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omutoBUiOS or tbb (nrmkiiiT or oottinsik. 









Enterad iccordingto Act of CongTM*, in tlw jui 183ft, b; Jmi Hdbdmik, 
•, ■,•. ip, the QU^'ao&aordMDutriel Court of CouMclkntDiMnct. 




BOOK III. , ' 








ofhuApoatleili^ — 4 6- Othw Apostle* of Geiciunj. — i 8. Rxrydhion of ChiriMMgM 
minat Ihe Suow.— 4 ^• Eatinuta of ku Cocrsnioai. — i B. The Reputed Minclei of 
|S> Centurj. 

^ 1. While the Mahammedans were falling upon and subjugating the 
fairest prarinces of Asia, and diminishing eveiy where the lustre and rep. 
Htation of Christianity, the Nestorians of Choldca were blessing with the 
knowledge of heavenly truth those barbarous nations, called Scythians by 
the ancients aod by the modems Tartars, living on this side Mount Imaus, 
awl not subject to the Saracens. It is now ascertained that Timotheut 
tbe Nestorian pontifi', who attained that dignity A.D. 778, imbued wiin a 
knowledge of Christianity by the ministry of SubehaJ Jmu whom he cre- 
ated a bishop, first the Grelae and Dailamites, nations of Hyrcania ; and 
afterwards by other nussionaries, the rest of the nations of .Hyrcania, 
Boctria, Margiano, and SogdiBna.(l) It is also certain, that Chriatianity 

(1) TliomMMargctaii,JIittomtyiorsM*- lioo toiiait Twwttnu ind the ajookaaf y» 

ticiB lib. iii., in Jm. Sim. Aittman't Bib- canvent, henunmrdered WtheButadnw. 

lioltwo Client. Vuic, tom, iiL, pt. i., p. Tmalhetu now ordiined Kta-Jagu* wd Jo. 

491. See tbo tbe BitJioUwct, torn, iii., pU baiaka, two other monke of Beth-Abeti, and 

■i., eip. ii., 4 T., p. ccccliiviii. ^Dr. Ho- lent them vith GAeen aoiilant mook* hilo 

ihtim, in hi* Historia Tutuomm ecdeuee- the hids counthm. The» ilio were buc- 

lica. p. 13, &e., relying chiefly on tlte pie- ceuful miuionaiies ; end with tbe conieot 

ceding ■ulhaiities, italM thit TVmoCAnu, of Timothau*, the two biahope onUined eeven 

irtio wu petiiiTch of the Neatoriana Iron oftheircomptaioiutabebiahc^iol'thBEut; 

A.D. 777 to A.D. BSD, pUnned the mission luznely, Tlvniua who went into Indii, Dot 

lo these naiimu inhabiting the ahoiBi of tbe wid metnipDJitsa of Chins, ud ZacduiBa, 

Ceipisn Se« ; ud that he aelected foi ita Srruj, Epkraim, Sinieon, and Atumiai. 

execution one Satckal Jem, a learned monk Thomaa Margeniii relatea, that TimofAcw 

of the Nealoriui nNDMterj of Betb-Aben in diieeted the two ordaining biahopa first to 

Aaayria well akilled in the Syriac. Aiabie, oidain s third, and to su{^Ty the plMe of a i 

and Penisn languages, ordained him bisbop, liird hahop at Mt oidioation by placing a 

and sent him forth, SuMal made numer- copy of the Gospels on the seat near the rigbt 

Oua cODftn* among (he GeUe and Daila- hand. Afterwarda, they would have the 

mitea. foniad them into chuicbea, and or- canonical number of Arte bishopa, to oidain 

dained elders onr them. This aetiie mi»- the otheia. These new biabopa diapeised 

•ionary abe InTelled faither Eaat, and apread themselrea widely orei the countries of lb* 

the goapel eitenaivsh in Tailaiy, Catbai, Eaat, and foundtd many chucchei in India, 

and China ; but on M winiiii frosi hia mis- CUhai, nd China. Bol after Ih^Aatk of 


was finnlf and pennanently established in those couDtries for oereral 
centuries, although it was sometimes disturbed by the Mohammedans; 
and that the bishops of these conutries were always subject to the author- 
i^ of the Nestoriaii pontifT. 

^ S, In Europe, most of the German nations were still involved in the 
darkness of superstition ; the only exceptioD being the tribes on the Rhine, 
namely, the Bavarians, who are known to have received a knowledge of 
Christianity under Theodoric the son of Clovis the Great, and the Eastern 
Franks [or Franconisns], with a few others. Attempts had been ol^en 
made to enlighten the Germans, both by the kings and princes for whose 
interest it was that those warlike tribes should become civilized, and also 
by some pious and holy men ; but the attempts had met with little or no 
success. But in this century, Winifrid an English Benedictine monk of 
noble birth who afterwards bore the name of Boniface, attempted this ob- 
ject with better success. In the year 715 he left his native country, with 
two companions, and first attempted in vain to disaemioato Christian doc- 
trines among the Frieslanders who were subjects of king Radbod. Af. 
terwards in the year 719, having received a solemn commission from the 
Roman pontiff Gregory 11., he more suecessfuiiy performed the functions 
" a Christian teacher among the Thuringians, the Frieslanders, and the 

■ ■■(2) 

TiineAeta KID. BSO, we iMmnolliiag mors cording to the threefold lenM of icriptaie. 
Teapecting lbe» chuTchea (ill A.D. lOOU, Aftei i ihort time he wk a leachec of Lbeio 
wben ihe futwua Chrittian priiKS, called thinga. At the age of 30 he was ordained 
PretAylcrJDin, came upoD the (ttge. — TV.] a pteibjtei. About A.D. TlS.heundeitook 
(3) AU that could be laid of Ihi* celebn- ■ Tolunuiy mission to Fhealaad. with two 
ted man, baa been collected by Henr. Phil, monks far rompuioni. But Radbod, the 
Guiamt, at bis Diss, de S. Booifaeio Oei- pagan king of the countrv, being at war with 
manonun Apotlolo ; Helmat., ITSS, 4to. Ibe Fianks and hoatile' to the Christians, 
Yet we mn add Jo. Alb. Fabridi BiUioch. gaie him no encoungnment ; and he lelum- 
Lalina medii aevi, lom. i., p. 709. Hiatoire ed again lo hia monaatery. The abbacy of 
litt. de la France, lom. it., p. 9S. Ja. Ma- Nuacelle was now offered him ; bat he re- 
aUm, Annsles Benedictini : and olbera. fnaed it, becanie ha pnferred a more active 
[The Church Hiatotiea of i^7niry,ScAro«ciA, emplayment. Soon after, hiving projected 
and J. E. C. Schmidt, pre ample account* a misaion lo the psgana in Germany, lie set 
of Boniface. Miiner (Church Hist., conl. out for Rome lo obuin the papal sanction 

hi* disciples, and « Germsn monk named him scommiaaionlo preach the Gospellotbe 
Olhlon, who bred in the lllh century, and pagans wherever he could find them. He 
collected various letten of Boatface which now visited Germany, preached in Bavaria 
ha ha* inserted in his DBiraliTe. Boththeae and Tburingii ; and learning that Radbod 
biographiea, vuilh valuable notes, are con- was dead.he wentto Friesland, and for three 
uinedinMoMUoim AclaSanctor. ord. Ben- jrears aaeisted WiUihrmd the aged biahopof 
edict., lom. i*., p. 1-S4, ed, Vctiel., 1734. flirecht, in spreading the gospel aiKi erecting 
According lo these writers, Boniface was churches among the neighbouring pagans. 
bom at Ktrtm in Devonshire, sboot A.D. Wiilibrord proposed lo him lo become hii 
690. When but four or Eve yean old, he permanent aaaistant and aucceasor ; but Bon- 
showed a strong incUnetion for a monsstic ifsee declined, on ihe ground that the pope 
life, which his father first ettdsavoured to had intended he ahould labour in the more 
eradicate but aflerwards favoured. He first eastern parta of Germany. He now viaited 
entered a monialery at Eztier. From that Roma a aecond time in the year 7!.'). was 
h» removed after seven yean lo Ihe monaa- closely examined by the pope as to his failb 
lery of NiuttUt in Hinla, a* a better place and his adherence lo the aee of Rome ; snd 
for ttudy. Here he learned gTsouDsi, poe- upon hia swesiing perpelosl allegiance lo the 
Vej, ilitunc, and biUicd inttmiiWalim sc- pope, be wai oMtM • biabi^ and bad hia 



^ S. In the 3reEkr 723, being ordaiiwd & bishop by Gregory IL at Rtnne, and 
being supported by ihc authority and the aid of CAarZMJIfiirtel the Major Do- 
muB of the Franks, Booi&ce returned to hia Hessians and Thuringians, and 
Ksumed his laboun among them with much success. He was ik>w greatly 
assisted by several learned and pious persons of both sexes, who repaired 
to him out of England and France. In the year 789, having gathered 
more Christian churches than one man could alone govern, he was advanced 
to the rank of an archbishop by Gregory III., and by his authority and with 
the aid of Carloman and Pepin, the sons of Charles Martcl, he established 
variou? bishoprics jn Germany ; as those of Wurtiiurg, Baraburg [near 
Fritzlar, in Hesse -Casscl], Erfurt, and Eichstadt; to wliich he added, in 
the year 744, the famous monastery of Fvida. The final reward of his 

nime changed from Winijni to Boniface, vscint *e« of Menti to Bonifaie. As uch- 
With DDmeroui lettcn of tflcommendation biahop of Menti, BonifiFe claimed jurisdie- 
lopiincea, biibopa, lod otben, and ■ good Uonoierlhe bishopof Uirechi i which claim 
■lock of holy lelics, Boniface nlumed waiconteiledbj tbe archbisbop of Cologne. 
IlirDugh France, where CharUt Maritt re- BonificB, aa archbiahop and as papal legate, 
ceiled him cordiallj and fumiabed hiiQ with presided in aeretal couticila in Fiance and 
a ufe conduct throughout the empire. He Cermany, and was very acliie in enforcing 
first went among the Hesiiani. where he nnifoRDily of ritea and rigid adherence to the 
■uppreaaed the remains of idolatry, and in- cinoaa of the chuich of Kame. In thejiear 
tropidiy cut down the consecrated oojt a/Ju- TM, being far advinced ui life, he left his 
whick broke into four equal parta in its bishopric at Menli under the care of LuUia, 
This pi«ligy silenced all objections ; whom he ordained his colleague and svcces- 
-uu onl of the wood of this tree, a chapel sor, and undertook a miasion among the 
was built, dedicated to St. Peler. From Fricslanden, who were but partially convert- 
Hesse he wenl to Thuringis. where he ef' ed to Christianity. With the aid of several 
fected a similar reform, and had contention inferiorclergymen and monks, hehadbrou^^ 
with some who were accounted heretical, many persons of both seies to submit to bap- 
Oa the accession of Gregory III. to the (ism. and having appointed the 6th of Jun* 
Mpal chair A.D. 731, Boniface sent an em- for a general meeting of the conTeiU to re- 
DUsy lo Rome, giving SD account of hia pro- ceive the rite of contumation, at Docihiflioil 
cecdings, and propoung several questiona the Bordne, between Eaat and West Friea- 
tespecting ecclesiastical law, for solution, land, on the morning of (he day appointed 
The pope aaswercd his inquiries, sent him a and while the couieits were eipccled to ar- 
fresh supply of relics, and also the archiepis- rive, a party of pagan Frieslanders assaolled 
copal pallium, with instructions when and his camp. His young men began to prepare 
bow lo wear it. In the year 738, he visited for battle ; but Bonijace forbid it, utd ez- 
Rome a third time, attended by a large ret- horted all to resign themselves up to die u 
Blue of priests and monks, and was gnr- martyrs. Me and his fifty-tno companioni 
ciously received by the pope. On hia return were all murdered, snd their camp was plun- 
through Bavsris, as papa] legate he divided detcd. But the banditti afterwards quairel- 
ttist country into four bishoprics, snd placed led among ihemaelves respecting the plun- 
bishops over Ibem ; namely. John bishop of dcr, and being intoiicaled with the wino they 
Stiliburg. Ekmatcrl bishop of J^rminf «i. had got. they Unigbl till several of their num- 
Gotbald of Ktgtruburg, and VtnfD of Pat- ber were alun. The Christian converts 
tan. In iheyear 741. he erected fourmore enraged at the murderers of tbeir teachen, 
bishoprics in Germany ; namely, those of collected forces, and atUcking their villsge* 
Wiirlabarg, Eukiladl, Buraintrg, snd Er- slew and dispersed the men, plundered tbeir 
furth; over which ho placed four of his houses, and enslaved their wives and chil- 
ftiends, Barchard, WUIibald, Albtnm, and dren. The murdered Christians were r«- 
Adltr. Hitherto Boniface had been arch- moved to Utrecht, and there interred. At 
bishop ornDpaniculaiplace; but in the year tcrwaids the lemains of Boniface wen rar- 
745, he procured the deposition of Gtsilui lied to Menti, and thence to Fulda, — Boni- 
■rchbishop of Menti. charging him in a pto- faee left behind him 4S episltes ; a set of 
Tincial council with having slain in atnslB ecclesiastical rtllet. 36 in number ; 15 dia- 
combat the man who bad slain hia own fa- course* ; and k part of a work on penance. 
ther in battle. and wiib lisving kait dopind — 3>.] 
binU fi» qxvt This coadl decrsBd ths 


Uboun, decreed to bim in the year 746 by the Roman pontiff Zachuiiu, 
was, to be constituted archbiabop of Mentz, luid primate of Germsuy and 
Belgiuni, In hia old age, he travelled once more among the Priealandera, 
that hia miniatry might terminata with the people am<mg whom it com- 
menced : but in the year 755 he was murdered, with fiAy deigymen who 
attended him, by the people of that nation. 

^ 4. On account of his vast laboura in propagating Christianity anxmg 
the Germans, Boidfaet baa gained the title of the ApotUe of Germaity ; 
and a candid estimate of the magnitude of his achievements, will show him 
to be not altogether unworthy of this title.(3) Yet as an apostle, he was 
widely different from that pattern which the first and genuine apostles have 
left us. For not to miiotion that the honour and majesty of the Romao 
pontiff, whose minister and legate he was, was equally his care — nay more 
BO, than the glory of Christ and his religion,(4) he did not oppose super- 
stition with the weapons which the ancient apostles used, but be often co- 
erced the minds of the people by yiolence and terrors, and at other timea 
caught them by artifices and fraud. (5) His epistles also betray here and 

(8) [If the nun dewrrem tba title oT u) tain the noenl futli, ind union nilh tbe 
■pMtle who goea unang the beatbeo, pnacb- church of Rome, md ttul he (rould not ceue 
ea to thtm (he Go^l KcoidiDg to hi* heit to oige 4iid peranade all hii papila in Ihit 
knowledge of il, eDcauntan miuj hudshipa, qtuirtei to be obedient to the »« of Rome. 
maliea aome ioroids opon idolUfj, githen — Id anothei latter, addrBiwd to Sltphen 
chorcbea, arectt honeea of wonhip, foundi III., (£p. ictii., p. 13!), upon occaaion of 
moDUteriea, and apenda hii tile u thia baai- hia conteat wilh the bidiop of Cologne re* 
neaa ; — then BoKiJact jaatlj mprita ihtt title, apedine the biahopiie of Utrecht, he repie- 
Bot if that man only can he called an apos- tenta the biatiop of Cologne a» wnhiog to 
tie, who i> in all reapecta Uke to Fttcr and make the biihop who ahoold preach to the 
Pmi; — who in all hia eBbrta looka only to Fiiealandera wholly independent of the Bee 
tba honour of Ckriit, and the diaaemination of Rome \ whereas kt (Boniface) waa eieit- 
of truth and viitue : and for attaining theaa ing all hia powera to make tbe biahopric of 
«ada, employe no meana but anch as ibo fint Utrecht entirely dependant on the see of 

r tie* 11^ Chriat uaed ;— then nunifeslly, Rome. — SM.'\ 
\jact ma wholly unitorthy of this name. (5) [Il ia unqueatiQiiable, that thia apoatle 
He «aa rattier an apoatle of ths Popt than of the Germua marched into ThuriDgii at 
alJaia Chriit, he had hut one eye directed the head oT an army ; and that at the time 
towardr CAriat, tba other waa fixed on tha he waa murdered by the Frieatandera, he 
pope of Roma, and on hia own fame which had aoldieianithbimaaluBbodygitanij aod 
d^Miuded on him. — iScU.] lO in all hia enterprise!, he had the aupport 

(4) Tbe Fiench Benedictine monks ingen- of the civil arm, horded to him by Ckaila 
mnisly acknowledge, that Boidfacc waa a Mtitd, Cailoman, and Feyin. — His anu- 
■jcophant of tbe luman pontiff and showed menta aleo may ha«e been not the beat, ifhe 
bim more deference than was fit and proper, followed tbe directioni of Damei biahop of 
See Hisloire btt de la Fratice, tome il., p. Winchester, ibr whom, as hi> epiallea show, 
106. " II eiprime eon devouement pour le be had a high respect. (See £p. Bonif. iiL, 
8. Siega tjuetquefois en dee termes qui ne p. fi, and the Ep. of Daniel tobim, Ep. Ixrii,, 
*onl pas asae pinportionb k la dignity du p. 79, die.) For here Daniel adriaea him 
cbaractcre episcopal." [We need only to to aak (he pagatu, bow they can beliere Ibal 
read hi* epistles, lo be satisfied on this point, the goda reward the righteoua and puniahthe 
He aaTS, (Ep. xci., p. 126, ed. Serrar.). that wicked in Ibia Ufe, aince they see the Chria- 
■11 he had dtnie for aii-and-thirty years while liana who have deatroyed their images and 
legate of lbs holy aee, was intended for the prostrated their worship all over the world, 
.adnntage of the church at Rome ; lo the remain unpunished 1— And how come* it (o 
judgment of which, so ftr aa he had erred in pass, thai the Christiana posaesa the fmilfiil 
word or deed, be submitted himaeU' wilh counltiea which produce wine and oil in 
all humility. — Cringing enough for an arch- abundance, while the pagans mhabit the 
bishop of the Gemun church !— In a letter cold and barren comers of the earth ! He 
to pope ZiuJwnai. (Ep. Bonif., cjmi., p. must also represent to tbe pagans, that tha 
181), ha writes, that be wished lo nuin- ChiiitiaiuiMW ruled lb* iriwie world, wbwe- 


there an unMtions uid arroguit spirit, a cr&fty and iiuldkios disposition, 
U immoderate esgemess to increase the honours and extend the prerog. 
Stives of tlie c\etgy,{6) and a great degree of igaorance not on^ of many 
things which an t^iutie ought to know, hot in particular of the true char- 
acter of the Christian religion.(7} 

^ 5. Besides Boniface, there were others also who attempted to rescue 
the tmevangelized nations of Germany from the thraldom of superstition. 
Such was Corbimatt, a French Benedictine monk, who, aStet various la- 
bours for the instruction of the Bavarians and other nations, became bish- 
op of Frey8ingen.(8) Such also was Pirmin, a French monk nearly con- 

M the piguu wore bat few in Dombsi uxl n^, I think Di, Xotlum, mA his 4DtiotUot 
poweilsn -, and that Ihii great change in SehUg<l, have not done impartial juitice la 

tbeii condition had taken place aince the this eminent man. He appears to me to 

coming of Ciriil, for befoie that event the baTe been one of the moat aincere and boo* 

pagan* had vaat dominion. It ia likewiee eat men of hia age ; diougb be pailook la^a - 

undeniable, thai Boniface gloried in fictitiona Ij in the common fanlla of hia time, an ea 

miraclea and wonden.— ScAI.] eenive altachment to mookerr, and a anp«r- 

(6) [Conaider onl; bia coaduct towards atilions regard for the canona of the chniek 
tboie biahope and presbTtere who had befoia and the eitemala of religion. With all hii 
receiTod ordination, and lefoaed to receive impeifectiona, he deaervea to be elasaed willt 
it again ftoai faim according to Ibe Romiah those who followed Ckritt according to ths 
litea, and wouid not in general aubiect theok- be*l light thej had, and wbo did much to 
■elies to Romiah supremacy and Romiih advance true religion among men. — TV.] 
forms of worahtp. These men mual be re- (8) Caitir. Bvonii Annales eccleaiaat., 
gaided aa /oImc brtlkrai, kcntki, iUufhe- tom. Tiii., ad ann. 716, f 10, &c. C. Met- 
nuTi, lervanlt of tie devil, mnifarerumuri eheOick, Hist. Friiingenaia, lom. i. [Ti« 
d/' Anliehrut. The; must be eicommuni- life of aaint Cnrbiman in fortj six chaplen, 
cated, be east into piiaons, and receive cor- was written bj one of his pupils and suc- 
poreal puniahmeuta. See with what Tio- ceaaara, Ariho; and may be seen in MahU- 
Uoce he breika out against AdelbttI, CU- lan'i Act* Sanctor, Old. Bened., lom. iiL, 
nieiu, Samptoit, GolUchalk, Ehrttnuolf, p. 470-485, and in Meiehitbtck, Hist. Fris- 
Vtrgdiiu mA others, in hia epistles ;— how mg., tom, i., part ii., p. 3-21. Coriinai 
bitterlj be accuse* them, belore the oopee was bom at Chartrea near Paris, abnitt A.D. 
■nd in presence of councils, &c. — ScU.] 680. He earlj devoted himself to a mo- 

(7) [A large part of the questiona which nastic life, and acquired great tame by hi* 
Bcmiface aubmilted to the dmiidoralion of miracles. To eacape from soeietj and eo- 
the popes, betray hia ignorance. But sttU Jo; solitude, he travelled into luly about th* 
more does his decision of the case of eoa- jeti 717, and begged the pope to assign him 
science, when a Bavarian pnest who did not same obacure retreat. But the pope or< 
Underatiud Latin bad bapliied with these dained him ■ biahop, and sent him beck 10 
words : Baptiio It n lunuiw palTia it fiiia France. Hia miracles and his msrvetlom 
tl ipiritiia lancta, which bsptism be pro- sanctity now drew such crowds around him, 
MuQced to be null and void ; and also his that (Iter seven jears he determined to go 
persecution of the priest Ftr^iu in Bava- to Rome and beg the pope to diveat him of 
ria, who maintained (hat tbe earth ia globu- the epiacapal diguilj. On his way thiougli 
lar, and consequently inhabitable on the other Bavaria and the Tyrol, he caught a huga 
side of it, and there enlightened by the eim bear which had killed one of his pack horses^ 
and moon. Boniface looked upon this aa a whipped him aoundly, and compelled him 10 
giOM ber«ay ; and be accnaed the man before serve in place of the pack horse. At Trent 
tbe pope, who actually excommunicated him and «t Pavia some of his horses were sto- 
Ibr a heretic. See ibe tenth Ep. of Zaehari- len; for which the thievea paid the forfeiture 
as, in ifarduin's collection of Councils, tom. of their Itvea, by the band of God. The pops 
iii., p. 1913.— 5cAJ. Id this and Ibe pre- would not release him from the episcopacy. 
ceding notes, SeUegd bai laboursd with He returned by the way he came, as far as 
the lesl of * prosecutor, to substantiate the FTtitingm in Bararia ; where Gnmoaid the 
heavy chargea of Dr. Mnhtm aninsi Bon- reigning prince detained him for tbe benefit 
iface. I have carefully read tbe ori|inal of hunself andaubjects. After six years' la- 
lives of this misstonary idd also ■ conadn- boms at Freismgen, he died, somewhat liks 

10 BOOK in.— CENTURY Vin.— PART I.— CHAP. I. 

temporary with BoniiHce, who taught ChristiuiiCy amid various sufleriiigs 
is Helvetia, Alsace, and Bavaria, and presided over aeveral monasteries. (9) 
Such likewise was Lebtein an Englishman, who laboured with earnest- 
ness and zeal though with little success to persuade the warlike Saxon 

nation, the Frieslandera, the Belgae, and other nations, to embrace Chris* 
tianity.(lO) Others of less notoriety are omittcd.(ll) Neither shall I 

meotioa WSSbrord and others, who commenced their missionary labours 
in the preceding century, and continued them with great zeal in ihis. 

minner. He fareuw his death, and hiving tied down *l Derentei in Oveiyael, tibtn 

nude unDgeinenU fm il, he aroee in the he preached with conaidenble auecen titi 

moroing in perfect health, bathed, dresaed hia death, about A.B. 740. See JToiltri 

himielf in his pontifictla. performed public Cimb. Lilt., ubi aupn. — TV.] 
■enice, returned and placed hinuFlf upon (11) [Among theae weie the foDowing. 

his bed, drank a cup of wine, and immedi- Olhmar, a German monk, foundei of iSa 

Btelj eiptred. Hia biographer makea no monaaleiT of St, Gall in Switierlind. At 

mention of his efforts to enlighten bis dock, the close of a long and eiemptary life, be 

or to spread the knowledge of the Gospel, waa mallciouBly accused of unchastity, b^ 

He was a moat bigoted monk, and exceed- some noblemen nbo had robbed his monaa- 

iogl^ irascible. I^nce Grimeald once in- lery, and was Ihrown into prison where be 

vited him to dine, Corfaiaian said grace languished four jears, and then died. Nu- 

befbre dinner, and made the aign of lbs CToas menras nuracles were wrought at hia tomb. 

over lbs food. While they were eating, His life, writlen bj Waiafnd Slreio, ia ia 

Qlimoald threw acme of the food lohiadog. Mdiitlon't Acta Saoctor. ord. Bened., toI. 

Corbinian in a lage kicked over the table, iv., p. 139, Ik.— WiUibald, \Habfap ofEictf 

and lef) the room, declaring to the prince stadt, waa lu Acglo-Saion monk, of honour- 

Ibat a man deaened no bleasinga who would able binb, educated in a monastery neat 

give food that was blaaeed to hia dog. — 3V.] Wincbeater. When errited at manhood, he 

(9) Hem. Btuickii Cbronologia Monaa- and hia younger brother Wunrbaid left Gng- 

ter. German., p. 30. Aitfoii. Pagi, Crilica land, travelled through France and Italy, 

in Annalea Banmli, lorn, ii., ad snn. 769, sailed to Aaia Minor and the Kolj Land 

<t 9, &c. Hlaloire litteraire de la France, whore tbey spent seven years. Returning 

tome iv., p. ISt. [The life of St. Ptmun, to Italy, they took residence in the monae- 

written by Warmaaa biehopof Conatanceat tery of Mona Cassinus during ten yeaia, or 

tbe beginning of tbe eleventh century, may till A.D. 739. The pope then sent them 

be seen in MabiUmCi Acta Sanctor. ord. into Germany, to assist St. Boniface. Wii- 

Benedict., torn, iv., p. 1S4-139, Accord- libald was placed at Eichstadt, ordained 

ing to this biography, Pirmin was first the pheat A.D, 740. and bishop the year fol- 

bisbop of either jHtaujc or Jfslv in France, lowing. His death ia placed A.D. 786. 

where he waa a devoat and zealous pastor. His life, written by a kinswoman, a contem- 

SitUlax a Swabisn prince, procured hia re- porary nun of Heidenhcim, is eitant in Ha- 

noval to the neighbourhood of Constance, biUon't Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., torn, iv., 

where there was Dieat need of an active and p. 330-354. — Saint Alio, s Scotch monk, 

exemplary preacher. He establiahed tbs wbo travelled into Bavsiis, and there estab- 

ntaaaststy of iteicAcnou, in an island near bshed the monastery called from him, Alto- 

Conatance ; and afterwards nine oi ten other muniter. The monastery was endowed hf 

monuiteiies in Swabia. Alsatia, and Swilier- king Pepin, and dedicated by St. Boniface. 

land; andwasveiy active in promolingmo- Tbe life of .4if(i is in JUahUoft, 1. c. p. 196, 

naatic piety in those countries. He is sup- dec. — Si. StaTOaia, a native of Noricum, 

meed to have died about A.D. 758.— Tr.] and follower of St. Boniface. Under the 

{\.0)Hucbaid* Vita S. Lebvini i iaL.S*- direction of that archbiahop, he erected and 

m Vitis Sanctor. die IS Novem., p, S77. presided over the monsslery of Fulda, from 

Jo. mUeti Cimhria litterats, torn, ii., p. 464. A.D. 744 till his death A.D. 779, eicept one 

{Lebuiai was an EngUsh Benedictine monk, year which he spent in Italy to learn more 

and presbyter of Ripon in Northumberland, perfectly tbe rules of St. Benedict, snd two 

wbo, about A.D. 690 with twelve compsn- other years in which Pepin king of the 

ions, went over to West Fnesland on the Franks held him prisoner under false accu- 

borders of the pagan Saiona, and for several sationa of disloyalty. In the last years of his 

years travelled and preached in that region life, he aided Charlemagne in compelling the 

■lid in Heligoland. He once travelled to Saioiis to embrace ChrisCianily. His life, 

Iba bo(d«n of Denmark. At length he eet- well written by EigU bis pupil and aoccw 


^ 6. In the year 772, Charlemagtie king of the Franks, undertook to 
tame and to withdraw from idolatry the eztenaiTe nation of the Saxoot, 
who occupied a large portion of Germany* and were almost perpetuaUy at 
war with the Franks respecting their boondaries and other things ; for he 
hoped, if their minda shotdd become imbued with the Christian doctrine^ 
they would gradually lay aside their ferocity, and learn to yield submis- 
sion to ths empire of the Franks. The first attack upon Uieir heathen- 
ism produced little effect, being made not with force and arms, but by 
some bishops and monks whom the victor bad left for that purpose among 
the vanquished nation. But much better success attended the subsequent 
wars which Charlemagne undertook, in the years 775, 776, and 780, against 
that heroic people, so food of liberty, and so impatient especially of sacer- 
dotal damiiiation.(12) For in these assaults, not only rewards but also the 
Bword and punishments were so successfully applied apon those adhering 
to the superstition of their ancestors, that they reluctantly ceased from re- 
sistance, and allowed tbe doctors whom Charles employed to administer 
to them Christian baptism.(13) Widekind and Alhim, indeed, who were 
two of the most valiant Saxon chiefs, renewed their former insurrections ; 
and Attempted to prostrate again by violence and war, that Christianity 
which had been set up by violence. But the martial courage and the liberal- 
ity of Charles, at length brought them, in the year 785, solemnly to declare 
that they leere Christians, and would continue to be so.(14) That the 
in Mahillm, L c, p. 243-359. l]umbeprtacher;tiolplimdenri.1 Lookit 
tu, wbom Boaibce accnied of thia ponniL or tbe apoitlet of Ctiii centnrj. — 
'le globut&r, Aod ;el they ua uid to hiTS wrought gmt 
was an iTiBoman, oi mtxi eaucmon %nd tkl- miitcles ! 
enU. He went to France in the reign of (13) Alcuin, as cited by WiUiim of 
Pepin ; wbo palianised him, and in the year Malmtnbucy de geitia Reg. Anglocum, I. L, 
T66 procured for him the biahopric of Salts- c. 4, pobliahed in tbe Renim Anglicir. ■Ci^ 
burg, which he belt) till hia death A.D. 780. tores, Fnncf.. ISOl, fol., uwia this tangnage : 
While al Sdubarg, he did much to extend " The ancieot Saiana and all tbe FiieaUnd- 
Cbriilianity to tbe eastward of him, among ers, being u»ed to it by king Cluu-U; who 
the SlaTOniana and Huns. His life ia in pUsd acme of them with reumrdt and olhera 
MaiilUni, 1. c, p. 278, &c.—Tr.'] with IhTtati, (inatanti nga Curolo, alios pro- 

(13) I cannot dispense with quoting a paa- miit, et alios mini* soIIieitBala), wer* eon- 
sage from a TCiy credible author, Alaiin, leited to the Chiislian faith." See atao tba 
which showa whit it was eapecially, that Capitulaiia Ruum Fnflcoi., torn, i., p. 348 
rendered tbe Saiane averae from Chnalianl- and p. 362, From tbe Grat of theae paaaage* 
ty, and how prepoaleronslj tbe miaitonaiiea it appears, that the Saxona who would re- 
aent among them conducted. Alcuin, £p. nounce idolatry, were reilortd to their (n>- 
cir,, m hia Opa.. p. 1647, aaya : Si tantain- nnt/rMilofnlorfeitad byconqueal, and were 
•tantia leve ckriMli jugum et oana ejus leve freed/TBrn ail trilnUe to the king. The last 
dunssimo Saionum popolo pnedicaretar, of those paiaagea cDntaioa thta law ; If am/ 
quanta dicihikuh redditio tbI legalis pro ftrtm of the Saxon raee, ehaiX cimiemplit- 
puviiaimis qaibuahbel eulpis edictia neces- muly rtfute to come to baptitm, and thali 
sitsaeiigebatnr, forte baptiamstia aacramenta Ttuiet to tontimit a pagan, let him bt pitt 
nan abborrerent. Sint tindih iLiqnaMDO la dealk. — By auch penalties and rewardi; 
nacToaiariDii iFamticis taODiTi (ttx- the whole world might be conatninad to 
rLia. SiNT pBAiDiciToiEB, SOU raAEDA- profess Christianity, without miracles. Bat 
Toais. [Had the easy yoke of Chitat with what sort of Christians the Saxons so con- 
bii light burden, been preached to the stub- rerteJ mual have been, we need not be tirid. 
bom Saions with as much eamestnesa aathe Sue Jo. Launoi, de Teleri more bapttiaodt 
paymeutof (i/Auind legal sitisfaclirm for the Jnd. e( infide1ea,c. t., ti., p. 703, &c.,Oiki., 
very smallest faults were eiacled. peibapa torn, ii., pt. li., where he tells ua, that the Ro- 
Ibey would not hare abominated the aacn- manponliirJ/itdruiR I. approved of this mode 
mentof baptiam. Let the Chriilian limehert of conrarling the Saiona to Christianity. 
UamfremUueiaii^afduapoHUe. Let (14) Egwilurd, de Vita CaioU Mapit 


Saxons might not apostatize &om the religion which the^ uDwillingly pro- 
teased, bishops were established in variaiv parts of their country, schools 
were set up and monasteries were built. The Hmu inhabiting Pannonia, 
were treated in the B&me way as the Saxons ; for Charles so exhausted 
and humbled them by successive wars, as to compel them to prefer becom- 
ing Christians to being BlaTea.(lG) 

^ 7. For these his achievements in behalf of Christianity, the gratitude 
of posterity decreed to Charlemagne the honours of a mint. And in the 
twelilh century, the emperor of the Romans, Frederic I., desired Panhal III. 
irikom he hod created sovereign ponti^ to enroll him among the tutelary 
saints of the church.(16) And he undoubtedly merited this honour, accord- 
ing to the views which prevailed in what are called the middle ages, when 
a man was accounted a saint, who had enriched the priesthood with goods 
and po8sessions,fl7) and had extended, by whatever means, the bounoariea 
of the church. But to those who estimate sanctity according to the views 
of Ckri^ Charlemagne must appear to be any thing rather than a saint and 
adevout man. For not to mention his other vices, which were certainly not 
inferior to his virtues, it is evident that in compelling the Huns, Saxons, and 
Frieslanders to profess Christianity, he did it more for the sake of gaining 
subjects to himself than to Jesus Christ, And therefore he did not hesitate 
to cultivate friendship with the Saracens, those enemies of the Christian 
name, when he could hope to obtiun from them some aid to weaken the 
empire of the Greeks who were Christians.{18) 

j 8. The numerous miracles, which the Christian missionaries to the 
pagans are reported to have wrought in this age, have now wholly lost the 
credit they once had. The corrupt moral principles of the limes, allowed 
the USB of what are improperly called piotis frauds ; and those heralds of 
C3iTistianity thought it no sin, to terrify or beguile with fictitious ntiracles 
those whom they were unable to convince by reasoning. Yet I do not 
suppose that ail who acquired fame by these miracles, practised imposition. 
For not only were the nations so rude and ignorant as to mistake almost 
any thing for a miracle, but their instructers also were so unlearned and 
so unacquainted with the laws of nature, as to look upon mere natural 
events, if they were rather unusual and came upon them by surprise, as 
special interpositions of divine power. This will be manifest to one who 
will read wiUi candour, and without superstitious emotions, the {Acta Sane- 
lontm) Legends of the saints of this and the subsequent centuries.(19) 

Aiami BrcmCDi., lib, i., up. viiL,p. 3, &«., (IB) See Joe, Ba*nagt,Yluttnnit»J\3ib, 

sod ill the tiittoriuu of llie actueTeinenU at toma ix., cip. li., p. 40, &c, 

Chulenugnc ; wbo ue enumented by Jo. (19) (The minclei of ibia tge are. muijr 

ASi. FaJmciui, Bibliolh. Lat. medii uii, ot Ihern, ■llogetbec ndicalons. Take the 

torn, i., p. 999, &c. rollowina aa ■pocimena. In the life of St. 

• (16) 1Mb of St. Ruilxrt : in Hen. Caaitd Wimock, (in MaMIiim't Acta Sanctor. ord. 

Lcctionibua Antiquia, torn, iii., part ii.. p. Bencd,, lorn, iii., p. 196), it ia lUled aa » 

340, cScc. Psuli Dcbricciu Hiatoria Eccle- luiiacle. tfaal hia mil!, when ba let go of it 

aiae reformat, in Hungar. et Tranayliania ; to aay hia piayerti, would turn ilaelf. AtMl 

B Lamfio edita ; part i., cap. ii., p. 10, ftc. nben an inquisitive monk looked through a 

(16) Henr. Caaitii Lectiones Aotiqua, crevice to see tba wonder, he was alruck 
torn, iii., pi. ii., p. SOT. Dr. Watch, [of Got- blind for his preauinptian. 1\te biographer 
lingen]Tnu;t, deCuoUMag.canoDiaaliane. of St. Pardx/pAu (ibid., p. 541, aec. 18) 

(17) SeethBla»tWillofCharkii]»gne,iB makea a child'i cradle to rock day aft« day 
B^ph. Baliixh Capituluibiu Bagum Fiao- wilhonl bands ; hot if touched, it woold stop, 
cut; tmn. i., p. 48T. ud reaiaiB immavsable. In lbs Llie of St, 



4 1> In tlie Eut, tiom tha Suacana ud Tnriu.--4 S. In the Weit, from the Suiceo*. 

6 1. The Byzantine empire experienced so many bloody rerolutiooa, 
and ao many intestine calamities, as necessarily produced a gi'eat dim- 
inution of its energies. No emperor there jreigned secvirely. Three of 
them were hurled from the throne, treated witn various contumelies, and 
sent into exile. Under iw HI. the Isaurian, and bis son CoMtatitine Co. 
pronymus, the pernicious controversy respecting images and the worship 
of them, brought immense evils upon the community, and weakened incal- 
culably the resources of the empire, tieuoc, iht> Bamcena were able to 
roam freely through Asia and Africa, 'to subdue the fairest portions of the 
country, and every where to depress and in various places wholly to ex- 
terminate the Chnatian fiiilh. Horeover, about the middle of the century, 
a new enemy appeared, still more savage, namely the Turks ; a tribe and 
progeny of the Tartars, & rough and uncivilized race, which issuing from 
the narrow passes of Mount Caucasus and from inaccessible regions, 
burst upcm Colchis, Iberia, and Albania, and then proceeding to Armoiia, 
first subdued the ^iracens and afterwards the Greeka.(l) 

§ 2. In the year 714, these Saracens having crossed the sea which sep. 
arates Spain from Afrioa, and count JtUian acting the traitor, routed toe 
anny o( Roderic the king of the Spanish Goths, and subdued the greater 
part of that country.(2J Thus was the kingdom of the West Goths ia 
Spain, after it had stcxMl more than three centuries, wholly obliterated by 
this cruel and ferocious people. Moreover, all the seacoast of Gaul frooi 

GvlUaek of CrojUnd, (iWd,, p. 263, i 19), tie only m few, amone KorM of othm, 

wbile die wint in* pnyjng it bia ligUa, & which might be idduced. — Tr,] 
vut nambei of deril* entoml hi* cell, liaiog (I) [Seethe hieloituu of thaTailclih eiM- 

out or the nound ud ianing throngii ctst- pite ; emciiUy, DigiiigTU, Hictoiy o( tbs 

icei, "of direful upect, (eirible in form, Hum uid Tuik*. — Schl.} 
with huge bemdi, long necks, pile ficei, (3) Jo. Xanana, Rerum HiapanicaT.,lib, 

«ickl]P countenuice*, iquilid beuda, briitly vi., cap. SI, &c. Eiueb. Remiaiiil, HiMo- 

Mte, wrinkled forehead*, malieioa* eyee, ria Patiiaich. Aleiuidrio., p. 3G3. Jo. it 

Seitf moolba, laonaa' teMh, Sn.«in)tiJDg Fcmru, HiBtoiredei'E^>^e,loiD. iL, p. 

IhrMla, Uutem jiwi, broad lip*, teni&o 4SA, dee. — [/. iS. SttnUr, ia hi* Hiatotiaa 

voicea, singed h*u, high cheekbones, pmn- eccle*. select* capita, lorn, ii., p. 137, fa., 

ioent breuti, acaly uugtii, knotty knee*, eouiecturas, Ihst ihe pope* contributed to the • 

crooked teffs, •wollen sidUe*, inreiUd fe«t, innsjoa of Spsin by the Ssncens, And tt 

■nd opened month*, hoaiaeljr clamonas." appear* from Baroimtr, (Annalee eeele*. ad 

liieia bound the saint fut, dngg«d him ana. 101, No, li., &e.), that the Spanifh 
rgj were in some collision with 

, StiU, I cui see DO nidenM, 

of hell, where be *aw alt Ibe tefaeiita of that tba pope* had any concera with tbs 

the damned. Bat while Ibey weie threat* Hohsounedan invasion of Spain. Cotnt 

These bound the saint fist, dnoged him ana. 101, No, 

through hedge* and biisr*, lifted him np kioe and claigy 

from the aarth, and caitiedtuM loth* miMia hishoUnea*. 6 

of hell, where he *aw alt Ibe tefaenta of that tba pope* 

the damned. Bat while they were threat* Hohsminedan i .... 

ening to confine htm Iben, St. BarlialomoB /hIILm, a disafieelednobWen, was probably 

uBMied in glon to Um; tb« derila were the solaesnsaaf ihi* caluiitr to hi* coaa> 

■mighledi and b« wai eondocted back ta tiy.->7V.] 

Us cdl by hi* celastid deiirem.— Tha*e 


the Pjrrenemi mountaina to the Rhone, vaa seized by these Saracene, who 
afterwards frequently laid waate the neighbouring provinceB with fire and 
■word, Charles Marul indeed, upon their invasion of Gaul in the year 
7S2, gained a great victory over them at Potctiers :(3) but the vanquithed 
soon after recovered their strength and courage. Therefore ChtvtemagHt 
in the year 778 marched a large army into Spain, with a design to rescue 
that country from them. But thotigh he met with considerable success, 
be did not fully accomplish his wishes.(4) From this warlike people, not 
even Italy was safe ; for Ihey reduced the island of Sardinia to subjection, 
and miserably laid waste Sicily, In Spain therefore and in Sardinia, under 
these masters, the Christian religion suffered a great defeat. In Germany 
and the adjacent countries, fiie nations that retained their former supersti. 
tions, inflicted vast evils and calamities upon the others who embraced 
Christianity. (5) Hence, in several places castles and fortresses, were 
nected, to restrain the iocuisions of the barbarians. 




§ 1, Among the Greeks there were here and there individuals, both able 
ana willing to retard the flight of learning, had they been supported : but 
in the perpetual commotions which threatened the extinction of both chureh 
and state, they were unpatronised. And hence scarcely any can be named 
among the Greeks who distinguished themselves, either by the graces of 
diction and genius, or by richness of thought and erudition, or acuteness 
of investigation. Frigid discourses to the people, insipid narratives of the 
lives of reputed saints, useless discussions of subjects of no importance, ve- 
bement declamations against the Latins and the friends or the enemies of 
images, and histories composed without judgment ; — such were the mon. 
' umentB which the learned among the Greeks erected for their feme. 

§ 3, Yet the Aristotelian method of philosophizing made great progress 
every where, and was taught in all the schools. For after the many public 

(t) Paidut DiacoKia, de Geatii Longo- (4) Herrr. dt Biuuk, TUttorj of thg Gar- 
bud., lib. Ti,, cap. IS et 63. Jo, Mariatia, m*D Emperan *nd empire, [in Gsnun], 
Renin HiBp«nic»r., lib. tiL., c»p. 3. PtI. Yol. ii„ p. Sftt, &c Ftrrera; Hirt. de 
S«yfc, Dictionniire hittorique, uticle AbiU- I'Eapagne, lom. ii,, p. fi06, &e. 
Tonu, Una. i., p. 11. Fcnem, Histoiiede (6) Stnahu tupiu, vita Wigbeni, p. 
ITipigDe, lorn, ii., p. 4S3, Slc. [GHAoii, 904, lod olber*. 
Dec ud PtU of Rom. Emp., ch. lit.— TV.] 


condenmatioiia of the sentimenta of Origen, and the rise of ibe Nestorian 
and Eiitychian controversies, Plato was nearly banished from the scbooli 
to the retreats of the monks.(l) John Datiuueetuu distinguished himself 
b^ond others in promoting Aristotelianism. Ho attempted to collect and 
to illustrate the dogmas of Aristotle, in several tracts designed for the leas 
informed; and these led many persona in Greece and Syria more readily 
to embnce those dogmas. The Nestorians and Jacobites were equally dil- 
igent in giving currency to the principles of Aristotle, which enabled them 
to dispute more courageously with the Greeks respecting the natures and 
the person of Christ. 

^ 3. The history of the Latins abounds with so many examples of ex. 
treme ignorance, as may well surprise ua.(2) Yet the fact must be readily 
admitted by those who survey the state of Europe in this century, ui 
Bome^ and in some of the cities of Italy, there remained some liunt traces 
of learning and science ;(3) but with this exception, what learning theitt 
was, had abandoned the Qmtinent and retired beyond sea, among the Brit* 
ons and Irelandcrs.(4) Those therefore among the Latins, who distill', 
guished themselves at all by works of genius, with the exception of some 
few Franks and Italians, were nearly all either Britons or Scots, that is, 
Irelaaders ; such as AktUn, Beda, Egbert, CUtmeTu, Duitgal, Acca, and oth. 
ers. Prompted hy Alcuin, Ckarlemagne, who vaa hirnaeli n man of letters, 
attempted to dispel this ignorance. For he invited to his court gramma. 
rians and other learned men, iirst out of Italy, and afterwards from Britain 
tmd Ireland ; and he laboured to rouse especially the clergy, or>ih» bi^ 
ops, priests, and monks, (whose patrimony, in this age, seemed to be lean>' 
ing), and by means of his own example, the nobility also and their sons, td 
the cultivation of divine and human science and learning. 

h 4. By his authority and requisition, most of the bishops connected 
with their respective primary churches, wlmt were called eaikedral schools^ 
in which the children and youth devoted to the church were taught tho 
sciences. The more discerning abbcU or rulers of the monasteries like- 
wise opened schools, in which some of the fraternity taught the Latin lan- 
guage, and other things deemed useful and necessary for a monk or a preach- 
er.{5) It was formerly supposed, that Charlemagne was the patron and 
fotmderof the university of Paris ; but all impartial inquirers into the history 

H) [See BtucIut'm Hatatit ent.Tiii[oao- (4) Ja. UMher, Pnefitioid Syllogen epic 
phiie, torn, iti., p. S33. — iSeU.] toluam Hibernicar. 

(S) See the uiDoUlioiu of Steph. Balaxt (G) SUfk. Balaie, Ctpitulaiik R^om 
OaRtginoPra,r>iientt;o.Mfi. [Leamins, f^ucor., lom. L,p. 101, die. Jt. Siraumi, 
which ■ppein to hive been eootiaed much Concilii Gillite, torn, ii., p. 131. Catt, 
to the cln^, begin to be nre even among Egiuie it Boulay, Diia. da Scholii ctaiw- 
tbem. The clergy nndentood litde or no- tnlibDi et epiicopalibui ; in hi* Hietoria 
thingorhumintcietice, orof lingu&gM; ind Acid. Puii., torn, i., p. 79. Jo. Lamoi, 
ike popM confirmed them in ihit tUte. Foi da Scholii t Canlo M. pei OceidenL iwd- 
^wj isqaiied nothing more of them, it their tutii. Hem. Ctmringo Antiqnitilaa Ae»- 
ordinttion, Ihin to be ible to md, lo ling, demicke, p. SI, 31G. Hiiloire litter, de Ift 
ind lo repeU the Lord'e |nTei, the creed, France, torn. ir.. p. 8, &c., and otben. [In 
uid FNltoi, 4ad lo uceniiQ the feut dari. thejeu TBT, CluTlemagiu •ddni"'' " ~ 

The ignonuee iboam by Bpidfaa, end evea juDctum to the biehope uid ibboU, raqtitrii^ 
bj pope Zaehariat, in the contioTerrr ra- them to eet np Bchooli ; which were not in- 
■pecting intipodM and the figare of the tended for litUe children, bat for monlu, irAa 

auth, bi alreidf been noticed. — &U.] were lo b« taught theinterpnUtioDarSarip- 

(3) laid. Ant. Xurauti, Antiquitt. IlalJM tore, md the leuning lequieila for tbia por. 

Diedii MTJ, ton. iii., p. 811. pow. Be likawiae often penaitlad quok* 


of those times deny him this honour : yet it is ascertained, that he laid a 
finmdation upon which this celebrated school was afterwards erected.(6) 
To purge his court of ignorance, be established in it the femous school 
called the PaltitiM school, in which the children of Charlemagne and of his 
nohles were instructed by masters of ereat reputation. (7) 

^ 6. But the youth left these schools not much better or more learned, 
than when they entered them. The ability of the teachers was small ; 
and what they taught was so meager and dry, that it could not be very 
ornamental or useful to any man. The whole circle of knowledge, was 
included in what they called the seven liberal arts ; namely, grammari 
rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy ;(8) of which, 
the three first were called the Trimum, and the four last, the Quadrivium. 
How miserably these sciences were taught, may be learned from the little 
work of Alcwn upon them ;(9) or from the tracts of AtigusUne, which 
were considered to be of the very first order. In most of the schools, the 
teachers did not venture to go beyond the Trivium ; and an individual who 
had mastered both the Trivivm and the Quadrivium, and wished to attempt 
something still higher, was directed to study Cauiodorut and BocAiiu 



4 1. Tieai of th* Raliijioiu Teuhera. — f S. Veaenti 
i 3. Increue of their Wealth.— 4 i. The; pouewed Ri: 

illj to th 

EitnTiguit DoitUioiu to the Cleig^, — 4 S- ■"^ eipeciillj to the Pope. — 4 ?- His mod 
office* to Pens.— 4 8. The RanuSa of his ObKqniaainwB to the French kings. Tfao 
Doutkni of Fepin. — 4 9. Donation of Chariemagne. — f 10. The Gnrandiof it. — 4 H' 
Natiua of the Pope'a jumdictioii. — f IS. Ht> ^apenty checked by the Greek* ; Ori- 
gin ^ Iba CoDleat* between the Greeki and Lalica.— { 13. The Mooutic Diaciplme 
wfaoUr Coimpted.— 4 14. Origin of Canons.— 4 IS, 16. Power of the Popes ciicum- 
■eribed bv the Empeiora. — 4 17. Greek and Oriental Wiileie. — 4 18. Latin mad Ocei- 
dentai Writeit. 

§ I. Teat those who in this age bad the care of the church, both in 
the East and in the West, were of very corrupt morals, is abundantly tes. 

to come to hie court ecba«l. Hia eomnuDde, no irbere man full; eUted, (ban in C. £. 

■nd the example he exhibited in hie court de Brndtty'i Hiatorii Acad. Par., lorn, i., p, 

aebool, were veij efficient ; and soon alter, SI, &c. Bat aersnl leuned FreDchmen, 

the famoue ichaol of Faida wu foimded ; MabUiim, (Acta. SarKtor. ord. Bened.. torn, 

the reputation of nhicb apread over ciiiliied v., Praefu., 4 181, 18S), Loviun, ClaaJt 

£iirope, and allured nomeroua foreignera to Jolj/, (de Scholia), and manj othera, haTe 

iL l4eit to Fulda, i/incAou, Coney, ccmfut^d those areumenta. 
Ptim, WeUienlniTg, St. Gall, and Reiche- (7) Ba4ay. HiXorU Acad, Paria., ton. 

aoii, became ftmoua for their good achooli ; I, p. 381. MtUnUon, I. c, 4 179, and olher*. 
which might be called the high Khoola of (S) Hem. Connn^ Antiquitatea Ace- 

Ibet ase, and were the resort of motdu, de- dem., Diaa. iii,, p. SO, dec. Ja. Thtmaiiiu, 

signed for teachers in Ibe inferior and poorer Ptof^ammsU, p. 868. Obearrationea Ha- 

nuioaaleriee. CharleoiB.gne also eieiciaed lenaet, torn, n., obaerr. lit., p. 118, &c. 
the will of the bishops, 1^ propoaing to them (9) Alcuad Opera, part ii., p. IMS, ed. 

.■11 aorta of learned qnettiona, for them to an- QuercetanL Thia little work is not od^ 

■weiailheiinwiiliiigor orallr. — 5aU.] imperfect, but ia ahnoet entiialir tmwoibed 

(6) The aigmaanla, to prore Charlemsgns fadm C«uudona. 
Ilw liKDiisi of te aoiranitr of Puis, an 



tified. The Orieatal bishops and docton vuted their Uvea in Tuiou 
ccmtroversies and quaireLB, and disregarding the cause of religion and 
piety, they disquieted the state with their senseless clamours and seditions. 
Nor did they hesitate to imbrue their hands in the blood of their dissent- 
ing brethren. ThoM in the West who pretended to be luminaries, gave 
themselves up wholly to various kinds of profligacy, to gluttony, to hunt- 
ing, to lust, to sensuahly, and to war.(I) Nor could they in any way be 
leclaimed, although Carlonum, Fepm, and especially CiuirienuigiK, enacted 
Tsrious laws against their vice9.(2) 

§ 2. Although these vices of the persona who ought to have been ex* 
amples for others, were exceedingly offensive to all, and gave occasion to 
various complaints ; yet they did not prevent the persons defiled with them 
from being every where held in the highest honour, and being adored as 
a sort of deities by the vulgar. The veneration and submission paid to 
Inshops and to all the clergy, was, however, &r greater in the West than 
in the East. The cause of this wilt be obvious to every one, who con- 
siders the state and the customs of the berbaroos nations then dominant 
in Europe, anterior to their reception of Christianity. For all these 
nations, before they became Christiana, were under the power of ttieir 
priests ; and dared not attempt any thing important, either of a civil at 
military nature, without their concurrence. (3) When they became Chris* 
tian, they transferred the high prerogatives of their ancient priests to the 

uhmenta. If *iiir one, nhethcT ■ )vinl« at 
k pnbbc cbuieter, will not mbmil lo llitii 
deciiton, they debu him from ihs surifioMi 
Hie Dniids *ie not accustooied to be preMol 
in bitlle ; Dor do ifaey pay tribute, wilb lb* 
ottisr ciliiena ; but an eiempt fn>m miti. 
tiiT MrTice, and from ill other burdena. 
Allured by such privilegei, md from incliu- 
don, iDuiy embrace Ih«ir diKipline. ajid are 
•enl to it bj their paienla and frienda."— 
TiuiMt (4e UoriW Geimanor., c. T, p. 
384, ad. Otdqot.) nya : •' MoreoTei, l« 
judge, to impriaon, and to iconigB, ia altow- 
able for oone but the priests ; and tbia not 
under the idea of punishment, or by order of 
the prince, but aa if Ooi commanded it."— 
Chap, xi., p. S91. "Silence [in the publk 
eoQDcila] i> enjoined by the prittU, win 
there have eoercite power." — HtlnoU, 
Chion. Slatonnn, lib. i., c. 38, p. 00, layaof 
the Rugians : " Greater ia their Tea|«ct for • 
piieat, than for the king." — Idem Je SUtii, 
lib. ii., c. 13, p. 33b. " With Onw., a king 
ia in modoats enimation, complied with a 
prieat. For the litter invea^gateaTeapaiuM. 
— The king and the perple depood on his 
will. "— Theae ancient matoma, the people at 
Germany, Gaol, lod cV all Europe, raujnad, 
•flei tbeii convenijn to Chrialianity ; and 
H ia therefore eMT to anawer the qneatkav 
Wbeaea oiigiwted thai vaal power of tbs 
pijeithood in Europe, of which th "* 
raligiOQ im no kaowladfal 

(1) Slepi. B^vte, ad Rflginon. Pramien- 
■em, p. 563. WiOdiu' Concilia tnagnag 
Briianniae, torn, i., p. 90, &e. 

(3) Steph. Baliat, Capitular. Regnm 
Francor.. lom. L, p. 189, 208, 276, 493, &c. 
[Ifardlun, Concilia torn, iii., p. 1S19, &c-, 
where the clergy are forbidden to beer anna 
in wu. and to practise hunting ; and eevpTe 
laws are enacted sgiioM the whoredom of 
the clergy, monks, and nuns. TheM law* 
were enacted under Carioman, AD, 743, 
Among the Capilularia of CharUmagvt, 
dted by Hardain, ire liwi agiinal clergy- 
men's ioaning money far twelve per cent, 
inloreet, (Harduin. toI. v., p. 827. c. 6)— 
against their hannting UTems, (p. 830. c. 14) 
— against their practising magic, (831, e. 18) 
— againil their receiving bi^i to ordain 
improper persona, (p. 831, e. 31) — bishope, 
abbots, and abbeaees, are foibidden to keep 
packs of hounds, or hawka and falcons, (p. 
846, c. lG}.~Law> were also enacted 
against clerical drunkeimeBS, (p. 968, c. 14) 
— concubinage, (ibid., c. IS) — taTem-hannt- 
ing. (p. 9S9, c. 19)—^ pmlane fwearing, 
(ibid-, c. 20).— TV.} 

(3) JuliiiM Caiar (de Bella (3allico, h1). 
vi., c. 12, 13) aaya: "TbeSnudi are in 
great hoDour among them : foi Ibey deter- 
mine almost sU controversies, pnUic arkd 
private : and if inj crime ia perjMtrated ; it 
a murder is committed ; if there is a coateet 
•boot an iaheritaDca oi tncitories ; thef 
dedde, iiid delermiiM tba nwarda or pim- 


biahopB and mluistera of the new religion : and the CSmstian prelates and 
clergy, craflily and eagerly, seized and arrogated to theraaelves these 
rights. And hence originated that iiionatrous authority of the priesthoot^ 
in the European churches. 

§ a. To the honours and prerogatives enjoyed by the bishops and priests, 
with the consent of the people in the West, were added, during Uiis pe- 
riod, immense wealth and riches. The churches, monasteries, and bish- 
ops, had before been well supplied with goods and revenues ; but in this 
century, there arose a new and most convenient method of acquiring for 
them far greater riches, and of amplifying them for ever. Suddenly, — by 
whose instigation is not known, uie idea became universally present, 
that the punishments for sin whidi God threatens to inflict, may bo bought 
off, by Uberal gifts to God, to the saints, to the temples, and to the minis- 
ters of God and of glorified saints. This opinion oeing every where ad. 
mitted, the rich and prosperous whose lives were now most flagitious, 
conferred their wealth (wluch they had received by inheritance, or wrest- 
ed from others hy violence and war according to the customs of the age) 
upon the glorified saints, upcn their ministers, and upon the guardians of 
their temples most bountifully for religious uses ; in onler to avoid the very 
irkaoma pesancca which wciv enjoined upon dicm hy the prie8ts,(4) and 
yet be secure against the evils that threatened to overtake them after 
death. This was the principal source of those immense treasures, which 
,.• . from this century onward through all ttie subsequent ages flowed in upon 
the clergy, the churches, and the monasteries. (5) 

^ 4. The ^fts moreover, by which the princes especially and the no- 
bletnen, endeavoured to satisfy the priests and to expiate their past sins, 
were not merely jm'rate possessions which common citizens might own, and 
^th which the churches and monasteries had often before been endowed ; 
tut they were also pvhlic property, or such as may properly belong only 
^'princes and to nations, royal domaina {r^oMa) as they arc called. For 
the emperors, kings, and princes, transferred to bishops, to churches, and 
to monasteries, whole provinces, cities, and castles, with all the rights of' 
sovereignty over them. Thus the persons, whose business it was to teach 
contempt for the world both by precept and example, unexpectedly be- 
came Jhtket, Counit, Marquises, JttdgeM, Legislatort, totereign LortU; 
and they not only administered justice to citizens, hut even marched out 
to war, at the head of their own armies. And this was the origin of thosa 
gt^at calamities which afterwards afilicted Europe, the lamentable wara 
and contests about imettarei and the reg<dia, 

§ 6. Of this extraordinary liberality, which was never heard of out of 

(4) Sucb a* long ud severe faiU, tor- of i part of theii e*t*t«, pcnaltiei to U- 
tuns of the Wy, Iroqnent and lons-cantin- some. 

— 1 _;i. ■ ■- -'^ B tombs of the (B) Hence the well-known phraseology 

Qiid bj those who made "■ *- 

chnrchcB and the prieaW : 

. . . ^ . the offering, redtmphoiti* flJi _ 

be the mOBt iikiome tb micb ai had spent <!t\ita,fortkeredtmflioiio/tluirii)iilt. The 
their Uth without lestnint, amid pleas- propcilj given was likewise oflen called 
DIBS ind indulgences, and vho wished to jirctiam piccaUmm^ the price ef nn. See 
continoe to live in the ssme vaj. Hence Lud. Ant. Mvralitri, Diss, do redemptioiw 
the opulent most eageilj ambiaced this peccatoi., in his Antiqoitalea Ilal. ntedii 
usw method of ahuniung, b; (be sacrifice ten, torn- v., p. 71S, die. 


Eun^ie, not the yestige of (tn example can be found anterior to this cen- 
tut;. There can therefore be no doubt, that it grew out of the cuatonis 
of the BuTopeaoa and the form of government most cominoii among theao 
warhke n&tiona. For the sovereigns of these nations, used to bind their 
friends and clients to their intereatB, by presenting to them large tracta 
of country, towns, and castles in full sovereign^, reserving to themselves 
only the rights of supremacy and a claim to military services. And the 
princes might think, that they were obeying a rule of civil prndeoce in thus 
enriching the priests and bishops : and it is not probable, that ntperatition 
was the sole cause of these extensive grants. For they might expect, that 
men who were under the bonds of religion and consecrated to God, would 
be more faithful to them, than civil chienains and military men who werj 
accustomed to rapine and slaughter : and moreover, they might hope to 
restrain their turbulent subjects and keep them to their duty, by means of 
bishops, whose denunciations inspired so great terror.(6) 

^ 6, This great aggrandizement of clergymen in the countries of 
Eun^>e, commenced with their head, the Roman pontiff; and thence grad- 
ually extended to inferior bishops, priests, and fraternities of monks. 
For the barbarous nations of Europe, on their conversion to Chriitisaity, 
looked upon the Romish bishop as succeeding to the place of the supreme 
head or pontifi* of their Drvida or pagan priests ; and as the Jatter had 
possessed immense influence in secular matters, and was excec^lingly fear- 
ed, they supposed the former was Id be reverenced and hiwioured in the .. 
same manner. (7) And what those nations spontaneously gave, the bishop 
of Rome willingly received ; and lest perchance, on a change of circumstan- 
ces he might be despoiled of it, he supported his claims by arguments drawn 
from ancient history and from Christianity. This was. the origin of that vast 
pre-eminence squired by the Roman ponti£& in this century, and of their 

(6) I win bira qTiot« a Dotkeiblo nuue oi BeneientDiu, Spoleto, Ctpai, uid othen 

fran W^iam of Mabnakuy, in f^tSh in lulx, much wu M be feued, kTtu tho 

Bink de Geatia Kegum Angiie. p. 164, eitioction of ths Lombud mourchy ; ud 

,«iiiona the Scriptorei itram AngUcuwium hencB tn coofeirod ■ iirge poition of IUI7 

post Bedam, Fnoef , 1601, fol. Ho tbeie upon the Roman poDtifT, M that by hia au- 

Sves Lhe ccaaon for thoK grev donationa to tHority, power, and meoaces, he might delei 

e biabopa. " Charlerrif^e, in oider lo ihoie poweiful aod vindictive princea from 
ciub the ferocity oTtbose naliona, bei 
)n\j all the landa on the churchea ; 
inaidering chat mm of 
would not be ao liliely a 

Dounce latnectiDn to lb«r aoVeieign; and whoconaidBrawell thepoliticalcoDititutioo* 

mataorer, if the laity abould be iBbellioaa, and fonni of gavenunent of that an. TlM 

tho singy would be able to hold them in aggrandueinant therefore of bi^iopa and 

checic, by the terrora of eicommnnication, piieita, which we should natuially aaciiba 

and llw aeTerities of iheir diacipjine." — I wholly to lupentitiOD, <raa alao the leault of 

doubt not. that tun i> slited the true raMon civil prudence or state policy. On the sub- 

vhy Charlemagne, ■ pdnce by no meani *d- ject of txconrmutattttum, mentioned by 

pentitioaa, or a alaie of prieata, heaped upon Halmeabuiy above, we aball have aemalhiDg 

the Roman poattflT, and upon the biabopa of to lay hereafter. 

Germaoy, Italy, and other countries which (7) Juiivj Catar, de Bello Gallico, vt., 13. 

he subdoed, ao many eslalea, territoiiea, and His autetn omnibua Druidihua praeeat unna, 

riches. That is, he enlarged immodentaly qui mmmiim inter eos (Celtaa) habel aiulor- 

the power and reaoutces of the clergy, that ttelcm. Hoc mortoo, si qui ex rehquia ei- 

bs might by means of the biahopa, reatiain eellil dignitate, snccedil. Atai pluteapaies, 

and kup in' subjeciion hia dukes, coants, aufiigio Dmidma sdlagitur ; uonnanquam 

sod knight*. For iiiMbiim, fittn the dukes eliam annia de pdocipata cODlenduni. 


rLt powerin regard to civil ftBikirs. Thus that nxxt pernicious opinioo 
cause of so many wars Euid slaughters, and ^hich ealablished and in- 
creased Burprisingly tlie power of the pontifi^ namely, the belief that who- 
ever is excluded from communion by him and his bishops, loses all bis 
rights and priTileges not only as a citizen but ss a man also, was derired 
to the Christian church from the ancient Druidio supcrstititH], to the vast 
detriment of Europe.(8) 

i T. A striking examjJe of the immense authority of the pontifis in 
this age, is found in the history of the French nation. Pepin, the viceroy 
or Major Domus of Childerie king of the Franks, and who already pos> 
sessed the entire powers of the king, formed the design of divesting his 
sovereign of the title and the honours of royalty ; and the French nobles, 
being assembled in council A.D. 751 to deliberate on the subject, demand- 
ed that first of all the pontiff should be consulted, whether it would be law- 
ful and right to do what Pepin desired. Pepin therefore despatched en- 
voys to Zacharitu, who then presided over the church at Rome, with this 
inquiry ; Whether a valiant and warlike nation might not dethrone on in- 
dolent and incompetent king, and substitute in his place one more worthy, 
one who had already done great services to the nation, without breaking 
the ^rltte law T Zachariaa at that time, needed the aid of Pepm and the 
Franks aeainst the Greeks and the Lombards who were troublesome to 
him ; ana ho answered the question, according to the wishes of those who 
consulted himt This response being known in France, no one resisted ; 
the unhappy Childerie was divested of his royal dignity, and Pepin mount, 
ed the throne of his king and lord. Let the friends of the pontiff con. 
aider how they can justify this decision of the vicar of Jeans Cfcrui, which 
is BO manifestly repugnant to the commands of the 9aviour.(9) Zacharia^ 
(8) Though txr-ommiKualion, from tbe ud the pontiffs uxl luhopi did all rtev 
time of Cotul»ntint the Gresl.hBdgresl in- could Utcherish ind confirm Ihia error, whion 
fluentB among Chrirtiuw e-ttrj w&ie, jel wu to uwful to ihem. Re»d the following 
it had no where to great mfluence, or waa antact from Jutiia Cater, de Bollo Gallico, 
ao temfic and ao diatreasing, a* in Europe, ti., c. 13, and ihen judge whether 1 have 
And the difTerence between Buropiaji ex- miMahen the ongin of European and papal 
cetnmunicariim and that of other Chiiatiana, eiEOiuDUnicalioD. Si qui aut piiTUua ant 
from the eighth centpiy onward, <wa> im- pubticui lAuidum decrolo non atctit, aacn- 
menae. TbiMa excluded from the sacred 6ciJB intcrdicunt. Hcc poena apud eoa eat 
lilea, or eicommunicated, were indeed eterj giaviaainia. Qnibua ila eat interdictum, ii 
iriiere viewed aa odious to God arkd to men ; nuntero impiorum *c eceleratoruia habentui, 
jvt they did not foifeil their ri^ts as men ii> amnea decedunl, aditum eonim, termo- 
■nd (a citizens, and much leaa were kioga nemque defugiunl, nequidei contagionein- 
Snd princes supposed to lose their anthorit; commodi accipiint : neque iia petentibua iiw 
*- Tilts, by beiT^ pronouTKsd by bishops to redditur, neque honoa ullns commnnicatur. 
■ ' - - J-.-- ^dj ggg^ oa f^g momentous ttanaaelioii, 

Cktrta U Coinit, Annalea eccleaia Ftut- 
cia ; and Mtseray, Daniel, and the olbei 
op, ana especiaiijr or ins pnnce of bishop*, historiana of Fraitee and Germany -, bet ea- 
waa no loiiget regarded aa a king or a loiil ; pecidl)', Jk. Bai. Baimil, Delieaaio decla- 
BOT as a citizen, a huiband, a father, or even rationis Cleri Galticsni, pL i. p. S3fi. PtI. 
aa a man, but was coniidered aa a brute. Bnai, Dissertations bistoiiques et critique! 
Whatwaalhecauaeoftbia! Undoubtedly (or divera aujeta, Dias. ii., p. TO; Diaa. 
the following ta the true cause. Those tiew iii., p. 1S6, Load., 1TS6, 8vo, and the illos- 
snd ignorant proaetylee conCouDded Chris- Inoui Hm'.ifeihinu,HiatoriaimpeiiiGei- 
ri ,..^_ „i,j, (i,g ou GonMle manici, lom. ii., p. tSS. Yet lbs tnoaac 

' supposed 

■tfecta with iJh latter ; Roniah bislicips, it iageaenlly miaiqmeent- 


auccesaor, Stephen II., took a journef to France A.D. 764, and not only 
confirmed what was donei but also freed Pepm, who had now reigned 
three years, from his oath of allegiance to hia sovereign, and anointed W 
crowned him, together with his wife and his two sou8.(10) 

^ 8. This attention paid by the Roman pontifb to the Franlts, was of 
great advantage to the church over which they presided. For great com. 
motions and insurrections occurring in that part of Italy which was still sub- 
ject to the Greeks, in consequence of the decrees of Leo the Inurian and 
Cottttantate Copranymus agaiostimagei ; the Lombard kings bad bo man- 
aged those comniottonB, by their counsel and arms, as gradually to get 
possession of the Grecian provinces in Italy governed by an exarck 
stationed at Ravenna. Aixtulphat the king of the Lombards, elated by 
this success, endeavoured also to get possession of Rome and its territory, 
and afiected the empire of all Italy. The pressure of these circuraatan. 
CM, induced the pootiff Stephen II. to apply for assistance to his great pa. 
troD, P^mt king of the Franks. In the year 754, Pepi* marched aa 
army over the Alps, and induced Auti^AuM to promise 1^ a solenm oath 
to restore the exardiate of Ravenna, PcntapoIi9,(ll) and all that ha had 
plundered. But the next year, the Lombard king having violated his pmn. 
iae, and also laid siege to Rome, Pepin again marched an army into Ita> 
ly, compelled him to observe his promise, and with unparalleW liberali- 
ty bestowed on St. Peter and hia church the Grecian provinces, (namely, 
the Exarchate and the Pentapolis), which he had wrested from the gmp 
of AJstulphu8.(12) 

tbo French Jeny, - „ „ ^ . ... ^ _^„ 

Vel wen il Crut, it would only iiiake tbe The RonuD poalifEa eilend the euichiM 

gpe't Clime pcUst than it «u. [Sea given to Ihem u fu u poasiblB; otbencoi^ 

yicer't Lives of the Popea,ToL iu.,p. 331, UictittotheQuioweel litnltBthej on. Saa 

dec., ed. Lond., ITM.— rr.J Lud. Anl. MuTalmi, Droits de I'Empiie na 

(10) Amot^ mscy wrilers, lee the illus- rEt*tEccleiiutique,cap. i.,u.,*nd Antiqq. 
Ifiou* Buiuu. HiBtaria impchi GannBnici, Italicie medii aevi, torn, i., p. 84-08, 986, 
lom.u.,p'301,3GG,[indBOTwr,Liveaorthe 987. But ha ia more cautious in torn, v., 
Fopes. vol. iii., p. 362. — Tr.J p. 790. Tliis controseray csnnot eauly be 

(11) [This leiritoi? Uj ilang Ibe Gulf of aettted, except by recunenee to the deed of 
Venice, from tbe Po, Nalbwud u fu u gift Jiut. FoHUami, Dominio dell* S. Sed* 
jPermo; uideitetidedbacklalheApeniimea. >opn Comacchio, Disa. i., c. 100, p. 346; 
According lo Sigomut, (td enn. 75S, lib. c. 67, p. S43, lepreaenli the deed of gift as 
iit), iheEzOiTchaU included the cities of dill in eiistence ; uid he quolea pome wonU 
£a*e»u, Bolopia, InwU, Fatma, Forlim- from it. The fact ia acaicely credible ; yst 
popati, Fotli, Cutna, Boibu/, Ferraia, Co- if it be true, it is unquestionably not for ths 
tMOfiUo, .itdria, Ccrvia, and Secchia, The interest of tbe Romish church to have thii 
PenUpali). now the Marca i'Anctma, com- important ancient document come to light. 
jmheiided Jitmnn, PeirirD, Conca, Fano, Si- Nor could thoie who defended ibe intereata 
nigtgiia, Ancima, Oiima, Numana, Jtti, of the pontiff againal tlie emperor Joseph, in 
FatKmbrinu, MuntfdlTc, Urhino, Cagli, theconlToreisyrcfpectinglhefartresaof (^ 

Luctolo, and Eugubin. The whole leiritoT; macchio, in our age, be persuaded to tx 

night be ISO muea long, and from 60 to SO forward, though challenged to do it ty ina 

nika broad. — Tt.] emperor'a adyocatei. Fra-ncit BUticmiatt 

(13) S« Car. Sigmaiu, de regiM ItaliM, howerar, in hia Prolegomena ad Antataaimn 

lib. iii., p 30), &c.. Opp., tom. it. Hmry de vitia FontiGeum Rotn., p. 66, baa givan 

count it Binuoi. Hiatnia Imperii Geimani- ua a apecimen of this^nt, which beara lb* 

a. torn, ii., p. 301, 869. Ituralori, Annali maika of uitiqaitj. The motive which led 

d'ltalia.tom.iv., p.81(^d(«.,udmui}r'otlf PqiintoUuipwtlib«nlit]r,wM,asafp«MS 


^ Q. After the death of Pepin, Detideriiu the king of the Lombanb 
again boldly inraded the patrimony of St. Peter, namely, the territories 
given by the Franks to the Romish church. Hadrian 1., who was thm 
pontiff, tiad recourse to CharlM afterwards called the Great, [CluTle- 
wagnel, the son of Pepin. He crossed the Alps with a powerful army, in 
the year 774, overturned the empire of the Lombards in Italy, which had 
stood more than two centuries, tran«>orted king DenderUu into France, 
and proclaimed himself king of the Lombards, Iq this expedition, when 
Chark* arrived at Rome, he not only confirmed the donations of his fa- 
ther to St. Peter, but went farther ; for he delivered o»er to the pontifia 
to be possessed and governed by them, some cities and provinces of Italy 
which were not included in the grant of Pepin. But what portions of 
Italy Charles thus annexed to the donation of his father, it is very difficult, 
Bt this day, to ascertain.(13) 

§ 10. By this munificence, whether politic or impolitic I leave to others 
to determine, Charlea opened hia way to the empire of the West; or 
rather to the title of emperor of the West, and to supreme dominion over 
the city of Rome and its territory, on which the empire of the West was 
thouf^ to depend.(14) He had doubtless long had this object in view ; 

fa>m noniaoiK tattimODiet, to make expit- jecti k> long imolTed in obmuitf. Tb* 

tiaDtbilu>suia,uide*peciiUjthegieitBiDlu matiS Adrian iffinns, Ibti the object of 

Ind coQunilted inioil bis niutei Ckilderit. Chulot in liiia new doDilioD, nu, Id atone 

<IS} See Car. Sigomut, ie Regno Itoliae, for hit lau. For he thug wiites to CharU- 

l.iii,,p-S33,&c.,0|)p.,tDm.ii. Henrycount ma^w, in the nmtnr-ueond Epiitle of tha 

de BuTiau, HiBloiin Imperii Gennin., torn. Ciroline Codei, in Mumtori'M Scriptor. m. 

ii., p. 368, &c, Ptier it Marco, de Can- Italicu., lorn, iii., put ii., p. 265 : " Veni- 

c<nd» ucerdotii et imperii, lib, i., cip, lii,, entea id noa de Capni, qaun Betto Petra, 

f. 67, &«. hoi. Ant. M-aralori, Draiti de Apoitoloium Frincipi, pro vurcede anirnac 

Empire >nr I'Eta EccleiiaBlique, np. Ii-, vatnt itqae >empiteni& memorii, earn c«- 

p. 147, dec. Htm. Ctmringiat, ia impe- IpiiiciTitatibue obtulisliB." Ihavenodoabt 

Tio Romino-Germui., up. yi. [Baieer'i that Chirlei, who wLahed to be tccounled pi- 

IJTei of (he Pope*, vol. ill., l.i{e o( Hadnan ous according to the eattnutei of tlutiee,ex- 

I.], and numeroBs others. Concerning the pieued Ihii deiign in hii Inneferor deed of 

extent of CharlemagTU^t new donation lo gift. But a penon acquainted with Chaiici 

the popes, there ii £e ume waim cooteat and with the hiatoty of ihoae timea, will not 

between (be pilrona of the papacy and those raadil;r beliefe thai ihie was hie only motive. 

oT the empite, as ihero ia le^iectiiig Ptpn't By that donation, Charles aimed to prepara 

donation. The adiocales lor the ponliffa the way for attaining the empire of the Weat, 

maintain, that Coraiea, Sardinia, Sicily, ihe which he was endeaTouring to secure. (Ibi 

tenilnry of Sabino, the duchy of Spoleto, he waa most ambitious of glory and domic- 

iMudes many other (nets of couDtry, were ion,) but he could not honourably obtain hia 

Mated by the very pious Charlemagne lo object in the existing state of things, withotit 

Peter, But the advocates for the claims the concurrence and aid of the Roman pon- 

. Ji Italy, by increu- 
new pmiii. Hiium nanow umiw. On this iog thepossessione of the holysee. On thia 
■ubject, the reader nay consult the writers point I have already touched in a preceding 
of ihe present age who have poblisbedworks note; and I think, whoever carefully con- 
on the claims of the emperors and the popes aiders all die circumatarKes of Ihe case, will 
to the cities of Comaccbio and Florence, and coincide with me b judgment, 
the dacluea of Parma and Pliceotia ; but (14) In reality, CHarltM was already em- 
eapecially the very learned lieatise of Berret, peror of the Weat ; that ia, the most' pow- 
cnlilled Diss, chorogiaphica de Italia medii erful of the kings in Europe. He tberproie 
"" -1. '■' jwri- only lacked the title of emperor, and sover- 
them eiffn power over the city of Roma and tb« 

p, 33. dtc. The partialities of the wri- only lacked the title of emperor, and soi 

if I mistake not, have pievented them eien power over the city of Roma and 

*' eming in all cases the real facts ; adjacent country ; iwlh of wtucb In uaUf 

ea^ 10 M into Mi«i«i^»«, on nd>- obuined bv tho W of Lm III. 

from discerning 


■nd peifaaps hia &ther Pepin had also contemplated the same thing. But 
the circumslancBS of the tinnes required procrastiuation in an afiair of 
such moment. But the power of the Greeks being embarrassed after the 
death of Leo IV. and his sou ConatoH^tte, and when the impious Irent 
who wna yery odious to Charles had grasped the sceptre, in the year 800, 
he did not hesitate to carry his designs into execution. For Charles com- 
ing to Rome this year, the pontiff Leo 111. knowing his wishes, persua- 
ded the Roman people, who were then supposed to be free and to bare the 
right of electing an emperor, to proclaim and constitute him emperor of 
the Weat.(15) 

^ II. CAorfe*, being made (mperor and sovereign of Rome and its ter- 
ritory, reserved indeed to himself the supreme power, and the prerogatives 
of sovereignty ; but the beneficial donunion, as it is called, and subordinate 
authority over the city and its territoryrhe seems to have conferred oa 
the Romish church.(16) This plan was undoubtedly suggested to him by 
the Roman pontiff; who pereuaded the emperor, perh^>a by showing him 
some ancient though forged papers and documents, that Cotutantme the 
Great, (to whose place and authority Charles now succeeded), when he re- 
moved the seat of empire to Constantinople, committed the old seat of em- 
pire, Rome and the adjacent territories, or the Roman dukedom, to the 
possession and goremment of the church, reserving however his imperial 
prerogatives over it ; and that, from this arrangement and ordinance of 
Comtantine, Charles could not depart, without incurring the wrath of God 
and St. Feter.(17) 

(16) See the bistoriuii of thoie timet, Ducchio, Din. i., c. 95, 96, dec.), uti th* 

and upecbillj the beei of ibem >11, Bwiaat, otbei Rdiociie* of ^e Rjimui pootifTB, that 

HiiUriB Impeiii Ronuno-Gemunici, torn. CharUt tuataiaed at R«me, nol the chiricHc 

ii., p. 637, &c. The idiocateg of the Ri>- of a aoTereLgD, but that oSfotrim of the Ro- 

aan penUS* tell ua, Uiat Leo III., b; vmue miah church, lehnquisbing the entire •orar- 

of the eupreme powei widi which hewat di- eigntf to the pontiffa. And yet, to declare 

vinet; clothed, conferred the empin of the the nhale truth, it a cleat, that the power of 

Weal, after it wat taken fiom the Oieeka, the Roman poctiff in the city and tenitorf 

upon the French nation and upon Charlti of Rome, wai gteat ; tod tlut he decreed 

their king ; and hence the; infer, that the and peifoimed many thinga, according to hia 

Reman pontiff, aa the Ticarof Chriil, ii the pleasure and aa a aovercign. But thelimHa 

•oieraen lord of the whole earth, as well aa of hta power, and the foundatiooi of it, an 

ol the Roman empire; and that all emperora littleknown.andmncbcontrorerted. JVuro- 

reign by hie autbonly. The abiotdity of tori (Droiu de i'Empiie, p. 103) maintain*, 

ihii maoning it learnedly eipoied by Frtd. that the poDtiff perfotmed the functiont at 

Spanieim, de ficta Iranalatiano imperii in an txarch or cicerDy of the emperor. But 

Ctiolum M. per Leooem III., in hia 0pp., Ihit opinion waa veij oSenaive to CUntnl 

torn. ■■-> p- 667. [See alao Boietr't LiTea XI. ; nor do I regard it at correct, Aftat 

of the ropta, Tol. iii., Life of Leo III.] coniidering all the circumatances, I aoppoae 

Other writen need not be named. the Roman pontiff held the Roman pronnee 

(16) That CluTla rfltjud the tupreme ar>d city bj the aame tenure aa he did Iba 

power OTer the city of Rome and ita tetrito- eiarebate and the other territoriea given him 

ly, that he adminiatend justice there by hia by CharUi, that it, aa a fit/; yet with leti 

jodget, and indicted pnnithments on male- circumectibed powera tlum ordituiy fendtl 

lacton, and that be eiercited all the pre- tenures, on account of the digni^ of the ci^, 

rogatiTea of sorereignly ; leanwd men hive which waa ooce the capitoT or the seat ti 

demonstrated, by the most unexceptionable empire. This opinion recaivea much cOD- 

Ualimony. See only MuTaiari, Droit* de finnalion from the statements which will ha 

I'Empire sur I'Etat Ecdes,, cap. ii., p. 77, made in the following note ; and it reconeilaa 

Indeed, they only ahnnd the light tn the jarring teatimoniea of the ancient writen 


§ 12. Amid these yarious accessions to their f>ower and influ^ice, the 
Roman pontifb experienced however, from the Greek emperors, no incon- 
aiderable loss both of revenue and dignity. For Leo the Isaurian, and his 
son CoMtaniine Copronymus, being exceedingly offended with Gregory II. 
and III. on account of their zeal for holy images, not only took from them 
the estates possessed by the Romish church in Sicily, Calabria, and Apu. 
hMf but also exempted Uie bishops of those territories, and likewise all the 
Movinces of Illyricum, from the dominion of the Roman pontifis, and placed 
Uiem under the protection of the bishop of Constantinople. Nor could the 
pontiffs afterwards, either by threats or supplications, induce the Greek em« 
perors to restore these valuable portions of St. Peter's patrimony. (18) 
This was the first origin, and the principal cause, of that great contest be- 
tween the bisWps of Rome and of Constantinople, which in the next cen. 
tury severed the Greeks from the Latins, to the great detriment of Chris. 
tianity. Yet there was an additional cause existing in this century ; name, 
ly, the dispute concerning the procession of the Holy Spiriij of which we 

ConttarUine^s pretended grant was pofterior dignatai est : ita et in his vestris felicissimis 

to this period ; and that it was fo^^ per- temporibas atqne nostris, sancta Dei ecclesia 

Ittps in the tenth centory. But I believe genninet—et amplius, atque amnios ezaltatm 

it existed in this century ; and that Hadrian -permaneat — Quia ecce novus Christianiasi- 

and his successor Leo III. made use of it, mus Dei Canstantimu Imperator (N.B. 

to persuade CharUs to conrej feudal power Here the pontiff denominates Charlet^ who 

over the city of Rome and its territory, to the was then only a king, an emperor^ and com* 

Romish church. For this opinion, ws have pares him with CaiuUuntint) his temporibus 

the good authority of the Roman pontiff him- surrexit, per quem omnia Deus sanctae suae 

self, Hadrian I., in his Epistle to Charle- ecclesiae — largiri dignatus est. Thus far, 

maene ; which is the xlix. in the Caroline he speaks of Constantine^a donation. Next, 

C<3eZy published in MwraiorVa Rerum Ital- the pontiff notices the other donations ; which 

icar. Scriptores, tom iiL, pt. ii., p. 194 ; and he clearly discriminates from this. Sed et 

which well deserves a perusal. Hadrian cuncta alia, quae per diversos Imperatores, 

there exhorts Charles, who was not yet em- patricios, etiam et alios Deum timentes, pro 

peror, to order the restitution of all the ffrants eorum animae mercede et venia peccaiorumy 

which had been formerly made to St Peter in partibus Tusciae, Spoleto sen Benevento, 

and the church of Rome. And he very atque Corsica, simul et Pavinensi patrimo- 

eleariy distinguishes the grant of Ccnstan- nio, Beato Petro Apostolo, — concessa sunt, 

tine from the donations of we other emperors et per nefandam ffentem Longobardorum per 

aod princes ; and what deserves particular annorum spatia abstracta atque ablata sunt, 

notice, he distinguishes it from the donation vestris temporibus restituantur. The pontiff 

of Pepin, which embraced the exarchate, adds in the close, that all those grants were 

and from the additions made to hia father'a preserved in the archives of the Lateran ; 

grants by Charlemagne : whence it follows and that he had sent them by his ambassa- 

eonclusively, that Hadrian understood Con* dors to Charlemagne. Undo et plures do- 

tttmtin^a grant to embrace the city of Rome nationes in sacro nostio scrinio Lateranensi 

and the territory dependant on it. He first reconditaa habemus ; tamen et pro satisfac- 

mentions the grant of Comtaniine the Great, tione Christianissimi regni vestri, per jam 

thus : Deprecamur vestram excellentiam-— fatos viros, ad demonstrandum eas vobis, 

pro Dei amore et ipsius clavigeri regni coe- direximus ; et pro hoc petimus eximiam 

lorum — ut secundum promissionem, quam Praecellentiam vestram, nt in integro ipsa 

pelliciti estis eidem Dei Apostolo, pro ani- patrimonia Beato Petro et nobis restituere 

IMK W9trae mercede et stabilitste regni ves- jubeatis. — By this it appears, that Conetan' 

tri, omnia nostris temporibus adimpTere ju- tineas grant was then in the Lateran archives 

beatis. — Et sicut temporibus Beati SUvestri of the popes, and was sent with the others 

Bmnani Pontificis, a sanctae recordationis to Charlemagne. 

piissimo ConetanhnoMtgoo Imperatore, per (18) See Mich, le Quien's Oriens Chris* 

ejus largitatem (see the jo^rant of Omstantine tianus, tom. i., p. 96, dec. The Greek wri. 

itself) sancta Dei cathohca et apostolica Ro- ters also, as Thtophanes snd others, te* 

BiMBa ecclesia elevata at()ue exaltata est, et knowledge the fact, but diffw a Utile in 

frtiifsfiw in his Hssporiae partibiis Uargiri respect to the cause. 


ahalt treat in its proper pl&oe. But this perhaps might hsTB been easily 
acljusted, ifthe bishops <^ Rome and CoDfltantinople hod not become involv- 
ed in a contest respecting the limits of their jurisdictioQ. 

§ 13. Monastic discipUne, aa all the writers of that age t«stiiy, was eo. 
tirely prostrate both in the Bast and the West. The best of the Oriental 
monlu, were those who ii ved an austere life remote ttom the intercourse of 
men in tiie deserts of Egypt, Syria, and Meaopotamia ; and yet among then^ 
not only gross ignorance, but also &natical stupidity and base superstition, 
often reigned. The other monks, in the neighbourhood of the cities, not 
unfrequently disquieted the state ; and Cotulantine Copronymus and othet 
emperors, were obliged to restrain them repeatedly by severe edicts. Most 
of the Western monks now followed the rule of Si. Benedict ; yet there 
were monasteries in various places, in which other rules were preferred, (19) 
But when their wealth became increased, they scarcely observed any rule ; 
and they gave themselves up to gluttony, voluptuousness, idleness, and other 
vices.(20) Charlemagne attempted to cure these evils by statutes ; but ha 
effected very liltle.(21) 

§ 14. This great corruption of the whole sacred order, produced in ibe 
West a new species of priests, who were an intermediate class between 
the fliowb, or the nguiar clergy as they were called, and the secular priesit. 
These adopted in part the discipline and mode (MT life of monks, that ist 
tfaey dwelt under the same roof) ate at a common table, and joined in uni- 
ted prayer at certain hours ; yet they did not take any now upon them, 
like the monks, and they performed ministerial fimctions in certain diurch. 
es. They were at first called the Lord's brethren (fratres Dominici) ; but 
afterwards took the name of eantmi (canoiuci).(22) The common opinion 
attributes the institution of this order to Ckrodegattg, bishop of Metz : uo> 
is this opinion wholly without foundation. (23) For although there were, 
anterior to this century, in Italy, Africa, and other provinces, convents of 
priests who lived in the manner of comma ;(24) yet Chrodegang, about the 

(IS) Sea Jo. Maiiilm, Pnef. ul Acts nsiiiie delicili vel KntTilitatilnu mixta, &«, 

Sucta. otA. BeiMdicti, wee. i., p. ziiv., — Tr ] 

ud sue. IT., pt. i., p. nri., &c. (3S) See Le Beuf. M^oireg cur I'Hic 

(30) MaMlloti tcMU ingenuoDiljr of llui toire d'Aoxsirs, lom. i., p. 171, Pari*, 1743, 
oonaptioD of the monki, lod of iu ciuaei, 4to. 

U the ifaoTa work, Prtef. td Saecul. iv., pt (S3) For id accoont of Chrodegang, MS 

i., p. liiT., dec. tba Htitotre liUeriire deli France, torn, ir., 

(31) Seethe CajntuJoris or Chirlemigne, p. 138. Aug. Calmt, HiMoir* de Lar> 
pobliebed b; Ba/uic j torn, i., p. 148, 157, nine, torn, i., p. GI3, du. AcU Sancto- 
S87,86S,366, du:.,3T5,60B,andinvinoiu mm. totn. t., Mutii, p. 45S. The rale 
other placet. Theae numerous Uir*. ao oti- which be prescribed in hii cuwii*, may be 
en repeated, pcove the eitieme perrerBeaen asen in Le Coinle, Amialea Fmucor. eccl*- 
of the monke. [See liao the 20lh. Slit, liutici, tom. T., ad inn. 757. 4 35, &c., 
and 33d cumiu of the council of CloTeaham, and in L<i^«'< Coticilii, tom. lii., p. 1444; 
m Ensland, A.D. 7iT, Mmulerii— noa [in tfardiiiii't Concilia, Ion, It., p. 1181, 
■int lodicnrum trtiDm reeepticuli, hoc «t, Ac.— TV.] The rule, u puhliihed bf iM- 
poetamm. cithariitimm. muaicorum. Kor- ect Daektry, Spicilegium letsr. Scriptor., 
ninm — Nan lint HnctimonialiDm domicilii tom. i., p. £65, ic., under the name of Chio> 
turpium conbbalationiua, commMsationom, depng. was the woHi of another peraon. 
eluielilnm, luinriaDtniinque cubilii.— 4fot>- A neat mimniiy of Ifae rule i> gi*en hy Joe. 
aatariile* ■iveeecleaiaatid.ebneUtiemiluB Lmgimtl, Hiatoire do I'EghM Gillicana^ 
am nctentar lut eipetanl—aed neqneahoe tom. ir., p, 436. 

cogaot intempennter hlMM ; aed pan «t (34) See Lad. Ant. Muratori, Antiqai* 
Bobria aint Mnim conrini, mn htsniiM^ tstM ItilicN nadii asvi, tODi. *., p. IW^ 

VouU.— D 


middle of this century, subjected the priests of his church st Metz to thj* 
mode of living, requiring them to aing hymns to God &t certain hours, and 
perhaps to observe other rites ; and by his example, first the Franks, aiid 
then the Italians, the EngJisli, and the Germans, were led to introduce thia 
mode of living in numerous places, and to found convents of canon*. 

§ 16. Supreme power over the whole sacred order, and over all the 
posaessions of the churches, was, both in the East and in the West, vested 
in the emperors and kings. Of the power of the Greek emperors over 
the church and its goods and possessions, no one entertains a dDubt.(2S) 
The prerogatives of the I.atin emperors and kings, though the flatterers 
of the popes labour to conceal them, are too clear and manifest to be con- 
cealed, as the wiser in the Roman community themselves confess. Ha^ 
dritm I., in a council at Rome, conferred on Charlemagne and bis succes. 
aors, the right of appointing and creating the Roman pontiffs. (26) And 
although Charles and his son Levna declined exercising this power, yet 
they reserved to themselves the right of accepting and confirming the 
election, made by the Roman people and ctei^ ; nor could the consecra- 
tion of a pope take place, unless the emperor's ambassadors were pres- 
ent.(27J The Roman pontifib obeyed the laws of the emperors, and ac- 
countea all their decisions definitive. (36) The emperors and kings of tbo 
Franks, by their extraordinary judges whom they called Masos, that i% 
Legates, inquired into the lives and conduct of all the clergy, the superior 
as well as the inferior, and decided causes and controversies among them ; 
they enacted laws respecting the modes and forms of worship, and pun- 
ished every species of crime, in the priests just as in the other citizens. (29) 
The property belonging to churches and monasteries, unless exempted by 
the special indulgence of the sovereign, was taxed like other property, for 
the common uses of the state.(SO) 

^ 16. That the preservation of religion, and the decision of controver- 

Sk. ; alio Lud. TkomaiiiTiuM, Ae Disciplina Sfana, de CoDcordii, Ax., lib. viij., c. 13. 

ecclesie vetere ac nova, p(. i., lib. iii., c. i>., Pagi, Critiu in Buoa. >d um. 774. Jfim. 

&c. The deaigri of Ihii uulitution wu tni- n, CoDcil. Snpplem., torn, i., p. 731, nid 

Ij eicellenl. For iu aiilhon, puned with WaUh'i Rictone del KiicheDiemmniL, p. 

tilt vice* ud defects of the clergy, hoped 473. — TV.] 

thai ttiii mode of lining would ibitnct the (ST) See Jo.MahiHen, CammenlK. in «t- 

cantecnled men from woridly cstea and dinem Ronunum, Muuei llaUci, lom. iL, 

buriiMu. But the event ha* showa how p. ciiii., &c. MaTolori, Droit* de I'Enk- 

much ihe hope* of these good men were dia- pire >iii I'ECat Eccles., p. 87, &c. 

q>poinUd. (33) Thit has been amply demonstrated 

(36) Tor -Ae aothority of the Greek em- by Steph. Balaze. Pnef. ad C^itulari* Ro- 

peron in religioue matleis, see Mick. U gum ^ncor, 4 xii.,&c. 

Qui'en, OiKDi ChriBtiinua, lom. i., p. 136. (39) See MuTMiri, Antiqnitatei Ital. ina- 

(26) Ajuutatiai make* mention of this dii aevi, torn, i., disa. ix., p. 470. Ftkik. 

decree, which is pieaerved both by Vie and dt Soye, de Miisii Dominicis, c. i., p. 44 j 

Gratian. The subject hu been discmsed c viii., p. 118, 134, 168, IBS, dtc. 

by very many. [Tbeeiialence of thiacoun- (30) See eapecially Jlfurstori, Antiq. Ital. 

cil, and of auch a grant to ChuleniBgne, ii medii aevi, torn. i.. disa. irii.. p. 926. Also, 

Tory uncertain. The earliest menlion of Ihe the Collection of various pieces in the con- 

OOUDcil is in Sigeberl't Chronicon, (ad inn. teat of Lnoii XV, kins of France, reqiecl- 

773). written about A.D. 1111. But the ing the eiemption of the clei^ from taia- 

paasage is not in all Ihe copies. From this lion, publiahed in Holland in seven TOlumea, 

questiooable aolhonty, Gratian transcribed under the title of: Ecrils pour et centre les 

bia account of it : (Distinc. !iiii.,c. S3, S3), Imtnanit^ pretendues par le Clergt da 

and also Ao, and tba othen. See Pet. 4* Fnaes, i U Haye, 17S1, 8to, &c. 


Mea respecting doctrines, belonged to the Roman pontiff and to the eccle- 
siastical councils, was not denied by the emperors and kings of the L^ 
ins.(31) But this power of the pontiff was confined within narrow limits. 
For be was not able to decide by his sole authority, but was obliged to 
assemble a council. Nor did the provinces wait for his decisions, but 
held conventions or councils at their pleasure, in which the bishops freely 
Bipressed their opinions, and gave decisions which did not accord with tlu 
views of the pontifls ; as is manifest from the French and Gennan coun- 
cils, in the controversy respecting images. Moreover, the emperors and 
kings had the right of calling the councils, and of presiding in them ; not 
could the decrees of a council have the force of laws, unless they were 
confirmed and ratified by the reigning sovereign. (32) Yet the Roman 
pontic left no means untried, to free themselves from these many re. 
Btraints, and to obtain supreme authority not only over the church but 
also over kings and over the whole world ; and these their efforts were 
greatly favoured by the wars and tumults of the following century, 

§ 17, Among the writers of this century very few deserve mucJi praise) 
either for their learning or their 'genius. Among the Greeks, Germanut 
bishop of Constantinople, obtained some celebrity by his talents, but still 
more by his immoderate zeal in defence of images. (33) Commas of Jeru- 
salem, gained renown by his skill in composing Hymns. (34) The histo- 
ries of George Syfice2&u(35) and The<^tu>Mt,[S6) hold some rank among 

(31) S«e CiMrlemagTU, ie Inuginibiu, (34) [ Csmuu wbi ■ nallTe of IIsIt ; c>p- 

tib. i., cap. jr., p. 48, ed. Heumam. tani bj Sancen pinUs, he wu cuiied to 

(33) AU tbeae poinis uo well illustnted Dimucua, uid theie sold lo the fathei of 
bj BttlHte, PneT id Cipttnluii : and by John Dunucenua, who made him pieceptOT 
the Capiluiaria IhemaelTca ; that ie, b; the to hia aon. He waa afterwards a mook in 
Lavs of the Freoch Idn^, And all thoae the monaitery of St. Sabu, near Jenualem ; 
wbo lutTe ducDased the nghti of kiags and uid at last, biahop of Majuma. He flam- 
princes in mstlen of religion, lake up ud ished about A.D. 730, and baa teA u* thir- 
illuatiale this gubjecl. See also Jac. Baa- teen Hymna on the principal feativals, and 
Mf(, Uiatoire de I'Eglue, lom. i., p. STO, apme olhet poems ; whicb are extant only 
dtc in Latin, and may be seen in the Bihlioth. 

<3a) See RithaTd Simeyi, Critiqae de la Fatr., torn. lii. See Cme'i Hiatoria Lit- 

Bibliolbeque Ecclesiail. de M. dn Pin, torn, terar., toI. i.—Tr] 

i.,p- 870. [Gtrmdniu was the ion of Jna- (35) [Giorj'e waa a monk of Conalanti- 
timiik, ■ patrician of CoDitantinopIo, sndwaa nopU. and lynciilut to Tarahiu the paUi- 
dqnived of his Tirilily by Conatantine Fog- arch. A ii/ncrMiii was a high ecclesiastical 
onalna. He was made bishop of Cyiicum, personage, the conslSint companion and in- 
and then patriarch of Constanlinopfe, firom apector of the bishop, and residsnl in ttw 
A.D.71GU.T30. During the four last yean lanu eiU with him; wheocs hia name, 
of his patritichate, he atrenuoaaly opposed aiymi^. See Du Cangt, Olosaar. me- 
the empeiorLeo, and defended image-wor- diae et inBm. Latiniialia, anb (oce Sj/nctl- 
ship nnlil ht waa deposed. He then n- liu. The Chionicon of George Syncellus. 
tired lo a peactfnl prirata life, till hia death eilends Irom the creation to the times of 
■bout A.D. 740, wheu he was more than Maiimin ; and is copied almost Terbatim 
ninety years old. Hia vritinga all relate to from the Chronicon of Euaebiua. Joi. Su- 
imagfr-worahip, and Ibe konour due to the tigfr made much uae of it, for recorering 
Tiriin Mary, and conaial of letlcra, orations, the lost Greek of Eua"-- -' - ' '■ 
and polemic tracts ; which may be aeeu in published, Gr. and I 
the Acts of the aecond Nicena conncil, the Oaar, Paris, 1BG3, fi 
Bibholheca Patrum, and other ccjlections. Litterar., lom. i. — IV.] 
Hia orationa in jvaise of the holy riitfin, are (3B) [ Thtopkana, sumanied /sooctiu and 
ascribed by aome to anothsr Gtrmamu, bisb- CmifaMOr, waa a Constantinopolitsn of no- 
op of Constantinople in the 13th ceotorr, h!e biith, born A.D. 858. L«a the patrician 
See CaK*! Hisiona LiUsH., ToL i.— IV.] obliged bimiil hi* youth to many his da k* 


the writers of Bj'zaatine history, but they must be placed &r below tbe 
earlier Greek and Latia historians. The most distii^ishnd of the Greek 
and Oriental writers was John Damaicemit, a man of res,b^table talents, 
and of some eloquence. He elucidated the Peripatetic phllo^pby, aa well 
u the acience of theology, by various writings ; but Iw fine native en. 
dowments were vitiated by tbe &ults of his times, superstition and exces. 
nve veneration for the fathers, to say nothing of his censurable propensity, 
to explain the Christian doctrines conformably to tbe views of JrMfol2e.(37) 
§ 18. At the head of the Latin writers, stands CAar^ftno^ne, the emper. 
or, who was a great lover of learning. To him are ascribed the Capita, 
laria as they are called, several Epistlea, and four bookt concerning wuu 
get ; yet there can be little doubt, that be oflen used the pen and the ge- 
nius of another. (38) Next to him should be placed Beda, called the Ten. 
ter ; bnl hit wife sod he agiMd lo bkTe DO CfajrMrrbu by the Grpeks, en accoant ot 
Butrimoriil inteicourse, md on itw detth of hii ikiqiience. and by ihe Arabs Jfannr, 
her fithei thejr Mpetaled, and Tbeophinea was bom at Damascus ceai the end of iLe 
became a moi^. He bad |ijreviously filled eeientl^ orb^nmngof the eighth cenluij. 
■everal imponanl civil offices oadet the em- Hit bther Strgiu*, a wealth; Chiiitiin, 

Kor Leo. He retired to tbe monaateiy of and privy counaellor to ihe katif, redeemed 
lychroDum near Sii^riana, A.D. 780 : many captives ; and among them a leamed 
and thence to the i Blond Cilonymna, where lulian mach named Ciunu, whom he made 
be conTciled hie pelemal estate into i man' preceptor to hie onlj son John. On the de- 
Bttery, aod spent an ;eais. Then letum- ceaae of hia father, John succeeded him in 
ing to Singriana, he purchased the estate office at the Saracen court. Abont the jear 
called the Field, converted it into a monaa- 738. he wrote nnmerous lellera in defence 
Ic^, and presided over it as the abbot. Tn of image-wortbip, which the emperor Lt« 
die jeir 767 be was called to the second the Isaurian was endeavouring to BUpprea*. 
Nicene council, where he strenuouslj de- Thia, it ia said, induced Leo to forge a tre«- 
fended hnago-woTship, Aher A.D. 613, Lea aonable letter from John to himaelf, which 
the Armenian required him to condemn im- he aent lo the kalif in order lo compais lb* 
age-worahip ; wlucb he reaolutel j refnaed to deetroctioa of John, The kalif ordered hi* 
do. In 815, or • jear later, he was impris- hgfal hand to be cut off John replaced lb* 
oned for his obstinacj, Iboo^ now in dc severed hand ; and by the inlerceeaion of 
cUning health ; and two years alter, was Ihe virgin Mary, had it perfectly restored the 
btnished lode island of Samothrace, where aame night. Thia miracle convinced the 
he died at the end of twenty-three daye. kalif of John'a innocence, and be offered 
The palrona of image-worship accoimted lum to restore bim lo hi* office and fsv our ; but 
a tonfetior, ami honoured him as a anW. John chose lo retire to piivale life. He a^ 
Bis ChninicOD, which embraces both the and gave away all hia property, and repaired 
civil aod eccleaiastical affair* ot the Greek to the monastery of St. Saba* near JeniM- 
empire, continues that of George Syncetluw, lem, where he spent Ihe remainder o/ hi* life 
fiom A.D. 28S lo A.D. B13. It is written in composing learned works on theology and 
in a dry style, without method, and with ni> science. Hia treatise* are Damrroua, eon- 
melons miatakea. The Chronic on of ^na<- aiating of Orationa, Ijettera, uid TracM, 
lanui Bihliothecariiu is a mere Lalin tiana- chiefly polemic, in defence of iosge-worship 
lation of tliis, so far aa this extends. Itwa* snd against heresies -, yet eeveral are dsvo- 
pnblished. Or. and Lat.. with the notes of tiona! and namtiTe. But fex of his phtlo. 
Gear and CartJirfit, Paiia, 1S65, fol. 8ee eophical woi^ have been pnbliahed. Hi* 
Cave, Hiat. Litterar., torn. i. — TV,] preat work ia, de &le onhodoia Libri iv. 

(37) See Piter Bayle, Diclionnaire Histo- fEndooic inpii^C r^r lipBotoiH nifiof), 
Tique, lorn, ii., p. 950, and Leo Allaliut' ae- which is a compltte syatem of theology de- 
coanl of hia wnlinn ; which Mich, le QuieTi rived from the fathers, and arranged m the 
has published, wiui the Opera Damaaceni, manner of the schoolmen. — TV.] 

Kd. Psria, 1713, and Venice, 1748, 3 vols. (38) See Ja. Alb. Fabneiai. Bibliothect 
1.— Also Da Pin, Bibliolh. des Auleurs medii aevi Latins, torn, i., p. 936. Hialoirs 
Eccles., tom. vi., p. 101, die. Fabrkiui, litteraire de la France, torn, iv., p. 369. 
Bibliotii. Gr., vol. viii., p. 772, die., snd [CWIoMfne was not only a great general, 
Sekratcth, Kirchengeschichte, vol. sx., p. and statesman, but likcwtie a neat pnmoMt 
SSS, A«.~Jtlm iMmaietniu, eiUad alto cf levniiig. Ha r Mi e sMd IdeDt* of do or- 


trdble, on account of his virtuee ;(39) Aletiitt, the prec«ptor of Charle- 
magne ;(40) and PdH&iiw of A<iuileia;{41) who were distinguished fbr 

iiatzj chanctei ; kod though hii tbtj aclire {Beda, ta Bedan (u Si. Bmi/aa cUb him], 

life 1«A him little lime for itady, he »u * was bom « Fuiow, near (be month of tM 

CDDBidenblc proficient in all the bnachea of Tyne in NoTthamtMrltnd, sod withiD tlw 

knonledgs theo oenenlly pnmieil. He an- tenitoriea of the maaularr of St. Petei, in 

deratood both L»t'm and Greek, m* well that place. At the age of aevea Tean, Iw 

read in eiril hiitorr, and wu no contempti- wai lent to that monastecy foi education ; 
Id« theologian. EginMard 
ke could nefei leam u « , 

undertaken it till too fat advanced il 

But if be conld doI wtite ■ fiii hand, he caaionally ii „ 

covid dictate lo hia anunnenw* ; aod by sniy purpoaei. At lbs age of 19, he ww 

(bliT aid, end that of the learned men wbom ordained ■ deacon ; and at the age a( 30, t 

be aiwan hid about him, be eompOMd and proebyler. He ira* a moat diligent ttudent ; 

compiled tcij much, and in a dmuwi that yet punctoal in obeerring the discipUiw (rf 

doH bin ginat aedit. Beiidia k gnat hi* monaiiery and atletiding ii« devoliotial 

number of Diptottuu, Dtii», and ttiSwIi, Bxarciaaa. Altbe ageof30,he commenced 

which are to be aeen in variout coneetiOD*, aotboT, and became one of the moat TOtmn*- 

W tboaa of Camtnu, Dutkna, DacMtr, Mar- nona writen of that aga. Hia woiki, pnb- 

hiliOK, dec., and numeroui Leltert, inter- liabed at Cologne. 161S, and again 1688, GU 

■fieracd in the later eollectioni oF Couneili ; 8 Tola, folio. Tbey coiwitt oT Comments 

Iw wrote a Prifuce to the book of Homiliai riei on the greater part of the O. T. and the 

fat all the faatirali of the year, iriuch Ftal whole of the New ; numeraui Homilies and 

Diaanau compiled by his oidet ; also a large Letten ; a laree nimibti of l^acla ; and an 

put of the EnclM, chiefly in relation to ec- ecclesiastical history of Great Britain, fnnn 

claaiaatical affairs, which are denominated theinnsionof Juliua Ceiarlolbeyear A.D. 

his Coptfulana. Of these the lirst four 731. .Bedd was a man of great learning fir 

Books, entitled CsnlaJarui ttw £dula Co- that age, of conaidenblB genins, aitd an 

nti MtgTii U Luaand Ph. were collected agreeable writer. Yet his Commentariea 

}>j the abbot AiutgiMiu A.D. 837. After- and theological Tracts are little more than 

vrards three Books more, were collected by compilations from the fatben. Aa a histo- 

Btiudiel Levila. The whole are beat pal^ rian, he was boneit but crednlous. As a 

lishad br BalHtt, Paris, 1B77, 3 vols. M, dinne, he was a mere copyist, following 

Tbe Coiac Carofnau ii a collection of nine- Auguttau, Grtgory the G^at, and the men 

ty-nine Episttea of incceesiTe popes to bim aoUDd Greek fatbers. Hia |>iety standi di^ 

to tbe popei ; made by order of Charlemagne valae, is bis chnrch history in fire Books, 
A.D. 791. This was published by Grelter, edited by Whtilotk, Cambridge, ISM, and 


., 1613, 4to.~The four Booka aninot still better by Smttk, it 

lOTship, (do Imaginibua], called also Beda't account of hia own lite and writiDn, 

, ilolare prohium, if not dictated en- in hia Hist. Eccles., lib. it., cap. 3 : also 

tirely by him, was at least drawn up in his Cawt't Hiatoria Littenr., torn. i. ; Mttbiilim, 

name, by hia order, and in accordance with Acts Sanclor. ord. Bened., torn, iii., p. 600- 

his Tiews. He csnaed it to be read in the G34, ed. Venice, 1734. and J. Miixit't 

council of Frankfort A.D. 7Mt where it wsa Church History, cent viii., ch. i.— Tr.} 

approred ; and be then aenl a copy of it to (40) Histoire Littenire de Is France, 

pope Hedhan, who replied to it as being the tome i*., p. 395. Nouieau Dictionnaii* 

wiirfc of ChatltmMgm. It was first publish- Histor. Crit., tome i., p. 133. A new edi- 

ad bj JoAr TiUtl iTilUt), aiterwudsbishim tion of the work* of AUiun is preparing in 

of Meaoi, A.D. IMe ; and last tn' C. A. Prance, by Ctulimt ; who bis discoTered 

Htumana, Hsoorn, 1731, 8*0. For tbe his nnpubliihed Tract on the Procession at 

nmuioeness of this work, see Scknttkk, the Holy Spirit. Seethe Hiatoirelitter. ds 

Kirehengeachichte, vol. xx., p. SS3, dec., la France, tome Tiil., Prefsce, p. i, [But 

•nd Cms, Historia Litterar., torn. i. — TV,] this edition, it appears, wis neTsr published ; 

(M) Concerning Beda, see tbe AcU and tbsl of Da Chant, Paris, 1617, f». 

Sanctor., (om. ii,, April, p.8BS. Nonaaa lio, continues to be used. Flacem Aleuin, 

Dietionnaire HiMotique Crit., torn, i,, p. 178. Akkain, or AUnn, wis a native of York, 

A catalogue of hia writiiigi, drawn up by England ; and educated in the episcopal 

bin>se)f; la extant in JfwmlDffsAaiiqDitatM school there. He wu wall acquainted with 

Italic, nadn aeri, torn. Iii., p. 815, die. Latin iiJ Greek; and sodm say, bsd a 


industry and the love of learning, and composed trealieea on nearly wesrf 
branch of learning known in their age, which show that no want of geniua, 
but the Btateof the times,prevented theirattaininghigheremincnce. If to 
these we add Bomfaee, who has been already mentioned ;(42) Egmhta^ the 
celebrated author of a biography of Charlemagne and of other works ;(43) 
Paul the Deacon, known to tAei ages by his Hutojy of the Lomhardt, Hit- 
toria Miscella, HomdiariMm, and some other works ;(44) AinbTOse AtOh- 

good Utte. Aa an cmltir, poet, phil(»0[jMi, ClarUnagiu, made lulor to hii »oaa, cbap- 

tnd theologuii|hewm« periupa the moMdu- UJn, priTy ccnmiellor, and phtale Mcnlaxy 

tinguiahed nun of his age. His writiiigs to the empenii. He wu also overseer ol tha 

consist chieflj of eipositiona of the scrip- royslbuildingsof Aii-ls-Chspelle. Wbeth- 

tnres, lelleis, snd liestises □□ theologr Rod eiliia vile Lflimn, or Inma,wxt the nstonl 

science. His exposilions, like those or&do, diugbter of Chatlemsgne. has been ques- 

tre Little more Ihaa compiLations from the tioned. A!\tr ihe had bcmrt him one chil4, 

fithen, particuluty from Avgattint. HIa they muluall]' agreed lo separate aod bettka 

letters are numerous, well wrilteri, and use- themielTes to monasteries. CharUmagut 

fnl for elucidating the history of his times, made Bgmiard his ambassador to Rome in 

Hia elaborate confutation of BttpanJut ii 606. In 816 he became abbot of Fonta- 

Dow hltle read. Being sent h^ hii biabop nalle ; and the next jeai, Z-tmit the Piou> 

to Rome, CliarUnegtu met with him, aitd committed hia son Loihairt to his instmc- 

becsme so pleased with him that he allured tion. In SlShebecuoe the abbot of Ghent; 

him lo his court, about A.D. TBO, made him and in 836, abbot of Scligenatidt ; itheia 

his preceplor aiid his counsellor, empltned he died about A.D. 840, He was a fine 

htm to confute the enorisla, Ftlix aiid £h- schalai, and as ahiatorian the first in hia age. 

paodui, and cotnmitled lo his caie Dot odI; Besides 63 epiatles. and several t[ac1s,ln 

the palatim school but several montsteries, wrote the Life of CharlemagTit ; which has 

and particular]/ that of St. Martin of Toun. been compared with Suelimtut' Ca>aara, fox 

To this monaatety be retired, A.D. 790, elegance : alao Annals of the reigna of Pc- 

then advanced iu jreara; there he ealabliah- pin, CharUmagnt, and LcvrU the Pious, 

ed s school after the model of that at York, from A.D. 711 to A.D. 839. The beat edt- 

■nd tpeM the remainder of his daya in high tion of his works is that of J. H. Sciviirtlct, 

reputation as a scholar and a dSTOUt Chns- Utrecht, 1711, 4to. See Cane, Hiatsriar 

tian. He died'A.D. SOI.— See MahiUim, Litterar., torn, ii., and Sckroedik, Kircheit- 

AcU Sanctot. oid. Bened., torn, t., p. 138- geach., vol. iiiL, p, ISO, &e.— Tr.] 

180,andCaDr!, Hiat. Liltcrar., tom.i.— TV.] (44) [PouJ Wandfnd, or Diacmnu, a 

(41) See Hiatoiie Litterairs ds la France, Lomlwrd I^ birth, and deacon of the church 

tom. It., p. 386. Acta Sanctor., torn, i., Janu- of Aquileia, was private secretaiy to Dai- 

tr., p. 713. [Pou/iRiu is said to have been dtriut king of tbeXombsrda. — When that 

• natlTsof AoslTia,andaeBlebnted grsmma- nation tiaa conquered by CharUviagtUf 

tian. dMrltmagne raised him lo ■Jmueoce, A.D. 774, Paul waa sent prisoner to Fiance; 

and then made bun erchbiahop of Aquileia, afterwards, being suspected of favounng iba 

in the year 776. From the year 793 to the disaffected Lombards, he retired to the south 

year 799, in connexion with Alcuin, he was of Italy, and became a monk at Mount Cas> 

very active in opposing and confatins the er- aino, where he ended his days some time ia 

lonof Felix and Elipaiidua,and msdeacoa- the following century. His biatory of th* 

siderable fignre in the councils of Frankfort Lombards, in aix Books, is of considerable 

and Foro-Julti. He enjoyed the confidence value. His histoiia Miscella in twctity-font 

of Charlemagne, and the respect of hia con- Books, is a meaaer thtng. The £[aC I 

'''■"""-"'■ ■ " ■ boseofEBf 

temporaries; anddied A.D. 804. Hisnorks Books sre those of Enfro^us, with some in- 

■r« nearly all polemic, in opposition to the lerpolatioDS. The next aix were composed 

AdoptioDiats ; nameiy, a Tract on the Tnn- by Paai ; and the remainder by some writa 

sgaioal Elipandua; three Booka against of even less value. Hia HomUiarium, ot 

ix ; with several Epistlea, and a few po- Collection of Homilies for all the Sundays 

ems. They weroputdiahed at Venice, I73T, and holy days of the year, m 3 vols. 4lo, 

fbl. Sea Catc, Historia Litlerar., lom. i. was compiled (not by AUuin n some snp. 

—Tr.'] pose, but by PaiJ) by direction of CharU- 

(43) (See above, page sixth of this vol- magnt ; and was inteiided lo afford lo preacb- 

oma, with Ihe iMla (3) tbace. — Tr.} «n who could not tniOB diaconrses, soma 


tint tbej might nod to their congregitioi 
The collection ia made from Ambcoee, A 


ftrt, who expounded the Apocalypse of St. John ;(45) and Theodvij^iu of 
Orleans j(46) we have nearly all the writers of any merit, who cultivated 
either sacred or profane leaxning.(47) 

Pontine, ininat whom Jekn Danuucenat 
wiola tn epiBtle. flouiished A.D. T4L Ha 

gnttine, Jerome, OrigeD, Leo, Gregory, Mei- ii lulhoi of ■ Tnct tgiiost the Jewi ; pub- 

imue, Beda, ice. Some diacounee were Ushed in •. tranalation, hj Canunu, 1^(1. 

idded to it, tftei the deith of Peal. He Antiq., torn, iii., and in the BiUioth. Patr., 

•1*0 wrote the life of St, Grtgmyiiie Gceit, torn. liii. 

in lb* Acta Sbdcioi, ord. Bened., by Mabd- Taraniu, pttnareb of Conatantinople. 

lm,u>m. i.,p.379,&c. See Cave, Histoiia He wu oftiable birth, uxl prirj counselloT 

Litterar,, tom. i,, and BeUamuTi, Scriptore* ta tbe emperor, when the empress irnie 

Eeeleeiaat., ed. Venice, 1728, foL, p. 268, A.D. 786 raised hitn to the aee of Coneun- 

&c. — TV.] tinople, and employed him to realore imaaft- 

(45) [Ambnit Aulkptrl, or AtUpert, wa* worahip in the Eut He presided io the 
a natiTB of France, and became abbet of St. aecond Nicene council, A.D. T8T; and 
ViDcent in Abrsno, Italy, about A.D. 760. wrote aereral letlera. eitant in the Collec- 
He must not be confonnded with u ibbol tioos of Cooncili. He died A.D. 806. 

of Mount Ciasino of the same name, who Btuti, biabop of Ancyra, a recanter in the 

lived in the ninth century. To himhaa been second Nicene council, A.D. 787. HiaRe- 

•tliibuted, the work entitled The'con£ict of cantation, for having; oppoeed image-worship, 

the Ticea and virtue*, published among the ig publiabed in tbe Collectiona of Councils.' 

wotki of Avgutliiu and also of Ati^Toit of Eliot, metrDpahtan of Crete, flourished 

Milan; and likewise some other pieces. A.D. T8T. He wrote Commentaiies on 

Bui his great work is, hu Commentary on Gregory Nazianien's Orations, still eilant in 

the Apocalypse, in ten Books. See Cave, a Lat, Iranalalion ; Answers to questiotia on 

Hiilolie Litter., torn, i., and JUo^iUon, Acta cases of conscience by Dionysius ; extant, 

Saoctoi. ord, Bened., lorn, iv., p. 334, &c, Gt. and Lat. His eiposilion of the Scak 

—TV.] of Join Climax, ia said still to exist in MS, 

(46) [Theoitdpkiu, an Ittlian, whom The Latin vrileri omitted by Dr. Mo- 
Ciarlemagne pBlrooieed. He firal made theim, an much more numerona, Aeca, m 
him abbot of St. Flenry ; and then bishop of celebrated English monk of York, who doui- 
Orieana, about A.D. 794. Lturit the Pious ished A.D. 706-740, and was an intimate 
greatly eatenned him, employed him much of Btda. He accompinied St. Wilfnd to 
M his cODIt, and sent him ta his envoy to Rome, became bishop of Hmutmi (Hagul- 
the pope. But b the year 818, being ens- stadiene) in Northumberland ; and wrote 
pected of treaaonable acts, he was deposed, lives of Ibe saints of his diocese ; eereral 
and confined to the monastery of Angers, lettere, &c. 

He died about A.D. 831, He wrote toler- John VIJ., pope A.D 705-707, has Ml 

able poetry ; namely, Catminum ad diveraoa as one £pistle, addressed to Elhelred king 

libri vi. ; beside* Poemsia x. His prase is of Mercia and Alfnd king of Deira, rer^pect. 

inferior to his poetry ; consisting of 46 Can- ing Wilfrid bishop of York ; in the Collec- 

nu for hia diocese, a Tract on baptism, and tions of the Councils. 

another on the Holy Spirit. Moat of the CoTulamine, pope A.D. 70S-7I6, ww 

precoling were pablished by Jac. Sirmond, called to Constantinople A.D. 710, t^ the 

Paria, 1S46, 8vo. Tinm ia still eilanl aa emperor, and treated with great respect, Hia 

elegant MS. Bible, which he caneed (o be Epistle to Brietwald, archbishop of Cantet- 

vrriKen, and to which he prefixed a preface bury, is in the Collections of Councils, 
and some poemi, in golden letters. See Gregory II., pope A.D. 715-731, ramone 

Cavt, Historia Litterar., torn, i., and Sdlar- for his opposition to Leo III. the emperor, 

mxn, Scnptores Ecclesiaat,, p. !t81, dec. — who endeavoured to suppress iinage-wor> 

TV.] diip. He has leA us fifteen Eplalles ; pub- 

(47) [Among the Giuk miuri wnitted lished in the Collecliona of Councils.— In 

by Dr. Matkan, were the fallowing : hii pontificate, the Liber Diunau, contain- 

JAn, patiiaich of CanstantiiKipb onder ing the ancient forms of proceeding in the 

PMip Bardane* Ibe Monolbelile, A.D. 813- church of Rome, is supposed to have bean 

816. Being deposed after the death of Phil- compiled. See Give, Histoiis Litterar., 

ip,hewrote an Epistle to the bishop of Ronte, tom. i., p. 630, to:. 

purging himself of the Uonathelile heresy ; F^ix, an English monk who flourished 

which isprinted in the CtdlecL of Couocila. A.D, 716, was a writer of some diitiitclioiL 

AntmUtm*, abbot of St. Gnlbymium in Hit Ufe of St. GutiiUe the anchorite of Ctoy- 


!■»], U kborg the ordiiuu; 1«t*1 of tlw le- 
SBDd* of thai (ge. Il ia in HabUlorL, AcU 
Stnctor. Old. Beaed., torn, iii., p. 366, die, 

Heddnu, Bumimed Slephit, ui English 
pieibyler and mimk, well iltiUed in cbiucb 
muaic. Wilfrid, archbiibop gf York, inri- 
tad him bom CBnIerbiuy, (o mMiuct hu 
clcigriniinging, about A.U. 730. Hecom- 
HMM ta eliborata life of aichbiibop Wil- 
hid ; which is in MabiUen, AcU Stuetar. 
ord. Beaed., torn. T., p. 63U709. 

Grifary HI , pope A.D. 731-741. H« 
punued ihe conteit begun bj hii piedecet- 
■01, ininet the empetot Lto III., aad il*o 
JDiited Charla Marlel to eid him agaioM 
lh« king of the Lombard*. He has lel^ ua 
*ii. Eputlea, and a CoUection from the ao- 
cicDt canoni ; which an eztuit in Htrdtiin't 

Fredegariut SchoUalicus. a Frank who 
flourith^ A.D. 740. wrote a HUlpry or 
Chrmum, it Gctii* Franeenm, from A.D. 
696, (where Grtgtni Turim. ends), to A.D. 
739. It IB commoolj anbjoinad to Grtgary 
Tvfcmtiu. Hialocy. 

Cuthbtrt, an Engliah monl of Duiham, a 
diaciple and intimate of Btia. He wrote 
the life of Btda; some letten, dec. 

Ztehariat, a Syrian monk, and popa A.D. 
741-T5S. He hai left us IS Epullee ; and 
■ Greek ttaoslalion o( SL Oiegary'a Dia- 

Ciroiifand, Chraitgang, oi Rodtgaug, 
k Frank of noble birth, educated in the court 
of Charlee Martel, and biihop of Meli from 
A.D. 712 to 766. He firal compoaad nilsa 
for regular ca none. See (/ 14,aiid aote (33) 
of this chapter, p. Sfi. 

WiUibald. an English monk, traTcller, and 
biafaop of Eichatadt in Geimany. He was 
ta usiitant of Si. Bomfut, add wnita hii 
life. See Dole (11), p. 11, abave. 

Sttphn II., pope A.D. 7fi&>767, baa left 
QB six Epistles, extant in the CoUectiou 
of Conacils. 

Itiiontt, biihop of Badsjoi (Pacenais) in 
Spun ; flourished A.D. 754. He continned 
Jaadut' sopplement to Jerome'i CbronicoD, 
ftam A.D. B09 to A.D. 764. 

PbmI I., pope AD. 7S7-?fi7. Titdre 

educated bj St. Corhmum, 
whose successiH and bio^ipbei he was. 
See ItahitUm, Acta Sanctor. ord, Dened., 
tool, iii., p. 470, and Mtuk^itck't Historia 
FriaingeiH., torn, i., p. 61, &c. 

Fl/mu, a monk of ^l. Trudo, in the dio- 
coae of Liege, who flourished about A.D. 
760, and enlarged Brda'i ManTiologium. 

GodticM:, a deacon and canon C4 Liega 
who flourished abont A.D. 7S0, and wrote 
the hfe of St. Lamben, biihop of Liege in 
this century. It is eilant in MabiUai, Acta 
Sanclix., dec., torn, iii., p. Hi, die, 

iSlc^Afn III., pope A.D. 768-772, has left 
HI three Episiles, sml sonie Decrees. 

Hnina',, or Adrian 1.. pope A.D. 77S- 
795, has lef^ us eighleen £piatles ; an Epit- 
ome of Ecclesiastical canons, addressed to 
Chsriemagne ; acoUection of canons, for the 
use of Ingtiram a bisbi^ ; and a letter, ia 
confutation of CkarlaiuigTii't Books againat 

DoBMliu, a deacon of Men about A.D. 
790, who wrote the life of Si. Truio ; ei- 
tant in Maliiilm, Acta Sanctw, ord. fienedi 
torn, ii., p. 1023, dec. 

Eihtnut, or Heieriai, bishop of Aiama 
in Spam, and BtaUu a Spanish preshytcr of 
Astoria, distinguished themselves by their 
opposition to ttie omH of Elijmidiu, which 
they endeavoured to confute in a work still 
axtaul, in the Bibliolh. Palrum. lorn. liii 

Lev III., pope A.D. 795-816, has left n* 
thirteen Ejiietles. 

Ladradyj, ot Ltriiadaii, bishop of Lj- 
ooa A.D. 798-813 ; was twice sent into 
Spain by Cbaitemagne, to reclaim Felii and 
EJipandus. He ha* left u* three Epistlsa, 
and a Tract on baptism. 

Jttit, or JaiitHM, or Timk, bishop of 
Amiebi A.D. 799-834 ; was much employ- 
ed in embassies, and in civil afliin, by Ctuir- 
lemaepe and hi* auccesaois. He wrote ■ 
long Epstle to his c1erg>. concerning sacred 
lites, particula^ in relation to baptism ; acill 
•ilaat, in the BihliotheM Ptltum.— Tr.] 




i 1 . The Chrutiaa Doctrine comipled. — $ 3. Tbe Pielr and Monli of this Ase. — f 3. Et- 
eselical Theology.— 4 *■ CSarltmagnt't Zed for Sacred Leiminff. — f 5. It led to neg- 
lect of the Bible.— 4 S. Mumer of treating Didactic Theology.- 4 T. Pnctical Theolo- 
gy. 4 g. Polsmic Theology. — 4 B. Origin of the ContioTen]> about Imacea.— f 10. 

FiogrBaa of it, under Leo the laaaiian. — 4 H- Conflicta of the Imioe-norBhippen with 
the Iconoclana. — 4 13- Progrsas, onder Copronyiniia. — 4 13. Under Irene. — 4 1^' CooD- 
cil of Ftaiikfbit. — 4 l"- CoutroTeraj respecting Ihe Froceiiioi] of (he Holy Spirit. 

§ 1. Th£ fundamental doctrines of the Christian religion were praseiT. 
ed, both by the Greek and the Latin writers. This will appear ucques- 
tionabte, to one who shall inspect the work of John Danuucentu on ihe 
orthodox failh among the Greeks, and the profession of faUh by Charle- 
magne among the Latins. (1) But to this pure seed of the word, mora 
tares were added than can well be imagined. The very nature of reU- 
gion and the true worship of God, were corrupted, by those who contend- 
ed for image-worship and for similar institutions with a fierceness that 
eitinguiahed all charity. The efficacy of the merits of our Saviour, all 
acknowledged ; and yet all tacitly depreciated them, by maintaining that 
men can appease God either by undergoing Toluntary punishments or by 
offering him giils and presents, and by directing those anxiotis about salva- 
tion to place confidence in the works of holy men.(S} To explain the 
other defects and superstitions of the times, would carry us beyond the 
limits prescibed in this work. 

§ 3. Tbe whole religion or piety of this and some subsequent centuries, 
consisted in founding, enriching, embeUishing, and enlaiging churches and 
chapels, in hunting up and venerating the relics of holy men, in securing 

(1) See CiiarUnagiu'i TreatiM de Im- nomen laneti angeli habere roerealur ; ia pro 

tginibua, lib. iii., p. 2fi9. ed. Heumann. hujuaiuodi, qui pro peccalia auis a Deo its 

Add. from amons the Greelu,tba Profeatlon corripilur. poterit impelrare : li de mullii 

of faith bj Mi3t. Syncellitt, published by openboi banii, quB operari dabnerat. nlleni 

BtrrA, de Monlfaitam in the Bibliotheca unnR baiotin opiu tjiu, quod tanqnam n^ 

CoisUniuia, p. 9(1. &c. — Froin among the rificium pro eo placabjie oBerat, nluerit in- 

l^oa, Ml Eipoiilion of the principal doc- venire. — Commenting on Pnlm iv,, he laya 

trinea of religion, by Btntdtel at Aniane, in of tbe worda Offer llu lacrifieei of righltmt*- 

Sttphen Biuut^t Miscellaniea, torn, v., p. nui, that they mean : Ita dico. uc irascinii. 

BS. and the Creed of Lio III. which he aeiit nt prateriti* peecatia, ut eaerificetii lacrifi. 

inlo the Eaat ; also in Baluxt, torn, fii., p. cium, id eat, nerlificctit propria vilia valrn, 

18. laeiendo fruetai dignoi poenitentin : (mNm 

(3) [We will qnole a few paaaagea, ii »McaprOMiiigiiiuv<ita0tigaiia,nauabaa 

proof. B*ia aaya (lib. i,, on Lnc.. c. f.}, digna eipelit poenilentia : jfusd eril Mcnjt. 

Decebat, at, iicQt per lUperbtamprinniDoe- dun jiuliHa, id eat juatum aaeriBciam. 

Un parentia more in mundnm intnTit, ita Nam nihil jnatioa eat, qnam qui ponit aliens 

denna per kumititUem Xaria Tits intniitQ* peecMU, Dt punif propria : el at qnisqiM 

penderetur. And (lib. iil, on Job, c. i.) bs tantnm** affliget, qaanloiD focdat^ ejna cod- 

■aya : Cum confectna homo alqoe conaiuiip- acienlia meroiC, et lie *■ ipeom Deo fiidll 

tDi morti et infemihboi mbnatna appropin- nuTe Naificimii. — ScU.} 

qoaToiil, si foerit q"^""' — — ' 

Voi-n.— E 


the patroaage of sainta with Ood, by means of gifts and saperstidoiu ritea 
and ceremooies, in worshipping the images and statues of saints, in making 
pilgrimages to holj'places, especially to Palestine ;(3) and in other similar 
practices. In these services, which were supposed to have the greatest 
efficacy in procuring salvation, the virtuous and good were equally zeaJous 
with tiie vicious and profligate ; the latter, that they might cancel their 
crimes and wiekedaess, and the former, that they might obtain earthly 
blessings from Ood, and secure a more ready admission to heavenly bliss. 
The true religion of Jesus Christ, if we except the few doctrines contained 
in the Creed, was wholly unknown in this age, even to the teachers of the 
highest rank : and all orders of society from the highest to the loiwst, 
nt^ecliog the duties of true piety and the renovation of the heart, fear- 
lessly gave themselves up to every vice and crime, supposing that God 
could easily be appeased and become reconciled to them, by the interces- 
sions and prayers of the saints, and by the friendly olTiccs of the priests, 
the ministers of God. The whole history of these times avouches the 
truth of these remarks. 

§ 3. The Greeks believed, that the sacred volume had been adequately 
e^kounded by their fbre&thers ; and of course, that by making compi- 
lations from the ancient writers conlaiaiug their explanations of the scrip- 
tures, both good and bad, they conferred a great favour od biblical stu. 
dents. How judicious these compilations were, will appear, among others, 
from the Commentary of John Samasceniia on St. Paul's epistles, com. 

S'ed from Chrysoatom, The Latin interpreters are of two classes. Some, 
e the Greeks, collected and imbodied the interpretations of the fathers. 
Beda among others took this course, in his expoatlion of the epistles of 
St. Paul, compiled from Augustine and others. (4) The other class made 
trial of their own skill in expounding the sacred volume ; and among these, 
Alcttin, Beda, Ambrose AtUhpert {the interpreter of the Apocalypse), and 
a few others, stand conspicuous. But they lacked the ability necessary 
for the business ; and neglecting altogether the true import of the words, 
they hunted after recondite meanings, which they distributed into the aJ. 
legorical, the afiagogieal, and the tropologieal :(^) that is, they tell us, not 
what the inspired writers toy, but what they vainly suspect those writers 
would sigmfy to ris. We may name as examples, AlcuitCs Commentary 
on John, Beda^s allegorical Kxplonations of the books of Samuel, and 
Charlemagne's Books on Images, in which various paasages of scripture 
are expounded, according to the customs of the age. (6) 

(3) [Such pilgrimigei were likewiu inida aria Aaglonim : quod inndilum est et tor- 

lo Rome ; anil the; were called jnlgriiaaget pilodo totiua eccleiiie vestne. See Har- 

for Chriil, and Ihe performerB of Ihem, Pil- dum't CoacilU, loin, iii., p. I960. — ScW.] 
grimt of Si. Peter. Many diiorden attend- (4) On Ihe CommenUtiea of Beta. ■«« 

ed these pilftrima)^. Hence Bomfact, in AicA. Sinum, Critique de la Biblialheqao 

a letter lo Cuthbtrt aichbiabop of Canln- Eccleiiut. de M du ?in. tom. i., p. 380, 

borjr, {to be found amons the Acta of the &c. See also hia EipoaiUon of Geneaia, 

eoancil of Cloieshoven, m England, A.D. derived from the fathera, in Martciu'i The- 

747), deaired thai wooiea and nnna might aaur.Anecdot.. lorn. i.,?. Ill, 116, 140; and 

be reatrained from Iheii freqaenl ptigrima- tiia Tnterp. of Habakkuk, ibid., p. 295, &c. 
gea to Rome, alleging thia reaaon : Quia (S) See Charlanagw, de lonagiiiibna, lib. 

magna ei parte pereunt, paucia remanent!- i., p. 136. 

Ima integria. Peipaocae rnim aunt civitilea (6) See Charlemagnt, de Imag., lib. i., p. 

in Longobaidia, lel in Francia, aut in Gallia, 64, 91, 1S3, 127, 131, 133, 136, 138, 146, 

m qoibua Don lit adultera vel meretiii gen- IGO, 164, IBS, &c., pawim. 


§ 4< CiarlemagiK'a revfirenne for thn autred volume was so great(7) 
that it went beyond due bounda, and led Um to believe the fundamental 
principlea of all arts and sciences to be contained in the Bible ; a senti- 
ment which be imbibed undoubtedly from Aleuin and the other divines 
whom he was accuatomed to hear.(8) Hence originated his various efibrta 
to excite ttie clergy to a more diligent investigation and explanation of 
the sacred books. I^aws enacted by him for this purpose, are atiU extant ; 
and there are other proofe, that an no subject was he more aincere.{d) 
Tbat errors in the Latin tranalation might be no obstacle to his deaignsi 
he employed ji^cum to correct and improve it:(10) indeed, he himself spent 
Bome time during the last years of ms life, in correcting such errors.(Il) 
Some also tell us, that he procured a translation of the sacred books into 
German ; but others attribute this to his son Lewit the PiouB.(12) 

§ 5. These e&brts of the emperor, had the efiect to awaken some of the 
slothful and indoleitt to exertion. Yet it must be admitted, that some of 
his regulations and plans tended to defeat in part his excellent purposes. 
In the first place, he sanctioned the practice which was introduced before 
his day, of reading and expounding only certain portions of the sacred 
volume, in the assemblies of worship ; and the diverse customs of the dif- 
ferent churches, he endeavoured to reduce to one uniform standard. (13) In 
the next place, knowing that few of the clergy were competent to explain 
well the Goapeh and Eptstiea as the lessons were called ; he directed Pmil 
Diaeomu and ^^ciun, to collect from the fethers Homilies or discourses on 
these lessons, that the ignorant and slothful teachers might recite them to 

(7) Idem: de Imagin., lib, i., p. 44. 
(S)Ideiii: delnugin.,lib. i, p. 331,236. 
(9) See Jo. Frick, de Cuione Scii^oi. 

... 137. HiM 
liUenila de !■ Fruice, lorn, it., p. 300, 

00 J«- Ali. Fairicnw, Bibliolh, Ut, 
mcdii aevi. torn, i., p. 960, dec. Jof, UtUr, 
de ucha et Scripluti* veniiciilis, p. 110, 
&c. [See Sc/iToecih't Kirchengeua., vol. 
D„p, 198, &c— Tr,] 

(13) [Sea Ihi Chtne, Scriptorea Hut 
Fmic.tan., ii„p, 816.— Tr,] 

(13) It mull be (cknowledged that (her 
niatake, nho nippOM the empeiar CWfe- 
ntagm liiaL (elected tho«e portiona of Ibe 
aured vol ame, which are •till read and ex- 
pounded ever^ jeai in the auembliea of 
Chriatiana, For it appein that in preceding 
ceoturiea, in moat of the l^Iin chuichea, cet- 
uin parttona of the inapiied booka vera aa- 
aigned to the aavsnl daji for poblic worthip. 
See Jo. Htw. Thamtr, Scbediaanui de oii- 
st dignitaie pencoparum, qnaa E(uu^ 
I- — '-- nilgo Tocaolur j which baa 
Deen aeveiai iimea ninled, Alto, Jo. A*. 
Buiidiiu, Isagoge ad TliaoUigiain, lom. ij,, 
p. 1640, &c. [HZ6, dK,] Yet Ciuirle. 
augni: had aomeihing to do in Ibii matter. 
Fw wbeieu bsibre llui tinw Ibe LUtn 

nine et dignit 

cburchea diSered, or did not all lead and 
expound the aame portiona of the Bible, be 
first ordained, (hat all the churrhea througfa- 
out hi* domiiuona ehould coorotm to tha 
cualom of the Romi^ church. Fai tbOM 
GatptU and EpiitltM, aa iitej are called, 
vhkta hat a been eipouoded in public wtn^ 
ahip from hia tjiaea to Lhepreaant, werented 
at Rome u eei^jr as the aiilh century : and 
it ia nell known, that CliaTlemagTU look 
paini to rendei the Romiah forrn of worship, 
Ibe common form of all the I,.atina, And 
bence, down to this day, those churchei 
which bare not adopted the Romiib rite*, 
nie for leaaona other Gotptlt and Epit- 
tU* than thosa of ours and the other Waat- 
era churches which Charles commanded 
to caoTDrm. The church of Milan is an ex- 
ample, which retains (he Ambniaisn ritual; 
Ukewiaa the church of Chur (Curia), ucoid- 
ing to Muratari, Aaliquitatea Ital., torn, iv., 
p. 636, and undoubtedly some others. What 
GorptU and EputUi were used bv tfas 
French and other Wesleni churches, oefora 
the times of Charlemagne, may be learned 
from the ancient Kalendart, publiahed bj 
JlfarteiH among olhere. Thenurua Anecdcv 
tor,, torn. T,, p. as, ajtd from B€da'i di»> 
course*, ibid., lom, v,, p. S38, dec. ; from 
MabUleit, de aniiqua Litntgia (jtUicaoa ; 
and 6om otheia. See also Wm. Pei/nt, 
Antiq. da U Chap, dn Roi de Piuca, p, CBS. 


Ihe people. Tbii was the origiii of what is c&Iled his HomUuaiian, or Book 
of HoniiIiea.)[14) And his example led others in thb and the next ago, to 
compile at their own pleasure, similar works for the encouragement of 
laziness among the teacher8.(15) Lastly, the emperor caused &e lives (^ 
the most eminent saints to be collected into a volume ; so that the people 
might have among the dead, examples worthy of imitation, white they 
had none among me living. That all these regulations proceeded from 
honest and good intentions, and indeed that they were useful in that age, 
no one can doubt. But still, contrary to the intentions of the emperor, 
they contributed not a little to confirm the indolence of the public teach- 
ers, and to increase the neglect of the sacred volume. For from this tim« 
onward, most of the clergy directed their attention exclusively to those 
portions of the Bible which were to be expounded to the people, and did 
not exercise themselves in reading and examining the whole volume of 
scripture. And not many could be found who were inclined to compoae 
their own public discourses, rather than resort to their HoniiMTium. 

§ 6. The business of discusung formally and ^stematically the doc- 
trines of Quistiant^, was scarcely attempted by any one of the Latins. 
For the ess&ys of some few respecting the person and natures of Christ, 
against Felix and EUpandut, and concerning the procession of the Holy 
^irit and other subjects, exhibit no specimens of thorough investigation. 
The whole theology of the Latins in this century, consisted in collecting 
opinions and testimonies out of the Fathers, that is, from the theologians 
(hT the six first centuries ; nor did any of them venture to go beyom the 
views of the fathers, or presume to rely upon his own understanding. 
None but Irish scholars, in that age called. Scob, employed philoso^y, 
which others detested, in the explanation of religious doctrines, (18) But 

(14) See, on thia subject, Ihe Teiy libo- cenCnr; uid Ihe follawing, Iriahnien or Scots 
tioni tod Icimed Jo. HeiiT. a Sulen, Selec. were lo be met vriib eveiywhera, in Fnoce, 
ti Lilleraiia, p. 353, {See t\ao Mabiliitn, Germiny, uid Ivily. discfavging ihe func- 
Annalea oid. Bened., torn, ii., p. 3S8, &c. tioni of leacbera w ' ' " ' ' 

—TV.] long ifnonnt, that Iii^i 

(15) /fft^ontu or Alantu, fbi eiemple, in tint nbo UDght teluJttl 

Ittliin abbol or FtiTi, compiled in thii nms rape -, mnd Ihat go eailj i 

centnrr i hage HonuUanum, ihs prefue U Ihey ipplied pbiloiopby to Ihe expliaitjoD 

iriiich wu publiehed bj Brmh. Ptz, Tbo- of the Chhitiu religion. The ficl I fint 

liDc. Anecdotor., Com.Ti., pi. i., p. 83. In leanied from Bnedicl of Atiiuie, some of 

(be neit centoir, Haymo of Halberatidt whoie short pieceiuepubluihcd bjSfepAca 

made up ■ Honidiarnmj which hii bean B<duxt, MiKellsneor. torn. t. He Bi^e, in 

minted. In the ume rentur;, Si^vat hia Epiit. to Gnumariu*. p. 64: Apudtttod- 

jVsunu, et the request of ths emperor La- trwu *cAo2iuluo>, (i. e-.taicheisotscboola), 

(Juitrc, tornied a Homilianum; uid likeniia nazrou aptid Sealaw, (lO thej hrld the firat 

HtneuM, mentioned b]t Ptx, nbi (upn, p. nnk imocw ■chool teacheni}, eti tytlogit' 

S3. All theH made uie of the Latin Ian- mu* dctimoiut ul dicanl, TrtitUalOK, tic^ 

goage. The first that compoaed a German perwmmm, tta tiic mbtltnlianm ; (by ■ 

Homiliuium, 1 aoppoae, nte the celebrated sj-llogiam which Benedict bera calls dtlKiitt, 

Ottfrid of Weitsenborg. See Lambtenu, i. e., aophisticil and fsllacioni, these Irish- 

de Bibliolheca Vittdobon. Augusta, torn, it., men proTed the Persona in the Godhesd to 

c. T.. p. 419. be ntwtancu ; but Ihe sfllo^sm wss a veiy 

(16) 1 WIS swue that Iriahinen, who in captioua one, aa appeals from what follows, 

that age were called Scoteknun, cultivated and brought Ihe ineiperienced into difScul- 

■nd amuaed learning beyond the other ni. ties) ; quatmii ti tuUtnicrU ilUchtt audi- 

tions of Europe in those dark limes ; that (er, T^tmlatem tttt Inum nhttanliaram 

ther ttavelled over Tarioua countries of En- Daim, triam dcrngelur atUar Dtorum ; n 
aaiUim dnuuril, jwrfomnm dettegtlor en{. 
fttuT. Hut is, thne philottqduo theslo- 


among the Gicdu /o&t Damiueemu, in hia four Books on the ortiu)de» faith, 
embraced the entire theology of the Christiuu, in a systematic tbrm. In 
this work, the two kinds of theology which the Lattina call teholtutie and 
dogmatic, were united. For tlie author uses subtle ratiocination in explain- 
ing doctrines, and the authority of the fathers in their confirmation. Thia 
work was received by the Greeks with great applause ; and gradually 
acquired such influence, that it was regarded among them &8 the only guide 
to true theology. Yet many have complained, that the author relies more 
upon human reason, and upon the fiiith of the fathers, than upon the holy 
scriptures ; and that he thus subverts the true grounds of thBology.(17) 
To this work must be added his Sacred ParaHele ; in which he carefully 
collects the opinions of the ancient doctors respecting the articles of fiuth. 
We may therefore look upon this writer as the Thomas and the Lombard 
of the Greeks. 

§ 7. Instructions for a Christian life and its duties, were given by no one, 
in a formal treatise. Jolm Carpathitu among the Greeks, left some Aorfo- 
lory ditcourtea (Hortatoria Capita), containing little that deserves much 
commendation. In the monasteries, the opinions of the Mystics sod of 
Oionyiittt Areopagita the father of them, received exclusive approbation ; 
and John Daremit a Syriac writer, in order to gratify the monks, transla- 
ted Diimyniu.(18) The Latins did no more thtm ofier some precepts con. 
ceming vices and virtues and external actions ; and in explaining theses 
they kept close to the principles of the Peripatetics ; as may be seen in 
some tracts oiBeda, and in the treatise ofAlcvin on the mrtuu <mdeice«.(19) 
To afibrd the public some examples of piety, several reputable men, as 
Beda, Florvi, Alcuin, MarcelUmu, and Ambrnxe AuApert, composed biog- 
raphies of persons who left high reputations for piety. 

^ 6. Only a small number in this age, entered into controversies on im- 
portant rdigious subjects ; and among these, there is hardly an individual 
who merits any praise. Most of the Greeks engaged in the contest about 
images ; but unskilfully, and without precision of thought. The Latins 
entered less into this controversy, and expended more effort in confuting 
the opinion of Elipandut concerning the person of Christ. John Damas. 
cenus assailed all the heretics, in a small but not a useless tract. He also 
contended resolutely, against the Manichaeans and Nestorians in particular, 
and ventured also to attack the Sarscens. In these writings of his there 
Is some ingenuity and sabtilty, but a want of clearness and simplici^. 
Anastatitit, an abbot of Palestine, attempted a confutation of the Jews. 

§ 9. Of the controversies that disquieted this age, the greatest and the 
giins perplraad ind uroubUd tbe[r hnrsn puriltU vitanda, mm eaplut* iiUajtehoiu 
wiLb tliii ijUogiim. It uy one uHnted Jtnfiuinim, teaeva impailimu nUtrpBlania. 
to their reiKning. they (Ci:i»«d him of (ri- The philoMphic or Scholattic Lhmlog;. ii 
theun; if ha rejected it, they ttied him therefiira mach montncient imenglheLtl- 
wilh SmitUisitim. Either gnnt ihtl ths in* than a cammoiil]i suppoied. 
thne Peiwnu in God an thiH rabituicee, (IT) Jt. Hemr. Hattuiger, Bibliotbses 
at deny it. If yon grant it, jod doubtleM Quidriput., lib. iii., ctp. ii., I) iii., p. 871. 
VB ■ lTitiui»t, and worahip CKnt Oodi ; if JVarfn Cfunantx, de oia at utiliute Locot; 

Km deny it, yoa dettroy the Penona, and coinmnn., p. S6. 
11 into SabeUianiDn. Baitdict atniwlj (18) Jo*. Sin. Atitman, BiUiotli. Ori. 
n^mhenda thii nibtlety ia theola^cal du- mtsl. Vatican., torn, ii., p< tSO. 
cnMioaa-, and recommeiMU the Ion ofaitn- (IS) ItiieiUnI inhii Woiki, ad. af.Al 
plicity. Sed hate dt fiit tt Miitu callu&- Chum, ton. ii., p. 1SI8. 
Islu wrMfis rjmpiidiatt JUti catkoHtM at 


most pernicious related to the worship of sacred images. ■ OriginstiDg ia 
Greece, it thence spread over the East, and the West, producing great 
harm both to the state and to the church. The first sparks of it appeared 
under PluUppiau Bardanex, who was emperor of the Greeks near the be- 
ginningof this century. With the consent of the patriarch /oAn, in the year 
712, he removed from the portico of the church of St. Sophia a picture 
representing the sixth geneittl counci], which condemned the Monotheliles, 
whom the emperor was disposed to fovour ; and he sent his mandate to 
Rome, requiring all such pictures to be removed out of the churches. But 
Conttaatme the Roman pontiff, not only protested against the emperor's 
edict, but likewise caused pictures of all the six general councils to be 
placed in the portico of the church of St. Peter ; and moreover, having 
assembled a council at Rome, he caused the emperor himself to be cod. 
demned as an apostate from the true religion. These first commotions 
however, terminated the next year, when the emperor was hurled from the 

§ 10. Under Leo the Isaurian, a very heroic emperor, another conflict 
ensued ; which was &i more terrific, severe, and lasting. Leo, unable to 

ift there good proof, that Lhe 

(SO) 9«a Fred. Spmktim, Hiitorii imi- 

giDum leatitntt ; wliich wu pabliihed both 
■epintely, and in hia Worki, Tol. ii. Jlfiutn- 
biiuTg'i hiitory of ihia conliOTBrey, in French, 
is ruU of bblei. Muralori, Annali d'ltslii, 
torn, i*., p. 221, &c, [For the hiatorr of 
thii conUo*eny, aee WalcVt HitL der Ket' 
lerejen, vol. i., p. 66-8SS, and toI. li., p. 
3-100 i tiao Schraecili, KiicbengEKh., toI. 
II., p. 513-603, ind vol. iiiii., p. 34&-4S3. 
The origin of lhi« conlroTenry, is not gener- 
■llj cuiied back to the coiliaion of Pltilip- 
picMt with the Romm pontlS', which lelited 
perhan whollj to (he docCrineB of the Mo' 

pontiff TCTilured 
peioT. See Boatr'i Litss of the Pop««, 
vol. iii., p. 180, 181. The roUowing re- 
marki of StUtgtl ue worth iniciting in thia 
place. — In order to underatand the hisloiy 
of this contrOTeray in ita whole eitent, it ia 
neceaattrr to go back to the earlier hiatoi; 
of the chuich, and to inTestigale the origin 
of image-noribip among Chnelians. It ia 
certain, and eien the unpuliil Catholica 
thenuelve* admit it, that in the three fint 
centuries, and also in the beginning of the 
fourth, pictures were very ratelj to be found 
unong Chiistitna. See Da Pm, Biblio- 
theque, torn, vi., p. 162. and Anton. Fagi, 
Ccit. ad annal. Baionii, ann. 5S, p. 43. In- 
deed there were Christian writers on monla, 
who diaapproTcd of a Christian's pureuing 
the tilde of a painter or alatuarf . See Ter- 
fu/Juii, contra Hermog., c. t., and de Idolo- 
latria. c. 3. Even in the time of the seventh 
generd council AD. TST. the uae of iJoJu* 
waa not yet introduced into churches ; aa 
qtpears from tb« aaventh Article of that 

council. Still leas did (he ancient Chris- 
tians think of giving vtorthip to images. 
The occasion of tnlrodacing images mto 
choRbes, was in a great measure tbe igno- 
rance of Ibe people, which rendered pictures 
a help to them ; whence they have been 
called the ptopU'i Bible. On this ground 
it WM, that Grrgory the Great eenaured 3a- 
tnu, biahop of MaraflTUea, who had removed 
the uicturee out of the churcbea on acconqt 
of Uifl miaase the people made of them. 
(•'tgary'i Epistles, lib. ii., cp. 91. Qvia 
etu [imaginei) edaraTt wluiiici, uniniiia 
iavJammai ; frtgiiMt Vfro rtprefuTtdimm, 
To thia cause may be added, the anpenti- 
tion of the people end the monks, who were 
inflaenced lery much by aeniible objecta, 
and who began as early aa the close of the 
eiith century to ascribe to the images mirs- 
clea of Tarioua kinda. They now began to 
Idas tfas images, to hum incense to 
kneel before them, to light up wai candles 
for them, to eipect wonders to be wrought 
by them ; to place infants in their arma at 
baptiam. as if they were godfathers and god- 
molheiB ; to carry them with them in Uieir 
military eipedilions, to secures liclory and 
eive confidence to the aoldiers ; and in M- 
king an oath, to lay their hand on them, just 
aa upon the croas and upon the Gospels. In- 
deed, nearly the whole of religion in this cen- 
tury consisted in the worship of imagea. In 
particular, the supentitious worship of im- 
ages proceeded so far among the Greeks, 
that the rich si ConslantmoplB used lo send 
their bread to the churchea, and hare it held 
up before an image previously to eating it. 
ScUtgd't note.— TV.] 


heat with the eztravag&nt superBtition of the Greeks in worshipping re- 
Ijgious images, wliich rendered them a reproach both to the Jews and the 
Saracens ; in order to extirpate the evil entirely, issued an edict in the jrear 
T26, commanding all images of saints, with the exception of that of Christ 
on the cross, to be removed out of the churches, and the worship of them 
to be wholly discontinued and abrogated. In this the en^»eror obeyed the 
dictates of his own feelings naturally strong and precipitate, rather thao 
the suggestions of prudence, which recommends the gradual and insensible 
extirpation of inveterate superstitions. Hence a civil war broke out ; 
first in the islands of the Archipelago and a part of Asia, ood afterwards 
in Italy. For the people, either spontaneously, or being so instructed by 
the priests and modes, to whom the images were productive of gain, con. 
sidered the emperor as an apostate from true religion ; and of course sup- 
posed theroselves freed from their oath of allegiance, and from ail obligiu 
tions of obedience. 

§ U. In Italy, the Roman ponti& Qregoiy II. and Gregory III. were 
the principal authors of the revolt. The former of these pontiffs, when 
Leo woula not at bis command revoke his decree against images, did not 
hesitate to say, that the emperor, in his view, had rendered himself unwor- 
thy of the name and the privilBECS of a true Christian. Ttiisopinion being 
fcnown, the Romans and the other people of Italy who were subjects of the 
Greek empire, violated their allegiance, and eitiier massacred or expelled 
the viceroys of Leo. Exasperated by these causes, the emperor contem- 
plated maMng war upon Italy, and especially upon the pontiff: but cir- 
cumstances prevented him. Hence in the year 730, fired with resentment 
and indignation, he vented his ftiry against images and their worshippers, 
much more violently than before. For having assembled a council of bish- 
apa, he deposed Gemumut bishop of Constantinople who &voured images, 
and substituted Aiuutam* in his place ; commanded that images should bo 
committed to the flames, and intUcted various punishments upon the advo- 
cates of them. (21) The consequence of Ibis severity was, that the Chris. 
tian church was unhappily rent into two parties ; that of the IconoduU or 
fconolatrae, who adored and worshipped images, and that of the Jconoma. 
chi or Iconoelastae, who would not preserve but destroyed them ; and these 
parties furiously contended with mutual invectives, abuses, and assassina- 
tions. The course commertced by Gregory II. was warmly prosecuted by 

(31) iLai mi W on to one degree of io- the edict of lbs empetoi, bjr irhieh be (oAH 

noTttion thet another, by tbe oppofilioa to the vordkipprng M imigea ; and required 

hia meenuet from tbe friends of imtgee. At their removal, u tbe oDnbip of Ibem could 

fint, he proceeded in the ORtituiy lod Iwtl not be pieiented bf the mere prohibition, ' 

way. He wiebed to have tbe nibjeet dw- And it »u not till aTlei the boirible tumult ^ 

cuaaed and determined io a general council, at Conatantinople, and the inanrrectioni of 

But the pope would not agree (0 it, and urged tbe Italian pnnmces, that be ordered all int- 

that the emperor ahould remain quiet, and agea ddod the church walla to be ef aceJ, and 

ihould not bring tbe (uhject under agitation, the walla to be whhewaihed, and the move- 

Ln'i Grat reqniiition waa, thai the imicea able imacci to be cinied awaj and burned ; 

rimuldbeAaiif A^Wintbechorcbet. Bat and laid heaty puniahmente upon the lioton* 

in thia, the palriaKb Oerr aw i oppoaed monlu and bhnd inlota, who inmlled hiia 

htm. And aa the oppoaition of thk man tohi>racewiibtbetitleaafjli(ficilru(,aeBo- 

Km* confined to im> limita, be waa depoeed : ond JsJom, &e. See i^tMeim, loc. ciL, ' 

nithe empam allowed him. aa wa are in- p. IIB, &c., and Batuagt, loc. dL, ten. iL 

bnned by Tbeo[dniiea, to ^end hia life qui- p. 1S78.— 5oU.] 
atlj in lu* fathei'a houa*. Next followed 


Ch-egory III., and although we cannot determinB at thie distance of time tba 
precise degree of &ult in either of these prelates, thus much is unqueation- 
able, that the low of their Italian poBsessions in this contest by the Greeks, 
is to be ascribed especially to the zeal of these two pontic in behalf of 
images. (22) 

§ 12. Leo'i son CmubtHtiae, siunaoied Copronj/nau(23) by the furious 
tribe o£ Image-worihippertt after he came to the throne A.D. 7H| trod in 
his fiither's steps ; for he laboured with equal vigour to extirpate the wor- 
ship of images, in oppoeititxi to the machinatiouB of the Roman pontiff and 
the monks. Yet be pursued the business with more moderation than hia 
liither had done : and being aware that the Greeks were governed entirely 
by the authority of councils in religious matters, he collected a council d 
eastern bishops at Constantinople in the year 754, to examine and decide 
this controversy. By the Greeks this is called the teventh general cmatciL 
The bishops pronounced sentence, as was customary, according to the views 
ofthcemperor; and therefore condemned images.(24) But the pertinacity 

(23) T\te Greek writer* tell us, tfa*t both juritiiclivH oret kinga uid ampenin, m to 

tbe Gregoria debured Leo, uid subasqamit- ha** anlhoHty to dttkroru them uid to tnm- 

^ hia •on Co—faaim, from the aund coin- for theii ' ■ -^ 

nmaioii, ■baolrad the people or Ilil]^ froiD pinicula: 

tbdi otth of aJlegiaoce, ana foTbid th*ir paj- boundary 

bg their taie* or performing mny act of powrr, and reproached Leo with overieaping 

obedience. And the adrocalea of the Ro- thai boundary.— TV.] 

□un potitifia, Airontiu, SigOJiaii, (de Reg- (13} [" Thia nickname wai gireo to Con- 
Mi Italiae), and nameioui otbera who follow ttttntine, from hia having defiled the aacred 
•floe tbeae writen, admit, that all theae font at hia baptism." — Mad.] 
thioga were facta. Yet *ome very learned (24) [Thia council was compoaed of 33S 
men, putkularlj among the French, main- bithops ; ■ greater nnmbar than had ever be- 
tuD that the Qrtgoriti did not commit ao fore been aaaemblad in any cooncil. In hia 
(COM offeDees; they deny that the pontifb circular letter for calling the council, the em- 
oilhet eicooununieated the emperMa, or ab- peror directed the liiahapa to hold provinciil 
wdved the people from their allegiasce and cooitcils throughout the empire for diseuaaion 
their dutiea to titem. See Jo. Loiinai, Epia- of the subject, ao that when met in the geo- 
tolat. lib. vii,, ep. vii., p. 458, in bis 0pp., eral council they mi^t be prepared to da- 
torn, v., pan ii. Naul. AUxamtcr. Hiator. dare the aeaae of the whole church. The 
Ecclef. aelect. Capita, Siecul. riii., Diaa, i., council held its aessiotis in the imperial pal- 
p. 4fi6. PeliT it JfoTfA, de Corcordia sa- ace of Hiera, over aninsl the city on the 
cerdotii et imperii, lib. iii., c. xi. Jac, But. Astatic shore ; and delibsiated from the tenth 
Boituet, Defeneio declaralionis Cteri Gallic. oF February till the aeTenlh of Auguat, when 
de potest, seclesiaatica, part i., lib. TJ., e. they adioonied to tba church of Si. Mary 
xii., p. 197. Cunnone, Hiatoire civile de ad Ktdiemu in Cunatantinople. and there 
Naplea, torn, i., p. 400. These rely chiefly wbtished their decrees. Tbe patriarch of 
on the authority of the Latin wrilere, Aniu- CoDataatinople, AnOMtaiiiu, died a fen daya 
tatiut, Paului Diaaaau, and othera ; who before the couticil met ; and the emperor 
not only are ailBiit ss to this audacity of th» would not appoint a successor to that see till 
pODtiSs in assailinf and combating the em- the delibetatioua of the council were closed, 
perora, but also tell ua that they gave aome leat it ahould be thousht he placed a crea- 
Moofs of their loyalty to the emparon. The turaofhis own at the head of it. Of course 
Ucta caniwt be fully ascertained, on ai 
of the obscurity in 

•nd the question must be left undecided. Pamphyllo, presided in thecouncii. usaci* 

Tet this is certain, that ihoae pontic by their and deiiberationa have all peiishEd, or rather, 

i«al far Image-warahip. occasioned (he revolt been destroyed by tbe patrons of imag^wor- 

of their Italian iubjects fma the Greek em- ahip, except ao moch of them as the second 

parors, {The arguments adduced by the Niceoe council saw fit to quote, for the pur 

^■oli^sla far the popes above turned, seem pose of coofuling them, in their siitb act 

to be coneluHve as lo Ait point, that the (JJorilunt'j Concilia, torn, ii,, p. 335-444.} 

popes did not then lacl thatuelvat to havo Fran thsio quotations il appMn, that iIm 


of tin Huperatitioiu, who were borne on by their zeal for im&gea, was not to 
be overcome by these decuiooa. Ncme mode greater resistance than ths 
monks, who did not cease to disturb the public tranquillity, and to excite 
sedition among the people* Coiutantine therefore, being moved with just 
indignation, punished many of them in various ways, and hy new laws bri- 
dled the turbulence of this restless class of people. Leo Iv., who succeed- 
ed to the throne on the death of Coiutantine A.D. TT&, eatertained ths 
same views as hia fother and graod&ther. For when he saw, that the abet- 
tors of images went not to be moved at ail by mild and gentle measures, 
"he coerced them with penal statutes. 

& 18. But Leo IV. being removed by poison, through the wickedness 
of his perfidious wife Irene, in the year 780, images became triumphant. 
For that guilty woman, who governed the empire during the minority of 
her son ConttaHtaie, with a view to establish her authority, aAer entering 
into a league with Hadritm the Roman pontiff, assembled a council at 
Nice in Bithynia in the year 786, which ia known by the title of the tee. 
ond Nicene council. Here the laws of the emperoiv, together with the 
decrees of the council of Constantinople, were abrogated ; the worship of 
images and of the cross was established ; and penalties were denounced 
against those who should maintain, that worship and adoration were to be 
given only to God. Nothing can be conceived more puerile and weak, 
than the arguments and proo& by which these bishops support their de- 
creeB.(35) And yet the Romans would have those decrees to be held sa- 

eoaiicil delibcimted aabeilj, tnd nuoned dii- ConttiDtiDopla, beuuM he wu u Icono- 
cTMlIj, from Scripture indthaFBtheni tint tUMt; tod mide Taronuf hci lecrelUT, who 
Ihej mitnuined, Ibal ill ttertkip of inugM wu devaLed to imigM ind to bei, to be jw- 
wu contnrr to Scripture, ■od to the icnM triueh. And ■■ ihe imperial gouds wer« 
ef the chaich in ike purer uea ; that it wu inclined lo iconoclasm, tod mighl give bn 
idoUliT, lod foibidden Irf tke Mcond coio. trouble, ihe eiuied them to be mirched out 
nundoMDl. They ibo muMuiMd, thtl the of the citj, under pretence of a Con\ga m- 
ute ofimtgee incbuichee end pticea of wor- nakni, uid then diibended them. At lut, 
ilup, wu ■ cuslom borrowed from the pa- in tha nuae of her ton ContUnlint vho wtM 
guB : that it wiB or duigeroiia tendencj, ■miDor,ahecalladthe conDcilof Nice. Ta- 
wid ought lo be abolished. Thej according- ranu directed the whole pioceedioga. Yet 
Ij enacted canona, exprewive of ibeie news (here were two papal envoys present. la 
■nd requinng ■ corresponding practice. See the Acts, which we still have entire, (in Har- 
W^di'i Hisl. der KircbenYersaaiml., p. 463, dwH'i CollMtion, tom. iv., p. 1~8£0}, there 
&c. Case, Hist. LilteiMis, vol. i., p. 648, ia mention of the rapieaentativeg (nwronjpe- 
Ac. Bmctr'i Lives of the Popes, vol. iii., r^) of Ihe two eaalem patriarchs, those of 
p. 3Sr-36B, ed. ITM. On the side of the Aleiandria and Antioch. But sceoiding to 
Cstbotice, mov be consulted, Auvrtnu, An- credible accounts, under this high title two 
nalea; and P*gi, Critics, ad ann. 764. — miaerable and illtterata monke were deaig- 
Tr.] nsted, whom their fellow-mordcs had irbitni- 
(tS) jtfartHi Ck<mmt2, Eiamen Concilii rilj appointed, and whom forged letters la- 
Trident., pi IT., loc. ii., cap. v., p. SS, ed. gjtimated. The bitbops aasembled. were at 
• Fnnkr, 1707. Jae. LeHjiait, Praservttif raait 3S0. Beside* ibese, two officeis oT 
eontiala Reanion avec le Siego de Roma, the court were present, aa commissionen, 
pt. iii., Leiti. ivii., p. 448. — [/r«u wai and a whole aimj of mocks. At EtrsC, Con- 
nndoabtadly an ungodlj, h3rpocriticai, am- etantinople waa ^ipointed for the place of 
bitious woiaan : eager a^er power, and from meeUng. But llu Iconoclaata who had ibn 
this paition pront la all even the moil nn- greater part of the army on their aide, railed 
nalurat craellite ; and >be was at the aame aoch a tnmull, that the empresa postponed 
tinw mnch devoted lo iitLige-worship- Her tha nweting, and changed tlie fJace to Nice^ 
lint Mep was, to grant liberty to everyone In the seventh Act of liia ei ■' - ' 


Cfed ; tmd the Greeks were bb furious againat tboae who refuaed to obey 
them, aa if they had been parricides and traitors. The other enomii- 
ties of the flagitious Irme, and her end, which corresponded with her 
crin:ies,(26) it belongs not to this history to narrate. 

§ 14. In these contests roost of the Latins,— as the Britons, the Ger- 
mana, and the French, took middle ground between the contending parties ; 
for tbey decided, that images were to be retained indeed, and to be placed 
in the chiirchrtN, but that nn religions worship could be offered to them 
without dishonouring the Supreme Being.(27} In particular Charlemagne, 
at the suggestion of the French bishops who were displeased with the Ni>' 
cene decrees, caused/our BotAt coneermitg mage* to be drawn up by some 
learned man, and sent them in the year 790 to the Roman pontiff Hodriint, 
with a view to prevent his approving the decrees of Nice. In this work, 
the arguments of the Nicene bishops in defence of image- worship, are 
acutely and vigorously combated. (28) But Hadrian was not to be taught 
by such a master, however illuatrious, and therefore issued his fonnal con- 
futation of the Ixuk. Charlemagae nest assembled, in the year 794, & 
council of 300 bishop, at Frankfort on the Maine, in order to re-examine 
this controyersy. "niiB council approved the sentiments contained in the 
Books of Charlemagne, and forbid the vxtrsfdp of images. (29) For the 

entitled to lereienliil worihip (Tifir/riK^ the woHi ; bat it is eiij la diacover, thai 

trpoemirvriai!)-, that il wu pioper to kin it wu the prodDction of t letmed nun fend 

Ihem. to biun incenie to them, and to light np in the schooli, or of a theologiui, and not 

impo before them ; yet that they of the emperor. Some Tery learned mm 

^en not eo\!t]f-d to ditriiu iBOrtiip (Xarpia). haie conjoctund, that CharleTnagTu ent- 
The proofs addnced by these fathem in aup- ployed AUvin his preceWor to droit up (h« 
port of theii decree, and their confutations booli. See JfnnuiRn'i Trebce, p. fil, and 

le contrary doctrine, betray the grosaeat the lUnatrious Bwum, Hiatoria imperii Ger- 
ignarance in these fathera, and their total manici, torn, i., p. 490, Nor vould I cod- 
vrant of erilieal eagacity, if not alao aome temn the conjecttire. And yet it appean lo 
intentional diahaneati. Their Acts are full me somewhat doubtful, for when these Books 
of fabuIouB tales of the wooden wrought by were written, ^^in was residoDt in Eug- 
imagea, of appeals lo apocryphal books, of land, as is manifest from hta history, he hav- 
pervcratona otthe declatalionsorthe father*, ing gone lo Englsnd in 789, whence he did 
and of other false and puerile argument*. Dot return till the year 792. 
Even Dit Pin tni Pagi eumot deny tha ^ (19) See especially. Jo. MabiUm. who m 
fact. And it *eema strange, that it waspoe- ingenuous on this subject, in hi* Praef. ad 
sible for doctrines supported by such falaa Acta Ssnctor. ord. Bened., toto. t.. p. r., 
reasontnga, to bacoms the prevailing doc- dec \ alao Geo. Dartchtat, Collatio ad Can- 
trinea of the whole church. See ViBhh't cilium Frankfordienae, Argenlor., 1649, ItO. 
Bistorie dec KiichenTeraamml., p. 477, &c. [The conncil of Frankfort waa propetly s 
— Sc*i.] gmeral, though not an cemmCTKa/ loun- 
tSfi) Thia most atrocioua woman procured eil ; for it waa assembled from all the coun- 
Ibe death of her own son CduloMtnE, in or- tries subject to C/iatUmagiu ; Germany, 
der that ahe might reign alone. But in the France, Aquitain, Spam, and Italy. Dele- 
year 803, ahe was banubed by the emperor galea from the pope were present. CkarU- 
JfiavhantM to the ialand of Lesbos, where tno^iu presided. Two aubjecta were die- 
aha died the year following. cusaed ; the hereay of Felix of Urgel, and 

(37) On the abhorrence of the Britona of tbeaubjectof image-worahip. Charteriagtit 
image-worship, see ffcnr. Sptimia, ad Con- hid hia Books de Jmagintbui before tha 
cilia Magna) Britannia, torn, i., p. 73, &c. council. The council appNTed of them; 

(38) These Booka of darUmagne de and paaaedresolTeainconurmiiy wuhthem, 
Imaginibca, are atill extant, republiahed after that ia, disapproving of the deciaiona of iha 
becoming very acarce, with a very learned ^'icene council, and deciding that, while im- 
prefsee, by Chnitopli. Afig. Heuvuam, Han- agea were to be retained in churche* aa ar< 
over, 1731, 8to. The venerated name of namentalsnd instructive, yetnokind of wot- 
tb« emperor CImtiMagiti, a attached to abipwbtisTcrww tobeginnto^wm. 8m 


Latins, it seema, did not in that age deem it impious to dispute the cor. 
rectnesa of the decisions of the Roman pontiff, and to discard his opinions. 
^ 15. Wtiile these contests respecting images were raging, another con. 
troreray sprung up between the Greeks and the Latins, respecting the pro- 
cettion of the Holy SpirU; which the Latins contended was from both tlie 
Father and the Son, but the Greeks, that it was only from the Father. 
The origin of this controversy is involved in much obscurity; but as it ia 
certain, that the subject camp up in the council of Gentilli near Paris, A.D. 
767, and was there ogitated with the ambassadors of the Greek emperor,(30) 
it is most probable, that the controversy originated in Greece, amid the 
collisions respecting images. As the Latins defended their opinion on 
this subject, by appealing to the Coastantinopolitan creed, which the Span, 
iards first and aflerwaros the French had enlarged, (though at what time, 
or on what occasion, is not known), by adding the words (fiUoque) and/rom 
Ote Son, to the article concerning the Holy Spirit ; the Greeks charged the 
Latins with having the audacity to corrupt the creed of the church uni- 
versal, by this interpolation ; which they denominated sacrilege. Prom a 
contest about a doctrine therefore, it became a Controversy about the in- 
sertion of a word.(31) In the following century, this dispute became more 
violent, and it accelerated the separation of the Eastern from the Western 

Waltk'i Historie dei KiTChenrenimiiihm- Ant, Pagi, Critica in Buoninm, torn, iii., 

gen, p. 483, &c., and Haritati't Concilia, p. 3S3, thinki thit the contrarenj grew out 

torn. 11., p. 9M, «□. a.— IV.] of the conlnt rsipecling images; (lut be- 

(30) See Cor. U Coinlt, Aoulea Eccle- cauH tba Ulini pronounced 3ie Gieeki W 
aut. Francor., torn, v., p, 698. be beietict foi opposing itniges, ibe Greeks 

(31) Men of eminence foe letrning, bivs reUliited tbe cbarge of neresy upon the Lat- 
genenll J suf^HMed ihit this controteny com- ins, foi holding ibatthe Holr Spirit procsed- 
meneed. lespecling the nord filing, wbich ed from the Son as well u the Father. But 
some of the Latiae had added la tbe Con- this ia said without sulhoritj, and without 
sttntinopoliun creed : and that from dispn- proof; snd ia therefore onlj a probable can- 
ting about the word, they proceeded to db- jecture. 

pute about the lAin^. See, aboie all othera, {3S) See Peltr Pithoau, Historia eon- 
Jo. Sfab^iim. (whom very many fallow), traversiaede pmceuione Spir. Sandi; snb- 
Acta Ssnctor. ord. Beoed., torn, t., Praef.. joined to hia Codei Cananum ecclesiae Bo- 
p. IT. But with dkie deference to those gieit man., p. 365, &c, Mich. It Quicn. Oriens 
niea, I would ssy, the fact appears luhave Chnalianua, lom. iii., p. 354. Gerh. Jo. 
been otherwise. The contest commenced Vottiiu, de tiibus Symbolia. Din. iii., p. 
reapecting the doetriju, and afterwards ei- 6S, but especially Jo. Geo. Walci, Hiatona 
tended lo the word lUimiie, or to the inter- controreniae de proceaaiane Spinlus Sanctj, 
polation of tbe creed. From the conncil of Jense, 1761, Sto. [Raapectii^ tbe optnioa 
Gentitii it ismanifeat, that tbe dispute about of tbe fathers of the six liist centuries, on 
the doctrine bad existed a long time, when this subject, see Mirucher't Dogmengeach., 
the dl^te abont the iwrd commenced, vol, iii,, p. BOO-GOS. — TV.] 




4 1. Canokonlii lliiltii)lied.~f S. Zeal of Cbademigna (<a the Romiib RitM 

^ 1. Tee religion of this century conaisted, almost wholly, in ceremo- 
vieB and extenutl marks of piety. It is therefore not strange, that every 
irhaie more solicitude was manifested for tnultiplyiog and regulating these, 
ttum for correcting the vices of people, and removing their ignorance and 
Impiety. The mode of celebrating the Lord's supper, which was consid. 
ered the most important port of the worship of God, was protracted to a 
greater length ; and deformed rather than rendered august, by the addition 
of various regulations. (t) The clear traces of what are called private or 
solitary masses, were now distinctly visible ; although it is uncertain, wheth. 
er they were sanctioned by ecclesiastical law, or introduced by the author. 
ity of individuals. (2) As this one practice ia sufhcient to show the igno- 
rance and degeneracy of the times, it ia not necessary to mention others. 

§ 2. CharUmagne, it must be acknowledged, was disposed to impede 
the progress of superstition to some extent. For liesidea forbidding the 
worship of images, as we have already seen ; be defined the number of 
the holy days,(8) rejected the consecration of bells with holy water,(4) 

(I) pVe hen lubiom b few futs, riom guish them bom the puitic, or tbow in 

uhlch it will ippeu, how much auperati^on nhich the eochuiel wu imputed to (he 

then diahonoured thia holy ordmiiica of congregition ; ind they were mtitea, in 

Cbtiit. Pope Gregory III., among hia de- which the prieat ilone putook of the eo- 

tiiione, (in Horduin'j Concilia, torn, iii., p. charist. The introduction of theas priTate 

IS2S, No. £6), givea the following : " If any masaes, led (o a more ia» diattibution of 

one through negligence, ahall deatrov the Iha euchahit to the asaemblT ; al Gral, only 

euchuiat, i. e., the aaciifice; let him do oDlbetfaree principal reatiTala,andatteDgth, 

teninca one yew, oi three Qna^igeainua. hut once a year. — ScM.'] 
r he let* it fall on the ground, caieleaaly, (3) [Al the Council of Mayence, A.D. 

ha mnst ling fifty Paalme. WhoBTer neg- 813, (Hordiun, Concil., torn, iv., p. 1016, 

lecla to lake care of ihe mcrilica, ao that can. 34-S6), the number of faat and feaat 

woima get into it, or it loae ita colour or days waa defined, according to the pleaaun 

Uute, muit do penance thirty or twenty of Coiulantine, at foUowa : Fbut great 

daja ; and the aacrifice muat be burned in fiult ,- namely, the Gut week in March, the 

the fire. Whoever tnma up the cup at the aecocd week in June, Ihe thin) week in Sep- 

cloae of the aolemnity of the man, muat do tamber, and the UsI ft^ week in December 

penance forty daya. If a drop from the cup prcTioua to Cbri^naa day. In all iheae 

abinild fall on the alur, the miniater muat weeka, there wers to bs public liuoiea end 

anek up the drop, and do penance three maaeea el nine o'clock, on the Wedneadaya, 

(Uya; and the linen cloth which the drop Fridaya, and Saturdays. The /utivaJi, in 

looched, muat be waahed three timea, oier addition to all the Suiidaya of the year, wer« 

the cup, and the water in which it ia waahed to be, Easter day, with the whole week ; 

be caal into the fire." Thi> same paaaage Aaceniion day ; Whitaanday ; the nativity 

occuri in the Capitula of Theodore, archbiab- (martyrdom) of St. Petet and St. Paul ; of 

op of Canterbury, cap. 51. — Sdd.'\ St. John Baplial ; the Aaaumplion of St. 

(i) See Chartemagne de Imacinibns, lib. Mary ; Ihe dedication of Si. Michael ; nativ- 

ii., p. £45. Geo. Caiatut, de Miaais aoU- itiea of St. Remigiua, St. Martin, St. Ad- 

tarjia, 4 !£■ and olhera. [The yrvoatt at drear ) Chriatmas, four days ; the first day 

nUlary nouo, wore ao called, to dislio- of Juuaiy ; Epiphany ; and the pimGcation 


Slid nude other commendable regulationa. Yet he did not effect much ; 
snd chiefly from thia cause among others, that he was excessively attached 
to the Roman pontifis, who were patrons of such as loved ceremonies. 
His father, Fepm, had before required the mode of singing practised at 
Rome, to be every where introduced. (5) Treading in hia stepe, and in 
obedience to the repeated exhortations of the pontiS' Hadriati, Ckarlemagne 
look vast pains to induce all the churches of Latin Christians, not only to 
copy after the Romish church in this matter, but to adopt the entire fornn 
of the Romish worahip.(6) There ware however a few churches, as those 
of Milan, Chur, dec, which could not be persuaded by any arguments or 
inducements, to change their old forma of religious worship. 



§ I. The ancient sects, the ilridtM,Jlfamchaean<, and JUiiraonifM, though 
often depressed by the operation of penal laws, acquired new strength in 
the East, and gained many adherents, amid those perpetaui calomitiea 
under which the Greek empire struggled, (1) The mtmotkeliUt, to whose 
cause the emperor Pkilippietu and other persons of distinction were well 
wishers, made advances in many places. The condition also of the Nes> 
torians(2) and MonaphyBites,(3) was easy and agreeable under the domin- 

of St. MiTf ; (ogalhei nith the festiral* of Tutu7. Ha left muiy MnnoiM, in sxpo- 
Ihe mutjra uid cimrenors, interred in eicti (tlion of John') Goapcl, eccteaiuUul ctn- 

ona, polemic writings, 1 tre»ti»a on Mtiono- 

my, uid 200 letten. From him ws gat 

kDOnledge of lercnl other whlen, and at 

tb« dirinoiu cauud bj them. But u Ihew 

B*6), there ia one, No. IS, " Vt etnecat om bul no influence on the ehoichei of Europe, 

iayiinMiir." — TV.] we nuy pus them by. See slso Btaangar- 

(fi) [See the Capitulue Aquiegrsnenae, loi'* Auitug der Eirchengeseh., vol. iii., p. 

No. 80, in HardMin't Cooeilii, torn i*., p. 1315, iLc.—Schl.] 

843— TV.] (3) [Of the Monophjiile pstriareha and 

(6) Sm CiaTlemagntt de Imiginibaa, lib. writers, we UkeWise obtuti aome knowledge 

i., p. 63, EmSard, de viU Ctroli Migni, from Attman. Conspicuona ta whten 

«. xivi., p. 94, ed. Baiael. and otbeia. among them were, Elu» of Sigu*, wbo 

(1) Among Ibe baibaroiu at" ' "" ' '- ''"' ■"""' ' r—— " — : 

rope, there wen atiU aonK 

(I)fFroin AiioMX, we obtain aome patriirch TkeofhUt lii 

knowledge of the Nenorian patriaKha ; tbe uipeara to have been the asma peraon with 

most diMingelahed of whom, wen the fol- that Maronila anthoi of tha aame name, who 

lowing. Anaijaa, nudet whom the fi^an lived aboat A.D. 196, and who not oi>ly 

mnuiDent waa erected, A.D. 781. TimB- tnnalaled Amur intoSTiiac, bat also com- 

ttflu, who ancceeded Ananieaa, and gieatlj poied huge hiatoiieal worta. Sea B tam 

azlenided the sect by the conversion of pa- gartat, la above, p. 1816.— ScM.] 
gia natioQi near the Caqii«B Sea, and ia 

psiish ; and the dedication of a church, — ona, poll 

46 BOOK m.— CEWTUBY Vm.-=-PIKrTt— CHAP. T. 

ion of the Arabians ; Jior were they without ability to snnoy the Greeks^ 
tbeir foes, and to propsgala their faith abroad. 

§ 2. In the new Germanic churches, collected by Boniface, thei'e were 
many perverse men who were destitute of true religion, if confidence may 
be placed in Boniface and his friends. But this cannot well be, because 
it appears from many circumstancei^ that the persons whom he calls patrons 
of error, were Irishmeo, Franlis, and others, who would not subject them- 
selves to the control of the Roman pontiff; which Boniface was labouring 
to extend. Among others the mo^t troublesome to him were, Adalbert a 
Frenchman, who obtained consecration as a bishop, against the will of Bon. 
i&ce ; and Clement a Scot, that is, an Irishman. The former, who crea. 
ted disturbance in Fianconia, appears to have been not altogether free from 
Mror and crime ;(4) for not to mention other instances of his disregard to 
trnth, there is still eitant an Epistle, which he falsely asserted waa writtea 
by Jmus Christ, and brought down from Heaven by Michael the archan- 
gel.(5) The latter excelled perhaps Boniface himself, in knowledge of the 

(4) See HislDice Littenire de U Fiukb, Mnia them, bj impriBOrnient uti eieom- 

tom. IT., p. 82, &c. manication, rram uinoying the churebo. 

<5) The Epislla i> imbliihed by Steph. For sud be. " On Bccounl of IheM men, I 

Baluzt, in me Cipitnlarii Regmn Fnnco- incur perseculiDn, md the enmily ind the 

niiD, torn. ii.,p. 1396. [&niler, in his Hiil. cursei of many people ; and the ehurcb of 

Ecclea. aelecta Capita, torn, ii., p. 189, dec,, Chrisl au (Ten obsmictions to the progreaa 

conjectures (hat thii Epistle waa fabncated of the faith and holy doctiine." Of Adal- 
by the enemiei of Adalherl, and palmed berl, be aaya : ■' The people aay 
nponhim for the aake of injuring him. Thia him, that I have depriied (hem 

doubtful. The caption of the holy apoatle, patron, and in 
epistle purports, that it ie an Epiiite of our er of mtncloa, and a ■bower of ligns. Bat 
Lord Jesui Chiist the Son of God, which your piely will judge fiDin bia works, aftei 
fell down at Jeiuaalem. and was found by hearing his life, whether he ia not one clad 
the archangel Michael near the gate of ia abeep's clothing, and ■ ravening wolf 
Ephraim ; that a priest read it, transcribed within. For he waa a hypocrite in early 
it, and sent it lo another priest, who aeut hfe, aaaertin^ that an angcl in human fona 
it into Arabia, After passing through many brooght to him from distant countries relic* 
haoda, it came at length lo Rome, &,c. Ac- of marvelloua sanctity, bnt of whom, it waa 
companjing this letter, as transmitted by uncertain ; and that by meaiu of these rel- 
Bamfatt lo (he pope, was a biagrapby of ice, be could obtain from God whatever he 
Adalbert ; which stated, that his mother had asked. And then, with this pretence, a* 
a marvellous dream before his birth, which Paul predicted, he eotersd into tnanj house*, 
was inteipreted to gignify that her child and led captive silty women, laden with sins, 
would be a diatinguisbcd man ; and also a and caitied away by divers lusta ; and he 
prayer, said to have been composed by him, aednced a nmllitude of the rusltcs. who said 
in which he invoked four or five angels by that ki was a man of apostolic sanctity, and 
name, that are not meulioned in the Bible. wiDogfat aigns and wooden. He next hired 
The letter of Boni/ace containing the tcco- some ignorant bishops to ordain him, con- 
salions against both Adalbtrl and Ckmtnt, trwy to the canon, without assigning biin 
states that he, Boni/act, bad now laboured ■ specific charge. — He then became so ill- 
thirty yesn among the Franks, in the midst solent a* to assume equality with the apos- 
of great trials and oppositioa (rom wicked tlea of Christ ; and disdained to dedicate ■ 
men ; that hia chief reliance bad been on church to any apostle or martyr | and re- 
tbe protection of the Roman pontifis, whose proached the people for being so eager U> 
pleasure he had alwaya fallowed ; that his visit the thresholds of the holy apostles, 
greatest liouble had been with " fua mul Afterwards, he ridiculously consecrated ora- 
bate public kertlici and blaiphemeri of Gad tories lo hia own came, or rather defiled 
and the Catholic faith," A^ilbrrt a French- them. He alao erected amall crosses and 
man, and CUntni a Scotchman, tche httd houses for pia^ei, in the lields, and at fonnt- 
differenl errori, hil tetre equal in snuniiu of ains, and whereier he saw fit ; and directed 
cnmiMli^. And he prays the pontiff to pablic pra^era to be there offered ; ao that 


true religion of Christ ; and be is therefore not improperly placed by many, 
among the witnesses far the truth, in this barbarous age. (6) Both were 
condemned by the Roman pontiff Zaehariat, at the instigation of Boniface, 
in a council at Rome A.D> 746. And both, it appears, died in prison. 

§ 3. Much greater conunotions were produced in Spain, France, and 
Germany, towards the close of the century, by FeUx, bishop of Urgel in 
Spain, a man distinguished for his piety. Being consulted by Elipandu* 
archbishop of Toledo, respecting hia opinion of the tojuhip of Christ the Son 
of God ; he answered, in the year 783,^ that Ctirist as God was truly and 
by nature the Son of God; but that as ftinan,he was the Son of God only 
in name and by adoplum. Elipandus imbibed this doctrine from his pro* 
ceptor, and disseminated it in the provinces of Spain, while Felix sprefed 
it u Septimania [or Languedoc]. But in the view of the pontiff Hadrian,' 
and of most of the Latin bishops, this opinion seemed to revive the error 
attributed to iVedoriiu, or to divide Christ into tao pertont. Hence FeUs 
was judged guilty of heresy, and required to change his opinion ; first in 
the council of Narbonne, A.D. 788 ; then at Ratisbon in Germany, A.D. 
793; alsoat Frankfort on the Maine, A.D. 794; thd afterwards at Rome, 
A.D. 799 ; and lastly, in the council of Aiat-Ia-Chapelle. And he revoked 
his opinion ostensibly, but not in reality ; for he died in it at Lyons, where 
be was banished by ChaTlemagne,(l) No law of thinking could be imposed 

Ibmldng the incient chnicbes, held their And many othei hoirible Uungs he iffimu, 
Teligioiu meetingi in such places ; and teipecting divine predeilination, and eon- 
vould aaj, ilB meriti of Si. Adalberl will tiareiiiiig the Cilhalic faith." See Hardu- 
aid us. He also gave hii mils indlDclii of in'i Concilia, torn. Lii, p. 1936-1940.— TV.] 
hia hail, to be kept in remembrance of him, (S) The eirnri of CUmtal are enumen- 
and to be placed with the relies of St. Fetei, ted by Brmtface, Epist. cuit., p. 189. 
the prince of apostles. And finally, wbal [See them stated, in the concluding part of 
appeara the aummit of his oickedness and the preceding note. — Tr.] Among these 
blaaphemy agaiiut God, ithen people came erron, there is certainly no one that is cap- 
Bud prostrated Ihemselies before him to ital. See Joe. Uihtr, Sylloge EpLatolar. 
confess their sins, he said : I know all youi Hibenucsnim, p. 12, aod Nouveau Diction- 
sins, for all secrets are known to roe ; re- nsire histor. crit., torn, i., p. 133, &c. 
turn securely, and in peace, to your habila- [For the history of the eontrovBrsy with 
tiona. And all that lbs holy Gospel testi- both Adalbert and Clement, see Walck't 
fiea aa done by hypocritea, he haa imitated, Historie der Ketiereyen, torn, i,, p. 8-66. 
in his dresB, his walk, and bis deportment" — TV.] 

— The Epistle then describes the wicked- (7) The authors who have treated of the 

Dsaa of CUmtTU, (has : " The other heretic, sect of Felix, are enumerated by Jo. Att. 

whose nama is Clanait, opposes the Cath- Fahridiu, in bis Bibliolbeca Lat. medii 

olic chureb, and renounces and confutes the aeri, torn, ii., □. 483. To these, add Feler 

canons of the church of Cbriat. He refuses ie Marca, in toe Marca Hispsnica, lib. iii., 

to ^ide by the treatises and diacoursaa of c. 13, p. 368. &c. Jb. de Ferrtriu, His- 

the holy fathers, Jerome, Aaguitini, and toire generals d'Espagna. lom. ii., p. GI8, 

Gregory. Despising the decrees of coun- eZ3, G3B, &35, &c.. 560. Jo. Mabilton, 

eila, he affirms, that in his opinion, a man Acts Sanctor. ord. Bened,, torn, v., PraeC, 

can be a Christian bishop, and bear the title, p. ii., &c. Of Felix in particular, accoDot 

sflei lising the father of two sons, begotler - "-- ^ -"--'■' ■ ■■■ ■ ■ -.. 
in adultery [i. e , in eUrieal aedlock]. *~ 

traducing Judsiaoi again, be desma it riohC the Benedictine monks, in Hiatoire litl*. 
for a Christian if he pleases, to marry the raire de la Fiance, torn, n., p. 434, dec. 
widow of his deceased brother. Also, con- [This sect is fully treated of, in C. W. F. 

, » the faith of the holy fathers, be main- Waleh't Hist. deiKetior., vol. ii., p- 667- 

tains, that Chrin the Son of God detcetided MO : and in his Hiatoria Adoptianoniin, 

into hell, and hbeiUed all that were there Gotting., 17G6, 8to. See also SehroecJtk, 

detained la prison, beliersn and unbelierers, KiichengMchichta, Tid. XZ., p. 4flV-198 

wonhi)^ierB of God andwmriupperaof idols. — Tr.} 



on Elipandtu hf the CSiristiiins, because he lived under the Saracens of 
Spain. Many believe, and not without reason, tliat the disciples of Felix 
who were called Adoptioriutt, differed from other ChristianB, not in really, 
but only in words, or in the mode of stating their TiewB.(B) fiut as Feint 
was not unifonn in his language, those « ' ~ .. .t . 

error have some grounds <x eiguineDt. 

(8) Jo. Gto. BorteJieiu, CotUL kd Cod- 

dlium Fiancaf., p. 101. Son. Wtra^^ 
de Logonuchliii Eniditoi., in hii Oj^., p. 
469. Jac. Banage, Pnef, id Etbemun ; 
in He»T. Canati Lcctionibtis Anliquii. lorn. 
iL, pt. I, p. S84. Gto. Calixtut, m hii 
' Tnet on iki (ubjeet; txA othen. [Dr. 
yftUh, in his Historia Adoptiuior., eamid- 
ta% fitix u not I Neibniui; mud jet he 
mffOBM the cDntrorenj u not mere^ aboot 
woid*. The «uti«Uiice cf PeUz'i Tlem he 
Ihoa BUlca : Chijst u > mui, ud nilhout 
legud la the panooal uoian of the two lu- 
tuni, nu Uun a tenant of God, Ibnigb 

without lin. From the conditioii of ■ kt- 

vdM, he puaed into tb*t of t fne perton, 
when God il hb hiptiim pronouiietd him 
kU dtar Sim. Thu Innoctiea wu hi* 
adefiien, uid likewiw hit ngtMnhat. 
The lille of Cod, beloogi to him indeed >■ 
1 men, but doi propeilj, foe he ia God onlf 
Buneupatnely. Thui did Felii ur ~ 

uiuble t: 

; but his i 

ground for lo greet ir 
throughout the whole chttrch, ee if he bed 

tieni^.— 7>.] 





^ 1. 80 long as Charlemagne Uveti, which was till the year 814, he 
omitted no means which he deemed requisite, to propagate and establish 
Christianity among the Huns, the Saxons, the Frieslandere, and other8.(l) 
But it is to ba regretted, that he did not omit to employ violenca and war. 
Hb son, LewU the Meek, hod the same zeal for propagating Christianity, 
though greatly his inferior in other respects. Under his reign, a conve. 
nient opportunity was presented for planting Christianity among the north, 
em nations, especially the Danes and Swedes.(3) Hamld Klaelc, a petty 
sovereign of Jutland, being expelled his kingdom by Begner Lodbroek in Iba 
year B26, applied to the emperor for his assistance. Lewi* promised him 
aid, on condition that he would embrace ChriBtianity himself and admit 
teachers of the Christian religiim into his country. Harold acteded to tba 

(I)[A[Doiiallie*B belong th« Carinthiuu. irith tbem, while IbniptgininutanlMta 

Tliey hul indeed putitll; raceiTcd ChriWi- ett Iheir hrcBd and meat niihoDt the iom ; 

■niij in the preceding centDiy, from VirgU- and had lo dnnk out of black cupi, wbereu 

nu biabin of Saltabuig. For Boniik the the aerraiiti drank Irom gilded CQpa. For 

duke of Carintbia, when be coounilted hii the pieabjtera told the maateia, " Yon nn- 

K>n Corailui to tiie BiTanuu m • hostage, b»ptued penoni an not worthj 10 eat with 

leqneited tliat be might be baptized and ed' those thai *ie baptiie<l." This enkindled 

Dcated ai a Chiiatian : and he alio reqneat- inch a deiire to become Chnaliana, Ihtt 

ed the aame in leganl to his nephew Chtti- gnat Dinnberi of th«n were baptiied. Ths 

mar. Now, m both theae afieiwarda be- itoi? doea u little credit to tbeae nuaaioiib- 

Game aucceeairBlj dukee of Caiinlhia, itmaj riea, »> to their convert) , See the Life of SC 

be readily conceiTed, that the Chiirtian r»- Si^tdi; in Camni LectionibiB Antii].) 

ligion had made conaidcnble pragresa thera torn. ti. of the old ed. 4to. — SeJU.] 
before th» century. Inlhepreaent aattarf, (S) [Eiio aicbbiahopof Rheimi, lAohad 

A.D. 803, Charttnagnt came to Sallabutg, travdled ai an imperial envoy in the DOith- 

A.D. 803, Charttnagya came to Sallabutg, travelled ai an imperial envoy in the DOith- 

and confirmed lo Amo his ecclsuaatical ju- em conntiie*, made id attempt aa eailj ■■ 

n*dictiono>DrSlgvania,arCariDthiainLa^. A.D. 8S2, to qimd Cbiiitianity thera i and 

ei PannoDia. The preabyteia, whom biah- togelhei with ffaliigaritu of CambiBf, ha 

SAnio wnt to Cacinthia to baild np the tdilaiaed fiom pope Pttclial a fiill power 

ntchag there, adopted a aingnlar artifice to for this pnrpoae. See Acta Sanctor,, Antw.,. 

render Chrisliaoitr le^ccUUe, and pagan- m1 3 Fetnnar., and Mabditm, Acta SaoGtot. 

ism contemptible, in the vjm of the people, ord. Baud, SscdI. it., pt. iL, tam. vi., p. 

Ttwyallowad ChhitianiUnatoailat table 91, 107, 13S.— &JU.] 
Vol. II.— G 


temw, vaa baptized at Mayetic« A.D. 836, tcf;ethGT with his brother; and 
took along with him to Jutland, two preachers of Qiristiaoity, Anagariua a 
monk and schoolmaster of Corbey in Saxony, and Aulhert a monk of Cor. 
bey in Prance ; and these monks preached among the inhabitants of Jut. 
land and Cimbria, for two years, with great success. 

L 2. On the death of his fellow-labourer Avtlert, in the year 828, the 
utignble AtugaTim weot over to Sweden ; and there he plead the causa 
of Christ with equal succeBs.(S) Betuming intoGermany in theyear 8S1, 
Lewis the Meek constituted him archbishop of the new church of Ham- 
burg(4) and of all the North ; and in the year 844, the episcopal see of 
Bremen was annexed to that of Hamburg. The profits of this high statiim 
were sma]l,(6) while its perils were very great, and its labours immense. 
For Ansgariut, while he hved, took frequent journeys among the Danc9,(6) 
the Cimbrians, the Swcdes,(7) and other nations ; and laboured, though at 
the peril of his life, to collect new churches, and to strengthen those previ. 
ously formed, till death overlook him, A.D. 865,(8) 

(3) [The ChriXwnfi who were curied into effnto. Bal the income of ihe montstcnr 
capliTiEj b; tbe Nonnuu in Iheir frequent was very bq»]] ; and aoon after ceased if- 
plandering eipeditioni, nndonbtedly con- ti^lhec, when the kingdom fell bto diior- 
tributed much to gire this people a faiour- der. AnigaritLt mual therefora have been 
able diHHMition towards Chriuianitir ; and in want of resouicas. Hs al last receiTed a 
especially bj reconnting to them (he wealth imsll eatale from a pious widoi*, in Runet- 
■nd power of the Chrisiian countriea, which slob near Bremen ; which however jieldej 
wa* ascribed to iheir religion. This will *c- him but a small income. — SdU.) 
count for what historians afBrm, that Swe- (6) [The violent perBeculi<Hi to which the 
dish ambussdors came to king Lcwii, and Danish Chrislians were exposed, wss one 
atated among other things, that many of their occasion for his repeatedly visiting that couD- 
people had an inclination towards Christian- try. He was himself diiTon from Hamburg', 
Uy, and that their king would cheerfully per- {bj in iovasioD of the Normans), and th« 
' ing them, city be ... 

II thither, side n 

I was un- length 

nda of pi- Eruh , „ 

10 plundered them. Vet they final- he erected a church al Haitbyi or SchleS' 

ly reached the port of Butrk, which belonged wick, in the year 8B0. But this liina being 

lo the king Ben or Biom. Thecs they col- slsin in 856, during the minority of his son 

lectcd a congregation, and bnilt a church, in Ench B^m there was fresh persecution, 

the course of sii months, the king having and the church of Schiawick was shut up. 

given liberty to his subjsels to embrace the When this king begin to reign in person, he 

new religion. On the return of these mis- was more favourable to the Christians, and 

I congregation in Sweden was penniUed Antclianut 
acher, tin EC -■ • ■ , , . ^- 

wiihout a teacher, tiU Ebbo sent them his anew church at Ripen, A.D. 860.— &iU.] 

nephew Gautberl, who at his ordination lo (T) [To Sweden he sent the priest Ard- 

the episcopacy of that see, took the name of ganua ; and likewise went there himself, • 

Simm : but he was soon after driven out of aecond time, in tbe ehancter of envoy from 

Sweden. — Sehl] king Leirii taking Obiu, wbowii induced 

(i) [The see of Hamburg was then very by presents lo support Anagarius in two im- 

small, cmbiacing bat four pariah chniches. penal Swedish diets, at which tbe estiblish- 

LetetM sent AiugariuM to tbe pope; who menl of Christianity was decided by casting 

conferred on him ttie archiepiscopal pall, and Iota, He now re-established Christian wol^ 

constituted him his legate lor Sweden, Den- ship st Biori, snd left Httwiberl there as m 

ma^ tbe Fan Islands, Icelsnd, &c., ss also Christian teacher.— ScU.} 

among the Slavonians, and the northern and (S) The writera who treat of the life 

■astern tribes. See the Acta Ssnctor., Feb., and labours of this holy and illustrious pk- 

[om. i.. and Mabilim, 1. c— ScU.] rent of tbe Cimbrian, Danish, and Swediah 

(S) [LeiDti the Meek assigned him the churches, are enumerated by Jo. Alb. Fa- 

rerenoea of m mimaslety in Bnbant, in or- bricitu, Bibliotb. Latin, medii aeri, torn, i., 

del to meet the eipeoiea of hii missionary p. 393, &c., and Lux Evangelii lota ubi 



h 3. About the middle of this caatuiy, two Greek monks, JlfelAmitHt 
ana Cyril, being sent as missionaries from Constantinople by the empress 
Theodora, taught first the Moesians, Bulgarians, and Gazari, and afterwards 
the Bohemians and Moravians, to renounce their felse gods and to embrace ' 
Christ.(9) Some knowledge of Christianity had indeed been previously 

Cbriatiuillj to ibit people. The way being 
lha> prepared, Bogorii admitted wTenl ai- 
tieta from Constantinople ; among whom waa 
tha fainOQB painter Melkediiu, wM liiatead of 
drawing norldly sceneii for the king, fonned 
religioua picturea, aiui among them one of 
the judgment day ; and inalrucled bim in tba 
ptincip^ of Chriatianitjr. Not long aRer, 
the king in a time of famine, openlj profeM- 
ed CbnaliinitT, and inTited teachm fiom 

term, eiorinu, p. 4SS, &c. To tbeee, add 
the Scwdutnie monk*' Hiatoire litteraira de 
la Fnnce, lome v., p. STT. Acta Saoctor. 
meni. Februar.. torn, l, p. 391, &c. Eric 
PoTiloppiian, Annilea ecclei, Danicae Di- 
ploinalici, torn, i., p. 18, dec. MaUerat, 
Cimbria LitienU, torn. iii.,p. 8,&c. From 
th eae wiilera, a knowledge may be eiined of 
the othen alao ; namely, Ebbo, WilAnur, 
Rimbcrl, Its., who were eilhn- die compao- 
ions and astiatanli of Afgtrau, or tua nic- 
cetaon in the field of labour. [The life of 
Aruganut, well written by JUmbtrt hti di»- 
ciple and succeuor in the aee of Hambnrg, 
i* in jtfoitUim, Acta Sanctoi. ord. Bened., 
torn, fi., p. 7S, fee. Among the recent 
writers, see Sckiaidt, Kirchengeach., vol. it., 
p. 108-llfl. ScirweiA. Kirchonge«ch,Tol. 
ui., p. 314, &c., and archbiehop Munler't 
KiKfaengesch. TOn Danem. und Norweg., 
tiA. l. p. 819, Lips , 1823,— TV,] 

(9) Jo. Gto. StTticiBtty, Sacra Moraviae 
HiMoiia, lib. iL, cap. ii., p. B4, &c. Com- 
pare Jo. FtUr Kola, Tnlroduct. in hialoiiain 
et rem littenr. Sl»Toram, p. 1S4, &e„ and 
otbera. [A much ampler account of the 
miaaiona and conTeraiont, mentioned in ihia 
and the following aectiona, ia Biren by 
SchriKcih, Kircbengeach., toI. xn., p. 396, 
&c, and by J E. C. Sdmidt, KircbeD- 
seach., vol. IT., p. 120. &e. ; alao by Jot. 
Stm, jiiemM, Kalendaria Ecclesiae nni- 
Tenie, tomna iii., p. 3. Ac,, Romae, I75fi, 
4to 1 aee likewise GiaeUr't Ten-book by 
CimHingliani,riH. a., p. 138, Ac.— The fol- 
lowing summary by ScUtgel, dorived from 
StmlcT and BatoHgarten, containa the moat 
material reanlls of modem iniestlgalion. — 
TV. The aeeds of Cbriitiuiity had been 
preriously scallered among ibe Bulgarians 
by aome Chriatian captiTea. In the year 

with other of the citiier 
and his BQccessor afterwarda put this bishop 
with other Chriatian ciplivea to death, be- 
canse they made proselytes among the Bul- 
garians. After this, it appeara, that both the 
monk TVodonu Ett-pkarai wbo was a cap- 
IJTe in that connlty, and a sister of the Bul- 
gihan king Bogtrit (who had beeo taken 
prisoner and carried to Conatanlinople, where 
■he waa educated and taught the Christian re- 
lieion and then exchanged fot the monk The- 
odnoa), eotiCiibnled mudi to 

against bim for it, lad be caused fifly-two of 

the ringleadezs to be put to death, and tl 
length brought the rest to embrace the new 
religion. In the year B48, (for thm Awt- 
man has ascertained the troa year, in hij 
Kalendar. ecclea. uniTerMe, torn, iii , p, 18, 
dec., whereas KoU and Strtioath/ (tats 
the year 843), Conidntntlhebrotherofthia 
Melhodiut, had been sent among the Cbuart 
[or Gaiari] wboao king bad likewise desired 
to have Christian teachers. ComlaMimt 
laid the foundation of the Christian church 
among this people, translated the scriptures 
into tns SlsTOnic language, and taught that 
barbarous nation the use of letters. Aflei 
this, he came to the aid of his brother among 
tbe Balgarians ; and in the year SSI he b^ 
tiled king Bogorit, who assumed at the ftnit 
the nsme of the Greek emperor Mickad. — 
The two brothen Conttmaini,tai, Maknii' 
«>, were naliTea of Tbeaaalonica. Tka fcr> 
mer who was the oldeat, aAerwardi look lh« 
name of Cyril ; and on account of hia leun* 
ing, was stimamed the PhiloiopheT. Tha 
younger brother was distincuished as a paint- 
er. It ia probable, that both of them in 
early life fled from Constantinople, to avoid 
the persecution which befell the worshippers 
of images, and especially the painters of 
them ; and that they took refoge among tha 
Slavonic tribes, and there learned their lan- 
guage, which was aderwarda of Qse (o them 
Di the propagation of Christianity. — From tha 
Bulgarians, Constintine, it is stated, travel- 
led among the adjacent Dahaatiiau and 
CrnUtiuu, and baptized their king B a ti m ir . 
See Btmmgaxlctt'i Ausiug der Kirchco- 
geach., vol. iii., p. 1379, and 5. Semter't 
S^ecU Hist, ecclea. Capita, (om. ii., p. MS, 
389. — As to the AiAcnnaw, tbe Chroniclei 
of Fnlda, ad *nn, 846, state that under Laeit 
kiu of the Cicrmans, fonteen BobemiMi 
lDr£ with their aubjecte, enbraeed the Cfaria- 
tiin raligion. Arid it ii wall kmAm, that 


imparted to these nadona, through the infloence of Charlemagne kdcI some 
of the bishops ;(10) but that knowledge produced little eSect, and gradu- 
ally became extinct. As the missiooarieB above named were Greeks, they 
inculcated on those new disciples the opinions of the Greeks, their forma 
of worship and their rites ;(11) from which the Roman pontiffi afterwards^ 
hy their legates were ab]e but partiaiiy to reclaim them. And from tttia 
aource, E;reat commotions occasionally arose. 

^ 4. Under the Greek emperor Batil the Macedoniaji, who ascended 
the throne A.D. 867, the Slavonic nations, the Areatani and others who 
inhabited Dalmatia, sent ambassadors to Constantinople, and voltintarily 
placed themselves in subjection to the Greek empire ; and at the same lime, 
they professed a readiness to receive Christianity. Greek priests were 
therefore sent among them who instnicted and baptized them.(12) The 
same emperor, after concluding a peace with the warlike nation of the 
Russians, persuaded thera by presents and other means to promise him by 
their ambaWdors, that they would embrace Christianity. The nation stood 
to their promise, and admitted not only Christian teachers among them, 
but also an archbishop commissioned by Ignatiui the Greek patriarch. (13) 

lowiidi tb* cIoM of dx ceitlmj, tlie Babe- of Saluborg in puticnlu, ondeitook to con- 

miui pnnce Borivei or An-nroi wu bap- Tert tbene tnbes ; ud in tbi< buainen tha 

tiled. Snatopiue or Ztetnttboii, king of monk Godtam wu employed, and undw 

the Monvians, ippeUB to have gieally aided Lewis the Pioua, Orohh also Uie aicbbisbop 

Ihii conTcraion. For baring twen taptiied afLorch. SeePo^, Crilic. ad ann,834. In 

biinielf, tilt king treated this pagan pijnce the yaai 8S3, Mogcmir the aucctaaoi of Sa- 

roogbly wbile reaiding at hie court, and moslat, became a confederate of tbe empeior 

would not allow him to ait at hia table ; be- I^wia, and gave free toleration to tbe Chri*- 

Giuee, aa be told htm, it wat not euitable for tian worabp, on whicb be bimaelf attended, 

m pagan to eat vrith Cbriatiana. Pethapa Tluagood bc^nning in Iheconieraionof thn 

alaio Uie aaauianee given him by Methodioe, Slavonic nationa in Moravia, waa howevn 

may have contributed to hia converaion ; for much interrupted by the conleata which oroaa 

he told bim, that if he embraced Chrialianitj between the biehopa of Saltaburg and thoa« 

he would become a greater man than any of of Paasaa ; and beiidea, the ignorance of the 

hii anceatora. In short, he consented to be Cbiiatian miaaiODariea of the Slavonic lan- 

baplixed ; and returning home, he perauaded guage, aitd tbeii introducing the I^Iin for- 

hie wife LudomiUa wiU many othen, to re- ram* of wonhip, were serioua obataclea to 

wive baptiam alao J and afterwardaj with the their aucceaa. And at laat the wara between 

•id ofhu wife, greatly promoted the apiead the Gennana and the Moraiiana. the latlai 

<if Chiiatianity, and among other meana, by having wboUj rEQOunced the dominioo of the 

•recting a famous Rchool at Budec. See iS. farmer, put a full atop to the progresa of ths 

Stwder, I. c, p. S61, SBG. — The MoravUmi gospel among that people. Sea Bautngar- 

vreie converted, under their king RaditUe. Un't Auaiug, vol. iii.> p. 1130, &c. — SchL} 

He sent for the two monki Canitanlau and (11) Jiu. Lenfaiu, Histolre de la guenv 

MtOmdiia ; and thev erected a echoed at dea Husaites, livr. i., cap, i., p. S, du., and 

Vetvar, baptized the king and hia moat di^ compare the Bibliotheque Gsrmamqne, lom. 

tinguiahed subjects, tranalated many booka ni., p. 3, 3; 4. 

into the Stavonie language, and a«t up pub- (IS) Thia we learn from Cmutantitig 

he worship in this tongue. They erected Poiphyrogenitus, de Administrando Imperia, 

churches in several places, particulariy at (U- cap. iiii. ; in Anttimi Baniurii Imperium 

tmitz and Briirm; Imt they introduced also Oiientale, torn, i., p. TS, 73. Cotulantme 

iatage-worahip, to which they were addict- also relatea the same, in hia lifeof hia grand- 

ed. SeeBriunifarlfn'a AuazugderKicchen- father Band the Macedonian, 4 liv. Coipna 

geacb., lorn, iii., p. 1439, &c.—ScU.J Hist. Byuntin., torn, ivi., p. 133, 134. 

(10) Siridmitiiy, loc. cit.. Mb. i., cap. ii., (13) CmaRiiatina Porphyro^ Vitk 

p. 5S, Ac. [Wheo CharUmagne, in hia Baailii Macedonia, f icvi. m the Connu 

wan with the Huna and Avares, waa victo- Hist. Byiaot., torn, ivi., p. 157 ; and Nar- 

liona, b> Eampelkd the Monvian king So- ratio da RuthenotuiD canveraione | publiab. 

mailat to embnee Chiiatianity ; mi Arte ed. Or. and iM,, )tj Bminri, Imparinm 


Tim wu the commencement of Chriatunity among the Busuan people. 
They were inh&bitBiits of the Vkrame ; and a little before had fitted out a 
fleet at Kiow, in which they appeared before Constantinople to the great 
terror of the Greek8.(14) 

§ 5. The Christian missionaries to the heathen in this age, were meo 
of more piety and rirtue, than many of those who undertook the conver- 
sion of the p^ans in the preceding century. They did not resort to coer- 
cItc measures ; they either disregarded altogether, or promoted only in a 
moderate degree, the private interests of the Roman pontiff; and their 
lives were free from arrogance, insolence, and the suspicion of licentious- 
ness. Yet the religion they inculcated, was very wide of that simple rule 
of truth and holiness which the apostles of Christ preached, and was de- 
based by many human inventions and superstitions. Among the nations 
which they converted, these preachers also allowed too many relics of the 
old superstitions to remain ; and to speak plainly, they were more intent 
on inculcating an external form of tnety, than piety itself. And yet it 
must be allowed, that these pious and good men were obliged to yield np 
several things to the rudeness of those savage nations. 


4 I. Snccen of the Sinceni. — $ 3, 3. The Nomun Pintas. 

& 1. The Saracens were in possession of all Asia as far as the borders 
of India, a few regions only excepted : they also held the best parts of 
Africa ; and in tlw West, Spiun wid Sardinia. In the year 827, relying 
on the treason of individuals, they subjugated the very fertile island of Si- 
cily.(l) And near the close of the century, the Asiatic Saracens got pos- 
session of many cities in Calabria, and spread terror quite to the walls of the 

Orientale, in his notea to Porphjrogenitui, the tilth Tol. of the Commenttr, Actd. Sci- 

de Adrainialnnda Imperio, tom. ii., p. S3. eatiir. PetroDolitanu, A.D. IT3S,4lo. [See 

(14) Mick. U Quieit, in his Chnilium* alio Sehroakh, KircheogcKh., toI. ni., p. 

Oriens, torn, i., p. t3S7, girei icconnl of SOT, &«., uid J. E. C. Scknidfi Klrctwn- 

Ihii conTenion of the Rii)aiui> 10 Chiiati- geKb., ral. iT., p. 1S6, ice. — TV.] 

■nitj in thi reign of Bisil the Macedoaiui ; (1) {Euphannu ■ oeoenl in Sicily, b«- 

bat he hu nude ■ numbei of miitakei, u cime enainaured with ■ nun, 4itd foTciUj 

otben hwl done before him. He firtt telle look her to hie bed. Hbi brothen cmd. 

n>, thil the Rutetuis here intended wen plained to the viceroy, who liid the csee be- 

tboie that bordend on the Bulfurina ; but fore the emperor ; ind he ordered the Doee 

s little ifter, he tell> oa they were the Co- of Eopheimiu to be cut off. EuphantuM 

lari. For thie opinion be ha* but one reuon, repelled the forte sent to arrest him, and 

nameljr, that among the teechers sent to io- ded to Africa. There be offered the San- 

■tniet the Roisiana, wu that Cyril who waa cen goremor, to put him in poMecaton of all 

■ctiTO in the conversion of the Otiari. The Sicily, if he would intmat him with an aim; 

learned aulbor w*e ignorant of both the end allow him to eiaame the title of ■ Ro- 

Rnetiani aad the Oaiih He hat mads also man Imperatar^ The nrrernor conaenled ; 

other mialakea. The subject ia deTeloped and Euphemius fulfilled hia promite. But 

mDehbBller,ind moreaccmately.b)' T^d^A, he had Karcely accompUdied his design^ 

SigfT. Bayer, Dia*. de Roaeonun prima ei- when b« loat hia life at SjiKoie t 

ptStioiM Conatai - ' '- '■■.■■ - ■ 

utaotiDopolilaMi pabliihed in (ioatton. See (be k 


dij Rome. They also either ravaged or seized upon Crete, Corsica, and 
other islands. How great the injury to the Christiaii cause every where, from 
these successes of a nation accustomed to wars and rapine and hostile to the 
Christians, every one can easily comprehend. In the East especially, num- 
herlesa fijnilies of Christians embraced the religion of their conquerors, in 
order to render their lives ctunfortable. Those possessed of more resolu. 
tion and piety, gradually sunk into a miserable state, being not only de- 

riied of the chief of their property, but what was still more lamentable, 
y fell by degrees into a kind of religious stupor, and an amazing igno> 
ranee ; so that they retained almost nothing Christian, except the name and 
a few religious rites. The Saracens in Europe, and particularly tho»e of 
Spain, beaune divested in a great measure of their ferocity ; and they 
suffered the Christians their subjects to live quietly according to their owa 
laws and institutions. Yet inateuces of cruelty were not wanting among 

§ 2. Another and a more direful tempest come upon the European 
Christiana from the regions of the North. The Normans, that is, the 
people inhabiting the shores of the Baltic in Denmark, Norway, and Swe- 
den, who were accustomed to rapine aud slaughter, and whose petty kings 
and chieftains practised piracy, had infested the coasts alotig the German 
and Gallic Oceans as early as the reign of Charlemagne, and that emperor 
established garrisons and camps to oppose them. But in this century they 
became much more bold, and made frequent descents upon Germany, Bri. 
tain, Friesland, but especially France, plundering and devastating with (ire 
and sword wherever they went. The terrific inroads of these savage 
hordes, extended not only to Spain,(3) but even to the centre of Italy ; for 

., &e.— rr.] ' 

maityidom of 
: Acm SincUir. 

i. Matlii, lom, ii., p. 66 ; ind Ihaie Chnilim Tailh, uid doI giving hor U|. 

of Baieric and Saionum, Spsniah mutyrg of parenti and friendi. See hie three Books, 

thie centDiy, in the same vol. ad d. xlii. <9e Mutyiiboe CordubeDiibue ; bia Apolo- 

Maitii, p. 32S. (The Sancene of Spain geticua pro mutTriboa adv. Calumnialorea ; 

were tolerant u> the Chrialiani, eo tang as end hi* Eihortatio ad martyiium; in the 

they demeaned themaelvca as quiet and Biblioth. Pair., lotn. it., p. 666, &c. ; alao 

peaceable ciiiiena ; iai they allowed them Sckotekk, Kircbengeach., vol. iii., p. 3^ 

the free exercise of their religion. Bui thay &e., and Giatltr't Teit-book of Ecclea. 

would not allow them lo revile MiAaiimti HiaL, tiauaL by Ciatwinglum, toI. ii., p. U, 

and hu relijioD. And this was the aource Ac. — IV,] 

ofsUlhadiScultiea. AbdalTolBBancooxaVl- (S) Jo. it Fcrrerai, Hiatoire generals 

ed Reaafrxd, a Christian biabop, on tba d'Eapagne, lom. ii., p. 583. firacj naa 

■ubjecl. The bishop stated, that when Chria- eaUemed among theae northern naliona, s 

liana traduced the MoluiDmedaD religion van honourable and laudable piofeaaioa ; 

without urgent cauae, and lalwiired to inb»- and to it, the oobility and the sons and tba 

duce (heir own in place of it, if Ihej Iheiebf kindred of kioga were tnined. Nor will 

loal their live* Ibey could not be accounted this autpriae us, if we consider the rellgiim 

martvr*. A number of Chriatiana agreed of those nations, and the baibaiiam of the 

with Reccafrid ; but the majority diaseuted. timea. See Jo. Lud. Holbtrg, Historia Dan- 

And Eiilogiut wiole sgainsfr Reccatrid, and orum et Norvegorum navalia ; in the Sctip- 

compilcd hisloriea of Uie Spanish martyrs, ta Societatis Scientiamm Hafnieniis, torn. 

He and those in hi* santimenta, eiorted all iii., p. 349, where he relates many intereat> 

their efforla to run down Mohsinmedism, ing accounla reapecting these mehtime rati. 

■sd to make converts to Chriatianily. They buies, from the amiils of the Danes and 

•iao courted manynlom ; and in several in- Norwegiana. 
stiBcM, tsMlwl the jodgga to put them la 


it sppcRTS &om the writen of those tunes, that they destroyed the city of ' 
Lima in the year 8ST, and Pisa and other cities of Itdy in the year 860.(4) 
Tlie early histories of the Franks, detail and deplore at great length their 
horrid enormities. 

§ 8. The first views of these savages, extended only to collecting plun- 
der and slaves in the countries they invaded ;(5) but by degrees, becoming 
captivated with the beauty and fertiUty of those countries, tbey took up 
residence in them ; nor could the £uropean kings and princes prevent 
their doing so. In this very century, CKarlet the Bold was oblig«l A.D. 
850, to cede a considerable part of his kingdom to these bold invaders.(6) 
And a few years aAer, in the reign of Charlet the Fat, king of France, 
Godfred one of their most valiant chieAains, persevered in his military 
enterprises till he had subdued all Friesland.(7) Yet those who perma- 
itently settled among Christians, gradually became civilized, and intermar. 
rying with the Christians, they exchanged the superstitions of their ances- 
.tors for the religion of the Christians. Gvdfrtd the conqueror of Fries- 
land, did so in t^s century, when be had received GUtUt the daughter of 
king Lothaire Junior, from the hands of Charlet the Fat, for his wife. 





4 I . State of Lmning unong tha Greeki. — ( 3. Sttts of PhikMophir.— 4 S, LMmiiw unmw 
the Anbiuu, — 4 i. State of Leuning under Chutemtgns and hi* Son*,— 4 6. Impedi- 
■ ments to in progren. — 4 6. Li*t of leamed Men. — 4 7. Jobn Scelm. 

§ 1. Ahono the Greeks many things occurred in this age, which could 
not but damp their ardour for learning and knowledge. Still however, the 
munificence of the emperors, some of whom were themselves devoted to 
study, and the precautions of the patriarchs, among whom Photiu* shooe 
conspicuous for erudition, prevented an absolute dearth of leamed men, 
particulaidy at Constantinople. Hence there were among the Greeks, some 
who excelled both in prose and in poetic composition, who showed their 
skill in argumentation by their writings against the Latins and others, and 

(4) See the Scriptona nnim IttlicM. by Theu pUcm were iberefora gmierallj for- 
Mitretari, in Tthfliu pumtM. tified -, lod the biihou tai ibbot* who ware 

(5) [TtusatijectoftbeNoini«n,[iiu]diig t1*a boond to do mililary HTfiee Ibi thair 
plonder], occuioned the deatrnctioi] of a landa, were obliged to defend them igaiiul 

number of churchea and monaatetiea in the iDcursLODs of foreign ei 

England, France, Gennanj.aod Italy. Ym (S) Annali by an unknown autbar, in 

in theae ptace* wen depoailed large treaa- Pithori Sciiplorea Fiancicj, p. 46. 

urea, partly belongins to ibe eMabUahmenla, (T) JIu^ PcumienaU, Atuialea, lib. It., 


who composed histories of their own times not altogether destitate of meiiC 
In particular, when their disputes with the Latios became warm, many who 
would otherwise h&ve suffered their taknta to be eaten up of rust, were 
roused to set about cultivating elegance and copiousness of diction. 

§ 2. That die study of phiioeophy among the Greeks of this century, 
continued for a. long time ne^leetedris testified expressly by JoAtt Zonarar. 
But under the emperors TftrapU/tu and his aooMichael III. the study of 
it revived, through the influraoe especially of Bardat the Cce8ar,(l) who, 
though himself not learned, was the friend of Fholau who was a very learned 
man, wad a great Uscenaa, and by whoee counaels no doubt Bardtu was 
guided in this matter. At the head of all the learned men to whose pro- 
tection he intiusted the interests of learning, Bardai placed Leo the Wiae* 
who was a very learned man, and ma at last made bishop of Thesaaloni. 
ca.(2) Pholiu* himself expounded what are called the CaUgonet of Aria, 
totle ; and Michael Ptelha wrote brief explanations of the principal book* 
of that [^iloBopher. Others, I pass over. 

§ S. Hithertothe ArabianB,intcnlaolelyoninakingconquesta,hadentireI 
ly neglected the sciences, but now the Kalif of Babylon and Egypt, Al Ma- 
mutt or Abu Gaqfar AbdallaA, by his love of learning and munificence to 
learned men, aroused them to make greater advances. For this excellent 
Icalif, who began to reign about the time that Chariemagne died, and end. 
ed his days A.D. 833, founded celebrated schools at Bagdad, Cufa, Bassora, 
and other places ; drew learned men around him, by conferring on them 
great rewards ; established ample libraries ; procured at great expense the 
translation of the best works of the Greeks into Arabic ; and neglected no 
means, which would do honour to a prince greatly attached to literature 
and science, and himself a distinguished proficient.(3) Through his influ- 
cnce,the Arabians began to find pleasure in Grecian science, and to prop. 
agate it by degrees not only in Syria and Africa, but also in Spain and 
even in Italy. Hence they celebrate a long hst of renowned philosophers, 
physicians, astronomers, and mathematicians of their nation, extending 
through several centuries.(4) Yet wc must not take all that the modern 
Saracenic historians tell us of the merits and endowments of these men, in 
the most literal Ben0e.(6) From the Arabians, the European Christiana 
afterwards profited in the sciences. For what knowledge of mathematics, 
aMnxtomy, medicine, and philoaopfay, was taught in Europe from the tenth 

(t) Aontka, Wm. it, ia>. in., p. 138, in nySteLto Afcicum*' Tract, de Medici* 

lb* Ciupiu Bfttnt., torn. X. el PfailtMOphiB Anbibus ; repufaUatied b^ Jo. 

(3) [Among Iba Greek amperora w)» ai- Ali. Fahndiu, in hia Bibliatb. Gnecs, voL 

vneed icience, Batit the Micedoniui riioald lii., p. S69, &c. 

DM be ii»gotteD. He <tu himtelf oat wilb- (S) [In theibstniie icienccs, the; ue nA 

ODlleaniingi uiieiidenlframbisipceehw, to hate been msn cap^itts.oirilbet pligia- 

teUen, tnd connMla la bia aan Lto, that us ruta fiDm the Greek* aiid Latins, ptrticuiuly 

atiU eiUnl. And ihi* ion of his, who w>* from Araletle, Euclid. Galm, &c. Etbq 

jim»m»rj Ou Wilt uid tkt PkHoioplier on Avictntia, wboM cmnon or araUm of phyaic, 

■Monnt of bii leuninf^. compoaed UrgtlT : was classic in the European medical achools 

Aa most importuit of hia woHc* are. ibe •aUlea(tbeieihcetitiuy,nearelold,adnD> 

■iitj Book* of his Baitlicon, or Impeiiil ced nothing vcrj importSAl but what ii to 

Lam, hit Tactics, and his speechei. — ScU-i be found m (ToJcn and others. 7'Lcii *•■ 

(3) Abulpharajut, Hiiloria DyiwMiar.. p. tronomj was more properly attratiigy, or 

M6. Gea. Ehman, Hiiloiii Saracen., lib. ditbalioB from the alijiy heareoi. Sm 

iL,|».13e. BorJAof . iferielot, BiUiotL Ori- ScAmcoU, Eirchengewih., vol. xxL, p. 3T»> 

Mtiale, Aitide Mamm, p. 5U. Sn.— TV.] 


cMitarr OBvard, wai darived piiooipally from the schools and the books oC 
the Anbians in Italy and Spain. And hencei the Saracens may in some 
measure be considered u the restorers of leanung in Europe. 

§ 4. in the part of Europe subject to the Fradcs, CharlemagTte while be 
lived, cherished and honoured Learning of all kinds with great zeal. If hia 
successor! hod followed him with equal strides, or had been capable of doing 
BO, ignorance and barbarism would have been expelled. And indeed, his 
example was partially imitated. LeioU the Meek, copying ailer his fethert 
derised and executed scTcral projecta suited to promote and advance the 
useful arts and sciences.(6) His son, CharlM the Bald, went beyond his 
ftther in this matter i for this emperor was a great patron of learning and 
learned men ; ha invited men of erudition to his court, from all quarters ; 
took delight in their conversation ; enlarged the schools and made them rC' 
apectable, and cherished in particular the Palatine or court scbool.(7) In 
Italy, his bro^r Lothaire, (emperor after A.D. 823), laboured to restore the 
entirely prostrate and languishing cause of leanung, by founding schools in 
eight of the principal cities. (9) But his efforts appear to have bad little 
efiect : for during this whole century, Italy scarcely produced a man of ge> 
nius.(9) In England, king Alfred obtained great renown by promoting and 
honouring literary enterprise. (10) 

^ 5. But the infelicity of the times, prevented these plans and eSbrls 
from imparting that prosperity to learning, which the rank and power of the 
uobie acton might lead us to expect. In the first place, the wars that the 

(S)SealbeHiitoir«IitUniredeUFnDcs, sntioiL He iJio toentions lh« citin in 

Mm. IT., p. 683, &c. trhB Filuine •cbool which be had itstioned thcM leichcn; 

cantiaued to flouhah under Lnnt the Meek, nuiielr, PtTJa, Itth, Torin, Cremona, Flor- 

eneo, Panno, Verona, Vicanii, and Fornm 

Julii, or (he modem CiTidad del Fiinli,— 

.. -,. ,- &JU.] 

Harduiji'M Cimcilia, tom. ir., p. I2fil, No. (S) See Muraiari, AattquiUIca ItaL medii 

, latj be seen, how dagirODi lhi« emperor aeri, tom. iii., p, B29, &e. 
u of promoting leiming and the eslabliih- " ~ 

„ . „ Weed, Hiatoria el Antiqq. 

•cbaola. He there aa^s to the biah- Acad. OxoDieiuia, lib. i., p. 13, ttx. Bow- 

The inatitution of achoola in auitable lay, Hiatraria Acad. Paris., torn, i., p. 311, 

!a, for the education of childien and the and NouTeau Dtctionnaiie Hislor, Cril., torn. 

Lglen of the church, which ;ou formarljt i., article Etfrei, p. 234. [" This eicel- 

jffOmiBed Qa, and which we enjoined npon lent prince not onij encoirraj^ed bj hia pro- 

jou, whereTBt it haa sot been done, moat teclion and liberaiilj' inch of his own aub- 

Bol be na^ected by jou." — ScU.] jecta aa made any prt^ieaa in ibe libera] arte 

(7) Ham. Cdtriafrtw, Anltquitatee Acii- and sciencea, but invited otbi from foreign 

demicaa, p. 330. Cat. Egutt du Boulay, countries men of distinguished talenta, wham 

Hiatoria Acad. Paris., tota. i., p. 173. Jo. he Gied in a seminary at Oxford, and, of 

Laanoi, de Scholia Caroli M., cap. li., lii., conaequence, may be looked upon aa the 

p. i7, &£. HistoitoLittcnicedeta France, founder of that noble UDivenily. Johatma 

torn, T., p. 483. Seattu Engtna, who had been in the terrica 

(S) See hia Ordinanca or CafUnlart, of Chailee the Bald, and GnmioU, a monk 

whicbia pabUabed by Jfitratori, Bernm Itil- of St. Beitio in France, were the moat fa- 

ietr. Scnplor., torn, i., part ii., p. 161. [In mona of thoae learned men who came from 

Uua oriioaoca, the enq>ann la Mea euta tha stsoad ; Attrnt, Wcrefrii, fUgmtaid, 

coltifaticD of litaratiire as wboUy proslraU Damnf, W^ftig. and the abbot of 3l. 

in the Italian alatea, in consequenca of Ih* Neat't, deeerve the first rsnli amoi^ the Eng- 

negligence of Ihe clenj and the ciril officen ; liih literati who adorned Che age of AifroL 

andlEalhehad tlteiafan anointed laacbeta, 8a« CMttr'i Ecclaaiaatical History, vol i, 

who ahould giro inatradim in ibe Ubenl book iii., p. 166, 1S6, &c. R^ T^iajMa, 

Bta, and whiun he had Anctad to use all in Iha naga of tfaia iUoMiiona mouich.'*— 

poasible diUgeoce to educU* dw oai^ osa- Jfac/.l 
^OL. U— H 


sons of Lem» the Meek waged with their fother, and aflenmrds betwe«i 
themaelvcs, intcmipted very much the prosperity of the couatries subject to 
the Franks. In the next place the incursioiia and victories of the Normans, 
which afflicted a large portion of Europe during the whole century, were 
such an obetructitHi to the pragreaa of kaming, that at the close of the cen- 
tury in most of these countries, and even in Pitmce itself, few remained who 
deserved to bo called learned men.(ll) What little incoherent knowledge 
remained among the clergy, waa chiefly confined to the episcopal and mo< 
sastic schools. But the more the priests and monks increased in wealth 
and riches, the less tliey attended to the cultivation of their minds. 

J 6. And yet a large part of this century was brightened with the ex- 
amples and laboura of the men, who derived a literary spirit from Ckark. 
magne and from his institutions and laws. Among these, Rahanua Maunu 
held perhaps the first rank in Germany and France ; and to his lectures, 
the studious youth resorted in great numbers. As historians, and not 
wholly without merit, appeared Egmhard, Freculphiu, Thegarau, Haymo, 
Antutasius, Ado, and others. In poetry, Florvt, Walafrid Strabo, Bertiia. 
ritu, Rabanus, and others, distinguished themselves, la languages and 
philology, Sabamu, (who wrote acutely concerning the causes and origia 
of languages), Smaragdua, Bertharius, and others, possessed skill. Of 
Greek ana Hebrew literature, WilUam, Servaius jJuput, John Scotug, and 
others, were not ignorant. In eloquence, or the art of speaking and wri- 
ting with elegance, Servalus Lupus, E^nhard, Agobard, Htncmar, and 
others, were proficients. (12) 

§ 7. The philosophy and logic, taught in the European schools in this 
century, scarcely deserved the name. Yet there were, in various places 
and especially among the Irish, subtle and acute men, who might not im- 
properly be called philosophers. At the head of these, was John Eri- 
gerta(13) Scolus, i. e., the Irishman, acompanion and friend of Charles the 
Bald, a man of great and excelling genius, and not a stranger to either 
Grecian or Roman learning. Being acquainted with Greek, he expounded 
Aristotle to his pupils ; and also philosophized with great acuteness, with- 
out a guide. His five Books on ike Dtvuion cf Nature, (de Divisione na- 
ture), are still extant ; an abstruse work, in which he traces the causes and 
origination of all things, in a style not disagreeable, and with no ordinary 
acumen; and in which he so explains the philosophy of Chrislianity, as to 
make it the great aim of the whole system to bring the minds of men into 
intimate union with the Supreme Being. To express the thing in words 
better understood, — he was the first of those who united Scholastic iheolo' 
gS with that which is called MystU. Some have viewed him as not very 
fer from the opinion of those, who suppose God to be connected with na- 
ture as the soul is with the body. But perhaps he advanced nothing but 
what the Realiala, as they were called, afterwards taught ; though he ex. 

(II) Stnahu Lupus, EpiatoUe, p. 69, Le Btvf, Et4t dea icieace* en Fruice d*- 

Ep. nxiv. Conringiua, Antiqq. Acid., p. puis Chulcmigne jaiqa' an Roi Robert ; in 

913. Histoire litteraire de U Fnnce, torn, hii Recueil do direneB Ecrita pour serrir 

iv., p. 861, Ac. d'ecIairciBSement k I'Histoirc da Ft»nce, 

(IS) Pine Ulmlralions of theie rematki torn, ii., p. 1, &e., Paris, 1738, Hto. 

mn be derived from the Histoite litterure (13) [Erigtia aignidet properlr « n«tiv» 

da la France, b<r ibe Benedictioe monks, torn, of Irdand, u Eriit, or 7riii, waa Uie ancital 

iv., p. set, 271, &c., sod twptcaDj £t«n name ol that kingdom.— Jbc/.] 


pneaed hia views with less cleaTnes8.(14) He did not, ao iu u I know, 
£>und a new sect. About the same time one Maearixia, also no Iriabman 
or Scot, disseminated in France th(U error concerning the soul, which 
Averrott afterwards professed ; namely, that all men hare one common 
soul : an error which Rairam confuted.(15) Before theae men, and in the 
times of Charlemagne and Least the Meek, Dungai, & Scot and a monk, 
taught philosophy and astronomy in France, with great reputation.(16) 
Nearly contemporary with him was Marie or Serie, a monk of Auzcrre, 
a very acute man, who is aoid to have pursued bis investigations in the 
manner of Det Carte*.{n) 



, 1. Theii Fraudifor eawblishing their Power : Pspe™ Jean™. — i S, 6. Fiiand- 
•hip of Ihe Popes for the Kingi of France. — 4 7. "Hie Empeion nifleied tbeii RighU id 
Mttlen or Religjoa to be wienled from them. The Power of Biabopg curtailed. — 4 ^• 
DocomeDU forged by Uie Roqud Pantiffi. Decretal Epistlea.— 4 9. Succeaa of IheM 
Fnnda. — 4 IC- Houka gain acceaa to Courta, tod to Civil Officea. — 4 H- Attempta to 
reform their Profligate Lirei. — 4 '3. Ctnona and Cenooeaae*. — i 13. The juisc^ 
Greek Writeri. — 4 1^- 1^ more diatinguiahed Latini. 

^ 1. The ungodly lives of most of those intrusted with the care and 
goremment of the church, are a subject of complaint with ■ all the ingen- 
uous and honest writers of this age.(l) In the East, sinister designs, 
rancour, contentions and strife, were every where predominant. At Con- 
stantinople or New Rome, those were elevated to the patriarchal chair, 
who were in &.vour at court ; and upon losing that favour, a decree of the 
emperor hurled them from their elevated station. In the West, the bish- 
ops hung around the courts of princes, and indulged themselves in every 
species of voluptuousness :(2) while the inferior clergy and the monks were 

(U) This book was pabliihed h; Thaniu (16) HiKoire lilteraira de la Fnnce, Una. 

Oatt. Oion,, 1881, fol, CAr. Aug. Hat- rr., p. 493. [But Mxratori, Hiatorr of 

mam made aome eitracla from it, and treat' Italj, toI. it., p. 51 1, Oemun ed. and elae- 

•d learnedly of Seotui himwlf, iti the Ger- vhere, thinka thia Dtmgtl taught at Pans 

man Acta Pluloaophonim, tom. iii., p. 8&S, in Italf, and not in the monaateiy of St. 

Ac. DenjainFtance.— TV.] 

(IS) See Jo. SfaWim, Praef. ad Saecnl. (17) Le Beaf, M«iDolrse p "■"■ ' 

St., pt. ii. Actor. Saactor, ord. Benedict!, d'AoxerTe, tom. ii., p. 481. Acta Sanctor., 

. ... t _ i;:; ... ri. .- 1._ jjjp_ ^^^ j^ ^^^ Jujm ad di( "' ■ 

uniu diem 31 Juhi, p. 349. 

of all human aonla, trat only thair tptdfie obtainM a place among (he ai 

4196, &c.. p. liii., &e. [Itianoltube aup- tom. it. m. Junii ad diem S4, p. SS9, et ad 
' '' itilfrKitrnubeldtbemtnimca/unitf diem 31 Juhi, p. 349. " ' '' ■- - 

BDity or identity ; i. e., their aameiMaa of ea- (1) See AgiAari, de pfivilegiia «t jut* 

•ence. or aameneaa of nature. The doctiim Sacerdotii, 4 13, p. 137, lom. i. of hia Of^., 

of the aameoaa of all geraraU, «m often ao ed. Bciuxe. 

atatad aa apparently to deny the aeparat* ax- (3) Sea Agebard, paiaim ; and Ibe lawa 

iatanee of ijiJitidiuU, and eren to approri- (or eanona) enacted m the eoancila of tlw 

male lo«rda pantMeitn. Bee Aayfi, Die- Latins : atao Servstiu Lupia, Epiat. ixxr., 

tionnaire Hiatoriqai, article Spinoia, nMa p. 73, S8I, and the amtoUtiona of Sitpk. 

P, torn, iv., p. SM, ed. 1738— TV.] Bsiuie, p. 871. [The couigU of Favia, 


gensual ; and b^ the gToasest vices, corrupted the people whom they were 
set to Tcfbrm. The ignorance of the clergy in many places, was bo great, 
that few of them eould read and write, and very few could express their 
thoughts with predsion and cleameas. Hence, whenever a letter was iq 
be penned, or aa^ thing of importance was to be committed to writing, 
recourse was generally had to acHne (hm individual, who was supposed to 
excel common men by possessing some dexterity in such matters. The 
example of SertaUit Lupiu is evidence of the fact. (8) 

§ 2. In Europe, various causes operated to produce and to foster this 
corruption among persons who ought to have been examples to others. 
Among the principal must be reckoned the calamities of the times, such 
as the perpetual wars between Leais the Meek and his sons and posterity, 
the incursions and ravages of the barbarous nations, the gross ignonmca 
of the nobility, and the vast wealth that was possessed by the churches and 
monasteries. To these leading causes, others of less magnitude may be 
added. If a son of an illustrious family lacked energy and talent, aa 
elevated place was sought for him among the rulers of the church.(4) 
The patrons of churches, not wishii^ to have their vices exposed and re- 
proved, gave the preference to weak and inefficient men for parish minis- 
ters and guardians of the souls of men.(6) The bishops and the heads of 
monasteries held much real estate or landed property, by a feudal tenure ; 
and therefore, whenever a war broke out they were summoned to the field, 

A.D. 860, cuDD 3d, Mj: " It i< our opin- quae in quitmBdim locii Ivpsnaria potios 

ion, that bishops ahould be conteDled with videntui esse, quani moruuUria. — Ibid., p. 

Un^crait nuaU ; uid should not urge th«ji 1398, No. IS. Tha coaneil of Majence, 

gueita to eat and to drink, but rather set ei- A.D. mS, decietd: "Thai (be cleigj be 

amplei of sobrietj. Let all provocations lo vhollv (bcbidden to hare remalea reiidenl in 

debaDcherr, be removed from their convivi- their houaea. For, although there were es- 

alit; 1 let no ludicrauB abowa, no vain gar- none allowing c«rte)ii (emalea [mothera and 

inlily, DO buBboneiy o( wila, no acurrilous aistera] to reside in clergymen's houses ; jet, 

tciclu, there Einda place." — Harduin'tCao- what is greatly to be lunented, we have of- 

eiUa, torn, t., p. S6. In a lubtequenl canon, ten heard, that by such pemutaton, Dtimei- 

they forbid bishops' keeping hounds and oua acta of wickadneas have been commit- 

hawka for hunting, and their having auper- led; so that soine pheata, cohabiting with ' 

flaoua traina of horses and mnlea, and gaudy their own aiaters, have had children by than), 

diuaes, Soi vain display.— The council of (Ssepe audivimua, per illam conceaaionein 

. AJi-la-Chapelle, A.D. 836, forbid biahopa pluritna scelera ease commissa, ita ut quidant 

getting drunk. — Harduin, Concilia, torn, iv., aaeerdotmn cum propriis sororibus coDcuni- 

p. 1392, No. 6. And tbey slile, with rep- bentea, £ltoe ex eia generessent.} Aad 

robation, the fact that sotne of their older therefore thii holy synod decrees, that no 

neglected their charges, and travelled ban nnab^ter shall permit any female to live with 

■nd there, not from neceamly, bot to gntily him m hia house ; so thai the occasion at 

their avarice or their loveof pleasure.— Ibid., evil reports, or of inii^uitoua deeds, may b« 

p. 13S3, No. 13, Ofpreabyten and the in- wholly lamoTed." — Ibid.,TDl. Ti.,p.406,No. 

lerior clergy, they complain that they kept 10.— ^r.] 

women in their houaea, to the great acaiidal (3) See hia Woilis j Ep. icviii., xcii., n. 

of the ministry^ and tUa, notwithaUoding 136, 148, 143; also his Xi/<. Tolbeseadd, 

the attempts of formec conndLs and prtncea Bodolplii Bituricensis Capitula ad Clenim 

to remote the eviL Abo, that preabyteia goum ; in Baiuse, MiaceUaliea, lom. vi, p. 

torn bailiffs. fiBqneat taTama, puraoe filthy 13B and p. 148. 

lucre, prscUso usory, condoct ahamefully and (4) Hirumar, Opus poeteriua contra Go- 
lewdly in the bouaea they riait, and do not deechalcum, cap. xxxri., in his Ojip., torn. i. 
bluah to indulge in revelry and diunkennesi. p. 31S. Stnaiui Xujnu, Bpiat. liiiz., p. 
— Ibid., p. IS«7, No. 7. 8. They say of the 130. 

uinmaiieB, tlnfinaomaiJacea they aeem- (6) Agaherd, defnivilt^et jnre Sant- 

•dMbsntbatlmilwUtbaaiiiODaBtBiiea''— dotnm, c^ xi., iobia Ojip., torn. L, p. Ml. 


with the quota of soldiera which tliey were bound to fiirniah to theii 
90PeTeigits.(6) Kings and piinceB moreover, ttiat they might be ^e to 
reward their servants and soldiers for their services, often seized upon coik 
secraled property, and gave it to their dependants ; and the priests and 
monks who had before been supported by it, to relievB tiieir wants, itow 
betook themselves to every species of vi^lany, and fraud, and impoaition.(T) 

6 3. Tlie Roman pontiffs were elected by the sufirnges of the whole 
booy of the clergy and people [at Rome] ; but the emperors must approve 
of their appointment before they were con8ecrated.{a) There is indeed 
extant an edict of Lewis the Meek, dated A.D. 817, in which this right of 
the emperors is relinquished, and power given to the Romans not only of 
electing a pontiff, but of installing and consecrating him without waiting 
for the consent of the emperor :(9) but eminent men have shown by argu. 
ments entirely satisfactory, that this document is a foi^ry.(lO) Yet I 
readily admit that after the times of Ckarle» the Bald, who obtained the 
imperial dignity by the good offices of the Roman pontiff, the state of things 
was materially changed, and the consent of the emperors was not asked 
by the Romans. It is at the same time true beyoDU a question, that from 
the time of Etigene HI^Il) who was placed in St. Peter^s chair A.D. 8S4, 
the election of a pontiff was nearly destitute of any rule or order, and for 
the most part tumultuous ; and this irregularity did not cease until the times 
of Otto the Great. 

§ 4. Few of those who in this century were raised to the highest station 
in the church, can be commended for their wisdom, learning, virtue, and 
other endowments properfor a bishop. The greater part of them by their nu. 
merous vices, and all of them by their arrogance and lust of power, entailed 
disgrace upon their memories. Between Leo IV, who died A.D- 855, and 
Batediet III., a woman who concealed her sex and assumed the name of 
John, it ia said, opened her way to the pontifical throne by her learning 
and genius, and governed the church for a time. She Is commonly calW 
the papess Joanna. During the five subsequent centuries, the witnesses 
to this extraordinary event are without number : nor did any one prior to 

(S) Stephat Bal%xe, Appeodii Aclorain (9) Hariain, Concilia, Um. i*., p. 1339. 

id Semlnm, p. COS. JHuriUan', Aolioq. Car. U Coiale, Aniulei EcclniB Fnneo- 

Itil. medii uri, torn. ii„ p. 446, &c. Ma- nun, tome vii., >d taa. 817, ucl. 6. fio- 

UlUm, Annalo Banedict., torn, vi., p. (>e7. Iiisa, Cipitulu. Rsgum Fnucomm, tool. L, 

Du Fnnu, td JommUii Hiatoriun Ladiin- p. S9I. 

ci S., p. TG, 7B. [Yet militu; aerricfl iru (10) Muralori, Droiu de TEmpira mr 

not ilHaji reqaired for church taodi, aome I'Elat Ecclea.. p. 64, Ac., and AnIuiDitatM 

dotutiom eipnml^enatiiijr exemption from Ilol. oiedii leri, torn, iii., p. S9, 30 ; whoT* 

afitWUoii, r c. — TV.] he conjectures, that thii documflnt WM (br- 

^ 14, Omi.. lom. i., p. STO. Flodoari, Hi*t Tmpei. Gennin., torn, iii., p. 34. Aiid f«t 

«eelst. tUiemensii,lib. iii.gCBp. ii. Strva- aome popiah wiilera, e. a, Fontatiini ad, 

M« IrnpHt, Epiat. iIt., p. 87, 437, dec., bnl atben, most eimeatly dereiid tka ediet cf 

eapoddl} Ltid. Ant. Murttori, Antiqo. i.«uu; thooghiiteffecttiallT. [Tie STidaDOB 

lUlicac, torn, vi., p, 303, &c., tnd Lad. of the apaTiouaiea* of this edict, ii wall 

T^homoinii, DiKiplmieccieaia Tet-et Don munnied op by Pagi, Critiet in Bann. ad 

cina beneSei*, pt. ii., lih. iU., e. n. The ann. 817. No. 7, vol. iii., p. 4BS,— TV.] 
■una custom pnniled alao unoiw tht (II) [Heraiaamiatslte. It wu f/ot^iaa 

Oreak* and the Lonbeida. See j£eh. U HI. who became pope in the yen 

f«ri) Gatnan., ton. iii., p. tS, Ac., 8S, Ac. 


the reformation by Luther, regard the thing as either incredible or diagni«a. 
Ad to the chur(^.{12) But in the seveoteenth century, learned men not 
only among the Roman Catholics but others also, exerted all the powers of 
their ingennitj, both to invalidate the teatimony on which the truth of the 
Btory reat«, and to confute it by an accurate compulation of date3.(18) 
But still there are very learned men, who, while they concede that much 
talsehood is mixed with the truth, maintain that the controversy is not 
wholly setded. Something muat necessarily have taken place at Rome^ 
to give rise to this roost unifcinn report of so many ages ; but what it waa 
that occurred, does not yet appear.il4) 

. in hia Eiercit. de Papa foemin* ; ' , , . 

torn, ii,, p. 677 ; uid Joe. Lnfant hta ei- ... . a — 

hibited them m ■ French tnnililion, bellei Availaiiut BibLothecihiu, who Ibea UTed 

unnged and wilh Tsrioua iddiLlona, in a 3d >l Rome uid wiote the Liva o( the Popes, 

ed. at the Hague, 1736, ISmo, i> andtnibiedljr Bpiuioua. (Ad q/emtnat 

(13) The irgnmenta at Iboae who deny eoald not hive written, •• II it lud, IhM s 
ibeiitiaUiactoCtpapeu.tiaceDiaidBioi^ feniHle lucceeded to Lto IV." if ba bad 
dclTi appropriile treatiae aod some olhen, known it a/ofl,' nor would he have given 
■n in^niauiljF stated by Fcter BayU, Die- currency to aucb tftUtihood, had he known 
tionnaire, tarn, iii., art. Papctte, p. 2162. it to be such. Nor ia thia the onlj prooT 
See also Geo. Eicard, Histoiia Prancia Oh- that the pasaage is an interpolation ) It waa 
entil.,tO[n. ii., lib. xii., i 119, &c.. p. 436, nearly two centuries, berore any writer af- 
Ac., who bowerer. ao fat ■■ we know, has finned the fact. But from that time lo the 
Ibllowed the reasoning of Lti^ttt on the lefonnaiion, it was cenetallj believed. Yet 
subject. Mkkacl It Quid, Oriena Chria- not vnittrtaUy, ttur. Moihetm intimate*, 
tianus, torn, iii., p. 777 ; and in the I.ulher- Flatijia. (Livei of the Popes, Jokn VII.), 
an chnrch, Chr. Aug. Hevmann, in his Syl- after relating the ilorj, says : Hie quw 
lege Diaa. sacrar., torn, i., part ii., p. 3S3. diii, Tolga femntur, incertis tainen et obacn- 
&«. The argumenla on both aides of the lia aoclonbua : quae ideo poneie brciilei at 
quealion, sre neatly stated by Chntlopher nud^ inalflui, no obstinate et pertinacitet 
Wagentiel; in Jo. Geo, Schelfiom'M Amoe- omieiase videar, quod fere omnaa affinnaat. 
nitates Llttcrar., pt. i., p. 146, i&c, and by Tbia surely is cot the language of one who 
Jac. Barnagc, Hisloirc dc rEglise, torn, i,, does not qaastioa the truth of the atoij. 
p, 409, The names of the other witters. Yet Phuina wrote before Lathir waa bom. 
who are very numerous, may be seen in — Ttie tiisloiy of this mmu is briefly Ihia, 
Cojp. Sagiltanut, inlroduclio in Hial. Ee- as atated by writers of the twelfth and tot- 
clea., torn. i,. e. ixt., p. 676, &c., and in the lowing centuries. She waa the danghler of 
SibliothEGi Breiaensis, torn. niL, pt. T., p. in E^liah miaaionary, who left Engtand t» 
B36. [See also Sdxrocckh, Kiichengeach., waach among the newly converted Saiona. 
*d. uii., p. 76-1 10. J. E. C. Schmidt, She waa bom at Ingdhtim ; and according 
Kirehengesch., vol. i»., p. 274-S79, and 4. to different authors, was named Joouim, 
Bmeer'i Livca of the Popea, vol. iv., p, MS Agnt; Gcrbtrt, Itabel, Margaret. Doratkf, 
-S60.— rr.} and Jvll. She early distin^iahed herieU 

(14) So thotigfat Paul ^trpi, Lettate Ital- for nniua and love of learning. A young 
iana, lelt. Iiuii., p. 463. Jac. LenfaU, Bib- moiik of Fulda conceivinE a passion for her, 
lioth. Genniniquet lam. I., p. S7. Thioi. which waa miitual, she efoped from hei p>- 
ir*Mnu, Biblioth. Biemrau., tern, viii., pt. rente, diaguiaed her aei, and entered tba 
r, p. 836. Ckritt. Matth. Pfaff, Inatit. monaalerjof Fulda. Not aatiafied with the 
Hiatcii. Ecclea., p. 463, ed. 2. To whom restraiuts there, ahe and her lovei elc^ 
might b« added Wenuiorf, BoecUr, HoU again, went to England, and then to France, 
berg, and many otbers. 1 will not under- Italy, and finally to Atbena in Greece, whem 
take dw office of judge in this controversy, they devoted themselves to literary pursuita. 
yet I am of opinion, there waa something m On the death of the monk, Joanna was in- 
thiaaflair that deserves further investigitiOD. consolable. She left Athena, and repaind 
—[Few if any, in modem timea, admit the lo Rome. There she opened a acbool, and 
iMJily of a female fofe: and among the acqoind lud) iqiiitatiaB fiir teaming and 


^ 5. Great aa the vicea and enotmitiea of many of the pontic were, 
they did not prevent the growth of the pontifical power and infiuence both 
in church and slate, during these unhappy times. It does not indeed ap- 
pear from any authentic documenta, that they acquired any new lerriioriea, 
in addition to those they had received from the bounty of the French kings. 
For what they tell ua of the donations of Levns the Meek, is destitute of 
probability :(16) nor is there more certainty in what many state, tliat 
CharU* the Batd,in the year 875 when JoAn VIll. had enabled him to gain 
the rank of emperor, relinquished all right and all jurisdiction over the city 
of Rome and its territory, and bestowed various other gifls of immense value 
upon the pontifis. Yet to all who read the history of those times, it must 
be obvious that the Roman pooUfis advanced in power, influence, wealth, 
and riches, from the age of Lewia the Meek onward, and especially after 
the commencement of the reign of Charles the Bald. (16) 

§ 6. Upon the decease of Lewu II. [A.D. 875], a violent war broke out 
among the descendants of Charlemagne, each of Uiem contending for the 
imperial dignity. And the Roman pontiff John VIII. and with him the 
Italian princes, eagerly seized this opportunity to exclude the voice of all 
foreigners, and make the election of emperors depend wholly on themselves. 
Hence Charles the Bald king of the Franks, by a vast amount of money 
and other presents, and by still greater promises, induced the Roman pon- 
tiff and the other Italian princes, to proclaim him king of Italy and emper. 
or of the Romans, in a public assembly A.D. 876. His successors in the 
kingdom of Italy and in the imperial dignity, Carloman and Charles the 
Fat, were likewise chosen by the Roman pontiff and the Italian princes. 
Af^erwarda turbulent times came on, in which those who promised most, 
or who gave most, generally ascended the royal and impcratorial throne, 
by the aid of the pontifls.(17) 

§ 7. The power of the Roman pontifis in matters of a religious nature, 
was augmented with equal rapidity and success, and nearly from the same 
causes. The wisest and most impartial among the Roman Catholic wri. 
ters, acknowledge and prove, that from the times of Lemt the Meek, the 
ancient system of ecclesiastical law in Europe was gradually changed, and 
a new system introduced by the policy of the court of Rome. The kings 
and emperors suffered their rights in matters of religion, which had been 
handed down to them from Charlemagne, to be insensibly taken from them. 
The power of bishops to make regulations in mailers of religion, was pros- 

feia ned nnctitr, (hit on the duth of Lto The child died ; uid tome ttf, the mother 
IVr, A.D. ess, abe wu cboma pope. For loo, On ibe ipol. Othen ny, ibeianiTed, 
•omotbing more than Iwa yeua, (he GUed but wu lent innoedutelr to priaon, thi ob- 
tb« papal cbiii with reputation, no one tua- ject of univerul eiecntioa. See Boisa 
pecting her aei. But ihe had taken one and Platina, 1, cit. — TV.] 
of bet bouiehald, nhom ibe coiild imat, to (16) See above, f 3. 
ber bed ; and bj him (he became pregnant. (16) fiunoii, Hiaioria Imperii Rom. Q«r- 
Al length, being nearer her time than ahe man., torn, iii., □. 48Z, &c. Jo. On. &- 
had auppoaed, the ventured on Whilaun- card, Hiatoiia FranciB Oriental., torn. 'A., 
week to join in Ibe annual proceuion with lib. mi., p. 606, &e. [See GUitler't Text- 
all her cleigj. While pasaing ihe alreet book of Eecl. Hiat., triiul. by CvtmtifJtam, 
between the cfaoich of St. Clement and tin vol. ii., p^ 10, &c.-— Tr.J 
amphilbeatie, ahe waa aeiied with violent (17) Tbia la illuatnled by Carol. 5^ 
paina, fell to the groond amid the crowd, raui, de regoo Italia, and br the othu wri- 
BOd while her atCeDdanta wen andsaiouring ten of Gamian and Italian iiiaMrj, 
lo mioiatei U her, waa delivend of a aan. 

04 BOOK in.-CENTimY IX— PART U.-'^mAP. n. 

tiated ; and the autboij^ of ecclestastical couacUi was diminiBhed. For 
the Roraan pontifis^ ezultmg in their pro^ritj' and the duly acceniom to 
their wealth, endeavoured to instil into tlw miodi of all, and notwithstaniL 
ing t^ oppM^ion of the reflecting and of those acquainted with tbeandestt 
eccleBiastical oongtitution, tbejr actoally did instil into many, the sentiment 
that the bishop of Rome was ccostitated by Jenu Ckriit a. legislator and 
jadge, over the whole church ; and therefore, that other bishope derived all 
Uieir authority solely from him, and that couiu^ils could decide nothing with- 
out his direction and approbation.^ 18) 

§ 8. To bring men to listen and assent to this new systam of eccleaiaB. 
tical law, which was so very difiereut from the ancient system, there yna 
need of ancient documents and records, with which it might be enforced and 
defended against the assaults of oppoeers. Hence the Roman pontiffs pro* 
cured the forgery, by their trusty friends, of conventions, acts of council^ 
epistles, and other documents ; by which they might make it appear, that from 
the earliest ages of the church the Roman pontifls possessed the some a^ 
thority and power which they now claimed. (19) Among these fraudulent 
documents in support of the Romish power, tbe so called Decretal Episttea 
of the pontifis of the first centuries, hold perhaps the first rank. They 
were produced t^ the ingenuity of an obscure man, who felsely asnimed 
the name /^Isidore bishop of SeviUe.(30) Some vestiges of these fabrica> 
ted epistles, appeared in the preceding century ;(21) but they were first 
published, and appealed to in support of the claims of Roman pontiffs, in 
this century.(2S) Of similar origin and value arc the decrees of a certain 

(18) See the excellent work of an no- nished k> be ngtrded u Itidore, t, diMia- 
knc'wn writer, who ligna hinuelf D, B., en- guiabed biabt^ of Seville in the eiith can- 
titled ; Histoire ia dioil eccleaiastique pub- lurr, oi to qwik mora deGiiilel|r, that h* 
lique Fnnfoia ; fint published, London, wiihed to miks tbe worM believe thU tb«M 
1737, 3 vols. 8*0, and lately repabU^ed EpiKlei woe eolleeted bv JiUort, is pei- 
■plendidly ia > larger fona. The author fectlj clear. See Jv. A&. FabricnM, fiib- 
neally and acutely pointa out the atepa fa^ liotb. Lat. medii acvi, torn, v., p. Ml. Ths 
which the llomin pontifia advanced tfaeir buhopt wore accuatomed, in token of their 
power, or (he tiinth cenlurr, be tieatt in bumilitj, to antijoin to Ibeir Damei tbe wont 
vol. i., p. 160, &£. i^Bowtr't Lives of Ibe ytccnttr (nawr} ; hettce tbe anlhoi of tUs 
Pope*, vol. iv. and V. (7 . J. PJmui, Orach, forgery aaneied tbs lumam* PuciUor !• 
d. chnall. Kirchl. GeaeUacbafta-Veilaaeimg, the aianmed nama of Iridort, Some of ttw 
Tola. ii. and iii. — TV.] ttaOKribers, ignsiantof the incienl cuilotns 

(19) II ia no improbable anppottlion, that Mid literature, com:pted thia signatore if 
m»r and other docnmenta, auch la the do- eicbanving Ftecalor tot Merca/or. And 
nattona of Conitantint and Xeun'i the Meek, hence Uie fnudulent compiler of the Decre- 
were fabricated with the pnTJly aod appro- taJ Epiatlea ia called Indtnu Mavatw. 
ballon of the Roman pontifTs. rot who can [See, on the whole subject of these Epialle% 
beliece. that the ponliffi who made nae of their origin, chancier, and effects, G. J. 
these writings doring manv tgea to snbataii- Piattck't Gescb. i. chriatl. Kirchl. GeealL 
tiate their authority and tbeir prerogatiTes, •cbafta-Verfaacmig, vol.ii , p,800-S!S; nA 
wvold )KTe Tsntuivd to confront king*, prin- GuttUr'i Tait-book of Eccl. Hial., Irand. 
tULSi't**''"'" '* councils, and bisbopa, with by CuntBtigkam, vol. il, p. S4-69. — TV.] 
tofctiODa and impositions of prirate indi- (31) See Aug. Ccjmet, Histoire do Lor. 
ndnebl In that age, fmuds for the benefit laine, tome i., p. 638. Jutt. Htim. BBI^ 
of ^church andofGod, were deemed law- mer, Pnsf. ad nOTam editioneni JuriaCaum., 
ful; BO that it is aot stnnge, that the Ro- torn, i., p. x., lii., nolea. [Flairf aaya td 
mm pontiffs shoald aappose they did no tbem, that >'^y crept to lieht near tbe cloe* 
nuital wmng, by permitling and approving of the eiirtith century." flairy, in Hiates; 
the fabrication of soch papers aa wonld be ■ eeelei,. Diss, it., H. and Histoire Ecclaai. 
twnpart and bulwark to Iheeee of Si. Ftttr. sstiqne, liv, div., f S3.— TV.] 

(») That tbe aotbar «f tbiM EpiitlM (XI] The q ' 


Boman council, said to have beat held under Syleuter [A.D> 834], but 
which was never heard of by axsy one, till the ninth century ; than which 
nothing could be better suited to enrich and to exalt above all human aa> 
tbori^, the Roman pontiff.(23) 

§ 9. There were indeed among the western Inihops some discerning 
men, who perceived that designs were formed against tbem and the church : 
in particular, the French bishops vigorously opposed the admission of these 
^istles and other spurioua productions, among the received books of ec- 
clesiastical law. But these men were overcome by the pertinacity of the 
Roman pontitls, especially by Nicolas I. And as in the subsequent time* 
all science and learning forsook the Roman world, there scarcely remained 
any one, able or even disposed to move cootroversy respecliug these pious 
frauds. How great the evils to which they gave rise, and bow audacious- 
ly the Roman pontifis abused them to overthrow the ancient system of 
diurch government, to weaken the authority of bishops, to increase their 
own revenues and emoluments, and to abridge the prerogatives of kings 
and princes, numberless facta in the history of the subsequent centuries 
will show. Nor is this denied at the present day, by respectable and hon. 
est men, even though in other respects favourably disposed towards the 
Romish church and its sovereign.(34) 

^ 10. The estimation in which a monastic life was held, was astonish- 
ingly great, both in the eastern empire and in the western. In the former 

hu been demoDitnted, not onlj b; the Cfa- wisa Jo. Cahaitut, Notitia Ecclesiast., p. 

tunatarct Xardtbwgttua uii lOnit (Ahetw, 13S, and Pagi, Ciilica in Baron, id urn. 

botmoM launedlj and in anippiophiU trev 824, 4 ivii., iriii,, who do not heutate to 

tiie, tnr Da-vid BtmiUU, in hia rtuedo-Iai- pronoance tbia council a fiction. — 3V.] 

diinu<ilTumuiiuTapniinle>,GeneT., 16S8, (34) See Jo. Laiaun, de RBgiapo( 

4to. And it the piCKnl day, tbe fiiands of caaai* matrimonial, in Ids O]^., 1<hii. i., part 

the Roman pontib wbo follow naKin and il., p. 764, and Peter Coiubaa, Piml. li 

truth, confeM ths cheat. Sea Ja. Fran. Epiat. RoinaiiOT. Pontiff,, torn, i., p. cxxxriL, 

BuddtuM, laavoge in Theologiam, torn. iL, &.c. IFlaay, Din. vii., 4 *., in Hitwian 

p. 703. Add, Peler Coatlaal, Pralegom. Ecclea.. aaja : Faliae Iniori Decielalei) 

>d EpiatoUa Pontificum, torn. i.. p. cm., ciica octavi Snem accuU inreeut, jariadie* 

&c. Flaay, Dlbs. pieGied to bi* Hiatoire tionem eccleiiaaticam in tiibus articnliia^ 

Eeeleaiaatique, torn, in., [and itill better, modum cmifiutenint, uilicet quoad concilia, 

in hia Hiatoire Eccleaiaali(|ne itaelf, line Judicia EpiKOponim, et sppellationei. Se« 

zliv., 4 uii. lliaae epiatlea, bearing the also Diaa. it,, 4 1, ^- — Ptier it Xarea, 

namea of varioua Romiab biibopa, from de Concordia Mcerdolii et imperii, lib, vji., 

CtmaU I. to DaniuuM I., A.D. 384, are cap, ix., 4 I, die. Sub sacunda R^on 

in the early collection of conncila by Seser. noalrorum dynaatia nonm yuM cmunaeitm \a 

BtKtmu ; Enit are not inaerted in the BaUa- ecctesiam Gallicanam, nque ac in cetena 

niiiii Magnutn of Ckirutin, pnbliihed by Occidenlii proiiociaa, introducicosptDmeat, 

MilboriCy of the court of Rome near the imenlii earn in rem ruppetiliiaM uHm Tete- 

cloae of the •erenteenlh centurr. It ia be- rum Fonlificum Romanoram cpUtdit, in 

liered, ther are now uiuTersaliy f^yea up, quibui extant quam plurima conatitals E^ 

eren by the Catholics. The oldeat pap^ auiadieiaa velerum cananum atatolia. Bat 

■piatlea, now admitted hj any to be genuine, while these and other Catholic wlilinlMW 

BTB those collected by Dioiqrtiuj Exigmu, the commencement of a ereal nrofalB^ II) 

who aays he could find none written ^ the the constilution of the Catbolk dmnh, to 

ponti& aolraior to Syriciiu, who auceaaded the Decretal Epiallea and other fingeries of 

Damaana 1., A,D. 3S6. The earliest in tbe tbe eighth and nii^ eanttiries, they *ay, it 

Bultarian Slagmm are those of Z^o i„ was only the commsiKament ; (or the reTO- 

A.D. 447.— TV.] Intion waa not completed till after the publi- 

{S3) See Jo. Lamei, da Cura EcdaKa cation of the Becretum of GruioK, in ths 

•rga pauperes et mlseroa. eap. J,, obaerr, i., twelfth etaOxj^—'n.l 
p. 676, of bis 0pp., torn, ii., put ii. f Lik*- 
Vol. il— 1 


thia exeesaire eBtimation had long existed ; but among the Latim it t&kea 
ikte only Irom the preceding ceoluiy. Hence even kings, and dukea and 
counts, abcudonine their honours aitd their wealth, Toluntariiy retired to 
monasteries, in order to devote themselves to the service of God. Of thia 
quite a number at examples occurred in Italy, France, Spain, and Gemuu , 
ny, during thia century ; and there were some also in the preceding cen- 
tury. Those who could not in their lifetime bring themselves to the res> 
caution of abandoning society, would yet demand the monastic garb when 
dying, and actually put it on before they left the world ; that they might 
enjoy the prayers ana spiritual succours of the iratemity among whom they 
were received. Another and a striking proof of the high estimation in 
which monks were held, was the custom of the emperors and kings of the 
Franks in this age of calling monks and abbots to their courts, and iui 
trusting them with civil afiairs and business of great moment both at homa 
and in foreign countries. For those unsuspicious princes thought, that no 
persons could more safely l>e intrusted with the management of public af. 
&irs, than men of such sanctity and piety, men who 1^ subdued all their 
natural desires and become free from all concupiscence. Hence it waa^ 
that in the history of those times, we read of so many abbots and monka 
who performed the functions of ambassadors, commissioners or extraor- 
dinary judges, and ministers of state, sometimes indeed with good success 
but not seldom unsuccessfully. 

^ 11. And yet those who conferred such honours upon monks and the 
monastic life, did not deny that most of that class lived vicious lives ; and 
they laboured to reform their morals, and to render them obedient to their 
monastic rules. The efforts of Lems the Meek especially in this particular, 
deserve notice. That emperor employed Benediet, abbot of Aniane and 
afterwards of Indre, a man distinguished for piety and the fear of God, to 
reform tbe monasteries, first in Aquitoine, and then throughout the kingdom 
of France, and to purge them of the enormous vices which had crept into 
them ; and afterwards in the council [of abbots assembled] at Aix-la-Cha. 
pelle A.D. 817, in which the same Bcntdid presided, he caused good 
canons to be enacted for restoring the prostrate discipline of the monaster- 
ies. This Benediet therefore, who has been called the second father of 
the western monks, subjected all the monks to the singk rule of St. Beneditt 
of Monte Caasino, suppressing all diversities of rites and customs, and in- 
troducing one uniform rule : he also banished the greater vices from the 
monasteries ; and likewise brought all associations of monks, who had be- 
fore been bound together by no ties, to become in a sense one body or 
90dety.(36) This discipline flourished for a while, but from various 

(36} See Jo. XaiiUm, AcU SHnctor. biOon, Acta Suictoi. ord. Bened., Sscal. 

end. BBDBdict., SbcuI. i*., pt. i,, Praef., p. i»., pt. i., tom. »., p. 183-316.— This Bat. 

xxm^ ind PiW. id SsgdI. v., p. in. ; tdki ippear* to have been ■ vei; siticgia 

•1m> Ui At»»I« Oidinii 8, Bened., torn, man, and a great refoimer of tbe monailei- 

li., p. 4S0, &c., and many olbec placaa in iea, that ii, one who brought them to great* 

diat volume. Aug. CaUut, Hieloire da cr luiifonnily in dreaa. liTing. worehip, and 

Lorraine, (om. !., p. 6M. Concerning Beit- natgee. He wai himaelf most rigorous in 

edtcl or Aniane and hia merita generaTl;, see voluntaty mortificatiOD* ; and the rule of St, 

the Acta Sanctor., toin. ii., Febr., p. 606, Smtditt he rerennced, aa jf ii bad con* 

aod Hiatoire litleraite de U France, torn, immedialel; from God, and wae the only 

iv., p. 447, &c. [Alao, the Life of Bens- tine gpide to heaveD.— rr.] 
diet, by Ario one of hi« disg^lee ; in JVo. 


caines it gradually declined ; and at the end of thia century, such deTas- 
tationa had every where been made both in church and state, dtat only 
some slight traces ot it remained in a few places. 

§ 12, The order of canons, which Ckrodegang devised and which had 
been eJttensively introduced in the preceding century, Ltwis the Meek 
cherished with great care and extended through all the proviDcea of hia 
empire. He a^ added an order of canonetaes, which had been onknown 
in the Christian world till that time.(26) For bjth, he caused rules ta 
he drawn up in the council of Aix-la-Chapelle A.D. 817, superseding the 
rule of Chrodegang ; and these new rules continued to be followed in most 
of the convents of canons and canonessestill the tweljlh century, although 
they were disagreeable to the court of Rome. The compiler of the rule 
for eanmu, was undoubtedly Amalariiu a presbyter of Metz ; but whether 
he also drew up that for eanonessM is uncertain. (27) From this time 
onward, numerous convents of canons and caaoafsses were founded in 
every part of Europe, and endowed «ith ample revenues by pious individ- 
uals. But this institution degenerated like the others, and very soon ba. 
cune widely different from what it was designed to be.(28) 

^ 13. Of the writers among the Greeks, the following were the most 
dutinguished. Fhottua, patriarch of Constantinople, a man of superior 
talents, and of various and extensive knowledge, Ilis Bibliotheca,(29) 

(36) See MakUlm, Amulet Oid. Beoed., ihould ivoid all vice*, and pncliM all vir. 
torn, ii., p. 428, dec. tue. They should live in wetl-eecuied cloia- 

(S7) Lmi. Ttonuin'n, DiKiplioa etclea, ten, coauining dotmiloHes. lefeclories. tod 
vetni el non, pt. i., lib. iii,, cap. 43, 43, otlwr neceuuy ipartmenU. Tbe number 
&c. Munleri, Anliquit*te> luUcie medii or cinons io each claialcr, iJiaurd be pni- 
•eri, loDi. T., p, 186, 640, Ac , ind all tbe portiaoed to the exigencei of tbe churcb 
writen who treat of the order of canona ; lo nbicb it belonged. In tbeii dreaa, thof 
tboogh thn ue not all of equal vilue. The abould aioid the eilnTagancea of omainent 
lesal worthjp of credit are thote who, be- and finerj, and likairiae uncleanhnese and 
longing theineeliee lo Ibe order of canona, negligeoce, die. The aecond part of i)m 
have treated of the origin and progreis of rule relatea to catumaia, and conlaina 28 
that order; ai e. g, F^ymund C^ppond, articlea. The aii firat are eitiaeta fniin the 
Riatoire dea Cbaooinea, Paria, 1699. 3to. fathers, and relate to the dutiea of ladiei 
For theee wrilere are ao attacbed to (he wbo coneecrate ihemeelTet to God. Thoj 
order, that the; ueutlhr trace beck its oiigia n»y have private properly ; jel muit corn- 
to Ckral hinuelf and hia Apoatlea, or at mit the management of il lo eome kinsman 
leaet to Iba firat agea of Ihe Chrialian or fneod, by a public act or asaignmenl. 
eborch. [This ordinsDce of Letuit Sot reg. Tbej mi^ alao have wailii^-isaida, and eat 
ulaling the order of canons, ia in Hardiun t in the relectory, and sleep in iba dormitorr. 
Concilia, lorn, ir., p. lOSS-tlBO. The Their are to be veiled, and to dreea in b^ 
abatraet b]r SckUgil, r.ontaina ite Tleir butineat mnal be prayer, reading, and 
mdal featnrea. — " Il embiacea 146 labouiiag with Ibeii huida ; and •Bpecia%, 
, of vhieh the Gnt 113 are mate they must fabiicale their own clothiniF, fro 
ettiacla fiom tbe ftthera and Acta of conn' the flai and nool given to ibem." — TV,] 

Uticlea ; of vhieh the Gnt 113 are mate they must fabiicale their own clothiniF, fnmi 
ettiacla fiom tbe ftthera and Acta of conn' the flai and wool give ' ' - "- - 
cite, deecribing the dnttes of biahope and (U) C^nul, Histo 

prieeta. Theee are tbUowed by two sermoni i., p. GSl. Histoire Litberaire de b n«K«, 

of Augvlnu, on brins in aaaociationa. torn. It., p. GSfl, dtc, 

Tben commence the tulea bvned by tbia (39) See Cumuit/, Hiatoire dea JooO^ 

COimciL First, the prevailing error thai tbe tome i., p. S7, du. IPhetiia waa of aoUs 

preaenptkn* of tbe Gospel wo* oUigatoi; puenlaga, well eduotsd, and peibapa tba 

only opon ntoa^ and clergymOD, is eoofii. gm tw t geniue of Us wo. He ceitainiT 
... . >.,.__.,^ .... .[(mbatwoeoHeata was* great acholai. Vwe in civil life, 1m 
Tbe latier oaf cnlliTUad all leenui^[ Mcred and profane. 

tod; and then thodietinctioobtwoeoMnafca ws* • great echolai. Vwe in civil life, Iw 

and canona ia defined. Tbe latier oaf cnlliTUad all leenui^[ Mcrad and profane, 

wear tmen, eat fMt, bold private fimitf. Ha waa commander of tbe imperial bodjr* 

and enjojr that of the chveb ; the KxnMr naida, fiiu asnator of Constantinopla, and 

caawK. Y«l aquallv with tbe ouoks, ihev ^ef privata wesatarv lo the empenL H« 


Bpistlei, and other writingB, are yet highly vatuable.— JficepAortM, also 
patriarch of Constantinople, who wrote agaiiut the opposera of imago, 
and some other woika.iSOy—Theodanu Studiu* is likewise indebted to 
the controvBrsy in behalf of images lor the greater part of his reputation 
among thooe of aAer age3.(31) Not much better or more learned werci 
Theodonu Gra^tus, who suffered much in defence of image-worship ;(3S) 
Mahodhxt, entitled the Confeasor, because no penalties or pressure could 

mi ilM cnployed on «mbaMJe>. Duiing EccIm., tom. ii., p. 3, &c. [Nicepluma, 

• STiiin M)DM>r ha wrote hia funoui B^ tfter being Mcnuij of lUte ol Coniuntino- 

Uothecm, «C HvfH^i^^laf, pring ■ ciitieil pie and in liigfa honour, leund Irom tbe vrorU 

■ceount «tV)0 matbon wbtch he had read, ud became a monk. Ks wis leanicd, do- 

■nd fraqoenllT alao mniinuiM of ibenr con- Tout, md eiceedinglj zesloui for image-woi- 

tsDUiWnfa cODiidenble eitnct*. Ai minj ihip. He was made patriarch of Conitan- 

of thleM ulboi* ue no longer extant, the linople AD. S(J6: but wan expelled hin aaa 

■ccoont of Ihem b; Phetiai is exUemelj ten ^eaia afler, by the emperor Leo V. who 

nloabla. In the year B58, the Gmperor waa opposed la unasc-wi 

Midiatl III. deposed l/patiut the patnirch eiile, A.D. 828. Hia beei work u, a uonf 

of Conitanlinople ; and PAtifiiw was ordain- pendious HisWr;, from Maurice A.D. 600, 

ad BubdeacoQ, deacon, pnest, and patriarch, to A.D. 7B9 ; eilant in the CorpuB Hial. 

in four aucceuive days. The friends of Ig- Bnantmaa. He also wrote a CKrenalegt^ 

satiua and the biabops of Roma, refosed to TViporfilo, or t Catalogue of public men 

ulaiovrledge PAoltiu as a legitimate patri- among the Hebrevia, Greeks, Latins, lui., 

tjch. Tet he hald the office till A.D. 867, and a lTij:o^7-/>ia, or Index of Oanonicd, 

when haling offended the emperor he was Ecclesiaatical, and Apocryphal Books, an- 

deposed, and Igrmtitu was restored. But neiing to each the number of linen (r't;t<") 

in the jreai S77, Igruitius died and PAnrtm it contained. Beaidca these histoiical works, 

again took the chair, till A.D. 866, when he wrotea longEpialle lo oope I.<a III. cOD- 

the new emperor Lto the Philosopher de- taining his creed ; several small collcctiooi 

posed and banished him to a cunTent in Ar- of canons, and a number of hooka in defenca 

menia, where be died ibouL A.D. 890. The of image-wDrship.— 7r.] 

RUiolheca of Photius, Gr. and, with (31) [Tkeodarut SniiitcM was bom at 

the notes of Hoeschelius, (the Terj fault^r Constantinople A.D. 759, became a mmk 

Latin hf Schotl), was first published, 1601, m 781, and abbol in 794, and four jtatm af> 

Ibl., and has been seieral times reprinted, ler head of the monaslerjr Sludiunt in Con- 

Lalest edition reTJaed bj Btkhtr, Berlin, slanlinople ; whence his surname Sludite: 

]8£4, S Tola. 4to. His ii^yjiaif jrtpl ruv Ho was lealous even to madneas in favour 

VcO^Tuv Kavixaiuv ivafiXar^atoif, libri of imago-worship ; and for thirtv years naa 

iv., adv. Paulisnialss, &c., is in J. C. Wei- tbs iustigaior of rebellions, and the dauntless 

fii Anecdols Gr., snd in GuUanii Bibli- leader of them, (when out of prison), against 

oth. Patr., tom. liii., p. 603, &c. His Epis- the government which was opposed to im> 

ties, to the number of 348, were published, age-worship. He died A.D. 826, aged 67. 

Gr. and La(., by R. Mmtagvt, Lond., 16G1, Besides a tew tracts on monkery and monk- 

foL Hia Namoaaam, or collection of eccl. isb aaints, he has lefi us 134 catecheCietl 

canons, emhracii^ liv. Tilnli, with lbs Com- Discouraes, and a vast number of inflamnuf 

msotai; of TKeod. BeUanum, was pubLsbed, tory letters in defence of imaae-worship, most 

Or. arid Lai., hj both the JiuUUt ; the of which, or al leaul parts of them, fiarontiu 

laat in his Biblioth. Juris. CatMHi., Paris, has inserted in hu Annals. Ho nai a m«n 

1663, lom. iL, p. 789. Several additional of some learning and talent ; but wasted all 

lettets and tracts have crept to light in dif- his strength on the controversy respecting 

fittsnt collections ; but his eitenaive com- images. — 3V,] 

nwQtaries on scripture, bis large lexicon, and (32) [Tktodcmit Gruplut wss a monk of 

several amaller worka, remain slill in MS. Palestine, went to Constantinople in 818, u 

— For an accoonl of hie writings, see Fabri- plead the cause of image-worship ; was bao- 

cnu, Biblioth. Gr., vol. ii., p. 381-610. isbed four times, for bis sbuss of empenua 

Of his public life, and the conlroveraias m and others, snd for his seditious movemsnta 

which he was involnd, notice will be taken in &voni of images \ and at last died in ai- 

in the next chapter, 4 37, du.— Tr.} He, about A.D. S40. He has left us a Dia- 

(30)SeBthe Acta Sanctor., lom. ii.,Manu pule, an Epistle, and Creed j all in defeoE* 

ad diem xiii., p. 398. Owltn, Sctipt«n* ofimsgea. — Tr.] 


induce him to abandon the defence of imagea ;(33) Tkeodant^Ahiatra ;(34) 
Petnu Sicu/u«;(35) Niatas Damd^ZG) and others ; whose namn would 
perhaps have not been handed down to this day, had not the Greeks been 
involved in contests with the Latins on aeveral subjects, and among them* 
selves respecting image- worship. — Among the Syrians, the name of JUoMt 
Barcepha* ia lamous ; and not undeservedly. For he posKssed genioB 
and skill in writing, beyond most others ; as his works eTmce.(87) 

.. About A. U. ottbiicentuiy; C. 

8SD, Lhe pilniTch Mnt him u bia envoj to — Hit three Books de Pkra^wl in ■ 

Rome. TherebewBSguiltf ofidnlteiyiind tmuUlioD bom the Sjriac, bf Andr. M*- ' 

did peauice. Retarniiif; to CoaBUnliiiople, tiat, w«re pabhahed, Antwerp, lfi69, 8to ; 

be becune very leilaua m defence of iinmgc tai then in the BibLioth. Patiom, lorn, irii., 

worship ; wu baniihed, mnd impiiwmed, uid p. 4fi6. 

whipped. But in a4S, he wu made pttii- The Greek writers omitted bj Dr. JT*- 

arch of Constantinople. He died A.D. 847 ; (jkctm, lie the foUotainc : 

and has left us live orations in pniae of monk- Nieepkonu Chuiop^Ui, who flontiafaA 

tTj, and a coUeclion of canones poenitentia- peibap* A.D. BOl, and wiote two EpiallM 

les. Some of his orations have passed for to Thtodotnu a monk of Corinth, containing 

works of MilkodiitM Pstsieoiia, who flour- aolulions of several difficult questioiis in 

d A^D. 390.— Tr.] ethics ; extant, Gr. and Lit., in the Jus Or. 

{34} Flier Bayle, Dietionnsiie, torn. 
8S, ail. Abucaras. [The word Afmtan 
nifies hithop of Carta. He followed 


lt Roman., lib. v., p. 341, and LaL, in tiM 

party of Pitotiiu ; but afterwards renounced brother of Tkeodorut Studites, and abq s 

It and joined thai of Ignatius. According zealot for image-worihip. He was depoead 

to Caxe, he Bourished A.D. 887. He has A.D. 80S, eided, and died after A.D. 816. 

left us about 40 DiBgertatioas doctrinal and Grelztr (de Cruce, tom. ii., p. 1200) bs* 

polemic, against beielica, Jews, and Mohim- published. Or. and Lai,, aii Oration of )ui,im 

medana; which werepublisbed, Gr.and L«t., the eialtaition of the holy croes ; aitd £ar«> 

by Jac. Grttta, with the Hodtgut of Anas- iBiu (Annalea, ad ann. 808, 4 SS) has given 

taihiB Sinaita, Ingolstadt, 1606, 4to. — Tr.] ua an Epistle of bia, in Latin. 

(35)[PfUr5uuliu,(aouriabedA.D.870), Ignatuu, f grammarian and deacon U 
was a learned noblemsn, whom the emper- Conatantina[Je, and then metropolitan of 
or Batil I. sent to negotiate an eicbuige Nice. He flouiisbed A.D. 810, uid wu' 
of ptisonen in Annenia. There he becatne alive A.D. S3B. His life of the patrialob 
■cquauited with the sect of the new jVfuni- Taruiui ia eitani, Lat,, in Sunai, and in 
ckaani, or Paaiiciatu ; the history of whoae BoUand, on Feb. SSth. Hia Ufe of the pa- 
Origin, progress, and decline, he afterwards tnarch Nictphona was published, Or. artd 
composed ; published, Gr. and Lat., Ingol- Lat., t>y Haaclitniiu and Paptiroeh, on 
■tadt, 1604. 4la, and partially, in Latin, by March ISlh. 

Btrmuiu, Annals, tom. ii. ; and in the Bib- Naiuraliui, a monk of Constantinople, 

both. Patr., tom. nil. — Tr.] very active in favour of image- worship, for 

(36) [Sictlai Damd, a learned bisho]) of which he was often imprisoned. He floor- 

Paphlagania, flourished abent A. D. 880, and isbed from A.D. 313, till after A.D. SSO. 

ongly attached to the parly of i^no- Several letters 


t Pholnu. He also wrote containing an account of the : 
he twelve apostles, and aev- the image-worshippers, isiinserted, L 
era] other ssinta ; a defence of the synod of the BibOoth. Patr., tom. liv., p. 901. (^m 
ChaUedon, and a commenlaiy on some parts {Hist, Lit,, tom. ii.} sivMa speciKMB Vf Iks 
of Oiegoiy Naz. His life of Ignatius was Greek ; but did not deem it worth pnUldt- 
— '-"-'--d. Or. and Lat., with the Acta of Urn ituentire. 

ThtojAojia, the bratbn of Titoignu 

Onptns, (see oote ^) p- 88), and of tb« 

MBS ebaltcter, cm£ict, and fortune. T«t 

"of Nice, abonl A-O. 

•igfalh noenl Council, Ingolstadt, 1604, 
4to ; ad m fiarduaa'i Concdia, ton. v., f. 


(87} Jm. ShB. Autman, Bibhotb. (Mm*. 
TiticaM, torn. ii„ p. 1*7, &e. [Jbsst 646. We have a H^ 
Bcrcfpid wis a Syiun bishop of Betb-IU- odea, in nuanuy 

I Hymn, eonsistina of uin* 
of hisbioibeti ^liiod if 


' § 14. At the head of the Latin writers may jiutly be placed Bahimiu 
Maunu, wbose last office was that of archbisliop of Menlz. He was tha 
common prac^tor of Germany and Fiance ; with whom no one in thia 
century can be compared, either for ganlua, or extent of learning, or the 

nmtlitiide of books he composed. Whoever acquaints imnself with the 

opinions of Rabanus Maurus, learns all that the best of the Latins thou^t 
and believed for about four centuries ; for his writings were in the hands of 
bU the leamed.(38) — Agobard of Lyons, a man of character and discem- 
Comitfit, Qt. uwl LaL, ia hit Oiig. Con- StyUama, nunuud Mipi, matmiolttu 

■UaUDop., f. S34. of Neo-Canm in the Fronncu Euphn- 

, XUIutt BjoctHoM, ludn of ths cboii mt teoni, who Soaiiriied iboiil A.D. 870. Ha 

ConitaiitiDapfs, > le&lot for imiige-WDrship, wu > >trong ptrtiun of Ignatiiu, in oppoai- 

in which cauM he laffeied much. He flour- lion to Phalmi ; for wmch he luSered k 

iiheil ibout A.D. 830 ; and wrote ha Eaca- temponry deprintion of hia lee. He haa 

nunm on St. Dionji. Ateop., which ii ex- left ns two Episan, Or. and Lai., in Hat^ 

Unt, Gr. ind Lil., m the Opp.Dionyi. Are- dw'n'j Concilii, torn, t., p. 1122, 1130. 
op., torn, ii., p. 307 ; tin EncotniDm on the Jticluitl, the monk, ixucelluB to the pa- 

hoty uigeli atid irchingels of God ; eilant, ttisRh Inatiut, flourubed A.D. 878 ; and 

Gr. ind I^t., in Cotniefii, AdcIubi. Hot., wrote enEDCoauDm Od IgnUiaa ; eituiC, Or. 

torn, i., p. 1525. tod Let,, in Harduin'i ConeiltB, tam. t., p. 

George HuiurtolDt, u AichimtlidHle, lOOSj uid a lifeof TAcodonu StoditM.fraiB 

who floQiislied iboal A.D. 843, *t>d wrote a which Baronim m his Amiela hu nude Ta- 

Cbronicon from the creation to A.D. 848, rious eiiiacca. 

which atill exists in MS. From it the snc- Giargt, chirlophylai of the great cbnrck 

ceedine chronol agists, CedTtTOit, Tlitop\a- tl Constantinople, and irchbislrap of Nico- 

lU^Glyau, &c., copied all that ia Tal- media about A.D. 880. He was a warai 

nable. friend of Phatiae. Several Orations aol 

Ig-rtatiat, son of the emperor Michael Cu- some Poems of his in praise of satati, ara 

ropalita, caatnted and baiiished \if Leo the extant. Or. and Lat, in Can^efii, Aoctoai. 

Armenian, UTod a monk about SO jeara, waa Not., Paris, 1646, torn, i., p. 995. 

paljiarcb of Constantinople A.D. 817, Lto the Pbilosophei, Greek emperor from 

^' ' th Barda, and was deposed and A.D. 886 to A.D. 911. He has left us in. 

). 858. In the year 867, Pho- sacred Onlioas, some Letters and Tiacu, 

litu his compelilor was deposed, and IgTUi- irpoxt'/xn' yo/uumi sive Dcltchu Legtini, in 

tint restored. He died in 878, agad 80 \x. Ttluh ; a huge diseBt of the Uws of 

years. Two letters and one discourse of his the Greek empire, publiahed, Paris, 1847, 

are extant, Latin, in Harduin't Concilia, Gr. and Lat,, in Tit. tomes tbl. NmdUt 

tom. T., p. 791, 873, 937. Cofttiutiotia HL ; and TactUa sen de ra 

MctTophoRei, metropolitan of Smyrna, vaiitazi Opiu. 
A.D. 858-859, and A.D. 867-8S0. He NkoUou, surnamed Mysticus, patriarcli 

was a strenuous opposer of Photiiu, and of Constantinople from A.D. 89S to A.D. 

toss as he fell He has left us a letter, g' — ' ' 

ing as the history of PAottiu from A.D, 8. . 

(0 870; which is extant in Latin, in Saro- marrisge of another, jiui m hii ne waa 

Mma, Annales. ad ann. 870. ^ 453 ; and Gr. restored, and lived liU 934. He has lefl ua 

and I^t., is Hantuin't Concilia, tom. •>., p. eight Epistles ; extant in the coUeclions of 

nil. councils, or in Baroniat' Annals. — TV.] 

Basil the Macedonian, Greek emperor (38) See the Acta Ssnclor,, tom. i.. Febr., 
foHn A.D. 8A7-8SS. He wrote Eiborta- p. 500. Hiitoire Litteraue de la Franca, 
tiom to bia aon Leo, eome orations, ad- tome v., p. 151. [Also, Maiillim, Acts 
" . " . Ti., p^l-4«. 

. . , T of reapect- 

isneo A.D. 870, is supposed to have written able parentage st Menti, A.D. 776. Ha 

•omeof the pieces, which go under the name studied first at Fdda, where he waa made 

of aaolher Micluul Psellus who lived in the deacon in 801. The next year he removed 

eleventh century, particularly a parspbreae to Tours, to atudy under the famous Alaiiii. 

on moat of the books of AriifMis, a Dia- After one or two yeara he roturned to Futda, 

logne on the operations of danons, a Tract and was made bead of the school ihate, at 

'•'wtiTffTg daowtts, dte. the iga of SS. As an inatnetet he ma so 

ade patjii 


naent, Bud not destitute of learning ; but he would han denned mnB 
commendation if he had not been a dribnder of the rebelUoaof the Moa 
of Leiou the Meek against their own father.(30) — Hildidn obluBed nolo. 
riety by his work entitled Areopagitiat.(iO) — Eginliardj abbot of Sell. 
genatadt, the celebrated author of the life of Charlevuigng ud other worki^ 
was particularly attentive to the elegance of his g^le, and waa not desti- 
tute of other excellences. (41) — Claudiiu of Turin is in reputation at thia 
day, for his exposition of certain books of scripture, and for his Chronoio- 
^.(42)— frecu^iu of Lisieux, whose Ckromeon is sliU extant, compiled 
celebnMd ■■ to dnw joong man of tilenli Stt^m Balmt, Firii, 1666, % nU. Sro. 
fiwn > Biot distancB. Among bis pupil* — TV.] * 

were V/^frid Slrato, Senalut Luinu, and (40) Hiiloire Littanire de Ii Fruee, 
otheit, who were imong the first achotui of tome if., p. 607, (and Cax, HiMohi Ltu 
theiT ige. In the jeu 833, he wu nude uruia, torn. ii. — Hiiiitim wu made abbot 
■bbot of Foldi ; in which office he wu foi of Si. Deoyi abonl A.D. 814, and of St. 
k time popalai. but at length ibe monki com- Ovimiii) oeai Paiii in 818 ; alia ucbcbui- 
plained that he wu go engaged in writing lain of the palace, AE^ being in gmtb- 
book* u to neglect his active dutiee. He vonr wilh Lewi* [he Meek, he joined the 
now resioDed hu abbacy, and retired to a rebellion afhixoiu, and waa depriTedofhii 
literarj life. This wu in B43. Five yeara oftice*, md banithed to Coibej in Saioiqr, 
■her lie wu made archbishop of Xtnlx; in A.D. 830. But soon aftai he wu reelond 
whichofficebecantiouedtillhiadeath,A.D. to bia Pariaiaa abbacies. Leuit now di. 
857. — He wrote commenUriei on all the Ntted bim to write ■ full history of St. Di- 
canonical books, end on aeveral of the apoc- oayn'tu, the (bundei of bii monaatery, ud 
rypha] 1 also aermona, letlera, and tracts, the reputed first bishop of Paris. This /fit- 
Moat of his works, ss published, are com- dain eiecuted in bis bmous AreopagitiCB. 
prised in six toIs. folio, Cologne, 1B2T. — He there makes Dionytiut Ihs Areopagile, 
TV.] mentioned Acts mi,, 34, after being bishop 

(39} CDf(nna,Hiitoire litter, de la Tiltede of Athene, to have ttarelled to Rome, ibetrcB 
Ijyon, torn, ii., p. 93. , NouTeau Dietioo- to Ailea, and at last to Paris, where be 
luire Histor. Critique, torn, i,, p, 178, His- founded the monutery of St. Denys (Dioinp- 

toiie Litteraiie de la France, lome iv., p, liua), converted vast numbers, * 

* <^ • [and Cow's Historis Littenris, bishop of that i«ion, and at length eomtea 
. jlf oiard wsa a Frank, called Erom nitityrdom, in the reign of iJomitiui, To 

torn, u, AgoiMrd wsa a Frank, called bom niaityrdom, in the reign 
Spain lo be coadjutor of Lddrai aichbisbop him slso, he ascribes Si 
of Lyons. A.D, 8t3, whom he aderwaids under the name of Diony) 

He wu a man of an ardent, in 
dependent mind, of great learning a 

of DionynW the Areopagite. 

. . 3d.-V] 

(41) Histoire Litteraire de la Fiance, 
lome iv.. p, 650 ; and bis Life of Charlt- 
to whom the Fieivh kings were disposed to tnagnr, u published by Hem. Schmindu. 
grant privil^es ; and taking aides with Lo- [See above, p, 3S, note (43),— IV.] 
fJliuVc and Fcpin against Uwir father Ltwii (4S) See Rich. Sinum, Crilicioe de la Bitv 
the Meek, be went so fsr, thai on s reeon- liotbeque Ecdu. ia St. in Pm, tome i., p. 
cilialLOn between those sovereigns he was 284. [Clnulius wu a tutire of Spun, and 
deprived ofbiB bishopric. However, he was educated under Ftlix of Urgel. In 81S or 
lestoced. snd held his office till his death in 813, he became a presbyter in the court <^ 
840, He attacked Fclvc of Urgel ; wrote Leuiit the Meek, and commenced writing 

against image-worahip, aminsl the trial by eommenlaries. In 821, Lemt n 

ordeal, and against the belief Ihat evil spirits bishop of Turin. He immediately Mt hiiB- 

eao produce stomis and hail and thunder ; self against sU imsge-worahip, and evea 

•Dd when some pretended viitchtM were ar- removed and destroyed the pictures and 

raigned before bJm, he caused them to be imagea, throughout tus diocese. IIub e 

whipped, till they confesaed ihal thenr da. cited strong oppoiillon, ai>d involved turn 

ceivwl the people in order to gain i lireB* cootioTeny all bis liftb Tel bs peiaevace 

ceivwl the people in order to gain i lireB* cootioTeny all bis liftb Tel bs peiaevaced, 

,., , . . ..,!.L_. ._ ■--unjedimr ■"" -j-' - ■ ■ ■ 

>r ill pilgriiDagu, <^ 

r, ud AjiuUo hit faceessor, by anprenMey of toa p«f«, &c. HraM ai 

. ■ works wers first iiublisbad hr denonnced image-wetdfo u idolatry, d 

Maum, Psiis, ISOB, 8to; ind then, mneh that the croaa was lo be bononied, Aau- 
betlar, together vrilh those of Ltidrai his proved of sU pilgriiDagu, questioned the 


almost entirely in the very words of the ancient writers. (43) — Sermhu 
Lftput, whose Epistles and tracts ue still extant, ranks among the most 
agreeable writers of those times; nor'wu he so much lacking in acute- 
ness of mind, aa in elegance and extant of learning. (44) — Drepamtu Flo- 
rut, called also FJonu Maguter, has left us Poems, Expositions of some 
hofika of scripture, and a few other writing8,(45) — ChruHitm DnOkmar ex- 
pounded the Gospel of St. Matthew .(46) — Goduchalau, a monk of Orbais, 
Is rendered immortal by the controversies respecting divine grace and pre- 
destination, to which he gave rise.(47) — Ptuchamu Sadbart, a man of 

hiTB cmiiidered him u > gift nbrmet, and death wu tSla A.D. SSI. Ha wrote Li- 

■ aa the fnuader o( tha >ect of the Waldiiuet. bar da tribua qDMUoaihu ; Tii., Tree will. 

Ha ceitaialy (qipoaed aome at the aupenti- m«deituutiOD, u>d Ihe aupenbuDduice of 

timi of tbe aga ; and probably conthbuted Chiiit'a mchta; alao a CoIlectuieQin, oa 

to pieierTe Diore iodependence of the pope the aame aubjecta; the life of St. Wigbert; 

and greater purity of doctrine and notihip the life of St. Mutmin of Trevea ; and 130 

in the Alpine countries, tlun in most other EpiBlles ; all well ediled by S. Baliae, 

C of Europe. The Cathotica have neTcr Paris, 1664, 6to, and then in the Bibliolh. 

partial to him. Indeed they tax him Patr., torn. liv., p. I. — Dr. JfiuAAm'i ac- 

with great etioia. Yet ha wia neier ar- count of hia atyle aeema not verv cod- 

liignM aa a heretic ; not removed from hia liatent. Immu mote Id an aa^y, flowing 

bishopric till hia death, about A.D. 839. Hia style, tolerably chaate for that (ge ; but Dot 

commenta£y on the epistle to the Gilatiana, Teiy Tigorons, nor very brilliant : ju on the 

is in the Bibliolh. Pair., lorn, iiy., p. IM. whole agreeEblB.^rr.] 

Hia other conuneutarics, though not mferior (4fi) Colonia, Hut. Litteraire da Lyon, 

perhaps to those of JUbnToit, still lie in MS. torn, ii., p. 135. Hist. Litter, de la France, 

Probably they are unfavourable to popery ; lom. v., p. 313, &c. [Fiona was a dea- 

for it amcara that he maintained the original con in the ehorch at Lyops, and flourished 

puity of biahops and presbyters. He wrote about A.D. B37; yet he was a writer n» 

on Geneiia three Boolta ; on Eiodna four lata ss A.D. 853, His commenlaries on all 

Books 1 on Leviticus ; on the Go^l of the epistles of Paul, are printed as the work 

Matthew ; on the other epistles of Paul ; a of Ada. They are a compilation from 

almt scripture Chronolocy ; and tracts on Cyprian, Hilary, Ambrose, and about nine 

Ao worship of imaf^es and sainta, which aro other fslhers. He slso wrote on (be canon 

loat, except large fragmenta quoted by hia of the maaa ; on using compulsion with the 

antagonista. See Cave, Hist. Litteraria ; Jews; onlbeeleclianinddutiesora bishop; 

Fleary, Histoiro Ecclesiaalique, livr. nlvii., a commentary on the Psalms ; three Books 

cui. 30, St. ScAroecjU, Kircheneeachichte, on predestination, against jo^ Scohit; 

vol. uiii,, p. 381, 407, dtc., and Miitur't nine poetic paraphrases of some Psalma, 

Cburoh Hist., cent, ii , ch, iii. — TV.] Hymna, and Epistles ; and fire olbei po- 

<43) [Fticul^ati was a Benedictine ema. Some of these are pubhsbed, in the 

monk of Fulds, and waa made bishop before BiblioiL Pair., torn. *iit. sod iv. Mabd- 

A.D. 834. LewtM the Meek sent him as sn Um, Analect., torn. ir. Dathitr, Spicileg., 

envoy lo the pope, A.D. SSS. He was tom.iii. JUatifvin.Vindiciae Oraliae, &«., 

preaent in variaus councila, A.D, 839, 83S, torn, i., &c. The real wera qbibt printed. 

837, 846, and 84B : and died about A.D. —Tr.] 

860. His Chronicon is in twelve Books; (46) Histoire Litter, de la France, lom. 

tlta seven first eitend &om the creation to v., p. 84. [Drvihrnar was a French Ben- 

tbe Christian en ; the other five reach lo eilictine monk of Corbey, and flourished 

A.D. 60S. The work waa poblished, Co- about A.D. 840. Hie commentatyon Mat- 

loirae. 1B39, bil. ; Heidelb., 1697. Svo ; and then, is so opposed lo the doctrine of tran- 

in the Bibl. Pair., lom. xiv., p. 10«1.— 2V.] subalantislion, that the friends of that doc- 

[iVj Histoire Lilleraire de la France, trine have laboured hard lo prove the woA 

lom. (., p. SAG. [Liinu, surasmed Scr- corrupted by the Lutherans; but in vain, 

wAu, wsB a French Buiedicline monk of for it was fiist published, before LtUkn be- 

Fcnara. From abonl A.D. 838, he spent gsn to assail ptpeiir, in the year 1614, by 

eight yeara at Fulda, imder Rahataa ; then Eim. Alhertin. It is now in the Biblioll^ 

some time st Seligenatadl, with E^n^ri. Patrum, torn, xv., p. 86. See Cme, Hia- 

He'neit went to court, and in 843 wa* toria Litter., lom. ii.— ^r.] 

made abbot of Fenara. He was in several (47} [See below, ch. iii., J 33, 33, of this 

ABoneiU. and ones en*DT la Eobm. Hia caoton. — Oo it t cM am ' " " 


fluM in the cootroveruea respecting the Iiord's supper, has left tm, beaides 
other works, a book on that subjaot vfakh afibrded matter tar M long de> 
bate in that age.(4B) — Bertram «r Aclraam, a monk of Corbey, Was the 
principeU Kntagomst of RadberL His tract on the Ijord's supper, dnwn 
up by order of Charlet the Bald, occaaioned likewiM much debate anxmg 
the leanied.(40] — Hagmo of Halberatadt, wrote books of various Bort% 
vhich are specimens rather of industry than of genius and learmng.(OO) 

mi of Sum oiigin, ud eduutad to ihe taetotprynu fuit, qui ttrA tt t^ioti terip- 
moaiiterj of FuldL When uiiTsd *t mia- tit dc TcriUM corpon* et nngumii Domiiu 
bood, ha wiihed na longti to latd a moDU- in EocbuulM. Bat JUtMlm (AeU Sane- 

tic lifB ; bat wu compallad to it, on the lor. Old. Bened., lom. vi., Pncf., p. jx., 
gi«uDd that bia fKber bad d«vaMl him to &c,) endwroim to confute ihia cbuge. 
anch a life in h» childhmid, and that no bv- He wrote Eipoaitiona of Matthew, of the 
man powei could Ticate tba ttanaaction. book of Lamanlationa, of Ihe 44th Paalm ; 
Ha Doir lenrOred to Oibaia, waa ordained de Sacramento coporia et aangninia D. N. 
n netbjtei, and waa ao diMinguiabed aa a Jean, ad Pacidom Ijber ; de cofpoce el 
•cbolat that he waa aornamed FiUgmti**. aang. Domini, ad FiodaEaidDm EpiaWla ; 
Upon eome diiaffociioD between him and the Lih of St. Adslhaid ; the paanon of 
the biahop of the diocoac, he travelled to SS. RuGmia and Valerius : all which were 
Italy, and thence to Dalmilia and Pannooia. published bj Sinaatid, Paiia, 1618, fol. Ha 
AugattaiM waa hia (aTourite aulbor ; and be alio wrote the Life of St. Wala ; and da 
•Mn began ta advance the opinion! of An- partu Virginia Libri ii. See Cavt. Hiit. 
putine iMpeetjng difine grace, and a two- lilt, toL iL, and M^iUirn, Acta Sancior. 
ibid predsMmation. Many (araored tboaa twd. Bened., lom. n., p. 136-143.— TV] 
Tiewa; bnt more were oppoeed to them. (49) Cone entins both RalUicrt and Rat- 
The afood of Menti, A.D. 847, condemned ramn, aae the Hiatoire Litteraire de la 
bi* aanliinenta ; and the preaideni Sabtnut France, torn, v., p. S8T and 33S. [Brrtram 
Jfourtu, aeni him to Ancnur arEbbiabi^ or Satramn, was a French monk of old Cor- 
of Rheima, to whoaa dioceae bt belonged, be;, and alterwards abbot of Orbaia. Ha 
The neit tear ha waa arraigned before the flouriabad aa earij as 840, and waa still aUre 
■jnod of Chieiae;, condemned, degraded, in 870. He waa a devout, modeat, and 
and abut up bj Hincmac in the monaster; of learned man : and wrote de paito nrginia, 
Haalenlle ; uid after 31 yaara' eanfinement, proving thai the Savioar waa bom in the or- 
died in piiaon. Ha peraerned (o the last dinar; manner; which Raibtrt answered, 
in hi* opiniona, and waa denied Chriatian maintaining the perpetual Tirginily of Mai; j 
hnriat. He wrote two atatemenls of hia de [xaedeatinalioiw Libri ii., in Tindication 
' fcitb, a longer and a shorter ; both of which of Ihe sentimenta of GoitMludeiu ; centra 
an extant. In one of Ihem he oBered to be Graeconim errores Libri It ; de coipoce at 
cast into boiling waur or oil, and to ataka aang. Domini ; in opposition to Radiert ; 
the truth of hia doctrine on the iaaue. He and de anima Liber. — 7V.J 
alao wrote a letter or two, and a llBct on (GO) Of the worlu common]; aacribed lo 
predestination ; but the; are lost. Sea Aiiynui, a considerable part are not bit but 
CaH'i Hiatoria Litter. Maaguin, Vindi- Ihe prodoclions of RmigiuM of Auierre. 
cias Praedestioatianta et Giatise, torn, ii., See Catimir OitdtR, Comment, de Scriplor. 
p. 46, &c. L. CellM, Historia Qolteicfaalci Eccleaiait., tom. ii., p. 830. Hiatoira Litte- 
Frudeatinatiani. Mabilloti, Armal, Bened., laiie de la France, tom. t., p. Ill, torn, ii., 
torn, ii., p. 533, dec., 681, &c. Sekrotekk, p. 106. Le. BeHf, Recaeil dei Diss, anr 
Kircbena., vol. hit., p. 5, dec J. Milner, i'Histoire de la France, lom, i., p. ST8. 
Church Hist., cent, ii., cb. it. — Tr.] [Hayma or .4yma, was a disciple of .^Icwn, 
(48) [Paichamu Radhert waa a French an intimate friend and fellow-student of 
monk, bom about A.D. TB6. In the ;ear Rahamu JVannia, a monk of Fulda, abbot 
«44, be became abbot of Corbe; in France, of Herafeld A.D. 839, and biahop of Hat 
He was a member of the nnod of Chieia^, betatadt A.D. 841 . He waa at Uie ajmod 
wfaicb condemned Ondtttidau A.D. 849 i of Menti in 848, and died SfiS. Among 
and died Ajti H, A.D. SSI. Tha Piot- Ibe wiitiDsa ascribed lo him, an Cnmnan- 
MUnla tenid Urn aa Ibe man who Intm- Unea onOe Paalma.calaaish.ODlheepb- 
AxAd thedocttineof InnsubatantialionfaO* Ilea of Paol, on the J^ocalnae; all of 
dte Rttoisb dmrch. Bsmararnu lazed which are mere comnlBaone nom Ibe t^ 
Imn with thii ; and eta n fl dtanwn (d« Ihera ; Hiatoriae Ecclaa. Breviariom, tfvtt 
SniploT. Eocleaiaat, p. S88) tm: His daCbrialiaiMnn>nraiaaMinoiiiUknx.|S 

Vol. n.— K 


Wahfrid Strabo deserved well of the church in ihkt age, by his PoeiiM^ 
his Lives of Saints, and his Exposition of difficult passages of scripture. (61) 
— Hmcmar of Rheims deserves a Teiy bonoumble place among the Latin 
writers of this century. For his writings on various subjects, slu>w that his 
mind was not of the ordinary class, but elevated, independent, and zealous 
ibr trtith. But he at the same time was arrogant, and of a restless temper. 
Hla works throw much Ught on both the civil and the ecclesiastical hisloty 
of that age. (52) — John Erigena Scolut, the friend and companion of the 
emperor Charle* the Bald, combined the study of philosophy with that of 
theology, and acquired great reputation and fone by the acuteness of hia 
mind, and by his translations from Greek into Latin, as well as by hia 
original compositions.(53) — Remgius,(b4) BerthaTiiu,(b6) Ado,(50) AU 

mete ibiidgineDt of Riifimu : 10016 Homi- liat of letlera on important ■ubjecu saal 
liee ; de tmoie patriae coeleetis Libti iii. ; eventa ; Capitula, or ercleaiaiticsl rnlcst 
■od de coiporc et aang. Domini Tiactataa. confutationa of Godcachalcua, iic. Set 
Sea CoK, Hiet. Litt., torn, ii., end Mobil- Cavr, Hist. Litt., tani. ii. Sthroakk, Kir- 
ion, Acts SinctoT. ord. Bened., torn, t,, p. chengeacb,, toI. iiiv., p, SO, dte. — Tr.J 
fiSe. du.— Tr.] (G3} S«e Htrm. CoKringiut, AaliqojUlM 

(61) SeeHiaLoire Litteniiede lePnnee, Acedenuca, p. 30S ; Hialouv Litteraiie da . 

lom. T., p. GS. IWi^rii Sh^bo (01 Stra- la France, tom. t., p. 416, &e., and otheie. 

buM, i. e., iqianl-eyed) wai a Saebian 1 atod- [Jo/m Scoltu Erigena wee a native either 

ied in the mooaaLeiy of Richenau, then at of Scotland or Ireland, and a very profonnd 

Fulda, undei Rabanui; became head of achalar. He paeaed moat of faia Life in 

the school, and at la*t abbot of Richenau, France, and at the court of CkarUi iha 

A.D. S43. His death ia placed in the year Bald. About the year 860, he wrote hia 

649. He waa learned, and a pteaaing wri- tract de PcEdeatinalione Det contn Gotte»- 

ter; jetbathedinmonkiahaiipentilion. He cbalcam, in 19 cbaplen. Being well ae- 

wrote de OERciia dinnii, aive de eiordiia el qnainled with Greeli, he arquirM the eub- 

incrementia reiutn ecdesiaaticarom Libei ; tlsty ofanAristoteLaD, and theptopeneiljlo 

Urea of SI. Gail, SI. Olko. Si. Blaithmax, myaliciam of ■ Plaloniat. Hia great notk 

ft. Mamma, St. Laidegar ; and the vision he entitled ntpi ^vouuv /upiafAaTiif, de dU 

of A. Willin; vaiioua Poems ; a Tract on viaione nMurs, aeu de rerum naturia, Litni 

thadealTuetionof Jeruaalem; end the Gtoe- v., ed. Oion, 1681, fol. He tianalated tha 

B> OTdinaria intertinearia in S, Scriptunm ; woika of the Pitado-Diongaut Areop., and 

which ia eiUacted chieBy from the wtitings the SchoUa of St. Muimua on difficnltpae. 

of Raiatmt Manna. — TV.] aageaof GrworyNai.,andcompoaeda'rtact ■ 

(63J HistoircLittenirede la France, torn, on the Lonfa auppei, which ia loat, but in 

v., p. 644. [Hinctnar was * Frencbnun, which he ia aaid to have denied the doctrino 

of noble birth, educated under Hilduin in of tianaubetanliBlion. — Several writencon. 

the monaatery of St. Denys near Paiis. He found him with Jolm, a Salon monli wbnn 

vna diatiu^iahed as a scholar end a Iheolo- king Alfred invited over frotn France to 

gian, and m great favour at court. In the England, to teach in his school at Oxford, 

jear 830, he had leave to sccompanv Hil- and who was murdered by ibe enviona 

dnin in bis banishment to Saxonj. In the monks. But MabtUon (Acta Sanctor, ord. 

year 846, be waa made archbiahop of Rheims, Bened., tom. vi., p. 114, &c.) ahowa, that 

i.:.L -a^._ I :_.._j .ju [,;, death, he was a different person ; end that there ia 

a of the first no evidence of his going to England in iha 
ahve A.D. 8T». 

lurt and in all the eccle- —ir.^ 

naofthatpartofthecoun- (54) [There were two eminent men in 

try, was inunenae. Against Anguatinianiam, this century of the name of Anufiiu. Tba 

snd in favour of the liberties of the Galilean one, bishc^ of Lyons, end active (iDm A.D. 

church, he w»a equally strennoue. Tet he 850 to A.D. 875, in aeversl councils in be- 

was not &ee from supentitioD. as appears half of Augustinianism end Godeachalcni. 

fiom his justification of a trial by ordeal, He wrote de Iribus Episcopomm epistolia 

(0pp., lom. ii., p. 676), and his beLcf in Liber, aru Reaponaio ecclesi» Li^unenaia 

pv^aloty and visions (ibid., p. SOS). Moat nomine facta adTersns Hincmiri, Rabuu, M 

or his writing* are atill eitant, edited bj Sir- anonymi Epiecopi epiitola* ; (in defence of 

■MH^ Pin, 1616, S vols. ioL Thej cod- AuguMiniaiuaiii)} LibeUaadetawndtSciy* 


moM^S?) Heric,(5e) Begino of Pniiii,(50) and others, are here passed over, 
aa B BufEcient luiowledge of them way easily be obtained £ran commoD 

tDiaTCntMe,«ISS.PatniminlboritiIaMc- pron, nn)«etiiig hiimiiulet; b««id«a ns- 

Ui^ ; tai Abaolalio qaeMKHu* de genara- mcroui HomiliM, aonu of which «» now 

li ftr Adimum ■'"■"■■"""i «t ipeciali par uuertod in tha Homiliuiom of PuiDim»' 

ChriitnB ex Mdem «nption« electomio. mw. See Cow, Hut. Utt., lorn. ii. — 7V.1 

TImm Tneta im in Uw Bibliolh. Pdium, (M) ^Rtgino wu * Gennui, ■ monk of 

Wbi. IV., and in Hangim, Collectio So^ Pram in the dioeeie or Tieres, ehoHn A- 

tor. da PrBdeatinations, die., tom. L — Tba bot (ben A.D. 893 ; oppoied, and indoead 

other KtmigiuM wu a Banadictine monk a( to reaign A.D. B99. He diad A-D, 908. 

St Germam in Auxeira ; aad henca called Hii Cbronicoa, from the Chiiidan an to 

Antiiaiodorenaia. In Ibe yoai 888, or *ub- Iha jrear (K)T,aDdcontiauedbjaiiatheihaiid 

•aqaaall*, be waa called lo Rheima, to take to A.D. 9TS, relates chieflj to the aflaira of 

chugaoftbabtahap'aachool. Hadiediboat the Franka aod Tautonea. It ia printed 

A.D. 904. Hia •rocks an Commeotaiiaa on among the Scriptorea remm OermaiL.ed. of 

^IbaPaalmaafDaridionthelllaatmiDar Putornu, (om. i. Hia two Boc^ de Dia- 

pnpheta ; on the ifriadea of St. Paul ; inplinia ecchoaaticis et raligiona CbriMiMM, 

(aomeiimea ucribed. tbough lalaeljr, to Mf- (a collaction fmta eonneila, and the blbatt, 

no of Halbenudt) ; and an erpoaition of relatiiv to ecdaaiaatical law), an baat adit- 

tbemaaa. All theae are compilaliona from edbrsW^-Baluf, Paria, 1571,8*4.— TV.] 

tha fathara.— IV.] (GO) [The Latin writeri omitted b^ Dr. 

(6fi)[S(. Brrlionuwaa of noble French Motliam, are the following : 

oiigin, and drat ■ monk, and then abbot of Baudutui Anianeniia, bom in Lower 

Monte Caaaino in Ital; from A.D. SM, till Lai^edoc A.D. 7G1, educated at couil, and 

bia death in Iha year 881. "nie Sancen* lor lome yean employed in cinl life. In 

bequantty plundered that monaalery, and at the year TTl, be retired te a monaatety : 

laat alew Berrtoriu* at tba altar. See jVb- and aii jean after, to avoid being made ab- 

MJoH, Acta SanctoT. ord. Bened., torn, vi., bot, withdrew to a cell near the river Ani- 

p. ITS, du. He wrote aereral diacootaaa, ane, where monkanthered around him, and 

poemi, and Urea or eulogiea of aainta ; moit he becanM abbot of that and a dmen other 

ofwblcbieniainunpuhliabedin thearebiTea monaateriea propagated (iom it. He died 

ofhia monastery.— TV.] A.D. 814. See hii life, written by Ar^ bis 

<56) {Ado, a French monk, bom ibont disciple, in JHaiil/D)i,ActaSanctor. ord. B<o. 

A.D. 800, mads archbishop of Vienne AD. ed., tom. v., p. I83-SI6. He wrote Caitx 

aOO, aod died A.D. 878. Hewsamachea- RtgnlanuH Monaslicar., (a colleclton of lb> 

teemed, and active in levenl eonncila in muia of moat orders of monki, prenons to 

favoorof Aiu[U)tiaianism. KewroteaMaF- his time) ; edited by L. HeUumu, 1661, 

tyrology, beforo be waa a bishop, and after- and Pans, 1684. 4to. — Cmcoriia Rtgtila- 

warda a brief Chronology, ftom Ibe creation nim; a collection of exhortations lo monks: 

to about A.D. 870 J aba the livaa of some JHwtiu datrtanint poemltruiarum i and 

■ainta. See MdrUlim, 1. c, torn, vi., p. some epiatles. 

S78-390. — TV.] Ltulftr, a monk of Utrecht, who spent 

(G7) [Ainwni, a Beoedictine monk of St. aome time in England, and Invelled in It- 
Germain near Puia, near the cloas of this aly ; became abbot of Werden, aod bishop 
centory. He wrote the history of the mira- of MimegoeD A.D. 803, and died A.D.809. 
clea and of tba ramorat of the relics o( St. See hia Lfe, written by AUfrid the second 
Germain and St. George ; which is eitaot bishop afler him, in Matiiimi, I. c, torn, v., 
in Matattm, I c, torn, it., p. 96, Ac., and p. 14-33. He wrote the life of SI. Orig- 
lom. TL. p. 45, &c. This jltmotii most ory bishop of Utrecht, and aome letters, awl 
not be confounded with Atnoai the Bene* eitaot. 

dietiue moidc of Flenry, in the 1 1 ih centory, SauTtgiut, abbot of St. Michael, in tba 

the author of the Histoiia de rebus gestia diocese ih Terdon ; flonriabed about A-D. 

Franeorem. See LoiM de Scriptor. £c- 810, and wrote commantariaa on the Ln- 

cleaiaat. ad BtUarnuMun, p. 806, dec. — aona from the Goapela and Epiatles ; Hi*- 

Tt.\ itaut MoTiachanm ; a conunentaiy on tbo 

(68) [AsrncM et Errteut, bom at Hay, Rnle Jt St. Benedict ; Yim Regit ; a letta 

» TOIage near Auaire, and a Benedictiw for Ciarienofiu to tfas pope ; Acts of ■ 

nook at Auiarre, near the eloae of thia cen- confarenco atRoaieA.D. SlO; and a gts^ 

Un. He wrote ail Booka of poe^, OD tba matical commentary anDonalna, in fouiteaa 

Ijfc «f St Gaoasin ; nd tm BiwkB of Booki. IV laat, nerw poblitbed. 


jMaZirnw, ■ deicon, ind pcrinpa ninl 
Udnp of Meti. He flourished bmn A.D. 
613 to A.D. S36 ; uid wrole de Divinia sive 
•celeaiaalici* officii* Lite it ; ud de OT- 
diM uttiphonaiam Libel ; (both in the Bib- 
bMh. PatrUDi, tom. lir.) ; also eame epil- 
^m, Gdoga in canonem miBue, uid R^uU 

Jbtto, ibbot of tticheun, and bishop of 
Bule A.D. 811-836. He wrote Mme ck- 
pituli for hi> diocOM, and an accoani of the 
Tiiiona of W€ttiti, Hildegard, and other 
Bunildah aainta. 

Uettau m Httte, uchbishop of Trevea 
AD. 814, &c., haj left ui two epiatlea. 

Fratitarmt., abbot of St, Aper, and bishop 
of Toul A.D. 817-837. He wrote Epiato- 
Itnun Liber, addieased to vsiious biebapa ; 
published bj Duchtmt, among the Scrip- 
tom lenim Fraocicaium, tarn, ii., p. 719. 

Ebbo. "' '-• ' 

iinpenst court, employed some time in civil 
affairs, then abbot of Si, Remifiua, and A. D. 
8ie archbishop of Rbeima. In 812 he went 
to Rome, and obtained a commiaiioD to can- 
Ten the northern nationa ; in conaequence 
of which he made two journeys to Denmark. 
In the yeei 833, he joined Iha revolt of Lo- 
thMTt agtitial his iatbei Letcii ; for which 
be lost hJB bishopric, and was kept in cus- 
tody at Fulda and other places. In 840 
he waa realored to hit see ; but lost it the 
. MIC year. In 844. be was made bishop of 
HUdsaheim; and died A.D. 8bl. Of this 
matleas prelate, we have nothing remaining 
iMit his Apologtlictu presented to the coun- 
ts of HildeibeuD ; and publtahed in the col- 
lectiona of Council! . 

H*litgariut, biihop of Caoibraj and Ar- 
ras A.D. 81B. He accompanied Ebbo in 
one of hii eicuiaions to Denmark. In 828, 
tbe emperor Lcicii tent him at envoy to 
CoBilantinople. He returned the next year, 
Willi Sundance of relici ; and diet! in 831. 
He wiDle Opus de litiia el Tirtutibus, reme- 
diia peccatorum, et ordine et judiciis poeoi- 
tentiae i«x Libris absolutum ; published hj 
H. Canixnu. and in the Biblioth. Patnim, 
tom. iiT.,p. 906. 

Paicluxi II., pope A.D. 817-^24, has left 
ns three Epiatle* ; which are in tha coUac- 
tioQS of Cooncilt, 

Sediditii, a Scot, wbo flonriabed abont 
A.D, 818, and eoimiled finm the father* a 
CalUebtneam aeo^planalio in Epiatolaa S. 
Pauh ; which ia extant in the Biblioth. Pa- 
tnim, lorn. tL, p. 4H. He ia to be diatio- 
r' ihed from SeJuJnta the poet. See Lab- 
da Scriptor. Ecclenast. apod Bellnrna- 
■UM, de Scriptor. Ecclesiast., p. 149-152. 

Jhingai, a rmnk of St, Deny* near Pans, 
A.D.e31. HewWteftcotifiituianofClu- 

diu of Turin, in irindicalion of it—,- , 

ahip ) whieh ia in Ibe Biblioth. Patr., torn, 
liv., p. 196, and a letter' In ChaTUniagiu, 
da eclipai aolari. 

Joint, bishop of Orleans A.D. 821-843. 
He waa much employed on councils, and 
WTOlB against Claudim of Turin, an ApoU- 
gttiamt for retaining images but ^iUioot 
woiahjpping Utem, in three Books ; also, Da 
institulione laicomm Libii iii., and De inali- 
latione r^ill Ubn; eiuiU in the BibliotL 
Pstnim, ton. liT., p. 1S6. 

Eugemtt IL, fiopu A.D. 824-827, baa 

of Fleuty, in Baiuizii Miac 

Atuegina, abbot of virio 
in France, from A.D. 807, till bis death in 
833. He collected the Capitutaria CaraU 
Magni de rebut praetertim eccleaiaattcis, in 
four fiookt ; best edited by SupL Baiuxt, 
Paris, 1677, 2 lomi, fol. His life, written 
by a contemporary, is in Matitiim, Act* 
Sanctor. ord Bened., lom. v., p. 593, &c. 

Ardo, called Smaragdiu, abbot of A mane, 
and aulhoi of the life of his piedeceatoi 
Binrdiclut Anianeniia ; which is in Mabii- 
ion, if c., tom. T., p. 183, &f . SeTeral oth- 
er worka have been ascribed to him ; but 
some adjudge them lo another of Um sama 

Theganut, a learned French gentlemar^ 
and BuHtscaa to the atchbithop of Treves. 
He floarithcd about A.D. 637; and vnota 
Annalee de geatis Ludoviei Imp. ad ana. 
813, uaque ad aim. 637 ; extant among the 
Scriptorea rerum Francicar,, ed, Ducktnie, 

Anuilo, Anmltu, or Amulariua, archbish- 
op of Ljona A.D. 841-652, or longer. Ha 
wrote Bpittola ad Thioialdum, exploding 
certain relica and the vender* of them ; 
ad Godiickalcam Ejailola, dlaapproving bis 
opiniont ; and three tracts, on free mil, pre- 
deatination. and grace : all which were pab- 
liahed bi 5. Baluxe, subjomed lo the works 
of Agobaid, and in the Bibholii. Patrum, 
torn. xiT, p. 339. 

Nithardus, grandson of Charltmagru ; 
Sist a courtiDT and soldier, and then a monk- 
He Souriahed A.D. 843, and died in BSS. 
He has left ut four Books, de Dissidio fib- 
orum Ladovid Pii, from A.D. 814-643 ; 
publlsbed by Fit^oew, and by DiuJunu, 

Strgm4 n., popa AJ). M4-St7, loa Ut 

cmmcH opncERs and oorraunuiNT. 

t in die coUectiom at 

John Scotu*, 

bnt in tbe Bibbotheca Fttrum, tom. it., p. 

US ; utd alM in MaagjUn, Vindlcin gn- 

PardiUui, bishop of Lmw A.D. 847-856. 
Hia Episile (o /fincmar of Rheinii, is print- 
ed iDUr Opera HJDcmui, Un. ii., p. 838. 

EalogBtt o( Cordubt, Bonmhed liom 
A.D. 847 to 859, when b« wu bebeuled 
bj Ihe S»r«i:eQa for hia oppotilion lo then 

Libri iii. de mutyiibiu Cordubentibiu ; 
Apologeticua pro martTiihiu ; Eihortitio aid 
manjrtuni ; and peveral Epistles i alleitant 
bter Return Hispaiucsrum Scriplores, torn. 
IT., and ia the Bibliolh. Pauum, torn. I7., p. 

Alvam, ■ Spanish ChristisnoC Corduba, 
the intimaU ftiead of Eulofius. He wrole 
the life of Eulogius, seTeral epistles, and ■ 
tract entitled ScinlillxFstnim; all ofwhich, 
except the laat, are published with the works 
^ Euloeiua. 

Lio IV., pope A.D. 847-865, haa left us 
too entire epistlea, and fragmeata of aeTeral 
1 besides a ffood homilj, addreeaed 

a preabjtera and deecona on tbe put 
loties : Bitanl in the coUectiona of Ci 


Wendtlbert, a Benedictine monk of Prum, 
who flouriabed A.D. 8S0. He wrote tbe 
life and miraclea of St. Goar ; (ui MabiUon, 
Act. SS, ord. Bened., torn, ii., p. 269, &c,) : 
■IsO a martjroiogy, m heroic vene, published 
wnonc the woika of Bcda. torn, i,, ut^der tbe 
title of Epbemeiidum Bedn. 

jEiuiu, bishop of Psria A.D. e&4-8ee. 
He wrote Adversus ob)ectjones Grsconun 
LibsT ; published by DaekitT, Spicileg., loiD. 
Tii., and a short epiatle to Hiricmar. 

Bentdicl in., pope A.D. 85S-868. Pour 
of his e[Hstlei are in tbe collections of Coun- 

Herard, uchbiihop of Tours A.D. 855- 
871. has left as 140 Capitula, addressed to 
his clergy ; and some other papers ; in the 
collectiODi of Conncila. 

HiiunuEr, biahop of I^on A.D. 866-871, 
when he was deposed. This proud snd ty- 
lannical prelate quuielled with hia oncle, 
HinnnoT srchbishop of Rheima, with the 
kinc', with his clergy, and others ; appealed 
to Rome, and ob^ned sapport from the 
pope. But WIS finally put down. He died 
abontA.D. 881. Tliere remain of htm eev- 

of Rheima, and in the 

Ang^amu, a Benedictine monk of LoZ- 
enil in Burnnidy, who flourished A.D. SSL 
Hfl wrote Stiomata or CommentMiM m 
tbe four Booka of Kings; and alaa m't» 
Canticles^ which are extant in tbe Bitfiolk 
Patrum, torn, it., p. 307. 

NitolMt, pope A.D. 868-867. He be- 
gan the conlroTersy with Pkoliiu palciaich 
of Conelantinople, and oppoeed king L»- 
(Aoire'i diiorce of his quepn. He lus left 
DS abont 100 epistles ; ■ Reply lo the inter- 
rogstoiiea of the Bulgarians in 106 Capilo- 
la, besides decreee aod rescripts on Taiiou* 
aubjecte. His letteia were pubhahed at 
Rome, 1642, fol., and with hia other woAe, 
ue now in the collections of Councils. 

Itow, bishop of Lacgres, A.D, 859-87% 
or longer. He, or Iiaac abbot of Potctiera, 
wrote s long epistle de csiioiie Miasae ; pnb- 
liahed by Dachier, Spicile^., torn. liii. H» 
is the author of a collectio Canonnm, lika 
the Greek Nomocanon, compiled from the 
CapituU of (be French kings and the deci- 
sions of councils ; which wis published by 
Sirmond, and aince in other coUectioni of 

Hvideric, Udalric, or Huirie, bishop of 
Augsburg A.D. 860-MO. He was • dia- 
tinguished prelate, and wrote a lotig letter to 
pope NteoloHt, reprobating hia rigid enfon^ 
ment of celibacy upon the clergy. Tim 1^ 
moua letter, which pope Gregory VIL M* 
demned is heretlcsl, A.D. 1079, baa bMk 
often printed by the Protestants. 

Madnanm Adrian, pope A.D. B47-S7K 
He continued the contest with Plieliut, snd 

: of his~ epistles, besides some sddreeaes 
and papera, are eitant in the collectiool cf 

Anailatiut Bibliothecariiu, an ibbol, 
preabyler, and librarian at RtMne, who was 
papal envoy to Constantinople, to Naples, 
&,c. He was one of the moat learned men 
of his time (A.D. 870-886), and weU ac- 
quainted with the Greek language. He 
wrote Acta Concilii Constantinop. It. in Lal< 
falsely called the eighth general Coun- 

cil, t 

e eighth gene 
:ta Concilii ^ 

cell, and Thtophami Confei— . 
devitis Romanorum Fontificum, aeu Lib«r 
Poniificialis, from Si. Peter lo pope Aiie«- 
lata I., Collectanea de iis, quae spectant ad 
hiitoriam Monotbelitsrum ; besides Taiioni 
letters and tracts, either original or ttand*- 
tiona and abatiacta ; published hj Sirmaiti, 


bii bfw of tha popn ■> 
loctiont of Conneib. 

Jolm VIII., popi A.D. 873-883. Ha htamM, w , _,._._.., 

wu in actm pope, but gi'nllf bMaaaed by logetba with thrM ctittt Chroatconi. 
tb»S«nc«ni,wbaiiilnLediilaoiitbatnIulr- AdrtaaUiu k Adalktrtiu, t Btae&tiiM 

Hmh an MUnt in the coUscUoiu of Coon- monk of Flmuy, A.D. 8iN> ; wnte tba hi*- 

ctb ud dwwhen, 3it6 of his epiatloa. I017 of ths mnonl of the imMiiw of ^ 

ArfmWw 01 HartmaMHiu, abbot of St. Benedict end Su Seboltrtice ftoia Mont* 

Oell A.D. 873-883. He wrote aoine poeme Cenino to Fleorj ; eitutin JlfaMIm,Aela 

■odh]'mn*,pDbliibedInCe)nmw,Lectionei 88. ord. Beoed-, torn, ii., p. 838, &c. Ha 

Antiq., torn. *. ; ain the life of Si. WtWa> eleo wrote d« Cerpore et (u^oine Doming 

do, 1 virgin manjr ; extant in MaHUan, in <^po«liaa to the views of ./aim Seatut ; 

Acta 8S. Old. Belied., tooi. tiL, p. 43, &c. extant io DtMa, Spieileg., lom. ziL 

Jelm, a deaeoa at Rome, and the fhend Autriui, a Brittrii monS, much emplorel 

of itaoMunu Bibiiotb., wbo flouriihed A.D. by Alfred tbe Qrest, and bj him midebu^ 

876. He wrote tbe life of Si. Gregory the <^ of Sherburne. He flourished A.D. SDt, 

Qieat in i*. Book* ; which ii in lU the edi- aiid wrote a hiitoi; of the life and achier^ 

beoi of the woiks of Gregory ; and in Ma- ments of king Alfred ,- which is pabUsbed 

tiiloH, Acta S8. Old. Bened., torn. i.,p. 369, among the Scnptores remm AaEiieaiiim, ed- 

Ac Francf, ISOS, p. I, dee. 

DnMiFdu, a French monk of St. Oennam GNltfiiBKi.Iibrarianof tbechnrekofRona 

near Faiia, who flouriihed A.D. 8TB. Dts> A.D. S90. He conlinucd Ataiumu' live* 

pleased with the brerity of tbe maityrologies of the popes, 'from A.D. 867 to A.D. 891. 
of Jeronu and Bedt, he wrote one more full Soiemim, a German monk, abbot, and at 

and particular, under the countenance of last biahop of Constance, .^.D. SM^^^MO. 

Charlet the Bald. It was published, Lou- He left WTeral poemi ; published in the Bi^ 

Tain, 1668, 8to ; and with omiuioni of what lioth. Patrum, tern. ivi. 
ditpleaaed the Prists, at Antwerp, 16S7, Fomunu, pope A.D. 891-896. Hehad 

810. sharp conlesta with the citiieiu of Rome ; 

Atio, s monk of St. Germain, having and when dead, hi> aucceaiar Stephen VII. 

wilneieed the siege of Pahs by the Normans dug up his remains, deposed him, mutilated 

in tbe year 887, composed a history of it, in hie body, and cait it into the Tiber. Tw« 

Ihna Booki of very uncouth verses ; pub- of his Epiatlee aie extent in tbe collection* 

lUMd among tbe Scriptorei llittohae Fnnc. of Councils. 

BUphai v., pope A.D. S85-891, has left AuxUiuM, a writer little known, who Bour- 
ns three Epistles, and part of another. iihed about A.D. 694, and composed a ln»- 

Weljliardiu, a Benedictine monk and tray of pope Fonnonit and tbe conleita r«b 

pieabyter, in tin diocese of Eichstadt, who apecting turn, in two Books ; in the Biblioih, 

flourished A.D. 886, hasleltaa a life of 5t. Patrum, torn, i ^' - ' 
WttfuTgn or St. Walpurgii, m four Booki ; 
extant in Mabiilim, AcM 88. ord. Bened., 

torn, iv., p. 360, &C. A.D. 900-904, bsve left ua, the first ii. Epii 

HtTtaiertu* m Erelunihirtiu, a monk of ties, the next iv., and the third ii. ; whid 

Monte Casain^ A.D. 687. H« wrote* aieintbecollectionaer Councila.— TV.] 




^ 1. The low State of Religion and Learning. — ^ 3. Causes of thisEyfl. — 4 3. The Cor- 
ruption of the Age manifest in the Worship of Saints and Relics. — ^ 4. Canonization of 
Saints. — ^ 5. Biographies of Saints. — ^ 6. Attachment to Relics. — ^ 7. Regard for the 
Holy Scriptures.--^ 8. Faults of the Latin Expositors. — ^ 9. The Allegorists. — ^ 10. 
Method of treating Theological Subjects.^-^ 11. State of Practical Theology. — ^ 12. 
Progress of Mysticism. — ^ 13. Polemic Theologr.-—^ 14, 15. Controversy respecting 
Images, among the Greeks. — ^ 16. Among the Latms. — ^ 17. Iconoclasts among the 
Latins. — ^ 18. Controversy respecting the Procession of the Holy Spirit continued.— 
^ 19. Paschasius Radbert's Contiorervr respecting the Lord*s Supper. — ^ 20. His Op- 
poser, Bertram. — ^ 81. The Involved Controversy about Stercoramsm.— 4 22. Contro> 
versy respecting Grace and Predestination ; Godeschalcus. — ^ 83. History of this Con- 
test. — ^ 24. Judgment respecting it. — ^ 25. Hincmar and Godeschalcus contend about 
a Threefold Deity. — ^ 26. Strife respecting the Parturition of St. Mazy. — ^ 87, 88. 
First Controversy between the Greeks and Latins, respecting Photius.--^ 89, 80, 81, 
82. Their Second Controversy. 

§ 1. In the West, so long as those persons survived whom the liberality 
of Charlemagne and his zeal for Christianity had prompted to the study of 
the Bible and to a candid investigation of truth, a barrier existed to the in- 
gress of many errors and superstitions among the Latins. And accordingly, 
not a few proofs may be collected out of the writers of this age, showing 
that the truth had some strenuous vindicators. But as these men were 
gradually removed, and barbarism regained its former ascendency, a flood 
of superstitious and pious follies and of base and degrading opinions, rushed 
in from all quarters. And none were more zealous and active in the prop- 
agation of them, than the professed teachers and patrons of piety and reU- 
gion, who were corrupted partly by their great ignorance and partly by 
their selfish passions. The state of things was not much better in the 
Bast and among the Greeks ; although here and there an individual aroset 
who was disposed to succour the sinking cause of pure religion. 

§ 2. The causes of this unhappy state of things will readily be appre* 
handed, by those acquainted with the occurrences among Christians in this 
century. The Oriental doctors, wholly occupied with their intestine broils 
and their foreign controversies, became disqualified for more grave inves- 
tigations : and as one error generally draws others in its train, it was the 
natural consequence of the fierce disputes of the Orientals (among them- 
selves respecting image-worship, and with the Latins respecting the supe- 
riority of their discipline and the divinity of their dogmas), that many other 
evils and faults should exist. Moreover the uncomfortable and irrational 
mode of life pursued by those who retired to deserts and solitary retreats, 
was inconsistent with a sound mind and a sober judgment. Yet the per- 
sons of this class were immensely numerous, and their influence by no 
means small. In the West, the incursions of the barbarous tribes, the wars 
and abominable crimes of the sovereigns, the neglect of every branch of 
learning, the infatuated purpose of the Roman pontiffs to display and ex- 
tend their power, and the impositions and falsehoods of the monks, were 
ruinous to the cause of virtue, of mental cultivation, and of piety. 


§ S. How great the ignorance and perverseneM of this century, appeta 
from the ainaie fact of the extravagant and atupid TBoenUion paid to saiot^ 
and to their bones and carcasses. For in this, ooonated the greatest part 
'^ their piety and religion. They all beUered, that they should never find 
God propitious to thenn, unless they obtained some intercessor and patron 
among the glorified saints. And each separate church, and almost each 
individual person, sought for some partici^ar and appropriate patron ; as 
if afraid, that a patron engaged to manage the concents of others, woold 
neglect theirs if committed to him. For they were inclined to estimate thft 
condition of the blessed, according to the "w"'"** and principles of com- 
mon life on the earth. And hence arose the rage for making, almost daily* 
new tutelar protectors. And the priests and monks were most succesaf^ 
in bringing to light the deeds of many holy men, or rather, in &.bricatiqg 
the names and the histories of saints Uiat never existed j so that they might 
have patrons enou^ for all the credulous and senseless people. Hai^ 
however provided for themslves, by committing their interests and their 
salvation to phantoms of their own creation, or to delirious persons whcs 
they supposed, had led very holy lives, because they had lived like fools ami 

^ 4. To this licentiousness of multiplying daily the number of ministera 
at that celestial court which ill-informed men pictured to themselves, the 
ecclesiastical councils endeavoured to set bounds ; for they ordained that 
no person should be accounted a glorified saint, unless he was declared wor« 
thy of that honour by a bishop and provincial council in presence of the 
people. (1) This fallacious remedy laid some restraint upon the inconaid* 
erateness of the people. There were also some in this age, who deemed 
It not absolutely oecessary, though useful and proper, that the decisions of 
bishops and councils should be sanctioned and confirmed by the approba- 
tion of ibejirtt bishop, that is, by the bishop of Rome. Nor will this ex^ 
cite much surprise, if we consider the great increase of the papal power ia 
this unenlightened, rude, and superstitious age. There is indeed no exank 
pie to be met with prior to the tenth century, showing that any person was 
solemnly and formeJly enrolled among the saints by Sm Romish bishop ;(S) 
yet that he was sometimes consulted cxi such matters, and his opinion asked 
respecting those to be consecrated, may be shown by some testimonies. (3) 

(1) Jo. MahiBffM, Actk SuKtor. ord. emign pontiff Bmedicl XIV., pn r' i oudf 

Beoed., Secul. v., [tom. Tii.J, Pnel., p. Pnuper Laniertima, de aertoram Dei b». 

zli*., Ac. [p. iTii., du., cd. Vetuce.] Jo. UifiMbong at bealonun cinoniiationa, libb 

Lutnoi, de IdUti, Migdilenu e( Muthu i., ap. vii,, in hii 0pp., Caia. i., p. 50, cd. 

in PioTiiicisiii *f^u1sa, cap. i., 4 ^i '^FPi Ri»nB- It were to be tviahed. the hiatoriml 

torn, ii., M. ]., p. 343. Fraae. Pagi, Bre- of the church of Roma would learti to imi> 

tium Fontir. Rdmanot., lom. ii., p. S&9, tate the diacretion and fainieaa of theii pm. 

. ., p. 30. tiff. [Tba Birlieat aolemn canoniucion bf 

(S) See Dan. Pap^rodi, da aalenntain the popea, of which ■nt haie authentic rao. 

caiMDiaauoniim initiia et progreaau, in Pio- orda, ia tltat of Ulrich biahop of Aunbniv, 

pylaeo Actor. 83. meoae Mali, p. 171, dec. b^ John XV., A.D. 995. YeL btabops, 

SJo. MaiiUon, ubi aupta. /. F. BiiAJeiu, meUopolitaDa, and pnmncial councila, war* 

e Olivine 'AiroiStuacuf i *''" canoaiiationis, concerned in auch acta, kt more than a CSD- 

in Eecl. Rom., tn hia Miacell. Sacr., p. 463, tuiy aftar thia. And it waa not lill the pon- 

dcc.], and Ibe authon rererred (o on thia tiScileaf ..Jieanutn- III., A.D. 11S0-I181, 

■object, bjr Jo. Alb. Fairicmi, Biblii^, that the popea claimed the oxcluaiTS powac 

Anti^uar., cap. ni., f uv., p. 370. of adding new aaini* to the Calendar. So* 

(3) See t£« vnj lemperata and ingenn- JfaUIna, ubi anpia, p. lii., )} 91, snd p 

on* discnaaiOD of thia anbJKt, by lb« ao*< Iniii, i &B, dw.— TV.] 


In this gradu&l manner it was, tltat tlw buaineaa of caiumitatini 6t eieation 
of saints sniTed at matoritj' in the church. 

6 fi. The number of celestial or glorified saints being bo prepoaterouiir 
multiplied, nothing better was to be expected than that their biograpUA 
would be written, and be stuffed with falsehoods and fables ; and that «e- 
counts would also be published of transactions which no one ever per- 
formed. There is still extant a great mass of such idle tales ; which it 
spears, was produced not long (Aer the times of Charlemagne, and ibt 
the most part by the idle monks. Nor were these crafly deceivers ashamed 
to contaminate with false accounts and fictitious miracles, the histories of 
those who really suffered persecution and death for the cause of Christ in 
the eariier ages ; and there are not wanting some respectable writers of 
those times, who chastise this their temerity. (4) Some were led to practise 
these impositions, by their fhlse notions of religion. For in this rude and 
ignorant age, it was supposed that the saints in heaven are delighted with 
praise, and will therefore show special favour to their eulogists. OUien 
were prompted to such presumptuous conduct, by their lust for honour or for 
bicre. Because in their perpieiitiea and seasons of danger, the populace iA 
great numbers resorted witii presents to the temples of thoae saints, who 
were said to be ancient, and to have performed many wonders while alive; 
hencCi such as were appointed to write the history of the patron saint of 
any associated body, deemed it necessary to practise deception, and to add 
&lse miracles to their account.(5) 

^ 6. In the bones of those who were accounted saints, and the utei^b 
which they used while aUve, and even in the very ground which they had 
touched, there was supposed to reside a marvellous power of repelling all 
evils both bodily and mental, and especially of paralyzing the machinations of 
the prince of darkness. Hence, almost no one was willing to be destitute of 
these usefbl safeguards. The eagerness for rehcs led aomo to encounter 
severe toils and troublesome journeys to no purpose ; while others it prompt* 
ed to delude the people with base impoffitions. Tbet there might be relics 
enough for distribution among theaamirefsoftbem, the latent carcasses of 
departed saints were iirat sought for by the priests with prayer and fostin^ 
and then were discovered by tlie guidaace and monitions of God. The 
exultation on the discovery of such a treasure, was immense. Some made 
journeys into the East, and travelled over the re^ons and places made &■ 
mous by the presence of Christ and his friends, in order to bring from them 
what would afford comfort to the fainthearted and protection to their country 
and their fellow-citizens. Nor did such travellers return empty ; for the 
cunning Greeks, always versatile and knavish, took from the honest Latins 
their genuine coin, and sent them home loaded with spurious merchandise. 
In this way the numerous holy bodies and ports of bodies, of Mark, Jama, 

(4) Sea Serwttiu I/upiu, Tita Huimini, — De daatnu Dionjsiis, in bii 0pp., ton. 

p. Vn, 376 { md ihe ingBnwnii md launed ii., pt. i., p. fiS7, 539, 630, 8m iba JCir- 

rcmuk* on thia lubject, mul« in Kranl teju, Thesauius ADOcdatoi., lorn, i., p. 161, 

|dacei by Join Lavnoi ; Disptinctio epis- uid the Histoiia litlenini da la FtuK^ 

toUa Petri da Huca, de tempote, qiAi in loma rr., p. 273, 

Gallia Chriati &dn recepta, cap. iit., p. (6) Among all tha liraa or sainta coio- 

110, — Iha»rt. iii. .de prinua ClniiUanae re- posed in thii ase, none lie more to be an*- 

lis. in Gillia initiia, diit. ii,, p. 14S, IM, pected, than tboae wriUim by Britona llld 

lU, 147, 166, 169, IM.— De Liiaii, Mas- Arrooiicua. Sea JHoMUoit, AcU Stnctor. 

diL el Maitbae in Galliam mnliu, p, 3W. md. Benad,, torn, l, PieliM, p. viii. 

Vol. n.— L 


Bartholomtw, Cyprian, Pantaleon, and others, in which tbo West still ex* 
ults, were introduced among the Latins. Those who were unable to pro. 
cure these precious treasures by ciJitir journeys, or prayers, or fraudi^ 
deemed it expedient to steal them, or to seize them by violence and robbery. 
For whatever means were resorted to in such a cause as this, were supposed 
to be pious and acceptable to God, provided they were successful. (S) 

^ 7. Among the Greeks there were few that attempted to explain tho 
sacred volume, except PAotuu ; who has left QuMtioiu <m the Holy Scrip- 
A(rM,(7) an explanation of St. Paul's episttes, and some other things of ttua 
nature. He made use of his own reason and ingenuity ; and yet he can- 
not be esteemed a good interpreter. All the other Greeks who attempted 
expositions of the scriptures, merely collected passages from the writers of 
receding ages, and attached them to the dcclorationa of the aacred volumo. 
Thus in this century, and among the Greeks it was, that what arc called 
eateniE, that is, expositions of scripture compiled from the writings of tbo 
fathers, of which no small number has come down to us, first began to be 
drawn up. For most theologians feeling their incompetence to more ardu- 
ous labours, supposed they cguld beat accomplish their object by coUccting 
together the fine thoughts of the ancient fethera. 

§ 8. The Latin interpreters were far more numerous : for Charlemagtit 
haa awakened in the preceding century, an ardour for the study and expo> 
ntion of the sacred volume. And among these interpreters, here and 
there one is not wholly destitute of merit ; as e. g., Chrts-tian Drvlhmar, 
whose Commentary on Matthew has come down to us ;(8) and Berthariu*, 
to whom are ascribed two Books reconciling difiicult texts [dwiKoiiivuv], 
But most of them were incompetent to their work ; and like the interpret. 
era of the preceding age, they may be divided into two classes, those who 
Irod in the steps of former expositors and collected their opinions, and 
those who seiirched for mysteries and various recondite meanings in the 

flainest texts, at.d for the most part without much discrimination. At tho 
ead of the former iilaas stands Eahamis Maums, who confesses tliat he 
drew his expositions oj Matthew and of Paul's epistles from the writings 
of the fathers. Of the hke character were Walafrid Straho, author ^ 
what is called the Glotta Orduiaria, and who drew his materials chie^ 
fifom Rabamu ; Claudiui of Turin, vho followed Augtutine and Origen ; 
Eitemar [of Rheims], whose Stromata on the four Books of Kings, com. 

S'led from the fiithers, are still extant ; Eemigiua of Au\erre, who eluci- 
ited the Psalms of David and other books of scripture, from the same 
source ; SedaHus, who expounded the epistles of Paul according to the 

(6) Rud Maratm, Antiqnkatea Ilslicis to diScall Isitg in the Old md Nen TsMa- 
medii uii, lata, t., p. 6, &«., who presents tDents ; but wiids of them are theologicil, 
u with eiuDplea. philosophical, giammal:cal, historical, and 

(7) [This woili is enlitled Amphilochia, lileniiy. Aboul oae siith pait of the wbola, 
becauae it was addcesied to Amphilochjut is to he found in the Epistles oC Phnlxtu,t» 
bishop of Cjaieum. Though seTeisi man- published b; R. Monlagut, London, 1661. 
nscripls oi it still exist, it his nevei been — TV] 

published entire. Among other large ei- (8) See JtuA. Smum. HistoireciitiqiiedM 

traits, J. C. HW/ haa subjoined one of 65 principaoi Ccmmenlat.du N. T, tap. nv., 

Mcec. to the fourth Tolanie of hi* Curie p. 349, and Critique de la Bibliotheque Ec- 

Fkiiiiogica.tA- Sd, Hamb., 1741. He ^ao cles. par M. du Pin, tome i., p. 393, Ac. 

^TM account of the woit, in hit preface to He trealaof moatofthoolher< — 

U«t TOtome. HoM of (he qoeitioni rabte hne wliced ; ^id., csfi. ixvi. 


views of the Others; i^/i(>rt»Magister, who chose Augustine for his guide; 
Haymo of Halberstadt, and others. 

§ 0. At the head of the latter class, we again find Bxibanua Maunu f 
whose very difiuse work on the Allegories of the scriptures, is yet eztttU 
He is followed hy Smaragdus^ Haymo, Scoius, Pasauuius Radbert, nnA 
many others whose names it would be needless to mention. The exposU 
tors of this class all agree, that besides the literal import, there are other 
meanings of the sacred books ; but as to the number of these meanings 
they are not agreed. For some of them make three senses, others your or 
Jive ; and one, who is not the worst Latin interpreter of the age, Angelome 
a monk of Lysieux, maintains that there are seven senses of the sacred 

§ 10. In explaining and supporting the doctrines of religion, the Greeks 
as well as the Latins were neglect^ of their duty. Their manner of 
treating such subjects was dry, and better suited to the memory than to 
the understanding. The Greeks for the most part followed Damascenus ; 
the Latins acquiesced in the decisions of Augustine* The authority of 
the ancients was substituted for arguments and proofs ; as may be clearly 
seen by the Collectaneum de tribus qusestionibus by Servatus Lupus, and 
the Tract of Rendgius, on holding firmly to the truths of scripture and 
adhering faithfully to the authority of the holy and orthodox fathers. Those 
who appealed to the testimony of the sacred writers, either attached to the 
words what is called the allegorical sense, or deemed it wrong to put any 
other construction upon them than had been sanctioned by councils and the 
fathers. The Irish doctors alone, and among them John Scotus, ventured 
to explain the doctrines of Christianity in a philosophical manner. But 
they generally incurred strong disapprobation ; for the Latin theologians 
of that age would allow no place for reason and philosophy in matters of 

§ 11. Practical theology was treated negligently and unskilfully^ by all 
who attended to it. Some gleaned sentences from the writings of the an* 
cients, relating to piety and the duties of men ; as may be seen in the Sdn* 
ailae pairum of Alvarus. Others treated on the virtues and vices; as 
HaUtgarius, Rahanus Maurus, and Jonas of Orleans ; but it is not easy to 
discover in them a likeness with the patterns left us by Christ. Some en- 
deavoured to explain the divine law and make it intelligible to the unlearned, 
by a tissue of tdlegories ; a method, the faults of which are manifest. The 
writers of sermons and of treatises on penance, of whom the number was 
not inconsiderable among the Latins, I pass over in silence. Some of the 
Greeks began to apply themselves to the solution of what arc called cases 
of conscienee,{ll) 

§ 12. The doctrines of the Mystics, which originated from Diom/sius 
fidsely called the Areopa^te, and which taught men to abstract their minds 
firom all sensible things, and to join them in an inexplicable union with Gody 

(9) See the Preface to fais Commentary (10) Respecting the dislike of ScohUf 

<m the books of Kings, in the Bibliotfaeca Boulay, Historia Academ. Paris., tom. i., p. 

Patrom maxima, tom. xv., p. 308. The 183. Add the Life of John of Oortz, m 

commentary of Angelome on the book of MahHUm, Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., secul 

Oenesis, was pahUshsd by Bernh. Pes, The- v., [torn, vii.], p. 398. 

siiinis Anecdotor., tom. i., part i. Bnt it (11) See iVtcepAorut Chartophylax, £pi»> 

would haTe been no loss to swied literature, tola ii. in the B&lioth. magna Patrum, took 

had it remained in obscurity. iii , p. 413. 


luul long been in the highest estimation among the Oreelu, and eapecially 
by the monks. And the praises of this Dionyiiiu were splendidly aung in 
this century, by Michael Syneelbu and AfelAodtuf ; who uius eodeavoiu^d 
to multiply the admirers and followers of the man. The Latins hod 
hitherto been unacquainted with this imposing system. But when Michael 
theStanunerer, emperor of the Greeks, sent a copy of Dumythw as a pres- 
ent to Lewii the Meek, A.D. 824,(12) at once the whole Latin world be- 
came remarkably attached to it. For Lewis, in order to put the Latins in 
possession of so great a treasure, directed the works of Diongtius to be 
forthwith translated into the Latin language.(13) Afterwards Hildum 
nbbot of St. Deuys, by the order of Lewis, published his Areopagitica at 
Life of Dionysius ; in which, according to the custom of the age, he not " 
only states many things void of truth, but he basely confounds DionyaitiM 
the AnopagOe with Ditmysiiu bishop of Paris, designing, no doubt, to ad- 
vance the glory of the French nation. (14) And this fable, hastily admitted 
by credulous ears, became so firmly fixed in the minds of the French that 
it is not yet fully eradicated. The first translation of Diotu/nus, made l^ 
order of Leaii the IKeeIc, was perhaps conaidembly obscure and barbarous. 
Therefore his son Charlea the Bald, procured a new and more neat trans- 
lation to be made by the celebrated John Erigena Seotut ; and the circuls. 
tion of this translation swelled the number of the patrons of mystic the- 
ology in France, Germany, and Italy. Scolut himself was so captivated 
with this new system of theology, Uuit he did not hesitate to accommodate 
his philosophy to its precepts, or rather to explain its principles by the rules 
of his philosophy.(15) 

§ IS. In defence of Christianity against Jews, pa^ns, and others, only 
a few took the field ; because the internal contests among Christians cn- 
srossed all the attention of those who were inclined to be polemics. Ago- 
bard inveighed against thn arrogance and other faults of the Jews, in two 
short tracts. Amuh and Rahaius Maurvs Ukewise assailed them. The 
Saracens were confuted by the emperor Leo, by Theodonu Abueara, and 
by others whose writings are lost. But these and other oppoaers of the 
Mohammedans, advanced various fidse and unsubstantiated statements re- 
specting Mohamm^ and his religiMi ; which, if brought forward designedly, 

(IS) Jac. Ctlker, S^noge Gpiitolu. Hi- Midiail the Stwnmerer sent lo Lncit [bs 

bwnicaimn, p. S4, CS. noriu of Dionyuua, traralaltd from Grak 

(18) Thii we >ra explicitly Uugtil brifi^ into Lo/in. The conlruy i* most clnriy 

linn, in hie epiitle to the emperor Lata lignilied by Hilima, in the place cited : Aa- 

lb> Meek, pre&Md to bii Areapagiiiat, p, thenticos namque eoadem (DiDnyiii) Ubro* 

86, ed. Cologne, 1563, 6ta ; id wbich be Grata lingua conicriptei, cum echonomna 

mjt : De nouiii librorim, quoa (Dionytiiu) ecclciln ConiUntJnopolitanz et cieteri tni*- 

patiio Mimone cDnKiipnl et quibiu peten- nMichielulogaUotie — funcUeunl — promn- 

tibos illos compoaait, lectio nobii per Dei iieie nurno Buacepimua. 

gntiam et Teatnm ordinatiooem, cujuidit' (11) Jo. Launoi, Dot, de diacrimine Di- 

paualimu interp'ttatot, acrinia noatis eos onyaii Arcop, et Paruieruia, cap. jr., Opp., 

pelenlibas reeeiat, ailiafacit. Thoao en toto. ii., pi. i, p. 38, uid the other wntii^ 

therefore, who tell aa ti^ the Latin trana- of this great man, and of othera, concemiu 

lition of Dioiwinu wu noE made till the ihr liroDionytii. 

rogn of CharUt the Bald. And thoM err (16) [Scotia waa partial to the FUtmat 

alao, who My, (with Jo. Mniillirn, Annal. philosophy ; which being one of the primary 

Boiedict., torn, ii., lib. iiix,, 4 lii., p. 486, aourcea of the myttic ihealagy, would eiailj 

and the antbon of the Hieloire LitMraiie amalgaiDate with it and aerye la expUin a^ 

im U Fiance, tsoia v., p. 4SS, dec.), that eofoice it.— TV.] 


(as would seem to be the fact), prove that the writers did not aim so much 
at convincing the Saracens as at deterring Christians from apostacy. 

§ 14. Among themselves, the Christians had more strenuous and ani. 
mated contests tiian against the common enemy ; and these contests iiik 
volved them continually in new calamities, and brought reproach upott 
the cause of true religion. Upon the banishment of Irene^ [A.D. 802], 
the contest about image-worship was renewed among the Greeks, and it 
continued with various success for nearly half this century. For Nu 
eephorusj [who now ascended the throne], though he would not revoke the 
Nicene decrees nor remove the images from the temples, yet laid restraints 
on the patrons of images, and would not allow them to use any violence or 
do any harm to the opposers of image-worship. His successor Michael 
Curopalates, was a timid prince, who feared the rage of the monks and 
priests who contended for images, and therefore during his short reigOy 
[A.D. 811-813], he favoured the cause of images, and persecuted 3ie 
opposers of them. Leo the Armenian had more vigour,( 16) and assembling 
a council at Constantinople A.D. 814, he explicitly rescinded the Nicene 
decrees respecting the worship of the images of saints ; yet he did not 
enact any penal laws against the worshippers of them. (17) As this tem- 
perate procedure was not satisfactory to Nicephorus the patriarch, and to 
the other friends of images, and as dangerous tumults seemed ready to break 
out, the emperor removed Nicephorus from his office, and repressed the 
rage of some of his adherents with punishments. His successor Michael 
the Stammerer, who was also opposed to image-worship, found it necessary 
to pursue the same course ; for although he at first showed great clemen* 

(16) [And more ingenuousness too. For A.D. 814, and condemned Anthony bishop 
before calling the council, the emperor in of SilleuJti* as an Iconoclast, and estoblished 
an interview with Nieephoru* requested him image-worship. The next council was call- 
to show the fact, by proofii from the writings ed bj Leo himself, in the year 815 ; and 
of the apostles and of the earlier fathers, if this it was that deposed NicephonUy and 
as the patriarch asserted, the worship of im- declared him a heretic. The third was held 
ages was in early use in the church. The under the new patriarch Theoiorut, and et* 
answer he received was, that in (his case tablished the doctrines of the Iconoclasts, 
we must be satisfied with unwritten tradi- Images were now removed ; and the nn* 
tion ; and that what had been decided in a submissive monks were banished, but resto* 
general council, was never to be controvert* red again to their cloisters as soon as they 
ed. After this, the emperor brought the promised to remain quiet and to hold com- 
contending parties to a conference in his munion with the new patriarch Theodoras, 
presence ; which Thtod^mu Studites and his There were however blind zealots among 
party frustrated, by telling the emperor to them, who with Thcodorus Studites at Uieii 
nis face, that doctrinal controversies were head, belched forth most shameful language 
not to be discussed in the palace but in the asainst those bishops and monks who yield- 
church ; and that if an angel from heaven ed obedience to the emperor's commands, 
should advance a doctrine contrary to the and even against the emperor himself. Tbs 
decrees of the Nicene council, they would former they declared to be enemies of Cfarii^ 
treat him with abhorrence. The emperor deniers of him, and apostates ; the emperaf 
punished this insolence by merely sending they called an Amorite, another Og or B** 
the monks back to their cloisters, mrbidding shan, the great dragon, a vessel of wrath, m 
them to raise disturbances about images, Ahab, a second Julian ; and to insult hinHf 
•nd requiring them to be peaceable citizens, they extolled their images by chaotinffthenr 
— Schl.] paises in the most public places.— -Theeo 

(17) [ According to ilfatm,(Supplem. Con- mdeed were taken up and poniahed, and 
cil., tom. i., p. 775), there were several Theodorus Studites vras sent into exito; 
councils held at Constantinople under Leo and as this did not tame him, he wm im* 
the Armenian, in regard to miaees. One prisoned, yet so as to be alkmed free cor- 
waa held under the patriarch NicephomSf lespoodeiice by letteit.— iScA/.] 


cy to image-woisbippera, he was obliged to depart from that clemencyi 
and to chastise the leatless faction that served images, and especially ths 
inoDks.(lS) His son Theophilus, [A.D. B28-842], bore harder upon the 
defenders of images, and eren put some of the more violent of them to 

} 15. But after the death of Theophihu in the year 843, his survivins 
consort Theodora, who administered the government of the empire, wearied 
out and deluded by the menaces, the entreaties, and the fictitious miracle* 
of the monies, assembled a council at Constantinople A.D. 842, and there 
re-established the decisions of the Nicene council, and restored image- 
worship among the Greeks.(20) Thus, after a contest of one hundred 
and ten years, image-worship gained the victory : and all the East, ex- 
cept the Armenian church, embraced it; nor did any one of the succeeding 
emperors attempt to cure the Greeks of their folly in this matter. The 
council of Constantinople, held under Photius in the year 879, and which 
is reckoned by the Greeks the e^^ general council, fortified image-wor- 
ship by new and firm ramparts, approving and renewing all the decrees 
of the Nicene council. The Grebes, a superstitious people and controlled 
by monks, regarded this as so great a blessing conferred on them by hear* 
en, that they resolved to consecrate an anniversary in remembTance of it, 
which they called the Fetut of Orl}iodj>iy.{2l) 

^ 16. Among the Latins image-worship did not obtain so easy a victory, 
although it wss warmly patronised by the Roman pontiffs. For the peo- 
ple of the West ntill maintained their ancient liberty of thinking for them- 
selves in matters of religion, and could not be brought to regard the deci- 
sions of the Romish biaWip as finol and conclusive. Most of the European 
Christians, aa wc have aetn, took middle ground between the /conocJiut* 

(18) [NotwiibslBuding tfiehatl ajcended Meek, in Baroniua' Analb, nd Mm. 824, ( 

tbe throne under ■ veiy dubioua title, the SG. — Scil.) 

imw wonhippen deicribed him as a aec- (19) [It is imponible lo boIieTS all lb>t 

ond David, uia a Josiah. eo long is tbey ac- lite Greek monks tell ui of the ciueltiee of 

counted him one of their party ; because he this emperor againit the imaga-worshippera ; 

lele«»ed thoee iropiisoned, and recalled the at he wu in other respects an uptight ral«. 

eiilei. He in fact showed great irmilleneaa And it is well luiown, that he was very io- 

tonarda (lie image-worshippeis. He caused dnleent and kind lowaids Thtokliita tba 

eoolerences to be held Soj allajinB the con- naUter of hja emptess, who worshipped im- 

trorenies i and these proving ineffBctual, he ages in hei bouse and endeavoured to instil 

allowed them lo retain their images, though the loie of them into the young princesMi 

not to displaj them in Coastaniinople ; and of the emperor. And if some persons did 

enl; reijuired sUence from bolh paitiea, ao actually suffer leTerely under him, Ihev (uf- 

that the bitiemesB between them might sub- fared rather on account of their slandeniu 

This gentleness naa the mora re- language, their disobedience to the laws, 

-'-'- - - -' lentilion of ll" ' '■"" — "■"'" ' ' ' • ■ ' ■' 

I bounds, and 
For they se 

«, instead of the cross ; lighted candLes ^ , 

bebie them ; burned incense to them ; sung uinutn, 6 vlii., Opp.) torn, it., p. 845, Ac. 

lo their praise i made supphcationa to them ; Joe. Len/an', Preservatifcontre la Reunion 

nsed them aa sponsors for their baptized avec le Siege de Rome, tome iii., lelti. xir., 

cbUdren ; ecnped off the colours from the p. 147, &c., lettr. niii., xii., p. 509, &c. 
pictures and miied tbem with the nine of (21) See Joe. Grtltir, OlaerTal, id Co. 

tba eucbarist i and placed the bread of ben- dtnum de ofiiciis aulae et ecelesiae Con- 

•dktion in the hani^ of the images, in order stantinop., lib. iii., cap. riii., and the Cei*- 

lo leceiTC it as from them. See the £pi»- moniala Byuntinnm, lately pnbUabad bj 

tfe of Micliatl to the Mnpann £neu tlw Jta*ki, lib. Li cap. SB, p, 9S, dec. 

heligion and theology. 


«nd the image-worshippers. For they judged that ima^BS nii^ be tol- 
erated as helps to the memory^but denied waX any worsUp or honour was 
to be paid to them, Michael the Stammerer, emperor of the 6reeki» when 
he sent an embassy to Lewis the Meek A.D. 824 for the purpose of re- 
newing the confederation with him, instructed his ambassadors to draw 
Lewis over, if possible, to the side of the Iconoclasts, Lewis chose to haTO 
the subject thoroughly discussed by the bishops, in the council assembled 
at Paris A.D. 824.(22) They decided, that they ought to abide by the 
opinions of the council of Frankfort ; namely, that the images of Christ 
and the saints were not indeed to be cast out of the temples, yet that re- 
ligious worship should by no means be paid to them. Gradually however 
the European Christians swerved from this opinion ; and the opinion of 
the Roman pontiff, whose influence was daily increasing, got possession of 
their minds. Near the close of the century, the French first decided, that 
some kind of worship misht be paid to the sacred images ; and the Ger- 
mans, and others, followed their example.(23) 

§ 17. Still there were some among the Latins who inclined to the side 
of the Iconoclasts. The most noted of these was Claudius bishop of Tu- 
rin, a Spaniard by birth, and educated under Felix of Urgel. As soon as 
the favour of Leufis the Meek had raised him to the rank of bishop, in the 
year 823, he cast all the crosses and sacred images out of the churches 
and broke them. The next year, he published a book not only defending 
this procedure, but likewise advancing other principles which were at va- 
riance with the opinions of the age. Among other things, he denied the 
propriety of worshipping the cross, which the Greeks also conceded ; spoke 
contemptuously of all sorts of relics, maintaining that they had no effica- 
cy ; and disapproved of all pilgrimages to the tombs of saints and to holy 
places. He was opposed by the adherents to the inveterate superstition ; 
and first by the abbot Theodendr, and afterwards by Dungal, Scotus, Jonas 
of Orleans, Walajrid Straho, and others. But this learned and ingenious 
man defended his cause with energy ;(24) and thence it was that long after 

(22) [" Flcury, Le Seutf and the other 
historians, place unanimously this council in 
the year 825. — It may be proper to observe 
here, that the proceedings of this council ev- 
idently show, that the decisions of the Ro- 
man pontiff were by no means looked upon, 
at this time, either at obligatory or infalli- 
ble. For when the letter of pope Adrian, 
in favour of images, was read in the coun- 
cil, it was almost unanimously rejected, as 
containing abcord and erroneous opinions. 
The decrees of the second council of Nice, 
relating to image-worship, were also cen- 
sored by the Gallican bishops ; and the au- 
thority of that council, though received by 
eeveral popes as an aeumemcal one, abso- 
lutely rejected. And what is remarkable is, 
that the pope did not, on this account, de- 
clare the Gallican bishops heretics, nor ex- 
clude them from the conununion of the 
apostolic see. See FUury, livr. xlvii., ^4.'* 

(23) Mabilionf Aimales Benedict., torn. 

ii., p. 488. Idem, Praef. ad Acta Sanctor. 
ord. Bened., ssbcuI. iv., pt. i., p. vii., viii 
Car. le Ccinte, Annales Eccl. Francor., 
tom. iv., ad ann. 824 : and many others. 

(24) MabiUoitj Annales Benedict., torn, 
ii., p. 488, Praef. ad Saecul. iv., Actor Sanc- 
tor. ord. Bened., p. viii. Histoire Litter, 
de la France, tome iv., p. 491, and tome v., 
p. 27, 64. Among the Reformed, Jar. Baa- 
nage, Histoire des Eglises Reform^es, tom. 
i., period iv., p. 38, dice., ed. in 4to. — [It 
is to be regretted that we have only those 
testimonies of dlaudtus against the supeir- 
stitions of his tim«) which his opposen and 
especially Jotubs of Orleans have quoted 
from his writings. Yet in these quotations, 
there is much that is solid, and expressed 
in a nervous and manly style. Agamtt im- 
agftf, he thus expresses himself: " If a man 
«ugfat not to worship the works of God^ 
much less should he worship and reverence 
the itorks of men. Whoever expeets salvi- 
tion which comes only firom God, to oocm 


his death, there was less mpeTatition in the region &bout Tuiin Uum in tha 
Other parts of Europe. 

§ 18. The controversy that commenced in the preceding century, r^ 
Bpecting the procession of the Holy Spirit from the t ather and the Son, and 
respecting the words (filioque) imd the Son, inserted by the Latins into ths 
CoDstantinopolitan creed, flamed out with greater vehemence in this cen- 
tuiy ; and from being a private dispute, gradually became a public contro- 
versy of the whole Greek and I.atin church. The monks of Jerusalem 
became embroiled about this matter, and particularly about the words ^fiHo. 
que; and one JoJm was despatched by them on the subject into France to 
the emperor Charlemagne, A.D. 809.(25) This subject was discussed in 
the council of Aix-la-Chapeile held in this year ; and also at Rome befor« 
the pontiff Leo Ill.i whither CharletnagTie had sent envoys. Leo HI., 
approved the doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Son, 
but disapproved of the alteration of the creed, and wished the words jUiojtM 
to be gradually di3uscd.(26) And his successors held the same sentiments ( 
but the interpolation being once admitted, retaioed its place in spite of the 
pontiffs, and at length was received by all the Latin churches.(27) 

^ 19. To these ancient controversies, new ones were added among tbo 
Latins. The first was, respecting the maimer in which the body and blood 
of Christ are present in the sacred supper. Though all Christiana believ- 
ed, that the body and blood of Christ were presented to the communicants 
in the Lord's supper, yet up to this time their views had been various and 
fluctuating in regard to the maimer in which the body and blood of Christ 
are present ; nor had any council prescribed a definite faith on the subject. 
But in this century, Paschasius Radbert, a monk and afterwards abbot of 
Corbey, in his treadse on the sacrajneut of the body and blood of Christ 

from pUluTti, mu!t be cUaned with those taction uid the detenmnalion of the empw- 

mentioned Rom. i., who icne the creature or. — Schl.'] 

more thui tlie Crfa/w."— Against the cross, (26) [Tlie conference of the imperisl en- 

>nd the wonhip of it, he thus taught : " God vo^i with pope Leo III. m ilill extant, in 

hu commanded us 1o bear the croas ; not Harduia'w Collection of Conncils, torn, iv., 

to pray lo it. Those are willing to pray to p. 970, &e. From thi> it tppeug, thit Le» 

it, who are unwilling lo bear it, either in the wu diipleaaed, sot with the doctrine itaaUi 

■piritual or in Ihe lileni aenie. To wonhip but with ibe anauthoriied interpoUtion of 

Godinthia manner, is in fact to depart from the creed ; and he disapproved the recent 

lum."~Or the pope, he said (when accused decision of Ihe eonncil of Aix-li-Chapelta, 

for not yielding to hia authority), " He it the confirmation of which waa requested b; 

not to be called the Apotlotical," (■ title the imperial enToyg, Pope Join VIII., in 

then commonly given to the pope), " who a letter to Phetiiu, went still further ; for 

■ila in the apostle's chair ; but he who per- he called the eipreeaion, thsl the Holy Ohoil 

forme the duties of an apostle. For of thote proceeded from the Son, blaaphemy ; tbauA 

who hold that place, yet do not fulfil lU do- the abolition of it wu attended with dlffi- 

bes, the Lord aaya, TAcy tit m MottM' teat, cully and required time. — Schl.'] 
&C." — Seebiahop jMut, libri Imag., (ST) See Carl. It Cmnlt, Annal. Gccia*. 

hi the Btblioth. Pati. max. Lngd. , torn, xit,, Fnncor.. torn, ir., ad ann. 809, dec. £as- 

p. lee.— ScA/.] gnetal, Histoire de I'Eglise Gailicaoe, loin. 

(35) StmSMA. fioliin, HiKellan., torn, v., p. 151, and the other writera above cited, 

vii., p, 14. [Tlie occasion of thi» tmam- [The pope had not, cither in the eighth cen- 

tion wai a* followi ; aome French oionka tury or the forepart of the ninth, such in- 

iwidiag at Jeroaalem aa pilgrima, chafed fluenee and authority over the Spanish and 

the creed in their worship, in the mannei French churches, aa lo be able to compd 

coDunoa vrith theit countnrmon, with the ftam directly to expunge Ibo inteipoUlkio. 

tA^lkiaoi fiiioque. The Oreelis censured — ScM-l 
Ihw cuMom ; uid Ihe Fiuk* straght tb« pto- 


written A.D. 831, attempted to give more clearness and otalnlity to the 
views of the church.(38) On the presentation of this hook enlarged and 
improved to Charles the Bald» in the 3rear 846» a great dispute arose out 
of it. Paschatius taught in general, that in the Lord's supper after the 
consecration, there remained only the form and appearance of hread and 
wine ; and that the real hody or the flesh and blood of Christ, were actuaL 
ly present ; and indeed that identical body, which was ham of the virgit^ 
mtfered on the cross, and arose from the tom&.(29) This doctrine seemed 
to many to be new and strange, and especially the last part of it« There- 
fore Rahanus Maurusy Heribald, and others, opposed it ; but on diflerent 
ffrounds. And the emperor Charles the Bald, commanded two men of 
distinguished learning and talents, Rairamn and John Scotus, to give a true 
eiposition of that doctrine which Radbert was supposed to have corrupt- 
ed«(30) Both of them did so ; hut the work of &:otus is lost, and that of 
Bairamn which is still extant, has given occasion to much disputation, both 
in former ages and in the present.(dl) 

§ 20. The writers who treat of this controversy, are not agreed among 
themselves ; nor are they self.consistent throughout their respective trea- 
tises. Indeed the mover of the controversy, Radbert himself, showed little 
<x>nsistcncy, and not unfrequently recedes manifestly from what he had 
before asserted. His principal antagonist Bertram or Rairamn, seems in 
general to follow those who think that the body and blood of Christ are not 
truly present in the eucharist, but are merely represented by the bread and 
wine : and yet he has passages which appear to depart widely from that 
sentiment ; and hence it is not without apparent reason, that he has been 
understood and explained diversely.(32) John Scotus only, as being a 

(S8) See MabilUm, Annales Bened., torn, and his book which has caused so mtich dis* 
iL, p. 689. The treatise of Patchasius was cussion, see Jo, Alb. FabriciuSj Biblioth. 
pablished in a mora accurate manner than Lat. med. aevi, tom. i., p. 661, dec. [Con* 
before, by Edm. Mariene, Amptissima Col- ceming Ratramn^s Book, there has been 
lectio veter. Scriptor., torn, iz., p. 378, dec. dispute as to its genuineness, some ascri- 
The life and character of Pasehanus are bing it to John Scotus ; and dso as to the 
fnmally treated of, by Mabillon, Acta Sane- doctrine it contains. The Catholics would 
tor. ord. Bened., saecul. iv., pt. ii., p. 126, make it teach transubstantiation ; the Lu- 
&c., and by the Jesuits, in the Acta Sane- therans, consubstantiation ; and the Reform- 
tor., Antwerp, ad diem 26 Aprilis ; and by ed, only a mystical or sacramental presence 
many others. ofChnst. — TV. J 

(29) [Far too corporeal conceptions of the (31) This controversy is described at 
presence of Chrisfs body and blood in the length, though not without partiality, by Jo* 
eocharist had existed in preceding times, and Mtunllon, Acta Sanctor. oxd. Bened., [tom. 
indeed ever aince CyriTM notion of the na- yi.], saecul. iv., pt. ii., p. viii., dtc. With 
tozQ of Christ's becoming flesh had been re- him therefore compare Joe. Basnage, His- 
ceived ; and the holy supper had been com- toire de TEglise, tom. i., p 909, dec. [See 
pared to an offering or sacrifice. But such also Gicsekr's Text-book, tran. by Cunnxng" 
gross corporeal expressions as Pa»chanuM ham, vol. ii., p. 46, dec. — Tt.'\ 
em]^yed, no one had before used ; nor had (32) [BertranCs Treatise, in a new En|^ 
any cvried their conceptions so far. In his lisb translation, was published at Dublin, 
book De corpore et sanguine Domini, he A.D. 1753; and with a learned historical 
•ayt : Lieet figura pani» et vtm hie sit, om- Dissertation prefixed. Mabillon (Acta Sanc- 
m'no nihil aUud quam euro et Mongyis post tor. ord. Bened., tom. vi, Prasf., p. xxx., dec.) 
consecrationem credenda sunt— nee alia , evinces triumphantly the genuineness of the 
(caro) quam quae nata est de Maria, nassa book ; and then goes into an elaborate ar- 
in cruce, resoriexit de sepulcro ; et naec, gnment, to prove in oppoaition to John 
inqnun, ipsa est, et ideo Chmi csro est, qua Claude, that the author was a believer in 
fro vita mundi adhue hodit qfertur. — SchL] the real presence. But the mere reading 

(30) Concerning Ratramn or Bertram, hif ugmaeBt, with ths foil and candid quo* 

Vol. IL-S 


philosopher, expressed his views perspicuoualy and properly, teaching thA 
the bread and wine are tigna and TepresaUativea of the absent body and 
blood of Christ. All the others fluctuate, and assert in one place what th^ 
gainsay in another, and reject at one time what they presently after maii^ 
tain. Among the Latins therefore in that age, there was not yet a deter- 
minate, common opinion, as to the mods in which the body and blood cf 
Christ are in the euchariat. 

^ 21. The disputants in this controversy, as is usual, taxed each other 
with the odious consequences of their opinions. The most considerabls 
of these consequences was, that which in the eleventh century was denond. 
nated ttercoramtm. Those who held with Radbert, that after the conse. 
cration only the forms of bread and wine remained, contended, that from 
the sentiments of their adversaries, (who believed that in the holy suppw 
there was nothing more than the figure or signs of Christ's body and blood^i 
this consequence would follow, namely, that the body of Christ was ejected 
l^m the Iwwels with the other feces. On the other hand, those who re- 
jected the transmutation of the bread and wine into the body and blood of 
Christ, taxed the advocates of this doctrine with the same consequence. 
Each party, probably, cast this reproach upon the other without reason. 
TTie crime of sUrcoraitum, if we do not mistake, was a fabricated charge, 
which could not justly fall on those who denied the conversion of the bread 
into the body of Christ ; but which might be objected to those who believ- 
ed in such a transmutation, although it was probably never admitted by 
any one who was in his right mind.(33) 

§ 22. Atthe time the sacramental controversy was at its height, another 
controversy sprung up, relating to dttttne grace and predestination. Gn- 
detehalcus, a Saxoo of noble birth, and contrary to his own choice a monk, 
first at Fulda, and then at Orbais in Prance, upon his return from a jour- 
ney to Rome in the year 847, lodged with his friend (and perhaps relative 
also) count Eberald ; and there in presence of Nothingaa bishop of Verona, 
entered into discussion respecting predestination, and maintained that God 
bad from eternity predestinated some to everlasting life, and others to the 
piuiishments of hell. When his enemy, Rabanus Maunu, heard of thi^ 
he first by letter charged him with heresy; and ailerwards, when Godet- 
chalcus came from Italy to Germany in order to purge himself, and ap- . 

tition* it conlaini, hu left oa one mind tX jaatl; ehuved wilh atercoraniim. On tte 

leul, tbe conviction that Dr. Moihcim hu conlnrj, tbe oppoaera of truisubttantiition, 

traly stated the cbjractet and conletili of snppo»d tha substance of the ucnmeDtil 

that work. — Tr.] elemrals to nndergo the ordinuj cbmgea 

(33) Respecting the Slirea-anitU, ne in tbe stomach and bowels of the cammuni- 

John Mabahm. AcU SS. aid. Bened., [tom. cant ; so that bjr assuming, that these ele- 

*i.], Prsf. sd Sscul. ir., nl. ii., p. iii. Jtx. metita had become tbe resl body and blood 
Bainagt, Hiatoire de I'Eglise, loin, i., p. 
936, &e., and the late treatise of the vener- . , ^ 

B Pfaff, Tubing., 1760, 4lo. — [It is not tbey eiprcssly denied, namely, (he Inith of 

il alementa not to pass disputant, by resorting to a lillle pervoraion 

thnugfa the bumaD body, like ordinary sli- of hia anta^niat's viawa, nugbt easily cast 

ments, but lo became wholly incoTporaled upon him tlos rnlgai and uuseemly tefoeacL 

with the bodiea of tbe communicanla ; to —IV.] 
Oat, M Aeir frind/Ut, tlwy conU not be 


peaied before the council of Mentz A,D. 848, Maurus piocurad his con- 
oemnatioiiy and tansmitted him, as one fixund guilty, to Hmcmar aichSuahop 
of Rheims in France.(34) Hincmar who was a friend of Bdbamu^ god- 
denined him anew in a council held at Chieraey, A.D. 849 ; and as he 
would not renounce his sentiments, which he said, (and said truly), were 
those of AuguMtm^ Hincmar deprived him of his priestly office ; ordered 
him to be whipped, till he should throw the statement he had made at 
Mentz into the flames ; and then committed him to prison in the monas- 
tery of Hautvilliers.(35) In this prison the unhappy monk, who was a man 
of learning but high-minded and pertinacious, ended his days in the year 
868 or 865 ; retaining firmly till his last breath, the sentiments he had 

§ 23. While Godeschaleus remained in prison, the Latin church was in- 
volved in controyersy on his account* For distinguished and discerning 

(34) [NothingTu by letter g&Te Rahamu not flaffsr him anj more to teteh eiror, and 
an account of the tenets advanced by Godes- seduce Chriatian people : for we have leam- 
ehalcus. Upon this Rabaniu wrote a long ed, that he has already aedaced many, who 
letter to NotlUngiUt and another to count are negligent of their salvation, and who 
Bbertdd, loading the sentiments of Codes- say : What will it profit me to exert myself 
dUZciM with reproaches. Godeschaicusthesre' in the service of God? Because, if I am 
fore set out immediately for Germany, in predestinated to death, I can never escape 
order to vindicate his assailed principles, it ; but if predestinated to life, although I 
On his arrival at Mentz, he presented to Ror do wickedly, I shall undoubtedly obtain eter- 
hamu his tract on a twofold predeatination. nal rest. In these few words, we have writ- 
Habamu laid this before a synod, which con- ten to you, describing what we found his 
demned the sentiments it contained, but did doctrine to be," dec. See HardmrCt Con- 
not venture to punish Godeschaleus, because cilia, tom. v., p. 16, 16.— TV.] 
he did not belongto their jurisdiction but to (35) [The sentence upon GodeschalcuSf 
that of Rheims. They however exacted from passed by the synod of Uhiersey, was thus 
him an oath, not to return again to the ter- worded : *' Brother Gotescalc, know thou 
ritories of King Lems ; and transmitted him that the holy office of the sacerdotal minis- 
ms a prisoner to iftncfiuir, the archbishop of try, which thou hast irreffularly usurped,** 
Rheims. The synodal epistle of Rahmms (because, in a vacancy of the see of Rheims, 
accompanying the prisoner, contained this he obtained ordination of the aub-bishop of 
statement : " Be it known to your goodness, Rheims), " and hast not feared hiUierto to 
that a certain vagabond monk, named Go- abuse, by wicked manners and acts, and by 
tkescalCt who says he was ordained priest corrupt doctrines, is now, by the decision of 
in your diocese, came from Italv to Mentz, the Holy Spirit, (of whose grace the sacer- 
introducing new superstitions and pernicious dotal office is the administration by virtue of 
doctrine concerning the predestmation of the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ), taken 
God, and leading the people into error; af- from thee, if thou ever receivedst it; and 
firming that the predestmation of God re- thou art utterly prohibited from ever pre- 
lated to efril as well as to good, and that auming again to exercise it. Moreover, be- 
there are aome in the world, who cannot cause thou hast presumed, contrary to the 
reclaim themselves from their errors and design and the name of a monk, and despi- 
sins, on account of the predestination of sing ecclesiastical law, to unite and confound 
God, which compels them on to destruc- the civil and ecclesiastical vocations, we, by 
tion ; as if God had, from the beginning, our episcopal authority, decree that thou be 
made them incorrigible and obnoxious to whipped with very severe stripes (durissimis 
perdition. Hearing this opinion therefore, verberibus), and, according to ecclesiastical 
m a synod lately held at Mentz, and findins rulea, be diut up in prison. And that thou 
the man irreclaunable, with the eoosent and no more presume to exercise the functiont 
direction of our most pious IdngHludcmeus, of a teacher, we, by virtue of the eternal 
we determined to transmit him, together Word, impose perpetual ailence upon thj 
with his pemicionB doctrine, to you, under lips.** See ifenbnfi, ubi supra, p. SO. Tlue 
eendemnation ; that you mav put him Ih sentence waa executed, witiioat mitigation, 
confinement in your diocese, nom which he — 2V.1 
has in^golazly stioUed ; and that you mqr ....... 


men, such aa Rairtwm of Corbey, Prudentius of Troyes, iMput of Ferri- 
eres, Flonu a deacon of Lyons, and Rmdgiua bishop of Lyons, together 
with his whole ohorch, and many others, defended with energy, both oral> 
ly and in writing, either the person or the sentiments of the monk. Oa 
the other band, Hinemar his judge, Amalan*i, John Scotia the celebnted 
philosopher, and others, by their writinga, contended that both he and bit 
opinions were justly dealt with. As the spirit of controversy waxed hotter 
continually, Charla the Bald, in the year B53, ordered another conventioK 
or council to be held at Cbiersey ; in which through the inSoence of Hine- 
Wur, the decision of the former coimcil was confirmed, and GodetehalevM 
was again condemned S5 a beretic.(86) But in the year 855, the three 
provinces of Lyons, Vienne, and Aries, assembled in council at Valence, Re* 
n^gMU prending, and set forth other decisions in opposition to those of Clii- 
ersey, and defended the cause of Godcichaleu3.[Z!l) With the decisions of 

(36) [In thi> coQDcil, [he opponn of Go- 
detchaicat get foitb tJuir creed id napect tc 

the contested doctiinei, in the foui foUoniiig believe with the fiith ihat worki br lore. 

■niclee : xa., Foi (he cup of hniDin ulnttan, naich ia 

1. Abuigh^ God c»iUd DUD withoat liii, provided for our weskoea* and hu diriDB 

upright, eoaued with free will ; sad pUeed efficacy, conUine what Diight benefil all ; 

bun ID Paradise ; and pDrpoied hii cenlin- but if it be Dot dnrnkeo, it will doc ptodoM 

naDce ID ibe bolineiB of upiightnesB. Mid, healing. 

•buaing free will, linaed and fell, and the Tbese doctrinal atiicles wen agreed sm 

whole human nee became a maas of cor- inthecouncU ofChierec;. A.D. 853; tbou^ 

luption. But the good and righleoua God sometimea attributed to thecouDcil of Chiei^ 

elected out of that Dkaas of perdition, accord- Kf in the year 849, and printed aa euch, ia 

ing to hia foreknowledge, those whom he Hardmn, Concilia, torn. i., f. IS, 19 ; cou- 

predestinaled unto life throuah grace, and pare p. S7. — TV.] 

foreordained eternal Ufa for ^m : but ihe (37) [The council of Valence published 

Otben, whom in bis righteous judgment he tnenty-three canona ; Jive of which contain 

left in the misa of perdition, he forttaie the doctrinal views of the trienda and A*- 

amuld perish, but did not foriordain, that fenden of Gcd^ich^au. See Harduin, 

they ahuuld periali : vet being just, he fore- Concilia, torn, v., p. S7, Ac. These five 

ordained ctema] pumshment to be iboir por- canona are too long to be inaerted barot 

tion. And thua we sfKrm but one predea- without aome sbiidgment. The aubatuwa 

tiDStion of God, in relation either to the gift of them ia aa fallawa : vii., 

of gracfl or to (be relributioua of justice. Can. 11. " That God foieaeFS, and Met- 

U. We lost freedom of will in the Gtat nallr foieeaw, both the ^ood which the 

i; tfhich we recover by Cliriat, OUT Lord : lighleoua will perform, and the evil which 

and we have free will to good, when vrncnl- (he wicked wilt d 
ad and aided by grace ; and have free will bold faidifiilly, an< 
to evil, when foriaken of grace. That we that he foresaw Itiat the righteous <a 

have free will, is because we are Kiade free certainly become righteous, (brou^ bis 

b<r grace, and are beated of corruption by it. grace ; and by the aame grace, would otp 

ni. Almighty God wills, that all men tain eternal blessedness: and be foresaw 

withoot exception should he saved ; and yet that the wicked would be wicked, tbraugb 

-11 III — . 1 3 ^uj j[u( ^[ne their ovm perrerseness ; and would be s(»b 

are saved, ariaea from the giatuitv of him aa must be condemned by his jiiatics (o et 
who saiea; bat that some pertah, arises nal punishment." Accordingjo Pa.liii, ,_^ 
torn their desert of peidilioD. sod Rom. ii,, 7-9, sod 3 llieea. t , 7-l0. 

IV. Aa there nevei was, ia, or will be, » " Nor has the prescieoce of God imposed 

loan whose nature was not assumed by oui upon any bad man a nteettily. that be cao- 

Loid Jesua Chriat ; so there never was, ia, not be other Uun bad ; but, what be wooU 

or will be, a man for wbom Christ baa nol become by hia own free volition, God, aa 

died ; and this, notwiihatandina all are not one who knowa all things before they conia 

redeemed by the mistery of hia pasaion. to pass, foresaw, by his onmipotent and ds- 

Tha( all are not redeemed by the myatery chai^eaUe msjesty. Nor do we belicva) 

of hi« passion, ii do( owiii( to the [limited] (tMasy otwif entdeBUiedbf sdiriaa pn* 


the council of Valence, coincided those of the council of Langree A.D. 859, 
composed of the same provinces ; and likewise those of the coundl of Toul 
A.D. 860, composed of the hishops of fourteen provinces. (38) But on the 
death of CrodeschalcuSf the author of the contest, this vehement controveivf 
8uhsided.r39) « 

§ 24. The cause of Crodeschalcus is involved in some obscurity ; and 
many and eminent men have appeared both as his patrons, and as his ac« 
cusers. He taught, unquestionably, that there is a twofold predestination, 
the one to eternal life, and the other to eternal death ; that God does not 
will the salvation of all men, but only of the elect ; and that Christ suffered 
death, not for the whole human race, but only for that portion of it to which 

judication, but only according to the deserta was once offered to bear the sins of many.''* 
of his own wickedness. Nor do the wicked — " Moreover, the four articles adopted with- 
perish, because they could not become good ; out dae consideration hy the synod of our 
but because they %ooM not become jgood, brethren, (at Chiersey, A.D. 853), on ac- 
and through their own fault remained ui the count of their inutility, and indeed their in- 
mass of condemnation, or in their original jurious tendencr, and error, contrary to the 
«Dd their actual sin." truth ; as also those other, (of John Scotus)f 
Can. III. " As to the predestination of unfitly set forth in 19 syllogisms ; and in 
God, we decide, and faithfully decide, ac- which, notwithstanding the boast that they 
cording to the authority of the apostle ;" are not the result of philosophy, there appears 
Rom. ix., 21-23. *' We confidently profess to be rather the fabrication of the devil, than 
a predestination of the elect unto life, and a an exhibition of the faith ; we wholly ex- 
medestination of the wicked unto death, plodc, as not to be listened to by the faith-* 
j3nt in the election of those to be saved, the ful ; and we enjoin, by the authority of the 
mercy of God precedes their good deserts ; Holy Spirit, that such, and all similar state* 
and in the condemnation of those who are ments, be looked upon as dangerous, and to 
to perish, their ill deserts precede the right- be avoided. And the introducers of (such) 
eous judgment of God. In his predestina- novelties, we judge, ought to be censured." 
tion, God only determined what he himself Can. V. This canon maintains the neces-' 
would do, either in his gratuitous mercy or sity of a saint's persevering in holiness, in 
in his righteous judgment."-—'* In the wick- order to his salvation, 
ed, he foresaw their wickedness, because it Can. VI. In regard to saving grace, ** and 
ia from themselves ; he did not predestins free will, which was impaired by sin, in the 
it, because it is not from him. The punish- first man ; but is recovered and made whole 
ment indeed, consequent ujpon their ill de- again, by Jesus Christ, in all believers in 
sert, he foresaw, being a Grod who foresees him," this council held with various councile 
all things ; and also predestined, because he and pontiffs ; and they reject the trash vend- 
18 a just (jod, with whom as St. Augustine ed by various persons. — TV.] 
says, there is both a fixed purpose, and a (38) [The five doctrinal canons of the 
certain foreknowledge, in regard to all things council of Valence were adopted, without 
whatever.'* — " But that some are predesti- alteration, by the councils of I^ngres and of 
noted to wickedness, by a Divine power, so Toul. See Harduin, Concilia, tom. v., p. 
that they cannot be of another character, we 481, &c., 498. — Tr.} 
not only do not believe ; but if there are (39) Besides the common writers, an im- 
those who will believe so great a wrong, we, partial history of this controversy is given 
ts well as the council of Orange, with all by Casar Egasse de Boulay, Historia Aea- 
detestation declare them anathema." demias Paris., tom. i., p. 178, dec. ; by Ja. 
Can. IV. In this canon they disapproved MahiUon, Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., tom. 
the sentiments of some, who held ** that the vi., or s«cul. iv., pt. ii., Pref, p. xlvii. ; in 
blood of Christ was shed, even for those the Histoire Litteraire de la France, tom. v., 
nngodly ones who had been punished with p. 352 ; by Jac. Usher, Historia Godeschal- 
etemal damnation, from the beginning of the ci, Hanov., 1662, 8vo, and Dublin, 1681, 
world to the time of Christ's passion." And 4to ; and by Gerh. Jo. Vossius, Historia 
they held, " that this price was paid (only) Pelagiana, lib. vit., cap. iv. Add Jo. AH. 
for those of whom our Lord has said : * As Fabriaus, Biblioth. Let. medii cvi, tom. iiL, 
Moses lifted up the serpent,' dec, * that evC" p. 210, die., [and Oieseler^s Text-book of 
ry one thai believeth in him,**' dec.— John iii, £ccl. Hist., trana. by Cwndngham, toI. ii., 
14-16. ** And the apostle says : Christ p. 60-64.— TV.] 


God decreed eternal salT&tion. His friends put a favourable conatructioa 
upon these propocdtioua ; and they deny, that he held those whom God pre- 
destiaated to eternal punishment, to be also predestinated to sin and guih. 
On the contrary, they maintain that be taught only this, that God tttam 
eternity condemned those who, he ibreaaw, would become sinners ; and cooi 
demned them, on account of their nna Tolunlui^ committed ; and decree^ ' ^ 
that the fruits of God's love and of Christ's sui^rings, should extend oo^ 
to the elect ; notwithstanding the love of God and the suSerings of Christ 
in themselves considered, have reference to all men. But his adversaries 
fiercely contend, that he concealed gross errors under ambiguous phtaseol. 
ogy ; and in particular, that ho wished to have it believed, that God has 
predestinated me persons who will be damned, not only to suffer punish- 
ment, but likewise to commit the sins by which they incur that pnnialb 
inent.(40) This at least, seems to be incontrovertible, that the true canaa 
of this whole controversy, and of all the aufierings endured by the unhap* 
py Godetchalciit, may be traced to the private enmity, existing between 
turn and Babanut Mavrus who was his abbot.(41) 

§ 25. With this great controversy, another smailer one was interwoven 
relative to the irme God. In the churches over which he presided, Hine- 
mar forbid the singing of the last words of a very ancient hymn : Te triaa 
Deittu, miaque pMcimtu [Of thee, trine Deity, yet one, we ask, die], on 
the ground, that this phraseology subverted the simplicity of the divin» 
nature, and implied the existence of three Godt. The Benedictine monks 
would not obey this mandate of Hmemar ; and one of their number, Ba. 
tramn, wrote a considerable volume, made up according to the custom of 
the age of quotations from the oncicnt doctors, in defence of a trine Deiif. 
Godescluilciu, receiving information of this dissension while in prison, sent 
forth a paper, in which ho defended the cause of his fellow.monks. For 
this, he was accused by Rincmar of TridKimt, and was confuted in a 
book written expressly for that purpose. But this controversy soon sub- 
sided ; and in spite of Hincmar't efforts, those words retained their placo 
in the hymn.(42) 

§ 26. About the same time another controversy found its way from 

(40) The ctme o! Godtttialau is lean- inoM tightemuIrcoDdemned. [JVo/oAi J{- 

edlT tieated, in in ippropriBte work, bj txanier, HiM, tccles., •ecu], ii., i., Dim. 

WiUiam Mtaigvin ; who publiahed >U the v., torn. lii., p. 803-351, Mows Maugtm 

wiitingi on both aidei of thii controversr An the moM put. — TV.] 
which havs retched ua, Puii, 1660, 2 vali. (41) Goditcialau, who wu committed 

4to, noder the title ; Vstemm snctonim, lo the mooiBleij of Fulda by bii pmnls 

qui nono lacula da predeatinatione at gntia while ui infant, agreeably ta iba cnitom of 

acnpaerunt, open at fngtnenta, cum biito- the age, when he became adult wished to 

tia et gemina pnfatione. A mora conciaa abandon a monastic liTe. But Raiataa ra- 

■ceomit of it, la given bj HemyNorii.Sj- tained him eontnij to his wishea. This 

DOpais hiatoiiBGodeselulcanB; inhiaOpp., produced a great conteat between then), 

torn, iv., p. 677, Sie. But he mora stranu- wbich naa lenninated only bvlba inteipo- 

oualy defends Godeachalcns than Matipan aition of Laeu the Medl. Hence IhoM 

doea. All tlte Benedicunes, Augvistiniana, conflicts and suflennga. See lbs Centuria 

and Janaeniata miinCain, that Oodeschalcua Magdeh,, centuiy ii., e. i., p. 513. 646,and 

waa most unjustly oppr««ed and persecuted Jfi^iUiiR, AnntleaBened.,toin. iL,ann. BS9, 

^ajSaharBa&n&kmcmar. The Jeauita take p. 523. 

mooaiM ground: sod one of them, J^isis (43) See the wtiten of the hislon of C^>- 

CtU/it, in bis Hiatoria Godeschaki predea- dtKhalau, who alao touch njwn this co»> 

tinaliani, aplendidlj printed, Paris, 1666, troreiajr, 
fti, Uboura to ainw, thai Ga4a*cbalcni waa 


Germany into France, relative to the manner in which the blessed Saviour 
issued from the womb of his mother. Some of the Germans maintained^ 
that Jesus Christ did not proceed from the womb of Mary, according to 
the laws of nature in the case of other persons, but in a singular and ex- 
traordinary manner. When this opinion reached France, JRcUramn oppo- 
sed it, and maintained that Christ came into the world, in the way which 
nature has provided. Paschasius Radbert ccume forth in defence of the 
Germans, maintaining in a distinct treatise, that Christ was bom with no 
expansion of his mother's body ; and charging those who thought other- 
wise, with denying the virginity of Mary. But this also was a short con- 
troversy, and gave way to greater ones. (43) 

§ 27. Of all the controversies that disturbed this century, the most 
&mous and the most unhappy was that which severed the Greek and 
Latin churches. The bishops of Rome and Constantinople had long in- 
dulged, and sometimes also manifested, great jealousies of each other. 
Their mutual animosity became violent, from the times of Leo the [sau- 
rian, [A.D. 716-741], when the bishops of Constantinople, supported by 
the authority and patronage of the [Greek] emperors, withdrew many prov- 
inces from subjection to the see of Rome.(44) But in the 9th century 
the smothered fire which had been burning in secret, broke out into an 
open flame, upon occasion of the elevation of FhotiuSy the most learned 
Greek of the age, to succeed the deposed Ignatius in the see of Constan- 
tinople, by the emperor Michael, A.D. 852, [rather A.D. 858], and the con- 
firmation of that elevation as regular and correct, by the council of Con- 
stantinople in the year 861.(45) For the Roman pontiff Nicolaus I., whose 
aid had been solicited by Ignatius, in a council at Rome A.D. 862, pro- 
nounced PhoUuSy (whose election he maintained was uncanonical), together 
with his adherents, to be unworthy of Christian communion. This thun- 
der was so £Bir from terrifying Fhotius, that he gave back the same metis- 
ure he had received, and in return excommunicated Nicolausj in the council 
of Constantinople of the year 866. 

(43) See Lucas tU Achery^ Spicilcg. ve* ficd with their answer, wrote a tract toprove 

tenim Scriptorunif torn, i., p. 396. Jo. Ma- that Christ received all the gifts of the Spirit, 

hiUon^ Acta Sanctor. ord. Bcned. [torn, vi.], at once, and in pcrpetuum, without change, 

Bscul. iv., pt. ii., Prspf., p. li., 6ic. [After increase, or diminution ; but that believers 

^viog account of this controversy, Mabillon did not so receive them, though they might 

proceeds to the history of another, between in some degree enjoy the temporary posses- 

JttUramn and Pasehainu Radbert , respect- sion of them all. See WalcKt Programm, 

ing the unity of human souls. The contro- de Gratia scptiformis Spiritus, A.D. 1755. 

▼ersy was of short continuance, and seems — Tr.] 

to have arisen from a misijnderstanding of (44) See Giannone^ Histoire de Naples, 

each other, in consequence of their not clear- tome i., p. 535, 646. Peter de Marco, de 

ly discriminating between rmmerieal urtity Concordia sacerdot. et imperii, lib. i., cap. 

and a specific unity. See note (15), p. 59 i., p. 6, &c. Le Quien^ Oriens Ghristianos, 

of this volume, ana Mahllony ubi supra, p. tom. i., p. 96, 6lc. [See also Gieseler*s 

liii., &c. — There was another controversy Text-book, by Cunningham, vol. ii., p. 136 

under Charlcmaprnc^ respecting the seteU' -147. — Tr.'\ 

fold grace of the Spirit. Charlemagne asked (45) [Some of the Greeks call this a gen- 

the opinion of several bishops, whether eral council. It was attended by 318 bish- 

Christ and believers receive the same ex- ops ; and its decrees were subscribed by the 

traordinary gifts of tbe Holy Spirit. They two Romish delegates. Its Acts are lost ; 

answered, that Christ received aU the seven having probably Men destr^ed by the ad* 

ffifts equally, but that believers receive each herents to Ignatitu. See WaUh*9 Kizchr 

Eis particular gift. The emperor, dissatis- enversamml., p. 553, ^LC—^Sehl.} 


§ 39. The pretence for the war which Nicolmu I, commeaeed, wa% 
die justice of the cause of Ignatitu ; whom the emperor had deprired <4 
his episcopal office, upon a charge true or lalae of treason. But Nicolmit 
Tould have been unconcerned about the injury done to ^natiiu, if he coaM ~k 
have recovered &om the Greek emperor and from Pkotiiu, the provinOBi ---^ 
taken from tlie Roman pontifis by the Oreeks ; namely, Illyricum, Mbo^ 
donia, Bpirus, Achaia, Thessaly, and Sicily. For he had before demand* 
ed them, through his enroys at Constantinople. And when the Greek! 
paid no regard to his demaitd, he resolved to avenge his own rather than 
.^^nofw** wrong. 

§ 29. In the midst of this warm conflict, Batil the Macedonian, a paT> 
ricide who bad usurped the empire of the Greeks, suddenly restored peace. 
For he recalled Ignatius from exile, and commanded Photivt to retire to 
private life. This decision of the emperor was confirmed by a council 
assembled at Constantinople A.D. 869, in which the legates of the Roman 
pontiff Hadrian II. had controlling influence. (46) The Latins call this 
the eighA general council. The religious contest between the Greeks and 
Latins now ceased ; but the strife respecting the boundaries of the Ro. 
miah [pontifical} jurisdiction, especially in regard to Bulgaria, still con- 
tinued: nor could the pontiff with all his efforts, proTail on either Jj^nutnw 
or the emperor, to give up Bulgaria or any other of the provinces. 

§ 30. The first schism was of such a nature, that it was possible to 
heal it. But Photivs, a man of high feelings, and more learned than aU 
the Latins, imprudently prepared materials for interminable war. For in 
the first place, in the year 866 he annexed Bulgaria to the see of Conslaa* 
tinople, which Nieolaus was eager to possess ; and this gave extreme pais 
to the Roman pontiff. In the next place, what was much more to be la- 
mented, and wos unworthy of so great a man, he sent dradar UUera to 
the Oriental patriarchs on the subject, thus converting his own private con- 
troversy into a public one ; and moreover accused in very strong terma 
the Roman bishops sent among the Bulgarians, and through them the whole 
Latin church, of corrupticg the true religion, or of heresy. In his great 
irritation he taxed the Romans with five enormities ; than which, in their 
»iew, the mind could conceive of no greater. First, that they deemed ft 
proper to fast on the seventh day of the week or the Sabbath. Sectmdif, 
that in the fint week of Lent they permitted the use of milk and cheese. 
Thirdly, that they wholly disapproved of the marriage of priests. FemrlJU 
fy, that they thought none but the bishops could anoint with the holy oi^ 
or confirm the baptized, and that they therefore anointed a second time, 
those who had been ancnnted by presln^rs. And,j{/U/y, that they had 
adulterated the Constantinopolilan creed by adding to it the voria JSHoq^t, 
thus teaching that the Holy Spirit did not proceed from the Father on/p, but 
also &om the Son. (47) Nicolatu I, sent this accusation to Hincvtar and 

(U) Ths writers on both *idei of Ihk troveny with the gecond betwaan th« Ortdti 

conlnvenj, ate ouned by Jo. Alb. Fatri- ind Litina ; and inclods Ote cnminitioDa 

MM, Biblioth. GlKci, vol. it., cap, iiiTiii., which were nudii in the tima of Jfidul 

p. 372. CtrtUariut, [patriuch m Ibe middls of tbs 

(47) Sea *n epirtle of Ph/>tna himtetf, eleventh century}.— Certiin it ii, ihtt Id the 

which ii the teami of hts EpiKle*. u pub- Epiitle of Plottu, fiom which thme tb* 

lished bj Maniagat, p. 47, &c. Some eon- fint controienr ia to be ju&od of, tb«M 

metite lea lUegilionii of charge by PfaMnu. an only the fitt head* m iliia|[isiiiiei<, 

Bot Ih^ ondonbtsdlj blend ths fint ccn- wfaidi w» fam MUsd, 


the other Gallic bishops, in the year 867 ; that they might deliberate iii 
councils respecting the proper answer to it* Hence Odo of Beauvaisy Ra- 
tramn. Ado of Vicnne, JSneat of Paris, and perhaps others likewise, entered 
the lists against the Greeks, and very warmly defended the cause of the 
Latins in written vindications. (48) 

§ 81. lignatau died in the year 878, and Phothu was again raised by 
the favour of the emperor, to the patriarchate of the Greek church. The 
Roman pontifi* John VIII. gave his assent ; but it was on condition, that 
Photius would allow the Bulgarians to come under the Roman jurisdic- 
tion. Photius promised the whole ; nor did the emperor seem opposed 
to the wishes of tlie pontiff. (49) Therefore in the year 879, the legates 
of John VIII. were present at the council of Constantinople, and gave their 
sanction to all its decrees. (50) But ailer the council broke up, the emper- 
or (doubtless with the consent of Photius) would not permit the Bulgari- 
ans to be transferred over to the Roman pontiff; and it must be acknowl- 
edged there were very strong motives for such a determination. Hence 
the pontiff sent Marinas his legate to Constantinople, and signified that he 
should persevere in the former sentence passed upon Photius* The legate 
was thrown into prison by the emperor, but was again liberated ; and af- 
terwards on the death of John VII I. being created Roman pontiff^ he was 
mindful of the ill usage he had received, and issued a second condemnation 
of Photius. 

§ 32. Six years afterwards, or A.D. 886, Leo, sumamed the philoso- 
pher, the son of the emperor iSasilf again deposed the patriarch Photius^ 
and exiled him to a monastery in Armenia called Bardi; where he died 
in the year 891.(51) Thus the author of the contest being removed, if 
there had been due moderation and equity at Rome, the whole strife might 
have been quieted and harmony between the Greeks and Latins have b^en 

(48) 3faK2I<m, Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., decrees of the lecond Nicene council re- 
(tom. vi.), saecul. ir., pt. ii., Pnef.,p. It. specting image-worehip. The council was 

(49) See Mich. U Qmerif Oriena Chriatift- cloaed by a eulogy of Procopius of Ceta^ 
BUS, torn, i., p. 103, ^c. rea on PWnw, and by a tolemn declaratkm 

(50) [The entire acts of this council are on the part of the Roman legates, that wbo- 
in HarduirCi collection, torn. ▼!., pt. i., p. ever would not acknowledge the holy patri- 
307-342. The council was called by order arch Photius and hold ecclesiastical com- 
of the emperor Basil; and by all the Greeks munion with him, ought to be accounted an 
it has been accounted a general council ; associate of the traitor Judas and no Chris- 
bnt the Latins do not so regard it. The tian ; and this was assented to by the whole 
number of bishops present was 383; and council. See Watch's Kirchenversamml., 
the legates of the Roman pontiflT, and also p. 575, dec. — TV.] 

Tepresentatives of the three Oriental patri- (51) [Photius had ordained one Tlieo- 

archs, attended it. Photius presided ; and dorus a bishop, who was falsely accused 

the principal objects were obtained without of treason. This circumstance brooght the 

difficulty, in seven sessions. Photius was patriarch under some temporary suspicion, 

unanimously acknowledged the regular pa- Besides, the new emperor wished to raise 

triarch of Constantinople ; and all that had his brother Stephen to the patriarchal chair, 

been decreed against him at Rome and at He therefore deposed Photius^ and gave the 

Constantinople, was annulled and declared office to his brother. Yet, when he learned 

void. Such as should not acknowledge the innocence of Photius, he seems to have 

Photius, were to be excommunicated. The felt some relentings ; for he made his exile 

council proceeded to establish the true faith, comfortable, and in a letter to the pope, spoke 

by confirming the creed of the first Nicene of him as bavinff vokmtarUy resigned his 

and the first Uonstantinopolitan councils, re- office, and gone into roiiiement.— TV. from 

jecting all interpolations; (that is, merely Schl.} 
the addition JUwfue) ; and n^mMXing tM 

Vol. II.— N 



restored. But the Romas pontiffi required that all the bishops and prieato 
whom Photius had consecrated, should be deprived of their offices. And 
aa the Greeks would by no meaos submit to this, all the coatentions re- 
specting points of rehEion ae well as other thinfp, were renewed with in- 
creased bitterness, and being augmented by new grounds of controvert 
continued till the unhappy separation betweeo the Greek and LatiocburcbeB 
became absolute and perpetual. 



^ 1. Teat the public rites and ceremonies were gradually multiplied 
very considerably, is evinced by the writers who in this century began to 
compose and to publish explanations of them for the instruction of the com- 
mon people ; namely, Amalarius, (whose numerous explanations, however, 
are confuted by Agobard end Flonu), John Scolux, Angelome, Bemghit of 
Auxerre, Walafrid Straio, and others. These treatises are entitled d« 
Diemu (Mciu : for in the style of this age, a divine office is a religious cer- 
emony. Though these works were undoubtedly drawn up with good in- 
{^ntions, yet it is difficult to say whether they benefited, more than they in- 
jured, the Qhristian cause. They contained indeed some spiritual aliment 
for those who attended on public worship, but it was for the most part crude 
and unwholesome. For the alleged grounds and reasons of the various 
rites, are to a great degree far fetched, false, constrained, nay, ridiculous 
and puerile. Besides, excessive regard for external rites was increased 
and strengthened, by this elaborate explanation of them, to the detriment 
of real piety. For how could any one withhold respect and reverence, frcon 
that which he understood to be moat wisely ordained, and full of mystery t 

§ 2. To describe severally all the new rites adopted, either by Christiana 
generally or by particular churches, would not comport with the designed 
brevity of this work. We therefore despatch the extensive subject in a 
few words. The corpses of holy men, either brought from distant couiL- 
tries or discovered by the industry of the priests, required the appointment 
of new feast days, and some variation in the ceremonies observed on those 
days. And as the prosperity of the clergy depended on the impressions 
of the people respecting the merits and the power of those saints whom 
they were invited to worship, it was necessary that their eyes and their 
ears should be fascinated with various ceremonies and exhibitions. Hence 
the splendid furniture of the temples, the numerous wax candles burning 
at midday, the multitude of pictures and statues, the decorations of the ai^ 
tars, the frequent processions, the splendid dresses of the priests, and mastew 
Impropriate to the hoDour of saints. (1) The festival of All SaaUt wais 

(I) SMtlwTnetitf J0. f«cA(,diHiMBinhoai 


added by Chregory IV. to the public holy days of the Latiii8.(2) And the 
feast of St. Michael^ which had been bng observed with much reverence 
by both the Greeks and the Latins, now began to be more frequented.(3) 
^ 3. In the civil and private life of Christians, especially among the Lat- 
ins, there existed many customs derived from ancient paganism. For the 
barbarous nations that embraced Christianity, would not allow the customs 
and laws of their ancestors to be wrested from them, though very alien 
from the rules of Christianity ; nay, by their example they drew over other 
nations among whom they lived commingled, into the same absurdities. 
We have examples in the well-known mctliods of demonstrating right and 
innocence, in civil and criminal causes, by cold water,(4) by single com- 

(3) See Jo. Mabillon^ de re diplomatica, (4) See Jo. McJnllonf Analecta yeterit 

p. 637. [This is troe onlv of Germany and aevi, torn, i., p. 47. Koytt dc Missis Dom., 

rrance. For as to England, Beda mentioned p. 152. [The ordeal by immersion in cold 

this feast in the preceding century ; and at water, was very common in the ninth and 

Rome, it had been established by pope BoHf following centuries, especially for criminals 

if ace IV. See vol. i. of this work, p. 449, of vulgar rank in society. It was sanctioned 

note (3). — Schl.] by public law, in most countries of Europe. 

(3) The Latins had but few feast days And though disapproved by various kings 

even in this century, as appears from the and councils, yet was generally held sacred; 

poem of Floras extant in martene*$ The- and was supposed to have been invented by 

saurus, tom. v., p 595, <Scc. [The council pope Eugene. The person to be tried was 

of Mentz A.D. 813, determined precisely conducted to the church, and most solemnly 

the number of both fasts and feasts to be adjured to confess the fact, if he was guilty. 

observed. Canon 34, designates the /<uto; If he would not confess, he receiv^ the 

namely, the firat week in March, the $eco>nd sacrament, was sprinkled with holy water, 

week in June, the third week in September, and conducted to a river or lake. The priest 

and the last full week preceding Christmas then exorcised the water, charging it not to 

eve. On these weeks, all were to fast, and receive the criminal, if he were guilty. The 

they were to attend church on Wednesdays, criminal was now stripped naked, and bound; 

Fridays, and Saturdays, at 3 o^clock P. M. and a rope was tied to him, by which to draw 

--^CaMon 36, thus enumerates and sanctions him out, if he sunk to a certain depth. 

thefestivaU: ** We ordain the celebration Wlien cast into the water, if he floated, he 

of the feast days of the year. That is. East- was accounted guilty ; but if he sunk to the 

er Sunday is to be observed with all honour depth marked on the rope, (sometimes a 

and sobriety ; and the whole of Easter week, yard and a halOi he was instantly drawn oat, 

we decree shall be observed in like manner, and was accounted innocent. See a large 

Ascension day must be celebrated with full and very satisfactory account of this ordeal, 

worship. Likewise Pentecost, in the same in Du Cange, Glossar. Latin., under the ar- 

manner as Easter. In the nativity [martyr- tide Aqu^e, vel Aquct frigrda judicium^ 

dom] of Peter and Paul, one day ; the na- tom. i., p. 308-313, ed. Francf., 1710.^ 

tivity of St. John Baptist ; the assumption Du. Cange proceeds to describe the ordeal 

of St. Mary ; the dedication of St. Michael ; by hot water. For this the preparatory re- 

the nativity of St. Remigius, St. Martin, St. kgious ceremonies were the same as for the 

Andrew ; at Christmas, four days, the oc- o^eal by cold water. Afterwards the priest 

taves of our Lord, the epiphany of our Lord, heated a caldron of water, till it boiled, 

the purification of St. Maiy. And we de- Then takirtg it off the fire, he immersed in 

cree the observance of the festivals of those it a stone, which he held suspended by a 

martyrs or confesaors, whose sacred bodies string, to the depth of one, two, or Uuree 

repose in each diocese : and in like manner, palms ; and the criminal must thrust in his 

the dedication of each church." — The 37th naked hand and arm, and seizing the stone, 

canon adds : **We ordain the observance of pull it out. His hand and arm were imma- 

all the Lord*s days [Sundays], with all rev- dialely wrapped up in Unen cloths, and a bag 

erence, and with abstinence from servile drawn over the whole and sealed. After 3 

work ; and that no traffic take place on those days, the hand and arm were examined ; and 

days ; nor do we approve, that any one be if found not scalded, the man was accounted 

sentenced to death, or to punishment," on innocent. This ordeal was nearly as much 

those days. — See Hardmnrt Concilia, tom. used as the other ; bnt was considered rather 

It., p. 1015.— Tr.] more raitable for penoot of quality.— TV.] 


bat^S) by iroii,(6) by a croes,(7] and other methodB, which wen 
ID general use among the Latins in this and the following age. No sober 
man at the present day entertains a doubt, that these equivocal and uncer< 
tain modes of deciding causes originated bom the customs of barbarian^ 
and that they are iallacious and abhorrent to the genius of true reli* 
sion. Yet in that age, the pontifis and inferior bishops did not blush to 
honour and dignify them wiUi prayera, with the eucharist, and with other 
rites, in order to give them somewhat of a Christian aspect. 

(9) Jo. Loaemut, Antiqnitst Sueo- p. 881. [Thb wm a Tsiy connnon ordul, 

Gothicie, lib. ii., ckp. vii., TiiL, p. 144. ind wu Mteaowd mora boonmble thui lb* 

m clciETmea did not mtate to teimintte oiduli bj witn. Somelimai the penoa 

troveraiei by the diuUam or liiule cont- walked buefoot ovei nine or twelve red-hM 

bat. Sm JuMl. He*. Boehnur't Jui Ec- plougtuhana, tieading on eacL But tnoia 

clea. FrotecUniiuni, tom. t., p. SB, &c. Iieqaenlly be earned ■ hot iron in his i»ke4 

[Tbe trill by comhet originated among the hand*, nine timea the length of hii fool. 

Donhera baibailBna, waa in uae before ibe The religioua rilea attending thia ordeal, 

Cbriiliaii era, and waa brought bj the LoQi- were rerj aimilai to thoee of the ordeal bf 

buda into Italy, and by (he Genruna into hot water. Baa Dii Cangt, Gloaa. I^i., ifi> 

Suabia. It waa not an ordeai for the triel ticlea Fkkidh cuiUau, iiid VoHnu igi 

of public oBencea, but waa a roode of eat- nili.— TV.] 

tlii^piiTate diaputea and quarrele between (7) See Agobari, coDtre jodicinm Dei 

indinduala, when there na* not anSieienl Liber, Opp,, (om. i., and contn legBin Gmi- 

«ndaicB to make the caae clear, "niepaj' dobedi, cap. ii., p. IM, ifier. S^imnu 

tiea depoaited with the judge their bonda or ad fonnulai Maiculphi, cap. lii. Steplte* 

eoodi to the requiaite amount, for paying Ai^imiu ad Agobardum, p. 104 ; and otb- 

the forfeittire in caae they were c*et and for ere, [Du Cangt, in Oloaaar. Latin., article 

tbe feea of court. The judge alto eppoinled Cmcia ^tulietam, ia not able definitely to 

tbe taniB for tbe eombaC and preaided over ilate wtul waa tbe mode of lbi> ordeal. Ha 

it. Xnighta fought on horaeMck, and arm- finda aome inatancei of pertona atanding 

ed at for war in complete annODi, and with long, with their arma extended horiiontallT. 

their horaea coTered with mail. Common to aa to preaent the form of ■ croat. If 

Bwn foDghl on foot, with aworda and ihielda ; tbey grew weary, fainted, ajid fell, Ibaj 

covered, except their facea and feel, with were accounted guilty. He alto finda other 

linen or cotton, to any eilent they pleued. modea of trial by croat. Somelimea it was 

Certain persona, aa women, priesta, and oth- merely laying (he hand on ■ aacred croat, 

•Tt, might employ champions to fight in artd then uttering ■ aotama oath of purga- 

tbeir etead. See the full account, in Du tion. — On all the forma of ordeal, aee Ace** 

Cangt, Glosaar. Latin., article DittUtim: CyclopKdia, article Oritai. — Thii mode of 

Me alao HaiUan'i View of Europe in the trying difficalt and dubioaa caaaea, waa d*. 

middle agca, vol. i., p. S93, dLc, ed. Phila- nominated Jadiatim Dei ; and waa conaid' 

del., 18S1. Tbia mode of trial gradually ered at a aolemn appeal to God, to show, 

eonk into diauae ; but it waa not tboliahed by hie epecial ipterpoaition, whether a pereott 

by legiriative enactments, either in Franca were guilty oi innocent. It was therefore, 

or England. Hence, to late aa the IBtb ■ preaumplaout attempt to call forth a mip- 

century, the right of challeniring to tingle acle from the hand of^God ; and it argued 

combat, waa asserted in an Eugltih court, both the iguonnce and the superatition of 

—TV.] tboae timea. And Ihoa it was viewed by 

(6) Petna Lamhecnu, Renim Hamburg, aome of the more diaceming : for inslanca, 

lib. ii., p. 39. Jac. Uaher, Sylloge Epiato- by Ageicrd biabop of Lyona. (See Ibft 

lat. Hibemic, p. SI. Johium't Lawa of reference! at tbe beginning of tbia note.) 

tbe British church; and the extracts trota But othera, aa Hincmar trchbishop ef 

tbem, in Miek. dt la JCeekt, Mcmoirea lit. Rheimt, approved and defended both tha 

taniiea de la Gnnde Bretagoe, tome ivi., atdeaU anJ the iiial by con^at.— 3V.J 




f 1. Ancient Sects. — $ S. The Paulicitns. — ^ 3. Persecution of them.— 4. Their Con- 
dition under Theodora. — ( 5. Whether the/ were Manichaeans. — ( 6. Their religious 

§ 1. CoNGBBNQfG the ancieiit Christian sects, there is little new to be said. 
Nearly all of them that were considerable for numbers, had their resi- 
dence and abettors beyond the boundaries of the Greek and Latin domin- 
ions. The NetUnians in particular, and the Monaphydtes, who lived 
securely under the protection of the Arjibians, were very attentive to their 
own interests, and did not cease from efforts for the conversion of the na . 
lions still in pagan ignorance. Some represent that it was in this century, 
the Abyssinians or Ethiopians were persuaded by the Egyptians to embrace 
the Monophysite doctrines. But it was undoubtedly from the seventh 
century, if not earlier, that the Abyssinians who were accustomed to re- 
ceive Uieir bishop from the patriarch of Alexandria, embraced the tenets 
of the Monophysites : for in that century, the Arabs conquered Egypt, op- 
pressed the Greeks [or Melchites], and protected the advocates of one na- 
ture in Christ, so that this sect was able to subject nearly the whole Eg3rptian 
church to its jurisdiction.(l) 

§ 2. The Greeks were engaged with various success during nearly this 
whole century, in cruel wars with the PauUcians^ a sect allied to the Ma- 
nichaeans, and residing especially in Armenia. This sect is said to have 
been formed in Armenia by two brothers, Paul and John the sons of Cah 
Unice of Semnosata, and to have received its name from them : some how- 
ever think that one Pauly an Armenian who lived in the reign of Justinian 
II., gave name to the sect. (2) Under Constans in the seventh century, it 

(1) Nouveau Memoires des Missions de did not prevent their growth. ForonePati/, 
la Compagnie de Jesus dans le LoTant, with his two sons Geiuaius (who was also 
tome iv., p. 283. 284. [Lettres Edifiantes, called Timothy) and Theodorus^ propagated 
torn, ii., p. 319, &c. — TV.] Henr. U Grand, the sect in Cappadocia. The first of these 
Diss. if. on Jerome LMt Voysge histo- was summoned to Constantinople by the 
nque de TAbyssinie, tome iL, p. 18. emperor Leo ; but sfter a hearing he was 

(2) Photms^ contra Manicnaeos, lib. i., acquitted, and retired with his adherents 
p. 74, in Wolfs Anecdota Graeca, torn. i. into the territories of the Mohanmiedans. 
[According to the statement of Peter Siau- He was followed by his son Zachtaitu, who, 
Uu, the founder of this sect was an Arme- with Jotejpk his assistant, affain took resi- 
Dtan, named ConsUuUine and sumamed So- dence in Cappadocia ; but when persecation 
loanniM. Complaint was made against him broke out, he fled to Phryffia ; and during 
to the emperor Cotutantine Pogonatus in some time, taught at Antioch in Pisidia. He 
the seventh century. The emperor sent his was succeeded by BahaneSf under whom 
commissioner Simeon, to investigate the the sect spread Itself much in Asia, particu- 
eabject ; and A« put the leader of the sect lariy in Armenia, and also in Thrace. Af- 
to death, and disnersed his adherents ; bat ter Bahanes, the jmncipal teacher was iSer- 
flome years after, he himself joined the sect giue, called also Tjfdueue, who opposed inl- 
and became its teacher. Under JuMtinian age-worship most lealously, under the em- 
11. they were again complained of, and their press Irene. They were then likewise call- 
pODcipal leader wu bnxned »live. Put tbii jm Aikiugiaut or Sepantes, bfctnM they 


was in an exhausted and depressed state, in conaequence of penal ban 
and oppressions, when one Cotutanttne resuscitated it. The emperort 
Constant, Justauan U., and Leo the Isaurian, harassed them in varioiM 
ways, and laboured to extirpate the sect ; but they were utterly unable to 
Bubduc a party bo inflexible andvhicb despised all sufierings. In the bs* 
ginning of the ninth century, their condition was more prosperous. For 
the emperor Nicephontt Logotheta, [A.D. 802^11], favoured the Pauli- 
ciana, and gave them free toleration. (3) 

§ 3. But after a few years of repose, the Paulicians were again assailed 
with increased violence, by the emperors Michael Curopalates and Leo the 
Armenian, [A.D. 811-820], who commanded them to be carefully search. 
ed after through all the provinces of the Greek empire, and to be put to 
death if they would not return to the Greek church. Driven to dcspen* 
tion by this cruelty, the Pauliciana of Armenia slew the imperial judges, 
and likewise TJtomaa the bishop of Ncocsesarea ; and then took refuge ia 
the territories of the Saracens, from which they harassed the neighbour. 
ing Greeks with perpetual incursions. (4) Afterwards, it seems, this war 
gradually subsided ; and the Paulicians returned to their former habitations 
within the Grecian territories. 

§ 4. But far greater calamities were produced by the inconsiderate and 
lash zeal of the empress Theodora, [A.D. 841~-855]. In the minority 
of her SOD, she governed as regent, and decreed that the Paulicians should 
be either exterminated by fire and sword, or brought back to the Greek 
church. The public officers sent into Armenia on this business, executed 
their commission in the most cruel manner ; for they destroyed by various 
punishments, about a hundred thousand of this unhappy sect, and confisca- 
ted their property. Such as escaped, took refuge once more among the 
Saracens. Being there kindly received, the Paulicians built themselves a 
city called Tibrica ; and choosing Carbeat a man of very great valour for 
tiieir leader, and forming alliance with the Saracens, they waged fierce 
war with the Greeks. This war continued with various success uearfy 
through the century ; and in it an immense number of persons perished 
on both sides, and several provinces of the Greeks were ruined.(5) Du. 

would hiv« .no put in iba linaea e[ the Fulicittu at Tibrici, in Ihe year STO, aeiit 
time*, etpeeMlj id iinage-wonbip, iind Id to negolitte will) ibem an siefauige of pri»- 
venention or ihe ctDu and of the hirauch; ooera i and be remained among them niaa 
of the leigning party. — ScM,\ mcmtba. Tbia Tact ilotieahows how great ihe 
<3) See Geo, Cedrinut, Compendinoi Hi*- Pp"*' of ''i" Paulicians was at Ibat period. 
Utiir., torn, ii., p. 480, ed. Puie, or p. S7V, From ibii Ptltr, ii appeaia, Ccdrtmu bar- 
ed. Venice. lowed hii account. Hiator. Compend., p. 

(4) FluUiiu, contra Manidi., lib. I, p. 431. Tbs modema who treat of the PauK- 
135, dec. PeltT Sicidut, Miliaria Mint- ciana, aa Ptier Bayle, Dictionnaire, article 
fhsor., p. 71. PsMlicuKM, Jo. Chntl. Wi)//, Manicbciamm 

(5) Gto. Ctdrtnia, Compendium Hiito- ante Manichcos, p. 247, and other*, seem 
rial., p. 641, 647, ed. Puia, or p. 4S5, 420, to bare derived tbeir information cbieftr (rum 
ei. Venice. Jo. ZonaroM, Annal., lib. xfi, Bouuel, Histoire dee variatioo* dea Egliaea 
torn, ii, p. 1S2, ad. Vctuce, The phoeipal Protril., [livr. xi., aect. 13, kc], tame ii., 
hiitoriina wbo treat of Ihe PauUciaiw, are p. 129, &c. But tbi* writer cenatnlr did 
Photiiii, eontra Haoictueoa, Liber pnmus ; not go to the aourcea, and being influencMl 
and Peler SinlitM, whoae Hialoria Mani- by party aeal. he wa> willing to make mi«- 
chconim wat publiahed, Or. and I^., by take*. — IPhotiut wrote four Book* againat 
JtfollA. Ai(l<ru,Itigol*tadt, ie04,4lo. Thia Ihe Marucbzana or Pauliciana ; ofwhichUw 
Peter Siatlut, aa be btmaolT informa ua, ma Ja-il Book gives the hislory of Ibem. to abont 
Ibe envojr of BmU th* MscadoaiM to the A.D. 870. The enbee^aeut boc^ are a 


ring these troubles, and near the cloae of the century, some of the Pauli« 
cians disseminated their doctrines among the Bulgarians ; and among that 
people, who were recently converted to Christianity, those doctrines easily 
took root.(6) 

§ 5. These PauUekau are by the Greeks called Manichaearu ; but as 
PhoUus himself states, they declared their abhorrence of Manes, and of 
his doctrine :(7) and it is certain, that they were not genuine Manichaeans, 
although they might hold some doctrines bearing a resemblance to those 
of that sect. There were not among them, as among the Manichaeans, 
bishops, presbyters, and deacons ; they had no order of clergymen, dis^ 
tinguished from laymen by their mode of living, their dress, and other 
things ; nor had they councils, or any similar institutions. Their teach, 
ers, whom they denominated Sunecdemi, [£we«di7/LMM], fellow-travellers 
.and [Soraploi] Notaries^ were all equals in rank ; and were distinguished 
from laymen by no rights, or prerogatives, or insignia. (8) But they had 
this peculiarity, that such as were made teachers among them changed 
their names, and assumed each the name of some holy man mentioned in 
the New Testament. They received the whole of the New Testament, 
except the two epistles of Peter which they rejected for reasons not known ; 
and they received it unaltered, or in its usual form as received by other 
Christians ; in which again they differed from the Manichaeans. (9) They 
moreover would have these holy books to be read, assiduously, and by all ; 
and were indignant at the Greeks, who required the scriptures to be ex- 
amined only by the priests.(lO) But many parts of the scripture, they 
construed allegorically ; abandoning the literal sense, lest it should militate 
with their doctrines :(11) and this construction they undoubtedly put upon 
the passages relating to the Lord's supper, baptism, the Old Testament, 
and some other subjects. Besides the New Testament, the epistles of 
one SerghUj a great doctor of the sect, were in high esteem among them. 

^ 6. The entire creed of this sect, though doubtless consisting of vari- 

confuUtion of their doctrines ; and with the phia, convinced them of their errors, and 

common argumenta used against the Mani- converted them to the Romiah cfanKh.— 

chsana. The history of Peter Sicvlus ter- [The history of these Pauliciana is of the 

minates at the same time, llie edition of more consequence, as they propagated their 

it by the Jesuit Raier, is said to need revi- sect in various countries of Europe, in the 

eion. Photitu and Peter agree in the main, tenth and eleventh centuries, and compdied 

in their histories. Which of them wrote a large part of the dissentients from the 

first, remains a question ; but Photius is Romish church during those times. The 

deemed the better authority. For the his- CathoHcs (as Bossuel, V'^ariations, &c., livr. 

tory of the sect after A.D. 870, we must go zi.) charge the Protestants with being the 

to the Byzantine writers, Cofutantine Por- progeny of the Pauliciana ; and some Prot- 

phyrogenitus, lib. iv., c. 16, and Cedrenut, estant writers seem half inclined to regard 

p. 641, ed. Paris. See Schroeekh, Kirch- them as witnesses for the truth in ueir 

eogesch., vol. xx., p. SSS, dec., and vol. times. This subject will of course come up 

zxui., p. 318, dtc., and Gieteler*s Text- in the following centuries. — Tr.} 

book ot Eccl. Hist., trans, by Cunmnghamj (7) Photnu, contra Manichssos, lib. i., p. 

▼ol. ii., p. 7, dtc.— Tr.] 17, 56, 66. Peter Siculiu, Hist. Manich., 

(6) Perhaps there still are PtudkianSf or p. 43. 

paulimuM* some call them, remaining in (8) PkotiuSt Ic, p. 31,8S. Peter Sicn- 

Thrace and Bulgaria. There certainly were lue, p. 44. Cedremu^ 1. c, p. 431. 

some there in t& seventeenth century ; and (9) PkatnUt 1. c, p. 11. Peter Sicul., 

they resided at Niropolis, according to Urb. p. 19. 

Cerrif Etat present de TEglise Romaine, p. (10) PhoHue, L e., p. 101. Peter Sietd,, 

78 ; who tells us, (true or false, I know p. 67. 

not), that Peter Deadatw arehbiabop of So- (11) Photme, I e., p. IS, d^. 


ous articles, is nowhere described by the Greeks ; who select from iton^ 
six dognnaa, for which they declare the Psulicians unworthy to live, or to 
have salvation. — I. They denied, that this lower and liaible world wu 
created by the supreme God ; and distinguished the creator of the'World 
and of human bodies, from the God whose residence is in heaven. It 
was on account of this dogma, especially, that the Greeks accounted them 
Manichaeans ; and yet this was the ccxnman doctrine of all the sects, which 
are denominated GnottU*. What opinions they entertained respecting 
this creator of the world, and whether they supposed him to be a difierent 
being from the prince of evil, or the devil, no one has informed us. This 
only appears from PhoHiu, that they held the author of evils to have been 
procreated from darkness and fire : and of course he was not eternal, at 
without beginning. (12) — II. They contemned the virgin Mary, the motlw 
er of Jenu Chrul : that is, they would not adore and wa^thip her, as ths 
Greeks did. For they did not deny that Christ was born of Mary ; be. 
cause, as their adversaries expressly state, they taught that Christ brought 
his body with him from heaven ; and that Mart/ after the birth of the Sav- 
iour, had other children by Joseph. They therefore believed with the 
ValeDtiuioos, that Christ passed through the womb of his mother, as water 
through a canal ; and that Xkay did not continue a virgin to die end of 
life : — a doctrine, which must have appeared abominable in the view of the 
Greeks. — III. They did not celebrate the Lord's supper. For believing 
that there were metaphors in many parts of the New Testament, they 
deemed it proper to understand, by the bread and wine which Christ ia 
Btated to have presented to his disciples at his last supper, those divine dis- 
ctnirgM of Christ, by which the soul is nourished and refreslied.(13) — IV. 
They loaded the cross with contumely ; that is,— «a clearly appears from 
what the Greeks state,-~-they would not have any religious viorthip paid 

(IS) Photaa, I, c, Ub, ii., p. 147. It ii lh>m the old Gnoalle itock. And for iba 

mmiresl thit the PiuUeuns, wilh ihe Orien- ume reuon. we einnot placs much cooB- 

.-I. l;i 1 -^^,},o^ ptrenU oTtheGDoMic dence in Ihe Greeka, who wrote their hiito- 

■a KcU, conudered eientai n; and wo «hould alwiji remember, ibtt' 

ha aeti liid source of all eviL IIkih writen were tiible Irom miuppreben- 

And this nutUcr, like mwij of tbe GuoMici, man, H not iIki from their pulj reelm([s, to 

thev luppiMed lo be eodoed &om eleniitT miutate their doctnoe*. At the ume time, 

wn motion 4iid ui ininnting prineiple, uid we diacoTer, i* to mort of their docttinni, 

lo hive procreated the pliitce of ill evil ; that they had in aereral reapects more cor< 

who was the fonoer of bodi**, whkb *n reel idea* of religion, ot religiooB worehip, 

conpoeed of matter ; while God ii the pa- and of chorch goTemment. than the prevaQ- 

oM of ■aula. Theee opioioni are indeed ing churcb at that di^ had ; and that thar 

allied to the Muucbman doctiinei ) yet are drew on ihemaelTee peraeention, by tbev 

different liam them. I can believe Ihia aect dialike of imagei, and bj their opposition to 

to have been tbe oBtpriag of ooe of the an- the hierarchy, more than liy their other leli- 

cient Gnoatic partiei ; which, thongh aadly gwgs opiniona. — So Dr. Semter judgea of 

oppreiaed t>y imperial lawi and puniahmentt, them, in hi* Selects Capita Hiitoris Sxles., 

could Daver be eotirely auppnaaed and ex- torn, ii, p. 73 and 365.— ScAZ.] 
terminated. [Aa the PauUcians were great (13) The Greeka do not chai^ the PauH- 

friends to allegoriea and myaticsl intetpre- ciana with any error in respect to the doc- 

tatioDB, and held certain hidden doctrme* trine of bapuam. Yet there ia no donbt, 

which thsy made known only to the perfect ; thai they coaslrued into aUegory what Um 

and as we are in poaaeaaion of no creed, nor New Testament alatee conceniing this ordi- 

of any other wnling of their doctors ; we nance. And PliHnu (contra Manich., lit). 

moat alwaya remain in uncertainly, whether i., p. 39) eipieaaly saja, that they held onljf 

they nndentood these GooaliC'Sounding doc- to a fictiliona baptism, and UDderstood by k, 

tnnea literally, snd so wsnKhuUjr a taaiwh i. •., bj Ihi wstw of b^tian, ths Om/d. 

tal philosophi 
and Hanichi 


to the wood of the cross, as was customary among the Greeks. For be- 
lieving that Christ possessed an ethereal and celestial body, they could not 
by any means admit, that he was actually nailed to a cross, and truly died 
upon it ; and this led them of course to treat the cross with neglect— -V* 
They rejected, as did nearly all the Gnostics, the books composing the 
the Old Testament ; and believed, that the writers of them were prompt- 
ed by the creator of the world, and not by the supreme Grod. — VI. They 
excluded presbyters or elders from the administrations of the church. 
The foundation of this charge, beyond all controversy, was, that they 
would not allow their teachers to be styled presbyters ; because this title 
was Jewish, and appropriate to those who persecuted and wished to kill 
Jesus Christ.{U) 

(14) These aix enon, I have eztncted though they nt less distinct and definite. 
fiom Peter SteiiiiMjHirtoriaManich., p. 17: The xeMonings tad explanations are mj 
with whom Pheihu and CUremu agree, own. 

Vol. II.— O 






4 I. Propigilioa of ChriitiinitT.— 4 ^ Pradnla John. — ( 9. RoUo embncra Cluuli- 
■nUj. — i 4. Convenion of me Polea. — I) 6. Chriitiuiitj oUbliahed in MnicoTj.— • 
4 6. Hungu; becmne* ■ Chrutiui Counti;. — 4 7. Dennuilc. — f 8. Honnj. — 4 B- 
Zeal or OUa tba Gn*t Tai ChiiHiinitj.— < 10. Pn^t ol > Crnude. 

^ 1. All are agreed, that in this century the state of Christianity was 
every where most wretched, on account of the amazing ignorance, and the 
consequent superstition and debased morals of the age, and also from other 
causes. But still there were not a few things, which may be placed among 
the prosperous events of the church. The Nestorians living in Chaldea, 
introduced Christianity into Tartary proper, beyond Mount Imaus, when 
the people lud hitherto lived entirely uncultivated and uncivilized. Near 
the end of the century, the same sect spread the knowledge of the Gospd 
among that powerful horde of Tartars or Turks, which was called Curil 
or KarU, and which bordered on Calhay or the northern part of China. (1) 
The actrrify of this sect, and their great zeal for the promotion of Chris- 
tianity, deserve praise ; and yet no one can suppose, that the religion they 
instilled into the minds of these nations, was the pure Gospel of our Saviour. 

(1) Jo. Sim. Antnen, Bibliolhau Ori- his preteaco, received instnictJoiiB from 

enul. Vuicaiu, lom. iii., pt. ii., p. 183, <Jcc. them, ind ■pplied to the above-nuned Ebti 

Htrbtlot, Bibliotheque Onent»1e, p. 356, Jctu lor biplinn. Ai hii iribe fed onU on 

&e. [JHiMtam, HiMorii Taruior. Eccle- Beth and milk, it became a queation how 

., p. 23, S4. Il ii there slated, that they were to keep the required faits. Thi* 
this Tutaiian prince camminded more than led Ebcd Jera to write to hii patriaid^ 
SOO.OOO aobjecls ; all of whom embraced atating the caie and uking for inatntclions 
Chriatianilr in the yea A.D. 900. The on the point. 71m patriarch directed tha 
■utboritjr for thii account ia, a tetter of Ebei biihop to lend two preibyten and two dea- 
Jou archbiibop of Afcrv, addreued to John cona among the tribe, to convert and b^itixa 
die Naitorian patriarch, and preserred b; them, and to leach Ihem to feed upon mili 
AbulvhaTajuM, Cronic. Syr., and thence put>- only on fail days. Dr. Mnkean ihinke th* 
liahed by J. S. Attaium, Bibliotb. Orient, conTenion of ihia tribe of Tartars ii loo 
Clem. Vat., torn, ii., p. 444, &c. The lei- well alteeled to be called in queatioti ; but 
I. that thia Tartarian kins while the manner of it, he would divest aomewfaat 
marvelloUB. He suc^la, that tho 
Yhd ippcared to the king in the wil- 
ls, might be a Nealorian anchorila or 
d hermil 
a Chriatian. The king promised t 
do ao. On reluming to hi* camp, he called w the condition itabM. — TV.] 
lb* Chriatian marcbanta who wan tbaie into 


§ 2. This Tartarian king, who was converted to Christianity by the 
Nestorians, it is said, bore the name of John after his baptism, and in token 
of his modesty assumed the title of preshyier [or elder]. And henoe, as 
learned men have conjectured, his successors all retained this title, down to 
the fourteenth century, or to the time of Genghiskan^ and were usually 
called each John Presbyter. (2) But all this is said without adequate author* 
ity or proof; nor did that Presbyter John^ of whom there was so much 
said formerly as also in modem times, begin to reign in this part of Asia, 
anterior to the close of the eleventh century. And yet it is placed beyond 
controversy, that the kings of the people called Carith living on the bor- 
ders of Cathaia, whom some denominate a tribe of Turks and others of 
Tartars, and who constituted a considerable portion of the Moguls, did 
profess Christianity from this time onward ; and that no inconsiderable 
part of Tartary or Asiatic Scythia, lived under bishops, sent among them 
by the pontiff of the Nestorians.(3) 

§ 3. In the West, Rollo the son of a Norwegian count and an arch- 
pirate, who was expelled his country,(4) and who with his military follow, 
ers took possession of a part of Gaul in the preceding century, embraced 
Christianity with his whole army in the year 912. The French king 
Charles the Simple, who was too weak to expel this warlike and intrepid 
stranger from his realm, offered him no inconsiderable portion of his ter- 
ritory, on condition of his desisting from war, marrying Gisela the daugh- 
ter of Charles, and embracing the Christian religion. RoUo embraced 
these terms without hesitation ; and his soldiers following the example of 
their general, yielded assent to a religion which they did not understand, 
and readily submitted to baptism.(5) These Norman pirates, as many 
^ts demonstrate, were persons of no religion : and hence they were not 
restrained by opinions embraced in early life, from embracing a religion 
which promised them great worldly advantages. To their ferocious minds, 
whatever was useful, appeared to be true and good. From this RoUo, who 
assumed the name of Robert at his baptism, the celebrated dukes of Nor- 
mandy in France are descended ; for a part of Neustria together with 
Bretagne, which Charles the Simple ceded to his son-in-law, was from this 
time called afler its new lords Normandy,(6) 

§ 4. MicislauSf duke of Poland, was gradually wrought upon by his wife 
DambrowkOy daughter of Boleslaus duke of Bohemia, till, in the year 965, 
he renounced the idolatry of his ancestors, and embraced Christianity. 
When the news of this reached Rome, John XIII. the Roman pontiff, sent 
Aegidius bishop of Tusculum, accompanied by many Italian, French, and 
Grerman priests, into Poland ; that they might aid the duke and his wife 

(2) See Asgematii Bibliotheca Oriental, inserted in the Scripta Societatis sciential. 
Vatic, torn, iii., pt. ii., p. 282. Hafniensis, pt. iii., p. 357, dtc. 

(3) The late Theoph. Sigef. Bayer pur- (6) Botday, Histor. Acad. Paris., torn, i., 
poeed to write a history of the churches of p. 296. Gabr. Daniel, Histoire de France, 
China and Northern Asia, in which he would tome ii., p. 587, <Scc. [Mabilloiu Annales 
treat particularly of these Nestorian church- Bened., ad ann. 911, torn, iii., p. 337, and 
es in Tartary and China. See the Preface C. Fleury, Histoire Ecclesiastique, lirre 
to his Museum Sinicum, p. 145. But a Ut., ^ 61. — Tr.'\ 

premature death prevented the execution of (6) [It was Neustria properly, and not 

this and other contemplated works of this Bretagru, that received tne name of Nor- 

excellent man for the illustration of Asiatic mandy, from the Normans, who chose RoOo 

Christian!^. for their chief. — Mad.} 

(4) Holberg's Naval Hist of the DaDM; 


in their design of instnicting the Poles in the precepts of Christiani^. Birt 
the cfibrts of these missioDaries, who did not understand the language of 
the country, would have been altogether fruitless, had not the commanda, 
the laws, the monaces, the rewards, and the puni^unents of the duke orer- 
cozne the reluctant minds of the Poles. The foundations being thus ]aiA, 
two archbishops and seven bishops were created ; and by their labours 
and efforts, the whole nation was gradually brought to recede a little from 
their ancient customs, and to make an outward profession of Christiani- 
ty.fT) As to that internal and teal change of mind which Chritt requiras 
of Dis followers, this barbarous age had no idea of it. 

§ 6. In Russia, a change took place during this century, similar to that 
in the adjacent country of Poland. For those Russians who had embr*. 
ced the religion of the Greeks during the preceding century, in the time of 
BiuU the Macedonian, soon afterwards relapsed into the superstition cf 
their ancestors. In the year 961, Wlodindr duke of Russia and Muscovy, 
married Anita, the sister of the Greek emperor Batil Junior : and she did 
not cease to importune and exhort her husband, till he in the year BS7 sub- 
mitted to baptism, assumiag the nanie of Batil. The Russians followed 
spontaneously the example of their duke ; at least, we do not read that 
any coercion was uBed.(6) From this time, the Christian religion obtain- 
ed permanent establishment among the Russians. Wloditnir and his wife 
were ranked among saints of the highest order, in the estimation of the 
Russians ; and to £e present day, they are worshipped with the greatest 
veneration at Kiow, where they were interred. The Latins, however, hold 
Wlodmir to he absolutely unworthy of this honour.(Q) 

(7) DbtgotM, HiitorU Polonies, lib. ii., p. vatie him to embnee tbeic rcligioni ; tnA 

01, Ac., lib. iii,, p. 95, 339, SigrmaUaut, that lie gndmllj becoming informed n- 

Hutoria Ecdci. Simian., lib. i,, c. i., p. 8. fpecting tbem nit, gare preference to thit gf 

Hen. Canuim, Lectionea Antiqute, torn, iii,, the Greeks. So much ii c«iuin, hi* mat- 

Ci., p. 41. Soiignac, Hiatoire de Po- riige waa the proiimau cbdu orhiicomM- 

e, tome i., p. 71, &e. \Bolalaui, the aion. After hie conTenion, he atrictly en. 

next duke, on the death of hia mother Dam- joined upon bia lubjecti to renounce pagan- 

broaka A,D. 977, married a nun, Oia the lam. And il is said, the bisbop of Corai^ 

daughter of the Geiman marquia Thtadoric. and other Greek clergymen oflcn idmittia- 

Thia uncanonical mairiiga wai dialiked bj teied biplism and destroyed idols, at Kiow. 

the bishops, yet was winked at from motives A melropolitin of Kion named Miciiatl, 

of policy ; sod the pious Oia became so who waa sent from Constantinople, ia i«- 

•eivicesble to the cmirch, that she almost polled to have gradually biousht all Ro*ai> 

atoned for the -violation of her tows. See to submit to baptism. Churches were also 

Fteury, HiaL Eccl.. li*re lii., ^ 13. — Tr.'} built. Ditmar does not commend the piety 

(S) Sea AiOmt. Fagi, Cntica in Bsrhl, of tbis prince ; who is represented u m- 

tom. It., ad ann. S87, p. CS, and sd snn. deavouring to compensate for his tnnsgre*. 

lOie, p. 1 10. Car. du Frttne. Familisi By- aions. by ihe extent of his alms. MoAeim 

tantina, p. 143, ed. Paria. [The occaaioa eays. that we nowhen find coercion en- 

of Wlcdwiir'i baptism, ia larioualj slated, cloyed, in the couTenion of the Ruaaians. 

Some ssy, he had captured the Greek for- But Dlugoti states, that HVo^imir compelled 

treaa Corazjrn (or Cha-iim); and promised his subjects to submit to bantimi by penal 

to restore it, if the princess j4i»ia were given lawa. And this was certainly the common 

him to wife; but that herbrothen, Batiltni mode of the spuriaus conversions. See Sem- 

Coiuiantiru, would not consent, unless ha Ict'i cDnlinuatian of Baumgarlai't Auamg 

would engage to recouitce paganism ; snd der Kircbengeech,, vol. iv., p, 433, dec.^ 

he w»» accordingly baptized at Coraiyn, is Vm Bin.] 

presence of the court. But the Greek wri- (9) Ditmar of Meraebnig. lib. Tii. Chron- 

tera know oothins of these circutnslsnce*. ie., in LeJndls' collection of the BruitBwiii 

Others stale, that Mohsmmedsns, Jews, snd Hislotiana, torn, i., p, 417, [and Naloi't 

Chiiatiaoi, aefenll/, eodoaTouied to pai> Rniakhw AimalMi mit Ueban. a. Asoa. j. 


§ 6. Some knowledge of Christianity reached the Hungarians and 
Avares, through the instrumentality of Charlemagne ; hut it became whol- 
ly extinct after his death. In this century, Christianity obtained a more 
permanent existence among those warlike nations.(10) First, about the mid^ 
die of the century, two dukes of the Turks on the Danube, (for so the Hun- 
garians and Transylvanians were called by the Greeks in that age), Byio- 
eudes and GyuUi or Gylas, received baptism at Constantinople. The for- 
mer of these soon after returned to his old superstition : the latter perse- 
vering in Christianity, by means of Hieroiheus a bishop and several priests, 
whom he took along with him, caused his subjects to be instructed in the 
Christian precepts and institutions. His daughter Sarolta, was afterwards 
married to Geysa the chieftain of the Hungarian nation ; and she persua- 
ded her husband to embrace the religion taught her by her father. But 
Geyta afterwards began to waver and to incline to his former pollutions^ 
when Adalbert archbishop of Prague, near the close of the century, went 
from Bohemia into Hungary, and reclaimed the lapsed chieftain, and like- 
wise baptized his son Stephen. To this Stephen the son of Geysa^ belongs 
the chief honour of converting the Hungarians. For he perfected the 
work, which was only begun by his father and grandfather ; he establish- 
ed bishops in divers places, and provided them with ample revenues ; erect- 
ed magnificent churches ; and by his menaces, punishments, and rewards, 
compelled nearly the whole nation to renounce the idolatry of their ances- 
tors. His persevering zeal in establishing Christian worship among the 
Hungarians, procured him the title and the honours of a saint in succeed- 
ing times.(ll) 

§ 7. In Denmark, the Christian cause had to struggle with great diffi- 
culties and adversities, under king Gormon, although the queen was a pro- 
fessed Christian^ But Harold sumamed Blatandj the son of Gormon, hav- 
ing been vanquished by Otto the Great about the middle of the century,, 
made a profesision of Christianity in the year 949 ; and was baptized, to- 
gether with his wife and his son SuenOj by Adaldag archbishop of Ham* 
Surg, or, as some think, by Poppo, a pious priest who attended the emper- 
or. Perhaps Harald^ who had his birth and education from a Christian 

A. L. V. iScA/oz^r, Gotttiuren, 1802-1809, become a Christian. We have no hesitation 

5 theile, 8vo. Karamsin't Gesch. des Russ. in following the authority and testimony of 

Reiches, iibers. von F. von Haueruchild, the Greek writers, at the same time calling 

Riga, 1830, 6 bande, 8vo. — TV.] in the aid of the Hungarian historians. In 

(10) Pauli Dehrtzem Hittoria Eccles. this we were in part preceded by Gabriel de 
Reformator. in Ungaria, pt. i., cap. iii., p. Juxta Homady Initia religionis Christ, inter 
19, &c. Hongaros ecclesiae Oriental! adserta, Frank- 

(11) The Grreeks, the Germans, the Bo- fort, 1740, 4to, who vindicates the credibil- 
•hemians, and Uie Poles, severally claim the ity of the Greek writers. The accounts of 
honour of imparting Christianity to the Hun- the others are imperfect, and involved in 
wians ; and the *Qbicct is really involved much uncertainty. [The book of Gottfr, 
in much obscurity. The Germans say, that Sckwartz^ under the fictitious name of G«- 
Gisela the sister of the emperor Henry II. briel de Juxta Hornad^ gave occasion to a 
WIS raairied to Stephen kinff of Hungary ; learned controversy, which continued several 
and that she convinced her husband of the years, after the death of Dr. Moaheim, The 
truth of (Christianity. The Bohemiana tell result seems to have been, that Schwartz^ 
vs, that Adaibert of Prague induced this socount is substantially true ; and of course, 
king to embrace the Glmstian religion. The the representation given by Dr. Mosheim. 
Poles maintain, that GswsamarriM Adelheid See Sokroeckh, Kirchengeseh., toI. xzL, p.r 
a Christian lady, the swter of Mieulaut I. 527, dec., and J. E. C. Schmidt, Kizchen- 
duke of Poland; and by her was induced to gesch., toL iv^ p. 170, du.— 7V.J 



mother, Tgra, was not greatly averae from tlie Christian religion ; and jet 
it is clear, that in the present transactioa he yielded rather to the demandi 
of his conqueror than to his own incUuations. For Otto being satisfied, that 
the Danes would never cease to haraaa their neighbours with wars and rap* 
ine, if they retained the martial religion of their fathers, made it a contU. 
tion of the peace with Harold, that he and his people should become Chris* 
tiana.(12) After the conTersioa of the lung, ^da^ii^ especially, and Pop- 
po, with good success urged the Cimbrians and Danes to follow his exam- 
ple. The stupendous miracles performed by Poppo, are said tohave con- 
tributed very much to this result ; and yet those miracles appear to have beea 
artificial and not divine, for they did not surpass the powers of nature.(lS) 
Hartdd as long as he lived, endeavoured to confirm his subjects in the re- 
ligion they had embraced, by the establishment of bishoprics, the enact- 
ment of laws, reforming bad morale, and the like. But his son Sueno [at 
Saeail apostatized from Christianity, and for a while persecuted the Chns- 
tians with violence. But being driven from his kingdom and an exile 
among the Scots, he returned to Christianity ; and as he was aflerwarda 
very successful [and recovered his throne], he laboured by all the meoca 
in his power to promote that religion which he had before betniyed.(14) 

§ 8. The conversion of the Norwegians, Commenced in this century ; aa 
appears from the most unexceptionable testimony. King Hagen Adeltteat, 
who had been educated among the English, is said to have first commenced 
this great work A.D. 933, by the aid of priests from England ; but with 
little success, because the Norwegians were violently opposed to the king's 
designs. His successor Harold Graufeldl, pursued the begun work ; but 
with no better success. (15) After these, Haco, by the persuasion of the 
Danish king Harald, to whom he owed his possession of the throne, not 
only embraced Christianity himself but recommended it to his people in a 
public diet, A.D. 945.(16) IndiETcrent success however, attended this ef- 
fort among that barbarous and savage people. Somewhat more success- 
ful were the attempts of Olatu, who is called a saint.(n) At length Sae. 
no king of Denmark, having vanquished Olaut Tryggtteten, conquered Nor- 
way, and published an edict, requiring the inhabitants to abandon the gods 
of their ancestors, and to embrace Christianity. The English priest GwAe- 
haMjViaathe principal teacher at that time amongthcm.(I8) FromNor- 

(13) Aianiitt Bremeni, HiiWr., lib. ii., 
clp, ill iiL, p. 16 ; cap. iv., p. 20, in Lin- 
dtnbrog'i Scrintoies lenim aeptcnthDMl. 
AH. Krant. WtaiiWt. lib. i*., up. ». 
Ludtcig, Reliquiae Manuticriplor,. lorn, ii., 
p. 10. Fontappidan, Aanilei er^leiia Dut- 
ies DiplomilSci, lom. i., p. 59, &c. {F. 
Manter'i Kircheng. Ton Danemuk u. Nor. 
wegen, vol. i., p. 333, &c., ind Schmidt'i 
KiicbeiwoBoh., toI. it., p. U7, Ac— TV.] 

(13) See Ja. Adalph. Cypram*, Annal«a 
EpiKopor. Slesvic., c. liii., p. 78. Adatmu 
Brem., lib. ii., cap. ziri,, p. 33 ; cip, iIit., 
p, 38. Sttph. Jo. Stephamta, ad Suonem 
Gcunmit., p. 307. Jo. MolUri Intnid. td 
HiMoi. Cberaones. Cimbi., pt. ii., cap. iii., 
i 14, and olben. 

(U) Saxa Onininat., Kiitoi. Dul, lib. s.. 

p. 186. Pc 



ie geatia et veatigii* 

. , Ponloppidan, Annalot ac- 

cleaia Dinice diplomat., torn, i., p. 66. 

(16) Torm. Tarfatiu, Hiilona NorTegica, 
tom. ii., p. 1S3, 314, &c. 

(17) Tor/acui, Hial. Korregici, (dm. H, 
p. 457, &c. 

(IB) Ckrim. Daneeum, pnbliahed b7 LmJt- 
wig, in hi3 Reliquis MBauacriplor.. lom, iz., 
p. 11, 16, 17,— [According to Schroed^ 
Kirt' ' ' ■ ■ 


, p. 376, dec., 

Wendiah coait of (iermaoTi 

yiBvalted bom HarM 
DeniDuk, undu iU«> 


way the Christian religion was transmitted to the Orkney Islands, then sub- 
ject to the kings of Norway ; to Iceland also, and to old Greenland ; the in- 
habitants of all which countries, to a great extent, made profession of Chris- 
tianity in this century, as we learn from various sources.(19) 

6 9. In Germany, the emperor OUo the Great, illustrious for his valour 
ana his piety, was zealous for suppressing the remains of the old supersti- 
tion, which existed in various provinces of the empire, and for supporting 
Christianity which was but imperfectly established in many places. By 
his beneficence and liberality, bishoprics were erected in various places, as 
Brandenburg, Haveibcrg, Meissen, Magdeburg, and Naumburg, so that 
there might be no want of spiritual watchmen who should instruct the yet 
rude and half barbarous people in all the duties of religion. (20) In accord. 
ance with the religious views of the age, he also built many convents for 
such as would prefer a monastic life ; and he also erected schools. If in 
all this the illustrious emperor had eschibited as much wisdom and modera- 
tion, as piety and sincerity, he could scarcely be commended too much. 
But the superstition of his wife Adelaide,{^i) and the lamentable ignorance 
of the times, led this excellent prince to believe that a man secured the 
friendship of Grod, by securing that of his ministers and servants, with great 
largesses and presents. He therefore enriched the bishops, the monks, 
and religious associations of every kind, beyond all bounds : and subse- 
quent generations reaped this fruit of his liberality, that these people abused 

their Yiceroj. OlauM became a saccesaful power of the archbishop of Mentz. There- 
pirate, advanced in power and wealth ; be- lore in the year 946, he cstabUshed tho hisb- 
came also a zealous Christian, and in his opric of HaTelbexg, and in 949 that of Bran- 
plandering expeditions in those northern seas, denburg. For establishing the archbishopric 
treated the pagans much as the Mohamme- of Ma^eburg, (as we are told by DUtmar, 
dans did the same sort of persons ; that is, p. 335), the emperor*s motives were defensie 
gave them the alternative of baptism, or sla- communis patriae, and, spes remunerationis 
very and death. The Norweeiaiis now chose ctems. The tint was doubtless the chief 
him their king, and revolted from Haktm. motive. The bishop of Halberstadt, and the 
Olaus got possession of the whole country, archbishop of Mentz, looked upon this inno- 
and by compulsory measures obliged all op- ration wiui dislike. But the emperor seized 
posers to embrace Christianity. This was the opportunity of their presence in Italy, 
just at the close of the century. — Tr.] whither they came to receive their investi- 

(19) Concerning the inhabitants of the ture at his hands, to obtain from them the 
Orkntys^ see Torm. Torfaeus, Historia re- transfer of the suffragan bishoprics of Bran- 
xum (!!rcadensium, lib. i., p. 22. — For the denburg and Havelburs from the jurisdiction 
leeUmderSf in addition to Amgrim Janas, of Mentz to that of Magdeburg, and also 
Ciymogaeae, lib. i., and Ariui Multiiciust the transfer of large estates, hitherto po»- 
Scheds de Islandia, p. 45, dec., see the same sessed by the bishop of Halberstadt. Add" 
Tm/aeuSt Histor. Norveg., tom. ii., p. 378, bcrtt formerly a missionary, and at this time 
897, 417, dec. Also Gwr. lAron, Singular- abbot of Weissenburg, was ordained first 
hatte historiq. litter., tom. i., p. 138. Con- archbishop of Maedeburg, A.D. 968, by the 
ceming Greetdand^ Torfo/eut also treats, I. pope, and received the {milium ; and attend- 
c, tom. ii., p. 374 ; and in Groenlandia An- ed by two papal envoys and the new bishops, 
tiqua, cap. xvii., p. 127, Hafh., 1706, 8vo. he repairea to Magdeburg and was regularly 
[F, MwUcTt Kirchensesch. ▼. Danemark, installed. At the same time, he consecrated 
dec., vol. i., treats of Uie conversion of the tiie new bishops, Boso of Merseburg, Hugo 
Norwegians, p. 429, dec. ; of the Icelanders, of Zeitz, and Burkard of Meissen; who, 
p. 517, dec. ; of tiie Faro and Shetland island- together with the bishops of Brandenbuxg, 
era, p. 548, dec., and of the Greenlandera, p. Havelburg, and Posen, were to constitute 
655, dec.— TV.] his suAagans. See the Annalist Saxo, ad 

(20) [It is more probable, that Otto the ann. 969.— ScU.] 

Great had long purposed, by the erection of (21) See her life, in Henr. CanUnu, Lee- 
anew aichbiaSopric, to curtail the odiouf tiones Antiqos, tom. iii., pt. i.| p. 69. 


their unearned wealth for pampering their ricea, waging and curyiiig oB 
Wara, and indulging themselves in luxury and diasipalioD. 

§ 10. To the account of tbeae enlaigementa of the church, it nwy b« 
subjoined, that the European kings and princoa began in thia centu^ ta 
consider the project of a bolr wax, to be waged against the Hobammedans 
who poaaessed Paleatine. For it was thon^t intt^r^le, and a diagncs 
lo the professors of the Christian religion, that the country in which Quist 
Jived, and taught, and made expiation for the sins of the human race, shouU 
be led under the dominion of iiis enemies : and it was deemed most rigb> 
teous, and agreeable to the dignity of the Christian religion, to arenge tb« 
numerous c^amitiea and injuries. Insults and sufferings, which the poaseaa- 
ors of Palestine were accustomed to heap upon the Christians, residing ia 
that country or visiting it for religious purposes. Just at the close of ths 
century and in the first year of his pontificate, pope Syhuter II. or Gerhai, 
sounded the trumpet of war ; l^ writing a letter in the name of the chnrch 
at Jerusalem addressed to the church universal,(22) in which he solemnly 
adjured the Europeans to afibrd succour to the Christians of Jeniaalem. 
But none of them were disposed, at that time, to obey the suronxMOS of tha 
pontifi*, except the inhabitants of Pisa in Italy, wlw are said to hav« foiUk 
with girded tbemaeivea for the holy waT.(23) 


§ 1. No unchristian king of this century, except Gormon and Saau 
kings of Denmark, directly, and with set purpose, persecuted the Chrbtiana 
living under his jurisdiction. And yet they could not live in security and 
safety, either in the East, or In the West. The Saracens in Asia and At 
rica, though troubled with internal dissensions and various other calami. 
ties, were yet very assiduous in propafltting their relieion, that of Moham- 
med ; nor were they unsuccessful, now much this Mohammedan zeal di- 
minished the number of Christians, it is not easy to ascertain. But they 
brought over the Turks, on uncivilized people inhabiting the northern 
shores of the Caspian Sea, to their rehgion. This agreement in religions 
faith however, did not prevent the Turks, when afterwards called in to aid 
the Persians, from depriving the Saracens in the first place of the vast king- 
dom of Persia, and afterwards with astonishing celerity and success inva- 
ding and conquering other provinces subject to their dominion. Thus the 
empire of the Saracens, which the Greeks and Romans had for so many 
years in vain attempted to hold in check, was dismembered, and at lengUl 

ScriptoTM HiiUr. Fnoc. 


subverted, by their friends and allies ; and the very powerful empire of the 
^.^Turks, which has not yet ceased to be terrible to Christians, graauaUy took 

§ S.>^ the countries of the West, the nations that were still pagans, 
were in general grievous foes to the Christians. The Normans, during 
nearly half the century, inflicted the severest calamities upon the Franks 
and others. The Prussians, the Slavonians,(2) the Bohemians, and others 
to whom Christianity was unintelligible and hateful, not only laboured with 
great violence to drive it from their countries, but likewise frequently laid 
waste in the most distressing manner, with fire and sword, the neighbour- 
ing countries in which it was received. The Danes did not cease to mo. 
lest the Christians, till after Otto the Great had conquered them. The 
Hungarians assailed Germany, and harassed various parts of the country 
with indescribable cruelties. The t3rranny of the Arabs in Spain, and 
their frequent incursions upon Italy and the neighbouring blands, I pass 
without farther notice. 

§ 3. Whoever considers attentively the numberless calamities the Chris- 
tian nations suffered from those who were not Christian, will readily per- 
ceive a sufficient cause for that unwearied zeal of Christian princes for the 
conversion of these furious and savage nations. They had the motives, not 
merely of religion and virtue, but likewise of security and peace. For they 
expected, and with good reason, that those savage minds would be soflened 
and rendered humane, by the influences of Christianity. Therefore they 
proflfered matrimonial connexion with their kings and chieftains, assistance 
against their enemies, the possession of valuable lands, and other temporal 
advantages, if they would only renounce the religions of their ancestors, 
which were altogether military and calculated to loster ferocious feelings : 
and those kings and chieftains, influenced by these offers and advantages, 
listened themselves to Christian instruction, and endeavoured to bring their 
subjects to do the same. 

(1) These events, Jo. Leunclamtu has en- slew all the cleigj, bat drew the coipse of 
deaTOured to elucidate, in his Annales Tur- Dodih the deceased bishop, from its giaTo, 
eki, often reprinted. See also Geo. Elma- in order to strip it of its clothing ; that after 
cm, Historia Saracenica, lib. ii., iii., p. 190, capturing the city of Altenburg, they draff- 
903, 210, dec. ged sixty priests whom they had not butch- 

(2) [These distinguished themselves es- ered, fiom one city to another, till they all 
peeiaUv, by the outrages they committed died; and among these, Oddar a provost, 
upon the Christian chuiches, in their insur- they tortured by ripping up his scalp, in the 
lections against their Christian margraves, form of a cross, and laying bare his brain ; 
Humanity ahodders at the narrations of the so that he died in the midst of the extreme 
historians ; that when these Slavonians took anguish. See the annalist 80x0, ad ann. 
Biandenbuig, they not only enslaved or 9^, and Dt/mor, p. 345.—- 5dU.] 

Vol. IL— P 





4 I. Stateof LraniiigUMiig the Oneki. — 4 '■ ^'"L0°°^ Writen iniaDg tbem. — f M, 
Stala of tjjmlng amoDg the Sincen*. — -^ 4, fi. TEe Wwtem Nation* — f 6. Tha 
8tM of Pluloaopfaj. — ( 7. SylTBitei, ■ Roitorer of Leuning.— ^ 8. Aiabiui Leuu^ 

§ 1. It is universally admitted, that the ignorance of this century wu 
extreme, and that learning waa eotirely neglected. Nor is this to be won- 
dered at, considering what wara and distreaaing calamities agitated both 
the East and the West, and to what a base set of beings the guardianship 
of truth and virtue was intrusted. Leo the Wise, who ruled the Greek em. 
pire at the beginning of the century, both cultivated learning himself, and 
excited others to do bo.(1) His son, Constantine Porphyrogenitus, was still 
more solicitous to revive literature and the arts.(2} For it appears, that 

(1) Sm Je. Alb. Fabriemt, BibUolheca [CmulanHiu PorphjiogciiitDi nignad from 

Gnec., lib. v., pi. ii., cap. v.,p. 363. [Lra A.D. 911 to eSS. The faiatoncal, politi- 

VI. reigned from A.D. SSfl la 911. The cal, and moral compendiuma, which he caiw- 

leamed Pkottitt had been hi* iriBlructer. ed to be made out from the earlier ftritm% 

Hia learning procured him the tillei of the were arranged under fifty-three heada or U- 

WtK and the Philctopher. He eemploled tlea; and were intended to etnbrace all that 

the letiaioD of the imperial lawa began by waa tnoit Tiluabla on thoie aubjectj. OdIj 

hia father, and pubUihed the remit in liitr two of tbe Gftj-thiee are now to be found; 

Book*, entitled BaaiXiKa or BaoiPjjtoi dio- namely, Ibe twenty- aeTenth, relating to dw 

Tofiif, It is a Greek tiantlation ofJutiin- diplomatic ititercourH of the Komani willk 

ton't CoTpui Juria Civilia. with extracla fbinign Daciona ; (pabliabed, partly ADt- 

Irom the cammoDtsiiea of the Greek jaiiiti, werp, 1989, 4(o, and partly Augtburg, 16US, 

the lawi of lubaequent emperan, and the 4to) 1 and the fiftieth, reapecting virtue and 

deciaioni of eccleaiaalieal couDcila, du. vice 1 of which a part waa publiahed by F*. 

But much of tbe originalt i* omitted, or linat, Paria, 1631, 4la. The titlei of 

changed, or enlarged. C. D, FabroUifab- aome of the olhera are known ; e.g,,onthe 

liahed a Latin tranitalion of fony-one Booka, proclamatioDa of kiogs ; on heroic deeda ; 

and an abatiact of the rrrnainw Book*, Par- on faaUTali 1 on public addreaaei ; on nuD> 

i*, 1017, seven vols, fol, I^ empelor'a ners; on eccleaiaslical peraona arid thingi; 

Book on the art of war, compiled from ear- on epistles ; on the chase ; on war ; on tha 

lier writer*, was published by JUnrmt, ealabliahment of colooies; on ittange eo- 

Gr. and Lat., Leyden, I61S, 4io. His let- currencei, du. Among the empenu'a own 

tei to the Saracen Omar, in farour of Chris- eompositiona ware, a biography of his gtaod- 

tianity, eiists in Chaldsic ; from which lather Basil ; two books on the military st*. 

(here is ■ Latin translation in the BibtiotL tiona and ganisoni of tbe empire j insliue- 

Palr. I.ugdun., torn. ivii. — Barmitu (An- tioaa to hia son, leipeeting the state and ik» 

nsl. A.D. 911, 4 3) give* account of thirty- foreign lelatitHis of the empire and the comn 

three reUgiou* Biacounea of this emperor; it would be wise for him to pursue; nana- 

and Grtlttr haa published aiaa more, In- tiire reqwcting tbe image of Cbiiat found at 

golat., 1600, 4to, They were chiefly do- Edcaaa ; on naval and military tactics ; on 

■igned for the feast dsya ; and are of little the mode of waifare by different nations ; 1 - ' 

i2at. See M. ScArorcU, Kircheogesch., aome compilation. ' ' ' '~ 

vol. aa., p. 1B7, Ac.— TV.] ' ' 

(3} Fliriemt, loc cit., cap. v. 


he supported learned men of various descriptions at great expense ; he 
carefully collected the writings of the earlier ages ; he was himsell' an author, 
and he prompted others to write ; he wished to have all that was most val- 
uable in tlic works of the ancients to be selected, and arranged under ap- 
propriate heads ; and he reanimated, as it were, the study of philosophy 
which was extinct.(d) Few of the Greeks however, copied after these 
noble examples ; nor was there any one among the subsequent emperors, 
who was equally friendly to literature and to the cultivation of the mind. 
Indeed it is supposed, that Canstantine Purphyrogenitus himself, though the 
Greeks pronounce him the restorer of all branches of learning, undesign- 
edly injured the cause of learning by his excessive zeal to advance it. For, 
having caused extracts and abridgments to be compiled by learned men 
from the writers of preceding ages, with a view to elucidate the various 
branches of knowledge and render them serviceable to the world, the sloth- 
ful Greeks now contenting themselves with these dbridgmtmU of the emper. 
or, neglected the writers from whom they were compiled. And therefore 
many excellent authors of the earlier period became lost, through the neg- 
lect of the Greeks from this time onward. 

§ 2. Few writers therefore can be named among the Greeks, on whom 
a wise and judicious man will pjace a high value ; and in a short time, the 
literary seed sown, which seemed to promise a rich harvest, was found to 
be dead. The philosophers, if such characters flourished among them, pro- 
duced no immortal works or nothing of permanent value. 1 he literary 
corps of the Greeks was made up of a few rhetoricians, some grammari- 
ans, here and there a poet who was above contempt, and a number of his- 
torians who though not of the first order were not destitute of all merit : 
for the Greeks seemed to find pleasure almost exclusively in those species 
of literature, in which the imagination, the memory, and industry, have 
most concern. 

§ 8. Egypt, though groaning under an oppressive yoke, produced some 
learned mc^n, who might contend with the Greeks for the palm of superior- 
ity. The example of Eutychius bishop of Alexandria, to mention no oth- 
ers, will evince this ; for he did honour to the sciences of medicine and the- 
ology by his various productions. Among the other Arabians, that noble 
ardour for useful knowledge which was awakened in the preceding age, 
continued unabated through this whole century ; so that there was among 
them a large number of eminent physicians, philosophers, and mathemati- 
cians ; whose names and literary labours are celebrated by Jo, Leo Afru 
canusy and by others. 

§ 4. All the Latins were sunk in extreme barbarism. Most writers 
are agreed, that this century deserves the name of the iron agty so far as 
Tespects literature and science ; and that the Latin nations never saw an 
age more dark and cheerless. (4) And though some excellent men have 
questioned this fact, it is too firmly established to be wholly disproved.(5) 

etmrt of ConstantinopU, describing minate- hare been collected by Cat. Egtuse de 

hf all the etiqaeUe there practised. It waa Baulay, Histor. Acad. Paris., torn, i., p. S88, 

pabliahed by Reiake, Lips., 1751-54, 2 vola. dec. Ludov. Ant. Mwatoriy Antiqa. Ital. 

ibl. — See Schroeekh, Kirchengcscb., vol. medii aevi, torn, iii., p. 831, dec, and torn, 

zzi., p. 139, du. — Tr.} ii., p. 141, and by others. 

(3) This is expressly asserted bv Jo. Zo- (5) Godfr. Wm, LeihmiXt Pr»f. ad cod- 
ngTMy Annal., torn, iii., p. 166, ed. Paris. Icem Juris natara et ganthim diplomat., 

(4) Pkoofr of the ignoisnce of the age, Biaintaina that this tenth centuy wia not to 


Schools existed indeed in most couatiies of Europe, either in the ntoiiw* 
teries or in the cities which were the residence of bishops ; and there lik** 
wise ahoDe forth, in one place and another, especially at the close of tho 
century, some distinguished geniuses who attempted to soar above tba 
vulgar. But these can easily do all counted up, and the smallness of their 
nomber evinces the infeUci^ of the times. In the echools, nothing vu 
taught but the seven libend arts as they were called, and the teachers wei« 
monks, who estimated the value of learning and science solely by their 
use in matters of religion. 

§ 6. The best among the monks who were disposed to employ a por* 
tion of their leisure to some advantage, applied themselves to writing an- 
nals and histoiT of a coarse texture. For instance, Aho,(8) Lutfpratu^T) 
irttteim>i,(8) >uAnHn,(9) JoAn of Capua,(10) i:(ilj^'w,(ll) ^ 
i»A u the follomng centnriei, and putic- the indiTicliiili weie becoming mon tti 
nUilj, not » duk u the twelflh ud thir- mors rue who could ondentuid tba uiciails 
leenlb. Bui he certunly goet too far, and in Ibe oriainala, — SeU.'i 
loila to no purpose. More dcierring of a (S) {Mio, born at Orleans, educated it 
bearing are, Jo. Maiillini, Acta Sanclor. ord, Flennr, Paiii, Rheinti, and Orleans ; arss 
Benedict., SBcul. v., Prsf., p. ii., &c., the called Ui EnglarMl bjr the archbishop of Ynk, 
aulbor* of the Litciwr Histoiy of Fraiice, to jueaide over a monastic school, befon 
Tol. vi., p. 18, Ac., Jac. U Beuf, Diss, de A.D. B60. After two Tears, he icinnted I* 
■lalu iittem. in Fnncia sCarolo M. ad Re- Fleuir, became abbot, and resided there till 
gem RDbert.,and aome othen : who. while hii death in 1004. He wrote an Epitoms 
uiey admit that the ignorance of this age of the bvea of the popea, compiled from Ai^ 
was great, conleod that iti batbarism waa attasiua ; a life ol Si. Edmund, king of tba 
not utogetber so great as it is commonly East Angle* ; Collection or Epttome of cai>> 
sDpposed. In the proofs which tbey allege, ons; several Epistles and thort Innta. Sas 
tbeie is coniiderable deficiency ; but still we Cave, Histoi. Lillerai., torn. ii. — Tr.] 
msy admit, that all science was not entirely (7) [Luilprand was bom st Paiia, or in 
extinct in Europe, and that there was a Spain ; was envoy of Bermgariui king sf 
number of peraani who were wise aboie the Italy, to Cooilsnlinople A.D. MS; en- 
maaa of people ; but that the number was a ated bishop of Cremons, he became odiooa 
very mnierale one, nay really small, may to Berengariia, and was deposed A.D, M9 
be gathered from the monuments of the age. or earlier, bihI retired to Frankfort in Gn- 
— iThe opinion of Lcibnilx waa embraced many. The emperor Olho aent him ania 
by Dr. Santer. (Continuation of Bautit- to Constantinople, A.D. 968. He was 2ir« 
|^fen'(Kirchengeach..>ol.iT.,p. 4&3,&c., A.D. 9T0. He was amanof genius, snd of 
•nd Hialor. Eccles. Selecia Capita, torn, ii., considerable learning.. He understood and 
p. fiSS, Ik.) His arguments seem not eaai- wrote in Greek, aa well ai Latin. Hia worka 
ly anawered. The tenth century aflbrded are. a Historj of Europe during bia own 
more writen. in whom soand reasoning limes, in >ii Hooka ; and an Account of his 
waa combined with aome learning, than the embassy to Constantinople in 968. To bin 
twelfth snd thirteenth. It bad greater and also are falsely attributed, a tract on lb* 
better princes ; and in the years and the lives of the popes from St. Peter to FomMb 
countries in which the Narmang and Huns ana, and a CluonicoD. All these. logedwr 
•presd no general desolation, there were with his Advcritria or Note-bocA, <n«n 
more numerous episcopal and monaatic printed, Antwerp, 1640, fol. — See C»pt, i, 
achoola, in which the roung received some c. — Tr,] 

inalruction though mde and meager. The (8) [ Wiltekind. Wilikitid or mndacU*^ 
most noted episcopal schoola were those was a Saion, and a monk of Corfaey in Oer> 
of Mentz, TreTei, Cologne. Magdeburg, many, who flourished A.D. 940 and 01^ 
Wiirtiburg. Paris, Toun, Kbeima, Meli, ward. He wrote a Hiatorr of the Saaea*, 
Toul, snd Verdun : and among the monas- or the leigna of Harry the Fowter and OUs 
lie schoul* were those of Pleiiry, Clugni, I., in three Books ; puhtished, Basil, 1S8)^ 
Laubea, Carta, Corbey, Fulda. St. Emme- Frankf, 1677, ai^ among tbe Scriptorea n- 
tan. Eptemach, St Gait, iSic. — Every teach- rum Germanicarvm ; likewise some poalia 
er, and nearly every cloister, rrocured a effusions. See Cavt, 1. c. — TV.] 
atock of the classical writers.— The Greek (9) [fUounorFa^wmabbotof Laabst, 
langtwcawasnotwlKdlynnknowaiBltbati^ (IdnbiHU)*), fiom A.D. <W ta HO. Ba 


Notkems,(lS) Eihelbef%(l^) and others ; of whom some are indeed better 
than others, but they all go immensely wide of the true method of com- 
posing history. Of their poets, one and another shows himself to be not 
void of genius ; but .all are rude, on account of the infelicity of the times 
which could relish nothing elegant or exquisite. The grammarians and 
rhetoricians of those times, are scarcely worthy to be mentioned ; for they 
either give out absolute nonsense, or inculcate precepts which are jejune 
and injudicious. Of their geometry, arithmetic, calculation of the feast 
days {Computo), astronomy, and music, which had a place in their schools, 
it is unnecessary to give any description. 

§ 6. The philosophy of the Latins, was confined wholly to logic ; which 
was supposed to contain the marrow of all wisdom. Moreover, this logic 
which was so highly extolled, was usually taught without method and with- 
out clearness, according to the book on the Categories falsely ascribed to 
Augustine^ and the writings of Forphfry* It is true, that PhUcl's Timaeus, 
AristoUe^s tract de interprctatione, and his as well as Cieero^s Topics, and 
perhaps some other treatises of the Greeks and Latins, were in the hands 
of some persons ; but they who inform us of the fact, add that there were 
none who could understand these book8.(15) And yet, strange as it may 
appear, it was in the midst of this darkness that the subtile question was 
raised respecting the nature of universals [general ideas] as they are called, 
namely, whether they belong to tJie class of real existences, or are mere names. 
And this controversy was violently agitated among the Latins from this 
time onward, or at least the incipient footsteps of this protracted and knot- 
wrote a Chronicon de rebus gestis Abbatum and in the Biblioth. Patr., torn, zvii., p. 600. 
Laubienais Coenobii ; de Miraculis Sti. Urs- His poetic lives of varioas ancient aaints, in 
man ; and Vita Folcuini £p. Tanranensis. about twenty Books, were never published. 
— Tr.] See Cave, I c.—Tr.] 

(10) [John Capoanus, abbot of Monte (18) iNotker or Noiger, bishop of Liege 
Cassino, flourished from A.D. 016 to 034. A.D. 07U1007. He wrote Historia Epis- 
He wrote de Persccutionibus Coenobii Caa- coporam Trajectensiuni, (sen Leodicend- 
•tnensis, [a Saraccnorum irruptione], et de nm), but whether it is the same that was 
Miracuhs inibi factis, Chronicon succinct- published by Jo. CheapeaviUe, Liese, 1612, 
am : also Chronicon postremonim Comitum is doubted. He also wrote the life of St. 
Capuae. See Cave, I. c. — Tr.] Landoald, a Romish presbyter; a life of 

(11) [Ratheriu9, a monk of stem man- St. RemacUity bishop of Utrecht; and on 
ners, and prone to give offence, was bishop the miracles of St. RemacliUy two Books. 
of Verona A.D. 928 ; displaced in 954, and — It was another Notger of the preceding 
made bishop of Liege ; resigned, and was century, who died A.D. 912, and who was 
•gain bishop of Verona ; waa again removed, a monk of St. Gall, whose Martyrology was 
and retirea to his monastery of Laabes, published by CanisitUf tome iv., p. 761. 
where he died, A.D. 973. His works, as See Cave, 1. c. — Tr.] 

published by L. Z><u;Ai>r, Spicileg., tom. ii., (14) [Ethelbert or rather Ethelwerd or 

comprise various epistles, apologies, polemic EUtvardf was of royal English blood, and 

tracts, a few sermons, and a life of St. Ur»- flourished A.D. 980. He wrote Historiam 

mar of Laubes. His Chronographia is said brevem Libris iv. : which is a concise Chro- 

to exist in MS. in the monasteiy of Gem- nology from the creation to the Saxon inva- 

blours. See Cave, I. c. — TV.] sion of England, and then a more full and a 

(13) IFlodoard or Frodoard, a canon of bombastic history of England, down to A.D. 

Rheims, who died A.D. 966, aged seventy- 974. It was published by SavilUf with the 

three years. Hia Chronicon rerum inter Scriptores Anglici, London, 1696, foL, p. 

Francos gestaram, ab anno 919 ad ann. ns- 473. — Tr.} 

que 966, was published, Paris, 1588, 8vo, (16) ^tuto, Epist ad Monaehos Angieii* 

snd Frankf., 1594, 8vo. His Historias Ec- ses, in Martene*$ CoHectio ampliss. mona- 

desis Remensis Libri iv., was edited by Sir* mentorum reter., torn, iii., p. 3()4. 
mond, Paris, 1611, 8vo ; Duaci, 1617, 8vo ; 


ty dispute, are discoverable in the writings of the learned as early as this 

§ 7. At the close of this century^ the cause of learning in Europe ob- 
tained a great and energetic patron, in Gtrbert a Frenchman, known ani(»iff 
the Roman pontifis as bearing the name of Sylvester II. This great and 
exalted genius pursued successfully all branches of learning, but especial- 
ly mathematics, mechanicii^geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, and the kin- 
dred sciences ; and both wrote upon them himself, and roused others to 
cultivate and advance them to the utmost of his power. The effects of 
his efforts among the Germans, French, and Italians, were manifest both 
in this century and the next ; for many individuals of those nations were 
stimulated by the writings, the example, and the exhortations of Gerbertf 
to the zealous pursuit of philosophy, mathematics, medicine, and other 
branches of human science. Gerbert cannot indeed be compared with 
our geometricians and mathematicians ; as is manifest from his Geometry^ 
which is a plain and perspicuous treatise, but at the same time imperfect 
and superficial. (17) And yet his knowledge was too profound for the com- 
prehension of that barbarous age. For the ignorant monks supposed his 
geometrical diagrams to be magical figures ; and therefore set down this 
learned man among the magicians, and the disciples of the evil one.(18) 

6 8. For a part of his knowledge, especially of philosophy, medicine, 
ana mathematics, Gerbert was indebted to the books and the schools of the 
Arabians of Spain. He went into Spain to pursue science, and was an 
auditor of the Arab doctors at Cordova and Seville. (19) Perhaps his ex- 
ample had an influence upon the Europeans. This at least is most cer. 
tain, that from this time onward, such of the Europeans as were eager for 
knowledge, especially of medicine, arithmetic, geometry, and philosophy, 

(16) GumOf a learned monk,!. c.,p. 304, of Rheims. He now taught the archiepit- 
cays : Aristoteles genus, speciem, differen- copal school, which flouriuied greatly under 
tiam, proprium et accidens subsistere dene- him. In 991 he was made archbishop of 
gavit, que Platoni subsistcntia persuasit. Rheims ; but was deposed by pope John JCV. 
Aristoteli an Platoni magis credenaum puta- in 995 ; and soon after made archbishop of 
tis ? Magna est utriusque autoritas, quate- Ravenna. On the death of Gregory V., A.D. 
xius viz audeat quis alterum alteri dignitate 999, by Otto'S influence he was created pope, 
prsferre. This is a clear exhibition of the and assumed the title of Sylvester II. He 
apple of discord among the Latins. Gunzo died A.D. 1003. — While at Rheims, he 
dia not venture to oflfer a solution of the dif- wrote 160 Letters ; which were published 
ficult question ; but others attempted it af- by Masson, Paris, 161 1, 4to, and then in 
terwards. Duchene's Scriptores Francic, torn, ii , and 

(17) It was published by Bemh, Pez, in the Biblioth. Patr., torn. zvii. While poM 
Thesaur. anecdot., tom. iii., pt. ii., p. 7, &c. he wrote three Epistles, one of which, in toe 

(18) See the Histoire litter, de la France, name of Jenisalem, calls upon Christians to 
tome vi., p. 558. Botday^ Historia Acad, rescue that city from the hands of infidels. 
Paris., tome i., p. 314, 319, dec. Gab. He also wrote de Geometria Liber; de 
Naud, Apologie pour les grands homroes Sphcera Liber; de informatione Episcopo* 
faussement accusez de la Magie, cap. ziz., rum Sermo ; and an Epigram ; besides sev- 
$4. [Gerbert was ^ monk, of Auvergne, eral pieces never published. The life of St 
and early devoted himself to study. After Adalbert^ archbishop of Prague, formerly as- 
much proficiency in France, he attended cribed to him, is supposed not to be his. But 
the schools of the Saracens in Spain, and re- the tract de corpore et sanguine Domini, foi^ 
turned the most scientific man in the Latin merly ascribed to Heniger abbot of Laabes» 
church. In the year 968, the emperor Otto is supposed to have been the production ol 
I. met with him in Italy, and made him ab- Gerbert. — Tr.] 

bot of Bobio ; but he soon left that station, (19) See Boulay, Historia Acad. Parity 
to become secretary to Adalbero aichbiabop tom. i., p. 314. 


had a strong desire to read and to hear the Arab doctors, resident in Spain 
and in a part of Italy ; many of whose books were translated into Latin, 
and much of tlieir contents was brought forward in the European schools ; 
many students also actually went into Spain, to get instruction immediate- 
ly from the lectures of the Arabic doctors. And truth requires us to say, 
that the Saracens or Arabs, particularly of Spain, were the principal source 
and fountain of whatever knowledge of medicine, philosophy, astronomy, 
and mathematics, flourished in Europe from the tenth century onward. 



i 1. The Clergy corrupt. — ^ 2. History of the Roman Pontiffs. — ^ 3. John X. Pope.— ^ 4w 
John XI. and John XII.— ^ 5. Fate of the latter.—^ 6. John XIII. and Benedict VIL 
— ^ 7. John XIV. and John XV. — ^ 8. Aggrandizement of the Popes. — ^ 9. The Bish- 
ops and Abbots increase in Power. — ^ 10. Principal Vices of the Clergy, Simony and 
Concubinage. — ^ 11. Low State of Discipline in the Monasteries. — ^ 12. Principal Wh- 
lers in the Greek Church. — ^ 13. Writers in the Latin Church. 

§ 1. Nothing is more incontrovertible than that the clergy, both in the 
East and in the West, was composed principally of men who were illiterate, 
stupid, ignorant of every thing pertaining to religion, libidinous, supersti- 
tious, and flagitious.(l) Nor does any one doubt, that those who wished 
to be regarded as the &thers and guardians of the universal church, were 
the principal cause of these evils. Indeed nothing can be conceived of 
80 mthy, or so criminal and wicked, as to be deemed by these supreme 
directors of religion and worship incompatible with their characters ; nor 
was any government ever so loaded with vices of every kind, as was that 
which bore the appellation of the most holy. (2) What the Greek pontifli 
were, the single example of Theophylact shows ; who, as credible historians 
testify, made traffic of every thing sacred, and cared for nothing but his 
bounds and his horses. (3) But though the Greek patriarchs were very 

(1) [Whoever would be convinced of this, mony of an upright Italian, Letois Ant, Mu- 

Beed onlf look through the pages of Rathe- rojtoriy in his Antiqq. Ital. medii cvi, lib. t., 

twu. in his Volumen Perpendicalonim p. 82. *' In the terUh century especially, 

■ive de contemptu canonum, for instance, alas ! what unheard of monsters usurped and 

he speaks of a clergyman, qui, cum omnes held not only many of the chairs of bishops 

malieres dioecesis sue sint ipsius filie spirit- and abbots, but likewise that of St. Peter ! 

lales, cujuslibet forte illarum corruptione Every where might be seen the profligato 

pollutus est. He tells us, that the nobility morals of the clergy and monks ; and not a 

were more anxious to become bishops, than few of the rulers of churches, were more 

to serve the Lord ; and that the example of worthy of the appellation of wolves than of 

the light-minded bishops, who would recite pastors." — " Good theologians w^ then not 

pessaeos of the Bible, such as John x., 1, to be found.** — SchlJ] 
with Ungfater, led others to indulge in simi- (3) [This prelate, who was of royal blood, 

br levity. See Semltr** Ck>ntinuation of wae possessor of the see of Constantinople 

Baumgarten*s Kirchenhistorie, vol. iv., p. at the age of 16. l^liile onder his tutors, 

Wl.—Sehl.] he appeared grave and decent; but when 

(3) [The reader is referred to the tettip anived at matoritr* he became lazuriow and 


unworthy men, yet they possessed more dignity and more virtues than th4 
Roman pontifis. 

§ 2. That the history of the Roman pontifEb of this century, is a history 
of monsters, a history of the most atrocious yillanies and crimes, is acknowU 
edged hy all writers of distinction, and even by the advocates of popery.(4) 
The principal cause of these enormities, is to be sought for in the calamities 
of the times, which upon the extinction of the fiunily of CharUmagBe^ perva. 
ded the greater part of Europe but especially Italy. Upon the death oiBau 
edict IV., A.D. 903, Leo V . was elected his successor. But he reigned 
only forty days ; when Christophanes [or Christopher] cardinal of St. Law. 
rence, dethroned him, and cast him into prison. In the following year, Ser- 
gnu III. a Roman presbyter, stripped Christophanes of the pontifical dignity^ 
by the aid of Adalbert, the very powerful marquis of Tuscany, who controlled 
every thing at Rome according to his pleasure. Sergius died in Oil, and 
his successors, Anasiasius III. and Lando, filled the holy office only for a 
short time, and performed nothing worthy of notice. 

§ 3. After the death of Lando, A.D. 014, the very rich and powerful 
marquis or count of Tusculum, AJhenc, by the instigation of his mother* 
in-law Theodora^ a very lewd woman who controlled all things at Rome» 
made John X* who was archbishop of Ravenna, succeed to the papal chair. 
For at this time, nothing was conducted regularly at Rome, but every thing 
was carried by bribery or violence.(5) This JoAn, though otherwise a 

«ztraTtgtnt. He sold ecclesiastical offices ; selves the election of the Romin pontifis. 

and he was so attached to horses and to Alas, the shame ! Alas, the mischief ! What 

banting, that he kept more than 2000 hor- monsters, horrible to behold, were then rais- 

ees, wmch he fed on nuts and fruits steeped ed to the holy see which angels revere ? 

in odorous wine. Once, while celebrating What evils did they perpetrate ; what hor- 

mass, his groom brought him intelU^nce rible tragedies ensued ? With what polln* 

that his favourite mare had foaled. His joy tions was this see, though itself without spot 

was so great, that suspending the service he or wrinkle, then stainM ; what comiptioDs 

ran to the stable, and afler viewing the foal, infected it ; what filthiness defiled it ; and 

returned to the great temple and Completed hence what marks of perpetual infamy an 

the sacred services. His death, which hap- visible upon it 1" — TV.] 

pened A.D. 956, ailer he had been bishop (5) [At that time, the noted Theodormf 

33 years, was occasioned by his being thrown with her two daughters Marosia and TheO" 

ftom. his horse against a wall. This brought dora, resided at Rome. They were wholly 

on a hsmoptosis ; he languished two years, devoted to what was called the Tuscan par- 

but without becoming more devout, and ty, of which the marquis Adalbert — (not AU 

then died of a dropsy. Thus FUury^ His- heric, as in the text of Mosheim^—yihA ths 

toire de TEglise, hvre Iv., ^ 51. — Tr.'\ bead. These women not only lived in hab- 

(4) [BaroKttt#, Annales, ad ann. 900, says its of the most abominable unchastity with 

of this century : *' It is usual to denominate the chief men of Rome, but they had bouid- 

it the tron age^ on account of its barbarism less influence in the government there, 

mnd barrenness of all good ; also the leaden Luitprand is in this matter the principal hia- 

4^«, on account of the abounding wickedness^ torian. Eccard snd Muratori have indeed 

fay which it was deformed ; and the dark age, questioned his authority, and endeavoured lo 

on account of the scarcity of writers."-— make his testimony suspicious. But Siege- 

" One can scarcely believe, nay absolutely beri of Gemblours, and Alberta the author of 

cannot credit, without ocular dcmonstra- the chronicle of Ferfe, (who could not have 

tion, what unworthy conduct, what base and transcribed from Luitprand)^ confirm his ae- 

enormous deeds, what execrable and abom- count of the profligate lives of these base 

inable transactions, disgraced the holy Oath- females. — Schl. Luitprand's narrative of 

olic see, which is the pivot on which the the elevation of John X., as translated by 

whole Catholic church revolves ; when tem- Bavoer^ (Lives of the Popes, vol. v., p. 90X 

poral princea, who though called Christian is as follows : " In those days, Peter arch- 

«e» moat cruel tyiants, airogated to than- bishop of Raveima, (esteemed the fint 


Yery bad man, is commended for one deed ; he successfully attacked and 
vanquished the Saracens, who occupied a fortified mountain [on the banks 
of the] Garighano. But Marozia^ the daughter of Theodora and wife of 
AlheriCf was inimical to him. Therefore on the death of her husband AU 
heriCf when she had married Wido [or Chddo'] marquis of Tuscany, she 
persuaded her new husband to seize her mother's lover, A.D. 928, and to 
imprison and kill him. Leo VI. next succeeded ; and he dying after .six 
months, was followed by Stephen VII. After two years or A.D. 931, 
Stephen died, and Marozia procured for her very young son John XL, 
whom she had by the Roman pontiff Sergius III., an elevation to the chair 
of Saint Peter and the government of the church. (6) 

§ 4. John XL, who was raised to supreme power in the church by the 
aid of his mother, lost it again in the year 933, through the enmity of Ah 
terie his uterine brother. For Alberic, being offended with his stepfa* 
ther, Hugo king of Italy, to whom Maroxia was married after the death 
of Wido, expelled Hugo from Rome, and confined both his mother and 
his brother the pontiff in a prison, where John died A.D. 936. The four 
pontiff, who succeeded him in the government of the church till the year 
956, namely Leo VII., Stephen VIIL, Marinus II., and Agapetus, are repre* 
sented as better men than John ; and it is certain that they reigned more 
tranquilly. But on the death of Agapetus A.D. 956, Alberic II. the con* 
aul'of Rome, who controlled every thing there by his influence and wealth, 
raised his own son Octamus, yet a youth, to the pontificate. This youth, 
utterly unworthy of the office, assumed the name of John XII., and thus 
introduced the custom, which continues to the present day among the Ro* 
man pontiff, of changing their name on their elevation to that office. (7) 

§ 5. The exit of John XII. was as imfortunate as his promotion had 

epitcoptl fee titer that of Rome), used fire- ii., p. 131, dares to rindicate her character, 

3aent]7 to send to Rome a deacon named and to represent Sergius as beinff her first 
ohn, to pay his obeisance to his holiness, husband. I say dares^ for it is audacious to 
As the deacon was a very comely and per- acquit without proof or reason, a woman 
•onable man, Theodora falling passionately whose actions condemn her, and show her to 
in love with him, ensa^ed him in a criminal be destitute of all integrity and virtue, 
intrigue with her. iVhile they lived thus (7) [Dr. Mosheim is mcorrect in ttseTlingf 
tcwether, the bishop of Bologna died, and that Alberic himself raised his son to the pon- 
jAn had interest enough to get himself tificate. This patrician and prince of Rome, 
elected in his room. But the archbishop of was in fact a tyrant who had irregularly 
Ravenna dying before he was consecrated, usurped the supremacy at Rome, but he died 
Theodora persuaded him to exchange the in the year 954, and while Agajpetus wae 
■ee of Bologna for that of Ravenna ; and he still living ; so that he transmitted to his son, 
was accordingly, at her request, ordained by only what he himself possessed, the civil do- 
pope Lania^ archbishop of that city. Lando minion of the city. On the death of Aga- 
died soon after, and upon his death, Theo- petus, in the year 956, Oetaviut was advised 
dara exerting all her interest, as she could by his friends to place himself in St. Peter*e 
not live at the distance of two hundred miles chair ; and this he found not difficult to ae- 
firom her lover, got him preferred to the complish, although his age rendered him un- 
pontifical chair.*' — Luitwrani^ lib. ii., cap. fit for the place, for he was perhaps not then 
18. See also Flcury, nistoire de TEglise, nineteen years old. He was the first pope, 
livre liv.,^ 49. — TV.] so far as ia known, that changed his name. 
(6) Marozia is a woman infamous ni the Yet it was only in spiritual affairs that he as- 
Tiew of all historians ancient and modem, nimed the name of John ; in all worldly 
It is said, that the pontiff John XI. her son« matters, he still retained his former name, 
was the fruit of an illicit intercourse with See Jfurafort, ad tim. 954 and 956.^« 
Sergnts III. Yet one writer, Jo. Geo. Ec' Schl.} 
tardy in his Origines Guelphicv, torn, i., lib. 

Vol. U. 


been scandalous. Being very uneasy under the haughty government of 
Berengarius II. king of Italy, he sent ambassadors to OUo the Great king 
of Germany, A.D. 060, inviting him to march an army into Italy, ana 
rescue the church and the commonwealth from cruel tyranny ; and prom- 
ised, if he would do this, to invest him with the insignia and confer on him 
the title of emperor of the Romans. Otto came accordingly, with his for* 
ces, and was declared emperor of Rome, by Joknj in the year 062. But 
the pontiff soon after repented of what he Imd done ; and, although he had 
bound himself by solemn oath to the emperor, he formed a coalition with 
Adalbert the son of Berengarius^ aeainst OUo. The emperor therefore 
returned to Rome the next year, and assembled a council, in which Johm 
was accused of numerous crimes and perhaps also proved guilty, and for- 
mally deposed ; Leo VIII. being appointed to his place. (8) When OUo had 
left Uie city, John came to Rome A.D- 064, assembled another council, 
and condemned the emperor's pontiff; but he soon after died a miseraUe 
death.(O) After his exit, the Romans elected Benedict Y., but the empe- 
ror carried him away to Hamburg, where he died. (10) 

§ 6. The Roman pontifis after Leo YIII. who died A.D. 065, down to 
Gerhert or Sylvester II. at the end of the century, were in different degrees 
meritorious and successful ; but no one of them deserved high commen- 
dation. John XIII. was placed in the chair of St. Peter, by the influence 
of Otio the Great, A.D. 065. He had but just entered on his functions, 
when he was driven from Rome ; but the next year the emperor arriving 
in Italy, he was restored to his chair, and held it peaceably till his death 
in 072. His successor Benedict YI. was miserably strangled in a prison, 
into which he was thrown in the year 074 by Cresccntius the son of the 
very noted Theodora, For upon the death of Otto the Great A.D. 073, 
the Romans, who had been awed by his power and severity, relapsed into 
their former licentiousness and disorderly violence. After Benedict, Fra$u 
CO a Roman, who assumed the name of Boniface YIL, held the pontifical 
chair for a short time only ; for at the end of a month he was driven from 
Rome ; and Bonus II., of whom nothing is known but his name, succeed- 

(8) [The charges against John XII. were, of the city to spend the night in criminal 
that he had said maas without communica- converse with a married woman. There he 
ting ; that he had ordained a deacon in a sta- received a wound, perhaps from the injured 
ble ; that he had taken money for ordina- husband, of which he died eight days after, 
tions ; and had ordained as a bishop a child Fleury^ Histoire Eccles., livre Ivi., ^ 10, on 
only ten years old ; that he carried on amours the autboritv of iMitprand. — TV.] 

with various females, one of whom had been (10) In this history of the pontifis of thit 

his father's concubine ; that he turned the century, I have consulted the original an* 

holy palace into a brothel ; that he was given thorities, most of which are given by Mwrti^ 

to huntioff ; that he had put out the eyes of tori in his Scriptores rerum Italicar., and I 

his godfauier ; and had castrated one of the have also examined the writings of othen 

canunals ; that he had set several houses on who have consulted the sources of informs- 

fire ; and had frequently been seen clad in tion, namely BaroniuSf Peter de MarcOy Si" 

armour, with a sword by his side; that he ^omW do regno Italis, with the learned notes 

had drunken to the health of the devil ; that of Jos. Anton. Saxius^ MuraUm's Annales 

in playing dice, he had invoked Jupiter^ Ve- Italia?, Pagi^ and others. The general cor- 

«tttf, and other pagan deities ; that he never rectness of these statements, no one can 

said matins, or any other canonical hours, and doubt ; yet many parts of this history nn- 

never signed himself with the sign of the doubtedly need more light ; and that it may 

CToas. See Bower* s Lives of the Popes, have been cormpted by the partialities of the 

vol. v., p. 108, 109. — TV.] writers on whom we have to depend, cannol 

(9) [On a certain evening, he retired oat be denied. 


ed to the chair. Donus died in 075, and Benedict VII. governed the Ro- 
mish church very quietly during nine years, or till A.D. 084. His pros- 
perous reign was probably to be ascribed altogether to tlie wealth and in- 
fluence of the family from which he originated. For he was the grandson 
of that AlbcriCj who had been so powerful a prince or tyrant rather at 

^ 7. His successor John XIV., previously bishop of Pavia, was destitute 
of the support derived from family, and was abandoned by Otto III., by 
whose inAucnce he had been elected. Hence his end was tragical ; for 
Boniface VII., who had thrust himself into the see of Rome in the yecur 
974, and being soon after expelled had retired to Constantinople, now re- 
turned to Rome, cast John into prison, and there despatched him. Yet 
Boniface*8 prosperity was of short duration ; for he died but six months 
after. He was succeeded by John XV., who by many is denominated 
John XVI. on account of another John^ whom they represent as reigning 
at Rome four months. This John XV. or XVI. governed the church du- 
ring almost eleven years, from A.D. 985 to 996, with as much prosperity 
as the troubled state of the Roman affairs would permit ; which was owing, 
not so much to his personal virtues and prud(;nce, as to his Roman birth 
and to the nobility of his house. Of course, his German successor Grego^ 
ry v., whom the emperor OUo III. commanded the Romans to elect A.D. 
996, was not equally prosperous. For the Roman consul Crescens ex- 
pelled him the city, and placed John XV I, , who before was called Philcu 
gaihusy at the head of the church. But Otto III. returning to Italy A.D. 
998, with an army, deprived JoJm of his eyes, his nose, and his ears ; and 
committing him to prison, restored Crtegory to the chair. And Gregory 
dying soon after, the emperor raised his preceptor and friend, the celebra- 
ted Utrhert or Sylvester II., to the chair of St. Peter, witli the approbation 
of the Romans.(ll) 

§ 8. Notwithstanding these perpetual commotions, and the reiterated 
crimes and contests of those who called themselves Christ's vicegerents on 
earth, so controlling was the ignorance and superstition of the times, that the 
power and influence of the Roman pontifTs gradually and imperceptibly ad- 
Tanced.(12) Otto the Great indeed introduced a law, that no Roman pon- 

(11) The history of the Roman pontiffs gether with eight abbots ; and he com- 
of this period is very barren and uninter- manded the commissioners to proceed mild- 
esting ; and besides, is involved in consid- ly with the abbot of St. Gall, who was his 
erable uncertainty. I have followed for the kinsman. Here is no shadow of papal ju- 
iDOst part Ludov. Ant. MuratorVa Annates risdiction. (See Ekkebart, do casibus S. 
Italiae, and Darnel Papebroek's Conatus Galli, cap. xi.) Yet the popes laid hold of 
Chronologico-Historicns de Romania Pon- various occasions to extend their power 
tificibus, which is prefixed to his Acta Sane- over monasteries. Thus wo read of Syl- 
tor. Maii. , vestcr II. that he arbitrarily declared the 

(12) [Yet no traces of any dominion of monastery of Lorshcim free from other ju- 
tihe popes over the monasteries, are as yet risdiction ; and ordered, that whenever the 
discoverable. In the year 968, the monas- monks deviated from their rule, they should 
teiy of St. Gall was visited by imperial be corrected by the Iloman pontiff, and if 
commissioners. The abbot of Richenau this was not effectual, the emperor should 
bad complained of the monks there, to Hed- be called upon. (Regise potestati deouta- 
wg the widowed duchess of Suabia ; and rentur.) See MahiUon, Anoales Ora. S. 
through her the complaint reached the im* Bened., saecul. v., p. 43. — So also in the 

.perial court. The emperor appointed for year 973, the pope called the monastery of 
this visitation eight bishops, of whom Henry Corvey, whose privileges had been estab- 
of Treves was the first commissioner, to- liahed by the emperor Otto, a daughter of 

194 BOOK ra.-CENTURY X.— PART II.--CHAP. 11. 

tiff should be created without the knowledge and consent of the emperor : and 
this regulation continued, as all admit, from his time till the end of the cen- 
tury. And this emperor as well as his son and grandson of the same name, 
held unilbrmiy their right of supremti^ over the city Rome and its ternU 
tory, as well as over the Roman pontiff; as is demonstrable by many ex- 
amples. And the more intelligent bishops likewise, of France, Germany, 
and Italy, were on their guard throughout the centuiy, to prevent the Ro- 
mish bishop from arrogating to himself alone logislatiTe power in the church. 
But still Uie pontiflb sometimes openly and directly, and sometimes by 
stratagems, invaded the rights both of emperors and kings, and likewise 
of the bishops ;(18) and there were some among the bishops, who were 
their adulators and favoured their designs. It has been observed by learn, 
ed men, that there were bishops in this century, though never before, who 
called the pontiffs bishops of the world instead of bishops of Rome ; and 
that some even among the French clergy conceded, what had never been 
heard of, that bishops receive aU their power from God indeed^ but only through 
St. Peter.(U) 

§ 9. The inferior bishops eagerly copied after the example of the prin* 
cipal bishop, by labouring to extend their authority. From the times of 
Charlemagne and his sons, many bishops and abbots had obtained for their 
tenants and estates, exemption from the jurisdiction of the counts and oth- 
er magistrates, and moreover from all imposts and taxes. But in this cen- 
tury they laboured to obtain also civil jurisdiction over the cities and dis. 
tricts of country subject to them, and coveted the functions of dukes, mar- 
quises, and counts.(15) For whereas violent contests respecting jurisdic- 
tion and other things, frequently sprung up between the dukes, the govem- 

the apostolic see, and subject only to it. shistorie, p. 54.— And in the year 946, IIm 
The great lords in the mean time, exercised emperor Otto bestowed on the monastery of 
sovereign power in ecclesiastical things un- Gemblomrs the control of the market and of 
restrained, in Spain, in Germany, in Eng- coinage, the free election of their own abbots 
land, in Italy, in Hungary, 6lc, The Ger- and aoTOcates, and the right of erecting for- 
man churches possessed also the right of tifications. See MahiUortj Annal. Ord. S. 
electing their own bishops ; and the popes Bened., tom. iii., p. 485, 486. In like roan- 
acknowledged the right of the German ner. Otto II. conferred on Milo bishop of 
kings to give investiture to their bishops. Minden, the right of coining money. Chron. 
See Har£itn*t Concilia, tom. vi., pt. i., p. episco. Mindens., p. 166, 167, in Leibmtz't 
153, dec., where pope John X. says expli- Scriptores Brunsw., tom. ii. And likewiae 
citly : Cum prisca consuetude yigeat, ut nul- Adal'iag archbishop of Hamburg, received 
hu alieui clerico episcopatum eonferre ie- from the munificence of Otto great power, 
heat^ nisi rfx, cui divinitus sceptra collata and direct civil dominion, namely the judi- 
aunt — hoc mullo modo esse potest, ut ab- cial power, the right to levy tolls and to coid 
Moue regali praceptione in qoalibet parocbia money, and in short whatever related to the 
fpiscopus sit consecratus. — Schl.} royal finance, to the exclusion of all royal 

(13) Examples are adduced, in the His- functionaries from these affairs. See Zom- 
toire da droit ecclesiastique Francois, torn, heciut, Orig. Hamburg., p. 10, 11. Pagi, 
i, p. 217, ed. in 8vo. Crit. ad Baron. Annal., ann. 988, ^ I, S.— 

(14) The Benedictine monks, in Histoire Schl. Pagi also tells us, (from WitickM^ 
litteraire de la France, tom. vi., p. 78, 79, lib. i., and the Chron. Belgic. Magn), that 
98, 186, &c. similar powers were granted by Otto I. to 

(15) [Among these may be reckoned the the archbishop of Cologne and Mentz, ax>d 
re|^lation of tolls and coinage, which some to the bishopric of Spire and Minden. Ho 
of^them obtained. Thus, for example, the adds however, that it was not lawful for bisfa- 
archbishopric of Treves obtained the«e righta ops to preside personally in the temporal 
from kimr Lewis, A.D. 902. See Brower*s courts, bat only by their dcnutiea.— Tr.1 
Annal Trevir., lib. ix., and KShUr's Reich- 


ors of cities, or the counts and marquises, on the one hand, and the bishops 
on the other, these latter taking advantage offavourable occaaioiMB^ left no 
means unattempted to secure to themselves those high offices ; and the 
kings and emperors not unfrequently granted their petitions, sometimes in 
order to put an end to the contentions and broils among the civil and mil* 
itaiy magistrates, sometimes from their reverence for religion, and some- 
times with a view to augment their own power by means of the bishops. 
And hence it was, that from this time onward, so many bishops and abbots 
were to be seen sustaining characters entirely foreign from their sacred 
functions, and enjoying the rank of dukes, marquises, counts, and vis* 

§ 10. Besides their ignorance which was extreme,(17) the body of the 
Latin clergy were chargeable with two great vices, which are deplored by 
most of the writers of those times ; namely, concubinage and simony. In 
the first place, not only the priests but the monks also, every where con- 
nected themselves with women, some indeed in a lawful way, but others in 
an unlawful manner ; and with these wives and concubines and the children 
born of them, tliey squandered the property of the church.(18) In the next 
place, there was scarcely any such thing, as the regular and canonical e/ec- 
Um of bishops and abbots ; but the kings, princes, and nobles, either con- 
ferred the sacred offices on their friends and ministers for whom they had 
partiality, or sold them to the highest bidders. (19) And hence, frequently 
men the most unfit and flagitious, sometimes soldiers, civil magistrates, and 
counts, were invested with spiritual offices of the highest dignity and influ- 
ence. In the following century, Chregory VII. endeavoured to cure both of 
these evils. 

§ 11. Among the Greek and Oriental monks there was more appear- 
ance of religion and decorum, but among the Latin monks at the begin- 

(16) Lndov, TkonutMtinf in his DiacipUna have a written exposition of the Creed and 
ecclesisB vetus et nova, torn. iiL, lib. i., cap. tlie Loxd*s prayer, and to mske himself so far 
28, p. 89, has collected much matter, in or- master of both as to be able to explain or at 
der to evince that the functions of dukes and least to repeat them to his flock ; and to ud* 
counts were sustained by bishops as early as dcrstand well, or at least be able to repeat cor^ 
the ninth century. And some of the bish- rectlv the prayers and the office of the mass ; 
ops pretend to trace the origin of their secu- and he expressed his wish, that they might 
lar power back to the eighth century. But I be able not only to read the lessons called 
greatly mistake, if any indubitable instance the Epistle and the Gospel, but also to give a 
can be produced of earlier date than the tenth literal explanation of them. — Tr. ] 
century. (18) Tnat this custom commenced in the 

(17) Ratherius^ in his Itinerariam, (pub- beginning of this century, appears from Ot' 
lished by DachieTf Spicileg., tom. i., p. 381), d^ic Vttalis and others, and particularly 

Sf9 of the priests ot Verona : sciscitatos de from an epistle of MantiOt bishop of Chik- 

e illorum, inveni plurimos ne<^ue ipsum Ions ; published by Jo. MabiUon^ Analecta 

■apere symbolam, qm fuisse creditur Apos- voter., p. 429, ed. nova. Of the Italian 

toiorum. [The same writer gives us (p. monks, who supported wives and concubine* 

376) a copy of the charge which he issued and thus misused the church nropert3r, see 

to the presbyters of his diocese, Verona. Hugo^ de monasterii Farfensis oestroctione ; 

In this charge he requires all priests to be in Mfuratori'* Antiqq. Ital. medii svi, tom. 

able to repeat the three creeds, namely the ' tL, p. 278, dec. 

Apostles*, the Nicene, and the Athanasian; (19) Very noticeable examnlet and testi- 

and moreover to come severally and repeat monies may be seen in the Gallia Christiana, 

them before him. He also calls upon them, tom. i, p. 23, 37, torn, iu, p. 173, 179. See 

to consider why the Lord's day is so named ; also Aii&9 Apologeticum ; subjoined to tho 

and if thev do not know, to make inquiry and Codex Canon. Pitkm, p. 898 ; and Mubtl' 

leun. He likewise directs Mch of them to Jra, AoDalea Boned., tom. v., aad othen* 


ning of this century, discipline was so low, that most of them did not even 
know that tho rule they had bound themselves to follow, was called the rule 
of Sl Benedict. To this evil a remedy not altogether unsuccessful was 
applied by Odo, a French nobleman, who was a learned and devout man ac- 
cording to the standard of that age. Being made abbot of ClugrU, in Bur- 
gundia a province of France, after the death of jBemo, A.D. 927, he not 
only obliged his monks to live according to their rule^ hot likewise bound 
them to observe additional rites and regulations, which had an air of sanc- 
tity but were in reality trivial, as well as onerous and inconvenient. (20) 
This new form of monastic life procured for its author ^eat fame and hon- 
CfOTf and in a short time it was propagated over all Europe. For very 
many of the ancient monasteries in France, Germany, Italy, Britain, and 
Spain, adopted the discipline of Clugni ; and the new monasteries that were 
erected, were by their founders subjected to the same discipline. Thus 
was formed in the next century the venerable order of Clugni, or that body 
of associated Cluniacensians, which was so widely extended and so re- 
nowned for its wealth and power.(21) 

§ 12. The more distinguished writers of this century are easily enu- 
merated. Among the Greeks was Simeon Magigtcr, chancellor of Con- 
stantinople. He transcribed the earlier written lives of the SainiSj for the 
sake of giving them a better form, and clothing them in a better style ; for 
which he obtained the surname of Metaphra8tes»(22) But in digesting, pol- 

(20) See Jo, Mabilhny Annales Bened., embraced the regulations of Clugni, and uni- 
tonoi. iii., p. 386, <S&c., and Prafatio ad Acta ted in a kind of association, of which the ab- 
Sanctor. oid. Bened., sxcul. v., p. xxvi., &c. bot of Clugni in France was the head. 
Mabillon treats largely of Bcmo^ the first (22) See Leo Allatius, de Symeonum 
abbot of Clugni and the founder of the order scriptis, p. 24, &c. Jo. Bdland, Praefatio 
of Clugni, in his Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., ad Acta Sanctorum, Antw., ^ iii., p. vi., 
8»c. v., p. 66, and of Odo„ ibid., p. 122, <Sec. [Simeon Metaphrastcs was of noble 
&c. The general history of the order of birth, and a man of both genius and leam- 
Clugni, is neatly written by Hijtp. Helyot, ing. The emperor Leo made him his prin- 
Histoire des Oitires religieuses, torn, v., p. cipal secretary, patrician, logothetes or hiffh 
184, (&c. The present state of Clugni is chancellor, and master of the palace. He 
described by Marteney Voyage litter, de deux flourished about A.D. 901 ; and devoted hit 
Benedictins, pt. i., p. 227, olc. time, when the business of his offices did 

(21) I am mistaken, if most of the writers not prevent, to the rewriting of the lives of 
on ecclesiastical history have not misappre- the saints. How many narratives he levi- 
hended the import of the word order^ as ap- scd, or composed anew, it is diBScult to 
plied to the Cluniacensians, Cistersians, and state ; because the religious biographies of 
others. For they take it to mean a new subsequent writers have been ascribed to 
monastic institute^ or a new sect of monks ; him. Of the 661 narratives long and short, 
io which they mistake, by confounding the which have been attributed to him, Leo AU 
modem use of the term with its ancient mean- latius supposes 122 are actually of his re- 
ing. The term order as used by the writers vision, 444 he attributes to other authors 
of that age, at first signified merely some par- whom he names, and 95 he thinks are not 
ticular form of monastic discipline. But Simeon's^ but he cannot ascertain to whom 
from this use of the word, another gradually they should be attributed. — Many of the 
arose : for the word order denoted a society genuine narratives of Simeon have found 
or association of many monasteries, acknowl- their way into the large collections of Suriuf 
edging one head and following the same and Bolland ; but the greater part of the 
rules of life. The order of Clugni was not whole were never printed. — Besides these 
a new monastic sect^ like the orders of Car- revised biographies, a number of orations, 
thusiansy Dominicans, and Franciscans; but epistles, and short poems, hymns, dec., are 
it denoted, first, that mode of living which extant as the productions of Simeon. See 
Odo prescribed to the Benedictine monks of Cavers Historia Litterar., tom. ii., and FU^ 
Clugni; and then, the whole number of mon- ry^ Histoire de TEgUse, livre tv., ^ 81.— 
•stehes in different parts of Europe which 7^.] 


uhing, and embellishing these lives of Saints, he is said to have enlarged 
the original narratives by the addition of many of his own fictioDB and silly 
tales. Nicon an Armenian monk, has left us a tract on the religion of the Ar- 
menians, which is not contemptible. (23) The two authors of Catena^ Olym* 
piodarus and (Ecumemtts, are placed by some in this century ; but it is 
wholly on conjectural grounds. (24) With better reasons, Suidas the famous 
lexicographer, is plac^ among the writers of this century.(25) The most 
distinguished author among the Arabian Christians, was Eutychius bishop 
of Alexandria ; whose Annales and some other writings are still extant.(26) 
§ 13. The best among the Latin writers was Gerherty or Sylvester H. the 
Roman pontifi*; of whom we have spoken before. (27) The rest deserve no 

(23) [Nicon was bom in Pontus, and ed- which m Greek is *Y,vTvxh^ or Eutychius, 
Qcated in a monastery on the confines of He lived unhappily with his flock, and died 
Pontus and Paphlagonia. About the year at the age of 7o» His principal work is his 
961, his abbot sent him out as a Christian AnnaU, from the creation to A.D. 937 : 
missionary ; and he travelled in Armenia edited by E, Pococky Arab, and Lat., Ox- 
and various countries of the East, and in ford, 1658, 4to. He also wrote a history of 
Greece. He was accounted a saint, and Sicily, after its conquest by the Saracens ; 
miracles are related of him. His book de a disputation between the heterodox and 
pestima religione ArmenorufA^ in a Latin Christians, in opposition to the Jacobites, 
translation, is extant in the Bibliotheca Pa- and some medical tracts ; all of which still 
trum. — TrS\ exist in manuscript. 

(24) For an account of (Ecumenius of The Greek writers of this century, omit- 
Tricca, see especially Bemh. de Montfau- ted by Dr. Mosheim^ are the following : 
am, Biblioth. Coislin., p. 274. [(Ecum^nt- John Cameniota, a reader in the church 
uSy bishop of Tricca in Thrace, is placed in of Thessalonica. When that city was ta- 
this century, because he quotes Phoiius who ken and plundered by the Saracens A.D. 
lived in the ninth century, but mentions no 904, John was made prisoner, and carried 
later writer. His brief scholia on the Acts to Tarsus, where he composed a full and in- 
of the apostles and on the canonical Epis- teresting Hiitory of the destruction of Thes- 
tles, are all borrowed from the fathers and salonica and of his own sufferings. It was 
especially from Ckrysostom, His works published, Gr. and Lat., by Leo AUatius, 
were printed at Paris, Gr. and Lat., 1631, Symmict., pt. ii., p. 180, and in the Corpus 
2 tomi fol. — Olympiodorus, a Greek monk Hist. Byzant., tom. xvi., p. 240, &c. 

and deacon of Alexandria, of uncertain age, Hyppolytus of Thebes, who has been 

is author of an exposition of the book of confounded with Hyppolytus Portuensis, of 

Ecclesiastes ; printed, Gr. and Lat., in the the third century. He flooriihed about 

Auctuarium Patr. Duceanum, tom. ii., p. A.D. 933. A Chronicon, or a part of one 

602. The Catena on Job ascribed to him, composed by him, was published, Greek and 

is more probably the work of Nicetas, in the Latin, by Hen. Canisitis^ Lection. Antiq., 

middle of the next century. It was pub- tome iii., p. 35. He also, it is probable, 

lished, Gr. and Lat., by Fr. Junius, Lond., composed the brief notices of the twelve 

1637, fol. — TV.] apostles, which have gone under the name 

(25) [That Suidas lived in the latter part of the earlier Hyppolytus. 

of this century, is inferred from his compu- Moses Bar-Cepha, bishop of Beth-Ra- 

tations in the article *Ada/i, which all ter- man, and supervisor of the churches in the 

minato with the reisn of the emperor John regions of Babylonia. He lived in this 

Zimiscesy who dic3 of poison A.D. 975. century, but in what part of it is uncertain. 

His Dictionary, which is a kind of historical He composed in Syriac, three Books de 

and literary encyclopadia, was best published Paradiso ; of which Andr. Masius published 

bj Kuster, Cambr., 1706, 3 vols, fol.— TV.] a Latin translation, Antw.. 1568, 8vo. This 

(26) See Jo. Alb. FaJbrieiusj Bibliogra- trsnslation is also in the Biblioth. Patr., tom. 
phia antiqnaria, p. 179, and Euseb. Renau- xvii., p. 456. 

dot, Historia Patriarch. Alexandr., p. 347. Sisinmus, patriarch of Constantinople A. 

lEutuehius was a native of Egypt, and the D. 994-997, composed a tract de NuptOs 

melchite or orthodox patriarch of Alexan- Consohrinorum ; which is in Leunclavius^ 

dria, from A.D. 933 to 950. His Arabic Jus Gr. et Rom., lib. iu., p. 197.— Tr.] 

name was Said Ibn Bairikt that is Said (27) [See the preceding chapter, ^ 7, 8, 

the son of Bairik. Snd Hgnifiee Hofpy^ ind note (18), p. 118.— TV.] 


higher character than that of indifTerent writers. OdOf who laid the found- 
ation of the Cluniaccnsian association or order, has Icfl some writings^ 
which have few marks of genius and discernment, but many of supersti- 
tion.(28) Some tracts of Ratherius of Verona are extant, which indicate 
a mind of good powers, and imbued with the love of justice and integrity. (20) 
AUo of Vercelli, composed a tract on ecclesiastical grietances, which throws 
light on the state of those times. (30) Dunstan an Englishman, compiled 
for the benefit of monks a Harmony if numastie niZw.(81) Aelfric of Can. 
terhury, deserved well of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain, by a variety of 
tract8.(32) Burckard bishop of Worms, aided the study of canon law, by 
a volume of Decreta in twenty Books. But he was not the sole compiler ; 
for he was aided by OlberL(id) Odilo of Lyons, has left us some frigid 

(S8) Histoire litteraire de la France, torn, was a most zealous promoter of monkery and 
vi., p. 239. [His life, written by John one celibacy, and is reported to have wroiigiit 
of his intimate friends, in three Books, and many miracles. His Harmony of monastic 
the same revised by Nalgod two centuries rules, in twelve chapters, was published by 
after, are in Mabillon, Acta Sanctor. ord. Reiner, as an appendix to his work on the 
Bencd., torn, vii., or secul. vi., p. 150- antiquity of the Benedictine order in £ng^ 
199 ; to which Mabilltm prefixed a full ac- land, Duaci, 1626, fol. See Hume's Hist, of 
count, composed by himself; ibid., p. 124, England, vol. i.,ch. ii., p. 94, dtc. His life 
&c. He was a Frenchman, brought up in and miracles composed by Oshcm, a monk 
the court of William duke of Aquitain, and of Canterbury in the eleventh century, with 
educated at Tours and Paris. Ho early be- extracts from others, may be seen in Mobil' 
camo a monk, and a great admirer of St. Ion, Acta SS. ord. Bened., tom. vii., or sae- 
Martin of Tours. From the year 912, till cul. v., p. 654-715.— Tr.] 
his death in 942, he was engaged in teach- (32) [Aelfrie or Elfric or Alfrie, arch- 
ing school, presiding in monasteries, making bishop of Canterbury from A.D. 996 to 
journeys to Rome and Paris, dec, on public 1006, was a monk of Abingdon, and (as 
business. His works are several legends. Usher supposes) filled several other office! 
concerning St. Martin, St. Mary Magdalen, in the church during forty years, before he 
6lc., a life of St. Gerarld count of Orleans, was made archbishop of Canterbury. Most 
an abridgment of Gregory^s Morals on Job, of the writings generally ascribed to him, 
in twenty-five Books, and devotional pieces, are by some ascribed to another monk of the 
They are all published in the Biblioth. Patr., same name, who was made arcUbisbop of 
tom. xvii. — TV.] York, and died A.D. 1051. See Henry 

(29) Histoire litteraire de la France, tom. Wharton''s Dissert, de dvohus Alfricis, in 
▼i., p. 339. [See note (11) on the piece- his Anglia Sacra ; and 3faZ>iY/an, Acta Sane- 
ding chapter, p. 1 17. — TV.] tor. ord. Bencd., tom. viii., p. 61, dec. The 

(30) Histoire litteraire de la France, tom. works ascribed to Aelfric of Canterbury, are 
▼i., p. 281. [Atto Sfcundus was a native a Biblical History; a Homily on the Body 
of liombardy, a man of learning and virtue, and Blood of Chnst ; (in which he disprOTes 
according to the standard of the age. Au^ transabstantiation) ; an Enistle to WtUfin 
gustine was his favourite author. He pro- bishop of Sherburne ; another to Wvdfttaxk 
aided over the church of Vercelli from A.D. archbishop of York ; a Penitentiary ; and 
945 till his death in 960. His works were an Epistle to Wtf//in, on the Ecclesiastical 
republished, more complete, in 2 vols, fol, Canons. These luve been published, and 
Vercelli, 1769. They comprise a collection most of them in Saxon and Latin. Besidct 
of Canons and ecclesiastical Statutes for the these, there exist in MS. a collection of eieb- 
use of his church ; de pressuris ecclesiasti- t^ sermons ; a Saxon Chronicle, a tranua- 
cis, in three parts ; (on the bishops' courts, tion of the canons of the Nicene Cooneil, a 
their ordinations ; and de facultatibus eccle- translation of St. Gregory* » Dialogue, with 
siarum) ; several Homilies ; and a verbal several lives of monlush saints, all in the 
Commentary on the Epistles of Paul. — Tr.'\ Saxon language ; also a Latin-Saxon dicUon- 

(31) [•$/. Dunstan was bom in Somerset, ary, a grammar of the Saxon language : Ex- 
educated at Glastonbury, where he became a tracts from Priician, dec. See Cavers Hie> 
monk and afterwards abbot. He served sev- toria Litteraiia, vol. ii. — TV.] 

eral years at court, was bishop of Worcester (33) See the Chronicon Wormatiense, in 
A.D. 956, bishop of London in 958, and arch- iMiwi^s Retiqujae Manuacriptor., tom. ii., 
bidbop of Cantobuy from 961 to 988. He p.48,aiidt)MUlelQaelitteniredeUFnBcey 


aennonsy and other things not much better.(d4) O 
lories and annals, this is not the place to treat.(85) 



9 1. The State of Religion. — ^ 2. Conteatt mpecting Predestination and the Lord's 
Snpper. — ^ 3. Belief that the Dar of Judgment was at Hand. — ^ 4. Multitude of the 
Saints. — ^ 5, 6. The different Branches of Theology neglected. — ^ 7. Controreriy 
between the Greeks and ^-*^->- ■* 

§ 1. That the most important doctrines of Christianity were misun. 
derstood and perverted, and that such doctrines as remained entire were 
obscured by the addition of the most UDsound opinions, is manifest from 
every writer of this period. The essence of religion was supposed by 

tome vii., p. 595, 6lc. iBurchard a Hes- Such were Stephen, abbot of Laubes, and 

■ian, was nrst a monk of Laubes, and then A.D. 903 bishop of Liege ; Hubald or HuC' 

bishop of Worms from A.D. 996 to 1026. baldj a French monk who flourished under 

He commenced his great work on canon Charles the Bald, A.D. 916; Gerard, dea- 

law while in his monastery, and with the con of the cloister uf St. Medard A.D. 932 ; 

aid of his instructer Olbert; but completed Fridegodugy a monk of Canterbury A.D. 

it during his episcopate. It was first pub- 960 ; and Adso, abbot of Montier en Der, in 

lisbed at Cologne, 1548, fol, and afterwards France, A.D. 980. Most of the others were 

in 8vo. Though still in twenty Books, it popes or bishops, who have left us only some 

contains not a sixth part of the original work, epistles. Such were John X., pope A.D. 

Ito aothoritj ia rery small, being compiled 916-928 ; Agapehu II., pope A.D. 946- 

without due care, and often from spurious 956; JoAnXII.,pope A.D. 956-963; JbAn 

works. The full title of the book is, Mag- XIII., pope A.D. 965-972 ; PUfrim or Per- 

num Decretorum (or Canonum) Volumen ; egrine, archbishop of Lorch, A.D. 971-992 ; 

but it is often cited by the title Decretum; Benedict VI., pope A.D. 979-874; Bene- 

and also by that of Brocardica, or Brocardi' diet VII., pope A.D. 975-984 ; John XV., 

€OTum Opus, from the French and Italian pope A.D. 986-996 ; and Gregory V., pope 

Brocard, i. e., Burchard. Sec Schroeekh*s A.D. 996-999. To these classes of writers, 

Kirchengesch., vol. xxii., p. 414, &c.— -^[V.] may be subjoined the two following indi- 

(34) [St. Odilo was a native of Auvergne, riduals. 

•docated at Clugni, where he became the Roswida or Rostntha, a learned and de- 
abbot A.D. 994. He aiterwarda refused vout nun of Gandersheim in Germany, who 
the archbishopric of Lyons ; and died abbot flourished about A.D. 980. She understood 
of Clugni, A.D. 1049, aged 87 years. His Greek as well as the Latin, in the latter of 
works, as publiahed by Du Chesne in his which she wrote. Her compositions are all 
Bibhotheca Cluniacensis, Paris, 1614, and in verse ; namely, a Panesyric on Otto the 
thence in the Biblioth. Patr., torn, zvii., con- Great, eight Martyrdoms of early Saints, six 
aist of fourteen sermons on the festal days ; sacred Comedies, on various subjects but 
a life of 8t. Maiolus ; a life of iS^. AdeUidis ; chiefly in praise of the saints ; and a Poem on 
Ibor Hymns ; and some Lettcra. His own the establishment of her monastery. These 
life, written by his pupil JolsM, in two were best edited by H. L. Scktirzjleisek, 
Books, is ^ven us by Malnllon, together with Wittemb. , 1 707, 4to. See Sehroeekh's Kir- 
a long bioflrufaical preface, in the Acta chengesch., vol. xxi., p. 177, 256. 
Sanctor. or£ Bened., tom. viii., p. 631-710. Heriger or Hariger, abbot of Laubes A.D. 
—TV.] 990^1007. He wrote a history of the biah- 

(35) [The Latin vritera omitted by Dr. ops of Liege ; a tract on the bocW and blood 
Mosheim, were some of them mfie anthoia of Christ ; and the Uvea of St Ursoiar, SL 
of the lives of certain monks snd niata. Beriendia, and St Landoald.-^TV.] 

Vol. IL— R 


both Greeks and Latins to consist in the worship of images, in honouviog 
departed saints, in searching for and preserving sacred relics, and in heap- 
ing riches iqx>n the priests and monks. Scarcely an individual ventured 
to approach God, without first duly placating the images and the saints. 
And in searching after relics and hoarding them^ all were zealous even to 
phrensy : and if we may believe the monks, notfiing was more an object 
of the divine solicitude than to indicate to doting M women and bareh^ad- 
ed monks, the places where the corpses of holy men were deposited. The 
fire which bums out the stains remaining on human souls after death, 
was an object of intense dread to all, nay was more feared than the pun- 
ishments of hell. For the latter it was supposed might be easily escaped, 
if they only died rich in the prayers and merits of the priests, or had some 
saint to intercede for them ; but not so the former. And the priests per- 
ceiving this dread to conduce much to their advantage, endeavoured by 
their discourses and by fables and fictitious miracles continually to raise 
it higher and higher. 

§ 2. The controversies respecting grace and the Lord's supper, which 
disquieted the preceding century, were at rest in this. For each party, 
as appears from various testimonies, left the other at liberty cither to retain 
the sentiments they had embraced or to change them. Nor was it an ob- 
ject of much inquiry in this illiterate and thoughtless age, what the theo- 
logians believed on these and other subjects. Hence among those who 
flourished in this age, we find both followers of Augustine and followers of 
Felagius ; and perhaps as many can be discovered who supposed the real 
body and blood of Christ were literally present in the eucharist, as there 
were who either had no established opinion on the subject, or believed the 
Lord's body to be not present, and to be received in the eucharist only by 
a holy exercise of the soul.(l) Let no one however ascribe this modera- 
tion and forbearance to the wisdom and virtue of the a^e ; it was rather 
the want of intelligence and knowledge, which rendered them both indis- 
posed and unable to contend on these subjects. 

§ 3. Numberless examples and testimonies show, that the whole Chris- 
tian world was infected with inmiensc superstition. To this were added, 
many futile and groundless opinions, fostered by the priests for their own 
advantage. Among the opinions which dishonoured and disquieted the Lat- 
in churches in this century, none produced more excitement than the be- 
lief, that the day of final consummation was at hand. This belief was de- 
rived in the preceding century from the Apocalypse c^ /oAn,xx., 2, 3, 4,(2) 

(1) That the Latin doctors of this centuiy of the Saxon English church concerninff tbt 

held different opinions, respectinff the man- eucharist, see CoUier^s Ecclesiastical ilia- 

ner in which the body and blood of Christ toiy of Great Britain, vol i., cent, x., p. 204^ 

are present in the sacred supper, is rerj 266." — MacL] 

clearly attested : nor do the learned among (2) ['' And he laid hold on the dragon, 

the Roman Catholics, who follow truth rather that old serpent, which is the Devil and Sa> 

than party feelings, disavow the fact. That tan, and bound him a thousand years,** dtc 

the doctrine of traiuu£«ton/iah<m was at this They understood this to refer to thetimH 

time unknown to the English, has been of the Christian dispensation. And at Sft- 

shown from their public homilies by Rapin tan was to be loosed after the thooaand 

de ThoyraSj Histoire d^Angleterre, tome i., years, and as the vision proceeds immediata- 

p. 463. Yet that this doctrine was then ly to describe the general judgment, th&f 

received by some of the French and German concluded the world would come to an tad 

divines, may be as easily demonstrated. — about A.I>. 1000.<— TV.] 
P* For a jodicioiu account of the opiaioiii 


and being advanced by many in this century, it spread over all Buropc, 
and excited immense terror and alarm among the people. For ttey sup- 
posed St. John had explicitly foretold, that after a thousand yean firom 
the birth of ChrUtj Satan woiild be let loose. Antichrist would appear^ and 
the end of the world would come. Hence immense numbers transferring 
their property to the churches and monasteries, left all and proceeded to 
Palestine, where they supposed Christ would descend from heaven to judge 
the world. Others by a solemn vow consecrating themselves and all they 
possessed to the churches, the monasteries, and tlie priests, served them 
in the character of slaves, performing the daily tasks assigned them : for 
they hoped the Supreme Judge would be more favourable to them, if they 
made themselves servants to his servants. Hence also whenever an eclipse 
of the sun or moon took place, most people betook themselves to caverns 
and rocks and caves. Very many also gave a large part of their estates 
to Grod and the saints ; that is, to the priests and monks. And in many 
places, edifices both sacred and secular were suffered to go to decay, and 
in some instances actually pulled down, from the expectation that they 
would no longer be needed. This general delusion was opposed indeed 
by a few wiser individuals ; yet nothing could overcome it, till the century 
had closed. But when the century ended without any great calamity, 
the greater part began to understand, that John had not really predicted 
what they so much feared.(3) 

§ 4. The number of the acknowledged saints, 1. c., of cardinals in tho 
heavenly court, and ministers of state in the world above, was every where 
very great. (4) For this age of unparalleled thoughtlessness and supersti- 
tion, required a host of patrons and guardians. Besides, so great was 
the wickedness and madness of most people, that the reputation of being 
a saint, was obtained without much effort. Whoever was by nature rath- 
er austere and of coarse manners, or exhibited a vigorous imagination, 
appeared amid such a profligate multitude as one who had intimate con- 
verse with God. The Roman pontiff, who had before begun to assume to 
himself the right of making new deities, gave the first specimen of the 

(3) Almost all the donations of this cen- ed memory, Richard^ very skilfully endi- 

tary, afford evidence of this general delusion cated the inveterate error respecting the end 

in Europe. For the reason assigned for the of the world, after receiving the letter from 

gift, is generally thus expressed : Appropin- the JxHharingiana which I was to answer. 

fuante mundi termino, &c. [i. e., The end For the rumour had AUed nearly the whole 

of the tporld being now ai hand]. Of the world, that when the Annunciation of Mary 

many other proofs of tho prevalence of this should fall on Saturday, then, beyond all 

opinion, which was so profitable to the cler- doubt, the end of the world would take 

sy, I will adduce only one striking passage place.*' 

worn Abbo of Fleury, in his ApoToffeticum (4) [Yet it should be remarked, that be- 

adversus Amulphum, which Fr. rUhoeut fore the year 994, prayers to the saints and 

has subjoined to the Codex Canonum Eccle- to the virffin Mary, are not mentioned in the 

mm Romans, p. 401 : ** When a little boy, canons of the English churches. They are 

(in the tenth century), I heard a public dis- first enjoined in a collection of canons of 

conne delivered in the church of Paria, con- this date, which is in WUkinM' Concil., torn, 

ceming the end of the world ; that immedi- i„ p. 265. We read however in a circular 

Ately after the thousand years terminated, Epistle of John XV., in the year 993 : Sic 

Antichrist would come ; and not long after- aioramuB et colimos rdiquia* martyrum et 

wards, the universal judgment would follow, confessonmi, ut eom, iChriMtum], cujos 

This doctrine I resisted, as far as I was able, martyres sunt, adoremos— stquis contradi* 

from the Gospels, the Apocalypse, and the cat, Anathema. Harduin*i Concii., torn. tL, 

book of Daniel. At last, my abbot of blest- pt. i.» p. 7S6.— &A/.] 



actual exercise of such power, in this century; at least, no example of an 
eeurlier date is extant* John XV. in the year 003, hy a solemn act en« 
roled Udalrich bishop of Augsburg, among those to whom Christians 
might lawfully address prayers and wor8hip.(5) Yet this act must not be 
understood to imply, that from this time onward, none but the Roman poo* 
tiff might enrol a saint.(6) For there are examples which show, thai 
down to the twelfUi century, the bishops of the hig^r ranks, and provin- 
cial councils, without even consulting the ponti^ did place in the list of 
saints such as they deemed to be worthy of it.(7) But in the twelfth cen- 
tury, Alexander In. annulled this right of councils and bishops, and made 
amonixatwnf as it is called, to rank among the greater causes or such as be- 
looff only to the pontifical court. 

9 6. Of the labours of the theologians in sacred science, and its difierent 
branches, little can be said. The holy scriptures, no one explained in a man- 
ner that would place him high among even the lowest class of interpreters. 
For it is uncertain whether Olympiodame and Oecumenius of Tricca belong 
to this century. Among the Latins, Remigius of Auxerre continued his 
exposition of the scriptures, which he commenced in the preceding centu- 
ry. He is very concise on the literal signification, but very copious and 
prolix on the mystical sense, which he prefers greatly to the literal mean- 
ing. Besides, he exhibits not so much his own thoughts as those of oth- 
ers, deriving his explanations from the early interpreters. Odo^s Moralia 
on Job, are transcribed from the work of the same title by Gregory the 
Great. Who were esteemed the best expositors of scripture in Uiat aget 
may be learned from Noikerus Balbulus [or the Stammerer], who wrote a 
professed account of them.(8) 

§ 6. Systematic theology had not a single writer Greek or Latin. The 
Greeks were satisfied with Damascenus; and the Latins contented thenu 

(6) Franc. Pagi^ Breviar. Pontif. Ro- dare him such. This was the pncUce in 

man., torn. ii-» P- 259, &.c. [MabiUont Acta Europe, from the seventh centuiy onwaid. 

Sanctor. ord. Bened., torn. tU., Pnef., p. 68. The popes canonized as well as others, but 

^7V.] only in their own diocese. But at this time, 

(6) This opinion was held by the iriends the chapter of Augsburs saw fit, to request 
of the Romish court ; and in particular hy the pope to pronounce tneir bishop Vlntk a 
PM. Banannus, Numismat. Pontif. Ro- saint for all the churches. The bishop of 
manor., tom. i., p. 41, &c. Augsburg who succeeded Ulrieh, midil 

(7) See the remarks of Franc. Pagi^ Bre- have canonized this worthy man for Uie 
▼iarium Pontif. Romanor., tom. ii., p. 260 ; church of Augsburg ; but in that case he 
tom. iii., p. 30 ; and of Arm. de la ChapelUt would have been honoured only in his own 
Bibliotheaue Angloise, tom. x., p. 105, and diocese, and not throughout the wboto 
Jo. Malnlionj Prasf. ad Saecul. ▼., Actor. SS. church. The pope complied with the n- 
ord. Bened., p. Ivii., &c. [The word canon quest without much inquuy. — iScA/.] 

in the middle ages, denoted in general a re- (8) [His book is entitled, de Interpretiboi 

gi^ler or a matriculation roll, and in a more divinarum litterarum, and may be found ia 

limited sense a, list of Uie saints ; and to Pez^s Thesaur. anecdot. noviss , tom. i., pt 

canonize a person was, to enrol his name in i., p. 1. It was addressed to SUomtm^ af> 

this book or register of the saints. In the terwards bishop of Constance, whom it ei« 

earlier times, none wers recognised as saints cited to the study not only of the biblictl 

except martyrs and confessors. But in the interpreters, but also of toe ecclesiasticil 

times of ignorance, the stupid people often historians and the writers of biographies of 

selected and made for themselves samts, who the saints ; so that it may be viewed as a 

did not deserve the name. To remedy the guide to the best method of studying theol- 

evil, it was ordained that no one should be ogy, ametbly to the taste of those ' 

reeogniaed as a saint, till the bishop of the —Sew.] 
place, eftw inveetigition made, mold de- 



selves with Augustine and Gregory the Great, who were in that a^e re- 
garded as the greatest of theologians. Tet some likewise read BeSa and 
Bdbanus Maurut. Moral and practical theology received less attetitioa 
than in almost any age. If we except some discourses which are extreme- 
ly meager and dry, and the lives of saints which were composed among 
the Greeks by SuneoB Metaphrastes, and among the Latins by Huhaldf 
OdOf Stephen of Liege, and others, without fidelity and in very bad taste, 
there remains nothing more in this century that can be placed under the 
head of practical theology. Nor do we find that any one sought renown, 
by polemic writings, or confutations of the enemies of truth. 

§ 7. The controversies between the Greeks and Latins, in consequence 
of the troubles and calamities of the times, were carried on with much 
less noise than before ; but they were not wholly at rest.(9) And those 
certainly much distort the truth, who maintcdn theit this pernicious discord 
was healed, and that the Greeks for a time came over to the Latins :(10) 
although it is true, that the state of the times obliged them occasionally to 
form a truce, though a deceptive one. The Greeks contended violently 
among themselves, respecting repeated marriages. The emperor LeOy sur- 
named the Wise, or the Philosopher, having had no male issue by three 
successive wives, married a fourth, who was bom in humble condition, Zoe 
Carhinopsina, As such marriages by the canon law of the Greeks were 
accounted incestuous, the patriarch Nicolaus excluded the emperor from 
the communion. The emperor, indignant at this, deprived Nicolaus of his 
office ; and put Euthymius into his place, who admitted the emperor indeed 
to the communion, but resisted the law which the emperor wished to enact 
allowing of fourth marriages. Hence a schism and great animosity arose 
among the clergy, some siding with Nicolaus and others with Euthyndus. 
Leo £ed soon after, and AUxander having deposed Euthymius, restored 
Nicolaus to his office, who now assailed the character of the deceased em- 
peror with the severest maledictions and execrations, and defended his 
opinion of the unlawfulness of fourth marriages in the most contentious 
manner. To put an end to these commotions so dangerous to the Greeks, 
Constantine Porphyrogenitus the son of Leo, assembled an ecclesiastical 
council at Constantinople, in the year 920, which prohibited fourth mar- 
riages altogether, but allowed third marriages under certain restrictions. 
The publication of this law restored the public tranquillity. (11) Some oth. 
er small contests of about the same importance, arose among the Greeks ; 
which indicate their want of discemment, their ignorance of true religion, 
and how much deference they had' for the opinions of the fathers, without 
exercising their own reason and judgment. 

(9) Mich. U Qmen, DiM. L Damaiceiii- (II) TbeM facts tro faithfully collected 
ca, de proceMione Spiritiit S., ^ 13, p. 18. from Ceirtmu, Leunclavnut (de Jure Gn»- 
Frei. Spajtheim, de peipetoa diileiisione ec- co-Rom., tom. i., p. 104, dtc.), Leo Grain- 
desui Orient, et Occident., pt. iy., ^ vii., maticus, Snneon Logothetes, and other wii- 
0pp., tom. ii., p. 589. ten of Byiantine hiatoij. 

(10) Lto JUUtiuMf de Derpetoa 

et Ooeidt 

lent, lib. ii., 
cep. liLf TiiL» p. 400, dec. 

§ 1. How great a load of rites and ceremonies ojjpro: 
religion in this centiir\', aj)j)ears abundantly fnnn the lu-ts 
licid in England, Franor, Cierniany, and lt;'.ly. 'J'he iiinii\ 
izens of heaven, almost daily ealendared, reciuirvd the in> 
festal days, new forms of worship, and new religious rites. 
tating these, the priests, though in every thing else a sti 
jicnt set of beings, were wonderfully ingenious. Some of thei 
lowed from the erroneous opinions ou sacred and secular 
he barbarous nations derived from their ancestors and inc 
Christianity. Nor did the guides of the church oppose tiies* 
upposed they had fulfilled all their duty, when they had c 
irith some Christian forms what was worthless and base ii 
ssigned to it some far-fetched allegorical import. Several 
f'ere accounted sacred, arose from the silly opinions of thi 
pecting Grod and the inhabitants of heaven. For they sup) 
lose intimate with him in heaven, to be affected in the su 
artlily kings and nobles, who are rendered propitious by { 
nts, and are gratified with frequent salutations and externa 

§ 2. Near the end of this century, in the year 998, by tli 

^dilo abbot of Clugni, the number of festal days among i. 

igmented, by the addition of the annual celebration in men 

tried souls. Before this time, it had been the custom in n 

fer prayers on certain days, for the souls in purgatory : but 

:!re ofiered only for the friends and patrons of a particular i 

society. Odild's piety was not to be thus limited ; he wis 

is kindness to all the departed souls that were suffering in 

)rld. The author of the suggestion was a Sicilian rcclu 

10 caused it to be stated to Odilo^ that he had learned from 

ition, that the souls in purgatory might be released by the f 

)nks of Clugni.(l) At first therefore, this was only a priv) 


of the society of Chtgni: but a Roman pontifl[^— who he was, is unknown— /^^..^ 
approved the institution, and ordered it to be every where observ^(3) 

\ 8. The worship of the Virgin Manfj which previously had been fioctrav- 
agant, was in this century carried much farther than before. Not to men« 
tion other things less certain, I observe first, that near the close of this cen- 
tury the custom became prevalent among the Latins, of celebrating masses 
and abstaining from flesh on Saturdays, in honour of St. Mary. In the 
next place, the daily office of St, Mary, which the Latins call the lesser 
cfice^ was introduced, and was afterwards confirmed by Urban II. in the 
council of Clermont. Lastly, pretty distinct traces of the Rosary and crovm 
of Si. Mary, as they are called, or of praying according to a numerical ar- 
rangement, are to be found in this century. For they who tell us, that St. 
Ihmmc invented the Rosary in the thirteenth century, do not bring satis- 
fiictory proof of their opinion.(3) The Rosary consisted of fifteen repeti- 
tions of the Lord's prayer, and one hundred and fifty salutations of St mary : 
and what the Latins called the Croum of St. Mary, consisted of six or seven 
repetitions of the Lord's prayer, and sixty or seventy salutations, accord, 
ing to the age ascribed by different authors to the Holy Virgin. 



^ 1. The moce Ancient Heresies. — ^ 2. The Paulicians. — ^ 3. Commotions excited by 

Leathaid. — ^ 4. The AnUuopomoiphites. 

§ 1 . The amazing stupidity of the age, which was the source of so many 
evils, had this one advantage, that it rendered the church tranquil and un- 
disturbed by new sects and discords. The Nestorians and Monophysites 
began to experience more hardships under the Arabians, than formerly ; 
and they are said to have repeatedly suffered the greatest violence. But 
as many of them gained the good- will of the great by their skill in medicine, 
or by their abilities as stewards and men of business, the persecutions that 
occasionally broke out were in a measure suppressed.(l) 

^ 2. The Manichaeans or Paulicians, of whom mention has been made 
before, became considerably numerous in Thrace under the emperor John 
Tzimisces. As early as the eighth century, Constantine Copronymus had 
removed a large portion of this sect to this province, that they might no 
longer disturb the tranquillity of the East ; yet they still remained very nu- 

<2) The pontiff Berudkt XIV., or Prosper MabittoHj Praef. ad Acta Sanctor. ord. Ben- 

LanierUnuSj in his treatise de Festis Jesa ed., saeeul. t., p. Iviii., dec. 

Christi, Marie, et Sanctorum, lib. iii., c. 22, (1) [Some Nestorians were priTSte secre- 

0pp. » torn, z., p. 671, very wisely obeerrea taries of the kalifs ; and the Nestorian patri- 

■iienoe reepecting this obecure and disrnni- arch had such influence with the kalif, that 

table origtn of Usat anniversary, and thus the Jacobite and Greek bishops Uying amonff 

■hows us, what he thought of it. And in this the Arabians, were obliged in their di£ficuE 

work of BenetUet XIV. are many specimens ties to put themselves under his protection. 

of the author^s discernment. See Asseman, Bibtioth. Orient. Yatic.,* torn. 

13) This is ibnoally demommted by Jo, if., p. Od-lOO.^&iU.] 


mcrous in Syria and the neighbouring countries. Theodarus therefore the 
bishop of Antioch, for the safety of his own £kx;k, did not cease importuning 
the emperor, until be ordered a new colony of Manichaeans to be transplant, 
ed to Philippopoli8.(2) From Thrace the sect removed into Bulgaria and 
Slavonia, in which countries they afterwards had a supreme pontin of their 
sect ; and they continued their residence there, down to the times of the 
council of Basil, or to the fifleenth century. From Bulgaria they migrated 
to Italy^and thence spread into other countries of Europe, and gave much 
trouble to the Roman pontifis.(8) 

§ 3. At the close c^ this century, a plebeian man of the name of Leu* 
ikard in the village of Virtus near Chalons, attempted some innovations in 
religion, and in a short time drew a large share of the vulgar after him* 
He would allow of no images ; for he is said to have broken the image of 
our Saviour. ' He maintained that tithes ought not to be given to the 
priests ; and said that in the prophecies of the Old Testament, some things 
were true, and some things were false. He pretended to be inspired ; Init 
bishop Gebwin drove the man to extremities, and he at last threw himself 
into a well.(4) I suppose the disciples of this man, who doubtless tauslit 
many other things besides what are stated above, joined themselves with 
those who in France were afterwards called AJhigenseSj and who are said 
to have leaned to the views of .the Manichaeans. 

6 4. Some remains of the Arians still existed in certain parts of Italy, 
and especially in the region about Padua. (5) Ratherius bishop of Veronat 

(S) Jo. Zonaratf Anna!., lib. xrii., p. 209, ural and divine revelation. Leutard talked 

ed. Paris ; p. 164, ed. Venice. much, and wished to be regarded as a great 

(3) And as has been already observed, teacher. But in his discourses there was 
perhaps some remains of the sect still exist nothing solid, and no truth. He said that 
in Bulgaria. [See century ix., mirt ii., ch. the things taught by the prophets, were to be 
T., ^ 2^, p. 101-105, supra. — TV.] believed only in part, and that the rest was 

(4) An account of this affair is given by useless. He declared that it was of no uts 
Glaber Radulphiu, Hist., lib. ii., c. xi. to a man to pay his tithes. Fame now pro- 
IFUuryt Histoire de TEglise, livre Iviii., claimed him to be a man of God ; and no 
^19, thus relates the whole stoiy, on the small part of the vulear went after him. But 
authority of Giaher. Near the close of the Geboin, the venerable and wise bishop of 
year 1000, a plebeian man by the name of Chalons, summoned the man before him, and 
Leutardy in the village of Virtus and diocese interrogated him respecting all the things re- 
ef Chalons, pretendeid to be a prophet, and ported of him. He Jl>effan to dissemble and 
deceived many. Beins at a certain time in conceal the poison of his wickedness, and 
the fields, and fatigued with labour, he laid quoted portions of the Scriptures, which he 
himself down to sleep ; when a great swarm bad never studied. The sagacious bishop 
of bees seemed to enter the lower part of his now convinced the blockhei^ of falsehood 
body, and to pass out of his month, with a and madness, and in part reclaimed the peo- 
great buzzing. They next began to sting pie whom he had seduced. The wretched 
him severely ; and after tormenting him Leutard, finding his reputation ruined among 
a while, they spoke to him, and commanded the people, drowned himself in a well. — TV.] 
him to do some things which were beyond (5) [It appears from VgeWs lulia Sacra, 
human power. He returned home exhaust- torn. ▼., p. 429 of the new edition, that in 
ed ; and with a view to obey the divine ad- the diocese of Peter the bishop of Padna, 
monition, dismissed his wife. Then pro- who died A.D. 942, there were many Arians, 
ceedinff to the church, as if for prayer, be whom that bishop strenuously opposed. And 
entered it and seized and broke the image in the same work p. 433, it is stated, that 
of the crucifix. The by-standers were bishop GotUn or Gotu/tn, who filled the see 
amazed, and supposed the man was deran- from the year 964 till into the following cen- 
ged ', but as they were simple rustics, he torr, completely ezteiminated this sect.—' 
easily persuaded them that he had performed jScJu.] 

the oeed under the direetioii of a siipeniit- 


had controversy with the ArUhropomorphUes, from the year 039 onward. 
For in the neighbourhood of Vicenza there were many persons, not only 
among the laity but also among the clergy, who supposed that QoA po8« 
aesses a human form, and sits upon a golden throne, in the manner of 
kings ; and that his ministers or angels are winged men, clothed in white 
robes.(6) These erroneous conceptions will not surprise us, if we reflect 
that the people, who were extremely ignorant on all subjects and especially 
on religion, saw Grod so represented every where, in the paintings that 
adorned the churches. Still more irrational was the superstition of those, 
assailed by the same RalheriuSj who were led, I know not how, to believe 
that SL Michael says mass every Monday before God in Heaven ; and who 
therefore resorted on those days to the churches that were dedicated to 
St. Michael. (7) It is probable that the priests who performed service in 
the temples devoted to St. Michael, instilled this most absurd notion as 
they did other errors into the minds of the vulgar, in order to gratify their 
own avaricious views. 

(6) [Raikeriiu, Senno I. de Quadrates- nihil omnino sit Dent, ri cipiit non habet, 

iiiia,inI>'ileA«ry, Spicileg.,ed. noT.,t. i.y p. ocellos non habet, &c. What now ihdl 

S88, says : One of my people infonned me we do ? Hitherto it seemed to us that we 

time days aso of certain presbyters in the knew somethinc; about God, but now it ap- 

diocese of Vicenza adjoining ns, who think peais, that God is nothing at all, since he 

C(od is corporeal, because we read in the has no head, no eyes, die. — No ; you were 

Scrip t oi ea , that the eye* of the Lord are upon stupidly fabricating idols in your own hearts, 

tbe xighteom and Aw eart open, dec. (rs. and forgetting the immensity of God, were 

zzxiT., 15 ; thus Job x., 8 ; Gen. i., 26.) picturing as it were some great king seated 

This disturbed me not a little. But, horrible on a ffolden throne, and the host of ancela 

to tell ! I found the same perverseness cleaT- around as being winged men clothed in white 

log to members of my own flock; for address- garments, such as you see painted on the 

ing them in public, and showing that God ia church walls, die. — TV.] 

a apirit, some of my own priests, to my aston- (7) RtUJuraUf EpistoU synodica, in Daeh- 

imnent, mottered and said : Quid inodo ia- erii Spicily. Scriptor. Teter., tom. ii., p. 

ciemus 1 Usque nunc ali(|uid Tisam est no- S94, die. oigdtert of Gemblours, ChronoL 

Ins de Deo scire, modo Tidetiur nobis, quod ad aim. 989. 

Vol. II.- 






^ 1. Propagation of Christianity. — i 3. Fruitless Efforts of some, for the ConTernon ol 
Pagan Nations. — ^ 3. The Saracens driven from Sicily. The Sicilian Monarchr.— • 
^ 4. Expedition against the Saracens in Palestine. — ^ 6. Progress of the Holy W«. 
— ^ 6, 7. The History of it.— ^ 8. Causes of these Expeditions.—^ 9. Evils of than. 
— i 10. Injurious to the ChurciL 

§ 1. The Hungarians, Danes, Poles, Russians, and other nations, who 
in the preceding century had received a kind of knowledge of the Christiaii 
religion, could not he brought universally and in a short time, to prefer 
Christianity to the religions of their fathers. Therefore during the greatest 
part of this century, their kings with the teachers whom they drew around 
them were occupied in gradually enlightening and converting these na- 
tions.(l) In Tartary(2) and the adjacent regions, the activity of the Nes- 
torians continued daily to gain over more people to the side of Christian- 
ity* And such is the mass of testimony at the present day, that we cannot 
doubt but that bishops of the highest order, or Metropolitans^ with many iok 
ferior bishops subject to them, were established at that period in the proy. 
inces of Cashgar, Nuacheta, Turkestan, Genda, Tangut, and others.(d) 
Whence it will be manifest, that there was a vast multitude of Christians 
in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, in these countries which are now 
either devoted to Mohammedism or paying homage to imaginary gods. 
And that all these Christians followed the Nestorian creed, and were sub. 
ject to the supreme pontiff of the Nestorians residing in Chaldea, is beyond 
all controversy certain. 

(1) For an account of the Poles and Rus- pt. ii., p. 502, &c. The history of this so 
sians, see the life of RomualduSf in the Ac- successful propagation of Christianity by the 
ta Sanctor., torn, ii., Februar., p. 113, 114 : Nestorians, in China, Tartary, and other ad- 
and for the Hungarians, p. 117. jacent countries, richly deserves to be mora 

(2) The word Tartary is her^ used in its thoroughly explored and set forth to the 
broadest sense ; for 1 am not insensible, that world, by some man well acquainted with 
the Tartars properly so called, are widely Oriental history. But the task would be on 
different from the Tangutiaus, Calmucs, various accounts, very difficult of execution. 
Mongols, Mantchous, and other tribe-s. It was attempted by an excellent man, 7^ 

(3) Marco Paulo the Venetian, de regi- oph. Sigf. Bayer^ who was furnished with ■ 
onibus Orientalibus, hb. i., cap. 3S, 40, 46, laree number of documents for the purpose^ 
47, 48, 49, 62, 63, 64 ; lib. ii., c. 39. £«- boUi printed and manuscript. But the pr«- 
Meb. Renaudot^ Ancicnnes relations des Indes mature death of this learned man interceptad 
et de la Chine, p. 320. Jos, Sim, Asst- his labours. 

wan^ Biblioth. Orient. Vaticana, torn. iiL, 


§ 3. For the conversion of the European nations who still lived enveK 
oped in superstition and barbarism, as the Slavonians, the Obotriti, the 
Wends, the Prussians, &c., some pious and good men laboured indeed, but 
with either very little or no success. Near the close of the preceding centu- 
ry, Adalbert bishop of Prague, visited the ferocious nation of the Prussians, 
with a view to instruct them in the knowledge of Christianity ; and the result 
was, that he was murdered in the year 996, by Siggon a pagan priest. (4) 
The king of Poland Boleslaus Chrobry, avenged tlic death of Adalbert by a 
severe war ; and laboured to accomplish by arms and penalties what Adah 
hert could not effect by arguments.(5) Yet tlicire were not wanting some 
who seconded the king's violent measures, by admonitions, instructions, and 

gersuasions. In the first place, we are told that one Boniface, of illustrious 
irth, and a disciple of St. Romualdj and afterwards one Bruno with cigh- 
teen companions, went from Germany into Prussia as Christian missiona- 
ries. (6) But all these were put to death by the Prussians ; nor could the 
valour of Boleslaus or of the subsequent kings of Poland, bring this savage 
nation to abandon the religion of their ancestors. (7) 

§ 3. The Saracens seized upon Sicily in the ninth century ; nor could 
the Greeks or the Latins hitherto expel them from the country, though they 
made frequent attempts to do it. But in this century, A.D. 1059, Robert 
Gidscard the Norman duke of Apulia, with his brother Roger, under the 
authority of the Roman pontiff iV/coZatx^ II., attacked them with great valour ; 
nor did Roger relinquish the war,, till he had gained possession of the whole 
island, and cleared it of the Saracens. After this great achievement, in the 
year 1090, Roger restored the Christian religion, which had been almost ex- 
tinguished there by the Saracens, to its former dignity ; and established bish. 
ops, founded monasteries, erected magnificent churches, and put the clergy 

(4) See the Acta Sanctor. ad diem 23 bishop. He preached to pagans till the 
Aprilis, p. 174, dec., [and Jo. Mdbillon, Ac- twelfth year, and was then killed, near the 
ta SS. ord. Bened., torn, vii., p. 846, dtc. confines of the Prussians and Lithuanians, 
— Tr] [AD. 1006]. The bodies of Bruno and 

(5) SdignaCy Histoire de Pologne, torn, his companions were purchased of the pa- 
i., p. 133. gans by Boleslaus. — ScM. See also Maiil' 

(6) [Bruno and Boniface were, in fact, Ton, Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., vol. viii., p. 
ooe and the same person; the first being 79-81, and F/^ury, Histoire dcTEgliseyUvr. 
his original and proper name, and the other Iviii., ^ 26. — TV.] 

hb assumed name ; for the monks were then (7) Anton. Pagi, Critica in Baronium, 
accustomed to take assumed names. See tom. iv., ad ann. 1008, p. 97, dec. Christ. 
Ditmar, lib. vi., p. 82. . Chronicon Quediin- Hartknoch, History of the Prussian church, 
burg., and Sigebert (remblacens.t tul ann. written in German, book i., ch. i., p. 12, dec. 
10<^. The annalist Saxo^ on this year, says [Some of the principal Poles also, to whom 
expressly : Sanctus Bruno qui et BonifaciuSf Christianity was burdensome on account of 
Archiepiscopus gentium, primum Canonicus the many tithes they had to pay to the cler- 
8. Mauritii in Magdaburgh. xvi. Kal. Mart, gy, relapsed again into idolatry. See Dlu- 
martyr incytus ccelos petiit He was of the goss. Hist. Polon. ad ann. 1022. On the 
highest rank of Saxon nobility, a near rela- other hand, the Transylvanians were van- 
ttre of the emperor Otto III., and beloved quished liy the king of Hungary, in the year 
by him. Bruno served for a time at the 1002 ; and were brought to embrace Chris- 
imperial chapel. But in the year 977, he tianity, after their prince Geula with his wife 
preferred a monastic life ; and connected and children, were thrown into prison. And 
niroself with St. Romiudd, whom he accom- the same king undertook some successful 
panied first to Monte Cassino, and then to campaigns against the Bulgarians and the 
Perra near Ravenna. He obtained permia- pagan Slavonians. See Theuroezim^ in Clo. 
•ion from the pope to preach to the pagans ; Himgar., c. 29, 80.— iScA/.] 
•ad therefore received ordination as an arch- 


in possession of ample revenues and honours, which they enjoy to the pref- 
ent times. (8) To this heroic man, is traced the origin of what is called 
the Sicilian monarchy^ or the supreme power in matters of religion claim, 
ed by the kings of Sicily : for Urban II. is said to have created this Roger 
and his successors, hereditary legates of the apostolic see, by a special 
diploma dated A.D. 1097. The Romish court contend, that this diploma 
is a forgery : and hence even in our times, those severe contests between 
the Roman pontic and the kings of Sicily, respecting the SidUan man^ 
arckg. The posterity of Roger governed Sicily down to the twelfth cento* 
ry ; at first under the title of dukes, and then under that of kings.(9) 

(8) See Burigtw, Histoire senenle de ileffe» given to rewird the personal sei 

Sicile, tome i., p. 3S6, dec. [The charac- of Roger. Many learned men regard ths 

ter of this Roger is highly extolled by the bull as of very questionable origin, wad 

historians of those times. Among other especially as the Sicilian monarchs wIho 

things, he is extolled for his tolerant dispo- challenged to do it have not produced tfas 

■ition in regard to religion. For when he original writing ; yet the kings of Arttgm 

conquered Sicily, he allowed the Saracens to whom Sicily was long subject, haTS 

who chose to remain in the island, to live claimed and exercised the legatme power, 

according to their own laws, and to follow as being the successors of duke Kogwr^ 

their own religion, so long as ther should And they would not suffer the eleventh vol- 

eontinue obedient subjects. See murtUori, urae of Baromict* Annals to circulate m 

Annal. Ital., ad ann. 1090.-~iScA/.] their dominions, on account of its elabonte 

(9) See CacM. BaroniiUt de Monarchia confutation of their claims. The same pow- 
Siciliae Liber ; in his annates, tom. xi., and er has been likewise claimed, and sometUMt 
Lud. EU. du Piftf Traits de la Monarchie exercised, by all the princes who have been 
Sicilienne. [The famous bull of the mon- masters of that island, down to modem 
archy of Sicily ^ is supposed to have been times. In the year 1715, Clement XI. hav^ 
granted, at an interview of pope Urban II. ing published two bulls, the one abolishing 
with Roger duke of Sicily and Calabria, the monarchy as it is called, and the other 
held at Salerno A.D. 1098. The pope had establishing a new plan of ecclesiastical go?- 
appointed Robert bishop of Frani, his legate emment, the duke of Savoy as sovereign of 
a latere in Sicily. But the duke, no stran- Sicily, banished all who received either of 
ger to the authority claimed by such legates them out of the country. Some compro- 
and to the disturbances they produced, en- mise has since taken place, but the supreme 
treated the pope to revoke the commission, ecclesiastical power is still in the hands of 
plainly insinuating that he would suffer no the temporal sovereign of the country : that 
legate in his dommions. As the duke had is, he is supreme head of the church there ; 
rendered signal services to the apostolic see, has power to excommunicate and absolve lU 
had driven the Saracens quite out of Sicily, persons whatever, ecclesiastics as well at 
and subjected all the churches of that island laymen, and cardinals themselves, if reei* 
to the see of Rome, though claimed by the dent in the island ; he has a right to preside 
patriarch of Constantinople, the pope not in all the provincial councils of the countij, 
only recalled the commission he had given and to exercise all the jurisdiction of a le- 
to the bishop, but to engage the duke still gate a latere vested with the fullest legatine 
more in his favour, he conferred upon him power. And this power the sovereign may 
all the power he had granted to his legate, exercise, though a female ; as in the in- 
declaring him, his heirs and his successors, stance of Jane of Aragon and Castile ; and 
hereditary legateSt and vested with the le- not only in his own person, but also by e 
eatine power in its full extent. The bull is commissioner of his appointment. For the 
dated at Salerno, July, Indiction vii., Ur- more convenient exercise of this power, e 
ban's reign xi., i. e., 1098. Here is some commissioner who is styled the Judge oftki 
mistake, as the 11th year of Urban coin- immarcAy, is appointed by the king, wbese 
cided with the sixth year of the Indiction. tribunal is the supreme ecclesiastical court, 
And this error has been urged aeainst the for Sicily, Apulia, Cdabria, Tarento, Malta, 
genuineness of the instrument bylSanmmi, and the other islands. Yet from him liee 
who inserts it, and endeavours to prove it e an appeal to the royal audience. See Btm^ 
forgery, in the eleventh volume of his An- er** Lives of the Popes, vol. v., p. 340, and 
nals. He also urges that the bull, if genu- Staeudiin** Kirchl. Oeogn^phie, ToL i., pL 
ine, related only to Roger and his immedi- 470, dcc-^IV.] 

ate deacendints ; that it was a/emi/y prir- 


§ 4* From the times of Syhester 11. the Roman pontics had heen med- 
itating the extension of the limits of the church in Asia, and especially the 
expulsion of the Mohammedans from Palestine ; but the troubles of Europe 
prevented the execution of their designs. Crregary VIL, the most daring 
of all the pontifi& that ever filled the chair of St. Peter, being excited by 
the peipetual complaints of the Asiatic Christians respecting the cruelty 
of the Mohammedans, from the commencement of his reign wished to en* 
gage personally in a holy war ; and more than fifly thousand men pre- 
pared themselves for an expedition under him. (10) But his controversy 
with the emperor Henry IV., of which we shall have occasion to speak 
hereafler, and other unexpected events, obliged him to abandon the design. 
But near the close of the century, a certain Frenchman of Amiens, Peter 
■umamed the Hermit, was the occasion of the renewal of the design by 
Urhan II. Peter visited Palestine in the year 1093, and there beheld with 
ffreat anguish of mind, the extreme oppressions and vexations which the 
Christians residing at the holy places suffered from the Mohammedans. 
Therefore, being wrought up to an enthusiasm which he took to be a divine 
impulse, he first applied for aid to Simeon the patriarch of Constantinople 
[the Greek patriarch of Jerusalem], and to Urban II. the Roman pontiff 
without success ; and then began to travel over Europe, calling on both 
princes and people to make war upon the tyrants of Palestine. He more- 
over carried with him an epistle on the subject, which came from Heaven, 
was addressed to all Christians, and was calculated to awaken the sensibil- 
ities of the ignorant.(ll) 

§ 5. The public feelings being thus excited. Urban II., in the year 1095, 
assembled a very numerous council at Placentia, in which he first recom- 
mended this holy war.(12) But the dangerous enterprise was relished 
only by a few ; although the ambassadors of the Greek emperor Alexius 
Comnenas were present, and in the name of their master, represented the 
necessity of opposing the Turks, whose power was daily increasing. The 
business succeeded better in the council of Clermont, which was assembled 
soon after. For the French, being more enterprising and ready to &ce 
dangers than the Italians, were so moved by the tumid eloquence of UrhoHf 
that a vast multitude of all ranks and ages, were ready at once to engage 
in a military expedition to Palestine. (13) This host seemed to be a very 
formidable army, and adequate to overcome almost any obstacles ; but in 
reality, it was very weak and pusillanimous ; for it was composed chiefly 

(10) Cfregory VII., Epittolsniin Ub. it., (13) Theod. Huinart, Vita Urbani II., 
ep. 81, and m Harduin't Concaia, torn, vi., $ ccxxt., 6lc., p. 334, 339, 340, 373, 374, 
pt. i., p. 1386. 383, 396, in the 0pp. postham. of Jo. ATa- 

(11) This is stated bj the abbot Dode^ billon and Theodore Ruinart, torn. iii. Jo, 
dbm, in his Gontinuat. Chronici Biariani HarduiiCs Concilia, torn, vi., pt ii., p. 1736. 
8coti ; in the SGiiptor. Grermanicor. Jo. Ctuar Baronius^ Annal. Eccles., torn, zi., 
Puioriit torn, i., p. 463. For an account ad ann. 1095, No. zzzii., p. 648. [The 
of Peter, see Car. du Fresne, Nota ad An- nnmber present at the council of Clermont, 
iHi Camoum Aleziadem, p. 70, ed. Venet is not definitely stated bjr the early writeisi 

(13) [Berihold a contemporary writer, though they all agree that it was feiy greaL 

Mys, then were present in this council about There were thirteen archbishops, two fann* 

four thousand clerBymen, and more than dred and fifty bishops, besides abbots and 

80,000 laymen, andtlnt its sessions were infierior deisyi with a multitude of laymen, 

beld in the open air, beoaose no church could The Acts ofthis council, with two speeches 

contain the multitude. See Anfaun'f Con- of UrboM, are giren by iibrdiim, Cioocilit, 

cOia, torn, rl, pt it, p. 1711, dtc^Tr.) torn. tI, pt ii., p. 1718, dccw— Tr.] 




of monks, mcchanica, farmers, persons averse from their regular occups. 
tions, spendthrifts, speculators, prostitutes, boys, girls, servants, malefac- 
tors, and the lowest dregs of tlie idle populace, who hoped to make their 
fortune. From such troops, what could be expected 1 Those attached to 
this camp, were coiled Cnuadera (cruciati) ; and the enterprise itself wac 
called a Cruaade (cxpeditio cruciata) ; not only because they professedly 
were going to rescue the croM of our Lord from the hands of its enemieav 
but also because they wore upon their right shoulders a white, red, or green 
cnw*madc of woollen cloth, and solemnly consecrated. (14) 

^ 6. Eight hundred thousand persons therefore, as credible writers io- 
form us, marched from Europe in the year 1096, pursuing different routM 
and conducted by different leaders, all of whom directed Sieir way to Coik 
stantinople, that receiving instructions and aid from Aledua Comnenua the 
Greek emperor, they might pass over into Asia. The author of th« war, 
Peter the Hermit, girded with a rope, first led on a band of eighty thousand 
through Hungary and Thrace. But this company, alter committing imiu- 
merablc base deeds, were nearly all destroyed by the Hungarians and 
Turks. {15} Nor did belter fortune attend some other armies of these cm. 
Baders ; who roamed about like robbers, under unskilful commanders, and 
plundered and laid waste the countries over which they travelled. God/ny 
of Bouillon, duke of Lorrain, a man who may be compared with the greaU 
est heroes of any age,(18} and who was commander. in. cjiief of the war, 
with Baldwin his brother, conducted a well-organized body of eighty thou- 
sand horse and foot through Germany and Hungary. Another body, under 
the command of Raymond earl of Toulouse, marched through Slavonia. 
iToSert earl of Flanders, iiofcert duke of Normandy,(17) and Hugo the Great, 
brother to Philip king of France, embarked with their forces at Brundisi 
and Tarento (Brundusium and Tarentum), and landed at Durazzo (Dyra> 

F. »'iUm,>Kieuiz.,Lipa.,lS07- 
IT, 3 vols. 8vo. /. Cli. Walin, Gemild* 
der Kreiiii., Ptincf., 1808-10, 3 vols, 8»0. 
A. H. Heerea, Verauch e. Enlwickelung d. 
Foil. d. KreuH.. (i prae esiny), GMIing., 
1808, Svo. The Englisb roidei mkv con- 
Bult, Gibbon's HiBt. of the DecUae, du.. cb. 
Iviii., lii. Baurer'i Lives of Ihe Popes, vol 
MiWi HistaiY of the CruudM, 

t. His- 
redu Concilede Pise, 
60, &c. The writers who giie iccount of 
the Crusades, are enumenied by Jo. Alb. 
Fabriciiu, Lui Evuigelii toli oibi exonens, 
up. III., p. SIS. [Moat of the ' ' ' 

wnters, tiTing u 

I the 

Cruiadea, were collected by Jac. Bongari, 
in hit Gesta Dei per Francos, Hanov.. 1611, 
S vols. fol. or these ari);inB] wnlers. the 
most importBTit are, Rober! of Rheima. Bald- 
rich or Baitdri of Dol, Raiminui of Agile, 
Albnl of Ail, Fulchcr or Fukard of Char- 
trea. and Guihert of Nogant : but especisllf 
Wiliiian bishop of Tyre, and Janui de Vi- 
tiy. To these may be added Marino Sdn- 
ulo of the ihincenih century. The liest 
modenis are soid to be /. Bapl. MaiUy, £a- 
prit des Ctoisadea, on Hisloire politique et 
wililaire des Guenes enterprises par lea 
Chretiens pour le recouvremetil de la Terra 

1730, i 

I. t3in 


beurg, Hisioire des Croisades, Paris, 1676, 
Ac., i Tola. iSmo. J. C. Mayer, Geech. 
dci Kieuziuge, Bsrtin, 1780, 2 vols. Sio. 


(15) {The army under Felfr the Hennil, 
vented theii rage especially aninil tha 
Jaws ; whom Ihey either compelled to re- 
ceive baptisni, or put to death with horrid 
cruelly. The same thing was done by an- 
other division in tbe countries along tlw 
Rhine, at Mentz, Cologne, Treves, Wonia, 
and Spier ; where, however, tha Jewa wen 
somctimea protected by Ihe bishops. Sw 
the annslisl Silto, ad ann. 1096, in £cciid'« 
Corpus Hiat. medii aevi, torn, i., p. fi79, &c 

(16) Ortbii illtiBtrious hero, the Benedie- 
tir» monks treat proTeasedly, in the Hialoiie 
litteraira de la Frartcc, torn, viii. , p. 598. &«. 

(17) [Hb wa> Ihe eldeal wtn oT WiUiam 
the Conqneioi, king ^Engjuid.— TV.] 


chium). These were followed by Boamundj duke of Apulia and Caifibria, 
at the head of a numerous and select band of Normans. 

§ 7. This army» the greatest since the memory of man, when it arrived 
at Constantinople, though greatly diminished by various calamities, excited 
much alarm and not without reason, in the mind of the Greek emperor. 
But his fears were dispelled, when it had passed the Straits of Gallipolis 
and landed in Bithynia. The crusaders first besieged Nice, the capital of 
Bithynia; which was taken in the year 1097. They then proceeded on 
through Asia Minor into Syria, and in the year 1098 took Antioch [in 
Syria], which was given with its territory to Boamund duke of Apulia, 
They also captured Edessa ; of which Baldwin the brother of Godfrey of 
Bouillon, was constituted the sovereign. Finally, in the year 1099, these 
Latins reduced the city of Jerusalem by their victorious arms. And here 
the seat of a new kingdom was established, and the above-named Godfrey 
was declared the first king of Jerusalem. He however refused the title 
of kingy from motives of modesty ; and retaining a few soldiers with him, 
permitted the others to return back to Europe. But this great man died 
not long afler, and lef^ his kingdom to his brother Baldwin, prince of Edes- 
sa ; who did not hesitate to assume the title of king. 

§ 8. With the Roman pontiffs, and particularly with TJrhan II. the prin. 
cipal motive for enkindling this holy war was furnished, I conceive, by the 
corrupted religion of that age. For according to the prevailing views, it 
was a reproach upon Christians to suffer the land which had been conse. 
crated by the footsteps and the blood of Christ, to remain under the power 
of his enemies ; and moreover, a great and essential part of piety to Grod 
consisted in pilgrimages to the holy places, which were most hazardous 
undertakings so long as the Mohammedans should occupy Palestine. To 
these rlsligious motives, there was added an apprehension that the Turks, 
who had already subdued a large part of the Greek empire, would march 
into Europe, and would in particular assail Italy. Those among the 
learned who suppose, that the Roman pontiff recommended this terrible 
war for the sake of extending his own authority, and of weakening the 
power of the Latin emperors and kings ; and that the kings and princes of 
jSurope encouraged it in order to get rid of their powerful and warlike 
vassals, and to obtain possession of their lands and estates ; bring forward 
indeed plausible conjectures, but they are mere conjectures. (18) Yet af- 

(|8) The first of these motives ascribed would inarch away from Europe to Pales- 

to the pontiffs, is brought forward by many, tine ; neither could they discover before- 

both Protestants and Catholics, as one not hand, that these expeditions would be so 

at all to be questioned. See Btntd. Accol- beneficial to themselves. For all the ad- 

tuM, de Bello sacro in infideles, lib. i., p. 16. vantages accruing to the pontiffs and to the 

Jac. Basnage, Hist, des Eglises Reform^es, clersy from these wars, both the extension 

torn, i., period v., p. 235. Ren. de Veriotj of their authority and the increase of their 

Histoire des Chevalieres de Malthe, tom. i., wealth, were not apparent at once and aft 

lib. iii., p. 302, 308 ; lib. iv., p. 428. Adr. the commencement of the war ; but they 

AuU«/, Hist des dcmelez dtt Boniface Yin. gradually developed themselves, being the 

avec Philip le Bel, p. 76. Hist, du droit result rather of accidental circumstances 

Eccles. Francois, tom. i., p. 296, 299, and than of design, lliis single fact shows, 

many others. But that this supposition has that the pontiffs who promoted these wan 

DO solid foundation, will be clear to such as could have had no thoughts of extending 

consider all the circumstances. The Ro- their power by them. It may be added, that 

man pontiffs could not certainly foresee, that the general belief as well as the expectation 

so many priocas and people of every claas of the pontiffii, was, that the whole ' 


terwards, when the pontiflb as well as the kings and princes learned by ex. 
perience the great advantages resulting to them from these wars, new and 

additional motives for encouraging them undoubtedly occurred to thenif 
and particularly that of increasing their own power and aggrandizement. 

§ 9. But these wars, whether just or unjust9(19) produced immense evib 
of every sort, both in church and state, and their effects are visible even to 

would be accomplished in a nnffle ezpeditkm (19) The question of the juitiee of iHmI 
of no lonff continuance ; and £at God him- aie called the CrutaiiM^ I shall not tik^ 
self woiud, by miraculous interpositions, upon me to discuss : nor shall I deny that 
overthrow those enemies of Christianity who it is, when Tiewed impartially, an intrieatt 
were Uie unjust possessors of Palestine. — and dubious question. But I wish the read- 
Besides, as soon as Jerusalem was taken, er to be apprized, that there was discuaaiia 
most of the European princes and soldiers among Christians as early as the twelfth aad 
returned back to Europe ; which the popes thirteenth centuries, respecting the iastac9 
surely would not have permitted, if from the or injustice of those holy wars. Tot tht 
continuance of this war they anticipated Catkari or Albigenses and the Waldentes^ 
great accessions to their wealth and power, denied their justice. The arsumenta tbey 
— But no conjecture on this subject is, in my used, are collected and refuted by Fr, if#- 
▼iew, more unfortunate than that which sup- futa^ a Dominican writer of the thirteentli 
poses Urban II. to have eagerly pressed for- century, in his Summa contra Cathaios et 
ward this holy war, in order to weaken the Waldenses, (which was published a few 
power of the emperor Hemy IV., with whom years ago at Rome, by Rickhn), lib. ▼., c 
ne was in a violent contest respecting the xiii., p. 681, dec. But the ar^ments of the 
investiture of bishops. Tlie advocates of Catkari against the transmarine expedUimu 
this conjecture forget, that the first armies (viam ultramarinam) as they called thc^e 
which marched against the Mohammedans wars, had not great weight ; nor were the 
of Asia, were raised chiefly among the Franka answers of the well-meaning Moneta veiy 
and Normans, and that the Germans who solid. An example will make this clear, 
were opposed to Urban II. were at first the The Catkari opposed the holy wars, by ui^ 
most averse from these wars. Other argu- ging the words of Paul, 1 Cor., x., 3S : 
ments are omitted, for the sake of brevity. — Give none offence^ neither to the Jewt^ nor 
Nor is the other part of the conjecture, which to tke ' gentilca, nor to tke church of God, 
relates to the kings and princes of Europe, By the gentiles^ they said, may be under- 
better founded. It has received the appro- stood the Saracens, Therefore European 
bation of Vcrtot, (Histoire de Maltbe, livre Christians ought not to make war upon the 
iii., p. 309), BouIainviUiers, and other great Saracens, lest they should give offence to 
and eminent men, who think they see farther tke gentiles. The answer o( Moneta to this 
than others into the court policy of those singular argument, we will give in his own 
ages. But these excellent men have no words : ** We read, Gen. xii., 7, that God 
other argument to adduce, but this : many said to Abraham : To thy seed will I gvH 
kings, especially of the Franks, were rcn- this land. But toe (the Christians of Eu- 
dered more rich and powerful by the death rope) are the seed of Abraham ; as says the 
and the misfortunes of those who engaged apostle to the Galat., iii., 29 : To im there* 
in these wars ; and therefore they craftily fore has that land been given for a posses- 
gave, not only permission, but also a direct sion. Hence, it is the duty of the civil 
encouragement to these wars. All can see power, to make efforts to put us in possee- 
the incoDclusiveness of this reasoning. We sion of that land ; and it is the duty of the 
are too prone to ascribe more sagacity and church, to exhort civil rulers to fulfil their 
cunning both to the Roman pontms and to duty." — A rare argument this, truly ! But 
the kings and princes of those times, than let us hear him out. — ** The church does 
they really possessed ; and we too often not intend to harm the Saracens, or to kill 
judge of the causes of transactions by their them ; nor have Christian princes any sueh 
results ; which is a defective and uncertain design. And yet, if they will stand in the 
mode of reasoning. I apprehend that the way of the swords of the princes, they will 
Roman pontiffs (of whom alone I would be slain. The church of God therefore ie 
apeak) obtained their immense aggrandize- without offence, that is, it injures no one in 
ment, not so much hj shrewdly forming this matter, because it does no one any 
plans for enlarging their power, as by dex- wrong, but only defends its own righta.**— 
teroosly seizing ue Of^KMrtonities that oc- Who ctn deny tfatt here ie ingenuity? 



the present day. Europe waa deprived of more tlian half of its popula- 
tion, and immense sums of money were exported to foreign countries ; and 
very many families previously opulent and powerful, either became extinct, 
or were reduced to extreme poverty ; for the heads of families, in order to 
defray the expense of their expedition, cither mortgaged or sold their ter- 
ritories, possessions, and estates :(20) while others imposed such intolerable 
burdens upon their vassals and tenants, as obliged them to abandon their 
houses and lands and assume themselves the badge of the cross. A vast 
derangement of society, and a subversion of every thing, took place throuL'h- 
out Europe ; not to mention the robberies, murders, and destructions of 
life and property every where conunitted with impunity, by these soldiers 
of Grod and Jesus Christ as they were called, and the new and often very 
grievous privileges and prerogatives, to which tliesc wars gave occa- 

§ 10, These wars were no less prejudicial to the church and to religion. 
The power and greatness of the Roman pontifis were greatly advanced by 
them ; and the wealth of the churches and monasteries was, in many ways, 
much augmented. (22) Moreover as bishops and abbots in great numbers 
forsook their charges and travelled into Asia, the priests and monks lived 

(JO) Many and very memorable examples to be conveniently enumerated here particu- 
of this, occur in ancient records. Robert larly. And not only the visible head of the 
duke of Normandy, mortgaged to his broth- church, but Ukewise the church universal, 

er WiUimn king of EngTand, the duchy of augmented its power and resources by means 

Normandy, to enable him to perform his ex- of these wars. For they who assumed the 

Dedition to Palestine. See Matlhtw Parity cross, as they were about to place their lives 

llistoria major, lib. L, p. 24, dec. Odo vis- in great jeopardy, conducted as men do when 

count of Bourges, sold his territory to the about to die. They therefore generally made 

king of Franca. See the Gallia Christiana^ their wills ; and in them Uiey gave a part of 

by the Benedictiiies, torn, ii., p. 45. For their property to a church or monastery, in 

more examples, see Car.du Frane, zdnott. order to secure the favour of Go(^. See 

ad Joinvillii vitam Lodovici S., p. 63. Bow- Plesns, Histoire de Mcaux, tome ii., p. 76, 

UunvtUiers, sur Porigine et les droits de la 79, 141. Gallia Christiana, tom. ii., p. 138, 

Noblesse ; in Molet's Memoircs de litter, et 139. Le Beuf, Mcmoires pour rilistoire 

de THistoire, tome ix., part i., p. 68. Jo. d'Auxerre, tome ii., Appena., p. 31. Du 

Geo. CramtTf de juribus et praerogativis No- FresnCj Adnott. ad vitam Ludovici Sancti, 

bilitatis, torn, i., p. 81, 409. From the time p. 62. Numerous examples of such pious 

therefore of these wars, very many estates donations, are to be found in ancient records. 

of the nobility in all parts of Europe, became — ^Those who had controversies with priests 

the property of the kings and more powerful or monks, very commonly abandoned their 

princes, or of the priests and monks, or of cause or lawsuit, and yielded up the prop- 

prhrate citizens of mferior rank. erty in controversy. Those who had them- 

(31) Those who took the badge of cmsa- selves seized on property of the churches or 
ders, acquired extraordinary rights and prir- convents, or were told that their ancestors 
ile^, and such as were injurious to other had done some wrong to the priests, freely 
citizen^. Of these the Jurists may properly restored what they had taken, and often with 
treat. I will only observe, that hence it be- additions, and compensated by their dona- 
came customary, whenever a person would tions for the injuries done whether real or 
contract a loan, or buy, or sell, or enter into imaginary. See Du Freme, 1. c, p. 62. [In 
any civil compact, to require of him to re- general, the Crusades were a rich mine for 
nounco the privileges of a crusader, wheth- the popes. Whoever became a knight of the 
cr already acquired, or yet future, (privilegio cross, became subject to the pope, and was 
crucis sumptae ac sumendae renunciare). no longer subject to the secular power of his 
See Lt Beuf, Memoires sur PHist. d*Aax- temporal lord. >^lioever had taken the vow 
crre. Append., tome ii., p. 292. to match to the Holy Land, and afterwards 

(22) The accessions to the wealth and the wished to be released Irom it, could purchase 

power of the Ronoan pontifls, arising from an exemption from the pope, who gave such 

these wars, were too numerous and various dispensations, dtc. — 8ckl.'\ 

Vol- II.— T 



without restraints, and addicted themselves freely to every viee. Supenti* 
tion also, previously extravagant, now increased greatly among the Latins. 
For the long list of tutelary saints was amplified with new and often ficti- 
tious saints of Greek and Syrian origin, before unknown to the Europe* 
ans ;(23) and an immense number of relics^ generally of a ridiculous chAr* 
actcr, were imported to enrich our churches and chapels. For every one 
that returned home from Asia, brought with him as the jichest treasure, 
the sacred relics which he had purchased at a high price of the fraudulenl 
Greeks and Syrians ; and committed them to the careful charge of some 
church, or of the members of his own iamily.(24) 

(88) The Roman Catholics themselves af> sess, as a present from Baldwin the seeeoi 

knowledge, that in the time of the Crusades, king of Jerusalem, the dish from which 

many saints before unknown to the Latms, Christ ate the paschal lamb with his dltei* 

were brought from Greece and the East into pies at his last supper. And this singolar 

Europe, and were thenceforth worshipped monument of ancient devotion, is ridiciilad 

most religiously. And among these new spir- by Jo. Baptut Labaif Voyages en Espagns 

itual gua^ians are some, of whose lives and et en Itahe, tome ii., p. 63. Kespectiog the 

history there is the greatest reason to doubt, great mass of relics brought from Palestins 

For example, St. Catharine was introduced to France, by St. Levoia the French king^ 

into Europe from Svria ; as is admitted by see JointilWt Life of St. Lewis, edited bf 

Cos. BaraniiiSf ad Martyrol. Rom., p. 738, Du Fresne ; PUstis, Histoire de I'Eglise & 

bv Geo. Cattandery Scholia ad hynmos ec- Meauz, tome i., p. 120. Lancelot fMemninB 

clesiae, in his 0pp., Paris, 1616, fol., p. 278, pour la vie de TAbb^ de S. Cyran, tome iL, 

279. Yet it is very doubtful, whether this p. 175. CAm^'xpocket-handkercl^ef, which 

Catharine the patroness of learned men, ever is held sacred at Besan9on, was brought from 

existed. Palestine to Besan^on by a Christian Jew- 

(24) The sacred treasures of relics, which ess. See Jo. Jac. Chifletf Vesontium, part 

the French, Germans, Britons, and other na- ii., p. 108, and, de linteis Christi sqnilcral- 

tions of Europe formerly preserved with such ibus, cap. ix., p. 50. For other examples^ 

care, and which are stul exhibited with rev- see Antonius Matthaus, Analecta retem 

erence, arc not more ancient than the times aevi. tom. ii., p. 677. Jo. MahiUon^ An- 

of the Crusades, and were purchased at a nales Benedict., tom. vi., p. 62, and espe- 

|[reat price by kings, princes, and other dis- cially, Jo. Jac. Chiflet, Crisis historiae d* 

tinguished persons, of the Ghreeks and Syri- linteis Christi sepulcralibus, cap. ix., x., p. 

ans. But that these avaricious and fraudu- 50, du:. Among other things, Chifiet says, 

lent dealers imposed upon the pious credu- p. 59, Sciendum est, vigente immani et bar- 

lity of the Latms, the most candid judges bara Turcarum persecutione, et imminenta 

will not doubt. Richard king of England, Christianae reli^ionis in Oriente naufragie, 

in the year 1191, purchased of Saladm the educta e sacrariis et per Christianoa quovis 

noted Mohammedan sultan, all the relics at modo recondita Ecclesiarum pignora. .... 

Jerusalem. See Matthew Paris, Hist, ma- Hisce plane divinis opibus iUecti prae aliia 

jor, p. 138 ; who also tells us (p. 666), that Galli, sacra Aeliffava qua vi, qua pretio a de- 

the Dominicans brought from Palestine a tinentibus hac iliac extorserunt. And this 

white atone, on which Christ had impressed learned writer brings many examples, aa 

the prints of his feet. The Genoese pos- proofs. 




4 1. Sofferings of Christians from the Saracens and Turks, in the East. — ^ 2. Also in 

the West. 

§ 1, The principal sufferings of the Christians in this century, were from 
the Saracens, or from the Turks, who were equally the enemies of both 
Saracens and Christians, The Saracens though at war among themselves, 
and at the same time unable to arrest the daily encroachments of the Turks 
upon them, persecuted their Christian subjects in a most cruel manner, put- 
ting some to death, mutilating others, and plundering others of all their 
property. The Turks not only pressed hard upon the Saracens, but also 
subjugated the fairest provinces of the Greek empire along the Euxine Sea, 
and ravaged the remaining provinces with their perpetual incursions. Nor 
were the Greeks able to oppose their desolating progress, being miserably 
distracted with intestine discords, and so exhausted in their finances that 
they could neither raise forces nor afford them pay and support when raised. 

§ 2. In Spain the Saracens seduced a large portion of the Christians, by 
rewards, by marriages, and by compacts, to embrace the Mohammedan 
faith.(l) And they would doubtless nave gradually induced most of their 
subjects to apostatize from Christianity, had they not been weakened by 
the loss of various battles with the Christian kings of Aragon and Castile* 
especially with Ferdinand L of Aragon, and by the conquest of a large 
part of the territories subject to them.(2) Among the Danes, Hungarians, 
and other nations, those who still adhered to their ancient superstitions, (and 
there were many of this description among those nations,) very cruelly per- 
secuted their fellow-citizens, as well as the neighbouring nations who pro- 
fessed Christianity. To suppress this cruelty, the Christian princes in one 
place and another, made it a capital crime for their subjects to continue to 
worship the gods of their ancestors. And this severit}' was undoubtedly 
more efficacious for extinguishing the inveterate idolatry, than the instruc- 
tions given by persons who did not understand the nature of Christianity, 
and who dbhonoured its purity by their corrupt morals and their supersti- 
tious practices. The still unconverted European nations of this period, the 
Prussians, the Lithuanians, the Slavonians, the Obotriti, and others inhab- 
iting the lower parts of Germany, continued to harass the neighbouring 
Christians with perpetual wars and incursions, and cruelly to destroy the 
lives of many.(3) 

(1) Jo. Hen. Hottingety Hiatoria ecdes., (3) HtlmM, Chronicon Slavor., lib. i., 
saecul. xi., sect, ii., p. 453. Mich. Geddet, cap. xv., p. 52, 6lc. Adam Bremensis, 
History of the expulsion of the Moriscoes Histor., lib. ii., cap. xxvii. [Among these 
ont of SMin ; pablished among his Miscel- nations, many persons had once professed 
laneons Tracts, vol. i., p. 104, &c. Christianity, but on account of the number- 

(2) These wars between the Christian less taxes laid upon than, particularly by the 
kings of Spain and the Mohammedans or clergy, and the cruelty of the Christian ma- 
Moors, are described by the Spanish histo- gistrates, they returned to paganism again, 
lians, Jo. Mariana and Jo. Ferrerat. and then persecuted the Christians without 




PART 11. 




^ 1. State of Learning amonff the Greeks. — ^ 2. Their most celebrated Scholars. — ^ 3L 
State of Learning in the West. — ^ 4. Schools opened in various Places. — ^ 5. The 
Sciences taught in these Schools. — ^ 6, 7. Dialectics in high repute. — ^ 8, 9. Diapvlcs 
among the Logicians. Nominalists and Realists. 

§ 1. The calamitous state of the Greek empire, allowed no progress of 
literature and science among the Greeks. T)ie Turks as well as the Sar- 
acens, were continually divesting the empire of some portion of its glory 
and power ; and what they left invic^ate, the civil discords, the frequent 
insurrections, and the violent dethronement of emperors, gradually wasted 
and destroyed. Yet there was here and there an individual that cherished 
and encouraged the liberal arts, both among the emperors, (as AlexioM 
Comnenus)y and among the patriarchs and bishops. Nor would the con- 
troversies of the Greeks with the Latins, allow the former to spurn at all 
cultivation of the understanding and all love of learning. Owing to these 
causes, the Greeks of this century were not entirely destitute of men re- 
spectable for their learning and intellectual culture. 

§ 2. I omit the names of their poets, rhetoricians, and grammarians ; 
who, if not the best, were at least tolerable. Among their historians, Leo 
the Grammarian,(l) John Sq/litzes,(2) Cedreniis,{2) and some others, are 
not to be passed by in silence ; although they adhered to the fabulous sto- 
ries of their countrymen, and were not free from partiality. Michael PseL 
hUf a man in high reputation, was a pattern of excellence in all the learn- 
ing and science of his age. He also laboured to excite his countrymen 
to the study of philosophy, and particularly of Aristotelian philosophy. 

mercy. Thus Helmold (lib. i., cap. 16-, 24, 
36) ajid Adam Bremensis (lib. ii., cap. 32) 
inform us, particularly in regard to the Sla- 
vonians. — Schl.'\ 

(1) [He was the continuator of Tluopha^ 
nes' Chronicle, from A.D. 813 to 1013, the 
time when he is supposed to have lived and 
wrote. His work was published, Gr. and 
Lat., subjoined to Theophanes^ ed. CombeJiM, 
pBiia, 1655, fol., and in the Coipus Hist. 
Byzantinae, torn, vi., p. 355-404. — Tr.'\ 

(2) [John Scylitzes, a civilian, and Guro- 
palates at Gonstantinople. He wrote a HU- 
tory of transacHons in the East, from A.D. 
811 to 1057, and afterwards continued it to 
A.D. 1061. The whole was published in a 

Latm translation, by /. B. Gahty Venice^ 
1570, fol, and the latter part in Gr., by P. 
GooTy Paris, 1648, fol. ; also in the Coipiw 
Hist. Byzant., tom. viii., p. 631-676. — Tr.] 
(3) [George CedremUf a Greek monk, 
compiled a chronicle, extending from the 
creation to A.D. 1057. It is a mere com- 
pilation or transcript from George SyncelluM, 
prior to the reign of Diocletian ; then from 
TheophaneSy to A.D. 813 ; and lastly, from 
John Scylitzes, to A.D. 1057. It was first 
published, Gr. and Lat., by Hylander, Basil, 
1566, fol., and afterwards, much better, and 
with notes, by Faln-otus and Jae, Goar, 
Paris, 1647, fol. ; also in the Corpus Histo- 
liae Byzantinae, tom. viii., p. 1-629. — Tr,} 


wliich he attempted to explain and recommend by various prodiictions.(4) 
Among the Arabians, the love of science still flourished ; as is manifest 
from those among them, who in this age excelled in the sciences of medi- 
cine, astronomy, and mathematics. (5) 

§ 3. In the West, learning revived in some measure, among those de- 
voted to a solitary life or the monks and the priests. For other people 
and especially the nobles and the great, despised learning and science, with 
the exception of such as devoted themselves to the church or aspired to sa- 
cred offices. Schools flourished here and there in Italy, after the middle 
of the century ; and a number of learned men acquired reputation as au- 
thors and instructers. Some of these afterwards removed to France, and 
especially to Normandy, and there taught the youth devoted to the service 
of the church.(6) The French, while they admit that they were indebted 
«n a degree to learned men who came from Italy, produce also a re^)ecta- 
ble list of their own citizens who cultivated and advanced learning in this 
age ; and they name quite a number of schools, which were distinguished 
by the fame of their teachers and the multitude of their students, (7) And 
it is unquestionable, that the French paid great attention to letters and the 
arts, and that their country abounded in learned men, while the greatest 
part of Italy was still sunk in ignorance. For Robert king of France, the 
son of Hugh Capet, and a pupil of Gerbert or Sylvester II., was himself a 
•learned man, and a great patron of learning and learned men. His reign 
terminated in the year 1031, and his great zeal for the advancement of the 
arts and learning of every kind, was not unsuccessful.(8) The Normans 
from France, after they obtained possession of the lower provinces of Italy, 
(Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily), difiused the light of science and hterature 
over those countries. To the same people belbngs the honour of restoring 
teaming in England. For William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy, a 
man of discernment and the great Mescenas of his time, when he had con- 
<}uered England in the year 1066, made commendable eflTorts by inviting 
learned men from Normandy and elsewhere, to banish from the country 

(4) See LeoAUatiuSfDiitnbzde Psellis, (6) Elmacin, Historia Saracen., p. 3S1. 

-p. 14, ed. Fabricius. [Michael Paellus Ju- Jo. Henr. H»ttingery Historia eccks., sae- 

nior, was of noble birth, a senator at Con- cul. xi., p« ^^t ^• 

AUntinopIo, tutor to Michael Ducom after- (6) Sec Muratori^ Antiqq. Ital. medii 

wards emperor. He retired to a monastery- aevi, torn, iii., p. 871. GiannonCf Histoire 

about A.D. 1077, and died not long after, de Naples, torn, ii., p. 148. 

He wrote a metricalparaphrase and a prose (7) See the Benedictine monks, Histoire 

commentaiT on the Cfantides, a tract on the litteraire de la France, torn, vii., Introduc- 

Trinity ana the person of Christ, tracts on tion, passim. Ciuar Egasse de BouJUafy 

rirtue and vice, on Tantalus and Circe, on Historia Acad. Paris., torn, i., p. 355, du:. 

the Sphinx, on the Chaldaic oracles, on the Le Beuft Diss, sur Tetat des sciences en 

faculties of the soul, on diet, on the virtues France, dcpuis la mort du roi Robert, dec., 

of stones, on factitious gold, on food and re- which is published among his Dissertations 

gimen ; notes on portions of Gregory Na- sur THistoire Eccles. ot civile de Paris, 

sianzen, and on the eight Books of Aristotle*s torn, ii., p. 1, dec. [Among their monastic 

physics ; a paraphrase on Aristotle irepl ip- schools, tnat of Bee in Normandy, taught bv 

furveiac ; a panegyric on Simeon Metaphras- Lanfrane and Anselm^ was particular^ cef- 

tes ; some Uw tracts ; and on the ecclesi- ebrated ; and amonff their episcopal schools, 

ftstical canons, on the four branches of math- were those of Rheims, Liege, Orleans, 

ematics, (arithmetic, music, geometry, and Tours, Angers, and Chutres. — Schl.'\ 

mstionomy), several philosophical tracts, dpc., (8) See Daniel, Histoire de la France, 

6lc. Many of his pieces were never print- tom. iii, p. 58. Boulai^, Hist. Acad. Paris., 

ed ; and most of those published, were pub- tom. i., p. 636, et passjm. 
lished separately. — TV.] 


barbarism and ignorance, those fruitfiil sources of so many evils.(9) For 
those heroic Normans, who had been so ferocious and hostile to all learn- 
ing before they embraced Christianity, imMbed aiier their conversion a 
very high regard both for religion and for learning* 

§ 4. The thirst for knowledge which gradually spread among the more 
civilized nations of £urope, was attended by this consequence, that more 
schools were opened, ana in various places better teachers were placed 
over them. Until the commencement of this century, the only schools in 
Europe were those attached to the monasteries and the cathedi^ churches, 
and the only teachers of secular as well as sacred learning, were the B^i- 
edictine monks* But in the beginning of this century, other priests and 
men of learning undertook the instruction of youth, in various cities of 
France and Italy ; and they not only taught more branches of science than 
the monks, but they adopted a happier method of inculcating some of the 
branches before taught. Among these new teachers, those were the mosl 
distinguished, who either studied in the schools of the Saracens in Spain, 
(which was a very common thing in this age with such as aspired after a 
superior education), or at least read the books of the Arabians, many of 
which were translated into Latin* For such masters taught philosophy, 
mathematics, medicine, astronomy, and the kindred sciences, in a more 
learned and solid manner, than they were taught by the monks and by those 
trained in monastic schools. For the science of medicine, the school of 
Sakmo in the kingdom of Naples, was particularly famous in this century; 
and to this school medical students resorted from most of the countries of 
Europe. But all the medical knowledge possessed by the teachers at Sa- 
lerno, was derived from the schools of the Saracens in Spain and Africa, 
and from the medical works of the Arabs. (10) From the same schools 
and books, and at the same time, nearly all the nations of Europe derived 
those futile arts of predicting the fortunes of men by the stars, by the coun- 
tenance, and by the appearance of the hands, which in the progress of time 
acquired such an extensive currency and influence. 

§ 5. In most of the schools, the so called seven liberal arts were taught. 
The pupil commenced with grammar ; then proceeded to rhetoric ; and 
afterwards to logic or dialectics. Having thus mastered the Trivhun as it 
was called, those who aspired to greater attainments, proceeded with slow 
steps through the Quadrivium,{ll) to the honour of perfectly learned men. 
But this course of study, adopted in all the schools of the West, was not a 
little changed after the middle of this century. For logic, (which included 
metaphysics, at least in part), having been improved by the reflection and 
skill of certdn close thinkers, and being taught more fully and acutely, ac- 
quired such an ascendency in the minds of the majority, that they neglect- 
ed grammar, rhetoric, and the other sciences both the elegant and the ab- 

(9) See the Histoire litter, de la France, History of Physic from the time of Gtlen, 
torn, viii., p. 171. "The English," says Lond., 1726, 8vo. And who does not know, 
Matthew Paris, (Historia major, lib. i., p. that the Schola SaUrrutana or rales for pi«- 
4, ed. Watts), " before the time of William, serving health, was written in this age by 
were so illiterate, that one who understood the physicians of Salem0| at the request of 
grammar, was looked upon with astonish- the king of England ? 

ment.'* (U) [The Quadrivium embraced ortli- 

(10) Muratorif Antiquit. Ital. medii eri, metic, mutic, geometry ^ and OMtronomy.'— 
torn, iii., p. 935, dtc. Oiannone, Histoire Tr,} 

de Naples, torn, ii., p. 161. Jo, Friniii 


stnise, <uid devoted their whole lives to diakciics or to logical and metaphys- 
ical diacussions. For whoever was well acquainted with dialectica, or 
what we call logic and metaphysics, was supposed to possess learning 
enough, and to lose nothing by being ignorant of all other branches of learn- 
ing.(12) And hence arose Uiat contempt for the languages, for eloquence 
and the other branches of polite learning, and that gross barbarism, which 
prevailed for several centuries in the occidental schools, and which had a 
corrupting influence on theology as well as philosophy. 

§ 6. In this age, the philosophy of the Latins was confined wholly to 
what they called dialectics; and the other branches of philosophy were un- 
known even by name.(13) Moreover their dialectics was miserably dry 
and barren, so long as it was taught either from the work on the ten CaU' 
gorieSf falsely attributed to Augustine^ or from the Introductions to Aristotle 
by Porphyry and Averroes. Yet in the former part of this century, the 
schools had no other guide in this science ; and the teachers had neither 
the courage nor the skill, to expand and improve the precepts contained in 
these works. But afler the middle of the century, dialectics assumed a 
new aspect first in France. For some of the works of Aristotle being in- 
troduced into France fiK)m the schools of the Saracens in Spain, certain 
eminent geniuses, as Berengarius, RosceUn, Hildehert, and afterwards 
Gilbert of Porretta, Ahelard, and others, following the guidance of Aristotle^ 
laboured to extend and perfect the science. 

§ 7. None however obtained creator fame, by their attempts to improve 
the science of dialectics and rendar it practiciedly useful, than Lanfranc an 

(12) See the citations in Boulay^t Histo- inept ! or crude and unphdosophieal ! — To 

ria Acad. Paris., torn, i., p. 408, 409, 511, say or do any thing attitably tnd rationaUy, 

513. To show how true the yulgar maxim was thought to be impossible, without the 

is, that there it nothing new under the sun, express statement of the suitableness and 

I here subjoin a passage from the Metalogi- reason of it'* The author says more on tho 

com of Jmu of l^aluhirjf, a writer of no same subject, for which see his work. — [The 

contemptible abilities, lib. i., cap. iii., p. 741, latter part of the extract aboye, is very ob« 

ed. Lugd. Bat., 1639, 8vo. " The poets scure m the oriffmal Latin, at least when 

«nd historians were held in contempt ; and thus deprived of light from the context, 

if any one studied the works of the ancients, The translation here given, is not ofifered 

he was pointed at and ridiculed by every- with great confidence. — Tr."] 
body, as being more stupid than the ass of (13) In the writings of this age we find 

Arcadia, and more senseless than lead or a mention indeed of many philosophers : e. c., 

•tone. For every one devoted himself ex- ManegM the philosopher, Adalard the pni- 

dusively to his own discoveries, or those of losopher, and many more. But it would 

kis master." — " Thus men became at once, mislead us, to attribute to the term the 

consummate philosophers ; for the illiterate meaning it had anciently amone the Greeks 

novice did not usually continue longer at and Romans, and which it now has. In tho 

school, than the time it takes voung birds style of the middle ages, a philosopher is a 

to become fledged." — '' But what were the learned or literary man. And this title was 

things taught by these new doctors, who ^iven to the interpreters of Scripture, thouflh 

spent more sleeping hours than waking ones ignorant of everything which is properly 

in the study of philosophy 1 Lo, all things Med philosophy. The Chronicon Saler- 

became new : grammar was quite another nitanum, (in Jnuratoris Scriptores rerum 

thing; dialectics assumed a new form; ItaUcar., tom. ii., pt. ii., c. cxxiv., p. 365), 

ifaetoric was held in contempt ; and a new states that there were tkirty-tuto pkdosopkers 

course for the whole quadrivinm was got up, ai Benevento, in the tenth century ; at which 

derived from the very sanctuary of [miloso- time the lisht of science scarcely gUmmered 

phy, all former rules and principles being in Italy, ^ut what follows this statement, 

discarded. They tsSked only of suitableness, shows that the writer intended to deaignate 

(convenientia), and reason: — the proof! grammarians, and persons having somo 

(resounded from every mouth) — ana, very knowledge of the liberal arts. 


Italian, who was promoted from the abbacy of St. Stephen in Caen, to the 
archbishopric of Canterbury in England ; Anselm, whose last office was 
likewise archbishop of Canterbury ; and Odo who became bishop of Cam- 
bray. The first of these men was so distinguished in this science, that he 
was commonly called the Dialectician ; and he applied the principles of the 
science with ipuch acuteness, to the decision of the controYersy with lus 
rival BerengariuSf respecting the Lord's supper. The second, {Anselm)f 
in his dialogue de GrammaHco^ among other efforts to dispel the darkness 
of the dialectics of the age, inyestigated particularly the ideas of substaauOf 
and of qualities or aUrilntte8,{lA) The third, (Odo), both taught dialectics 
with great applause, and explained the science in three works, de SopMsUtf 
de CompIexilmSf and dereet Ente : which however are not now extant.(15) 
The same Anselm^ who laboured to improve the science of dialectics, a man 

Ereat and renowned in many respects, was likewise the first among the 
atins that rescued metaphysics and natural theology from obscurity and 
neglect ; for he explained acutely, what reason can teach us conceminff 
God, in two treatises which, he entitled Monologian and Proslogion.(l^ 
He it was that invented, what' is conamonlv called the Cartesian argument ; 
which aims to prove the existence of a God, from the very conception of an 
alUperfect nature implanted in the minds of men. The conclusiveness of 
this argument was assailed, in this very century, by the French monk Ga«- 
nilo ; whom Anselm attempted to refute, in a tract expressly on the sub- 

§ 8. But the science of dialectics was scarcely matured, when a fierce 
contest broke out among its patrons, respecting the subject matter of the 
science. This controversy was of little importance in itself, and one that 
had long been agitated in the schools ; but considered in its consequences^ 
it now became a great and momentous affair ; for the parties applied their 
difierent theories to the explanation of religious doctrines, and they mutu- 
ally charged each other with the most odious consequences. They were 
all agreed in this, that dialectics is occupied with the consideration and 
comparison of general ideas (rebus universalibus) ; because particular and 
individual things, being liable to change, cannot become the subject matter 
of fixed and invariable science. But it was debated, whether these general 
idecu with which dialectics is concerned, are to be referred to the class of 
things^ or to the class of mere words or names. Some maintained, that 
generid ideas are things, that have real existence ; and they supported their 
opinion by the authority of PlatOy Boethvus, and others among the ancients* 
On the contrary, others affirmed that these general ideas (universalia) are 
nothing more than words or names ; and these quoted the authority of Ar» 
istotle. Porphyry^ and others. The former were called Realists, and the 
latter Nominalists. Each of these parties became in process of time sub- 

(14) This Dialogue is among his Worib, (16) [In the Monotogiout a person is rep- 
pub, by Gahr. Gtrberon, torn, i., p. 143, &c. resented as meditating, or reatoning tpitk 

(15) See Herimannt Narratio restanra- himself alone : in the Proslogion the bkolb 
tionis AbbatiaB S. Martini Tomac., in Do- person is represented as addressing himself 
chier^s Spicilegium scriptor. vetemm, torn, to God. — TV.] 

ii., p. 889, 6cc., of the new edition. " Odo^ (17) Croum^b** Tract against Anselm, (is 
though well skilled in all the liberal arts, well as the Answer to it), is to be fouod in 
was particularly eminent in dialectics ; and Antelmi Opp., p. 35, 36. 
for this especially, his school was frequented 
by the clergy." 


divided into various sects, according to the different ways in which they 
explained their favourite doctrine.(18) This controversy filled all the 
schools in Europe, for many centuries ; and it produced frequently mortal 
combats among the theologians and philosophers. Its origin, some learned 
men trace back to the controversy with Berengarius respecting the Lord's 
supper ;(19) and although they have no authorities to adduce, the conjec- 
ture is very probable, because the opinion of the NondnaUsis might be used 
very conveniently in defending the doctrine of Berengarius respecting the 
Lord's supper. ^ 

§ 9. The father of the NominaUst sect, was one John a Frenchman, 
called the Sophist ; of whom almost nothing is now known, except the 
name.(20) His principal disciples were Robert of Paris, RosceUn of Com- 
peigne, and Arnulph of Laon ; and firom these, many others learned the 
doctrine^ 'JPerhaps also we may reckon among the disciples of John^ that 
Raimbert who taught a school at Lisle in Flanders ; for he is said to have 
read logic to his clergy, in voce ; whereas Odo, of whom mention has been 
made, read it to his disciples, in re.(21) But of all the NominaUsts of this 
age, no one acquired greater celebrity than RosceUn : whence he has been 
regarded, and is still regarded by many, as the founder of this sect. 

(18) Of the Nominalists and likewise of a Roberto Rege ad mortem Philippi I., 
this dialectic controversy^ there is a full ac- which is extant in Andr, du Chesne^s ocrip- 
eonnt in Jac. Brueker^s Historia crit. pbilo- tores Histor. Francicae, tome, iv., p. 90. 
■oph., torn, iii., p. 904, &c. He also, as his This writer says : In Dialectica hi potentet 
custom is, mentions the other writers pon- eztiterunt Sophistae, Johannes, qui artem 
ceming this sect. Among these writers, is Sophisticam vocaUm ease disseruit, &c. 
John Salabert a presbyter of Agen, whose Casar Egasse de Bcuday^ in his Histor. 
Philosophia Nominalium vindicata was pub- Acad. Paris., tom. i., p. 443 and 61S, eon- 
lished at Paris, 1651, 8vo. None of those jectures, that this John was John of (Jhar' 
who have treated expressly of the Nominal- tres sumamed the Deaf, an eminent physi- 
ists, have made use of tins veiy raze book, cian, and first physician to Henry I. Uie 
I have before me a manuscript copy, tran- king of France. And he tells us, p. 377, 
scribed from one in the Ubrary of the king that John^s instructer was Giraldus of Or- 
of France ; for the printed work was not to leans, an extraordinary poet and rhetorician ; 
be obtained in that country. The acute but of this he brings no proof. Jo.MabiUon^ 
Salabert however, is at more pains to defend in his Annates Benedictini, tom. ▼., Ub. 
the philosophy of the Nominalists, than to Ixvii., ^ 78, p. 261, supposes him to be thai 
narrate its matory. And yet he relates JoAn, who made known to Anselm the error 
some facts, which are generally little known, of RosceUn concerning the three persons in 

(19) Boulayy Histuria Acad. Paris., tom. the Godhead. 

i, p. 443. Gerh, du Bois, Historia eccles. (21) Herimann^ Historia restaurat. mon- 

Paris., tom. i., p. 770. asterii S. Martini Tomac. in Dachery*s Spi- 

(20) This is stated by the unknown an- cilegium voter. Scriptorum, tom. ii., p. 889 
Aor of the Fragmentum Historiae Francicae 

Vol. II.— U 




^ 1. Conuptum of the Clergy.-^ S, 8, 4, 5. Tlie Roman Pontifis.^ 6. PrerogatiTct of 
the CudiDtb in their Election.— -4 7, 8. Their Authoritj.— ^ 9. Hildehrand a Pope.— • 
^ 10, 11. His Acts. — ^ 18. The Decrees of Giegoiy Vll. sffiinst Simony and Coneo- 
buMge.— ^ 13. Commotions arising from the Severity of the Pope against Concubinags. 
—4 14* The Enactments against Simony, produce the Contest aEoat Inyestituzes.— 
616, 16, 17, 18, 19, 80. History of this Contest.—^ 21, 22. State of Monkeiy.-^f 88. 
The Cloniacensians. — ^ 24. The Camaldulensians, Valumbrosians, and Hirsaughms.— 
% 25. The Cistercians. — ^ 26. New Orders of Monks ; the Grandimont^)aiis.-»4 ^• 
The Carthusians.--^ 28. The Order of St Anthony.—^ 29. The Order of QffiOna^— 
^ 30. The more distinguished Greek Writers.—^ 31. The Latin Writers. . . , 

§ 1. All the records of these timesy bear testimony to the vices of tho0e 
wIk> managed the afiairs of the churchy and to the consequent prostratioii 
of disciplii^ and of all religion. The Western bishops, when raised to the 
rank of dukes, counts, and nobles, and enriched with territories, towna^ 
castles, and wealth of all sorts, became devoted to their pleasures and to 
magnificence, and hovered about courts attended by splendid retinues of 
servants.(l) At the same time the inferior clergy, few of whom exhibited 
any degree of virtue and integrity, gave themselves up without shanoe to 
firauds, debaucheries, and crimes of various descriptions. The Greeks 
pxaetlsed a little more restraint ; for the calamities of their country would 
not allow them to indulge themselves extravagantly* Yet examples of 
virtue among them, were few and rare. 

§ 2. The power and majesty of the Roman pontifis, attained their great- 
est height during this century ; yet it was by gradual advances, and through 
great difficulties. They exercised indeed at the commencement of tms 
century, very great power in sacred and ecclesiastical affairs ; for they 
were styled by most persons, matters of the worldy (magistri mundi), aim 
fopes or umversfdfatkers ; they presided also every where in the councils, 
by their legates ; they performed the functions of arbiters, in the contro- 
versies that arose respecting religious doctrines or discipline ; and they 
defended in a degree the supposed rights of the church, against the en- 
croachments of kic^ and princes. Yet their authority had some limits ; 
for the sovereign princes on the one hand, and the bishops on the other, 
made such resistance, that the court of Rome could not overthrow civil 
governments, nor destroy the authority of councils.(2) But from the time 

(1) See the examples of Adalbert, (in AtL- read : ** The duke of Brabant — is carver to 

am Brem., lib. iii., cap. zxiii., p. 38, lib. iv., the bp. of Utrecht. The count of Guelders 

cap. zzxv., p. 62), of GurUher, (in Henr. Car his hunter. The count of Hoi- 

nisiiu, Lectiones Antiq., torn, iii., pt. i., p. land is styled, and is, the bishop of Utrecht's 

185), of Manattes, (in Joh, MabiUonj Ma- marthal. The count of Clevet, is the bish- 

seum Italic, torn. L, p. 114), and those col- op*s chamberlain. Count de Bcnthem, is the 

lected by Muratori, Antiqq. Ital. medii aevi, bishop's janitor. Lord de Cueke, is the 

torn, vi., p. 72, dec. [Among the servants bishop's butler. Lord de Choerf isthebish- 

of bishops in these times, we meet with the op's gtandard-bearer.^^ — Schl.} 

ordinary officers of courts. In Harzheim^t (2) A very noticeable summary of the ee- 

Coociha German., torn, iii., p. 17, dec., we deaiMtical law of this age, has been collect* 


of Lto IX. especially, [A,D. 1049], the pontifis laboured by ¥0110118 arts 
to remove these limitatioDS. With incessant efforts, they strove to be ac- 
knowledged as not only the sovereign legisLators of the church, superior to 
all councils, and the divinely-constituted distributors of all tlie omces and 
dispensers of all the property belonging to the church ; but also — what was 
the extreme of arrogance, — to be acknowledged as lords of the whole world, 
and the judges of kings, or kings over all king8.(3) These unrighteous 
designs were opposed by the emperors, by the kings of France, by WiU 
Ham the Conqueror, (now king of England, once duke of Normandy), a 
most vigorous osserter of the rights of kings against the pontifis,(4) and by 
other sovereigns. Nor were the bishops wholly silent, especially those of 
France and Grcrmany ; but others of them succumbed, being influenced 
either by superstition or by motives of interest. Thus although the pon- 
tifls did not obtain all they wished for, yet they secured no smdl part of it. 
§ 3. Those who presided over the Latin church, from the death of SyU 
vesler II. in the year 1003, till A.D. 1012, namely, John XVII., John 
XVI II., and Sergius IV., neither did nor suffered, any thing great or no- 
ticeable. It is beyond a doubt however, that they were elevated to the 
chair, with the approbation and by the authority of the emperors. Bene^ 
diet VIII., who was created pontiff in 1012, being driven from Rome by 
one Gregory his competitor, implored the aid of the emperor Henry II. 
called the Saint ;(5) and was restored by him, and reigned peacefully till 

ed from the Epistles of Gregory VII. by Jo. 1 can suppose, did the same thing ; humbly 

Launoi, in his assertio contra privil^om requesting Leo IX. to confer on them the 

S. Mcdardi, pt. ii, cap. xxzi., 0pp., torn, territories which they now occupied, and 

iii., pt. ii., p. 307. From this summary, it those they migjbi afterw«rds seize. What 

appears, that even this Gregory himself did wonder then that the pontiffs should cUm 

not claim absolute power over the church. dominion oyer the whole world, when Uogs 

(3) Before Leo IX. there is no example and princes themselves suggested to them 
of a Roman pontiff's assuming the power to this veiy thing 1 

transfer countries and prorinces fi[om their (6) [This statement, that Baudiet was 

owners to other persons. But this pope gen- driven from Rome by Gregory, and implored 

erously gave to the Normans then reigning €be succour of king .ffeitry IL, is given also 

in the south of Italy, both the provinces by Au'ema<«, ad ann. 1018,^ 6, and by Ptfi, 

which they then occupied, and also such as Breviar. Pontif. VitaBened. VIIL, ^ 8. But 

they might wrest from the Greeks and the it is founded on a misrepresentation of Dtl- 

Saracens. Gaufr. Malaterra, Historia Sic- mar*t Chronicon, lib. iv., near the end, p. 

ula, lib. i., cap. ziv., in Muratori^t Scrip- 899. Ditmar says : Papa Bencdictns Gre- 

tores Ital., torn, v., p. 653. sorio euidam in electione praevaluit. Ob 

(4) See Eadmeri Monachi Historia novo- hoc itU (not Benedict, for he had the supe- 
rum, lib. i., p. 89, &c., subjoined to the 0pp. riority ; but Gregory) ad nativitatem Domini 
Anselmi Cantuar. And yet this very Wtl- ad regem in Palithi (Poelde) venit cum omni 
Uam, who so openly and vifforously resisted apparatu apostolico, expulsiooem suam om- 
the extension of pontificu and episcopal lubus lamentando innotescens. — See Mwu- 
power, is himself a proof, that the lungs of tori, ad ann. 1018, and the (German) trans- 
Europe when the desire of extending or con- lator*s notes there. — Sckl. But it is not so 
firming their power demanded it, did impru- certain, that Gregory was the suiter to king 
dently feed the lust of dominion which reign- Henry, If he lost his election, how could 
ed in the breasts of the pontiflb. For when he appear before the king in the potUifieal 
he was preparinj^r to invade England, he sent hoMiimcnUf never having been pope 7 But 
ambassadors to the pontiff il/£2»ni«r II. ** in suppose Ben^Uet, niter "prevailing in the 
order" (as Matthew Paris says. Hist, major., election" and being put in possession of the 
lib. i., p. 8), ** that the enterprise might be papacy, to have been vanquished and " ex- 
sanctioned by apostolic authority. And the pelled" from Rome \ff his antagonist, and he 
pope, after considering the claims of both might well flee to the king in the Ao^t^'n^ftf^, 
the parties, sent a stanoard to WiUiarh as the and miflfat there plead t&t he had pretaiUd 
omen of kingly power." — And the Norman^, tn theueUion, uta complain of kU ixpuUimu 


the year 1024. Under his reign, the celebrated Normans who afterwards 
acquired so much feme, first came into Italy and subdued the SQUthem 
parts of it. Benedict was succeeded by his brother John XIX., who pre- 
sided over the church till A.D* 108d« The five above-named pontiffs ap» 
pear to have been of decent moral characters.(6) But very different from 
them, or a most flagitious man and capable of every crime, was their suc- 
cessor, Benedict Ia. The Roman citizens therefore, in the year 1088, 
hurled him from St. Peter's chair; but he was restored soon after by the 
emperor Ctmrad. As he continued however in his base conduct, the Ro- 
mans again expelled him in the year 1044, and gave the government of 
the church to John bishop of Sabina, who assumed the name of Sylvester 
in. After three months, Benedict forcibly recovered his power, by the 
victorious arms of his relatives and adherents, and Sylvester was obliged 
to flee. But soon cilcr, finding it impossible to appease the resentments 
of the Romans, he sold the pontificate to John Gratian, an archpresbyter 
of Rome, who took the name of Gregory YL Thus the church now bad 
two heads, Sylvester and Gregory. The emperor Henry III. terminated 
this discord ; for in the councU of Sutri, A.D. 1046, he caused Benediei^ 
Gregory^ and Sylvester, to be all declared unworthy of the pontificate ; and 
he placed over the Romish church Swdger bishop of Bamberg, who as- 
sumed the pontifical name df Clement 11.(7) 

§ 4. On the death of Clemenl II., A.D. 1047, Benedict IX., who had 
been twice before divested of his pontificate, seized the third time upon 
that dignity. But the year following, he was obliged to yield to Damasu* 
II. or PoppOf bishop of Brixen, whom the emperor Henry III. had created 
pontifl'in Grermany and sent into Italy. Damasus dying after a very short 
reign of twenty.three days, Henry III. at the diet of Worms, in the year 
1048, elevated Bruno bishop of Toul, to the throne of St. Peter. This pon- 
tiff bears the name of Leo IX. in the pontifical catalogue, and on account 
of his private virtues and his public acts, he has been enrolled among the 
saints. Yet if we except his ^eal for augmenting the wealth and power of 
the church of Rome, and for correcting some more flagrant vices of the 
clergy, by the councils which he held in Italy, France, and Grermany, wo 
shall find nothing in his character or life, to entitle him to such honour. 
At least, many of those who on other occasions are ready to palliate the 
ftiults of the Roman pontiff censure freely the last acts of his reign. For 
in the year 1053, he rashly made war upon the Normans, whose dominion 
in Apulia near his estates, excited his apprehensions. And the conse- 
quence was, that he became their prisoner, and was carried to Benevento. 
Here his misfortunes so preyed upon his spirits, that he fell sick ; but after 
a year's captivity, he was set at liberty, conducted to Rome, and there di^ 
on the 19th of April, A.D. 1054.(8) 

Besides, it is certain that it was Benedict John obtained the papacy by base means ; 

who crowned ]L\ng Henry as emperor, upon — according to Baroniu*, ad ann. lOlS, 4 

his first arrival at Rome, Feb., 1014. It is l^._Tr.] 

therefore supposed, that the people of Rome (7) In this account of the pontiffs, I have 

finding Benedict to be supported by the king, followed the best historians, Anton, and 

restored him of their own accord. See Fran. Pagi, Papebroeh, and Muratori, in 

Sekroeckk^M Kirchengesch., vol. zxii., p. 322, his Annali d'ltalia ; disregarding what Be* 

dec. — TV.] romtu and others allege in defence of Oreg" 

(6) [Yet Benedict was rescued from pur- ory VI. 
gttofy, by the pnyeis of St. Odilo; and (8) See the Acta Saoctor. ad d. 19 Apri* 


§ 5. Leo IX. was succeeded in the year 1055, by GerAord bishop of 
Eichstadt, who assumed the name of Vidor [I.,(9) and he was Showed, 
A.D. 1058, by Stephen IX., brother to Godfrey duke of Lorrain, Neither 
of these, so far as is now known, performed any thing worthy of nojtice. 
Greater celebrity was obtained by Nicolaus IL, who was previously bishop 
of Florence, and was raised to the pontificate in 1058.(10) For John 
bishop of Veletri, who with the appellation of Benedict X. has been insert- 
ed between Stephen IX. and Nicolaus II., does not deserve to be reckoned 
among the popes ; because aflcr nine months, he was compelled to re- 
nounce the office, which a faction at Rome had induced him to usurp. In 
a council at Rome, which he assembled in the year 1059, Nicolaus sanc- 
tioned among other regulations calculated to remedy the inveterate evils 
in the church, a new mode of electing the lEloman pontiffs ; which was in- 
tended to put an end to the tumults and civil wcub, which so oflen took 
place at Rome and in Italy and divided the people into factions, when a 
new head of the church was to be appointed. He also in due form crea- 
ted Robert Gviscard a Norman, duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily, on the 
condition that he would be a faithful vassal of the Romish church, and 
would pay an annual tribute. By what right Nicolaus could do this, does 
not appear ; for he was not lord of those territories, which he thus gave to 
the Normans. (11) Perhaps he relied upon the fictitious donation of Constant 

' tine the Great ; or perhaps, with Hildehrand the Romish archdeacon, who 
afterwards became supreme pontiff under the title of Gregory VII., he be- 
lieved, that the whole world belonged to the bishop of Rome, as being 
Christ's vicegerent. For it is well known, that this Hildebrand guided 
him in all his measures. This was the commencement of the Neapolitan 
kingdom, or that of the two Sicilies, which still exists ; and of that right of 
sovereignty over this kingdom, which the Roman pontiffs assert, and the 
Neapolitan kings recognise from year to year. 

§ 6. Before the reign of Nicolaus II. the Roman pontifis were elected, 
not by the suffrages of the cardinals^ but by those of the whole Roman 
clergy ; nor by tht;in>, alone,-for the military gentlemen, that is the nobles, 
and dso the citizeni>^4Lnd all the people of Rome, gave their voice. Among 
such a mi^ril «uid heterogeneous multitude, it was unavoidable that there 
^^:Lk be parties, cabals, and contests. Nicolaus therefore ordered, that 

y/1ne cardinal bishops and cardinal presbyters should elect the pontiff; yet 
without infringing the established rights of the Roman emperors in this 
important business. At the same time, he did not exclude the rest of the 

lis, torn, iii., p. 643, &c. Histoire Litter, ann. 1054), that the emperor held a council 

de la France, tome vii., p. 459. Criarmone, at Mentz, in which Vietar 11. was elected. 

Histoire de Naples, tome ii., p. 52, [Ubro iz., It is also worthy of notice, that this pope 

cap. 3. — Tr.} and his predecessors, continued to hold their 

(9) [Leo of Ostia statea, that Hildehrand former bishoprics when elevated to the papal 

a anbdeacon of the Romish church, was sent ' throne. See Muratorif Annali, ad ann. 

hf the clerey and people of Rome to the 1056. — Schl."] 

emperor in Germany, requesting permission (10) Besides the conmion historians of 

to elect, in the name of the Romans, whom the pontiffs, the Benedictine monks hsTc 

he shoold deem most fit to be pope ; and treated particularly of Niedaus II. in their 

Um request being granted, Hildebrand se- Histoire Litter, de Ifi France, tome Tiii., 

lected this bishop of Eichstadt. But this p. 615. 

story is very improbable ; and it is suppo- (11) See Muraiori^ Annali dltalia, torn, 

aable that nermanmu Contractus was better yi., (ad ann. 1059), p. 186. Baromus, Ad- 

•cqoainted with the facts, who states (sd nales, ad ann. 1060. 


clergy, nor the citizens and people, from all part in the election ; for he 
required, that the assent of all these should he asked and ohtained.(19) 
From tlids time onward, the eardmaJs always acted the principal part, in 
the choice of a new pontiff: and yet, for a long time they were much im- 
peded in their functions, hoth by the priests and by the Roman citizen^ 
who either laid claim to Uieir ancient rights, or abased the power given to 
them of approving the election. These altercations were at length termi. 
nated, in the following century, by Alexander III., who was so fortunate as 
to perfect what was bemm l^ Nicolaus, and to transfer the whole powet 
of creating a pontiff to Uie college o£ eardinals.{lS) 

§ 7. From this period therefore, the august college of Romish cardmabf 
and that lugh authority which they possess even to this day, both in tlw 
election of 3ie pontiffs and in other matters, must be dated. By the tido 
cardinals, Nicolaus understood the seven bishops in the immediate vicinity 
of Rome or the suffragans of the Romish bishop, of whom the bishop rf 
Ostia was chief, and who were thence ccdled cardinal bishops ; together 
with the twenty.eisht ministers of the parishes in Rome, or chief presbyters 
of the churches, ^o were called cardinal clerks or presbyters. To these 
in process of time others were added, first by Alexander 11. and then by 
other ponti£& ; partly to satisfy those who complained that they were jm> 
justly excluded from a share in the election of pontiffs, and partly for other 
reasons. Therefore, although the exalted order of purpled dignitaries in 
the Romish church denominated cardinals^ had its commencement in this 
century, yet it did not acquire the settled character and the form of a real 
eoUegey before the times of Alexander III. in the next century.(14) 

(18) The decree of Nicolaus respectiiig Grypkius^ Isagoge ad Hist. Sseculi xfii., 

the election of Roman pontiffs, is found in p. 430. To these I add Lud. Thoma»Sm^ 

the collections of the Councils, and in many Disciplina Ecclesis vet. et noya, tome i., 

other works. But the copies of it, as I have lib. ii., cap. czv., cxvi., p. 616« and Lv^ 

learned by comparing them, differ exceed- Ant. Muratori, whose diss, de Origine Cu- 

ingly ; some bein^ loneer, and others short- dinalatus, is in his Antiquit. Ital. medii mri, 

er ; some favounng &e imperatorial pre- tom. v., p. 156. — ^Among these writers, are 

rogative more, and some less. The most many who are both copious and learned; 

extended form of it, is found in the Chron- but I am not certain, that any one of tbem 

tc(mF<»/«9M€,publi8hed in Jlfitratort'« Scrip- is so lucid and precise as he should be, in 

tores rerum ItiJicar., torn, ii., pt. ii., p. 645. respect to the grand points of inquiiy, the 

VerY different irom this, is the form exhibited origin and nature of the office. Most of 

oy Huffo of Fleuiy, in his book de Resia them expend much time and labour, in ae- 

protestate et sacerdotali dignitate ; in So- certaining the import of the word, and tra^ 

hue. Miscellanea, tom. ir., p. 63. Yet all cing its use in ancient authors ; which b 

the copies universally, agree in the points we not unsuitable indeed for a philologist, bat 

have stated. is of little use to give us clear views of the 

(13) See Jo. Mahilhn, Comment, in Ord. origin of the college and of the office of the 
Roman., tom. ii. of his Museum Italicum, p. cardinals. It is certain that the word c«r- 
114. Constant. Cenm^ Prof, ad concilium diiuU, whether used of things or persons, Of 
Lateran. Stephani III., p. 18, Rom., 1735, as the appellative of a certain clerical oider, 
4to. Franc. Pagi, Breviar. Pontif. Roma- was of dubious import, being used in vaiiooa 
nor., tome ii., p. 374. senses by the wnters of Uie middle ages. 

(14) Concerning the cardinals, their name, We also know, that anciently this title was 
their origin, and their ri^ts, very many per- not peculiar to the priests and ministers of 
sons have written treatises ; and these are the church of Rome, but was common to 
enumerated by Jo. Alb. Fahridus, in his nearlv all the churches of the Latins ; nor 
Bibliographia Antiquar., p. 455, 456 ; by was it applied only to what are called seem" 
Casp, Sagittarius, Introduet. ad Hist. £c- lor dsrgymen, but likewise to regular ones, 
cles., cap. xxiz., p. 771, and m J. A. as abbots, canons, and monks, though with 
Schmdi's Supplement, p. 644 ; by Christ, some difference in signification. But after 


§ 8. Notwithstanding Nicolaus II. had forbid any infringement oo the 
right of the emperor to ratify, at his pleasure, the election of a pontiff^ yet 
on the death of Nicolaus in 1061, the Romans, at the instigation of ESUk* 

the times of Alexander HI., the common itan, for they nise the pontiff elect to the 
use of the word was sradnally la^i aside, summit of his apostolic eleyation." And 
and it became the exclusive and honorary that it was the cnstom for those seren Irish- 
title of Uiose who had the right of electing ops above named, to consecrate the Roman 
the pontiffs. When we undertake to invcs- pontiffs, is a fact known to all men. These 
tigate the origin of the college of cardinaU cardinal hishope therefore, Nicolaus would 
at Rome, the inquiry is not, who were they have to first hold a consultation by them- 
\hat were anciently distinguished from the selves, and discuss the merits of the candi- 
other clergy by the title of cardinals, both dates for the high office of pontiff. Imme- 
among the Latins generally and at Rome in diately after, they were to call in the cardi' 
particular ; nor is the object, to ascertain nal aerks^ and with them, as forming one 
the original import and the propriety of the body of electors, they were to choose a pon- 
term, or in how many different senses it was tiff. Clerk here is the same as preshyter. 
used ; but the sole inquiry is, whom did And all admit, that the cardinal preshytera 
Nicolaus II. understand by the appellation were the ministers who had charge of the 
cardiTuUsj when he gave to the cardinals of twenty-eight parishes or jprincipal chmcfaes, 
Rome the sole power of electing the pontiffs, in Rome. All the remainmg clers^ of Rome, 
excluding the other clergy, the soldiery, the of whatever rank or dignity, Nicolaus ex- 
citixens, and the people at laree 1 If this dudes expressly from the office of electors 
can be ascertained, the origin of the college of the pontiflb. And yet, he would have 
of cardinals will be seen ; and it will like- ** the clergy and the people give their assent 
wise wppeaif how far the modem cardinals to the new election ;" that is, he leaves them 
difier firom those who first bore the name, what is called a negative vcicCf or the right 
Now the answer to this inquiry, in my view, of approving the election. It is therefore 
is manifest from the edict of NieoloMS itself, clear, that the college of electors of the Ro- 
** We ordain," says the pontiff, (according man pontift, who were afterwards denomi- 
fo Hu^o of Fleuiy, in Bahize, Miscellanea, nated cardinals in a new and peculiar sense 
torn. IV., p. 63), '* that on the demise of a of the word, as this college was at first con- 
pontiff of this universal Roman church, the stituted by Nicolaus, embraced only two or- 
cardinal hishops, in the first place hold a ders of persons, namely, eardimi iishapa 
solemn consultation among tbmnselves, and and cardinal clerks or presbyters. And of 
then take advice with the cardinal clerks ; course, we are not to follow Onupkr, Pan^ 
and so let the rest of the clergy and the peo- «tmw, (cited by Jo. Mabitton, Comment, in 
pie give their assent to the new election.*' Ordinem Roman., in his Museum Itahcum, 
The pontiff here, very manifestly divides the tom. ii., p. 1 1 5. ), who undoubtedly ens when 
cardinals who are to elect a pope, into two he says, that Alexander III. added the ear- 
classes, cardinal bisMps and carainal clerks, dinal bishops to the college of cardinals. 
The former, beyond all controversy, were And they also are to be msregarded, who 
the seven bishops of the city and its depend- suppose there were cardinal deacons in the 
ant territory, the comprovinciales Episcopi, electoral colleffe, from the beginning. There 
as Nicolaus afterwaras calls them, borrow- were indeed Uien, and there had long been, 
inff a phrase firom Leo I. [These seven as there are at the present day, cardinal dea* 
bishops were, those of Ostia (O^ensis), of ctms at Rome, that is, superintendents of 
Porto (Portuensis), of Albano^ ( Albanensis), the diaeomarumt or churches from whose 
of St. JiufinOf or Silva Candida, of Fras- revenues the poor are sopporttd, and to 
eoH (Tusculanus), of Palestrina (Prmesti- which hospitals are annexea. But NicUaus 
nos), and of La Sabina (Sabinensis). — TV.] committed the business of electing the pon- 
These seven bishops, lonff before this period tiflb, soletf to siieA cardmals as were Mstopf 
bore the title of cardhuUbishops. And the and derks ; so that he excluded deacons, 
pontiff himself puts this construction beyond And hence in the diploma of the election of 
an doubt, bv indicating that he nnderrtood (Sregonr VII., the cardinals are jdainlv dis- 
the cardtnal bishops to be those, to whom tinguished from deacons.— But this decree 
belonsed the consecration of a pontiff after of mcotciw, codd not acquire at all the force 
his election: '* Because the apostolic see of a fixed law. **It is evident," says An- 
can have no metropolitan over it" (to whom, sehn of Lucca, (libro n. contra Wibinrtum, 
in that case, would belong the mincipal part Antipapam, et ejos seqoaces ; in the Lec- 
in the ordbiation), " the cariinal bishops tiones Antiq. of M. CanisiuSf tom. iii., pt i., 
imdoubtedly supply the place of a metropol- p. 383), *' It is evident, that the above-men> 


trand then archdeacon and afterwards pontiff of Rome, proceeded, without 
coDaulting Hetin/ IT., not only to elect but to consecrate, Ansekn the biahcf 
of Lucca, who asiunied the name of Alexander II. When the newa of ihu 
reached Agnet the mother of Henry, through the bishops of Lom hardy, she 
assembled a council at Basle ; and to maintain the majesty and authority 
of her son tben a minor, she there had Cadolaut bishop of Parma, appoint- 
ed pgntifi*, who took tbe name of Hanoriut II. Hence a long and seyero 
contest arose between the two pontifis ; in which Alexander indeed pr^ 
vailed, but he could nerer bring Cadolatu to abdicate tbe papacy.(15) 

§ 9. This contest was a trifle, compared with those direful conflictt 
whicbAlexander'ssuccessor, Gregory VII., whose fbrmei name was ifi&ie. 
brand, produced and kept up to the end of his life. He was a Tuscan of ' 
obscure birth, first a monk of Clugni, then archdeacon of the church of 
Rome, and all along from the times of Leo IX. had governed the pootifi 

tioacd deciee" (of Niaiaau, foi of that be doi Ulempt uij tfaing. The inferior dtTgf 
ia tpetiing) " U of no iropiHUDce ; doi did alill remuoed. But tfaej were reduced U 
it GTCT hiTe mj force. And bj ujiiw thii, lileoce, in tbe rame vnj ; lot tbeii le>da^ 
I do not injure pope Nicalatt of bleMed tbe cardinet dtaconi oi Ttgvmarn, were ad- 
menorj, nor derogate it *U bom hi* hanour. milted into the eloctanl college ; and afttr 
— Being ■ man, be conld not be secured tbia, the whole misa of deacons, aubdeacon^ 
■gaintt doing wrong." ^(ucfm ii ■petlung aco1ytbiats,&c,h»d tabe quiet. Butwbidi 
eapeciallj of that part of tbe decree, which of theponliffa it waa, whether ..ikidwlfr III. 
•ecuree to tbe emperore the right of confirm- or aome other, that admilied the princi])*! 
ing the elections of pontiSs ; bat what he deacons at Home to the lank of cardinaU, I 
Mn,i* trueoflhewboledeciee. For tboM hiTs not been able to aacenain. Of thii 
who wen excluded by it from tbis moat im- however I am sure, thai itwaa done in oidM 
pratcat tniuac^D, namet)', first, tbe leTen to pacily the inferior clergy, who wera di» 
yubfnw juiga aa they were called, that ia, satiBtied at the violation of their rightf. 
tbe Primcerxut, StcundicmMt, ATcanut, When all tbe clergy both the higher and the 
SaacUariui, iVntMcrinunut, Primiccrnia lower, were plicated, it waa an easy msttet 
Deffmomm, and the AdnufucviaJar, next, to exclude the Roman people from the elec- 
tbe higher clergy who filled the more im- lion of pontiffi. Hence, on the death of 
portanl offices, and also the inferior cleigjr, Atdandtr III., when his aucccssor Victer 
priests, deacons, &c., and lastly, tbe aol- III.* was to be choaen, the assent and ap- 
dieiy, tbe eitiiens, and the common people, probation of neither the clergy nor the people 
complained that injury was done them; and were sought, ss had always been done b»- 
they raised commotions and gave trouble to fore, but tbe college of cardimJt alone, to 
the ttrdinaU, whom JVieoIou bad eonitini- tbe exclusion of the people, created the pou- 
ted [lote eleeton]. Therefbte to appease tiff. And the same cuaioia haa continued 
Itwii Ciiiiiiilla. itff TrrnitrT HI thnughtrrnpnr down to the preaent age. Some tell nt, 
to sxICDd and enlarge the coQwe of those that /nnoenit 11. [A.D. 1130] was chosea 
now called cariiitait in the restricted lenae. by the cardinals only, or wilboat the Toica 
And be accordingly added to tbe Ust of cor- of tbe clergy and people. See Pagi, Bre- 
Jinaii, certain pnests of high rank, namely, viar. Pontif Romanor., torn, ii,, p. SIS. I 
the prior or alchpreabytet of the I^teran grant it waa ao ; but it ia also true, that Ibia 
cbnich, tbe archfN'eBbytera of St. Peter and election of Innoctnt was irregular end dia- 
St Miiia Masgion^ and the abbots of St. orderly, and therefore waa no example of the 
1^1 and St. iXuience without the walla ; ordinary practice at that time. 
and after these, tbe se*en jx^atine judga (lb) Feri. Vghelti Italia sacra, torn. iL, 
which hsTe been mention^. See CcniB, p. 16B. Jo. Jac. Maiamiu de rebtu lift- 
Praef. ad Concil. Lateran. Stei^iani III., p. peril sub Henrico IV. el V., lib. i., p. 7, &*. 
lix. Mahiiiim, Comment, ad Ord. Roman. Fraju. Pagi, Breviar. Pontif. Itoman., lom. 
I Panvinio, p. 115. By thia artifice, the ii., p. 386, dec. Muralori, Annali d'ltalis 
. , .^..._, : ,. (ad ami. 1067), torn, vi., p. 3U, &e. 

For the beads of this 
body of clergy boii^ admitted into tbeelec- 
tcural college, tb« twt could neitbn e&ct i 


by his counsels and influence, when, in the year 1073, and doriiig thd fery 
obsequies of Alexander ^ he was hailed pontiff, by the concordant sufl&k^^ 
indeed of the Romans, but contrary to the mode of proceeding enjoined^r 
the decree of Nicolaus. When the election was laid before Henry Tv. 
king of the Romans, by the ambassadors from Rome, he gave it his af^ 
probation ; but greatly to his own injury, and to the detriment both of the 
church and the public.(16) For Hildebrand being elevated to the chair 
of St. Peter, — a man of extraordinary abilities, and competent to the great- 
est undertakings, intrepid, sagacious, and full of resources, but beyond meas« 
lire proud, pertinacious, impetuous, untractable, and destitute of true religious 
principle and piety, — ^he being elevated, I say, to the highest post in the 
Uhristian commonwealth, laboured during his whole life to enlarge the ju- 
risdiction, and augment the opulence of the see of Rome, to subject the 
whole church to Uie sole will and power of the pontiff, to exempt all cler- 
gymen and all church property, wholly, from the jurisdiction of kings and 
princes, and to render all kingdoms tributary to St. Peter. The extrava- 
gance of his views, and the vastness of his plems, are discoverable in those 
noted propositions, which from his name are called the Dictates of Hilde^ 

J 16) The writers who describe the life French writersy Jo. Launoi, (Epistolar. lib. 

achievements of Gregory Yll.^ are men- vi., ep. xiii., in his 0pp., torn, v., pt. ii., p. 

tioned by Casp. Sagittarius^ Intxoduct. ad 309) ; Natalis Aletanaer^ (Historia eccles.. 

Hist. Eccles., torn, i., p. 687, dec., and Jo. saecul. zi., xii., torn, vi., Diss, iii., p. 719); 

And. Schmidtf in his Supplem., torn, ii., p. Antony and Francis Pagiy (tlie former in his 

627, &c. But especially should be consult- Critica in Baron., the latter in his Breviarium 

ed, the Acta Sanctor., torn, v., Maii, ad d. Pontif. Roman., torn, ii., p. 743) ; LtwiB 

xzv., p. 668, and Jo. MabiUon^ Acta Sane- Ellis du Pin, and many others, zealously 

tor. (M. Bened., saecuL vi., pt. ii., p. 406, contend, that these propositions called DiC' 

&e. Add, Vita Gregorii VII., published by totes were palmed upon Hildebrand, by some 

Just. Christ. Dithmar, Frankf., 1710, 8yo, craiVy flatterer of the Romish see. And to 

and all those who have written the history prove this, they allege that although some of 

of the contest between the civil and the ec- those sentences express very well the views 

clesiastical powers and the controversy re- of the pontiff, yet there are others among 

r sting investitures. [Also, Hildebrand them which are clearly repugnant to his opm- 
Papst Grcffor VII., nnd sein Z^italter, by ions as expressed in his Epistles. The 
/. Voigt, Weimar, 1815, 8vo. — Tr."] French have their reasons (which need not 
(17) By the Dictates^ or as some write it, be here detailed), for not admitting that any 
the Dictate of Hildebrand^ are to be under- pontiff ever spoke so arrogantly and loftilv 
•tood xxvii. short propositions relating to the of his own power and authority. I can read- 
supreme power of the Roman pontiffs, over ily concede, that so far as respects the form 
the whole church and over states ; which and arrangement of these Dictates, they are 
are found in the second Book of the Epistles not the work of Gregory. For they are void 
of Gregory VII., inserted between the 55th of all order and connexion, and many of them 
tnd 56th Epistles. See Jo. Harduin*s CoH' also ofcleamess and perspicuity. But^^- 
cilia, torn, vi , pt i., p. 1304, and nearly all ory, who was a man of no ordinary genius, if 
the Ecclesiastical Historians lar^e or small, he had attempted to draw up and describe 
Casar Baronius, and Christian Lupus, what he conceived to be the prerogatives of 
(whose full Commentary on these Dictates the pontiffs, would have expressed with neat- 
which he considers most sacred, is among ness and perspicuity, what he had revolved 
his Notes and Dissertations on the Coun- in his own mmd. But the matter of these 
cils; 0pp., torn, v., p. 164), and nearly all Dictates, is undoubtedly Hildebrand' s ; for 
the patrons and friends of the Roman pon- the greater part of them are found, couched 
tiffs, maintain, Uut these Dictates were in neariy the same terms, here and there in 
drawn up and ratified, perhaps in some coun- his Epistles. And those which seem to de- 
al, by Gregory VII. himself; and therefore viate from some assertions in his epistles, 
the Protestants have not hesitated to ascribe may without much difficulty he recoocilea 
(hem to Hildebrand. But the very learned with them. It is probeble therefore, that 

Vol. II.— X 


§ 10. Nearly the whole form of the Latin church therefore, waa c 
bjr this pontiff; and the most valuable rights of councils, of bishops, an J of 
religious societies, were subverted, and transferred over to the Soman poiu 
tiff. The evil however was not equally grievous in all the countries of 
Europe ; for in several of them, through the influence of different c&uae^ 
some shadow of pristine liber^ and customs was preserved. As HUde- 
brand introduced a new code of ecclesiastical law, he would have intro* 
duced also a new code of civil law, if he could have accomplished fully 
his designs. For he wished to reduce all kinedoms into fiefs of St. Peler, 
i. e., of the Roman pontiSs ; and to subject all causes of kings and priik 
ces, and the interests of the whole world, to the arbitrament of an Bssenu 
bly of bishops, who should meet annually at Rome.(lS) But ucither Im^ 

•onw petson eaUeeted thew wntencea out cious design, proofs which ire thowt iB ■»■ 

of hU epiatln, puti; tbe prinLed ones tnd ception u doubt, hive been eoUaeted tf 

EUtlj such^M ire lost or unknowa, and p«i- learned men ; ind stilt mote mif be coUm> 

tups likewise from hi* ant declintions ; and ed Train the epistlei of this pontiff, ind fiiM 

then pnbUihed them, irithont jndgiment ind other SDcieot monntnenls. In his Epist., lih. 

without tinligeilMDl. — [Tbe rallewing ue ix., ep. iii., p. 1481, (I use, ill slong, Iha 

tbe principal propovtiona which compoM edition of Harduin, Concilii, lorn, vi., pt. i,\ 

OtncDUlaUi: I. " That the Romish church he prescnlKa this form of an oath, lobe ttba 

wufbandedbrourLoid atone. II. Thilthe bj future liings of the Romani or eniperon. 

Roinsn pontiff bIodc ia juall; atjted univtr- " From this hour anwaid, I will be fiiClifiil, 

lai. In. liial be atone can depose biahops, with upright integrity, to the sposlle Peter, 

ind restore them. IV. Thit his legate hi* and lo hia Ticir pope Grrgmy — ini] whsl- 

praeedetKiofill bishop* in a council, though ever the said pope shall eammand me, nndM 

M b« of in inleiioT order ; and that he can the following form : by trot abtditnce, (pw 

isme sentence of deposition againit them, leram obedieDliam), I will observe with 

T. That Ihspopecin depose sbaenl persons, fidelity. And on the dij when I sh^ Gnt 

TI. That nopenon,imot^ other things, m*T see him, I will with my own hands make 

Uts ntider the same root with one eicom- myself i vaiiai (miVu) of St. Pilrr and 

mnnicsted by the pope. VII. That the pope him." What is this, but a feudal oath [H- 

lime is competent, as occasion ahil! require, ^um). •■ the juriats call it; snd s perfect 

to enact new laws, lo gather new congie^ vattelage (homininm) 1 Thai tbe pontiSs 

tioos, to diride neb bishoprics, and lo unite of Rome deiiTed all their civil power fran 

poor ones. VIII. That he alone can use the tbe kings of FVsnce, is s fact well known. 

mipetial insignia. IX. That sU prince* And jet Gregnry caniended, that the kitw- 

■bould kiss hu feet anlj.— XII. Thil it i« dom of France was tribudty to the chnidl 

lawful for him to depose emperor*. — XVI. of Rome ; and he directed his smbasaadon^ 

llial no coimcil without his order, is to h« to demand sn annual contribution or ttibnW 

(ecatmted a foterol council. — XVIII. That from the French, Lib. viii,, ep. niii., p, 

bis sentence i* not to be reviewed by any 147S. " 7ou muildeclsre loill theFnnka, 

ana ( irtulo he alone can review the deci- and command them by true obedience, *>■«* 

Hona of all other*. XIX. That he can be eich fimily i* to pay annually at leiat oqb 

jttdged by no one. XX. Thit no one msy denarius to St. Peter, if they recogoiae bin 

prvnme lo condemn ipeiaOD, who appeals aa their father and ahephenl, according to 

to the apostolic see. XXI. Tint tbe gnM- ancient custom." It should be remembered, 

« causes of every church, should be carried Ihst the phiaae By Irae obedience here used, 

'~ '''U see. XXII. That the Romish denotes, sa those versed in anliquitiea wall 

ever erred ; nor wiU il, according kikow, that the injunction* and comminds to 

10 ms scriptures, ever en.— XXIV. Thst which it was annexed, were to be inevita- 

with his license, subjects may impeach {their bly obeyed. But in vein did Ortgery ]xf 

scvareigna], — XXVI. That no one ia to be this command upon the French ; for be net- 

BccODDted 1 Citbolic, who does mt hirmo- er obtained the lesal tribute from them. In 

niia with the Romiah church. XXVII. ^e aime epistle, he vaiiriy asseru, thst 8*l- 

lliat ha can absolve aubjects from their at- ony was i fief of the Romish church ; or. 

king of France, in the foUowins msnntr, 
(lib. fil, ep. xc, p. IMS) ; " Stnva to d« 


nor his successors, could fblly accomplish this arduous design^ on account 
especially of the vigilance and firmness of the emperors^ and of the kingi 
of France and England. 

utmoflt, to make St. Peter (L e., the pontiff, bring the more potent princes of Geimanj 
St. Peter^e Ticar) your debtor ; for in his in particular under subjection or fealty to St, 
hands are your kingdom and your soul, and Peter. Hence, in lib. iz., ep. iii., p. 1480, 
he is able to bind and to loose you, both in he strongly exhorts the bishop of Padua, to 
heaven and on earth.** He laboured to in- persuade Welpho Duke of Bayaria and the 
culcate the same principles on the Spaniards other German chiefs, by all the means- in his 
as on the French, lib. z., ep. vii., " that the power, to subject their territories to the see 
kingdom of Spain was, from ancient times, of St. Peter, lib. iz., ep. iii., p. 1480. " We 
the property of St. Peter — and righteously would have you admonish Duke Welfho, 
belongs solely to the Apostolic see." But to do homage to St. Peter. — For we wish 
Id lib. z., ep. zzviii., where he most earnestly to place him wholly in the bosom of St. Pe- 
inculcates the same doctrine upon the Span- ter, and to draw him in a special manner 
iavds, he has to acknowled^ that the record into this vassalage. If you soall find such 
of this important transaction was worn out a disposition in mm, or in ether men of pow- 
and lost. Yet with the Spaniards he was er wno are influenced by love of St. Peter, 
rather more successful, than with the French. Ubour to bring them to do fealtv." He ap- 
For Peter de Marca^ in his Histoire de Beam, proaches Sueno king of Denmarlc, lib. ii., ep. 
lib. iv., p. 331, 332, proves from ancient docu- li., p. 1300, with much flattery, urging him 
ments, that Bemhard the king of Aragon " To commit, with pious devotedness, his 
and Count of Besalva, promised and paid an kingdom to the Prince of the Apostles, and 
annual taz to X)ur Gregory. And it might obtain for it the support of his authority.** 
be shown, if there was room for it, that other Whether he was more successful in Den« 
Spani^ princes did the same. William the mark than in England and France, I know 
Conqueror, a king of enlarged views and a not ; but in other places, his efforts certain- 
most w^U^hful giurdian of his rights, when ly were not fruitless. A son of Demetrius 
Gregory required him to pay St. Petcr*s de- king of the Russians, (to whom he address- 
narius [Peter^pence], and to render his king- ed the Izziv. ep., book ii., p. 1319), camo 
dom A fief of St. Peter, replied with spirit : to Rome, "and wished to obtain the Iting- 
** Huhert your legate has admonished me, to dom,** (which he ezpected to inherit from hia 
do fealty to you and your successors, and to father), '' by gift from St. Peter, through the 
be more careful to send the money which hands of Gregory, paying due feeUty to St. 
my predecessors were accustomed to remit Peter, the Prtnee of Apostles .*** the import 
to the Romish church. One of these I ac- of whkh language, will be quite intelligible, 
cede to, the other I do not. Fealty I have from what hu b«en said. Gregory granted 
not done, nor will I do it. — The money, his ** devout prayer,** being certainly not 
when there shall be opportunity, shall be backward to perform such offices, and *' in 
transmitted.** The letter of king William, behalf of St. Peter committed the govern- 
is in Steph. Baluze, Miscellanea, tom. vii., ment of the kingdom'* to the Russian prince. 

g. 127. With this answer, Gregory had to More such ezamples might be adduced, 

e contented ; for though he might fear no Demetrius sumamed Suirdmer, duke of 

Other, he stood in fear of WiUiam. To Geu- Croatia and Dalmatia, was created a kinff, 

ML king of Hungary, he writes, lib. ii., ep. by Gregory, in the year 1076, and was sol- 

lu., p. 1316, thus : " It can, we think, not be emnly inaugurated at Salona, by the pontiff's 

imknown to your prudence, that the kingdom legate, on the condition, that he should an- 

of Hungary is the property of the apostle nually pay to St. Peter, on Easter day, a 

Peter." [He had before, lib. ii., ep. ziii., p. tribute of two hundred golden Bysantines, 

1373, written to Solomon king of Hungary, [a Grecian golden coin, o? from twenty-three 

claiming that kingdom, by virtue of an ab- to twenty-four carats. — SeJd.} See Du 

eolute surrendery of it to the see of Rome, Months Corps Diplomatique, tome i., pt. i., 

made by king Stephen, and in consequence No. 88, p. 53. Jo. Lucius, de regno Dalma- 

of an acknowledgment by the emperor Hen- tiae, lib. ii., p. 85. Up to this time how- 

ry II. after conquering it, that it belonged ever, the emperors of Constantmople held 

to St. Peter. And as Solomon had done the sovereignty over the province of Croatia, 

homage for it to the kin^ of the Teutones, BoUsUms 11. king of Poland, having killed 

Gregory now threatens hmi with the loss of Stanislaus bishop of Cracow, Gregory not 

liis kingdom, unless he shall acknowledge only ezcommunicated hhn, bat likewise de- 

tbe pope, and him only, to be his liege lord, prived him of his crown ; and not contented 

«-lV.} He laboured moai zealously, to with this severity, be bf a special mandate 


§ 11. Gregory was more successful in extending the territories of th^ 
Ornish churdi in Italy, or enlarging the patrimony of St. Peter. For lis 
persuaded Matilda^ the daughter of Boniface the very opulent duke and 
marquis of THjscany, who was a very powerful Italian princess and with 
whom he was on terms of peculiar intimacy, after the death of her fint 
hushand Got^rey the Humpbacked, duke of Lorrain, and of her mother 
Beatrix, in the year 1076 or 1077, to make the church of Rome heir to aU 
her estates, both in Italy and out of it. A second marriage of this very 
heroic and prosperous lady, in the year 1089, with Welf [or Guelpk] the 
son of Weff" duke of Bavaria, contracted with the consent of the Roman 
pontiff Urhan II., seemed to prejudice this more than princely donatioii. 
But being repudiated by her husband in the year 1095, and thus again 
made free and independent, Matilda, in the year 1102, formally renewed 
the gift.(19) The pontiffs indeed had to encounter severe contests^ first 
with the emperor Henry V. and then with others, respecting this splendid 
inheritance ; nor were they so fortunate at last, as to secure the whole of 
it to St. Peter ; yet after various struggles and hazards, they succeeded in 
obtaining no small share of it, which they hold to this (lay.(20) 

foibid the Polish bishops to crown soy one ing, which sze found in the Origines Gntipb- 
king of Polsnd, without first obtaining the icae, torn, i., lib. iii., cap. ▼., p. 444, &c., 
consent of the Roman pontiff. Dlugoss, and torn, ii., lib. vi., cap. iii., p. 303, dec., 
Historia Polon., torn, i., p. 295. But I de- where also is an account of her second bas- 
sist. — If Oregory*t success bad equalled his band Welf. 

wishes and his purpose, all Europe would at (20) Some distinguished men infer fipoa 

this dsy have been one great empire of St. the terms of the conveyance, tibat ^MatiUm 

Peter, or tributary to m Roman pontiffs ; gave to the church of Rome only her «U»- 

and all kings feudal lords or vassals of St. dial possessions, and not the territories which 

Peter. Yet Gregory did not utterly fail in she held u fiefs of the empire ; and of course^ 

his attempts. For from his time onward, that she did not include in the donation tlis 

the state of the whole of Europe was chan- marquisate of Tuscany, and the duchy of 

ged; and many ofthe rights and prerogatives Spoleto. For she says: Ego Mathildi»-* 

of emperors and kings, were either abridged dedi et obtuli ecclesiae S. Petri — omnia boos 

or annulled. Among those annulled, was mea jure proprietariot tarn quae tunc habos- 

the right of the emperor to ratify the elec- ram, quam ea, que in antea acauisitura eraa, 

tion of a pontiS^ wnich became extinct in sive jure successionis, sive alio quocunqos 

Gr^ory, and could never after be revived, jure ad me pertinent. See the Origines 

(19) The life and achievements of this ex- Guelph., torn, i., lib. iii., p. 148, dec. Bol 

tesoidinary princess, (than whom, the Roman I doubt, whether this is so clear that it musk 

ohurch had no stronger bulwark against the be admitted without hesitation. For tha 

emperors, and Gregory VII. no more obedi- words jure proprietario, from which learned 

cot dangbiter), are described by Berui, Ia^ men conclude that Matilda gave to St. Ps* 

cAw, by DomtM. Mellin, by Felix CcmUUh ter only what she possessed jure prtfprieUh 

rnc#, by Julius de Puteo, and especially by no, or her aUodial possessions, manifestly n- 

Prfm. Mvia Florentini, in his Monuments fer, or I am greatly misUkcn, not to thepoe- 

q{ the countess Matilda, written in Italian ; session bv the owner, but to the mode oitbt 

and hf Bemd. BacMidt in his Historia mo- gift ; and are to be construed with the veibf 

nasterii Podalironenais, which wss founded dedi wad obtuli. The princess does not say: 

I7 her. The ancient biographies of her, one " I have g^ivcn all the estates which Iposoeu 

Vf Domzo, and another anonymous, are giv* and hold jure proprietario ;** which had shs 

en by Oodf. William von LeHmitz, in his ssid, we must have acceded to the opinion 

Scriptpres Brunsvicens., torn, i., p. 629, &c., of the learned gentlemen ; but she says, ** I 

and by Lud. Anion. Muratori^ in his Scrip- have given all my esUtes to the church ysrs 

tons rerum Italicar., tom. v., p. 335, dec., proprietario ;" i. e., it is my will, that tlis 

wjth notes ; and also the formula of her sec- church should possess all my estatea jttrt 

end donatjoo, mentioned above. Well worth proprietario or as their real property. B^ 

psrosing alao, are the remarks concemiiM; sides, the words which follow, renite the co»> 

this WQuivi of 10 nn»rnlins aa nndeistaiif ■tniction of ths learned gentltmen. Qsd 


§ 12. The design of Gregory YH. to raiae the church aboye all human 
authority, and to render it perfectly free and independent, was obstroeted 
especially by the two capital vices of the European clergy, amcubkmgt 
and nmony. The Roman pontiffs from the times of Stephen IX. had com* 
bated with zeal, but without much success on account of their inveteracy^ 
these monstrous vices.(21) Chregory therefore in the second year of Mi 

Matilda, intended to include only what she various parts of their GaUia Christiana, I 
possessed jure allodii^ she could not have will give a few specimens. In the first vol- 
aaid, as she does say, "whether belonging ume ofthis excellent work, Append. Docum., 
to me, by right of inheritance, or {alio quo- p. ft, we have the document, by which Ber* 
eunque jur^ hy any other right whatever." nard a viseoont and FroteriuM a bishop, give 
Certainly, she excludes no species of po*- or rtther openly aell, to Bernard Aimard 
setsiona ; but by using this very compre- and to hb aoo, the bishopric of Ally, re- 
benaive language, embraces all. Possibly, serving to thconaelves a large part of its rer- 
0ome one however may object, an3 say. The enoes. Immediate^ after, foUows a writing 
church of Rome never contended, that the of PonHuB a count, in which he beoueathi 
JUft of the empire which Matilda possessed, to his wife this bishopric of Aliy, ana nioie- 
were included in this donation, ana therefore ties of another bishopric, and an abbey ; Um 
they claimed only her allodial possessions, reversion of which at her death was to be- 
I am not sure that such was the fact ; many long to his children : (Ego Pontius dono tibi 
reasons induce me to believe, that the pon- dilectae sponsae meae episcopatum Albien- 
tiffii wished to secure to their church all the sem — cum ipsa ecclesia et cum omni adja- 
estates of Matilda. But allow it to be so, centia sua — et medietatem de episcopato 
as I cannot now go into the inquiry, that fact Ncmanso — et medietatem de Abbatia S. 
will not disprove what I contend for. Our .£gidii : — post obitum tuum remaneat ipsins 
inquiry is not, how moderate were the Ro- alodis ad infantes qui de me enint creati). 
man pontiffs in claiming the property be- Similar and even worse instances are stated, 

aueathed to them by Matilda, but what is p. 24, 37, and elsewhere. In vol. ii., Ap> 
le import of the words used in the bequest, pend. Documentonim, p. 178, there is a let- 
(21) Monstrous vices we may justly call ter of the clergy of Limoges, in which th^ 
them. For thoush no honest man will deny, humbly entreat WUHam count of Aqoitain, 
that in hunting down these vices Gref^ory that he would not sell the bishopric, and 
violated not onhr the principles of religion would give them a pastor, not a devourer of 
but also those of natural justice and equity, the flocK : (Rogamus taam pietatem, ne prop- 
and committed deeds without number that ter mundiale lucrum vendas S. Stephani lo- 
were most incompatible with the character he cum ; quia si tu vendis episcopalia, ipse noe- 
professed to sustain ; yet it must be acknowl- tra manducabit communia. — Mitte nobis owi* 
edged, that evils of no slight magnitude re- um custodem, non devoratorem). In vol. ii., 
anUed from both these vices of the clezgy to p. 179, Ademar viscount of Limoges, la- 
the church and to civil society, and that it ments that he ** had heretofore simoniacally 
waa necessary that restraint should be laid sold the chaige of souls to abbots that pur- 
upon them. Very many among the married chased of him." In fact, it appears from aa- 
clergy were pious and upright men, whom thors and documents which are above all ez- 
Gregory ou^t to have spared. But there ceptions, that the licentiousness of this age 
were also in all^parts of Europe a vast nam- in buying and selling sacred offices, ezcoM- 
ber not only of priests and canons but like- ed all bounds and umost all credibility. I 
vrise of monks implicated in illicit amours, will subjoin only one short extract from Ah- 
who kept concubines under the name of ho*s Apologeticum, in Pithoeus, Codex G*- 
wives which they dismissed at their pleas* non. ecclesiae Romanae, p. 398, which le 
ure, substituting others and often a plurality worthy of notice as containing the argament 
in their place, who basely squandered the by which the traders in sacred office! at- 
property of the churches and colleges which tempted to justify their baae conduct, 
they served, even dividing it among their ** There seems to be almost nothing apper- 
spurious offspring, and who committer other taining to the church, which is not put upon 
insufferable offences. How extensive the tale; vis., biahoprici, preabytersh^ m- 
crime of simony had become in this sge, and conriee, and the other lower oraefs, archde*- 
wbat pernicious effects it produced every conries also, deaneries, eiiperintendencce, 
where, will be manifest from those examples treasurers* offices, baptisteries."— *' And 
(not to mention innumerable oUiers) which these tnffickeit are accustomed to offiMr th» 
ths Benedictine monks have interspeiaed in cmming eienae, that they do not buy tha' 


reigOj or A.D. 1074, attacked them with increased energy and firmneM, 
for in a council held at Rome, he renewed all the laws of the former pon- 
tiffs £Lgainst simony, severely forbidding the sale of ecclesiastical benificee; 
and enacted, that no priests should henceforth marry, and that such as now 
had either wives or concubines, should relinquish either them or their sa- 
cred office. Afler these enactments, he wrote letters to all bishops^ re- 
quiring them to obey these decrees on pain of incurring severe punish- 
ments ; and also sent ambassadors into Germany, to Henry lY. king of 
the BxHnans, demanding of him a council, for trying the causes of those es- 
pecially who were contaminated with simony. 

§ 18. Both these decrees appeared very proper, salutary, and accordanl 
with the principles of the religion of the age ; for it was then maintained 
that priests should be elected, and that they ought to live single. Yet both 
cave rise to the most lamentable contentions, and to very great calamitiea* 
W hen the decree respecting celibacy was promulged, horrible tumults were 
excited in most of the countries of Europe, by those priests who were con- 
nected with either lawful wives or concubines :(22) many of whom, es- 
pecially in the Italian province of Milan, were willing rather to relinquidi 
the priesthood than to part with their wives ; and accordingly they seceded 
from the church of Rome, and they branded the pontiff and his adherents 
who condemned the marriage of priests, with the odious appellation of Pa- 
terini, i. e,, Manichffians.(23) The impartial however, though they wished 

blessing by which the mce of the Holy of Aschafienb., ad ann. 1074. — ^The cleigy 
Spirit 18 conveyed, but tne property of the of Passau, when the papal prohibition was 
churchi or the possessions of the bishop :*' published, said to their bishop AltvuLfm : 
(Non se emere ienedictionem^ qua percipitur " That they neither could nor would aban- 
gratia Spiritus Sancti, sed res ecclcsiarum, don the custom, which it was clear they had 
▼el possessions episcopi). An acute dis- followed from ancient times under all pr»> 
tinction truly ! [So also Glaber RadidphuSf ceding bishops.'* The French also declared 
lib. ▼., cap. v., says, of the Italian churches in an assembly at Paris, that they would not 
in the middle of this century : " All eccle- suffer the pope's insupportable yoke to be 
siastical offices were at that time as much laid upon them. See mansit suppl. Concil., 
accounted things vendable, as merchandise torn, li., p. 5. — Schl.] Of the commotiona 
is in a common market.** — Schl.} ~ in England, Matthew of Paris treats, Hi*- 
(22) The histories of those times are full tor. major., lib. i., p. 7. For those in the 
of the commotions, excited by those priests Netherlands and France, see the Epistlea of 
¥^ strove to retain their wives or concu- the clergy of Cambray to those of Bremen 
bines. For an account of the insurrections in behalf of their wives, in Jo. MahilUm^s 
among the German priests, see Car, Sigo- AnnaL Benedict., tom. v., p. 634, and the 
finUf de regno ItaliaB, lib. ix., tom. ii., p. Epistle of the clergy of Noyon to those of 
657, and Self. TengnageVs CoUectio veter. Cambray, in MabMovCs Museum Italicum, 
monumenter., p. 4r5, 47, 54, dtc, and the tom. i., p. 128. How great a commotion 
other writers of German history. [Two this thin? produced in Italy, and especially 
councils were held in Germany, one at Er- among the iMilanese, is fully stated by Ar» 
furth and the other at Mentz, in which the nulph senior, and Landulft historians of Mi- 
papal decree against the marriage of priests Ian ; extant with notes in Muratori's Scrip- 
was made known. But in both, tumults tores rerum Italic, tom. iv., p. 36, due 
were excited, and the adherents of the pope Each of these historians favours tne mairtifle 
were in jeopscdy of their lives, especially of priests in opposition to Gregory and toe 
the archbishop jof Mentz, and the papal le- pontiffs. 

gate the bishop of Chur. The German cler- (23) Paterini was one of the namea by 

gf said, ** they would rather lose their priest- which the PoMlicians or Manichaans weie 

hood, than part with their wives. Let him designated in Italy, (who are well known to 

who despises nun, see whence he can pro- have migrated &om Bulgaria to Italy in thia 

core angds for the chtuchei." See Tri- age), and who were the same aa were alao 

AemiMS, in Chion. Hinang., and LanJbort caUed Catbari. In ptocees of time, this b^ 


priests to lead single lives, blamed Gregory for two things ; firtlf that he 
.fell indiscriminately upon the virtuous and the profligate, with equal sever, 
ity, and dissolved the most honourable marriafles, to the great d^grace 
and hazard and grief of husbands, wives, and children :(24) and mcorcU^, 
that he did not correct the married clergy with moderation, and with mere- 
ly ecclesiastical penalties, but delivered them over to the civil magistrates 
to be prosecuted, deprived of their property, and subjected to indignities 
and sufferings of various kinds. (25) 

§ 14. This first conflict gradually subsided in process of time, through 
the firmness and perseverance of the pontiff; nor was there any one among 
the European sovereigns, disposed to become the patron of clerical matri- 
mony. But the conflict arising from the other law, (that for the sup- 
pression of simony), was extremely difficult to be settled ; and being pro- 
tracted through many years, it involved both the church and the state in 

came the common appellation of all heretics ; all of them being by no meana eqnaUj cen- 
aa might easily be shown by many examples surable. The better abrt of them, (among 
irom writers of the twelfth and thirteenth whom those of Milan atood conspicuoua, abo 
centuries. Respecting the origin of the those of the Netherlands and aome othen), 
name there are many opinions, the most only wished to live according to the laws 
probable of which is, that which derives it of the Greek church ; maintaining, that it 
from a certain place called PataritL, where should be allowed to a priest before his or- 
the heretics held their meetings. And a dination to marry one wife a virgin, and no 
part of the city of Milan, is still vulgarly more. And they supported their opinions 
called Pattaria or CorUrada de Pattari. by the authority of Ambrose. See Jo. Pe- 
See the notes on AmulphuM Mediolan., in iri Purieellif Diss, utrum S. Ambrodus 
Muratori's Scriptores rer. Italicar., tom. iv., clezo suo MedioUn. permlserit, ut virffini 
p. 39. Saxius ad Sigonium, de regno Ital- semel nubere possent ; lepnblished in JETm- 
ie, lib. ix., Opp. Sigon., torn, ii., p. 536. ratori's Scriptores rer. Itaucar., tom. iv., p. 
An <XMnion haa prevailed, perh^ origina- 123, &c. Towarda this class of priesta, 
ting irom Si^omut, that thia name was given Gregory and the other Roman pontiffs, aa 
at Milan, to those nriesta who retained their aome advocates of the ponti£b have them- 
wives contrary to tnedecreea of the pontifis,' selves acknowledged, ought to have been 
and who seceded from the Romish church, more indulgent, than to those who claimed 
But it appears from Amulph and other an- the right of marryinff many wives, and to 
cient writers, that it was not the married those who advocated concubinage. The 
priests that were called Paterinit but that case likewise of the monks, whose vowa 
these priests gave that appellation hy way bound them to perpetual celibacy, viraa very 
of reproach, to such friends of the pontiffs different from that of priests, who were Un- 
as disapproved of the marriage of clergymen, willing to be separated from their children 
See AiTndpkj lib. iii., cap. z., and the co- and their lawful wivea, whom they had es- 
piooa and learned proofs of this fact, by An- poused with upright intentions. 
Urn, Pagiy CriUca m annal. Baron., tom. iv., (25) Theodoric of Verdun, Epistola ad 
ad ann. 1058, ^ ill., and Ltid, Ant. Mwror Gregorium VII., in MarterWa llieaaurua 
fori, Antiqq. Ital. medii 0vi, tom. v., p. 82. Anecdotor., tom. !., p. 218. *' They put 
Nor need we look farther for the orimn of me to the greatest confusion, for this, tnat 
this term of reproach. For the MamcTutaru I should ever admit of a law for reatraining 
and their brothera the Pauliciana, were op- the incontinence of the clergy hu the inUn^ 
poaed to marriage, which they considered aa perale proceedings of laymen" (per ImeO' 
an inatitution of the evil demon ; and there- rum insanias). " Nor must you aiqppoae 
fine such as held the marriaffe of priests to that persons of these sentiments, when they 
be lawful and right, by appWing the desig- bring forward such vindicationa, wiah to en- 
nation Paterini to the pontitta ud their ad- courage incontinence in the clonv. They 
berenta who prohibited such marriagea, would aincerelv deaire to see 'Uiem kaoblamelesi 
represent them aa following the opinions of lives ; bot they wish to have only the rf- 
the Manichcana. strainU of eeduiaMtUal ttrrorst aa it proper, 
(24) For there waa a vaat difference amon^ held out to them" (nee alitor, qnam op- 
those priests who were more attached to their portet eeelesioitica uUumU eemuram inten- 
women than to the decrees of the poutiffs, tan gaodent). 


very great calamities and di8tre8s.(26) Henry IV. received indeed the 
legites of the pontifl^ in a gracious manner, and he commended the pon* 
tiers design of putting an end to simony. But neither he nor the Gemuui' 
bishops, would grant leave to the legates to assemble a council in Grerroany, 
for the purpose of trying those who were guilty of simony. The next year 
therefore, A.D. 1075, in a new council at Home, Gregory proceeded still iur« 
ther ; for in the first place, he excommunicated some of Uie favourites of kins 
Henry, whose advice and assistance he was said to have used in the sale of 
benefices, and likewise certain bishops of Grcrmany and Italy ; and in the next 
place, he decreed that <^ whoever should confer a bishopric or abbacy, or 
should receive an investiture from the hands of any la3rman, should be ex* 
communicated. "(27) For it had long been customary with the emperon 
and kings and princes of Europe, to confer the larger benefices, and the 

government of monasteries, by tlie delivery of a ring and a staff. And as 
lis formal inauguration of the bishops and abbots, was the main support, 
both of the power claimed by kings and emperors to create whom they 
chose bishops and abbots, and also of the licentious sale of sacred officer 
to the highest bidders, or of simony ; the pontiff judged, that the custon^ 
ought to be wholly extirpated and suppressed. (28) 

(26) We have numerous histories both NoriSf in his Istoria delle investiture deOa 

ancient and modem of this famous contest dignita ecclesiasticbe, which ¥ras pablished 

about invcttitureSf which was so calamitous after the death of this great man, Mantua, 

to a large part of Europe, and which heins 1741, fol. It is a very learned work, but 

commenced by Gregory VII., was carried unfinished and defective, and what is not 

on by him and the succeeding pontiffs on surprising in a friend of the pontifis or a 

the one part, and by the emperors Henry IV. cardinal, not candid towards the adversaries 

and y. on the other. Yet few if any of of the pontiffs, the emperors. With ad- 

these histories, are entirely impartial. For vantage also may be consulted, Jo. Jac. 

all the writers espouse the cause either of Mascov^a Commentarii de rebus imperii 

the popes or of the emperors ; and they German, sub Henrico IV. et Y., Lipe., 

moreover decide the controversy, not (as in 1749, 4to. 

my opinion they should do) by the laws then (27) See Ant. Pagi, Critics in BaroniuiD, 

in force, and according to the principles then tom. iv., ad ann. 1075. Henr. Noria^ Isto- 

universally admitted, but according to an ria delle investiture, p. 39, die. ChriH. 

assumed system of laws, and agreeably to Luputf Scholia et Diss, ad Concilia, 0pp., 

the opinions of the present age. The prin- tom. vi., p. 39, &c., 44, dec. 
cipal ancient writers on the side of Gregory, (28) I must be allowed here to go into 

are collected by the noted Jesuit Joe. Gret- an investigation, respecting the rite of inao- 

aer^ in his Apologia pro Gregorio YIL, which gurating bishops and abU>ts with the ring 

was published separately, and also in his and stiSf; because it is misunderstood hf 

0pp., tom. vi. Those who defend Henry many, and not very intelligibly explained by 

I V. are collected by Mclch. Goldattiu^ in others. Among these last, I may place the 

his Replicatio contra Gretserum et Apolo- name of Henry Noria, the author of a Hi*- 

8 'a pro Henrico lY., Hanov., 1611, 4to. tory of Investitures, in Italian; for in chap, 

f tne modems, besides the Centuriatorea iii., p. 66, where he treats of the motives 

Magdeburgenses, Baroniua^ the writers of which induced Gregory to prohibit investi- 

Germanic and Italian history, and the biog- tures, though he states many things weU, 

raphers of Matilda, the reader may consult and better than other writers do, yet he does 

Jo. Schilterua^ de libertate ecclesis Ger- not see through the whole thing, and he 

manicaB, lib. iv., p. 481, die. Christ. Tkom- omi^ some circumstances important to be 

oniM, Historia contentionis inter imperium known. The inoeatiture itself of bisfaope 

et sacerdotiom ; Htnr, Meibomiua, ae jure and abbots, undoubtedly commenced at toe 

investiiurB episcopalls, in the Scriptores rer. time when the emperors, kings, and princes 

OjBiiMnicarum, torn. iii. Juat. Ckr. DitK- of Europe conferred on them the possession 

mar, Ifistoria belli inter imperium et sacer- and use of territories, forests, fields, and> 

dotiam. Frankf., 1714, 8vo, and others, castles. For according to the laws of thoea 

Soperior to aU theae in leaznii%, J Hewry times, (and they bave not yet cetied to a^ 


^ 15. But Henry was not dismayed at the decree of the p(mti£ He 
acknowledged indeed that he had done wrong in selling sacred offices ; and 
he promis^ amendment : but he could by no means be induced to gro up 

erate), persons holding temtories, dec., by secnted. Thevs is not room hero for a* 

favour of the emperors and sovereigns, were amples and proofs of this shrowd mana^ 

not considered to be in le^l possession of ment of the canons and monks, bj whieh 

them, until they had repaired to the court, they eluded the intentions of emperors and 

sworn fealty to the soreroign, and received kings to sell or give awsy sacred ofiicea; 

from his hand the token of the transfer and but many may be collected out of the reo- 

dominion of the property. But the mode of ords of the tenth century. For this reason, 

insugurating or investing bishops and abbots the sovereigns, that they might not lose the 

with the ring and the staff or crosier, (which power of conferring the sacred ofl^es on 

aro the insignia of the sacred office), was of whom they pleased, required the insignia of 

later date, and was introduced at the time snch offices, namely, the staflf and ring, im- 

when the emperors and kings, subverting the mediately after the decease of a bishop to be 

free elections which the ecclesiastical laws transmitted to them. For according to ec- 

required, assumed to themselves the power, clesiastical law, official power is conveyed 

not only of conferring but also of sellings by delivering the staff and ring ; so that 

sacerdotal and abbaticu offices, at their pleas- these being cairied away, if the deigy should 

uro. At first the emperors and kings hand- elect any one for their bishop, he eould not 

ed over to men of the sacred orders, the be consecrated in due form. And every 

•ame tokens of transferred use and posses- election till it had been ratified by consecnr 

aion, as they did to soldiers, knights, counts, tion, could be set aside without violation of 

and others, who approached the throne as ecclesisstical law ; nor could a bishop elect 

Tsssals, namely, written instruments, green perform any episcopal function, till he was 

twigs, and other things. Humbert, a cardi- consecrated. As soon therefore as any one 

nal of the Romish church who wrote before of the higher officers in the church died, the 

the contest about investitures was moved by magistrates of the city where he lived, or 

Gregory VII., in his Lib. iii. adveraus Si- the governor of the province, seized upon 

moniacos, cap. xi. (in Martene^s Thesaur. hie staff and ring vaa transmitted them te 

Anecdotor., tom. v., p. 787), says: **The court. £Mo, inhis lifeof OMoof Bambei|^ 

secular authority favoured the ambitious who (who lived in the court of Henry IV.), lib. i., 

coveted ecclesiasticsl dignities and benefices, (j 8, 9, (in the Acta Sanctor. mensis Juki, 

first by makinff request for them, next by tom. i., p. 426), says : '* Soon after the irng 

threats, and afterwards by formal grants ; and the pastoral staff of the bp. of Bronen, 

snd in all this findinff no one gainsaying wen brought to Uie royal court. Fsr at 

them, none who moved the wing or opened that perioa, the church had not free elee- 

the mouth and peeped, they proceeded to tions, but when any biahop was ahoat 

what was still greater, and now, under the to go the way of all the earth, presectly the 

name of investiture give, first a vorit- commandants of his city transmitted his ring 

ten instrument, or deliver any sort of green and pastoral staff to the palace ; and thus 

twigs, and then staffs which horrid by royal authority, after consulting with his 

abomination has become so well established, courtiers he placed a suitable prelate 

that it is accounted the only canonical way, over the bereaved people. After a few 

and what the ecclesiastical rale is, is neither days, sgain the ring and pastoral stsff of the 

known nor thought of." — And this custom bishop of Bamberg, wero transmitted to our 

of inaugurating or investing clergymen and lord the emperor. Which being told abroad, 

laymen, in the same manner, would doubtless many nobles flocked to the royal court, 

have continued unchanged, had not the e2er- who endeavoured to obtain one of these, 
gy, who had the legal power and right of either by price or by petition.'* — — The 
etoieting their bishops and abbots, artfully emperor or king then delivered the ring and 
eluded the designs of the emperors snd sov- staff to whom he pleased : after whic^ the 
ereigns. For they, as soon as their bishop person who waa thus selected or appointed 
or abbot was dead, without delay and in due op. repaired to the metropolitan, to whom it 
fonn, elected a successor to him, and caused belonged to perform the consecratiop, and 
Imn to be consecrated. And the consecia- delivered over to him the staff toA. ring ra- 
tion having taken place, the emperor or ceived Irom the emperor, that bo mi|^ 
prince who nad purposed to give or sell that again receive these insignia of his pom 
office to some one of his friends, was now man the bands of the metropolitan. Thni 
obliged to desist from his purpose, and to the new bishops and abbots receivod the 
eonnrm the person who ¥»• elected and COB- xiog and staff tvfiee ; first fzom the hand of 

Vol. IL— Y 


the power of appointing bishops and abbots, and the inoestUure so doseiy 
connected with that power. Gregory therefore, well knowing that many 
of the Grennan princes especially those of Saxony, were alienated from 

the king or emperor, and then from the me- ry III. suniamed Niger)^ wished to abrogate 
tropolitan by whom they were consecrated, these inoestUure*, but was prevented by vtr 
Humbert, contra Simoniacoe, lib. iii., cap. rious circmnstances ; but that Henry I. tha 
Ti., in Martene'e Thesaur. Anecdot., torn, kinj^ of France, threw eyery thing into coo- 
T., p. 779. " Being thus consecrated," fusion, and was excessively addicted to ti- 
(L e., inoetted by the emperor), *< the intruder mony ; against whom therefore, HwaiJbtTt in- 
comes forcibly upon the clergy, the people, veif ns most vehemently, 
the sacred order, as their master, before he In this method of inaugurating bish«» and 
is known by them, sought after, or asked abbots by delivery of the ring and staif, th«e 
for. And he goes to the metropolitan, not were two things especially that displeaati 
to be judged by lum, but to judge him. the Roman pontiffs. First, that by it the 
'— Fot what does it signify or profit, to ancient privilege of electing bishops and al^ 
give up the staff and ring which he brings bots was entirely subverted, and the povrac 
with himi Is it because they were given of creating prelates was placed whoUyinthi 
to him by a layman ? Why is that given hands of the kings and emperors. TtoM ol^ 
up which is already held, unless it be, either jection appeared a fair one, and perfectly ai^ 
that the ecclesiastical benefice may be a^ain cordant with the religious principles of'^that 
sold under this form of enjoining or givmg, age. Secondly, it was extremely offenatw 
or that the former sale may be confirmed uj to them, that the insignia of spiritual pow«^ 
being subscribed to by the metropolitan and namely the staff and ring, should be convay- 
his sufiagans ; or at least, that the appear- ed by the hands of laymen, i. e., of proftnt 
ance of a lay-ordination may be concealed persons ; which seemed to them very like to 
under some cloak and colour of a clerical sacrilege. Humbert, who wrote as already 
proceeding V stated anterior to the contest between Greg' 
What king or emperor first introduced this ory and Henry, has a lon^ complaint on this 
custom of appointing prelates by delivery of subject^ lib. iii., contra Simoniac, c. vi., p. 
the staff and ring, is very uncertain. Ac- 779,795. I will subjoin some of his language, 
cording to Adam Bremensis, (Hist. Eccles., ** What business have laymen, to distributa 
lib. i., c. xxxii., p. 10, and c. xxxix., p. 12, the ecclesiastical sacraments and episcopal or 
in lAnienbrog^s Scriptores Septentrion.)* as pastoral grace, that is, the curved stafn and 
early as the ninth century, Letn> the Meek rings, by which episcopal consecration ia es- 
corjerred on new bishops the right of enjoy- pecially performed and becomes valid, and on 
ing \he revenues of the churches they ruled, which it wholly depends 1 For the curved 
by delivery of a staff or shepherd's crook, staff denotes the pastoral care, which is com- 
But 1 suspect, that in stating events of mitted to them ; and the ring is emblemati- 
the former centuries, Adam describes the cal of the celestial mysteries, admonishing 
customs of his own age, which was the elev- preachers that they should exhibit the wisdom 
enth century. For in the ninth centurv, most of God in a mystery, as did the apostle. Who* 
emperors and kings still allowed bishops to ever therefore presume to initiate any one 
be created by the sufiSrages of the clergy and with these two, undoubtedly claim for tbem- 
people ; so that such an inauguration was selves by this presumption the whole pastoial 
then unnecessary. See the remarks of iXm. authority." And this reasoning was certainly 
Papebroehy against Adam Brem. in the Acta good, if not according to our views, at least 
Sanctor. Febr., tom. i., p. 557. Humbert according to the opinions of that age ; for 
states, (lib. iii., contra Simoniac., c. vii., p. the staff and the rinff were viewed as the em* 
780, and c. xi., p. 787), that this custom blems of spiritual things, and whoever con- 
conunenced in the age of Otto the Great ; ferred these emblems, was supposed to con- 
and I am much inclined to that opinion. At fer along with them spiritual authority and 
least, the learned men who have treated ex- power. 

plicitly on the origin of investitures, have From these considerations, it will be easy 

adduced nothing which dissuades me from to perceive what it was that induced Greg* 

receiving this opinion. See Lud. Thomat- ory VII. to oppose so resolutely the inaugo- 

«tn, Disciplina ecclesiae circa benef., tom. ration of bishops by means of the staff and 

it, lib. ii., p. 434, and Natal. Alexander, ring. In the nrst council at Rome, he lefi 

Saleeta Hist, eccles. capita, saecul. xi., xii., the subject of investiturea untouched, and 

I>ia8. iv., p. 725. The same Humbert re- sought merely to abolish simony and reston 

Utea, (I. c, cap. vii., p. 780), that the em- the ancient right of election to the aocietiM 

pexor Henry tM eon of Cwrad, (I e., lf«n^ of pdeata and monks. Nor had the fooMi 


Henrfff deemed this a fiivourable opportunity to extend and to establish his 
authority ; and sending ambassadors to Goslar, he summoned the king to 
Rome, there to answer before a council to the charges brought against him. 
The king, who was a high-minded prince and of an ardent temperament, 
being extremely indignant at this mandate, immediately called a conven- 
tion of German bishops at Worms ; and there accusing Gregory of various 
crimes, pronounced him unworthy of the pontificate, and appointed a meet- 
ing for the election of a new pontiff. (29) Gregory^ on the other hand, 
upon receiving this sentence by the king's messengers and letters, inter, 
dieted him from the communion and throne, and absolved his subjects from 
their oath of allegiance to him.(dO) War being thus declared on both sides, 
the church as well as the state was rent into two fhctions, one party taking 
sides with the king, and the other with the pontiff; and the evils resulting 
firom this schism were immense. 

§ 16. The first that revolted from Hemy, were the chie& of Swabia, at 
the head of whom was Rvdolph the duke of Swabia. Next followed the 
Saxons, who had long been inimical to the king. Both were advised by 
the pontiff, in case Henry would not comply with the will of the church, to 
elect a new king ; and they assembled at Trihur^ in the year 1076, to de- 
liberate on this very important subject. The result of the deliberation was, 
that the decision of the controversy between the king and the princes should 
be referred to the Roman pontiff, who should be invited to attend the diet 
of Augsburg the ensuing year for that purpose ; and that the king during 
the intervening time shoidd lead a private life ; yet with this condition annex- 

pontifis who opposed simony, simed at any Hugo^ a displaced cardinal, appeared there, 
thtnff more, cut when he afterwards learn- and painted the life and character of Grtg^ 
ed, Siat the practice of imoeMtitwreM was so ary in the blackest colours. The whole as- 
closely cooneeted with the power of kings sembly, with the exception of two bps., sub- 
end emperors lo confer the higher sacerdotal ecribed his condemnation. Henry' t letter 
offices, and with iU adjunct nnumy, that it to the pontiff concludes thus : " Thou there- 
could not well be separated from them, be fore, condemned bv this anathema, and by 
now assailed that practice, that he might the decision of aU our bishops, descend ; 
pluck uptbe evil which he opposed by the quit the apostolic chair you hare imraded ; 
looto. Thus we see the true grounds of the let another ascend it, who will pollute rrii- 
eontest between the pontiff and the emperor, gion by no violences, but will teach the 
Chregory did not oppose iiwestitures univer- sound doctrines of St. Peter. We Henry^ 
sdly, and as such, but only that species of by the grace of God, king, with all our bisn- 
investitures which was then practised. He ops, say to you : descend." See HarduirCs 
did iwt object to the bishops and abbots Concilia, tom. vi., pt. i., p. 1563. — Tr.] 
twearing fealty to the kinss and emperors, (30) [Gregory* 9 excommunication of 
and acknowledging themsdves their vassals Henry, is drawn up in the form of an ad- 
and tenanU ; nor did he forbid an vnoeMti- dress to St Peter ; stating what he had de- 
tHre which should be made by an oral decia- creed, and why. It contains these words : 
ration or a written instrument, for this mode *' Hac itaque fiducia fretus, pro ecclesiae 
of investiture he conceded to the kings of tua honore et defensione, ex parte omnipo- 
l^rance and England ; — perhuw also, he al- tentis Dei, Patris et Filii et Sp. Sancti, per 
lowed a sceptre to be used in the transaction, toam potestetem et auctoritetem, Henrico 
as Calittui II. afterwards did. But he regi filio Henrici Imperatoris, qui contra tuam 
would not tolerate an investiture by the in- ecclesiam inaodita superbia insurrezit, totius 
gignia of the sacred office ; much less an tf»- regni Teutonicorum et Italiaa gnbemaculo 
vettitiure previous to consecration ; and least contradico : et omnes Christianoe a vinculo 
of all, an inveatihure subversive of the free juramenti, quod sibi fecere Tel ftcient, ab- 
election of bishops and abbots. solvo ; et ut millas ei sicut regi serviat, in- 
(S9) [The council of Worms was com- terdico.** See /fsrAnfiV Condlit, torn. vL, 
posed of a " Tery great number of btshopi pt L, p. 1666.— TV.] 
and ibboU** from all parte of^Oermaoy. 


edf that unless he obtained absolution from the anathema within the year» hs 
was to lose the kingdom. Henry therefore with the advice of his friende, de- 
termined to go into Italy and implore the clemency of the pontiff. But the 
Journey did not secure to him the advantages he hoped for. He obtained in- 
deed, though with difficulty, from the pontiff then residing at the castle of 
Canosa, with Matilda the great patroness of the church, the pardon of hm 
sins ; ailter standing for three days together, in the depth of winter, in Feb- 
ruary A.D. 1077, barefooted and bareheaded and meanly clad, within the 
walls of the castle, professing himself a penitent. But the pontiff deferred 
the discussion and decision of his right to the throne, till the convention of 
the princes should meet ; and in the mean time, wholly interdicted his 
wearing the ornaments or exercising the functions of royalty. The Italian 
princes and bishops, [who had been Henry's supporters], were most indig- 
nant at this convention or compromise, and threatened the king with a de- 
position, and with other evils ; so that Henry soon after violated the agree- 
ment, and contrary to the command of Chregory, resumed the regal charac- 
ter which he had laid aside. The princes of Swabia and Saxony, hearing 
of this, met in a convention at Forcheim, in the month of March A.D. 1077, 
and by a unanimous vote, elected Rudolph the duke of Swabia, king.(81) 

J 17. A violent war now commenced both in Grermany and Italy. In 
y Gregory, with the forces of the Normans, who were sovereigns of 
Lower Italy and whom he had drawn over to his party, and those of the 
femous Matilda a very heroic princess, resisted not unsuccessfully the 
Lombards, who fought for Henry. In Glermany, Henry with his confed- 
erates encountered Rudolph and his associates, but not with good success. 
Gregory, fearing the dubious issue of the war, wished to be accounted neu- 
tral, for some years. But taking courage after the unfortunate battle of 
Henry with the Saxons at Fladcnheim, in the year 1080, he excommuni- 
cated Henry a second time ; and sending a crown to Rudolph, pronounced 
him the legitimate king of Germany. (32) In revenge, Henry, supported 
by the suffrages of many of the Grerman and Italian bishops, again deposed 
Gregory the same year, in a council at Mentz ; and a little after, in a con- 
vention at Brixen in the Tyrol, he created the archbishop of Ravenna, GvL 
hert, supreme pontiff; who subsequently took the name of Clement IH. 
when consecrated at Rome, A.D. 1084. 

§ 18. A few months after, Rudolph, the enemy of Henry, died at Merse- 
burg, in consequence of a wound received in battle at the river Elster. 
Therefore the following year, A.D. 1081, the king marched with his army 
into Italy, intending if possible, to crush Chregory and his adherents ; for 
if these were subdued, he hoped the commotions in Grermany might be eas- 
ily quelled. He made several campaigns with various success, against the 
forces of Matilda ; twice he besieged Rome in vain ; but at length in the 
year 1084, he became master of the greatest part of that city ; placed 
Gidhert whom he had made pontiff, in ijie chair of St. Peter with the title 

(31) The tDoient and modem writers of comust NartM^ and othere ; wbose accoonts 

Italian and Oeman history, hare given am- differ indeed in some minor things, but agiMr 

pie relations of these and subsequent erents, as to the main points, 

though not aU of Uiem with equal fidelity and (32) [The golden crown which Gregtfry 

accuracy. I have consulted the original sent to Rudwpk, had this memorable ii^ 

wiiters, and have foUowed' those most to be scoption. Petra dedit Petio, Petrus di»* 

rdied on, Sigomvtt, Pt^i, Muratari, Mom- dema Rndolpho.— TV.] 


of Ckmeni HI. ; was by him crowned emperor, and saluted m mcIi by the 
Romans : and he now laid close siege to the castle of St Anseb, in which 
lus enemy Gregory was shut up. But BobeH the Norman duke of CSala^ 
bria and Apulia, delivered the pontiff from his siege ; and as it was not 
safe for him to remain at Rome, carried him with him to Salerno, And 
here it was, in the year following, that this high-minded man, whose spirit 
was so invincible, but who was the most ambitious and audacious of all the 
pontiffs that ever lived, terminated his days in the year 1085. The Ro- 
mish church honours him among her saints and intercessors with God, though 
he was never enrolled in that order by a regular canonization. Paul v. 
near the commencement of the seventeenth century, appointed the 25th 
day of May to be his fe8tival.(83) But the sovereigns of Europe, espe- 
cially the emperors of Germany and the kings of France, have prevented its 
being publicly and every where observed. And even in our times, [A.D« 
1729], there was a contest with Benedict XIII. respecting the worship of 

§ 19. The death of Gregory was followed by very trying times: fi>r 
Clement III. or Cruibcrt, the emperor's pontiff,(85) ruled both at Rome and 
over a large part of Italy ; and in Grermany, Henry himself continued the 
war with the princes. The pontifical party, supported by the forces of the 
Normans, elected at Rome in the year 1086, Desiderius an abbot of Monte 
Cassino, successor to Gregory ; and he assuming the name of Viclor III.9 
was consecrated in the church of St. Peter, A.D. 1087, the Normans hav- 
ing rescued a part of the city of Rome from Clement. But Vidor, who 
was a very different man from Gregory^ being mild and timorous, soon re- 
turned to Bcnevento, because Rome was in the hands of Clemeni^ and not 
long after died at Cassino. Before his death however, in a council held at 
Cassino, he renewed the decrees enacted by Gregory for the abolition of 

§ 20. Viclor was succeeded by Otio Inshop of Ostia, likewise a monk of 
Clugni, who was elected at Terracina in the year 1088, and took the name 
of Urban II. He was inferior to Gregory in courage and fortitude, but his 
equal in arrogance, and exceeded him in imprudcnce.(36) At first, fortune 
seemed to smile upon him ; but in the year 1090, the emperor returning 
into Italy and boldly and successfully attacking the younger Guelph duke 
of Bavaria, and Matilda, the two heads of the pontifical party, things as- 
sumed a new aspect. Yet the hope of subduing the emperor revived again 
in 1091, when Conrad his son, suffered himself to be seduced by the pen- 

(33) See the Acta Sanctor. Antwerp, ad viii., p. 609. Clement died A.D. HOC ; aa 
diem 25 Maii ; and Jo. MabUloH, Acta is expressly stated in the Chnmicon Bene- 
Sanctor. ord. Bened., saecul. vi., pt ii. ventannm, published by Muratori, Antiqq. 

(34) See the French work, entitled : Italicse, torn, i., p. 262, dtc. See RuUtUf 
L'Avocat du diable, ou Memoires bistoriqaes Historia Ravennat., lib. ¥., p. 307, dec 

et critiques sur la Tie et sur la legende da (36) The Life of Urban II. was written 

P^pe Gregoire VII., pablished in Holland, by Tktod, Ruinart ; and is extant in Jo. Ifa- 

1743, three vols. 8vo. [See also J. B. ^t2^V Opera posthuma, torn, iii., p. 1, dec 

Hartung's Unparthcyische Kxrchenhistorie, It is composed with learning and indostiy ; 

Tol. ii., p. 1057, and Memoires pour serrir but with what fidelity and candour, I need 

i THist. Eccles., 18me siecle, ed. 2, Paris, not say. Those acquainted with facts, know 

1815, torn, ii., p. 61, ^.--2JM itmt the monks sxe not at liberty to deaczibe 

(36) A life of this pontiiljMlnieyi^ III., to us the Roman pontiffii snch as they reaUy 

was lately promised to the world, by Jo. were. See slso conceniin^ Urbtn, toe Hisi, 

G€ttL HarmuMt in tho MiaeelL L^., torn, litt de U FraDce, torn. ?iiL, p. 514, 


tiff and the other enemies of his fiither to rebel against his parent, and to 
usurp the kingdom of Italy. The condition of Italy still continued in the oU 
most confusion ; nor was Urban ahle to hring the city Rome under his subjec« 
tion. Therefore, after holding a council at Placentia in the year 1095, in 
which he reiterated the decrees and the anathemas of Gregory^ he took m 
journey into France and there held the celebrated council of Clermont, in 
which the holy war against the Mohammedans the occupants of Palestine 
was resolved on. And what deserves particular notice, in the same coun- 
oil Urban most imprudently rendered the contest about investitures, which 
had long been so obstinate and calamitous, still more unmanageable and 
violent. For Gregory YoA not forbidden bishops and priests to swear fealty 
to their sovereigns ; but Urban very rashly, prohibited them from takins 
the oath of allegiance.(37) On his return to Italy, the pontiff succeeded 
in reducing the Roman castle of St. Angelo under his power ; but he died 
a little afler, in the year 1099 ; and the year following, Clemenl III. also 
died. And thus the Benedictine monk Raymtr^ who was created pontiff 
after the death of Urban, and who assumed the name of Pascal II., reigned 
without a competitor when the century closed. 

§ 21. Among the Oriental monks, nothing occurred worth noticing ; but 
among the western monks, there were several events which deserve to be 
mentioned. Of these events the most important perhaps, was the closer 
union between them and the Roman pontiffs. For a long time, many ist 
the monks, in order to escape the oppressions and snares of the bishops and 
kings and princes who coveted their possessions, had placed themselves 
under the protection of the Roman pontiffs, who readily received them on 
condition of their paying an annual tribute. But in this age, the pontiffii 
in general, and especially Gregory VII., who wished to bring all things 
under subjection to St, Feter, and to diminish the rights and prerogatives 
of the bishops, themselves directly advised and counselled the monks to 
withdraw their persons and their property from the jurisdiction of the bish- 
ops, and to place both under the inspection and dominion of St, Peter.{Z8) 
Hence, from the times of Gregory VII., the exemptions of monasteries from 
the ordinary power, were immensely multiplied throughout Europe, to the 
great injury and inconvenience of kings and princes, and to the vexation of 
the bishops.(39) 

(37) To the 15th canon of this council 204, &c. To this may he added othen, bv 

the following addition ia subjoined, [consti- Urban II. and the subsequent pontifis ; whicD 

tutinff the 17th canon ; according to Hardu- are extant in the same worit, and here and 

itCt Concilia, torn, yi., pt. ii.,p. 1719]. Ne there in other collections, 

episcopus vel sacerdos Kegi vel alicui laico (39) Perhaps no exemption of a Germanic 

in manibus ligiam fidelitatem faciant ; i. e., monastery can be produced, which is oUer 

may take the oath, which vassals or subjects than the times of Uregory. [Dr. Mo»heim 

are accustomed to take. They are in error, probably means to say : *' no exemption by 

who tell us that Gregory VII. forbid bishops mere papal authority f^* occurred in (xermany 

taking the oath of fidaity. He was more before Gregory VII., for there were varioas 

reasonable than that, unreasonable as he monasteries there, which were exempt at an 

sometimei was. This is proved by Henry earlier period. Tbat of Pulia was one ; ez- 

NoriSf Istom delle investiture, cap. z., p. empt from its foundation, A.D. 744 ; as ttp- 

379, dec. pears from Bonifaeej Epistola 151. !& 

(88) See, as a specimen, the Epistle of founders of monasteries onen wished to havs 

Gregory YH., in which he subjects the them exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, a* 

monks of Redon to the Romish see, with ez- well as from civil exactions, and therefore 

pntsions new and unheard of till his age ; procured from the bishop and from theprmcs 

in M»t€n^M Thesaor. Aascdot., torn, i., p^ audi ezenqptioD, which was confimed at fint 


§ 2^ The irreligious liyesy die ignorancey the frauds, the Jinolutepess, 
the quarrels, and the flagrant crimes of the greater part of the monksy are 
noticed by nearly all the historians of that age ; not to mention other proofs 
of their impiety which have reached us in great numbers.(40) But Btill, 
this class of people were every where in high repute, were promoted to the 
highest offices in the church, and increased continually in wealth and opu- 
lence. The causes of this, are to be traced to the extreme ignorance of 
every thing pertaining to religion, which gave rise to the grossest supersti- 
tion, and to the licentiousness and the very dissolute lives of the people at 
large in this century. (41) While the great mass of people and even the 
clergy, secular as well as regular, addicted themselves to every species of 
vice, those appeared like saints and the friends of God, who preserved 
some show of piety and religion. Besides, the nobles, knights, and mili- 
tary gentlemen, who had spent their lives in acts of robbery, in debauchery, 
in revelry, and other gross vices, when they became advaiKed in life and 
felt the stings of a guilty conscience, hoped they could appease the justice 
of their almighty Judge, if they should either puichase the prayers of the 
monks by rich gifls and should return to God and the saints a portion of 
their ill-gotten wealth, or should tliemselves become monks and make their 
new brethren their heirs. 

§ 23. Of all the monks, none were in higher reputation for piety and 
virtue, than those of Clugrd in France. Their rules of life therefore, were 
propagated throughout aU Europe ; and whoever would establish new mon- 
asteries or resuscitate and reform old ones, adopted the discipline of Clugni. 
The French monks of Clugni from whom the sect originated, gradually 
acquired such immense wealth in consequence of the donations of the pious 
of all classes, and at the same time such extensive power and influence, 
that towards the close of the century they were able to form a peculiar 
community of their own, which still exists under the name of the Clurda^ 
censian order or eo7igregation.{A2) For all the monasteries which they re- 
ly^ some council, and afterwards by the Ro- who prostitate their bodies to every sort of 
nun pontiff. As the pontiffs advanced in men. This is only a specimen, of wfatt is 
power^ and encroached on the prerogatives of to be met with in the writers of these tiimi. 
Dishops, councils, and kings, thhr confirma- — Tr.] 

tion of an exemption became more common (41) On the astonishing wickedness of this 
and more necessary, till at last they assumed aee, see Dav. Blondell, de formula : regnante 
the exclusive right of granting exemptions Christo, p. 14, &c. Boulainvilliers, de Tori- 
at their pleasure. See on this subject Fetrus ffine et les droits de la noblesse ; in MoUVm 
de Marco, Concordia Sacerdotii et Imperii, Memoires de litterature ct de THistoire, tome 
lib. iii., cap. zvi. — Tr.} ix., pt. i., p. 63, &c., and many others. This 

(40) See what Jo. Launoi, (assertio in licentiousness and impunity of all sorts of 
nhvileg. S. Medardi, cap. 26, ^ 6, 0pp., tom. wickedness, ^ve rise to the orders of knights 
lii., pt. ii., p. 499, &c.), and Rich. Simon, errant, or chivalry ; whose business it was 
(Bibliothcque Critique, tom. iii., cap. zxxii., to protect the weak, the poor, and especially 
p. 331, (Sec), have collected and remarked females, against the insults and violence ot 
on this subject, [ho Camatensis, ep. 70, the strong. This was a laudable institution 
(cited by Pagi, Crit. Baron., ad ann. 1100, in those wretched times, when the 0D«gT of 
No. ix.), says to Walter bishop of Meaux : law was wholly prostrate, and those mUng 
" I state to your goodness the shameful ro- the office of judges were incompelMit to pep- 
port, which I have received from the lips of form the duties of their stations, 
the monks of Tours and the letters of lady (42) On the very rapid adranees of the or- 
AdeUid the venerable countess, respecting der of C/v^^ in both wealth and reputatioii, 
the monastery of St Fara, that it is no long- Stephen idluse has collected numerous 
er the residence of holy virgins, but may be facts, in his Miscellanea, tom. v., p. 348, 
pnmounced the brothel of demoniac feoaaiesy &c., and torn, vi., p. 436» and Jp, ifoMte 

m BOOR ni.-CENTURT Ja^^AXl» IL— OftAP. n. 

formed and brougkt under dieir ndeByttief feIioeii(|leaToured to bring under 
tiieir dominion ; and in this they were 00 eaooeaBfiil, especially under Hwg0 
the sixth abbot of Ciugni, a man in high &Tour with pontiffs, kings, and 
nobles, that at th6 close of the centuiy no less than thirty.iive of the largef 
monasteries in France, besides many of the smaller ones, looked up to him 
as their general. Besides these there were numerous others, which, though 
they declined becoming members of this community and continued to elect 
their own governors, yet chose the ahbci of Chtgniy or the arch^ahbol as he 
was called, for their patrcm and supervisor.(48) But this prosperity, this 
abundance of riches and iKHiours and power, graduaUy produced not only 
arrogance but all those vices which diisgraced the monks of those ages ; 
and in a little time there was nothing to distinguish the Cluniacensiana 
from the other monks, except some rites and forms. 

§ 24. The example of the Cluniacensiana led other pious and well-dBs- 
poscd men, to establish similar monastic associations ; and the conseqoenca 
was, that the Benedictine family which hitherto had composed but one bodyi 
was now split into several sects, all subject indeed to one rule^ but di^rii^ 
in customs, forms, and mode of living, and moreover indulging animosity 
towards each other. In the year 1028, RotmuM an Italian, retired to Oo- 
maJdoli or Campo-MalduUj a desert spot on the lofty heights of the Apen. 
nine,(44) and there laid the foundation of the congregation of the Carnal^ 
dulensians, which still ik)urishes especially in Italy. Those who belong to 
it, are divided into coenobites and eremites. Both are required to live ac- 
cording to rigoit>us and severe laws ; but the CGenobites have relaxed not 
a little the ancient rigour of the sect.(45) Shortly after, John (htaJberi a 
Florentine, founded at Valumbrosa^ which is also on the Apennine, the con- 
gregation of Benedictine monks of Valumbrosoj which in a little time ex- 
tended into many parts of Italy.(46) To these two Italian congregations^ 
may perhaps be subjoined that of Hirschau [in the diocese of Spire] in 
(jermany, established by the abbot William^ who reformed many monas- 
teries in Grermany and also established some new ones.(47) But the Hir- 
mmgians, if we examine them closely, appear not to be a new sodality, hot 
m branch of the Cluniacensian congregation whose rules and customs they 

hu treated expressly on the subject, in sev- Bened., torn, v., in manyplsces, especially 

eial parts of his Annales Benedict., torn. ▼. p. 261, &c. Magnoald ZiegelhmieT'B Cen- 

(43) Mabilfottj Prcfat. ad saecul. v., Ac- tifolium Camaldulense, seti Notitia Scriptor. 
tor. SS. Old. Bened., p. zxvi., &c. ; Histoire Camaldulensium, Venice, 1750, fol., [and 
generale de Boorgogne, par les Moins Ben- Anselm Cottadom^ Annales Camaldulens., 
edictins, tome i., p. 151, &c., Paris, 1739, torn, i., ii., Venice, 1766, fol. — Schl.l 

ioL Histoire litter, de la France, tome iz., (46) See the life of Jo. Gualberhu, in 

p. 470. MahilltnCa Acta Sanetor. oid. Bened., svcoL 

(44) [See a description and a drawing of vi., pt. ii., p. 273. Htlyot, Histoire des Oi^ 
the spot, in Jo. MabiUon^ Annales Bened., dres, tomer., p. 296. Many documents ra- 
tom. if., p. 961, 6lc. — TV.] latin^ to this order and to its history, wen 

(45) Soma of the writers concerning the ptibhsbed not long since by Jo. Lavdy in bis 
Older of Ctauddnlensians, are named by Jo. Delicia eruditomm, printed at FIorencs» 
Alh, Wtknemtt Biblioth. Lat. medii avi, torn, ii., p. 238, (where the ancient rules of 
tonL i^jp. 896. To which add the Life of the sect are given), and p. 272, 279, tom. 
Rmmdmu^ in the AcU Sanetor. Febr., torn, iii., p. 177, 212, and elsewhere. 

ii., p. 101, dbc., and in Jo. MabiUon^ Acta (47) See Mabillon, Acta Sanetor. old. 

Sanetor. ord. Bened., saecnl. vi., pt. i., p. Bmd., s»ctd. yi., pt. ii., p. 716, d^c. JAlii 

4B7. Hipp. Hdyot^ Histoors des Ordres, yo(, Histoirt det Oidnt, tome r., p. 331. 

tOMi,p.S38. ^JfaUOtfAtAimilsiioid. ^ 


§ 35. Near the end of the centiuy, A.D. 1098, RobeH abbot of Mo- 
lesme in Burgundy a province of France, being utterly unable to hnng bi» 
monks to live up to the rule prescribed by SL Benedict^ retired with twenQr 
associates to CUeaux (Cisterdum), tlien a horrid place covered with woode 
and briers, but now a beautiful spot, [in the diocese o£ Chalons and] county 
of Beaume, and there commenced tlie order or ratlier congregation of the 
Cistercians. In the following century this family, with tibe same success 
as that of Chugni, spread itself over the greatest part of Europe, became 
exceedingly opulent, and acquired the form and rights not only of a new 
xnonastic sect, but of a new commonwealth of monks. The primary law 
of this fraternity was the rule of SU Benedict^ which tlic founder required 
the members to fulfil perfectly, without adopting any convenient interpreta- 
tions of its precepts ; yet he added some further regulations, to serve as a 
rampart fortifying the rule against any violations, regulations which were 
severe and ungrateful to human nature, yet exceedingly holy, according to 
the views of that age. Yet the possession of wealth, which had corrupted 
the Cluniacensians at once, extinguished also gradually among the Cister- 
cians their first zeal for obeying their rule ; so tliat in process of time, their 
fiuilts were as numerous as those of the other Benedictines. (48) 

§ 26. Besides these societies formed witliin the Benedictine family, 
there were added some new families of monks, or orders in the proper 
sense of the term, i. e., societies having peculiar rules and institutions. (49) 
For to some persons, who were constitutionally gloomy and inclined to ex- 
cessive austerity, the rule of Benedict appeared too lax ; and others thought 
it imperfect and not well accommodated to the exercise of all tlie duties of 
piety towards God. In the first place, Stephen of Thiers^ a nobleman of 
Auvergne and son of a viscount, (whom some call Stephen de Murei from 
the place where he erected tlie first convent of his order), obtained from 
Gregory VII. in the year 1073, permission to institute a new species of 
monastic discipline. He at first designed to subject his followers to the 
rule of St. Benedict ; but he afterwards changed his purpose, and drew up 
a rule of his own. It contains many very severe injunctions ; poverty and 
obedience, it inculcates as first principles; it forbids the possession of 
lands beyond the boundaries of the monastery ; denies wholly the use of 
flesh, even to the sick ; does not allow of keeping cattle, that a hankering 
after animal food might be more easily prevented ; most sacredly enjoins 
silence ; and makes solitude of so much importance, that the doors of the 
monastery were to bo opened to none but persons of high authority ; pro- 
hibits all converse with females ; and finally, commits the care and man- 
agement of all the temporal affairs and concerns of the monastery, exclu- 
sively to the converted bretkrenj [the lay brethren^, while the clerical hretlu 
ten were to devote themselves exclusively to the contemplation of divine 
things. The reputation of this new order was immense in this century 

(48) The principal historun of the Cister- lioth. Latina medii Bvi, torn, i., p. 1066. 

cian order, is Angdut Manriquez ; whose But to them should be added Jo. MskUhm, 

Annales Cistercienses, a ponderous and mi- who learnedly and diligenthf invMligttei the 

nnte work, was published at Lyons, 1642, origin and progress of the CietaidaaSi In the 

ID four vols. fol. The second is Peter U 6Ch and 6th vols, of his Anaalai Bfloedic- 

JVktn, whose Essai de THistoire de I'Ordre tini ; and also Helyot, Histoirs dee Oxdiee, 

do Citeauz, was publishied at Paris, 1696, tome ▼., p. 841, dtc. 

dec., in nine vols. 8to. The other writers (49) [See note (Sl)» p. IS6, of this vol- 

■n enumerated by Jo. JJb. PabrienUf Bib- iinM.-«2V.] 

Vol. II.— Z 


nad the next, so long aa these reguladoDB and others no less severe, were 
observed ; but its credit sunk entirely, when violent animosity broke out 
between die elerieal and the converted brethren, the latter exalting them- 
selves above the former, and when the rigour of their rule was in many re- 
spects mitigated and softened down, partly by the prefects of the ordei 
themselves and partly by the Roman pontifli. This monastic sect was 
called the order of GramnunUamSf because Murety where they were first 
established, was near to CrramnunU in the territory of Limoges.(50) 

§ 27. Afterwards, in the year 1084 or 1086, followed the order of Car* 
ihusiansy so called from Chartreuse, a wild and dismal spot surrounded with 
high mountains and craggy rocks, near Grenoble [in the southeasterly 
part of] France. The founder of this noted sect, which exceeded perhaps 
all others in severity of discipline, was Bruno, a German of Cologne, and & 
canon of Rheims in France. Unable to endure or to correct the perverse 
conduct of his archbishop ManasseSj he bid adieu to the world, and with 
six companions took up a wretched residence in tlie dismal spot- 1 have 
mentioned, with the permission of Hugo bish(^ of Grenoble. (51) He at 
first adopted the rule of Sl Benedict^ though enlarged with a considerable 
number of very austere and rigid precepts; and his successors, first GmgQ 
and afterwards others, imposed upon the sect other laws, which were still 
more severe and rigorous.(52) Nor is there any sect of monks, that has 
departed less from the severity of its original discipline. This new sect 
of solitaries spread itself more slowly than the others over Europe, and 
was later in admitting females to join it ; indeed it could never prevail 
much among that sex, owing undoubtedly to the rigours and the gloominesa 
of its discipTine.(53) 

(SO) The ongm of this order is described Bruno himself, the Benedictine monks haTV 
by Bernard wUdonis [de la Gawmne]t given t distinct account, Histoire litter.*de 
whose tract was published in Phil, "Labbi^t h France, tome ix., p. 233, du;. The col- 
Bibliotheca Manuscriptor., torn, ii., p. 275. .lectors of the Acta Sanctorum, will doubtless 
For its history and concerns, see Jo. Mahil' ffi?e a more fuH account when they come 
ian^s Annates Bened., tom. v., p. 65, du., down to the 6th day of October, which is 
99, du:., and tofn. vi., p. 116, and Pxcf/ad sacred to his memory. It was the cunent 
Acta Sanctor. oxd. Bened., secol. vi., pt. ii., report formerly, that Bruno took his resola- 
* p. apdr. Hehoi, Histoire des Oidres, tome tion of retiring into a desert, upon occasion 
viti p. 409. Gallia Christiana, by the Ben> of the death of a priest at Paris, who after 
•dietne monks, tom. ii., p. 646. Baluze^ his death miraculously returned to Efe for a 
VitB Pontiff. Ayenionens., tom. i., p. 158 ; short period, in order to attest his own dem- 
and his Miscellanea, tom. vii., p. 486. Of nation. But aince Jo. Launoi attacked that 
the founder of the order, Stephtiiy there is a story in his tract de Causa seecssus BruDCH 
pazticular accouBt in the Acta Sanctor. Feb- nis in desertum, it has commonly been ac- 
mar., tom. ii., p. 199, dec. counted a fable by the more discerning eyen 

(61) Some of the writers concerning Am- in the Romish churdi itself. And the dor- 

no and the order he established, are men- thusiafUt who might feel an interest to keep 

tioncd by Jo. JJb. FdMciutt Biblioth. Lat. up the story, seem at this day to abandon it, 

medii aeri, tom. I, p. 784, but there are or at least they defend it timidly. The ar^ 

many more extant See Imioe. MomsoHj guments on both sides, are clearly and fairly 

Anstlee Cutonani, Cereris, 1667, fol. Pe- stated by Cos. EgoMse de Boulay, Histovia 

ter (Mamd, Chronioon Caitusianum, and Acad. Paris., tom. i., p. 467, 6lc. 

others. From these Hipp'. Helyot (in his (52) See MabiUon's Pr»f. ad Saecul il, 

Hia^nre dea Ordres, tom. yii., p. 366) has pt. ii., of his Acta Sanctor. erd. BeMNL» 

compSad a neat but imperfect history of the p. xxxrii. 

Carthnsiaii order. Many documents rela- (53) Most of those who treat of this sect, 

ting to the character and laws of the order, make no mention of Carthusian nuru ; «nd 

are exhibited by Jo. Mabiiltm^ in his Annales hence oiany represent the order as embracing 

Benedict., ton, n., p. 638, 683, dec. Of no femilts. But they have doisters of ie- 


§ 28. At the close of the eentmy, A.D. 1095, the order of SL Anihom^ 
which was devoted to the leeeiving and curing diseased personsy and espe- 
cially those affected with what was called the hoiy or St. AnUumjf'M iare^ 
took its rise from small beginnings in France. Those who were seized 
with this terrible disease in ttiis century, hastened away to a cell (built by 
the Benedictine monks of Montmajor near Vienne)^ in which the body of 
SL Anthony was said to repose ; that through the prayers of this holy maa 
they might be restored. Gaston, a rich nobleman of the diocese of Vienne^ 
and his son Guerin, having both recovered from the disease in this ceU, 
consecrated themselves and all their property to St. AnUumy, who as they 
believed had healed them ; and devoted themselves to works of kindness 
towards the sick and the indigent. Eight men first joined them, and af* 
terwards many more. This company were indeed all consecrated to Grody 
but they were bound by no vows, and were subject to the Benedictine 
monks of Montmajor. But after they had become rich, through the bounty 
of pious individuals, and were spread over various countries, they at first 
withdrew themselves from the control of the [Benedictine] monks ; and at 
length, under Boniface VIII., in the year 1297, they obtained the rank (oid 
the rights of an order or sect of brethren, observing the rule of Su Augus- 

§ 29. The canons, who since the eighth century formed an intermediate 
class between the monks and what are called the secular clergy, had be^* 
come infected with the same dissoluteness of morals that pervaded the 
whole sacred order ; indeed there was even greater dissoluteness among 
them, in some countries of Europe. Therefore good men, who had some 
sense of religion, and also several of the pontiffs, as Nicolaus II. in the coun^ 
dl at Rome A.D. 1059,(55) and afterwards others, made commendable ef- 
forts for reforming the associations of the canons* Nor were these efforts 
without effect; for a better system of discipline was introduced into nearly 
all those associations. Yet all the fraternities would not admit reform to 
the same extent. For some bodies of canons returned indeed into com« 
mens, or resided in the same house and ate at a common table, which WM 
especially required by the pontiffs, and was extremely necessary in oidev 
to prevent marriages among this class of priests ; while they still retained 

males, though but few. For most of their ii., p. 160. Helyoty Histoire des Ordrei, 

nunneries are extinct ; and in the year 1368 tome ii., p. 108, 6lc. Gabr, Pennottus, 

an express regulation was made, prohibiting Historia Canonicorum regular., lib. ii., cap. 

the erection of any more convents for females 70. /o. £r A. iCapp, Diss, de Fratribns S. 

in the Carthusian community. At the pros- Antonii, Lips., 1737, 4to. The present 

ent day therefore, [A.D. 1755}, there are state of the first house or hospital of this 

only five convents of Carthusian nuns, four order, in which its abbot resides, is described 

in France, and one at Bruges in the Nether- by Martene and Durand, Voyage litterair« 

lands. See the learned author of the Yah- de deux Benedictines de la Congreg. de S. 

et^ historiques, physiques, et litteraires, Maur, torn, i., p. 260, d(c. 

tome i., p. 80, <Slc., Faris, 1752, 8vo. The (55) The decree of Nieclaus II., in the 

delicate female constitution could not sua- council of Rome A.D. 1059, (bw tridch the 

tain the austere and stem mode of living old rule for canons adopted in tot eomidl of 

required by the laws of the order ; and hence, Aix-Ia-Chapelle was repealed, and another 

in the few nunneries that remain, it was ne- substituted), was first publiriied ^J^, Ma* ^ 

cessary to yield somewhat to nature, and in bUioHf amonff the documanli tiiojoined to 

particular to relax or abrogate the severe torn. iv. of his Annales Benedict., p. 748, 

laws respecting silence, solitude, and eating du. See also the Amuds fhmaultwm, lib. 

alone. Ixi., ^ zxxv., p. 686^ dlM. 

(54) See the Acta Saoctor. Jaaaahi, toai. ^ 


the perquisites and revenues of their priestly offices, and used them at their 
pleasure. But other associations, 'chiefly through the influence of Ivo a£i 
terwards hishop of Chartres, renounced all private property, and all their 
possessions and patrimony ; and these lived very much after the manner 
of monks. Hence arose the distinction between secuiar canons and regular ; 
the former obeying the precept of Nicoknu XL, and the latter following the 
counsels of Ivo* And as St. Augustine introduced among his clergy near- 
ly the same regulations as those of /oo, though he did not commit any rules 
to writing, hence the regular canons were called by many, regular canona 
of SU Augustinef or canons under the rule of St» Augustine.(b6) 

§ 30. Among the Greek writers, the following are the best.(57) The* 
ofianes CerameuSf whose homilies still extant, are not altogether contempt* 
ible.(58) Nilus Doxopalrius.{69) Nicetas Pectoraius, thus most strenuoop 
defender of the opinions of the Greeks against the Latins. (60) Mteko/U 

(66) See Jo. MaHUon, Anntles Benedict., ong, inveited with the nrivilege of cboosmg 

torn, iv., p. 586, and his 0pp. posthomft, their bishop. This order was singularly &- 

torn, ii., p. 102-115. Helyot, Histoire des vouredand protected by Henry I., whogaTt 

Ord^s, torn, ii., p. 11, dec. Ludao, T%h them in the year 1107, the priory of Dtuh- 

motttn, DiscipUna ecclesiae circa beoeficia, ttable, and by queen Maud^ who erected for 

torn, i., pt. i., lib. iii., c^. xi., p. 657, 6lc* them the priory of the Holy Trinity in Lmi* 

Muratori, Antiaq. Ital. medii ae?i, tom. ▼., dofL, the prior of which was always one of 

p. S57, &c. Many documents occur like- the twenty-four aldermen. They increased 

wise, in various parts of the Gallia Christiana so prodigiously, that besides the noble prioiy 

by the Benedictine monks, relating to this of Mertouj which was founded for them in 

reformation of the Mfum« and the distinction 1117, by Gilbert^ an earl of Norman blood, 

among them. This recent origin of their or- they had under the reign of Edward I. fiily- 

der, is yerr disa^ireeable to the regular can- three priories, as appears by the caulogue 

ont ; for they wish on many accounts to be presented to that prince, when he obliged all 

esteemed a yery ancient order ; and hence, the monasteries to receive his protection and 

as la well known, they refer the origin of to acknowledge his jurisdiction." — Mad.'\ 
their Older to the times ef Christ, or at least (57) Concerning all of whom, the Biblioth. 

to thoae of Auguttime, But the arguments Graeca of Jo. Alb. Fahridus, may be con- 

and testimonies they allege to prove their high suited. 

antiquity, scarcely deserve a laboured con- (58) [Theophanest sumamed CerameuM 

fvtation. The name canonM was doubtless (the poUer\ was archbishop of Tauromeninm 

iMed anterior to this century ; but its import in Sicilv, and probably flourished about A.D. 

was mciently very eztensiTe. See Claude 1040, though some place him in the 9th cen- 

dEc Vert, Explication des ceremonies de la tury. His 62 Homilies on the lessons from 

Meiee, tome i., p. 68. Hence nothing can the Gospels for all Sundays and festivals, are 

be inferred from the name. But of regular written in a natural and didactic style. They 

and teeular e«iieiw, there is no mention in are exegetical. Fr. Scorsus published them, 

any existing work older than this century : Gr. and Lat., Paris, 1644, fol. — TV.] 
and it is certain, that those canons who hiad (59) [Nilus DoxomUriuSj an abbot or 

nothing in common but their dwelling and archinoandrite in the (ireek church. He re- 

tabUf were called aecular cammM ; while sided at Panormus in Sicily A.D. 1043. He 

thoae who had all tkinga in commoii without virrote an account of the five patriarchatee, 

any exception whatever, were called regU' namely, of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, 

lor canons. — [" To Dr. Mo9heim*» account Jerusalem, and Alexandria, containing their 

of the toduma^ it may not be improper to add atatistics. Lsrge extracts from which were 

a few words concerning their mtroductioa pobliahed by Leo AUat.^ de Concordia £c- 

into EngUnsif and their progress and eatab- cles. orient, et Occident., and the entire woiIe, 

lishment among us. The mder of regular Gr. and Lat., by Stephen le Moine, Vaiia 

tarwHa of St. Auguetine waa broaeht into Sacra, tom. i., p. 211, Paris, 1611. — TV.} 
England by Addwdd^ confessor to Henry I,, (60) [He was a monk and j^esbyter hi toe 

who first erected a priory of his order at ffoi" monastery of Studium, near Constantinople^ 

td in Yorkshire, sod bad influence enough andflouriahed A.D. 1050. He wrote against 

to have the church of CarUeU converted into the Latins, and also against the Armeniaoa. 

an epi8c<^l see, and given to rcfv^ OM- Hia bookde azymie, de Sabbathoium jcjunio^ 


PselluSf a learned man^ and well known by his writings of Yarioui kinds.(dl) 
Michael Cendarius^ patriarch of Constantinople, who revived the contest 
between the Greeks and the Romans, when it was nearly put to rest(62) 
Simeon^ junior, some of whose Meditations on the duties of a Christian life 
are extant.(63) Theophylact of Bulgaria, who acquired fame especially by 
his interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. (64) 

§ 31. The Latins esteem the following as their best writers. Fulberi 
of Chartres,a man who encouraged literature and the education of youth, 
and who has rendered himself famous by his Epistles, and by his immod- 
erate zeal for the Virgin Mary.(65) Humbert^ a cardinal, who wrote 
against the Greeks, the most zeisdously and learnedly, of all the Latins in 

ct nvptiii saceidotQiiL, was pobliihed in Lat. left ua a Homily on the cross, and some de- 

bj C9adaiu9^ torn. vi. Some other of his crees. His nephew, also called JoAnXi^R&> 

polemic tracts have been partially published, iim, and his oontemporszy, was the epito- 

—TV.] mixer of Dimi Cassnw. 

(61) [For a notice of Mkhul Pselhu, see Smmul, a conrerted Jew of Morocco in 
note (4) to p. 149 of this volume. — Tr.} Africa, wrote A.D. 1070, a letter or taei in 

(62) [This Michad was patriarch A.D. Arabic, provins that the Messiah was al- 
1043-1058. We have nothing of his, but ready come. A Latin translation of it, is in 
some synodic decrees and a few letters ; all the fiiblioth. Patrum., tom. xriii., p. 519, 
in controversy with the Latins. — Tr.] Samamu, abp. of Gaza A.D. 1072, wrote 

(63) [Simton junior was abbot of St. Ma- a tract, or dispate with Achmed a Saracen, 
mas at Constantinople, about A.D. 1050. proving the doctrine of transubstantiation ; 
His works, in a Latin translation, were pub- published, Gr. and Lat., in Dvlubus, Anctn- 
lishedby PonUnut^ at Ingolstadt, 1603, 4to ; ahum, tom. ii., p. 277. 

oomprisinff 33 Orations on faith and Chris- Michael AtUuiatOj a Gr. jurist, proconsul, 

tian morals ; a book on divine love ; and and judge, A.D. 1072. He wrote a S3mop- 

228 Capita moralia, practice, et theologica. sis or practical treatise on the imperial laws, 

^-Tr.] * in xcv. Titles, addressed to Michael Docas ; 

(64) iTheophylact was a native of Con- published, Gr. and Lat., by J, Lewuku,^ do 
stantinople, and archbishop of Acris in Bulge- Jure (^. Rom. , tom. ii., p. 1. 

ha, A.D. 1077. He wrote commentahes, Nicetas Semm^ deacon of the cfaoxdi at 

(compiled from CkrywoMtom), on nearly all Constantinople, and then abp. of Heraclea. 

the N. Test., and on tne minor proohets; also He flourished A.D. 1077 ; and wrote com- 

75 Epistles, and several tracts ; all of which mentahea on Gregory Nasianzen. To him 

were well published, Gr. and Lat., Venice, as well as to OiymmoioruB^ has beoB M- 

1754, fol. The older editions are less per- chbed the Catena on Job, published, Cbr. vd 

feet. Besides the whters mentioned by Mih Lat., by Fr. Junius^ Lond., 1637, IbL 

sA»m, the Greeks of this century hsd the Nicolaus Grammaticus, patharch of Cath 

following: stantinople A.D. 1084-1111. He has left 

Alexius, patriarch of Constantinople A.D. us a long letter to Alexis ComMmts, against 

1025-1043. Some of his decrees are ex- depriving metropolitans of their sees ; also 

tant. several decrees. — Tr.l 

Peter, patriarch of Antioch in the middle (65) For an account of this famous man, 

of this centuxY, has left us 3 Epistles, and a see the Histoire Litteraire de la France, 

profession of his faith. tome vii., p. 261. — iSt. Fulhert came from 

i>o, archbishop of Achs in Bulgaria, A.D. Rome to Chartres about A.D. 1000, and 
1053. He engaged in the contest against there taught school, with great reputation, 
the Latins. (Jne of his Epistles, aid ex- In the year 1007, he was msde bp. of ex- 
tracts from others, are extant. tree; snd filled that office till his death in 

JoAn, metropolitan of Euchaita ui Paphla- the year 1028. His whtings consist of 134 

SDnia, A.D. 1054, has left a ooem on the letters, senerally well whtten, and of some 

istory of the principal festivsls, published, use to the history of those tinsi ; besides 

Eton, 1610, 4to, ana a few lives of monkish several indifferent sermons, soiM worse poe- 

•ainu. tiy, and two lives of monkish saintB. Thej 

Jokn XipkUin, patriarch of Constantino- were edited, with bad faith, Fihs, 1608, 8vo, 

pie A.D. 1066-1078. He was of honour- and thence admitted into the Biblioth. Pfttr., 

able birth, but abandoned public life, became tom. xviii., p. 1. See Du Ptn's Eccleaiat* 

s monk, and at last a patrinch. He baa tical aotlioffs, toL ix., p. 1, &c.*-7V.] 


thffl century.(66) Petrus DamianuSf whose genius, candour, integrity, and 
writings of various lands, entitle him to rank among the first men of the 
age, although he was not free from the fitults of the times.(67) Marianus 
Scatus, whose Chronicon, and some other of his writings, are extant.(68) 
Anselnif archhishop of Canterbury, a man of great acumen, well versed in 
the dialectics of ius age, and peculiarly well acquainted with theological 
8ubjects.(69) Lanfranc, also archbishop of Canterbury, well known for 
his exposition of the epistles of Paul, and his other writings; from which 
he must be acknowledged not destitute of perspicuity, nor of leamins ac- 
cording to the standard of his age.(70) The two Brunoa, the one of Monte 

(66) See Martene*» Thesaurus Anecdo- of letters ; about 60 tracts on various sob- 
tor., torn, v., p. 629. Histoire Litteraire de jects of disciplinei morals, and casoiatnr \ 
la France, tome vii., p. 627, &c. IHumbert Sermons for all Sundays and festivals of tM 
was a monk of Toul, well skilled in Greek, year ; and the lives of several saints, vis. i 
whom pope Leo IX. took with him to Rome St. Odilo, St. Maurust St. Romuali^ St. 
A.D. 1049, and there made him a cardinal. JRodulphj Si. Ftonit uid St. LuciUa ; besides 
He was employed in several important com- notices of many others. — TV.] 

missions ; but especially in a papal embas^ (68) [Mariamu Scotus was bom in Irs* 

to Constantinople A.D. 1064. lie died at- lanid A.D. 1028, became a monk, travelled 

ter A.D. 1064. His writings are all contio- into (Germany in 1058, where he spent ths 

Tersial ; and chi^y against the Greeks, remainder of his life, in the monasteries of 

Tliey are extant, partly in Baronhu* Annals, Cologne, Fulda, and Mentz. He died A.D. 

and all of them in CaninuSy Lectiones An- 1086, aged 68. His Chronicon extends 

tiq., tom. vi., and in the Biblioth. Patr., from the creation to A.D. 1083 ; and was 

tom. xviii.— Tr.] continued by Dodechin to A.D. 1200. It 

(67) See the Acta Sanctor. Fehr., tom. is published among the Scriptores reram 
iii., p. 406. Bayle, Dictionnaire, tom. ii., p. Germanicarum, by Struve and others. His 
950. Casitn. Oudin, Diss, in his Comment, other writings are of little valuc.-^Tr. j 

de Scriptor. Eccles., tom. ii., p. 686, &c. (69) See the Histoire Litteraire de la 
[Peter Vamian was bom of humble parents France, tome ix., p. 398. Rapin TJufyras, 
•^ tl Ravenna, A.D. 1007. Educated by Histoire d'Angleterre, tom. ii., p. 65, 166, 
his brother, he early became a monk, a teach- &c. Colonia^ Histoire litter, de Lyon, 
er, a reformer of morals, an abbot of Ostia, tome ii., p. 210. [EadmeTf {Antelm's sec- 
and cardinal of the Romirii church. But retaiy), ae vita S. Anselmi, lib. ii., in the 
weary of public life, he resigned his bishop- Acta Sanctor., April., tom. ii., p. 893. 
ric, and retired to his monastery. Thepon- Wharton*9 Anglia sacra, pt. ii., p. 179 ; and 
tiflb employed him as their legate, on several Milner's Hist, of the church of Christ, cent, 
most difBcult enterprises, in which he ac- xi., ch. v. — St. Anselm was bom at Aoeta 
ouitted himself with great address and pra- in Piedmont, A.D. 1033. After acquiring 
oence. He was sent to Milan A.D. 1059, an education, and travelling in France, be 
, to suppress simony and clerical inconti- became a monk at Bee in Normandy, at thtt 
nence ; and A.D. 1062, was despatched to age of 27. Here he taught with great rep- 
Chigrd m France, to reform that monastery, utation, succeeded Lanfranc in the abbacy, 
and settle its controversies ; and in 1063, and was made abp. of Canterbury, next after 
was legate to Florence, for settling a con- Lanfranc^ A.D. 1093. In that office ho 
test between the bishop and the citizens ; spent an unquiet life, which ended A.D. 
and 1069, he was sent into Germany, to 1 109. He was in contmual collision with 
dissuade king Henry from repudiating his the kings of England, respecting investitmee 
queen Bertm ; and lastly, in 1072, he was and encroachments upon clerical rights, 
papal legate to Ravenna, for reconciling that Twice he left the kingdom, travelled to Its- 
church to the papal dominions ; and died on ly, and resided at Rome and at Lyons. His 
his return, in Febraary, 1074, aged 66. He works have been published frequently ; th^ 
was a man of ereat leaming, devout, honest, best edition is by Crdbr. Gerberoti^ Pans, 
irankt ^"^ ^C" acquainted with human na- 1675, 3 tom. fol. They comprise a laigs 
ture. He wrote with ease and perspicuity, number of letters, many sermons, and med- 
His jiumerous writings were collected in 3 itations on practical and devotional subjects, 
vols, fol., by Cajetan, Rome, 1606 ; often and a considerable number of doctrinal and 
reprinted since, but bwt at Venice, 1754, in polemic tieatises.^-TV.] 
4 vols. fol. Tho? consist of eight Books (70) Histoire litteraire de la Fiance, Umm 


Ca88ino,(71) and the other, the founder of the Carthutian <m]er.(78) Ivo 
of Chartres, a very actire restorer of eodeaiastical law and order.(78) 
Hildebert of le Mans, aa a theologian, philosopher^ and poet, not one of the 
hest, nor one^pf the wor8t.(74) Lastly, ChregSny VH., the most haugfa^ of 
the Roman pontiffs, who undertook to elucidate some parts of the holy 
scriptures, and wrote some other things. (75) 

Till, p. 260. [And Vita Beati Lanfranci, a few of his monks, spent the remainder of his 
hj Mile Cmptn, chanter in the monastery life. He died A. D. 1101. To him hate been 
of Bee m the age next afler Lanfranc ; in ascribed most, or all, of the wcnks written by 
Jo. MabiUon* Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., Bruno of Seffni, mentioned in the preceding 
touL ix., p. 630-660. Lanfranc was a na- note. But he wrote nothing, except two 
tive of Pa?ia, travelled into France veiy letters during his residence in Calabria, and 
mAy in life, became a monk at Bee in Nor- a confession of his faith, which is extant in 
maiidy A.D. 1041, Uoght there with veiy MtJnUmCa Andecta, tom. iv., p. 400.— TV.] 
gnat applause, and drew popils from afar ; (78) [ho or Kse^ was a natiye of Beau- 
was made prior and then abbot of his num- vais in France, edooited under Lan/rojic at 
astery, and counsellor to William the Con- Bee, then abbot of St Qaintin, ana at last 
<lueror, and A.D. 1070, abp. of Canterbury, bishop of Chaxtree, A.D. 1093-1116. He 
in which office he died A.D. 1088. He had was a ?ery learned man ; and a partisan of 
contention with Thoma», abp. of York, about the Roman pontiffs, which inTolved him in 
priority ; went to Rome, on that and other some difficulties. His works were puUisbed, 
sobjects ; and bore a conspicuous part in by Jo. BapL Souehett Paris, 1647, fol. They 
the civil transactions of England. His comprise Decretorum Liber, in 17 parts; 
works, which were collected and published Pannormia, or a summaiy of ecclesiastical 
bf Dacktryt Lucca, 1648, fol., comprise his law ; 287 Epistles ; 83 S«rmons ; and a 
Commentary on the epistles of St. Paul, short Chronicle of the kings of France, ex- 
about 60 letters, a tract on transubstantiar tending from Pkaramand to I%ilip I. — TV.] 
tion, and a few other small pieces. — TV.] (74) All the works of this Hildebert, who 

(71) [This ArttnowasanatiTeof Lombar- was certainly a man of learmng and inge- 
dy, educated in the monastery of Asti, be- unity, were published by theBenedictuie 
came a canon in the cathedral of Sienna, monks, with the explanatoxr notes of iliiloii. 
Tdscany ; disputed sgainst BerengariuSf in BeauffendrCf Paris, 1706, foL [They com- 
the council at Rome 1079 ; and was soon prise about a Imndred well-written Epistles, 
after, by the pope, created to. of Segni, in and seme sermons, tracts, and poems of an 
the ecclesiastical states. Weary of public ordinary character. — Hildebert was bom at 
life, he fled to Monte Cassino, A.D. 1104 : LaHrdin in the diocese of Mans, became a 
but the pontiff ordered him back to his bish- monk of Clugni, studied under the fiunow 
opric. In 1107, he again went to Monte Berengarius, and was made bidx>p of MaiM 
C«s8ino, and was there made abbot, with the about A.D. 1098, and archbishop of Tom 
consent of the pope. But in the Tear 1111, A.D. 1125, where he died A.D. 1183.-^ 
the pontiff required him to resign his abbacy, TV.] 

and resume bis episcopal staff, which he (75) [The Epistles of Gregory VIT., in 
held till his death, A.D. 1135. His wri- number 370, are found in all the collections 
tings were published at Venice, 1651, 3 vols, of councils ; e. g., by Hardum, tom. Ti., pt. 
fol. The first vol. contains his Commenta- i., p. 1 195, dec. His other writings are few, 
ries, on the Pentateuch, Job, Psabns, Can- ana of little worth. To him some attribute 
tides, and the Apocalypse. The second an expositionofthe seven penitential Psalms, 
Tol. contains 146 homilies on the Gospel les- published ss the work of Gregory the Ghvat. 
sons, some letters and tracts, and a life of His exposition of St. Matthew exists in MS., 
the pontiff Leo IX. — TV.] and some fragments of it have been poUisli- 

(73) [For an account of St. Bruno, the ed. 
founder of the Carthosiana, see p. 178 of this The following list embraces most of the 
volume, and note (51) there. — ^After spend- Latin writers omitted by Dr. MoMm, For 
inff six years at Chartreuse, Vrbaa^ II., who a fuller account of them, see Cm^o Histo- 
had been his pupil, summoned him to Rome ria Litterar., Du Pin, and oChen. 
A.D. 1093, that he might become his coun- Aimoin of Aquitaine, a Benedietuie monk 
seUor. But the scenes of public life were so of Flenry, A.D. 1001. His Historia Fn»> 
disagreeable to him, that the pontiff in 1095, conmi libri iv., to A.D. 753, with an addi- 

Sve him leave to retire. He travelled to tional Book by another band, is published 
9 extreme part of Calabria, and there with uMog the ScripCims Fiaacicoi. Ha ibo 



wrote two Books recoimtmg the miracles of 
8t. Benedict ; a life of St. Abbo of Fleuiy ; 
and some other things. 

Godehardt a monK, and bishop of Hild»- 
aheim, A.D. 1002 ; has left us fits Epistles, 
poblished by MaJMlon, Analecta, torn, iv., 
p. 349. 

Gosbert, abbot of Tegem in Bavaria, A.D. 
1002; has left us four Epistles, published 
also by MMUon^ Analecta, torn, iv., p. 347. 

Adelboldf a nobleman, counsellor and gen- 
eral under Uie emperor Henry ; then a monk, 
&ndA.D.1008-1027bishop of Utrecht. He 
|p supposed to be the author of the Libri ii. 
de vita S. Henrici Imperat., published by Co- 
msiuSf SuritUt and Gretser. 

Bernoi a monk of St. Gall, abbot of Riche- 
nau near Constance, died A.D. 1045. He 
wrote de officio misss, seu de rebus misss 
officium pertinentibus, Liber ; (in the Bibli- 
oth. Patr., tOQL z?iii.) ; and Lives of SL 
Udalrie, and St, Meginrad. 

Hugo, archdeacon of Tours A.D. 1020, 
wrote Dialogue ad Fulbertum Camotensem 
Episcopum; publidied by Afo^t^^on, Analec- 
ta, torn. ii. 

JoAn, sumamed JohannelinuSt from his di- 
minutive stature, abbot Fiscamnensis, A.D. 
1028-1078. He wrote many prayers and 
reliffious meditations, and some epistles ; 
published by MahiUon^ Analecta, torn. i. 

Adanar^ a monk of Limoges, A.D. 1030. 
He wrote a Chronicle of the French mon- 
archy, from its commencement to A.D. 
1029; an account of some abbots of Li- 
moges ; and e supplement to the work of 
Amalarius de divinis officiis. 

Hugo dc Britolio, a monk of Clugni, and 
bishop of Limoges A.D. 1030-1049, when 
lie was deposed for simony. He retired to 
the monastery of Verdun ; and wrote a tract 
against Berengarius, in favour of transub- 
stantiation, w^ch is in the Biblioth. Patr., 
tom. xviii., p. 417. 

BrunOf duke of Carinthia, and bishop of 
Wurtsburg, A.D. 1033-1045. To instruct 
his clergy, he compiled from the fathers Com- 
mentaries on the Psalms, and on all the de- 
votional hymns of the Scriptures ; also on 
the Apostolic, Ambrosian, and Athanasian 
Creeds ; published, Cologne, 1494 ; and in 
the Biblioth. Patr., tom. zviii., p. 65. 

HermannuSj, surnamed ContracttUy be- 
cause all his limbs were contracted by a 
paralytic^ affection. He was accounted a 
vast scholar, well skilled in Latin, Greek, 
and Arabic, and in theology, history, philos- 
ophy, and ^ die sciences of the age. Though 
of noble parentage, he became a monk of St» 
Oall, ana 4>f Richenau, till hia death, A.D. 
1054. He wrote Chronicon de sex mundi 
jstaubus, from the creation to A.D' 1064» 

published among the scriptores Oemiaiiieoa; 
and in the Biblioth. Patr., tom. xviii., p. 818. 

Glaber Radidphut^ a monk of St. Ger- 
main de Auxerre, and then of Clugni A.IX 
1045. He wrote Historiarum Lini v., ei- 
tending from A.D. 900 to A.D. 1046 ; pob- 
lished among the Scriptores Francicoe ; alao 
a life of St. Gulielmus, abbot of St. Bed^ 
nus of Dijon. 

Deodwn or Theoduin^ bishop of Li^ga 
A.D. 1045-1075. He wrote a letter or 
tract, addressed to Henry king of France, 
aeainst the doctrine of Berengariue and hia 
followers ; in the Biblioth. Patr., torn. urSLp 
p. 419. 

Hugo, abbot of Cluffni A.D. KMS^lM. 
He was of noble French parentaM, aa^M^ 
came a monk at the age of 15. Sanaa of bii 
letters are extant in Daehery, 8pid^|ia^p 
torn. iL 

Leo IX., pope A.D. 1048-1054, (aoa 
above, p. 156). He has left us 19 Epwtk% 
extant in the collections of the councils, (a. 
g., HardunCe, tom. vi., pt i., p. 9S7), be- 
tides a number of homilies or sermons. Rii 
life, written by Wibert a contemporary. Is in 
Mabillon, Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., torn, 
ix., p. 49, dtc. 

Anselnif a canon of Liege, and dean of 
Namur A.D. 1050. He wrote a history of 
the bishops of Liege, from A.D. 666, to 
about A.D. 1048 ; published by Jo. CA«pe«- 
viUe, Liege, 1612, 4to. 

Stephen IX., pone A.D. 1057-1058. £a 
has left two Epistles. 

Alberic, a monk and deacon of Monte 
Cassino, and a cardinal A.D. 1057-1079. 
He wrote many poems and other tracts, de- 
votional and polemic, and some lives of 
saints, all of wnich are said to exist still in 
manuscript. His life of St Dominie, is the 
only work of his published ; extant in Jfo- 
bUlon's Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., tom. vifL, 
p. 35, dtc. 

AlphanuSf abbot in the Benedictine mon- 
astery at Salerno, and then archbishop there 
A.D. 1057-1086. He wrote numcrooa 
poems, devotional and in praise of the aainta ; 
most of which were published by Ugheli, an- 
nexed to his Italia sacra, tom. ii. 

Nicolaus II., pope A.D. 1058-1061. He 
has left us eight Epistles ; extant in the col- 
lections of the councils. 

Gauferius, called also Be7udict,z,maok of 
Monte Cassino A.D. 1060. He wrote some 
sermons on the festivals, and some reliffioua 
poems ; which are in the library of Monte 

Alexander II., pope A.D. 1061-1078. 
He has 45 Epistles, in the collections of the 
Berthold, a German ecclesiaBtic, praaby- 


tor of ConBtance, and a wann paxtinn of Holy Land, under Sigifrid arehbiabop of 

Gregory YII. against Henry IV, He floor- Menta. On his return he was mado abbot 

iihed from about A.D. 1066,toll00. Hit of FonteneUe^and A.D. 1076, Wt2EMm,iiow 

Hiftoria sui temporis, ab anno 1058, usque kinff of'En^and, invited him thither, and 

ad ann. 1 100 ; iad his Appendix to Her- made him abbot of Croyland, till his death 

fRostft Contraehu* Cltfonicle, from A.D. A.D. 1109. He was very intimate with 

1065-1066, are published among the Scrip- LanfranCj archbishop of Canterbury. Hia 

tores rerum Gennanicarum. Some of his History of the monastery of Croyland, from 

tracts also, in support of Grf^ory's measures, A.D. 664 to about 1091, was published by 

were publidied by Chretser. SavUUj among the five Scriptores Anglicos, 

Guitmund, a Benedictine monk of Nor- Lond., 1596, fol., and still better among the 

mandy, and then archbishop of Aversa in Rerum Anglicar. Scriptores, Oxon., 1684, 

Italy, died A.D. 1080. He has left three ibl. 

Books on the real presence in the Eucharist ; Lambert of Schafnaberg. He became a 

satatMnmtoftbe doctrine of the trinity, dec., monk at Hirsfeld A.D. 1058; soon after 

and 'uk address to William. I. king of Eng- travelled as a pilgrim to the Holy Land, and , 

land ; all extant in the Biblioth. Atr., torn, returning, resumed his monastic life at Hirs- 

xriii. feld. Tnere he eomposed, A.D. 1077, his 

Sigifrid, archbishop of Mentz, from about History , which is a mere chronicle from the 

1069 to 1084. In the year 1064, he led a creation to A.D. 1050, and then a vezy dif- 

band of 7000 German pilgrims to the Holy fuse histoxy, down to A.D. 1077. His style 

Land. In 1074, he attempted to reclaim is commended very highly. The woik is 

hia clergy from simony and matrimony, with- published among the Scriptores Germanieoe. 

out success. In 1076, Gregory vll. ex- Hugo^ bishop of Die in the year 1077, and 

communicated him, for adhering to the cause archbishop of Lyons from A.D. 1080, till 

of Henry ; but the next year be revolted ; after A.D. 1099. He was much engaged in 

and he it was crowned Jtodulph the com- the public transactions of the times. Two 

petitor for the German throne. Four of his of his epistles to Gregory YII. ate in thje 

epistles are in the collections of councils. collections of the councils. 

Dwrandj a monk of Normandy A.D. 1070, Micrologus, a fictitious name for the an- 

was one who wrote against Berengarius, thor of a Tnct on the ceremonies of tha 

His tract is subjoined to Lanfranei 0pp., mass, written in the latter part of this ceiK 

ad. Dachery, tuxy, or perhaps in the next ; which is ej^ 

Gualdo, a monk of Coibey A.D. 1070 ; tant, among the Scriptores de divaiB Ofik 

wrote a metrical life of Si. Ansgar, bishop ciis, Paris, 1610, fol., and in the BibliodL 

of Hamburg, and apoatle of the North ; Patr., tom. xviii., p. 469. 

which is in MabilUnCs Acta Sanctor. oid. Adamus, sumamed MagitUr^ a canon of 

Bened., tom. vi., p. 116. Bremen from A.D. 1077, uid who flourished 

St. Anselm, bishop of Lucca A.D. 1071- A.D. 1080. He wrote Historia eccleaiaa- 

1086. He was a decided supporter of Greg- ticm presertim Bremensis Libri iv.; in which 

ory Vn., and wrote 2 Books in his defence, he describes, with much fidelity, the propa* 

against Guibert the antipope ; also a coUec- gation of Christianity in Hamburg, Bremen, 

tion of sentences from the fathera, in sup- Denmark, and throughout the ^l0rth, from 

port of Gregory*s principles, respecting the the times of Charlemagne to those of Henry 

independence of the clexsy and the church IV. ; to which he subjoined a geographical 

of all civil power ; both wnich are extant in account of Denmark, and ot^ northern 

Camsms, Lectt. antiq., tom. vi., and in the countries : published by Lindenbrog, Ley- 

Biblioth. Patr., tom. xviii., p. 608, and tom. den, 1595, 4to, and Helmstadt, 1670, 4to. 

zxvii., p. 480. His life, written by one of Benno, a German eccleaiastic, who ad- 

liis friends and pupils, is in MabiUon^s Acta hered to Clement III., or Guibert, the anti- 

Sanctor. ord. Bened., tom. ix., p. 469, dLc. pope ; was made archpresbyter and cardinal 

WUlelmus, an abbot of Metz A.D. 1073, of Rome, and took every active part against 

and friendly to Gregory VII. Mabillon has Gregory VH. He flourished about A.D. 

published 7 of his Epistles and an oration, 1085; and wrote de Vita et rebus gestis 

mhis Analecta, tom. i., p. S47. Hildebrandi et Pape Libri ii. ; published, 

Ingvdvhu of Croyland, bom in London Frankf., 1581, and among theOpuscula An- 

A.D. 1080, educated at Westminster and ti-Gregoriana, by Goldast, Hanover, 1611, 

Oxford. In 1051, he accompanied WUlimm 4tOM>. 1- 

duke of Normandy, to France, and became Victor IH., pope A.D. 1086-1087. Ho 

his private aecretaiy. To escape envy, in was bom at Benevento A.D. 1027 ; bom 

1064 be retired to Germaiiy ; and was one the name of Dauferius, till he became a 

of the 7000, who went u pUgpam to the monk pf Mcnte Casiino, when ha aiaomed 

Vol. IL— a a 




4 1. The State of Religion. — ^ 2, 3. Witnesses for the Truth.— ^ 4. Ezpositums of tW 
Scriptares.— 4 6, 6. Scholastic Theology.—^ 7. Moral Theolo^.— ^ 8. Polemic Theol- 
ogy .^-^ 9, 10, 11. Controrersies between the Greeks and Latms. — ^ 12. New Contiil 
respecting the Holiness of Images. — ^ 13. Contentions in the Latin Church. Contio- 
Tersy respecting ^e Lord's Supper.—-^ 14, 15, 16, 17. The Pontiffs labour in vain to 
settle it. — ^ 18. llie Result as to Berengarius and his Friends. — ^ 19. Diqmto in 
France respecting Martial. 

§ 1. It is not necessary to be minute in describing the state of the pok 
lie religion of this age. For who can doubt that it was debased and oor« 
rupt, when the guardians of it were equally destitute of sacred and secular 
knowledge, and of virtue, and when even the first men in the church ex- 
hibited examples of the grossest vices ? The people at large were whol^ 
absorbed in superstition, and concerned themselves with nothing but statues^ 
and images, and relics, and the futile rites which the caprice of their priests 
enjoined upon them. The learned had not indeed wholly lost all knowledge 
of the truth ; but they obscured and debsused it, with opinions and doctrineSi 
which were some of them ludicrous and silly, others hurtful and pernicious^ 
and others useless and uncertain. It is certain, that there were here and 
there pious and good men, who would willingly have aided the sufiering 

the name of Denderhu ; became abbot there siege of Antioch. He wrote the History cf 
in 1056, was made a cardinal, and employed Jenualtm, describing especially the achieve- 
on important occasions by the pontifis. But ments of the carl of Toulouse during fira 
he was ever partial to a retired and monas- years, from the time they entered Slavonia 
tic life. His Dialogues on the miracles of on their way to the "EmX. The work is in 
St. Benedict and other monks of Monte Cas- the collection of BongarSf de gestis Dei per 
sine, in four Books, (a work stuffed with idle Francos, tom. i., p. 139. 
tales), has been frequently published ; e. g., Gotsdin or Goscclirif a Benedictine monk 
by MaiiUon^ in his Acta Sanctor. ord. Ben- of St. Bertin in Artois, and then of St. An- 
ed., secul. iv., pt. ii. gustine at Canterbury, who flourished A.D. 

Urban II., pope A.D. 1087-1099. His 1096. He wrote the life of St. Augustine, 

fonner name was OthOy a native of Ch&tillon the apostle of England ; which is extant in 

in the diocese of Rheims, a monk of Clugni, MahiUm's Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., torn, 

cardinal bishop of Ostia, and much employed i., p. 498. 

by Chregory Vll. While pope, he pursued ikdderic^ secretary to two successive bpe. 

the measures of Gregory. He has left us of Arras and Cambray, and then bishop of 

69 Epistles, and two harangues in favour of Nimeguen and Toumsy, A.D. 1097-11 IS. 

a crusade; extant in the collections of the He wrote a history or chronicle of the church* 

councils. MabUlon gives some account of es of Cambray and Arras, in 3 Books ; pnb- 

his life, Acta Sanctor. ord. Benedict., tom. lished bv Geo. Cotvener, Douay, 1615. 
ix., p. 902, dtc. Paschal II., pope A.D. 1099-1 1 18. His 

Lambert^ bishop of Arras from A.D. 1094 former name was Rainer or Raginger ; a 

onward. Three of his Epistles are in the Tuscan by birth, a monk of Clugni, a pres- 

coUections of the councils. byter and cardinal of Rome, abbot ot St. 

Raimund de AgeleSy a canon of Le Puy, Laurence and St. Stephen, and at last pope. 

France, and chaplain to the earl of Toulouse, His wars and contests with Henry Y. vrere 

(who was also bishop of Le Puy), whom he very violent. One hundred and seven <^ 

accompanied in his expedition to the Holy his Epistles are in the collections of conn* 

Land, A.D. 1095. He saw the holy lance cils ; and some more in BaluzCf MisoeUt* 

da^ oat of the etrth» and canied i( at the nies. — TV.] 


cause of i^ty. But they themselves needed protection, against the satellites 
of superstition and impiety. 

§ 2. From the times of Gregory VII. however, pretty clear traces ap- 
pear in some countries of Europe^ especially in Italy and France, of those 
persons whom the Protestants denominate witnesses qf the truth ; that is, 
of pious and good men, who deplored the imperfection and defects of the 
public religion, and of the whole clerical order, who opposed the lordly dom- 
ination both of the Roman pontiffs and of the bishops, and who attempted 
sometimes covertly and sometimes openly to effect a reformation in the 
church.(l) For rude as this age was, and ignorant in general of the true 
revealed religion, yet those few fragments as it were of Christianity(2) 
which were exhibited and explained to the people, were sufficient to show 
even to the illiterate and the peasantry, that the religion publicly inculcated, 
was not the true religion c^ Christ, that Christ required of his followers 
things wholly dififerent from those exhibited in the discourses and in the 
lives and morals of the clergy, that the pontiffii and the bishops exceed, 
ingly misused their power and opulence, and that the favour of Grod and 
salvation were to be obtained, not by a round of ceremonies, nor by dona- 
tions to the churches and priests, nor by erecting and endowing monaster- 
ies, but by holiness in the soul. 

§ 3. Those however who undertook the great work of reforming the 
church and religion, were for the most part incompetent to the task, and 
by their solicitude to avoid some faults, they ran into others. All indeed 
perceived the defects and the odiousness of the prevailing religion, but none 
or at least very few of them understood the nature and essential character 
of true religion. This will not appear strange, to one who is well acquainted 
with those unhappy times. Hence these reformers often mixed much that 
was fidse, with a little that was true. As all saw that most of the princi- 
pal enormities and crimes of the bishops and clergy, were the consequence 
of their wealth and opulence, they placed too high an estimate on poverty and 
indigence, and looked upon voluntary poverty as the primary virtue of a good 
religious teacher. They all supposed the church of the primitive times to 
be a model, after which all churches were ever afler to be formed and regu- 
lated, and the practice of the apostles of Jesus Christ, they considered as 
an inviolable law for all priests. Many also, grieved to see the people 
place all their dependancc for salvation on the ceremonies of religion and 
the external worship of Grod, contended, that the whole of religion consisted 
in the internal emotions of the mind, and in the contemplation of divine 
things ; and they contemned and wished to abolish all external worship, and 
to have no houses of worship, no religious meetings, no public teachers, 
and no sacraments. 

§ 4. A large number both of the Greeks and the Latins, applied them- 
selves to the interpretation of the holy scriptures. Among the Latins, the 
two Brunos expounded the Psalms of David, Lanfranc the Epistles of Paul, 

(1) [Some have considered Peter iXnxt- (2) [In some of the writers of this cen- 

miust HUidert^ IvOt Walthram bishop of tniy, we meet with specimens of somid 

Namnboif • sod Lambert of Aschsffenburg, Christian doctrine, as well as of de^oat 

as examples of this class of persons. — Von breathings of a pious souL The Enfflish 

Enum, See F. Sptmkeim'e Introductio ad reader mw see, for an example, the lite of 

Hktoriam eccles. M. T., saecol. xi., cap. Afuelm ot Canterbuy, in Milner'g history 

fiL, ^ 5, p. 313, and the Catalogue Testium of ths Cboich, centniy xi., cb. ▼.— TV.] 
ffiitatis, lib. xil, ziiL — Tr.] 


Berengarius the ApooalypBe of St. John, Gregory VII. the Gospel of SL 
Matthew, and others other portions of the sacred volume. But all Umm 
follow the perverse custom of their age, that is, they either transcribe the 
works of former interpreters, or they apply the declarations of the sacred 
writers so whimsically to heavenly things and to the duties of life, that a 
wise man can scarcely restrain his indignation. The roost eminent of the 
Greek interpreters, was Theophylact of Bulgaria ; though he also drew most 
of his comments from the ancients, particularly from Ckrysoslom.(S) After 
him we may place Michael PseUiu, who attempted to explain the Psalms 
and the book of Canticles, Nicetas who wrote a Catena on Job, and some 
few others. 

§ 5. Hitherto all the Latin theologians, except a few of the Irish, wiio 
threw obscurity on religious doctrines by their philosophical speculatiom^ 
had illustrated, explained, and proved the doctrines of Christianity, solely 
from the holy scriptures, or from them in connexion with the opiniooB and 
writings of Uie fathers. But in the middle of this century some divinei^ 
among whom was Berengariuif'welL known by his controversy respecting 
the Lord's supper, ventured to apply the precepts of logic and metaphysics 
to the explanation of the scriptural doctrines and the confirmation of their 
own opinions. Hence the opposer and rival of BerengarittSf Lanfrane^ wbo 
was afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, employed the same Vfeoipom 
against Berengarius and his followers, and in general laboured to impart 
light and confirmation to religious' truths by the aids of reason. His ex« 
ample was followed by St. Ajiselm, likewise an archbishop of Canterbury 
and a man of great intellectual acumen, and to these succeeded many oth- 
ers. From these beginnings gradually arose that species of philosophic 
theology, which from the schools in which it most prevailed obtained after* 
wards the name of scholastic tkeology.{^) But there was far more sobriety 
and good sense in these reconcilers of faith and reason, than in their suc- 
cessors ; for they used perspicuous language, had no fondness for vain and 
idle disputations, and for the most part made use of the precepts of logic 
and philosophy only in combating their antagonists. (5) 

(3) For an tcconnt of Tkeophylaet, see that in treating sacred subjects I do not «0t^ 
Suk. Simon's Histoire critioue des princi- to bring forward dialectical questions and 
paux Gommentateurs du N. T., cap. zzviii., their solutions, nor to answer them when 

5. 390 ; and his Critique de la Bibliotheque brought forward by others. And if at anv 

es Auteura Eccles., par M. du Pin, tome time the subject under discussion is snca 

i, p. 810, where he also treats of Nie^fas that it can be most sstisfactorily explained 

«na Oecumenhu. by the rules of this art, as far as I am able I 

(4) See ChriMt. Aug. Heumann, Praefat. cover over the art by citations of equivalent 
ad TribbechovU librum de doctoribus scho- import, that I may not seem to place mora 
lasticis, p. xiv. The sentiments of the learn- reliance upon this art than upon the troth 
ed respecthfijg the first author or inventor of and the authoritv of the holy fathers.*' Tht 
the scholastic theology, are collected by Jo. concluding words in this quotation, indirats 
J^an. AitfUeMs, Isagogeadtheologiam, tom. those sources from which theoloffians pie- 
i., p. 368. viously to this age had derived aU their ar- 

(5) That it may be seen, how much wiser guments ; namely the holy scripture, which 
the first scholastics were than their disciples he denominates ike inUk, and the writings of 
and followers, I will subjoin a passage from the ancient fathers. To these tico sonrees 
Ltnfranc^ whom many regard as the first of proof, the theologians now suffered a ikird 
vainoT of the scholastic theology. In his to be added, namely dialectict. Yet they 
tract de corpore et sangume Domini, cap. would have none recur to this, except £»* 
▼iii., 0pp., p. 386, ed. TA^Aery, he sayst jwlofils, whose business it is to withaUnd 
** God is my witneia and my own conscience, opponents that wield dialectical wmpouB^ 


§ 6. Following these prindplea, the Latin theologiaxi» began to reduce 
all the truths of revealed religion into a connected system, and to subject 
them to the laws of the human sciences ; a thing which no one before had 
attempted, if we except Tajo of Saragossa a writer of the seventh century, 
and Damascemu among the Greeks in the eighth century. For all the 
Latin writers previously to this age, had only occasionally and never in a 
formal manner elucidated and explained the points of theology ; nor had 
they thus explained them a//, but only such as the occasions demanded. 
The first attempt at a system of theology^ was by Anselm ;(6) and the first 
who completed an entire system or body of divinity, was Hildebert^ bishop 
of le Mans and afterwards archbishop of Tours, just at the close of the cen- 
tury. And all the subsequent almost numberless writers of systems of the- 
oftij^ (Summarum Theologicarum), seem to have followed Hildebert as their 
model.(7) The method of Hildebert is, first to substantiate each doctrine 
fay passages of scripture and by authorities from the fathers, which had 
been the common method hitherto ; and then to solve the difficulties and 
objections which may be raised, by the aid of reason and philosophy, which 
was something new and peculiar to this age.(8) 

and to solve the difficulties suggested by jects Anselm thought intensely, and endeai^ 
reason. But unhappily, in the following oured to meet every objection and difficulty 
ages the two former sources of proof were which could be urged. But he did not wan- 
used but sparingly, and philosophical proof der from his subject, and take up a whole 
alone, and that not very wisely stated, was system of divinity, in one or even all of these 
deemed sufficient to substantiate every thing bus theological tracts. — TV.] 
in a system of theology. (7) This first ryttem of theology among 
(6) [The principal treatise by iliue/fn here the Latins, or Traetatus Tkeolcpeut as it 
referred to, is that entitled : Cur Deus homo 1 is entitled, is amon^ the Works oiHUdebertf 
in two Books, (in his 0pp., p. 74-96, ed. p. 1010, in the edition of Anton, ie Beat^ 
Paris, 1721, fol.) The work corresponds gendre ; who has shown, in his preface to 
with its title, its object being to answer the the volume, that Peter Lombard, Robert 
qnestion, Why Hd God become huomate 1 PyUeyn, and the other writers of Swmma" 
He describes the fallen state of man, and hit nea, trod in the footsteps of Hildebert. [Thie 
need of an almighty Saviour, to atone for hit tract occupies about 90 folio pages, and ia 
aina and raise him to a state of bliss after divided into 40 chapters. It treats of the 
death ; and he shows that an incarnate God, nature of faith, free will, and am, the Trinity, 
and he only, could perform the office of a the incarnation of the Son of God, original 
mediator. The views and speculations of sin and grace, predestination and prescience, 
Anselm on this whole subject, have prevailed and the sacraments. But it scarcely touch- 
very generally quite down to the present es upon the doctrine of atonement by Jesus 
times. Nor have Grotiue and Edwards and Christ, its value and efficacy, or of faith in 
the most elaborate modem writers, added Christ, of regeneration and sanctification, 
much on the subject. Another tract of An^ and of the promises of the gospel. — TV.] 
selmt on the same important subject, is enti- (8) I will here subjoin an opinion of An- 
tied de Conceptu Virginali et originali Pec- eelm of Canterbury, taken from his treatise 
cato Liber ; (in his 0pp., p. 97-106). Be- entitled : Cur Deus homo 1 lib. i., c. ii., Opp.» 
aides these, he has fbi^r others, on important p. 75, an opinion, which the first philoaopb- 
anbjects. The first tea philosophical inqoiiy ical theologians, or the SchoUuttes aaaoDg 
into the nature of truth, de Veritate ; 0pp., the Latins, seem to have received aa a aa- 
p. 109^115. The second ia on free lot//, de czed and immutable law in theolo^ : ** Aa 
ubero arbitrio ; 0pp., p. 117-138. The the right order of proceeding requires, that 
third is on the fall of the smning angels, de we believe the deep things of the Cbnstian 
easn Diaboli ; 0pp., p. 6^73. The fourth faith, before we presume to diacuaa them by 
la a philosophical explanation of the doctrine the aid of reason ; ao it appeara to me to b« 
of the divine decrees, and its consistency negligence, if when we are ooofinned in the 
with free and accountable action in crea^ faith, we do not aiody to nnderatand what 
tores, de concordia praeaeientiae et praedea- we believe.** — [Hia meaniBf aeema to be, 
tinationis, nee non gratiae cum libero arbi- that a Christian should neither make phUoe- 
tno ; Oi^, p. 183-134. On all these tnb- opfay the rale and maaaiue of hia ni^pous 


§ 7. Those of this ag« wbo undertook to give rates for a Qiri0tia& ttb 

and conduct, attenmted a great object, without possessing in general aii^ 
quate resources. This will be obvious, to one who shall read over fte 
work of Peter Damianus on the virtues, or the Moral Philosophy and tliia 
Tract on the four virtues of a religious life, by Hildeberi bishop of te Mans, 
Nor did the moralists usually subjoin any thing to their precepts reapectiog 
the virtues, except what they called the written law ; by which thej in- 
tended the ten commandments of Moses. Atuebn wrote some tracts ed* 
culated to excite pious emotions, and a Book of meditations and prayBi% 
in which many good thoughts occur. Nor did the Mystics as they are 
called, wholly abstain from writing. Among the Latins, John JoJumndhs 
composed a book expressly on divine contemplation :(9) and among tbe 
Greeks, Simeon junior wrote some tracts on the same subject ; not to men- 
tion some others. 

§ 8. Many of the polemics of this age, came forth armed with diatecti* 
cal arguments and demonstrations, yet few of them could use such argn. 
ments dexterously and properly ; and they aimed, not so much to confote 
their adversaries, as to copfound them with their subtilties. Those who 
were destitute of such armour contend so badly, that it is manifest they 
commenced writing before they had considered why and what they were to 
write. Damianus defended Christianity against the Jews, with good inten- 
tions but with little effect. And there is extant a tract of Saimel a caa» 
verted Jew, against his nation. Anselm of Canterbury assailed the de- 
spisers of all religion and of Grod, with acuteness, in his book against Ike 
jool (adversus insipientem) ; but perhaps the subtilty of the reasoning ex- 
ceeded the comprehension of those he aimed to convince. 

§ 9. The public contests between the Greek and Latin churches, whidi 
though not settled had now for a long time been suspended, were indis- 
creetly revived and rendered more violent by new accusations in the year 
1053, by Michael Cerularius patriarch of Constantinople, a man of a rest- 
less spirit. The pretence for renewing hostilities, was, zeal for the truth 
and for religion ; but the true cause was, the arrogance and ambition of the 
two patriarchs. The Latin patriarch endeavoured by various arts and 
projects, to bring the Greek patriarch under subjection, and to detach the 
patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch from him and connect them with 
himself; and the disturbed and unhappy condition of the Greek empire^ 
was favourable to such machinations. For the friendship of the Roman 
pontiff seemed very important to the Greeks, who had to contend with the 

faith, nor despise her aid in elucidating^ and " the presumption of those who» with d»> 

eonfinning the truths of revealed religion, testable rashness, dare to call in question aof 

His opinions on this subject are farther de- thing which Chnstianity inculcates, becantt 

veloped in the following declaration, cited by they cannot comprehend it, and in their 

Gieseler, Text-book by Cunningham, vol. senseless pride, would rather pronounce that 

ii., p. 311, 6lc., note 10. In his Epistle impossible which they cannot understand, 

(lib. ii., ep. 41) ad Fulconem, in Mann than with modest wisdom confess, that then 

Concil., torn, xx., p. 741, he says : ** By faiths are many things which they are unable to 

B Christian must axhye at understandmg [in comprehend.** And in ch. iii., he compUiai 

leligionj ; not by understanding arrive at of "those modem dialecticians, wbo think no- 

laith, and if he cannot understand, discard thinff to be true but what they can coiiipi»- 

faith. And if so be he arrives at understand- hend.** — TV. ] 

ing, he b delighted ; but if not, he venerates (9) See the Histoire Litteraire dt la 

what he cannot oonprahend.** — In his tnel FniiGe» tome viii.^ p. 48. 
do InciiDitiQBS Veni#c. ii., he speaks of 


NonnaDB in Italy, as well as with the Saracens. The Grecian patriarch 
on the other hand, was solicitous to extend the limits of his jurisdicticm, to 
concede nothing to the Roman pontiff, and to bring the Oriental patriarchs 
entirely under his control. Centlarius therefore, in a letter written in his 
own name, and in that of his chief counsellor Leo bishop of Achrida, and 
addressed to John bishop of Trani in Apulia, publicly accused the Latins 
of various errors [in faith and practice]. Leo IX. who was then the pon- 
tiff of Rome, replied in a letter drawn up in a very imperious style ; and 
moreover in a council at Rome, excommunicated the Greeks.(lO) 

§ 10. In order to stifle this controversy in its birth, the Greek emperor, 
Constantine surnamcd Monomachus, requested the Roman pontiff to send 
legates to Constantinople to negotiate a settlement. Accordingly three le- 
gates of the Latin pontiff repaired to Conptantinople, (namely, cardinal 
Humbert a fiery man, Peter archbishop of Amalfi, and Frederic archdea- 
con and chancellor of the church of Rome), carr3ring with them letters 
from the pontiff both to the emperor and to the Greek patriarch. But the 
issue of the legation was lamentable, notwithstanding the emperor tin po- 
litical reasons favoured the side of the Latins more than that of the Greexs. 
For the letter of Leo IX. which displayed great arrogance, alienated the 
mind of Cerularius from him ; and tlie legates showed in various ways, 
tliat they were sent not so much to restore harmony between the contend- 
ing parties as to establish Roman domination among the Greeks. All de- 
liberation about a reconciliation being thus rendered fruitless, the Roman 
legates proceeded in the most indiscreet and most unsuitable manner pos- 
sible, in the year 1054, for they excommunicated the Greek patriarch, with 
Leo of Achrida and all that adhered to them, publicly, in the church of St* 
Sophia, left a copy of the inhuman anathema upon the great altar, and then 
shook off the dust from their feet and departed. This most unrighteous 
procedure rendered the dissension incurable, though till this act it seemed 
capable of a compromise. The Greek patriarch now returned the anath- 
ema, excommunicating in a council the pontiff's legates, and all their friends 
and supporters ; he also directed the copy of the Latin decree of excom- 
munication against the Greeks, to be burned by order of the emperor.(ll) 
From this time offensive and insulting writings were issued by both parties, 
which continually added fresh fuel to the fire. 

§ 11. To the old charges advanced by PhoHus, new ones were added 
by Cerularius^ of which tlie greatest was, that the Latins used unleavened 
bread in the eucharist ; and on this point, the Grepks and Latins hence- 
forth contended more vehemently perhaps than on all other subjects, at 

(10) Theso epistles are extant in BaroniW, and, de perpetna eccleais orient, et Occident. 
Anoales, ad ann. 1053, torn, xi., p. 310, &c. conaenaione, lib. ii., cap. ix., p. 614. Mkh, 
The epiatle of CenUarhu it also printed in U QutVn, Oriens Christianus, torn, i., p. 200 ; 
CMmsitu' IjCcU. Antiq., torn, iii., p. 2Sl,of and Diss. Damascen. prima, ^ xxxi., p. 16, 
the new edition ; and that of Leo, in the 6lc. ; but especially, Jo. Gottfr. Hertnmmy 
Concilia, 6lc. [e. g., in HMrduin^t collec- Historia concertationum de pane asymo et 
tion, torn, vi., pt. i., p. 927. — TV.] fermentato, p. 69, dtc., Lips., 1739, Svo, and 

(11) Besides Banmiiu and the common Jo. Bapt. Cotdier^ MonumenCa ecdesifB 
writers, none of whom arc free from errors, (jr., torn, ii., p. 108, du;. [See also a foil 
•ee Joik. MtUfiUotL, Annalcs Bened., torn, it., jet dense and well Touched aecoont, in /. B. 
Hb. Ix., ad ann. 1053, and Pra^f. ad Sscnl. C. Sekmidft Knchengesch., vol. ▼., p. 31 6> 
^. of his Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., pt. ii., ice. The account in Bmo€r*8 LiTes of ihe 
p^ i., <Scc. Leo AUatiutj de Libris Graecor. Popes, toL ▼., is less eonect— TV.} 
Eo:le8ia9t., Diss, ii., p. 160, ed. Fabricius ; 


least they were m waini aboot this as about the primacy of die 
pontiff. The other things opprobiously objected to the Latins by the fHimfc 
patriarch, betray rather his contentious disposition, and his ignoranee.of 
true religion, than liis zeal for truth. For he was exceedingly ofieDcMt 
that the Latins did not abstain from things strangled and from blood, that 
their monks used lard and allowed the brethren when sick to eat flesh, that 
the Latin bishops wore rings on their fingers as if they were bridegroomsp 
that their priests wore do beards but shaved them, and that in baptiang^ 
the Latins dipped the subject but oooe into the water.(12) When we see 
the Greeks and Latins not only standing aloof from each other and con* 
tending eagerly, but also fulminating anathemas and execrations against 
each other, for such things as these, we perceive the very lamentable state 
of religion in both churches, and we can be at no loss for the causea thai 
gave rise to so many sects of dissenters from the prevailing religion. 

§ 12. Near the close of the century, under Alexius CanmemUf the Greeka 
were near to being involved in an internal controversy, in addition to this 
public controversy with the Latins. For in a time of great emergency of 
the nation, the emperor not only laid hold of the money in the churches^ 
but caused the imases of gold and silver to be taken from the doors of than 
and to be converted into money. Leo bishop of Chalcedon, a man of aus* 
tere manners, severely censured this transaction, maintaining that it was 
sacrilege. To support his views he published a tract, asserting that in the 
images and emblems of Jesus Christ and the saints, there was a degree of 
sanctity which entitled them to worship and adoration ; so that worship 
iras to be paid not only to the persons represented by the statues, images^ 
and emblems, but also to the statues themselves. To suppress the popular 
tumult which arose from this discussion, the emperor assembled a coundl 
at Constantinople, which decreed, that the images of Christ and of the saints 
were to be worshipped only relatively ;{IS) tliat the material of a sacred 
image was not entitled to worship, but the likeness formed upon the mate* 
rial ; that the images of Christ and the saints had nothing of the nature d[ 
those persons, although they participated somewhat in the grace of Grod ; 
and that the saints were to be invoked and honoured, as the servants of 
Christ, and on his account. Leo, who had held different opinions, was dd* 
prived of his office and sent into exile. (14) 

§ 13. In the Latin church, about the middle of the century, controversy 
was revived respecting the manner in which Christ's body and blood axe 
present in the eucharist. Various opinions on this subject, had hitherto 
prevailed with impunity ; for it had not yet been decided by the councils^ 
what men ought to believe respecting it.(15) Hence in the beginning of 

02)SeetheEpi(itleofCerHZartii«toJohn by iimui t^Nimciui the emperor's dangfatv ; 

of Tnni, in CsMttius^ Lectiones Antiq., Alexiadoi lib. ▼., p. 104, lib. yii., p. 168, 

torn, iii., p. 881 ; where also we bsTe Hvm^ ed. Venice. The Acts of the coancil, wen 

berths confutation of it. CemUriiu* Epistle drawn from the CoiaUnisn Library by BendL 

to Peter of Antiocb, is in Cotelier't Mono- de Montfaucimj and poblished in his JBibK- 

menta ecclesia Gr»c»» torn, ii., p. 138. oth. Coisliniana, p. 103, dtc. 

Add BiMTtene^B Thesaur. Anecdotor., torn. (15) The Tarious opinions of the age w 

v., p. 847, where is a polemic tract of an on- specting the eucharist, are stated by Jtfsfw 

known Latin writer against the Greeks. ttne^ from an ancient manuscript, in his Vof 

(13) Zxerucdf vpooKwBfiaf, i Xarptvn^ age littcraire de deux Benedictins de k Ca 
«dr Tof Imcomc. gngatigo ds S. Manr, terns vl.^ p. IM. 

(14) This cootiomif is stated at kiga. 


the century, A.D. 1004, Leuiherie archbishi^ of Sena had taught, contrary 
to the more general opinion, that only the holy and worthy communicants 
receive the body of Christ ; but Robert king ii Fiance, and the advice of 
friends, prevented him from raising commotion among the people by the 
doctrine.(16) Much more indiscreet was BercngariuSyBi canon and master 
of the school at Tours, and afterwards archdeacon of Angers, a man of 
a discriminating mind, learned, and venerable for the sanctity of his life ;(17) 
for he publicly and resolutely maintained in the year 1045 the opinion of 
John Scotus, respecting the eucharist, rejecting that o£ Pdschasius Radbert 
which better accorded with the unenlightened piety of the multitude. He 
taught, that the bread and wine are not converted into tlic body and blood 
of Christ, but are merely emblematic of his body and blood. (18) He was 
forthwith opposed by some, both in Franca^imd Germany ; and Leo IX. 
the Roman pontiff in the year 1050, caused his opinion to be condemned, 
first in a council at Rome and then in one at Vercelli, and ordered the 
work of Scotus from which it was derived, to be committed to the flunes. 
Berengarius was not present at either of these councils. A couneff'faeld 
at Paris in the same year by Henry king of France, concurred in the de- 
cision of the pontiff; and issued very severe threats against Berengariua 
who was absent, and against his adherents who were numerous. A part 
of these threatenings were felt by Berengarius, for the king deprived him 
of the income of his office. But neither threats, nor decrees nor fmes, could 
move him to reject the opinion which he had embraced. 

§ 14. This controversy now rested for some years, and Berengarius who 
had many enemies, (among whom his rival Lanfranc was the priucipal)^ 
and also many patrons and friends, was restored to his former tranquillity. 
But after the death of Leo IX., his adversaries incited Victor II. the new 
pontiff, to order the cause to be tried again, before his legates^ in two coun- 
cils held at Tours in France, A.D. 1054. In one of these councils, in 
which the celebrated HUdebrand afterwards Chregory VII. was one of the 
papal legates, Berengarius was present, and being overcome, by threats un- 
doubtedly rather than by arguments, he not only gave up his opinion, but 
(if we may believe his adversaries who are the only witnesses we have) 
abjured it, and was reconciled to the church. This docility however was 
only feigned ; for he soon after went on teaching the same doctrine as be- 
fore, though perhaps more cautiously. How much censure he deserves 
for this transaction it is difficult to say, as we are not well informed of what 
was done in the council. 

§ 15. Nicolaus II. being informed of this bad faith of Berengarius, in 
the year 1058 summoned him to Rome ; and in a very ftiU council, held 

(16) See Botflay, Historia Acad. Paris., not of the historian. [For the life of A^en' 
torn, i., P- 354. goriiUy see Mabillon, de Berengario, ejas- 

(17) For the life of Berengarius, see the que hsreseos OTtu, progressu — ac muJtiplici 
wcNrka of Hildchert of le Mans, p. 1324. condemnatione ; in Praefat. ad Acta Sane* 
Histoire Litteraire de la France, tome viii., tor. ord. Bened., torn, iz., p. rii., dtc. Be* 
p. 197, du:. Boulay, Historia Acad. Paris., rengarius, or Announcement of an important 
torn, i., p. 404, &c., and those others mention- work by him, by G. E. Ltsting, (in Oer^ 
ed by Jo. il/fr. Fo^rictuj, Biblioth. Lat. medu roan), 1770. Schroeekh^e Kirebengotch., 
»vi, tom. i., p. 670. I will just obserre, tom. xxiii., p. 607, dtc. ; and GieseJer^e 
that he is erroneously called arckiepiscapiu. Text-book of Ecclet. Hist., translated by 
instead of archidiaamu*f in Wiliiam of CKnitin^Aom, vol. ii., p. lOS-Ill. — TV.] 
Paris, Hist., lib. i., p. 10, ed. WatU. But (18) [See, for the real opinion of Bereo- 
I suppose it is a misuke of the prijUer and gtiiut, noCo (33) in thit chapter. — TV.] 

Vol. II.— B b 


there in the year 1(N^ he so terrified him, that Bertngarms requested -^ 
formula of faith to be prescribed for him, which being accordingly done W 
HumherU Berengarius subscribed to it and confirmed it with an oath, b 
tliis formula he declares, that he believes what Nicolatu and the council in- 
quired to be believed, gamely, ^ that the bread and wine after consecration 
are not only a sacrament, but also the real body and blood of Chrisif and 
arc sensibly, and not merely sacramentally, but really and truly handled 
by the hands of the priests, broken, and masticated by the teeth of the faith- 
ful." This opinion however was too monstrous to be really believed, bj 
such a man as Berengarius, who was a roan of discernment and a philoeo^ 
pher. Therefore wli^n he returned to France, relying undoubtedly upon 
the protection of his patrons, he expressed his detestation both orally and 
in his writings of what he had professed at Rome, and defended his former 
sentiments. Alexander XL indeed admonished him in a friendly letter to 
reform, but he attempted nothing against him ; probably because he per- 
ceived him to be upheld by powerful supporters. Of course the controvenj 
was protracted many years in various publications, and the number of Be^ 
rengarius* followers increased. 

§ 16. When Gregory VII. was raised to the chair of iS^. Peter, that pon- 
tiff to whom no difiiculty seemed insurmountable, undertook to settle thie 
controversy also ; and therefore summoned Berengarius to Rome in the 
year 1078. This new judge of the affair manifested an extraordinary, 
and considering his character, a wonderful degree of moderation and gen- 
tleness. He seems to have been attached to Berengarius, and to have 
yielded rather to the clamours of his adversaries, than to have followed his 
own inclinations. In the first place, in a council held near the close of 
the year, he allowed the accused to draw up a new formula of faith for him- 
self, and to abandon the old formula drawn up by Humbert, though it had 
been ssinctioned by Nicolaus II. and by a council ; for Gregory being a man 
of discernment, undoubtedly saw the absurdity of that formula. (19) Be» 
rengarius therefore now professed to believe, and swore that he would in 
future believe only, *^ that the bread of the altar after consecration is the 
real body of Christ, which was bom of the virgin, suffered on the cross, 
and is seated at the right hand of the Father ; and that the wine of the al- 
tar afler consecration is the real blood which flowed from Christ's side." 
But what was satisfactory to the pontiff, did not satisfy the enemies of JBe- 
rengarius ; for they maintained that the formula was ambiguous, (and it 
really was so), and therefore they wished, that one more definite might be 
prescribed for him, and also that he might prove the sincerity of his belief 
by touching red-hot iron. The last of these, the pontiff in his friendship 
for the accused would not concede ; to the first, the importunity of their 
demands obliged him to yield. 

§ 17. The following year therefore, A.D. 1079, in a council held again 
at Rome, Berengarius was required to repeat, subscribe, and swear to a 
third formula, which was milder than the first but harsher than the second* 
According to this, he professed to believe, <' that the bread and wine, by the 
mysterious rite of the holy prayer and the words of our Redeemer, are 

(19) I wish the learned and candid to ob- here tacitly acknowledges, that a Romaa 

serve here, that Gregory VII., than whom pontiff and a council are capable of tnin^ 

none carried the prerogatWes of the pontifb and have in fact exred. 
farther or defeadM thsin more atraraonsly, 


changed in' their substancey into the real and proper and vivifying flesh and 
Uood of Jesus Christ ;" and he also added to what he had proferaed by the 
second formula, ^ that the bread and wine aiey'' after consecration, ^ the 
real body and blood of Christ, not only by a sign and in virtue of a sacra* 
ment, but in their essential properties, and in the reality of their substance." 
When he had made this profession, the pontiff dismissed him to his own 
country with many tokens of his good will. But as soon as he got home, 
he discarded and confuted by a book what he had professed at Rome in 
the last council. Hence Lanfrane^ Gvitnmnd, and perhaps others, violently 
attacked him, in written treatises ; but Gregory VII. neither punished his 
inconstancy, nor manifested displeasure ; which is evidence that the pontiff 
was satisfied with the second formula or that which Berengariua himself 
drew up, and that he disapproved of the zeal of his enemies, who obtruded 
upon him the third formula«(20) 

§ 18. BerengarhUf influenced undoubtedly by motives of prudence, re- 
turned no answer to his much excited opposers; but retiring from the 

(20) These statements are finely illustra- the holy virgin herself, that we shoold eim- 

ted and supported, by a writing of Berenga' ply bold what the sacred volume teaches, 

rnu himself, which Edm. MarUne has pre- that the real body and blood of Christ are 

■ented to the public in his Thesaurus Anec- exhibited in the sacred supper, but should 

dotor., torn, iv., P* 99-109. From this tract not dispute about the manner of it. (III.) 

it appears: (I.) That Gr^^oryVII. had great It appears from this writing, that Gregory 

and sincere friendship for ^eren^anW. (II.) was forced by the enemies of BerengariuSf 

That in general, he believed with Berenga^ who pressed the thinff beyond measure, to 

rnu respecting the eucharist ; or at least, allow another formula to be prescribed to 

thought we ought to abide by the words of BerengariuM in another council. " He was 

Holy Writ, and not too curiously inquire after constrained," says Berejigarhis, "by tha 

and define the mode of Christ's presence, importunity of the bnlfoon — ^not bishop— -of 

For thus Gregory (p. 108) addressed Be- Padua, and of the antichrist — not bishop of 

rengariutf just before the last council : *' I Pisa, — to permit the calumniators of the 

certainly have no doubt that your views of truth in the last Quadragesimal council to 

the sacrifice of Christ are correct and agree- alter the writing sanctioned by them in the 

able to the Scriptures ; yet because it is my former council.*' (IV.) It is hence mani- 

custom to recur on important subjects, dtc. fest, why Gregory attempted nothing further 

-—I have enjoined upon a friend who is a against BerengarnUy notwithstanding he vi- 

religious man to obtain from St. Mo olated his faith publicly plighted in the latter 

ry, that she would through him vouchsafe council, and wrote against the formula which 
not to conceal from me, but expressly in- he had confirmed with an oath. For Greg' 
struct me, what course I should take in the ory himself disagreed with the authors of 
business before me relating to the sacrifice this formula, and deemed it sufficient if a 
of Christ, that I may persevere in it immove- person would confess with BerengarnUy that 
ably.*' Gregory therefore • was inclmed to the real body and blood of Christ were ez- 
the opinion of BerengariMtt but yet had hibited in the sacred supper. He therefore 
some doubts ; and for that reason he con- suffered his adversaries to murmur, to write, 
suited St. Mary through a friend, to know and to confute the man whom he esteemed 
what judgment he ought to form respecting and agreed with ; kept silence himself, and 
the eucharistical question. And what was would not alk>w Berengariiu to be further 
her response 1 His friend (he says) " learn- molested. Moreover, in the book from 
ed from St. Mary and reported to me, that which I have made these extracts, Beren- 
no inquiries were to be made and nothing to garnu most humbly begs God to forgive the 
be held, respecting the sacrifice of Clmst, sin he committed at Rome ; and acknowl- 
beyond what the authentic Scriptures con- edges, that through fear of dea^ he assent- 
tarn; sgi^nst which Bercngariu* held no- ed to the propmed formula and accused 
thing. This I wished to state to you, that himself of error, contrary to his real belief. 
four confidence in us might be more secure, ** God Almighty," says be, " the fountain of 
and your anticipations more pleasine." This all mercy, have compassion on one who coi>- 
therefore was Gregory^t belief, and this he fesses so great a sacrilege.*' 
flopposed or pretended he bad received from 


world he repaired to the kdand of St. Cosine near Tours, and there led m 
solitary life in prayer, fiisting, and other devotional exercises, till the year 
1088, when he di^, leaving a high reputation for sanctity, and numerow 
followers. (21) In this retreat, he seems to have aimed to atone for the 
crime, of which ho confessed and deeply lamented the commission before 
the last council at Rome, when he professed contrary to the dictates of hie 
own conscience what he regarded as erroneous doctrine. (22) As to his 
real opinions, learned men are not agreed ; but whoever will candidly ex- 
amine his writings that yet remain, will readily see, that he was one of 
those who consider the bread and wine to be signs of the body and blood 
of Christ; although he expressed himself variously, and concealed his 
views under ambiguous phraseology.(2d.) Nor have those writers any 

(21) The canons of Tours still celebrate appear beyond all controtenj, tliat 

religiously his memo^. For they annually, gariut only denied trMafuubMiaMtiatwm^ or llw 

on the third day of Easter, repair to his tranrmuUUion of the suhMtatice of tbe bread 

tomb on the island of St. Cosme, and there and wine' into the tuhstafue of Christ's body 

solemnly repeat certain prayers. See Mih and blood, while yet he admitted the umI 

Utm^ Voyages Lituigiques, p. 130. [And pretence of Christ's body and blood as b^ur 

Mabillonj Acta Sanctor. oral Bened., torn, ntperadded to the bread and wine, in ani 

ix., Pref. ^ 68. — TV.] by their consecration. See Sehroeckk^ Kir- 

(33) None will doubt this, after reading chengesch., torn, ziiii., p. 534, dte. And 

his tract published by Edm. MarterUf The- Muenscker^s Elements of Dogmatic Histo- 

•aur. Anecdotor., torn. Ti., p. 109. ry, ^ 243, p. 118,- ed. N. HaTen, 1830. 

(23) Some writers in the Romish church, And this accords exactly with the statement 

as MahiUon and others, and some also in our of Guitmund^ one of Berengarhu^ antago* 

own, suppose that Berengarius merely de* nists, as quoted by Mabillcn, (de Berengtt* 

nied what is called tranntbatantiation^ while riOf ejusque haereseos ortu, dec, in his Praf. 

he admitted the real presence of Christie ad Acta Sanctor. ord. Bened., torn, ix., p. 

body and blood. And whoever inspects xxiii). Speaking of the followers of Bere»* 

only the formula which he approved in the garius^ Gviimund says : . ** All the Beren- 

first Roman council under Gregory VII., garians indeed agree in this, that the bread 

and which he never after rejected, and docs and wine are not changed in thehr essence : 

not compare his other writinffs with it, may but I was able to draw from some of them, 

be easily led to believe so. %ut the writers that they differ amonff themselves much ; 

of the reformed church, Joe. Batnage, Ush^ for some of them say, mat nothing whatever 

£r, and nearly all others, maintain that Be- of the body and blood of the Lord are in the 

rengariu*^ opinion was the same that Calvin sacraments, but that these are only shadows 

afterwards held. With these I have united, and figures [of the body and blood of 

after carefully perusing his epistle to Alman- Christ] ; but others, jrielding to the solid 

nuSf in MartejWt Inesaurus, tom. iv., p. arguments of the church, yet not recediagf 

109. ** Constat,*' says ho, " verum Christi from their folly, that they may seem to b» 

corpus in ipsa mensa proponi, sed tjnrihud' with us in a sort, say that the body and 

tier interiori homini verum^ in ea Chriatl blood of the Lord are in reality ^ though cm^ 

corpus ab his duntaxat, qui Chriati membra ertly contained therey (re vera, sed Istenter 

sunt, incomiptum, intaminatum inattritum- contineri), and in order that they may be rs» 

que tpiritualiter manducari." This is so ceivcd, they are somehow, so to speak, m»- 

clear that an objection can scarcely if at all, panated (iropanari). Aiid tkiM more tuhiUa 

be raised against it. Yet Berengarius often opinion^ thty tay^ is that of Berengmriu9 

used ambiffuous terms and phrases, in order himsdfy — Berenganus therefore was s Im^ 

to elude his enemies. -» [Since Dr. Mo- theranj or like Luther he held the doctriae 

sheim^s death, the mannscript of Berenge^ of consubstantiation. — It may be added, that 

rius^ reply to Lanfrane, has been discovered the newly-discovered manuscript of Bertm* 

In the library of Wolfenbuttle ; and a large garius throws light on various parts of hit 

part of it has been presented to the pubUc history and of the proceedings against him. 

in extracts, by G. E. Lessing, (Gregorius In particular it shows that Xfan/ranc attacked 

Turonensis, oder Ankundigung eines wich- him and was answered by him, at a modi 

tigen Weikes desselbeo, &c., Bransw., earlier period than J)r, ifosActm slatM ai 

1770, 4to). Fiom this w«ik, it is said to tfas tOLt, ^ 17.^7V.] 


•olid proof to urge, who contend that he receded from this opinion before 
his death.(24) 

§ 19. In France about the year 1023, a great contest arose about a lit- 
tle thing. The priests and monks of Limoges disputed, whether Martial 

the first bishop of Limoges, ought in the public prayers to be classed among 

the apoMiles or among the confusors, Jordan the bishop of Limoges, would 

(34) It is well known, that the historians nounced him no offender. But the last 

of the Romish community endeavour to per- council departed from the opinion of the 

auade us, that Bcrengarius before his death pontiff; and the pontiff, though reluctant, 

gave up the doctrine which he had for so suffered himself to be drawn over to the 

many years strenuously defended, and adopt- opinion of the council. Hence the third for- 

•d that of the Romish church. But the only mula, disagreeing with both the former ones. 

nraofii that they have of the fact, are these : We may wsxt drop the passing remark, that 

First ; in the council of Bourdeaox A.D. in this controversy a council was superior 

1080, it is said " be gave an account of his to the pontiff, and the resolute Gregory him- 

faith." And further ; some ancient writers self, wno would yield to no one else, yield- 

s«>eak favourably of his penitence, and say ed to the council. Berengarius escaping 

that he died in the Catholic faith. But from the hands of his enemies, adhered to 

these arguments amount to nothing. B^- his own formula which had met the apnn>> 

rengarius adhered to that formula which he bation of the pontiff, and publicly assailed 

adopted in the former council at Rome un- and condemned the third formula or that of 

der Gregory^ and which the pontiff judged the latter council. And he did this, with 

to be sufficient ; and they who heard it read the pontiff's knowledge and silent consent. 

bat did not examine its import, looking only Now what could be inferred from all this, 

at the words and their natural import, might but that Berengahus, though he resisted the 

easily believe, that between his opinion and decree of the latter council, yet held to the 

the common belief of the church there was opinion of the pontiff and the church? — In 

no difference. And in this conclusion they this history of tne Berengarian controveisy, 

would be confirmed by the conduct of the so memorable for various reasons, I have ez- 

pontiff, who, though he knew Berengaritu amined the ancient documents of it that are 

to have renounced and opposed the formula extant, (for all of them are not extant), and 

which be had approved in the latter Roman have called in the aid of those learned men 

council, yet took no measures asainst him, who have treated most copiously and accu- 

and thus [apparently] absolved him from all rately of this contest. Firsf , the very rare 

error and blame. To these considerations, work of Pranci* de Roye^ published at An- 

•nothcrof still greater weight may be added; gers, 1656, 4to, under the title: Ad Can. 

namely, that the belief of the Romish church ego Berengarius 41, de consecrat. diatinct. 

itself respecting the sacred supper, was not 2, ubi vita, heresis et poenitentia Berengarii 

in that age definitely established, as the three Andegavensis Archidiaconi et ad Josephi 

/brmulas of Bcrengarius evince beyond all locum de Christo. Next, I have consulted 

controversy, for they most manifestly diss- Jo J)fa6t7/on, Praefat. ad tom.ix.. Acta Sane- 

gree not in words only but in import. Nu tor. ord. Bened., or s«cul. vi., pt. ii., p. iv., 

€oUmm H. and his council decided, thst the dec., and his Diss, de multiplici damnatione, 

first formula which cardinal Humbert drew fidei professione et relapsu ; which is in his 

up, was sound and contained the true doc- Analecta veteris cvi, tom. ii., p. 456. C<tM. 

trine of the church. But this was rejected Egasse de Baulay^ Historia Acad. Paris., 

and deemed too crude and erroneous, not tom. i., p. 404, die. Franc. Pagi, Brevi- 

only by Gregory but alao by hia two coun- arium Romanor. Pontif., tom. ii., p. 46S. 

cils that tried the cause. For if the pontiff Among the reformed divines, Jac. Uther, 

and hia councils had believed that this for- de successione ecclesiar. Chriatianar. in Oc- 

mnla expressed the true sense of the church, cidente, cap. vii., sec. xxiv., p. 196, dec 

they would never have suffered another to Joe. Batnage^ Hist, des Eglises Refonn^ea, 

be substituted for it. The pontiff himself tom. i., p. 105, and Histoire de TEfflise, 

as we have aeen, supposed- that the doctrine tom. ii., p. 1991. Costm. Oaira, Diss. 

of the sacred supper was not to be explained de doctrina et scriptis Berengarii, in his 

too minutely, bat that dismissing all ques- Comment, de scriptor. ecclaeiast., torn, ii., 

lions as to the mode of Christ's presence, p. 624. Partiality nrevails, I fear, among 

the words of the sacred volume were smiply them ^1, but eq)ecisjly among the writers of 

to be adhered to ; and as Berengarius had the Romish chuxch. 
done this in his fonnula, the pontiff pro- 


have him be denoiniiiated b con/es«or ; but Hvgo abbot of the mooaiAaf 
of St. Martial, insisted on his being called an apottle, and he proDouDcerf 
the adherents of the bishop to bo EbiomUt, that is, the worst of heretica. 
This controvenw was first taken up in the council of Poictiers, and thea 
A.D. 1024 in that of Paris. Their deciHion was, that Martial waa to be 
honoured with the appellation of an apotUe ; and that those who judged 
differently, were to be compared with the Ebionites, who denied that there 
were any nwre than twelve apostles. The Ebionites, it may be noted, ia 
order to exclude St. Paul from the number of apostles, would not allow of 
but twelve apostles. But this decision of the council, inflamed rather than 
calmed the feelings of the disputants ; and the silly controversy spread onr 
all France. The affair being carried before the pontiff JoAn XIX., he ia 
a letter addressed to Jordan and ^he other bishops of France, decided in 
iavour of the monks, and pronounced Martitd deserving of the title and the 
honours of an apostle. Therefore, first in the council at Limoges A.D. 
1029, Jordan yielded to the pleasure of the pontiff; and next, A.D. 1031, 
in a council of the whole province of Bourges, Martial was solemnly en 
rolled in the order of apostles ; and lastly, in a very full council at Lirno* 
ges the same year, ttie controversy was terminated, and the prayers in hon- 
our of Martial the apostle as consecrated by the pontifi*, were publicly re- 
cited. (25) Those who contended for the apostleship oi Martial, assumed 
that he was one of the seventy disciples of Christ ; and thence they inferred, 
that he was entitled to the rank of an apostle, upon the same ground u 
Pavl and Bamahui weie* 



1 Foreign Tongna. — f 3, B*- 

§ 1. The fonns of public worship used at Rome, had not yet been re- 
ceived in all the countries of Europe. In this age therefore, the ponti^ 
who regarded all disagreement in rites as adverse to their authority, took 
great pains to have the Romish forms every where adopted and all others 
excluded. In this affair again, the diligence of Gregory VII., as his letters 
show, was very conspicuous. No people of Europe had more resolutely 

(36) See Boiday, Hixorii Ac«d. Pmnc, torn. iL, p. 7B6, &e. Of the lint tptlMi of 
torn, i., p. 872,401. Jac. Lmgunat, Hit' thu itrire, Ademar t monk of ChabuuM^ 
toin dc I'Egliie OiUione, tom. vii., p. 1S8, Jo. Xahilitm eive* an account in hii Ad> 
188, S31, &e. The Benedictine manki, in lulea ori. S. Bened., loni. iv., p. 34S, &c., 
their Gallia Chiiatiana, tom. ii., Append, ud in the eppeiidii to tbe valume, be nib- 
documentor., p. 162. hare Bubliabcd Jor- joliu Iheapielle of Xdnmir in support of tlw 
-'—'• lelter to the pope Benedict VIII. apustlrakip of Mulial. The Beneclicliin 

■eain*tlbe>poi[legliipofMarti«l. TfaeAct* monka hire alio given an account of this 

ofthe conneili of Bouige* and Limopet ro- man, in their Hi«(o'" ''" ' ' ' " 

■pectiiiE thii GODboTenj, are pnbLiaSad bj Ion. vii., p. SOI, 
Pka. LMt, BiUiotL Don Munuoiptoi., 


and peneveringly opposed the wishes of the pontiffi in this matter than the 
Spaniards, for no means could induce them to part with their ancient litur* 
gy, which was called Moxardbic or Go<^(l) and to adopt that of Rome. 
Alexander 11. indeed in the year 1068, had prevailed with the people of 
Aragon not to oppose the introduction of the Komish mode of worship ;(2) 
and the Catalonians no longer resisted. But the glory of having perfectedi 
this work, was reserved for Gregory VII. He did not cease to press the 
subject upon Sanctius and Alphonso the kings of Aragon and Castile, till 
they consented that the Gothic rites should be abolished and the Roman 
be received. Sanctius first complied ; Alphonso followed his example in 
the year 1080. In Castile, the nobles thought this contest ought to be de- 
cided by the sword. Accordingly two champions were chosen who were 
to contend in single combat, the one fighting for the Roman liturgy, and 
the other for the Grothic. The Gothic champion conquered. After this 
they concluded to submit it to the decision by fire. Both liturgies, the Ro- 
man and the Gothic, were now thrown into a fire. The Roman was con- 
sumed in the flames ; the Gothic remained uninjured. Yet this double vie 
tory could not save the Grothic liturgy ; the authority of the pontiff and 
the pleasure of Constantia the queen who controlled Alphonso the king, had 
greater weight and turned the scale. (3) 

§ 2. This zeal of the Roman pontiffs may admit some kind of apology ; but 
not so their prohibiting each nation from worshipping God in its own ver- 
nacular tongue. While the Latin language was spoken among all the na- 
tions of the West, or at least was understood by most people, little could 
be objected to the use of this language in the public assemblies for Christian 
worship. But when the Roman language, with the Roman dominion, had 
been gradually subverted and become extinct, it was most just and reason- 
able, that each nation should use its own language in their worship. But 
this privilege could not be obtained from the pontiffs of this and the follow- 
ing centuries, for they decided that the Latin language should be retained 
though unknown to the people at large.(4) Different persons assign differ- 
ent reasons for tills decision, and some have fabricated such as were quite 
far fetched. But the principal reason doubtless was, an excessive venera* 
tion for what is ancient. And the Oriental Christians have fallen into the 
same fault, of excessive love of antiquity ; for public worship is still per- 

(!) See Jo. Mabillon^ de Liturffia Galli- scripturis ei sacns vemaculis, published with 

eana, lib. i., cap. ii., p. 10. Jo. Bonay Re- enlargement by Henry Wharton^ London, 

rum Liturgicar. lib. i., cap. xi., 0pp., p. 220. 1690t 4to. [Yet we find in the canons of 

Petr. U Brun, explication des ceremonies Aelfric king of England, about A.D. 1050, 

de la Mease, torn, ii., Diss, v., p. 272, [and (in HardmrCM Concilia, torn, vi., pt. i., p. 

Liturgia antiqua, Hispsnica, (jothica, Isi- 982, Can. 23), that the priests were requi- 

doriana, Mozarabica, du:., torn, i., Rome, red on Sundays and other mass days, to ez- 

1746, fol., as also Jcik. Pvm Tractatus his- plain the lessons from the ffospels in the Eng- 

torico-chronolog. de fsriis ricissitudinibus lish language, and to teach the people to re- 

<ifiicii Mosarabici seculo zi., c. 6. — Scld. peat memoriter and to understand, the 

Also Aug. Kraser, de Litorgiis, p. 70, dec., Lord's prayer and the apostles' creed in the 

Aagsb., 1786, 8vo. — TV.] same language. '* Presbyter etiam, sen mis- 

(2) Peter de Marca^ Histoire de Beam, salis sacerdos, in diebus Solis, et Missalibas, 
lib. ii., cap. iz. t evangtlii ejus intellectum populo dicet ilit- 

(3) BonOj 1. c, p. 216. Le Brun, I. gliee,BtipsorumeUua Pater nasteret Credo 
e., p. 292, dec. Jo. de FerreraSf Histoirs toties quolies potent ad eos instruendos ad- 
de I'Espagne, torn, iii., p. 237, 241, 346. hibere, et ut symbolom 6dei memoriter dis- 
[Kraxer^ 1. c, p. 76. — Tr.^ cant, Chiistiananiqae foam teneant confet* 

(4) Jac, VMkiTf Hiftoiia dogmatica ds Monem."— &A/.] 


formed by the Egyptians in the aiicient Coptic, by the Jacobites and Ncft^ 
torians in Syriac,aDd by the Abyssinians in the ancient Ethiopic, notwith* 
standing all these languages have long since become obsolete, and gone oul 
of popular use»(5) 

^ 3. Of the other things enjoined or voluntarily assumed in this age im* 
der the name of religious acts, the rites added in the worship of the saints^ 
relics, and images, the pilgrimages, and various other things of the kindy 
it would be tedious to go into detail. I will therefore only state here, that 
during nearly the whole of this century, all the nations of Europe were very 
much occupied in rebuilding, repairing, and adorning their churche8.(6) 
^or will this surprise us, if we recollect the panic dread of the impending 
final judgment and of the end of all things, which spread throughout £u« 
rope in the preceding century. For this panic, among other effects led 
to neglect the repair of the churches and sacred edifices, as being soon to 
become useless and perish in the wreck of all things ; so that they either 
actually fell to the ground, or became greatly decayed. But this panic be- 
ing past, they every where set about rebuilding and repairing the churches 
and vast sums were expended on this object. 



4 1. Ancient Sects. The Manichsans. — ^ 2. The Paulicians in Earope. — ^ 3. The Man- 
ichcans of Orleans seem to have been Myatics. — ^ 4. So likewise others. — ^ 6. Tl» 
Contest with Roscelin. 

§ 1. The condition of the ancient sects, particularly of the Nestorians 
and Monophysites who were subject to the Mohanmiedans in Asia and 
Eg3T)t, was very nearly the same as in the preceding century, not perfectly 
happy and exempt from all evils, nor absolutely wretched and miserable. 
But the ManichflBans or Paulicians, whom the Greek emperors had trans, 
ported from the provinces of the East to Bulgaria and Thrace, were in al- 
most perpetual conflicts with the Greeks. The Greek writers throw all 
the blame on the Manichesans ; whom they represent as turbulent, perfidi. 
ous, always ready for war, and inimical to the empire.(l) But there are 
many reasons, which nearly compel us to believe that the Greek bishops 
and priests, and by their instigation the emperors, gave much trouble and 
vexation to this people, alienating their feelings by punishments, banishment, 
confiscation of their property, and other vexations. The emperor Alexu 
us ComnenuSf being a man of learning, and perceiving that the Manichseans 
could not easily he subdued by force, determined to try the effect of dis- 

(5) See EusebiuM Rewmdoi, Diss, de li- proached, there was, almost the world oYtr, 
tmgiarmn Oriental, origine et Antiqnitate, but especially in Italy and France, a geneial 
£ap. vi., p. 40, &c. repairing of the churches.'* 

(6) oUber Rodulphus^ Histor., Ub. iii., (1) See Anna Comnena, Aleziados lib. 
cap. vr.f in Duehesne'M Scriptoree Franciei, v., p. 106 ; lib. yi., p. 1S4| 126, 145, and 
torn, 17., p. 217. **Am tfas year 1008 ap- in othai pttaagea 


cusdon and arguments ; and therefore spent whole da3r8 at Philippopolia 
in disputing with them. Not a few of them, gave up to this august dupu- 
tant and his associates ; nor was this strange, for he employ^ not only 
arguments but also rewards and punishments. Those who retracted their 
errors and consented to embrace the religion of the Greeks, were .reward- 
ed with rich presents, honours, privileges, lands, and houses ; but those 
who resisted, were condemned to perpetual imprisonment. (2) 

§ 2. From Bulgaria and Thrace some of this sect, cither from zeal to 
extend their religion or from weariness of Grecian persecutions, removed 
first into Italy and then into other countries of Europe, and there gradually 
collected numerous congregations, with which the Roman pontic afler* 
wards waged bloody wars.(d) At what time the migration of the Pauli- 
cians into Europe commenced, it is difficult to ascertain. But this is well 
attested, that as early as the middle of this century, they were numerous in 
Lombardy and Insubria, and especially in Milan : nor is it less certain, that 
persons of this sect strolled about in France, Grermany, and other countries^ 
and by their great appearance of sanctity captivated no small number of 
the common people. In Italy, they were called Pateritd and Caihxrif or 
rather Gaxari ; the last of which names, altered so as to suit the genius of 
their language, was adopted by the Grerman8.(4) In France, they were 
called Albigenses [Albigeois] from the town Albi,{b) They were also called 

(2) Anna Comnena (Alexiad. lib. ziv., p. From the same Codex Toloeanns, we leaiii, 
857, 6lc.) \b very full in her account and eu- that the Paulicians of Gaul who were called 
logy of tlua holy war of her father agiinat the Albigenses, had no bishops to consecrate 
Paulicians. their presbyters whom they called Anciaiu, 

(3) See Lud. Ant. Muraiori, Antiqq. Ital. so that such of the French as wished to be- 
medii cvi, torn, v., p. 38, dec. Phu. Lim- come presbyters, had to go into Italy to ob- 
horchf Historia inquisitionis, p. 31. Thorn, tain regular consecration. 

Aug. JUcAsm, Diss, de Catbahs ; prefixed (4) Of Uie name Paterini given to tbif 

to Bemk, MonttM.*8 Summa contra Catha- sect m Italy, we have already spoken, note 

ros, p. xvii., xriii., and others : not to men- (23), p. 166. That the name Vathari was 

tion Glaber RodtUpkus, Historia, lib. iii., c. the same as Gaxari, I have shown in an- 

Tiii. Malik. Paru, and other ancient wri- other work, Historia Ord. Apostolor., p. 367, 

ters. Some of the Italians, among whom is dec. The name Gazaria was giren in thai 

JZicAint, wish to deny, that this sect was prop- age to the country now called the LiMter 

•gated from Italy into other parts of Europe, Tartary, [or Crim Tartary, the Crimea. — 

and would persuade us rather, that the Paul- But the derivation of Cathari from Gataria, 

icians came into Italy from France. For a distant region and then little known, is by 

they would consider it a disgrace to their many deemed less probable, than from the 

country, to have been the first in Europe Greek Ka&apol^ the pure. So also the der- 

that fostered so absurd and impious a sect, ivation of the German Ketser (heretic) 

These are countenanced by Peter de Marco, from Gazari or Chazari, is by no meane 

A Frenchman, who supposes (in his Histoire universally admitted. See A. Ncander^s 

de Beam, liv. viii, cap. xiv., p. 728), that Heilige Bemhard, p. 314, dec. Schroeekk'a 

when the French were returning from the Kirchengesch., vol. xxiii., p. 350, dec. ; and 

crusades in Palestine, as the^ pasMd through GicMcUr's Text-book, by Cunmngkam, vol. 

Bulgaria, some Paulicians joined them, and ii., p. 368, note 6. — Tr.^ 

thus first migrated to France. But De Mar- (5) That the Paulicians in France, were 

€0, brings no proof of his supposition ; and on called Alby^enses, and are not to be con* 

the contrary, it appears from the Records of founded with the Waidense* and other here- 

the Inquisition of Toulouse published by tics, is most manifest from the Records of 

Limborchy and from other documents, that the Inquisition at Toubuse. And they were 

the Paulicians first settled in Sicily, Lom- called Albigeruea, because they were con- 

bardy, Milan, and Liguria, and from thence demned in a council held A.D. 1176 at AlH 

eent their teachers and missionaries into {Albigea}, a town of Aqoitain. See Chatel, 

France. See the Codex Tolosanus, p. 13, Memoires de THistoire de Languedoc, p. 

14, 32, 68. 69, and in many other placet, 805, dec. They therefore misjudge, who 

Vol. II.— C 


BulgarioMy particularly in France, because they came formerly from Bid* 
garia where the patriarch of the sect resided ; also PvhUeani, a corruptioii 
of PauUciam ; and Boni HomineSj [Bos Hamosy Good Men\j and by oilier 
appellations. (6) 

\ 3. The first congregation of this sect in Europe, is said to have been 
discovered at Orleans in France A.D. 1017, in the reign of king BoberL 
An Italian woman is stated to have been its founder and teacher. Its head 
men were ten canons of the church of the Holy Cross at Orleans, all em. 
inent for their learning and piety, but especially two of them lAsoms and 
Stephen ; the congregation was coxnposcd of niuncrous citizens, and not 
of the lowest rank and condition. The impious doctrines maintained by 
those canons, being made known by Heriberi a priest to Arifastus a Nor* 
man nobleman, king Bobert assembled a council at Orleans and left no 
means untried to bring them to a better mind. But nothing could induce 
them to give up the opinions they had embraced. They were therefore 
burned alive.(7) But the case of these men is involved in obscurity and 

suppose the Alhigenses were certain heretics heretics of Orleans, have reached ns. Hi* 
who either originated at Alb% or who resided one is that of Glaher Rodidphuy (Histoiria, 
there or had their principal church there; lib. iii., cap. viii.), the other which some ••> 
they were rather, tne heretics condevMud ciibe to one Agano a monk, is an anonv* 
there. Yet there did live in the region of mous account, but more full, and apMreDtif 
Alhi some PaulicianSf as well as many other deserving of at least as much credit, pub- 
classes of dissenters from the church of lished by Dachery^ 1. c. Both accounts ar» 
Rome ; and the name of Albigentts is often in HarduirCs Concilia, tom. vi., pt. i., p. 
applied to all the heretics in that tract of 821, dec. Glaher states, that in the year 
country. [See, for a fuller illustration and 1071 a very strange heresy was discovered 
confirmation of what is asserted in this note, at Orleans, said to have been introduced by 
SchroeciOCa Kirchen^esch., vol. zxix., p. an Italian woman, and which had long been 
669, &c. ; also Histoure de Langucdoc, tom. spreading itself in secret. The leaders in 
iii., note 13, p. 553, &c., and Fiuslin'* Kit- this heresy were two clerfiymen of Orleans, 
chen-und Ketzerhistorie der mittlem Zeit, respecuble for their birm, education, and 
vol i. — TV.] piety, named Hcribert and Litoi, Both 

(6) That these people were called Bulgor were canons, and the latter was also master 
rtau , or as it was corruptly uttered Bou- of the school in St. Peter^s church, and en- 
gre*^ is fully shown by Car, du Fresne, joyed the friendship of the kins and the 
Glossarium Latin, medii evi, tom. i., p. court. These circumstances enaoled them 
1338. And the same Du FrestUi in his Oo- more easily to spread their errors at Orleans 
servationes ad ViUeharduim histoham Con- and in the neighbouring towns. They aU 
stantmop., p. 169, has shown by abundant tempted to convert a presbvter of Rouen, 
proofs, that the name popolieam or Publi- and told him that the whole nation would 
cani, given likewise to these Manichaeans, soon be with them ; and he divulged the 
is merely the name Pauliciani corruptly pro- subject to a nobleman of Rouen, and be 
nonnced. The Paulicians called themselves again to king Robert. The monarch, equal- 
Good Merit or Los Bos Homos as the French ly distinguished for learning and piety, hast* 
monounced it. See the Codex Inquisit. ened away full of solicitude to Orleans, a^ 
Tolosans, p. 22, 84, 95, dec., but especially sembled there a number of bishops and ab- 
p. 131, die. bots and some pious laymen, and commenced 

(7) The testimonies of the ancients re- an examination of the heretics. The two 
specting these heretics, sre collected by leading men among them acknowledged, 
ooulay, Historia Acad. Paris., tom. i., p. that they anticipated a general reception of 
364, dec. Car. Plessis d'Argentre, Collec- their doctrines ; that they considered all 
tio judiciorum de novis erroribus, tom. i., that was taught in the Old Testament and 
p. 5. Jo. Launoi, de scholia celebrioribus the New, by miracles or otherwise, concem- 
Oaroli M., cap. xxiv., p. 90. The proceed- ing a trinity in the Godhead, as beinff ab- 
ings of the council of Orleans in which they surd ; that the visible heavens and earth had 
were condemned, are given by Lu. Dache' always existed as they now are, without an 
ry, Spicileg. veterum Scriptor., tom. i., p. original author ; that all acts of Christian 
wif dec. [Two pnncqial accounts of these vinne, instead of being meritonoos, were 


perplexity. For they are extolled for their piety by their rerj enemiesy 
and at the same time crimes are attributed to them, which are manifestly 

soperflaouB : mnd like the Epicnie&ns, they promised to purify him from all ain and to 

believed the crimes of the Toluptuous would impart to him the Holy Spirit, by laying 

not meet ?rith the recompense of punish- their hands uixm him ; and that he shoaia 

ment. Great efforts were made to convince eat heavenly food, and often see angels, and 

them of their errors, bat in vain ; neither with them travel where he pleased with ease 

argumentsnorthreatenings could move them, and despatch. The account then descnbes 

for they expected a miraculous deliverance the heavenly food^ they talked of. At cer- 

from death. Accordinffly, when led out to tain times, the heretics met together by night 

the fire which was kindled for them, they all, each with a lighted candle, and invocated 

thirteen in number, went exulting and vol- the devil till he appeared to them. Then 

vntarily leaped into it. But they no sooner putting out their lights, they all debauched 

felt the fire consuming them, than they cried themselves promiscuously. The fruits of 

oat, that they had been deceived, and were these horrid scenes, when eight days old 

about to perish for ever. The bv-standers were murdered, and burned to ashes ; and 

moved with pity, made efforts to draw them the ashes so obtained constituted their heav- 

£rom the flames ; but without effect. They enly food, and was so eflScacious that who- 

were reduced to ashes. Such others of the ever partook of it at all, became an enthusi- 

sect as were afterwards detected, were in ast of their sect, and could seldom ever after 

like manner put to death. And heresy being be recovered to a sound mind. While ilr- 

thus destroyed, the Catholic faith shone the tfatt was thus learning the whole heresy, 

more conspicuous. The other and more king Robert and his queen Constantia ar- 

liill account, differs from that of Glaber, in rivra at Orleans ; and the next day he called 

several respects. It states, that a Norman a council of bishops, and apprehending a 

nobleman named Arefasty had a clergyman whole assembly of the heretics, arraigned 

in his house by the name of Herbert^ who them for trial. Here Arefast stated all he 

went to Orleans for the purpose of study, had learned from them. Stephen and Litoi 

That two leaders amone the heretics, Ste- admitted that they held such doctrines. A 

fken and LUoi, universally esteemed for their bishop stating that Christ was bom of the 

wisdom, their piety, and their beneficence, virffin, it not being impossible, and that he 

met wiUi Herbert, and instilled into him the died aiid rose again to assure us of a resur- 

poison of their heresy. When Herbert re- rection : they replied, that they were not 

tamed to the famUy of Arefastf be laboured present, and could not believe it was so. 

to convert him. But Arefiut was not to be oema asked, how they could believe that 

seduced. He communicated the whole to they had a natural father and were bom in 

count Richard, to be made known to the the usual way, not bavins been present as 

king ; with a request that the king would witnesses ; they replied, uat what was ac- 

tdie measures to suppress the heresy. King cording to nature they could believe, but not 

Robert directed Arefast to repair with his what was contrary to nature. They were 

clergyman Herbert to Orleans, and there in- then asked, if they did not believe that God 

smnate himself among the heretics, promis- created all things from nothing by his Son. 

ing to come there himself shortly. Arefast They replied, ** such thingamay be believed 

was instrocted by an ased priest of Char- by carnal men, who mind earthly things, and 

tres, how to proceed. He was to receive trust in the fictions of men written upon 

the communion every day ; and thua forti- parchment ; but we, who have a law writ- 

fied he was to go among iht heretica, pre- ten upon the inward man by the Holy Spirit, 

tend to be captivated with their doctrines, regard nothing but what we have leamed 

and draw from them a full knowledge of from God the creator of all.*' They like- 

Iheir heresy, and then appear ak a witness wise asked the bishops to desist from ques- 

•gainst them. He did so ; and drew from tioning them, and to ao with them what they 

t£em the following tenets : that Christ was saw fit ; for they said, they already saw their 

not bom of the virgin Mary, did not suffer king in the heavens, who would receive 

lor mankind, was not really laid in the tomb, them to hia right hand and to heavenly joya. 

and did not rise from the dead ; that in bap- After a nine hours* trial, the prisoners were 

tism, there was no washing away of ains ; first degraded from the priestnood, and then 

nor were the body and blood of Christ in led away to the sUke. As they passed the 

the sacrament consecrated by the priest ; church door, queen Constantia with a stick 

and that it was useless to pray to the sainta atmck Stephen, who had been her confessor, 

and martyrs. Arefast wished to know on and daahed out one of his eyes. Their bod- 

what then be coald rely for salvation. They ies, together with the abominable tabes used 


fiJse ; at least the opinions for which they suffered deaths were in genera^ 
quite distant from the tenets of the Manich8ean8.(8) So &r as I can judges 
these Manichsans of Orleans were Mystics^ who despised the extendi 
worship of God, ascribed no efficacy to religious rites, not even to the sacu 
raments, and supposed religion to consist in the internal contemplation of 
divine things and the elevation of the soul to God ; and at the same tims 
they philosophized respecting Crod, the three persons in the Giodheady and 
the soul of man, with more subtilty than the capacity of the age could conu 
prehend. Persons of this description proceeded from Italy in the follow, 
ug centuries, and spread over nearly all Europe, and were called in Ger- 
many Brethren of the free Spirit^ and in some other countries Beghards,{9) 
§ 4. Better characters perhaps than these, certainly honest and candid^ 
though illiterate, were those men whom Gerhard bishop of Cambray and 
Arras reconciled to the church, at the council of Arras, A.D. 1090. 
These likewise received their doctrines from Italian^ and particularly firom 
one Gundulf, According to their own account, they supposed all religion 
to consist in pious exercises, and in actions conformable to the law of God, 
while they despised all external worship. In particular, (I.) they rejected 
baptism, as a rite of no use as regards salvation ; and especially the bap- 
tism of infants. (II.) The Lord's Supper, they discarded for the 

reason. (HI*) They denied that churches are any more holy than private 
houses. (IV.) Altars they pronounced to be heaps of stones ; and there- 
fore worthy of no reverence. (V.) They disapproved of tlie use of in- 
cense and of holy oil in religious worship. (VI.) The ringing of bells, or 
signals as bishop Gerhard calls them, they would not tolerate. (VII.) They 
denied that ministers of religion, (bishops, presbyters, and deacons), were 
of divine appointment ; and maintained, that the church could exist without 
an order of teachers. (VIII.) They contended, that the funeral rites were 
invented by the priests, to gratify their avarice ; and that it was of no con- 
sequence whether a person were buried in the churchyard, or in some 
other place. (IX.) Penance as then practised, that is, punishments volun- 
tarily endured for sins, they deemed of no use. (X.) They denied, that 
the sins of the dead who are in the world of torment or in purgatory^ can 
be expiated by masses^ by gifts to the poor, and by vicarious penance ; and 
doubtless they rejected the idea ofpttrgatory itself. (XI.) They held mar- 
by them, were consumed in the flames. — 97, and in his Histor. Eccles., torn, ii., p. 
Such is the stoiy, as told by their enemies. 1388, dtc, defends the cause of these canons 
It is reasonable to give them all the credit, of Orleans. But this otherwise ezceUcat 
which their enemies allow to them, and to and discerning man seems to have been ear- 
make abatements only from what is said to ried too far, by his zeal for augmenting tbs 
their disadvantage. The whole description number of the witTUSMCs far the truth, 
of their infernal night-meetings, and eating (9) Of this class of people we shall treat 
the ashes of murdered infants, is doubtless hereafter, in the 13th century ; at which pe- 
mere calumny. Their intelligence, and the riod they were first drawn from their cos- 
spotless purity of their lives, are well attest- cealment into full view, and condemned m 
ed. The account given of their doctrines many councils especially in Germany. Ttt 
is lame, and coming from those who were they had long before been working toeirwiy 
their inferiors in knowledge of the Scrip- in secret This sect held some opiniont m 
tures, and so hostile as to bum them at the common with the Manicheans ; whracs 
stake, it is impossible to ascertain what their the undisceming theologians of those tioM 
real sentiments were. — TV.] might easily be led to regard them u a 

(8) Joe. Basnage, in his Histoire des bnoich of the Manirbwani. 
Eglises Refanii6es, tomo i., period ir^ p. 


riage to be pernicious, and condemned it in all cases.(lO) (XII.) They 
allowed indeed some reverence to be paid to the apostles, and to the mar» 
tyrs ; but to confessors^ (by whom they intended those denominated saiaUf 
and who had not suf^red death for Christ's sake), they would have no rev. 
erence paid ; declaring that their corpses were no bettor than those of 
other persons. (XIII.) The custom of chanting in churches and religious 
assemblies, they represented as superstitious and unlawful. (XIV.) They 
denied a cross to be more holy than other wood, and therefore denied it 
any honour. (XV.) They would have the images of Christ and the saints, 
to be removed from the churches and receive no kind of adoration. (XVI.) 
Finally, they were displeased with the difference of rank and of powers 
and prerogatives, among the clergy.(ll) Whoever considers the defects 
in the prevailing religion and doctrines of that age, will not think it 
strange, that many persons throughout Europe, possessing good under- 
standings and pious feelings, should have fellen into such sentiments as 

§ 5. Towards the close of this century, about the year 1089, a more 
subtle controversy was raised in France, by RosceUn a canon of Com- 
peigne ; who was not the lowest of the dialecticians of the age, and a prin- 
cipal doctor in the sect of the Nominalists, He maintained, that it could 
not be conceived at all how the Son of God could assume human nature, 
without the Father and the Holy Spirit's doing the same, unless we sup- 
posed the three persons in the Godhead to be three tJungs, or separately 
existing natures, (such as three angels are, or three human souls), though 
those three divine things might have one will and one power. Being told 
that this opinion would imply that there are three Grods, he boldly replied, 
that were it not for the harshness of the expression it might be truly said 
there are three Gods.(12) He was compelled to condemn this error in 

(10) I cannot eanly believe this was al- head with no Uttle hatred, yet he concedes 
together so. I should rather suppose, that in his hook de fide Trinitatis, that the opin- 
these people did not wholly condemn mat- ion of his opponent may he admissible in a 
limony, but only judj^ed celibacy to be more certain sense ; and he frequently states, that 
holy than the married state. he does not know certainly what his views 

(11) See the Synodus Atrebatensis, in were ; and even says that he suspects, they 
Lue. Dachery^s Spicilegium scriptor. veter., were less exceptionable than his adversaries 
tom. i., p. 607-624. Argentre'8 Collectio represented them. De fide Trinitatis, cap. 
Jodicior. de novis erroribus, tom. i., p. 7. iii., p. 44, he says : " But perhaps he {Ros- 
[See also SchroeckfCt Kirchengesch., vol. eelin) does not say, jiist as three human 
zziiL, p. 324, dec.— Tr.] «ou^, or three angels are ; but he who com- 

(12) Thus his sentiments are stated by municated his sentiments to me might make 
jdn, who accused him to Antelm in an this comparison without authority for it, 
Epistle which is published by Baluze, Mis- while he {Roseelin) only affirmed that the 
cell., tom. iv., p. 478; also by Ansdm of three persons are three thin^s^ without add- 
Canterbury, in his hook de fide Trinitatis ing any comparison.^ So m his forty-first 
wiitten against RoteeUn; 0pp., tom. i., p. Epist., Book ii., p. 357, being about to stattf 
41, 43, and in tom. ii., p. 356 ; Epist., lib. Roscclin^s opinion, he prefaces it thus : 
ii., ep. zxxv. ; and lastly by Puleo of Beau- ** Which however, I cannot believe without 
▼ais, in AnseMs 0pp., tom. ii., p. 357, hesitation." The reader, I think, will clear- 
Epist., lib. ii., ep. zli. But all theae were ly see, that Anselm the determined enemy 
■dversaries of Roseelin, who may be sup- of the Nominalists, distrusted the candour 
posed either to have perverted his meaning, and fairness of Roseehn^s accusers in do- 
or to have not understood it correctly. Am scribing his opinions, and supposed him to be 
Anselm himself leads me to have much hes- less erroneous than they represented. If I 
Hation and doubt ; for while he regarded do not misjudge, this whole controversy ori- 
th« NammalisU of whom Roseelin was the ginated from the hot disputes between th« 


the council of Soisaoos, A.D. 1092 : but as soon as the dajiger was ftat, 
be resumed it. He was then ordered to quit the couotiy. And white on 
exile in England, he raised new commotions ; contentiously maintauui^ 
amonK other things, that the sons of priests and all bom out of wedlock* 
flhouia never be admitted to the rank of clergymen ; which was a very 
odious doctrine in those times. Being expelled from England for thsM 
things, he returned to Prance, and residing at Paris renewed the old coo. 
tention. But being pressed and harassed on all sides by his adversaries 
he at last went to Aquitain, and there spent the remainder of his lifo da* 
voutly and peace{iilly.(13) 

Nonujuiliiu tai the RadUf. The HmI- upon ChirrMis ; ioi hii mwmie* thenc* a^ 

i>ta teem to baT« dnwn thi> infennce Inim ferred, that he taught the eiiitence of tkn« 

the pcinciplei of (be Nanu<nalutt, of trhom God*. If any of RoKtla^t own ■liliiiJi 

BoKdin wu the held : If, u jaii nip- vera now eiUat, ■ better eeUmate conUM 

poaa, winerxd tubjecU Ve mere nordi and foimed af thia controTenr. 

Daniel, and the whole acience of dialeclict U (13) Boula\/'t Hialaria Acad. Paria., toia. 

concerned onlj with nainee, than doabtleaa i., p. 4SG, 4S9. Jo. MalriUmi'M AiroiL Bo^ 

the three penoni in the GotUiead will tM, in edict, lorn. T., p. 861. Hialoire littanm 

7011T Tiew, not three Uang; but onijr thiee de ta France, tome ix., p. 858, ice. Jbd. 

nanut. By no meani, uawered AmmIh ; Pagi, Ciitica in ButmiiuD, ad ann. lOV^' 

the Fathei, Son, and Helj Spirit ue not torn, n., p. 3IT, See. J*e. Lmguemi, ]Q» 

men none*, but belong to Uis claaa of toire de VEgtiae OaUkane, tese viiL, p. 

lUngt. But while ahnnning Scylla, be lan B9, dtc 






^1,2. Conversion of Pagan Nations. — ^ 3. The Fins. — ^ 4. The Lrvonians. — J 5. TTia 
Slavonians. — ^ 6. Estimate of these Conversions. — ^ 7. The Tartars and Presbyter 
John. — (f 8. Unfortunate Issue of the Expeditions to Palestine. — ^ 9. Renewal of the 
Crusades. — (f 10. Extinction of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. — ^. 11. The Third Crusade. 
— ^ 13. Its Result.—^ 13. Orders of Knights Militant. First, the Order of St. John. 
— $ 14. Second^ that of Templars. — ^ 15. Third, that of Teutonic Knights. 

§ 1. A coNSiDEEABLB part of the inhabitants of Europe, especially in 
its northern regions, were still ignorant of Christianity and devoted to the 
foolish superstitions of their ancestors. In the conversion of these, there- 
fore, the zealous in religion occupied themselves in this century ; yet not 
all of them with equal success or equal discretion. Boleslaus duke of Po- 
land, after vanquishing the Pomeranians concluded a peace with them, on 
the condition diat they should allow the Christian religion to be freely 
preached and expounded to them. Accordingly Otto bishop of Bamberg, 
a man distinguished in this age for his zeal in propagating Christianity, was 
sent among them for this purpose, in the year 1124. He baptized a con- 
siderable number, but was utterly imable to overcome the obstinacy of many. 
On his return to Germany, a large part of those baptized by him relapsed 
into idolatry. He therefore took another journey into Pomerania, in the 
year 1126, and amid many difficulties succeeded in strengthening and ex. 
tending the feeble church there.(l) From this time onward, Christianity 

(1) See Henry Contttiw, Lectiones An- them from their superstitious practices, 
tiqua, torn, iii., part ii., p. 34, where is a They did not go into the essentials of Chris- 
Life of OUOj whom. Clemtnt III. in the year tianity. They must observe. Sundays, and 
1189, enrolled in the catalogue of saints, the feast days ; they must fast; must bring 
See the Acta Sanctor. mensis Julii, tom. i., their children to be baptized, with certain 
p. 349, &c. Dan. Crmner, Chronicle of the formalities at Whitsuntide ; must not mur- 
church of Pomerania, Book i., written in der their dauffhters, as formerly ; must re- 
German. Chriit. SchotgeiCt German tract, frain from polygamy ; must not many theiz 
on the conversion of the Pomeranians by sod-mothers ; and m general, must refrain 
Otto ; Stargard, 1724, 4to. Jo. MahiiJUnCt fsom marrying kindred wiUiin U>e sixth and 
Annales Benedict., tom. vi., p. 1S8, 146, seventh decrees; they must not bury the 
823. [Likewise Jo. Bugenhagen't Pome- bodiesof Christiana among those of paeans; 
rania, published by /. JET. BaUluuar, Greifs- must build no idol temples ; consult no 
waM, 1728, 4to, p. 9B, 64, 78, 6cc. The soothsayer; eat nothing that is unclean; do 
precepts given bv this apostle to his new penance often, dec. See the Chion. tlrs- 
converts, wen dafigaed du«flj to weu peig . et Halbeiatad. •dann. 1134.— SeiU.] 


became so established among the Pomeranians, that Adalbert could be or« 
daitied as their first bishop. 

§ 2. Waldemar I. king of Denmark, obtained very great fame by the 
many wars he undertook against the pagan nations, the Slares, the Wendsy 
the Vandals, and others. He fought not only for the interests of his sub- 
jects, but likewise for the extension of Christianity ; and wherever he was 
successful, he demolished the temples and images of the gods, the altars and 
groves, and commanded Christian worship to be set up. In particular, he 
subdued in the year 1168 the whole island of Rugen, which lies near to 
Pomerania ; and then he compelled its ferocious, savage, piratical inhabi« 
tants who had been addicted to senseless superstitions, to hear Christian 
preachers and to embrace the Christian worship. The king's designs were 
promoted and executed, by Absalom archbishop of Lund, a man of talents 
whom the king employed as his chief counsellor on all subjects.(2) 

§ 3. The Fins, who infested Sweden with frequent inroads, were attacked 
by Eric IX. king of Sweden, called SL Eric ailer his death, and by him sub- 
dued afler many bloody batUes. As to the year when this took place, his- 
torians disagree.(8) The vanquished nation was commanded to follow the 
religion of the conqueror, which most of them did with reluctance and dis- 
gust. (4) The shepherd and guardian assigned to this new church, was Hat- 
ry archbishop of Upsal, who had accompanied the king. But as he treated 
these new Christians too rigorously, and attempted to punish severely a 
man of great influence who had committed murder, he was himself massa- 
cred; and the pontiff Hicu^rian IV. enrolled him among the saints. (5) 

§ 4. Towards the close of the century, perhaps in the year 1186, some 
merchants of Bremen or of Lubec trading to Livonia, took along with them 
Mainhard a regular canon of St. Augustine in the monastery of Segeberg 
in Halsatia, to bring that warlike and uncivilized nation to the Christian 
faith. But as very few would listen to him, Mainhard consulted the Roman 
pontiff, who created him the first bishop of the Livonians, and decreed 
that war should be waged against the opposers.(6) This war, which was 
first waged with the Esthonians, was extended farther and prosecuted 
more vigorously, by Bertkold the second bishop of the Livonians, after the 
death of Mainhard ; for this Berthold formerly abbot of Lucca, marched 
with a strong army from Saxony, and recommended Christianity not bj 

(2) Saxo Grammaticns, Historia Danica, Erie BenzeliuSf Monumenta eccleaiae Sii«^ 
lib. xiv., p. 239. Hclmoldy Chron. Slavo- gothicae, pt. i., p. 33, &c. 

rum, lib. ii., c. xii., p. 234, with the note (6) [The apostles of those timet, agreet* 

there of Henry Bangert. Pontoppidan, An- bly to the example of the succeason of St 

nales eccles. Danicae, torn, i., p. 404, dec. Peter in that age, made use of the doable 

[Sehroeekh'9 Kirchengesch., vol. xxr., p. sword, first the spiritnal, and where this 

245, dec. — Tr.] would not penetrate, the material awoid. 

(3) Most of them, with Baronius, refer it And this last, Mainhard knew well how to 
to the year 1151. VasUmut places it in nse. In the war against the Letteeor Li- 
1150, and Oemhielmius A.D. 1157. thuanians, he taught his Livonians the ait of 

(4) Claud. Oemhielmius^ Historia Ecclet. erecting fortified castles, and in genenl a 
ffentis Suecorum, lib. iv., cap. iv., ^ 13. Jo. better method of carrying on war. His 
Itoceeniusj Historia Suecica, lib. iii., p. 76, lieutenant wasDieterich, a Cistercian monk, 
ed. Frankf. Jsr. Erlandust Vita Erici Sane- who was afterwards bishop of Esthonia. Ha 
ti, cap. vii. VattoviuSf Yitis Aquilonia, p. was also Mainhard's envoy to the pope, who 
65, dec. proffered indulgences to all that would tf» 

(5) Jo. VMitotitu, Vitis Aquilonia, tea some the crose and march against tha liv*- 
Titaa SaaetonuB la^ Snaogothiei, p. 68. iuaii8.-«'iSdU.] 


lUfgUments but by slaughter and battle.(7) Following his example, the 
third bishop, Albertf previously a canon of Bremen, entered Livonia in the 
year 1108 well supported by a fresh army raised in Saxony ; and fixing 
his camp at Riga, he instituted, by authority of ImtocerU III. the Roman 

E>ntiff, the military order of knights sword-hearers^ who should compel the 
ivonians by force of arms to submit to baptism.(8) New forces were 
inarched from time to time from Grermany, by whose valour and that of 
the sword-bearers the wretched people were subdued and exhausted, so 
that they at last substituted the images of Christ and the saints in place of 
their idols. The bishops and knights partitioned out among themselves, 
the lands most unjustly wrested from the ancient possessors. (9) 

§ 5. The subjugation and conversion of the Slavonians, who inhabited 
the shores of the Baltic and were most inveterate enemies of the Chris« 
tians, gave employment to both the civil and ecclesiastical rulers, during 
nearly the whole century. Among them, prince Henry the Lion was dis- 
tinguished. Among odker measures conducive to the renovation of the 
Slavonian character, he restored and liberally endowed three bishoprics in 
Slavonia beyond the Elbe ; namely, Ratzeburg, Aldenburg which was soon 
•fker transferred to Lubec, and Schwerin.(10) Among the religious teach* 

(7) [Berthold was a Cistercian, and was (10) See the Origines Ouelphice, torn, 
appointed successor to Maintuvrd in the iii., p. 16, 19, 34, 41, 55, 61, 63, 73, 83, 
year 1 196, by the archbishop of Bremen, who and the valuable Preface of Seheidiutf ^ ziv., 
wished to enlarge his proTince by the addi* p. 41. LudevDig^s Reliquis Manuscriptor., 
tion of Livonia. His first expedition to li* torn. ▼!., p. 330, dec. Jo. Em. de Westpha* 
▼onia was onsuccessluL The Livonians be- Un't Monnmenta. inedita reram Cimbricar. 
lieved, that he came among them only to en- et Megapolens., torn, ii., p. 1998, du:. [Ac- 
rich himself out of them, and he ionnd it cording to Helmdd^ in his Chronicon Slav- 
best to make his escape firom them. When or., lib. i., c. 69, it was Harttnek the arch- 
be returned with an armed force, in 1198, bishop of Hamburg, who re-established these 
the Livonians killed him. But the army of bishoprics. The archduke Henry had pre- 
crusaders so terrified the inhabitants, that viousiy made some campaigns into the ter- 
ihey admitted clergymen among them ; ritoiT of the Slavonians ; but his object had 
though these, they soon after cha^d out of not been to propagate Christianity. (Nulla 
die country. — Sefd.} de Christianitate, says HelrnoU, Uiii mentio, 

(8) See Henry Leonh. SchurtJUiseh^ His- sed tantum de pecunia.) Otto the Great 
toria ordinis Ensifcrorum equitum, Wittenb., had formerly established the bishopric of Al- 
1701, 8vo. denburg, which extended from that of Hoi- 

(9) See the Origines Livoniae, sen Chron- stein as far as the Peene and the town of 
icon vetus Livonicnm, published with copi- Demmin : and under Ezo the tenth bishop, 
oos notes, Frankf., 1740, fol., by Jo. Dan. this bishopric was divided by Adalbert arcn- 
Oruber ; who in his ix>tes, mentions and cor- bishop of Hamburg, into tnree bishoprics, 
nets all the other writers on the subject those of Mecklenburg and Ratzeburg being 
[We have also three epistles of pope iimo- eroated within it. But these bishoprics, aN 
€ent III. relating to tbo conversion of tho ter the extinction of Christianity in tlie ter- 
Livonians. The fint is addressed to all the ritories of the Slavonians, remained vacant 
Christians in Saxony and Westphalia ; the eighty-four years or till the times of Hart- 
seoMid, to the Christiana in the countries of wich. This archbishop having in vain la- 
the Slavonians ; and the third, to the believ- boured to reannex the Danish, Norwegian* 
en beyond the Elbe. In these the popo uid Swedish bishoprics to his archiepiscopal 
commands such as wen under vows ot pil* province to which they had formerly belong- 
grimaee tb Rome, to substitute for them a ed, that he might not be without suffragans 
crusade against the Livonians. RaynMf re-established ue old Slavonian bishoprics : 
Aimales, ad ann. 1199, No. 38, and Cod. and made TVtee/tn bish«> of Aldenburg, and 
Diplom. Polon., torn, v., p. l.—Sckl, See Emmakard biJbop of Mecklenburg, without 
also a full account of these conversions, in the knowledge or the archduke uid count, 
2Voilv*« View of the Russian Empire, voUl, who seixed upon all tho first year's tithes in 
p. 689-568, Lond., 1799, 8 folt. 8to.— TV.] the bisfaopiic of Aldenboig. 7«t the aich- 

\0L. U.— D P 


era who assailed the ignorance and stupidity of this barbarous nation^ Hm 
most distinguished was ViceUn of Hameby a man who had but few eipods 
in that age, and who from presiding over the regular canons of St. An- 
gustine at Faldem, was at length niade bishop of Aldenburg. For nearij 
thirty years, from A.D. 1124 to A.D. 1154, the time of his death, he ku 
boured amid innumerable difficulties, indefatigably, persereringlyy and 
successfully, in instructing the Slavonians and alluring them to ChristiiD> 
ity. He also performed many other praiseworthy deeds^ which have ren- 
dered his name immortal.(ll) 

§ 6. It is scarcely necessary to repeat here what has several times been 
remarked already, that barbarous nations brought mto the pale of the Chris- 
tian church in this manner, became disciples of Christ in name only and 
not in reality. The religion taught them, was not the pure and simple doc- 
trine which Christ taught, but a method of appeasing Grod by ceremonies 
and external acts, which was in several respects very nearly allied to tha 
religion which they were required to abandon. Take out the history and 
the name of Christ, the sign of the cross, some prayers, and a disagreement 
in rites, and it will not be difficult to reconcile both to each other to a great 
extent. Besides, many practices were still tolerated among these nations^ 
which were wholly inconsistent with the nature of Christianity, and whidi 
betrayed very great impiety ; for the priests with but few exceptions, did 
not labour to remove the spiritual maladies of their minds and to unite their 
souls to God, but to advance their own interests and those of the Roman 
pontiff, by extending and establishing their dominion. 

§ 7. In Asiatic Tartary near to Cathai, a great revolution took place 
near the beginning of this century, and a revolution very fevourable to the 
cause of Christianity. For on the death of Coiremchan or as others call 
him KenchaUy a very powerful king of the eastern regions of Asia, at the 
close of the preceding century, a certain priest of the Nestorians inhabit- 
ing those countries whose name was Jokiij made so successful an attack 
upon the kingdom while destitute of a head that he gained possession of it, 
and from a presbyter became the sovereign of a great empire. This was 
the famous Prester John, whose country was for a long time deemed by 

duke listened to the complaints of the biihop, so lon^ opposed Christianitj. Thejr 

and promised to sapport him, provided he drained by oppressive conthhntions, and 

would receive the investiture from his hands, refused Uie privileges enjoyed by Saxc 

This however the bishop refused, because it Prihetlan a Pomeranian chief, said to tha 

was an innovation upon the general custom, bishop that would convert him : ** Deotar 

which was for bishops to receive investiture nobis jura Saxonum in pnediis et leditibM, 

only from emperors and kings ; and the cler- et libenter erimus Christiani, aedificabinas 

gr of Bremen urged him to take this course, ecclesias, dabimus decimas," d(c.— <SdU.] 
ut a friend advised Wicelin to yield to the (11) A particular account of Fwclm is 

wishes of the archduke, for the sake of the given by Jo. MoUer, in his Cimbria littcn- 

good of the church, suggesting to him that ta, tom. ii., p. 910, &c., and by PeierLum 

the protection of neither the archbishop nor bechu^ in hu Res Hamburg., lib. ii., p. 1% 

the emperor would be of much service to and by others. But the illustrious Jo. Enu 

him, unless he had the friendship of the arch- de WutphaUn has exceeded all otheit ta 

duke the immediate lord of the country, diligence, in his Origines Neomonaatcr. sk 

He at length deemed it necessary to fol* Bordesbolmens., which axe extant in ths 

low this advice ; and received investiture by Monuments inedita Cimbrica, torn, ii., p. 

the staff from the archduke, who gave him 2344, dec. The preface of the volume alio 

the village of Bnzoe (Butzow). From the deserves to be consulted, p. 83, dec. An 

same Helmold from whom these statements engraved likeneaf of Viakn ii found in the 

are drawn, it appeira» why the SUvonians Torame. 


the Europeans the seat of all felicity and opulence. Because he had been 
a preshyter before he gained the kii^om, most persons continued to call 
him Prester Johnj after he had acquir^ regal dignity.(12) His regal 

(13) The atttemenU here made respect- ii., p. 367, &c. But in the 17ch ceDtmT, 
iDg the famous Prester Jt^tn, whom our an- many writings having been brought to light 
ceetors from the 13th century onward sup- which had been unknown, the learned in 
poeed to be the greatest and most prosper- great numbers abandoned this Portuguese 
•OS of all kings, not only have the greatest conjecture, and agreed that Prester John 
appearance of probability among all the ac- must have reigned in Asia ; but they still 
counts that are given of him, but are also disagreed as to the location of his kingdom 
supported by the testimony of writers of and some other points. Yet there arc some, 
candour ana the most worthy of credit ; even in our times and among the most learn- 
namely, Wdliam of Tripoli, (see Carolits ed men, who choose to give credit to the 
du Fresne, notes to Joinville's life of St Portuguese though supported by no proofs 
Lewis, p. 89), a Dominican and bishop of and authorities, Unt the Abyssinian emperor 
Gabul, m Otto of Frisingen's Chronicon, lib. is that mighty Prester John, rather than fol^ 
Tii., c. 33. [This bish^had come to Rome low the many contemporaty and competent 
to obtain a decision by an umpire, of the witnesses. See Euseb, Renauiot, Historia 
controversies between the Armenian and patriarch. Alexandrin., p. 333, 337. Jos* 
Greek churches. On this occasion he re- Franc. LaJUau, Histoire des decouveites des 
hted, that a few years before, one John who Portugais, torn, i., p. 58, and torn, iii., p. 67. 
lived in the extremities of the east beyond Henr. le Grande Diss, de Johanni Presbyt« 
Pttrsia and Armenia, and was both a king in Lobars Voyage d'Abyssinie, torn, i.^ p. 
and a priest, had become a Nestorian Chris- 395, dec. [See above, note (1), p. 106, and 
tian, tOff ether with his people ; that he had Moshem^s Historia Tartaror. eccles., p. 16, 
Taoquiuied the Median and Persian kin^s, &c. Barcmiur, Annales, ad ann. 1177, sec. 
And attempted to march to the akl of ue 55, gives us the title of an epistle written 
church at Jerusalem, but was obliged to de- by pope Alexander III. to Prester John^ 
mtX from the enterprise because be was un- which shoves that he was an Indian prince, 
able to pass the Tigris. This king was de- and a friest : ** Alexander Episcopus servus 
scended from the Mayans mentioned in the servorum Dei, chariasimo in Chhsto filio il- 
Gospel, and was so nch that he had a seep- histri et msgnifico Indarum regi, sacefdotum 
tre of emerald. — Schl.} WUUam Rubru- sanctissimo, salutem et Apostolicam bene* 
^utt. Voyage, c. zvixi., p. 86, in the Antiqua dictionem.** — TV. That the Dalai Lama 
m Asiam Itinera, collected l^ P. Gerberon ; was the Prester John, is denied by Paulsen^ 
andi4l&frie,Chronicon,adann. 1165etll70, the real author of MosheimU HistTarta- 
in Leibnitz's Accessiones Historical, tom. ror. Ecclesiastica. Yet more recently Jok* 
ii.,p. 345and 355, and others. It is strange Eberh. Fisehert in his Introduction to the 
that these testimonies should have been dis- History of Siberia, p. 81, (in German)^ has 
regarded by learned men, and that so many maintained this opinion ; and endeavoured 
Ofnnions and disputes should have arisen to show that the Dalai Lonna {Lama) and 
respecting Prester John and the region in Prester John are the same person, and that 
which he lived, and shouM have continued the latter name is a fictitious word, which 
down even to our times. But such is the the Europeans did not correctly understand. 
haman character, that what has most sim- And wbc«ver is sensible how low a people 
plicity and plainness is despised, and what may sink under the influence of miperstition, 
IS marvelloos and obscure is preferred. Pe- will not deem the idolatry of the Thibetians 
ter CovilUums, who was directed in the 15th foil pn>of that the Giana Lama and Prester 
century by J^tn 11. king of Portugal, to John could not be the same person. At 
make inquiries respecting the kingdom of least, if reliance may be put upon Uie ae« 
Prester John^ when arrived in Abyssinia count of the Aogustinian eremite Oeorge^ 
with his companions, on discovering many (of which Gatterer^s Algem. Hist. Bibl. con- 
things in the emperor of the Abyssiniana or tains an extract), it was in the beginning of 
Ethiopians analogous to what was then cur- the 13th century, that the regal power in 
nntiv reported in Europe respectmg Pres* Thibet was first joined with that of the 
ter John, supposed that he had discovered Grand Lama ; which is a new argument in 
that John wnom he was ordered to inquire favour of Fischer^s opinion. See the Hist, 
after. And he easily persuaded the Eruro- Bibl., vol. viii., p. 191. — Schl. But this 
paans, then scarcelv emsfged from barba- hypothesis of Fischer seems to be fully sub- 
nsm, to fall in with his opinions. See John verted, by the arguments of Mosheim and 
de sicris ecclesie ordimtionibus, pt. PtMUtn, Hist. Tartaror. eccles., p. 137, dtc 


n&me was Ungchan. The exalted opinion of the power and ricbe* of ddt 
Prester John, ealettuiied by the Greeks and Latuu, turooe from thia, tfart 
being elated with his prosperity and the succesc of bis wars with tba 
ncigbix>uring nations, he sent ambassadors and letters to the Roman on 
peror Frederic L, to the Greek emperor Manuel, and to other 80Yereign% 
in which he extravagEintly proclaimed his own majesty and wealth aad 
power, exalting himself above all the kings of the earth; and this boul- 
ing of the vainglorious man, the Nestorians laboured with all their poww 
to confirm. He was succeeded by his son or brother, whose proper nuns 
was David, but who was also generally called Pretter Johm, This princ* 
was vanquished and alain, near the cIok of the centnry, by that aaf^Of 
Tartar emperor, GtTtghiikan. 

UThe new kingdom of Jerusalem in Syria, established in the pm> 
century by the French, seemed at the beginning of this centur to 
flourish and to stand firm. But this prosperity was soon succeeded hf 
adversity. For most of the crusadera havmg returned home, and tM 
Christian generals and princes that remained in Palestine being more >t> 
tentive to their private advantages than to the poblic good, the Mohait 
tnedans recovered from their sudden terror and consternation, and coUeet* 
ing troops and resources on every side, attacked and harassed the Chiifc 
tians with perpetual wars. During many years they opposed the etoaaf 
with valour; bM when Atabec ZenghUlS) after along siege had taken tM 
city of Edessa, and seemed disposed to attack Antioch, the courage of the 
Christians began to fail. They therefore implored the succour of the 
Christian kings of Europe, and with teais supplicated for new armies of 
crusaders. The Roman pontiffs fitvoured these petitions, and lefl no meana 
untried to persuade the emperor and the other sovereigns to undertake 
another expedition to Palestine. 

§ 9. This new crusade was long a subject of debate, in several popnlu 
assemblies and in the councils. At lei^h under the pontiff Evgene Ui. 
the celebrated abbot of Clairvaux in France, St. Bernard, a man of jni. 
mense influence, brought the question to an issue. For when he, in the 
year 1146, preached the erota (as the phrase then was) in both Franco and 
Germany, but especially in a public assembly of the French at Vezelay, 
and promised in the name of God great victories and a most prospertnii 
issue to the enterprise, Lewis VII. king of the French, his queen, and a 
vast number of nobles who were present, devoted themselves to the aacred 
war. Conrad III. emperor of the Germans, at first resisted the admoni- 
tions of St. Bernard ; but after some delay he followed the example of the 
French king. Both therefore proceeded towards Palestine with very nn- 
merous armies, pursuing different routes. But the greater part of both 
armies perished miserably on the road, either by (amine or by shipwreckt 
or by the sword of the Mohammedans, to whom they were betrayed bj 
the perfidious Greeks, who feared the Latins more than they did the Mo- 
hammedans. LewU YII. left bis country in the year 1147, and arrived at 
Antioch in the mouth of March in the following year, with a small KSiaf 

Sm SdaoeciKt EirchcDgeKh., vol, nv., over CBrtiin pnmncM. The Latio bistast 

p. 193. — TV.] uu of tbe craatdee, of wfaom ■ oulogns is 

(13) Aiahec wu ■□ officii) title, given hj eoUBcted bjp Jtc. Bmgmrihu, cdl thii Al^ 

Oie StljuHan empenm or Si^Umm lo tbe ^ Zaig^i, Stogmam. 8«e Bartk. Htr- 

HmteiMnti, 01 nwoji whon thtr pkes* Mi4 BUioth. Omatds, mi. AliiM, p. Ml. 


•nd muck exhausted by its mifierings. Coimid commenced lus march in 
the month of Afay, 1147, and in November of the same year joined Lemis 
at Nice, having lost the greater part of his troops by the way. Both pro- 
ceeded to Jerusalem in the year 1148 ; and they 1^ back to Europe the 
few soldiers that survired, in the year 1149. For these princes were mu 
able to effect any thing, among other causes on account of the disame- 
ment between them. The 6nly effect of this second crusade was, to drain 
Europe of a great portion of its wealth and of a vast number of its inhabi- 

§ 10. Yet the unhappy issue of this second crusade, did not render the 
Christian cause in the E^ absolutely desperate. If the Christian princes 
had attacked the enemy with their combined strength, and acted in bar- 
mony, they would have had little to fear. But all the Latins and espe- 
cially their chiefe, abandoning themselves without restraint to ambition, 
avarice, injustice, and other vices, weakened each other by their mutual 
^contentions, jealousies, and broils. Hence a valiant general of the Mo- 
hammedans, Sahheddin whom the Latins call Saladinj viceroy or rather 
king of Egypt and Syria, assailed the Christians in the most successful 
manner, captured Guy of Lusignan, the king of Jerusalem, in the fatal 
battle of Tiberias A.D. 1187 ; and in the same year reduced Jerusalem 

(14) Beadet the historiaiis of the Cru- eigns continued together for a few days, 

tidet nMDtkiiied by BmurarnuSt see Jo, and commenced their march southerly along 

MtLinUtm^t Annates Benedict., torn. ▼!., p. the coast. But the emperor thinking it not 

399, 404^ 407, 417, 461, dec. Jac. OervaUf honourable for him to attend a camp in 

Histoire de TAbb^ Suger, torn, iii., p. 104, which he had no command, returned to 

128, 173, 190, 239, dec. This ISuger, t. Constantinople, and afterwards embarked for 

famous abbot of St Denys, was left by Leuh the Holy Land. Leteis led his army through 

iff VII. to gOTern kis kingdom during his Asia Minor, bending his course into the in- 

abaence. rierM, Histoire dee Chevaliers terior to avoid passing the large rivers near 

de Malte, tome L, p. 86, dec. Jo. Jmc, their months. The Mohammedans hovered 

MaseoVj de rebus imperii sub Conrado III. around him, cut off his supplies, and at 

£The French army of crusaders consisted of length attacked him in the mountains of 

lising 100,000 armed men, of whom 70,000 Laodicea to great advantage, destroyed a 

were mounted cuirassiers, and the rest in- large part of his army, and came near to 

lantry. The Geiman army was of about capturing the king himself. At length he 

tho same number. The emperor moved first, arrived with the wreck of his army at Atta- 

Morsning a direct course through Hungary, lia, the capital of Pamphylia, where the 

Bulgaria, and Thrace, to Constantinople, Greeks drained them of their resources, and 

where he was to wait for the arrival of the so embarrassed their proceeding by land, 

king. But the Greek emperor received him that the king with part of his troops was 

oomIt ; and by artifices induced him to cross obliged to embark on board the few vessels 

the Dudanellea, and proceed towards Pal- he could obtain, leaving the remainder of his 

estine. The Grecian guides assigned him, army to fight their way by land, if they could. 

led him into defiles and dangerous positions Those he thus left, all perished. He nd 

in Lycaonia, where the Mohammedans at- those with him arrived safe in Palestine, 

tacked and nearly destroyed his army. After The emperor also rejoined him with a few 

Ihe k>ss of all his baggage, he was obliged troope. Their united forces formed but a 

€o turn back with but a handful of men. small army ; yet they would liave been able 

The French army proceeded from Metz, to reduce Damascus, if the Christian princes 

crossed the Rhine at Worms, and the Dan- of the East had not disagreed, and thus 

nbe at Ratisbon, passed through Hungary, embarrassed their operations. The siege 

■nd airired safely at Constsntinople. 'Aere was abandoned ; the sovereigns visited fe» 

they were toU, tho German army had pro- rusalem as pilgrims, and at length return- 

ceeded on, and wove veiy succes^ul against ed to Europe with less than a tenth part 

the infidels. Lewis now passed the straits, of the meii that had eolisted in the crasado. 

and was at Nice when Conrad returned with — 2V.] 
theieuuitntofhiinuDedtnDy* Tbeso?«f- 


under his power.(15) After this ruinous campaign, the hopes of th9 
Christians in the East rested wholly on the aid to be derived from the 
kings of Europe. And this aid the Roman pontiff obtained for theni,alUr 
much and repeated solicitations ; yet the issue did not equal his designs or 
his wishes and efforts. 

§ 11. The third crusade was commenced by the emperor Frederic L 
sumaraed BarbaroseOf who with a large army of Grermans trayersed tl» 
provinces of Greece, in the year 1189, and after sunnounting numerous 
difficulties in Asia Minor, and vanquishing the forces of a Mohammedan 
king resident at Iconium, penetrated into Syria. But the next year, while 
bathing in the river Saleph which passes by Seleuoia, he lost his life in a 
manner unknown ; and a great part of his soldiers returned to Europe. 
The others indeed continued the war, under Frederic the son of the de- 
ceased emperor, but the plague swept off very many of them, and at lengtk 
their general the emperor's son, in the year 1191, when the rest dispersedt 
and very few of them returned to their own country. j( 16) 

§ 12. The emperor Frederic was followed in the year 1190, by PhSf 
Augustus king of France, and by Biehard sumamed the Lian-hearUdfhhig 
of England. Both these went by sea, and reached Palestine with select 
troops in the year 1191. Their first battle with the enemy, was not un- 
successful ; but in July of that year, after the reduction of the city of 
Acre, the king of Prance returned to Europe ; leaving however a part of 
his troops in Palestine. After his departure, the king of England prose- 
jcuted the war with visour, and not only vanquished Saladm in several 
battles, but also took Jaffa and Csesarea cities of Palestine. But being 
deserted by the French and Italians, and moved also by other reasons of 
great weight, he in the vear 1192, concluded a truce with Saladin for three 
years three months and three days ; and soon after left Palestine with his 
troops.(17) Such was the issue of the third crusade ; which drained Grer- 
many, England, and France both of men and money, but afforded very 
little advantage to the Christian cause in Asia. 

§ 13. During these wars of the Christians with the Mohammedans for the 
possession of the Holy Land, arose the three celebrated equestrian or mili- 
tary orders ; whose business it was to clear the roads of robbers, to harass 
the Mohammedans with perpetual warfare, to afford assistance to the poor 
and the sick among pilgrims to the holy places, and to perform any other 
iservices which the public exigences seemed to require. (18) The first of 
these orders, the Knights of St, John of Jerusalem, derived their name from 
an hospital in the city of Jerusalem consecrated to St, John the Baptist^ in 
which certain pious and charitable brethren were accustomed to receive 

<16) See the Arab BokaiiiCM Life of Sal- (17) Gshr. Daniel, Histoiie de FniMM, 

Adin; which Alb. Schdtetu published in tome iii., p. 426, dec. Rapm Tkoim, 

Arabic with a Latin translation, Lugd. Bat., Histoire d'Angleterre, torn, ii., p. 261, d^ 

1732, fol, c. zzziv., dec, p. 60, dec. Add {Hume^s Hist, of England, ch. x., yoLu^p. 

fferbelot, Biblioth. Orientale, article Sakr 403, du:.] Marigny, Histoire dee Azabii, 

ktidin, p. 742, dec., and Maxigny, Histoire tome iy., p. 285, dec. 

des Arabes, torn, iv., p. 289, dec., [and Gib' (18) The writers who treat of these thnt 

Aoii*« Decl. and Fall, ch. liz.— Tr.] orders, thoush not all, are enumerated bj 

(16) These events are best illustrated hf Jo. Jdb. FmmtmM^ Bibliograph. Aniiqoar.* 

Ibe celebrated count Hewnf de Bunauy in hb p. 466^ dec. 
life of Frederic I., written in Gennan, p. 
978, 293, 909, 883, dM. 


wbA nSbid relief to the needy and the sick visitants of Jerasafem, After 
the establishment of the kingdom of Jerusalem, this hospital gradually ac. 
quired from the liberality of pious persons, larger revenues than were re. 
quisite for the object of relieving the poor and the sick ; and its president 
or matteff Baynumd du Puy, about the year 1120, with his bretiiren, of. 
fered to the king of Jerusalem to make war upon the Mohammedans at 
his own expenae. The king approved the plan ; and the Roman pontifli 
confirmed it by their authority* Thus at once and to the surprise of all, 
from being administerers to the poor and the sick, and removed from all 
bustle and noise, they became military characters : and the whole order 
was divided into three classes, knights or soldiers, who were of noble birth, 
and whose business it was to fight for religion, priests^ who conducted the 
religious exercises of the order, and servmg hreihren^ that is, soldiers of 
ignoble birth. This order exhibited the greatest feats of valour, and thus 
procured immense wealth. After the loss of Palestine, the knights passed 
into the island of Cyprus ; afterwards they occupied the island of Rhodes, 
and held it a long time ; when expelled from Rhodes by the Turks, they 
obtained from Charles V. the possession of the island of Malta, where 
their grand master still resides.(19) [In the year 1798, the knights of 
Malta betrayed the island to the French fleet, then carrying Buonaparte to 
Eigypt. The English immediately after commenced a blockade of the isl- 
and which lasted two years, when the island fell into the hands of the Eng- 
ludi who have held it ever since. The order lost the greater part of its 
revenues during the French revolution ; and from the time Malta was sur- 
rendered to the French, it has been sinking into insignificance, and is now, 
A.D. 1830, nearly if not altogether extinct. — Tr*'\ 

§ 14.' The second order was wholly military ; that is, it did not em- 
brace both soldiers and priests. It was called the order of Templars^ from 
a house situated near the temple of Solomon in Jerusalem, which Balduin 
II. the king of Jerusalem, gave to the knights temporarily for their first 
residence. The order commenced A.D. 1118, at Jerusalem ; and had 
for its founders Hugo de Paganis (Hugues des Payens), Crodfrey de S. 
Amove (or St. Omer), and seven others, whose names arc not known. Its 
full establishment and its rule, it obtained A.D. 1128, from the council of 
Troyes in Prance. (20) These knights were required to defend the Chris- 
tian religion by force of arms, to guard the high- ways, and to protect the 

(19) Tbe most recent and best history of ed from attending by his military duties, 

dns Ofder, is that composed by Renat. Au- he shall repMt 13 paternosters in place of 

hert de Vtrtol, by order of the kni^ts, and matins, nine in place of vespers, and seven 

poblished first at Paris and afterwards at in place of each of the minor canonical 

Amsterdam, 1732, 5 vols. 8to. Add Hipp, hoars. For each deceased brother, 100 pa- 

£e/yo<, Hist. desOrdres,tom. iii.,p. 73, ote. temosters shall be said daily, for seven 

(SO) See Jo. MabUUm, Annales Benedict., days ; and his allotment of food and drink 

torn. Ti., p. 169, dec. [MtUlUm there says : (his rations) daring forty days, shall be given 

** Their rule was taken almost verbatim from to some poor person. The luiights may eat 

that of St. Betudiei, and consined of the flesh thnce a week, on the "Lord's dsy, 

tame number of chapters, viz., 71. Many Toesdays, and Thursdays : the other foar 

pefsone suppose that it was drawn upbfSt. days they must abstain from flesh ; and on 

ntnuard.** Their rule received modifies- Fridays they mnst be content with (^nadra- 

tions from time to time ; but their earliest gesimal hn. Each kioAt may have three 

legulations were the foflowing. The knights noises and one squire, r^o one may either 

•hall attend the entire religwos services by hawk or hunt. See Flettry*» Histoire de 

4aj and by night ; and if any one is prevent- VE^dn, lir. bnrii, cap. 66.«— TV.] 


pilgrims to Palestine from the cruelties and robberies of the Mohftmine^ 
dans* By its valour, this order likewise acquired great fame and vast 
wealth ; but at the same time by its pride, luxury, cruelty, and other Yicoi^ 
it incurred peculiar odium, which rose so high at last, that the order was 
wholly suppressed by a decree of the pontm and of the council of Tk 

§ 15. The third order, that of the TevUmie kmghts of Si. Mary ef J^ 
rusalemf was similar to the first in requiring care of the poor and the stdLy 
as well as warfiire* It originated A.D. 1190, at the siege of Acre or 
Ptolemais : yet some place its obscure beginnings somewhat earlier, and 
at Jerusalem. During this siege, some pious and benevolent Germans on* 
dertook to provide accommodations for sick and wounded soldiers ; and 
the undertaking so pleased the Grerman princes who were present thai 
they concluded to establish on association for that object, to be cooiposed 
of Grerman knights. The Roman pontiff CaUcstine III. afterwarcb ap^ 
proved of the society, and confirmed it by formal enactments. None were 
to be admitted into this order» except Germans of noble birth ; and those 
admitted were to devote themselves to the defence of the Christian reUgun 
and the Holy Land, and to the care of the suffering poor and the «ick« 
At first the austeri^ of the order was very great, clothmg and bread and 
water being the only recompense of the solmers for the labours they en» 
dured. But this rigour soon ceased, as the wealth of the society incr^sed. 
When the order retired from Palestine, it occupied Prussia, Livonia, Cour. 
land, and Semigallia ; and though it lost those provinces at the Reforma* 
tioo, yet it retained a part of its estates in Grennany.(22) 



^ 1. AdreiM Erenu in the Weft— 4 3. In the EmL — ^ 8. Ptaster John tlaia. 

§ 1. Netther the Jews nor the polytheists, could give the Christians ol 
the West so much trouble as formerly. The former were accused by the 
Christians of various crimes pretended or real ; so that their efforts were 
directed, not so much to make opposition to the Christians, as to defend 
themselves in the best manner they could against their attacks. Such of 


order. Peter de Puy, 

mttitaire des TempUers, wkich was repnb- knoehy Jena, 1679, 4tp. Hipp. Ahfoi^ Hi»* 

Hflbed with many additional docninents, toire des Ordrea, tome iii., p. 140, oc. Tbs 

Brussels, 1751, 4to. Nic GurtUr, Historic Chronicon Oxdinia Teutonici, in Ani, Mat' 

Templahoram militam, Amstel., 1691, Svo. tJuti Analeeta veteria STi, torn. ▼., p. 681k 

[For a list of more recent writers, fee Wm- 668, ed. nora. The Priyilegia Ordinis Tea* 

er^9 Handb. d. theologischen literatnr, hup- tonici, in Jo, PeUr von Ltmig'o ReUqnis 

•ic 1886, p. 184.— TV.] ICiiwiieivt, torn, vii., p. 48. 
(88) In sdaitioii to JiiysMiid DiKJr« Hii- 


the polytheifltfl as remained in the North of Europe,— and thejr vara con. 
aiderably numerous in several nlacesr-firequently made great slang^iter 
among the Chri8tians.(l) But the Christian kings and princes who were 
in thc^ vicinity, gradually brought their rage under restraints ; and they 
did not cease firom waging war upon them, till they had deprived them 
both of their independence and of their religious freedom. 

i 2. The writers of that age are full of complaints, respecting the cruelty 
and rage of the Saracens against the Christians in the East. Nor is there 
any reason to question their veracity. But most of them have omitted to 
mate the great causes of this cruelty ; which were for the most part, on 
the side of the Christians. In the first place the Saracens had a right, ac- 
cording to the laws of war, to repel violence by violence ; nor is it easy to 
Bee, with what face the Christians could require of this nation, which they 
attacked and slaughtered with large armies, that it should patiently re- 
ceive blows and not return them. Besides, the Christians in the East 
committed abominable crimes, and did not hesitate to inflict the most ex- 
quisite suflerings and distress upon the Saracens. And can ai^ think it 
strange, that they should deem it right to retaliate ? Lastly, is it a new 
and surprising thW that a nation not distinguished for mildness and gen- 
deness of temper, when provoked by the calamities of what was pronounced 
a holy war, should be severe upon those among their subjects, who were 
united with their enemies in religion ? 

§ 8. A vast change in the state of the Christians in Northern Asia, took 
plaice near the close of this century, in consequence of the victories of the 
ffreat Genghukan commander of the Tartars. For this descendant of the 
Mongols or Moguls, a hero who has had few equals in any age, attacked 
David or Df^^eStm, the brother or son or at least the successor of the cel- 
ebrated PreHer /ofai, and himself called by that name, and having con- 
quered him in battle slew him ^2) then assailing the other princes who 
niled over the Turks, the Indians, and the inhabitants of Cathai, he either 
slew them or made them tributary : and after this, invading Persia, India, 
and Arabia, he overturned the Saracenic empire, and established that of 
the Tartars in those countries.(3) From this time, the reputation of the 
Christian religion was greatly dirninished in the countries which had been 
subject to Prester John and his successor David : nor did it cease to de- 
cline and sink gradually, till it was wholly prostrated by cither Moham- 
medan errors or the fables of paganism. Vet the posterity of Johrij for a 
long time after this, held in the kingdom of Tangut which was his original 

(1) HdmMf Cbronicon Skfor., lib. i, e. Hmir prince of Moldam, demtes from both ; 

xzziv., p. 68 ; e. xxzr., p. 89 ; c. il., p. 99. «nd in his preface to the History of the Ol- 

JUniembrog, Seriptor. Septentrion., p. 196, tomsn Empire, p. zlv., torn, i., French ed., 

196, 201. PtUr LtwkctMt, Res Hsni- states, on the authority of the Arabians, that 

Imig., lib. i., p. 83. Gengkuktan did not inTsde the territories of 

(i) Respecting the year, in which Chnr bis neighbours, till the year 1314. 
rjktfifran invaded and concraeredArctterJsAii, (3) FetU de la Croix, Histoire de Oei>- 

lie Greek, LaUn, and Oriental writms die- ^z Can, Paris, 1711, ISmo, p. ISO, ISl. 

agree very much. Most of the Latin wri- Bwrtii. Herhelol, Biblioth. Orientale, article 

t«rs &E on te year 1908 ; and thus refer the Gen^^iiikhan, p. 878. Jot. Sim, iifsenum, 

erent to the tlurteenth century. But Jtfiirco Bibboth. Orient. Vaticana, tom. ilL, pt. i., p. 

Paulo the Venetian, de regionibus Oriental., 101 and M5, dec. Jton iu Plan Carfm, 

lib. i., c. 61, 68, 63, and others, state that it Voyafle en Tartarie, cap. ▼., in the Reoieil 

took place in the year 1187 ; and their an* des Voyages an Noid, tome Tii., p. 860. 
UtoritylchoontofeUow. Jkmttriut JUm- 

Vol. n.— B b 


0eat, some degree of power, though much restricted and not independenl; 
and these continued to adhere to the Christian religion.(4) 





^ 1, C i0tate of Learning and Science among the Gredkt. — ^ 8, 4. Among the Latma. 
—-^ 5. Studyof the CiTil Law.— 4 6. Canon Law. — ^ 7. Philoaophr among the LetiML 
— ^ 8. DisagreemenU among the Philoaoi)hffn. — ^ 9. Cooteata of the iSaketieianS. 
The Realiata and NominaliaU. 

SI. Amonq the Greeks, notwithstanding the times were calanutoua 
revolutions and intestine wars were very frequent, the study of liter, 
ature and the liberal arts was highly honoured. This was attributable to 
the patronage and the literary zeal of the emperors, especiaUy the Comnad ; 
and likewise to the vigilance of the Constantinopolitan patriarchs, who 
feared lest the Greek church would lack defenders against the Latins, if her 
priests should neglect learning. The learned and luminous commentaries 
of Etuiathius bishop of Thessalonica upon Homer and Dionysiua [Petie^ 
gttes\ show that men of the best talents applied themselves diligently to 
the study of classic literature and antiquities.(l) And the many respecta- 
ble historians of the events of their own times, e. g., John Cmiuziiit»,(2) 
Michael G/^ca«,(d) John Z(maras,(4) Nicephorus Bryenruus,{b) and oth. 

(4) i4««emafi, Biblioth. Orient. Yaticani, and in a good style. The best edition ii 

tom. iii., part ii., p. 600, dec. [Motkeim^ that of Car. du Fretne, in six Books, f^iia^ 

Historia Tartaror. Ecdes., cap. iL, p. 39, 1670, fol— TV.] 
dec— TV.] (3) IMichael Glyeas was a native of Si* 

(1) [ftuto/Atttf was archbishop of Thes- ciIt, and flourished A.D. 1120. His Aa- 
salonica in the year 1185, when his elo- nales Qaadripartiti, is a woik not oidy hie- 
^uence saved that city from demolition by torical, but also philosophical and theoUwi> 
its Sicilian conquerors. He was alive in caL Part I. describes tne creation of &• 
1194. His excellent commentary on H(h worid in six davs ; Part II. extends finom 
mtr^ was published, Rome, 1650, 4 vols, the creation to the birth of Christ; Part UL 
fol., and Basil, 1660, 3 vols. fol. He also to Constantino the Great ; and Part IV. to 
wrote a good commentary on the geograph- the death of Alexins Conmenns, A.D. 1 118. 
ical poem of Dionythu Periegetet, Gr., It waa published, Gr. and Lat., with note% 
Paris, 1577, fol. He wrote nothing on the- by LabM, Paris, 1660, fol. Glycat alao 
ology, so far aa is known. — Tr.'\ wrote Disputatiunculs II. ; and likewiao 

(2) [John CinnamuM was secretary to many epistles, of which fragmenta are pre* 
MtLmul ComnemUj a fframmaiian and a sol- served. — TV. ] 

dier, who flourished A.D. 1 160, and was alive (4) [Jclhn ZonaroM, who flourished abons 

A.D. 1183. He wrote the history of the A.D. 1118, waa a native of Con8tantinojple» 

two Comnefdi John and Mamuly comprising and for many years m public civil life ; hot 

events from AD. 1118 to A.D. 1176. The being bereft of his wife and children, hi 

first part is very concise, the latter a foil retired to a monasteiy, and sobced hinuelf 

hiiloiy; and both mwottm with ikMity, by wnttng for poatcnty. His Anuli « 


en,(6^ are proof that neither the disposition to benefit succeeding ages, 
nor tne ability to write with skill, were wanting to many among the 

§ 2. No one took more pains to excite and cherish the love of philoso- 
phy, it is said, than Michael Anchialus patriarch of Con8tantinople.(8) 
The philosophy to which he was attached, appears to have been that of 
AristiUe : for the cultivators of philosophy among the Greeks, were chiefly 
employed in expounding and improving this ; as appears among other spe- 
cimens, from Eustraiius' exposition of Aristotle's Ethics and Analytics. (9) 

Compendious History, is in three Parts: 1160, wrote a compendious history or Chron- 

tbe first treats of the Jews, from the crea- icon, in Terse, from the creation to A.D. 

ikm to the destruction of Jeniaalem by Ti- 1081, which he addressed to IrenCf the si*- 

tOM ; the second girea the Roman hiatoiy, ter of the emperor Manuel Comnenus ; pub- 

Irom the founding of Rome to Constantine lished, Or. md Lat., Leyden, 1616, 4to, 

the Great, abridged cluefly from Dion Ca$' and Pkris, 1655, fol. 

mus ; the third part brinos the history of the Neopkyhu, a Greek presbyter and monk, 

Greek empire down to the death of Alexius who flourished A.D. 1 190, composed a nar- 

CamnentUf A.D. 1118. The best edition ratire of the calamitiea of Cyprus when ta- 

H that of Car. ciu FrtMne, Gr. and Lat., ken by the English crusaders, A.D. 1191 ; 

Fkris, 1686, 2 toIs. fol. Zonaras also wrote published, Gr. and Lat., by Cotdier, Mon- 

commentaries on the apostolic canons, on omenta Elccles. Graece, torn, ii., p. 457. 

some canonical epistles of the Greek fathers, The preceding list contains the roost no- 

and on the canons of the councils ; all of ted Greek historians of this century. — Tr.} 

which were published, Gr. and Lat., Paris, (7) [If the term be taken in its greatest 

1618, and with Beveridge** notes, in his latitude, including not merely the historians 

Pteidect«Canonnm,Ozon., 1673, fol. Some of the Greek empire and in the Greek hn* 

tracts and epi^es of Zonaras, have likewise guage, but also historians of the Greek 

been published.^ Tr.] church; then it must include the monk 

(5) iNieephoruM Ehryenmua was the bus- Nestor, the father of Russian history ; who 
band of the celebrated female historian, An- flourished at Kiow, in the latter part of the 
na Comnetui, and of course son-in-law to eleventh century and first part of the twelfth, 
the emperor Aleziua Comnenos, who raised and whose annals have procured reputation 
him to the rank of Cssar. He was much to professor Schlozer, See his Probe Rus- 
concemed in the public transactions from aicW Annalen, Bremen and Getting., 1768, 
A.D. 1096 till A.D. 1137, the probable year Bwo.—Scld. And Nestor's Annalen mit 
of his death. He wrote the Byzantine his- Uebersetz. und Anmerk. von A. L, von 
ton, in four Books, from A.D. 1057 to A.D. Schlozer, Gotting., 1803-1809, 5 toIs. 8vo. 
1081 ; published, Gr. and Lat., with notes -^Tr,] 

by Peter Poussin, Paris, 1661, fol., and by (8) Theodorus Balsamon, Praef. ad Pbo- 
Cor. du Fresne, subjoined to the history of tii Nomocanonem ; in Henry JusteWs Bib- 
Jo^ Cinnamus, Paris, 1670, fol. — Tr.] liotheca Juris Canon, veteris, torn, ii., p. 814. 

(6) {Anna Comnsna, the daughter of the ^-[Michael Anchialus was patriarch of Con- 
emperor iUeztiu Comnenus, a woman of su- stantinople from A.D. 1167 to A.D. 1185. 
penor talents and learning, was bom A.D. According to Balsamon, he was a consum- 
1083, lost her mother in 1118, and her mate philosopher: and it is certain, that he 
hnsband in 1187. After this, she com- was a fierce antagonist of the Latins. He 
menced writing her history of her father's has left us five synodal decrees ; published, 
leign, from A J). 1069 to 1118, which is Gr. and Lat., in the Jus. Gr. Rom., lib.iil, 
properly a continuation of her husband's hie- p. 827. He also composed a Didogue, 
torv. She completed it A.D. 1 148, and which he had with the emperor Manuel Com- 
called it Alexias, or de rebus ab Alexio patre nenus upon occasion of the arrival at Con- 
gestis, Libri xv. It is a well-written hiato- stantinople of legates from the Roman pon- 
ly ; and important, as giving a minute ac- tiff ; some extracts from which are published 
eoant of the first crusa&rs, with whom she by Leo AUatius, de Consensu, dec., lib. ii., 
Iiad personal kaowledfle. The best edition c 8, ^ S, c. 5, ^ 2, and c. 9, ^ S.^TV.] 

ia that of Poussin, Gr. and Lat, with a (9) [Eustraiius was metropolitan of Nice 

Glossary, Paris, 1651, fol., or rather its re- about A.D. 1110 ; and was reputed a leam- 

nint by Du Fresne, subjoined to Cintuunus, ed man, as well as a distinguished theok>- 

Aris, 1670, fol. gian. His comments on Aristotle's Ethics, 

C^nstmnthms MtmMsses, about A. D. and on tht kttei ptit of hia Analytics, bafo 


Yet the Platonic philosophy was not wholly neglected. On the eoatnury k 
appears that many, and especially those who embraced the prindplea of dM 
Mystics, much preferred this philosophy before the peripatetic ; ajid Uuj 
considered FUUo as suited to men of piety and candour, while AriMih 
was suited to wranglers and the vainglorious. And their disagreeiiMOt 
soon afterwards gave rise to the noted controversy among the Gredcp^itt* 
specting the comparative merits of the Platonic and the AristoteUan phi- 

§ 8. In a great part of the western world, extraordinary zeal was awa^ 
kened in this age for the prosecution of literature, and the cultivation of 
every branch of learning : to which some of the pontifis, and the kinga aad 
princes who could see the utility of learning in improving and estal&biiig 
society, contributed by their authority and their munificence. Henoe as- 
sociations of learned men were formed in many places, for teaching dia 
various branches of human knowledge ; and as die youth resorted to them 
in great numbers eager for instruction, those higher schools which the nait 
age called UmverntieSf were gradually product. Paris exceeded aD die 
odier cities of Europe, in the number of its learned men, in its schools of 
various kinds, as well as in the concourse of its students. Hence in this 
city, about the middle of the century, arose a literary institution similar ts 
ours of the higher order, though rude and imperfect as 3^t, but which tims 
gradually moulded into form and brought to perfection.(lO) Nearly at the 
same time, a distinguished school for the various sciences was founded at 
Angers, by the efforts and care of Ulger the bishop ; though here, juris- 
prudence appears to have held the first rank.(ll) There was alreiBuIy at 
Montpelier a very celebrated school for the civil law and for medical sd- 
ence.(12) In Italy the school of Bologna, which had its commencement 
anterior to this century, now possessed high renown. It was chiefly re- 
sorted to by the students of the Roman law both civil and ecclesiasUcaly 
and especially after the emperor Lotharius 11. reinstated it, and conferred 
on it new privileges.(ld) In the same country, the medical school of Sa- 
lerno which had before been very celebrated, now allured an immense num- 
ber of students. While so many schools were rising up in Europe, the 
sovereign pontiff Alexander III. enacted a special law in the council of 
Rome, A.I). 1179, requiring schools to be ever3nvhere set up, or to be re- 
been pablisbed. His titct against Chryto- fifth centmy, hj Tkeodosius IT., and Umt 
lamu, de processione Sp. Sancti, still exists show the diploma of that emperor by whiu 
in MS., besides (as is said) some other tracts be enriched their city with such an onift> 
on the same subject. — Tr.1 ment. Bnt most writers contend, that tUi 

(10) Cos, Egaase de BouUm^ Historia diploma is a fabrication ; Bod they addoee 
Acad. Paris., torn, ii., p. 463, oc. Steffi, strong proofs, that the school of fiobgiia was 
PtLsquitTf Recherches oe la France, lift, lii., not mote ancient than the eUvenik centoiy, 
c. zzix. Peter Lamheciui, Historia fiibli- and that its principal enlaigement was m 
oth. Vindob., lib. ii., c. ▼., p. 260. Hie- the twelfth century, particularly in tlm ' 
toire Litteraire de la France, tome ix., p. of Lothair H. See Car. Sigmuiu, 
60-88. ria Bononiensis, as pnblish^ with 

(11) BoulaUf Historia Acad. Paris., torn, among his Worin. Lud. Ani. Muntmri, 
ii., p. 815. Pecquet de U Lhoniere, Diss. Antiquitates Italicae medii aeyi, torn, iii., p. 
ear TAntiqnit^ de TUniTcrset^ d* Angers, p. 23, 884, 898, and especially, the Teiy Icam- 
%h ^M Angers, 1736, 4to. ed God. Ge. KeufeT* elegant Histmj of ths 

(12) Histoire generate de Languedoc, par UniTersity of Bologna, written in Gheram^ 
lea Benedictine, tome ii., p. 617, du. Helmst., 1760, 8vo. Compare Just. Mmr, 

(13) The inhabttanU of Bologna tell us, BSbmer'a Pad. ad Coipus joria Ctimiic^ 
4h^ onifini^ WM IPNidsd §• iaily §• ths p.9^dM. 


instated if they had before eadatedy in the monasteries and in the cathedral 
churches: for those which had formerly flourished in these situations, 
through the negligence of the monks and the bishopsy were either wholly 
prostrate or much decayed.(14) But the daily increasing feme and glory 
of the higher schools or universities, rendered this law of little effect ; fiur 
the majority flocking to those new seats of leaminf;, the monastic and ca* 
thedral schools gradually declined and came to nothing. 

§ 4. Among the benefits derived from these many literary associations, 
at their very commencement, was this, that not only were the boundaries 
of human knowledge extended, but a new division of the branches of it took 
place. Hitherto all learning had been confined to what were called the 
seven Uberal arts; three of which, grammar, rhetoric, and dialectics, com- 
prised what was called the Drmitm ; and the other four, arithmetic, music, 
geometry, and astronomy, were called the Qiiadrtvuim. Most persons 
were contented widi the IWvnifii; but those who wished to be thou^t 
leamed men of the first rank, asc^ided to the Quadmimn* To tl^e 
[seven liberal] arts, were now added, besides the study of languages for 
which few had much taste, theology^ — ^not however the old and simple the- 
ology, which was destitute of system and connexion and rested solely oa 
tei^ts of scripture and sentences from the ancient fathers, but philosophical 
or scholastic theology ; also jurisprudence^ or civil and canon law ; and 
lastly, medidnef or physic as it was then called.(15) For as particular 
schools were now devoted to these sciences, they were of course placed in 
the Ust of studies which merited the attention of men of erudition. And 
when this was done, the common distribution of the sciences was to be 
changed. Hence the seven liberal arts were gradually included under the 
term philosophy; to which were added, theology^ jurisprudence^ and medi- 
cine. And thus these four Faculties as they are called, were in the next 
century formed in &e wxaersUies. 

6 5. In Italy the reputation and authority of the old Roman law revived, 
and it caused all other systems of law then in use to go into desuetude, 
after the discovery at the capture of Amalphi A.D. 1187 by the emperor 
Lotharius II., of the celebrated copy of the Pandects or Digest^ of which 
there had been very little knowledge for many centuries and which the 
emperor now presented to the city of Pisa. From this time the leamed 
began to study the Roman law with more eagerness, schools were also 
opened for the study of this law in the university of Bologna, and after- 
wards likewise in other cities of Italy and also beyond Italy. The conse- 
quence was, that whereas men had previously lived under various laws, and 
every gentleman had been at liberty to choose which he would obey, 
whether the Salic laws, or those of the Lombards, or of the Burgundians, 
dec., the Roman laws gradually obtained the ascendency through the greater 
part of Europe, and excluded all others. It is an old opinion that Lothom 
rius II., at the instigation of Lmerius or Guamerus the first teacher of the 
Roman law in the university of Bologna, published a decree that all should 
thenceforth obey the Roman law oj^y, the others being abrogated. But 

(14) See Boekmii'M Jos. Ecclef. Fkotee- in tbe ISth centmy, rapHed perticiilarlj ta 

tuitioiii, torn, iv., p. 706. medicinal itadiet, and it has also presmed 

(16) [*<The wad vkytka, thongii, ac- that limited sense in tfie EngMsb language.*^ 

eoiding to its etjniolo|Qri it denotes the — Jfoc/.] 
sMsrofastanlphilseoi^iD gomiliwas, 


learned men have shown that this opinion is supported by no 

§ 6. The civil law being placed among the sciences to be taught in Uw 
schools, the Roman pontifis and their friends deemed it not only useful hot 
necessary, that the canon law or that which regulates the a&irs of tha 
church, should have the same privilege. There existed indee^ some cd» 
lections of canons or ecclesiastical laws, but there was not one among them 
that was complete and fit to be expounded in the schools, in conaequenoe 
both of their want of arrangement and their deficiency in copiousness of 
matter. Hence Gratianf a Benedictine monk bom at Chiusi, and now re* 
siding at Bolc^na in the monastery of St. Felix and Nabor, about the yetn 
1130, compiled from the writings of the ancient doctors, the epistles of the 
ponti^ and the decrees of councils, an epitome of canon laWf suitaUe far 
the instruction of youth in the schools.(17) The Roman pontiff Evgem 
III. was highly pleased with the work; and the doctors of Bologna re- 
ceived it with applause, and immediately adopted it as their guide in teadu 
ing, and their example was followed first by the university of Parisy and 
then by the other universities. The most learned men of the Romish 
church acknowledge, that Gradan^M Decretum as it is commonly called, or 
his Concordia disciriiantium Canomtm as the author himself called it, is fbO 
of numberless faults and mistakes.(18) Yet as it admirably strec^gtheos 
and supports the power of the Roman pontiffs, it has become in a measure 

(16) See Herm. Conringius, de Olivine ship, the McnmenU, fasts and festiTals, im- 
hiris Gennanici, cap. xzii. Guido GrarutuSf ages, &c. — This work, together with the 
£pi8t. de Pandectis, p. 81, 69, ed. Florence, jSecreiaU of Gregory IX. in five Books, the 
1737, 4to. Henr, Brencmann, Histoha Pan- Liber sextut Decretalium of BanifBce VIII., 
dectar., p. 41, dtc. Lud. Ant. Muratori, the ConstittUionM of Clement v., and the 
Pref. ad leges Longobardicas ; in his Scrip- ExtravaganUw of John XXII. and othen, 
tores renim Italicar., torn, i., part ii., p. 4, constitutes the Corpus Juris Canonsct, and 
dtc., and in his Antiquit. Ital. medii avi, forms more than one half of the whole. It is* 
torn, ii., p. 285, dtc. On this subject, Geo. compilation from genuine and spurious can- 
Calixtus had a warm controversy with ons, decrees, and decisions, without nnidi 
Barth. Nihusius, who adhered to the com- discrimination ; and is so carelessly made 
mon opinion respecting Imerius and Lo- that the authors are frequently confounded, 
tharius. The history of this controversy and one cited for another. It is therefon 
is given by Jo. MblUruSf Cimbria Litterata, no great authority ; nor is it rmrded aa 
tom. iii., p. 142, dec. such, by modem canonists. Tnough ift- 

(17) [Of Gratian himself, nothing more vourable to the petensions of the Roman 
is known than is stated in the text. He pontiffs in the main, yet it is against their 
completed his Decretum about A.D. 1151. claims in several particulars ; and this may 
It is divided into three parts. The first have tended to sink its credit with bou 
part is subdivided into one hundred and ons Catholics and Protestants. After aH, it was 
Jhstinctiones ; in which he treats of law in a noble work for the age in which it was 

Ceral and canon law in particular, in the compiled, and jusUy entitles its author to 

; twenty Distinctiones ; and then pro- the appellation of the father of canon Uw. 

ceeds to treat of the different orders of the — TV.] 

clergy, their qualifications, ordination, du- (18) See, among others, Anton. AMguB" 

ties, and powers. The second part is sub- tinus, de emendatione Gratiani, cum obser- 

divided into thirty-six Causes^ each embra- vationibus Steph. Baluze^ and Gtrk. mm 

cing several Questions, which are treated of Mastrichtj Arnheim, 1678, 8vo. [Numer- 

in one or more chapters. This part properly ous errors and mistakes having been diteor- 

contains the rules and principles of proceed- ered in the Decretum of Gratian, on which 

ing in the ecclesiastical courts in all the va- Augustinus wrote a treatise, it was subjeet- 

rieties of causes that occur. The third part ed to a careful revision by order of the court 

is much shorter than either of the precedmg. of Rome, and then pubuahed with all the 

It is divided into jive Distinctiones ; and corrections that could be ascertained, by an* 

treats of the consecration of churchet, wor- thorityof Gregory XIII., A.D. 1580.<— TV.] 



Mcredy and still retains that high authority which it unreasonably acquired 
in that iterate and barbarous age.(10) 

§ 7. All the Latins who wished to rank among learned men, eagerly 
studied philosophy. Most people by the middle of the century divided pki- 
lotophy^ taking the word in its broadest sense, into iheoreticdl^practicd^mfi^ 
ekanical^ and logicaL Under theoretical philosophy was comprehended 
theology f in that form in which it is pursued under the guidance of reason, 
that is, natural theology, also mathematics and physics. To practical phi- 
losophy belonged ethics^ economics^ and politics. Mechanical philosophy 
embraced the seven arts of common life, including navigation, agriculture, 
and hunting. Logic they divided into grammoTy and the art of reasoning ; 
and the latter they subdivided into rhetoric^ dialectics^ and sophistics. Un- 
dor the head of dialecticSf they included that branch of metaphysics which 
treats of general ideas. This distribution of the sciences was generally 
approved ; yet some wished to separate mechanics and grammar from phi- 
losophy, but others opposed this, because they would have all science to 
be included under the name of philosophy. (20) 

6 6. But the teachers of these several branches of philosophy, were 
split into various parties or sects, which had fierce contests with each oth- 
er.(21) In the first place, there was a threefold method of teaching phi. 
losophy. ^I.) The old and simple method, which did not go beyond ^or- 
phyry and we Dialectics ascribed to St. Augustine, and which advised that 
few persons should study philosophy, lest divine wisdom should become 
adulterated with human subtilties. (II.) The Aristotelian, which explained 
and elucidated the works of Aristotle. For Latin translations of some of 
the books of Aristotle were now in the hands of the learned ;(22) thoueh 
these translations were rude, obscure, and ambiguous, so that those who 
used them in teaching often fell into strange incongruities and absurdities. 

(19) See Oerk. mn MMttrieki, Hktoria (31) See Goiofr. de S, Vietorg, Poem 

Juris ecclesiastici, ^ S93, p. 8S5, end Juit, on the eects of philoeopbers in this age ; 

Senn. Bbkmer, Jos. eccles. Proteetant., torn, pobliabed by WtUmm U Boiuf, "Dist. rax 

L, p. 100, Scc-t ind especiallj his Preface to rhistoire eccles. et civile de Paris, torn, ii., 

his new edition of the Corpus Juris Canon* p. 864, dec. Bmday, Historia Acad. Puis., 

id, Halle, 1747, 4to. AUxand, Mackiavel^ torn, ii., p. 663, dec. Ant. Wood, Antiqnit. 

Observationes ad Sigonii Histor. Bononi- Ozonienses, torn, i., p. 61. John of Salis- 

ensem, torn, iii., 0pp. Sigonii, p. 138, dec. bury, Metalogicum,anidPoIicraticon, passim. 

He hoe adduces many new things respect- (33) Robert de Monte, Appendix ad Si" 

ing GrUian and his labours, from a Teiy gAertem (^mblacensem; published bj Imc, 

ancient Kalendaiium Aichigymnasii Bonon- Vachery, subjoined to the 0pp. Guiberti de 

iensis : bnt these statements are much qnes- Nofigento, ad ann. 1 138, p. 763. Jacobus 

tkmed. Nor has that £uiious Kalendaiiam Clericus de Venecia tianstulit de (^eco in 

yet been pnWished of which the Bolognians Latmum qooedam Ubros Aiistotelis et coo»- 

teU us so modi, and of which they have r»- mentatus est, scilicet Topics, Analyt. pci* 

peatedly promiwd to give the w(nld a eooy ores et posteriores et Elenchos. (^oamvis 

and thus end controveny respecting it. This antiquior translatio super eosdem libros ha 

fiict increases suspicion. And if I do not beretur. Thof/nioe Btcket, Epistohur., Ub. ii., 

misjudffe, the fragments of the Kalendarium ep. zciiL, p. 464, ed. Bruzell., 1683, 4to. 

which nave been published, bear manifest Itero preces, quatenus libros Arutotelis, 

marks ofpioos fraud. quos habetis, mmi faciatis ezcribL — Plrecor 

(30) Tmm atatements we have derired etiam iterata supplicatione, quatenus in 

from serenl sources, but especial^ from Operibos Aristoteus, ubi difficihora fuerint, 

Hugo of St Victor, Didascal., lib. Ll, cuv notohs frciatis, eo oood intemretem aliqua- 

ii., p. 7, dec., 0pp., tom. i, and from the tenus suspectum habeo, <|Qia licet eloquens 

Metalogicumof Jokn of Salisbniy in Yarious ftierit alias, ut saepe audivi, minus tamen fuil 

in Grxammatica institntns. 


(III.) The free method, by which men attempted to investigate latent tnKh 
by their own ingenuity, aided however by the precepts of AristoUe and 
Jrlato. But those who pursued this method, commendable as it may be ia 
itself, for the most part misemployed their ingenuity and wearied them* 
selves and their disciples with idle questions and distinctions. (28) Tliese 
various opinions, contests, and defects of the philosophizers, induced many 
to hold all philosophy in contempt, and to wish to banish it from the schools 
§ 9. But none disputed more subtilely, or contended more fiercely, than 
the Dialecticians ; who being occupied exclusively with wdversals as they 
were called, or general ideas, confined their whole science to this one rabL 
ject, and explained it in different ways.(24) There were at this time two 
))rincipal sects among them, ReaHsU and NaminaUstSf each of which wait 
subdivided into several minor parties. The Nominalists of this age wen 
indeed inferior in numbers and in authority to the Realists ; yet tl^ wete 
not without followers. To these was added a third sect, Uiat of thie For- 
malisls ; which in a sense took middle ground between the disputiuits. 
But they really did no good, for they cast no light on the subject, and them* 
fore only fiimished new matter for controversy.(25) Tliose devoted to 
the study of the medical art, to astronomy, mathematics, and the kindbred 
sciences, continued to repair to the schools of the Saracens in Spain s and 
many books of the Arabians were translated into Latin.(26) For the high 

(23) See John of Salisbury, Policraticon, of the Formalist!. See also John of Sali»- 
p. 434, dec., and Metalogicum, p. 814, dLC., burj's Metalogicum, lib. ii., c. xrii., p. S14^ 
and others. &c., where he recounts the contests of theae 

(24) John of Salisburv, an elegant writer sects. Alius (says he among other things) 
of this centuiT, pleasantly says in his Poll- consistit in voctbus, licet haec opinio enm 
craticon sen de nugis cuhalium, hb. vii., p. Roscelino suo fere jam evanuerit ; alios mt- 
451. ** He (the philosopher) is prepared to monet intuetor ; alius versatur inUlleetibmit 
iolve the old question about genera and spe- 6lc. 

cies ; and while he is labouring upon it, the (26) Gerhard of Cremona, a celebrated 

uniTerse becomes old ; more time is con- Italian astronomer and physician, removed 

Bumed upon it, than the Cssars spent in to Toledo in Spain, and there transiated 

conquering and subduing the worid ; more many Arabic books into Latin. See Mmrih 

money is expended, than all the wealth which ton, Antiq. Italicae medii acTi, torn. iiL, n. 

Croesus ever ponssessed. For this sinzle 936, 937. Peter Mirmett a French moni, 

subject has occupied many, so lon^r, that after went among the Saracens in Spain and Af' 

consuming their whole lives upon it they have rica to learn geography. See Juu. Dachery, 

not understood either that or any thing else.** Spicileg. veter. scnptor., torn, iz., p. 4^ 

(25) John of Salisbury, Policrat., ub. vii., old ed. Dan. MerUy or Morlach, an Eng- 
p. 451, 452. *' Some (the Formalists) with lishman fond of mathematics, went to Tole- 
the mathematicians, abstract the forms of do in Spain, and thence brought away to fail 
things ; and to them refer whatever is said own country many Arabic books. SeeAnL 
about universals. Others (the Realists) ex- Wood's Antiq. (>xonienses, torn. i.» P- M» 
amine men*s sensations of objects ; and dec. Peter the venerable, abbot of Cragni, 
maintain that these go by the name of uni- went into Spain, and havinc learned ths 
versals. There were also some (the Nom- Arabian languase, translated mto Latin Ae 
inalists) who held that words constitute the Koran and a life of Mohammed. See Jo. 
genera and species ; but their opinion is now MahilUm, Annales Benedict., torn, vi., Vh. 
exploded, and with the authors of it, has die- Ixzvii., p. 845. And this Peter (as he htm- 
appeared. Yet there are still some treading self tells us, Diblioth Cluniacens., p. 1 109) 
in their steps, (though they blush to own found in Spain on the Ebro, Robert Reteo- 
their master and his opinions), and adhering ensis an Enfflishman, and Herman a Bakna- 
on/y to names, what they take away fipom tian, as well as others, pursuing the study of 
thinffs and from sensations they attribute to aatrology. Many other examples of the kind 
words.** — ^The sect of Formalists^ therefore, may be collected from the records of Ihu 
is more ancient than John Duns Seotus, century. — [A wholly new light haa been 
whom the letiDsdbvfSMCoiintedtiMMMr ibid on tbtae sidqecti 1^ /(MnMi, 


reputation of the Arabic learning, joined with zeal for the conversion of 
the Spanish Saracens to Christianity, indnced many to apply themselTes 
to the study of the Arabic language and literature. 



4 1. Lives of the Clergy.—^ 3. EfibrU of the Pontiffs to aggrandize themselves. The 
Contest respecting Investitures. — ^ 3, 4, 6. Its Progress.-H^ 6. Compromise between 
the Pontiff and the Emperor. — ^ 7. Two Popes : Anacletos and Innocent. — ^ 8. Tho 
other Pontiffs of this Century.—^ 9. Renewal of the Contest under Hadrian IV. and 
Frederic Barbarossa. — ^ 10, 11. ContesU in the Election of Pontifls. — ^ 12. Contest 
of Alexander III. with Henry II. — ^ 13. Alexander advances the Roman See by various 
Arts. — ^ 14. His Successors. — ^ 15, 16. The rest of the Clergy ukl their Vices.^ 
4 17. Contentions between the Cistercians and Cluniacensians. — ^ 18. Lives of the 
Canons. — ^ 19. New Monastic Orders. — ^ 20. I^monstratcnsians.-—^ 21. Carmelites. 
— ^ 22. The Greek Writers.—^ 23. The Latin Writers. 

§ 1. Wherever we turn our eyes, we discover traces of the dishonesty, 
ignorance, luxury, and other vices, with which both the church and the 
state were contaminated, by those who wished to be regarded as presidmg 
over and taking the lead in all religious matters. If we except a few in- 
dividuals, who were of a better character and who lamented the profligacy 
and vices of their order, all of them disregarding the salvation of the peo- 
ple, were intent on following their base propensities, increasing their 
wealth and honours, encroaching and trampling upon the rights of sover- 
eigns and magistrates, and living in luxury and splendour. Such as wish 
to investigate this subject, may consult Bemhard^s five Books of Medita- 
tions addressed to the pontiff Eugene, and his Apology addressed to the 
abbot William ; in the first of which works, he censures and deplores the 
shameful conduct of the pontiffs and bishops, and in the last, the base lives 
of the monks.(l) 

ches critiques sur Tage et Torigine des trm- speaking the boldest truths, advised him to 

dnctions Latines d^Aristote, et sur des com- nd himself of his notorious sins, particularly 

mentaires Grecs on Arabes employes par his pntff, ovaries, and vo/upfu(m«neM, which 

des Docteurs Scholastiques, Paris, 1819. he called the king's three favourite daugh- 

Gieteltr** Text-book by Citiiiini^A«fii, voL ters. You cowMtl well, replied Richard, 

a., p. 321, note 2. — TV.] and I hereby dispose of the first to the Ten^ 

(1) GerhohuSi de corrupto eccIesisB statu ; plars^ of the second to the Benedictines, and 

in Baluze, Miscellanea, tom. v., p. 88, dec. of tks third to my prelates,** Such a sar- 

Gmllia Christiana, tom. i., p. 6. Append., casm from a monarch, shows the notorie^ 

tom. ii., p. 265, 273, du. Boulay, Historia of clerical vice, as well as the peculiar di- 

Acad. Paris., tom. ii., p. 480, 690, dec., rection it took in the principal classes of 

where he treats at large of the morals of the clerical persons. In the preceding chapter, 

ecclesiastics and ccenobites. [Hums^ (His- A.D. 1 189, Mr. Hume says : " We are told 

tory of Eng., ch. x., A.D. 1189), says of by Oirtddus Cambrensis (cap. v., in Anglia 

Richard I. ung of England, when aboat to Sacra, vol. ii.), that the monks and prior of 

enter on his cmsade to Palestine, that he St. Swithon threw themselves one day pros- 

** carried so little the appearance of sanctity trate on the ground and in the mire, before 

in his conduct, that Fulk curate of Neuilly, Henry TI., complaining with many tears and 

a zealous preacher of the cmsade who from much doleful lamentation, that the bishop 

that merit had acquired the privilege of of Winchester who was also their abbot, had 

Vol. II.— F p 


^ 2. The Roman pontifis at the head of the Latin church, laboured du- 
ring the whole century, though not all with equal success, to retain the 
possessions and authority they had acquired, and likewise to extend them 
still farther ; while on the contrary, the emperors and kings exerted thmn- 
selves to the utmost, to diminish their opulence and their power. Hence 
arose perpetual jarring and warfare between the empire and the priesthood^ 
(as it was then expressed), which were a source of great public calamity. 
Pascal II., who was created pontiff at the close of the preceding centuiyi 
reigned securely at the commencement of this ; nor was the opposing fiic* 
tion that sided with the emperors, sufficiently powerful to fix an imperial 
pontiff in the chair of the deceased Gtiihert,(2) Pascal therefore in a 
council at Rome A.D. 1102, renewed the decrees of his predecessors 
against investitures, excommunicated Henry IV. anew, and stirred up ene- 
mies against him wherever he could. Henry resolutely withstood these 
menaces and machinations : but two years after, A.D. 1104, his own son 
Henry V. took up arms against his father, under pretence of religion ; and 
now all was over. For after an unsuccessful campaign, he was compelled 
by his son to abdicate the throne, and died friendless and forsaken at 
Liege, A.D. 1106. Whether the son was induced to engage in this war 
with his father by his ambition of reigning, or by the instigation of tlko 
pontiff, does not appear. But it is certain that Pascal absolved the son 
from his oath of obedience to his father, and very zealously supported and 
defended his cause. (3) 

§ 3. But this political revolution was far from answering the expecta- 
tions of Pascal. For Henry V. could by no means be induced to give iro 
the right of investing bishops and abbots, although he conceded to the cot 
leges of canons and monks the power of electing them. Hence the ponti^ 
in the councils of Guastalla in Italy and Troyes in France, A.D. 1107, 
renewed the decrees which had been enacted against investitures. The 
controversy was now suspended for a few years ; because Henry was so 
occupied with his wars tliat he had no leisure to pursue it. But when his 
wars were closed, A.D. 1110, he marched with a large army into Italy, to 
settle this protracted and pernicious controversy at Rome. As he ad- 
vanced slowly towards Rome, the pontiff finding himself destitute of aH 
succour, offered to compromise with him on these conditions ; that the king 
should relinquish the investiture with the staff and the ring, and that the 
bishops and abbots should restore to the emperor the royal benefices (ben- 

cut off three dishes from their table. How ier IV. for pope ; bat he was obliged tm 

many has he left you 1 said the king. Ten leave Rome, and died shortly after. .Thni 

<m/y, replied the disconsolate monks. I my- Pascal was soon left in quiet possession of 

self, exclaimed the king, never have more St. Peter's chair. See Botper^s Lives of 

than three ; and I enjoin your bishop to re- the Popes, vol. v., p. 350, ed. Lond., 1761, 

duce you to the same number." — Tr.] — TV.] 

(2) [On the death of Guihert or Clement (3) We have here consulted, in tdditioB 

III., the antipope, A.D. 1100, his friends to the ori^nal sources, those excellent bift- 

chosc one Albert for his successor. But he torians, whom we mentioned in the prece- 

was taken the very day of his election, and ding century. [See note (7), p. 156.— -^er* 

confined by Pascal in the monastery of St. maun de Toumay (Narratio, &c., in Daekt' 

Lawrence. Theodoric was next chosen in ry^s Spicileg., tom. ii., p. 914) states, tiat 

his place ; who also fell into Pascal's hands tne pontiff wrote a letter to young Henry^ 

105 days after his election, and was shut up criminating his lather, and exhorting bim io 

in the monastery of Cava. The friends of aid the church against him.— Tr.] 
Guibert then cboM Magrirndph or SylvU" 


eficia regalia) which they had received since the times of CharUmagne^ 
namely, the power of levying tribute, holding lordships, coining money, 
and the like. Henry V. acceded to these terms in the year 1111 ; but 
the bishops both of Italy and Grermany, vigorously opposed them. A vio. 
lent conflict having taken place, in the very church of St. Peter at Romet 
Henry caused the pontiff to be seized and conducted as a prisoner to the 
castle of Viterbo. When he had lain there some time, a new convention 
was formed as was unavoidable, in which the pontiff conceded to the king 
the right of giving investiture to bishops and abbots with the staff and 
ring. Thus peace being concluded, the pontiff placed the imperial diadem 
upon the head of Henry. (^) 

§ 4. This peace, which was extorted by force and arms, was followed 
by greater commotions and more painful conflicts. In the first place, vio- 
lent tumults were raised at Rome against the pontiff; who was acpused 
of betraying the interests of the church, and of basely shnnking from his 
duty. To quiet these tumults, Pas^ assembled a council in the Lateran 
palace A.D. 1112 ; and before that coimcil, he humbly confessed his feult 
in forming such a convention with the emperor, and submitted the matter 
to the pleasure of the council. The council rescinded the compact formed 
with the emperor. (5) After this, in various synods and councils both of 
France and Germany, Henry was excluded from communion ; and was 
even classed among the heretics, than which notliing at that day was more to 
be dreaded.(6) The pririfces of Grermany likewise made war upon him, in 
several places, in behalf of the church. To bring these many and great 
evils to a termination, Henry again marched an army into Italy in the year 
1116, and held a convention at Rome A.D. 1117, the pontiff having cs- 
caped by flight to Benevento. But the Normans came to the aid of the 
pontiff, and Pascal boldly prepared for war against the emperor, and made 
preparations for an assault upon the city Rome. Important events were 
now anticipated, when the pontiff closed his life in the year 1116. 

§ 5. A few days afler the death of Pascal^ John Cajetan, another Ben. 
edictine monk from the monastery of Monte Cassino, and chancellor of the 
Romish church, was created pontiff and assumed the name of Gelasius II. 
In opposition to him Henry set up another pontiff, Maurice Burdin arch- 
bishop of Braga in Spain, who chose the name of Gregory VIII.(7) Ge- 
lasius therefore, finding himself not safe at Rome or in Italy, retired into 
France, and there died soon afler at Clugni. The cardinals who had ac- 
companied him, as soon as he was dead, elected Gvido archbishop of Vi- 
enne, count of Burgundy and a relative of the emperor, for sovereign pon- 
tiff; and he took the name of CdHxhu II. It was fortunate both for the 
church and the state, that this man was made head of the church. A 
man of noble birth and of elevated views, he prosecuted the contest with 

(4) Besides the writers slreadj mention- coimcil to be his superior. The comicil 
•d, Jo. MabUloTij Annates Benedict., torn, also disapproTed of the acts of the pontiff. 
T., p. 681, and torn, vi., p. 1, desenresto be (6) SeeJae. Genaise, Diss, sor Pneresie 
consulted ; and likewise on each of the des Investitures ; which is the fourth of 
jeazB of Uiese and the subsequent transac- those he has prefixed to the History of the 
tioDs. Abbot SugeTf p. lix. 

(5) Here again this pontifi; like Gregory (7) See SUph. Ba/uxe,yiuMauritiiBur- 
YU. in the Berengarian controrersy, placed dini : in his Miscellanea, torn, iii., p. 471, 
Ins authority in subordination to the de- dtc. 

ciMis of a council, or acknowledgod t 


the emperor with do less vigour than success, both by decrees of o 
and by other tneaDs ; reduced Rome under his power, took the emperor^ 
poDttlf prisoner, and cast him into prison, and fomented civil wars in Gar> 
many. At the same timCf possessing more liberal views than his prede> 
ccssors in the papal chairtand having no obstinocy of character, he did not 
reject moderate counsels, and could relax something of the demands of )ui 
predecessors, for the sake of restoring peace now so ardently desired.(S) 

§ 6. Thus atlor multiplied efforts, contests, excommunications, and 
threats, peace was ratified between the pontiff's legates and the emperor, 
in the diet of Worms A.D. 1132, on the following conditions j that heie> 
al^er bishops and abbots should he freely chosen by those whose right it 
was to elect, but in the presence of the emperor or of his representk 
tivo ;(9) that if tho electors disagreed among ihcmselvea, the emperor 
should interpose, and using bishops as his counsellors should end the oo^ 
test ; tlmt the person elected should take the oath of loyally to tba enqer- 
or, receive what were called the regafia from his hand, and perform tte 
duties due to him on account of them ; and that the emperor should use a 
different mode of conferring the regalia from that before practised, and 
should no longer confer human prerogatives by the itaff and the riag, 
which were the emblems of sacred or divine power, but by a sccptrc.(lO) 
This Concordat as it is commonly called, was solemnly confirmed the next 
year, in the Latcron council ; and it continues in force to our times, al- 
though there has been some dispute between ihe^ontilFs and the cmperon 
respecting its true import.(ll) 

^ 7. CaUxtua did not long survive this pacification, for be died A.D. 
1124. His place was filled by Lambert bishop of Ostio, known among 
the pontiffs by the name of Hoaoriw II. Nothing memorable was dcme 
by him. At his death A.D. 1130, there was a schism in the church of 
Rome ; for a part of the cardinals chose Gregory the cardinal of St. An- 
gelo, whose pontifical name was Iimoceni II,, but another part of them 
created Peter de Leon pontiff, who was called Anadetaa II. The party 
of Innocent was the weaker one at Rome and in Italy ; he therefore fled 
into France, and remained there two years. But he had the strongest 
parly out of Italy; for besides the emperor ZolAon'iu, the kings of Frutc^ 
England, and Spain, and some others, induced especially by the influence 
of SL Barnard the particular friend of Innocent, joined themselves to hi> 

(8) If t do not greuly miijiidge, (hit dd- (S) From tbis timo thenfsre, tlM lut* B 

hippj conlcsL bclwecn Ihc empcion md iho QemuDy have been eiclniled from ibc dac- 

pomiffs rcspeetina iho imeitiluie ofbi.bop* lion of bishops. See Ptta ie JUarea, ilk 

and abbots, would aol h»TB been carried on Concordia Mcerdotii et imperii, lib. Ti,,r,ii,, 

with BO mtjch aBpariijF mn bate been pro- J 9, p. 783, ed. BetKintn. 

tracted BO loiifc, if mec of libera] views and (10) Sm Jlfurolon, Antiquit. IlaL madit 

education had beenal the head of the church. Bvi, lorn. Yi.,n. 7C. Jo. S(4i((«n«, do lib«i« 

But during half ■ centuij, fiis monies bad tate fcc1«s. Gcnnan., lib. it., c. it., p. MS, 

governed the church— men bom in obicuii- &c. Cat. Aupmiu, de Baailicm I^Unt- 

tj, of coanB manner*, and incapabit of jield- onai, lib. iv., p. 395, tec. 

iog >t all, that i>, posaeiaing the character- (11) It wa« conlested amongolbor thii» 

iMic fault of monk*, an infleiibls obithiaey whether the coniecration ahonld pneada or 

and peninacitjr. Dut aa aoon as a man of follow the collation of the Tfgatia. Sn J*. 

a better character and of ■ liberal mind as- HJ Ho/mam, ad Concordalmn Hemici T. 

cended the chair of St. Peter, thing* aa- et Calliati II., Wittemb., 1739, 4lo. 
aumed a diSereBt a^ect and there waa a 


party ; while Anacleius had for supporters only the kings of Sicily and 
Scotknd. The schism was terminated by the death of Anacktuif AJ)* 
1138 ; after which Lmocent reigned alone till the year 1143, and celebrau 
ted several councils, among which was the second Lateran A.D. 1139.(12) 

§ 8. After the death of Jitnocen/, Guido cardiiyal of St. Mark, under the 
name of Ccelestine II., reigned during five months, in peace. His succes- 
sor Lucius U., who formerly was Gerhard a regular ccmon, governed the 
church during eleven months, but not prosperously. For he was disturbed 
in various ways, by the tumultuous Romans ; and in attempting to quell 
one of their insurrections, he was killed by the stroke of a stone. His 
successor Eugenius III., formerly Bemhard a Cistercian mook, and a very 
distinguished disciple of the celebrated St. Bemhard abbot of Clairvaux, 
came to the government of the church A.D. 1145, and during nine years 
encountered similar troubles and dangers, until his death 1158. For he 
was repeatedly driven from Rome, and at one time passed a kmg exile in 
France.(13) Anasiatms IV., previously Conrad bishop of Sabino, had a 
more tranquil reign ; but it was of short duration, for he died A.D. 1164» 
after filling the chair one year and four months. 

§ 9. Under his successor Hadrian IV., who was an Englishman and a 
regular canon, whose true name was Nicholas Breakspear, the contentions 
between the emperors and the Roman pontiffs which were apparently set- 
tled in the times of CaHxtus II. broke out anew. Frederic I. sumamed 
Barharossa [Red-beard], as soon as he was chosen emperor A.D. 1152, 
explicitly declared his intention to maintain the imperatorial authority and 
prerogatives throughout the empire, and especially in Italy, and to set 
bounds to the immense power and wealth of the pontiffs and of the clergy 
at large. Hadrian in view of this emergency, concluded it to be his duty 
to defend the authority and majesty of the church. Hence when the em. 
peror was to be crowned, A.D. 1155, first, a contest arose respecting the 
functions of a groom, [holding the pope's stirrups, when he mounted or 
dismounted his horse], which the pontiff would have Frederic perform. 
Then followed other disputes and controversies between them, in relation 
to public matters, which were fierooly agitated by letters. These contests 
being in a measure settled, others followed of equal magnitude and diffi- 
culty, in the year 1158, when the emperor in order to set bounds to the 
daily increasing wealth of the pontiffs, the bishops, and the monks, made 
a law that no fiefs should be transferred to another person, without the 
knowledge and consent of the lord of whom they were held ;(14) and also 

(1!{) In tddition to the common historians the ancient Roman repubUe, and to reinstate 

of the popes, see Jo. de LanneSf Histoire da the Roman senate in all its ancient grandeur. 

Pontificat du Pape looocent II., Paris, 1741, Such being their object, all their moTements 

8yo. vren of course sedition against the pontifb 

(13) [These tumults at Rome originated as temporal sovereigns. See G. J. Planck's 

from a strong party of citizens, who Mlopted Geschichte d. christl. kirchl. Gesellschafts- 

the principles of ilmo^ of Brescia or Brizen, verfassung, toI. iv., p. 324, du., and the 

(see cap. t., ^ 10, below), and wished to authors referred to in note (17), chap. v. of 

shake off the joke of priestly government this century. — Tr.] 

and restore the ancient form of the Roman (14) See Muratorif Antiqoitates ItaL 

empire. After an unsuccessful application medii aevi, tom. vi., p. 239, d^., where he 

Co the emperor of Germany, desiring him to shows, that by this and other laws Frederic 

make Rome his residence and to there exer- first oppoeed t banier to the power of the 

dse the same powers as the old Roman emf clergy. 
ftTCTM had done, they determined to restore 


exerted all his powers to reduce the minor states of Italy under his author* 
ity. An open rupture seemed about to take place, when the pontiff ww 
removed by death, on the first of September, A.D. 1159.(15) 

§ 10. When a new pontiff was to be elected, the cardinals were divi- 
ded into two factions. The one which was the more numerous, created 
Roland of Sienna, pontiff; the other the less numerous, elected Octaviamu 
C€u:dinal of St. Ceecilia. Roland assumed the name of Alexander IIL : his 
competitor took that of Victor IV, The emperor who for various reasons 
disliked Alexander, gave his support to Victor. The council of Pavia, 
summoned by the emperor A.D. 1160, decided according to the emper- 
or's pleasure. Victor therefore prevailed in Germany and Italy; and 
Alexander had to quit Rome and Italy, and to retire to France. In tha 
midst of the commotion and strife, Victor died at Lucca, A.D. 1164. But 
another pontiff was immediately elected by order of the emperor, namelyt 
Guido cardinal of St. Calixtus, who assumed the name of Pascal III., ami 
who was acknowledged by the princes of Grermany in the diet of Wurtx- 
burg, A.D. 1165. Alexander however returned from France to Italy^ 
prosecuted his cause with some success, and in the Lateran council at 
Home A.D. 1167, deposed the emperor whom he had before repeatedly 
excommunicated, and absolved his subjects from their oath of allegiance to 
him. But not long afler Rome was taken by the emperor, and Alexander 
was obliged to flee to Benevento and leave the chair of St. Peter in the 
hands of Pascal, 

§ 11. The prospects of Alexander seemed to brighten up, when the 
emperor, after losing the greater part of his army by a pestilential disease, 
was obliged against his inclinations to retire from Italy, and when Pascal 
was removed by death, A.D. 1168. But his expectations were soon dis- 
appointed. For the opposite faction elected John abbot of Struma pontiff, 
with the title of CaHxtiu III., and the emperor, though absent in Germany 
and occupied with various wars and contests, supported the new pontiff as 
far as he was able. And after settling a degree of peace in Germany, 
A.D. 1174, the emperor marched again into Italy with a fine army, in- 
tending to chastise the cities and republics which had revolted from him. 
And if success had attended this expediiion of the emperor, he would 
doubtless have compelled Alexander to give place to Calixtus. But he 
met with disappointments and reverses ; and after several years spent in 
alternate defeats and partial victories, being discouraged by so many de- 
feats and difficulties, he concluded a peace with Alexander III. and a truce 
with his other enemies, at Venice in the year 1177.(16) Some tell us 
that the pontiff, placing his foot upon the neck of the suppliant emperor, 
repeated the words of David, Ps. xci., 13. [" Thou shall tread upon ike 
lion, and the adder, ^' &c.] But most of the moderns consider the report 
as entirely unsupported. (17) 

(15) These events arc carefully investiga- Ant. Muratorif Antiqq. Ital. medii avi, torn, 
ted by the illustrioas count BitnaUt History iv., p. 249, &c. Ohgines Guelphicm, torn, 
of Frederic I., written in German, p. 46, 49, ii., p. 379, 6ce. Acta Sanctor., torn, i.,' Apr., 
73, &c.y 99, 105, &c. p. 46, m the Life of Hugo abhot of Bonne^ 

(16) These transactions are well illustra- val ; and torn, ii., April., p. 696, in the Life 
ted by count Biinau, in his History of Fred* of Galdinus of Milan ; which two eccleaias- 
eric I., p. 115-242. To which add Fortvk- tics acted as arbiters and legates in negoti* 
natu^ Olmi, Istoria della venuta a Venetia ating this peace. 

occultamente nel an. 1177, di Papa Ales- (17) See Buiutu** Life of Frederic I., p. 
nndio UL, Venice, 16S9, 4to, and Lud, S43. Char. Aug. Hiumann, Poeciles, ton. 


J 12. AUxcmder HI., whose conflict with Frederic I. procured him fiune, 
also no slight contention with Henry H. king of England, in the case 
of Thomas Bedcel archbishop of Canterbury. In the council of Clarendon 

A.D. 1164, several regulations were enacted, by which the extent of the 
regal power in respect to the clergy was more accurately defined, and the 
prerogatives of the bishops and clergy were circumscribed within narrower 
iimits.(18) Thomas refused to submit to these regulations, because in his 

iii., lib. i., p. 145. Biblioth. Italique, torn. 5. Excommunicated persons ought not to 

vi., p. 5, 16 : and the writers mentioned bj give bonds to remain [where they are], nor 

Carp. SagUtarmSj Introd. in Historiam Eo- to promise by oath [to do so], but only to 

cies., torn, i., p. 630 ; torn, ii., p. 600. give bonds or a pledge to abide by the deci- 

(18) See matth. Paris, Historia major., aion of the church, that they may be absolved. 

p. 82, 83, 101, 102, 104. Dav. WilkinM, -^drndenuud. 

Concilia magms Britannis, torn, i., p. 434, 6. Laymen ought not to be accused, ex- 
Ac. [These articles of Clarendon, or eon- cept by certain and legal accusers and wit- 
MtUutions as ther are called, were drawn up nesses in presence of the bishop : (yet so 
by the king, and ratified in a full assembly that the archdeacon may not lose his right, 
of the great lords, barons, and prelates of nor any thing accruing to him thereby.) And 
the nation. The civilians yielded a ready if the characters inculpated are such, that 
aaeent to them ; and most of the prelates no one dares or is willing to accuse them, 
were disposed to do the same. But Becket the sheriff, at the bishop's instance, shall 
long refused, and at last very reluctantly causes twelve lawful men of the vicinage or 
■ubsciibed to them. And of this compliance the villace, to swear before the bishop that 
he afterwards repented, and obtained abso- they wiU discover the truth, according to 
lution from the pontiff; who at the same their conscience. — Tolerated. 
time disapproved most of the articles, and 7. No one who holds of the king in capite, 
pronounced them null and void. The arti- nor any one of the barons his servants, shall 
des, as exhibited in HarimiCs Concilia, be excommunicated, nor the lands of any 
tom. vi., pt. ii., p. 1607, du:., with the papal one of them be laid under an interdict, till 
approbation or disapprobation subjoined to application has been made to our lord the 
each, are as follows : king if he is within the realm, or to his jus- 

1. If any controversy respecting an ad- ticiary if he be out of it, that he may see 
Towson and ri^t of presentation to church- justice done : and so that what belongs to 
es, shall arise between laymen, or between the king's court, may be there decided, and 
clergymen and laymen, or between clergy- whatever belongs to the ecclesiastical court, 
men only, it shall be tried and determined may be remitt^ to it for decision. — Con^ 
in the court of our lord the king. — Coti- demned. 

denuud by the pontiff. 8. Appeals, should they be made, ought to 

2. Churches belonging to a fief of our be from the archdeacon to the bishop, and 
lord the king, cannot be conferred in perpe- from the bishop to the archbishop ; and if 
tuity, without his consent and approbation, the archbishop should fail to do justice, ro- 
-^ToUrated by the pontiff. currence should be had lastly, to our lord the 

3. Clergymen cited and accused of any king, that so the controversy may be termi- 
matter, on notification by the king's justici- nated in the archbishop*s court by a precept 
ary, must appear in his court, and answer from the king, and so that it go no farther 
there to whatever the king's court shall re- without the king's consent. — Condemned. 
quire him to answer. So also whatever the 9. If a challenge arise between a clerk and 
king's justiciary shall send in to the court of a layman, or vice versa, concerning any teno- 
the holy church, to see how it is there treat- ment, which the clergyman would have to 
cd. And if a clergyman shall be convicted be an eleemosynary, and the layman a lay 
or shall confess guilt, the church must no fee, it shall bo determined by the award of 
longer protect him. — Condemned, twelve lawful men, before the king's justici- 

4. It shall not be lawful for archbishops, ary, whether the tenement be an eleemosy- 
bishops, or parsons, to go out of the kingdom nary or a lay fee. If the award be that it is 
wiUiout license from our lord the king. And eleemosynary, the plea shall be in the ec- 
if they go out, and our lord the king see fit, clesiastical court : but if a lay fee, then, 
they shall give security that they will not, unless both claim tenure under the same 
while going, while absent, or while return- bishop or baron, the plea shall be in the 
ing, bring any evil or damage to our lord the king's court ; but if bom claim to hold of the 
king or to tlie realm.— CoiufMiiici2. same bishop or binm, the plea shall be in hie 


opinion they were prejudicial to the divine rights both of the church at 

large and of the Roman pontifis. Enmity now took place between the 
king and the archbishop ; and the latter fled into France to Alexander ULt 

who was then an exile there. The pontiff and the king of France pro- 
cured a sort of reconciliation, and Thomas returned to England. But as 

no means could induce him to yield to the wishes of the kingy four of the 
courtiersy doubtless with the king's privity, assassinated him in the church 
before the altar, in the year 1170.(19) The king, after various alterca- 

court ; but so that the par^ which before deacons oueht to enforce justice [by their 

had seisin, shall not lose his leisin on ao-> eccleeiasticu decisions], so that satisfactmi 

count of the avraid voMde.'^Condemned. may be made to the lord the king. — Toter- 

10. WboeTer belongs to any royal city, ated. 

castle, borouflfa, or manor of the king, if ci- 14. The chattels of those found guilty of 

ted by the arradeaeon or bishop for any crime high crimes in the king^s courts, (qui sunt in 

for which he is amenable to them, if he will regis forisfacto), are not to be retained in any 

not make satisfaction upon their summons, church or churchyard, to the obetmctkm of 

they may indeed place him under an inter- justice to the king ; because thoee chatteh 

diet ; but they may not proceed to excom- belong to the king, whether they are foond 

municate him, till applicatioo has been made in churches or out of i\kem.^ToUrmi€i, 

to the king^s chief officer of the village, that 16. Pleas of debt are to be made in tfio 

he may by law bring him to make satisfac- king's court, whether due upon contraet or 

tion. And if the king's officer fail in his not. — Condemned. 

duty, he shall lie at the king's mercy, and 16. The sons of tenants in viUanage, are 

thenceforward the bishop may coerce the ac- not to be ordained without the consent of the 

cused according to ecclesiastical law. — Con- lord on whose manor they are found to have 

demrud. been bom. — Tolerated. 

11. Archbishops, bishops, and all parsons See GiUhrie^s General History of Eng- 
of the realm, who hold of the king in capite, land, vol. i., p. 509, and Harduin^s Concilia, 
are to look on their possessions as baronies torn, vi., pt. ii., p. 1607, dec. — Tr.'] 

from the king; and therefore arc to be re- (19) Chiil. Stephanides, Histona Thomao 
sponsible to the king's justiciaries and offi- Cantuariensis, in Tlio. Spark^g Scriptores ra- 
cers, and are to follow and perform all the rum Anglicar., London, 1723, fol., p. 4. 
customs and duties prescribed by the king ; Christ. lAipus, Epistolae et Vita Thanut 
and like other barons, they ought to be pres- Cantuar. Epistolae item Alexandri III., Lth 
ent as other barons arc at the trials in the dovici VII., Henrici II., in hac causa, ez 
king's court, till the proceeding come to re- MS. Vaticano, Bruxellis, 1682, 2 vols. 4to, 
late to deprivation of life or of limbs. — Tol- and in the Works of Lvpiis. Natalis AU 
erated. exander, Selecta Historiae eccles. capita, 

12. When an archbishopric, bishopric, ab- saec. xii.. Diss, x., p. 833, &c. Thonuu 
bacy, or priory, of the king's demesnes, be- Stapleton, Tres Thomae, seu res gestae 
comes vacant, it ought to be in his hands ; Thomae Apostoli, S. Thomae Cantuarien- 
and he shall receive all its rents and issues, sis, et Thomae Mori, Colon., 1612, 8vo.— 
pst as of his demesnes ; and when the church [Tkonuu was the son of a London merchant, 
18 to be provided for, the king is to send his and educated at Oxford and Paris. Having 
mandate to the chief parsons of the church, entered into the service of Theobald arch- 
and the election is to be made in his chapel, bishop of Canterbury, he was sent to Bolog- 
with his assent, and by advice of the king's na to study canon law. On his return, he 
parsons, whom he shall call together for that was made archdeacon of Canterbury ; and 
purpose. And the person elected, before he not long after, the king called him to court 
is consecrated, shall there do homage and feal- and msSe him lord chancellor of England, 
ty to the king as to his liege lord, for his life On the death of Theobald^ A.D. 1162, the 
and limbs and earthly honour, saving how- king made him archbishop of Canterbury, 
ever the honour of his order. — Condemned, While chancellor he had served the king with 

13. If any one of the great men of the great ability, and lived in great splendour, 
kingdom shaJl refuse justice to an archbish- But he now assumed an austere mode of 
op, a bishop, or an archdeacon, in regard to life, and became a strenuous defender of the 
himself or those that belong to him, the king pretended rights of the church, and a rigid 
is to enforce justice. And if it should hap- disciplinarian. To restrain the usurpations 
pen, that any one wrongs the king of his of the clergy, the king caused the constitu- 
lighta, the arcbbitbopsy cnr bishops and arch- tions of ClaroodoD to be enacted. Againal 


tions, had to make suoh exjuations for this crime as the pontiff dictated ; 
and in the year 1173» the assassinated Thomas, was enrolled among the 
martyrs or the glorified saints of the highest order.(20) 

§ 13. Alexcmder UI. employed not only arms but also art and the uu 
fluence of councils and laws, to establish the independence of the church, 
and especially to confirm the power of the Roman pontifis. For (I.) in a 
council at Rome A.D. 1179, called the third Lateran council, in order to 
avoid the commotion so often produced by the election of a new pontifi^ he 
ordained that the right of voting should belong exclusively to the cardinals^ 
and that the person who had the votes of two thirds of the college of car- 
dinals should be considered the lemtimate pontifi*. This constitution has 
continued to the present time. Thus, from that period the election of 
pontifis assumed the forms which it still retains ; and not only the people 
out also the clergy of Rome were wholly excluded firom aw participation 
in it. (H.) In the same council, he first of all the pon^flsy sanctioned a 
crusade against heretics, who were then troubling the chnrch at large and 
especially certain provinces of France.(21) (III.) He took from bishops 

these and all other attempts of the king to king of their designs. Soon after thej were 
reform abuses, TTumuu made strenuous op- gone, the king conjectured from some cir- 
position ; and exerting his high powers as camstances and remarks of the men, what 
primate of all England, and possessing great thej intended to do ; and he sent messen- 
and shinine talents, and at the same time sup- gers after them, conmianding them not to lay 
ported by toe pope and by the king of France, hands on the primate. But the messengers 
ne was able to thwart ail the plans of king arrived too late ; the deed was done. The 
Henry. The king therefore caused him to king was now greatly distressed, and took 
be prosecuted for malconduct while chancel- erery possible means to clear himself of sus- 
lor. He was also arraigned for contempt of picion, and to pacify the pope. The assas- 
the king, and condenmed in a grand coun- sins fled to Rome, did penance, and obtain- 
cil of the nation, at Northampton, A.D. 1164. ed absolution from the pope on condition of 
Beeket now appealed to the pope, contrary perpetual exile. The King also made his 
to the laws of the realm ; and soon after fled submission to the pope ; and with much dif- 
to France. Protected by the pontiff and ficuUy, obtained absolution after some years, 
the king of France, he treated Ilenry with — See Hume's History of England, ch. viii., 
insolence. At length, through the media- vol. i., p. 322-361, ed. Philad., 1810. /Mo- 
tion of the pontiff and the kmg of France, mn ThoiraSy Hist, of Engf., and CalHer's 
Henry and oecket were so far reconciled that Eccles. Hist, of Eng., vol. i., p. 370. — The 
the latter was permitted to return to his see. works of Bccket consist of his correspondence 
But he now carried matters with a high hand, or Letters, in six Books, collected by John 
dealt out his anathemas and censures, and of Salisbury, and edited by Christian Lupus, 
resisted all attempts of the king to restrain Brussels, 1682, 4to, with a Quadrilofrus or 
the exorbitant power of the clergy. The the fourfold life of Beeket, by Herihert his 
king was then in Normandy. The archbish- chaplain, WiUiam of Canterbury, Alan abbot 
op of York, and several noblemen whom of Dcoche, and John of Salisbury. — Tr.^ 
Beeket had excommunicated, repaired to the (20) Baulay, Historia Acad. Paris., tom. 
king, complaining of the treatment they re- ii., p. 328, dec, and for his festival, p. 397. 
ceived from Beeket. The archbishop re- Dom. Colonia, Histoire litter, de la ville de 
marked to him, that so long as Beeket lived, Lyon, tom. ii., p. 249, &c. 
the king could never expect to enjoy peace (21) See Natalis Alexander, Selects Hist 
and tranquillity. The king being violently eccles. capita, saecul. xii., diss, ix., p. 819, 
agitated, burst forth into an exclamation where he treats at large of this council: 
sgainst his servants, whose want of zeal, he also Harduin^s Concilia, tom. vi., pt. ii., p. 
said, had so long left him exposed to the 1671, &c. [Dr. Maciaine is stumbled, that 
machinations of that ungrateful and imperi- Mosheim and others should call this the third 
ens prelate. Four gentlemen of his hoase- Lateran council ; when it appears, there had 
hold, overhearing the exclamation, immedi- been six or eight councils previously held 
ately formed the resolution to assassinate there. But there was no mistake made by 
Beeket. They asked leave to go to England, Mosheim. This was the third general comi- 
and set out forthwith, without appriziDg the cii of tht I^tena ; all the preceding, eac- 
VOL. n. — G G 


and councils the right of designating the persons who might be worship* ■ 
ped as saintSy or placed canonizaiion as it is called among the greater 
causes, that is, such as are to be decided solely by the pontiff. (22) (IV.) 
Omitting some things of minor importance, we add this only, that he ac- 
tually put in operation the power claimed by the pontiffs since the time of 
Gregory VII., namely, that of creating kings. For in the year IITO, he 
conferred the title of king on Alphonso I. duke of Portugal, who had pre- 
viously under Lucitis II. made his territory tributary to the church of 

§ 14. Lucius in. who was previously Ubald bishop of Ostia, was the 
first pontiff elected solely by the cardinals, according to the regulations of 
Alexander III. His reign, which commenced A.D. 1I8I, was a turbulent 
one ; for he was twice driven from Rome, by the citizens ; who undoubt- 
edly disliked a pontiff elected contrary to the ancient custom or without 
the concurrence of the clergy and people. He therefore died an exile at 
Verona, A.D. 1185. His successor, Hubert CrivelH bishop of Milan, 
known among the pontifis by the name of Urban III., died of grief on ac- 
count of the conquest of Jerusalem by Saladin, A.D. 1187, after per- 
forming nothing of much importance. (24) The next pontiff Greg&hf 
VIII., previously Albert of Benevento and chancellor of the church of 
Rome, died in the second month of his pontificate. After him Clement 
III., previously Paul bishop of Palestrina, [Praeneste, near Rome], reigned 
longer, for he continued to the fourth year, and died A.D. 1191 ; yet few 
of his deeds are worth the notice of posterity. (25) More famous was 
Coelesiine III., who before his election was Hyacinth of Rome, a cardinal 
deacon ; for in the year 1194, he laid under an interdict the emperor 
Henry VI. and Leopold duke of Austria, for having imprisoned king Rich" 
ard of England on his return from the Holy Land ; and likewise Alphonso 
X. king of Gallicia and Leon, on account of an incestuous marriage : and 
he commanded, though without effect, Philip Augustus the king of France, 
to receive back his repudiated wife Ingelburga,{26) But this pontiff and 
nearly all the others of the present century, were outdone and eclipsed by 
the pontiff elected near the end of the century, A.D. 1198, namely, Loihair 

cept two, hhYiDg been provincial councils . — Verona where he resided, would not allow 

TV.] of such a transaction in their city. See 

(22) The subjects of pontifical elections Schmidt*s Kirchengeschichte, voL vi., p. 
and canonization, were discussed under the 249, &c. — TV.] 

eleyenth century, p. 158, and notes (12) (25) [The most important of his acta was, 

(13). his compromise with the citizens of Rome, 

(23) BaronitiSf Annalea, ad ann. 1179. by which he gave the city a new form of 
Innocent III., Epistolae, lib. i., ep. 49, torn. gOTemment yet retained the supreme pow- 
i., p. 54, ed. Baluze. [It should be rcmem- er in his own hands. He therefore made 
bered, that Alexander III. only confirmed Rome the place of his residence ; whereas 
the title of king to Alphonso; it haring his three inmiediate predecessors had been 
long before been applied to him by his army, unable to reside there. See Baroniiu, An* 
and by some neignbouring princes. See nales, ad ann. 1183, No. 23. — TV.] 

Po^', Critica in Baron., ad ann. 1139, ^ 23. (26) [Though the king did not retreat 

—TV.] when the interdict was laid on him, yet aa 

(24) [He was the personal enemy of the the pope and the king of Denmark who was 
emperor Frederic I., and quarrelled with him brotner to Ingelburga, continued to prose- 
till the day of his death. But he could not cute the matter, Phili-p concluded to end the 
coerce him, because the German bishops ad- contest by restoring his queen. See Dan^ 
hered to the emperor. Once he resolved to ieVt Hist, of France, in Eng., toI. i, p. 
•zcommunicate Frediric ; but the people of 426, ^.-— TV.] 


count of Signi, a cardinal deacon, who assumed the pontifical name of In- 
nocerU III. But his reign will properly he descrihed under the following 

§ 15. Of the flagitious conduct, the frauds, the ignorance, and the cor- 
ruption of the inferior hishops, the priests, and the deacons, the whole his- 
tory of these times and the laws of the ecclesiastical councils a^rd 
ample testimony. (27) It is not strange therefore, that the monks were in 
higher repute than the secular clergy ; for being bound by their vows and 
by their respective rules of life, they had fewer opportunities of committing 
crimes. And yet these monks, who claimed pre-eminence in the church 
and despised and inveighed against both the secular clergy and the regular 
canoi»,(28) had in most places departed ei:Mrely from their institutions 
* and rules, and exhibited to the public patterns of vice and wickedness, rather 
than of virtue.(20) The Cluniaceruiatu were for a long time the best and 
most devout among the Benedictines ; but under their abbot P<mtiu^, being 
loaded with wealth and riches by the liberality of the pious, Uiey entirely 
laid aside their former strictness and copied after the base lives of the other 
Benedictines. And though some of the succeeding abbots endeavoured to 
cure the evil, their efforts fell far below their wishes and their expecta- 
tions ; nor could the primitive sanctity of Clugni ever be restored. (30) 

6 16. Among the Cistercians, who were neither so old nor so rich an 
of aer as the Cluniacensians, there was far more appearance of innocence 
and sanctity. Hence a large share of the respectability which the Cluni- 
acensians had enjoyed, was transferred to the Cistercians ; and they in- 

(27) I" The ecclesiastics of that a^ had bishop's prison^ lest he should be seized by 
renounced all immediate subordination to the kin^*s officers ; maintained that no great- 
the magistrate : they openly pretended to er punishment could be inflicted on him, 
an exemption in crimincd accusations from than degradation. And when the king de- 
a trial before coorts of justice ; and were manded, that immediately after he was do- 
gradually introducing a like exemption in graded, he should be tried by the civil pow- 
ctvil causes. Spiritual penalties aloru could er ; the primate asserted, that it was iniqui- 
be inflicted on their offences : and as the tous to try a man twice upon the same ac- 
clergy had extremely multiplied in England, cusation, and for the same offence." Hume's 
and many of them were consequently of Hist, of Eng., vol. i., chap, viil., reign of 
very low characters, crimes of the deepest Henry H., p. 333, 334. — Tr.] 
dye^ murders^ robberies^ adultcriest rapes, (28) See the Epistle of Rupert Tuiticn- 
were daily committed with impunity by the sis, in Edm. Martene^s Thesaurus Anecdo- 
eeclesiastics. It had been found for in- tor., tom. i., p. 285, &c., who places the 
stance, on inquiry, that no less than a hun- monks before the apostles themselves. 
dred murders had, since the king's acces- (29) See Nigel Wireker, an English poet 
aion,'' [A.D. 1154-1183], "been perpetra- of much wit who lived about the middle of 
ted by men of that profession, who had never this century, in his Speculum Stultorum sen 
been called to account for those offences ; Brunellus ; a poem often published, and in 
(Ncubr., p. 394), and holy orders were be- which he severely lashes tne several orders 
come a full protection for all enormities. A of monks of his age, sparing almost none ex- 
clerk in Worcestershire, having debauched cent the Carthusians. [This poem, among 
a gentleman's daughter, had at this time pro- other editions, was published at Frankf., 
ceeded to murder the father; and the gen- 1602, and at Wolfenbuttle, 1662, 8vo. In 
eral indignation against this crime, moved it, an ass is represented as wishing to ex- 
the king to attempt the remedv of an abuse change his short tail for a long one ; indica- 
which was become so palpable, and to re- tive of a monk, aspiring after an abbacy. — 
quire that the clerk should be delivered np, Schl.} Also, Bemhard's Gonsiderationes ad 
and receive condign punishment from the Eugenium, lib. iii., c. 4. 
magistrate. (Fitz-Stepb., p. 33, Hist. Quad., (30) See, besides many others, Edm. Mar- 
p. 32). Becket insisted on the privile^ of tenets Amplissima collectio monumenConim 
the church ; and confined the ciiminal in the Tetemm, tom. iz., p. 1119. 


creased daily in numbera, wealth, and power. No man in this age con* 
tributcd more to the advancement of this order, than the celebrated abbot 
of Clairvaux, iS^ Bernard ; a man of inmiense influence throughout Ghris. 
tian Europe ; one who could effect whatever he pleased, often merely by 
his word or nod, and could dictate even to kings what they must do. Ete 
is therefore justly called the second parent and founder of the Cistercian 
order : and both in France and in Grermany, this order was called from 
him, the Bemardine order.(dl) A hundred and sixty monasteries owed 
their origin or their regulations to him ; and when he died, he left seven 
hundred monks in his monastery of Clairvaux. Among his disciples there 
were many who became archbishops and bishops, besides one sovereign 
pontiff, Eugene III. 

§ 17. But this prosperity of the Cistercians excited the envy of the 
Cluniacensians, and produced first strong dislike, and afterwards open qnar* 
rels, between these two opulent and powerful orders. Each of them kSL 
lowed the rule of SL Benedict ; but they differed in dress, and in the reg- 
ulations superadded to the rule. The Clumacensians accused the Cister^ 
dans of too great austerity ; and on the other hand, the Cistercians taxed 
the Clumacensians Mrith having abandoned their former sanctity and r^ular 
discipline ; which was strictly true. St. Bernard^ the oracle and guardian 
of the Cistercians, in the year 1127, first attacked the Cluniacensians in 
writing. St. Peter Maurice, abbot of Clugni, replied to him with much 
modesty. The controversy was now propagated farther, and extended 
over other countries of Europe. (32) To this contest another of greater 
warmth was added, respecting tithes. In the year 1132, InnocerU II. 
among other new privileges conferred on the Cistercians, exempted them 
from the payment of tithes on their lands : and as many of these lands had 
paid tithes to the Cluniacensians, they were greatly offended at this indul- 
gence of the pontiff, and entered into warm controversy both with the Cis- 
tercians and with the pontiff himself. In the year 1165, this controversy 
was in some way adjusted ; but how, does not clearly appear. (33) 

§ 18. Of the regular canons, whose origin was in the preceding century, 
many spent their time much better than the crowd of monks did ; and they 
were not unserviceable to the church, by keeping schools here and there, 
and by performing other of!ices.(34) And as the pious and virtuous on 
this account treated them with much kindness, and as they were often put 
in possession of the goods of the vicious monks, the latter loaded tliem 
with abuse. The canons on the contrary assailed the monks, both orally 
and in writings, and maintained that they ought to be excluded from sacred 

(31) See Jo. MahxUan, Annales Ordinis Anecdotor., torn, v., p. 1573-1613. Corn- 
Benedict., torn, yi., passim ; and in his life pare Mabilhn^ Annales Bcned., torn. y\., p. 
of St. Bernard, prefixed to his edition of 80, &c., and Manriquez, Annales Cistar- 
Bemard's Works. Angelus Mamriquez, An- cienses, torn, i., p. 28, &c. [Fleury, Hi»- 
nales Cistcrcienses ; nearly throughout the toire ecclesiast., liy. IxTii., ^ 49, 50. — TV.] 
teeond vol. and in a part of the tktrd. (33) See Angel. ManriqtuSf Annales Ci»- 

(32) St. Bemhardi Apologia, (for so his terciens., torn, i., p. 232, dec. MdbiUfm, 
book is entitled), among his Opera, torn, i., Annales Benedict., torn, vi., p. 212, 479 
p. 523-533. The reply of Pfter Cluniacen- and his Preface to the 0pp. S. Bernhaixli 
■is sumamed VeneribUis, is extant among Jo. de Lanncs, Histoire du Pontificat d'/ft> 
his epistles, lib. i., ep. 28, in the BibliotlL nocent XL, p. 68, dec, 79, dec. Jo. Ni^ 
Cluniacens., torn, i., p. 657-695. Add the Her tint ^ de Exemptione Cisterc. a decimis 
Dialogus inter Cluniacentem et Cistercien- (34) See the Histoire Littenire de b 
•em ; published by Eim, MnrUm, Thesanr. Fnnce, torn, ix., p. 113, dec. 


offices and honours, and to live in their cloisters secluded from the inter, 
course of men. Hence a long and bitter controversy arose between the 
monks and the canons, respecting their comparative merits and rank ; in 
which both parties went to extremes. (35) On the side of the monksy 
among others, the following eminent men in particular engaged ardently in 
the contest, namely, Peter Abelard, Hugo of Amiens, and Rupert of Duytz ; 
the cause of the canons was defended among others, by Fhilip Harveng^ 
abbot of Good Hopc.(36) The relics of this old controversy are visible at 
the present day. 

§ 19. To the Benedictine order, a new sect was added near the com- 
mencement of this century; namely, the order of Fantevraud [Fontis 
Ebraldi], so named from the place where its first monastery was erected, 
on the confines of Angers ana Tours, then a wild spot beset with thorns. 
Its foimder was Robert of Arbrissel, first an eremite and then a monk, who 
prescribed for his followers of both sexes, the rule c^ .SU Benedict ; but 
with the addition of some singular and very austere fegidaAMW. Among 
these regulations one very noticeable and altogether peculiaiV was, that he 
united the monasteries for the two sexes, and subjected both the men and 
women to the government of a female ; professedly in accordance with the 
example of Christ, who commended St, John to the care of his mother, 
and would have him to obey her as a mother. (37) Robert was equally 
successful with the other founders of new [monastic] sects in those times ; 
for the novelty of the institution and the singularity of its form, allured 
great numbers to embrace it. But he fell under strong suspicion of hav- 
ing too great and unlawful &miliarity with females ; from which his mod- 
em disciples use all the means in their power to vindicate his charac- 

(35) Se« LamberH E]nstola ; in Jtfor- censured, are well known. In what manner 
iene's Thesaurus Anecdotor., torn, i., p. 329, these accusations are answered bj the monks 
&c. of FonteTraud, may be learned from Jo. de 

(36) Abulardi 0pp., p. 228, ed. Paris, la Mainferme^ Clypeum nasceniis Ordinis 
. 1616, 4to. MaTtenc'8 Thesaurus Anecdo- Fontebraldensis, raris, 1684, 8yo, and his 

lor., torn. ▼., p. 970, 975, 1614, dec., and Dissertationes in Epistolam contra Rober- 

kis Amplissima collectio, torn, ix., p. 971, turn de Arbrissello, Salmurii, 1682, 8yo. 

972. Phil. Harvengii Opera, p. 385, Du- There was a dispute on this subject with 

tci, 1621, foL Peter Bayle. See the Dissertation apologet- 

(37) Peter Abelard^ Opera, p. 38, whose ique pour le Bienheureux Rob. d'Arbris- 
testimony is confirmed by the form still re« selles sur ce qu' en a dit M. Bayle ; Anvers, 
tained by the order, and ts placed beyond all 1701, 8to, not to mention MaJbilUm^ Annales 
doubt; notwithstandinff Jo. MabilUm, from Bened., torn. ▼. and vi., p. 9, 10, and many 
his zeal for the Benedictine fraternity, la- others. — ['* In the year 1177, some nuns of 
hours after a sort to invalidate it, in his Anr this oider were brought into England, at the 
nales Benedict., tom. v., p. 423. Concern- desire of Henry II., who gave them the moo- 
ing this Robert, and his order, see the Acta astery of Ambresbury in Wiltshire. They 
Suictor., tom. iii., Februar., p. 593, dec. had two other houses here ; the one at Eaton, 
Dio. SammarthanuSt Gallia Christiana, tom. and the other at Westwood in Worcester- 
ii., p. 1311, du;. Peter Bayle, Dictionnaire, shire." — Mad. The founder of this order, 
tom. ii., art. Fontevraud, p. 1187, dec. Robert or Rodbert, was bom about A.D. 
Hipp. Heiyotf Histoire des Ordres, tom. yi., 1047, at Arbrissel, seven leagues from Ren- 
p. 83. On the present state of FoiUevraui, nes ; became doctor of divinity at Paris, in 
see Molam, Voyages Liturgiques, p. 106, 1074 ; assisted the bishop of Kennes ; was 

' dec., and Martene*9 Voyage littcraire de deux made archpresbyter in 1085 ; formed a col- 

Benedictine, pt. ii, p. 1, dec. lege of regular canons in 1094, became fia- 

(38) The Epistles of Crodfrey of Vendome mous as a preacher ; resigned an abbacy in 
and of Marbod, in which Robert is severely 1098, to travel and preach ; set up Ute men- 


§ 20. Norhert a Gennan, and subsequently archbishop of Magdebui^ 
attempted to restore the discipline of the regular canons, which was noiw 
sinking in many places and wholly prostrate in others. For this purpose^ 
in the year 1121, he established a new sect at PremotUrS in Champagney 
a province of France ;(d9) which recommending itself by sobriety of life 
and manners and cultivating Uterature and the useful arts, at once e&> 
tended itself throughout Europe, and in a little time acquired immense 
riches. (40) But this prosperi^ of the order soon extinguished their prim- 
itive zeal, and plunged the Prcanonstratensians into all kinds of vice. 
They followed the rule which is called iS^ Aiigustine% but with some 
slight alterations, and with the addition of certain severe laws, whose au- 
thority and influence however did not long survive their author.(41) 

§ 21. About the middle of the century, one Berthold a Calabrian, witk 
a few companions, migrated to Mount Carmel [in Palestine], and in the 
place where the prophet Elias of old is said to have hid himself built a 
humble cottage with a chapel, in which he and his associates led a laborious 
and solitary life. As others continued to unite themselves with these re». 
idents on Mount Carmel, Albert the patriarch of Jerus^em, near the com- 
mencement of the next century, prescribed for them a rtUe of life ; which 
the pontiffs afterwards sanctioned by their authority, and also changed in 
various respects, and when it was found too rigorous and burdensome^ 
mitigated considerably. (42) Such was the origin of the celebrated order 

astery of Fontevraud in 1100; and employ* dred abbies in France and Germany. Id 

ed several succeeding years in travelling process of time the order increased so pr^- 

about France, and establishing monasteriesi digiously, that it had monasteries in all parts 

till his death in the year 1 1 17. His order of Christendom, amounting to 1000 abbies, 

was confirmed by the pontiff in 1113 ; and 300 provostships, a vast number of priories^ 

Bertrade (formerly queen of France) was and 500 nunneries. But this number is now 

the first lady abbess. She died in 1 1 15. greatly diminished. Besides what they lost 

About A.D. 1700, the order was divided into in Protestant countries, of 65 abbies that they 

four provinces, those of France, Aquitaine, had in Italy, there is not one now remaii>> 

Auvergne, and Bretagne ; which collectively ing." — ilfoc/.] 

contained 57 priories. See Bayle, Diction- (41) See Hipp. Hclyot^ Histoirc des Or- 

naire, art. Fonicvraud ; and Adr. BaiUetf dres, tom. ii., p. 156, and the writers cited 

Vies des Saints, torn, i., February, p. 325, by him. Chrysostom van der SUrre, Vita 

&c. — Tr.'] S. Norberti Praemonstratensium patriarchte, 

(39) [Premontrif the original seat of this Antw., 1656, 8vo. Ludov. Hugo, Vic de 
order, is placed by Dr. 3fo«A«tm and by ific^ S. Norbert; Luzemb., 17(KI, 4to. [Adr, 
ycif in (Champagne ; by Dr. Maclaine^ in BaiUety Vies des Saints, tom. ii., June, p. 62, 
Picardy; and bjr tome maps, in the Isle of &c. — TV.] Add Jo. Xiaz/ncn, (though some- 
France. It is situated indeed near the bor- times uncandid), Inqoisitio in privilegia Or- 
ders of all three; but according to Bti#- dinis Prsmonstrat., cap. i., ii., in his Opp., 
ching's Geography, (vol. ii., p. 373, ed. 6, tom. iii., pt. i., p. 448, &c. On the present 
Hamb., 1764), the last mentioned is the true state of the place and the monastery of Pre- 
location; for Prcmontr^ belongs to the Xoon- montre, see Martene*s Voyage litteraire d» 
noM, a dependance of the government of the deux Benedictins, tom. ii., p. 49, dec. 
Isle of France. — Von Einem. ] [" The Pnemonstratenses, or monks eJf Pre- 

(40) [" The religious of this order were morUri, vulgarly called White Camms, came 
at first so poor, that they had nothing they first into England A.D. 1146. Their first 
could call tneir own, but a single ass which monastery, called Neto-HousCf was built io 
served to cany the wood they cut down Lincolnshire, by Peter de Saulia, and dedi- 
every morning and sent to Loon in order to cated to St. Martial. In the reign of £!(i- 
purcnase bread. But m a short time they toard I. the order in question had 27 mon- 
received many donations and built so many asteries in England.** — Mad.} 
monasteries, that thirty years after the foun- (42) I have here followed principally Dan. 
dation of this order, tbey had above a hun- Papehrockf an accurate whter on this sob- 


of CcarmeliUSj or as it is commonly called the order of SU Mafy of Mount 
Carmel; which subsequently passed from Syria into Europe, and became 
one of the principal mendicant orders. The Carmelites themselves reject 
with disdain this account of their oi^in, and most strenuously contend that 
the holy prophet EUaa of the Old Testament, was the parent and founder 
of their society.(43) But they are able to persuade very few, (or rather 
none, out of their society), that their origin was so ancient and illustrious ; 
and many even in the Romish communion, treat their pretensions with 
great severity. (44) 

§ 22. We will now mention the principal writers, both Greeks and 
Latins. Among the former the most noted in after times were, Philip Sol- 
itarius, whose Jjfioptra or dispute between the soul and the body, is sufii. 
ciently known.(45) EtutraUus^ who defended the cause of the Greeks 
against the Latins, and explained some books of Aristotle.(46) Euthy^ 
fnias ZigahenuSy who on account of his Panoply agaxMi aU haretics and Yds 

jcct, and well supported by authorities, in to the times of Elijah, are zidienlous in the 

the Acta Sanctor. Antwerp, mense Aprili, extreme ; and it is asUmiriiing, that th^ 

torn, iii., p. 774-802. It is well known that should dare hazard their reputation by ad- 

the Carmelites moved a great contest with vancing such pretensions. The rule pre- 

this learned Jesuit at the court of Rome, for scribed to them by Albert^ A.D. 1205, con* 

disparaging the dignity and antiquity of their sisted of 16 articles ; and it required them 

order. The history of this long contest is to confine themselves to their cells except 

given by Hipp. Helyotj Histoire dcs Ordrcs, when at work, and to spend their time m 

torn, i., p. &2, &c. It was terminated in prayer ; to possess, no individual property ; 

the year 1698, by Imwcent XII., who im> to fast from the feast of the holy cross till 

posed silence on both parties. [The Car' Easter, except on Sundays ; to abstain from 

melius accused Papebroch before the pon- eating flesh, altogether ; to labour with their 

tiff Innocent XII., alleging that the volumes hands ; and to observe total silence from 

of the Acta Sanctor., which bore his name, vespers till the tierce of the next day. This 

were full of errors. The pontiff referred the rule was mitigated considerably by Innocent 

case to the Congre^tion of the Index. The IV. On the conclusion of peace with the 

CarmeUtet being m high repute in Spain, Saracens, A.D. 1229, the Carmelites left 

brought these books before the Inquisition of Syria. Some of them went to Cyprus ; oth- 

that country in the year 1691 ; and by that era to Sicily ; and others to France. They 

tribunal, the 14 volumes for March, April, came to England in 1240 ; and had about 

and May, were condemned, A.D. 1695. 40 houses in that country. In the 16th 

Papebroch and his friends however, obtained century, St. Theresa a Spanish lady, under- 

liberty to offer to the Inquisition a vindica- took to reform the order. This divided them 

tion of the volumes ; but all their contro- into two classes. The Carmelites of the 

Tersial writings with the Carmelites, were ancient observance were called the mitigated 

in the year 1697 proscribed by the Inquisi- or moderate ; the reformed or those of tfie 

tion. The next year the pope interposed, strict observance, were called barefooted 

commanding both partte to be silent and to Carmelites , because they went barefooted. 

drop the whole controversy. — Tr.] The former were distributed into 40 prov- 

(43) Of the many Carmelite writers who inccs, subject to one general. The latter 
have treated upon this subject, the most con- quarrelled among themselves ; and became 
cise and neat is TTiomas Aquinas, a French divided into the congregation of Spain, con- 
Carmelite ; in his Dissertatio Histor. The- taining six provinces ; and the congregation 
ol. in qua Patriarchatus ordinis Carmelita- of IteUy, embracing all the rest — Tr."} 
rum ProphetsB Elis vindicatur ; Paris, 1632, (45) [Little is known of this GMcian 
8vo. The modem writers on this contro- monk,whoflourishedabout A.D. 1105. His 
versy with Papebroch, are far more tedious. Dioptra or Dialogue between the soul and 

(44) See Jo. Harduin's 0pp. posthuma, the body, on the principles which should 
p. 642, &c. Jo. Baptist Labat, voyage en regulate man's life, is extant only in the 
£spagne et Italic, tome, iii., p. 87. Cou^ Latin translation of Pontanus, Ingoldstadt, 
rayer, Examen des defauts theologiques, 1604, 4to, and in the Biblioth.Patrum., torn, 
tome i., p. 455, &c. [The pretensions of xxi. — Tr.'\ 

the CamuUtes to an antiquity reaching back (46) [See note (9), p. 319. — Tr."} 


expositions of the scriptures, may be ranked among the principal writers 
of the age.(47) John Zonaras, whose Annals with some other works, are 
still preserved. (48) Michael Glycas, who also devoted himself to history 
and to some other species of writing. (49) ConstatUine Harmenopuhu^ a 
respectable writer on both civil and canon law.(50) Andronicus Camaie* 
rus, a strenuous polemic against the LatiiM and the Armenians, who were 
opposed to the Greeks. (51) Eustathitu of Tliessalonica, the most learned 
week of his times, and the well-known commentator on Homer. (53) 
Theodorus Balsamon, who expended much labour in expounding and di- 
gesting the civil and ecclesiastical laws of the Greeks.(5d) 

(47) See Richard Simon^t Critique de la (53) For a fuller account of all thew 
Bibliotheque des Auteurs Eccles., par M. du writers, see Jo. Alb. FahricnUy BibliotbeGa 
Ptn, torn, i., p- 318, 324. \Euthymiu9 yt^ Grsca. [Theodorut Balsamonw^M ^tmaimm 
a monk, highly esteemed by Alexius Com' nomophylax, chartophylax, and lihmiua oi 
netius for his erudition ; and flourished about the great church at Constantinople ; tnd at 
A.D. 1116. The Panoplia dogmatica or* terwards patriarch of Antioch, though ha 
thodoxae fidci adversus omnos Haprcses, is never tooa possession of that see, it tieiog 
a compilation from the fathers, made by or- in the hands of the Latins. He flouiiahed 
dor of the emperor and with the aid of sev- A.D. 1180, and lived till A.D. 1203, or 
era] assistants, in defence of the doctrine of longer. He was the most learned Greek 
the Greek church against all its opposers. of his times, and a powerful advemij 
It is divided into two parts, and 24 tituli, or against the Latin church. His works are 
chapters ; published (but not entire) by (?re- commentaries on the apostolic canons, the 
goraSf at Tergovist in Walachia, 1710, fol. councils, and the canonical epistles of the fa- 
His commentaries on the Psalms, and on thers : (edited, Gr. and Lat., by Jitf/W/, and 
the four Gospels, were published together still better by Beverige, Oxon., 1672, fol.) 
in Greek, Verona, 1530, and the latter, by —Commentaries on the Nomocanon of Pho- 
Matthai, Lips., 1792, 8vo. AH his works tins, (edited, Gr. and Lat., by JusUll, 1615, 
ever published, are extant in Latin, in the 4to, and in the Biblioth. Juris Canon., torn. 
Biblioth. Patr., tom. xix. — TV.] ii.)— A collection of ecclesiastical constitu- 

(48) [See note (4), p. 218. — Tr.'[ tions ; (in the Biblioth. Juris Canon., tom. 

(49) Some have placed Glyau as late as ii.), and several other treatises on particular 
the 15th century. See Jo. JLamt, Diss, de points and questions in ecclesiastical law ; 
Glyca, prefixed to his Delicis virorum eru- which were published by LeunclaTtus and 
ditor., tom. i. [See a notice of him, in note Cotclier. 

(3), p. 218. — Tr.] The other Greek virriters of this century 

(50) [ ConstatUine Harmenomdus was a were the following : 

learned civilian and judge at Thessalonica. Nicetas Seidutf an antagonist of the Lat- 

Cave and others suppose he flourished A.D. ins A.D. 1110 ; from whom Leo AlUtius 

1150; but some place him two centuries has made some ettzacts ; de Consensu, ^., 

later, or about A.D. 1380. His best work lib. i., c. 14, dec. 

is his UpSxeipov ySfiuv^ or manual of civil Nicetas ByzantinttSf a philosopher, i. e., 

law, edited, Gv. and Lat, with notes. Gen- a monk, A.D. 1120; who wrote a Defence 

eva, 1587, 4to. His Epitome divinorum of the synod of Chalcedon against the prince 

sacrorumque Canonum, Gr. and Lat., is in of Armenia ; which is quoted by Leo AUat., 

Leunclav's Jus Gr., torn. L So also his ubi supra, and published entire, Gr. and 

Liber de Sectis HcreticiS} and some other Lat., in the G