest could neither effect nor att 
any thing. The inferior c/cryv still 

iied. But they were i 
silence in the same way : for their 
leaders, the nundinal draco**, or r#- 
oiosora, were admitted into the elec- 
toral college ; and after this, the ■ 
mass of deacons, sub-deacons, a< 
thi&ta, &c. had to bo quiet. Hut which 
of Uio pontiffs it was, whether Alex- 
ander 111. or sonic other, that ad- 
mitted the principal deacons at Room 
to the rani ih, I hare not 

lteen able to ascertain. IsUSj h0« 
I am sure of, that it was dm 
to pa i ! ergy, who were 

dissatisfied at the rl li<ir 

rights. When all the dm/y, hotli the 
higher and the lower, were placated, 
it was an easy matter to excluri< 
Roman people from the election of 
pontiffs. Hence, on the death of \ 
ander ill., when his successor, >• 
III.,' » »> to be chosen, the asacnt »jid 
:i|>pn»liati..n of neiUir: .nor 

been done before ; but the colh i 
eardimaU alone, to the oxclusion of the 
pcopl .•• pontiff 

same custom has continued do 

: resent age. Some tell us, tliat 
nt 11. [a. v. 1130.] was chosen 
by the cardinals only, or without tho 
wy and people. See 
Fagi, Rrcelir. Pu'nlif. Rmnanor. torn. 
ii. p. 6|5. 1 grant it was so ; but it is 
also true that this election of Innocent 
was irregular and disorderly ; and 
fore was no example of the ordi- 
nary practice at lhal I hue. 

• fit should read Lucius III. ; fur he was the successor of Alexander III., 
whereas Victor I II. reigned in the preceding century. 7Y.J 

I H. II.] < irritrH okkic'KKs a\i» covihwii at. 

B minor, ehfl tin to had Cadolans, bishop of Parma, ap- 
pointed pontiff, who took the name of Honor it's II. Hence a 
long and severe contest arose between the two pontiffs : in 
whii h Alexander indeed prevailed, but he could never bring 
Cadolaus to abdicate the papacy 6 . 

$ .<>. This contest was a trifle, compared with those dil 
conflicts which Qftgery VI 1., the Bnoooaaor nufer, and 

former name was IliUkLrniid, produced, and leapt up to 
the end of his Ufe. He was a Tuscan by birth, of obscure 
parentage, once a monk of Olngni, then archdeacon of the 
church of Rome, ami for a long time, even from the reign of 
Leo IX., he bad governed the pontiffs by his counsels and in- 
fluence ; when, in the year 1073, and during the very obse- 
i piics of At>!S(iiufn\ be was hailed pontiff, bj the OOQOCffdAot 
suffrages indeed of the Banana, but contrary to the mode of 
eding I .-njoined by the decree of Nioolout. W lien the 
"ii was laid before Bewy IV., king of the Bomans, by 

t lie ambassadors from Rome, he gave it his approbation; but 
: ly to his own injury, and to the detriment botfa of thfi 

•li and the poblio'i I or Mildebramd being ele?a£i 

choir of St. I\t'f. — a man of extraordinary abilities, and com- 
i t to the greatest undertakings, intrepid, sagacious, and 

full of resources, but beyond measure proud, pcrtiuacinus. iin- 
petuooa, untraceable, and destitute of true religious principle 
And p»'ty, — he being elevated. I say. to the highest post in the 
christian commonwealth. Inbound during his whole life to 
enlarge the jurisdiction, and augment the opulence of the see 
of Rome, to subject the whole church to the sole will ami 
power of the pontiff to exempt all clergymen, and all church 

m. ii. 

p, 106. Jo. J no. Maacoviua, </< llrlma 

w*l> II lil'. i. |>. ~. 

ii. p, SSft, A.-, Muratori, A*n»ili 

14, A <•. 
' The yni i life 

and »chii v« nimii i<f ( , I. arv 

; firm. 

Ion. ii. p. 197, .^'- Bui apt 

■liauld be consult' il the *{<■*■* »S i 

torn. t. .Muii, ail il. .\xv. p. 568. Ml 
M.-il>iil<'ii, Adm ■''<!. bawd. 

pi, ii. |>. 4<x.. 

DMT, F'ranci 1 T 1 • * •»©. and all thooo 
who havo written tin- bJtfOty ol 
contest bet wee i. I and the 

ecclcaiaMical power*, and of the con- 
troversy reKpectinn fori 
Gtrgur, VJ/., np<i * /'««>• 
b} I Voigt, WriiiuU*, WIS. 



: TRY XI. 

| !• \HT U. 

property, wholly from the jurisdiction of kings and princes, 
and to render all kingdoms tributary to St. Peter. 13m extra- 
vagance of his vi«'\\s, and the vastness of his plans, an 
coverablo in imted propositions, which from his name are 
called tin of HihUbrand*. 

• By thp IKetatn, or, m some write 

it, Ihe /'i flCola .,r Jlit.lrbntmi, an- tn be 

Dndoateod hranty-slx short proposi- 

ni supreme pnu of 

ili.' Roman pontiff*, imt the whole 
church and over states ; which are 
found in the- second book of tb>- 
tie* of '- li. inserted between 

■• I 
rUrdirin'i Cbaotfia, torn. vi. pt. i. p. 
1304. anil nearly all th* Eccle»ia>tieal 
lli-t. orsmall. Ores. Baro- 

ii i » i— . an I Christian Lupus, (whose full 
i '.Momentary on these Dictate, which 
In- considers most sacred, is anioi. 
Notes and Dissertations on the Conn- 
On. torn, v. p. KM.) and m 
all the patrons and friendsof the Roman 
pontiffs, maintain, that these Dictate* 
IMn drawn up and ratified, | •crimps 
in some council, by Oman VII. him- 
self: and therefore tin- Protestants 
hesitated to ascribe them lo 
llildelmind. But tin.- \ ery learned 
French writers, Jo. Launoy (Ej>utolar. 
i. Bp, \iii. in hi v. pt. 

ii. p. 900.}, N.tali- Alexander (//uteris 
Ecfte. siecul. xi. vii. torn. vi. «l 
p. 71!).), \iitonynnd Francis Pagi (tin- 

' his t'ritica is SoTM 
latter in hi • Pontif. Roman. 

ii. p. 749 ;. Ml do 1'in, 

and main others, BWaJoWrij BOttftflnd, 
that tln-i 

were palmed upon II iM'l.i-.uid 'ysome 
erufis flatterer of Uie Romish see. 
And to prove this, they allege that 
although some of Utoni eentencea ex- 

prvss very well tin- views of tin- pontiff, 
yet there are others among them which 
are clearly repugnant to his opinions, 
as exprc>- The 

French bars tin ir reasons (which 

■ detailed) l*..r not admitting 
that any pontiff ever spoke so arro- 
gantly and loftily of his own power and 
authority. I can readily concede, that 
so far as respects the form and arrange - 
mcnl of these ZHctatr*, they arc not tin 
work of Gregory. For tiny an 

of all order and connexion ; and many 
of them also of clearness and p I 

I 'lit Gregory, who was a man 
of no ordinary genius if he had at- 
tempted to draw up and «hat 
he conceived to be the prera 

i, would hi -*ed, 

with neatness and perspicuity, what 
d revolved in hi* own mind. Hut 
the wtaltcr of these Dictate i- 
edly Hildcbrand'a ; for tl - 
part of them ar rt in 

nearly ihe same terms, heat and there 
in his epistles. Ami those which 
to deviate fmm some assertions :i 
■pistil s may, without much difficulty, 
be recorieilid with them. It d proba- 
ble, therefore, that some | 

locted these sentences out of his epis- 
tle*, partly the printed ones, and partly 
such as are lost or unknown, and per- 
hajm likewise from his oral declara- 
tions ; and then published 1 1 
out judgment and without arr. 
inent. — [The following are the prin- 
cipal propositions which compose these 
Vitiate. I. * Thai th 

W.'lS foUll.t- 'i le, '•ill l.'Til . : !-.»..-. I I 

That the Roman pontiff alone >•* justly 
umirrrtat. III. That he alone 
can depose hi»ho|is and restore tl 

IV. That his Ii gate hi 

all bishops in a council, though lie be 
of an inferior order ; and can issue 
sentence of 'otn. 

V. That the [vope can depose absent 
persons. VI. That no person, among 
other things, may live under the same 
roof with one excommuniear 

pope. VII. Thai the pope ■lone is 
all r 'pure, 
to enact new laws, to gather new con- 
gregations, — to drrido ru-h bishoprics, 
and to unite poor ones. VIII. That 
ho alone can use tin- imperial in-' 
IX. That all princes should Idas his 
feet only.— XI 1. That it is law!, 
him to depose emperors, — XVI. That 
no council, without his order, is I 
accounted a general council. — XV 1 1 1 

n] CBUICfl ornrKits and covbrnmknt. 

§ 10. Nearly the whole form of the Latin ehureh. then 
was ofaaqged by this pontic Mid the most valnahU- rights of 
councils, of bwlu w w , and of religious BOCaeti -uhvertetl, 

ami Imuafucrod ore* t<» the Roman pontiff. The evil, how. 

DOi equally grievous throughout t In- I ••mntries of Ihirope; 
for in several of them, through the mfluSlUM of ditVeivnt e: I 
some shadow of pristine liberty ami oaatomfl mi pfSSi 
HUdebramdy as he introduced a nrw rode of ecclesiastical law, 
would also have mtmdiieed a new rode of civil law, if In- pi mid 
have accomplished fully h]0 designs. For he wished to reduce 
all Idngdoma into fiefs of 8t, l'<!-/\ i. B, Of the Roman |»o[»tifls ; 
and to subject all causes Of ldngl and princes, and the interests 
of the whole world, to the arbitrament of an MHfjmllljf of 
bishops, who should meet annually at Home'. But neither he 

That h» sentence is not to bo rev 
bv anv one ; while he alone can r 
the decisions of all others. X 1 X. That 
he can be judged by no out, \X. 

That DO "!■<• DMT |in i 
a jHTwm wlii) appeals to till sp- 
are. XXI. That the greater causes 

;l lip 

XXII. That the Kotuish 

Md ; nor will it, nc- 

• urea, ever err. — 

XXIV. That with ha -jecta 

db]. — 

1 <>ne is to be accounted 

a ratlmlic who does not ham- 

with Om Rnmiah church. WWII. 


ih-ir allowance to unrighteous ru I 

•ncltia, tarn. vi. 
j.. 13*11, A. e. 7V.1 

' P Ms most audacious de- 

which arc above nil • 

- 1 collected by learned 
man ; and still more may I 

(f, and 
from oth«M <>tooument*. En 

hia Epiat. lib. 1481.(1 

use, all along, the edition of Hunluin, 
Gnkv prescribes 

this form of an oath, to bv taken by 
future king* of the Romans or «-m- 

i thin hour 
will bo fair 
to the apostle Pater, and to bis 

•ry— and whatever tin amid 
pope shall command mo, DOdaf §m 
vol.. n. 

following form : l>y tnu pbedienct (per 
veram ftbmHfmtJa n), I will observe' 

fidelity. .\ 
shall first law him, I will, with m 
bund'-, make myself a aaaw l (*n\l*t) 

r and him." What i:- 
but %femU\l<*uh fJhfmtnj, a* the j a 
call H 


1 nil their fivil power from the 

- II known. 

And yet Gi d, that the 

WM liil.iit.iry lo 

ui«« ; and b 
his ambassador- i in annual 

contribution or « 

. iii. . ].. ■wiii. p. I 178. " V<-u 

must declare to all the Francs, and 
command tlum, by truo 
that ■ ' iillv, 

at least one denariu- 

recognhw him an their fnUior and 

ahepherd aeoarding to ancicut custom. 

mi mberedi that the 

phrase, I'tf Iruf o/w./iVntv, hero ured, 
■», as those versed in antiquities 
now, that tin- injunctions and 

commands to which it was annexed 

were I I. Hut in 

vain a v luy UUfl 

r\ rvmlr.for be n 
least tribute from tlnm." In the 
same epistle he vainly assorts, that 
iv was mJi<j'<A tin- RonuBhofattrohj 
■ irlcmagnc had up 
to St. I' ■ ■■ . Il< addresses 


BOOK 111.- 


nor his successors could ftdlv accomplish this arduous design ; 
on account. < sju'rinllv, of fee viijihuiri' and firmness of the em- 
param, and of the kin^H of France and England. 

I . thl) I mi the 

lanner : (lib. vii. pp. xx. p. 
l-Mio". ) '• Strive to tin- utmost to make 
i. a. ill-- pontiff, St. r 

are your kingdom and your soul, and 

to hind and to low 
both hi heaven ami on earth. " He 
endeavoured to instil the same | 
riplcs into tlie Spaniards as into Qm 
French, lib. x. ep. vii. ** that the king- 
dom of Spain an I iaaa, 
Hie property of St l'« iter— and ri 

• • Apostolic 
see." Lii. i SO. wvii.. where 

■ 'St earnestly inculcates the same 
doetriot upon the S|«aniard*, ho lias 
to acknowledge, that the record of this 
important transaction was worn out 
and lost. Vet with the Spaniards he 
was rather more successful than with 

the Freneh. Po* Peter ile Marca, in 
his HiMoirt dt Bmm y lib. fab p. 331, 
332, proves from ancient 
that the Li. i uhard 

count of Ucealva, promised and paid 
an annual tax to our (.re gory. And 
it mi^ht bs shown, if there was room 
for it, tliat other Spanish princes did 
the aaxne. William the fotnpirror, a 
king of enlarged views, and a most 
watchful guardian of , when 

Owe i 1 1 him to pay St. Peters 

dtML-1 1 

bis kingdom a |i 

with spirit : '" Hubert your legate Ii;ih 
admonished me to do fealty to you and 
successors, and to be more care- 
ful to send the mouey which in 
decesaors were accustom. >1 to remit to 
the RomiMh church. One of these I 
accede to, the other I .1-. not- Fealty 
1 have not done, nor will 1 do it. The 
money, nil -hall bo opj*tr- 

tunity, shall he JUimililll ll " The 
letter of king William is- in St. ph. 
Baluae, AfieasUaaea, torn. vii. p. 127. 
With this answer Ijwgory had to be 
contented ; fur, though he might fear 
no other, he stood in fear of William. 
To Genoa, king of Hungary, he a 
lih. ii. ap. tat. p. 131fi. tliu's : " It can- 
not be unknown, we think, to your 

. as, that the kingdom of Hungary 
pi rty of tlie apostle P- 1 
(He had before, lib. ii. ep. \i»i. p. I 
writt- ■ ■' Hungary, 

claiming tliat kingdom by virtu.- of an 
absolute "iirrvii'i 
consequence of an aeknowl. I 

Hi i eaaperoz Heurj 1 1 . air. r •■•"> pM | 
ing it, that Si Pate*. 

And as Solomon had dona bomfj 

if. to the kin ^ of the Teutonic. Gregorj 
now th th the Ins* ii 

kingdom unless he shall a< 
the Pope, and bin lieco 

//*.] He laboured most zeal 

iny in particular, under su 
tion or fealty to St. Peter. Henee, 
in Ub. tx. ep. iii. p. 1480, he sir. 
exhorts thi off Padua to 

suade W 'el|iho, duke of Bavaria, and 
the other (iennan chiefs, by all the 
means in lot power, 
territories .lib. 

p, 1480. '• tave 

{•ou admonish Duke Welpho, b 
.r. — l"i.r we v. 

fbvec ban wholly in the bosom ol 
'eter, and to draw him in a wperuil 
manner into Ma vassalage. If yoa 
shall find such a disposition in him. • >r 
in "ther men aj 

love of St. i r to bring them 

to do fealty." He approach 
king of IVnmarl I '.iOO. 

much flattery, to persuade I 
■ "intuit, with pious devoledneaa, 
hi* kingdom to tie 1 pri Apoe- 

ii. i i. dl. mi I, if it the 

bis authority." Whether he was more 
suecessful in Denmark than in 
land and France, 1 know not ; but in 

« his efforts certainly 
not fruitless, a son of Demetriua, 
king of the Rossiaus, (to whom he> 

Bed the lwiv. ep, Ikk.I; 
13lii. ) ■ mm lo Rome, ** and wished to 

pected to inherit from hi* father | 
gift from St. Peter through the hand* 
of Gregory, paying rfW /<• 
Pder, the Pnmee of Apod* 

« ii. n.] • iirnrii officers avd covebnmi:\t. 

§ 11. firfpory was more successful, in extending the territo- 
ries of the Koinish church in Italy, or c ■■■,. bfae patrimony 
of St. Peter* I'oi In penuaded Matilda^ the daughter of 
Boniface, the very opulent fluke and marquis of Tuseany. who 
was a very powerful Italian prhtoeii and with whom he was on 
terms of peculiar intimacy, after the death of her first hiisband 
Godfrey the Hump-kicked, duke of Lorrain, and of In 

>, in the year 1076 or 1077, to ml lnm-h of 

Rome heir to all her estates, Ixith in Italy and out of it. A 
second m&rriagV of this very heroic and prosperous lady, in the 
year 1089, with Wdf [or Gwlph] the son of W V. Ii 
Bavaria, ooiitimeted with Hie oonaent of th m pontiff 

smed to prejudice this donation. Hut being re- 
pudiated h\ her luiKhand, in the war 1 (»!>">, and thus | 
made free and independent. JTaJtiftfa, in the year ll<>2. form- 
ally renewed tin- donation '. The pontiffs, indeed, had to 

port of which lang\iage will be quite 
intelligible from what has been said. 
Gregory granted his " oVtovi //roycr," 
being certainly not backward t<> 
form such offices, and ■ in In-half of 
Bt l'« ter, committed the i»ovi rument 
oJ ilu lin^" to the Russian ■ 

. minutmcd Suiiiimcr, aaJM 
of Grnatia anil Dal mat in, waa em 
a king by Gregory in the year l"7»;, 
and was solemnly inaugurated at Sa- 
lon* by the Pontiff- ■ the 

Km lliat ho aboaH annually pay 
Peter, on Easter day, a it 

I hundred golden Byxantinen. (a 
Qraafan golden coin, of from ta 
three to twenty-four Carats. 
See Da Mont' 

lam. i. pt. i. lie. fill. |». Kl. Jo. Lin-ius, 
A* n*mr> Dalmatur, lit., ii. p. B8. Dp 
In this tine . ore of 

Constantinople h«-ld tin* sovereignty 

bias 11., fen nd, having ' 

StanialauM, bishop "f Cracow, Gn 
not only excouumiiiiott'-d him, 

il him of h 
and not contented with this eeri 
he, by a special mandate, forbade the 
Poliah bishop* to crown am 0M kfag 
of Poland without hnu ebtafeu»{ 
consent of the Koiimu pontiff. I Hu 

C, IliMornt PoIoh. torn. L p. 206. 
I desist.- If Gregory's uuecexa 
had equalled his wishes and his pur- 

Iwse, all Europe would at *lii« day 
lave bona one great empire >>t >i. 
Pen r. or txJboiarj to Ilu lt»nuui pon- 
tiffs; and all I I lords or 

rascals of St. Potcr. Put Gregory 
did ii<>'. utterly fail in his attempts. 
hw time onward, the state 
of th> i.urope was changed; 

and many of the rights and prerog 
of emperors and kings wen.- titlur 
abridged or aiiuuuYil. those 

annulled wan the right of the i mperox 
to ratify tho election of a pontiff, which 
became extinct in Gregory, and could 
never after b 

1 Tin- lift- and arhievemenla of iliin 
extraordinary priaaaM {than \ 

8m Roman chun*li had ii" atraaga* pat- 

warkagainsttlu-.iii|»-n-i>.unil Gregory 
V 1 1 . ibodfant daughter) are 

descr I nin. 

Uy Fran. Maria 
I i •aaawaat of th* 
Cbnnttm M lian ; 

and bl il //urfarvi 

Ma»tui'>u P<«lilin>nfHiif, which was 
found 'cra- 

phiee of her, one by Doniso, and another 
anonymous, are given 




Dtor severe contests, first with the BPa p gOT ///-/•// V.. 

and then with others, respecting this splendid mhnritiiirifi ; nor 
were they so fortunate at last as to secure tin- whole "f it t<> 
St Peter; yet, after various struggles and hazards. I 
seeded in obtaining no small share of it, which they bold to 
this day \ 

$ 12. The design of Gnpoiy VII. to raise the church about 

all human authority, and to render it jK*rfectly free and inde- 
I- ii. I<nt, was olistmcted especially hy those two capital 
of the Phirapfan filnrtrj and simony. T! 

jxmtiHs, from the times of Suphvn IX., had comhatcd. with 

liam von L< "limit/., in his S>-riptom 
Br*,. oat i. |>. C>20, See. and 

\luratori, in bie£ 

»r. Uira. v. p. 33f>,&c. 

uith notes; and also the formula of 

I donation, mentioned 1 1 
Wall worth perusing, also, arc 1 1 ■ - 

marks concern iny this woman of so 
masculine landing, • 

are found in the f>ri<fin*t (ruv/pAuvr, 
torn. 1. lib. iii. Cftf ami 

■■\. Iii». vL cap. iii. pi :mkj. dfcCi 
when also is an aeeouo 

husband MV//*. f Matilda died in 1115, 
> 19. Me'hillan, /f nmtl. Rrmed. torn. 

1 line distinguished men infer from 
tin* terms of the conveyance, thi 
tilda gave to tin dim 8 onlj 

•Uodial possession.-, end not the 
MRitoefae which sdie held BJ frf* <>/ 
tkt <• DOttae, tliat she 

did i in thr donation the 

marqui<*tc of Tuscany, and the duchy 
of Sj. she says : ■ Ege M;i 

lliildis — dedi ft obtoli ecclesue S. Petri 
— omnia bona mca jnn //ropriftarw, 
tain • ; i:tliii> r-.tin. gVM 

qu/e in anu-a acquisitura erara, sive 
jure surcessionis, sive alio quoin 
jure ad me pen 

S'. i. lih. iii. p. I I!. 
ut I doubt, whether this w so clear 
that it murt be admitted without 
tot ton /(trio, 

from which learned m . that 

Matilda B only what 

•lie vvmemed jmrt juvprktn, 
allodial posses s ions, manifestly refer, 
or I am greatly mistaken, u-i to Be 
possession by the owner, but to tho 

mode of the gift ; and aiv to l>. 

st rued with the and oAfs/t. 

Tho prineeei does not say : ** I lure 

£ ill the estates which / jxmtm and 
i 'prittorio ;" whii 
said, wo muBt have aeeeded to Uie 
opinion of the learned gcntlcim D j hut 
she says, * 1 have <jir<n all my estates 
t<> tin i. a. 

it is my *ill thel UU rhm 
po ss e on all my estates, jurcvn-pn 
as their reel BetMOBj 1 1 s- - 

••■ instruc- 
tion of tlio learned gentlemen. Had 
Matilda intended to include only what 
she possessed, jm/t allodilj she OOldd 

not have said, as she does say : " whe- 
tber belonging to me, 
Imillilioe, or (oflo quocunipu jurr) l/y 
H«jr dhrr riyht «rA«ienrr." CertumN, 
■ht i Aw-Iudvs iii> Kjiedes of posse*- 
but by Bfline thw very eompreh' • 
language embraces all. Pntutihly, Mime 
ono, however, may object ami say: The 
church of Rome m vi -r c ont en ded tliat 
the / which Matilda 

possessed, were included in thil 

■'•'WW possession*. I am 
sure that such was the fact : many 
roes' ' - the 

*1h wished to s. con to their church 
nil tho estates of Matilda. Hut allow 

be so, as I cannot now go into 

iijuiry, that fact will not disprove 
what I contend for. Our enquiry is 
not I to were the Roman 


h d to than by Matilda, but 
what i* the import eflha words need 
in flu )>equest. 



zeal, hut without much success, on account of thfir inv. t» rarv. 
these DMUferoofl funs* Q rs p oty, therefore, in the secoml 

* MonMroiu rices, we may justly call 

For although no holiest man 

will drny, thai in hnntilUj dOWB these 

<-ry violated not < -nl> kin 

principles of religion, out nl«n those 

of naturul justice and equity, and com- 

d deeds without number, 
were must incompatible with th 
! be professed to cm-stain ; 
be acknowledged, that evils of no 
•light magnitude BBMH 

m to tin church 
il was 

noccmary that restraint should be hid 
upon th. in. Wry many among 1 1 , . 
married clergy were pious ami up. 
men. ought to 

spared. Hut there were also, in all 
parte of Europe, a vast at 
only of priests and canon*, but 
wise of monk*., implicated in illicit 
auumr*; wlm 1 under 

'uiue of wives, which they dis- 
missed at their pleasure, substituting 
hers, and often a plural' 
who In 
rty of thf churches and colleges 
•hasa tin- v Bern ll up 

among their spuriou and 

conn i insufferable • uVucea. 

How extensive the crime of timony 
1 becom- , in this am-, ami what DOS 
ucious effects it prodooajd srv] 
rill be ma 1 1 

•hloU Ihl Heni.-dict ine monks hr. I 
aenpeieed in various parte of their 
Chriifimot. I will give a few 
nen«. In th. ii of this 

xccllent e rum. p. 6. 

we have the document by which Ber- 
nard, a viscount, and Froterms, a 
e, or rather openly 
Aimar and to his MB the 
pric of Alby, reserving to I 
selves a large part of it* 

utiiodiat. 1\ alt. r. follows a wt , 
<if Pauline, a amort, in which be be- 
aueaths U> 
All.y, [and moid 

ric, and an abba* ; t n of 

which, ll bn hath, wan to belong to 

d): "Ego I'ontii..- 
dilectu.- ttponstp mew episcopatuni VI 
n — cum ipsa coeleeia et 
adjacentia sua— ct medictatem 

-copatu Neniauao — et i 
de Ahhatia S. J2gidif>— po 
tiiiim re-ma ad infantes 

qui di > ronfl." Similar and 

( viii wotM bnrtaaoai are stated, p. -24. 
37. an ••• In vol, ii 

Ma, p. 178, letter 

of the clergy of Limoges, in * 
humbly entreat William, count of Aqui- 
tain, that bfl would not soli I : 

a pastor, 

In Bock]: " K" 

pietai Ipter niuii'i 

3tephani locum; quia -i feu 
Bp i aeopalia, toes nostra mandu- 
— Mltte nobis a 

ii. p. 17'.'. flvdeOtt I Limoges, 

" bad hi 1 
sosHj sold the obane of aoula to 

abbots that purchased of him." In 
fact, it appears from author* and .1 

that the Bcentiouaneas of thia 1 

bujina and asllfaaj ->' 1 ' 

bounds and almoal all eredt 
hility. I will subjoin onh 

u I from Abbo's 
Phhovi rclctke RomiiHir, 

p.898,wlnoh is worth) of notice, as 
containing the argument by which the 
trader* in aacrea 

. their base conduct. "Tl 
seemstol. thfalg apj-ertain- 

baj to tin: shorca wbJeh i*- not put 


■uric* also, dean 1 
baptisteries." — " 

are accustomed to oflar dm running 
■ they do not buy bV iJtmng f 
by awah the grace of rii. H0I3 

th>- avaawfy <it" the 
church, or the /."wmkiwot th- Inanrnj" 

ae emcre bemtdietvmeu*, qua . 
ripitnr gratia >piritus Saudi, sed rot 
ecclesiarum, vol pomestiona epia 

Glabei v. « an. v 

of this century: " \l -tical 

office* were at that time as much ac- 
count! .1 tli hleuaa mcrehnu- 
bina common niarkcl." NA'.J 




of his taiga, Off a.d. 1074, attacked them with increased energy 
and firmness ; for, in a council held at Rome, he renewed all 
the laws of the fornu w pootatt against rimony, severely forbid- 
ding <'lesiastical benefices; and enacted, that no 
priests should henceforth marry, and tliat such as now had 
» it her wives or concubines, should relinquish either them or the 
sacred office. After these enactments, he wrote letter* to all 
•s. reqabiag them to obey these decrees, on ]>ain of in- 
curring severe punishments ; and also sent ainltassadi m int. > 
Germany, ta Heitry IV., king of the Romans, demanding of 
him a council, for trying the causes of those especially \%ho 
i with in many. 
$13. Both these decrees appeared very proper, salutary, 
ami accordant with the priiK-ijiles of the rebgion of the age; 
for it mo then maintained, that priests should be «/ 
that th<\ /.-. Vet both gave rise to the 
lamentable contentions, and t" very gnats calamity's. When 
the • reapeuliug oeKbaoy was proinulged, horrible 
tumults were ex.-iteil in most of the flUWUffi ffl <>t* Kumpe, by 
priests who were connected with either lawful wi\ 
■i bines 4 : many <>f whom, especially in the Italian pro 

* The liutorK* of ' 
full of the ruinnuitioiw aa cited l>y those 
priests who lisd i itli.-r nim 'ireon- 
ctilrtnt*. For an an-mint at Oif inyiir- 

ii» among tin- ' lermau priests, 


I'. o57. and Seb. Tengiu 

iff. Manumcnlvr. \: 4.".. -47- 

L and tin- oth.-r nil 
man history. [Two council* m ludd 
in Germany, oue at Krfurth, Mid 

at Mayeuce, in which (In- papal 
decree against the marriage of prkwts 
wa« mad** i ih iiii.uili.t 

were excited ; and the adherents of 

Ihi- I*!!*- MN in jMi|>:inU of 
lives, especial!} the ahp. of Ma; 
|u»l legate tlw hp. of i 
• rrnuvn slsrgy «aid, " tlu-y w.nild 
priesthood than |>art 
1 t huu who ile- 
•niasa aww, ass whence he can procure 
sao* for lbs churche*." Se« T 
ansa, ia lltrtm. itirmmj. and Lambert 
<>d aim. 1074. 
■ -I FfcsJM, when tin- pa|ml pro- 

hibition waj published, said to their 
bp. A .iin.iiiii, u Thai the} ii'ith, r could 

nor would abandon \\.. . . lm-h 

it was dear they had followed from 
ancient tiim-a, under alt 
bishops." bradL 

in on assembly at Paris, that th« y would 
not suffer th»» fvope'a iiwup|Nirtab|r 
to be bud upon i 

1 1. 6. Sckl.] — Of 
tin- ananoanB ■ England, William 

of l'arin tMatt, JiiMor. 3/ii/ur, 1)1 . 
7 . 1 or those in the Netherlands and 
r'ruuco, see the epistles of the elomr 
of t'aiuhmy to tlswe of Ui m 
l»eholf of tlieir wires, in Jo. Mabillon's 
An mil. BauH'trt. turn. v. p. \YM. and 

"U to 

• <fCambray,in llabUhmVJfaSMHi 
Italicutit. loin. L p. IS* How grrwt s 
commotion this thing produced in Italy, 
and eapeeially among the Milanese, is 
fully stai- d ' . *nd 

ulf, Uatorie \t*nt 

with ntaa iu M uraturia i&riftorw 
Renin* tln&\ inm, w. p. M % &c. Koch 



gf \l;l;in. mn willing rather to tvlini|nisli tin- priesthood, than 

to part with I BB: ami. accordingly, they seceded from 

hureh of and they branded the pontiff ami hi* 

adherents, who oondemoad the aiMTiiairi i»f priests, with the 
odious appellation of / Bh M anichteans \ The impar- 

tial, however, though they wished priests t-> lead single lives, 

blamed Giraory for two things : />*/, that he fell indiscrimi- 
ni the virtuous ami the profligate, with etuis! seve- 
rity ; and dissolved the most honourable marriages, to the 
great disgrace, and hazard and grief, of husbands, wives, and 
children*: and aecondly, that he did not correct the married 

of these historians favour* the marriage 
of priaata, in op] 1 1 regory and 

4 Pati rini was ono of the names by 
which tin Paulidaufl or Manii-hteans 
nated in Italy, («ln» are well 
know 1 fnim llul 

tn Italy in thin age,) and who ww 
same a* wan >d fathari. In 

proi ■ --...i tin iin- tx ounc the twnapow 
appellation of all hor al fca ; a* nrighl 
easily be shown by mans 
from writer* of I h and thir- 

N are uiuuy opinions, 
I In.- rn<«t probable of whieh is, that 
whirli daffVM it frOIB a n-rtain }Jaoe t 
called Patnria, wliTe tl held 

their rneeti of the city 

"I Mi! -n h -ml • lllgai i 

• •• the notes 
u* Mediolan. in Mail 
Srrij torn. iv. 

Saxm* ad Sigonimn, .fa Rtgmo I 

Opp, Bfgou. torn. ii. p. 088. An 
bapa origi- 
nating frwtn SignuiuM, that thin name 
wan piv.-n «t Milan to those priests 
who retained their wive* contrary to 
the decrees d i ■ .■ p iSflfl ■, ;ml who 

a the Romish dranh 
it appssxi bus 

that it was not tha 

Mat theso priests gave that 

h, to 

utifJ* a* disnp- 

• l.-rgymrn. 

roofi <il thai 

ri/ irti in risW. ftrmm. 

torn. iv. ad ann. lOftB. § iii. ami I.u-1. 
Ant. Man 

-♦Vri, torn. ▼. p. 02. Nor need we look 
farther for the origin of this term sf 
reproach. For the Manieha-ans, and 
tli« ir bfOlhj EBj the Paulu 
opposed tn BUUTiagS : wlijrli tin-. 
araercd a* an institution of th- 

: and, thirafbre, such as held 
the marriage of priests to be lawful 

Paterini to na, and tli<ir ad- 

berents,* hnprohihin .1 Mirh marriage*, 
would repi 
opini-n- of tlte Maniclucana. 

• For there waa a vaat difference! 

among those prisstl «li" were more 

attached to their women, 4 

decrcea of the pontiffs ; all of them 

. by no means, equally censurable. 

•■ttcr sort of them, among whom 

those of Milan stood conspicuous, also 

thoqe of the Netherlands, ami some 

oCbata, only wished bo Bvs according 

tn the laws of the G urch ; 

maintaining, that it should be allowed 

to a priest before hi" ordinatioa, to 

marry one wife, a iM more. 

And they lupporlad their opinions by 

See -Jo. 

bnmut i7«w no MttiuJan. prrmi*rit t 
ut Virgin* *•»»</ wn/xr* ponmt j re- 
published in Miirator 

ir. torn. iv. p. 223, &o. With 
this class of priests, Gregory and the 
nan pontiff* <mf»lit, as some 
advocates of th.- 
aervoa acknowledged, «>> I 
more iIirii t" dMM 

claimed the right «if marrying many 




oi6fgy With moderation, and witli only ecclesiastical penal I 
but il them over to the civil magistrates, to 1m- prose- 

cuti-d. ill •priv» d of their property, and subjected to indig 
and mflbriogi of various kinds 7 . 

$14-. This first conflict gradually subsided, in process of 
time through the firmness and perseverance of the pontiff: 
nor was there any one, among the European sovereigns 
posed to become the patron of clergymen's wives. But the 
conflict arising from the other law, (that be the suppression of 
simony,) was extremely difficult to be closed; and being pro- 
tracted through many years, it involved both the church and 
the state in wry great calamities and distress". Ihnry IV. 

wives, and those who advocate.! 
naWnajti Tin- cms. of flu moults also, 
wh«>«u vowa bound them t-i jiei 
ccliliacy, wtu* ffflj diti i that 

.•i | unwilling to be 

separated from their children and tin ir 
lawful wives, whom they had espoused 
with upright intentions. 

' T ■ Inn, FylMula ad 

in Msrtenea 77**iii- 

T%$A in. i. p. 808. " Ih. \ 

put a rentes! confusion, for 

lit uf a law 

for wsli ail 

U$f*n i . ) 

•• Ni.i • inii'i yoq -iip|H>!*o, that persona 
• >f these - 
forward WOi 

courage incontinence ,r nO'- 

i • lead 
I.I.iiii,-|i-ki livt-t.; luit i ! hare 

•>nly the nfti-iii/i'j <•/ tccUnad'w 
ron, aa is proper. In Id out to them," 
rj QtUUn oportet, ecrJwuticw 
uitiomu (Yn*ticiim iutcntari gaudent.) 
' We have niimi thus historic?- I 

ancient Slnl modern, of this I: 

COM teat about i*c<*iitur(s, which was 

so calamilouw to u large part of Eui 

and which Iwing coin 

gory VII., waA carried on by him and 

tiffs, on th. 
I«art. and bt th- Henry IV. 

and V. mi th, other, i' any 

of tint*.- hirttor i.-ly inipar- 

tial, For all the writaas ospotis 

i the 
■rors ; and I con- 

troversy, not (as in my opinion 
1 ' il",) by the lawa then in I 

and according to the prin 

universally admitted, but a- 

a sapposed system of laws, an i 

m of 'lu pr esent if* Ihe prin- 

.uH-ii-nt writers, on 

rv. an eoOectad by the i 

Jesuit Jae. lin-t/ir, in his /^ixio^iu 
jiro Greyvrio VII. which way publ 
separately, and also in 
vi. Those who defend Henry IV., arc 
' hrHurtne. in hb» 

/ V Bauer. L61 1 
Of the moderns, besides the < 
(orai MtMtMwnjcnxs, Boroniue, the 
writer* of Germanic and Italian fajh> 

and the biograp 
the reader may eonaii 1 1 

• 'rtict Otnttui I.- r, HI. 
iv. p. 4«1, fee. Christ. 'I'liomashis, 

• ,i/« xtiini* it* «t 

Saceniotiam . Henr. Meibomin 
Jnr, ImtKtittn • /■'ucvjxtlUf in 

Just. < in . I > thuiar, llutorui IUU 
Iimj/crimt ■' ■■»!, p'rauef. 171 1 

8vo. and others. Superior to all these 
in learoiiuEi •* Henry Nea 
/■for neila 

Ifco/eekuCiafcr, which was published 
after the death of thin great man, 
MiiutuM, 17 ll. fol. It Lh a very learned 
work, but unfinished, and defer I 
and, what i* not surprising in a fi 

toward* the nd ternaries of th 
or ih> omj crura With edrai 



received indeed Hit locates of the pontiff* in a jrracious maimer. 
and he commended the pontiffa dengn "f putting .in and to 
simony. Hut neither be, nor th«- German bJahope, would grant 
leave -.(ates to assemble a council in (irrmany, for the 

purpose of trying those who wore •riiilty of simony. The next 
year, then-fore. a. d. 1075, in a new council at Bonn 
proceeded still further; for. in the first place, hi 
eate.l .some of the favourites of king Hcmy, whose advice and 
assistance he Waaaaid t<> have used in the sale of banafl 
and likewise certain bishops of Germany and Italy: and in the 

place be d 'iced, that. " whoever should confer a bishopric 

or ahhacy, or should receive an investiture from tin- hands of Bay 
layman, should be excommunicated V For it had long been 
customary with the emperors, and kiie^s. and princes of Europe, 

to confer the larger benefices, and the government ofmr.naste- - 

ries, by the deliver) of a ring and a staff'. And as this formal 
inauguration of the bishops and abbots waa the main BUppoit, 
both of the power claimed by ItJngB and emperors to create 
they chose triehopfl and ahhots, ami &feo of the licentious 
sale of sac red Offlo > highest bidders, Off Of simony, the 

pontiff judged that the custom ought to be wholly extirpated 
and BoppreBBed ' 

oino, may be consulted, -I". Joe, Mas- 

cov'a Cvtnuunki, '••«* Imperii 

mieo IV. .t V. Lip*. 

• See Aut. Pagi, Oritiea in Zki/rmiwis, 

iv. ad nun. Wfi' Henr. Moris, 

), Slc. 

I l.HfM. .1 

' )|>|.. torn. m. p, :i!i, dtc 1 1 
1 1 must be allowed ban 
an in- 

irating bishops and abbots with 
tli- ring and fttaff ; because it is mis- 
understood by many, and not vrr\ in- 
othcrs. Among 
those la«t, I may place the dsj 
II. my M ari s , the author «f u //iatory 
ttitnrri, in Italian ; for in chap. 
iii. p. .jfi. where he treat--" ■' 

pro- B 

things in itttr than 

writer* do 
through th< ug, and he omits 

some circumBtanee* important to be 

known. H» imtettitur\ it»*.-lf of bishops 

and al ioubtcdly, c 

at the time when the emp*. i 

and princes of BoiOJW OQdfsrM 

tlu-m the ponwaiai an I a 

lories, forests, Hi -tics. For 

according to the lawn of those times, 

operate,) prirwi hiHinj territories. 

«\.e. |..v lav«.nr of the emperors snd 
sovereigns, were not considered I 
in 1- gal possession of them, until 
had repaired to urn fealty 

to the sovereign, and received from 
hand the token of tlie transfer and 
dominion of the property. Hut the 

of inaugurating or in reding 
bishop* and abb- and 

the ttttff or ci' 

u of thl M of 

■ lid til intnwlijr. d at the 
tbo omparcm and I 
subverting tin. free elections wl 


rmY xi. 

[part II. 

§15. But Henry was not dismayed at the decree of the 
pontiff. Hi- acknowledged, indeed, fat be had done wrong in 

Che ecclesiastical Uw required, as- 
sumed to themselves the power, not 
only of coi I it also of sel 

sacerdotal and abhatical office* at their 
pleasure. At first, the eiii|terora and 
kinar** handed over tu men of the sacred 
orders, the name tokens of transferred 
use and possession, an they <l 

ra, knights, counts, and others, 
who approached tin- throne as vassal a, 
tuunelv, written instruments, green 

. and other 
cardinal of the Homish chnroh, who 
wrote before the contest about m\ 
turcswasi gOTJ I II., in his 

: <r,-rrut SlmoHUir-f, cap. \i. 
(in Martin r.jimaedetor.tona. 

\ ",''•" i Bale " Tli.- secular authority 
favoured the ambitious, who c« 
ecclesiastical dignities and benefices, 
first by making request for them, Deal 
by threat*, and afterward* by formal 
grant* : and in all thin, finding i 
gainsaying them, non« d the 

* iirg. or opened U»e month and peeped, 
ded to w hat «u still greater; 
and now, under the nam* uf inrettUure 

oatv, Jtnt, n mri/trn inttrum- 

rlrtirrr nny $ort of ijrrrn tiriifg, and tMfl 

ttfirTu which horrid 

I as become so well esta- 

i '-:»1 w.iv, ami what the ecelesias- 
tieal rule flaw known nnr 

thought of." — And this custom of in- 
augurating or investin 

ion in tlie same manner, would 
dmbCkai liave contimn d unchanged, 
hail 0*4 Qm <-}'■'■■>./, who ha 
power and right of electing their 
bi-hops nud abbots, artfully tin 
the designs of the emperors and 
• thft, as soon a* their 
bishop or abbot was dead, trttl 
delay, and in to 'ted a suc- 

ewu r to liim, and caused him to be 
consecrated. And the consecration 
having tab ■fOfOff or 

prince, who had proposed to give or 
•ell that office to some one of hie 

'■», was now obliged to desi-i 
but purpose, and to eonfirm the person 
who was elected and consecrated. 
There is not ro Bff examples 

and proofs of this shrewd management 
of the canons and monks, by which 
they eluded <npe- 

rors and kings to sell or give away 
sacred offices. But many may be col- 
lected out of tin- records of the I 
century. For this reason, the sove- 
reigns, that they might net bee the 
power of conferring the sacred offices 
on whom they pleased, required the 
lice*, namely the staff 
and ring, ii < ease 

of a bishop to be transmitted to them. 
For according to ecclesiastical law, 
official power is conveyed by delivering 
tin Mat! and ring: so that, these being 
carried away, if the clergy should I 
any one for theii I not 

be consecrated in due form. And 
every election till it had bwu rat 
by consecration, could lie set :. 
without violation of ecclesiastical law ; 
nnr could a bi«b ■ < any 

episcopal function, till he was conse- 
crated. As soon therefore as any otto 
of the higher officers in the church 
died, the magistrate ol I hero 

he lived, or the pro- 

, seized upon his staff and 
uiHinitted them to court. I 
in hi- BbiIiiIKj (who 

lived in the court of Henri IV.) lib. i. 
i H, U. (in the Act* SiMrtor. Mauk 
JuJii, torn. i. p. 426.) as> 
after, the ling and the pastoral staff 
of the bishop of I ■ SK brought 

royal court. For st that pt 
the church had not free elections, 

but * I -hop was about 

to go the way of all the earth, prv- 

tbe commandant* of his city trans- 

I his ring and pastoral staff to 
the palace; and thu* uth<»- 

. itisultinc with his con 

he placed a eatable prelate over 

the bereaved people. After a few 

days, again the ring and pastoral Staff 
of the bishop of Bamberg were trans- 
mitted to our lord the emperor. Whirh 
being told abroad, many nobles 
flocked to the royal court, who endea- 
voured to ■ -idler 
by price oi ii." The em- 
peror <er king then deli tcn-d the riug 



selling sacred offices ; and he promised amendment : but he 
COUld by no means bfi induced to give up the power of appoint 

and staff to whom be pleased : after 
whirl), the pezsoo fhoi iimuguratcd 
and appointed bi a red to the 

«.j»oiiijuj, to whorn it be l onged t-> 
perlonn (he eooeeention, end -h-liver- 

59 OTBf to him the staff and ring 

■i-iperor, that he 

those insignia of 

■ .in (if banda of (he i i 

politau. Thus the nrw l 

abbots r i ring ana staff 

hrlect : lii -!. from the hand of the long 

or eiupcm: . 'In mctro- 

politaii I-. «fa0B l!'v | , r. eonse- 

lil». in 

Anec'lot. In, \. p. 77l>. M Being thus 
consecrated," (i. e. teaasVtf by the em- 
|m mr.) ■ |he intruder coin** upon the 
I , the people, the m 

il known by 

. vuight after, or asked fur. And 

to be 

. Aw*. 

•vliat docs it signify or profit, to 
etas up the stati i be 

■M they 
to him bi a lav muii ' 

it thai held, 

| be again sold under 
tin- Conn i : ; or 


tog subscribed to by the metro- 

I his suffrages ; or at least, 

tliat the eppeanaaeofa lay -ordinal inn 

may be conceal eame cloak 

and colour uf a clerical proceeding f" 

\\ !■ ,■ Ung at emperor first in 
duced this custom of appointing pre- 
» delivery of ih. staff and rim:, 

Bramcmus, (//rV. / -. 32. 

p. IS. fa Ufl ll nbrog'a 

■ .rrt S-pt*nlr'nm.) as early as toe 

itnry, Lewis the Meek eou- 

"■ right of 


ll livi ry of a staff »r 

shepherd's crook, lb 

Ail* ru dvacriiji'd the events DJ 

former centuries, in accordance with 

the oaatOBsl 1'ifliis own isa which was 

Mm eleventh century. Far in the ninth 

y, most emperors and kings 

suffrages of tin- rl»>rgy and people : so 
that IMJh an inauguration was th. n 
nnnecessary. See the remarks of Dan. 
i, against Adam Hreni. in 
the- Actn Stnctor. Febr. torn. i. p. .'...7. 
Huiuhert states, m 

nine, c vii. p. 7«0. and c. xi. p. 7B7.) 
that thin custom commenced iu the age 
of Otb ul ] am iiiiu-h 

inclined to opinion. At Last, the 
learned men who ham I ex- 

plicitly <m the origin of b 
have adduced nothing, which dissuades 


Thon—rin, Disstjasee /•>*/««* 
etroa lientf. torn. n. lih. ii. p. 434. and 
Natal. Alexander 

xii. dsm iv. p. 725. 

The same Humbert relate*, (I. a. cap. 

780.) that tin am p a wa ' Henry, 

tin- SOB of Conrad, (i. <-. Henry III. 

Btrrnamed Niger,] D abrogate 

, bul was pi- . 

: )>Ut tliat 
J., the king of Hi Ilea, threw 
trtry thing into confusion, and was 
1 ic< 1 ■hsoati; a-.: 1 

whom . Smnheri inveighs 

most v 

shops and abbots by dattvi 

ring and ML-iff, tln-rv wrtv two things 
espve iispleascd the Roman 

pantifla. 1 . it, the enrient 

privilege of electing bi ibbohl 

was entirely subverted, and the power 
of creating prelates w;, ■'.\>A\y 

hands of the kings an* I 

nt with t'" 

if that age,. Secondly, it 
wasextrcni' to tin. in. that 

the insignia of spiritual power, namely, 
the Stan and rin- 

of profane 
persons ; which seeim-d l<> 1 1 1 • m 

vlio wrote, 
as already stated, anterior to thi 
test between Gregory and H« wry, has 

complaint on this nil 
iii. C ua w u osBvaese, a, ri, p. 771* 
I will Hubjoin some of his language. 



r ii. 

inj^ bishops and abbots, and the investiture bo closely connected 

that power. Gregory, then-tore, well knowine; tliat many 

of the German prmees, especially those of Saxony, m alicii- 

frooa lli'mif, rleomod this a favourable opportunity bo < \ 

tend ami to establish hia authority ; and sending ambassadors 
to Goslar, he summoned the king to Rome, there to answer 
re a council to the charge it against him. The 

king, who was a high-minded prince, and of an anient tempera- 
ment, befog extremely indignant- at this mandate, immediately 
called a convention of German bishops at Worms; and then-. 
/•>/ of various crimes, pronounced him unworthy 
of the pontificate, and appointed a meeting for the election of 
a new pontiff*. Gregory, on the other hand, upon receiving 

" W hat business have laymen to dis- 
trihute the ecclesiastical sacraments, 
and episcopal or pastoral grace, that 
is, 11 staffs and riiii_* . 

which episcopal consecration is eepeef- 
nlly l >iid become valid, and 

lj >l<-pcndr ! For the 
\ nt*ff den toral care 

which is committed to tln-m j :m | 
ring i* miiIJhiihIIiiiI of th< 

they should exhibit the wisdom of Uod 
in a mystery, with the ■jDOatfo. Who- 
erer therefore presume to initiate any 
cme with these two, undoubtedly claim 
for tl i i'tii'ti. 

the whole pastoral autltority." And 
this reaauiiiug was certainly good* if 
not according to our views, at least 
according i Jisof tliat age : 

bf the staff ami the ring wen- viewed 
as the emblems of spiritual thing*, and 
rer conferred these emblems, was 
supposed to confer along with tin m 
itdsJ aulburitj sad pow 

ntjoos, it ■ : 

e«Sj to p' what it wa.s thnt in- 
iss ho reso- 
lutely the itmii •> bishops by 
means of the staff and ring. In 
th»- tllM v-. .uiii-i 1 at Rome, lie left the 
subject nf inrrttiture* . and 
•vlv Ui ibottdl dMM and 
reste-i i ut right of election to 
the societies of priests and in 
Nor had tl. | OMtfti who op- 
posed simony, aimed at any thing ■ 
Hut when he afterwards learned that 

the practice of i*ivrfi.*srvs was so 
closely connected with tie 
kiu^* and emperors to cuiih r the 
higher sacerdotal offices, and 
adjunct rimosy, that it could no' 
be separated tram thi-m, he DOW as- 
sailed that practice, that I 
pinch up tin- eril which he oppos 

the root. Thus we seethe tru 
of the contest between 
i:. Qr sfjoq 
inmtilurrj utuvcrsally, and ss such, 
hut only that species of investitures 
whieh was then practiced. Hi- did not 
object to the bishops and abbots swear- 
ing feulty to the king! aivl i 
and acknowledging t hcmscl v. -. their 
vassmbt and tenant- : nor did he I 
an tMcettiturv which should be made by 
an oral declaration or a written Ettt 
ment ; for this mode of in v. 

I ranee and 
England i nwihiTjl ul-o, hi allowed a 

■■•! in the tniii!-. I 

as Calistus II. afterwards * 1 1 ■ 1 . I tut 
; mte an hmotita 
rfafai "f ih. men 
less an inmtiturt previous to cunsvera- 

and least of all, an aawM 
sub vcrarre of the free election of bishops 
and abbots. 

» [The council of Worms was eom- 
pOMd of ■ '• very great numU I 
bishops and abbots" fnnn all pai I 
Germany. Unco, a displaced cardinal, 
appeared there, and painted the Ii! 
cliaracter of Gregory in the. blackest 
colour*. The whole assembly, with 



this sentence by the kincfs messengers an«I I iterdieted 

him from the OOmmiBUOn and throne, an 1 his subjects 

bom their oath of allegiance to him*. War being tliu 
clare<l on both Imreh as well as the state was rent 

into two factions, one patty taking sides with the Idllg, and the 
other with the pontiff; and the evils resulting from this sehism 

§ Hi. The first that revolted from Hoary were the chiefs of 
Swaliia, at the head of \slmm WM fowfoJfri, dnka ol Swahia. 
Next followed the Saxons, who had long l>ecn inimical to the 
king. Hoth were advisi d hy the pontiff, in case //< „r>/ would 
not 00 niply with the will of the ehurch, to elect a new king; 
and they assembled at 7V/W. in the year 1076, to deliberate 

on this von- import an t mbjoet. The nanH of tiie deliberation 
was, that the decision of the confcroveraj between the long and 
the princes should be referred to the Roman pontiff, who 
should be invited to attend the diet "I" An^biirj*. the ensuing 
Ebl that purpose; and that the king, during the inter- 
vening time, should lead a private life; yet with this condition 

anuexeil. that unless he obtained absolution from thft nnafihnma 

within the year, he was to lose the kingdom flia 
fore, with the ad\iee of his friend-, determined to go into 
Italy, and implore the clemency of tin* jM.ntiff. Hut flu- 
journey did not ■ him the advantage* he hoped for. 
He obtained, indeed, thongb with difficulty, from the pontiff. 
then residing at the castle of Canosa, with Jftitftfcfa, the jzreat 
patPOneaa of the elum-h, the pardon of his sins; after stand in i^. 

• >n of two hiahopa, Bubscrib- 
i eondanuntloOi Dm 


therefor. ■, oi.rn 1. 1 > 

and 1>;- tin 

descend ; quit tin* apostolic chair you 

havr invadcl ; lei :iiki|)ut a*r«-inl it, 

w1h» will |K>Mnt4> religion l-y no viol 

in* of 
St. Peter, We „'««• 

of Oud, kinu', with all 

pt. i. p. 1&63. TV.] 
* [Cirt'j.'' I - uuiuiiiratioii of 

■ • . "u» drawn up in tin- funn 
addr*e» to St. Pot«r ; stating what li. 

had decreed, and win. It m • 
them WtOtfa : " I lac ita-pie AdoCUl 
ftfUtlMj pro ■•o.l 

rte omnipotontin I '• i. 
PatrtH «<t Filii el Sp, Sanoti, pet tnana 

lilio HenrJd impi-ratnH*, <|ui 

■I -iaiu iu.iuilita hujmt- 
hia in*unv\it, totmi re^ni T.utooico- 
rum el Italia? gubernaculn a D 
dico : ut omnea Chriatianoe a vinculo 

juranu-nti, nod -ii»i been eel f;> 
absolve ; n ut DuDni ej aicut rem 

nerviat. int-nlico." S«« Hardiiin'* 
i, h.m. vi. { ,t. | />. | 




lor tliix*o days together, in 1 1 1 * * depth flf winter, in February. 
a. n. 1077) biW -foot pi I. and I ed. and meanly dad, 

within the wall of tin* castle, professing himself a jfcnitont. 
But the ponlilV deferred the discussion and decision of his 
right to the throne, till the convention of the princes should 
meet; and, in the mean time, wholly interdicted h is wearing 
the ornaments or exercising the functions of royalty. The 
Italian princes and bishops, [who had been JXimjft sup- 
porters,] w< rr must indignant at this convention or compro- 
mise; and threatened the king with a deposition, and with 

\iU ; m tiat /le*ry 7 soon after, violated the agree n 
and, contrary to the command of Gn//on/, resumed the regal 
• - 1 ■ - r which he liad laid aside. The prim i and 

Saxony, hearing of this, met in convention at Foreheim, in the 
month of March, .\. b. 1077, and by a unanimous vote elected 
duke of Swahin. king 4 . 
% 17* A violent war now commenced, both in (iermany ami 
Italy. In Italy. G \ith the forces of the Normans, who 

were sovereigns of lower Italy, and whom Kb had drawn 
t<> his party, and those of the famous Matilda, a very heroic 
ted not unsuccessfully the -nght 

for /I- /in/. In i renuany. Henry with his confederates en< 
tared JindJph and his associates, but not with good success, 
fearing the dubious issue of the war, wished to be 
DBted neutral for some years, lint, taking courage, j 
the unfortunate battle of II., in/ with the SaXOHS, at Kladcn- 
in the yar Inso. fcfl excommunicated fln'n/ a second 
time; and sending a erown to Rudolph, pronouneed Iiim the 
imate king of German} : . In revenge, //- orted 

by the suffrages of many of the tiennan and Italian HnJWlpil. 
atrain dejiosed Gregory, the same year, in a council at Ma\ 
ence; and a little after, in a convention at Brixen in the 

* The fcnri'iit and modern writers 

• if Italian iuirl Gorman history have 

gfWfl atnj>l«- relation- A aub- 

h not all ->f 

Kty mud ao 

oon»ulted the original writers, 

:in<l have followed those motet to be 

relied on : Siu'oimi", I'airi, Miiralori, 

M asoorius, Noris, and others ; whose 

i ■ in I in 

a. but agree- as to the main points. 

* [The golden crown which Gregory 

sent to 1 , had this memorable 

i ,t<dii PttfOf PttruB 

HMtvn Radml/*,. Tr.\ 



Tyrol, he treated the archbishop <>f Ravenna, supreme 

pontiff; who sulisequcntly took the name of Clement III. when 
bed nt Rome, ,\. d. 

§ IS. A few months after, J!>"/o//>/i. the emmy of //mry, 
died .it Merseburg, i'» consequence of a wound re OCired in 
battle at the river Elster. Therefore, the following year. 
1081, the king marched with his army into I tab, intendm;:. If 

le, to crush Gret/oty ami his adherents j for if 1 1 
subdued, he hoped the commotions m Germany might beeanfly 

quelled. He made several campaigns, with various mi. 

against the form of SfatHdt: twice he I B ra hi 

vain; but at length) in the- year 1084) lie became master of the 
gjconteet part of that city ; placed Gvibtrt, whom he liad made 
pontiff, in the ehair of St. Peter, with the title of VhtMWi III.; 
was by him crowned emperor, and Minted as men bv the 
Romans : and he now laid close irioge to the castle of St. An- 
gclu, in which lus enemy fliiaajio W— shut up. Bui /' 
tlie Norman duke of Oalabria and Apulia, delivered the pontiff 
IV. mi his siege; and as it was not safe for him to remain at 
Ibune, earned him with him to Salerno. And here it UBS, in 
the year following, that this high-minded man. who 
was so invincible, but who was the most ambitious and auda- 
cious of all the pontiffs that ever lived, terminated his ;l;i\s in 
BU 1086s The Romish church honours him among her 
saints and intercessors with (bid. though he was never en 
in that order by a regular canonization, t'.ni? V.. mar the 
commencement of the a I the 15th 

IMaj bo be hi-* festival*. Bat the so v ereig ns of Europe, 

i specially the emperor of (rcrmaiiy and the long of France, 
have prevented its being publicly and everywhere observed. 
And even in OUT times, [a. l». 172!),] there was a contest with 

Benedict XIII. respenting the worship of bin 

§ 1H. The death of Gr eg ory was followed by very t< 

*i Snitctor. Antwerp, tnri., ■,■/.•» >nr la tie it nir la 

ii ; and Jo. Mat. ill. m, VII. pub- 

:t vote. 8vo. 
| 8m alao J. B. Haiti' 
•'*•*«■ !■ '"r»<. vol. ii. p. 1067 


* Sn the Ad* 

An- I. Bcn/tt. siecul. m i ' 


7 See thr French woi 

<at d* U'laU,, ■' his- 



| I'AHT II. 

timet '■//h/if III., or Gwberf. the emperor^ pon 

Kilted both at Rome and over a large part of Italy; ai 
Qermair/, ffiwry hfmnnlf continued the war with the pri 
The pontifical party, supported by the forces of tln> Normans. 
I at Rome, in the year 1086, Deeideriue, an abbot of 
Monte fl«winn, successor to Gregory; ami he. assuming the 
name of Victor III., was consecrated in the church of St. 
Peter, a. d. 1087, the Normans having rescued a part of (be 
ciry of Rome from Clement. But Victor, who was a very dif- 

i man from Gregory, being mild and timorous, soon r- 
to Bcnevcnto, beoem Rome was in the hands of Clement, and 
not long after died at Cassino. Before his death, however, in 
I eonneil In. Id at Cassino, he renewed the decrees enacted by 
lie abolition of investitures. 
$ -20. Victor was succeeded by Otto, bishop of Ostia, and 
likewise a monk of C&UgOJ ; who was elected at Terracina, in 

■ ar 1088, and chose the name of Urban II. He w&i 
to Gr e go r y in courage and fortitude, but his equal ED 
arrogance, and went l>cyond him in imprudence*. At i 
fortune seemed to smile upon him: but, in the year 1 <)!><>, the 
Qloperor, returning into Italy, and boldly and successfully at- 
tacking i! ^i'h, duke of Bavaria, and Matilda, the 
two heads of the pontifical party, things assumed a new AS] 

Yet the hope of subduing the emp er or revived again in LUdl, 
when f'onnnt. his son, suffered hilUBOlf to be Bedaced by the 
pontiff and the other eneraiee of his lather., t-i rebel against hie 

parent, and usurp the kingdom of Italy. The condition of 
Italy now continued in thfl utmost confusion; nor was tfrban 
able to bring the city of Rome under his subjection. Then 
after holding a council at Placcntia, in the year 10.05, in which 

» A life of this pontiff, Clement III., 
was btclv promised to the wori 

Jo. <;-i!iJ. lliruiiiH, in the M'tmxtl. 

Lip*, t<un. viii. p. HlHJ. Clwnenl died, 

». i>. ) I i.hi ; an is expreiwly f»tat«>d in 

'nwieun Be»er**tii*HW, published 

Inniiori, Anti>j*f. ftali«z, t- 

.-. Ba> Hub. iih. Hutoria 
V. lib. v. p. 30/ . 
• The LilV i»f L 'rban II. wa»»: 
by Thi <k1. Huinart ; and is extant in 

Jo. Mabillon's Optra PottMumo, 
iii. p. 1, Alc. It is cunip<ttK'<l with 
learning and industry ; l<ut with what 
v anil candour, I need not aay. 
Those acquainted with farU, know 
that i are not at liln 

describe to us the Roman pontiff 
aa they really warn. . con- 

paitimj I. 1 rban, the IfiMoirr L'tfttrwr* 

naaofj Ion. viii. p. 614. 


ho ftiteoM the decrees nnd the anathemas of (Jrcffory, he 
book a journey into !•' ranee, ami there held the celebrated 
council of Cli'iin uii. in which the holy war against tin- Moham- 
medans, the occupant** of Palestine, was POaoVred on. And, 
what deserves particular notice, in the same council. / 

imprudently, rendered the contest about investitures, 
which had long been so obstinate and calamitous, still more 
unmanageable and violent. For Qregorp liad not forbidden 
bishops and priettl to swear fealty to their sovereigns; hut 
(v rashh, prohibited them I'roiu taking the oath of 
allcgiauee '. On hi- ratal To ltal\. the pontiff smn i .led in 
reducing the Roman castle of St. Angnln under his power; hut 
lie died a little after, in the year LQ0fl ; and the year following, 
Clement III. also died. And thus the Benedictine monk, //•///- 
nier, who was created pontiff after the death of Urban, and 
who assumed the name of Pascal II., reigned without a com- 
petitor when the century closed. 

£ 21. Among the oriental monks, nothing occurred worth 
Jiirr: hut among the western monks, there were several 
events which deserve to be mentioned. < )f these events, the 
most important, perhaps, was the closer union between tnem 
and the Roman pontiffs. For a long time, many of the monks, 
in order to escape the oppressions and snares of the biahopB 
and kings and princes, who coveted their possessions, had 
placed themselves under the protection of the Roman pontiffs; 
who readily received them, on condition of their paying an 
il tribute. Rut in this age, the pontiffs in general, and 
especially Gr e g ory VH^ wh I to bring all things undel- 

etion to St. Peter, and to diminish the rights and pro 
tives of the bishops, themselves directly advised and counselled 
the monks to withdraw their persons and their property from 
the jurisdiction of the bishops, and to place both under the in- 

1 To the fifWnth canon of thisconn- 
imiin ndilitiu i i buI jo 

■ seventeenth canon j 
aeeor '■ return's /'. 

vi. pt ii. p. 1 7 U*.] " No i-pi*roj 
sacardos l 

nutnibu* liriam Bdctitaton fed&nl ;" 
i. t. may Uk.- th.. natli, «luch vaaaajs 


or subjects arc accustomed to take. 

.. ho b il u 

"pa taking 
the. oath of fidelity. H. v.:i» innrt- 
reasonable tliaii that, unreasonable as 
he sometimes was. This is proved by 

v Noru), Ittoria <M/< Intv- 
cap. x. p. 270, Ac. 

a a 



spection and dominion of St. Peter \ Hence, from tbe times 
« if <h"jortf VII.. the exemptionfl of monasteries from the ordi- 
n:iry pOWtf were immensely multiplied throughout Kurope, to 
tin- nest injury and inconvenience of kings and princes, and to 
thfl vexation of the bishops'. 

§ 22. The irreligious lives, the ignorance, the frauds, tie 
dissoluteness, the quarrels, and tin- Bagntfl crimes of the 

:i*t of the monks, are noticed 1-v nearly all the fa 
rians of that age; not to mention other proofs of their in | 
which have reached n in great numbers'. But still this 
of people were every where in high repute, were promoted to 
the highest offices in the churrh, and increased continually in 
wealth and opulence. The causes of this are to he t ra- 
the extreme ignorance of every tiling |>ertaining to religion, 
which • the grossest superstition, and to the licen- 

tiousness and the very dissolute lives of the people at large in 
tliis e. ntury \ While the great mass of the people, and 8VGB 

* Sec, us a specimen, the Ep'isi 1 

Ghfegory VI I. a whSon be aabjeefa die 

mmiks of Itcdoti Ut the ItomUh see, 
with expressions new and unheard of 
till his age ; in Martcne's Thrmnr. 
Amtfhdor. torn. i. p. 104 &«. T 
may bo added others, by Urban II. 
and the mil sequent pontiff* : which 
are extant in the same work, and hero 
and there iu other collections. 

' I" 1 1 i jA no fjumptioH of a Germanic 
ninna-tery can be pn^luccil, which U 
older than the dmei of Gregory. [Dr. 
Mosheim, probably, means to nay : 
"no exemption bymtrt j>o^nl *»tkority" 
i red in Germany, before Gregory 
VII., for there were- various monas- 
teries ili.n-, which wet .it an 
earlier period. That of Fulda, was 
one ; exempt from its ftitimlntiun, a. d. 
744 : as appears from L5- «i ■ i 
fiJ'i l.'il. The founders of mono**) 

vmsIh-iI i<i have tttem exempt 
from episcopal j • , as well as 

from ■ tioua ; and C lt> I 

pejaenxvd from tbe bishop and from tbe 
prince such exempt: 
confirmed at first h y - II, and 

afterwards by the Koman poi itifl I 
tbe pontiffs adraoccd in power, nud 
encroached "n the prerogative* of 

bishops, councils, and I r ooa- 

jbrmtttiomotwa exemption became more 
common, and more necessary, till at 
last they asaum< rii»ht 

of granting r\. ui| 
sure. See IN tru* De Mures, Gee* 
SaeerdotU et lutfrii, lib, iii. oaf 

4 See what Jo. Launoy, Arnn 
Prlr\l. j. 8. Mcdartii, rap. 26. § i>. 
torn. iii. pt ii. n. 499, &c and Rich. 
Simon, B it l ioti* , 
cap. 82. p. 891, A.c. h 
remsrk. .-•! on th'iH tublest [IfO 
notonsis, Ep. 70. (cited by Pagi, 
/A ten. ad ami. 1 1(H). No. ix.) says to 
Walter, biahop of Meaux : u I si goodness, tbe ibamefol n 
which I have received froen 
tin- in WBBtff and tbe letters Of 

lady Adcleid, tha venerable count***, 
leapt i St. Fara, 

that it is no longer tbe mriiini 
•■•. but may lie pranoa 
Uie brothel of demoniac females, whn 
p rust it odiea to every m 

This in >>n\\ a speeim 
wliat is to be met with in Mm writer*. 
of these limes. 7V.) 

• On Uie aatonUanaj wickedness of 
this age, see Dav. Blond.ll, 7. Vormtdm . 

i II. II.] (liniCi: Efl AND GOVERN- MKNT. 

the clergy, secular as well as regular, addicted thcmsel' 
every species of vice, those appeared like saints, ami th. Inmdl 
<»f God, who preserved some show of piety and religion. Be- 
sides, ftbe nobles, knights, and military gentlemen, who had 
spent thfir lives in acts of robbery, in debauchery, in revelry, 
and other gross vices, when they became advanced in lil- 
felt the stintps of a guilty conscience, hoped tlu-v Willi appease 
Hi ■■• justice of their Almighty Judge, if tiny should either pur- 
chase the prayers of the monks by rich gifts, and should return 

d and the saints a portion of their ill-gotten wealth. Of 
should tliemsehes become monies, and make their new brethren 
their heirs. 

$ 28, Of all the monks, none were in higher reputation for 
piety an«l virtue than those of Clugni in France. Their rides 
of life, therefore, v agated throughout all Europe; and 

whoever would establish new monasteries, or resuscitate ami 

i old OOfiB} adupt'-l tlv 'lis'-ipline of Ohffni, The French 
monks of irom whom the sect originated, gradually ac- 

quired such immense wealth, in consequence of the donations 
of i lie pious of all classes, and at the same time, such 
power and influence, that towards the close of the century, 
they were able to form a peculiar community of their own, 
uhi'li still » vists nadeff the name of the Cluniacemian order or 
congregation*. For all the monasteries, which they reformed 
and brought under their rules, they also emle.ivmin d to bring 
under their dominion : and in this they were so successful, 

lallv under Jingo, the sixth abbot of Clugni, a man in high 
favour with pontiffs, kings, and nobles, that, at the close of 
the century, no fan than thirty-five of the larger monasteries 

Xigftf CXriMo, p. 14, Slc. Roolnin- 
rs, de POrifftne <* U* Droii 
NoUok, in Muld'h Mimoir* d< LU- 

tfnttmrr «t iU VHxddrt, totn. i\. pt. i. p. 
63, Ac. and many others. TWi ttaen- 
tiousaoss Mid m ill sorts of 

1 new, gave rise to thf orders of 
knights cmuit, or chivalrv ; whose 
bonnes* it va> tin- weak, 

tin- pour, and apt i»ain*t 

tin- iiu-nle. 
Thi-. wan a laudnhl. in^*. itut idii in tlioae 

wretch*"! tfanea, whm Hm umgj of 

law was wholly prostrate, and those 

filling the office of jiidgr* were inmm- 

petent to perform the duties of 

• On the very rapid advances of the 
order of Clugni, in both wraith fcod 
MpatadoDi Sto|.ix-ii BtluBB by 
leeta , ustsinhiaJfiiMMUd 

lorn, v. p. 343, S.c. an.l torn. \\. p, 
and Jo. Manuka lias treated expressly 
on th- mi .several parts of his 

a a2 



in France, besides many of the smaller ones, looked up to him 
M their //-/"/•'//. BoMlfal tboOO, there were numerous others, 

which, though fcbej declined beaaomg Bumhwn of this com- 

muiiitv. Hid Continued to eleet their nwu governors, \ot ohOM 
the O&OOtf «/' ' r the arch-abbot, as lie was called, for 

their patron and supervisor 7 . But this peoaperity, this abund- 
ehes and honours and power, gradually produeed not 
only arrogance, hut all those usee which ifillgllfcUld the monks 
of those ages : and m a little time, there was nothing to distin- 
guish the ( Muniacensians from the other monks, except some 
rites and forms. 

§24. The example of the Cluniacensians led other pious and 
well -disposed men to establish similar monastic associations : 
and tlie consequence was, that the Benedictine family, which 
hitherto had composed but one body, was now split into several 
sects, all subject indeed to one rule, but differing in customs, 
bona, and mode of living, and moreover indulging animi 
fcOVirdn each other. In the year 1023. Romnald^ an Italian, 
I tn Oamaldotii or Ca-Mpo-JilaldulL, a desert spot on the 
lofty heights of the Appennine °, and there laid the BaimdatioH 

of tli Ration of tin . which still Hou- 

rislu illy in Italy. Those who belong to it are dhioVd 

into coMioliitcs and eremites. Both are required to live aoOOfd* 
ing to rigormis an< laws: but the oOJDobitM liave re- 

laxed not a litllu the ancient, rigour of the sect *. Shortly 
after. John Chtalbert, a Florentine, founded at. Yallou ' 
which is also on the Appennine. the congregation <<l IJene- 
dietine monk- of I"./ /A„„ /„■„.*/. which in a little time extended 
into many parts of Italy '. To these two Italian tioiis 

' MabiUcm, Pr*fat. ad fkttul. V 
Ord. Hnt.l. j.. vwi 
Bldokv Qhtbalt <lr IfoHnpyn*, par U» 
am. i |' 151, &c. 
Pari*, \-,:v.i. r..i. u\js .r- Lmtr. 
iv. p. 470. 
■ [.-- 
of tli.' -|">! in Jo. Mahillon, Am 
Brwiliri. iv. p, Bflj 1 
• Sn 

nnl«r of Camnlilul«'n»Jau.« arc a 
liv J.*. Ail , BU/Bath, 

>. p. B96. To which 
; •mualdan, in the Ada 

Sandor. Fehr. torn. ii. p. 101, &c. and 

in Jo. Maliillnn, Ada fianctvr. On/. 
nl. vi. pi. i. |>. 427- I I 

(■'in. i. ]>. 

2S«* Jo. MaMlkm, Amalm Ord. r. 
torn. v. in many places, cep^.-ially p. 
2UI.&C. Ma£fH»ald Z- 

, ■ 
I Ansfhn Coatadoni, Annul 

■■■-. I7«*»<*», fol. 

1 s<- ii" m» of Jo. OiaJhorta 

Mahillon'n Ad" W. Brnrd. 



may perhaps be subjoined that of /Ursr/iau [in the diocese of 

| in Gtnnu&y, mtahlinhnd by the abbot WiUtam, who re- 
formed many monasteries in (lermauv, and also establi«-hr«l 
some new ones'. Hut the Ilirmugiam, if We examine them 
closely, appear not to be a new sodality, but a branch of the 
( luniaceiisiaii congregation, whose rules and customs they fol- 

{$ 25. Near the end of the century, a. d. 1098, abbot 

of Mofosme in Bur