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Atque ut Latine loquamur, non solum videndum est, ut et verba efferamus 
ea qua? nemo jure reprehendat ; et ea sic et casibus, et temporibus, et genere, 
et numero conserveraus, ut nequid perturbatum ac discrepans aut prgeposte- 
vum sit ; sed etiam lingua, et spiritus, et vocis sonus est ipse moderandus. 

Cic. de Orat. lib. in. 






Printed by Richard Taylor, 
Shoe- Lane, London. 

















1 HE Latin Grammars commonly used in schools are 
so well established, and, in general, so deservedly ap- 
proved, that any attempt to supersede them would 
justly be thought to savour of temerity or presump- 
tion. A new Latin grammar on a small scale could 
not be. essentially different from most of them ; and 
one upon a more extended plan would not be calcu- 
lated for the purpose of initiation, to which they are 
chiefly adapted. 

It has, however, been a prevailing sentiment among 
teachers of Latin, that, notwithstanding the acknow- 
ledged utility of our common grammars as initiatory 
books, something is still wanting to facilitate the im- 
provement of the more advanced student Ruddi- 
man's larger grammar, a work supplementary to the 
Rudiments, though truly a valuable production, is de- 
fective in several particulars. These deficiencies are 
partly supplied in his largest grammar ; but the last 
is now difficult to be procured, and it treats merely of 
Etymology and Syntax. To furnish, therefore, a 
grammar, which shall combine a more minute and 
correct detail of the mere elements, than is to be found 
in our common grammars, with an ample elucidation 
of the higher and more difficult principles, has been 
the writer's leading object in the present work. In 

a 3 


the prosecution of it, he has directed his chief atten- 
tion to the improvement of the senior scholar ; and 
has, therefore, thrown the Etymology into tables anc 
synopses, which, he hopes, will be useful in imparting 
a clear and comprehensive idea of the mechanism o 
the language. In treating of Syntax and Prosody 
the two divisions on which he has expended most at 
tention, he has laboured to combine the importan 
requisites of conciseness, comprehension, and perspi 

Much novelty of matter is not to be expected in s 
work of this nature. Some explanations, however 
and critical remarks, are here given, which are not t< 
be found in any grammar with which the author i 
acquainted. But novelty is a merit which it is far fron 
the intention of the writer to claim. If, by an ample 
and, as he trusts, a correct digest of the Latin rules 
with a copious enumeration of anomalies and excep 
tions, he has furnished the senior scholar with usefu 
instruction, and the master with a convenient bool 
of occasional reference, he will have completely at 
tained his aim. 

How far he has succeeded, it does not become him 
nor will he be permitted, to determine. The work 
such as it is, he submits to the candour of the public 
He has not the presumption to suppose, that, while i 
professes to correct some errors, and to supply som 
deficiencies, it is itself free from faults and imperfec 
tions, either in plan or in execution. Conscious, how 
ever, that he has been actuated by an earnest desir 
to promote the improvement of the learner, and to fa 
cilitate the labour of the teacher, he indulges the hop 
of a liberal reception. And he begs leave to assur 


those who may adopt the work, that, should it be so 
favourably received, as to arrive at another edition, he 
will gratefully avail himself of every judicious sugges- 
tion offered for its improvement. 


THE favourable reception which this work has expe- 
rienced, is truly gratifying to the. author ; and has 
encouraged him to employ his best efforts, to render 
the present edition more worthy of attention. The 
whole has been carefully revised, and, he would hope, 
considerably improved. It will be found to be aug- 
mented by a variety of information on interesting to- 
pics, to a much greater extent than is indicated by 
the mere number of additional pages. Defects and 
inadvertencies, almost necessarily incidental to such a 
publicatibn, he fears, may still be discoverable ; but, 
while he trusts they are but few, he anticipates, with 
well-grounded confidence, that they will experience the 
same indulgence as was so kindly shown to those of 
the former impression. 

CROUCH-END, Feb. 18, 1823. 

By the same Author. 

Lately published by SHERWOOD, NEELY, and JONES," 

taining a complete Summary of its Rules, with an Elucida 
of the general Principles of Elegant and Correct Diction : 
compained with Critical and Explanatory Notes, Questions 
Examination, and appropriate EXERCISES. Price 6s. boi 

LANGUAGE ; for the Use of the Junior Classes. Price Is. boi 

3. A KEY to the EXERCISES in the GRAMMAR of 
ENGLISH LANGUAGE; with Notes and Explanations, 
tended chiefly for private Learners, or such Persons as are tl 
own Instructors. Price 3s. bound. 





Of a Noun 4- 

Of a Pronoun 53 

Of a Verb 65 

Of an Adverb 140 

Of a Preposition 144 

Of a Conjunction 156 

Of an Interjection 158 

Of the Figures 159 


Of the Four Concords 162 

Of Government 173 

Of the Government of Substantives 173 

Of the Government of Adjectives 178 

Of the Government of Verbs 193 

Of the Construction of Circumstances . . . . 24-5 

Of the Construction of Adverbs 260 

Of the Construction of Prepositions .... 263 

Of the Construction of Interjections .... 266 

Of the Const mction of Conjunctions .... 267 

(Of Qui and the Subj. mood) 275 

Lists 285 

Of Neuter Verbs variously construed under the 

same signification 289 

Of Verbs sometimes employed, as Active or Neu- 
ter , in the same or a similar sense .... 295 
Of Neuter Verbs rendered Transitive by a Pre- 
position 306 

Remarks on the classification of certain Verbs . 307 
Of Verbs "which vary their construction, accord- 
ing to their Sense . 310 

Of certain Verbs Deponent 312 

' Of Verbs Passive used as Deponents . . . . 314 

Of Verbs Common 315 

Of 'certain Participles . . 317 


Of the Arrangement or Position of Words in a Sentence 3 1 8 

Of Figurative Syntax 325 

Of Ellipsis 325 

Of Pleonasm 327 

OfEnallage 328 

OfHyperbaton 332 

Of the Tropes and Figures of Rhetoric 333 


The four General Rules 341 

Of 'the initial S, X, Z, (Note) 344 

Special Rules 350 

For the First and Middle Syllables of Deriva- 
tives, Compounds, Preterites, Supines, and 

Participles 350 

Of certain Greek Words .... (Note) 358 

For the Increments of Nouns . . . . . . 362 

For the Increments of Verbs 370 

An Appendix containing the Qiiantity of the First 

and Middle Syllables of certain other Words 374 

(On the arrangement of Tenses, a Note) . . . 374 

For Final Syllables and Monosyllables . . . 378 

Of Accent 398 

Rules for the Accents, with observations . . . 398 

On Accent, Quantity, Emphasis, Rhythm, <T. . 403 

Of the Figures 419 

Of Caesura 419 

OfSynalcepha 422 

OfEcthlipsis 423 

Additional observations on the last tvco . . . 424 

OfSynccresis 425 

OfDiceresis 429 

Of Systole 430 

Of Diastole 432 

Additional observations on the last two . . . 433 

OfSynapheia . 434 

Of Poetry 435 

Of the different kinds of Feet 436 

Of Compositions in verse, named Simple or Mo- 

nocolon 438 

Of Hexameter 438 

Observations on Hexameter 44O 

Observations on the Poetry of Virgil . . . 447 

Of certain other Dactylic verses 453 

OfPenlamelcr 455 



Observations on Pentameter and Elegiac verse 456 

Observations on the Ovidian Distich . . . 457 
Of the Asclepiadic, the Gly conic, and other Cho- 

riambic verses 460 

Of the Sapphic (a Trochaic) with the Adonic (a 

Dactylic) 4-62 

Observations on the Sapphic verse . . . . 463 

Of the Phaleucian verse (a Trochaic) .... 464 

Of the Pherewatic (a Dactylic) 465 

Of Iambic verses 465 

Of the Scazon (an Iambic) 469 

Of the Anacreontic (an Iambic) 469 

Of Trochaic verses 469 

O/Anapestic verses 472 

Of the Carmen Horatianum 474 

On the Verbal Structure 476 

Of the Pyr rm 'c 481 

Of the Ionic 482 

Of Mixt verses 484 

Of Compositions, in which the verse is varied, named 

Compound or Polycolon 487 

Of the Carmen Dicolon Distrophon .... 488 

Of the Carmen Dicolon Tristrophon .... 492 

Of the Carmen Dicolon Tetrastrophon . . . 493 

Of the Carmen Dicolon Pentastrophon . . . 493 

Of the Carmen Tricolon Tristrophon . . . 493 

Of the Carmen Tricolon Tetrastrophon . . . 495 

The method of scanning Horace * 495 




LATIN Grammar is the art of speaking, and of writing, 
the Latin language, according to certain established rules. 

It is divided into four parts : Orthography, Etymology, 
Syntax, and Prosody. 

The first treats of letters and syllables. The second, of 
the nature and properties of single words. The third, of 
the disposition of words into sentences. And the fourth, 
of the quantity of syllables. 


In the Latin language, there are twenty-five letters : 
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, II, IJLK, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, 
T, U, V, X, Y, and Z. 

Of these, K, Y, and Z, are found only in words of Greek 

They are divided into vowels and consonants. 

A vowel makes a perfect sound of itself^ 

A consonant cannot be sounded without* a vowel. 

<z, e, z, o, u, and ?/, are vowels. 

The other nineteen are consonants, of which h is gene- 
rally considered as only a note of aspiration. 

The consonants are divided into mutes and semivowels. 

The mutes are defined to be those letters, which entirely, 
and at once, obstruct the sound of the vowel, and prevent 
its continuation. 

The semivowels are defined to be those consonants, which 
do not entirely obstruct the voice, but wliose sounds may be 
continued at pleasure, thus partaking of the nature of vowels. 

The semivowels are f^ I, m, n, r, s, v. The rest are mutes. 
S is called by some Grammarians a letter of its own power. 


Of the semivowels, four are called liquids, /, m, n, and r. 
They are thus named, because they readily unite with 
other consonants, and glide, as it were, into their sound. 

Two are called double letters, x and z ; the x being equal 
to cs, Jcs, or gs, and z, to ds or ts ; as dux, dues, whence the 
genitive duels ; rex,, regs (which, however, is generally pro- 
nounced as if recsj, whence the genitive regis ; zona, dso?>a t 
in which the d must be sounded very softly. 

j is sometimes reckoned among the double letters ; but 
in words of Greek origin it is, in reality, a vowel ; as liison, 
lapetuS) not Jason, Japetus ; and also in such words as Troja 
and Ajax, although, in these, pronounced as the English j. 


A diphthong consists of two vowels forming one syllable, 
and pronounced by one impulse of the voice. 

The diphthongs are, eight, ee or ae, as (Etas ; ce or oe, as 
ccena ; au, as aurum ; eu, as euge ; ei, as hei / al, as Mala ,- 
oi, as Trola / ui or yi, as hide, harpuia, or harpijia. 

Of these, two are called improper, because the sound of 
the first letter is lost, ce and ce, pronounced like e. The 
others are called proper, because, in pronouncing them, the 
sound of each letter may be distinguished. 


c, before e, i, y, ce, ce, is pronounced like 5 ; before #, 0, 
U) and consonants, like Jc. ^^^ 

g, before the vowels a, o, flPl u, and also before conso- 
nants (itself sometimes excepted), has the hard or guttural 
sound, as in the English words give, gone ; before e, I, and 
y, or another g followed by e, it is pronounced like j ; as 
gemma, glgno, gytyis, agger; excepting some Hebrew words, 
as Gethsemane, s6me Greek words as G-yges, and a few Latin, 
as gibber, gilvus, in which it has its proper hard sound. 

ch is pronounced like k. 

ti, before a vowel, sounds like si or ci ; as ratio, pruden- 
tia ; excepting Greek w r ords, as asphaltion words in which 
it is preceded by s or x, as istius, tnixtio ; words beginning 
with ti, as tiara ; and infinitives formed by pai agoge, as 
flectier, mittier. 

u has but little sound, when, with any other vowel, it fol- 
lows g, q, or s ; as sanguis, lingua, aqua, qui, suadeo, in 
which its sound resembles that of w 9 or of u in the English 
word persuade. 


A syllable is one distinct sound. It may be either a 
vowel, a diphthong, or one or more consonants with a 

There are five rules for the division of words into sylla- 
bles : 

1. A single consonant between two vowels must be joined 
to the latter, as a-mo, le-go / except x^ which is joined to 
the first vowel, as ex-ul. 

2. Two consonants between two vowels are to be sepa- 
rated, as //-/<?, an-mis. 

3. Consonants which cannot begin a word cannot begin 
a syllable, as ar-dmis, por-cus. 

i. Consonants that can begin a word ought generally to 
begin a syllable, as pu-blicus, do-ctus. 

5. A compound word is to be resolved into its consti- 
tuent parts, as ab-utor^ abs-condo*. 


A. Aulus; C. Caius; D. Decius, Decimus; G. Gaius; L. Lucius; M. Mar- 
cus; M' Manius ; N. Nuinerius; P. Publius; Q,. Quintus, Quirites, Quasstorj 
T. Titus; Ap. Appius; Cn. Cnseus; Op. Opiter; Sp. Spurius; Ti. Tiberius; 
Mam. Mamercus; Sex. Sextus; Ser. Servius; Tul. Tullius. In the prsenomen 
of a woman, the capital was often inverted, as 3 for Caia, j^[ for Marca, j, 
for Tita. 

F. is put for filius ; N. for nepos. 

P. C. patres conscripti ; P. R. populus Romanus; R. P. Respublioa; S C. 
senatus consultum ; A. U. C. anno urbis conditae ; S. salutem ; S. P. D. salutem 
plurimam dicit ; S. P. Q,. R. senatus popul usque Romanus; D. D. D. dat, di- 
cat, dedicat; D. M. P. diis manibus posuit; D. D. C. Q,. dat, dedicat, conse- 
cratque; H. S. or L. L. S. sestertium or sestertius; Imp. imperator; Cos. 
consul ; Aug. Augustus ; Iinpp. imperatores ; Coss. consules, Augg. August!, 
&c. doubling tlie last letter of the contraction, for the plural. 


The letters made use of by the Romans, in numeration, were C, I, L, V, X ; 
of which the value and order are as follow : 

I. denotes one. 
V ...... five. 

X ...... ten. 

L ...... fifty. 

C ...... a hundred. 

13 ...... five hundred. 

a thousand. 
five thousand. 
. ten thousand. 
1333, . . fifty thousand. 
CCCI333. a hundred thousand. 

Note 1. The antients, Pliny observes, went no further; but, if necessary, 

B 2 




IN Latin, are eight different kinds of words, called parts 
of speed i : 

Noun, pronoun, verb, participle, declined; 

Adverb, preposition, interjection, conjunction, imde- 

The changes made in the termination of the noun, pro- 
noun, and participle, are called their declension. 

Those made in the termination of a verb, its conjugation. 

The general changes made in the declinable parts of 
speech are called their accidents. 

The accidents are six: gender, case, number, mood, 
tense, and person. 

Gender and case are peculiar to noun, pronoun, and par- 
ticiple ; mood, tense and person are peculiar to the verb ; 
and number is common to all. 


A noun (nomeri) has been defined to be that part of 
speech which signifies the name or quality of a person or 
thing. If it signify the name of a person or thing, it is 
called a substantive noun : as vir, a man ; arbor, a tree. If 
it signify a quality or property, as belonging to any person 
or thing, it is called an adjective : thus bonus, good, denotes 
the quality of goodness, but always in concrete, or in con- 
junction with some substantive; thus, bonus vir, a good man, 
a man having the quality of goodness. 

Bonus, or good, has been termed the concrete. 

Bonitas, or goodness, the abstract. 

Substantives are of two kinds, proper and common. 

A proper noun is that which is appropriated to an indi- 
vidual, or to one particular thing of a kind ; as Georgius, 
George; Londinum, London. 

An appellative, or common noun, is that which is com- 
mon to a whole class of things ; as vir, a man ; fcemina, a 
woman ; arbor, a tree. 

they repeated the last number, thus CCCID33* CCCID30 stand for two 
hundred thousand. 

2. By a combination of these letters, any intermediate number may be ex- 
pressed ; thus II denote two, XV fifteen, &c. 

3. If the less numeral letter be set before the greater, it takes away from 
the greater as much as it imports, thus XC, ninety. 

4. Writers of later date use I) lor five hundred, and M for a thousand. 


A proper name applied to more than one, becomes an 
appellative ; as duodecim Ctfsares, the twelve Caesars. 

I. Nouns receive names according to their signification : 

1. A collective noun in the singular number signifies 
many ; as popufus, a people. 

2. An interrogative asks a question; as quis? who? uter? 
which of the two ? 

Such nouns used without a question are called indefinites. 

3. A relative refers to something spoken of before ; as 
qui, who; ille, he; alius, another; &c. 

4-. A partitive signifies the w r hole severally; as omnis, 
every one ; quisque, every one : or part of many, as qui- 
da?n 9 aliquis, &c. 

II. With respect to signification and derivation, 

1 . Patronymics are nouns signifying pedigree or extrac- 
tion, generally derived from the name of the father; as 
PriamideS) the son of Priamus : but sometimes from some 
remarkable person of the family; as JEacides the son, grand- 
son, or one of the posterity of ^Eacus : or from the founder 
of a nation, as Romididce, the Romans, from Romulus ,- or 
from countries and cities, as Sicilis, Tracts, a woman of 
Sicily, of Troy. 

2. An abstract denotes the bare quality of an adjective ; 
as bonitas, goodness, from bonus. 

3. A gentile, or patrial, is a noun derived from the name 
of a country, and expressing a citizen of that country ; as 
Scotus, a Scotsman ; Macedo, a Macedonian ; from Scotia, 

4. A possessive is an adjective derived from a substantive, 
proper or appellative, signifying possession ; as Scoticus, of, 
or belonging to, Scotland, from Scotia ; paternus, fatherly, 
from pater. 

5. A diminutive is a substantive, or an adjective, derived 
from a substantive, or adjective, denoting diminution ; as 
libellus, a little book, from liber ; parvulm, very little, from 
parvus. They generally end in lus, la, or lum. 

6. A denominative is any noun derived from another 
noun ; as gratia, favour, from grains ,- ccelestis, heavenly, 
from ccelum. 

7. A verbal is any noun derived from a verb ; as a?nor 9 
love, from amo ; cap ax, capable, from capio. 

8. Some nouns are derived from participles, adverbs, and 

prepositions; *& JfettifatS) counterfeit, fromfatus; crastinus, 
belonging to tomorrow, from eras ; contrarius, contrary, 
from contra. 

Note, That the same noun may be ranked under different 
classes; as quis is an interrogative, relative, or partitive; 
pietas, an abstract, or denominative. 


Genders are three ; the masculine, the feminine, and the 
neuter ; denoted sometimes by hie for the masculine, hcec for 
the feminine, and hoc for the neuter. 

Gender is, in English, the distinction of sex ; for, in this 
language, with very few exceptions, males are masculine; 
females, feminine ;" and, unless under particular circum- 
stances, all things inanimate, being without sex, are neither, 
or neuter*, which last has, notwithstanding, received the 
name of a gender. But, in Latin, although males are mas- 
culine, and females, feminine, there are many nouns, hav- 
ing no sex, which belong, some to the masculine, some to 
the feminine, and some to the neuter gender, the termina- 
tion and declension, not the sex, determining the gender. 
The former has been called natural gender; the latter, gram- 
matical gender. 

Nouns which have either the masculine or the feminine 
gender, according to the sense, are called common ; as pa- 
rens, hie or h&c, a parent ; if a father, masculine ; a mother, 

Nouns, admitting the masculine or feminine gender in- 
dependently on the sense, are called doubtful ; as hie or hac 
anguis, a snake. 

When, under one gender, a noun signifies both the sexes 
of brutes, it is called epicene; as hie passer, hie irnts, a spar- 
row, a mouse, male or female ; liccc aquila, hcec vulpes, an 
eagle, a fox, male or female. ~When it is necessary to di- 
stinguish the sex of such words, mas, male, or fcemina, fe- 
male, is added to them. 

* There is an obvious analogy between the gender of nouns and the per- 
sons of verbs. In the first, there are, naturally, but two genders ; in the se- 
cond there are not, necessarily, but two persons, the speaker and hearer. As 
there is a third gender given to nouns, which is neither of the other two, so 
there may be a third person, who is neither hearer nor speaker, but the ob- 
ject or subject of both In the same manner their various terminations inti- 
mate various relations and circumstances. 


Number is the distinction of one from more than one, 
cr many. 

Numbers are two : the singular, which denotes one, or 
the aggregate of many, collectively ; as homo, a man ; mul- 
titudo, a multitude : the plural denoting more than one ; as 
homines, men. 

Some Latin nouns of the plural number signify but one ; 
as Athena, Athens; others, one, or more than one, as 
a marriage, or marriages. 


It is necessary to distinguish the several relations which 
objects bear to one another ; and this is done, in English, 
generally, by means of certain particles prefixed to nouns ; 
but, in Latin, by a variation in the termination of a noun, 
which is termed a case. 

Cases, (casus, fallings,) or the inflexions of nouns, are so 
called, because they have been supposed to fall or decline 
from the nominative, which has been represented by a per- 
pendicular line, and called casus rectus, or the upright case, 
indicating the 'primary form of the noun ; the others being 
named casus obliqui, or oblique cases. 

There are six cases; the nominative, the genitive, the 
dative, the accusative, the vocative, and the ablative. 

The nominative simply expresses the name of a person 
or thing, and marks the subject of discourse ; as Alexander 
fccif, Alexander slew. 

The genitive* is said to express a variety of relations, 
chiefly comprised under that of origin., or the relation of 
possession, or of property, and has, in English, the sign of 
before it, or 's added to it ; as amor Dei, the love of God, 
or God's love. 

The dative is used to mark the object to which any thing, 
whether acquisition or loss, is referred ; and is often equi- 
valent to an English noun having the signs to and for, (both 
sometimes understood, ) from and. by ; as Hoc mi hi datur, 
seritur, adimitur; This is given to me, this is sovrn for 
me, this is taken away from me. Nee cernitur ulli Virg., 

* Some have derived the word genitive, from genus, kindred or family, as 
if a case used to express alliance or extraction. From its expressing many 
different relations, this case was named by the Greeks the general case ; and 
it has been supposed, by others, that by mistaking the import of this word, 
Latin grammarians named it the genitive or generative case. In Latin, and 
in other languages, vvben a twofold relation subsists between two objects, this 
rase involves an ambiguity, nmor Dei denoting either the love with which 
God loves us, or the love with which he 5-s loved by us. 

Nor is he perceived by any one. Expedi hoc negotium 
mihi, Dispatch for me this business. It sometimes receives 
the action of the verb ; as Antonius nocuit Ciceroni, Antony 
hurt Cicero. 

The accusative indicates the object to which the action 
of the verb passes ; as Alexander interfecit Clitum, Alex- 
ander slew Clitus. 

The vocative points out the object called upon, or ad- 
dressed, with or without the sign O ; and is, in general, for 
an obvious reason, the same in termination as the nomina- 
tive ; as O felix /rater. My happy brother. Audi, Deus, 
Hear, O God. 

The ablative, whose derivation implies a taking away, 
has been defined to be a case denoting the concomitancy of 
circumstances*; as Ingressus est cum gladio, He entered 
with a sword ; i. e. having at that time a sword along with 
him, in his possession. But when, by inference, the ac- 
companying circumstance is understood as the cause, man- 
ner, or instrument of an action, the preposition cum is never 
expressed ; as He killed him with a sword, i. e. a sword 
was the instrument with which, or by which, his death was 
effected, Eum gladio interfecit. I am pale with fear, Palleo 
metu, i. e. not only with fear, but for fear, fear being not 
only an apcompanying circumstance, but the cause of pale- 
ness. They went to church with noise, Templum clamore 
petebant, noise being an accompanying circumstance, and 
denoting the manner of their going. 

In English it has before it such signs as with, from, for, 
, in, through, and in Latin is governed by a preposition, 
sometimes expressed, but generally understood. 

Observe, That nouns form all their oblique cases from the 
genitive singular, except the vocative singular of masculine 
and feminine nouns, and the accusative and vocative of neu- 
ter nouns. 

* See Encyclop. Brit, article, Case, in Grnmmar. 

f The English particles, usually denominated signs of cases, are not, 
generally, a true criterion of the Latin cases. From, for, and by, are no- 
ticed as signs of the dative, and of the ablative also. But there appears 
to be, in Latin, a striking affinity between these two cases. Indeed, it has 
been contended, that the Latin dative, like the Greek, was originally 
governed by prepositions, and included, in itself, the force of what is called 
the ablative ; and hence perhaps it is, that it still denotes the person or 
thing to which any thing is given, or from which it is taken away ; but that, 
afterwards, when this case was divided into two cases, and a little distinction 
was made between them, prepositions were restricted to that form which 
received the name of ablative. We know that their termination is the 
same in Greek, or, rather, that the Greeks generally use their dative in 
the same way in which, most probably, their ablative, if they had one, 


Declension is the regular distribution of nouns, accord- 
ing to their terminations, so that they may be distinguished 
from one another. 

There are five declensions of substantives, distinguished 
by the ending of the genitive case. 
The genitive of the fast ends in a. 
second in /. 
third in is. 
fourth in us. 
Jifth in ei. 


E adjective, as has been already observed, expresses 
Lit y belonging to a substantive. 

u properly has neither genders, numbers, nor 

" v mina,tions answering to the gender, 

iirj substantive with which it is joined. 

Ail Adj Si the; first and second declension 

conjointly , 

When of tin j^jsion, they have three 

different terminal^ S^&fcne, one for the 

feminine, and one for i. bona^bonym *. 

When of the third, they \\ ruinations, 

the first of which is masculine arid $ie se- 

cond neuter, as tristis 9 masculine a;, 
ter, or only one termination for the thn 
masculine, feminine, and neuter. 

Adjectives are varied as substantives of the lik 
tioii and declension. 

would be used; and that the Romans were fond of imitating the Greeks : ~ 
to which it may be added, that, in Latin, the dative and ablative, both 
singular and plural, may be found, in certain forms at least, alike in 
every declension, as will hereafter be seen in the Rules for the Ablative of 
the Third Declension, and in the Observations on the Declensions, in regard 
to certain Datives of the Third and Fifth Declension, ending in e, and of the 
fourth in u : the difference between the dative singular and the ablative 
of the first declension being the principal exception to this remark, not no- 
ticed. But, in regard to this anomaly, it may be observed, that the 
dative of the first declension ends in ae, diphthong, and that it ended some- 
t'mes in Hi ; that the ablative of the first declension is the only case ending 
in a. long, so that it is not improbable that formerly it may have had the 
vowel annexed to it, which it has since dropped, although it still retains the 
quantity belonging to a contraction, or to the original diphthong ; and in the 
same manner, the ablative of the fifth declension may have its long e, from 
a contraction of ei, or, in some nouns, from the long c of the dative. 

* But eleven, which will hereafter be mentioned, having er or is masculine, 
is feminine, and e neuter, belong to the third only. 


The following synopsis will show the declension of substantives anc 
adjectives, with the quantities of the final syllables : 

A general view of the declension of substantives and adjectives. 

C3 O Q, 2 



i 1 

1 ! 

u i-4 






1=1 If 





3 g 


i 1 







c i5 ^ f ^ 

.sT =o 


0? *ti 


oT <^ ^ 

0^ ^ 


. g ft 3 ^ 

o* S 



3 S 

j 3 

1 J ' S 



e Is 'S-l 


ft M 








.S3 '8 . 

i ^ 





If lit 

* 3 a a 



1 <^ 



* S U fi 





J * 1 

H <f 




|<1 ^5 

H # a? (S 



E.S a 



" .-5 ' 










y-^-Jl ^^PN 

N. -us, -*r 







/ ^ta'>- 


G. I 









D. o 







A. um 


em, (im) 




V. e, "r 









fi 4 

e, i 

e I 



N. I 




a', la 




G. orujft 



um, ium 

um, ium 









ibiis, iibus* 



&.. OS 








.^V. I 



a, la 




r Ab.Is 





ibiis, iibus * 






M. F. 


Thus, Bonus 7 
rencr J " a 

Likewise meus, tuus, suus, nos- 
er, vcster. Tuus, suus. wester, wan 
Vocat. Meus has meus or w 
Voc. masc. 
Adjectives in er drop e in de- 
clining, except tener, alter (ms) 
7s/w, carter, vesper, gibber, lacer 
'iber (free), mixer, prosper. Ibei 
'm), also compounds of fcro 
and gero. Dexter has dextra 
seldom dextcra. 
See Note I. on irregulars. 
All Participles in us. 

Thus, felix, mitis, mitior, 
ail adjectives of one termina- 
tion, or of two; the pronouns 
nostrcis, vestras, cujas. 
For adjectives having in the 
ablative only; or e and i; c 
only, and for those which in 
the plural have a, or in, um, or 
ium, see Rule VI. 
For comparatives see Rule 
VII. Participles, Rule VIII. 
For acer, alacer, &c. see 
Note 1. on Adjectives. 
All participles in ns. 



"I. Nouns of the neuter gender (which are generally of 
the second and third declension) make the nominative, the 
accusative, and vocative singular alike; and these three 
cases, in the plural, end always in a *, 

II. The vocative plural is the same as the nominative 
plural ; and the vocative singular, as the nominative singu- 
lar, except in nouns of the second declension, in us, which 
have e ; in proper names in i-us, which throw away us ; as 
also in geni-us, and Jili-us ; in Deus, which makes Deus ; 
and in Greek nouns, which drop the s of the nominative, 
as Thomas, vocat. Thoma ; Paris, vocat Pari\. 

III. The dative and ablative plural are always alike*, 

IV. Proper names, used as such, want the plural. 


Note I. The following adjectives are of the first and se- 
cond declension, but make their genitive singular in lus^ 
(but alter, ms) and dative in i: unus, totus , solus, ullus, 
nullus, uter, neuter, alter, alms, iste, ille, ipse, of which the 
three last are pronouns. Alius, iste and ille have d in the 
neuter gender instead of m. 

* In attending to the mechanical structure of language, it is not unworthy 
cf being remarked, that, except in neuter nouns, the ablative singular 
of every declension is formed from the accusative, by dropping m : thus 
musam, musa ; lapidem, la\ride ; navcm, navim, nave, navi ; gradum, gradu ; 
rem, re. The second declension may appear an exception to this remark ; 
but it is to be remembered, that the antients wrote the nominative, in os, 
as dominos, avos, atovos ; and the accusative, in om } as dominom, avom, 
asquom ,- and hence, in this declension likewise, was the ablative formed, 
by dropping the m. It may be likewise observed, that, in the two first de- 
clensions, the dative and ablative plural end in is ; but that the dative singu- 
lar in i forms bus, which happens to the third declension, and to the fourth 
and fifth, which are but varieties of the third. 

f The poets sometimes use us in the vocative of some substantives, 
and adjectives, after the Attic dialect ; as Jilius, Jtuvius, patricius, jwpulus 

\ In prose. In poetry the i is common. But the i of altcrius is always 
short, that of alius (which is a contraction for aliius] always long. 

Totus, having ius, should be distinguished from totus, so great, which 
is regularly declined. Some of these adjectives, as totus, nuUvs, solus t neuter t 
form their genitive and dative regularly, in some old authors, 


Units, totus, solus, istc, Hit', ipse^ have vocatives. Con- 
cerning the vocatives of the others, grammarians are di- 


This has the greatest number of varieties in its cases. 
They are chiefly in the genitive, accusative, and ablative 
singular; and in the genitive plural. 

I. The genitive singular ends in is without increase, or 
with increase, after the following manner : 






yis, yos. 







But to these are the following exceptions. 







13 es, 




14 is, 




15 os, 




16 us, 




do, (fern.) 
go, (fern.) 
c, d, 1, 


17 ys, 
18^ ps, 


en, (neut.) 


19J ns ' 




20 x, 





Abies, etis, 

Accipiter, tris, 

Acer, (adj.) acris, 

Acus, eris, 

Adeps, ipis, 

JEs, seris, 
Alacer, (adj.) alacris, 

Allobrox, ogis, 
















Arbos, -or, 

















* It would have been as well to say us, eris, for the greater number have 
eris; as, acus (chaff), fceduSjfunus, genus, glomus, latus, munus, olus, onus, o]rus t 
pondus, rudus, scelus, sidus, vellus, Venus, vetus, viscus, ulcus, vulnus. These 
have (5m ; pecus, tergtis, focnus, lepus, nemus, frigus, penus, 2>ignus, pectus t 
stercus, decus, dcdccus, littus, tcmpus, corpus. 


No?n. Genit. 

Norn. Genii. 

Aries, gtis, 


Dives, itis, 1 3 

Astyanax, actis, 


Duplex, icis, 20 

Auceps, upis, 




Ebur, oris, 1 1 

Bes, bessis, 


Eques, itis, 13 

Bibrax, actis, 



Biceps, itis, 



Biturix, igis, 


Far, farris, 1 1 

Bos, bovis, 


Fel, fellis, 8 

Femur, oris, 1 1 


Fidicen, nis, 9 

Campester (adj.) tris, 


Flamen, a priest, mis, 9 

Cardo, iiiis, (m. or f.) 5 

Flos, oris, 

Caro, carnis, 


Fcedus, eris, 16 

Capis, idis, 


Forceps, ipis, 1 8 

Cassis, idis, 


Fraus, audis, 16 

Celeber, (adj.) bris, 


Frons, a leaf, ondis, 1 9 ; but 

Ceres, eris, 


Frons, ontis, the forehead, 

Chamaeleon, tis, 



Charon, tis, 


Frux, ugis, 20 

Chlamys, yo! s > yd 

is, 17 

Funus, eris, 16 

Charis, itis, 


Chremes, is, etis, 



Cinyps, yphis, 


Genus, eris, 16 

Concors, dis, 
Ccelebs, ibis, 
Conjux, ugis, 
I Cor, cordis, 


Gigas, ntis, 12 
Glans, glandis, 19 
Glis, gliris, a dormouse, 14, 

Crates, a man's name, 
Crenis, Idis, 

etis, 13 

Glis, glidis, mouldiness, 14 
Glomus, eris, i, 16 

Cres, etis, 


Glos, otis, oris, 15 

Crus, cruris, 
Cucumis, is, eris, 


Graphis, idis, 14 
Grex, egis, 20 

Cupido, inis, (m. or f.) 6 

7 O 

Grus, gruis, 16 

Cuspis, idis, 
Custos, odis, 


Gryps, yphis, 1 8 



Harpax, agis, 20 

Dares, etis, is, 


Hebes, etis, 13 

December, bris, 


Hagres, edis, 1 1 

Dido, us, onis 


Hepar, atis, 1 1 

Dis, itis, 


Heros, ois, 1 5 

^ofli. Genit. 

Norn. Genit. 

Hipponax, actis, 20 

Limes, ids, 


Hseresis, eos, los, is, 14 

Lis, Utis, 


Homo, mis, 5 

Locuples, (adj.) etis, 


Honos, -or, oris, 15 

Horizon, ontis, 9 


Hylax, actis, 20 

Margo, m.(orf.) inis, 


I, J. 

*" w 

Manceps, ipis, 


lapyx, igis, 20 
Jaspis, idis, idos, 14? 
Jecur, oris, 1 1 

Magnes, etis, 
Mansues, ~tis, 
Mas, maris, 


lens, (part.) euntis, 19 
compounds also, but 
Ambiens, tis, regular. 
Imber, bris, 1 1 
Incus, udis, 1 6 

Mater, tris, 
Mendes, etis, 
Merces, edis, 
Merges, itis, 
Metropolis, eos, ios, is, 


Index, icis, 20 

Miles, itis, 


Indiges, (adj.) etis, 13 
Interpres, etis, 13 
Intercus, (adj.) utis, 16 
Iter, itineris, 1 1 

Minos, ois, 
Misericors, dis, 
Municeps, ipis, 
Munus, eris, 

T* If * 


Judex, icis, 20 

Mos, mons, 


Jupiter, Jovis, 1 1 

Mus, uris, 


Jus, juris, 16 


Juventus, utis, 1 6 

Nefrens, dis, 



Nemo, inis, 


Labos, -or, oris, 15 

Nerio, enis, 


Lac, lactis, 8 

Nesis, Idis, 


Laches, etis, is, 13 

Nix, nivis, 


Lampas, adis, 1 2 

November, bris, 


Laomedon, tis, 9 

Nox, noctis, 


Lapis, idis, 14 

Lar (or Lars) tis, a man's 


name, 1 1 

Obses, idis, 


Lar, laris, a household god, 1 1 

October, bris, 


Larynx, yngis, 20 

Oedipus, odis, 


Latus, eris, 1 6 

Olus, eris, 


Laus, laudis, 1 6 

Onus, eris, 


Lens, lendis, a nit, 19, but 

Onyx, ychis, 


Lens, lentis, pulse^ regular. 

Opois, oentis, 


Lex, legis, 20 

Opus, eris, voork. 


Libripens, dis, 1 9 

Opus, untis, a town 


Ligus, -ur, uris, 16 

Ordo, inis, m. 



Norn. Genit. 

Norn, Genit, 

Orpheus, eos, 1 6 


Os, oris, the mouth, 1 5 


Os, ossis, a bone, 1 5 

Remex, igis, 


Robur, oris, 



Ros, roris, 


Pallas, adis, a goddess, 12 
Pallas, antis, a ma?i's name, 1 2 

Rudus, eris, 
Rus, uris, 


Palus, udis, 16 


Pater, tris, 1 1 

Palmes, itis, 13 
Paries, etis, 13 

Salamis, mis, 


Paris, idis, 1 4? 

Sal us, utis, 


Particeps, ipis, 1 8 
Pecus, udis, a sheep, 16; but 
Pecus, oris, cattle, regular. 
Pecten, mis, 9 

Samnis, Itis, 
Sanguis, inis, 
Scelus, eris, 
Sedes, words derived 


Pelamys, ydis, ydos, 17 
Pes, pedis, 13 


Seges, etis, 


Perpes, etis, 13 
Phalanx, gis, 20 

Semis, issis, 
Senectus, utis, 


Phorcys, 'ynis, ynos, 17 
Phosphis, Idis, 14 
Phryx, ygis, 20 
Pixis, idis, (Pyxis) 14 
Plus, uris, 16 

Senex, is, 
September, bris, 
Servitus, utis, 
Sidus, eris, 
Silvester, (adj.) tris, 


Pollex, icis, 20 

Simois, entis, 


Pondus, eris, 16 

Simplex, (adj.) icis, 


Praeceps, itis, 
Princeps, ipis, 1 8 
Praepes, etis, , 
Praes, sedis, 1 3 

Sospes, (adj.) itis, 
Sphynx, gis, gos, 
Strix, igis, 
Subscus, udis, 


Prseses, idis, 13 
Promulsis, idis, 14? 

Supellex, ectilis, 
Supplex, (adj.) icis, 


Pubes, eris or is (adj.) 13 
Puls, tis, the only noun in Is. 

Sus, suis, 
Syrinx, gis, 


Pulvis, eris, 14- 


Pus, uris, 16 


Pyrois, oentis, 14- 

Tapes, etis, 


Teges, etis, 



Tellus, uris, 


Quies, etis, 13 

Teres, (adj.) etis, 


Quiris, itis, H 

Termes, itis, 





Nom. Genit. 

U, V. 


Vas, vadis, a surety, 



Vas, vasis, a vessel, 



Veles, itis, 



Vellus, eris, 



Venus, or is, 



Vetus, (adj.) eris, 



Viscus, ris, 



Virtus, utis. 



Ulcus, eris, 



Unedo, m. onis, 



Volucer, (adj.) eris, 



Vomis, eris, 



Uter, utris, 



Vulnus, eris, 


Thales, etis, is, 
Themis, id is, 
Thos, ois, 

Thus, fins, 

Tibicen, mis, masc. 
Tiryns, ynthis, 
Trachys, ynis, ynos, 
Trapezus, untis, 
Tripus, odis, 
Tros, ois, 

Tubicen, mis, masc. 
Tudes, itis, is, 

Turbo, inis, 

Tyrannis, idis, 

(The figure refers to the termination to which its respec- 
tive word is an exception. By means of the figure, all the 
exceptions may be collected, and classed according to their 
termination ; which is the way in which they ought to be 
learned. Their present state is most adapted to occasional 

II. The accusative of masculine and feminine nouns ends 
in em ; but some have em and im, and these have e or i in 
the ablative singular, others have im or in, and these have 
i only. (See the list.) 

III. Neuters ending in e, al, ar, have i in the ablative 
singular ; ia in the nominative plural ; and ium in the geni- 
tive. Except^r, par (a pair, neut.) jubar, nectar ; hepar, 
with proper names in e, which have e in the ablative. Neu- 
ters having e in the ablative make their nominative and ge- 
nitive plural, in , and um. (For a different distinction with 
regard to par, supported by some grammarians, see Par in 
the following list.) 

IV. Nouns ending in es and is, not increasing in the geni- 
tive singular, and in ns, make the genitive plural in ium. 
Except votes, canis,juvenis, panis, strigilis, (because formerly 
strigil,} volucris, par ens, opes pi. which have um. Apum 
from apis, (or apes plural,) vokicrum, parentum, are used, as 
many others, by syncope, instead of the regular apium, vo- 
lucrium, parentium. To nouns having ium, may be added 
the names in as, from countries, as Arpinas, -dtium : nostras, 

vestras, -atium. Utilitatium, and utilitatwn ; civitatium 

and cimtatum ; affinitatium and qffinitatum ; h&reditatium 


and h&reditatum, are both found, but the latter form is much 
preferable. Optimatium, and, by syncope, optimatum, are 
both used. 

V. Nouns of one syllable in as, is, and s and x after a 
consonant, make turn in the genitive plural ; as as, assium ; 
Us, litium ; urbs, urbium ; merx, mercium. To these may 
be added caro, cohors, cor, cos, dos, faux, lar, linter, mus, 
nix, nox, os (ossis), Quiris, Samnis, uter, venter, arid the 
compounds of as and uncia , as bes, sextans, septunx. Ex- 
cept gryps, gryphum , lynx, lyncum ; sphinx, sphingum, 
and some similar Greek words. The obsolete nominative 
ops, (in the plural, opes,) though belonging to the rule, has 

Obs. The following words are not found in the genitive 
plural ; and many of them have no plural : Pax, fax, fax, 
nex, pix, lux, mel,fel, os (oris), sol, glos, pits, ros, vicis, labes, 
soboles, and proles. To these may be added crux and plebs, 
although, in some authors, crucum or crucium, and plebium, 
are found. 

VI. Adjectives having e in the nominative singular neuter, 
have i only in the ablative ; but adjectives of one termination 
have e or i ; both having ia and him in the plural. (There 
are some which have e only in the ablative, and urn in the 
genitive plural, which in the following list are noted with *. 
There are others having i, or e and i, which likewise have 
um, and they are denoted by f . Adjectives having e or i, 
when used as substantives, generally prefer the termination 
e. Par and memor 1 have i only in the ablative. Compar, 
impar, dispar, have e or i.) 

VII. Comparatives have i, or more commonly e, in the 
ablative singular, and therefore a in the neuter of the nomi- 
native, accusative, and vocative plural, and um in the geni- 
tive. Vetus likewise has veteri, vetera, veterum. 

VIII. Words of three genders, ending in ns, have e or i 
in the ablative. When used in an absolute sense, as parti- 
ciples, they generally prefer e. As adjectives, they have e 
or i. Such words often suffer a contraction in the genitive 
plural, as prudentwn for prudentium ; sapientum for sapi- 
entium / parentum for parentium ; adolescentum for ado- 

IX. The genitive plural of words having no nominative 

1 Memor was formerly declined memoris, memore / hence the ablative 




singular, or no singular, is formed, by analogy, as if they 
had one, or, from some obsolete nominative. 
Thus, Mcenia, -ium, from mcene, by R. III. 

Ccelites, -urn, from ccelis, or cedes, by inference 

from R. IV. 
Penates, -turn, frompenas, or, rather penatis, by 

R. V. 

Primores, -urn, from primor, by R. VII. 
Saturnalia, "him, (& -orum) from 

saturnale / TTT 

Florealia, -ium, (& -orum) from 


These two last, and others of a similar kind, had formerly 
another nominative, in urn, and therefore they had a geni- 
tive in orum, from the second declension ; but in the dative 
and ablative they are of the third declension only. 


(1.) The genitive singular of the first declension formerly 
ended in as, after the manner of the Greeks, which is still 
retained mfamilias, when compounded with pater and ma- 
ter ; to which t filius and Jilia have been added. Paterfa- 
milias is likewise used. The antients likewise formed it in 
ai, which is sometimes used by the poets, with a diaeresis ; 
thus dives pictdi vestis Virg. Thus also lunai Pers. terrai, 
aquai, &c. 

When the genitive of the second declension ends in zY, 
the last i is often cut off by the poets ; as tuguri for tugurii. 

The genitive of the fourth formerly ended in is as hoc 
fructi pro Idbore ab his Jero Ter. ; also in tits, after the 
manner of the third, as ejus anuis causa Ter. 

The genitive of the fifth is found in es , as rabies unde 
ill(B IICKC germina surgunt Lucret. ; sometimes in ii, when 
the nominative ends in es pure, as quorum nihil pernicii 
causa Cic. pro Rose. ; sometimes in e, as vix decima parte 
die reliqua Sail. 

The genitive plural of the first four declensions is some- 
times contracted, especially by the poets ; thus ccelicolum for 
ccelicolarum ; deum for deorum , mensum for mensium ; cur- 
rum for curruum. 

(2.) The dative singular of the third declension is found 
in a few instances in e, as viro sitiente Juv. to her thirsty 
husband ; morte mece Propert ; tibi sene Catul. 


The dative of the fourth is found in u, by Apocope ; as 
parce metu Virg. ; curruque vola?is dat lor a secundo-*-ld. ; 
thus also impetu, exercitu, for impetui, exercitui. 

The dative of the fifth is found in e, as uti cedas die 
Plaut. ; prodiderit commissaJidelAor. 

(3.) The accusative plural is found, in the third declen- 
sion, in is and els, when the genitive ends in ium ; as puppeis, 
adis Plaut. Amph. 1. 1. 194?. Omnis homines decet 
Sail. Cat. 1. 

(4.) The ablative singular of the third declension has 
been shown to be in many nouns the same as the dative 
singular. From the resemblance of many cases of the 
fourth and fifth declensions to those of the third, it is evi- 
dent that they may be considered as varieties of the third 


(1.) Masculine gender redundant. 

The following have a double masculine in the nominative 
and vocative singular, acer, alacer, celer, celeber, campester, 
equester, palmier, Sylvester, pedester, saluber, volucer : as 
nominative, vocative, masculine, acer or acris ; feminine, 
acris ; neuter, acre. Their ablative singular is in i only. 

(2.) Masculine gender deficient. 

Cater (of the first and second declension) is not used in 
the masculine, singular. 

Victrix and ultrix are feminine in the singular, seldom 
neuter ; and, in the plural, they are feminine and neuter. 

Such verbals in ix partake of the nature of substantives 
and adjectives. They correspond, as feminines, to mascu- 
lines in or: thus, victor, victrix ; ultor, ultrix ; fautor, 
Jautrix. They have their ablative in e or i s but when 
added to a neuter noun, i is preferred : Thus, victor exerci- 
tus ; victrix mulier ; ferro victrici ; bella, arma,fulmina, $c. 

(3.) Neuter gender deficient. 

Adjectives ending in er, or, es, os, fex, are seldom found 
in the neuter, singular, or nominative, accusative, vocative 
plural: such as pauper, puber, degener, ubcr, memor, dives, 
locuples, sospes, superstes, compos, artifex. Also, comis, 
inops, insons, impubis, pubis, intercus, particeps, princeps, 
supplex, sons, vigil. Except, hebes and feres singular, the 
adjectives in No, 1, and others of three endings, 


(4.) Masculine and feminine deficient. 

Plus (the comparative of multus) has only the neuter 
gender in the singular, being declined as a substantive; it 
wants the dative and perhaps the vocative, and has e or i in 
the ablative ; in the plural, plures masculine and feminine, 
and plura (or pluria, rarely), and, in the genitive, plurium. 
Its compound, complures, has no singular. 



Gen. PL 
tium, rather 

Ace. Sing. 

Abl. Sing. 

Amnis, ......... 

e or i raro. 

Amussisj ...... 

e or i. 


im, or em,,.. 

i or e. 

As and corn- 

e or i. 

Ales, f .. 

Anceps, 4- ...... 

e or i, ...(.... 

Artifex, 4* ...... 

e ori, ......... 


Bcetes, 1! , 

im or in, ... 

i or e. 




Bipennis, .... 




im, . . 



em, .. 

i or e. 
i or e. 




itum, (ia, 


bourn, (bo- 
bus, dat.) 


Ace. Sing. 

Abl. Sing. 
e or i. 

e or i. 


im, em, ..... 

i or e. 




e or i. 


iiBj .......... 

i or e. 

Capio, comp. of 

e or i, 

Caput, comp. of 

e or i, ......... 


e, . 

e or i, 

Color, comp. 
O f * . 

Corpus, comp. 
of in ~or ^ 

e. . 

i or e. rarely* 




e or i, 

e or i, 

Cj sometimes i. 


i or 6. 


im, em, 

i, e. 
i, e. 


e. i. 

Facio, comp. of 

Gen. PL 














Gausape (perk. 

Ac, Sin,. 

Abl Sing, 

Gen. PL 


um, ium sel- 



um, ium sel- 

rium 1 . 





Genus, comp. 
of in -er, 

Hseresisj ...... 

im, in, 




e or L 
e or i. 

Infans, R. IV. 

iure, . 


ote. . 

e or i, 
ere. , 


e or i. 

Lar, . 


dm, tern, ... 

ti, te. 


e or 1, * . 

im, ......... 

e or i. 

e or i. 

Molaris, ^ ..... 

Memor, adj. f 
(olim Memo 
ris), , 


Scmel apud Ciccronem muru/n. 


XTof a 1ic f . 

Ace, Sing. 

Abl Sing. 
i or e. 
i or e. 



im, em, 

such ). 

em, .,,...... 


i or e. 

e or i* 





em, im, ..... 
im, em, ..... 

e or i. 

i or e. 
e, . 


i, , 


e or i. 
e or i. 
i or e. 
i or e. 


Pugil, 6 

PuDois, 5 . , 

im, em, 

Par, f . 

Particeps, 4- . 

e or i, 

Pauper, * * 

ere. . 

Pes, comp. of^ * 
Princeps, { 

e, . 

Praeceps, * .... 

i, e, 


ri. re. 

Pubes, *... 


Quintilis (and 
such\ .... 



em, im, ..... 
im, em *.... 

e, i. 
i or e. 
i or e. 



Rivalis, t ...... 

Rus, . 

Rudis, . 

Gen. PL 










turn (ia, nom.) 



itium, itum. 


Sal, . 

Ace. Sing. 

All. Sing. 
& or i. 



im, em, 


e or i. 

Sementis, .... 

i m, em, 

i or e. 



em, im, 

e or i. 


Seranis, II . 










i, e ?-aro. 

Sodalis, J 

i or e. 


e or i. 


e or i. 

Strisfilis, . 

em, im sel- 

Supellex, .... 



i or e. 

Senex, * 


Sospes, * 


Superstes, * ... 

ite. . 


Supplex, + ..... 

ici or e, 


Tibris, || 

im, in, ...... 

i, e, ide. 

Tigris, || 

im, in, 

i, e. 
i or e. 


Tricorpor, * ... 

im, em, 
im, em, 

i or e. 
i or e. 

e. . 


Tricuspis, * ... 

e, ., 



e . 



e or i. 




Vis, pi. vires, . . 


e or i 




Ace. Sing. Abl. Sing. Gen. PI. 
Uter, ium. 


Uber,f e or i, um. 

Vetus,* i, e seldom, ... um. 

Vigil,f i, e, um, ium sel- 

Volucris,f ... i, um, ium sel- 

J Such substantives have z, because they are formed from 
adjectives having i only, in the ablative. Though used as 
substantives, they are, in reality, adjectives, the substantive 
with which they agree being understood. 

Substantives thus marked, take either termination in- 
differently : those not marked, take, in general, the first- 
mentioned termination. 

* f See Rule VI. 

|| Carthago and such nouns have e or i, when at a place is 
signified, that is, when the question is made by Ubi, where? 
The names of gods, rivers and cities, in is, take, in general, 
im or in, in the accusative, i, or sometimes e, in the ablative. 

A Synopsis of the Declension of Greek Nouns. 

I. Declension. II. Declension. III. Declension. IV. 

2. 3. 







8. 9. 

OS, OS, US. 

on, um. 


ys. o. 

6, i. 


os, is. 

is,ios, eos. 

yos,yis. us. 




yi. o. 

on, o. on,um. 




ym,yn. o. 

os, e. 

on, um. 


y. o. 





y. ye. o. 

N. as. es. e. 
G. ae. se. es. 
D. a?. ae. e. 
A. am,an. em,en. en. 
V. a. e. e. 

A. a. e, a. e. 

I. According to this declension are declined such nouns 
as jEneas, Anchises, Epitome ; likewise patronymics in des, 
as Pelides, with the following proper names, Acestes, Acha- 
teS) Agyrtes, Antiphates^ Bootes, Butes, Laertes, Leucdtes, 
Mencetes, Philoctetes, Polites, Procrustes, Thersttes, Tliy- 
estes 9 Zetes. Add names of jewels and wines; as Achates, 
Aromatites. Other nouns in es belong to the third. 

Nouns in stes make sta in the vocative: as Thyestes, Thy- 
esta. When nouns of this declension have a plural, it is 

II. According to this declension, decline such nouns as 
Tenedos, Androgeos, Athos, Panthus, Pelion. Os short makes 
i in the genitive and e in the vocative. 

In the vocative Panthus has Panthu ,- Chorus has chore 


Note 1. Some have thought, that, from twenty to an 
hundred, if two numbers be coupled, the less should be put 
before the greater ; but to this there are many exceptions. 
Cicero says viginti et quatuor. 

2. After centum, the inferior number is put with or with- 
out a copulative ; as centum et duo, or centum duo ; centesi- 
mus secundus, or, centesimus et secundus. 

3. For octodecim and novemdecim, duodeviginti and unde- 
viginti are elegantly used ; in the same way duodetriginta 
for twenty-eight Also for decimus octavus, and decimus 
nonus, are used duodevicesimus and undevicesimus. In the 
distributive numbers also ; as duodeviceni. 

4. Instead of primus, and secundus, we often find unus 
and duo before vicesimus, tricesimus, &c.; as uno et octoge- 
simo anno Cic. So too in English. 

5. The cardinal and distributive numbers may be thus 
distinguished : 

The cardinal express a number absolutely ; as one, two, 

The distributive are those which distribute to every single 
person of many, the same number. Example : 

Dedit iis tres asses, He gave them three pence (to be di- 
vided among them). 

Dedit ternos asses, He gave them three pence each. 

But poets, and sometimes prose writers use the distributive 
for the cardinal numbers. 

The multiplicative numbers also are sometimes used for 
the cardinal by the poets ; as Duplices tendens ad sidera pal- 
mas, instead of duas palmas. 

6. Unus, when used as a numeral, takes de or e, or ex, 
after it, and seldom the genitive plural; as unus ex iis, 
one of them. But when used for solus it takes the geni- 
tive plural ; as Lampedo unafceminarum, Lampedo the only 



By the Signification, 

I. Names of males, and nouns denoting general employ- 
ments of men, are masculine ; as, Mars, Numa, pater, 
scriba, maritus. 



II. Names of winds, months, rivers and mountains, are mas- 

culine. Names of mountains often follow the gender 
of the termination. Rivers likewise. 

III. Names of females are feminine ; as Venus, Anna, soror, 


IV. Names of trees, plants, countries, cities, ships, islands, 

gems, and poems, are feminine; as alnus, nardus % 
halus, Epirus, Lacedcemon, Centaurus, sapphirus, eu- 


Trees. Masculine; Rhamnut, spinus, and those ending in 

Herbs. Masculine; Intybus, helleborus, raphanus, seldom fe- 
minine : if feminine, planta is under- 

Trees. Doubtful ; Larix, lotus, rubus, cupressus. Two first 
rather feminine. 

Herb. Doubtful; Cytisus ; but rather masculine. 

Trees. Neuter ; Siler, suber, robur, thus, acer / those end- 
ing in urn, as buxum. 

Cities. Masculine ; Sulmo, Pontus, Parisii, Agragas. 

Neuter; Argos, Tibur ; nouns in e and urn, as 

Pr&neste, Pcestum. Anxur is mascu- 
line and neuter. 

Gems. Masculine ; Carbunculus, pyropus, opalus, beryllus, 
smaragdus ,- if feminine, gemma is un- 


By the ending of the Genitive Case. 

[Those words whose genders are so easily ascertained by 
the general rules, are omitted, such as mulier, anus, socrus, 
soroi', uxoT) Tros, Areas, Ligur, satrapa, athletes, &c. The 
error of placing in the 2nd special rule, sus, grus, scrobs, mas> 
pes, vas (vadis), &c., words increasing short, is corrected. 
Other errors are likewise corrected. Those doubtfuls that 
have an m marked over them are commonly masculine ; 
those having an^ feminine. The words which are common 
in sense and gender, are thus marked*. The others are 
common in sense, but not in gender.] 


Note 1. Some have thought, that, from twenty to an 
hundred, if two numbers be coupled, the less should be put 
before the greater ; but to this there are many exceptions. 
Cicero says viginti et quatuor. 

2. After centum, the inferior number is put with or with- 
out a copulative ; as centum et duo, or centum duo ; centesi- 
mus secundus, or, centesimus et secundus. 

3. For octodecim and novemdecim, duodemginti and unde- 
mginti are elegantly used ; in the same way duodetriginta 
for twenty-eight. Also for decimus octavus, and decimus 
nonus, are used duodevicesimus and undevicesimus. In the 
distributive numbers also ; as duodeviceni. 

4. Instead of primus, and secundus, we often find unus 
and duo before vicesimus, tricesimus, &c. ; as uno et octoge- 
simo anno Cic. So too in English. 

5. The cardinal and distributive numbers may be thus 
distinguished : 

The cardinal express a number absolutely ; as one, two, 

The distributive are those which distribute to every single 
person of many, the same number. Example : 

Dedit iis tres asses, He gave them three pence (to be di- 
vided among them). 

Dedit ternos asses, He gave them three pence each. 

But poets, and sometimes prose writers use the distributive 
for the cardinal numbers. 

The multiplicative numbers also are sometimes used for 
the cardinal by the poets ; as Duplices tendens ad sidera pal' 
mas, instead of duas palmas. 

6. Unus, when used as a numeral, takes de or e, or ex, 
after it, and seldom the genitive plural; as unus ex iis, 
one of them. But when used for solus it takes the geni- 
tive plural ; as Lampedo unafceminarum, Lampedo the only 



By the Signification. 

I. Names of males, and nouns denoting general employ- 
ments of men, are masculine ; as, Mars, Numa, pater, 
scriba, maritus. 


II. Names of winds, months, rivers and mountains, are mas- 

culine. Names of mountains often follow the gender 
of the termination. Rivers likewise. 

III. Names of females are feminine ; as Venus, Anna, soror, 


IV. Names of trees, plants, countries, cities, ships, islands, 

gems, and poems, are feminine; as alnus, nardus % 
bolus, Epirus, Lacedcemon, Centaurus, sapphirus, eu- 


Trees. Masculine; Rhamnus, spinus, and those ending in 

Herbs. Masculine; Intybus, helleboitis, raphanus, seldom fe- 
minine : if feminine, planta is under- 

Trees. Doubtful ; Larix, lotus, rubus, cupressus. Two first 
rather feminine. 

Herb. Doubtful; Cytisus ; but rather masculine. 

Trees. Neuter ; Siler, suber, robur, thus, acer ; those end- 
ing in um, as buxum. 

Cities. Masculine ; Sulmo, Pontus, Parisii, Agragas. 

Neuter; Argos, Tibur ; nouns in e and um, as 

Pr&neste, Ptestum. Anxur is mascu- 
line and neuter. 

Gems. Masculine ; Carbunculus, pyropus, opalus, beryllus, 
smaragdm ; if feminine, gemma is un- 


By the ending of the Genitive Case. 

[Those words whose genders are so easily ascertained by 
the general rules, are omitted, such as mulier, anus, socrus, 
soror, uxor, Tros, Areas, Ligur, satrapa, athletes, &c. The 
error of placing in the 2nd special rule, sus, grus, scrobs, mas, 
pes, vas \vadis], &c., words increasing short, is corrected. 
Other errors are likewise corrected. Those doubtfuls that 
have an m marked over them are commonly masculine ; 
those having an t /J feminine. The words which are common 
in sense and gender, are thus marked*. The others are 
common in sense, but not in gender.] 



Nouns not increasing in the genitive, as nubes, nulls, are 



Nouns in nis are masculine; (Greek nouns feminine.) 
Cum callis, cassis, caulisqae, cometa, planeta, 
Axis, cenchris, collis, follis, fastis, aqudlis, 
Fustis, mensis, piscis, postis, sentis, et ensis ; 
Orbis, torris, vectis, vepres, vermis, et unguis. 
To these may be added Adria ,- nouns from the Greek in 
as, as tiaras ,- in es, as acinaces ,- and the compounds of as, 
as centussis, (and pandect & pi.) 

(a) Nouns in er and us are masculine. Except these fe- 
minine : 

Vannus, acus, jfausque, colusque, domusque, manuscyjiQ, 

Carbasus, atque tribus, portions, alvus, humus : 
with words of Greek origin ; as Abyssus, antidotus, atomus, 
dialectus, diphthongus, eremus, methodus, periodus, pharus, 

[Note. These feminine nouns, though exceptions to this 
part of the rule, are regularly feminine according to the first 
special rule.] 


Nouns in e of the third declension are neuter. 

Nouns in um are neuter. 

Nouns undeclined are neuter. 

Virus and pelagus are neuter. Vulgus masc. and neut. 

Likewise, Cacoethcs, hippomanes, nepenthes, panaces, neuter. 


f. f. m. m. 

These are doubtfuls : talpa l , dama, canalis, cytisus, bala- 

m. in. m. m. f. f. 

nus, Jinis*, clunis, penus 3 , amnis, pampinus, corbis, linte) 

m. m. m. m. 

torquis, specus 3 , anguis, phaselus, grossus, paradisus, 
bitus, palumbes. 

1 Talpa and dama are masculine in two instances in Virgil. 

2 Fines, borders or territories, is always masculine. 

3 Penus and sjiecus, of the third declension, are neuter. 



Nouns compounded of verbs, ending in a ; as agricola, 
from colo ; advena from venio. Add senex, auriga, verna, 
sodalis, vates*, extorris,patruelis*, qffinis*,juvenis*,testis*, 
civis*, cams*, hostis *, perduellis, conviva*. 


Nouns increasing long in the genitive, as virtus, virtutis, 
are feminine. 



Nouns in er, or, and os, are masculine (except cos and dos, 
which are feminine). 

Nouns of more than one syllable in n, ens, as antis, and 
the names of numbers and substances in o, are masculine. 

Sol, ren, splen, fons, mons, pons, mus, as, bescpie, merldi- 
es, dens, sermo, lebes, magnes, thoraxque, tapesque. 
The compounds likewise of as, as quadrans, dodrans. 


Nouns of more than one syllable in al, and ar. Add 
Crus, jus, pus, rus, thus, f el, mel, vas (yasis), et halec, 
jEs, spinther, cor, lac, far, ver, os (or is, et ossis). 
Sal (salt) is masc. rarely neut. Sales (plural), always mas- 


ra. m. m. 

These are doubtfuls: Arrhabo, serpens, lubo, rudens, 

* I I* 

perdix, lynx, Umax, stirps 1 , when it signifies a trunk of a 
tree, and calx* a heel. Dies is doubtful in the singular, and 
masculine in the plural. Animans is of all genders. 


Par ens*, auctor*, hifans*, adolescent, dux*, illex, 
hares*, exlex: derivatives from from, asbifrons,- alsocustos*, 
bos*, fur, sacerdos*, cliens*, pras*. But custos (a shoot) 
is masculine. 

1 Stirps parents, or children, always feminine. 

2 Calx lime, femiuine. 



Nouns increasing short in the genitive, as sanguis, san- 
gumis, are masculine. 



Nouns of more than two syllables in do and go are femi- 

All nouns in as adis, and in is idis, (except lapis, masc.) 
Junge pecus (pecudis), coxendix, trabsque, supellex, 
Appendix, crux, fax, nex, nix, mix, pixqae, Jilixque, 
Grando, Jides, compes, forceps, seges, arbor, hyemsqae. 
Scobs, carex, forfex, res, spes, sandyxque, tegesque. 


Nouns in a, ar, en, put, ur, us, and names of plants in er, 
are neuter (except pecten and furfur, both masculine). 
His quoque marmor, ador, neutris jungasque cadaver. 
His cequor, tuber ! , verber, et uber, iter. 


m. m. m. m. m. m. m. in- 

Cardo, margo, cinis, obex, scrobs, pumex, imbrex, cortex, 

m. f. m. m. m. f. 

pulvis, grus, adeps, culex, natrix, silex, and onyx 9 , (with its 

m. m. 

compounds), varix, hystrix, and rumex. 


Vigil, pugil, exul, pr&sul, homo, nemo*, martyr*, augur*, 
antistes*, miles*, pedes, interpres*, comes*, hospes, ales, 
prases, princeps*, auceps, eques, obses*, conjux*, judex*, 
vindex*, opifex, aruspex, sus*, municeps*. 

Note. To the Second Special Rule may be added these 
masculine exceptions. 

Spadix, ids, m. a certain colour. 
Volvox, ocis, m. a vine-fretter. 
Solar, dris, m. a young salmon. 

1 Tuber, a mushroom, or wen, neut. ; name of a tree, fera, ; the fruit, 
* Onyr, a gem, fern. ; marble, or a vessel, masc. 


To the Third Special Rule, feminine exceptions. 

Tomcx, ids, f. a cord. 

Merges, itis, f. a handful of corn. 

Sniilax, ads, f. a yew-tree, or herb. 


Abyssus, s! 9 a bottomless pit, 

f; 1 () 
Adnaces, is, a scimitar, m. 1 . 

Acus, us, a needle, f. 1 (a) 
Adcps, ipis, fatness, d. 3. m. 
Adolesccns, tis, a young man 

or woman, c. 2 * 
Ador, or is, wheat, n. 3. 
Adria, &, a sea, m. 1. 
Advena, ce, a stranger, c. 1. 
JEquor, or is, the sea, n. 3. 
/2&, <em, brass, n. 2. 
Affinis, is, a relation, c. 1 * 
Agricola, tc, a husbandman 

or -woman, c. 1. 
Ales, ilis, a great bird, c. 3. 
Alvus, i, the paunch, ^ 1 (a) 
Amnis, is, a river, c/. 1. wz. 
Anguis, is, a snake, r/. 1. w. 
Antidotus, i, an antidote, yi 

i W 

Antistes, itis, a priest or 

priestess, c. 3 * 
Appendix, ids, an addition, 


Aqualis, is, an ewer, w. 1. 
Arbor, or is, a tree, f /^ 3. 
Arrhabo, onis, an eiirnest, c?. 

2. 7. 

Armpex, ids, a soothsayer, 

c. 3. 

-45, ass/s, a pound, ?w. 2. 
Atomus, i, an atom, yi 1 (a) 
Auceps, cupis, a fowler, c. 3. 
Auctor, or/5, an author, r. 2 * 

Au<rur, tiris, a soothsayer, r. 


Auriga, cr., a waggoner, c. 1 . 
Axis, is, an axle-tree, m. 1. 



Balanus, i, a chesnut, 
Barbitus, i, a lute, rf. 1. 
7&>5, 0^55/5, eight ounces, ??z. 2. 
Bifrons, tis, double-faced, c. 

Bos, bovis, an ox or cow, c. 

J3woo, o/5, an owl, d. 2. TH. 


Cacoethes, is, a bad habit, w. 1. 
Cadaver, eris, a carcase, w. 3. 
Callis, is, a path, w. 1 . 
CVzr, cw, the heel, </. 2. 
Canalis,is,& channel, ^. LOT. 
Cants, is, a dog or bitch, c. 1 * 
Carbasus, i, fine linen, f. 1 


Cardo, mis, a hinge, rf. 3. m. 
Carex, ids, sedge, f. 3. 
Cassis, idis, an helmet, f. 3 : 


Cassis, is, a net, TTZ. 1. 
Caulis, is, a stalk, w. 1. 
CcncJiris, is, a sei-pent, m. 1. 
Centussis, is, Roman money, 

m. 1. 

Gmz's, er/5, ashes, d. 5. m. 
Civz>, z>, a citizen, r. 1 * 


Cliens, tis, a client, c. 2 * 
Clunis, is, a buttock, d+ 1. m. 
Collis, is, a hill, m. 1. 
Coins, i, or us, a distaff, / 1. 

Comes, itis, a companion, c. 


Cometa, a, a comet, ?#. 1. 
Compes, Mis, a fetter, / 3. 
Conviva, cc, a guest, c. 1 * 
Conjux, iigis, husband, or 

wife, c. 3 * 

Cor, d/s, the heart, n. 2. 
Corbis, is, a basket, d.l.f. 
Cortex, ids, a bark, c?. 3. m. 
Coxendix, ids, the hip, f. 3. 
Crws, Sm, a leg, n. 2. 
Crux, uds, a cross, / 3. 
Culex, ids, a gnat, 5. 3. m. 
Custos, odis, a keeper, c. 2 * 
Cytisus, i, hadder, d 1. m. 


Dama, cc, a deer, d. I. f. 
Dens, tis, a tooth, TTZ. 2. 
Dialectus, i, a dialect,/ 1 (a) 
Dies, ei, a day, c?. 2. plural, 


Diphthongus, i, a diphthong, 

/ 1 (a) 
Dodrajis, tis, nine ounces, 

w. 2. 
Domus, i, or zfo, a house, / 

Dw^r, uds, a guide, c. 2 * 


Ensis, is, a sword, ?w. 1. 
Eques, itis, a horseman 0> 

-woman, c, 3. 
Eremus, i, a wilderness, / 

lr/r, legis, a lawless per- 

Extorris, is, a banished per- 
son, c. 1. 
Exul, ulis, an exile, c. 3. 


Jfor, f arris, bread corn, ??. 2. 
Fasds, is, a faggot, ;w. 1. 
Fax, ads, a torch, f. 3. 
JH, /e//w, gall, n. 2. 
2^'cw5, /, or ?1s, a fig, / 1 (a) 
Fides, ei, feith, / 3. 
r, zcw, fern, / 3. 

, an end, d. 1. m. 
Follis, is, a pair of bellows, 

m. 1. 

jPow5, ^>, a fountain, m. 2. 
Forceps, ctpis, a pair of tongs, 

Forfex, ids, a pair of shears, 


Fur, furls, a thief, c. 2. 
Fustis, is, a club, w. 1. 


Grando, mis, hail, f. 3. 
Grossus, i, a green fig, c?. 1. 
Gms, iiis, a crane, 6?. 3. f. 


Halec, eds, a herring, n. 2. 
Hacres, edis, an heir, c. 2 * 
Hippomanes, (indecl.) a poi- 
son, rc. 1. 
Plomo, mis, a human being, 

c. 3. 

Hospes, itis, a guest, c. 3. 
Hostis, is, an enemy, c. 1 * 
Humus, i, the ground,/ 1 (#] 
Hyems, emis, winter, / 3. 
Hystrix,ids, a porcupine, <L 3. 


Illex, legis, a lawless person, 
c. 2. 


Imbrex, iris, a gutter-tile, d. 
3. m. 

In/ans, tis, an infant, c. 2 * 

Interpret, ctis, an interpre- 
ter, c . 3 * 

Jfer, itineris, a journey, w. 3. 

Judex, 2 cis, a judge, c. 3 * 

Jus, juris, right, n. 2. 

Jwoenis, is, a youth, c. 1 * 


Z/flc, /ac/z, milk, n. 2. 
Lebes, efts, a cauldron, ?;z. 2. 
Limax, ads, a snail, 6/. 2. t /I 
Linter, tris, a boat, rf. l.Ji 
Lynx, ds, a spotted beast, 


Magnes, etis, a loadstone, 

w. 2. 

Ma?ius, us, a hand, ^ 1 (a) 
Margo, mis, a margin, d. 3. 


Martyr, yris, a martyr, c. 3 * 
.Mi?/, mellis, honey, n. 2. 
Mensis, is, a month, TH. 1. 
Meridies, ei, noon, wz. 2. 
Metkodus, i, a method, ^ 1. 


Miles, itis, a soldier, c. 3 * 
Mons, tis, a mountain, w. 2. 
jMz^, ftris, a mouse, w. 2. 
Muntceps, ipis, a freeman, c. 



Natrix, ids, a water-snake, 

d. 3. wz. 

Nemo, mis, nobody, c. 3 * 
Nepenthes, is, bugloss, n. 1. 
.Ni?,r, ecz'5, death, f. 3. 
snow, f. 3. 
a nut, / 3. 


Obses, Mis, a hostage, c. 

Qbex, ids, a door-bolt, d. 3. 


, ^c/zz5, an onyx-stone, 
d. 3. ^ 

Opifex, ids, a workman, c. 3. 
Orbis, is, a round thing, 777. 1. 
Os, 055Z5, a bone, w. 2. 
O^, 5m, the mouth, n. 2. 


Palumbes, is, a ringdove, d. 

Pampinus, i, a vine-leaf, rf. 

1. wi. 

Panaces, is, an herb, w. 1. 
Pandectce, drum, pandects, 

m. 1. 
Paradisus, i, paradise, d. 1. 


Parens, tis, a parent, c. 2 * 
Patruelis, is, a cousin-ger- 

man, c. 1 * 

Pecus, tidis, small cattle,^ 3. 
Pedes, itis, one-on-foot, c. 3. 
Pelagus, i, the sea, w. 1. 
Penus, i, or w^, provisions, 

d. 1. 

Perduellis, is, a traitor, c. 1. 
Perdix, Ids, a partridge, d. 

Pharus, i, a watch-tower, /^ 


Periodus, i, a period, f.l(a) 
Phaselus, i, a barge, S. 1. ?;z. 
Pisds, is, a fish, ?w. 1. 
pitch, ^ 3. 

Planeta, a, a planet, TW. 1 

, a bridge, m. 2. 
Portions, its, a gallery, y 

Postis, is, a post, m. I . 
Pnes, dis, a surety, c. '2 * 
Prceses, id is, a president, c. 3. 
Pnesid, tilis, a prelate, c. 3. 
Princeps, ipis, a prince or 

princess, c. 3 * 
Pugil, ilis, a champion, c. 3. 
Pidvis, eris, dust, d. 3. m. 
Pumex, ids, a pumice stone, 

d. 3. m. 
Pus, ttris, filth, n. 2. 


Quadrans, tis, a quarter, m. 2. 


Ren, rents, a kidney, m. 2. 
JKt's, rei, a thing, y 3. 
Rudens, tis, a cable, rf. 2. TW. 
j?ws, rSm, the country, n. 2. 
Rumex, wis, sorrel, d. 3. /. 


Sacerdos, otis, a priest w 

priestess, c. 2 * 
Sandyz, wis, a colour, ^ 3. 
Scobs, obis, sawdust, ^ 3. 
Scrobs, obis, a ditch, t?. 3. m. 
Seges, etis, standing corn, 


Senex, is, an aged person, c. 1 . 
Sentis, is, a thorn, m. 1. 
Sermo, onis, a speech, w. 2. 
Serpens, tis, a serpent, c?. 2. 
&7<?.r, ?m, a flint, d. 3. yj 
Sodalis, is, a companion, c. 1. 
Sol, solis, the sun, 772. 2. 
Specus, i, or ?/s, a den, d. 1. 
Spes, ei, hope, yi 3. 
Spinther, eris, a buckle, TZ. 2. 

, ^'5, the spleen, m. 2. 

, ^z>, a stump, d. 2. 

Supdlex, -lee fili s, furniture, 
f. 3. 

5?^, 5W75, a SOW, C. 3 * 


Talpa, <z, a mole, d. I. f. 
Tapes, etis, tapestry, ?. 2. 
Teges, etis, a mat, yi 3. 
Testis, is, a witness, c. 1 * 
Thorax, dcis, a breast-plate, 

TW. 2. 

7%W5, flm, frankincense, w. 2. 
Tiaras, <z, a turban, TTZ. 1 . 
Torquis, is, a chain, <^. 1. m. 
Torris, is, a firebrand, m. 1. 
Trabs, is, a beam, y 3. 
Tribus, its, a tribe, y 1 (a) 
Tuber, eris, a swelling, w. 3. 


Varix, ids, a swoln vein, rf. 
3. 7;z. 

Vannus, i, a fan, y^ 1 (a) 

Vas, vdsis, a vessel, n. 2. 

Fate.9, 25, a prophet or pro- 
phetess, c. 2 * 

*Ubcr, eris, a dug, w. 3. 

Vectis, is, a bar, m. 1. 

Vepres, is, a brier, ?w. 1. 

/^r, w7Jf, the spring, n. 2. 

Verber, eris, a stroke, w. 3. 

Vermes, is, a worm, 7?z. 1. 

Vwna, cz, a slave, c. 1 . 

Vigil, ilis, a sentinel, c. 3. 

Vindex, ids, an avenger, c. 

Virus, i, poison, n. 1. 

Unguis, is, a man's nail, m. 

Vidgus, i, the common peb- 
ple, . and m. 1. 


IT may be observed, that, as Lily's Rules pre-suppose a 
knowledge of prosody, so far, at least, as concerns the quan- 
tity of the genitive increasing; for those who are entirely 
ignorant of prosody, the following rules for the genders, ac- 
cording to the termination of the nominative, are preferable. 


The following six lines contain the general rules for the 
genders of Latin terminations; and the other lines, from the 
Westminster Grammar, contain the principal exceptions, 
arranged by the genders. 

Foemineum a primae. Mas est us, nme secunda2. 

Urn neutrum est. Er, or, os, o l mascula tertiae habentur. 

Fcemtnea, impm-um s, x, aus, as fere et es, is, 

Et Vcrbale in zo 1 , et polysyllabon in do 1 vel in go 1 . 

Hgec sunt omnia neutra, en, ar, ur, t, c, us, e, /, ma. 

Us quartae mas : U neutrum est. Es icemina quintse. 



Mascula, neutro fine ; lien cum pectine, ren ; sol ; 
Furfur, item turtur, vultur ; salar ; et lepus, et mus. 
Mascula, foemineo ; dens, fons, mons, pons ; Tudes, antes, 
Cespes, item fomes, gurges, cum limite, merges, 
Pes, paries, palmes, poples, cum stipite, termes, 
Trames ; meridies, formae vox unica quintae. 
( 'all-is, caulis, coll is, follis, mensis, et ensis, 
Fastis, fastis, piscis, postis, sentis et unguis, 
Et torris, vectis, vet-mis, siinul orbis, et axis ; 

1 Obser\-e, that all nouns in o, including harpago; words of two syllable^ 
in do and go, such as cardu, ordo, tcndo, ndo, ligu, cudo, and margo (tin's last 
rarely feminine) ; nouns in to. denoting number, or bodily substance, such as 
unio, duernio, tcndo, &c., scipio, pugio, papilio, curculio, titio, are masculine. 

But words of more than two syllables, in do and go, with grando and caro ; 
also nouns in i derived from verbs, nouns or adjectives, as ojiiio (from opto) t 
rcbdlio (from bellum), tulio (from tatis) are feminine. 

The genders of Greek nouns may be determined by the following lines : 
Mascula in -as aut -es, sed in -c muliebria, Primae ; 
Mascula item quamplurima in -es, per -a versa Latinis. 

Tiaras, Planctes -eta, Cometes -eta, Epitome, Musics. 

Omnia in -ens sunt masculu, in -on sunt neutra secunds;. 

Theseus^ Iliun. 

Mascula in -an, -en, -in, -on, -es, -us ; paucnla in ->5, -is, 
Tertia); in -o fonna? muliebria singula Quartae. 

^ Titan, splen, delphin, Mcmnon, Chremes, Euriput ; adamas, Simo'is; Sappho, 


Et vox in -nis, ut ignis ; item sanguis, lapis, et glis, 
Fomiscpie et vomer, mugilcpie et mugilis ,- atque 
As cum compositis in -is omnibus ; ut centussis. 
Sic pars assis in -#ws, vel in -e ns, vel in unx ; itidem bes. 
Addefrutex, caudex, codex, cimexque, latexcpie, 
Grex, murex, pollex, pulex, sorexque, culexque, 
Ramex, et vertex, et apex, jbrnixcpie, 
His plura inveniet tyro, sed rarius, usu. 


Vannus, humus, facit i ; tribus -its ; sic portions, Idus, 
Sic acus, et manus : unica sed domus, -i facit aut -its. 
Additur his caro : qugeque a tails, lalio, nata est. 
Arbor ; cos, dos ,- cum tellure, solus, palus, incus ; 
Servi -que -tus, virtusque, juventus, atque senectus. 


Suber, acer, siler, uber, iter, ver / junge cadaver, 
Tuber, item cicer, et piper, et siser, atque papaver ,- 
jjEquor, marmor, cor ; as ; vas -is ; et os -sis, et os -ris. 
Omne etiam nomen casu invariabile ; ceu fas. 

4. COMMUNIA 1 . 

Omnibus his commune genus ; plerumque sed hsec sunt 
Mascula ; adeps, Jinis, torquis, pidvis, cinis, anguis, 
Vepres, linter, margo, rudens, scrobs, pampiims, obex, 
Index, calx, cortex : Ha3C foeminea ; ut coins, alvus, 
Grando, silex, co?*bis, rubus, et lux, carbasus, imbrex : 
Plura, utriusque notae, genera in diversa feruntur. 
Sunt, quae de'ficiunt, generum adjectiva duorum ; 
Qualia in -es sunt ; ut locuples : neutralia raro. 
Foemineum in -trix plurali solo ordine neutrum est. 



(1) Nouns of this declension ending in as and cs are mas- 
culine ; and in a and e, feminine. 

1 The words named common^ in these verses, are, properly, denominated 
doubtful. The nouns that are common are contained in the following lines ; 


Conjux atque parens, infans, patruelis et haeres, 
Affinis, vindex, judex, dux, miles et hostis, 
Augur, et antistes, juvenis, conviva, sacerdos, 
Muni^w<?ceps, vates, adolesccns, civis et auctor, 
Gustos, nemo, comes, testis, sus, bos^wr, canis^^r, 
Interpres^we 1 , cliens, princeps, praes, martyr et obses. 



(2) iiSj OS) r, masculine. Urn, oy, neuter. 


(3) or, cr, o, n, 05, masculine. 

(4) as, aus, es, x, s (after a consonant), is, i/S) do, go 9 and 
20) are feminine. 

(5) C) ar 9 ur, us, ?na 9 men, I, e 9 t, neuter. 


(6) us is masculine; u is neuter. 


(7) es is feminine. (All but mer idles, which is masculine.) 


Adria, ce> m. 1, the Adriatic 

Ames, itis, m. 4, a stake. 

Adamas, antis, m. 4, a dia- 

Acinaces, is 9 m. 4, a scimitar, 
zs, m. 4, an axle-tree. 

is 9 m. 4> 9 a water- 

~ax 9 Greek nouns in, m, 4; 

Abac l 9 ac'iS) m. 4, a desk. 

Apex 9 iciS) m. 4, a top. 

As, assis 9 m. 4, a pound- 

its compounds and parts, 
m. 4, except uncia, f. 

Alvus, z, f. 2, the belly. 

AntidoiiiS) t,f. 2, an antidote. 

AbyssziS) i, f. 2, a bottomless 

Arctus, i> f. 2, a certain con- 

Arbor, oris, f. 3, a tree. 

Aedon 9 oniS) f. 3, a nightin- 

^6ws, w^, f. 6) & needle : but 

ACM, I, m. a sea fish, and 
) eris, n. chaff. 

, oris, n. 3, the sea. 

Ador 9 oriS) n. 3, fine wheat. 

JEs, ceris., n. 4, brass. 

-as, Greek nouns ending in, 
n. 4. 

Augur, uris, c. g. s. an au- 

Antistes, itis, c. g. s. a chief 

Auctor, oris, c. g, s- an au- 

Adolescens, tis, c. g. s. a 

Affinis, is, c. g. s, a cousin. 

Advena, tc, c. s. m. a stran- 

Agricola, ce, c. s. m. a hus- 

1 And such words as nyctictirax, acts, (m.) an owl ; thryrar, aris, the bfcast; 
dropax, am, (M.) a certain ointment; storax, acts, a gum, Abax is hardly La- 
tin, but Abacus is used. 

Auriga, a, c. s. m. a chari- 

Auceps, upis, c. s. m. a fow- 

Aruspex, ids, c. s. m. a sooth- 

Ales, itis, d. a bird. 

Adeps, ipis, d. fat. 

Anguis, is, d. a snake. 

Amnis, is, d. m. a riven 

Atomus, i, d. f. an atom. 

Animans, tis, m. f. n. an ani- 


Bombyx, Ids, m. 4, a silk- 
worm: but 

Bombyx, f. the finest cotton. 

Bidens, tis, m. 4, a fork: but 

Bidens, f. a sheep. 

Bodily substance, words in io 
denoting, m. 

Bos, bovis, c. g. s. an ox or 

Balanus, i, d. an acorn. 

Barbilos, i, d. a lute. 

Bubo, onis, d. m. an owl. 


Comcta, fc, m. 1, a comet. 
Callis, is, Til. 4, a path. 
Caulis, is, m. 4, a stalk. 
Collis, is, m. 4, a hill. 
Caudex, ids, m. 4, a stock 

of a tree. 

Cidex, ids, m. 4, a gnat. 
Cimex, ids, m. 4, a bug. 
Calix, ids, m. 4, a cup. 
Calyx, yds, m. 4, the cup of 

a flower. 
Cocajx, ygJSy ds, m. 4, a 

click ;o\v. 

1 Gustos, a shoot, is masculine. 

* Cupldo, mis, m. the god of rlcsire : hut Cupldo, frm's, jT. desire i 
Horace used cujrido sordidus for desire 

Chalijbs, jjbis, m. 4, steel. 

Cardo, mis, m. 4, a hinge. 

Cw^o, ow/5, TW. 4, a fur cap. 

Curculio, onis, m. 4, a mite. 

Carbasus, i, f. 2, fine linen, 

Coins, i, f. 2, a distaff. 

Cos, co/s, y] 3, a whetstone. 

C'aro, ms, t /.' 3, flesh. 

Chaos, -oDat. n. 3, confusion. 

Cadaver, en's, n. 3, a carcase. 

Cicer, eris, n. 3, a vetch. 

Cor, ?w, 7i. 3, the heart. 

Cacoethes, (indecl.) n. 4, a bad 

Conviva, &, c. g* s. a guest. 

Custos*) <jdis, c. g. s. a keep- 

Civis, is, c. g. s. a citizen. 

Comes, itis, c. g. s. a compa- 

Canis, is, c. g. s. a dog or 

Cotyux, tigis, c. g. 5. a mar- 
ried person. 

Client, tis, c. g. s. a client. 

Calx* cis, d. the heel. 

Chin is, in, d. a buttock. 

Candlis, is, d. a channel. 

Cinis, r;v'.s\ d. m. ashes. 

Camelus, i, d. m. a camel. 

Cortex, ids, d. m. the bark. 

Cupido*, tnis, m. 4, Cupid, 


Den.*, fit, m. 4, a tooth. 

Dialectvs, /, f. 2, a dialect. 

Diphthongus, i, f. 2, a di- 

Diamclros, t, f. 2, a diamc-' 

ddtis* f. 3, a dowry. 


Domus, its, f. 6, a house. 
Dux, duds, c. g. s. a leader. 
Dies, iei, d. a day. 
Dies, (plur.) m. days. 
Dama, a, d. f. a doe. 

Elepkas, antis, m. 4, an ele- 

Ensis, is, m. 4, a sword. 

Epops, op is, m. 4, a kind of 

Eremus, i, f. 2, a wilderness. 

Eos 1 , ( indecl. )y.' 3, the morn- 

Epos, (indecl.) n. 3, Epic 

Exlex, egis, c. s. m. a lawless 

Eques, itis, c. s. m. a rider. 

Exul, ulis, c. s. m. an exile. 

Extorris, is, c. s. m. an exile. 


Pomes, itis, m. 4, fuel. 
Fascis, is, m. 4, a faggot. 
Funis, is, m. 4, a rope. 
Fustis, is, m. 4, a club. 
Follis, is, m. 4, a pair of bel- 

Frutex, ids, m. 4, a shrub. 
F'ornix, ids, m. 4, an arch. 
Fons, tis, m. 4, a fountain. 
Furfur, iiris, m. 5, bran. 
Ficus, its, f. 6, a fig. 
Fruits in r, names of, n. 3. 
Fas, (indecl.) n. 4, justice. 
Fur, furis, c. s. m. a thief. 
Finis, is, d. an end. 
Fines, (plur.) m. confines. 


Gigas, antis, m. 4, a giant. 

Gurges, itis, m. 4, a whirl- 

Giis, gltris, m. 4, a dor- 

(Glis, glidis, f. mouldiness.) 

(jrrex, egis, m. 4, (seldom 
fern.) a flock. 

Gryps, yphis, m. 4, a griffon. 

Gluten, mis, n. 3, glue. 

Grajugena, <E, c. s. m. a 
Greek born. 

Grossus, i, d. a green fig. 

Grus, uis, d. f. & crane. 


Herpes, etis, m. 4, St. An- 
thony's fire. 
Helops, opis, m. 4, a kind of 

Hydrops, opis, m. 4, the 


Harpago, onis, m. 4, a hook. 
Humus, i, f. 2, the ground. 
Halo' 2 , onis, f. 3, a, circle 

round the sun. 
Halcyon, onis, j\ 3, a king's 

Hippomdnes, (indecl.) n. 4, a 

raging humour. 
Hares, edis, c. g. s. an heir 

or heiress. 

Hostis, is, c. g. s. an enemy. 
Homo, mis, c. s. m. a human 


Plospes, itis, c. s. m. a guest. 
Hystrix, ids, d. a porcupine. 


Icon, onis, J\ 3, an image. 

1 7-,'os is ranked among Monoptotcs ; yet eois Gen. is found. 

c The gender of this word seems uncertain. Some call it masculine, as, 
According to its termination, it ought to be considered. 

Incus, lidis, f. 5, an anvil. 

Idus, Hum, f. 6, the ides 

Inguen, mis, n. 3, the groin. 

Iter, itineris, n. 3, a journey. 

Indeclinables, n. 

Imtar, (indecl.) n. bigness. 

Iiifans, tis, c. g. s. an infant. 

Interpret, etis,'c. g* s. an in- 

IlleX) egis, c. s. m. an outlaw. 

Imbrex, ids, d. a gutter-tile. 

Index, ids, c. s. g. a disco- 


Juventus, utis, f. 5, youth. 
Juvcnis, is, c. g. s. a youth. 
Judex, ids, c. g. s. a judge. 

Limes, itis, m. 4, a limit. 

Lebcs, ctis, m. 4, a kettle. 

Lapis, idis, m. 4, a stone. 

Latex, ids, m. 4, water. 

Ligo, onis, m. 4, a spade. 

Lepus, oris, m. 5, a hare. 

Laser, eris, n. 3, benzoin. 

Laver, cris^ n. 3, water-par- 

Linter, Iris, d. a little boat. 

Lynx, ds, d. f. a lynx. 

Limax, ads, d. f. a snail. 

Lagopus, odis, f. 5, a certain 


Merges, itis, m. 4, a reaping- 

Magnes, etis, m. 4, the load- 

Mcnsis, is, m. 4, a month. 

Mugilis, is, m. 4, a mullet. 

Moldris, is, m. 4, a mill- 

Mons, tis, m. 4, a mountain. 

Merops, opis, m. 4, a wood- 

Mus, muris, m. 5, a mouse. 

Meridics, iei, m. 7 5 noon. 

Methodus, i, /.%,& method. 

Manus, us, f. 6, a hand. 

Marmot', oris, n. 3, marble. 

Miles, itis ! , c. g. s. a soldier. 

Mwiiceps, ijris, c. g. s. a free 

Martyr, yris, c. g. s. a martyr. 

Margo, mis, d. m. a margin. 


-nis, Latin nouns in, m. 4, 
but Greek nouns, f. 

Natdlis, is, m. 4, a birth-day. 

Nefrens, (porcus) -dis, m. 4, 
a barrow-pig. 

Number, nouns in io denot- 
ing, m. 4. 

Nihii, (indecl.) n. nothing. 

Nepenthes, (indecl.) ?i. 4, bu- 

Nemo, mis, c. g. s. nobody. 

Natrix, ids, d. m. a water- 


Orbis, is, m. 4, a circle. 
Oryx,ygis, m. 4,a kind of goat. 
Ocddens (sol), -tis, in. 4, the 

Oriens (sol), -tis, m. 4, the 


Ordo, mis, m. 4, order. 
Os, ossis, n. 3, a bone. 
05, oris, n. 3, the mouth. 
Obscs, ulis, c. g. s. a hostage. 

1 Nova miles cram Ovid. Avgur cctpa futurl. Stat. and the like, are not 
to be imitated. Du?, index, vfa&v, prees f fnincrjH, tcslb, and some other*, an- 

rart'lv feminine* 


Opifex, ids, c. s. m. an arti- 
Obex, ids, d. m. a bolt. 


Planeta, cc, m. 1, a planet. 

Pandectce, drum, m. 1, pan- 

Paries, etis, m. 4, a wall. 

Palmes, itis, m. 4, a branch. 

Poplcs, itis, m. 4, the ham. 

Postis, is, m. 4, a door- 

Pisds, is, m. 4, a fish. 

Pollis, mis, m. 4, fine flour. 

Pantex, ids, m. 4, the 

Podex, ids, m. 4, the breech. 

Pollex, 'ids, m. 4, the thumb. 

Ptdex, ids, m. 4, a flea. 

Phoenix, ids, m. 4, a phoe- 

Pons, tis, m. 4, a bridge. 

Profluens (Jluvius)^ -tis, m. 
4, a stream. 

Pugio, onis, m. 4, a dagger. 

Papilio, onis, m. 4, a moth. 

-}ms, Greek nouns in, m. 5, 
except perhaps lagopus,/. 
a certain bird. 

Pccus, iidis, f. 5, (or m.} a 
sheep : but 

Pecus, oris, n. a flock of 

Pharus, i, f. 2. d. a watch- 

Pcrimetros, i, f. 2, a circum- 

Palm, udis, f. 5, a marsh. 

Portions, us, f. G, a portico. 

Pclagus, i, n. 2, the sea. 

Pollen l , mis, n. 3, fine flour. 

Piper, eris, n. 3, pepper. 

Papdver, tris, n. 3, a poppy. 

Panaces, (indecl.) n. 4, all- 

Parens, tis, c. g. s. a parent. 

Patruelis, is, c. g. s. a cou- 

Princeps, ipis, c. g. s. a 
prince or princess. 

Pr<zs, dis, c. g. s. a surety. 

Prases, idis, c. s. m. a pre- 

Pedes, itis, c. s. m. one-on- 

Pugil, ills, c. s. m. a cham- 

Prasul, ulis, c. s. m. a pre- 

Perduellis, is, c. s. m. an ene- 

Phasclus, i, d. a pinnace. 

Palumbes, is, d. a ring-dove. 

Pumex, ids, d. m. a pumice- 

Pidvis, em, d. m. powder. 

Perdix, Ids, d.f. a partridge. 

Pcnus, i, or us, d. provi- 

Penus, oris, n. provisions. 


JRamex, tds, m. 4, a rupture. 
Rumex, ids, d. m. sorrel. 
r, names of fruits in, n. 3. 
Riidens, tis, d. m. a cable. 


Stipes, itis, m. 4, a stake. 

Sanguis, inis, m. 4, blood. 

Sorex, ids, m. 4, a rat. 

Spadix, ids, m. 4, scarlet 

Seps, sepis, ?n. 4, a serpent. 

Senio, onis, m. 4, the num- 
ber six. 

1 The gender of this noun does not seem ascertained ; nor the termination, 


Sdpio, onis, m. 4, a staff 1 . 

Sol, solis, m. 5, the sun. 

SaictT) dris, m. 5, a trout. 

Synodus, i, f. 2, a synod. 

Sindon, onis, f. 3, fine linen. 

Salus, utis, f. 5, safety. 

Senecttis, utis, f. 5, old age. 

Servians, utis, f. 5, slavery. 

Subscus, ildis, f. 5, a joint. 

Spinther, eris, n. 3, a buckle. 

Sacerdos, dtis, c. g. s. a priest 
or priestess. 

Sits, suis, c. g. s. a hog or 

Senex, is, c. s. m. an old per- 

Sardonyx, ychis, d. a pre- 
cious stone. 

Silcx, ids, d. a flint-stone. 

S/irjis, is, d 1 . a root of a 

Serpens, tis, d. a serpent. 

Scrobs, obis, d. a ditch. 

Sandy x, ids, d. J\ a kind of 

Sal, satis, ?n. sometimes n. 

Sales, (plur.) m. jests, 

Specus, its, m. J\ n. a den. 

Sexus, i, n. 2, a sex : but 

Sexus, us, m. a sex. 


Tramcs, ^tis, m. 4-, a path. 
Trrmes, if is, ?n. i, a bough. 
Tapes, e/is, m. 4, tapestry. 
TorriS) is, m. 4, a firebrand. 
Thorax, acts, m. 4, the breast, 
Tradux, iicis, m. 4, a graft. 
TridenS) tit, m. 4. a trident. 
Tor r ens, tis, in* 4, a torrent. 
Tcndo*, inis, m. 4, a tendon, i 

Ternio, onis, m. 4, the num- 
ber three. 

Tifio, onis, m. 4, a firebrand. 
Turtur, iiris, m. 5, a turtle. 
Tellus, Tiris, f. 5, the earth. 
Tribus, us, /. 6, a tribe. 
Tuber, en's, n. 3, a wen : but 
Tuber, eris, m. a fruit. 
Teslis, is, c. g. s. a witness. 
Torquis, is, d. a chain. 
Talpa^ ce, d. J\ a mole. 


Unguis, is, m. 4, a nail. 
Udo, o?iis, m. 4, a sack. 
Unio, onis, m. 4, a pearl. 
Unguen, mis, ?i. 3, an oint- 

Uber, eris, ?i. 3, an udder. 
Urpex, ids, m. 4, a harrow. 


Fectis, is, m. 4, a bar. 

Vernris, is, m. 4, a worm. 

I'omis, eris, in. 4, a coulter. 

Vertex, Ids, m. 4, the lop. 

Vortex, Jc/V, 7. 4, a whirl- 

Volvox, ods, m. 4, a vine- 

/ '////;//, tiris, in. o, a vulture. 

Vaintm, i, f. 2, a fan. 

Virtus, Mis, f. 5, virtue. 

Virus, i, n. 2, poison. 

Ver, eris, n. 3, spring. 

Vas, vdsis, n. 4, a vessel. 

Vindex, ids, c. g. s. an a- 

Vates, is. c. g. s. a prophet 
or pro])lietcss. 

I'erna, rr, r. s. m. a slave. 

1 Stirps for a tree, masc. or fern. ; for parents or children, always fem. 
An uncommon word ; generally plural. 

yarL'.tcis, d. w. a swolnvein. 
yulgusy 7, m. and n. the vul- 
gar. Zinziber, em, ?i. 3, ginger. 

The figure points out the rule to which the word is an ex- 
ception, c. s. m. denotes the word to be common in sense 
or signification, but masculine in gender. 

c. g. s. shows the word to be common in sense, but that 
it varies its gender, according to its signification, d. m. 
means doubtful, but that the masculine is preferable, d. f. 
doubtful likewise, but feminine in preference. 

By the referring figure, all the exceptions may be classed 
either according to the gender, after the manner of the Latin 
verses, since in each letter they are arranged in the order of 
masculines, feminines, neuters, &c. ; or they may be classed, 
as in the second form, according to their declension and 

Nouns differing from the common declension, are generally 

named Heteroclites. 
Deficit^ aut variat, heteroclita vox, vel abundat. 

I. Abundants have different terminations to the same case. 

II. Variants change from one declension or gender to an- 


III. Defectives want case, sometimes number. 

Observe ( 1 ), some words are of double-declension, as the 
following : 


























Rebus-p ubl i cis, 




The genitive, dative and ablative plural of jus-jurandum 
are not used. Jus is a substantive neuter, of the third de- 
clension; jurandnm the neuter gender of the future parti- 

ciple passive of the verb juro. Res is a noun feminine of 
the 5th declension, agreeing with publicus, an adjective of 
the 1st and 2nd. In double words nominatives only are 
declinable ; juris-pej'itus declines peritus only. AUer-ttter 
declines its last nominative only. Pro consule, for proco?isul, 
and the like, may be found. 

Observe (2), some words are of peculiar-declension, as the 
following : 






N Amb- 
f ? Du- 

-* iVl Jp S* 

| o, -ae, -o, 




-orum, -arum, -orum, 




-obus, -abus, -obus, 




-os, o, -as, -o, 




-0, -6, -0, 




-obus, -abus, -obus. 





Sing. Plur. 

N. Vis, 


Bos, Boves, 

G. Vis, 


Bovis, Bourn, 



Bovi, Bobus, bubus, 

Ac. Vim 

, Vires, 

Bovem, Boves, 

V. Vis, 


Bos, Boves, 

Ab. Vi. 


Bove. Bobus, bubus. 


1. Some abound in termination, as arbor, arbos. 

2. Some are of the first and third declension, as Calchas, 
ac or antis. 

3. Of the second and third, as Iber, cri or em, sequester, 
ri or ris. 

4. Of the second and fourth. Colus, Jicu^ laurus, pit 
have u in the ablative singular, and us in the nominative 
accusative, vocative plural. 

Qiiercus of the fourth makes quercoruni) and -num. Ve 
has versi, versorum, versis, as well as its regular cases. 
Domus is declined according to the verse of Alstedius, 
" Totte me, mi, mu, mis, si declinare domus vis." 


N. V. Domus, 

G. Domi (at home], Domus, 

D. Domui, Domo, 

Ac. Domum, 

Ab. Domo. 



Domorum, uum, 
Domos, us, 

5. Of the third and fifth, as pleh, is; or pleles, ei , fames, 
is or ei. 

6. Some abound in gender only, as dies, masculine and 
feminine in the singular. 

7. In termination and declension, as menda, ce ; mcndum, 

8. In termination and gender, as tonitrus, us, masculine 
tonitru, neuter. 

9. In declension and gender, as pcnus, i, or penus, its, 
masculine and feminine; and pemtm, i, or penus, oris, neuter. 

10. In termination, declension, and gender, as tether, 
eris, masculine ; and athra, <z, feminine. 

11. In oblique cases, as Tigris, idis or is s Chr ernes, 
Dares, Laches, Thales, have etis or is. 

12. Some adjectives abound in termination and declen- 
sion, as declivus, -is ; imbecillus, -is ; semisomnus, -is , exani- 
mus, -is. 


1. In gender and termination. 














a, orum. 

i or a. 
i or a. 

Masculine and neuter. 

Sibilus -um, 
Balteus -um, 





Elysium, i 1 . 

Argos, (eos) i. 

Fraenum, i, (or, a neut.) 

Rastrum, i, (or, a neut.) 

2. In gender and declension. 
2 decl. neut. P. 

Delicium, sel ~. 7 ~ , 
-^ V of the first. 

Epulum, se J J J 

Balneum, se, (or, a of the 

3. In declension only. 

2 decl. 
Jugerum, a, of the third. 

Of the third, neut. 
Vas, a, orum, of the 


4?. The following vary their 
sense according to their 
number : rostrum, for- 
tuna, facultas, mos, opis, 
<zdis or cedes, sal, popu- 
lus (populi, nations). 

1 Cceli and ccclos from the obsolete coclus are uncommon. 



1. Called aptotes, or indeclinables. 

Nouns in u are indeclinable in the singular, but regular 
ill the plural, as cornu : plural cornua, -uum, &c. 

Most nouns in i are indeclinable in both numbers, as 

Cardinal numbers, likewise, from quatuor to centum. 

Foreign words, like Job, Jerusalem., Abraham, Adam. 
Abraluz, Ada, are borrowed from a Latin nominative in 

Semis, frit, git, cepe, gausape, are singular aptotes. 

Tot, quot, and compounds, totidem, aliquot, &c. plural 

Nequam and frugi are aptotes in both numbers. 

Pondo is an aptote, added to both numbers. Duo pondo, 
two pounds. 

Mitte the adjective is a plural aptote of all genders. 

Mille the substantive is an aptote in the singular ; but re- 
gular in the plural : millia, -turn, -ibus. 

Prasto is generally considered an adverb. Satis also. 

2. Monoptotes, or words having one case. 

Nominatives. Eos (though some give it, Eois\ damnas (an 
old law contraction for damnatus}, inquies ; the adjec- 
tives, exspes, and potts, pote. 

Genitives. Dicis and nauci. Diets gratia, for form's sake. 
Res nauci, a thing of no value. 

Datives. Such words as despicatui, ostentui, &c., but they 
are found in other cases. 

Ablatives. JLrgo (for the sake of), such verbals as accitu, natu, 
jussu, injussu, promptu, permissu, admonitu, &c. noctu. 
Diu and inter dm (in the day) are formed from dies, as 
noctu from nox, but they are considered adverbs. 

Accusatives plural. Inficias, incitas or incita. Inficias <?0, 
I deny. Ad incitas (calces, understood, or lineas), or 
incita (loco) redactus, reduced to wit's end : a meta- 
phorical expression from a certain game : they come 
from the adjective incitus. 

Ablative plural. Ingratiis, or ingratis. 

Ablatives singular, and all the plural. Casse, ccelite, annali, 
fauce, ambage. This last wants the genitive plural. 
Viscere is found; and the plural, viscera, complete. 
Viscus nominative and w'sceris genitive are perhaps ob- 

3. Diptotes, words having two cases. 

Nom. and Ace. Neccsse, nccessum, adjectives neuter; voluptfj 
instar, hlr (hiris seldom), astu, a city. 

Nom. and Abl. Astus, astu (craft) ; siremps, sirempse. 

Gen. and Abl. Impetis, impete, plur. impetibus ; spontis 9 
sponte ; verberis, verbere ; jugeris, jugere (both entire 
in the plural); compedis ( seldom ) y compede, no geni- 
tive plural, but all the other cases. 

Nom. and Ace. pi. Suppetitf, suppetias ; infer ice, infer i as. 

Gen. and Abl. pi. Repetundarym, repetundis. 

Nom. sing, and pi. and Vocat sing. Mactus (magis auctus), 
macti, macte, a common word of encouragement. 

4. Triptotes, words having three cases. 

Nom. Ace. Voc. sing. Fas, nefas, nihil, nil , secus (an old 
word for scxus) and specus, when of the third declen- 
sion and neuter; epos, cacoethes, hippomanes, and 
other Greek neuters in es. See Pentaptotes. 

Nom. Ace. Voc. pi. The neuters cete, Tempe, mele, pelage. 

Nom. Gen. Ace. sing. Tantundem, tantidem. 

Nom. Ace. Abl. sing. Mane. In ablative sometimes mani ; 
vesper (vesper em seldom), vesper e. 

Ace. sing, and pi. Dicam, dicas. Dica nominat. is seldom 

Gen. Dat. Abl. sing.; Nom. Ace. Voc. pi. Feminis, -/, -e. 

Dat. Ace. Abl. sing. ; the plural complete. Preci, -em, ~e ,- 
preces, -urn, -ibus, &c. 

Nom. Ace. Voc. pi. ; all the singular. Rus, thus, fel, mel, 
hyems, hilum, solium, far, ebur, metus, and nouns of 
the fifth declension (except res and dies complete). 
The feminine, grates, has no singular. 

5. Tetraptotes, words havi?ig four cases. 

Nom. and Voc. singular wanting. Frugis, opis, pecudis, 
sordis (these have plural complete) ; ditionis (with- 
out plural) ; vicis (having all the cases plural but the 
genitive), and dapis ; for daps is not usual : plural 
dopes entire. 

6. Pentaptotes, words having t five cases. 

Gen. pi. wanting. Fax, fax, sol, vicis, labes> sobolcs, proles, 



to, os (0m). Necum and necilus are scarcely ever 
found. Chaos, melos, (cpos l \ are Greek nouns neu- 
ter, increasing in the genitive singular, and therefore 
belonging to the third declension. They have N. A. 
V. singular; and, as if from masculines of the second, 
chaos and melos have sometimes chao and melo in the 
dative or ablative. Melos has mele in the nom. ace. 
voc. pi. ; and it is sometimes found to have melos mas- 
culine in the accusative plural. The word satias is 
said not to be found in the genitive singular. It is a 
contraction of satietas, -dtis. (See Declensions R. 
V. obs.) Vis seldom has the dative singular; vires, 
-ium, -ibus, plural complete. (See the Declension 
of Irregular Adjectives, note 1.) Nemo wants the 
vocative singular; and has no plural. Such words 
as quails^ quantus^ quotus, &c. have no vocative. 


These have only the Singular' 3 * 

Proper names, most names of places (except those which 
have only the plural), most names of virtues, vices, herbs, 
liquors, metals, abstract qualities, and many others which 
may be known by the sense : as Hector, Dido, Italia, jus- 

1 See Triptotes. 

a This is the general rule, but it must be confessed to be tery vague ; for 
many words belonging to these classes hare the plural, such as : 

1. Avena, deer, Jaba, far, frumenlum, faseolus, glans, hordeum, lupinus, pi- 
sum, vicia, most of which, however, are used in the singular when quantity is 
signified. Acus (chaff), farina, lomentum, furfur (bran), are generally sin- 
gular. Furfur (a disorder) has the plural. Palea has the plural, though 
used, in the singular, for a quantity. Pollen has the plural. Piper and zin- 
ztber, with other names of spices, are singular only, except cinnamum* 

2. Tlie following names of herbs are found in the Plural. 




lapsana sagmeu 




linum sampsuchuna 




lolium satureium 




malva serpillum 




melissophyllon sesamum 




mentha stupa 




nasturtium thymus 




ocymum tribulus 




papaver verbena 




porrus ulpicum 




radix urtica. 





titia, luxiiSs hyssopuS) triticwn^ oleum., lac^ aurum^ 
macics, butyrum^ 

Aer humus omasum sitis 

aether jubar penum or supellex 

album justitium penus tabes 

argilla lardum pelagus tabum 

barathrum lethum piper venia 

cestus limus plebs ver 

coenum lues pontus vespera 

crocum lutum prolubium veternum or 

diluculum mane pubes veternus 

fimus meridies pulvis virus 

glarea mundus (ap- pus viscum or 

gelu parel) sabulum -o viscus (glue) 

giastum muscus sal (neut.) vitrum 

salum vulgus 

gluten -inum nectar 




These, and some others^ are sometimes found in the Plural. 


























[Nouns of 
the 5th declen- 
sion are seldom 
found in the 

Caryophilli, croci, hyacinthi, roste, violce, refer to the flowers. Plants yield- 
ing roots for food, often have the plural ; Inulce, napi, pastinacte, rapa, ra- 
phani, siseres, are in Pliny. 

3. Arena, cinis, lana ; aqua, aura, cruor, fcx, Jluor, latex, liquor, mel, mucus, 
mustum, oesypum, saliva, spuma, sudor, vimtm, ulva, urina ; adeps, balsamum, 
cera, gummis, medulla, pingue, used substantively, resina, thus; ces (for things 
made of that metal), electrum, orichalcum, stannum, bitumen, cccmentum, cbur, 

fumus, glarea, lignum, marmor, rubigo, sucdnum, sulfur, pecunia has pecunia 
(sums of money), nummus (money or coin). 

4. The names of many affections of the mind ; as algor, ardor, angor, color, 
candor, contemptus, fastits, fervor, furor, horror, languor, livor, metus, mceror t 
pavor, pudor, terror, vigor ; to which may be added, fragor, odor, stridor, nitor, 
pallor, pqdor, rigor, splendor, squalor, tenor (tone or accent), tepor, tumor, and 
many words of the like nature. 

5. And although every abstract quality, metaphysically considered, must 
be singular ; yet being considered as existing in a variety of subjects, their 
names are occasionally used in the plural number : hence, ambitio, avaritia, 
amaritudo, astutia, bonitas, elegantia, dementia, fortitudo, formido, gloria, ira, 
malitm, mors, sanctitas, savitia, stultitia, vita, and many more of a similar kind, 
are found in the plural. 


The following have only the Plural. 

The names of several cities, books, feasts, and sciences : 
also most adjectives of number ; as Athenae, Thermopylae, 
Parisii, Bucolica, Georgica ; Baechanalia, Otympia / mu- 
sica, grammatica , ambo t duo, tres, &c., pauci, singuli, bini, 


Add the following : 


facilitates (re- lustra [dens) 

principia (for 




- the tent) 

antae -iae 

fasces (a badge) manes 
fasti and -us manubiae 




magalia, -ium 







fines(territory) minores 

rostra (the 





Bona (goods) 

fortunae (es- 

mcenia, -ium 

sales (witti- 




cisms x ) 

brevia, -ium 


) munia 




natales (birth) 











ilia, -ium 



castra (camp) 



sponsalia, -ium 



off'uciae (tricks) 




opes (riches) 





talaria, -ium 
















tori (muscles) 



plagae (nets) 

transtra 3 




tricag j 

















1 Cicero uses sal in this sense. Sales sometimes signifies salt. 
* Transtro is found in Perseus. 


These and some others are sometimes found in the Singular. 

Angustise crates mapalia quadrigse 

decimae nares salebraa 







fores operae (work- tempora (tem- 

fori men) pies) 

furiae prim ores plerique 

fruges proceres vepres. 

literse (an epistle) praestigiae 

It may be observed that many of the foregoing are ad- 
jectives; such as bona, cani, adversaria, dirce, infer 7", super i, 
justa, majores, minores, posteri, stativa, &c. 


The indefatigable Mr. R. Johnson has given, in his ex- 
cellent Commentaries, the following list, confirmed by pro- 
per citations, of words which are sometimes found (espe- 
cially among the poets) in the plural number, with the sig- 
nification of singulars : Alta (the sea), animi, auras ; ca- 
rinte, cervices (the neck), colla, comce, connubia, corda 9 cor- 
pora^ crepuscida, currus ; exilia , frigora ; gaudia, guttura / 
hymenai ; jejunia^ judicia^ igncs, inguina^ jubte ; limina^ 
littora; mensts (a course or service of dishes); numina; odia, 
ora, ora (plur. of os), ortus, otia ; pectora ; rictus (jaws of 
one creature, or of more), robora ; silentia, sinus (the plait 
of a garment); tadce, terga, tempora (time), thalami, tori, 
viae, vultus, thura, amores (sweetheart), &c. 


Certain nouns are sometimes elegantly used in the singu- 
lar, with a plural signification, such as, miles for milites (the 
soldiery); eques for equites; ttoma?ius for Romani; pedes for 
pediteS) &c. 

The adjective multus likewise; as in the examples, Quis 
multa gracilis te puer in rosa Hor. Quam multo repetet 
Gratia milite Hor. i. e. 6n many roses, or a bed of roses; 
with many soldiers, or a large army. 


A pronoun is a word used, through necessity or for con- 
venience, instead of a noun : it has gender, case, and num- 

Pronouns are divided into four classes, viz. 
1. Demonstratives; ego, tit, sut\ 

2. Relatives; ille, ipse, iste, hie, is, quis, qui. 

3. Possess! ves ; meus, tuus, suus, nosier, vester. 

4. Gentiles or Patrials ; nostras, vestras, cujas. 
Qiiis and cujas are called also Interrogatives. 

The declension of all these has been shown, except that 
of ego, tu, sui ; and hie, is, quis and qui. 

Ego, tu, sui, are substantives ; they have no gender of their 
own, but assume the gender of the noun for which they are 
placed. They are thus declined : 


Plur. Sing. 

Plur. Sing. $ Plur. 

N. ego, 




G. me7, 

nostrum, I, 


vestrum, -i, 


D. mihT, 





Ac. me, 








Ab. me, 





The preposition cum is put after these ablatives. 
The compounds egomet, tutemet, suimet, are regular. 

T/iese are Monoptotes. 

Nom. tute. Ac. sese, tetc, the simple pronoun being 

Hie, Is, Qui and Quis, are thus declined : 






N. hie, hc, 

G. hujiis, 

D. huic 1 , 

Ac. hunc, hanc, hoc, 

Ab. hoc, hac, hoc, 


M. F. N. 

N. is, eS, id, 

G. ejiis, 

Z). ei, 

Ac. Sum, earn, id, 


Ab. eo, ea, eo, 





hi, hs>, 

horum, hiirum, horum, 


hos, has, 




M. F. N. 

ii, eS, ea, 

eorum, earum, eorum, 
ns, vel ^Is, 

eos, ^iis, ea, 

iis vel Is. 

Or hnYc, but less 








(quid or quod), 



Quern, quam, quod (quid), 

Ab. Quo, 

qua, qu5. 





Qui, qusc, qu&, 

Quorum, quorum, qu5rum> 
Quibus vcl queis, 
Quos, quas, qu&, 

Quibus vel queis. 

Qui is put for the ablative singular in all genders, rarely ab- 
lative plural. Cum is put after the ablatives of qui and quis. 


( 1 ) Compounds of hie are : N. isthic, isthac, isthoc vel 
isthuc. Ac. isthunc, isthanc, isthoc vel isthuc. Ab isthoc, 
isthac, isthoc. So illic. Hicce has all the cases that end in c 
or s, before ce* ; and hiccine all the cases having c before cine. 

(2) The compound of is is, idem, eddem, idem, which, like 
quidam, changes m before d into n. 

(3) Compounds of quis formed by prefixing ne, ?mm 9 ec, 
si and all (alms) to quis ; or adding nam, quam, que, piam 9 
or doubling quis, are : nequis, numquis, ecquis, siquis, ali- 
quis ; quisnam, quisquam, quisque, quispiam, quisquis. The 
compounds of quis, when quis is put last, have qua in the 
nominative singular feminine and neuter plural. Siquis and 
ecquis have qua or qucc. Quisquis is thus declined : N. quis-' 
quis, quidquid, or quicquid. Ac. quidquid or quicquid. Ab. 
quoquo, quaqua, quoquo. Quisquam has qu&quam, quod- 
quam, and quidquam or quicquam : Ace. sing, quenquam, the 
feminine wanting. The plural is seldom used. Some are 
doubly compounded ; as ccquisnam, used in the nominative 
only, and unusquisque, which wants the plural. 

(4-) The compounds of qui are quidam, qndcunquc, quivts, 
and quilibet, which are regular. 

All these pronouns want the vocative. 
Queis is not used in composition. 


Gen. Ejusce, cujusce, hujusmodi, ejusmodi, cujusmodi, hu- 
jusccmodi. Ac. Eccum, eccam ; eccos, eccas (from ecce, and 
is). Ellum, dlam ; dlos, ellas (from ecce and tile). 

1 Or citf, but less common. 

- This is a common rule j but hice may be fomjd in Terence, Etui. 2. 2. 38. 
Horuncc and haruncc, and, by apocope, Iwrunc and harunc may likewise be 
found ; but they are uncommon. 


Abl. Pte is put after the ablatives med, tud, sud, nostrd, 
vestrd, and sometimes after the masculine of these. 
Observations on some pronouns. 

(1) Aliquis and Quidam may be thus distinguished: the 
former denotes a person or thing indeterminately; the latter, 

(2.) Uter refers to two, and is therefore joined to compa- 

(3) Quis may refer to many, and is therefore joined with 

(4) Hie and Ille are often found to refer to two words 
going before them. Hie refers to the latter; Hie to the 
former ; but in a few instances, where no ambiguity is oc- 
casioned by it, this distinction is reversed *. 

(5) As demonstratives, Hie refers to the person nearest 
to me ; Iste to the person nearest to you; Ille to any inter- 
mediate person. In the same manner Hie is for the first 
person ; Istic for the second; Ulic for the third. Is may re- 
fer to a person absent^ 

(6) Ipse and Idem are joined to any person. Ipse is often 
joined to the primitives ego, tu, ille, sui. It may agree with 
these; but when the nominative, and the word governed 
by the verb, refer to the same person, it is better to be put 
in the nominative ; as, Mihi ipse placeo ; Te ipse laudas ; 
Cato se ipse occidit. It is often used emphatically, for per 
se ; as, Ipse prcefuit exercitui> He commanded the army in 

(7) Ille denotes honour; Iste contempt. 

(8) Tuus is used when we speak to one; as, Sumne, Co* 
riolane, in tuis castris captiva, an mater-? Vester, when 
we speak to more than one; as, Cives, miseremini cceli vestri. 

(9) Omnis, Quisque, and Utcrque, have been thus distin- 
guished : Omnis and Qiiisque are generally used when we 
speak of more than two ; Uterque always when we speak of two. 

(10) Alter is in general applied to one of two; Alius to 
one of many. But Cicero uses Primus, Secundus et Alter. 
In general Alter when repeated is to be translated by the one 
and the other ; but there is a passage in Cicero, in which 
the former Alter refers to the last antecedent ; viz. Ut enim 
cum civi alitcr contendimus, si est inimicus, aliter si compe- 
titor : cum altcro (competitore] certamen honoris, cum altero 
capitis et famce. De Off. lib. 1, 12. Alius is, in Caesar, 

1 In such instances as pontus et rtcr, Fluclibus hie tumidus, nubibus ille 
minar Ovid. Sic deus ct mrgo eat ; hir. spc cclcr, ilia (iniorc Ovid, the rela- 
tive situations of the objects may have been regarded, not the position of the 
nouns in the sentence. 


applied' to one of two; as, -Ducts leges promulgavit ; unam 
qua mercedes habitationum annuas condiictoribus donavit ; 
all am tabularum novarum. Cies. 3. Bel. Civil. Alter is 
sometimes used like Alms. When in a sentence alius is 
repeated, it is expressed in English by different terms cor- 
responding with each other; such as one, another ; some, 
others. &c. Thus, Alii domos, alii monies petebant, Some 
were going to their homes, and others to the mountains. 
Quorum alms, alia causa illata, petebat, Of whom one as- 
signing one cause, another, another, asked ; or Each of whom 
assigning a different cause, asked. 

(11) Quivis, any whom you please; Quisqvam, any one; 
and Ullus, any, are thus used : Quivis affirms ; as, Quidvis 
mild sat est, Any thing pleases me. Quodvis pati mallem, 
I would rather suffer any thing. Ullus never affirms, but 
asks or denies, that is, it may be used in an interrogative 
sentence, or in a sentence negatively expressed: as also 
Quisquam. Thus, Nee ulla res ex omnibus me angit Cic. 
Nor does any thing of all these things distress me. Nee 
quisquam eorum te novit, Nor does any one of them know 
you. In an interrogative sentence; as, An quisquam dubi- 
tabit ? Cic. Will any one doubt it ? Ullus is used in the 
same way. 

(12) Met, tui, sui, nostri, vcstri, the genitives of the pri- 
mitives, are generally used when passion, or the being acted 
upon, is denoted ; as amor met, means, the love wherewith I 
am loved. 

(13) Metis, tuus, suns, noster, vester, the possessives, de- 
note action, or the possession of a thing ; as amor meus, is 
the love which I possess and exert towards somebody else. But 
these two distinctions are sometimes reversed: thus the first; 
Nam neque tud negligentidj neque odio id fecit tuo Ter. 
Neither did he do it out of neglect towards you, nor of 
hatred towards you ; in which the possessives tud and tuo 
are used instead of tui, denoting the neglect with which you 
are neglected, and the hatred with which you are hated. 

The second; Ex unius tui vita pendere omnium Cic. That 
the lives of all depend upon your life ; in which tui is put 
instead of the possessive tud. Cicero uses insidice alicujus, 
passively, for the snares which are laid against a man, not 
for those which a man lays. 

(14-) Adjectives, participles, and verbs, which have a ge- 
nitive after them, take that of the primitives ; as, Similis mci ; 
memor noslri ,- obscrvans tui ; in di get is mci. 

(15) Partitives, numerals, comparatives, and superlatives 


take after them nostrum, vest rum ,- as, utcrque nostrum , 
primus vcstrum ,- major, maximum veslrum. But Cicero, in 
his Orations, pays no regard to this distinction. 

(16) The possessives often take after them ipshis, solius, 
unius, duorum, trium, &c., omnium, plurium, paucorum, cu- 
jusque, and the genitives of participles likewise ; which words 
have a reference to the primitive understood ; as, Dixi mea 
unius opera rempublicam esse salvam Cic. I said that the 
state was preserved by the service of me alone, Meum solius 
peccatum corrigi non potest Cic. The offence of me alone 
cannot be amended. - Scripta cum mca nemo legal, vul- 
go recitare timenlis Hor. Since nobody reads the writings 
of me, fearing to rehearse them publicly. De tuo ipsius 
studio conjecturam cepcris Cic. You may conjecture from 
your own study. In sua cujusque laude prcestantior Erasm. 
More excellent each in his own skill. Nostra omnium me- 
moria Erasm. In the memory of us all. Vcstris pauco- 
rum respondet laudibus Cic. He answers to the praises of 
you few. 

It is evident, that to all these the primitive is understood: 
thus, Meum solius peccatum is the same as Mei solius pecca- 
; but, as meum was expressed, mei became unnecessary. 


(17) Sui and Sutis are called reciprocals, because they al- 
ways refer to some preceding person or thing, generally the 
principal noun in the sentence : thus, Ctzsar Ariovisto dixil, 
turn scse (C&sarem) Gallis, sed Gallos sibi (Ccesari) bellum 
inlulisse, Caesar told Ariovistus, that he had not made war 
upon the Gauls, but the Gauls upon him ; in which se and 
sibi refer to Caesar, the principal noun. But when different 
persons are spoken of pronominally, other pronouns are ne- 
cessary for distinction's sake : thus, Cato confesses that he 
(Cato) has erred, Cato se peccdsse fatetur. Cato thinks ill 
of Caesar, and says that he (Caesar) aims at a revolution; 
De Casare male sentit Cato ; eum studere novis rebus arbi- 
tratur. Cato killed himself with his (Cato's own) sword; 
Suo se gladio conjecit Cato. He killed himself with his sword 
(that is, with the sword of any body else); illius gladio se 

These distinctions will be more fully explained by the 
following remarks : 

I. When he or his refers to the case which precedes the 
verb, sui and suits are used : as, Homo Justus nihil cuiquam> 
quod in sc transferal dclrahcL Cic, : in which sc refers to 


homo. Pythius pisca fores ad sc (Pythium) convocavit, et ab 
his petivit, ut ante suos (Pythii) hortulos piscarentur Cic. 
Had the fishermen's gardens been intended, the expression 
would have been ante ipsorum hortulos. Change the nomina- 
tive ; Piscatores erant a Pythio rogati, ut ante suos hortulos 
piscarentur : here suos refers to piscatores ; and if his is to 
refer to Pythius, it must be expressed by ante ejus hortulos. 
The noun preceding the verb is sometimes in the accusative: 
as, Dicunt Cererem antiqiiissimam a C. Verre ex suis templis 
esse sublatam Cic. ; in which suis refers to the accusative 
Cererem, which is virtually a nominative, and resolvable into 
quod Ceres &c. If I say C. Verres sustulit Cererem ex tem- 
plis suis, suis refers to Verres the nominative ; and if I wish 
to apply the pronoun to Ceres, I must say ex templis ejus. 

In such sentences as, Pater jussit Jilio 1 , ut iret in cubicu- 
lum suum, and, Verres rogat Dolabellam, ut de sua provincia 
decedat, in which there are two verbs, and two third persons, 
we must distinguish by the context which is the principal 
person, in order, generally, to refer the reciprocal to this as 
its proper nominative. 

II. The reciprocals may likewise be applied to the word 
which follows the verb, provided that it is capable of being 
turned into the nominative, without altering the sense: thus, 
Trahit sua quemque voluptas Virg. ; in which sua refers to 
quemque, the object of the verb, because it may become the 
subject, as in the equivalent expression, Quisque trahitur a 
voluptate sua. In the same manner, Regis est gubernare 
suos ; in which suos refers to regis, because we may say, Regis 
qfficium est ut (rex] gubernet cives suos. Hunc sui cives eje- 
cerunt Cic. Sui refers to hunc, because we may say, Hie 
ejectus est a suis civibus. 

III. Provided no ambiguity should arise, the reciprocals 
may be used instead of relative pronouns ; and especially 
when the first or second person is used : as, Gratias mihi 
agunt quod se (eos) med sententid reges appcllaverim Cic.; 
Suam rem sibi salvam sistam Plaut.; in Which ejus and ei 
might be used; Timet ue deseras se, or, earn Ter. Relatives 
may be used instead of reciprocals : as, Omnes boni, quan- 
tum in ipsis (or se) J'uit, Ccesarem occiderunt Cic. ; Per- 
suade nt Rauracis ut una cum Us (or secum) proficiscantur 
Caes. Perfuga Fabricio pollicitus est, si prcemium ei (or sibi, 

1 This is an uncommon construction ; for although Tacitus says, Ubi Bri- 
tannieo jussit exurgere, jubco has commonh the accusative and infinitive mood 
after it. 


viz. perfuvtc) proposuisset, se Purrhum veneno necaturum 
Cic. Qiiapropter non petit iit ilium (se) miserum putetis, nisi 
et innocens fuerit Quinct. 

( 1 ) Sometimes sui and ipse are applied to 1 the same per- 
son, in the same sentence : as, Abisari Alexander nunciari 

jussit, si gravaretur ad se (Aleccandrwii) venire, ipsum (Alex- 
anti-rum) ad eum esse venturum Curt. Ei legation! Ariovis- 
tus respondit) si quid ipsi (Ariovisto] a Cccsare opus csset, sese 
(Ariovistum) ad cum venturum Juisse ; si quid ille (Ccesar} a 
se (Ariovisto) velit, ilium (Ccesar em) ad se (Ariovistum} ve- 
nire oportere Caes. Sometimes the reciprocals refer, in the 
same sentence, both to the primary and secondary noun, 
especially when the latter becomes important, and no ambi- 
guity is thereby produced. Thus Ariovistus tells Caesar, 
Neminem secum sine sua pernicie contendisse ; that no one 
had contended with him, without suffering his own ruin. 
Secum refers to Ariovistus / sud to nemincm. It is evident 
that Ariovistus laid great stress on sua pernicie ; and that 
these two words must refer to neminem, since it was Ario- 
vistus himself who was then speaking, and whose destruc- 
tion, consequently, could not, at that time, have taken 

(2) Sims, Is, or Ipse, may likewise be used, indifferently, 
in certain cases. ^Ve may say, Cepi columbam in nido suo, 
or, in nido ejus, or ipsius. The first is equivalent to, Co- 
Iwnba a me capta cst in nido suo. And ejus or ipsius may 
be used, because nidus can refer to columba only. Suus may 
likewise be used for other pronouns, when its use cannot, 
from the sense, cause any ambiguity ; as, in Virgil, when, 
speaking of Dido's nurse ; he says, Namque suam patria^ an- 
tiqua dim ater kabcbat, in which suam cannot refer to cinis 
ater, either according to the sense, or the gender used, but 
evidently to her nurse. 

Sui also ; as, Diomjsius Jilias suas tondere docuit, instituit- 
que ut candentibus juglandium putaminibus barbam sibi, et 
capillum adurerent Cic. Here sibi cannot refer to his daiigh- 
ters, although they are the nominative to adurcrent., but to 
Dionysius himself since his daughters, it is presumed, had 
no beard. Had the sentence been, Dionysius instituit ut Ji- 
litc su<z capillum sibi adurerent, sibi must refer to Jtlite, the 
nominative to the verb. To remove any ambiguity in this 
sentence, and to make his applicable to Dionysius, we should 
say, ut capillum ipsi adurerent. 

(S) When two oblique cases are connected by a con- 
junction, the relative pronoun is rather to be used: as, Sup- 



plicium sumpsil de Jure et sociis ejus, not sin's,, lest stiis should 
refer to he, the nominative to the verb. If the preposition 
cum be used, we generally say de Jure cum sociis suis. 

(4) If the nominative or accusative precede inter, the re- 
ciprocal sui only is used : as, the nominative ; Fratres ge- 
mini inter se cum forma turn moribus similes Cic. The ac- 
cusative ; as, Fcras inter sese partus atque educatio et natura 
conciliat Cic. But when the genitive, dative, or ablative pre- 
cede, sui, or, ipse, or sometimes iste, may be used ; as, after 
the genitive, Una spes est salutis istorum inter istos dissensio 
Cic. Inter se or ipsos might have been used. After the da- 
tive ; as, Latissime patens hominibus inter ipsos societas est 
h&c Cic. After the ablative ; as, In magnis quoque auctO" 
ribus incidunt aliqua vitiosa etiam a doctis inter ipsos mutuo 
reprehensa Quinct. 

(5) Suus is sometimes put for unicuique proprtus, peculi- 
ar : as, India mittit ebur, molles sua tliura Sab&i Virg. The 
country of the Sabaei was particularly famous for myrrh, 
cassia, frankincense, and such productions. It sometimes 
indicates jitness or congruity : as, Sunt et sua dona parenti 
Virg. There are likewise for my father, fit, appropriate, 
or suitable presents. 

(6) Suus is often used without the substantive being men- 
tioned to which it refers : as, Suum cuique tribuito, Give every 
man his own (thing, negotium). Sui rcsponderunt. His sol- 
diers or countrymen answered (does or milites being under- 

(7) The reciprocals alone, are used with quisque, and they 
generally are placed before it : as, Pro se quisque acriter in- 
tendat animum Liv. Sua cujusque animantis natura est 
Cic. Every animal has its own peculiar nature. Suus is put 
after quisque in this example from Virgil ; Quisque suos pa- 
timur manes. 

(8) Sibi and sometimes tibi, mihi, &c., though not indis- 
pensably necessary, are used for the sake of elegance : as, 
Suo sibi gladio huncjugulo Ter. Ex ard hinc siime tibi ver- 
benas Ter. Expedi mild hoc negotium Ter. 

(9) The reciprocals may be applied to two distinct sub- 
jects coupled by a conjunction ; as, Liter se contendebant 
Indutiomarus et Cingetorix Caes. The manner of using cer- 
tain pronouns should be exemplified by such sentences as 
the following: " Quod ubi Ca?sar rescivit; quorum per fines 
ierant his uti conquirerent et reducerent, si sibi purgati esse 
vellent, imperavit. Tulingos, et Latobrigos, in fines sues 
unde erant profecti, reverti jussit : Ailobrogibus imperavit 

ut his frumenti copiam facererit; ipsos, oppida vicosque quos 
incenderant, restituere jussit." Cses. 


I. Regular comparison is made by adding to the first case 
of the positive in z, or for the masculine and feminine, and 
us for the neuter of comparatives ; and -ssimus -a -urn, for 
the superlative. 

1. Some adjectives in Us change is into limits for the su- 
perlative ; as agil-iS) facil-is, gracil-is, simil-is, kumil-is, -li- 
mus. Imbecillis has -limus, and from imbecillus^ -issimus. 

2. Adjectives in er, add to er 9 rimus, for the superlative. 
Celer has, from celeris, sometimes celerissimus. 

II. Adjectives in dicus 9 volus,JLcus, loqutis, change us into 

entior 9 and entissimus. Mirifcus has mirificissimus or miri- 



Adolescens, .... 

Bellus, . , 
Bonus, ., 



Deter (obsol.)... 



Dives, divitisl 
cont. ditis, ) 











Comparative. Superlative. 

adolescentior, * . 

anterior, . 

apricior, * f apricissimus. * f 

bellior,*f bellissimus. * 

melior, optimus. 

citerior, citimus. 

consultior,* f consultissimus.* 

crispior, *f crispissimus.* f 

deterior, * deterrimus. * 

dexterior,*' dextimus. 

diver sior,*f diver sissimus.*f 

divitior*f cont. 1 divitissimus * f , cont. 

ditior, j" ditissimus. 

diuturnior, * . 

exterior, * extimus, extremus. 

falsissimus. * f 

fidior,*'f fidissimus.* 

jejunior, * 


inferior,* infimus, imus. 

infinities, * f . 

interior,* iiitimus. 

ingentior. * . 


Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

In visas, invisior, * f invisissimus.*f 

luvitus, invitior,*f invitissimus.* 

luvictus, invictissimus.* 

Juvculs, junior, . 

Licens, licentior,* . 

Magnus, ........ major, maximus. 

Malus, pejor, pessimus. 

Maturus,... ...... maturiorj* maturrimus, -issimus* 

Mellitus, mellitissimus.* 

Meritus, meritissimus.* 

Multus, plus (sing, neuter) ,. plurimus. 

Nequam(z72^cZ.) 1 nequior,* nequissimus.* 

Novus, ...... novissimus.* 

Nuperus, ...,. . . nuperrimus. 

ocyor, ocyssimus. 

Opimus, opimior,* . 

Par, ...... parissimus.* 

Parvus, minor, minimus. 

Persuasus, ... persuasissimus.* 

Posterus, posterior,* postremus or postu- 

Potis, pote (mo- mus, 

noptote), ...... potior,* potissimus.^ 

Pronus, pronior, * 

prior, primus. 

propior, proximus. 

Sacer, , sacerrimus *. 

Satur,... saturior, *...... . 

Senex, senior, . 

- seqmor,..., 

- 2 satior. ., 

Sinister, sinisterior,f sinistimus. 

Silvester, sil-1 ., . * 

> sil vestrior, * . 

vestris, J 

Supinus, supinior,*f . 

Superus, superior,* supremus, summits. 

Vetus, veterior,* veterrimus. 

ulterior, ultimus. 

Words marked * are regularly compared. Those marked f 
are not often found. 


Most adjectives in His and dlis, and in bilis ; as j 

1 Nequam forms its comparison as if from neyui the genitive. 

2 Satins only, I believe, is found. 


iS) capitalist regalis, tolerabilis. Add also, arcanus, de- 
) prodivis, longinquus, propinquns. 


Participles in rus and dus^ adjectives in bundus, imus 9 inns, 
iciis, and 2/5 after a vowel (except -qum\ diminutives 
ill lus (which are in reality a sort of comparison); as ama- 
turus, amandus 9 pudibundus, limits, matutinus, odorus, famcli- 
cus, tenellus, dubim, have no simple comparison. Add to 
these, most nouns in ivus, and adjectives compounded of 
verbs and nouns ; as Jugitivtis, versicolcr, tardigradus, de- 
gener, consonus, pestifer, armiger ; and almus, mirus, egenus, 
lacer, memor 9 sospes. 

(1) Some adjectives in us pure, are found, having simple 
comparison, such as arduus, assiduus, exigims, plus *, perpe- 
tuus, strenuus, vacuus, to which add tennis ; but they have 
generally compound comparison, by magis and maxime. 

The comparison of substantives, as Nero, Neronior ; of 
pronouns, as ipse, ipsissimus ; of words already compared, 
as proximus 9 proximior ; postremus, postremissimus, is not to 
be imitated. 

(2) When the adjective does not vary its termination in 
comparison 2 , and the sense admits further intension, tl is is 
done by prefixing magis (more), and maxime (most); or, for 
diminution, minus (less), and minime (the least). The compa- 
rison of eminence denoted by very (in adjectives likewise that 
are susceptible of terminational comparison) is made by 
valde and vuknbdum, or by de 9 per, or pr& prefixed ; as d.e- 
parcus, very sparing; per- or prde-facilis 9 very easy ; permttltiy 
very many ; perpauci, very few 3 . In this state they admit no 

1 Pienlissimus is found in inscriptions. 

* It may be more a metaphysical than a grammatical remark, that, pro- 
perly speaking, no words, but such as admit of further intension, can be com- 
pared. But, in English, the word perfect, and, in Latin, jierfectus, plenttf, 
satur, &c., are compared. It is evident, that nothing can be more perfect than 
perfection, nor more full than fulness. These words, therefore, do not increase 
upon the absolute sense of the positive ; but, being compared, indicate a com- 
parative increase over something not possessing the full quality implied in the 
positive, in its absolute and complete sense ; and must, therefore, denote ap- 
proximation or tendency. Thus, "One thing is fuller than another," must 
mean, that one thing approadies nearer to fulness than the other, and presup- 
poses that neither is absolutely full. 

In nearly a similar way may be explained, the manner in which certain 
comparatives seem greater than superlatives, in the following quotations from 
Cicero : 

" Ego aii tern hoc sum miserior quam tu, quce es tniserrima." " Persuade 
tibi te mihi esse charissinnuu, sed vnulto fore cfiariorem, si &c." In these sen- 
tences the superlative is to the comparative, as a sort of positive, upon which 
the comparative is formed. 

3 Adjectives compounded with certain prepositions increasing or diminishing 
the signification of the simple noun, if the simple noun be in use and admit 
comparison, are seldom compared ; such are pradivet, pradurus ; deparcvs 


simple comparison, although the word perpaucissimi^ a very 
very few, is found. 

(3) When the superlative is wanting, the comparative is 
sometimes used in its stead : as, Adolescentiores apum, The 
younger or youngest of the bees. Juniores patrum, The 
youngest of the senators. In such instances, the bees and 
the senators are divided into two parties ; and then the com- 
parative is strictly applicable. 

For the comparison of adverbs^ see Adverbs. 


A Verb has been defined to be " that part of speech which 
signifies to be, to do, or to suffer : " or, more correctly, " that 
part of speech which predicates some action, passion, or 
state of its subject : " as, amo 9 vulneror, sto. Its essential ser- 
vice consists in affirmation, and by this property it is distin- 
guished from every other part of speech. 

To the verb belong, conjugation, voices, moods, tenses, 
numbers, and persons. 


Verbs are either simple, as amo ; or compound, as redamo. 
Primitive, as lego ; or derivative, as lectito. Regular, as arno 
or irregular, as volo ; defective, as inquam ; or redundant, as 
edo, I eat. Their termination is in o, as amo; in or, as amor; 
or in m, as sum. 

Verbs have been likewise divided into substantive, and ad- 
jective. A substantive verb denotes the affirmation of being 
or existence : as, sum, Jio 9 existo. 

An adjective verb denotes existence, but with the addition 
of some attribute or quality belonging to the subject: as, lego, 

edurus ; subhorridus, subtristis, &c. Except preedarus, which has both a com- 
parative and a superlative. But pr&stans, prcestabilis, &c. which come imme- 
diately from verbs, admit comparison ; to which add prcesens, whose simple 
noun is not in use, and prcefractus, -for, in which the signification of the simple 
noun is changed. The compounds of per derived from verbs follow the 
ame rule as those with pra : thus may be found perquisitior, pervagatior, per* 
vagatissimus, perjurior, perjurissimus, from perquiro, pervagor, perjuro or pejero. 
But when, for the sake of intension, per is prefixed to adjectives admitting 
comparison, it is joined only to the positive ; as in percarus, perdiligens, per- 
pulcher; nor are such words as percarior, -issimus, found. Vossius and Ursinus 
however, contend that the superlative also admits per, from the supposed oc- 
currence of perpaucissimus in Columella, R. R. iii. 20 ; of pertenuissimus, 
Senec. N. Quaest. ii. 10; of peroptimus, Plaut. Mostell. iii. 1. 143; of perdif- 
JpcilKmut, Liv. xl. 21 ; of perplurimum, Plin. ii. 54. But better editions have, 
in these places, tenuisrima t optinw, per difficillimnm, plurimum. 



I read, or am reading. In regard to their having a person 
as their subject, or not admitting one, they are divided into 
personal, and impersonal. 

Personal verbs are divided into active, passive, neuter 
(and neuter passive), deponent, and common. 

A verb active is that which affirms that the person or no- 
minative before it is doing something : as, amo, loquor, cur- 
ro 9 I love, I speak, I run. 

A verb passive denotes that the person or nominative, is 
suffering, or in the condition of being acted upon : as verbe- 
ror, I am beaten. 

A verb neuter denotes the state, posture, or quality of its no- 
minative: as,palleo, Iampale;sM?o, I sit; gaudeo, I am glad. 

The verb active may be considered as either transitive, or 
intransitive. When the energy or action passes from the 
agent to something else, the verb is transitive : as, amo^ I 
love. Every active transitive verb is necessarily placed be- 
tween two substantives, the agent or nominative, and the 
object or accusative. Thus when w r e say, "Achilles slew," 
our conception of the meaning is incomplete, till we supply 
" Hector," or some other object on which the agent acts ; 
which, in Latin, is always expressed in an oblique case ; as, 
Achilles interfecit Hectorem. Sometimes a clause or sentence 
supplies the place of this last: as Superbia Jecerat, Pride had 
occasioned, What ? ut heec tiberta$ esset Itetior Liv. 

When the energy does not pass from the agent to any 
extrinsic object, the verb is intransitive : as, curro, I run. 
This class contains verbs of loco-motion : as, co, redco, am- 
bulOy &c. ; verbs of internal or involuntary motion: as, stillo 9 
cado, cresco, &c. ; >verbs denoting certain employments : as, 
bajulo, fceneror^ regno, &c. These are sometimes classed with 
neuter verbs. It may be here observed, that some intran- 
sitive verbs, which, as such, cannot have an accusative after 
them, may be rendered transitive, and in this case have a pas- 
sive voice, by means of a preposition prefixed to them, which 
gives to the verb a direction of its energy. Thus some of the 
compounds of eo : as, adeo (used passively chiefly in the 
third persons), ambio, circwneo, coeo (used chiefly with so- 
cietas\ ineo, obeo, prater eo, subeo, transeo. Some compounds 
of venio : as, circumvenio, invenw, prcEvenio, and convenio 9 
which last is generally intransitive, and used passively chiefly 
in the perfect participle ; with some others *. 

1 Some of those intransitive verbs which seem to be rendered transitive, by a 
preposition, govern either an accusative, or the case of the preposition : as, Egres* 
*usJines-~Sy.\]. & Cscs. EgrediveritalemmT\, Urbe, tectis egredi-*~Ci<:, & OY. 


A neuter-passive verb is partly active, and partly passive, 
in termination ; and is passive or neuter in signification : as, 
Jio,/actus sum, to be made: or neuter; as, audeo, ausus sum, 
to dare ; gaudeo, gavisus sum, to rejoice ! . 

A deponent verb has a passive termination, with an ac- 
tive, or neuter signification : as, loquor, I speak ; morior, I 
die. It is a verb active, or a verb neuter, in or. It is called 
Deponent, from its having deposed or forsaken the active 

A common verb has a passive termination, with an active 
and passive signification : as, criminor, I blame, or am blamed. 
It is generally considered as deponent, excepting in the per- 
fect participle, which, in some verbs, has either an active, or 
a passive, signification. 

Verbs receive different names, according to their various 
natures or tendencies. 

Frequentatives denote frequency of action, and are formed 
from the supine of the primitive, by changing in the first 
conjugation, atu into ito , and in the other conjugations, u 
into o ; as clamito, dormito, pulso, from claino, dormio, pello? . 

Inceptives denote an action begun, and going on, and are 
formed from the second person singular of the primitive 
verb : thus, caleo, cales, calcsco 3 * 

1 Flo, with vapulo and veneo, words which, under an active termination, 
have the signification and construction of passive verbs, are sometimes named 
neuter-passives, and sometimes passive-neuters. To them have been added 
exulo, nubo, and liceo ; but these do not, as the former three, admit after them 
an ablative of the efficient cause with a or ab. Indeed, the real signification 
of nubo may perhaps be considered as active ; and the other two seem to de- 
note rather an accidental state, than actual suffering. 

2 Frequentatives end in to, so, xo, and, when deponent, in or : as, damito, 
jndso, ncxo, minltor. Nato, which comes from no, natu, is irregular in forma- 
tion. Scitor, or, more frequently, sciscitor, comes from scio, scitu, or from 
scisco. Pavito from paveo ; sector from scquor ; loquitor from loquor, are formed 
as if the primitives had pavitu, sectu, loquitu. Qucerito, fundito, agito, and 

Jluito, are formed from quceris, fundis, agis, and Jims, or, perhaps, from obso- 
lete supines. Some seem to be formed by changing u into ito : thus, from 
actu comes actito ; from heesu, hasito ; lectu, lectito ; scriptu, scriptito, &c. But 
perhaps these may be formed from other frequentatives now obsolete ; indeed, 
lecto and scripto are both in Horace. From frequentatives are formed others: 
as, gero, gcsto, gestito ;jacio,jacto,jactito, &c. They are all of the first conju- 

3 Inceptives are also derived from nouns, by changing the last vowel of 
the genitive into Cisco or csco : as, pucrasco, ignesco, dulcesco, from puer, ignis t 
dulcis. They are neuter, and of the third conjugation. Those which are 
formed from nouns want the preterite and supine ; the others borrow them 
from their primitives. 



Desideratives or meditatives denote desire, or an attempt, 
to do a thing, and are formed from the last supine of the 
primitive, by adding rio : as, esurio, I desire to eat, from edo, 
esu ; ccenaturio, I desire to sup, from cceno, ccenatu. 

Diminutives generally end in Ho, and diminish the sig- 
nification of the primitive: thus, cantillo, I sing a little, from 
cano ; sorbillo, I sup a little, from sorbeo. 

There are some verbs in sso, derived from other verbs, 
whose precise import and signification are not ascertained 
among grammarians : such as, capesso, facesso, petesso, a?*- 
cesso, incesso, lacesso. Capesso and facesso are termed in- 
choatives, or words importing the commencement of going ,- 
thus, capesso, I am going to take ; facesso, I am going to 
make ; to which some add viso, I am going to see. Ursinus 
calls them, with greater propriety, intensives : thus, capesso 
and facesso mean, I am taking, or doing, a thing in an ear- 
nest or urgent manner ; thus also, petesso, I very much de- 

Incesso and lacesso may be reckoned frequentatives. Ar- 
cesso, incipisso, vibrisso, have nearly the same signification 
as their primitives. 


A voice is that accident of a verb, which denotes whether 
an action or energy is confined to the agent or nominative : 
as, cado, I fall ; or is exerted by the nominative upon an ex- 
ternal object, as Amo virum, I love the man ; or is exerted 
by an external object upon the nominative, as Vir amatur, 
The man is loved. 

As only active transitive verbs exert an energy on extrinsic 
objects, and cause suffering, so these only admit a passive 
voice. The voices are two, the active and passive ; the one 
in o, as amo ; the other in or, as amor. 

As an active verb denotes that the nominative to it is 
doing something, and a passive verb, that it is suffering ; 
hence, to distinguish whether an English verb is to be ren- 
dered, in Latin, in the active or passive voice, nothing more 
is necessary than to consider whether the nominative be 
doing or suffering; Exa. John is building, Joannes <Edi- 
faat. The wall is building, Murus adificatur. The English 
is the same in both examples, but in the one, John is active; 
in the other, the wall is passive. 



Action and states of being may be predicated, as either 
certain or contingent, free or necessary, obligatory or op- 
tional ; hence arises the accident or circumstance of verbs, 
called a mood or mode. 

There are four moods: the indicative, the subjunctive, 
imperative and infinitive. 

The indicative asserts, and interrogates; as Amo, I love; 
Non amo, I love not; Dixit aliquid? Did he say any thing? 

When the sense is purely indicative, and the second form 
of the verb is subjoined to some conjunctive, adverbial, or 
indefinite term, the mood is said to be subjunctive; as Eram 
miser, cum amarem. When I was in love. In tantd pau- 
pertate decessit, ut qui efferretur yix reliquerit Nep. that 
he scarcely left. When the word expresses what is contin- 
gent or hypothetical, having the same signification as debeo, 
volo, possum, with an infinitive, and thus denoting duty, will, 
ability, or liberty, the mood is, strictly speaking, potential. 
When subjoined, it has been termed the subjunctive poten- 
tial. When it denotes a wish, the mood is said to be opta- 
tive. It may be remarked, however, that when the second 
form of the verb is used potentially or optatively, the ex- 
pression is, probably, elliptical; and that; the periphrasis 
with possum, volo, licet, &c., is employed, and not this form 
of the verb, when the proposition is absolute and indepen- 
dent, or where the power, liberty, will, or duty, is to be em- 
phatically expressed ! . 

The imperative commands, entreats, or permits. 

The infinitive expresses the mere energy of the verb, rnd 
has neither number, person, nor nominative before it ; but 
approaches nearly to the signification of a verbal noun. 


As all verbs have their essence in motion or in rest, and 
as motion and the privation of it imply time, so verbs come 
to denote time. And hence the origin and use of tenses, 
which are so many different forms assigned to every verb, 
to show the various times in which the attribute expressed 
by that verb may exist. 

The tenses are five : the present, preterimperfect, preter- 
perfect or preterite, preterpluperfect, and future. 

1 For an able and elaborate explanation of the nature and use of the subjunc- 
tive and the potential mood, see Crombie's Gymnasium, 2nd ed. vol. ii p. 320. 



A personal verb admits a person or a thing as its subject 
or nominative. As one or more persons may speak, be 
spoken to, or spoken of, there are two numbers ; the singu- 
lar, which speaks of one, and the plural, which speaks of 
more than one; and three persons in each number. Ego, 
tu, ille or ilia, are the first, second and third persons singu- 
lar ; nos, vos, illi or lllce^ the first, second and third persons 
plural ; and to each of these the verb has appropriate varia- 
tions in its termination: thus, Ego amo 9 I love; Tu amas, 
Thou lovest, &c. Two or more persons may become the 
subject ; but, as the first person is preferred to the second, 
and the second to the third, ego joined to tu or ille is equi- 
valent to 7ios ; tu joined to ille or illi, to vos. 

All nouns in the singular, belong to the third person sin- 
gular ; those that are plural, to the third person plural. 

Pronouns, participles or adjectives, having nouns under- 
stood to them, belong to the third person, 

Qui takes the person of the antecedent. 

Ipse may be joined, according to the sense, to any person. 


To verbs belong participles, gerunds, and supines. 

A participle is a part of speech derived from a verb, par- 
taking of the nature of the verb, and of an adjective; of the 
latter, as agreeing with a noun ; of the former, as being di- 
stinguished into different times, and governing the same 
case as the verb, but differing from it in this, that the parti- 
ciple implies no affirmation. 

Gerunds are so called because they signify the thing as it 
were in gerendo (antiently written gerundo], and, along with 
the action, convey an idea of the agent. 

A gerund is a participial noun, of the neuter gender, and 
singular number, declinable like a substantive, having no 
vocative, construed like a substantive, and governing the 
case of its verb. 

A supine is a verbal substantive, of the singular number, 
and fourth declension, having the same signification as the 
verb. There are two; one in urn, called the first supine, 
which governs the case of the verb, and is supposed to be 
an accusative; another in u, called the second supine, sup- 
posed to be an ablative, governing no case, and generally 
having a passive signification. 


There are four participles ; one ending in am or ens, and 
another in rus, both generally active ; one ending in dus, 
always passive ; and another ending in tus, sus, or xus (and 
one participle in uus, mortuus\ generally passive, but some- 
times active, or common, according to the nature of the 

Active verbs have two participles : the present ending in 
72S, as amans ; the other in rtts, as amaturus. 

Verbs passive have two : one ending in tus, sus, or xus> 
as amatus, visus, ftexus ; the other in dus, as amandus. 

Neuter verbs have two participles : as sedens, sessurus. 

Active intransitive verbs have frequently three: as carens y 
cariturus, carendm ; and sometimes four, as jurans, juratu- 
rus, juratus, jurandus. 

Neuter-passive verbs have generally three : as gaudens, 
gavisus, gavisurus; audens^ ausus, ausurus from gaudeo and 
audeo. Audendus is found in Livy. Fido has orityjfdens 
and Jisus ; soleo, solens and solitus. Fio, though ranked 
among these, is a passive verb, and has four participles *. 

Deponent verbs of an active signification have generally 
four participles; as secptens, secutums, secutus, sequendus, 
from scquor. 

Those of a neuter signification have generally but three ; 
as labensy lapsus^ lapsurus, from labor. But fruendus, fun- 
gendus 9 gloriandus, medendus, potiundus, vescendus, utendus y 
ai'e found; the reason of which is, that their verbs originally 
governed an accusative, or were considered as active. 

Common verbs have generally four participles : as dtg- 
?ia?is, dignaturus, dignatus^ dignandus^ from dignor. Their 
perfect participle sometimes signifies actively, and sometimes 
passively : as, Adeptus victoriam^ Having obtained the vic- 
tory, or Victoria adepta^ The victory being obtained. 

All participles are adjectives ; those ending in ns of the 
third declension ; the rest, of the first and second. 

Gerunds and supines come from active, neuter, and de- 
ponent verbs : as, docendum, currenditm, loquendwti ; lectum^ 
lectu ; cubitum, cubitu , deprecatum, deprecatu from doceo, 
lego, cubo 9 deprecor. 

^ ' Diomcdes mentions _ficns as the present participle of Jlo. Fio is now con- 
sidered as the passive voice offacio, which has two active and two passive par- 
ticiples, , faciens, facturus, factus, faciendus, the two last being formed from 
the antient factor. 



Present Tense. Amo. 

1. The present tense denotes that an action is going on : 
as, cedificat) he builds ; domus (Edificatur^ the house is build- 
ing. Historians and poets sometimes describe past actions, 
in this tense, in order to give animation to their discourse, 
by bringing them, as it were, under immediate observation. 
Thus Livy ; Ad. equites dictator advolat obtestans ut ex equis 
descendant, Dicto paruere> desiliunt ex equis, provolant in 
primum, et pro antesignanis parmas objiciunt. The dictator 
flies forward to the cavalry, beseeching them to dismount 
from their horses. They obeyed; they dismount, fly forward 
to the front, &c. It may be observed that both present and 
past tenses are used together; as paruere in the last sentence. 

2. Any general custom, if still existing, may be expressed 
in this tense: thus, Apud Parthos signum datur tympano, et 
non tuba Justin. Among the Parthians the signal is given 
by the drum, and not by the trumpet. 

3. Those truths which are at all times true, are generally 
expressed in this tense: as, Ad pcenitendum properat, citb 
quijudicat. He hastens to repent, &c. 

4. In Latin, as in English, this tense may express futu- 
rity : as, Qudm mox navigo Ephesum -Plaut. As soon as I 
sail, or shall sail, &c. 

Preterimperfect tense. Amabam. 

1. The preterimperfect expresses an action as passing, 
some tune ago, but not yet finished ; as <zdificabat> he was 
building ; domus (zdificabatur, the house was building. Ibam 

forte via sacra Hor. I was going accidentally, &c. Irrue- 
rant Danai, et tcctum omne tenebant. And were, at a cer- 
tain time referred to, in possession of the house. 

2. It likewise denotes what is usual or customary : as, le- 
gebat, aiebat, he was wont to read, he was wont to say. In 
agmine nonnunquam equo, scepius pedibus anteibat Suet He 
was wont to go, or in the habit of going ; or, as it is some- 
times expressed in familiar language, he would go before, 

3. It is sometimes used instead of the imperfect subjunc- 
tive : as, Anceps certamcn erat, ni cquitcs supervehtsscnt, The 
battle had been, or would have been, esset. 


Preterperfect tense. Amavi. 

1. When we mean to say that an action was completed 
in past time without particular reference to the present, a 
circumstance which is expressed in English by a perfect ge- 
nerally ending in ed ; or that an action was finished in any 
portion of a space of past time which is bounded by the 
present, and not supposed or considered to be interrupted 
by any intervening circumstance, which is expressed in En- 
glish by have and the perfect participle, we use the preter- 
perfect tense: as, amavtt, he loved, or has loved. Ora- 
tionem hujuscemodi habuit Sail. He made a speech, &c. 

Turn freta diffudit, rapidisque tumescere ventis 
Jussit, et ambitce circumdare litora terrte Ov. 
Then he poured out and ordered, &c. Themistocles ad te 
veni. I Themistocles have come to you. Hujus ad memo- 
riam nostrum monumenta manserunt duo Nep. Have re- 
mained, &c. 

The indefinite time of this tense is sometimes coupled 
with the passing time of the imperfect : as, Conticuere om- 
nes 9 intentique ora tenebant Virg. All preserved silence, 
and were keeping &c. Themistocles units restitit ; et uni- 
verses pares esse aiebat; disperses testabatur perituros Nep. 
Although the action implied in both perfects may have existed 
prior to that which is contained in the imperfects, (which 
tense may be used to show that the action was continued 
and progressive,) yet it appears, that afterwards^ notwith- 
standing the diversity of tenses, the progression of the ac- 
tion of both is contemporary. 

2. This tense is sometimes used, like the present, to ex- 
press an action of that kind which may be mentioned in any 
time : as, Neque ille aut doluit miserans mopem, aut invidit 
habenti ; in which the feelings resulting from the principles 
of a Stoic, at all times the same, are here expressed by Virgil, 
in past time. 

3. It is sometimes used instead of the pluperfect indica- 
tive: as, 

Qua postquam evolvit, cascoque exemit acervo^ 
Dissociata locis concordipace ligavit Ov. 
Which after he sorted (had sorted) and took (had taken) 
from the confused mass, &c. 

4?. It is poetically used instead of the imperfect, or plu- 
perfect subjunctive : as, Nee veni nisi fata locum sedemque 
dedisscnt Virg, Neither would I have come, venissem. 
5. In verbs in 0r, this tense is double: as, amatus swn 9 vcl 

fuL It has been generally supposed that the former of these 
two expressions is used when we mention an action past, 
without any regard to the precise time : as, Domus est cedifi- 
cata, The house was built ; and that sometimes it expresses 
time just past, and consequently bounded by the present: 
and that Domus cedificata fuit implies that the house was 
built, that is, was finished at some remote period of time ; 
but many instances can be produced of the promiscuous use 
of these two forms ! . Thus, Filius huic Jato diwim prolesque 
virilis nutta fuit> primaque oriens erepta juventd est .ZEn. 
Was snatched away, &c. Occisus est 45 imperil anno 
Eutr. He was slain. In quibus es venata montibus Ov. 
Have you been hunting. Tune es qusesita per omnes, nata, 
mihi terras Ov. Have you not been sought for, &c. As- 
suetus studiis mollibus ipse fui Id. I have been accustomed, 
&c. Janua sed nullo tempore aperta fuit Ov. Has been. 
Neque vero non fuit apertum Nep. Was it evident, &c. 
But some of these may be considered as adjectives. 

In some verbs the distinction seems to be maintained. 

Linacer says that pransus sum denotes an action imme- 
diately past ; pransus fui, an action past at some distance 
of time. And Cicero uses the expression, Qui in patria 
Junditus delenda occupati et sunt, et fuerunt. Who are em- 
ployed, or have been employed (up to the present time), 

1 The promiscuous interchange of several tenses which appear to be differ- 
ent in their nature and conformation, may have arisen from a variety of causes. 

1. From the impossibility of fixing a standard, by a reference to which the 
different kinds and minute gradations of time might be ascertained. All kinds 
of time are relative, and to be ascertained by some fixed boundary. The present 
time has been adopted as this boundary, that which is on one side being called 
past time, and that wjiich is on the other, future time. But it happens, that, 
as time cannot be arrested, this boundary itself is every moment shifting, and 
what was future the last moment, is present this moment, and is, at the com- 
mencement of the next, added to the past; the fact being that present time, 
(although we speak of the present moment,) like a mathematical point, can 
have its momentary existence in idea only. 

2. In relating past events it sometimes happens, that this portion of time 
which we denominate present, and by which other times are to be ascertained, 
is supposed fixed at different periods. We sometimes relate past actions, as if, 
while we are speaking, we were transferred back, and were present during the 
time of their being carried on ; or, which is nearly the same, we bring them 
forward, and relate them in present time, as if they were happening during 
the time of recital. 

3. When the sense has not been rendered ambiguous by the use of one 
tense instead of another, they may have been used promiscuously ; but this 
does not prove the identity of their significations. 

4. An inaccuracy in ascertaining the real import of some Latin tenses may 
have arisen from the ambiguous, or various ways, in which we express the 
import of certain tenses, in our own language. Thus, amor is expressed by 
I am loving, I am a-loving, I am in-loving (all understood passively, in tbe 
same way as, when we say, He is training, or in -training, we mean that the 
person is under a certain regimen), I am in the stale of being loved, and, 
usually, I am loved, &c. Amctiar has been expressed, as the former, I waa 


and who were employed (at some remote time past). It has 
been remarked that sum and eram with the perfect participle 
are commonly used to constitute the perfect and pluperfect, 
passive ; Jut and Jucrajn, very seldom. 

The Preterpluperfect tense. Amaveram. 

1. When we mean to say that an action was completed, 
before some other action took place, which also is past, we 
use the preterpluperfect tense: as, ffdificaverat) he had built. 
Before the succours arrived, he had conquered the enemy 

hostes superaverat. 

2. It is sometimes used among poets, and prose writers 
too, for the perfect indicative, and pluperfect subjunctive : 
as, Dixeram a principle, ut de republicd silerctur Cic. I 
have said, &c. Si mens non Iceva fuisset, impulerat, &c. 
JEn. He would have impelled, impulisset, or, according to 
the same idiom in English, had impelled, &c. 

3. In verbs in or this tense is double : as, amatus eram, vel 
Jueram, the former denoting that I was loved at some time 

past ; the latter, that I had been loved before some time past. 
But like the compound perfect, both forms (of which the 
first is the more common) are used promiscuously, accord- 
ing to the common signification of the pluperfect. 

4. In some instances the participle seems to be considered 
as little different from an adjective, and then eram is trans- 
loving, I was in-loving, I was being loved, I was in the state, or custom, of 
being loved, I was loved, &c. Now, it is evident that, in such expressions as 
I am loved, the house is built, he was loved, loved and built refer to an action 
completed, and are inapplicable to an action incomplete and progressive, such 
as must be predicated in that tense which expresses action going on, and not 
finished ; for, in amor, the suffering is unfinished, progressive and present, 
and not perhaps to be clearly expressed in English by the perfect participle, 
without circumlocution. Amabar likewise denotes an action that was passing ; 
but in / was loved, as in / am loved, the suffering is finished, the one in past 
time indefinitely, and the other in past time connected with present time. The 
progression of action can be indicated only by the participle in ing : as, The 
house is building, Domus ecdificatur. But as this participle has both an active 
and a passive signification, its use in this way often becomes ambiguous, and 
the meaning is then to be discovered by an examination of the context. In- 
deed, if we say The man is teaching, is murdering, or is esteeming, we are in- 
variably inclined to consider the man as acting, not acted upon ; for whether 
it arises from habit, or from something in the nature of this participle, it is dif- 
ficult to be reconciled to the use of it in a passive sense, when the subject is a 
person ; and, as has been already observed, if we use loved, esteemed, we do not 
mark progression exclusively. But, when the historian is relating past actions, 
in present time, he uses with great propriety the perfect participle : thus, In 
quo facto domum revocatur, accusatus capitis absolvitur ; multatur tamen pe~ 
cunil, $-c. Nep. He is recalled home, he is acquitted, fined, &c. For 
some further remarks on this subject, see Grant's English Grammar, pp. 57, 
64, 65, 85, 86. It would, there, appear, that the perfect participles of verbs 

ing imply progression, or do not necessarily indicate cessation. 


lated was : as, Neque id tarn Artaxerxi, quam c&teris erat 
apertum Nep. Neither was that evident, &c. Fimtusque 
norxEJam labor artis erat Ov. And the labour of the new 
art was now finished. Primd luce ex superioribus locis, qiue 
C&saris castris erant conjuncta, cernebatur equitatus Cass. 
Which were next to, or adjoining to. 

The Future tense. Amabo. 

1. This tense is used when we mean to express that an 
action will be going on, some time hence, but not finished : 

as Ccenaboy I shall sup, or be supping; Domus cs 
The house will be building. 

2. In Latin, as in English, the second person of this 
tense is used imperatively; as in the divine precepts, Non De- 
cides, non furaberis, &c. Thou shalt not kill, steal, &c. It 
is used by profane writers likewise : as, Tu kcec silebis ; Cice- 
ronem puerum curabis, et amabis Cic. You will keep these 
things secret ; you will take care, &c. 

The tense, as used in this last sentence, seems half impe- 
rative, and half future; the former, as conveying, very faintly 
and delicately, a desire that the things may be done ; and 
the latter, as intimating the idea or belief that they will be 


The present, the imperfect, and the future tenses, are 
used when we mean to express that an action is, was, or 
will be, going on. The perfect, pluperfect, and perfect fu- 
ture (sometimes called the second future, and sometimes, 
though improperly, the future subjunctive, under which title 
it will be hereafter explained) are used when we mean to ex- 
press the perfection of an action. 

According to the idiom of the English language, it some- 
times happens that those actions which, in English, are pre- 
dicated ip the three latter tenses are expressed, in Latin, by 
the three former : thus, when we mention that an action has 
existed for some time, and. is still continuing, we use, in En- 
glish, the perfect ; but in Latin, the present. And if, in En- 
glish, the pluperfect has been used, in Latin the imperfect 
is used. Thus, I have been, and still am, is expressed in 
Latin by the present. I had been, and, at a particular time, 
was, is expressed by the imperfect '. Exa. Plus jam sum 

1 It is not improbable that this peculiarity in the English tenses arises from 
the nature of the auxiliaries. For, although haw joined to been, or to any 
perfect participle, constitute:- a past tciibc, have is the present tense of a verb, 


libera quinquennium Plaut. I have been free more than 
five years. Una cum gente tot annas bella gero j5n. I 
have been waging war (and now am), &c. Audiebat jam- 
dudum verba querentis Liber Ov. Had heard, or been 
hearing, and, at a certain past time, was hearing. Te annum 
jam audientem Cratippum Cic. You who have been at- 
tending to (and are still attending to) Cratippus. Huic le- 
gioni et Casar indukerat prtzcipue, et propter virtutem con- 
fidebat maxime Caes. He not only may have had great 
confidence in it, but still did confide in it. The tokens of 
esteem and kindness which he might have shown, had oc- 
curred some time ago. They were transient and occasional; 
but his confidence was still existing, and was permanent and 

A similar analogy exists in regard to the future ; for that 
action which, in English, is expressed in the perfect future, 
is expressed, in Latin, by the future : as, Tomorrow we shall 
have been three months in town. Cras erimus tres menses 
in urbe. 

To the foregoing observations there are very few excep- 


In Latin, some indefinite words and adverbial conjunc- 

and denotes present possession. In the same manner, had, which, with a per- 
fect participle, constitutes the pluperfect, is, in itself, the perfect of the verb 
have, and denotes merely past possession : thus, I have been free more than 
five years, means I now possess the action expressed by been-free, i. e. the ac- 
tion, or rather the condition, of liberty, the existence of which is perfected. I 
had been free more than five years, when a certain event happened, means I 
possessed, as in the former example, the perfected existence of more than five 
years' liberty, and at a time too identical with that of the other event Erara 
liber. Tomorrow I shall have been five years free, means I shall possess the 
perfected existence of five years' liberty Ero liber. 

The idiom of the German is the same as that of the English, in which have 
and had, and, in some verbs, am and were, with the participle, constitute the 
perfect and pluperfect, as our have and had. Thus, How long have you been 
in London ? Wie langt sind sie zu London gewesen ? How long had you been 
in London, when Wie lunge waren sie zu London gewesen, da 

The idiom of the Greek is the same as that of the Latin : thus, n^i *A^^ 
ytviirfai, \yu lipi, John viii. 58, translated, according to the Greek idiom, Be- 
fore Abraham was, I am ; but expressed according to the English idiom, it 
should be, Before Abraham was [born], I have been, or I have existed. 

The modern languages, derived from the Latin, follow, I believe, the Latin 
idiom. Of the Spanish and the French, I can speak with a little certainty. 
Thus, How long have you been employed in this business? is expressed in 
Spanish by, Quanta tiempo ha que esta Vm. empleado en este asunto ? In French 
by, Combicn y a-t-il que rous etes employe dans c.ette affaire ? How long had 

you been employed in this business, when ? In Spanish, Quanta tiempo 

habia que estaba Vm. empleado en este asunto, quando ? In French, Com- 

bien y avoit-il que vans etiez employe dans cette affaire, quand < ? 


tions may govern the subjunctive, when the sense is uncon- 
ditionally assertive, or indicative. Certain conjunctions also 
require the subjunctive mood after them, independently of 
the sense. In English, conjunctions, as has been remarked 
by Dr. Crombie in his learned and ingenious treatise on the 
Etymology and Syntax of the English Language, govern 
no mood, the sense alone determining the mood that should 
follow them. Hence it happens, that, in Latin, certain in- 
definite words and adverbial conjunctions l may, and certain 
conjunctions must, govern the subjunctive, when, in the 
English, the use of the subjunctive would, according to the 
nature of the language, be inconsistent with, or not clearly 
expressive of, the meaning intended to be conveyed ; and 
from these circumstances, arising from contrasting the dif- 
ferent ways of using the same mood in the two languages, 
has originated what has been improperly named, in Latin, 
the false subjunctive. 

The following are examples : Rogas me quid tristis ego 
sim. Ter. Why I am sad. Quam dulcis sit libertas., bre- 

viter proloquarPhdzdr. how sweet liberty is. Quum 

C&sar Jicec animadvertisset. Had observed. Adeo benevolus 
eraty ut omnes amarent. That all men loved him. In all 
these examples the verb is really subjunctive. In many in- 
stances the meaning may be sufficiently obvious, whichever 
mood may be used in English: thus, Vehementer eos incusat; 
primum quod, aut quam in partem^ aut quo consilio duceren- 
tur, sibi quccrcndum, aut cogitandum, putarent Caes. Into 
what part, or with what design, they were, or might be, con- 
ducting (being conducted). 


Present tense. Amem. 

The present tense expresses contingency going on either 
in present or future time. It has generally the signs may, 

1 It appears to me that, strictly speaking, the real government of conjunc- 
tions is seen only in what is termed the false subjunctive. In such expressions 
as, Lego ut discam, Oro ut redeat, it is evident, that, independently of the con- 
junction, the sense requires the potential mood. Not so, in such expressions 
as, Adeo benevolus erat ut omnes amarent, That all men loved him ; for here the 
sense is purely assertive, or indicative, and yet the conjunction ut, by its own 
power, causes the verb to be put in the subjunctive; and indeed, although, in 
speaking of these two moods, their names are generally used indifferently, 
their terminations being the same, this seems the real character of the subjunc- 
tive, its proper English being indicative :thus we say in the present also, Tarn 
dives es ut nescias, You are so rich that you know not not that you cannot , or 
may not, know. 


might, could, can> Would, should : and in many instances is 
equivalent to the verbs debeo, possum or licet, and volo, with 
an infinitive, either in interrogative, or declarative sentences. 
Mediocribus, et quis ignoscas vitiis teneor Hor. Which 
you may excuse. Quam sanctc jurabat, ut quivis facile pos- 
sit credere Ter. Might ! believe ; not may. Or at a Ccc&are 
ut det sibi veniam Caes. He begs of Caesar that he would 
give him leave. 

Debeo implied. 

Quid me ostentem ? Cic. Why should I boast ? 

Plures reperias ad discendum promptos. You may find 
many ready, &c. Tamen ea faciatis e quibus appareat vo- 
luptatem vos, non officium, sequi. By which it may appear 
that ye pursue pleasure, &c. Non habcs quid arguas Cic. 
You have nothing which you can blame. 

This tense has this meaning, when the clause of the po- 
tential signifies end, or purpose, with ut, quo, ne : as, Lego 
ut discani, I read that I may learn. 


Quod si liccc urbs vocem emittat, non hoc pacto loquatur ? 
Would it not speak ? 

This tense may be used, 

1st. -When the clause of the relative is the predicate : as, 
Erunt qui audaciam ejus reprehendant Cic. There will 
be persons who will censure (or blame) his boldness. Here 
the verb is subjunctive. 

2dly. When the clause denotes the end or effect of some 
former verb : as, Nunquam efficies ut judicem. You will 
never cause me to judge. 

Sdly. When the clause is indefinite : as, Ncscio ubi sit. I 
know not where he is. 

1 May denotes present liberty ; might and might have, past liberty. Can 
denotes present ability ; could and could have, past ability. Would and should^ 
the preterites of will and shall, denote, the one, past volition, and the other 
past obligation. But might, could, would, and should, though preterites, are 
used to denote present time likewise ; but in this case congruity in the tenses 
must be observed. Thus I may say "I may go if I choose," or, " I might 
go if I chose." In the former, the liberty and inclination are each expressed 
as present. In the latter, although liberty and inclination be expressed in the 
preterite, present time is implied. Thus also in Latin, the imperfect potential 
expresses present time : as, Irem si vellem, I might go if I chose. The de- 
pending action, which, in English, is expressed by an Infinitive, is future, or 
subsequent to the time expressed by the auxiliary; hence it is, that the poten- 
tial mood implies, in regard to execution, futurity. The modal time, however, 
depends upon the leading words which are implied in the signification. 


4thly. When the clause signifies a probable consequence 
of a conditional or contingent event : as, Nam si altera ilia 
magis wstabif, forsitan nos rejiciat Ter. He perhaps will 
(may) reject us. 

5thly. It is used elegantly after fore or futurum esse, and 

when the following verb wants the future participle: as, Con- 

Jido fore ut utamur olio genere literarum. I trust that we 

shall use another kind, &c. In spem veniebat, fore, uti per- 

tinacid desisteret Caes. That he would desist. 

6thly. It is generally used in interrogative sentences, when 
in English we employ shall, a sign of the future tense. Thus 
eamne ? Shall I go ? Quid si non veniet, maneamne usque 
ad vesperum ? Ter. Shall I remain ? The reason of this 
usage seems to be that shall, originally equivalent to / owe 
or / ought, is implied in this tense. Thus, Quid faciam ? i. e. 
Qiiid facere debeo ? What shall I do ? or, what ought I to 
do ? Non earn ? Nonne ire debeo ? Should I not go ? Ought 
I not to go ? 

When the present potential implies volo, the will is ge- 
nerally signified as present, and the execution as future; and, 
therefore, the thing may be expressed in the present poten- 
tial, or in the future indicative. 

in regard to such examples as Rogo ut facias, I request 
that you will do it, it may be observed, that, although the 
execution of the request must be future in regard to the re- 
quest itself, yet as the one may be supposed immediately to 
follow the other, so as in the mind of the speaker to be al- 
most contemporary events, the Latins expressed it in the 
present tense. 

Preterimperfect tense. Amarem. 

The imperfect is used to signify a contingent passing event, 
either in past, present, or in future time. Si fata fuissent, 
ut caderem, meruisse manu Virg. If it had been my fate 
that I should fall. Utinam jam adesset Cic. I wish he 
were now present. Si possem, sanior essem Ov. If I could, 
I would be wiser. Adolescenti ipsi eriperem oculos : post hcec 
prtsdpitem darem Ter. I would tear out the eyes of the 
young man himself, and afterwards would throw him down 

It likewise seems in some instances to imply possum, volo, 
and debeo. . 


Putares nunquam accidere posse, ut verba mihi deessent 
Cic. You might think. 



istuc facerem ? Would I do that ? 

Non venirem ? Should I not come ? 

The use of this tense, as well as of the present, depends 
upon the tense of the preceding verb. 

If the clause depend upon a verb implying past time, or 
upon a future infinitive governed by a verb of past time, 
this tense is used : as, Rogavi ut faceres, I requested you to 
do it. In spe?n veniebat fore ut desisteret, He was in hopes 
he would desist. The sense will point out the exceptions ; 
as, Mortuus est ut nos vivamus, He died that we may live. 
When the sense of the leading verb is present-perfect, the 
present subjunctive sometimes follows : as, Ea ne (ut non) 
me celet, consuefeciJiUum Ter. I have accustomed. If the 
preceding verb be present or future, the present of the sub- 
junctive must be used; as, Moneo ut caveas, I advise you to 
take care. Legam ut discam, I will read that I may learn. 
Confido fore ut utamur, I trust we shall use. But these rules 
are sometimes infringed ; as, Dumnorigi, ut idem conaretur, 
persuadet Cses. Non puto te expectare quibus verbis eum 
commendarem Cic. Yet on another occasion he says, Nihil 
jam opus est te expectare quibus verbis eum commendem. 
Subjunctively, Quo factum est, ut brevi tempore illustraretur 
Nep. became famous. 

Preterperfect tense. Amaverim. 

This tense denotes a contingent action which may be al- 
ready past, or which will be past at some future time 1 . The 
common signs are may, might, would, or should, have. 

Errarim fortasse Plin. Perhaps I might be in an error. 
Injussu tuo, imperator, extra ordinem nunquam pugnaverim, 
non si certam victoriam videam Liv. I never would fight. 

1 The author of the article, Grammar, in the Encyclop. Brit, seems to deny 
this tense the power of expressing past contingency, which indeed he thinks 
cannot exist. In adducing this opinion, he a] -pears to me to confound two 
things perfectly distinct, viz., objective, and subjective contingency. That 
there can be no objective contingency in a past action, is sufficiently obvious. 
What is past, is certain, and, therefore, cannot be contingent. A past action, 
however, may be considered as an object of subjective uncertainty, or contin- 
gency. Thus I may say, " Perhaps I may have written such words, but, if I 
hare, I have no recollection of it." Forsan ita scripserim. It is, doubtless, 
true that I must either have written, or not have written, and, therefore, th 
affirmative, or the negative, is objectively certain. But, subjectively, it is not 
so ; it is to me as uncertain as any contingent future event. This distinction 
is familiar to every logician. See Watts's Logic, part 2, chap. 2. Crombie 
on Necessity, p. 127. 


Quis hunc vere dixerit divitem ? Who would truly call him 
rich ? Videor sperare posse, si te viderim, et ea qu& premant, 
et ea qua impendeant mihi, facile transiturum Cic. If I 
can see you, or When I shall be able to see you. It is not 
commonly used to express past contingency ; for, as John- 
son observes, Videris, si officer is, would not be used for, You 
might have seen it, had you been there ; but Vidisses si qf- 

This tense is often used by writers when they declare 
their own opinion : as, De Menandro loquor, nee tamen ex- 
cluserim alias Quint. Nor do I (would I) exclude others. 

In verbs in or, this tense is double, amatus sim \elftieiim, 
as in the indicative mood. 

It is sometimes used in concessions : as, Parta sit pecunia 
Cic. Suppose the money were gotten. Or as an impera- 
tive, as will be hereafter mentioned. 

Preterpluperfect tense. Amavissem. 

This tense is used to express a contingent event, to be 
completed in time past ; which contingency is generally fu- 
ture as to some past time mentioned in the context. The usual 
signs are ; had, might have, would have, could have, should 
have, or ought to have. Si jussisset, paruissem. If he had 
commanded, I would have obeyed. Mortem pugnans oppe- 
tisses, Thou shouldest have met death, righting ; or oughtest 
to have met. Boni vicissent, The good might have con- 
quered. Quid tibi cum pelago ? terra contenta fuisses Ov. 
You might have been content, Verum ancepsfuerat pugnce 
fortuna ; fiiisset -Virg. It might have been so ; suppose 
that it had been so. 

It must often ye expressed, in English, like the imperfect 
subjunctive. Mtilta pollicens, si conservasset Nep. Pro- 
mising many things, if he would preserve him. Responde- 
runt sefacturos esse, cum ille vento Aquilone Lemnum venis- 
S et Nep. They answered, that they w r ould do it, when he 
should come &c. Si se consulem fecissent, brevi tempore 
Jugurtham in potestatem P. R. redacturum, If they would 
make him consul, that he would soon reduce &c. Dixerunt 
sefacturos esse qiKecunque imperasset, They said, they w r ould 
do whatever he should command. 

In such examples, when, at a certain past time referred 
to, a thing is represented as future, and yet to be completed 
before another thing which is also represented 'at that time 
as future, took place, this tense is used. The past time re- 
ferred to is expressed by dixerunt, they said. When they 
snid so, tkeir doing what he should command, and also the 


command itself, were future. But as the command must 
have been given before they could execute it, the verb im- 
pe-ro is rendered pluperfect, and facto is put in the future of 
the infinitive. They said that they would do it then, when 
he should have commanded it. 

Subjimctively, Quum Caesar kac animadvertisset Caes. 
had observed. Accusatus proditionis, quod a pugnd deces- 
sisset Nep. had come off. 

Johnson observes that this tense is commutable with the 
imperfect : as, Hem praecliceres or praxlixisses. At tu dictis, 
Albane, maneres or mansisses *. 

In verbs in or, this tense has three forms : as, amatus 
essem, fuissem, or for em. Et felicissima matrum dicta foret 
Niobe, si non sibi visa esset Ov. Might have been called, 
had she not seemed. 

Future tense. Amaverp. 

This tense is improperly named the future subjunctive ; 
for it is a tense of the indicative, and seems to have the same 
relation to the future of the indicative, as the perfect definite 
has to the present ; on which account it has been named, 
with more propriety, the perfect future. 

When we mean to express that an action will be finished 
before another action, which is also future, take place, we 
use this tense. The usual sign is shall have, but it is often 
omitted. Quum eo stultitia pervenero, de me actum erit 9 
When I arrive (shall arrive, have arrived, shall have arrived) 
at that pitch of folly, I shall be undone. Cum ccenavero, 
proficiscar, When I sup (have supped, shall have supped) 
I will go. 

From these examples, it may be seen that this tense is 
not very different from the perfect subjunctive ; and that, in 
many instances, it is immaterial to the signification, whether 
the action be expressed as absolutely future perfect or con- 
tingently future perfect. 

Mr. R. Johnson, in opposition to Vossius, contends that 
we may use this tense, in speaking of a thing future, without 
regard to its being finished before another thing also future, 
and produces this among other examples : Si te <zquo animo 
fare accipiet, negligentem feceris Ter. If he shall hear that 
you take this with indifference, you will render him careless. 

Now Johnson contends, that, according to the doctrine 
of Vossius, as his hearing must have taken place before he 
became careless, it should have been expressed, Si te aquo 

1 In a few sentences the one tense may be found used instead of the other ; 
but their number is too small to warrant this general observation. 



animo ferre acceperit, negligentem facies. But as it is not 
expressed in this manner, he differs from Vossius, and is of 
opinion, that the future subjunctive may be used like the 
future indicative. But Ruddiman, agreeing with Vossius, 
judiciously observes, that we may faintly hint at the finishing 
of an action yet future, without considering the finishing of 
an action on which it depends. He also observes, that the 
occasionally promiscuous use of tenses is not sufficient to 
make them formally the same. 

In verbs in or, tnis tense -has two forms : as, amatus ero 
orfuero. The first form strictly denotes the completion of 
a future action indefinitely. The second implies that it shall 
be finished before another action, likewise future, shall take 
place. There is no future subjunctive ; but its import is, ex- 
pressed by the future participle, and the verb sum ; thus 
amaturus sim, sis, sit, &c. ; as Hand dubito, quin facturus 
sit, I doubt not but he will do it, quin being joined to the 


1. This mood is used, when we address ourselves to a per- 
son or thing, to command, exhort, entreat, and sometimes 
to permit ; and consequently the second person is the only 
part that is really imperative. Ama, love thou. Amatote, 
love ye. Ne nega Ter. Deny not. 

2. The second person of the present subjunctive is used as 
an imperative, especially in forbidding, after ne 9 nemo, mil- 
lus. Ne me attingas, scelcste Ter. Do not touch me. 

3. The second person of the perfect subjunctive, or perfect 
future, is used as an imperative. Tu videris de his Liv. 
Look upon these. Luant peccata, nee illos juveris auxilio 
JEn. Nor assist them. 

4. The third person of the imperative is permissive, and 
generally is expressed by let. Faciat, quod lubet ; sumat, 
consumat, perdat ; decretum est pati Ter. Let him do 
let him take, &c. 

5. The third person of the perfect, and sometimes of the 
pluperfect, subjunctive is thus used : Sed primum positum 
sit, nosmet ipsos commendatos esse nobis Cic. Let it be laid 
down. Verum anceps fuerat pugnte fortuna , fuisset Virg. 
Be it so let it have been so it might have been, &c. 

6. The first person plural, which belongs to the present 
subjunctive, is used only in encouraging or resolving. Mo- 
riamur, et in media arma ruamus ^En. Let us die and 
let us rush. 

Vossius and Priscian have contended, that the imperative, 


in the passive voice, has a preterperfect tense. J< 
denies it, and observes that the very nature of the ii 

tive has a strong repugnance to all past time. 

If the command be regarded, and not the execution of it, 
the imperative may be considered as implying present time. 
But if respect be had to the execution, the imperative im- 
plies future time. The examples which Vossius produces 
to prove that it has a preterperfect in the passive voice are 
these : Primum positum sit, nosmet ipsos commendatos esse 
nobis Cic. H&c dicta sintpatribus Liv.; and a few others. 

This controversy, like many others respecting the tenses, 
arises from inattention to the proper distinction between pre- 
terite and perfect, the former as referring to time only, and 
the latter to action. That there can be no preterite of the 
imperative, in other words, that a past action, in its nature 
irrevocable, cannot form the subject of a present command, 
is sufficiently evident. But, though every command, con- 
sidered simply as a command, and expressed imperatively 
in the words of the speaker, must be present, yet, this com- 
mand may be either definite or indefinite in respect to the 
completion of the action. It may either order an action to 
be done, without referring to the time of its perfection, or 
it may command its being perfected in a given time. In 
the latter case, as the action is ordered to be perfected, there 
can be no impropriety in calling that form of the verb, which 
expresses it, the imperative perfect. Thus, if I say, Liber 
legitor, I give a general command, without referring to the 
perfection of the action. If I say, Liber sit lee fas (forsaii) 
infra horam^ I imply that the reading is to be finished in the 
space of an hour 1 . The latter may be called the imperative 
perfect. The Greeks, in their imperatives, admit certain 
tenses of the past, such as those of the perfect and two aorists. 
But when they are so used, they either lose their temporary 
nature, or imply such a quickness of execution, that the 
deed should be, as it were, done, the very moment it is com- 
manded. The same difference seems to be between our 
English imperatives, go and begone ; do and have done. The 
first allow time for going and doing ; the others call for the 
completion of the act, at once. 

So in Greek, ypa$s, (present imperative,) write thou ; 

1 It should, however, be observed, that the command implied it^such foi'ms 
really arises from an ellipsis of some present of the imperative, such as da or 
puta ; and that it is only the perfect participle which refers to the completion 
or perfection of the action. The former expresses a command in present time ; 
the latter the perfection of an action, and, by inference, injfutitre time. 


ypa4/ov, (perfect indefinite -or aorist of imperative,) get your 
writing finished as soon as possible; y=ypa$5, (perfect im- 
perative,) have your writing finished. 

Thus it appears that the present imperative regards the 
commencement, or progression of an action ; the other 
imperatives seem particularly to have an eye to its comple- 


1 . If the action of the infinitive is present or progressive, 
at the time of the action of the preceding verb on which the 
infinitive depends, whether it be past, present or future, the 
infinitive is in the present tense l . Visne mihi auscultare ? 
Will you listen to me ? Audivit me stare, He heard that I 
was standing. Vidi enim nostros inimicos cupere helium 
Cic, Were wishing. 

2. As in the present indicative, poets and historians some- 
times relate past events in the present infinitive. Fertur 
Prometheus addere principi Lima coactus particulam undique 
desectam Hor. to add, meaning to have added. 

3. When the action of the infinitive is meant to be past 
at the time denoted by the leading verb, the infinitive is put 
in the past time, whatever tense the other may be in, Vic- 
tarem victae succubuisse queror Hor, Had submitted. 

1 When in English two verbs come together, past time is in certain instances 
expressed in the preterite of the depending verb : as, I ought to have read. But 
the reverse takes place in Latin : as, Debui legerc. When an action is repre- 
sented as present at a certain time past, the past time is expressed in both lan- 
guages, in the leading verb alone, the other being put in the present. Hence, 
in English it is proper to avoid, when the principal verb has a reference to 
subsequent action, such double perfects as, I thought to have won, instead of / 
thought to win. The following examples, in which possu?n, volo, nolo, mulo, and 
dcbc.o are the leading verbs in Latin, seem, in their English, to infringe this 
rule. Melius fieri non potuit Ter. It could not have been done better, j. e. 
it was impossible to be done better. Volui dicere Plaut. I would have said, 
z. e. I wished to say. Sumere noluit anna Ov. lie would not have taken 
arms, i. e. he was unwilling to take arms. Maluit rcgis opes augere Nep, Pie 
would rather have increased the king's power, f. e. he was more inclined to 
increase. Debuisti mild ignoscere Cic. You ought to have pardoned me, 
i. e. it was your duty to pardon me. Dividi non oportuit Cic. It ought 
not to have been divided, i. e. it behoved it not to be divided. But it is to be 
observed that ought, although the preterite of owe, does not now, as formerly, 
denote past, but present obligation ; and that could, would and might, as has 
been already mentioned, do not always mark past time exclusively, but very 
often present time also. In Latin, although, the present of the infinitive be 
used after memini, it must be expressed by the perfect, in English : as, Ego 
illain mdi virginem : form"/ bnn$ memini videre Ter. I remember that I saw 
her. The perfect is also used : as, Tibi me permisisse mcinini Cic. In these 
it seems immaterial whether the circumstances are laid up in the mind, while 
they are passing, or after they are past ; whether I remember the seeing, or 
permitting of a person, or the having seen) or permitted him. 


Ctesar rtyperit a Sut'vis, aiu'itia missa esse CKS. Had 
been sent. 

4-. Sometimes the present and perfect may be interchanged. 
Sed abunde crit ex its duo exe triplet retulisse Vai. Max., or 
r(Jerre 9 to relate. 

5. When the action of the infinitive may be future to that 
of the leading verb, it is put in the future, whatever the time 
of the leading verb may be : Qjicm quidem conjido omnibus 
istis laudibus excclleutem lore Cic. Would be. Postquam 
audierat non datum injilio uxorem suo Ter. That a wife 
would not be given to his son, 

Note 1. We sometimes find the perfect participle passive, 
and the future participle active, when employed with esse to 
form the infinitive, used as if indeclinable, and joined to 
nouns, without regard to their gender or number ; thus, 
Credo ego inimicos meos hoc dicturum (esse) C. Gracch. 
Hancsibi rem prcesidio sperant futurum (esse) Cic. Justam 
rem et facile m esse oratuni a vobis volo Plant. Ut cohortes 
ad- me missum facias Cic. But such constructions, arising 
probably from oversight, or from considering such a peri- 
phrasis as oratum esse indeclinable, are not to be imitated. 

Note C 2. That the future of the infinitive passive is com- 
posed of the verb of motion fr/, and the supine in urn ; and 
the sentence maybe thus supplied: Postquam audierat id 
non iri ab illis datum uxorem suojilio^ That it was not going 
by them (impersonally ; that is, that they were not going) 
to give a wife to his son, 

6. In many instances the present, as in English, may be 
used when the signification is future ; but in some, it appears 
that the future would be preferable 1 . Omfiia ci peragere 
promiserunt Cic. They promised to perform, that they 
would perform. Nisi dictis starctur, non se remittere exer- 
citum Flor. That he would not send back, remissuruib esse. 
Cras mild argenlum dare dijc'U Ter. Would give, daturum *. 

1 The infinitive seems to be sometimes used for the present subjunctive: as, 
Wcc Btibylonios teniiiris numcros, nt m-chun, yuicquid crit, patl I lor. that, or 
by that, bi/ ii'/iic'i, the better to suj/l'r, i, e. itf, i\'l quo, melius p;itiari;, vet pnti 
possis quicqidd crit. This is a Greek idiom. lam not ignorant that some have 
said, that, here, nl is used for qunnimn, and that tlie meaning is, of, it is belUr 
to sii/frr, but tlie former interpretation I deem preferable. 

" The use and signification of the infinitive preceded by an accusative, and 
depending upon another verb, may be seen in the following examples: 
J)icit "^ pile says that 1 read, or am reading. 

J)icebat \ I He WHS saying that I was reading. 

Dixit ^ . ^ He said that 1 was reading. 

Dicet J (^He will say that I am reading. 



7. Fore, the infinitive of sum, is joined to all participles in 
us. Commissum cum equitatu prtelio fore videbat Caes. 
Delude addis, te ad. me fore venturum Cic. Eo quoque 
mittendos fore legates Liv. 

In seTeral instances it seems to approach to the significa- 
tion of esse. 

Note. That the use of the infinitive as a noun will be found 
in SYNTAX: and its use after the word that, under CONJUNC- 

Gerunds and supines have been defined ; and their use 
and signification will be found explained in SYNTAX. 


Present Part. Act. Amans, loving. Perf. Pass. Amatus 9 loved. 
Some have supposed that the time of both these partici 
pies is present; some have supposed that they have no tune, 
and some have supposed that they are of all times. The 
first denotes an action incomplete, and progressive, and its 
time may, therefore, be considered as present; the second 
denotes the state of suffering finished, and, therefore, the 
time in which it has been perfected may be considered as 
past. For it does not appear that doctus l is, if I may so ex- 
press it, the precise counter-part passive of docens ; because, 
although docens signifies a person at this moment teaching 
another, doctus, it is known, does not denote the person who 

He says that I read, or, have or had read. 

He was saying that I read, or, have or had read. 

He said that I have, or, had read. 

He had said that I had read. 
_He will say that I have, or, had read. 
"He says that I will read. 

He was saying that I would read. 

He said that I would read. 

He had said that I would read. 

He will say that I am about to read. 

He says that I would have read. 

He was saying that I would have read. 

He said that I would have read. ' 

He had said that I would have read. 

He will say that I would have read. 

1 Mr. R. Johnson says that the time is the same in Fidi eum superantera 
as in vidi eum superatum. The time of seeing the two men, expressed by vidi, 
is certainly the same ; but their situations, in regard to the action which the 
one is doing, and in regard to the action which the other has completely suffer- 
ed, are widely different. And I cannot conceive, but that such expressions 
as, Fidi eum superantem. superare, and superari, denote an action present 
and progressive at the time expressed by vidi ; and that Fidi cum superatum 
denotes an action past and completed in a time previous to that which is ex- 
pressed by vidi. 

Dicit "1 

Dicebat \ 

Dhit \ < 

Dixerat legl * SC > 

Dicet J 





lectinum < 









* lecturum < 





is at this moment in the act of being taught by the former; 
but a man on whom, in a time previous to the present, the 
act has been perfected, and whose suffering is completed, 
vir doctus, a man already taught ; and, consequently, the 
passive voice has no present participle. 

But there are not wanting instances, in which, from the 
nature of the verb, whose action seems susceptible of con- 
tinuation, it appears that the action of the perfect participle 
is continued into present time ; and in these the perfect par- 
ticiple has the force of a present participle passive : or, in 
some instances, is to be considered as an adjective, denoting 
the existence of some quality, the result of past action, but 
divested of time. Thus: Notus evolat Tetribilem piced tec- 
tus caligine vultum Ov. Not merely having been veiled, 
(and possibly having ceased to be veiled,) but veiling his 
countenance, or having it, at that moment, veiled. Ster- 
nuntur segetes, et deplorata coloni Vota jacent Ov. Not 
merely having been lamented, or despaired of, but at that 
moment despaired o desperate, or hopeless. Perfection 
does not in all cases necessarily imply cessation. 

It is not inconsistent with the foregoing explanation, to 
say that these participles are joined to verbs in all times, and 
this too without losing their distinctive time and significa- 
tion. For amans denotes an action which is present at die 
time represented by the leading verb of the sentence, whe- 
ther that verb be past, present, or future. 

In the same manner, amatus represents an action which 
is past, in regard to the time expressed in the context, whe- 
ther past, present, or future. When divested of time, these 
participles are called participials, and may govern a geni- 
tive: as, Patiens frigus, one bearing cold. Patiens frigoris, 
one patient of, or able to bear, cold. 

In the latter, patiens is a participial, and denotes a qua- 
lity belonging to some person, and not a transient act Doc- 
tus Latinam linguam, one taught the Latin language. Doc- 
tus lingua Latins, one skilled in the Latin language. As 
participials, they admit comparison : as, Servantissimus ccqui 
Virg. A very strict observer of equity. 

Future Participle Active, Amaturus, about to love. 

This participle not only implies future time, but also some- 
times denotes intention, or inclination : as, Lecturus sum, I 
am about to read, or I intend to read. 

Joined to cro 9 it is translated as if it constituted another 
form of the future : as, Mergile me Jttictiis, quum reditunis 


ero Mart. I shall be returning. Nihil ego ero till datu- 
ras Plant. I shall give. Tu procul absenti cura futurus 
eris Ov. Quo die ad Sicam venturus ero Cic. 

Joined to esse or juzsse, it forms the future of the infini- 
tive active, agreeing, like an adjective, with its substantive ; 
amaturum esse, to be about to love; amaturum Juisse, to have 
been about to love. 

Future Participle Passive, Amandus, to be loved. 

This participle, coming even from verbs in or, signifying 
actively, has always a passive signification. In conjunction 
with the verb sum, it denotes that a thing must be done, or 
ought to be done : and, hence, by inference it likewise im- 

Elies futurity. Dixi literas scriptum iri ab eo, I said that a 
jtter would be written by him. Dixi literas scribendas esse, 
I said that a letter should, or ought to, be written. 

The former is the future of the infinitive, and implies bare 
futurity ; in the latter sentence, duty or necessity is implied. 
Delenda est Carthago Cato. Must be, ought to be, is to 
be, destroyed. Legatos mittendos censuit senatus Liv. 
Should be sent. 

In the following examples, it is said to denote bare futu- 
rity ; Ut terrain invenias, quis earn tibi tradet habendam 
Ov. Dido ./En. To be possessed. Facta fugis ; facienda 
petis Ov. Dido /En. Things that will hereafter be done. 

It is also used as a gerundive adjective : as, Cur adeo dv~ 
lectaris criminibus inferences ? Why are you so pleased with 
bringing accusations ? Aliter inferendo crimina. His enim 
legendis, redeo in memoriam morluorum Cic. By reading 
these ; h&c legendo. Ad accusandos homines duci pnemio. 
To accuse men, or, to the accusing of men. QIKC ante con- 
ditam, condendamve urbem traduntur Liv. Before the 
city was built or building : In this example, it has some- 
what of the force of a present participle passive ! , in regard 
to the progressive action of its building ; and of the future 
participle, in reference to the intention of that action. 

All participles are found with all tenses of sum. 

1 There are many instances in which the participle in dus seems to have the 
import of the present : thus, quas ubi vidit audicilqnc sencx, vdut si jam agendis 
fju(E aitdiebat iniercsSet Liv. i. e. the things while they were doing. Thus also, 
volvenda dies en attulit ultra Virg. Perizonius is of opinion that it was ori- 
ginally a participle of the present tense passive, and lays some stress on its he- 
ing uniformly derived from the present participle active, following even its 
irregularity in the only one which is irregular: thus, tens, cnniis, eundus. 

Dr. Crombie (Gymnasium, 2nd ed. vol. Si. p. 363) likewise contends, and, 
it appears to rne, successfully, that thi* word is a present participle of the pas- 
sive voice j and that it does not, by its own power, ever express futurity, or 



Conjugation is the regular distribution of the inflexions 
of verbs, according to their different voices, moods, tenses, 
[numbers, and persons, so as to distinguish them from one 

There are four conjugations of verbs, distinguished by the 
vowel preceding re of the infinitive mood. 

The first conjugation makes are long : as, Amdre. 

The second conjugation makes ere long: as, Monere. 

The third conjugation makes ere short : as, Regere. 

The fourth conjugation makes ire long: as, Audlre. 

There are four principal parts of a verb, whence all its 
other parts are formed, viz. o of the present, i of the pre- 
terite, um of the supine, and re of the infinitive : as, Amo 9 
amavi 9 amaium, amare ; and these are sometimes called its 

It has been customary to form, from the infinitive, the 
present participle, the future participle in dus, and the ge- 
runds ; a formation which cannot be considered as correct, 
in regard to verbs in io of the third conjugation, since those 
verbs have not in their infinitive the i which belongs to 
those parts ; and even in the fourth conjugation, they are 
formed with greater propriety from the present. For simi- 
lar reasons, the method which excludes the infinitive is 
equally objectionable. 

The following formation is not liable to such objections, 
and seems preferable to the other two methods, for reasons, 
which will be found in the annexed explanation, 

the obligation either of necessity or duty. In such phrases as tcmpus petendce 
pads, neither futurity nor obligation is expressed, the expression being equi- 
valent to tempus petendi pacem, tempus quo pax pelatur, tempus petere pacem* 
In volvenda dies en attalit uttro Virg., volvenda is clearly a participle of the 
present tense passive, equivalent to sese volvens, or dum volvitur, and expressing 
neither futurity nor obligation. In such expressions as permisit urbem diripi- 
eiuLam, he contends that it is purpose, not futurity, that is directly expressed. 
He does not, however, deny that the participle in dus, whqn joined to the verb 
sum, uniformly denotes moval or physical obligation ; but he contends, that, 
in such phraseologies, there is no word expressive of futurity or obligation, al- 
though the combination of the two words lias by usag^acquired this significa- 
tion, in the same manner as in English, such expressions as " Is a man to be 
jmnisked for what he could not prevent? " in which there is no word expressive 
of duty, obligation, or futurity, are reckoned equivalent to " Ought a man to 
be punished ? " He agrees with Pcrizonius in consideringybrc to be understood 
in Movebatiir iglt-iir misericordia civium, quos intcrficiendos vidcbal Csos. Be- 
cause he saw that many of his countrymen must fall, or would necessarily be 
slain, if he encountered the enemy in another battle. 


The Formation of the Tenses of Verbs, from the Present, 
the Perfect, the Supine, and the Infinitive. 

I. From -o are formed, Names of the Tenses. 

-bam, Imperf. Indie. 
, f Fut. Indie, of the 1 st and 2d 
5 \ Conjugation. 

f Pres. Subj. of the 2d; Pres. 
-<m,< Subj. ahd Fut. Indie, of 3d 

^ and 4th. 

-em, Pres. Subj. of the 1st. 
-ns, The Present participle. 
-dus, The Fut. Participle, Passive. 
-dum, ~\ 

-di, V The Gerunds. 
-do, ) 

II. From -i are formed, 

-ram, The Plup. Indie. 
-rim, The Perf. Subj. 
-ro, The Fut. Subj. 
-ssem, The Plup. Subj. 
-sse, The Perf. Infinit 

III. From -urn are formed, 

-u, The second Supine. 

-us, The Perf. Participle, Passive. 

-rus, The Future Participle. 

IV. From the infinitive, whether ending in -re, -le, or - 

are formed the imperative, by cutting off' the final 
syllable ; and the imperfect of the subjunctive, by 
adding m to it. 

Observations on the Formation of Regular and Irregular 

(1.) The first formation includes all verbs in -o and those 
in -io of the third conjugation. These last have the i also 
before -unt of the present indicative, and -unto of the impe- 
rative. The principal irregularity of the irregular verbs, be- 
sides their deficiency, consists in their deviating from the 
usual mode of formation, chiefly in those parts that are 
formed from the present. Thus ; 

(_ Prosujn, 
\ Nolo, 

Imperf. ladic. 

has, eram, 



Pres. Subj. 



ibo 9 

Pres. participle, iens ; gerunds, eundum, -i, -o. Ens from 
sum is obsolete. Its compound, potens, is generally consi- 
dered as an adjective ; also, absens and prtesens. 

(2, 3.) The second and third formations are followed by 
all verbs having a perfect, or supine. Fio, though active in 
its termination, being a passive verb, has all the compound 
tenses of the passive voice. Sum, though without a supine, 
has the future participle, futurus, as if from fuitum or futum 
of the obsolete fuo, whence it has also fui its perfect, fore 
of the infinitive, forem, &c. 

(4.) The fourth formation includes regular and irregular 
verbs : thus, infinit. imperat. and imperf. subj. Regere, rege, 
regerem : Capere, cape, caperem ; Ferre, fer, ferrem , Ire, /, 
irem ; Posse-, Velle-, Matte-, Nolle-, m, the tiiree first having 
no imperative ; Esse, es, essem ; Prodesse, prodes, prodessem. 
Except Die, due, fac, Jt, and noli. Fieri makes Jierem ; it 
was originally Jiri, audfaem, regularly; andhence^of the 

.2 J3 

^ ^ -M 

G C 

. c/3 tyj 

PH --> O) 0) 

J fi 






?o S 


10) >0> 


en -73 T3 -3 

G G G G 

ld> icu IO 10 

e s 

i-< ?O 


a a x 
> c ^ 

X< HH* 

^ ^3 

w ^ I .1 J 3 





o^ I" a" 

P-l HH h-5 

I '2 

)a> >aj 

i s 

t/J CO ^ 

C/J c/5 *"* 

l-i |^ |r H 

'5 >B 'S 













.d >3 

*-> 4-J 





X> 33 

bfi bD 

-O> CT 

1 *~* 

























S )d 

-*-> 4-> 

IC3 IC3 













C3 TO 



cs S 




* 35 


^ IP 
cs "o 


i ITS 
C 2 

2 "*"* 


o ^ 




03 10 >S iS ^Q >3 






t?* \m w> 

< 2 > > 

,,4 >0 rO 

CO CO 00 00 CO 



* ^ ~ ,2 18.5 
c 9 i3 E g C 

tO 1 ^H 3^ i PH 3^ 


a G c , 

C3 10) ,p 

iu i^ * *- 

-fcJ -4-J lO 'O 

i i S ,*; 

. ^sI'N S i'li'i' 

1 till 

IV > f 

V >n 




i ^ > 

: S 


i S- 




I -c >T 

'1 s s I 





co co GO 

CO 80 





rH i < 















v. ,* >3 2 2 fc, 




2 S 





5 2 


ID i=5 j2 ^ ^ ID 






























CM '& 

'=J >-< IH j5 G '2 

,3,5 g g 3 2 3 S 
g 5 2 J S il J g 

ID jfl ,S ja ^D ID 



















A H H ^ > H 


ID 5 S i5 ^2 ,12 ( g3 












33 ^ 


^ is ID ^S w*a ja iS 

M *>' 

3=3 3=5 S 

I.-S ID >a i 




3 C 3 S 3 5 S ' ^ 

IOJ ID 3D iS ^2 ^2 



D 103 


irt iw 

3D ,s 

- h 30 ^ ,5 3C3 30 ^ 
"" 3O W 3O jS ^2 rQ 303 

JJ e 





(1) The future of the infinitive, active, is composed of 
the accusative of the future participle in rus, and esse vel 

fuisse ; the former of which has been termed by some the 
future imperfect ; the latter, the future perfect. 

(2) In looking over the scheme of the conjugations, it 
may be observed, that there is very little difference among 
them, except in their characteristics. The future indicative 
of the two first ends, in the active, in bo ; in the passive, in 
bor : of the two last, in the active, in am ; and in the passive, 
in ar. The present subjunctive of the first ends, in the ac- 
tive, in em ; in the passive, in er : that of the three last, in 
the active, in am ; and in the passive, in ar. 

The following are the general terminations of the Indi- 
cative and the Subjunctive, in the 

Sing. Plur. 

23 123 

5, t; mus, tis, nt. 

The 2nd person singular perfect indicative is an excep- 
tion, being isti. 

Sing. Plur. 

23 183 
T i s } 

9 Y tur; mur, mini, ntur. 


(3) In the imperative mood, both active and passive, the 
second form of the third persons singular and plural, and 
the first person plural, are evidently the same persons of the 
present subjunctive of their respective voices. The termi- 
nation -minor, of the second person plural, passive, is but 
little used. 

(4) In the first conjugation the verb do alone has its in- 
crease short. 

Verbs of the first conjugation ; of the second and third, 
having evi for the perfect ; and of the third and fourth, 
having zW, suffer a contraction, by syncope, of v, or of v and 
the following vowel, in certain persons of the perfect of the 
indicative, and in parts formed from it : also verbs in io of 
the third conjugation, and verbs of the fourth, in the imper- 
fect of the indicative. The quantities of which contractions 
are as follows ; 



Ind. Perf. astl\ astis, drfint. 

Plup. dram, &c. 

Sub). Perf. flnwz, &c. 

Plup. dssem, &c. 

Fut. aro, c. 
Inf. Perf. 

The second and third conjugations, having cvi, are con- 
tracted and marked the same as the first, the e being long 
like the a. 

The third and fourth in ivi. 

Ind. Imperf. ibam, &c. Passive, Ibar, &c. 

Perf. u, ilstl isti, lit it ; ilstis istis, urunt tere. 

Plup. leram, &c. 
Subj. Peril lerim, &c. 

Plup. ussem issem, &c. 

Fut. iho, &c. 
Inf. Perf. Tisse isse. 

Observe, that in those verbs in /<?, which have an / before 
, e, o, , the i is short. 


(5) The simple tenses of the passive voice are formed 
from the corresponding tenses of the active, in the following 
manner. The Jirst persons singular of the passive, from the 
first persons singular of the active, by adding r ; or, if the 
active end in m, by changing m into r : thejfrst persons plu- 
ral, by changing 5 into r. The second persons singular, by 
inserting ri between the two concluding letters of the same 
persons in the active ; but in the present of the indicative of 
the third conjugation, by inserting er before the final z's,- 
and the second persons plural are formed by changing -tis 
into -mini. The third persons singular and plural, passive, 
are always the same as those of the active voice, but with 
the addition of ur. 


The first form of the second person singular is formed by 

1 According to Priscian, it should be added, that avit is con- 
tracted into at. In omnibus, he says, qua penultimam habent cir- 
cumfic.xam, si patiantur syncopam, eundc.m frrvam'ts accentum in 
ultima ; lit Juma-cii : Jumat ; cupivit, cupit. Page 629. 


the addition of re to the same person active (and is the same 
as the present of the infinitive active, and as the second per- 
son singular of the second form of the present of the indi- 
cative passive): the second persons plural are formed by 
changing -te and -tote into -mini (which is the same as the 
second person plural of the present of the indicative passive) 
and -minor : and the other parts are formed by adding r to 
o of the active. 


The present of the infinitive passive is formed, in the first, 
second and fourth conjugation, by changing the final e of the 
infinitive active into i ; and, in the third, by changing ere 
into z, or by taking away s from the second person singular 
of the present of the indicative active. Deponent verbs form 
their infinitive in the same manner, an infinitive active being 
supposed, which is the same as the first form of the second 
person singular of their own imperative ; or, by changing, 
for the third conjugation, or or ior into z, and, lor the first, 
second, and fourth, re of the second person singular of the 
present of their indicative into ri. 

The Compound Tenses are thus composed. 
Indicative mood. 

Perf. The perfect participle prefixed to sum vel fui. 
Plup. to cram vel fueram. 

Subjunctive mood. 

Perf. The perfect participle prefixed to sim vel fuerim. 

Plup. to essem vel fuissem* 

Fut. to ero vel fuero. 

Infinitive mood. 

The accusative of the perfect participle with csse or fuisse, 
constitutes the perfect and pluperfect; the first supine and 
zrt, the future of the infinitive. This last, some have termed 
the future imperfect ; and the accusative of the participle in 
dus with fuissC) the future perfect. 




L. If the verb has the letter a in the present, it has a like- 
wise in the supine and infinitive, although it may change it 
in the preterite : as, facio, fed, factum, facerc. 

II. Whatever verbs are deficient in perfects, are without 
supines also. Cieo, (civi being borrowed from cio^) citum ; 
and tundo, (tutudi being said to be borrowed from the obso- 
lete tudo, and to be but little used, unless in composition,) 
are perhaps the only exceptions. 

III. The present of the infinitive is formed from the pre- 
sent indicative, by changing, in the 

First Conjugation^ o into dre. 
Second Conjugation, eo into ere. 
Third Conjugation, o, and w into ere. 
Fourth Conjugation, lo into ire. 

[Special rules for the formation of the perfects and supines 
will be found under the different conjugations; and the rules 
for the formation of compounded verbs will be hereafter 


The first conjugation makes dvi in the perfect, and a turn 
in the supine : as, amo, amavi, amatum^ to love '. 


The following six having ut\ itum ; 

Crepo 2 , / make a noise ; sono, / sound (sonaturus, in 
Horace}; cubo 3 , Ilie down : tono, I thunder (intonatus, in 
Horace] ,- domo, / tame ,- veto, I forbid. 

1 The present of the indicative of this conjugation generally 
ends in o impure , but the following verbs in eo and io belong to 
it : beo, screo, era?, meo, calceo, illaqueo, nauseo, enucleo, delineo ; 
amplio, basio, brevio, concilia, crucio, furio, glacio, hio, lanio,lux- 
uriOy nuncioy pio, propitio, radio, repudio, satio, saucio, socio, som- 
nio, spolio, suavio or suavior, vario, vitio. 

4 Discrepo has rather discrepavi. 

s Thus, ac- re- ex- cubo, &c. For those that assume the letter 
m, see Cumbo, in the third conjugation. Cubasse and incubaverc 
are found. 


Do 1 , d&li, datum, to give. 
Juvo, juvi, jutum*, to help. 
Frico, fricui, frictum, to rub. (In- per- re- con- fricatus, 

are -found.) 

Lavo, lavi, lavatum, to wash. (Lavavit, Plant.) 

Mico 3 , micui, , to shine. 

Plico*, *plicui, *plicitum, to fold. 

* plicavi, * plicatum, 
Poto, potavi, potum, to drink. 

Seco, secui, sectum, to cut. 
Sto 6 , steti, statum, to stand. 

Labo, Hotter ; nexo, I bind; plico, I fold, have neither 
perfect, nor supine. 


The second conjugation makes ui G , itum 1 : as, habeo^ 
habui, habitum*, to have. 

1 Thus, venundo, drcumdo, pessundo, satisdo. See Do, third 

* Hence jutus, and adjutus ; the latter being more common. 

3 Emico has emicui, and emicatum. Dimico, dimicavi (seldom 
dimicui), dimicatum. The simple verb neco is regular, having 
necavi (sometimes necui), necatum. Its compounds eneco and 
interneco have enecavi and enecui, enecatum and enectum ; interne- 
cavi, -alum and -ectum. 

* Du- multi- re- sup- plico, -avi, -atum. 

Ap- im- com- ex- plico, -avi, -atum. Complicaviy ^ 
-ui, -Hum. Compliciti, 
Explico, I explain, has -avi t -atum ; I unfold, -ui, -itum. 

* The words thus marked (*) are obsolete, and are introduced 
only for the sake of their compounds. 

* Its compounds have -stiti, -stitum, and more frequently -sta- 
tion. The participle in rus is commonly formed from the latter. 
Circum- inter- super- steti, are found. 

6 These have no perfect, and, therefore, no supine : aveo, ceveo, 
denseo, jlaveo, glabreo, lacteo, liveo,wcereo, muceo, renideo, polleoj 

7 These have no supine ; neuter verbs having ui; time.o and si- 
ko (which arr neuter and active, and have a passive voice) ; neu- 
ttrs in -ceo. Except calcp, carco-, coalco, dolco, jacco : lateo, licco. 



AlgeO, alsi 9 , , to be cold. 

Ardeo, arsi, arsum, to burn. 
Augeo, auxi, auctum, to increase. 

Calveo, calvi, , to grow bald. 

Caveo, cavi, cautum, to beware of. 
Censeo, censui, censum, to judge. 
Cieo, civi I0 , citum, to stir up. 

Conniveo, connivi, , to wink. 


Doceo, dociii, doctum, to teach. 
Deleo, delevi, deletum, to blot out. 
Faveo, favi, fautum, to favour. 

Ferveo, ferbui, , to boil. 

Fleo, flevi, fletum, to weep. 
Foveo, fovi, fotum, to cherish. 

Frigeo, frixi, , to be cold. 

Fulgeo, fulsi, , to shine. 

Haereo, haesi, ha3sum, to stick. 
Indulged, indulsi, indultum, to indulge. 

rarb indiilsum, 
Jubeo, jussi, jussum, to order. 

Luceo, luxi, , to shine. 

Lugeo, luxi 11 , , to mourn. 

Maneo, mansi, mansum, to remain. 
Misceo, miscui, mistum, to mix. 


Mordeo, momordi, morsum, to bite. 
Moveo, movi, motum, to move. 
Mulceo, mulsi, mulsum, to stroke. 

merco, noceo, oleo, pareo,placeo, taceo, valeo } suid their compounds, 
which are oftener found in the participle in rus, than in the supine. 
Arceo has no supine in use, but, co- ex- erceo, -itum. Taceo and 
laieo have a supine; but their compounds have none. Taceo, some- 
times active, and sometimes neuter ; it has a passive voice. 

8 Prcebeo is put. for prcehaueo or prohibeo. Pr&bit -urn, -us, 
-urus, and prtzbcor are found, but are seldom used. 

9 Alsus, as if from ahum, is found in Cicero. 

10 Civi belongs to do of the fourth conjugation, which its com- 
pounds generally follow : as, accio, exdo, &c. 

1 ' Luctum I can find in dictionaries only ; whence oomes the 
substantive Indus. Neither luctum nor the participles luctus and 
lucturus arc in use. 


Mulgeo, mulsi, mulsum, to milk. 


Neo, nevi, netum, to spin. 
Oleo 1 , olui, *olitum, to smell, or grow, 
* olevi, * oletum, 

Paveo, pavi, , to be afraid. 

Pendeo, pependi, pensum, to hang. 
*Pleo, *plevi, *pletum, to Jill. 
Prandeo, prandi, pransum, to dine. 
Rideo, risi, risum, to laugh. 
Sedeo 3 , sedi, sessum, to sit. 
Sorbeo 3 , sorbui, sorptum, to sup up. 
Spondeo, spospondi, sponsum, to promise. 

Strideo, stridi, , to make a noise. 

Suadeo, suasi, suasum, to advise. 
Teneo*, tenui, tentum, to hold. 
Tergeo, tersi, tersum, to wipe. 
Tondeo, totondi, tonsum, to clip. 
Torqueo, torsi, tortum, to twist. 
torsum (seldom), 
Torreo, torrui, tostum, to toast. 

Turgeo, tursi 5 , , to swell. 

Urgeo 6 , ursi, , to urge. 

Video, vidi, visum, to see. 
Voveo, vovi, votum, to vow. 
Vieo, vievi, vietum, to bind. 

1 The compounds of oleo, that signify to smell, have -m, -itum: 
as, ob- per- red- oleo, -ui, -Hum. Those that deviate from the ori- 
ginal signification of the simple verb have -em, -etum : as, ex- in- 
obs- oleo t -evi, -ttum. But aboleo, -olevi t -olitum. Adoleo, -olevi t 

* De- dis-per-prce- re- sub- sideo, seldom have a supine. De- 
dis- sideo, seldom the perfect. 

3 Absorbeo is rarely found to have -sorpsi ; ex- re- sorptum are 
not found. 

4 Attineo and pertineo have no supine; abstineo, seldom; al- 
though abstentus is found. Teneo and tendo seem to have the same 
origin; and they and their compounds are not easily distinguished 
in their supines, and the formation therefrom, unless when the su- 
pine tensum from tendo is used. 

5 Tursi is uncommon. Priscian attributes obtursi to Lucilius. 

6 Urgeo has ursum in the dictionaries ; but neither that, nor a 
perfect nor future participle) is found. 



The third conjugation l forms its perfects and supines va- 
riously, according to the termination of the present. 

Bo a makes bi, bitum : as, bibo, bibi, bibitum, to drink. 


* Gumbo 8 , cubui, cubitum, to lie down. 
Nubo, nupsi, nuptum, to marry. 
Scribo, scripsi, scriptum, to write. 

Co makes xi 9 ctum : as, dico y dixi^ dictum^ to say. 


Ico, ici, ictum, to strike. 
Vinco, vici, victum, to conquer. 
Parco, peperci, parsum, to spare, 
(rarely, parsi,) parcitum 4 , 

Sco* makes vi, turn : as, nosco, novi, no turn*, to know. 


Disco 7 , didici, , to learn. 

1 The third conjugation ends in o impure; but the following 
verbs in io and tor belong to itijacio, jacio, capio, rapio, *lacio> 
* specie , fodio, fugio, cupio, sapio, pario, quatio ; gradior y patior, 
orior, morior, and compounds, those of pario excepted, which be- 
long to the fourth. 

8 Lambo and scaoo have no supines. Offi-cio t likewise. Glubi 
<m&glubitum, from glubo, are uncommon. Degluptus maybe found. 

3 Cumbo is the same as cubo of the first. The following admit 
the m : ac- con- de- dis- in- oc- pro- re- sue' superin- cumbo. 

4 If there be any perfect participle, it is parcitus. Parsurus is 
found in Suetonius, and Livy. Parcitum is uncommon. Com- 
parsit or compersit, from comparco, or comperco, is used by Terence. 

5 Inceptive verbs in sco, want both perfects and supines, un- 
less they borrow them from the verbs whence they are formed : as, 
ardesco borrows am, arswwz, from ardeo, Ac- in- per- pro- suc- 
su- per- cresco have no supine; the other compounds have. Gliscti, 
neither perfect nor supine. 

6 But ag- cog- nosco t -novi, -nilum ; also recognosco. The other 
compounds, like nosco. The participle nosciturus, as if from nos- 
citum, is found in Livy. Priscian makes mention ofignosciturus, 
but it is without sufficient authority. 

7 Disco had formerly discitum ; anddiscitunisisfoundin Apuleiu*. 


Pasco 1 , pavi, pastum, to feed. 

Posco*, poposci, poscitum [rarely), to demand. 

*Quinisco 8 , *quexi, , to nod. 

jDo* makes di, sum : as, scando, scandi, scansum, to climb, j 


The following nine, having si, sum, viz. 

Claudo, I shut. Ludo, I play. Rodo, I gnaw. 
Divido, I divide. Plaudo, I applaud. Trudo 6 , / thrust. 
Laedo, I hurt. Rado & , I shave. Vado 5 , I go. 

The compounds of do 6 , having didi, dttum, viz. 

Abdo, I hide. Dido, I give out. Prodo, I betray. 

Addo, I add. Edo, I publish. Reddo, I restore. 

Condo, I hide, build. Indo, I put in. Subdo, 1 put under. 

Credo, I believe. Obdo, I oppose. Trado, I deliver. 

Dedo, I yield. Perdo, 1 destroy. Vendo, / sell. 

Cado 7 , cecidi, casum, to fall. 
Caedo 8 , cecidi, caesum, to kill. 
Cedo, cessi, cessum, to yield. 

1 Thus also com- de- pasco. Epastus also is found. But com- 
dis- pesco, -pescui, no supine. 

* Exposcitum is found in Seneca, according to Vossius. 

9 Quinisco has but one compound, conquinisco. Both are un- 
common words, and seldom found in their perfects. 

* Strido and rudo have no supine. Nor sido ; but its compounds 
borrow from sedeo: as, as- circum- con- da- in- ob- per- re- sub- sido y 
-sedi, -sessum. Some give cusi to cudo, but cudi rests on much bet- 
ter authority. 

* The perfects of rado and trudo, and the perfect and supine of 
rtf^o, are seldom used, uncompounded. 

6 Thus also the double compounds decondo, recondo, coaddo, 
superaddo, deperdo, disperdo. Abscondo has abscondi (seldom a^- 
condidi), absconditum (seldom absconsum). The compcunds of do 
with prepositions are generally of this conjugation. But circundo 
is of the first. Interdare, superdare, superdandus, introdabat, may 
be found, but are not to be imitated. 

7 The compounds ofcado; as, ac~ con-de- ex- inter- pro- suc-cido, 
have no supine. But, in- oc- re- cido, -casum. These are all neuter. 

* The compounds change ce into I ; as, abs- co- circum- de- ex- 
in inter- oc- per- prce- re- sue- cido. These are all active. 

Distinguish abstido, abstidi from c&do, and abscindo, abscidi 
from scindo. Observe also that the compounds of ccvdo have but 


Edo 1 , edi, esum, edere, to eat. 
(uncommon 9 estum, esse,) 
Findo*, fidi, fissum, to cleave. 
Fundo, fudi, fusum, to pour out. 
Pando 3 , pandi, passum, to open. 
Pedo*, pepedi, * peditum, to break wind. 
Pendo, pependi, pensum, to weigh. 

(pendi, per/taps once in Livy,) 
Scindo 5 , scidi, scissum, to cut. 
Tendo 6 , tStendi, tensum, to stretch. 


Tundo 7 , tutiidi, tunsum, to beat. 

Go and gwomake -xi, -ctwn ; as, rego 9 , rexi, rectum^ to rule. 


Ago 8 , egi, actum, to act. 

one s in their supine ; those of scindo have a double s. Neither 
the compounds of cado, nor of ccedo, retain the reduplication of 
the perfect. 

1 Comestus is found, but it is better to say comesus, as we say 
ambesus, peresus, &c. Edo and its compounds are generally regular. 

The participle fissus is to be distinguished from Jisus ofjldo. 
Another verb in ndo retains the n in the perfect, viz.frendo, but 
its participle is fressus, or fresus^ as if from fressum or fresum. 

3 Some give pansum to pando. Expansus is found ; also dis- 

4 Some deny peditum ; but the verbal peditum is found in Ca- 

5 Distinguish conscissum of conscindo from cancisum of conctdo. 

6 Tentum is most common in the compounds. Extensum and 
extentum are used promiscuously. Ostendo has oftener ostensum 
than ostentum. The compounds having tentus are not easily di- 
stinguished from those oiteneo. 

7 The compounds have commonly -tusum. 

" Pergo and surgo -rexi, -rectum. Thus also or- cor- di- e-por- 
sur- rigo. Some consider pergo as a compound of rego, and some, 
of ago. 

Deago and conago become dego and cogo. Dego, degi, no su- 
pine. Cogo, cocgi, coactum. 

Ambigo and vergo want perfect and supine. Clango, ningo, an- 
go, satago, prodigo, have no supine. Sugo and lingo, rarely. Sue- 
tus is in Pliny. The supine of lingo is linctum, whence the ver- 
bal Ijnctus in Pliny, who uses also linctum sulphur. 


Figo, fixi, fixum, to fix, (fictus, raro.) 
Fingo, finxi, fictum, to feign. 
Frango, Iregi, fractum, to break. 
Frigo, frixi, frixum, to fry. 


Lego 1 , legi, lectum, to read. 
Mergo, mersi, mersum, to sink. 
Mingo, minxi, mictum, to make water. 
* Pago 9 , pepigi, pactum, tojix in, orjbargain. 
Pango.*, panxi, pactuin, to strike. 
Pingo, pinxi, pictum, to paint. 
Pungo 3 , pupugi, punctum, to prick. 
Spargo*, sparsi, sparsum, to spread. 
Stringo, strinxi, strictum, to bind. 
Tango*, tetigi, tactum, to touch. 

Ho makes -xi, -ctum : as, traho, traxi, tractum, to draw. 
To, forms variously : as, 

Capio 4 , cepi, captum, to take. 
Cupio, cupivi, cupitum, to wish. 
Facio*, feci, factum, to make. 
Fodio, fodi, fossum, to dig. 
Fugio, fugi, fugitum, to Jlee. 
Jacio*, jeci, jactum, to throw. 
*Lacio 6 , *lexi, * lectum, to allure. 
Pario 6 , pepcri, partum, to bring forth. 

1 Di~ intel- neg- ligo, -lexi. lectum. The rest as lego. Some 
retain the e of lego: as, al- per-prce- re- sub- lego. Others change 
it into i: as, Col- de- e- recol- se- ligo. 

* Pago is obsolete, instead of which paciscor is used. The com- 
pounds ofpango, especially those which change a of the present 
into z, have the perfect of the obsolete pago : as, im- com- sup- 
pingo, -pegi, -pactum. Oppango also has -egi, -actum. Circum- 
de- re- pango are said to be formed both ways ; but for -pa?ixi, 
there does not seem to be sufficient authority. 

8 The compounds have -punxi. Repungo has repupugi or re- 
punxiy but neither is common. 

4 The changes that take place in spargo, tango, capio, Jacio> 
jacio, and in many others, when compounded, will be hereafter 
explained in a connected summary; as these, and the others, 
undergo similar changes, in a state of composition. 

a Thus the compounds, except elicio which has elicui, elicitum. 

6 Its compounds belong to the fourth conjugation. Partum 
contracted for paritum is the more usual. The participle pari- 
turus is found in Cicero, Ovid, &c. 


Quatio, * qiiassi, quassum, to shake. 
Rapio, rapui, raptuin, to snatch. 

Sapio ', sapui, , to be wise. 

*Specio 9 , *spexi, *spectum, to see. 

Jo. Mejo, minxi, mictum, to make water. 

L,o 3 makes -ui, -itum : as, molo, molui, moUtum, to grind. 


Alo, alui, alitum, reg. to nourish. 

(altum, by syncope) 

* Cello*, *cellui, *celsum, to beat ', excel. 
Colo 5 , colui, cultum, to till. 

Consulo, consului, consultum, to advise, or consult. 
Fallo, fefelli, falsum, to deceive. 
Pello, pepiili, pulsum, to beat. 

Psallo, psalli, , to play on an instrument. 

Sallo, salli, salsum, to salt. 
Tollo 6 , sustuli, sublaturn, to lift up. 
Velio 7 , velli, vulsum, to pull. 

The usual perfect is sapui; but it had sapivi and sapii; whence 
its compounds resipio and desipio had also -ivi or -ui, but the lat- 
ter is preferable. Resipisse and sapisti, formed by syncope, are 
found, the one in Terence, and the other in Martial. 

This verb is obsolete ; but its compounds are thus formed. 
Conspicor and suspicor, formed from it, are deponents of the first 

3 Noloy volo, malo, refello, have no supine, Attollo and recella 
no perfect or supine. Ante- ex-prtz- cello, no supine. 

4 Celsus the adjective is used. Ante- ex- prce- cello, -cellui. Ex- 
celsus and prtecelsus seem to be adjectives. The dictionaries give 
recello a perfect, without sufficient authority, Percello has per- 
culi, perculsum. Perculsi seems unwarranted. 

* Thus its compounds, and occulo, which changes o into u. 
Accolo and circumcolo have no supines. Incidtus does not come 
from incolo, but is a compound of the participle cultus. 

6 The perfect and supine of tollo come from sustollo. They are 
likewise borrowed by suffero. In the same way extuli and elatum, 
from extollo, are lent to effero, when it is used in a similar signifi- 

T Thus, a- con- e- inter- pr<z- re- vello; but generally de- di-per~ 
f. -velli, -vulsum. This distinction is not rigidly observed. 


Mo 1 makes wz, it-urn : as, fremo, fremui, fremitum> to roar. 


Como 9 , comsi, com turn, to deck. 
Demo 2 , demsi, demtum, to take away. 
Emo, emi, emtum, to buy. 
Premo, pressi, pressum, to press. 
Promo, promsi, promtum, to bring out, 
Sumo, sumsi, sumtum, to take. 

No forms variously : as, 

Cano, cecini, cantum, to sing, comp. -cinui and -centum, 
Cerno 3 , crevi, cretum, to see. 
Gigno*, genui, genitum, to beget. 
Lino 5 , levi, Iitum, to daub. 



Pono, posui, positum f ', to place. 
Sino 7 , sivi, situm, to permit. 
Sperno, sprevi, spretum, to despise. 
Sterno 8 , stravi, stratum, to lay Jtat. 
Temno 9 , *temsi, *temtum, to despise. 

1 Tremo and its compounds have no supine. 

* The perfects and supines of como, demo, promo, sumo, temno, 
and the supine of emo, are commonly written with a p ; thus, 
compsi, emptus, &c. It has been wished to appropriate -psi and 
-ptum to verbs in -po. The latter mode of spelling is certainly the 
more common, but the former may be more consonant with analogy. 

3 Thus, de- dis- ex- in- se- cerno. Cretum is but little used, nor 
crevi, denoting seeing; but it is used when it means, to declare 
one's self heir, to decree, or to enter upon an estate. 

* Gigno borrows its perfect and supine from the obsolete geno. 

* The usual perfect is levi. Lini is said to be in Quintilian. 
Levi may come from * leo. Livi is in Columella. 

8 Repostus for repositus is a frequent poetical contraction ; also 
compostus, for compositus. 

7 Sivi is sometimes contracted into sii, especially in the com- 
pound : as, desino, desivi, but oftener desii. Sini is found in an- 
tient authors. Some dictionaries give sinitum, but I find no autho- 
rity for it. 

9 Consterno is of the first conjugation, when it denotes mental 
agitation ; when it is applied to body, it is of the third ; but this 
distinction is not rigidly observed. The same remark is applicable 
to exstemo. 

The perfect and supine of this verb are not used out of composi- 
tion; but contemno, contemsi, contemtum. See note 2. 

Po makes psi, ptum : as, carpo, carpsi, carptum^ to pluck. 


Rumpo, rupi, ruptum, to break. 

Strepo, strepui, strepltum, to make a noise. 

Quo. There are only two in quo ; 

Coquo, coxi, coctum, to boil. 
Linquo 1 , liqui, *lictum, to leave. 

Ro 9 makes ssi, stum : as, gero, gessi, gestum, to carry. 


Curro, cucurri, cursum, to run. 

Fero, tuli, latum, to bear. 

Quaero, quaesivi, quaesitum, to seek. 

*Sero 3 , *serui, *sertum, to lay in order. 

Sero*, sevi, satuin, to sow. 

Tero, trivi, tritum, to wear. 

Verro 5 , verri, versum, to sweep. 

1 De- re- dere- linquo, ~liqui, -lictum. 

* Furo and sujffero have no perfect or supines. This is said 
ofsuffero, signifying bearing or suffering; but when it signifies to 
carry away, it borrows sustuli and sublatum from tollo or sustollo ; 
yet, some grammarians deny a preterite and supine to sujfero, in 
any sense, and always refer sustuli and sublatum to tollo. Indeed, 
there seems some disagreement among grammarians, in regard to 
these verbs ; many, guided by a certain analogy, asserting that the 
preterite and supine commonlyassigned to tollo, come from sitffero. 
In the same way, they refer extuli and datum to effero, which, they 
say, lends them to extollo. It seems clear to me, that tuli and la. 
turn (said to be a contraction oftolatum,) are borrowed byfero it- 
self from tolo or tulo ; and that, if borrowed by the original, sim- 
ple verb, they must still be considered as borrowed by its com- 
pounds. Attuli and allatum are, however, generally referred to 
affero, as they are not used in the signification ofattollo, which, in 
course, is said to be without preterite or supine. 

s The compounds of sero that denote arranging or linking to- 
gether, are thus formed ; being As- con- de~ dis- edis- ex- in- inter- 

4 Those that denote planting or solving, thus : as, as- con- circum* 
de- dis- in- inter- pro- re- sub- tran- sero t -sevi, -situm, a being 
changed into i t in the supines. 

* Some give verro the perfect versi ; but verri is far prefe- 


So makes sivt> sltum : as, arcesso *, arcessivi, arcessltum, to 
send for. 


Depso 9 , depsui, depstum, to knead. 

Incesso, incessi, , to attack. 

Pinso, pinsi, pinsitum, to bake. 
pinsui, pinsum, 
Viso 3 , visi, , to visit. 

To forms variously : thus, 

Flecto, flexi, flexum, to bend. 
Meto, messui, messum, to reap. 
Mitto, misi, missum, to send. 
Necto, nexui, nexum, to tie. 


Peto, petivi, petitum, to seek. 
Pecto, pexi, pexum, to comb. 

Plecto*, plexui, plexum, to plait. 

Sisto, stiti, statum, to stop (active). 

Sisto 5 , , , to stand (neuter). 

Sterto, stertui, , to snore. 

Verto, verti, versum, to turn. 

1 Arcesso, capesso, facesso, lacesso, are said by some to have ii 
and i, by Syncope. The syncopated perfect is the only one left to 
incesso, Incessui is once found. 

8 Some grammarians give depso no supine. The dictionaries 
give it depsitum, which, by syncope, becomes depstum ; and hence 
the participle depsius, which Cato uses. 

3 Reviso and inviso are said by some to have supines ; but since 
visum is denied to viso t as being the supine of video, whence viso 
itself is formed, upon the same principle inmsum and revisum are 
to be referred to invideo and revideo. 

4 Whether in the sense of plaiting or of punishing, either pre- 
terite is very uncommon. 

5 'Sisto (neuter) is said to borrow steti, statum from sto The 
compounds, have -stiti, -stitum: as, as- circuin- con- de- ex- in~ 
inter- ob per- re- sub- sisto, -stiti, -stitum. Absisto has no supine ; 
nor'are the supines of the others authorized. 


Uo l makes ui, utum : as, tribuo, tribui, tributum, to bestow. 


Fluo, fluxi, fluxum, to flow. 
Ruo-, rui, ruitum, to rush. 
Struo, struxi, structum, to build. 

Fo 3 makes vi, utum: as, volvo, volvi, volutum, to roll. 


Vivo, vixi, victum, to live. 
Xo* makes ui, turn: as, texo^ texui^ textum, to weave. 


The fourth conjugation makes wi, Itum : as, audio 5 , 
audivi 6 , auditum> to hear. 

1 These have no supines : metuo, pluo, congruo, ingruo, respuo, 
annuo, abnuo, innuo, renuo. Luo has lui (luitum, seldom). Its 
compounds, lutum : as, diluo, dilui, dilutum. Batuo and duo have 
no supines ; but the verbs themselves have become obsolete. 

Fluo seems to have had jluctiim, as well asjluxum ; hence the 
verbal fiuctus. 

2 The compounds have -rutum. Corruo and irruo are not found 
in the supine. Eruiturus is found as well as eruturus. Ruiturus 
is in Lucan. 

3 Calvo, calvi, calvere ; and calvor t calvi, are obsolete. 

* Nexui and nexum come rather from necto than nexo. Nexo 
belongs to the first conjugation. But some grammarians write 
nexo, nexis, nexui, nexum, nexere. 

' Eo and queo are the only simple verbs in eo that belong to 
this conjugation, and both have itum in the supine. The com- 
pounds likewise ; except ambio, ambitum. These want the su- 
pine ; ccecutio, gestio, glocio, dementio, ineptio, ferocio. Obedio 
(perhaps ob-audio) is a neuter verb; and consequently not used 
in the passive voice, but as an impersonal verb, hence obeditum 
est, in Livy. It has obediturus, as if from obeditum, the supine 
usually given to it. There is not sufficient authority for the su- 
pines of as- circum- sub- pro- silio ; but the verbs assulto and sub- 
sulto ; arid the nouns assultus and subsultus are found, formed from 
a supine. Aio andferio want perfect and supine ; but aio has the 
2d persons of the perfect. Likewise verbs denoting desire, and 
ending in -urio ; except esurio, -im, itum ; parturio -ivi, but for 
this last there is only modern authority, and perhaps nupturio ivi. 
Nupturisse Apuleius. Esuriturus Ter. Parturiit Buchanan. 

6 In one instance Cicero is said to have usedpunitus es, instead 
o? punivisti ; -Cujus tu inimicissimum multo crudelius punitus es. 




Amicio, amicui, amictum, to cover. 

amixi, (seldom,) 

amicivi, (male,) 

Cambio, campsi, campsum, to change money, (obs,) 
Farcio, farsi, fartum, to cram. 
Fulcio, fulsi, fultum, to support. 
Haurio 1 , hausi, haustum, to draw out. 

(seld. hausum,) 

Raufcio, rausi, rausum, to be hoarse. 
Salio 2 , salui, saltum, to leap. 
Sancio 3 , sanxi, sanctum, to ratify. 

sancivi, sancitum, 
Sarcio, sarsi, sartum, to mend. 
Sentio, sensi, sensum, to feel. 
Sepelio, sepelivi, sepultum, to bury. 
Sepio*, sepsi, septum, to inclose. 

sepivi, (seld.) 
Singultio 6 , singultivi, singultum, to sob. 

Veneo 6 , venii, , to be sold. 

Venio, veni, ventum, to come. 
Vincio, vinxi, vinctum, to bind. 

1 Hauriturus is found. Hausurus, Virgil. Hausturus, Cicero. 

a Salio makes salui or salii, but for the former there are superior 
authorities. The compounds have -silui or -silii, -sultum. As- 
circum- sub- pro- sultum, are unauthorized: but some verbs are 
found which seem formed from assultum and subsultum. See 
note 5, in the preceding page. 

3 Sancivi is sometimes contracted into sancii, as sancitum is into 
sanctum ; and hence the participle sanctus. Sanxi is almost uni- 
versally used ; and sanctus is much more common than sancitus, 
and rests on much better authority. 

4 Sepivissent is in Livy ; or rather perhaps sepissent. But Gro- 
novius conjectures that sepsissent ought to be read. The passage 
is XLIV. 39. 

5 Singultum, formed, by Syncope, from singultitum, as sepultum 
is from sepelitum, is preferred to singultitum t on account of the 
noun singultus derived from it, but neither is common. 

* Some give veneo a supine, venum ; but this is considered as a 
noun, which, compounded with eo, forms veneo itself. Venii may 
be contracted from venivi. 

Compounds ofpario, a verb of the third conjugation. 



To form the perfect of a deponent verb, suppose an ac- 
tive voice ; from the supine of which, formed by preceding 
rules, comes the participle in -tus, -sits, or -xus, which, added 
to sum or fui, constitutes the perfect : thus, gratulor, gratu- 
latus sum, as if from gratulo, gratulavi, gratulatum, 


In the first conjugation all the deponent verbs are formed 


The second conjugation has the following 


Fateor, fassus sum, to confess. 
Misereor, misertus sum, to pity. 

miseritus, (Liv. and others.) 
Reor, ratus sum, to think. 



Apiscor 3 , aptus sum, to get. 
Comminiscor, commentus sum, to devise. 
Expergiscor, experrectus sum, to awake. 

1 Thus also the double compounds, adaperio, adoperio, coope- 
rio. Comperi, not compertus sum, is found as the preterite of corw- 
perior. Comperio and reperio are perhaps compounds of the ob- 
solete perio or perior, whence periculum, peritus, and experior, are 
formed, rather than of pario. 

8 The verb sarrio or sario belongs to this conjugation. It is 
formed regularly by -ivi, -itum. It has also sarrui ; and Mr. R. 
Johnson quotes two instances from Cat. c. 3, in which sarseris is 
used as a part of this verb ; but may it not come rather from sarcio? 
Columella uses sarrivisse, xi. 2. Sarueris is said to be found in 
Cato; but some read sarrieris. In regard to the supine, sarritura 
is found in Columella ; sartura is in Pliny, xviii. 27> which implies 
the existence of sartum, as well as 4 sarritum. 

3 Apiscor is but little used : its compounds are adipiscor and in. 
dipiscor, -eptus* 


Fruor 1 , fruitus sum, to enjoy. 

Gradior, gressus sum, to go. 

(ol.) grassus, 

Irascor 9 , iratus sum, to be angry. 
Labor, lapsus sum, to slide. 
Loquor, locutus sum, to speak. 


Morior 3 , mortuus sum, to die. 
Nanciscor, nactus sum, to get. 
Nascor*, natus sum, to be born. 
Nitor 5 , nisus sum, to endeavour. 


Obliviscor, oblTtus sum, to forget. 
Orior*, ortus sum, oriri, to rise. 
Paciscor, pactus sum, to bargain. 
Patior, passus sum, to suffer. 
Proficiscor, profectus sum, to go. 
Queror, questus sum, to complain. 
Sequor, secutus sum, to follow. 


Ulciscor, ultus sum, to revenge. 
Utor, usus sum, to use. 

The verb potior has potiri, and belongs to the fourth con- 
jugation ; but is used, by the poets, in the 3d and 4th, who, 
however, prefer potttur of the third 6 . 



Metior, mensus sum, to measure^ 
metitus, (male.) 

1 Fruitus is said to be the more common ; notwithstanding, from 
fructus come the noun fructus, and the participles perfructus and 
Jructurus. Lucretius uses fructus sum, iii. 953. Petfructus is at- 
tributed to Cicero. Fruitus sum is in Seneca, epist. -93. 

* Iratus is considered as an adjective. 

3 The infinitive ofmorlor is mori; sometimes, as in Plautus and 
Ovid, moriri. Emoriri is in Terence. The participle is moriturus. 

* The future participles active of nascor and orior are also nas- 
citurus and oriturus. In the imperfect subjunctive orirctur is uni- 
versally found instead oforeretur; also in the compounds. la any 
other parts, it is seldom found to follow the fourth conjugation. 

* Con- in- ob~ re- sub- nitor, -xus oftener than -sus. Annitor 
-xus, and -sus, promiscuously. Enixus is generally applied to a 
birth ; otherwise, enisus. 

6 Pofitur, Virg. Poteretur, V. Flacc. Poteremur, Ovid. 
Poterentur, Propert. 


Ordior 1 , orsus sum, to begin. 
Experior, expertus sum, to try. 
Opperior*, oppertus sum, (Ter.) to wait for. 
opperitus, (Plant.) 


Compounded verbs form their perfect and supine in the 
same manner as the simple verbs : thus, red-amo, red-amavi, 
red-amatum^ to love again. 

But the following changes, which happen to the preposi- 
tion, and to the simple verb, in a state of composition, merit 

A, Ab 9 Abs. 

A is used in composition before m and r. Ab before 
vowels, and d 9 f, k, j, /, n, r, s. Before fero and fugio, it 
becomes au : as, aufero, aufugio. Abs is used before c and 
t : as, abscedo, abstuli. 


Ad changes d into the first letter of the simple, beginning 
with c 9 f, gy /, 7i 9 p 9 r, s 9 t : as, accurro^ afficio 9 aggero. In 
some writers it remains unaltered, as adficio. 

Am (ambe or ambi from a^j, circum). 
Am, before c, q, f 9 h, is changed into an : as, anquiro, an- 
helo. Sometimes it assumes its own b : as, ambio. 


Circum remains unaltered. The m is sometimes changed : 
as, circundo for circumdo ; omitted : as, circueo for circumeo. 

1 Some give ordior, orditus, when it signifies to weave ; but 
this rests chiefly on modern authority. 

a The following have no perfect ; vescor, liquor, medeor, remi- 
niscor, irascor, ringor, pr<revertor, diffit-eor, divertor, defetiscor. 
Divertor and prczvertor are said to borrow perfects from diverto 
and pr&vcrto, for -diver sus sum and prczversus sum are not used. 
In the same way, revertor, though it has reversus sum, borrows 
reverti from reverto, which is an uncommon verb. The word rictus 
is a substantive derived from the obsolete ringo. Diffessus is 
hardly to be found. Fatiscor is a very uncommon worcl. Such 
words as ratus, iratns , fessus , defcssus ; and cassus and lassus are 
considered as adjectives. 


Con (for cum). 

Con, before a vowel or h 9 drops the n : as, coaleo, cohi- 
beo ; before /, its n becomes /, and before b, p, m, it becomes 
m : and before r it changes n into r ; as, colligo, comburo, 
comparo, commeo, corripio. In comburo it assumes b after 

Di, Dis. 

Di is used before d, g 9 I, m, n 9 v : as, diduco, digladior. 
Dis and di before r : as, disrumpo, dirumpo ,- likewise before 
j : as, disjudicO) dijudico. Dis is used before c, p 9 q, s, t : as, 
discumbo, dispello. Before sp and st, s is removed, and be- 
foreyit is changed into/": as, dispicio, disto 9 diffiteor. Be- 
fore a vowel, it assumes r : as, dirimo, from emo. 


E is found before &, d, g, /, m, n, r, and before j and v : 
as, ebibo, edttco, ejicio, eveho. Ex is used before vowels, and 
#, c, p 9 a, t, s : as, exaro, exhibeo, excutio : before f, x be- 
comes f: as, efficio. 


In sometimes changes n into the first letter of the simple 
verb : as, illudo ; but before b, m, p, it changes n into m : as, 
imbibo, immineo, impleo. 


Ob generally remains unaltered. The b is sometimes 
omitted, as in omitto ; or changed into the first letter of the 
simple verb : as, offero. 

He, Pro. 

Re assumes d before d, a vowel, or h : as, reddo, redamo, 
redeoy redhibeo. Pro likewise sometimes takes a d, as in pro- 


Sub changes b into the consonant of the simple, before c, 
f> g> m 9 P> r: as > succedo, suffero, suggero. Submitto and sum- 
mitto; submoveo and summoveo, are both used. 


Trans is generally contracted into tra, before d,j, n : as, 
trado, trajiciO) trano ; and sometimes before I and m : as, 
traluceo, trameo. Post becomes pos in postuli. Few if any 
changes take place in the other prepositions. Other pre- 
fixes consist of verbs, as in calefacio, of caleo , of adverbs, 
as in benefacio, of bene ; of participles and adjectives, as in 
mansuefacio, magnifico, ofma?isuetus and magnus; of substan- 
tives, as in significo, of signum ; of a preposition and noun, 
as in animadvertOy of ad and animus. 



The following simple verbs, when in composition, change 
a into e : 

Arceo fallo , lacto patro 

*cando farcio mando sacro 

capto 1 fatiscor pario scando 

carpo gradior partio spargo 

damno jacto patior tracto. 

But we find amando 9 prcemando, prtedamno 9 ablacto (sel- 
dom), desacrO) pertracto, retracto. Parco makes comparco 
or comperco. Paciscor makes depeciscor. Canto changes a 
in occento. Halo with ex remains unaltered ; as, exhalo ; 
but we find anhelo. 

These change , CE and e 9 into i. 

Cado habeo quaero statuo 

caedo laedo rapio taceo 

cano lateo salio, to leap, tango 

egeo placeo sapio teneo. 

But we find com- per- placeo ; post- ante- habeo. Prce* 
habeo becomes prcebeo ; oc- re- cano are sometimes found. 

These change a and e into i 9 in the present only. 

Ago fateor pango *specio, 

apiscor frango premo 

capio jacio rego 

emo * lacio sedeo 

Except coemo, cogo (for con-ago) 9 dego (for de-ago\ 
circum- sat- per- ago. Sursum-erigo (e-rego) becomes surgo 9 
and per-rego* becomes per go. 

1 Such words as the following may be formed at once from the 
supine of the primitive compounded, viz. accepto from acceptum ; 
delecto from delectum, the supine of the obsolete delicio. 

* I was at a loss to determine whether I should consider pergo 
as a compound of rego, or of ago. From its having an x in the 
perfect it seems to come from rego. But it may be observed, that 
x is composed of gs, or of cs, and that the latter of these is some- 
times omitted ; that^czo, although in fed it uses but one of these 
letters, yet mfaxim and^^o (facsim andfacso) uses both; that 
lego, in some of its compounds, has the g only, and in others, the 
gs or x ; and that ago, in the language whence the Latin ago is 
probably derived, has an a; () in some of its parts ; so that the 
coincidence of the perfects in regard to rego and pergo, does not 
seem satisfactorily decisive of the derivation of the latter. To 


Antecapio and anticipo ; superjacio and superjicio are both 
used. Circum- super- sedeo ; de- ob- re- pango. Facio com- 
pounded with a preposition changes a into i as, afficio, 
interjicio. Such compounds have the imperative in e ; and 
form their passive regularly, by adding r to o. The other 
compounds with verbs, nouns or adjectives, do not change 
the a, and have the imperative in c, throwing away the e : 
and their passive voice is like Jio : as, calefacio, calefac, ca- 
lefio. Some compounds with nouns and adjectives, throw 
away the i which precedes o, and are of the first conjuga- 
tion: as, significo, Itftifico, magnifico 1 . 

Specio forms some compounds in the same way ; as, con- 
spicoi* and suspicor, deponents of the first conjugation. 

Lego, compounded with con, de, di, e, inter, nee, se, 
changes e into i : as, colligo, deligo ; but at- pr<z- per- re- 
sub- trans- lego. 

Calco and salto compounded change a into u : as, incidco, 

Plaudo, compounded, changes au into o : as, explodo ,- 
except applaudo. 

Audio changes au into e in obedio. 

Causo, claudo, lavo, quatio, throw away a, and Iwoo turns 
v into u : as, accuso, recludo, deluo (or from luo), percutio. 

Juro changes u into e in dejero and pejero. Its other com- 
pounds retain the u. 


Compounds throw away the reduplication of the perfect: 
as, pello, pepuli ; compello, compuli. The second conjuga- 
tion drops the reduplication entirely : as, spondeo, spospondi; 
respondeo, rcspondi. The compounds of do, sto, disco and 
poscOy retain it : as, circundedi, addidi, astiti, edidici, depo- 
posci. Prendo for prehendo has prendidi as well as prendi. 
Repungo retains it in repupugi. Ac- con- de- dis- ex- in- oc- 
per- pr<z- pro- curro, sometimes have the reduplication, and 

this it may be added, thatpergo, though neuter, is sometimes used 
actively, in nearly the same sense as pcrago; and that as cogo (con- 
ago) and colligo (con-lego) convey similar ideas, and are, neither 
of them, very different from cruv-ayw, whence ago may be sup- 
posed to be derived, it is not very improbable, that ago may, in 
sense , at Ifeast, form the basis of re.go, lego, pergo and surgo. Still, 
upon the score of formation, it is expedient to consider pcrgo as 
per-rego. The rest is mere conjecture. 

1 But bencfacito, calejacito and the like, are more common than 
bencfac, &c. 


sometimes not Circum- re- sue- trans- ctirro, seldom or never 
have it. Some changes in the perfects of certain simple verbs 
as, solid into silui ,- cecini into cinui have been noticed 
under their conjugations. 


These compounded change a into e. 

Cantum carptum fartum partum sparsum. 
cap turn factum 1 jactum rap turn 

Also the participles, aptus, Jassus^ and passtts. Observe 
that compounds in -do and -go ; and the compounds of 
placeo, habeO) sapio, salio and statno^ though they change a 
of the simple verb into 2, do not take e in their supine : as, 
recido, recasum ; adigo^ adactum ; displiceo, displicitum ; pro- 
hibeo, prohibition ; desipio (desipitum 2 ) ,- insilio, insultum , 
instituO) institutum. 

The simple verbs with which the following are compound- 
ed, are either obsolete, or but little known ; adipiscor, indi- 
piscor> defendo, offendo, aspicio, conspicio^ experior, compe- 
rior, expedio, impedio, doleo, imbuo, compcllo- as^ appello 
-as, incendo, accendo, ingruo, congruo, infligo, qffligo, con- 
jligo, instigo, impleo, compleo, renideo, connweo^ percello, im- 
e- pra- mineo, alUcio, illicio, induo, exuo, and some others. 


The following lines contain a connected view of the prin- 
cipal verbs that are defective in perfects or supines. 


These have no supines : 

The compounds of nuo and gruo. 
Those of cado ; except incido, occido, recido. 
Neuters in -veo ; and arceo 8 . 

Neuters in eo, ui ; except caleo, careo, coaleo, doleo,jaceo, 
lateo 3 , liceo, merco, noceo, oleo, pareo, -placco, taczo 3 , valeo. 
The rest are comprehended in these verses : 

1 In the compounds only that change a of the present into t. 

a This word does not appear to have a supine. 

3 See arceo, lateo, taceo, iu the second conjugation, luo in the 
third, and mico in the first. Several additional remarks on simple 
and compound verbs will be found under their respective conju- 


Algeo cum timeo, sic urgeo, lugeo, fulgeo, 

Frigeo, cum sileo, sic turgeo, luceo, strideo ; 

Ango, clango, luo 1 , disco, compesco, quinisco, 

Dego, lambo, mico 1 , dispesco, posco, refello, 

Incesso, metuo, ningo, cum prodigo, psallo, 

Stride, scabo, pluo, sido, cum respuo, rudo, 

Sterto, tremo, sapio, satago, cum veneo, viso ; 

Csecutit, glocio, dementio, gestit, ineptit, 

His et prosilio 2 , pariterque ferocio jungas. 

These have neither perfect nor supine. 

Verbs in -sco, that signify to grow, or to begin ; 

Verbs in -urio, signifying desire ; except parturio, esurio, 
and nupturio. Also 

Flaveo, cum scateo, liveoque, renideo, polleo, 

Nexo, aveo, denseo, glabreo, cum lacteo, mcereo; 

Ainbigo, sisto 3 , furo, ferio, labo, vergo, recello, 

Divertor, plico, praevertor, liquet et reminiscor, 

Piffiteor, ringor, medeor, vescorque, liquor^. 
Verbs 'which borrow tenses from others : 

Inceptives in -sco borrow their perfects from their primi- 
tives: as, tepesco, tepui, from tepeo : their supines also: as, 
abolesco, -evi, -itum, from aboleo. 

Ferio, percussi, percussum, from percutio ; 

Fero, tuli, latum, from tulo ; 

Furo, insanivi, insanitum, from insanio ; 

Meio, minxi, mictum, from mingo ; 

Sido, sedi, sessum, from sedeo ; 

Sum, fui, futurus, from fuo, obsolete , 

Tollo, sustuli, sublatum, from suffero, or rather sustollo ; 

Liquor, liquefactus sum, from liquefio ; 

Medeor, medicatus sum, from medicor, deponent ; 

Reminiscor, recordatus sum, from recorder ; 

Vescor, pastus sum, from pascor*, &c. 

1 See note 3, in the preceding page. 
See salio, in the fourth conjugation. 

3 Sisto neuter. See sisto, third conjugation. 

4 Whether, strictly speaking, all these perfects and supines 
can be said to be really borrowed by the defective verbs, or to be 
used instead of their defective tenses, it is perhaps impossible, 
nor is it of much importance, to determine. At any rate, they 
are used in the same, or nearly the same, signification, in which 
the defective tenses would have been used ; but still, it may be, 
that they are used, not as upon loan, but chiefly as tenses of their 
own verbs, with whose signification that of the defective verbs 
happens to coincide. 



Audeo, gaudeo, soleo, Jido, and Jio. The first four, neuter 1 
verbs, though they have an active termination, have a pas- 
sive preterite ; and hence their name. Th simple tenses 
are active in termination, the compound, passive. They are 
thus conjugated. 

Audeo 1 , ausus sum, audere, to dare, "1 - , ^, 

Gaudeo, gavisus sum, gaudere, to rejoice, f on - 
Soleo 2 , solitus sum, solere, to use, ) " 

Fido 3 , fisus sum, fidere, to trust of the 3d. 
Fio*, factus sum, fieri, to be made of the 3d or 4-th. 

The following peculiarities happen to words which are 
not commonly deemed defective, nor very irregular in their 

Neither dor nor der*, the presents passive of do, nor for 
nor fer are used; we say daris vel dare, &c. ; faris velfare, 
&c. But in composition we find addor, condor, &c. Effbr 
and affbr are scarcely used. 

Furo is not used in the first person singular of the present 

Sci, the second person singular of the imperative of scio, 
is obsolete. 

Die, due, fac, fer, are used as imperatives instead of dice, 
duce, &c. Face, adduce, abduce, dice, edice, addice and Mice 
are found, but very seldom. The compounds offacio, that 
change a into i, as has been formerly mentioned, retain the 
e ; as, office, infice, perfce. 


Of the abundants, some abound in signification, being 

1 Audendus is used by Livy ; and auderi is used by Cornelius. 
* Soluerat is attributed to Sallust. 

9 Thus confido, and dijfido. Confido has confidi also, accord- 
ing to Livy ; and diffidi is in Quintilian. 

4 Thus the compounds offacio with nouns, verbs or adverbs. 
Fio is the passive voice offacio. To these, some add mcereo, 
mcestus sum, mcerere. Mcestus sum belongs also to mcereor ; and 
by some mcestus is considered merely as an adjective. Exulo, 
liceo, vapulo, and veneo, are neuter verbs, and, because expressed 
in English by the passive voice, have been termed neuter-passives. 
Liceor is a deponent verb, and has an active signification. 

5 Deris and demur, and the other parts ofjaris (except fatur, 
fare of the imperative, fans, fatus nndfandus,fandi andfando) 

seem obsolete. Virgil uscsfabor. Jfcn. i. 261. 


either neuter, or active : as, maneo, I remain, or I wait for ; 
some have an active or passive signification : as, criminor, I 
blame or am blamed. 

Others abound in termination : as, assentio and assentior. 

Others in conjugation : as, of 

The Jirst, Lavo, lavas; of the third, rarely, Lavo, lavis. 
The second, Ferveo, ferves; Fervo, fervis. 

Strideo, strides; Stride, stridis. 

Tueor, tueris; Tuor, tueris. 

Tergeo, terges ; (used in both) Tergo, tergis. 

Fulgeo, fulges; Fulgo, fulgis. 

The third, Fodio, fodts; ofthefourth,rarely,Yo&o, fodis. 

Sallo, sallis ; Sallio, sallis. 

Morior, moreris; M orior, morlr is. 

Orior, oreris ; Orior, orlris. 

Potior, poteris; Potior, potiris. 

Note That orior and pot tor are always of the 4th, in the 

Others abound in certain tenses. Thus the following are 
said to have a perfect of an active or a passive termination ; 
juro, nubo, placeo, punio, suesco. The abundant impersonals 
will be found among the Impersonals. Edo, an abundant, 
will be found among the Irregulars. Among abundants (but 
it is a misapplication of the term), have sometimes been 
reckoned verbs which, in some of their principal parts, re- 
semble each other; but which differ in their signification, and 
often in their conjugation. 

1 . Some agree in the present : as, 

Aggero, -as, to heap up. Aggero, -is, to bring together. 

Appello, -as, to call. Appello, -is, to arrive. 

Compello, -as, to address. Compello, -is, to compel. 

Colligo, -as, to bind. 
Consterno, -as, to astonish. 
Effero, -as, to enrage. 
Fundo, -as, to found. 
Mando, -as, to command. 
Obsero, -as, to lock. 
Volo, -as, tojly. 

Some change their quantity likewise : as, 

Colo, -as, to strain. Colo, -is, to till. 

Dico, -as, to dedicate. Dico, -is, to say. 

Educo, -as, to educate. Educo, -is, to bring out. 

Colligo, -is, to collect. 
Consterno, -is, to strew. 
Effero, -iers, to bring out. 
Fundo, -is, to pour out. 
Mando, -is, to chew. 
Obsero, -is, to sow over. 
Volo, vis, to will. 


Lego, -as, to send. Lego, -is, to read. 

Vado, -as, to wade. Vado, -is, to go. 

2. Some agree in their perfects : as, 

acui, to be sour. Acuo, acui, to sharpen. 

Cresco, crevi, to grow. Cerno, crevi, to see. 

FrigeOy.frixi, to be cold. Frigo, frixi, to fry. 

Fulgeo, fulsi, to shine. Fulcio, fulsi, to prop. 

Luceo, luxi, to shine. Lugeo, luxi, to mourn. 

Paveo, pavi, to be afraid. Pasco, pavi, to feed. 

Pendeo, pependi \ to hang. Pendc, pependi, to weigh. 

3. Some agree in their supines : as, 

Cresco, cretum, to grow. Cerno, cretum, to see. 

Maneo, mansum, to stay. Mando, mansuni, to chew. 

Sto, statum, to stand. Sisto, statum, to stop. 

Succenseo, -censum, to be Succenck), -censum, to burn. 


Teneo, tentum, to hold. Tendo, tentum, to stretch. 

Verro, versum, to sweep. Verto, versum, to turn. 

Vinco, victum, to conquer. Vivo, victum, to live. 


(1) The verbs commonly reckoned irregular are sum, eo 9 
queo, volo, edo 9 fero 9 fa, and their compounds. 

(2) The compounds of sum are ad.- ab- de- inter- in-pra- 
ob- sub- super- pro- pos- sum. Insum wants the perfect and 
the parts formed from it. Prosum takes in a d after pro, 
whenever sum begins with an e. Possum (which is Potsum, 
for potis- or pote- sum.,} changes the t when it is followed by 
an $ 9 into s. In other respects the t is retained, but they of 
sum is thrown out ; as, potui, potueram, &c. Potessem and 
potesse are contracted into possem and posse. Potestur is 
found in the passive. 

(3) The compounds of eo are all conjugated like eo 9 ex- 
cept ambio, which belongs to the fourth conjugation. Trans- 
eo and pratereo have sometimes -iam in the future indica- 
tive. In the compounds, ivi, ivisti, &c. are generally con- 
tracted into ii 9 iisti, &c. 

1 To these may be added the compounds of sto and of r.isto: 
thus, consto, constiti; consisto, constiti ; inslo, instiii ; insisto, in- 
stiti, &c. Some have added the compounds of fero and tollo : 
as, confero, contuli ; contollo, contidi; effero, extuli; extollo, extuli ; 
profero, proiuli ; protollo, protuli. But these preterites are better 
referred tofero, exclusively. Concerning sustuli, which some re- 
fer to suffero, and some to "tollo, or sustotto, mention has already 
been made. 


(4) Queo and nequeo are conjugated like eo ; but have no 
imperative mood, or gerunds, and seldom participles. Quitus, 
queuntur, queatur : nequeor, nequitur are rarely found. 

(5) The compounds of volo are nolo (non volo} and malo 
(magis volo}. Their gerunds seem to rest on no good au- 

(6) Edo, although reckoned among the irregulars, is a 
regular verb of the third conjugation ; but in some parts in 
which it seems to fall in with stim, it is abundant. Its com- 
pounds are conjugated like it. Estur, in the passive, is found 
as well as editur. 

(7) Fero borrows tidi 9 and latum (supposed to be con- 
tracted for tolatum or tulatum) from the obsolete tulo. Its 
compounds are conjugated like it. 

(8) Fio is commonly considered as the passive of facto 1 , 
some of the compounds of which have their passive in ^fio 9 
and others in ^ficior^ as has been explained under the Com- 
pounded Verbs. 

1 The ingenious author of an excellent little Grammar observes, that " fio 
is absurdly supposed to be the passive voice of facio ; whereas it came from 
Qua, which gave birth to fui, the perfect of sum." Is not this remark rather 
harsh ; and does it not involve the very circumstance which the intelligent 
author wishes to reprehend ? It is certainly true that fio comes from Qva ; 
hence the obsolete fuo which gives to sum, fui, fueram, forem (or fuerem) t 
fuerim, fuissem, fore ( probably fuere},fuisse. Fuat occurs in Virgil, JEn. x. 
108. Indeed, to complete the Latin verb of existence, another verb is pro- 
bably added. "Eipi sum, and ttptt eo, seem to be kindred verbs, both apparently 
derived from 'iu, to go, to come into existence, to be. The Latin sum is formed 
either from 'hfti, or from iraftai, the future of 'tea. According to Varro, the 
ancients used to say esum, and esumus, estis, esunt. Eram, essem, ero, esse, ap- 
pear, too, to come from the original eo or do. Eram is, by termination, ob- 
viously a pluperfect, denoting, I had come into existence, I was ; essem, a plu- 
perfect subjunctive or potential, denoting I had come into existence, / was, 
or I would have come into existence, / would be ; ero, a future perfect, I shall 
have come into existence, / shall be ; esse, a perfect of the infinitive, to have 
come, to be come, to be. The word escit occurs in Lucretius, and the com- 
pound superescit, in Ennius. Escunt, too, is said to occur in a passage of the 
12 tables. The author of the P. Royal Grammar observes, that "escit is used 
for erit." We ought, probably, however, to read essit ; for the ancients formed 
their perfect subjunctive in ssim, as negassim for negaverim : others, however, 
doubtless contemplating the obvious relation between sum and eo, conceive 
that exeo, exit, have been corrupted into esceo, escit, and that, in Lucretius 
escit, exit, is used merely in the sense of est. We have little doubt, that a com- 
mon affinity exists generally, in language, between verbs of existence, going, 
becoming, standing, living, eating, birth, &c. Indeed, in the very terms in 
which we speak of sum, and some other verbs, as verbs of existence (ex sisto) 
or as substantive (sub sto} verbs, we imply the relation of standing. In Latin, 
sto is sometimes used substantively, or as a connecting verb, in a way little dif- 
ferent from sum ; and in Spanish, estar, the verb denoting to be, or, etymolo- 
gically, to stand, is always used, under certain established conditions, particu- 
larly that of variability in the predicate, as the verb of existence. We say in 
Latin, qmtm placidum ventis staret mare, when the sea stood (was) tranquil ; 
and here, too, the use of sto seems to be regulated by the same circumstance 
as that of the Spanish esto , for were quietness a property or usual attribute of 


Their Conjugation. 

(9) Sum and its compounds cannot be classed under any 
conjugation. It borrows its perfect and future participle 
from the obsolete fuo of the third. I 

(10) Eo and queo are irregulars, from the fourth. 

(11) Volo, nolo, malo, fero, from the third. 

(12) Fio, whose infinitive was originally JJhL and imper- 
fect subjunctive jvrem, may be referred to the fourth. 

Their Formation. 

(13) They are all regular in the formations from the per- 
fect, supine, and infinitive. Their principal irregularity, be- 
sides their deficiency, is in the formation from the present, 
and in the terminations belonging to the present, and to the 
formation from it, as has been already mentioned in the 
Rules for the Formation of Verbs. 

The following is a Synopsis of the 
Irregular Verbs. 

the sea, it is not probable that sto would be employed. If a Spaniard means 
to say, " He is at present in ill health," he uses the substantive verb estar, to 
be, equivalent to the Latin stare; thus, " El esta malo." If he speaks of a 
man that is habitually or inlierently wicked, he employs the substantive verb 
ser, corresponding to the Latin esse ; thus, " El & malo," he is a bad man, 


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Impersonal verbs are not declined in the first or second 
person, but only in the third person singular; they never ad- 
mit a person as their nominative ; and, when literally trans- 
lated, have, in English, the word it before them. 


(1) There are impersonals in both voices. 

Some belong to the first conjugation : as, constat, juvat, 

Some to the second : as, decet, oportet, pcenitet. 

Some to the third : as, accidit, conducit, fugit. 

Some to the fourth : as, convenit, expedit. 

Some are irregular : as, interest and other compounds of 
sum, Jit, pr&terit, nequit, subit, confert, refert, &c. 

The regular impersonals are inflected like the third per- 
sons singular of their respective voices and conjugations ; the 
irregular, like the third person singular of those personal 
verbs, whence they ar^e formed, or with which they are com- 
pounded. But in the perfect, miseret has misertum est ; tcedet 
has tacduit, and the compound perttfsum est ; placet, libet, 
licet, pudet, piget, -uit and -itum est. Liquet has no per- 

(2) Impersonals of the active voice have of the infinitive 
the present and perfect only ; they want the imperative, (in- 
stead of which is used the present of the subjunctive,) and 
generally participles, gerunds, and supines. 

Passive impersonals have all the infinitive. 

(3) The first supine of the personal verb, or the neuter 
gender of the perfect participle, with the verb sum, consti- 
tutes the compound tenses of the passive voice. 


(4-) Many personal verbs are used as impersonals, with 
an infinitive after them, or the subjunctive mood and ut : as, 
delecto, juvo, appareo, attineo, incipio, conduce, expedio, con- 
venio, &c. But it is to be observed, that, although many of 
these are used personally : as, Tu mihi places ; Filius patrem 
delectat ; yet they are always used impersonally when fol- 
lowed by an infinitive, or subjunctive mood. For we do not 
say Si places audire, but Si placet tibi audire ,- not Ego con- 
tigi esse domi, but Me contigit esse domi ; not Ille evenit mori, 
but Ulum mori evenit, or ut ille moreretur. 


The following is a rule for ascertaining when these and 
similar verbs are to be used personally, and when imperson- 

Observe, That if the person mentioned in English as con- 
stituting the subject of these verbs be active, that is, doing 
any thing, a personal verb must be used : as, I please you, 
Placeo tibi. 

But, if the person be suffering, an impersonal verb must 
be used : as, I please to hear, or I am pleased to hear, Placet 
mihi audire, i. e. to hear pleases me. If an infinitive follows 
in English, the verb is impersonal; if not, it is generally per- 


(5) On the other hand, impersonals are sometimes, though 
rarely, used as personal verbs : as, Athenienscs, sicut primi 
defecerant, ita primi pcenitere cceperunt Justin, instead of 
primos pcenitere ccepit. Non te h&c pudent Ter. Quo in 
genere multa peccantur Cic. This happens particularly 
with some adjectives of the neuter gender : as, Aliquid pec- 
catur vitio prcecipientium Sen. Ne quid in eo genere pec- 
cetur Cic. 


(6) Miser et, piget, pudet, pcenitet, taedct; lucescit, vesper- 
ascit, pluit, tonat, Jidgurat, fulminat, Jlat, ningit, rorat, 
.hyemat, serenat, lapidat, gelat, grandinat, and the like; and 

neuter and active verbs used impersonally : as, curritur, vi- 
vitur, itur, turbatur, agitur, &c., are said to involve their no- 
minatives in themselves ; although it may be observed, that 
Miseret me tui is not essentially different from Ego tui mise- 
reor ; nor Poznitet me conditionis, from the words of Plautus, 
Conditio me pcenitet , and Pcenitet me hoc fecisse is not dif- 
ferent from Hoc factum me pcenitet. The same thing may 
be said of Non me hoc dicer e pudebit ; so that, strictly speak- 
ing, only those impersonals mentioned above, denoting cer- 
tain operations of nature, and passive impersonals, formed 
from active or neuter verbs, can be said to contain their no- 
minatives in themselves ; and even to these, some would 
supply DeuSy Natura> or the matter of the verb, as their no- 

(7) Other verbs, as, oportet, libet, liquet, licet, est and its 
compounds, rcfert, decet, delectat, jiwat^ &c., are supposed 
to have hoc, illud, or id, referring to the words following, 


understood, as a nominative, or the infinitive mood, or part 
of a sentence *. 

(8) The infinitive mood of both kinds is used imperson- 
ally: as, Terra multifariam pluisse nunciatum cst Liv. 
Qitum multitude .... resisti posse Appio crederet Id. 


(9) Although, in a literal translation, impersonal verbs 
have it before them, it is better, according to the English 
idiom, to adopt the person as the nominative : as, Licet mihi, 
It is allowed to me ; rather, I am allowed. Pcenitet me, I 
repent. Pugnatur a me, a te t ab illo, &c., I fight, thou fight- 
est, he fights, &c. 


(10) There have been great disputes among grammarians 
about the nominative understood before impersonal verbs, 
when it cannot be obviously supplied by some pronoun un- 
derstood, infinitive mood, or part of a sentence. Some have 
supposed res, negotium, natura, &c., or a nominative of cog- 
nate signification with the verb, to be understood. None of 
these suppositions is found applicable in every instance. The 
truth, perhaps, is, that no nominative is, or ever was, un- 
derstood ; but that such impersonals, before the distinctions 
in language arising from the analysis of a proposition into 
its constituent parts of a subject and predicate, (the latter 
comprehending the copula, or word of assertion, and the at- 
tribute) were attended to, originally constituted a compen- 
dious and simple method of expressing, -in one word, an en- 
tire event in the aggregate, especially in regard to those 
operations of nature, beyond human power, and in which 
the subject or agent is invisible ; and that pluit, in itself, is 
fully equivalent to It rains, Rain is or falls, Imber dccidit, 
or Tcmpestas cst pluvialis. 

But they have never been supposed to have a person as 
their nominative, and hence arises the name, Impersonal. 
This observation may be extended further, lor they do not 
admit as a nominative the name of any animated being. 

1 Caesar says, Ccssari quum id nunciatum esscl, eos per promn- 
dam nostram iter Jacere conari ; in which id is the nominative to 
the verb, and refers to the words which constitute the real subject, 
or nominative, eos per provinciam nostram iter Jacere conari. Whe- 
ther or not nunciatum est be here considered as impersonal, the 
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(1) So called from their having little more than preterites 
and the formation from these, are odi, memini, and ccepi. 
They have, in their perfects, the signification of the present 
also 1 : in the pluperfect, that of the perfect also; and in the 
future of the subjunctive, that of the future indicative also. 
It is because novi sometimes signifies / know, that it is 
ranked among these, for it is the perfect of the verb nosco, 
which is complete. 

(2) Odi has the participle osus, which signifies actively, 
and the future participle osurus. Its compounds perosus 
and exostis are used, but not perodi or exodi ; and they sig- 
nify actively, and sometimes passively. 

(S) Memini has also the imperative, in the second per- 
sons singular and plural, namely, memento, mementote. 

(4) Ccepi has also its perfect participle cceptus, which sig- 
nifies passively ; and the future participle ccepturus. 

(5) Oditur, odiaris, odiatur, odientes ; meminens ; ccepio, 
ccepiam, cceperet, cceptu, are sometimes found. 


The poets sometimes use sis for si vis ,- sultis for si vultis ; 
sodes for si etudes ; capsis for cape si vis, or perhaps for ce- 
peris ; to which may be added abisis, videsis, cavesis, apa- 
gesis, in which sis seems to be added to diminish the harshness 
of the imperative. 


The principal thing to be considered in an adverb, is its 
signification. Adverbs are joined to verbs, participles, ad- 
jectives, or to other adverbs, to express some circumstance, 
or the quality and manner of their signification. Some are 
primitive: as, eras, jam, ubi, temere. 

They are, however, generally derivatives from nouns, pro- 
nouns, verbs, participles, and prepositions. 1. From nouns; 
as, viritim from vir ; docte from doctus. Many of the words 
deemed adverbs are nouns ; as words in um and o, primum, 
primo, mutuo, modo, &c. ; comparatives, as, amplius, melius, 
&c. ; and tempori, luci, vesper i, antient ablatives; rite for ritu, 
diu, noctu, forte, &c.; alias may be alias res; una, una opera : 
recta, recta via. In forming adverbs from adjectives or par- 

1 It is doubtful, whether ccepi ever denotes present time. From ccqri comes 
occcejri, found in Terence and Tacitus. Occepi and incepi t of occipio and in- 
cipio, are formed, not from ccepi, but the kindred verb capio. Odcrit and odcrint 
are sometimes used imperatively j as Oderinl, dum meiuant. Vide Cic. off. i. 28, 
and Sencc. dc ira, k 16. 


ticiples, the o of the ablative seems to be generally changed 
into e, as, recte. To the ablative in te, r is added, to i is 
added ter ; as, diligenter, fortiter. But facile, as well as 
faciliter } simul, together, as well as similiter^ from similis; 
omnino, from omnis; and repente, from repens. From firmus, 
too, we have Jirmiter and fame. 2. From pronouns ; as, 
hie, eo, qui, from hie, is, quis. Most of these end in c, a, 
or o, as, hue, ca, quo, many of which are really pronouns. 
Quam, than, is an accusative ; and quum or cum, when, is 
quern or quom, which appears to have been applied to all gen- 
ders. Quo, whither, is said to be an antient dative singular, 
or accusative plural, to which may be added eo and illo. Qid, 
how, is an ablative, said to be used in both numbers, and in 
every gender. 3. From verbs; as, ccesim, punctim, from qado, 
pungo. These generally end in im, and seem to come from 
the supine or perfect participle. 4. From participles ; as, 
amanter, simulate, merito, &c. 5. From prepositions ; as, 
intro, citro, ultro, clanculum, from infra, citra, ultra, clam. 

They are likewise formed by composition, in various ways; 
as, hodie, today, from hoc die ; postridie, the following day, 
from poster o die ; scilicet, namely, from scire licet ; quam- 
obrem, wherefore, from ob quam rem, &c. 

The numerous classes into which they are divided, may 
be left to be learned by practice. The following distinction 
in adverbs of place should be attended to. 





By a place. 






















































Adverbs are compared : as, 
Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

Diu, diutius, diutissime. 

Satis, satius, . 

Secus, seciusor sequius, . 

Saepe, saepius, saepissime. 

Tuto, tutiiis, tutissime. 

Penitus, .,,.,,.... penitius, ..,,,,,,.. penitissime. 

They are generally compared like the adjectives, from 
which they are derived : as, 




from acer ; 




from bonus ; 




from celer; 




from facilis ; 




from malus ; 


. > fminime, 1 
minus, < . . x > 
^minimum, J 

from parvus ; 




from multus ; 




from propior ; 

valde, for 

valdius Jt /0r 
valid ius, 


from validus ; 



ultimo -urn, 

from ulterior. 

Positive wanting. 

Magis, maxime ; ocyus, ocyssime ; prius, primo, or pri- 
mum ; potius, potissimum. Potissime is found. 

Comparative wanting. 

Paene, paenissime; nuper, nuperrime; nove and noviter, 
novissime; merit(\ meritissimo. 

Superlative wanting. 

Excusate, excusatius; tempore, or tempori, temporuis; 
satis, satius; secus, secius. 

(Obs. 1) Instar and ergo, not being declined, are 
ranked among adverbs, but the one may be considered as a 
triptote, and the other a monoptote. That instar is used as 
a noun may appear from the following : Unus ille dies milii 
quidem immortalitatis instar fuit Cic. Cujus equi instar pro 
cede Veneris dedicavit Suet. Instar montis eqiium Virg. 
Ad instar is attributed to later writers. 

(2) Some indeclinable words are said to change their part 
of speech, according to their signification. Cum, when, is 
considered as an adverb ; although, a conjunction ; and cum, 
with, as a preposition. 

(3) Before, when joined to a verb, is expressed by the ad- 
verbs of time, antequam, priusquam. Before^ joined to an 
oblique case of a noun, is made by ante, ad, apud, cor am, 
&c. The same distinction is to be observed between post- 
quam, ubi, cum, ut ; and the prepositions, a, ab, de, ex. 

(4-) The neuter gender of adjectives, both in the singu- 
lar and plural number, is sometimes used adverbially : as, 
dulce-ridens, sweetly-smiling; suave-rubens, sweetly-blush- 


ing; torva-tuens, sternly-looking; acerba-sonans, harshly- 

(5) Tantum, tantb, quantum, quanta, veriim, verb, solum, 
cceterum, modb, primum, primb, certb, minus, tempore, re- 
vera, brevi, profectb (pro facto), and such like, whether ad- 
verbs or conjunctions, are in most sentences obviously re- 
solvable into the nominatives, accusatives, or ablatives, of 
the nouns or adjectives whence they are supposed to be de- 
rived. Partim is an old accusative, the same as par tern. 

(6) Adverbs sometimes connect, like relatives: as, In 
Hispania ubi (i. e. quo in loco) nullus consul erat, In Spain 
where there was no consul ; Non qucesivit, ubi ipse viveret 
tutb, sed unde prcesidio posset esse civibus, r He did not look 
out for a place in which he himself might be safe, but one 

from which he might be of service to his countrymen. 

(7) Adverbs of time, place, and order, are often used for 
each other : as, ubi, where, or when ; inde, from that time, 
or from that place. 

(8) Some adverbs denote either past, present, or future 
time: as, jam, already, now, or by and by ; olim, formerly, 
or hereafter. 

(9) Interrogative adverbs doubled, or compounded with 
cunque, answer to the English soever : as, ubiubi, or ubi- 
cunque, wheresoever. Likewise, some other interrogatives : 
as, quotquot and quotcunque, how many soever; quantus- 
quantus, and quantuscunque, how great soever. 

(10) In English the same word is sometimes an adverb 
and an adjective ; it is necessary, therefore, in turning it into 
Latin, to ascertain to which part of speech it belongs : thus, 
if we say " He was only rich," only is an adverb, and the 
Latin expression is Hie solum erat dives. But if we say " He 
only was rich," only is an adjective, and this sentence will 
be expressed in Latin by Ille solus erat dives. 

(11) In Latin, as in English, two negatives in the same 
clause destroy each other, and render the sense affirmative: 
as, Haud ignara mali, Not unacquainted, (or, acquainted,) 
with misfortune. Non sum nescius, I am not ignorant, (or, 
I know). But in many instances they convey the assertion 
more faintly than an affirmative mode of expression ; as, 
Non par ere noluit Nep. He did not refuse to obey. Among 
old authors two negatives are sometimes used to render the 
negation stronger : as, Neque ille haud objiciet mihi Plaut. 
Special or particular negations do not destroy the general 
negation : as, Nulla neque amnem libavit quadrupes, nee gra- 
minis attigit herbam~~Virg. Neminem neque suo nomine, nee 


subscriber, accusavit Nep. In these, neque and nee ntust 
be translated in English by either and or. 


A preposition is an indeclinable part of speech, generally 
placed before nouns and pronouns, which it governs, am 
of which it shows the relation to some other word. Th< 
various ways of expressing, in English, their general mean- 
ing, will be seen in the following examples. 


Ad, to : as, omnes ad unum, all to a man. At : as, ad prce- 
stitutam diem, at the appointed day. According 
to : as, ad, cursum tunce* according to the course of 
the moon. After : as, aliquanto ad rem avidior, 
a little too greedy after money. For : as, rebus ad 
profectionem comparatis, things being ready for a 
march. Before : as, ductus est ad magistratum, he 
was taken before the magistrate, or to the magis- 

Apud, at or near : as, apud forum, at the forum. Among : 
as, apud Sequanos, among the Sequani. With : as, 
potior apud. exercitum, in greater credit with the 
army. Before : as, causam apud regem dicere, to 
plead before the king. 

Ante, before (in respect to time or place, and opposed to 
post) : as, ante, non post, Jioram decimam, before, 
and not after, ten o'clock ; ante aciem, non post 
seu pone aciem, before, and not behind, the army. 

Adversus, 1 against : as, adversus hostem, against the ene- 

Adversum, J my. Towards : as, pietas adversus deos, piety 
towards the gods. To : as, de ilia adversus hunc 
loquet^e, speak to him of her. 

Contra, against : as, contra naturam, against nature. Op- 
posite to : as, Carthago Italiam contra, Carthage 
opposite to, or over against, Italy. 

Circa, 1 about, applied to time, place, persons and things; 

Circum, /generally to place. It is sometimes rendered 
with : as, paucce circum illam, the few with her, or 
about her. 

Circiter, about, applied to time, place, and number. 


Cis, 1 on this side: as, cis Euphratem, on this side the 

Citra, j Euphrates. Without : as, citra necessitatem, without 

Erga, towards : as erga arnicas, towards his friends. Before, 
opposite to : as, qua modo erga cedes habitat, who 
lives now before our house. 

Extra, without, opposed to intra : as, extra, hand intra, 
scholam, out of, not in, school. Beyond : as, ex- 
tra modum, beyond measure. Besides : as, extra 
famulos, besides the servants ; extra jocum, some- 
times for sine joco. 

Infra, under, below, beneath : as, infra se, beneath himself. 

Inter, between, among : as, inter fratrcs, between brothers. 
At, or, in time of: as, inter ccmam, at, in time o 
during, supper. 

Intra, within : as, intra decem annos, within ten years. 

Juxta, near : as, juxta viam, by the way. 

Ob, for : as, ob qumtum, for gain. Before : as, ob oculos 
exitium versatur, destruction is before my eyes. 
Phrase, Ob industriam, on purpose. 

Propter, for : as, propter usum meum, for my use. Near to : 
as, propter patrem cubantes, lying near their fa- 
ther. The moving cause, or motive: as, propter 
me, by my means ; propter misericordiam, out of 

Per, during: as per diem, during day time, or, each day. 
By or through : as, per vim, by force ; per compos, 
through the fields. In : as, per ludum et jocum, 
in sport and jest. Per denotes the instrumenta- 
lity, or subordinate agency : thus, per eunuchum 
epistolam misit. 

Pone, behind : as, pone cedem, behind the temple. 

Prseter, beyond, except : as, neminem prceter Lucullum vides, 
you see no one except Lucullus. Beyond : as, proe- 
ter spem, beyond expectation. Contrary to : as, 
prater" tequum et bonum, contrary to what is just 
and reasonable. Before : as, prceter oculos, before 
my eyes. Without : as, prteter rationem, without 

Penes, in the power of: as, penes Pompeium, in Pompey's 
power. Possession : as, quern penes est virtus, who 
is possessed of virtue. Phr. Penes te es ? are you 
in your senses ? 

Post, after : as, post multos annos, after many years. Since : 
as, post hominum memoriam, since the memory of 


man. Behind : as, post tergum, behind or at the 

Secundum, according to : as, collaudavi te secundum facta, 
I praised you according to your deeds. Along : 
as, secundum littus, along the shore. Near, hard 
by : as, duo vulnera in capite, secundum aurem, ac- 
cepit, he received two wounds in the head, near 
his ear. Next after : as, secundum te, next to you. 
For : as, secundum te decrevit, he gave judgment 
for you. 

Supra, above : as, supra lunam, above the moon. Phr. JEcce 
supra caput homo sordidus, lo a man extremely sor- 
did. Cum hostes supra caput sint, since the ene- 
mies are at hand. 

Trans, over, on the other side : as, trans maria, beyond seas. 
Ultra, beyond: as, ultra Britanniam, beyond Britain. Ad- 
verbially, nihil possit ultra, nothing can exceed it. 
(Note 1.) Prepositions, when the word which they would 
govern is suppressed, are often considered as adverbs, al- 
though, in reality, they do not cease to be prepositions. 

(2.) Many of the rules of syntax arise from a preposition 
understood. The ablative after comparatives is governed 
by prcK understood ; the ablative of cause, manner, and in- 
strument, is governed by a preposition : as is perhaps the ab- 
lative absolute, with many similar examples. 

(3.) The preposition is sometimes, however, omitted in 
some examples, in an unusual manner : as, devenere locos 
l&tos, supply ad ; " maria aspera juro, supply per ; ut se loco 
mover -e non possent, supply e or de ; si reipublicce commodo 
facere posset, supply cum. 


A, ab, abs, from : as, ab ovo usque ad mala, from beginning 
to end. By reason of: as, vir ab innocentid cle- 
mentissimus, a man very mild by reason of his in- 
nocence. After : as, hujus a morte, after his death. 
Against, from or because of: as, a f rigor e, against, 
from, or because of, the cold. For : as, a mendacio 
contra verum stare, to stand for a lie in opposition 
to truth. Phr. A studiis (minister understood), a 
director of one's studies ; a pedibus, a footman ; a 
rationibus, an accountant. 

Absque, without: as, absque causa, without cause. But for: 
as, absque te esset, but for you. 

Coram denotes nearness, and refers to persons : as, coram 


rege, in the presence of the king, or before the 
king. Coram is nearly synonymous with in con- 

Cum, with : as, cum exercitu, with the army. At : as, cum 
primd luce, at break of day. In : as, dum esses cum 
imperio, while you were in authority. Phr. Cum 
bond venid audire, to hear patiently ; cum primis, 
m the first place. 

De, of, concerning : as, de hominibus, of, or concerning, men. 
According to : as, de sententid med, according to 
my opinion. After : as, somnus de prandio, sleep 
after dinner. From : as, de loco superiore, from the 
higher ground. Phr. De integro, afresh ; de im- 
proviso, unawares; de industrid, on purpose; de 
transverso, across ; de mco, at my cost. For : as, 
ecquid nos amas dejidicina isthac ? do you love us 
for that musical girl ? 

E, ex, out of, from : as, e Jlammd, out of the fire. Accord- 
ing to : as, status e naturd, a condition according 
to nature. By : as, ex consilio patrum, by the ad- 
vice of the senators. For : as, magnd ex parte, for 
the most part. Since : as, ex eo die, since that day. 
Amongst : as, ex lusionibus multis, amongst many 

Palam, openly : as, palam omnibus, before all the world. 

Prae, in comparison : as, pra nobis, in comparison to us. 
Because of: as, prte muliitudine, because of the 
multitude. Before : as, prce oculis, before the eyes. 
Through, out of (some passion of the mind): as, 
pro? metu, through fear. 

Pro, instead of ; or in exchange for : as, pro illo, instead of 
him hence, in defence of. According to : as, pro 
merito, according to his merit. Before : as, pro 
castris, before the camp. Considering : as, pro no- 
strd amicitid te rogo, I ask you in consideration 
of our friendship. Fw : as, pro me est, it makes 
for me. In defence of: as, pro aris et focis, in 
defence of (for) God and one's country. As: thus, 
libertatem pro pr&mio dederunt, they gave him his 
freedom as a reward. 

Sine, without (not having), opposed to cum, with : as, sine 
pondere, without weight 

Tenus, as far as, up to : as, capulo tenus, up to the hilt. 
Crurum tenus, up to the legs. It follows the ge- 
L 2 


nitive when the word is plural. Also the ablative 
plural : as, pectoribus tenus, up to the breasts. 


Clam, unknown to, governs either the accusative or abla- 
tive, but more frequently the ablative. 

In, into, sub, under, and super, above, govern the accusative 
when motion to a place is signified. But when motion 
or rest in a place is signified, in and sub govern the ab- 
lative: as, Ctesar in hibernd exercitum deduxit Gees. 
Magna met sub terras ibit imago Virg. Super agmina 
incidit Virg. Ego in portu navigo Ter. Recubans sub 
tegmine fagi Virg. 

Super governs either case, when motion or rest in a place is 
signified : as, Super M&nandrum amnem pomit castra 
Liv. Stratoque super discumbitur ostro Virg. When it is 
particularly opposed to subter, it almost always governs 
the accusative. 

Subter governs either case, but most frequently the accusa- 
tive, whether motion or rest be denoted : as, Subter fas- 
tigia tecti j%2nea?i duxit Virg. Ilia subter C&cum vulnus 
habes Pers. Subter densa testudine Virg. 


In, put for erga, contra, per, ad, usque ad, apud, super, go- 
verns the accusative : as, Amor in patriam Cic. Impie- 
tatem in deos Cic. Crescit in singulos dies hostium nu- 
merus Cic. Siletur in noctem Virg. Studebat in ccence 
tempus Plin. &c. 

In, for inter, governs either the accusative or ablative ; the 
accusative, when motion to, or towards, is implied, and 
the ablative, when motion or rest is denoted : thus, Ex- 
ercitum in Bellovacos ducit Caes. i. e. He leads his army 
among (into the territories of) the Bellovaci. Postquam 
in vulgus militum elatum est Cass. After it was made 
known among the common soldiers. In his fuit Ariovis- 
tus Caes. Among these was Ariovistus. 

Sub, for circa, or paulo ante, or paulo post (about), governs 
the accusative: as, Sub noctem naves solvit Caes. i. e. 
paulo ante. Sub dies festosQc. i. e. paulo post. Sub 
idem tempus Liv. i. e. circa or per idem tempus. 

Super, for ultra, prcvter, inter, governs the accusative; but 


for de, pro or ob, the ablative : as, Super et Garamantas 
et Indos Proferet imperium Virg. Punicum exercitum 
super morbum etiam fames affecit Liv. De ejus nequitid 
omnes super ccenam loquebantur Plin. Hdc super re scrt- 
bam ad te Cic. Nee super ipse sud molitur laude labor em 
Virg. His accensa super Virg. i. e. ob hcec. 
Tenus and versus, and sometimes penes and usque, are set 
after the case which they govern ; and when the word is 
plural, tenus generally governs the genitive ; also, when 
we speak of things of which we have naturally but two ; 
as, crurum tenus, up to the legs. 

Prope, versus, usque, procul and circiter may be considered 
as adverbs : they seem to govern a case by means of a 
preposition which is generally understood, but sometimes 
expressed. Clam may perhaps be added ! . 
Observe, that 

A and e are used before consonants. 

Ab and ex, generally before vowels. 

Abs is generally placed before q and t.* 

1 Several prepositions seem to have had originally the nature of 
adverbs : such as, adversus, juxta,propter t secus, secundum, the ac- 
cusative which followed them being supposed to be governed by 
ad. Some of these are found governing other cases, and some- 
times without any regimen. Palam and pone have likewise been 
excluded from the list of prepositions, the word which they seem 
to govern being supposed to be governed by coram or post under- 
stood. Other words generally considered as adverbs are found 
governing the accusative or ablative, like prepositions ; or some- 
times the genitive. Intus is found with the genitive, the accusa- 
tive, and the ablative. Foras, with the ablative, in Lucretius ; and 
with the accusative, in the Vulgate. Commits is found with an 
accusative. Retro also. Seorsus or seorsum is found with an ab r 
lative in Lucretius. Simvl is found with an ablative in Horace 
and Ovid. Desuper and insuper are found governing the accu- 
sative, like the simple super. In such instances, either a prepo- 
sition is understood, or the adverbs are used, after the manner of 
the Greeks, as prepositions. To these might be added several 
more ; but it may be observed that, in general, such constructions 
appear to be elliptical. That circiter is, in reality, an adverb, may 
be inferred from its construction, when there is no ellipsis sup- 
posed : as, Circiter pars quarto, armis instructa erat Sail. When 
it is followed by an accusative, ad, understood, is the governing 
word. It is sometimes followed by the ablative also : as, Ipse hord 
circiter diet quarta Britanniam attigit Caes. ; in which in may be 
understood, or the ablative may be referred to the question by 
quando, which will be noticed in Syntax. 

* Ab is often found before consonants, especially those of a 
softer sound ; such as, l y n, r, d, s, and j : as, ab legatis, ab nullo, 


A few instances are found in which in, signifying motion 
to a f)lace, governs the ablative ; and in, signifying rest, the 
accusative: as, Cum divertissem a Cumis in Vestiano Cic. 
Venit in senatu Cic. Esse in amicitiam ditionemque popul i 
Romani Cic. Cum talem virum in potestatem haberct 

[These observations properly belong to Syntax ; but the 
division of the prepositions, according to their government, 
naturally suggested their introduction here. The subject 
will be afterwards resumed.] 

Prepositions are either primitive : as, ad, apud, ante, &c. ; 
or derivative : as, adversum, from the adjective adversus ; se- 
cundum, from secundus. They are either simple: as, ad, 
ante, abs ; or compound : as, exadversnm, absque. 

There are certain prepositions named inseparable, be- 
cause they are always found prefixed to a word. The other 
prepositions also are sometimes used in this way. Their in- 
fluence, as well as that of the inseparables, am, dis, re, se, 
con, ve, will be seen in the following examples : 


A, abs, ab, from or away : as, avcrto, I turn away ; abstineo, 
I abstain, or keep from : ajifugio, I fly away. A is 
likewise added to nouns as a privative , as amens, 

Ad, to, or near to : as, accipio, I take to myself. It in- 
creaseth : as, adamo, I love much ; adbibo, I drink 

Am, about, around: as, amburo, I burn all about; anquiro, 
I seek about, or seek diligently ; anceps, that may 
be taken both ways. 

Ante, before : as, anteeo, I go before ; antemissus, sent be- 

De, from, down, much, or ceasing : as, dehortor, I dissuade 
from; depono, I Jay down; deamo, I love much ; 
dedoceo, I unteach; despcro, I despair; demens, 
mad; decolor, discoloured. 

ab Romanis, ab ducibus, ab senatu, ab Jove. Ex is often used by 
Cicero before consonants. In certain expressions e is generally 
used, and in others ex: as, e longinquo, e regione, e vestigio, e re 
med est t &c. In like manner, ex prceparato, ex parte, ex compacto, 
ex toto, ex sententia, ex tempore, &c. Abs is sometimes found be- 
fore s: as, Abs Suessa nunciaium est Liv. Non abs re erit, in 
which abs is used before r, is a common mode of expressing Not 
foreign from the purpose. 


Dis, di 5 separation, or denial : as, distraho, I pull asunder ; 
diffido, I distrust; disputo, I think differently, I 
dispute. By separating, it implies distinction : as, 
dijudico, I judge distinctly. 

Con, (fen' cum) together : as, concurro, to run together ; con- 
tendo, to strive together, or to contend, to exert 
or stretch (nervos) together ; congredior, to come 
together; hence, to engage in battle. 

E, ex, from, away, greatly, negation : as, expello, I drive 
away ; exoro, I beg earnestly ; exuro, I burn up ; 
exsanguis, bloodless; exanimis, lifeless. 

In, in, into, upon, over or against : as, indo, I put in ; in- 
jicio, I cast into or upon ; incipio, I take upon me, 
I begin ; impono, I put over, I impose ; irruo, I 
rush upon or against. It sometimes increases : 
as, infringO) I break in pieces ; induro, I harden 
much. In some participials or adjectives it is either 
intensive, or privative : as, infractus, unbroken, or 
broken in pieces ; invocatus, called upon, or unbid- 
den ; impotens, weak, or overmighty ; iiifrcenatus, 
bridled, or unbridled ; immutatus, changed, or un- 
changed. With adjectives it is generally privative : 
as, ingrains, ungrateful. 

Inter, among or between: as, inter jicio, I cast between. Some- 
times it increases : as, interbibo, I drink up all. 

Ob, against, before, about : as, oppono, I place against or be- 
fore, I oppose ; obambulo, I walk up and down : 
intensive, used for ad : as, obedio, I obey. 

Per, signifies through, entirely, very muck : as, perlego, I 
read through : perficio, I finish ; peradolescens, very 
young. It is sometimes privative : as, peifldus, per- 
fidious ; perjurus, perjured. 

Prae, before, or over : as, prtepono, I place before, I prefer ; 
prccvaleo, I prevail ; prcepolleo, I surpass. In ad- 
jectives it augments : as, prtefacilis, very easy. 

Pro, forth, forwards, to a distance : as, produce, I lead forth ; 
prosilio, I leap forwards ; prospicio, I see at a di- 
stance ; prohibeo, I ward off, I prohibit. Some- 
times it is privative : as, prof anus, profane : in- 
tensive : as, procurvus, very crooked. 

Post, after : as, posthabeo, I account after, I postpone. 

Re, back again, or against : as, repono, I place again ; re- 
luctor, I struggle against; rccipio, I take again, I 
receive. It sometimes increases : as, redundo, I 


run over, I redound. It is sometimes negative: 
as, retcgo, I uncover ; recludo, I unlock. 

Se, apart, or aside : as, sevoco, I call aside ; secludo, I shut 

Sub, under, a small degree, or privily : as, subjicio, I cast un- 
der ; subinvideo, I envy a little ; subtristis, some- 
what sad : surripio, I steal, or I seize privily. 

Super, upon, or over : as, superscribe, I write upon. 

Subter, under, privily : as, subterfluo, I run or flow under ; 
subterfugio, I escape privily. 

Trans, over : as, transfero, I carry over, I transfer. 

Ve, is privative : as, vecors, foolish ; vesanus, sickly. It is 
intensive : as, vehemens ! , vehement or violent, hav- 
ing strong passions or feelings. It is sometimes 
both in the same word : as, vegrandis, very great, 
or very slim. 

Other prepositions in composition have nearly the same 
signification a$ out of composition. For the changes which, 
for the sake of sound, prepositions undergo in being pre- 
fixed, see Compounded Verbs ? 

The Manner of expressing in Latin certain English Par- 
ticles, some of which are denominated Prepositions, and 
some, the Signs of Cases. 

Of, after a substantive (or 's), is the sign of the genitive: as, 
the father of the king, or the king's father, pater regis. 

Of, before an adjective of praise or dispraise, joined to a 
substantive, shows that it may be put in the genitive or 
ablative : as, a man of no integrity, homo nidlius Jidei, or 
nulla fide. 

Of, after adjectives of plenty or want, is the sign of the ge- 
nitive or ablative: as, full of wine, plenus vini or vino. 

Of, after worthy, unworthy, need, descended, born, is the sign 
of the ablative : as, worthy of praise, dig?ms laude ; there 
is need of action, opus est facto ; born of a king, natus 

Of, after comparatives, superlatives, partitives, and certain 
numerals, is the sign of the genitive : as, the elder of the 
brothers, senior fratrum ; or it may be made by de, e, ex, 
or inter : as, the elder of the two sons, ex duobus Jiliis 
natu major. 

1 Vctus et vehement, says Stephanus, " alterum ab cstaiu mag- 
nitudine, alterum a mentis vi, compositum." 


Of, signifying the matter of which a thing is made, is ex- 
pressed by de, e, or ex : as, a buckler of gold, clypeus ex 

Of, for concerning, is expressed by de : as, a story of you, 

fabula de te ; for by or from, by , ab, e, ex: as, I received 

the book of (from is more common) the master, librum a 

prceceptore accept ; perhaps you had heard of somebody, 

audisti ex aliquo fortasse ? 

Of, after verbs of accusing, condemning, acquitting, and / 
repent (pcenitet me), I am ashamed (pudct me), lam weary 
(t&det me), it irketh (piget), is a sign of the genitive: as, 
he accuses me of theft, accusat me furti ; it irketh me of 
(I am grieved for) my folly, me piget stidtiticz mea. 

Of, after mereor, is made by de : as, he deserves praise of 
you, de te laudem meretur. 

Of, after verbs of unloading and depriving, is the sign of the 
ablative : as, he robbed his friend of his character, amicum 
famd spoliavit. 

Of is sometimes included in the Latin verb : as, beware of 
intemperance, intemperantiam cave. 

To and for are signs of the dative when they come before 
a noun, and signify to the use or hurt of any person or 
thing : as, pleasant to his friends, jucundus amicis. 

To, after it belongs (attmet, pertinet), it regards (spectat), 
and after some verbs of calling, exhorting, inviting, and 
provoking , such as, voco, loquor, hortor, invito, lacesso, 
is made by ad : as, he invited me to supper, ad ccenam me 

To and for, signifying motion, and after born, Jit, prone, 
ready, are made by ad or in : as, prone to peace, ad pa- 
cem promts. 

To is sometimes the sign of the genitive : as, time to write, 
tempus scribendi, i. e. time of writing. 

To is expressed, according to circumstances, by different 
parts of a verb : as, I came to dine, veni pransum ; a boy 
about to write, puer scripturus ; I desire to be loved, cu- 
pio amari ; god to be worshipped, deus colcndus ; a man 
worthy to be loved, dignus amatu. 

To is sometimes included in the verb ; as, see to your health, 
valetudinem cur a ; pray to the gods, precare deos. 

For ; See the prepositions pro and pra, ob, propter, de, ad, 

in, per. 
For, denoting the cause, is a sign of the ablative : as, worse 

for liberty, liccntid deterior. 

For, before the price, is the sign of the ablative : as, all 
things are sold for gold, omnia venduntur auro. 

For, in the beginning of a sentence, is made by nam, enim, 
denim, &c. 

For is sometimes part of the noun or verb: as, a certain look- 
ing-for of judgment, qu&dam expectatio judicii ; he sends 
for a physician, medicum accersit. 

With is found before the cause, manner and instrument, and 

is a sign of the ablative : as, he killed him with his own 

hand, manu sud occidit. 
With, denoting in company with, or together with, is made 

by cum : as, he entered with a sword, cum gladio ingressus 

With, after verbs of anger, comparing, meeting, is the sign 

of the dative : as, I am angry with you, tibi irascor ; to 

compare great things with small, parvis componere magna. 
With, applied to a person with regard to situation, is made 

by apud : as, he is with me, or at my house, apud me est. 
With is sometimes the same as concerning, and is made by 

de : as, what have you done with that horse, quid de isto 

equofecisti ? 
With, after verbs signifying to begin, is made by a or a b : as, 

I had a mind to begin with that, ab eo exordiri volui. 
With is sometimes part of the verb : as, he goes on with his 

villany, prosequitur suum scelus. 

From ; See the prepositions a, ab, abs, e, ex, de. 

From, after verbs of taking away, is the sign of the dative : 
as, he took a book from me, eripuit mihi librum. 

From, after a verb of hindering or withholding, is expressed 
by the infinitive mood, or ne, quo minus, and quin, with 
the subjunctive: as, they hinder them from carrying, eos 
Jerre prohibent ; he rescued himself from pleading his 
cause, ne causam diceret, se eripuit ; weakness kept you 
from coming, infirmitas te tenuit quo minus venires; I can 
scarcely refrain from flying in his face, viz me contineo 
quin involem in capillum. 

From, before the name of a town, is the sign of the ablative : 
as, he came from London, Londino venit. 

From is sometimes part of a verb : as, conceal this matter 
from your wife, cela hanc rem uxorem. 

In ; See the prepositions in, apud, ad. 

In, referring to time, is made by in, de, per, intra, inter : as, 


thieves rise by (or in the) night, de node surgunt lalrones; 

in the tune of the truce, per tempus induciarum. 
In, for by or after, is the sign of the ablative of manner : as, 

he did it in this way, hoc modo fecit. 
In is sometimes a part of the verb : as, they are held-in by 

reason, a ratione retinentur ; i. e. restrained. 

By ; See the prepositions a, ab, e, ex, per, propter. 

By, signifying near, is made by ad, apud, juxta, prope, se- 
cundum and sub ; which see. 

By denotes the ablative of manner or cause : as, by force and 
arms, vi et armis. 

By, after verbals in bills and dus, after passive verbs and 
perfect participles, among the poets, is the sign of the da- 
tive : as, a grove penetrable by no star, lucus nulli pcnetra- 
bilis astro ; nor is he seen by any one, neque cernitur ulli 
(ab ullo). 

By, before the name of a town, is the sign of the ablative ; 
as, he came by London, Londino, or, per Londimim venit. 

By is sometimes included in the verb : as, I was by, ego ad- 

At, near, ad, apud; during, in, inter, which see. 

At before names of towns, see Syntax. 

At, after verbs of anger, is the sign of the dative : as, he is 
angry at me, mlhi succenset *. 

At denotes the ablative of cause: as, I come at the command 
of Jupiter, jussu Jovis venio. 

At denotes the ablative of time : as, at one o'clock, hard 

At denotes the ablative of price : as, he lives at an extrava- 
gant rate, profusis sumptibus vivit. 

At is sometimes part of the verb : as, I laugh at, derideo. 

On, upon, a word of place, meaning near, a, ab, ad. 
On, a word of rest, in or super : as, on horseback, in equo. 
On, a word of motion, in : as, they leapt on the targets, in 

scuta salierunt. 
On, after to depend, or to beget, is made by a, ab, de, e, ex, 

(but otherwise by in or super) : as, this depends upon you, 

hoc a te pendet. 
On, before time, musical instruments, condition, terms, food, 

1 The English now say " angry at a thing," <{ angry with a 
person." It was not so formerly. 


&c. is the sign of the ablative : as, on that day, eo die ; 

he plays on the harp, lyrd modulatur ; on this condition, 

hac lege. 
On, after verbs of pity, is the sign of the genitive : as, take 

pity on so great misfortunes, miserere laborum tantorum. 
On, after verbs of bestowing, wasting, or losing, is made by 

in : as, he bestowed kindness upon me, in me beneficium 

On is sometimes part of the verb : as, he employed his time 

on his studies, tempus studiis impendit ; I am thinking on 

a different thing, aliam rem cogito. 

Than after the comparative degree is the sign of the abla- 
tive, or it is made by quam and a nominative : as, I never 
saw a man more valiant than Caesar, nunquam vidi homi- 
nem fortiorem quam Ciesar est, or C&sare, or quam Ccc- 
sarem ; which last is governed by vidi 9 or is said to be 
coupled by quam to hominem, 


A conjunction is an indeclinable word, having no gov< 
ment of nouns ; but which connects words and sentences, 
and shows their dependence upon one another. 

Conjunctions are divided into primitive : such as, ef, ac 9 
sed 9 nam, &c., and derivative : as, quod from quis, verum and 
verb from verus. From their structure, some are called 
simple : as, at 9 nam, &c. ; others are called compound : as, 
atque, namque. 

According to their meaning and use, they are divided into 
numerous classes : as, copulative, et, ac, atque , disjunctive, 
jiut, vel, seu, sive, which two last have been called subjunc- 
tive or explanatory : as, Diana sive Luna ; C&sar sive Dic- 
tator, both words having the same application : concessive, 
as, etsi 9 etiamsi ; conditional : as, si?i, si, du?n, dwmnodo ; 
with many other classes not necessary to be mentioned. 

According to their position in a sentence, they are divided 
into prepositive, or those which are placed first : as, nam 9 
quarc, at, ast, atque, neque; subjunctive, or postpositive, 
which are not placed first: such as, quidem, quoque, autem, 
vero, enim ; and the enclitics, (so called because they throw 
the accent upon the preceding syllable of the word to which 
they are always annexed,,) viz. que, ne, and ve. The follow- 
ing arc either prepositive or postpositive, and are therefore 


named common : etiam, equidem, licet, quamvis, quanquam, 
tamen, attamen, namque, quod, quia, quoniam, quippe, utpote, 
ut, uti, ergo, ideo, igitur, idcirco, itaque, proinde, propterea, 
si, ni, 7iisi. Quamvis, quanquam, quod, quia, ut, uti, si, ni, 
nisi, are generally placed first : tamcn and igitur, second. 

The same word in English having sometimes different 
meanings, and, according to the sense, being referred to 
different parts of speech, it will be expedient for the young 
learner, in turning English into Latin, to attend to such di- 
stinctions as the following. 

( 1 ) The word but has two significations. In the first it 
is equivalent to be-out, and is the same as without, or unless, 
or sine and nisi, the former of which is a preposition, and 
the latter a conjunction. But, which in this sense is an ex- 
ceptive, or word of exclusion, is synonymous with prater, 
pr&terquam or nisi : as, I saw nobody but John, Vidi nemi- 
nem nisi, or prceter, Joannem. In the second, it means add, 
or moreover, and is synonymous with at, ast, (probably con- 
tractions for adsit,) autem, ccetcrum. In this sense it is, in 
English, a copulative, serving to connect what follows it, 
with a sentence, or part of a sentence, going before : as, 
nunc omitte, qu&so, hum; caeterum posthac si quicquam, 
nihil precor. But hereafter if he shall do &c. i. e. add this, 
or another thing, or one thing more, viz. if he shall do any 

But, when equivalent to that, is made by quin : as, there 
is no doubt but , non cst dubium quin ; to only, by tan- 
tum, modo, solum : as, they disagree but about one thing, in 
re una solum dissident ; to than, by quam or nisi ; as, she 
does nothing else, but grieve, nil aliud facit, qudm dolet. 

(2) The word whether, though, in reality, always a pro- 
noun, is considered as sometimes a pronoun, and sometimes 
a conjunction, because it corresponds to Latin words refer- 
red by grammarians to these two species : thus, whether is 
the richer, uter est ditior ? It is also expressed by ne, utrum, 
an, num, &c. ; as, llomcene, an Mitylenes, mattes vivere, 
Whether would you prefer to live at Rome, or at Mitylene? 
Utrum inscientem eum vultis contra feeder a fecisse, an scien- 

The same remark is applicable to the definitives, or adjec- 
tives, either and neither : as, I am not so strong as either of 
you, Minus habeo virium quam vestrum utervis. Either two 
or none, Vel duo, vel nemo. Neither is very blamable, Neu- 
ter est valde reprehcndendus. I neither bid you, nor forbid 
you, figo nequc te jtibeo, neque re to. 


(3) Both, followed by and, is made by et : as, Both Cse* 
sar and Scipio, Et Ccesar et Scipio. Both the orators (Se- 
parately), is expressed by Uterque orator. Both the Scipios 
(together), Ainbo Scipiones. This last distinction has not 
always been attended to. 

(4) For, in the beginning of a clause, implying a reason, 
is made by nam, enim, etenim. 

For, before an oblique case, implying a purpose or inten- 
tion, is made by the prepositions ob, propter, ad, in ; imply- 
ing an exchange, by pro. 

But for is made by absque : as, But for him I should have 
looked well to myself Absque eo esset, recte ego mihi vidis- 

(5) As, denoting manner, similitude or comparison, is ex- 
pressed by ut, sicut, uti, ac ,- thus, As in looking-glasses, Uti 
in speculis. As miserable as I am, Miser ceque ac ego. 

As, when equivalent to since or because, is expressed by 
quoniam, quia, quippe, quod. 

(6) Cum and turn, or turn repeated, and tarn and quam, 
are often used in instances in which emphasis or contradi- 
stinction is intended: as, He embraces not only all the 
learned, but particularly Marcellus, Amplectitur cum erudi- 
tos omnes, turn imprimis Marcellum. He hates both learning 
and virtue, Odit turn literas, turn virtutem. I love you as 
much as myself, Tarn te diligo, quam meipsum. The adverb 
qua repeated is sometimes used in a similar way: as, Famous 
both (as well) for his father's glory and (as) his own, Insig- 
nis qua paternd gloria qua sud. 


Interjections are indeclinable words, without any govern- 
ment, and expressing in a brief manner some affection or 
emotion of the mind. They have been divided into the fol- 
lowing classes expressive of 

1. joy; as, evax, hey, brave. 

2. grief; as, ah, hei, heu, elieu, ah, alas, woe is me. 

3. wonder ; as, papte, oh, strange ; vah, ha. 

4. praise ; as, euge, well done. 

5. aversion ; as, apage, away, begone. 

6. exclamation ; as, o//, proh, O. 


7. surprise or fear ; as, at at, ha, aha. 

8. imprecation; as, vac, woe. 

9. laughter; as, ha, ha, he. 

10. silencing; as, au, 'st, pax, silence, hush, *st. 

11. calling; as, eho, io, ho, so, ho, soho, O. 

12. derision; as, hui, away with. 

13. attention; as, hem, ha. 

Some of these are merely instinctive or mechanical sounds ; 
others have an intrinsic meaning : as, apage, and pax ; for 
both nouns and verbs are sometimes used as if they w r ere in- 
terjections : thus, malum ! with a mischief! turpe, shameful; 
sodes, amabo, qiifsso, prithee. The same interjection some- 
times expresses different passions : thus, vah ! may express 
either joy, sorrow, or wonder. 


Changes in the form or position of words, (which are 
named metaplasm] are produced by Prosthesis, Epentkesis, 
Paragoge, Diaeresis, Crasis, Apharesis, Syncope, Apocope, 
Antithesis, Metathesis, commonly called the Figures of Ety- 
mology, but belonging to Prosody likewise; to which may be 
added Anastrophe and Tmesis, generally used for the sake of 
the metre ; and Archaismus and Hellenismus. 

PROSTHESIS adds a letter, or syllable, to the beginning of 
a word : as, gnatus for natus ; tetuli for tuli ; eduram for du- 
ram. Virg. Geo. iv. 1 4-5. Perhaps, however, natus and tuli 
may be considered as formed by Aphaeresis, from gnatus and 
tetuli, the former derived from the obsolete, or from y<- 
voju,ai, and the latter having an augment, after the manner 
of the Greeks. 

EPENTHESIS inserts a letter, or syllable, in the middle of 
a word: as, navita, Timolus, alituum, for nauta, Tmolus, ali- 

PARAGOGE adds a letter, or syllable, to the end : as med, 1 
amarier, docerier, avellier, audirier, for me, amari, doceri, 
avelli, audiri. 

DIAERESIS is the division of one syllable into two: as, 
auldi for aulce ; siliice for silvte. Vossius is of opinion that 
etiam is formed a trisyllable by this figure, from et jam. 

CRASIS or SYN/ERESIS is the contraction of two vowels 

1 The antients often added d to a word; thus in the laws of the 12 tables, 
SED. FllAVDED. ESTOD. i. i-. .* (<* sin^ frawte eXo. 


belonging to different syllables, into one syllable : as, vent-ens 
for vehemens ; prendo for prehendo. This and the preceding 
figure are confined to the poets chiefly. 

APH^RESIS cuts off the first letter, or syllable, of a word : 
as, brevist, opust, similist, rhabo, in Plautus, for brews est, opus 
est, similis est, arrhabo; and tender ant, in Seneca, Here. fur. 
v. 538, instead of tetenderant. See Prosthesis. 

SYNCOPE strikes a letter, or syllable, from the middle of 
a word : as, oraclum, poplus, vinclum, calda, valdius, aspris, 
repostus, extinxem, dixti, objecsem, collexem, percmti, surrexe^ 
amantum, deiim, &c. ; instead of oraculum, populus, vincuhtm, 
calida, validius, asperis, repositus, extinxissem, dixisti, obje- 
cissem, collegissem, (is being struck out, and gs turned into 
x } ) percussisti, surrexisse, amantium, deorum. 

APOCOPE takes away the final letter, or syllable, of a word : 
as, inert, Antony tuguri, puer, prosper ; for mene, Antonii y 
tugurii. t ptierus, prosperus. 

ANTITHESIS substitutes one letter for another: as, olli and 
ollis, for illi and ittis ;faciundum for faciendum; optumus for 
optimus ; publicus for poplicus, or populicus ; vult, vidtis, for 
volt, voltis, contractions of volit, volitis. 

METATHESIS changes the order of letters in a word : as, 
pistris farpristiss Lybia for Libya. 

ANASTROPHE inverts the order of words : as, dare circum, 
Virg. ^En. ii. 792; erit super, Ovid. Fast. v. 60Q;facit are, 
Lucr. vi. 692; instead of circumdare, supererit, arejacit. 
Thus also, Jows cum fulmina contra, in Virgil ; and also 
Transtra per et remos. 

TMESIS separates compounded words, in order to put an- 
other word between them : as, Quce me cunque vacant terrce 
Virg. Super tibi erunt Virg. Scptcm subjecta trioni 
Virg. Inque salutatam Virg. Ob esse sequentemPlaut. 
Dum re non sit tamen apse Lucr. ; instead of qucecunque, 
supererwit, septemtrioni, insalutatamque, obsequentem, reapse, 
i. e. reipsa. The insertion of que is frequent in Lucretius : 
as, conque-globata, conque-gregantur, disque-sipatis, inqiie- 
gravescunt, perque-plicatis, &c. 

ARCHAISMUS is the old way of writing : as, aulai, vids, 
omneis or omnis, ornati, senati, anuis, curru, die, scibo, au- 
dibo, prohibesso, negassim, duim, siem, expugnassere, impe- 
trassere, capsimus, adaxint, mwiri, fuat, here, quase, donz- 
cum, nenu, endo or indu ; instead of aulce, vite, omnes, orna- 
tus, senatus, anus, currui, diet, sciam, audiam, prohibuero, 
negaverim, dem, sim, expugnaturum, impetraturum esse, cepe- 
rimus, adegerint, mori, sit, heri, quasi, donee, non, in. 


HELLENISMUS is an imitation of the Greek termination, 
or declension : as, Helene, Crete, Nymphe, instead of Helena, 
Creta, Nympha. Also Antiphon, Demiphon, Milon, for An- 
tipho, Demipho, Milo. Thus likewise in the first declension, 
Gen. auras ; in the second, Gen. Orpheos, Dat. Orphei, 
Ace. Orphea ; in the third, Gen. Pallados, Ace. Pallada, 
Dat. pi. Troasin, Ace. Troadas. 

The following lines contain a concise explanation of the 
Figures properly so called. 

Prosthesis apponit capiti, sed Aphteresis aufert. 

Syncopa de medio tollit, sed Epenthesis addit. 

Abstrahit Apocope fini, sed dat Paragoge. 

Constringit Crasis, distracta Diuresis effert. 

Litera si legitur transposta, Metathesis exit. 

Antithesin, mutata tibi si litera, dices. 


SYNTAX is the arrangement 2 of words in a sentence, ac- 
cording to the established rules of Concord and Govern- 

Concord is the agreement of one word with another in 
certain accidents, as in case, gender, number, or person : 
thus, Cicero orator, Cicero the orator : Ego amo, I love. 

Government is the power which one word has in deter- 
mining the state of another : as, Ego virum amo, I love the 

1 Such as prefer an English Syntax, will find Mr. Ruddiman's plain, con- 
cise, and yet comprehensive. The numerous notes subjoined to it deserve an 
attentive perusal. An abstract of these rules is now given, with a consider- 
able collection of such notes and observations, as, it is trusted, will be found 
not undeserving of attention. Those who prefer the Latin Syntax, in the 
Eton Abridgment of Lily, will find in these notes many things explained, 
which are either wholly overlooked, or but slightly noticed, in that Syntax. 
Each of these two syntaxes, both of which are extremely popular, having a 
useful system of exercises adapted to it, is one great reason that induced me 
not to make any material alteration in this division of grammar, either in re- 
gard to the subject, the arrangement, or the number, of the rules. One thing 
is, however, very obvious, that many of what are accounted rules of syntax 
might be referred to the figures of apposition, ellipsis, &c. 

8 The arrangement, or order of words in a sentence, will hereafter be no- 




The Concords arc four ; 

1. Of an Adjective with a Substantive. 

C 2. Of a Verb with a Nominative. 

3. Of a Relative with an Antecedent. 

4. Of a Substantive with a Substantive. 

RULE I. An adjective agrees with a substantive in gen- 
der, number, and case : as, 

Vir bonus, A good man. 

Fcemina casta, A chaste woman. 
Dulce pomum, A sweet apple. 

Note 1. Thus also, Namtua res agitur, paries cum proximus 
ardetHoi:. An Adjective is often joined in the same case with 
a personal pronoun : as, Ut se toiurn ei traderet Nep. Ipse ceger 
ago Virg. i. e. ipse ego. 

Note 2. Under adjectives are comprehended adjective pronouns, 
and participles. 

Note 3. The substantive is often omitted ; and in this case the 
adjective takes the gender of the substantive understood ; as, Per 
immortales ; supply deos. The substantive thing (negotium) is 
usually understood, the adjective being put in the neuter gender : 
as, Triste lupus stabulis Virg. 

Note 4*. Adjectives are often used substantively; and sometimes 
substantives are used adjectively : as, Fortunate senex Virg. Po- 
pulum late regem Virg. i. e. regnantem. 

Note 5. Several adjectives may agree with one and the same 
substantive : as, Etiam externos midtos claros viros nominarem 

Note 6. An adjective joined with two substantives of different 
genders generally agrees with that one which is chiefly the subject 
of discourse ; as, Dein Puteoli, colonia Diccearckia dicti Plin. 
This refers chiefly to such adjectives as appellatus, habitus, credi- 
tus, visus, &c. It sometimes agrees with the nearest substantive, 
although it may not be the principal one ; as, Non omnis error 
stultitia est dicenda Cic. But if the principal substantive be the 
name of a man or a woman, the adjective agrees with it: as, Semi- 
ramis puer esse credita est Justin, not creditus. A few instances 
occur in which the relative agrees with the appellative ; but they are 
not to be imitated. In such phrases as Maxima pars vulnerati 
Sail. Pars injugam effusi simt Liv. the adjective seems to agree 
with some general word implied in the sense; as, milites or homines. 
In some instances, the female seems the leading gender: as, Ille 
meas trrare boves permisit~Virg. 


Note 7. Part of a sentence may supply the place of a substan- 
tive, the adjective being put in the neuter gender : as, Audito regent 
Doroberniam projidsd Eton Gram. Excepto quod non simul esses, 
ccetera l&tus Hor. 

RULE II. A personal verb agrees with its nominative, in 
number and person : as, 

Ego lego, I read. 

Tu scribiS) Thou writest. 

Preceptor docet, The master teacjieth. 

Note 1. Thus also Quid ego cesso Plaut. Sol ruit, et monies um- 
brantur Virg. 

Note 2. Ego and nos are the first persons ; tu and vos the se- 
cond ; and all nouns belong to the third. 

Note 3. The nominative of pronouns, especially of the first- and 
second person, is seldom expressed ; as, Nonfallam-*-Cic. Quod 
te dignum est. Jades Ter. But they are not omitted, when em. 
phasis or a distinction of persons is intended : as, Tu dominus, tu 
mr, tu mihi f rater eras Ovid. Nos, nos, dico aperte, nos consules 
desumus Cic. Ego reges eject, vos tyrannos introduces Auct. 
ad Herenn. 

Note 4. Aiunt,dicunt,ferunt, sunt, narrant, tradunt, and thfe 
like, often have their nominative understood, when it is a person : 
as, Aiunt solere senes repuerascere Plaut. Sunt quosjuvat Hor. 
homines is understood. For it is to be observed, that every no- 
minative must have a finite verb, and every finite verb a nomina- 
tive, expressed or understood; thus, in Di meliorat Virg. dent 
may be understood ; in Nam Polydorus ego Virg. the verb sum. 

Note 5. The nominative is sometimes found with the infini- 
tive ; in which case ccepit or cceperunt is generally supposed to be 
understood : as, Invidere omnes mihi Ter. Caesar JEduos fru- 
mentumjlagitare Caes. But in some instances, other verbs may 
be supposed, according to the sense, to be understood ; and in 
others, the infinitive seems to be of the same import as the im- 
perfect of the indicative. 

Note 6. The infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, may be the 
nominative of the third person ; as, Non est mentiri meum Ter. 
Incertum est quam longa nostrum cujusque vita futura sit Cic. E 
ccelo descendit, Nosce teipsum Juv. The adverb or antient accusa- 
tive, partim, sometimes appears as a nominative : thus, Sed eorum 
partim in pompd, partim in ade illustres esse voluerunt Cic. But 
such constructions may be elliptical. 

Note 7. In Latin, as in English, the person speaking, and the 
person addressed, are sometimes put in the plural, but in the for- 
mer, perhaps, with some allusion to more than one : as, Nos da- 
bimus quod ames Ovid, Heroid. xvi. 85, i. e. ego dabo. Vos, 



Calliope, precor, adspirate canentiVirg. JEn. ix. 525. There 
are instances in which the person speaking of himself uses, one 
while the singular and another the plural, in the same sentence. 

RULE III. Substantive verbs, verbs of naming and ges- 
ture, have a nominative both before and after them, belong- 
ing to the same thing : as, 

Ego sum discipulus, I am a scholar. 

Tu vocaris Joannes, You are named John. 

Ilia incedit regina. She walks [as] a queen. 

Note 1. Thus also, Ira est Juror Hor. Ego incedo regina 

Note 2. This rule seems to arise from the nature of the figure 
Apposition, and may be thus expressed generally : Verbs which 
serve as copulcs t uniting the predicate with its subject, have a no- 
minative before and after them. 

Note 3. Substantive verbs are sum, Jlo, forem, and existo. 
Verbs of naming comprehend such passives as appettor, dicor, 
vocor, nominor, nuncupor,jeror, perhibeor, censeor, existimor, vi- 
deor, habeor, creor, cognoscor^ inventor, &c. Verbs of gesture or 
of posture are eo, incedo, venio, cubo, sto, jaceo, sedeo, evado,Ju- 
gio, dormioy maneo t &c. 

Note 4, The rule is not confined to these verbs only ; for any 
verb may have a nominative before and after it, belonging to the 
same thing : as, Audim hoc puer Cic. Sapiens nil facit invitus 

Note 5. When a verb comes between two nominatives of differ- 
ent numbers, it usually agrees with the first, which may be sup- 
posed to be the subject of discourse: as, Ossa lapis Jiunt Ovid. 
It sometimes, however, takes the number of the last : as, Aman- 
tium irce amoris integratio est Ter. Pectus quoque roborajiunt 

Note 6. If a vocative precede, such verbs or their participles are 
generally followed by the nominative : as, Esto, tu C&sar, amicus 
Mart. v. 20. But the poets often use another vocative : as, 
Quibus, Hector, ab oris Expectate Denis Virg. for expectatus. Lee- 
tule divitiisjacte beate meis Propert. Hence also, Made virtute 
esto, for mactus. 

RULE IV. The infinitive mood has an accusative before 
it: as, 

Gaudeo te valere, I am glad that you are well. 

Note 1. Thus also, Credunt se negligi Ter. Miror tenonscri- 
lere Cic. 

Note 2. The word that, either expressed or understood, coming 
between two English verbs, is the usual sign of this construction. 


Note ?. This accusative may be often turned into a nominative 
preceded by quod or ut, the infinitive being changed into the in- 
dicative or subjunctive: thus, Equidem scio jam Jilius quod amet 
meus Ter. forjilium meum amare. Volo vos bene sperare, or ut 
bene speretis. 

Note 4f. Me, te, se, ilium, are often understood : as, Sed reddere 
posse negabatVirg. i. e. se posse. 

Note 5. Esse ovfuisse is frequently omitted after participles : as, 
Sed de ea re legatos missuros dixerunt Nep. i. e. esse. 

Note 6. Sometimes the accusative and infinitive are omitted : 
as, Pollidtus sum suscepturum Ter. for me suscepturum esse. 

Note 7. If the verb following that have no future participle, the 
expression may be varied thus : In spem veniebat,fore, utipertina- 
da desisteret Cses. Nunquam putavifuturum, ut pater meus libc- 
ros odisset Senec. 

Note 8. Care should be taken in using this construction not to 
render the meaning ambiguous, as in the famous .answer of the 
oracle ; Aio te, JEacida, Romanos sincere posse, in which it could 
not be ascertained from the mere words, which party was to prove 
victorious. The ambiguity might be prevented by changing the 
active into the passive voice. Further observations on quod t ut, 
and the infinitive mood, will occur under the Construction of the 
Infinitive Mood, and under Conjunctions. 

RULE V. Esse has the same case after it that it has before 
it: as, 

Petrus cupit esse vir doctus, Peter desires to be a learned 


Scio Petrum esse virum doctum, I know that Peter is a learned 


Mihi negligenti esse non licet, I am not allowed to be neg- 

Note 1. Thus also, Qui volet esse plus Lucan. Licet illis esse 
timidis Liv. 

Note 2. This rule may be better expressed thus : Substantive 
verbs, and most verbs neuter and passive, have the same case after 
them as before them. 

Note 3. When the leading verb governs the dative, such as li- 
cet, cxpedit, datiir, concedo, the case after the infinitive may be ei- 
ther the dative, or the accusative : thus, Vobis necesse estjbrtibus 
esse viris Liv. Da mihi fatter e, da justo sanctoque videri Hor. 
Expcdit bonas esse vobis Ter. Si dm Romano licet esse Gadita- 
num Cic. It is evident that this construction and its varieties 
depend upon apposition ; for if we say Licet illis esse timidis, ti~ 
midis agrees with illis t the word to which it refers, and which it 


qualities. If we say Licet illis esse timidos, the accusative illos 
seems to be understood before esse, to which, in like manner, ti- 
midos refers. The former seems to be a Greek construction ; the 
latter accords with the nature of the Latin language. 

Note 4. After aio, refero, puto t ncscio, sentio, and the like, with 
esse, the poets sometimes use the nominative instead of the accu- 
sative : as, Phaselus ille, quern videtis hospites, aitfuisse navium ce- 
lerrimus Catull. Retuht Ajax esse Joms pronepos Ovid. Uxor 
invicti Jovis esse nescis Hor. Sometimes the infinitive is omit- 
ted : as, Sensit medios delapsus iji hostes Virg. for se delapsum 
esse. In these examples, it may be observed that the pronoun is 
not expressed before the infinitive. 

Note 5. This rule extends only to the nominative, dative and 
accusative; on which account we cannot say Interest Ciceronis esse 
eloquentis, but eloquentem, in which eloquentem refers to a personal 
pronoun understood before esse. 

RULE VI. The relative qut, qua, quod, agrees with the 
antecedent, in gender, number, and person : as, 
Amo virum qui pauca loquitur^ I love the man who speaks 

Ego qui doceo, I who teach. 

RULE VII. If no nominative come between the relative and 
the verb, the relative shall be the nominative to the verb: as, 
Preceptor qui docet, The master who teacheth. 

RULE VIII. But if a nominative come between the rela- 
tive and the verb, the relative shall be of that case which the 
verb or noun following, or the preposition going before, uses 
to govern : as, 

Deus quern colimus, God whom we worship. 

Cujus munere vivimus, By whose gift we live. 

Cut nullus est similis, To whom there is none like. 

A quofacta sunt omnia^ By whom all things were made. 

Note 1 . Thus also, Levejlt onus quod (onus} benefertur Ovid, 
Literal, quas (literas) dedi Cic. 

Note 2. The antecedent is the substantive going before the re- 
lative, to which the latter refers, and which is again understood to 
the relative. The relative may, therefore, be considered as placed 
between two substantives (which are the same), whether expressed 
or understood ; with the former of which it agrees in gender, 
number, and person; and with the latter, in gender, number, and 
case, as an adjective: thus, Dieindicunt, qua (die) adripam Rho- 
dani omnes conveniant Caes, Erant omnino itinera duo f quibus 
(itincribus} domo exire possent CJES. 

Note 3. in the former notc^ there arc two examples in which 


the antecedent is repeated by Caesar ; but this is uncommon, as it 
is naturally implied in the relative : thus, Animum rege, qui, (scil. 
animus] nisi paret, imperat Hor. 

Note 4-. Sometimes the substantive is omitted in the case which 
it strictly assumes as an antecedent, and expressed in that case 
which, though always understood, is generally suppressed ; as, 
TJrbem quam statuo vestra est Virg. i. e. urbs quam (urbem) statuo. 
Eunuchum quern dedisti nobis, quas turbas dedit Ter. i. e. Eunu~ 
chus, quern (eunuchum) dedisti, &c. This seems an imitation of 
Greek construction: as, 'Axyera^ $s 6 'Hpw^^, elrtzv, ov lyw aVsxe- 
4>aA/tra 'Iwavv/yv, 5ro$ sri, i. e. roV 5~Jv 'loudvvys , ov 'Icudvvyv lyco 
&c. Mark vi. 16. The antecedent is omitted in two ways ; 1st, 
by putting the substantive after the relative, and, consequently, 
in the same case with it: as, Popido ut placer ent, quas Jecisset fa* 
hulas Ter. 2dly, by putting, through the figure anastrophe, 
the substantive before the relative, but in such a manner that, in 
reality, it does only supply the place of the following word, as it 
is still in the same case as the relative : thus, Naucratem quern 
convenire volui, in navi non erat Plaut. 

Note 5. Sometimes both the antecedent and the subsequent sub- 
stantive implied in the relative are omitted ; as, Sunt quos juvat 
collegissc Hor. i. e. sunt homines quos (homines') &c. Qualis esset 
natura montis, qui cognoscerent misitCaes. 

Note 6. When the relative is placed between two nouns of dif- 
ferent genders, it may agree with either ; but its agreement with 
the antecedent is according to the analogy of Latin construction: 
thus, Her culi sacrificiumjecit in loco, quern (locum) Pyram appellant 
Liv. Unus erat toto natures vultus in orbe, Quern dixere Chaos 
Ovid. The agreement with the consequent is an imitation of Greek 
construction : thus, Animal providum et sagax quern vocamus ho- 
minem Cic. Ad eum locum qua appellatur Pharsalia applicuit 

Note 7. If part of the sentence be the antecedent, the relative is 
of the neuter gender: as, Ego quoque unaperco, quod mihi est carius 
Ter. i. e. quodnegotium. Sometimes the pronoun id is elegantly 
placed before quod: thus, Catilina, id quod facillimum erat, om- 
nium flagitiorum atquejacinorum circum se catervas habebat Sail. 

Note 8. Sometimes the antecedent is implied in the possessive : 
as, Omnes laudarejbrtunas meas, qui haberemTer. i. e.Jbrtunas 

Note 9. The relative sometimes refers to the sense of tlie pre- 
ceding words, or to some other substantive than that which goes 
before, with which last it sometimes differs in gender and number: 
as, Inter alia prodigia eiiam carne pluit, quern imbrem ingem mi' 
merits avium intervolitando rapuissejertur Liv. i. e. pluit imbrem 
carne, quern (imbrem) &c. Daret id catenisjatale monstrum, quce 
generosius perire qucerem &c. Hor. in which quce is feminine, 
not in regard to the antecedent monstrum, but to Cleopatra of 
whom the poet is speaking. 


Note 10. Sometimes it refers to an antecedent of a different 
number from that which is expressed : as, Si tempus est ullumjure 
hominis necandi, qua multa sunt Cic. i. e. tempora. Inter ea ser- 
vitia repudiabat, cujus initio ad eum magnte copies concurrebant 
Sail. i. e. servitii. 

Note 11. Sometimes it agrees in gender with a word of similar 
import to the antecedent : as, Ego te, Euclio, de alia re rescivisse 
censui, quod ad me attinet Plaut. in which quod seems to refer 
to negotium understood rather than to its real antecedent re. De- 
lectu rebusque aliis dimnis humanisque quce (supply negotia) perip- 
sos agenda erant, perfectis Liv. 

Note 12. The relative is sometimes omitted : as, Est in secessu 
longo locui ; insula portum Efficit objectu laterum Virg. Est lo- 
cus: Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt Virg. in both which quern 
may be supplied after locus. 

Note 13. Sometimes the word is added to the antecedent, which 
belongs to the clause of the relative; as, Cum venissent ad vada Vo- 
laterrana quce nominantur Cic. for vada quce nominantur Vola- 
terrana. As the original quotation stands, quce nominantur may be 
translated, as they are named. 

Note 14. The relative sometimes appears to agree in case with 
the antecedent : as, Cum scribas, et aliquid agas eorum quorum 
consuestiCic. Nonpro sud, aut quorum simulat ^ injuria Sail. 
Frag. This construction may be elliptical ; and perhaps such ex- 
amples are to be supplied thus : Aliquid agas eorum, quorum (all- 
quid agere) consuesti. Pro injuria eorum,pro quorum injuria simu- 
tat, scil. se arma cepisse. This is an imitation of Greek construc- 
tion, and may arise from what is called attraction : thus, Ka< Itft- 
reucrav fy y/aapjj, xa) ftp Aoyoy, w siifsv 6 'Iy<r8$ John ii. 22. 'Ex 
reds eopToug, otf$' yyopsv! Aristoph. In these the relative is said 
to be attracted, by the antecedent, into its case. 

Note 15. Sometimes the relative, if once expressed, is after- 
wards omitted, and in such a manner that, if supplied, its case 
would be different : as, Quibus nee qucestus est, nee didicere artem 
ullam Plaut. instead of nee qui didicere. 

Note 16. Words of relative quantity and quality, as, quotus, 
quantus, qualis, are often construed as the relative : thus, Fades, 
qualem decet esse sororum Ovid. Tantce multitudinis, quantam 
capit urbs nostra, concursus est ad me factus Cic. But when re- 
latives of this description and their redditives (i. e. the adjectives 
which correspond to them) refer to different substantives, the for- 
mer agree with the first, and the latter with the second substantive, 
as adjectives : thus, Dixi de te quce potui, tanta contentione, quan- 
tum est Jorum Cic. Among the poets, qualis is sometimes made 
to agree in gender with the former substantive : as, Sed incitat me 
pectus et mammce putres, Equina quotes ubera Hor. for qualia 
sunt ubera. The same poet uses the accusative for the ablative: as 
Occurrunt animce, quales neque candidiorcs Terra tulit ; for qua- 
libus. The word negotium is sometimes understood ; as, Talc 


tuum carmen nobis, quale sopor fessis in gramme Virg. Either 
the relative or its redditive is sometimes omitted : as, Quale manus 
addunt ebori decus Virg. for tale decus, quale. Qui tanti talem 
genuere parentes Virg. i. e. tanti, quanta tu Dido; talem item, 
qualem te conspicimus. 

Note 17. The first two rules in regard to the relative qui, de- 
pend upon the first and second concords ; and the third rule, upon 
the rules for the government of nouns, verbs, and prepositions. It 
always agrees in gender and number with the antecedent ; and 
when the antecedent and consequent happen to be in the same 
case, it then agrees in case also. Its case depends always upon 
that of the consequent, which it implies ; and instead of which it 
generally stands alone. 

Note 18. The clause of the antecedent is sometimes found after 
that of the relative : as, Qui pauperes sunt, us antiquior officio est 
pecunia Cic. 

RULE IX. Two or more substantives singular, coupled 
together by a conjunction [et, ac, atque, &c.], generally have 
a verb, adjective, or relative plural : as, 

Petrus et Joannes, qui sunt docti, Peter and John, who are 


Note 1 . Thus also, Lupus et agnus compulsi Phaedr. Furor ira- 
que mentem pradpitant Virg. Herodotus Thucydidesque, quorum 
<ztas in eorum tempora incidit Cic. 

Note 2. This rule arises from the figure syllepsis. 

Note S. It refers not only to affirmative copulatives, but may 
be extended to those also which are negative, and to the disjunc- 
tive conjunctions aut, vel, ve, seu, sive, in those cases where the 
attribute is either affirmed or denied in regard to the several sub- 
jects : as, Quod in decemviris neque Ctzsar, neque ego habiti essemus 
Cic. Veluti cum prcetor, aut prases, aut proconsul, in balneum, 
vcl in theatrum eant Justinian. Inst. 

Note 4. A singular nominative followed by an ablative governed 
by cum sometimes takes a plural verb or adjective : as, Juba cum 
Labieno capti inpotestatem Ccesaris venissent Hirt. B. Afr. Remo 
cum Jratre Quirinus Jura dabuntVirg. Pharnabazus cum Apol- 
lonide et Athenagora vincti traduntur Curt. 

Note 5. The conjunction is sometimes omitted, by the figure 
asyndeton : as, Dum cetas, metus, magister prohibebant Ter. 

Note 6. Sometimes two adjectives in the singular belong to a 
plural substantive: as, Maria Tyrrhenum atque Adriaticum Liv. 

Note 7. Frequently an adjective or verb singular is joined by 
the figure zeugma to two or more nouns coupled together : as, 
Mare rubrurn et tolus oricntis occanus referlus est silms Plin. 


Note 8. If the singular nominatives be of different persons, the 
plural verb will agree with the more worthy person, that is, with 
the first in preference to the second, and with the second rather 
than with the third : as, Si tu et Tullia, lux nostra, valetis, ego et 
suamssimus Cicero valemus Cic. The same rule is observed, if 
cither substantive, or both, be plural ; as, Si nos duces, vosque mi- 
lit es strenuo suo quisque qfficiofungamur. Th us also Errastis, Rulle, 
vekementer et tu, et nonnulli college tui Cic. But in many in- 
stances the person next to the verb, although it may be the more 
unworthy, is preferred. 

Note 9. In substantives denoting living beings, the masculine 
gender is preferred to the feminine : as, Pater mihi ct mater mortui 
sun t Ter. It is not ascertained among grammarians, whether 
or not the feminine gender ought to be preferred to the neuter; 
whether we should say Lucretia et ejus mancipiumfuerunt castce, or 
casta. Vossius, in his larger grammar, tbeauthors of the Port Royal 
grammar, and Ursinus, seem to think the feminine preferable. But 
the same Vossius (in his less grammar'), Linacer, and Alvarez, 
prefer the neuter to the feminine. It may sometimes happen that 
one of the nouns does not signify persons expressly, but by im- 
plication ; as when the name of a place is put for the inhabitants : 
thus, Athenarum et Cratippi ; ad quos Cic. So likewise when 
one of them is a collective, persons being signified : Quadraginta 
millia peditum, duo millia septmgenti equites, et tanta prope civium 
sociorumque pars ccesi dicuntur Liv. But we also find Taria millia 
quadringenti ccesa Liv. 

Note 10. When the substantives denote things without life, the 
adjective is generally neuter : as, Divitice, decus et gloria in oculis 
sita sunt Sail, in which negotia seems to be understood. It is ge- 
nerally understood that if any one of the substantives denote a thing 
inanimate, the adjective may be neuter : as, Serpens, sitis, ardor, 
arencc, Didcia virtuti Lucan. Sometimes in inanimate things, re- 
gard is paid to the simple construction, or the more worthy gender : 
as, Grammatice quondam ac Musice junctccfiierunt Quinct. Seri- 
ores supra dictis narcissus et lilium Plin. When the substantives 
signify irrational animals or plants, we find the adjective or relative 
agreeing with the general word understood : thus, Expertesrationis 
sunt equi, boves, reliquce pecudes , apes, quarum (perhaps bestiarum) 
opere effidtur aliquid ad kominum iisum et vitam Cic\ Quid de 
vitibus olivetisque dicam, quarum (perhaps arborum) fructus nihil 
omnino ad bestias pertinent Cic. In this last example, it may per- 
haps be, that the feminine is preferred to the neuter ; or olivetis 

1 His words there are, " Utrum et femininum dignius est neutro ? Ita qui- 
dem plerisque videtur, idque propter illnd Lucani ; Leges ct plcbiscita coactce. 
Scd istoc ^.9a?<*c videtur, sive singulare ; ut adversus aliorum scriptorum 
t'onsuetudiricm exinde non debeat judicium ferri." But some consider coactai 
as a mistake for coacta ; others divide plebiscite into plebis scitu, and cozistrue 
coacla with plebis. 


may be used instead of the feminine olivis ; and, indeed, in the 
former, quarum may refer to apes, the nearest substantive. 

Note 11. The more worthy person is generally placed first : as, 
Ego et tu. Livy furnishes an example to the contrary ; Pater et 
ego, fratresque mei, pro vobis anna tulimus. The precedence, 
here, may be intended as a mark of deference and distinction. 

Note 12. The verb or adjective frequently agrees, by the figure 
zeugma, in person, gender, or number, with the nearest substan- 
tive : as, Et ego et Cicero meus flagitabit Cic. Salus, liberi, 
fama, fortunes, sunt carissimcz Cic. Sociis et rege recepto Virg, 
When cum intervenes between two nouns, regard is still paid to 
worthiness of gender : as, Ilia cum Lauso de Numitore sati Ovid. 
The verb takes the person of the nominative : as, Tu quoque cum 
Druso prcemia feres Ovid. When singular substantives are 
joined together, especially those signifying things without life, the 
best authors often use a verb singular : as, Virtus, et honestas, et 
pudor cogebat Cic. This is the more common, when the differ- 
ent words are of similar signification ; and when this is the case, 
the adjective or relative generally agrees with the nearest : as, 
Mutiijanua et vestibulum, quod maxime celebratur Cic. Turner 
condemns Lily's Imperium et dignitas quce petiisti, which should 
be, he says, quam petiisti ; but, as Ruddiman observes, Cicero 
himself seems in one instance to write in a similar manner. Col- 
lective nouns, as, populus, gens, turba, manus, &C. 1 , and certain 
partitives, as, quisque, uterque, &c., are frequently joined to a verb, 
adjective or relative, plural; and the adjective or relative, instead 
of taking the gender of the collective expressed, often agrees 
with a word which the sense suggests to the mind : as, Multitude 
convenerant Cses. Magna pars vidnerati aut occisi sunt Sail. 
Intimus quisque libertorum vincti abreptique Tacit. Familia quo- 
rum, &c. Sail. Such constructions arise from the figure syn- 
thesis, or, as it may, perhaps, with greater propriety be named, 

1 A collective noun may be joined with a verb either of the singular or of 
the plural number : as, Quarit pars scmina Jlammcc Virg. Pars in frusta 
secant Virg. Joined with a singular verb, it generally expresses many con- 
sidered as one aggregate ; but, when joined with a plural verb, it signifies many 
separately or individually. Hence, if an adjective or participle be subjoined to 
the verb, when the latter is of the singular number, the former will agree both 
in gender and number with the collective noun : as, Cirdter pars quarta erat 
mUitaribus armis instructa Sail. : since, in this case, they all agree with the 
term of universality, and are understood to the special or individual terms : 
but, if the verb be plural, the adjective or participle will be plural also, and of 
the same gender as the individuals constituting the collective noun ; as, Pars 
erant ctesi. Complerant litora pars et certare paraiiVirg. Sometimes, 
however, though rarely, the adjective is thus used in the singular as, Pars, 
arduus altis Pulverulentus equisfurit Virg. JEn. vii. 624, for ardui, pulveru- 
Icntifurunt. Proper names and appellatives also take the gender of the indi- 
viduals implied: as, Latium, Capuaquc agro mulLctti Liv. viii. 11, for Latini 
et Campani. Capita conjurationis virgis c.'i Liv. x. 1, for duces or pnncipes, 
as we say, in English, the heads. 


RULE X. One substantive agrees with another signifying 
the same thing, in case : as, 

Cicero Orator, Cicero the Orator. 

Urbs Edinburgum, The city Edinburgh. 

Filius delicice matris suce, A son the darling of his mo- 

Note 1. That is, when two nouns come together denoting the 
same person or thing, the one explaining or describing the other, 
they are put in the same case : as, Justitia virtus Cic. Opes irri- 
tamenta malorum Ovid. 

Note 2. This is named apposition, and is not considered by some 
grammarians as a concord. I consider it, however, as a primary 
concord, and founded on the abstract principle, that words agree- 
ing in meaning should agree by grammatical concord 1 . 

Note 3. It is not necessary that the nouns agree in gender, num- 
ber, or person; as, Magnum pauperies opprobrium Hor. Alexin 
delicias domini Virg. Ego homuncio hoc non faccrem ? Ter. 
In all such constructions there seems to be an ellipsis of the an- 
tient ens, or of qui est, qui vocatur, or the like. 

Note 4-. The substantive descriptive of two or more singular 
substantives joined together, is made plural : as, Cn. Domitio, C. 
Sosio consulibus Nep. Eupolis, atque Cratinus, Aristophanesque 
po'etce Hor. Likewise, when the nouns are connected by cum : 
as, Cottamcum Titurio Sabino legatos ibiamisimus Flor. iii. 10-8. 
But in some editions legato is read : the former reading, however, 
seems to be preferred. 

Note 5. When a plural appellative is used as descriptive of two 
or more proper names of different genders, it must be of the more 
worthy gender: as, Ad Ptolemceum Cleopatramque reges legati 
missi Liv., in which reges is equivalent to regem et reginam. In 
the same manner socer, jilius, andfrater are used, implying like- 
wise socrus, Jilia, and soror. 

Note 6. When one of the substantives is animate, the adjective 
and verb agree with it : as, Cum duofulmina nostri imperil subito 
in Hispania, Cn. et P. Scipiones,extinctioccidissentCic. In many 
instances the sense will determine the regimen. If the nouns are 
inanimate, it agrees with the last : as, Fama malum, quo non aliud 
velocius ullum Virg. Here, likewise, the agreement of quo with 
malum is determined by the sense. The rule seems to be that, in 
this case, the adjective and verb shall agree with the more general 
noun : as, Flumen est Arar t quod in Rhodanum iiiftuit Caes. Co- 

1 The antients named this construction Epexegcsis or declaratio, because the 
preceding substantive is explained by the following. Grammarians state its 
object to be threefold. 1. To limit a general term ; as, arbor laurus. 2. To 
remove ambiguity ; as, Taurus mons, lupus ^'zsc/'s. 8. To designate some pro- 
perty ; as, Socrates vir sapient issimus. 


rioli oppidum captum Liv. Caesar has made the adjective agree 
with the proper name in Flumine Rheno qui agrum Helvetium a 
Germanis dividit, and in other parts. 

Note 7. Sometimes the latter substantive is put into the geni- 
tive : as, Fons Timavi Virg. Arbor jici Cic. Et lapathi brevis 
herba Hor. 

Note 8. A sentence or clause may supply the place of one of 
the substantives: as, Cogitet oratorem institui, rem arduam 

Note 9. If the latter substantive be susceptible of a change in 
termination, to express a difference of gender, it must agree with 
the former in gender and number : as, Populum late regem Virg. 
for regnantem. Regina pecunia Hor. for regnans. But to epi- 
ccenes, and neuters, the masculine is generally joined : as, Aquila 
rex avium. Tempus magister multorum. Virgil speaks of reges 
et ductores apum> not reginas et ductrices. 

Note 10. To the preceding four concords some add a fifth, that 
of the Responsive, generally agreeing in case with its Interrogative. 
But this depends entirely upon the nature of the figure ellipsis ; 
for if we say Quis herus est tibi ? Amphitruo Ter. to this last no- 
minative are understood the words est herus mihi. When words 
of different construction are used, the Responsive and Interroga- 
tive disagree: as, Cujumpecus? an Melibcei? Non, verum JEgonis 
Virg. Cujus est liber ? meus, not mei. Cuja interest ? Regis. 
But even in some of these, if the elliptical words be supplied, the 
constructions do only seem to disagree : thus, if we say Cujus in- 
terest ? and reply mea t tua, &c. the full sentence may be, Cujus 
negotia interest , or Inter cujus negotia est ? Mea negotia interest t 


1. Of Nouns. 

2. Of Verbs. 

3. Of Words indeclinable. 



RULE XI. One substantive governs another signifying a 
different thing, in the genitive : as, 

Amor Dei, The love of God. 

Lex nature The law of nature. 


Note 1 . That is, when two substantives come together, signi- 
fying different things ; or in which the latter limits or defines the 
general signification of the former, and expresses some particular 
relation belonging to it, it must be put into the genitive : as, Amor 
nummi Juv. Initium est salutis notitia peccati Senec. 

Note 2. The substantive in Latin, which is to be put into the 
genitive, is that which corresponds with the English word follow- 
ing of, or which ends in 's. 

Note 3. The governing substantive is sometimes omitted : as, 
Ubi ad Dianas veneris Ter. i. e, templum or cede-in. 

Note 4>. The latter substantive is sometimes understood : as, 
Tritici decies cent am millia, el horde i quingenta, indicantes se ad 
mare devecta habere Liv. i. e. modium. 

Note 5. The pronouns hujus, ejus, illius, cujus, &c. are used as 
substantives, the word with which they agree being generally un- 
derstood: as, Liber ejiis. Libri eorum. Supply hominis and ho- 
minum. The personal pronouns, having the nature of nouns, 
are governed by a noun : as Languet desiderio tui. 

Note 6. The genitive may have either an active or a passive 
signification : thus, in Nee sese JEnece jactavit vulnere quisquam 
Virg. vulnere JEnece denotes the wound which ^Eneas had received; 
Et vulnere tardus Ulyssi Virg. refers to the wound which Ulysses 
had given. 

Note 7. The substantive governed may govern another signify- 
ing a different thing : as, Fratris hicjilius erat regis Liv. 

Note 8. Sometimes two genitives depend upon the same go- 
verning substantive: as, Hujus civitatis est longe amplissima aucto- 
ritas omnis ores maritime regionum earum Caes. Here, indeed, 
there are three genitives, but the third is governed by the second. 

.Note 9. Sometimes the word governing and the word governed 
exchange cases : as, Sex dies ad earn rem conficiendam spatii pos- 
tulant C^s^i. e. spatium sex dierum. 

Note 10. The genitive, signifying possession, is often changed 
into an adjective: as, Domus paterna Cic. for Domus patris. 

Note 11. The genitive is sometimes changed into the dative: 
as, Fratri cedes fient pervice Ter. forfratris. Or, into an accu- 
sative or ablative with a preposition : as, Odium erga Romanos 
Nep. Cura de salute patria Cic. If the former substantive be 
derived from a neuter verb, the latter often follows the construc- 
tion of that verb : as, Colloquia cum amicis Cic. as well as Col- 
loquia amicorum Cic. Sibi successor em Suet. Justitia est obtem- 
peratio scriptis legibus institutisque populorum Cic. In old Lati- 
nity especially, the dative and accusative are sometimes found 
after a substantive derived from an active verb : as, Traditio alteri 

Cic. Quid istum tibi tactio est Plaut. In such phrases as 

Domum reditionis spe sublata CPCS. in which the case of domus 


is erroneously ascribed by some grammarians to the government 
of reditio ; the accusative, or the ablative, depends entirely upon 
the nature ofdoi&us, which is governed by a preposition generally 

Note 12. Pars is omitted after such adjectives &sprimus> medius, 
ultimas, extremes, Difimus, imus, summits, suprcmus, reliquus, cce- 
terus; thus Media noxCses. signifies the middle (part of the) 
night. In summo monte, On the top (or highest part) of the hill. 
In such examples the adjective must agree with the substantive. 

[Certain observations on the nature and construction of pro- 
nouns, usually referred to this rule, will be found in Etymo- 

RULE XII. If the latter substantive have an adjective of 
praise or dispraise joined with it, it may be put in the geni- 
tive or ablative : as, 

Vir mmmce prudently \ f A man of the greatest 

vel summa prudcntid^ ) \ wisdom. 
Puer vrobce indolis* veil /. i v 

protAindok, } A boy of a good deposition. 

Note 1. That is, when the second substantive expresses a qua- 
lity belonging to the first, having also an adjective joined to it, 
expressing some degree, accident, or property belonging to that 
quality, it may be put in the genitive or ablative : as, Ingenui vul- 
tuspuer Juv. Es nulld t fide~Cic. Magnopondere saxum Virg. 
Mulier estate Integra Ter. 

Note 2. The genitive seems to depend upon the former substan- 
tive taken possessively ; and the ablative is governed by some pre- 
position generally understood, but sometimes also expressed : as, 
Amicus cum magna Jide Plaut. Trin. iv. 4-. 4?. 

Note 3. Prose writers use the ablative more frequently than the 
genitive, especially after a substantive verb. 

Note 4. In such instances as the following, the genitive is the 
more common : Magni formica laboris Hor. Testimonium nul- 
lius momenti Cic. Nulli (nullius) consilii sum Ter. Rosaju- 
cundi odoris Plin. 

Note 5. In such as the following, the ablative only is used : 
Bo?io anitno es Ter. Quantofuerim dolore Cic. Mira sum ala- 
critate ad litigandum Cic. Credens se minore invidiajbre Nep. 

Note 6. Sometimes both constructions are found in the same 
sentence : as, Lentulum, eximia spe, summce virtutis, adolescentetn 
fac erudiasCic. 

Note 7. Sometimes the adjective agrees with the former sub- 
stantive, or the subject of discourse, and the latter substantive is 
put in the ablative : as, Vir gravitate ct prudentia prcestans Cic. 
Vir prcetfantis ingenii, pr&stanti ingenio, pr<z$tans i?igenio, and 


(poetically) prastans ingenii, are all found. Sometimes the poets 
use an accusative : as, Os humerosque similis deo Virg. Vultum 
dejectus Stat. Such accusatives are governed by the preposition 
secundum or quod ad understood, and are referred to the figure 
synecdoche. Integer vita Hor. Prcestans animi Virg. and the 
like, may perhaps be referred to another rule. 

Note 8. In like manner, neuter and passive verbs are construed 
with the ablative : as, Et corde et genibus tremit Hor. Leevo bra- 
chio vulneratur Liv. And by the poets with an accusative : as, 
Sxpleri mentem nequit Virg. Such cases are governed by a pre- 
position understood. 

Note 9. The former substantive is sometimes understood : as, 
Vulgus est ingenio mobili Sail. Populus, or some similar word, 
is understood. 

Note 10. The latter substantive must denote some part or pro- 
perty of the former ; otherwise its government does not depend 
upon the present rule: hence such phrases as Pulchra prole paren- 
tem Virg. Rex gelidce ores Hor. Pater optimorum liberorum, 
and the like, are excluded from it. I believe, it may be generally 
observed, that when in English the analytical or Norman form of 
the genitive (i. c. with of) is convertible into the simple or Saxon 
form (with '$), the Latin genitive is to be referred to the pre- 
ceding rule : thus, " The father of the fine children," which is 
equivalent to " The fine children's father." But when, consist- 
ently with sense and with general usage, this cannot be done, the 
genitive belongs to the present rule: as, u A man of great virtue," 
which is not convertible into " great virtue's man." 

It has been observed, that when a person is distinguished by 
any rank, quality, or character ; the noun expressing it is used 
in the genitive, to denote the source of that distinction ; but that 
the ablative is used, when the quality, rank, or character is re- 
presented, not as the source of distinction, but as the instrument 
or medium by which the subject is distinguished. 

RULE XIII. An adjective in the neuter gender, without 
a substantive expressed, is followed by a genitive : as, 

Multum pecunicz, Much money. 
Quid rei ? What is the matter ? 

Note 1. That is, adjectives in the neuter gender, used as sub- 
stantives, govern the genitive : as. Paululum pecunice Ter. Hoc 
noctis Cic. Id negotii Ter. Id miseriarum Ter. * 

Note 2. The adjectives thus used are generally such as signify 
quantity : as, multum, plus, plurimum, tantum, quantum, minus, 

1 Or, an adjective in the neuter gender, expressive of quantity, or parti- 
tively used, governs, in the genitive case, the substantive with which, strictly, 
it should agree : thus we say Multa pecunia : but if we use multum, we must 
say Multum pecunite. Thus also we say Augusta riorum for Angustee vice. 


minimum ; also id, quid, hoc, aliquid, quidquam ; to which may 
be added summum, uttimum, extremum, dimidium, and medium: as, 
Summum montis Ovid. AnimcK dimidium Hor. To these may 
be added a great number of plural neuters: as, Angusta viarum, 
opaca locorum, &c. Virg. Incerta fortunes, antiqua fcederum, 
extrema periculorum Liv. And sometimes other singular neu- 
ters : as, Lubricum juventte Tac. Sub obscurum noctis Virg. 
Ex adverso cceli Virg. 

Note 3. It is observed that quod, aliquod, quoddam, always 
agree with their substantives ; and that quid audplus are always 
followed by a genitive. 

Note 4. Nihil, hoc, id, illud, istud, quid, aliquid, quidquam, 
elegantly admit the genitive of neuter adjectives of the second 
declension : as, Nihil sinceri Cic. Quid reliqui est? Ter. This 
seldom happens with adjectives of the third declension; and never 
with those that end in is, e. Aliud is joined with nihil, and never 
the genitive, according to this rule. 

Note 5. Negotium, tempus, locum, spatium, or the like, are un- 
derstood to these adjectives, and are the really governing words, 
according to Rule XL 

RULE XIII. 1 Opus and usus, denoting necessity, conveni- 
ence , or expediency ) are followed by the dative of the object 
to which the thing is necessary, and the ablative of the thing 
wanted: as, 

Auctoritate tud nobis \ f We have need of your 

opus est Cic. ) \ authority. 
Nunc viribus usus (est \ ( Now you have need of 
tibi) Virg. / \ strength. 

Note 1. They are said sometimes to govern the genitive; but, 
when this is the case, they generally appear to be taken in their 
literal sense. The following are adduced as examples of their go- 
verning a genitive, according to the sense mentioned in the rule : 
Sed etiam si nosse, quid quisque senserit, volet, lectionis opus est 
Quinct. Inst. xil. 3. Alii offerunt se, si quo usus opera sit Liv. 
xxvi. 9. 

Note 2. Opus is sometimes used like the adjective necessarius, 
but as an aptote : as, Dux nobis et autor opus est Cic. 

Note 3. Opus is elegantly followed by the ablative of perfect 
participles, the substantive being either expressed or omitted: as, 
Priusquam incipias, consulto ; et ubi consulueris, mature facto opus 
est Sail. Opusfuit Hirtio convento Cic. Thus also, Dictu opus 
est Ter. And Facto est usus Plaut. 

1 Opus and usus, denoting necessity, are usually noticed under adjectives of 
want. They are here made the subject of a separate rule, which, for obvious 
reasons, is numbered as the preceding. 



Note 4-. Opus is sometimes followed by an accusative : as, Puero 
opus est cibum Plaut, Diomedes mentions that the antients said 
Opus est mihihanc rem; but it is probable, that these accusatives 
are governed by some infinitive ; such as kabere, dicere, facere. 
The following has been adduced as an instance in which usus 
governs an accusative; Ad earn rem usus est hominem astutum, doc- 
turn Plaut. 

Note 5. It is followed by the infinitive, or the subjunctive with 
Ht : as, Quod opus sit scirl Cic. Opus e$t> cegram ut tc adsimules 

Note 6. The word governed by it is often omitted : as, Si opus 
sit, accurras Cic. in which the word accurrere may supply the 
place of the ablative of the thing wanted, or may be considered as 
the nominative to sit, opus being then reckoned equivalent to ne- 

Note 7. The ablative after these words seems to be governed by 
the preposition in. Utor formerly governed an accusative, as well 
as an ablative; and as there are not wanting instances to prove 
that verbal nouns sometimes governed the case of their verbs, this 
consideration may, perhaps, be satisfactory to some, in regard to 
the origin of the government of usus. 


RULE XIV. Verbal adjectives, or such as signify an af- 
fection of the mind, require the genitive : as, 
Avidia gloria, Desirous of glory. 

Ignams fraudis, Ignorant of fraud. 

Memor beneficiarum. Mindful of favours. 

Note 1 . Or, verbal adjectives, by which are meant verbals in T 
osus, and idus, with panicipials in ns; and adjectives signifying an 
affection of the mind, by which are meant those which denote de- 
sire or disdain, knowledge or ignorance, innocence or guilt, or the 
like, require the genitive: as, Timidus deorumOvid. Jmperitus 
rerum Ter. Fraterni sanguinis insons Ovid. 

To this rule belong 

1st. Verbals in ax, and participials in Jis: as capax, edax,fugax, 
pervicax, tenax, &c., amans, appetens, cupiens, negligens,'metuem 
sciens, &c. : as, Tempus edax rerum Ovid. Alieni appetem 
Sail. To these may be added certain participials in us; as consul 
tus, doctus, expertus, inexpertus, insuetus, insolitus : as, Juris con 
sultus Cic. 

2dly. Adjectives denoting affection : as, 

1 . Desire and disdain ; cupidus, avarus, avidus, jastidiosus, c 
riosus, studiosus, incuriosus, &c. with many other words belonging 
to verbals in idus and osus : as, Laudis avidi- Sail, Literarw 


2. Knowledge and ignorance ;peritus 9 gnarus t prudens, caltidus t 
docilis, certus, memor, &c. ; ignarus, improvidus, wiprudens^ insolitus, 
&c. : as, Conscia mens recti Hor. Nescia mens fati Virg. 

3. Innocence and guilt ; innocens, innoxius, insons, &c., noxius, 
reus, suspectus, compertus, &c. as, Consilii innoxius Curt. Reus 
avarit'HC Cic. 

4. To the foregoing may be added a vast multitude of other 
adjectives, of which Johnson and Ruddiman have given lists. But 
the greater part of these belong to the above-mentioned classes, 
and some may be referred to other rules ; such are the following. 

Abjectior animi ApuL or Liv. Confirmatus animi Apul. 
Absonum fidei Liv. (perk, dot.) Confusus animi Liv. 
Abstemius vini Auson. Conterminus jugi. 

Acer militiae Tac. Credulus adversi Sil. 

Admirandus frugalitatis Senec. Spesanimicredulamutui-Hor. 

Adversa domuum. 
animi Liv. 

ingenii Sil. 
/Equal es aevi Sil. 
JEquus absentium Tac. 
Alienum dignitatis. 
Al tern us animse Sil. 
Ambiguus pudoris Tac. 
Amens animi Virg. 
Anhelus laboris Sil. 
Anxius furti Ov. 
Ardens animi. 
Argutus facinorum Plant, 
Assuetus tumultus Liv. 
Atrox odii Tac. 
Attonitus serpentis Sil. 
Audax ingenii Stat. 
Angustior animi ApuL 
A versus animi Tac. 
Benignus vini Hor. 
Bibulus Falerni Hor. 
Blandus precum Stat. 
Bonus fati. 

Caecus animi Quinct. 
Callidus temporum Tac, 
Captus animi Tac. 
Catus legum Auson. 
Celer nandi Sil. 
Certus destinations Tac. 

Clamosus undae. 
Clarissimus discipline Pater c. 
Commune omnium. 

Compos animi Ter. voti. Liv. Expertus belli Virg. 
Confident animi Sueton.. Expletus animi Apul. 


Cumulatissimus scelerum . 


Damnandus fact! Sil. 
Deformis let! Sil. 
Degener artis patria3 Ovid. 
Despectus taed^e. 
Devius &qui Sil, 
Discolor lanae. 
Discors patris Veil. Pat. 

al. patri. 

Disertus leporum Catul. 
Dispar sortis SU. 
Diversus morum Tac. 
Ditior animi Stat. 
Dissoliienda tristitise pectora 


Divina futuri Hor. 
Docilis modorum Hor. 
Doctus virgae Sil. 
Dubius animi Virg. 
Durus oris Liv. 
Durior oris Ovid. 
Effusissimus munificentiae Pa 


Egregius animi Virg. 
Enuntiativi corporum Senec. 
Ereclus animi Sil. 
Exact us morum Ovid. 
Exiguus animi Claudian. 
Eximius animi Stat. 
Exosa hujus vita? Boet. 


Exsors culpae Liv. 
Exsul patriae Hor. 
Externatus animi Apul. 
Extorris regni Stat. 
Exutus formae Sil. 
Facilis frugum Claudian. 
Fallax amicitia? Tac. 
Falsus animi Ter. 
Eatigatus spei Apul. 
Felix cerebri Hor. 
Ferox animi Tac. 
Fervidus ingenii Sil. 
Fessus rerum Virg. 
Festinus animi Apul. 
Fidens animi Virg. 
Fidissima tui Virg. 
Firmatus animi Sail. 
Firmus propositi Paterc. 
al. proposito. 
Flavus comarum Sil. 
Floridior aevi Sil. 
Fluxa morum Sil. 
Fcetae novales Martis Claud, 
Formidolosior hostium Tac. 
Fortunatus laborum Virg. 
Fractus animi, opum. 
Frequens silvae mons Tac. 
Frustratus spei Gel. 
Fugitivus regni Flor. 
Furens animi Virg. 
Gaudens alti Stat. 
Gravis morum Claudian. 
Gravidam Amathunta metalli 


I Ilex animi ApuL 
Impavidus somni Sil. 
Impiger militiae Tac. (perhaps 

the dative.) 
Impos anirai Plant. 
Improba connubii Stat. 
Incautus futuri Hor. 
Indecora formae foemina Tac. 
Indocilis pacis Sil. 
Inexplebilis virtutis Liv. 
Infelix animi Virg. 
Infirmus corporis Apul. 
Ingens animi Tac. 
Inglorius militise Tdc. 
Ingratus salutis Virg. 
Innoxius consilii Curt. 

Insanus anirai Apul. 
Insatiabilis rerum Senec. 
Insolens infamiae Cic. 
Insolitus servitii Sail. Frag. 
Insuetus laboris Cces. 
Integer animi, vitas Hor. 
Interrita leti mens Ovid. 
Intrepidus ferri Claud. 
Invictus laboris Tac. 
Invidus laudis Cic. 
Irritus incepti Sil. 
Laetus laboris Virg. 
Lapsus animi Plant, al. 
Lassus animi. 
Lassus laboris, maris, militiae 


Laudandus labortim Sil. 
Lentus coepti Sil. 
Levis opum Sil. 
Liber laborum Hor. 
Liberalis pecuniae Sail. 
Lugendus formae Sil. 
Macte animi Mart. 
Madid us roris Apul. 
Manifestus criminis Tac. 
Maturus aevi Virg. 
Maximus sevi Sil. 
Medius pacis et belli Hor. 
Melior fati SU. 
Miser animi Plant. 
Modicus pecuniae Tac. 
Mollior sui Apul. 
Munificus auri Claudian. 
Mutabile mentis genus Sil. 
Mutatus animi Apul. 
Nimius imperii Liv. 
Nobilis fandi Auson. 
Notus fugarum SU. 
Novus dolor is Sil. 

al. dolori. 

Nudus arboris Ovid. 
Occultus odii Tac. 
Onusta remigum Hirt. j 


Optimus militiae Sil. 
Otiosi studiorum Plin. 
Pares aetatis mentisque Sil* 
Pavidus offensionum Tac. 
Pauper aquae Hor. 
Perfida pacti gens Sil* 


Periclitabundus sui Apul. 
Perinfames disciplinae Apul. 
Pertinax docendi Apul. 
Pervicax irae Tac. 
Piger pericli Sil. 
Potens lyrae Hor. 
Praeceps animi Virg. 
Praecipuus virtutis Apul. 
Praeclarus fidei Tac. 
Praestans animi Virg. 
Pravus fidei Sil. 
Procax otii Tac. 
Profugus regni Tac. 
Promptus belli Tac. 
Properus oblatae occasionis 


Proprke deorum voluptates. 
Prospera frugum Hor. 
Pulcherrimus irae Sil. 
Purus sceleris Hor. 
Recreatus anirai Apul. 
Rectus judicii Senec. 
Resides bellorum Stat. 
Sanus mentis Plant. 
Satiatus caedis Ovid. 
Saucius famse Apul. 
Scitus vadorum Hor. 
Secors rerum Ter. 
Secreta teporis corpora Lucr. 
Segnis occasionum Tac. 
Seri studiorum Hor. 
Similis tui Plant. 
Sinister fidei Sil. 
Solers operum Sil. 
- lyrae Hor. 
Solliciti reruan. 

Solutus operum Hor. 
Spernendus morum Tac. 
Spreta vigoris Sil. 
Strenuus militiae- Tac. 
Stupentes animi Liv. 
Summus severitatis Tac. 
Superior sui Tac. 
Superstes bellorum. 
Surdus veritatis Col. 
Suspensus animi Apul. 
Tantus animi Apul. 
Tardus fugae V. Flac. 
Tenella animi Apul. 
Tenuis opum Su. 
Territus animi Liv. 
Timidus deorum Ovid. 
Trepidi rerum Liv. 
Truncus pedum Virg. 
Turbatus animi Sil. 
Turbidus animi Tac. 
Vafer juris -OvtW. 
Vagus animi Catul. 
Validus animi Tac. 
Vanus veri Virg. 
Vecors animi Apul. 
Venerandus senectae-r-SzY. 
Versus animi Tac. 
Versutus ingenii Plin. 
Vetus regnandi Tac. 
Victus animi Virg. 
Vigil armenti Sil. 
Viridissimus irae Sil. 
Unicus rerum fessarum Sil. 
Utilis medendi radix Ovid. 
Heroid. Y. 147. al. medenti. 

But of these many are with much more propriety referred to 
other rules : such as, abstemius, compos, impos, liber, made, mo- 
dicus, potens t impotent, purus ; also cumulatus, explehis, exsors, 
exsul) extorriS) foetus, frequens, gravidus, munificus, and the like, 
which are usually referred to adjectives of plenty or want. 

Note 2. Many of the adjectives enumerated in the previous part 
of this rule are construed variously: as, Patiens frigus, One suf- 
fering cold at this moment. Patiens frigoris, A person capable of 
bearing cold. Doctus grammatic<z*,One skilled in grammar. Doc- 
tus grammaticam, One that has been taught grammar ; which he 
may perhaps have forgotten. Doctus Latinis literis, Learned in. 

1 Greeeerwn titerarum rfoe/u* Cic. 


Amdior ad rent Ter. Avidus in pecuniis locupletium Cic. Vino 
cupidce Plaut. Callidusnatura Ovid. Adfmudem callidus Cic. 
Prudens consilio Justin. Jurisconsidtus and Jure consultus Cic. 
Homines labore assiduo et quotidiano assueti Cic. Assuetus prtzdce 
miles Liv. In omnia familiar ia jura assuetus Liv. Insuetus labo- 
ris Caes. Insuetus moribus Romanis Liv. Corpora insueta ad one- 

raportanda Caes. Insolitus rerum Sail., ad laborem Cses. 

Anxius gloria Liv. Sollicitus de re Cic. Diligens in, ad, de Cic. 
Cic. Plin. Securus de belloLiv. Negligens in aliquemCic., in 
amicis eligendis Cic.Reusmagnis criminibus Cic. Super see- 

lere suspectus Sail. Regni crimine insons Liv. Most of those 

adjectives contained in the preceding list are construed, especially 
by prose writers, in the ablative, or otherwise: as, Prcestans ingenio 
-i-Cic. Cultumodicus Tac. JEgerpedibus Sail. Credulus alicui 
Virg. Prqfugi ab Thebis ~L\v.JEmulus, certus, incertus, 
dubius, ambiguus, conscius, manifestus, suspectus, noxius, compertus, 
are frequently construed with the dative, but in a different sense. 
Adversus, czqualis, offtnis, alienus, blandus, communis, conter- 
minuS) contrarius, credulus > dispar> dissimilis^JiduSfJinitimus, par t 
proprius, similis, superstes, and some others, are oftener construed 
with the dative than the genitive. Superior takes generally the 
ablative. Alienus takes frequently the ablative with a or ab : as, 
Humani nihil a me alienum puto Ter. But these and innume- 
rable other varieties may be safely left to observation. 

Note 8. Grammarians differ a little about the nature of this go- 
vernment. It may, however, be observed, that, in many instances, 
the adjectives are used substantively : thus, that Amans mrtutis is 
the same as Amator mrtutis. Other adjectives are supposed to be 
followed by a genitive governed by such words as in re, in causa, 
in negotio, understood : as, Non anxius causa sui. Reus gratia 

RULE XV. Partitives, and words placed partitively, com- 
paratives, superlatives, interrogatives, and some numerals, 
govern the genitive plural : as, 

Aliquis pkilosopkorum, Some one of the philosophers, 

Senior fratrum^ The elder of the brothers. 

Doctissimus JKomanorum, The most learned of the Ro- 

Quis nostmm ? Which of us ? 

Una musarum, One of the muses. 

Octavus sapientum. The eighth of the wise men. 

Note 1. That is, adjectives denoting apart of a number govern 
the genitive plural, which may be resolved into an ablative with 
de, e, ex, or in, or an accusative with inter, 

To this rule belong : 
1. Partitives, whether nouns or pronouns; idlus, nuttus, solus, 
uterque, utercunque, uterms, ulcrlibet, alter, alteruter, neuter, 


alms, aliquis, quidam, quispiam, quisquis, quisquc, unusqutsque, 
aliquot, cceter, reliquus ; to which are added omnis, cunctus, and 
nemo : as, Quisquis deorum Ovid. Nemo mortalium Plin. Ves- 
trum utcrvis Cic. 

2. Words used partitively: as, Canum dcgeneres Plin. Nigrce 
lanarum Plin. Sancte deorum Virg. Expediti militum Liv. 
Vulgus Atheniensium Nep. 

3. Comparatives and superlatives : as, major juvenum Hor. 
Villosissimus animalium lepus Plin. 

4. Interrogates ; quis, quisnam, quisve, uter > quot, quotus, quo- 
tusquisque : as/ Quis mortalium Sail. 

5. Numerals, comprehending both cardinals and ordinals ; unus, 
duo, tres, &c.; primus, secundus, tertius, &c. ; also the partitive or 
distributive, singidi; with multi, pauci, plerique, medius: as, Equi- 
tum centum quinquaginta interfecti Curt. Sapientum octavus- 
Hor. Multce arborum Cic. Quarum quce media est Ovid. Sin- 
gulos vestrum Curt. 

Note 2. If the substantive be a collective noun, the genitive 
singular is used : as, Prtestantissimus nostrce cimtatis Cic., i. e. 
nostrorum civium. Totius Grtedts doctissimum Cic., i. e. omnium 

Note 3. The genitive is governed by de, e, or ex, numero, which 
is often expressed : as, Ex numero adversariorum cirdter sexcentis 
interfectis Caes. 

Note 4-. Instead of the genitive, the ablative is often found, go- 
verned by de, e, ex, or in ; or the accusative with inter or ante : as, 
Unus e Stoicis Cic. But unus put for solus governs the genitive : 
as, Lampedo una Jeminarum Plin. Lampedo the only woman. 
Acerrimus ex sensibus Cic. Ipse ante alios pulcherrimus omnes 
"Virg. Croesus inter reges opulentissimus Senec. Ordinals are 
often construed with a or ab : as, Tertius ab JEnea. Secundus, 
denoting inferior to, governs the dative : as, Nee sunt tibi Marie 
secundi Ovid. 

Note 5. The partitive is sometimes understood : as, Fies noli- 
Hum tu quoquefontium Hor. od. 3. 13. 13. Supply unus. 

Note 6. The partitive takes the gender of the substantive go- 
verned, when there is no other: as, Nulla sororum Virg., i. e. 
Nulla soror e numero sororum. But if the noun governed be a col- 
lective, the partitive takes the gender of the noun understood, 
which the sense will determine : as, JEtatis sues doctissimus ; i. e. 
doctissimus vir. 

Note 7. If there be another substantive expressing the chief sub- 
ject of discourse, the adjective generally takes the gender of that 
substantive, and not of the following genitive : as, Indus, qui est 
omnium Jluminum maximus Cic. Sometimes the former is not ex- 
pressed : as, Quid (tu) agis didcissime rcrum Hor. Omnium rc- 
rum mars est extrcmum Cic., i,e. ncgotiunt* 


Note 8. Sometimes the substantive of partition and the parti- 
tive are put in the same case : as, Maxima pars morem hunc homi- 
nes habent Plaut. Milites^ equites, and pedites are often thus 
used : as, Ex eodem exercitu pedites quindecim millia, et equites 
quingenti Liv. 

Note 9. The comparative and the superlative with the genitive 
of partition are used, when the things compared are of the same 
nature, class, or description : as, Dextra estfortior manuurn. Pol' 
lex estfortissimus digitorum. Hence there is an error in the im- 
precation of the Roman Ultimus suorum moriatur, Let him die 
the last of his relatives ; for it is evident, that it is improper to 
speak of him as one of his own friends or relatives. Hence also 
the impropriety of Qua socer Omatius, magnorum major avorum 
Sidon. And the impropriety in English of Milton's The fairest of 
her daughters Eve. In such instances, the comparative should be 
used, followed by a Latin ablative, or, in English, by than: as, 
Omatius major magnis avis. Fairer than her daughters Eve. 

Note 10. The comparative with the genitive of partition is used 
when two persons or things, or two aggregates, are compared to- 
gether; the superlative, when more than two: thus, Majorfratrum 
refers to two brothers : Maximusjratrum, to three or more. Ju- 
niores patrum Liv. is spoken of in contradistinction to the aggre- 
gate of the seniores. These two rules are very general, few viola- 
tions of them occurring either in Latin or English. 

Note 11. Uter, alter, neuter refer in like manner to two ; quis f 
alms, nullus, to more than two. But there are exceptions to this 
observation. Uterque is also applied to two ; quisque and omnis to 
more than two. But there are a few instances in which quisque 
and omnis refer to two only. 

Note 12. Nostrum and vestrum are used after partitives ; not 
nostri and vestri : as, Quam vestrum utervis Cic. but, in his Ora- 
tions, Cicero pays no regard to this distinction. 

RULE XVI. Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, like- 
ness or unlikeness, require the dative : as, 
Utilis bello, Profitable for war. 

Perniciosus reipublicfz. Pernicious to the commonwealth. 
Similis patri, Like his father. 

Note 1 . That is, adjectives signifying utility or inconvenience, 
benefit or damage, pleasure or displeasure, and the like, are fol- 
lowed by a dative of the object to which their quality is directed: 
as, Incommodusjilio Cic. Felix tuis Virg. Conveniens homini 
Ovid. Color contrarius albo Ovid. Si fads, ut patrice sit idoneus, 
utilis agris Juv. 

To this rule belong adjectives signifying 
1. Advantage or disadvantage ; bcnignus, bonus, commodus,fc- 
prosper, salubcr, utilis ; also calamitosus., 


damnosus, dims, exitiosus, Junestus, incommodut, inutilis, malu$ y 
noxius, perniciosus, pestifer. 

2. Pleasure or pain ; acceptus, dulcis, gratus, gratiosus,jucundu$ t 
l&tus, suavis ; also acerbus, amarus, insuavis, injucundus, ingratus, 
molestus, tristis. 

3. Friendship or hatred; addictus, tequus, amicus, benevolus, 
blandus, earns, deditus, Jidas, Jidelis, lenis, mitis, propitius ; also 
adversus, asper, crudelis, contrarius, infensus, infestus, infidus, and 
the like. 

4. Perspicuity or obscurity ; apertus, certus, compertus, conspi- 
cuus, mantfestus, notus,perspicuus ; also ambiguus, dubius, ignotus, 
incertus, obscurus. 

5. Propinquity ',jtnitimus,propior,proximus,propmquus, socius, 
vicinus, qffinis. 

6. Fitness or unfitness ; aptus, appositus, accommodatus, habilis^ 
idoneus, opportunus ; also ineptus, inhabilis, &c. 

7. Easiness or difficulty \facilis, levis, obviiis, pervius; also dif- 
Jicilis, arduus, gravis, laboriosus, periculosus, invius. To these add 
pronus, proclivis, propensus, promptus, paratus. 

8. Equality or inequality ; cequalis, cequatvus, par, compar, sup- 
j)ar ; also incequalis, impar, dispar, discors.^ Likeness or unlike- 
ness ; similis, cemulus, geminus; also dissimilis, absonus, alienus, di- 
versus, discolor. 

9. Many compounded with con ; cognatus, communis, concolor y 
concors, confinis, congruus, consanguineus, conscius, consentaneus, 
consonus, conveniens, conterminus, contiguus, continens (as Huic 

Jundo continentia qucedam prcedia mercatur Cic. i. e. adjoining, 
or contiguous to), &c. 

10. To these may be added a greet number of adjectives that 
cannot be easily reduced into distinct classes : as, obiwxius, sub- 

jectus, supplex, superstes, credulus, absurdus, decorus, deformis, 
prceslo, secundus, &c. To this rule might also be referred, verbals 
in bills and dus. 

Note 2. Some substantives, especially those signifying any affec- 
tion, or advantage or disadvantage, are followed by the dative : 
as, Namque erit ille mihi semper Deus Virg. Matres omnesjiliis 
in peccato adjutrices Ter. Thus also, Ad similitudinem deopro- 
pius accedebat humana virtus Cic. Caput Italic omniLi\. But, 
perhaps, the dative is governed by the substantive verb, expressed 
or understood, or its obsolete participle ens. 

Note 3. Of the adjectives denoting friendship or hatred, or other 
affection, to a person, some generally take the dative: as, nffabi- 
lis, arrogans, asper, cams, difficilis,Jidelis, invisus, iratus, ofen- 
sus, suspectus. But we find also In liberos difficilis. Poe'ta vet. ap. 
Cic. Nat. Deor. iii. 29. Fidelis in jUios Justin. Apud militares 
inmsum esse nomen Romanum Liv. To the above-mentioned ad- 
jectives add dexter, exitialis,fahiloqmts,ferus, hospitus, inhospitus, 
insodabilis, intolerans^jucundus, lav us, morigcrussnortifer, odiosus> 


placidus, propitius, scelestus, supplex, tranquillus, trux : as, Dexter 
Pcenis deus Sil. Senijuit jucundissimus Nep. Sontibus esse tru- 

cem Ovid. Some are followed by in and an accusative : as 

acerbus, animalus, beneJiGus,gratiosus, injuriosus, liberates, rnendax^ 
misericors, qfficiosus, plus, impius, prolixus, severus, sordidus, tor- 
vus, vehemens. We also find Animatus erga principem Suet. 
Lijuriosus adversus patrem Senec. Misericors adversus bonos 
Senec.; with a few more varieties. Acer, aquabilis, mtemperans, 

ingratus, and a few others are found with in. Some are found 

with a dative, or an accusative governed by in, erga, or adversus : 
as coniumax, criminosus, durus, exitiabilis, grams, hospitalis, im- 
placabilis, inexorabilis, intolerabilis, iniquus, scevus, Alicui or in 
aliquem. Benevolus, benignus, molestus, Alicui or erga aliquem. 
Mitis, comis, Alicui, or in, or erga aliquem. Permcax adversus 
aliquem. Crudelis in aliquem, seldom alicui. Amicus, cemulus, 
infensus, injestus, Alicui, seldom in aliquem. Gratus Alicui, or 
in, erga*, adversus aliquem. The noun vulgus with the preposi- 
tion in, follows many of these adjectives : as gratus, ingratus, ac- 
ceptus, ignotuSj &c., in vulgus. Id in vulgus gratum esse sentimus, 

Note 4. Affinis, similis, communis,par,proprius,jinitimus,Jidus, 
conterminus, superstes, conscius, (equalis, contrarius, adversus, some- 
times govern the dative and sometimes the genitive. Of these, 
par, Jidus, adversus, conterminus, superstes, contrarius govern the 
dative generally : conscius commonly the genitive, that is, of a 
thing, but always the dative of a person. Affines facinori Cic. 
rerum Ter. Somnio similis Curt, tui Plaut. Omni tetati com- 
munis Cic. mrtutiim Cic. Par delicto sit pcena Ovid, hujus 
Lucan. Propria est nobis mentis agitatio Quinct. Oratoris pro- 
prium Cic. Falsa veris Jlnitima Cic. Fluvii hujus Jinitimi 
Justin. Fida sorori Ovid. Tuijidissima Virg. Fonti conter- 
mina O v id . Jugi conterminos locos Apul. Mihi superstes Ter. 
dignitatis Cic. Conscium facinori Cic. Atque ego peccati vellem 
mihi conscius essem Ovid. JEquali-s sibi Plin. temporum illorum 
Cic. Honestati contrariamCic. virtutum Cic. Adversus 
nemini Ter. illustrium domuum- Tac. Similis auddissimilis,it 
is observed, are followed by the genitive when they refer to man- 
ners ; and by the dative, when to shape orjbrm. JEqualis is fol- 
lowed by a genitive, when it refers to time or age : otherwise, by 
a dative; but these distinctions are sometimes disregarded. 

Note 5. Alienus is construed with a genitive, or dative, or, more 
frequently an ablative governed by a or ab : as, Alienum dignitatis 
Cic. illi causce Cic. a me Ter. The preposition is sometimes 
omitted: as x Alienum nostra amicitia Cic. Diversus is generally 
construed in like manner ; it does not, however, admit a genitive, 
unless in a different sense. 

Note 6. To adjectives governing the genitive or dative are added 
amicus, familiar is, cognatus, propinquus, vicinus, socius, cemulus, 
germanus, inimicus, invidus, necessanus; but when they govern the 


former case, it will be generally found that they are used sub- 

Note 7. Some adjectives vary their construction : as Similes, 
dissimiles, pares, dispares, cequales, communes, inter se. Thus also, 
JEtate et forma hand dissimili in dominum Tac. Alpina corpora 
habent quiddam simile cum nivibus suis Flor. 

Note 8. Par and communis, either with or without a dative ; 
consentaneus and discors, only when without a dative, take an ab- 
lative with cum : as, Erant ei qu&dam ex his paria cum Crasw 
Cic. Quern tuparem cum liberis, regnique participemjecisti Sail. 
Locupletibus Jere cum plebe communiaCic. Illud cum adolescen- 
tia esse commune Cic. Quod erat consentaneum cum us literis 
Cic. Civitas secum discors Liv. 

Note 9. Idem among the poets sometimes governs the dative : 
as, Invitum qui servat, idemfacit occidenti Hor. In prose, it is 
construed with qui, et, ac, atque : as, Peripatetici quondam iidem 
erant qui academici Cic. Dianam et Lunam eandem esse putant 
Cic. Animus erga te idem ac fuit Ter. Pomarium seminarium 
ad eundem modum atque oleagineum Jacito Cato. In like man- 
ner alius is construed with ac, atque, and et ; and with an ablative: 
as, Neve putes alium sapiente bonoque beatum Hor. Cicero some- 
times uses idem ut : as, In eadem sunt injustitia ut si in suam rem 
aliena comiertant Off. i. 14-. It is sometimes construed with cum; 
as, In eodem consilio erat cum Besso Curt. But it is improper 
to use cum, when speaking of the same object under different 
names : as, Paulus est idem cum Saulo, since Paul and Saul are 
names of the same person. Sometimes similis and par are con- 
strued like idem, that is, with ac, atque, and et. 

Note 10. Certain adjectives signifying use,Jitness, and the con- 
trary, are construed either with the dative, or the accusative with 
ad : as, Ad nullam rem utilis Cic. Ad civium usus haud inutile 
Cic. But when the object is a person,, the dative only is used : 
thus aptus, opportunus, utilis mihi, not ad me. 

Note 1 1 . Adjectives denoting motion or tendency to a thing, are 
construed with the accusative and ad, rather than with the dative, 
such as celer, tardus t velox,piger, impiger, lentus,prteceps, rapidus t 
segnis, declivis, inclinabuis, proclivis, promts, propensus ; also pa- 
ratus, promptus, profugus : as, Piger ad pcenas princeps, ad mce- 
mia velox Ovid. Ad aliquem morbum proclivior Cic. Ad om- 
nejacinus paratus Cic. Ad lubidinem proclive Ter. In is some- 
times used: as, Celer in pugnam Sil. 

Note 12. Propior and proximus, in imitation of their primitive, 
prope, have either a dative, or an accusative without the preposi- 
tion's being expressed : as, Quodpropius vero est Liv. Proximus. 
hide Virg. Vitium propius mrtutem erat Sail. Proximus Pom- 
peium sedebamC\c. 
N ote 13. The dative, according to grammarians, is not, strictly 


speaking, governed either by nouns, verbs, or any part of speech, 
but is subjoined to a word, when acquisition, advantage, or the 
reverse of these, or when destination in general is denoted. 

RULE XVII. Verbals in bills and dus govern the dative : 

Amandus vel amabilis omnibus, To be beloved by all men. 

Note [. That is, verbals in bills, and future participles passive 
are followed by the dative, which may be resolved into an abla- 
tive governed by a or ab : as, Multis ille bonis Jlebilis occidit ; 
Nullijlebilior, quant tibi, Virgili Hor. Restat Chremes, qui mihi 
exorandus est Ter. 

Note 2. Perfect participles passive are sometimes followed by 
the dative: as, Dilecta sorori Virg. Ego audita tibi put dram 
Cic. It is observed by Alvarez, that this construction is most fre- 
quent with participles which assume the nature of adjectives: such 
as notuSj perspectus> contemptus, probatus, dilectus, &c. This da- 
tive may likewise be resolved into the ablative with a or ab : as, 
Vexati a civibus Cic. A me amatus Quinct. Indeed, passive 
verbs themselves are often construed, especially by the poets, with 
a dative, instead of the ablative of the agent : as, Vix audior ulll 
Ov. for ab ullo. 

Note 3. Johnson refers to this rule not only verbals in bills t but 
other adjectives having a passive signification, such as invius, ob- 
vius, pervius, impervius, &c. : as, Troja obvia Graiis -Virg. Nee 
Cereyi terra indocilis, nee inhospita Baccho Sil. To this rule he 
likewise refers facilis and ulills construed with the dative of a per- 
son : as, Facilis rogantibus Ovid. 

Note 4. Verbals in bills are seldom construed but with the da- 
tive. The following constructions are, however, to be referred to 
the ablative of instrument or cause ; Nullo penetrabile telo Ovid. 
Nullojbrabilis ictu Ovid. Verbals in bills have generally a pas- 
sive signification, only a few instances being found in which they 
signify actively. 

Note 5. Participles in dus are often followed by the ablative 
with a or ab : as, Admonendum a me Cic. 

Note 6. Perfect participles are generally followed, especially 
among prose writers, by an ablative with a preposition : as, Mors 
Crassi est a multis defleta Cic. Proditus a socio est Ovid. In 
such examples as the last, the dative seems altogether inadmis- 
sible. . 

Note 7. The English preposition by is the usual sign of this 

RULE XVIII. Adjectives signifying dimension govern the 
accusative of measure : as, 

Columna sexaginta pedes alta^ A pillar sixty feet high. 


Note 1. Or, adjectives of dimension, such as hngus, latus, eras- 
sus, prqfundus, altus, densus, are generally followed by the accu- 
sative, but sometimes by the ablative or genitive, of the words de- 
noting measure, such as digitus, palmus, pes, cubitus, ulna, passus, 
stadium, milliare : as, Muris ducenos pedes altis, quinquagenos latis 
Plin. Fossam sex cubitis altam Liv. Later a pedum lata tri- 
cenum Plin. Ablative and genitive together; Quidam dupondio 
et quadrants altum sulcum, latum pedum quinquefaciunt Colum. 
The genitive is used in the plural only. 

Note C 2. The excess or the deficiency of measure is put in the 
ablative only l : as, Sesquipede est quam tu longior Plin. Novem 
pedibus minor Plin. Quanta doctior, tanto submissior Cic. Su- 
perant capite Virg. To this note are referred the ablatives tanto, 
quanto, quo, eo, hoc, aliquanto, multo,paulo, nihilo, &c., frequently 
joined to comparatives, and sometimes found with superlatives 
or verbs. 

Note 3. Verbs of dimension, such aspateo,cresco,&c., are con- 
strued like the adjectives : as, Patettres ulnas Virg. But these 
will be noticed hereafter, under the Distance of Place. 

Note 4. The accusative is governed by ad or in understood, 
but sometimes expressed ; the ablative, by a, ab, tenus, or in ; 
the genitive, by ad mensuram or spatium*. 

Note 5. In Latin, as in English, the adjective is sometimes 
changed into the substantive : as, Transtra digiti pollicis crassitu- 
dine Caes. in which the ablative is governed by in understood. 

RULE XIX. The comparative degree governs the abla- 
tive, which is resolved by qudm : as, 

Dulcior melle, Sweeter than honey. 
Prczstantior auro, Better than gold. 

Note 1. That is, when quam after a comparative is omitted, the 
substantive following is put in the ablative : as, Thymo dukior 
Virg. Glaciefrigidior Ovid. i. e. quam thymus, quam glades. It 
is sometimes resolved by ac or atque : as, Amicior mihi nullus vi* 
vit atque is Plaut. 

Note 2. The positive with magis or minus is sometimes followed 
by the ablative : as, O luce magis dilecta sorori Virg. Hoc nemo 
fuit minus ineptus Ter. 

Note 3. When the comparative is followed by quam, the ob- 
jects compared must be put in the same case : as, Ego hominem 
callidiorem vidi neminem quam Phormionem Ter. i. e. vidi. It 

1 The measure of excess is sometimes expressed by tantum, quantum, all- 
quantum. See Rule XIX, Note 9. 

2 This seems an imitation of Greek construction ; thus v^<a; &w$ixa rif- 
%tui %<>u<rtos, statua virilis duodecim cubitorum wurea Herod. The governing 
substantive is sometimes expressed ; as, xar ro piytfof \\ JaxT^Aay, ad magni- 

itudinem sex palmarum Diod. Sic. 


is to be observed, that only the nominative and accusative can 
be repeated after quam with the comparative ; and that if any other 
case precede it, the verb sum with a nominative must be used : as, 
Loquor de viro sapientiore quam tu es. Homini gratiosiori quam 
Cn. Callidius est Cic. It is likewise to be observed, that, when 
the ablative of comparison is nemo, nullus, or the relative qui, it 
is not with propriety resolved by quam. 

Note 4-. In such instances, quam should be used after compa- 
rative adverbs : as, Oderam hunc multo pejus quam Clodium Cic. 

Note 5. Quam is elegantly put between two comparatives : as, 
Triumphus clarior quam gratior Liv. i. e. not so acceptable as 
famous ; or, more famous than acceptable. 

Note. 6. Than before a verb is always expressed by quam : as, 
Nihil turpius est quam mentiri. And quam, between two verbs, 
if the comparative be an adverb, causes them to be put in the 
same tenses : as, Nihil facio libentiui quam ad te scribo ; i. e. than 
to write to you. But, after potiusquam, and sometimes after pri- 
usquam, the verb is put in the subjunctive. 

Note 7. Nihil with a "neuter comparative is sometimes used for 
nemo or nidlus : as, Crasso nihil perfect ius Cic. Nihil illofuisse 
excellentins Nep. i. e. Nobody was. The interrogative quid, 
and quidquam when it is preceded by a negative, are sometimes 
thus used. 

Note 8. The comparative is often followed by opinione, spe, 
tequo, solito, justo, dicto : as, Dicto citius Virg. Solito velocius 
Ovid. These ablatives are often omitted : as, Liberius vivebat 
Nep. i. e. eequo. In such cases the Latin comparative often 
seems equivalent to an English positive preceded by too or rather, 
which is a species of comparison : as, Tristior (solito). Rather 
sad, and, perhaps sometimes, somewhat sad. Severior (ceqtio). 
Too severe, rather severe, somewhat severe. Thus also : Onus 
viribus tuis est majus. Too great for, or greater than. 

Note 9. Several intensive particles, such as tanto, quanta, eo, 
quo, c. and tantum, quantum and aliquantum are added to com- 
paratives : as, Sed quo erant suaviores, eo majorem dolorem ille ca- 
sus ajferebat Cic. Ejusfrater aliquantum ad rem est avidior 
Ter. Sometimes the responsive particle eo or hoc is omitted ; as, 
Quo plures erant, major cades Jitti Liv. 

Note 10. The dative is sometimes used instead of the ablative : 
as, Vir mdla arte cuiquam inferior Sail. Livy uses the ablative, 
even in the presence of another ; Attobroges nulla Gallica gente 
opibus autfama inferiores. But, in general, inferior is construed 
with quam and a nominative or accusative : as, Timotheus belli 
laude non inferior full quam pater Cic. Quern ego intelligam 
prudentia non esse inferiorem quam me Cic. 

Note 11. Magis and plus are sometimes used redundantly with 
the comparative : as, Nihil invcnies magis hoc certo certius' Plaut. 


Note 12. Quam after plus, amplius and minus is elegantly omit- 
ted, in all cases but the dative and vocative: as, Captaplus guin- 
que millia hominum Liv. 

Note 13. Quam pro is sometimes elegantly used after the com- 
parative : as, Pr&lium atrocius quam pro numero pugnantium 
Liv. i. e. The battle was more bloody than could have been ex- 
pected from the number engaged in it. 

Note 14. Comparatives, besides the ablative of comparison, take 
also after them that case which their positives govern ; as, Thymo 
mild dulcior Hyblte Virg. 

Note 15. The ablative of comparison is governed by prce un- 
derstood. It is sometimes expressed : as, Unus pro; cczterisfortior 
exsurgit Apul. Other prepositions, as ante, prceter and supra, 
are used in comparison : thus, Scelere ante alios immanior omnes 

RULE XX. These, adjectives, dignus, indignus^ contentus, 
prceditus, captus, and fretus ; also natus y satus, ortus, editus, 
and the like, require the ablative : as, 

Dignus honore, Worthy of honour. 

Prteditus virtute, Endued with virtue. 

Contentus parvo, Content with little. 

Captus. oculis \ Blind. 

Fretus viribus 2 , Trusting to his strength. 

Ortus rcgibus, Descended of kings. 

Note 1. To dignus, indignus, contentus, prceditus, captus and 
fretus, may be added cams, vilis, and venalis ; all which are fol- 
lowed by an ablative : as, Dignus laude Hor. Conscientia fretus 
Curt. Asse carum Senec. Auro venaliajura Propert. 

Note 2. Participles signifying descent, such as genitus, genera- 
tus, creatus, prognatus, cretus, &c. are followed by an ablative, the 
prepositions e, ex, or de being understood, or sometimes express- 
ed : as, Nate dea Virg. Edite regibus Hor. Ortus exconculina 
Sail. We also find Ccelesti semine oriundi Lucret. Oriundi 
a Syracusis Liv. These adjectives may be followed also by a, 
or ab : as, Prisco natus ab Inacho Hor. 

Note 3. Dignus, indignus, and contentus are sometimes followed 
by the genitive : as, Dignissimum tucevirtutisCic. Indignus avo- 
rum Virg. Angusti clavi contentus Paterc. Dignus and indig- 
nus are often construed with an infinitive : as, Digna vincere 
Ovid. But Dignus est ut, or, qui mncat ; Dignus erat ut y or, qui 

1 Prceditus and captus might be referred to adjectives of plenty and want. 
After dignus, indigmis, captus, a or ab seems to be understood : after con- 
tentus, de or cum ; after fretus, in ; after preeditus, cum ; after cams, vilis and 
venalis, pro. 

* Fretus with a dative is attributed to Livy : Muliitudo nulli rei, praterquam 
numero, freta. \[, 13, Some would read null& re. 


vinceret, are preferable. It is probable that the genitive is go- 
verned by some substantive understood ; and that Dignus laudis 
may be Dignus re laudis, the substantive being governed by a 
preposition likewise understood. 

RULE XXL An adjective of plenty or want governs the 
genitive or ablative : as, 

Plenus irce vel ird, Full of anger. 
Inops rationis, Void of reason. 

To this rule belong adjectives denoting 

1. Plenty ; abundans^ beatus, copiosus, dives, J*erax,fertilis }i fce- 
cundus, foetus, frequens,frugifer, grams, gramdus, immodicus, lar- 
gus, locuples, mactus, nimius, oneratus, onustus, opulentus, plenus, 
re/ertus, satur, tentus, distenlus, tumidus, turgidus, uber ; to which 
add, benignus,Jirmus, instructus, Icstus, liberalis, munificus, para- 
tus, prodigus, prosper, satialus, insatiabilis : as, Res plena timoris 
Ovid. Domus servis est plena superbis Juv. 

2. Want ; egenus, indigus, inops,jejunus, inanis, modicus, pau- 
per, sterilis, tenuis, vacuus : as, Inops consilii Tac. verbis Cic. 

3. Privation ; captus (mentioned in the preceding rule), cassus, 
expers, exsors, dissors, exsul, extorris, immunis, irritus, mutilus, 
nudus, orbus, truncus, mduus. Participation ; consors, particeps, 
and to these may be added affinis and prceditus, which have been 
already noticed elsewhere. Power and inability ; compos, pollens, 
potens, impos, impotens ; add liber, solutus, imparatus, infirmus, 
parcus, purus, many of which have been referred to other rules: 
as, Imm unis delict or um Paterc. vitiis Paterc . Consiliorum parti- 
ceps Curt, ratione Cic. Dum mei potens sum Liv. Potens ar- 
mis Virg. Spei metusque liber Senec. terrore Cic. Some con- 
structions are not frequent ; as, Captus animi Tac. Neque animo 
aut lingua satis compotes Sail. Fama atquefortund expertesSall. 

Note 1. Of these some govern, it appears, 

1. The genitive only ; benignus, exsors, impos, impotens, irritus, 
liberalis, munificus, prcdargus. 

2. The ablative only ; beatus, differtus,frugifer, mutilus, tentus, 
distentus, tumidus, turgidus. 

3. The genitive more frequently; compos, consors, egenus, ex- 
hceres, expers, Jertilis, indigus, parcus, pauper, prodigus, sterilis, 
prosper, insatiatus, insatiabilis. 

4. The ablative more frequently ; abundans, cassus, extorris, 
Jirmus, foetus, frequens, grams, gramdus, jejunus, infirmus, liber, 

Locuples, Icetus, nudus, oneratus, onustus, orbus, pollens, satiatus, 
solutus, tennis, truncus, mduus. 

5 The genitive or ablative indifferently; copiosus, dives, fce- 
cundus,ferax, immunis, inanis, inops, largus, mactus, modicus, im- 
modicus, nimius, opulentus, plenus, potens, purus, refertus, satur, 
vacuus, uber. 

Note 2. Copiosus, Jirmus, paratus, imparatus, inops, instructus, 


ext orris, orbus, pauper t tenuis,Jcecundus, modicus, parcus, i 
inanis, liber, ?iudus, solutus, vacuus, potens, stenlis, have often a 
preposition after them : as, Locus copioms afrnmento Cic. Ab 
equitatufirmus Cic. Ab omni re paratus Cic. Imparatus a pe- 
cunia Cic. Inops ab amicis Cic. Instructus a doctrina Cic. 
Meo sum pauper in cere Hor. Tennis in verbis serendis Hor. 
Parcus in victu, modicus in cultu PI in. Domus liber a conspectu, 
immunis ab arbitris Veil. Inanis a marsupio Prudent. Mes- 
sana ab his rebus vacua atque nuda est Cic. Solutus a CVpiditati- 
bus, liber a delictis Cic. In ajfectibus potentissimus Quinct. Po- 
tens ad efficiendum Quinct. in res bellicas Liv. 1 Cimtas ab 
aquis sterilis Apul. Extorris ab solo patrio Liv. Orba ab opti- 
matibus Cic. 

Note 3. Benignus, prosper, latus, grams, and some others, go- 
vern the dative, by Rule XVI, but in a different sense. Those ad- 
jectives that govern the genitive only have been referred by some 
grammarians to Rule XIV. 

Note 4-. The authorities for different constructions should be 
properly estimated, for some are poetical; as, Liber labor um Hor. 
Vini somnique benignus Hor. Abundans lactis Virg. Tennis 
opum Sil. Others are uncommon : as, Captus animi Tac. and 
some others already mentioned. Expers may be found with the 
ablative, but the genitive is much more common. Pauper and 
egenus do riot appear to be found with the ablative. 

Note 5. Neither the genitive nor theablative is governed, strictly 
speaking, by the adjectives : but the genitives are governed by re 
or negotio understood, and these, as well as the other ablatives, 
by the prepositions in, a, ab, de, or ex : thus Vacuus cur arum may 
be Vacuus recurarum; Vacuus curls is Vacuu sa curis. 



RULE XXII. Sum, when it signifies possession, property, 
or duty, governs the genitive : as, 

Est regis punire rebelles. It belongs to the king to punish 

Insipientis est dicere, \ f It is the property of a fool to 

Nan putdram, J \ say, I had not thought. 
Militum est suo duci\ / It is the duty of soldiers to obey 
parere, J (^ their general. 

1 Potens is construed with the genitive or ablative, but in different senser. 
If we say Potens ircc, we refer to the object j if we sny Potens opibus, we refer 
to ths source or cause of the power. 



Note 1. Thus also, Jam me Pompeii totum esse scis Cic. Ado* 
lescentis est majores natu revereriCic. Bonipastoris est tondere 
pecus Suet. 

Note 2. To this rule may be referred the following, and similar 
expressions: Suadere principi quod oporteat, multilaboris (est) 
Tac. Grates persohere dignas, Non opis est nostrce Virg. Est hoc 
Gallicce consuetudinis Caes. Moris antiqui fuit Plin, In all 
such expressions it is evident that the genitive is governed, not by 
sum, but by such words as officium, munus, opus, negotium, res, 
causa, proprium, understood. Indeed, such words are sometimes 
expressed : as, Principum munus est resistere levitati multitudinis 
Cic. Sometimes the preceding word is to be repeated: as, Hoc 
pecus est (pecus) Melibcei Virg. To the same rule may be re- 
ferred a common elliptical form of writing, according to which the 
participle in dus with its substantive is subjoined to the verb sum; 
as, Quce res evertendce reipublicce solent esse Cic. Regitim impe- 
rium, quod initio conservandce libertatis, et augenda reipubliccejue- 
rat Sail. Quce post quam gloriosa modo, neque belli patrandi cog' 
novit Liv. supply esse. This genitive is found depending upon 
other verbs besides sum. Grammarians differ about the man- 
ner of supplying the'ellipsis in these, some supposing instrumentum 
or adminiculum to be understood ; others, causa, ergo, gratia, or 
ratione, with some such word as constitutus or comparatus. 

RULE XXIII. These nominatives meum, tuum, suum, 
nostrum, vestrum, are excepted : as, 

Tuum est id procurare, It is your duty to manage that. 

Note 1. That is, instead of mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri, the ge- 
nitives of the primitive pronouns, the nominative neuter of the 
possessives is used, agreeing with opus, negotium, officium, or the 

like, understood. Certain possessive adjectives ; as, regius, hu- 

manus, belluinus, sermlis, are often used in like manner : as, Non 
est mentiri meum Ter. Humanum est erroreler. Et agere et 
patijbrtia Romanum est Liv. 

Note 2. If sum be in the infinitive mood, the possessives must 

be put in a different case ; and if a substantive be expressed, they 

must agree with it in gender : as, Puto esse meum Cic. Hce par- 

tesfuerunt tuce Cic. equivalent to Tuumfuit, or Tuarum partium 


Note 3. It is evident that this cannot be deemed a distinct rule. 
It is the same as Rule III, an infinitive, a part of a sentence, or 
some neuter noun understood, being as one of the nominatives, 
and requiring the adjective following the verb to be in the neuter 
gender, to which some neuter noun may be supposed understood. 

RULE XXIV. Misereor, miseresco and satago, govern die 
genitive: as, 

Miserere civium tuorum, Take pity on your countrymen. 
Satagit rerun syctrum, He is busy with his own affairs. 


Note 1. Thus also Miserere mci Ovid. Et generis miseresce 
tui Stat. Irarum et molestiarum muliebrium satagebat Cell. 

Note2. Misereor and mLseresco may be found with a dative, 
among writers of inferior authority. Miseror governs the accu- 

Note 3. The genitive does not appear to be governed by the 
verb.- Some consider such constructions as Grcecisms ; others 
think that the genitive is governed by negotio, re, causa, or the 
like, understood, with the prepositions in, de, or a. 

Note 4. Many other verbs denoting some affection of the mind 

are followed by a genitive : as, ango, decipior, desipio, discrudor, 

fallo,fallor,fastidiOj invideo, Itetor, miror, pendeo , studeo , vereor: 

thus, Absurdefads qui angas te animi Plaut. Discrudor animi 

Ter. FaUebar sermonis Plaut. L&tor malorum Virg. 

Note 5. Many others are found with the genitive, in imitation, 
of Greek construction : as, abstineo, desino, desisto, quiesco, remo ; 
also, adip&scor, condico, credo, frustror^ Juro, laudo, libero, levo, 
participo t prohibeo : thus, Abstineto irarum Hor. Desine quere- 
larum Hor. Tempus desistere pugnce Virg. Daunus agrestium 
regnavit populorum Hor. Dominationis adipisceretur Tac. Le~ 
vas me Isborum Plaut. &c. The ellipsis in these constructions, 
and in those contained in the preceding note, is variously supplied : 
thus, Discrudor animi, sc. dolor e. Regnavit populorum y sc. in cos- 
tu. Levas laborum, sc. onere, &c. 

Note G. The verbs contained in Note 4- are more commonly 
construed thus ; angor % desipio, discrudor,fallw, animo. Angi de 
aliqi&o, Angere aliquem, ana Fallit me animus, are used by Cicero. 
Hoc animum excruciat, Fastidio, miror, vereor, aliquem vel ali~ 
quid. Lceior aliqua re. Cicero uses Lcetor in re aliqua, de hoc 
re, and Lector utrumque. Invideo alicui laudes, vel laudibus all- 
cujus. Pendeo animi vel animo ; but Pendemus animis, not ani- 
morum. Studeo alicui, vel aliquid. Likewise, In id solum student 
* Quinct. 

Note 7. The examples contained in Note 5 are chiefly poetical. 
It is much better to say Abstineo rnaledictis oramaledictis. Desino 
aliquid or ab aliquo. Desisto incepto, de negotio, ab ilia mente. 
Regnare omnibus oppidis Cic. in being understood. Adipisci ali- 
quid. Levare aliquem sollidtudine, or alicujus sollidtudinem, &c. 

RULE XXV. Est taken for habco (to have) takes the da- 
tive of a person : as, 

Est mi hi liber, I have a book. 

Sunt mihi libri, I have books. 

Note 1. Thus also, Est mihi pater Virg. Sunt nobis mitia 
poma Virg. i. e. Ego habeo patrem : Nos habemus mitia poma, 
the English accusative becoming in Latin the nominative to the 


third person singular or plural of sum, or the accusative before its 
infinitive ; and the English nominative being turned into a dative. 
Note 2. To this rule may be added suppetit, suppeditat used in 
a neuter sense, andforet; and the verbs of a contrary significa- 
tion, deest, deforet, and defit, used for careo or non hqbeo : as, Pau- 
per enim non est, cui rerum suppetit usus Hor. Publio neque ani- 
mus in periculis, neque oratio suppeditavit Tac. But in this ex- 
ample perhaps a reciprocal pronoun is understood ; for suppedito, 
as an active verb, governs the accusative, and as a verb of giving, 
the dative likewise 1 . Si mihi cauda foret Mart. Defuit ars vobis 
Ovid. Non defore Arsacidis virtutem Tac. Lac mihi non defit 

Note 5. The dative is often understood: as, Sit spes JaUendi, 
miscebis sacra projanis Hor., i. e. tibi. 

RULE XXVI. Sum used for affero (to bring) takes two 

datives, the one of a person, and the other of a thing-: as, 

Est mihi voluptati* It is (or it brings) a pleasure to me. 

Note 1. Or, Sum taken for affero, (into which, however, it can- 
not always be resolved, when followed by two datives, )forem, do, 
duco, habeo, tribuo, relinquo, verto, to which may be added appono, 
assigno, cedo, comparo,pateo, suppedito, venio, eo, curro, projiciscor, 
are found with two datives, the one generally of a person, or of 
something personified, and the other of a thing : as, Fit is arbori- 
bus decori est Virg. Sibi enim fore ccetera curae Ovid. Matri 
puellam dono deditTer. Tu nunc tibi id lavdi duds Ter. Utrum 
studione id sibi habeat, an laudi putatfore Ter. Quod illi tribueba- 
tur ignaviceCic. Ea relicta est huic arrhaboni Ter. H 'oc verto 

tibi vitio Plant. Postulare id gratice apponi sibi Ter. Sub- 

sidio mihi diligentiam comparavi Cic. Pateant Carthaginis arces 
Hospitio TeucrisVirg. Si illi per go suppeditare sumptibus Ter. 
Maturavit colleges venire auxilioLiv. Also, Venire, ire, currere t 
prqficisci subsidio alicui Cic. To these are added by the au- 
thor of the Port Royal Grammar pttto, and, by other grammarians, 
mitto. But Ruddiman observes thut puto is never followed by two 
datives, unless when esse or fore is expressed or understood, which 
of course is considered as the governing word. It further appears 
to me, that the two datives which follow several of the above-men, 
tioned verbs may. perhaps be governed by sum understood, and 
that, e. g. Numidas subsidio oppidanis mittit Cses. may be, Nu- 
midas (ut sint, or qui sint} subsidio .oppidanis mittit. But this is a 
conjecture. The following example, in which, by a Greek form 
of much elegance, the participle volenti is used instead of the sub- 
stantive voluptati, may seem to sanction the opinion that puto is 
followed by two datives : Neque plebi militia volenti putabatur 

1 It likewise governs two datives, as will be noticed in the next rule. 
, tt It has been conjectured, that tin's Dative is an old form of the ablative, 
governed by />/<:> understood, or expressing cause cr instrument. 


Sail. But here the infinitive of turn is understood. To this 

rule may perhaps be referred the elegant phrase, Esse audientem 
dicto alicui. Si proton dicto non audiens esset Liv. 

Note2. The English of those passages, in which this Rule takes 
place, would naturally refer them to Rule III, or X, and, indeed, 
they may be so rendered : as, Ipse caierisfuisset exemplum Curt. 
Amor exit ium est pecori Virg. in which the substantive following 
the verb, and expressing the thing, is put in the same case with 
the word going before, the dative of the person being under the 
government of the noun or verb immediately preceding. But, as 
the latter nominative is followed by a noun having in English the 
sign of the Latin dative, both the nouns following the verb are ele- 
gantly put in the dative : as, Hie multisfuit exemplo Curt. Thus 
also, JEthiopicis laus datur Plin. and, elegantly, Metello laudi da- 
tum est Cic. Sometimes both the nouns significant of one and 
the same subject follow the verb : as, He sends up the cohorts to 
assist (as an assistance to) the cavalry, Submittit cohortes equitibus 
subsidioC&s. in which cohortes and subsidio refer to the same 
thing. Thus likewise Dare dono and donum ; Relinquere regnum 
prtfdce and prcedam. Other forms are sometimes used : as, Ad 
laudem vertere. In crimen vertere. In gloria ducere, &c. 

Note 3. To this rule are sometimes referred such forms of 
naming as the following, in which the nominative, the genitive, 
and dative are used ' ; Nominative, Mihi nomen est Sosia Plaut. 
Fons, cui nomen Arethusa est Cic. Genitive, Nomen Mercurii 
est mihi Plaut. Dative, Nomen Arcluro est mihi Plaut. Asca- 
nius, cui nunc cognomen lulo additur Virg. The following ex- 
pressions may likewise be added: Esse cordi, usui, derisui. prad<r t 
ludibrio, sc. alicui. Habere cura, qiuestui, sc sibi. Canere rer,eptui, 
sc. militibus. Indeed, the dative of the person is frequently omitted: 
thus also, Exemplo est magni formica laboris Hor. i. e. nobis or 
omnibus. Reliquit pignori putamina Plaut. i. e. mihi. 

RULE XXVII. A verb signifying advantage or disad- 
vantage requires the dative : as, 

Fortunajavetfortibus, Fortune favours the brave. 
Nemini noccas. Do hurt to no one. 

Note 1. Or, most verbs used acquisitively, of which, in English, 
the usual signs, either expressed or understood, are to and for, 
are followed by the dative : as, Tibi aras, tibi occas, tibi seris> tibi 
eidem et metis Plaut. Mihi quidem Scipio vivit, vivetque semper 
Cic. This is a rule of very great extent ; but, in a mere par- 
ticular manner, are referred to it, verbs signifying, 

1. To profit or hurt; as prnjicio,placeo, commodo, prospicio, ca- 
veo, metuo, timeo, consulo, (to provide for or against); also, noceo, 

1 The genitive is seldom used ; the dative is esteemed the most elegant ; 
thus also P. Scipio, rui posted Africaiui cognomen fwt Sail. No example be- 
longs to the rule, iu which there are not two datives, 


qfficio, incommode, displiceo, insidior: thus, Neve tnihi noceat, quod 
vobis semper, Achivi, Profuit ingenium~-O\ld. 

2. To favour or help, and the contrary; a$Javeo,gratulor, gra- 
t if cor, grator, ignosco, indulgeo,parco, studeo, adulor, plaudo, blan- 
dior, lenocinor, palpor, assentor, supplico, subparasitor ; also, aux- 
ilior, adminiculor, subvenio, succurro, patrocinor, medeor, medicor, 
opitulor; also, derogo, detraho, invideo, cemulor-, thus, Favete inno- 
centia Cic. Succurrere communi saluti Cic. 

3. To command, obey, serve, and resist ; as impero, prcecipio, 
mando, moderor (to restrain); also, pareo, ausculto, obedio, obse- 
quor, obtempero, morigeror, obsecundo ; &\o,Jamulor, servio, inser- 
vio, ministro, ancillor; and repugno, obsto, reluctor, renitor, resisto, 
refragor, adversor t and, poetically, pvgno, certo. bello, contendo, 
concurrO) luctor ; thus, Imperare animo nequivi, quin Liv. Pug- 
nabis amori? Virg. 

4. To threaten, or be angry with; as minor, comminor, inter' 
minor, iroscor, succenseo ; thus Mihi minabatur Cic. 

5. To trust ; asjido, conjido, credo ; also diffido, despero : thus, 
Ulli reijidere Liv. Despemre saluti Cic. 

6. A great number of other verbs that are not easily reduced 
to distinct classes; such as nubo, excetto, hcereo, supplico, cedo 1 , 
operor, prcestolor, prtevaricor, recipio (to promise), pepigi (I have 
promised ) , renuncio ( to give over) , respondeo ( to satisfy ) , tempero 
(to abstain), vaco (to study, or attend to), convicior, &c. 

7. The compounds of sum, except possum : as, Nee sibi, nee 
alteri prosunt Cic. Vir abest miki Ovid. 

8. Verbs compounded with satis, bene t male: as, Pulchrumest 
benefacere reipublicce Sail. 

9. Many verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, in, inter, ob, 
prce, sub, super. 

Ad ; as acctdo, accresco, accumbo, acquiesco, adno, adnato, ad- 
equito, adhcereo, adsto, adstipulor, advolvor, nffulgeo, allabor, an- 
nuo, appareo, applaudo, appropinquo, arrideo, aspiro, assentior, 
assideo, assisto, assuesco, assurgo : thus, Annue cceptis Virg. 

Ante ; as anteceUo, anteeo, antesto, anteverto : thus, AnteceUere 
omnibus Cic. 

Con ; as colludo, concino, consono, convivo : thus, Paribus coUu- 
dere Hor. 

In ; as incumbo, indormio, inhio, ingemisco, inhareo, innascor, 
innitor, imideo, insto, insuto, insudo, imulto, invigilo, illacrymo, 
illudo, immineo, immorior, immoror, impendeo ; thus, Imminet his 
aer Ovid. 

1 Cedo put for locum dare governs the dative. When an accusative is joined 
to it, as in Cedere locum alicui, Perizonius is of opinion, that this accusative is 
governed by quod ad understood, since cedo is a neuter verb. Its usual con- 
struction is with the ablative : as, Postquam Tusculand villa creditoribus cesserat 
Suet. 111. Gramm. Cedere seilli regno profitetnr Justin. Nisi sibi horlorum 
possessione cessisset Cic. The preposition de, which in these instances is un- 
derstood, is expressed in others : as, Cedo de republics, de fortund, de dignitate 
Cic. We also find, Cedere ab oppido, ex civitate, &c t 


Inter; as intervenio, intermico, intercede, intercido, inlerjaceo ; 
thug, Nox pr&lio intervenitLiv. 

Ob ; as obrepo, obluctor, obtrecto, obstrepo, obmurmuro, occum- 
to, occurro, occurso, obsto, obsisto, obvenio : thus, Occumbere morti 

Prae; as pracedo, prcecurro, praeo, pr&sideo, prceluceo, prceni- 
teo, prcesto, prcevaleo, prcevertor : thus, Majoribus prceluxi Cic. 

Sub ; as succedo, succumbo, stifficio, sujfragor, subcresco, suboleo, 
subjaceo, subrepo : thus, Miseris succurrere Virg. 

Super; as supervenio, supercurro, supersto: thus, Timidis super- 
venit Virg. But most verbs compounded with super govern the 
accusative, through the preposition: as, Deas supereminet omnes 
Virg. Supervenio also governs the accusative, but in a sense 
somewhat different from that in the preceding example : as, Crura 
loquentis Terra supervenit Ovid. In the former example, it seems 
to denote she comes to the assistance of: in the latter, the earth 
simply came over. Supcrsedeo is sometimes joined with the dative : 
as, Adversaries pitgnce supersedere animadvertit Hirt. B. Afr. but 
oftener the ablative : as, Supersedeas hoc labore Cic. In these 
instances its meaning seems to be to omit or leave off-, it is found 
also with an accusative, in its literal acceptation of sitting upon, 
but even in this sense, the dative, or perhaps rather the ablative, 
is more common. 

A few verbs might be added, compounded of ab, de, ex, circum, 
contra , but these generally take the case of the preposition. 


Jubeo, offendo, laedo, juvo, delecto, guberno, govern the accusa- 
tive : as, Dextraque silentia jussit Lucan. But the accusative 
following jubeo is generally supposed to depend upon some infini- 
tive understood, such as facere, Jieri, esse or dari. It is gene- 
rally found with the accusative and the infinitive ; sometimes with 
a dative and the infinitive; and seldom with an accusative and da- 
tive together: thus, Fuscum salvere julemus Hor. Hcc mihi liter & 
Dolabeilce jubtnt ad pristinas cogitationes reverti Cic. Pacem 
jubebo omnibus Stat. But, as this verb is used in the passive 
voice, not merely impersonally, but after the manner of active 
verbs, whose accusatives then become nominatives, it may be ob- 
served, that its proper and regular government in the active, is the 
accusative. Impero, a verb of like signification with juleo t is 
followed by an accusative of the thing demanded : as, Imperare 
tributum, pccuniam, arma, equites, which some grammarians, con- 
ceiving impero to be neuter, consider as dependent upon dari, prce- 
leri, or the like, understood. By others, however, it is regarded 
as active, governing of itself the accusative, and having a regular 
passive voice, the accusative becoming the nominative to the verb: 
as, Imperaturei pudicitia Just. Imperatce pecunice Caes. Naves 
imperatae sunt Curt. Obsidibus imperalis. COBS. Illi se, qua? im- 
perarentur, facere dixerunt Caes, Indeed, it appears that it once 


admitted an accusative, of the person commanded, as we find Ego 
imperor Hor. Epist. 1, 5, 21, instead of mi hi imperatur. In re- 
gard to the construction of this verb, 1 am decidedly of opinion, 
that there is no ellipsis, but that it is followed by the dative of the 
person commanded, and governs the accusative of whatever is 
commanded or demanded, which last case becomes the nominative 
to the passive voice: thus, Equites imperare civitaiibus Caes. Nup~ 
tias imperare alicui Quinct. Suis, ut idemfaciant, imperat Caes. 
in which the words ut idemfaciant supply the place of the accusa- 
tive of the thing commanded. Malo imperari quam eripi mortem 
mihi Senec. In such expressions as Equitatum procedere imperat 
Ca?s. equitatum expresses neither the persons commanded, nor 
the command itself, but the words equitatum procedere, taken to- 
gether, stand for an accusative expressing the thing commanded. 
Ego imperor for mihi imperatur is entirely poetical. The govern- 
ment of the other five has never been a subject of doubt : thus, 
Cur ami cum offendam in nugis Hor. Also, OJfendere aliquem, or 
aliauia, for to find; in re aliqud, for to transgress. Injuste neni- 
nem Iccsit Cic. Juvit facundia causam Ovid. Lilris me delecto 
Cic. Omnia gubernes Cic. 

Note 2. The greater part of the verbs hitherto mentioned as 
governing the dative are neuter. Many active verbs govern a da- 
tive with the accusative, as will be hereafter noticed. It is likewise 
to be observed that the greater part of the verbs compounded 
with ad, ante, con, &c. do not govern the dative : such as acco/o, 
antegredior, ineo, invado y inlercurso, oppugno, obsideo, postvenio, 
prcevenio, subsilio, supernaio, &c. ; and, that, besides those which 
have been mentioned, there are many, signifying profit, assist- 
ance, favour, and the contrary, which are construed with the ac- 
cusative, or otherwise ; such as levo, erigo, alo, nutrio, amo, diligo, 
vexo, crucio, aversor, &c. , 

Note 3. Many of the verbs which have been enumerated as be- 
longing to this rule, are found differently construed, while their 
signification remains the same; and many vary their meaning; of 
both which, lists will be given at the end of the Syntax. 

Note 4. To this rule are referred many verbs which, among the 
poets chiefly, are construed with a dative, after the manner of the 
Greeks, but which are commonly found with the ablative and a 
preposition, according to Latin construction ; as verbs of 

1. Contending; contendo t cento, lello, luctor, pugno alicui for 
cum aliquo. Solus till ctrtet Amyntas Virg. We also find Con- 
tendere contra or adversus aliquem Cic. Ccr tare inter se Cic. 
Pugnare contra or adversus Quinct. Plin. inter se Curt, in aii- 
quem Liv. 

2. Differing ; as distare, dissentire, discrepare, dissidere, differ re 
rei alicui, for a re aliquot. Paulum sepultce distat inertias Celata 
virtus Hor. We also find distant, dissentiunt, discrepant, dissi- 
dent, diffirunt JDistare meta .Ovid, Dissentire, dis- 


sidert cum aliquo Cic. Differt inter opiidonem meam ei luam 

3. Coming together, and mixing; as coeo, concurro, concnmlo, 
ml ceo: thus, Placidis cocant immitia Hor. Concurrere hosti 
Ovid. Conculuisse dece Propert. Mista Deo mulier Virg. in- 
stead of cum placidis, cum hoste, &c. We also find Coire, concur- 
rere, inter se Virg. and Liv. Mhcere vinum aquce, or cum aqud, 
or uqud, &c. 

4. Keeping or driving away ; as Arcelis gravido pecori Virg. 
Solstitium pecori defendite Virg. But these belong to verbs of 
taking away, which govern two cases, and will be hereafter no- 

5. Passive verbs : as Non inteUigor ulli Ovid, for al ullo. Ne- 
que cernitur ulli Virg. 

Nott 5. Verbs of calling, or exhorting ; as voco, hortor, invito, 
provoco, lacesso, anijno, stimulo, with specto, pertineo, attineo, con- 
formo, and some other verbs denoting tendency to motion, are 
followed by an accusative with ud : thus, Eurum ad se vocal Virg. 
Ad. ccenam hominem invitavit Cic. Ad arm a res spectant Cic. 
Provocdsse ud pugnam Cic. Me conjormo ad ejus volunlatem 
Cic. &c. 

Note 6. Verbs of local motion ; as eo, vado, curro, propero,fes- 
tino, pergo } fugioj also porto, fero, lego, -as, prcecipito, toilo, traho, 
cfwco, verto, &c. and incito, tuscito, tendo, vergo, inclino, and the 
like, are followed by an accusative with ad or in: as, In jus nun- 
quamiit Nep. Vergimurin senium Stat. Fergit ad sepiemlriones 
Caes.- But the poets sometimes use a dative : as, It clamor 
ccelo Virg. Jnferret deos Latio Virg. The verb propinquo is 
generally construed with the dative : as, Propinquare castris, Jbri- 
l:us, scopulo Virg. campis, littori, &c. Tacit. Sallust writes 
Propinquare amnem ; in which, ad may perhaps be understood. 
It is found however with an accusative, but in an active sense: as 
Tu rite propinques avgurium Virg. Mortem licet anna propin- 
quent Sil. 

Note 7. Verbs compounded with ad are variously construed. 
Some generally govern the dative only ; as assideo, assurgo, ad- 

versor, alicui. Plautus uses Adversariadversus sententiam Some 

generally have an accusative with od or in - } as accio, accurro, ad- 

hortor, advoco, allicio, alligo, attrahu, &c. Some have either 

construction ; as accedo, accido, adhceresco, adrepo, uffluo : also ac- 
cingo, accommodo, addo, odfero, adhibeo. adjicio, vffigo, alfido, oppono, 
adnato, adsto, advigilo, alludo, aspiro, &c. several of which, being 
active verbs, have an accusative with a dative, as will be hereafter 
noticed Some, the accusative, without the preposition's being 
repeated; as advehor, affor, alloc/uor, alluo, attono Some, the 
accusative with or without a preposition ; as, adeo, advetio, adven- 
to, aggredior, ascendo, aspicio Some, the dative, or the accusa- 
tive without a preposition ; as adcquito, adjacco, adno, adstrepo, 


adsulto Some, the dative, or the accusative with or without a 
preposition; as Advolvi gen ibus, genua, ad genua. Thus also ao 
cedo, advenio, advolo, allauor, appropinquo, for which see the lists. 

Note 8. The verb occurro, signifying to come together, or run, 
is frequently followed by ad : as, Ad consilium occurrere Liv. 
but it is generally followed by the dative : and it has been ob- 
served, that, when it signifies to meet, it is not used in the first 
person singular, but that the English objective case is turned, in 
Latin, into the nominative, and the nominative into the dative : 
as, Meus pater mihi occurritl I met my father. 

Note 9. Even verbs governing two cases have a dative, by this 
rule : as, Accuso teilli, as well as apud ilium, or coram illo, magni 
sceleris, or de magno scelere. 

Note 10. When the passive form of an English verb is to be 
expressed by a Latin neuter, or deponent, the phrase must be 
varied : thus, I was favoured by fortune, Fortuna mihi favelat. 
A master ought to be loved and respected by his scholars, Dis- 
cipuli debent amare et revereri prceceptorem. Thus also, the neu- 
ter may be used in the passive voice, but impersonally ; as I am 
favoured, Mihifavetur. 

RULE XXVIII. A verb signifying actively 1 governs the 
accusative: as, 

Ama Deum, Love God. 

Reverere parentes, Reverence your parents. 

Note 1. That is, verbs transitive, whether they be active, de- 
ponent, or common, govern an accusative of the object to which 
their energy passes : as, Animum rege Hor. Agrum depopulates 
est Liv. Imprimis venerare Deos Virg. 

Note 2. Sometimes there is an ellipsis of the governing verb : 
as, Quid multa? Cic. i. e. dicam or loquar. 

Note 3. The accusative is frequently understood : as, Solus 
Sannio servat domi Ter. i. e. res qiue sunt domi t or res domesticas. 

That all verbs whose signification is active and extends to an object, do not 
govern the accusative, may be seen by a slight examination of the preceding 
rule. There is the same kind of action and of communication of action in noceo 
as in laedo ; and yet we say Noceo tibi, and Lcedo te. We may also say Tu 
laderis, in which the pronoun following the active voice, becomes the nomina- 
tive ; but we cannot say Tu nocms, (but nocetur tibi,} because noceo, though a 
verb of an active signification, is considered in regard to government as neuter. 
I am aware, that, in the dictionaries, noceo is denominated active, in reference 
both to its signification and government ; and that there are a few instances in 
which it seems to be used passively ; but, its true syntactical character is neuter, 
and, as such, it cannot be used passively, but in the third person singular, and 
that impersonally, the object of its active signification still remaining in the 
dative, instead of becoming a nominative, as happens after the passive tenses 
of active transitive verbs. It is needless to observe, that such active intransi- 
tive verbs as eo, venio, curro, &c. signify actively ; but, that, as their action is 
limited to the subject or agent, they are necessarily precluded from governing 
an accusative. 


Cumfadam vituld* Virg. i. e. sacra.. Nox pr&cipitat Virg* i.e. 
se. Eolavatum Hor. i. e. me. The accusative of the pronoun 
is frequently understood to many verbs, which, on this account, 
have been named absolute, or have been, without sufficient rea- 
son, considered as intransitive ; such as abstineo, celero, dedino, 
and many others, which will be noticed, at the end of Syntax, 
after the list of verbs construed actively andneuterly . 

Note 4. The infinitive, or a sentence, sometimes supplies the 
place of the accusative : as, Reddes dulce loqui Hor. i. e. dulcem 
sermonem. Fed e servo libcrtus ut esses mihi Ter. i. e. te liber- 
turn. Vereor ne a doctis reprehendar Cic. i. e. doctorum repre- 

Note 5. Some active verbs are variously construed : as, Colerc, 
incolere, habitare locum, and in loco ; Confiteri crimen, and de cri- 
mine Cic. Intueri aliquem, and in aliquem Cic. Respicere, spec- 
tare , visere, revisere aliquem, and ad aliquem. Declmare locum, 
and a loco. In some of these constructions, the active verb either 
imitates the nature of the neuter verb, or has se, or some similar 
word, understood to it. 


Note 6. Neuter verbs admit after them an accusative of their 
own or a kindred signification : as, Vitam vivere Plaut. Fu- 
rerejurorem Virg. Noxam nocuerunt Liv. Servitutem serviat 
Plaut. This phraseology seeqps of Greek origin, for the last ex- 
ample is equivalent to the Greek foXe&fy flsAe/av. It is also com- 
mon in English : as, to live a life. Thus also, Ire viam Virg. 
Somnum humanum quievi Apul. When taken in a metaphorical 
or active sense, they have sometimes an accusative : as, Corydon 
ardebat Alexin Virg. i. e. ardenter vel vehementer amabat. Nee 
vox hominem sonat Virg. i. e. nor does the voice bespeak or show 
the person to be the man. Thus also ; Olet hircum Hor, Abo- 
lere maculam Justin. Morientem nomine clamat Virg. Omnes 
una manet nox Hor. i. e. awaits. 

Note 7. Instead of the foregoing accusatives, an ablative is fre- 
quently subjoined : as, Ire nostris ilineribus Cic. Morte obiit 
repentina. Ludere alea Hor. These are governed by a prepo- 
sition understood. 

Note 8. The poets use the neuter gender of adjectives, cither 

1 The accusative after certain active verbs, generally when they are used in 
some figurative sense, is governed, not by the verb, but by some preposition 
understood, the accusative which is the real object of the verb, being under- 
stood ; thus Ferire, icerc, percutere fasdus, is put for Ferire, iccre, $c. porcum 
ad sanciendum fcedus. Conserere pr&lium, for Conserere manum ad prcelium 
faciendum. Plangere funera, damna, for Plangere lacertos or pcctus ad funera, 
ad damna. In English, too, we say, To strike a bargain ; but there is little 
doubt, that, here, the bargain is not the real object of the action contained in 
the verb strike, but that this is, in some way, or from some custom, an indica- 
tion of a bargain's being agreed upon. 


singular or plural, adverbially or instead of adverbs : as, 
repente clamatVirg. for torve. Et pede terrain Crebra Jerit 
Virg. for crebrb. This use of the neuter gender after neuter 
verbs or their participles is almost peculiar to the poets ; but Ta- 
citus writes, Tiberius torvus aut falsum renidens vultu Ann. iv. 
60. 3. The following from Horace is quoted as an instance of a 
neuter gender used adverbially after the participle of a verb hav- 
ing an active signification ; Lalagen amabo dulce loquentem ; i. e. 
sweetly ; in which, however, dulce, having some substantive un- 
derstood to it, may, perhaps, be governed by loquentem ; but 
this renders the meaning somewhat different from what it is if 
dulce be considered as used for dulciter, and as qualifying the 

Note 9. The accusatives hoc, id, quid, aliquid, quicquid, nihil y 
idem, illud, tantum, quantum, multa, pauca, alia, ccetera, omnia, 
are often subjoined to neuter verbs, circa, ob, propter, orsecundum 
(or Kara,) being understood : as, Num id lacrumat virgo ? Ter. 
Scto quid erres Plaut. Quicquid delirant reges, plectuntur Achi- 
oi Hor. Illud cave dubites Cic. Other accusatives may be found 
after such verbs as abnuo tt fastidio, horreo, ardeo, caleo, tepeo, la- 
tro, sibilo,palleo,paveo,tremo, trepido,pereo, depereo, doleo,gemo, 
fao,ploro, lacrymo, ambulo, curro, eo, procedo, vado, venio,juro, 
vigilo, dormio, nato, navigo, equito, &c, but they are governed by 
some preposition understood. Such constructions as the follow- 
ing are to be referred to the licentia poetica, or to an imitation of 
it : Via ambulatur, nai-igatur mar?, Bellum hoc tibi militabitur 
Hor. Pugna pugnata Cic. Dormitur hyems Mart. Vivitur 
cetas 1 Ovid. &c. 

Note 10. Certain verbs, which in their simple form are intransi- 
tive, govern an accusative, through the preposition with which 
they are compounded : as, Adeopatrem ; Villain prater eo Ter. 
Flumen prceterfluit muros *Liv. Evaditque celer ripam irremeabi- 
lis undce Virg. Excedere modum. It is true that e and ex go- 
vern the ablative ; but it is supposed that they are put for extra : 
as prce, which also governs the ablative, is for prceter, in Volucrem 
fuga prcevertitur HebrumVirg. Vado likewise, when compound- 
ed with in, becomes transitive : as, Vitam hominum invasisse 
Cic. Cicero has also repeated the preposition : as, In mult as pe- 

cunias invasit. Various verbs of motion are influenced in like 

manner 2 . In all the preceding remarks concerning the accu- 
sative, it is a fundamental rule, that every accusative must be go^ 
verned by a transitive verb, or a verb used transitively, or by a 
preposition, if not expressed, at least, understood. The same 
remark is applicable to adjectives, or participles, in regard to an 

1 In Sed maximam partem lacte atque pecore vivuntCses. there is evidently 
an ellipsis of quod ad, or *a-ra. 

tt A similar thing occurs in English ; as go, intransitive j undergo, transitive j 
eome, intransitive j overcome, transitive, &c. 


ellipsis of a preposition in such constructions as Crinem soluta- 
Virg. i. e. secundum. Humeros amictus Hor. i. e. circa. 

RULE XXIX. Recorder, memini^ reminiscor, and oblivis- 
cor, govern the accusative or genitive : as, 

Recorder lectionem vel lectionis, I remember the lesson. 
Obliviscor injuriam vel infurus 9 I forget an injury. 

Note 1. That is, the above-mentioned verbs, denoting remem- 
brance andforgetfulness, are followed by a genitive or an accusa- 
tive: as, Meminisse labor urn Virg. Numeros memini Virg. Me- 
mineram Pauttum Cic. Although it be evident by the last quo- 
tation, that memini may govern the accusative of the person, 
contrary to the opinion of Vossius, who, in his smaller grammar, 
asserts, that we can say only Memini Ciceronis, not Ciceroncm ; 
yet it is better to say Memento mei, nostri, than me, nos ; and 
also Oblitus ne sis nostri, than nos. Obl'misci injtirias Cic. Est 
proprium stultitice aliorum vitia cernere, oblivisci suorum-Clc. c. 

Note 2. Memini, when it signifies to make mention, is followed 
by a genitive, or de : as, Neque omnino hujus rei usquam meminit 
poeta Quinct. Achillas, cuj us supra meminimus Cses. De qui- 

bits multi meminerunt Quinct. Recorder, when it signifies to 

.make mention, is, perhaps, construed with an accusative only : as, 
Externa libentias in tali re, quam domestica recordor Cic. 

Note 3. Recordor and memini, denoting memoria teneo (I re- 
member), are sometimes construed with de : as, Tu si meliore 
.memoria cs, velim scire ecquid de te recordereCic. De Planco 
memini -'Cic. 

Note 4. The phrase Venit mild in mentem, denoting remember- 
ing, is variously construed : as, Venit miki in mentem htzc res, 
hujus rei, de hac re. Mihi veniebat in mentem ejus incommodum 
Ter. Mihi solet venire in mentem illius te.*>poris Cic. In mentem 
venit de speculo Plaut. 

Note 5. All these may be construed with the infinitive or a 
part of the sentence, instead of the respective cases : as, Virgi- 
ncm memini videre Ter. Memini Antiochum sententia destitisse 
Cic. Nee venit in mentem quorum consederis arms Virg. Or with 
an ablative with or without a preposition : as, Si cum animis ves- 
tris recordari C. Staleni vitam et naturam volucritis Cic. Facile 
memoria memini Plaut. 

Note 6. The nature of this construction is variously explained 
by grammarians. Some contend, that, when recordor, memini, 
and rerniniscor are followed by a genitive, this is governed by me- 
moriam or recordationem understood ; and that to Venit in men- 
tern, memoria or recordatio is understood. Others contend that 
quod ad negotium, or in negotio, is understood to all. In regard 
to the accusative, they say, that, as these verbs are neuter, ( Pe- 
rizonius is inclined to let memini pass as active, in certain exprcs- 


felons,) this case must be governed by ad, quod ad, xara under- 
stood. It has been doubted by some, whether the correspond- 
ing English verbs, / forget, I remember, with many others de- 
noting mental operations, as / hear, I see, I feel, 1 understand, be 
active transitive verbs or not. This may be more a metaphysi- 
cal than a grammatical question. That these verbs admit an ac- 
cusative after them in Latin, English, and in other languages, is 
well ascertained ; and, therefore, although in all of these ope- 
rations the mind may not be active, but passive, and it may be 
difficult to point out what passes from the agent to the object j 
yet, in a grammatical point of view, there can be little impro- 
priety in considering them as active transitive, and in asserting 
that the accusative following them is governed by them. In 
speaking of such English verbs, it is observed by Dr. Crombie, 
(Etymol. and Synt. of the Eng. Lang. 2d Ed. p. 118,) that, if 
the point in question be metaphysically considered, it would be 
easy to demonstrate, that, though in sensation the mind be pas- 
sive, in perception it is active. 


RULE XXX. Verbs of accusing, condemning, and ac- 
quitting, with the accusative of the person govern also the 
genitive of the crime : as, 

Arguit mefurti) He accuses me of theft. 

Meipsum inertia condemno., I condemn myself of lazi- 

Ilium homicidii absolvunt. They acquit him of man- 

Note 1 . These verb", govern the accusative, according to Rule 
XXVIII, and are followed by a genitive of the crime or punish- 
ment. The former has been named their Direct Regimen ; the 
latter, their Indirect. 

To the rule belong verbs of 

Accusing ; accuso, ago, appello, arcesso, anquiro, arguo, coar- 
guo, capto, increpo, increpito, urgeo, incuso, insimulo, interrogo, 
postulo, alligo, astringo, defero, compello . as, Qui allerum incusat 
probri, eum ipsum se inlueri oporiet Plant. Cum capitis anqui- 
tissent Liv. Dolabellam repetundarum postulavit Suet. &c. 

Acquitting; absolvo, libero, purgo, to which perhaps soluo may 
be added : as, Judex absoluit eum injuriarum Auct. ad Herenn. 
Liberavit ejus culpce regem Liv. Me omnium purgnvi Apul. 
Hanc tetram immanemque belluam. . . . solvit subito tegum consul 
-Cic. Cum J am u Us operum salutisHor. 

Condemning ; damno, condemno, infamo, noto, to which may be 
added, convinco, prehendo, deprehendo,judico, plector: as, Scelerls 
condemnat generum suum Cic. Vatem scelcris damnare Ovid. 


Te convinco inhumanitatis~~Cic. Perduellionis sejiidicare C* Ful- 
vio dixit Liv. To these may be added such constructions as 
Quern ego capitis perdam Plant. Castigat se ipsum dementice 
Lactant. Me capitis periclitatum memini Apul. 

Note 2. The genitive of the crime may be put in the ablative 
with de, chiefly after accuso, arguo, defero, postulo, appello, absol- 
vo, damno, condemno, purgo : as, Accusare de negligentia Cic. 
De eo crimine quo de arguatur Cic. Qui de perduellione anquire- 
rent Liv. De proditione appellalus Liv. In is sometimes 
found : as, In quo te accuso Cic. j and a or al after libero : as, 
A scelere liberati sumus Cic. 

Note 3. The crime or punishment is sometimes put in the ab- 
lative without a preposition's being expressed, after absolvo, li- 
bero, damno, condemno, &c. : as, Consulem regni suspicions absol- 
verent Liv. Nemo sapientiam pauper tate damnavit Senec. Dam- 

nalis tu votis Virg. also voti Nep. Liv. To the preceding 

verbs may be added, accuso, alligo, anquiro, appello, arcesso, ar- 
guo, arripio, astringo, compello, -as, insimulo, multo, noto, obligo, 
obstringo, postulo, teneor. Crimen quo argui posset Nep. Hoc 
crimine compellabatur Nep. Teneri pcend Cic. &c. 

Note 4. Accuso, incuso, insimulo, sometimes take two accusa- 
tives : as, Si id me non accums Plaut. Qua? me incusaveras 
Ter. Sic me insimulare falsum facinus^ Plaut. One of these ac- 
cusatives, which is generally id, illud, quod, or the like, is go- 
verned by circa or quod ad understood. 

Note 5. The nouns crimen and caput are either put in the ge- 
nitive, or in the ablative generally without a preposition : as, Ho- 
minem tantorum criminum postuldsset*Apul. An cornmotce cri- 
mine mentis absolves kominem Hor. Capitis damnatus est Suet. 
Nee ob earn rem capite damnarer Cic. Capite plectere or punire, 
not capitis ; also Capite anquiri, damnari, plecti, without a pre- 
position. Argui de crimine is attributed to Cicero, but such words 
as crimen and scelus, being general, that is, not referring to any 
specific crime, are used without a preposition. Multo is con- 
strued with an ablative, the preposition being always omitted : 
as, Multare pasna, pecunid, &c. l 

Note 6. The genitive, strictly speaking, is not governed by 
the verbs mentioned in this rule, but by some ablative understood, 
such as poem, crimine, scelere, peccato, actione, multd f nomine, re, 

1 Valla and others say that thee words, altero, neutro, utro, utroque, ambo- 
bus (to which Linacer adds superlatives, and some other words, as nullo, aho, 
omnibus) ought to be used in the ablative only : thus, Teneturne sacrilegii, an 
furti, an utroque, vel ambobus, vel neutro ? Also Accusesne huncfurti, an sacri- 
legii, an ince&ti, an omnibus, vel, an nullo, vel, an maxima ex us ; and not utri- 
itsque, amborum, omnium, &c. The Eton Grammar has a similar observation, 
borrowed, probably, from Linacer or Lily ; but, since neither is supported by 
examples from the writings of the antients, they are entitled to little consider- 


causa, ergij : as, Accuso te (crimine) furti. And these, or other 
ablatives, are governed by de or in, expressed or understood. 

Note 7. The following verbs of accusing, c. are not construed 
with the genitive, calumnior, carpo, corripio, criminor, culpo, cx- 
cuso, mulcto, punio, reprehendo, sugillo, taxo, traduco, vitupero : as, 
Potentiam alicujus invidiose criminari Cic. Also, Excuso tibi 
tardilatem meam, Multo te exsilio, and not Excuso me tiii tardita- 
tis, Multo le exsiiii. This construction is found even with some 
of the verbs which have a genitive or ablative : as, Ejus avaritiam 

perfidiamque accusarat Nep. Ago tecum furti, injuriarum, and 

not Ago te furti, injuriarum, is a peculiar mode of expression. 

Note 8. Where there is a variety of constructions, authority 
is the only criterion. It may, however, be better to say Increpare 
alicujus avaritiam, Nolare incuriam alicujus, Castigare suam demen- 
ti am, than Increpare aliquem avaritice Suet. Notare aliquem in- 
cur ice Gell. Castigare se dementice Lactant. Liber are aliquem 
culpd, Purgare se apud aliquem, vel alicui de re aliqud, may be 
better than Liberare aliquem culpce Liv. Purgare dicti factique 

hostilis civitatem Liv. It is to be observed also that Urgeri 

male administrates provincicB, Interrogari facti alicujus, Infamari 
temeritatis, Plecti falsce insimuLutionis, Perdi capitis, Captare im- 
pudicilicE; Qamnatus Longi laboris, although they may be found in 
their respective authors, Tacitus, Seneca, Apuleius, Plautus, &c., 
are by no means to be imitated. 


Note 9. Under this rule, (or Rule XXXII,) may be mentioned, 
moneo, admoneo, commoneo, commonefacio, which with the accu- 
sative of a person take the genitive of the thing : as, Grammati~ 
cos officii sui commonemus Quinct. 

Note 10. Instead of the genitive, they sometimes take an ab- 
lative with de : as, De quovos admonuiCic. 

Note 11. They have sometimes two accusatives: as, Sed eoi 
hoc moneo Cic. Passively, the latter: as, Afulta in extis admone- 
mur Cic. One of these is generally a pronoun, as hoc, id, quod, 
&c. or some word referring to number or quantity, as unum, duo, 
trio,, multa, nihil, nonnihil. Ovid, however, writes, At virgo scit se 
non falsa montri Met. x. 427. The accusative of the thing 
is governed by some preposition urderstood, as, quod ad, or 
the like. To verbs having this construction some add hortor and 
cohortor : as, Quod tejamdudum hortor Cic. Pauca pro temp ore 
milites hortalus Sail. But these two are much more frequently 
construed with ad : as, Hortor te ad virtutem, Cohortor ad pacem. 

Note 12. The genitive of the thing after verbs of advising is 
supposed to be governed by causd, or in re, or negotio. 

Note 13. These verbs are construed with the infinitive, or the 


subjunctive with ut or ne : as, Pietas erga parentes officium con- 
servare monet Cic. Sed te illud moneo, ut te ante compares, quo- 
tidieque meditere, resistendum esse iracundice Cic. Immortalia ne 
speres, monet annus Hor. 

RULE XXXI. Verbs of comparing, giving, declaring, 
and taking away, govern the dative with the accusative : as, 
Comparo Virgilium Homero, I compare Virgil to Homer. 
Suum cuique tribuito. Give every man his own. 

Narras fabulam surdo^ You tell a story to a deaf 

Eripuit me morti, He rescued me from death. 

Note 1. That is, verbs signifying comparison, acquisition, or 
giving, loss, or taking away, refusal, application, information, 
and the like, in addition to their direct regimen of the accusa- 
tive, govern also the dative ; thus verbs of 

Comparing ; comparo, compono, confero, cequo, ; also 
verbs of Preferring or Postponing; antepono, antej'ero, prcepono, 
prcefero-j postpono,posthabeo,postfero,&c.: as, Parvis componere 
magna Virg. Posthabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo Virg. 

Giving ; do, tribuo, largior, pratbeo, minislro, suggero, suppedi' 
to ; also verbs of Restoring ; as, reddo, restituo, retribuo, rependo, 
remetior ; of Acquiring ; qucero, acquiro, paro, pario ; of Promis- 
ing ; promitto, polliceor, recipio, spondeo ; also debeo, solvo, assero, 
vindico, mitto, relinquo, and innumerable others ; thus, Amorique 
nostro plusculum etiam, quam concedet veritas, largiare Cic. Quce 
tibi promitto Cic. &c. 

Declaring; narro, dico, memoro, loquor, nuncio, refero, declaro, 
aperio, expono, explico, significo, indico, monstro, ostendo, &c. ; of 
Denying ; nego, inficior ; of Confessing ; fateor, confiteor, &c. : 
as, Postquam diem operi dixerat Cic. Neget quis carmina Gallo 

Taking away ; aufero, adimo, eripio, eximo, demo, surripio, de- 
traho, excutio, extorqueo, &c. : as, Mea miki ademerunt Cic. , 

To these may be added a great number of active verbs com- 
pounded with ad, in, ob, prce, sub ; as addo, adfero, adjicio, ad- 
jungo, infigo, injungo, inscribo, insero, irrogo, oppono, offero, of- 
fundo, objicio, prcecludo, prceffcio, prceparo, prceseribo, subdo, sub" 
jugo, submitto, suppono. In short, most active verbs may govern 
the dative with the accusative, when together with the thing done, 
is also expressed the object to or for which it is done : as, Facto 
tibi injuriam. Doce mihi filium. Miscere alicui mulsum Cic. 

Note 2. The accusative is sometimes suppressed : as, Ignoscere 
' alteri j i. e. culpam or delictum. Detrahere alicui -, i. e. laudcm. 
Nubere alicui ; i. e. perhaps, se or vultum. 

Note 3. Comparo, compono, and confero, are often found with 
cum and an ablative : as, Ut hominem cum homine comparetis 



Cic. Dicta cumfactis lomponere Sail. Conferte hanc pacem cum 
iilo bello Cic. We also find Comparare res inter se Cic. Ne 
comparandus hie quidem ad ilium est Ter. This last construc- 
tion is said to be used, when there is 720 comparison between the 
objects, when the difference between them is very great ; in any 
other case, illi or cum illo. 

frote 4. Verbs of Taking away, instead of the dative, have often 
the ablative, with a, ab, de, e, ex : as, Auferre ab aliquo triginta 
minas Ter. Eripite nos ex miseriis Cic. De magnis divitiis si 
quid demas Plaut. The preposition is sometimes suppressed : 
as, Sudque eripere cede Deam Ovid. Vagindque eripit ensem 
Virg. The following verbs have commonly an ablative, and ge- 
nerally with the preposition expressed ; abduco, deduco, decutio, 
deripioy detraho, eximo, extraho ,- also segrego, sejuugo, sepono, se- 
moveo, removeo, submoveo. 

"Note 5. Many verbs vary their construction : as, Afflare alicui 
venenum Auct. ad Herenn. aliquem veneno Virg. Ovid. As- 
pergere lalem alicui Cic. aliquem lab e Cic. Donare alicui rem 
Hor. aliquem re Cic. Induere sibi vestem Cic. se veste Cic. 
Intercludere alicui commeatum Plaut. aliquem commeatu Caes. 
Prohibere alicui rem Plaut. aliquem re Cic. Committere se 
alicui Cic. in Jidem alicujus ler. aliquem cum aliquo Tac. 
omnes inter se Suet. Imponere onus alicui Cic. in aliquem 
Plaut. Accingere se operi, and ad opus Virg. Liv. Admovere tur- 
res muro Liv. aliquid ad corpus Cic. Adscribere aliquem civi- 
tati, in dvitatem, et civitate Cic. Assumere aliquid sibi Cic. 

aliquem in societatem Liv. Mittere^ scribere, epistolam alicui, 

or ad aliquem. Imprimere aliquid animo, in animum, in animo. In- 
cider e teri, in ccs, in cere. Intendere telum alicui, et in aliquem. 
Rescribcre literis and ad lileraswith innumerable others. 

RULE XXXII. Verbs of asking and teaching admit two 
accusatives, the first of a person, and the second of a thing: 

Posce Deum veniam, Beg pardon of God. 

Docnit me grammaticam, He taught me grammar. 

Note 1. To this rule are generally referred, 
Celo : as ; Celo te hanc rem Ter. 

Verbs of Asking or Entreating ; as rogo, interrogo, oro, exoro, 
olsecro, precor, percontor, posco, reposco, Jlagilo : thus, Rogo 
nummos Mart. Te hoc obsecratCic. Horace construes laces 
in this sense, with two accusatives : as, Nikil wtora deos lacessc 
Car. II. 18. 11. 

Verbs of Teaching ; as, doceo, edoceo, dedoceo, erudio : thus, 
Te liter as doceam Cic. Te leges prceceptaque erudiit Stat. Dai 
nosasque (eum) artes Ovid. This last is a poetical con- 

To these have been commonly added verbs of Arraying ; 


vestio, induo, cingo, accingo -, but, although the poets may write 
Induilur vestem, Quidlilet indutus, Cingiturferrum, and the like, 
it is not to be thence inferred that Induii se vestem, Cingit sefer- 
rum are correct. Such verbs have generally the ablative of the 
thing without a preposition. Exuo and induo have frequently the 
accusative of a thing and the dative of a person. 

Note 2. The construction of the preceding verbs is often va- 
ried : as, Id Alcibiadi celari non potuit Nep. Bassus noster me 
de hoc libro celavit Cic. 

Note 3. Verbs of Asking often change the accusative of the 
person into the ablative with a, ab, or als : as, Non delelam abs 
te has literas poscere Cic. Veniam oremus ab ipso Virg. 
Peto, exigo, qucero, scitor, sciscitor are always followed by a pre- 
position : as, A te peto Cic. Gradere et scitabere ab ipso Ovid. 
Percontor, qucero, scitor, sciscitor are generally construed with ex : 
as, Epicuri ex Velleio sciscitabar sententiam Cic. Also, Qucero de 
te, for als or ex te Liv. Peto als te, never ex te. 

Note 4. Verbs of Teaching frequently change the accusative 
of the thing into the ablative with de : as, De itinere hostium se- 
natum edocet Sail. This is the case, chiefly when they denote 
to warn, or to give information of. We also find Doctus ad legem 
Cic. Erudire ad modestiam Cic. Erudire alicjuem in jure civili 
Cic. Doctus, eruditus, literis Greeds Cic. ; but, scarcely, if 
ever, Doceo te de grammaticd. 

Note 5. Instruo, formo, instituo, informo aliquem artibus, are 
generally used without a preposition. We also find In hoc sit in- 
structus Quinct. and Instruere ignorantiam alicujus Plin. Insti- 
tuere aliquem ad lectionem Quinct. ad turpitudines Cic. artem 
aliquam Cic. Also, Formare ad studium Virg. meniem studiis 
Hor. studia alicujus Quinct. Imbuo aliquem artibus vel 
prceceptis ; seldom in or ab artibus. 

Note 6. Other verbs are sometimes found with two accusatives : 
as, Argentum, quod hales, condonamus te Ter. Scin* quid ego te 
volelam Ter. Many verbs are sometimes used in this way, such 
as cogo, circumduco, defraudo, eludo, emungo, interverto,juvo, ad- 
juvo, adjuto, oljurgo, remitto ; and it is observed, that the accusa- 
tive of the thing is generally some pronoun, or word of number 
or quantity ; thus, Quid non mortalia pectora cogis ? Virg. Id, 
amalo, adjuta me ler. Multa prius de salute sud Pomtinum ol- 
leto/iw Sail. 

Note 7. Many verbs may be found with two accusatives refer- 
ring to the same object : as, Praesla. te vlrum Cic. Africam 
Grceci Libyam appellavere Plin. Petit hanc Saturnia munus- 
Ovid. Many such constructions may be referred to apposition, 
or to an ellipsis of ewe. 

Note S. The accusative of the thing, in this Rule, is not, strictly 
speaking, governed by the verb, but by ad, quod ad, secundum, 

P 2 


circa, ob, understood : thus in Rogare patrem veniam, veniam may 
be governed by ad, circa, or propter. Also, Objurgabat hcec me 
pater ; \. e. ob hcec. In such expressions as Si quid me. voles, 
Qute te aliquidjuleant, we may suppose either a similar ellipsis, 
or that oi'facere. Thus also, Doceo te (quod ad) literas, or, per- 
haps, scire literas. In such expressions as Trajicit Jluvium exer- 
citum, it is evident that the one accusative is governed by trans 
in composition. The third accusative in Objurgare hcec me nodes 
et dies Plaut. is evidently governed by per understood. 

RULE XXXIII. The passives of such active verbs as 
govern two cases, do still retain the last of them : as, 
Accusor furti, I am accused of theft. 

Virgilius comparatur Homero, Virgil is compared to 

Doceor grammaticam, I am taught grammar. 

Note 1. That is, 

The passives of verbs of Accusing, Condemning, and Acquit- 
ting, retain the genitive or ablative : as, Damnatus est ambitus 
Cic. Ausoluti sunt majestatis Cic. Arguimur crimine pigritice 
Mart. The passives of verbs of Admonishing likewise retain 
the genitive, sometimes the accusative : as, Commonefiat sceleris 
Cic. Multa in extis monemur Cic. 

The passives of verbs of Comparing, Giving, Declaring, and 
Taking away, retain the dative : as, Parva magnis conferuntur 
Cic. Res nunciatur hostibus Cses. Eripitur nobis puella Pro- 

Celor, and the passives of verbs of Asking and Teaching, re- 
tain the accusative of the thing : as, Nosne hoc celaios tarn diu ? 
Ter. Celor, the dative too : as, Id Alcibiadi celari non potuit Nep. 
Is rogatus est senientiam Liv. Segetes alimentaque debita dives 
poscelatur humus Ovid. Motus doceri gaudet lonicos matura 
virgoHor. All these accusatives are governed byquodad (xar 

Verbs passive of Clothing, such as induor, amicior, cingor, ac- 
cingor j also exuor, discingor, and their participles, although their 
actives do not govern two accusatives, have often, according to 
the poets, an accusative of the thing put on, but with others an 
ablative : as, Induitur faciem cultumque Diance Ovid. Non canas 
vestita nives Claudian. Sometimes also an accusative of the 

thing covered : as, Pinuque caput prcecinctus acutd Ovid. 

Veste Aralicd induitur Curt. Cingitur gladio Liv. Exutus 
omnibus fortunis Tac. Vrlor, tegor, calceor, coronor, spolior, are 
generally construed with the ablative. In all these the accusative 
is governed by ad, quod ad, or per, understood ; the ablative, by 
cum. In the same manner are to be explained, Magnam partem 
in his occupati sunt. Cic. Omnia Mercurio similis vocemque, &c. 
Virg. Expleri mcntem n^tti/- Virg. Nodoque sinus collecta 


Jluentes Virg. ; with many other similar instances found among 
the poets chiefly ! . 

Note 2. It deserves observation, that, in conformity with this 
rule, whatever is the accusative after the active verb, must be the 
nominative to it in the passive voice; thus, Tibi librum do; Tibi 
liber datur. Narras jabulam surdo ; Surdo falula narratur, Ca- 
pitis eum condemndrunt ; Capitis itle est condemnatus. Pateram 
vino implevit ; Vino patera est implela. And where there are two 
accusatives, that of the person becomes the nominative : thus, 
Pueros grammaticam docebat ; Pueri docebantur grammaticam. 

On the subject of this rule, I am indebted to the critical dis- 
cernment of the friend to whom this little work is dedicated, for 
the following observations. " The rule of lluddiman (he ob- 
serves) is extremely vague. It contains no precise information ; 
nor have I seen any Grammar, in which the principle seems rightly 
understood, or clearly elucidated. In respect, indeed, to the 
phraseologies, which maybe comprehended under this, or a more 
correct rule, there are few modern Latin writers who are not 
chargeable with repeated violations of that usage, which Cicero, 
Caesar, and Livy uniformly adopt. Thus we read Ut equidem per- 
suasus sim Xenoph. Mem. Leunclav. p. 729. Me persuaso 
Eurip. Phceniss. King, p. 464. Persuasus vales mendacia locutus 
sit Oed. Tyr. Johnson, p. 534. Hoc mirum videtur, persuaderi 
cjuosdam potuisse Xenoph. Mem. c. 11, 1, Simpson 8 . These and 
similar incorrect expressions might have been avoided, had the 
writers attended to this simple rule, That whatever is put in the 
accusative case after the verb, must be the nominative to it in 
the passive voice, while the other case is retained under the go- 
vernment of the verb, and cannot become its nominative, Thus, 
* I persuade you to this or of this,' Persuadeo hoc tibi. Here, the 
person persuaded is expressed in the dative case, and cannot, 
therefore, be the nominative to the passive verb. We must, there- 
fore, say Hoc till persuadetur, * You are persuaded of this ;' not 
Tu persuaderis. Thus also Caesar. His persuaderi, ut diutius mo- 
rarentur, non poterat. * He trusted me with this affair,' or l He 
believed me in this,' Hoc mihi credidit. Passively, Hoc mihi ere- 
ditum est. ' I told you this,' Hoc tibi dixi. * You were told this,' 
Hoc tibi dictum est 3 , not Tu dictus es. Is then the phraseology 

1 This rule is applicable also to the passives of verbs of Valuing, which re- 
tain the genitives magni, parvi, nihili, &c. To the passives of verbs of Filling, 
Loading, Binding, Depriving, &c. which retain the ablative. All these are 
to be noticed hereafter. 

* To the examples here adduced may be added, Si persuasus auditor fuerit 
Auct. ad Herenn. ], 6. NUiil erat difficile persuader? pcrsuasis mori Jus- 
tin. II, 11. Jamdudum persuasus erit Ovid. Art. Ill- 679. 

3 I may be permitted to observe, in addition to the remarks with which I 
have been favoured by this ingenious critic, that it is the more necessary to at- 
tend to this rule, and to these distinctions, as the idioms of the two languages 
do not always concur. Thus, Hoc tibi dictum est means not only " This was told 
to you," but " You were told this." Liber mihi a patre promissus est means 

Tu dictus cs inadmissible ? Certainly not : but, when this expres- 
sion is employed, tu denotes the subject of discourse, or the per- 
son of whom, not the person to whom, information is given. Thus, 
Ille dicitur esse vir sapiens. Here, ille is the subject spoken of, 
not the person to whom any thing is told. Thus also Credo tibi, 
' I believe you,' that is, I give credit to what you say, in which 
sense we must say in the passive voice, Tibi creditur, and not Tu 
credcris ; for the latter of these two expressions would imply not 
that credit is given to the words f the person, but that he is the 
object or the subject of belief. In short, it is to be remembered that 
nothing but that, which is in the accusative after the active verb, 
whether denoting a person or a thing, can be the nominative to 
the verb in the passive voice. Hence it is, that, if a verb does not 
govern the accusative in the active voice, it can have no passive, 
unless impersonally ; thus we say Resisto tibi, and cannot, there- 
fore, say Tu resisteris, but Tibi resistitur. It is to be observed, 

however, that the poets have frequently transgressed this rule. 
Thus Virgil, speaking of Cassandra, says Credita Teucris y where 
Cassandra denoting the person believed, or to whom credit is 
given, and which, after the active verb, would be put in the da- 
tive case, is made the nominative to the verb in the passive voice. 
If we consult, however, the purest models of Latin prose, Cicero 
and Caesar, or Livy and Sallust, we shall never find this phrase- 
ology. Nor is the rule here given, and to which the practice of 
the best prose writers is strictly conformable, the mere result of 
arbitrary usage. It contributes to perspicuity. If Ego credor 
be employed to signify, not only that I, as a person speaking, am 
believed, but also, as a person spoken of, obscurity or ambiguity 

must frequently follow. 1 have observed also, that no verb can 

be regularly used in the passive voice, unless it govern the ac- 
cusative in the active voice. The practice of the purest Classics 
justifies this observation. The poets are less scrupulous. Thus, 
Horace says Bactra regnata Cyro, where the verb regno, which 
does not govern the accusative case in the active voice, admits a 
nominative as a regular passive verb. Thus also Gentes regnan- 
lur Tac. The best prose writers never employ this phraseology." 

RULE XXXIV. The price of a thing is put in the ab- 
lative, with any verb : as, 

Em i librum duobus assibus^ I bought a book for two 

Vendidit hie auro patriam, This man solcj his country 

for gold. 
Demosthenes docuit talento, Demosthenes taught for a 


both, " A book was promised (to) me by my father," and " I was promised a 
book." Is primum rogalus est sentcntiam, " He was first asked for his opi- 
nion," and " An opinion was first asked of him," in which last the accusative 
of the person becomes, in Latin, the nominative in the passive voice. 

Note 1. That is, not only verbs which plainly denote Buying 
or Selling, but those likewise which refer thereto, are followed 
by an ablative : as, Viginti talentis unam orationem Isocrates ven- 
didit Plin. Non emam vitiosd mice Plaut. Piscines cedijican- 
tur magno Varro. Multo sanguine et vtdneribus ea Pcenis victo- 
ria stetit Liv. 

Note 2. The verb valeo, when it refers to Price, has generally 
the ablative ; as Ita ut scrupulum valeret sestertiis vicenis Plin. 
It is seldom found with an accusative ; Denarii dicti f quod denos 
ceris valebant ; quinarii quod quinos Varro. 

Note 3. Magno, permagno, parvo, paululo, minimo, plurimo, 
are often found without their substantive : as, Frumentum suum 
quam plurimo venditurus Cic. To these are added plure, vili, 
nimio : as, Plure venit Cic. To all these pretio, are, or the like, 
is understood. It is sometimes expressed: as, Vendere aliquid 
parvo pretio Cic. ' 

Note 4. The ablative is not, strictly speaking, governed by the 
verb, but by pro understood : as, Dum pro argenteis decemaureus 
units valeret Liv. Emere ad viginti minas, Ad earn summam erne- 
re, Ad earn summam ojferre, are mentioned by Johnson, who at- 
tributes the first two to Cicero. 

RULE XXXV. These genitives, tanti, quanti, pluris, 
minoris, are excepted : as, 

Qitanti constitit ? How much cost it ? 

Asse ct pluris, A shilling and more. 

Note 1. This is merely an exception to the preceding rule. 
To the above-mentioned genitives may be added their compounds 
quanticunque, quantiquanti, tantidem, and also majoris : as, Non 
concupisces ad libertatem quanticunque pervenire Senec. Multo 
majoris atapce mecum veneunt Pha?dr. 

Note 2. If the substantive be expressed, these words must be 
put in the ablative: as, Authepsa ilia quam tanto pretio mercatus 
est Cic. Pretio minore redimendi captivos copia Liv. This re- 
mark does not refer to tantidem, which has no ablative. There 

is a distinction between Emi equum magno or parvo pretio and 
Emi equum magni or parvi pretii, the former denoting the price 
of the horse, the latter his intrinsic or real worth. 

1 To these ablatives some grammarians add multo, pauco, dimidio, duplo, 
paulo, maximo, and immenso ; but they are without authorities. In the fol- 
lowing instances, Multo minoris vendidit fjudm tu Cic. and AmbtdaLiuncida 
props dimidio minoris conslabit isto loco Cic., multo and dimidio are the ab- 
latives of detect, rather than of price. Curo cmpta, attributed to Quiuctilian, 
is a doubtful reading, care being most probably the word intended. But 
Diomedes does not hesitate to consider cnro andvtft as adverbs of valuing. 
Horace writes I.uscinias solid impetiso prandcrc coemptas-~" Sat< ii. 3. 1'45. arc 
being understood. 


Note 3. To the genitives magni, pluris, tanti, quanti, &c. eeris 
pretio or pondere, or, inversely, pretii or ponderis cere, is said to be 

RULE XXXVI. Verbs of Valuing, besides the accusa- 
tive which they govern, admit such genitives as these 

magni) parvi, nihili : as, 

JEstimo te magni, I value you much. 

Note 1. That is, verbs of Valuing admit after them, besides 
tanti, quanti, pluris, minoris, the following also, magni, parvi, maxi- 
mi, minimi, pluriwi, with assis, nihili, nauci, Jlocci, pili, teruncii, 
hujus, pensi. 

Note 2. The verbs of Valuing are cestimo, existimo, duco, facto, 
hdbeo, pendo, puto, taxo, to which may be added sum and jio, 
taken for astimor, which are followed by the genitive of value, 
but which do not take the accusative : as, Magni cestimabat pecu- 
niam Cic. Quis Carthaginiensium pluris fuit Annibale consilio 
Cic. Ut quanti quisque se ipsefaciat, tanti Jiat ab amicis Cic. 
It is to be observed, that pili, teruncii, and hujus are con- 
strued wiihfacio only ; nauci, with facio and habeo ; assis, with 
facio and cestimo ; nihili, with facio and pendo; Jlocci, with facio, 
pendo, and existimo. Pensi is generally preceded by non, neque, 
or nihil : as, Neque id quibus modis assequeretur , quidquam pensi 
habebat Sail. Nee pensi duxerat Val. Max. 

Note 3. To this rule may be referred the phrases sEqiii bonique 
Jacio, or JEqui boni Jacio, and ' Boni consulo: as, Isthuc cequi bo- 
nique facio Ter. Hoc munus, rogo, boni considas Senec. 

Note 4. JEstimo sometimes takes these ablatives, maguo, per- 
magno, parvo, nihilo, nonnihilo : as, Data magno cestimas, accepta 
parvo Senec. Quia sit nonnihilo (Bstimandum Cic. 

Note 6. The substantive understood to the adjectives magni , 
parvi, &c. is pretii, ceris, ponderis, momenti, or the Jike ; and the 
construction may be thus supplied : JEstimo te magni, i. e. esse 
hominem ma^ni pretii, or pro nomine magni pretii. JEstimat pe- 
cuniamparvi, i. e. esse rem parvi momenti, or pro re parvi momenti. 
In like manner, Isthuc cequi bonique facio, i. e. facio isthuc rem 
ccqui bonique hominis, or animi, or negotii. Consulo boni, i. e. 
interpreter esse boni animi or viri munus ovfactum And nearly 
in a similar way, QUCE ille universa naturali quodam bono fecit lu- 

cri Nep. i. e. fecit rem lucri. Pro nihilo habeo, puto, duco, 

are common phrases : as, Istam adoptionem pro nihilo esse haben- 
dam Cic. Cicero uses Qua: visa sunt pro nihilo ; but here there 
may be some ellipsis, of haberi perhaps. 

RULE XXXVII. Verbs of Plenty and Scarceness for the 
most part govern the ablative : as, 

Abundat divitiis, He abounds in riches. 
Caret omni culpa^ He has no fault. 


Note 1 . To this rule belong verbs of 

Plenty : as abundo, exubero, redundo, scateo, qffluo, circumftuo, 
diffluo, superfluo : as, Amore abundas Antipho!ei'. 

Want or Scarcity : as, careo, egeo, indigeo, vaco (to want), with 
deficior and destituor : thus, Carere delet omni vitio Cic. Rations 
deficitur Cic. 

Note 2. Egeo and indigeo frequently take the genitive : as, Ut 
medicines egeamus Cic. Non tarn artis indigent, quam laboris 
Cic. Also, among the more antient writers, scateo, and careo : 
as, Terra scatet Jerarum Lucret. Tui carendum erat Ter. 
Lucilius has Abundemus rerum, but the genitive is more frequent 
after abundant. Sometimes careo and egeo take the accusative: as, 
Id careo Plaut. Multa egeo Gell. 

Note 3. The ablative is not, strictly speaking, governed by the 
verb, but by some preposition understood, as a, ab, de, ex, or zn. 
After some verbs it is frequently expressed : as, Hcec a custodibus 
classium loca maxime vacabant Caes. Deficior prudens artis ab 
arte mea Ovid. And when any of these verbs are followed by 
the genitive, some ablative, such as re, negotio, causa, prcesentui, 
ope, copia, or the like, with a preposition, is understood : thus, 
Careo tui> i. e. ope or prcBsentifi. 
To this rule may be referred 

Verbs of Filling, Loading, Binding, Depriving, Clothing, and 
some others, which, with the accusative, have also an ablative 
case : thus verbs of 

Filling ; as, impleo, cornpleo, expleo, repleo t saturo, obsaturo, sa- 
tio, refercio, ingurgito, dito, and the like : thus, Implevit mero pale- 
ram Virg. 

Loading ; as onero, cumulo, premo, opprimo, obruo : Unloading : 
as levo, exonero; thus, Naves onerant auro Virg. Tefasce levabo l 

Binding ; as astringo, alligo, devincio, impedio, irretiu, illaqueo, 
&c. Loosing ; as solvo, exsolvo, Libero, laxo, expedio : thus, Ser- 
vitutem astringam testimonio sempiterno Cic. Solvit se Teucria 
Iwtu Virg. 

Depriving; as privo, nudo, orbo, spolio t fraudo, emungo : thus, 
Nudavit ab ea parte aciem equestri auxilioLiv. Add also, vacuo, 
evacuo, exhaurio, exinanio, depleo. 

Clothing; as vestio, amicio, induo, cingo, tego, ve/o, corowo, calceo; 
and their contraries, exuo, discingo: thus, Sepulchrum vepribus 

1 The inexperienced learner should be careful to distinguish between such 
phrases as Lcvflbo te fasce, in which levo denotes to ease or disburden, and the 
ablative belongs to this rule ; and such as Saepe sitis opibus inopiam eorum pub- 
licam levavit Nep. Auxilioque levare viros Virg. Levaverant animos reli- 
gione Liv. in which levo signifies to help or relieve, and the ablatives do not 
belong to this rule, but are to be referred to those of cause, manner, and in- 
strument. In numberless instances, however, such is the nature of the verb 
or the phrase, that it is not easy to distinguish the ablative of the one rule, 
from that of the other. 


vestire Cic. Teque his exue monstris Ovid.- To these may 
be added many others, such as muto, dono, munero, remunero, com- 
munico, pasco, beo, impertior, dignor, qfficio, prosequor, assequor, 
consequor, insequor, spargo, incesso, insector, oblecto: with verbs of 
Mixing, as misceo, permisceo, tempera ; such verbs as orno, honoro, 
honesto, decoro, venusto, coto, excolo, dehonesio, dedecoro, fcedo, in- 
quino, polluo: verbs of Teaching ; asformo, informo, doceo, erudio, 
instruo, imbuo : verbs denoting Excess,, as antecedo, antecello, ex- 
cello, supero, &c. : verbs of Bounding, Measuring, and Recom- 
pensing; Sisjinio, deJiniOj termino, metior, dimetior, penso, compenso 
with numberless other verbs which, without an accusative, ad- 
mit an ablative of the cause, manner, or instrument, as possum, 
polleo, valeo, vivo, &c. 

Note 1. Impleo, compleo, and expleo sometimes take the genitive: 
as, Ne ita omnia Tribuni potestatis suce implerent Liv. Erroris 
illos et dementias complebo Plaut. Animum explesse juvabit ul- 
tricis flammce Virg. And, among the more antient writers, aJso 
saturo and obsaturo : as, Hce res vittz me saturant Plaut. Istius 
olsaturalere Ter. 

Note 2. The verb induo is variously construed : as, Ex ejus spo- 
llis sibi et torquem et cognomen induitCic. Pomis se fertilis ar- 
bos induerat Virg. 

Note ?). Verbs of Liberating are often followed by a or ex : as, 
Arcem ab incendio liberavi Cic. Solvere belluam ex catenis 
Auct. ad Herenn. Verbs of Clothing are sometimes followed by 
a or db, among the poets : as, Gelicis si cingar ab armis Ovid. 

Note 4?. The preposition cum is sometimes expressed after pro- 
sequor: as, Decedentem cum favor e ac laudibus prosecuti sunt 

Note 5. The ablative after mltto is the thing taken in exchange: 
as, Muto librum pecunia j but, by the figure Hypallage, it may be 
Muto pecuniam libro*. 

Note 6. Many verbs vary their construction : as, Universosfru- 
mento donavit Nep. and Prcedam militibus donat Cses. Asper- 
gere sale carnes, or Aspergere salem carnibusPlm. Impertire ali- 
fjuem salute Ter., or alicui salutem Cic. Communicare rem all- 
quam cum aliquo; seldom, aliquem re aliqua; and never rem ali- 
quam alicui. Cum altero rem communicavit Cic. Communicalo 
te semper mensa med Plaut. Abdicare magistratum Sail. Se ma- 
gistralu Cic. 

Note 7. The accusative is governed by Rule XXVIII ; the ab- 
lative by some preposition, or it may be frequently referred to 
that of cause, manner, or instrument, which also is governed by 
some preposition. 

1 The preposition is sometimes expressed after muto : as, Mutare bcllum pm 
yacc Sail. Cum pcdibusyuc maims, cunilongis brachia tnutat cnmbusOrid. 


RULE XXXVIII. Utor, abutor, fruor, Jungorj potior, 
vescor, govern the ablative : as, 

Utitur fraude, He uses deceit. 
Abutitur libris, He abuses books. 

Note 1. That is, the above-mentioned verbs, to which may be 
added nitor, innilor, epulor, nascor, creor, glorior, Icetor, defector, 
gaudeo, vivo, victito,Jido, confido, exulto, sto 1 , consto, eonsisto, cedo, 
supersedeo, laboro, are followed by an ablative: as, Utere sorte tud 
Virg. Pace frui Cic. Functus est munere Cic. Filio niti- 
tur Cic. Glande v escuntur Cic. Sunt, qui piscibus, atcjueovis 
avium vivere existimantur Caes. Gaudet patientia duris Lucan. 
Fortes creantur fortibus Hor. &c. To these may be added the 
compounds, deutor, once used in Cornelius Nepos for abutor, and 
perfruor, defungor, perfungor. Fido, confido, innitor, and cedo, have 
been noticed under Rule XXVII. 

Note 2. Under this, or the preceding rule, are usually enume- 
rated, assuesco, ampLector, comprehendo, conflictor, periclitor, pas- 
cor 2 , which are found with an ablative of a thing: as, Atsuescere 
latore Cic. Complecti benevolentid Cic. Such ablatives may 
be referred to those of cause, &c. Pascor, deponent, often takes 
the accusative: as, Pascuntur silvas Virg. 

Note 3. Potior yfungor , vescor, epulor, sometimes take the accu- 
sative: as, Potiri summam imperil Ne A x Homlnum officia fungi 
Tac. Qui regnum adeptus ccepit vesci singular Phaedr. Pul- 
los epularl Plin. Also, among the more antient writers, utor, 
alutor) fruor : as, Ccetera quceque volumus uti Plaut. Cperam 
abutitur Ter. Ingenium frui Ter. 

Note 4. Potior frequently admits the genitive: as, Potiri regni 
Cic. urlis Sail, hostium Sail. Potiri rerum, and not res, nor 
rebus, is always used in the sense of to rule or govern : as, Dum 
civitas Atheniensium rerum potita est Cic. 

Note 5. With some of the verbs a preposition is frequently ex- 
pressed ; as consto, laboro, nitor, glorior : thus, Cum constenms ex 
anirno tt corpore Cic. Laborare ex pedikus, ex renibus Cic. 
Cujus in vita nitebatur salus civitatis Cic. In virtute gloriamur 

1 Some, led away by the English idiom, according to which we say " To 
stand to an agreement," have supposed that it is the dative which follows sto ; 
hut this is a mistake, as may he seen in the following examples ; TJterqnc cen- 
sor censor is opinione standwn non putavitCic. Etsi priori fcedere starelur- 
LiV. Hence, also, Stare decrcto, promissis, conventis, conditionibus, which are 
not datives, and, in Ovid, Stemus, ait, pacto. Maneo seems to be sometimes 
construed in a similar way ; as, Tu modo promissis maneas Virg. At tu dic- 
tis, Albane, maneres Virg. But Cicero expresses the preposition : as, Ma~ 
ncre in conditione atque pacto ; and, in like manner, Postquam in eo quod con- 
vcnerat, non mancbalur Mela. 

- Depasco and depctscor have the accusative only : as, Luxuricm scgetum 
tcncru. dcpascit in Ac/'fro Virg. Miseros morsu dcpascitur art its Virg. 


Note 6. Ovid has once construed the active creo with an ablative, 
without expressing the preposition -, but, in general, among prose 
writers, at least, creo, creor, nascor, and other verbs of descent, as 
orior, gigno, genero, procreo, are followed by a preposition ex- 
pressed: as, Principium exstinctum nee ipsum ab alio renascetur, 
nee a se aliud crealit Cic. Generari et nasci a principibus fortui- 
tum est Tac. 

Note 7. The ablative after the others is likewise governed by a 
preposition. After ulor, fruor, vescor, epulor, victito, nascor t creor, 
de or ex is understood ; after potior, a or ab j with 5/0, periclitor, 
in, &c. The genitive is governed by such words as re, negotio, 
imperio, or the like, understood. 


RULE XXXIX. An impersonal verb governs the dative: 

Expedit reipublicce, It is profitable for tbe state. 
Licet nemini peccare, No man is allowed to sin. 

Note 1. Thus also, Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum 
Hor. Liceat mihi vera referre Ovid. 

Note 2. Along with the dative is generally joined an infinitive 
mood, or part of a sentence, which is supposed to supply the 
place of a nominative to the verb: as, Peccare licet nemini Cic. 
Omnibus bonis expedit salvam esse rempublicam Cic. In the 
last, the words salvam esse rempublicam, equivalent to salus rei- 
publicce, or their representative hoc, are as a subject or nominative 
to expedit. Quoniam tecum ut essem non contigit Cic. in which 
the dative is understood, and the preceding words supply the place 
of the nominative. 

Note 3. The dative is often suppressed : as, Faciat quod lubet 
Ter. i. e. sibi. 

Note 4. Id, hoc, illud, quod, multum, &c., may be prefixed as a 
nominative to some impersonals : as, Aliquid peccatur vitio praci- 
pientium Senec. Sin tibi id, minus libebit Cic. The plural 
number is in this manner admissible in certain words : as, Quo in 
genere multa peccantur Cic. Cetera item qua cuique libuissent 

Note 5. In the following instances, the infinitive mood of im- 
personal verbs supplies the place of a noun : as Terra muUifariam 
pluvisse nunciatum est Liv. Non potest accedi Cic. 

Note 6. Conducit and expedit, instead of the dative of a thing, 
haye sometimes an accusative with a preposition l : as, Quod in rein 

1 We say Conducit tibi ad salutem, hut cannot say Conducit ad te. The reason 
Is obyious; the purpose is expressed by ad; and, consequently, the accusative 
after these verbs, is that of the thing. 


recte conducat tuam Plaut. Non quo minus quidquam Ccesari ex- 
pediat ad diuturnitatem dominationis Cic. In these, there are two 
nominatives, quod and quidquam ; but they are of such a kind as, 
according to Note 4, may sometimes precede verbs that are used 

Note 7'. An impersonal passive may be used for any person ac- 
tive of the same mood and tense : thus, Statur a me, a te, ab illo; 
a nobis, a vobis, ab ittis, are equivalent to sto, stas, stat, &c. Cce- 
pit, incipit, desinit, debet, solet, potest, videtur, and perhaps some 
others, (volo, nolo, malo, audeo, cupio, and the like, never,) joined 
to impersonals, become impersonal : as, Pigere eumfacti ccepit 
Justin. Tot res circumvattant, unde emergi non potest Ter. i. e. a 
nobis, for emergere non possumus. Tcedere solet avaros impendii 
Quint, for avari solent. In the infinitive also, when another 
verb precedes : as, Si Volscis ager redderetur, posse agi de pace 
Liv. Yet, we find, Ita primi pcenitere cceperunt Justin. Cum 
miser eri mei debent Cic. 

Note 8. The verbs belonging to this rule, are such as accidit, 
contingit, evenit, conducit, expedit, lubet, libet, licet, placet, displi- 
cet, vacat, restat, prtzstat, liquet, nocet, dolet, sufficit, apparel, &c. 
the dative with which they are followed being that of acquisition, 
according to Rule XXVII. Neuter verbs, and active intransitive 
verbs are often used impersonally in the passive voice : as, Non 
invidetur illi tetati, sed etiamfavetur Cic. 

RULE XL. Refert and interest require the genitive : as, 
Refert pair is, It concerns my father. 

Interest omnium, It is the interest of all. 

Note 1 . Thus also, Hwnanitatis plurimum refert Plin. Inter- 
est omnium rectefacere Cic. 

Note 2. Refert and interest admit likewise these genitives, tanti, 
quanti, magni, permagni, parvi, pluris : as, Magni interest mea t 
una nos esse Cic. Instead of majoris, maximi, &c. magis, max- 
ime, multum, plurimum, minus, minimum or minime, interest or re- 
fert , is used. Tanti, quanti, parvi ; or tantum, quantum, parum 
refert or interest, are used indifferently. Juvenal uses Minimo dis- 
crimine refert; and hence the common expression Parvo discrimine 

Note 3. They are sometimes used personally, and admit not only 
the nominatives quid, quod, id, &c., but others also: as, Tua quod 
nihil refert , percontari desinas Ter. Illud mea magni interest 
Cic. Plurimum refert soli oujusque ratio Plin. Non quo mea in- 
teresset loci natura Cic. 

Note 4. The adverbs, or adverbials tantum, quantum, multum, 
plurimum, infinitum, parum, with nihil, maxime, minime, and the 
like, are often joined with them : as, Multum refert Mart. Pin- 
rimum intererit Juv. 


Note 5. When the word following them is a thing, it is often 
put in the accusative with ad: as, Ad honorem nostrum interest 
Cic. Quam ad rem isthuc refert Plaut. Sometimes when it is a 
person : as, Quid id ad me, aut ad meam rem refert Plaut. Plu- 
rally ; Percontari volo quce ad rem referunt Plaut. Seldom the 
dative : as, Quoi rei id te assimulare retulit Plaut. Quid referat 
viventi Hor. Acino plurimum refert Plin. But some of these 
constructions are altered in certain editions. 

Note 6. They are sometimes used absolutely, that is, without 
their regimen's being expressed : as, Neque enim numero compren- 
dere refert Virg. Interest enim, non quce (Etas, neque quid in cor- 
pore intus geratur, sed quce vires Cels. 

Note 7. The construction is elliptical, and may be supplied 
thus : Refert pair is, i. e. refert se ad negotia pair is. Interest om- 
nium, i. e. est inter negotia omnium. 

RULE XLI. But mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra, are put in 
the accusative plural : as, 

Non mea refert, I am not concerned. 

Note 1. That is, instead of using mei, tui, sui, nostrum, vestrum, 
the genitives of the substantive pronouns, the accusative plural, 
neuter gender, of the corresponding pronominal adjectives, is 
used : as, Et tua et mea maxime interest Cic. Tanti illud refert 
mea Plaut. 

Note 2. Cuja, and cujus interest are used indifferently : as, De- 
tur ei cuja interfuit, non ei cuja nihil interfuit Cic. Quis enim 
est hodie, cujus intersit istam legem manere ? Cic. 

Note 3. The constructions of this and the preceding rule some 
times occur in the same clause : as, Mea et reipublicce interest. 
Magni interest Ciceronis, vel mea potius, vel utriusque, me interve- 
nire discentiCic. In the first part of the last example, occur 
the genitive of estimation or value, and the genitive of the person; 
afterwards, the accusative plural. Whether we can use Mea unius 
interest, Tua solius refert^ Nostra ipsorum interest, Mea oratoris 
interest, Mea Ciceronis interest, and the like, is not ascertained. 
At any rate, it is better to say Mea refert, qui sum natu maximus 
Plin.j than mea natu maximi; and in the case of a person's speak- 
ing of himself, as in Mea Ccemris refert, it is better to omit the 
proper name. When the discourse is directed to a second person, 
it is more elegant to use the vocative : thus, Magis nullius interest 
quam tua, Tite Otacili Liv. Vestra, commilitones, interest 
Tacit. Alvarez prefers Nostrum omnium interest, to Nostra om~ 
nium interest, in which omnium is governed by interest, and nos- 
trum by omnium, i. e. all of us equivalent to us all. 

Note 4. Some have supposed mea, tua, &c. to be the ablative 
singular feminine, with causa, gratia, or re understood. Others 


contend that they are the accusative plural, neuter gender; which 
case we have adopted. It is unnecessary to recapitulate the argu- 
ments used on either side. - Perizonius is of opinion, that Interest 
mea is Interest inter mea negotia, or perhaps, Est inter tnea negotia; 
and that Refert tua is Refert se ad tua negotia. Thus Plautus says 
Quid id ad me, out ad meam rem refert. Cicero, Omnia ad suam 
utilitatem referre. The author of the Comp. Synt. Erasm. seems 
inclined to steer a middle course, and to think that mea, tua, &c. 
are ablatives after refert, and accusatives after interest. These are 
all the possible varieties ; but it is a matter of very little conse- 
quence to ascertain which of them comes the nearest to the truth. 
The genitives magni, parvi, tanti, &c. may be accounted for, 
in the same manner as was done after verbs referring to price or 

RULE XLII. These five, miseret, pcenitet, pudet, 
and piget, govern the accusative of a person, with the geni- 
tive of a person or thing : as, 

Miseret me tui, I pity you. 

Pcenitet me peccati, I repent of my sin. 

Tcedet me vita, I am weary of life. 

Note 1 . Thus also, Miseret te aliorum, tui te nee miseret, nee 
pudet Plaut. Eos ineptiarum pceniteret Cic. Me civitatis morum 
piget ttzdetque Sail. Miserescit may be joined : as, Inopis nunc 
te miserescat mei Ter. 

Note 2. The infinitive or part of a sentence sometimes supplies 
the place of the genitive : as, Te id puduit facere Ter. At nos 
puduit, quia cum catenis sumus Plaut. Non pcenitet me quantum 
profecerim Cic. 

Note 3. The accusative is sometimes omitted ; and sometimes 
the verbs are used absolutely : as, Scelerum si bene pcenitet -Hor, 
i. e. nos. Nisi piget, consistite Plaut. 

Note 4. These verbs are sometimes used personally, especially 
with the pronouns hoc, id, quid, &c.: as, Me quidemhcecconditio 
nunc non pcenitet Plaut. Ipse sui miseret Lucr. Non te hcec 
pudent Ter. Ira ea tcedet, qua invasit Senec. Nimio id quod 
pudet Jacilius fertur, quam id quod piget Plaut. Here perhaps 
fecisse mjieri may be understood, and quod may be the accusative 
case. These few examples, opposed to the general practice, can 
be considered but as peculiarities of the writers. - It is observed 
that the participles of these verbs are in every respect like other 
participles : thus, Nee multo post pcenitensfacti Suet. Hie ager 
colono est pcenitendus Colum. Nulla parte pigendus erit Ovid. 

Note 5. The genitive is supposed to be governed by some sub- 
stantive, such as negotium, factum, res, respectus, or the like, un- 
derstood : as, Miseret me tui, i. e. negotium tui mali miseret me; or 
respectus tui miseret me. Non te horum pudet, i, e. negotium or co- 


gitatio* Or a more particular word may be supplied : thus, Mise- 
ret me ejus, i. e. miseria or calamitas. Plum me ad te scribere pu- 
det is equivalent to Pudor habet me, or, pudor est mihi, me plura 
ad te scribere. Vitce tcedet me, i. e. res vitce, this being equivalent 
to vita, in imitation of the Greeks, who sometimes use TO %^ 
rwv WKrwv, for htea nox or hoc noctis. The accusative they go- 
vern, as verbs transitive. 

RULE XLIII. These four, Decet, delectat, juvat, opor- 
tet, govern the accusative of the person with the infinitive: 

Non decet te rixari, It does not become you to scold. 

Delectat me studwe, I delight to study. 

Note 1. Thus also, Orator em irasci minime decet, simulare non 
dedecet Cic. Me pedibus delectat claudere verba Hor. Meju- 
vatcoluisse Propert. Mendacem memorem esse oportet Quinct. 
The first three govern the accusative, as transitive verbs ; but as 
oportet is neuter, being equivalent to opus est, or necesse est, the 
accusative following it is not governed by it, but depends upon 
the infinitive mood following. 

Note 2. Decet sometimes takes the dative : as, Ita nobis decet 
Ter. But this seems a Graecism ; TJJOUV vptnei. Juvat and opor- 
tet likewise seem to have been formerly construed with a dative. 

Note 3. Oportet is elegantly joined with the subjunctive mood, 

ut being understood : as, Ex rerum cognitione efflorescat, et redun- 

det oportet oratio Cic. Also with perfect participles, esse, or 

fuisse, being understood : as, Adolescenti morem gestum oportuit 


Note 4. Fallit, Jugit, prceterit, latet, when used impersonally, 
have an accusative, and generally with the infinitive : as, Fugit 
me ad te scribere Cic. Sometimes, instead of the infinitive, is 
used a finite verb with some particle: as, Ittud alterum quam sit 
difficile, non tefugit Cic. Latet me, and latet mihi, do not rest 
on very high authority. 

Note 5. Attinet, pertinet, and spectat, have an accusative with 
ad : as, Perdat, pereat, nihil ad me attinet Ter. Ad rempublicam 
pertinet me conservari Cic. Spectat ad omnes bene vivere Incert. 
but this last is uncommon. Attinet me is sometimes used for at- 
tinet ad me. 

Note 6. Decet, delectat, juvat, are often used personally, and 
oportet sometimes : as, Parvum parva decent Hor. Thus also 
dedecet, condecet and indeed : as, Quarum me dedecet usus Ovid. 
Ornatus me condecet Plaut. Juvenes adhuc confusa qucedam et 
quasi turbata non indecent Plin. Literce me delectarunt Cic. 
Otia me somnusque juvant Mart. Hcec Jcicta ab illo oportebant 
Ter. DelectOf and juvo used for auxilior, frequently occur in 


the first and second persons Specto, used personally for perti- 

net mtendit, takes an accusative with ad: as, Res ad arma spectat 
Cic. When it refers to place, the preposition may be either 
expressed, or omitted : as, Spectat ad meridiem Caes. Spectare 
Hispaniam Plin. But pertinet, as in Pertinet ad Hehetios, ad 
arccm Caes. in^which it is equivalent to tendit or vergit, is never 
used without a preposition. 

Note 7. The nature of this construction is sufficiently evident. 
These impersonals, as they are called, govern the accusative, 
being transitive verbs, oportet alone excepted. The infinitive mood 
which follows them, or other words in the sentence, supplies the 
place of a nominative to them. 

Of Passive Verbs, and others admitting an Ablative 'with 
a Preposition. 

* RULE XLIII. The principal agent, when following a 
verb of passive signification, is governed by a, ab, or abs : 
as, Laudatur ab his, culpatur ab illisULor. Omnis ora 
maritima depopulata ab Achtzis erat Liv. Testis in eum 
rogatus, an ab reo fustibus vapuldsset Quinct. Opera fa- 
bant a legionibus Hirt. B. Afr. Respondit a cive spoliari 
se matte, qudm ab hoste venire Quinct. 

Note 1. Neuter verbs, (especially those whose signification re- 
sembles that of passives,) and deponents also, admit an ablative 
with a or ab : as, Ne vir ab hoste cadat Ovid. Rem atrocem 
Macedo a servis suis passus est Plin. 

Note 2. Passive verbs sometimes take the dative, especially 
among the poets : as, Quia non inteliigor ulli Ovid, for ab ullo. 
Nullaque laudetur mihi Ovid, for a me. Videor, used in the 
sense of / seem, always governs the dative : as, Mihi videbor es&e 
restitutus Cic. In its primary signification of / am seen, it is 
sometimes thus construed ; but generally with the ablative and a 
preposition : as, Sum visus ab illo Ovid. 

Note 3. The secondary agent, means or instrument, following 
an active, passive, or neuter verb, is governed by per, or is ex- 
pressed in the ablative : as, Per me defensa est respublica Cic. 
Naluram expellasfurcd Hor. 

Note 4k The preposition a or ab is sometimes suppressed : as, 
Desertaque conjuge ploret Ovid. Colitur linigerd turbd Ovid. 
Scriberis Vario Hor. 

Note 5. Some verbs are found, in the same sense, construed 
either with the dative, or the ablative and a preposition : as, Ne- 
que populo neque cuiquam bono probaiur Cic. Meumjactum pro* 
ban ads te, triumpho gaudio Caes. ad Cic. 

Note "6. A great many other verbs take also the ablative with 



a or ab referring to the source or origin of their action ; such as 
verbs of, 

1. Receiving; as accipio, capio, sumo, mutuor ; also adipiscor y 
consequor, impetro, &c. thus, A majoribus morem accepimus Cic. 

2. Distance, Difference, and Dissention ; as disto, differo, dis- 
sentio, dis&ideo, discrepo, discordo : thus, Cum a veris falsa non 
distent Cic. 

3. Desiring, Intimating, and Inquiring; as pet o, expeto, posco, 
percontor, sctior, sciscitor, rogo, oro, obsecro, precor, j)osti(lo,jla- 
gito, contendo, exigo, &c.: as, A te opem petimus Cic. 

4. Cessation ; as cesso, desisto, quiesco, requiesco, tempero : thus, 
A prceliis cessare Liv. 

5. Expecting; as expecto, spero, &c.: thus, Ab alio exspectes, 
alteri quodfeceris P. Syr. Ab uno exspectes quod a multis sperare 
nequeas Buchan. Perhaps in such instances there is an ellipsis 
of a verb of receiving. 

6. Taking away and Removing; as, aiifero, rapio , surripio , fu- 
ror, tollo, removeo, arceo, prohibeo, pello, repello, propulso, revoco ; 
also contineo, cohibeo, refrceno, defendo, munio, tego, tueor, dejicio, 
descisco, degenero, to which may be added verbs compounded with 
a or ab ; as abigo, abstineo, amoveo, abduco t abrado, amitto for di- 
mitto, avello, avoco, &c. : thus Minas triginta ab illo abstuliTer. 
Cohibere animum ab alieno Cic. 

7. Dismissing, Banishing, and Disjoining ; as dimitto, relego* 
disjungo, divello, segrego, separo : thus, Eumab se dimittit Caes. 

8. Buying ; as emo t mercor,fceneror, conduco : thus, A piscato- 
ribus jactum emerat V. Max. 

9. Many other verbs of various significations ; as caveo, declino, 
deflecto ; discedo, recedo ; qffero, do, reddo,fero, reporto ; incipio, 
ordior ; servo, custodio, vindico ; timeo, metuo,Jbrmido, &c. : thus, 
Tibi ego, Brute, non solvam, nisiprius a te cavero Cic. 

Note 7. Many of these vary their construction. Aiifero, adi- 
mo, eripioi &c. generally govern the dative ; also sometimes verbs 
of Defending, Difference, and Distance. We say Interdicere all- 
cui aliquam rem, aliqua re, and, according to Cicero, Prcetor in- 
terdixit de vi hominibus armatis. Timere, metuere ab aliquo, and 
aliquem. Verbs of Asking have generally two accusatives. Pro- 
hibeo, cesso, desisto, are often followed by the infinitive. By the 
subjunctive and ut or ne, verbs of Intreating, Asking, and Fear- 
ing ; with ne, prohibeo, interdico, and caveo (the last generally 
without ne) ; and also with quin and quo minus, interdico, and 
prohibeo. Verbs of Asking are often followed by an, num,utrum, 

& c . Again ; Verbs are often followed by other prepositions : 

as, Differre discrepare, dissentire cum aliquo, for ab aliquo. Emo, 
redimo, declino, deflecto de. Haurio, sumo, habeo, percontor, scitor, 
sciscitor t ex. Audio, moveo, dimoveo^pello, aufero, tollo, ccdo, colligo, 
qncero ( signifying fo inquire) de or ex. Arceo, prohibeo, interclu* 

do, moveo, petto, cedo, desisto, sepono, submoveo ; also abdico and 
supersedeo, an ablative without a preposition. The last two never 
have the preposition expressed. 

Note 8. In like manner, certain adjectives of Diversity and Or- 
der, such as alms, alter, alienus, diversus ; secundus, tertius, c. 
take an ablative with a or ab : as, Quicquam aliud a libertate 
Cic. Tu nunc eris alter ab illo Virg. Ut sacerdos ejus Dece, ma 
jestate, imperio et potentia secundus a rege habeatur Hirt. B. 
Alex. Or alins without a preposition : as, Neve putes alium sa- 
piente bonoque beatum Hor. Quod si accusator alius Sejanojb- 

Note 9. Verbs of Striving ; as, contendo, certo, bello, pugno : of 
Joining'or Coming together ; a&jungo, conjungo, concumbo, coeo, 
misceo, take an ablative with cum; as, Mecum certasse feretur- 
Ovid. Salutem meam cum communi salute conjungere discrevi 
Cic. Consilia cum illo non miscuerant Tac. To these add confe- 
ro, comparo, compono, and contendo used for comparo, with com- 

munico and participo. But of these the construction is often 

varied ; for we say Contendere, certare, &c. contra or adversus all- 
quern ; also inter se, and, poetically, alicui. Jungo and conjungo 
have also the dative usually; and poetically, concumbo, coeo, and 
misceo. We also find Jungere se ad aliquem Cic. Jungi, coire t 
misceri, inter se, are common. 

Note 10. Mereor,facio, Jit, erit,Juturum est, take an ablative 
with de : as, Ita de populo Romano meritus est Cic. Mereo also ; 
as, Si bene quid de te merui Virg. Indicium dejide ejusjecisti 
Cic. Quid de me fat? Ter. But generally the preposition is 
omitted: as, Quid hoc homine faciatis Cic. Quid te Juturum 
censes? Ter. Sometimes the dative is used: as, Quid huic tu 
hominijaoies Cic. Quid mihijiet Ovid. 1 

Note 11. Verbs of Perceiving and Knowing; as intelligo, sen- 
tio f cognosco, conjicio, disco, per cipio, cottigo, audio, take the abla- 
tive with e or ex : as, Ex gestu tuo intelligo quid velis Cic. Ex 
tuis literis statum rerum cognovi Cic. Hoc ex illo audivi Cic. 

Note 12. A variation in the construction, or in the prepositions, 
often alters the sense : thus, Audire ex aliquo refers to the source 
of information. Audire de aliquo generally refers to the object 
concerning which information is given. Yet, Cicero uses S&pe 
hoc audivi de patre et de socero meo ; for ex patre, ex socero. Cog- 
noscere ex aliquo, i. e. to discover from one. De aliquo, i. e. to 
judge of him. Mereri aliquid, i. e. to deserve a thing. De ali- 
quo, i. e. of one. Sentire cum aliquo, i. e. to be of one's opi- 
nion. De aliquo bene vel male, i. e. to think well or ill of him. 
Timere, metuere aliquem, or ab aliquo, i. e. to be afraid of one. 
Timere, metuere alicui, or pro aliquo, i. e. to be afraid or concern- 
ed for him. 

1 Quid tibi fiet, and Quid de tefiet, have no other difference than " What 
will be done to you ?" and " What will become of you ?" 



Note 13. Passive impersonate are either used absolutely; as, 
Quid agitur? Statur Ter. Or they take after them the case of" 
their personals, the accusative of the active voice excepted : as, 
Ut majoribus natu assurgatur, ut supplicum miser eatur Cic- Nee 
mihi parcatur Ovid. 

Note 14. The accusative of the active voice constituting the 
nominative in the passive, it follows, that verbs which govern the 
dative only, can be used passively in the same sense as imperso- 
nals only ; thus instead of Ilia cetas non invidetur, sed favetur, we 
should say Non inmdetur illi atari, sed favetur Cic. instead of 
Noceor, Nocetur mihi. The converse of this is in general true : 
that whatever verb is used in the first and second persons passive, 
its active admits an accusative after it. Very few examples oc- 
cur to the contrary. 

Note 15. Passive impersonate, coming from neuter verbs, some- 
times become personal, taking a nominative of the same or of a 
kindred signification : thus, Cursus curritur, Vita vivitur, &c. be- 
cause we can say, in the same manner, actively, Curro cur- 
sum, Vivo vitam. Pugna ilia quce pugnata est Cic. Omne mill- 
tabitur bellum Hor. Jam tertia vivitur cetas Ovid.. Many 
neuter \ erbs taken in an active sense, or in a sense different from 
their primary signification, are found in the passive voice, used as 
if they came from active verbs ; these will be found in one of the 
annexed lists. 


RULE XLIV. One verb governs another in the infini- 
tive : as, 

Cupio discere, I desire to learn. 

Note 1. Or, when two verbs come together, without a conjunc- 
tion expressed or understood, one of them is put in the infini- 
tive : as, Qui mentiri solet, pejerare consuevit Cic. Incipit appa- 
rere Virg. 

Note 2. The infinitive is frequently subjoined to adjectives, 
especially among the poets : as, Insueto vera audire ferodor ora- 
tio visa est Liv. Audax omnia perpeti Hor. Dignus amari 

Note 3. The infinitive, with, or without, an accusative ex- 
pressed, frequently depends upon nouns and verbs : as, Et jam 
tempus equum Jumantia solvcre colla Virg. Utrum melius esset 
ingredi Cic. Se semper credunt negligi Ter. Non satis est pul~ 
chra essepoemata Hor. 

Note 4<. Sometimes the accusative is turned into the dative : as, 
Quid est autem tarn secimdum naturam, quam scnibus emori Cic. 


Cato maj Perhaps the whole sentence may be Quid csl tarn se- 
cundum naturarn, quam (est secundam naturam) senibus, (series t ) 

Note 5. The governing word is sometimes understood : as, 
Mene inccpto desistere victam Virg. i. e. decet or par est. Ego 
illnd sedulo negare fact urn Ter. i. e. ccepL In such forms as 
Videre est, Animadvertere est,facultas, potestas, copia, or the like, 
is understood. Thus also, Neque est tejhltere cuiquam Virg. 

Note 6. The infinitive itself is sometimes suppressed : as, Ei 
proviuclam Numidiam popidits jussit Sail. i. e. dari. Socratem 
fidibus docuit Cic. i. e. canere. 

Note 7. It has just been mentioned that the infinitive is often 
dependent upon ccepi understood : but many instances occur in 
which this idiom cannot be rationally explained upon the sup- 
position of such an ellipsis : as, Verum ingenium ejus haud absur- 
dum : posse versus Jacere, jocum movere Sail. 

Note 8. When the infinitive mood is governed by a preceding 
verb, it supplies the place of a substantive, since it is the object 
of the action, energy, or affection denoted by the governing verb ; 
thus in Cupio discere , discere is the object of the affection denoted 
by cupio, in the same manner as in English, to learn or learning, 
is the object of I desire, when we say I desire to learn, or I desire 

learning. The infinitive mood may, therefore, be considered 

as a substantive. Its gender is neuter ; it is of the singular num- 
ber ; and is used in all cases. It is governed by nouns, verbs, 
and prepositions ; and adjectives and pronouns agree with it, as 
will be seen in the following examples : 

1. It is used as a nominative to a verb personal : as, Vtinam 
emori fortunis meis honestus exitus esset Sail. As a nominative 
following a verb substantive ; thus, Sive illuderatsinefunereferri 
Ovid. As a nominative to a verb sometimes esteemed imper- 
sonal : thus, Cadit in eundem et misereri et invidere Cic. As a 
case in apposition to a preceding nominative : thus, Res erat spec- 
iaculo digna, videre Xcrxem in exiguo latentem navigio Justin. 
It is true that, in this last example, videre, the infinitive, is, as in 
a preceding example, the nominative to the substantive verb ; 
but the sentence is usually translated, " It was a thing worthy 
of being seen to behold, or observe, Xerxes," &c. 

2. It is used after some substantives and adjectives as a geni- 
tive, often convertible into the gerund in di : as, Tempus est abire 
Cic. for abeundiy or abitionis. Est animus nobia effundere vi- 
tam Ovid. Non defuit animus adoriri Suet. Soli cantare 
pcriti Arcades Virg. for cantandi, or cantus. 

3. It is used as a dative : thus, Et -oos servire magis, quam im- 
perarc parati estis Sail. i. e. serviiuti magis quam imperio. 

4. As an accusative : thus, Da mihi fallere Hor. i. e. artem 
follendi. Terram cum primnm aranf, proscindcre appellant ; cum 

itcrum, offringere dicuutVarr. After a preposition : as, Nihil 


interest inter dare el accipere Senec. Prceter plorare Hor. 
Prater loqui Liv. 

5. As a vocative, in vivere nostrum, for vita nostra. 

6. As an Ablative: thus, Et erat turn dignus amari Virg. for 
amore. Ne operam perdas poscere Plaut. i. e in poscendo. As 
an ablative case absolute, either with, or without, a preceding 
accusative expressed : thus, Hand cuiquam dubio opprimi posse 
Liv. Audito regem in Sicilian tendere Sail. 

7. It admits an adjective or pronoun to agree with it : as, To- 
tum hoc displicet philosophariCic. Sed ipsum Latine loqui est 
illud quidem in magna Laude ponendum Cic. Scire tuum nihil 
est Pers. The poets often join an adjective with the infinitive, 
which may be considered either as an adverb, or as an adjective 
agreeing with it : thus, Datur ordo senectce Admeto, serumque mo- 
ri Stat. Reddes dulce loqui, reddes ridere decorum Hor. 

8. It is found with the genitive of a pronoun after it, like a 
noun: as, Quid est hujus vivere ? din mori Sen. F. Maximus ; 
cujus non dimicarefuit vincereVal. Max. 

Note 9. The infinitive is used as an accusative, after verbs of 
an active signification : as, Desidero te videre, for conspectum tuum: 
and this chiefly when there is no suitable noun : as, Nescio men- 
tiri. Likewise, when the infinitive may be resolved into quod, ut, 
ne, quin, &c. with some finite verb : as, Non dubitabo te monere 
Cic. i. e. quin te moneam. It is sometimes used when convertible 
into the participle in dus : as, Loricam donat habere viro Virg. 
i. e. habcndam, or ut habeat. It supplies the place of an accusa- 
tive with ad, propter, or ob: as, Nam te emere coegit Cic. i. e. 
ad emere or ad emendum. Plorat aquam proflindere Plaut. i. e. 
ob aquam projimdendam. The infinitive is generally used in En- 
glish and in Greek, when the intention is to denote the final 
cause ; this is not common in Latin, but a few instances of it oc- 
cur: as, Non tefrangere persequor Hor. i.e. ut frangam. In~ 
troiit videre Ter. Proteus pec us egit altos viscre monies Hor. 
This may be considered either as '\ poetical license or a Graecism, 
and is not to be imitated. 

Note 10. The infinitive mood and its accusative case (which 
form is equivalent to quod or ut with a finite verb) often supplies 
the place of a case : as, Scin me tuum esse herum Plaut. Te ac- 
cepisse meas literas gaudeo Ter. in which the neuter verb may be 
supposed to be followed by the preposition Kara or propter. 

Note 11. The infinitive has been termed Nomen Verbi, or the 
noun of the verb : and whenever the verb following that interven- 
ing between two verbs, is convertible, according to the sense> 
into a cognate noun, the noun and verb following that may gene- 
rally be put in Latin, the one in the accusative, and the other 
in the infinitive, omitting the Latin of that : thus, Audivieum ve~ 
nisse, I heard that he had arrived, is equivalent to ejus adventum, 
of his arrival. Scrip-sit se cupcrc, to suam cupiditatcm. The in- 


finitive is, however, sometimes turned into a finite verb followed 
either by quod or ut, although these two are not, but very seldom, 
mutually convertible : thus, 

1. The infinitive mood, or sometimes quod followed by the in- 
dicative or subjunctive, is put after verbs of sense ; as sentio, ani- 
madverto, intelligo, audio, censeo, scio, credo, obliviscor, &c. : verbs 
of affection ; as gaudeo, lector, doleo, cegrejero, miror, &c. except 
verbs of desire and fear, which require ut : verbs of speaking 
and showing ; as, dico, aio, perhibeo, rejero, nuncio, nego, ostendo, 
dcmonstro, promitto, polliceor, spondeo, voveo, &c. : (but after the 
following the infinitive is used, but never quod ; solet, cccpit, inci-, 
pit, potcst, quit, neguit, est for licet, debet, &c.) . as, Miror te a/ 
me nihil scribere Cic. Scio se promittere folso Ovid. Scio jam 

Jilius quod amet meus Ter. forjilium meum amare. Scribis miki, 
mirari Ciceronem, quod nihil significem de suis actis Brut, ad Att. 
ap. Cic. This subject will be further noticed under Conjunc- 
tions, where an alphabetical list will be given of the principal 
words usually followed by quod, ut, or the infinitive. 

2. The infinitive, or the subjunctive with ut, may be subjoined 
to verbs of willing ; as volo, nolo, malo, cupio, opto, permitto, sino, 
patior, &c. (these rather take the infinitive :) to verbs of com- 
manding ; as impero, mando, prcccipio, edico, &c. ; to verbs of in- 
treating ; as oro, rogo, postulo, peto, Jlagito, prtzcor, &c., (but 
these oftener take the subjunctive with ut or ne : ) also to verbs de- 
noting something future ; as paro, cogo, impello, urgeo, decerno, 
tlatuo, constituo, facio, studeo, &c. ; and to certain impersonals, 
or words used impersonally ; as libet, licet, decet, oportet, expedit, 
conducit, prodest, obest, nocet, refert, interest, prcestat, scquitur, 
&c. to which may be added such expressions as JEquumest, Par 
est, Cerium est, Fas est, Nejhs est, but these seldom take the sub- 
junctive with ut. Thus, Vis me uxorem ducere. ? Ter. or ut uxo- 
rem ducam. Non aliter cineres mando jacere rneos Mart, or, ut 
cineres meijaceant. His orat vigiles incumberc curas--Va\. Flac. 
or, ut his vigiles euro* incumbant. Modo liccat vivere, est spes 
Ter. or, ut is observed that the subjunctive with 
ut or ne, is more common after verbs of commanding, than the 
infinitive ; but that the infinitive generally occurs after a dative 
or an accusative, the subjunctive, after a dative only : as, Cadmo 
perquirere raptam [jUiam] Imperat Ovid. Equitatum procedcre 

imperat Cses. Suis, ut idem faciant, imperat Caes. It is 

likewise observed, that, after the following words, the conjunc- 
tion is often omitted, volo, nolo, malo, rogo, precor, censeo, cavco, 
suadeo, licet, oportet, jubeo, and similar words, moneo, and the like; 
after die used for jube, after sine,fac or Jacito, esto, (suppose, 
grant ;) and after necesse est, inscitia est, dare operam : as, Syro 
ignoscas volo Ter. Nee medeare miM sanesquc n&c vulnem man- 
do Ovid! Tu fac bono magnoquc animo sis Cic. Inscitia est, 
adversum slimnliun calces Ter. Lice! adjicias Var. Iliad monco, 
casira habeas Nep. Esto, populus mallet Hor. The verb of in- 


treating is sometimes omitted : as, Ut isthunc di, deccque pe.rd.anl. 
Precor, or a similar word, is understood. 

Note 12. Dubito and dulium est are sometimes followed by the 
infinitive, but oftener by the subjunctive with an, num, utrum, 
and (if non goes before) qmn : as, Non dubito fore plerosque 
Nep. Periisse me una hand dulium est Ter. Non dulium est, 
quin uxorem -nolitjilius Ter. Din dubitavit, impcrium deponerel, 
an bello register et Justin. It is to be observed, that such phrases 
as Dubito an, Hand scio an, Nescio an, although from their very 
nature they imply some doubt, are, notwithstanding, generally 
used in a sense almost affirmative : thus, Si per se virtus sine foriu- 
nd ponderanda sit, dubito an hunc primum omnium ponam Nep. 
i. e. for aught I know he may be placed first, or I am inclined to 
place him first. Alque hand scio an cjuce dixit vera sint omnia 
Ter. denotes that he is inclined to believe all that had been said, 
to be true. Elor/uenlid quidern nescio an parem habuisset neminem 
Cic. implies that he supposed he had no equal. A few in- 
stances might be mentioned in which such phrases are to be in- 
terpreted negatively. 

Note 13. Verbs of fearing; such as timer*, metuo, vereor, paveo, 
are used affirmatively with ?ie, but negatively with ut or ne. non : 
thus, Timet ne deseras se Ter. She is afraid that you may forsake 
her. Paves ne ducas uxorem Ter. denotes you are afraid to marry. 
Paves ut ducas Ter. You are afraid lest you should not marry 
her. Fereor ne exercitumjirrnum habere possit Cic. I am afraid 
lest he should have a good army. Intellexi te vereri ne superiores 
literce mihi redditte non e&sent Cic. 1 understood you were afraid, 
that I had not received your last letter. Timeo ne non impetrem 
Cic. I am afraid I shall not carry the point. In explanation of 
this, it may perhaps be observed, that such Latin verbs have in 
themselves something of a negative nature, that, ex. gr. timeo 
has in it something of the nature of non spero, expectation being, 
in a certain sense, the basis of both ; that, therefore, seeing they 
are negative themselves, it follows that, when they are followed 
by ne, which is another negative, the sense must be, on the 
whole, affirmative, since two negatives destroy each other; and 
that when the)' are followed by ut, which is no negative, or by 
ne non, which, being two negatives, is equivalent to an affirma- 
tive, they are still negative, as they are followed by nothing capa- 
ble of destroying their own negative signification. Thus also if 
we use two words of a negative nature, as in Non vereor ut id 
Jiat, or, which is the same thing, four negatives, as in Non ve- 
reor ne non id fiat, the meaning is affirmative, and the same in * 
both, namely, that we are almost certain, that we expect, or sus- 
pect, that the thing we wish for will happen ; and, therefore, that 
we are not afraid that it will not come to pass. Thus Cicero, Ne 
verendum tjuidem est ut tenere se possit, et moderari. We have no 
reason to be afraid of his containing and governing himself; or, 
although the expression is somewhat stronger, we have reason to 


believe, of to expect, that he will, &c. Non vereor ne hoc officium 
meum Servilio non probem. I am not afraid, or I hope, that I shall 
be able to justify my conduct to Servilius. There is, it is ob- 
served, a distinction between Vereor ne, and Vereor ut, in the for- 
mer's being used to denote our fear that something may happen, 
which we do not wish; and in the latter 's implying our fear that 

something may not happen, which we wish to happen. The 

infinitive is but seldom used after these: thus, Metuit tangi Hor. 
i. e. ne tangatur. Sed vereor tardce causa fuisse morce Ovid. i. e. 
ne causa fuerim. But in such expressions as Metuit tentare, Timet 
venire, ftreor dicere, He is afraid of trying, or to try, &c. the in- 
finitive only is used, because in these the reference is to a simple, 
positive action ; in the others, to one which is contingent. 

Note 14s After such verbs as cxutima, puto, sporo, affirmo, sus- 
picor, &c. the place of the future of the infinitive may be ele- 
gantly supplied by fore orfuturum esse, the verb being put in the 
subjunctive with ut: as, Existimabant pleriquefuturumfuisse t ut 
oppidum amitteretur Cses. Nunquam putamfore ut ad te supplex 
veniremCic. When the verb has no future participle, this phra- 
seology becomes necessary. 

Note 15. The English infinitive following any part of the verb 
am is expressed in Latin by the future participle : as, Rationem 
redditurus est, He is about to give an account. Ratio reddenda 
est Cic., An account is to be given. It may sometimes, as after 
video, sentio, audio, be expressed in Latin by the present participle ; 
as, Vidi eum ingredientem, I saw him enter, or entering. Sensi 
ilium lacrymas effundentem, I saw him shed tears. 

The General Rule for the Government of 'Participles, 
Gerunds^ and Supines. 

RULE XLV.- Participles, Gerunds, and Supines, govern 
the case of their own verbs : as, 

Amans virtutem. Loving virtue. 
Gsrerujraude, Wanting guile. 

Note 1. Thus also, Quidam nominatus poeta Cic. Regni re- 
rumque obliti Virg. Indulgens sibi hi/drops Hor. Non inferiora 
secutus Virg. Virum pecunid indigentem l V. Max. Parcendurn 
estteneris Juv. Consilium Lacedcemonem occupandi Liv. Uten- 
dum est cetate Ovid. Aut Gratis servitum matribus ibo Virg. 
Legati venerunt questum injurias, et exfcedere res repetilum Liv. 
Vaticinatus est madefactum iri Grceciam sanguine Cic. 

1 We find Egcns omnibus Cic. and Omnium honestarum rerum egens~SaM. 
Abundant is likewise thus construed, but the ablative is the more frequent. 
Jndigens is also construed with a genitive. Such constructions may be re- 
ferred to this rule, since cgco, abundo, and indigco, are found with a genitive. 
Some, however, refer them to Rule XXI, and others refer the genitive to 
Rule XIV, 


Note 2. Government belongs to the first supine only. 

Note 3. Verbal nouns sometimes govern the case of their verbs: 
as, Justitia est obtemperatio scriptis legibusCic. Insidice consult 
non procedebant Sail. In these, perhaps, some participle may 
be understood, as prcestitus orjactus. Ignis aquce pugnax Ovid. 
Gratulabundus patrice Justin. Vitabundus castra Jiostium Liv. 

Note 4. The gerund in di, in imitation of a substantive, some- 
times governs, instead of the accusative plural, the genitive plu- 
ral : as, Nominandi istorum erit copia Plaut. Neque sui colligendi 
hostibusfacultatem relinquunt Cses. This is most common with 
pronouns; but we also find Facidtas agrorum condonandi Cic. 
Exemplorum eligendi potestas Cic. &c. If the genitive singular 
be found, and this is very uncommon, it happens when the pro- 
noun is of the feminine gender : as, Quoniam tui videndi est copia 
Plaut. Ego ejus videndi cupidus recta consequor Ter, Few 
instances can be adduced of its governing any other singular ge- 
nitive than that of pronouns feminine. 

Note 5. Exosus, perosus t and often also pert&sus, signify active- 
ly, and govern the accusative : as, Tcedas exosa jugales Ovid, 
Plebs consulum nomenperosa erat Liv. Pertcesus ignaviam suam 
Suet. Pertcesus, used impersonally, governs the genitive also: 
as, Pertasum levitatis Cic. thalami tcedceque Virg. Exosus 
andperosus, signifying passively, are said to be found with a dative ; 
as, \jermani Romanis perosi sunt. Exosus Deo et sanctis Lily. 
Exosus universis Eutrop. 

Note 6. Do, reddo, volo, curo,Jacio, habeo, with the accusative 
of a perfect participle, are often used by way of circumlocution, 
instead of the verb of the participle: as, Effectum dabo Ter. i. e. 
cfficiam. Me missumjhce Ter. i. e. mitte. Inventas reddam Ter. 
i. e. inveniam. In certain instances there is an evident difference 
between the simple tense of the verb, and the periphrasis corre- 
sponding to the manner in which it is usually interpreted in En- 
glish : thus, if we say Gladius quern abdiderat, or Gladius quern ab- 
ditum kabebat, the translation of either is, The sword which she had 
concealed. The latter is the phraseology of Livy, describing the 
suicide of Lucretia, and implies the actual possession of the dag- 
ger, at the time ; the former does not. In the others, the peri- 
phrastic form is said usually to denote greater emphasis than what 
is contained in the simple tense of the verb. 

Note 7. CurOy habeo, mando, loco, conduco, do, tribuo, accimo t 
mitto, relinquo, and the like, as edico, deposco, suscipio, rogo, trado, 
permitto, instead of the infinitive, the subjunctive, or sometimes 
the gerund in dum with ad, are elegantly construed with the par- 
ticiple in dus, agreeing with a substantive in gender, number, and 
case : as, Funus ei satis amplum faciendum curavi Cic. for Jieri 
or utjieret. Demus nos pJiilosopfiice excolendos Cic. Edico dird 
helium cum gente gcrendum Virg. Q? laudcm gloriamque P. 
AJricani luendam conscrvandamquc suscepitQc* Atiribuit nos 


trucidandos Cethego ; ceeteros cives interjidendos Gabinio ; urbem 
i)iflammandam Cassio ; totam Italiam vastandam diripiendamque 
Catilince Cic. in which the gerund in dum might be used, as ad 
truddandum, ad interficiendum , &c. 


RULE XL VI. The gerund in dum of the nominative 
case, with the verb est, governs the dative : as, 

Vivendum est mihi recte, I must live well. 
Moriendum cst omnibus. All must die. 

Note 1. That is, the gerund in dum of the nominative case, de- 
noting necessity or obligation, with the third person singular of 
any tense of sum, or with Jbret, governs the dative of the object 
with which the necessity or obligation lies : as, Dolendum est tibi 
ipsi Hor. Multa novis rebus prcesertim quum sit agendum Lucr. 
Etiamsi cumpluribus dimicandumforet Liv. In these last, how- 
ever, the dative is understood. 

Note 2. The dative is often understood : as, Orandum est, ut 
sit mens sana in corpore sano Juv. supply tibi. 

Note 3. Neuter verbs, denoting posture or gesture, which have 
a nominative before and after them, may have after this gerund 
two datives : as, Tibi in tud pace armato vivendum est Senec. 
equivalent to Tibi in tud pace armato [vel armatum~\ vivere necesse 

Note 4. After another verb, this gerund is turned into the ac- 
cusative with esse or fore, expressed or understood : as, Quotidie 
meditere resistendum esse iracundice Cic. Quibus rebus quam ma- 
turrime occurrendum (esse) putabat-^-Cses. Rursus ab Senatu ei 
postulandumjbre Liv. 

Note 5. This gerund may be resolved into the infinitive, or the 
subjunctive with ut generally understood, such words as necesse 
est, oportet, debeo, going before : as, Cuique manendum est, into 
Qtiisque debet manere. Moriendum est, into Homini necesse est 
mori, or ut moriatur. Ei postea non credendum, into Ei credi 
postea non oportet Cic. When the verb is neuter, it is not con- 
vertible into the participle in dus ; but when it is active, it may 
be thus varied : as, Habendum est canes, i. e. Oportet habere canes ; 
ovHabendisunt canes, i. e. Oportet canes haberi. The latter is said 
to be the more frequent construction, when there is a passive 
voice ; but the former is not, on that account, to be reckoned an 
antiquated form of expression. The antients frequently varied 
this construction by the substantive verb, and a verbal noun in io: 
as, Quid tibi hanc curatio est rem Plant. Cavcndum est may be 
changed into Cautio mihi est, Cautio mea est ! , Debeo cavere, Ne- 

1 In these two forms, the duty, necessity, or obligation, does not appear so 
evident as in the others. 


cesse esL mi/ii cave re, Necesse est or Oporiet me cavere, Neccsse li 
beo cavere, Caveam oportet or necesse est. 

Note 6. Grammarians have differed in their explanation of the 
construction of gerunds, some considering them as the participle 
in dus, and others, as verbal nouns governing a case. That they 
are not participles, is inferred chiefly from the two considerations, 
that they have no substantive expressed, with which they agree, 
and that neuter verbs in o, which have no participle in dus, have, 
notwithstanding, the verbal noun or gerund. Taking them as 
nouns, this construction may be thus explained ; Eundum est mild, 
I must go, i. e. Eundum est (opus) mihi, Going is needful or ne- 
cessary for me. Orandum est, ut sit &c. i. e. Orandum, ut sit &c. 
est (opus nobis;) equivalent to opus est, ut oremus. If dum be con- 
sidered as coming from the participle in dus, such examples as the 
last may be thus explained passively ; Hoc est orandum, ut sit &c. 
It is to be observed that the gerund in dum, while it is followed by 
a dative, governs at the same time the case of its verb : thus, in 
the last example, if orandum be taken in an active sense, the words 
ut sit metis sana &c. supply the place of an accusative to it : thus 
also Utendum est (nobis) estate Ovid. In regard to their signi- 
fication, there has been a considerable difference among gramma 
rians, some asserting that it is active, and some, passive. 1 believe 
it will be generally found, that they have the same signification 
as their verbs, that is, when these are active, they are active ; and 
when these are neuter, they are so likewise. It may be inferred 
from their government of other cases, besides the dative which all 
gerunds in dum with the verb est govern, that they have an active 
signification, those which come from neuter verbs being excepted. 
That they may be turned into the passive participle in dus is no 
decisive argument in favour of their being passive, since, although 
the general meaning in both forms may be similar or nearly so, yet 
there is a difference in the precise mode of the respective expres- 
sions. Thus, if we say In percipiendojructus, the meaning is ac- 
tive, and is equivalent to Cumpercipiasfructus. If we say In per- 
cipiendisfructibus, the turn of expression seems passive, Cumfruc- 
tus percipiantur. As active verbs are sometimes used absolutely, 
or as neuters, so their gerunds are sometimes found having an ab- 
solute or apparently neuter signification : thus, Pueros ante urbem 

lusus causd exercendique producers Liv. Quum Jugurtha Tisi- 

diumad imperandum vocaretur Sail. In the former a personal pro- 
noun may be understood ; and in regard to the latter, which some 
explain by considering ad imperandum as equivalent to adimperari^ 
or ut ei imperaretur, it may be observed that it seemed to the Ro- 
mans themselves so contrary to analogy, that Cicero writes " Quare 
ades ad imperandum, sen parendum potius: sic emm antiqui lo- 
quebantur. Ep. 9. 25. Thus also,- if we say Memoria cxcolendo, 
sicut alia omnia, augeturQuinct. the meaning may be not si co- 
latur, but si colas. Yet, if there are some who consider such ex- 
amples as passive, it is a matter of little consequence. The foJU 


lowing are the principal instances which I have seen adduced to 
prove their passive signification ; Athenas quoque erudiendi causd 
missus Justin, i. e. for the sake of being instructed, or for 
the sake of instruction ; but this may be interpreted actively, 
ut eum aliquis erudiat. Carpit enim vires paulatim, uritque viden- 
do femina (bos) Virg. generally rendered by being seen, or as 
equivalent to dum vidctur ; but may not the real meaning be by 
seeing him? Thus also Charta emporetica inutilis scribendo 
Plin. Aqua utilis bibendo Plin. Res ad judicandum difficilis 
Cic. These, however, although the meaning does appear passive, 
may be interpreted actively. Indeed, no ambiguity arises, in En- 
glish, from giving them what is, at least mjbrm, an active interpre- 
tation ; thus, we may say,paperfafor writing, orjfa to write upon, 
while we mean, Jit for being written upon ; water jit for drinking, 
or to drink, or Jit to be drunk; a matter difficult to decide, &c. That 
the English gerund, participle, or verbal noun, in ing, has both 
an active and a passive signification, there can be little doubt. 
Whether the Latin gerund has precisely a similar import, or 
whether it is only active, it may be difficult, and, indeed, after 
all, it is not of much moment, to ascertain. 

RULE XLVII. The Gerund in di is governed by substan- 
tives, or adjectives : as, 

Tempus legendi, Time of reading. 

Cupidus discendi, Desirous to learn. 

Note 1. The substantives are such as amor, causa, gratia, stu- 
dium, tempus, occasio, ars, Jacidtas, otium, cupido, voluntas, con- 
suetudo, locus, licentia, venia, vis, &c. ; thus, Amor habendi Cic. 
It is observed, that gratid and causd are generally placed after 
the gerund: as, Pabulandi causa Goes. Purgandi gratia Caes. 
Mala et impia consuetudo, est contra deum disputandi Cic. but 
that, when used in any other case than the ablative, they may 
be placed before : as, Equitatum per causam pabulandi emissum 

Note 2. The adjectives are chiefly such as denote desire, know- 
ledge, remembrance, and their contraries ; as peritus, imperitus, cu- 
pidus, insuetus, certus, rudis, &c. belonging to Rule XIV : thus, 
Docendi peritus Quinct. Certus eundi Virg. Insuetus navigan- 

Note 3. The infinitive is sometimes used for this gerund, espe- 
cially by the poets ; as Tempus abire, Occasio scribere, &c. for ab- 
eundi, scribendi. Studium quibus arva tueri Virg. Tempus sol- 
vere colla Virg. Sometimes the gerund in dum with ad : as, Fa- 
cultas ad dicendum Cic. equivalent to Facultas dicendi. 

Note 4. The governing substantive is sometimes understood : 
as, Cum haberem in animo navigandi Cic. i. e. propositum. This 
sometimes happens to participles or gerundives : as, Regium impe- 


rium quod initio conservandae libertatis atque augenda reipullicce 
fuerat Sail. i. e. causa. 

Note 5. This gerund is sometimes followed by the genitive plu- 
ral, instead of the accusative. See Rule XLV, Note 4. 

RULE XLVIII. The gerund in do of the dative case is 
governed by adjectives signifying usefulness or fitness : as, 

Charta utilis scribendo, Paper useful for writing. 

Note 1. Thus also, Charta emporetica est inutilis scribendo 
Plin. Ferrum habile tundendo Plin. 

Note Q. The adjective is sometimes suppressed: as, Tu non sol- 
vendo eras Cic. Radix ejus vescendo est Plin. Supply par, ha 
bilis, aptus, or some similar word. 

Note 3. This gerund sometimes depends upon a verb : as, Epi 
dicum qucerendo operam dabo Plaut. Ut nee triumviri accipiundo 
nee scribes referundo sitfficerent Liv. Is censendo Jinisfactus est 

Note 4. Sometimes the gerund in dum with ad is used instead o 
this construction : as, Qua pecude, quod erat ad vescendum homi- 
nibus apta, nihil genuit naturafcecundius Cic. 

Note 5. This gerund is governed not only by adjectives signify, 
ing usefulness, fitness, or the contrary, but by other adjectives 
also: thus, Illud ediscendo, scribendoque commune est Quinct 
Dat operam ne sit reliquum poscendo atque auferendo Plaut. Te- 
lum, utfodiendo acuminatum pariter, et sorbendo Jistulosum esset- 

RULE XLIX. The Gerund in dum of the accusative case 
is governed by the preposition ad or inter : as, 

Promptus ad audiendum, Ready to hear. 

Attentus inter docendum, Attentive in time of teaching. 

Note 1. It is likewise sometimes governed by ante, circa, or ol: 
thus, Ad ppenitendum properat qui citb judicatPubl. Syr. Age, 
Tityre, et inter agendum. . . . caveto Virg. Ante domandum In- 
gentes tollent animos Virg. Plus eloquentia circa movendum valet 
Quinct. A quo pecuniam ob absolvendum acceperis Cic. 

Note 2. As the gerund in dum is the nominative before est, so, 
consequently, it is the accusative before esse expressed or under- 
stood : as, Qui dicerent dignitati esse serviendum, reipullicce (esse) 
consulendum Cic. See Rule XLVI, Note 4. 

Note 3. This gerund is sometimes construed with haleo : as, 
Quum enitendum haberemus, ut (juod parentibus datur, et orbis pro- 
laretur Plin. When the accusative is added, the gerundive or 
participle in dus is used : as, Ut nihil discendum haleres tempore 
docendi Plin. 


RULE L. The gerund in do of the ablative case is go- 
verned by the prepositions a, ab, de, e, ex, or in : as, 

Pcena a peccando, absterret, Punishing frightens from 


Note 1. Thus also, Aristotelem non deterruit a scrilendo Cic. 
He transeundo in EptrumCic. Ab revocando ad indtandos hor- 
tandosque versus milites Liv. .r assentando Ter. file quident 
in recusando perstabat Liv. It is, though seldom, governed by 
pro or cum: as, Pro vapulando abs te mercedem petam Plaut. 
Ratio recte scribendijuncia cum loquendo est Quinct. 

Note 2. The gerund in do, says Mr. Seyer, is found governing 
a genitive: as, Cujus autem in dicendo aliquid reprehensum est Cic. 
Here I am inclined to concur in opinion with Dr. Crombie, whose 
words I take the liberty to use. ' * That possessive adjectives, and, 
" consequently, the genitive singular of nouns substantive, are 
" joined with verbals in io, there can be no question. Thus we 
ic say, dictio mea, ejus dictio, &c. That, for the sake of euphony, 
" the gerund is sometimes found governing the genitive of the pa- 
" tient, or subject of the action, is likewise unquestionable: thus, 
" Studio videndi patrum vestrorum. But I recollect no example, 
" where the gerund is joined with a possessive adjective, or geni- 
" tive of a noun substantive, where the person is not the patient, 
" but the agent ; as dicendum meum, ejus dicendum, cujus dicendum. 
" In truth, these phraseologies appear to me, not only repugnant 
(< to the idiom of the language, but also unfavourable to precision 
" and perspicuity. The example, which Mr. Seyer has adduced, 
1f of the gerund governing the genitive of the agent, does by no 
" means authorize his conclusion ; for cujus may evidently be go- 
" verned by aliquid. Nihil ejus, nihil cujus, aliquid ejus, aliquid 
" cujuSy * nothing of his,' ' nothing of whose/ ' any thing of his,' 
" c. are expressions which I need not justify by any quotations; 
" because to every classical scholar they must be perfectly fami- 
" liar. 

" Mr. Seyer has likewise said that the gerund is in signification 
" the same with the infinitive, or the verbal in io. No two words 
" can be considered as synonymous, or precisely the same in sig- 
" nification, unless they be in all cases interconvertible terms. 
" Now we may say legere est facile, lectio est facilis, but not legen- 
" dum est facile. To explain the distinction between the gerund 
" and the infinitive or the verbal in io, is beside the present pur- 
" pose. It is sufficient to observe that they are not used indis- 
" criminately." 

Note 3. This gerund may be found, contrary to the opinion of 
L. Valla, after verbs of motion : as, Ipse a dicendo refugisti Cic. 
The gerundive also : as, Non videor omnino a defendendis homini- 
lus sublevandisque discedere Cic. 


RULE LI. Or, the Gerund in do may be used without a 
preposition, as the ablative of manner or cause : as, 

Memoria excolendo augetur Quinct The memory is im- 
proved by exercising it. 

Defessus sum ambulanda Ter. I am wearied with walk- 

Of the Changing of Gerunds into Gerundives 
or Participles in dus. 

RULE LII. Gerunds governing the accusative may be 
elegantly turned into the participles in dus, which agree 
with their substantives, in gender, number, and case : as, 

Petendum est pacem, into Petenda est pax. 
Tempus petendi pacem, Tempus petendre pacis. 

Ad petendum pacem, Ad petendam pacem. 

A petendo pacem, A petenda pace. 

Note 1. Thus also Ejicienda est hcec mollities Ter. for Ejici- 
endum est hanc mollitiem. Inita sunt consilia urbis delendce Cic. 
for urbem delendi. Reparandarum classium causd Suet, for re- 

parandi classes. Rerum suarum referendarum secum dominis 

jusfiebat Liv. From the two last examples, (and many more 

might be cited,) it is evident that Valla and Farnabius committed 
a mistake, when they asserted that, on account of the noisy sound, 
the gerund in di is seldom changed into the genitive plural of the 
gerundive ! , but that either the accusative is retained, as in Studio 
patres vestros videndi, or that the substantive, and not the gerund, 
is put in the genitive plural, as in Patrum vestrorum videndi studio 
Dummodo perpetiendo labori sit idoneus Colum. for perpetiendo 
lalorem. Quce valeant ad gloriam adipiscendamCic. for adipiscen- 
dum. His et qua taceo duravi scepeferendis Ovid, fovhcecferendo. 

Note 2. This rule takes place, only when the verb may govern 
an accusative : if it governs any other case, the gerund must be 
used : as, Veritus ne relir/uos populares metus invaderet parendi sibi 
Sail. Plus penc parcendo metis quam vincendo, imperium auxisse 
Liv. There is, however, an exception in regard to the verbs 
utor, (perhaps also, abutor,) fruor, fungor, and potior, which, 
although they do not govern the accusative, (they did so for- 
merly,) are construed according to this rule : thus, JEtas adhces 
utenda idonea Ter. Justitice fruendce causd Cic. In omni mu- 
nere fungendo Cic. Urbis potiundce cupido Justin. 

Note 3. The gerundives must be in the same case as the gerunds 
would have been, preserving, however, the gender and number of 
the substantives. 

1 When a relative follows, the gerund is used ; as Hie dies attulit initium di* 
cendi qua vellemCic. not dicendorum eorum qua vellem. 

Note 4-. Although the form of expression in which the gerun- 
dive is used be the more common, yet examples of the other form 
frequently occur in Cicero, and in other writers of the best age 
and authority : thus, Visendi demos potestas Liv. Petendi con- 
sulatum gratia Sail. Venit ad, recipiendum pecunias Var. Nunc 
purgando crimina, nunc qucedam fatendo - - - nunc monendo etiam 
Patres Conscriptos Liv. Nullo loco deero, neque ad consolandum 
neque ad levandumfortunam tuam Cic. Romam videndi causa 
Virg. with many similar instances. .E^ nos lavando operam dede- 
runt Plaut. is a very uncommon construction. 

Note 5. Of the signification of gerunds sufficient notice has 
been taken in Rule XL VI. And, although a few more instances 
might be added, tending to confirm the opinion of their passive 
acceptation, yet there is no doubt that they in general have an 
active signification, although it is certain there are not wanting 
examples in which they have, or seem to have, a passive one. 

The gerund in dum of the nominative case, is construed by 
Rule II ; the dative following it, by Rule XXV ; that in di by 
Rules XI and XIV : in do of the dative case, by Rule XVI ; in 
dum of the accusative case, by Rule LXVIII ; and that of the 
ablative, by Rule LXIX, LXXI, or LV. 


RULE LIII. The Supine in um, is put after a verb of mo- 
tion: as, 

Abiit deambulatum, He is gone to walk. 

Note 1. The supine in urn, like the gerund, is a verbal noun ; 
and being, generally, placed after a verb of motion, it denotes the 
nature of that action to which the motion tends. It commonly 
retains the signification of the verb in o, whether active or neuter, 
whence it comes, and governs the same cases: thus, Omnes lonos 
perditum eunt Sail. Ut cubitum discessimus Cic. 

Note 2. There are a few expressions in which the supine in um 
follows a verb not strictly denoting motion, though motion may 
be considered as implied ; such are Dojlliam nuptum Ter. Pam- 
philam cantatum provocemus Ter. Cohortes ad me missum facias 
Cic. Vos ultum injurias horlor Sail. Coctum ego> non vapu- 
latum, dudum conductus fui Plaut. It is likewise put after par- 
ticiples : as, Patriam defensum revocatus Nep. Spectatum ad- 
vnissi Hor. 

Note 3. There have been various disputes concerning the nature 
of supines, and the part of speech to which they ought to be refer- 
red. The general opinion seems to be, that they are mere verbal 
nouns ; and some think that, although only two cases are com- 
monly mentioned, um of the accusative and u of the ablative, the 
former used after a verb of motion, and the latter after an adjec- 
tive noun, they are found in other cases likewise, and even, it is 



said, in the plural number. Thus in such phrases as Cautum est ! , 
fantum est, Pugnatum /, Comurrectum est, in which the verb is 
said to be used impersonally, it is asserted that the nominative is 
used. Horrendum auditu, Miralile visu, Collocare nuptui, are said 
to contain the dative of the supine. In Eo spectatum y Vtmimus 
qiicesitum, and the like, the accusative is used, governed by ad> 
which is found sometimes expressed. Dictu opus est Ter. ; Mi- 
grain difficilia Liv. ; Parvum dictu, sed immensum cestimatione 
Plin. ; are considered to contain the ablative governed by in un- 
derstood. In regard to their signification, likewise, there have 
been differences of opinion. 

The general opinion seems to be, that the supine in um signifies 
actively, when it comes from an active verb, governing the same 
case as the verb ; but that there are a few instances in which it ap- 
pears to have a passive signification, such as Coctum ego, non vapu- 
latum dudum conductus fui Plant, i. e. ut vapularem, sive verbe- 
rarer. But this cannot, I think, be reckoned a decisive instance, 
since the supine has here only the passive signification which in 
. the active voice the verb itself possesses. Mulier quce usurpatum 
isset Gell. i. e. quoe usurpatafuisset. The supine in u is said to 
have an active signification, chiefly when it comes from neuter 
and deponent verbs : thus, Foedum inceptu,foedum exitu Liv. i. e. 
Cum incipit, cum exit. Quia C<zsar rams egressu Tacit, i. e. raro 
egrediebatur. It has been, however, usually considered as passive, 
and is convertible into the infinitive passive : as, Fessis leviora tolli 
Pergama Graiis Hor. 2, 4, for sullatu. Adspici cognosciijite dig' 
nissimum Mela. Notwithstanding this, and although it never 
governs a case, and both supines are considered as coming from 
the perfect participle in us, which has a passive signification, 
(originally it had an active one likewise, ) it appears to me, that 
the supine in u may, without materially altering the sense, be in- 
terpreted actively. It is generally convertible into a verbal noun, 
and these are for the most part understood in the sense of the ac- 
tive voice ; thus, Auctor dignus leclu, or dignits lectione\ as well as 
dignus legi t dignus quern legas, or dignus t/ui legatur. Hand mogna 
memoratu res est Liv. may be either important to le me?itioned, 
or, for me to mention. Acerbafatit Virg. may be translated bit- 

1 While I mention this as the decision of several celebrated grammarians, 
I do not pledge myself for the accuracy of their opinion, either in regard to 
this case, or to the dative. That such words as cautum, ventum, pugnatnm y 
&c. are participles, I entertain little douht. Those who wish to see the sub- 
ject discussed are referred to Vossius, Anal. III. 1 1. and 42, and to Perizonius, 
P. 441 and 461. The principal objection to the opinion that ventitm, and the 
like, are participles in ventum est, &c. is, that being neuter verbs, they are not 
supposed to have a passive participle. But if, as such, they admit venitur, they 
may likewise ad^nit the neuter gender of a passive participle. The truth, I be- 
lieve, is, that neuter verbs, used impersonally, have perfect participles, which 
are considered as triptotes, having only the nominative, accusative, and abla- 
tive neuter : thus, Slat-urn est, statum e'sse (licit, opus est stalo ; thus also, Pcrstta- 
stivi cst, pcrsnas-uin fuse volo, illi* perxnaao. 


ter to le related, or for me to re/ate. But, as an ingenious writer 
observes, " It must be confessed, that every question relating to 
gerunds and supines is extremely doubtful : whichever side the 
reader takes, he will find difficulties in accommodating any theory 
to the practice of writers. They were originally, perhaps, both 
active and passive, both substantives and participles ; some con- 
structions and significations might grow obsolete, other similar 
ones might be arbitrarily retained ; from whence arose that irre- 
gular diction which was in use at the time of the best authors, 
and which can be acquired only by attentive observation." 

Note 4>. The supine in um with the verb iri constitutes the fu- 
ture of the infinitive passive : as, Brutum, ut scrilis, visum iri a me 
puto Cic. It never varies its termination ; for we do not say Illos 
occisos iri, but illos occisum iri. Thus used its signification is said 
by some to be passive; see, however, page 87. It is to be ob- 
served, that the future signification arises neither from eo, nor from 
the supines, but from the connection of both ; and that, as the 
one action depends upon the other, it must necessarily be con- 
sidered as contingent or future : thus, in Amatum ire and Amatum 
iri, the former of which some grammarians have considered as 
present, and the latter, as future, the time of going, as denoted 
by ire or iri, is present, and as it precedes the action denoted by 
arnatum, it follows that the loving is subsequent or future. In the 
same way it is, that, by inference, the form " I will love," which 
is composed of the present tense / will, and the infinitive to love, 
is considered to express future action in regard to the loving, the 
performance of the action willed being necessarily subsequent or 
future to the present action of willing it. For this reason, Cur te 
25 perditum ? Ter. is not to be esteemed equivalent to Cur te per- 
dis? the former implying future destruction, thus, " Why are you 
about to destroy yourself?" " Why are you going to destroy your- 
self?" "Why are you acting in such a manner that the consequence 
will be your destruction?" the latter denoting present destruction, 
' Why are you destroying?" or " WTiy do you destroy yourself?" 

Note 5. The supine in um may be resolved into a finite verb 
with ut -, thus, Spectatum veniunt, i. e. ut spectent. Postr/uam au- 
dierat non datum iri Jilio suo uxorem Ter. i. e. fore ut uxor non 
daretur; or, perhaps, rather, fore ut uxorem non darent. 

Note 6. This supine may be varied by different constructions: 
thus, Fenit oratum opem. Fenit opem orandi causa or gratid 1 . fe- 
nit opis orandcz causa or gratid. Fenit ad orandum opem. Venit 
ad orandam opem. Fenit opi orandae (uncommon). Fenit opem 
oraturus. Fenit qui or ut opem oret. Fenit opem orare (poetical). 
To these forms have been added Fenit opem orans, and Fenit de 
oranda ope, both supported by classical authorities. But the for- 

VVhere the substantive may be used in the plural, the genitive may be 
substituted for the accusative ; thus, Fenit spectandi ludorum causa. See Rule 
XLV, Note 4. 



mer does not appear to me to be precisely equivalent in sense to 
y^nit oratum opem or to the others, as it simply denotes " He 
comes begging assistance," which does not imply that the intention 
or purpose of the coming is to beg assistance, but merely that the 
coming and the begging are concomitant or co-existent acts. 

RULE LIV. The Supine in u is put after an adjective 
noun: as, 

Facile dictu, Easy to tell, or, to be told. 

Note 1. Thus also, Nee visufacilis, nee dictu qffalilis ulli Virg. 
Quod optimum factu videbitur, fades Cic. 

Note 2. It is sometimes, but rarely, found after fas, nefas, and 
opus: as, Hoc fas est dictu, Cic. Nefas visu Ovid. Ita dictu 
opus est Ter. Scilu opus est Cic. Prudentius has used see/us 
in like manner : as, Quod dictu scelvs est. It may be observed that 
these have the force of adjectives, and are equivalent to licitum, 
illicitum, necessarium, scelestum. 

Note 3. It is sometimes put after verbs signifying motion from 
a place : as, Primus cubitu surgat, primus cubitum eat Cato. It 
is likewise found after other verbs. Those, however, who make 
a distinction between supines and verbal nouns of the fourth de- 
clension, will be inclined to refer such forms to the latter deno- 

Note 4. It seems to be sometimes used for a dative case: as, 
Aut mala tactu Vipera delituit Virg. Omnia postremo bima sen- 
sibus et mala tactu Lucr. Hcec res neutiquajn neglectu est mihi 
Ter. These may be considered either as the supines, or abla- 
tive case governed by a preposition understood, or they may be 
datives, as if is well known that the dative of the fourth declension 
antiently ended in u. 

Note 5. The supine in u, as has been already mentioned, is in 
reality the ablative of a verbal noun governed by a preposition un- 
derstood ; and it generally follows adjectives governing either the 
dative or ablative, such as ajj'abilis, bonus, dignus, indignus,facilis, 
difficilis, jucundus, injucundus, pulcher, utilis,foedus, turpis, rarus, 
horrendus, gravis, asper, &c. Thus, Res horrenda relatu Ovid, 
may be horrenda in relatu. Culitu surgat may be a cubitu. Quin- 
tilian uses in the same sense Nee in receptu difficilis. Virgil has 
Vesper e pastu vitulos ad tecta reducit, in both which the preposi- 
tion is expressed. 

, Note 6. This supine is convertible into the infinitive : thus, Ar- 
dua imitate, cceterum cognosci utilia Val. Max. for utilia cognitu. 
Indeed, as the second supine is used absolutely, that is, does not 
govern a case, the infinitive is commonly used when the energy of 
the verb is intended to pass to an object. Into the gerund in 
dum with ad : as, Illud autem facile ad credendum est Cic. It is 

observed that this form is chiefly preferred either when there is no 
supine, or when, if there be one, it cannot be used on account of 

the words dependent upon the action of the verb. Into a verbal 

noun: thus, Opus proscriptione dignum Plin. After verbs of mo- 
tion it is observed that the verbal noun is much more frequently 
used than this supine: as, A declines legionis cokortatione profectus 
Caes. Jam JEtoli a populatione Acarnamcc Stratum redierant Liv. 
Indeed, in these the supine could not be used, on account of the 
genitives depending upon the verbals, since the supine, as such, 
governs neither a genitive like a substantive, nor any case as part 
of a verb. The verbals are also used in the dative : as, Aqua potui 
jucunda Plin. Or in the accusative with ad: as, Tant/uam me- 
diocritas prceceptoris ad intellectum atyue imilationem sit jacilior 

Note 7. The supine in urn commonly follows verbs of motion; 
the infinitive, other verbs ; the gerund in dum with ad, follows ad- 
jective nouns. This last form is, however, frequently met with after 
verbs of motion ; and the poets use also the infinitive after adjec- 
tives. The supine in u and the present infinitive passive are 

thus distinguished : the former has generally an adjective before 
it; the latter has not, unless sometimes among the poets. Indeed, 
gerunds, supines, and the infinitive, being considered as verbal 
nouns substantive, it is not wonderful, that, in many instances, 
the one noun may be used for the other, as they are all derived 
from the same original. 


Circumstances are five; CAUSE, MANNER, INSTRUMENT, 
PLACE, and TIME; and they are common both to verbs and 

The Cause, Manner, and Instrument. 

RULE LV. The Cause, Manner, and Instrument, are put 
in the ablative : as, 

Palleo melU) I am pale with fear. 

Fecit suo more, He did it after his own way. 

Scribo calamo, I write with a pen. 

Note 1. Thus also, Cause; as, Pallet amore Hor. To this 
refer such expressions as Insignis piciate, Major et maximus nalu, 
Natione Syrus, &c. Qppidum nomine Bilrax Caes. Naturd tu 
Hit pater, consiliis ego Ter. Some of these may be referred to 

the Manner. Manner: as, More majorum Sail. Lento gradu 

ad vindictam sui divina procedit ira Val. Max. Instrument : 
as, Naturam expetlas fared Hor. Ccesus est virgis Cic. Some 
refer to the Instrument, the means, as in Ami-cos vbscrvantid } rein 


parsimonid retinuit Cic. but such ablatives are better referred to 
the Cause or Manner. 

Note 2. The Cause is known by putting the question Why? or 
Wherefore? The Manner, by How? And the Instrument, by 
Wherewith ? 

Note 3. The Cause sometimes takes the prepositions per, prop- 
ter* ob ; de, e, ex, pros: as, Depulsus per invidiam Cic. Ea sus- 
picio propter hanc causam fuitCic. Ob adulterium cccsi Virg. 
Indeed, in some cases the preposition seems almost indispensable: 
thus we should say Colo te ob vel propter virtutem, rather than vir- 
tute. When the cause is a person, this preposition must be general- 
ly used: as, Non est aquum me propter vos decipi Ter. Fessus 

d e v id Cic. Vacillare ex vino Quinct. Nee loqul prce mcerore 
potuit Cic. Sometimes a or ab is used : as, Animus tumidajer- 
vebat ab ird Ovid, but these refer to the word considered rather 
as the agent, than as the cause. 

Note 4. The Manner is sometimes expressed by o, ab, cum, de, 
ex, per : as, Quern celer adsuetd vcrsat ab arte puer Tibul. Cum 
videret oratores cum severitate audiri, poetas autem cum voluptate 
Cic. Diadema gesiavit de more rituque priscce religionis Suet. 
Id non Jleri ex verd vitd, nec/ue adeo ex cequo et bono Ter. Quud 
iter per provinciam per vim tentdssentCses. 1 

Note 5. The Instrument, properly so called, scarcely ever ad- 
mits the preposition : thus we do not say Interfecit eum cum gladio, 
but gladio only. But, when the Instrument is spoken of not 
strictly as material but as equivalent to the cooperating weans, 
cum may be used : as, Cum meis copiis omnibus vexavi Amanienses 
Cic. 2 Among the poets, however, a or ab is sometimes used : 
as, Pectora trajectus ab ense Ovid. Other prepositions, as sub, 
de, or in t are sometimes prefixed to the instrument : as, Exercere 
solum sub vornere Virg. De manu cibos et aquam prcebere Co- 
lum. But in this last, manu does not so much denote the instru- 
ment by which the thing is done, as the place whence it is given. 
The Vulgate has Vmiabo in virgd peccata eorum, and the like, 

which are Hebraisms. Sanctius observes, that cum is not placed 

before the Instrument, lest it might occasion ambiguity. Thus, 
if we were to write Tetigi eum cum kasta, it might be doubtful 
whether the meaning were, "I touched him with (and) the spear," 
or, "I touched him with (i. e. he was touched by me with) a 
spear." For this reason cum is omitted, unless when the meaning 
is along with, and the examples cited to prove the contrary either 
are suspicious, or imply a different sense. 

Note 6. The ablative of the Instrument is to be distinguished 
from the ablative of concomitancy , which is generally expressed 

1 Sallust has Midta'Cum suo animo volvcbat and Cum animo rejmtans* 

" It was noticed, under the construction of passive verbs, that;><?r generally 

refers k> the means or secondary cause, a or ab to the source or original cause ; 

us in Per Tlvaxybulum Lycijilium, ab cxcrdlu rcdpitiir Nep. 


wither///// as, Desinant obsidere cum gladiis curiam Cic. 1 To 
this may be referred certain expressions in which the Instrument, 
used in a general sense, the Manner, the Adjunct, or the like, is 
denoted: as, Quid incipit facere cum tantis minis Plaut. Cognovi 
te Romam venisse cum febri Cic. Ira procul absit, cum qua ni- 
hil recte fieri potest Cic. Cum curd legere Plaut. Cum Jide 
persolvere Suet. But in such instances the preposition is some- 
times omitted : as, Multitudine Numidarum castra circumvenit 
Sail. Sese omnibus armis Influvium dedit Virg. 

Note 7. To this rule are referred the ablatives of the adjunct, the 
matter of which any thing is made, and of the part affected : as, 
Lepore, et humanitate, omnibus prcestitit Soaraies Cic. &re 
cavo clypeus Virg. JEger pedibus Quinct. And also many 
other constructions, which have been mentioned under other rules : 
such as dfficere aliquem honore, Persequi odio, Gnudere equis, 

Delibutus gaudio, &c. It is to be observed, however, that the 

adjunct sometimes takes a preposition ; and that the matter is gene- 
rally put in the ablative with de, e, or ex: as, Interea cum Musis 
nos delectnbimus Cic. Templu*n de marmore Virg. Candela- 
Irum factum e gemmis Cic. Naves totce factce ex robore Caes. 
Sometimes the matter is put in the genitive : as, Nummus argenti; 
crateres argenti Pers. in which the genitive may be governed by 
ex re, or ex materia, understood. This seems an imitation of the 
Greek construction, according to which they write Tov Mtpgov 
iTfolya-sy lcr%vp(ov v\wv Xen. i, e. He built a chariot of strong 
wood ; in which the genitive is, in reality, governed by l?c or diro, 
understood, but sometimes expressed. 

Note 8. The- ablatives of this rule, though used without a pre- 
position, are governed by one understood, as is sufficiently mani- 
fest from observing the construction of the vulgar languages, in 
which it is always expressed. 

Of Place. 

RULE LVI. The name of a town is put in the genitive, 
when the question is made by Ubi, [Where] : as, 

Vixit Roma, He lived at Rome. 

Mortuus est Londini, He died at London. 

Note 1 . That is, the continuance or abode in or at a town is put 
in the genitive, if the name be of the first or second declension : 
as, Quid Romce faciam Juv. Is habitat Mileti Ter. It is ob- 
served, however, that when the name is of the first declension, 
and ends in e, it is better to change the termination into a, and to 
say Negotiatur Mitylence, than Mitylenes, or, supplying the ellipsis, 
in urbe Mitylenes. 

1 Czcsar writes, Casar mbscyucbatttr omnibus copiis. 


Note C 2. Humi 1 , militice and belli (domi will be hereafter noticed ) 
are also construed in the genitive, when the question is made by 
ubi, the words in solo, in loco, or tempore, being understood: as, 
Et humi nascentia fraga Virg. i. e. in solo. Prosternite humi 
juvenem Ovid. i. e. ad solum vel terrain, in which it is to be ob- 
served, that humi answers to the question Quo, denoting motion 
to a place. Una semper militia et domifuimus Ter. It is like- 
wise to be observed, that domi militicsque is the usual form and 
order of the expression. Belli domique agitalatur Sail, in which 
in loco seems understood. To these may be added duelli, terrce 
and foci, which are said to be found, very rarely however, used 
in this way : thus, Quce domi duellique male fecisti Plaut. Cum 
vellet terrce procumbere Ovid. Here, however, terrce may be 
the dative. Domi fodque Ter. But these are not to be imi- 

Note 3. The names of towns belonging to this rule are some- 
times, though very rarely, expressed in the ablative : as, Hujus 
exemplar Romd nullum habemus Vitruv. for Romtz. Rex Tyro 
decedit Justin, for Tyri. Pons, quern ille Alydofecerat Justin. 

Note 4-. It is observed, that, when at denotes near or about a 
place, the preposition ad is used : as, Bellum quod ad Trojam ges- 
serat Virg. 

Note 5. This rule is elliptical, in urbe, in oppido, or the like, 
being understood. On which account, we cannot say Natus est 
Romcc urbis Celebris, but Romce in celebri urbe, or in Romce cele- 
Iri urbe, or in Romd celebri urbe; or, (but not so often,) Romcs 
celebri urbe, which several forms are sanctioned by classical autho- 

RULE LVII. But if the name of the town be of the third 
declension, or of the plural number, it is put in the ablative : 

Habitat Carthagine, He dwells at Carthage. 
Studuit Parisiis, He studied at Paris. 

Note 1 . Thus also, Alexander Babylone mortuus est Cic. Car- 
thaginefuit Cic. Quoniam Delphis oracula cessant Juv. It has 
appeared to some grammarians, that nouns of the third declen. 
sion are sometimes put in the dative, by the figure Antiptosis, be- 

1 Mr. Jones (Lat. Gram. p. 96) observes, that " the nouns humi, domi, belli 
militite, were originally written humoi, domoi, belloi, militiai ; but, by dropping 
the preceding instead of the last vowel, they became by accident the genitive 
instead of the ablative, humo, domo, bdlo, militia, which the sense requires.' 
To form the ablative of the last, the final i must be removed, or supposed sub- 
scribed. Domo is certainly found where the usual rule requires domi ; ant 
names of towns, belonging to this rule, may be found in the ablative. May 
not, then, originally, these names of towns have been generally expressed in the 
ablative, which seems their natural or appropriate case, as well as those be- 
longing to the third declension, or of the plural number? 


cause we find Convento Antonio Tiluri Cic. Nulla Lacedccmoni 
tarn est nobilis vidua Nep. Ego aio hoc fieri in Grcecid et Cartha- 
gini Plaut. But these are old ablatives similar to ruri for rurc. 

Note 2. The ablative is governed by the preposition in, which 
is sometimes expressed: as, In Philippis Thessalus ijuidam ei de 
futurd victoria nunciavit Suet. Complures [naves'] in Hispalifa- 
ciendas curavit Caes. 

RULE LVIII. When the question is made by Quo, 
[Whither,] the name of a town is put in the accusative: as, 

Venit Romam, He came to Rome. 

Profectus est Athenas, He went to Athens. 

Note 1. That is, Motion to a town is put in the accusative : as, 
Carthaginem rediit Cic. Et inde primum Elidem, deindc Thebas 
venit Nep. Capuam iterjiectit Liv. 

Note 2. The dative is seldom found : as, Carthagini nuncios mil- 
tarn Hor. 

Note 3. Names of towns are sometimes put after verbs of tell- 
ing and giving, words which imply a sort of motion : as, Romam 
erat nunciatum Cic. Messanam literas dedit Cic. 

Note 4. It has been observed by Sanctius and Scioppius, that 
Quo is an antient accusative similar to ambo and duo, and still con- 
tinued in quocirca, quoad, &c., so that when we say quo vadis, in 
or ad is understood. Hence, the government of the accusative 
of this rule is obvious. The preposition is often expressed : as, 
Consilium in Lutetiam Parisiorum transfert Cfes. Ad doctaspro- 
ficisci Athenas Propert. It is almost needless to reply to the ob- 
jection, that ad signifies merely at, and that in means only in, 
since it is so well known, thai, although this be the case, when 
something is denoted as situated near or in a place, they are like- 
wise used to denote motion to a place. 

RULE LIX. If the question be made by Unde, [Whence,] 
or Qua [By or through what place,] the name of a town is 
put in the ablative : as, 

Discessit Corintho, He departed from Corinth. 

Laodiced iter faciebat, He went through Laodicea. 

Note 1. Thus also, Accepi Roma literas Cic. Multisvirisfor- 
tlbus Tolosd, Carcasone, et Narbone nominatim evocatis Caes. her 
Laodicedfaciebam Cic. Qucesitis Samo, 7/zo, Erythrii, per Afri- 
cam etiam ac Siciliam et Italicas colonias, carminibus Sibyllce 

Note 2. When the question is made by r/ua, per is frequently 
used, in order to avoid ambiguity : as, Cum iter per Tkebos face- 
ret Nep. But when the verb is compounded with trans, it may 


be omitted: as, Cum Gracchus Pomcetium transiretCic. in 
which the accusative is governed by the preposition in composi- 

Note 3. The ablative is governed by a or al, or by in denoting 

a sort of continued or protracted motion equivalent to that which 
is expressed by through. 

Note 4-. The foregoing rules concerning names of towns may 
be thus recapitulated : the name of a town after in or at is put in 
the genitive, unless it be of the third declension or plural number, 
for then it is put in the ablative ; after to or unto, (the latter pre- 
position is obsolescent, ) it is put in the accusative ; and after^rom 
or through, in the ablative. 



Of Domus and Bus. 

RULE LX. Domus and Rus are construed the same way 
as names of towns : as, 

Ubi ? Manet domi, Where ? He stays at home. 

(Rule LVI.) 
Vivit rure or neri 9 He Jives in the 

country. ( Rule 

Quo ? Domum revertitur, Whither ? He returns home. 

(Rule LVIII.) 
Abiit rus, He has gone to 

the country. 

Vnde? Domo arcessilus sum, Whence? I am called from 

home. ( Rule 

Rediit rure, He has returned 

from the coun- 

Note 1. Thus also: Ubi? Domi industria, foris justum imperi- 
um Sail. Rure ego viventem, tu dicis in urbe beatum Hor. 
Huri agere vitam Ter. Rttri is more frequently used than 
rure ; but both are used, in prose as well as in poetry, by the 

best classical writers. Quo? Ite domum Virg. Also, after 

verbs in which motion is not so evidently expressed : as, Cum 
dabis posthac aliquid domum literarum mci memineris Cic. Rus 
ibo Ter. Cum rus ex urbe evolavissent Cic. -Unde? Nun- 
cius ei domo venit Nep. Qui se domo non commoveruntCic. 
Consilium domo petere Cic. Metuo pater ne rure redierit Ter. 

N)te 2. D ) mi, does not admit any adjectives to be joined to it, 
but mecKj tuce, suce, nostrfr, vest-fee, alienee: as, Apud eum sic fui, 
tanquam domi mccu Cic. Multos annos domi nostr<z vw't Cic. 


Nonne mavis sine per iculo domi tuce esse, quam cum periculo alienee 

Note 3. With other adjectives domo is used, generally with the 
preposition in : as, Sustinet in vidua tristia signa domo Ovid. 
But Clamor intereajit tola domo Cic. without the preposition. 

Note 4. When domus is followed by a genitive denoting the 
possessor, either domi, or the ablative with a preposition, may be 
used : as, Deprehensus est domi, or, in domo, Ccesaris Cic. ad 

Att. Domo is sometimes used absolutely for domi: as, Aide 

domo Virg. Domo me tenui Cic. We also find. Nee densa nasci 
tur humoCol. 

Note 5. When the question is made by quo, the preposition 
may be either expressed or understood, when domus has the pos- 
sessives meus, tuus, suits, &c. joined to it, or is followed by the 
genitive of the possessor : as, Recta aporta domum meam venisse ; 
neque hoc admiror, quod non ad tuam potius, scd illud, quod noti 
ad suam Cic. Cumprima luce Pomponii domum venisse dicitur 

Cic. Jubeo ad prcetoris domum Jerri Cic. With other 

adjectives the preposition is generally expressed: as, Omnes ad 
earn domum projecti sunt Cic. Si in domum meretriciam deducar 
Ter. Yet, Sallust has Aurum atque argentum, et alia qua pri- 
ma ducuntur, domum regiam comportant Jug. 76, 6, without the 

preposition. When motion from a place is signified, a similar 

construction seems to be followed : thus we say Profectus est do- 
mo mea, tua, &c. or, e or a domo mea t tua, &c. : but not Profec- 
tus est domo opulenta, magnificat, &c., but e or a domo opulenta, 
&c. Thus also : Me domo med expulistis. Cn. Pompeium do- 
mum suam compulistisCic. Remigrare in domum veterem e no- 
vd Cic. Ad quern e domo Ccesaris tarn multa dclata sunt Cic. 
In some of these, it appears to me that the variation of the con- 
struction may perhaps arise from some little difference in the 
significations of domus as denoting both home, figuratively, and 
a house, primarily. 

Note 6. Domos, when with the above-mentioned possessives, 
is generally construed without a preposition : as, Alias alium do- 
mos suas invitant Sail. But when with other adjectives, the 
preposition is generally expressed : as, Quibus aqua in privates 
domos inducitur Hint. B. Alex. Inque domos superas scandere 
curafuit Ovid. Yet, Propertius has Ulteriusque domos vadere 
Memnonias. i. 6, 4. Iret ut JEsonias aurea lana domos. iii. 9, 12. 

Note 7- Rura is always preceded by a preposition : as, Jam 
ubi vos dilapsi domos, et in rura vestra eritis Liv. But rus and 
rure, even with an adjective, are found without a preposition : as, 
Equum conscendit, et.rus urbanum contendit Justin. Qfiarfamt- 
quc apud lapidem suburbano rurc substiterat Tac. Rurc is found 
with a preposition : as, Ex rure in urbcm rcvertebatur Cic. 

Note 8. Domi is said to be governed by in ccdibus ; the other 


cases of domus, and those of rus, are governed by prepositions 
understood, and which, as has been shown, are frequently ex- 

RULE LXI. To names of countries, provinces, and other 
places, (towns generally excepted,) the preposition is com- 
monly added : as, 

TTJ 9 f Natus in Italia, in 1 ^ 1Tl n f Born in Italy, in La- 
Uhf { Latio, in urbe, &c. } Where ' \ dum, in aciiy, &c. 

C Abiit in Italiam, ^ C He is gone to Italy, 

Quo? 3 in Latium, in or > Whither ?< to Latium, to a ci- 
(^ ad urbem, &c. J (^ ty, &c. 

C Rediit ex Italia, ^ f He is returned from 

Unde ?le Latio, ex urbe, > Whence ?< Italy, from Latium, 
(^ &c. ) (^ from a city, &c. 

{Transiit per~*\ f He passed through 

Italiam, per I Through what j Italy, through La- 
Latium, per \ place? | tium, through a 
urbem, &c. j L C ^} T ? & c ' 

Note 1. That is, The preposition is commonly expressed be- 
fore the names of the larger places, such as countries, provinces, 
islands, and the like : before the proper names of villages, moun- 
tains, rivers, seas, woods, &c. ; and before appellatives : as, Ubi ? 
In Italia Cic. In Lemno Ter. In FormianoCic. Lucus 
in urbefuit Virg. Quo ? Nobis Her est in Asiam Cic. Te in 
Epirum venisse gaudeo Cic. Annibal ad portas venisset Cic. 
Unde ? Al Europd petis Asiam j ex Asia transis in Europam 
Curt. Ex urbe tu rus habitatum viigres Ter. Qua ? her in Ci- 
liciam facto per Cappadociam Cic. Per totum terrarum orbem 
manavit V. Max. But these are sometimes expressed with- 
out a preposition : as, Ubi ? Septimumjam diem Corey rat tenebamur 
Cic. Quce mihijam Sami, sed mirabilew. in modum Ephesi, prcesto 
fuit Cic. Numidice facinora ejus mcmorat Sail. Quo ? Inde 
Sardiniam cum classe venit Cic. Navigare JEgyptum pergit 
Liv. At nos hinc alii sitientes ibimus Afros ; Pars Scythiam, et ra- 
pidum Cretcc veniemus Oaxen, Et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos 
Virg. Lavinaque venit Liltora Virg. Verla refers aures non 
pervenientia nostras Ovid. Unde? Literce deinde Macedonia al- 
latae Liv. Ut Juded profecti rerum potirentur Suet. Turn po~ 
terat manibus summd tellure revelli Ovid. Atque imo Nereus ciet 
cer/uora fundo Virg. Qua ? Totd Asia vagatur Cic. Manat 
totd urbe rumor Liv. Ibam forte vid sacrd Hor. Sometimes 
the accusative is found, per, or some other preposition, being un- 
derstood : as, Ino ctiam prirnd terras cetate vagata est Propert. 
Tyrrhenum navigat cequor Virg. But, notwithstanding the really 
intransitive nature of the verbs, such accusatives are sometimes 
said to be governed by them. 


Note 2. It has been seen in the preceding rules, that the names 
of towns are generally found without a preposition : but it is very 
often expressed : as, Ubi ? In Stymphalo mortuus est Terentius 
Suet. Dum apud Zamam certaturSa]\. Quo ? Postquam hinc 
in Ephesum alii"- Plant. Profectus sum ad Cupuam Cic. Gram- 
marians mention a difference between Venit Romam and Venit ad 
Romam\ The former, they say, denotes that he entered Rome ; 
the latter, merely that he came to it. But there are not wanting 
instances to show that ad is sometimes used also when entrance is 
intended : as, Magni interest, quamprimum ad urbem me venire 
Cic. iu which it is most probable that entrance is referred to. He 
also says, Brundusium veni, vel potius ad moenia accessi, in which 
it is evident, from the words following, that access only is intend- 
ed ; Urlem unam mihi amicissimam declinavi s and that, otherwise, 
if ad always denoted vicinity, it would have been sufficient to say 
Ad Brundusium veni. But, however, the distinction is generally 
observed : as, " Quum ad me venissent in castra ad Iconium 

Cic." Unde? Ex Epheso hue ad meum sodalem literas mist 

Plaut. A Brundusio nulla Jama venerat Cic. When the ques- 
tion is made by unde, the preposition is very often expressed. 
Grammarians mention a difference between Venit Rojnd, and Vc- 
nit a Romd, asserting that the former denotes coming from the 
inside, the latter from the outside or vicinity ; but this distinction 
is often neglected. It has been already mentioned, that, when 
the question is made by Qua, the preposition per is generally 
used. 'With respect to the names of towns, it is to be observ- 
ed, that, if an adjective or an appellative be added, the preposi- 
tion is generally expressed : as, Magnum iter ad doctas projicisci 
cogor AthenasPropert. Ad Cirtam, oppidum iter constituent 
Sail. In Hispali oppido Plin. But even in such cases, the poets 
sometimes omit it : as, Tyrid Carthaginequi mine Exspcctat Virg. 
It is also with propriety omitted by prose writers, when other words 
are depending upon the adjective, or when a possessive pronoun 
is used : as, Capuamjlectit iter, luxuriantem longa felicitate &C.T 
Liv. Malo vel cum timore domi esse, quam sine timore Athenis tuif 
Cic. It is sometimes omitted, and sometimes expressed, before 
compound names of towns ; as, Inde Carthaginem Novam iu hi- 
lerna Annibalem concessisse Liv. In Alba Helvia inventa est vitis 
Plin. It has been already mentioned, that prepositions are 
frequently added to domus and rus ; and that ad is generally used 
when vicinity is denoted. It may be added, that a similar remark 
is applicable to apud', but that, although these two are often 
used indifferently, the former denotes more particularly juxta, 
or in proximo loco, close ly ; the latter circa or prope, about or 

near. From this, and the preceding Note, it appears, that the 

*practice of the best writers, in regard to the use of prepositions 
before the proper names of places, is very capricious; that, be.- 
fore the names of provinces, countries, &c. with which they are 


generally expressed, they are sometimes understood, and before 
those of towns or cities, with which they are generally omitted, 
they are sometimes expressed '. 

Note 3. It is almost unnecessary to observe, that, although peto 
is used before the names of towns, in the signification of going, 
yet, as it is an active verb, denoting to seek, it governs the accu- 
sative without a preposition : as, Vento petiere Mycenas Virg. 
JEgyptum petere decrevit Curt. He resolved to go to jgypt, 
or, literally, He resolved to seek ./Egypt. Thus also, with an 
appellative, Scev&que petunt Tritonidis arcem Virg. 

Note 4. The adverb versus, when used, is always put after the 
names of places, sometimes with, but oftener without, the prepo- 
sition ad or in : as, Ad Oceanum versus proftcisd julet Caes. In 
Ilaliam versus navigaturus eral Cic. Amanum versus profecti 
sumus Cic. 

Note 5. The abverb usque is frequently joined to the names of 
places, when the question is made by Quo, or Unde, the prepo- 
sitions ad, a, ab, e, ex, de being sometimes expressed and some- 
times understood; as, Usque ad Numantiam Cic. Usque Ennam 
profecti Cic. Usque e Persid Plaut. Usque Tmolo petivit 
Cic. Thus also, with in and trans : as, Utque in Pamphiliam 
Cic. Trans Alpes usque transferri Cic. Instead of usque ad y 
and usque ab, the poets sometimes say adusque, abusque : as, 
Adusque columnas, Abusque Pachyno Virg. and Tacitus has Ani- 
tnaiia marts Oceano abusque peliverat Ann. xv. 37, 2, in which 
the compound word is put after the ablative which it governs. 

Of Space, or the Distance of Place. 

RULE LXII. The distance of one place from another 
is put in the accusative ; and sometimes in the ablative : as, 

Jam mille passus processeram, I had now advanced a 


Abest ab urbe quingentis millibus. passuum, He is five 
hundred miles distant from the city. 

Note 1. Thus also, Cum abessem ab Amano'iler unius diel Cic. 
Ventidius bldui spatio abest ab eo Cic. To this rule may be re- 
ferred such expressions as Ire viam longam, Sept'mgenta rnillia 
passuum ambulare, Tres pateat cosl'i spatium non amplius ulnas 
Virg. &c. 

1 Servius, taking notice that the rules of grammar require prepositions to 
be joined to the names of provinces, but not to the names of towns, adds Sci- 
endum tamen usurjmtum ab autoribus ut vel addant, vel dctrahant prceposiliones. 
It may, however, be observed, that the rules of grammar can require nothing 
beyond the usage of axithors, (by which he, doubtless, means prose writers as 
well as poets,) since grammar was rather formed from them, than for them. 
Si volet usus, Quern penes arbitrium est, ctjus, et nvrma loquendi~ Hor. 


Note 2. One of the substantives, expressing the distance, is 
sometimes omitted : as, Castra, quce alerant bidui Cic. i. e. spa- 
tium, iter, viam j or spatio, itinere, vid. 

Note 3. When the place where a thing is done, is denoted 
only by its distance, the distance is either expressed in the ab- 
lative generally without a preposition, or in the accusative with 
ad; as, Millibus passuum duolus ultra eurn castra fecit Cses. Non 
jam a tertio lapide, sed ipsas Carthaginis portas obsidione quatiebat 
Flor. Cum ad tertium milliarium consedisset Cic. But these 
last seem to denote rather the place itself, than the distance of 
one place from another. 

Note 4. The excess of measure or distance is put in the abla- 
tive only : as, Superat capite et cervicibus altis Virg. See Rule 
XVIII. Note 2. 

Note 5. The word of distance is governed in the accusative by 
ad or per understood, and in the ablative, by a or ab. All these 
are sometimes expressed, except perhaps the first : as, Per tola, 
novem cmjugera corpus porrigitur Virg. A miUibus passuum mi" 
nus duolus castra posuerant Caes. But it may be observed, that, 
in the last, the question is made as well by ubi, (where,) as by 
quanta intervallo, at what distance. 

. Of Time. 

RULE LXIIL Time is put in the ablative, when the 
question is made by Quando [When ?] : as, 

Venit hora tertid, He came at three o'clock. 

Note 1. That is, the noun denoting a precise term of time, and 
answering to the question, When ? is put in the ablative : as Noc- 
te latent mendce Ovid. Initio per internuncios colloquitur Nep. 
To which may be referred mane, diluculo, noctu: sero, raro, primo, 
postremo, (tempore being understood,) quotannis, &c. words gene- 
rally deemed adverbs, and also the old ablatives luci or lucu, tern- 
port, vesperi. In the antiquated phrases, die quinti, seplimi, pris- 
tini, crastini, there is probably an ellipsis of soils 1 . 

Note 2. When the question is made by Quanta tempore, or In- 
tra quantum tempus, (in what time?) time is put in the ablative: 
as, Triduo audietis Cic. Quatuor tragosdias sexdecim diebus aib- 
SQlvisse cum scribas Cic. Quod oppidum panels diebus, quibus eo 
ventum erat, expugnatum cognoverant Cses. This is little different 
from the question by cjuando. 

Note 3. The part of time is frequently expressed by the prepo- 
sitions 27Z, de, ad, per, intra : as, In tempore ad earn veni Ter. 
Utjugulent homines, surgunt de nocte latrones Hor. Prcestofuit 
ad horam destinatam Cic. Duo fuerunt per idem tempus Cic. 

1 A word, when it implies time, falls within this rule ; as Pcllo Allobrogum 
proximo Ca-s. 


Consul intra paucos dies moritur Liv. It is likewise expressed 
with other prepositions, such as circa, circiter, prope, cis, in with 
the accusative, ante, post) sub, cum t due attention being paid to 
their several meanings. 

Note 4?. Abhlnc is found with an accusative, or ablative, with- 
out a preposition, ante being understood to the former, and in, 
to the latter : as, Hoc factum est abhinc liennium Plaut. Quo 
tempore ? Abhinc annis quatuor Cic. 

Note 5. The English in is sometimes expressed by post : as, 
He will return in six years, Post sexennium redilit Cic. But, 
when the in can be omitted, without altering the sense, the noun 
of time is put in the ablative : as In the following month, or The 
following month, Mense proximo. In such expressions as one, 
two, three o'clock, &c., the ordinal numbers are used instead of 
the cardinal : as, At one o'clock precisely, Hord ipsa prima, and 
the same change may be made in such expressions as, He had 
been consul three years before : thus, Tertio is ante anno consul 
fuer at. 

Note 6. In such phrases as Profectus est id temporis Cic. Ist- 
huc atatisTer. Illud horce Suet, used for eo tempore, isthac 
relate, ilia hora, there seems to be an ellipsis of ad or circa, and 
of some general substantive, such as negotium or tempus. 

Note 7. It is evident that the ablative is governed by some pre- 
position understood, and which, as has been already shown, is 
often expressed. 

RULE LXIV. When the question is made by Quamdiu, 
[How long ?] time is put in the accusative, or ablative ; but 
oftener in the accusative : as, 

Mansit paucos dies, He staid a few days. 

Sex mensibus abfuit 9 He was absent six months. 

Note 1. That is, Words denoting the duration of time, and 
answering to the question, How long ? are put in the accusative, 
or ablative, but generally in the accusative : as, Duces diliguntur, 
qui una cum Sertorio omnes annos fuerant Cses. Quatuor horis 
neutro inclinata est pugna'Liv. To this rule is referred the ques- 
tion by Quamdudum, [How long ago?] in such examples as Al- 
hinc triennium commigravit hue vicinios Ter. 1 

Note 2. The prepositions per, ad, in, intra, inter, are frequently 
expressed : as, Quern per annos decent aluimus Cic. Si ad cen- 
tesimum annum vixisset Cic. In diem vivere Cic. In dies, in 
singulas koras, in posterum, in ceternum, &c. It is observed, that, 
in such instances with ad and in, the prepositions cannot be 
omitted ; and that they particularly mark the boundary or extent 
of time, answering rather to the question Quousque, Till what 
time, than to the question Quamdiu. Qui intra annos quatuor- 

1 It is observed, that, in examples answering to the question by Quamdu- 
dum, Quampridem, or A quo tempore ; the particle abhinc is usually expressed. 


decim tectum non subierintCsea. Qute inter decent annos nefarie 
fiagitiosiequefacta sunt Cic. The difference between Intra decent 
annos, i. e. Within ten years, and Inter decem annos, i. e. During 
ten years, seems to be, that the former does not imply the whole 
ten years, but within or less than that space, while the latter de- 
notes the entire period. 

Note 3. The manner of supplying the ellipsis in the following, 
and in similar expressions, should be attended to : Annos natus 
unum et vigintt Cic. i. e. ante. Tyrus septimo mense, quam op- 
pugnari ccepta erat, capta est Curt. i. Minus diebus tri- 
ginta in Asiam reversus est Nep. i. e. quam in. Siculi quot annis 
tributa conferant Cic. i. e. tot annis quot or quotquot sunt. It is 
observable, that the words answering to more, before, or after, am- 
plius,ante, or post, do not influence the case of time : as, Tertium 
amplius annum docet. Fit paucis post annis Cic. i.e. quam per 
annum ; and in annis. 

Note 4?. It has been observed, that the continuance of time may 
be found in the genitive, as in Trium me.nsium molita cibaria 
sibi quemque domo ajfferre jubent Caes. But it appears to me, 
that, although duration may be here inferred, the genitive ex- 
presses only its usual relation ; thus " food belonging to three 
months," " food for three months," or " the food of three 
months." If this be not allowed, there is an ellipsis of pro tem- 
pore or pro spatio. 

Note 4?. This construction is elliptical, the accusative depend- 
ing upon per, in, inter, intra, or ad understood, but sometimes 
expressed, and the ablative, upon in understood, but which is 
scarcely found expressed. 

Of the Ablative Absolute. 

RULE LXV. A substantive and a participle whose case 
depends upon no other word, are put in the ablative abso- 
lute: as, 

Sole oriente, fu- \ f The sun rising, (or, while the sun 

giunt tenebr&t J \ riseth,) darkness flies away. 

Opere peracto, lti~ 1 f Our work being finished, (or when 

demus, j \ our work is finished,) we will play. 

Note 1. That is, When two parts of a sentence respect diffe- 
rent persons or things, or, when one event referring to another 
is not connected with it by proper particles, but is expressed by a 
noun and a participle constituting the subject of no verb, these 
are put in the ablative absolute : as, Hac oratione habita, consi- 
lium dimisit Caes. Suffragante Theramene, plebiscite restituitur 
Nep. Ccesare venturo, Phosphore, redde diem Mart. When 
the participle in dus, or rather the gerundive, is found in the ab- 
lative vvith a noun, it arises from the construction ofwHwraer, ra- 
ther than from the nature of this -rule. 



This ablative is named absolute, because, grammatically, it 
depends upon no word expressed in the sentence; for, if the 
substantive with which the participle is joined be the nominative to 
some following verb, or be governed by any word going before, 
then this rule does not take place. The usual signs, in English, 
of this ablative, are whilst, "when, after, having, being, or some 
other word in ing ; sometimes, however, the participle in ed, be- 
ing being understood : as, " The enemy conquered, we sliall live." 

Note 2. The antient ente or existente is frequently understood, 
another noun or pronoun being joined in concordance : as, Quid 
sine imperatore, adolescenhdo duce, efficere possent Caes. i. e. ex- 
istente, a stripling (being] their leader. Nikil te ad me scripsisse 
postea admirer, prcesertim tain novis rebus Cic. Me suasore at- 
que impulsore, hoc Jactum Plaut. Thus also, Deo duce, Jnvita 
Minerva, &c. 

Note 2. Sometimes the participle only is expressed, in which 
case the sentence supplies the place of the substantive, or nego- 
lio, or some other word, is understood : as, Excepto, quod non si- 
mul esses, ccetera l&tus Hor. Uxorum Hagitatione revocantur, 
per legatos denuntiantibus, ni redeanl, subolem se exjinitimis qua;- 
situras Justin, for denuntiantium. But this construction, in 
which uxoribus or ipsis is understood, seldom occurs, and is not 
to be imitated. There is one instance in Sallust, in which a no- 
minative seems to be placed absolutely ; Exercitus, amisso duce, 
ac passim multis sibi quisque imperium petentibus, brew dilabitur 
Jug, 18, 3. But it is conjectured that quisque may be used for 
qmsque or quibusque. A few similar anomalies might be mentioned. 

Note 4. In such antiquated phrases as Nobis prasente Plaut. 
Absente nobis Ter. in which some grammarians consider the par- 
ticiple as an indeclinable word, or a preposition, it may be ob- 
served, that, if the sense is not correctly expressed, the rules of 
Syntax seem to be still less regarded. 

Note 5. When the verb is passive, having is necessarily changed 
into being : as, Cicero having said these things, sat down, Cicero, 
his dictis, consedit, literally, Cicero, these things being said, sat 
down ; in which, as the pronoun is neither governed by any word, 
nor the nominative to any verb, and as the proper English of die- 
tus is being said, both the pronoun and participle are put in the 
ablative absolute. But, when the English is having and the 
verb deponent, no such change is necessary, since the two parti- 
ciples precisely correspond to each other ; thus, Cicero hcec locu- 
tus consedit, Cicero having said these things sat down, the proper 
signification of locutus being having said. It is observed, that the 
participles of Common verbs may either agree in case with the 
substantive before them, like the participles of deponent verbs, 
or may be put in the ablative absolute, like the participles of pas- 
sive verbs : as, Romani adepti libertatem Jloruerunt : or Romani, 
libertate adeptd, Jloruerunt. But, as the participles of Common 


verbs are seldom used in a passive signification, they are very 
rarely found in the ablative absolute. 

Note 6. It often happens, that, when in English two distinct 
events are expressed by two finite verbs connected by and, the 
conjunction is omitted in Latin, and the noun and verb preceding 
it are put in the ablative absolute : as, " He made the signal, and 
attacked the enemy," Signo dato, hostes invasit. Sometimes the 
prior or contemporary event, which is usually expressed in the 
ablative absolute, is made the object of the action of the follow- 
ing verb, when the cases following both verbs denote an identity 
in regard to the object : as, " He conquered the enemy and," 
or, " Having conquered the enemy, he compelled them to surren- 
der," may be expressed by, Hostes victos in deditionem redegit, or, 
passively, Hostes victi in deditionem redacti sunt. Thus also Ovid, 
Et (boves) occultat abactas. 

Note 7. This ablative may be resolved into a nominative with 
cum, dum, quando, postquam, si, quoniam, &c. and a verb of the 
indicative or subjunctive mood : as, Augusto imperante, or dum 
Augustus imperabat. Lectis literis, or postquam literce sunt lectce. 
Me duce, or si ego dux ero. 

Note 8. This ablative, although named absolute, is not only de- 
pendent, in sense, upon a verb, but is, in reality, governed by 
some preposition understood, such as sub, cum, a, ab, in, which 
are sometimes expressed : as, Sub te (existente) magistro Virg. 
Cum diis berie jwvantibus arma capite Liv. who elsewhere says, 
Ut diis benejuvantibus bellwn incipiamus, omitting the preposition. 
Moremque sinistrum sacrorum Druidce positis repetistis ab armis 
Lucan. In quo facto domum revocatus, capitis accusatus, absolvi- 
tur Nep. Sole sub ardenti Virg. In the last example, it seems 
doubtful to me, whether ardenti is to be considered as an adjec- 
tive, or a participle, since it is to be observed, that the termina- 
tion in e is almost universally used, when the ablative is abso- 

Note 9. It was observed, in Note 1, that this ablative is used, 
when two parts of a sentence respect different persons or things : 
this is generally true, but there are not wanting instances, in which 
the same person, being spoken of in a diversity of time or condi- 
tion, is the ablative to the participle, and the nominative to the 
verb : as, Me duce ad hunc voti Jtnem^ me milite, veni Ovid. 
Nobis vigilantibus, et midtum in posterum promdentibus, populo 
Romano consentiente. erimus prqfecto liberi brevi tempore Cic. 
But, generally, in such instances, the nominative is used : as, 
lens in Pompejanum bene mane hcec scripsi Cic. Interrogate 
incolce non patiuntur errare Senec. rather than me eunte, inter- 
rogatis incolis. 

S "2 




RULE LXVI. Adverbs are joined to verbs, participles, 
nouns, and other adverbs : as, 

Bene scribit. He writes well. 

Fortiter pugnans, Fighting bravely. 

Servus egregieJZdelis, A servant remarkably faithful. 

Satis bene. Well enough. 

Note 1. Thus also; Bonis quod benefit, haud peril Plaut. 
Male parta, male dilabuntur Cic. Vir apprime nobilisTer. 
Homerus plane orator Cic. Admodum pueila Liv. Adverbs 
are seldom joined to substantives ; and in the last example, the 
substantive seems to be used as an adjective. Tu vero Platonem 
nee nimis valde unquam, nee nimis scepe laudaveris Cic. They 
are also found with pronouns, and prepositions : as, Plane noster, 
Longe ultra tcrminum, &c. 

Note 2. It is observed, that the intensive words apprime, ad- 
modum, vehementer, perquam, valde, &c. are generally joined to 
positives ; likewise per, in composition ; sucli phrases also as in 
primis, cum primis, ante alios, &c. ; and quam subjoined to other 
intensives : as, Gratum admodum Jeceris Cic. Prceterquam 
pauci Cic. But some of these are sometimes found with the 

Note 3. Tarn and quam generally connect positives, seldom 
superlatives, and seldomer comparatives : as, Nemo orator tarn 
multa scrtpsit, quam multa sunt nostra Cic. Quam quisque pes" 
sinie fecit, tarn maxime tutus est Sail. Non tarn in bellis et in 
prcsliis, quam in promissis Jlrmiorem Cic. When it denotes 
wonder, pity, or interrogation mixed with wonder, quam is ge- 
nerally joined with positives ; when used for quantum, how much, 
it is joined to positives : as, Quam sint morosi qui amant, vel ex 
hoc intelligi potest Cic. ; but when used for quantum, the verb 
possum following, it is generally joined to superlatives : as, Quam 
maximis itineribus potest, in Gallium contendit Cses. ; used for 
wide, it is elegantly joined to superlatives : as, Utatur verbis 
quam usitatissimis Cic. Perhaps, here, possum may be implied. 

Note 4. Parum, multum, ?iimium > tantum, quantum, aliquantum, 
are generally joined to positives, sometimes also to comparatives : 
as, Socer hujus vir multum bonus est Cic. Forma viri aliquan- 
tum amplior humana Liv. 

Note 5. Paulo, nimio, aliquanto, eo, quo, hoc, impendio, nihilo, 
are generally joined to comparatives: as, Eo gravior est dolor, 


quo culpa major Cic. Tanlo, quanto, multo, to comparatives or 
superlatives : as, Omne animi vitium tanto conspectius in se Crimen 
habet, quanta major qui peccat habelur Juven. Tanto pessimus 
omnium poeta, quanto tu optimus omnium palronus Catull. Mul- 
to potentiusSenec. Multo jucundissimus Cic. 

Note 6. Longe is generally joined to superlatives, sometimes 
to comparatives, but seldom to positives : as, Suevorum gens est 
longe maxima et lellicosissima Germanorum Caes. ; with adjectives 

of diversity also : as, Longe mihi alia mens est Sail. Pedilus 

longe melior Lycus Virg. Longe opulentus Apul. 

Note 7. Facile, used for haud dulie, is joined to superlatives, 
or to words of similar import : as, Vit unus totius Grades facile 
doctissimus Cic. Homo regionis illius virtute facile princeps Cic. 

The nature of two negatives in the same clause, or in different 
clauses, has been noticed in Etymology ; and the government of 
adverbs, in regard to moods, will be noticed under that of Con- 

RULE LXVP. Some Adverbs of Time, Place, and Quan- 
tity, govern the genitive : as, 

Pridie illius diez, The day before that day. 

Ubique gentium. Every where. 

Satis est verborum. There is enough of words. 

Note 1 . The Adverbs of Time are Interea, postea, inde, tune : 
as, Te interea loci cognovi Ter. Postea loci Sail. Inde loci 
Lucr. Tune temporis Justin. 

Note 2. The Adverbs of Place are Ubi and quo, with their com- 
pounds, ubique, ubicunque, ubiubi, ubinam, ubivis, aliubi, alicubi, 
quocunque, quovis, aliquo, quoquo ; also eo, alibi, hue, huccine, wide, 
usquam, nusquam f longd, ibidem, &c. : as, Ubi terrarum sumus 
Cic. Quo hinc nunc gentium aufugiam Plant. Eb audacice pro- 
vectus est Tac. Tu autem abes longe gentium Cic. &c. 

Note 3. The Adverbs of Quantity are Abunde, qffhtim, largiter, 
nimis, quoad, sat, satis, parum, minime : as, Se jampridem poten- 
ticz gloriceque abunde adeptum Suet. Divitiarum qffatim Plaut. 
Auri et argenti largiter Plaut. Nimis insidiarum Cic. Quoad 
ejusjacere potuerisCic. * Sat rationis Virg. Satis eloquenlice, 

1 Dr. Crombie, however, has clearly shown, that quoad is uniformly an ad- 
verb, incapable of government, and that when it appears with an accusative, 
it is a corruption of quod ad, when with a genitive, a corruption for quod. In 
the following example from Livy, Quod stipendium serius quoad diem prersta- 
rct, Cellarius reads quam ad diem, and Gesner observes, " Et monuit olim 
Vorstium Gronovius, melius legi quam ad diem ; licet vulgatam librorum lec- 
tionem et ipse, et nunc Drakenborchius, servavcrint." JNoltenius also calls 
?uoad with an accusative pravum parliculcc usurn. Tursellinus says "Quoad 
hoc, quoad illud, Latine dici non videtur ; sed quod ad hoc spectat, quod ad U- 
\lud pcrtiiict>" Perizonius observes, that in the passages in which quoad ejus oc- 


sapientice parum Sail. Minime gentium Ter. Several of these 
seem to have the force of substantives. 

Note 4s Ergo, denoting for the sake, instar, and partim, usu- 
ally enumerated among adverbs, are real substantives, and, as 
such, govern the genitive. 

Note 5. Pridie and postridie take the genitive or accusative ; 
as, Pridie ejus diet Cic. Postridie ejus diet Caes. Pridie Quin- 
quatrus Cic. Postridie ludos Cic. Thus also, Pridie andpost- 
ridie, kalendas, nonas, idus ; rather than kalendarum, &c. 

Note 6. In regard to such constructions, it may be observed that 
Interea loci may be Inter ea negotia loci ; Eb, quo, and the like, 
are supposed to be the old datives eoi, quoi, with loco or negotio 
understood ; or they may be accusatives plural ; others, as abun- 
de, ubi, longe, have the force of nouns. Pridie ejus diei may be 
die priore ante tempus ejus diei ; and when pridie and postridie 
are followed by an accusative, ante or post is understood. 

Note 7. En and ecce take the nominative or accusative : as, 
En causa, cur dominum servus accusat Cic. En Paridis hostem 
Senec. Ecce nova turba Cic. Ecce rem Plaut. Hem, used 
for ecce, is construed with an accusative : as, Hem astutias Ter. 
It is observed, that when these words are used, merely for the 
purpose of showing, they are commonly followed by a nomina- 
tive ; but that when they express scorn, contempt, reproof, or blame, 
they are commonly construed with the accusative. 

The nominative is supposed to be dependent on such words 
as adest, or existit, understood ; and the accusative is thought 
to be governed by some part of video, or the like, understood. 

RULE LX VII. Some derivative Adverbs govern the case 
of their primitives : as, 

Omnium clegantissime \ ( He speaks the most elegantly 

loquitur, ) \ of all. 

Vivere convenienter \ /To live agreeably to na- 

natura, J \ ture. 

Note 1. Thus also, Omnium optime Cic. by Rule XV. Thus 
too, Scepissime omnium, diutissime omnium, although the superla- 
tives, whence the adverbs come, are not used. Congruenter 

naturae convcnienterque vivere Cic. Huic obviam civitas proces- 

smrtCic. Rule XVI. Alftpedem Colum. Altt tribus pe- 

dibus Pallad. Rule XVIII. Quam proxime potest hostium cas- 

trls castra communit Caes. Quiproxime Rhenum incolunt Caes. 

curs, the latter word is under the government of aliquid understood; a con- 
jecture supported neither by example nor analogy. On the contrary, Dr. 
Crombie contends for the substitution of yuod ejus, as being a reading which 
i- consistent with the sense and the rules of analogy, and in several instances 
approved by editors of the greatest erudition. 


The accusative is the more common case, and it is governed by 
ad understood, in which way propior and proximus are sometimes 
construed: the dative^ belongs to Rule XVI. Amplius opinione 
morabatur Sail. Prius tud opinione hie adero Plaut. Rule XIX. 
Thus also, Diutius expectatione, although diutior does not exist. 
Vossius adds Clanculum patres Ter. considering clanculum as a 
derivative from clam, which, being itself rather an adverb than a 
preposition, admits an accusative or an ablative after it, through 
certain prepositions understood. Such elliptical expressions as 
Plus duo millia, Minus quadringenti. Plus quingentos colaphos, 
Amplius sexcenti, Amplius octingentos equos, sometimes referred to 
this Rule, have been noticed tinder Rule XIX ; and Vossius ob- 
serves, in regard to them, that it is doubtful whether the compa- 
ratives be adverbs or nouns. 

Note 2. To complete some of the preceding constructions, the 
adverbs require the same ellipses to be supplied after them, as 
their adjectives. 


RULE LXVIII. The prepositions ad, apud, ante, &c. go- 
vern the accusative : as, 

Ad patrem, To the father. 

RULE LXIX. The prepositions #, ab, abs, &c. govern 
the ablative : as, 

A patre, From the father. 

RULE LXX. The prepositions in, sub, super, and sub- 
ter, govern the accusative, when motion to ar place is signi- 
fied 1 : as, 

Eo in scholam, I go into the school. 

Sub mcejiia tendit Virg. He goes under the walls. 

Incidit super agmina Virg. It fell upon the troops. 

Ducit subterfastigia tecti \ J* He brings him under the 
Virg. J \ roof of the house. 

1 It is observed, that in denoting motion to a place is expressed, in English, 
by to or into ; and in denoting motion or rest in a place, by the English in ; 
and this is generally true. But, in the phrase In bonam partem acdpcre 
Cic. in which there certainly is motion to, the English idiom requires in " To 
take in good part." We also say " They hid themselves in the woods," mean- 
ing they retired into the woods for concealment, Sese in sylvas abdiderunt 
Caes. Sese in sylvis abdiderunt would imply that they Were in the woods pre- 
viously to their concealment. Thus also " To givem marriage," Dare in ma" 
trimonium Cic. ; " To speak in (to the) praise," Dlccrt in laudcm Aul. Gtil. ; 
*' In future," In fiilurum ; " In a wonderful manner," Mirum in modum. con- 
sunt omnium mentesC&n, ; In Junonis honorem Her. In honour, or to 
the honour." 


RULE LXXI. But if motion or rest in a place be signi- 
fied, in and sub govern the ablative, super and subter either 
the accusative or ablative : as, 

Sedeo, vel discurro, in 1 J I sit, or run up and down, in 

sckold, J \ school. 

Recubo, vel ambulo, sub \ f I lie, or walk, under the sha- 

umbrd, ) \ dow. 

Sedens super arma Virg. Sitting above the arms. 
Fronde super viridi Virg. Upon the green grass. 
Vena subter cutcm di- \ ( The veins dispersed under the 

spersa Plin. J \ skin. 

Subter littore Catull. Beneath the shore. 

Note 1. Such instances as Esse in potestatemCic. for in po- 
testate, are rare 2 . For such, and other remarks on prepositions, 
the learner is referred to Prepositions, in Etymology, to which 
it seems unnecessary to make any additional remarks. 

RULE LXXI I. A preposition often governs the same 
case in composition, that it does out of it : as, 
Adeamus scholam^ Let us go to school. 
Exeamus schola, Let us go out of school. 

Note 1. Thus also, Casar omnem equitatum pontem transducit 
Caes. Hie ut nam egressus est Nep. Supersedes hoc labore 
itineris Cic. 

Note 2. The preposition is often repeated : as, Quod talem vi- 
rum e cimtate expulissent Nep. Nunquam accedo ad te> quin abs 
te abeam doctiorT&c. 

Note 3. Some verbs never have the preposition repeated after 
them : as, Affaris, attoquor, allatro, alluo, accolo, circumnenio^ cir- 
cumeO) circumsto, circumsedeo, circumvolo, obeo, preetereo, abdico t 
effero, everto, &c. The compounds of trans sometimes repeat 
the preposition. Some of the compounds with inter , as Interci- 
no, intererro, ivterfluo, interfuro, interluo, intermeo, interstrepo, and 

i In castra venissetCces. J}. G. lib. ii. 17, is in certain MSS. in castris / 
and In conspect um agminis nostri venissent Cses. B* G. lib. iv. 9, is in certain 
MSS. in conspeclu. Those who wish to see the latter phraseology explained 
and defended, are referred to Clarke's Casar, Hell. Gall. lib. iv, 9 ; or page 76. I 
have perused the note, attentively, but do not feel myself perfectly convinced by 
the arguments there adduced. Venire in castris Caes. may mean, as Clarke says, 
Venire et considere (two verbs very different in their sense) in castris ; and Ve~ 
nit in senatu Cic. may denote Venit et consedit in senatu ; yet, although the 
action of coming may be followed by silling down, it seems a strange supposi- 
tion, that the latter is implied in, or expressed by, the former. Esse in potes- 
tatem y attributed to Cicero, may, perhaps, upon the same principle, be explain- 
ed to ' mean " To be [come] in [to] the power." Such readings are, perhaps, 
spurious. If not, the constructions may be regarded as anomalies; or, 
may, probably, denote, in such examples, the result of the aclion of 
as expressed by the English verb arrive* See Note, p. 12S. 


almost all verbs compounded with prater, commonly omit the 
preposition. Interjaceo, interjicio, intercede, interpono, repeat it, 
or omit it : or, otherwise, like intermico, intervenio, take the da- 
tive. The compounds of in, ob, and sub generally take the da- 
tive ; those of super, generally the accusative. 

Note 4. There are other verbs which appear to be always con- 
strued with a preposition ; as Accurro, adhortor, incido, avoco, 
averto, &c. Attineo is generally thus construed. 

Note 5. Some either admit or reject it, as Abstineo, decedo, ex- 
pello, aggredior, perrumpo, ingredior, induco, aberro, evado, ejicio, 
cxco, extermino, extrudo, exturbo ; also adeo, accedo, incumbo, in- 
sulto, increpo, incurso, pervado, Uludo,peragro, abalienor, abhor- 
reo, avetto, &c : thus, Ingredi orationem, or in orationem Cic. 
Exire cere alieno-r-Cic. ^Jlnibus suis Goes. Pervadere urbem 
Liv. per agros Cic. Avellere templo palladium Virg. aliqucm 
a se Ter. &c. Many of these admit after them other preposi- 
tions of similar import to those in composition: as Dehortor, de- 
Jicio, desclsco, &c. ab aliquo ; Abire, demigrare loco, or a, de, ex, 
loco ; Exire a patria Cic. Excidcre manibus, de manibus, &c. 

Note 6. Many are construed with the dative, or otherwise : as, 
Assurgere alicui ; Accedere urbem, ad urbem, urbi ; Inesse rei ali- 
cui, and in re aliqua ; Abalienare aliquid alicujus for ab aliquo 
Cic. &c. 

Note 7. Some verbs compounded with e or ex, are followed by 
an accusative, or ablative : as, Exire limen Ter. septis Virg. 
Egredi veritatem Plin. portubus Ovid. Some words compound- 
ed with prce, take an accusative: as, Tibur aquce prcsfluunt Hor. 
Asiamque potentem prccvehitur Lucan. Thus also Praesidere Ita- 
llam, prceminere cccteros, prcestare omnes, &c. In some of these 
examples the accusative may be supposed governed by prccter or 
extra understood, and sometimes expressed, as Extra jines et ter- 
jninos egredi Cic. 

Note 8. This rule takes place chiefly when the preposition may 
be separated from the verb : as, Alloquor te Virg. i. e. loquor ad 
te. Classis circumvehitur arcem Liv. i. e. vehitur circum arcem. 
Excrcitum Ligcrim transducit Caes. i. e. ducit exercitum trans 
Ligerim. But, in regard to active verbs compounded with pre- 
positions governing the accusative, it generally happens, that the 
preposition is'repeated, as in Cccsar se ad neminem adjunxit Cic. ; 
or a dative is used, as in Hie dies me valde Crasso adjunxit Cic. 

Note 9. It may be here added, that an ellipsis of prepositions 
is frequent : as, Devenere locos Virg. i. e. ad. Nunc idprodeo 
Ter. i. e. ob or propter. Maria aspera juro Virg. i. e. per. Ut 
se loco movcre non possent Cic. i. e. e or de. Quid illo Jciclas? 
Ter. i. e. de. Ut patrid pelleretur Nep. i. e. ex. Sometimes 
the word to which the preposition refers, is omitted: as, Circum 
concordice Sail, i, e* adem. And this occurs most frequently 


after prepositions in composition : as, Emltiere servum Plaut. i. e. 
manu. Evomere virus Cic. i. e. ore. Educere copias Caes. i. e. 
castris. When prepositions are joined with cases which they do 
not govern, there is always an ellipsis supposed : as, Campum 
Stellatem divisit extra sortem ad viginti mUlilus civium Suet. i.e. 
civium millilus ad viginti millia* To which may be added such 
expressions as Anno ante, Longo post tempore, in which the abla- 
tives are those of time, some word being understood as the regi- 
men of the prepositions. See R. LXIV, Note 3. 


RULE LXXIII. The interjections O, heu, and proh, go- 
vern the vocative, and sometimes the accusative : as, 

Oformose puer ! O fair boy ! 

Heu me miserum ! Ah wretch that I am ! 

Note 1. These interjections are found with the nominative or 
vocative, and sometimes with the accusative : as, O virfortis, at- 
que amicus Ter. Heu vanitas humana ! Plin. Proh dolor ! 
Liv. O Dave t itane contemnor als te Ter. Heu miserande puer / 
Virg. Proh sancte Jupiter ! Cic. O prceclarum custodem ! 
Cic. Heu me infelicem ! Ter. Proh deum hominumyue Jidem I 
Cic. It is observed that when O is used as a particle of ex- 
clamation, it takes either the nominative, accusative, or vocative j 
that when any vehement affection is denoted, it is generally fol- 
lowed by an accusative ; and that when the affection is gentle, it 
is generally omitted. When used in addressing a person, it is al- 
ways followed by the vocative: in this sense it is generally under- 
stood. ! 

Note 2. Eheu is construed in a similar way to the others : as, 
Eheu Palcestra atque Ampelisca ! uli estis nunc Plaut. Eheu me 
miserum / Ter. Eheu conditionem hujus temporis Cic. 

Note 3. Sometimes there is an ellipsis of the case usually fol- 
lowing these particles: thus, O miserce sortis Lucan. i. e. homines. 
Proh deum immortalium Ter. i. e. Jidem. 

^ Sometimes, by a Hellenism, the nominative is used instead of the* voca- 
tive ; as Projice iela munu, meus sanguisVirg. It may here be observed, that, 
in the decline of the Latin language, meus was sometimes joined to the voca- 
tive of a noun ; as domine meus, a phraseology adopted by Sidonius, Salvianus, 
and others. Mi (the usual vocative, formed by apocope from the antient mie 
of miiis) was also used in the other two genders ; as mi parens, mi conjux 
Apul. for mea mater, mea uxor ; mi SM/MS Apul. for meum. Testor, mi Paulla 
Hieron. Scaliger would read Vive diu, mi dulds anus Tibull. 1, 7, 69 ; but 
it has been shown by others, that such expressions did not prevail in the Au- 
gustan age, and mihi has been restored from more correct MSS. and editions. 
Mi, however, is sometimes used for mihi. Mi was said to be employed, even 
as the vocative plural ; as Mi homines, mi spectatoresPloMt. mi hospites 
Petron. But here mt seems to be a contraction of mci, or of the antient mii r 
like sis used for suis, sos for suos, by the more antient writers. 


Note 4. Such constructions are deemed elliptical, as interjec- 
tions do not seem to govern any case. The vocative may be said 
to be placed absolutely, or to be governed by no word. O vir 
fortis may be O quam es virfortis. Heu me infelicem may be Heu 
quam me infelicem sentio. In Proh deum hominumque jidem, there 
may be an ellipsis of imploro or obtestor : and so, of the rest. 

RULE LXXI V. Hci and Vce govern the dative : as, 
Hei mihi ! Ah me ! 

V& vobis ! Woe to you ! 

Note 1 . Thus also, Hei mihi ! quails erat Virg. Vcs tili, cau- 
sidice Mart. Thus used, they seem to have the import of nouns, 
the expressions being equivalent to Malum est mihi, Omnia fu- 
nesta sint till. 

Note 2. Heus and Ohe, to which may be added, Au> Eho, Eho- 
dum, Ehem, Heia and /o, are followed by the vocative only : as, 
Heus SyreTer. Ohe libelleMart. Au mi homo ! Ter. Eho- 
dum, lone vir, quid ais ? Ter. But in these examples, either O 
is understood, or, rather, the vocative is put absolutely. 

Note 3. Ah and Vah are followed by the accusative, or voca- 
tive : as, Ah me miserum ! Ter. in which sentio or experior seems 
to be understood. Ah virgo infelix ! Virg. yah inconstantiam I 
Incert. Vah salus mea I Plaut. 

Note 4*. Hem is followed by the dative, accusative, or vocative: 
as, Hem tili Ter. Hem astutias Ter. in which vide, or videte, 
seems understood. Hem mea lux! Cic. 

Note 5. Hui is found with an accusative: as, Hui tarn graves 
rastros, quaeso Ter. supply tractas. 

Note 6. Apage and cedo are sometimes added : as, Apage te, 
cedo puerum Ter. but these are verbs. 

Note 7. It may be generally observed, that the nominative is 
the subject of some verb understood ; that the dative is the dative 
of acquisition ; the accusative is governed by some verb under- 
stood ; and the vocative is used absolutely. 

Note 8. Most of the other interjections, and frequently also 
those mentioned, are thrown into discourse without any case sub- 
joined to them: as, Eheu ! fugaces laluntur anni Hor. Ah! tan- 
tam rem lam negligenter agere Ter. 


RULE LXXV. The conjunctions et, ac, atque, aut, vel, 
and some others, couple like cases and moods : as, 

Honora patrcm ct matrem, Honour your father and 

Nee scribit) nee legit^ He neither writes nor reads. 


Note 1 . It is the opinion of many writers on Latin and on 
English grammar, that conjunctions unite only sentences or affir- 
mations, and not single words or cases. Of this opinion are 
Scaliger, Sanctius, Vossius, Ursinus, and the author of the New 
Method. On the other hand, Perizonius and Ruddiman contend 
that they sometimes unite single words. Among the moderns 
too, Mr. Harris, the learned author of Hermes, asserts that the 
chief difference between prepositions and conjunctions is, that 
the former couple words, and the latter, sentences. The respect- 
able author of a useful Latin grammar observes, that " it would 
perhaps be more rational to say that conjunctions join sentences. 
They always suppose an ellipsis. Thus in the example, Pulvis et 
umbra sumus Hor. the full sentence will be Sumns pulvis et su- 
7tius umbra; and in Aut prodesse volunt, aut delectare poetce Hor. 
it will be, Aut prodesse volunt poet<z 3 aut delectare volunt poetae. 
This solution will appear more natural, if we examine the sen- 
tences in which the construction is varied, and for which gramma- 
rians have been obliged to clog their general rule with exceptions. 
Thus, Mea et reipullicce interest Cic. Meo pr&sidio atyue hoy 
pitisTev. Aut ob avaritiam, aut miserd ambitione, laborat Hor. 
Decius, cum se devoveret, et equo admisso, in mediam aciem irruebat 
Cic." In these remarks I coincide generally, but differ from 
him in a part of his inference. These instances certainly may 
prove that conjunctions join sentences, which was not denied ; 
but they do not disprove the opinion, that they sometimes join 
cases likewise. In regard to those complex sentences, which, ac- 
cording to the sense, it is possible to resolve into simple asser- 
tions, the opinion may be just ; but, if we say "two and two make 
four," and analyse the proposition into " two make four," and 
" two make four," we shall find the resolution incorrect, and that, 
here, not two affirmations are implied, but that two words or cases 
are coupled together in one affirmation ; for the predicate is ap- 
plicable, only when the two subjects are taken in conjunction. 
In like manner, were we to say Pater et Filius sunt duo, we can- 
not resolve the proposition into Pater est duo, et Filius est duo, for 
this is palpably untrue ; nor into Pater est unus, et Filius est unus, 
for this is only saying, that, " one is one," and " one is one," 
which are different propositions from " one and one constitute 
two." Again ; if we say, Emi equum centum aureis et pluris (<zris 
pretio), we cannot resolve the sentence into Emi equum centum 
aureis, et emi equum pluris, since the clause centum aureis et plu- 
ris constitutes the one price of but one horse bought at once 1 . 
Still, it may be true, that, in Amo patrem et matrem, et couples 
amo and a wo, rather than patrem and matrem. From what has 

1 Again, when we read Septingentesimo ac nono anno betta eivilia repnrata, 
sunt, we do not understand, that the wars were renewed (twice) ; i. e. once in 
the 700th year ; and, again, that they were renewed in the 9lh year ; but that 
they were renewed in the 709th year, septingentcsimo and nono being the words 
coupled, and not rrparala sunt (understood), and rcparata sunt (expressed), or 
two sentences. Nor do I conceive that two anno s arc coupled, one being to 


been said, we may infer, that not sentences, but single words, are 
coupled, when, according to the obvious meaning, the predicate 
is not applicable to each subject individually, but to both con- 

Note 2. Not only the copulative conjunctions, et, ac, atque, nee, 
neque, &c. and the disjunctive, aut, ve, vel, seu, sive, belong to this 
rule, but also, quam, nisi) prceterquam, an, nempe, licet, quamvis, 
nedum, sed, verum, c., and the adverbs of likeness, cen, tanquam, 
quasi, ut, &c., are referred to it: as, Nee census, nee clarum nomen 
avorum, Sed probitas magnos ingeniumque facit Ovid. Pkiloso- 
phi negant quenquam virum bonum esse, nisi sapicntem Cic. Aman- 
dus pater, licet difficilisCic. Gloria virtutcm tanquam umbra sc- 
quitur Cic. 

Note 3. If the wrds require a different construction, this rule 
does not take place, in regard to the cases : as, Mea et reipublicce 
interest Cic. Sive Roma; es, sive in Epiro Cic. But generally, 
this seeming variation from the rule, arises from an ellipsis : thus, 
Interest inter mea negotia, et negotia reipublicce; Sive in urbe 
Romas es } sive in Epiro. 

Note 4-. If the sentence admits a change in the construction, 
the cases or moods may be different : thus, Lentulum eximia spe, 
summce virtutis adolescentem fac erudias Cic. Neque per vim, 
neque insidiis Sail. Decius, cum se devoveret, et equo admisso, in 
medium aciem irruebat Cic. for irrueret. Sentences of different 
constructions may be joined together : as, Omnibus honoribus et 
prcBsens est cultus, et projiciscentem prosesuti sunt, sc. Romani 

Note 5. When et, aut, vel, sive, or ncc, are joined to different 
members of the same sentence, without expressly connecting it 
in a particular manner with any former sentence, the first ct is 
expressed in English by both or likewise ; aut or vel t by either ; 
the first sive, by whether; and the first nee, by neither : as, Et 
legit, ct scribit, He both reads and writes : thus also, Turn legit, 
turn scribit, or Cum legit, turn scribit. Aut legit, aut scribit, He 
either reads, or writes : and thus, respectively, of the others. 

Note 6. A conjunction is sometimes joined to the word which 
stands first in the connexion, for the sake of emphasis: as, Mon- 
tesquejcri, sylvceque loquuntur Virg. 

Note 1. The reason of this construction is, that the words 
coupled often depend upon the same word, which is generally ex- 
pressed to one of them ; and is, in most instances, to be under- 
stood to the other. 

he considered as understood to septingcntesimo, for this supposition might alter 
the meaning; but that the two numeral adjectives conjnnctly agree with one 
and the same anno. Were it necessary, it would be an easy matter to accu- 
mulate similar instances. 


RULE LXXVI. Lfr, quo, licet, ne, utinam and dummodo, 
are for the most part joined with the subjunctive mood: as, 

Accidit ut terga verterent. It happened that they turned 

their backs. 

Note 1. An, ne, num, utrum, anne, annon, and all other inter- 
rogative particles ; the pronouns quis and cujas; the adverbs quo- 
modo, ut, quam, ubi f quo, unde, qua, quorsum, and the like ; and 
the adjectives quantus, qualis, quotus, quotuplex, uter, are gene- 
rally followed by the subjunctive, if the sense be dubitative or con- 
tingent (that is, they have in reality no government of moods; 
since, if the sense be indicative, the indicative mood is requisite): 
as, Qua virtus, el quanta, loni, sit vivere parvo, Discite Hor. 
Nescit vitane fruatur, An sit apud manes Ovid. Ut sciam quid 
agas, ubi quoque, et maxime quando Romgjidurus sis- Cic. But 
many of these are found joined with the indicative, even when 
they are used indefinitely. After the subjunctive in the principal 
member of a sentence, the verb following these is subjunctive: as, 
Turn verb cerneres quanta audacia, quantaque animi visjuissct in 
exercitu Catilin<z-Sa\l. 

Note 2. The following words may have in general an indicative 
or a subjunctive mood after them. 

( 1 ) Antequam : as, Antequam proxime discessi Cic. Ante* 
quam de republica dicam Cic. 

(2) Postquam: as, Nunc postquam vides Ter. Sed sive ante- 
quam ver prcevenerit, sive postquam hyemarit Plin. But both 
postquam and posteaquam are oftener found with the indicative. 

(3) Priusquam 1 : as, Priusquam de republica dicere incipio 
Cic. Priusquam incipias, Consulto opus est Sail. 

(4-) Pridiequam and Postridiequam : as, Mummius, qui t pridie- 
quam ego Athenas venirem, Mitylenas profectus erat Cic. Postri- 
die, aut post diem tertium, quam lecta erit Cato. It is to be ob- 
served, that, when the leading verb is of a contingent signification, 
the verb following these is generally subjunctive*, as, Ut ne quis 
corona donaretur, priusquam rationes retulisset Cic. 

Note 3. The following words may have an indicative or a sub- 
junctive mood indifferently, when the signification is indicative. 

(1) Cum or quum, quando, quandoquidem, when they denote 
since : as, Nunc cum non queo, cequo animo Jero Ter. Cum tot 

1 Ante, post, and priiis are often found, as will hereafter be noticed under 
the Position or Arrangement of Words, separated from quam, the former three 
being placed in one member of a sentence, and the latter, in another. Some- 
times also antequam and postquam are separated in such a way that ante and 
post govern their own case : thus, Ante paucos quam occideretur menses Suet. 
Quartum post annum quam ex Peloponneso in Sicilian. redteratJtfep. Quum 
alone is sometimes used for postquam : as, Altera die quam a Srundisio wlvit 
Liv. When nrtdu? precedes, quam is used for ante or priusyufim : as, Pridie 
quam excessit e t'iVo - Cic. Pridie quum heec scrips! Cic. 


sustineas negotia Hor. Quando aliter diis visitm est Liv. Nee 
fiuminibus aggesta [terra'] laudabilis ; quando sencscant sata quac- 
dam aqua Plin. Quandoquidem apud te nee auctoritas valet 
Liv. Quandoquidem agros jam ante istius injuriis exagitati reli- 
quissent Cic. In this last, however, the sense seems contingent. 
(2) Cum or quum* ; quando ; quandocunque or quandoque ; 
ubi ; ubicunque ; quoties ; quotiesque ; simul ; simul ac, ut, atque, 
adverbs of time : as, Quce cum accidunt, nemo est, &c. Cic. Cum 
faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis pretii Ter. Quando erit, ut 
condas instar Carthaginis urbem Ovid. Indeed, quando and 
quandoquidem generally take the indicative, as well as quando- 
cunque ; Quandocun<jue ista gens suas literas dabit, omnia corrum- 
pet Plin. Hue ubi (when) perventum est Nep. Ubi semel quis 

1 Rhenius, and, after him, Schmidius and Ursinus, thus speak of the ad- 
verbial particle cum: (1) When it denotes in German, wenn (Angl. when), 
and refers to time absolutely, it is followed either by the present or the future 
of the indicative, or by the future subjunctive [perfect] : as, Cum audio ad te 
ire aliqucm, literas ad te dare soleo Cic. Cum inimici nostri venire dicentur, 
turn in Epirum iboCic. Vereor ne exeundi potestas non sit, cum Casar venerit 
Cic. (2) When it answers to the German als or da (Angl. as, whilst, when,) 
it is followed by the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive : as, Cum scribercm ; 
Cum scripsissem. (3) But when any time has been previously expressed, it 
takes any tense of the indicative : as, Multi anni sunt, cum ille in cere meo est 
Cic. Nunquam obliviscar noctis iUius, cum tibi vigilanti pollicebar Cic. JBi- 
ennium est, cum virtuti nuncium remisisti Cic. But these remarks, as Ursinus 
himself allows, do not always hold good. 

Dr. Crombie observes that the two last rules are correct, but that the first 
is not sufficiently comprehensive ; for cum, taken absolutely, admits also the 
imperfect indicative, as Cum aliquid videbatur caveri posse, turn id negligentiam 
dolebamdc. And likewise the preterite ; as Cum patriam amisl, turn me 
periisse putato~O\id. He observes also, that these rules, taken as a whole, 
are defective, cum being often joined to the indicative mood, when the sense 
is not absolute, and when no time is mentioned, either specially or generally. 
Noltenius more comprehensively gives the following rules : Cum, for quando, 
quo tempore, qtwties, takes the present, the preterite, and the future indicative ; 
for postquam, and ex quo, the present and preterite of the same mood, or the 
imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive, rarely the same tenses indicative ; and 
when any time is noted, either specially or generally, it takes the indicative. 
The same learned critic observes, ( Gymnasium, 2d Ed. vol. i. p. 66) that it 
would seem, that the rule by which the practice of classic writers was generally 
regulated, in regard to the adverb cum, was to join it to the indicative mood, 
when they intended emphatically to mark the time of one action, present, past, 
or future, as coincident with that of another action, or with any time, specially 
or generally. If no particular stress was laid on the times as coincident, and 
if the actions themselves, not their co-existence, or their continuity, formed the 
primary consideration, cum was joined to the subjunctive. He gives it as a 
general rule, for the direction of the junior reader, to join cum with the sub- 
junctive, when it can be turned into after or while, without any material injury 
to the force or meaning of the expression ; or when the clause with which cum 
is connected, can be rendered participially, either in Latin or in English ; thus, 
" When he had drawn up his army, he waited for battle," Cum excrcitvm in- 
slruxisset, prcelmm expeclabat, or cxercilu instructo, having drawn up his army. 
" When he had arrived sooner than was expected," or having arrived, Cum de 
impraviso venisset Caes. B. G. ii. 3. Here the clause connected with cum 
cannot be participially rendered in Latin, the verb venio being intransitive, and 
the Latins having no perfect participle active. 


pejeraverit, ei credi postea non oportet Cic. But here, perhaps, 
the sense may be considered contingent. lUe ubi nascentem ma* 
culis variaverit orbem Virg. Evenit ut, quotiescunque dictator re- 
ccpit, hostes moverentur Liv. Plebs scimt, sacerdotes, quotiescun- 
q ue pro Pop. Athen. precarentur, toties execrari Philippum Liv. 
Quoties and quotiescunque are most commonly found with the in- 
dicative. Simul inflamt tibicen, a perito carmen cognosciturCic. 
Simul portarum claves tradiderimus, Cartkaginiensium extemplo 
Enna erit Liv. Quam simul ac tali persensit peste teneri Virg. 
Ut, simul ac posita sit causa, habeant quo se rejerant Cic. Omne 
animal, simul ut ortum est, et se ipsum diligit, &c. Cic. Facile ut 
appareat, nostros omnia potuisse consequi simul ut velle ccepissent 
Cic. Simul atque introductus est, rem confecit Cic. Sccevola 
quotidie, simul atque luceret, Juciebat omnibus sui conveniendz po- 
testatem Cic. When the signification is contingent, the subjunc- 
tive ought to be used : as, Quandoque ossa Capyis detecta essent, 
fore ut) &c. Suet. It should be observed of cum, that when used 
as a conjunction, for quoniam, or quandoquidem since, or etsi, al- 
though, it generally takes the subjunctive, and for quod because, 
the indicative ; as, Cum Athenas tanquam ad mercaturam bonarum 
artium sis profectus, inanem redire turpissimum est Cic. Cum 
etiam plus contenderimus, quam possumus, minus tamen Jaciemus, 
quam debemus Cic. Cum tu liber es, Messenio, gaudeo Plaut. 

(3) These adverbs of time, dum 1 , donee, quamdiu, quoad : as, 
PIcec dum aguntur Cic. Dum id nobiscum una videatis, ac vcnit 
jEdilimus Varr. Donee ad hcec tempora perventum est Liv. 
Cerium obsidere est usque donee redierit Ter. It is observed, that 
dum and donee, when used for quamdiu, are generally followed 
by the indicative, and for usqu,edum t by the indicative or subjunc- 
tive ; and dum for dummodo, by the subjunctive. Ego tamdiu re- 
quiesco, quamdiu ad te scribo Cic. Reminiscere illam, quamdiu 
ei opusfuent, vixisse Cic. Nequejinem insequendijecerunt, quoad 
snbsidio confisi equites prcecipites hostes egerunt Cass. Equites* 
quoad loca patiantur, ducerejubet Liv. It is observed, that the 
indicative mood is the more frequent after all these words ; but, 
if the sense be contingent, then the subjunctive must be used: as, 
Ne cxpectetis, dum exeant hue Ter. or, when used for dummodo : 
as, Oderint, dum metuant Cic. Ut nemo .... donee quidquam 
virium superesset, corpori aut sanguini suo parceret Liv. Quamdiu 
se bene gesserint. Mihi hoc dederunt, ut esses in Sicilid, quoad 
velles Cic. 

(4?) Etsi, etiamsi, quanquam, quamvis, tametsi: as, Etsi vereor, 
judices &c. Cic. Etsi enim nihil in se habeat gloria cur expctatur y 
tamcn virtutem tanquam umbra seqnitur Cic. Quam tibi, etiamsi 
non desideras, tamen mittam Cic. Omnia brema tolerabilia esse de- 

1 It is observed, in regard to dum, that when it refers to a present or pro- 
gressive action, the subjunctive is seldom used. Yet Cicero writes, Me scito, 
dum tu absis, scribere au<I(tcivs-sim. xii. 17. Thus also, Dum here ita Cerent 
Hirt. B. Afr. c. 25, 


bent, etiamsi maxima sint Cic. Atque ego, quanquam nullum scelus 
rationem habet, tamen .... scire velim Liv. Quanquam Volcatio 
assentirentur Cic. Quamvis tardus eras, et te tuaplaustra tenebant 
Ovid. Quamvis Elysios miretur Grcecia campos Virg. Quamvis 
prudens adcogitandum sis, sicut es Cic. Although, in this last, 
the sense appear contingent, and consequently es for sis might be 
deemed incorrect, yet, in a similar instance, the indicative is used : 
thus, Ea si maxima est, ut est certe Cic. 1 Off. 153. Tametsi 
jactat ille quidem illud suum arbitrium Cic. Memini tametsi mil- 
lus moneas Ter. > It is observed, that etsi, tametsi, and quanquam, 
when they stand in the beginning of a sentence, usually have the 
indicative after them; and that etiamsi and quamvis are oftener 
joined with the subjunctive. Tamenetsi is construed as tametsi. 
But, when the verb is contingent in sense, or when the verb 
in the principal member of the sentence is contingent, the verb 
which follows the preceding particles must be in the subjunctive 
mood : as, Etsi ne disccssissem e tuo conspectu, nisi me plane nihil 
ulla res adjuvarei Cic. Nee ille, etiamsi prima prospere evenis- 
sent, imbellem Asiam qucesisset Liv. Putaram te aliquid novi, 
.... quamvis non ciirarem quid in Hispaniajieret, tamen te scrip- 
iurum Cic. Gaudeo tibi meas literas prius a tabellario quam ab 
ipso redditas ; quanquam te nihil Jefellisset Cic. Non crederem, 
tametsi vulgb audirem Cic. 

(5) Si, sin, ni, nisi, siquidem : as, Si vales, bene est Cic. Ut 
si s&pius decertandum sit, ut erit, semper novus veniam Cic. Si 
ilium relinquo, ejus vitce timeo ; sin opitulor, hujus minas Ter. 
Sin autem ad adolescentiam perduxissent amicitiam, dirimi tamen 
interdum contentione dicebat Cic. Mirum nidomiest Ter. Pom- 
peius Domitium, nisi me omniajfallunt, deseret Cic. Nee JustiticB 
nee Amidtice omnino esse poterunt, nisi ipsce per se expetantur 
Cic. Ni seems to be a contraction of nisi ; indeed, si?i and nisi 
seem to be only si with a negative ; it is no wonder, therefore, 
that their construction is similar. Siquidem is but si quidem. Robur 
et soboles militum interiit, siquidem, qucz nuntiantur f vera sunt 
Cic. These being kindred or similar words, it is unnecessary to 
multiply examples. It is observed, that si used for quamvis, re- 
quires the subjunctive: as, Redcam? non, si me obsecret Ter. in 
which, however, the sense is evidently contingent. Si is some- 
times omitted, and, then, the verb is generally in the subjunctive: 
as, Tu quoque magnam partem opere in tanto , sineret dolor, Icarc, 
habercs Virg. Thus also in the phrase Absque eo esset for Si 

1 I suspect that a few of the examples which are adduced, of the subjunc- 
tive mood, do, in reality, involve the potential ; thus, Tametsi nullus moneas 
does not mean "though you do not," but "should not admonish;" Non si 
me obsecret, not "if she beseeches," but "if she beseech" or "should beseech 
me." Indeed, from the sameness of the forms, it is not always easy to distin- 
guish these two moods, more especially, as the indicative and potential phra- 
seologies are, in English, sometimes employed in the same, or nearly the same 
sense, and the second form of the Latin verb sometimes admits, consistently 
with the sense, an interpretation, by the one, or the other. 



absque eo esset, (Had it not been for hin^) the English idiom ad- 
mitting also the ellipsis of if. When the sense is contingent, it 
is needless to repeat, that, after all such words the subjunctive 
is used : as, O morem prceclarum, quern a majoribus accepimus, si- 
quidem teneremus Cic. It is obvious that the member of a sen- 
tence, which is preceded by si and the like, is dependent upon 
another, which may be considered as the principal member. If 
the verb in the principal member be contingent, then the verb 
following si, and the like, must be in the subjunctive, and the 
tenses of the one member must, according to the sense, be ac- 
commodated to those of the other : thus, for Present Time, Si 

Jbret in terris, rideret Democritus Hor. Nee si rationem siderum 
ignoret, poetas intelligent Quinct. Si ex habitu novce fortunes spec- 
tetur, venisset in Italiam Liv. For Past Time; Et habuisset res 

fortunam, nisi unus homo Suracusisfuisset Liv. Si meum consi- 
lium valuisset, tu hodie egeres Cic. Dixit hostes fore tardiores, 
si animadverterent Nep. Docet eum magnofore periculo, si quid 
adversi accidisset Nep. Placebat illud, ut si rex amicis tuisjidem 
suamprcestitisset, auxiliis eum tuis adjuvares Cic.- For Future 
Time ; Redeam ? non, si me obsecret Ter. Ita geruntur apte, ut 
si usus Jbret) pugnare possintCic. Aufugerim potius quam re- 
deam, si eo mihi redeundum sciam Ter. Etfacerent, si non ccra 
repulsa sonent Tibull. In this last, congruity, perhaps, required 

facerent .... sonarent, or faciant .... sonent. The verb in the 
principal member is sometimes in the indicative, instead of the 
subjunctive mood, but still the verb following si must be in the 
subjunctive : as, Si per Metellum licitum esset, matres illorum ve- 
niebant Cic. Si mens non l&va fuisset, impulerat ferro Argolicas 

fcedare latebras Virg. Nee veni, nisi fata locum sedemque dedis- 
sent Virg. In poetry, both verbs may be found in the indica- 
tive: as, Atfuerat melius, si te puer iste tenebat Ovid. 

(6) Quod, quia, quoniam, quippe (because), seem generally to 
be joined to the indicative or subjunctive mood indifferently: as, 
Senatusconsulta duo facia sunt odiosa, quod in Consulem facia pu- 
tantur Cic. Mihi quod defendissem, leviter succensuit Cic. It 
is observed that quod, used for cur or quamobrem, with the verb est 9 
is construed with the subjunctive: as, Est quod te visam Plaut. 
AliiSy quia defit quod amant, cegre est Ter. Vides igitur, quia 
verba non sint, nihil videri turpe Cic. Quoniam non potest idjieri 
quod vis, Id velis quod possit Ter. Latiumque vocari maluit, his 
quoniam latuisset tutus in oris Virg. Quippe id est homini natu- 
rale Quinct. Non ignorat voluptatem Epicurus, quippe qui testi- 

Jlcetur Cic. 1 Quippe, when used for riant, it is observed, takes 
the indicative : as, Quippe vetor fatis Virg. When quatenus is 

1 It is observed that quippe used for utpote, and, as in this example, followed 
by qui, generally takes the subjunctive : and when followed by cum, always : 
as, Quippe, cum ea sine prudentia satis habeat auctoritatis, prudentia sinejustitiA 
nihil valeatCic. Followed by quod, it takes the subjunctive ; by quia or quo- 
niam, the indicative : as, Multa de mea sentcntia quccstus est Ceesar, yuippe quod 


used for quoniam, it is construed as quoniam. If the principal 
member of a sentence be contingent, the word following these 
particles must be in the subjunctive : as, Se videre ait, quod panels 
annis magna accessiofacta esset, Philosophiam plane absolutamjbre 
Cic. Neque quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum, quid dolor sit, amet 
Cic. Quoniam fractce vires hostium fore nt, Domitianum inter- 
venturum Tac. When quod is used in the same connective or 
relative signification as ut, it may have an indicative or subjunc- 
tive mood after it : as, Apparet, quod aliud a terra sumpsimus, 
aliud ab honore Cic. Cato mirari se dicebat, quod non rideret 
aruspeXf aruspicem cum vidisset Cic. 

(7) Quasi, ceu, tanquam, perinde, when they denote likeness, 
are joined with the indicative, but when they denote pretence or 
irony, with the subjunctive : as, Fuit olim, quasi ego sum, senex 
Plaut. Quasi de verbo, non de re, laboretur Cic. Adversi rupto 
ceu quondam turbine venti Conjligunt Virg. Ceu verb nesciam ad- 
versus Theophrastum scripsisse etiam Jceminam Plin. Tanquam 
philosophorum habent discipline ex ipsis vocabula Ter. Tanquam 
Jeceris ipse aliquid Juveri. Hcec omnia perinde sunt, ut aguntur 

Cic. Perinde ac satis Jacere etjraudata restituere vellent Caes. 

(8) With respect to the construction of qui with the subjunc- 
tive mood, it should be observed, that when the English is ex- 
pressed contingently or potentially, or when contingency is con- 
veyed, as it frequently is, by the English indicative, the second 
form of the Latin verb, or potential mood, is required by the 
sense. And it is only when the English indicative, used in a sense 
unconditional, requires a Latin subjunctive, that, strictly speak- 
ing, this mood can be said to be governed by qui, or indeed by 
any other word. 1st. When the subject is introduced indirectly 
with periphrasis, whether affirmatively, negatively, or interroga- 
tively, the verb in the relative clause is usually subjunctive, pro- 
vided this clause constitutes the predicate. Thus, instead of say- 
ing, Nonnulli dicunt, we say, Sunt, qui dicant, there are persons, 
who say. Fuerunt, qui censerent Cic. who thought. Inventi 
autem multi sunt, qui vitam profundere parati essent Cic. Nemo 
est, qui hand intettigat Cic. who does not understand. Nulla 
pars est corporis, quce, non sit minor Cic. Quis est enim, cut non 
perspicua sint ilia ? Cic. to whom those things are not clear ? 
An est quisquam, qui dubitet Liv. These, and similar phraseo- 
logies, admit the three following forms ; thus we say, They ran 
through every flame, or There is no flame, through which they 
did not run, or What flame is there, through which they did not 
run ? Per omnem Jlammam cucurrerunt. Nulla est Jlamma, per 
quam non cucurrerint. Qucznam est Jlamma, per quam non cu- 

etiam Crassum ante vidisset Cic. Quifjpt quia magnarum scape id remedium 
ergritudinum est Ter. Insanabilis non est credendus (morbus) qnippe quoniam 
et in muftis sponte desiit Plin. Quod, quia, and quoniam, seem to be redundant 
in these examples. 



currerint ; which last is the expression of Cicero. Under this rule 
may be comprehended those cases in which qui is joined with the 
subjunctive mood after such words as unus and solus, when they 
are employed to restrict what is affirmed in the relative clause, ex- 
clusively to that particular subject mentioned in the antecedent 
clause. The relative clause, therefore, is the predicate; thus, Vah! 
solus hie homo est, qui sciat dimnitus Plaut. This is the only man 
that knows, equivalent to Hie solus scit. Sapientia est una, qua 
mcestitiampellatexanimis Cic. The restrictive term may be merely 
implied; as, Mens est, qui diros sentiat ictus Ovid. It is the mind 
(alone) that feels. The observance of this rule is, in some cases, 
essential to perspicuity ; for, otherwise, the subject may be mis- 
take^ for the predicate. If we say Sunt boni, qui dicunt, to ex- 
press They are good men, who say, and also, There are good men, 
who say, the expression is evidently ambiguous. This ambiguity- 
is prevented by expressing the former sentiment by Sunt boni, 
qui dicunt, in which case the relative clause is the subject, and 
the antecedent clause the predicate; and by expressing the latter 
sentiment by Sunt boni, qui dicant, where the antecedent ^clause 
is the subject, and the relative clause the predicate. 2ndly, The 
relative is joined to the subjunctive, when the relative clause ex- 
presses the reason or cause of the action, state, or event. Thus, 
Male fecit Hannibal, qui Capuce hiemarit, or quod Capuce hiemavit, 
Hannibal did wrong, in wintering, or, as we sometimes express it, 
to winter, at Capua, that is, because he wintered. Ccesarem mag- 
nam injuriam facere, qui suo adventu vectigalia sibi deteriorafa- 
ceret. Caes. In such phraseologies, the relative seems equivalent 
to quoniam ego, quoniam tu, quoniam ille. This construction of 
the relative, as in the preceding rule, recommends itself, by its 
subserviency to perspicuity. If we say Male fecit, qui hiemavit, 
we impute error to the person who wintered ; but do not express 
the error as consisting in his wintering. When we say qui hie- 
marit, we signify, that he erred because he wintered. When 
the relative possesses a power equivalent to et cum is, et quod is, 
et quoniam is, et quia is, these adverbs in the antecedent clause 
being joined with the subjunctive, the relative also, in conformity 
with this rule, is joined with the subjunctive ; thus, Cum autem 
pulchritudinis duo genera sint, quorum in altero venustas sit, in al- 
tero dignitas Cic. Here the relative clause is equivalent to et 
cum eorum in altero venustas sit. Under this rule may be com- 
prehended those cases, in which qui is joined with the subjunc- 
tive mood, namely, when the relative clause states some circum- 
stance belonging to the antecedent, as accounting for the princi- 
pal fact, or as contributing to its production ; thus, Illi autem, qui 
omnia de republicd prcedara, atque egregia sentirent, sine ulla 
mord, negotium susceperunt Cic. They, as being persons who en- 
tertained the most noble sentiments. When ut, utpote, quippe, 
are expressed with the relative, they sufficiently mark the influ- 
ence of the relative clause; and as all ambiguity is thus prevented, 


the relative is sometimes joined with the indicative, but much 
more frequently, agreeably to the general rule, with the subjunc- 
tive ; thus, Prima luce ex castris projiciscuntur, ut quibus cssetper- 
suasum Caes. Egressi Trojani, ut quibus nihil superesset Liv. 
as being persons to whom nothing remained. Quippe qui videam 
Liv. Prater ejus, utpote qui peregre depugnavit Cic. This is the 
reading of Ernesti ; but most of the early editions give dcpugnd- 
rit. 3dly. The pronoun qui is joined to the subjunctive mood, 
when the discourse is oblique or indirect, that is, when the rela- 
tive clause does not express any sentiment of the author's, but 
refers it to the person or persons of whom he is speaking. Thus, 
Dixerunt unum petere, ac deprecari, si forte pro sud dementia ac 
mansuetudine , quam ipsi ab aliis audirent, statuisset Atuaticos esse 
conservandos, ne se armis despoliaret Cres. Here it is obvious, 
the relative clause expresses a sentiment delivered by the speak- 
ers, and is not to be considered as an observation of the author's, 
the expression quam audirent being equivalent to quam ipsi audi- 
visse dixerunt ; whereas ipsi audiebant would imply an observa- 
tion of Caesar's, equivalent to quam ego (scil. Ccesar) eos audiisse 
dico. The same principle is applicable to ubi used relatively for 
in quo loco, to quod used as a conjunction, and likewise to cum, 
quia, quam, quando ; thus, Quare ne committeret y ut is locus, ubi 
constitissent, ex calamitate populi Romani nomen caperet Caes. 
Quo also for ad quern locum, and unde for e quo loco, are construed 
in a similar way. Non minus libenter sese recusaturum populi Ro- 
mani amicitiam, quam appetierit Cses. It may be observed, that, 
whenever the future perfect would be employed in direct state- 
ment, the pluperfect is necessary in the oblique form. We find 
the direct expression, used by Ovid, Dabitur quodcumque optaris, 
expressed under an oblique form by Cicero, Sol Phacthonti Jilio 
facturum se esse dixit, quidquid opt asset. 4thly. When qui is taken 
for ut ego, ut tu, ut ille, ut nos, &c., it is joined with the subjunc- 
tive ; thus, Atque ittcc dissensiones erant hujusmodi, Quiritcs, quae 
non ad delendam, sed ad commutandam rempublicam pertincretit 
Cic. The dissensions were such, that, or of that kind, that, &c. 
Nee ulla vis imperii tanta cst, quce possit Cic. It is frequently 
thus used after dignus, indignus, idoneus, and quam following a 
comparative; 5thly. Qui, taken foryzws, is generally joined with 
the subjunctive; thus, Sentiet qui mr stem Ter. Care should 
be taken not to mistake the interrogative pronouns used indefi- 
nitely, for the relative pronoun. If we say, I know not what arts 
he was taught, the latter clause expresses the subject, and re- 
ceives the action of the verb. Nescio quibus artibus sit eruditus. 
Here we evidently express our ignorance, to which of the arts 
his studies were directed. The pronoun, therefore, is the inter- 
rogative, and being indefinitely taken, is joined with the subjunc- 
tive. But if we say, I know not the arts in which he was in- 
structed, it is not the latter clause which receives the action of 
the verb, but the word arts. Aries hand novi } quibus ille cst cm- 


ditus. Here we express our ignorance of those arts in which he 
was instructed ; and the pronoun is the relative, and joined with 
the indicative mood. 1 

(9) 'Ubi, ubicunquc, ubi ubi, quo, quocimque, qua, quacunque, 
adverbs of place, may be followed either by the indicative or the 
subjunctive when the signification of the verb is indicative : as, 
Portions hcec ipsa, ubi ambulamus Cic. Petentibus, ut ab Norbd, 
ubi parum commode essent, alio traducerentur Liv. Omnes cives 
Romani, qui ubicunque sunt, vestram severitatem desiderant Cic. 
Nunc ubi ubi sit animus, certe in te est Cic. It is needless to mul- 
tiply examples in regard to the compounds of ubi, as they natu- 
rally follow the construction of their primitive. Ubi neque noti 
esse Us, quo venerunt, neque semper cum cognitoribus esse possunt 
'Cic. Sect quocunque venerint, hanc sibi rem prcesidio sperant fu~ 
t <ram- Cic. Non est, quo proper es, terra paterna tibi Ovid. 
qua sol habitabiles illustrat eras Hor. Quacunque iter fecit, ejus- 
modi Juit Cic. Turn visam belluam vastam, quacunque incederet, 
omnia pervertere Cic. The sense is sometimes such as requires 
the subjunctive only.: as, Hie locus est units, quo perfugiant Cic. 
Habebam, qub confugerem, ubi conquiescerem Cic. 2 Here the 
sense seems contingent, or potential. 

Note 4-. Ut, and utcunque, signifying when, if the signification 
be indicative, are followed only by the indicative mood : as, Ut 
ab urbe discessi Cic. Utcunque dejecere mores Hor. But if the 
sense be contingent, the subjunctive must be used: as, Tu ut sub- 
sermas orationi, utcunque opus sit verbis, vide Ter. Ut, when a 
particle of similarity, and subjoined to ita or sic (both which are 
sometimes understood) has an indicative : as, Tu tamen has nup- 
tias perge facere, ita ut facis Ter. Ita uti supra demonstravi~ 
mus Caes. Ut is sometimes subjoined to ita in a peculiar man- 
ner: as, Ita vivam, ut maximos sumptus Jacio Cic. Att. 5. 15. 
i. e. May I die, if I do not. Ut is sometimes used for talis, or 
tali modo : as, Tu (ut tempits est diei) videsis, ne quo hinc lowgius 
abeas Ter. Horum auctoritate jinitimi adducti (ut sunt Gallo- 
rum subita et repentina consilia) &c. Caes. Credo, ut est dementia 

Note 5. The following words are joined with the subjunctive. 

(1) Licet (which, in reality, is a verb, ut being understood 
after it, although used as a conjunction in the sense of etsi : as, 
Dicam cquidem, licet arma mihi mortemque minetur Virg. 

(2) Quo, put for ut, quoniam, or quasi: as, Adjuta me, qiib id 
fat Jac'diits Ter. but this is, strictly speaking, an example rather 

1 For these valuable rules for the construction of qui, we are indebted to 
Dr Crornbie's Gymnasium, a work deservedly held in the highest estimation. 

a It may be worth while to remark, that, when the learner, in translating 
English into Latin, is doubtful whether the sense be contingent, or not, it is 
safer for him to join the words mentioned in 2\ r ote 3, with the subjunctive 
than wiih the indicative, since, if the sense be indicative, the subjunctive may 
generally be used, and if contingent it must be used. 


of the potential. Non quo ilia Lcelii sit quicquam dulcius, scd 
multo tamen venustior Cic. 

(3) Ut si, ac si, ceque ac si, perinde ut si, aliter ac si, &c., vclut 
si, veluti: as, Triremem in portu agitarijulet, ut si exercere remiges 
vellet Nep. Prceterea transversis itineribus quotidie castra movere, 
juxta ac si hostes adessent Sal). Perinde quasi exitus rerum non 
hominum consilia legibus vindicentur Liv. Itaque velut si cum alio 
exercitu exiret, nihil usqua?n pristince discipiuicc tenuit Liv. Ac 
veluti stet volucris dies, parcis diripere - - - - amphoram Hor. 
Cccpti inde ludi, velut ea res nihil ad religionem pertinuisset Liv. 

(4) Quin, for qui non, quod non, ut non, or quo minus: as, 
Quarn nunc nemo est in Sicitid, quin habeat, quin legal Cic. Fieri 
nullo modo poterat, quin Cleomeni parcerelur Cic. Nulla tamfa- 
cilis res, quin diffic'dis siet, quam invitus facias Ter. Non quin 
rectum esset, sed quia &c. Cic. Promts nihil abest, quin sim mi- 
serrimus Cic. Otherwise, this word is followed by the mood 
which the sense requires : thus, used for cur non, Quin continctis 
vocem indicem stultitice vestrce ? Cic.; for imo, the indicative or 
imperative ' : as, Quin est paratum argentum ? Ter. Quin tu hoc 
audi Ter. 

(5) Ut, quo, ne, quominiis, referring to the final cause, require 
the potential, which retains its proper contingent signification, 
the final cause being a contingency j and, in such instances, the 
mood cannot, strictly speaking, be considered as under the go- 
vernment of the particle. In regard to the succession of tenses, 
the general rule is, that if the verb preceding such words be of 
past time, the verb which follows them must be in the preterim- 
perfect or preterperfect subjunctive : and if the preceding verb 
be future, or present, the present tense must be used. But to 
this there are many exceptions, which must be regulated by due 
attention to the nature of the tenses, and the sense of the sub- 
ject. Avaro quid mail optes, nisi ut viuat diu ? P. Syr. PhiLippi- 
dem miserunt, ut nuntiaret Nep. Dixil Romam statim ventures, 
ut rationes cum publicanis putarent Cic. 2 When the following verb 

1 Vossius says, that when quin is u.;ed in exhorting or commanding, it takes 
the indicative or imperative ; and that, when used for imo, it is sometimes 
followed by the subjunctive : as, Hie non est locus, Quin lu alium quceras, cut 
centones farcins Plaut. He might have added Quid nunc agitur ? Gn. Quin 
rcdcamus Ter. But, as Ursinus observes, in these quin implies exhortatjpn, 
whicli is still clearer in the following, Hortor ne. cujusquam miscrcat, Quin 
spolies, miitiles, laceres, qucmque nacta sis Ter. It may be added, that in those 
examples in which Vossius assigns to it the sense of exhorting, it is commonly 
interpreted by imo.- Quin is a contraction of quine, and its real signification 
seems to be qui non, or cur non ; thus Quin die is equivalent to Die, qui non f 
or cur non ? Non dubium est quin uxorcm nolit Jilius to Non dubium est, qid 
ne sit, or cur non sit, ut uxorem nolit films. 

* It is to be observed, that although a preterite may precede, yet if the ac- 
tion is understood to continue, the present is to be used : as 'Orare jussit hera, 
ut ad se venias Ter. Ea ne me cdct, consuefedfilium Ter. In the follow- 
ing, Sublimcm medium arripcrem, et capite primum in lerram staluercm, Ut cere- 
bro dispergat want Ter. Adcl. III. 2. 18, certain critics substitute diverge- 


has no present, we find the perfect used instead of it : as, Rogat, 
uli meminerint Sail. If the final cause is to be passing at a fu- 
ture time, the present of the subjunctive should be used : as, Ne 
dolere quidem possum, ut non ingratus videar Cic. Irritant ad pug- 
nandum, quo fiant acriores Varr. And here observe, that quo 
is used, instead of ut, before a comparative ; and sometimes, 
though rarely, when a comparative does not follow: as, Qua, non 
quo te celem, non perscribo Cic. But if the final cause is to be 
perfect in any time either past, present, or future, then the pre- 
terperfect subjunctive is to be used: as, Ne frustra hi tales viri 
venerint, te aliquando, Crasse, audiamus Cic. Timeo ne Verres 
impurti fecerit Cic. Indeed, all such instances are sufficiently 
regulated by the sense. Ut, ne, quo, quominus, when used in what 
is called a relative or connective sense, require the potential 
mood, and follow the same rules that have been just given : as, 
Futurum sensit, ut cceteri sequerentur Nep. Ne quis impediretur, 
quominus frueretur Nep. If the dependent action is passing now 
or at some future time, the present potential is used : as, Oran- 
dum est, ut sit mens sana in corpore sano Juv. Orare jussit, ad 
se ut venias Ter. Sperofore, ut contwgat id nolis Cic. (See 
the preceding Note, imd pag.) If, in this case, an imperfect pre- 
cede, the same tense should follow ; as, Idem cnim iwpediret, quo- 
minus mecum esses, quod mine etiam impedit Cic. But, if the de- 
pendent action is to be considered as completed either in past, 
present, or future time, the preterperfect subjunctive must be 
used : as, Si verum est, ut populus R. omnes gentes superdrit Nep. 
Faciam ut noveris Ter. Si est, culpam ut Antipho in se admiserit 
Ter. But ut after verbs of wishing seems to be excepted from 
these rules, and to follow the construction ofutinam: as, Cupe- 
rem ipseparens spectator adesset Virg. Quam vel/em ut te a Stoicis 
inclinasses Cic. Vellem affuissesCic. Ut, when correspond- 
ing to the intensives ita, adeo, sic, tarn, talis, toties, tantus, is, &c. 
requires the subjunctive, in the same tenses that have been just 
specified. When the dependent action is represented as passing 
at a past time, the imperfect is used : as, Cum jam in eo essei, ut 
oppido poiirelur Nep. When the dependent action is passing at 
some time present or future, the present is used : as, Adeojie ig~ 

ret, while others consider that the former tense is used for the latter, by the 
figure Enallage. In Dum id qutzro, tibi qviflhim restituerem Ter. Heaut. III. 
1. 83, some would substitute restituam, while others read restiluerim, used for 
restituam, as dixeris sometimes is for dicas. The past follows the present, when 
the sense requires it: as, Velim itafortuna tvlissel Cic. Servis suis ut januam 
clauderent, et ipsi ad fores assisterent, imperat. Dcum precor ut hie dies libifdi- 
citer illuxerit Cic. Persuadet Castico ut idem faceret Cses. In such in- 
stances, the present seems to be used historically (see. p. 72), imperat and per- 
suadet having the effect of perfects. Ut is found vt ith the infinitive : as, Ut 
melius quicquid erit pati-~ Hor. Car. I. 11. 3. for patiaris. This is a Grecism, 
which we have formerly noticed, under the explanation of the moods and tenses. 
Some resolve this example thus : Ut (vel cum) melius sit jxili qidcquid erit, quam 
teuton: &c. Others thus ; Ut (vel quanta) melius est &qno animo pati quicquid 
&c. And others, in different other ways. 


narus es, ut hccc nescias Cic. Nunquam eril turn oppressus sena- 
tus, ut ei ne supplicandi quidem ac lugendi sit potestas Cic. If in 
this case an imperfect precede, the same tense must also follow. 
But when the dependent action is represented as complete either 
in time past, present, or future, the perfect subjunctive is used: 
as, Videre licet altos tanta levitate. Us ut fuerit non didicisse melius 
Cic. Rex tantum motus eat, ut Tusaphernem hostemjudicaver'tt 
Nep. Sic erudivit, ut in sumrnd laude Juerint Nep. In such 
sentences ut, and, sometimes, quominus, are used alone, the in- 
tensive word being understood. Ut is used for supposing that, 

allowing that, before the potential only ; and, in like manner, its 
negative ne : as, Ut enim rationem Plato nullam afferret Cic. Ut 
ita dicam passim. Ne singulos norninem Liv. Ut is sometimes 
omitted : as, Unde ilia scivit, nigtr an albus nascerer ? Age porro, 

(6) Ut qui, utpote qui, utpote quum, generally ; and the parti- 
cles of wishing or praying, utinam, o si 1 , and ut, for utinam, al- 
ways have the subjunctive mood : as, Ita turn discedo ab illo, ut 
qui sefiliam daturum neget Ter. Antonius procul al>erat, utpote 
(jui mogno exercitu sequeretur Sail. Meincommoda valetudo, ut- 
pote cum sine febri labordssem, tenelat Brundusii Cic. O mihi 
prosteritos referat si Jupiter annos Virg. Utinam lilerorum mo- 
res nen perderemus Cic. Utinam ea res ei voluptati sit Cic. Ut 
ilium dii deceque perdant Ter. Indeed, utinam is only a variety 
of ut or uti, which is used in the last example for utinam, a word 
of wishing being understood in all such instances. Utinam ex- 
presses a wish either for the present, past, or future, and always 
requires the subjunctive. For the present, the preterimperfect 
subjunctive is used : as, Uiinam pro decor e nolishoc tantum, et 
non pro salute, esset' certamen Liv. For the past imperfect, the 
preferimperfect is used : as, Utinam istuc verlum ex animo diceres 
Ter. For the past perfect, the preterpluperfect : as, Fecisseni- 
que utinam Virg. For future time, the present subjunctive : as, 
Utinam ilium diem videam Cic. In the former case, utinam is 
sometimes omitted by the poets ; and in the latter, oftcner than 
it is expressed : as, Me quoque quafratrem mactdsses, improbe, dex- 
tra Ovid. Dii te eradicent Ter. Quod bene vertat passim. 

1 Si is sometimes used for o si, or utinam : as, Si nunc sc nobis ille aureus 
arborc ramus Ostendat nevwre in lanto Virg. Qudm vcllem is likewise used 
in the sense of wishing : as, Qudm vellem Roma; mansisscs Cic. in which, 
however, ut is understood. Sometimes even the particle and verb are both 
understood : as, Tecum ludere, sicut ipsa, possem Catull. i. e. opto ut, or uti- 
nam, possem. To these may be added such expressions as Ne sim salvus, Ne 
vivam, (may I die,) which may be thus completed -J7a precor, ita voveo, ut ne 
sim salvus, tit ne vivam. Thus also utinam ne ; as, Utinam ne innemorc De~ 
lio securibus Casa cecidissct abicgna ad terram trabes Enn. ap. Cic. Instead 
of which some employ utinam non. Cicero uses both : as, Illud utinam ne 
vere scriberem Fam. v. 17. Heec ad te die natali mco scripsi ; quo utinam 
susccptus non esscm, aid nc quid ex eadcm malrc postea nalum cssct -Attic, xi. 
9. extr. 


The ellipsis of utinam is the foundation of what is called the op- 
tative mood. But its omission not being allowable in all tenses, 
nor common in any but the present, it seems scarcely admissible 
to consider this as a distinct mood. For the future perfect, when 
it is intended to wish that a future action may be completed, the 
preterperfect or the preterpluperfect is used : as, Utmam hie sur- 
dus, aut hcec muta facta sit Ter. Utinam (inquit C* Pontius) ad 
ilia iempora mefortuna reservavisset, et tune essem natus si quando 
Romani dona accipere ccepissent : non essem passus diutius eos im- 
perare Cic. in which reservavisset implies a wish for past time, 
and essem natus for future. But ut used forpostquam, quam, quo- 
modo, and as an adverb of likeness (see also Note 4), is followed 
by the indicative ; and ne, as an adverb of hindering, by the im- 
perative or subjunctive : as, Ut sumus in Ponto, terfrigore consti- 
tit Ister Ovid. Utfalsus aniini est ! Ter. Ut tute es, item om- 
jies censes esse Plaut. Sometimes, also, the future subjunctive : 
as, Ut sementemfeceris, ita metes Cic. Abi, nejura, satis credo 
Plaut. Ne fugite hospitium Virg. Ne post conferas culpam in 
me Ter. Non, in a forbidding sense, is always joined with the 
future indicative, and not with the imperative or subjunctive. In- 
deed, it is most likely, that ne is, like non, always a mere nega- 
tive adverb, and that the subjunctive following it is governed by 
ut understood, which is also frequently expressed : thus, Eisque 
prcedixit, ut ne prius Lacedamoniorum legatos dimitterent, quam 
ipse esset remissus Nep. Sed tamen ita velim, ut ne quid properes 
Cic. Ut non is likewise used forut ne : as, Utplura non dicam, 
7ieque aliorum exemplis confirmem Cic. Or, for quin : as, Potest 
igitur,judiceSj L. Cornelius damnari^ ut non C. Marii facturn con- 
demnetur Cic. We also find quo ne with a comparative : as, 
Cautum erat quo ne plus auri, et argentifacti domi haberemus Liv. 

(7) Dummodois joined with the subjunctive: as, Ornnia ho- 
nesta negligunt, dummodo potcntiam consequantur Cic. Also dum, 
when used for it : as, Oderint, dum metuant Cic. 

Note 6. When the English that is not commonly considered as 
a pronoun, or definitive, and when at the same time it comes be- 
tween two verbs, it is, in Latin, expressed by ut or quod with a 
finite verb following, or the noun after it is put in the accusative, 
and the verb, in the infinitive mood 1 . Ut is commonly used 
after, 1st, Verbs signifying to intreat or request. 2dly, After verbs 
signifying to decree, happen, order or command, but seldom after 
juleo, unless signifying to decree. 3dly, After verbs signifying 
to advise or persuade, generally. 4thly, After verbs signifying 
to cause, effect, or bring to pass. 5thly, The articles of every 
agreement are expressed by ut. 6thly, All intensive words, as 
adeo, ita, talis, tantus, the pronouns is and hcsc^ &c. are followed 

1 It was originally intended (see page 88) to introduce here the whole of v 
the discussion relative to that. That part of it, however, which refers to thq 
infinitive or ut or quod, will be found explained under Rule XLI V. 


by ut. This word ' is generally used to express the final cause, 
or end proposed ; quod, the moving or impelling cause i thus, 
"Scholam petere solebat,non qubdliterarum studiosus erat, sed ut 
patri morem gereret," He went to school, not that he was desirous 
of learning, but thatliQ might comply with the humour of his father. 
Thus also, Gaudeo quod te interpellavi Cic. Cursorem miserunt, 
ut nunliaret Nep. But in such phrases as Fulurum sensif, ut cce- 
teri sec/uerentur Nep. and Inde Jit, ut raro reperire queamus 
Hor., ut does not denote the final cause, but serves rather to 
point out the connexion or relation subsisting between the pre- 
ceding verb and the following member of the sentence, and an- 
swers to the question by what ? Neither does ut, when used 
after intensives, indicate the final cause, but the manner, as in 
Nullum tarn impudens mendacium est, ut teste careat Plin. In 
regard to such sentences, it is to be observed, that the intensive 
is sometimes implied, as in Full disertus (he was so eloquent) ut 
in primis dicendo valeret Nep. and that, instead of ut after in- 
tensives, and after dignus, indignus, idoneus, major, ejusmodi, &c,, 
qui is often used : as, Quis est tarn Lynceus, qui tantis tenebris ni- 
hil oflendat, nusquam incurrat Cic. Qui ilium decreverunt dig- 
num, suos cui liberos committerent Ter. Itane tandem idoneus 
Till videor esse, quern tarn aperie fallere incipias dolis ! Ter. Ma- 
jor sum, quam cui possit For tuna nocere Ovid. Genus belli est 
ejusmodi, quod maxime vestros animos excitare debetCic. Missi 
sunt, qui (or ut} consulerent Nep. Indeed, it may be added, 
that in some instances, quod does not denote a moving or im- 
pelling cause, but is used merely connective!}', when a simple 
event is expressed, as depending upon a preceding verb ; thus 
Sciojamjilius quod amet meus Plaut. forjilium meum amare. Ne 
is the same as ut ne or ut non ; quominus is similar to ne, for quo 
is used with comparatives instead of ut, and minus is merely a 
negative ; and quin, which is qui ne, is used for quominus, quod 
non, or ut non; so that ut, or the sense of it implied, seems the 
basis of most of these particles.' As it is impossible to class 

all words with the respective methods of expressing that after them, 
and as many verbs are followed by different forms, sometimes 
without any visible difference in the meaning, I shall subjoin to 
this Rule, from Seyer, an alphabetical list (though not a complete 
one, one half of the examples of which is, he says, taken from 
Gesner's Thesaurus) of words followed by the accusative and in- 
finitive, or by certain particles and finite verbs; premising, how- 
ever, that, upon an examination of his instances, quodis evidently 
often used for quia or quoniam, and that several words appear to 
be followed by ut, not through .their own particular nature, but 
by means of the verb with which they are connected, or some in- 
tensive word expressed or implied in the preceding member of the 

1 Ut, denoting the final cause, seems equivalent to the Greek 'i*y, eo fine, in 
huiicjincm, eo consilio ; and, when used connectively, to on; whence, as will 
hereafter he noticed, it is probably derived. Quod may, perhaps, claim the 
i>ame origin. 


sentence; and that all the different forms are not always to be 
used indifferently, but with a general reference to the several ex- 
planations which have been given of the nature and use of the in- 
finitive mood, and of the precise meaning and use of quid and ut. 
For instance, we may say, Gaudeo te valere, I am glad that you 
are well, which is equivalent to, Gaudeo tua salute, or valetudine 
lond ; or Gaudeo quod tu vales, or valeas, both being expressions 
of similar meaning; but we cannot, in this sense, say Gaudeo ut 
tu valeas, because this would be supposed to mean I am glad (in 
order) that you may be well. And although we may say Vis me 
uxorem ducere, Do you wish me to marry, or my marriage, or Vis 
ut uxorem ducam, Do you wish that I should marry, we cannot 
use quod in this sense. We may say Suadeo till fugere, or utfu- 
gias otium, if the intention, aim, and final cause of advising be to 
induce you to shun idleness ; but we cannot say Suadeo till ut 
(nor quod) rex venerit, if we mean to convey information, the verb 
not admitting this sense. When persuadeo denotes to persuade, 
that is, advise thoroughly, or with effect, it is commonly followed 
by ut j thus, He persuaded me to be, Mihi persuasit, ut essem. But 
when it signifies to persuade, or to convince, it is followed by the 
infinitive ; thus, He persuaded me, that I was, Mihi persuasit, me 
esse. In like manner moneo, when it signifies to apprize, by way 
of counsel, of any truth or fact, requires the infinitive ; monenti- 
lus amicis, cavendum esse Mutium Suet. His friends telling him 
by way of caution. But when advice to action is implied, ut is 
used. The same author says, Monitus est, ut vim multitudinis ca- 
veret. But although we have endeavoured to point out the prin- 
cipal and prominent difference between quod and ut, it must be 
observed, that, in some instances, the shades of difference become 
so faint, that their respective significations very much approxi- 
mate each other. We find even quod used for ut : as, Prcemoneo 
nunquam scripta quod ista legat Ovid. Mos veterum fuit, quod 
praetor soleret pronunciare Ascon. in Verrin. This is not so re- 
markable in the last example, since, had ut been used, it would 
have been but as a definitive or connective. Ut for quod: as, Juro 
ut ego rempullicam non deseram Liv. Si verum est ut populus R. 
omnes gentes virtute superdrit Nep. But notwithstanding these 
and similar instances, there is a distinction generally observed 
between quod and ut ; for, as Ursinus observes, were we to say Die 
quod veniat, we simply relate that the thing is doing ; if Die ut 
venial, we mean, that it may be done : if we say Audivi quodfuerit 
prcelium, we simply declare or specify the thing heard ; if Audivi 
utfuerit prcetium* we refer to the manner of the action. We like- 
wise sometimes find qui used as if equivalent to quia or quod, and 
as well as quo, used also for ut 1 ; and, indeed, it is possible that 

1 Thus, Nam in prologis scribendis operam abutitur, Non qiti argumcntum nar- 
ret, sedqut malevoli Veteris po'etce malcdictisrcspondeat Ter. prol. And., in which 
qui is supposed to he equivalent to ut. Stnltus es, qui hide credas, in which it is 
reckoned equivalent to quia or quod. You arc a fool for believing him, or 


ut, quod, id, all denoting that, may bear some affinity to one an- 
other, since ut, originally written uti, may be QTI, and quod, KO.I 
orfi, qu' otti, quoddi, quodde, (hence quod,) for we know that, in 
etymology, k and q, and t and d are respectively esteemed con-' 
vertible letters. Indeed, or/, in whatever way it may be used, is, 
in reality, the neuter gender of os~i$, as will be evident by ob- 
serving the way in which it is sometimes used at the end of a 
sentence : thus, 'AAX' OUK &ffow(ret$ t d!& oft Aristoph. " But 
you will not restore it, I know that-" or, as we often express the 
same assertion, " But I know that you will not restore it." 
When it does not receive the action of the verb, and signifies 
that or to the end that, like the Latin ut or uti, it is still consi- 
dered as the pronoun, but governed by &' or ta, thus Sid on, 
for that, or for that purpose. And in this way, it likewise denotes 
the moving or impelling cause, like the Latin quod. Even when 
the Latin ut or uti is used as an adverb of likeness, denoting as, 
it may still be considered as having the import of a definitive, 
since this last is supposed to be the German es, signifying that, 
it, or which: thus, ILli, ut erat imperatum, circumsistunt, i. e. They 
surround him, as (or that) had been ordered. And, in English, 
the that which was formerly denominated a conjunction, is now 
almost universally considered as an adjective, a definitive, or de- 
monstrative, and is, like quod, easily resolvable into a relative 
pronoun, being, as such, a word connecting two parts of a sen- 
tence. Thus, if we say Benefacis, quod me adjuvas, You do well 
that you assist me, we may resolve it into Adjuvas me, que id lene 
fads, You assist me, and that, or rather for that (que ad id or ob 
id, quod being equivalent to que id,) you do well 1 . But whether 
quod be generally the relative; or whether it originally come from 
the same source as ut, since the respective imports of these two 
are so generally considered as greatly dissimilar, are matters con- 
cerning which perhaps too much has already been said, as they 
are subjects rather of curious than of beneficial investigation. 

A LIST of Words having quod, ut, &c., or the Infinitive 
Mood) after them 2 . 

Abnuo ace. and inf. Absum ut, quin. 

Abstineo quominus. Accedo ut, quod. 

to believe him. Qui huic credis would denote simply, You, who believe him, 
are a fool. Neque enim hoofed, quo tibi molestus essem Plin. in which qua 
is equivalent to ut. See also Note 5, (5). 

1 There are a few instances in which quod seems redundant : thus, Quod si- 
mulatque Gracchus perspexit fluctuare populum Auct. ad. Herenn. iv. 55. 
Quod utinam ilium eadem hcec simulantem videam Sail. Jug. 14. 21. 

a The classical instances, and their authorities, are here omitted, that the 
list might not extend beyond the limits necessarily prescribed to a work of this 
description ; but this circumstance is, comparatively, of no great importance, 


Accido ut, ace. and inf. 
Accipio, ace. and inf. 
Acerbum est, ace. and inf. 
Addo quod, ut. 
Admoneo, see Moneo. 
jEquitas quae ut. 
jflistimo ut. 
Affirmo, ace. and inf. 
Ago ut, ne, ace. and inf. 
Alieno quin. 
Alius quam ut, nisi ut. 
Ambigitur quin. 
Ango, ace. and inf. 
Aniraadverto quod, acc.and inf. 
Annuo, ace. and inf. 
Apparet quod, ace. and inf. 
Appello quod. 
Arguo, ace. and inf. 
Argumentum quod, ut, ne, ace. 

and inf. 
Assequor ut. 

Assentior, ace. and inf., ne. 
Assevero, ace. and inf. 
Audio, ace. and inf. 
Auctor est ut, ne, ace. and inf. 
Autumo, ace. and inf. 
Bonum, melius, optimum est, ut. 
Cadit ut. 

Cano, Canto, ace. and inf. ut. 
Caput est ut. 
Caveo, Cautio, ut, ne.. 
Cavillor, ace. and inf. 
Causa est, quod, ut, quin. 
Censeo ne, ace. and inf. 
Cerno ut (how), ace. and inf. 
Clamo and comp. ut,acc. and inf. 
Cogitalio ea ut. 
Cogo ut. 

Cognosce quod, ace. and inf. 
Committo ut, 
Comperio, ace. and inf. 
Competit ut. 

Complector ut. 

Concedo ut, ace. and inf. 

Conditio ista est ut. 

Conficio ut. 

Confido ut, ace. and inf. 

Confirmo ut, ace. and inf. 

Confiteor, ace. and inf. 

Congruo ut. 

Conor quomirius. 

Consilium esse ut. 

Consentio, ace. and inf. 

Consentaneum est, ace. and inf. 

Consequor ut ne. 

Constantiajnconstantia quse ut. 

Constituo ut, ace. and inf. 

Contendo ut, ne, aoc. and inf. 

Contineo quin. 

Contingit ut. 

Convinco, ace. and inf. 

Convenit ut, ne. 

Credo, ace. and inf. 

Custodio ne. 

Cura, Curo ut, quod, ne. 

Decerno ut. 

Decet, Dedecet, ace. and inf. 

Declare, ace. and inf. 

Deduco quominus. 

Definio, Definitio \\scc ut, quo- 

Defugio, see Fugio. 

Demonstro, ace. and inf. 

Denuntio ut, ace. inf. 

Deploro, see Ploro. 

Deprecor ne, ut. 

Despero ace. and inf. 

.Deterreo ne. 

Devito ne. 

Dico-is, ace. and inf., ut and 
quod seldom. 

Dignus est ut. 

Do ut, ace. and inf. 

Do ceo, ace. and inf. 

since the nature of the infinitive mood, and that of quod, ut, &c. have been so 
fully explained. And, for the same reason, the list itself might have been 
altogether omitted, without much loss or inconvenience. Indeed, upon a 
minute inspection, it appears to me both redundant and defective ; and, in 
some respects, so likely to perplex a learner, that I would advise him to rely 
chiefly on the general rule, and on his own observation. Some of the other 
lists occupy n considerable space, but their insertion could not, with propri- 
ety, be avoided. 


Doleo quod, ace. and inf. 

Dubium est quin. 
[ Dubito, an, num, utrum, ace, 
and inf. 

Duco (to lead), Adduce ut. 

Edico ut, ne, ace. and inf. 

Edictum ne. 

Efficio ut, ne, ace. and inf. 

En undo, ace. and inf. 

Eripio quin. 

Erro quod. 

Error hie ut. 

Evenio ut, quod. 

Evinco ut. 

Excipio ut, ne. 
I Excogito ut. 

Excuso quod (for quia). 

Exigo ut. 

Existimo, ace. and inf. 

Exoro ut, ne. 

Expecto ut. 

Experior ut. 

Explore, ace. and inf. 

Extremum est ut. 

Facio ut, quod. 

Fallo, ace. and inf. 

Falsum esse ut. 

Fama pervenit, ace. and inf. 

Fateor, ace. and inf. 

Fero ut, ace, and inf. 

Fides est, ace. and inf. 

Fingo, ace. and inf. 

Fit ut; Fiebat, factum est, &c, 

Fleo, ace. and inf. 

Fremo, ace. and inf. 

Fugio, Defugio ne, quin. 

Fugit quin. 

Gaudeo quod, ace. and inf. 

Glorior, ace. and inf. 

Gratia quod vivo. 

Gratulor quod, ace. and inf. 

Habeo hoc ut. 

Hortor, Cohortor ne, ut. 

Impedio ne, quominus. 

Impello ut. 

Impetro ut, ne. 

Inclamo ut. 

Incline ut. 

Induce ut, ne, quominite. 

Injicio mentem ut. 

Instituo ut. 

Insto ut, ne. 

Insuesco ut. 

Integrum erat ut. 

Intercede ut ne, quominus. 

Intelligo, ace. and inf. 

Interdico ne., 

Interest ut, ace. and inf. 

Invite ut. 

Irascor, Succenseo quod. 

Jubeo ut, ace. and inf. 

Jure, Adjuro, ace. and inf. 

Jus hoc ut. 

Juvo, ace. and inf. 

Lahore, Elaboro ut, ne. 

Lsetor, ace. and inf. 

Laus est, ace. and inf. 

Largior ut. 

Lege ea ut. 

Licet ut, ace. and inf. 

Liquet, ace. and inf. 

Mando ut ne. 

Memini, ace. and inf. 

Mente ea ne. 

Mentior, ace. and inf. 

Metuo, see Timeo. 

Minor, ace. and inf. 

Mirer, mirus &c. quod, ut, 

quin, ace. and inf. 
Molior ut. 
Moneo, Adraoneo ut, ne, ace. 

and inf. 
Mos est ut. 
Mora est quin. 

Moror quominus, ace. and inf. 
Munus est quod, ut. 
Narro ut (for quemadmodum ) . 
Nascor ut. 

Necesse est ut, ace. and inf. 
Nego, Denego, ace. and inf. 
Negotium dat ut. 
Niter, Connitor ut, ne. 
Nosco, ace. and inf. ; ut (how). 
Nuntio, Nuntius, ace. and inf. 
Objicio quod. 
Obliviscor, ace. and inf., ut^br 



Obsecro ut, ne. 

Observe ne. 

Obsisto, Obsto ne. 

Obtestor ut, ne. 

Obtineo ut. 

Obtrecto ne. 

Officium primum est ut. 

Omitto quod. 

Opinio, (with ea, ut) ace. and 


Operam dare ut. 
Opto ut. 

Oportet ut, ace. and inf. 
Oro ut, ne. 

Ostendo quod, ace. and inf. 
Paciscor &c. ut, ne. 
Parum est quod, ut. 
Par est, ace. and inf. 
Paro ut. 

Pateo, ace. and inf. 
Patior ut, quin, ace. and inf. 
Paveo, see Timeo. 
Peccatum quod. 
Percipio ut, ace. and inf. 
Perduco ut. 
Perficio ut. 
Permit to ut. 
Perpello ut. 
Perse vero ut. 

Perspicuum est, ace. and inf. 
Peto, Postulo, Precor, &c. ut. 
Ploro, Deploro quod, ace. and 


Polliceor, ace. and inf. 
Praecipio ut, ne. 
Praedico, -as, ace. and inf. 
Praedico, -is ut, ne,, ace. and inf. 
Praescribo ut, ne. 
Praesto ut, ace. and inf. 
Praetereo ut, ne, quin, ace. and 


Praetermitto as Prsetereo. 
Praevertor quod. 
Probo ut, quod, ace. and inf. 
Profiteer,, ace. and inf. 
Prohibeo ne, quin, quominus, 

ace. and inf. 
Promitto, ace. and inf. 
Prope erat ut. 

Propositum tertium est ut. 
Propono ut, ace. and inf. 
Proprium est civitatis ut. 
Prospicio, ace. and inf. 
Prodest quod, quin, ace. and 


Provideo ne. 
Pugno ut. 
Puto, ace. and inf. 
Quain with comp. degree ut. 
Queror quod (because}, ace. 

and inf. 
Rarum est ut. 

Recuso ne, quin, quominus. 
liefero quod. 
Relipquitur ut. 
ReKquum ut, quominus. 
Rehuntio, ace. and inf. 
Reor, ace. and inf. 
Repeto ut. 
Restat ut. 
Resisto ne. 
Respondeo ut. 
Rogo ut, ne. 
Sancio ne, ace. and inf. 
Sapientia quod. 
Scelus est quod. 
Scio ( quod rarely), ace. and inf. 
Scribo ut, ne, ace. and inf. 
Senatus consultum ne, ut. 
Sententia una ut. 
Sequitur ut, ace. and inf. 
Signum ne, arc. and inf. 
Simulo, ace. and inf. 
Sino ut. 

Spero, Spes ut, ace. and inf. 
Statuo ne, ace. and inf. 
Sto ne, quominus. 
Struo ut. 
Studeo ut. 
Stupeo, ace. and inf. 
Suadeo ut, dat. and inf. 
Subeo, Succurro, ace. and inf. 
Sum, Est ut, (inde est quod,) 

ace. and inf. 
Supplex ut. 
Suscipio ut. 

Suspicor ut ne, ace. and inf. 
Tango ut. 


Tempus est ut. 

Teneo ut, ne, quin. 

Tento ut. 

Testis quod. 

Tester, ace. and inf. 

Timeo &c. ne, ut, quin, ace, 

and inf. 

Trado, ace. and inf. 
Tribuo ut. 
Vereor ne, ut. 

Verisimile est ut, ace. and inf. 
Verum est ut, ace. and inf. 

Veto ne, quominus, ace. and inf. 
Video, ace. and inf. 
Visurn est mihi ut. 
Video for Caveo, ne, ut. 
Vinco. Vicit sententia ut, ace. 

and inf. 

Vis parva naturae est quod. 
Vim hanc habuit ut. 
Vitiura est quod. 
Volo ut, ace. and inf. 
Utilis ut ne. 


Neuter Verbs variously construed wdei' the same 

Accedere muris, LzV. ad urbem, Adequitare portae, Plin. ade- 

Sall. in oppidum, Cic. acce- quitare Syracusas, Liv. 

dere domos infernas, Virg. Adesse pugnae, i. c. praesentem 

accedere alicui, i. e. assentiri, esse, Cic. in pugna, Sail, ad 

Accidit auribus, Plin. ad aures, 

exercitura, Plaut. adesse ami- 
cis, i. e. auxiliari, Cic. 

Liv. genibus, Id. ad genua, Adhaerere lateri, Liv. ad turrim, 
Suet, in te isthuc verbum, Cces. in me, Cic. fronte, pro 


in fronte, Ovid. Sic. 

Accubare horreis, Hor. scor- Adhaerescere justitiae, Cic. ad 
turn, Plaut. alicui in convi- saxum, Id. in hanc materiam, 
vio, Cic. apud aliquem, Id. Id. 

Accumbere epulis, Virg t in epu 

lo, Cic. 
Acquiescere rei alicui, Sen. ali- 

Adhinnire equae, Ovid, equam, 

Plaut. ad orationem, Cic. 
Adjacere mari, Liv. mare, 


qua re, Cic. at scepius, in all- Adnare navibus, Liv. naves, 
qua re, Id. Cces. 

Adambulare lateri alicujus, Adnatare insulae, Plin, ad ma- 

Apul. ad ostium, Plant. 

num, Id, 

1 Also, in the same sense, Accedere ad sententiam alicujus' Plaut. But 
when the noun denotes a person, the dative is used ; for with an accusative 
of a person and ad, uccedo signifies to go. When it signifies to be added to, 
either construction may be used : as, Hoc accedit da?nnis-Ovid. Ad IKEC 
mala hoc mihi accedit. In this sense, also, the dative of a person is usually 
preferred. When it denotes to happen to, the dative only is used : as, Huic 
nihil possit qffensionis accedere Cic. To arrive at, the accusative with ad : as, 
GUI'S ita ad vsnustatem JEsovi accedat. 



Adrepere virorum animis, Tac. 

ad amicitiam alicujus, Cic. 
Adstare mensis domini, Mart. 

trabes, V. Flac. ad Achillis 

turnulum, Cic. in eonspectu, 

Adstrepere alicui, Tac. aures 

alicujus, Plin. 
Adsultare vallo, Sil- moras por- 

tarum, Slat. 
Advenire alicui, Tac. urbem, 

Virg. ad urbem, Quid. Sic. 
Adventare alicui, Tac. portis, 

Slat, locum, Tac. ad Italiam, 

Adversari alicui, Cic. aliquem, 

Advigilare alicui, Tib. ad cus- 

todiam ignis, Cic. 
Adulari alicui, Curt, aliquem, 

Cic. Col. Tac. 
Advolare rei, vel homini, Plin. 

Virg. ad equites, Liv. advo- 

lat rostra Cato, Cic. 
Afflare alicui rei vel personae, 

Hor. aliquem re/, aliquid, Virg. 

aliquid alicui, Virg. 
Affluere alicui,, Owe/, ad aliquid, 

Allabi oris, Virg. ad exta, Liv. 

aures alicujus, Virg. 
All at rare alicui, Aur. Viet. 

aliquem scspius, Liv. Plin. 

Alludere alicui, Plin. ad mulie- 

rem, Ter. 
Anniti hastae, Virg. ad aliquid, 

Cic. aliquid, i. e. conari perfi- 

cere, Plin. 

Antecedere alicui rei, Cic. ali- 
quem, Id. antecedere aliquem 

aetate, nobi\itate, magnificen- 

tia, Justin. Suet, raro alicui. 
Antecellere alicui, Cic. rarissime 

Anteire alicui, Cic. aliquem, 

Tac. alicui aetate, Cic. om- 
nes gloria, Sail, caeteros vir- 
tute, Cic. 

Antestare cseteris virtute, Cell. 
caeteros robore, Apul. 

Antevenire rei alicui, Plant, ali- 
quem, Sail, tempus, Claud. 

Antevertere alicui, i. e.anteeum 
venire, Ter. Sic. antevertere 
damnationem veneno,f .e. prae- 
venire, Tac. At, antevertere 
rem rei, est pragponere, Plant. 

Apparere alicui, i. e. officii aut 
obsequii causa praesto esse: ut, 
Lictores apparentConsulibus, 
Liv. Apparent ad solium Jo- 
vis, Virg. l 

Appropinquare Britanniae, Cces. 
portam, Hirt. ad portam, Id. 
appropinquat alicui posna. Cic. 

Arridere alicui, i. e.placere,Hor. 
Arridere ridentibus, Id. ali- 
quid, Gell. 

Aspirare coeptis, Ovid, ad ali- 
quem, i. e. pervenire, Cic. ad 
laudem, i. e. contendere, Id. 
in curiam, Id. 

Assidere segro, Senec. Assidet 
insano, i. e. proximus est, 
Hor. Assidere aliquem, Sail. 

Assistere alicui, Plin. ad fores, 
Cic. super aliquem, Virg. 
contra aliquem, Cic. Assistere 
equos, t. e. sistere, Slat. 

Assuesco, assuefacio,assuefio, re 
aliqua: Genus pugnae quo as- 
sueverant, Liv. Puro sermo- 
neassuefactadomus, Cic. As- 
suescere rei alicui, Liv. Operi 
assuefecit, Id. Assuescere ad 
homines, Cces. In hoc assues- 
cat, Quinct. animis bella, Virg^. 

Attendere Caesari, Plin. juri, 
Suet, aliquem, Cic. res hos- 
tium, Sail. animum, Ter. 
auimum ad rem aliquam, Cic. 

1 When it denotes to be conspicuous, or to be clear, it is generally followed 
by the dative only : as, Apparet mihi res Hor. Cui non apparere, affectare 
turn imperium in Latinos Liv. 

Auscultare alicui, Ter. aliquem, 

Blandiri sensibus, Cic. igneara 
sae.vitiam, Colum. 

Colludere alicui, Hor. cum ali- 
quo, Cic. 

Confido, Vid. Fido. 

Congruere alicui, Ter. cum re 
aliqua, Cic. inter se, Id. 

Constare sibi, Cic. secum, Id. 
Constat inter omnes, Nep. 
Res mihi cum aliis constat, 
Auct. ad Her. 

Consuescere alicui, Ter. cum ali- 
quo, Plaut. libero victu, Co- 
lum. juvencum aratro, pro 
consuefacere, Id. 

Consulere alicui, Ter. famae ali- 
cujus, Cic. de salute sua, Id. 
durius in aliquem, Tac. in 
longitudinem, Ter. in com- 
mune, in medium, in publi- 
cum, Ter. Lucan. Plin. 

Convenire alicui, Cic. cum re 
aliqua, Id. Convenit in eum 
haec suspicio, Id. Cothurnus 
convenit ad pedem, Id. Con- 
veniunt mores, Ter. Majestas 
et amor non con veniunt, Quid. 
^Etatem aliam aliud factum 
convenit, Plaut. Aliquid mi- 
hi convenit cum adversariis, 
Auct. ad Her. Convenimus 
inter nos, Plaut. Inter omnes 
convenit, Cic. Saevis inter se 
convenit ursis, Juv. 

Deh'ciunt mihi vires, Gees, me 
vires, Cic. Deficior viribus, 
Senec. omnibus rebus, Col. 
ab arte, i. e. destituor, Ovid. 

Degenerare patri, Claud, ali- 
quem, Ovid, a virtute, Cic. 

Derogare alicui, Cic. legi, Auct. 
ud Her. de lege, Cic. ex aequi- 
tate, Id. fidem alicui, Id. de 
fide alicujus, Id. 

Desperare saluti alicujus, Cic. 
de republica, Id. pacem, Id. 
rempublicam, Id. 

Desuescerehonori,&7. Desueta 
bello agmina, Pirg. At hoc 
dativo an ablativo dictum, in- 

Desunt verba dolori, Ovid. In 
Antonio defuit hie ornatus, 
Cic. Paucae ei centuriae ad 
Consulatum defuerunt, Id. 

Dominari cunctis oris, firg. 1 in 
caetera animalia, Ovid, in civi- 
tate, Cic. 

Excellere alicui dignitate, Cic. 
in aliqua re, Id. super alios, 
Liv. aliter, inter, praeter cae- 
teros, Cic. inter aliquos, Id. 

Facere ad aliquid, pro prodesse 
vet convenire, Ovid, et alii 
frequenter. Raro hdc notione, 
facere alicui, Prop. Hor. 

Fidere, confidere rei alicui, Virg. 
Cic. re aliqua, Id. in re ali- 
qua, Hirt? 

Gratulor tibi hanc rem, Cic. hac 

1 Some have supposed this case to be the dative ; and some the ablative. 
Alvarez conceives it to be the dative, and in the following it certainly is this 
case ; Toti dominabere mundo Claudian. Diomedes and Vossius have ima- 
gined it to be the ablative. Alvarez considers such expressions as Dominatus 
cst Alexandria, Victis domitmbitnr Argis, as similar to Natus est Romce, Athenis. 
Dominor is often followed by inter. 

* When the following noun is a person, the dative only is used ; as, Confido 
tibi, not te, unless te depend upon some infinitive. Fido is often followed by 
the dative, and often by the ablative, but perhaps by the latter oftener. Con- 
fido is construed in like manner : as, Sibi confidere Cic. causee Cic. Jlrmi- 
tate cordons Cic. in which last there is an ellipsis of in. It is often construed 
with the infinitive : as, Confido fore ; and thus also diffido. When this last de- 
notes to distrust, it governs the dative only : as, Prudentice alicujus diffidere~ 
Cic. But we say Confidere or Diffidere de salute alicujus, and the like, in which 
the former seems to denote to have hopes of, and the latter to despair of. 



re, Gael. ap. emd. de hac re, 
Cic. in hac re, Id, 

Haeret lateri, Virg. curru, Id. 
alicui in visceribus, Cic. 1 

Ignoscere alicui, Ter. vitio, 
Ovid, peccatum suum alicui, 

Illudere alicui, Virg. aliquem, 
Ter. aliquid, Virg. in ali- 
quem, Ter. in aliquo, Id. 

Illabi rei alicui, Virg. in rem 
aliquam, Cic. Perniciesillapsa 
civiuni aniraos, Id. ad eos il- 
labi, Id. 

Illuxit dies alicui, Liv. aliquem, 

Imminere rei alicui, Ovid, in 
fortunas alicujus, Cic.' 

Immorari rei alicui, V. Max. in 
re aliqua, Quint. 

Immori studiis, Hor. in vino, 

Impendere alicui, Cic. aliquem, 
Ter. in aliquem, Cic. 

Incessit cura, cupido, timor ali- 
cui, Liv. V* Max. Sail, aliquem, 
Liv. Tac. in aliquem, Ter. 

Incubare ovis, Col. ova, Plin. 
pecunias, thesauris, Cic. Liv. 

Incumbere toro, Virg. gladium, 
Plant, in gladium, Cic. labo- 
ri, Sil. ad laudem, Cic. ad 
studia, Id. in studium, cu- 
ram, cogitationem, Id. 3 

Incurro et incurso rei alicui, 
Snet. rem aliquem, Liv. in 
rem aliquam, Cic. 

Jndulgeo illi, Ter. me, Id. ali- 
quid alicui, &uet. 

Ingemcre,ingemiscere rei alicui, 
Liv. re aliqua, Curt, in re ali- 
qua, Cic. Ingemuere jacentem 
Inachidae Stat, interitum, 

Inhaereo et inhaeresco rei alicui, 
Ovid, in re aliqua, Cic. 

Inhiare auro, Flor. bona alicu- 
jus, Plant. Virg. 

Innare aquae, Liv. fluvium, 

Jnnasci rei alicui, Ter. in re ali- 
qua, Cic. Innati eodem solo, 

Innatare flumini, Plin. undam, 
Virg. in concham, Cic. 

Inniti rei alicui, Stat. re aliqua, 
Liv. in re aliqua, Cic. in ali- 
quem, Plin. 

Insidere rei alicui vel personae, 
Virg. collem, Plin. locum, 
Liv. in memoria, in animo, 
in medullis, i. e. firmiter in- 
haerere, Cic. 

Insidunt apes floribus,' Virg. 
pardiinsidunt condensa arbo- 
re, Plin. 

Insilire rei alicui, Lncan. in e- 
quum, Liv. tauros, Suet, su- 
pra lignum, Phesdr. 

Insistere cure rerum, Plin. ves- 
tigiis alicujus, Cic. \iarn, Ter. 
via, Id. in re aliqua, Cic. in 
dolos, Plant, negotium, Id. 

Instare operi, firg. victis, Liv. 
rectam viam, Plant, currum 
Marti, i. e. instanter fabrica- 
re, Virg. unum, i. e. instanter 
urgere, Ter. 

1 H&rere in amorem Plaut. Ad radices linguae h&rens stomachusClc. In 
Hceret pede pesVirg. either pede is an old dative, or it may be an ablative 
governed by cum or some other preposition. 

2 Also, Imminere Jbrtunis Cic. ad cesdem Id. 

3 When this word is not used figuratively, the dative according to Valla is 
used : as, Incumbere remis, not in remos nor ad remos. Incumbere alicui, in 
ilium and in illo, referring to a person, are all mentioned as having been used. 
But when, figuratively, the mind is referred to, it is followed by an accusative 
with ad or in .- as, Omni studio ad bellum incumbereCic. Incumbe in hanc 
curam Cic. In this signification it hardly admits a dative : but Incumbere 
philosophise, vel Juris studio, and a few similar expressions are noticed. 


Inspuere rei alicui, Plin. all- 
quid, Id. in aliquid, Id* 

Insuere rei alicui, Ovid, pelle 
juvenci, Id. culeo, y. Max. 
in culeura, Cic. 

Insuescere rei alicui, Tac. re 
aliqua, Colum. 

Insultare alicui rei vel personse, 
Suet. Cic. fores, Ter. patien- 
tiara alicujus, Tac. in miseriam 
alicujus, Auct. ad Her. bonos, 

Insum rei alicui, Sen. in re ali- 
qua, Cic. 

Insurgere regnis alicujus, Ovid. 
in miseros, Slat. 

Jnsusurrare alicui, Cic. in aurem 
alicujus, Id. 

Intercedit mihi tecum amicitia, 
Cic. internes, Id.^ 

Interdicere alicui provincia, 
Suet, aqua et igni, Cic. foe- 
minis usura purpurae, Liv? 
de vi hominibus armatis, Cic. 

Jnteresse rei alicui, Cic. in re 
aliqua, Id. 3 

Interjaceresulcis, Col. duasSyr- 

tes, Plin. Haec inter earn et 

Rhodum interjacet, Id. 
Intervenire alicui rei, Tac. cog- 

nitionem, Id. 
Invasit timer improbis, Cic. Vis 

avaritiae in animos invaserat, 

Sail. Invadere urbem, Virg. 

in fortunas alicujus, Cic. in 

arcem causse, Id. 
Invidere honori alicujus, Cic. 

honorem alicui, HOT. aliquem, 

Ovid, in re aliqua, Cic.* 
Latet res mihi, Lucan. Latet 

me, Virg* 
Mederi alicui, Cic. cupiditates, 

Ter. contra serpentum ictus, 

Medicari alicui, Virg. ictum 

cuspidis, Id. 
Moderari animo, Cic. gentibus, 

Sail, navim, Cic. omnia, Id. 
Nocere alicui, Cic. rarissimeali- 

quern, Plant. 

Nubere alicui, Cic. in clarissi- 
mam familiam, Id. Nupta 

1 It is sometimes used absolutely : as, Unus et alter dies intercesscrat Cic. 
i. e. inter hoc ct illud factiim ; or, as we say in English ,had intervened. Sena- 
tds auctoritas intercessit Cic. i. e. medium se interposuit, vel, impcdivit : in 
which last sense it seems that Seneca says Quoties potent, sapiens fortunes in- 
tercedet. Whether we can use intercedere pro aliquo, for to supplicate in behalf 
ef, or to intercede for, seems questionable. 

* Intcrdico te hoc re is very uncommon ; but this case seems to be sanctioned 
by such phrases as Philosophi urbe et Italia intcrdicti aunt Gell. Its usual con- 
struction seems to be with the dative, and an ablative : as, Vos interdicitis pa- 
tribus commercio plebis Liv. Interdirit histrionibus scenam is written by Sue- 
tonius ; and Omni Gallid Ro7nanas interdixisset is attributed to Caesar ; but 
some read Romanis. Interdicor aqua ct igni does not seem to be sanctioned 
by authority. And in Cicero's lit M. Tullio aqua et ignis interdicatur ; and 
Ut mihi aqua et ignis inter 'dicerelur, it is thought by the best critics that aqua 
and ignis are mistaken for aqua et igni. 

3 Here intersum signifies to be present ; but when it signifies to come between 
or to differ, a different construction is used : as, Inter primuni et sextum con- 
sulatum 46 anni inteifuerunt Cic. Hoc pater et dominus interest Ter. Stulto 
intelligens quid interest ? Ter. 

4 This verb is commonly construed with the dative of the person, and the 
accusative of the thing. That it may have been construed, especially by the 
antients, with the accusative of the person, appears from Horace's Ego cur ac- 
qtdrere pauca Si possum, mvideor. 

* Latet has commonly the dative in Cicero ; as Xifiil maUris quod mihi la- 
tcrt. valeat ; and this case seems more consonant with the analogy of the Latin 
language than the accusative, which seems an imitation of Greek construction. 


cum aliquo, Id. Una nupta 
apud duos, Gell. 1 
Obambulare muris, Liv. ante 

portas, Id. ^Etnam, Ovid. 
Obequitare castris, Liv. agraen, 


Obrepere alicui, Cic. in animos 
dormientium,/(rf. ad honores, 
Id. Taciturn te obrepet fames, 

Obtrectare alicui, Cic. laudibus 
alicujus, Cic. vires, V.Max. 
Obversari oculis, Liv. ante ocu- 
los, Id. ad aures, Lucr. som- 
no, Liv. in somnis, Id. 
Obumbrat sibi vinea, Plin. Ob- 

umbrant Solem nubes, Id. 
Occumbere morti, Virg. mor- 
tem, Cic. morte, Liv. 
Palpari alicui, Plant. Palpare 

aliquem, Juv. 

Parcere alicui, Cic. labori, Ter. 

pecuniam, Plant. Ut parce- 

rent sibi vitam, Gelt. Talenta 

natisparcetuis, Virg. Utacae- 

dibus parceretur,Lzz;. Parcite 

oves nimium procedere^zYg. 

Pepigit mihi aliquid, Ovid. Pe- 

pigit cum aliquo, Suet. Pepi- 

gerunt inter se, Auct. ad He- 

renn. Sic. Paciscor alicui, 

Cic. cum aliquo, Id. Pacisci 

vitam ab aliquo, Sail, vitam 

pro laude, Virg. 

Praecedunt vestraefortunaemeis, 

P/aw/.Praecedere aliquem vir- 

tute, Goes, omnes in re aliqua, 

Plin. Prsecedere agmen, Virg. 

Praecurrere alicui, Cic. aliquem, 

Id. ante omnes, Cces. 
Praeire alicui, Slat. i. e. praecede- 

re aliquem. Praeire alicui verba, 

sacramentum, Liv. Tac. i. e. 

dictare. Praeire verbis, Plant. 

voce alicui, Cic. descripto,P/m. 

Praejacens Asiae vastum mare, 

Plin. Praejacere castra, Tac. 

Praeminere omnibus, Sen? ma- 

los, Tac. 

Praesidere urbi, imperio, Cic. 
exercitum, Italiam, littora 
Oceani, Tac. 

Praestare alicui, Cic. omnibus 
humanitate, Id. omnes elo- 
quentia,, Nep. s 
Praestolari alicui, Cic. aliquem, 

TV. 4 

Praevertere al iquid rei alicu i, Liv. 
uxorem prae republica, Plant. 
Cursu pedum praevertere ven- 
tos, Virg. Et passive, Prae- 
vertihoc certumest rebus aliis 
omnibus, Plant. Ut bell urn 
praeverti sinerent, Liv. Vo- 
lucremque fuga praevertitur 
Hebrum, Virg. 

Procumbere terrae, Ovid.* geni- 
bus alicujus, Id. ad genua, 
Liv. ante pedes, Ov id. in ar- 
mos, Mart. 

Providere rei frumentarice, Cces. 
rem frumentariam, Cces, de 
re frumentaria. Cess. 
Quadrare alicui, Cic. in ali- 
quem,/^. admulta,/(i. acer- 
vum, i, e. in quadrum redi- 
gere, Hor. 

Respondere alicui, Cic. his,CV&?. 

ad haac, ad postulata, Id. ad 

nomen,Z,;. votis alicujus,, i.e. 

satisfacere,^ spem,Lfv. 

Servire, inservire aliciu, Hor. 

1 Tlius also Denubere alicui Tac. And Denubere in domum alicujus Tac. 
It is very probable, that as nubo seems to signify properly vdare, to cover, or 
to veil, an accusative is always understood to it. 

2 Some read prcenitere. 3 Also, Preestitit inter suos tcquales Cic. 

4 Cicero often construes this verb with a dative ; but almost every other 
writer uses the accusative. 

5 Terrce may here be perhaps the genitive, as in Procumbit humi bos, in solo 
being understood to both. 


Cic. rarissime aliquem, Plant. 

Studere alicui rei, i, e. operam 
dare, Cic. literas, Id. aliquid, 
2. e. cupere, Cic. in earn rem, 
Quinct. in ea re, Gdl. Stude- 
re alicui, i. e. favere, Cic. 

Subesse rei alicui, Cic. in re ali- 
qua, Id. 

Subire muro, Vug. feretro, Id. 
Subeunt mihi cunctarum fas- 
tidia, Ovid. Subire tecta, Virg. 
limina, Id. ad moenia, Liv. 
ad portas, Id. in locum alicu- 
jus, Ovid, in ceelum, Plin. 
sub acumen styli, Cic. Subi- 
bat me, viros fmxisse caecam 
esse fortunam, Apul. At sub- 
ire onus, labores, pcenam, 
periculum, &c. item-, subiit a- 

nimum, mentem, fere semper 
dicuntur. 1 

Subjacere monti, Plin. ad ali- 
quid, Quinct. 

Succedere penatibus, F?rg. mu- 
ro, Liv. murum, Sail, ad ur- 
bem, Liv. sub primam aciem, 
CMS. in pugnam, Liv. Suc- 
cedere alicui et in locum ali- 
cujus, Cic. 

Superstare alicui rei, Liv. ali- 
quem, Virg. 

Supervenire alicui, Liv. Unda 
supervenit undam, Hor. 

Venire alicui, Ovid, multb fre- 
quentius ad aliquem, Cic. sub- 
sidio alicui, Cic. suppetias, 
Hirt. B. AJ. adversum alicui, 
Plant, sub ictum telorum, Liv. 

To these may be added the following List of Ferbs sometimes 
employed as Active or Neuter 2 , in the same Sense, or in 
one a little different from the primary Signification. 

Abhorreo, N. (usually.) A. Om- 
nes ilium abhorrent et asper- 
nantur, Cic. 

Abnuo, Annuo. N. Annuit his 
Juno, jfin. 12, 84-1. A. Jain 
abnuentes omnia, fiall. Jug. 
Omen abnuit ^Eneas, sEn. 
5, 531. Cceli quibus annuis 
arcem, ^En. 1, 250. 

Aboleo. A. Corpus nonigni abo- 
litum, Tac. N. Memoria cla- 
dis nondum aboleverat, Liv* 
perhaps se understood. 

Adolesco or Adoleo. A. Igne 
puro altaria adolentur, Tac. 

hist. 2, 3, 5. N. Adolescunt 
ignibus ara3, Georg. 4>, 379. 
And in a different seme, Si- 
mul atque adoleverit aetas, 
Hor. sat. 1, 9, 34-. 

Adulor.N. Potenti adulari, Nep. 
25, 8, 6. A. Adulari fortu- 
nam alterius, Cic. de divin. 2. 
plebem, Liu. 23, 4. 

JEquo. A. (us. } N.Libros^qui jam 
illis fere aequarunt, studiose 
legas, Cic. off. 1, 1, al. 3. Ita 
signis carpentisque et spoliis 
ferme sequabat, Liv. 33, 24. 
perhaps se is understood. 

1 Subeo is often used absolutely : as, Subiit cogitatio, mcmoria, cura, Sec. in 
which animum or mentem is understood ; indeed, it is generally expressed. 
In the same sense, Subiit regem sera pcenitcntiaCurt. and, with the accusa- 
tive suppressed, Subiit cart gentians imago Virg. In this sense the dative is 
found: as, Subeant animo Latmia saxa tuo Ovid. 

8 In the same manner we sometimes find, in English, such expressions as 
" To cease a noise," for " To make a noise cease." Thus also " To rurt a 
horse," "dance a child," " sleep away sorrow, a surfeit, &c.," with many si- 
milar examples. 


JEmulor. A. Pindarum quisquis 
studet aemulari, Hor. od. 4, 
2, 1. N. Tanquam mihi ab 
infimo quoque periculum sit, 
ne mecum aemuletur, Liu. 

/Estuo, Exaestuo. N. (us.) A. 
Pisaeumque domus non ae- 
stuat annum, Stat. (i. e. sestu- 
ando exhibet annum.) Omnes 
exaestuat aestus, Lucr. 6, 816. 
But this is a cognate Ace, 

Ambulo. N. (us.) A. Ambulare 
inaria, Cic. de Jin. 2, ad Jin. 
Si ambulantur stadia bina, 
Plin.23, I. 

Anhelo. N. (us. ) A. De pectore 
frigus anhelans, Cic. nat. 
d. 2. Anhelare crudelitatem, 
Auct, ad Herenn. 4, 55. An- 
helatiignes, Ovid. Her. 12, 15. 

Appello, -is. A. (iw.)N. Eo anno 
Alexandrumin Italiam classe 
appulisse constat, Liv. 8, 3. 
perhaps se understood. 

Appeto. A. (us.} N. Jam appe- 
tebat tempus, Liv. 25, 2. 

Applaudo. N. (us.) A. Applau- 
dit manu caput, Nemes. eel. 
3, 33. Cavis applauso corpore 
palmis, Ovid. met. 4, 352. 

Ardeo. N. (us.) A. Corydonar- 
debat Alexin, Virg. 

Arrideo. N. (us.} A. Quum aut 
non adhibeantur ad causas,aut 
adhibiti derideantur : nam si 
arrideantur, esset id Attico- 
rum, Cic. de. opt. gen. orat. 

Ascendo. A. Ascendere jugum, 
Cezs. 1. G. 1, 21. N. Ascen- 
disset ad h on ores, Cic. de cl. 
orat. 241, c. 58. 

Assuesco, Consuesco, Insuesco. 
N. Ut aliis parere eonsuesce- 
rent, Cic. de inv, 1, 2. A. 
Consuescere rusticos circa la- 
rem domini epulari, Colum. 
11, 1. Sic insuesci debent, 
Colum. 1 . ( See the preceding 

Audeo. N. Aude, hospes, con- 
temnere opes, JEn. 8, 364. 
But here hoc seems understood, 
or contemnere opes supplies 
the place of an accusative. A. 
Periculum audebant, Tac. 
ann. 3, 76. In regnis hoc 
ausa tuis, JEn. 5, 792. 

Cachinno or Cachinnor. N. (us.) 
A. Exitium meum cachinnat, 
Apul met. 3. 

Careo. N. (us.) A. (antiquated) 
Collum collaria caret, Plant. 
Carendus is used by the best 
writers: as, Virque mihi 
dempto fine carendus abest, 
Ov. pen. ul. But this is no 
proof of its being active. 

Caviller. A, Tribunes cavillans, 
Liv. 2, 58. N. Saepe cum 
populo cavillatus est, Suet. 
Tit. 8. 

Cedo, Concede. A. Earn pro- 
vinciam collegae cessit, Val. 
Max. 4. Perizonius imagines 
quod ad understood. Con- 
cedere dolorem, Cic. N. Tu 
ne cede malis, Virg. C once- 
darn hinc intro atque expec- 
tabo, Ter. 

Celero. N. or, rather, absolutely. 
CeJerarestatuit, Tac. Siacce- 
lerare volent, Cic. Cat. 2, 4. 
A. (us.) Celerarefugam,f?rg. 
Iter accelerare, Cas. b. G. 3, 
39. magistratum, Tac. Itine- 
ribus celeratis, Ammian. 31, 

Certo. N. (us.) A. Si res certa- 
bitur unquam, Hor. Certare 
rem, Sedig. ap. Gell. 15, 24. 
Certatam litedeorum Ambra- 
ciam, Ov. met. 13, 713. 
Thus also, Concertare quid, 
Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 2. Quae non 
sunt concertata, Cic. part. 

Cesso. N. (us.) It is used pas- 
sively only as an impersonal, 
or in the perfect participle : 


thus, Largaque provenit ces- 
satis messis in arvis, 
4, 617. Bui this is no proof 
of cesso leing active. 
Clamo, Clamito, and comp. N. 
(us. ) A. Clamare morientem 
nomine, Mn. 4, 674. Con- 
clamat socios, Ov. met. 13, 

73. Inclamavit comitem su- 
um, Cic. inv. 2, 4. Exclamat 
uxorem, Plant. Amph. In- 
clamitor quasi servus, Plant. 
Epid. 5. 2, 46. Clamitare 
calliditatera vidcntur, Cic. pro 
Rose. com. 20, 7. Clamata 
palma, 5, 189. Cor- 
pora conclamata, Lucan. 2, 

Coeo. N. (us.) A. Coire societa- 
tem, Cic. Phil. 2, 10. Socie- 
tas coitur, Cic. pro Sext. Rose. 
c. 7. Societas and societatem 
are the only words thus used. 

Cceno. N. (us.) A. Ut aprum 
coenem ego, Hor. sat. 2, 3, 
235. Eum odorem cosnat Ju- 
piter, Plant, pseud. 

Cogito. A. (us.) N. Mihi de 
amicitia cogitanti, Cic. Amic. 
1. De me cogites, Ter. Run. 
1, 2, 1 14. In these it is only 

Conflagro. N. (us.) A. Confla- 
gravit Semelen Jupiter, //y- 
gin.fab.l c 29. Urbs incendio 
conflagrata, Auct. ad Herenn. 
4, 8. But neither these nor 
the deflagrata domus in Caesar 
Strabo ap. Prise. 6, will prove 
the zweq/'conflagror awc/defla- 
gror, nor an active significa- 
tion in flagro. 

Contingo. A. (us.) N. (and per- 
haps impers.) Id in magnis 
anirnis contingit, Cic. off. 1, 

74, c. 22. 

Consisto. N. (us.) A. (for con- 
stituo) Et per quae vitam pos- 
suntconsistere tutam, Lucr. 6. 

Contendo. A. (us.) N. Plato in 

contendit, Cic. 
Contendere armis, Cic. Att 
7, 9. nobilitate, Lucr. It ap- 
pears to me always active, 
cursum, iter, or nervos, being, 
according to the sense, under- 

Convenio. N. (us.) In urbem 
crebro convenio, Plant. True. 

3, 2, 14. i. e. fgo. A. Pue- 
rum conveni, Ter. And. 2, 2, 
31, i. e. I met. Nonestisa 
me con vent us, Cic. Att. 15, 
1, i. e. met. Pax conventa, 
Sail b. Jug. 112, i. e. agreed 
upon. (See the preceding and 
the following List.) 

Corusco. N.Flamma inter nubes 
coruscat, Cic. de orat. 3, 155, 
c. 39. It is said to be usually 
Neuter; but may not the re- 
flective pronoun be understood? 
A. (In the sense of to bran- 
dish or shake.) Strictumque 
coruscat mucronem, &n. 10. 
Coruscare hastam, JEn. 12, 
431. Also neuter or absolute 
in the same sense : as, Longa 
coruscat sarraco venienteabi- 
es, Juv. 3, 254. Coruscandis 
nubibus, Apul de deo Socr. 
p. 675. 

Crepo, Concrepo. N. Quando 
esurio, [intestina] crepant, 
Plant. Men. 5, 5, 26. Sed 
ostium concrepuit, Ter. Hec. 

4, 1,6. A. Sulcos et vineta 
crepat mera, Hor. ep. 1, 7, 
Si, 2. e. chatters of. Con- 
crepat aera, Mart, i e. makes 
them ring, or jingle. Digi- 
tos concrepare, Petron. i. e. 
to snap the fingers ; al. digi- 

Credo. A. Num puero summam 
belli, num credere niuros. 
JEn. 10, 70. N. Crede mihi, 
bene qui latuit bene vixit, Ov. 
Credo is followed also by a ge- 
nitive : ay, Duarum rerum ere- 


dere, Plaut. True. 2, 2, 52, 
i. e. quod attinet. Nimium 
ne crede colori, Virg. eel. 2, 

Cunctor. N. (us.) A. Ut du- 
bium et pugnas cunctantem 
Eteoclea vidit, Stat. 11, 268. 

Curro and comp. N. (us.) A. 
( but generally cognate accusa- 
tive.) Currit iter tutum, JEn. 
5, 862. stadium, Cic. off. 3. 
Cuncta decurrere possum, 
Firg. vitam, Prop, inceptum 
laborem, Virg. Geo. 2, 39. 
Recurrere cursum, Plant. 
Cist. 2, 3, 50. Ccelum trans- 
currere, Mn. 9, 110. cursum, 
Cic. de cl. oral. 281. divisio- 
nes, Quinct. 4, 2, 2. Decursa 
setas, Cic. pro Quinct. c. 31. 

Decline. A. Urbem unam decli- 
navi, Cic. pro Plane. 97. v. 
41. me, Plant. Aul. 4, 8. De- 
clinantur contraria, Cic. nat. 
d. 3, 13. N. Declinare a 
proposito, Cic. orat. 40. Se 
seems understood. 

Desino. N. (us.) A. Mulierte- 
lam desinit, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 
64. Artem desinere, Cic. 
fam. 7, 1 . Orationes legi de- 
sitae, Cic. Brut. c. 32. 

Despero. N. (us.) A. Pacem 
desperavi, Cic. Alt. 7, 20. 
Desperabantur praelia, Mart. 
Sped. 22. 

Despicio. A. (us.) N. Nequein 
vias sub cantu querulae de- 
spice tibiae, Hor. od. 3, 7 5 29. 

Differo. A. Rem differre et pro- 
crastinare cceperunt, Cic. pro 
Sex. Rose. 9. N. (in a diffe- 
rent sense.) Cogitatione diffe- 
runt, re copiilata sunt, Cic. 
Tusc. 4. 

Doleo. N. (us) A. Meum ca- 
sum doluerunt, Cic. pro Sext. 
c. 69. Pcena dolenda, Ovid. 
Her. 5, 8. 

Dubito. N. (us.) A. Turpe est 

dubitare philosophos, quae ne 
rustici quidem dubitant, Cic. 
Dubitare aliquid, Quid. met. 
6, 194. Ne auctor dubitare- 
tur, Tac. ann. 14, 7, 1. 

Duro. A. Frictio durat corpus, 
Cels. 2, 15. N. Asinius pene 
ad extremum duravit, Cic. 
dial, de orat. 17, i. e. lasted. 

Ebullio. N. Ubi ebullit vinum, 
Cato. A. Virtutes ebullire et 
sapientias, Cic. Tusc. 3, 18, 
i. e. to vaunt of. Animarn 
ebullit, Sen. in ApocoL 

Edormio. N. (us.) A. Edormi 
crapulam, et exhala, Cic. 
Phil. i. e. sleep off or away. 

Emerge. N. (us.) A. Quibus ex 
mails ut se emerserat, Nep. 
Attic. 11, 1. Ex fluorine 
emersus, Cic. div. 2, 68. 

Emineo. N. (us.) A. Moles a- 
quam eminebat, Curt. 4. 

Equito. N. Equitare in arun- 
dine, Hor. A. Atque etiam 
[cameli] equitantur, Plin. 8. 

Erumpo. N. Erumpunt portis, 
yirg. A. Erumpere stoma- 
chum in aliquem, Cic. Att. 
16, 3. Portis se erumpunt, 
Cces. I. c. 2. May not se be 
understood in the JIT st exam- 
ple? Prorumpit ad sethera 
nubem, &n. 3, 572. Erupti 
ignes, Lucr. 1, 724. 

Erro. N. (us.) Errata retrorsum 
littora, Mn. 3, 690. But 
neither does this, nor the im- 
personal erratur, prove erro 
to be active, or errare terras 
to be allowable. 

Erubesco. N. (us.) A. Affines 
te erubescunt, Cic. Erubes- 
cendi ignes, Hor. amores, 
Sen. controv. 2. 

Evado. N. In loca tuta evasit. 
Liv. 28. A. Me evasit, Suet. 
Tib. Evasum se esse, Liv. 

Evigilo. N. Evigilavitinundis, 
Stat. sylv. 5, 3, 128. A. Quos 


studium cunctos evigilavit 
idem, Ov. trist. 1, 1, 108. 
Evigilata consilia, Cic. Attic. 
9, 12. 

Exeo. N. Postquam e portu pi- 
ratae exierant, Cic. Verr. 5, 
71. A. Jam ut limen exirem, 
Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 17, lut this 
is unusual. It is used in the 
sense of to avoid, with an ac- 
cusative: as, Corpora tela 
modo atque oculis vigilanti- 
bus exit, Mn. 5, 438. 

Exerceo. A. (us) Exercentes 
and Exercendo are used ab- 
solutely : as, Exercentes e- 
phebi, Suet. Aug. 98. 

Exhalo. N. Exhalant vapore al- 
taria, Lucr. A. Exhalant flu- 
mina nebulas, Ov. met. 13, 
602. Exbalata anima, Ov. 
met. 11,43. 

Exubero. N. Pomis exuberet 
annus, Firg. Georg. 2, 51 6. 
A. Qua? herbaefavorum ceras 
exuberant, Colum. 9, 4. 

Facesso. A. (us.) Matris prae- 
cepta facessit. Georg. 4, 548. 
And it is found especially in 
old writers in the signification 
of to take away. Dictum fa- 
cessas tuum, Plaut. Men. 2, 

1 , 24. Facesse hinc Tarqui- 
nios, Liv. I, 47. And hence 
the following. N. Ni faces- 
serent propere urbe finibus- 
que, Liv. 4. Haec hinc faces- 
sat, 7>. Phorm. 4, 3, 30, i. e. 
go away. Perhaps se is un- 

Fastidio. A. Si te hie fastidit, 
Virg. Dum nullum fastiditur 
genus, Liv. N. Fastidit rnei, 
Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 67. Factis 
saepe fastidiunt, Cic. pro Mi- 
Ion. 43. 

Festino.N. Festinate, viri, ^En. 

2, 373. A. Festinare vestes, 
Ovid. Met. 11, 575. Festi- 
nare in se mortem, Tac. aun. 

4, 28, 3. Ammo cupienti ni- 
hil satis festinatur, Sail. Jug. 

Fleo. N. (us) A. Flere funera, 
Ovid, aliquem, Mn. 7, 760. 
Longo quod flebitur aevo, 
Sil. 5, 187. 

Flo and comp: N. Belle nobis 
flavit Auster, Cic. Att. 7, 2. 
Etsi Etesiae valde reflarint, 
Cic. Att. 6, 6. A. Flaret e 
corpore flammam, Lucr. 5, 
984. al. efflaret. Laetos effla- 
rathonores, Firg. Tibia fla- 
tur, 4, 841. Aer 
ducitur atque reflatur, Lucr. 
4, 936. Sufflare ignem, Plin. 
34, 8. Sufflata cutis, Plin. 8, 

Fugio and comp. N. Fuge, nate, 
propinquant, JEn. 2. Eftugit 
rex e nianibus, Cic. pro L. 
M. c. 9, 22. A. Fugere ali- 
quem, Ovid. met. 3, 384. 
Paupertas fugitur, Lucan. 1, 
165. Effugere periculum, 
COBS. I. G. 4, 35. Defugere 
administrationem reipublic. 
CCBS. I.e. 1,32. 

Gemo, Ingemo. N. (us.) A. 
Gemere casum alicujus, JEn. 
1, 221. Hie status gemitur, 
Cic. Att. 2, 18. Ingemuisse 
leonesinteritum,^zrg. Glades 
ingemiscenda, Ammian. 30, 7. 

Gratificor. A. Decus atque li- 
bertatempotentiae gratificari, 
Sail. Jug. 3. tibi hoc, Cic. f am. 
1 , 10. N. Aliis gratificari vo- 
lunt, Cic. fin. 5, 15. But, 
prolally, an accusative is un- 

Habito. A. Centum urbeshabi- 
tabcint, JEn. 3, 106. N. or 
Absol. Habitabant vallibus 
imis, JEn. 3, 110, i. e. they 
lived in. Duabus urbibus ha- 
bitabat populus idem, Liv. 8, 
22. But, perhaps, in these 
a/iU; the sense is inhabit, do- 


mos, or some such word, being 

Hiemo. N. Atrum defendens 
pisces hieinat mare, Hor. A. 
Decoquunt aquas - t mox et 
illas hiemant, Plin 19, 4. 
Hiemato lacu, Plin. 9. 

Horreo. N. (us.) A. Horrere 
pauperiem, Hor. sat. 2, 5, 9. 
conspectum, Cic. Horrenda 
diluvies, Hor. car. 4?, 14, 27. 
Nomen horrescunt, Apul. 6. 

Increpo. N. (vs.) A. Soniturn 
increpuit tuba, JEn. 9, 503. 
socios, JEn. 10, 830. Quae 
in victoriam Sullanam incre- 
pabantur, Sail. ep. de rep. 
ord. 1,5. 

Jneo, Ingredior. N. Intra muni- 
tionesingredi, Cces. I: G. 5, 9. 
Ineunte aetate, adolescentia, 
&c. passim. A. Colles ingredi- 
tur, Ov. met. 14-, 846. Taurus 
init ccelum,, 617. 

Inolesco. N. (us.) A. Inolevit 
nobis natura amorem nostri, 
Gdl. 12, 5. In moribus in- 
olescendis, Gell. 12, 1. 

Insanio. N. (us.) A. Insanit a- 
mores, Prop. 2. Quam me 

stultitiam insanire putas, 

Hor. So Bentley reads j others 
have qua stultitia. 

Irascor. N. (us.) A. (with an 
accusative of the thing) Istud 
dictum tibi irascor, Plant. 
Merc. 4, 5. Nostram ne vi- 
cem irascaris, Liv. 34, 32. 

Irrumpo. N. In castra irrupe- 
runt, Cces. b. G. 4, 14. A. 
Milites oppidum irrumpe- 
rent, Cces. b. G.I. 27. 

Juro, Adjuro. N.or Absol. (us.) 
A. (with an accusative of the 
thing sworn by ) Stygias jura- 
vim us undas, Ov. met. 2. 
Jurare Jovem, Cic. fam. 7, 
12. Arae jurandae, Hor. ep. 
2, 1, 16. An accusative of 
the ih'uig sworn to -, Qui dc- 

negatetjuravitmorbum, Cic. 
Att. And with hoc id &c. : as, 
Hoc idem jurant reliqui, Cces. 
b. c. 3. Haec adjurarent, Liu. 
43, 16. 

Laboro. N. (?ts.) A. Ad quid 
laboramus res Romanas, Cic. 
Att. arma tibi, Slat. Theu. 3, 
279'. Propter quae haec labo- 
rantur, Cic. fam. 3, 1 3. Ves- 
tes arte laboratae, Virg. 

Lacrymo, Lacrymor. N. (us.) 
A. Lacrymare casum alicu- 
jus, Nep. 7, 6, 4. Casum col- 
lacrymavit, Cic. pro Sext. 
Lacrymata3 cortice myrrha?, 1,339. 

Lapido. A. (us.) N. Reate im- 
bri lapidavit, Liv. 43, 13. // 
is here used impersonally. 

Latro. N. (us. ) A. Latrent il- 
ium canes, Hor. epod. 5, 57. 
Hunchabentesnegant latrari 
a canibus, Plin. 25, 10. 

Luceo. N. (us ) A. Lucebis 

Ludo. N. (us.) A. Luderealeam, 
Suet. Aug. 70, 5. bella latro- 
num, Mart, civem bonum, 
Ccel ad Oic. 8, 9. Luditur 
alea pernox, Juv. 8, 10. 

Maneo. N. or Absol. (us.) A. 
Manere aliquem, Liv. 10, 35. 
Manebat a?tas negligentiam, 
Ter. Phorm. 4, 1. ^Etas ma- 
nenda, Lucr. 3, 1088. 

Mano, Emano, Stillo. N. or Ab- 
sol. (us.) A. Manat picem, 
Plin. lacrymas, Ov. met. 6, 
3 1 2. Calor per man at argen- 
tum, Lucr. 1 , 495. Emanare 
saniem, Plin. 23, 3. Stillabit 
ex oculis rorem, Hor. ar. 
poet. 429. Electra de ramis 
stillata, Quid. met. 2, 364. 

Mature. N.or Absol. Maturant- 
que celeriter, sicut morus, 
Plin. 16, 25. A. Maturate 
fugani, Mn. 1, 137. Matu- 
ratur opus, Justin. 2, 15, 7. 


Mentior. N. or Absol. In virum 
bonum mentiri non cadit e- 
molumenti sui causa, Cic. 
off. 3, 20. A. Mentiri auspi- 
ciura, Liu, 10, 40. colores, 
Virg. Mentitae sortes, VaL 
Ft. 3, 618. 

Metuo, Timeo. A. Calamitatem 
metuo, Cic. Verr. 3. Et quae 
sibi quisque timebat, JEn. 2. 
N. Syre tibi male timui, Ter. 
Hei ! rnetui a Chryside, Ter. 
And. 1, 1, 79. But here 
some accusative is certainly 

Moderor. N. Qui non modera- 
bitur irse, Hor. ep. 1, 2. 59. 
A.Moderari cantus numeros- 
que, Cic. Tusc. 5, 104, c. 36. 

Mcereo. N. Dolore alterius mce- 
rere, Cic. fam. 4, 5. A. Filii 
mortem mcereret, Cic.Tusc.l. 

Muto. A, (us.) N. or Absol. 
Mortis metu mutabant, Sail. 
Jug. 28. Mores populi R. 
quantum mutaverint, Liv. 

Nato. N (us.) A.Natareaquas, 
Mart. 14, 196. Aquae na- 
tantur, Ov. art. 1, 48. 

Navigo. N. (us.) A. Navigare 
aequor, &n 1, 67Enavigare 
Indum, Ptin. 6, 17. Oceanus 
navigatus est, Plin. 2, 67. 
Enavigatus sinus, Plin. 9, 3. 
Unda omnibus enaviganda, 
Hor. od. 2, 14, 11. 

Nitor. N. (us.) A. Alternoslon- 
ga nitentem cuspide gressus, 
JEn. 12, 386. 

Obeo. A. Is obiit mortem, Ter. 
And. ], 3, 18. diem supre- 
mum, Nep. Dion. Morte obi- 
ta, JEn. 10, 641. N. Obiit 
morte, Suet. Aug. 4. morbo, 
Plin. 11, 37- 

Obstrepo. N. Obstrepere laudi 
alicujus, Senec. Here. fur. 
1031. A. Avium vox obstre- 
pit aures, Virg. CuL 104. 

Oleo, Redoleo. N. (us.) A. Ce- 

ram et crocum olere, Cic. 
Olentilla supercilia malitiam, 
Cic. Redolet antiquitatem, 
Cic. de cl. or at. 21. 

Palleo. N. (us.) A. Pallere co- 
lores, Prop. 1. Et scatentem 
belluis pontum mediasque 
fraudes palluit audax, Hor. 
od. 3. Fontis qui non expal- 
luit haustus, Hor. 

Palpo, Palpor. N. Observatote 
quam blande mulieri palpabi- 
tur, Plaut. A. Quern munere 
palpat Carus, Juv. 1, 35. 
Virginea palpanda manu pec- 
tora, Ovid. met. 2, 867, at. 

Pascor. N. Pascitur in vivis li- 
ver, Ovid. A. Pascuntur syl- 
vas, Georg. 3, 314. Artus de- 
pascitur, JEn. 2. 

Paveo. N. Et pavet pectus, Ov, 
met. 9,581. A.Paverepug- 
nam, Lucan. 7 lupos, Hor. 
Pavescere prodigia, Sil. 

Penetro. Absol. Tumultus e 
castris et in urbem penetrat, 
Liv. Se seems understood. A. 
Nihil tamen Tiberium magis 
penetravit, Tac. 5. Penetrant 
se in fugam, Plaut. Ut peni- 
tus nequeat penetrari, sc. In- 
dia, Lucr. 2, 539. 

Pereo, Depereo. N. (us.) A. 
Tres unam pereunt adoles- 
centes mulierem, Plaut.Truc. 
Ilium deperit impotente a- 
more, Catull. Puppis pereun- 
da est probe, Plaut. Epid. 1, 

Pergo. N. (us.) A. Pergo prae- 
terita, Cic. Alt. 

Perrepo, Perrepto.N. (us.) A. 
Tellurem genibus perrepere, 
Tibull. 1, 2, 87. Perreptavi 
usque omne oppidum, Ter. 
Ad. 4, 6, 3. 

Persono. N. Cum domus cantu 
personaret, Cic. in Pis. 10. 
A, Personate aures vocibus, 


Cic.fam. ep. 6, 19, G.regna, 
JEn. 6, 417. 

Persevere. N. (us.) A. Quatri- 
duo perseverata est inedia, 
Justin. 12, 6, 15. Persevera 
diligentiam is quoted ly Ges- 
nerfrom Symmachus, but such 
an accusative has no classical 
authority. Perseverare ali- 
quid, Cic. pro Quinct. c. 24. 

Pervolo, Pervolito. A. Pervoli- 
tat loca, JEn. 8, 24. Pervo- 
let urbem, Juv. 6, 397. N. 
Per dissepta domorum saxea 
voces pervolitant, Lucr. 6, 
952. Animus velociiis in 
hanc sedem pervolabit, Cic. 
Somn. Scip. 21, 9. 

Plaudo. N. (us.) A. plaudere 
fratrem, Slat. Silv. 5, 3, 140. 
choreas, JEn. 6. Explosit 
hoc genus divinationis vita 
communis, Cic. divin. c. 41. 
Histrio exploditur, Cic. Pa- 
rad. 3, 2. Supplodo and Cir- 
cumplaudo are active; but 
whether they are ever neuter , 
does not appear. Nemo pe- 
dem supplosit, Cic. de orat. 
Quaque ibis, manibus cir- 
cumplaudere tuorum, Ovid. 

Ploro. N. or Absol. Date puero 
panem, ne ploret, Quinct. 
Deplorare apud aliquem de 
miseriis, Cic. Verr. 3, 45. A. 
Juvenem raptum plorat, Hor. 
od. 4, 2, 22. Deplorare cala- 
mitates, Cic. Phil. 1 1 , 6, c. 2. 
Quae de altero deplorantur, 
Cic. deorat. 2, 211. 

Pluo. N. (us.) A. Haec ilia est 

tempestas mea quam mi- 

hi amor et cupido in pectus 
perpluit meum, Plant. Most. 
1, 2, 30. Lacrymas depluit, 
Prop. 2. Et camera pluit, 
Liv. 3, 10. Other MSS. 
have carne. That loth con- 
structions were in use, see 
Drakenlorch ad Liv. 3, 10. 

Praevenio. N. in the sense of to 
come before. A. in the sense 
of to prevent. Praevenire 
desiderium plebis, Liv. 8., 16. 
Miles praeventam gloriam in. 
telligit, Tac. hist. 1, 5, 2. 

Prandeo. N. (us .) A. Si pran- 
deret olus, Hor. Luscinias 
soliti impenso prandere co- 
emptas, Hor. 

Propero, Appropero. N. (us.) 
A. Properare arnaa alicui, 
JEn. 12, 425. Haec prope- 
rantur, Juv. 3, 264. Inter- 
cisis venis, mortem apprope- 
ravit, Tac. ann. 16, 14, 5. 

Propinquo. N. (us.) A. Propin- 
quare augurium, JEn. 10, 
254. mortem, Sit. 2, 281. 

Prorumpo, Perrumpo. A. A- 
tram prorumpit ad asthera 
nubem, JEn. 3, 572. Pro- 
ruptum mare, ^En. 1, 246. 
Ut rates perrumperet, Cccs. 
l.c.l, 26. N. Fiuvio Tibe- 
rinus amceno - - - in mare 
prorumpit, JEn. 7> 32. Per- 
rumpere per aciem, Liv. 3, 
70. in vestibulum, Liu. 3, 18. 

Provoco. A. Crispinus me pro- 
vocat, Hor. N. Provoco ad 
populum, Liv. l.i.e.l ap- 

Pulvero. A. (us.) N. Nolohoc 
pulveret, Plaut. ap. GelL. 18, 
12, i. e. be dusty. 

Quadro N. Conjunctionem ver- 
borum numerose cadere, et 
quadrare, et perfici volumus. 
Cic. orat. 3, 44. A. Quadra- 
re acervum, Hor. ep. 1, 6, 
35. Quadrandae orationis in- 
dustria, Cic. orat. c. 56. This 
word signifies both to make 
square, and to become square, 
or perfect. 

Quiesco, Requiesco. N. (us.) 
A. Quiescent laudes tuas 
populi, Senec. Here. Oct. 15. 
Quieta urbs, JEn. 12, 558. 


Et mutata suos requierunt 
flumina cursus, Virg. eel. 8, 4. 
Kequietus ager, Ovid. art. 2. 
351. Requietis militibus, 

Queror, Conqueror. N. Saepe 
de luxuria questus sum, Sail. 
Cat. 52. A. Aadivi Milonem 
queri injuriam meam, Cic. 
Att. 5, 8. Conquer! fortunam 
adversam decet, Cic. 

Radio. N. (us.} A. Scuta sed et 
galeae gem mis radientur et 
auro, Ov. Pont. 3, 4, 103. 

Redundo. N. (us.) A. Redun- 
dat talia raucis faucibus Vul- 
turnus, Stat. silv. 4, 3, 71. 
i. e. profert, loquitur. Redun- 
datas flumine cogit aquas, 
Ovid, trist. 3, 10, 52. But 
these are not sufficient autho- 
rity for red undo active. 

Regno. N. (us.) A. Trans Lygi- 
os Gothones regnantur, Tac. 
Germ. 25, 4. Terra regnata 
Philippe, Ovid. Pont. 4, 15, 
15. Albam regnandam, JEn. 
6, 770. But these are not suf- 
Jicient authority for regno ac- 

Resideo. N. (us.) A. Venter 
gutturque resident esuriales 
ferias, Plant. Capt. 3, 1, 8. 

1. e. sedendo agunt. Denica- 
les feriae a nece appellatae 
sunt, quia residentur mortui, leg. 2,22. 

Respicio. A. (us.) N. Et quum 
Latinisstudebimus literis,non 

2, 12. 

Resulto. N. (us.) A. Saxacau- 
tesqueparilem sonum resulta- 
rent, Apul. met. 5. 

Rideo. N. (us.) A. Ridere ali- 
quem, Cic. Jam. 2, 9. por- 
tenta Thessala, Hor. Ridear, 
Ovid. Pont. 4, 12, 16. 

Roro. N. (us.) A. Lacrymis 

oculi rorantur obortis, Ovid. 
Her. 15, 97. Rorata mane 
pruina, Ovid. fast. 3. 

Ruo, Proruo, Corruo. Trruo. N. 
Quid si ccelum mat, Ter. Ipsa 
vi molis et irae proruit, Vol. 
Flac. 7, 600. Corruit in vul- 
nus, Virg. A. Cseterosrue- 
rern, Ter. Ad. Ruere cumu- 
los arenae, Virg. georg. 1. 
105. Ruta caesa ap. J. Ctos 
et Cic. orat. 2, 55. Multa 
proruet integrum cum laude 
victorem, Hor. od. 4, 4, 66. 
Corruere divitias, Plant. Rud. 
2,6,58,z'.e.congregare Spicae 
corruuntur in corbem, Varro. 
Vide ne ille hue intro se irru- 
at, Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 11. 

Rumpo. A. (us.) N. Gesso hue 
intro rumpere, Ter. Eun. 5, 
6, 26. 

Rutilo. N. (us.) A. Rutilare ca- 
pillos cinere, Vol. Max.^ 1, 
5. comam, Suet. Cal. 47. 
Promissae et rutilatse comae, 
Liv. 38, 17. 

Salto. N. (us.) A. Cheironomon 
Ledarn molli saltante Bathyl- 
lo, Juv. 6, 63. Carolina nostra 
saltari scribis, Ovid, trist. 5. 
7, 25. Poemata saltata, Ovid, 
trist. 2. 

Satisfacio. N. (us.) A. (obsol.) 
Donicum pecuniam satisfe- 
cerit, Cato r. r. c. 149. Sa- 
tisfacto jurejurando, Gell.7, 
18. It is conjectured from 
this last, that the antients said 
satisfacerejusjurandum. Pe- 
rizonius is of opinion, that, 
in such constructions there are 
ttvo accusatives, of which one, 
satis, is governed by the verb, 
the other by K&fd, or quod ad, 

Sibilo, Exsibilo. N. [Serpens] 
sibilat ore, JEn. 11,754. A. 
Populus me sibilat, //or, Ver- 


ba anguina exsibilat, Prudent. 
Peristeph. 5, 175. Histrio 
exsibilatur, Cic. Parad. 3, 2. 

Sileo. N. (us.) A. Silere rem 
aliquara, Senec. Hipp. 876, 
Ea res siletur, Cic. pro Flac. 
c. 3. 

Sitio. N. (us.) A. Sitire sangui- 
nem, Cic. Phil. 5, 7. honores, 
Cic. Aquae sitiuntur, Ovid, 
fast. 1,215. 

Somnio. N. Nee mihi magis us- 
quara videor somniare, Cic. 
de divin. 2, 142, c. 68. A. Me 
somnies, Ter. Eun. 1,2, 114. 
Somniare ineptias, Coin. ], 

Sono, Insono, Circumsono, Re- 
boo. N. (us.) A. Sonatvitium 
fidelia, Pers. 3, 21. Alcyo- 
num questus ad surdas tenui 
voce sonantur Aqo*s,Albinov. 
cleg. 1, 108. Verberaque inso- 
nuit, JEn. 7, 451, where Ser- 
vius notes pro verberibus in- 
sonuitaz^ per verbera. Fini- 
timis quamvis circumsoner 
armis- Ovid. Scopulique om- 
nes ac lustra ferarum Pirenen 
reboant, Sil. 3, 439. 

Specto. A. Spectat acervos,//or. 
od 2, 2, 24. N. Spectare in 
septentriones, Cess. b. G. 1, 1. 
ad concordiam, Cic. 

Spiro, Expire, Suspiro,Respiro. 
N. or Absol. Arae spirant flo- 
ribus, Stat. silv. 2, 2, 27. 
Inter primam curationem ex- 
piravit, Liv. 2, 20. Jngemit, 
et tacito suspirat pectore, 
Ovid. ep. 21, 201. Respi- 
raro, si te videro, Cic. Alt. 2, 
24. To some, at least, of 
these, an accusative is under- 
stood. A. Tetrum odorem 
spirare, Colu, 1, 6. deam, 
Ov. met. 3. Honainem tri- 
bunatum spirantem, Liv. 3, 
46. Confixi animas expirant, 

JEn. 11, 883. Suspirat a- 
mores, Tibull. 4. Eandem- 
que [animam] a pulmonibus 
respiret et reddat, Cic. de nat. 
de. 2, 135. 

Stupeo. N. (us.) A. Parsstupet 
donum, jEn. 2. Stupenda 
penetralia, Nazar. paneg. 
Constant, c. 6. 

Subsisto. N. (us.) A. Et post- 
quara Romanum nee acies 
subsistere ullas nee castra nee 
urbes poterant, Liv. 9, 31. 

Sudo. N. (us.) A. Sudent elec- 
tra myricae. Virg. eel. 8, 54. 
Thura balsamaque sudantur, 
Tac. Germ. 45, 9. In sudata 
veste durandum, Quinct. 

Sufficio. A. Ipse pater Danais 
animos viresque secundas suf- 
ficit, JEn. 2, 617- In ejus 
locum sufFectus, Liv. 5, 31. 
N. Sufficere laboribus, Plin. 
jun. Necsufficit umbo ictibus, 
JEn. 9, 810. 

Suppedito. N. Ea quse suppedi- 
tant advictum, Cic. off. 1, 4. 
Cui si vita suppeditavisset, 
Consul factus est, Cic. Per- 
haps an accusative is under- 
stood. A. Sicilia frumentum 
suppeditat, Cic. Ver. 2, 2. 
Fistulis aqua suppeditabatur 
templis, Cic. pro Rabir. per- 
duell. c. ult. 

Supero. A. (us.) Phoebum supe- 
rare canendo, Virg. eel. 5, 9. 
N. Et captae superavimus ur 
bi, jEn. 2, 643, i. e. out- 
lived. Supero signifies not 
only to come over and to over, 
come, and is used for vincere, 
but to be over or remain, as 
equivalent to superesse or su- 
perstitem esse. In the former 
sense it governs the accusative , 
in the latter it takes the da- 

Surgo. N. (us.) A. (obsol.) 


itlt. Surrecto mucrone, Liv. 
7, 10. 

&uspicio. A. Et castra suspexi- 
mus, Cic. Tusc. 1, 63, c. 25. 
N. Suspicere in coelum, Cic. 
Somn. Scip. 1. 

Taceo, Obticeo. N. (us.) A.Ta- 
ceo te, Plant. Mil. multa, 
Cic. Amor tacetur, Ovid. 
amor. 2, 18, 36. Et queri- 
tur nugas obticuisse meas, 

.. Mart. 10, 17. 

Tardo. A. (us.) N. An tardare 
et commorari te melius esset 
tibi, Cic. ad Brut. 18. Mark- 
land says that this is the only 
example of tardo being used 
intransitively in Cicero or in 
any other classical writer, ex- 
cept once retardando the ge- 
rund in a neuter sense in Cic. 
nat. d. 2, 20. It was com- 
mon, he observes, in the de- 
cline of the language. This 
is one of his arguments against 
ike authenticity of the Ep. to 
Brutus. It is, at best., but a 
suspicious example. 

Tempero. A. Temperat iras, 
Mn. 1, 61. N. Usque mihi 
temperavi. Cic. f am. ep. 10, 
7. Quis temperet a lacrymis, 
JEn. 2, 8. 

Tendo.A Jter ad naves tendebat 
Achates, Virg. N. Tendimus 
in Latium, JEn. 1, 205. But 
here iter, or a similar word, 
may be understood. Illic Ja- 
cides, illic tendebat Ulysses, 
Ov. Pen. Uly.i. e. encamped ; 
and here perhaps tentorium is 

Tono, Intono. N. (us.) A. Ter- 
centum tonat ore deos, Virg. 
Laudes tonas, Plin. prof. 
Cum haec intonuisset, Liv. de 
Virginia. Minas intonare, 
Ov. amor. 1, 7? 46. 

Tremo. N. (us.) A. Tremere 
varios casus, Senec. Troad. 
262. Tremendi oculi, Ovid, 
met. 3, 577. Unde pericu- 
lum fulgens contremuit do- 
in us Saturni veteris, Hor. 
Non contremiscamusinjurias, 
Sen. ep, 66. 

Transgredior. A. Ut Alpes 
transgrederer, Cic. f am. 11, 
20. Transgressus Danubium, 
Tac. ann. 2, 63, init. N. Inde 
in Latinam viam transgres- 
sus, Liv. 2, 39. Transgredior 
ad vos, Tac. hist. 4-, 66, 4. 

Transvolo, Transvolito. A. 
Transvolat in medio posita, 
Hor. N. Transvolat inde in 
partem alteram, Liv. 3, 63. 
Et clausa domorum transvo- 
litant, Lucr. I, 355. 

Trepido. N. (us.) A. Actrepi- 
dant divina praesagia, Apul. 
met. 6. 

Triumpbo. N. (us.) A. Terram 
triumphavit, Lactant. 6, 23. 
Triumphatae gentes, Virg. 
georg. 3, 33. Triumphatis dare 
jura Medis, Hor. od. 3, 3, 43. 
But notwithstanding these two 
examples, an accusative of the 
thing conquered is not found 
in any author truly classical. 

Turbo, Conturbo. A. (us.) N. 
or Absol. Turbant trepida 
ostia Nili, JEn. 6, 800, where 
Servius notes turbant^ro tur- 
bahtur. Indeed, where tur- 
bans seems to be used for tur- 
batus, and turbo^br turbor, 
there seems to be an ellipsis 
of some accusative. Contur- 
bo, used absolutely, signifies 
toi>e distressed in circum- 
stances, or to have one's af- 
fairs in confusion : thus, Pedo 
conturbat, Matho deficit, 
Juv. 7 1 29, in which probably 
there is an ellipsis ofrationes. 


Vagor. N. (us.) A. Terras va- 

gari, Prop. 2, 28, 19. 
Vaporo. A, Et templum thure 

vaporant,^. 11,481. Vapo- 

ratas aras, Virg. Oculos va- 

porari praecipiunt, Plin. 28, 

11. N. Aquae vaporant et in 

ipso mari, Plin. 32, 2. 
Velio, Inveho, Gesto. A. (us.) 

N. The participles vehens, in- 

vehens, gestans, are often 

used absolutely in the same 

sense as vectus and invectus : 

thus, Ei consul! pater pro- 
consul obviamin equo vehens 

venit, Gell.2, C 2. Triton 

natantibus invehens belluis, 

Cic. nat. d. \ , 28. Idem classi 

praefectus circumvehens Pe- 

loponnesum classem eo- 

rum fugavit, Nep. Timoth. 

Lectica per urbetn vehendi 

jus, Suet. Claud. 28. Simul 

gestanti, Suet. Domit. 1 2. It 

probably arises, from this 

manner of using veho, that its 

derivative vector signifies not 

only a carrier but a passen- 
Vergo. N,(w5.) A. (in the sense of 

pouring) Vergere venena, Lu- 

Among the foregoing will be found several Neuter Verbs, 'which 
arc rendered transitive, through the Preposition with 
which they are compounded : of the same Description 
are the following. 

cret. 5, IOCS. Frontiquein- 
vergit vina sacerdos, JEn. 6, 
244. Spumantes mero paterae 
verguntur, Stat. Th. 6, 211. 

Vescor. N. (us.) A. Ut infir- 
missirnos suorum vesceren- 
tur, Tae. Agr. Qui absin- 
thium vescuntur, Plin. 11. 

Vigilo, Evigilo, Pervigilo. N. 
(us.) A.Vigilarenoctes, Hor. 
sat. 1, 3, 17. Vigilatae noc- 
tes, Ov. art. 1, 735. Noctes 
vigilanturjOv. Med. J as. (See 
Evigilo in List.) Pervigilare 
noctem, Cic. pro S. Rocc. 
c. 85. In mulco nox est pervi- 
gilata mero, Ovid. Jast. 6, 

Ululo. N. (us.) A. Ulularunt 
tristia Galli, Lucan. 1. He- 
cate triviis ululata, JEn. 4, 

Undo, Inundo. N. or Absol. 
Adcoelum undabat vortex, 
JEn. 12,673. Inundant san- 
guine fossae, JEn. 10, 24. A. 
Quuni tuus^Eacides sanguine 
undabit cainpos, Stat. Achil. 
1, 86. Sanguine Enna inun- 
dabitur, Liv. 24, SO. 

Afflo. Afflat vittas anhelitus 
oris, Ovid. met. 5, 617. Af- 
flata est tell us, Ovid. met. 6, 

Adeo. A dire aliquem, Virg. 
JEn. 3, 456. Adiri praetores 
non potuerunt, Cic. ad Q. Fr. 

Anteeo. Anteirenivescandore, 
Mn. 12, 84. Ne ab aliis an- 
teirentur, Tac.hist.2, 101,2. 

Circumeo. Circumire hostem, 
Curt. 3, .8, 27. Se belli fluc- 

tibus circumiri maluit, Cic. 

Phil. 13, 9. 
Circumsono. Circumsonat or- 

bem Nereus, Ovid. met. 1, 

187- Geticis circumsonor 

arm is, Ovid, trist. 5, 3, 11. 
Circumsisto. Circumsistunt 

hostes impeditum, Cces. b. 

G. 5, 43. Ne ab omnibus 

circumsisteretur, CCES. b. G. 

7, 43._ 
Circumsideo. Circumsidere ur- 

bem, Tac. ami. 3^ S. Cum 


a se Caecilius circumsedere- 

tur, (sedeo) Cic. Alt. 14, 9. 
Circuiustrepo. Circurastrepen- 

tibus vitam humanam tot 

minis, Senec. de vit. beat. c. 

11. Vedius clamore seditio- 

sorum circumstrepitur, Tac. 

hist. 2, 44, 3. 
Circumvenio. Circumvenireali^ 

quern, Sail. Cat. 58. Circum- 

venior judices, nisi subveni- 

tis, Cic. Brut. c. 75. 
Incubo Incubare ova, Plin. 9, 

10. Ova incubantur, Plin. 

Perarabulo. Perambulat artus 

frigus, Ovid. Her. 9, 135. 

Perambulat us Niphates, Si' 

don. car. 23, 93. 
Percurro. Percurrere polurn, 

Hor. car. 1, '28, 6. Ques- 

tiones percursas, Cic. de orat. 

2, 31. 

Pererro. Pererrare locum, JEn. 
5, 441. Orbe pererrato, Ovid, 
met. 3, 6. 

Permeo. Permeare orbern, Lu- 
can. 2, 418. Permeato am- 
ne, Ammian. 24, 2. extr. 

Pervado. Pervasit urbem fama, 
Lit). 2, 23 Pervasa urbe, 
Ammian. 24, 2. 

Prastereo. Praeterit iramodum, 
Ovid. fast. 5, 304. Cum bo- 
nus vir suffragiis praeteritur, 
Cic. Tusc. 5, 19. 

Subeo. Subire pericula, Ovid. 
Her. 20, 175. Inimicitiae 
subeantur, Cia. Verr. 5,71. 

Supersedeo. Supersedere ope- 
ram, Cell. 2, 29. Istis super- 
sessis, Apul. Florid. 18. 

Transeo. Transire flurnen, Cic. 
Att. 8, 12. Rhodanus vado 
transitur, Cces. b. G. 1,6, &c. 

Some grammarians have denied the existence of neuter 
verbs ; others have termed every verb neuter, which is used, 
as active verbs often are, without its regimen's being ex- 
pressed : and hence, in a great measure, it arises, that we 
have been furnished with s\ich ample lists of verbs used as 
active and neuter. It was this consideration which pre- 
vented me from transcribing, according to my original in- 
tention, Sanctius's list De Verbis falso neutris, along with 
Vossius's two lists. From the definitions which have been 
given of active and neuter verbs, and from some remarks 
which have been made in regard to their construction, 
under Rules XXVIII. and XXXIII., the learner will 
have little difficulty to ascertain, when he considers the na- 
ture and essential signification of a verb, whether it be 
really active, or apparently neuter ; and, although he may 
find, moveo, servo, ago., and many similar verbs, charac- 
terized, not only as active, which they unquestionably are, 
but as neuter also, because there are such constructions 
as Postquam ille Canusio moverat Cic. Solus Sannio ser- 
vat domi Ter. Agere inter homines desiit Tac., yet, let 
him attend to the nature of the subject, and his own mind 
will suggest the elliptical words to which the energy of these 
words passes, and he will easily perceive to what descrip- 

X 2 


tion of verbs they really belong. Nor, on the other hand* 
are those verbs to be considered as real active verbs, which 
admit after them an accusative of the same, or of a cognate 
signification ; nor such as are followed only by the accu- 
satives hoc, id, quod, nihil, aliquid, &c. These have been 
generally omitted in the preceding list. The learner should 
likewise distinguish between real neuter verbs, and such 
active verbs as are often used in an absolute manner, which 
happens, especially, when the sense requires only the mere 
energy of the verb to be, generally, expressed, without any 
application of it to a specified object, as, when speaking of 
reading and writing, generally *, we say Nee legit^ nee scri- 
bit. Sometimes part of the sentence supplies the place, of 
an accusative ; sometimes, also, the reciprocal se, the pro- 
noun me, or some similar word, is omitted after an active 
verb 8 , w r hen, from the sense or the nature of the action, its 
insertion is altogether unnecessary : as, Turn prora avertit 
rVirg. Tresque vibrant lingua Ovid. The active verb 
incipio has been denominated neuter, because we may say 
Ver incipit, in the same way as Virgil says Vix prima in- 
ccperat cestas, and, in the same manner, in English " The 
spring begins," or "The summer had begun." But, I 
have little doubt, that, in such instances, se is understood. 
In speaking of this phraseology, an intelligent writer on the 
Syntax of the Latin verb, remarks, that in the sentence 
" The moon turns, round its axis," the verb turn is neuter, 
and adds, " that he should make it a question, which was 
the more antient kind, the verb active, or the verb neuter." 
Such verbs I consider as active, or, as some have named 
them, reflective. Moon and spring, though inanimate sub- 
jects, undergo a sort of personification, and are so generally 
considered to be vested with a self-influencing power, that 
it is unnecessary to particularize themselves as the objects 
upon which that power is exerted. And, although the 

1 Thus Coesar says, in his laconic epistle, Veni, vidi, vici, in which two ac- 
tive verbs follow a neuter verb, with no object or regimen expressed to them. 
The reason is obvious. Coesar did not wish to say whom he conquered, but to 
intimate that wherever he came, conquest, generally, was the immediate con- 
sequence. But such verbs are not, for this use of them, to be characterized 
as neuter, since it is in the very nature of tilings, that if there be a person who 
sees or conquers, there must be objects ichich he sees or conquers. A verb is 
not neuter, because it may not be followed by an object, but because it gene- 
rally admits none. 

2 Indeed, I will not assert that some of the verbs in the preceding list, 
which have been exemplified as neuter, may not, even when they appear to 
be thus used, be still in reality active, some pronoun, or other word, being un- 

their regimen. 


agent and object be one and the same, and although, con- 
sequently, the action does not, in a strict sense, pass from 
the agent, yet it is evident that the subject is spoken of in 
two distinct characters, as agent-) and recipient of action ; 
and, therefore, the verb has precisely the same import and 
nature which it would universally be allowed to possess, 
were they individually different and distinct 1 . The same 
kind of phraseology obtains in languages derived from the 
Latin, with this difference, however, that the reciprocal is 
not so frequently omitted in them. Thus, in French, they 
say " Les jours commencent a s' alonger," the days begin 
to lengthen (themselves). In Spanish, " Se acaba la riha," 
the quarrel ends (itself). And in both, " Le soleil se 
couche," " Se pone 2 el sol," the sun sets (itself 'or himself). 
All such verbs, in English, as well as in Latin, have been 
denominated, by some, neuter verbs, as may be seen, by 
referring to Dr. Johnson's English Dictionary, passim, and 
to the numerous lists made by Latin grammarians. Indeed, 
were I inclined to hazard a conjecture, it would be the re- 
verse of the opinion which seems to be sanctioned by the 
ingenious writer alluded to above, and I should say, that, 
the substantive verb, perhaps, excepted, active verbs were 
the first invented, and that most verbs, if not all, were, very 
probably, originally active, that is, admitted after them an 
objective or accusative case of some kind or' other. The 
Spaniards, whose language, as has been just mentioned, is 
derived from the Latin, construe, as active, verbs which we 
consider as neuter or intransitive : thus they say " Tu tc 
duermes," thou fallest (Ihce) asleep. " Tu te paseas," thou 
walkest (thee). " Tu te ibas," thou wast going (thee) away. 
The French, too, say " II s' endort," he sleeps. " II se 
promene," he walks. I am aware, however, that, although 
some of these verbs are interpreted neuterly, their original, 
etymological signification, may, perhaps, have been active. 
Why the accusative is usually omitted, after such verbs, in 

1 To express such actions seems to have been the original character of the 
Greek middle voice. When an action had a double relation to the same sub- 
ject or object, that is, when the same person was both active and passive, this 
voice was generally used. But in other languages, the verb retains its active 
form, se, himself, or a similar word, expressed or understood^ denoting the 
subject of the verb, in its passive character, as acted upon. 

* The pronoun is often omitted after the Latin pono : as, Quilm venli po- 
siicre Virg. TEn. 7, 27. Jam vcntiponcnt Ov. Did. Thus used, this seems 
a sea term. Indeed technical phrases are generally elliptical ; thus solvo is 
used absolutely, for to set 'sail, or weigh anchor, as in jVos ro die cccnati solvi- 
mus Cic. fain. ep. 16, 9, Naves cr snpcriurc porttt win-runt Cws. J3. G. 29, 
the- accusative anchoras being, probably, understood, 


Latin, and in some other languages, it would not be diffi- 
cult to determine ; perspicuity does not require its continu- 
ance; and philologists are well acquainted with the ten- 
dency to abbreviation, so easily discoverable in most lan- 

In the foregoing list, the use of a passive voice is ad- 
mitted as a proof of the active signification of verbs in o, 
except with respect to passive impersonals, such as cumtur, 
favetur, &c. But a perfect participle must not be deemed 
unquestionable evidence of the existence of a passive voice, 
for we find Ventum est^ standwn, pugnatum est, &c. although 
there are no such words as venior., stor, pug?ior. The pas- 
sive voice of verbs usually neuter is very uncertain ; and 
even, although there be authority for the third person, the 
other persons are not, on that account, allowable. 

Verbs which vary their Construction according to 
their Sense. 

Accedo tibi, / assent. 

Accedo ad te, / come or go to 
you. ' 

Hue accedebat, to this luas ad- 

/Emulor tibi, 7 envy you. 

JEmulor te, / imitate you. 

Animadverto aliquid, 7 observe 
a thing. 

Animadverto in aliquem, 7 pu- 
nish one. 

Ausculto tibi, 7 obey you. 

Ausculto te, 7 hear you. 

Caveo tibi, I take care of you, 
or for you, as my friend. 

Caveo te, 7 am on my guard 

against you, avoid you, as my 

Cavere de realiqua, to give cau- 
tion or security concerning*. 

Cedere alicui, to give place to, 
to comply with one. 

Cedere suo jure, toyield or give 
up his right. 

Consulo tibi, 7 consult your in- 
terest 3 . 

Consulo in te, 7 am contriving 
for or against you. 

Consulo te, 7 consult you, ask 

Consulo boni, 7 take in good 

1 Cavere aliquid alicui Plaut. To watch over the preservation of any one, 
that no harm may happen to him. Obsidibus de pecunia cavere Cass. To 
give security for the money, by hostages. Pecuniam alicui cavere ; i. e. To give 
security for its payment. Obsidibus inter se cavere Cees. To consult their 
security by mutual hostages. Milii tccum cavendum est Plaut. i. e. There 
must be a proper surety in this suit which I have with you. Nisi prius a te 
cavero Cic. Unless I shall first get security from you. 

* Consulo tibi never denotes, (unless among writers of inferior authority,) I 
give you advice. In this sense, suadco tibi, or auctor sum tibi are usually em- 


Convenit hoc milii, this suits 

Convenit mihi cum illo, I agree 

with him. 
Conveniam hominem, / will 

meet, or accost, the man. 
Cupio tibi, I favour you. 
Cupio aliquid, / desire some- 

Deficit mihi, it is wanting to me. 
Deficit me, it forsakes or leaves 


Deficere ab aliquo, to revolt. 
Detrahere alicui,o detractfrom, 

backbite, depreciate. 
Detrahere aliquem, to lower, to 

take one down (in reference to 


Do tibi literas, I give you a let- 
ter (not for yourself). 
Do ad te literas ', I give a letter 

for you, or 7 write to you. 
Fcenero or fceneror tibi, 7 lend 

out to you at usury. 
Fceneror abs te, I borrow from 

you at usury or interest. 
Horrere alicui, (PUn.) to shud- 
der for one. 
Horrere aliquem, to be much 

afraid of one as an enemy. 
Imponere alicui, to deceive one, 

put a trick upon one. 
Imponere aliquid alicui, to put 

one thing upon another ; or, 

to lay any thing as a burden 

upon any one. 
Manere, to tarry, stay, or abide. 

( Absolute. ) 
Manere aliquem. to wait for 

one, or expect one. 
Metuo tibi, lam afraid for you, 

anxious about you y as my 


Metuo te, or a te, I dread you, 

or fear you, as my foe. 
Peto aliquid alicui, I ask some- 
thing for (to be given to) some 

Peto abs te, I ask of or from 

Petopcenas de aliquo, I inflict 

punishment upon one. 
Peto aliquem gladio, I strike or 

attack one with a sword. 
Peto locum, 7 go to, or direct 

my steps to, a place. 
Praeire alicui, (literally) to go 

before one ; (figuratively] to 

excel, (seldom.) 
Praeire verba, to speak jirst what 

may afterwards be rehearsed 

by another. 
Praestare alicui silentium,bene' 

volentiam, to afford silence, 

show kindness. 
Praestare aliis or alios virtute, 

to excel others in virtue or 

Praestare se virum, to show or 

prove himself a man. 
Praestare culpam or damnum, 

to take on himself the blame 

or loss. 
Praestabo eum facturum, I will 

engage that he shall perform. 
Prospicio, provideo, tuae saluti, 

7 provide for, take care of, 

your safety. 
Prospicio, provideo periculum, 

I foresee danger. 
Recipio tibi, 7 promise you. 

Thus also, Recipio in me, 7 

Recipio me in locum, 7 betake 

myself to a place. 
Refero tibi, 7 relate to you. 

1 Thus, Do servo literas ad tc, I give your servant a letter for you. Dare 
fidcm denotes to give a pledge, assurance, or solemn promise. In one or two 
instances, unworthy of imitation, the phrase is used for fidcm, qffcrre, to add 
credibility to a thing ; but it is never employed, by any classical writer, for fidcm 
habere, or credere, to give credit, or believe. Dare pcenas denotes to suffer, 
not to inflict, punishment. Dare vrrba alicni, to impose on, or deceive. 


ilefero ad scnatum, Hay before 
the senate (for discussion'}. 

Referre aliquem, to resemble 

Renuncio muneri, hospitio, to 
renounce or refuse a present ,. 
or act of kindness. 

Renuncio consulem, I declare y 
proclaim, or announce as con- 

Solvo tibi aliquid, / pay you 

Solvo aliquem - 1 , to discharge or 
liberate one. 

Sufficere alicui, to be sufficient 
for one, to satisfy. 

Sufficere alicui arma, to fur- 
nish or supply one with arms. 

Sufficere aliquem, to choose or 
put one into the place of an- 

Temperate linguae, manibus ; 

to restrain, or keep zuithin 

bounds, the tongue or hands. 
Temperare csedibus, or a caedi- 

bus, to abstain or refrain from 

Temperare orbem, vires, ra- 

tem, to govern the world, ; to 

moderate strength, might or 

power ; to regulate or direct 

a ship. 
Timeo tibi, / am afraid for you 

as my friend. 
Timeo te, I fear you as anf&e- 

my. (Same as Metuo 2 ). 
Vacare rei alicui, in, or ad ali- 

quam rem, to study or apply 

to a thing. 
Vacare ab officio, to be exempt 

from, or to leave off, business. 
Vacare culpa, to be without 

Vacat mihi, / am at leisure. 

s Deponent, ivhich use the voice in o, in the same sense. 

[The following Lists are taken from Vossius de Analogia, lib. 3, 
to which work the learner is referred for the examples.] 

Adulo for Adulor, Attius, 
Lucr., c. Alterco^or Al- 
tercor, Pacuv., Ter. Assen- 
tio and Assentior are both 
used, according to Gell., 

tofbr Amplector, and Am- 
plexo for Amplexor, Q. 
Claud,, Cic., Attius. Aucupo 
for Aucupor, Titin., Plaut., 

J Solvere obsidionem urbis, et urbem obsidione Liv. To raise a siege. Sol- 
vcre foedcra Virg. To break a league. Solvere fidem Ter. is not, as inter- 
preted by Ainsworth, Stephanus, and Turner in his Exercises, to break a pro- 
mise ; but, according to Ruddiman, to discharge, fulfil, or perform a pro- 
mise, in which sense, he_says, Pliny uses Fidcm exsolverc, and Suetonius Fi- 
dem liberarc. This last is also used by Cicero in the same sense. But sol- 
vere fidem Cic. is rendered, in Pasini's Ital. Diet, by mancar di parola, to 
fail in his word, or break his promise Abstractly considered, the phrase ap- 
pears to me to denote merely to get rid of a promise or obligation, without 
any express reference to the mode, either as honourable or dishonourable. 

2 Formido mi/il Plaut. I am afraid for myself, that is, lest some harm be- 
fall me. Formidat auro Plaut. He is afraid for the gold, that is, lest it 
should be stolen. Forniidare cilicujus iracundiam, ctliyucm, and ab aliyuo, that 
is, To dread his passion, or him, are attributed to Cicero. 


Pacuv., &c. Auguroy^r'Au- 
guror, Att., Enn., Virg., &c. 
Auspico for Auspicor, ac~ 
cording to Priscian, Cato, 
. Naevius. Auxilio for Auxi- 
lior, Gracchus. 

Cachinno, Lucr. Cachinnor, 
Cic. Cohortoyor Cohortor, 
Quadrigarius. Comito for 
Comitor, Ovid. Commento 
for Comraentor, according to 
Priscian. Commisereo, Com- 
miseresco. SeeMiseret. Com- 
plectofor Complector, Pom- 
pon. Congredio for Con- 
gredior, Plaut. And Progre- 
diojbr Progredior, Novius. 
Consoloybr Consoler, Varr. 
Contemplo for Contemplor, 
Att., Naev., Enn., &c. Con- 
vivo for Convivor, Enn., 
Pompon. Criminoybr Cri- 
minor, Enn. Cuncto for 
Cunctor, Att., Enn. 

Demolioybr Demolior, Alfenus. 
Delucto. See Lucto. Digno 
for Dignor, Pacuv., Attius. 

Ejulo for Ejulor, according to 
Priscian. Expergisco, Pom- 
pon. Exsecroyor Exsecror, 

Frustro for Frustror, Pom- 
pon., Plaut., Caes. Frutico, 
Colum , Plaut. Fruticor, Cic. 

Horto for Hortor, according to 

Imito for Imitor, Liv. trag., 
Varr. Impertio and Imper- 
tior, Cic. Insidioyorlnsidior, 

Jurgoy^r Jurgor, Lex 12 tab. 

Lachrymo, Ter., Ov. Lachry- 
mor, Cic. Lacto for Lsetor, 
according to Prise. Largio 
ybrLargior, Sail., Lucil., Ca- 
to. Lucto for Luctor, and 
Luctitoyor Luctitor, accord- 
ing to Priscian, Ennius. Lu- 
diiico, Plant. Ludificor, 

Plaut., Ter., Cic , Liv. Lux- 
urio, Tubero, Virg. Luxu- 
rior, Colum., Plin. 

Medico, Virg. Medicor is used 
both actively and passively. 
Mereo for Mereor, Plaut., 
Turpil., &c. Thus also Pro- 
mereo, Plaut. Minito for 
Minitor, Naev., Plaut. Mi- 
rofor Miror, Varr. Pompon. 
Misero^br Miseror, Attius. 
So Misereo and Misereor, 
tvkence Miseret and Misere- 
tur. So also Miseresco, Virg., 
and Commiseresco, Enn. 
Modero t /br Moderor, Att., 
Pacuv., Plaut , Ulpian., and 
according to some MSS. 9 Sal- 
lust. Molioybr Molior, ac- 
cording to Priscian. AndDe- 
niolio, Varr,, Naev. Movofor 
Moror, Naevius. Muneroybr 
Muneror, Turpil. Mutuo 
for Mutuor (to borrow), Cae- 

Obsono and Obsonor, active, 

according to Priscian. Opino 

for Opinor, Plaut., Pacuv., 

Enn., Cecil. Opitulo, Liv. 

trag. Osculo, Titin. 

Pacisco, Naev. Palpo, Juv. Pal- 
por, Lucil., &c. So Expal- 
por, Plaut. Partio for Par- 
tior, Lucil., Plaut., Att., Enn. 
So Impertio for Impertior. 
Patio for Patior, Naev. Per- 
contofor Percontor, Novius, 
Naev. Polliceoyor Polliceor, 
Varr. Populo^or Populor, 
Plaut., Caecil., Enn., &c. 
Praelio for Praelior, Enn. 
Praestoloyor Prasstolor, Tur- 
pil., Liv. trag. Proficisco, 
Turpil. Progredio. See Con- 
gredio. Promereo. See Me- 

Recordo, Quadrig. Kcfrago 
for Refragor, according to 
'Nonius. Suflraoor Suffra-? 

gor, Siscrina. Reminisco. 
Rufus, Sanct. August. Re- 
\ertofor Revertor, Pompo- 
nius. This is common in clas- 
sical writers. Rhetorico for 
Rhetoricor, Novius. Rixo 
for Rixor, Varr. Rumino, 

Scrutator Scrutor; Perscruto 

for Perscrutor, according to 

Nonius, Plaut. Sortio for 

Sortior, Enn. Stipulo, Gloss. 

Cyrill. Suavioyor Suavior, 

Pompon., Nov. Suffrago, 
See llefrago. 

Testojbr Testor, according to 
Priscian. Tuto for Tutor, 
Plaut., Noev., &c. 

Vagofor Vagor, Plaut., Seren., 
Prudent., &c. Velifico, Plin., 
Propert. Juvenal has velifi- 
catus Athos passively. But 
Cicero uses Velificor as a de- 
ponent. Veneroyor Veneror, 
Plaut. Vociferoyor Vocife- 
ror, San. Bonifac. 

Verbs Passive used as Deponents. 

There are some verbs passive (having a regular active 
voice) which are used, or were antiently used, as deponents, 
i. e. in an active signification. 

Affectorybr Affecto. Affecta- 
tits est regnum, Varro. 

Bellory?;r Bello. Pictis bellan 
tur Amazones armis, Virg. 

Censeorybr Censeo, Es tinier co- 
mites Martia censa suos,Ovid. 

Communicor for Communico. 
Cum quibus spem communi- 
cati sint, Liv. 

Copuloryipr Copulo, according 
to Prise, and Non. Adeunt, 
consistunt, copulantur dex- 
ter as, Plaut. 

Erumporyor Erumpo. Vis ex- 
agitataforas erumpilur.'Luci'. 

FabricorJ/or Fabrico. Capilolii 
Jhstigium - - - necessitas ipsa 
fabricata est, Cic. 

Feneror t /or Fenero, Gell. 

Fluctuor^/br Fiuctuo, Fluctu- 
atus animofuerat, Liv. 

Juratus sum for Juravi. Judici 
demonstrandum est, quid ju- 
ratus sit, Cic. 

Multor/or Multo. Rebellantcs 

graviorc multatus est pee- 

na, Suet. 

Muneror tefor Munero, accord- 
ing to Gell. and Diomed. So 
Remuneror t /c>r Rcmunero. 

Murmuror/or Murmuro, Apul. 

Nutriorybr Nutrio. Hoc pin- 
guern et placitam pad nutri- 
tor olivam, Virg. 

Nutricorybr Nutrico. Mundus 
omnia nutricatur, Cic. 

Objurgor^/or Objurgo. Curio- 
nem objurgatus, COB! ad Cic. 

Peragror. Peragratus est regi- 
onem. Vellei. 

Perlinor for Perlino. Ab inns 
unguibus sese totam ad usque 
summos capillos perlita, Apul. 
But neither this instance* nor 
that of copulor above, is es- 
teemed sufficient proof. 

Pigneror^or Pignero, Gell. and 

Praevertor/or Praeverto, Plaut , 
Liv., Curt., Tac., Apul 
Virg. But only the prccter- 
perfect active, pr&verti, is used, 
there being no pra? versus sum. 

Punioryor Punio, Cic. in three 

Quiritor, Varr. Quirito, Plin., 

Ruminor, Varr., Liv. Andron. 
Rumino, Virg. 

Sacrificor for Sacrifico, Varr. 

Spector for Specto. Speclalus 
est sitem, Varr. 

Significor for Significo, accord- 
ing to Gellius. To these may 
be added, Adjutor, Conver- 
ter, Emungor, Excalceor, 
Fatiscor, Fociilor, Fruticor, 

Gliscor, Ignescor, Labascor, 
Ludificor, Manducor, Com- 
manducor, Commurmuror, 
Palpor and Expalpor, Praesa- 
gior, Spolior, Urinor, all 
'which Nonius confirms by an- 
tient authorities. 

Verbs Common, and such as were formerly Common. 

It may be questioned whether any of these were used pas- 
sively in the ordinary language of the classical age. 

Abominor. Verrius Flaccus. 

Abominatus (passive.) Liv., 

Adipiscor (passive.) Boeth , 

Justinian., Fab. Max., &c. 
Adminiculor. Adminiculali 

(passive ) Varr. 
Admiror (to be admired. ) Ca- 

Adorior. Adortos (attacked.) 

Adulor. Adulati crant (they 

were flattered.) Cassius. 
Aggredior (passive.) Cicero. 

Aggressus (undertaken.) Ter. 

Amplector (to be embraced. Pe- 

tron., Lucil. 

Antestor (passive.) Liv. 
Arbitror (passive.) Coel., Gell. 

Argumentor. Argumentata rti~ 

rwSevra. Aufusius ap. Prise. 

But, perhaps , he wrote A. Fu- 


Aspernor (to be despised ) Cic. 
Assector (to be followed.) Enn., 

Alpheus philol. 
Auguror (to be foretold.) Luc. 

Caes. Virgil uses the active 

auguro, to foretell; and Ci- 
cero, auguror, in the same 

sense as a deponent. 
Auxilior. Auxiliatus (assisted.) 


Blandior. Blanditus 
Qe}$. Verrius. 

Calumnior (to be blamed.) Sta- 
verius de proportione. 

Carnificor (to be tortured.) Si- 

Caviller. Cavillatus, (teased.) 

Cohortor. See Hortor. 

Comitor(passive.) Justin., Ovid., 

Commentor. Commentus TTE- 
rtXatrpsvos. Appius Caecus. 

Complector (passive.) Virg., 
Cic., Scaevola. 

Confiteor (passive), according 
to Priscian. Confessus (pas- 
sive.) Optatus Afer. 

Consequor, Consector, (to be 
followed.) Orbilius, Varr., 
and Laverius. 

Consolor( passive.) Quint. Mc- 
tell. Numid., and Asinius 

Conspicor (to be seen.) Plant., 
Varr., Sail. 

Contestor (passive.) Contestatur 
ffviqMprvpsirat. P. Aufidius. 

Criminor (passive.) Cic., Ap- 
pul., and Boeth. 

Demolior, Immolior (passive.) 
Curio pater, Liv. 

Delargior, (passive.) C, Grac- 

Depeculor (to be plundered,) 
Lucius Coclius. 


Despicor (to be despised.} Qu. 

Detestor (to be hated.) Apul. 
Apol. Detestata (hated.) 

Dignor (to be thought worthy.) 
Cic. and Gell. Dignate (pas- 
sive.) Virg. 

Dilargior. See Largior. 

Dominor (to be ruled.) Nigidius 
Figulus, poet. vet. ap. Cic. 

Ementior (passive.) Emcniila 
^V<rfj.svac. C. Memmius. 
Ementitis (falsified.) Cic. 

Enitor. Enixum puerum (born.) 
Sulpic. Sever us. 

Exsecror. Exccrati naT'aca- 
Qsvres. Cato. 

Exhortor. See Hortor. 

Exorior. Res a raro ini- 

tio exorsa, i. e. initcc. Visel- 
lius. Here it may be called 
a verb neuter deponent. 

Experior (passive.) Experienda 
(to be tried.) P. Nigid. Ex- 
perta (tried.) Cic., Attius, 
and Asin. Experfas (tried.) 

Exsequorf passive. )Ulpian. and 
Emporius rhetor. 

Fari (to be pronounced.) Sue- 

Fatcor (to be confessed.) Cic. 

Frustror (to be disappointed. ) Ke- 
iiestclla. Frustratus pxrouvu- 
QstSt Laverius. 

Furor. Furatis (being stolen.) 

Hortor (passive.) Gell., and 
Tac. Adhorlati (exhorted.) 
Cassius. Cohortatum (en- 
couragcd.) Marc. Cato. Ex- 
liorlatitfi. Cic. Senec. al.exo- 
rat-us. Exhortato. Ausonius. 

Jaculor. Jaculafus (struck ivith 
an arrow.) Victor Uticen- 

Immolior. See Molior. 

Interpreter (passive.) Paull. ju- 
riscon. Ilieroriv. Auyiutin. 

Interpretata (interpreted.) Ci- 

Largior (passive.) Dilargitis 
(bein<r given away.) Sail. 

Loqui (passive.) Coelius. 

Machinor. Machinata (contri- 
ved.) Sail. 

Meditor (passive. ) Minutius 
Felix. Meditata ps ps \ery- 
fj^va. Ter., Cic., Ovid., Gell. 
Emeditatos. Appul. 

Metior (to be measured.) Ar- 

Metor (passive.) Metata Sf 
metato. Hor. 

Moderor. Moderata (passive.) 
Epigr. vet. 

Modulor (passive.) Modulata 
(modulated.) Gell. 

Molior (to be contrived.) Appul. 
So Immolior. Immolilum. 

Nanciscor. Nacta (gotten.) 
Hyginus, Appul. 

Obliviscor (passive. ) Scholiast. 
Juvenalis. Oblita (forgot- 
ten.) Virg. and Boe'th. 

Ordior. Orsa (begun.) Colum. 
Ordita. Diomedes. 

Osculor, usually set down, 
wants authority. 

Paciscor. Paciaerat (was pro- 
mised.) Tac. 

Percontor (to be asked. ) Percon- 
tatum pretmm. Appul. 

Polliceor (passive.) Metellus 

Populor (to be plundered.) Po- 
pulatit populatam. Cic. But 
populo is used, whence popu- 
latus is regularly passive. 

Potior. with a gen. case (to be 
possessed by.) Plaut.,Ter.,&c. 

Precor. Prccandus (to be prayed 
to.) Auson. Ara precanda, 

Queror (passive,) according to 

Remoror (passive,) according to 


Reor (passive,) according to Velificor (passive.) Velificatvs 

Priscfan. Athos, Juven. 

Sector (to be followed. } Varro. Veneror (passive.) Csesar Ger- 

So Consector. manicus, Virg. Hor. 

Solor (passive,) according to Venor (active and passive,) ac- 

Priscian. See Consolor. cording to Priscian. 

Stipulor(passive.)Sueton.,Liv., Vereor (passive.) Afranius. 

andPlaut. Stipulor (active.) Ulciscor (passive.) Sail, and 

Juvenal. Instipulor( passive.) Pore. Latro. Ultus. Valer. 

Plaut. Active. Plaut. Flaccus. 

Testor. Tcstata poLprvprfievra,. Vociferor (active and passive,) 

Cic, according to Priscian. 

Tueor and Tutor (passive.) Utor (passive.) Novius. So also 

Varro. Abutor. Varro and Q, Hor- 

Vador (passive,) according to tensius. 


These last three lists might have been, perhaps, without 
impropriety, omitted, since it is evident that they are com* 
piled, chiefly from authors who wrote either before or after 
the times of classical Latinity. I shall conclude with an 
enumeration of certain participles which have something 
peculiar in their nature. 


The following perfect participles come from neuter verbs, and 
are used in a passive sense. 

Erratut) festinatus, juratus, laboratus, vigilatus, certatus, ces- 
satus, clamatus, conclamatus, ovatus, sudatus, triumphatus, ulu- 
latus : as, Errata littora Virg. Festinati honores Lucan. Arte 
laboratcc vestes Virg. Vigilatcc nodes Ovid. &c. Some per- 
fect participles, coming from neuter verbs, are used in a sense 
which is either neuter, or apparently active: as, Adultus, codlitus 9 
concretus, cotiflagratus, deflagratus, conspiratus, dolitus, defect us, 
emersus y exitus, exoletus, interitus, juratus (mentioned also be- 
fore), obsoletus, obituS) occasus, penetratus, placitus, complacitus, 
prceteritus, rebettatus, redundatus^ requietus, senectus, suetus, as- 
suetus, consuetusy titubatus : as, Adulta virgo Liv. i. e. qutc ado- 
levit. Emersus e cceno Cic. i. e. qui emersit. Cicero and others 
use juratus for qui juravit : thus also, actively, Juratus est mihi 
Plaut. for juravit mihi, and, passively, Quod juratum est Cic. 
&c. To the above-mentioned may be added the following, having 
an active signification ; Cautus, circumspectus, consideratus, despe- 
ratus, effusus, profusus, tacitus, consultus, promptus, argutus, di- 
sertuSj notus {qui novit), ignotus, (qui ignorat) ; also jtuxusyfal* 
sus, stilus, whence inscitus, which have assumed the nature of ad- 

Lastly, there are some participles in ns which signify passively; 


such as vehens for qui vehitur ; vertens for qui vertitur ; volvens 
for qui volvitur ; as, Quadfigis vehens Cic. for vectus. Ora vi- 
des Hecates in ires vert entia paries Ovid. i. e. versa, al. vergentia. 
Annus vertens Cic. Volventibus annis Virg. i. e. dum volvun- 
tur. But to these, and to others, formed from verbs thus used, 
it is probable, as has been already stated, that the objective case 
of a pronoun is understood 1 . 

There are certain words compounded with in, which have 
either an affirmative or a negative signification, in which latter 
sense they must be considered as participials ; as indictus, invo- 
catus, immutatus, &c. Many, by being divested of their time, or 
by a change in their construction, become nouns ; as sapiens, 
doctus, adolescens, animansy abditus, patie?is, amans, &c. 


THE English is an analogous language, in which the words 
of a sentence are generally arranged according to the order 
of time. The nominative, or the subject of the action, ap- 
pears first ; then the action with its several modifications or 
accessary circumstances ; and, lastly, the object to which it 
has a reference. This is the common order of construction. 
The Latin, on the contrary, is a transpositive language, in 
which the order of the words is very arbitrary, depending, 
in a great degree, upon the taste or fancy of the composer, 
or some particular purpose which he may have in view, some- 
times the object, sometimes the action, and sometimes the 
modification of the action, being made to precede or follow 
the other parts. Thus, by its having greater variety of in- 
flexions to express different relations, we can, without pro- 
ducing ambiguity, say Alexander vicit Darium, Darium incit 
Alexander, Alexander Darium vicit, or Darium Alexander 
vicit, for " Alexander conquered Darius." This variety of 
arrangement in Latin gives it an advantage over the English, 
riot only in energy and vivacity of expression, but often also 
in harmony and perspicuity. It is true, that, in English, a 
similar inversion of words is sometimes admitted : as, " Him 
the Eternal hurFd" Milton ; " Silver and gold have I none" 

1 Volcns seems sometimes to have a passive signification, denoting what is 
willed, welcome, or acceptable : as, Volentia fuerc. plebi hccc et lalia Tac. Vo- 
lentia de ambobus accelerant- Sail. 


1 Acts iii. 6 ; but this occurs chiefly in poetry, or in impas- 
sioned language.- While, however, no certain rules can 

be given tor the order of Latin words, which are applicable 
to every instance, it may be observed, that, in general, 

1st. The word governed is placed before the word which 

governs it : 

2dly. The word agreeing is placed after the word with which 
it agrees 1 . 

To these two leading principles shall be subjoined a Jew 
particular rules and notes. 

RULE I. The adjective or participle is, perhaps, most com- 
monly placed after the substantive with which it agrees : as, 
Pulverem majorem videri Caes. Sabin flumen ab castris 
suis abesse Caes. Ad exercitum transportandum Caes. 

Note 1. When the adjective is a short word, and the substan- 
tive a long one ; or to avoid the hiatus occasioned by the concur- 
rence of vowels, the adjective is frequently placed first ; as Hce 
disciplines, has causas, ea tempestas, innuba puella. 

Note 2. The following adjectives, primus, medius, idtimus, ex- 
tremus, hifimus. imus, summits, supremus, reliquus, cczterus, when 
joined to a noun, to denote pars prima, media, &c., are generally 
placed before their substantives : as Prima Jhbula Ter. Media 
nox Caes. Reliqua JEgyptus Cic. 

Note 3-. When the substantive, with which the adjective agrees, 
has a genitive depending on it, the adjective is generally placed 
first: as, Ulla officii prcccepta Cic. in which the substantive on 
which the genitive depends is placed last. 

Note 4?. When the substantive, with which the adjective agrees, 
is a genitive governed by another substantive, then also the adjec- 
tive may be placed first : as, Tantularum rerurn occupation^ 

Note 5. The adjective is frequently placed first, merely to gra- 
tify the ear; as Bonus puer, magna parte, celer equus. 

Note 6. A preposition or other word, is frequently put between 
the substantive and adjective ; as, Tota in urbe, Quern in locum, 
Rem vero publicam amisimus, in which last a compounded word is 
divided by the intervention of verb. 

RULE II. The finite verb is usually placed after its nomi- 
native, several words often intervening: as, Neque ullanostris 
jacultas aut admin istrandi, aut auxiliandi dabatur Caes. 

1 A little attention to these two leading principles, with the following rules, 
and to the usual order of the English language, will readily suggest what 
have been named the rules of construing or analysis, that is, the rules for re- 
ducing, previously to translation, the Latin into the English order. 


Note 1. In short sentences, or to contribute to harmony and 
emphasis, the nominative is often put after the verb : as, At sec- 
tabantur multi Cic. Quern ad finem sese effenata jactabit au- 
dacia? Cic. Stat sua cuique dies Virg. Manet alta mente re- 
postum judicium Paridis Virg. It may be observed that, in the 
two preceding examples, the action of the verb is a principal ob- 
ject of attention, which seems, on that account, placed first; and 
that the fatal day, and the fatal decision, are likewise so placed as 
to make a strong and a lasting impression. 

Note 2. The nominative is put after the verb, when it is the an- 
tecedent to a relative that cannot properly come before that verb, 
nor yet be separated from its antecedent by the intervention of 
other words : as, Mittitur ad eos, colloquendi causa, C. Arpinius 
eques Romanus, et Q. Junius ex Hispania quic/am, qui jam ante, 
missu Csesaris, ad Ambiorigem ventitare consueverat Caes. Erat 
in Carnutibus summo loco natus Tasgetius, cujus majores in sua 
civitate regnum obtinuerant Caes. 

RULE III. The relative is commonly placed after, and as 
near as possible to, its antecedent: as, Neque conditiones ac- 
cipiendas arbitrabatur ab Us, qui, per dolum petita pace, ul- 
tro bellum intulissent Caes. 

Note 1. It sometimes happens that the real antecedent is omit- 
ted, in which case the substantive is subjoined to the relative, which 
then agrees with it in case : as, Populo ut placerent quas fecisset 
fabulas Ter. i. e. Populo utjabulte placerent, quas [fabulas] fe- 

Note 2. To prevent ambiguity, the relative and its clause are 
sometimes placed first: as, Haec qui faciat, non ego eum cum sum- 
mis viris comparo, sed simillimum deo judico Cic. Had the re- 
lative clause been placed after eum, to which it refers, it would 
have occasioned too great a separation between the antecedent 
and the terms of honour intended to be associated with it. Had it 
been placed after comparo, it would have divided the terms of ho- 
nour. And had it been placed after judico, ambiguity would have 
been produced, since either eum or deo might have been taken for 
the antecedent. 

RULE IV. A noun in an oblique case is commonly placed 
before the word which governs it ; as, Lctudis avidi, pecunicc 
liberates erant Sail. Cunctis esto benignus, nulli blandus, 
pallets familiarise omnibus <zquus Senec. Adolescentis est 
majores natu revereri Cic. 

Note 1. The substantive governed by an adjective in the neuter 
gender is generally placed after the adjective : as, Nee tibi plus 
cordis, sed minus oris inest Ovid. 

Note 2. This rule, like the others, is frequently neglected, to 
facilitate utterance and produce harmony. 

Note 3. It often happens that one or more words intervene be- 
tween the word governed and the word governing ; but when the 
words one and another are rendered in Latin by a repetition of the 
substantives to which they refer, they closely follow each other : 
as, Cuneus cuneum trudit. Thus, also, Alius aliud dicit, for One 
man says one thing, and another a different thing. 

RULE V. The finite verb is commonly placed last in its 
own clause, and the principal verb is generally placed Jast 
in the sentence : as. Quorum per fines ierant, his, uti con- 
quirerent et reducer ent^ si sibi purgati esse vellent, imperavit 

Note 1 . This rule is often violated for the sake of harmony, and 
especially when the verb is a monosyllable. Yet, we find many 
sentences concluding with a word of one syllable, and apparently 
under the influence of the figures synalepha and ecthlipsis : as, 
Quae caedes per hosce annos sine \\lofacta est Cic. Altera occi- 

sa, altera capta est Cses. Diu atque acriter pugnatum est 

Caes. Intus inclusum periculum est Cic. This frequently oc- 
curs also, when the preceding word ending with a consonant, 
and the final word beginning with a vowel, or vice versa, the two 
syllables are as closely connected in pronunciation as if they be- 
longed to the same word : thus, Atque unus e filiis captus est 
Caes. Quotiesconsuleminterficereeowafoe.s Cic. Impediments 

strisque^o^V/ sunt Cass. Adventu tuo ista subsellia vacuafac- 
ta sunt Cic. When the last syllable but one is short, this is 
named the Iambic cadence. Both poets and prose writers ter- 
minate a sentence with a monosyllable, when they intend to ex- 
press indignation, abruptness, astonishment, or contempt. 

RULE VI. A verb in the infinitive is usually placed be- 
fore the verb which governs it, or on which it depends : as, 
Jugurtha, ubi eos Africa decessisse ratus est,. neque propter 
loci naturam Cirtam armis expugnare possit, mcenia circum- 
dat Sail. 

Note 1. When the governing verb is understood, infinitives 
occupy the same place as finite verbs : thus, Caeterum, qua per- 
gebat, urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere y suis animum, hostibus 
terrorem, augere Sail. 

Note 2. To prevent a hiatus, for the sake of harmony, or to 
end a sentence with an emphatic word, the infinitive is frequently 
placed after the verb on which it depends : as, Nam servitutera 
quidem quis vestrum audebat recusare? Ex quibus nerainem 
mihi necesse est nominare ; vosmet vobiscum recordamini ; nolo 
enim cujusquam fords atque illustris viri ne minimum quidem 
erratum cum maxima laude conjungere Cic. Nam impune 
quaelibet facere, id est regem esse Sail. 


RULE VII. Dependent clauses, as well as single words, 
are placed before the principal finite verb upon which such 
clauses do chiefly depend : as, Qidbus rebus Micipsa tametsi 
initio Icetus fuerat^ existimans virtutem Jugurtli(Z regno suo 
glorice fore^ tamen postquam hominem adolescentem, exactd 
(state sud) et parvis liberis, magls magisque crescere intelli- 
git, vehementer eo negotio permotus^ multa cum ammo suo 

Note 1. This rule may, in a great degree, be inferred from 
Rule V. In the preceding quotation it may be observed, that 
volvebat, being the principal verb, is placed last ; and that all the 
clauses which induce Micipsas pondering, expressive of joy, hope, 
and alarm, are consistently placed before that verb, whose ac- 
tion they produced, upon which they depend, and with which 
they are so intimately connected. 

Note 2. The chief exception to this rule occurs, when the sen- 
tence is long and complicated, so that, were all the dependent 
clauses introduced between the nominative and principal verb, 
the connexion subsisting between these two would either be lost 
or rendered obscure. When this is the case, the principal verb 
and its nominative, with the words immediately depending, are 
placed either first or last in the sentence : thus, Bellum scripturus 
sum, quod populus R. cum Jugurtha rege Numidarum gessit ; 
primum, quia magnum et atrox, variaque victoria fuit ; dein, quia 
turn primum superbiae nobilitatis obviam itum est Sail. Here it 
may be observed that the luriting is the principal action in the 
sentence. The nature of the war is assigned as the inducement to 
write j which two circumstances are, Consequently, closely con- 
nected. Yet, had the words scripturus sum, as being expressive 
of the chief action, been placed after the dependent clauses, it is 
obvious that the arrangement would have been not only unhar- 
monious, but perplexed; since the object, bellum, which, as an 
antecedent, must precede quod, would have been too far removed 
from its governing word, scripturus. The following passage is 
quoted from Seneca, De Benef. L 6, c. 31, as containing striking 
instances of the propriety, beauty, and energy, produced by 
placing the principal verb and its nominative at the end of a 
clause, or the conclusion of the sentence; Divinaatque humana 
impellentem, et mutantem quicquid obstiterat trecenti stare jus- 
serunt. Stratusque per totam passim Graeciam Xerxes intellexit, 
quantum ab exercitu turba distaret. 

RULE VIII. Adverbs are generally placed immediately 
before the words to which they belong : as, Nihil tarn as- 
perum, neque tarn difficile esse, quod non cupidissime fac- 
turi essent Sail. 


Note I. When the adverb is an emphatic word, it is often placed 
after : as, Ut tibi necesse esset in conspectu P. R. vomere pos- 

Note 2. Words intimately connected with the word to which 
the adverb refers, are generally placed between them : as, Sem- 
perque his aliena virtus formidolosa est Sail. Sed maxime ado- 
lescentium familiaritates appetebatSall. Non tarn in bellis et in 
praeliis, quam in promissis et &&e,jirmiorem Cic. 

Note 3. Antequam, postquam, and priusquam are elegantly di- 
vided, one part being often put in one member of the sentence, 
and the other in another: thus, Ita bello intra dies xxx perfecto, 
ante cognitum est Gentium victum, quam cceptum bellum nun- 
ciaretur Eutrop. Filius anno post Quaestor fuit, quam Consul 
Mummius Cic. Atque ita perterritos egerunt, ut non jprius 
fuga desisterent, quam in conspectum agminis nostri venissent 

RULE IX. Prepositions usually precede the cases govern- 
ed by them: as, Ad lucem dormire Cic. Nihil est ab 
omni parte beatum Hor. 

Note 1. This rule is contrary to the first general maxim. 

Note 2. Prepositions are often placed after the relative pro- 
noun ; as, Quam circa, quern penes, quos inter, &c. : thus, also, Si 
quos inter societas aut est, aut fuit Cic. Hsec aiunt probari a 
Stoicis quos contra disputant Cic. 

Note 3. We generally find mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, vo- 
biscum ; and quicum, quocum, quacum, quibuscum t are much more 
frequent than cum quo, &c. 

Note 4s Temts and versus are set after their cases ; usque is 
sometimes placed before and sometimes after: as, Daciam tenus 
venit Flor. Aurium tenus Quinct. Cum Arretium versus cas- 
tra movisset Cic. Usque Ephesum Plin. Tharsum usque 
Cic. Many other prepositions are placed, both by poets and 
prose writers, after as well as before their cases : as, Saxa per 
et scopulos Virg. Te propter Virg. Hunc adversus Nep. 
Urbemjuxta Tac. &c. 

Note 5. The preposition is elegantly placed between the ad- 
jective and substantive : as, Quam ad suavitatem Cic. Suos in- 
ter cequales Cic. Paucos post dies Liv. Hoc ex loco Cic. 
Nulla in re Cic ; thus also the compounds quemadmodum, 

Note 6. The poets, probably for the sake of the metre, some- 
times place one or more words between the preposition and its 
case : as, Vulneraque ilia gerens quae circum plurima muros Ac- 
cepit patrios Virg. Qui faciunt solem certa de surgere parte 



RULE X. Certain conjunctions are placed first in a clause 
or sentence ; some, after the first word ; and others) in the 
first or second place, indifferently. See p. 156. 

Note 1. Autem and enim are sometimes found in the third 
place ; as, Quid tu autem, asine, hie auscultas ? Ter. Odiosa 
ilia enim fuerant, legiones venire Cic. Etiam is found in the 
fourth place: as, At juvenis nihil etiam sequius suspicatus 
Apul. Tamen is sometimes found after the second or third word 
of its clause : as, Tu moriere tamen Propert. Tu, si tuis blan- 
ditiis tamen Cic. 

Note 2. The poets sometimes join que to a different word from 
what the natural order of the sentence requires : as, Ore pedes 
tetigitque crura Hor. for tetigit pedes cruraque. 

Note 3. The poets also sometimes change the position of the 
prepositives, et, atque, nee, neque, sed, siquidem, <vd, &c. : as, Sus- 
piciens altam lunam, et sic voce precatur Virg. Nee deus hunc 
mensa, dea nee dignata cubili est Virg. Ipsa sed in somnis in- 
humati venit imago Conjugis Virg. &c. 

RULE XL Words connected in sense should not be se- 
parated by words that are extraneous. 

Note 1. The violation of this rule is named Synchysis ; of which 
the following are examples : Vidi ego quijuvenem seros desisset 
amores Tibull. for Vidi egojuvenem, qui. Quisquis erit vitar, 
tcribam, color Hor. Here scribam constitutes no parentheti- 
cal clause ; neither is it connected by sense, government, or con- 
cord, with either of the words between which it stands. Its place 
seems to be before quisquis, or, rather, after color. Sed bona si 
quis Judice condiderit, laudatur Caesare Hor. The place ofju- 
dice seems to be in the clause with laudatur. Pene arsit macros 
dum turdos versat in igne Hor. instead of Dum versat macros 
turdos, peve arsit in igne. To these may perhaps be added such 
inversions as, Per ego te deos oro Ter. Per ego te, inquit, fili, 
qucecunque jura liberos jungunt parentibus, precor quaesoque 
Liv. 23, 9. 

RULE XII. In general, there should be neither a redun- 
dance of long measures or long words, nor of short mea- 
sures or short words ; and, as far as perspicuity and the 
general system of arrangement will permit, when the fore- 
going word ends with a vowel, let the next begin with a 
consonant, and vice versa taking care, at the same time, 
that the last syllables of the foregoing word be not the same 
as the first syllables of the word following, and that many 
words which bear the same quantity, which begin alike or 
end alike, or which have the same characteristic letter in 
declension or conjugation, do not come together. 


Perhaps the following sentence from Caesar may be con- 
sidered, according to the way in which it is commonly 
read, as deficient in some of these particulars ; Qua pars 
ut ante dictum est, et regionum latitudine, et multitudine ho- 
minum, ex tertia parte Gallic est testimanda ; in which 
there are, within a small compass, three words terminating 
in urn, the last two in num ,- two words ending in titudine ; 
one word ending in e, and another beginning with it ; one 
ending in <^, and another beginning with it : six monosyl- 
lables almost close together, and two of them, est and et, 
of nearly the same sound ; a hiatus in latitudine et, and an- 
other in Gallicc est ; and an alliteration, or a repetition of 
the concluding syllable of the former word, in the com- 
mencement of the following, in est eestimanda. 

These few Rules, aided by practice, and attention to the 
arrangement adopted by the best classical writers, may, per- 
haps, be found of some utility. It is almost needless to ob- 
serve, that, in Latin, as well as in English, a principal ob- 
ject is to avoid such a collocation of words as may lead to 
ambiguity, or a confusion of ideas ; this being done, the 
ear will be a tolerable guide with respect to the beauty of 
cadences, and the harmony of periods, as the judgment 
will be, in regard to a strong, and an emphatic arrange- 
ment ! . As Quintilian observes, " Felicissimus sermo est, 
cui et rectus or do, et apta junctura, et cum his numerus op- 
portune cadens contingit." And again ; " Optime autem 
de ilia [compositione] judicant aures ; quae et plena sen- 
tiunt, et paruin expleta desiderant, et fragosis offenduntur, 
et lenibus mulcentur, et contortis excitantur, et stabilia pro- 
bant, clauda deprehendunt, redundantia et nimia fastidiunt." 
Inst. .9, 4. 


The Figures of Syntax are reduced to four kinds, Ellipsis, 
Pleonasm, Enallage, and llyperbalon. 


Ellipsis is the omission, in a sentence, of some word, or 
words, necessary to supply the regular syntax. 

1 Such as wish to see this subject thoroughly discussed, are referred to the 
writings of Cicero and Quintilian. Learners may likewise, with consider- 
able advantage, consult Mr. Valpy's " Elegantiae Latinae," and Mr. Lyne'g 
" Latin Primer:" two school-books containing much useful information. 


It is termed strict, when the word to be supplied is not 
to be found in any part of the sentence. It affects all the 
parts of speech ; thus, 

1. The Noun ; as Aiunt, supply homines. Non est oneri je- 
rendo, supply aptus. 2. The Pronoun ; as Arma wrumque cano, 
supply ego. 3. The Verb ; as Quid multa ? supply dicam. 4. The 
Participle ; as Saturno rege, supply ente or existente. 5. The 
Adverb ; as Vulnerantur amplius sexcentiCxs. supply quam. 
6. The Preposition ; as JEo Romam, supply ad. 7. The Inter- 
jection : as, Me miser urn, supply O or hen. 8. The Conjunc- 
tion, as will be seen under Asyndeton. 

The ellipsis is named lax or loose, when the word omitted may 
he supplied from some part of the sentence ; as, Virtus (cogebat;, 
ct honestas (cogebat], ft pudor cum consulibus esse cogebat Cic. 
The former kind of ellipsis contains the figures, Apposition, Synec- 
doche, and Asyndeton^ The latter contains, Zeugma, Syllepsis, 
and Prolepsis. 

Apposition,}*, t*hen, in putting two substantives together in the 
same case, existem, or the obsolete ens, or some other part of 
sum, with a relative, is understood : as, Urbs Roma, i. e. urbs 
existens, ens, or, qua est, Roma. 

Synecdoche is, when, instead of an ablative of the part, or of 
the adjunct, an accusative is used, the Greek xara, secundum, or 
quod ad, being understood : as, Expleri (quod ad) mentem nequit 

Asyndeton is the omission of a conjunction : as, Abiit, excessit, 
evasit, erupit Cic. supply et. Sex septem dies, supply vel. 

Zeugma is, when an adjective or verb referring to different 
substantives, is expressed to the last only, with which it agrees, 
being understood to the rest : as, Et genus* et virtus, nisi cum re, 
vilior algdest--Ilor. Hie illius arma , hie currusjuit Virg. Quam- 
vis ille niger, quamms tu candidus esses Virg. Zeugma is found 
in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. And sometimes 
the adjective or verbs agree with the more remote substantive ; 
sometimes with the principal substantive ; and sometimes with 

Syllepsis is, when the adjective or verb, joined to different sub- 
stantives, agrees with the more worthy 

A syllepsis of gender is, when an adjective, joined to two sub- 
stantives of different genders, agrees with the more worthy gen- 
der. It is termed explicit, when substantives of different genders 
are expressed : as, Attoniti novitate paveut, manibusque supinis 
Concipiunt Baucisque preces timidusque Philemon Ovid. It is 
called implicit, when they are suppressed : as, Ut templi tetigcre 
gradus, procumbit uterque Promts humi Ovid. i. e. Deucalion et 

It is also named direct or indirect. The direct is produced by 
a copulative conjunction : as, Pater mihi et mater mortal Ter. 
The indirect, by a preposition : as ; Dux koslintn cnm urbc Valcn- 


tia et exercitu deleti Sail. Note 1 - When the substantives ex - 
press things inanimate, the adjective is generally put in the neu- 
ter gender: as, arcum - - - et calamos ; qua Virg. Note 2. 
When with two substantives of different genders, a plural sub- 
stantive is placed in apposition, the more worthy gender is pre- 
ferred : as, Ptolemceus et Cleopatra reges JEgypti Liv. i. e. rex 
et re gin a. 

A syllepsis of the persons is, when a plural verb, joined to two 
substantives of different persons, agrees with the more worthy. 
It is named explicit, when the persons are expressed : as. Sustu- 
limus manus et ego et Balbus Cic. Implicit, or implied, when 
they are not expressed: as, Quern per urbem uterquc defessi su- 
mus quccrere Plant. It is also direct ; as, Ego et Cicero vakmus 
Cic. Indirect : as, Ipse cumfratre Capuam ad consides adesse 
jussi sumus Cic. A syllepsis of the numbers is, when the sub- 
stantives being of different numbers, the adjective or verb is put in 
the plural : as, Phrygii comites, etlcetus lulus, Incedunt Virg. Pro- 
jectisque amiculo et literis Curt. It is sometimes indirect: as, Equi- 
tes cum JEmilio subvenientes periculo ccetcros exemere TacSt. 

Prolepsis is, when the parts, differing in number or in person 
from the whole, are placed after it, the verb or the adjective not 
being repeated : as, Boni quoniam convenimus ambo, tu calamos 
inftare leves, ego dicere versus Virg. i. e tu convenisti bonus cala- 
mos inflare, ego conveni, &c. It is named explicit, when the whole 
and the parts are mentioned : as, Consides, Sulpicius in dextro, 
Petilius in lavo cornu, consistunt Liv. Implicit, when the 
whole, or the parts are omitted : as, Curemus eequam uterque par- 
tern; tu alterum, ego item alterum Ter. i.e. nos uterque, ego 
meam tu tuam partem curemus. Vestras quisque redite domos 
Ovid. i. e. vos redite domos, tu tuam) alius suam. 


Pleonasm adds unnecessary words; thus, 1. The Noun: as, 
Sic ore locuta estVirg. 2. The Pronoun : as, Pater tuus, is 
eratjrater patruelis mcus Plaut. 3. The Participle: as, Post- 
quam primus amor deceptam mortefejellit Virg. 4-. The Adverb : 
as, Prcesensit prius Plaut. 5. The Conjunction : as, Itaqueergo 
amantur Ter. Etui quamvis Cic. Under Pleonasm are com- 
prehended, Parelcon, Polysyndeton, Hendiadys, and Periphrasis. 

Parelcon is the addition of an unnecessary syllable or particle 
to pronouns, verbs, or adverbs ; chiefly, perhaps, for the sake of 
emphasis : as, egomet, agedum, agesis.Jbrtassean. 

Polysyndeton is a redundancy of conjunctions : as, Una Eu. 
rusque Notusque ruunt, creberque procellis Africus Virg. This 
use of the conjunctions by Virgil, is noticed* under the examina- 
tion of the Hexameter. 

Hendiadys (i. e.*Ev &a Suolv) expresses one thing, as if it were 
two things: as, Paferis libamus et auroVii'g- instead ofpateris 


Periphrasis is a circuitous manner of cxprcision : as, Teneri 
Jcetus ovium Virg. i. e. lambs. 


Enallage, in a general sense, is the change of words, or of their 
accidents, one for another. There are various kinds of it : viz. 
Antimeria, Enallage, strictly so called, Heterosis, and Antiptosis. 
To Enallage may likewise be referred Synesis, Anacoluthon, Hel- 
lenismus, and Archaismus. 

Antimeria puts one part of speech for another: thus, 1. The 
Noun for the Pronoun : as, Si quid in Flacco viri est Hor. in- 
stead of in me, for Horace himself is speaking. For the Verb: 
as, Tua indicatio est Plant, for tuum est indicare. For the Par- 
ticiple : as, Populum late regem Virg. for regnantem. For the 
Adverb : as, Sole recens orto Virg. for recenter. For the Inter- 
jection : as, Navibus, infandum ! amissis Virg. 2. The Pronoun 
for the Noun : as, suits for unicuiqueproprius, in Mittunt sua thura 
Sabcei Virg. For the Conjunction : as, Hide conjuncta benefi- 
centia est, quam eandem vel benignitatem vel liberalitatem appel- 
lare licet Cic. for quam etiam. 3. The Verb for the Noun : as, 
Nostrum istudvivere triste Pers. for nostra vita. For the Inter- 
jection : as, age used in exhortation ; apage as a token of aversion. 
For the Conjunction : as, licet for quamvis. 4. The Participle for 
the Noun: as, amans for amator; medentes for medici. For the 
Verb : as, Torpedo octogenos Jcetus habens invenitur Plin. for ha- 
bere. For the Adverb : as, Lubensfecero et solens Plaut. forli- 
benter et consuete. 5. The Adverb for the Noun : as, Aliud eras 
Pers. for alias dies crastinus. Thus also, beneest, recteest^for bo- 
num est, rectum est. For the Pronoun Qui, with some preposition 
expressed or understood: as, Capiunt prcedones navem illam,ubi 
cectusfui Plaut. for qua, or in qua. For the Preposition : as, 
Intus tcmplo divinn,(for in ) Virg. For the Conjmiction : as, Dum, 
jam, mine, adverbs of time, used, the first as a conditional con- 
junction, the second as a continuative, and the third as an adversa- 
tive. Thus also, quando for quoniam. 6. The Preposition for the 
Noun: as, super for superstes, in mihi sola mei super Astyanactis 
imago Virg. For the Adverb; as, ante, post, infra, instead of 
antca, postea, inferim. 7. The Interjection for the Noun or Ad- 
verb : as, Hei mihi, for malum vel male mihi est. 8. The Con- 
junction for the Adverb : as,sed for imo in Plaut. Habet gladium, 
sed duos. Si for an in Ter. Visam, si domi est. 

Enallage, strictly so named, is when one word is substituted 
for another, the part of speech not being changed; as Noun for 
Noun, Verb for Verb, c. : thus, 

1. The Substantive for the Adjective ; as, Exercitus victor, for 
victoriosus. Thus also the Abstract for the Concrete : as, conju- 
gium for conjux, in Virgil ^n. ii. 579. 

2. The Adjective for the Substantive : as, Possum falli, ut ku- 

Cic. For ut homo. Thus also the Concrete for the Abs- 


tract; ua,verum, bonum, cequum for verilas, boutins, tequilas. 
The Noun proper, instead of the Appellative: as, Omne tempun 
Clodios, non omne Catones fert Senec. in which Clodios is put 
for homines improbos, and Catones for viros probos. The Noun 
appellative for the Proper : as, Urbs for Roma. The Primitive 
for the Derivative : as, Dardana arma for Dardania ; Laticem 
Lyceum, for Lyeeeium, in Virgil. The Derivative for the Primi- 
tive: as, Ter denis navibus ibant, for ter decem. The Simple for 
the Compound : as, avus for abavus ; nepos for pronepos. The 
Compound for the Simple : as, consceleratus for sceleratus. 

3. One Pronoun used for another : as the Relative for the Re- 
ciprocal, &c. (See Pronouns.) The Primitive for the Derivative : 
as, Voluntas vestrum, for vestra. Labor mei, formeus. The De- 
rivative for the Primitive: as, Desiderium tuum, Odium ttmm,for 
tui. (See Pronouns,) The Simple for the Compound: as, Q*w 
for aliquis. The Compound for the Simple : as, tibimet for /zfo", 
memet for me, in Seneca, Agam. v. 798, and CEdip v. 84-7, where 
met is evidently redundant. 

4. In the Verb, the Active voice used for the Passive: as, Jam, 
verterat fortuna Liv. for versa est ; unless, in such sentences as 
this, there is an ellipsis of se. The Passive for the Active : as, 
Placitam Pad nutritor olivam Virg. for nutrito. The Primitive 
for the Derivative : as, Qui Syracusis habet Plaut. for. habitat. 
Cernerejerro Virg. for certare. The Derivative for the Primi- 
tive : as, Ductare exercitum, Agitare latitiam, Objectare period is, 
in Sallust, for ducere, agere, objicere. The Simple for the Com- 
pound : as, Mcestumque timorem mittite Virg. for omittite. The 

Compound for the Simple : as, Deprecor for precor. Justin, xi. 9. 
Retine me Ter. Heaut. iii.4. 23. fortene. 

5. In the Participle, the Active for the Passive : as, Tondenti 
barba cadebat Virg. for tonso. The Passive for the Active : as, 
Dido, vultum demissa, prqfatur Virg. for demittens. In the for- 
mer there is an ellipsis of me ; in the latter, of ad, or quod ad. 

6. In the Adverb, with regard to its signification : as, ubi for 
quando ; ibi for turn, &c. Thus also, the adverbs of quality bene 
and male are used for the purpose of intension, instead of valde : 
as, Sermo bene longus Cic. And a determinate number is used 
for one uncertain : as, Millies audivi, for sa'pissime. O terque, 
quaterque beati, for maxime beati. Likewise in respect to their 
form, the Simple are used for the Compound', as, quo, qua, for 
quvcunqtie, quaciuique. 

1. In the Preposition and Conjunction, Enallage occurs, when 
one is used for another: as, Ad judicem agere Cic. for apud. 
Thus also, et is used for ctiam ; si for quamvis ; dum for dummo- 
do, &c. 

1. Heterosis uses one Accident, especially of a noun, pronoun, 
or verb, for another : as, Ego quoque una pereo, quod mihi est 
carius Ter. for qui mihi sum carior, in which the neuter gender 
is used for the masculine. Romantts. Scotus, Gallus y for Romani, 


Scotiy Galii, in which the singular is used for the plural. Colla, 
corda, ora, &c. are used among the poets, for Collum, cor, os, &c. 
Thus also nos and nosier for ego and meus. 

2. In the Verb, the Indicative is used for the Subjunctive ; as, 
Me truncus iUapsus cerebro sustulerat Hor. for sustulisset. For 
the Imperative : as, Tu hoc silebisCic. for sile. For the Infini- 
tive: as, Verum ego ilium, spero mutari potest Plaut. for posse. 
The Subjunctive for the Indicative: as, Ubisocordice te atqueig- 
namce tradideris, nequidquam deos implores Sail, for implorabis. 
For the Imperative : as, quiescas for quiesce Ter. and passim. 
The Imperative for the Indicative: as, Si fcctura gregem supple- 
ment , aureus esto Virg. form's. The Infinitive for the Imperfect 
of the Indicative: as, Facile omnes perferre ac pati Ter. tor per- 
ferebat nc patiebatur. For the Subjunctive : as, Bona censuerunt 
reddi Liv. for ut redde'rentur . 

In regard to the Time, the Present for the Imperfect: as, Tu 
si hie sis, alitcr sentias Ter. for esses, sentires. For the Preter- 
ite : as, Quamdudum in portum vents? Plaut for vcnisti. For 
the Future of the same mood, or of a different : as, Quam mox 
navigo Ephesum Plaut. for navigabo. Quern neque gloria, neque 
pericula excitant, nequidquam hortere Sail, for hortaberis. The 
Imperfect for the Present : as, Persuadet Castico, ut regnum occu- 
paret Caes. for occupet. For the Pluperfect : as, Neque diutius 
NumidcE resistere quivissent, nipedites cum equitibus permixti mag- 
nam cladem in congressu facerent Sail, for fecissent. The Per- 
fect for the Present : as. Magnum si pectore posset Excussisse deum 
Virg for excutere. For the Pluperfect: as, Jam flammce. tule~ 
rint, inimicus et hauserit ensis Virg. for tulissent and hausisset. 
For the Future : as, Si hoc bene jixurn omnibus destinatumque in 
animo est, vicistis Liv. for vincetis. The Perfect Subjunctive 
for the Future Indicative : as, Sipaululum modo quidtefugerit, ego 
perierim Ter. for peribo. The Pluperfect for the Imperfect : as, 
Si saniora consilia pati potuisset, contentus patrio cederet alieni i?n- 
periijinibus Curt, for posset. The Future for the Present : as, 
Verbum hercle hoc verum erit Ter. for est. Respiraro, si te vi- 
deroCic. for respirabo. For the Imperative : as, Luant peccata ; 
neque illos Juveris auxilio Virg. forjuvafo ovjuves. 

The Singular number for the Plural: as, Qua? loca Numidia 
appellatur Sail, for appellantur The Plural for the Singular : 
as, Moloni Rhodio dedimus operam Cic. for dedi. The First 
person used indefinitely for the Third: as, Aberatea regio L. stadia 
ab aditu quo Ciliciam intramus Curt for homines intrant. The 
Second for the First, when any one accosts himself, as if another : 
as, Impia quid dubitas Dei.anira mori? Ovid, for ego dubito. 
Used also indefinitely for the Third: as, Fidelem haudfernie mu- 
lieri invenias virum Ter. for quis inveniat. The Third for the 
First: as, Si quis me qucerct rufus. DA. Prccsto est -Ter. for 

a'sto sum, for the person himself speaketh. 

Antfptosif uses one case for another: thus, 1. The Nominative 


for the Accusative: as, Uxor invicti Jovis esse nescis Hor. for 
te esse uxorem For the Vocative : as, Adsis Icctilite Bacchus dator 
Virg for Bacche. 2. The Genitive for the Nominative: as, 
Expediti militum Liv. for milites. For the Dative : as, Ut civi- 
tates Asite, quce Attali stipendiarieejuissent, Eitmeni vectigaL pen- 
derent Liv. for Attalo. 3. The Dative for the Nominative: as, 
Cut mine cognomen lulo Virg. for lulus. For the Genitive: as, 
Cui dextra trisulcis Ignibus armata est Ovid, for cujus. For the 
Accusative : as, Nobis non licet esse tain disertis Mart, for disertos. 
For the Ablative with a or ab : as, Neque cernitur ulli Virg. for 
ab idlo. 4. The Accusative for the Nominative : as, Meam uxorem, 
Libane, nescis qualis siet Plaut. for nescis qualis sit mea uxor. 
For the Dative : as, Ut anna sua qidsque stantes incumberent 
Sail, for armis suis. For the Ablative: as, Omnia Mer curio si- 
mills V"irg. for in omnibus. 5. The Vocative for the Nomina- 
tive : as, Quibus Hector ab oris Expectate venis? Virg. for ex- 
pectatus. 6. The Ablative for the Dative : as, Aliquo negotio in- 
tentus Sail, for alicui negotio. For the Accusative: as, Scepc suo 
victor lenis in hostefuit Ovid, for in hostem. 

Synesis is, when the construction refers to the sense, rather 
than to the precise nature of a word : thus, 1. As to Gender : as, 
Scelus postquam ludificatus est virginem Ter. for scelestus. 2 
Number: as, Clamor inde concursusque popitli, mirantium quid 
rei est-\Av. for mirantis. 3. As to both : as, Pars in crucem acti 

pars bestiis objecti Sail, for acta, objecta. Note Sometimes, 

two verbs referring to the same collective noun, one is put in the 
singular and the other in the plural : as, Pars stupet innuptce do- 
num exitiale Minerva, Et molem mirantur equi Virg, 

Synesis is divided into the explicit and the implicit. The expli- 
cit is, when the noun is expressed to which the verb or adjective 
refers, although it does not agree with it, but with some other of 
the same sense, as in the preceding examples. The implicit is, 
when the substantive is not expressed, but is implied in the adjec- 
tive going before : as, Id mea minime rejert, qui sum natu maxi- 
mus Ter. in which qui refers to ego included in mea. 

Anacoluthon is when the Consequents do not agree with the An- 
tecedents : as, Nam nos omnes^ quibus est alicunde aliquis objcdus 
labos, omne quod est interea tempus, priusquam id rescitum est, 
lucro est Ter. in which the author began, as if he intended to 
say lucro habemus. and ended as if he had said nobis omnibus. As 
the sentence is, there is no verb to which nos omnes is a nomi- 

Hellenismus, or Gra'cismus, is an imitation of Greek construc- 
tion ; thus, 1. When with Substantives of a different Gender an 
Adjective is used in the Neuter gender, as, Triste lupus stabulis 
Virg. 2. When after certain Adjectives and Verbs, a Genitive is 
used: as, Pr&stans animi. Abstine irarumllov. 3. When after 
verbs of contending of distance, of coming together, and of ward- 
ing off. a Dative is used: as, Solus tibi ccrtct Awyntas Virg. 
4. When the Accusative^ instead of the Nominative, is joined t > 


the verb referring to the whole of the subsequentpartof the sentence : 
as, Ego tejaciam ut miser sis Plant, forfaciam ut tu. 5. When 
the Nominative, instead of the Accusative, is used after esse, and 
similar infinitives : as, Acceptum refero versibus esse nocens Ovid. 
for me esse nocentem. 6. When the Dative, answering to the an- 
tecedent, is used with the verb esse, and the like, instead of the 
Accusative : as, Penelope licet esse tibi sub Principe NervaMart. 
for Penelopen. 7. When to Nouns is added an Infinitive, the Latin 
language requiring a different form of expression : as, Fruges con- 
sumere nati Hor. for ad fruges consumendas. 8. When the 
accusative of part, or of the adjunct, is used after Adjectives 
or Verbs: as, Fractus membra Hor. Expleri mentem Virg. 
9. When the neuter gender of Adjectives is used adverbially: as, 
Accrba tuens Virg. for acerbe. 10. To Greek construction may 
be referred such ellipses as Urbem quam"statuo vestra est Virg. 
for urbs quam (urbem). 11. The following expressions of Horace 
may be considered as Graecisms : Mammce putres, Equina quales 
ubera, for qualia. Also, Animce quales neque candidiores Terra 
tidit, for qualibus. To Hellenism may likewise be referred many 
of those changes noticed under Heterosis and Antiptosis. 

Archaism is when an obsolete construction is used : as, Quid 
tibi hanc curatio est rem Plaut. When Utor, abutor, fruor, go- 
vern an accusative. When the Future Participle active, and per- 
fect passive, are used as ir.declinables, with esse : as, Hanc sibi 
rem prcesidio sperant Juturum Cic. Likewise when such ex- 
pressions are used as Absente nobis, Prcesente testibus. 


Hyperbaton is, in a general sense, a transgression of the com- 
mon order and position of words or sentences. There are seven 
kinds of it ; viz., Anastrophe, Hysteron proteron, Hypallage, Syn- 
chysis, Tmesis, Parenthesis, and Hyperbaton, strictly so called. 

Anastrophe is the placing of those words last (chiefly preposi- 
tions), which ought to precede : as, mccum for cum me, Collo dare 
brachia circum Virg. for circumdare. 

Hysteron proteron changes the natural order of the sense : as, 
Valet at q ue vivit Ter. 

Hypallage is an interchange of cases : as, Dare classibus Austros 

Virg. for Dare classes Austris. 

Synchysis is a confused arrangement of words : as, Saxa vocant 
It ali mediis Quce injiuctibus Aras Virg. for quee saxa in mcdiis 
Jiuctibus It ali oocant Aras. 

Tmesis divides a compound word : as, Per mihi gratumjeceris 

Cic. f o r pergratum . 

Parenthesis is an interruption of the sense, by the insertion of 
some word, or words : as, Tityrc, dum redeo, (brevis est via,)pasce 
capellas Virg. 

Hyperbaton, strictly so named, is, when the principal verb in 
a sentence is put at rather a great distance from its nominative : as, 


Interea reges : ingenti mole Latinus 
Quadrijugo vehitur curru, cui tempora circum 
Aurati bis sex radii Julgentia cingunt, 
Solis am specimen : bigis it Turnus in albis, 
Bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro : 
Hinc pater JEneas Romans stirpis origo, 
Sidereojlagrans clypeo et ccelestibus armis ; 
Etjuxta Ascanius magnce spes altera Romce : 
Procedunt castris ------- Virg. 

in which, between the nominative reges and the verb procedunt, 
there are seven whole verses and a hemistich : in some editions, 
however, the period is concluded at ferro, vehuntur being su}> 
posed understood after reges ; so that JEneas and Ascanius are 
then considered as the only nominatives to procedunt. 

I shall conclude this explanation of the figures of syntax with 
a brief account of the principal 


A Trope is the elegant turning of a word, for the sake of illus- 
tration, from its natural and genuine sense, to one that is relative 
or secondary. 

A Figure conveys some beauty, or expresses some passion, by 
a mode of speaking different from, and more beautiful and em- 
phatical than, the usual way of expressing the same sense. 


1. A Metaphor is a simile without formal comparison, and puts 
a word of likeness for the proper word : as, Cceptis aspirate Ovid. 
i. e.favete. 

2. A Metonymy changes names, or puts a noun of relation in- 
stead of the proper word ; as the cause for the effect, the subject 
for the adjunct, the antecedent for the consequent, &c. : as, Mars 
for bellum ; Lyceus for vinum. Implentur veteris Bacchi Virg., 
old wine. 

3. Synecdoche puts the whole for the part, or vice versa: it like- 
wise confounds the singular and plural : as, Animaque litandum 
Argolica Virg. for homine Argolico. Armato milite complent 
Virg. for militibus armatis. 

4. Irony or Dissimulation thinks one thing and expresses another, 
yet so that the real meaning may be discovered ; thus it blames 
when it seems to commend, commends when it seems to blame, 
&c. : as, salve, bone custos, curasti probe ! Ter. You have 
taken extraordinary care, my trusty keeper ! Egregiam vero lau- 
dem et spolia ampla refertis, Tuque puerque tuus Virg. 

1 The tropes and figures properly belong to the art. of Rhetoric ; yet, as 
they may be classed under that branch of syntax which is called Jignrative, it 
i* not inconsistent with the nature of grammar to give some account n>f them. 



These are so named because they may, generally, be compre- 
hended under the primary tropes. 

1. Catachresis is a bolder or harsher metaphor, as when we say 
a Wooden tombstone, a Glass inkhorn, &c. : Vir gregis ipse caper 
deerraverat Virg. The husband of the flock, i. e. dux gregis. 

2. Hyperbole magnifies or lessens beyond the strict bounds of 
credibility : as, Rivers of blood. Candidior cycnis Virg. Ocyor 
Euro Virg. 

3. Metalepsis is the advance, or continuation of a trope, through 
successive significations : as, Post aliquot aristas Virg. in which 
arista (a beard of corn) is put for seges, seges for messis, and mes- 
sis for annus, i. e. after some years. Hinc movet Euphrates, illinc 
Germania bellum Virg. in which Euphrates is put for Mesopo- 
tamia, which is washed by it, and Mesopotamia for the inhabitants. 

4-. Allegory is a chain of tropes : as, Claudite jam rivos, pueri, 
sat prata biberunt Virg. Swains, stop now your streams, the 
meadows have drunk their fill, i. e. Leave off' your songs, there 
has been sufficient entertainment. 

5. Antonomasia puts a proper name for a, common one, and 
vice versa ; as when we call a debauched person, a Sardanapalus ; 
a grave man, a Cato ; a poor man, an lints, a beggarly attendant 
on Penelope's suitors. Irus et est subito, qui modo Croesus erat 

6. Litotes affirms more strongly, by denying the contrary : as, 
Non laudo Ter. 1 blame you much. Est qui nee veteris pocula 
Massici spernit Hor. There are persons fond of a glass of old 
Massic wine. 

7. Onomatopoeia coins words from sound : as rush, squeak, hiss, 
crash. Thus also in Latin, arma stridentia ; tinnitus aeris ; rugitus 
leonum; grunnitus porcorum, c. 

8. Antiphrasis is a species of irony depending upon one word, 
names being given contrary to the nature of the things, as calling 
a dwarf 'a giant ; a grove lucus, because, perhaps, non lucet. 

9. Charientismus gives soft words for harsh : as, Bona verba 
qutzso Ter. 

10. Asteismus is a witty jest, or facetious jeer : as, Qui Bavium 
non odit, amet tua carmina, Mcevi ; Atque idem jungat vulpes et 
midgeat hircos Virg. Who hates not Bavius, may it be his curse 
to love thy verses, Msevius ; and may the same person yoke foxes, 
and milk he-goats. 

11. Diasyrmus reflects upon a living enemy : as, Si cantas, male 
cantas ; si legis, cantas Quintil. 

12. Sarcasmus insults any one in a malicious manner : as, Iver- 
bis virtutem illude superbis Virg. 

13. Parcemia is a proverbial form of expression: as, Many 
hands make light work. Lupum auribus teneo Ter. I know not 
how to act. 

14. ^Enigma is a sort of obscure allegory., or an ingenious riddle: 


as, Die quibus in ierris, et eris mihi magnus Apollo^ Tres paleat 
cceli spatium non amplius ulnas Virg. 


1. Antanaclasis is the use of the same word in different senses: 
as, Quis neget Mnece natum de stirpe Neronem ? Sustulit hie ma- 
trem, sustidit ille patrem Epigr. The latter took off (that is 
killed) his mother; the former 4ook off (affectionately removed 
from danger) his father. Let the dead bury their dead Matt. viii. 
22. i. e. them that are dead in sin, bury those that are naturally 
dead, or lifeless. 

2. Place is the repetition of a proper name, or of another noun, 
in a way in which the quality of the subject is denoted : as, His 
wife is a wife indeed. Ex illo Cory don, Cory don est tempore no- 
bis Virg. 

3. Anaphora begins different sentences, or clauses of the same 
sentence, with the same word : as, He pines, he sickens, he de- 
spairs, he dies Add. Cato. Te, dulcis conjux, Te, solo in littore 
secum ; Te, veniente die, Te, decedente, canebat Virg. 

4. Epistrophe is a repetition of the same word, at the end of 
different sentences or clauses : as, Are they Hebrews ? so am I. 
Are they Israelites ? so am I 2 Cor. xi. 22. Namque ego, crede 
mihi, si te quoque pontus haberet ; Te sequerer, conjux, et me quo- 
quepontus haberet Ovid. It is sometimes called Epiphora. 

5. Symploce is a complication of the two last, beginning the 
several clauses with one word, and ending them with another : as, 
Quis legem tulit ? Rullus : Quis majorem populi partem siiffragiis 

privamt? Rullus: Quis comitiis prcefuit? Idem Rullus Cic. 

6. Epanalepsis begins and ends a sentence with the same word : 
as, Rejoice in the Lord alway, and again I say, rejoice Phil. iv. 4. 
Multa super Priamo rogitans, super Hectore multa Virg. 

7. Anadiplosis ends one clause, and begins another, with the 
same words : as, For whether we live, we live unto the Lord ; and 
whether we die, we die unto the Lord Rom. xiv. 8. Quamdiu 
quisquam erit, qui te defendere audeat, vives : et vives, ita ut nunc 

Cic. Hie tamen vivit: Vivit? imo vero etiam in senatum 

ve?iit Cic. 

8. Epanados repeats in an inverted order the same words, in a 
second clause : as, Crudelis mater magis, an puer improbus ille ? 
Improbus ille puer, crudelis tu quoque, mater Virg. 

9. Epizeuxis repeats the same word, for the sake of emphasis: 
as, Ah Corydon, Corydon, quce te dementia cepit Virg. Excitate, 
excitate eum, si potestis, ab inferis Cic. 

10. Climax is an amplification by steps, in which each part of a 
sentence, arising above the former, begins with the conclusion of 
the former, and in this respect it is a continued Anadiplosis : as, 
Quce reliqua spes manet libertatis, si illis et quod libet, licet ; et 
quod licet, possunt ; et quod po&sunt, audent ; et quod audent, vo- 


Us molestum non est Cic. When the sense advances without a 
strict climax, it is called Incrementum ; when the sense is gradu- 
ally heightened, it is called Anabasis ; and when it falls or de- 
creases, Catabasis. 

1 1 . Polyptoton uses the same word in different cases : as, Jam 
clypeus cli/peis, umbone repellitur umbo ; ense minax e?isis, pedepes, 
et cuspide cuspis Stat. The same kind of figure may be applied 
to genders and tenses. 

12. Paregmenon uses several words of the same origin, in one 
sentence : as, Abesse non potest, quin ejusdem hominis sit, qui im- 
probos probet, probos improbare Cic. 

13. Paronomasia plays upon the sound of words : as, Who 
dares greatly, dies greatly. Amor et melle etfelle estfcecundissi- 
mus Plaut. Tibi parata erunt verba, huic verbera Ter. 

14. Homoioteleuton ends several clauses, with the same sound : 
as, Ccesar, dando, sublevando, ignoscendo, gloriam adeptus est 

15 Parachesis, or Alliteration, uses letters or syllables of the 
same sound : as, Neu patrice validas in viscera veiiite vires Virg. 
The various kinds of alliteration will be noticed under the remarks 
on the Hexameter verse. 


1. For Proof. 

usly ex- 

1 . JEtiologia assigns a reason for a proposition previous _ 
pressed : as, Spcrne voluptates : nocet empta dolore voluptas Hor. 

2. Inversion, or the turning of an argument, is when an orator 
makes that for his own advantage which was alleged against him: 
as, Atfratres meos, inquit, quod erant conscii, in vincula conjecit : 
cum, igitur, eos vinciret, quos secum habebat ; te solutum Romam 
mittebat, qui eadem scires qua. illos scire dicis Cic. 

3. Prolepsis anticipates objections : as : Verum anceps pugnce 
f uerat fortuna : fuisset : Quern, metui moritura ? Virg. The ob- 
jection is called Hypophora. The answer is called Anthypophora : 
and if the objection is turned against the adversary, it is named, 
as in the last, Inversion or Antistrophe. 

4. Epitrope, or Concession, concedes a point to an adversary, 
in order to confute him more effectuall}' : as, Sint^sane, quoniam 
ita se mores habent, liberates ex sociorumjbrtunis; sint misericordes 
infuribus ccrarii : ne illi sanguinem nostrum largiantur Sail. 

5. Mimesis refutes an adversary by repeating his own arguments, 
with a sneer, as unworthy of a *serious answer : as, Nunc augur 
Apollo, nunc Lydce sortes, mine et Jove missus ab ipso Interpres 
Divumjert horridajussa per auras Virg. 

2. For Explanation. 
1 . Paradiastole, or Contra-distinction, explains more forcibly 


by comparing opposites : as, Non sapiens, sed asiutus. Non for- 
mosus erat, scd eratfacundus Ulysses Ovid. 

2. Antimetabole or Antimetatkesis is a kind of Epanados, repeat- 
ing opposites in an inverted order : as, Poetna est pictura loquens, 
mutum pictura poema. Vide Hor. Art. Poet. 361. 

3. Antithesis places contraries in opposition to each other : as, 
Fiectere si nequeo superos, Acheronta movebo Virg. Hujus oratio- 
jiis difficilius est exitum quam principium mvenire Cic. 

4. Oxymoron is a seeming contradiction, uniting contraries toge- 
ther: as, Concordia discors Hor. Cum tacent, clamant Cic. 
Shu is dead, while she liveth 1 Tim. v. 6. 

3. Hypotyposis gives a lively image or description : as, Obstu- 
pui, steteruntque comae, et vox faucibus hcesit Virg. 

6. Dialyton, or Asyndeton, omits conjunctions: as, Ferte cili 
flammas^ date vela, impellite remos Virg. The want of the con- 
junction denotes celerity of action. See Ellipsis. 

7. Polysyndeton is the reverse of the last, being the use of many 
conjunctions : as, Somnus, enim, et vinum, et epulce, et scoria, bal~ 
neaque, corpora atque animos enervarunt Liv r . See Pleonasm, 

8. Gnome is a general sentiment properly introduced : as, /m- 
lellium est, verbis non armis, lellum gerere. 

9. Noema is an elegant application of such a sentiment to a par- 
ticular purpose : as, Athenienses quidem literis verbisque lellum ad- 
versut Philippum gerebant Liv. 

10. Epitheton, or Epithet, is an adjective joined elegantly to a 
substantive, for the purpose of expressing some peculiar circum- 
stance : as, Arma diu senior desueta trernentibus cevo Circumdat ne- 
quicquam humeris et inutile Jerrum Cingitur Virg. 

3. For Amplification. 

1. Incrementum is an amplification without a strict climax, rising 
or decreasing in terms of increasing energy : as, Facinus est vincire 
civem Romanum ; scelus verberare ; prope parricidium necare ; quid 
dicam in crucem tollere ? Cic. 

2. Synonymia uses different words, or forms of expression, 
having the same import : as, Quern si fata virum servant, si vesci- 
tur aura jEtherea, neque adhuc crudelibus occubat umbris Virg. 
for if he liveth. 

3. Paralipns pretends to omit a charge, in order, thereby, to 
render it more observed ; as, Nonne eliam alio incredibili scelere 
hoc scelus cumuldsti ? quod ego prcetermitto et facile patior sileri ; 
ne in hac civitate tanti fadnoris immanitas aul extitisse aut non vin- 
dicata esse videatur Cic. 

4. Periphrasis uses many words in description, where fewer 
would be sufficient, often expressing an object by circumstances ; 
as, Fabricator mundi, for Deus. I must put off' this tabernacle 
2 Pet. i. 14?. that is, / must die. Et jam summa procul villarum 
culmina fumant, Majoresque cadunt altis de montibusumbrce -Virg. 
for it is near sunset. 


5. Paradigma draws a comparison from some historical exam- 
ple: as, Saxa et solitudines voci respondent ; lestice scepe immanes 
cantuflectuntur aique consistunl : nos instiluti rebus optimis non potf- 
tarum voce moveamur ? Cic. 

6. Parabola, or Simile, enforces an argument by a judicious 
comparison : as, Repente enim te, tanquam serpent e latibulis, oculis 
eminentibus, inflate collo, tumidis cervicilus, intulisti Cic. 

7. Merismus, or Epimerismus, instead of mentioning the whole, 
enumerates the parts : as, Senatus odit te; videre te equites Roma- 
ni non possunt j plebs Romana perditum cupit : Italia cuncta exse- 
cratur Cic. 

8. Diapkora illustrates by comparing or contrasting things un- 
like : as, Dissimilis est pecuniec debitio et gratice : nam qui pecu- 
niam dissolvit, statim non habet id, quod reddidit ; qui autem delet, 
is retinet alienum : gratiam autem et qui refert, habet; et qui habet, 
in eo ipso quod habet, refert Cic. 

4-. Pathetic Figures. 

1. Erotesis, or Interrogation, asks a question in an earnest or 
urgent manner : as, Creditis avectos hostes ? aut ulla putatis Dona 
carere dolis Danaum ? sic notus Ulysses ? Virg. 

2. Ecphonesis, or Exclamation, shows some violent transport of 
the mind : as, My God ! My God ! why hast thou forsaken me ? 
Matth. xxvii. 46. O tempora ! O mores ! 

3. Epanorthosis, or Correction, recalls a word, in order to place 
a stronger or more significant one in its stead : as, Filium unicum 
adolescenlulum habeo: ah! quid dixi? me habere? Imo habui 

4-. Aposiopesis, or Suppression, leaves the sentence unfinished, 
through some violent agitation of mind : as, Quos ego sed prce- 
stat motos componere Jluctus Virg. 

5. Epiphonema, or Acclamation, is a grave reflection on some- 
thing said before : as, Tantcene animis coelestibu sires ? Virg. Tan- 
turn Relligio potuit suadere malorum ! Lucret. 

6. dnaccenosis, or Communication, is, when, relying on the ex- 
pediency or merits of the cause, a forcible appeal is made to the 
adversary's own conscience : as, Si vos in eo loco essetis, quid aliud 
fecissetis Cic. 

7. Aporia doubts what is to be said or done : as, Quos accedam, 
aut quos appellem ? Nationesne an reges Sail. Revocat; redeam ? 
non, si me obsecret Ter. When a Figure thus objects and an- 
swers, it is said to be in Dialogismo -, otherwise in Logismo. Apo- 
ria is sometimes named Diaporesis. 

8. Apostrophe, or Aversio, is, when, to excite strong attention, 
the narrative is interrupted by an appeal suddenly made to some 
person or thing : as, Vi potitur : Quid non mortalia cogis r Auri sa- 
cra fames Virg. 

9. Prosopopoeia, or Personification, represents inanimate objects 
as living and speaking. Thus Ovid introduces the Earth saying to 


Jupiter, Hosne mihi fructus, hunc fertilitatis honoretn, Officiique 
refers, &c. According to this figure, an absent person may be 
introduced speaking, or one who is dead, as if he were alive and 
present. This and the preceding figure are sometimes conjoined : 
as, Trojaque nunc stares ; Priamique arx alia maneres Virg. 

Other jfgureS) less common, and of inferior note, might be enu- 
merated ; instead of which a few general remarks shall be 
added, on the beauties and blemishes of style. 

1 . Purity of style is violated chiefly by a Barbarism or a Sole- 
cisnt. Barbarism is the use of a word not Latin ; as stavi instead 
ofsteti, the preterite of sto. Solecism is a construction contrary 
to the rules of syntax ; as, Acuta gladius : Faveo te : Scrilo cum 
calamo. It is further violated by Archaism, Neoterism, and Idi- 
otism. Archaism is the use of obsolete words or constructions ; and 
has been already noticed. Neoterism is the use of words or phrases 
not used by authors living in the best ages of Latinity ; as brevia- 
rium instead of summarium ; usualis for solitus or vulgaris : Ple- 
num vino: Adulari alicui; instead of which the best writers used 
Plenum vlni : Adulari aliquem. Jdiotism is the use of words or 
phrases not purely Latin, but conformable to the usage or idioms 
of other languages. 

2. Perspicuity of language requires that it should be clear and 
intelligible, and free from ambiguity and amphibology in words 
and construction ; such as HeriJUius ad me venit. Aio te, &aci* 
da, Romanes v'mcere posse. 

3. Equality of language consists in using neither more nor fewer 
words than the subject requires. When the same thing is repeat- 
ed in different words, this error is called Tautology: as, Ipse egomet 
venio. Where a superfluous addition is made, it is called Perisso- 
logy : as, Ibant qua poterant ; qua non poterant non ibant. Tapi- 
nosis is saying less than the subject requires : as, Saxea verrucca in 
svmmo montis vertice. 

4-. Propriety uses suitable words. This is violated by Acyrolo- 
gia or Catachresis; as sperare for timere, in Juvenal, Jam quar- 
tanam sperantibus cegris. Vir gregis ipse caper Virg. vir being 
applicable only to the human species. 

5. Harmony consists in the use of such letters and syllables as 
are grateful to the ear. This is destroyed by Cacophaton or the dis- 
agreeable position or repetition of letters ; as conlaudo for collaudo. 
Sola mihi tales casus Cassandra canebat Virg. in which ca is thrice 
repeated ; and by Cacosyntheton, or a bad arrangement of the words : 
as, Fersdque juvencum Terga fatigamus hastd Virg. 

6. Simplicity consists in the avoiding of affectation. It is op- 
posed by Cacozelia, or an excessive desire of elegance ; as in Au- 
reus axis era/, temo aureus, aurea summce Curvatura rota?, radio- 
rum argenteus ordo Ovid. 




PROSODY is defined to be that part of Grammar, which 
treats of the quantity of Syllables ! ; of their tone or accent ; 
and of Versification. 


By the quantity of a syllable is meant, the duration or 
continuance of the voice, in pronouncing it. 

A syllable is either short, long, or common. 

A short syllable is sounded rapidly, like the a in the En- 
glish word orator, or the e in the Latin word legere ; and 
is thus marked, orator, legere. 

A long syllable is pronounced slowly, and occupies twice 
the time used in pronouncing a short one, as in the a of the 
English word mediator, or of the Latin word orator ,- and 
is thus marked, mediator, orator. 

A common or doubtful syllable may be made long or 
short, at the option of the poet, as in the first syllable of 
patres, or the middle syllable of tenebrce and volucris, which 
are pronounced either patres or patres ; tembrac or tenebrces 
voliicris or volucris : and when they are marked as common 

1 The quantity of syllables merits the chief attention. The ac- 
cents are little attended to, being now used chiefly in a way, in 
which they denote the distinction of words, or the difference of 
quantities, rather than variation of tone ; but the common rules 
for placing them will hereafter be given. The question has been 
much agitated lately, whether Latin poetry should be read chiefly 
according to quantity, or accent j and it is as yet very far from 
being determined. Some, however, seem in favour of reading 
by quantity j while others, perhaps not without reason, incline 
to the opinion, that quantity may be observed, without the utter 
neglect of accents, the observance of which, they contend, pro- 
duced, both in the Greek and Roman languages, the same me- 
trical effect as those prominent syllables (which are commonly 
called accented) do in the English language, and in other mo- 
dern languages. But, as Quintillian observes of accents, Exem- 
pla eorum tradi scripto non possunt. 


or doubtful, it is done by a conjunction of the two preceding 
marks, thus patres^ teiiebrce, vofucris. In prose, however, 
these are short. 

The quantity of a syllable is either natural, that is, depen- 
dent on the intrinsic nature of the vowel itself, as the re of 
?'esisto, in which the e is short by nature ; or accidental, as 
the re in restiti, which becomes long, because it happens to 
be followed by two consonants. 

The quantity of syllables is determined by certain esta- 
blished rules, or, when they fail, by the authority of the poets. 

Rules are either General, that is, applicable to all syllables, 
whether first, middle, or last; or Special, that is, applicable 
to particular syllables. 



A vowel before another (or, which is the same thing, 
before an h followed by a vowel, or before a diphthong) in 
words of Latin origin, is short : as, piier, nihil, egregitz. 

O Melibcee, deus nobis haec otia fecit Virg. 

De nihilo nihil, in nihilum nil posse reverti Pers. 

Ipse etiam eximta laudis succensus amore Virg. 


1. The i ofjio is long, when it is not followed by e and 
r ; asfiuntyftebant 1 . 

Omnia jam f tent, fieri quae posse negabam Ovid. 

2. The e of the genitive and dative of the fifth declension, 
when it comes between double i, is long ; as faciei. 

Ventum erat ad Vestaa quarta jam parte diei Hor. 
It is sometimes found long, when not preceded by i; as 
Ipsius rei rationem reddere possis Lucret. 
Ille vir haud magna cum re, sed pl&nu'Jidei Ennius. 
These cases were probably written either e - i or ei - i ; 
hence the different quantities. 

1 In some lines it is long, when, by the general rule, it should 
be short ; Injurium est, nam si esset, unde idfieret, 

Faceremus. Ter. 

3. The i is common in genitives in ius ; but the i of al- 
terim is always short, of alius always long ! . 

Uriius ob noxam, et furias Ajacis, Oi'lei Virg. 
Navibus (infandum !) amissis, uriius ob iram Virg. 

4. The penultimate (or last syllable but one) is long in 
aural, aula'i, terra'i, and other old genitives of the first de- 
clension ; and the a or e before i is long in proper names in 
ams or ems, as Cams, Pompeius (probably written originally 
with a double i}, as also in Grams, Ve'ius, &c. 

j^Ethereum sensum, atque aurai simplicis ignem Virg. 
Accipe, Pompet, deductum carmen ab illo Ovid. 
Per vigil in pltima Caius, ecce, jacet Mart. 

5. Aer, Dius, eheu, and, in general, Io, a proper name, 
have the first syllable long. Ohe and the interjection io 
have their first common. 

Proximus est der illi levitate, locoque Ovid. 

^ si Candida jusserit Io Juv. 

Ohe ! jam satis est, ohe, libelle Mart. 

Quas tibl causa fugae ? quid, Io, freta longa pererras ? 

For Greek words it is impossible to give a certain rule. In 
many the first vowel is short; as in Danae, idea, sopMa, 
Simois, H jades, prosodia, symphonia. In many it is long; 
as in Lycdon, Sperchlus, Achelous, Enyo. 

1. Words ending in ais, eis, and ois, generally lengthen 
the first vowel, as Ndis, Briseis, Hindis ; in aius, eius, and 
oius, as Grains, Cdius, Nere'ius, Pompeius, Minoms, Troms : 
in aon and ion, as Machdon, Ixlon s the compounds of Aaof, 

as Ldodice, Laertes, Arclielaus. But Thebais, Plicion, Aon, 
Deucalion, Pygmalion, and many others, shorten the former 
vowel. In Ner~eis, Orwn and Gerybn it is said to be com- 
mon; but Orion is long, although, in Greek, sometimes short. 
Geryon is short. 

Troius ^Eneas Libycis ereptus ab undis Virg. 

2. Greek genitives in eos, and accusatives in ea, from 
nominatives in eus, generally shorten the e -, as, Orpheos, 
Orphea, but these may be lengthened by the Ionic dialect, 
thus Orpheos, Orphea, Ilionea. 

1 Solius, alterutrius, and neutrius are said to be generally long 
in approved authors. For alius, see R. IV. There is a sufficient 
reason for the long quantity of alius, but I know of none for the 
constant short quantity of alterius. It occurs long in Terent. 
Maurus, and Ennius, and is probably common, like the others. 
But allerms would be inadmissible in a dactvlic verse. 


Jlionea petit dextra Virg* 

Idomenea ducem --------- Virg. 

3. Those words which, in the Greek language, are writ- 
ten with 13 or co, are long; as De'iphobus, Deianira, Troe's, 
heroicus, &c. Eos and eous have their first common, be- 
cause written either with >j or e ; and are generally long at 
the beginning of a line, and short at the end. 

Deiphobum vidit lacerum crudeliter ora Virg. 

Portus ab eoo fluctu Virg. gentes aperi- 

mus eoas Lucan. 

4. Those words which, in Greek, are written with ei be- 
fore a vowel, and in Latin with e or i 9 have the e or i long; 
as, JEneas, Cassiopea, Cytharea, Centaurea, Penclopea, Ga- 
latea, Laodicea, Medea, Mausoleum. Also, Basillus, Darius, 
Clio, Elegia, litanla, politla, &c. Chorda, platea, Malea, 
canopeum, Dicma, and perhaps acadeima, are common. 

At pater JEneas casu concussus acerbo Virg. 

Non mihi sunt visae Clio, Cllusve sorores Ovid. 
duxere choreas Ovid. 

Pars pedibus plaudunt choreas Virg. 

There are no rules for the quantities of foreign or barba- 
rous words introduced into the Latin language. Prudentius 
lengthens the first a in Baal, Sedulius shortens it. Sido- 
nius lengthens the penultimate of Abraham, Arator short- 
ens it. The a in ael of Israel, Michael, Raphael, is some- 
times long and sometimes short. 



A vowel before two consonants, one or both of which are 
in the same word with it, or before any of the double con- 
sonants j 1 , x, z, being likewise in the same word with the 
vowel, is long by POSITION ; as drma, Errabdt silva In mag' 
na ; axis, patrizo ; cujus. 

1 In reality, in such cases, j is a vowel, and, with the preceding 
vowel, constitutes a diphthong ; thus mai-oribus. In the same 
manner, arises the quantity of such words as ejus andpejtts, which, 
according to Priseian, the antients wrote eiius and peiius ; thus 
ei-us, pei~us, one of the is being elided, or supposed to be elided, 
in the pronunciation. In rejicio, too, the e is considered long, thej 
uniting with it, so as to form a diphthong, ra - icio. When j 
stands at the beginning of a word, it has no power of lengthening 
a short final vowel. Even mjurejurando, the e is short, this being 
in fact two distinct words. (See the following note.) 


Pdscere oporiet oves, deductum dicere carmen Virg. 
Nee myrtus vincet corylos, nee, laurea Phoebi Virg. 
Indomitique Dab as, et pontem indignatus Ardxes Virg. 
Nobilibus gdzis, opibusque cubilia surgant CL 
Nate dea, nam te mdjoribus ire per altum Virg. 

Utjugulent homines, surgunt de nocte latrones Hor. 


1. The compounds of jugum have the i short before j; 
as Mjugus,, quadrijugus '. 

Martis equi bijtiges, et magni currus Achillis Virg. 
Quadryugo vehitur curru, cui tempora circum Virg. 


1 . If the former word ends in a short vowel, the next 
word beginning with two consonants, or a double conso- 
nant (x or z\ the vowel often remains short. 

Tu poteras virides pennis hcbetare smaragdos Ovid. 

Jam medio apparet fluctu nemorosa 2 Zacynthus Virg. 

1 These words were formerly written biiugus and quadruuguz, 
the j being the same as i, whence also ajo, and, as Cicero is re- 
ported to have written it, aiio, instead of aio ; and one of the is 
being elided, or supposed to be elided, for the sake of the sound, 
there remains bmgus ; or the^' being sounded, as it is by the Ger- 
mans and other adjacent nations, like our y before a vowel in the 
same syllable, the word becomes bi-yugus, in the same way as, 
in English, opi-ni-on becomes opin-yon. The Spaniards write, 
mayor, for major, greater ; and in English we have also mayor 
from major ; they likewise write yugo forjitgum, a ^oke ; but the 
y they pronounce in a way peculiar to themselves. 

2 The rule has been controverted, in cases where any of the 
following consonantal combinations in the beginning of a word 
follows a short vowel, namely, sc, sp, sq, or st. Numerous exam- 
ples, however, occur, in which the final short vowel before these 
combinations continues short : thus, in Horace, prcemia scribes ; 
mala stultitice ; mihi Stertinius ; velatumque stola ; scppv stylum 
verlas ; in Ovid, curvamine spince ; considers scamnis ; olentia 
stagna ; tua stat ; inamabiU stridet, &c. But it is observed that 
many of these examples are removed by better readings given 
in MSS. and editions; and that the doctrine of syllables remain- 
ing short before s, and another consonant, is not confirmed by 
unquestionable authority. The line 

Pontte : spes sibi quisque; sed haec, quam angusta, videtis 

jn. xi. b09. 

is rejected by the ablest writers, as an interpolation. Virgil, 
however, who has adopted such licenses as Julius Hyacintho $ 
an qui amant, quc enclitic, has lengthened the short syllable but 
in one line, 



2. A vowel naturally short, followed by a mute and a li- 

Ferte citi ferrum, date tela, scandite muros. 
Many of those short vowels which are found long before two 
consonants beginning the following word, are lengthened by Cae- 
sura ; as in 

Occul-ta spolia, et plures de pace triumphos Juv. 
It is, however, the opinion of several respectable critics, that, 
if the two consonants be at the beginning of the following word, 
the preceding vowel is long : although the poets have frequently 
neglected the rule. In the writings of the antients, instances of 
violation are comparatively rare, although it must be allowed 
that the balance of actual practice seems against the rule; while 
in modern poetry, the syllable is generally found short. Mr. 
Burgess, in his edition of Dawes's Miscellanea Critica, has laid 
down the rule, " Quotiescumque ultima, quse brevis sit, vocabuli 
praecedentis, partem ejusdem cum st, sp,sc, &c. pedis constituat, 
toties earn esselongam, nisi in scriptis comicis iisque quse sermoni 
propiora sunt." Hence, we may infer that, if the preceding 
short syllable terminate a foot, it may remain short; and if it 
do not terminate a foot, it becomes long, except in scriptis co- 
micis &c. This is, perhaps, generally correct ; it must, however, 
be observed, that Horace, Ennius, and Propertius, furnish ex- 
amples in which the vowel remains short, although it does riot 
terminate a foot ; a circumstance which tends to sanction the 
opinion of those who are inclined to think, that the initial s and 
a consonant have the same power over a preceding short vowel, 
as a mute and a liquid have over a preceding short vowel in the 
body of a word, that is, that they render it common. It is very 
evident, from a coHection of the examples involving the colloca- 
tion in question, (see Nos. 1 and 2 of the Classical Journal^) 
that even among the antient poets, as Lucretius, Propertius, 
Horace, Ovid, Seneca, &c., the vowel is oftener found short 
than long. That, however, in many of those instances, the 
sound of the s was suppressed, is very probable ; indeed, in a 
line from Lucretius, terminating with miscere smaragdos, some 
MSS. have maragdos. Reasoning from analogy, and the authority 
of those poets, who, unless in their sermoni propiora, have but sel- 
dom or never introduced the final short syllable before s and another 
consonant, it is thought that there are good grounds for consi- 
dering a vowel to be long before the two consonants, whether in 
the same word, or in the next; although, in the composition of 
verses, it may, perhaps, be expedient, considering the diversity 
of opinion on this disputable point, to avoid the latter colloca- 
tion altogether. Lucretius, who shortens the vowel, it is said, was 
perhaps compelled, by the nature of his subject, to take th@ utmost 
liberty he could at all defend, and was afterwards followed by 
Horace in the sermoni propiora. But, in the Odes, we see no- 
thing of the kind, nor is the practice in the least degree sane- 


quid, both in the following syllable, is common ; as 
a-gris, phare-tra. 

Et primo similis volucri, mox vera volucris Ovid. 

tioned by Catullus or Virgil. These are the three greatest au- 
thorities in Roman verse. Propertius is, perhaps, of inferior au- 
thority. Tibullus shortens the vowel, only before sm, in smarag* 
dos, in which probably the s was dropt in writing or in pronun- 
ciation. Virgil has not admitted the short vowel in his Georgics. 
In the ^neid, it occurs but once (Ponite: spes sibi quisque), in 
a line which has been deemed corrupt. Horrida squamosi in his 
Culexj (if indeed he was its author,) and nisi Scylla in his Ciris 9 
two early attempts, have not much weight. Catullus, in but one 
solitary instance, undo, Scamandri, has violated the law, by fol- 
lowing Homer. The name, however, is written Kaju-avfyof in 
ancient Greek MSS. Several instances occur in Ovid, of the 
short vowel ; but it may be observed, that some of them admit, 
and have received, different readings. It is worthy of remark, 
too, that in compound words, sc, sp, st, have the power of length- 
ening a preceding short vowel ; as rescindo, respuo, restinguo. 
We shall only add, that neither the letter s, nor the liquid m f 
seems to have been considered, by the Roman poets, so firm and 
indissoluble a consonant as the rest. The former was frequently 
elided by the earlier poets, not only before a vowel, but even be- 
fore a consonant. The syllable that terminates with the latter, 
almost always falls before a vowel. Although, in Greek, exam- 
ples of final short vowels lengthened before J and are numerous, 
it is difficult to find an unquestionable example, in Latin, of such 
a circumstance ; but x and z may have possessed such a power. 
Where a short vowel occurs before these letters, the sound may 
have been softened, or they may have been pronounced like 
d : thus, Danthus for Xanthus ; Dacynthus for Xacynthus. The 
rule for lengthening the final short vowel before s and another 
consonant, is rigidly enforced in some of our public schools, 
and in others totally disregarded. Little or no attention, I be- 
lieve, is paid to it at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge ; 
nor has it been observed by the modern poets of England, Hol- 
land, Germany, or Italy. And if we consider the few examples 
in which we find the syllable short in antient poetry, compared 
with those of modern occurrence, and the still smaller number in 
which it is lengthened, there seems reason to conclude, that the 
antients, in general, studiously avoided the collocation. Virgil, 
it is observed, does not, like Horace, employ the word scefcstw, 
but scctcratus; which, it has been thought, he would have done, 
if he would not have been compelled to place a short syllable be- 
fore it : but a different reason might be assigned. In conclusion, 
we would observe, that, influenced solely by the unquestionable 
preponderance of instances in which the vowel occurs short, even 
after all the disputed lines are excluded, and taking into considera- 
tion, that the practice is sanctioned by almost all the best rno- 


Natum ante ora patris, patrem qui obtruncat ad aras 


Et vos agrestum praesentia numina Fauni Virg. l 
inter agrestia regem Virg. 

dern poets, we might be justified in considering the vowel before 
st &c. as generally short. Reasoning, however, chiefly from the 
delay naturally produced by two such unyielding consonants, 
if both are distinctly sounded, and relying on the confirma- 
tory authority of the few undisputed examples in which the 
vowel occurs long, we might be inclined to deem a vowel, so si- 
tuated, long, and combining the two preceding conclusions, 
the general inference would be, that, as the vowel is found some- 
times short, and sometimes long, it should be regarded as com- 
mon. But judging from the comparatively rare and limited oc- 
currence of the collocation in question, in the writings of the 
antient poets, I have little hesitation to say, that it should be 
avoided, if not altogether, yet. as much as possible. Many in- 
teresting observations on the subject of this Note, and, it needs 
scarcely be added, on every subject connected with classical lite- 
rature, may be found in the Classical Journal. See also some 
ingenious remarks on this question, in Dr. Carey's valuable trea- 
tise on Latin Prosody. 

1 It is, however, short in prose. To produce this kind of po- 
sition, which is reckoned weak (debilis), and is not to be used 
without some limitation, three things are necessary. 1 . That 
the mute precede the liquid. 2. That the mute and the liquid 
be both in the following syllable ; or otherwise, this rule cannot 
take place ; as in ab-luo, ob-ruo, in which the a and o, short by 
nature, are made long by the usual rule of position, and cannot 
be made short. 3. That the vowel preceding the mute and liquid 
be short by nature ; for, if it is long, it cannot be made short. 
Hence the a in acris, and matris, is always long, because the a in 
acer, and mater, is long. In like manner, the penultimate of sa- 
lubris, and ambulacrum, is always long, because they are derived 
from salus, salutis ; and ambulatum, both long. 

L and r are the only liquids found in Latin words preceded by 
a vowel and a mute. L,, r t and also m, n, have the same force in 
Greek words, when the preceding vowel is naturally short ; as 
Cyclopes, pharetra, Te-cmessa, Da-phne. 

Pars laeves humero pharetras, it pectore summo Virg. 

Virginibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetram Virg. 

Et baccis redimita daphne, tremulaeque cupressus Pet. 

Primus amor Phrebi Daphne Penei'a, quern non Ovid. 
Martial has imitated the Greeks in shortening a syllable before g<, 
Sardonychas, smaragdos, adamantas, iaspidas uno. 

This rule, as has been already mentioned, is to be followed 
with some degree of limitation. Vossius has observed, that he 
would not be inclined to lengthen the penultimate of gemirix. 



A diphthong is long in Latin and Greek words : as, 
durum, fcenus, jffineas, Etibcea, Harpy i a ! . 

And it may be seen, from some of the examples which have been 
given, that words of three syllables, as volucris, pharetra, tenebrce, 
having the first short, and the middle deemed common, never 

have their penultimate long but at the end of a line. It may 

likewise be observed, that words of three syllables, as agrestes, 
cyclopes, &c., having the first common, and the second long, sel- 
dom have the first short but at the end of a line; thus, misera- 

tus agrestes Virg. Such words as tonitrua, tonitribus, and 

ludibria, have the antepenultimate long in the latter part of a 
line ; as tomtrua mentes Ovid, ludibria ventis Virg. Indeed, 
the two first could not be admitted into any part of a heroic line 
without a long antepenult, and in them the emphasis also tends 
to strengthen the doubtful syllable. Ovid and Virgil generally 
make the first syllable oflacryma short; Horace, common. Lu- 
gilbris is generally long, but is made short by Horace at the end 
of a lyric verse. Ludicra has generally the penult short. Patris 
and some others may perhaps be varied in any part of a line. 
Catullus sometimes lengthens a final short syllable followed by a 
mute and a liquid ; but this is a liberty very rarely used, without 
the influence of the Caesura. 

These is nothing arbitrary in the principle which regulates the 
quantity of a short vowel before a mute and a liquid. When the 
liquid precedes the mute, it requires a distinct, full sound, and 
thus, the syllable is rendered long; asjert. When, too, the 
mute precedes the liquid, and they are in different syllables, the 
liquid acquires, from this circumstance, a more marked, distinct 
pronunciation, so as to render the preceding vowel long ; as sub- 
ruo. But when, as in the terms of the rule, the mute precedes 
the liquid in the same syllable, the latter glides or trills so rapidly 
in the pronunciation, that a preceding vowel, short by nature, 
although it may be rendered somewhat longer than a short one, 
still remains rather shorter than a long one. As, therefore, its 
length, comparatively considered, seems to be equally remote 
from a short and a long quantity, it may in poetry be referred to 
either; in other words, be deemed common. When the vowel 
was lengthened, probably the two consonants were sounded in 
different syllables; aspat-ris, instead ofpa-tris. It should be re- 
marked, that the letter f, though commonly accounted a semi- 
vowel, has, when followed by a liquid, the same influence as a 
mute, upon a preceding short syllable ; that is, the syllable most 
commonly remains short. Vossius and Alvarus seem inclined 
to consider it as a mute. 

* But u and a vowel following q, are not to be considei 

jred as a 


Thesauros, ignotumjargenti pondus et ami Virg. 
Infernique lacus, JE&cEque insula Circes Virg. 
Miratur molem JEneas, magalia quondam Virg. 
Euridicenque suam jam tuto respicit Orpheus Ovid. 
Et patrio insontes Hat-pyias pellere regno Virg. 


1. Prcc in composition is short before a vowel; as prce- 
ustus, prceeunte, pr<zacutus l . 

Stipitibus duris agitur, sudibusve pr<%ustis Virg. 
Nee tota tamen ille prior praeunte carina Virg. 

2. A diphthong is once short in a line of Virgil, out of 
composition : thus, 

Insultf lonio in magno, quas dira Celaeno. 

diphthong falling within the rule ; for in such combinations, the 
latter vowel, if short, remains so ; as quater, queror, quibus, quo- 
tus, equits, dissyllables. Some have supposed that the u follow- 
ing q is a liquid consonant ; others, with more truth, that it be- 
comes a mute vowel, or is a liquid vowel, which glides so rapidly 
into the sound of the following vowel, as scarcely to be percepti- 
ble in the pronunciation ; and that it does not form a diphthong 
with the following vowel, because it has little or no force as a 
letter in verse. Amittit vim literce in metro, says Priscian ; which 
made Donatus believe, that, strictly speaking, it is neither vowel 
nor consonant. After g and s, it seems also to be generally liquid 
or evanescent, as in angms, sanguts, lingua, suetus, suadet, dissyl- 
lables. Sometimes it retains its full force, as in exiguus, suits. It 
has even been omitted in some words, as in stingo for stinguo ; 
ungo for unguo ; cum for quum, qu having, probably, been for- 
merly sounded, in some instances at least, like the letter k, as in 
the French language. 

1 This is inaccurately expressed in the short sketch of Prosody 
in the Eton Grammar j and from it, the inaccuracy has been co- 
pied into many other grammars. " Omnis diphthongus longa est, 
nisi sequente vocali," should be nisi prae, sequente vocali. For as 
the rule now stands, a solitary exception is made the basis of a 
general exception to one of the most general rules of prosody. 
The diphthong in pr& is, however, long in 

Praemia cum vacuus domino prceiret Arion Stat. Theb. 6. 
The ce in prce is supposed to have become short, from an elision 
of one of the component vowels ; or it may have arisen from the 
same cause through which the diphthong in M&otis, and in one 
or two other words, is deemed common, viz, from the corruption, 
in sound, of ce (ae or at) and ce (oe or oi) originally proper di- 
phthongs, intoe; owing to which circumstance they are now 
termed improper. 


This seeras to be in imitation of the Greeks, who, gene- 
rally, shorten a diphthong, or a long vowel at the end of a 
word, the following beginning with a vowel. 



Every syllable formed by the contraction of two syllables 
into one, is long ; as cogo for coago, the genitive allus for 
aliius '. 

Tityre edge pecus, tu post carecta latebas Virg. 

Obscurse sortis patres ambagibus errant Ovid. 





Derivatives, and words formed from other words, have 
the same quantity as the words whence they come : thus 
amicus, pavidus, avitus, from amo, paveo, amis ; mdternus, 

1 This is a rule of very extensive application, as well in prose 
as in poetry. We are told that the antients expressed a long 
syllable, by two vowels; thus veenit, for vtnit, the preterite; and 
it will be found, that, in many words, the long syllable arises 
from the contraction of two vowels. Thus, we write tibicen in- 
stead of tibiicen ; ambages for ambeages ; nonus for novenus ; bl- 
gee, trigce, &c., for bijiigce, trijugce ; junior for juvenior ; bobus 
for bovibus ; it for lit ; and sometimes vvmens for vthemens ; ml 
for mihi", &c. j and in joining words, as malo for magis volo. But 
some final syllables, probably contracted at an early period, re- 
main short ; such as sit from siet, amat from amait. Perhaps, 
however, in such instances, instead of contraction, one vowel 
may have been removed, and the other made to conform to the 
usual analogy. 

Syncope, Crasis, and Synaeresis may be thus distinguished. 
Syncope takes a letter or syllable from the middle of a word, 
without affecting the remaining letters. Crasis contracts two 
vowels, in the same word, or from different words, into one 
vowel ; Synaeresis (which will be hereafter explained), two vowels 
in the same word, into one syllable. The former of these two is 
applicable to prose and poetry ; the latter, chiefly to poetry. 


ndtivus, finltimus, from mater ^ nutus, finis ; legebam, le- 
gerem, legam, &c. formed from lego , legeram, legerim, 
legero, &c. from legi ; notus, notitia, notio, from notum ; 
virgineus, sangumeus, from virgmis, sangumis, fcenebris, from 
fceiieris ; propinquus, fromprope. 


1. Desiderative verbs, in urio, have the u short, although 
formed from the participle in urus, which has u long ; as 
nuptiirio, from nuptilrus *. 

Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus Hor. 

2. Frequentative verbs, formed from the second supine 
of the first conjugation, by changing dtu into ito, have the 
i short; as clamito, voUto. 

Infelix sua tecta super volitaverit alis Virg. 

3. There are other derivatives, long, formed from short 
primitives; and there are short derivatives, formed from 
long primitives; thus jugerum from jugum, sdgax from 
sdgio 8 . 

Et labefacta movens robustus jtigera fossor Virg. 
Arva aliena^go premere, atque avertere praedas Virg. 

1 Other verbs in urio, as ligurio and scaturio, lengthen the u. 
They were antiently written with a double r. 

* Some of those anomalies have perhaps arisenfrom the influence 
of syncope and crasis. Thus, mobilis from moveo may have been 
movibilis ; momentum, mommentum ; motum, movitum ; fotum,fQ- 
vitum, fromjoveo ; jiitum, juvatum ; SLndjumentumjjuvamentum, 
homjuvo. It would appear, however, that verbals in bills, as 
well as those in tills, and nouns in ator, atrum, atus, etus, men, 
mentum, &c., are generally formed from the supine or perfect 
participle, and that by this their quantity is regulated ; thus from 
amatum, amabilis ; volatum, volatilis ; JUtum, fitbilis ; temtum, 
terribilis ; statum, of slsto, stabilis ; in the same way we have ara- 
tor, aratrum, apparatus, certamen, jumentum, volumen, lenimen, 
irrit amentum t monumentum or mommentum, alimentum, blandimen- 
turn ; alsofomes, ftomfotum, &c. Derivatives often come from 
the genitive ; as from hymen, enis, hymen ceus; fromsalutis,saluber; 
from jwn&rls, funebris ; from mulierls, muliebris, &c., the deri- 
vatives from increasing nouns of the third declension usually 
agreeing in quantity with the increment of the primitives. Verbs 
also ; as ordino, saluto, exhceredo, &c. Sometimes the word de- 
rived, or formed, becomes short, by dropping one of the conso- 
nants which rendered the word whence it is supposed to come, 
long by position ; as disertus from dlssero ; libella from libra ; 
mamilla from mamma ; volutum from volvo ; solutum fromsolvo; 
tigillum from ttgnum ; potul from possum. When the primitive 



Compound words have the same quantity as the simple 
words of which they are compounded : as perlego and re- 
lego, because lego ,- perlegi and relegi, because legi , imprb- 
bus, because probus ; perjurus, because jus, juris. 

If a vowel is changed, in forming the compound, it re- 
tains the quantity of the vowel, or diphthong, from which 
it is changed ; as concido, from cado ; concldo from cccdo ; 
inlquus from cequus. 

Multa renascentur, quae jam cecidere , cadentque Hor. 

Taurus, et averso cedens canis occidit astro Virg. 


1 . The following are short compounds from long primi- 
tives ; Nihilum from Jiilum ; dejero and pejero from juro ,- 
veridicus, fatidicus, causidiciis, and the like, from dico ; se- 
misopitus from sopitus ; cogmtwn and agmtum from notum / 
innuba, subnuba, and pronuba, from nubo. 

Quae causa officii ? quid quaeris ? nubit amicus Juv. 
Et Bellona manet te pronuba : nee face tantum Virg. 

2. Imbecillus, said to come from bacillus, has the second 
syllable long. Ambltum the supine, and ambitus the parti- 
ciple, have the i long, although coming from itnm> which has 

is necessarily short, by one vowel's preceding another, as in hi/ems, 
the derivative sometimes becomes long, after the removal of a 
vowel ; as in hiberna, hiberno, hibernacula, Liquidus is supposed 
to have its first common, (as it may be derived from the depo- 
nent verb liquor, or from the neuter, Uqueo, ) on the following 
authority : 

Crassaque conveniunt liquidis, et liquida crassis Lucret. 
For the difference in quantity between many derivatives and 
their primitives no plausible conjecture can be given ; such ano- 
malies must be left to observation. Of this description are some 
of the following ; Ambitus (subst.), ambitio, ambitiosus from am- 
bitum ; arena from areo ; aruspex from ara ; dicax from dlco ; 
lucerna from luceo ; nato, natas, from natu ; sopor from sopio ; 
vadum from vado, &c. Chius from chios ; como, -is, from coma, 
hair ; humanus from homo ; regina, rex, regis, regula, from rego ; 
secius from secus ; sedes, sedile, from sedeo ; tegida from tego ; vox, 
vocis, from voco, &c. Words may be sometimes distinguished by 
a difference in quantity ; thus corno, -is, corno, -as ; duco, ducis, 
dux, ducis ; rego, regis, rex, rcgis. 


the i short ; but the substantives ambitus and ambttio have 
the ? short, like itum ! . 

Porto meis, nullo dextram subeunte bacillo Juv. 

Imbecillus, iners, si quid vis ? adde propino Hor. 

Jussit et ambltcE circumdare litora terras Ov. 

Et properantis aquae per amoenos ambitus agros Hor. 
3. Connubium, from nubo, has the u common 2 . 

Connubio jungam stabili, propriamque dicabo Virg. 

Hectoris Andromache ! Pyrrhin' connubia servas Virg. 



Prepositions have generally the same quantity in compo- 
sition as out of it : thus amitto and deduco have the first 
syllable long, because a and de are long. Aboleo and per- 
imo have the first short, because db and per are short. 

Expediam, prima repetens db origine, famam Virg. 

Nee poterit ferrum, nee edax dbolere vetustas Ovid. 

Exceptions and Annotations. 

1 . A preposition ending in a vowel, although out of com- 
position it may be long, becomes short by the first general 
rule, if followed by another vowel ; as dvosculor, prohibeo. 
And if a short preposition end in a consonant, and be fol- 
lowed by another consonant, it becomes long, by the second 
general rule : as admitto, ptrccllo. 

K coelo tactas memini praedicere quercus Virg. 

A media coelum regione dehiscere coepit Ovid. 

ad auras Virg. admiscere saporem Virg. 

Note. Sometimes the preposition, instead of becoming 
long by position, loses its final consonant, and remains 
short ; as omit to, operio. 

Quod petiit spernit, repetit quod nuper omisit Hor. 

2. Pro, when used as a Greek preposition, for ante, is 
short ; as propketa, prologus, propontis : but pro, a Latin 
preposition, is generally long ; as prodo, prdveho, promitto. 

1 Ambitum perhaps by crasis of ambe itum. Or it may come 
from the regular ambio, ambltum, formed from ambi the old form 
of the inseparable am, still visible in ambidexter ; and there may 
have been also ambeo, ambitum a compound of eo. 

2 It is contended by some that the u is always long, and that 
connubio and connubiis, although supposed to have u short in 
Virgil, are to be considered as trisyllables, by the figure Synizesis 
or Synecphonesis ; thus con-nitb-yo ; in which case the first foot 
becomes a spondee instead of a dactyl. 

2 A 


furtumque Promethei Virg. 

Qua3 tarn festa dies, ut cesset prodere furem Juv. 
But in many Latin words pro is short ; as profundus^ pro- 
fugio, profugus, pronepos, proneptis, profestus, profari^ pro- 
fiteer, prZfanuS) profectb, procus, procella, protervus, propero, 
and propago, signifying lineage ; but propago signifying a 
vinestock, is long l . 

Contremuit nemus, et sylvae intonuere pwfundce Virg. 
In some it is common; ospropino,, propago (the verb),^?r<>- 
fundo, propello, p?-opulso, procuro, Proserpina (in reality a 
corruption of Persephone). 

Nee ratione fluunt alia, stragemque propagant Lucret. 
Hi propaganda ruerant pro limite regni Claudian. 
exin corpus propellit, et icit Lucret. 

quse provehat atque propellat Lucret. 

3. The inseparable preposition re is short ; as remitto, 
repello, refero 2 . But re (which here is supposed to be an 
ablative) is long in the impersonal verb refert, "it concerns." 

Quid tamen hoc refert, si se pro classe Pelasga 

Arma tulisse refert Ovid. 

Posterius ferri vis est aerisque reperta Lucret. 

4. The inseparable prepositions, se and di 9 are long ; as, 
separOy diduco, diversus. But di is short in dirimo and di- 

Separat Aonios Actaeis Phocis ab arvis Ovid. 
Dlversos ubi sensit equos, currumque referri Virg. 
Hanc Deus et melior litem natura diremit Ov. 
In causa facili cuivis licet esse diserto Ov. 

1 Notwithstanding such distinctions propago, whose significa- 
tion is always essentially the same, may be considered among the 
doubtfuls; to which class procumbo is likewise added by some, 
probably, on the authority of Lucretius, who uses it short, 
IV, 950. But the passage stands differently in Wakefield's edi- 
tion. As, however, some of the compounds with pro are reckoned 
long, because it happens that they are found long among the 
poets ; and, for a similar reason, some are reckoned short, and 
others doubtful, it is not improbable, that, in all compound Latin 
words, the poets may have used^ro, long or short, as it suited their 

* Re is sometimes found lengthened, by doubling the following 
consonant ; as in relli^io, reppulit : but this duplication is gene- 
rally omitted, except in the verb reddo, so that religio t reliquice, 
reliquus, repent, retulit, repulit, reducere, are found long, and with 
only one consonant. 

Neu populum antiqua sub relligione tueri Virg. 

Religione patrum multos servata per annos Virg. 

Et prius est rrpertitm in equi conscendere costas Lucret* 



The vowels E, I, O, U, and Y, ending the Jirst *wwd of a 
compound^ are generally short. A is long. 

RULE IV -- A. 

Words ending in a in the former part of a compound are 
long ; as qudre, quapropter, quatenus ; also trd (trans), as 
in trado, traduco, trano. 

Qiiure agite 6 proprios generatim discite cultus Virg. 

1. Except eadem, unless it be the ablative, hexameter, and 

RULE V. - E. 

Words ending in e in the first part of a compound are 

short ; as,, in the first syllable, nefas, nefastus, liefandus, nt- 

Jarius, neque ; also tredecim, trecenti, cquidem : in the se- 

cond, valedico, madcfacio, stuptfacio, tremefacio, and the 

like : in the third, hujuscvmodi, ejuscemodz. 

Credebant hoc grande nefas, et morte piandum Juv. 

Insolito belli tremefecit murmure Thulen Claud. 


1. The first is long in words compounded of se for sex 
or for semi., as sedecim, semestris, semodius, (but in sclibra it 
is found short) ; in nequis, nequicquam., nequam, nequitia^ ne- 
qitando, liemo^ credo, memet, mecum, tecum^ secum ,- in words 
compounded of the inseparable preposition se, as secedo ; 
and in the second of veneficus and videlicet. 

Nequicquam seros exercet noctua cantus Virg. 

Note, That liquefacio, tepefacio, tabefacio, and patefacio 
have their second syllable sometimes long. Rarefacio and 
rarefio also have the e generally long. Vossius observes 
that Virgil shortens the e in such words, and that Lucretius 
and Catullus lengthen it, the former without caesura. In- 
deed, it is probable that in these words it was generally 
considered common. 

Sic mea perpetuis liquefiunt pectora curis Ovid. 

Tabe liquefactis, tendens ad sidera palmas Ov. 

Et rarefecit calido miscente vapore Lucret. 

Intremuit, motuque sinus patefecit aquarum Ovid. 

Atque patefecit, quas ante obsederat ater Lucret, 
The e of videlicet may be found short, probably, by poetic 

2 A2 

RULE VI. /. 

Both Latin and Greek words shorten the final i of the 
first word of a compound ; as om?npote?is, bivium, tnvium, 
triceps 1 , siquidem, fatidicus, unigenitus, agricola, vaticinium, 
significo ; architectus, dimeter, trimeter, Iplngenia. 

Omnipotens genitor, tanton* me crimine dignum Virg. 

Archilochi, non res, et agentia verba Lycambem Hor. 


1. Those compounds in which the i is changed in declin- 
ing, are long; as quldam, qulvis, quilibet, &c., quanfivis, 
quantlcunque, tantldem, unicuique, eldem, reipubliccK, quail- 

Jure mihi invideat qulvis, ita te quoque amicum Hor. 

2. The final i is long in those compounds which may be 
Separated without destroying the sense, that being their re- 
gular quantity ; as ludlmagister, or ludl magister ; parvi- 
pcndo, or parvi pendo ; lucrlfacio, or lucrifacio ; slquis, or 
si quis : thus also agrlcultura. 

Ludi-magister, parce simplici turbae Martial. 

3. Those words which, in joining, undergo a crasis or 
syncope, are long ; as tibwen, for tibiicen : blgte, trigce, &c. 
for byugtf, trijuga, &c. ; llicet for ire licet ,- scilicet for scire 
licet ; to which add blmus, trimus, quadrimus ; but tulncen, 
which has suffered neither, is short by the general rule. 

llicet ignis edax summa ad fastigia vento Virg. 

4. Idem masculine is long ; but neuter, short. Identi- 
dem has the penultimate short. The first i of rilmirum, the 
i of ubique, utroblque, and the second in ibidem, are long. 
Ubi'vis and ubi cunque (and probably most of the compounds 
of ubi and ibi?} may be found common. 

amor omnibus Idem Virg. 

Invitum qui servat, idem facit occidenti Hor. 

, nee quicquid ublque est (Gentis Dardaniae) 


Clamat : io matres audite ulncunque* Latinae Virg. 
Seryor, ubicunque est ; uni mea gaudia servo ? Ov. 

1 ^Words derived from trlginta must not be confounded with 
the compounds of tris or tres, short by this rule ; for tricesimus, 
trigesimus, trlceni, are long, because trlginta is long, ginta being 
no distinct word, but a termination. 

Bis jam pene tibi consul trigesimus instat Mart. 

2 Al. ubi quceque. This is the usual reading. 

, 357 

5. The compounds of dies have the final i of the first 
word long ; as biduum, triduum, merldies, prldie, postndie. 
These two last are long by Exception 3d, being priori die 
and posteriori die. 

Si totus tibi trlduo legatur Mart. 
Nam vita morti propior est quotldie Phaedr. 
Quotidie, and quotldianus, are said to have the i some- 
times short ; but this is not satisfactorily ascertained, since 
the lines adduced in proof may, by the figure synizesis, be 
differently measured : thus, 

Conjugis in culpa flagravit quotfidiand Catull. 

or quottid-ya-na. 

It must however be confessed, that, thus read, the line is 
harsh, and is unnecessarily rendered spondaic. 


O is short in the first word of a Greek or Latin com- 
pound; as Argoiiauta, Arctophylax, areopagus, bibliotheca, 
pkilosophus, Timotheus ; bardocucullus, sacrosanctus, duo- 
decim, duodeni, hodie, words compounded of two nouns. 

Non nautas puto vos, sed Argonautas Martial. 

A tergo nitet Arctophylax, idemque Bootes Manil. 

Non dices hodie, quorsum haec tarn putida tendant Hor. 


1. Words compounded with intro, retro, contro, and 
quando; as intrdduco, mtromitto, retrocedo, retrogradu^ con- 
troversia, controversus, quanddque, quandoctmque. To which 
may be added alioqui?i 9 utroque, cteteroquin, utrobique ; the 
compounds of qiio, as quomodo, quocunque, quominus, quo- 
circa, quovis, qudque, and similar ablatives. 

Quandoquidem, and quoque, the particle, have the o short. 
Ipse retrdversus squalentia protulit ora Ov. 
Quod mcechus foret, aut sicarius, aut alioqum Hor. 
Dicite; quatidoquidem in molli consedimus herba -Virg. 
damnabis tu quoque votis Virg. 

2. Those words, which in Greek are written with an ome- 
ga, have the o long; as Geometra, Minotaunts, lagojms. 

Minotaurus inest, Veneris monimenta nefandai Virg. 

RULE VIII. 17 and Y. 

U, and Y in Greek words, are short ; as, in the first syl- 
lable, ducenti, dupondium', in the second, quadriipes, cen- 


tuplcx, Trojitgena, cornupcta; also Poli/darus, Polydamas, 
Polyphemus, doryphorus. l 

1 It may be useful to beginners, and to the mere English scho- 
lar, if we subjoin a few of those words, which are often incor- 
rectly pronounced, some of them even by our best English poets. 
Andromcus, Cleomcus, Stratomcus* Polynices-, Tkessalomcaj &c. 
have the penultimate long, because the first syllable of'v/xij, vie- 
loria, whence, probably, they are derived, is long ; /SouAsro v/xijv 
II. vii. 21. The first syllable of irayoj (a hill) is short: there- 
fore we say, Areopagus. Bellerophon was so named, in conse- 
quence of having slain one Eellerus, the second syllable of which, 
like the second of the former, is short. Milton has improperly 
accented it. Many of our English poets improperly lay the em- 
phasis on the second of Geryon, contrary to ancient usage. 
Geryone extincto, &c. Virg. vii, 662 : viii, 202. Hor. ii, 14?, 8. 
Some writers produce the authority of Claudian, for lengthening 
the second syllable. See Grad. ad Parnas. Smetii Prosod. Hoc 
neque Geryon triplex, nee turbidus orci Claud. But the proper 
reading is Gerjjo-nes, by which the true quantity is preserved. 
The second syllable in Gramcus, in Homer, Hesiod, Ovid, &c. 
is always long : 11. xii, 21. Gramco nata btcorni Ovid, xi, 763. 
In the Greek and Latin poets the penultimate of Helena, Gr. 
'EAsvij, is invariably short. But it is vulgarly pronounced long 
in the name of the island St. Helena, said to be discovered on the 
day dedicated by the Romish church to St. Helena, the mother 
of Constantine the Great. The English accent or syllabic em- 
phasis is improperly laid on the a of Heractitus. Herad'dus init 
&c. Lucr. i, 639. Shakespeare and others pronounce Hyp- 
rion with i short, contrary to the custom of the Greek and Latin 
poets. Hypenone menso Metamorph viii, 64. In the Greek 
and Latin poets, the penultimate of Iphigcma is always long. 
Dryden and others pronounce it as a word of four syllables. 
IphigenHa mora, Prop. Homer and Virgil make the penultimate 
of Laodama long; many of our poets accent the antepenulti- 
mate. Laodamia sinus Ovid. Several of our English poets 
throw the emphasis on the penultimate of Pharnaces ; yet Lucan 
and others make it short. Pharnacis et gelido, &c. Phars. The 
best Greek and Roman poets lengthen the penultimate of Scrap-is. 
Vincebant, nee quae turba Serapin amat Mart, ix, ,'*!. Mar- 
tianus Capella, and some others, unwarrantably shorten the se- 
cond. It may be observed that the first syllable in Apis, which 
is supposed by some [see Gesn. Thes.] to be the same ^Egyp- 
tian deity, is uniformly long. Mactabitur Apis. Luc. ix, 169. 
We sometimes lind in English an improper quantity given to 
triumviri, decemviri, centumviri, and the like, words having their 
third syllable short. Read JEoltis, Antipodes, Herodotus* Tim- 
cydtdesy Archimedes* Amphlon* Tisiphone, Terpsichore, Miltiades, 
Alcibiadcs, Amphltritc, Anlidai, Anon, Arsaces, Ccesarca, Cleo- 


Nam full hoc vitiosus ; in hora ssepe ducentos Hor. 
Nam qualis quantusque cavo Polyphemus in antro Virg. 
Except judico, long in its first syllable. 

Et sapit, et mecum facit, et Jovejudicat sequo Hor. 

menes, Darius, Deiphobus, Demosthenes, Diomedes, Eplrus, Erato, 
Euphrates, Hecate, Hermlone, Agesilaus, lulus. Ixlon, Leucate, 
Longimanus, Mausolus (hence mausoleum,) Medea, Nerttos, 
Nicomedes, Omphale, Osiris, Pachynus, Pactdlus, Persephone, 
Philomela, Pisistratus, Proserpina, Sardancipalus , Acrisione, 
Thalia, Thrasjjbulus, Tomyris, asylum, Pantheon, Orion, panacea, 
Oreades, Antiochia, Pandion, Philostratus, Galatea, Bellovaci, 
Andreas, Philadelphia, (the name of a town, Gr. <piAa#A<pja) 
Philadelphia^ brotherly love, Gr. <pfAa&A<pra) presbyter, (although 
irpsa-Zurys,) sabacthani, and to these words, were there room, 
many more might be added, in which English pronunciation fre- 
quently errs. It may be observed, that, according to the ana- 
logy of the English language, the English ictus is generally much 
more safely laid upon a syllable, in the original language, long, 
than upon a short one. It has, doubtless, arisen, from paying 
more attention to the position of the Greek accent than to the 
original long quantity of the following syllable, or to the gene- 
rally corresponding influence of our own English ictus or sylla- 
bic emphasis, that we ever hear eremus, poesis t ulolum, instead 
of eremus, poesis, idolum. From the same cause, it has probably 
arisen, that the penultimate of the word Paraclctus or Para- 
clitus (irapoiK\T)TOs), which is unquestionably long, has been short- 
ened by Prudentius, and other poets, and hymn- composers. The 
Greek accentual marks, the precise object of which, whether 
to indicate tone or emphasis, is not ascertained, should not be 
allowed in preference to a due regard to quantity, and the ge- 
neral analogy of Latin pronunciation, to regulate our syllabic 
emphasis. Accent and emphasis are not identical properties ; 
nor should ancient long quantity, and our English syllabic em- 
phasis be confounded, although the latter be found to fall most 
frequently upon a long syllable. And, although, in the preceding 
examples, the first syllable of idolum be long, as well as the se- 
cond ; yet, whatever may be the position or the object of the 
Greek accent, considering it as a Latin word, it appears to me, 
that, in our pronunciation, the quantity of both syllables will be 
the best regarded, by laying the emphasis on the middle syllable. 
By " the accent," whatever may have been its original import, 
the modern Greeks evidently mean nothing but ictus or syl- 
labic emphasis. I asked an intelligent Greek to pronounce, in 
their usual way, the word !tcuAov; which he did thus ; itholon, 
giving the diphthong the diphthongal sound of our English i (ai), 
throwing the emphasis on the first syllable, and thus naturally, 
1 do not say necessarily, giving an improper short quantity to the 


U iii such words as usucapio, usuvenio^ is long, being the 
termination of an ablative naturally long. Jupiter ', being a 
contraction, has u long. 



Preterites of two syllables have the first long ; as veni, 
vidii vici, wi. 

Fortunatus et ille deos qui novit agrestes Virg. 
Venit summa dies, et ineluctable tempus Virg. 


1. These seven, bibi, scidi from scindo^ (for abscidi is long 
from abscida, absctdi, short from abscindo,} fidi from^findo, 
(for fidi, and confldi, fromjido are long,) tiili^ dedi, steli, sttti, 
have the first syllable short. 

Claudite jam rivos, pueri ; sat prata btberunt \ 7 irg. 
Cui mater media sese tulit obvia sylva Virg. 



Preterites doubling their first syllable have that syllable 
and the following, both short ; as tetigi, pepuli, peperiy di- 
dtci, tutudi, cccidi from cado. 

Tityre, te patulee cecini sub tegmine fagi Virg. 


1. Cecidi from ccedo, and pepedi, have the second sylla- 
ble long ; and likewise those preterites, in which it is fol- 
lowed by two consonants ; nsfefelli, nibmordi. 

Ebrius et petulans, qui nullum forte cecidit Juv. 

Extulit, et coelo palmas cum voce tctendit Virg. 



Supines of two syllables, and the participles formed from 
them, have the first syllable long; as casum, msum, motum, 
vls-us, motus, v/suws, mdtwus. 

Terribilqs visu formae, letumque, laborque Virg. 

Quos ego sed motos prsestat coniponere fluctus Virg. 

1. Saturn coming from sera : citum from cieo 1 ,- Ittum from 

1 Citnm from do is long; hence citus, accitus, excltus, concilus. 
Kxc'itum ruit ad portus, ct iittora complentVirg. 


lino * ; situm from sino ; itum from eo ; dtttum from do , ru* 
turn (as well as ruitum, and hence dirutum, erutum, &c.) from 
rz/o ; qmtum from <7M<?0 ; ratum from r^or ; and futum from 
the obsoleteywo, (but whence/^tarws) have the first syllable 

Corripuit sese, et tectis citus extulit altis Virg. 

Cui datus hserebam custos, cursusque regebam Virg. 

Effigiemque toro locat, hand ignaYafiituri Virg. 

Diruta sunt aliis, uni mihi Pergama restant Ovid. 
v 2. Statum is common : hence we find staturus, constaturus, 
obstaturus, stamen, Statius, a man's name; &n&priestitum t 
status -us, status -a -urn, statio, statuo, stabilis, stabnlum, sta- 
tor, statim, &c., the former of which are said to come from 
sto, the latter from sisto. 

Non prcEstcita sibi praestat natura sed unus Prosp. 

Constatura fuit Megalensis purpura centum Mart. 

Urbem quam statuo vestra est. Virg. 

Hie status in ccelo multos permansit in annos Ovid. 

Tune res immense placuit statura labore Lucan. 



Preterites and supines of more than two syllables have the 
same quantity in their first syllable as the present ; thus vo- 
cavi and vocatum have the first short, because the first of 
voco is short ; clamavi and clamatum have the first long, be- 
cause the first of clamo is long. 

Si vocat oflicium turba cedente vehetur Juv. 

Induit, implevitque mero, divosque vocavit Virg. 

Protinus ad sedes Priami clamore vocati Virg, 


I. The following are short in the first syllable, although 
coming from long presents, postii, positum, from pdiio ; ge- 
nui, gentium, from gigno ; potui from jjossum ; solatum, vo- 
lutum, from solvo and volvo. 

Saecula ? qui tanti talem genuere parentes Virg. 

Et circum Iliades, crinem de more sUuta Virg. 

Citus in the sense of divisus is long, coming from do ; but citus, 
quick, is short, from deo, and hence conc/tus, hastened. The verb 
and adverb c#o,formed from it, are short, and also the compounds, 
as excito, concito, reclto. 

1 OblUus, smeared, 1'rom lino, is to be distinguished from Mlus, 
having forgotten, from obiivi&cor. 



Supines of more than two syllables, in atum, etum and 
utum, lengthen the last syllable but one ; as amdtum, dele- 
turn, minutum. 

Supines in itum from preterites in ivi, also have the pe- 
nultimate long ; as cupivi, cupitum, petivi, petitum, polivi, 
politum. But the compounds of eo, ambio, if it be a com- 
pound, excepted, have the penultimate short 

Supines in itum, coming from any other preterites, shorten 
the penultimate; as cubui, cubitum, monui, monitum, abclevi 9 
abofitum, agnovi, agnitum, cognovi, cognitum, credidi, credi- 
tum. Recensitum of recenseo is long, because it originally 
comes from the obsolete censio, censivi. 

Namque ferunt luctu Cycnum Phaethontis amdti Virg. 

Deletas Volscorum acies, cecidisse Camillam Virg. 

Hectore, qui redit exuvias indiitus Achillei Virg. 

Adjicit extreme lapides oriente petitos Ov. 

Cedamus Phoebo, et moniti meliora sequamur Virg. 

Prisca recensitis evolvite saecula fastis Claud. 1 



Participles in rus always lengthen the last syllable but 
one ; as amaturus, habitants, ausurus. 

Si periturus abis, et nos rape in omnia tecum Virg. 


By the increments of nouns, is meant the syllable, or syl- 
lables, by which an oblique case exceeds the nominative. 

If a noun has one syllable, in an oblique case, more than 
the nominative, it is said to have one increment, or increase; 

i i 

as rex, re-gis ; sermo, ser-mo-nis. 

The quantity of the increment of all the other oblique 
cases is regulated by that of the genitive ; as scrmoni, ser- 

1 Divido, whether it be formed immediately from mdco, or dc 
rived from the Etruscan iduo, follows, in quantity, the analogy oi 
video ; thus divtdo, divisi, divtsum, the second syllable of Perf. 
and Sup. being long. Gaudeo, too, probably also a kindred verb, 
has gavisus, second long. 

Et penitus toto divisos orbc Britannos Virg. 

Armaquc gavlso referat captiva parent! Claud. 


monem, sernionibus, &c. in all which the o is long, because 
the o of scrmonis is long. There is but one exception to 
this rule, viz. bobus, but this is, in reality, a contraction of 
bovibus, from bos, bovis. When a word of one syllable in- 
creases, the penultimate is considered as the increment ; as 
the re in re-gis from rex, and never, in any word, the last 
syllable ; and it is to be observed, that, when there are more 
increments than one, which seldom happens but in the plural, 
they are to be reckoned in retrograde order, beginning with 
the penultimate. 

Nouns, in general, have but one increase in the singular; 
but iter 9 jecur when its genitive is jecinoris, supellex, and 
the compounds ofcaput, ending in ps, have two increments: 

Thus, tier, i ti ne ris. 

jecur, je ci no ris. 

supellex, supel lee ti Us. 

anccps, an ci pi tis. 

The dative and ablative of the third declension, in ibus 9 

1 2 

have generally two increments ; as ser mo ni bus. The 
forementioned words have three increments; thus, 

1 2 3 

i ti ne ri bus. 

je ci no ri bus. 

supel lee ti li bus. 

an ci pi ti bus. 

The uncommon increase of these words arises from their 
originally coming from nominatives, now obsolete, which 
consisted of a greater number of syllables than the nomi- 
natives to which they are now assigned. 


Of the 1st, 4fth 9 and 5th, Declensions. 

In the first, fourth, and fifth declensions, there is no incre- 
ment in the singular, but that in which a vowel precedes an- 
other ; as in the first, in such words as aulai, aurai; in the 
fourth, in anuis, anui, instead of anus, anui, &c. ; and in 
rei and spei, and the like, of the fifth : the quantity of all 
which words is ascertained by the first general rule. 



The increments of the second declension are short; as 
tener, teneri ,- satur 9 saturi ; vir, tflri ; puer, pueri ! . 

1 These nouns in r are formed, by Apocope, from nouns in us; 


Praesentemque viris intentant omniu mortem Virg. 


1. Iber, Iberi, and its compound Celtiber, Celtiberi, 
lengthen the penultimate. 

Aut impacatos a tergo horrebis Iberos Virg. 



Nouns in a shorten the penultimate ,- as dogma -dtis. 
Non quivis videt immodulata poemdta judex Hor. 


Nouns in *, compounds of melt, shorten the penultimate; 
as hydromeli, hydromeUtis. 


1. ImS) from 0, is short; as car do, cardinis. 

2. Enis, and onis, from o, are long ; as Anio, Anicnis ; 
Cicero, Ciceronis. 

3. Gentiles in o generally shorten the increment ; as Ma- 
cedo, Macedonis ; Saxo, Saxonis. To which add Lingones, 
Senones 9 Teutones, Fangiones, Vascones, with the penultimate 
short. Some lengthen their penultimate ; as Suessiones, Vet- 
tones, Burgundiones, Eburones. Juvenal shortens Britones; 
Martial lengthens it. 

Note. Nouns in on, taken from the Greek wv, which some- 
times drop the n, preserve in Latin the same quantity in their 
increments, which they have in Greek ; as Agamemnon or 
Agamemno, Agamemnonis, with the penultimate short; Dc- 
miphon or Demipho, Demiphonis, with the penultimate long. 

Sanguine placastis ventos, et virgme caesa Virg. 

Haec turn multiplici populos sermone replebat Virg. 

Non longinqua docent domito quod Saxone Tethys 

Qua nee terribiles Cimbri, nee Britones unquam Juv. 

Quam veteres braccae Britonis pauperis, et quain Mart. 

Quo ferus injusto petiit Agamemnona ferro Ovid. 


Nouns in cc lengthen the penultimate; as halec -cch ; 
Mclchisedec -dccis. 

as tenerus t puerus,saturus; and, therefore, strictly speaking, they 
have no increment in their singular. 

Halecem sed quam protinus ipsa voret Mart. 


Nouns in d shorten the penultimate; as David -idis ; 
Bogud -iidis. 

Erecto indulget Davidis origine lumen Juvenc. 

In sacred poetry, the penultimate of David is often 


1. Masculines in al shorten the penultimate; as sal, salts, 
(masc. or neut.) Hannibal -alis. 

2. Neuters in al lengthen alis ; as animal -alis. 

3. Sol lengthens solis ; and also Hebrew nouns in el 
lengthen the penultimate ; as Michael -elis ; Daniel -elis. 

4. All other nouns in I shorten their increment ; as vigil 
-tlis : consul -ulis ; exul -ulis. 

Vela dabant laeti, et spumas salis a3re ruebant Virg. 
Pronaque cum spectent animalia caetera terrain Ovid. 
Regia solis erat sublimibus alta columnis Ovid. 
Aut ursum aut pugiles, his nam plebecula gaudet Hor. 


1. No certain rule can be given for the quantity of the 
increment from on. 

Many nouns lengthen the penultimate: as Helicon, Chiron, 
Demiphon, Simon, Agon, Solon, Lacon, Sicyon, -onis. 

Many shorten it; as Memnon, Action, lason, Agamemnon, 
Amazon, sindon, Phil&mon -onis. Sidon, Orion, and JEgteon 
have the penultimate common. (See Rule XVIII.) 

2. Nouns in en shorten mis ; as crimen -mis ; Jlumen -mis. 

3. All other nouns in n lengthen the penultimate ; thus 
an, anis, as Titan -anis ,- en, enis, as Siren -enis ; in, mis, 
as delphin -mis ; yn, ynis, as Phorcyn -ynis-> but Hymen -vnis. 

Credit, et excludit sanos Helicone poetas Hor. 
Et velut absentem certatim Actamia clamant Ov. 
JEg&ona suis immania terga lacertis Ov. 
Audierat duros laxantem JEgceona nexus Stat. 
Quodque magis mirum est, auctorem criminis hujus 


Concitat iratus validos Titanas in arma Ov. 
Tollere consuetas audent delphlnes in auras Ovid. 


1. Ar neuter lengthens am; as calcar -aris. 


Except. These neuters shorten ctris ; bacchar, jubar, nec- 
tar, -arts, to which add hepar -atis ; also the adjective par, 
parts, with its compounds ; as impar, imparts ; dispar, dis- 
parts, &c. 

2. These nouns ending in r lengthen the increment ; as 
Ndris , Car, Carts ; fur, furis ; ver, verts ; Recimer, 

Recimeris ,- Byzer, Byzeris ; Ser, Scris ; Iber, Iberis, as well 
as Iber, Iberi, of the second declension. 

3. Greek nouns in ter lengthen teris ; as crater -eris ,- 
character -eris ; spinther -eris. Except tether -eris, the pe- 
nultimate short. 

4. Or lengthens oris ; as amor, timor, -oris : also^verbal 
nouns, and comparatives ; as victor, melior, -oris. 

Except. 1. Neuters; as marmor, ceqttor, -oris. 2. Greek 
nouns in or ,- as Hector, rhetor, -oris. 3. Arbor, -oris, femi- 
nine, and the adjective memor (formerly memoris], memoris. 

Ador forms adoris, or adoris, the penultimate being com- 
mon, whence adoreus, in Virgil, Horace, and Claudian. 
Decoris, long, is said to come from decor; decoris short, from 

5. Other nouns in r, not mentioned, shorten the penulti- 
mate : thus ar, aris, masculine ; as C&sar -aris ; lar, laris : 
er, eris, of any gender, as aer, aeris ; mulier 'eris ; cadaver, 
-eris ; also tier (formerly itiner), itineris, and verberis from 
the obsolete verber : ur, uris, and oris, as vultur, murmur, 

furfur, -uris ; femur, robur, jecur l , ebur, -oris : yr, yris, as 
martyr, martyris. 

Seu spumantis equi foderet calcdribus armos Virg. 

It poYtisjubare exorto delecta juventus Virg. 

Ardentes auro, et paribus lita corpora guttis Virg. 

Velleraque ut foliis depectant tenuia Seres Virg. 

Indulgent vino, et vertunt crateras ahenos Virg. 

Inque dies quanto circum magis (Ether is sestus Lucr. 

Quo magis aeternum da dictis, diva, leporem* Lucr. 

Multa super Priamo rogitans, super Hectore multa 

Si nigrum obscuro comprenderit dera cornu -Virg. 

Aspice, ventosi ceciderunt murmuris aurae Virg. 


1. Latin nouns in as lengthen the increment; as Maece- 
nas, cetas, pietas, -atis ; vas, vdsis, a vessel. 

1 Andjecinoris. 

* Distinguish lepor om ? (elegance), from lepus.oris, (a hare). 


Except anas, anatis : mas, maris ; and vas, vadis, (a se- 
curity), their penultimate being short. 

2. Greek nouns in as shorten adis, dtis and anis; as Pallas, 
lampas, -adis ; artocreas, artocreatis , Melas, Melanis. 
Insignem pietate virum tot adire labores Virg. 
Tyrtaeusque mares animos in martia bella Hor. 
Instar montis equum divina Palladis arte Virg. 


js shortens the increment; as miles, militis; seges, segetis; 
prases, prtzstdis ,- obses, obsidis ; Ceres, Cereris ; pes, pedis, 

Except locuples, quies, mansues, -etis ; hares, merces, -edis : 
also Greek nouns which have etis ; as lebes, Tholes, tapes, 
magnes, -etis, all with the penultimate long. 

Metiri se quemque suo modulo acpede, verum est Hor. 

Ascanium surgentem, et spes hceredis liili Virg. 

Viginti fulvos operoso ex sere lebetas Ovid. 


Nouns in is shorten the increment; as lapis, Phyllis, -i 
cinis, cineris ; sanguis, mngumis. 

Except. 1. Glis, gliris, and vires, the plural of vis, which 
have the penultimate long. 2. Latin nouns which have itis; 
as dis, dltis ; Us, lltis ; Quiris, Samnis, -itis. But Charis, a 
Greek noun, has Charitis short. 3. Crenis, Crenldis; Nesis, 
Nesidis ; Psophis, Psophidis, lengthen the penultimate, but 
the last has it once short in Statius. 4. Greek nouns in is, 
which have also the termination in ; as Salamis, or Salamin, 

Immolat et pcenam scelerato ex sanguine sumit Virg. 

Sic fatus validis ingentem viribus hastam Virg. 

Insequeris tamen hunc, et lite moraris iniqua Hor. 

Tres fuerant Charites, sed dum mea Lesbia vixit Auson. 

Sylvaque, quae fixam pelago Nes'ida coronat Stat. 

Tyburis umbra tui, Teucer Salamlna patremque Hor. 


Os has its increment long; as nepos, nepotis ; Jlos, Jloris ; 
os, oris ; custos, odis ; also Greek nouns in os ; as rhinoceros 
-otis ; Tros, heros, -dis. 

Except. Three have their increment short, bos, bovis; com- 
pos, impos, -otis. 

Qui legitis Jlores, et humi nascentia fraga Virg. 
Egressi optata potiuntur Troes arena Virg. 
Perpetui tergo bpvis, et lustralibus extis Virg. 


Nouns in us shorten the increment; as lepus, carpus, 
vellus -cris ; tripus -odis. 

Except. 1. Those nouns which have udis, uris, or utis, 
lengthen the penultimate ; as incus, incudis ; tellus, telluris ; 
salus, saliitis. But these three are short ; Liguris from Ligur 
or Ligus ; pecudis from the obsolete pecus ; and intercutis 
from intercus. 

2. Comparatives in us lengthen the penultimate, preserv- 
ing the same quantity as in the masculine and feminine gen- 
ders ; as melius, melioris. 

Ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo Ovid. 

In medio : sacri tripodes viridesque coronae Virg. 

Fas etjura sinunt : rivos deducere nulla Virg. 

Non ego te, Ligurum ductor fortissime bello Virg. 

Perge, decet, forsan miseros meliora sequentur virg. 


1 . Ys shortens the increment ijdis, or ydos ; as chlamys 
-ydis or -ydos. 

2. Ys lengthens jjnis ; as Trachys -ynis. 

In medio, chlamyde, et pictis conspectus in armis 



Herculea Trachy?ie jube, sub imagine regis Ovid. 


Nouns in s preceded by a consonant, shorten their incre- 
ment ' ; as ccelebs -ibis stips, stipis , Lcelaps -apis , Cecrops, 
Dolops, -opis ; auceps -cupis ,- hiems -emis : also, anceps -cl- 
pitis ; biceps, bicipitis, and similar compounds of caput, in 
which both increments are short. 

Except. The following lengthen their increment: Cy- 
clops -opis ; sepgy sepis ,- gryps -yphis ; Cercops -opis ; plebs, 
plcbis ; hy drops -opis. 

Hie Dolopwn manus, hie saevus tendebat Achilles Virg. 

Ad matres primo anctjntes, oculisque malignis Virg. 

Antiphatae memores immansuetique Cyclopis rOvid. 

Fortunam, et mores antiquae plebis, et idem Hor. 

1 That is, when a single consonant comes between the incre- 
ment and the termination. If two consonants intervene, the pe- 
nultimate is necessarily long by position ; as excors, excordis ; pars, 



Nouns ending in t shorten the penultimate of itis ; as 
wput, capitis ; sinciput^ sindpitis. 

Magna fuit quondam capitis reverentia cani Ov. 


1. A noun in x shortens the vowel before gis in the ge- 
nitive; as tiarpax -agis ; grex, gregis ; aquilex -Kgis ; Biturix 
-rgis ; Styx -ygis ; Allobrox -ogis; conjux -ugis ; Phryx -ygis. 

Except. Lex, legis ; illex, exlex, -legis ; rex, regis ; coc- 
cyx -ygis, mastix -igis ,- and frugis from the obsolete frux, 
are long. 

Quinque greges illi balantum, quina redibant Virg. 

Ad Styga Taenaria est ausus descendere porta Ovid. 

Prima dedit leges -> Ovid. 

2. A noun in ex shortens ids , as vertex -ids ; pontifex 
-ids. Except vibex (rather vibix) -Ids, long. , 

Qualem virgineo demessum pollice florem Virg. 

3. Other nouns in x generally lengthen the increment : 

thus nouns in ax ; as pax, pads ; fornax -ads. Except. 

Abax, smilax, Atrax, dropax, anthrax, fax, At ax, climax, 
panax, opopanax, styrax, colax, the compounds of phylax 
and corax, as Arctophylax, Nomophylax, nycticorax, phala- 
crocorax, all have ads short. 

In ex ; as vervex -eds. Except. Nex, neds; vids and 

precis, wanting nominatives ; also fcenisex, resex, -eds ; and 
supellex -ectilis, have the penultimate short. 

In ix ; as radix, dcatrix, felix, nutrix, victrix, altrix, and, 
probably, (notwithstanding a line in Lucilius) following the 
usual analogy 'stf verbal nouns, natrix -ids. Except. Ap- 
pendix, fornix, coxendix, chcenix, Cilix, calix, pix, illix (a 
decoy), hystrix, varix, t filix, salix, larix, -ids ; and nix, mvis, 
and mastix ichis (JJL gum), which have the penultimate short. 
Mastix -Igis (a Greek noun), a whip, is long. 

In ox ; as vox, vods ,- velox -ods, Except. Cappadox, 

prxcox, -ods, short. 

In ux ; as lux, litcis , Pollux -luds. Except, jyux, 

crux, mix, trux have uds short. 

In yx ; as bombyx -yds. Except onyx -ijchis ; Eryx 

-yds ; calyx -yds; Nary x- yds, which have the penultimate 

Note. Syphax*, sandy x and Bebiyx have the penultimate 
of the genitive common. 

1 The short quantity of Syphax may be doubted. The line 
from Claudian, quoted by Smetius, as an instance, lias been 
deemed incorrect. 

5 B 


Fraternaeque fidem pads petiitque, deditque Ovid. 
Dicitefellces aniraae, tuque, optime vates Virg. 
~EA,jilicem curvis invisam pascit aratris Virg. 
Contritumque simul cum mastwhe confer anethum Seren. 

Voce vocat Virg. 

Mancipiis locuples, eget aeris Cappadocum rex Hor. 

Lucis egens aer Ovid. 

Annibalis spolia, et victi monumenta Syphacis Prop. 
Bebrycis et Scythici procul inclementia sacri Val. Flac. 
Possessus Baccho saeva Bebrycis in aula Sil. Ital. 



1 . A, e, 0, in plural increments, are long ; as musarum, 

dominorum, ambabus, rebus. 
Moenala transieram latebris horrendayerarwB Ov. 
Sunt lacrymse rerum, et mentem mortalia tangunt Virg. 
Sic ubi dispositam, quisquis fuit ille dedrum Ovid. 
Exin se cuncti divinis rebus ad urbem Virg. 

2. / and u are short ; as sennombus, tribus, qmbus, artibus 
from ars ; verubus, lacubus, artubus from artus. 

Montibus in liquidas pinus descenderat undas Ov. 

Pars in frusta secant, verubusque trementia figunt Virg. 
Bobus, or bubus, has been already noticed as a contraction, 
from bovibus ; and, consequently, is long. 

Nescia, nee quicquam junctis debentia bobus Ovid. 


When any part of a verb exceeds in number of syllables 
the second person singular of the present indicative, active, 
the excess is considered as the increment or increase. As 
in nouns, the last syllable is never reckoned the increment ; 
so that when there is onJy one increment, it must be the pen- 

i i i 

Da mus, fie tis, sci res have one increment, because 

i 2 

das, jles> and scis are monosyllables. A ma ba mus, 

i 2 

a ma bi tis have two increments, because they exceed 


amas by two syllables. A ma ve ri tis has three 


increments. Au di e ba mi ni has four increments, 
because it has four syllables more than audis. In deter- 
mining the increments of deponent verbs, an active voice 

may be supposed; thus co na tur has one increment, 


1 ' 2 123 

co na ba tur 9 two, co na re mi ni, three, because 
conas of the fictitious active voice has but two syllables. 
The increments of these may also be regulated by other 
verbs of the same conjugation, which have an active voice. 


A is long in the increments of verbs ; as stabam^ ama- 
rem, legebamus, audiebdmini, bibamus, veneramus. 

Stabat in egregiis Arcentis films armis Virg. 


1 . Do and its compounds of the first conjugation have a 
short in their first increment ; as ddmus, ddbunt, dare , also 
circunddmus, venundabo, &c., the penultimate being short. 
But in any other increment, do, like its compounds of the 
third conjugation, is long ; as dabamus, dederatis, circundd- 

Haec ego vasta dabo, et lato te limite ducam Virg. 
Luce palam certum est igni circunddre muros Virg. 


E is long in the increments of verbs ; as amemus, ama- 
remus, amavissetis, docebam,, docerem^ legebat, legerunt, le- 
geris, legere, both of the future passive, audiemus, &c. 

Flebant, et cineri ingrato supreme Jerebcmt- Virg. 

Sed qui pacis opus citharam cum voce moveres Ovid. 


1. E before r is short in the first increment of any pre- 
sent and imperfect of the third conjugation ; as legeris or 
legere of the present indicative, passive ; legere, the present 
infinitive active, and imperative, passive; legerem and le- 
gerer, the imperfect subjunctive, active and passive. But 
reris and rere, in the third, and in other conjugations, are 
long ; as legereris, legerere amareris, amarere ; docereris, 
docerere, &c. 

An quia, cum legeret vernos Proserpina flores Ovid. 
Nostra, neque ad sedes victor veherere paternas Virg. 

2. Beris and bere are every where short ; as amaberis, 
amabere ; doceberis, docebere ; and among the antients, lar- 
giberis, experibere, of the fourth Excepting where the b 
belongs also to the termination of the present, scriberis, 
and scribere, of the future, passive, being long by the gene- 
ral rule. 

Hoc tamen infelix miseram solabere mortem Virg. 
2 B2 


3. E, before ram, rim, ro, and the persons formed from 
them, .is short 1 ; as amaveram,amaveras, amaverim., amavZro, 
docueram, eram, fueram*, potero, potuero, &c. 

Vincere, nee duro poteris convellere ferro Virg. 
By Systole, the poets sometimes shorten e before runt ; as 
Obstupui, steteruntque comae, et vox faucibus hsesit 

Di tibi divitias dederunt, artemque fruendi Ilor. 


7 is short in any increment of verbs ; as amabimus, doce- 
bitur, legimus, cupitis, aggredimur, audiremini, audirmni, au- 

Linqtiimus Ortygiae portus, pelagoque volamus Virg. 

Vemmus* ; et latos indagine cinximus agros Ovid. 


1 . These have i long ; simus, vellmus, nollmus, with the 
other persons coming from them and their compounds ; as 
sitis, velitis, nolltis ; nollte, nolltote ; maltmus, malitis ; pos- 
slmus, possitis, &c. 

Et gratam sortem, tutas modo simus, habemus Ovid. 

2. / before vi 9 in preterites, is always long ; as pefivi, 
quteswi, audivi ; and also in the other persons ; as petlvisti, 
qiicesivit, audlvimus, &c. 

Cessi, et sublato montem genitore petlvi Virg. 

3. The first increment of the fourth conjugation is long 3 ; 
as audlmuS) auditis, attditur, audit o, aud/rem, scimus, sclre; 
also in the antient audibo, and hi audibam sometimes found 

contracted, and the usual ibam and Ibo of eo. When a 

vowel follows, the i is short by position, as audmnt, audie- 

Omnibus auditur. Sonus est, qui vivit in ilia Ovid. 
Tu ne cede malis ; sed contra audentior ito Virg. 

Ibimus in poenas Ovid. 

Observe, That imus in every preterite, and in that of the 

1 This is applicable only to verbs in their natural state, and not 
to such as have suffered contraction. 

2 In such verbs of the fourth conjugation as have, in the first 
persons plural of their present and perfect indicative, the same 
words in regard to spelling, there is a distinction by the quan- 
tity ; the penultimate of the former being long, as vemmus, re- 
perimns ; that of the latter short, as vemmus, reperimus. 

3 In Qrfturque miserrima csedes Virg. the verb is of the 3d 


fourth conjugation also, is short; as juvimus, vidimus, fe- 
cimus, veriimus, the first increment being short ; amavimus, 
adolevimusy pepercimus, munimmus the second being short. 

Bis sex Nelidaefuimus conspecta juventus Ovid. 
(See the preceding note.) 

Rimus and Ritis. 

Rimus and ritis in the preterite subjunctive are short. 
Egrerimus, nosti ; et nimium meminisse necesse est Virg. 
Rimus and ritis in the perfect future (future subjunctive) 
are common \ 

Videritis Stellas illic, ubi circulus axem Ovid. 
Dein cum millia multefecerimus Catull. 
Cum maris lonii transieritis aquas Ovid. 


in the increments of verbs is always long ; as amatote, 
Jacitote, itote. 

Hoc tamen amborum verbis estate rogati Ovid. 

1 In regard to the quantity of the terminations rimus and ritis 
of the subjunctive, the antient grammarians were divided ; and it 
is not an easy matter to ascertain it. Diomedes, Probus and Ser- 
vius thought the future long : Vossius seemed to incline to the 
same opinion, though he owned that there were authorities for its 
being considered short. Diomedes and Agroetius thought the 
preterite short ; Probus, long. It is not always easy to distin- 
guish these two tenses, since, without materially altering the sense, 
they may be, in many instances, interconvertible. The perfect of 
the potential seems to be both past- perfect contingent and future- 
perfect contingent. The perfect future has also so great an affi- 
nity to the preterperfect potential that often a word may, consis- 
tently with the sense, be suppposed to belong to either. As these 
tenses are usually interpreted in English, there is a great resem- 
blance in their structure, as well as in the ideas which they ex- 
press. Both are composed of verbs in present time, the one a verb 
of present liberty or the like, the other of present intention or ob- 
ligation; of an infinitive denoting subsequent or depending pos- 
session ; and a participle significant of the perfection of the ac- 
tion denoted by the verb : thus, " I may have written," " I shall 
have written." We find by A. Gellius, 18, 2. that it was a sub- 
ject of dispute at Rome whether the tense in rim ought to be set 
down as past or future, or both. Such disputes may, perhaps, 
have arisen from the accessary circumstances which are implied, 
besides the immediate action of the verb ; in the same manner 
as, in English, two forms precisely the same in their structure and 
reference are characterized by certain grammarians under diffe- 
rent times, namely, " I may write," and " I shall write," the for- 



U in the increments of verbs is short ; as possumtis, w- 

y siimus, qiwesumus. 
Qui dare certa ferae, dare vulnera possumus hosti Ov. 
For the penultimate of unts, see Rule XIV. 


Concerning the Quantity of the First and Middle 
Syllables of certain other Words. 

I. Patronymics masculine, in IDES, or ADES, generally 
have the penultimate short ; as Priamides, Atlantiades. 
Except those formed from nouns in eus ; as Pelldes ; also 
Befides, Lycurgldes, Amphiaraides, Japetiomdes, which 
lengthen it. 

Atque hie Priarmdem laniatum corpore toto Virg. 
Par sibi Pelldes : nee mania Tartara sentit Ovid. 

II. Patronymics, and those a-kin to them, in AIS, EIS, 
ITIS, ois, OTIS, INE and ONE, generally lengthen the pen- 
ultimate; as Achdis, Ptolemais, Ckryseis 9 Jx/n&i 9 Memphi- 
tis, Oceamtis, Miriois, Latdis, Icariotis, Nildtis, Nerme, 
Acrisione. But Thebais and Phocais shorten the penulti- 
mate. Nereis is common. 

mer being named, from the accessary idea, a present, and the lat- 
ter, from the depending action, a future ; while, in reality, if w< 
apply the same criterion to them, they are either both present o 
both future*. Indeed, it has been contended that the future had 
the termination rim as well as ro ; so that it is reckoned not im- 
probable that both may originally have been but one tense, which 
had both a past and a future reference. In addition to the au- 
thorities for reckoning rimus and ritis common, there is likewise 
reason to consider ris of the future at least, as common ; and this 
is an argument, founded on the analogy observed in other tenses 
between the quantity of the final syllable of the second person 
singular, and the penultimate of the first and second persons plu- 
ral increasing a syllable, for considering the following rimus and 

ritis also common. Ris, rimus and ritis of the preterite are 

commonly accounted short ; but it is exceedingly probable, that, 
whether referred to the preterite, or perfect future, they still 
might be used as common. 

a The principle of arrangement, here briefly intimated several years ago, the 
present writer afterwards adopted, and partially explained, in his arrangement 
of what are termed the English tenses. See an English Grammar (published 
m 1813), Preface; pp. 82, 3, 4, &c, ; 210, 11, &c. ; 219, &c. In a small tract, 



Protinus ^Egiiies, rapta Minoide, Dian Ovid. 

Thebaides jussis sua tempora frondibus ornant Ovid. 
III. Adjectives in ACUS, icus, IDUS, and IMUS, generally 
have the penultimate short ; as JEgyptiacus, dtemoniacus ; 
academicus, aromaticus; calUdus, perftdus, lepidus ; Jinifimus, 
legitimus ; also superlatives, pulcherrtmus, fortissimus, opti- 
mus, maximus, &c. Except meracus, opacus ; am'zcus, apricus, 
pudlcus, mendicus, posflcus ; fidus, infidus / bimus, trimus, 
quadrimus, patrimus, matrimus, opmus ; and the two super- 
latives, Imus, and primus. 

appended to Ruddiman's Rudiments, (first published, I believe, in 1820,) 
Dr. John Hunter, the learned and justly respected Professor of Humanity in 
the University of St. Andrew's, has made the same principle the basis of a new 
arrangement and explication of the Latin and Greek moods and tenses. The 
leading principles upon which he proceeds are, 1st, " By separating the time 
" from the other circumstances involved in those forms of the Latin verb, 
" called the tenses of the indicative and the subjunctive mood" [potential?] 
and, 2nd, By assuming that, as the auxiliary verbs in English employed to ren- 
der the tenses of the subjunctive mood, are all indicative, " it follows, that the 
" tenses of the Latin subjunctive, or potential, or optative, as in certain instances 
" it has been called, as well as the subjunctive and optative of the Greek verb, 
" which involve these auxiliaries, and are rendered into English by means of 
them, are also INDICATIVE." Conformably to these principles, Dr. H. thus 
classes the Latin tenses : 

Presents. Pasts corresponding. 

Indie. Pres. Scribo, Indie. Imperf. Scribebam, 

Perf. Scripsi, Plup. Scripseram. 

In the preceding arrangement, it appears that Dr. H., guided solely by 
the auxiliaries implied, and not regarding the simple energy of the tense, has 
omitted to dispose of the tense scripsi, "I wrote." As scribebam, "I was 
writing," corresponds as a past to scribo, "I am writing," as a present; so, 
it appears to me, does scripsi, " I wrote," correspond to scribo, " I write." 
Had we not seen this little tract most ostentatiously lauded, in a number of 
the New Edinburgh Review, (No. V.) which Jas just come under our notice, 
in an article evidently written by a zealous disciple and advocate, but, at the 
same time, an acute critic, as exhibiting something new and highly important, 
we should not have deemed it worth while to prefer any claim to a novelty, if 
it be such, which, as far as regards the learned languages, we never did think, 
and do not even now think, of much practical utility ; nor to assert, that, nei- 
ther to Dr. Hunter, whom we never had the pleasure of seeing or hearing, 
nor to any other person, have we been, in any way whatever, indebted for a 
single hint or suggestion on this important subject, had not the critic stated 
his having " seen so many of Dr. Hunter's peculiar doctrines plagiarised, and 
palmed upon the world as original discoveries, by those who had enjoyed the 
benefit of his prelections at St. Andrew's." As, however, neither Dr. H., nor 
the Reviewer, seems to have attempted an explanation of the principle, and 
although this may not be the proper place for it, we shall endeavour, by 
a few imperfect hints very hastily thrown together, in some degree to sup- 
ply the omission. That all propositions, whether certain or contingent, or 
whatever their forms may be, or whatever may be the grammatical designation 
of the words in which they are enunciated, are either sententially indicative, 


Utque suum laqueis, quos callidus abdidit auceps Ov. 

Fidum .ZEneas afFatur Achaten Virg. 

IV. Adjectives in ALIS, and almost all in ANUS, ENUS, 
ARUS, ivus, ORUS, and osus, have their penultimate long; as 
conjugalis, dotalis ; montdnus^ urbunus ; terrenus ; aMurus, 
av'trus ; cestwus, fugitivus ; canorus, decants , arenosus, per- 

niciosus. But the penultimate of barbarus, opiparus and 

oviparus is short. 

or logically resolvable into simple assertion, has long been considered an esta- 
blished truth. Hence, in conformity with the nature of our ideas, only one 
mood, the Indicative, is absolutely necessary for the communication of thought. 
There is, in English, only this mood ; and yet, although it contains but two 
tenses, we possess suitable means of denoting, explicitly and distinctly, pos- 
session, power, obligation, volition, liberty, contingency, and every mode and 
circumstance of thought that are associated with action, in the various moods 
and tenses of the learned languages. With respect to tenses or times, it seems 
equally true, that, whatever may be their number or variety in these languages, 
there are, in the nature of things, as in English, but two, a past, and a present. 
In speaking of present time, we here wave altogether the metaphysical con- 
sideration of the nature of duration. Brief and fleeting as the present moment 
is, consisting of a portion of time just passed, and a portion just come or 
coming, there is an assumed period of time, deemed present, whether it be 
termed the present moment, hour, or day ; and all past time was once what 
we term present. Verbs, we conceive, have their essence in motion or rest ; 
and these two must exist in time. Now, only three sorts of time can be con- 
ceived, past, present, and future. Of these, the first has had an existence ; the 
second is said to have an existence; but the third is a sort of non-entity ; it is 
purely ideal, an object of mental contemplation. No action, therefore, can 
have existed, or can exist, in it. A past action has been before us ; it has been 
present ; we know, therefore, that it has had an existence ; and we have a right 
to record it, as having existed, as being past. But an action, contemplated as 
future, has had no existence, and may never exist ; it is a mere contingency. 
Every action, therefore, or energy of the mind, must come into existence, in 
the time deemed relatively present. As far, then, as the accessary part of a 
verb is concerned, and it is with this part alone of a complex tense, that the 
subject of the verb comes into direct and immediate contact, no future tense 
ever existed, or, in the nature of things, could exist, in any language, antient 
or modern. The execution, or action implied in the radical part of the verb, 
if future, is so merely by inference ; because the action is, necessarily, poste- 
rior to the volition or obligation from whence it emanates ; but the volition or 
obligation must first exist in present time. The accessary idea is, as it were, 
the medium, or connecting word between the subject or nominative, and the 
radical part of the verb, whether this be regarded equivalent to a noun, a par- 
ticiple, or an infinitive. From these few hasty remarks, I think, we may fairly 
infer, 1st, That all moods are, in sense, essentially Indicative ; and, 2ndly, 
That, as far as regards the time of a simple tense, and, in complex tenses, as 
far as the accessary or leading idea is concerned, all tenses, in all languages, 
whether they be simple or complex, are, in sense and signification, Present or 
Past, Futurity, when implied or involved, being inferred, not specially ex- 
pressed. We shall only add, that tenses may also be arranged, as definite or 
indefinite, in respect of action or time. When a tense denotes the mere name 
or simple energy of the verb, as write, plough, it is indefinite in action. When 
it denotes progression or perfection as indicated, respectively, by writing, 
ploughing, or by written, ploughed, it is definite. All tenses, we apprehend, are 
indefinite in point of time, specific portions of it requiring to be ascertained by 
the addition of appropriate terms. This subject is noticed, at considerable 
length, in the writer's Eng. Gram. pp. 65, 66, 83, 84, &c. 


Adjecisset opes, animi irritamen avuri Ovid. 

Pictus acu tunicas, et barbara tegmina crurum Virg. 

V. Verbal adjectives in ILLS shorten the penultimate ; as 
agiUs, faciliS) fusiliS) ufilis, &c. But those adjectives which 
are derived from nouns are generally long ; as amlis, cimlis, 
herHis, &c. to which may be added emits, and subtilis ; also 
the names of months, Aprllis, Quinctilis, Sextilis. Except 
humilis, parilis, and siniilis, a word of uncertain origin, whose 
penultimates are short. But all adjectives in ATILIS, whether 
derived from verbs or nouns, have the penultimate short; as 
plicatiliS) versatilis, volatilis, fluviatilis, &c. 

Nee tibi deliciddfaciles, vulgataque tantum Ovid. 
At qui umbrata gerunt civlli tempora quercu Virg. 
Et cognoscenti siniilis fuit Ovid. 

VI. Adjectives in INUS, derived from living things, and de- 
noting possession; also numeral distributives, proper names, 
and gentile nouns, lengthen the penultimate; as Agmnus, ca- 
riinus, lepormus; JBlnus, trinus, qulnus; Albmus, Cratlmts, Jus- 
tinus ; AlexandriniiS) Latmus, Venuslnus, &c. To these may 
be added certain adjectives having a reference to animal ac- 
tions ; as adulterinus, festinus, gelaslnus, genulnus, libertmus, 
mediastlnuS) opinus, and inopltws, paupertlnus, peregrinus, su~ 
plnus. Also, adjectives of place ; as colllnus, marmus, vici- 
nus ; and those derived from nouns denoting time ; as matu- 
tlnus, vespertinus ; and lastly these few, not reducible to a 
class, Austrmus, Caurinus, cisterninus, clandestmus, repentl- 

Sicaniam peregrma colo Ovid. 

Et matutini volucrum sub culmine cantus Virg. 

VII. Adjectives in INUS, derived from inanimate things, 
such as plants, trees, stones, and from other nouns generally 
denoting matter ; also from adverbs of time, or from substan- 
tives denoting the four seasons of the year, have their pen- 
ultimate short ; as Amaracmus, crocmus, hyacintlnnus ; ce- 
drinus, fagmus, oleagmus j adamantmus, amethysfinus, sma- 
ragdinus , corallmus, crystallmus, murrhinus ; Crastmus, diu- 
tinus, perendinuS) pristinus, serotinus ; Earinus, oparmus, 
cliimerinuS) thcnnus ; also annotmus, hornotmus. To which 
add bombycinuS) elephantinus, which seem to refer rather to 
the silk, and ivory, than to the animals themselves. 

Et lux cum primum terris se crastina reddet Virg. 
Mens tantum pristma mansit Ovid. 

VIII. Diminutives in OLUS, OLA, OLUM, and ULUS, ULA, 
ULUM, shorten the penultimate; as iirceolus, Jiliola, musceo- 


lum ; Lectulus, ratiuncida^ corculmi, &c. Nouns in ETAS 
and ITAS ; as pietas, civitas. 

Ante fugam soboles, si quis mihi parvulus aula Virg. 

IX. Adverbs in TIM lengthen the penultimate ; as oppi- 

datim, dietim, virltim, tributim. Except qffatim and per- 

petim ; also statim, which has however been lengthened by 
poets living in an age of degenerate Latinity. 

Et velut absentem certdtim Actaeona clamant Ovid. 
Stulta est fides celare quod prodas statim (Iamb.) 

X. Latin denominatives in ACEUS, ANEUS, ARIUS, ATICUS, 
ORIUS ; also verbals in ABILIS; and words in ATILIS, what- 
ever their derivation may be, lengthen their antepenultimate; 
as cretaceus, testaceus; momentaneus,subitaneus ; cibarius, her- 
bdrius ; aquaticus, fanaticus ,- censorius, mcssorius ; amabilis, 
revocabilis ; (except stabilis, from statum, of sisto ; ) pluvia- 
tilis, plicatiliS) &c. 

Aiunt, cum sibi sint congesta cibaria, sicut Hor. 
Calcavere pedis, nee solvit aquaticus Auster Ovid. 
Sic erat instabilis tellus, innabilis unda Ovid. 

XI. Adjectives in icius, derived from nouns, shorten the 
i of the antepenultimate ; as gentiticius, patricius> tribumcius. 
Except novicius or ruw/tius. But those which come from su- 
pines, or participles, lengthen the i of the antepenultimate ; 
as advecftciuS) commendatlcius, suppositions^ &c. 

Patmcios omnes opibus cum provocet unus Juv. 

Jam sedet in ripa, tetrumque novicius horret Juv. 

Hermes supposiftcius sibi ipsi (Phal.) Mart. 
The quantity of the first and middle syllables of foreign or 
barbarous words introduced into the Latin language, cannot 
be determined, unless when they fall within the general rules. 
Those first and middle syllables which cannot be ascer- 
tained by the preceding rules, must be determined by the 
practice or authority of the poets. 




One general quantity of a is not ascertained. E is, ge- 
nerally, i/, always, short. / is, generally, u, always, long. 
O is generally common. 


RULES I. and II. A final. 

I. A final, in words declined by cases, is short; as musa, 
tcmpld, Tyded, lampada. 

Musa refert : Dedimus summam certaminis uni Ovid. 

Templa petebamus Parnassia. Ovid. 

Hectoris hie magni fuerat comes : Hector a circum Virg. 
Quo teneam vultus mutantem Protea l nodo Hor. 


1. The ablative singular of the first declension is long; as 
Me musa, hoc JEnea. 

2. The vocative singular from Greek nouns in as, is long; 
as O JEnea, O Palld, from JEneas, Pallas. But Greek vo- 
catives in a from nominatives in tes (changed to ta, in some 
parts of the Doric dialect) are short ; as Orestd, JEeta, from 
Orestes, JEetes. 

Prospiciens, summa placidum caput extulit unda Virg. 

Quid miserum, JEnea, laceras? Jam parce sepulto Virg. 

Fecerunt furiae, tristis Orestd, tuae Ovid. 

II. A final, in words not declined by cases, that is, in verbs 
and particles, is long; as ama,frustra, prater ea, posted, post- 
ilia, ergd, infra, a. 

Et pete quod fas est; et ama, quod fceraina debes Ovid. 

Interea magno misceri murmure pontum Virg. 

Extra fortunam est, quidquid donatur amicis Mart. 


1 . The particles ltd, quid, ejd, and putd put adverbially, 
shorten a ; and after the same manner Sidonius shortens 

2. The prepositions contra and ultra, and numerals in 
ginta are sometimes found short; but approved authors 
lengthen the a 3 . 

1 In the following line the accusative Orjjkea may be consi- 
dered either a dactyl or spondee ; Orpheaque in medio posuit, syl- 
vasque sequentes Virg. But in the following, it is evidently a 
spondee; Non tantum Rhodope miratur, etlsmarus Orphea Virg. 

2 Antea is found long in Horace and Catullus. Contra is long 
in Virgil ; short in Ausonius and Manilius. Postilla is long in 
Ennius and Catullus. Postea is long in Plautus ; short in the be- 
ginning of a line in Ovid; but in this last, Vossius says it should 
be read post ca ; or, perhaps it may be used there as a dissyllable 
formed by Synaeresis, t\\\*& postea. Posteaqnam is also used by Vic- 
torinus in the beginning of a line. An able critic in the Class. 
Journ. Vol. XV, p. 347, (Mr. Carson, we believe, the learned 


Turn sic affatur regem, atque itd turbidus infit Virg. 
Trigintd capitum foetus enixa jacebit Virg. 

RULE III. E final. 

Words ending in e are generally short ; as nate, cubile, 
patre, curre, nempv, ante. 

I?2cipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem Virg. 

Ante mare et tellus, et, quod tegit omnia, coelum Ovid. 


1. All words in e>, of the first and fifth declension, are 
long; as Calliope, Ancliise^ fide ; also fame, originally of 

Rector of the High School, Edinb.) seems to contend, and it 
would appear successfully, that the pronouns used long in com- 
position, in such words as antea, postea, posteaquam, postilla, in- 
terea, &c. are not, as is generally supposed, accusatives, which 
would require a short quantity, but, like hac in antehac and post- 
hac, ablatives singular feminine, the prepositions being employed 
absolutely, and the pronouns referring elliptically to some cir- 
cumstance implied ante andpos, for instance, in antea andpostea, 
having the same kind of relation to the unspecified time probably 
.represented by ea, as, when associated with horis, mensibus, annis, 
multo, paulo, &c , they bear to the time thus specified; and that, 
therefore, the a of ea and ilia, in such compounds, is long, like 
that of ablatives of the first declension. In the line from Ovid, 
post ea is evidently the proper reading, as marking, without any 
immediate reference to time, merely the succession of events. 
Poste.aquam, in the line quoted by Smetius from Victorious, 
Posteaquam rursus speculatrix arva patere, was probably intended 
for a trisyllable, the ea being sounded as one syllable, by Synae- 
resis, like aured in Virgil, 7En. i. 698. Puta,?or videlicet, is found 
short in Persius in the line, Hoc puta non justum est, &c. ; but 
some re&dputo Ultra is long in Horace, Juvenal, Persius and 
others, and there is hardly a respectable authority for considering 
it short. Juxta, which is long in Virgil and others, is once short 
in Catullus. But a better reading has juncta. The termination 
sinta is found short in some of the old poets, and in those of a 
later date, as Ausonius, Manilius and others; but those who flou- 
rished during the purity of the language always made it long. In 
Greek, however, the termination whence it is derived is short. 
Quid is long in a line of Phaedrus: Ego primam tollo, nominor 
quiz leo. But some would read quid nominor leo. 

1 Achille is found short in Propertius, by Apocope, for Achilleu: 
Quique tuas proavus fregit Achille domos. But in this line 
amended, Achille becomes an Ablative. The Doric vocatives, 
' as Ulyssu and Achille, are long. 


the fifth. Thus also, re+ die, and their compounds quare, 
hodie, pridie, postridie, quotidie. 

Hanc tua Penelope lento tibi mittit, Ulysse Ovid. 

Objicit : illefame rabida tria guttura pandens Virg. 

Et quamquam saevit pariter rabiequefameque Ovid. 

Nunc eadem, labente die, convivia quserit Virg. 

2. All nouns wanting the singular ; as cete, mele, Tempe, 
pelage, being Greek contractions. 

Silva : vocant Tempe. Ovid. 

At pelage, multa, et late substrata videmus Lucret. 

3. The second person singular of imperatives of the se- 
cond conjugation ; as doce, mane. But cave, vale, vide, re- 
sponde and salve 1 , have e common. 

Vade, vale, cave ne titubes, mandataque frangas Hor. 
Idque, quod ignoti faciunt, vale dicere saltern Ovid. 
Responde, quibus amissas reparare queam res Hor. 
Quid sis nata vide, nisi te quoque decipis ipsam Ovid. 
Si quando veniet ? dicet ; responde, poeta Mart. 
Auriculas? Vide, sis, ne majorum tibi forte Pers. 
Lector salve. Taces, dissimulasque ? Vale Martial. 

4. Monosyllables are long ; as e, me, te, se, ne, (lest or 
not). Except the enclitics que, ne, ve, and the syllabic ad- 
jections pte, ce, te ; as suapte, hujusce, tute. 

Vera, inquit ; neque me Argolica de gente negabo Virg. 
Me miserum ! ne prona cadas, indignave laedi Ovid. 

Nostrapti culpa facimus Ter. 

Hinc omnis pendet Lucilius. Hosce secutus Hor. 

5. Adverbs in e, coming from nouns of the second de- 
clension, are long; as placide, pulchre, valde (or valide], 
&c. : also all adverbs of the superlative degree; as doctissi- 
me, maxime, minime. But bene, male, superne, inferm, magt, 
the same as magis, and impune (two words whose immediate 
derivation is not clearly ascertained), have their last syllable 
short ; also the adverbs here, and Hercule. 

Pr<vcipue, cum jam hie trabibus contextus acernis Virg. 

Si bene quid de te merui Virg. 

Terra superne 2 trernit, magnis concussa ruinis Lucret. 

1 Perhaps some of these may have originally belonged to the 
third conjugation also. The line from Martial is read otherwise ; 

Quando venit? dicet: tu respondeto ; poeta. 
Are not final vowels, independently of association or rhythmical 
connexion, naturally of nearly the same quantity? 

8 On the quantity of superne in this line, Lambinus says ; 
" Millies jam dixi ultimam syllabam adverbii Superne, brevem 


Aspice, num mage sit nostrum penetrabile telum Virg. 
Quam super baud ullae poterant impune volantes Virg. 
Et positum est nobis nil here praeter aprum Martial. 
Verterat in fumum et cinerem, non Hercule miror Hor. 
Adjectives neuter, of the third declension, used adverbially, 
retain the original short quantity of the e ; as sublime, fa- 
cile, duke. 

Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cycni Virg. 
6. Ferme,fere, and ohe, have e long. 

Mobilis et varia estferme natura malorum Juv. 
Jamqueym? sicco subductaB littore puppes Virg. 
OJi'c ! jam satis est, ohe ! libelle Mart. 
Ausonius has shortened^?'?. 

RULE IV. /final. 

Words ending in i are generally long ; as dominf, Mer- 
curly patri, fructui, me~t, amari, doceri, audi, 7, Ovidi^JUl. 
Quid domini facient, audent cum talia fures Virg. 
Sic fatur lacrymans c&zsslque immittit habenas Virg. 
Hinc exaudirl gemitus, iraeque leonum Virg. 
/, sequere Italiam ventis, pete regna per undas Virg. 


1 . Greek vocatives are short ; as Alexi, Amarylli, Theft, 
Pan, Dap/mi ; but Simin, or such as belong to nouns hav- 
ing entos, gen. are long. 

O crudelis Alexi, nihil mea carmina curas Virg. 
Fraenato delphine sedens, Theti, nuda solebas Ovid. 

2. Greek datives singular of the third declension, from 
nouns increasing, are said to be varied ; but they are short. 
Minoidi and Tethyi in Catullus, and Palladi in Statius, 
are short. Thetidi in Catullus, and Paridl and Tyndaridi 
in Propertius, are said to be long 1 . 

Palladi litoreae celebrabat Scyros honorem Stat. 
Morte, ferox Theseus qualem Mino'idi luctum Catul. 

" esse : itaque eos errare qui hoc loco, et similibus, legi volunt 
" Superna.' This remark is intended to be applied also to the 
critics who wish to substitute superna for superne, in Horace, 
od. ii. 20, 11 : Superne, nascuntur Iseves. Superne is used in the 
same sense, Art. Poet, line 4-. Temere occurs short in Seneca. 
1 These are long by Caesura ; for the i of Greek cases is natu- 
rally short. Orphei may be considered as a dactyl, in Virgil, 
EC. 4, 57, and, by Synaeresis, it is a spondee, in G. 4, 545, 553. 
It here appears to be a contracted Greek dative. Neuters in i 


3. Datives and ablatives plural of Greek nouns in si (sin 
before a vowel) are short; as heroist, Troasi, Charm. 

Edidit haec mores illis heroism sequos Ovid. 
Troasin invideo, quae si lacrymosa suorum Ovid. 

4. MiJn 9 tibi, sibi, are common. Also ibi, nisi, ubi" 1 ^ and 
quasi '; but these last are oftener short. Nisi and quasi are, 
perhaps, scarcely ever long, without Caesura. 

Non unquam gravis aere domum mihi dextra redibat 


Extremum hunc, Arethusa, mihl concede laborem Virg. 
Puella senibus dulcior mihl cygnis Mart. 
Sic quasi Pythagoras loqueris successor et haeres Mart. 
Et devicta quasi, cogatur ferre patique Lucret. 
Experiar sensus. Nihil hie nisi carmina desunt Virg. 

RULE V. final. 

at the end of words is common ; as leo, amo, disco*, 

Nempe tenens quod amo, gremioque in lasonis haerens 


Non amo te, Sabidi ; nee possum dicere quare Mart. 
Oro, qui reges consuesti tollere, cur non Hor. 
Quo fugis ? Oro, mane, nee me, crudelis, amantem 


may be added to the number of exceptions ; such as gummi, melt, 
sinapi. But Greek datives, formed by contraction, are always 
long ; as Demosthem, metamorphosi ; also those which come from 
the first declension in Greek j as Oresti, Euripidi, which are long 
too according to the rules of quantity for Latin Declensions. 

1 Sicubi is short on the authority of Virgil, G. 3, 332 ; M. 5, 
677. Necubi is also short. Alibi, ublque and ibidem are com- 
monly long. Uti and veluti have the i generally long, which may 
happen to them as well as to some of the others reckoned com- 
mon, often by Caesura, independently on their own natural quan- 
tity. But uti or sicuti is short in a line of Lucretius, and once 
also in Ennius. 

Sic uti quadrupedem cum primis esse videmus Lucret. 
The i of utinam and uiique is also short. Cm when used as a 
dissyllable, whether simply or in composition, generally has the 
z short, as in a Sapphic from Seneca, Troades, 852 ; but when 
reckoned one syllable, which it seems to be by Virgil, Horace, 
and Ovid, it is always considered to be long. 

2 Seldom in verbs, except puto, scio and nescio, and chiefly 
when used parenthetically, or when the vowel concludes a foot, 
is o made short, by any author living in the Augustan age. Scio 
and nescio are said to be shortened to distinguish them from the 
datives or ablatives scio and nescio. 


Quando pauperiem, missis ambagibus, horres Hor. 
At patrias siquando domos, optataque, Paean Stat. 


1. Monosyllables are long: as o, pro, proh, d.o, sto ; but 
the compounds of the last two follow the Rule. 

Do quodvis et me victusque, volensque remitto Virg. 

lux Dardanise, spes O fidissima Teucrum ! Virg. 

2. Greek feminines ending in o, and Greek cases origi- 
nally written with an o-mega, are long ; as Sappho, Clio, Di- 
do (in whatever case), Atho, from Athds, Androgeo. 

Clidque, et Beroe soror, Oceanitides ambae Virg. 

In foribus letum Androgeo ; turn pendere pcenas Virg. 

3. Also, datives and ablatives of the second declension ; 
as domino, deo, pondo, to which add another ablative, ergo, 

for the sake of, ergo, signifying therefore, belonging to the 

Turn caput ipsi aufert domino, truncumque relinquit 

Invadunt urbem somnd vinoque sepultam Virg. 

4. Also, Greek genitives from nouns of the Attic dialect, 
in us', as Androgeo, At/id. See Excep. 2. 

5. Adverbs formed from nouns are long; as cerfb,faho, 
meritd, tanto, quantd, paidd, contimid, mulib; also illo, quo, 
ed, and the compounds, quovis, qudcunquc. To which add, 

citrd, intro, and ultrd. But the following, though oftener 

long, are sometimes short; denuo, sero, mutuo, postremo, vero. 
Porro, retro, idcirco, adeo, ideo, may likewise be deemed com- 
mon ; to which have been added crebro and sedido. Profecto 
and subito, both naturally long, have been shortened, the 

one by Ter. Maurus, the other by Seneca. Modo and its 

compounds are short ; as quomodo, dummodo, postmodo ! . 

1 The words first noticed, in No. 5, among the Exceptions, 
are, obviously, ablatives, and long by Except. 3. Several of the 
words also in the third division of No. 5 are likewise ablatives, 
denuo being de novo, and profecto, pro facto ; but porro is an ab- 
lative of no Latin noun, and, in Greek, in which it is an adverb, 
its final o is long. 

Modo, when separated from the words with which it is usually 
compounded, might be expected to assume its natural quantity, 
according to Except. 3. 

Nunc. quo quamque modo possis cognoscere, dicam Virg. 
But here it is long by Caesura. In the following line, with an en- 
clitic, which, by attracting the ictus metricus, strengthens the pre- 
ceding syllable, it is long : 


Hie aliud majus miscris multoque tremendum Virg. 
Heu scro revocatur amor, seroquc juventus Tibull. 
Vaster porro labor fcecundior, historiarum Juv. 
Sero memor thalami, mcestae solatia matri Stat. 
Hie inter densas corylos modo namque gemellos Virg. 

6. Ambo, duo, scio, nescio, puto, imo 9 illico, cedo the im- 
perative, ego, homo, cito, (which is the adjective used ad- 
verbially,) are generally considered short. 

Sic ubi nescio quis Lycia de gente virorum Ovid. 
At putt} non ultro, nee quicquam tale rogantem Ovid. 
Tarn cito commisi properatis verba tabellis Ovid. 
Ast ego quae divum incedo regina, Jovisque Virg. 
Praeterea duo nee tuta mihi valle reperti Virg. 
Europamque Asiamque, duo vel maxima terra? Auson. 

7. Gerunds in do are always made long by Virgil ; but 
others sometimes shorten them 1 . 

Caetera nequaquam simili ratione modoque Her. 
Horace concludes two other lines with ratione modoque. Here, 
however, some persons might suspect the effect of Caesura, but, 
it would appear, without sufficient reason ; for modoque may be 
regarded as one trisyllabic word, of which que is a constituent 
part, in the same way as liminaque is a quadrisyllable, at the be- 
ginning of a line in Virgil, in which que, otherwise short, becomes 
long, merely by being considered as the final syllable of a word 
under Caesura. In composition I have always found the a final 
short. Used adverbially, it seems to be generally short ; thus 
Cum tribus annellis, modo lava Priscus inani Hor. 
Tu modo nascent! puero quo ferrea primum Virg. 
In the following line it is long ; 

Hoc quid putemus esse. ? qui modo scurra Catull. 
But, here it may be observed, that, one particular instance ex- 
cepted, Catullus lengthens a short final vowel before s and an- 
other consonant. In the following Anapaestic, however, from 
Seneca, it is long : Quae fa|ma modo \ venit ad aures. But, per- 
haps, this example may not be quite satisfactory to those who 
consider the Octavia the worst of all the plays that bear the 
name of Seneca. In the following Anapaestic, it is short, being 
in a different part of the foot : Utinam | modo n5|stra redirent 
Boeth. Upon the whole, excluding the influence of ictus and 
caesura, it would appear, that the short quantity of modo is more 
common, and better established, than the long. In the following 
Iambic, however, it is long ; Excede, pietas ; si modo nostra in 
domo Senec. 

Prosper shortens omnino ; but it is better to lengthen it with 

1 Gerunds are verbal nouns, the quantity of which might be 
ascertained by Except. 3 ; and it seems strange that it is ever va- 

2 C 


Per nemora, atque altos qucerendo hucula lucos Virg. 
Plurimus hie a?ger moritur yigilandv, sed ilium Juv. 
Aufer et ipse meum pariter medicandu dolorem Tibul. 

RULE VI. U final. 

Words ending in u are long; as vitltl 9 cornn, Panlhu 9 
dictu, diil. 

Prajterea lumen per cornu transit : at imber Lucret, 

Vultu quo coelum tempestatesquc serenat Virg. 

Sed, tu quod nolles, voluit miserabile ihtum Ovid. 

Quo res summa loco, Panthii ? quam prendimus arcem 

The diphthong of vocatives in cu does not appear to be 
ever dissolved : 

Scis, Proteu, scis ipse ; neque est te fallere cuiquam Virg. 

Note. Indu for in, and nenii for non^ both used by Lu- 
cretius, the former likewise by others, in composition, as in- 
diiperator^ indu- or endv-gredior, have the u short. 

Indu manu validas potis est moderanter habenas Luc. 

Nenu queunt rapidi contra constare leones Lncr. 

ried. Were I to hazard a conjecture concerning the probable 
cause of this variation, it would be founded upon an analysis of 
the gerund, the constituent parts of which seem to me to be the 
radical letters of the verb and the antient preposition endo, or in- 
dii, (see Rule VI.) which is equivalent to in. Thus we find in 
the Twelve Tables the following law : 

Hominem mortnum endo urbe net sepeleito, neive uriio. Let not 
a dead person be buried nor burnt in the city. 
The e is used in the Greek en and endon, and in the French en, 
in preference to L The i is used in Latin and English, in pre- 
ference to e. 

The same endo we find in the following lines of Lucretius, 
Quod genus endo mari, &c. Endogredi sccleris, c., and in other 
parts. This endo or indu, having its final syllable short, appears 
to me to be the final part of Latin gerunds, and of those of the 
languages of Europe, antient and modern ; and hence perhaps 
arises the short quantity sometimes assigned to Latin gerunds. 
Docendo, in Latin, means, IN teaching. Vendcndo, in Portuguese, 
means selling, or IN sale. Dui'miendo, in Spanish, sleeping, or IN 
sleep. Vferkende, in Dutch, working, or IN work. Agissand (t), 
in French, acting, or IN act. The same observation I have rea- 
son to think applicable to the Saxon, Gothic, Islandic, and Ger- 
man languages ; and were I disposed to advance further into the 
held of conjecture, I might endeavour to show that some affinity 
exists between endo, and the ing of our English participle or ge- 
rund. A few additional remarks may be found in the writer's Eng. 
Gram. p. 140. 


Also, words ending in ils short, when, to prevent the vowel 
from becoming long by position, the s is elided ; as nuncuc 
for nuncius, plemC lofpleri&s. 

Vicimus O socii, et magnam pugnavimff pugnam En- 

RULE VII. Y final. 

Words ending in y are short ;- as Moly 9 Tiphy, chely, Te- 

Molij vocant superi Ovid. 

Note. When y is a contraction, as in Tethy instead of 
Tcthyi the dative, it is long by the fourth general Rule. 
Quam Tethy longinqua dies, Glaucoque repostam Val. 


Every consonant at the end of a word, preceded by a sin- 
gle vowel, generally makes that vowel short* unless followed 
by a word beginning with a consonant ; except c and n, 
which have the preceding vowel generally long. As, es, os 9 
are generally long ; is, us and ys 9 generally short. 

RULE VIII. B final. 

Latin words ending in b are short ; foreign words com- 
monly long ; as ab, ob, Job, Jacob. 

Magnus ab integro sec'lorum nascitur ordo Virg. 

RULE IX. C final. 

Words ending in c are long ; as dc, sic, liw (adverb), due, 

Sic oculos, sic ille manus, sic ora ferebat Virg. 

Hoc ' erat, alma parens Virg. 

Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura Hor. 
Atque hie ingentem comitum affluxisse novorum Virg. 


1. Nee and dome are short. 

2. Hie 1 , the pronoun, is common; alsojfac 1 , to which 
some add hoc l of the nominative and accusative. 

1 It is contended by the antient grammarians that the pronoun 
hie is always short by nature ; and that when it is found long, be- 
fore a word beginning with a vowel, it is owing to the syllabic ad- 
jection ce being supposed to belong to it, the e of which (and, as 
it generally happens, the c likewise) is cut off by synaloepha ; and 

2 C2 


Parve, nee invideo, sine me, liber, ibis in urbem Ovid. 
Cogere donee oves stabulis, numerumque referre Virg. 
Hie vir, htc est, tibi quern promitti saepius audis Virg. 
Hie glaclio fidens, hie acer et arduus hasta Virg. 

RULE X. D final. 

Words ending in d are short, in Latin ; but foreign words 
are generally long ; as quid, ad, apiid, illild, std : Benaddd, 
David, Bognd. These, however, are varied. 

Quicquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentes Virg. 

RULE XL L final. 

Words ending in I are short; as tribunal^ Asdrubal,ft'l, 
poly consul, procul. 

,Non semtl et Satyros eluserat ilia sequentes Ovid. 


1. Hebrew words are generally long ; as Daniel, Michael, 
Nabdl, SaUl. 

2. Sal 1 , sol, and ml 1 , are long. 

Omnia sub pedibus, qua so/ utrumque recurrens Virg. 

that, therefore, the remaining c must be supposed to possess the 
force of a double letter. Be this as it may, it certainly is found 
more frequently long than short. The same kind of assertion has 
been applied to hoc of the nominative and accusative, which also 
theantient grammarians considered as naturally short; so that, with 
regard to both, it is contended, that when we find these cases long 
(which they generally are) before a word beginning with a vowel, 
we are to consider that the long quantity arises from the ce which 
is suppressed. But there is no question about hoc of the ablative, 
which is always long. 

Quondam hoc indigense vivebant more, priusquam Juv. 
The following are the usual authorities cited for determining 
the quantity offac. 

Non possunt ; yfo enim minimis e partibus esse Lucret. 
Hosfac Armenios, hsec est Danaeia Persis Ovid. 
Signa rarius, aut semeiy^c illud (Phal.) Mart. 
But the^ac of the middle example has been changed, in cor- 
rected editions, intofacito ; so that it seems safer, according to 
the opinion of Alvarez, to considers/ere as short. 
1 Nil is long, as being a contraction of nihil. 

Nil aliud video, quo te credamus amicum Mart. 
As to sal, I find only one authority quoted by Smetius, from 
Ausonius, and another by Alvarez, from Statins, to prove it to be 
long ; but these authorities are not perhaps satisfactory, when it is 
considered that sal is formed, by apocope, from the obsolete sale 
with a short. 

Sal, oleum, panis, mel, piper, herba, novem Auson. 
Non sal t oxyporumve, caseusve Stat. 


RULE XII. A/ final. 

M at the end of words was, antiently, short, and was not, 
as now ! , elided, when followed by a vowel. 

Insignita fere turn millia militum octo Ennius. 
It is still short in circiun and cum (con) in composition 
with words beginning with a vowel ; as circumeo, circumago. 
Cujus non hcderae circumiere caput Propert. 

Quo te circumagas Juv. 

Vivite, lurcones, comedones., vivite ventres ! Lucil. 
If it be ever found long, before a vowel, it must be by 

RULE XIII.- N final. 

N at the end of words is long ; as en, splen, quin, sin, non. 
Also in Greek nouns masculine and feminine; as Titan, 
Hymen, Siren, Salamm, Phorcyn ; and Actceon, Lacedtemdn, 
Plaion, and the like written with co (omega) ; also in Greek 
accusatives of the first declension, coming from nominatives 
in AS, ES, and E, long ; as JEncdn, Anchisen, Calliopen and 
in genitives plural ; as Myrmidonun, Cimmerian, epigram- 

Tostos en, aspice crines Ovid. 

Quin, agite, et rnecum infaustas exurite puppes Virg. 
Finierat Titan ; omnemque refugerat Orpheus Ovid. 
Actaeon ego sum ! domiiium cognoscite vestrum Ovid. 
Amitto Anchisen, hie me, pater optime, fessum Virg. 
Cimmerion etiain obscuras accessit ad oras Tibul. 


1 . Nouns ending in e , having mis in Uie genitive, with 
the penultimate short, are short ; as carmen, crimen, numcn, 

Add lint et titulum; titulus breve carmen habebat Ovid. 

2. Also nouns in on, of the singular number, which in 
Greek are written with o (omicron), and which are in Latin, 

of the second declension ; as Ilion, Erotion, Pylon. But 

not Greek accusatives in on of the Attic dialect, having M 
(omega) in the original ; as Athon, Androgeon. 

^ nee habebat Pelion umbras Ovid. 

Laudabnnt alii claram Ehodmi, aut Mitylenen Hor. 

1 In one instance Horace retains the m. 

Quam laudas, pluma ? Cocto num aclcst honor idem ? 
Thus the line is read by Dacier, Bentley, and Wakcficld ; but in 
the Dauphin edition it is thus given ; 

Quam laudas, pluma ? Coctove num adcst honor idem ? Sat. it. 

3. N is short in Greek accusatives, whatever the declen- 
sion may be, of nouns the final syllable of whose nomina- 
tive is short; as Majan, JEginan, Orpheon, Alexin, Ibm, 
chelyn, Ityn. 

Namque ferunt raptam patriis JEginxn ab undis Stat. 

Scorpion, atque aliter curvantem brachia Cancrum Ovid. 

Tantaque nox animi est, Itun hue arcessite, dixit Ovid. 

o w ' ^ w 

1. An, m, forsan, forsitan, tamtti, attamcn, vem?ita?nen, 
videji', satm\ have n short 1 . 

Mittite ; forsan et ha?c olim meminisse juvabit Virg. 
Educet. Fiden' ut geminae stent vertice cristae Virg. 
Satin 9 id est ? Nescio, hercle ; tantum jussu* sum Ter. 

RULE XIV. R final. 

Words ending in r are short ; as cttlcar, Hamilcar, fmber, 
pater, mater, vir, Hector, cor, turtur, martyr, prccor, mitticr, 
semper, prater, amamur, audiuntur. 

Turn pater omnipotens misso perfregit Olympum Ovid. 

Inque cor 2 hamata percussit arundine Ditem Ovid. 

Semper honos, nomenque ttium, laudesque manebunt 

Inseruisse manus, impure ac semiuir, audes ? Lucan. 

hanc prccor, optime, pro me Virg. 

Ille operum custos, ilium admiravtur, et omnes Virg. 

quibus Hector ab oris Virg. 

1 To these are commonly added some words suffering an apo- 
cope ofde, as exin, dein,proin\ but without decisive authorities. 
And along with vidcn and satin are likewise joined scin, audin', 
nostin', ain' t nemori ', men ', and the like. Nosiin , indeed* if late 
editions are correct, is short in Ovid, Epist. Medece ; but nemon 
is tvvice long in Horace. The others cgnnot be safely used, un- 
less followed by a consonant ; when, in course, they are long. 

Greek datives in sin have been noticed under Rule IV. /final. 

2 Cor long is attributed to Ovid : but the line, in which it is 
said to be thus found, is rend differently in corrected editions. 

Molle meum levibus cor est violabilc telis. 

Molle meum levibus^we cor est violabile telis Ep. xv. 79. 
Vir long has been likewise said to be found in Ovid ; but that too 
arose from an erroneous reading. 

De grege mine tibi vir, et de grege natus habendus. 
Better thus; 

De grege nunc tibi vir> mine dc grege natus habendus Met. 1. 

In the last t/r is long, merely by its position. 



1. Greek nouns, and such as have en's in the genitive, 
with the penultimate long, are long ; as crater, stater, ver, 
Ser, Rccimcr, -eris ; also Ibcr, which has Ibcris as well as 
Ibcri ; and acr and atlier, which have the penultimate of their 
genitive short. CdtiUer, a compound of Ibcr, is common. 

Vcr erat asternum, placidique tepentibus auris Ovid. 
Si tibi durus Iber> aut si tibi terga dedisset Lucan. 
Aer a tergo quasi provehat atque propellat Lucret. 
Dacit ad auriferas quod me Salo fe^tr -oras Mart. 
Nunc Ccltiber es : Celtiberia in terra Catull. 
Legit Eois Ser arbor ib us Seneca. 

2. These monosyllables are long, far, Mr 1 , Ndr, cur, fur, 
and par 1 with its compounds, compdr, dispdr, impdr. 

Par aetas, par forma fuit ; primasque magistris Ovid. 
Ludere par impdr, equitare in arundine longa Hor. 
Exagitant et Lar, et turba Diania fures Ovid. 
Cur, inquit, diversus abis ? hue dirige gressum Virg. 

RULE XV. AS final. 

Words ending in as are long ; as mas, vas, pictds, Pallas 
(PaUantis), Thomas, mcnsas, legds, amds, fords. 

Quid meus JEneas in te committere tantum ? Virg. 
Has autem terras, Italique hanc littoris orarn Virg. 
Et pete quodjas est, et ama, quod focmina debes Ovid. 
Coiicilias : tu das epulis accumbere divum Virg. 
Hinc Pallas instat et urget Virg. 


1. Greek nouns whose genitive ends in ad is or ados are 
short ; as Pallas, Areas, lampas, Ilicis, -cidis. To which add 
the Latin noun, anas, and Latin nouns in as, formed after 
the manner of Greek patronymics ; as Appias. 

Pallas Erichthonium, prolem sine matre creatam Ovid. 

1 It has been disputed whether par and Lar ought to be con- 
sidered long, since their increase is short, and since ar of the no- 
minative is short in other nouns which increase short, and even in 
those which increase long. Par and its compounds arc certainly 
generally found long, and although this may arise from diastole, 
it does not appear safb to change the quantity usually assigned 
them. Par, impar, and dispar are found long in Horace. The 
latter two are, however, short in Prudentius. Yet notwithstand- 
ing this authority, and that also of Martianus Capclla and Avic- 
nus, added to the argument founded on analogy, it is safer, as 
already observed, to consider the last syllable of these words a:> 


Et pictis anas enotata, pennis Petron. 

Appias expressis aera pulsat aquis Ovid. 

2. Also the accusative plural of the third declension of 
Greek nouns ; as crater as, Cyclopas, heroas, Troas, hero'idas, 

Jupiter ad veteres supplex hero'idas ibat Ovid. 

Existunt montes, et sparsas Cycladas augent Ovid. 

RULE XVI. ES final. 

Words ending in es are long; as Alcides, Circes, Pene- 
lopes, quies, hccres, locuples, sermones, res, ames, doces, leges, 
esses, decies, posses, amavisses- the nominatives and vocatives 
plural of Greek nouns originally written with e<; contracted 
from ss; ; as hereses, crises, phrases ; the antient genitive of 
the fifth declension, as rabies. 

An, quae per totam res est notissima Lesbon Ovid. 
Si modo des illis cultus, similesque paratus Ovid. 
Quodcumque est, rabies unde illoec germina turgent 


1. The nominatives and vocatives plural of Greek nouns 
increasing (not in eo$) short in the singular, are short ; as 
Amazones, Arcades, Delphines, Naiades, gri/phes, Phrygcs 1 . 
To which may be added Greek vocatives singular in es 
coming from nominatives in es not formed from eus of the 
Doric dialect, and having their genitive in eos', as Demo- 
sthenes, Socrates. 

Pamphagus, et Dorceus, et Oribasus ; Arcades omnes 

Troades ; et patrioe fumantia tecta reliquunt Ovid. 

2. Es from sum is short 2 , and in the compounds; as ades, 
, prodts, poles, &c.; and in the preposition perns. 

Quisquis es, hoc poteras meciun considere saxo Ovid. 
Cui deus, At conjux quoniam mea noi\ potcs esse Ovid. 

1 These nouns, when they assume, in the accusative plural, the 
Latin termination es, instead of as, have it long, according to the 
quantity of Latin syllables. 

2 Vossius, following Servius, asserts that cs ofedo, being a con- 
traction ot'edis, is long ; but he cites no authorities. The es of 
sum, and the es of edo, notwithstanding the latter's government 
of a case, in such examples, as Est Jlamma medullas Virg. bona 
Plaut. olivas Hor. animum Hor. are, without doubt, one 
and the same word, and consequently both short. Amiens, too, 
is used by Lucretius, V. 397, in the sense of ambcdcns. 


Quern penes arbitrium est, et jus, etnorma loquendi Hor. 

3. Greek neuters in es , as cacoethes, kippomanes. 
Scribendi cacoethes, et aegro in corde senescit Juven. 

4. Latin nouns of the third declension in es, whose ge- 
nitives have a short increment; as hebes, ales, pedes, limes, 

obtes. But es is long in these following; Ceres, paries 1 , 

aries 1 , abies 1 , pes\ and compounds; as bipes, alipes, tripes, 
sonipes, to which some add pr&pes, a derivative of pr&peto. 

Myrmidoiium, Dolopumve, aut duri milts Ulyssei Virg. 
jjEtherea quos lapsa plaga Jovis ales aperto Virg. 
Hie farta premitur angulo Ceres omni Mart. 
PCS etiam et camuris hirtae sub cornibus aures Virg. 
Stat sonipes et frsena ferox spumantia mandit Virg. 

RULE XVII. 75 final. 

Words ending in is are short; as turns, Jovis, militis ; as- 
2ncls, creditis ; magis, cis, bis ; is and qiiis, nominatives. 
Sangws hebet, frigentque effcetae in corpore vires Virg. 
Tu in Ins ad occasum, bis se convertit ad ortuin Ovid. 
Sed qitis Olympo Virg. 


1. All plural cases in is are long: aspennls, nobis, vobis ; 
omnls and urbls, for omnes and urbes ; qu~is, and queis, for 

Sed pater omnipotens speluncls abdidit atris Virg. 

Atque utinam ex vobis unus, vestrique fuissem Virg. 

Quis ante or a patrum Trojse sub moenibus aids Virg. 

1 Wherever paries, aries and abies are found long, there hap- 
pens to be a caesura ; and perhaps Ceres and pes are long by dia- 
stole ; so that it is not very improbable, on the principle of analogy, 
that all of them may belong to the general Exceptions. Ausonius 
shortens bipes and tripes ; and Probus observes that alipes and so- 
nipes are likewise short. The contrary, however, appears in Vir- 
gil, Lucan, and Horace ; but it is to be observed, that some of the 
above-mentioned words could not be introduced into heroic verse, 
without the influence of a figure to lengthen their final syllable. 
Prtepes is short in Virgil; it comes not from pes y but from 
TfpfjTfsrr^) prcevolans. 

Acer, anhelanti similis; quern prcepes ab Ida. 
Tigres, ascribed to Ovid, is rejected by the best critics. Ac- 
cording to Greek analogy, some would read tigris ; Quis scit, an 
hxc sarvas insula tigris habet ? Ep. 10, 86, the Greek is in such 
cases being short. This line has been written thus ; Quis scit, an 
haec ssevas tigridas insula habet Ed. Burman. 


2. The nominative in is is long', when the genitive ends 
in Iljs 9 Inis 9 or cntis, with the penultimate long; as Us, $#/- 
, Salamzs, Simdis. 

Grammatici certant, et adhuc sub judice Us est Hor. 
Samnis in ludo ac rudibus cuivis satis asper Lucil. 

3. Is is long in the adverbs gratis andyprls 1 ; in the noun 
glis ; and in vis, as a noun and verb. 

Igne'a convexi vls 9 et sine pondere cocli Ovid. 

Si vis esse aliquis. Probitas laudatur et alget Juv. 

4. All second persons singular in is are long ; when the 
second persons plural have Itis with the penultimate long ; 
as els, audls, abls,fls, possis, sis. Is, velis, noils, &c. 

Nescis, hen ! nescis dominae fastidia Romae Mart. 

Qua3 tibi causa viae : cur sis, Arethusa, sacer fons Ovid. 
His of the perfect is commonly considered short ; 775 of the 
future is by some considered short also, and by others, with 
more reason, common ; but the same observations as were 
made on the quantity of rimus and ritis are applicable to ris 9 
and probably to the last syllable of ausis and jtofe likewise. 
From the usual import of the two tenses, and from analogy, 
it 'may be inferred that they were all common. 

Dixens egregie notum si callida verbmn Hor. 

Quas gentes Italum, aut quas non or aver is urbes Virg. 

Quemcumque miserum videris hominem scias Seneca. 

Si thure placarls et horna Hor. 

Da mihi te placidum ; dederls in carmine vires Ovid. 

Miscuerls elixa, simul conchylia turdis Hor. 
. But the objection of caesura may be brought against the 
last two examples, and against most of the others which I 
have seen. Still, however, when it is considered that the ri 

1 It is not improbable that gratis andforis may be ablatives: 
and, consequently, they arc long by Exception 1. The former is 
long in Martial, the latter in Horace, with caesura ; but if that be 
considered as an objection, it is one which, rigidly insisted on, 
would destroy the authority of many of the examples to be found 
in works on Prosody, for establishing the quantity of final syl- 
lables. Phaedrus, however, furnishes an example ; Gratis anhe- 
lans, multa agendo nil agens. In making the preceding remark, 
however, we do not mean to intimate, that, if the short quantity 
of a syllable is properly established, and it is found long only in 
caesura or position, its quantity is common ; it is, in this case, de- 
cidedly short. But such is sometimes the structure of a word, 
that it may be impossible, at least in Hexameter verse, whence, 
for obvious reasons, authorities are usually adduced, to exem- 
plify ^acknowledged long quantity of the syllabic, without the 
coincidence of caesura. 


in rinuis and ritis is found long, we are authorized to con- 
clude, from the analogy between the two numbers in regard 
to quantity, that ris is long or common in its own nature, 
and not by caesura 1 . 

RULE XVIII. 05 final. 

Words ending in os are long ; asjlds, nepos, honos, heros, 
Minds, viros, bonds, nos, vos, os (0m), Tros. 

Flos apprima tenax Virg. 

Vos agitate fugam Virg. 

Os homini sublime dedit, coclumque tueri Ovid. 

Tros, ait, <Enea, cessas ? Virg. 

Prianii nepos Hectoreus, et letum oppetat Seneca. 


1. Greek genitives in os, from whatever nominatives they 
come, are short; as Arcad-os, Tethyos, Tereos, Orpheos. 

Palladus admonitu Ovid. 

Tethyos unda vagae lunaribus eestuet horis Lucan. 
But genitives in cos, from nouns in is or eus, would be 
long, by imitation of the Attic dialect. 

2. Compos, impos, and os (ossis), with its compound exos, 
have the final syllable short. 

Insequere et voti postmodo compos eris Ovid. 
Exos et exsanguis tumidos perfluctuat artus Lucret. 

1 The endeavour to prove the qtlantity of rimus and ritis by 
that of ris, and the quant ty of ris by that of rimus and ritis, may 
perhaps be thought to border a little upon reasoning in a circle. 
But when we consider that, in the other tenses, wherever we find 
one syllable more in the first or second person plural than in the 
second person singular, we observe an agreement, in regard to 
quantity, between the penultimate of such first or second person 
plural and the final syllable of the second person singular, except 
where a difference is caused by position, there certainly does not 
seem to be an impropriety in using them respectively to confirm 
or to ascertain the quantity of one another. That such analogy 
does subsist, may be seen in the following examples ; amus, ama- 
mus, atndtis ; doces, doctmus, docl j tis ; legls, Icgimus^ fagitfo ; fas, fa- 
miiSy titis of the first and second conjugation. It should be ob- 
served however that ris y rimus, arid ritis 9 of ero and potcro, are 
commonly short. 

Fortunate puer, tu mine cris alter ab illo Virg. 
But as from their termination, these two tenses appear to have 
been originally subjunctive or future-perfect, it is probable that 
they had ris, rimus, ritis, common. Juvencus, Tertullian, and 
Paulinus Icngthcn^the ri of erimus and poicrimus, $LC p. 128. 


3. Greek nominatives and vocatives of the second declen- 
sion have os short ; as Claros, Tenedos, Lesbos, Alropos. - 
But nouns of the Attic dialect, having their genitive in o, are 
long ; as Androgeos, Athos : also nouns of the same dialect, 
which have changed llios (Aao?) into Kos (Aswj); as Peneleos, 

Et Claros, et Tenedos, Pataraeaque regia servit Ovid. 

Et Tyros instabilis, pretiosaque murice Sidon Luc. 

Quantus At/ids, aut quantus Eryx 

4-. Greek neuters in os are short ; as Argos, epos, chats, 

Facta canit pede ter percusso : forte epos acer Hor. 
Et Chaos et Phlegethon, loca node silentia late Virg. 

RULE XIX. -- US final. 

Words ending in us are short; as anniis, bonus, tempiis, 
inter cus, illius, fontibus, dicimus, intus, pcnitus, tenus ; like- 
wise us of the nominative and vocative singular of the fourth 

Ipse, ubi tempus erit, omnes in fonte lavabo Virg. 

Hie domus, haec patria est -- Virg. 

patria ! o divum domus Ilium ! et inclyta bello Virg. 
Venimus ; et latos indagine cinximus agros Ovid. 


1. Monosyllables are long; as grus^jus, rus 9 plus. 
Romae rus optas, absentem rusticus urbem Hor. 
Plus etiam quam quod Superis contingere fas sit Ovid. 

2. Also genitives of feminine nouns in o ; as Clius, Sap- 
phus, Mautus. 

Didits atque suum misceri sanguine sanguen Varro. 

3. Genitives singular, and nominatives, accusatives and 
vocatives plural, ot the fourth declension, all being contrac- 
tions, have us long ; as fructus, manus. 

Quale manus addunt ebori decus, aut ubi flavo Virg. 
Pars secreta domus ebore et testudine cultos Ovid. 
Hosne mihifructus ,- hunc fertilitatis honorem Ovid. 
Portus cequoreis suetii insignire tropucis Sil. 

4. Also nouns having the genitive in uris, utis, udis*, the 

1 Palus is once short in Horace, perhaps by systole. 

Regis opus, sterilisque diupalus, aptaque remis Art. Poet. 65. 
Some critics, however, pronounce the text to be incorrect, and 
would read thus; Regis opus ; sterilisve pains diu, aptaque remis, 
Jong vowels, when not cut off, being regarded as common ; or din 
may be considered a diphthongal sound. 


penultimate long; and in units, and podis, orptidos; as tellus, 
virtus, palus, incus ; Opus, Amathus ; tripus, Oedipus 1 . 

Ridet ager ; neque adhuc virtus in frondibus ulla est 

Dicitur, et tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuse Virg. 

Est Amathus, est celsa mihi Paphos, atque Cythera 

Hie Oedipus ^Egea tranabit freta Seneca. 

5. Also those nouns, written in Greek with the diphthong 
ous, which have u in their vocative; as Panthus, o Panthu; 
and our Saviour's sacred name, lesus. 

Et coalo et terris venerandum nomen lesus. 
The diphthong eus is long ; as Orpheus but eus as a dissyl- 
lable is short ; as Orpheus, of the second declension. 

Panthus Othryades, arcis Phcebique sacerdos Virg. 

Addunt se socios Ripheus, et maximus annis Virg. 

RULE XX YS final. 

Words ending in ys are short ; as Capys, chelys, chlamys. 
At Capys, et quorum melior sententia mend Virg. 
Tethys et extreme seepe recepta loco est Ovid. 
Certain nouns, said to form the nominative in yn also, are 
mentioned as exceptions; such as Gortys, Phorcys, Trachys. 
To these may be added contracted plurals ; as Erinnys for 
Erinnyes, or Erinnyas. Tethys is said to be sometimes long ; 
but then it is, as far as I have discovered, accompanied by 

Teque sibi generum Tethys emat omnibus undis Virg. 

RULE XXI T final. 

Words ending in t preceded by a single vowel, are short; 
as capiit, amdt, ut, et. 

Verum haec tantum alias inter caput extulit urbes Virg. 


1. T is sometimes long by crasis, or syncope ; as redit for 
redtrt or red wit, amdt for amavit. 

Magnus civis obit, et formidatus Othoni Juven. 

Dum trepidant, It hasta Tago per tempus utrumque 

Disturbed urbes, et terra? motus obortus Lucret. 

1 To which add polypus, and melampus when of the third de- 
clension; but when of the second, us of the three last may be short. 
Utque sub aequoribus deprensum polypus hostem Ovid. 


In these examples, obit, it, and disturbdt, are put for obiit, 
iit, and disturbavit. The first and the last example are long, 
too, by cassura. 



The last syllable of every verse (except the Anapaestic, 
and the Ionic a minor e} is considered common ; that is, if 
the syllable be naturally long, it may be reckoned short, if 
it suits the verse, and vice versa. 

Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat <equor Vir<r. 
In this,. or, naturally short, forms the second syllable of a 

Crescit occulto velut arbor aw Hor. 
In this Sapphic, the word cmo, which is naturally a spon- 
dee, forms a trochee, a foot consisting of a long and a short 


As Quantity means the length of time employed by the 
voice, so Accent denotes the elevation or depression of the 
voice in pronouncing a syllable : and is sometimes called the 

The accents are three, the Acute, the Grave, and the Cir- 

The acute is said to sharpen, or elevate a syllable ; and is 
thus marked, dominus. 

The grave is said to sink or depress it ; and is thus marked, 

The circumflex is defined to be a compound accent, first 
elevating and then depressing, or, perhaps, vice versa ; and 
as it requires greater time than either of the former, it is never 
put over any but a long syllable ; and is thus marked, amare, 
i. e. amadre. 


I. Monosyllables, long by nature, receive the circumflex ; 
sisjlos, spes, a, e. But if they are short, or long by posi- 
tion only, they take the acute; as vir,fax, mcns. 

II. Dissyllables always have the grave accent on their 
last syllable. If the first syllable be long by nature, and 


the second short, it receives the circumflex ; as R(Jma,Jld- 
ris, hlna ; otherwise, the acute ; as homo, parens, msons l . 


1 In speaking of improper pronunciation as arising from the 
want of due attention to quantity and accent, Mr. Pickbourn, the 
ingenious author of a dissertation on the English verb, observes 
(Monthly Magazine, No. 135,) " That scholars err in their pro- 
nunciation of, 1st, words of two syllables having the first short, 
as eques ; 2ndly, words of three syllables having the first long 
and the second short, as sidera ; 2dly, potysyllables accented 
on the antepenultimate, as juvenilibus, interca, &c. ; and, lastly, 
words ending in a long vowel, as domini, or in a long vowel and 
a single consonant, as dominis. These errors arise in part from 
the want of distinguishing between the long and short powers of 
the vowels. For, as they are all of them by nature capable of be- 
ing cither long or short, every long vowel being equal to two short 
ones, this is a distinction of the greatest importance. The prin- 
cipal source of cur mistakes on this subject is the indistinct and 
confused notion which we have of accent. For, when it falls on a 
short syllable, we often make that syllable long ; and wjien it falls 
on a long one, we sometimes make it short. Accent does certainly 
affect quantity ; that is, it makes the accented syllable a little 
longer than it would be without it. But its operation is never so 
great as to make a short syllable become long, nor does the pri- 
vation of accent make a long syllable become short ; for there 
are degrees of time both in long and short syllables, All short 
syllables are not equally short ; nor are all long ones equally long. 
This remark is fully confirmed by a passage quoted by Dr. War- 
ner (in his Metron ariston) from Quinctilian: Et longis longio- 
res, et brcvibus sunt bremorcs syllctbce. The second syllable oi'ama- 
vit, being accented, is a little longer than the second syllable of 
amaiwunt, though they are both long syllables ; and the first syl- 
lable in Icgi, being accented, is a little longer than the second, or 
than the first syllable oflegisti t which is deprived of accent, though 
they are all long syllables. In pronouncing such words as ani- 
mus 9 dominus, ocidus, &c., though the vowels retain their short 
sound, yet the stroke of the voice laid on the first syllable in- 
creases the impression which that syllable makes on the ear, and, 
consequently, diminishes the impression made by that which fol- 
lows it. 

" Quinctilian and all succeeding grammarians inform us that the 
Latin acute accent is never laid on the last syllable of a word ; 
that in dissyllables and trisyllables having the second syllable 
short, it invariably falls on the first syllable ; and that in polysylla- 
bles having the penultimate short, it lies on the antepenultimate. 
In the English language dissyllables accented on the first syllable 
generally have that syllable long. We have, therefore, very impro- 
perly applied this rule to all Latin dissyllables, because they are 
accented on the first syllable. Hence we say^ww, ctuies, miser,. 


III. Polysyllables, if the penultimate be long, and the 
last syllable short, have the circumflex on the penultimate; 
as Romdnus, Imperdtor, Justinidnus. If both the penulti- 

nemus, vigor, rigor, liquor , timor, &c. making the first syllables 
long, or, at least, nearly so. Why do we not pronounce the first 
syllables of eques, comes, miser, nemus, as we do the first syllables 
of their genitives, equitis, cbmitis, miseri, nemoris? And why do 
we not pronounce such words as vigor, rigor, liquor, as we do the 
English words vigour, rigour, liquor? And the first syllable in 
ttmor, as we do the first syllable in twioris, and of the English 
word timorous? If we pronounced the first syllable of the ad- 
jective malus, as we do the first syllable of the English word ma- 
lice, we should properly distinguish it from malus, an apple-tree. 
By an attention to this rule we should easily distinguish between 
the present and preterperfect tenses of many verbs, as venit and 
venit, fugit and fugit, legit and legit, &c. Again, many En- 
glish words of three syllables, accented on the first, have that syl- 
lable short; we have, therefore, hastily concluded that all Latin 
trisyllables, accented on the first, must have that syllable short, 
unless it be long by position, and, therefore, we very improperly 
saysidera, limina, Umite, semine, viribus, dicer e, scribere, c. Why 
do we not pronounce the first syllables of these words with a 
long vowel sound, in the same manner in which we pronounce 
the first syllables of sidus, limen, limes, semen, vires, dico, scribo, 
&c. ? for all vowels long in themselves, and not by position, should 
certainly be uttered with a long vowel sound. An attention to 
this remark would show the difference between populus, a people, 
and populus, a poplar-tree. In polysyllables accented on the an- 
tepenultimate we sometimes err in a similar manner to the last 
case, by giving a short sound to a vowel long by nature, as injw- 
veriilibus, and, at other times, by giving a long sound to a vowel 
naturally short, as ininterea. But, in words of this kind, we do not 
universally err ; for I do not remember that I ever heard a scholar 
pronounce such words as deposition, consilium, exilium, excidium, 
&c. improperly. Lastly, words ending in a long vowel, as domini, 
orjn a long vowel followed by a single consonant, such as datives and 
ablatives of the first and second declension, and genitives singular, 
nominatives, accusatives, and vocatives plural of the fourth de- 
clension, as dominis, gradus, should always be uttered with a long 
vowel sound, though the accent or stress can never fall on such syl- 
lables, except by a very singular poetic license." The same judi- 
cious critic, in an ingenious little treatise on Metrical Pauses, adds, 
that, in accented antepenults, a short is commonly pronounced 
right, as in animal ,but sometimes wrong, that is, with along vowel 
sound, as in galea, Jateor, taceo, caesaries, Mcenalios ; a long is 
generally pronounced wrong in trisyllables, as pabulum, gramina, 
machina ; but ri^ht in some polysyllables, as mortalia, navalia ; 
and wrong in others., as spedacula, levamine, imagine. E short is 


mate" and the last syllable be long, the former receives the 
acute; as parentes, amaverunt, rhinoceroth. If the penul- 
timate be short, the antepenultimate has the acute ; as do- 

sometimes improperly made long, as in senior, senibus, melior, 
obsequium. veniet, inveniet ; but it is generally pronounced right, 
as in trepidus, gcmitus, epulce, vulneribus ; e long is generally pro- 
fiounced right in polysyllables, as carchesia ; but wrong in tri- 
syllables, as semina, legibus. I short is always right, as timidus, 
consilium ; ^long, always wrong; asjrigidus,milite 9 frigore t spt- 
ritusyformidine, sidere (noun and verb), fynvivium, senilia, divi- 
nitus, oblivia. O short is generally pronounced right, as in do- 
minus, incolumis ; but sometimes wrong, as in odium, moriens, 
moveo, infodiimt ; o long, in some words, is pronounced right, as 
otium, but in many others wrong, aspocuhcm, honoribils. (/short, 
generally wrong, as incubuit, but not always, for subigit is com- 
monly pronounced right ; it long always right, as lumine, cacu- 
mine, &c. He concludes by observing that, upon the whole, 
neither accent nor quantity is to be neglected ; and that, so long 
as we attend to the just rules of accent, and carefully retain the 
true natural sound of the vowels, never making a short one long 
nor a long one short, we cannot much err in our pronunciation. 
Upon this subject, Dr. Valpy differs a little from Mr. Pick- 
bourn in regard to the influence of the accent on the quantity, 
and observes, in his excellent Greek Grammar, " that the ele- 
vation of the voice does not lengthen the time of that syllable, so 
that accent and quantity are considered by the best critics as 
perfectly distinct, and by no means inconsistent with each other. 
In our language, the accent falls on the antepenultimate equally 
in the words liberty and library; yet, in the former, the tone 
only is elevated, in the latter, the syllable is also lengthened. 
The same difference exists in baron and bficon, in level and 
lever. In words of two, and of three, short syllables, the diffe- 
rence between the French and English pronunciation is striking. 
The former make iambics and anapests, the latter trochees and 
dactyls. The French syjugis,ft(gimus : the English f jFugis ti fu- 
gimus. In many instances both are equally faulty ; thus we short- 
en the long is mfav'is, the plural ofjhvus ; they lengthen the 
short is in ora, the genitive of os. Indeed, both may be said to 
observe strictly neither accent nor quantity." To observe ei- 
ther strictly is, perhaps, not easy ; to observe both is still more 
difficult. The precise nature of accent does not seem to be fully 
agreed upon ; and, therefore, if, in reading, either must be sacri- 
ficed to the other, (for which, however, there is no absolute 
necessity,) it is certainly better, that what is in some degree un- 
certain, should yield to that which is certain,- that accent should 
give way to quantity, which is ascertained. By reading accord- 
ing to quantity, is not, however, meant, the breaking down, split- 
ting, or destroying the words, by attending to the feet only ; but 

2 b 


minus, Virgilius, Constantinopolis. All other syllables of poly- 
syllables receive the grave accent. Except from the pre- 
ceding rules the enclitics, que, ve, ne, which throw the accent 
upon the last syllable 1 , of the word to which they are joined ; 
as amat) amatque ; thus lacrymansve^ gemensve Virg. Hyr- 
camsve> Arabisve Virg. Culpetne, probetne Ovid. 2 

the pronouncing the words] of a verse, so as to give, as much as 
possible, its due quantity, in real time, to every syllable. In as 
much as to this mode of reading we can add an attention to ac- 
cent, emphasis, cadences and pauses, whether metrical or senten- 
tial, in so much, doubtless, will the pronunciation be the more 
correct, graceful, and harmonious. How the antients pronounced 
the vowels, whether as we do, or, which is more probable, as 
they are pronounced on the Continent, it is now difficult to de- 
termine. One thing, however, is certain, that they did not give 
a long sound to a short vowel, nor a short sound to a long vowel. 
In whatever way we sound the vowels, we ought to attend to their 
quantity. I shall only add, that a syllable long by nature was 
sounded more fully, being a reduplication of the same vowel, as 
diicere, maalus, an apple-tree, poopulus, a poplar-tree. Whereas 
the syllable long by position, had no other length than its being 
sustained by the two following consonants, as dixi. It is proba- 
ble also that a syllable short by nature preserved more of its na- 
tural quantity than a syllable sliort by position only. Such 
words as volucris have the accent, in prose, on the antepenulti- 
mate, but, in verse, we should place it on the antepenultimate 
when the penultimate is considered as short, and upon the pen- 
ultimate when it is regarded as long ; thus, 

Et primo similis volucri, mox vera volucris Ovid. 

1 This is, unquestionably, true when the penultimate is long, 
as siderisque. But it admits some doubt, when the penultimate 
ends with a short vowel, as in sideraque. Should we not, there- 
fore read 

Pronaque cum spectent animalia caetera terrain Ovid. 
With respect to the accentuation of words introduced from 
other languages, there seems to be scarcely any general rule, or 
uniform practice. 

2 It does not happen, however, that que and ne, at the end oi 
words, are always to be considered as enclitics ; and when they 
are not, the words are accented according to the general rules , 
as utique, denique, undique, &c. ; likewise such words, used inter- 
rogatively, as niccine, siccine, &c. Priscian says that in calefacio, 
calcfacis, and calefacit, the accent is on the same syllable on which 
it falls in the simple verb, namely the second a, although in the 
two last it be the penultimate, and also short. And in the same 
manner, calefio, calefis, calefit, as in the simple verb. Accord- 
ing to Donatus, siquando had the accent sometimes on the ante- 
penultimate ; according to Serous, exinde likewise; and, to Gel- 


The accentual marks are seldom used but for distinction's 
sake. Thus the adverbs aliqub^ continub, paldm, docte, una y 
and the like, are marked with a grave accent. Ablatives 
of the first declension ; genitives of the fourth ; nostrum and 
vestnfan from nos and vos ; ergo used for causa, are written 
with a circumflex on the last syllable ; and sometimes those 
words which have suffered syncope or synaeresis are cir- 
cumflected ; as poetd, fructus, a^ndsse^Jlesti^ dis. The cir- 
cumflex is put over the nominative nostrds^ instead of which, 
nostratis was formerly used ; likewise over genitives in zY, 
when one i is cut off by apocope ; as Pompilt regnum, Tar- 
quini fasces Hor. instead of Pompilii, Tarqidnii. 

The three preceding rules are, I believe, those usually given 
for the position of the Latin accents. Whether the word accent, 
as employed in them, was originally intended to be received in 
the sense of tone, or of emphasis or ictus, it may, perhaps, be con- 
sidered difficult to determine ; but, notwithstanding the previous 
definitions of the accents, as consisting in elevation and depres- 
sion of voice, I have little doubt, that these rules refer, solely or 
chiefly, to the situation of the ictus or syllabic emphasis. One 
thing clearly appears, from an inspection of the 2nd and 3d rule, 
the only rules, indeed, by which the pronunciation seems to be 
particularly affected, that our usual ictus or syllabic force, if not 
identical with the accent there intended, at least uniformly coin- 
cides with it on the same syllable ; as in Roma, homo, insons, em- 
phatic on the first syllable ; Romanus, imperator, parentes, ama- 
verunt, emphatic on the penultimate ; dominus, Virgilius, on the 
antepenultimate. It is almost needless to add, what is so well 
known, that the enclitics naturally incline our syllabic emphasis 
to the syllable immediately preceding them ; as amat, amatque. 
With respect to the nature of Accent, and indeed, generally, in 
all discussions regarding the nature and mutual relations of the 
accidents or properties essential to a note of speech, much diver- 

lius, exadversum and ajfatim. To these are added enimvero, dun- 
xaty and some others which may be seen in Priscian, Lipsius, 
or Vossius. Vossius observes, that although the accent may be 
on the antepenultimate in perinde and deinde, we are not to con- 
clude that it may be so in deinceps, and the like, where the last 
is long ; for that no word can be accented on the antepenulti- 
mate, when the two last syllables are long. The penultimate of 
vocatives in ius is accented, although it be short ; as Ovtdi, Vir- 
gili, Mercuri ; the reason of which is, that these words formerly 
had e after the z, which although they have dropped, they retain 
the accent on the same syllable as before. To these might be 
added a few others, as mulieris, which, according to Priscian, has 
the accent on the penultimate though short. 



sity of opinion is known to prevail. The subject, it must be con- 
fessed, is intricate, and involved in considerable difficulty. If, 
therefore, in the following humble attempt to elucidate some dis- 
puted points, and correct some prevailing misconceptions, it 
should be found, which he fears is not unlikely, that the writer 
himself has inadvertently lapsed into obscurity or error, he will 
have some claim on the reader's indulgence. 

Most of the errors, and contradictions, that so frequently oc- 
eur in discussions relative both to ancient and modern prosody, 
1 have reason to believe, may be traced chiefly to the following 
sources : 

1st. An imperfect knowledge, and a consequent confusion, of 
the three distinct properties essential to a note of speech, namely : 
1. Quantity, time, or dimension, comprehending the relative 
proportions denominated long and short , open and close. 2. Qua- 
lity, force, or emphasis, comprehending the properties denoted 
by the terms loud and soft, forte and piano, strong and feeble, em- 
phatic and remiss, or un emphatic, thetic, and in arsis ; the essence, 
we know, of rhythm, in all modern tongues. And, indeed, as 
the organs of speech cannot be supposed to vary, and, conse- 
quently, the process of verbal utterance, in all ages, must have 
been uniformly the same in kind or manner, we entertain not the 
smallest doubt, that the same prominent, unavoidable, and alter- 
nately or periodically obtrusive properties, constituted also the 
essence of rhythm in all the antient languages. 3. Tone, tune, 
or accent, comprehending ilie pitch, and the rising or the Jailing 
inflections, of words and syllables, termed the high and the low 
notes, the acute and the grave accents ; an accident in which 
chiefly consists the melody of speech. A note of speech, then, 
must be of some time ; and, whether it be long or short, it must 
be either emphatic or remiss; and, whether long or short, em- 
phatic or remiss, it must have some musical pitch, and be either 
an acute accent or a grave accent, that is, a rising inflexion or a 
falling inflexion, or a combination of the two; variations, however, 
which, in speech, do not commonly succeed each other, as is ge- 
nerally the case in music, per saltum, or at intervals, but in con- 
stant and almost imperceptible slides or undulations. Every vocal 
and articulate sound, therefore, possesses these three accidents. 
According, however, to the different genius of different languages, 
any one of the three may so far predominate, in the usual mode of 
speech, over the others, as to seem, from its prominence, the 
principal, if not the only, accident ; and, in a faulty or unna- 
tural pronunciation of a language, any one of the accidents may 
occasionally acquire undue preponderance. But we are not 
hence to infer that any one of them is utterly extinguished. Quan- 
tity, it is probable, may have obtained, at some period, most at- 
tention in the pronunciation of the antient languages, as quality 
now has in that of the modern tongues. Hence it may be, that 
the poetry of the former is regulated chiefly by a certain regard to 


long syllables and short ; and that of the latter by a similar re- 
gard to emphatic syllables and unemphatic. 

2d. The want of a distinct and specific notation for each of 
the, three accidents. 

3d. The circumstance, that length of quantity, emphasis, and 
the rising inflexion, are found to coincide most frequently on 
the same note; a coincidence for which it would not be difficult 
to assign a satisfactory reason. 

4th. The utter impossibility of recovering an accurate know- 
ledge of the accentual, or even of the cmphatical, pronunciation 
of a dead language 5 or, indeed, of fixing, by rule, the tones or 
accentuation of any language. 

5th. The notion that quantity, emphasis, and tone, necessa- 
rily interfere with and influence each other ; but yet that it is 
possible to read ivcll by quantity, without any observance of em- 
phasis or of tone ; or to read well according to emphasis, with- 
out any regard to tone or to quantity ; in other words, that it is 
possible to read the ancient languages well, neglecting, or sink- 
ing altogether, one or two of the accidents. 

6th. The want of a special, appropriate, and univocal proso- 
dical nomenclature. Hence, 1. The misapplication, at least 
among the moderns, of the term accent, to designate syllabic em- 
phasis ; a circumstance which has contributed to the almost uni- 
versal confusion of the two distinct qualities properly denomi- 
nated by these two different terms. 2. The common use of the 
term high, to designate the property of loud, and vice versa. 
3. The general acceptation of the word /ow>, as a correlative term 
both to loud and high. 4. The prevailing error in the grammars 
ot^ modern tongues, and in the writings of modern authors, of 
terming an emphatical syllable, a long quantity, and anunempjia- 
tical syllable a short quantity. 6. The two fold application to 
such words as voice, vox ; syllabic, syllaba ; of such verbs as 
lower, depono, demitto, dcprimo ; raise, elevo, acuo, attollo ; in re- 
ference either to the vocal slides or inflexions, or to the distinc- 
tions merely of softness or loudness sometimes in reference to 
quantity; see also Lily's 2d and 3d special rule. 6. The va- 
rious interpretations and acceptations of th