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O F 


Being a Tranflation of 


O R, 







Printed for R. H O R S F I E L D. No. 22, ludg^te Hreit. 


( ili ) 

P R E F A C E. 

^ OiMfe Friends, for whdfe judgment I 
kj' entertain the hi^hefl deference, hav- 
ing repeatedly requeried me to add an en- 
graving of each G nus of Jnfcds to the 
following Work, I think myfelf under an 
obligation to inform them of the reafons 
which prevented my complying with their 
defire. The extraordinary expence which 
Would have attended fcch engravings mufl 
neceffarily have enhanced the price o£ 
the Work, and defeated its principal dc- 
fign, by preventing a number of fuch per- 
fons as have mofi: occafion for it from pur- 
chafing it 3 this expence would have been 
fo much the greater, as it would not have 
fufficed to have figured one infed: of each 
Linna^an GenuS;, but would have been ab- 
folutely necefiary to have given one, at 
leall, of each family or fedtion of fuch ge* 
nera as contain infeds differing much from 
one another in their external appearance : 
add to this, that I could have done little 
a 2 more 


more than copy the excellent figures of 
Geofi'roy and Scha3fFer, the firft of whiclv 
are to be purchafed at as eafy a rate, per- 
haps, as I could have afforded them, with' 
the advantage of adding another ufeful 
work to the purchafer's library. As this 
book, however, is written in a language 
not univerfaily underflood, fuch perfons 
as think new engravings abfolutely necef- 
fary to the well underdanding Linnaeus's 
Syflem, will, I hope, foon have an oppor- 
tunity of procuring them ; for, fenfible 
that nothing is fo conducive to the per- 
fedlion of entomological fcience as the 
knowledge of the fpecies, I intend com- 
municating lo the Public defcriptions and 
figures, coloured after nature, of a large 
number of very rare infeds, from different 
parts of the world, amongft which will be 
contained fomc not met with in any col- 
ledlion but my own, and not defcribed by 
any author whatever. In this Work, I 
fliall endeavour to infert one fpecimen, at 
lead, of every LinniEan Genus, with the 
parts from which the generical charaders 
aje taken, delineated in fuch a manner as 



to obviate every difficulty, making, at the 
(.jmetime, fuch alterations in the fyftem of 
that author, as infers, with chara<5ters un- 
known to him at the time of his framing: 
it, fhall render abfolutely necefTary, 

With refpedl to the followinor (lieets, 
if, on the one hand, I have not anfvvered 
the expedtations of my friends, I flatter 
myfelf that I have exceeded them on the 
other, by extending my plan confiderably 
beyond the original defign ; for I have not 
only taken all the paiiis in my power to 
render the meaning of Linnieus as plain as 
poflible y but confidering that it would be^ 
an advantage to beginners to be acquainted 
with the fyilems of fome other authors, 
each of which has his feparate admirers, 
and has made confiderable alterations la 
that of LinnsEUS, I willingly undertook lo 
collate and compare thofe different Syf- 
tems, and explain the reafons which in- 
duced their authors to differ from their 
common Mader. The moft diflinguifhed 
among thefe are Geoffroy, Scopoli and 
SchaefFer -, the firO: of whom, in his Hif- 



toire Abregei des LifcBcsy publifhed at 
Paris in 1764, has belides changing the or- 
ders, or firfl: grand divifions, of the Lin- 
njean Syftem, formed from the different 
families of Linnsean genera^ many new 
genera, fome of them very judicioufly, 
others, perhaps, without fufiicient grounds. 
It may, however, befaid, in defence of his 
frequent diviiions of the Linnasan genefaj 
that, as his Syflem was a partial one, con- 
fined to the infeds of a fmall diflridl, he 
could not take notice, in his Work, of thofe, 
(as I may call them) intermediate infei^s, 
which connedl the feveral families, and 
prove them to belong to the fame genus, 
fuch infeds being frequently exotic. 

Scopoli, in his Entomologia Carniolica, 
publifhed at Vienna in 17 63, has made 
few alterations in the Linnaan Syflem ; 
but thofe feem every one to be well 
founded, and his fpecinc charaders equal 
thofe of LinuiTUS. Schxffer, in his Elementa 
Rntomologicet printed at Ratiibon, in 1766^ 
has followed Geoffroy with very few and 
inconfiderable variations; but his figures 




convey a pretty good idea of his genera, 
though they cannot be pronounced fuperior 
to thofe oF that author. I Hiould have been 
glad to have given fome account of the 
Syflcm of Poda, a fefuit, a work much 
praifed by Scopoh, which alone is fuffi- 
cient to convey an advantageous idea of ir, 
but have not been able to procure it, nor 
learn hov/ or in what he differs from 

The Reader will iind, that I have not 
only explained the circumdances from 
which the above-tncntioncd Authors have 
taken their claffical and ecnerical didinc- 
tions, but likewife the more minute ones, 
which induced them to form their 
genera into JeSiions or families. By thefe 
means the beginner, indead of contentino' 
himfelf with attending to a few of the 
more ftriking charaders, will be led to 
tile coriilJeration of every part of the in- 
fect j and as the bed: method of berominsr 
acquainted with thofe characters is the 
comparing of infe6ls known to belong to a 
certain particular genus, with the defcrip- 
tion given of that genus, I have taken care 



when I could learn it) to apply to each 
could it moft familiar Englifh name, by 
which any Ipecics belonging to it is known. 

If this Eftay Hiall conduce to the render- 
ing fo rational an entertainment as the 
contemplation and ftudy of the works of 
Nature more univerfal, or more pleafing, 
I (hall think my trouble more than re- 
paid, and wifh it no other fuccefs than that 
its defedls may induce fome more 
able Entomologift to favour the Public 
with, one more perfect. 


Page 2 5, 1. I, inilead of Cherma and Coccus, read, the Cbermet of Linnau%^ 
Pjge a6, 1. 6, fur gtnui ttaA g»nu!. Page 27, 1, zz, for An bari^ le^d 
jSutbors. FaL'e 4S, I, 17, ti r Crioteris, reaj Crhcerii. Page 49, 1. 3, 
ioT in gtvc^al, reari Jcr the mcji part. Page yg, I. 13, alter the woid 
trotcbtt aHd, and a feuccous, lateral, artitulated jivgsr j htmg Cs'c. Page 11 1, 
1.3, fot ci'itaimrg, read corfiJI'wg. Page iii, 1. i, tor hchfirm, read 
fheiiftrm. Pjge ii2, 1, 18, after the word tbey, add/c. Page 123, 
L 3, 4, orrjit the wordt like Cbtrmcs. Page 127, 1. 5, for gcnericsily, 
read ^emrally. Pjge 136, 1. 3, 4, for jomezvhai refembltng, read and 
Jome'w^'at reftmh/f. Prfg- 154, 1. J4, ioT latva, read lar'vee Id. I. 22, for 
i'brygar.enfVeiA Phrygania. Page 165, 1, 5, omU the word anrV, Page iSl, 
1, S, add atter the word ot generical, or. Id. 1, 9, for namely lead 
35a»r*, Pjge 20S, J. antipenuJt. tor their, read .'ix;. Page 209, fof 
midjile, read midd'e. Page 213, I. 16, for Volumella, lead VuiuuUm', 
Line 24, id. id Page 229, I. penult, for cb'yiahiy read cbryalidit 
P»ge 244, I. 3, for /arva, leod larva. 


LinnsEUs Syft. Nat. Vol. I. P. 2, P. 533'. 

Properties peculiar to Insects, and 
the Charadlers by which they are 
diftinguilhed from the other Clafles 
of the Animal Kingdom. 

INSECTS are fmall animals, having 
many feet, and breathing through pores 
arranged along their fides. Their {km 
(with which they are covered as with a 
coat of mail) is of a hard or boney con- 
liftence. They are furnifhed with moveable 
antennae, growing from the head, and 
A which 


which feem to be endued with an exqui- 
fite fenfe of feeling. 

The body of thefe animals is compofed 
of a head:, a trunks an abdomen^ and 

The head is for the mod part di{lin(fl 
from the trunks being attached to that part 
by a kind of articulation or joint. It is 
furnifhed with eycs^ antenna;^ and, in gene- 
ral, with a mouth, but want's brains, nojlrils, 
and ears, 

The eyes are moftly two in number, 
without eyelids. They are either fimple 
or compound, confiding of one or more 
lenfes, and are the organs of vifion in thefe 
as well as other animals. 

Mod infe(fts have two antenncey which 
are compofed of an indefinite number of 
articulations ; their ufe is as yet wholly un- 
known. They vary much in form, and 
are either 



Setaceous, growing gradually taper to- 
wards their point or extre- 

Tiliform, refembling a thread, being 
throughout of equal thick- 

Moniliform, confifting of a feries of 
knobs, like a necklace of beads, 

Clavatedy formed like a club, encreafing 
in thicknefs from the bafe to 
the point. 

Vapitated, encreafing in thicknefs to- 
wards their extremity, as the 
clubbed antennas, from which 
they arc diftingmfhed by the 
form of their laft or exterior 
articulation, which is larger 
and rounder than the others, 
forming a kind of capitulum, 
bt head^ 

A z Fifile, 


Fifiky which are like the laft-men- 
tioned, but have the head fplit 
or divided longitudinally into 
different //^/^j or lamince, 

PeBinafedy which have lateral appen- 
dices, refembling the teeth of 
a comb, or 

Bearded, refembling a feather. 

They are termed Jhort (breviores) when 
fliorter than the body, midling (mediocre^) 
when of equal length with the body, and 
long (longiores) when longer than that 

The palpi^ by fome called feelers^ are 
articulated, fixed to the mouth, and gene- 
rally either four or fix in number, confid- 
ing of 2, 4, 3, joints : thefe feem to ferve 

inftead of hands to infedts, they making 
ufe of them to approach their food to the 

mouth, and fuftain it while eating. 



The mouth is generally placed under 
the head, fometimes in the breaft ; it is 
furnifhed with a rojlrum or probojcis^ an 
upper Up ^ jaws placed tranfverfallyj /^^^/y^, a 
tongiie, and 2. palate-, fome infers have no 

lihQjietrjfnata or gems, are three bright 
convex fpots, or tubercules, placed upon the 
crown or upper part of the head. 

The trunk is the part fituate between 
the head and the abdomen ; fome of the 
feet are fixed to it ; the upper part of it 
is called the thorax, behind which is 
xhQ fcutellu?n, or efcutcheon (generally of a 
triangular form) for the infertion of which 
a piece appears to be cut put of the interior 
margin of each elytron : the under part 
is called ihtjlernum and hreaji. 

The abdomen, or lower body, contains the 

Jlomach, intejtines, and liifcera ; it confifts 

of five rings, or fegments, and is pierced on 

the fides with fpiracula, or pores, which 

A 3 fupply 


fupply the want of lungs j the upper part 
of it is called the tergiwiy or back, the un- 
der part the venter ^ or belly ^ which is ter- 
minated by the anus. 

The limbs are the tail and the feet, tq 
which (in many fubjedts) we may add the 


The tail terminates the abdomen , it 
fometlmes has two appendices, or horns, 
and Ibmetimes none ; it is ^lih^rjimple, or 
armed "vj'ith. a forceps, 2, fork, a brijlle, or 
a kind oi claw ov fting, which again is q.\- 
x\itY fmple, or compofed, fmooth, ov jagged 
like a faw. 

The feet arc compofed of Femora, or 
thighs (the joints immediately fixed to the 
body ;) tibia, or fiajtks (the fecond joints) 
the tarf^ which form the third fet, are 
compofed of an indefinite number of arti- 
culations, and are terminated by the un- 
gues, or nails : fomc have a kind of hand 

f chela } 


(chela) or claw, with a moveable thumb ; 
the hind feet are formed for executing dif- 
ferent movements, as running, leaping, 

The wings are, in fome fubjeds, two, 
in others, four in number, and are ei- 

Plain, ftretched out their whole length 
without folds; 

P Heat He, folded up -, 

B?'e5l, fuftained in an ered po.fition, (o 
that their extremities almofl meet 
above the back of the infe(fl j 

Patent, open, expanded, extended, in an 
horizontal pofition ; 

Jnciunbent, covering horizontally the abdo- 
men of the infed-^ 

JDcJleSfed, in their pofitionfomewhatrefem- 
bling the ridge of a houfe, decli- 
ning downwards along the fides of 
the infed, but in fuch a manner 
A A that 

8 G H A R A C T E R S, &c. 

that the Inner margins meet above 
the abdomen. 

Reverfedy which differ from the laft-men- 
tioned, in the pofition of the un- 
der wings, thefe being placed hor 
rizontally, fo that their edges pro- 
je<5t confiderably from under the 
margin of the upper ones, which 
lafl: are in the fame direction as in 
the deJleBed. 

Indent edy with the edges cut out or fcoUoped. ] 

Caudateciy in which qne or more of the 
fibres of the wings are fpread out 
or extended confiderably beyond 
the margin, into a kind of taiL 

Or Reticulated, when the veins or mem^ 
branes of the wing crofs one an- 
other fo as to refemble net-work. 

They are painted with fpots f macula) 
bands (fajcix^) Jireaks (firigce) which, 
>vhen extended lengthways, are called 



(linea) linesy and with fo'mts or dots 

T'he.y are marked with Jligmates, or 
fpots, (haped like kidneys, and adorned 
with ocelli, or eyes, which confifl of one 
or n^ore rings {the iris) endofing a fpot 
f the pupil J which in general is of a diffe- 
rent colour from the iris ; thefe are either 
in their upper or under wings, and on the 
upper or under fides of the wings. 

The elytra^ or wing-cafes, are two in 
number, of a cruftaceous fubftance, and 
cover the under wings 5 they are for the 
moft part moveable, asnd are either 

T^runcatedy cut off at their extremity in ^ 
diredl line. 

Spinous, with fpines or pointed elevations, 

Berrafed, with the exterior margin edged 
with fpines, or teeth, like a faw. 



* ■■!■■■'■-■■ - ■ ■ -- " ' ■ ■■ — --■■I " ■■■■■■■ — - ■ . ■ mmmmmmm^ 

Their fuperficies is either 

Scab?-cus^ rough. 

Striated J marked with flight or fhallow 

Pcrcatedy with fharp longitudinal ridges, 

Sulcatedy deeply furrowed : Or 

PunSfiiaied, marked with concave or con- 
vex fpots, 

^he upper wings, or wing- cafes, are call- 
ed hemelytra, when of a fubftance harder 
and flronger than the membranaceous 
wings which they cover, and yet fofter 
than the elytra of the Coleoptera. 

The halteres (poifers) are placed under 
the wings of Dipterous infeBs, or fuch as 
have but two wings, and probably ferve to 
keep their bodies in equiiibrio, when in the 
acfl of flying ; they are compofed of a head 
fixed at the end of a fmall pedicle or 



As to fex, thefe animals are either 
male ox female, which propagate their fpe- 
cies ; or neuters, which are incapable of ge- 
neration, and feem to be devoted to the 
fervjce of the other more perfecfl in- 

The meta?norphofis In many infcifls, is 
threefold, and confifts In a change of ftruc- 
ture, effected by the fubjed cafting the 
different coats in which the perfe<5l; 
infed is included, and as it were coa- 

The eggy containing the infedt in its 
fmalleft fize, or firft ftate, is expelled from 
the ovary, as in other oviparous ani- 

From the egg Is produced the larva, or 
caterpillar, which is of a moift or humid 
fubflance, fofter and larger than the cggy 
is without wings, flerile, or incapable of 
generation, flow in its motion, and is al- 
ways exceedingly voracious when it meets 
with the food to which it is mod addided, 



but more temperate when obliged to put 
up with that of which it is lefs fond. 
Many larvse have a great number of feefy 
Others have none. 

The pupa, or chryfaUs, is drier and 
harder than the larva, confined in a nar- 
rov/ compafs, and is either ?iaked, or co~ 
'vered with a kind of web; it often wants 
the mouth. Again, it is either 

I.. Compleat, having feet, and making ufe of 
all its limbs, as the Spider ( Ara^ 
nea) the Tick (Acarus) the Wood-- 
loiife fOnifcusj 

a. ^emi-compleat, or half compleat, which 
have feet, but only the rudiments, 
or, as it were, buds of wings, as 
the Graf shopper (GryllusJ the 
Froghoppcr f Cicada J the Bug 
(CimexJ the Dragon-Fly (LibeU 
lula) and the Ephemera. 

3. Inccmpleaty having feet and \yings, but 
which are immoveable, as in th,e 
Bee^ the Ant, and the Tipula, 

/^. Shrowded^ 


4. Shrowded (obteBa) wrapped up in a 

cruftaceous covering, of fuch a 
form, that the part which con- 
tains the head and thorax may be 
diftinguiflied from that wherein 
the abdomen is lodged^ as in 
Lepidopterous infeds. 

5. Straiteiied (coarBata) confined in a cafe 

of a globular make, not formed 
fo as to diftinguifli the different 
parts of the infed: it contains, as 
in the Mufcck (the Fly) and Oc- 
Jij'us (the Gad-fly, 

The infedt, efcaped from its laft prifon, 
is in the third, or perfed; ftatc, is adive, 
performs the work of generation, and is 
furnifhed with antenna, which it gene- 
rally wanted in its other forms. 

The ftrudure of the fame identical ani- 
mal is therefore threefold, which fuppofes 
a like complication in the fcience, fince, 
in order to know it well, we muft be ac- 
quainted with the three different flates 

through which it paffes. 



Thefe animals are mute when not pro- 
vi4ed with fome particular inftruhient fc- 
pirate and diftind from the mouth, with 
which they make a noife (as many do by 
the fridion of fome of their joints) and 
deaf, though they are by fome means fen- 
fible of the vibration of the air -, they are 
every where more in number than the fpe- 
cies of exifling plants, but feem fewer, on 
account of the greater field they have to 
range in. According to the climates they 
inhabit, they are either tropica/, arcikal, or 
€intar5ficaiy which lad, however, are as 
yet unknown. In point of duration they 
are iinnual (except fach as inhabit the 
waters) and, confidered as individuals are 
the fmalleft of animals, but, taken all to- 
gether, form. tLe greateft part (with re- 
gard to bulk) of the animal kingdom. 
Their influence in the (Economy of na- 
ture is likewife the g;-ea:eil:, but being 
more generally diffufeil, and from their 
miniitenefs lefs obvious, is not fo liable to 
be defeated, as if exercifed by larger ani- 
animals, v/hich fecurity is the more necef- 
2 fart- 



fary,astheyare the yearly fervants of Nature, 
appointed in fufficient number for the per- 
fedling fuch of her defigns as they are moil 
capable of accomplifhing, viz. preferving 
a due proportion among plants, confuming 
every thing that is mifplaced, fuperfluous, 
dead, or decayed in her produdlions ; and> 
laflly, becoming nourifliment to other ani- 
mals, and that chiefly to birds. 

Infefls are faid to hibahif thofe plants 
only upon which they feed, not thofe on 
which they fomctimes may be met vvith^ 
and trivial names, taken from that circum- 
ftance, are in general the beft, as being beO: 
adapted to the purpofe of rendering art 
fubfervient to the explication of the views 
and police of nature. It is in confequcnce 
of thefe views and regulations, that we 
find fome infects occupied in preparing, 
others in purifying, others, again, in de- 
ftroying (according to the different apart- 
ments allotted them) the materials onr 
which they work. 


O R T H E 


INSECTS are divided into different 
orders, from the circumflance of their 
having or wanting wings, and from the 
number or fubftance of which thofe parts 
are compofed, in fuch as are furniihed 
with them, as follows: 

1. Cokoptera. Which have four wings j the 

upper ones called the Elytra, 
are entirely cruflaceous, be- 
ing of a hardjhorny fubrtance, 
and join, or meet together, 
on the upper part of the bo- 
dy in a direct line or future. 

2. Hemiptera. Which have four wings ; 

the elytra differ from thofe 

of the former order in their 

B hardnefs 


2. Hemipura. hardnefs, rather refembling 

flrong parchment or vel- 
lum, than the horny fub- 
ftance of the Coleoptera ; 
they cover the body hori- 
zontally ; the inner margins 
extend the one over the 
other, not meeting in a di- 
redl line, as in the Cole- 

3. Lepidoftera, Which have four v^^ings, 

all membranaceous, and 
. imbricated, or covered with 
fcalcs, fixed upon them 
nearly in the fame manner 
as tiles are laid upon the 
roofs of houfes. 

4. Neuroptera, Thefe have likewife four 

membranaceous wings, but 
which are naked, not being 
covered with fcales as in the 
lafl mentioned genus , their 
abdomen is unarmed, or 
without afting. 

5. Hynt" 


5. Hymencptera. Which have four mem- 

branaceous naked wings, 
as the prcceeding order, but 
the abdomen armed with 
a fting. 

6. "Dipt era. Which have only two 

wings, being furnished with 
poifcrs or balancers, Hal^ 
Ures^ inftead of under 

7. Aptera, Or thofe which want wings. 

The mod: diftingtjjflied writers who have 
formed Syftems of Entomology befides our Au- 
thor, are, (as I have obferved in my Preface) 
Geoffroy, Scopoli, and Schjeffer ; each of thefe 
authors have purfued methods of arrangement 
very different from that of Linnasus, and from 
thofe of one another. I fhall now proceed to give 
an account of their firft, or general divifion, and 
fliew wherein that differs from the orders invented 
and laid down as above, by Linnseus. 

Geoffroy has divided this clafs of the animal 

kingdom into fix fcdions only, uniting the In- 

fefta Neuroptera and Hymenoptera of Linnseus, 

in his fourth, which accordingly conHfls of all 

B 2 fuch 


fuch infefis as have fonr naked membranaceous 
wings ; thefe he has arranged under different ar- 
ticles or orders, according to the number of 
joints, or articulations, of which their feet are 
compofed, rejefting Linns'.us's divifion taken 
from the circumftance of their having or want- 
ing flings, which, however, feems to argue them 
of very different natures and difpofitions. 

The order, or clafs, HymenopteroHy of Lin- 
nseus, indeed labours under one inconvenience, 
which may frequently miQead a beginner : I 
mean that of the male infedls wanting the fling, 
or^rincipal charaderiflic, which feparates them 
from the Neuroptera. He will, however, foon 
learn to diftineuifh them from infedls belongina- 
to that genus, by the fhape of their bodies, which, 
excepting thofe of fome Ichneumons, are Ihorter, 
thicker, and flrongcr than the bodies of the Neu- 
roptera j and particularly from the texture of their 
wings, in which the membranes run in general 
longitudinally, with very few crofs ones : where- 
as the larger veins are fo frequently croffed in the 
wings of the Neuroptera by fmall ones, as to 
make the wing refemble net-work. 

The Infe£ia Cokopfera, or fuch as have the 
elytra of an horny or cruflaceous fubftance, in 
their whole length, and the mouth armed with 
jaws, compofe the firfl fei^ion of this author,, 



which he has divided into three articles : The 
firft, containing thofe infeds whofe elytra arc 
cruftaceous or horny, and cover the abdomen 
entirely : The fecond, thofe whole elytra are 
likewife cruftaceous, but cover only a part of 
the abdomen : The third, thofe whole elytra are 
of a fofter fubftance than the foregoing ones, 
and almoft membranaceous ; This lad article 
coinprehends fuch of the Linnasan Infe£laHemip- 
iera as have the elytra, femi cruftaceous in the 
whole length, or lefs hard, than thofe of the 
Cokoptera, and the mouth furnifhed with jaws, 
as the gryllus, orgralshopper,&c. This feflion is 
farther divided into orders, from the number of 
articulations found in the feet of the different 
in feds which compofe it. 

His fecond fedion, or, lnfe5la Hemiptera^ 
contains fuch of Linn^us's Hemiptera, as have 
elytra femi-cruftaccous only to a certain diftance 
from their bafe, as the Cimex or Bug, &c. but as 
this feflion, in which he has attempted to corred 
LinnjEus, I think with fuccefs, would ftill, in 
that fituation, have remained very incompleat, 
the Kermes and Coccus which he had referred to 
it, having only two wings, and thofe of the 
Pfylla and Aphis being all four equally coria- 
ceous J he has taken his effential charade r frm 
the probofcis or roftrum, with which the mouths 
of all the infeds that compofe it are furniflied. 

B 3 This 


This probofcis, in mofl: of the genera, is placed 
in the head of the infedl, in others, (as the Pfyl- 
Ja, the Kermes and Coccus) in the bread, bc' 
tween the firft and fecond pair of legs. 

In the third fedion, or Injedla Lepidoptera, 
he agrees entirely with Linnaeus, as in his fifth, 
the Infe5fa Biptera^ and his fixth, the InfeSla 

In the Divifion of thefe feftjons into genera, he 
differs very much from Linnaeus, as will be fub- 
fequently fliewn. 

SchaefFer, who differs effcntially from Linnajus, 
and in fome things from Geoffroy, has divided 
his infedis into claffes, as follow : 

1. Inre(5ba Coleopteromacroptera, or infefls 
whofe elytra are cruflaceous in their whole 
length, and longer than the abdomen. 

This clafs comprehends the infefls ar- 
ranged by Geoffroy under the firft article 
of the Coleoptera. 

2. Infefta Colcoptero-microptera, differing 
from the former only in the length of their 
elytra, which, in this clafs, are not fo long 
as the abdomen. 



This clafs contains the infedls which com- 
pofc the fecond article of the Coleoptera 
in Geoffroy. 

3. Infe6la Coleoptero-hymenoptera, feu He- 
miptera, or fuch infeds as have the elytra 
half cruftaceous, or becoming membrana- 
ceous towards their extremity. 

4'. Infeda Hymeno-lepidoptera, or with wings 
imbricated with fcales. 

5. Infefba Hymeno-gymnoptera, or with na- 
ked and membranaceous wings ; in this 
clafs he has not only followed Geoffroy in 
uniting the Neuroptera and Hymenoptera of 
Linn^us, but has mod unnaturally arran- 
ged the different kinds of Grylli, as giaff- 
hoppers, locufts, crickets, and the blattse, 
or cockroaches, among wafps, bees, dra- 
gon-flies, and others of the fame nature. 

6. Infeda Diptera, or infefts having two 
wings 5 among thefe he has placed the 
Coccus and Cbermes, which two genera 
feem to form a new clafs, differing from 
all others but the Diptera in the number of 
their wings, and from that genus in their 
want of halteres or ballancers. 

B 4 7. In- 


7. Infefta Aptera, or without wings. 

The five firfl: claffes he has divided into orders, 
from the' number of articulations in their feet j 
and the whole into genera, as will be hereafter 

Scopoli agrees with Geoffrey in uniting all 
fuch infedts as have the elytra cruftaceous in 
their whole length, under the clafs Coleopteron. 
The Grylli, Mantes ^ and Blai t a, (grajs hopper s,zn<\ 
iockroaches) feem however to form a clafs entirely 
diftind from the Coleoptera, from the different 
confiftence or fubftance of their elytra ; the fhape 
of their heads, and the foftnefs of their bodies ; 
and from the Hemiptera, in their having the 
mouth armed with jaws, nor extended into a 
probofcis : Thefe reafons may probably engage 
fomc future fyftematic writer to unite them in a 
new clafs, which may be termed Infe^ia Hemely- 
trato-maxillofa ; preferving to the Hemiptera, the 
name of Infe^a Probofcidea, given to that clafs 
by Scopoli. 

The other orders into which Scopoli has divided 
his infefts, are the fame with thofe of Linn^us j 
only to the fifth order or Hymenoptera of that au- 
thor, he has given the name of lnfe5la Acukata^ 
from their fling -, to the fixth, or Infe£ia Dip- 
tera, that of the Hallerata^ doubtlefs to diftin- 



euifli that order from the Coccus and Chermes^ 
which have two wings, but want the halteres; 
and to the fevcnth, or Aptera^ that of Pedef- 

o rdo 

O R D O I. 


This order is known by the cruftaceous 
elytra which cover the wings, and contains 
the following genera. 

Gbnus I. ScARAB^us the Beetle, 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 361, 

The Scarabaeus is diftinguifhed by the 
following characters. The Antenna, or 
horns, terminate in a kind of club, which 
is divided longitudinally into different plates, 
or laminae, in fome feven, in moft three, 
in others two in number. 

The fecond joint of the anterior or fore- 
moft pair of legs, is armed with fpines or 


Scarab^us COLEOPTERA: 27 

Of this genus there are three fedions or 
famUies, diftinguifhed from one another as 
follows : 

1. Thofe in which the thorax i^ armed 
with horns. 

2. Thofe which have that part (imple 
or unarmed, but which have horns on their 

3. Thofe in which the head and thorax 
are both fimple or without horns. 

Some of the infedls belonging to each of thefe 
fannilies, are fcuteUati^ or furnilhed with the 
part called the efcutcheon, and others belonging 
likewife to each of them, are excutellati^ or wane 
that part. This circumftance has induced Schsf- 
fer and Geoffroy to divide the Scarabasi into two 
genera, the one called Scarabaus, containing 
fuch as have the efcutcheon, the other 
termed Opris, compofed of thofe which 
want it. 

The Scarabai in each of thefe two laft mention- 
ed anthors, are divided into different families or 
feflions, from the number of the plates or lami- 
nse, of which the club that terminates the an- 
tennas is compofed. 


9S ORDER I. Scarabseus. 

The Copres are divided into families by Schsef- 
fer, in the fame manner as Linnaeus has divided 
his Scarabasi, viz. from their having or wanting 
horns on the head or thorax. 

Scopoli has preferved the Linnasan genus entire, 
but has founded the divifions of it into fedtions, 
upon the number of fpines, or teeth, with which 
the fore legs of the different fpecies are armed. 

The beetle called the Bull comber, and the two 
others mentioned beneath, are familiar inftances 
of this genus. 

The Larvae, Caterpillars, or Grubs of many 
Scarab^i, lead a fedentary life under ground j 
moft of thefe delight in, and feed upon dung, 
whilft others, particularly thofe from which the 
hairy Scarabaei, fuch as the Garden Beetle and 
Cockchafer are produced, live under, and con- 
fume the roots of plants ; thefe laft having com- 
pleated their metamorphofis, feed on the leaves 
of plants; 


Lucanus. COLEOPTERA. 29 

Genus II. Lucanus the Stag-Beetle. 

LiNN. Syft. Nat. page 559. 

The antennae of the Lucanus end or 
terminate in a club or knob, but of a differ- 
ent nature from that of the preceeding ge- 
nus, the club being as it were comprefTed, 
or flattened on one fide, which part thus 
comprefTed, is divided into fhort plates or 
laminae, refembling the teeth of a comb. 

The Maxillay or Jaws, are flrong, por- 
red:cd or advanced before the head, and are 
armed with teeth. 

Schseffer and Geoffrey have given "to this ge- 
nus the name of Platycerus, without changing a- 
ny of its charaifleriftics. Geoffrey, however, has 
divided it into two families, from the form of the 
antenna ; the firfl: family contains fuch as have 
the antennae bent in the middle, and forming a 
kind of elbow or angle from the end of the firft 
articulation, which, in this divifion, is as long 
as all the others: The fecond comprehends thofc 
whofe antennae are ftraight, or extended, with 
the firfl articulation of the fame length as the 


so O R D E R I. Lucanos. 

Scopoli agrees with Linnasus in name and cha- 

The large Stag beetle is fufficiently known ; 
Its larva or grub, as mod probably thofe of all 
the other Lucani, lives in rotten or decayed wood, 
and refembles thofe of the foregoing genus. 

G £ N U| 

Dcrmeftes. COLEOPTERA. 31 

Genus III. Dermestes. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 561. 
The antennas of the Dermeftides end in 
a pcrfoliated club, or a head of an oval 
form, divided into different horizontal 
plates or leaves, which feem to be united 
together by a fmall ftalk pafling through 
their centre, and have three articulations 
thicker or larger fized than the others. 

The thorax is of a convex form, and 
flightly margined. 

The head is bent in, and as it were con- 
cealed under the thorax. 

SchsefFer and Geoffrey have taken from one of 
the Dermeftides of our author the genus they 
have termed Bojlrichius, This infedt differs from 
the other Dermeftides in the cubical (hape of its 
thorax, Its antennae are not perfoliated, but 
the three laft articulations are much larger than 
the others. 

The genus to which they have given the name 
oiC^ela feems like wife to belong to the Linnsean 
Dermeftis, from which it differs principally in 


21 O R D E R I. Dermeftes. 

having fix articulations of the antennae larger 
than the others, and in the conical form of its 
thorax, which is likewife without any margin. 

Geoffroy likewife adds to the charaflers by 
which Linnaeus diftinguiflies this genus ; that 
the lafl: articulation of the antennae is folid, which 
confideration, joined to that of the antennas in 
feveral of the Linnaean filphs, appearing rather 
to be perfoliated, than growing regularly thicker 
towards their extremity, probably induced him 
to refer fuch filphas to this genus ; thefe infcds, 
however, differ much more effentially from the 
Dermejiides than from the Silphce^ which lafl they 
perfedly refemble in their external appearance, 
in the flatnefs, breadth, and margin of their 
elytra, and the appendix or knob at the bafe of 
their hinder thighs, found upon all the Silpha?, 
and which Scopoli makes an efTential charadter- 
iftic of that genus. 

Geoffroy has likewife placed fome of the Lin- 
naean Dermeflides in which the lafl articulations 
of the antennae are longer than in the others, a- 
mong his Byrrhi^ the Linnaan Ptini, 

Scopoli has brought to this genus the Silpha 

Vefpilio of Linnsus, on account of its antennse, 

which are perfoliated. He obferves, that this 

3 animal 

Dermeftes. COLEOPTERA. 33 

infeci: keeps the middle line between, or conneds 
the two genera. 

The larvn?, or maggots of the Dermeftides, 
feed upon the carcafes of dead animals, every 
kind of vi(5luals, dried fl^ins, the bark of trees, 
wood and feeds. Some of them make terrible 
havoc in colledions of birds, infeds, herbs, &c. 
Thefe laft refifl: the drugs generally made ufe of 
in mufeums for the deftrudion of infefls, fuch 
as green wax, camphire, &c. but are killed by 


34 ORDER I. Ptinus. 

Genus IV. Ptinus. 

LlNN. Syfl:. Nat. page ^6^. 
The antennse of the Ptini are filiform : 
The lafi:, or exterior articulations are lon- 
ger than the others. 

The thorax is nearly round, with a mar- 
gin into which the head is received or 
drawn back. 

GeofFroy has given the generical name of Byr- 
rhus to feme of the Ptini, in which he has ob- 
ferved the antennse to be femi-clavated, or grow- 
ing fomewhat larger towards their extremity. 

To the Ptinus Pe^inicorntSy Linn. No. i. 
(which certainly differs much from the others of 
the fame genus, in r.he form of the antennae, 
they being (as its name infers) pedinated, and 
to another relemblicg it> he has given that of 
Ptilinus. That author likewife has placed the 
Ptinus Fw\ Linn. No. 5. among his Bruchiy 
from the fpherical form of its thorax. 

Scopoli has placed the fame infeft among his 
Bupreftidcs; he does not feem to have known 
the other infeds belonging to this genus. 


Ptinus. COLEOPTERA; 35 

The larvae or maggots of the P//»/, are found 
in the trunks of decayed trees, in old tables, 
chairs, &c. Some live and undergo their me- 
tamorphofes among hay, dried leaves, collefti- 
ons of dried plants, &c. 

C 2 GlMUf 

36 ORDER r. Hmer. 

Genus V. Hister. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page §66. 

The firft articulation of the antennae of 
this infedl is compreffed or flattened, and 
curve; the laft, or terminating one, is 
Confiderably larger than the others, and 
appears to be a folid knob. 

The head is drawn within the body, fo 
that the jaws only appear. 

The mouth is armed with jaws like a 

The elytra are fhorter than the body. 

The fore legs are dentated, as in the 

Geoffroy and Sehasffer have given the name 
of Attehhus to this genus, preferving all its 
chara6teriflics, adding, however, that the anten- 
nae are broken, or form an angle from the end 
of the firll articulation, and that the feet are 
curforii, or made for running. 

The firft has obferved that the capitulum, or 

knob of the antennae which appears to be folid, 

2 is 

Hiaer. coleoptera: 


is compofed of feveral rings or circles ftrongly 
united together, but which the infe£l can fepa- 
rate and difplay, or contrail at pleafure^ 

Scopoli agrees with Linnreus like wife in 

The infefls belonging to this genus, as well 
as their larvas are frequently met with in the 
dung of hories, cows, &c. 

C 2 Gewus 

38 O R D E R I. Gyrinus. 

Genus VI. Gyrinus, 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page gSy. 
The antennae of this infedt are club- 
formed, ftifF, and fhorter than the head. 

It has four eyes, two on the upper, and 
two on the under fide of the head. 

Geoffroy adds to the above charaders that the 
feet are natalorii or formed for fwimming. 

Scopoli has arranged the Gyrinus along with 
the Dytifci, from which it differs effentially in 
the number of its eyes and the form of its anten- 
nae; thefe indeed in fome of the Dytifci are 
clubbed, but the club is perfoliated, nor are the 
antennas ftiff as in the Gyrinus^ 

The infeifr called the Water-flea belonging to 
this genus, is very frequently met with in (land- 
ing waters, and eafily diftinguifhed by its fhin- 
ing black colour, and the fwiftnsfs and circular 
diredion of its motion in fwimming. 

I do not know that its larva has yet been ob- 
ferved, but it may probably be found along with 
that of the Dytifcus, which without doubt it 


Byrrhus. COLEOPTERA. 39 

Genus VII. Byrrhus. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 568. 

The antennre cf the Byrrhus are club- 
formed, and terminate in a capitulum or 
knob, which is of an oval form, rather 
comprefled or flattened, and almoft of a 
foUd fubftance, {fub folidum,) 

Geoffrey and Schseffer agree with Linnaeus in 
the definition of this genus, to which they have 
given the name oi Anthrenus^ the infecls belong- 
ing to it being generally found upon flowers. 

Schffiffer has added to the charafters afilgned 
to i-t by our author, that the head is bent, or in- 
clined downwards, and hid under the thorax ; 
which particularity is of great fervice in diftin- 
guilhing this infeft, the form of the antennas a^ 
lone being fcarcc fufficient for that purpofe. 

Geoffrey obferves that the larvse of the An- 
threni are found upon plants, or in the bodies 
of half decayed animals ; they often undergo 
their metamorphofis in the bodies of preferved 
ir.feiSts, which they reduce to powder. 


40 O R D E R I. Silpha. 

Genus VIII. Silpha. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page ^6^. 

The antennas of the Silphse are fmall a£ 
their bafe, and grow infeniibly thicker to- 
wards the end. 

The elytra have a margin. 

The head is prominent. 

The thorax is rather flattened, with a 

SchjefTer has 'compofed two genera from the 
Silphas of our author. The one named Silpha^ 
containing fuch Linn^an Silpha as have the 
margins of the head and thorax moft apparent, 
and the thorax more convex : The other, called 
Pehis^ compofed of thofe in which the margin 
of the elytra is Icfs apparent, and the thorax flatr 
ter than in the others. 

Geoffrey has arranged feveral of thofe infc(rr§ 
among his Dermeftides, and of the others ha% 
form.ed the genus Peltis, containing fuch as 
have the thorax and elytra more (Irongly mar- 
gined, and whofe antenna appear to be be per- 


Silpha. COLEOPTERA, 41 

Scopoli adds to the Linnseanchara<5ters of the 
Silphse their having a kind of lamina or knob, 
which terminates in a fpine, fjtuate at the bafc 
of their hinder thighs, 

Many of the Siiphas are found early in the 
fpfing, under theloofe bark of trees, and they, 
a.s well as their Lirvic, feed chiefly on the half- 
fdecayed carcafes of animals. 


42 O R D E R I. CafTida. 

Genus IX. Cassida, the Tortoise 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 574. 

The antennae of the Caffida are nearly 
filiform, but grow fomevvhat thicker to- 
wards the end. 

The elytra have a broad margin. 

The head is entirely concealed under 
the thorax. 

The thorax is flat and margined, form- 
ing a kind of {hield for the head. 

The infe(ft called the Green Tortoife Beetle, 
belongs to this genus. 

The larvs of the Caffida eat the under fide of 
the leaves of plants, and ofcen, as it were, hide 
themfelve^ under a cover of their own excre- 
ments, fupported in the air above their bodies, 
by means of their forked tail. 

Schseffer and Geoffroy have adopted this genus 
without any alteradons. The latter obferves, 
that the antennse are ncdofce, knotty, or com- 
pofed of large articulations. Scopoli has refer- 
red to it the Lampyrides No^iluca and Sangui- 
3 nea, 

Caffida. COLEOPTERA. 43 

nea^ though thefe two iniefts feem to differ much 
from the Caflidas in the form of the fegments 
of their belly, which terminate on each fide ia 
round and fofc appendices ; the belly of the Caf- 
fida on the contrary is fimple. 

The oblong form and flatnefs of the abdomen 
in the lampy rides ferves likewife to diftinguifh 
them from the Caffida, which lad are almoft o- 
val, with the abdomen much more elevated in 
^he middle than on the fides ; from which cir- 
cumftance the name of Tortoife Beetle has been 
given to it in our language. 


44 O R D E R I. Coccinella. 

Genus X. Coccinella. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page ^yg» 

The antennae of the CoraW/tf are fub- 
clavated, or increafe a little in thicknefs 
towards the end. The laft joint appears as 
if the end of it was chopped off. 

The palpi are club-formed, the laft ar- 
ticulation being (haped fomewhat like a 

The body is hemifpherlcal. 

The thorax and elytra are margined. 

The abdomen, or belly, is flat. 

This genus is fubdivided into fedions 
from the colour of the elytra, and of the 
fpots with which they are adorned, as fol- 
lows : 

1. Thofe whofe elytra are red or yellow, 
with black fpots. 

2. Thofe fpotted with white, on a redor 
yellow ground. 

3. Thofe 

Cocclnelli. COLEOPTERA. 45 

3, Thofe with black elytra fpottcd with red. 

4. Thofe with black elytra, and white or 
yellow fpots. 

Scopoli Tays that the Ccccinella differs chiefly 
from the Chryfomela in the length of the antenna, 
thofe of the Coccinella being fhorter than the 
thorax, but in the Chryfomela twice the length 
of that part. The antenna differ likewife in 
fhape, thofe of the lafl mentioned genus being fi- 
liform, or throughout of equal thicknefs, whe- 
reas thofe of the Coccinella grow thicker towards 

the end. 

Schjeffer and Geoffroy agree with Linnasus in 
the charaders of this genus. 

The larvse of the Coccinella devour the A- 
phides, and by that means contribute to cure 
plants which thofe animals infeft, of the Phi- 
ibiriafis, or loufy difeafe. 


'4^ O R D E R I. Chryfomela* 

Genus XL Chrysomela. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 586; 
The antennae of the Chryfomela are'com- 
pofed of little globular articulations which 
grow larger towards the end ; and fome- 
what refemble a necklace of beads. 

Neither the thorax nor elytra have any 

Linnaeus has divided this genus into fa- 
milies, as follows: 

1. Thofe whofe bodies are of an oval form. 

2. Thofe whofe hinder thighs are much 
thicker than the others, being faltatoriae, 
or made for leaping. 

3. Thofe whofe bodies are of a cylindrical 

4. Thofe of an oblong form, and in which 
the thorax is broader or wider than the 

5. Thofe 

Chryfomela. COLEOPTERA. 47 

5 Thofe which are long, of a llender 
make, and which have the thorax of e- 
qual breadth with the abdomen. 

Linnasus obferves that this laft mentioned 
family differs a Httle from the preceding 
ones, being more oblong, and the body more 
elevated in the middle than on the fides, 
but that he had not been able to difcover 
the limits ^by which they fhould be diftin- 
guifhed, nor any other genus under which 
they could be more properly arranged. 

From thcfe different kinds of Chryfomela: 
Geoffrov has formed feveral genera, viz. 

The Gakrtica, which differs from the other 
Linnsan Chryfomelas in the roughnefs and mar- 
gin of its thorax. 

The Chryfomela, whofe thorax is fmooth and 

The Cryptocephalus, thearticulations of whofe 
antennse are rather longer than in thofe of the 
other LinnjEan Chryfomelse, and the thorax of 
an hemifpherical form. 


4^ ORDER I. Chryfomela, 

The Crioceris^ which differs from the other 
genera in the cyhndrical form of its thorax. 

The Jbiaperis^ the articulations of whofe an- 
tennas being rather larger than in the other fpe- 
cies of the Linnsean Chryfomela, appear to be 
perfoliated. The thorax in this genus, of which 
he has only one fpecies, is convex and margined. 

The AUicay which genus comprehends that 
family of the Linnsean Chryfomclas, whofe hin- 
der thighs are made for leaping. 

The Mdolontha^ whofe antenna are ferrated, 
or with lateral appendices like a faw, and pla- 
ced on the fore part of the head before the eyes. 

ScH.(EFFER has followed Geoffroy in thefe al- 
terations, adding, that the head of the Cripto- 
cephalus is drawn back within the thorax ; that 
of the CrioeeriSy on the contrary, is ftretched 
forwards, or porreded. 

ScopoLi has arranged fuch of the Linnsean 
cval Chryfomelas as have the antennas fcarce fo 
long as the thorax, among his Coccinellse, others, 
"whofe heads appear to be a little drawn in, or, 
as it were, half hid under the thorax, among his 
bupeflrides ; and thofe of the fourth divifion, in 
which the thorax is rather broader than the head 
and body, among his Attelabi. 


Chryfomela. COLEOPTERA. 49 

The diftindions from which GeofFroy and 
SchrefFer have formed fo many new genera, are 
in general too trifling to be taken for generical j 
in which cafe, the multiplication of genera, in- 
ftead of elucidating the fcience, ferves but to 
render it more obfcure. 

The larvas of the Chryfomelse confume the 
pulp of leaves, reje(5ling the fibres : Thofe of 
the Chryfomela Saltatorise infefl: the cotyledons 
and tender leaves of plants. 

The infed called the Lady Cow, or Lady 
Bird, belongs to this genus. 

D Geni/s 

5© O R D E R I. Hifpa. 

Genus XII. Hispa. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 609. 

The antennas in this genus are fufiform, 
growing gradually larger from each extre- 
mity towards the middle : they are fituate 
between the eyes, and are placed fo near 
one another at their bafe, as to feem to a- 
rife from the fame point. 

The thorax and elytra are in general co- 
vered with protuberances or fpines. 

Geoffrey has placed the only fpecies belong- 
ing to this genus, which he had met with in 
France, among his Crioceres, the oblong Chry- 
fomelse of Linnaeus. The fhape of the antennae 
and their fituation, however, fufficiently diftin- 
guifh the Hifpa from that genus. 

The larva of the Hifpa feems to be yet 
wholly unknown •, there are but two fpecies 
of the perfedb infed found in Europe, and they 
are to be met with at the roots, or on the blades 
of different kinds of grafs. 



Genus XIII. Bruchus. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 604. 

The antennas of the Bruchi are filiform, 
growing thicker towards their extremity. 

Linnseus's definition of this genus is compre- 
hended in thefe few words-, and thetwoclrcum- 
flances from which the infed: is to be difcovered 
contradiflory, as fiHform antennas are through- 
out of equal fize j neither does he give fuch a 
defcription of any one of the fpecies arranged 
under it as can enable us to diflinguifli the 
Bruchus from other genera. I have only ken 
one fpecies, the Bruchus Pifi, in which the an- 
tennae are placed exaftly before the eyes, and 
are compofed of triangular articulations growing 
larger towards their extremity, with the lad one 
of an oval form. It has four palpi feated at the 
extremity of a probofcis which is rather broader 
than it is long. The elytra are rounded at their 
extremity, and a fourth part fhorter than the ab- 
domen. Whether or no thefe are generical cha. 
rafters, by which the other infers belonging to 
the Bruchus may be diilinguifhed, will beft be 
obferved by thofe who poffefs a greater number 
of the fpecies defcribed by Linnaeus. This in- 
fed is arranged by Scopoli under the genus term- 
Da ed 

52 O R D E R I. Bruchus. 

ed by him Laria, to which he afllgns the fol- 
lowing charaflers : The antennas larger towards 
their extremity •, the thorax elevated in the mid- 
dle and rounded towards the fides •, the knob fi- 
tuate at the bafe of the thighs in the Silpha is 
wanting in this genus. 

The fame infeft is placed by Geoffrey with 
his Mylabres, which genus, he fays> equally rc- 
fembles his Chryfomelse, and the Linnasan Cur- 
culiones, conncfling the two genera. 


Curculio. COLEOPTERA. 53 

Genus XJV. Curculio. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 506. , 

The antenna? of the Curculio are fub- 
clavated, and feated in a roftrum or probof- 
cis, which is of a horny fubftance, and 

The CurcuHones are divided into the fol- 
lowing fedioHiS : 

1. Thofe which have the rod rum longer 
than the thorax, and whofe thighs are 
limple, without teeth or fpines. 

2. Thofe in which the roflrum is longer 
than the thorax, and the thighs dentated, 

3. Thofe which have dentated thighs, and 
the roflrum fhortcr than the thorax. 

4. Thofe whofe thighs are fimplc, and ro- 
flrum fhorter thau the thorax. 

Scopoli obferves that the Curculio is a nugglHi 

infefl, and that it endeavours to efcape its foes 

by contra6ting its members and letring itfelf fall 

to the Qiround. That author fwho didino-uifiies 

D 3 this 

54 ORDER I. Curculio. 

this genus by the fame charaders as Linnasus) 
has divided it into two families, the firfl: where- 
of comprehends thofe which have ftraight or ex- 
tended antennas j this family is fub-divided into 
the following fedlions : 

I. Thofe in which the roftrum is thicker than 
the thighs and fliorter than the thorax -, among 
thefe he has placed fome Linnsean Attelabi. 

2. Thofe which have the roftrum thicker than 
the thighs and longer than the thorax. 

3. Thofe in which the roftrum isfmaller than 
the thighs and longer than the thorax ; the thighs 
in fome of the infers belono;ing to this fedtion 
are dentated^ in others, mutica^ or without fpines. 

The fecond family confifts of thofe whofe an- 
tennas are bent or form an angle, and contains 
the following fub-divifions : 

1. Thofe with the roftrum larger than the 
thighs, which zxtfpinof^^ or armed with fpines. 

2. Thofe with the roftrum as in the other, 
but without fpines on the thighs. 

3. Thofe with the roftrum fmaller than the 
thighs, which are unarmed, or without fpines. 


Curculio. CCLEOPTERA. ^^ 

GeofFroy divides this genus (which with him 
is limited to fuch Linna^an Curculiones as have 
antennae bent, or forming an angle in their 
middle) into two families, from the circum- 
ftance of the thighs being armed with, or want- 
ing fpines. 

To others of them which have extended, or 
ftraight antenna, Cthofe belonging to the firft 
family of Scopoli's Curculiones) he has given 
the generical name of Rbincmacer^ under which 
genus he has likewife arranged fome Linnsan 

The genus named by him Mylahris, fecms to 
belong to the Curculio of our author; he has di- 
ftinguifhed it by the following characters. 

The antcnnce growing larger towards the end 
compofed of hemifpherical articulations, and 
placed upon a fhort and broad roftmm or pro- 

Four fmall antennas ("perhaps palpi) placed at 
the extremity of the probofcis. 

Schseffcr has followed Geofiroy in thefe di- 
Tifions of the Linnjcan Curculiones. 

D 4 The 

gS O R D E R I. Curculio. 

The larvae of the long beaked Curculiones 
live upon fruits, feeds of different plants, and 
corn, often making terrible havoc in granaries. 

Thofe of the fhort beaked ones devour the 
leaves of plants j many of them pierce and lodge 
in the ftalks. 

The infed called the Weevil by farmers, be- 
longs to this genus. 


Attehbus. CCLEOPTERA. 57 

Genus XV. Attelabus. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 619. 
The Attelabus is dlilinguiOicd by the 
fhape of its head, which is broader in the 
forepart (occafioned by the prominency of 
the eyes) than behind, or which tapers 
gradually from the eyes towards the thorax. 

The antennas are thicker towards their 
extremity than at their bafe. 

This genus Linnseus obferves is very obfcure, 
the infers arranged under it differing much from 
one another in their external appearance. This 
obfcurity I imagine however rather to proceed 
from his not having known a fufHcient number 
of infefls proper to be arranged under it, and 
his placing with thofe that are, fome others, 
fas the Clerus of Geoffrey) in which the ge- 
nerical charaders he affigns to it are not found, 
rather than from any defect in the charaders 
themfeives, having lately obferved in different 
colledlions many exotic infeds vv'hich anfwer 
moft exadly his definition of the Attelabus. If 
fome infeds which he has referred to it, were 
rejcded, the genus, I think, would be very 
diftinguilhable, and fufhciently numerous. 


St ORDER I. Attdabus. 

Scopoli diftinguiflies the Attelabi by the fol- 
lowing charaders. 

The hinder part of the head gradually dimi- 
nifhing in fize. 

The eyes prominent. 

The thorax fomewhat broader than the dia- 
meter of the head, taken from one eye to the o- 
ther, and of a more cylindrical form. 

Among thefe he has arranged fome of the 
Linnsean Chryfomelse, whofe bodies are ob- 
long, and narrower than the thorax. 

Some of the Linnasan Attelabi are placed by 
him among hisCurculiones. 

The Clerus of Geoffroy and Schasffcr is taken 
partly from this genus, and partly from ihe Der- 
meftes of our author. They have given to 
that genus the following charaflers : 

The antennse club-formed, and placed on the 
head, the knob compofed of three articulations. 

No probofcis. 

The thorax almoft cylindrical, without any 


Attelabus. COLEOPTERA. 59 

The under fide, or plant of the feet, fpongy. 

They have arranged fuch Attelabi as moft 
refemble the Curculiones, under the genus Rhi^ 
nomacer^ from which, howevt^r, thefe feem to 
differ eflentially in the fuuation of the antenna?, 
which, in the Aitelabus are placed upon the 
head, but in the Rhinomacer upon theroftrum. 

The larvse of many of the Attelabi refemble 
fo much thofe of the Curculiones as not to be 
diftinguiflied from tlifm without difficulty. 


6o O R D E R I. Cerambyx. 

Genus XVI. Cerambyx. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. Pag. "621. 

The antennae of the Ccrambycss are 
compofed of articulations, which gradually 
diminifli in fize as they approach towards, 
or are lituate nearer to the extremity. 

The Thorax is either armed with fplnes 
or gibbous made uneven by fmall eleva- 

The Elytra are narrow, and through- 
out of equal breadth. 

This Genus is divided into fedions, from 
the form of the thorax, and that part being 
or not bein^ armed with fpines, as follows : 

1. Thofe which have the thorax armed 
on each lide with moveable fpines. 

2. Thofe in which the thorax is mar- 
gined, and iides armed with fpines. 

3. Thofe 

Cerambyx. COLEOPTERA. 6t 

3. Thofe in which the thorax is round, 
and armed with fixed fpines. 

4. Thofe which have the thorax nearly of 
a cylindrical form, and unarmed, or 
without fpines. 

5. Thofe which have the thorax of a 
roundiih form, refembling a globe 
flattened or deprelTcd on the upper fide. 

Scopoli has affigned the power of emitting a 
found or noife, by the friflion of the thorax, 
where joined to the body, as a charader of the 
Cerambyx •, this vague definition has occafioned 
his placing feveral of the Linnsan Cerambyces, 
which want that property, among his Lepturs: : 
he makes only two divifions of the remaining 
Cerambyces, the firft containing fuch as have 
the thorax armed with fpines ; the other, thofe 
in which that part is unarmed ; this method 
is more fimple than that of Linnsus, and per- 
haps as proper, in colledions confiding v/holly 
of European infcdts. 

GeofFroy and SchasfFer have formed feveral 
new genera from the different kinds of Ceram- 


6t ORDER I. Cerambyx. 

To thofe which have ferrated antennae placed 
in the eyes, or furrounded at their bafe 
by the eyes, they have given the generic name 

To thofe whofe antennae grow gradually taper, 
from the bafe towards their extremity, and are 
placed in the eye, they have preferved the name of 
Ceramhyx ; the thorax in this genus is armed with 

Others with fetaceous antennae placed in the 
eyes, and the thorax of a cylindrical form, with- 
out fpines, they have arranged along with their 

The antennas in their Jienocorus taper to- 
wards their extremity, a£ thofe of the Ceram- 
byx, but they are placed before the eyes, and 
the elytra diminilh in breadth towards their 
point. This genus is divided into two fami- 
lies, the firft of which only belong to the Lin- 
nsean Cerambyces, being fuch as have the 
thorax armed with fpines, the other, in which 
the thorax is unarmed, belongs to the Lepura 
of our author. 

The infeft generally known by the name 
of the Goat-Chafer, or Mufk- Beetle, is a 
Cerambyx, and as its thorax is round, and 


Cerambyx. COLEOPTERA. 63 

armed with fixed fpines, it muft belong to the 
third family of our author. It is frequently 
found on the willow in the autumn, and fmells 
like mufk, from which circumftance its name 
is taken. 

The larvse of the Cerambyces nourifli 
themfelves with the interior fubftance of trees, 
into which they penetrate, and where they live 
and perform their metamorphofis. 


6.| O R D E R I. Leptiira. 

Genus XVII. Left ur a. 
I.iNN. Syft. Nat. Pag. 6i^. 

The antenna of the Lepturs are feta- 
ceous, growing gradually taper towards the 

The Elytra diminish in breadth towards 
their extremiy. 

The thorax is of a roundifli and flender 

This eenus is divided into two fed:ions, 
the firft containing thofe in which the 
thorax is fomewhat oblong, but broader at 
its bafe than where joined to the head, and 
whofe elytra are truncated or cut off at 
their extremity, in a dire(flline ; the fecond 
comprehends thofe in which the thorax 
is nearly of a globular form, and whofe 
elytra are obtufe at their extremities. 

Scopoli obferves, that the elytra of the Lep- 
turas are fliff, nor flexible as in the Cantharis. 

I The 

Leptura. COLEOPTERA* 65 

The Genus, termed by Geoffroy Leptura^ is 
compofcd of fuch Linnasan Cerambyces as have 
fetaceous antennae, furrounded at their bafe by 
the eyes, and the thorax naked or without fpines, 
and fuch of the Lepturse of our author as have 
their antennae fituate in the eye : in this he is fol- 
lowed by SchsefFer ; the remaining Leptur^e 
are referred by thefe two authors to their 7?^»5- 
corus^ as before obferved. 

The larvae of this genus are found with thofe 
of the preceding one, and much refemble them 
in outward appearance and way of life. 

Dr. Berkenhout has called fome of the Lin- 
nsean Lepturge JVafp Beetles. I am not cer- 
tain whether they are generally known by that 


66 O R D E R I. Necydalis.. 

Genus XVIII. Necydalis. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 640. 

The antennae of the Necydalis are feta- 
ceous, as in the foregoing genus. 

The elytra are either fhorter than the ab- 
domen, or narrower, and of the fame 
length with that part. 

This genus is divided into two families : 
The firft containing thofe which have elytra 
ihorter than the wings and abdomen ; the 
other thofe in which the elytra are as long 
as the body, but narrower, being fhapcd 
like an awl, or drawn to a point, and a 
little curve at their extremities, 

SchxfFer has confined the genus Necydalis, 
to one infeft, the Necydalis Major, Linn. No. 
I. The others belonging to the fame feflion, he 
has arranged under his Mylabris, on account of 
their antennas, which according to him are fili- 
form, and placed upon a Ihort probofcis; the 
Necydalis of the fecond family or fedion, he 
has arranged among his Leptur^, from their an- 
tennae bfing frated in the eyes. 

3 Thefe 

Necydalis. COLEOPTERA. I6f 

Thefe lafl: are placed by Scopoli among his 

The infefts belonging to the firfi divifion o^ 
this genus, differ from the Staphilini in the want 
of the little veficleSj or bladders, which thefe 
lafl frequently thrufl, or (boot out of the hinder 
part of their abdomen, when in diflrefs, and irt 
their antennas ; they differ from all the other Co- 
leopterous infeds, in their wings being extended 
their whole length, nor folded up under the e- 
lytra, which, on that account, feem to be of 
lefs ufe to the Necydalis than to the other genera 
belonging to that order, fince only fo much of 
the wing as is covered by the elytron can be pre- 
ferved by it. 

I do not find that the larva of the Necydalis 


has been known to any author. 


68 O R D E R I. Lampyns. 

Genus XIX. Lampyris. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 643. 
The antennsE of the Lampyris are filiform. 

The elytra are weak and flexible. 

The thorax is flat, and of a femiorbicular 
form, furroundingand concealing the head. 

The fegments of the abdomen termi- 
nate on each fide m papilla^ or litde appen- 
dices, which turn, or are bent upwards to- 
wards the elytra, and in part cover one ano- 

The females, in general, want wings. 

Scopoli, who has only defcribed two fpeciei 
of this genus, has arranged them with the Caf- 
fida of Linnseus, giving to that genus the fimple 
chara6lerifl:ic of the head being concealed under 
the thorax. That charadcr the Lampyris has in 
common with the Caffida, from which, howe- 
ver it differs in the length and flatnefs of the bo- 
dy, in the fhape of the antennse, which in the 
Caflldagrow thicker towards their extremity, and 
in the papilla, or folds of the abdomen, which 


Lampyris. COLFOPTERA; 6if 

arc wanting in the lafl nn ntioned genus, and ferve 
more particularly to difcinguirti the Lampyris. 

GeofFroy and Sch^rffer give the fame charac- 
ters to this genus as Linnaeus. 

The Pyrcchra of the lad meniioned author is 
a Linn^an L ampyris, with antennae pedinated 
on the one fide. 

The larvsK of thofe Lampyrides we are ac- 
quainted with, perfedlly refemble the female in- 
fe(5t, and feed upon leave s. 

The infed called in our language, the o-Iow- 
worm, from the fhinin^ light which ir emits, and 
which is fo frequently met with in the evenings 
about the month of June, in woods and mea- 
dows, belopf^s to this s^nu*, 

^ 3 Gfnvs 

70 O R D E R r. Camharis. 

Genus XX, Cantharis, 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 647. 

The antennae of the Cantharis are feta» 

The thorax is margined, and (horter than 
the head. 

The elytra are flexible. 

The fides of the abdomen are edged with 
papillae, or appendices, folded upwards, as 
in the preceding genus. 

The Cantharides are divided into two 
fedions ; the firft diftinguiflied by the flat- 
nefs and breadth of the thorax, which 
part in the other is rounded on the fides and 

Scopoli, who defcribes under the fame gene- 
ric title fuch of the Linnaean Cantharides as he 
had found in his country, and which all belong 
to the firft feftion of our author, obferves, thaE 
the thorax, under which a part of the head is 
concealed, is of a convex form, 


Cantbarls. COLEOPTERA. 71 

Geoffroy has given the generical name oi Ci- 
cindela to fuch of the Linnjean Cancharides as he 
has defcribed. He differs from LiniicEus in his 
opinion of the form of the antennse j which, ac- 
cording to him, are filiform rather than feta- 

His Pyrochroa is a Linnasan Cantharis, with 
pe6tinated antennae. The generical name of 
Cantharis he has given to the winged Meloes of 
Linnaeus, or thofe of his fecond fedion. 

SchaefFer has given the generical name of Tele- 
phorus to fome Linnasan Cantharides, which dif- 
fer from the others in the number of the articula- 
tions of which their tarfi are compofed. He has 
placed others of them, in which the antennae are 
feated in the eyes, and the thorax flat, with a lefs 
perceptible margin than in the others, among, 
his Lepturse. 

The larva of the Cantharis was almoft un- 
known to Linnasus, and wholly fo to Geoffroy. 
My ingenious friend Mr. Curtis has lately difco- 
vered it, and obferved the metamorphofis of fome 
of them ; they refemble thofe of the Cerambyx, 
and were found in the decayed trunk of a willow. 

E4 Genus 

fi O R D E R I. EUter. 

Genus XXI. Elater. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 651. 

The antennae of the Elater are feta- 

An elaftic ipring or fpine projects from 
the hinder extremity of the breail or un- 
der fide of the thorax. 

The infefl, when laid upon its back, 
rifes and fuftains itfelf upon the anterior 
part of its head, and the end, or point, of 
its abdomen or elytra, by which means the 
fpine of its bread is withdrawn from out of 
a groove or cavity of the abdomen, where it 
is lodged when in its natural pofitionj; 
then fuddenly bending its body, the fpine 
is ftruck with force acrofs a fmall ridge, or 
elevation, into the cavity from whence it 
was withdrawn, by which (hock, the parts 
of the body before fuftained in the air, are 
it) fortibly beat againft whatever the infedl 
13 laid upon, as to caufe it to fpring, or re-^ 
bound, to a confiderable dirtance. 


Elater. COLECPTERA. tj 

Geoffroy obferves, that a cavity is fcoopedout 
of the under fide of the head and thorax of 
the Elater, in which the antennJE are lodged, 
probably to preferve them from the violence of 
the fall, when it makes the fingular leap which 
diflinguifhes it from all other inle(fls. 

The chara<5ler taken from the antennae by our 
author is extremely vague, for, as Schseficr juft- 
ly obferves, they are in fome fetaceous, in others 
filiform j fometimes they are ptdinated, and 
fometimes ferrated ; the fpines at the extremity 
of the thorax are, however, fufficient marks to 
diflinguifh them by, being found upon almoft 
every one of them, and rarely met with in any- 
other of the Coleopterous order of infedls. Sco- 
poli has called one of his Elateres Degener, be- 
caufe it differs from the others, in the want of 
thofe fpines, the hinder part of its thorax being 
round. Such are bed diftinguifhed from the 
Bupreflis (which genus the Elater moft refembles) 
by the elaftic fpine, fituate at the extremity of 
the breaft. 

Sch^tfer likewife obferves, that the hinder 
angles of the thorax are very much pointed or 
extended iniio fpines, and that the tarfi have five 
articulations, or joints. 


74 ORDER I, Elater. 

Linnseus was unacquainted with the larva of 
the Elater, but we learn from Geoffrey, that it 
lives and undergoes its metamorphofis in the 
trunks of decayed trees. 

That author, however, has faid nothing with 
regard to its formation, fo that we are flill igno- 
porant whether or no it refembles that of the Bu- 
preftis. The complcat infeds are frequently 
found on flowers and plarrts ; fome of them fre- 
quent the banks of running waters, fandy banks, 
&c. and are pretty well known. They are in 
feme places not improperly called Skippers* 


Cicindela. COLEOPTERA. 75 

Genus XXII. Cicindela. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 6^y, 

The antennas of the Cicindelje are feta- 

The maxillae, or jaws, advance confide- 
rably before the head, and are armed with 

The eyes are rather prominent. 

The thorax is roundish and margined. 

Scopoli and Schjeffcr obferve that the Cicin- 
dela have an obtufe lamina, or knob, at the 
bafe of the hindermofl: thighs, and that the head 
is broader than the thorax j which circumftance 
is chiefly occafioned by the prominency of the 

Geoffroy has arranged fuch infecfls belonging 
to this genus of our author as he has defcribed 
among his Buprejlides^ (the Linnfean Carabi) 
from which the Cicindela principally differs in 
the form of the thorax, which in it, is roundifh, 
but in the Carabus of the form of a heart, and 
cyt oiFat the end in a direft line. This difFer- 


76 O R D E R I. Cicindela. 

ence, however, he reconciles, by dividing his 
Bupreftides into two families, diftinguifhed from 
one another by thefe circumftances. The eyes of 
the Cicindela are much more prominent than 
thofe of the Carabi. 

SchaefFer adds to the charaders given by our 
author to this genus as above, that the jaws are 
crooked, and the feet made for running. 

The larvse of this genus live chiefly with thofe 
of the Carabi, in deep holes under the earth, 
and as well as the perfed infers, devour weakef 
animals for their food. 

G E N v; s 

Bupreflis. COLEOPTERA. 77 

Genus XXIII. Buprestis. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 6^g. 

The antennae of the Bupreflis arc feta- 
ceous, and as long as the thorax. 

The head is half retraced, or drawn 
back within the thorax. 

They are divided into three families, di- 
flinguilhed by the following marks. 

The elytra in the firft decline towards 
the (ides, being much elevated at the fu- 
ture, and particularly fo, near their bafe. 

In the fecond, they are ferrated, or 
armed with (hort fpines, near their extre- 

In the third, they are whole, or entire. 

Scopoli has arranged fuch of the Bupreftides 
of our author as he knew, among his Mordellse, 
of which genus he fays nothing more than that 
they have an appendix or broad plate, which co- 
vers and defends the hindmoft thighs, forming ^ 
kind of cavity into which they are received. 


7^ ORDER h Bupreflfs. 

The genus to which that author has given the 
name of Buprejlis, confifts chiefly of the oblong 
Chryfomelse of Linnaeus as before obferved. He 
diftinguiflies that genus by the following charac- 

The antennse never fhorter than the thorax. 

The head deflefbed, half drawn back within 
the thorax. 

The thorax as It were fweJled, or puffed up 
like a cufhion, (puhinatus). 

The abdomen obtufe. 

According to him the other Linnean Chfyfa- 
melse differ from thofe arranged with his Bu- 
preftides in their heads, (which are porreftcd or 
advanced before the thorax) being lefs thick of 
bulky ; and in the antennae, which in the Chry* 
fomels are twice the length of the thorax. 

The antennse are generally ferrated in this ge- 
nus, as obferved by Geoffroy, who has given 
the generical name of Cuctijus to the -French Bu- 

Schasffer fays that the mouth of the Bupreftis 
is armed with jaws and palpi, that thetarfi have 
■five articulations, and that the elytra are mar- 
gined, and cover the abdomen, 


Bnpreais. COLEOPTERA; 79 

The Buprejlis and Elater refemble one ano- 
ther very much, and are bed diftinguifhed by 
the fpines, which terminate the bread and tho- 
rax of the latter. 

There are but few fpecies of this genus found 
in Europe, and we are wholly unacquainted 
with their larvas and metamorphofis ; they are 
generally of bright (hining colours, from which 
circumftance Geoffroy has chofen the generical 
name which he has given them. 


8^6 O R D E R J. Dytlfcus; 

Genus XXIV. Dytiscus. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 66^. 
The antennae of the Dytifcus are either 
fetaceous, or increafe in fize towards the 
end, and have a perfollated capitulum or 

The hind feet are hairy, made for fwim- 
ming, and are armed with fmall claws. 

This genus is divided into two families ; 
the firft compofed of thofe which have per- 
foliated antennae; the fecond of thofe in 
which the antennse are fetaceous. 

Geoffroy has formed from the two Linnxan 
families cf Dytifci, as many genera. To thofe 
with perfoliated antennas ('which he fays are 
fhorter than the palpi) he gives the generical 
name of Hydrophilus j the others, in which, 
according to him the antennae are filiform, and 
longer than the head, he calls Dyiici. 

Schseffer, who has adopted this divifion of 
the Linnean genus, fays, that the tarfi of the 
Dytifcus have five articulation?-, that the body is 


Dytifcus. COLKOPTERA. 8i 

oblong;, and the head obtufe; the mouth of the 
Hydrophilus, according to the fame author, is 
armed with jaws, and has fcrur palpi, two of 
which are longer, and two fliorter than the an- 

Scopoli obferves that the Dytifcus is a dull 
and fluggifh infefl. 

The plants, or under fide of the fore feet of* 
the male Dytifci are hemifphericah The elytra 

of the females are generally furrowed. The 
firft refemble the Dermeftides ; the females are 
more like the Carabi : It is very difficult to didin- 
guifh the fex or fpecies. Their larvse are fre- 
quently met with in ditches, they are not to be 
bred, or do not go through their metamorphofis 
when confined, without great difficulty ; and jf 
two or three are kept together in a fmall place, 
never fail to devour one another. Many fpecies 
of the compleat infecfl are very common in fl:ag- 
nated waters, which they quit in the evening to 
fly about. They are known by the name of 
Water Beetles, 


82 ORDER I. Carabus. 

Genus XXV. Carabus. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 631. 

The antennas of the Carabus are feta- 

The thorax is (haped fomewhat like a 
a heart, the point of which is cut off, and 
is margined. 

The elytra have a margin. 

The Carabi differ greatly in fize, and 
are divided from that circumftance, into 
two families; the firft containing the 
larger, the fecond the fmaller ones. 

Geoffrey has united the Cicindela of our au- 
thor with this genus, under the generical name of 
Buprejiis, given by Linnaeus to another genus ; he 
adds to the above chara<5lers of the Carabus, that 
they have a confiderable lamina or knob at the 
bafeof the thighs, which is found alfo in the Ci- 
cindela, but is fcarce fufficientjto juftify the 
placing that infed under the fame genus with the 
Carabus, from which it differs in the prominen- 
3 cy 

Carabus. COLEOPTERA. Sj 

cy of the eyes, and the roundnefs of its tho- 
rax : The fame knob is found at the bafe of 
the thighs of the Silpha, and fome other infefls. 

The fame author aflerts, that the antennas in 
this genus, and likewife in the Cicindela, are iili- 
form rather than fetaceous, which is fomecimes 
cbfervable in European fubjefls, but generally 
in thofe as well as in exotic ones, they taper to- 
wards the point. 

Schseffer obferves, that the head of the Cara- 
bus is prominent, the mouth armed with jaws, 
and four articulated palpi, and that the feet are 
made for running. The tarfi in all the feet are 
compofed of five articulations. 

Scopoli, who divides this genus into families 
from the fame circumftance as Linnaeus, fixes 
the length of the firft or greater ones at fcven 

Th^ larvs of the Carabi live in the ground 
or in decayed wood, where they perform their 
metamorphofis •, they themfelves live chiefly on 
weaker infeds, or fmall larvae. 

The name of Ground Beetle has been given by 
fome authors to the Carabus -, others have cal* 
led it the Blaine Worm, 

F ± Genus 

S4 ORDER I. Tenebrio, 

Genus XXVI. Tenebrio. 

Linn. Syfl. Nat. Pag. 674. 

The antennae of the Tenebrio are moni- 
liform, or relemble a firing of beads : the 
ultimate articulation is rounder than the 

The thorax has a margin, and is of a con- 
vex form, though rather flattifh, the eleva- 
tion being inconfiderable. 

The head is porreded, or flretched for- 

The Elytra are rather ftiff. 

This genus is divided into twofedions; 
the firfl containing fuch Tenebriones as 
want wings, and in which the elytra are 
united, or without a longitudinal future ; 
the fecond, fuch as are furniihed with 



Tenebrio. COLEOPTERA. 85 

According to Scopoli, the antennse in this 
genus are always longer than the thorax : he 
alfo obferves, that many of the Tenebriones 
very mnch refemble the Carabi, but are diftin- 
guiflied by the antennae, and by the lamina at 
the bafe of the thighs, in the Carabi, which is 
never found in the Tenebrio i to which add, 
that the abdomen of this laft is more oblong, 
and not fo flat as that of the Carabus ; and 
that the tarfi of its hind feet have only four arti- 

Geoffroy obferves,'that the antennae in fome of 
the Tenebriones are compofed of long articula- 
tions, which are throughout of equal fize, in 
others, of globular, or oblong ones, growing 
larger towards their extremity, and from this 
circumftance he has divided them into two fa- 
milies, in which he is followed by SchosfFer. 

Scopoli has preferred the method of Linnaeus. 

The larvae of the Tenebriones arc frequently 
met with under heaps of weeds, branches of 
trees and other refufe of gardens ; fome of them 
Vivt under ground, others in meal, negleded 
and dry bread, &c. The compleat infects are 
F 3 found 

S6 ORDER I. Tenebrio. 

found in houfes, gardens, and fdndy places i 
they run with great fwiftnefs, and generally emit 
a very fcetid fmell ; they are, on that account, 
fometimes called Jlinking Beetles. One fpecies, 
frequently found in houfes, is called the Jlow- 
legged Beetle. 



Meloc. COLEOPTERA. 87 

Genus XXVII. Meloe. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. Pag. 6yg. 

The antennae of the Meloe, hke thofe of 
the preceding genus, refemble a firing of 
beads, but the laft articulation, which in 
the Tenebrio is round, in this genus is of 
an oblong oval form. 

The thorax is roundifh. 

The elytra are foft and flexible. 

The head is infledted and gibbous. 

Many of the Meloes want wings, with 
which others of them are furnifhed 3 they 
are divided into two families -, the iirfl: con- 
taining thofe which are apterous, and have 
elytra (liorter than the abdomen ; the fe- 
cond, thofe which are winged and have 
elytra as long as the body, by which the 
wings are wholly covered. 

Scopoli adds to the Linnsean chara6lers of 

the Meloe, that the thorax tapers, or grows flen- 

F 4 derer 

88 O R D E R L Mebe, 

derer from its middle towards each each ex- 

Linn^us has united with this genus the No- 
toxus of Geoffroy, remarkable from the horn 
upon its thorax; Vid : Linn. Mel. No. 14. 
Geoffroy aflerts that its antennse are filiform, 
which circumftance fliould feem to feparate it 
from the Meloe, to which, however, our author, 
who appears very unwilling to multiply the ge- 
nera of infe<5ts from trivial circumftances, thinks 
jt refemiDles more than to any other. 

Geoffroy has feparated the Meloe Schafferi 
Linn. No. 12, from the other fpecies of our au- 
thor, on account of its antennse, and has given 
to it the generical name of Cerocoma : according 
to him the antennas of the female are compofed of 
eleven articulations, the ten firft of which are very 
fhort, ^nd the eleventh, or exterior one, at 
lead as long as a third part of the whole an- 
tenne ; thofe of the male infedt are pe(5liniformed 
and bent fo as to refemble the letter S in Iliape, 

The fame author has arranged fiich of the 
Linnsan Meloes as have the thorax fcabrous, 
or rough, along with his Canfbarides, and has 
preferved the generical name of oar author to 
the Mel. frofcarab^us. No. i. This infedl he 


Meloe. COLEOPTERA. 89 

was obliged to feparatefrom the others, in order 
to place it in his fecond fedion, or Coleopte- 
rous infects with elytra fhorter than the abdo- 

All the Linnsean Melocs have five articula- 
tions in the taiTi of the two firfl:, and four in 
thofe of the lall pair of feet. 

The larvse of the Meloes feed chiefly on the 
leaves of plants, on which the compleat infects 
^re likewife to be met with. 

The infedl called the Spanifh Fly, or Blifter- 
Beetle, belongs to this genus, though placed by 
peoffroy among his Cantharides. 


90 O R D E R I. Mordella. 

Genus XXVIII. Mordella. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. Pag. 682. 

The antennae of the Meloe are filiform, 
and ferrated. 

The head is deflected, or bent under the 

The elytra are curve, or inclined down- 
wards towards their point. 

The palpi are comprefled, clubbed, and 
obliquely truncated. 

A broad lamina is feated at the bafe of 
the abdomen, before the thighs. 

Scbseffer, defcribing the Mordel. Aculeata, 
Linn. No. 2, fays, that the thorax of that in- 
fefl, and of the other Mordellse, is convex, and 
narrower in the fore part than behind, and that 
the elytra are convex and margined ; which ob- 
fervations hold good in all the infeds belonging 
to this genus, which I have feen. According to 
the fame Author, their feet are faltatorii, or 
made for leaping. 


Mordella. COLEOPTERA. gi 

According to Geoffroy, the antennas of the 
Mordella are compofed of triangular articula- 

The tarfi of the firft pair of feet conftft of 
four, and thofe of the lafl: pair of five joints. 

The Mordella are common on flowers j their 
larv£ are yet unknown. 


92 O R D E R I. Sraphilinus. 

Genus XXIX. Staphilinus. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. Pag. 683. 

The antennas of the Staphilinus are mo- 

The elytra are not above half the length 
of the abdomen. 

The wings arc folded up, and concealed 
under the elytra. 

The tail, or extremity of the abdomen, 
h, Jimple, not being armed as that of the 
following genus, but is provided with two 
oblong veiicles, which the infedt can fhoot 
out or retradt at pleafure. 

Geoffroy differs from our Author, and frorrj 
Scopoli, with regard to the antennas of this 
genus, which, according to him, are fiHform. 

The tarfi, in all the feet, are compofed of 
five articulations. 

The Staphilini are very voracious, devouring 
every kind of weaker infers, eventhofe of their 
own fpecies. Some of them are found upon 


Staphilinus. COLEOPTERA. 93 

flowers, but they chiefly inhabit the dung of 
cows ; their larvce which refemble them fo 
much as fcarce to be diftinguifliable, Uve in 
humid places under the ground. 

The Staphilini are by fome called Rove^ 


94 O R D E R I. ForBcuIa. 

Genus XXX. Forficula. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. Pag. 68^- 

The antennsB in this genus are fe- 

The elytra afe much fhortcr than the 

The wings are folded, and covered by 
the elytra. 

The extremity of the abdomen is armed 
with a kind of forceps, in which, and in 
the formation of the antennse, this genus 
differs from the Staphilinus. 

According to Schseffer, the wings of the Forfi- 
cula are not entirely covered by the elytra, from 
under which I have frequently obferved the 
points to projeifl. 

The tarfi, in each of the feet, confifl only of 
three articulations. 

This infe(5l is found everywhere In the fields, 
woods, and gardens, and is even at this time 
formidable to many people, from the idea that 


Forficula. COLEOPTERA. 95 

it enters the ears, and pierces into the brain, 
which, however, anatomifts know to be impoF- 
fible, there being no communication between 
thofe parts, and the jaws of the infedl too weak 
to effed one. It has been, from that circum- 
ftance, called the Earwig; the larva differs 
very little from the compleat infefl, and is very 
lively, running with great agility. 


t 96 ] 



The mouth and probofcis of the infeds 
which compofe this order, are inflected 
and bent inwards towards the breaft. 

The wings are hemelytratce, or of a 
fabftance lefs hard and ftrong than thofe 
of the preceding order, but more fo than 
the membranaceous ones of the following 
orders j the upper wings are femi-coria- 
ceous J they do not meet together in a lon- 
gitudinal future, as in the foregoing order, 
but have fome part of their interior mar- 
gins croflTed, or laid one over the other, 
above the abdomen. 

This order contains the following ge- 
nera, viz. 

Genus I. Blatta. 

Linn. Syft. Nat, Pag. 6^y, 

The head of the Blatta is infleded. 

The antennx are fetaceous. 


Blatta. HEMIPTERA. gy 

The elytra and wings are extended, 
fmooth, and femi coriaceous^ or of a fub- 
fiance fomevvhat like velium. 

The thorax is rather flat, of an orbicular 
form, and margined. 

The feet are curforii, or made for run- 

The abdomen is terminated by two little 
appendices, like horns. 

To the above chara6lers of the Blatta we may 
add, that the mouth is armed with jaws, and 
furnifhed with palpi ; that the antennce in moil 
fiibjc61s are as long as the body, and that the 
abdomen is as broad as the thorax. 

The upper wings crofs over one another, 
above the abdomen, and are much ftronger 
than the under ones, which laft, according to 
Schseffer, are folded ; in fome fiibjcdls, how- 
ever, they are extended like the elytra. 

The tarfi of the fore feet have five joints, thofc 
of the hindmod have only four, 

Geoftroy and SchsfFer obferve, that the horns 
which terminate the abdomen of the Blatta, are 
wrinkled or furrov/ed tranfverfely. 

G The 

98 ORDER II. Bhuta. 

The Blatta avoid the light, and with their 
larvae, feed upon all kinds of food, but are more 
particularly fond of bread, meal, putrid bodies, 
and roots of plants •, they are frequent in bakel's 
fhops, and in cellars ; they fiy the approach of 
danger with great fwiftnefs ; with us they are 
called Cockroaches. 

The infecl, called the Kakkerlac, fo well 
known, and fo much dreaded by the inhabitants 
of the American Iflands, belongs to this genus. 


Mantis. HEMIPTERA: ^9 

Genus II. Mantis. 

Linn. Syfl:. Nat. page 689. 

The head of the Mantis is unfteady, or 
appears, from its continual nodding motion, 
to be flightly attached to the thorax. The 
mouth is armed with jaws and furniflied 
with palpi. 

The antennae are fetaceous. 

The four wings are membranaceous, 
and wrapped round the body ; the under 
ones are folded. 

The anterior, or firfl; pair of feet, are 
comprefTed, armed on the under fide, 
with teeth like a faw, and terminated by 
a fingle nail or crotchet. The four hind 
ones are grejforii, or formed rather for ad- 
vancing flowly, than for performing quick 

The thorax is extended to a confiderable 
length, narrow, and throughout of equal 

G 2 Scopoli 


ORDER II. Mantis; 

Scopoli has confounded this genus with the 
Gryllus as Linnseus had done in the tenth editi- 
on of his Syftema Naturre. It differs chiefly 
.from that infed in the number of articulations 
of which its tarfi are compofed ; (thefe in the 
Mantis are always five, but in the different fa- 
milies of Grylli, are fometimes three, fome- 
times four) and in its having only one crotchet 
or nail, to thofe of the firfl pair of feet. 

The eyes of the Mantis are prominent, and 
its head perfeftly refembles thofe of the fecond 
family of the Linnsean Libelluls. 

The elytra are not much ftronger than the un- 
der wings. 

The abdomen is terminated by little appen- 
dices or horns, lefs ftiffthan thole of the Blattas; 
that part is not always long and narrow, as af- 
ferted by Schsffer, but in fome fubjedls flat and 
\ery broad compared with its length. Thelaft 
mentioned author calls the feet JaUatorii made 
for leaping, which they do not appear, nor are 
obferved to be, by any other author I have ra^i 

This InfeiTc is, with us, called the Camel Cric- 
ket. It is looked upon by the Africans as a fa- 


Mantis. IirZMIPTERA. loi 

cred animal (according to Geoffroy, the French 
peafants hold it nearly in the fame light), from 
its frequently affuming a praying or fupplicating 
pofture, reding upon its hind feet, and elevat- 
ing and folding the firfl: pair. 

G 3 Genls 

101 ORDER II. Gryllus. 

Genus VI. Gryllus. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 692. 

The head of the Gryllus is infleded, 
armed with jaws, and furnifhed with 

The antennas, in fome fubjeds, are feta- 
ccous, in others, filiform. 

The wings are declined towards, and 
wrapped round the fides of the body ; the 
under ones are folded up, fo as to be con- 
cealed under the elytra. 

All the feet are armed with two nails or 
two crotchets J the hind ones are formed 

The Grylli are divided into different 
fedions as follows : 

I. The Acridce, which have the head of a 
ccnic form, and longer than the 
thorax -, their antennae are enfi- 
form, or fomewhat refembling 
a fword. 

2. Bullce 

Gryllus MEMIPTERA: 103 

2. Bullae, which arc diflinguifhcd by a 

kind of creft or elevation on the 
thorax : Their antennae are flior- 
ter than the thorax, and filiform. 

3. Achetce, which are known by two Setce 

or Briftles^ fituate above the extre- 
mity of their abdomen. The 
houfe-cricket belongs to this fa- 

4. T^etigoni,^ : The females In this fedlon 

are didinguiflied by a kind of tube 
with which the extrem.ity of their 

abdomen is furnifhed, and through 

which they depofit their eggs in 

the ground. The antenna in 

both fexes of this family are feta- 


5. Locujice^ in which fed:ion the tail is 

fimple, without the fetse by v;hich 

the Achetcs are diuinguifhed, or 

the tube that terminates the tail 

of the females in the preceed- 

ing genus. Their antennse are 


G 4 Gcoffroy 

104 ORDER 11. Gryllns. 

Geoffrey has formed from fome of z\:e(c fedions 
as many different genera. 

To the Achet.£ of our author he atrributes the 
generical name ofGry/ius^ adding to the Linnaean 
cnaradlers, that they have three ftemmata, and 
that the tarfi are compofed of three articulations. 

To the Locujl^ he has given that of Acrydium^ 
adding, that the antenna are one half fliorter than 
the abdomen, that they have three ftemmata, 
and three joints to the tarfi, as in the laft men- 
tioned genus. And 


To the I'etigojti^, that of Lacujia, thefe, ac- 
cording to him have filiform antennae longer than 
the abdomen, and difi^er from the two precetd- 
ing genera in the formation of their tarfi, which 
have four articulations. Scha^ffer has followed 
him in this difpofition of the Linnjean Grylli, 
each having firft' arranged them in different or- 
ders, according to their own fyftem. He ob- 
ferves, that the upper wings of each genus are 
lefs tranfparent, but of a ftronger fubflance than 
the under ones. 

The larvae, or caterpillars of the Grylli, very 
much refemble the perfe6l infefls, and, in ge- 
neral, live under ground. The Chryfalids very 
3 much 

Gryllus. HEMIPTERA. ,05 

much refemble and accompany their parents, 
many of which feed upon the leaves of plants. 
Others, which live in houfes, prefer bread, 
meal, and every kind of farinaceous fubftance ; 
feme of them are with us called locufts^ others 
grcfihoppers, others again. Crickets, 


xo6 ORDER n. Fulgora. 

V - Genus IV. Fulgora. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 703. 

The front, or fore part of the head of 
the Fulgora is drawn out, extended, and 

The antennae are feated below the eyes, 
having two articulations, whereof the ex- 
terior is larger, and of a globular form. 

The roftrum is infleded, or bent inwards 
under the body. 

The feet are formed for walking. In 
this circumftance particularly it differs 
from the following genus, with which it 
was confounded before the laft edition of 
the Syft. Nature. 

This genus feems to have been unknown to 
Geoffrey, Schsffer, and Scopoli. One of the 
infeds belonging to it is however found in Ger- 
many, and two different fpecies have been caught 
in this country ; the one by the author of tha: 
ufeful and elegant work the Flora Anglica, the 
other by my friend Mr. Grey. Whether the 


Fiilgora. HEMIPTERA. 107 

iarvas of thofe infe<5ls (which differ very little 
from fome fpecics of the Cicadas) refemble thofe 
belonging to that genus or not, is yet unknown. 

The foreheads of many Fulgora: (efpecially 
thofe found in China^ emit a very lively, 
Ihining light, in the night-time, which, accord- 
ing to fome authors, is fufHcient to read 
by; 1 have not heard that the European ful- 
goras poflefs that quality. 



io8 ORDER II. Cicada. 

_ _ 

Genus V. Cicada. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 704. 

The roftrum of the Cicada is bent in- 
wards, under the breafl. 

The antennae are fetaceous. 

The four wings are membranaceous, de- 
cHning along the fides of the body. 

The feet in moft fubjeds are formed 
for leaping, in others (particularly the jna- 
iiijera) for walking or creeping. 

They are divided into different fedtions, 
as follow : 

1. The FoUacice, in which the thorax is 

compreffed, membranaceous, and 
larger than the body. 

2. The Crudafiet which have the thorax 

armed on each fide with a horn, 
or fpine. 

3. The 

Cicada. HEMIPTERA. 109 

3. The ManifercUy difLinguifhed by their 

feet, which are not made for 

4. The Ranatrre, which differ from the 

laft fedlion in their hind mofl: feet, 
which are faltatorii, or made for 

J. The Deflexa, whofe wings are wrapped 
round the fides of the body. 

Geofiroy obferves, that the antenncc of the 
Cicada are fhorter than their head, and that the 
under wings are crofied one over the other. 

Scopoli has divided the Cicada into ditferent 
feftions, from thefubflance of their elytra j the 
firft having thofe parts wholly coriaceous ; in the 
fecond, they are coriaceous only half their length ; 
in the third, they are membranaceous. 

The pupae, or chryfalids, of m^.ny Cicadse, 
differ from the perfedt infeft only in the Ihort- 
nefs of their elytra and wings j they run and 
leap upon plants and flowers with great agility. 
The larvse of the Ranatra difcharge a kind of 
froth from the anus and pores of the body, 
under which they conceal themfelves from the 


iio ORDER If. Cicada. 

rapacity of fuch ftronger infedls as prey upoii 
them. Thole of the Maniferas pafs a whole 
year under ground ; thefe lafl make a noife 
like the cricket. 

The Cicada is called by fome Englilh au- 
thors, the Frog-hopper-, by others, the Flea- 


Notonefta. HEMIPTERA, m 

Genus VII. Notonecta. 

Linn. Syfl-. Nat. page 705. 

The roftrum of the Kotone(fta is in- 

The antennce are fhorter than the tho- 

The four wings which are coriaceous 
from their bafe to their middle, are folded 
together crolTwife. 

The hind feet are hairy, and formed 
for fwimmino:. 


Geoffrey adJs to the above charaders of the! 
Notonedla, that ic has an efcutcheon, that its 
tarfi have two articulations, and that all the fix 
feet are equally formed for fwimming, which 
they appear to be in all the Linncean fpecies, 
excepc the Not. Striata, Linn. Syft. Nat. No. 2. 
From this in re<5l Geofifroy has formed a feparate 
genus termed Corixa, with the following diftinft 

No efcutcheon. • 

The tarfi containing only of ofie articulation." 


112 ORDER II. Notoneda. 

Six feet, the anterior pair hcliform, or like 
the claws of a crab, the laft pair only formed for 

In this he is followed by SchaefFer. 

The NotonedjE are not uncommon in {land- 
ing waters ; they fwim upon their backs on the 
furface of the water with great agility ; their 
Jarv^e refemble them very much. The name 
of Boat-fly has been given them, not improper- 
ly, by fome Englilh authors. 

The abdomen of the Notoneda is terminated 
by four little horns or appendices. 


Nepa. HEMIPTERA. n^ 

Genus VII. Kepa. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page ii8. 

The rollrum of the Nepa is bent in- 

The antennae — * *— 

The four wings are folded together 
croflwife, with the anterior part coriaceous 
as in the prececding genus. 

The two fore feet are cheliform, or 
refemble the claws of a crab j the four 
others are formed for walking. 

Geoffrey aflerts that the Pedes Cheliformes, 
or fore feet of Linnsus, are the antennss of the 
infedt, which according to him has but four feet. 
That author has given to this genus the name of 
Hepa, and adds that the Tarfi are compofed of 
one fingle articulation. 

He has formed a diftind genus from the 
Nepa Cimicoides of Linnseus, in which infcft 
he had difcovered very fhort antennse fitu- 
ate under the eye; and which is farther dif- 
tinguifhed from the other Nep^e, by hav- 
H ing 

IT4 ORDER II. Ncpa. 

ing tarfi compofed of two articulations. This 
genus he has named Naucoris. Schseffer has 
purfued the lame method preferable to that of 
our author, who is followed by Scopoli. 

The laft mentioned author has obferved, by 

the help of the microfcope, a tubercule, or fmall 

elevation, near the eyes of the Nepa, on which 

are two or three hairs, which he takes to be the 


The Neps are well known by the name of 

Water Scorpions. They are frequent in {land- 
ing waters, as well as their larvas and chryfalids, 
both which refemble them very much. They 
live chiefly upon aquatic infefls, and are exceed- 
ingly voracious. 


Cimcx. HEMIPTERA. 115 

Genus VIII. Cimex. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 715. 
The roftrum of the Cimex is Inflefted. 

The antennae are longer than the thorax. 

The wings are folded together crofT- 
wife ; the upper ones are coriaceous from 
their bafe towards their middle. 

Their back is flat. 

The thorax is margined. 

The feet are formed for running. 

This genus is divided Into different fcc- 
tions, as follows : 

1 . The Apteriy or thofe without wings. 

2. The Scufellafiy in which the efcutcheon 

is extended fo far as to cover the 
abdomen and the wings. 

Ha 3. The 

ii6 ORDER II. Cimcx 

3. The Coleoptratiy whofc elytra are wholly 

coriaceous, not becoming mem- 
branaceous towards their extre- 
mity, as in the other Cimices, 

4. The Membranaceii whofe elytra are 

membranaceous J thefe ace very 
much deprefTed, like a leaf. 

5. The SptJiofiy in which the thorax is 

armed, on each fide, with a fpine. 

6. The Rotufidatiy which are of an oval 

form, without fpines on the 

7. The Seticomes, in which the antenna 

become fetaceous towards their 

8. The Oblojigi, or thofe of an oblong 


9. Thofe whofe antennae are wholly feta- 

ceous, and as long as the body. 

I 10. The 

Cimex. HEMIPTERA. 117 

10. The Spi7jipede5j which have their 
thighs armed with fpines. 

ir. T\it Linear es, diftinguifhed by their 
long and narrow body. 

Geoffrey obferves, that the antennas of the 
Cimices are compofed either of four or five arti- 
culations (from which circumftances he has di- 
vided them into two families) and that they are 
longer than the head. 

The tarfi have five articulations. 

The larvseof the Cimices run about, and, like 
the compleat infed;, fuck in their food through 
their beak : many of them live upon the juices 
of plants, others upon the blood of animals ; 
feveral are found in the waters, and others fre- 
quent houfes, among which is the common 
Bed-Bug, an infeft but too well known. They 
differ from other infecfts in their foftnefs, and 
mod of them emit a very foetid fmell. 

The common Bed Bug belongs to the family 
of Apterous Cimices. Scopoli, however, pre- 
tends that it is likewife found with wings. 

H 3 Gz.\'0$ 

ii8 ORDER II. Aphis. 

Genus IX. Aphis. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 733. 

The roftrum of the Aphis is bent in- 

Their antennae are longer than the 
thorax, ** 

They have either four eredt wings, or 
are without wings. 

Their feet are made for walking. 

They have generally two little horns or 
fpines placed on the hinder part of their 

Schafffer aHerts, that all the male Aphides have 
wings, and that all the females are apterous. 

The tarfi, in each fex, have only one articu- 

The antennas are fetaceous. 

Geoffroy has obferved, that the aphides have 
two beaks, one of which is feated in the 
breaft, the other in the head ; this laft extends 
iO^ and is laid upon the b^fe of the pedorai one, 


Aphis. HEMIPTERA. 119 

ferves, as that author fuppofes, to convey to the 
head a pare of that nourifhrncnt which the in- 
fr£t taiies or fucks in, by means of the perioral 

The infefls belonging to this fingular genus, 
in the fummer bring forth live young, and in 
the autumn lay eggs. Entomologies affert, 
that from the copulation of the parents fpring 
daughters, grand daughters, great-grand-daugh- 
ters, and great great-grand -daughters, or females 
foecundated to the fifth (according to ^^//^d"/, 
to the ninth) generation, fome with, others with- 
out wings, without diftin£lion of fex, in the 
fame fpecies ; many of them are provided with 
two horns on the hinder part of the abdomen, 
with which they extradl the fweet-tafted dew 
from flowers. 

The Aphides are devoured by the larva of 
the Nlyrmelion Formicarium of Linnaeus ; Ants 
are likewife very fond of them, on account of a 
fweet liquor with which their bodies are hu« 
medted. They are exceeding common, and are 
generally termed the lice of the plant which each 
particular fpecies infeft. 

U 4 Genvs 

120 ORDER II. Chermes. 

Genus X. Chermes. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 2,11* 

The roftrum of the Chermes is placed 
in the breaft. 

The antenns are longer than the thorax. 

The wings are decHned along the fides 
of the abdomen. 

The thorax is gibbous. 

The feet are made for leaping. 

Geoffrey has named this genus Pfylla^ and 
obferves that its abdomen ends in a point, that 
it has three (lemmata, that the roftrum is fituate 
between the firft and fccond pair of legs, and 
that the tarfi are compofed of two articu- 

SchaefFer, who v;ith Scopoli has preferved the 
Linnasan name to this genus, fays, that the an- 
tennae are fetaceous, and longer than the thorax. 
The larv:c of the Chermes have fix feet, re- 
femble the compleat infeft, and are generally 
covered with a hairy or woolly fubftance. The 


Chermes. HEMIPTERA. 1.21 

winged inle(5ts leap or fpring with great agility, 
and infeft a great number of different trees and 
plants : the females infert their eggs under the 
furface of the leaves, by means of a tube, with 
which their abdomen is armed, thereby caufing 
the little tubercules, or galls, with which the 
leaves of the afh, the fir, and other trees, arc 
fometimesalmon: wholly covered. 

<^ £ 11 u s 

122 ORDER II. Coccus 


Genus XI. Coccus. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 569. 

The roftrum of the Coccus is fituate in 
the breaft. 

The hinder part of the abdomen is 

The males have two ered wings. 

The females are apterous. 

Schafffer obferves, that their antenna are fc- 

' The female Cocci fix themft^lves and adhere, 
almoft immovably, to the roots, and fometimes 
to the branches of plants, where they are vifited 
by the winged males ; fome of them having 
thus fixed themfelves, lofe entirely the form 
and appearance of infc«5ls -, their bodies fwel!, 
their fkin ftretches, and becomes fmooth, the 
fegments of their abdomen difappear, and they 
much refemble fome kinds of galls or excrefcen- 
ces found frequently on the leaves and branches 
of plants, that in general they are miftaken for 
fuch i after which changement, the abdomen 
ferves only for a kind of covering or fhell, under 
which the eggs are concealed ; to thcfe GcofFroy 


Coccus. HEMIPTERA. 123 

has given the generical name ofChermes. Others, 
again (though they hkewife fix themielves, and 
adhere immovably to the leaves of plants, like 
Chermes) preferve the lorm of infed till they 
have laid their eggs and perifh ; to thefe, that 
author haspreferved theLinnsean generical name 
of Coccus. Thefe are likewife diftinguifhed 
from the Chermes by the form of their abdo- 
men, which part, in the females, is more ob- 
long, and compofed of a greater number of feg- 
ments than in the females of the other genus ; a 
kind of down, or cotton, likewife grows out of 
their belly, which ferves as a neft in which they 
depofit their eggs •, the males of all of them aie 
much lefs than the females, and the larvse of all 
the different fpecics perfectly refemble one an- 

Thefe infe<5ls, whether the Linnsan method 
of arranging them, or that of Geoffroy is adopt- 
ed, differ (as before obferved) from all other 
Dipterous ones, in the want o^ halter es or poijers^ 
and from the other clalfes, in the number of their 
wings, which circumftances render them very 


124 ORDER II. Thrips. 

Genus XII. Thrips. 
Linn. Sy^. Nat. page 743. 

The roftrum of the Thrips is obfcure, or 
fo fmali as to be fcarce perceptible. 

The antennae are as long as the thorax. 

The body is flender, and of equal thick- 
nefs in its whole length. 

The abdomen is reflexible, or bent 

The four wings are extended, incumbent 
upon the back of the infed:, narrow in pro- 
portion to their length, and crofs one an- 
other at fome diflance from their bafe. 

GeofFroy fays, that the antennse in this genus 
are filiform. 

He has not been able to difcover the probofcis 
of this infed, and afferts, with Sc'iEeffer, that the 
mouth is formed by a fimple longitudinal cleft, 
in which, he adds, it is poffibls that the jaws 
may be concealed 5 and as the Thrips would, in 


Thrips. HEMIPTERA. u^ 

his opinion, be a Coleopterous infed, if thofe 
jaws really exifted, he has taken that circum- 
flance for granted, and has accordingly arranged 
it under that clafs : the other reafons" for 
which he has aOlgned it that place, appear 
to me without force, fince the charadleriftics 
from which he has deduced them are likewife 
found in the Hemipterous in fedb ; theie are the 
form of the antenna, their pofitioTi, that of the 
legs, the two firfl: of which are attached to the 
thorax, the four others to the abdomen, and the 
confidence of their elytra, which are lefs flexible 
than the wings. 
.'.jidw ■ 

The tarfus of each foot has only two articu- 
lations, the fecond of which Bonani and others 
have obferved to form a kind of veficle, or 

Thefe infefls are very common on flowers, 
upon which they run, or rather leap, with great 
vivacity, often bending their bodies upwards. 
Their habitation is generally under the bark of 

•Scopoli has obferved that they fkip or fpring 
rather by means of the abdomen, than of their 
feer ; they are in general fo fmall as fcarce to be 
perceptible. Their larvas run as brifldy as them- 
felves, and are often of a red colour. 


[ 126 } 



The infedls which compofe this or- 
der have four wings, covered with a fari- 
naceous powder, or a kind of fcales, 
difpofed in regular rows, nearly in the fame 
manner as tiles are laid upon the roofs of 
houfes. The beautiful colours which 
adorn the wings of Lepidopterous infedts 
are formed by thefe fcales, and if, by any 
accident, they are rubbed off, the wings 
appear to be nothing more than a naked 

Their mouth is furnished with a fpiral 
tongue, which they ran unfold or extend, 
and roll up again at pleafure. 

Their bodies are hairy. 


Papilio. LF.PIDOPTERA. 127 

This order is divided into three genera, 

Genus I. Papilio. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 744. 

The antennae of the Papilio (generically 
known with us by the name of Butterfly) 
grow thicker towards their extremity, and 
are in moft fubjedts terminated by a kind of 
capitulum, or head. 

Their wings, when fitting or at reft, are 
eredl, infomuch,that their extremities meet 
or touch one another above the body. 

They fly in the day-time. 

They are divided into feftions, diftin- 
guilhed one from another by the following 

I. The Equites, known by the fliape of 
their fuperior or upper wings, 
which are longer from their 
hinder corner or angle to their 
anterior extremity, than from the 


128 ODERR III. Papilio. 

fame point to their bafe j fome of 
thefe have filiform antennas, in 
which particular they refemble 
the genus Fhalena^ or moths, 
from which, however, they are 
eafily diftinguifhed, by their out- 
ward appearance, their bodies 
being much lighter, or lefs bulky, 
and not fo well covered with hair, 

and by the fliape of their upper 

The Equites are either 

^roesy which are known by the 
bloody fpots found upon their 
breads -, thefe are likewifc ge- 
nerally of a dark or black 
colour : Or 

Achiviy on the breads of which 
the bloody fpots of the 'Troes 
are not found, and are 
farther diftinguiflied by an 
ocellum, or fpot, refembling 
an eye, fituate at the inner 
corner of their pofterior 

wings 3 

Papillo. LEPIDOPTERA; 1 29 

wings ; the colours of the 

Achivi are generally gay, and 
and they are either 

Simple, of one colour : Or 

Variegated, adorned with various 

Such of the Equites as we 
are acquainted with have fix 

2. The Heliconii'. thefe are diftinguifhed 
by the narrownefs of their wings, 
which fometimes appear (efpe- 
cially towards their extremities) 
to be naked, or deprived of fcales 5 
their upper wings are of an ob- 
long form, the under ones are 
very fhort in proportion to their 
breadth : this laft charaderiflic, 
however, is not univerfal -, feme 
infed:s, which referable the Heli- 
conii in every other particular, be- 
ing referred to that fedion, 
though their under wings are pro- 
I portionably 

1 30 ORDER III. Papilio. 

portionably long j as the Pap. 

Afpolo, Mnemojyney &c. all their 
four wings have the edges or 

margins entire. 

3. The Danaiy the edges of whofe wings 
are entire. They are either 

Candidly the ground colour of 
whofe wings is always white, 

Fejiivi, the canvas, or reigning 
colour of whofe wings is 
never white ; thefe are like- 
wife adorned with a great 
variety of colours, which 
fcldom occurs in the Candid/. 

The Danai refemhle the Heliconii in 
the edges of their wings, being 
entire, but are eafily diftinguifhed 
by the {bape of them, thofe of 
the Danai being round, thofe of 
the Heliconii obiong j they ap- 
pear likewife to be of a ftronger 
texture, and rougher, being better 
covered with fcales, efpecially at 

their extremities. 

4. The 

Papilib. LEPIDOPTERA. 15 r 

4. The NympbaleSf diftinguKhed from the 

Heliconii and Danai, by the edges 
of their wings, which are indent- 
ed or fcolloped. They are ei- 

Gemmati^ in which family the 
wings are addrned with eyes ; 
thefe eyes are found on all 
the four wings, in fome fpe- 
cies, in others on the upper 
wings, in others on the 
under wings only : Or 

Phalerati, the wings in which di- 
vifion want the eyes by 
which the Gemmati are dif- 
tinguifhed, but are not lefs 
beautiful, being generally 
painted with a great variety 
of colours. 

5. The Plebeii, which are fmaller in gene- 

ral than the otherSj and are either 

Riirales, diflinguifhed by the fpots 

on their wings being olfcure, 

I a which 

132 ORDER III. Papilio. 

which term does not regard 
the colours of the fpots, often 
very beautiful, but their na- 
ture, they not being pellucid, 
or tranfparent : Or 

Urbicoli, the fpots on the wings 
of which are for the mod 
part tranfparent. 

The divifion of the Butterflies into families, 
from the circumftances chofen by Linnaeus, 
feems liable to many objedions -, the family of 
the Plebeii, in particular, is very inaccurate, and 
contains infefts very different from one an- 
other, at the fame time that they refemble, and 
have all the charaders of fome or other of the 
preceding ones, under which many of them, I 
think, might be properly arranged *, the remain- 
ing Plebeii would compofe a family very didinft 
from all the others, and which might be formed 
into two fedions, the firft containing fmall But- 
terflies, having long and flexible or weak tails, 
flender bodies, and clubbed antennae, as theC«- 
pido, the Marfyas, the Bcetkits, &c. the other 
diflinguilhed by the fhortnefs, thicknefs, or 
breadth of tlieir head, thorax, and abdomen, and 
by the fliape of their upper wings, which in thefe 
laft are pointed at their extremity, and long in 


Papilio. LEPIDOPTERA. 133 

proportion to their width, as the Proteus^Phidias^ 
and others. 

The antennae in this laft divifion are gene- 
rally uncinnated or crooked at their extremity ; 
fome of" them have likewife tails, but thefe are 
very broad and ftrong, and are always ciliated 
or edged with a fringe of hairs, as in the Pro- 
teus, Sec. 

The bloody fpots mentioned by LinniEUs, are 
not always found on the breafls of the Eq. Tro- 
jani, nor is the interior angle of the Achivi al- 
ways adorned with an eye, kt that the fureft me- 
thod is to refer fuch Equites as are of dark or 
mourning colours, to the family of the Trees, 
and thole of gay, lively ones, to that of the 

The under wings of a great many of the Papi- 
liones, placed by Linnceus among his Heliconii, 
are flightly indented, and as they are without 
eyes, they ought, ftriflly fpsaking, to be referred 
to the Nympkales Phakrati, but are diftinguifii- 
able by the delicacy of their texture, and the 
fmoothnefs of their wings, which are lefs cover- 
ed with fcales than thofe of the laft- mentioned 

I 3 The 

134 ORDER III. Papilio. 

The under wings of the Danai Fejiivi arc 
likewife often indented, but in that cafe they are 
generally edged v/ith a kind of fringe, or their 
margins, efpecially on the under fide, furrounded 
by one or more waved lines, or rows of white 
fpots ; thofe Butterflies, therefore, whofe wings 
are h\M Jligbtly indented, adorned with eyes, and 
the margins furrounded by rows of white fpots, 
or narrow^ waving lines, belong rather to this 
family than to that of the Nytnphales Gemmali, 

Scopoli and GeofFroy have divided this genus 
into different families principally from the num- 
ber of their feet •, a method which cannot eafily 
be purfued in cabinets where exotic Butterflies 
are. admitted, thefe parts being generally de- 
ftroyed before luch infetfls reach Europe. The 
other circumftances from which Geoflroy has 
taken his divifions into families, viz. the form 
of the caterpillars, is totally impracflicable, ex- 
cept where the collector admits no other But- 
terflies into his cabinet but fuch as he has 
himfelf pofieflfed in the caterpillar flate. 

The pupce of all Butterflies are ohte5fa and 
naked, and, except thofe of the Da?iai Candidi^ 
are fufpended perpendicularly in the open air, 
being attached by their tail to the under fides 
of branches of treesj leaves of plants, &c. 
' 2. Thofe 

Papilio. LEPIDOPTERA. 135 

Thofe of the Danai Candidi (at lead of fuch 
as we arc acquainted with) are fufpended ho' 
rizontalfyt being fixed by the tail as thofe of 
the other families, but are fupported in an 
horizontal pofition by means of a thread pafT- 
ed round the middle of their body and at- 
tached obliquely to the part above the head. 

The caterpillars of many of them are ex- 
ceedingly common, and fufficiently known ; 
thofe of many Equires have two horns fitu- 
ate in their necks, near the head, which they 
can Ihoot out and draw in at pleafure. It is 
yet unknown, whether or no the others of 
that fe<5lion have thefe horns, but it is to be 
hoped that fome curious Entomologift will make 
this point an objeft of his refearches : the larveC 
of the Pap. Apoilo refembles thofe of the Equitcs 
in that refpe(5^, 

I4 Genus 

136 ORDER III. Sphinx. 

Genus II. Sphinx. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 795. 

The antennas of the Sphinges are thicker 
in the middle than at the extremities, fome- 
what refembling a prifm in form. 

The wings are defledted, the outer mar- 
gins declining towards the fides. 

Their flight is flow and heavy. 

They are divided into families, as follows; 

1. The Legitimce\ thefe have either 

Angulated wings, with the anus 
fimple, not terminated by a 
tuft of hair : Or 

Entire wings, with the anus 
iimple ; Or 

Entire wings, with the anus ter- 
minated by a tuft of hair. 

2. The Adfcitc2i differing from the others 

in their external appearance and 
I The 

Sphinx. LEPIDOPTERA. vg; 

The Sphinges fly either early in the morning, 
or after (un-fet in the evening ; they fiy as it 
were heavily and fluggilhly, often emllting a 
kind of found. Th_ey fuck the nedtar of fiovvcrs 
with their tongues, though they feldorn fettle 
upon them : mofl of them undergo their meta- 
morphofis in the earth ; their chryfuhds are ch- 
te^la^ but inclofed in a kind of covering, or 
web, compofed generally of courfe materials, in 
which particular they differ entirely from the 
preceding genus, the chryfalids belonging to 
which are naked, and fufpended in the open air. 

The bodies of mofl of their caterpillars are 
fmooth, or without hair, and have a horn or 
fpine ficuate above the anus ; that, however, of 
the Sphinx FilipenduU Linn. No. 34, wants this 
horn, as Geoffroy has obferved ; for which rea- 
fon that author has feparated it from the other 
fpecies, that infect alone compofing his third 
family : his two others are diftinguiQied by their 
having or wanting tongues ; the antennae of 
thefe two lafl:- mentioned families, he fays, are 
prifmaric, but throughout of equal thicknefs, 
thofe of the Sph. Filipendulsp, on the contrary, 
are much larger in the middle than towards their 


138 ORDER III. Sphinx. 

Scopoli has divided the Sphinges into two fec- 
tions J the firft containing fuch as undergo their 
metamorphofis in the ground ; the iecond, thofe 
which undergo their laft changement above 
ground. This method can only be purl'ued by 
thofe who obferve the metamorphofis of every 
Sphinx they place in their colledtion, fince it is 
impoflible to procure its natural hiftory along 
with every infedl, efpecially fuch as are fent from 
far diftant countries : the divifions of genera 
into fe(5lions Ihould always be taken from fome 
remarkable circumftance found conftantly upon 
the infefts, after their death. 

The name of Hawk-moth has been given, by 
moft Englifl] authors, to the Sphinx. 


Plialena. l^EPIDOPTERA, 139 

Genus III. Phalena the Moth. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 808. 

The antennae of the Phalenas are feta- 
ceous, decreafing in lize from the bafe to- 
>vards the point. 

Their wings, when at reft, are in general 

They fly in the night. 

This genus is divided into the following 
families ; 

1. Attaci, whofe wings incline down- 
wards, and are fpread open. 

Thefe have either 

Pedinated antennae, without a 

Pectinated antennae, and a fpiral 
tongue : Or 

Setaceous antenna?, with a fpiral 

2. Bofnhyces, 

I40 ORDER III. Phalena. 

2. Bombyces, whofe wings cover the body 

in a pofition nearly horizontal, and 
which have pedtinated antennae. 

Thefe are either 

EUngues, which want the tongue, 
or have it fo fhort as not to 
be manifeflly fpiral. 

Again their wings are either 

Reverfed or defleBed. 

Ov Spirilingues, which have a fpi- 
ral tongue, and are either 

Crijlatee, with a kind of creft, or 
tuft of hair on the back, Or 

LaveSy with fmooth backs. 

3. NoSfiicBf whofe wings are incumbent, as 

in the Bombyces, from which 
they differ chiefly in the forma- 
tion of their antennse, which are 


Phalena. LEPIDOPTERA. 141 

The Noduae are either 

Elingues, wanting tongues ; Or 
Spirilingues^ having fpiral tongues. 

4, GeometrcSi whofe wings, when at reft, 

are extended horizontally. 

The antennae, In one fubdivifion of this 
fedlion, are 

In another, 


The under wings in each of thefe divi- 
lions are either 


Or round, with entire edges. 

5. I'ortrkes : the wings of the Tortrices 

are exceedingly obtufe ; their ex- 
terior margin is curve, and de- 

14.2 ORDER III. Phaleni. 

lines towards the fides of the 

Thefe have (hort palpi. 

6. Pyralis : the inner margin of the wings 

in this fedion are laid one over 
the other ; the wings themfelves 
decline a little towards the fides 
of the body, and in fliape re- 
femble a delta^ or triangle ; thefe 
have confiderable palpi of diffe- 
rent forms, which has induced 
Scopoli to divide them into two 
fed:ions j the one containing thofe 
whofc palpi are curve, or bent 
upwards; the other, thofe in 
which thefe parts are extended. 

7. ^ima : the wings of the Tinia: are wrap- 

ped or folded up round the body 
fo as to give the infe6t a cylin- 
drical form ; the forehead is 
fl:r etched out, or advanced for- 


Phalepa. LEPIDOPTERA. 145 

Many of the Tinia; have incum- 
bent wings expanded tl;ieir whole 
breadth, and feem to form a very 
diftind: fedion, differing from the 
Tiniaj in that particular ; from 
the Pyralides in the want of palpi, 
and diftinguifhed from the other 
families of Phalxna: by their por- 
redted forehead, and a kind of 
fringe, with which the interior 
margins of their wings, are edged. 

8. Alucitce : the wings of this divifion are 
fplit, or divided into branches, al- 
mofl: to their bafe. 

Geoffrey bas feparated ihe lafl family of our 
author, the Pb. AluciU, from the other Pha- 
losn^e, under the generical name of Pterophorus^ 
on account of the chryfalids of the infe(5ls 
belonging to it being naked, and fufpended ho- 
rizontally in the open air, as thofe of the Da- 
nat Candidly or third family of butterflies, in 
which particular they certainly differ elfentially 
from the Phalcena, whofe Chryfalids are either 
concealed in the ground, or proteffled from the 
inclemency of the weather by a covering, which 


144 ORDER Iir. Phalena. 

fome of them, as the Silk-worm, compofe of 
the rlcheft materials. 

That author has likewlfe formed the Tini^e 
into a feparate genus with the Linn^an charac- 
ters and name. The remaining Phalens he 
has divided into two families •, in the firfl: of 
which the antennae are pe(flinated ; in the other 
filiform ; thefe families again are fubdivided 
into the Elingues^ and the Lingual^, in each of 
which fedions the wings are, in fome fub- 
jefls, deflsdled^ in others, extended horizontally ; 
among thefe he has difperfed the Tortrices and 
Pyrdides of Linnaeus. 

Scopoli obferves that this divifion, taken 
from the antennae, labours under very great 
difficulties, thole parts being formed differently 
in the different fexesof Fhalens, befides that of 
procuring both fexes of each fpecies compleat -, 
for thefe reafons he has reunited the Bombyces 
and Nocluis of Linnsus (feparated by Geoffroy 
on account of the different formation of their 
antenncE) under the title Bombyx •, thefe he 
has divided into two feclions, the infeds belong- 
ing to one of which, undergo their transforma- 
tion under the ground ; the others above 
ground ; the tongue is wanting in the firft of 


fhalena; LEPIDOPTERA? 145. 

thefe feftions ; ia the other, fome have, fome 
want, that part. 

The GeometrsE are divided by him into three 
feftions ; the firfl: having angulated, the fecond 
dentated, the other entire wings. 

His divlfion of the Pyralides, taken from the 
palpi, has been mentioned above. 

His TinU are likewife formed into two kc-^ 
tions, from their wings being convoluted or ex- 

The caterpillars of moths are either 
Smooth, without elevations, 

Or tuherculatedy with fmall gibbofitles upon 
their bodies, refembling knots. 

Nakedy without hairs or down,! 
Or hairy. 

They differ likewife in the number of their 
feet, as follows : 

The Bomhyces and No5lu^ have fixteen feet. 
The tinU have fourteen. 

K The 

146 ORDER III. Phalena: 

The Phalcsna Gamma alone has twelve. 

Mod of the Geometry have ten. 

Thofe of all the different families have fix 
feet at the breaft, or fore -part of the body, ex- 
cept the Vinula, Furca, Lacertina, and a few 
others ; the chief difference, therefore, lies in 
the abdominal feet, which are either eight, fix, 
four, or two, in number, or are entirely 

The caterpillars of the Geometrae have fix 
perioral or fore feet, two tail, or hind feet, two 
others, a little before the tail, and want the ab- 
dominal ones, which makes them refemble 
JLeaches in their gait. From the fame circum- 
Itance, likewife, the name of Geometry has been 
given to them, becaufe they feem to meafure the 
ground over which they advance. They reft in an 
ereft pofture, fupported only by the feet fitu- 
ate under their tail : thofe of fuch of this family 
as have pedlinated antennse, refemble fo much 
the branches of the plants upon which they 
feed, as not tobe eafily diftinguifhed from them. 
This refemblance, without doubt, contributes 
very much to preferve them from the voracity 
of the different birds which prey upon them. 


Phalena. LEPIDOPTERA. 247 

The caterpillars of the Tortrices roll up, and 
fallen together by a thread the leaves of the 
plants upon which they feed ; thus fecuring to 
themfelves a kind of retreat. 

The caterpillars of moft of the Tine^e keep 
always under fome kind of covering, where they 
live and feed in fecurity ; fome of them roll up 
the leaves of plants for their habitation ; others, 
which feed only upon the interior furface of 
leaves, lodge themfelves under the epidermis, or 
exterior fkin ; others, again, in woollen cloths^ 
fkins of beads and birds, &c. Thefe all under- 
go their metamorphofis in the places and under 
the coverings in which they had lived -, Ibme 
few live in fociety under a kind of web formed 
by their joint induftry : the moths which are 
produced from thefe laft have generally, as Lin- 
nseus obfervesi expanded wings. 

According to Geoffroy, the Caterpillars of 
fome Tiniae have eight, others have fourteen, 
and others, agaih, fixteeri feet. 

The pups, or chryfalids, are either fimple, 

bi- have a kind of hook at their extremity ; 

they are all enclofed in a web or covering j fome 

of them pafs that ftate under the ground, others 

K 2 arc 

148 ' ORDER III. Phalerta; 

are fixed to the under fides of branches of trees, 
walls, &c. The webs of the firft confift gene- 
rally of very coarfe materials, ftrongly attached 
together by a few threads of filk. Thofe of 
the others have generally more filk, and are 
weaved more naturally ; that of the Silk-worm 
furniflies an article which long was confidercd 
as for mere luxury, but which is now of univer- 
fal utility. 


[ '49 ] 



The infects belonging to this order have 
four membranaceous, naked wings, reticu- 
lated with veins, or in which the mem- 
branes crofs one another fo as to appear Hke 

Their tail is unarmed, or without a fling, 
but is frequently furnilhed with appen- 
dices like pincers, by which the males are 

This order contains the following ge- 
nera : 

Genus I. Libellula. 

Lint). Syft. Nat. Pag. 901. 

The mouth of the Libellula is armed 
with jaws, which are always more than two 

in number. 

K3 The 

I50 ORDER IV. Libellula: 

•' ' ' ! ^ — 

The antennae are fliorter than the 

The wings are expanded, without folds. 

The tail of the male is furniflied with a 
kind of forceps. 

The libellula are divided into two fami- 
lies J the firft 

With wings extended horizontally, when 
at reft ; the fecond 

Diftinguiftied by the eyes being placed at 
a diftance from one another ; the wings in 
this family are eredt and the eyes very 

GeofFroy adds to the above chara6lers of the 
Libellulse, that they have three ftemmata fituate 
between the eyes, and that their tarfi are qom- 
pofed of three articulations. He divides them 
into two feftions ; the firft having ere<5b wings 
(when at reft J the fecond patent, or open and 
extended wings. 

The infedls belonging to the firft divifion of 
-iiibellulas live chiefly upon Moths, the others 
upon Mufcje, or flies i they are all exceeding- 

Libellula. NEUROPTERA. 151 

ly voracious ; Linnseus calls them the Hawks 
of Gymnopteroiis infeds. The larvse of both 
live and run, rather than fwim, in the water i 
they devour aquatic infects weaker than them- 
fehes, and are not lefs voracious than the com- 
pleat infe6ls •, they are likewife exceedingly cruel, 
being frequently obferved to kill and tear other 
infedts to pieces when not preflcd by hunger, 
fince they leave the carcafes entire. 

The figure of the larva is very fingular, and 
may be feen in Geoffroyy torn. 2. tab. 

The chryfalis differs very little from the larva, 
and like it runs with great agility in the water, 
devouring fmaller infects. It generally quits 
the water before it undergoes its final change- 

The manner in which fome of the Libellulae ef- 
fectuate the work of (];eneration is truly fingular : 
the male purfues his female on the wing, and in- 
Head of endeavouring to win her by gentle 
means to his embraces, feizes her with the for- 
ceps at his tail by the neck, where he holds her 
fall, till fhe, to get quit of fo cumberfome a bur- 
then, willingly, or unwillingly, approaches her 
tail, in which are fituate her organs of genera- 
tion to the breaft of her ravifher (under which 
his fexual parts are placedj thus united in a kind 
K 4 oi 

152 ORDER IV. Libellula: 

of ring, the male not quitting his hold of the 
female's neck, they continue their flight until 
the work is performed. 

The Libellulse are by fome called Dragon^ 
flies J by others. Adder-bolts ; they are frequently 
met with in the fummer feafon, near (landing 
waters, where the females go to depofit their 
eggs; the different fexes are often differently co- 
loured, and the fpecies vary very much, which 
renders it difficult to diftingiiifh them. 


Ephemera; NEUROPTERA'; 153 

Genus IJ. Ephemera. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 906. 

The mouth of the Ephemera has nei- 
ther teeth nor paipi. 

The ftemmata are two in number, fi* 
tuate above the eyes, and larger than they 
are generally found to be in other in- 

The wings are eredt, the hinder ones 
much fhorter than the others. 

The tail is furniflied 'with appendices, 
refembling hairs, or briftles. 

They are divided into two fedtions ; the 
firft having two, the other three fetas, or 
briftles, on the tail. 

GeofFroy aflerts that the ftemmata are three 
in number, which I have obferved them to be 
in feme fpecies. 

Sch^fFer adds to the Linnaean cbaraflers of 
the Ephemera, 


154 ORDER IV. Ephemera. 

That the antennae are fetaceous and ihort. 

That the tarfus of each foot has five articu«" 
lations, and 

That tlie thorax is very Ihort^ 

Their flight is flow and heavy, which ren- 
I ders them an eafy prey to fwallows, and other 

Thefe infefts differ in many particulars from 
all others ; their caterpillars live in the water, 
where earth and clay feem to be their only 
nourifliment for three whole years, the time 
they confume in preparing for their metamor- 
phofis, which they undertake and effedl in a 
few moments. The larva, when ready to quit 
that fl:ate, arifes to the furface of the water, and 
getting infl:antaneoufly rid of his fkin, becomes 
achryfalis. This chryfalis is furniflied with wings, 
which it makes ufe of to fly to the firfl: tree or 
wall it meets, and there fettling, in the fame 
moment quits a fecond ikin, and becomes a per- 
fe<5l Ephemera. In that ftate, for which it had 
been fo long preparing, the pleafures it enjoys 
muft be very fenfible, if they are lively in pro- 
portion to the fliortnefs of their duration ; the 


Ephemera; NEUROPTERA; 155 

infeft generally celebrating its nuptials, pro- 
ducing the fruit of them, and dying within the 
Ipace of a few hours, feldom or never furviving 
the day on which it may be faid to have really 
begun to live. 


They differ no lefs from other infeds, in , ^ 

the manner of propagating their fpecies, than * t\ 
in the fhortnefs of their lives, and their long . u-. 
continuation in the caterpillar (late. The fe- ' ^ 
male Ephemera has no fooner quitted her 
chryfalis, than fhe returns to the water from ;X a * 
whence Ihe fprang, upon the furface of which •*" 
(he lays her eggs -, the male, attentive to all 1^ 

her motions, takes care immediately to fecun- 
date the eggs, nearly in the fame manner as fifh 
fa:cundate thofe of their females. (Geoff.) 

The antennsE of the perfeft infefl rcfemble 
hairs, being without joints or articulations. 
When at reft, the fore legs are advanced or 
ftretched out before the head. 

The Ephemeras are very frequent near wa- 
ters : they multiply amazingly in fome places, 
infomuch that Scopoli aiTerts the peafants in 
his neighbourhood to be difcontented with 


156 ORDER IV. Ephemera: 

their ihare of them, unlefs each can colled 
at lealt twenty cart-loads, making ufe of them 
for manuring their lands, which purpofe they 
anfwer exceedingly well. They arc called with" 
us May flies. 


Pliryganea. NEUROPTERA: j^y ' 

Genus III. Phryganea. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 908. 

The mouth of the Phryganea is without 
teeth, but is furnifhed with four palpi. 

The (lemmata are three in number. 

The antenna are longer than the 

The wings are incumbent, or laid hori- 
zontally on the body. 

The under wings are folded, fo as to be 
concealed under the upper ones. 

This genus is divided into two fec-^ 


The firfl diflinguiflied by two truncated 
fetae, refembling unfpun filken threads, 
which terminate the abdomen. 

In the fecond the abdomen is fimple, or 
wants thofe appendices. 

Geoffroy has feparated thefe two families of 


158 ORDER IV. Phryganea. 

Phryganeas, and given to the firft: the generical 
name of ferla. Thefe perU differ from the 
other Phrygane£e (to which he has preferved 
that generical name) not only in the appendices 
of t!ie tail, but alfo in the pofition of the wings^ 
which, in the latter, decline from the inner mar- 
gins, towards the ifldes, fo as to refemble the 
fidge of a houfe, and are curve, or turned up- 
wards, at their extremity ; and in the number 
of articulations, which compofe their tarfi, thefe, 
in the Perla, are but three j in the Phryganea 
they are five* 

The Perlffi and Phryganeae, however, do not 
feem to differ genetically •, their larva perfedtly 
refembling one another, and their mannet of liv- 
ing the fame ; they likewife perform their metar- 
morphofis in the fame feafon, and In the tubes 
in which they dwell while larvae. The latter, 
however, remain confiderably longer in thechry- 
falis than the Perlae. In the jrear 1768, I had 
an opportunity of obferving the metamorphofis 
of three of the perlas, and four phryganea ; 
the Chryfalids were all kept together, and 
in the fame degree of heat : two of the perfeft 
infeds were produced on the eighth, and ano- 
ther on the ninth day (after their refpedlive 


Phryganea; NEUROPTERA. 159 

transformations) ; thefe three proved all to be- 
long to the firft family of Linnfean Phryganeas, 
or the Perlas of GeofFroy. Another perfed in- 
feft quitted the chryfalis on the fourteenth day 
after its entering into that ftate, and two others 
on the nineteenth day : the three lafl proved all 
to be Phryganeae, of the fecond Linnaean divi- 
fion, or the Phryganese of Geoffroy •, the other 
chryfalis perifhed without coming to perfedion. 
This circumftance, however, will, I prefume, 
fcarce be deemed fufficient to form a generical 
diftindion between the two infedls, tho' when 
added to the others before-mentioned, they 
may jointly render the divifion of the Genus 
into families, very proper, 

Scopoli has preferved the Linnscan Genus 
jntire, with the fame charaflers, as that j 
author has affigned to them, but has taken 
his divifion of it into families, from different j 
circumftances. In his firft, the wings are in- 
cumbent, in the other defieded. That author 
has obferved, that one fpecies of the lezard is 
exceedingly fond of the Phryganea, and that 
the Phryg. Bicaudata Linn. Syft. Nat, No. i. 
carries her eggs about with her, attached to the 
under fide of her abdomen, as fome fpiders are 
likewife known to do. 

3 Schjeffer 

t^o O R D E R IV. Phryganea; 

SchaeflPer has divided this Genus into the Per- 
la and Phryganea, with the fame diftinft charac- 
ters as GeofFroy ; thefe two authors, I appre- 
hend, were chiefly induced to purfue that me- 
thod, becaufe the number of joints, of which 
the Tarfi are compofed, obliged them to ar- 
range the different kinds of Phryganea under 
different orders. 

The Antennae of the Linnsean Phry* 
ganeae, are filiform, and they have three ftem- 

The lefTer Phryganeas refemble the Tineje fo 
niuch,asnottobediflinguifhed from them without 
difficulty ; but, upon clofe examination, efpecially 
if the eye is aided by the microfcope, the 
wings of the firfl are found to be almofl co* 
vered with fhort hairs inflead of the fcales 
■which adorn the wings of the Tinese. The 
mouth of the Phryganea is like wife furnifhed 
with palpi, which are wanting in the Tineas. 

The larvjE belonging to this Genus, live in 
the vv^ater in tubes of filk, covered on the out- 
fide with fmall pieces of wood, fand, gravel, 
leaves of plants, &c. Nay, fometimes the larva 
attaches to its tube the fmaller teftaceous ani- 

Phryganea. NEUROPTERA. i6t 

mals, yet alive, with their ftiells, and drags 
them about with it. They are much fought 
after by fifhermen, by whom they are foir.e- 
times called Stoui, or Cod Baii ; the perfeft 
inre(5l is generally called the Spring fly, and is 
frequent near running waters, where the females 
refort to lay their eggs. They generally fettle 
on the fides of walls, branches of trees, &c. 
which are leaft expofed to the fun, whofe influ- 
ence they feem to dread, feldom flying in the 
day time. Swallows are obferved to feed upon 

C £N U^ 

i62 ORDER IV. Hfcmerobius. 

Genus IV. Hemerobius. 

Linn. Syfl-. Nat. page 911. 

The mouth of the Hemerobius is armed 
with two teeth, and has four palpi. 

The (lemmata are wanting. 

The wings are defleded, and not folded, 
as in the preceding Genus. 

The antennsB are fetaceous, advanced 
before the head, and longer than the 

The thorax is of a convex form. 

The Hemerobius is fufficiently diftinguifhed 
from the Ephemera and Phryganea, by the po- 
fition and formation of its mouth, which ad- 
vances forwards, and is armed with teeth. 

The Antennas diftinguifli it from the fol- 
lowing Genera belonging to this order. 

Schaeffer obferves, that the abdomen grows flen- 
der towards its extremity, that the wings are in 
fome fubjeds incumbent^ in others defie^fed, and 

Memeroblus. NEUROPTERA. iS^ 

_ ■■---- ^ 

that the Tarfi are compofed of five articu- 

Geoffroy has referred one fpecies, the 
Hemerob. No. 12. of our author j to his 
G. Phrygama ; and Linnasus himfelf appears 
doubtful to which of the two genera that in- 
fedl belongs. 

The under wings of moft Hemerobii are of 
equal length with the upper ones ; they are all 
four much weaker than in the preceding neurop- 
terous genera^ which makes their flight flow 
and unfl:eady. 

Some of therh are found hear (landing wa- 
ters, others frequent gardens and fields ; moll: 
of them are very ill fcented. Their larvse feed 
chiefly upon the aphides, of which they are 
exceedingly fond j but they fometimcs devour 
other infers, and even one another. 

One fpecies belonging to this Genus, is 
known among us by the name of the Golden 

L 2 Genus 

i64 ORDER IV. Myrmelbn. 

Genus V. Myrmeliqn. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 913. 

The mouth of the Myrmelion is armed 
with jaws, two teeth, and four long 

It has no flemmata-. 

The tail, in the male fex, is furnished 
with a kind of forceps, formed by two 
ftraight filaments. 

Their antenna are club-formed, and 
as long as the thorax. 

Their wings are defleded. 

Geoffroy, who has defcribed only one fpecies 
of the Myrmelion, does not obferve that the 
tail of the male is furniflied with a forceps. 
The fpecies he defcribed was perhaps incom- 
pleat, or he had met with none of the male fex ; 
he adds that the four wings are all of equal length, 
and has given to that infeft the generical name 
of Fcrmicaleo^ in which he is followed by 
Scharffer, who obferves that the wings in that 


Myrmellon. KEUROPTERA. 165 

genus are defleded, and the tarfi compofed of 
five articulations. 

The laft mentioned author has given the gene- 
rical name of Lihelloides to another fpccies, in 
which the tail is forcipated, and the antenna; as 
long as the body, and the abdomen as broad as 
the thorax. 

The Myrmeleon differs chi.^fly from the He- 
merobius, under which Genus Linnaeus had 
arranged it in the tenth edition oi his Syjiema 
X^atura, in the form of the antennte, which 
are much (horter than rhofe of the Hemerobius, 
in which Genus they are likewife fetaceous : the 
mile Hemerobius alfo wants the forceps which 
terminates the tail of the Myrmeleon. 

The larva of the Myrmeleon lives chi^fiy 
upon ants ; the perfed inle<fl is very rare, but i« 
fometimes met widi in landv places, and n«^ar 


( J E ^. US 

1 66 O R D E R IV. Panorpa, 

Genus VI. Panorpa. 

Linn, Syft. Nat. page 915. 

The Panorpa has a horny, cylindrical 
probofcis, with two palpi. 

It has two (lemmata. 

The antennae are longer than^ the 

The tail in the male fex is furnifhed 
with a chela or weapon, refembling the 
claw of a crab, or the dart of a fcorpion. 

The probofcis and tail of this infed render it 
too remarkable to be confounded with thofe of 
any other gen^s. The following characters, 
however, may be added to thofe of Linnasus, 


The wings extended horiz-ontaJlyon the back, 

when at red. 

The upper and under wings of equal length. 

The palpi feated at the extremity of the pro- 


Panorpa. NEUROPTERA. i6f 

The tarfi compofed of five articulations. 

The compleat infecl is very common in the 
fields during the fummer feafon, but the larva 
and chryfaHs are yet unknown. 

It has been called by fome the Scorpionfiy. 

L 4. Gekus 

i68 ORDER IV. Raphidia. 

Genus VII. Raphidia, 

Linn. Syft, Nat. Pag. 915. 

The head of the Raphidia is of a horny 
fubftance, and deprefled, or flattened. 

The mouth is armed with two teeth, and 
furniQied with four palpi. 

The {lemmata are three in number. 
The wings are defledied. 

The antennjB are as long as the thorax, 
the anterior part of which is lengthened 
out, and of a cyHndrigal form. 

The tail of the female is terminated by 
an appendix refembling ^ flexible, crooked 

Schasffer obferves, that the antennas of the 
Raphidia? are fetaceoiis, and their tarfi com- 
pofed of four articulations. 

According to Geoffrey, the wings are incum- 
bent, rather than dtjledled, and the antennas fili- 


Raphidia. NEUROPTERA. 169 

The Raphidia is rarely to be met with ; it is 
chiefly found in woods and hedges. 

Linnasiis fays, that the pupas of one fpecies is 
(though it wants wings) exceedingly iike the 

The Iarv4 has not been defcribed. 


( I70 ) 



The infedls belonging to this order have 
generally four membranaceous naked 
wings ; the Neuters, however, in fome of 
the genera, and in others, the males or 
females want wings. 

The tail (except in the male fex) is 
armed with a fting. 

This order contains the following ge- 

Genus I. Cynips. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 917. 

The mouth, in this genus, is armed 
with jaws, but has no probofcis. 

The fting, which is fpiral, is moAly con- 
cealed within the body. 


Cynips. HYMENOPTERA. 171 

GcofFroy, who has confined the genus Cynips 
to fuch of the Linnitan fpecies as have antennjc 
containing no more than thirteen articulations, 
and bent at their middle, or forming an angle, 
obferves, that thofe infeds have three ilemmata j 
that their antennas are cylindrical, and of equal 
thicknefs in their whole length ; that their 
ynder wings are (horter than the upper ones ; 
that their abdomen is nearly of an oval form, 
acute underneath, a little flattened on the fides, 
and attached to the thorax by a fliort ftalk or 
pedicle, and th^t their fling is not placed at the 
jextremity of their abdomen, but under that parr, 
between two projecting plates, which form a 
kind of crefl.. This genus he has formed into 
three families ; the firil containing thofe fptcies 
in which the antennas are ccmpofed of eleven, 
the fecond thofe which have feven, the other 
thofe which have thirteen articulations. 

He has arranged others of them, which Iiave 
filiform antenns not bent in their middle, and 
compofed of fourteen articulations, under a new 
genus, which he terms Diplokpi-s j thefe, how- 
ever, do not feem to diuer generically from the 
Cynips, all the other characfiers afilgned to 
them being the fame as in that genus : the 
Jarvse of the two genera likevvife perfedly 
refemblc one another, and live in the fame 


172 ORDER V. Cynips. 

manner under the galls of plants, caufed by the 
infertion of the eggs by the females. 

The genus termed by the fame author Eulo- 
lophus^ of which he only dtfcribes one fpecies, 
feems, by his account of the larva, to be a Lin- 
nsean Cynips, with branched or pectinated an- 
tennse \ the fting, however, is extended from the 
extremity of the abdomen, and not from under 
that part. Linnsus has placed it in the laft fa- 
mily of his Ichneumons, Vid, Linn. Syjl. Nat, 
fag. 541, Ich. f, No. 77. 

Sch^fFer, whp has not feparated Linnsus*s 
Cynipedes, obferves that their thorax is convex, 
and their wings extended, without folds, and 
that their tarfi have five articulations. 

The gall made ufe of in the compofition of 
ink, is formed by an infect belonging to tliis 

G E N Lf s 

Tenthredo. HYMENOPTERA. 173 

Genus II. Tenthredo. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 920. 

The mouth of the Tenthredo is armed 
with jaws, but has no probofcis. 

The wings are extended, and look as if 
fwelled, or of a bulky confiftence. 

The fting, which is almoft entirely hid 
within the abdomen, is dentated like a faw, 
and compofed of two laminx. 

Two fmall tubercules are placed upon 
the fcutellum at fome diflance from one 

The antenna of the Tenthredines, dif- 
fering very much in their formation and 
number of their articulations, Linnseus 
has divided them into different families, 
taken from thefe circumftances, as follows : 

1. Thofe with clubbed antenns. 

2. Thofe whofe antennas appear to be one 

continued thread, without articu- 

'|. Tl-ofc 

iy4 ORDER V. TenthrcJc?: 

3. Thofe with pectinated antennae. 

4. Thofe which have antennae nearly cla* 

vated, or with a club lefs obferv- 
able than that in the firfl family, 
and which are articulated. 

5. Thofe with filiform antennae, compofcd 

of feven or eight articulations> be- 
fides the bafc. 

6. Thofe with fetaceous antennse, compofed 

of feveral articulations. 

Geoffroy and Scha?ffer have feparated the 
firft of thefe families from the others (though 
their larv^ and metamorphofis argue them not 
to differ generically) and have given their new 
genus the name of Crahro^ with the following 
chara<5lers : 

The antenna club formed. 

The under wings Ihorter than the uppef 

The mouth armed with jaws. 

The fling placed at the extremity of the ab- 
domen, and ferrated. 

a. The 

Tenthredo. HYMENOPTERA. 175 

The abdomen throughout of equal fize, and 
clofely joined to the thorax. 

Three ftemmata. 

The remaining Tenthredines which, according 
to Geoffrey, have fihform antennas, that author 
has divided into three families •, the firfl: com- 
pofed of fuch as have nine ; the fecond of fuch 
as have eleven, and the third of fuch as have 
thirteen articulations in their antennse. The 
fame author obferves, that the under wings, 
likewife, of the Tenthredo^ are fhorter than the 
upper ones ; that the abdomen is clofely united 
to the thorax, not joined to it by a petiolum, or 
little (talk, as in the Cynips, nor becoming 
fmaller from its extremity towards its bafe, fo a^ 
tp form a kind of petiolum, as in the Ichneumon ; 
^nd that tiie antennae differ from thofe of the lad- 
mentioned genus in the form of their articula- 
tions, thefe in the Tenthredo are long, and 
rather rough, which makes their antennse appear 
as if compofed of fo many knots ; thofe of the 
Ichneumon, on the contrary, are fo very fhorc 
as fcarce to be perceptible, and exceedingly 
fmooth, fo that, if not attentively examined, the 
antennje would appear to be inarciculated, or 
Jike a briftle. 


17^ O R D E R V. Tenthrcda; 

Scopoli, who has only defcribed a fmall 
number of Tcnthredines, has divided them 
into two families ; the firft containing thofe 
with felavatedj the other, thofe having fili' 
form antennse, with feven or eight articula- 
tions : thefe laft, he obfervcs, turn afide, or bend 
downwards their antennse, when under appre- 
henfions of danger. The different fexes in this 
genus are in general differently coloured, which 
circumflance renders the knowledge of the 
fpecies very difBcult. 

The larva of the Tenthredo differs entirely 
from that of all the other Hymenopterous infects, 
and refembles that of the Butterfly and Moth fo 
much as cafily to be millaken for one of them : 
this refemblance has induced fome Entomolo* 
gifts, who had attributed the term caterpillar 
to the larvas of lepidopterous infe<51:s alone, to 
call thofe of the Tenthredo falfe caterpillars j 
there is neverthelefs one certain rule to diftin- 
guifh them by, that is by examining the num- 
ber of their feet ; thefe, in the true caterpillar, 
never exceed fixteen, and are feldom fo many 5 
thofe of the falfe one, on the contrary, always 
exceed that number, being generally from eigh- 
teen to twenty -two : the fix firft, or peroral 
ones,are hard, or fcaly, and terminate each in a 
point, as thofe of the true caterpillar -, the re- 

Tenthredo. HYMENOPTERA. 177 

maining ones are fofc and membranaceous, but 
deprived of the crotchets which terminate the 
membranaceous feet of the others : befides this 
diftinftion taken from the number of the feet, 
their heads are formed very differently j that of 
the falfe caterpillar confiding of one hard fcale; 
that of the true one, on the contrary, is com- 
pofed of two pieces, or fcalcs, which Geoffroy 
calls hcods ; the eyes of thefe lafl are likewife 
much larger than thofe of the others. 

Thel arvfe of the Tenthredines feed chiefly upon 
the rofe and willow trees, and undergo their iaft 
changemenc in the earth ; their fhrowd, or web, 
refembles net-work, being compofed of large, 
filken threads, between each of which great 
Spaces are left, perhaps to let the humidity of the 
earth pierce to the chryfalis ; the leafl: excefs of 
humidity ordrynefs in the earth kills thofe chry- 
falids, for which reafon it is very difficult to 
bring them to perfeftion in boxes : out of more 
than three hundred larvas of Tenthredines, 
which were nourifhed by Geoffroy, notmore than 
five or fix fucceeded, though he took the utmoft 
pains to keep the earth in a proper ftate. Vid, 
Geoff. Paris. /. 2, />. 269. 

The Tenthredo is called, by fome Englifh 
Authors, the Saw-fly^ from the formation of 

M its 

178 O RDER V. Tcnthredo. 

its fting, which differs from that of all other in- 
fe6ls (that of the following genus only excepted) 
in being dentated or armed with teeth, like the 
inftrument from which its name is taken •, this 
fting, however, is not in the lead dangerous, 
iis weaknefs preventing the infedt from doing 
any mifchief with it. 


Sirex. HYMONOPTERA. 179 

Genus III. Sirex. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 928. 

The mouth of the Sirex is armed with 
two ftrong jaws. 

The palpi, which are two in number, 
are truncated. 

The antennae are filiform, and contaiA 
upwards of twenty-four articulations. 

The (ling is dentarted like a faw, pro- 
jedled, ftrong, and ftifF. 

The abdomen is flender, and terminates 
in a point or fpine, from under which the 
f^ing proje<5ts. 

The wings are lanceolated (their extre- 
mities being drawn to a (harp point) and 
are extended their whole length, not folded 
as thofe of the Vcfpa. 

Scopoli has arranged th^ Sirices along with 

^e Ichneumons, as Linnseus had likewife done 

in the former editions of his Syftcma Nature 5 

M 2 ^hof« 

l8o ORDER V. Sirex, 

thofe inre(5ts, however, differ very much in their 
external appearance, formation, and manners j 
the abdomen of the Sirex is as broad as the 
thorax, and clofely connected with, or joined to, 
that part : the abdomen of the Ichneumon, on 
the contrary, is either joined to the thorax by a 
petiolum or ftalk, or grows much larger to- 
wards its extremity than at its bafe •, the 
fting of the female Ichneumon terminates 
-the abdomen, and is of a cylindrical form ; 
that of the female Sirex projecfts from the 
under fide of the abdomen, is denta- 
ted like a faw, and the abdomen itfelf is ter- 
miftated by a kind of horn or fpine. The fe- 
male of the Ichneumon lays her eggs in the bo- 
dies of other infeds (which (lie pierces for that 
purpofe with her fting) and particularly in the bo- 
dies of caterpillars of Lepidopterous infeds, upon 
which the larvje feed, and where they remain 
till prepared for the chryfalis flate ; the female 
Sirex lays her eggs in the interior of decayed 
trees ; the larva mofu probably feeds upon the 
wood, and always undergoes its laft metamor- 
phofis in the place where it had lived while in 
the caterpillar ftate; From all thefe circum- 
ftances, we may I prefume fafely conclude, that 
the Sirex differs generically from the Ich- 
, neumon. 



Geoffrey has only defcribed one fpecies be- 
longing to this genus j to that infecl he has 
given the geneiical nanic of Urocerus, a name 
taken from the point which terminates the ab- 
domen, and -which it were to be wifhed that 
Linnreiis had adopted, fince he himfelf looks 
upon the needlefs multiplication or changemenc 
of trivial names as a fault. 

Schfeffer has followed Geoffroy in tlie names 
and charaders of this genus. Thefe two au- 
thors add to the Linnasan characlers, that the 
tarfi are compofed of five articulations, and 
the under wings (horter than the upper 

The Sirex is very rare to be met with, but 
feveral fpecies of ic have been caught in Eng- 
land. It is generally called the Tailed PFafp. 

M 3 6£Nvs 

iS2 ORDER V. Ichneumon. 

Genus IV. Ichneumon. 

LiMN'. Syft. Nat. page 930. 

The mouth of the Ichneumon is armed 
with jaws, without any tongue. 

The antenna? contain more than thirty 

The abdomen is generally joined to the 
body by a pedicle, or ftalk. 

The fting is exferted, or projeds beyond 
the abdomen, and is inclofed in a cylindfi- 
cai fheath, compofed of two valves. 

The Ichneumons are divided into fami- 
lies, from the colour of their fcutellun; and 
antenncc, as follow ; 

1, Thofe with the fcutellum white, and 

the antennx noted vyith a white 
ring, or circle. 

2. Thofe with a white fcutellum, and black 


3. Thofe- 

Ichneumon. HYMENOPTERA. 183 

3. Thofe vvhofe Icutellum k of the fame 
colour with the thorax, and 
which have a white ring on the 

4. ^hofe with the fcutellum of the lame 

colour as the thorax, and the an- 
tennx black and fctaceojs. 

5. Thofe whofe antennce are yellow and 


6. Thofe with filiform antennae, having the 

abdomen of an oval and flender 
form. The antenna in this fa- 
mily often contain no more than 
ten articulations, the firfl of which 
is much longer than the others, 
and the infecfts in general are much 
fmaller than the preceding ones. 

ScopoH has united the Sirices of Linnspus 
with this genus, dividing it into two families ; 
the firfl containing the laft-mentioned infects ; 
the fecond, the Ichneumons. He aflei ts, that 
the under wings, in the firft family, are folded, 
M 4 the 

1 84 ORDER V. Ichneumon. 

the fecond he has fubdivided from the colour of 
their antennas. 

Geoffroy adds to the Linn^an charaders of 
the Ichneumon, that its antennae are in a conti- 
nual trembling motion ; that the upper wings 
are longer than the under ones, and the 
(lemmata three in number. That author has 
arranged fome Ichneumons belonging to the 
lad family, which have the abdomen of an oval 
form, under the firft family of his Cynips. 

Linnaeus (as has been before obferved) has 
placed the Eulophus of Geoffroy under this ge- 
nus, from which that infedt differs in its an- 
tennse, which are pedtinated. 

Its larva, from the account given of it by Geof- 
froy, muft refemble that of the Cynips -, but 
Linnseus afferts that, like that of the Ichneumon, 
\t lives in the bodies of other larvae. 

The fpecles of Ichneumons are not eafily de- 
termined, the different fcxes varying much in 
their colours, nor can thediftinft fpecific charac- 
ters be well taken from any other circum- 


Ichneumon. HYMENOPTERA. 185 

Many apterous infefls are found, which, 
without doubt, belong to this genus ; thefe very 
much refemble the aprerous MtuilLi;^ from 
which they are diftinguifhed, when living, by the 
continual vibration of their antenns, which mo- 
ition is not obferved in the antennse of the Mii- 
tilte, and after death, by the roundnefs of their 
thorax, which is lefs retufe than that of the other 
genus, and by their long and flender abdomen, 
which is likevvife frequently joined to the tho- 
rax by a petiolum. They are diftinguifhed 
from the Sphex, which they like wife refemble, 
by the number of articulations in their an- 

Some of thefe apterous Ichneumons are, with- 
out doubt, females, having the fting, through 
which that fex depofit their eggs ; others of 
them appear, from their being deprived of that 
iling, to be males. Geoffroy however afferts, 
that they are all females : perhaps that author 
had only met with fuch as had (tings. 

The larv^ of many Ichneumons not only 
Jive, but likewife undergo their metamorphofis, 
in the chryfalids or caterpillars of Lepidopte- 
rous infeds ; others of them, when arrived at 
their full growth, pierce the flcins of their lodg- 
": menK, 

1^6 ORDER V. Ichneumon. 

mcnts, which they quit, and fixing theinfejves 
to the fides of walls, branches of trees, &c. 
there pafs the chryfalis ftate under cover of a 
fjlken web. 

The name of Ichiuumon-fly has been given to 
this genus, by fome Englifh authors. 


Sphex. HYMENOPTERA. 187 

^ ' ' ^ f n il >. . .i ..» 

Genus V. Sphex. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 941. 

The mouth of the Sphex is armed wltlj 
jaws, but has no tongue. 

The articulations of their antennas ar^ 
ten in number. 

The wings, in each fex, are extended, 
without folds, and laid horizontally upon 
the back. 

The fting, which is fliarp and pointed, 
is concealed within the abdomen. 

This genus is divided into two families ; 
in the £rfl: of which, the abdomen is petio- 
lated, or joined to the thorax by a flalk ; m 
the other, the abdomen is fubfefile, or of a 
(lender make, nearly of equal lize in its 
whole lengthj and attached to the abdomei> 
wdihout a petiolum. 

Scopoli has divided his Spheges (to which he 
gives the lame characters as above, excepting 
what relates tatheir aitennas) into three families j 

i88 ORDER V. Sphex. 

the two firfl of which are Linnsan Spheges, 
and diftingiiifhed from one another by the fame 
circumftances as by Linnaeus ; the third (the 
abdomen of which he fays is fefiile) contains 
the Chryfes of our author, which differ from the 
Spheges in the formation of their antennae, in 
the lateral fcaie of the abdomen, which the laft-> 
mentioned infed^s want, and in the fpines which 
terminate the thorax and belly, 

Geoffrey has placed fuch Spheges as were 
known to him among his Ichneumons, as 
Linnaeus had likewife done, in the tenth edi- 
tion of his Syfl. Naturae. It has already been 
fhewn, that they differ from that genus in the 
number of articulations which compofe their 
antennse, and in the pofition of their fling, 
which in the laft- mentioned senus is exferted. 


SchasfFer has, like Linnseus, feparated the 
Spheges from the Ichneumons, and afTigns 
them the follovvino- characters : 


The tarfus of each foot compofed of five 

The antennas club-formed, and bent. 

The mouth armed with jaws, and furnifliecj 
with palpi. g 


Sphex. HYMENOPTERA. 189 

The flemmata three in number. 

The wings extended, incumbent, without 
•folds, and the under ones fhorter than the 
upper ones. 

The abdomen of an oblong form. 

The (ling pointed, and concealed within 
the abdomen. 

A great number of exotic infefts have lately 
been brought from different countries, which 
would certainly belong to this genus, if they 
were not provided with long membranaceous 
tongues, like thofe of the Bee, from which 
genus other circumftances again feparate them. 
Whether or no thefe inTedls differ generically 
from the Sphex does not appear to have been 

Many fpecies of this genus are common in 
England ; they are chiefly found in woods and 
hedges ; their larvas feed upon dead infedls, in 
the bodies of which they are produced from the 
egg •, fome fpecies dig holes in the earth with 
their fore feet, like dogs, in which holes they 
bury dead infedb, chiefly fpiders or Lepidopte- 
rous larvs, and after having depofited their eggs 


IQO O R D E R V. Sphex. 

in the bodies of thefe infe(5ls, they carefully clofe 
the holes with earth. 

It is very probable that fome fpecies of Apte- 
rous Spheges are found in England, which 
matter muft be determined by the external ap- 
pearance, the fling*s being concealed within the 
abdomen, and the number of articulations in 
the antennsc. 

The Sphex is called by fome, the Ichneumon- 



Chryfis. HYMENOPTERAii 191. 

Genus VI. Chrysis. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 947. 

The mouth of the Chryfis is armed with 
jaws, but has no probofcis. 

The antennsE are filiform : the firft arti- 
culation is long in proportion to the exte- 
rior ones, which are eleven in number. 

The abdomen is elevated in the middle> 
like an arch {fornkatum) with a kind of la- 
teral fcale on the under fide. 

The anus is dentated, or terminated by 
teeth or fpines, and likewife armed with a 
iting, which projeds a little. 

The wings are extended, not folded, a's 
it! the Vefpa. 

The body is of a (hining colour, and ap» 
pears as if gilt. 

Scopoli, as before obfsrved, has arranged the 
Chryfes among hii Sphcgcs. 


192 ORDER V. Chryfis, 

Geoffroy has placed them among the Vefpse, 
as Linnsus had done in the tenth edition of his 
Syftem : he has, however, formed them into a 
feparate family, under the title oi Golden Wafps. 
They differ chiefly from that genus in the pofi- 
tion of their wings, which are not folded, and in 
the fpines fituate on each extremity of the tho- 
rax, in mofl fpecies of the Chryfis. 

Schasffer has adopted Linnasus's method in 
preference to that of Geoffroy, adding to the 
charaders of that author, that the antennas are 
bent and cylindrical •, that the tarfus of each foot 
is compofed of five articulations ; that the four 
wings are all equally traofparent, and have very 
few nerves or membranes ; and that the abdo- 
men is oval, and.of equal fize with the thorax. 

The Chryfis lives chiefly in the holes of old 
walls, where they likewife lay their eggs : their 
larvas refennble that of the Wafp. •" 


Vefpa. HYMENOPTERA. 193 

Genus VII. Vespa, the Wasp. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. Pag. 984. 

The mouth of the Vefpa is armed with 
jaws, but has no tongue. 

The upper wings arc folded In both fexes. 

The fting, which is fharp and pointed, 
is concealed within the abdomen. 

The body is fmooth, without hair; 

The eyes (as obfervcd by De Geer) 
are lunular. 

Geoffrey affigns the following chara<5lers to 
the Warp. 

The antennse bent, with the firft articulation 
very long in proportion to the others. 

The inferior wings Ihorter than the upper 

The mouth armed with jaws, and provided 
with an infle5led membranaceous tongue. 

The fting fmooth and pointed. 

N The 

194 ORDER V. Vefpa. 

The abdomen attached to the thorax by a 
fhort pedicle. 

Three ftemmata. 

The body fmooch, without any hairs upon it. 

From the above it will appear, that Linnseus 
and GeofFroy differ very eflentially with regard 
to one charader affigned by the latter to the 
Wafp, viz. that of its having a membranaceous 
tongue, the exiftence of which Linnseus denies, 
but which, according to the other, is placed in 
the mouth between the jaws, bent inwards under 
^the bread, and compofed of feveral pieces or 
membranaceous iilaments, exadly like that of 
the Bee ; this difference, in a matter to all ap- 
pearance fo eafy to be decided, is furprifing: 
No author, befides Geoffrey, that I am acquaint- 
ed with, pretends that the Wafp has a tongue, 
nor could I ever perceive it, though 1 have pur- 
pofely examined a great number of European 
Wafps, and particularly fuch fpecies as are de- 
fcribed by that author, and which were taken in 
France •, all, indeed, have a kind of broad, mem- 
branaceous fkin under the jaws, at the bafe, or 
upon the fides of which, the palpi are feated ; 
this membrane does not, however, in the Icaft 
refemble a tongue, nor does it feem calculated to 


Vefpn. HYMENOPTERA. 195 

fcrve inftead cf one ; it has the appearance of a 
little bag with the mouth downwards, but doe» 
not clofe on the under fide i towards the end It 
is jagged, and divided into lobes, exaflly 
like the petals of Tome flowers. If Geoffroy 
took this membrane (which is always very fhort) 
for a tongue refembling that of the Bee, he was 
certainly miftaken, or had not examined it with 
fufficient attention. 

IJnnJEUs's charaflef perhaps ought not to be 
taken for generical, fince he himfelf defcribes 
one exotic fpecies, and feveral others are found 
in the cabinets of the curious, which are pro- 
vided with tongues ; the.e, indeed, differ Very 
much from the tongue of the Bee, being (in 
fuch fpecies as I have met with, and particularly 
in two or three which I poirefs myfelf) fliort, 
ftiff, extended, and concealed under the upper 
lip, which for that purpofe is drawn or length- 
ened out into a horny, pointed probofcis ; the bo- 
dies of fome of thefe infecls are hairy, like Bees, 
others are fmooth, or without hairs. It is to be 
hoped that fome ingenious traveller will take 
upon himfelf the taflc of examining whether 
or no thefe laft- mentioned infecfls differ ge- 
nerically from the Wdfp and the Bee, or 
to which of them the different fpecies be- 
long, which can only be done by thofe who (hall 
N 2 have 

196 ORDER V. Vefpa. 

have opportunities of examining their manner 
of living and metamorphofis. 

SchaefFer fays, that the mouth of the wafp is 
furnifhed with palpi, but does not mention the 
tongue ; the tarfi, according to him, are com- 
pofed of five articulations. 

Scopoli fays, that the wafp has no tongue. 

Many kinds of Wafps live in focieties, after 
the manner of Bees, and like them make 
combs, in which they depofit their eggs •, they 
likewife feed their larvae with honey, but of a 
very inferior quality to that of the Bee ; others 
of them conftrudl a different or feparate nefl for 
each egg. 

The larvae and chryfalids of all of them re- 
femble that of the Bee. 



Genus VIII. Apis, the Bee. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 953. 

The mouth of the Bee is armed with 
jaws, and furniflied with a probofcis, in- 
clofed in a bivalve (heath, and inclined 
downwards under the body. 

The wings are extended, and without 
folds in each fex. 

The females and neuters carry a (harp 
pointed fling concealed in their abdo- 

This Genus is divided into two families, 
the firft containing fuch as have the body 
fmooth, without any, or with very few hairs; 
the fecond, compofcd of thofe whofc bo- 
dies arc very hairy, and which emit a found 
as they fly. 

Scopoll having obferved that the quantity of 

hair on the bodies of the different fpecies of 

Bees, encreafes fo gradually, as likewife the 

N 5 noifc 

19S O R D E R V. Apis. 

nolle they make in their flight, as to render it 
difficult to determiiie where the firft family of 
Linnsus fhall end, or the other commence, 
has therefore preferred to divide them into 
families^ f;om the form of their antennse, 
which in fome are whole and extended, in others 
bent, and forming an angle from their bafe ; 
this divifion feems liable to fewer inconve- 
niencies than that of Linnaeus, though it 
frequently connefls Bees which differ much in 
their outward appearance. 

Geoffroy obferves that the under wings of 
the Bees are fliorter than the upper ones -, that 
the firft articulation of their antenna in each 
fcx, is much longer than the others ; that the 
abdomen isjoin'd to the thorax by a fhort pe- 
dicle, and that they have three ftemmata. He 
has divided them into families for the fame cir- 
cumftances as Linnaeus. 

The tarfi in this Genus are compofed of four 

The Bee is too well known to be eafily 
confounded with any other Genus of In- 
fcfls. The female of the domeftic Bee is 
much larger than the male or neuter ; her an- 
tennae contain fifteen articulations •, her abdomen 
is compofed of fcven fegmcntSjand is muchlon2;er 
3 than 


than her wings. The antennae of the male con- 
tain only eleven articulations, nor has that fex 
any fting -, the neuters are much fmaller than 
the males or females, their antennse contain fif- 
teen articulations •, they are likewife remarkable 
by the hairinefs of the under fide of their hind- 
moft thighs, which refemble a kind ot brufh, 
with which they gather the fine powder fcat- 
tered fiom x.\\q Anihera of flowers, and from 
which the wax or comb is made. 

The induftry of thefe little animals, which 
is as profitabfe as curious in itfelf, will 
always continue to excite the admiration of 
the wifer part of mankind, Swammerdam, 
Reaumur, Hagftrom, D'Aubenton, Geofiroy, 
and other authors, have wrote their hiftory with 
great accuracy. Swammerdam, above all, de- 
ferves to be read with the greateft attention. 

N 4 Genus 

200 ORDER V. Formica. 

Genus IX. Formica, the Ant. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 962. 

The Formica (called among us the 
Pifmire, Emmit, or Ant) is diftinguifhed 
by the little upright fcalc which is fituate 
between the thorax and the abdomen. 

The fting with which the females and 
neuters are armed, is concealed within the 

The males and females are winged, the 
neuters apterous. 

To the above characflers of the Ant, Geoff- 
roy adds that the antennae form an angle, their 
firft articulation being very long in proportion 
to the others, that the (lemmata are three in 
number, and the abdomen joined to the thorax 
by a (hortftalk. 

Schseffer likewife adds, that the mouth is 
armed with jaws, that the wings are inciim- 


Formica. HYMENOPTERA. 201 

bent, and the taiTi compofed of five articu- 

The Ants live in focieties compofed of males, 
females, and neuters -, the males are much 
fmaller than the females and neuters, but are 
diftingui'hable from the largenefs of their eyes, 
which are not fo well proportioned to the fize 
of their body as in the other fexes. 

No fooner is the work of generation per- 
formed, than the male and female ants perifh, as 
well as moft of the neuters ; fome of thefe, how- 
ever, outlive the winter, but pafs that feafon in 
their habitation, without movement, or any 
figns of life. How ufelefs then would be 
that prudence and affiduity in laying up a (lock 
of provifions for the winter, attributed, for fo 
many ages, to the Ant ? 

The female Ant feems to take no farther 
care of the young, after having depofited her 
eggs ; the important office of nourifhing the 
larvae, and preferving the chryfalids, is entirely 
left to the neuters, whofe affedlion for a progeny 
neither begot nor brought forth by them, can 
never be fufficiently wondered at ; they labour 
jncefTantly to fupply the larvs: with provifions, 


202 O R D E R V. Form 


arnd are conftantly employed in preferving the 
chryfalids from humidity in wet feafons, or ex- 
pofing them to the warmth of the fun when it 
is fair. Thefe chryfalids are much larger than 
themfelves, yet are carried about by them with 
eafe ; many kinds of birds are very fond of, 
and devour them, as well as the Ants them- 


Miuilla. HYMENOPTERA. 203 

Genus X. Mutilla. 
Linn. Syfl. Nat. page 966. 
The Mutilla;, for the moft part, want 


Their body is covered with a kind of 

The thorax ftrikes off bluntly at its 
bafe, or rifes perpendicularly from the 
part where joined to the abdomen. 

The fling is pointed, and concealed 
within the body. 

The Mutills are as yet very I:tde known, 
only two or three fpecies have been found with 
wings, and we are ignorant whether thefe are 
males or females; perhaps they live in fociety like 
the Ant, and the apterous fpecies are neuters. 
Moft of the infers without wings, arranged by 
different authors under this Genus, appear to be 
either Ichneumon's or Spheges -, that defcribed 
by Scopoli was moft probably an Ichneumon, 
from the vibraung motion of its antennae •, and 


204 O R D E R V. Mutilla. 

Linnseus himfelf is of opinion, that two of the 
five European fpecies defcribed by him, belong 
rather to the laft- mentioned Genus than to the 
Mutilla ; thefe two fpecies, as well as the Mu- 
tilla Europ/ea, Linn. No. 4. have been found in 
England, but their manner of living, their 
larvae, and metamorphofis, are wholly unknown, 
as the Genus itfelf appears to have been to 
GeofFroy and Schaeffer, fince neither of thefe au- 
thors has defcribed any of the fpecies belonging 
to it. 


( 205 ) 



The infedls belonging to this order have 
two wings. 

They are furniflied with a poifer or ba- 
lancer, (Halteres) fituate under each wing; 
which is terminated by a capltulum or 
knob. The bafe is concealed or fecured 
under a little fcale, by which it is covered 
as by a fhed. 

This order contains the following ge- 
nera, viz. 

Genus I. Oestrus. 

LiNM. Syft. Nat. Pag. gSg. 

The Oeftrus has no mouth, in the place 
of which three fmall imprefled points are 


2o6 ORDER VI. OeftrL^^. 

found, without any vifible probofcis or 

Geoffroy obferves, that the antennse of the 
Oeftrus are fetaceous, and grow, or are placed, 
upon a fmall point or button.- 

They have three {lemmata. 

Frifch, in his defcription of the Oeftrus Bo- 
vis, Linn. No. i, alTerts, tliat that infed: has a 
roftrum, which it can draw within its head, 
and fhoot out at pleafure. 

Schseffer obferves, that the abdomen in this 

Genus is of equal fize with the thorax. 


The larvae of the Ocflri lay hid in the bo- 
dies of cattle, where they are nourifhed the 
whole winter ; the perfect infedls are to be met 
with in the fummer almofl: wherever horfes, 
cows, or fheep are grazing \, fome of them lay 
their eggs under the fkin of cows or oxen, which 
they pierce for that purpofe •, others, for the 
fame end, enter the inteilines of horfts by 
the anus, and others, again, depofit them in the 
noftrils of fheep j in thefe different habitations 


Oeflrus. DIPTERA; 207 

the larvae refide till full grown, when they let 
themfelves fall to the earth, and generally pafs 
the chryfalid flate under cover of the firft (lone 
they meet with. 

The Oeftrus is in fome places known by the 
name of theG^^ F^. 


2oS ORDER VI. Tipula. 

Genus II. Tipula. 

Linn. Syfl:. Nat. page 970. 

The head of the Tipula is long, or 
feems lengthened out. 

The upper jaw is formed like an 

The palpi arc two in number, curve, 
and longer than the head. 

The probofcis is Ihort, and bent in- 

They are divided into two fe(5lions, the 
firft containing thofe in which the wings 
are open or extended when at reft -, the 
other thofe whofe wings cover the body 
horizontally when fitting. 

Scopoli has divided the tipula into two fa- 
milies, in the firft of which their antennas are pec- 
tinated in the males, bothfexes in the other have 
fimplc antennae. 

J ' Geoffrey 

Tipiila. D I P T E R A. 209 

Geoffroy has felefled fome of the Linnsean 
Tipnlse, in which the antennsc appear to be per- 
foliated, and are (horter than the head, and ar- 
ranged them under a new genus, to which he 
has given the name of Bibio. The antennae, in 
the figure he has given of the Bibio, appear ra- 
ther to be formed of large articulations, growing 
regularly fmaller towards the extremity, than 
perfoliated •, In the antennae of the Bibio, fi- 
gured by Schasffer, the articulations feem to be 
largefl: in the midfile, and to decreafe in fize to- 
wards the bafe and extremity. The larvse of 
the Bibiones differ very effentially from thofe of 
the Tipulse, in the number of their ftigmates, 
which, like thofe of the caterpillars of Lepidop- 
terous infedls, are arranged along the body on 
each fegment ; in the Tipulx;, they are but four 
in number, two at the head and two at the tail ; 
thefe laft are found in the trunks of decayed 
trees, thofe of the Bibio are moft frequent in the 
dung of cows. The Tipulas have three ftem- 

They are called, by fome Englifh authors, 
Crane-Flies : many kinds of fiQi, birds, and 
larvae of aquatic infers devour them. 

O Genus 

2IO ORDER VI. Mufca. 

Genus III. Musca. 

Ltnn. Syfl-. Nat. page 979. 

The mouth of the Mufca is formed by a 
foft, flelhy probofcis, with two lateral lips ; 
it wants palpi. 

The Mufcx are divided into different 
families, from the form of their antennse, 
as follows : 

1. Filatce, with fimple antennae, or whofe 

antenniE are without any lateral 
hair or feather. 

2. Armata, in which the antennae are fur- 

nished with a lateral hair, or fea- 
ther y thefe laft are either 

T^omentofa^ or Piloj£. 

The bodies of the T^omentofce are 
downy, though fcarce per- 
ceptibly fo ; and they are 


Mufca. DIPTERA, 21 r 

Plwnatce^ having a lateral plume, 
or feather on the antennae : Or 

Setarice, withafimple hair on the 
lide of the antennje. 

The PHofa have a fmall number 
of haJBS fcattered upon their 
bodies, principally upon the 
thorax j they are either 

Plumata, with a lateral feather : 

Setarice, with a lateral hair. 

Geoffrey has divided the Linn^ean Mufcaf 
into the lollowing genera : 

I. Stratiomys: This genus comprehends fuch 
of them as have the hinder part of the 
thorax armed with fpincs, and the an- 
tenn:E without any lateral hair or fea- 
ther, and forming an angle from the 
end of the firft joint, which is much 
longer than the others ; it is farther 
divided into two families, the firfl hav- 
ing two, the other fix fpines, on the 

O2 The 

2i« ORDER VI. Mufca. 

The larvse of this genus live in the water, 
and devour fmall aquatic infe(5bs •, the fly itfelf 
is found frequently near pools of water, whi- 
ther it reforts to lay its eggs. 

2. Mufca^ compofed of fuch Linn^ean Mufcse 
as have folid antennas, of a flattifh form, 
fomewhat refembling the mouth of a 
fpoon in fhape, and accompanied by a 
lateral hair j this genus he has divided 
into families, from the following cir- 
cumftances : 

I. Thofe whofe wings are of various co- 



2. Thofe which have, on the fore part of 

the head, a kind of pelicle, or mem- 
brane, which appears as if fwelled, and 
forms to the infed: a kind of mafk, ge- 
nerally of a light colour. 

3. Thofe whofe bodies are of various co- 


4. Thofe of a gold colour,. 

5. Thofe of the mod common colours, or 

fuch as have nothing remarkable about 

3 The 

Mufca. DIPT ERA. 21$ 

" " " " "'' - — ■■ l.ll 111 — ^■■■■^ ^- M Ml,^ 

The larvas of fome of this genus devour the 
the Aphides -, thefe larvae feem to want eyes, 
and lengthen or ftretch out their head as if to 
feel for their prey j others live in and confume 
all kinds of putrid flelh ; others are found 
in cheefe ; oihers, again, in the excrement of 
different animal^ ; many live in the water, and 
prefer the mofl putrid and muddy. 

3. VoLucELLA, which genus contains the 

Mufc^ Plumata of Linnseus, or thofe 
whofe antennae are furnifhed with a la- 
teral feather. 

The mouth of this genus, according 
to Geoffroy, is formed by a probofcis 
concealed within a flieath. 

The larva of the voluncella perfecT:ly refem- 
bles that of the Mufca, and is frequent upon 
the rofe. 

4. Nemotelus : this genus is compofed of fuch 

Linnasan Mufcs as have moniliform 
antennse ending in a kind of fliarp 

The mouth refembles that of the 


214 ORDER Vr. Mufca. 

5. ScATHOPSi, which differs from his Mufca 
only in the fhape of the antennae, which 
are fihform. 

Schaeffer has adopted all thefe new genera, 
and obferves that they have each three ftem- 

Scopoli has formed the following new genera 
from the Linnsan Mufcse, on account of the 
different formation of their probofcis, or an- 
tennas : 

1. Mitfca, to which he gives the following 
charafters : 

The mouth armed with a retraftable probofcis, 
which is dilated at its extremity, and furnifhed 
with clavated palpi, fituate at its bafe. 

2. Ceria : the roftrum of the Ceria is formed 
like that of the Mufca. 

The antennse are moniliform, with the laft 
articulation larger than the others. 

This genus belongs to the firft family of I^in- 
njcan Mufcse. 

3, Conops : 

Mufca. DIPTERA. 215 

3. Conops : which genus is diilinguifheil by 
the following characters : 

The mouth armed with a quadrifcted roftrum, 
two of which fetrc are longer than the others j 
the fheath of the roftrum is retra6lib!e, fiefhy, 
and terminated by lips : the upper lip is formed 
by two lobes, the under one is bifid. 

The fetre or biiftles above-mentioned, are fi- 
tuate, ia this and the following genera, at the 
bafe, and extended longitudinally towards the 
extremity of the roftrum. 

The Conops is formed in part from fuch 
LinnfEan Mufcse as have a lateral feather, in 
part from fuch as have a lateral hair on their 
antennas J and Scopoii has divided them, from 
that circumftance, into two families. 

4. Anthrax-, the mouth of the Anthrax is 
armed with a bifeted roftrum ; the flieath is 
fleftiy at its bafe, and retradible ; its extremity 
is fimply dilated, not divided into lips, as in the 

The palpi are feated in the middle of the 

O 4 Scopoii 

2i6 ORDER VI. Mufca. 

Scopoli has only defcribed one fpecies of- 
this genus, which is the Mufca Morio, No. 9, 
of Linnaeus. 

The Mufcse are the moft common of all in- 
icds, and are known to every one. The name 
of Fiy is particularly applied to them. 


Tabanus. D I P T E R A. 217 

Genus IV. Tabanus. 
Linn. Syfl. Nat. page 999. 

The mouth of the Tabanus is extended 
into a flefliy probofcis, teroiinated by two 

The roftrum is furniilied with two 
pointed palpi placed on each fide of, and 
parallel to, the probofcis. 

Scopoli afligtis the following charaflers to the 
Tabanus : 

The mouth armed with a probofcis, on which 
are five bridles ; thefe bridles are feated (as in 
his Conops, Anthrax, &c.) at the bafe of the 
roftrum, and extended almoft to its extremity. 

The flieath is univalve and obtufe. 

The palpi are two in number, acuminated, 
porreded, parallel, and incumbent upon the 
roftrum, fo as to form a kind of fecond or upper 
valve to the fheath. 

The fpecific chara6lers of the Tabani are 
chiefly taken from the colour of the eyes, which 


^i8 ORD ER VI. Tabanus. 

this author obferves ought to be examined 
while the infedt is yet alive. 

Geoffroy afferts, that the roftrum of the Ta- 
banus is accompanied by two llrong teeth, 
with which the infefl pierces the fl<ins of 
horfes, &c. No other author has mentioned 
the exiftence of thefe teeth, nor could I ever 
perceive them. 

The antenn:^, according to the fame au- 
thor, are of a conic form, and divided into four 
parts, being generally compofed of feven articu- 
lations, the three firft of which, from the bafe, 
are much larger than the four others, and form, 
as it were, three diftindl pieces ; the four others 
are much Ihorter, and appear as if confounded 
together, or forming only one piece j the third 
piece is generally larger than the two firfl:, and 
attended with a kind of lateral appendix, which 
makes the antennse appear as if forkid. 

Schacffer obferves, that the Tabani have three 
ilemmata, and that their abdomen is as broad as 
their thorax. 

The Tabani nouridi themfelves with the blood 
cf horf;s and cattle. As they are moft frequent 


Tabanns. D I P T E R A. 219 

near watry places, ic is probable that their 
larvae are aquatic, though De Geer aflerts that 
they live under the earth. 

They have been named Burr el or Whame Flies, 
by fome Englifh authors. 

Gin us 

220 ORDER VI. Culcx. 

Genus V. Culex. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page icor. 

The mouth of the Culex is formed by a 
flexible fheath, enclofing fetas, or briftles, 
pointed like flings. 

According to Scopoli, the bridles of the rof- 
trum in this genus are four in number, and two 
of them are longer than the others ; the fheath 
is long and porreded, and the palpi are incum- 
bent upon the bafe of the roflrum. 

The antennae of the female Culices are fili- 
form, thofeof the males feathered. The thorax, 
in both kxQS^ is gibbous, and the abdomen atte- 
nuated, growing fmaller from its bafe to its ex- 
tremity •, this part, in the females, is generally 
longer than the wings ; in the male, on the 
contrary, it is much (horter : the wings, in 
both fexes, are extended horizontally along 
the abdomen. The Culices have no lem- 
mata ; they very much refemble the fmaller 
Tipulas, from which, however, as Geoffroy ob- 
ferves, they may be eafily diftinguifhed by their 
mouth, which, on comparing the charaflers 
given to the two genera, or the infecfls them- 
fclves, will appear to be formed very diffe- 


Culex. DIPT ERA. 221 

The larvae of the Culices are very frequent 
in flanding waters •, their bodies are compofcd 
of nine fegments, which diminifh in fize and 
length from the head towards the extremity of 
the body -, the laft of thefe feclions is furnifhed 
with a kind of ftigmate, through which the larva 
breathes, frequently rifing, for that purpofe, 
to the top of the water. The head of the 
chryfalis is fo much bent under the bread, that 
the thorax appears to be the mod advanced 
part of the body ; the fligmatesare placed upon 
the back of the thorax ; the fegments of the 
abdomen diminifh in fize towards its extremity, 
the laft terminates in a kind of flat tail or fin, 
by means of which the infedl fwims or moves 
itfelf in the water. 

The Culices generally frequent woods and 
watry places ^ they are known by the name of 

Scopoli informs us, that where large quanti- 
ties of them are found, the foil is generally 
marfhy, and the air unvvholfome. 

The females are very troublefome, and fling ' 
feverely, which the males are feldom obfervcd 
to do. 


22 2 ORDER Vr. Empis. 

Genus VI. Empis. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. Pag. looj. 

The probofcis of the Empis Is of a flrong 
horny fubftance, it is bivalve, inclined 
downwards under the head and breaft, and 
longer than the thorax : the valves are ho- 

Scopoli has placed the only fpecies of this 
genus, which he has defcribed among his /^filiy 
to which genus he gives the follov/ing cha- 
racters : 

The mouth armed with a quadrifeted pro- 
bofcis : the (heath porred:ed, flift, longer than 
the head, and bivalve. He adds, that the head 
is fmal), of a roundifli form, the back gibbous, 
the feet long, and the roftrum fmall and in- 

According to SchsefFer, the antennas in this 

genus are compoled of three articulations, the 

firfl: of which is Jong and filiform ; the fecond 

very Ihort and globular -, the third much larger 

at its bafe than in the middle, from whence, 

again, it grows larger, and is finally terminated 

by a long and fharp point. 


Empis. DIPTERA. 225 

The wings in this genus are Incumbent. 

Scha^ffer fays that the antennse are of a conic 

The Empis feems not to have been known to 

The perre<5l infects are common upon flowers, 
and in gardens, but I do not find that the larv^ 
orchryfalids have been defcribed by any author. 



224 ORDER VI. Conops. 

■' fc^—^.-* ■■— ■ ■ ■ .^■^■■l■■^■. ,. , I i^— Mi* !■ I [ | i^B ih^ 

Genus VII. Conops. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 1004. 

The probofcis of the Conops is por- 
reded and jointed. 

Scopoli has given the following definition 
of the genus, named by him Empis, and 
under which he has arranged fome of the 
Linnzean Conopfides : 

The mouth armed Vv'ith an unifeted pro- 
bofcis, which is membranaceous at its bafe 
(where the palpi are fituate) and capable of 
being drawn in and extended ; towards the end 
it is ftiff, long, porrecfted, and attenuated. 

The Stomoxys of Geoffroy is a Ljnn?ean 
Conops, and the Empis of Scopoli ; he de- 
fcribes it as follows : 

The antennae terminated (like thofe of the 
Mufc£e) by a flat and Iblid articulation, fhaped 
like the mouth of a fpoon, with a lateral brifble, 
which, when clofely examined, appears to be 
Tcry hairy. 


Conops. D I P T E R A. 225 

The mouth formed by a probofcis, which is 
jfhaped hke an aw], fimp'e and acute. 

Three ilemmata. 

Tills Infeft very much refembles the Mufca 
Bomejlica, or common Fly, but is dlftinguifhed 
by the different formation of its roftrum. 

The genus termed Sicus^ by Scopoli, con- 
tains two fpecies of Linnjean Conopfides, viz. 
the Conops Tefiacea, No. 11, and the Conops 
Buccata^ No. 12, The Sicus is diltinguiflied 
by the following chara6lers ; 

The mouth armed with an unifeted probofcis, 
with a ftiff, porreded, and long flieath, broken 
or bent in the middle, and infle6led. 

The palpi feated at the bafe of the (heath. 

The Sicus differs chiefly from the Empis of 
the fame author in the formation of its pro- 

The Stomoxoides of SchaefFer Is the Sicus of 
Scopoli ; he has defcribcd it as follows : 

The antennae (haped like thofe of the Lin* 
nsean Mufcse, with a lateral hair, 

P The 

226 ORDER VI. Conops. 

The mouth formed by a porredled probofcis 
which is bent, or (huts like a clafp- knife. 

Three flemmata. 

The abdomen for the moft part curve. 

The Rhingia of Scopoli is likewife a Linnaean 
Conops ; he defcribes it as follows : 

The mouth armed with a trifeted probofcis ; 
the middle briftle longer than the others, and 
bifid, the lateral ones (on which the palpi are 
feated) of equal length with one another •, the 
(heath of the roftrum is univalve, attenuated, 
and applied to the canal of the mouth. 

The Conops is chiefly found in meadows and 
fields, where the different fpecies are very trou- 
blefome to cattle, 

I do not know that the larvas or chryfalids 
have been defcribed. 


Afilus. DIPT ERA. 2 2jr 


Genus VIII. Asilus. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page ioq6. 

The roftrum of the Afilus is hard, or 
horny, porrcdled, extended out its whole 
length, and bivalve. 

Scopoli has arranged many of the Linnjean 
Afili under the genus called by him Erax, to 
which he afligns the following charaders : 

The mouth armed with a trifeted probofciSj 
or on the bafe of which are feated three briftles, 
two of which are fhorter than the others, on 
which the palpi are often feated. 

The (heath, which does not exceed the head 
in length, is compofed only of one valve. 

The 4^lus of that author differs from his 
Erax chiefly in the form of its probofcis, which 
contains four fetse, or briftles ; the fheath is por- 
refted, ft iff, longer than the head, and bi- 

P 2 Schseffer 

228 ORDER VI. Afilus. 

Schaeffer defcribes the Afilus as follows : 

The antennse with a briftle arifing from a 

Three flemmata. 

The mouth, with a probofcis, which is ex- 
tended, horny, fetaceous, and bivalve. 

The thorax gibbous. 
The abdomen attenuated. 

The feet made for running. 

The halteres very large. 

The feet of the Afili, as Geoffroy obferves, 
are large, and the articulations, which are 
five in number, fhort, and fhaped like a 

i^ The Afilus is called, by fome authors, the 
Wafp-Fly, and not improperly, fince, like the 
.Wafp, it flings feverely whatever offends it, 
though with a different inftrument, viz. its 


Afilus. DIPT ERA. 229 

piobofcis, for which reafon it ought not to be 
taken without precaution. 

Many fpecies of them are not uncommon in 
watry meadows, where they very much in- 
commode the horfes and cattle. 

Its larvse, or chry Talis have not been defcribed 
that I know of. 

P 3 Genus 

^30 ORDER VI. Bombylius. 

Genus IX. Bombylius, 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 1009. 

The roftrum of the Bombylius is por- 
redled, fetaceous, very long, and formed 
by two horizontal valves, in which are 
contained fetaceous ftings or briftles. 

Scopoli, who defcribes under this title only the 
fame fpecies found in the SyJlemaN^iurajObkrves^ 
that the probofcis is long, porreded, and bivalve, 
and that the upper valve is entire at its extre- 
mity, bearded, and fhorter than the under one, 
which laft is bifid at its end, and not hairy ; 
that the (wo palpi are deprefled, and feated at 
the bafe of the inferior valve ; and that the 
bridles at the bafe of the probofcis are two in 

GeofFroy has placed the only one of this 
genus which he had met with, among his Afili, 
from which genus it differs in the number of 
bridles feated at the bafe of the probofcis, which 
are four in number in the Afilusj in the length 
of the probofcis, which part is much longer in 
the Bombylius than that of the Afilus ; and in 
the pofition of the wings, which in the laft-men- 


Bombylius. D I P T E R A. 431 

tioned genus are crofled one over the other, 
but in the other are open. 

Schsffer obferves, that the antenna are 
broken or bent, fetaceous, and of a conic form ; 
that the ftemmata are three in number ; that 
the abdomen is as broad as the thorax, and the 
wings patent, or open. 

Several fpecies of the Bombylii are very 
common in the fpring about the months of 
March and April j they are generally found up- 
on flowers in woods and low marfhy grounds. 

Their larv^ are probably aquatic, fmce the 
perfed infeds frequent waters. I do not know 
that they have been defcribed. 


23t ORDER VI. Hippobofca. 

Genus X. Hippobosca. 
Linn. Syfl. Nat. page loio. 

The roftrum of the Hippobofca is bi- 
valve, cylindrical, obtufe, and wavering or 
Shaking:, as if ill fixed to the mouth. 

The feet are armed with many nails, or 

Scopoli adds to thefe charad:ers, that the 
roflrum lias only one briftle. 

Geoffroy obferves, that the Hippobofcse are 
remarkable in being the only genus of Dipte- 
rous infefts which want fteramata, except only 
the Culex ; their antennje are fetaceous, very 
fliort, and cpmpofed of a fingle hair j they are 
yery'flat, hard, and as it were fcaly : it is very 
difficult to Ivill them by compre.Tion. 

The wings, in fomc fubjefts, are crofTed one 
over the other, in others are open. 

Sch^Eifer obferves, that their abdomen is as 
fcrozid as the thorax. 

The Hippobcfcas have been called, by feme 
authors, Spidsr-Flies^ from the great relem- 


I-Tippobofca. DIPTERA. 273 

blance which one of them bears to that infeft ; 
others have called them Hor/e-FIies, by which 
name they are more generally known ; they are 
found frequently in woods and marlhy places, 
but mod commonly on the bodies of birds, 
horfes and other quadrupedes, fucking their 
blood, upon which alone they fubfiQ.. Their 
larva?, are unknown. One of the fpecies is 
known to be pupiparous ; the egg of this in- 
feci is larger than the mother, and is rather a 
pupa or chryfalis, than a real egg, fincethe com- 
plcat or winged infedt is produced from it. 


( 234 ) 



This order contains all fuch infects as 
want wings in either fex. 

It has been before obferved, that many 
infe(fts are found to want wings, which, 
however, cannot be referred to this order, 
becaufe one or other fex of the fame fpe- 
cies is furnifhed with thofe parts. Bru^ 
Tiiche, m his Syflem of Entomology, has 
indeed arranged every infedl wanting wings 
under his Apterous order, without taking 
notice of the wings in the different fexes of 
the fame fpecies, which creates a ftrange 
confufion, as the different fexes of the fame 
infedl mufl often be fough' for under diffe- 
rent orders: thus the Apteroub Aphis, the fe- 
male Coccus, the neuters of Ants, the Apte- 
rous Mutillje, are feparated from the others 
of iheir own fpecies, and arranged among 


Lcplfma. A P T E R A. 23 r 

infeds with which they have no affinity. He 
has Hkewile placed the pupa of the Gryllus 
under this order, which is doubly improper 
for the reafon above mentioned, and as not 
being a compleat infed:. 

The whole fpecies, or every fex of the 
fame infed, muft want wings in order to 
render it apterous in the fenfe of LinnjEus, 
and to place it under this order, which 
contains the following genera : 

Genus I. Lepisma. 
Linn. Sy ft. Nat. page 1012. 

The Lepifma has fix feet, formed for 

The mouth is furnished with four palpi, 
of which two are fetaceous, and two capi- 

The tail is terminated by extended briflles. 

The body is imbricated with fcales. 

SchasfTer aflerts, that the Lepifma has only 

two palpi J that its antennas are fetaceous ; the 

« briftles 

236 ORDER VII. Lepifma. 

briftJes of its tail three^ and its eyes two in num- 
ber ; and that the l"x feet are broad and fcaly at 
their bafe, and formed for running. 

GeofFroy, who has given the name oi Forbicina 
to this genus, fays, likewife, that the feet are 
broad and fcaly at their bafe. He is of opinion, 
that the antennae are fetaceous rather than fili- 

Scopoli obferves, that the tail of the Lepifma 
is not made for leaping as that of the Podura. 

The inre(5ls belonging to this genus are very 
frequent under old floors, wainfcots, &c. efpe- 
cially in damp houfes ; they run with great 
fwiftnefs, and are generally of bright, Ibining 
colours ; they are fuppofed to live upon Wood- 
Lice, or by fucking tlie humidity of the wood 
under which they live. 


Podura. A P T E R A. 237 

Genus II. Podura. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 1013. 

The Podura has fix feet, which arc 
formed for running. 

The eyes are two in number. 

The tail is forked, bent inwards under 
the body, elaftic, and adts Hke a fpring, by 
which the infedl leaps. 

The antenna: are long and fetaceous. 

Schasffer fays, with Geoffrey, that the body 
is covered with fcales, and the laft-mentioned 
author has divided the Podur£e into tvio fami- 
lies ; the firfl containing thofe of a fliort and 
globular form ; the other, thofe of a long and 
flender make ; the antennas, according to the 
fame author, are filiform. 

The Podura pretty much refembles the Pedi- 
culus, from which it differs principally in its 
tail ; that part, when the infecl is at reft, or 
walks undifturbed, is bent under the abdomen, 
and preferved in a kind of groove, from which, 


23^ ORDER ^IL Pod 


when inclined to leap, the infed withdraws it, 
and by ftriklngit with force againft the ground, 
is thrown to a confiderable diftance. 

The Poduras are generally found upon the 
ground infand or gravel-pits, or under branches 
of trees, ftones, &c. in humid places. One 
fpecies is found upon the water, upon the fur- 
face of which it leaps with great agility. It is 
not known upon what any of them feed. 


Termes. A P T E R A. 239 

Genus III. Termes. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 1015. 

The Termes has fix feet made for run- 

Two eyes. 

Setaceous antennas : And 

The mouth armed with two jaws. 

Scopoli fays, that the Termes refembles the 
Pediculas, or Loufe, and GeofFroy has defcribed 
the only one he knew as fuch. Vid. Geoff. 
Paris. 2, p. 601 i fed. No. 12. 

They are generally called IVood-Lice. 


240 ORDER Vir. Pediculus. 

Genus IV. Pediculus. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 1016. 

The Pediculus has fix feet formed for 

It has two eyes. 

Its mouth contains an exferted fting. 

The antennae are as long as the thorax. 

The abdomen is deprefled, and as it were 
formed of different lobes. 

But few of the pediculi of quadrupedes and 
birds have been obfcirved, and the fpecific cha- 
rafters of (till fewer determined ; though it is 
pretty certain that almoft every different ani- 
mal is infefled with a different fpecies of them. 

Schseffer fays, that the antenna of the Pedi- 
culus are fetaceous, and the head diftincft from 
the thorax, which parts appear to him to be 
united in fome other genera belonging to this 
this order. 


Pediculus. AFTER A. 24: 

The Pediculi are of various forms or (hapes ; 
fome of them are almofl oval, others oblong, 
other again very long and flender ; their head 
is large, their eyes prominent, and their abdo- 
men compofed, in fome, of more, in others, 
fewer fegments, from fix to ten i their tarfi are 
compofed of three articulations y the crotchet, 
or nail, is femilunular, and very fharp. 

They are oviparous animals, and their eggs 
are pretty large •, they change their fkin feveral 
times before they are full grown j they are 
thought to be hermaphrodites, which circum- 
ftance may account in part for their prodigious 

Swammerdam, who had differed a great 
number, and has given a very good hiftory 
of them, afllires, that he never found onC 
without an ovary, nor ever found the exte- 
rior parts of generation peculiar to the male 
fex. If they are all formed thus, the Loufe is 
an hermaphrodite of a very particular kind, 
and muft be able to foecundate itfclf without 
copulation, which no other animal can do. 
Many kinds of vermes, or worms y are herma- 
phrodites, but far from being able to fcecundate 
themfelves, they have occafion for a double 
Q_ copulation. 

242 ORDER VII. Pediculus. 

copulation, each individual performing the of- 
fice both of male and female. This matter de- 
ferves the ferions attention of hntomologifts, 
and may be determined, perhaps, without great 
difficulty, thefe infers being fo common. Fid. 
Geoff. Paris : torn. 2, pag. 506. 


PuleX. A P T E R A; 24^ 

Genus V. Pulex, the Flea. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 1021. 

The feet of the Flea are fix in number^ 
and formed for leaping. 

It has two eyes. 

The antennse are filiform* 

The roftrum is bent inwards, fetaeeoiis,' 
and conceals a fling. 

The abdomen is comprefied or flattened* 

Schfeffer obferveSj that the body of the Flea 
is covered with fcales. 

The roftrum, according to ScopoH, is bi- 

The Flea is the only infc6t belonging to this 
order that undergoes the fame metamorphofis 
with thofe of the other orders, all the other ap- 
terous infeds being produced in their perfe<5fc 
(late, either by the mother, or from the egg. 
The larva has a forked tail, and fpins a cover- 
Q,a ing 

244 ORDER VII. Pulex. 

ing for the pupa, which has feet, of which, how- 
ever, it can make no ufe, they being immove- 
able. The larva may be nourifhed in boxes, 
find fed with flies, of which they are very fond. 

They are very fmall, lively, and creep like 
caterpillars •, they pafs fourteen or fifteen days 
in their larva ftate, before they undergo their fe- 
cond changement. 


Acarus. A P T E R A. 245 

Genus VI. Acarus. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page I0^2. 

The infers belonging to this genus have 
eight feet. 

Two eyes placed on the fides of the 
head, remote from one another. 

And two articulated tentacula in the form 
of feet. 

Schaeffer obferves, that the head of the Acarus 
is united to the thorax, in which it differs from 
the foregoing genera belonging to this order ; 
that its feet are made for running, its antennse, 
(the tentacula of Linnaeus) articulated, and 
made like feet, and that it has a pointed rof- 

Geoffroy and the laft-mentioned author have 
given to the Acarus Longicornis^ Linn. No. 29, 
and another, which Linnasus has fince placed 
among the Phalangia (Phal No. 4, Cancroides) 
the generical name of Chelifer ; thefe differ from 
the other Acari in the form of their antennas, 
which are terminated by a kind of claw, refem- 
bling that of a crab. They have given the fame 
Q^ 3 generical 

246 ORDER Vir. Acarus. 

generical charaders to the other Acari, as Lin- 

The mouth of the Acarus is formed by a very 
fmall roftrum enclofed in a fheath ; the anten- 
nae are Ihorter than the probofcis, except in one 
fpecies, which is called, from that circumftancc, 
the Acarus Longicornis. The thorax is of the 
fame fize with the head, and fo confounded with 
the iibdomen as not to be diftinguiflied but by 
it§ hardnefs. The Acari live chiefly upon other 
animals, quadrupedes, birds and infedls ; fome 
of the laft- mentioned clafs are often quite co- 
vered with them j others of them live in the 
water, others upon trees, plants, &c. They are 
oviparous, but their copulation and metaroor- 
phofis have not yet been obferyed. 


Phalangium. A P T E R A. 247 

Genus VII. Phalangium. 

liiNN. Syft. Nat. Pag. 1027. 

The Phalangium has eight feet. 

Two eyes on the fummit of the head, 
near each other, and two others on the 

The antenna:, which are fixed to the 
fore part of the head, are made Hke the 

The abdomen is round. 

The Phalangium Opiiio, Linn. No. 2, differs 
from the others in the number of its eyes, which 
are but two. 

According to Scha^ffer and Geoffrey, the two 
palpi in this genus are cheliform, and the an- 
tenn£E formed like feet, and angulated. 

The head and thorax are united without any 

Only one fpecies of the Phalangium is com- 
mon in Europe 5 the feet of this infed are very 
Q^ 4 flendcr 

£48 ORDER VII. Phalangium. 

flender, weak, and liable to be broken, Geof- 
frey is of opinion, that thefe feet, when broken, 
grow again like the claws of a crab, he having 
once found a fpecimen with feven entire legs, 
of the natural, or common length, and the 
eighth much fhorter ; he is farther induced to 
believe it, from the feeming analogy between the 
Crab and the Phalangium : this matter is cu- 
rious, and merits obfervation. 

The tarfi are compofed of a very great num- 
ber of fhort articulations. 

The Phalangia are in general nodlurnal ani- 
mals, flying the light, and fearching for their 
prey in the night time ; many of them devour 
the Acari, Wood-lice, fpiders, Sec. Some of 
them live in the fea, attached to the bodies of the 
larger aquatic animals ; others live in the trunks 
of decayed trees. I'heir manner of copulation 
and produ(5tion is wholly unknov/n. 


Aranea. A P T E R A. 249 

Genus VIII. Aranea, the Spider. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. Pag. 1030. 

The feet of the ^Aranejc are eight in 

They have eight eyes. 

Their mouth is aimed with two crotchets. 

Their palpi are two in number, articu- 
lated, and headed by the genitalia of the 
males, in that fex. 

The anus contains inflruments for fplii- 
ning, fhaped like nipples or teats. 

Schsffer adds to the above chara(5lers of the 
Spider, that the feet are made for running, the 
head united to the thorax, and the abdomen 
(which is of an oblong oval form)joined to the tho- 
rax by a ihort ftalk or pedicle. He has divided 
this genus into different families, according to the 
various fituation of the eyes, in which he followed 
Frifch, Geoffroy, and others. The eyes of fpiders 
are immoveable, and their ftruflure is different 
from that of the eyes of moft other infedls, 
confifting each of only one lenfe, which deprives 
3 them 

250 ORDER Vir. Aranea. 

them of the faculty of multiplying objefts, as 
their immobility does that of feeing fuch objedts 
as are placed otherwife than exadly before each 

Geofiroy aflerts, that all fpiders have eight 
eyes, and that the eye, at each extremity of 
the line, in the fpecies which Linnsus believed 
to have only fix, is double. 

Spiders prey upon all weaker infe6ls, even 
thofe of their own fpecies, and are themfelves de- 
(Iroyed by Spheges and Ichneumons ; they vary 
in colour according to their age, and often the 
different fexes of the fame fpecies differ in that 
particular ; they cafl off or change their Ikin ; 
they are not preferved perfect in cabinets with- 
out great difficulty, on account of their great 


Sf!orpio. A P T E R A. 251 

Genus IX. Scorpio, the Scorpion. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 1037. 

The Scorpion has eight feet, and two 
claws, which laft are fituate on the fore of the head. 

It has eight eyes, three of which are feat^ 
cd on each fide of the thorax, and the 
two others on the back. 

The palpi are two in number, and che- 

The tail is lengthened out, articulated, 
and terminated by a (harp, crooked fling. 

On the under fide, between the bread 
and abdomen, are placed two inflruments, 
called pedlines^ from their form, which re- 
fembles that of a comb. 

Linnaeus obfcrves, that this genus is n^t 
found in Sweden ; nor do I know that they are 
to be met with any where in the norihern parts of 

Schasffer adds, to the charaiflers given o' • - 
Scorpion by Linnaeus, that the feet ai. 

252 ORDER VIL Scorpio. 

for running -, the head united with the thorax, 
and the tail long and articulated. 


The claws fituate upon the head are, accord- 
ing to the fame author, the antennas of the in- 
led i Scopoli calls them palpi. 

The venom of the Scorpion is accounted 
more dangerous than that of any other infefb, 
and has been frequently attended with the lofs 
of life, in hot climates, as we are informed 
by different travellers. 


Cancer." A P T E R A. 253 

Genus X. Cancer, the Crab-. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 1038. 

The Crab has eight feet (fometimes ten 
or fix) befides two hands terminated by the 

It has two moveable eyes, generally 
projedling from the head, or placed upon a 
kind of flalk. 

It has two palpi armed with claws. 

The tail is articulated, and unarmed, or 
without any kind of fling. 

This genus is divided into families, as 
follows : 

I . The Brachyiiri, or Jhort tailed crabs, in 
which the thorax is either 

Smooth, and the fides of it entire ; 

Smooth, with the fides jagged or in- 
dented ; 

Hairy, or fpinou«5 on the upper part j 


254 ORDER VII. Cancer. 

Armed with fpines on the upper 
part J Or 

With an uneven furfacc. 

2. Macrouri, or long tailed crabs : thefc 
are fubdivided from the following 
circumftances : 

Thofe having a fmooth thorax -, 

Thofe with an uneven or tubercu- 
lated thorax ; 

Thofe which have the thorax armed 
with fpines ; 

Thofe in which the hand is without 
fingers, and the thorax of an ob- 
long form ; 

Thofe in which the (hell of the tho- 
rax is fliorter than that part, which 
it does not cover entirely. 

Some fpecies of each of thefe families are 
parafitici ; thefe, for the moft part, live in 
the fhells of other teftaceous animals, and 
their tails want the leaves, or plates, which 
terminate the tails of the other crabs. 


Cancer. A P T E R A. 25^ 

The crab has two long, and two, or four, 
fhort antenna?, which laft are by fome called 

Schaeffer obferves, that the antennjc of the 
crabs are long and fetaceous (without making 
mention of the fiiorter antennje or palpi) the 
head united to the thorax, the mouth armed 
with jaws, and the body covered with a cruft or 

GeofFroy aflerts, that the head of the Cancri 
Macrouri or long tailed crabs^ is not united with, 
but diftindl from the thorax j the fame author 
numbers the claws among the feet, and calls the 
fhorier antennse the palpi, as does likewife Sco- 

The Crabs are long-lived, and change their 
cruftaceous flcin every year, which changement 
is not effeded without great difficulty ; the in- 
ftruments of generation are two in number, in 
each fex, and they copulate breaft to bread, 
refupinata feniina ; the female carries her eggs, 
vi^hich are exceedingly numerous, in a duller 
under her tail. They feed equally upon plants, 
dead and live animals, and frequently the ftrong 
and healthy ones devour fuch as have juft 
changed their fkin, at which time they are weak, 


256 ORDER VII. Cancer. 

languifhing, and their new fkin foft; at this 
time they likewife fall a prey to many other 
animals, and chiefly to different fpecies of the 
marine polypus. Some authors afiert, that the 
Crab changes its ftomach and inteflines at the 
fame time with the ficin. 



Monoculus. APTERA. 257 

Genus XI. Monoculus. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 1057. 

The feet of the JVIonoculus are made 
for fwimming. 

The body is covered with a crufl:, or 

The eyes are fixed in the fliell, very 
near one another. 

The infefls belonging to this genus have ge- 
nerally been thought to have two eyes, but 
placed fo near to one another as fcarce to be dif- 
tinguifhed ; GeofFroy however aflerts, that fe- 
veral of them have in fadt only one eye ; to thefe 
he has preferved the name of Monoculus, Thefe 
are likewife farther diftinguifhed by their an- 
tennae, which in fome are divided and fubdivided 
into branches, like plants, with feveral lateral 
hairs, in others are more than two in number. 
To the remaining ones, in which two eyes are 
plainly perceptible, he has given the generical 
name of Binoculus \ the antenna in this genus 
are fetaceous, and the tail forked. The feet, ac- 
cording to the fame author, are fix in number 
R (in 

258 ORDER VII. Monoculus. 

(in each of his genera •,) but, according to 
Schsffer, they are many in number, and 
branched. Perhaps that Author miftook the 
antennas for feet, and indeed mod of the 
fpecies make ufe of the antennae to fwim, 
and hkewile to leap with ; he has changed the 
generical name of our author to that of Bran' 
chipus. The MonocuH are both oviparous and 
viviparous; they Hve in fl-agnated waters; fome of 
them feed upon plants, others attach themfelves 
firmly to the bodies of different filh, whofe blood 
they fuck for their nourifhment -, they fwim, or 
rather fpring upon the water, with great agility j 
they are in general very fmall, but lay an amazing 
number of eggs -, they lofe all motion, and 
feem to ceafe to live in fummer, when the great 
droughts have deprived them of water, but re- 
vive when reftored to their proper element. 

Linnai^us relates, that one fpecies of them, 
which is of a red colour, is fometimes fo nume- 
rous as to make the waters appear as if changed 
into blood. 


Onlfcus. A P T E R A. 259 

Genus XII. Oniscus. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 1069* 

The Onifcus has fourteen feet^ 
The antennas are fetaceous, and 

The body of an oval form. 

Geoffrey adds to the above characters of the 
Onifcus, that the antennas are bent. He has fe- 
pa rated the Onifc. Jquaticus, Linn. Syji. Nat, 
No, 1 1, from the other fpecies, under the gene- 
rical name of JfelluSy on account of the number 
of antenna in that infe6l, which are four -, two 
of thefe are longer than the others, but they 
are all bent : he obferves that the head, in both 
thefe genera, is intimately joined to the thorax. 

Schaeffer has followed Geoffroy in this divi- 
fion of the Linnaean genus, and obferves, that 
the feet of the Afellus are made for running, 
that the body is oblong, and the mouth furnilh- 
ed with two palpi. 

R 2 The 

z6o ORDER VII. Onifcus. 

The Onifci change their Ikin, like many other 
apterous infects •, it is compofed of feveral cruf- 
taceous plates. 

They are found frequently in houfes, gar- 
dens, and woods ; fome fpecies live in the 
water ; they are fometimes called Hog-lice^ and 
one fpecies is made m'iz of in medicine. 


Scolopendra A P T E R A. s^i 

Gentjs XIII. Scolopendra. 

Linn. Syft. Nat. page 1062. 

The feet, in this genus, are as many 
in number, on each fide, as the fegments 
of the body. 

The antennjE are fetaceous. 

The palpi two in number, and jointed, 
or formed of various articulations. 

The body is deprefled, or flat. 

GeofFroy and SchsefFer aflerr, that the anten- 
nJE of the Scolopendra are filiform, and compofed 
of many Qiort articulations ; the feet, accord- 
ing to the fame author, are never fewer than 

The body of the Scolopendra is flat, and 
compofed of a great many rings, or fegments, 
which augment, as the infed advances in age, 
till it is fully grown, for which reafon the fpe- 
cies can rarely be determined with any cer- 
tainty : it changes its flcin in the fame manner 
as the two preceding genera : fome fpecies are 
frequent in gardens, and all humid places, 
under ftones, &c. 

R 3 Genus 

4^2 ORDER VII. Julus. 

Genus XIV. Julus. 
Linn. Syft. Nat. page 10364 

The feet, in this genus, are very nume- 
rous, being, on each fide, twice as many 
as the fegments of the body. 

The antenna are moniliform, 

The palpi are two in iiumber, and arti» 

The body is of a femicylindric form, 

Geoffroy and Schasffer obferve, that the an^ 
tennse are compofed of five articulations, and 
the feet always more than an hundred in 

The JuU differ from the ScolopendriE in the 
fhape of their body, and number of their feet, 
which laft are likewife very (hort ; the fkin is 
exceedingly hard, and is caft off or changed, 
like that of the Scclopendras, &c. They arc 
frequent in humid places. 

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