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Full text of "The Institutio oratoria of Quintilian"

mm 







Presented to 

THE LIBRARY 

o£ 

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 

by 



Prof. John Reibetanz 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

rOUNOED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 
EDITED BY 

E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 

FORMER EDITORS 

fT. E. PAGE, c.H,, LiTT.D. fE. CAPPS, ph.d., ix.d. 

tW. H. D. ROUSE, LITT.D. L. A. POST, l.h.d. 



QUINTILIAN 
IV 



127 



k 



THE INSTITUTIO ORATORIA OF 

QUINTILIAN 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
H. E. BUTLER, M.A., 

PROFESSOR or LATIS IN LONDON DNITERSITT 



IN FOUR VOLUMES 
IV 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MOMLXVm 



Coc>. 2- 



First printed 1922 
Reprinted 1936, 1953, 1958, 1961, 1968 



fO-l>9^S 



Printed in Great Britain 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAOX 
BOOK X 1 

Ch. 1 : Value of reading; autboi's to be studied; 
poeta ; historians ; orators ; philosophers ; brief 
review of Greek and Roman literature considered 
from standpoint of rhetoric. — Ch. 2 : Imitation. — 
Ch. 3: Writing. — Ch. 4: Correction. — Ch. 5: 
Various forma of composition ; translation ; para- 
phrase, theses, commonplaces, declamations. — Ch. 
6 : Thought and premeditation. — Ch. 7 : Speaking 
extempore. 

BOOK XI 153 

Ch. 1 : The necessity of speaking appropriately to 
the circumstances. — Ch. 2: Memory and memory 
systems. — Ch. 3 : Delivery gesture and dress. 

BOOK XII 351 

Preface. — Ch. 1 : A great orator must be a good 
man. — Ch. 2 : How to strengthen character ; study 
of philosophy. — Ch. 3 : Necessity of study of civil 
law. — Ch. 4: The orator must be well equipped 
with examples and precedents. — Ch. 5 : Necessity 
of firmness and presence of mind ; cultivation of 
natural advantages. — Ch. 6 : Age at which the 
orator should begin to plead. — Ch. 7 : Causes which 
he should undertake ; remuneration for services. — 
Ch, 8 : Necessity of careful stutly of each case. 
— Ch. 9 : The orator must not make applause 
his predominant aim ; sparing use of invective ; 
relative importance of preparation in writing and 
speaking extempore. — Ch. 10: The dififerent styles 
of oratory ; analogy of the arts of sculpture and 
painting ; Greek and Roman oratory compared. — 
Ch. 11 : At what age to retire from speaking in 
public and how to spend one's retirement ; possi- 
bilities of the successful training of an orator ; 
advantages to be drawn therefrom ; exhortation 
to diligence ; conclusion. 

IKDEX or NAMKS .. 51? 

INDKX Of W0KD8 533 

T 



SIGLA 
A = Codex Ambrosiauus, 11th century. 

B = Agreement of Codicea Bernensis, Bambergensis and 
Nostradamensis, 10th century. 

G = Codex Bambergensis in those passages where gaps 
have been supplied by a Liter lltli-century hand. 



QUINTILIAN 
BOOK X 



M. FABII QUINTILIANI 
INSTITUTIONIS ORATORIAE 

LIBER X 

I. Sed haec eloquendi praecepta, sicut cogitationi 
sunt necessaria, ita non satis ad vim dicendi valent, 
nisi illis firma quaedam facilitas, quae apud Graecos 
l^is nominatur, accesserit : ad quam scribendo plus 
an legendo an dicendo conferatur, solere quaeri scio. 
Quod esset diligentius nobis examinandum, si quali- 

2 bet earum rerum possemus una esse contenti. Verum 
ita sunt inter se conexa et indiscreta omnia ut, si 
quid ex his defuerit, frustra sit in ceteris laboratum. 
Nam neque solida atque robusta fuerit unquam 
eloquentia nisi niulto stilo vires acceperit, et citra 
lectionis exemplum labor ille carens rectore fluita- 
bit ; et qui ^ sciet quae quoque sint modo dicenda, 
nisi tamen in procinctu paratamque ad omnes 
casus habuerit eloquentiam, velut clausis thesauris 

3 incubabit. Non autem ut quidquid praecipue neces- 

^ fluitabit et qui, Halm i fluvit autem qui, O, 
2 



THE INSTITUTIO ORATORIA 
OF QUINTILIAN 

BOOK X 

I. But these rules of style, while part of the 
student's theoretical knowledge, are not in them- 
selves sufficient to give him oratorical power. In 
addition he will require that assured facility which 
the Greeks call t^is. I know that many have raised 
the question as to whether this is best acquired by 
writing, reading or speaking, and it would indeed 
be a question calling for serious consideration, if we 
could rest content with any one of the three. But 2 
they are so intimately and inseparably connected, 
that if one of them be neglected, we shall but waste 
the labour which we have devoted to the others. 
For eloquence will never attain to its full develop- 
ment or robust health, unless it acquires strength 
by frequent practice in writing, while such practice 
without the models supplied by reading will be like 
a ship drifting aimlessly without a steersman. 
Again, he who knows what he ought to say and 
how he should say it, will be like a miser brooding 
over his hoarded treasure, unless he has the weapons 
of his eloquence ready for battle and prepared to 
deal with every emergency. But the degree in 3 



QUINTILIAN 

sarium est, sic ad efficiendum oratorem maximi 
protinus erit momenti. Nam certe, cum sit in 
eloquendo positum oratoris officium, dicere ante 
omnia est, atque hinc initium eius artis fuisse mani- 
festum est ; proximam deinde imitationem, novissi- 

4 mam scribendi quoque diligentiam. Sed ut perveniri 
ad surama nisi ex principiis non potest, ita pro- 
cedente iam opere etiam ^ minima incipiunt esse 
quae prima sunt. Verum nos non, quomodo insti- 
tuendus orator, hoc loco dicimus ; nam id quidem 
aut satis aut certe uti potuimus dictum est ; sed 
athleta, qui omnes iam perdidicerit a praeceptore 
numeros, quo genere exercitationis ad certamina 
praeparandus sit. Igilur eum, qui res invenire et 
disponere sciet, verba quoque et eligendi et collocandi 
rationem perceperit, instruamus, qua ratione quod 
didicerit ^ facere quam optime, quam facillime possit. 

5 Num ergo dubium est, quin ei velut opes sint 
quaedam parandae, quibus uti, ubicunque desidera- 
tum erit, possit.'' Eae constant copia rerum ac 

6 verborum. Sed res propriae sunt cuiusque causae 
aut paucis communes, verba in universas paranda ; 
quae si in rebus singulis essent singula, minorem 

* etiam, Osann: iam, AfSS, 

* qua ratione, ed. Col. 1527 : qua oratione, 3fSS. 
ditlicerit, Zumpt : dicere, G. 



BOOK X. I. 3-6 

which a thing is essential does not necessarily make 
it of immediate and supreme importance for the 
formation of the ideal orator. For obviously the 
power of speech is the first essential, since therein 
lies the primary task of the orator, and it is obvious 
that it was with this that the art of oratory began, 
and that the power of imitation comes next, and 
third and last diligent practice in writing. But as 4 
perfection cannot be attained without starting at 
the very beginning, the points which come first in 
time will, as our training proceeds, become of quite 
trivial importance. Now we have reached a stage in 
our enquiry where we are no longer considering the 
jireliminary training of our orator ; for I think the 
instructions already given should suffice for that ; 
they are in any case as good as I could make them. 
Our present task is to consider how our athlete who 
has learnt all the technique of his art from his 
trainer, is to be prepared by actual practice for the 
contests in which he will have to engage. Con- 
sequently, we must assume that our student has 
learned how to conceive and dispose his subject 
matter and understands how to choose and arrange 
his words, and must proceed to instruct him how to 
make the best and readiest use of the knowledge 
which he has acquired. 

There can then be no doubt that he must accumu- 5 
late a certain store of resources, to be employed 
whenever they may be required. The resources of 
which I speak consist in a copious supply of words 
and matter. But while the matter is necessarily 6 
either peculiar to the individual case, or at best 
common to only a fcAV, words must be acquired to 
suit all and every case. Now, if there were special 



QUINTILIAN 

curam postularent, nam cuncta sese cum ipsis pro- 
tinus rebus offerrent. Sed cum sint aliis alia aut 
magis propria aut magis ornata aut plus efficientia 
aut melius sonantia, debent esse non solum nota 
omnia sed in promptu atque, ut ita dicam, in con- 
spectu, ut, cum se iudicio dicentis ostenderint, facilis 

7 ex his optimorum sit electio. Et quae idem signifi- 
carent solitos scio ediscere, quo facilius et occurreret 
unum ex pluribus et, cum essent usi aliquo, si breve 
intra spatium rursus desideraretur, efFugiendae re- 
petitionis gratia sumerent aliud quod idem intelligi 
posset. Quod cum est puerile et cuiusdam infelicis 
operae turn etiam utile parum ; turbam tantum 
modo 1 congregat, ex qua sine discrimine occupet 
proximum quodque. 

8 Nobis autem copia cum iudicio paranda est vim 
orandi non circulatoriam volubilitatem spectantibus. 
Id autem consequemur optima legendo atque 
audiendo ; non enim solum nomina ipsa rerum 
cognoscemus hac cura, sed quod quoque loco sit 

9 aptissimum. Omnibus enim fere verbis ^ praeter 
pauca, quae sunt parum verecunda, in oratione locus 
est. Nam scriptores quidem iamborum veterisque 
conioediae etiam in illis saepe laudantur, sed nobis 

* turbam tantum modo, Halm: turbafntum modo, '. 
turbam enim tantum, vulgo. 

• fere verbis, cod Harl. 4995 : ferebis vel, O. 

1 See §§ 59 and 96. 



BOOK X. I. 6-9 

words adapted to each individual thing, they would 
require less care, since they would automatically be 
suggested by the matter in hand. But since some 
words are more literal, more ornate, more significant 
or euphonious than others, our orator must not 
merely be acquainted with all of them, but must 
have them at his fingers' ends and before his very 
eyes, so that when they present themselves for his 
critical selection, he will find it easy to make the 
appropriate choice. I know that some speakers 7 
make a practice of learning lists of synonyms by 
heart, in order that one word out of the several 
available may at once present itself to them, and 
that if, after using one word, they find that it is 
wanted again after a brief interval, they may be 
able to select another word with the same meaning 
and so avoid the necessity of repetition. But this 
practice is childish and involves thankless labour, 
while it is really of very little use, as it merely 
results in the assembly of a disorderly crowd of 
words, for the speaker to snatch the first that comes 
to hand. 

On the contrary, discrimination is necessary in 8 
the acquisition of our stock of words ; for we are 
aiming at true oratory, not at the fluency of a 
cheapjack. And we shall attain our aim by reading 
and listening to the best writers and orators, since 
we shall thus learn not merely the words by which 
things are to be called, but when each particular 
word is most appropriate. For there is a place in 9 
oratory for almost every word, with the exception 
only of a very few, which are not sufficiently seemly. 
Such words are indeed often praised when they 
occur in writers of iambics ^ or of the old comedy. 



QUINTILIAN 

nostrum opus intueri sat est. Omnia verba, ex- 
ceptis de quibus dixi, sunt alicubi optima ; nam et 
humilibus interim et vulgaribus est opus, et quae 
nitidiore in parte videntur sordida, ubi res poscit, 

10 proprie dicuntur. Haec ut sciamus atque eorum 
non significationem modo sed formas etiam men- 
surasque norimus, ut, ubicunque erunt posita, con- 
veniant, nisi multa lectione atque auditione assequi 
nuUo modo possumus, cum omnem sermonem auribus 
primum accipiamus. Propter quod infantes a mutis 
nutricibus iussu regum in solitudine educati, etiamsi 

11 verba quaedam emisisse traduntur, tamen loquendi 
facultate caruerunt. Sunt autem alia huius naturae, 
ut idem pluribus vocibus declarent, ita ut nihil 
significationis, quo potius utaris, intersit, ut ensis et 
gladius ; alia vero,^ etiamsi propria rerum aliqua- 
rum sint nomina, Tpo-rnKw^ quasi tamen ^ ad eundem 

12 intelleetum feruntur, utferrum et macro. Nam per 
abusionem sicatios etiam omnes vocamus, qui caedem 
telo quocunque commiserint. Alia circuitu verborum 
plurium ostendimus, quale est Et pressi copia lactis. 

* alia vero, Frotscher : aliave, G. 

2 quasi tamen, edd. : quare tam, G : quare tamen, later MSS. 

^ See Herodot. ii. 2. The children were alleged to have 
cried " bekos," Phrygian for bread. 

* or catachresis. See viii. ii. 5 and vL 34. 

3 Ed, i. 81. 

8 



BOOK X. I. 9-12 

but we need do no more than consider our own 
special task. All words, with these exceptions, 
may be admirably employed in some place or 
other. For sometimes we shall even require low 
and common words, while those which would 
seem coarse if introduced in the more elegant 
portions of our speech may, under certain circum- 
stances, be appropriate enough. Now to acquire a 10 
knowledge of these words and to be acquainted not 
merely with their meaning, but with their forms and 
rhythmical values, so that they may seem appropriate 
wherever employed, we shall need to read and listen 
diligently, since all language is received first through 
the ear. It was owing to this fact that the children 
who, by order of a king, were brought up by a dumb 
nurse in a desert place, although they are said to 
have uttered certain words, lacked the power of 
speech.^ There are, however, some words of such 11 
a nature that they express the same sense by 
different sounds, so that it makes no difference to 
the meaning which we use, as, for instance, gladius 
and ensis, which may be used indifferently when we 
have to speak of a sword. Others, again, although 
properly applied to specific objects, are used by 
means of a trope to express the same sense, as, for 
example, /er7TZ7« (steel) and mucro (point), which are 
both used in the sense of sword. Thus, by the 12 
figure known as ahuse,^ we call all those who commit 
a murder with any weapon whatsoever sicarii (poni- 
arders). In other cases we express our meaning 
periphrastically, as, for instance, when Virgil "* 
describes cheese as 

" Abundance of pressed milk." 



QUINTILIAN 

Plurima vero mutatione figuramus : Scio Non ignore 
et Nov me Jiigit et Non me praeterit et Quis nescit ? 

13 et Nemini duhium est. Sed etiam ex proximo mutuari 
libet. Nam et inteUigo et sentio et xideo saepe idem 
valent quod scio. Quorum nobis ubertatem ac divitias 
dabit lectio, ut non solum quomodo occurrent sed 

14 etiam quomodo oportet utamur. Non semper enim 
haec inter se idem faciunt ; nee sicut de intellectu 
animi recte dixerim video ita de visu oculorum in- 
teUigo, nee ut mucro gladium sic mucronem gladius 

15 ostendit. Sed ut copia verborum sic paratur, ita 
non verborum tantum gratia legendum vel audiendum 
est. Nam omnium, quaecunque docemus, hoc ^ sunt 
exempla potentiora etiam ipsis quae traduntur arti- 
bus, cum eo qui discit perductus est, ut intelligere 
ea sine demonstrante et sequi iam suis viribus possit, 
quia, quae doctor praecepit, orator ostendit. 

16 Alia vero audientes, alia legentes magis adiuvant. 
Excitat qui dicit spiritu ipso, nee imagine et ambitu 

* hoc, Begins : haec, MSS. 

1 See I. viii. 16; ix. i. 11. 
10 



BOOK X. I. 12-16 

On the other hand, in a number of instances we 
employ figures^ and substitute one expression for 
another. Instead of " I know," we say " I am not 
ignorant," or "the fact does not escape me," or "I 
have not forgotten," or " who does not know ? " or 
" it can be doubted by none." But we may also 13 
borrow from a word of cognate meaning. For " I 
understand," or "I feel" or "I see" are often 
equivalent to "I know." Reading will provide us 
with a rich store of expressions such as these, 
and will enable us not merely to use them when 
they occur to us, but also in the appropriate manner. 
For they are not always interchangeable : for 14 
example, though I may be perfectly correct in 
saying, " I see " for " I understand," it does not 
follow that I can say "I understand " for "my eyes 
have seen," and though mucro may be employed to 
describe a sword, a sword does not necessarily mean 
the same as mucro (point). But, although a store 15 
of words may be acquired by these means, we must 
not read or listen to orators merely for the sake of 
acquiring words. For in everything which we teach 
examples are more effective even than the rules 
which are taught in the schools, so long as the 
student has reached a stage when he can appreciate 
such examples without the assistance of a teacher, 
and can rely on his own powers to imitate them. 
And the reason is this, that the professor of rhetoric 
lays down rules, while the orator gives a practical 
demonstration. 

But the advantages conferred by reading and 16 
listening are not identical. The speaker stimulates 
us by the animation of his delivery, and kindles the 
imagination, not by presenting us with an elaborate 



QUINTILIAN 

rerum sed rebus incendit. Vivunt omnia enim et 
moventur, excipimusque nova ilia velut nascentia 
cum favore ac sollicitudine. Nee fortuna modo 
iudicii sed etiam ipsorum qui orant periculo adficimur. 

17 Praeter haec vox, actio decora, accommodata/ ut 
quisque locus postulabit, pronuntiandi vel poten- 
tissima in dicendo ratio et, ut semel dicam, pariter 
omnia docent. In lectione certius iudicium, quod 
audienti frequenter aut suus cuique favor aut ille 

18 laudantium clamor extorquet. Pudet enim dissentire, 
et velut tacita quadam verecundia inhibemur plus 
nobis credere, cum interim et vitiosa pluribus placent, 
et a conrogatis laudantur etiam quae non placent. 

19 Sed e contrario quoque accidit, ut optime dictis 
gratiam prava iudicia non referant. Lectio libera est 
nee actionis impetu transcurrit ; sed repetere saepius 
licet, sive dubites sive memoriae penitus adfigere 
velis. Repetamus autem et retractemus,^ et ut cibos 
mansos ac prope liquefactos demittimus, quo facilius 
digerantur, ita lectio non cruda, sed multaiteratione^ 
mollita et velut confecta, memoriae imitationique 
tradatur. 

* accommodata ut, ed. Col. 1527 : commoda aut, G : 
conimodata ut, Halm. 

^ retracteinus, Spalding : tractemus, G. 

' iteratione, soiac late MSS. : altercatione, G and others. 

12 



BOOK X. I. 16-19 

picture, but by bringing us into actual touch with 
the things themselves. Then all is life and move- 
ment, and we receive the new-born offspring of his 
imagination with enthusiastic approval. We are 
moved not merely by the actual issue of the trial, 
but by all that the orator himself has at stake. More- 17 
over his voice, the grace of his gestures, the adapta- 
tion of his delivery (which is of supreme importance 
in oratory), and, in a word, all his excellences in 
combination, have their educative effect. In reading, 
on the other hand, the critical faculty is a surer 
guide, inasmuch as the listener's judgment is often 
swept away by his preference for a particular speaker, 
or by the applause of an enthusiastic audience. For 18 
we are ashamed to disagree with them, and an un- 
conscious modesty prevents us from ranking our own 
opinion above theirs, though all the time the taste 
of the majority is vicious, and the claque may 
praise even what does not really deserve approval. 
On the other hand, it will sometimes also happen 19 
that an audience whose taste is bad will fail to award 
the praise which is due to the most admirable utter- 
ances. Reading, however, is free, and does not hurry 
jmst us with the speed of oral delivery ; we can re- 
read a passage again and again if we are in doubt 
about it or wish to fix it in the memory. We must 
return to what we have read and reconsider it with 
care, wliile, just as we do not swallow our food till 
we have chewed it and reduced it almost to a state 
of liquefaction to assist the process of digestion, so 
what we read must not be committed to the memory 
for subsequent imitation while it is still in a crude 
state, but must be softened and, if I may use the 
phrase, reduced to a pulp by frequent re-perusal. 

13 



QUINTILIAN 

20 Ac diu non nisi optimus quisque et qui credentem 
sibi minime fallat legendus est, sed diligenter ac 
paene ad scribendi sollicitudinem ; nee per partes 
modo scrutanda omnia, sed perlectus liber utique 
ex integro resumendus, praecipueque oratio, cuius 
virtutes frequenter ex industria quoque occultantur. 

21 Saepe enim praeparat, dissimulat, insidiatur orator, 
eaque in prima parte actionis dicit, quae sunt in summa 
profutura. Itaque sue loco minus placent, adhuc 
nobis quare dicta sint ignorantibus, ideoque erunt 

22 cognitis omnibus repetenda. Illud vero utilissimum 
nosse eas causas, quarum orationes in man us sump- 
serimus et, quotiens continget, utrinque habitas 
legere actiones : ut Demosthenis atque Aeschinis 
inter se contrarias, et Servii Sulpicii atque Messalae, 
quorum alter pro Aufidia, contra dixit alter, et 
Pollionis et Cassii reo Asprenate aliasque plurimas. 

23 Quinetiam si minus pares videbuntur aliquae, tamen 
ad cognoscendam litium quaestionem recte requiren- 
tur, ut contra Ciceronis orationes Tuberonis in 
Ligarium et Hortensii pro Verre. Quinetiam, 
easdem causas ut quisque egerit utile ^ erit scire. 

* utile, edd. Aid. wnd Col. : utrisque, O and most MSS. 



1 See IV. ii. 106 and vi. i. 20. 
« See § 113. » See § 116. 

* 0. Nonius Asprenas, a fi-ieud of Augustus, accused by 
Cassius and defended by Pollio on a charge of poisoning. 

14 



BOOK X. I. 20-23 

For a long time also we should read none save the 20 
best authors and such as are least likely to betray our 
trust in them, wliile our reading must be almost as 
thorough as if we were actually transcribing what we 
read. Nor must we study it merely in parts, but 
must read through the whole work from cover to 
cover and then read it afresh, a precept which applies 
more especially to speeches, whose merits are often 
deliberately disguised. For the orator frequently 21 
prepares his audience for what is to come, dissembles 
and sets a trap for them and makes remarks at the 
opening of his speech which will not have their full 
force till the conclusion. Consequently what he 
says will often seem comparatively ineffective where 
it actually occurs, since we do not realise his motive 
and it will be necessary to re-read the speech after 
we have acquainted ourselves with all that it con- 
tains. Above all, it is most desirable that we should 22 
familiarise ourselves with the facts of the case with 
which the speech deals, and it will be well also, 
wherever possible, to read the speeches delivered on 
both sides, such as those of Aeschines and Demos- 
thenes in the case of Ctesiphon, of Servius Sulpicius 
and Messala for and against Aufidia,^ of Pollio ^ and 
Cassius ** in the case of Asprenas,* and many others. 
And even if such speeches seem unequal in point of 23 
merit, we shall still do well to study them carefully 
with a view to understanding the problems raised by 
the cases with which they deal : for example, we. 
should compare the speeches delivered by Tubero 
against Ligarius and by Hortensius in defence of 
Verres with those of Cicero for the opposite side, 
while it will also be useful to know how different 
orators pleaded the same case. For example, 

15 



QUINTILIAN 

Nam de domo Ciceronis dixit Calidius, et pro Milone 
orationem Brutus exercitationis gratia scripsit,etiamsi 
egisse eum Cornelius Celsus falso existimat ; et 
Pollio et Messala defenderunt eosdem, et nobis 
pueris insignes pro Voluseno Catulo Domitii Afri, 
Crispi Passieni, Decimi Laelii orationes ferebantur. 

24 Neque id statim legenti persuasum sit omnia 
quae optimi auctores dixerint utique esse perfecta. 
Nam et labuntur aliquando et oneri cedunt et in- 
dulgent ingeniorum suoruni voluptati, nee semper 
intendunt animum ; nonnunquam fatigantur, cum 
Ciceroni dormitare interim Demosthenes, Horatio 

25 vero etiam Homerus ipse videatur. Summi enim 
sunt, homines tamen, acciditque his qui, quidquid 
apud illos repererunt, dicendi legem putant, ut 
deteriora imitentur, (id enim est facilius) ac se 
abunde similes putent, si vitia magnorum consequan- 

26 tur. Modesto tamen et circumspecto iudicio de 
tantis viris pronuntiandum est, ne, quod plerisque 
accidit, damnent quae non intelligunt, Ac si necesse 
est in alteram errare partem : omnia eorum legenti- 
bus placere quam multa displicere maluerim. 

27 Plurimum dicit oratori conferre Theophrastus 
lectionem poetarum, multique eius iudicium sequun- 
tur ; neque immerito. Namque ab his in i*ebus 

^ Probably before some other tribunal. Cicero's de Domo 
Sua was delivered before the pontifices. 

^ cp. III. vi. 93. Cornelius Celsus was an encyclopaedic 
writer of the early empire, whose treatise on medicine has 
survived. 

3 Liburnia. See ix. ii. 34. * See § 118. 

5 Stepfather of Nero. See vi. i. 50. 

• Probably the Laelius Balbus of Tac. Ann. vi. 47, 48. 
' In a lost letter : cp. Plut. Cic. 24. » A. P. 359. 

• In one of his lost rhetorical treatises. 

i6 



BOOK X. I. 23-27 

Calidius^ spoke on the subject of Cicero's house, 
Brutus wrote a declamation in defence of Milo, which 
Cornelius Celsus wrongly believes to have been 
actually delivered in court,^ and PoUio and Messalla 
defended the same clients,^ while in my boyhood 
remarkable speeches delivered by Domitius Afer,* 
Crispus Passienus^ and Decimus Laelius^ in de- 
fence of Volusenus were in circulation. 

The reader must not, however, jump to the conclu- 24 
sion that all that was uttered by the best authors is 
necessarily perfect. At times they lapse and stagger 
beneath the weight of their task, indulge their bent 
or relax their efforts. Sometimes, again, they give 
the impression of weariness : for example, Cicero ' 
thinks that Demosthenes sometimes nods, and Horace * 
says the same of Homer himself. For despite their 25 
greatness they are still but mortal men, and it will 
sometimes happen that their reader assumes that 
anything which he finds in them may be taken as a 
canon of style, with the result that he imitates their 
defects (and it is always easier to do this than to 
imitate their excellences) and thinks himself a 
perfect replica if he succeeds in copying the 
blemishes of great men. But modesty and circura- 26 
spection are required in pronouncing judgment on 
such great men, since there is always the risk of 
falling into the common fault of condemning what 
one does not understand. And, if it is necessary to 
err on one side or the other, I should prefer that 
the reader should approve of everything than that 
he should disapprove of much. 

Theophrastus ^ says that the reading of poets is 27 
of great service to the orator, and has rightly been 
followed in this view by many. For the poets will 

17 



QUINTILIAN 

spiritus et in verbis sublimitas et in adfectibus 
motus omnis et in personis decor petitur, praecipue- 
que velut attrita cotidiano actu forensi ingenia 
optime rerum talium blanditia reparantur. Ideoque 

28 in hac lectione Cicero requiescendum putat. Memi- 
nerimus tamen, non per omnia poetas esse oratori 
sequendos nee libertate verborum nee licentia 
figurarum ; genus ostentationi comparatum et praeter 
id, quod solam petit voluptatem eamque etiam 
fingendo non falsa modo sed etiam quaedam in- 

29 credibilia sectatur, patrocinio quoque aliquo iuvari, 
quod alligata ad certam pedum necessitatem non 
semper uti propriis possit, sed depulsa recta via 
necessario ad eloquendi quaedam deverticula con- 
fugiat, nee mutare quaedam modo verba, sed ex- 
tendere, corripere, convertere, dividere cogatur ; 
nos vero armatos stare in acie et summis de rebus 

30 decernere et ad victoriam niti. Neque ergo arma 
squalere situ ac rubigine velim, sed fulgorem inesse 
qui terreat, qualis est ferri, quo mens simul visusque 
praestringitur, non qualis auri argentique, imbellis 
et potius habenti periculosus. 

31 Historia quoque alere oratorem quodam uberi ^ 
iucundoque suco potest; verum et ipsa sic est 

* uberi, Spalding : moveri, O. 

» Pro Arch. 12. 
i8 



BOOK X. I. 27-31 

give us inspiration as regards the matter, sublimity 
of language, the power to excite every kind of 
emotion, and the appropriate treatment of character, 
while minds that have become jaded owing to the 
daily wear and tear of the courts will find refresh- 
ment in such agreeable study. Consequently Cicero ^ 
recommends the relaxation provided by the reading 
of poetry. We should, however, remember that the 28 
orator must not follow the poets in everything, more 
especially in their freedom of language and their 
license in the use of figures. Poetry has been com- 
pared to the oratory of display, and further, aims 
solely at giving pleasure, which it seeks to secure by 
inventing what is not merely untrue, but sometimes 
even incredible. Further, we must bear in mind 29 
that it can be defended on the ground that it is tied 
by certain metrical necessities and consequently can- 
not always use straightforward and literal language, 
but is driven from the direct road to take refuge in 
certain by-ways of expression ; and compelled not 
merely to change certain words, but to lengthen, 
contract, transpose or divide them, whereas the 
orator stands armed in the forefront of the battle, 
fights for a high stake and devotes all his effort to 
winning the victory. And yet I would not have his 30 
weapons defaced by mould and rust, but would liave 
them shine with a splendour that shall strike terror 
to the heart of the foe, like the flashing steel that 
dazzles heart and eye at once, not like the gleam of 
gold or silver, which has no warlike efficacy and is 
even a positive peril to its wearer. 

History, also, may provide the orator with a nutri- 31 
ment which we may compare to some rich and 
pleasant juice. But when we read it, we must 

19 



QUINTILIAN 

legenda, ut sciamus, plerasque eius virtiites oratori 
esse vitandas. Est enim proxima poetis et quodam- 
modo carmen solutum, et scribitur ad narrandum 
non ad probandum, totumque opus non ad actum rei 
pugnamque praesentem, sed ad memoriam posteri- 
tatis et ingenii famam componitur ; ideoque et verbis 
remotioribus et liberioribus figuris narrandi taedium 

32 evitat. Itaque, utdixi, neque ilia Sallustiana brevitas, 
qua nihil apud aures vacuas atque eruditas potest 
esse perfectius, apud occupatum variis cogitationibus 
iudicem et saepius ineruditum captanda nobis est; 
neque ilia Livii lactea ubertas satis docebit eum, qui 

33 non speciem expositionis, sed fidem quaerit, Adde 
quod* M. Tullius ne Thucydidem quidem aut 
Xenophontem utiles oratori putat, quanquam ilium 
hellicum canere, huius ore Musas esse locutas existimet. 
Licet tamen nobis in digressionibus uti vel historico 
nonnunquam nitore, dum in his, de quibus erit 
quaestio, meminerimus, non athletarum toris, sed 
militum lacertis opus ^ esse ; nee versicolorem illam, 
qua Demetrius Phalereus dicebatur uti, vestem bene 

34 ad forensem pulverem facere. Est et alius ex 

* adfle quod, Regius : audeo quia, G. 
' opus, added by ed. Col. 1527. 

^ IV. ii. 45. » Or. 30 sq. 

"cp. §80. i 

20 



BOOK X. I. 31-34 

remember that many of the excellences of the historian 
require to be shunned by the orator. For history 
has a certain affinity to poetry and may be regarded 
as a kind of prose poem, while it is written for the 
purpose of narrative, not of proof, and designed from 
beginning to end not for immediate effect or the 
instant necessities of forensic strife, but to record 
events for the benefit of posterity and to win glory 
for its author. Consequently, to avoid monotony of 
narrative, it employs unusual words and indulges in 
a freer use of figures. Therefore, as 1 have already 32 
said,^ the famous brevity of Sallust, than which 
nothing can be more pleasing to the leisured ear of 
the scholar, is a style to be avoided by the orator in 
view of the fact that his words are addressed to a 
judge who has his mind occupied by a number of 
thoughts and is also frequently uneducated, while, 
on the other hand, the milky fullness of Livy is 
hardly of a kind to instruct a listener who looks not i 
for beauty of exposition, but for truth and ci-edibility. 
We must also remember that Cicero ^ thinks that not 33 
even Thucydides or Xenophon will be of much ser- 
vice to an orator, although he regards the style of 
the former as a veritable call to arms and considers 
that the latter was the mouthpiece of the Muses. 
It is, however, occasionally permissible to borrow the 
graces of history to embellish our digressions, pro- 
vided always that we remember that in those portions 
of our speech which deal with the actual question 
at issue we require not the swelling thews of the 
athlete, but the wiry sinews of the soldier, and that 
the cloak of many colours which Demetrius of 
Phalerum ^ was said to wear is but little suited to 
the dust and heat of the forum. There is, it is true, 34 



QUINTILIAN 

historiis usus et is quidem maximus, sed non ad 
praesentem pertinens locum, ex cognitione rerutn 
exemplorumque, quibus inprimis instructus esse 
debet orator, ne omnia testimonia exspectet a 
litigatore, sed pleraque ex vetustate diligenter sibi 
cognita sumat, hoc potentiora, quod ea sola crimini- 
bus odii et gratiae vacant. 

35 A philosophorum vero lectione ut essent multa 
nobis petenda, vitio factum est oratorum, qui quidem 
illis optima sui operis parte cesserunt. Nam et de 
iustis, honestis, utilibus, iisque quae sint istis con- 
traria, et de rebus divinis maxime dicunt et argu- 
mentantur acriter Stoici,^ et altercationibus atque 
interrogationibus oratorem futurum optime Socratici 

36 praeparant. Sed his quoque adhibendum est simile 
iudicium, ut etiam cum in rebus versemur iisdem, 
non tamen eandem esse condicionem sciamus litium 
ac disputationum, fori et auditorii, praeceptorum et 
periculorum. 

37 Credo exacturos plerosque, cum tantum esse 
utilitatis in legendo iudicemus, ut id quoque adiun- 
gamus operi, qui sint legendi,^ quae in auctore 

' Stoici added bp Meister. 

* legendi inserted by ed. Col. 1527. 

* cp. I Pref. 11. 



BOOK X. I. 34-37 

another advantage which we may derive from the 
historians, which, however, despite its great import- 
ance, has no bearing on our present topic ; I refer to 
the advantage derived from'the knowledge of histori- 
cal facts and precedents, with which it is most desir- 
able that our orator should be acquainted ; for such 
knowledge will save him from having to acquire all 
his evidence from his client and Mrill enable him to 
draw much that is germane to his case from the 
careful study of antiquity. And such arguments will 
be all the more effective, since they alone will be 
above suspicion of prejudice or partiality. 

The fact that there is so much for which we must 35 
have recourse to the study of the philosophers is 
the fault of orators who have abandoned ^ to them 
the fullest portion of their own task. The Stoics 
more especially discourse and argue with great 
keenness on what is just, honourable, expedient 
and the reverse, as well as on the problems of 
theologj', while the Socratics give the future orator 
a first-rate preparation for forensic debates and 
the examination of witnesses. But we must use the 36 
same critical caution in studying the philosophers 
that we require in reading history or poetry ; that 
is to say, we must bear in mind that, even when we 
are dealing with the same subjects, there is a wide 
difference between forensic disputes and philosophical 
discussions, between the law-courts and the lecture- 
room, between the precepts of theory and the perils 
of the bar. 

Most of my readers will, I think, demand that, 37 
since I attach so much importance to reading, I 
should include in this work some instructions as to 
what authors should be read and what their special 

23 



QUINTILIAN 

quoque praecipiia virtus. Sed persequi singulos 

38 infiniti fuerit operis. Quippe cum in Bruto M. 
Tullius tot milibus versuum de Romanis tantum 
oratoribus loquatur et tamen de omnibus aetatis suae, 
quibuscum vivebat, exceptis Caesare atque Marcello, 
silentium egerit, quis erit modus, si et illos et qui 

39 postea fuerunt et Graecos omnes? ^ Fuit igitur 
brevitas ilia tutissima, quae est apud Livium in 
epistola ad filium scripta, legendos Demosthenem 
atque Ciceronem, turn ita, ut quisque esset De- 

40 mostheni et Ciceroni simillimus. Non est tamen 
dissimulanda nostri quoque iudicii sumnia. Paucos 
enim vel potius vix ulluni ex his qui vetiistatem 
pertuleriint existimo posse reperiri, quin iudicium 
adhibentibus adlaturus sit utilitatis aliquid, cum se 
Cicero ab illis quoque vetustissimis auctoribus, in- 
geniosis quidem, sed arte carentibus, plurimum 

41 f'ateatur adiutum. Nee multo aliud de novis sentio. 
Quotus enim quisque inveniri tarn demens potest, 
qui ne minima quidem alicuius certe fiducia partis 
memoriam posteritatis speraverit? Qui si quis est, 
intra primos statim versus deprehendetur et citius 
nos dimittet, quam ut eius nobis magno temporis 

42 detrimento constet experimentum. Sed non quid- 
quid ad aliquam partem scientiae pertinet, protinus 
ad phrasin, de qua loquimur, accommodatum. 

Verum antequam de singulis, pauca in universum 

* Graecos is followed in the MSS. by et philosophos, which 
is expurged by Schmidt. 

24 



BOOK X. I. 37-42 

excellences may be. To do this in detail would be 
an endless task. Remember that Cicero in his 38 
Brutus, after writing pages and pages on the subject 
of Roman orators alone, says nothing of his own con- 
temporaries with the exception of Caesar and Mar- 
cell us. What limit, then, would there be to my 
labours if 1 were to attempt to deal with them and 
with their successors and all the orators of Greece as 
well .'' No, it was a safer course that Livy adopted 39 
in his letter to his son, where he writes that he should 
read Cicero and Demosthenes and then such orators 
as most resembled them. Still, 1 must not conceal 40 
my own personal convictions on this subject. I believe 
that there are few, indeed scarcely a single one of 
those authors who have stood the test of time who will 
not be of some use or other to judicious students, since 
even Cicero himself admits that he owes a great debt 
even to the earliest writers, who for all their talent 
were totally devoid of art. And my opinion about 41 
the modems is much the same. For how few of them 
are so utterly crazy as not to have the least shadow 
of hope that some portion or other of their work may 
have claims upon the memory of posterity ? If there 
is such an one, he will be detected before we have 
perused many lines of his writings, and we shall 
escape from him before the experiment of reading 
him has cost us any serious loss of time. On the 42 
other hand, not everything that has some bearing on 
some department of knowledge will necessarily be of 
service for the formation of style, with which we are 
for the moment concerned. 

Before, however, I begin to speak of individual 
authors, I must make a few general remarks about 
the variety of judgments which have been passed 

vol. IV. B ^5 



QUINTILIAN 

43 de varietate opinionum dicenda sunt. Nam quidam 
solos veteres legendos putant neque in ullis aliis 
esse naturalem eloquentiam et robur viris dignum 
arbitrantur ; alios recens haec lascivia deliciaeque et 
omnia ad voluptatem multitudinis imperitae com- 

-i 4 posita delectant. Ipsorum etiam qui rectum dicendi 
genus sequi volunt, alii pressa demum et tenuia et 
quae minimum ab usu cotidiano recedant, sana et 
vere Attica putant ; quosdam elatior ingenii vis 
et magis concitata et plena spiritus capit ; sunt 
etiam lenis et nitidi et compositi generis non pauci 
amatores. De qua differentia disseram diligentius, 
cum de genere dicendi quaerendum erit. Interim 
summatim, quid et ^ a qua lectione petere possint, 
qui confirmare facultatem dicendi volent, attingam. 
Paucos enim qui ^ sunt eminentissimi excerpere in 
5 animo est. Facile est autem studiosis, qui sint his 
simillimi, iudicare ; ne quisquam queratur omissos 
forte quos ipse valde probet. Fateor enim plures ^ 
legendos esse quam qui a me nominabuntur. Sed 
nunc genera ipsa lectionum, quae praecipue con- 
venire intendentibus ut oratores fiant, existimem, 
persequar. 

46 Igitur, ut Aratus ab love incipiendum putat, ita nos 

* sumniatim quid et a qua, vulgo : sumat et a qua, G (quia 
et a qua 2nd hand). 

■■' qui added by ed. Col. 1527. 
' plures, vulgo : plurimis, G. 

' XII. X. 63 sqq. ' 

a6 



BOOK X. I. 42-46 

upon them. For there are some who think that only 43 
the ancients should be read and hold that they are 
the sole possessors of natural eloquence and manly 
vigour ; while others revel in the voluptuous and 
affected style of to-day, in which everj^thing is de- 
signed to charm the ears of the uneducated majority. 
And even if we turn to those who desire to follow 44 
the correct methods of style, we shall find that some 
think that the only healthy and genuinely Attic style 
is to be found in language which is restrained and 
simple and as little removed as possible from the 
speech of every day, while others are attracted by a 
style which is more elevated and full of energy and 
animation. There are, too, not a few who are de- 
voted to a gentle, elegant and harmonious style. Of 
these different ideals I shall speak in greater detail, 
when I come to discuss the question of the particular 
styles best suited to oratory.^ For the moment I 
shall restrict myself to touching briefly on what the 
student who desires to consolidate his powers of 
speaking should seek in his reading and to what kind 
of reading he should devote his attention. My de- 
sign is merely to select a few of the most eminent 
authors for consideration. It will be easy for the 45 
student to decide for himself what authors most 
nearly resemble these : consequently, no one will 
have any right to complain if I pass over some of his 
favourites. For I will readily admit that there are 
more authors worth reading than those whom I pro- 
pose to mention. But I will now proceed to deal 
with the various classes of reading which I consider 
most suitable for those who are ambitious of becoming 
orators, 

I shall, I think, be right in following the principle 46 

27 



QUINTILIAN 

rite coepturi ab Homero videmur. Hie enim, quem- 
admodum ex Oceano dicit ipse omnium ^ amnium 
fontiumque cursus initium capere, omnibus eloquen- 
tiae partibus exemplum et ortum dedit. Hunc nemo 
in magnis rebus sublimitate, in parvis proprietate 
superaverit. Idem laetus ac pressus, iucundus et 
gravis, turn copia tum brevitate mirabilis, nee poetica 

47 modo sed oratoria virtute eminentissimus. Nam ut 
de laudibus, exhortationibus, consolationibus taceam, 
nonne vel nonus liber, quo missa ad Achillem legatio 
continetur, vel in primo inter duces ilia contentio vel 
dictae in secundo sententiae omnes litium ac consili- 

48 orum explicant artes? Adfectus quidem vel illos 
mites vel hos concitatos, nemo erit tam indoctus, qui 
non in sua potestate hunc auctorem habuisse fateatur. 
Age vero, non utriusque operis sui ingressu in paucis- 
simis versibus legem prooemiorum non dico servavit 
sed constituit? Nam benevolum auditorem invocatione 
dearum, quas praesidere vatibus creditum est, et 
intentum proposita rerum magnitudine et docilem 

49 summa celeriter comprehensa facit. Narrare vero 
quis brevius quam qui mortem nuntiat Patrocli, quis 
significantius potest quam qui Curetum Aetolorumque 
proelium exponit ? lam similitudines, amplificationes, 

* omnium added by Osann. 

1 Arat. Phaen. 1. * II. xxi. 196. 

» Antilochus, II. xviii. 18. * Phoenix, H. ix. 529. 

38 



BOOK X. I. 46-49 

laid down by Aratus ^ in the line, " With Jove let 
us begin," and in beginning with Homer. He is like 
his own conception of Ocean,^ which he describes as 
the source of every stream and river; for he has 
given us a model and an inspiration for every 
department of eloquence. It will be generally ad- 
mitted that no one has ever surpassed him in the 
sublimity with which he invests great themes or the 
propriety with which he handles small. He is at 
once luxuriant and concise, sprightly and serious, 
remarkable at once for his fullness and his brevity, 
and supreme not merely for poetic, but for oratorical 
power as well. For, to say nothing of his eloquence, 47 
which he shows in praise, exhortation and consola- 
tion, do not the ninth book containing the embassy 
to Achilles, the first describing the quarrel between 
the chiefs, or the speeches delivered by the coun- 
sellors in the second, display all the rules of art 
to be followed in forensic or deliberative oratory.-* 
As regards the emotions, there can be no one so ill- 48 
educated as to deny that the poet was the master of all, 
tender and vehement alike. Again, in the few lines 
with which he introduces both of his epics, has he 
not, I >vill not say observed, but actually established 
the law which should govern the composition of the 
exordium ? For, by his invocation of the goddesses 
believed to preside over poetry he wins the goodwill 
of his audience, by his statement of the greatness 
of his themes he excites their attention and renders 
them receptive by the briefness of his summary. 
Who can narrate more briefly than the hero' who 49 
brings the news of Patroclus' death, or more vividly 
than he * who describes the battle between the 
Curetes and the Aetolians ? Then consider his 

»9 



QUINTILIAN 

exempla, digressus, signa rerum et argumenta cetera- 
que genera ^ proband! ac refutandi sunt ita multa, ut 
etiam qui de artibus scripserunt plurimi harum rerum 

50 testimonium ab hoc poeta petant. Nam epilogus 
quidem quis unquam poterit illis Priami rogantis 
Achillem precibus aequari? Quid? in verbis, sen- 
tentiis, figuris, dispositione totius operis nonne 
humani ingenii modum excedit ? ut magni sit virtutes 
eius non aemulatione, quod fieri non potest, sed 

51 intellectu sequi. Verum hie omnes sine dubio et in 
omni genere eloquentiae proeul a se reliquit, epicos 
tamen praecipue, videlicet quia clarissima ^ in materia 

52 simili comparatio est. Rare assurgit Hesiodus, 
magnaque pars eius in nominibus est occupata ; 
tamen utiles circa praecepta sententiae levitasque 
verborum et compositionis probabilis, daturque ei 

63 palma in illo medio genere dicendi. Contra in 
Antimacho vis et gravitas et minima vulgare elo- 
quendi genus habet laudem. Sed quamvis ei se- 
cundas fere grammaticorum consensus deferat, et 
adfectibus et iucunditate et dispositione et omnino 
arte deficitur, ut plane manifesto appai'eat, quanto 

54 sit aliud proximum esse aliud secundum.' Panyasin 

* genera, Caesar : quae, G. 

* clarissima, most MSS. : durissima, 0. 

* secundum, various late MSS. omitted by G. 

* II. xxiv. 486 sqq. * Especially the Thcogony. 

* Antimachu3 of Colophon (JUrr. circ. 405 B.C.), author of 
a Thcbaid. 

* Uncle of Herodotus, author of a Heracleia. 

30 



BOOK X. I. 49-54 

similes^ his amplifications, his illustrations, digres- 
sions, indications of fact, inferences, and all the 
other methods of proof and refutation which he 
employs. They are so numerous that the majority 
of writers on the principles of rhetoric have gone to 
his works for examples of all these things. And as 50 
for perorations, what can ever be equal to the prayers 
which Priam addresses to Achilles ^ when he comes 
to beg for the body of his son ? Again, does he not 
transcend the limits of human genius in his choice 
of words, his reflexions, figures, and the arrangement 
of his whole work, with the result that it requires a 
powerful mind, I will not say to imitate, for that is 
impossible, but even to appreciate his excellences ? 
But he has in truth outdistanced all that have come 51 
after him in every department of eloquence, above 
all, he has outstripped all other writers of epic, the 
contrast in their case being especially striking owing 
to the similarity of the material with which they 
deal. Hesiod rarely rises to any height, while a 5- 
great part of his works is filled almost entirely with 
names - : none the less, his maxims of moral wisdom 
provide a useful model, the smooth flow of his 
words and structure merit Sour approval, and he 
is assigned the first place" among writers of the 
intermediate style. On the other hand, Antimachus' 53 
deserves praise for the vigour, dignity and eleva- 
tion of his language. But although practically all 
teachers of literature rank him second among epic 
poets, he is deficient in emotional power, charm, and 
arrangement of matter, and totally devoid of real 
art. No better example can be found to show what 
a vast difference there is to being near another 
writer and being second to him. Panyasis* is 54 

31 



QUINTILIAN 

ex utroque mixtum putant in eloquendo neutrius- 
que aequare virtutes, alterum tamen ab eo materia 
alterum disponendi ratione supei'ari. ApoUonius in 
ordinem a grammaticis datum non venit, quia 
Aristarchus atque Aristophanes, poetarum iudices, 
neminem sui temporis in numerum redegerunt ; non 
tamen contemnendum reddidit opus aequali quadam 
65 mediocritate. Arati materia motu caret, ut in qua 
nulla varietas, nullus adfectus, nulla persona, nulla 
cuiusquam sit oratio ; sufficit tamen operi, cui se 
parem credidit. Admirabilis in suo genere Theo- 
critus, sed musa ilia rustica et pastoralis non forum 

56 modo, verum ipsam etiam urbem reformidat. Audire 
videor undique congerentes nomina plurimorum 
poetarum. Quid ? Herculis acta non bene Pisandros ? 
Nicandrum frustra secuti Macer atque Vergilius? 
Quid ? Euphorionem transibimus ? quem nisi pro- 
basset Vergilius, idem nunquam certe conditorum 
Chalcidico versu canninum fecisset in Bucolicis menti- 
onem. Quid ? Horatius frusti'a Tyrtaeum Homero 

57 subiungit .'* Nee sane quisquam est tarn procul a 
cognitione eorum remotus, ut non indicem certe ex 

^ Apollonius of Rhodes, author of the Argonautica. The 
list to which reference is made consisted of the four poets 
just mentioned, with the addition of Pisandros, for whom 
see § 56. 

* Aristophanes of Bj'zantium. 

' A Rhodian poet of the seventh century B.C. 

* Nicander of Colophon (second century B.C.), author of 
didactic poems, Theriaca and Alexipharmaca and Meta- 
morphoses [krepoiovixiva^. Virgil imitated him in the Georgics, 
Aemilius Macer, the friend of Ovid, in his Theriaca. 

' Euphorion of Chalcis (220 B.C.) wrote elaborate short 
epics. See Ed. x. 50. The words are, however, put into 
the mouth of Gallus with reference to his own imitations of 
Euphorion. 

32 



BOOK X. I. 54-57 

regarded as combining the qualities of the last two 
poets, being their inferior in point of style, but 
surpassing Hesiod in the choice of his subject and 
Antimachus in its arrangement. Apollonius ^ is not 
admitted to the lists drawn up by the professors 
of literature, because the critics, Aristarchus and 
Aristophanes,^ included no contemporary poets. 
None the less, his work is by no means to be 
despised, being distinguished by the consistency 
with which he maintains his level as a repre- 
sentative of the intermediate type. The subject 55 
chosen by Aratus is lifeless and monotonous, afford- 
ing no scope for pathos, description of character, 
or eloquent speeches. However, he is adequate for 
the task to which he felt himself equal. Theocritus 
is admirable in his own way, but the rustic and 
pastoral muse shrinks not merely from the forum, 
but from town-life of every kind. I think I hear 56 
my readers on all sides suggesting the names of 
hosts of other poets. What.'' Did not Pisandros^ 
tell the story of Hercules in admirable style? 
Were there not good reasons for Virgil and Macer 
taking Nicander* as a model.-* Are we to ignore 
Euphorion ? ^ Unless Virgil had admired him, he 
would never have mentioned 

" verses written in Chalcidic strain " 

in the Eclogues. Again, had Horace no justification 
for coupling the name of Tyrtaeus * with that of 
Homer .f* To which I reply, that there is no one so 57 
ignorant of poetic literature that he could not, if he 
chose, copy a catalogue of such poets from some 

• See Hor. A. P. 401. Tyrtaeus, writer of war songs 
(seventh century B.a). 

33 



QUINTILIAN 

bibliotheca sumptum transferre in libros suos possit. 
Nee ignore igitur quos transeo nee utique damno, ut 

58 qui dixerim esse in omnibus utilitatis aliquid. Sed 
ad illos iam perfeetis eonstitutisque viribus reverte- 
mur ; quod in eenis grandibus saepe facimus ut, eum 
optimis satiati sumus, varietas tamen nobis ex vilio- 
ribus grata sit. Tune et elegiam vacabit in manus 
sumere, cuius princeps habetur Callimachus, secundas 

59 confessione plurimorum Philetas occupavit. Sed 
dum adsequamur ^ illam firmam, ut dixi, facilitatem, 
optimis adsuescendum est et multa magis quam multo- 
rum lectione formanda mens et ducendus color. 
Itaque ex tribus receptis Aristarchi iudicio scriptori- 
bus iamborum ad eiiv maxime pertinebit unus Arehi- 

60 loehus. Summa in hoe vis elocutionis, eum validae 
turn breves vibrantesque sententiae, plurimum san- 
guinis atque nervorum, adeo ut videatur quibusdam, 
quod quoquam minor est, materiae esse non ingenii 

61 vitium. Novem vero Lyricorum longe Pindarus 
princeps spiritus magnificentia, sententiis, figuris, 
beatissima rerum verborumqiie copia et velut quodam 
eloquentiae flumine ; propter quae Horatius eum 

* adsequamur, Halm : adsequimur, G and most 3ISS. : 
adsequatur, a few late MSS. 

1 § 45. * Philetas of Cos (290 B.C.). « x. i. 1. 

* i.e. invective. The other two writers are Simonides of 
Amorgos and Hipponax of Ephesus. Ai'chilochus (Jl. 
686 B.C.). 

' The five not mentioned here are Alcman, Sappho, Ibyoua, 
Anacreon and Bacchylides. • Od. TV. ii. 1. 

34 



BOOK X. r. 5 7-6 1 

library for insertion in his own treatises. I can 
therefore assure my readers that 1 am well aware 
of the existence of the poets whom 1 pass over in 
silence, and am far from condemning them, since I 
have already said that some profit may be derived 
from every author.^ But we must wait till our 58 
powers have been developed and established to the 
full before we turn to these poets, just as at banquets 
we take our fill of the best fare and then turn 
to other food which, in spite of its compnrative 
inferiority, is still attractive owing to its variety. 
Not until our taste is formed shall we have leisure 
to study the elegiac poets as well. Of these, Calli- 
machus is regarded as the best, the second place 
being, according to the verdict of most critics, 
occupied by Philetas.^ But until we have acquired 59 
that assured facility of which I spoke,^ we must 
familiarise ourselves with the best writers only and 
must form our minds and develop an appropriate tone 
by reading that is deep ratlier than wide. Conse- 
quently, of the three writers of iambics * approved by 
the judgment of Aristarchus, Archilochus will be far 
the most useful for the formation of the facility in 
question. For he has a most forcible style, is full of 60 
vigorous, terse and pungent reflexions, and over- 
flowing with life and energy : indeed, some critics 
think that it is due solely to the nature of his 
subjects, and not to his genius, that any poets are to 
be ranked above him. Of the nine lyric poets ^ 61 
Pindar is by far the greatest, in virtue of his inspired 
magnificence, the beauty of his thoughts and figures, 
the rich exuberance of his language and matter, 
and his rolling flood of eloquence, characteristics 
which, as Horace * rightly held, make him in- 

35 



QUINTILIAN 

62 merito credidit nemini imitabilem. Stesichorus quam 
sit ingenio validus, materiae quoque ostendunt, 
maxima bella et clarissimos caiientem duces et epici 
carminis onera lyra sustinentem. Reddit enim 
personis in agendo simul loquendoque debitam 
dignitatem, ae si tenuisset modum, videtur aemulari 
proximus Homerum potuisse ; sed redundat atque 
eflunditur, quod ut est reprehendendum, ita copiae 

63 vitiura est. Alcaeus in parte operis am-eo pleciro 
merito donatur, qua tyrannos insectatus multum 
etiam moribus confert in eloquendo quoque brevis 
et magnificus et dicendi vi^ plerumque oratori similis ; 
sed et lusit^ et in amores descendit, maioribustamen 

64 aptior. Simonides, tenuis alioqui, sermone proprio 
et iucunditate quadam commendari potest ; praecipua 
tamen eius in commovenda miseratione virtus, ut 
quidam in hac eum parte omnibus eius operis 
auctoribus praeferant. 

65 Antiqua comoedia cum sinceram illam sermonis 
Attici gratiam prope sola retinet, turn facundissimae 
libertatis est et in * insectandis vitiis praecipua, pluri- 
mum tamen virium etiam in ceteris partibus habet. 
Nam et grandis et elegans et venusta, et nescio an 
ulla, post Homerum tamen, quem ut Achillem 

^ dicendi vi, Halm : dicendi et, G. 

* sed et lusit, several late MSS. : et eius sit, 0. 

' est et in, G. A. B. IVolff : etsi est, MSS. 

^ Stesichorus of Himera in Sicily {flor. circ. 600 B.C.), 
wrote in lyric verse on many legends, more especially on 
themes connected with the Trojan war. 

* Hor. Od. II. xiii. 26. Alcaeus of Mitylene (circa 600 

B.C.). 

' Simonides of Ceos, 556—468 B.C., famous for all forms of 
lyric poetry, especially funeral odes. 

36 



BOOK X. I. 61-65 

imitable. The greatness of the genius of Stesichorus * 62 
is shown by his choice of subject : for he sings of the 
greatest wars and the most glorious of chieftains, 
and the music of his lyre is equal to the weighty 
themes of epic poetry. For both in speech and 
action he invests his characters with the dignity 
which is their due, and if he had only been capable 
of exercising a little more restraint, he might, 
perhaps, have proved a serious rival to Homer. 
But he is redundant and diffuse, a fault which, 
while deserving of censure, is nevertheless a defect 
springing from the very fullness of his genius. 
Alcaeus has deserved the compliment of being said 63 
to make music with qmll of gold ^ in that jx)rtion 
of his works in which he attacks the tyrants of his 
day and shows himself a real moral force. He is, 
moreover, terse and magnificent in style, whde the 
vigour of his diction resembles that of oratory. But 
he also wrote poetry of a more sportive nature and 
stooped to erotic poetry, despite his aptitude for 
loftier themes. Simonides' wrote in a simple style, 64 
but may be recommended for the propriety and 
charm of his language. His chief merit, however, 
lies in his power to excite pity, so much so, in fact, 
that some rank him in this respect above all writers 
of this class of jwetry. 

The old comedy is almost the only form of poetry 65 
which preserves intact the true grace of Attic 
diction, while it is characterised by the most elo- 
quent freedom of speech, and shows especial power 
in the denunciation of vice ; but it reveals great 
force in other departments as well. For its style 
is at once lofty, elegant and graceful, and if we 
except Homer, who, like Achilles among warriors, 

37 



QUINTILIAN 

semper excipi par est, aut similior sit oratoribus 

66 aut ad oratores faeiendos aptior. Plures eius 
auctores ; Aristophanes tamen et Eupolis Crati- 
nusque praecipui. Tragoedias primus in lucem 
Aeschylus protulit, sublimis et gravis et grandiloquus 
saepe usque ad vitium, sed rudis in plerisque et 
incompositus ; propter quod correctas eius fabulas in 
certamen deferre posterioribus poetis Athenienses 

67 permiserunt, suntque eo mode multi coronati. Sed 
longe clarius illustraverunt hoc opus Sophocles atque 
Euripides, quorum in dispari dicendi via uter sit 
poeta melior, inter plurimos quaeritur; idque ego 
sane, quoniam ad praesentem materiam nihil pertinet, 
iniudicatum relinquo. Illud quidem nemo non fate- 
atur necesse est, iis qui se ad agendum comparant 

68 utiliorem longe fore Euripiden. Namque is et 
sermone (quod ipsum reprehendunt, quibus gravitas 
et cothurnus et sonus Sophocli videtur esse subli- 

I mior) magis accedit oratorio generi et sententiis 
densus et in iis quae a sapientibus tradita sunt 
paene ipsis par, et dicendo ac respondendo cuilibet 
eorum qui fuerunt in foro diserti comparandus ; in 
adfectibus vero cum omnibus mirus turn in iis qui 

69 miseratione constant facile praecipuus. Hunc ^ admi- 
ratus maxime est, ut saepe testatur, et secutus, quan- 
quam in opere diverso, Menander, qui vel unus, meo 

* hunc, several late MSS. : et, G. 

1 Contemporaries : Cratinus (519-422), Aristophanes (448- 
380), Eupolis (446-410). 

38 



BOOK X. I. 65-69 

is beyond all comparison, I am not sure that there 
is any style which bears a closer resemblance to 
oratory or is better adapted for forming the orator. 
There are a number of writers of the old comedy, 66 
but the best are Aristophanes, Eupolis and Crati- 
nus.i Aeschylus was the first to bring tragedy into 
prominence: he is lofty, dignified, grandiloquent 
often to a fault, but frequently uncouth and in- 
harmonious. Consequently, the Athenians allowed 
later poets to revise his tragedies and to produce 
them in the dramatic contests, and many succeeded 
in winning the prize by such means. Sophocles 67 
and Euripides, however, brought tragedy to far 
greater perfection: they differ in style, but it is 
much disputed as to which should be awarded the 
supremacy, a question which, as it has no bearing 
on my present theme, I shall make no attempt to 
decide. But this much is certain and incontrovert- 
ible, that Euripides will be found of far greater service 
to those who are training themselves for pleading in 
court. For his language, although actually censured C8 
by those who regard the dignity, the stately 
stride and sonorous utterance of Sophocles as being 
more sublime, has a closer affinity to that of oratory, 
while he is full of striking reflexions, in which, 
indeed, in their special sphere, he rivals the 
philosophers themselves, and for defence and at- 
tack may be compared with any orator that has 
won renown in the courts. Finally, although ad- 
mirable in every kind of emotional appeal, he is 
easily supreme in the power to excite pity. 
Menander, as he often testifies in his works, had 69 
a profound admiration for Euripides, and imitated 
him, although in a different type of work. Now, 

39 



QUINTILIAN 

quidem iudicio, diligenter lectus ad cuncta^ quae 
praecipimus, effingenda sufficiat; ita omnem vitae 
imagineni expressit, tanta in eo inveniendi copia et 
eloquendi facultas, ita est omnibus rebus, personis, 

70 adfectibus accommodatus. Nee nihil profecto vide- 
runt, qui orationes, quae Charisii nomini addicuntur,^ 
a Menandro scriptas putant. Sed mihi longe magis 
orator probari in opere suo videtur, nisi forte aut illa^ 
iudicia, quae Epitrepontes, Epicleros, Locroe habent, 
aut meditationes in Psophodee, Nomothete, Hypo- 
bolimaeo non omnibus oi*atoriis numeris sunt abso- 

71 lutae. Ego tamen plus adhuc quiddam collaturum 
eum declamatoribus puto, quoniam his necesse est 
secundum condicionem controversiarum plures subire 
personas, patrum, filiorum, militum, rusticorum, 
divitum, pauperum, irascentium, deprecantium, mi- 
tium, asperorum. In quibus omnibus mire custoditur 

72 ab hoe poeta decor. Atque ille quidem omnibus 
eiusdem operis auctoribus abstulit nomen et fulgore 
quodam suae claritatis tenebras obduxit. Tamen 

. habent alii quoque Comici, si cum venia leguntur, 
quaedam quae possis decerpere ; et praecipue Phile- 

* Charisii nomini addicuntur, a, Frotscheri charis in 
homine adductura, G. : Charisii nomine eduntur, vuJgo. 

^ a^ler ilia O and a number of later MSS. read mala, 
which is, however, omitted in a few MSS. and is expunged by 
Andresen. 



* A contemporary of Demosthenes ; his speeches have not 
survived, but were considered to resemble those of Lysias. 

' The greater portion of the Epitrepontes has been re- 
covered from a papyrus. The other plays are lost. The 
names may be translated: "The Arbitrators," " The Heiress," 
"The Loeri," " The Timid Man," "The Lawgiver," "The 
Changeling." 



4^. 



BOOK X. I. 69-72 

the careful study of Menander alone would, in mj 
opinion, be sufficient to develop all those qualities 
with the production of which my present work 
is concerned ; so perfect is his representation of 
actual life, so rich is his power of invention and 
his gift of style, so perfectly does he adapt himself 
to every kind of circumstance, character and emo- 
tion. Indeed, those critics are no fools who think 70 
the speeches attributed to Charisius ^ were in reality 
written by Menander. But I consider that he shows 
his power as an orator far more clearly in his 
comedies ; since assuredly we can find no more 
perfect models of every oratorical quality than the 
judicial pleadings of his Epitrepontes,^ Epicleros 
and Locri, or the declamatory speeches in the Pso- 
phodes, Nomothetes, and Hypobolimaeus. Still, for 71 
my own part, I think that he will be found even more 
useful by declaimers, in view of the fact that they 
have, according to the nature of the various contro- 
versial themes, to undertake a number of different 
roles and to impersonate fathers, sons, soldiers, 
peasants, rich men and poor, the angry man and 
the suppliant, the gentle and the harsh. And all 
these characters are treated by this poet with 
consummate appropriateness. Indeed, such is his 72 
supremacy that he has scarce left a name to other 
writers of the new comedy, and has cast them into 
darkness by the splendour of his own renown. 
Still, you will find something of value in the other 
comic poets as well, if you read them in not too 
critical a spirit ; above all, profit may be derived 
from the study of Philemon,' who, although it was 

• Philemon of Soli (360-262) ; Menander of Athens (342- 
290). 

4« 



QUINTILIAN 

mon, qui ut prave sui temporis iudiciis Menandro 
saepe praelatus est, ita consensu tamen omnium 
meruit credi secundus. 

73 Historiara multi scripsere praeclare, sed nemo 
dubitat longe duos ceteris praeferendos, quorum 
diversa virtus laudem paene est parem consecuta. 
Densus et brevis et semper instans sibi Thucydides, 
dulcis et candidus et fusus Herodotus ; ille concitatis 
hie remissis adfectibus melior, ille contionibus hie 

74 sermonibus, ille vi hie voluptate. Theopompus his 
proximus ut in historia praedictis minor, ita oratori 
magis similis, ut qui, antequam est ad hoc opus 
sollicitatuSj diu fuerit orator. Philistus quoque me- 
retur, qui turbae quamvis bonorum post eos auctorum 
eximatur, imitator Thucj'^didis et ut multo infirmior 
ita aliquatenus lucidior, Ephorus^ ut Isocrati visum, 

76 calcaribus eget. Clitarchi probatur ingenium, fides 
infamatur. Longo post intervallo temporis natus 
Timagenes vel hoc est ipso probabilis, quod inter- 
missam historias scribendi industriam nova laude 
reparavit. Xenophon non excidit mihi, sed inter 
philosophos reddendus est. 

^ Theopompus of Chios, born about 378 B.C., wrote a 
history of Greece {HelUnica) from close of Peloponnesian war 
to 394 B.C., and a historj' of Greece in relation to Philip of 
Macedon {PMlippica). His master, Isocrates, urged him to 
write history. 

* Philistus of Syracuse, born about 430 B.C., wrote a 
history of Sicily. 

* Ephorus of Cumae, ^r. circ. 340 B.C., wrote a universal 
history. He was a pupil of Isocrates. Cp. ii. viii. 11. 

4a 



BOOK X. I. 72-75 

a depraved taste which caused his contemporaries 
often to prefer him to Menander, has none the 
less deserved the second place which posterity has 
been unanimous in awarding him. 

If we turn to history, we shall find a number of 73 
distinguished writers ; but there are two who must 
undoubtedly be set far above all their rivals : their 
excellences are different in kind, but have won 
almost equal praise. Thucydides is compact in 
texture, terse and ever eager to press forward : Hero- 
dotus is pleasant, lucid and diffuse : the former 
excels in vigour, speeches and the expression of the 
stronger passions ; the latter in charm, conversations 
and the delineation of the gentler emotions. Theo- 74 
pompus ^ comes next, and though as a historian he 
is inferior to the authors just mentioned, his style 
has a greater resemblance to oratory, which is not 
surprising, as he was an orator before he was urged 
to turn to history. Philistus ^ also deserves special 
distinction among the crowd of later historians, good 
though they may have been : he was an imitator of 
Thucydides, and though far his inferior, was some- 
what more lucid. Ephorus,' according to Isocrates, 
needed the spur. Clitarchus * has won approval by 75 
his talent, but his accuracy has been impugned. 
Timagenes ^ was bom long after these authors, but 
deserves our praise for the very fact that he revived 
the credit of history, the writing of which had fallen 
into neglect. I have not forgotten Xenophon, but 
he will find his place among the philosophers. 

* Clitarchus of Megara wrote a history of Persia and of 
Alexander, whose contemporary he was. 

* Timagenes, a Syrian of the Augustan age, wrote a 
history of Alexander and iiis successors. 

43 



QUINTILIAN 

76 Sequitur oratorum ingens manus, ut cum decern 
simul Athenis aetas una tulerit. Quorum longe 
princeps Demosthenes ac paene lex orandi fuit ; 
tanta vis in eo, tarn densa omnia, ita quibusdam 
nervis intenta sunt, tam nihil otiosum, is dicendi 
modus, ut nee quod desit in eo nee quod redundet 

77 invenias. Plenior Aeschines et magis fusus et grandi- 
ori similis, quo minus strictus est ; carnis tamen plus 
habet, minus lacertorum. Dulcis in primis et acutus 
Hyperides, sed minoribus causis, ut non dixerim 

78 utilior, magis par. His aetate Lysias maior, subtilis 
atque elegans et quo nihil, si oratori satis est docere, 
quaeras perfectius. Nihil enim est inane, nihil arces- 
situm ; puro tamen fonti quam magno flumini propior. 

79 Isocrates in diverso genere dicendi nitidus et comptus 
et palaestrae quam pugnae magis accommodatus 
omnes dicendi veneres sectatus est, nee immerito ; 
auditoriis enim se, non iudiciis compararat ; in in- 
ventione facilis, honesti studiosus, in compositione 

80 adeo diligens, ut cura eius reprehendatur. Neque 
ego in his, de quibus sum locutus, has solas virtutes, 
sed has praecipuas puto, nee ceteros parum fuisse 

* Antiphon, Andocides, Lysias (flor. 4.03-380), Isocrates 
(435-338), Isaeus, Demosthenes, Aeschines, Lycurgus, 
Hyperides and Dinarchus, 

44 



BOOK X. I. 76-80 

There follows a vast army of orators, Athens alone 76 
having produced ten remarkable orators ^ in the 
same generation. Of these Demosthenes is far the 
greatest : indeed he came to be regarded almost as 
the sole pattern of oratory. Such is the force and 
compactness of his language, so muscular his style, 
so free from tameness and so self-controlled, that 
vou will find nothing in him that is either too much 
or too little. The style of Aeschines is fuller and 77 
more diffuse, while his lack of restraint gives an 
appearance of grandeur. But he has more flesh and 
less muscle. Hyperides has extraordinary charm and 
point, but is better qualified, not to say more useful, 
for cases of minor importance. Lysias belongs to an 78 
earlier generation than those whom I have just 
mentioned. He has subtlety and elegance and, if 
the orator's sole duty were merely to instruct, it 
would be impossible to conceive greater perfection. 
For there is nothing irrelevant or far-fetched in his 
speeches. None the less I would compare him to a 
clear spring rather than to a mighty river. Isocrates 79 
was an exponent of a different style of oratorv : he is 
neat and polished and better suited to the fencing- 
school than to the battlefield. He elaborated all the 
graces of style, nor was he without justification. For 
he had trained himself for the lecture-room and not 
the law-courts. He is ready in invention, his moral 
ideals are high and the care which he bestows upon 
his rhythm is such as to be a positive fault. I do 80 
not regai-d these as the sole merits of the orators of 
whom I have spoken, but have selected what seemed 
to me their chief excellences, while those whom I 
have passed over in silence were far from being 
indifferent. In fact, I will readily admit that the 

45 



QUINTILIAN 

magnos. Quin etiam Phalerea ilium Demetrium, 
quanquam is primus inclinasse eloquentiam dicitur, 
multum ingenii habuisse et facundiae fateor, vel ob 
hoc memoria dignum, quod ultimus est fere ex 
Atticis, qui dici possit orator ; quem tamen in illo 
medio genere dicendi praefert omnibus Cicero, 

81 Philosophorum, ex quibus plurimum se traxisse elo- 
quentiae M. Tullius confitetur, quis dubitet Platonem 
esse praecipuum sive acumine dissei*endi sive elo- 
quendi facultate divina quadam et Homerica? Mul- 
tum enim supra prosam orationem et quam pedestrem 
Graeei vocant surgit, ut mihi non hominis ingenio 
sed quodam Delphicivideatur oraculo dei instinctus.^ 

82 Quid ego commemorem Xenophontis illam iucundi- 
tatem inadfectatam, sed quam nulla consequi adfec- 
tatio possit? ut ipsae sermonera finxisse Gratiae 
videantur et, quod de Pericle veteris comoediae 
testimonium est, in hunc transferri iustissime possit, 
in labris eius sedisse quandam persuadendi deam. 

83 Quid reliquorum Socraticorum elegantiam ? Quid 
Aristotelem ? quem dubito scientia rerum an scrip- 
torum copia an eloquendi ^ suavitate an inventionum 
acumine an varietate operum clariorem putem. Nam 

* quodam Delphici . . . dei instinctus, Frotscher : quaedam 
Delphico . . . de instrictus, G : quodam Delphico . . . in- 
etinctus, vulgo. 

* eloquendi, cod. JTarl. 4950, cod. Dorv. : eloquendi usus, 
aiid nearly all M8S. : eloquendi vi ac, Geel. 

* Governed Athens as Cassander's vicegerent 317-307 : 
then fled to Egypt, where he died in 283. 

* de Or. ii. 95. Orat. 92. The "intermediate" style is 
that which lies between the "grand" and the "plain" 
styles. 

' Eupolis, iruOd) Tts firfKidi^ev iiri rots x*^^*<''"'» 



BOOK X. 1. 80-83 

famous Demetrius of Phalerum,^ who is said to 
have been the first to set oratory on the down- 
ward path, was a man of great talent and eloquence 
and deserves to be remembered, if only for the 
fact that he is almost the last of the Attic 
school who can be called an orator : indeed Cicero * 
prefers him to all other orators of the intermediate 
school. 

Proceeding to the philosophers, from whom Cicero 81 
acknowledges that he derived such a large portion 
of his eloquence, we shall all admit that Plato is 
supreme whether in acuteness ot perception or in 
virtue of his divine gift of style, which is worthy of 
Homer. For he soars high above the levels of 
ordinary prose or, as the Greeks call it, pedestrian 
language, and seems to me to be inspired not by 
mere human genius, but, as it were, by the oracles 
of the god of Delphi. Why should I speak of the 82 
unaffected charm of Xenophon, so far beyond the 
power of affectation to attain .'' The Graces them- 
selves seem to have moulded his style, and we may 
with the utmost justice say of him, what the writer 
of the old comedy^ said of Pericles, that the goddess 
of persuasion sat enthroned upon his lips. Why 83 
should I dwell on the elegance of the rest of the 
Socratics ? or on Aristotle,* with regard to whom I 
hesitate whether to praise him more for his know- 
ledge, for the multitude of his writings, the sweet- 
ness of his style, the penetration revealed by his 
discoveries or the variety of the tasks which he 

* "Sweet" is the last epithet to be applied to the 
surviving works of Aristotle. But Dionysius of Halicamassus 
and Cicero praise him no less warmly, referring, no doubt, 
to works that are lost. 

47 



QUINTILIAN 

in Theophrasto tam est loquendi nitor ille divinus, 

84 ut ex eo nomen quoque traxisse dicatur. Minus 
indulsere eloquentiae Stoici veteres ; sed cum lionesta 
suaserunt turn in colligendo probandoque quae insti- 
tuerant plurimum valuerunt, rebus tamen acuti magis 
quam, id quod sane non adfectaverunt, oratione 
magnifici. 

85 Idem nobis per Romanos quoque auctores ordo 
ducendus est. Itaque ut apud illos Homerus sic 
apud nos Vergilius auspicatissimiim dederit exordium, 
omnium eius generis poetarum Graecorum nostro- 

86 rumque baud dubie proximus. Utar enim verbis 
iisdem, quae ex Afro Domitio iuvenis excepi ; qui 
mihi interroganti, quern Homero crederet maxime 
accedere, Seamdus, inquit, est Vergilius, propior tamen 
primo quam tertio. Et hercule ut^ illi naturae caelesti 
atque immortali cesserimus, ita curae et diligentiae 
vel ideo in hoc plus est, quod ei fuit magis labor- 
andum, et quantum eminentibus vincimur, fortasse 

87 aequalitate pensamus. Ceteri omnes longe sequ- 
entur. Nam Macer et Lucretius legendi quidem, 
sed non ut phrasin, id est, corpus eloquentiae faciant, 
elegantes in sua quisque materia sed alter humilis, 
alter difficilis. Atacinus Varro in iis, per quae nomen 
est adsecutus, interpres operis alieni,non spernendus 

* ut, several late M88. : cum, O and majority oj MSS. 

^ Theophrastus, Aristotle's successor as head of his school 
(322-287). Diogenes Laertius (v. 38) says that his real name 
was Tyrtamus, but that Aristotle called him Theophrastus 
because of the " divine qualities of his style " {<pp6.(ri<,). 

• Varro of Atax in Gaul (82-37 B.C.) was specially famous 
for his translation of the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius. 
He also wrote didactic poetry and historical epic. 

4« 



BOOK X. I. 83-87 

essayed ? In Theophrastus ^ we find such a super- 
human brilliance of style that his name is said to be 
derived therefrom. The ancient Stoics indulged 84 
their eloquence comparatively little. Still, they 
pleaded the cause of virtue, and the rules which 
they laid down for argument and proof have been of 
the utmost value. But they showed themselves 
shrewd thinkers rather than striking orators, which 
indeed they never aimed at being. 

I now come to Roman authors, and shall follow 86 
the same order in dealing with them. As among 
Greek authors Homer provided us with the most 
auspicious opening, so will Virgil among our own. 
For of all epic poets, Greek or Roman, he, without 
doubt, most nearly approaches to Homer. I will 86 
repeat the words which I heard Domitius Afer use 
in my young days. I asked what poet in his opinion 
came nearest to Homer, and he replied, " Virgil 
comes second, but is nearer first than third." And 
in truth, although we must needs bow before the 
immortal and superhuman genius of Homer, there 
is greater diligence and exactness in the work 
of Virgil just because his task was harder. And 
perhaps the superior uniformity of the Roman's ex- 
cellence balances Homer's pre-eminence in his out- 
standing passages. All our other poets follow a long 87 
way in the rear. Macer and Lucretius are, it is true, 
worth reading, but not for the purpose of forming 
style, that is to say, the body of eloquence : both 
deal elegantly with their themes, but the former is 
tame and the latter difficult. The poems by which 
Varro of Atax ^ gained his reputation were transla- 
tions, but he is by no means to be despised, although 
his diction is not sufficiently rich to be of much 

49 



QUINTILIAN 

quidem,verum ad augendam facultatem dicendi parum 

88 locuples. Ennium sicut sacros vetustate lucos ador- 
emus, in quibus grandia et antiqua robora iam non 
tantam habent speciem quantam religionem. Pro- 
piores alii atque ad hoc, de quo loquimur, magis 
utiles. Lascivus quidem in herois quoque Ovidius 
et nimium amator ingenii sui, laudandus tamen in 

89 partibus. Cornelius autem Severus, etiam si sit ^ 
versificator quam poeta melior, si tamen, ut est 
dictum, ad exemplar primi libri bellum Siculum 
perscripsisset, vindicaret sibi iure secundum locum, 
Serranum ^ consummari mors immatura non passa 
est ; puerilia tamen eius opera et maximam indolem 
ostendunt et admirabilem praecipue in aetate ilia 

90 recti generis voluntatem. Multum in Valerio Flacco 
nuper amisimus. Vehemens et poeticum ingenium 
Saleii Bassi fuit, nee ipsum senectute maturuit. 
Rabirius ac Pedo non indigni coguitione, si vacet. 
Lucanus ardens et concitatus et sententiisclarissimus 
et, ut dicam quod sentio, magis oratoribus quam poetis 

91 imitandus. Hos nominavimus, quia Germanicum 

' si sit, Spalding : M88. vanj between si, sit and sic. 
' Serranum, Lange : ferrenum, G. 

^ Friend and contemporary of Ovid. A considerable frag- 
ment is preserved by Sen. Sims. vi. 26. The Sicilian War 
was the war with Sextus Pompeius (38-36) and perhaps 
formed a portion of a larger work on the Civil War. The 
surviving fragment deals with the death of Cicero. The 
primiis liber may therefore perhaps be the first book of this 
larger work. 

' Nothing is knowTi of this poet except the name. 

* Nothing is known of this poet save that he is highly 
praised by Tacitus in his Dialogues, and was patronised by 
Vespasian. The unfinished Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus 
survives. 

&0 



BOOK X. I. 87-91 

service in developing the resources of eloquence. 
Ennius deserves our reverence, but only as those 88 
groves whose age has made them sacred, but whose 
huge and ancient trunks inspire us with religious 
awe rather than with admiration for their beauty. 
There are other poets who are nearer in point of 
time and more useful for our present purpose. Ovid 
has a lack of seriousness even when he writes epic 
and is unduly enamoured of his own gifts, but 
portions of his work merit our praise. On the other 89 
hand, although Gjrnelius Severus ^ is a better versifier 
than poet, yet if, as has been said, he had written his 
poem on the Sicilian war in the same style throughout 
as his first book, he would have had a just claim to the 
second place. A premature death prevented the 
powers of Serranus ^ from ripening to perfection, but 
his youthful works reveal the highest talent and a 
devotion to the true ideal of poetry, which is remark- 
able in one so young. We have suflfered serious loss 90 
in the recent death of Valerius Flaccus. Saleius 
Bassus^ showed an ardent and genuinely poetic 
genius, but, like that of Serranus, it was not 
mellowed by years. Rabirius * and Pedo ^ deserve 
to be studied by those who have the time. Lucan 
is fiery and passionate and remarkable for the 
grandeur of his general refle.xions, but, to be frank, 
I consider that he is more suitable for imitation by 
the orator than by the poet. I have restricted my 91 
list of poets to these names, because Germanicus 

* A contemporary of Ovid, believed to be the author of a 
fragment on the battle of Actium, found at Herculaneum. 

* C. Albinovanus Pedo wrote a poem on the voyage of 
Germanicus to the north of Germany. A fragment is pre- 
served by Sen. Svms. i. 14. 

51 



QUINTILIAN 

Augustum ab institutis studiis deflexit cura terrarum, 
parumque dis visum est esse eum maximum poet- 
arum. Quid tamen his ipsis eius operibus, in quae 
donato imperio iuvenis secesserat, sublimius, doctius, 
omnibus denique numeris praestantius ? Quis enim 
caneret bella melius, quam qui sic gerit? Quern 
pi'aesidentes studiis deae propius audirent? Cui 
magis suas artes aperiret familiare numen Minerva ? 

92 Dicent haec plenius futura saecula, nunc enim 
ceterarum fulgore virtutum laus ista praestringitur. 
Nos tamen sacra litterarum colentes feres, Caesar, si 
non tacitum hoc praeterimus et Vergiliano certe 
versu testamur. 

Inter victrices hederam tibi serpere laurus. 

93 Elegia quoque Graecos provocamus, cuius mihi 
tersus atque elegans maxime videtur auctor Tibullus. 
Sunt qui Propertium mahnt. Ovidius utroque lasci- 
vior, sicut durior Gallus. Satira quidem tota nostra 
est, in qua primus insignem laudem adeptus Lucilius 
quosdam ita deditos sibi adhuc habet amatores, ut 
eum non eiusdem modo operis auctoribus, sed 

94 omnibus poetis praeferre non dubitent. Ego quan- 
tum ab illis tantum ab Horatio dissentio, qui Luci- 

* Domitian. 

* He claimed to be the son of Minerva. It is doubtful if 
he ever wrote any poetry. Cp. Tac. Hist. iv. 86, Suet. Dom. 
2 and 20. » Ed. viii. 13. 

* Corneliua Gallus, the friend of Virgil, and the first dis- 
tinguished writer of elegy at Rome. ' Sat. I. iv. 11. 

5? 



BOOK X. 1. 91-94 

Augustus ^ has been distracted from the study of 
poetry on which he had embarked by his care for 
the governance of the world, and the gods have 
thought it scarce worthy of his powers that he 
should be the greatest of poets. But what can be 
more sublime, more learned, more perfect in every 
detail than those works to which he devoted himself 
in the seclusion to which he retired after conferring 
the supreme power upon his father and his brother? 
Who could sing of war better than he who wages it 
with such skill? To whom would the goddesses 
that preside over literature sooner lend an ear ? To 
whom would Minerva, his familiar deity,^ more 
readily reveal her secrets? Future ages shall tell of 92 
these things more fully ; to-day his glory as a poet 
is dimmed by the splendour of his other virtues. 
But you will forgive us, Caesar, who worship at the 
shrine of literature, if we refuse to pass by your 
achievements in silence and insist on testifying at 
least that, as Virgil sings, 

" The ivy creeps amid your victor bays." * 

We also challenge the supremacy of the Greeks in 93 
elegy. Of our elegiac poets TibuUus seems to me 
to be the most terse and elegant. There are, how- 
ever, some who prefer Propertius. Ovid is more 
sportive than either, while Gallus * is more severe. 
Satire, on the other hand, is all our own. The first 
of our poets to win renown in this connexion was 
Lucilius, some of whose devotees are so enthusiastic 
that they do not hesitate to prefer him not merely 
to all other satirists, but even to all other poets. 
I disagree with them as much as I do with Horace,^ 94 
who holds that Lucilius' verse has a " muddy flow, 

53 



QUINTILIAN 

Hum fluere lutulentum et esse aliquid, quod tollere 
possis, putat. Nam eruditio in eo mira et libertas 
atque inde acerbitas et abunde salis. Multum 
est tersior ac purus magis Horatius et, nisi labor 
eius amore, praecipuus. Multum et verae gloriae 
quamvis uno libro Persius meruit. Sunt clari 

96 hodieque et qui olim nominabuntur. Alteram illud 
etiam prius satirae genus, sed non sola carminum 
varietate mixtum condidit Terentius Varro, vir Roma- 
norum eruditissimus. Plurimos hie libros et doctis- 
simos composuit, peritissimus linguae Latinae et 
omnis antiquitatis et rerum Graecarum nostrarum- 
que, plus tamen scientiae collaturus quam eloquen- 

96 tiae. Iambus non sane a Romanis celebratus est ut 
proprium opus, sed aliis ^ quibusdam interpositus ; 
cuius acerbitas in Catullo, Bibaculo, Horatio, quan- 
quam illi epodos interveniat, reperietur. At Lyri- 
corum idem Horatius fere solus legi dignus. Nam 
et insurgit aliquando et plenus est iucunditatis 
et gratiae et varius figuris et verbis felicissime 
audax. Si quem adiicere velis, is erit Caesius 

* Bed aliis, inserted by Christ. 



* His Menippean Satires, of which only fragments survive. 
Although ostensibly an imitation of the work of the Greek 
Menippus of Gadara, they can still be said to belong to the 
older type of satire, the "medley" or "hotch-potch." 

• The meaning is not clear. The words may mean (i) that 
these writers did not confine themselves to the iamhus, or 
(ii) that the iambus alternates with other metres, cp. epodos 
below. 

• M. Furius Bibaculus, contemporary of Catullus, and 
writer of similar invective against the Caesareans. 

* i. e. the short iambic line interposed between the tri- 
meters. 

54 



BOOK X. I. 94-96 

and that there is always something in him that 
might well be dispensed with." For his learning is 
as remarkable as his freedom of speech, and it is 
this latter quality that gives so sharp an edge and 
such abundance of wit to his satire. Horace is far 
terser and purer in style, and must be awarded the 
first place, unless my judgment is led astray by my 
affection for his work. Persius also, although he 
wrote but one book, has acquired a high and 
well-deserved reputation, while there are other 
distinguished satirists still living whose praises will 
be sung by posterity. There is, however, another 95 
and even older type of satire which derives its 
variety not merely from verse, but from an ad- 
mixture of prose as well. Such were the satires 
composed by Terentius Varro,^ the most learned 
of all Romans. He composed a vast number of 
erudite works, and possessed an extraordinary know- 
ledge of the Latin language, of all antiquity and 
of the history of Greece and Rome. But he is 
an author likely to contribute more to the know- 
ledge of the student than to his eloquence. The 96 
iambic has not been popular with Roman poets as a 
separate form of composition, but is found mixed up 
with other forms of verse.^ It may be found in all 
its bitterness in Catullus, Bibaculus ^ and Horace, 
although in the last-named the iambic is interrupted 
by the epode.* Of our lyric writers Horace is almost 
the sole poet worth reading : for he rises at times to 
a lofty grandeur and is full of sprightliness and 
charm, while there is great variety in his figures, and 
his boldness in the choice of words is only equalled 
by his felicity. If any other lyric poet is to be 
mentioned, it will be Caesius Bassus, who has but 

55 



QUINTILIAN 

BassuSj quem nuper vidimus ; sed eum longe prae- 
cedunt ingenia viventium. 

97 Tragoediae scriptores veterum Accius atque Pacu- 
vius clarissimi^ gravitate sententiarum, verborum 
pondere, auctoritate personaruna. Ceterum nitor et 
summa in excolendis operibus manus magis videri 
potest temporibus quam ipsis defuisse. Virium tamen 
Accio plus tribuitur ; Pacuvium videri doctiorem qui 

98 esse docti adfectant volunt. lam Varii Thyestes 
cuilibet Graecarum comparari potest. Ovidii Medea 
videtur mihi ostendere, quantam ille vir praestare 
potuerit, si ingenio sue imperare quam indulgere 
maluisset. Eorum quos viderim longe princeps Pom- 
ponius SecunduSj quem senes quidem parum tragicum 
putabant, erudition e ac nitore praestare confite- 

99 bantur. In comoedia maxime claudicamus. Licet 
Varro Musas, Aelii Stilonis sententia, Plautino dicat 
sermone locuturas fuisse, si Latine loqui vellent, 
licet Caecilium veteres laudibus ferant, licet Terentii 
scripta ad Scipionem Africanum referantur (quae 
tamen sunt in hoc genere elegantissima et plus adhuc 
habitura gratiae si intra versus trimetros stetissent), 

1 00 vix levem consequimur umbram, adeo ut mihi sermo 
ipse Romanus non recipere videatur illam solis con- 
cessam Atticis venerem, cum earn ne Graeci quidem 

' clarissimi, several late M8S. : gravissima, G: gravissimus, 
other late MSS. : grandissimus, cod. Monac. : grandissimi, 
Halm. 

' Accius (170-90), Pacuvius (220-132). 

• L. Varius Rufua, friend of Virgil and Horace, editor of 
the Aeneid ; wrote epic and a single tragedy. 

• Pomponius Secundus, died 60 a.d. ; wrote a tragedy 
entitled Aeneas. 

• The first Roman philologist (144-70 B.a). 

5^ 



BOOK X I. 96-100 

lately passed from us. But he is far surpassed in 
talent by poets still living. 

Among writers of tragedy Accius and Pacuvius * 97 
are most remarkable for the force of their general 
reflexions, the weight of their words and the dignity 
of their characters. But they lack polish, and failed 
to put the finishing touches on their works, although 
the fault was perhaps rather that of the times in 
which they lived than of themselves. Accius is 
generally regarded as the most vigorous, while those 
who lay claim to learning regard Pacuvius as the 
more learned of the two. The Thyestes of Varius 2 98 
is a match for any Greek tragedy, and the Medea 
of Ovid shows, in my opinion, to what heights that 
poet might have risen if he had been ready to curb 
his talents instead of indulging them. Of the 
tragic writers whom I myself have seen, Pomponius 
Secundus^ is by far the best : his older critics thought 
him insufficiently tragic, but admitted his eminence as 
far as learning and polish were concerned. Comedy 99 
is our weakest point. Although Varro quotes Aelius 
Stilo* as saying that if the Muses wished to speak 
Latin, they would use the language of Plautus, 
although the ancients extol Caecilius,^ and although 
Scipio Africanus is credited with the works of 
Terence (which are the most elegant of their kind, 
and would be still more graceful if the poet had 
confined himself to the iambic trimeter), we still 100 
scarcely succeed in reproducing even a faint shadow 
of the charm of Greek comedy. Indeed, it seems 
to me as though the language of Rome were in- 
capable of reproducing that graceful wit which was 

• Caecilius (219-166), Terence (194-159), Afranius (flor. 
circ. 150). Only fragments of Caecilius and Afraniua remain. 

VOL. IV. r 57 



QUINTILIAN 

in alio genere linguae suae ^ obtiuuerint. Togatis 
excellit Afranius ; utinam non inquinasset argumenta 
puerorum foedis amoribus mores suos fassus. 

101 At non historia cesserit Graecis, nee opponere 
Thucydidi Sallustium verear, neque indignetur sibi 
Herodotus aequari T. Livium, cum in narrando 
mirae iucunditatis clarissimique candoris, turn in 
contionibus supra quam enarrari potest eloquentem ; 
ita quae dicuntur omnia cum rebus turn personis 
accommodata sunt ; adfectus quidem, praecipueque 
eos qui sunt dulciores, ut parcissime dicam, nemo 

102 historicorum commendavit magis. Ideoque im- 
mortalem illam Sallustii velocitatem diversis virtu- 
tibus consecutus est. Nam mihi egregie dixisse 
videtur Servilius Nonianus, pares eos magis quam 
similes ; qui et ipse a nobis auditus est, clarus vi ^ 
ingenii et sententiis creber, sed minus pressus quam 

103 historiae auctoritas postulat. Quam paulum aetate 
praecedens eum Bassus Aufidius egregie, utique in 
libris belli Germanici, praestitit genere ipso, pro- 
babilis in omnibus, sed in quibusdam suis ipse viribus 

104 minor. Superest adhuc et exornat aetatis nostrae 
glori&m vir saeculorum memoria dignus, qui olim 
nominabitur, nunc intelligitur. Habet amatores nee 

1 suae, Kohler : quae, G. 

* clarus vi, KiderUn : clarius, O : clari vir, vuhjo. 

, >. J Caeciliua (219-166), Terence (194-159), Afranius (flor. 
circ. 150) Only fragments of Caecilius and Afranius survive. 

2 Friend of Persius, and famous as orator, reciter and 
historian ; died 60 a.d. 

3 He wrote a history of the empire down to the death of 
Claudius. The work on the German war was probably a 
separate work. 

* Probably Fabius Rusticus. Tacitus would have been too 
young at this time to be mentioned in such terms. 

58 



BOOK X. I. 100-104 

granted to Athens alone, and was beyond the reach 
of other Greek dialects to achieve. Afranius ^ excels 
in the purely Roman comedy, but it is to be regretted 
that he revealed his own character by defiling his 
plots with the introduction of indecent paederastic 
intrigues. 

In history, however, we hold our own with the 101 
Greeks. I should not hesitate to match Sallust 
against Thucydides, nor would Herodotus resent 
Titus Livius being placed on the same level as him- 
self. For the latter has a wonderful charm and 
transparency in narrative, while his speeches are 
eloquent beyond description ; so admirably adapted 
is all that is said both to the circumstances and the 
speaker; and as regards the emotions, especially 
the more pleasing of them, I may sum him up by 
saying that no historian has ever depicted tliem to 
greater perfection. Thus it is that, although by 102 
different means, he has acquired no less fame than 
has been awarded to the immortal rapidity of Sallust. 
For I strongly approve of the saying of Servilius 
Nonianus,^ that these historians were equal rather 
than alike. Servilius, whom I myself have heard, 
is himself remarkable for the force of his intellect, 
and is full of general reflexions, but he is less re- 
strained than the dignity of history demands. But 103 
that dignity is admirably maintained, thanks to his 
style, by Aufidius Bassus,^ a slightly earlier writer, 
especially in his work on the German war : he is 
always praiseworthy, though at times he fails to do 
his powers full justice. But there still survives to 104 
add lustre to this glorious age a man * worthy to be 
remembered through all time : he is appreciated to- 
day, but after generations shall declare his name 

59 



QUINTILIAN 

immerito Cremuti* libertas, quanquam circumcisis 
quae dixisse ei nocuerat. Sed datum abunde spiri- 
tum et audaces sententias deprehendas etiam in his 
quae manent. Sunt et alii scriptores boni, sed nos 
genera degustamus, non bibliothecas excutiraus. 
106 Oratores vero vel praecipue Latinam eloquentiam 
parem facere Graecae possint. Nam Ciceronem 
cuicunque eoruin fortiter opposuerim. Nee ignore 
quantam mihi concitem pugnam, cum praesertim 
non sit id propositi, ut eum Demostheni comparem 
hoc tempore ; neque enim attinet, cum Demos- 
thenem in primis legendum vel ediscendum potius 

106 putem. Quorum ego virtutes plerasque arbitror 
similes, consilium, ordinem, dividendi,^ praeparandi, 
probandi rationem, omnia denique quae sunt in- 
ventionis. In eloquendo est aliqua diversitas ; den- 
sior ille hie copiosior, ille concludit adstrictius hie 
latius, pugnat ille acumine semper hie frequenter 
et pondere, illi nihil detrahi potest huic nihil adiici, 

107 curae plus in illo in hoc naturae. Salibus certe et 
commiseratione, qui duo plurimum in adfectibus 

* immerito Cremuti, Nipperdey: immerito rem * * » 
uti, G : later MSS. vary between immerito reinitti and 
imita tores uti. 

• dividendi, Aldine ed. : videndi, Q and nearly all MSS. 



1 Cremutius Cordus wrote a history of the Civil wars 
and reign of Augustus. He was accused for his praise of 
Brutus and Cassius, and committed suicide in a.d. 25. It 
was he who called Cassius "the last of all the Romans." 

• See XII. i. 14 sqq., also xn. x. 12 sqq. 



P? 



BOOK X. 1. 104-107 

aloud. The bold utterances of Cremutius ^ also have 
their admirers, and deserve their fame, though the 
passages which brought him to his ruin have been 
expurgated ; still that which is left reveals a rich 
store of lofty animation and fearless reflexions upon 
life. There are other good writers as well, but I am 
merely selecting from the different departments of 
literature, not reviewing complete libraries. 

But it is our orators, above all, who enable us to 106 
match our Roman eloquence against that of Greece. 
For I would set Cicero against any one of their 
orators without fear ot refutation. I know well 
enough what a storm I shall raise by this assertion, 
more especially since I do not propose for the 
moment ^ to compare him with Demosthenes ; for 
there would be no point in such a comparison, as I 
consider that Demosthenes should be the object of 
special study, and not merely studied, but even com- 
mitted to memory. I regard the excellences of these 106 
two orators as being for the most part similar, that 
is to say, their judgment, their gift of arrangement, 
their methods of division, preparation and proof, as 
well as everything conceraed with invention. In 
their actual style there is some difference. Demos- 
thenes is more concentrated, Cicero more diffuse ; 
Demosthenes makes his periods shorter than Cicero, 
and his weapon is the rapier, whereas Cicero's periods 
are longer, and at times he employs the bludgeon as 
well : nothing can be taken from the former, nor 
added to the latter ; the Greek reveals a more 
studied, the Roman a more natural art. As regards 107 
wit and the power of exciting pity, the two most 
powerful instruments where the feelings are con- 
cerned, we have the advantage. Again, it is possible 

61 



QUINTILIAN 

valent, vincimus. Et fortasse epilogos illi mos civitatis 
abstulerit ; sed et nobis ilia, quae Attici mirantur, 
diversa Latini sermonis ratio minus permiserit. In 
epistolis quidem, quanquam sunt utriusque, dialo- 

108 gisve, quibus nihil ille, nulla contentio est. Ceden- 
dum vero in hoc, quod et prior fuit et ex magna 
parte Ciceronem, quantus est, fecit. Nam mihi 
videtur M. TuUius, cum se totum ad imitationem 
Graecorum contulisset, effinxisse vim Demosthenis, 

109 copiam Platonis, iucunditatem Isocratis. Nee vero 
quod in quoque optimum fuit, studio consecutus est 
tantum ; sed plurimas vel potius omnes ex se ipso 
virtutes extulit immortalis ingenii beatissima ubertas. 
Non enim pluvias, ut ait Pindar us, aquas colligit, 
sed vivo gurgite exundat, dono quodam providentiae 
genitus, in quo totas vires suas eloquentia experi- 

110 retur. Nam quis docere diligentius, movere vehe- 
mentius potest.'' Cui tanta unquam iucunditas 
adfuit? ut ipsa ilia quae extorquet impetrare eum 
credas, et cum transversum vi sua iudicem ferat 

111 tamen ille non rapi videatur, sed sequi. lam in 

^ cp. II. xvi. 4 ; VI. i 7. Quintilian refers to an alleged 
law at Athens forbidding appeals to the emotion. 
• The quotation is not found in Pindar's extant works. 

6s 



BOOK X. I. 107-1 1 1 

that Demosthenes was deprived by national custom ^ 
of the opportunity of producing powerful perora- 
tions, but against this may be set the fact that the 
different character of the Latin language debars us 
from the attainment of those qualities which are 
so much admired by the adherents of the Attic 
school. As regards their letters, which have in 
both cases survived, and dialogues, which Demos- 
thenes never attempted, there can be no comparison 
between the two. But, on the other hand, there is 108 
one point in which the Greek has the undoubted 
superiority : he comes first in point of time, and it 
was largely due to him that Cicero was able to attain 
greatness. For it seems to me that Cicero, who 
devoted himself heart and soul to the imitation of 
the Greeks, succeeded in reproducing the force of 
Demosthenes, the copious flow of Plato, and the 
charm of Isocrates. But he did something more 109 
than reproduce the best elements in each of these 
authors by dint of careful study ; it was to himself 
that he owed most of, or rather all his excellences, 
which spring from the extraordinary fertility of his 
immortal genius. For he does not, as Pindar 2 says, 
" collect the rain from heaven, but wells forth with 
living water," since Providence at his birth conferred 
this special privilege upon him, that eloquence should 
make trial of all her powers in him. For who can 110 
instruct with greater thoroughness, or more deeply 
stir the emotions ? Who has ever possessed such a 
gift of charm .'' He seems to obtain as a boon what 
in reality he extorts by force, and when he wrests 
the judge from the path of his own judgment, the 
latter seems not to be swept away, but merely to 
follow. Further, there is such weight in all that he 1 1 1 

63 



QUINTILIAN 

omnibus quae dicit tanta auctoritas inest, ut dis- 
sentire pudeat, nee advocati studium sed testis aut 
iudicis adferat fidem, cum interim haec omnia, quae 
vix singula quisquam intentissima cura consequi 
posset, fluunt illaborata, et ilia, qua nihil pulehrius 
auditum est, oratio prae se fert tamen felicissimam 

112 facilitatem. Quare non immerito ab hominibus^ 
aetatis suae regnare in iudiciis dictus est, apud 
posteros vero id consecutus, ut Cicero iam non 
hominis nomen, sed eloquentiae habeatur. Hunc 
igitur spectemus, hoc propositum nobis sit ex- 
emplum, ille se profecisse sciat, cui Cicero valde 

113 placebit. Multa in Asinio Pollione inventio, summa 
diligentia, adeo ut quibusdam etiam nimia videatur, 
et consilii et animi satis ; a nitore et iucunditate 
Ciceronis ita longe abest, ut videri possit saeculo 
prior. At Messala nitidus et candidus et quadam 
modo praeferens in dicendo nobilitatem suam, viri- 

1 14 bus minor. C. vero Caesar si foro tantum vacasset, 
non alius ex nostris contra Ciceronem nominaretur. 
Tanta in eo vis est, id acumen, ea concitatio, ut 
ilium eodem animo dixisse, quo bellavit, appareat; 

, exornat tamen haec omnia mira sermonis, cuius 

^ ab hominibus, Halm : ab omnibus, B : hominibus, a few 
late MSS. 



^ Asinius PoUio (75 B.C. -ad. 4), the friend of Virgil, 
distinguished as poet, historian and orator. 
* M. Valerius Corvinus (64 b.c.-a.d. 8), the friend of 
1 1 - Tibullus and distinguished as an orator. 

64 



BOOK X. 1. 1 1 1-1 14 

says that his audience feel ashamed to disagree with 
him, and the zeal of the advocate is so transfigured 
that it has the effect of the sworn evidence of a 
witness, or the verdict of a judge. And at the same 
time all these excellences, of which scarce one could 
be attained by the ordinary man even by the most 
concentrated effort, flow from him with every appear- 
ance of spontaneity, and his style, although no fairer 
has ever fallen on the ears of men, none the less 
displays the utmost felicity and ease. It was not, 112 
therefore, without good reason that his own contem- 
poraries spoke of his " sovereignty " at the bar, and 
that for posterity the name of Cicero has come to be 
regarded not as the name of a man, but as the name 
of eloquence itself. Let us, therefore, fix our eyes on 
him, take him as our pattern, and let the student realise 
that he has made real progress if he is a passionate 
admirer of Cicero. Asinius Pollio^ had great gifts of 113 
invention and great precision of language (indeed, 
some think him too precise), while his judgment 
and spirit were fully adequate. But he is so far from 
equalling the polish and charm of Cicero that he 
might have been born a generation before him. 
Messala,^ on the other hand, is polished and trans- 
parent and displays his nobility in his utterance, 
but he fails to do his powers full justice. As 114 
for Gains Caesar, if he had had leisure to devote 
himself to the courts, he would have been the one 
orator who could have been considered a serious rival 
to Cicero. Such are his force, his penetration and 
his energy that we realise that he was as vigorous in 
speech as in his conduct of war. And yet all these 
qualities are enhanced by a marvellous elegance of 
language, of which he was an exceptionally zealous 

65 



QUINTILIAN 

115 proprie studiosus fuit, elegantia. Multum ingenii 
in Caelio et praecipue in accusando multa urbanitas, 
dignusque vir cui et mens melior et vita longior 
contigisset. Inveni qui Calvum praeferrent omnibus, 
inveni qui Ciceroni crederent, eum nimia contra se 
cilumnia verum sanguinem perdidisse ; sed est et 
sancta et gravis oratio et castigata et frequenter 
vehemens quoque. Imitator autem est Atticorum, 
fecitque illi properata mors iniuriam, si quid adiec- 

116 turus fuit.^ Et Servius Sulpicius insignem non 
immerito famam tribus orationibus meruit. Multa, 
si cum iudicio legatur, dabit imitatione digna Cassius 
Severus, qui si ceteris virtutibus colorem et gravitatem 
orationis adiecisset, ponendus inter praecipuos foret. 

117 Nam et ingenii plurimum est in eo et acerbitas mira, 
et urbanitas et fervor ; ^ sed plus stomacho quam con- 
silio dedit. Praeterea ut amari sales, ita frequenter 

118 amaritudo ipsa ridicula est. Sunt alii multidiserti,quos 
persequi longum est. Eorum quos viderim Domitius 
Afer et lulius Africanus longe praestantissimi. Arte 
ille et to to genere dicendi praeferendus et quem in 
numero veterum habere non timeas ; hie concitatior, 

^ adiecturus fuit, B: most later MSS. add non si quid 
detracturus with slight variations. 
' et fervor, Bursian : et sermo, B, 

' M. Rufus Caelius, defended by Cicero in the pro Caelio. 
Killed in 48 B.C. Cp. iv. ii. 123. ; viii. vi. 53. 

* Calvus (Gains Licinius), a distinguished poet and, with 
Brutus, the leading orator of the Attic School. He died 
at the age of 34 in 48 B.C. 

' Servius Sulpicius Rufus, the greatest jurist of the 
Ciceronian age. 

* Cassius Severus [d. a.d 34) banished by Augustus on 
account of his scurrilous lampoons. 

66 



BOOK X. I. 1 14-118 

student. Caelius ^ has much natural talent and much 116 
wit, more especially when speaking for the prosecu- 
tion, and deserved a wiser mind and a longer life. 
I have come across some critics who preferred 
Calvus^ to all other orators, and others again who 
agreed with Cicero that too severe self-criticism had 
robbed him of his natural vigour. But he was the 
possessor of a solemn, weighty and chastened style, 
which was also capable at times of genuine vehem- 
ence. He was an adherent of the Attic school and 
an untimely death deprived him of his full meed of 
honour, at least if we regard him as likely to have 
acquired fresh qualities. Servius Sulpicius^ acquired 116 
a great and well -deserved reputation by his three 
speeches. Cassius Severus,* if read with discrimina- 
tion, will provide much that is worthy of imitation : 
if to his other merits he had added appropriateness 
of tone and dignity of style, he would deserve a 117 
place among the greatest. For his natural talents 
are great, his gift of bitterness, wit and passion 
remarkable, but he allowed the sharpness of his 
temper to prevail over his judgment. Moreover, 
though his jests are pungent enough, this very 
pungency often turned the laugh against himself. 
There are many other clever speakers, but it 118 
would be a long task to deal with them all. Domitius 
Afer^ and Julius Africanus® are by far the most dis- 
tinguished. The former is superior in art and in 
every department of oratory, indeed he may be 
ranked with the old orators without fear of contra- 

• Domitius Afer (d- 59 a d.), the leading orator of the 
reigns of Tiberius and his successors. 

* lulius Africanus, a Gaul, who flourished in the reign of 
Nero. 

67 



QUINTILIAN 

sed in cura verborum nimius et compositione non- 
nunquam longior et translationibus parum modicus. 

119 Erantclara et nuper ingenia. Nam et Trachalus ple- 
rumque sublimis et satis apertus fuit et quem velle 
optima crederes, auditus tamen maior ; nam et vocis. 
quantam in nullo cognovi, felicitas et pronuntiatio vel 
scenis sufFectura et decor, omnia denique ei, quae sunt 
extra, superfuerunt ; et Vibius Crispus compositus et 
iucundus et delectationi natus, privatis tamen eausis 

120 quam publicis melior. lulio Secundo, si longior 
contigisset aetas, clarissimum profecto nomen ora- 
toris apud posteros foret. Adiecisset enim atque 
adiiciebat ceteris virtutibus suis quod desiderari 
potest; id est autem, ut esset multo magis pugnax 
et saepius ad curam rerum ab elocutione respiceret. 

121 Ceterum interceptus quoque magnum sibi vindicat 
locum ; ea est facundia, tanta in explicando quod 
velit gratia, tam candidum et leve et speciosum di- 
cendi genus, tanta verborum etiam quae adsumpta 
sunt proprietas, tanta in quibusdam ex periculo 

122 petitis significantia. Habebunt, qui post nos de 
oratoribus scribent, magnam eos, qui nunc vigent, 
materiam vere laudandi. Sunt enim summa hodie, 
quibus illustratur forum, ingenia. Namque et con- 
summati iam patroni veteribus aemulantur et eos 

^ M. Galerius Trachalus (cos. 68 a.d.) Cp xii. v. 5. 

' Vibius Crispus, a delator under Nero, died about A.D. 
90, after acquiring great wealth. Cp. Juv. iv. 81 -93. 

' Julius Secundus, a distinguished orator of the reign of 
Vespasian. One of the characters in the Dialogus of Tacitus. 

68 



BOOK X. I. 1 18-122 

diction. The latter shows greater energy, but is too 
great a precisian in the choice of words, prone to 
tediously long periods and somewhat extravagant in 
his metaphors. There have been distinguished 
talents even of more recent date. For example, 119 
Trachalus^ was, as a rule, elevated and sufficiently 
clear in his language : one realised that his aims 
were high, but he was better to listen to than to 
read. For his voice was, in my experience, unique 
in its beauty of tone, while his delivery would have 
done credit to an actor, his action was full of grace 
and he f>ossessed every external advantage in pro- 
fusion. Vibius Crispus,^ *igahi, was well-balanced, 
agreeable and born to charm, though he was better 
in private than in public cases. Julius Secundus,^ 120 
had he lived longer, would undoubtedly have attained 
a great and enduring reputation. For he would have 
acquired, as he was actually acquiring, all that was 
lacking to his qualities, namely, a far greater 
pugnacity and a closer attention to substance as well 
as form. But, in spite of the untimeliness of his end, 121 
he occupies a high place, thanks to his fluency, the 
grace with which he set forth whatever he desired, 
the lucidity, smoothness and beauty of his speech, 
the propriety revealed in the use of words, even 
when employed figuratively, and the point which 
characterises even his most hazardous expressions. 
Subsequent wTiters on the history of oratory will 122 
find abundant material for praise among the orators 
who flourish to-day : for the law courts can boast 
a glorious wealth of talent. Indeed, the con- 
summate advocates of the present day are serious 
rivals of the ancients, while enthusiastic effort 
and lofty ideals lead many a young student 

69 



QUINTILIAN 

iuvenum ad optima tendentium imitatur ac se- 
quitur industria. 

123 Supersunt qui de philosophia scripserint, quo 
in genere paucissimos adhuc eloquentes litterae 
Romanae tulerunt. Idem igitur M. TuUius, qui 
ubique, etiam in hoc opere Platonis aemulus exstitit. 
Egregius vero multoque quam in orationibus prae- 
stantior Brutus sufFecit ponderi rerum ; scias eum 

124 sentire quae dicit. Scripsit non parum multa 
Cornelius Celsus, Sextios secutus, non sine cultu ac 
nitore. Plautus in Stoicis rerum cognitioni utilis. 
In Epicureis levis quidem, sed non iniucundus tamen 

125 auctor est Catius. Ex industria Senecam in omni 
genere eloquentiae distuli propter vulgatam falso de 
me opinionem, qua damnare eum et invisum quoque 
habere sum creditus. Quod accidit mihi, dum corrup- 
tum et omnibus vitiis fractum dicendi genus revocare 

126 ad severiora iudicia contendo. Turn autem solus 
hie fere in manibus adolescentium fuit. Quem non 
equidem omnino conabar excutere, sed potioribus 
praeferri non sinebam, quos ille non destiterat inces- 
sere, cum diversi sibi conscius generis placere se in 
dicendo posse iis, quibus illi placent, diffideret. Ama- 



^ Brutus, omitted from Qaintilian's list of orators, was a 
follower of the Stoic and Academic schools. He is kuown 
to have written treatises on Virtue, Duty and Patience. 

* An encyclopsedic writer under Augustus and Tiberius. 
His medical treatises have survived. He wrote on oratory 
also, and is not infrequently quoted by Quintilian. 

* The Sextii, father and son, were Pythagorean philoso- 
phers of the Augustan age, with something of a Stoic 
tendency as well. 

* Nothing is known of this writer, save what is told us 
in III. xiv. 2, and iii. vi, 23. 

70 



BOOK X. I. 122-126 

to tread in their footsteps and imitate their 
excellence. 

I have still to deal with writers on philosophy, 123 
of whom Rome has so far produced but few who are 
distinguished for their style. But Cicero, who is 
great in every department of literature, stands out 
as the rival of Plato in this department as well. 
Brutus 1 was an admirable writer on such themes, in 
which he distinguished himself far more than in his 
speeches : he is equal to the serious nature of his 
subject, and the reader realises that he feels what 
he says. Cornelius Celsus,^ a follower of the Sextii,^ 124 
wrote a number of philosophical works, which have 
considerable grace and polish. Among the Stoics 
Plautus* is useful as giving a knowledge of the 
subject. Among the Epicureans Catius ^ is agree- 
able to read, though lacking in weight. I have 125 
deliberately postponed the discussion of Seneca in 
connexion with the various departments of literature 
owing to the fact that there is a general, though 
false, impression that I condemn and even detest 
him. It is true that I had occasion to pass cen- 
sure upon him when I was endeavouring to recall 
students from a depraved style, weakened by every 
kind of error, to a severer standard of taste. But 126 
at that time Seneca's works were in the hands 
of every young man, and my aim was not to ban his 
reading altogether, but to prevent his being pre- 
ferred to authors superior to himself, but whom he 
was never tired of disparaging ; for, being conscious 
of the fact that his O'vvn style was very different 

* A contemporary of Cicero, who speaks of him somewhat 
contemptuously. He wrote four books de rerum natura et 
de summo bono. 

71 



QUINTILIAN 

bant autem eum magis quam imitabantur tantumque 
ab eo defluebant, quantum ille ab antiquis descend- 

1 27 erat. Foret enim optandum pares ac saltern proximos 
illi viro fieri. Sed placebat propter sola vitia et ad 
ea se quisque dirigebat effingenda quae poterat; 
deinde cum se iactaret eodem modo dicere, Senecam 

128 infamabat. Cuius et multae alioqui et magnae vir- 
tutes fuerunt, ingenium facile et copiosum, plurimum 
studii, multa rerum cognitio ; in qua tamen ali- 
quando ab his, quibus inquirenda quaedam mandabat, 

129 deceptus est. Tractavit etiam omnem fere studiorum 
materiam. Nam et orationes eius et poemata et 
epistolae et dialogi feruntur. In philosophia parum 
diligens, egregius tamen vitiorum insectator fuit. 
Multae in eo claraeque sententiae, multa etiam 
morum gratia legenda ; sed in eloquendo corrupta 
pleraque atque eo perniciosissima, quod abundant 

130 dulcibus vitiis. Velles eum suo ingenio dixisse, 

alieno iudicio. Nam si obliqua ^ contempsisset, si 

parum recta ^ non concupisset, si non omnia sua 

aniasset, si rerum pondera minutissimis sententiis 

non fregisset, consensu potius eruditorum quam 

* obliqua, E. Wofflin : simile quam, B : si aliqua, 2nd 
hand. * recta, added by Peterson. 



BOOK X. I. 126-130 

from theirs, he was afraid that he would fail to 
please those who admired them. But the young 
men loved him rather than imitated him, and fell 
as far below him as he fell below the ancients. For 127 
I only wish they had equalled or at least approached 
his level. But he pleased them for his faults alone, 
and each individual sought to imitate such of those 
faults as lay within his capacity to reproduce : and 
then brought reproach on his master by boasting 
that he spoke in the genuine Senecan manner. 
Seneca had many excellent qualities, a quick and 128 
fertile intelligence with great industry and wide 
knowledge, though as regards the last quality he 
was often led into error by those whom he had 
entrusted with the task of investigating certain 
subjects on his behalf. He dealt with almost every 129 
department of knowledge ; for speeches, poems, 
letters and dialogues all circulate under his name. 
In philosophy he showed a lack of critical power, 
but was none the less quite admirable in his 
denunciations of vice. His works contain a number 
of striking general reflexions and much that is 
worth reading for edification ; but his style is for 
the most part corrupt and exceedingly dangerous, 
for the very reason that its vices are so many and 
attractive. One could wish that, while he relied on 130 
his own intelligence, he had allowed himself to be 
guided by the taste of others. For if he had only 
despised all unnatural expressions and had not been 
so passionately fond of all that was incorrect, if he 
had not felt such affection for all that was his own, 
and had not impaired the solidity of his matter by 
striving after epigrammatic brevity, he would have 
won the approval of the learned instead of the 

73 



QUINTILIAN 

131 puerorum amore comprobaretur. Verum sic quoque 
iam robustis et severiore genere satis firmatis 
legendus vel ideo quod exercere potest utrinque 
iudicium, Multa enim, ut dixi, probanda in eo, 
multa etiam admiranda sunt, eligere modo curae 
sit ; quod utinam ipse fecisset. Digna enim fuit 
ilia natura, quae meliora vellet ; quod voluit 
efFecit. 

II. Ex his ceterisque lectione dignis auctoribus et 
verborum sumenda copia est et varietas figurarum et 
componendi ratio, turn ad exemplum virtutum omnium 
mens dirigenda. Neque enim dubitari potest, quin 
artis pars magna contineatur imitatione. Nam ut 
invenire primum fuit estque praecipuum, sic ea, quae 

2 bene inventa sunt^ utile sequi. Atque omnis vitae 
ratio sic constat, ut quae probamus in aliis facere 
ipsi velimus. Sic litterarum ductus, ut scribendi fiat 
usus, pueri sequuntur, sic musici vocem docentium, 
pictores opera priorum, rustici probatam experimento 
culturam in exemplum intuentur; omnis denique 
disciplinae initia ad propositum sibi praescriptum 

3 formari videmus. Et hercule necesse est aut similes 
aut dissimiles bonis simus. Similem raro natura 
praestat, frequenter imitatio. Sed hoe ipsum, quod 

74 



BOOK X. I. 1 30-11. 3 

enthusiasm of boys. But even as it is, he deserves 131 

to be read by those whose powers have been formed 

and firmly moulded on the standards of a severer 

taste, if only because he will exercise their critical 

faculties in distinguishing between his merits and 

his defects. For, as I have said, there is much in 

him which we may approve, much even that we may 

admire. Only we must be careful in our selection : 

would he had been as careful himself. For his 

genius deserved to be devoted to better aims, since 

wlmt it does actually aim at, it succeeds in achieving. 

II. It is from these and other authors worthy of 

our study that we must draw our stock of words, the 

variety of our figures and our methods of composition, 

while we must form our minds on the model of every 

excellence. For there can be no doubt that in art 

no small portion of our task lies in imitation, since, 

although invention came first and is all-important, it 

is expedient to imitate whatever has been invented 

with success. And it is a universal rule of life that 2 

we should wish to copy what we approve in others. 

It is for this reason that boys copy the shapes of 

letters that they may learn to write, and that 

musicians take the voices of their teachers, painters 

the works of their predecessors, and peasants the 

principles of agriculture which have been proved in 

practice, as models for their imitation. In fact, we 

may note that the elementary study of every branch 

of learning is directed by reference to some definite 

standard that is placed before the learner. We 3 

must, in fact, either be like or unlike those who 

have proved their excellence. It is rare for nature 

to produce such resemblance, which is more often 

the result of imitation. But the very fact that in 

75 



QUINTILIAN 

tanto faciliorem nobis rationem rerum omnium facit 
quam fuit iis, qui nihil quod sequerentur habuerunt, 
nisi caute et cum iudicio apprehenditur, laocet. 

4 Ante omnia igitur imitatio per se ipsa non sufficit, 
vel quia pigri est ingenii contentum esse iis, quae 
sint ab aliis inventa. Quid enim futurum erat 
temporibus illis, quae sine exemplo fuerunt, si 
homines nihil, nisi quod iam cognovissent, faciendum 
sibi aut cogitandum putassent ? Nempe nihil fuisset 

5 inventum. Cur igitur nefas est reperiri aliquid a 
nobis, quod ante non fuerit? An illi rudes sola 
mentis natura ducti sunt in hoc ut tam multa gene- 
rarent, nos ad quaerendum non eo ipso concitemur, 

6 quod certe scimus invenisse eos qui quaesierunt? Et 
cum illi, qui nullum cuiusquam rei habuerunt magis- 
trum, plurima in posteros tradiderunt, nobis usus 
aliarum rerum ad eruendas alias non proderit, sed 
nihil habebimus nisi beneficii alieni ? Quemadmo- 
dum quidam pictores in id solum student, ut de- 

1 scribere tabulas mensuris ac lineis sciant. Turpe 
etiam illud est, contentum esse id consequi quod 
imiteris. Nam rursus quid erat futurum, si nemo 
plus effecisset eo quem sequebatur? Nihil in poetis 
supra Livium Andronicum, nihil in historiis supra 
Pontificum annales haberemus ; ratibus adhuc navi- 

* The reference is to copying by dividing the surface of 
the picture to be copied, and of the material on which the 
copy is to be made, into a number of equal squares. 

* Livius Andronicus, a slave from Tarentum, was the 
founder of Latin poetry. He translated the Odyssey, and 
produced the first Latin comedy and tragedy composed in 
Greek metres (240 b.c ) 

^ The Annales Maximi kept by the Pontifex Maximus, 
containing the list of the consuls and giving a curt summary 
of the events of each consulate. 

|6 



BOOK X. II. 3-7 

every subject the procedure to be followed is so 
much more easy for us than it was for those who 
had no model to guide them, is a positive drawback, 
unless we use this dubious advantage with caution 
and judgment. 

The first point, then, that we must realise is that 4 
imitation alone is not sufficient, if only for the reason 
that a sluggish nature is only too ready to rest 
content with the inventions of others. For what 
would have happened in the days when models were 
not, if men had decided to do and think of nothing 
that they did not know already? The answer is 
obvious : nothing would ever have been discovered. 
Why, then, is it a crime for us to discover something 5 
new ? Were primitive men led to make so many 
discoveries simply by the natural force of their 
imagination, and shall we not then be spurred on to 
search for novelty by the very knowledge that those 
who sought of old were rewarded by success ? And 6 
seeing that they, who had none to teach them any- 
thing, have handed down such store of knowledge 
to posterity, shall we refuse to employ the experience 
which we possess of some things, to discover yet 
other things, and possess nought that is not owed to 
the beneficent activity of others ? Shall we follow 
the example of those painters whose sole aim is to 
be able to copy pictures by using the ruler and the 
measuring rod ? ^ It is a positive disgrace to be 7 
content to owe all our achievement to imitation. 
For what, I ask again, would have been the result 
if no one had done more than his predecessors ? 
Livius Andronicus * would mark our supreme 
achievement in poetry and the annals of the Ponti- 
Jices^ would be our ue plus ultra in history. We 

77 



QUINTILIAN 

garemus ; non esset pictura, nisi quae lineas modo 
extremas umbrae, quam corpora in sole fecissent, 

8 circumscriberet. Ac si omnia percenseas, nulla man- 
sit ^ ars, qualis inventa est, nee intra initium stetit, 
nisi forte nostra potissimum tempora damnamus 
huius infelicitatis, ut nunc demum nihil crescat. 

9 Nihil autem crescit sola imitatione. Quodsi priori- 
bus adiicere fas non est, quomodo sperare possumus 
ilium oratorem perfectum : cum in his, quos maximos 
adhuc novimus, nemo sit inventus, in quo nihil aut 
desideretur aut reprehendatur. Sed etiam qui summa 
non appetent, contendere potius quam sequi debent. 

10 Nam qui hoc agit^ ut prior sit, forsitan, etiamsi 
non transierit, aequabit. Eum vero nemo potest 
aequare, cuius vestigiis sibi utique insistendum putat; 
necesse est enim semper sit posterior qui sequitur. 
Adde quod plerumque facilius est plus facere quam 
idem. Tantam enim difficultatem habet similitudo, 
ut ne ipsa quidem natura in hoc ita evaluerit, ut non 
res quae simillimae, quaeque pares maxime videantur, 

11 utique discrimine aliquo discernantur, Adde quod, 
quidquid alteri simile est, necesse est minus sit eo, 
quod imitatur, ut umbra corpore et imago facie et 



1 mansit, Meister : sit, MSS. 

* hoc &git. Malm, om. B : agit, later MSS. 



rk 



BOOK X. II. 7-1 1 

should still be sailing on rafts, and the art of painting 
would be restricted to tracing a line round a shadow 
thrown in the sunlight. Cast your eyes over the 8 
whole of history ; you will find that no art has 
remained just as it was when it was discovered, nor 
come to a standstill at its very birth, unless indeed 
we are ready to pass special condemnation on our 
own generation on the ground that it is so barren of 
invention that no further development is possible ; 
and it is undoubtedly true that no development is 
possible for those who restrict themselves to imi- 
tation. But if we are forbidden to add anything to 9 
the existing stock of knowledge, how can we ever 
hope for the birth of our ideal orator ? For of all 
the greatest orators with whom we are as yet ac- 
quainted, there is not one who has not some 
deficiency or blemish. And even those who do 
not aim at supreme excellence, ought to press 
toward the mark rather than be content to follow 
in the tracks of others. For the man whose aim 10 
is to prove himself better than another, even if he 
does not surpass him, may hope to equal him. But 
he can never hope to equal him, if he thinks it his 
duty merely to tread in his footsteps : for the mere 
follower must always Jag behind. Further, it is 
generally easier to make some advance than to 
repeat what has been done by others, since there 
is nothing harder than to produce an exact likeness, 
and nature herself has so far failed in this endeavour 
that there is always some difference which enables 
us to distinguish even the things which seem most 
like and most equal to one another. Again, what- 11 
ever is like another object, must necessarily be 
inferior to the object of its imitation, just as the 

79 



QUINTILIAN 

actus histrionum veris adfectibus. Quod in orationi- 
bus quoque evenit. Namque eis, quae in exemplum 
adsumimus, subest natura et vera vis ; contra omnis 
imitatio ficta est et ad alienum propositum accommo- 

12 datur.i Quod facit, ut minus sanguinis ac virium 
declamationes habeant quam orationes, quod in illis 
vera, in his adsimilata materia est. Adde quod ea, 
quae in oratore maxima sunt, imitabilia non sunt, 
ingenium, inventio, vis, facilitas et quidquid arte non 

13 traditur. Ideoque plerique, cum verba quaedam ex 
orationibus excerpserunt aut aliquos compositionis 
certos pedes, mire a se, quae legerunt, effingi arbi- 
trantur; cum et verba intercidant invalescantque 
temporibus, ut quorum certissima sit regula in 
consuetudine, eaque non sua natura sint bona aut 
mala (nam per se soni tantum sunt), sed prout 
opportune proprieque aut secus collocata sunt, et 
compositio cum rebus accommodata sit, tum ipsa 
varietate gratissima. 

14 Quapropter exactissimo iudicio circa banc partem 

studiorum examinanda sunt omnia. Primum, quos 

imitemur ; nam sunt plurimi, qui similitudinem pes- 

simi cuiusque et corruptissimi concupierunt ; tum in 

^ accommodatur, StuI hand of B and later MSS. : commo- 
datur, B, 

8o 



BOOK X. II. 11-14 

shadow is inferior to the substance, the portrait to 
the features which it portrays, and the acting of the 
player to the feelings which he endeavours to repro- 
duce. The same is true of oratory. For the models 
which we select for imitation have a genuine and 
natural force, whereas all imitation is artificial and 
moulded to a purpose which was not that of the 
original orator. This is the reason why declamations 12 
have less life and vigour than actual speeches, since 
the subject is fictitious in the one and real in the 
other. Again, the greatest qualities of the orator 
are beyond all imitation, by which I mean, talent, 
invention, force, facility and all the qualities which 
are independent of art. Consequently, there are 13 
many who, after excerpting certain words from 
published speeches or borrowing certain particular 
rhythms, think that they have produced a perfect 
copy of the works which they have read, despite 
the fact that words become obsolete or current 
with the lapse of years, the one sure standard being 
contemporary usage ; and they are not good or 
bad in virtue of their inherent nature (for in them- 
selves they are no more than mere sounds), but 
solely in virtue of the aptitude and propriety (or 
the reverse) with which they are arranged, while 
rhythmical composition must be adapted to the 
theme in hand and will derive its main charm from 
its variety. 

Consequently the nicest judgment is required in 14 
the examination of everything connected with this 
department of study. First we must consider whom 
to imitate. For there are many who have shown a 
passionate desire to imitate the worst and most 
decadent authors. Secondly, we must consider what 

81 



QUINTILIAN 

ipsis, quos elegerimus, quid sit, ad quod nos effici- 

15 endum comparemus. Nam in magnis quoque auc- 
toribus incidunt aliqua vitiosa et a doctis, inter ipsos 
etiam mutuo reprehensa; atque utinam tam bona 
imitantes dicerent melius quam mala peius dicunt. 
Nee vero saltern iis, quibus ad evitanda vitia iudicii 
satis fuit, sufficiat imaginem virtutis efGngere et 
solam, ut sic dixerim, cutem vel potius illas Epicuri 

16 figuras, quas e summis corporibus dicit effluere. Hoc 
autem his accidit, qui non introspectis penitus virtu- 
tibus ad primum se velut aspeetum orationis aptarunt ; 
et cum lis felicissime cessit imitatio, verbis atque 
numeris sunt non multum differentes, vim dicendi 
atque inventionis non adsequuntur, sed plerumque 
declinant in peius et proxima virtutibus vitia compre- 
hendunt fiuntque pro grandibus tumidi, pressis exiles, 
fortibus temerarii, laetis corrupti, compositis exult- 

17 antes, simplicibus negligentes. Ideoque qui horride 
atque incomposite quidlibet illud frigidum et inane 
extulerunt, antiquis se pares credunt ; qui carent 
cultu atque sententiis, Attici scilicet; qui praecisis 
conclusionibus obscuri, Sallustium atque Thucydidem 

* Epicurus held that all sense-perception was caused by 
the impact of such atomic sloughs : cp. Lucret. iv. 42 sqq. 

82 



BOOK X. II. 14-17 

it is that we should set ourselves to imitate in the 
authors thus chosen. For even great authors have 15 
their blemishes, for which they have been censured 
by competent critics and have even reproached each 
other. I only wish that imitators were more likely 
to improve on the good things than to exaggerate 
the blemishes of the authors whom they seek to 
copy. And even those who have sufficient critical 
acumen to avoid the faults of their models will not 
find it sufficient to produce a copy of their merits, 
amounting to no more than a superficial resemblance, 
or rather recalling those sloughs which, according to 
Epicurus, are continually given off by material things.^ 
But this is just what happens to those who mould 16 
themselves on the first impressions derived from the 
style of their model, without devoting themselves to 
a thorough investigation of its good qualities, and, 
despite the brilliance of their imitation and the close 
resemblance of their language and rhythm, not only 
fail absolutely to attain the force of style and invention 
possessed by the original, but as a rule degenerate 
into something worse, and achieve merelv those faults 
which are hardest to distinguish from virtues : they 
are turgid instead of grand, bald instead of concise, 
and rash instead of courageous, while extravagance 
takes the place of wealth, over-emphasis the place of 
harmony and negligence of simplicity. As a result, 17 
; those who flaunt tasteless and insipid thoughts, 
couched in an uncouth and inharmonious form, think 
that they are the equals of the ancients ; those who 
lack ornament and epigram, pose as Attic ; those 
who darken their meaning by the abruptness with 
which they close their periods, count themselves the 
superiors of Sallust and Thucydides ; those who are 

83 



QUINTILIAN 

superant ; tristes ac ieiimi PoUionem aemulantur : 
otiosi et supini, si quid modo longius circumduxerunt, 

18 iurant ita Ciceronem locuturum fuisse. Noveram 
quosdam, qui se pulchre expressisse genus illud 
caelestis huius in dicendo viri sibi viderenturj si in 
clausula posuissent Esse videatur. Ergo primum est, 
ut quod imitaturus est quisque intelligat et quare 
bonum sit sciat. 

19 Turn in suscipiendo onere consulat suas vires. Nam 
quaedam sunt imitabilia, quibus aut infirmitas naturae 
non sufficiat aut diversitas repugnet. Ne, cui tenue 
ingenium erit, sola velit fortia et abrupta ; cui forte 
quidem, sed indomitum, amore subtilitatis et vim 
suam perdat et elegantiam quam cupit non perse- 
quatur; nihil est enim tam indecens, quam cum 

20 mollia dure fiunt. Atque ego illi praeceptori, quem 
institueram in libro secundo, credidi non ea sola 
docenda esse, ad quae quemque discipulorum natura 
compositum videret ; nam is et adiuvare debet, quae 
in quoque eorum invenit bona, et, quantum fieri 
potest, adiicere quae desunt et emendare quaedam et 
mutare ; rector enim est alienorum ingeniorum atque 

21 formator. Difficilius est naturam suam fingere. Sed 

1 cp. rx. iv. 73. Tac. Dial 23. » Ch. 8. 



BOOK X. II. 17-21 

dreary and jejune, think that they are serious rivals 
to Pollio, while those who are tame and listless, if 
only they can produce long enough periods, swear 
that this is just the manner in which Cicero would 
have spoken. I have known some who thought that 18 
they had produced a brilliant imitation of the style 
of that divine orator, by ending their periods with 
the phrase esse videalur.^ Consequently it is of the 
first importance that every student should realise 
what it is that he is to imitate, and should know 
why it is good. 

The next step is for each student to consult his 19 
own powers when he shoulders his burden. For 
there are some things which, though capable of 
imitation, may be beyond the capacity of any given 
individual, either because his natural gifts are in- 
sufficient or of a different character. The man whose 
talent is for the plain style should not seek only 
what is bold and rugged, nor yet should he who has 
vigour without control suffer himself through love of 
subtlety at once to waste his natural energy and 
fail to attain the elegance at which he aims : for 
there is nothing so unbecoming as delicacy wedded 
to ruggedness. True, I did express the opinion 20 
that the instructor whose portrait I painted in my 
second book,^ should not confine himself to teaching 
those things for which he perceived his individual 
pupils to have most aptitude. For it is his further 
duty to foster whatever good qualities he may per- 
ceive in his pupils, to make good their deficiencies 
as far as may be, to correct their faults and turn 
them to better things. For he is the guide and 
director of the minds of others. It is a harder task 
to mould one's own nature. But not even our 21 

«5 



QUINTILIAN 

ne ille quidem doctor, quanquam omnia quae recta 
sunt velit esse in suis auditoribus quam plenissima, 
in eo tamen, cui naturam obstare viderit, laborabit. 

Id quoque vitandum, in quo magna pars errat, ne 
in oratione poetas nobis et historicos, in illis operibus 

22 oratores aut declamatores imitandos putemus. Sua 
cuique proposita* lex, suus cuique decor est. Nam 
nee comoedia in cothurnos adsurgit, nee contra trag- 
oediasocco ingreditur. Habet tamenomnis eloquentia 
aliquid commune ; id imitemur quod commune est. 

'/3 Etiam hoc solet incommodi accidcre iis, qui se uni 
alicui generi dediderunt, ut, si asperitas iis placuit 
alicuius, banc etiam in leni ac remisso causarum 
genere non exuant ; si tenuitas ac iucunditas, in 
asperis gravibusque causis ponderi rerum parum re- 
spondeant : cum sit diversa non causarum modo inter 
ipsas condicio, sed in singulis etiam causis partium, 
sintque alia leniter alia aspere, alia concitate alia 
remisse, alia docendi alia movendi gratia dicenda ; 
quorum omnium dissimilis atque diversa inter se 

24 ratio est. Itaque ne hoc quidem suaserim, uni se 

^ proposita, most later MS8. : propositio, B; proposito, 
Oertz. 

86 



BOOK X. II. 21-24 

ideal teacher, however much he may desire that 
everything that is correct should prevail in his 
school to the fullest extent, will waste his labour in 
attempting to develop qualities to the attainment of 
which he perceives nature's gilts to be opposed. 

It is also necessary to avoid the fault to which the 
majority of students are so prone, namely, the idea 
that in composing speeches we should imitate the 
poets and historians, and in writing history or poetry 
should copy orators and declaimers. Each branch 22 
of literature has its own laws and its own appropriate 
character. Comedy does not seek to increase its 
height by the buskin and tragedy does not wear 
the slipper of comedy. But all forms of eloquence 
have something in common, and it is to the imitation 
of this common element that our efforts should be 
confined. 

There is a further fault to which those persons 2b 
are liable who devote themselves entirely to the 
imitation of one particular style : if the rude vigour 
of some {^articular author takes their fancy, they 
cling to it even when the case on which thev are 
engaged calls for an easy and flowing style ; if, on 
the other hand, it is a simple or agreeable style that 
claims their devotion, they fail to meet the heavy 
demands of severe and weighty cases. For not only 
do cases differ in their general aspect, but one part 
of a case may differ from another, and some things 
require a gentle and others a violent style, some 
require an impetuous and others a calm diction, while 
in some cases it is necessary to instruct and in others 
to move the audience, in all these instances dis- 
similar and different methods being necessary. Con- 24 
sequently I should be reluctant even to advise a 

87 



QUINTILIAN 

alicui propria, quem per omnia sequatur, addicere. 
Longe perfectissimus Graecorum Demosthenes, 
aliquid tamen aliquo in loco melius alii, plurima ille. 
Sed non qui maxime imitandus, et solus imitandus 

25 est. Quid ergo ? non est satis omnia sic dicere, quo- 
modo M. TuUius dixit? Mihi quidem satis esset, si 
omnia consequi possem. Quid tamen noceret vim 
Giesaris, asperitatem Caelii, diligentiam Pollionis, 

26 iudicium Calvi quibusdam in locis adsumere ? Nam 
praeter id quod prudentis est, quod in quoque opti- 
mum est, si possit, suum facere, tum in tanta rei 
difficultate unum intuentes vix aliqua pars sequitur. 
Ideoque cum totum exprimere quem elegeris paene 
sit homini inconcessum, plurium bona ponamus ante 
oculos, ut aliud ex alio haereat, et quod cuique loco 
conveniat aptemus. 

27 Imitatio autem (nam saepius idem dicam) non sit 

tantum in verbis. Illuc intendenda mens, quantum 

fuerit illis viris decoris in rebus atque personis, quod 

consilium, quae dispositio, quam omnia, etiam quae 
88 



BOOK X. II. 24-27 

student to select one particular author to follow 
through thick and thin. Demosthenes is by far the 
most perfect of Greek orators, yet there are some 
things which others have said better in some contexts 
as against the many things which he has said better 
than others. But it does not follow that because we 
should select one author for special imitation, he 
should be our only model. What then ? Is it not 25 
sufficient to model our every utterance on Cicero? 
For my own part, I should consider it sufficient, if 
I could always imitate him successfully. But what 
harm is there in occasionally borrowing the vigour of 
t^esar, the vehemence of Caelius, the precision of 
Pollio or the sound judgment of Calvus .'' For quite 26 
apart from the fact that a wise man should always, 
if possible, make whatever is best in each individual 
author his own, we shall find that, in view of the 
extreme difficulty of our subject, those who fix their 
eyes on one model only will always find some one 
quality which it is almost impossible to acquire there- 
from. Consequently, since it is practically impossible 
for mortal powers to produce a perfect and complete 
copy of any one chosen author, we shall do well to 
keep a number of different excellences before our 
eyes, so that different qualities from different authors 
may impress themselves on our minds, to be adopted 
for use in the place that becomes them best. 

But imitation (for I must repeat this point again 27 
and again) should not be confined merely to words. 
We must consider the appropriateness with which 
those orators handle the circumstances and persons 
involved in the various cases in which they were 
engaged, and observe the judgment and powers of 
arrangement which they reveal, and the manner 

VOL. IV. u ^9 



QUINTILIAN 

delectationi videantur data^ ad victoriam spectent ; 
quid agatur prooemio, quae ratio et quam varia nar- 
randi, quae vis probandi ac refellendi, quanta in 
adfectibus omnis generis movendis scientia^ quamque 
laus ipsa popularis utilitatis gratia adsumpta, quae 
turn est pulcherrima, cum sequitur, non cum arcessi- 
tur. Haec si perviderimus, turn vere imitabimur. 
28 Qui vero etiam propria his bona adiecerit, ut sup- 
pleat quae deerant, circumcidat, si quid redundabit, 
is erit, quem quaerimus, perfectus orator; quem 
nunc consummari potissimum oporteat^ cum tanto 
plura exempla bene dicendi supersint quam illis, qui 
adhuc summi sunt, contigerunt. Nam erit haec 
quoque laus eorum, ut priores superasse, posteros 
docuisse dicantur. 

III. Et haec quidem auxilia extrinsecus adhiben- 
tur ; in iis autem quae nobis ipsis paranda sunt, ut 
laboris sic utilitatis etiam longe plurimum adfert stilus. 
Nee immerito M. TuUius hunc optimum effectorem ac 
magislrum dicendi vocat ; cui sententiae personam L. 
Crassi in disputationibus quae sunt de oratore adsig- 
nando, iudicium suum cum illius auctoritate coniunxit. 
2 Scribendum ergo quam diligentissime et quam pluri- 

» I)t Or. i. 160. 
90 



BOOK X. II. 27-111. 2 

in which everything they say, not excepting those 
portions of their speeches which seem designed 
merely to delight their audience, is concentrated on 
securing the victory over their opponents. We must 
note their procedure in the exordium, the method 
and variety of their statement of facts, the power 
displayed in proof and refutation, the skill revealed 
in their appeal to every kind of emotion, and the 
manner in which they make use of popular applause 
to serve their case, applause which is most honour- 
able when it is spontaneous and not deliberately 
courted. If we have thoroughly appreciated all these 
points, we shall be able to imitate our models with 
accuracy. But the man who to these good qualities 28 
adds his own, that is to say, who makes good defici- 
encies and cuts down whatever is redundant, will 
be the perfect orator of our search ; and it is now 
above all times that such perfection should be 
attained when there are before us so many more 
models of oratorical excellence than were available 
for those who have thus far achieved the highest 
success. For this glory also shall be theirs, that 
men shall say of them that while they surpassed 
their predecessors, they also taught those who came 
after. 

III. Such are the aids which we may derive from 
external sources ; as regards those which we must 
supply for ourselves, it is the pen which brings at 
once the most labour and the most profit. Cicero is 
fully justified in describing it as the best producer 
and teacher of eloquence, and it may be noted 
that in the de Oraiore^ he supports his own 
judgment by the authority of Lucius Crassus, in 
whose mouth he places this remark. We must 2 

91 



QUINTILIAN 

mum. Nam ut terra alte refossa generandis alendisque 
seminibus fecundior fit, sic profectus non a summo 
petitus studiorum fructus efFundit uberius et fidelius 
continet. Nam sine hac quidem conscientia ipsa ilia 
ex tempore dicendi facultas inanem modo loquacita- 

3 tem dabit et verba in labris nascentia. lUic radices, 
illic fundamenta sunt, illic opes velut sanctiore quo- 
dam aerario conditae, unde ad subitos quoque casus, 
cum res exiget, proferantur. Vires faciamus ante 
omnia, quae sufficiant labori certaminum et usu non 

4 exhauriantur. Nihil enim rerum ipsa natura voluit 
magnum effici cito praeposuitque pulcherrimo cuique 
operi difficultatem ; quae nascendi quoque banc fece- 
rit legem, ut maiora animalia diutius visceribus 
parentis continerentur. 

Sed cum sit duplex quaestio, quoraodo et quae 
maxime scribi oporteat, iam hinc ordinem sequar. 
6 Sit primo vel tardus dum diligens stilus, quaeramus 
optima nee protinus ofFerentibus se gaudeamus, adhi- 
beatur iudicium inventis, dispositio probatis. De- 
lectus enim rerum verborumque agendus est et 

92 



BOOK X. III. 2-5 

therefore write as much as possible and with the 
utmost care. For as deep ploughing makes the soil 
more fertile for the production and support of crops, 
so, if we improve our minds by something more than 
mere superHcial study, we shall produce a richer 
growth of knowledge and shall retain it with greater 
accuracy. For without the consciousness of such 
preliminary study our powers of speaking extempore 
will give us nothing but an empty flow of words, 
springing from the lips and not from the brain. It 
is in writing that eloquence has its roots and founda- 
tions, it is writing tliat provides that holy of holies 
where the wealth of oratory is stored, and whence it 
is produced to meet the demands of sudden emerg- 
encies. It is of the first importance that we should 
develop such strength as will not faint under the 
toil of forensic strife nor be exhausted by continual 
use. For it is an ordinance of nature that nothing 
great can be achieved in a moment, and that all the 
fairest tasks are attended with difficulty, while on 
births as well she has imposed this law, that the 
larger the animal, the longer should be the period of 
gestation. 

There are, however, two questions which present 
themselves in this connexion, namely, what should 
be our method and what the subjects on which 
we write, and I propose to treat them in this 
order. At first, our pen must be slow yet sure : we 
must search for what is best and refuse to give a 
joyful welcome to every thought the moment that 
it presents itself; we must first criticise the fruits of 
our imagination, and then, once approved, arrange 
them with care. For we must select both thoughts 
and words and weigh them one by one. This done, 

93 



QUINTILIAN 

pondera singulorum examinanda. Post subeat ratio 
collocandi versenturque omni modo numeri, non ut 

6 quodque se proferet verbum occupet locum. Quae 
quidetn ut diligentius exsequamur, repetenda saepius 
erunt scriptorum proxima. Nam praeter id quod sic 
melius iunguntur prioribus sequentia, calor quoque 
ille cogitationis, qui scribendi mora refrixit, recipit 
ex integro vires et velut repetito spatio sumit impe- 
tum ; quod in certamine saliendi fieri videmus, ut 
conatum longius petant et ad illud, quo contenditur, 
spatium cursu ferantur; utque in iaculando brachia 
reducimus et expulsuri tela nervos retro tendimus. 

7 Interim tamen, si feret flatus, danda sunt vela, dum 
nos indulgentia ilia non fallat. Omnia enim nostra, 
dum nascuntur, placent ; alioqui nee scriberentur. 
Sed redeamus ad iudicium et retractemus suspectam 

8 facilitatem. Sic scripsisse Sallustium accepimus, et 
sane manifestus est etiam ex opere ipso labor. Ver- 
gilium quoque paucissimos die composuisse versus 
auctor est Varius. Oratoris quidem alia condicio 

9 est ; itaque banc moram et sollicitudinem initiis 
impero. Nam primum hoc constituendum, hoc obti- 

94 



I 



BOOK X. III. 5-9 

we must consider the order in which they should be 
placed, and must examine all the possible varieties 
of rhythm, refusing necessarily to place each word in 
the order in which it occurs to us. In order to do 6 
this with the utmost care, we must frequently revise 
what we have just written. For beside the fact that 
thus we secure a better connexion between what 
follows and what precedes, the warmth of thought 
which has cooled down while we were writing is 
revived anew, and gathers fresh impetus from going 
over the ground again. We may compare this pro- 
cess with what occurs in jumping matches. The 
competitors take a longer run and go at full speed 
to clear the distance which they aim at covering; 
similarly, in throwing the javelin, we draw back our 
arms, and in archery pull back the bow-string to 
propel the shaft. At times, however, we may 7 
spread our sails before the favouring breeze, but we 
must beware that this indulgence does not lead us 
into error. For we love all the offspring of our 
thought at the moment of their birth ; were that 
not so, we should never commit them to writing. 
But we must give them a critical revision, and go 
carefully over any passage where we have reason to 
regard our fluency with suspicion. It is thus, we 8 
are told, that Sallust wrote, and certainly his M'orks 
give clear evidence of the labour which he expended 
on them. Again, we learn from Varius that Virgil 
composed but a very small number of verses every 
day. It is true that with orators the case is some- 9 
what different, and it is for this reason that I 
enjoin such slowness of speed and such anxious care 
at the outset. For the first aim which we must fix 
in our minds and insist on carrying into execution 

95 



QUINTILIAN 

nendum est, ut quam optime scribamus ; celeritatem 
dabit consuetude. Paulatim res facilius se ostendent, 
verba respondebunt, compositio sequetur, cuncta 
denique ut in familia bene instituta in officio erunt. 

10 Summa haec est rei : cito scribendo non fit, ut bene 
scribatur; bene scribendo fit, ut cito. Sed turn 
maxime, cum facultas ilia contigerit, resistamus ut 
provideamus et efFerentes equos frenis quibusdam 
coerceamus ; quod non tarn moram faciet quam novos 
impetus dabit. Neque enim rursus eos, qui robur 
aliquod in stilo fecerint, ad infelicem calumniandi 

1 1 se poenam alligandos puto. Nam quomodo sufficere 
officiis civilibus possit, qui singulis actionum partibus 
insenescat ? Sunt autem quibus nihil sit satis ; omnia 
mutare, omnia aliter dicere quam occurrit velint; 
increduli quidam et de ingenio suo pessime meriti, 
qui diligentiam putant facere sibi scribendi diffi- 

12 cultatem. Nee promptum est dicere, utros peccare 
validius putem, quibus omnia sua placent an quibus 
nihil. Accidit enim etiam ingeniosis adolescentibus 
frequenter, ut labore consumantur et in silentium 
usque descendant nimia bene dicendi cupiditate. 
Qua de re memini narrasse mihi lulium Secundum 
ilium, aequalem meum atque a me, ut notum est, 
familiariter araatum, mirae facundiae virum, infinitae 

9^ 



BOOK X. III. 9-12 

is to write as well as possible ; speed will come with 
practice. Gradually thoughts will suggest them- 
selves with increasing readiness, the words will 
answer to our call and rhythmical arrangement will 
follow, till everything will be found fulfilling its 
proper function as in a well-ordered household. 
The sum of the whole matter is this : write quickly 10 
and you will never write well, write well and you 
will soon write quickly. But it is just when we 
have acquired this facility that we must pause awhile 
to look ahead and, if I may use the metaphor, curb 
the horses that would run away with us. This will 
not delay our progress so much as lend us fresh 
vigour. For I do not think that those who have 
acquired a certain power in writing should be con- 
demned to the barren pains of false self-criticism. 
How can anyone fulfil his duties as an advocate if he 11 
wastes his time in putting unnecessary finish on each 
portion of his pleadings ? There are some who are 
never satisfied. They wish to change everything 
they have written and to put it in other words. 
They are a diffident folk, and deserve but ill of their 
own talents, who think it a mark of precision to cast 
obstacles in the way of their own writing. Nor is it 12 
easy to say which are the most serious offenders, those 
who are satisfied with everything or those who are 
satisfied with nothing that they write. For it is 
of common occurrence with young men, however 
talented they may be, to waste their gifts by super- 
fluous elaboration, and to sink into silence through 
an excessive desire to speak well. I remember in 
this connexion a story that Julius Secundus, my con- 
temporary, and, as is well known, my very dear friend, 
a man with remarkable powers of eloquence, but 

97 



QUINTILIAN 

13 tamen curae, quid esset sibi a patruo suo dictum. Is 
fuit lulius Florus, in eloquentia Galliarum, quoniam 
ibi demum exercuit earn, princeps, alioqui inter pau- 
cos disertus et dignus ilia propinquitate. Is cum 
Secundum, scholae adhuc operatum, tristem forte 
vidisset, interrogavit, quae causa frontis tam ad- 

14 ductae. Nee dissimulavit adolescens, tertium iam 
diem esse, quod omni labore materiae ad scribendum 
destinatae non inveniret exordium ; quo sibi non 
praesens tantum dolor, sed etiam desperatio in pos- 
terum fieret. Tum Florus arridens, Numquid tu, in- 

15 quit, melius dicere vis quam poles ? Ita se res habet. 
Curandum est ut quam optime dicamus ; dicendum 
tamen pro facultate. Ad profectum enim opus est 
studio non indignatione. Ut possimus autem scribere 
etiam plura et celerius, non exercitatio modo prae- 
stabit, in qua sine dubio multum est, sed etiam ratio ; 
si non resupini spectantesque tectum et cogitationem 
murmure agitantes exspectaverimus quid obveniat; 
sed quid res poscat, quid personam deceat, quod sit 
tempus, qui iudicis animus intuiti, humano quodam 
modo ad scribendum accesserimus. Sic nobis et 
initia et quae sequuntur natura ipsa praescribit. 

16 Certa sunt enim pleraque et, nisi conniveamus, in 
98 



BOOK X. III. 12-16 

with an infinite passion for precision, told me of the 
words once used to him by his uncle, Julius Florus, 13 
the leading orator of Gaul, for it was there that he 
practised, a man eloquent as but few have ever 
been, and worthy of his nephew. He once noticed 
that Secundus, who was still a student, was looking 
depressed, and asked him the meaning of his frowns. 
The youth made no concealment of the reason : he 14 
had been working for three days, and had been un- 
able, in spite of all his efforts, to devise an exordium 
for the theme which he had been given to write, 
with the result that he was not only vexed over 
his immediate difficulty, but had lost all hope of 
future success. Florus smiled and said, "Do you 
really want to speak better than you can.''" There 15 
lies the truth of the whole matter. We must aim 
at speaking as well as we can, but must not try to 
speak better than our nature will permit. For to 
make any real advance we need study, not self- 
accusation. And it is not merely practice that will 
enable us to -write at greater length and with 
increased fluency, although doubtless practice is 
most important. We need judgement as well. So 
long as we do not lie back with eyes turned up to the 
ceiling, trying to fire our imagination by muttering 
to ourselves, in the hope that something will present 
itself, but turn our thoughts to consider what the 
circumstances of the case demand, what suits the 
characters involved, what is the nature of the occa- 
sion and the temper of the judge, we shall acquire 
the power of writing by rational means. It is thus 
that nature herself bids us begin and pursue our 
studies once well begun. For most points are of a 16 
definite character and, if we keep our eyes open, 

99 



QUINTILIAN 

oculos incurrunt ; ideoque nee indocti nee rustiei diu 
quaerunt, unde incipiant ; quo pudendum est magis, 
si difficultatem facit doctrina. Non ergo semper 
putemus optimum esse quod latet; immutescamus 
alioqui, si nihil dicendum videatur, nisi quod non 

17 invenimus. Diversum est huic eorum vitium, qui 
primo decurrere per materiam stilo quam velocissimo 
volunt et sequentes calorem atque impetum ex tem- 
pore scribunt ; hanc silvam vocant. Repetunt deinde 
et componunt quae efFuderant ; sed verba emendan- 
tur et numeri, manet in rebus temere eongestis quae 

18 fuit levitas. Protinus ergo adhibere curam rectius 
erit atque ab initio sic opus ducere, ut caelandum, 
non ex integro fabricandum sit, Aliquando tamen 
adfectus sequemur, in quibus fere plus calor quam 
diligentia valet. 

Satis apparet ex eo, quod hanc scribentium negli- 
gentiam damno, quid de illis dictandi deliciis sentiam. 

19 Nam in stilo quidem quamlibet properato dat ali- 
quam cogitationi moram non consequens celeritatem 
eius manus; ille cui dictamus urgetj atque interim 

ICO 



BOOK X. III. 16-19 

will spontaneously present themselves. That is the 
reason why peasants and uneducated persons do not 
beat about the bush to discover with what they 
should begin, and our hesitation is all the more 
shameful if it is simply the result of education. 
We must not, therefore, persist in thinking that 
what is hard to find is necessarily best ; for, if it 
seems to us that there is nothing to be said except 
that which we are unable to find, we must say 
nothing at all. On the other hand, there is a fault 17 
which is precisely the opposite of this, into which 
those fall who insist on first making a rapid draft 
of their subject with the utmost speed of which 
their pen is capable, and write in the heat and 
impulse of the moment. They call this their rough 
copy. They then revise what they have written, 
and arrange their hasty outpourings. But wliile 
the words and the rhythm may be corrected, the 
matter is still marked by the superficiality resulting 
from the speed with which it was thrown together. 
The more correct method is, therefore, to exercise 18 
care from the very beginning, and to form the 
work from the outset in such a manner that it 
merely requires to be chiselled into shape, not 
fashioned anew. Sometimes, however, we must 
follow the stream of our emotions, since their 
warmth will give us more than any diligence can 
secure. 

The condemnation which I have passed on such 19 
carelessness in writing will make it pretty clear what 
my views are on the luxury of dictation which 
is now so fashionable. For, when we write, however 
great our speed, the fact that the hand cannot follow 
the rapidity of our thoughts gives us time to think, 

lOI 



QUINTILIAN 

pudet etiam dubitare aut resistere aut mutare quasi 

20 conscium infirmitatis nostrae timentes. Quo fit, ut 
non rudia tantum et fortuita, sed impropria interim, 
dum sola est connectendi sermonis cupiditas, effluant, 
quae nee scribentium curam nee dieentium impetum 
consequantur. At idem ille, qui excipit, si tardior in 
scribendo aut incertior in intellegendo ^ velut ofFen- 
sator fuit, inhibetur cursus, atque omnis quae erat 
concepta mentis intentio mora et interdum ira- 

21 cundia excutitur. Tum ilia, quae altiorem^ animi 
motum sequuntur quaeque ipsa animum quodam- 
modo concitant, quorum est iactare manum, torquere 
vultum, frontem et latus ^ interim obiurgare, quae- 
que Persius notat, cum leviter dicendi genus 
significat. 

Nee pluteum, inquit, caedit nee demorsos sapit U7igues, 

22 etiam ridicula sunt, nisi cum soli sumus. Denique 
ut semel quod est potentissimum dicam, secretum 
in * dictando perit. Atque liberum arbitris locum et 
quam altissimum silentium scribentibus maxime con- 
venire nemo dubitaverit. Non tamen protinus audi- 
endi, qui credunt aptissima in hoc nemora silvasque, 
quod ilia caeli libertas locorumque amoenitas subli- 

23 mem animum et beatiorem spiritum parent. Mihi certe 

' intellegendo, Milller : legendo, B. 

* altiorem, later MSS. : aptiorem, B. 

' frontem et latus, Peterson : sintielatus, B (Snd hand) : 
simul et, almost all MSS!. 

* in, several later MSS. : quod, B. 

1 L 106. 

I02 



BOOK X. in. 19-23 

whereas the presence of our amanuensis hurries us 
on, and at times we feel ashamed to hesitate or 
pause, or make some alteration, as though we were 
afraid to display such weakness before a witness. 
As a result our language tends not merely to be 20 
haphazard and formless, but in our desire to produce 
a continuous flow we let slip positive improprieties 
of diction, which show neither the precision of the 
writer nor the impetuosity of the speaker. Again, if 
the amanuensis is a slow writer, or lacking in intelli- 
gence, he becomes a stumbling-block, our speed is 
checked, and the thread of our ideas is interrupted 
by the delay or even perhaps by the loss of 
temper to which it gives rise. Moreover, the 21 
gestures which accompany strong feeling, and some- 
times even serve to stimulate the mind, the waving 
of the hand, the contraction of the brow, the 
occasional striking of forehead or side, and those 
which Persius^ notes when he describes a trivial 
style as one that 

" Thumps not the desk nor smacks of bitten nails," 

all these become ridiculous, unless we are alone. 
Finally, we come to the most important considera- 22 
tion of all, that the advantages of privacy are lost 
when we dictate. Everyone, however, will agree 
that the absence of company and deep silence are 
most conducive to writing, though I would not go 
so far as to concur in the opinion of those who think 
woods and groves the most suitable localities for 
the purpose, on the ground that the freedom of 
the sky and the charm of the surroundings produce 
sublimity of thought and wealth of inspiration. 
Personally I regard such an environment as a 23 

'03 



QUINTILIAN 

iucundus hie magis quam studiorum hortator videtur 
esse secessus. Nanique ilia, quae ipsa delectant, 
necesse est avocent ab intentione operis destinati. 
Neque enim se bona fide in multa simul intendere 
animus totum potest, et quocunque respexit, desinit 

24 intueri quod propositum erat. Quare silvarum amoe- 
nitas et praeterlabentia flumina et inspirantes ramis 
arborum aurae volucrumque cantus et ipsa late cir- 
cunispiciendi libertas ad se trahunt, ut mihi remittere 
potius voluptas ista videatur cogitationem quam in- 

25 tendere. Demosthenes melius, qui se in locum, ex 
quo nulla exaudiri vox et ex quo nihil prospici posset, 
recondebat ne aliud agere mentem cogerent oculi. 
Ideoque lucubrantes silentium noctis et clausum 
cubiculum et lumen unum velut tectos ^ maxime 

28 teneat. Sed cum in omni studiorum genere tum in 
hoc praecipue bona valetudo, quaeque eam maxime 
praestat, frugalitas, necessaria est, cum terapora ab 
ipsa rerum natura ad quietem refection emque nobis 
data in acerrimum laborem convertimus. Cui tamen 
non plus irrogandum est quam quod somno supererit, 

27 haud deerit. Obstat enimdiligentiae scribendi etiam 
fatigatfo, et abunde, si vacet, lucis spatia sufliciunt ; 
occupatos in noctem necessitas agit. Est tamen lu- 
cubratio, quotiens ad eam integri ac refecti venimus, 
optimum secreti genus. 

^ tectos, ed. Leid. : rectos, MSS. 

* An underground room. See Plut. Dem. vii. 
104 



BOOK X. III. 23 -27 

pleasant luxury rather than a stimulus to study. 
For whatever causes us delight, must necessarily 
distract us from the concentration due to our work. 
The mind cannot devote its undivided and sincere 
attention to a number of things at the same time, 
and wherever it turns its gaze it must cease to 
contemplate its appointed task. Therefore, the 24 
charm of the woods, the gliding of the stream, the 
breeze that murmurs in the branches, the song of 
birds, and the very freedom with which our eyes 
may range, are mere distractions, and in my opinion 
the pleasure which they excite is more likely to 
relax than to concentrate our attention. Demos- 25 
thenes took a wiser view ; for he would retire to 
a place ^ where no voice was to be heard, and no 
prospect greeted the sight, for fear that his eyes 
might force his mind to neglect its duty. There- 
fore, let the burner of the midnight oil seclude 
himself in the silence of night, within closed doors, 
with but a solitary lamp to light his labours. But 2b 
for every kind of study, and more especially for 
night work, good health and its chief source, simple 
living, are essential ; for we have fallen into the 
habit of devoting to relentless labour the hour which 
nature has appointed for rest and relaxation. From 
those hours we must take only such time as is super- 
fluous for sleep, and will not be missed. For fatigue 27 
will make us careless in writing, and the hours of 
daylight are amply sufficient for one who has no 
other distractions. It is only the busy man who 
is driven to encroach on the hours of darkness. 
Nevertheless, night work, so long as we come to it 
fresh and untired, provides by far the best form of 
privacy. 

105 



QUINTILIAN 

28 Sed silentium et secessus et undique liber 
animus ut sunt maxime optanda, ita non semper 
possunt contingere, ideoque non statim, si quid 
obstrepet, abiiciendi codices erunt et deplorandus 
dies ; verum incommodis repugnandum et hie fa- 
ciendus usus, ut omnia quae impedient vincat 
intentio ; quam si tota mente in opus ipsum di- 
rexeris, nihil eorum, quae oculis vel auribus in- 

29 cursant, ad animum perveniet. An vero frequenter 
etiam fortuita hoc cogitatio praestat, ut obvios non 
videamus et itinere deerremus : non consequemur 
idem, si et voluerimus? Non est indulgendum 
causis desidiae. Nam si non nisi refecti, non nisi 
hilares, non nisi omnibus aliis curis vacantes stu- 
dendum existimarimus, semper erit propter quod 

30 nobis ignoscamus. Quare in turba, itinere, con- 
viviis etiam faciat sibi cogitatio ipsa secretum 
Quid alioqui fiet, cum in medio foro, tot circum 
stantibus iudiciis, iurgiis, fortuitis etiam clamoribus, 
erit subito continua oratione dicendum, si particulas 
quas ceris mandamus nisi in solitudine reperire non 
possumus ? Propter quae idem ille tantus amator 
secreti Demosthenes in litore, in quo se maximo 
cum sono fluctus illideret, meditans consuescebat 
contionum fremitus non expavescere. 

31 Ilia quoque minora (sed nihil in studiis parvum 
io6 



BOOK X. III. 28-31 

But although silence and seclusion and absolute 28 
freedom of mind are devoutly to be desired, they 
are not always within our power to attain. Con- 
sequently we must not fling aside our book at once, 
if disturbed by some noise, and lament that we 
have lost a day: on the contrary, we must make 
a firm stand against such inconveniences, and train 
ourselves so to concentrate our thoughts as to rise 
superior to all impediments to study. If only you 
direct all your attention to the work which you 
have in hand, no sight or sound will ever penetrate 
to your mind. If even casual thoughts often occupy 29 
us to such an extent that we do not see passers-by, 
or even stray from our path, surely we can obtain 
the same result by the exercise of our will. We 
must not give way to pretexts for sloth. For unless 
we make up our mind that we must be fresh, cheer- 
ful and free from all other care when we approach our 
studies, we shall always find some excuse for idleness. 
Therefore, whether we be in a crowd, on a journey, 30 
or even at some festive gathering, our thoughts should 
always have some inner sanctuary of their own to 
which they may retire. Otherwise what shall we 
do when we are suddenly called upon to deliver 
a set speech in the midst of the forum, with law- 
suits in progress on ever}' side, and with the sound 
of quarrels and even casual outcries in our ears, if 
we need absolute privacy to discover the thoughts 
which we jot down upon our tablets ? It was for 
this reason that Demosthenes, the passionate lover 
of seclusion, used to study on the seashore amid the 
roar of the breakers that they might teach him not 
to be unnerved by the uproar of the public assembly. 
There are also certain minor details which deserve 31 

107 



QUINTILIAN 

est) non sunt transeunda : scribi optime ceris, in 
quibus facillima est ratio delendi, nisi forte visus 
infirmior membranarum potius usum exiget, quae 
ut iuvant aciem, ita crebra relatione, quoad intin- 
guuntur, calami morantur manum et cogitationis 

32 impetum frangunt. Relinquendae autem in utro- 
libet genere contra erunt vacuae tabellae, in quibus 
libera adiiciendo sit excursio. Nam interim pi- 
gritiam emendandi augustiae faciunt aut certe 
novorum interpositione priora confundant. Ne latas 
quidem ultra modum esse ceras velim, expertus 
iuvenem studiosum alioqui praelongos habuisse ser- 
mones, quia illos numero versuum metiebatur, idque 
vitium, quod frequenti admonitione corrigi non 

33 potuerat, mutatis codicibus esse sublatum. Debet 
vacare etiam locus, in quo notentur quae scri- 
bentibus solent extra ordinem, id est ex aliis, quam 
qui sunt in manibus loci, occurrere. Irrumpunt 
enim optimi nonnunquam sensus, quos neque 
inserere oportet neque differre tutum est, quia 
interim elabuntur, interim memoriae suae intentos 
ab alia inventione declinant ideoque optime sunt in 
deposito. 

IV. Sequitur emendatio, pars studiorum longe 
utilissima. Neque enim sine causa creditum est 
stilum non minus agere, cum delet Huius autem 
08 



BOOK X. III. 31-1V. I 

our attention, for there is nothing too minute for the 
student. It is best to write on wax owing to the 
facility which it offers for erasure, though weak 
sight may make it desirable to employ parchment 
by preference. The latter, however, although of 
assistance to the eye, delays the hand and interrupts 
the stream of thought owing to the frequency with 
which the pen has to be supplied with ink. But 32 
whichever we employ, we must leave blank pages 
that we may be free to make additions when we 
will. For lack of space at times gives rise to a 
reluctance to make corrections, or, at any rate, is 
liable to cause confusion when new matter is 
inserted. The wax tablets should not be unduly 
wide ; for 1 have known a young and over-zealous 
student write his comjwsitions at undue length, 
because he measured them by the number of lines, 
a fault which persisted, in spite of frequent ad- 
monition, until his tablets were changed, when it 
disappeared. Space must a'lso be left for jotting 33 
down the thoughts which occur to the writer out 
of due order, that is to say, which refer to subjects 
other than those in hand. For sometimes the most 
admirable thoughts break in upon us which cannot 
be inserted in what we are writing, but which, on 
the other hand, it is unsafe to put by, since they are 
at times forgotten, and at times cling to the memory 
so persistently as to divert us from some other line 
of thought. They are, therefore, best kept in 
store. 

IV. The next point which we have to consider is 
the correction of our work, which is by far the most 
useful portion of our study : for there is good reason 
for the view that erasure is quite as important a 

10^ 



QUINTILIAN 

operis est adiicere, detrahere, mutare. Sed facilius 
in iis simpliciusque iudicium^ quae replenda vel 
deiicienda sunt; premere vero tumentia, humilia 
extollere, luxuriantia adstringere, inordinata di- 
gerere, soluta componere, exultantia coercere, 
duplicis operae. Nam et damnanda sunt quae pla- 

2 cuerunt et invenienda quae fugerant. Nee dubium 
est optimum esse emendandi genus, si scripta in 
aliquod tempus reponantur, ut ad ea post intervallum 
velut nova atque aliena redeamus, ne nobis scripta 

3 nostra tanquam recentes fetus blandiantur. Sed 
neque hoc contingere semper potest praesertim 
oratori, cui saepius scribere ad praesentes usus 
necesse est ; et ipsa emendatio finem habeat. Sunt 
enim qui ad omnia scripta tanquam vitiosa redeant 
et, quasi nihil fas sit rectum esse quod primum est, 
melius existiment quidquid est aliud, idque faciant, 
quotiens librum in manus resumpserunt, similes 
medicis etiam Integra secantibus. Accidit itaque 

4 ut cicatricosa sint et exsanguis et cura peiora. Sit 
ergo aliquando quod placeat aut certe quod sufficiat, 
ut opus poliat lima, non exterat. Temporis quoque 
no 



BOOK X. IV. 1-4 

function of the pen as actual writing. Correction 
takes the form of addition, excision and alteration. 
But it is a comparatively simple and easy task to 
decide what is to be added or excised. On the 
other hand, to prune what is turgid, to elevate 
what is mean, to repress exuberance, arrange what 
is disorderly, introduce rhythm where it is lacking, 
and modify it where it is too emphatic, involves a 
twofold labour. For we have to condemn what had 
previously satisfied us and discover what had escaped 
our notice. There can be no doubt that the best 2 
method of correction is to put aside what we have 
written for a certain time, so that when we return 
to it after an interval it will have the air of novelty 
and of being another's handiwork ; for thus we may 
prevent ourselves from regarding our writings with 
all the affection that we lavish on a newborn child. 
But this is not always possible, especially in the case 3 
of an orator who most frequently has to write for 
immediate use, while some limit, after all, must be 
set to correction. For there are some who return 
to everything they write with the presumption that 
it is full of faults and, assuming that a first draft 
must necessarily be incorrect, think every change 
an improvement and make some alteration as often 
as they have the manuscript in their hands : they 
are, in fact, like doctors who use the knife even 
where the flesh is perfectly healthy. The result of 
their critical activities is that the finished work is 
full of scars, bloodless, and all the worse for their 
anxious care. No ! let there be something in all 4 
our writing which, if it does not actually please us, 
at least passes muster, so that the file may only 
polish our work, not wear it away. There must 

III 



QUINTILIAN } 

esse debet modus. Nam quod Cinnae Zmyrnam 
novem annis accepimus scriptam, et Panegyricum 
Isocratis, qui parcissime, decern annis dicunt elabo- 
ratium, ad oratorem nihil pertinet, cuius nullum 
erit, si tam tardum fuerit, auxilium. 

V. Proximum est, ut dicamus, quae praecipue 
scribenda sint e$iv parantibus. Non est huius ^ 
quidem operis, ut explicemus quae sint materiae, 
quae prima aut secunda aut deinceps tractanda sint 
(nam id factum est etiam primo libro, quo puerorum, 
et secundo, quo iam robustorum studiis ordinem 
dedimus) sed de quo nunc agitur, unde copia ac 
facilitas maxime veniat. 

2 Vertere Graeca in Latinum veteres nostri oratores 
optimum iudicabant. Id se L, Crassus in illis 
Ciceronis de Oratore libris dicit factitasse. Id 
Cicero sua ipse persona frequentissime praecipit, 
quin etiam libros Platonis atque Xenophontis edidit 
hoc genere translatos. Id Messalae placuit, mul- 
taeque sunt ab eo scriptae ad liunc modum orationes, 
adeo ut etiam cum ilia Hyperidis pro Phryne 

3 difficillima Romanis subtilitate contenderet. Et 
manifesta est exercitationis huiusce ratio. Nam et 
rerum copia Graeci auctores abundant et plurimum 
artis in eloquentiam intulerunt, et hos transfe- 
rentibus verbis uti optimis licet, omnibus enim 

* non est huius, added by Biirsian. 

* C. Helvius Cinna, the friend of Catullus. The Smyrna 
was a short but exceptionally obscure and learned epic. 

» See X. i. 1. » Ch. ix. 

* Ch. iv. » i. 155. 

* The (Eccmomicus of Xenophon, the Protagorus and Timaeus 
of I'lato. 



I 



BOOK X. IV. 4-v. 3 

also be a limit to the time which we spend on its 
revision. For the fact that Cinna i took nine years 
to write his Smyrna, and that Isocrates required 
ten years, at the lowest estimate, to complete his 
Panegyric does not concern the orator, whose 
assistance will be of no use, if it is so long 
delayed. 

V. My next task is to indicate what those should 
write whose aim is to acquire facility.' At this part 
of my work there is no necessity for me to set forth 
the subjects which should be selected for writing, 
or the order in which they should be approached, 
since I have already done this in the first book,^ 
where I prescribed the sequence of studies for boys, 
and in the second book,* where I did the same for 
young men. The point which concerns me now is 
to show from what sources copiousness and facility 
may most easily be derived. 

Our earlier orators thought highly of translation 
from Greek into Latin. In the de Oratore ^ of 2 
Cicero, Lucius Crassus says that he practised this 
continually, while Cicero himself advocates it again 
and again, nay, he actually published translations 
of Xenophon and Plato,^ which were the result of 
this form of exercise. Messala likewise gave it his 
approval, and we have a number of translations of 
speeches from his hand ; he even succeeded in 
coping with the delicacy of Hyperides' speech in 
defence of Phryne, a task of exceeding difficulty for 
a Roman. The purpose of this form of exercise is 3 
obvious. For Greek authors are conspicuous for the 
variety of their matter, and there is much art in 
all their eloquence, while, when we translate them, 
we are at liberty to use the best words available, 

i>3 



QUINTILIAN 

utimur nostris. Figuras vero, quibus maxim e orna- 
tur oratio, multas ac varias excogitandi etiam ne- 
cessitas quaedam est, quia plerumque a Graecis 
Romana dissentiunt. 

4 Sed et ilia ex Latinis eonversio multum et ipsa 
contulerit. Ac de carminibus quidem neminem 
credo dubitare, quo solo genere exercitationis dicitur 
usus esse Sulpicius. Nam et sublimis spiritus attol- 
lere orationem potest, et verba poetica libertate 
audaciora non praesumunt eadem proprie dicendi 
facultatem. Sed et ipsis sententiis adiicere licet 
oratorium robur et omissa supplere, efFusa sub- 

5 stringere. Neque ego paraphrasim esse interpre- 
tationem tantum volo, sed circa eosdem sensus 
certamen atque aemulationem. Ideoque ab illis 
dissentio, qui vertere orationes Latinas vetant, quia 
optimis occupatis, quidquid aliter dixerimus, necesse 
sit esse deterius. Nam neque semper est desperan- 
dum, aliquid illis, quae dicta sunt, melius posse 
reperiri ; neque adeo ieiunam ac pauperem natura 
eloquentiam fecit, ut una de re bene dici nisi semel 

6 non possit. Nisi forte histrionum multa circa voces 
easdem variare gestus potest, orandi minor vis, ut 



^ 7. e. we shall not borrow from our models, as we do in 
paraphrasing Latin. 

* Lit. "forestall the power of using the language of 
ordinary prose." 

114 



BOOK X. V. 3-6 

since all that we use are our very own.* As regards 

figures, too, which are the chief ornament of oratory, 
it is necessary to think out a great number and variety 
for ourselves, since in this respect the Roman idiom 
differs largely from the Greek. 

But paraphrase from the Latin will also be of 4 
much assistance, while I think we shall all agree that 
this is specially valuable with regard to poetry ; 
indeed, it is said that the paraphrase of poetry was 
the sole form of exercise employed by Sulpicius. 
For the lofty inspiration of verse serves to elevate 
the orator's style and the bold license of poetic 
language does not preclude ^ our attempting to 
render the same words in the language natural to 
prose. Nay, we may add the \igour of oratory 
to the thoughts expressed by the poet, make good 
his omissions, and prune his diffuseness. But I 6 
would not have paraphrase restrict itself to the 
bare interpretation of the original : its duty is 
rather to rival and vie with the original in the 
expression of the same thoughts. Consequently, 
I disagree with those who forbid the student to 
paraphrase speeches of our own orators, on the 
ground that, since all the best expressions have 
already been appropriated, whatever we express 
differently must necessarily be a change for the 
worse. For it is always possible that we may dis- 
cover expressions which are an improvement on 
those which have already been used, and nature 
did not make eloquence such a j>oor and starveling 
thing, that there should be only one adequate 
expression for any one theme. It can hardly be 6 
argued that, while the gestures of the actor are 
capable of imparting a wealth of varied meaning 



QUINTILIAN 
dicatur aliquid, post quod in eadem materia nihil 
dicendum sit. Sed esto neque melius quod inveni- 

7 mus esse neque par : est certe proximis locus. An 
vero ipsi non bis ac saepius de eadem re dicimus et 
quidem continuas nonnunquam sententias ? Nisi 
forte contendere nobiscum possumus, cum aliis non 
possumus. Nam si uno genere bene diceretur, fas 
erat existimari praeclusam nobis a prioribus viam ; 
nunc vero innumerabiles sunt modi plurimaeque 

8 eodem viae ducunt. Sua brevitati gratia, sua copiae, 
alia translatis virtus alia propriis, hoc oratio recta 
illud figura declinata commendat. Ipsa denique 
utilissima est exercitationi difficultas. Quid, quod 
auctores maximi sic diligentius cognoscuntur ? Non 
enim scripta lectione secura transcurrimus, sed 
tractamus singula et necessario introspicimus et, 
quantum virtutis habeant, vel hoc ipso cognoscimus, 
quod imitari non possumus. 

9 Nee aliena tantum transferre sed etiam nostra 
pluribus modis tractare proderit, ut ex industria 
ii6 



BOOK X. V. 6-9 

to the same words, the power of oratory is restricted 
to a narrower scope, so that when a thing has once 
been said, it is impossible to say anything else on 
the same theme. Why, even if it be granted that 
no new expression we discover can be better than 
or even equal to the old, it may, at any rate, be 
a good second. Do we not often speak twice, or 7 
even more frequently, on the same subject, some- 
times even to the extent of a number of sentences 
in succession ? It will scarce be asserted that we 
must not match ourselves against others when 
we are permitted to match ourselves against our- 
selves. For if there were only one way in which 
anything could be satisfactorily expressed, we 
should be justified in thinking that the path to 
success had been sealed to us by our predecessors. 
But, as a matter of fact, the methods of expression 
still left us are innumerable, and many roads lead 
us to the same goal. Brevity and copiousness each 8 
have their own peculiar grace, the merits of meta- 
phor are one thing and of literalness another, and, 
while direct expression is most effective in one case, 
in another the best result is gained by a use of 
figures. Further, the exercise is valuable in virtue 
of its difficulty ; and again, there is no better way of 
acquiring a thorough understanding of the greatest 
authors. For, instead of hurriedly running a careless 
eye over their writings, we handle each separate 
phrase and are forced to give it close examination, 
and we come to realise the greatness of their excel- 
lence from the very fact that we cannot imitate 
them. 

Nor is it only the paraphrase of the works of 9 
others that we shall find of advantage : much may 

117 



QUINTILIAN 

sumamus sententias quasdam easque versemus quam 
numerosissime, velut eadem cera aliae aliaeque 

10 formaeduci solent. Plurimum autem parari facultatis 
existimo ex simplicissima quaque materia. Nam ilia 
multiplici personarum, causarum, temporum, loco- 
rum, dictorum^ factorum diversitate facile delitescet 
infirmitas, tot se undique rebus, ex quibus aliquam 

11 apprehendas, offerentibus. Illud virtutis indicium 
est fundere quae natura contracta sunt, augere parva, 
varietatem similibus, voluptatem expositis dare et 
bene dicere multa de paucis. 

In hoc optime facient infinitae quaestiones, quas 
vocari Ofaeis diximus, quibus Cicero iam princeps in 

12 re publica exerceri solebat. His confinis est de- 
structio et confirmatio sententiarum. ■ Nam cum 
sit sententia decretum quoddam atque praeceptumj 
quod de re idem de iudicio rei quaeri potest. Turn 
loci communes, quos etiam scriptos ab oratoribus 
scimus. Nam qui haec recta tantum et in nullos 
flexus recedentia copiose tractaverit, utique in illis 



* See III. V. 5 sqq. * Ad AU. ix. iv. 1. 

» Sean. i. 9-11 and iv. 22. 



1x8 



BOOK X. V. 9-ia 

be gained from paraphrasing our own words in a 
number of different ways : for instance, we may 
specially select certain thoughts and recast them 
in the greatest variety of forms, just as a sculptor 
will fashion a number of different images from the 
same piece of wax. But it is the simplest subjects 10 
which, in my opinion, will serve us best in our 
attempt to acquire facility. For our lack of talent 
may easily shelter itself behind the complicated 
mass of detail presented by persons, cases, circum- 
stances of time and place, words and deeds, since 
the subjects which present themselves on all sides 
are so many that it will always be possible to lay 
hold of some one or other. True merit is revealed 11 
by the power to expand what is naturally com- 
pressed, to amplify what is small, to lend variety 
to sameness, charm to the commonplace, and to 
say a quantity of good things about a very limited 
number of subjects. 

For this purpose indefinite questioris,^ of the kind 
we call theses, will be found of the utmost service : 
in fact, Cicero ' still exercised himself upon such 
themes after he had become the leading man in 
the state. Akin to these are the proof or refuta- 12 
tion of general statements. For such statements 
are a kind of decree or rule, and Avhatever problem 
may arise from the thing, may equally arise from the 
decision passed upon the thing. Then there are 
commonplaces,^ which, as we know, have often been 
written by orators as a form of exercise. The man 
who has practised himself in giving full treatment 
to such simple and uncomplicated themes, will 
assuredly find his fluency increased in those subjects 
which admit of varied digression, and will be pre- 

iig 



QUINTILIAN 

plures excursus recipientibus magis abundabit eritque 
in omnes causas paratus. Omnes enim generalibus 

13 quaestionibus constant. Nam quid interest, Cor- 
nelius tribunus plebis quod codicem legerit, reus sitj 
an quaeramus, violeturne maiestas, si magistratus 
rogationem suam populo ipse recitaverit ; Milo Clo- 
dium rectene occiderit, veniat in iudicium, an, 
oporteatne insidiatorem interfici vel perniciosum rei 
publicae civem, etiamsi non insidietur ; Cato Mar- 
ciam honestene tradiderit Hortensio, an, conveniatne 
res talis bono viro ? De personis iudicatur, sed de 

14 rebus contenditur. Declamationes vero, quales in 
scholis rhetorum dicuntur, si modo sunt ad veritatem 
accommodatae et orationibus similes, non tantum 
dum adolescit profectus sunt utilissimae, quia in- 
ventionem et dispositionem pariter exercent, sed 
etiam cum est consummatus ac iam in foro clarus. 
Alitur enim atque enitescit velut pabulo laetiore 
facundia et adsidua contentionum asperitate fati- 

16 gata renovatur. Quapropter historiae nonnunquam 



* See IV. iv. 8 ; v. xiii. 26 ; vi, v. 10 ; vii. ill. 3, 35. 

* profectus, lit. "progress," abstract for concrete. 

I20 



BOOK X. V. 12-15 

pared to deal with any case that may confront him, 
since all eases ultimately turn upon general ques- 
tions. For what difference is there between the 13 
special case where Cornelius,^ the tribune of the 
people, is charged with reading the text of a pro- 
posed law, and the general question whether it is 
lese-majeste for a magistrate himself to read the 
law which he proposes to the people ; what does it 
matter whether we have to decide whether Milo was 
justified in killing Clodius, or whether it is justifi- 
able to kill a man who has set an ambush for his 
slayer, or a citizen whose existence is a danger to 
the state, even though he has set no such ambush ? 
What difference is there between the question 
whether it was an honourable act on the part of 
Cato to make over Marcia to Hortensius, or whether 
such an action is becoming to a virtuous man ? It is 
on the guilt or innocence of specific persons that 
judgement is given, but it is on general principles 
that the case ultimately rests. As for declamations 14 
of the kind delivered in the schools of the rheto- 
ricians, so long as they are in keeping with actual 
life and resemble speeches, they are most profitable 
to the student, not merely while he ^ is still immature, 
for the reason that they simultaneously exercise the 
powers both of invention and arrangement, but even 
when he has finished his education and acquired a 
reputation in the courts. For they provide a richer 
diet from which eloquence derives nourishment and 
brilliance of complexion, and at the same time afford 
a refreshing variety after the continuous fatigues 
of forensic disputes. For the same reason, the wealth 16 
of language that marks the historian should be from 
time to time imported into portions of our written 



▼OL. IV. 



121 



QUINTILIAN 

ubertas in aliqua exercendi stili parte ponenda et 
dialogorum libertate gestiendum. Ne carmine qui- 
dem ludere contrarium fuerit, sicut athletae, remissa 
quibusdam temporibus ciborum atque exercitationum 
certa necessitate, otio et iucundioribus epulis refi- 

16 ciuntur. Ideoque mihi videtur M. TuUius tantum 
intulisse eloquentiae lumen, quod in hos quoque 
studiorum secessus excurrit. Nam si nobis sola 
materia fuerit ex litibus, necesse est deteratur 
fulgor et durescat articulus et ijjse ille macro ingenii 
cotidiana pugna retundatur. 

17 Sed quemadmodum forensibus certaminibus exer- 
citatos et quasi militantes reficit ac reparat haec 
velut sagina dicendi, sic adolescentes non debent 
nimium in falsa rerum imagine detineri et inanibus 
simulacris usque adeo, ut difficilis ab his digressus 
sit, assuescere,^ ne ab ilia, in qua prope con- 
senuerunt, umbra vera discrimina velut quendam 

18 solem reformident. Quod accidisse etiam M. Porcio 
Latroni, qui primus clari nominis professor fuit, 
traditur, ut, cum ei summam in 9cholis opinionem 
obtinenti causa in foro esset oranda, impense pe- 
tierit, uti subsellia in basilicam transferrentur. Ita 
illi caelum novum fuit, ut omnis eius eloquentia 

* assuescere, Zumpt : assuefacere, MSS. 
132 



BOOK X. V. 15-18 

exercises, and we should indulge in the easy free- 
dom of dialogue. Nay, it may even be advantageous 
to amuse ourselves with the writing of verse, just as 
athletes occasionally drop the severe regime of diet 
and exercise to which they are subjected and refresh 
themselves by taking a rest and indulging in more 
dainty and agreeable viands. Indeed, in my opinion, 16 
one of the reasons why Cicero was enabled to shed 
such glory upon the art of speaking is to be found 
in his excursions to such bypaths of study. For if 
all our material was drawn solely from actions at 
law, our eloquence must needs lose its gloss, our 
limbs grow stiff, and the keen edge of the intellect 
be blunted by its daily combats. 

But although those who find their practice in the 17 
contests of forensic warfare derive fresh strength 
and repair their forces by means of this rich fare of 
eloquence, the young should not be kept too long at 
these false semblances of reality, nor should they be 
allowed to become so familiar with these empty 
shadows that it is difficult for them to leave them : 
otherwise there is always the danger that, owing to 
the seclusion in which they have almost grown 
old, they will shrink in terror from the real perils 
of public life, like men dazzled by the unfamiliar 
sunlight. Indeed it is recorded that this fate 18 
actually befell Marcus Porcius Latro, the first pro- 
fessor of rhetoric to make a name for himself ; for 
when, at the height of his fame in the schools, he was 
called upon to plead a case in the forum, he put 
forward the most earnest request that the court 
should be transferred to some public hall. He was 
so unaccustomed to speak in the open air that all his 
eloquence seemed to reside within the compass of a 

123 



QUINTILIAN 

19 contineri tecto ac parietibus videretur. Quare 
iuvenis, qui rationem inveniendi eloquendique a 
praeceptoribus diligenter acceperit (quod iion est 
infiniti operis, si docere sciant et velint), exerci- 
tationem quoque modicam fueritconsecutuSj oratorem 
sibi aliquem, quod apud maiores fieri solebat^ deligat, 
quern sequatur, quern imitetur; iudiciis intersit 
quam plurimis et sit certaminis, cui destinatur, 

20 frequens spectator. Turn causas vel easdem, quas 
agi audierit, stilo et ipse eomponat, vel etiam alias 
veras modo et utrinque tractet, et, quod in gla- 
diatoribus fieri videmus, decretoriis exerceatur, ut 
fecisse Brutum diximus pro Milone. Melius hoc 
quam rescribere veteribus orationibus, ut fecit 
Cestius contra Ciceronis actionem habitam pro 
eodem, cum alteram partem satis nosse non posset 
ex sola defensione. 

21 Citius autem idoneus erit iuvenis, quern praeceptor 
coegerit in declamando quam simillimum esse veritati 
et per totas ire materias, quarum nunc facillima et 
maxime favorabilia decerpunt. Obstant huic, quod 
secundo loco posui, fere turba discipulorum et con- 
suetudo classium certis diebus audiendarum, nonnihil 

* See III. vi. 93 ; x. i. 23. * I.e. "per totas ice materias." 
"4 



BOOK X. V. 18-21 

roof and four walls. For this reason a young man 19 
who has acquired a thorough knowledge from his 
instructors of the methods of invention and style 
(which is not by any means an endless task, if those 
instructors have the knowledge and the will to 
teach), and who has also managed to obtain a 
reasonable amount of practice in the art, should 
follow the custom in vogue with our ancestors, and 
select some one orator to follow and imitate. He 
should attend as many trials as possible and be a 
frequent spectator of the conflicts in which he is 
destined to take part. Next he should write out 20 
speeches of his own dealing either with the cases 
which he has actually heard pleaded or with others, 
provided always they be actual cases, and should 
argue them from both sides, training himself with 
the real weapons of his warfare, just as, gladiators do 
or as Brutus did in that speech in defence of Milo 
which I have already mentioned.^ This is better 
than writing replies to old speeches, as Cestius did 
to Cicero's defence of Milo in spite of the fact that, 
his knowledge being confined to what was said for 
the defence, he could not have possessed sufficient 
acquaintance with the other side of the case. 

The young man, however, whom his instructor has 21 
compelled to be as realistic as possible in declamation, 
and to deal with every class of subject, instead of 
merely selecting the easiest and most attractive cases, 
as is done at present, will thus qualify himself much 
more rapidly for actual forensic practice. Under exist- 
ing circumstances the practice of the principle - which 
I mentioned second is, as a rule, hampered by the 
large size of the classes and the practice of allotting 
certain days for recitation, to which must be added 

"5 



QUINTILIAN 

etiam persuasio patrum numerantium [jotius decla- 

22 mationes quam aestimantium. Sed, quod dixi primo, 
ut arbitror, libro, nee ille se bonus praeceptor maiore 
numero quam sustinere possit onerabit et inanem 
loquacitatem recidet, ut omnia quae sunt in con- 
troversial non, ut quidem volunt, quae in rerum 
natura, dicantur; et vel longiore potius dierum 
spatio laxabit dicendi necessitatem vel materias 

23 dividere permittet. Una enim diligenter effecta 
plus proderit quam plures inchoatae et quasi de- 
gustatae. Propter quod accidit, ut nee suo loco 
quidque ponatur, nee ilia quae prima sunt servent 
suam legem, iuvenibus flosculos omnium partium in 
ca quae sunt dicturi congerentibus ; quo fit, ut 
timentes, ne sequentia perdant, priora confundant. 

VI. Proxima stilo cogitatio est, quae et ipsa vires 
ab hoc accipit, estque inter scribendi laborem ex- 
temporalemque fortunam media quaedam et nescio 
an usus frequentissimi. Nam scribere non ubique 
nee semper possumus ; cogitationi temporis ac loci 
plurimum est. Haec paucis admodum horis magnas 

* I. ii. 15. 
126 



BOOK X. V. ai-Ti. I 

the contributory circumstance that the boys' parents 
are more interested in the number of their sons' 
recitations than their quality. But, as I think I said 22 
in the first book,i the really good teacher will not 
burden himself with a larger number of pupils than 
he can manage, and will prune any tendency to 
excessive loquacity, limiting their remarks to the 
actual points involved by the subject of the declama- 
tion and forbidding them to range, as some would 
have them do, over every subject in heaven and 
earth : further, he will either extend the period 
within which he insists on their speaking, or will 
permit them to divide their themes into several 
portions. The thorough treatment of one theme 23 
will be more profitable than the sketchy and super- 
ficial treatment of a number of subjects. For the 
latter practice has the result that nothing is put in 
its proper place and that the opening of the decla- 
mation exceeds all reasonable bounds, since the 
young orator crams all the flowers of eloquence 
which belong to all the different portions of the 
theme into that portion which he has to deliver, 
and fearing to lose what should naturally come later, 
introduces wild confusion into the earlier portions 
of his speech. 

VI. Having dealt with writing, the next point 
which claims our attention is premeditation, which 
itself derives force from the practice of writing and 
forms an intermediate stage between the labours of 
the pen and the more precarious fortunes of impro- 
visation ; indeed I am not sure that it is not more 
frequently of use than either. For there are places 
and occasions where writing is impossible, while both 
are available in abundance for premeditation. For 

127 



QUINTILIAN 

etiam causas complectitur ; haec, quotiens inter- 
missus est somnus, ipsis noctis tenebris adiuvatur ; 
haec inter medios rerum actus aliquid invenit vacui 

2 nee otium patitur. Neque vero rerum ordinem 
modo, quod ipsum satis erat, intra se ipsa disponit, 
sed verba etiam copulat totamque ita contexit 
orationem, ut ei nihil praeter manum desit. Nam 
memoriae quoque plerumque inhaerent fidelius, 
quae nulla scribendi securitate laxantur. 

Sed ne ad hanc quidem vim cogitandi perveniri 

3 potest aut subito aut cito. Nam primum facienda 
multo stilo forma est, quae nos etiam cogitantes 
sequatur ; turn adsumendus usus paulatim, ut pauca 
primum complectamur animo, quae reddi fideliter 
possint ; mox per incrementa tam modica, ut onerari 
se labor ille non sentiat, augenda vis et exercitatione 
multa continenda est, quae quidem maxima ex parte 
memoria constat. Ideoque aliqua mihi in ilium 

4 locum differenda sunt. Eo tandem ^ pervenit, ut is, 
cui non refragetur ingenium, acri studio adiutus 

* tandem, Madvig : tamen, MSS. 

1 XI. ii. 1 sqq. 
128 



BOOK X. VI. 1-4 

but a few hours' thought will suffice to cover all the 
points even of cases of importance ; if we wake at 
night, the veiy darkness will assist us, while even in 
the midst of legal proceedings our mind will find 
some vacant space for meditation, and will refuse to 
remain inactive. Again, this practice will not merely 2 
secure the proper arrangement of our matter without 
any recourse to writing, which in itself is no small 
achievement, but will also set the words which we 
are going to use in their proper order, and bring the 
general texture of our speech to such a stage of 
completion that nothing further is required beyond 
the finishing touches. And as a rule the memory is 
more retentive of thoughts when the attention has 
not been relaxed by the fancied security which 
results from committing them to writing. 

But the concentration which this requires cannot 
be attained in a moment or even quickly. For, in 3 
the first place, we must write much before we can 
form that ideal of style which must always be 
present to our minds even when engaged in pre- 
meditation. Secondly, we must gradually acquire 
the habit of thought : to begin with, we shall con- 
tent ourselves with covering but a few details, which 
our minds are capable of reproducing with accuracy ; 
then by advances so gradual that our labour is not 
sensibly increased we must develop our powers and 
confirm them by frequent practice, a task in which 
the most important part is played by the memory. 
For this reason I must postpone some of my remarks 4 
to the portion of this work reserved for the treat- 
ment of that topic. ^ At length, however, our powers 
will have developed so far that the man who is not 
hampered by lack of natural ability will by dint of 

129 



QUINTILIAN 

tantum consequatur, ut ei tarn quae cogitarit quam 
quae scripserit atque edidicerit in dicendo fidem 
servent. Cicero certe Graecorum Metrodorum 
Scepsium et Einpylum Rhodium nostrorumque 
Hortensium tradidit, quae cogitaverant, ad verbum 
in agendo retulisse. 
6 Sed si forte aliquis inter dicendum efFulserit 
extemporalis color, non superstitiose cogitatis de- 
mum est inhaerendum. Neque enim tantum habent 
curae, ut non sit dandus et fortunae locus, cum saepe 
etiam scriptis ea quae subito nata sunt inserantur. 
Ideoque totum hoc exercitationis genus ita institu- 
endum est, ut et digredi ex eo et redire in id facile 

6 possimus. Nam ut primum est domo adferre paratam 
dicendi copiam et certam, ita refutare temporis 
munera longe stultissimum est. Quare cogitatio in 
hoc praeparetur, ut nos fortuna decipere non possit, 
adiuvare possit. Id autem fiet memoriae viribus, ut 
ilia, quae eomplexi animo sumus, fluant secura, non 
sollicitos et respicientes et una spe suspensos recor- 
dationis non sinant providere. Alioqui vel extem- 
poralem temeritatem malo quam male cohaerentem 

7 cogitationem. Peius enim quaeritur retrorsus, quia, 
dum ilia desideramus, ab aliis avertimur, et ex 

* A philosopher of the Academic school, contemporary 
with Cicero, cp. de Or. ii. 360. 

* Empylus is not mentioned elsewhere. 
» Cp. Brut. 301. 

130 



BOOK X. VI. 4-7 

persistent study be enabled, when it comes to speak- 
ing, to rely no less on what he has thought out than 
what he has written out and learnt by heart. At 
any rate, Cicero records that Metrodorus of Scepsis,^ 
Empylus of Rhodes,^ and our own Hortensius ^ were 
able to reproduce what they had thought out word 
for word when it came to actual pleading. 

If, however, some brilliant improvisation should 6 
occur to us while speaking, we must not cling super- 
stitiously to our premeditated scheme. For pre- 
meditation is not so accurate as to leave no room 
for happy inspiration : even when writing we often 
insert thoughts which occur to us on the spur of the 
moment. Consequently this form of preparation 
must be conceived on such lines that we shall find 
no difficulty either in departing from it or returning 
to it at will. For, although it is essential to bring 6 
with us into court a supply of eloquence which has 
been prepared in advance in the study and on which 
we can confidently rely, there is no greater folly 
than the rejection of the gifts of the moment. 
Therefore our premeditation should be such that 
fortune may never be able to fool us, but may, on 
the contrary, be able to assist us. This end will be 
obtained by developing the power of memory so 
that our conceptions may flow from us without fear 
of disaster, and that we may be enabled to look 
ahead without anxious backward glances or the 
feeling that we are absolutely dependent on what 
we can call to mind. Otherwise I prefer the rash- 
ness of improvisation to the coherence given by 
premeditation. For such backward glances place us 7 
at a disadvantage, because our search for our pre- 
meditated ideas makes us miss others, and we draw 

»3» 



QUINTILIAN 

memoria potius res petimus quam ex materia. Plura 
sunt autem, si utrimque ^ quaerendum est, quae 
inveniri possunt quam quae inventa sunt. 

Vll. Maximus vero studiorum fructus est et velut 
praemium quoddam^ amplissimum longi laboris ex 
tempore dicendi facultas, quam qui non erit con- 
secutus, mea quidem sententia civilibus officiis renun- 
tiabit et solam scribendi facultatem potius ad alia 
opera convertet. Vix enim bonae fidei viro convenit 
auxilium in publicum polliceri, quod praesentissimis 
quibusque periculis desit, intrare ^ portum ad quem 
navis accedere nisi lenibus ventis vecta non possit, 

2 siquidem innumerabiles accidunt subitae necessitates 
vel apud magistratus vel repraesentatis iudiciis con- 
tinue agendi. Quarum si qua, non dico cuicunque 
innocentium civium sed amicorum ac propinquorum 
alicui evenerit, stabitne mutus et salutarem pe- 
tentibus vocem statimque, si non succurratur, peri- 
turis, moras et secessum et silentium quaeret, dum 
ilia verba fabricentur et memoriae insidant et vox 

3 ac latus praeparetur ? Quae vero patitur hoc ratio,* 
ut quisquam possit orator omittere aliquando casus ? 
Quid, cum adversario respondendum erit, fiet ? Nam 
saepe ea, quae opinati sumus et contra quae scrip- 

* utrimque, Bonnell : utrumque, MSS. 

* praemium quoddam, cod. Earl. 4995 : primus quid, B, 
' intrare portum, MSS : instar portus, Meister. 

* ratio, cod. Harl. 4995: oratio, B. possit, Frotseher, 
Bonnell : sit, MSS. omittere, Bonnell : mittere, B. 

132 



I 



r 



BOOK X. VI. 7-vii. 3 



our matter from our memory rather than from the 
subject on which we are speaking. And even if we 
are to rely on our memory and our subject alike, 
there are more things that may be discovered than 
ever yet have been. 

VII, But the crown of all our study and the 
highest reward of our long labours is the power of 
improvisation. The man who fails to acquire this 
had better, in my opinion, abandon the task of 
advocacy and devote his powers of writing to other 
branches of literature. For it is scarcely decent for 
an honourable man to promise assistance to the 
public at large which he may be unable to provide in 
the most serious emergencies, or to attempt to enter 
a harbour which his ship cannot hope to make save 
when sailing before a gentle breeze. For there are 2 
countless occasions when the sudden necessity may be 
imposed upon him of speaking without preparation 
before the magistrates or in a trial which comes on 
unexpectedly. And if any such sudden emergency 
befalls, I will not say any innocent citizen, but some 
one of the orator's friends or connexions, is he to 
stand tongue-tied and, in answer to those who seek 
salvation in his eloquence and are doomed, unless 
they secure assistance, to ask for delay of proceed- 
iiigs and time for silent and secluded study, till such 
moment as he can piece together the words that fail 
him, commit them to memory and prepare his voice 
and lungs for the effort } What theory of the duties 3 
of an orator is there which permits him to ignore 
such sudden issues? What will happen when he 
has to reply to his opponent? For often the ex- 
pected arguments to which we have written a reply 
fail us and the whole aspect of the case undergoes 

133 



QUINTILIAN 

simus, fallunt, ac tota subito causa mutatur ; atque 
ut gubernatori ad incursus tempestatum, sic agenti 

4 ad varietatem causarum ratio mutando est. Quid 
porro multus stilus et adsidua lectio et longa studi- 
orum aetas facit, si manet eadem quae fuit incipien- 
tibus difficultas ? Perisse profecto confitendum est 
praeteritum laborem, cui semper idem laborandum 
est. Neque ego hoc ago ut ex tempore dicere 
malit, sed ut possit. Id autem maxime hoc modo 
consequemur, 

5 Nota sit primum dicendi via. Neque enim prius 
contingere cursus potest quam scierimus, quo sit et 
qua perveniendum. Nee satis est non ignorare quae 
sunt causarum iudicialium partes, aut quaestionum 
ordinem recte disponere, quanquam ista sunt prae- 
cipua, sed quid quoque loco primum sit ac secundum 
et deinceps ; quae ita sunt natura copulata, ut 
mutari aut intervelli sine confusione non possint. 

6 Quisquis autem via dicet, ducetur ^ ante omnia rerum 
ipsa serie velut duce ; propter quod homines etiam 
modice exercitati facillime tenorem in narrationibus 
servant. Deinde, quid quoque loco quaerant, scient. 
nee circumspectabunt nee ofFerentibus se aliunde 
sensibus turbabuutur nee confundent ex diversis 

* ducetur dicet, Eussner. 

^ See III. ii. 1. 
134 



BOOK X. VII. 3-6 

a sudden change ; consequently the variation to 
which cases are liable makes it as necessary for us 
to change our methods as it is for a pilot to change 
his course before the oncoming storm. Again, what 4 
use is much writing, assiduous reading and long 
vears of study, if the difficulty is to remain as great 
as it was in the beginning ? The man who is always 
faced with the same labour can only confess that his 
past labour has been spent in vain. I do not ask 
him to prefer to speak extempore, but merely that 
he should be able to do so. And this capacity is 
best acquired by the following method. 

In the first place, we must note the direction which 5 
tlie argument is likely to take, since we cannot run 
our race unless we know the goal and the course. 
It is not enough to know what are the parts ^ into 
which forensic pleadings are divided or the prin- 
ciples determining the order of the various questions, 
important though these points are. We must realise 
what should come first, second, and so on, in the 
several parts ; for these points are so closely linked 
together by the very nature of things that they 
cannot be separated, nor their order changed, with- 
out giving rise to confusion. The orator, who speaks 6 
methodically, will above all take the actual sequence 
of the various points as his guide, and it is for this 
reason that even but moderately trained speakers 
find it easiest to keep the natural order in the state- 
vient of facts. Secondly, the orator must know 
what to look for in each portion of his case : he 
must not beat about the bush or allow himself to be 
thrown off the track by thoughts which suggest 
themselves from irrelevant quarters, or produce a 
speech which is a confused mass of incongruities, 

135 



QUINTILIAN 

orationem velut salientes hue illuc nee usquam in- 

7 sistentes. Postremo habebunt modum et finem, 
qui esse eitra divisionem nullus potest. Expletis 
pro facultate omnibus quae proposuerint, pervenisse 
se ad ultimum sentient. 

Et haec quidem ex arte, ilia vero ex studio : ut 
copiam sermonis optimi, quemadmodum praeceptum 
est, comparemus : multo ac fideli stilo sic formetur 
oratio, ut scriptorum colorem etiam quae subito 
effusa sint reddant, ut, cum niulta scripserimus, 

8 etiam multa dicamus. Nam consuetude et exerci- 
tatio facilitatem maxime parit; quae si paulum 
intermissa fuerit, non velocitas ilia modo tardatur, 
sed ipsum os ^ coit atque concurrit. Quanquam enim 
opus est naturali quadam mobilitate animi ut, dura 
proxima dicimus, struere ulteriora possimus semper- 
que nostram vocem provisa et formata cogitatio 

9 excipiat, vix tamen aut natura aut ratio in tarn 
multiplex officium diducere animum queat, ut in- 
ventioni, dispositioni, elocutioni, ordini rerum ver- 
borumque, turn iis, quae dicit, quae subiuneturus est, 
quae ultra spectanda sunt, adhibita vocis, pronuntia- 

* OS, added by Halm. 



BOOK X. VII. 6-9 

owing to his habit of leaping this way and that, and 
never sticking to any one point. Finally, he must 7 
confine himself to certain definite bounds, and for 
this division is absolutely necessary. When to the 
best of his ability he has dealt fully with all the 
points which he has advanced, he will know that he 
has reached his goal. 

The precepts just given are dependent on theory. 
Those to which I now come depend on individual 
study. We must acquire a store of the best words 
and phrases on lines that I have already laid down, 
while our style must be formed by continuous and 
conscientious practice in writing, so that even our 
improvisations may reproduce the tone of our writing, 
and after writing much, we must give ourselves 
frequent practice in speaking. For facility is mainly 8 
the result of habit and exercise and, if it be 
lost only for a brief time, the result will be 
not merely that we fall short of the requisite 
rapidity, but that our lips will become clogged 
and slow to open. For although we need to 
possess a certain natural nimbleness of mind to 
enable us, while we are saying what the instant 
demands, to build up what is to follow and to 
secure that there will always be some thouglit formed 
and conceived in advance readv to serve our voice, 
none the less, it is scarcely possible either for natural 9 
gifts or for methodic art to enable the mind to 
grapple simultaneously with such manifold duties, 
and to be equal at one and the same time to the 
tasks of invention, arrangement, and style, together 
with what we are uttering at the moment, what we 
have got to say next and what we have to look to 
still further on, not to mention the fact that it 

137 



QUINTILIAN 

10 tionis, gestus observatione, una sufficiat. Longe 
enim praecedat oportet intentio ac prae se res agat, 
quantumque dicendo consumitur, tantum ex ultimo 
prorogetur; ut, donee perveniamus ad finem, non 
minus prospectu procedamus quam gradu, si non 
intersistentes ofFensantesque brevia ilia atque con- 
cisa singultantium mode eiecturi sumus. 

11 Est igitur usus quidam irrationalis, quem Graeci 
aXnyov rpi^rji/ vocant, qua manus in scribendo de- 
currit, qua oculi totos simul in lectione versus flexus- 
que eorum et transitus intuentur, et ante sequentia 
vident quam priora dixerunt. Quo constant miracula 
ilia in scenis pilariorura ac ventilatorum, ut ea quae 
emiserint ultro venire in manus credas et qua iuben- 

12 tur decurrere. Sed hie usus ita proderit, si ea de 
qua locuti sumus ars antecesserit, ut ipsum illud, 
quod in se rationem non habet, in ratione versetur. 
Nam mihi ne dicere quidem videtur nisi qui dis- 

13 posite, ornate, copiose dicit, sed tumultuari. Nee 
fortuiti sermonis contextum mirabor unquam, quem 
iui'gantibus etiam mulierculis superfluere video, cum 

^ §§ 5-7. 
138 



BOOK X. VII. 9-13 

is necessary all the time to give close attention to 
voice, delivery and gesture. For our mental activities 10 
must range far ahead and pursue the ideas which 
are still in front, and in proportion as the speaker 
pays out what he has in hand, he must make advances 
to himself from his reserve funds, in order that, until 
we reach our conclusion, our mind's eye may urge 
its gaze forward, keeping time with our advance : 
otherwise we shall halt and stumble, and pour forth 
short and broken phrases, like persons who can only 
gasp out what they have to say. 

There is, therefore, a certain mechanical knack, 11 
which the Greeks call oXoyos rpifir], which enables 
the hand to go on scribbling, while the eye takes 
in whole lines at once as it reads, observes the in- 
tonations and the stops, and sees what is coming 
before the reader has articulated to himself what 
precedes. It is a similar knack which makes possible 
those miraculous tricks which we see jugglers and 
masters of sleight of hand perform upon the stage, 
in such a manner that the spectator can scarcely 
help believing that the objects which they throw 
into the air come to hand of their own accord, and 
run where they are bidden. But this knack will 12 
only be of real service if it be preceded by the art 
of which we have spoken,^ so that what is irrational 
in itself will nevertheless be founded on reason. For 
unless a man speaks in an orderly, ornate and fluent 
manner, I refuse to dignify his utterance with the 
name of speech, but consider it the merest rant. 
Nor again shall I ever be induced to admire a con- 13 
tinuous flow of random talk, such as I note streams in 
torrents even from the lips of women when they 
quarrel, although, if a speaker is swept away by 

139 



QUINTILIAN 

eo quod, si calor ac spiritus tulit, frequenter accidit 
ut successum extemporalem consequi cura non 

14 possit. Deum tunc adfuisse, cum id evenisset, 
veteres oratores, ut Cicero, dictitabant. Sed ratio 
manifesta est. Nam bene concepti adfectus et 
recentes rerum imagines continue impetu feruntur, 
quae nonnunquam mora stili refrigescunt et dilatae 
non revertuntur. Utique vero, cum infelix ilia 
verborum cavillatio accessit et cursus ad singula 
vestigia restitit, non potest ferri contorta vis, sed, 
ut optime vocum singularum cedat electio, non con- 
tinua, sed composita est. 

15 Quare capiendae sunt illae, de quibus dixi, rerum 
imagines, quas vocari <^avTacrias indicavimus, omnia- 
que, de quibus dicturi erimus, personae, quaestiones, 
spes, metus habenda in oculis, in adfectus recipienda. 
Pectus est enim, quod disertos facit, et vis mentis. 
Ideoque imperitis quoque, si modo sint aliquo adfectu 

16 concitati, verba non desunt. Tum intendendus 
animus, non in aliquam rem unam, sed in plures 
simul continuas ; ut, si per aliquam rectam viam 
mittamus oculos, simul omnia quae sunt in ea 
circaque intuemur, non ultimum tantum videmus 
sed usque ad ultimum. Addit ad dicendum etiam 
pudor stimulos,^ mirumque videri potest, quod, cum 

* after habet cod. Monac. gives et dicendorum exspectata 
laus. 



^ No such saying is found in Cicero's extant works. 
« VI. ii. 29. 



140 



BOOK X. vii. 13-16 

warmth of feeling and genuine inspiration, it fre- 
quently happens that he attains a success from im- 
provisation which would have been beyond the reach of 
the most careful preparation. When this occurred, the 14 
old orators, such as Cicero,^ used to say that some god 
had inspired the speaker. But the reason is obvious. 
For profound emotion and vivid imagination sweep 
on with unbroken force, whereas, if retarded by the 
slowness of the pen, they are liable to grow cold and, 
if put off for the moment, may never return. Above 
all, if we add to these obstacles an unhealthy tendency 
to quibble over the choice of words, and check our 
advance at each step, the vehemence of our onset 
loses its impetus ; while even though our choice of 
individual words may be of the happiest, the style 
will be a mere patchwork with no regular pattern. 

Consequently those vivid conceptions of which I 15 
spoke 2 and which, as I remarked, are called c^avrao-tai, 
together with everything that we intend to say, 
the persons and questions involved, and the hopes 
and fears to which they give rise, must be kept 
clearly before our eyes and admitted to our hearts : 
for it is feeling and force of imagination that make 
us eloquent. It is for this reason that even the un- 
educated have no difficulty in finding words to express 
their meaning, if only they are stirred by some strong 
emotion. Further the attention of the mind must be 16 
directed not to some one thing, but simultaneously to 
a number of things in continuous sequence. The 
result will be the same as when we cast our eyes 
along some straight road and see at once all that is on 
and near it, obtaining a view not merely of its end, 
but of the whole way there. Dread of the shame 
of failure is also a powerful stimulant to oratory, 

141 



QUINTILIAN 

stilus secreto gaudeat atque omnes arbitros reformi- 
det, extemporalis actio auditorum freqiientia, ut miles 

17 congestu signorum, excitatur. Namque et difficili- 
orem cogitationem exprimit et expellit dicendi 
necessitas, et secundos impetus auget placendi 
cupido. Adeo pretium omnia spectant^ ut elo- 
quentia quoque, quanquam plurimum habeat in se 
voluptatis, maxime tamen praesenti fructu laudis 

18 opinionisque ducatur. Nee quisquam tantum fidat 
ingenio, ut id sibi speret incipienti statim posse 
contingere, sed, sicut in cogitatione praecipimus, 
ita facilitatem quoque extemporalem a parvis initiis 
paulatim perducemus ad summam, quae neque perfici 
neque contineri nisi usu potest. 

19 Ceterum pervenire eo debet, ut cogitatio non uti- 
que melior sit ea sed tutior, cum banc facilitatem non 
prosa modo multi sint consecuti, sed etiam carmine, 
ut Antipater Sidonius et Licinius Arcbias (credendum 
enim Ciceroni est), non quia nostris quoque tempori- 
bus non et fecerint quidam hoc et faciant. Quod 
tamen non ipsum tam probabile puto, (neque enim 
habet aut usum res aut necessitatem) quam exhor- 



^ Ch. vi. 3. 

» De Or. iii. 194 ; Pro Arch. viii. 18. 



142 



BOOK X. VII. 16-19 

and it may be regarded as a matter for wonder that, 
whereas when writing we delight in privacy and 
shrink from the presence of witnesses^ in extempore 
pleading a large audience has an encouraging effect, 
like that which the sight of the massed standards 
has on the soldier. For the sheer necessity of speak- 17 
ing thrusts forward and forces out our labouring 
thought, and the desire to win approbation kindles 
and fosters our efforts. So true is it that there is 
nothing which does not look for some reward, that 
eloquence, despite the fact that its activity is in itself 
productive of a strong feeling of pleasure, is influenced 
by nothing so much as the immediate acquisition of 
praise and renown. Nor should any man put such 18 
trust in his native ability as to hope that this power 
will present itself to him at the outset of his career 
as an orator ; for the precepts which I laid down for 
premeditation ^ apply to improvisation also ; we 
must develop it by gradual stages from small begin- 
nings, until we have reached that perfection which 
can only be produced and maintained by practice. 

Moreover, the orator should reach such a pitch of 19 
excellence that, while premeditation may still be the 
safer method, it will not necessarily be the better, 
since many have acquired the gift of improvisation not 
merely in prose, but in verse as well, as, for example, 
Antipater of Sidon and Licinius Archias (for whose 
powers we have the unquestionable authority of 
Cicero 2), not to mention the fact that there are 
many, even in our own day, who have done this and 
are still doing it. I do not, however, regard this 
accomplishment as being particularly valuable in 
itself, for it is both unpractical and unnecessary, but 
mention it as a useful example to encourage students 

M3 



QUINTILIAN 

tandis in hanc spem, qui toro praeparantur, utile 

20 exemplum. Neque vero tanta esse unquam debet ^ 
fiducia facilitatis, ut non breve saltern tempus, quod 
nusquam fere deerit, ad ea quae dicturi simus 
dispicienda sumamuSj quod quidem in iudiciis ac foro 
datur semper. Neque enim quisquam est, qui causam 

21 quam non didicerit agat. Declamatores quosdam 
perversa ducit ambitio, ut exposita controversia 
protinus dicere velint ; quin etiam, quod est in 
primis frivolum ac scenicum, verbum petant, quo 
incipiant. Sed tam contumeliosos in se ridet invi- 
cem eloquentia, et qui stultis videri eruditi volunt, 

22 stulti eruditis videntur. Si qua tamen fortuna 
tam subitam fecerit agendi necessitatem, mobiliore 
quodam opus erit ingenio, et vis omnis intendenda 
rebus, et in praesentia remittendum aliquid ex cura 
verborum, si consequi ^ utrumque non dabitur. Turn 
et tardior pronuntiatio moras habet et suspensa ac 
velut dubitans oratio, ut tamen deliberare, non 

23 haesitare videamur. Hoc, dum egredimur e portu, 
si nos nondum aptatis satis armamentis aget ventus ; 
deinde paulatim simul euntes ajjtabimus vela et 
disponemus rudentes et impleri sinus optabimus. 

^ debet, add'-d by fferzog. . 

* consequi, added by Spalding: non seqiii, 2nd hand of 
cod. Bamb, 

144 



BOOK X. VII. 19-23 

training for the bar, in the hope that they may be 
able to acquire this accomplishment. Still our con- 20 
fidence in our power of speaking extempore should 
never be so great that we should neglect to devote 
a few minutes to the consideration of what we are 
going to say. There will but rarely be occasions 
when this is impossible, while in the lawsuits of 
the courts there is always some time allowed for the 
purpose. For no one can plead a cause with the 
facts of which he is unacquainted. Some declaimers, 21 
it is true, are led by a perverse ambition to attempt 
to speak the moment their theme has been given 
them, and even ask for a word with which to start, 
an affectation which is in the worst and most 
theatrical taste. But eloquence has, in her turn, 
nothing but derision for those that insult her thus, 
and speakers who wish to seem learned to fools are 
merely regarded as fools by the learned. If, how- 22 
ever, chance should impose the necessity upon us of 
pleading a case at such short notice, we shall require 
to develop special mental agility, to give all our 
attention to the subject, and to make a temporary 
sacrifice of our care for the niceties of language, if 
we find it impossible to secure both. On such 
occasions a slower delivery and a style of speak- 
ing suggestive of a certain indecision and doubt will 
secure us time to think, but we must be careful to 
do this in such a way as to give the impression of 
thought, not of hesitation. This precaution may be 23 
employed while we are clearing harbour, if the wind 
drive us forward before all our tackle is ready. 
Afterwards, as we proceed upon our course, we shall 
trim our sails, arrange our ropes, and pray that 
the breeze may fill our sails. Such a procedure is 

MS 



QUINTILIAN 

Id potius quam se inani verborum torrenti dare 
quasi tempestatibus quo volent auferendum. 

24 Sed non minore studio continetur haec facultas 
quam paratur. Ars enim semel percepta non labitur,! 
stilus quoque intermissione paulum admodum de 
celeritate deperdit; promptum hoc et in expedito 
positum exercitatione sola continetur. Hac uti sic 
optimum est, ut cotidie dicamus audientibus pluribus, 
maxime de quorum simus iudicio atque opinione 
solliciti ; rarum est enim ut satis se quisque vereatur. 

25 Vel soli tamen dicamus potius quam omnino non 
dicamus. Est et ^ ilia exercitatio cogitandi totasque 
materias vel silentio (dum tamen quasi dicat intra se 
ipsum) persequendi, quae nuUo non et tempore et 
loco, quando non aliud agimus, explicari potest, et 

26 est in parte utilior ^ quam haec proxima. Diligentius 
enim componitur quam ilia, in qua contextum di- 
cendi intermittere veremur. Rursus in alia plus 
prior confert, vocis firmitatem, oris facilitatem, motum 
corporis, qui et ipse, ut dixi, excitat oratorem et 
iactatione manus, pedis supplosione, sicut cauda 
leones facere dicuntur, hortatur. Studendum vero 

27 semper et ubique. Neque enim fere tam est uUus 
dies occupatus, ut nihil lucrativae, ut Cicero Brutum 

^ labitur, ed. Gryph : capitur, MSS. 

* et, added by Spalding. 

^ utilior, early edd. : utilitatis, B. 



1 Ch. iii. 21. 
• Or. 34. 



146 



BOOK X. vii. 23-27 

preferable to yielding ourselves to an empty torrent 
of words, that the storm may sweep us Avhere it will. 

But it requires no less careful study to maintain 24 
than to acquire this facility. Theory once mastered 
is not forgotten, and the pen loses but little of its 
speed by disuse : but this promptitude and readiness 
for action can be maintained by practice only. The 
best form of exercise is to speak daily before an 
audience of several persons, who should, as far as 
possible, be selected from those whose judgement 
and good opinion we value, since it is rare for any- 
one to be sufficiently critical of himself. It is even 
better to speak alone than not at all. There is yet 25 
another method of exercising this faculty : it consists 
in going over our subjects in their entirety in silent 
thought, although we must all the time formulate 
the words to ourselves : such practice is possible at 
any moment or place that finds us unoccupied, and 
is, in some respects, more useful than that which I 
have just mentioned ; for we are more careful about 26 
our composition than when we are actually speaking 
and in momentary fear of interrupting the continuous 
flow of our language. On the other hand, the first 
method is more valuable for certain purposes, as it 
gives strength to our voice, fluency to our tongue 
and vigour to our gesture ; and the latter, as I have 
already remarked,^ in itself excites the orator and 
spurs him on, as he waves his hand or stamps his 
foot : he is, in fact, like the lion, that is said to lash 
himself to fury Avith his tail. But we must study 
always and everywhere. For there is scarce a single 27 
day in our lives that is so full of occupations that we 
may not, at some moment or other, snatch a few 
precious minutes, as Cicero ^ records that Brutus was 

147 



QUINTILIAN 

facere tradit, operae ad scribendum aut legendum ^ 
aut dicendum rapi aliquo momento temporis possit; 
siquidem C. Carbo etiam in tabernaculo solebat hac 

28 uti exercitatione dicendi. Ne id quidera tacendum, 
quod eidem Ciceroni placet, nullum nostrum usquam 
negligentem esse sermonem ; quidquid loquemur 
ubicuuque, sit pro sua scilicet portione pertectum. 
Scribendum certe nunquam est magis, quam cum 
multa dicemus ex tempore. Ita enim servabitur 
pondus, et innatans ^ ilia verborum facilitas in altum 
reducetur; sicut rustici proximas vitis radices ampu- 
tant, quae illam in summum solum ducunt, ut inferi- 

29 ores penitus descendendo firmentur. Ac nescio an, 
si ' utrumque cum cura et studio fecerimus, invicem 
prosit, ut scribendo dicamus diligentius, dicendo 
scribamus facilius. Scribendum ergo, quotiens lice- 
bit ; si id non dabitur, cogitandum; ab utroque 
exclusi debent tamen sic dicere,^ ut neque depre- 
hensus orator neque litigator destitutus esse videatur. 

30 Plerumque autem multa agentibus accidit, ut 
maxime necessaria et utique ipitia scribant, cetera 
quae domo adferunt cogitatione complectantur, subi- 
tis ex tempore occurrant; quod fecisse M. Tullium 
commentariis ipsius apparet. Sed feruntur aliorum 
quoque et inventi forte, ut eos dicturus quisque 

* aut legendum, 2nd hand of cod. Bamh. : omitted by B. 

* innatana, Steer: unatraiis, B. 

* si added by ed. Camp. 

* sic dicere, Peterson : inicere, B. 

^ A supporter of Tib. Gracchus, who went over to the 
senatorial party and was consul 120 B.C. Committed suicide 
in the following year. Cicero praises his eloquence and 
industry ; op. Brut. 103-5, de Or. I. § 154. 

* There is no trace of thia. 

148 



BOOK X. vu. 27-30 

wont to do, either for writing or reading or speaking ; 
Gaius Carbo,^ for example, was in the habit of indulg- 
ing in such exercises even in his tent. I must also 28 
mention the precept (which again has the approval 
of Cicero 2) that we should never be careless about 
our language. Whatever we say, under whatever 
circumstances, should be perfect in its way. As re- 
gards writing, this is certainly never more necessary 
than when we have frequently to speak extempore. 
For it maintains the solidity of our speech and gives 
depth to superficial facility. We may compare the 
practice of husbandmen who cut away the uppermost 
roots of their vines, which run close to the surface of 
the soil, that the taproots may strike deeper and gain 
in strength. Indeed I am not sure that, if we prac- 29 
tise both with care and assiduity, mutual profit will 
not result, and writing will give us greater precision 
of speech, while speaking will make us write with 
greater facility. We must write, therefore, when- 
ever possible ; if we cannot write, we must meditate : 
if both are out of the question, we must still speak in 
such a manner that we shall not seem to be taken 
unawares nor our client to be left in the lurch. 

It is, however, a common practice with those who 30 
have many cases to plead to write out the most 
necessary portions, more especially the beginnings of 
their speeches, to cover the remainder of that which 
they are able to prepare by careful premeditation 
and to trust to improvisation in emergency, a prac- 
tice regularly adopted by Cicero, as is clear from liis 
note-books. But the notes of other orators are also 
in circulation ; some have been discovered by 
chance, just as they were jotted down previous to a 
speech, while others have been edited in book form, 

149 



QUINTILIAN 

composuerat, et in libros digesti, ut causarum quae 
sunt actae a Ser. Sulpicio, cuius tres orationes extant ; 
sed hi de quibus loquor commentarii ita sunt exacti, 
ut ab ipso mi hi in memoriam posteritatis videantur 

31 esse compositi. Nam Ciceronis ad praesens modo 
tempus aptatos libertus Tiro contraxit ; quos non 
ideo excuso, quia non probem, sed ut sint magis 
admirabiles. In hoc genere prorsus recipio hanc 
brevem adnotationem libellosque, qui vel manu tene- 

32 antur, et ad quos interim respicere fas sit. Illud quod 
Laenas praecipit displicet mihi, vel in his quae 
scripserimusvelut^ summas in commentarium etcapita 
conferre. Facit enim ediscendi negligentiam haec 
ipsa fiducia et lacerat ac deformat orationem. Ego 
autem ne scribendum quidem puto, quod non ^ simus 
niemoria persecuturi. Nam hie quoque accidit, ut 
revocet nos cogitatio ad ilia elaborata nee sinat 

33 praesentem fortunam experiri. Sic anceps inter 
utrumque animus aestuat, cum et scripta perdidit et 
non quaerit nova. Sed de memoria destinatus est 
libro proximo locus nee huic parti subiungendus, quia 
sunt alia prius nobis dicenda. 



' vel in his, Boniiell : ne in his, B. velut, Halm : vel in, B. 
• non, added by Eeguis. 



* Or perhaps " abbreviated." Tiro was Cicero's friend, 
freedmaa and secretary. 



ISO 



BOOK X. VII. 30-33 

as in the case of the speeches delivered in the courts 
by Servius Sulpicius, of whose works only three 
speeches survive. Tliese memoranda, however, of 
which I am speaking are so carefully drawn up that 
they seem to me to have been composed by himself 
for the benefit of posterity. But Cicero's notes were 31 
originally intended merely to meet the requirements 
of the moment, and were afterwards collected ^ by 
Tiro. In making this apology I do not mean to 
imply that I disapprove of them, but merely wish 
to make them more worthy of admiration. And in 
this connexion I must state that I admit the use of 
brief memoranda and note-books, which may even be 
held in the hand and referred to from time to time. 
But I disapprove of the advice given by Laenas, that 32 
we should set down in our note-books, duly t;ibu- 
lated under the appropriate headings, summaries of 
what we propose to say, even in cases where we 
have already written it out in full. For reliance on 
such notes as these makes us careless in learning 
what we have written and mutilates and deforms our 
style. For my own part I think that we sliould 
never write out anything which we do not intend to 
commit to memory. For if we do, our thoughts will 
run back to what we have elaborated in writing and 
will not permit us to try the fortune of the moment. 
Consequently, the mind will waver in doubt between 33 
the two alternatives, having forgotten what was 
committed to writing and being unable to think of 
anything fresh to say. However, as the topic of 
memory will be discussed in the next book, 1 will 
not introduce it here, as there are other points 
which require to be dealt with first. 



«5» 



BOOK XI 



VOL. IV. 



LIBER XI 

I. Parata, sicut superiore libro continetur, facultate 
scribendi cogitandique et ex tempore etiam, cum res 
poscet, orandi, proxima est cura, ut dicamus apte ; 
quam virtutem quartam elocutionis Cicero demon- 
strat, quaeque est meo quidem iudicio maxime 

2 necessaria. Nam cum sit ornatus orationis varius et 
multiplex conveniatque alius alii, nisi fuerit accom- 
modatus rebus atque persouis, non modo non illu- 
strabit cam, sed etiam destruet et vim rerum in 
contrarium vertet. Quid enim prodest, esse verba 
et Latina et significantia et nitida, figuris etiam 
numerisque elaborata, nisi cum iis, in quae iudicem 

3 duci formarique volumus, consentiant, si genus 
sublime dicendi parvis in causis, parvum limatumque 
grandibus, laetum tristibus, lene asperis, minax sup- 
plicibus, summissum concitatis, trux atque violentum 
iucundis adhibeamus ? ut monilibus et margaritis ac 
veste longa, quae sunt ornamenta feminarum, de- 
formentur viri, nee habitus triumphalis, quo nihil 

» De Or. III. X. 37. 



BOOK XI 

I. After acquiring the power of writing and think- 
ing, as described in the preceding book, and also of 
pleading extempore, if occasion demand, our next 
task will be to ensure that appropriateness of speech, 
which Cicero^ shows to be the fourth department of 
style, and which is, in my opinion, highly necessary. 
For since the ornaments of style are varied and 2 
manifold and suited for different purposes, they will, 
unless adapted to the matter and the persons con- 
cerned, not merely fail to give our style distinction, 
but will even destroy its effect and produce a result 
quite the reverse of that which our matter should 
produce. For what profit is it that our words should 
be Latin, significant and graceful, and be further 
embellished with elaborate figures and rhythms, 
unless all these qualities are in harmony with the 
views to which we seek to lead the judge and mould 
his opinions .'' What use is it if we employ a lofty 3 
tone in cases of trivial import, a slight and refined 
style in cases of great moment, a cheerful tone when 
our matter calls for sadness, a gentle tone when it 
demands vehemence, threatening language when 
supplication, and submissive when energy is re- 
quired, or fierceness and violence when our theme is 
one that asks for charm ? Such incongruities are as 
unbecoming as it is for men to wear necklaces and 
pearls and flowing raiment which are the natural 
adornments of women, or for women to robe them- 

155 



QUINTILIAN 

4 excogitari potest augustius, feminas deceat. Hunc 
locum Cicero breviter in tertio de Oratore libro 
perstringit, rieque tamen videri potest quidquam 
omisisse dicendo, non omni causae neque audiiori neqne 
personae neque tempori congniere orationis umim genus. 
Nee fere pluribus in Oratore eadem. Sed illic L. 
Crassus, cum apud summos oratores hominesque 
eruditissimos dicat, satis liabet partem banc velut 

6 notare inter agnoscentes ; et hie Cicero adloquens 
Brutum testatur esse haec ei nota ideoque brevius a 
se dici, quanquam sit fusus locus tracteturque a 
philosophis latius. Nos institutionem professi non 
solum scientibus ista, sed etiam discentibus tradimus, 
ideoque paulo pluribus verbis debet haberi venia. 

6 Quare notum sit nobis ante omnia^ quid concili- 
andOj docendo, movendo iudici conveniat, quid quaque 
parte orationis petamus. Ita nee Vetera aut translata 
aut ficta verba in inci})iendo, narrando, argumentando 
tractabimus neque decurrentes contexto nitore circui- 
tus, ubi dividenda erit causa et in partes suas dige- 
renda, neque humile atque cotidianum sermonis 
genus et compositione ipsa dissolutum epilogis dabi- 

1 III. Iv. 210. 
* Ch. xxi. sqq, 

iS6 



BOOK XI. I. 3-6 

selves in the garb of triumph, than which there can 
be conceived no more majestic raiment. This topic 4 
is discussed by Cicero in the third book of the de 
Oratore,^ and, although he touches on it but lightly, 
he really covers the whole subject when he says. 
One single style of oratory is not suited to every case, nor 
to every audience, nor every speaker, nor every occasion. 
And he says the same at scarcely greater length in 
the Orator:^ But in the first of these works Lucius 
Crassus, since he is speaking in the presence of men 
distinguished alike for their learning and their elo- 
quence, thinks it sufficient merely to indicate this topic 
to his audience for their recognition ; while in the 5 
latter work Cicero asserts that, as these facts are 
familiar to Brutus, to whom that treatise is addressed, 
they will be given briefer ti-eatment, despite the fact 
that the subject is a wide one and is discussed at 
greater length by the philosophers. I, on the other 
hand, have undertaken the education of an orator, 
and, consequently, am speaking not merely to those 
that know, but also to learners ; I shall, therefore, 
have some claim to forgiveness if I discuss the topic 
in greater detail. 

For this reason, it is of the first importance that 6 
we should know what style is most suitable for con- 
ciliating, instructing or moving the judge, and what 
effects we should aim at in different parts of our 
speech. Thus we shall eschew antique, metaphori- 
cal and newly-coined words in our exordium, state- 
ment of facts and arguments, as we shall avoid flowing 
periods woven with elaborate grace, when the case 
has to be divided and distinguished under its various 
heads, while, on the other hand, we shall not employ 
mean or colloquial language, devoid of all artistic 

157 



QUINTILIAN 

mus, nee iocis lacrimas, ubi opus erit miseratione, 

7 siccabimus. Nam ornatus omnis non tarn sua quam 
rei, cui adhibetur, condicione constat; nee plus 
refert, quid dicas quam quo loco. Sed totum hoc 
apte dicere non elocutionis tantum genere constat, 
sed est cum inventione commune. Nam si tantum 
liabeht etiam verba momentum, quanto res ipsae 
magis? Quarum quae esset observatio, suis Iocis 
subinde subiecimus. 

8 Illud est diligentius docendum, eum demum dicere 
apte, qui non solum quid expediat, sed etiam quid 
deceat inspexerit. Nee me fugit, plerumque haec 
esse coniuncta. Nam quod decet, fere prodest, neque 
alio magis animi iudicum conciliari aut, si res in 

9 contrarium tulit, alienari solent. Aliquando tamen 
et haec dissentiunt. Quotiens autem pugnabunt, 
ipsam utilitatem vincet quod decet. Nam quia nescit, 
nihil magis profuturum ad absolutionem Socrati fuisse, 
quam si esset usus illo iudiciali genere defensionis 
et oratione summissa conciliasset iudicum animos sibi 

10 crimenque ipsum sollicite redarguisset ? Verum id 
eum minime decebat ; ideoque sic egit, ut qui poenam 
158 



BOOK XI. I. 6-IO 

structure, in the peroration, nor, when the theme calls 
for compassion, attempt to dry the tears of our audi- 
ence with jests. For all ornament derives its effect 7 
not from its own qualities so much as from the 
circumstances in which it is applied, and the occasion 
chosen for saying anything is .it least as important a 
consideration as what is actually said. But the whole 
of this question of appropriate language turns on 
something more than our choice of style, for it has 
much in common with invention. For if words can 
produce such an impression, how much greater must 
that be which is created by the facts themselves. 
But I have already laid down rules for the treatment 
of the latter in various portions of this work. 

Too much insistence cannot be laid upon the point 8 
that no one can be said to speak appropriately who 
has not considered not merely what it is expedient, 
but also what it is becoming to say. I am well 
aware that these two considerations generally go 
hand in hand. For whatever is becoming is, as a 
rule, useful, and there is nothing that does more to 
conciliate the good-will of the judge than the 
observance or to alienate it than the disregard of 
these considerations. Sometimes, however, the two 9 
are at variance. Now, whenever this occurs, expe- 
diency must jield to the demands of what is 
becoming. Who is there who does not realise that 
nothing would have contributed more to secure the 
acquittal of Socrates than if he had employed the 
ordinary forensic methods of defence and had 
conciliated the minds of his judges by adopting a 
submissive tone and had devoted his attention to 
refuting the actual charge against him ? But such 10 
a course would have been unworthy of his character, 

159 



QUINTILIAN 

suam honoribus summis esset aestimaturus. Maluit 
enim vir sapientissimus, quod superesset ex vita, sibi 
perire, quam quod praeterisset. Et quando ab 
hominibus sui temporis parum intelligebatur, poste- 
riorum se iudiciis reservavit, brevi detrimeiito iam 
ultimae senectutis aevum saeculorum omnium con- 

11 secutus. Itaque quamvis Lysias, qui turn in dicendo 
praestantissimus habebatur, defensionem illi scriptam 
obtulisset, uti ea noluit, cum bonam quid em, sed 
parum sibi convenientem iudicavisset. Quo vel solo 
patet non persuadendi sed bene dicendi finem in 
oratore servandum, cum interim persuadere deforme 
sit. Non fuit lioc utile absolutioni, sed, quod est 

12 mains, homini fuit. Et nos secundum communem 
potius loquendi consuetudinem quam ipsam veritatis 
regulam divisione hac utimur, ut ab eo, quod deceat, 
utilitatem separemus ; nisi forte prior ille Africanus, 
qui patria cedere quam cum tribuno plebis humillimo 
contendere de innocentia sua maluit, inutiliter sibi 
videtur consuluisse ; aut P. Rutilius, vel cum illo 
paene Socratico genera defensionis est usus, vel cum 
revocante eum P. Sulla manere in exilio maluit, quid 

13 sibi maxime conduceret, nesciebat. Hi vero parva 
ilia, quae abiectissimus quisque animus utilia credit, si 

^ Falsely accused of having taken a bribe from King 
Antiochus. See Livy, xxxviii. 11. 56. 
* See de Or. I. liii. 227 sqq. 

i6o 



BOOK XI. I. 10-13 

and, thereforCj he pleaded as one who would account 
the penalty to which he might be sentenced as the 
highest of honours. The wisest of men preferred to 
sacrifice the remnant of his days rather than to cancel 
all his past life. And since he was but ill under- 
stood bv the men of his own day, he reserved his 
case for the approval of posterity and at the cost of 
a few last declining years achieved through all the 
ages life everlasting. And so although Lysias, who 11 
was accounted the first orator of that time, offered 
him a written defence, he refused to make use of 
it, since, though he recognised its excellence, he 
regarded it as unbecoming to himself. This in- 
stance alone shows that the end which the orator 
must keep in view is not persuasion, but speaking 
well, since there are occasions when to persuade 
would be a blot upon his honour. The line adopted 
by Socrates was useless to secure his acquittal, but 
was of real service to him as a man ; and that is by 
far the greater consideration. In drawing this dis- 12 
tinction between what is expedient and what is 
becoming, I have followed rather the usage of com- 
mon speech than the strict law of truth ; unless, 
indeed, the elder Africanus ^ is to be regarded as 
having failed to consult his true interests, when he 
retired into exile sooner than wrangle over his own 
innocence with a contemptible tribune of the people, 
or unless it be alleged that Publius Rutilius^ was 
ignorant of his true advantage both on the occasion 
when he adopted a defence which may almost be 
compared with that of Socrates, and when he pre- 
ferred to remain in exile rather than return at Sulla's 
bidding. No, these great men regarded all those 13 
trifles that the most abject natures regard as advan- 

161 



QUINTILIAN 

cum virtute conferantur despicienda iudicaverunt, 
ideoque perpetua saeculoruinadmiratione celebrantur. 
Neque nos simus tam humiles, ut quae laudamus 

14 inutilia credamus. Sed hoc qualecunque discrimen 
raro admodum eveniet : idem fere, ut dixi, in omni 
genere causarum et proderit et decebit. Est autem, 
quod omnes et semper et ubique deceat, facere ac ^ 
dicere honeste, contraque neminem unquam ullo in 
loco turpiter. Minora vero quaeque sunt ex mediis 
plerumque sunt talia, ut aliis sint concedenda, aliis 
non sint, aut pro persona, tempore, loco, causa magis 
ac minus vel excusata debeant videri vel repre- 

15 hendenda. Cum dicamus autem de rebus aut alienis 
aut nostris, dividenda ratio est eorum, dum sciamus 
pleraque neutro loco convenire. 

In primis igitur omnis vitiosa iactatio est, elo- 
quentiae tamen in oratore praecipue, adfertque 
audientibus non fastidium modo, sed plerumque 

16 etiam odium. Habet enim mens nostra sublime 
quiddam et erectum et impatiens superioris ; ideoque 
abiectos aut summittentes se libenter allevamus, quia 

* deceat facere ac, 27id hand oj cod. Bamb. : persuadere 
ac, B : deceat ao, cod. Hon. 

i6a 



BOOK XI. I. 13-16 

tageous, as being contemptible if weighed in the 
balance with virtue, and for this reason they have 
their reward in the deathless praise of all genera- 
tions. Let not us, then, be so poor spirited as to 
regard the acts, which we extol, as being inexpedient. 
However, it is but rarely that this distinction, such 14 
as it is, is called into play. As I have said, the 
expedient and the becoming will, as a rule, be 
identical in every kind of case. Still, there are two 
things which will be becoming to all men at all times 
and in all places, namely, to act and speak as befits a 
man of honour, and it will never at any time beseem 
any man to speak or act dishonourably. On the 
other hand, things of minor importance and occupy- 
ing something like a middle position between the 
two are generally of such a nature that they may be 
conceded to some, but not to others, while it will 
depend on the character of the speaker and the 
circumstances of time, place and motive whether we 
regard them as more or less excusable or repre- 
hensible. When, however, we are speaking of our 15 
own affairs or those of others, we must distinguish 
between the expedient and the becoming, while 
recognising that the majority of the points which 
we have to consider will fall under neither head. 

In the first place, then, all kinds of boasting are a 
mistake, above all, it is an error for an orator to praise 
his own eloquence, and, further, not merely wearies, 
but in the majority of cases disgusts the audience. 
For there is ever in the mind of man a certain 18 
element of lofty and unbending pride that will not 
brook superiority : and for this reason we take de- 
light in raising the humble and submissive to their 
feet, since such an act gives us a consciousness of our 

163 



QUINTILIAN 

hoc facere tanquam maiores videmur; et quotiens 
discessit aemulatio, succedit humanitas. At qui se 
supra modum extollit, premere ac despicere creditur, 
nee tam se maiorem quam minores ceteros facere. 

17 Inde invident humiliores, (hoc vitium est eorum, qui 
nee cedere volunt nee possunt contendere) rident 
superiores, improbant boni. Plerumque vere depre- 
hendas arrogantium falsum de se opinionem ; sed in 
veris quoque sufficit conscientia. 

Reprehensus est in hac parte non mediocriter 
Cicero, quanquam is quidem reruin a se gestarum 
iriaior quani eloquentiae fuit in orationibus utique 

18 iactator. Et plerumque illud quoque non sine aliqua 
ratione fecit. Aut enini tuebatur eos, quibus erat 
adiutoribus usus in opprimenda coniuratione, aut 
respondebat invidiae (cui tamen non fuit par, servatae 
patriae poenam passus exilium), ut illorum, quae 
egerat in consulatu, frequens commemoratio possit 
videri non gloriae magis quam defensioni data. 

19 Eloquentiam quidem, cum plenissimam diversae partis 
advocatis concederet, sibi nunquam in agendo im- 
modice arrogavit. lUius sunt enim : Si quid est ingenii 
in me, quod sentio quam sit exiguum, et. Quo ingenio 
164 



BOOK XI. I. 16-19 

superiority, and as soon as all sense of rivalry dis- 
appears, its place is taken by a feeling of humanity. 
But the man who exalts himself beyond reason is 
looked upon as depreciating and showing a contempt 
for others and as making them seem small rather 
than himself seem great. As a result, those who are 17 
beneath him feel a grudge against him (for those who 
are unwilling to yield and yet have not the strength 
to hold their own are always liable to this failing), 
while his superiors laugh at him and the good 
disapprove. Indeed, as a rule, you will find that 
arrogance implies a false self-esteem, whereas those 
who possess true merit find satisfaction enough in 
the consciousness of possession. 

Cicero has been severely censured in this con- 
nexion, although he was far more given to boasting 
of his political achievements than of his eloquence, 
at any rate, in his speeches. And as a rule he had 18 
some sound reason for his self-praise. For he was 
either defending those who had assisted him to crush 
the conspiracy of Catiline, or was replying to attacks 
made upon him by those who envied his position ; 
attacks which he was so far unable to withstand 
that he suffered exile as the penalty for having 
saved his country. Consequently, we may regard 
his frequent reference to the deeds accomplished 
in his consulship as being due quite as much to the 
necessities of defence as to the promptings of vain- 
glory. As regards his own eloquence, he never 19 
made immoderate claims for it in his pleading, while 
he always paid a handsome tribute to the eloquence 
of the advocate, who opposed him. For example, 
there are passages such as the following : " If there 
be aught of talent in me, and I am only too conscious 

165 



QUINTILIAN 

20 minus possum, subsidium mihi diligentia comparavi. Quin 
etiam contra Q. Caecilium de accusatore in Verrem 
constituendo^ quamvis multum esset in hoc quoque 
momenti, uter ad agendum magis idoneus veniret, 
dicendi tamen facultatem magis illi detraxit quam 
arrogavit sibi, seque non consecutum, sed omnia 

2\ fedsse, ut posset earn consequi, dixit. In epistolis 
a]iquando familiariter apud amicos, nonnunquam in 
dialogis aliena tamen persona verum de eloquentia 
sua dicit. Et aperte tamen gloriari nescio an sit 
magis tolerabile vel ipsa vitii huius simplicitate, quam 
ilia iaetatio perversa^ si abundans opibus pauperem 
se neget, nobilis obscurum et potens infirmum et 

22 disertus imperitum plane et infantem vocet, Ambi- 
tiosissimum gloriandi genus est etiam deridere. Ab 
aliis ergo laudemur ; nam ipsos, ut Demosthenes ait, 
erubescere, etiam cum ab aliis laudabimur, decet. Neque 
hoc dico, non aliquando de rebus a se gestis oratori 
esse dicendum, sicut eidem Demostheni pro Ctesi- 
phonte ; quod tamen ita emendavit, ut necessitatem 
id faciendi ostenderet invidiamque omnem in eum 

23 regereret, qui hoc se coegisset. Et M. Tullius saepe 
dicit de oppressa coniuratione Catilinae; sed modo 



* Pro Arch. i. 1. ' Pro Quiiit. i. 4. 

» Div. in Caec. xii. 4a * De Cor. 128. 



1 66 



BOOK XI. I. 19-23 

how little it is," ^ and, " In default ot talent, I turned 
to industry for aid." 2 Again, in his speech against 20 
Caecilius on the selection of an accuser for Verres, 
despite the fact that the question as to which was 
the most capable pleader, was a factor of great 
importance, he rather depreciated his opponent's 
eloquence than exalted his own, and asserted that 
he had done all in his power to make himself an 
orator,' though he knew he had not succeeded. In 21 
his letters to intimate friends, it is true, and occasion- 
ally in his dialogues, he tells the truth of his own 
eloquence, though in the latter case he is careful 
always to place the remarks in question in the 
mouth of some other character. And yet I am not 
sure that open boasting is not more tolerable, owing 
to its sheer straiglitforwardness, than that perverted 
form of self-praise, which makes the millionaire say 
that he is not a poor man, the man of mark describe 
himself as obscure, the powerful pose as weak, 
and the eloquent as unskilled and even inarticulate. 
But the most ostentatious kind of boasting takes 22 
the form of actual self-derision. Let us therefore 
leave it to others to praise us. For it beseems us, 
as Demosthenes says, to blush even when we are 
praised by others. I do not mean to deny that 
there are occasions when an orator may speak of 
his own achievements, as Demosthenes himself does 
in his defence of Ctesiphon.* But on that occasion 
he qualified his statements in such a way as to show 
that he was compelled by necessity to do so, and to 
throw the odium attaching to such a proceeding on 
the man who had forced him to it. Again, Cicero 23 
often speaks of his suppression of the Catilinarian 
conspiracy, but either attributes his success to the 

167 



QUINTILIAN 

id virtuti senatus, modo providentiae deorum im- 
mortalium adsignat. Plerumque contra inimicos 
atque obtrectatores plus vindicat sibi. Erant enim 

24 ilia tuenda,! cum obiicerentur. In carminibus utinam 
pepercisset, quae non desierunt carpere maligni : 

Cedant arma togae, concedat laurea lifiguae ; ' 
et 

fortunatam natam me consule Romam ; 

et lovem ilium, a quo in concilium deorum advocatur ; 
et Minervam, quae aites eum edocuit ; quae sibi ille 
secutus quaedam Graecorum exempla perraiserat. 

25 Verum eloquentiae ut indecora iactatio, ita non- 
nunquam concedenda fiducia est. Nam quis repre- 
hendat haec : Quid putem ? contemptumne me ? Non 
video nee in vita nee in gi-atia nee in rebus gestis nee in 
hoc mea mediocritate ingenii, quid despicere possit 

26 Antoniiis ? Et paulo post apertius : An decertare 
viecum voluit contentione dicendi ? Hoc quidem est 
benejiciu7n. Quid enim plenius, quid uberius quam milii 
et pro me et contra Antofiium dicer e ? 

27 Arrogantes et illi, qui se iudicasse de causa nee 

' ilia tuenda, Halm: intuenda, B. 
* linguae, B : laudi, vulgo. 



* From the poem on his consulship. 
« Phil. II. i. 2. 



BOOK XI. I. 23-27 

courage shown by the senate or to the providence of 
the immortal gods. If he puts forward stronger claims 
to merit, it is generally when speaking against his 
enemies and detractors; for he was bound todefend 
his actions when they were denounced as discredit- 
able. One could only wish that he had shown 24 
greater restraint in his poems, which those who love 
him not are never weary of criticising. I refer to 
passages such as : ^ 

*' Let arms before the peaceful toga yield. 
Laurels to eloquence resign the field," 
or 

" O happy Rome, bom in my consulship ! " 

together with that " Jupiter, by whom he is 
summoned to the assembly of the gods," and the 
" Minerva that taught him her accomplishments " ; 
extravagances which he permitted himself in imita- 
tion of certain precedents in Greek literature. 

But while it is unseemly to make a boast of one's 25 
eloquence, it is, however, at times permissible to 
express confidence in it. Who, for instance, can 
blame the following ? 2 " What, then, am I to think ? 
That I am held in contempt .'' I see nothing either 
in my past life, or my position, or such poor talents 
as I may possess, that Antony can afford to despise." 
And a little later he speaks yet more openly : 28 
"Or did he wish to challenge me to a contest of 
eloquence? I could wish for nothing better. For 
what ampler or richer theme could I hope to find 
than to speak at once for myself and against 
Antony ? " 

Another form of arrogance is displayed by those who 27 
declare that they have come to a clear conviction of 

169 



QUINTILIAN 

aliter adfuturos fuipse proponunt. Nam et inyiti 
iudices audiunt praesumentem partes suas, nee hoc 
oratori contingere inter adversaries quod Pytha- 
gorae inter discipulos potest Ipse dixit. Sed istud 
magis minusve vitiosum est pro personis dicentiuni. 

28 Defenditur enim aliquatenus aetate, dignitate^ 
auctoritate ; quae tamen vix in ullo tanta fuerint, 
ut non hoc adfirmationis genus temperandum sit 
aliqua moderatione sicut omnia, in quibus patronus 
argumentum ex se ipso petet. Quid fuisset tumidius, 
si accipiendum criminis loco negasset Cicero equitis 
Romani esse filium, se defendente ? At ille fecit 
hoc etiam favorabile coniungendo cum iudicibus 
dignitatem suam : Equitis autem Romani esse Jilium, 
criminis loco poni ah accusalorihus, neque vobis iudi- 
cantibus oporiuit neque defendentihtis nobis. 

29 Impudens, tumultuosa, iracunda actio omnibus 
indecora, sed ut quisque aetate, dignitate, usu prae- 
cedit, magis in ea reprehendendus. Videas autem 
rixatores quosdam neque iudicum reverentia neque 
agendi more ac modo contineri, quo ipso mentis 

<i ■■■ \ Pro Cael. ii. 4. 

q3i 



BOOK XI. I. 27-29 

the justice of their cause, which they would not 
otherwise have undertaken. For the judges give 
but a reluctant hearing to such as presume to 
anticipate their verdict, and the orator cannot hope 
that his opponents will regard his ipse dixit with the 
veneration accorded by the Pythagoreans to that of 
their master. But this fault will vary in seriousness 
according to the character of the orator who uses 
such language. For such assertions may to some 28 
extent be justified by the age, rank, and authority 
of the speaker. But scarcely any orator is possessed 
of these advantages to such an extent as to exempt 
him from the duty of tempering such assertions by 
a certain show of modesty, a remark which also 
applies to all passages in which the advocate draws 
any of his arguments from his own person. What 
could have been more presumptuous than if Cicero 
had asserted that the fact that a man was the son 
of a Roman knight should never be regarded as a 
serious charge, in a case in which he was appearing 
for the defence ? But he succeeded in giving this 
very argument a favourable turn by associating his 
own rank with that of the judges, and saying,^ 
" The fact of a man being the son of a Roman knight 
should never have been put forward as a charge by 
the prosecution when these gentlemen were in the 
jury-box and I was appearing tor the defendant." 

An impudent, disorderly, or angry tone is always 29 
unseemly, no matter who it be that assumes it ; and 
it becomes all the more reprehensible in proportion 
to the age, rank, and experience of the speaker. 
But we are familiar with the sight of certain brawl- 
ing advocates who are restrained neither by respect 
for the court nor by the recognised methods and 

171 



QUINTILIAN 

habitu manifestum sit, tam in suscipiendis qiiam in 

30 agendis causis nihil pensi habere. Profert enim 
mores plerumque oratio et animi secreta detegit. 
Nee sine causa Graeci prodiderunt, ut vivat, quemque 
etiam dicere. Humiliora ilia vitia : summissa adulatio, 
adfectata scurrilitas, in rebus ac verbis parum modestis 
ac pudicis vilis pudor, in omni negotio neglecta 
auctoritas ; quae fere accidunt iis, qui nimium aut 
blandi esse aut ridiculi volunt. 

31 Ipsum etiam eloquentiae genus alios aliud decet. 
Nam neque tam plenum et erectum et audax et 
praecultum senibus convenerit quam pressuni et 
mite et limatum et quale intelligi vult Cicero, cum 
dicit, orationem suam coepisse caiiescere ; sicut 
vestibus quoque non purpura coccoque fulgentibus 

32 ilia aetas satis apta sit. In iuvenibus etiam ube- 
riora paulo et paene periclitantia feruntur. At in 
iisdem siccum et sollicitum et contractum dicendi 
propositum plerumque adfectatione ipsa severitatis 
invisum est, quando etiam morum senilis auctoritas 
immatura in adolescentibus creditur. Simpliciora 

33 militares decent. Philosophiam ex professo, ut 
quidam faciunt, ostentantibus parum decori sunt 
plerique orationis ornatus maximeque ex adfectibus, 
quos illi vitia dicunt. Verba quoque exquisitiora et 

34 compositio numerosa tali proposito diversa. Non 



^i 



* Bnit. ii. 8. 



BOOK XI. I. 29-34 

manners of pleading. The obvious inference from 
this attitude of mind is that they are utterly reckless 
both in undertaking cases and in pleading them. 
For a man's character is generally revealed and the 30 
secrets of his heart are laid bare by his manner of speak- 
ing, and there is good ground for the Greek aphorism 
that, " as a man lives, so will he speak." The follow- 
ing vices are of a meaner type : grovelling flattery, 
affected buffoonery, immodesty in dealing with things 
or words which are unseemly or obscene, and dis- 
regard of authority on all and every occasion. They 
are faults which, as a rule, are found in those who 
are over-anxious either to please or amuse. 

Again, different kinds of eloquence suit different 31 
speakers. For example, a full, haughty, bold and 
florid style would be less becoming to an old man 
than that restrained, mild and precise style to which 
Cicero refers, when he says that his style is beginning 
to grow grey-haired.* It is the same with their style 
as their clothes ; purple and scarlet raiment goes ill 
with grey hairs. In the young, however, we can 32 
endure a rich and even, perhaps, a risky style. On 
the other hand, a dry, careful and compressed stvle 
is unpleasing in the young as suggesting the affecta- 
tion of severity, since even the authority of character 
that goes with age is considered as premature in 
young men. Soldiers are best suited by a simple 
style. Those, again, who make ostentatious pro- 33 
fession, as some do, of being philosophers, would do 
well to avoid most of the ornaments of oratory, more 
especially those which consist in appeals to the 
passions, which they regard as moral blemishes. So, 
too, the employment of rare words and of rhythmical 
structure are incongruous with their profession. For 3-1 

173 



QUINTILIAN 

enim sola ilia laetiora^ qualia a Cicerone dicuntur, 
Saxa atque solitudines voci respondent ; sed etiam ilia, 
quanquam plena sanguinis, Vos enim iam, Albani 
tumuli atque luci, vos, inquam, imploro atque testor, 
vosque, Alhanorum obrutae aiae, sacrorum populi 
Romani sociae et aequales, non eonveniant barbae illi 
36 atque tristitiae. At vir civilis vereque sapiens, qui 
se non otiosis disputationibus, sed administrationi 
rei publicae dediderit, a qua longissime isti, qui 
philosophi vocantur, recesserunt, omnia, quae ad 
efficiendum oratione quod proposuerit valent, libenter 
adhibebit, cum prius quid honestum sit efficere in 

36 animo sue constituerit. Est quod principes deceat^ 
aliis non concesseris. Imperatorum ac triumphalium 
separata est aliqua ex parte ratio eloquentiae, sicut 
Pompeius abunde disei'tus rerum suarum narrator, 
et hie, qui belle civili se interfecit, Cato eloquens 

37 senator fuit. Idem dictum saepe in alio liberum, in 
alio furiosum, in alio superbum est. Verba adversus 
Agamemnonem a Thersite habita ridentur; da ilia 
Diomedi aliive cui pari : magnum animum ferre prae 
se videbuntur. Ego ie consulem puiem, inquit L. 
Crassus Philippo, cum tu me non putes senatorem ? 

1 Pro Arch. viii. 19. * Pro Mil. xxxi. 85. 

» n. ii. 225. * De Or. iii. 1. 

174 



BOOK XI. I. 34-37 

their beards and gloomy bi-ows are ill-suited not 
merely to luxuriance of style, such as we find in 
Cicero's " Rocks and solitudes answer to the voice," * 
but even to full-blooded passages as, " For on you I 
call, ye hills and groves of Alba ; I call you to bear 
me witness, and ye, too, fallen altars of the Albans, 
that were once the peers and equals of the holy 
places of Rome." ^ But the public man, who is truly 35 
wise and devotes himself not to idle disputations, 
but to the administration of the state, from which 
those who call themselves philosophers have with- 
drawn themselves afar, will gladly employ every 
method that may contribute to the end M'hich he 
seeks to gain by his eloquence, although he will first 
form a clear conception in his mind as to what aims 
are honourable and what are not. There is a form 36 
ot eloquence which is becoming in the greatest 
men, but inadmissible in others. For example, the 
methods of eloquence employed by commanders and 
conquerors in their hour of triumph are to a great 
extent to be regarded as in a class apart. The 
comparison of the eloquence of Pompey and Cato 
the younger, who slew himself in the civil war, will 
illustrate my meaning. The former was extra- 
ordinarily eloquent in the description of his own 
exploits, while the latter's powers were displayed 
in debates in the senate. Again, the same remark 37 
will seem freedom of speech in one's mouth, madness 
in another's, and arrogance in a third. We laugh at 
the words used by Thersites ^ to Agamemnon ; but 
put them in the mouth of Diomede or some other 
of his peers, and they will seem the expression of a 
great spirit. " Shall I regard you as consul," said 
Lucius Crassiis * to Philippus, " when you refuse to 

>75 



QUINTILIAN 

Vox honestissimae libertatis ; non tamen ferres 

38 quemcunque dicentem. Negat se magni facere 
aliquis poetarum, utriim Caesar ater an albus homo 
sit, insania ; verte, ut idem Caesar de illo dixerit, 
arrogantia est. Maior in personis obsei-vatio est 
apud tragicos comicosque, multis enim utuntur et 
variis. Eadem et eorum, qui oratioiies aliis scribe- 
bant; fuit ratio et declaniantium est; non enim 
semper ut advocati sed plerumque ut litigatores 
dicimus. 

39 Verum etiam in iis causis, quibus advocamur, 
eadem differentia diligenter est custodienda. Utimur 
enim fictione personarum et velut ore alieno loqui- 
mur, dandique sunt iis, quibus vocem accommodamus, 
sui mores. Aliter enim P. Clodius, aliter Appius 
Caecus, aliter Caecilianus ille, aliter Terentianus 
pater fingitur. Quid asperius lietore Verris : Ut 

40 adeas, tantum dahis ? Quid fortius illo, cuius inter 
ipsa verberum supplicia una vox audiebatur : Civis 
Romanus sum ? Quam dignae Milonis in peroratione 
ipsa voces eo viro, qui pro re publica seditiosum 
civem totiens compescuisset quique insidias virtute 

41 superasset? Denique non modo quot in causa 

» Cat. 93. * Cp. ir. xv. 30 ; in. viii. 51. 

• Clodiua, the unscrupulous enemy of Cicero. Appius 
Caecus, his ancestor, the great senator, who secured the 
rejection of the terms of Pyrrhus. 

• See Pro Cael. xvi. 

• I.e. to visit a relative in prison, Verr. v. xlv. 118 ; cp. 
QuitU. IX. iv. 71. 

• Verr. V. Ixii. 162. » Cjp. iv. ii. 25 ; vr. v. 10. ( 

176 



BOOK XI. I. 37-41 

regard me as a senator ? " That was honourable 
freedom of speech, and yet we should not tolerate 
such words from everybody's lips. One of the poets ^ 38 
says that he does not care whether Caesar be white 
or black. That is madness. But reverse the case. 
Suppose that Caesar said it of the poet ? That 
would be arrogance. The tragic and comic poets 
pay special attention to character, since they intro- 
duce a great number and variety of persons. Those 
who wrote speeches ^ for others paid a like attention 
to these points, and so do the declaimers ; for we do 
not always speak as advocates, but frequently as 
actual parties to the suit. 

But even in these cases in which we appear as 39 
advocates, differences of character require careful 
observation. For we introduce fictitious personages 
and speak through other's lips, and we must therefore 
allot the appropriate character to those to whom 
we lend a voice. For example, Publius Clodius will 
be represented in one way, Appius Caecus' in 
another, while Caecilius* makes the father in his 
comedy speak in quite a different manner from the 
father in the comedy of Terence. What can be 40 
more brutal than the words of Verres' lictor, "To 
see him you will pay so much " ? ^ or braver than 
those of the man from whom the scourge could 
wring but one cry, " I am a Roman citizen ! " • 
Again, read the words which Cicero places in the 
mouth of Milo in his peroration : are they not 
worthy of the man who to save the state had so 
oft repressed a seditious citizen, and had triumi)hed 
by his valour over the ambush that was laid for 
him ? ^ Further, it is not merely true that the 41 
variety required in impersonation will be in 

177 



QUINTILIAN 

tfttidem in prosopopoeia sunt varietates, sed hoc 
etiam plures, quod in his puerorura, feminarum, 
populorum, mutarum etiam rerum assimulamus 

42 adfectus, quibus omnibus debetur suus decor. Eadem 
in iis, pro quibus agemus, observanda sunt ; aliter 
enim pro alio saepe dicendum est, ut quisque 
honestus, humilis, invidiosus, favorabilis erit, adiecta 
propositorum quoque et anteactae vitae differentia, 
lucundissima vero in oratore humanitas, facilitas, 
moderatio, benivolentia. Sed ilia quoque diversa 
bonum virum decent : malos odisse, publica vice 
commoveri, ultum ire scelera et iniurias, et omnia, 
ut initio dixi, honesta. 

43 Nee tantum, quis et pro quo sed etiam apud quem 
dicas, interest. Facit enim et fortuna discrimen et 
potestas, nee eadem apud principem, magistratum, 
senatorem, privatum, tantum liberum ratio est, nee 
eodem sono publica indicia et arbitrorum discepta- 

44 tiones aguntur. Nam ut orantem pro capite sollici- 
tudo deceat et cura et omnes ad amplificandam 
orationem quasi machinae, ita in parvis rebus 



» See § 14. 



178 



BOOK XI. I. 41-44 

prof)ortion to the variety presented by the case, for 
impersonation demands even greater variety, since 
it involves the portrayal of the emotions of children, 
women, nations, and even of voiceless things, all 
of which require to be represented in character. 
The same points have to be observed with respect 42 
to those for whom we plead : for our tone will vary 
with the character of our client, according as he is 
distinguished, or of humble position, popular or the 
reverse, while we must also take into account the 
differences in their principles and their past life. 
As regards the orator himself, the qualities which 
will most commend him are courtesy, kindliness, 
moderation and benevolence. But, on the other 
hand, the opposite of these qualities will sometimes 
be becoming to a good man. He may hate the bad, 
be moved to passion in the public interest, seek to 
avenge crime and wrong, and, in fine, as I said at 
the beginning,^ may follow the promptings of every 
honourable emotion. 

The character of the speaker and of the person on 43 
whose behalf he speaks are, however, not the only 
points which it is important to take into account : 
the character of those before whom we have to 
speak calls for serious consideration. Their power 
and rank will make no small difference ; we shall 
employ different methods according as we are speak- 
ing before the emperor, a magistrate, a senator, a 
private citizen, or merely a free man, while a 
different tone is demanded by trials in the public 
courts, and in cases submitted to arbitration. For 44 
while a display of care and anxiety, and the em- 
ployment of every device available for the ampli- 
fication of our style are becoming when we are 

179 



QUINTILIAN 

iudiciisque vana sint eadem, rideaturque merito, 
qui apud disceptatorem de re levissima sedens 
dicturus utatur ilia Ciceronis confessione, non modo 
se animo commoveri, sed eliam corpore ipso perhorrescere. 

45 Quis vero nesciat, quanto aliud dicendi genus poscat 
gravitas senatoria, aliud aura popularis? cum etiaiii 
singulis iudicantibus non idem apud graves viros 
quod leviores, non idem apud eruditum quod 
militarem ac rusticum deceat, sitque nonnunquam 
summittenda et contrail enda oratio, ne iudex earn 
vel intelligere vel capere non possit. 

46 Tempus quoque ac locus egent observatione 
propria. Nam et tempus turn triste, turn laetum, 
tum liberum, turn angustum est, atque ad haec 

47 omnia componendus orator ; et loco publico privatone, 
celebri an secreto, aliena civitate an tua, in castris 
denique an foro dicas, interest plurimum, ac suam 
quidque formam et proprium quendam modum elo- 
quentiae poscit : cum etiam in ceteris actibus vitae 
non idem in foro, curia, campo, theatro, domi facere 

* Div. in Cote. xiii. 41 
i8o 



BOOK XI. I. 44-47 

pleading for a client accused on a capital charge, 
it would be useless to employ the same methods in 
cases and trials of minor importance, and the speaker 
who, when speaking from his chair before an arbitrator 
on some trivial question, should make an admission 
like that made by Cicero, to the effect that it was 
not merely his soul that was in a state of com- 
motion, but that his whole body was convulsed with 
shuddering,^ would meet with well-deserved ridicule. 
Again, who does not know what different styles of 45 
eloquence are required when speaking before the 
grave assembly of the senate and before the fickle 
populace, since even when we are pleading before 
single judges the same style will not be suitable 
for use before one of weighty character and another 
of a more frivolous disposition, while a learned judge 
must not be addressed in the same tone that we 
should employ before a soldier or a rustic, and our 
style must at tinaes be lowered and simplified, for 
fear that he may be unable to take it in or to 
understand it. 

Again, circumstances of time and place demand 46 
special consideration. The occasion may be one 
for sorrow or for rejoicing, the time at our disposal 
may be ample or restricted, and the orator must 
adapt himself to all these circumstances. It, like- 47 
Mrise, makes no small difference whether we are 
speaking in public or in private, before a crowded 
audience or in comparative seclusion, in another 
city or our own, in the camp or in the forum : each 
of these places will require its own style and peculiar 
form of oratory, since even in other spheres of life 
the same actions are not equally suited to the forum, 
the senate-house, the Campus Martins, the theatre 



QUINTILIAN 

conveniat; et pleraque, quae natura non sunt repre- 
hendenda atque adeo ^ interim sunt necessaria, alibi 

48 quam mos permiserit turpia habeantur. Illud iam 
diximuSj quanto plus nitoris et cultus demonstrativae 
materiae, ut ad delectation em audientium compositae, 
quam, quae sunt in actu et contentione, suasoriae 
iudieialesque permittant. 

Hoc adhuc adiiciendum aliquas etiam, quae sunt 
egregiae dicendi virtutes, quo minus deceant, effici 

49 condicione causarum. An quisquam tulerit reum in 
discrimine capitis, praecipueque si apud victorem et 
principem pro se ipse dicat, frequenti translatione, 
fictis aut repetitis ex vetustate verbis, compositione 
quae sit maxime a vulgari usu remota, decurrentibus 
periodis, quam laetissimis locis sententiisque di- 
centem ? Non perdant haec omnia necessarium 
periclitanti sollicitudinis colorem, petendumque etiam 

60 innocentibus misericordiae auxilium ? Moveaturne 
quisquam eius fortuna, quem tumidum ac sui iactan- 
tem et ambitiosum institorem eloquentiae in ancipiti 
sorte videat? Non immo oderit reum verba au- 
cupantem et anxium de fama ingenii, et cui esse 

61 diserto vacet? Quod mire M. Caelius in defen- 

* adeo, Gesner : ideo, B, 
* VIII. iii. 1 1 sqq. 



BOOK XI. I. 47-51 

or one's own house, and there is much that is not 
in itself reprehensible, and may at times be abso- 
lutely necessary, which will be regarded as unseemly 
if done in some place where it is not sanctioned by 
custom. I have already p>ointed out^ how much 48 
more elegance and ornament is allowed by the 
topics of demonstrative oratory, whose main object 
is the delectation of the audience, than is permitted 
by deliberative or forensic themes which are con- 
cerned with action and argument. 

To this must be added the fact that certain 
qualities, which are in themselves merits of a high 
order, may be rendered unbecoming by the special 
circumstances of the case. For example, when a 49 
man is accused on a capital charge, and, above all, 
if he is defending himself before his conqueror or 
his sovereign, it would be quite intolerable for him 
to indulge in frequent metaphors, antique or newly- 
coined words, rhythms as far removed as possible 
from the practice of every-day speech, rounded 
periods, florid commonplaces and ornate reflexions. 
Would not all these devices destroy the impression 
of anxiety which should be created by a man in 
such peril, and rob him of the succour of pity, on 
which even the innocent are forced to rely ? Would 60 
any man be moved by the sad plight of one who 
revealed himself as a vainglorious boaster, and 
ostentatiously flaunted the airs and graces of his 
eloquence at a moment when his fate hung in 
suspense ? Would he not rather hate the man who, 
despite his position as accused, hunted for fine 
words, showed himself concerned for his reputation 
as a clever speaker, and found time at such a 
moment to display his eloquence? 1 consider that 51 

183 



QUINTILIAN 

sione causae, qua reus de vi fuit, comprehendisse 
videtur mihi : Ne cut vestntm atque etiam omnium, qui 
ad rem agendam adsunf, metis ant vultus molestior attt vox 
ifnmoderatior aUqua aut denique, quod minimum est, 

62 iactantior gestus fuisse videatur. Atqui sunt quaedam 
actiones in satisfactione, deprecatione, confessione 
positae : sententiolisne flendum erit? epiphonemata 
aut enthymemata exorabunt ? Non, quidquid meris 
adiicietur adfectibus, omnes eorum diluet vires et 

63 miserationem securitate laxabit ? Age, si de morte 
filii sui vel iniuria, quae morte sit gravior, dicendum 
patri fuerit, aut in narrando gratiam illam exposi- 
tionis, quae continget ex sermone puro atque dilucido, 
quaeret, breviter ac significanter ordinem rei protu- 
lisse contentus, aut argumenta diducet in digitos et 
propositionum ac partitionum captabit leporem et, 
ut plerumque in hoc genere moris est, intentione 

64 omni remissa loquetur? Quo fugerit interim dolor 
ille ? ubi lacrimae substiterint ? unde se in medium 
tam secura observatio artium miserit? Non ab 
exordio usque ad ultimam vocem continuus quidam 
gemitus et idem tristitiae vultus servabitur, si quidem 
volet dolorem suum etiam in audientes transfundere ? 
quem si usquam remiserit, in animum iudicantium 

iii' A form of Byllogism. See v. xiv. 1. 

• See VIII. V. 11. "An exclamation attached to the close 
of a statement or a proof by way of climax." 



BOOK XI. I. 51-54 

Marcus Caelius, in the speech in which he defended 
himself against a charge of breach of the peace, showed 
a wonderful grasp ol these facts, when he said : " I 
trust that none of you gentlemen, or of all those 
who have come to plead against me, will find offence 
in my mien or insolence in my voice, or, though that 
is a comparative trifle, any trace of arrogance in 
my gesture." But there are some cases where the 62 
success of the pleader depends on apology, entreaties 
for mercy, or confession of error. Can sorrow be 
expressed in epigram .'' Or will enthymemes ^ or 
epiphonemata ^ avail to win the judge's mercy ? Will 
not all embellishment of pure emotion merely im- 
pair its force and dispel compassion by such a display 
of apparent unconcern ? Or, suppose that a father 63 
has to speak of his son's death, or of some wrong 
that is worse than death, will he, in making his state- 
ment of facts, seek to achieve that grace in exposi- 
tion which is secured by purity and lucidity of 
language, and content himself with setting forth 
his case in due order with brevity and meaning.'' 
Or will he count over the heads of his argument 
upon his fingers, aim at niceties of division and 
proposition, and speak without the least energy of 
feeling as is usual in such portions of a speech? 
Whither will his grief have fled while he is thus 54 
engaged } Where has the fountain of his tears been 
stayed .'' How came this callous attention to the 
rules of text-books to obtrude itself? Will he not 
rather, from his opening words to the very last he 
utters, maintain a continuous voice of lamentation 
and a mien of unvaried woe, if he desires to trans- 
plant his grief to the hearts of his audience ? For 
if he once remits aught of his passion of grief, he 

VOL. IV. G '^5 



QUINTILIAN 

55 non reducet. Quod praecipue declamantibus (neque 
enim me paenitet ad hoc quoque opus meum et 
curam susceptorum semel adolescentium respicere) 
custodienduni est, quo plures in schola finguntur 
adfectus, quos non ut advocati, sed ut passi subimus. 

56 Cum etiam hoc genus simulari Htium soleat, cum ius 
mortis a senatu quidam ob aliquam magnam infelici- 
tatem vel etiam paenitentiam petunt, in quibus non 
solum cantare, quod vitium pervasit, aut lascivire, 
sed ne argumentari quidem nisi mixtis, et quidem 
ita ut ipsa probatione magis emineant, adfectibus 
decet. Nam qui intermittere in agendo dolorem 
potest, videtur posse etiam deponere. 

57 Nescio tamen an huius, de quo loquimur, decoris 
custodia maxime circa eos, contra quos dicimus, 
examinanda sit. Nam sine dubio in omnibus statim 
accusationibus hoc agendum est, ne ad eas libenter 
deseendisse videamur. Ideoque mihi illud Cassii 
$everi, uon mediocriter displicet: Di honi, vivo; el, 



* VII. iv. 39. It is said that poison was provided by the 
state of Massilia to serve the turn of such unhappy persons, 
8o soon as they could convince the local senate that their 
proposed suicide was justifiable. 

^ Cp. I. viii. 2. 

• Cp. X. i. 22. In 9 B.C. he accused Nonius Asprenas, a 
friend of Augustus, of the crime of poisoning. Asprenas 
was defended by PoUio, and supported by Augustus during 
his trial. 

i86 



BOOK XI. 1. 54-57 

will never be able to recall it to the hearts of them 
that hear him. This is a point which declaimers, 56 
above all, must be careful to bear in mind : I 
mention this because I have no compunction in 
referring to a branch of the art which was once also 
wy own, or in reverting to the consideration of the 
youthful students such as once were in my charge : 
the declaim er, I repeat, must bear this in mind, 
since in the schools we often feign emotions that 
affect us not as advocates, but as the actual sufferers. 
For example, we even imagine cases where persons, 66 
either because of some overwhelming misfortune or 
repentance for some sin, demand from the senate the 
right to make an end of their lives ; ^ and in these 
cases it is obviously unbecoming not merely to adopt 
a chanting intonation,^ a fault which has also become 
almost universal, or to use extravagant language, 
but even to argue without an admixture of emotional 
appeal, so managed as to be even more prominent 
than the proof which is advanced. For the man 
who can lay aside his grief for a moment while he 
is pleading, seems capable even of laj-ing it aside 
altogether 

I am not sure, however, that it is not in our 67 
attitude towards our opponents that this care for 
decorum, which we are now discussing, should be ■ 
most rigorously maintained. For there can be na 
doubt, that in all accusations our first aim should 
be to give the impression that it is only with the 
greatest reluctance that we have consented to under- 
take the role of accuser. Consequently, I strongly 
disapprove of such remarks as the following which 
was made by Cassius Severus:^ "Thank Heaven, I 
am still alive ; and that I may find some savour in 

i8y 



QUINTILIAN 

quo me vivere iuvei, Asprenatem reum video. Non enim 
iusta ex causa vel necessaria videri potest postulasse 

58 eum, sed quadam accusaiidi voluptate. Praeter hoc 
tamen, quod est commune, propriam moderationem 
quaedam causae desiderant. Quapropter et, qui 
curationem bonorum patris postulabit, doleat eius 
valetudinem ; et quamlibet gravia filio pater obiec- 
tvrrus miserrimam sibi ostendat esse banc ipsam 
necessitatem, nee hoc paucis modo verbis, sed toto 
colore actionis, ut id eum non dicere modo, sed 

59 etiam yere dicere appareat. Nee causanti pupil lo 
^e tutor irascatur unquam, ut non remaneant amoris 
vestigia et sacra quaedam patris eius memoria. lam 
quomodo contra abdicantem patrem, querentem 
uxorem, agi causam oporteret, in libro, ut arbitror, 
septimo dixi. Quando etiam ipsos loqui, quandb 
advocati voce uti deceat, quartus liber, in quo 
prooemii praecepta sunt, continet. 

60 Esse et in verbis quod deceat aut turpe sit, 
liehiini dubium est. Unum iam igitur huic loco, 
quod est sane summae difficultatis, adiiciendum 



* The imagined case would be as follows. The father dis- 
inherits the son for an alleged offence. The sou accuses the 
father of madness and demands a curator, etc. 
I* yjl.^ iv. 24. • IV. i. 46. 



BOOK XL I. 57-60 

life, I see Asprenas arraigned for his crimes." For, 
after this, it is impossible to suppose that he had 
just or necessary reasons for accusing Asprenas, and 
we cannot help suspecting that his motive was sheer 
delight in accusation. But, beside this considera- 68 
tion, which applies to all cases, there is the further 
point that certain cases demand special moderation. 
Therefore, a man who demands the appointment of 
a curator for his father's property, should express his 
grief at his father's affliction ; and, however grave be 
the charges that a father may be going to bring 
against his son, he should emphasize the painful 
nature of the necessity that is imposed upon him.^ 
And this he should do not merely in a few brief . 
words, but his emotion should colour his whole 
speech, so that it may be felt not merely that he 
is speaking, but that he is speaking the truth. 
Again, if a ward make allegations against his 59 
guardian, the latter must never give way to such 
anger that no trace is left of his former love or 
of a certain reverent regard for the memory of his 
opponent's father. I have already spoken, in the 
seventh book, I think,* of the way in which a case 
should be pleaded against a father who disinherits 
his son, or a wife who brings a charge of ill-treatr 
ment against her husband, while the fourth book,' 
in which 1 prescribed certain rules for the exordium^ 
contains my instructions as to when it is becoming 
that the parties should speak themselves, and when 
they should employ an advocate to speak for them. 

It will be readily admitted by everyone that 60 
words may be becoming or offensive in themselves. 
There is therefore a further point, which presents 
the most serious difficulty^ that requires notice in 

189 



QUINTILIAN 

videtur, quibus modis ea, quae sunt natura parum 
speciosa qiiaeque non dicere, si utrumlibet esset 
liberum, maluissemus, non tamen sint indecora dicen- 

61 tibus. Quid asperiorem habere frontem potest aut 
quid aures hominum magis respuunt, quam cum est 
filio filiive advocatis in matrem perorandum? Ali- 
quando tamen necesse est, ut in causa Cluentii 
Habiti. Sed non semper ilia via, qua contra Sasiam 
Cicero usus est ; non quia non ille optime, sed quia 
plurimum refert, qua in re et quo modo laedat. 

62 Itaque ilia, cum filii caput palam impugnaret, 
fortiter fuit repellenda. Duo tamen, quae sola 
supererant, divine Cicero seryavit, primum, ne obli- 
visceretur reverentiae, quae parentibus debetur; 
deinde ut, repetitis altius causis, diligentissime osten- 
deret, quam id, quod erat in matrem dicturus, non 
oporteret modo fieri, sed etiam necesse esset. 

63 Primaque haec expositio fuit, quanquam ad prae- 
sentem quaestionem nihil pertinebat. Adeo in causa 
difficili atque perplexa nihil prius intuendum credidit 
quam quid deceret. Fecit itaque nomen parentis 
non filio invidiosum, sed ipsi in quam dicebatur. 

64 Potest tamen aliquando mater et in re leviore aut 

^ See pro Clu. Ixi. 169 sqq. Sasia was Chientius' mother. 
* pro Clu. vi. 17. 



BOOK XI. I. 60-64 

this connexion : we must consider by what means 
things which are naturally unseemly and which, had 
we been given the choice, we should have preferred 
not to say, may be uttered without indecorum. 
What at first sight can be more unpleasing and what 61 
more revolting to the ears of men than a case in 
which a son or his advocate has to speak against his 
mother ? And yet sometimes it is absolutely neces- 
sary, as, for example, in the case of Cluentius Habitus.* 
But it is not always desirable to employ the method 
adopted by Cicero against Sasia,not because he did not 
make most admirable use of it, but because in such 
cases it makes the greatest difference what the point 
may be and what the manner in which the mother 
seeks to injure her son. In the case of Sasia she had 62 
openly sought to procure the destruction of her son, 
and consequently vigorous methods were justified 
against her. But there were two points, the only 
points which remained to be dealt with, that were 
handled by Cicero with consummate skill : in the 
first place, he does not forget the reverence that is 
due to parents, and in the second, after a thorough 
investigation of the history of the crime, he makes 
it clear that it was not merely right, but a positive 
necessity that he should say what he proposed to 
say against the mother. And he placed this ex- 63 
planation in the forefront of his case,^ although it 
had really nothing to do with the actual question at 
issue ; a fact which shows that his first consideration 
in that difficult and complicated case was the con- 
sideration of what was becoming for him to say. He 
therefore made the name of mother cast odium not 
on the son, but on her who was the object of his 
denunciations. It is, however, always possible that a 64 

191 



QUINTILIAN 

minus infeste contra filium stare ; turn lenior atque 
summissior decebit oratio. Nam et satisfaciendo aut 
nostram minuemus invidiam aut etiam in diversum 
cam transferemus ; et si graviter dolere filium palam 
fuerit, credetur abesse ab eo culpam fietque ultro 

65 miserabilis. Avertere quoque in alios crimen decet, 
ut fraude aliquorum concita credatur, et omnia nos 
passuroSj nihil aspere dicturos testandum, ut, etiamsi 
non possumus non conviciari, nolle videamur. Etiam, 
si quid obiiciendum erit, officium est patroni, ut id 
filio invito, sed fide cogente facere credatur. Ita 

66 poterit uterque laudari. Quod de matre dixi, de 
utroque parente accipiendum est ; nam inter patres 
etiam filiosque, cum intervenisset emancipatio, liti- 
gatum scio. In aliis quoque propinquitatibus custo- 
diendum est, ut inviti et necessario et parce iudicemur 
dixisse, magis autem aut minus, ut cuique personae 
debetur reverentia. Eadem pro libertis adversus 
patronos observantia. Et ut semel plura complectar, 

* I.e. from the patria potestas by a fictitious form of sale. 
103 



BOOK XI. I. 64-66 

mother may be her son's opponent in a case of less 
serious import, or at any rate in a way which involves 
less deadly hostility. Under such circumstances the 
orator must adopt a gentler and more restrained 
tone. For example, we may offer apology for the 
line which we take, and thus lessen the odium 
which we incur or even transfer it to a different 
quarter, while if it be obvious that the son is deeply 
grieved by the situation, it will be believed that he 
is blameless in the matter and he will even become 
an object of pity. It will also be desirable to throw 65 
the blame on others, so that it may be believed that 
the mother's action was instigated by their malice, 
and to assert that we will put up with every form of 
provocation, and will say nothing harsh in reply, so 
that, even although strong language may be abso- 
lutely necessary on our part, we may seem to be 
driven to use it against our will. Nay, if some 
charge has to be made against the mother, it will be 
the advocate's task to make it seem that he does so 
against the desire of the son and from a sense of 
duty to his client. Thus both son and advocate will 
win legitimate praise. What I have said about 66 
mothers will apply to either parent; for I have 
known of litigation taking place between fathers 
and sons as well, after the emancipation ^ of the son. 
And when other relationships are concerned, we 
must take care to create the impression that we 
have spjoken with reluctance and under stress of 
necessity and that we have been forbearing in our 
language ; but the importance of so doing will vary 
according to the respect due to the persons con- 
cerned. The same courtesy should be observed in 
speaking on behalf of freedmen against their patrons. 

193 



QUINTILIAN 

nunquam decebit sic adversus tales agere personas, 
quomodo contra nos agi ab hominibus condicionis 

67 eiusdem iniquo animo tulissemus. Praestatur hoc 
aliquando etiam dignationibus, ut libertatis nostrae 
ratio reddatur, ne quis nos aut petulantes in lae- 
dendis eis aut etiam ambitiosos putet. Itaque 
Ciceroj quanquam erat in Cottam gravissime dicturus, 
neque aliter agi P. Oppii causa poteratj longa tamen 

68 praefatione excusavit officii sui necessitatem. Ali- 
quando etiam inferioribus praecipueque adolescentulis 
parcere aut videri decet. Utitur hac moderatione 
Cicero pro Caelio contra Atratinum^ ut eum non 
inimice corripere, sed paene patrie monere videatur. 
Nam et nobilis et iuvenis et non iniusto dolore 
venerat ad accusandum. 

Sed in his quidem, in quibus vel iudici vel etiam 
adsistentibus ratio nostrae moderationis probari 
debet, minor est labor ; illic plus difficultatis, ubi 

69 ipsos, contra quos dicimus, veremur ofFendere, Duae 
simul huiusmodi personae Ciceroni pro Murena di- 
centi obstiterunt, M. Catonis Serviique Sulpicii. 
Quam decenter tamen Sulpicio, cum omnes con- 
cessisset virtutes, scientiam petendi consulatus 

* Cp. V. xiii. 20. P. Oppius, quaestor to M. Aureliua 
Cotta in Bithynia, was charged by Cotta in a letter to the 
Senate with misappropriation of supplies for his troops and 
with an attempt on his life. The speech in which Cicera 
defended Oppius (69 B.C.) is lost. 

^ See opening sections of ^ro Caelio, 

m 



BOOK XI. I. 66-69 

In fact, to sum up, it will never become us to plead 
against such persons in a tone which we ourselves 
should have resented in the mouth of men of like 
condition. The same respect is on occasion due to 67 
persons of high rank, and it may be necessary to 
offer justification for our freedom of speech to avoid 
giving the impression that we have shown ourselves 
insolent or ostentatious in our attack ujK)n such 
persons. Consequently Cicero, although he intended 
to speak against Cotta ^ with the utmost vehemence, 
and indeed the case of Publius Oppius was such that 
he could not do otherwise, prefaced his attack by 
pleading at some length the necessity imposed upon 
him by his duty to his client. Sometimes, again, it 68 
will beseem us to spare or seem to spare our inferiors, 
more especially if they be young. Cicero ^ gives an 
example of such moderation in the way in which he 
deals with Atratinus in his defence of Caelius : he 
does not lash him like an enemy, but admonishes 
him almost like a father. For Atratinus was of 
noble birth and young, and the grievance which led 
him to bring the accusation was not unreasonable. 

But the task is comparatively easy in those cases 
in which it is to the judge, or even, it may be, to our 
audience that we have to indicate the reason for our 
moderation. The real difficulty arises when we are 
afraid of offending those against whom we are 
speaking. The difficulties of Cicero when defending 69 
Murena were increased by the fact that he was 
opposed by two persons of this character, namely 
Marcus Cato and Servius Sulpicius. And yet in 
what courteous language, after allowing Sulpicius all 
the virtues, he refuses to admit that he has any idea 
of the way to conduct a candidature for the consul- 

195 



QUINTILIAN 

ademit ? Quid enim aliud esset, quo se victum 
homo nobilis et iurls antistes magis ferret ? Ut 
vero rationem defensionis suae reddidit, cum se 
studuisse petitioni Sulpicii contra honorem Murenae, 

70 non idem debere accusationi contra caput diceret ! 
Quam moUi autem articulo tractavit Catonem I 
Cuius naturam summe admiratus non ipsius vitio, 
sed Stoicae sectae quibusdam in rebus factam du- 
riorem videri volebat ; ut inter eos non forensem 
contentionem, sed studiosam disputationem crederes 

71 incidisse. Haec est profecto ratio et certissimum 
praeceptorum genus lllius viri observatio, ut, cum 
allquid detrahere salva gratia velis, concedas alia 
omnia : in hoc solo vel minus peritum quam in 
ceteris, adiecta, si poterit fieri, etiam causa, cur id 
ita sit, vel paulo pertinaciorem vel credulum vel 

72 iratum^ vel impulsum ab aliis. Hoc enim commune 
remedium est, si in tota actione aequaliter appareat 

■v; non honof modo eius, sed etiam caritas. Praeterea 
causa sit nobis iusta sic dicendi, neque id moderate 

73 tantum feciamus, sed etiam necessario. Diversum ab 

* Pro Murtn. vii. 15, .. • Fro Muren. xxix. 60. . . 
196 



BOOK XI. I. 69-73 

ship.^ What else was there in which a man of high 
birth and a distinguislied lawyer would sooner 
admit his inferiority ? With what skill he sets forth 
his reasons for undertaking the defence of Murena, 
when he says that he supported Sulpicius' candi- 
dature as opposed to that of Murena, but did not 
regard that preference as reason why he should 
support him in bringing a capital charge against his 
rival ! And with what a light touch he deals with 70 
Cato ! 2 He has the highest admiration for his 
character and desires to show that the fact that in 
certain respects it has become severe and callous is due 
not to any personal fault, but to the influence of the 
Stoic school of philosophy ; in fact you would imagine 
that they were engaged not in a forensic dispute, 
but merely in some philosophical discussion. This 71 
is undoubtedly the right method, and the safest rule 
in such cases will be to follow the practice of Cicero, 
namely, that, when we desire to disparage a man 
without giving offence, we should allow him to be 
the possessor of all other virtues and point out that 
it is only in this one respect that he falls short of 
his high standard, while we should, if possible, add 
some reason why this should be so, such, for example^ 
as his being too obstinate or credulous or quick to 
anger, or acting under the influence of others. 
(For we may generally find a way out of such em- 72 
barrassments by making it clear throughout our 
whole speech that we not merely honour the object 
of our criticism, but even regard him with affection.) 
Further, we should have good cause for speaking thus 
and must do so not merely with moderation, but also 
give the impression that our action is due to the 
necessities of the case. A different situation arises, 73 

197 



QUINTILIAN 

hoc sed facilius, cum hominum aut alioqui turpium 
aut nobis invisorum quaedam facta laudanda sunt. 
Decet enim rem ipsam probare in qualicunque 
persona. Dixit Cicero pro Gabinio at P. Vatiiiio, 
inimicissimis antea sibi hominibus et in quos ora- 
tiones etiam scripserat, verum ait, ut sit iusta causa 
sic faciendi,^ non se de ingenii lama, sed de fide 

74 esse sollicitum. Difficilior ei ratio in iudicio Cluenti- 
ano fuit, cum Scamandrum necesse haberet dicere 
nocentem, cuius egerat causam. Verum id ele- 
gantissime cum eorum, a quibus ad se perductus 
esset, precibus, tum etiam adolescentia sua excusat, 
detracturus alioqui plurimum auctoritatis sibi,^ in 
causa praesertim suspecta, si eum se esse, qui temere 
nocentes reos susciperet, fateretur. 

75 Apud iudicem vero, qui aut erit inimicus aut 
propter aliquod commodum a causa, quam nos 
siisceperimus, aversus, ut persuadendi ardua ratio, 
ita dicendi expeditissima. Fiducia enim iustitiae 
eius et nostrae causae nihil nos timere simulabimus. 

- Ipse erit gloria inflandus, ut tanto clarior eius futura 
sit fides ac religio in pronuntiando, quanto minus 

* ait ut sit . . . sic faciendi, Halm : et iusta sit 
faciendi (and the like), MSS. 
• sibi, Halm : sicut, 6 : si, vulgo. 

» Ch. 17 sqq. 
198 



BOOK XI. I. 73-75 

but an easier one, when we have to praise the actions 
of men who are otherwise disreputable or hateful to 
ourselves : for it is only right that we should award 
praise where it is deserved, whatever the character 
of the person praised may be. Cicero spoke in 
defence of Gabinius and Publius Vatinius, both of 
them his deadly enemies and men against whom 
he had previously spoken and even published his 
speeches : but he justifies himself by declaring that 
he does so not because he is anxious for his repu- 
tation as an accomplished speaker, but because he is 
concerned for his honour. He had a more difficult 74 
task in his defence of Cluentius,^ as it was necessary 
for him to denounce Scamander's guilt, although he 
had previously appeared for him. But he excuses 
his action with the utmost grace, alleging the, 
importunity of those persons who had brought 
Scamander to him, and his own yoiith at the time, 
whereas it would have been a serious, blot on his 
reputation, especially in connexion with a case of the 
most dubious character, if he had admitted that he 
was one who was ready to undertake the defence of 
guilty persons without asking awkward questions. 

On the other hand, when we are pleading before 75 
a judge, who has special reasons for being hostile to 
us or is for some personal motive ill-disposed to the 
cause which we have undertaken, although it may 
be difficult to persuade him, the method which we 
should adopt in speaking is simple enough : we shall 
pretend that our confidence in his integrity and in 
the justice of our cause is such that we have no 
fears. We must play upon his vanity by pointing out 
that the less he indulges his own personal enmity 
or interest, the greater will be the reputation for 

199 



QUINTILIAN 

76 vel ofFensae vel utilitati suae indulserit. Hoc et 
apud eos, a quibus appellatum erit, si forte ad 
eosdem remittemur ; adiicienda ratio vel necessitatis 
alicuius^ si id causa concedit, vel erroris vel sus- 
picionis. Tutissimum ergo paenitentiae confessio 
et satisfactio culpae, perducend usque omni mode 

77 iudex ad irae pudorem. Accidit etiam nonnunquam 
ut eadem de ^ causa, de qua pronuntiarit, cognoscat 
iterum. Turn illud quidem commune : apud alium 
nos iudicem disputaturos de illius sententia non 
fuisse, neque enim emendari ab alio quam ipso fas 
esse ; ceterum ex causa, ut quaeque permittet, aut 
ignorata quaedam aut defuisse testes aut (quod 
timidissime et, si nihil aliud plane fuerit, dicendum 

78 est) patronos non sufFecisse succurret. Etiam, si 
apud alios iudices agetur, ut in secunda adsertione 
aut in centumviralibus iudiciis duplicibus, parte 
victa decentius erit, quotiens contigerit, servare 
iudicum pudorem ; de qua re latius probationum 
loco dictum est. 

Potest evenire, ut in aliis reprehendenda sint, 

* ut, added by Regius, de by Halm. 



* /. e. apologise for refusing to accept his original judge- 
ment. 

* v. ii. 1, where, as here, it is indicated that different 
portions of a case might be tried by two panels of centumviri 
sitting separately. The centumviral court dealt mainly with 
cases of inheritance. 

200 



BOOK XI. 1. 75-78 

conscientious rectitude that will accrue to iiini trom 
his verdict. The same method may be adopted if 76 
our case should chance to be sent back to the same 
judges from whom we have appealed : but we may 
further, if the case should permit, plead that we 
were forced to take the action which we did or were 
led to it by error or suspicion.^ The safest course 
will therefore be to express our regret, apologise for 
our fault and employ every means to induce the 
judge to feel compunction for his anger. It will 77 
also sometimes happen that a judge may have to try 
the same case on which he has previously given 
judgment. In such circumstances the method 
commonly adopted is to say that we should not 
have ventured to dispute his sentence before any 
other judge, since he alone would be justified in 
revising it : but (and in this we must be guided by 
the circumstances of the case) we may allege that 
certain facts were not known on the previous 
occasion or certain witnesses were unavailable, or, 
though this must be advanced with the utmost 
caution and only in the last resort, that our clients' 
advocates were unequal to their task. And even if 78 
we have to plead a case afresh before different 
judges, as may occur in a second trial of a claim to 
freedom or in cases in the centumviral courts, which 
are divided between two different panels, it will be 
most seemly, if we have lost our case before the first 
panel, to say nothing against the judges who tried 
the case on that occasion. But this is a subject 
with which I dealt at some length in the passage 
where I discussed proqfs.- 

It may happen that we have to censure actions in 
others, of which we have been guilty ourselves. 



QUINTILIAN 

quae ipsi fecerimus, ut obiicit Tubero Ligario, quod 

79 in Africa fuerit. Et ambitus quidam damnati re- 
cuperandae dignitatis gratia reos eiusdem criminis 
detulerunt, ut in scholis luxuriantem patrem luxu- 
riosus ipse iuvenis accusat. Id quomodo decenter 
fieri possit, equidem non invenio, nisi aliquid repe- 
ritur, quod intersit, persona, aetas, tempus, causa, 

80 locus, animus. Tubero, iuvenem se patri haesisse, 
ilium a senatu missum non ad bellum, sed ad fru- 
mentum coemendum ait, ut primum licuerit, a 
partibus recessisse ; Ligarium et perseverasse et non 
pro Cn. Pompeio, inter quem et Caesarem dignitatis 
fuerit contentio, cum salvam uterque rem publicam 
vellet, sed pro luba atque Afris inimicissimis populo 

81 Romano stetisse. Ceterum vel facillimum est, ibi 
alienam culpam incusare, ubi fateris tuam. Verum 
id iam indicis est, non actoris. Quodsi nulla con- 
tingit excusatio, sola colorem habet paenitentia. 
Potest enim videri satis emendatus, qui in odium 

82 eorum, in quibus erraverat, ipse con versus est. Sunt 
enim casus quidam, qui hoc natui'a ipsa rei non 
indecens faciant : ut cum pater ex meretrice natum, 
quod duxerit ^ meretricem in matrimonium, abdicat ; 

* meretrice . . . duxerit, added by ed. Camp. 

* See V. X. 108 note and with reference to ^ro Clu. xxxvi. 
98. 

2oa 



BOOK XL I. 78-82 

as, for example, when Tubero charges Ligarius 
with having been in Africa. Again, there have 79 
been cases where persons condemned for bribery 
have indicted others for the same offence with a 
view to recovering their lost position : ^ for this 
the schools provide a parallel in the theme where 
a luxurious youth accuses his father of the same 
offence. I do not see how this can be done with 
decorum unless we succeed in discovering some 
difference between the two cases, such as character, 
age, motives, circumstances of time and place or 
intention. Tubero, for example, alleges that he 80 
was a young man at the time and went thither 
in the company of his father, who had been sent by 
the senate not to take part in the war, but to pur- 
chase com, and further that he left the f)arty as 
soon as he could, whereas Ligarius clung to the 
party and gave his support, not to Gnaeus Pom- 
peius, who was engaged with Caesar in a struggle 
for the supreme power, though both wished to 
preserve the state, but to Juba and the Africans 
who were the sworn enemies of Rome. The easiest 81 
course, however, is to denounce another's guilt, while 
admitting our own in the same connexion. How- 
ever, that is the part of an informer, not of a 
pleader. But if there is no excuse available, peni- 
tence is our only hope. For the man who is 
converted to the hatred of his own errors, may 
perhaps be regarded as sufficiently reformed. For 82 
there are occasionally circumstances which from 
the very nature of tfie case may make such an 
attitude not unbecoming, as, for example, in the 
case where the father disinherits a son bom of a 
harlot because that son has married a harlot, a case 

203 



QUINTILIAN 

scholastica materia sed non quae in foro non possit 
accidere. Hie igitur miilta non deformiter dicet : 
vel quod omnium sit votum parentum, ut honestiores 
quam sint ipsi liberos habeant, (nam et si filia nata, 
meretrix earn mater pudicam esse voluisset) vel 
quod humilior ipse fuerit, (licet enim huic ducere) ^ 

83 vel quod non habuerit patrem qui moneret ; quin eo 
minus id faciendum filio fuisse, ne renovaret domus 
pudorem et exprobraret patri nuptias, matri prioris 
vitae necessitatem, ne denique legem quandam suis 
quoque rursum ^ liberis daret. Credibilis erit etiam 
propi'ia quaedam in ilia meretrice turpitudo, quam 
nunc hie pater ferre non possit. Alia praetereo ; 
neque enim nunc declamamus, sed ostendimus 
nonnunquam posse dicentem ipsis incommodis 
bene uti. 

84 Illic maior aestus, ubi quis pudenda queritur, ut 
stuprum, praecipue in maribus, aut os profanatum. 
Non dico^ si loquatur ipse ; nam quid aliud ei quam 
gemitus ac fletus et exsecratio vitae conveniat, ut 
index intelligat potius dolorem ilium quam audiat ? 
Sed patrono quoque per similes adfectus eundum 

''^''^ huic ducere, Spalding : hoc ducere or dicere, M88. 
■ rursum, J?a^m : sum, O: auhinde, vulgo. 

* The lex lulex de maritandis ordinihus (18 B.C.) forbade 
the marriage of a senator with a prostitute. 

?e4 



BOOK XI. I. 82-84 

which, although it forms a scholastic theme, might 
actually arise in a court of law. There are a number ' 
of pleas which the father may put forward with 
becoming effect. He will say that it is the prayer 83 
of all parents that their sons should be better men 
than themselves (for example, if a daughter also 
had been born to him, the harlot, her mother, 
would have wished her to be chaste), or that he 
himself was in a humbler position (for a man in 
such a position is permitted to marry a harlot),^ or 
that he had no father to warn him ; and further 
that there was an additional reason against his son's 
conduct, namely, that he should not revive the old 
family scandal nor reproach his father with his 
marriage and his mother with the hard necessity 
of her former life, nor give a bad example to his 
own children in their turn. We may also plausibly 
suggest that there is some particularly shameful 
feature in the character of the harlot married by 
the son, which the father cannot under existing 
circumstances tolerate. There are other possible 
arguments which I pass by : for I am not now 
engaged in declamation, but am merely pointing 
out that there are occasions when the speaker may 
turn his own drawbacks to good account. 

More arduous difficulties confront us when we have 84 
to deal with a complaint of some shameful act such 
as rape, more especially when this is of an un- 
natural kind. I do not refer to cases when the 
victim himself is speaking. For what should he do 
but groan and weep and curse his existence, so that 
the judge will understand his grief rather than hear 
it articulately expressed .'' But the victim's advocate 
will have to exhibit similar emotions, since the 

265 



QUINTILIAN 

erit, quia hoc iniuriae genus verecundius est fateri ^ 

85 passis quam ausis. Mollienda est in plerisque alio 
colore asperitas orationis, ut Cicero de proscriptorum 
liberis fecit. Quid enim crudelius quam homines 
honestis parentibus ac maioribus natos a re publica 
summoveri? Itaque durum id esse summus ille 
tractandorum aniraorum artifex confitetur, sed ita 
legibus SuUae cohaerere statum civitatis adfirmat, ut 
iis solutis stare ipsa non possit. Adsecutus itaque 
est, ut aliquid eorum quoque causa videretur facere 

86 contra quos diceret. Illud etiam in iocis monui, 
quam turpis esset fortunae insectatio, et ne in totos 
ordiues aut gentes aut populos petulantia incurreret. 
Sed interim fides patrocinii cogit quaedam de uni- 
verso genere aliquorum hominum dicere, liber- 
tinorum vel militum vel publicanorum vel similiter 

87 aliorum. In quibus omnibus commune remedium 
est, ut ea, quae laedunt, non libenter tractare vi- 
dearis nee in omnia impetum facias, sed in id quod 
expugnandum est, et reprehendens alia laude com- 

88 penses : si cupidos milites dicas, - sed non mirum, 

^ fateri, added hy Hcdm. 

• cupidos milites dicas, sed, Spalding : cupidum dedi- 
casset, G. 

^ Now lost. 

' Cicero argued that it was better that a few should suffer 
unjustly than that the state should be upset by admitting 
them to oflBce. But he admitted that their case was hard 
and suggested that it was better for them to live in an 
orderly state than run the risks in which revolution would 
involve them as well as others. ' vi. iii. 28. 

8o6 



BOOK XI. I. 84-88 

admission of such wrongs cause more shame to tlie 
sufferer than the criminal. In many cases it is 85 
desirable to soften the harshness of our language 
by the infusion of a more conciliatory tone, as, for 
example, Cicero did in his speech ^ dealing with 
the children of the proscribed. What fate could 
be more cruel than that the children of men of 
good birth and the descendants of distinguished 
ancestors should be excluded from participation 
in public life .'* For this reason that supreme artist 
in playing on the minds of men admits that it is 
hard, but asserts that the constitution is so essenti- 
ally dependent on the laws of Sulla, that their 
repeal would inevitably involve its destruction. 
Thus he succeeded in creating the impression that 
he was doing something on behalf of those very 
persons against whom he spoke.^ I have already ^ 86 
pointed out, in dealing with the subject of jests, 
how unseemly it is to take the position in life of 
individuals as the target for our gibes, and also 
have urged that we should refrain from insulting 
whole classes, races or communities. But at times 
our duty toward our client will force us to say 
something on the general character of a whole 
class of people, such as freedmen, soldiers, tax- 
farmers or the like. In all these cases the usual 87 
remedy is to create the impression that it is with 
reluctance that we introduce topics which must 
give pain, while further we shall avoid attacking 
everything, and even while using the language 
of reproof with regard to the essential point of 
attack, shall make up for our censure by praising 
our victims in some other connexion. For example, 88 
if we charge soldiers with rapacity, we shall 

207 



QUINTILIAN 

quod periculorum ac sanguinis maiora sibi deberi 
praemia putent ; eosdem petulantes, sed hoc fieri, 
quod bellis magis quam paci consuerint. Libertinis 
detrahenda est auctoritas ; licet iis testimonium red- 

89 dere industriae, per quam exierint de servitute. Quod 
ad nationes exteras pertinet, Cicero varie : de- 
tracturus Graecis testibus fidem, doctrinam iis 
concedit ac litteras, seque eius gentis amatorem 
esse profitetur, Sardos contemnit, Allobrogas ut 
hostes insectatur ; quorum nihil tunc, cum di- 
ceretur, parum aptum aut remotum cura decoris 

90 fuit, Verborum etiam moderatione detrahi solet, 
si qua est rei invidia : si asperum dicas nimium 
severum, iniustum persuasione labi, pertinacem ultra 
modum tenacem esse propositi ; plerumque velut 
ipsos coneris ratione vincere, quod est mollissimum. 

91 Indecorum est super haec omne nimium, ideoque 
etiam quod natura rei satis aptum est, nisi modo 
quoque temperatur, gratiam perdit. Cuius rei 



* E.g. pro Flacco xxvi. 

2 In a fragment of pro Scauro. 

* pro Font. viii. 

208 



BOOK XI. I. 88-91 

qualify our statement by saying that the fact is not 
surprising, as they think that they are entitled to 
some special reward for the perils they have faced 
and the wounds they have sustained. Or, if we 
censure them for insolence, we shall add that this 
quality is due to the fact that they are more 
accustomed to war than to peace. In the case of 
freedmen we should disparage their influence : but 
we may also give them credit for the industry 
which secured their emancipation. With regard 89 
to foreign nations, Cicero's practice varies. When 
he intends to disparage the credibility of Greek 
witnesses he admits their distinction in learning 
and literature and professes his admiration for their 
nation.^ On the other hand, he has nothing but 
contempt for the Sardinians ^ and attacks the Allo- 
broges as the enemies of Rome.^ In all these cases 
none of his remarks, at the time they were made, 
were inconsistent with or adverse to the claims of 
decorum. If there be anything offensive in the 90 
subject on which we have to speak, it may be 
toned down by a studied moderation in our lan- 
guage ; for example, we may describe a brutal char- 
acter as being unduly severe, an unjust man as led 
astray by prejudice, an obstinate man as unreason- 
ably tenacious of his opinion. And there are a 
large number of cases where we should attempt to 
defeat our opponents by reasoning, which forms the 
gentlest of all methods of attack. 

To these remarks I would add that all extra va- 91 
^ance of any kind is indecorous, and consequently 
statements which are in sufficient harmony with the 
facts will none the less lose all their grace unless 
they are modified by a certain restraint. It is hard 

209 



QUINTILIAN 

observatio iudicio magis quodam sentiri quam prae- 
ceptis tradi potest, quantum satis sit et quantum 
recipiant aures. Non habet res mensuram et quasi 
pondus, quia ut in cibis alia aliis magis complent. 

92 Adiiciendum etiam breviter videtur, quod fit ut ^ 
dicendi virtutes diversissimae non solum suos 
amatores habeant, sed ab eisdem saepe laudentur. 
Nam Cicero quodam loco scribit, id esse optimum, 
quod, cum te facile credideris consequi imitatione, 
non possis. Alio vero, non id egisse, ut ita diceret, 
quomodo se quilibet posse confideret, sed quomodo 

93 nemo. Quod potest pugnare inter se videri. Verum 
utrumque ac merito laudatur ; causarum enim ^ modo 
distat, quia simplicitas ilia et velut securitas in- 
adfectatae orationis mire tenues causas decet, maiori- 
bus illud admirabile dicendi genus magis convenit. 
In utroque eminet Cicero ; ex quibus alterum 
imperiti se posse consequi credent, neutrum, qui 
intelligunt. 

II. Memoriam quidam naturae modo esse munus 
existimaverunt, estque in ea non dubie plurimum, 

» fit ut, Halm : fiat, M8S. 

• causarum enim, Spalding : causa enim enim, Q, 

^ See Or. xxiii. 76. In this and the next passage Quin- 
tilian does not quote, but paraphrases. 
' See Or. xxviii. 97. 

2IO 






BOOK XL I 91-11. I 

to give rules as to the exact method in which this 
precept should be observed, but the problem will 
easily be solved by following the dictates of our own 
judgement, which will tell us what it is sufficient to 
say and how much the ears of our audience will 
tolerate. We cannot weigh or measure our words 
by fixed standards : they are like foods, some of 
which are more satisfying than others. 

I think I should also add a few brief words to the 92 
effect that not only very different rhetorical virtues 
have their special admirers, but that they are often 
praised by the same persons. For instance, there is 
one passage ^ in Cicero where he writes that the 
best style is that which we think we can easily 
acquire by imitation, but which we find is really 
beyond our powers. But in another passage - he 
says that his aim was not to speak in such a manner 
that everyone should be confident that he could do 
the same, but rather in a style that should be the 
despair of all. These two statements may seem to 93 
be inconsistent, but as a matter of fact both alike 
deserve the praise which they receive. The differ- 
ence is due to the fact that cases differ in character. 
Those of minor importance are admirably suited by 
the simplicity and negligence of unaffected lan- 
guage, whereas cases of greater moment are best 
suited by the grand style. Cicero is pre-eminent in 
both. Now while eminence in one of these stvles 
may seem to the inexperienced to be within their 
grasp, those who understand know that they are 
capable of eminence in neither. 

II. Some regard memory as being no more than 
one of nature's gifts ; and this view is no doubt true 
to a great extent ; but, like everything else, memory 

311 



QUINTILIAN 

sed ipsa excolendo sicut alia omnia augetur; et 
totus, de quo diximus adhuc, inanis est labor, nisi 
ceterae partes hoc velut spiritu continentur. Nam 
et omnis disciplina memoria constat, frustraque 
docemur, si quidquid audimus praeterfluat ; et exem- 
plorum, legum, responsorum, dictorum denique 
factorumque velut quasdam copias, quibus abundare 
quasque in promptu semper habere debet orator, 
eadem ilia vis praesentat. Neque immerito thesaurus 

2 hie eloquentiae dicitur. Sed non firme tantum 
continere, verum etiam cite percipere multa acturos 
oportet, nee quae scripseris mode iterata lectione 
complecti, sed in cogitatis quoque rerum ac verborum 
contextum sequi, et quae sint ab adversa parte dicta 
meminisse, nee utique ea, quo dicta sunt ordine, 

3 refutare, sed opportunis locis ponere. Quid ? extem- 
poralis oratio non alio mihi videtur mentis vigore 
constare. Nam dum alia dicimus, quae dicturi 
sumus intuenda sunt. Ita, cum semper cogitatio 
ultra eat,* id quod est longius quaerit, quidquid 
autem repperit quodam modo apud memoriam 
deponit ; quod ilia quasi media quaedam manus 

^ ultra eat id. Halm : ultre ad id, G : ultra id, codd. Mon. 

Argentorat. 

312 



BOOK XI. 11. 1-3 

may \ye improved by cultivation. And all the labour 
of which I have so far spoken will be in vain unless 
all the other departments be co-ordinated by the 
animating principle of memory. For our whole 
education depends upon memory, and we shall 
receive instruction all in vain if all we hear slips 
from us, while it is the power of memory alone 
that brings before us all the store of precedents, 
laws, rulings, sayings and facts which the orator 
must possess in abundance and which he must 
always hold ready for immediate use. Indeed 
it is not without good reason that memory has 
been called the treasure-house of eloquence. But 2 
pleaders need not only to be able to retain a number 
of facts in their minds, but also to be quick to take 
them in ; it is not enough to learn what you have 
written by dint of repeated reading; it is just as 
necessary to follow the order both of matter and 
words when you have merely thought out what you 
are going to say, while you must also remember 
what has been said by your opponents, and must 
not be content merely with refuting their arguments 
in the order in which they were advanced, but must 
be in a position to deal with each in its appropriate 
place. Nay, even extempore eloquence, in my 3 
opinion, depends on no mental activity so much 
as memory. For while we are saying one thing, we 
must be considering something else that we are 
going to say : consequently, since the mind is always 
looking ahead, it is continually in search of some- 
thing which is more remote : on the other hand, 
whatever it discovers, it deposits by some mysterious 
process in the safe-keeping of memory, which acts 
as a transmitting agent and hands on to the delivery 

ai3 



QUINTILIAN 

4 acceptum ab inventione tradit elocutioni. Non 
arbitror aiitem mihi in hoc immorandum, quid sit 
quod memoriam faciat, quanquam plerique imprimi 
quaedam vestigia animo, velut in ceris anulorum 
signa serventur, existimant. Neque ero tam credu- 
lus, ut, qui ' habitu tardiorem firmioremque memoriam 
fieri videam, ei artem quoque audeam impertire.^ 

5 Magis admirari naturam subit, tot res vetustas tanto ex 
intervallo repetitas reddere se et offerre, nee tantum 
requirentibus sed etiam sponte interim, nee vigil- 

6 antibus sed etiam quiete compositis : eo magis, quod 
ilia quoque animal ia, quae carere intellectu videntur, 
meminerunt et agnoscunt et quamlibet longo itinere 
deducta ad adsuetas sibi sedes revertuntur. Quid ? 
non haec varietas mira est, excidere proxima, Vetera 
inhaerere ? hesternorum immemores acta pueritiae 

7 recordari ? Quid quod quaedam requisita se oc- 
cultant et cadem forte succurrunt? nee manet 
semper metiioria, sed aliquando etiam redit ? Nesci- 
retur tamen, quanta vis esset eius, quanta divinitas 
ilia, nisi in hoc lumen vim ^ orandi extulisset. Non 

8 enim rerum modo sed etiam verborum ordinem 

* qui . . . fieri videam, Spalding : quam . . . fieri, MSS. 

■ ei artem quoque audeam impertire, Spalding t et actem 
{or autem) quoque ad animum pertire (pertinere or partire) 
MSS. 

■•' vim, added by Regius. a 

ai4 



BOOK XI. II. 3-8 

what it has received from the imagination. I do 4 
not conceive, however, that I need dwell upon the 
question of the precise function of memory, although 
many hold the view that certain impressions are 
made upon the mind, analogous to those which a 
signet-ring makes on wax. Nor, again, shall I be so 
credulous, in view of the fact that the retentiveness 
or slowness of the memory depends upon our 
physical condition, as to venture to allot a special 
art to memory. My inclination is rather to marvel 5 
at its powers of reproducing and presenting a 
number of remote facts after so long an interval, 
and, what is more, of so doing not merely when we 
seek for such facts, but even at times of its own 
accord, and not only in our waking moments, but 
even when we are sunk in sleep. And my wonder is 6 
increased by the fact that even beasts, which seem to 
be devoid of reason, yet remember and recognise 
things, and will return to their old home, however far 
they have been taken from it. Again, is it not an . 
extraordinary inconsistency that we forget recent and * 
remember distant events, that we cannot recall what 
happened yesterday and yet retain a vivid impression 
of the acts of our childhood .'' And what, again, shall 7 
we say of the fact that the things we search for 
frequently refuse to present themselves and then 
occur to us by chance, or that memory does not 
always remain with us, but wUl even sometimes 
return to us after it has been lost ? But we should 
never have realised the fullness of its power nor its 
supernatural capacities, but for the fact that it is 
memory which has brought oratory to its present 
position of glory. For it provides the orator not 8 
merely with the order of his thoughts, but even of 

215 



QUINTILIAN 

praestat, nee ea pauea eontexit, sed durat prope in 
infinitum, et in longissimis actionibus prius audiendi 
9 patientia quam memoriae fides deficit. Quod et 
ipsum argumentum est subesse artem aliquam iu- 
varique ratione naturam, cum idem docti facere 
illud, indocti inexercitatique non possimus. Quan- 
quam invenio apud Platonem obstare memoriae usum 
litterarum, videlicet quoniam ilia, quae scriptis 

10 reposuimus, velut custodire desinimus et ipsa securi- 
tate dimittimus. Nee dubium est quin plurimum 
in hac pai-te valeat mentis intentio et velut acies 
luminum a prospectu rerum, quas intuetur, non 
aversa. Unde accidit, ut quae per plures dies 
scribimus ediscendi causa, cogitatione ^ ipsa con- 
tineamus.2 

11 Artem autem memoriae primus ostendisse dicitur 
Simonides. Cuius vulgata fabula est : cum pugili 
coronate carmen, quale componi victoribus solet, 
mercede pacta scripsisset, abnegatam ei pecuniae 
partem, quod more poetis frequentissimo digressus 
in laudes Castoris ac Pollucis exierat. Quapropter 
partem ab iis petere, quorum facta celebrasset, iube- 

* causa, cogitatione, early edd. : sint cogitationes, M88. 
' coutineamus, Slothouwer : contineat, MS8. 

» Phacdr. 275 A. • See x. i. 64. 

2l6 



BOOK XI. II. 8-1 1 

his words, nor is its power limited to stringing 
merely a few words together ; its capacity for endur- 
ance is inexhaustible, and even in the longest 
pleadings the patience of the audience flags long 
before the memory of the speaker. This fact may 9 
even be advanced as an argument that there must 
be some art of memory and that the natural gift can 
be helped by reason, since training enables us to 
do things which we cannot do before we have had 
any training or practice. On the other hand, I find 
that Plato ^ asserts that the use of written characters 
is a hindrance to memory, on the ground, that is, that 
once we have committed a thing to writing, we 
cease to guard it in our memory and lose it out of 
sheer carelessness. And there can be no doubt that 10 
concentration of mind is of the utmost imj>ortance in 
this connexion ; it is, in fact, like the eyesight, which 
turns to, and not away from, the objects which it 
contemplates. Thus it results that after writing 
for several days with a view to acquiring by heart 
what we have written, we find that our mental effort 
has of itself imprinted it on our memory. 

The first person to discover an art of memory is 11 
said to have been Simonides,^ of whom the following 
well-known story is told. He had written an ode 
of the kind usually composed in honour of victorious 
athletes, to celebrate the achievement of one who 
had gained the crown for boxing. Part of the sum 
for which he had contracted was refused him on 
the ground that, following the common practice of 
poets, he had introduced a digression in praise of 
Castor and Pollux, and he was told that, in view 
of what he had done, he had best ask for the rest 
of the sum due from those whose deeds he had 

▼oL. IV. ij 217 



QUINTILIAN 

12 batur. Et persolverunt, ut traditum est. Nam cum 
esset grande convivium in honorem eiusdem victoriae 
atque adhibitus ei cenae Simonides, nuntio est ex- 
citus, quod eum duo iuvenes equis advecti desiderare 
maiorem in modum dicebantur. Et illos quideni 
non invenit, fuisse tamen gratos erga se deos exitu 

13 comperit. Nam vix eo ultra limen egresso, triclinium 
illud supra convivas corruit atque ita confudit,^ ut 
non era mode oppressorum, sed membra etiam omnia 
requirentes ad sepulturam propinqui nulla nota 
possent discernere. Tum Simonides dicitur memor 
ordinis,^ quo quisque discubuerat, corpora suis reddi- 

14 disse. Est autem magna inter auctores dissensio, 
Glaucone Carystio an Leocrati an Agatharcho an 
Scopae scriptum sit id carmen ; et Pharsali fuerit 
haec domus, ut ipse quodam loco significare Simonides 
videtur utque Apollodorus et Eratosthenes et Eupho- 
rion et Larissaeus Eurypylus tradiderunt, an Cran- 
none, ut Apollas Callimachus^' quem secutus Cicero 

15 banc famam latius fudit. Scopam nobilem Thessalum 
periisse in eo convivio constat ; adiicitur sororis eius 
filius ; putant et ortos plerosque ab alio Scopa, qui 

16 maior aetate fuerit. Quanquam milii totum de 
Tyndaridis fabulosum videtur, neque omnino huius 

^ confudit lit, Badiiis : confunditur, M8S. 

• ordinis, Regius : ordine, 3JSS. 

* Apollas Callimachus being unknown, Bentley conjectured 
Apollas et Callimachus {Schneidewin Calliniachusque). 
Apollas would then refer to a philosopher and geographer 
of Cyrene. 

1 Cio. de Or. n. Ixxxvi. 352. 
2l8 



BOOK XI. I!. 1 1-16 

extolled. And according to the story they paid 
their debt. For when a great banquet was given 12 
in honour of the boxer's success, Simonides was 
summoned forth from the feast, to which he had 
been invited, by a message to the effect that two 
youths who had ridden to the door urgently desired 
his presence. He found no trace of them, but what 
followed proved to him that the gods had shown 
their gratitude. For he had scarcely crossed the 13 
threshold on his way out, Avhen the banqueting hall 
fell in upon the heads of the guests and wrought 
such havoc among them that the relatives of the 
dead who came to seek the bodies for burial were 
unable to distinguish not merely the faces but even 
the limbs of the dead. Then it is said, Simonides, 
who remembered the order in which the guests had 
been sitting, succeeded in restoring to each man his 
own dead. There is, however, great disagreement 14 
among our authorities as to whether this ode was 
written in honour of Glaucus of Carystus, Leocrates, 
Agatharcus or Scopas, and whether the house was 
at Pharsalus, as Simonides himself seems to indicate 
in a certain passage, and as is recorded by Apollo- 
dorus, Eratosthenes, Euphorion and Eurypylus of 
Larissa, or at Crannon, as is stated by Apollas 
Callimachus, who is followed by Cicero,^ to whom 
the wide circulation of this story is due. It is 15 
agreed that Scopas, a Thessalian noble, perished at 
this banquet, and it is also said that his sister's son 
perished with him, while it is thought that a number 
of descendants of an elder Scopas met their death 
at the same time. For my own part, however, I 16 
regard the portion of the story which concerns 
Castor and Pollux as being purely fictitious, since 

219 



QUINTILIAN 

rei meminit usquam poeta ipse, profecto non taciturus 
de tanta sua gloria. 

17 Ex hoc Simonidis facto notatum videtur, iuvari 
memoriam signatis animo sedibus, idque credere 
suo quisque experimento potest.^ Nam cum in loca 
aliqua post tempus reversi sumus, non ipsa agnos- 
cimus tantum, sed etiam, quae in his fecerimus, 
reminiscimur personaeque subeunt, nonnunquam 
tacitae quoque cogitationes in mentem revertuntur. 
Nata est igitur, ut in plerisque^ ars ab experimento. 

18 Loca deligunt ^ quam maxime spatiosa, multa varietate 
signata, domum forte magnam et in multos diductam 
recessus. In ea quidquid notabile est, animo dili- 
genter adfigunt, ut sine cunctatione ac mora partes 
eius omnes cogitatio possit percurrere. Et primus 
hie labor est non haerere in occursu ; plus enim 
quam firma debet esse memoria, quae aliam memoriam 

19 adiuvet. Turn, quae scripserunt vel cogitatione 
complexi sunt,' aliquo signo, quo moneantur, notant ; 
quod esse vel ex re tota potest, ut de navigatione, 
militia, vel ex verbo aliquo ; nam etiam excidentes 
unius admonitione verbi in memoriam reponuntur. 

* potest, added by RoUin. 

* deligunt, Spalding: discunt, MSS. 

^ complexi sunt, Spalding : coniplectitur, O. 

320 



I 



BOOK XL II. 16-19 

the ix)et himself has nowhere mentioned the occur- 
rence ; and he would scarcely have kept silence on 
an affair which was so much to his credit. 

This achievement of Simonides ajipears to have 17 
given rise to the observation that it is an assistance 
to the memory if localities are sharply impressed 
upon the mind, a view the truth of which everj'one 
may realise by practical experiment. For when we 
return to a place after considerable absence, we not 
merely recognise the place itself, but remember 
things that we did there, and recall the persons 
whom we met and even the unuttered thoughts 
which passed through our minds when we were 
there before. Thus, as in most cases, art origin- 
ates in experiment. Some place is chosen of the 18 
largest possible extent and characterised by the 
utmost possible variety, such as a spacious house 
divided into a number of rooms. Everything of 
note therein is carefully committed to the memory, 
in order that the thought may be enabled to run 
through all the details without let or hindrance. 
And undoubtedly the first task is to secure that 
there shall be no delay in finding any single detail, 
since an idea which is to lead by association to 
some other idea requires to be fixed in the mind 
with more than ordinary certitude. The next step 19 
is to distinguish something which has been written 
down or merely thought of by some particular 
symbol which will serve to jog the memory ; this 
symbol may have reference to the subject as a 
whole, it may, for example, be drawn from naviga- 
tion, warfare, etc., or it may, on the other hand, 
be found in some particular word. (For even in 
cases of forgetfulness one single word will serve to 



QUINTILIAN 

Sit autem signum navigationis ut ancora, militiae 

20 ut aliquid ex armis. Haec ita digerunt. Primum 
sensum vestibule quasi adsignant, secundum, puta, 
atrio, turn impluvia eircumeunt, nee cubiculis modo 
aut exedris, sed statuis etiam similibusque per 
ordinem committunt. Hoc facto, cum est repetenda 
memoria, incipiunt ab initio loca haec recensere, et 
quod cuique crediderunt reposcunt, ut eorum imagine 
admonentur. Ita, quamlibet multa sint, quorum 
meminisse oporteat, fiunt singula conexa quodam 
choro,^ nee errant ^ coniungentes prioribus conse- 

21 quentia solo ediscendi labore. Quod de domo dixi, 
et in operibus publicis et in itinere longo et urbium 
ambitu et picturis fieri potest. Etiam fingere sibi 
has imagines licet. Opus est ergo locis, quae vel 
finguntur vel sumuntur, et imaginibus vel simulacris, 
quae utique fingenda sunt. Imagines voces sunt, 
quibus ea quae ediscenda sunt notamus, ut, quomodo 
Cicero dicit, locis pro cera, simulacris pro litteris 

22 utamur. lUud quoque ad verbum ponere optimum 
fuerit : Locis est utendum multis, illustrihus, exjjUcatis, 
modicis intervalUs, imaginibus autem agentibiis, acribus, 

* choro, early editors : coria, corio, MSS. 
^ nee errant, Bonnell : onerant, O. 

* The impluvium was the light-well in the centre of the 
atrium with a cistern beneath it to catch the rainwater from 
the roof, which sloped inwards. 

* De Or. II. Ixxxvi. 354. » Be Or. ii. Ixxxvii. 358. 

322 



BOOK XI. II. 19-22 

restore the memory.) However, let us suppose that 
the symbol is drawn from navigation, as, for instance, 
an anchor ; or from warfare, as, for example, some 
weapon. These symbols are then arranged as follows. 20 
The first thought is placed, as it were, in the forecourt ; 
the second, let us say, in the living-room ; the re- 
mainder are placed in due order all round the implu- 
vium 1 and entrusted not merely to bedrooms and 
parlours, but even to the care of statues and the 
like. This done, as soon as the memory of the facts 
requires to be revived, all these places are visited in 
turn and the various deposits are demanded from 
their custodians, as the sight of each recalls the 
respective details. Consequently, however large the 
number of these which it is required to remember, 
all are linked one to the other like dancers 
hand in hand, and there can be no mistake since 
they join what precedes to what follows, no trouble 
being required except the preliminary labour of 
committing the various points to memory. What 21 
I have spoken of as being done in a house, can 
equally well be done in connexion with public 
buildings, a long journey, the ramparts of a city, 
or even pictures. Or we may even imagine such 
places to ourselves. We require, therefore, 
places, real or imaginary, and images or symbols, 
which we must, of course, invent for ourselves. By 
images I mean the words by which we distinguish 
the things which we have to learn by heart : in 
fact, as Cicero says, we use " places like wax tablets 
and symbols in lieu of letters."* It will be best to 22 
give his words verbatim : ' " We must for this pur- 
pose employ a number of remarkable places, clearly 
envisaged and separated by short intervals : the 

223 



QUINTILIAN 

insignitis, quae occurrere celeriterque percutere animum 
possint. Quo magis miror, quomodo Metrodorus in 
XII signis, per quae sol meat, trecenos et sexagenos 
invenerit locos. Vanitas nimirum fuit atque iactatio 
circa memoriam sua potius arte quam natura 
gloriantis. 

23 Equidem haec ad quaedam prodesse non negaverim, 
ut si rerum nomina multa per ordinem audita red- 
denda sint. Namque in iis quae didicerunt locis 
ponunt res illas : mensam, ut hoc utar, in vestibule 
et pulpitum ^ in atrio et sic cetera, deinde relegentes 

24 inveniunt, ubi posuerunt. Et forsitan hoc sunt 
adiuti qui, auctione dimissa, quid cuique vendidissent 
testibus argentariorum tabulis reddiderunt ; quod 
praestitisse Hortensium dicunt. Minus idem proderit 
in ediscendis, quae orationis perpetuae erunt. Nam 
et sensus non eandem imaginem quam res habent, 
cum alterum fingendum sit, et horum tamen utcun- 
que commonet locus, sicut sermonis alicuius habiti. 
At ^ verborum coutextus eadem arte quomodo com- 

25 prehendetur ? Mitto quod quaedam nullis simulacris 

* pulpitum, Bonnell : populnm, G : pulvinnm, early editors. 
' At, added by Halm. 



* Of Scepsis, the favourite of Mithradates Eupator. See 
de Or. II. Ixxxviii. 360. He used the signs of the Zodiac as 
aids to the memorj', subdividing each into thirty compart- 
ments. Quintilian wonders on what principle he can have 
made such a division, necessarily purely artificial in nature. 

224 



I 



BOOK XI. II. 22-25 

images which we use must be active, sharply-cut and 
distinctive, such as may occur to the mind and strike 
it with rapidity." This makes me wonder all the 
more, how Metrodorus ^ should have found three 
hundred and sixty different localities in the twelve 
signs of the Zodiac through which the sun passes. 
It was doubtless due to the vanity and boastfulness 
of a man who was inclined to vaunt his memory as 
being the result of art rather than of natural gifts. 

I am far from denying that those devices may be 23 
useful for certain purposes, as, for example, if we 
have to reproduce a number of names in the order 
in which we heard them. For those who use such 
aids place the things which have to be remembered 
in localities which they have previously fixed in the 
memory ; they put a table, for instance, in the fore- 
court, a platform in the hall and so on with the 
rest, and then, when they retrace their steps, they 
find the objects where they had placed them. Such 24 
a practice may perhaps have been of use to those 
who, after an auction, have succeeded in stating 
what object they had sold to each buyer, their state- 
ments being checked by the books of the money- 
takers ; a feat which it is alleged was performed by 
Hortensius. It will, however, be of less service in 
leai-ning the various parts of a set speech. For 
thoughts do not call up the same images as material 
things, and a symbol requires to be specially invented 
for them, although even here a particular place may 
serve to remind us, as, for example, of some conver- 
sation that may have been held there. But how 
can such a method grasp a whole series of con- 
nected words ? I pass by the fact that there are 25 
certain things which it is impossible to represent by 

225 



QUINTILIAN 

significari possunt^ ut certe coniunctiones. Habea- 
mus enim sane, ut qui notis scribunt, certas imagines 
omnium et loca scilicet infinita, per quae verba, 
quot sunt in quinque contra Verrem secundae actionis 
libris, explicentur, meminerimus etiam omnium quasi 
depositorum : nonne impediri quoque dicendi cur- 

26 sum ^ necesse est duplici memoriae cura ? Nam 
quomodo poterunt copulata fluere, si propter singula 
verba ad singulas formas respiciendum erit ? Quare 
et Charmadas et Scepsius, de quo modo dixi, Metro- 
dorus, quos Cicero dicit usos hac exercitatione, sibi 
habeant sua ; nos simpliciora tradamus. 

27 Si longior complectenda memoria fuerit oratio, 
proderit per partes ediscere ; laborat enim maxime 
onere ; et hae partes non sint perexiguae, alioqui 
rursus multae erunt et eam distinguent atque con- 
cident. Nee utique certum imperaverim modum, 
sed maxime ut quisque finietur locus, ni forte tam 

28 numerosus, ut ipse quoque dividi debeat. Dandi 
sunt certi quidam termini, ut contextum verborum, 
qui est difficillimus, continua et crebra meditatio, 
partes deinceps ipsas repetitus ordo coniungat. Non 
est inutile, iis quae difficilius haereant aliquas 

* quoque dicendi cursum, Spalding: quodque dicit di- 
cursum, G. 

^ de Or. II. Ixxxvii. 360. Charmadas or Charmides, an 
elder contemporary of Cicero. 

226 



BOOK XI. 11. 25-28 

symbols, as, for example, conjunctions. We may, it 
is true, like shorthand writers, have definite symbols 
for everything, and may select an infinite number 
of places to recall all the words contained in the 
five books of the second pleading against Verres, 
and we may even remember them all as if they 
were deposits placed in safe-keeping. But will not 
the flow of our speech inevitably be impeded by the 
double task imposed upon our memory ^ For how 26 
can our words be expected to flow in connected 
speech, if we have to look back at separate symbols 
for each individual word ? Therefore the experts 
mentioned by Cicero ^ as having trained their 
memory by methods of this kind, namely Char- 
madas, and Metrodorus of Scepsis, to whom I have 
just referred, may keep their systems for their own 
use. My precepts on the subject shall be of a 
simpler kind. 

If a speech of some length has to be committed 27 
to memory, it will be well to learn it piecemeal, 
since there is nothing so bad for the memory as being 
overburdened. But the sections into which we divide 
it for this purpose should not be very short : otherwise 
they will be too many in number, and will break up 
and distract the memory. I am not, however, pre- 
pared to recommend any definite length ; it will de- 
pend on the natural limits of the passage concerned, 
unless, indeed, it be so long as itself to require sub- 
division. But some limits must be fixed to enable us, 28 
by dint of frequent and continuous practice, to connect 
the words in their proper order, which is a task of no 
small difficulty, and subsequently to unite the various 
sections into a whole when we go over them in 
order. If certain poi-tions prove especially difficult to 

227 



QUINTILIAN 

apponere notas, qiiarum recordatio comruoneat et 

29 quasi excitet memoriam ; nemo etiam fere tarn 
infelix, ut, quod cuique loco signum destinaverit, 
nesciat. At, si tardus^ ad hoc, eo quoque adhuc 
remedio utetur^ ut ipsae notae (hoc enim est ex ilia 
arte non inutile) aptentur ^ ad eos qui excidunt 
sensus : ancora * ut supra pro posui, si de nave dicen- 

30 dum est,^ spiculum, si de proelio. Multum enim 
signa faciunt, et ex alia memoria venit alia : ut cum 
translatus anulus vel alligatus commoneat nos, cur 
id fecerimus. Haec magis adhuc adstringunt, qui 
memoriam ab aliquo simili transferunt ad id quod 
continendum est : ut in nominibus, si Fabius forte 
sit tenendus, referamus ad ilium Cunctatorem, qui 
excidere non potest, aut ad aliquem amicum, qui 

31 idem vocetur. Quod est facilius in Apris et in Ursis 
et Nasone aut Crispo, ut id memoriae adfigatur unde 
sunt nomina. Origo quoque aliquando declinatorum 
tenendi magis causa est, ut in Cicerone, Verrio, 
Aurelio. Sed hoc miserim.^ 

32 Illud neminem non iuvabit, iisdem quibus scripserit' 
ceris ediscere. Sequitur enim vestigiis quibusdam 

^ at, Halm : ut, 0. : tardus, an early emendation : trandus, 
G : tradendus, late MS^. 

* utetur, Halm : utitur, MSS. 

* aptentur, Hiecke : adtentus, MSS. 

* ancora, Hiecke : ancoram, MSS. 

* est, HaZm : esset, MSS. 

* miserim, Halm, : misceri, G. 

' scripserit, early edd. i ceteris, MSS. 

1 Sects. 18-23. 

* Boar, Bear, Long-nose, and Curly respectively. 

' Cicero, a sower of chickpea (cicer), according to Pliny 
(xviii. 10). Aurelius = Auselius, child of the sun (a sole) 
according to Festus. Verrius unknown, 

228 



BOOK XI. II. 28-32 

remember, it Mrill be found advantageous to indicate 
them by certain marks, tlie remembrance of which 
will refresh and stimulate the memory. For there can 29 
be but few whose memory is so barren that they will 
fail to recognise the symbols with which they have 
marked different passages. But if anyone is slow to 
recognise his own signs, he should employ the follow- 
ing additional remedy, which, though drawn from the 
mnemonic system discussed above,^ is not without its 
uses : he will adapt his symbols to the nature of the 
thoughts which tend to slip from his memory, using 
an anchor, as I suggested above, if he has to speak 
of a ship, or a spear, if he has to speak of a battle. 
For symbols are highly efficacious, and one idea 30 
suggests another : for example, if we change a ring 
from one finger to another or tie a thread round it, 
it will serve to remind us of our reason for so doing. 
Specially effective are those devices which lead the 
memory from one thing to another similar thing which 
we have got to remember ; for example, in the case of 
names, if we desire to remember the name Fabius, 
we should think of the famous Cunctator, whom we 
are certain not to forget, or of some friend bearing 
the same name. This is specially easy with names 31 
such as Aper, Ursus, Naso, or Crispus,^ since in 
these cases we can fix their origin in our memory. 
Origin again may assist us to a better remem- 
brance of derivative names, such as Cicero, Verrius, 
or Aurelius.' However, I will say no more on this 
point. 

There is one thing which will be of assistance to 32 
everyone, namely, to learn a passage by heart from 
the same tablets on which he has committed it to 
writing. For he will have certain tracks to guide 

229 



QUINTILIAN 

memoriam^ et velut oculis intuetur non paginas modo, 
sed versus prope ipsos, estque cum^ dicit similis 
legenti. lam vero si litura aut adiectio aliqua atque 
mutatio interveniat, signa sunt quaedam, quae in- 

33 tuentes deerrare non possumus. Haec ratio, ut est 
illi, de qua primum locutus sum, arti non dissimilis, 
ita, si quid me experimenta docuerunt, et expeditioi 
et potentior. Ediscere tacite (nam id quoque est 
quaesitum) erat optimum, si non subirent velut 
otiosum animum plerumque aliae cogitationes ; pro- 
pter quas exeitandus est voce, ut duplici motu iuvetur 
memoria dicendi et audiendi. Sed haec vox sit 

34 modica et magis murmur. Qui autem legente alio 
ediscit, in parte tardatur, quod acrior est oculorum 
quam aurium sensus ; in parte iuvari potest, quod, 
cum semel aut bis audierit, continue illi memoriam 
suam experiri licet et cum legente contendere. Nam 
et alioqui id maxime faciendum est, ut nos subinde 
temptemus, quia continua lectio et quae magis et 

35 quae minus haerent aequaliter transit. In experiendo 

* estque cum, Meister : quae cum, O, 
230 



BOOK XI. II. 32-35 

him in his pursuit of memory, and the mind's eye 
will be fixed not merely on the pages on which the 
words were written, but on individual lines, and at 
times he will speak as though he were reading aloud. 
Further, if the writing should be interrupted by 
some erasure, addition or alteration, there are certain 
symbols available, the sight of which will prevent us 
from wandering from the track. This device bears 33 
some resemblance to the mnemonic system which 
I mentioned above, but if my experience is worth 
anything, is at once more expeditious and more 
effective. The question has been raised as to 
whether we should learn by heart in silence ; it 
would be best to do so, save for the fact that under 
such circumstances the mind is apt to become in- 
dolent, with the result that other thoughts break in. 
For this reason the mind should be kept alert by the 
sound of the voice, so that the memory may derive 
assistance from the double effort of speaking and 
listening. But our voice should be subdued, rising 
scarcely above a murmur. On the other hand, if we 34 
attempt to learn by heart from another reading 
aloud, we shall find that there is both loss and gain ; 
on the one hand, the process of learning will be 
slower, because the perception of the eye is quicker 
than that of the ear, while, on the other hand, when 
we have heard a passage once or twice, we shall be 
in a position to test our memory and match it against 
the voice of the reader. It is, indeed, important for 
other reasons to test ourselves thus from time to time, 
since continuous reading has this drawback, that it 
passes over the passages which we find hard to re- 
member at the same speed as those which we find less 
difficulty in retaining. By testing ourselves to see 35 

231 



QUINTILIAN 

teneasne, et maior intentio est et nihil supervacui 
temporis perit, quo etiam quae tenemus repeti solent ; 
ita sola, quae exciderunt, retractantur, ut crebra 
iteratione firmentur, quanquam solent hoc ipso 
maxima haerere, quod exciderunt. lUud ediscendo 
scribendoque commune est, utrique plurimum con- 
ferre bonam valetudinem, digestum cibum, animum 

36 cogitationibus aliis liberum. Verum et in lis quae 
scripsimus complectendis multum valent, et in iis 
quae cogitamus continendis prope solae (excepta, 
quae potentissima est, exercitatione) divisio et com- 
positio. Nam qui recte diviserit, nunquam poteritin 

37 rerum ordine errare. Certa sunt enim non solum in 
digerendis quaestionibus, sed etiam in exsequendis, 
si modo recte dicimus, prima ac secunda et deinceps ; 
cohaeretque omnis rerum copulatio, ut ei nihil neque 
subtrahi sine manifesto intellectu neque inseri possit. 

38 An vero Scaevola in lusu duodecim scriptorum, cum 
prior calculum promovisset essetque victus, dum rus 
tendit, repetito totius certaminis ordine, quo dato 
errasset recordatus, rediit ad eum, quocum luserat, 
isque ita factum esse confessus est? Minus idem 
232 



BOOK XI. II. 35-38 

whether we remember a passage^ we develop greater 
concentration without waste of time over the repe- 
tition of passages which we already know by heart. 
Thus, only those passages which tend to slip from 
the memory are repeated with a view to fixing them 
in the mind by frequent rehearsal, although as a rule 
the mere fact that they once slipped our memory 
makes us ultimately remember them with special 
accuracy. Both learning by heart and writing have 
this feature in common : namely, that good health, 
sound digestion, and freedom from other preoccupa- 
tions of mind contribute largely to the success of 
both. But for the purpose of getting a real grasp 36 
of what we have written under the various heads, 
division and artistic structure will be found of great 
value, while, with the exception of practice, which 
is the most powerful aid of all, they are practically 
the only means of ensuring an accurate remembrance 
of what we have merely thought out. For correct 
division will be an absolute safeguard against error in 
the order of our speech, since there are certain points 37 
not merely in the distribution of the various questions 
in our speech, but also in their development (pro- 
vided we speak as we ought), which naturally come 
first, second, and third, and so on, while the connexion 
will be so perfect that nothing can be omitted or 
inserted without the fact of the omission or in- 
sertion being obvious. We are told that Scaevola, 38 
after a game of draughts in which he made the first 
move and was defeated, went over the whole game 
again in his mind on his way into the country, and 
on recalling the move which had cost him the game, 
returned to tell the man with whom he had been 
playing, and the latter acknowledged that he was 

233 



QUINTILIAN 

ordo valebit in oratione, praesertim totus nostro 
arbitrio constitutus, cum tantum ille valeat alternus ? 

39 Etiam quae bene composita erunt, memoriam serie 
sua ducent. Nam sicut facilius versus ediscimus 
quam prosam orationem, ita prosae vincta quam 
dissoluta. Sic contingit, ut etiam quae ex tempore 
videbantur effusa, ad verbum repetita reddantur. 
Quod meae quoque memoriae mediocritatem seque- 
batur^ si quando interventus aliquorum, qui hunc 
honorem mererentur^ iterare declamationis partem 
coegisset. Nee est mendacio locus, sal vis qui inter- 
fu erunt. 

40 Si quis tamen unam maximamque a me artem 
memoriae quaerat, exercitatio est et labor ; multa 
ediscere, multa cogitare, et si fieri potest cotidie, 
potentissimum est. Nihil aeque vel augetur cura vel 

41 negligentia intercidit. Quare et pueri statim, ut 
praecepi, quam plurima ediscant, et, quaecunque 
aetas operam iuvandae studio memoriae dabit, de- 
voret initio taedium illud et scripta et lecta saepius 
revolvendi et quasi eundem cibum remandendi. 
Quod ipsum hoc fieri potest levius, si pauca primum 
et quae odium non adferant coeperimus ediscere, 

^ See I. i. 36 ; n. vii. 1 sqq. 
234 



BOOK XL 11. 38-41 

right. Is order, then, I ask you, to be accounted of 
less importance in a speech, in which it depends 
entirely on ourselves, whereas in a game our opponent 
has an equal share in its development ? Again, if 39 
our structure be what it should, the artistic se- 
quence will serve to guide the memory. For just 
as it is easier to learn verse than prose, so it is 
easier to learn prose when it is artistically con- 
structed than when it has no such organisation. If 
these points receive attention, it will be possible to 
repeat verbatim even such psssages as gave the im- 
pression of being delivered extempore. My own 
memory is of a very ordinary kind, but I found that 
1 could do this with success on occasions when the 
interruption of a declamation by persons who had a 
claim to such a courtesy forced me to repeat part of 
what 1 had said. There are persons still living, who 
were then present to witness if I lie. 

However, if anyone asks me what is the one 40 
supreme method of memory, I shall reply, practice 
and industry. The most important thing is to learn 
much by heart and to think much, and, if possible, 
to do this daily, since there is nothing that is more 
increased by practice or impaired by neglect than 
memor)'. Therefore boys should, as I have already 41 
urged,^ learn as much as possible by heart at the 
earliest stage, while all who, whatever their age, 
desire to cultivate the power of memory, should 
endeavour to swallow the initial tedium of reading 
and re-reading what they have written or read, a 
process which we may compare to chewing the cud. 
This task will be rendered less tiresome if we begin 
by confining ourselves to learning only a little at a 
time, in amounts not sufficient to create disgust : we 

«35 



QUINTILIAN 

turn cotidie adiicere singulos versus, quorum accessio 
labori sensum increment! non adferat, in summam 
ad infinitum usque perveniat, et poetica prius, turn 
oratorum, novissime etiam solutiora numeris et magis 
ab usu dicendi remota, qualia sunt iurisconsultorum. 

42 Difficiliora enim debent esse, quae exercent, quo sit 
levius ipsum illud, in quod exercent, ut athletae 
ponderibus plumbeis adsuefaciunt manus, quibus 
vacuis et nudis in certamine utendum est. Non 
oniittam etiam, quod cotidianis experimentis depre- 
henditur, minime fidelem esse paulo tardioribus in- 

43 geniis recentem memoriam. Mirum dictu est nee 
in promptu ratio, quantum nox interposita adferat 
firmitatis, sive requiescit labor ille, cuius sibi ipsa 
fatigatio obstabat, sive matiiratur atque concoquitur, 
quae firmissima eius pars est, recordatio ; quae statim 
referri non poterant, contexuntur postera die, con- 
firmatque memoriam illud tempus, quod esse in causa 

44 solet oblivionis. Etiam ilia praevelox fere cito effluit, 
et, velut praesenti officio functa nihil in posterum 



BOOK XI. u. 41-44 

may then proceed to increase the amount by a hne a 
day, an addition which will not sensibly increase the 
labour of learning, until at last the amount we can 
attack will know no limits. We should begin with 
poetry and then go on to oratory, while finally we 
may attempt passages still freer in rhythm and less 
akin to ordinary speech, such, for example, as 
passages from legal writers. For passages intended 42 
as an exercise should be somewhat difficult in char- 
acter if they are to make it easy to achieve the end 
for which the exercise is designed; just as athletes 
train the muscles of their hands by carrying weights of 
lead, although in the actual contests their hands will 
be empty and free. Further, I must not omit the 
fact, the truth of which our daily practice will teach 
us, that in the case of the slower type of mind the 
memory of recent events is far from being exact. It is 43 
a curious fact, of which the reason is not obvious, that 
the interval of a single night will greatly increase 
the strength of the memory, whether this be due to 
the fact that it has rested from the labour, the 
fatigue of which constituted the obstacle to success, 
or whether it be that the power of recollection, 
which is the most im|)ortant element of memory, 
undergoes a process of ripening and maturing 
during the time which intervenes. Whatever the 
cause, things which could not be recalled on the 
spot are easily co-ordinated the next day, and time 
itself, which is generally accounted one of the causes 
of forgetfulness, actually serves to strengthen the 
memory. On the other hand, the abnormally rapid 44 
memory fails as a rule to last and takes its leave as 
though, its immediate task accomplished, it had no 
further duties to perform. And indeed there is 

237 



QUINTILIAN 

debeat, tanquam dimissa discedit. Nee est mirum, 
magis haerere animo quae diutius adfixa sint. 

Ex hae ingeniorum diversitate nata dubitatio est, 
ad verbum sit ediscendum dicturis, an vim modo re- 
rum atque ordinem complecti satis sit ; de quo sine 
46 dubio non potest in universum pronuntiari. Nam si 
memoria sufFragatur, tempus non defuit, nulla me 
velim syllaba efFugiat ; alioqui etiam scribere sit 
supervacuum. Idque praecipue a pueris obtinendum, 
atque in banc consuetudinem memoria exercitatione 
redigenda, ne nobis discamus ignoscere. Ideoque 
et admoneri et ad libellum respicere vitiosum, quod 
libertatem negligentiae facit, nee quisquam se parum 
tenere iudieat, quod, ne sibi excidat, non timet. 

46 Inde interruptus aetionis impetus et resistens ac 
salebi'osa oratio ; et qui dieit ediscenti similis, etiam 
omnem bene seriptorum gratiam perdit vel hoc ipso, 
quod scripsisse se confitetur, Memoria autem faeit 
etiam prompti ingenii famam, ut ilia, quae dicimus, 
non domo attulisse sed ibi protinus sumpsisse videa- 
niur ; quod et oratori et ipsi eausae plurimum eon- 

47 fert. Nam et magis miratur et minus timet iudex, 
238 






BOOK XI. II. 44-47 

nothing surprising in the fact that things which 
have been implanted in the memory for some time 
should have a greater tendency to stay there. 

The diiFerence between the powers of one mind 
and another, to which I have just referred, gives rise 
to the question whether those who are intending to 
speak should learn their speeches verbatim or whether 
it is sufficient to get a good grasp of the essence and 
the order of what they have got to say. To this 
problem no answer is possible that will be of uni- 
versal application. Give me a reliable memory and 45 
plenty of time, and I should prefer not to peiTnit 
a single syllable to escape me : otherwise writing 
would be superfluous. It is specially important to 
train the young to such precision, and the memory 
should be continually practised to this end, that we 
may never learn to become indulgent to its failure. 
For this reason I regard it as a mistake to permit the 
student to be prompted or to consult his manuscript, 
since such practices merely encourage carelessness, 
and no one will ever realise that he has not got his 
theme by heart, if he has no fear of forgetting it. 
It is this which causes interruptions in the flow of 46 
speech and makes the orator's language halting and 
jerky, while he seems as though he were learning 
what he says by heart and loses all the grace that a 
well-written speech can give, simply by the fact that 
he makes it obvious that he has written it. On the 
other hand, a good memory will give us credit for 
quickness of wit as well, by creating the impression 
that our words have not been prepared in the seclu- 
sion of the study, but are due to the inspiration 
of the moment, an impression which is of the utmost 
assistance both to the orator and to his cause. For 47 

239 



QUINTILIAN 

quae non putat adversus se praeparata. Idque in 
actionibus inter praecipua servandum est, ut quaedam 
etiam, quae optime vinximus, velut soluta enuntiemus 
et cogitantibus nonnunquam et dubitantibus similes 
quaerere videamur quae attulimus. 

48 Ergo quid sit optimum, neminem fugit. Si vero aut 
memoria natura durior erit aut non sufFragabitur tem- 
pus, etiam inutile erit ad omnia se verba adligare, cum 
oblivio unius eorum cuiuslibet aut defomiem haesit- 
ationemaut etiam silentium inducat, tutiusque multo 
comprehensis animo rebus ipsis libertatem sibi elo- 

49 quendi relinquere. Nam et invitus perdit quisque id 
quod elegerat verbum,nec facile reponit aliud, dum id, 
quod scripserat, quaerit. Sed ne hoc quidem infirmae 
memoriae remedium est nisi in iis, qui sibi facultatem 
aliquam dicendi ex tempore paraverunt. Quodsi cui 
utrumque defuerit, huic omittere omnino totum 
actioimm laborem ac, si quid in litteris valet, ad 
scribendum potius suadebo convertere. Sed haec 
rara infelicitas erit. 

50 Ceterum quantum natura studioque valeat memoria, 
vel Themistocles testis, quem unum intra annum 
optime locutum esse Persice constat ; vel Mithri- 
240 



BOOK XL II. 47-50 

the judge admires those words more and fears them 
less which he does not suspect of having been 
specially prepared beforehand to outwit him. 
Further, we must make it one of our chief aims 
in pleading to deliver passages which have been 
constructed with the utmost care, in sucli manner 
as to make it appear that they are but casually strung 
together, and to suggest that we are thinking out 
and hesitating over words which we have, as a 
matter of fact, carefully prepared in advance. 

It should now be clear to all what is the best 48 
course to adopt for the cultivation of memory. If, 
however, our memory be naturally somewhat dull 
or time presses, it will be useless to tie ourselves 
down rigidly to ever}' word, since if we forget any 
one of them, the result may be awkward hesita- 
tion or even a tongue-tied silence. It is, therefore, 
far safer to secure a good grasp of the facts them- 
selves and to leave ourselves free to speak as we 
wUl. For the loss of even a single word that we 49 
liave chosen is always a matter for regret, and it is 
hard to supply a substitute when we are searching 
for the word that we had written. But even this 
is no remedy for a weak memory, except for those 
who have acquired the art of speaking extempore. 
But if both memory and this gift be lacking, I 
should advise the would-be orator to abandon the 
toil of pleading altogether and, if he has any literary 
capacity, to betake himself by preference to writing. 
But such a misfortune will be of but rare occurrence. 

For the rest there are many historical examples 50 
of the power to which memory may be developed by 
natural aptitude and application. Themistocles is 
said to have spoken excellently in Persian after a 

241 



QUINTILIAN 

dates^ cui duas et viginti linguas, quot nationibus 
imperabat, traditur notas fuisse ; vel Crassus ille 
Dives, qui, cum Asiae praeesset, quinque Graeci 
sermonis difFerentias sic tenuit ut, qua quisque apud 
eum lingua postulasset, eadem ius sibi redditum 
ferret ; vel Cyrus, quem omnium militum tenuisse 
51 creditum est nomina. Quin semel auditos quamlibet 
multos versus protinus dicitur reddidisse Theodectes. 
Dicebantur etiam nunc esse, qui facerent, sed mihi 
nunquam, ut ipse interessem, contigit; habenda 
tamen fides est vel in hoc ut, qui crediderit, et 
speret. 

III. Pronuntiatio a plerisque actio dicitur, sed 
prius nomen a voce, sequens a gestu videtur ac- 
cipere. Namque actionem Cicero alias quasi sermoneni 
alias eloquentiam qua)idam corporis dicit. Idem tamen 
duas eius partes facit, quae sunt eaedem pronuntla- 
2 tionis, vocem atque motum. Qua propter utraque 
appellatione indifFerenter uti licet. Habet autem 
res ipsa miram quandam in orationibus vim ac potes- 
tatem ; neque enim tarn refert, qualia sint, quae intra 
nosmet ipsos composuimus, quam quo modo effe- 
rantur ; nam ita quisque, ut audit, movetur. Quare 
neque probatio ulla, quae modo venit ab oratore, 
tam firma est, ut non perdat vires suas, nisi adiuvatur 

^ King of Pontus. 

* Consul, 131 B.C. Commanded in the war against Aris- 
tonicus of Pergamum, was defeated and killed. 

* Rhetorician of first half of fourth century B.C. 

* de Or. in. lix. 222. • Or. xvii. 55. 

242 



BOOK XI. II. 50-111. 2 

year's study ; Mithridates is recorded to have known 
twenty-two languages, that being the number of 
the different nations included in his empire ; ^ Crassus, 
sumamed the Rich,^ when commanding in Asia had 
such a complete mastery of five different Greek 
dialects, that he would give judgement in the dialect 
employed by the plaintiff in putting forward his 
suit ; Cyrus is believed to have known the name 
of every soldier in his army, while Theodectes ^ is 5 1 
actually said to have been able to repeat any number 
of verses after only a single hearing. I remember 
that it used to be alleged that there were persons 
still living who could do the same, though I never 
had the good fortune to be present at such a per- 
formance. Still, we shall do well to have faith in 
such miracles, if only that he who believes may also 
hope to achieve the like. 

III. Delivery is often styled action. But the first 
name is derived from the voice, the second from the 
gesture. For Cicero in one passage * speaks of action 
as being a, form oj^ speech, and in another^ as being 
a kind of physical eloquence. None the less, he 
divides action into two elements, which are the 
same as the elements of delivery, namely, voice and 
movement. Therefore, it matters not which term 
we employ. But the thing itself has an extra- 2 
ordinarily powerful effect in oratory. For the 
nature of the speech that we have composed within 
our minds is not so important as the manner in 
which we produce it, since the emotion of each 
member of our audience will depend on the im- 
pression made upon his hearing. Consequently, no 
proof, at least if it be one devised by the orator 
himself, will ever be so secure as not to lose its force 

243 



QUINTILIAN 

adseveratione dicentis. Adfectus omnes languescant 
hecesse est, nisi voce, vultu, totius prope habitu 

3 corporis inardescunt. Nam cum haec omnia feceri- 
mus, felices tamen, si nostrum ilium ignem iudex 
eonceperit ; nedum eum supini securique moveamus, 

4 ac non et ipse nostra oscitatione solvatur. Docu- 
mento sunt vel scenici actores, qui et optimis poeta- 
rum tantum adiiciunt gratiae, ut nos infinito magis 
eadem ilia audita quam lecta delectent ; et vilissimis 
etiam quibusdam impetrant aures, ut, quibus nuUus 
est in bibliothecis locus, sit etiam frequensin theatris. 

6 Quodsi in rebus, quas fictas esse scimus et inanes, 
tantum pronuntiatio potest, ut iram, lacrimas, soUici- 
tudinem adferat, quanto plus valeat necesse est, ubi 
et credimus ? Equidem vel mediocrem orationem 
commendatam viribus actionis adfirmarim plus habitu- 
ram esse momenti quam optimam eadem illadestitu- 

6 tam. Siquidem et Demosthenes, quid esset in toto 
dicendi opere primum, interrogatus pronuntiationi 
palmam dedit eidemque secundum ac tertium locum, 
donee ab eo quaeri desineret, ut earn videri posset 

7 non praecipuam, sed solam iudicasse; ideoque ipse 

?44 



BOOK XI. HI. 2-7 

if the sj>eaker fails to produce it in tones that drive 
it home. All emotional appeals will inevitably fall 
flat, unless they are given the fire that voice, look, 
and the whole carriage of the body can give them. 
For when we have done all this, we may still 3 
account ourselves only too fortunate if we have 
succeeded in communicating the fire of our passion 
to the judge : consequently, we can have no hope 
of moving him if we speak with languor and indiffer- 
ence, nor of preventing him from yielding to the 
narcotic influence of our own yawns. A proof of this 4 
is given by actors in the theatre. For they add so 
much to the charm even of the greatest poets, that 
the verse moves us far more when heard than when 
read, while they succeed in securing a hearing even 
for the most worthless authors, with the result 
that they repeatedly win a welcome on the 
stage that is denied them in the library. Now 5 
if delivery can count for so much in themes 
which we know to be fictitious and devoid of reality, 
as to arouse our anger, our tears or our anxiety, how 
much greater must its effect be when we actually 
believe what we hear ? For my own part I would 
not hesitate to assert that a mediocre speech sup- 
ported by all the power of delivery will be more 
impressive than the best speech unaccompanied by 
such power. It was for this reason that Demos- 6 
thenes, when asked what was the most important 
thing in oratorj^, gave the palm to delivery and 
assigned it second and third place as well, until 
his questioner ceased to trouble him. We are 
therefore almost justified in concluding that he 
regarded it not merely as the first, but as the only 
virtue of oratory. This explains why he studied 7 

245 



QUINTILIAN 

tarn diligenter apud Andronicum hypocriten studuit, 
ut admirantibus eius orationem Rhodiis non immerito 
Aeschines dixisse videatur : Quid si ipsum audissetis ? 
Et M. Cicero unam in dicendo actionem dominari 

8 putat. Hac Cn. Lentulum plus opinionis consecutum 
quam eloquentia tradit, eadem C. Gracchum in de- 
flenda fratris nece totius populi Romani lacrimas 
eoncitasse, Antonium et Crassum multum valuisse, 
plurimum vero Q. Hortensium. Cuius rei fides est, 
quod eius scripta tantum intra famam sunt, qua diu 
princeps oratorum, aliquando aemulus Ciceronis existi- 
matus est, novissime, quoad vixit, secundus, ut ap- 
pareat placuisse aliquid eo dicente, quod legentes 

9 non invenimus. Et hercule cum valeant multum 
verba per se, et vox propriam vim adiiciat rebus, et 
gestus motusque significet aliquid, profecto perfectum 
quiddam fieri, cum omnia coierunt, necesse est. 

10 Sunt tamen qui rudem illam, et qualem impetus 
cuiusque animi tulit, actionem iudicent fortiorem et 
sol am viris dignam, sed non alii fere quam qui etiam 

* de Or. in. Ivi. 213. Aeschines in exile at Rhodes first 
recited his own speech against Ctesiphon, and then by special 
request read Demosthenes' reply, the famous De Corona. 

* Brut. Ixvi., Ixxxix., xxxviii., xliii., Ixxxviii. 

946 



BOOK XI. III. 7-IO 

under the instruction of the actor Andronicus with 
such diligence and success as thoroughly to justify 
the remark made by Aeschines to the Rhodians when 
they expressed their admiration of the speech of 
Demosthenes on behalf of Ctesiphon, " What would 
you have said if you had heard him yourselves ? " ^ 
Cicero likewise regards action as the supreme element 
of oratory. He records that Gnaeus Lentulus ac- 8 
quired a greater reputation by his delivery than 
by his actual eloquence, and that Gaius Gracchus 
by the same means stirred the whole Roman people 
to tears when he bewailed his brother's death, 
while Antonius and Crassus produced a great im- 
pression by their command of this quality, though 
the greatest of all was that produced by Quintus 
Hortensius.- This statement is strongly supported 
by the fact that the latter's writings fall so far 
short of the reputation which for so long secured 
him the first place among orators, then for a 
while caused him to be regarded as Cicero's rival, 
and finally;, for the remainder of his life assigned 
him a position second only to that of Cicero, that 
his speaking must clearly have p)Ossessed some 
charm which we fail to find when we read him. 
And, indeed, since words in themselves count for 9 
much and the voice adds a force of its own to the 
matter of which it speaks, while gesture and motion 
are full of significance, we may be sure of finding 
something like perfection when all these qualities 
are combined. 

There are some, however, who consider that de- 10 
livery which owes nothing to art and everything to 
natural impulse is more forcible, and in fact the only 
form of delivery which is worthy of a manly speaker. 

247 



QUINTILIAN 

in dicendo curam et artem et nitorenij et quidquid 
studio paratur, ut adfectata et parum naturalia solent 
improbare, vel qui verborum atque ipsius etiam soni 
rusticitate, ut L. Cottam dicit Cicero fecisse, imita- 

1 1 tionem antiquitatis adfectant. Verum illi persua- 
sione sua fruantur, qui hominibus, ut sint oratores, 
satis putant nasci ; nostro labori dent veniam, qui 
nihil credimus esse perfectum, nisi ubi natura cura 
iuvetur. In hoc igitur non contumaciter consentio 

12 primas partes esse naturae. Nam certe bene pro- 
nuntiare non poterit, cui aut in scriptis memoria aut 
in iis, quae subito dicenda erunt, facilitas prompta 
defuerit, nee si inemendabilia oris incommoda ob- 
stabunt. Corporis etiam potest esse aliqua tanta 

J 3 deformitas, ut nulla arte vincatur. Sed ne vox 
quidem exilis actionem habere optimam potest. 
Bona enim firmaque, ut volumus, uti licet ; mala 
vel imbecilla et inhibet multa, ut insurgere et excla- 
mare, et aliqua cogit, ut intermittere et deflectere et 
rasas fauces ac latus fatigatum deformi cantico re- 
ficere. Sed nos de eo nunc loquamur^ cui non frustra 
praecipitur. 

14 Cum sit autem omnis actio, ut dixi, in duas divisa 
partes, vocem gestumque, quorum alter oculos, altera 

' de Or. III. xi. 42. Brut. Ixxiv. 259. 
248 



BOOK XI. ni. 10-14 

But these persons are as a rule identical, either with 
those who are in the habit of disapproving of care, 
art, polish and every form of premeditation in actual 
speaking, as being affected and unnatural, or else 
with those who (like Lucius Cotta, according to 
Cicero) ^ affect the imitation of ancient writers both 
in their choice of words and even in the rudeness of 
their intonation and rhythm. Those, however, who 11 
think it sufficient for men to be born to enable them 
to become orators, are welcome to their opinion, and 
I must ask them to be indulgent to the efforts to 
which I am committed by my belief that we cannot 
hope to attain perfection unless nature is assisted by 
study. But I will not be so obstinate as to deny 
that to nature must be assigned the first place. For 12 
a good delivery is undoubtedly impossible for one 
who cannot remember what he has written, or lacks 
the quick facility of speech required by sudden 
emergencies, or is hampered by incurable impedi- 
ments of speech. Again, physical uncouthness may 
be such that no art can remedy it, while a weak 13 
voice is incompatible with first-rate excellence in 
delivery. For we may employ a good, strong voice 
as we will ; whereas one that is ugly or feeble not 
only prevents us from producing a number of effects, 
such as a crescendo or a sudden fortissimo, but at 
times forces faults upon us, making us drop the 
voice, alter its pitch and refresh the hoarseness of 
the throat and fatigue of the lungs by a hideous 
chanting intonation. However, let me now turn to 
consider the speaker on v.-hom my precepts will not 
be wasted. 

. All delivery, as I have already said, is concerned 14 
with two different things, namely, voice and gesture, 

VOL. IV. J 249 



QUINTILIAN 

aures movet, per quos duos sensus omnis ad animum 
penetrat adfectus, prius est de voce dicere, cui etiani 
gestus accommodatur. 

In ea prima observatio est, qualem habeas ; secunda, 
quomodo utaris. Natura vocis spectator quantitate 

15 et qualitate. Quantitas simplicior ; in summa enim 
grandis aut exigua est, sed inter has extremitates 
mediae sunt species, et ab ima ad summam ac retro 
sunt multi gradus. Qualitas magis varia. Nam est 
et Candida et fusca, et plena et exilis, et lenis et 
aspera, et contracta et fusa, et dura et flexibilis, 
et clara et obtusa. Spiritus etiam longior breviorque. 

16 Nee causas, cur quidque eorum accidat, persequi 
proposito operi necessarium est : eorumne sit differ- 
entia, in quibus aura ilia concipitur, an eorum, per 
quae velut organa meat; ipsi propria natura, an 
prout movetur ; lateris pectorisve firmitas an capitis 
etiam plus adiuvet. Nam opus est omnibus sicut 
non oris modo suavitate, sed narium quoque, per] 
quas quod superest vocis egeritur. Dulcis esse 

17 tamen debet non exprobrans sonus. Utendi voce 
250 



BOOK XI, III. 14-17 

of which the one appeals to the eye and the other 
to the ear, the two senses by which all emotion 
reaches the soul. But the voice has the first claim 
on our attention, since even our gesture is adapted 
to suit it. 

The first point which calls for consideration is the 
nature of the voice, the second the manner in which 
it is used. The nature of the voice depends on its 
quantity and quality. The question of quantity is 15 
the simpler of the two, since as a rule it is either 
strong or weak, although there are certain kinds of 
voice which fall between these extremes, and there 
are a number of gradations from the highest notes to 
the lowest and from the lowest to the highest. 
Quality, on the other hand, presents more variations ; 
for the voice may be clear or husky, full or thin, 
smooth or harsh, of wide or narrow compass, rigid or 
flexible, and sharp or flat, while lung-power may be 
great or small. It is not necessary for my purpose 16 
to enquire into the causes which give rise to these 
peculiarities. I need not raise the question whether 
the difference lies in those organs by which the 
breath is produced, or in those which form the 
channels for the voice itself ; whether the voice has 
a character of its own or depends on the motions 
which produce it ; whether it be the strength of the 
lungs, chest or the vocal organs themselves that 
affords it most assistance, since the co-operation of 
all these organs is required. For example, it is not 
the mouth only that produces sweetness of tone ; it 
requires the assistance of the nostrils as well, which 
tarry off what I may describe as the overflow of the 
voice. The important fact is that the tone must be 
agreeable and not harsh. The methods of using the 17 



QUINTILIAN 

multiplex ratio. Nam praeter illam differentiam, 
quae est tripertita, acutae, gravis, flexae, turn in- 
tentis, turn remissis, tuna elatis, turn inferioribus mo- 
dis opus est, spatiis quoque lentioribus aut citatioribus. 

18 Sed his ipsis media interiacent multa, et ut facies, 
quanquam ex paucissimis constat, infinitam habet 
differentiam, ita vox, etsi paucas, quae nominari pos- 
sint, eontinet species, propria cuique est, et non 
haec minus auribus quam oculis ilia dinoscitur. 

19 Augentur autem sicut omnium, ita vocis quoque 
bona cura, negligentia minuuntur. Sed cura non 
eadem oratoribus quae phonascis convenit ; tamen 
multa sunt utrisque communia, firmitas corporis, ne 
ad spadonum et mulierum et aegrorum exilitatem 
vox nostra tenuetur ; quod ambulatio, unctio, veneris 
abstinentia, facilis ciborum digestio, id est frugal itas, 

20 praestat. Praeterea ut sint fauces integrae, id est 
moUes ac leves, quarum vitio et frangitur et obscura- 
tur et exasperatur et scinditur vox. Nam ut tibiae 
eddem spiritu accept© alium clausis, alium apertis 
foraminibus, alium non satis purgatae, alium quassae 
sonum reddunt, ita fauces tumentes strangulant 
25a 



BOOK XI. m. 17-20 

voice present great variety. For in addition to the 
triple division of accents into sharp, grave and cir- 
cumflex, there are many other forms of intonation 
which are required : it may be intense or relaxed, 
high or low, and may move in slow or quick time. 
But here again there are many intermediate 18 
gradations between the two extremes, and just as 
the face, although it consists of a limited number 
of features, yet possesses infinite variety of expression, 
so it is with the voice : for though it possesses but 
few varieties to which we can give a name, yet every 
human being possesses a distinctive voice of his 
own, which is as easily distinguished by the ear as 
are facial characteristics by the eye. 

The good qualities of the voice, like everything 19 
else, are improved by training and impaired by 
neglect. But the training required by the orator is 
not the same as that which is practised by the sing- 
ing-master, although the two methods have many 
points in common. In both cases physical robustness 
is essential to save the voice from dwindling to the 
feeble shrillness that characterises the voices of 
eunuchs, women and invalids, and the means for 
creating such robustness are to be found in walking, 
rubbing-down with oil, abstinence from sexual inter- 
course, an easy digestion, and, in a word, in the 
simple life. Further, the throat must be sound, 20 
that is to say, soft and smooth ; for if the throat be 
unsound, the voice is broken or dulled or becomes 
harsh or squeaky. For just as the sound produced 
in the pipe by the same volume of breath varies 
according as the stops are closed or open, or the 
instrument is clogged or cracked, so the voice is 
strangled if the throat be swollen, and muffled if it 

»53 



QUINTILIAN 

vocem, obtusae obscurant, rasae exasperant, convulsae 

21 fractis sunt organis similes. Finditur etiam spiritus 
obiectu aliquo sicut lapillo tenues aquae, quai-um 
cursus ^ etiamsi ultra paulum coit, aliquid tamen cavi 
relinquit post id ipsum quod offenderat. Humor 
quoque vocem ut nimius impedit, ita consumptus 
destituit. Nam fatigatio, ut corpora, non ad praesens 

22 modo tempus, sed etiam in futurum adficit. Sed ut 
communiter et phonascis et oratoribus necessaria est 
exercitatio, qua omnia convalescunt, ita curae non 
idem genus est. Nam neque certa tempora ad 
spatiandum dari possunt tot civilibus officiis occu- 
pato, nee praeparare ab imis sonis vocem ad summos 
nee semper a contentione condere licet, cum pluribus 

23 iudiciis saepe dicendum sit. Ne ciborum quidem est 
eadem observatio. Non enim tarn molli teneraque 
voce quam forti ac durabili opus est, cum illi omnes 
etiam altissimos sonos leniant cantu oris, nobis plera- 
que aspere sint concitateque dicenda et vigilandae 
noctes et fuligo lucubrationum bibenda et in sudata 

24 veste durandum. Quare vocem deliciis non mollia- 
mus, nee imbuatur ea consuetudine, quam desidera- 
tura sit ; sed exercitatio eius talis sit qualis usus, ne 

^ cursus, Spalding : spiritus, MSS. 

254 



BOOK XI. III. 20-24 

is obstructed, while it becomes rasping if the throat 
is inflamed, and may be compared to an organ with 
broken pipes in cases where the throat is subject to 
spasms. Again, the presence of some obstacle may 21 
divide the breath just as a pebble will divide shallow 
waters, which, although their currents unite again 
soon after the obstruction is past, still leave a hollow 
space in rear of the object struck. An excess of 
moisture also impedes the voice, while a deficiency 
weakens it. x\s regards fatigue, its effect is the same 
as upon the body : it affects the voice not merely at 
the moment of speaking, but for some time after- 
wards. But while exercise, which gives strength in 22 
all cases, is equally necessary both for orators and 
singing-masters, it is a different kind of exercise 
which they require. For the orator is too much 
occupied by civil affairs to be able to allot fixed 
times for taking a walk, and he cannot tune his 
voice through all the notes of the scale nor spare 
it exertion, since it is frequently necessary for him 
to speak in several cases in succession. Nor is the 23 
same regime suitable as regards food : for the orator 
needs a strong and enduring voice rather than one 
which is soft and sweet, while the singer mellows all 
sounds, even the highest, by the modulation of his 
voice, whereas we have often to speak in harsh and 
agitated tones, must pass wakeful nights, swallow 
the soot that is produced by the midnight oil and 
stick to our work though our clothes be dripping 
with sweat. Consequently, we must not attempt to 24 
mellow our voice by coddling it nor accustom it to 
the conditions which it would like to enjoy, but 
rather give it exercise suited to the tasks on which 
it will be employed, never allowing it to be impaired 

255 



QUINTILIAN 

silentio subsidatj sed firmetur consuetudine, qua diffi- 
26 cultas omnis levatur. Ediscere autem, quo exer- 
cearis, erit optimum (nam ex tempore dicentes 
avocat a cura vocis ille, qui ex rebus ipsis con- 
cipitur, adfectus) et ediscere quam maxime varia^ 
quae et clamorem et disputationem et senmonem et 
flexus habeant, ut simul in omnia paremur. Hoc 

26 satis est ; alioqui nitida ilia et curata vox insolitum 
laborem recusabit, ut assueta gymnasiis et oleo cor- 
pora, quamlibet sint in suis certaminibus speciosa 
atque robusta, si militare iter fascemque et vigilias 
imperes, deficiant et quaerant unctores suos nudum- 

27 que sudorem. Ilia quidem in hoc opere praecipi 
quis ferat vitandos soles atque ventos et nubila etiam 
ae siccitates ? Ita, si dicendum in sole aut ventoso, 
humidOj calido die fuerit, reos deseremus? Nam 
crudum quidem aut saturum aut ebrium aut eiecto 
modo vomitu, quae cavenda quidam monent, decla- 

28 mare neminem, qui sit mentis compos, puto. Illud 
non sine causa est ab omnibus praeceptum, ut parca- 
tur maxime voci in illo a pueritia in adolescentiam 
transitu, quia naturaliter impeditur, non, ut arbitror, 
propter calorem, quod quidam putaverunt (nam est 
256 



BOOK XI. III. 24-28 

by silence, but strengthening it by practice, which 
removes all difficulties. The best method for secur- 25 
ing such exercise is to learn passages by heart (for if 
we have to speak extempore, the passion inspired by 
our theme will distract us from all care for our voice), 
while the passages selected for the purpose should 
be as varied as possible, involving a combination 
of loud, argumentative, colloquial and modulated 
utterance, so that we may prepare ourselves for all 
exigencies simultaneously. This will be sufficient. 26 
Otherwise your delicate, overtrained voice will 
succumb before any unusual exertion, like bodies 
accustomed to the oil of the training school, which 
for all the imposing robustness which they display 
in their own contests, yet, if ordered to make a day's 
march with the troops, to carry burdens and mount 
guard at night, would faint beneath the task and 
long for their trainers to rub them down with oil and 
for the free perspiration of the naked limbs. Who 27 
would tolerate me if in a work such as this I were 
to prescribe avoidance of exposure to sun, wind, rain 
or parching heat .'' If we are called upon to speak 
in the sun or on a windy, wet or warm day, is that a 
reason for deserting the client whom we have under- 
taken to defend ? While as for the warning given 
by some that the orator should not speak when 
\ dyspeptic, replete or drunk, or immediately after 
vomiting, I think that no sane person would dream 
of declaiming under such circumstances. There is, 28 
however, good reason for the rule prescribed by all 
authorities, that the voice should not be overstrained 
in the years of transition between boyhood and man- 
hood, since at that pei-iod it is naturally weak, not, 1 
think, on account of heat, as some allege (for there 

'57 



QUINTILIAN 

maior alias), sed propter humorem potius ; nam hoc 

29 aetas ilia turgescit. Itaque nares etiam ac pectus eo 
tempore tument, atque omnia velut germinant eoque 
sunt tenera et iniuriae obnoxia. Sed, ut ad proposi- 
tum redeam, iam confirmatae constitutaeque voci 
genus exercitationis optimum duco, quod est operi 
simillimum, dicere cotidie sicut agimus. Namque 
hoc modo non vox tantum confirmatur et latus, sed 
etiam corporis decens et accommodatus orationi 
motus componitur. 

30 Non alia est autem ratio pronuntiationis quam 
ipsius orationis. Nam ut ilia emcndata, dilucida, 
ornata, apta esse debet, ita haec quoque emendata 
erit, id est, vitio carebit, si fuerit os facile, explana- 
tum, iucundum, urbanum, id est, in quo nulla neque 

31 rusticitas neque peregrinitas resonet. Non enim 
sine causa dicitur barharum Graecumve. Nam sonis 
homines ut aera tinnitu dinoscimus. Ita fiet illud, 
quod Ennius probat, cum dicit suaviloquenti ore Cethe- 
gum fuisse, non quod Cicero in his reprehendit, quos 
ait lalrare non agere. Sunt enim multa vitia, de 
quibus dixi, cum in quadam primi libri parte puero- 
rum ora formarem, opportunius ratus, in ea aetate] 
facere illorum mentionem, in qua emendari possunt. 

32 Itemque si ipsa vox primum fuerit, ut sic dicam, sana,i 



1 Ann. ix. 305 (Vahlen). * Brut. xv. 58. 

' I. i. 37 ; V. 32 ; viii. 1 and xi. 1 sqq. 



258 



BOOK XI. III. 28-32 

is more heat in the body at other periods), but rather 
on account of moisture, of which at that age there is 
a superabundance. For this reason the nostrils and 29 
the breast swell at this stage, and all the organs 
develop new growth, with the result that they are 
tender and liable to injury. However, to return to 
the point, the best and most realistic foi*m of exercise 
for the voice, once it has become firm and set, is, in 
my opinion, the practice of speaking daily just as we 
plead in the courts. For thus, not merely do the 
voice and lungs gain in strength, but we acquire a 
becoming deportment of the body and develop grace 
of movement suited to our style of speaking. 

The rules for delivery are identical with those for the 3fi 
language of oratory itself. For, as our language must 
be correct, clear, ornate and appropriate, so with our 
delivery ; it will be correct, that is, free from fault, if 
our utterance be fluent, clear, pleasant and " urbane," 
that is to say, free from all traces of a rustic or a foreign 
accent. For there is good reason for the saying we so 3 i 
often hear, " He must be a barbarian or a Greek " : 
since we may discern a man's nationality from the 
sound of his voice as easily as we test a coin by its ring. 
If these qualities be present, we shall have those har- 
monious accents of which Ennius ^ expresses his 
approval when he describes Cethegus as one whose 
"words rang sweetly," and avoid the opposite effect, 
of which Cicero ^ expresses his disapproval by saying, 
"They bark, not plead." For there are many faults 
of which I spoke in the first book^ when I discussed 
the method in which the speech of children should 
be formed, since I thought it more appropriate to 
mention them in connexion with a period of life 
when it is still possible to correct them. Again, the 32 

»59 



QUINTILIAN 

id est, nullum eorum, de quibus modo rettuli, patietur 
incommodum ; deinde non subsurda, rudis, immanis, 
dura, rigida, rava/ praepinguis, aut tenuis, inanis, 
acerba, pusilla^ mollis, effeminata, spiritus nee brevis 
nee parum durabilis nee in receptu difficilis. 

33 Dilucida vero erit pronuntiatio primum, si verba tota 
exierint, quorum pars devorari, pars destitui solet, 
plerisque extremas syllabas non perferentibus, dum 
priorum sono indulgent. Ut est autem necessaria 
verborum explanatio, ita omnes imputare et velut 

34 adnumerare litteras molestum et odiosum. Nam et 
vocales frequentissime coeunt, et consonantium quae- 
dam insequente vocali dissimulantur. Utriusque 
exemplum posuimus : 

Multum tile et terris — . 

35 Vitatur etiam duriorum inter se congressus, unde 
pellcxit et collegii, et quae alio loco dicta sunt ; ideoque 
laudatur in Catulo suavis appellatio litterarum. Se- 
cundum est, ut sit oratio distincta, id est, qui dicit, 
et incipiat ubi oportet et desinat. Observandum 
etiam, quo loco sustinendus et quasi suspendendus 
sermo sit, quod Graeci viroSiacrToXrjv vel viroa-Tiyfi^v 

36 vocant, quo deponendus. Suspenditur Arma virum- 
que cano, quia illud vinim ad sequentia pertinet, ut 

^ rava, Burman : vana, MSS. 



1 IX. iv, 40. * Aen. i. 3. * ix. iv. 37. 

* Brut. Ixxiv. 259. "sua vitas vocis et lenis appellatio 
literarum" ("the sweetness of his voice and the delicacy 
with which he pronounced the various letters.") 

• " A slight stop," corresponding to our "comma." 

' Aen. i. 1. "■ 

260 



BOOK XI. m. 32-36 

delivery may be described as correct if the voice be 
sound, that is to say, exempt from any of the defects 
of which I have just spoken, and if it is not dull, 
coarse, exaggerated, hard, stiff, hoarse or thick, or 
again, thin, hollow, sharp, feeble, soft or effeminate, 
and if the breath is neither too short nor difficult to 
sustain or recover. 

The delivery will be clear if, in the first place, the 33 
words are uttered in their entirety, instead of being 
swallowed or clipped, as is so often the case, since 
too many people fail to complete the final syllables 
through over-emphasising the first. But although 
words must be given their full phonetic value, it is a 
tiresome and offensive trick to pronounce every letter 
as if we were entering them in an inventory. For 34 
vowels frequently coalesce and some consonants dis- 
appear when followed by a vowel. I have already * 
given an example of both these occurrences : — 
muUiim ille et terris.^ Further, we avoid placing two 35 
consonants near each other when their juxtaposition 
would cause a harsh sound ; thus, we saj pellexit and 
collegit and employ other like forms of which I have 
spoken elsewhere.^ It is with this in mind that 
Cicero * praises Catulus for the sweetness with which 
he pronounced the various letters. The second 
essential for clearness of delivery is that our 
language should be properly punctuated, that is 
to say, the speaker must begin and end at the 
proper place. It is also necessary to note at what 
point our speech should pause and be momentarily 
suspended (which the Greeks term vTroSiao-roX^ and 
wrojTiy/i^)^ and when it should come to a full stop. 
After the words arma virumque cano ® there is a mo- 36 
mentary suspension, because virum is connected with 

261 



QUINTILIAN 

sit virum Troiae qui primus ah oris, et hie iterum. 
Nam etiamsi aliud est, unde venit quam quo venit, 
non distingueiidum tamen, quia utrumque eodem 

37 verbo continetur ve7iil. Tertio Italiam, quia interiectio 
est fato pro fugus et continuum sermonem, quifaciebat 
Italiam Lavinaque, dividit. Ob eandemque causam 
quarto profugus, deinde Lavinaque venit litora, ubi 
iam erit distinctio, quia inde alius incipit sensus. 
Sad in ipsis etiam distinctionibus tempus alias 
brevius, alias longius dabimus ; interest enim, ser- 

38 monem finiant an sensum. Itaque illam distinctionem 
Litora protinus altero spiritus initio insequar ; cum 
illuc venero Atque altae moeuia Romae, deponam et 

39 morabor et novum rursus exordium faciam. Sunt 
aliquando et sine respiratione quaedam morae etiam 
in periodis. Ut enim "^ ilia In coetu vero populi Romani, 
negotium publicum gerens, magister equitum, etc., multa 
membra habent (sensus enim sunt alii atque alii), sed 
unam circumductionem, ita paulum morandum in his 
intervallis, non interrumpendus est contextus. Et e 
contrario spiritum interim recipere sine intellectu 
morae necesse est, quo loco quasi surripiendus est ; 
alioqui si inscite recipiatur, non minus adferat ob- 
scuritatis quam vitiosa distinctio. Virtus autem 
distinguendi fortasse sit parva ; sine qua tamen esse 
nulla alia in agendo potest. 

* enim, Obrecht : in, MSS. 

^ Phil. II. XXV. 63. See Quint, viii. iv. 8. 

• See IX. iv. 22, 67, 123. The name colon is applied to the 
longer clauses contained in a period, as opposed to the shorter, 
which are styled commata, 

262 



BOOK XI. III. 36-39 

what follows, the full sense being given by virum 
Troiae qui primus ah oris, after which there is a simi- 
lar suspension. For although the mention of the 
hero's destination introduces an idea different from 
that of the place whence he came, the difference does 
not call for the insertion of a stop, since both ideas 
are expressed by the same verb venit. After Italiam 37 
comes a third pause, since fato profugus is paren- 
thetic and breaks up the continuity of the phrase 
Italiam Lavinaque. For the same reason there is a 
fourth f>ause after profugus. Then follows Lavinaque 
venit litora, where a stop must be placed, as at this 
point a new sentence begins. But stops themselves 
vary in length, according as they mark the conclusion 
of a phrase or a sentence. Thus after litora I shall 38 
pause and continue after taking breath. But when 
I come to atque allae inoenia Romae I shall make a full 
stop, halt and start again witli the opening of a fresli 
sentence. There are also occasionally, even in 39 
periods, pauses which do not require a fresh breath. 
For although the sentence in coetu vero populi Romani, 
negotium publicum gerens, magister equitum} etc., con- 
tains a number of different cola,"^ expressing a number 
of different thoughts, all these cola are embraced by 
a single period : consequently, although short pauses 
are required at the appropriate intervals, the flow of 
the period as a whole must not be broken. On the 
other hand, it is at times necessary to take breath with- 
out any perceptible pause : in such cases we must do 
so surreptitiously, since if we take breath unskilfully, 
it will cause as much obscurity as would have resulted 
from faulty punctuation. Correctness of punctuation 
may seem to be but a trivial merit, but without it 
all the other merits of oratory are nothing worth. 

263 



QUINTILIAN 

40 Ornata est pronuntiatio, cui suffragatur vox facilis, 
magna, beata, flexibilis, firma, dulcis, durabilis, clara, 
pura, secans aera et auribus sedens (est enim quae- 
dam ad auditum accommodata non magnitudine, sed 
proprietate), ad hoc velut tractabilis, utique habens 
omnes in se qui desiderantur sinus intentionesque et 
toto, ut aiunt, organo instructa ; cui aderit lateris 
firmitas, spiritus cum spatio pertinax, tum labori non 

41 facile cessurus. Neque gravissimus autem in musica 
sonus nee acutissimus orationibus convenit. Nam et 
hie parum clarus nimiumque plenus nullum adferre 
animis motum potest, et ille praetenuis et immodicae 
claritatis, cum est ultra verum, tum neque pronunti- 
atione flecti neque diutius ferre intentionem potest. 

42 Nam vox ut nervi, quo remissior, hoc gravior et 
plenior, quo tensior, hoc tenuis et acuta magis est. 
Sic ima vim non liabet, summa rumpi periclitatur. 
Mediis ergo utendum sonis, hique tum augenda 
intentione excitandi, tum summittenda sunt 
temperandi. 

43 Nam prima est observatio recte pronuntiandi 
aequalitas, ne sermo subsultet imparibus spatiis ac 
sonis, miscens longa brevibus, gravia acutis, elata 
summissis, et inaequalitate horum omnium sicut 
264 



BOOK XI. III. 40-43 

Delivery will be ornate when it is supported by 40 
a voice that is easy, strong, rich, flexible, firm, sweet, 
enduring, resonant, pure, carrying far and penetrat- 
ing the ear (for there is a type of voice which 
impresses the hearing not by its volume, but by its 
peculiar quality) : in addition, the voice must be 
easily managed and must possess all the necessary 
inflexions and modulations, in fact it must, as the 
saying is, be a perfect instrument, equipped with 
every stop : further, it must have strong lungs to 
sustain it, and ample breathing power tliat will be 
equal to all demands upon it, however fatiguing. The 41 
deepest bass and the highest treble notes are un- 
suited to oratory : for the former lack clearness and, 
owing to their excessive fullness, have no emotional 
power, while the latter are too thin and, owing to 
excess of clearness, give an impression of extrava- 
gance and are incompatible with the inflexions 
demanded by delivery and place too great a strain 
upon the voice. For the voice is like the strings of 42 
a musical instrument ; the slacker it is the deeper 
and fuller the note produced, whereas if it be 
tightened, the sound becomes thinner and shriller. 
Consequently, the deepest notes lack force, and the 
higher run the risk of cracking the voice. The orator 
will, therefore, employ the intermediate notes, which 
must be raised when we speak with energy and 
lowered when we adopt a more subdued tone. 

For the first essential of a good delivery is even- 43 
ness. The voice must not run joltingly, with 
irregularity of rhythm and sound, mLxing long and 
short syllables, grave accents and acute, tones loud 
and low, without discrimination, the result being that 
this universal unevenness produces the impression of 

265 



QUINTILIAN 

pedum claudicet ; secunda varietas, quod solum est 
44 pronuntiatio. Ac ne quis pugnare inter se putet 
aequalitatem et varietatem, cum illi virtuti contra- 
rium vitium sit inaequalitas, huic, quod dicitur 
fiovotiBtia, quasi quidam unus aspectus, Ars porro 
variandi cum gratiam praebet ac renovat aures, turn 
dicentem ipsa laboris mutatione reficit, ut standi, 
46 ambulandi, sedendi, iacendi vices sunt, nihilque 
eorum pati unum diu possumus. lUud vero maxi- 
mum (sed id paulo post tractabimus), quod secundum 
rationem rerum, de quibus dicimus, animorumque 
habitus conformanda vox est, ne ab oratione dis- 
cordet. Vitemus igitur illam, quae Graece /xovorovia 
vocatur, una quaedam spiritus ac soni intentio; non 
solum ne dicamus omnia clamose, quod insanum est, 
aut intra loquendi modum, quod motu caret, aut 
summisso murmure, quo etiam debilitatur omnis 
46 intentio ; sed ut in iisdem partibus iisdemque adfecti- 
bus sint tamen quaedam non ita magnae vocis 
declinationes, prout aut verborum dignitas aut 
sententiarum natura aut depositio aut inceptio aut 
transitus postulabit : ut, qui singulis pinxerunt 
coloribus, alia tamen eminentiora alia reductiora 
266 



BOOK XI. III. 43-46 

a limping gait. The second essential is variety of 
tone, and it is in this alone that delivery really con- 
sists. I must warn my readers not to fall into the 44 
error of supposing that evenness and variety are in- 
compatible with one another, since the fault opposed 
to evenness is unevenness, while the opposite of 
variety is that which the Greeks term fxovoeiSeia, or 
uniformity of aspect. The art of producing variety 
not merely charms and refreshes the ear, but, by the 
very fact that it involves a change of effort, revives 
the speaker's flagging energies. It is like the relief 
caused by changes in position, such as are involved 
by standing, walking, sitting and lying, none of 
which can be endured for a long time together. 
But the most important point (which I shall proceed 45 
to discuss a little later) is the necessity of adapting 
the voice to suit the nature of the various subjects 
on which we are speaking and the moods that they 
demand : otherwise our voice will be at variance with 
our language. We must, therefore, avoid that which 
the Greeks call monotojiy, that is to say, the unvary- 
ing exertion both of lungs and voice. By this I do 
not simply mean that we must avoid saying every- 
thing in a loud tone, a fault which amounts to 
madness, or in a colloquial tone, which creates an 
impression of lifelessness, or in a subdued murmur, 
which is utterly destructive of all vigour. What I 46 
mean is this : within the limits of one passage and the 
compass of one emotion we may vary our tone to a 
certain, though not a very great extent, according 
as the dignity of the language, the nature of the 
thought, the conclusion and opening of our sen- 
tences or transitions from one point to another, may 
demand. Thus, those who paint in monochrome 

267 



QUINTILIAN 

fecerunt, sine quo ne membris quidem suas lineas 

47 dedissent. Proponamus enim nobis illud Ciceronis 
in oratione nobilissima pro Milone principium ; nonne 
ad singulas paene distinctiones quamvis in eadem 
facie tamen quasi vultus mutandus est ? Etsi vereor, 
indices, ne tnrpe sit, pro fortissimo viro dicere incipientem 

48 timere. Etiamsi est toto proposito contractum atque 
summissum, quia et exordium est et solliciti exordium, 
tamen fuerit necesse est aliquid plenius et erectius, 
dum dicit Pro foiiissimo t;jVo, quam cum Etsi vereor et 

49 I'urpe sit et Timere. lam secunda respiratio increscat 
oportet et naturali quodam conatu, quo minus pavide 
dicinms quae sequuntur, et quod magnitude animi 
Milonis ostenditur : Minivieque decent, cum T. Annius 
ipse mngis de rei puhlicae salute quam de sua perturbetur. 
Deinde quasi obiurgatio sui est : Me ad eius causam 

60 parem animi magnitudinem adferre non posse. Turn 
invidiosiora : Tamen haec novi iudicii nova forma terret 
Qculos. Ilia vero iam paene apertis, ut aiunt, tibiis : 
Qiii, quocunque inciderunt, consuetudinem fori et pristinum 
morem iudiciortim requirunt. Nam sequens latum etiam 
atque fusum est: Non enim corona consessus vester 

61 cinctiis est, ut solebat. Quod notavi, ut appareret, non 
solum in membris causae, sed etiam in articulis esse 

^ pro Mil. i. 1 sqq. " Although I fear, gentlemen, that it 
may be discreditable that I should feel afraid on rising to 
defend the bravest of men, and though it is far from becoming 
that, whereas Titus Annius is more concerned for the safety 
of the State than for his own, I should be unable to bring a 
like degree of courage to aid me in pleading his cause ; still, 
the strange appearance of this novel tribunal dismays my 
eyes, which, whithersoever they turn, look in vain for the 

268 



BOOK XI. III. 46-51 

still represent their objects in different planes, since 
otherwise it would have been impossible to depict 
even the limbs of tlieir figures. Let us take as an 47 
example the opening of Cicero's magnificent speech 
in defence of Milo. Is it not clear that the orator 
has to change his tone almost at every stop ? it is the 
same face, but the expression is changed. Etsi vereor, 
indices, ne iurpe sit, pro fortissimo viro dicere incipientem 48 
timere.^ Although the general tone of the passage is 
restrained and subdued, since it is not merely an 
exordium, but the exordium of a man suffering from. 
serious anxiety, still something fuller and bolder i^ 
required in the tone, when he says pro fortissimo virOf 
than w^hen he says etsi cereor and turpe sit and timere. 
But his second breath must be more vigorous, partly 49 
owing to the natural increase of effort, since we 
always speak our second sentence with less timidity, 
and partly because he indicates the high courage of 
Milo: minimeque deceat, cum T. Atmitis ipse magis de. 
ret publicae salute quam de sua perturbetur. Then ho 
proceeds to something like a reproof of himself: me 
ad eivs causam parem anitni magnitudinem adferre non 
posse. The next clause suggests a reflexion on the 50 
conduct of others : tamen haec nod iudicii nova forma 
terret oculos. And then in what follows he opens 
every stop, as the saying is : qm, quocuTujue indderunt, - 
consuetudinem fori et pristinum morem iudiciorum requi- 
runt : while the next clause is even fuller and freer : 
non enim corona consesstcs tester cinctus est, ut solebat,' 
I have called attention to these points to make it 51 
clear that there is a certain variety, not merely in 

customary aspect of the forum and the time-honoured usage 
of the courts. For your bench is not sturounded, as it used 
to be, by a ring of spectators," etc 

269 



QUINTILIAN 

aliquam pronuntiandi varietatem, sine qua nihil 
neque maius neque minus est. 

Vox autem ultra vires urgenda non est. Nam et 
sufFocatur saepe et maiore nisu minus clara est et 
interim elisa in ilium sonum erumpit, cui Graeci 

62 nomen a gallorum immaturo cantu dederunt. Nee 
volubilitate nimia confundenda quae dicimus, qua 
et distinctio perit et adfectus, et nonnunquam etiam 
verba aliqua sui parte fraudantur. Cui contrarium 
est vitium nimiae tarditatis ; nam et difficultatem 
inveniendi fatetur et segnitia solvit animos et, in 
quo est aliquid, temporibus praefinitis aquam perdit. 
Promptum sit os, non praeceps, moderatum, non 

63 lentum ; spiritus quoque nee crebro receptus con- 
cidat sententiam, nee eo usque traliatur, donee 
deficiat. Nam et deformis est consumpti illius sonus 
et respiratio sub aqua diu pressi similis et receptus 
longior et non opportunus, ut qui fiat non ubi 
volumus, sed ubi necesse est. Quare longiorem 
dicturis period um colligendus est spiritus, ita tamen, 
ut id neque diu neque cum sono faciamus, neque 
omnino ut manifestum sit ; reliquis partibus optime 

64 inter iuncturas sermonis revocabitur. Exercendus 
autem est, ut sit quam longissimus ; quod Demosthe- 
nes ut efficeret, scandens in adversum continuabat 

* What this word was is not known. Perhaps merely 

K0KKVfffJl6s. 

* aqvMjn perdit. Lit. wastes water. The reference is to 
the clepsydra or water-clock employed for the measurement 
of time. 

370 



BOOK XI. III. 51-54 

the delivery of cola, but even in that of phrases con- 
sisting of one word, a variety the lack of which 
would make every word seem of equal importance. 

The voice, however, must not be pressed beyond 
its powers, for it is liable to be choked and to be- 
come less and less clear in proportion to the increase 
of effort, while at times it will break altogether and 
produce the sound to which the Greeks have given 
a name derived from the crowing of cocks before the 
voice is developed.^ We must also beware of con- 52 
fusing our utterance by excessive volubility, which 
results in disregard of punctuation, loss of emotional 
power, and sometimes in the clipping of words. The 
opposite fault is excessive slowness of speech, which 
is a sign of lack of readiness in invention, tends by 
its sluggishness to render our hearers inattentive, 
and, further, wastes the time allotted to us for speak- 
ing,2 a consideration which is of some importance* 
Our speech must be ready, but not precipitate, under 
control, but not slow, while we must not take breath 53 
so often as to break up our sentence, nor, on the 
other hand, sustain it until it fails us from exhaustion. 
For the sound produced by loss of breath is disagree- 
able ; we gasp like a drowning man and fill our lungs 
with long-drawn inhalations at inappropriatemoments, 
giving the impression that our action is due not to 
choice, but to compulsion. Therefore, in attacking 
a period of abnormal length, we should collect our 
breath, but quickly, noiselessly and imperceptibly. 
On other occasions we shall be able to take breath 
at the natural breaks in the substance of our speech. 
But we must exercise our breathing capacity to make 64 
it as great as possible. To produce this result De- 
mosthenes used to recite as many successive lines as 

271 



QUINTILIAN 

quam posset plurimos versus. Idem^ quo facilius 
verba ore libero exprimeret, calculos lingua volvens 

65 dicere domi solebat. Est interim et longus et plenus 
et clams satis spiritus, non tamen firmae intentionis 
ideoque tremulus, ut corpora, quae aspectu integra 
nervis parum sustinentur ; id fipaa-fj-ov ^ Graeci vocant. 
Sunt qui spiritum cum stridore per raritatem dentium 
non recipiunt, sed resorbent. Sunt qui crebro 
anhelitu et introrsum etiam clare sonante imitentur 

66 iumenta onere et iugo laborantia. Quod adfectant 
quoque, tanquam inventionis copia urgeantur maior- 
que vis eloquentiae ingruat, quam quae emitti 
faucibus possit. Est aliis concursus oris et cum verbis 
suis colluctatio. lam tussire et exspuere crebro 
et ab imo pulmone pituitam trochleis adducere et 
oris humore proximos spargere et maiorem partem 
spiritus in loquendo per nares effundere, etiamsi non 
utique vocis sunt vitia, quia tamen propter vocem 

67 accidunt, potissimum huic loco subiiciantur. Sed 
quodcunque ex his vitium magis tulerim quam, quo 
nunc maxima laboratur in causis omnibus scholisque, 

* fipafffxbv, Butler : BFAMON, cod. Bern, : BPAMON, cod, 
Bamb. : fipayxo", Gesner and ed, Tarvis. 

* Ppdyxos is generally read, bnt the word is used in the 
sense of " hoarseness," which is not what Quintilian describes. 
I would read Bpacrnds, a word meaning " effervescence," 
"shaking," "shivering." ^ere = tremolo. 

* trochlea is a windlass used for raising water from a 
well. 

372 



BOOK XI. III. 54-57 

possible, while he was climbing a hill. He also, with 
a view to securing fluency free from impediment, 
used to roll pebbles under his tongue when speaking 
in the privacy of his study. Sometimes the breath, 55 
although capable of sustained effort and sufficiently 
full and clear, lacks firmness when exerted, and for 
that reason is liable to become tremulous, like bodies 
which, although to all appearances sound, receive 
insufficient support from the sinews. This the Greeks 
call ^pacr/xos.^ There are some too who, owing to 
the loss of teeth, do not draw in the breath naturally, 
but suck it in with a hissing sound. There are 
others who pant incessantly and so loudly that it 
is perfectly audible within them : they remind one 
of heavily-laden beasts of burden straining against 
the yoke. Some indeed actually affect this man- 56 
nerism, as though to suggest that they are struggling 
with the host of ideas that crowd themselves upon 
them and oppressed by a greater flood of eloquence 
than their throats are capable of uttering. Others, 
again, find a difficulty in opening their mouths, and 
seem to struggle with their words ; and, further, 
although they are not actually faults of the voice, 
yet since they arise out of the use of the voice, 
I think this is the most appropriate place for 
referring to the habit of coughing and spitting with 
frequency while speaking, of hawking up phlegm 
from the depths of the lungs, like water from a 
well,^ sprinkling the nearest of the bystanders with 
saliva, and expelling the greater portion of the 
breath through the nostrils. But any of these faults 57 
are tolerable compared with the practice of chanting 
instead of speaking, which is the worst feature of 
our modem oratory, whether in the courts or in the 

273 



QUINTILIAN 

cantandi^ quod inutilius sit an foedius, nescio. Quid 
enim minus oratori convenit quam modulatio scenica 
et nonnunquam ebriorum aut comissantium licentiae 
68 similis? Quid vero movendis adfectibus contrarium 
magis quam, cum dolendum,^ irascendum, indig- 
nandum, commiserandum sit, non solum ab his 
adfectibus, in quos inducendus est iudex, recedere, 
sed ipsam fori sanctitatem Lyciorum et Carum^ 
licentia solvere ? Nam Cicero illos ex Lycia et Carta ^ 
rhetoras paene canlare in epilogis dixit. Nos etiam 

59 cantandi severiorem paulo niodum excessimus. Quis- 
quamne, non dico de homicidio, sacrilegio, parricidio, 
sed de calculis certe atque rationibus, quisquam 
denique, ut semel finiam, in lite cantat? Quod si 
omnino recipiendum est, nihil causae est, cur non 
illam vocis modulationem fidibus ac tibiis, immo me 
hercule, quod est huic deformitati propius, cymbalis 

60 adiuvemus. Facimus tamen hoc libenter ; nam nee 
cuiquam sunt iniucunda quae cantant ipsi, et laboris 
in hoc quam in agendo minus est. Et sunt quidam, 
qui secundum alia vitae vitia etiam hac ubique 
audiendi, quod aures mulceat, voluptate ducantur. 

^ dolendum, Regius : docendum, B. avd lul. Victor. 

* Lyciorum et Carum, Daniel : ludorum talarium, MSS, 

' Phrygia, MSS. of Cicero. 

* Or. xviii. 67. 
274 



BOOK XI, III. 57-60 

schools^ and of which I can only say that I do not 
know whether it is more useless or more repugnant 
to good taste. For what can be less becoming to 
an orator than modulations that recall the stage and 
a sing-song utterance which at times resembles the 
maudUn utterance of drunken revellers .■' What can 58 
be more fatal to any emotional appeal than that the 
speaker should, when the situation calls for grief, 
anger, indignation or pity, not merely avoid the 
expression of those emotions which require to be 
kindled in the judge, but outrage the dignity of 
the courts with noises such as are dear to the 
Lycians and Carians ? For Cicero ^ has told us that 
the rhetoricians of Lycia and Caria come near to 
singing in their perorations. But, as a matter of fact, 
we have somewhat overstepped the limits imposed by 
the more restrained style of singing. I ask you, 59 
does anyone sing, 1 will not say when his theme is 
murder, sacrilege or parricide, but at any rate when 
he deals with figures or accounts, or, to cut a long 
story short, when he is pleading in any kind of 
lawsuit whatever f And if such a form of intonation 
is to be permitted at all, there is really no reason 
why the modulations of the voice should not be 
accompanied by harps and flutes, or even by cymbals, 
which would be more appropriate to the revolting 
exhibitions of which I am speaking. And yet we 60 
show no reluctance in indulging this vicious practice. 
For no one thinks his own singing hideous, and it 
involves less trouble than genuine pleading. There 
are, moreover, some persons who, in thorough con- 
formity with their other vices, are possessed with a 
perpetual passion for hearing something that will 
soothe their ears. But, it may be urged, does not 

275 



QUINTILIAN 

Quid ergo? non et Cicero elicit esse aliquem in 
oratione canlum ohscuriorem ? et hoc quodam naturali 
initio venit? Ostendam non multo post, ubi et 
quatenus recipiendus sit hie flexus et cantus quidem 
sed, quod plerique intelligere nolunt, obscurior. 

61 lam enira tempus est dicendi, quae sit apta pro- 
nuntiatio. Quae certe ea est, quae iis, de quibus 
dicimus, accommodatur. Quod quidem maxima ex 
parte praestant ipsi motus animorum, sonatque vox, 
ut feritur; sed cum sint alii veri adfectus, alii ficti 
et imitati, veri naturaliter erumpunt, ut dolentium, 
irascentium, indignantium, sed carent arte, ideoque 

62 sunt disciplina et ratione formandi. Contra qui 
effinguntur imitatione, artem habent ; sed hi carent 
natura, ideoque in iis primum est bene adfici et 
concipere imagines rerum et tanquam veris moveri. 
Sic velut media vox, quern habitum a nobis acceperit, 
huDC. iudicum animis dabit. Est enim mentis index 

63 ac totidem, quot ilia, mutationes habet. Itaque 
laetis in rebus plena et simplex et ipsa quodammodo 
hilaris fluit; at in certamine erecta totis viribus et velut 
omnibus nervis intenditur. Atrox in ira et aspera 

* Or. xviii. 57. 
^76 



BOOK XL III. 60-63 

Cicero ^ himself say that there is a suggestion of 
singing in the utterance of an orator ? And is not 
this the outcome of a natural impulse? I shall 
shortly proceed to show to what extent such musical 
modulations are permissible : but if we are to call 
it singing, it must be no more than a suggestion 
of singing, a fact which too many refuse to 
realise. 

But it is now high time for me to explain what I 61 
mean by appropriate delivery. Such appropriateness 
obviously lies in the adaptation of the delivery to 
the subjects on which we are speaking. This quality 
is, in the main, supplied by the emotions themselves, 
and the voice will ring as passion strikes its chords. 
But there is a difference between true emotion on 
the one hand, and false and fictitious emotion on 
the other. The former breaks out naturally, as in 
the case of grief, anger or indignation, but lacks 
art, and therefore requires to be formed by methodical 
training. The latter, on the other hand, does imply 62 
art, but lacks the sincerity of nature : consequently 
in such cases the main thing is to excite the appro- 
priate feeling in oneself, to form a mental picture 
of the facts, and to exhibit an emotion that cannot 
be distinguished from the truth. The voice, which 
is the intermediary between ourselves and our 
hearers, will then produce precisely the same 
emotion in the judge that we have put into it. For 
it is the index of the mind, and is capable of express- 
ing all its varieties of feeling. Therefore when we 63 
deal with a lively theme, the flow of the voice is 
characterised by fullness, simplicity and cheerful- 
ness ; but when it is roused to battle, it puts forth 
all its strength and strains every nerve. In anger 



QUINTILIAN 

ac densa et respiratione crebra ; neque enim potest 
esse longus spiritus, cum immoderate effunditur. 
Paulum in invidia facienda lentior, quia non fere ad 
banc nisi inferiores confugiunt ; at in blandiendo, 
fatendo, satisfaciendo, rogando, lenis et summissa. 

64 Suadentium et monentium et pollicentium et conso- 
lantium gravis, in metu et verecundia contracta, 
adbortationibus fortis, disputationibus teres, misera- 
tione flexa et flebilis et consulto quasi obscurior ; at 
in egressionibus fusa et securae claritatis, in ex- 
positione ac sermonibus recta et inter acutum sonum 

66 et gravem media. AttoUitur autem concitatis 
adfectibus, compositis descendit pro utriusque rei 
modo altius vel inferius. 

Quid autem quisque in dicendo postulet locus, 
paulum difFeram, ut de gestu prius dicam, qui et 
ipse voci consentit et animo cum ea simul paret. Is 
quantum habeat in oratore momenti, satis vel ex eo 
patet quod pleraque etiam citra verba significat. 

66 Quippe non manus solum, sed nutus etiam declarant 
nostram voluntatem et in mutis pro sermone sunt, 
et saltatio frequenter sine voce intelligitur atque 
adficit, et ex vultu ingressuque perspicitur habitus 
278 



BOOK XI. III. 63-66 

it is fierce, harsh and intense, and calls for frequent 
filling of the lungs, since the breath cannot be sus- 
tained for long when it is poured forth without 
restraint. When it is desired to throw odium upon 
our opponents, it will be somewhat slower, since, 
as a rule, it is none save the weaker party takes 
refuge in such tactics. On the other hand, in flatter^', 
admission, apology or question it will be gentle and 
subdued. If we advise, warn, promise or console, 64 
it will be grave and dignified, modest if we express 
fear or shame, bold in exhortation, precise in argu- 
ment, full of modulations, suggestive of tears and 
designedly muffled in appeals for pity, whereas in 
digression it will be full and flowing, and will have 
all tlie resonance that is characteristic of confidence ; 
in exposition of facts or conversations it will be 
even and pitched half-way betwixt high and low. 
But it will be raised to express violent emotion, and 65 
sink when our words are of a calmer nature, rising 
and falling according to the demands of its theme. 

However, for the moment I will defer speaking 
of the variations in tone required by different topics, 
and will proceed first to the discussion of gesture 
which conforms to the voice, and like it, obeys the 
impulse of the mind. Its importance in oratory is 
sufficiently clear from the fact that there are many 
things which it can express without the assistance 
of words. For we can indicate our will not merely 66 
by a gesture of the hands, but also with a nod from 
the head : signs take the place of language in the 
dumb, and the movements of the dance are fre- 
quently full of meaning, and appeal to the emotions 
without any aid from words. The temper of the 
mind can be inferred from the glance and gait, 

279 



QUINTILIAN 

animorum ; et animalium quoque sermone carentium 
ira, laetitia, adulatio et oculis et quibusdam aliis 

67 corporis signis deprehenditur. Nee mirum, si ista, 
quae tamen in aliquo posita sunt motu, tantum in 
animis valent, cum pictura, tacens opus et habitus 
semper eiusdem, sic in intimos penetret adfectus, 
ut ipsam vim dicendi nonnunquam superare videatur. 
Contra si gestus ac vultus ab oratione dissentiat, 
tristia dicamus hilares, adfirmemus aliqua renuentes 
non auctoritas modo verbis, sed etiam fides desit. 

68 Decor quoque a gestu atque motu venit ; ideoque 
Demosthenes grande quoddam intuens speculum 
componere actionem solebat ; adeo, quamvis fulgor 
ille sinistras imagines reddat, suis demum oculis 
credidit, quod efficeret. 

Praecipuum vero in actione sicut in corpore ipso 
caput est cum ad ilium, de quo dixi, decorem, tum 

69 etiam ad significationem. Decoris ilia sunt, ut sit 
primo rectum et secundum naturam. Nam et de- 
iecto humilitas et supino arrogantia et in latus 
inclinato languor et praeduro ac rigente barbaria 
quaedam mentis ostenditur. Tum accipiat aptos ex 
ipsa actione motus, ut cum gestu concordet et 

70 manibus ac lateribus obsequatur. Aspectus enim 
semper eodem vertitur quo gestus, exceptis quae aut 
280 



BOOK XL in. 66-70 

and even speechless animals show anger, joy, or the 
desire to please by means of the eye and other 
physical indications. Nor is it wonderful that ges- 67 
ture which depends on various forms of movement 
should have such power, when pictures, which are 
silent and motionless, penetrate into our innermost 
feelings with such power that at times they seem 
more eloquent than language itself. On the other 
hand, if gesture and the expression of the face are 
out of harmony with the speech, if we look cheerful 
when our words are sad, or shake our heads when 
making a positive assertion, our words will not only 
lack weight, but will fail to carry conviction. Ges- 68 
ture and movement are also productive of grace. 
It was for this reason that Demosthenes used to 
practise his delivery in front of a large mirror, since, 
in spite of the fact that its reflexions are reversed, 
he trusted his eyes to enable him to judge accurately 
the effect produced. 

The head, being the chief member of the body, 
has a corresponding importance in delivery, serving 
not merely to produce graceful effect, but to illus- 
trate our meaning as well. To secure grace it is 69 
essential that the head should be carried naturally 
and erect. For a droop suggests humility, while if 
it be thrown back it seems to express arrogance, if 
inclined to one side it gives an impression of languor, 
while if it is held too stiffly and rigidly it appears 
to indicate a rude and savage temper. Further, it 
should derive appropriate motion from the subject 
of our pleading, maintaining hannony with the ges- 
ture and following the movement of the hands and 
side. For the eyes are always turned in the same 70 
direction as the gesture, except when we are called 

VOL. IV. K 281 



QUINTILIAN 

damnare aut concedere aut a nobis removere opor- 

tebit, ut idem illud vultu videamur aversari, manu 

repellere : 

— Di talent avertite pesteni. 

— Haud equidem tali me dignor honore, 

71 Significat vero plurimis modis. Nam praeter adnu- 
endi, renuendi confirmandique motus sunt et vere- 
cundiae et dubitationis et admirationis et indigna- 
tionis noti et communes omnibus. Solo tamen eo 
facere gestum scenici quoque doctores vitiosum 
putaverunt. Etiam frequens eius nutus noii caret 
vitio ; adeo iactare id et comas excutientem rotare 
fanaticum est. 

72 Dominatur autem maxime vultus. Hoc supplices, 
hoc minaces, hoc blandi^ hoc tristes, hoc hilares, hoc 
erecti, hoc summissi sumus ; hoc pendent homines, 
hunc intuentur, hie spectator, etiam antequam 
dicimus ; hoc quosdam amamus, hoc odimus, hoc 
plurima intelligimus, hie est saepe pro omnibus 

73 verbis. Itaque in iis, quae ad scenam componuntur, 
fabulis artifices pronuntiandi a personis quoque ad- 
fectus mutuantur, ut sit Aerope in tragoedia tristis, 

» Aen. in. 620. * Aen. i. 335, 

282 



BOOK XI. Ill 70-73 

upon to condemn or concede something or to express 
abhorrence, when we shall show our aversion by 
turning away the face and by thrusting out our 
iiands as though to repel the thought, as in the 
lines: 

•* Ye gods, such dread calamity avert I " ^ 
or 

" Not for me 
To claim such honour ! " ^ 

The methods by which the head may express our 71 
meaning are manifold. For in addition to those 
movements which indicate consent, refusal and 
affirmation, there are those expressive of modesty, 
hesitation, wonder or indignation, which are well 
known and common to all. But to confine the 
gesture to the movement of the head alone is re- 
garded as a fault by those who teach acting as well 
as by professors of rhetoric. Even the frequent 
nodding of the head is not free from fault, while 
to toss or roll it till our hair flies free is suggestive 
of a fanatic. 

By far the greatest influence is exercised by the 72 
glance. For it is by this that we express suppli- 
cation, threats, flattery, sorrow, joy, pride or sub- 
mission. It is on this that our audience hang, on 
this that they rivet their attention and their gaze, 
even before we begin to speak. It is this that 
inspires the hearer with affection or dislike, this 
that conveys a world of meaning and is often more 
eloquent than all our words. Consequently in plays 73 
destined for the stage, the masters of the art of 
delivery design even their masks to enhance the 
emotional effect. Thus, in tragedy, Aerope will be 

283 



QUINTILIAN 

atrox Medea, attonitus Aiax, truculentus Hercules. 

74 In comoediis vero praeter aliam observationem, qua 
servi, lenones, parasiti, rustici, milites, meretriculae, 
ancillae, senes austeri ac mites, iuvenes severi ac 
luxuriosi, matronae, puellae inter se discernuntur, 
pater ille, cuius praecipuae partes sunt, quia interim 
concitatus, interim lenis est, altero erecto, altero 
composite est supercilio ; atque id ostendere maxime 
latus actoribus moris est, quod cum iis, quas agunt, 

75 partibus congruat. Sed in ipso vultu plurimum 
valent oculi, per quos maxime animus eminet,^ ut 
citra motum quoque et hilaritate enitescant et 
tristitiae quoddam nubilum ducant. Quin etiam 
lacrimas iis natura mentis indices dedit, quae aut 
erumpunt dolore aut laetitia manant. Motu vero 
intenti, remissi, superbi, torvi, mites, asperi fiunt, 

76 quae, ut actus poposcerit, fingentur. Rigidi vero et 
extenti, aut languidi et torpentes, aut stupentes, aut 
lascivi et mobiles, et natantes et quadam voluptate 
suffusi, aut limi et, ut sic dicam, venerei, aut pos- 
centes aliquid pollicentesve nunquam esse debebunt. 
Nam opertos compressosve eos in dicendo quis nisi 

77 plane rudis aut stultus habeat? Et ad haec omnia 
exprimenda in palpebris etiam et in genis est quoddam 

78 deserviens iis ministerium. Multum et superciliis 
agitur. Nam et oculos formant aliquatenus et fronti 

* animus eminet, Spalding : aniina se manat, B, 
384 



BOOK XI. HI. 73-78 

sad, Medea fierce, Ajax bewildered, Hercules trucu- 
lent. In comedy, on the other hand, over and 74 
above the methods adopted to distinguish between 
slaves, pimps, parasites, rustics, soldiers, harlots, 
maidservants, old men stem and mild, youths moral 
or luxurious, married women and girls, we have 
the important role of the father who, because at 
times he is excited and at others calm, has one 
eyebrow raised and the other normal, the custom 
among actors being to turn that side of the face to 
the audience which best suits the role. But of the 76 
various elements that go to form the expression, 
the eyes are the most important, since they, more 
than anything else, reveal the temper of the mind, 
and without actual movement will twinkle with 
merriment or be clouded with grief. And further, 
nature has given them tears to serve as interpreters 
of our feelings, tears that will break forth for sorrow 
or stream for very joy. But, when the eyes move, 
they become intent, indifferent, proud, fierce, mild, 
or angry ; and they will assume all these characters 
according as the pleading may demand. But they 76 
must never be fixed or protruding, languid or slug- 
gish, lifeless, lascivious, restless, nor swim with a 
moist voluptuous glance, nor look aslant nor leer 
in amorous fashion, nor yet must they seem to 
promise or ask a boon. As for keeping them fully 
or partially closed while speaking, surely none save 
an uneducated man or a fool would dream of doing 
such a thing. And in addition to all these forms of 77 
expression, the upper and lower eyelids can render 
service in support of the eyes. The eyebrows also 78 
may be used with great effect. For to some extent 
Uiey mould the expression of the eyes and deter- 

28s 



QUINTILIAN 

imperant. His contrahitur, attollitur, remittitur, ut 
una res in ea plus valeat, sanguis ille, qui mentis 
habitu movetur et, cum infirmam verecundia cutem 
accipit, efFunditur in ruborem, cum metu refugit, 
abit omnis et pallore frigescit; temperatus medium 

79 quoddam serenum efficit. Vitium in superciliis, si 
aut immota sunt omnino aut nimium mobilia aut 
inaequalitate, ut modo de persona comica dixeram, 
dissident aut contra id quod dicimus finguntur. 
Ira enim contractis, tristitia deductis, hilaritas re- 
missis ostenditur. Adnuendi quoque et renuendi 

80 ratione demittunturautallevantur. Naribus labrisque 
non fere quidquam decenter ostendimus, tametsi 
derisus iis,^ contemptus, fastidium significari solet. 
Nam et corrugare nares, ut Horatius ait, et inflare et 
movere et digito inquietare et impulse subito spiritu 
excutere et diducere saepius et plana manu resu- 
pinare indecorum est, cum emunctio etiam fre- 

81 quentior non sine causa reprehendatur. Labra et 
porriguntur male et scinduntur et adstringuntur et 
diducuntur et dentes nudant et in latus ac paene ad 
aurem trahuntur et velut quodam fastidio replican- 
tur et pendent et vocem tantum altera parte dimit- 

* derisus iis, Obrecht : derisui, B. 



1 Ep. I. V. 23. 

^ It is hard to distinguisli between scindere and diductre. 
I have adopted a suggestion of Spalding's. 

a86 



BOOK XI. Ill 78-81 

mine that of the forehead. It is by means of the 
eyebrows that we contract, raise or smooth the 
latter : in fact, the only thing whicli has greater 
influence over it is the blood, which moves in con- 
formity with the emotions that control the mind, 
causing a blush on a skin that is sensitive to shame, 
and giving place to an icy pallor under the influence 
of fear, whereas, when it is under control, it pro- 
duces a peaceful complexion, intermediate between 
the two. Complete immobility in the eyebrows is 79 
a fault, as also is excess of mobility or the tendency 
to raise one and lower the other, as in the comic 
mask which I mentioned just now : while it is a 
further blemish if they express a feeling out of 
keeping with the words we utter. For they show 
anger by contraction, grief by depression and cheer- 
fulness by their expansion. They are also dropped 
or raised to express consent or refusal respectively. 
It is not often that the lips or nostrils can be 80 
becomingly employed to express our feelings, al- 
though they are often used to indicate derision, 
contempt or loathing. For to " wrinkle the nostrils " 
(as Horace says),^ or blow them out, or twitch them, 
or fret them with our finger, or snort through them 
with a sudden expulsion of the breath, or stretch 
them wide or push them up with the flat of the 
hand are all indecorous, since it is not without reason 
that censure is passed even on blowing the nose too 
frequently. It is also an ugly habit to protrude the 81 
lips, open them with a sudden smack,' compress 
them, draw them apart and bare the teeth, or twist 
them awry to one side till they almost reach the 
ear, or to curl them in scorn, or let them droop, or 
allow the voice to escape only on one side. It is 

287 



QUINTILIAN 

tunt. Lambere quoque ea et mordere deforme est, 
cum etiam in efficiendis verbis modicus eorum esse 
debeat motus ; ore enim magis quam labris loquen- 
dum est. 

82 Cervicem rectam opoi'tet esse, non rigidam aut 
supinam. Collum diversa quidem, sed pari deformi- 
tate et contrahitur et tenditur, sed tenso subest et 
labor, tenuaturque vox ac fatigatur ; adfixum pectori 
mentum minus claram et quasi latiorem presso gut- 

83 ture facit. Humerorum raro decens adlevatio atque 
contractio est ; breviatur enim cervix et gestum 
quendam humilem atque servilem et quasi fraudu- 
lentum facit, cum se in habitum adulationis, admira- 

84 tionis, metus fingunt. Brachii moderata proiectio, 
remissis humeris atque explicantibus se in proferenda 
manu digitis, continuos et decurrentes locos maxime 
decet. At cum speciosius quid uberiusque dicendum 
est, ut illud Saxa atque solitudines voci respondent, 
cxspatiatur in latus et ipsa quodamraodo se cum 

86 gestu fundit oratio. Manus vero, sine quibus trunca 
asset actio ac debilis, vix dici potest, quot motus 
habeant, cum paene ipsam verborum copiam conse- 
quantur. Nam ceterae partes loquentem adiuvant, 

86 hae, prope est ut dicam, ipsae loquuntur. Annon 
his poscimus, pollicemur, vocamus, dimittimus, mina- 
mur, supplicamus, abominamur, timemus, interro- 
gamus, negamus ; gaudium, tristitiam, dubitationem. 



* pro Arch. viii. 19. See viii. iii. 75 and ix. iv. 44. 
" Rocks and solitude make answer to the voice." 

288 



BOOK XI. III. 8i-86 

also unbecoming to lick or bite them, since their 
motion should be but slight even when they are 
employed in forming words. For we must speak 
with the mouth rather than the lips. 

The neck must be straight, not stiff or bent 82 
backward. As regards the throat, contraction and 
stretching are equally unbecoming, though in dif- 
ferent ways. If it be stretched, it causes strain 
as well, and v.eakens and fatigues the voice, 
while if the chin be pressed down into the chest 
it makes the voice less distinct and coarsens it, 
owing to the pressure on the windpipe. It is, as a 83 
rule, unbecoming to raise or contract the shoulders. 
For it shortens the neck and produces a mean and 
servile gesture, which is even suggestive of dis- 
honesty when men assume an attitude of flattery, 
admiration or fear. In continuous and flowing pas- 84 
sages a most becoming gesture is slightly to extend 
the arm with shoulders well thrown back and the 
fingers opening as the hand moves forward. But 
when we have to speak in specially rich or impres- 
sive style, as, for example, in the passage saxa atque 
soUtudines voci respondent,^ the arm will be thrown out 
in a stately sidelong sweep and the words will, as 
it were, expand in unison with the gesture. As 85 
for the hands, without which all action would be 
crippled and enfeebled, it is scarcely possible to 
describe the variety of their motions, since they are 
almost as expressive as words. For other portions 
of the body merely help the speaker, whereas the 
hands may almost be said to speak. Do we not 86 
use them to demand, promise, summon, dismiss, 
threaten, supplicate, express aversion or fear, question 
or deny ? Do we not employ them to indicate joy, 

289 



QUINTILIAN 

confessionem^ paenitentiam, modum, copiam, nu- 

87 merum, tempus ostendimus ? Non eaedem conci- 
tant, inhibent,^ probant, admirantur, verecundantur ? 
Non in demonstrandis locis ac personis adverbiorum 
atque pronominum obtinent vicem ? Ut in tanta 
per omnes gentes nationesque linguae diversitate hie 
mihi omnium hominum communis sermo videatur. 

88 Et hi quidem, de quibus sum locutus, cum ipsis 
vocibus naturaliter exeunt gestus ; alii sunt, qui res 
imitatione significant, ut si aegrum temptantis venas 
medici similitudine aut citharoedum formatis ad 
modum percutientis nervos manibus ostendas ; quod 
est genus quam longissime in actione fugiendum. 

89 Abesse enim plurimum a saltatore debet orator, ut 
sit gestus ad sensus magis quam ad verba accom- 
modatus ; quod etiam histrionibus paulo gravioribus 
facere moris fuit. Ergo ut ad se manum referre, 
cum de se ipso loquatur, et in eum quem demonstret 
iutendere et aliqua his similia permiserim, ita non 
effingere status quosdam et quidquid dicet osten- 

90 dere. Neque id in manibus solum, sed in omni 
gestu ac voce servandum est. Non enim aut in ilia 
periodo, Stelit soleatus praetor populi Romani, incli- 
iaatio incumbentis in mulierculam Verris effingenda 
fest 1 aut in ilia, Caedehatur in medio foro Messanae, 

* After inhibent the MSS. add supplicaat, rightly deMed hy 

Slothouivcr. 



* There in his slippers stood the praetor of the Roman 
people." Verr. v. xxxiii. 86 : see viii. iii. 64. 

290 



BOOK XI. III. 86-90 

sorrow, hesitation, confession, penitence, measure, 
quantity, number and time ? Have they not power 87 
to excite and prohibit, to express approval, wonder 
or shame ? Do they not take the place of adverbs 
and pronouns when we point at places and things } 
In fact, though the peoples and nations of the earth 
speak a multitude of tongues, they share in common 
the universal language of the hands. 

The gestures of which I have thus far spoken are 88 
such as naturally proceed from us simultaneously 
with our words. But there are others which in- 
dicate things by means of mimicr}^ For example, 
vou may suggest a sick man by mimicking the 
gesture of a doctor feeling the pulse, or a harpist by 
a movement of the hands as though they were 
plucking the strings. But this is a t^-pe of gesture 
which should be rigorously avoided in pleading. For 89 
the orator should be as unlike a dancer as possible, 
and his gesture should be adapted rather to his 
thought than to his actual words, a practice which 
was indeed once upon a time even adopted by the 
more dignified performers on the stage. I should, 
therefore, permit him to direct his hand towards his 
body to indicate that he is speaking of himself, or to 
point it at some one else to whom he is alluding, 
together Avith other similar gestures which I need 
not mention. But, on the other hand, I would not 
allow him to use his hands to imitate attitudes or to 
illustrate anything he may chance to say. And this 90 
rule applies not merely to the hands, but to all 
gesture and to the voice as well. For in delivering 
the period stelit soleaius praetor papuli Romani,^ it 
would be wrong to imitate Verres leaning on his 
mistress, or in uttering the phrase caedebatur in medio 

291 



QUINTILIAN 

motus laterum, qualis esse ad verbera solet, tor- 
quendus, aut vox, qualis dolore exprimitur, eruenda ; 

91 cum mihi comoedi quoque pessime facere videantuFj 
quod, etiamsi iuvenem agant, cum tamen in expo- 
sitione aut senis sermo, ut in Hydriae prologo, aut 
mulieris, ut in Georgo, ineidit, tremula vel effeminata 
voce pronuntiant. Adeo in illis quoque est aliqua 
vitiosa imitatio, quorum ars omnis constat imitatione. 

92 Est autem gestus ille maxime communis, quo 
medius digitus in pollicem contrahitur explicitis 
tribus, et principiis utilis cum leni in utramque 
partem motu modice prolatus, simul capite atque 
humeris sensim ad id, quo manus feratur, obsecun- 
dantibus, et in narrando certus, sed turn paulo pro- 
ductior, et in exprobrando et coarguendo acer atque 
instans, longius enim partibus his et liberius exeritur. 

93 Vitiose vero idem sinistrum quasi humerum patens 
in latus agi solet, quanquam adhuc peius aliqui 
transversum brachium proferunt et cubito pronunti- 
ant. Duo quoque medii sub pollicem veniunt, et 
est hie adhuc priore gestus instantior, principio et 



* Kerr. v. Ixii. 162. "He waa scourged in the midst of the 
markec-place of Messina." 

* Plays of Menander. 

293 



BOOK XL HI. 90-93 

foro Messanae ^ to make the side writhe, as it does 
when quivering beneath the lash, or to utter shrieks, 
such as are extorted by pain. For even comic actors 91 
seem to me to commit a gross offence against the 
canons of their art when, if they have in the course 
of some narrative to quote either the words of an old 
man (as, for example, in the prologue to the Hydria)^ 
or of a woman (as in the Georgus ^), they utter them 
in a tremulous or a treble voice, notwithstanding the 
fact that they are playing the part of a young man. 
So true is it that certain forms of imitation may be 
a blemish even in those whose whole art consists in 
imitation. 

One of the commonest of all the gestures consists 92 
in placing the middle finger against the thumb and 
extending the remaining three : it is suitable to the 
exordium, the hand being moved forward with an 
easy motion a little distance both to right and left, 
while the head and shoulders gradually follow the 
direction of the gesture. It is also useful in the 
statement of facts, but in that case the hand must be 
moved with firmness and a little further forward, 
while, if we are reproaching or refuting our adver- 
sar}', the same movement may be employed with 
some vehemence and energy, since such passages 
permit of greater freedom of extension. On the 93 
other hand, this same gesture is often directed side- 
ways towards the left shoulder : this is a mistake, 
although it is a still worse fault to thrust the arm 
across the chest and gesticulate with the elbow. 
The middle and third fingers are also sometimes 
turned under the thumb, producing a still more 
forcible effect than the gesture previously described, 
but not well adapted for use in the exordium or state- 

293 



QUINTILIAN 

9t narrationi non commodatus. At cum tres contracti 
pollice premuntur, turn digitus ille, quo usum optime 
Crassum Cicero dicit, explicaii solet. Is in expro- 
brando et indicando, unde ei nomen est, valet, 
et adlevata ac spectante humerum manu paulum 
inclinatus adfirmat, versus in terram et quasi pronus 

95 urget ; et aliquando pro numero est. Idem summo 
articulo utrinque leviter apprehenso, duobus modice 
curvatis, minus tamen minimo, aptus ad disputandum 
est. Acrius tamen argumentari videntur, qui me- 
dium articulum potius tenent, tanto contractioribus 

96 ultimis digitis, quanto priores descenderunt. Est 
et ille verecundae orationi aptissimus, quo, quattuor 
primis leviter in summum coeuntibus digitis, non 
procul ab ore aut pectore fertur ad nos manus et 

97 deinde prona ac paulum prolata laxatur. Hoc modo 
coepisse Demosthenen credo in illo pro Ctesiphonte 
timido summissoque principio, sic formatam Ciceronis 
manum, cum diceret : i>i quid est ingenii in me, quod 
sentio quam sit exiguum. Eadem aliquatenus liberius 
deorsum spectantibus digitis colligitur in nos et 
fusius paulo in diversum resolvitur, ut quodammodo 

98 sermonen ipsum proferre videatur. Binos interim 

» de Or. II. xlv. 188. " pro Arch. i. 1. 

294 



BOOK XI. III. 93-98 

meni of facts. But when three fingers are doubled 94 
under the thumb, the finger, which Cicero ^ says 
that Crassus used to such effect, is extended. It is 
used in denunciation and in indication (whence its 
name of index finger), while if it be slightly drojiped 
after the hand has been raised toward the shoulder, 
it signifies affirmation, and if pointed as it were 
face downwards toward the ground, it expresses 
insistence. It is sometimes also used to indicate 
number. Again, if its top joint is lightly gripped on 95 
either side, with the two outer fingers slightly 
curved, the little finger rather less than the third, 
we shall have a gesture well suited for argument. 
But for this purpose the same gesture is rendered 
more emphatic by holding the middle joint of the 
finger and contracting the last two fingers still 
further to match the lower position of the middle 
finger and thumb. The following gesture is admir- 96 
ably adapted to accompany modest language : the 
thumb and the next three fingers are gently con- 
verged to a point and the hand is carried to the 
neighbourhood of the mouth or chest, then relaxed 
palm downwards and slightly advanced. It was 97 
with this gesture that I believe Demosthenes to 
have commenced the timid and subdued exordium 
of his speech in defence of Ctesiphon, and it was, 
I think, in such a position that Cicero ^ held his 
hand, when he said, " If I have any talent, though 
I am conscious how little it is." Slightly greater 
freedom may be given to the gesture by pointing 
the fingers down and drawing the hand in towards 
the body and then opening it somewhat more rapidly 
in the opposite direction, so that it seems as though 
it were delivering our words to the audience. Some- 98 

295 



QUINTILIAN 

digitos distinguimus, sed non inserto pollice, paulum 
tamen inferioribus intra spectantibuSj sed ne illis 
99 quidem tensis, qui supra sunt. Interim extremi 
palmam circa ima pollicis premunt, ipse prioribus 
ad medios articulos iungitur ; interim quartus oblique 
reponitur ; interim quattuor remissis magis quam 
tensis, poUice intus inclinato, habilem demonstrando 
in latus aut distinguendis, quae dicimus, manum 
facimus,cum supinain sinistrum latus, prona inalterum 

100 fertur. Sunt et illi breves gestus, cum manus leviter 
pandata, qualis voventium est, parvis intervallis et 
subadsentientibus humeris movetur, maxime apta 
parce et quasi timide loquentibus. Est admirationi 
conveniens ille gestus, quo manus mod ice supinata |j 
ac per singulos a minimo collecta digitos redeunte 

101 flexu simul explicatur atque convertitur. Nee uno 
modo interrogantes gestum componimus, plerumque 
tamen vertentes manum, utcunque composita est. 
Pollici proximus digitus mediumque, qua dexter est, 
unguem pollicis summo suo iungens, remissis ceteris, 
est et approbantibus et narrantibus et distinguentibus 

102 decorus. Cui non dissimilis, sed complicitis tribus 
296 



BOOK XI. III. 98-102 

times we may hold the first two fingers apart without, 
however, inserting the thumb between them, the 
remaining two pointing inwards, while even the two 
former must not be fully extended. Sometimes, 99 
again, the third and little finger may be pressed in to 
the palm near the base of the thumb, which in its 
turn is pressed against the middle joints of the first 
and middle fingers ; at others the little finger is 
sometimes drooped obliquely, or the four fingers may 
be relaxed rather than extended and the thumb 
slanted inwards : this last gesture is well adapted to 
pointing to one side or marking the different points 
which we are making, the hand being carried palm- 
upwards to the left and swept back to the right 
face-downwards. The following short gestures are 100 
also employed : the hand may be slightly hollowed 
as it is when persons are making a vow, and then 
moved slightly to and fro, the shoulders swaying 
gently in unison : this is adapted to passages where 
we speak with restraint and almost with timidity. 
Wonder is best expressed as follows : the hand turns 
slightly upwards and the fingers are brought in to 
the palm, one after the other, beginning with the 
little finger ; the hand is then opened and turned 
roimd by a reversal of this motion. There are various 101 
methods of expressing interrogation ; but, as a rule, 
we do so by a turn of the hand, the arrangement of 
the fingers being indifferent. If the first finger 
touch the middle of the right-hand edge of the 
thumb-nail with its extremity, the other fingers 
being relaxed, we shall have a graceful gesture well 
suited to express approval or to accompany statemenlg 
of facts, and to mark the distinction between our 
different points. There is another gesture not unlike 102 

297 



QUINTILIAN 

digitis, quo nunc Graeci plurimum utuntur, etiam 
utraque manu, quotiens enthymemata sua gestu 
corrotundant velut caesim. Manus lenior promittit 
et adsentatur, citatior liortatur, interim laudat. Est 
et ille urgentis orationem gestus vulgaris magis 
quam ex arte, qui contrahit alterno celerique motu 

103 et explicat manum. Est et ilia cava et rara et supra 
humeri altitudinem elata cum quodam motu velut 
hortatrix manus ; a peregrinis scholis tamen prope 
recepta tremula scenica est. Digitos, cum summi 
coierunt, ad os referre, cur quibusdam displicuerit, 
nescio. Nam id et leviter admirantes et interim 
subita indignatione velut pavescentes et deprecantes 

104 facimus. Quin compressam etiam manum in paeni- 
tentia vel ira pectori admovemus, ubi vox vel inter 
dentes expressa non dedecet : Quid nunc agam ? 
Quid facias ? Averso poUice demonstrare aliquid, 

105 receptum magis puto quam oratori decorum. Sed 
cum omnis motus sex partes habeat, Septimus sit ille, 
qui in se redit, orbis. Vitiosa est una circumversio : 
reliqui ante nos et dextra laevaque et sursum et 
deorsum aliquid ostendunt ; in posteriora gestus non 



* Rhetorical or incomplete syllogisms. But see v. x. 2. 
xiv. 1, 

298 



BOOK XI. III. I02-I0S 

the preceding, in which the remaining three fingers 
are folded : it is much employed by the Greeks both 
for the left hand and the right, in rounding off their 
enthymemes^ detail by detail. A gentle movement of 
the hand expresses promise or assent, a more \aolent 
movement suggests exhortation or sometimes praise. 
There is also that familiar gesture by which we drive 
home our words, consisting in the rapid opening 
and shutting of the hand : but this is a common 
rather than an artistic gesture. Again, there is the 103 
somewhat unusual gesture in which the hand is 
hollowed and raised well above the shoulder with a 
motion suggestive of exhortation. The tremulous 
motion now generally adopted by foreign schools is, 
however, fit only for the stage. I do not know why 
some persons disapprove of the movement of the 
fingers, with their tops converging, towards the 
mouth. For we do this when we are slightly sur- 
prised, and at times also employ it to express fear or 
entreaty when we are seized with sudden indignation. 
Further, Ave sometimes clench the hand and press 104 
it to our breast when we are expressing regret or 
anger, an occasion when it is not unbecoming even 
to force the voice through the teeth in phrases such 
as " What shall I do now ? " " What would you do ? " 
To f>oint at something with the thumb turned back 
is a gesture which is in general use, but is not, in my 
opinion, becoming to an orator. Motion is generally 106 
divided into six kinds, but circular motion must be 
regarded as a seventh. The latter alone is faulty 
when applied to gesture. The remaining motions — 
that is, forward, to right or left and up or down — all 
have their significance, but the gesture is never 
directed to what lies behind us, though we do at 

199 



QUINTILIAN 

106 dirigitur. Interim tamen velut reiici solet. Optime 
autem irianus a sinistra parte incipit, in dextra 
deponitur, sed ut ponere non ut ferire videatur ; 
quanquam et in fine interim cadit, ut cito tamen 
redeat, et nonnunquam resilit vel negantibus nobis 
vel admirantibus. 

Hie veteres artifices illud recte adiecerunt, ut 
manus cum sensu et inciperet et deponeretur. 
Alioqui enim aut ante vocem erit gestus aut post 

107 vocem, quod est utrumque deforme. In illo lapsi 
nimia subtilitate sunt, quod intervallum motus tria 
verba esse voluerunt ; quod neque observatur neque 
fieri potest, sed illi quasi mensuram tarditatis celeri- 
tatisque aliquam esse voluerunt, neque immerito, 
ne aut diu otiosa esset manus aut, quod multi 

108 faciunt, actionem continuo motu concideret. Aliud 
est, quod et fit frequentius et magis fallit. Sunt 
quaedam latentes sermonis percussiones et quasi 
aliqui pedes, ad quos plurimorum gestus cadit, ut 
sit unus motus Novtim crimen, alter C. Caesar, tertius 
et ante hanc diem, quartus non auditum, deinde pro- 
pinqiius mens, et ad ie, et Quintus Tubero, et detulit. 

109 Unde id quoque fluit vitium, ut iuvenes, cum scri- 



* jwo Lig. 1. 1. "It is a new charge, Gal us Caesar, a 
charge hitherto unheard of, that my kinsman, Quintus Tubero, 
has brought to your notice," 

300 



BOOK XI. III. 105-109 

times throw the hand back. The best effect is pro- 106 
duced by letting the motion of the hand start from 
the left and end on the right, but this must be done 
gently, the hand sinking to rest and avoiding all 
appearance of giving a blow, although at the end of 
a sentence it may sometimes be allowed to drop, but 
must quickly be raised again : or it may occasionally, 
when we desire to express wonder or dissent, spring 
back with a rapid motion. 

In this connexion the earlier instructors in the art 
of gesture rightly added that the movement of the 
hand should begin and end with the thought that is 
expressed. Otherwise the gesture will anticipate or 
lag behind the voice, both of which produce an 
unpleasing effect. Some, through excess of subtlety, 107 
have erroneously prescribed that there should be an 
interval of three words between each movement; 
but this rule is never observed, nor can it be. These 
persons, however, were desirous that there should be 
some standard of speed or slowness (a most rational 
desire), with a view to avoid prolonged inactivity on 
the part of the hands as well as the opposite fault, 
into which so many fall, of breaking up the natural 
flow of their delivery by continual motion. There is 108 
another still more common error, which is less easy 
of detection. Language possesses certain imper- 
ceptible stresses, indeed we might almost call them 
feet, to which the gesture of most speakers conforms. 
Thus there will be one movement at nowm crimen, 
another at Gai Caesar, a third at et ante hanc diem, 
a fourth at noii audiium, a fifth at propitiquus mens, a 
sixth at ad te and others at Quintus Tubero and 
detuUO- From this springs a further error, namely, 109 
that young men, when writing out their speeches, 

301 



QUINTILIAN 

bunt^ gestum praemodulati cogitatione sic componant, 
quomodo casura manus est. Inde et illud vitium, ut 
gestus, qui in fine dexter esse debet, in sinistrum 

110 frequenter desinat. Melius illud, cum sint in ser- 
nione omni brevia quaedam membra, ad quae, si necesse 
sit, recipere spiritum liceat, ad haec gestum dispo- 
nere : ut puta Novum crimen, C. Caesar, habet per se 
finem quendam suum, quia sequitur coniunctio ; 
deinde et ante hanc diem non audilum satis circum- 
scriptum est. Ad haec commodanda manus est, 

HI idque dam erit prima et composita actio. At ubi 
earn calor concitaverit ; etiam gestus cum ipsa 
orationis celeritate crebrescet. Aliis locis citata, 
aliis pres.sa conveniet pi-onuntiatio. Ilia transcur- 
rimus, congerimus,^ festinamus ; hac instamus, in- 
culcamus, infigimus. Plus autem adfectus habent 
lentiora ; ideoque Roscius citatior, Aesopus gravior 

112 fuit, quod ille comoedias, hie tragoedias egit. Eadem 
niotus quoque observatio est. Itaque in fabulis 
iuvenum, senum, militum, matronarum gravior 
ingressus est; servi, ancillulae, parasiti, piscatores 
citatius moventur. Tolli autem manum artifices 
supra oculos, demitti infra pectus vetant; adeo a 

' After congeiimua B. gives abundamus, which is omitted by 
one late MS. and expunged by Halm. 

302 



BOOK XI. III. 109-112 

devise all their gestures in advance and consider as 
they compose how the hand is to fall at each 
particular point. A further unfortunate result is 
that the movement of the hand, which should end 
on the right, frequently finishes on the left. It is 110 
therefore better, in view of the fact that all speech 
falls into a number of brief clauses, at the end of 
which we can take breath, if necessary, to arrange 
our gesture to suit these sections. For example, the 
words novum crimen, Gai Caesar, in a sense form a 
phrase complete in itself, since they are followed by 
a conjunction, while the next words, ei ante hanc diem 
non auditum, are also sufficiently self-contained. To 
these phrases the motions of the hand must be con- 
formed, before the speech has passed beyond the 
calmness of tone on which it opens. But when in- 111 
creasing warmth of feeling has fired the orator, the 
gesture will become more frequent, in keeping with 
the impetus of the speech. Some places are best 
suited by a rapid, and others by a restrained delivery. 
In the one case we pass rapidly on, fire a volley of 
arguments and hurry upon our way ; in the other, we 
drive home our points, force them on the hearer and 
implant them in his mind. But the slower the 
delivery, the greater its emotional power : thus, 
Roscius was rapid and Aesopus weighty in his delivery, 
because the former was a comic and the latter a 
tragic actor. The same rule applies to the move- 112 
ments. Gsnsequently on the stage young men and 
old, soldiers and married women all walk sedately, 
while slaves, maidservants, parasites and fishermen 
are more lively in their movements. But instructors 
in the art of gesture will not permit the hand to be 
raised above the level of the eyes or lowered beneath 

303 



QUINTILIAN 

capite eum petere ^ aut ad imum ventrem deducere, 

113 vitiosum habetur. In sinistrum intra humerum pro- 
movetur ; ultra non decet. Sed cum aversantes in 
laevam partem velut propellemus manum, sinister 
humerus proferendus, ut cum capite ad dextram 

114 ferente consentiat. Manus sinistra nuuquam sola 
gestum recta facit ; dextrae se frequenter accom- 
modat, sive in digitos argumenta digerimus sive 
aversis in sinistrum palmis abominamur sive obiicimus 

115 adversas sive in latus utramque distendimus, sive 
satisfacientes aut supplicantes (diversi autem sunt 
hi gestus) summittimus sive adorantes atollimus sive 
aliqua demonstratione aut invocatione protendimus : 
Fos Albani tumuli atque luci, aut Gracchanum illud : 
Quo me miser conferam ? in Capiiolium ? at fratris 

116 sanguine madet : an domum ? Plus enim adfectus in his 
iunctae exhibent manus ; in rebus parvis, mitibus, 
tristibus breves ; magnis, laetis, atrocibus exertiores.^ 

117 Vitia quoque earum subiicienda sunt, quae quidem 
accidere etiam exercitatis actoribus solent. Nam 
gestum poculum poscentis aut verbera minantis aut 
numerum quingentorum flexo pollice efficientis, quae 
sunt a quibusdam scriptoribus notata, ne in rusticis 

^ a capite eum petere is almost certainly corrupt : gestum 
for eum is the least improbable correction that has been suggested. 

* exertiores, Spalding : exteriorea, B. 

^ The general sense is clear, though the text is unsatis- 
factory and scarcely translateable. 

* jn-o Mil. xxxi. 85. ' See Cic. de Or. in. Ivi. 214. 

* I.e. crooking the thumb against the forefinger to 
represent the symbol D, 

304 



BOOK XI. III. 1 1 2-1 17 

that of the breast; since it is thought a grave blemish 
to lift it to the top of the head^ or lower it to the lower 
portions of the belly. It may be moved to the left 113 
within the limits of the shoulder^ but no further 
without loss of decorum. On the other hand, when, 
to express our aversion, we thrust our hand out to 
the left, the left shoulder must be brought forward 
in unison with the head, which will incline to the 
right. It is never correct to employ the left hand 114 
alone in gesture, though it will often conform its 
motion to that of the right, as, for example, when 
we are counting our arguments on the fingers, or 
turn the palms of the hands to the left to express 
our horror of something, or thrust them out in front 116 
or spread them out to right and left, or lower them in 
apology or supplication (though the gesture is not 
the same in these two cases), or raise them in adora- 
tion, or stretch them out in demonstration or invoca- 
tion, as in the passage, " Ye hills and groves of Alba,* " 
or in the passage from Gracchus ' : " Whither, alas ! 
shall I turn me? To the Capitol? Nay, it is wet 
with my brother's blood. To my home? " etc. For 116 
in such passages greater emotional effect is pro- 
duced if both hands co-operate, short gestures being 
best adapted to matters of small importance and 
themes of a gentle or melancholy character, and 
longer gestures to subjects of importance or themes 
calling for joy or horror. 

It is desirable also that I should mention the faults 117 
in the use of the hands, into which even experienced 
pleaders are liable to fall. As for the gesture of 
demanding a cup, threatening a flogging, or indicating 
the number 500 by crooking the thumb,* all of which 
are recorded by writers on the subject, I have never 

305 



QUINTILIAN 

IlSquidem vidi. At ut brachio exerto introspiciatur 
latus, ut manum alius ultra sinuni proferre non 
audeat, alius, in quantum patet longitude, protendat 
aut ad tectum erigat aut repetito ultra laevum 
humerum gestu ita in tergum flagellet, ut consistere 
post eum parum tutum sit, aut sinistrum ducat 
orbem aut temere sparsa manu in proximos ofFendat 
aut cubitum utrumque in diversum latus ventilet, 

119 saepe scio e venire. Solet esse et pigra et trepida et 
secanti similis ; interim etiam uncis digitis, ut ^ aut a 
capite deiiciatur aut eadem manu supinata in superiora 
iactetur. Fit et ille gestus,^ qui, inclinato in hu- 
merum dextrum capite, brachio ab aure protenso, 
manum infesto pollice extendit ; qui quidem maxima 
placet iis, qui se dicere sublata manu iactant. 

120 Adiicias licet eos, qui sententias vibrantes digitis 
iaculantur aut manu sublata denuntiant aut, quod 
per se interim recipiendum est, quotiens aliquid 
ipsis placuit, in ungues eriguntur; sed vitiosum id 
faciunt, aut digito, quantum plurimum possunt, 
erecto aut etiam duobus, aut utraque manu ad 

121 modum aliquid portantium composita. His accedunt 
vitia non naturae sed trepidationis, cum ore con- 

* ut added by Spalding. 

* gestus suggested by Halm. The second hand of cod. Bamb. 
reads habitus, qui esse in statuis pacificator solet : pre- 
sumably an interpolation. 

* I.e. with exaggerated violence. See ii. xii. 9. 



BOOK XI. in. 1 17-121 

seen them employed even by uneducated rustics. 
But I know that it is of frequent occurrence for a 118 
speaker to expose his side by stretching his arm too 
far, to be afraid in one case of extending his hand 
beyond the folds of his cloak, and in another to 
stretch it as far as it will go, to raise it to the roof, 
or by swinging it repeatedly over his left shoulder to 
deliver such a rain of blows to the rear that it is 
scarcely safe to stand behind him, or to make a circular 
sweep to the left, or by casting out his hand at 
random to strike the standers-by or to flap both 
elbows against his sides. There are others, again, 119 
whose hands are sluggish or tremulous or inclined to 
saw the air ; sometimes, too, the fingers are crooked 
and brought down with a run from the top of the 
head, or tossed up into the air with the hand turned 
palm upwards. There is also a gesture, which con- 
sists in inclining the head to the right shoulder, 
stretching out the arm from the ear and extending 
the hand with the thumb turned down. This is a 
special favourite with those who boast that they 
speak " with uplifted hand." ^ To these latter we may 120 
add those speakers who hurl quivering epigrams 
with their fingers or denounce with the hand up- 
raised, or rise on tiptoe, whenever they say something 
of which they are specially proud. This last pro- 
ceeding may at times be adopted by itself, but they 
convert it into a blemish by simultaneously raising 
one or even two fingers as high as they can reach, or 
heaving up both hands as if they were carrying some- 
thing. In addition to these faults, there are those 121 
which spring not from nature, but from nervousness, 
such as struggling desperately with our lips when 
they refuse to open, making inarticulate sounds, as 

307 



QUINTILIAN 

currente rixari, si memoria fefellerit aut cogitatio 
non suffragetur, quasi faucibus aliquid obstiterit, 
insonare, in adversum tergere nares, obambulare 
sermone imperfecto, resistere subito et laudem 
silentio poscere ; quae omnia persequi prope in- 

122 finitum est; sua enim cuique sunt vitia. Pectus 
ac venter ne proiiciantur, observandum ; pandant 
enim posteriora, et est odiosa omnis supinitas. 
Latera cum gestu consentiant. Facit enim aliquid 
et totius corporis motus, adeo ut Cicero plus illo agi 
quam manibus ipsis putet. Ita enim dicit in 
Oratore : NuUae argutiae digitorum, non ad numenim 
articulus cadens, trunco magis toto se ipse moderans et 

123 virili lalerum jiexione. Femur ferire, quod Athenis 
primus fecisse creditur Cleon, et usitatum est et 
indignantes decet et excitat auditorem. Idque in 
Calidio Cicero desiderat ; Non frons, inquit, percussa, 
non femur. Quanquam, si licet, de fronte dissentio. 
Nam etiam complodere manus scenicum est et pectus 

124 caedere. lUud quoque raro decebit cava manu 
summis digitis pectus appetere, si quando nosmet 
ipsos alloquimur, cohortantes, obiurgantes, mise- 
rantes ; quod si quando fiet, togam quoque inde 
removeri non dedecebit. In pedibus observantur 

» iviii. 69. ■ Brut. Ixxi. 278. 

308 



BOOK XI. iM. 1 21-124 

though sometliing were sticking in our throat, when 
our memory fails us, or our thoughts will not come 
at our call ; rubbing the end of our nose, walking up 
and down in the midst of an unfinished sentence, 
stopping suddenly and courting applause by silence, 
with many other tricks which it would take too long 
to detail, since everybody has his own particular 
faults. We must take care not to protrude the chest 122 
or stomach, since such an attitude arches the back, 
and all bending backwards is unsightly. The flanks 
must conform to the gesture ; for the motion of the 
entire body contributes to the effect : indeed, Cicero 
holds that the body is more expressive than even the 
hands. For in the de Oralor 1 he says, " There must 
be no quick movements of the fingers, no marking 
time with the finger-tips, but the orator should 
control himself by the poise of the whole trunk and 
by a manly inclination of the side." Slapping the 123 
thigh, which Cleon is said to have been the first to 
introduce at Athens, is in general use and is becoming 
as a mark of indignation, while it also excites the 
audience. Cicero ^ regrets its absence in Calidius, 
"There was no striking of the forehead," he com- 
plains, "nor of the thigh." With regard to the 
forehead I must beg leave to differ from him : for it 
is a purely theatrical trick even to clap the hands or 
beat the breast. It is only on rare occasions, too, 124 
that it is becoming to touch the breast with the 
finger-tips of the hollowed hand, when, for example, 
we address ourselves or speak words of exhortation, 
reproach or commiseration. But if ever we do employ 
this gesture, it will not be unbecoming to pull back 
the toga at the same time. As regards the feet, we 
need to be careful about our gait and the attitudes 

309 



QUINTILIAN 

status et incessus. Prolate dextro stare et eandem 

125 manum ac pedem proferre, deforme est. In dextrum 
incumbere interim datur sed aequo pectore, qui 
tamen comicus magis quam oratorius gestus est. 
Male etiam in sinistrum pedem insistentium dexter 
aut tollitur aut summis digitis suspenditur. Varicare 
supra modum et in stando deforme est et, accedente 
motu, prope obscenum. Procursio opportuna brevis, 

126 moderata, rara. Conveniet etiam ambulatio quaedam 
propter immodicas laudationum moras, quanquam 
Cicero rarum incessum neque ita longum probat. 
Discursare vero et, quod Domitius Afer de Sura 
Manlio dixit, satagere, ineptissimum, urbaneque 
Flavus Verginius interrogavit de quodam suo anti- 

127 sophiste, quot milia passuum declamasset. Praecipi 
et illud scio, ne ambulantes avertamur a iudicibus, 
sed sint obliqui pedes ad consilium nobis respici- 
entibus. Id fieri iudiciis privatis non potest. Verum 
et breviora sunt spatia, nee aversi diu sumus. In- 
terim tamen recedere sensim datur. Quidam et 

128 resiliunt, quod est plane ridiculum. Pedis supplosio 
ut loco est opportuna, ut ait Cicero, in contentionibus 
aut incipiendis aut finiendis, ita crebra et inepti est 

* Orat. xviii. 59. * See vi, iii. 54. 

* The normal arrangement was for the president of the 
court and judges to sit on a tribunal or dais. The advocates 
and patties to the suit were on the ground in front. When 
pleading before a large jury the orator could walk diagonally, 
half-facing the jury, without at any rate turning his back on 
too many at a time. When, however, there was but a single 
judge, as in a private trial, the feat would be more difficult, 
But apparently the court took up less room in such cases, 
and the orator's peregrinations would be but sraalL See 
§ 134 note. 

* dc Or. iii. lix. 220. 

310 



BOOK XI. III. 124-128 

in which: we stand. To stand with the right foot 
advanced or to thrust forward the same foot and 
hand are alike unsightly. At times we may rest our 125 
weight on the right foot^ but without any corre- 
sponding inclination of the chest, while, in any case, 
the gesture is better suited to the comic actor than to 
the orator. It is also a mistake, when resting on the 
left foot, to lift the right or poise it on tiptoe. To 
straddle the feet is ugly if we are standing still, and 
almost indecent if we are actually moving. To start 
forward may be effective, provided that we move but 
a short distance and do so but rarely and without 
violence. It will also at times be found convenient 126 
to walk to and fro, owing to the extravagant pauses 
imposed by the plaudits of the audience ; Cicero,^ 
however, says that this should be done only on rare 
occasions, and that we should take not more than a 
few steps. On the other hand, to run up and down, 
which, in the case of Manlius Sura,^ Domitius Afer 
called overdoing it, is sheer folly, and there was no 
little wit in the question put by Verginius Flavus to 
a rival professor, when he asked how many miles he 
had declaimed. I know, too, that some authorities 127 
warn us not to walk with our backs turned to the 
judges, but to move diagonally and keep our eyes 
fixed on the panel. This cannot be done in private 
trials, but in such cases the space available is sniall 
and the time during which our backs are turned is of 
the briefest.^ On the other hand, we are permitted 
at times to walk backwards gradually. Some even 
jump backwards, which is merely ludicrous. Stamp- 128 
ing the foot is, as Cicero * says, effective when done 
on suitable occasions, that is to say, at the commence 
ment or close of a lively argument, but if it be 

311 



QUINTILIAN 

hominis et desinit iudicem in se convertere. Est et 
ilia indecora in dextrum ac laevum latus vacillatio 
alternis pedibus insistentium. Longissime fugienda 
mollis actio, qualem in Titio Cicero dicit fuisse, unde 
etiam saltationis quoddam genus Titius sit appel- 

129 latum. Reprehendenda et ilia frequens et concitata 
in utramque partem nutatio, quam in Curione patre 
irrisit et lulius, quaerens, quis in lintre loqueretur, et 
Sicinius ; nam cum, adsidente collega, qui erat 
propter valetudinem et deligatus et plurimis medica- 
mentis delibutus, multum se Curio ex more iactasset, 
l\ iinquam, inquit, Oclavi, collegae tuo gratiam re feres, 

130 qui nisi fuisset, hodie te istic muscae comedissent. lac- 
tantui et humeri ; quod vitium Demosthenes ita 
dicitur emendasse ut, cum in angusto quodam pulpito 
stans diceret, hasta humero dependens immineret, 
ut, si calore dicendi vitare id excidissiet, ofFen- 
satione ilia commoneretur. Ambulantem loqui ita 
demum oportet, si in causis publicis, in quibus j 
multi sunt iudices^ quod dicimus quasi singulis 1 

131 inculcare peculiariter velimus. Illud non ferendum, \ 
quod quidam, reiecta in humerum toga, cum dextra ] 
sinum usque ad lumbos reduxerunt, sinistra gestum 

* Brut. IxiL • cp. Cio. Brut, Ix. 

3?* 



BOOK XI. III. 128-131 

frequently indulged in, it brands the speaker as a 
fool and ceases to attract the attention of the judge. 
There is also the unsightly habit of swaying to right 
and left, and shifting the weight from one foot to 
the other. Above all, we must avoid effeminate 
movements, such as Cicero ^ ascribes to Titius, a cir- 
cumstance which led to a certain kind of dance being 
nicknamed Titius. Another reprehensible practice 129 
is that of nodding frequently and rapidly to either 
side, a mannerism for which the elder Curio ^ was de- 
rided by Julius, who asked who it was who was speak- 
ing in a boat, while on another occasion, when Curio 
had been tossing himself about in his usual manner, 
while Octavius, his colleague, was sitting beside him 
bandaged and reeking with medicaments on account 
of ill-health, Sicinius remarked, " Octavius, you can 
never be sufficiently grateful to your colleague : for 
if he wasn't there, the flies would have devoured you 
this very day where you sit." The shoulders also 130 
are apt to be jerked to and fro, a fault of which 
Demosthenes is said to have cured himself by 
speaking on a narrow platform with a spear hanging 
immediately above his shoulder, in order that, if in 
the heat of his eloquence he failed to avoid this 
fault, he might have his attention called to the 
fact by a prick from the spear. The only condition 
that justifies our walking about while speaking is 
if we are pleading in a public trial before a large 
number of judges and desire specially to impress our 
arguments upon them individually. The practice 131 
adopted by some of throwing the toga back over the 
shoulder, while they draw up the fold to their waist 
with the right hand, and use the left for gesticulation 
as they walk up and down and discourse, is not to 

VOL. IV. L 3^3 



QUINTILIAN 

facientes spatiantur et fabulantur, cum etiam laevam 
restringere prolata longius dextra sit odiosum. Unde 
moneor, (ut ne id quidem transeam) ineptissime fieri, 
cum inter moras laudationum aut in aurem alicuius 
loquuntur aut cum sodalibus iocantur aut nonnun- 
quam ad librarios suos ita respiciunt, ut sportulam 

132 dictare videantur. Inclinari ad iudicem, cum doceas, 
utique si id de quo loquaris sit obscurius, decet. 
Incumbere advocate adversis subselliis sedenti con- 
tumeliosum. Reclinari etiam ad suos et manibus 
sustineri, nisi plane iusta fatigatio est, delicatum, 

133 sicut palam moneri excidentis aut legere. Namque 
in his omnibus et vis ilia dicendi solvitur et frigescit 
adfectus et iudex parum sibi praestari reverentiae 
credit. Transire in diversa subsellia parum vere- 
cundum est. Nam et Cassius Severus urbane 
adversus hoc facientem lineas poposcit. Et si 
aliquando concitate itur, nunquam non frigide 

134 reditur. Multum ex iis, quae praecepimus, mutari 
necesse est ab iis, qui dicunt apud tribunalia. Nam 



* Asconius (in a note on the Divinatio of Cicero) explains 
that in minor cases tried by tribuni, triumviri, quaestores 
and other minor officials, the judges sat on ordinary benches, 
not on a raised tribunal. 



314 



BOOK XI. HI. 131-134 

be tolerated ; for even to draw back the left hand 

while extending the right is an objectionable habit. 
This reminds me of an extremely foolish trick, which 
I think I ought to mention, that some speakers have 
of employing the intervals when the audience are 
applauding by whispering in someone's ear or jesting 
with their friends or looking back at their clerks, as 
if telling them to make a note of some gratuity to 
be dispensed to their supporters. On the other 132 
hand, when we are making some explanation to the 
judge, more especially if the point be somewhat 
obscure, a slight inclination in his direction will be 
not unbecoming. But to lean forward towards the 
advocate seated on the benches of our opponent is 
oifensive, while, unless we are genuinely fatigued, it 
is a piece of affectation to lean back among our own 
friends and to be supported in their arms ; the same 
remark also applies to the practice of being prompted 
aloud or reading from manuscript as though un- 
certain of our memory. For all these manner- 133 
isms impair the force of our speaking, chill the 
effect of emotional appeals and make the judge 
think that he is not being treated with sufficient 
respect. To cross over to the seats of our opponents 
borders on impudence, and Cassius Severus showed 
a neat turn of wit when he demanded that a barrier 
might be erected between himself and an opponent 
who behaved in this fashion. Moreover, though to 
advance towards our opponent may at times produce 
an impression of passionate energy, the return to 
our former position will always prove correspondingly 
tame. Many of the rules which I have given will 134 
require modification by those who have to plead 
before judges seated on a dais.^ For in such 

315 



QUINTILIAN 

et vultus erectior, ut eum, apud quern dieitur, 
spectet ; et gestus ut ad eundem tendens elatior 
sitj necesse est ; et alia, quae occurrere etiam me 
tacente omnibus possunt. Itemque ab iis, qui 
sedentes agent. Nam et fere fit hoc in rebus mino- 
ribus, et iidem impetus actionis esse non possunt, 

135 et quaedam vitia fiunt necessaria. Nam et dexter 
pes a laeva iudicis sedenti proferendus est, et ex 
altera parte multi gestus necesse est in sinistrum 
eant, ut ad iudicem spectent. Equidem plerosque 
et ad singulas clausulas sententiarum video ad- 
surgentes et nonnullos subinde aliquid etiam spati- 
antes, quod an deceat, ipsi viderint ; cum id faciunt, 

136 non sedentes agunt. Bibere aut etiam esse inter 
agendum, quod multis moris fuit et est quibusdam, 
ab oratore meo procul absit. Nam si quis aliter 
dicendi onera perferre non possit, non ita miserum 
est non agere potiusque multo quam et operis et 
bominum contemptum fateri. 

137 Cultus non est proprius oratoris aliquis sed magis 
in oratore conspicitur. Quare sit, ut in omnibus 
honestis debet esse, splendidus et vlrilis. Nam et 



* Cp. XI. i. 44, which shows that the cases in question are 
those submitted to arbitration. 

316 



BOOK XL in. 134-137 

cases the face must be raised somewhat higher, so 
that the speaker's eyes may be fixed on the president 
of the court : for the same reason his gestures must 
also be carried a little higher, while there are other 
details which will readily occur to my reader without 
any mention from me. Similar modifications will 
be likewise necessarj' for those who plead sitting.^ 
For this is done, as a rule, only in cases of minor 
importance, where delivery will necessarily be more 
restrained, and certain defects are ineWtable. For 135 
example, when the speaker sits on the left side of the 
judge, he will have to advance his right foot, while 
if he be seated on the right, many of his gestures 
must be made from right to left, in order that thev 
may be addressed to the judge. Personally, I note 
that many speakers start up at the conclusion of 
individual periods, while some proceed to walk to 
and fro for a little : it is for them to decide whether 
this is becoming or not : I will merely remark that, 
when they do this, they are not pleading seated. 
It was a common custom, which has not entirely 136 
disappeared, to drink or even to eat while pleading ; 
but I shall not permit my ideal orator to do anything 
of the kind. For if a man cannot endure the 
burdens imp)osed by oratory without having recourse 
to such remedies, he should not find it a serious 
hardship to give up pleading altogether, a course 
which is far preferable to acknowledging his contempt 
both for his profession and his audience. 

With regard to dress, there is no special garb 137 
peculiar to the orator, but his dress comes more 
under the public eye than that of other men. It 
should, therefore, be distinguished and manly, as, 
indeed, it ought to be with all men of position. For 

317 



QUINTILIAN 

toga et calceus et capillus tam nimia cura quam 
negligentia sunt reprehendenda. Est aliquid in 
amictUj quod ipsum aliquatenus temporum con- 
dicione mutatum est. Nam veteribus nulli sinus^ 

138 perquam breves post illos fuerunt. Itaque etiam 
gestu necesse est usos esse in principiis eos alio, 
quorum brachium, sicut Graecorum, veste con- 
tinebatur. Sed nos de praesentibus loquimur. Cui 
lati clavi ius non erit, ita cingatur, ut tunicae 
prioribus oris infra genua paulum, posterioribus ad 
medios poplites usque perveniant. Nam infra 

139 mulierum est, supra centurionum. Ut purpura recte 
descendat, levis cura est ; notatur interim negligentia. 
Latum habentium clavum modus est, ut sit paulum 
cinctis summissior. Ipsam togam rotundam esse et apte 
caesam velim, aliter enim multis modis fiet enormis. 
Pars eius prior mediis cruribus optime terminatur. 



* In putting on the toga, it was thrown first over the left 
shoulder, so that about 6 feet hung in front and about 12 
behind. This longer portion was then carried round under 
the right arm and then diagonallj' across the chest (like a 
balteus, or belt) and over the left shoulder again. A fold of 
this portion hanging in front formed the sinus. The original 
6 feet hanging in front from the left shoulder now hung 
below the rest. A portion was pulled up from above and 
allowed to hang over the edge of that portion of the toga 
which Quintilian compares to a balteus. This was known 
as the umbo, and is described by Quintilian as pars quae 
ultima imponitur. He recommends that a considerable 
portion should be thus pulled up and allowed to hang fairly 
low in front over the edge of the balteus, that the weight 
of the hanging portion might balance the remainder of the 
original 6 feet of toga hanging from the left shoulder, keep 



BOOK XI. HI. 137-139 

excessive care with regard to the cut of the toga,^ 
the style of the shoes, or the arrangement of the 
liair, is just as reprehensible as excessive careless- 
ness. There are also details of dress which are 
altered to some extent by successive changes in 
fashion. The ancients, for example, wore no folds, 
and their successors wore them very short. Conse- 138 
quently it follows that in view of the fact that their 
arms were, like those of the Greeks, covered by the 
garment, they must have employed a different form of 
gesture in the exordium from that which is now in 
use. However, I am speaking of our own day. The 
speaker who has not the right to wear the broad 
stripe,^ will wear his girdle in such a way that the 
front edges of the tunic fall a little below his knees, 
while the edges in rear reach to the middle of his 
liams. For only women draw them lower and only 
centurions higher. If we wear the purple stripe, it 139 
requires but little care to see that it falls becomingly ; 
negligence in this respect sometimes excites criti- 
cism. Among those who wear the broad strij)e, it is 
the fashion to let it hang somewhat lower than in 
garments that are retained by the girdle. The toga 
itself should, in my opinion, be round, and cut to 
fit, otherwise there are a number of ways in which it 
may be unshapely. Its front edge should by prefer- 
ence reach to the middle of the shin, while the back 
should be higher in proportion as the girdle is higher 

it in place and prevent it from slipping back into its original 
position. The toga was very nearly semicircular in shape, 
which explains Quintilian's statement that it should be 
round. For further details see Companion to Latin Studies, 
Camb. Univ. Press, p. 191. 
' Worn by senators. 



QUINTILIAN 

140 posterior eadem portione altius qua cinctura. Sinus 
decentissimus, si aliquant© supra imam tunicam ^ 
fuerit ; nunquam certe sit inferior. Ille, qui sub 
humero dextro ad sinistrum oblique ducitur velut 
balteus, nee strangulet nee fluat. Pars togae, quae 
postea imponitur, sit inferior; nam ita et sedet 
melius et continetur. Subducenda etiam pars aliqua 
tunicae, ne ad lacertum in aetu redeat ; tum sinus 
iniiciendus humero, cuius extremam oram reiecisse 

141 non dedecet. Operiri autem humerum cum toto 
iugulo non oportet, alioqui amictus fiet angustus et 
dignitatem, quae est in latitudine pectoris, perdet. 
Sinistrum brachium eo usque adlevandum est, ut 
quasi normalem ilium angulum faciat, super quod 

142 ora ex toga duplex aequaliter sedeat. Manus non 
impleatur anulis, praecipue medios articulos non 
transeuntibus ; cuius erit habitus optimus adlevato 
pollice et digitis leviter inflexis, nisi si libellum 
tenebit. Quod non utique captandum est; videtur 
enim fateri memoriae diffidentiam et ad multos 

143 gestus est impediment©, Togam veteres ad calceos 
usque demittebant ut Graeci pallium ; idque ut fiat, 
qui de gestu scripserunt circa tempora ilia, Plotius 
Nigidiusque praecipiunt. Quo magis miror Plinii 

* tunicam, Spalding : togam, MS8. 



^ Plotius Gallus, a rhetorician, and Nigidius Figulus, an | 
encyclopaedic writer, both contemporaries of Cicero. 

320 



BOOK XI. ill. 139-143 

behind than in front. The fold is most becoming, 140 
if it fall to a point a little above the lower edge of 
the tunic, and should certainly never fall below it. 
The other fold which passes obliquely like a belt 
under the right shoulder and over the left, should 
neither be too tight nor too loose. The portion of 
the toga which is last to be arranged should fall 
rather low, since it will sit better thus and be 
kept in its place. A portion of the tunic also should 
be drawn back in order that it may not fall over the 
arm when we are pleading, and the fold should be 
thrown over the shoulder, while it will not be 
unbecoming if the edge be turned back. On the 141 
other hand, we should not cover the shoulder and 
the whole of the throat, otherwise our dress will be 
unduly narrowed and will lose the impressive effect 
produced by breadth at the chest. The left arm 
should only be raised so far as to form a right angle 
at the elbow, while the edge of the toga should fall 
in equal lengths on either side. The hand should 142 
not be ovei'loaded with rings, which should under no 
circumstances encroach upon the middle joint of 
the finger. The most becoming attitude for the 
hand is produced by raising the thumb and slightly 
curving the fingers, unless it is occupied with hold- 
ing manuscript. But we should not go out of our 
way to carry the latter, for it suggests an acknow- 
ledgement that we do not trust our memory, and is 
a hindrance to a number of gestures. The ancients 143 
used to let the toga fall to the heels, as the Greeks 
are in the habit of doing with the cloak : Plotius 
and Nigidius ^ both recommend this in the books 
which they wrote about gesture as practised in 
their own day. I am consequently all the more 

321 



QUINTILIAN 

Secundi docti hominis et in hoc utique libro paene 
etiam nimium curiosi persuasionem, qui solitum id 
facere Ciceronem velandorum varicum gratia tradit ; 
cum hoc amictus genus in statuis eorum quoque, qui 

144 post Ciceronem fuerunt, appareat. Palliolum sicut 
fasciaS; quibus crura vestiuntur, et focalia et aurium 
ligamenta sola excusare potest valetudo. 

Sed haec amictus observatio, dum incipimus ; 
procedente vero actu, iam paene ab initio narrationis, 
sinus ab humero recte velut sponte delabitur, et, 
cum ad argumenta ac locos ventum est, reiicere a 
sinistro togam, deiicere etiam, si haereat, sinum 

146 conveniet. Laeva a faucibus ac summo pectore 
abducere licet : ardent enim iam omnia. Et ut vox 
vehementior ac magis varia est, sic amictus quoque 

146 habet actum quendam velut proeliantem. Itaque 
ut laevam involvere toga et incingi paene furiosum 
est, sinum vero in dextrum humerum ab imo reiicere 
solutum ac delicatum, fiuntque adhuc peius aliqua, 
ita cur laxiorem sinum sinistro brachio non subiici- 

^ This work of the elder Pliny was called Studiosus. 
322 



BOOK XI. in. 143-146 

surprised at the view expressed by so learned a 
man as Plinius Secundus, especially since it occurs 
in a book which carries minute research almost to 
excess : ^ for he asserts that Cicero was in the 
habit of wearing his toga in such a fashion to con- 
ceal his varicose veins, despite the fact that this 
fashion is to be seen in the statues of persons who 
lived after Cicero's day. As regards the short cloak, 144 
bandages used to protect the legs, mufflers and 
coverings for the ears, nothing short of ill-health 
can excuse their use. 

But such attention to our dress is only possible at 
the beginning of a speech, since, as the pleading 
develops, in fact, almost from the beginning of the 
statement of facts, the fold will slip down from the 
shoulder quite naturally and as it were of its own 
accord, while when we come to arguments and 
commonplaces, it will be found convenient to throw 
back the toga from the left shoulder, and even to 
throw down the fold if it should stick. The left 145 
hand may be employed to pluck the toga from the 
throat and the upper portion of the chest, for by 
now the whole body will be hot. And just as at 
this point the voice becomes more vehement and 
more varied in its utterance, so the clothing begins 
to assume something of a combative pose. Conse- 146 
quently, although to wrap the toga round the left 
hand or to pull it about us as a girdle would be 
almost a symptom of madness, while to throw back 
the fold from its bottom over the right shoulder 
would be a foppish and effeminate gesture, and 
there are yet worse effects than these, there is, at 
any rate, no reason why we should not place the 
looser portions of the fold under the left arm, since 

323 



QUINTILIAN 

amus ? Habet enim acre quiddam atque expeditum 

147 et calori concitationique non inhabile. Cum vero 
magna pars est exhausta orationis, utique adflante 
fortuna, paene omnia decent, sudor ipse et fatigatio 
et negligentior amictus et soluta ac velut labens 

148 undique toga. Quo magis miror hanc quoque suc- 
currisse Plinio curam, ut ita sudario frontem siccari 
iuberet, ne comae turbarentur, quas componi post 
paulum, sicuti dignum erat, graviter et severe 
vetuit. Mihi vero illae quoque turbatae prae se 
ferre aliquid adfectus et ipsa oblivione curae huius 

149 commendari videntur. At si incipientibus aut 
paulum progressis decidat toga, non reponere earn 
prorsus negligentis aut pigri aut quomodo debeat 
amiciri nescientis est. 

Haec sunt vel illustramenta pronuntiationis vel 
vitia, quibus propositis multa cogitare debet orator. 

150 Primum, quis, apud quos, quibus praesentibus sit 
acturus. Nam ut dicere alia aliis et apud alios magis 
concessum est, sic etiam facere. Neque eadem in 
voce, gestu, incessu, apud principem, senatum 
populum, magistratus, private, publico iudicio, 

3H 



BOOK XI. III. 146-150 

it gives an air of vigour and freedom not ill-suited 
to the warmth and energy of our action. When, 147 
however, our speech draws near its close, more 
especially if fortune shows herself kind, practically 
everything is becoming ; we may stream with sweat, 
show signs of fatigue, and let our dress fall in care- 
less disorder and the toga slip loose from us on 
every side. This fact makes me all the more sur- 148 
prised that Pliny should think it worth while to 
enjoin the orator to dry his brow with a hand- 
kerchief in such a way as not to disorder the hair, 
although a little later he most properly, and with a 
certain gravity and sternness of language, forbids 
us to rearrange it. For my own part, 1 feel that 
dishevelled locks make an additional appeal to the 
emotions, and that neglect of such precautions 
creates a pleasing impression. On the other hand, 149 
if the toga falls down at the beginning of our 
speech, or when we have only proceeded but a little 
way, the failure to replace it is a sign of indifference, 
or sloth, or sheer ignorance of the way in which 
clothes should be worn. 

The above are the chief adornments and faults 
of delivery. But there are a number of further 
considerations which the orator must bear in mind. 
In the first place there is the question as to the 160 
character of speaker, judges and audience. For 
just as the methods of speaking may justifiably be 
varied to suit the characteristics of different orators 
and different judges, so it is with delivery. The 
same characteristics of voice, gesture and gait are 
not equally becoming in the presence of the 
emperor, the senate, the people, and magistrates, 
or in private and public trials, or in making a 

325 



QUINTILIAN 
postulatione, actione similiter decent. Quam 
difFerentiam subiicere sibi quisque, qui animum 
intenderit, potest ; tuna qua de re dicat, et efficere 
161 quid velit. Rei quadruplex observatio est. Una in 
tota causa. Sunt enim tristes, hilares, sollicitae, 
securae, grandes, pusillae, ut vix unquam ita sol- 
licitari partibus earum debeamus, ut non summae 

152 meminerimus. Altera, quae est in differentia partium, 
ut in prooemio, narratione, argumentatione, epilogo. 
Tertia in sententiis ipsis, in quibus secundum res et 
adfectus variantur omnia. Quarta in verbis, quorum 
ut est vitiosa, si efficere omnia velimus, imitatio, ita 
quibusdam nisi sua natura redditur, vis omnis 

153 aufertur. Igitur in laudationibus, nisi si funebres 
crunt, gratiarum actione, exhortatione, similibus 
laeta et magnifica et sublimis est actio. Funebres 
contiones, consolationes, plerumque causae reorum 
tristes atque summissae. In senatu conservanda 
auctoritas, apud populum dignitas, in privatis modus. 
326 



BOOK XL III, 150-153 

request to the praetor for the appointment of a judge 
to hear our case, and in actual pleading. Anyone 
who will reflect upon the matter wUl realise the 
nature of the differences involved, as he will also be 
able to realise the nature of the subject on which 
he is speaking and the effect which he desires to 
produce. The considerations w^ith regard to the 151 
subject are four in number, of which the 6rst has 
reference to the case as a whole. For the case may 
be of a gloomy or a cheerful nature, an anxious 
business, or one that calls for no alarm, and may 
involve issues of great or trivial importance. We 
ought, therefore, never to be so preoccupied over 
particular jx>rtions of a case as to forget to consider 
the case as a whole. The second point is concerned 152 
with the different aspects of the various portions of 
the speech, that is, the exordium, statement of facts, 
arguments and peroration. The third concerns the 
thoughts, which will vary according to the subject 
matter and the emotions which we require to 
awaken. The fourth has reference to the words, 
which must be given appropriate expression, unless 
their force is to be entirely wasted, although it is an 
error to attempt to make our delivery reproduce the 
sense of every single word. Consequently, in pane- 153 
gyric, funeral orations excepted, in returning thanks, 
exhortations and the like, the delivery must be 
luxuriant, magnificent, and grand. On the other 
hand, in funeral or consolatory speeches, together 
with most of those in defence of accused persons, 
the delivery will be melancholy and subdued. 
When we speak in the senate, it will be authori- 
tative, when we address the people, dignified, and 
when we are pleading in private cases, restrained. 

327 



QUINTILIAN 

De partibus causae et sententiis verbisque, quae 
sunt multiplicia, pluribus dicendum. 

154 Tria autem praestare debet pronuntiatio : conciliet, 
persuadeat, moveat, quibus natura cohaeret, ut etiam 
delectet. Conciliatio fere aut commendatione morum, 
qui nescio quomodo ex voce etiam atque actione 
pellucent, aut orationis suavitate constat ; per- 
suadendi vis adfirmatione, quae interim plus ipsis 

166 probationibus valet. An ista, inquit Calidio Cicero, 
si vera essent, sic a te dicerenltir ? et, Tanlum abfuit, 
ut injiammares nostras animos ; somnum isto loco vix 
tenehavius. Fiducia igitur appareat et constantia, 

156 utique si auctoritas subest. Movendi autem ratio 
aut in repraesentandis est aut imitandis adfectibus. 
Ergo cum iudex in privatis aut praeco in publicis 
dicere de causa iusserit, leniter consurgendum ; turn 
in componenda toga vel, si necesse erit, etiam ex 
integro iniicienda, dumtaxat in iudiciis (apud prin- 
cipem enim et magistratus ac tribunalia non licebit), 
paulum est commorandum, ut et amictus sit decentior 

157 et protinus aliquid spatii ad cogitandum. Etiam 

» Brut. Ixxx. 278. 
328 



BOOK XI. Ill, 153-157 

As regards the respective portions of speeches, 
thoughts and words, I must speak at somewhat 
greater length, as the problems involved are manifold. 

There are three qualities which delivery should 154 
possess. It should be conciliatory, persuasive and 
moving, and the possession of these three qualities 
involves charm as a further requisite. A conciliatory 
effect may be secured either by charm of style or 
by producing an impression of excellence of character, 
which is in some mysterious way clearly revealed 
both by voice and gesture. A persuasive effect, on 
the other hand, is produced by the power of assertion, 
which is sometimes more convincing even than actual 
proof. " Would those statements," says Cicero^ to 155 
Calidius, "have been delivered by you in such a 
manner if they had been true ? " And again, " You 
were far from kindling our emotions. Indeed, at 
that point of your speech we could scarcely keep 
ourselves awake." We must therefore reveal both 
confidence and firmness, above all, if we have the 
requisite authority to back them. The method of 156 
arousing the emotions depends on our jMJwer to 
represent or imitate the passions. Therefore when 
the judge in private, or the usher in pubhc cases, 
calls upon us to speak, we must rise with deliberation. 
We shall then, to make our garb the more becoming, 
and to secure a moment for reflexion, devote a brief 
space to the arrangement of our toga or even, if 
necessary, to throwing it on afresh ; but it must 
be borne in mind that this injunction applies only 
to cases in the courts ; for we must not do this if 
we are speaking before the emperor or a magistrate, 
or in cases where the judge sits in a p>osition of 
superior authority. Even when we turn to the judge, 157 

329 



QUINTILIAN 

cum ad iudicem nos converterimus, et consultus 
praetor permiserit dicere, non protinus est erum- 
pendum, sed danda brevis cogitationi mora. Mire 
enim auditurum dicturi cura delectat, et iudex se 

158 ipse componit. Hoc praecipit Homerus Ulixis 
exemplo, quern stetisse oculis in terram defixis 
immotoque sceptro, priusquam illam eloquentiae 
procellam effunderet, dicit. In hac cunctatione 
sunt quaedam non indecentes, ut appellant scenici, 
morae, caput mulcere, manum intueri, infringere 
articulos, simulare conatum, suspiratione sollici- 
tudinem fateri, aut quod quemque magis decet, 
eaque diutius, si iudex nondum intendet animum. 

159 Status sit rectus, aequi et diducti paulum pedes 
vel procedens minimo momento sinister ; genua 
recta, sic tamen, ut non extendantur ; humeri 
remissi, vultus severus, non maestus nee stupens 
nee languidus ; brachia a latere modice remota ; 
manus sinistra, qualem supra demonstravi ; dextra, 
cum lam incipiendum erit, paulum prolata ultra 
sinum gestu quam modestissimo, velut spectans 

160 quando incipiendum sit. Vitiosa enim sunt ilia, 
intueri lacunaria, perfricare faciem et quasi improbam 
facere, tendere confidentia vultum aut, quo sit magis 

» II. iii. 217. • Sect. 142. 

330 



BOOK XL III. 157-160 

and have requested and received the praetor's per- 
mission to address the court, we must not break forth 
at once into speech, but should allow ourselves a few 
moments for reflexion. For the display of such care 
on the part of one who is about to speak attracts the 
audience and gives the judge time to settle down. 
Homer 1 inculcates this practice by placing before 158 
us the example of Ulysses, whom he describes as 
having stood for a while with eyes fixed on the 
ground and staff held motionless, before he poured 
forth his whirlwind of eloquence. In this preliminary 
delay there are certain pauses, as the actors call 
them, which are not unbecoming. We may stroke 
our head, look at our hand, wring the fingers, pre- 
tend to summon all our energies for the effort, 
confess to nervousness by a deep sigh, or may adopt 
any other method suited to our individual character, 
while these proceedings may be extended over some 
time, if we find that the judge is not yet giving us 
his attention. Our attitude should be upright, our 159 
feet level and a slight distance apart, or the left may 
be very slightly advanced. The knees should be 
upright, but not stiff, the shoulders relaxed, the face 
stem, but not sad, expressionless or languid : the 
arms should be held slightly away from the side, 
the left hand being in the position described above,'^ 
while the right, at the moment when our speech 
begins, should be slightly extended beyond the fold 
of the toga with the most modest of gestures, as 
though waiting for the commencement. For it is 160 
a mistake to look at the ceiling, to rub the face and 
give it a flush of impudence, to crane it boldly for- 
ward, to frown in order to secure a fierce expression, 
or brush back the hair from the forehead against its 

331 



QUINTILIAN 

torvus, superciliis adstringerCj capillos a fronte 
contra naturam retroagere, ut sit horror ille ter- 
ribilis ; turn, id quod Graeci frequentissime faciunt, 
crebro digitorum labiorumque motu commentari, 
clare excreare, pedem alterum longe proferre, 
partem togae sinistra tenere, stare diductum vel 
rigidum vel supinum vel incurvum vel humeris, ut 
luetaturi solent^ ad occipitium ductis. 

161 Prooemio frequentissime lenis convenit pronunti- 
atio. Nihil enim est ad conciliandum gratius vere- 
cundia, non tamen semper ; neque enim uno mode 
dicuntur exordia, ut docui. Plerumque tamen et 
vox temperata et gestus modestus et sedens humero 
toga et laterum lenis in utramque partem motus, 

162 eodem spectantibus oculis, decebit. Narratio magis 
prolatam manum, amictum recidentem, gestum dis- 
,tinctum4 vocem sermoni proximam et tantum acri- 
orem, sonum simplicem frequentissime postulabit in 
his dumtaxat : Q. enim Ligarius, cum esset in Afnca 
nulla belli suspicio, et A. Cluejitius Habitus pater huiusce. 
Aliud in eadem poscent adfectus, vel concitati Nubit 



33? 



* IV. i. 40. * pro Lig. i. 2. 

* pro Cluent. v. 11. * pro Cluent. v. 14. 



BOOK XI. III. 160-162 

natural direction in order to produce a terrifying 
effect by making it stand on end. Again, there are 
other unseemly tricks, such as that so dear to the 
Greeks of twitching our fingers and lips as though 
studying what to say, clearing the throat with a 
loud noise, thrusting out one foot to a considerable 
distance, grasping a portion of the toga in the left 
hand, standing with feet wide apart, holding ourselves 
stiffly, leaning backwards, stooping, or hunching our 
shoulders toward the back of the head^ as wrestlers 
do when about to engage. 

A gentle deUvery is most often best suited to the 161 
exordium. For there is nothing better calculated 
than modesty to win the good-will of the judge, 
although there are exceptions to the rule, since, as I 
have already pointed out,' all exordia are not delivered 
in the same manner. But, generally speaking, a 
quiet voice, a modest gesture, a toga sitting well 
upon the shoulder, and a gentle motion of the sides 
to right and left, accompanied by a corresponding 
movement of the eyes, will all be found to produce 
a becoming effect. In the statement of facts the hand 162 
should on most occasions be further extended, the 
toga allowed to slip back, the gestures sharply dis- 
tinguished and the voice colloquial, but slightly more 
emphatic, while there should also be uniformity of 
tone. Such, at any rate, should be the delivery of 
a passage such as the following t^ "For Quintus 
Ligarius, since there was no hint of the likelihood of 
the war in Africa," or^ "Aulus Cluentius Habitus, 
this man's father." But different methods may be 
called for in this same portion of the speech, in 
passionate utterances such as, "The mother-in-law 
weds her son-in-law," * or in pathetic passages such 

335 



QUINTILIAN 

genero socrus, vel flebiles Consliiuitur in foro Laodiceae 
spectaculum acerhum et miserum toti Asiae provinciae. 

163 Maxime varia et multiplex actio est probationum. 
Nam et proponere, partiri, interrogare sermoni sunt 
proxima, et contradictionem sumere : nam ea quoque 
diversa propositio est. Sed haec tamen aliquando 

164 irridentes, aliquando imitantes pronuntiamus. Argu- 
mentatio plerumque agilior et acrior et instantior 
consentientem orationi postulat etiam gestum, id est 
fortem celeritatem. Instandum quibusdam in partibus 
et densanda oratio. Egressiones fere lenes et dulces 
et remissae, raptus Proserpinae, Siciliae description 
Cn. Pompeii laus. Neque enim mirum minus habere 

165 contentionis ea quae sunt extra quaestionem. Mollior 
nonnunquam cum reprehensione diversae partis imi- 
tatio : Videhar videre alios intrantes, alios autem exeunies, 
quosdam ex vino vacillantes. Ubi non dissidens a voce 
permittitur gestus quoque, in utramque partem tenera 
quaedam, sed intra manus tamen et sine motu laterum 

166 translatio. Accendendi iudicis plures sunt gradus. 

' Verr. i. xxx. 76 * cp. iv. iii. 13. 

* In the lost pro Corndio: cp. IV. iii. 13. 

* From the lost pro Gallio. 

334 



BOOK XI. III. 162-166 

as, " There in the market-place of Laodicea was dis- 
played a grievous and afflicting spectacle for all the 
province of Asia to behold."^ The ^roq/j?, hoveever, 163 
require the utmost variety of delivery. For to state 
them and distinguish between their various points, 
and to examine witnesses, we employ something not 
far removed from a colloquial tone, as is also the case 
in anticipating objections, which is really another 
form of statement. But in all these cases we some- 
times deride, and sometimes mimic our opponents. 
Argument, being as a rule of a livelier, more energetic 164 
and aggressive character, demands a type of gesture 
adapted to its style, that is to say, it should be bold 
and rapid. There are certain portions of our argu- 
ments that require to be pressed home with energy, 
and in these our style must be compact and concen- 
trated. Digressions, as a rule, are characterised by 
gentleness, calm and placidity, as, for example, in 
Cicero's description of the Rape of Proserpine,'^ his 
picture of Sicily ,2 or his panegyric of Pompey.^ For 
naturally passages which deal with subjects lying 
outside the main question in dispute demand a less 
combative tone. There are occasions on which we 165 
may adopt a gentle manner in depreciating our 
opponents by giving a picture of their character, as 
in the following passage : * " I seemed to see some 
persons entering the room and others leaving it, 
while others were staggering to and fro under the 
influence of wine." Under such circumstances we 
may even allow the gesture to match the voice, and 
may employ a gentle movement from side to side : 
but this motion should be confined to the hands, and 
there should be no movement of the flanks. There 166 
are a number of gradations of tone which may be 

335 



QUINTILIAN 

Summus ille et quo nullus est in oratore acutior : 
Suscepto hello, Caesar, gesto iam etiam ex parte magna. 
Praedixit enim : Quantum potero voce contendam, ut 
populus hoc Romanus exaudiat. Paulum inferior et 
habens aliquid iam iucunditatis : Quid enim tuns ille, 

167 Tubero, in acie Pharsalica gladius agebat ? Plenius 
adhue et lentius ideoque dulcius : In coetu vero populi 
Romani negotium pubUcum gerens. Producenda omnia 
trahendaeque turn vocales aperiendaeque sunt fauces. 
Pleniore tamen haec canali fluunt : Vos, Albani tumuli 
atque luci. Iam cantici quiddam habent sensimque 
resupina sunt : Saxa atque solitudines voci respondent. 

168 Tales sunt illae inclinationes vocis, quas invicem 
Demosthenes atque Aeschines exprobrant, non ideo 
improbandae ; cum enim uterque alteri obiiciat, palam 
est utrumque fecisse. Nam neque ille per Marathonis 
et Plataearum et Salaminis propugnatores recto sono 

169 iuravit, nee ille Thebas sermone deflevit. Est his 
diversa vox et paene extra organum, cui Graeci 



' pro Lig. iii. 7 and 6. * pro Lig. iii. 9. 

» rhil. 11. XXV. 63. * pro Mil. xxxi. 83. 

» pro Arch. viii. 19. « de Cor. 90. ' In Cles. 72. 
• Dc Cor. 60. • In Ctes. 49. 



336 



BOOK XI. III. 166-169 

employed to kindle the feeling of the judges. The 
most vehement tones that an orator is ever called 
upon to use will be employed in p>assages such as 
the following:^ " When the war was begun, Caesar, 
and was, in fact, well on its way to a conclusion." 
For he has just said : " I will use my voice to its 
fullest power, that all the Roman people may hear 
me." On the other hand, a lower tone, not devoid 
of a certain charm, should be employed in passages 
such as : 2 " What was that sword of yours doing, 
Tubero, that sword that was drawn on the field of 
Pharsalus?" But the utterance must be fuller, 167 
slower, and consequently sweeter, when the orator 
says,2 " But in an assembly of the Roman people, 
and when he was performing his official functions." 
In this passage every sound should be drawn out, 
we should dwell upon the vowel-sounds and speak 
full-throated. Still fuller should be the stream of our 
voice in the invocation,* " You, hills and groves of 
Alba " ; while a tone not far removed from chanting, 
and dying away to a cadence, should be employed in 
delivering the phrase,^ " Rocks and solitudes answer 
to the voice." These are the modulations denounced 168 
by Demosthenes * and Aeschines,' but they do not 
necessarily for that reason merit our disapprobation. 
For as each of these orators taunts the other with 
making use of them, it is clear that they were employed 
by both. We may be sure that Demosthenes did not 
restrict himself to his ordinary simplicity of tone when 
he swore by those that fought for their country at 
Marathon, Plataea and Salamis,* nor did Aeschines 
employ a colloquial utterance when he lamented for 
the fate of Thebes.' There is also an entirely different 169 
tone, which might be described as lying almost 

337 



QUINTILIAN 

nomen amaritudinis dederunt, super modum ac paene 
naturam vocis humanae acerba : Quin compescitis vocem 
islam, indicem stultitiae, testem paucitalis ? Sed id, quod 
excedere modum dixi, in ilia parte prima est : Qum 
compescitis. 

170 EpiloguSj si enumerationem rerum habet, desiderat 
quandam concisorum continuationem ; si ad conci- 
tandos iudices est accommodatus, aliquid ex iis, quae 
supra dixi ; si placandos, inclinatam quandam leni- 
tatem ; si misericordia commovendos, flexum vocis 
et flebilem suavitatem, qua praecipue franguntur 
animi, quaeque est maxime naturalis. Nam etiam 
orbos viduasque videas in ipsis funeribus canoro quo- 

171 dam mode proclamantes. Hie etiam fusca ilia vox, 
qualem Cicero fuisse in Antonio dicit, mire faciet; 
habet enim in se, quod imitamur. Duplex est tamen 
miseratio, altera cum invidia, qualis modo dicta de 
damnatione Philodami, altera cum deprecatione 

172 demissior. Quare, etiamsi est in illis quoque cantus 
obscurior. In coetu vero populi Romayii (non enim haec 

* pro Rab, perd. vi. 18. ' Brut, xzxviii. 141. 

» § 162. 



BOOK XI. III. 169-172 

outside the range of the instrument. The Greeks 
call it bitterness, and it consists in an extravagant 
acerbity almost beyond the compass of the human 
voice. It is employed in passages such as,^ " Why 
do you not restrain those cries, the proof of your 
folly and the evidence of your small numbers ^ " 
But the extravagance of which I spoke will come 
in at the opening, where the orator cries, " Why do 
you not restrain ? " 

The peroration, if it involves a recapitulation, 170 
requires an even utterance of short, clear-cut 
clauses. If, on the other hand, it is designed to 
stir the emotions of the judges, it will demand 
some of the qualities already mentioned. If it aims 
at soothing them, it should flow softly ; if it is to 
rouse them to pity, the voice must be delicately 
modulated to a melancholy sweetness, which is at 
once most natural and specially adapted to touch 
the heart. For it may be noted that even orphans 
and widows have a certain musical quality in the 
lamentations which they utter at funerals. A 171 
muffled voice, such as Cicero 2 says was possessed 
by Antonius, will also be exceedingly effective under 
such circumstances, since it has just the natural 
tone which we seek to imitate. Appeals to pity 
are, however, of two kinds : they may be marked 
by an admixture of indignation, as in the passage 
just quoted^ describing the condemnation of Philo- 
damus, or they may be coupled with appeals for 
mercy, in which case their tone will be more sub- 
dued. Therefore although there is a suggestion of 172 
the chanting tone in the delivery of such passages 
as " In an assembly of the Roman people " (for he did 
not utter these words in a contentious tone), or in 

339 



QUINTILIAN 

rixantis modo dixit) ; et f^os, Albani tumuli (non enim, 
quasi inclamaret aut testaretur, locutus est), tamen 
infinite magis ilia flexa et circumducta sunt : Me 
miserum, me infelicem, et Quid respoTidebo liberis meis ? 
et Revocare tu me in patriam potuisti, Milo, per hos ; 
ego te in eadem patria per eosdem retinere non potero ? 
et cum bona C. Rabirii nummo ^ sestertio addicit : 

173 meum miserum acerbu7nque praeconium. Ilia quoque 
mire facit in peroratione velut deficientis dolore et 
fatigatione confessio, ut pro eodem Milone, Sedjinis 
sit ; neque enim prae lacrimis iam loqui possum. Quae 
similem verbis habere debent etiam pronuntiationem. 

174 Possunt videri alia quoque huius partis atque officii, 
reos excitare, pueros attoUere, propinquos producere, 
vestes laniare ; sed suo loco dicta sunt. 

Et quia in partibus causae talis ^ est varietas, satis 
apparet, accommodandam sententiis ipsis pronunti- 
ationem, sicut ostendimus, sed verbis quoque, quod 

175 novissime dixeram, non semper, sed aliquando. An 
non hoc misellus et pauperculus summissa atque con- 
trsLcta, for lis et vehemens et latro erecta et concitata 

^ nummo, Bentley : uno, MSS. 

' causa talis, ed. Camp : causa et aliis, B, 

^ pro Mil. xxxvii. 102. 

" pro Rai. Post, xvii. 46. addicit, lit. " knocks down " : 
praeconium, lit. "the task of the public crier." 
» pro Mil. xxxviii. 105. « vi. i. 30. » § 173. 

340 



BOOK XI. III. 172-175 

" Ye hills and groves of Alba " (for he did not say this 
as though he were appealing to them or calling them 
to witness), the ensuing phrases^ require infinitely 
greater modulation and longer-drawn harmonies : 
" Ah, woe is me, unhappy that I am ! " and " What 
shall I reply to my children ? " and " You, Milo, had 
the power to recall me to my country with the aid of 
these men, and shall I be powerless by their aid to 
keep you in that same country, your native land 
and mine ? " or when he offers to sell the property of 
Gaius Rabirius at one sesterce, " Ah, what a sad and 
bitter task my voice is called on to perform ! "2 Again, 173 
it is a most effective device to confess in the peroration 
that the strain of grief and fatigue is overpowering, 
and that our strength is sinking beneath them, as 
Cicero does in his defence of Milo : ' " But here I must 
make an end : I can no longer speak for tears." And 
in such passages our delivery must conform to our 
words. It may be thought that there are other points 174 
which should be mentioned in connexion with the 
duties of the orator in this portion of his speech, such 
as calling forward the accused, lifting up his children 
for the court to see, producing his kinsfolk, and 
rending his garments ; but they have been dealt 
with in their proper place.* 

Such being the variety entailed by the different 
fjortions of our pleading, it is sufficiently clear that 
our delivery must be adapted to our matter, as I 
have already shown, and sometimes also, though 
not always conform to our actual words, as I have 
just remarked.* For instance, must not the words, 175 
"This poor wretched, poverty-stricken man," be 
uttered in a low, subdued tone, whereas, " A bold 
and violent fellow and a robber," is a phrase 

341 



QUINTILIAN 
voce dicendum est ? Accedit enim vis et proprietas 
rebus tali adstipulatione, quae nisi adsit, aliud vox, 

176 aliud animus ostendat. Quid ? quod eadem verba 
mutata pronuntiatione indicant, adfirmant, expro- 
brant, negant, mirantur, indignantur, interrogant, 
irrident, elevant ? Aliter enim dicitur : Tu mihi 
quodcunque hoc regni et Cantando tu ilium ? et Tune 
ille Aeneas ? et Meque timoris Argue tu, Draiice. Et 
ne morei', intra se quisque vel hoc vel aliud, quod 
volet, per omnes adfectus verset, verum esse quod 
dicimus sciet. 

177 Unum iam his adiiciendum est, cum praecipue in 
actione spectetur decorum, saepe aliud alios decere. 
Est enim latens quaedam in hoc ratio et inenarra- 
bilis; et ut vere hoc dictum est, caput esse artis 
decere quod facias, ita id neque sine arte esse neque 



» Aen. i. 78. * Eel. iii. 25. » Aen. i. 617. 

* Aen. xi. 383. • de Or. i. xxix. 132 



34? 



BOOK XI. III. 175-177 

requiring a strong and energetic utterance? For 
such conformity gives a force and appropriateness 
to our matter, and without it the expression of 
tlie voice will be out of harmony with our thought. 
Again, what of the fact that a change of delivery 176 
may make precisely the same words either demon- 
strate or affirm, express reproach, denial, wonder or 
indignation, interrogation, mockery or depreciation ? 
For the word " thou " is given a different expression 
in each of the following passages : 

''Thou this poor kingdom dost on me bestow,"* 

and 

"Thou vanquish him in song.^"* 



and 
and 



" Art thou, then, that Aeneas ? " * 

" And of fear. 
Do thou accuse me, Drances ! " * 



To cut a long matter short, if my reader will take 
this or any other word he chooses and run it through 
the whole gamut of emotional expression, he will 
realise the truth of what I say. 

There is one further remark which I must add, 177 
namely, that while what is becoming is the main 
consideration in delivery, different methods will often 
suit different speakers. For this is determined by 
a principle which, though it is obscure and can 
hardly be expressed in words, none the less 
exists: and, though it is a true saying^ that 
"the main secret of artistic success is that what- 
ever we do should become us well," none the 
less, despite the fact that such success cannot be 

343 



QUINTILIAN 

178 totum arte tradi potest. In quibusdam virtutes non 
habent gratiam^ in quibusdam vitia ipsa delectant. 
Maximos actores comoediarum, Demetrium et Strato- 
clea, placere diversis virtutibus vidimus. Sed illud 
minus mirum, quod alter deos et iuvenes et bonos 
patres servosque et matronas et graves anus optima, 
alter acres senes, callidos servos, parasites, lenones 
et omnia agitatiora melius : fuit enim natura diversa. 
Nam vox quoque Demetrii iucundior, illius acrior 

179 erat. Adnotandae magis proprietates, quae trans- 
ferri non poterant, manus iactare et dulees excla- 
mationes theatri causa producere et ingrediendo 
ventum eoneipere veste et nonnunquam dextro latere 
faeere gestus, quod neminem alium nisi Demetrium 
decuit ; namque in haec omnia statura et mira specie 

180 adiuvabatur; ilium cursus et agilitas et vel parum 
conveniens personae risus, quern non ignarus rationis 
populo dabatj et contracta etiam cervicula. Quid- 
quid horum alter fecisset, foedissimum videretur. 
344 



BOOK XI. ni. 177-180 

attained without art, it is impossible entirely to com- 
municate the secret by the rules of art. There are 178 
some persons in whom positive excellences have no 
charm, while there are others whose very faults give 
pleasure. We have seen the greatest of comic actors, 
Demetrius and Stratocles, win their success by 
entirely different merits. But that is the less 
surprising owing to the fact that the one was at his 
best in the roles of gods, young men, good fathers 
and slaves, matrons and respectable old women, 
wliile the other excelled in the portrayal of sharp>- 
tempered old men, cunning slaves, parasites, pimps 
and all the more lively characters of comedy. For 
their natural gifts differed- For Demetrius' voice, 
like his other qualities, had greater charm, while 
that of Stratooles was the more powerful. But 179 
yet more noticeable were the incommunicable 
peculiarities of their action. Demetrius showed 
unique gifts in the movements of his hands, in 
his power to charm his audience by the long- 
dra^vn sweetness of his exclamations, the skill with 
which he would make his dress seem to puff out 
with wind as he walked, and the expressive move- 
ments of the right side which he sometimes intro- 
duced vrith effect, in all of which things he was 
helped by his stature and personal beauty. On the 180 
other hand, Stratocles* forte lay in his nimbleness 
and rapidity of movement, in his laugh (which, 
though not always in keeping with the character 
he represented, he deliberately employed to awaken 
answering laughter in his audience), and finally, even 
in the way in which he sank his neck into his 
shoulders. If either of these actors had attempted 
any of his rival's tricks, he would have produced a 

vou IV. M 345 



QUiNTILIAN 

Quare norit se quisque, nee tantum ex communibus 
praeceptis, sed etiam ex natura sua capiat consilium 

181 formandae actionis. Neque illud tamen est nefas, 
ut aliquem vel omnia vel plura deceant. Huius 
quoque loci clausula sit eadem necesse est, quae 
ceterorum est, regnare maxime modum. Non eoim 
comoedum esse, sed oratorem volo. Quare neque 
in gestu persequemur omnes argutias nee in loquendo 
distinctionibus, temporibus, adfectionibus moleste 

182 utemur. Ut si sit in scena dicendum: 

Quid igttur faciam ? non earn, ne nunc qtiidem, 
q: Cum arcessor ultro ? an politic ita me comparem., 

Non perpeti meretricum contumelias ? 

Hie enim dubitationis moras, vocis flexus, varias 
manus, diversos nutus actor adhibebit. Aliud oratio 
sapit nee vult nimium esse condita ; actione enim 

183 constat, non imitatione. Quare non immerito repre- 
henditur pronuntiatio vultuosa et gesticulationibus 
molesta et vocis mutationibus resultans. Nee inutiliter 
ex Graecis veteres transtulerunt, quod ab iis sumptum 
Laenas Popilius posuit, esse banc negotiosam ^ actio- 

184 nem. Optime igitur idem, qui omnia, Cicero prae- 

* negotiosam, Halm: mocosam, B. 



1 Ter. Eun. I. i. 1. 



346 



BOOK XL III. 180-184 

most unbecoming effect. Consequently, every man 
must get to know his own peculiarities and must 
consult not merely the general rules of technique, 
but his own nature as well with a view to forming 
his delivery. But there is no law of heaven which 181 
prohibits the possession of all or at any rate the 
majority of styles by one and the same person. I 
must conclude this topic with a remark which applies 
to all my other topics as well, that the prime essential 
is a sense of proportion. For I am not trying to 
form a comic actor, but an orator. Consequently, 
we need not study all the details of gesture nor, as 
regards our speaking, be pedantic in the use we 
make of the rules governing punctuation, rhythm 
and appeals to the emotions. For example, if an 182 
actor has to speak the following lines on the stage : ^ 

** What shall I do then ? Not go, even now. 
Now when she calls me ? Or shall I steel my soul 
No longer to endure a harlot's insults?" 

he will hesitate as in doubt, will vary the modulations 
of his voice, together with the movements of hand 
and head. But oratory has a different flavour and 
objects to elaborate condiments, since it consists in 
serious pleading, not in mimicry. There is, there- 183 
fore, good reason for the condemnation passed on a 
delivery which entails the continual alteration of 
facial expression, annoying restlessness of gesture 
and gusty changes of tone. And it was a wise saying 
that the ancient orators borrowed from the Greeks, 
as is recorded by Popilius Laenas, to the effect that 
there is too much " business " in such delivery. The 184 
instructions given by Cicero on this subject, as on all 
others, are quite admirable ; I allude to the passages 

347 



QUINTILIAN 

ceperat, quae supra ex Oratore posui ; quibus similia 
in Bruto de M. Antonio dicit. Sed iam recepta est 
actio paulo agitatior et exigitur et quibusdam partibus 
convenit, ita tamen temperanda, ne, dum actoris 
captamus elegantiam, perdamus viri boni et gravis 
auctoritatem. 



-.* 



348 



BOOK XI. III. 184 

which I have already quoted from his Orator,^ while 
there are similar observations in the Brutus^ with 
reference to Marcus Antonius. But to-day a rather 
more violent form of delivery has come into fashion 
and is demanded of our orators : it is well adapted to 
certain portions of a speech, but requires to be kept 
under control. Otherwise, in our attempt to ape 
the elegances of the stage, we shall lose the authority 
which should characterise the man of dignity and 
virtue. 

1 § 122. « Brut, iiiviii, 141. 



349 



BOOK XII 



LIBER XII 

Prooemium 
Ventum est ad partem operis destinati longe gra- 
vissimam. Cuius equidem onus si tantum opinione 
prima concipere potuissem, quanto me premi ferens 
sentio, maturius consuluissem vires meas. Sed initio 
pudor omittendi, quae promiseram, tenuit; mox, 
quanquam per singulas prope partes labor cresceretj 
ne perderem, quae iam efFecta erant, per omnes 

2 difficultates animo me sustentavi. Quare nunc quo- 
que, licet maior quam unquam moles premat, tamen 
prospicienti finem mihi constitutum est vel deficere 
potius quam desperare. Fefellit autem quod initium 
a parvis ceperamus. Mox velut aura sollicitante 
provecti longius, dum tamen nota ilia et plerisque 
artium scriptoribus tractata praecipimus, nee adhuc 
a litore procul videbamur et multos circa velut iisdem 

3 se ventis credere ausos habebamus. Iam cum elo- 
quendi rationem novissime repertam paucissimisque 

352 



BOOK XII 

Introduction 

I NOW come to what is by far the most arduous 
portion of the task which I have set myself to per- 
form. Indeed had I fully realised the difficulties 
when I first designed this work, I should have con- 
sidered betimes whether my strength was sufficient to 
support the load that now weighs upon me so heavily. 
But to begin with, I felt how shameful it would be 
to faU to perform what I had promised, and later, 
despite the fact that my labour became more and 
more arduous at almost every stage, the fear of 
stultifying what I had already written sustained my 
courage through every difficulty. Consequently 2 
even now, though the burden that oppresses me is 
greater than ever, the end is in sight and I am 
resolved to faint by the wayside rather than despair. 
But the fact that I began with comparatively trivial 
details deceived me. Subsequently I was lured still 
further on my voyage by the temptations of the 
favouring breeze that filled my sails ; but the rules 
which I was then concerned to give were still of a 
familiar kind and had been already treated by most 
writers of rhetorical textbooks : thus far I seemed to 
myself to be still in sight of shore and I had the 
company of many who had ventured to entrust them- 
selves to the self-same winds. But presently when 3 
I entered on the task of setting forth a theory of 

353 



QUINTILIAN 

temptatam ingressi sumus, rarus, qui tam procul a 
portu recessisset, repericbatur. Postquam vero nobis 
ille, quem instituebamus, orator a dicendi magistris 
dimissus aut suo iam impetu fertur aut maiora sibi 
auxilia ex ipsis sapientiae penetralibus petit, quam 
4 in altum simus ablati sentire coepimus. Nunc caelum 
undique el undique ponlus. Unum modo in ilia im- 
mensa vastitate cernere videmur M. Tullium, qui 
tamen ipse, quamvis tanta atque it;i instructa nave 
hoc mare ingressus, contrahit vela inhibetque remos 
et de ipso demum genere dicendi, quo sit usurus 
perfectus orator, satis habet dicere. At nostra 
temeritas etiam mores ei conabitur dare et adsignabit 
officia. Ita nee antecedentem consequi possumus, 
et longius eundum est, ut res feret. Probabilis tamen 
cupiditas honestorum et velut tutioris^ audentiae 
est temptare, quibus paratior venia est. 

I. Sit ergo nobis orator, quem constituimus, is, 
qui a M. Catone finitur, vir bonus dicendi peritus ; 
verum, id quod et ille posuit prius et ipsa natura 
potius ac maius est, utique vir bonus. Id non eo 
tantum, quod, si vis ilia dicendi malitiam instruxerit, 
nihil sit publicis privatisque rebus perniciosius elo- 

^ velut tutioris, Obrecht: velutioris, B. 

1 Am. ill. 193. • ep. I. Pr. 9. 

354 



BOOK XII. Intr. 3-1. I 

eloquence which had been but newly discovered and 
rarely essayed, I found but few that had ventured so 
far from harbour. And finally now that the ideal 
orator, whom it was my design to mould, has been 
dismissed by his masters and is either proceeding 
on his way borne onward by his own impetus, or 
seeking still mightier assistance from the innermost 
shrine of wisdom, I begin to feel how far I have 
been swept into the great deep. Xow there is 4 

" Nothing before and nothing behind but the sky 
and the Ocean." i 

One only can I discern in all the boundless waste of 
waters, Marcus Tullius Cicero, and even he, though 
the ship in which he entered these seas is of such 
size and so well found, begins to lessen sail and to 
row a slower stroke, and is content to speak merely 
of the kind of speech to be employed by the perfect 
orator. But my temerity is such that I shall essay to 
form my orator's character and to teach him his duties. 
Thus I have no predecessor to guide my steps and 
must press far, far on, as my theme may demand. 
Still an honourable ambition is always deserving of 
approval, and it is all the less hazardous to dare 
greatly, when forgiveness is assured us if we fail. 

I. The orator then, whom I am concerned to form, 
shall be the orator as defined by Marcus Cato, " a good 
man, skilled in speaking." 2 But above all he must 
jwssess the quality which Cato places first and which 
is in the very nature of things the greatest and most 
important, that is, he must be a good man. This is 
essential not merely on account of the fact that, if 
the powers of eloquence serve only to lend arms to 
crime, there can be nothing more pernicious than 

355 



QUINTILIAN 

quentia, nosque ipsi, qui pro virili parte conferre 
aliquid ad facultatem dicendi conati sumus, pessime 
mereamur de rebus humanis, si latroni comparamus 

2 haec arma^ non militi. Quid de nobis loquor? 
Rerum ipsa natura in eo^ quod praecipue indulsisse 
liomini videtur quoque nos a ceteris animalibus se- 
parasse, non parens, sed noverca fuerit, si facultatem 
dicendi, sociam scelerum, adversain innocentiae, 
hostem veritatis invenit. Mutos enim nasci et egere 
omni ratione satius fuisset quam providentiae mu- 

3 nera in mutuam perniciem convertere. Longius 
tendit hoc iudicium meum. Neque enim tantum 
id dico, eum, qui sit orator, virum bonum esse 
oportere, sed ne futurum quidem oratorem nisi virum 
bonum. Nam certe neque intelligentiam concesseris 
iis qui, proposita honestorum ac turpium via, peiorem 
sequi malent, neque prudentiam, cum in gravissimas 
frequenter legum, semper vero malae conscientiae 
poenas a semet ipsis improviso rerum exitu induantur. 

4 Quodsi neminem malum esse nisi stultum eundem 
non modo a sapientibus dicitur, sed vulgo quoque 
semper est creditum, certe non fiet unquam stultus 
orator. Adde quod ne studio quidem operis pulcher- 
rimi vacare mens nisi omnibus vitiis libera potest : 
primum quod in eodem pectore nullum est honesto- 
rum turpiumque consortium, et cogitare optima 
simul ac deterrima non magis est unius animi quam 

356 



BOOK Xll. I. 1-4 

eloquence to public and private welfare alike, while 
1 myself, who have laboured to the best of my ability 
to contribute something of value to oratory, shall have 
rendered the worst of services to mankind, if I forge 
these weapons not for a soldier, but for a robber. 
But why speak of myself? Nature herself will have 
proved not a mother, but a stepmother with regard 
-to what we deem her greatest gift to man, the gift 
that distinguishes us from other living things, if she 
devised the power of speech to be the accomplice of 
crime, the foe to innocency and the enemy of truth. 
For it had been better for men to be born dumb and 
devoid of reason than to turn the gifts of providence 
to their mutual destruction. But this conviction of 
mine goes further. For I do not merely assert that 
the ideal orator should be a good man, but I affirm 
that no man can be an orator unless he is a good man. 
For it is impossible to regard those men as gifted 
with intelligence who on being offered the clioice 
between the two paths of virtue and of vice choose 
the latter, nor can we allow them prudence, when 
bv the unforeseen issue of their own actions they 
render themselves liable not merely to the heaviest 
penalties of the laws, but to the inevitable torment 
of an evil conscience. But if the view that a bad 
man is necessarily a fool is not merely held by philo- 
sophers, but is the universal belief of ordinary men, 
the fool will most assuredly never become an orator. 
To this must be added the fact that the mind will 
not find leisure even for the study of the noblest of 
tasks, unless it first be free from vice. Tlie reasons for 
this are, first, that vileness and virtue cannot jointly 
inhabit in the selfsame heart and that it is as im- 
possible for one and the same mind to harbour good 

357 



QUINTILIAN 

6 eiusdera hominis bonum esse ac malum ; tum ilia 
quoque ex causa, quod mentem tantae rei intentam 
vacare omnibus aliis etiara culpa carentibus curis 
oportet. Ita demum enim libera ac tota, nulla 
distringente atque alio ducente causa, spectabit id 

6 solum ad quod accingitur, Quodsi agrorum nimia 
cura et sollicitior rei familiaris diligentia et venandi 
voluptas et dati spectaculis dies multum studiis au- 
ferunt (huic enim rei perit tempus, quodcunque alteri 
datur), quid putamus facturas cupiditatem, avaritiam, 
invidiam, quarum impotentissimae cogitationes som- 
nos etiam ipsos et ilia per quietem visa perturbent ? 

7 Nihil est enim tam occupatum, tam multiforme, tot 
ac tam vai-iis adfectibus concisum atque laceratum 
quam mala mens. Nam et cum insidiatur, spe, 
curis, labore distringitur ; et etiam cum sceleris 
compos fuit, sollicitudine, paenitentia, poenarum 
omnium exspectatione torquetur. Quis inter liaec 
litteris aut ulli bonae arti locus ? Non hercule magis 
quam frugibus in terra sentibus ac rubis occupata. 

8 Age, non ad perferendos studiorum labores necessaria 
frugalitas ? Quid ergo ex libidine ac luxuria spei ? 
Non praecipue acuit ad cupiditatem litterarum amor 
358 



BOOK XII. I. 4-8 

and evil thoughts as it is for one man to be at once 
both good and evil : and secondly, that if the intelli- 5 
gence is to be concentrated on such a vast subject as 
eloquence it must be free from all other distractions, 
among which must be included even those preoccu- 
pations which are free from blame. For it is only 
when it is free and self-possessed, with nothing to 
divert it or lure it elsewhere, t!:at it will fix its 
attention solely on that goal, the attainment of which 
is the object of its preparations. If on the other 6 
hand inordinate care for the development of our 
estates, excess of anxiety over household affairs, 
passionate devotion to hunting or the sacrifice of 
whole days to the shows of the theatre, rob our 
studies of much of the time tliat is their due (for 
every moment that is given to other things involves 
a loss of time for study), what, think you, will be the 
results of desire, avarice, and envy, which waken such 
violent thoughts within our souls that they disturb 
our very slumbers and our dreams ? There is nothing 7 
so preoccupied, so distracted, so rent and torn by so 
many and such varied passions as an evil mind. For 
when it cherishes some dark design, it is tormented 
with hope, care and anguish of spirit, and even when 
it has accomplished its criminal purpose, it is racked 
by anxiety, remorse and the fear of all manner of 
punishments. Amid such passions as these what 
room is there for literature or any virtuous pursuit } 
You might as well look for fruit in land that is choked 
with thorns and brambles. Well then, I ask you, is 8 
not simplicity of life essential if we are to be able to 
endure the toil entailed by study .'' What can we 
hope to get from lust or luxury ? Is not the desire 
to win praise one of the strongest stimulants to a 

359 



QUINTILIAN 

laudis? Num igitur malis esse laudem curae putamus? 
lam hoc quis non videt, maximam partem orationis 
in tractatu aequi bonique consistere? Dicetne de 
his secundum debitam rerum dignitatem malus atque 
9 iniquus ? Denique, ut maximam partem quaestionis 
eximam, demus, id quod nullo modo fieri potest, 
idem ingenii, studii, doctrinae, pessimo atque optimo 
viro : utermelior dicetur orator? Nimirum qui homo 
quoque melior. Non igitur unquam malus idem 

10 homo et perfectus orator. Non enim perfectum est 
quidquam, quo melius est aliud. Sed, ne more 
Socraticorum nobismet ipsi responsum finxisse vide- 
amur, sit aliquis adeo contra veritatem obstinatus, 
ut audeat dicere, eodem ingenio, studio, doctrina 
praeditum nihilo deteriorem futurum oratorem malum 
virum quam bonum : convincamus huius quoque 

11 amentiam. Nam hoc certe nemo dubitabit, omnem 
orationem id agere, ut iudici, quae proposita fuerint, 
vera et honesta videantur. Utrum igitur hoc facilius 
bonus vir persuadebit an malus? Bonus quidem et 

12 dicet saepius vera atque honesta. Sed etiam si 
quando aliquo ductus officio (quod accidere, ut mox 
docebimus, potest) falso haec adfirmare conabitur, 
360 



BOOK XII. I. 8-ia 

passion for literature ? But does that mean that we 
are to suppose that praise is an object of concern to 
bad men? Surely every one of my readers must by 
now have realised that oratory is in the main con- 
cerned with the treatment of what is just and 
honourable? Can a bad and unjust man speak on 
such themes as the dignity of the subject demands ? 
Nay, even if we exclude the most important aspects 9 
of the question now before us, and make the im- 
{X)ssible concession that the best and worst of men 
may have the same talent, industry and learning, we 
are still confronted by the question as to which of 
the two is entitled to be called the better orator. The 
answer is surely clear enough : it will be he who is 
the better man. Consequently, the bad man and the 
perfect orator can never be identical. For nothing 10 
is perfect, if there exists something else that is 
better. However, as I do not wish to appear to 
adopt the practice dear to the Socratics of framing 
answers to my own questions, let me assume the 
existence of a man so obstinately blind to the truth 
as to venture to maintain that a bad man equipped 
with the same talents, industry and learning will 
be not a whit inferior to the good man as an 
orator ; and let me show that he too is mad. 
There is one point at any rate which no one will 11 
question, namely, that the aim of every speech is to 
convince the judge that the case which it puts for- 
ward is true and honourable. Well then, which will 
do this best, the good man or the bad ? The good 
man will without doubt more often say what is true 
and honourable. But even supposing that his duty 12 
should, as I shall show may sometimes happen, lead 
him to make statements which are false, his words 

361 



QUINTILIAN 

maiore cum fide necesse est audiatur. At malis 
hominibus ex eontemptu opinionis et ignorantia recti 
nonnunquam excidit ipsa simulatio. Inde immodeste 

13 proponunt, sine pudore adfirmant. Sequitur in iis, 
quae certum est effici non posse, deformis pertinacia 
et irritus labor. Nam sicut in vita, ita in causis 
quoque spes improbas habent. Frequenter autem 
accidit, ut iis etiam vera dicentibus fides desit, 
videaturque talis advocatus malae causae argumentum. 

14 Nunc de iis dicendum est, quae mihi quasi con- 
spiratione quadam vulgi reclamari videntur. Orator 
ergo Demosthenes non fuit ? atqui malum virum 
accepimus. Non Cicero ? atqui huius quoque mores 
multi reprehenderunt. Quid agam ? magna responsi 
invidia subeunda est, mitigandae sunt prius r ures. 

15 Mihi enim nee Demosthenes tam gravi morum dig- 
nus videtur invidia, ut omnia, quae in eum ab 
inimicis congesta sunt, credam, cum et pulcherrima 
eius in re publica consilia et finem vitae clarum 

16 legam, nee Marco Tullio defuisse video in uUa parte 
civis optimi voluntatem. Testimonio est actus nobi- 
lissime consulatus, integerrime provincia administrata 
et repudiatus vigintiviratus, et civilibus bellis, quae 
362 



BOOK XII. I. 12-16 

are still certain to carry greater weight with his 
audience. On the other hand bad men, in their 
contempt for public opinion and their ignorance of 
what is right, sometimes drop their mask unawares, 
and are impudent in the statement of their case and 
shameless in their assertions. Further, in their I? 
attempt to achieve the impossible they display an 
unseemly persistency and unavailing energy. For 
in lawsuits no less than in the ordinary paths of 
life, they cherish depraved expectations. But it 
often happens that even when they tell the truth 
they fail to win belief, and the mere fact that such 
a man is its advocate is regarded as an indication of 
the badness of the case. 

I must now proceed to deal with the objections 14 
which common opinion is practically unanimous in 
bringing against this view. Was not Demosthenes 
an orator ? And yet we are told that he was a bad 
man. Was not Cicero an orator .'' And yet there 
are many who have found fault with his character as 
well. What am I to answer? My reply will be 
highly unpopular and I must first attempt to con- 
ciliate my audience. I do not consider that 16 
Demosthenes deserves the serious reflexions that 
have been made upon his character to such an 
extent that I am bound to believe all the charges 
amassed against him by his enemies ; for my reading 
tells me that his public policy was of the noblest and 
his end most glorious. Again, I cannot see that the 16 
aims of Cicero were in any portion of his career other 
than such as may become an excellent citizen. As 
evidence I would cite the fact that his behaviour as 
consul was magnificent and his administration of his 
province a model of integrity, while he refused to 

363 



QUINTILIAN 

in aetatem eius gravissima inciderunt, neque spe 
neque metii declinatus animus, quo minus optimis 

17 se partibus, id est rei publicae, iungeret. Parum 
fortis videtur quibusdam, quibus optime respondit 
ipse, non se timidum in suscipiendis, sed in providendis 
penculis ; quod probavit morte quoque ipsa, quam 

18 praestantissimo suscepit animo. Quodsi defuit his 
viris summa virtus, sic quaerentibus, an oratores 
fuerint, respondebo, quomodo Stoici, si interrogentur 
an sapiens Zeno, an Cleanthes, an Chrysippus ipse, 
respondeant, magnos quidem illos ac venerabiles, 
non tamen id, quod natura hominis summum habet, 

19 consecutos. Nam et Pythagoras non sapientem se, 
ut qui ante eum fuerunt, sed studiosum sapientiae 
vocari voluit. Ego tamen secundum communem 
loquendi consuetudinem saepe dixi dicamque, per- 
fectum oratorem esse Ciceronem ; ut amicos et bonos 
viros et prudentissimos dicimus vulgo, quorum nihil 
nisi perfecte sapienti datur. Sed cum proprie et ad 
legem ipsam veritatis loquendum erit, eum quaeram 

20 oratorem, quem et ille quaerebat. Quanquam enim 
stetisse ijisum in fastigio eloquentiae fateor, ac vix, 
quid adiici potuerit, invenio, fortasse inventurus, 

* For tlie distribution of the Campanian lands. 
' %. e. (pi\6(TO(pos, a term of which he was reputed the 
inventor. 

364 



BOOK XII. I. 16-20 

become one of the twenty commissioners,^ and in the 
grievous civil wars which afflicted his generation 
bevond all others, neither hope nor fear ever deterred 
him from giving his support to the better party, that 
is to say, to the interests of the common weal. 
Some, it is true, regard him as lacking in courage. 17 
The best answer to these critics is to be found in his 
own words, to the effect that he was timid not in 
confronting peril, but in anticipating it. And this 
he proved also by the manner of his death, in meeting 
which he displayed a singular fortitude. But even 18 
if these two men lacked the perfection of virtue, I 
will reply to those who ask if they were orators, in 
the manner in which the Stoics would reply, if asked 
whether Zeno, Cleanthes or Chrysippus himself were 
wise men. I shall say that they were great men 
deserving our veneration, but that they did not 
attain to that which is the highest perfection 
of man's nature. For did not Pythagoras desire 19 
that he should not be called a wise man, like the 
sages who preceded him, but rather a student of 
wisdom ? 2 But for my own part, conforming to the 
language of every day, I have said time and again, 
and shall continue to say, that Cicero was a perfect 
orator, just as in ordinary speech we call our iViends 
good and sensible men, although neither of these 
titles can really be given to any save to him that 
has attained to perfect wisdom. But if I am called 
upon to speak strictly and in accordance with the 
most rigid laws of truth, I shall proclaim that I seek 
to find that same perfect orator whom Cicero also 
sought to discover. For while I admit that he stood 20 
on the loftiest pinnacle of eloquence, and can dis- 
cover scarcely a single deficiency in him, although I 

365 



QUINTILIAN 

quod adliuc abscisurum putem fuisse (nam fere 
sic docti iudicaverunt, plurimum in eo virtutum, 
nonnihil fuisse vitiorum, et se ipse multa ex ilia iuve- 
nili abundantia coercuisse testatur), tamen, quando 
nee sapientis sibi nomen, minime sui contemptor, 
asseruit et melius dicere, certe data longiore vita et 
tempore^ ad componendum securiore, potuisset, non 
maligne crediderim defuisse ei summam illam, ad 

21 quam nemo propius aceessit. Et licebat, si aliter 
sentirem, fortius id liberiusque defendere. An vero 
M. Antonius neminem a se visum eloquentem, quod 
tanto minus erat, professus est ; ipse etiam M. Tullius 
quaerit adhuc eum et tantum imaginatur ac fingit, 
ego non audeam dicere, aliquid in hac, quae super- 
est, aeternitate inveniri posse eo, quod fuerit, per- 

22 fectius ? Transeo illos, qui Ciceroni ac Demostheni 
ne in eloquentia quidem satis tribuunt ; quanquam 
neque ipsi Ciceroni Demosthenes videatur satis esse 
perfectus, quern dormitare interim dicit, nee Cicero 
Bruto Calvoque, qui certe compositionem illius etiam 
apud ipsum reprehendunt, nee Asinio utrique, qui 
vitia orationis eius etiam inimice pluribus locis 
insequuntur. 

* tempore, Burman: te, B. 



» Brut. xci. 316. Oral. xxx. 107. 

* Quintilian's reverence for Cicero is such that he feels 
hampered in maintaining his thesis. 
» See X. 1. 24. 

366 



BOOK XII. I. 20-2 2 

might perhaps discover certain superfluities which I 
think he would have pruned away (for the general 
view of the learned is that he possessed many virtues 
and a few faults, and he himself^ states that he has 
succeeded in suppressing much of his youthful 
exuberance), none the less, in view of the fact that, 
although he had by no means a low opinion of him- 
self, he never claimed to be the perfect sage, and, 
had he been granted longer life and less troubled con- 
ditions for the composition of his works, would doubt- 
less have spoken better still, I shall not lay myself 
open to the charge of ungenerous criticism, if I say 
that I believe that he failed actually to achieve that 
perfection to the attainment of which none have 
approached more nearly, and indeed had I felt other- 21 
wise in this connexion, I might have defended my 
point with greater boldness and freedom.* Marcus 
Antonius declared that he had seen no man who was 
genuinely eloquent (and to be eloquent is a far less 
achievement than to be an orator), while Cicero him- 
self has failed to find his orator in actual life and 
merely imagines and strives to depict the ideal. Shall 
I then be afraid to say that in the eternity of time 
that is yet to be, something more perfect may be found 
than has yet existed ? I say nothing of those critics 22 
who will not allow sufficient credit even for eloquence 
to Cicero and Demosthenes, although Cicero himself 
does not regard Demosthenes as flawless, but asserts 
that he sometimes nods,* while even Cicero fails to 
satisfy Brutus and Calvus (at any rate they criticised 
his style to his face), or to win the complete approval 
of either of the Asinii, who in various passages attack 
the faults of his oratory in language which is positively 
liostile. 

367 



QUINTILIAN 

23 Concedamus sane, quod minime natura patitur, 
repeitum esse aliquem malum virum summe diser- 
tum : nihilo tamen minus oratorem eum negabo. 
Nam nee omnibus, qui fuerint manu prompti, viri 
fortis nomen concesserim, quia sine virtute intelligi 

24 non potest fortitude. An ei, qui ad defendendas 
causas advocatur, non est opus fide, quam nee cupi- 
ditas corrumpat nee gratia avertat nee metus frangat ; 
sed proditorem, transfugam, praevaricatorem dona- 
bimus oratoris illo sacro nomine ? Quodsi medio- 
cribus etiam patronis convenit haec, quae vulgo 
dicitur, bonitas, cur non orator ille, qui nondum fuit, 
sed potest esse, tam sit moribus quam dicendi virtute 

25 perfectus ? Non enim forensem quandam instituimus 
operam nee mercennariam vocem nee, ut asperi- 
oribus verbis parcamus, non inutilem sane litium 
advocatum, quem denique causidicum vulgo vocant, 
sed virum cum ingenii natura praestantem tum vero 
tot pulcherrimas artes penitus mente complexum, 
datum tandem rebus humanis, qualem nulla antea 
vetustas cognoverit, singularem perfectumque undi- 

26 que, optima sentientem optimeque dicentem. In 
hoc quota pars erit, quod aut innocentes tuebitur 
aut improborum scelera compescet, aut in pecuni- 
ariis quaestionibus veritati contra calumniam aderit? 
Summus ille quidem in his quoque operibus fuerit, 
sed maioribus clarius elucebit, cum regenda senatus 
368 



BOOK XII. I. 23-26 

However, let us fly in the face of nature and 23 
assume that a bad man has been discovered who is 
endowed with the highest eloquence. I shall none 
the less deny that he is an orator. For I should not 
allow that every man who has shown himself ready 
with his hands was necessarily a brave man, because 
true courage cannot be conceived of without the 
accompaniment of virtue. Surely the advocate who 24 
is called to defend the accused requires to be a man 
of honour, honour which greed cannot corrupt, in- 
fluence seduce, or fear dismay. Shall we then dig- 
nify the traitor, the deserter, the turncoat with the 
sacred name of orator ? But if the quality which is 
usually termed goodness is to be found even in quite 
ordinary advocates, why should not the orator, who 
has not yet existed, but may still be bom, be no less 
perfect in character than in excellence of speech } 
It is no hack-advocate, no hireling pleader, nor yet, 25 
to use no harsher term, a serviceable attorney of the 
class generally known as causidici, that I am seeking to 
form, but rather a man who to extraordinary natural 
gifts has added a thorough mastery of all the fairest 
branches of knowledge, a man sent by heaven to be 
tlie blessing of mankind, one to whom all history 
can find no pwirallel, uniquely perfect in every detail 
and utterly noble alike in thought and speech. How 26 
small a portion of all these abilities will be required 
'for the defence of the innocent, the repression of 
crime or the support of truth against falsehood in 
suits involving questions of money ? It is true that 
our supreme orator will bear his part in such tasks, 
but his powers will be displayed with brighter splen- 
dour in greater matters than these, when he is 
called upon to direct the counsels of the senate and 



5^ 



QUINTILIAN 

27 consilia et popularis error ad meliora ducendus. An 
non talem quendam videtur finxisse Vergilius, quem 
in seditione vulgi iam faces et saxa iaculantis mode- 
ratorem dedit: 

Turn pielate gravem ac mentis si forte virum quem 
Conspexere, silent arrectisque auribus adstant ? 

Habemus igitur ante omnia virum bonum^ post haec 
adiiciet dicendi peritum : 

Ille regit dictis animos et pectora mulcet. 

28 Quid? non in bellis quoque idem ille vir, quem 
instituimus, si sit ad proelium miles cohortandus^ 
ex mediis sapientiae praeceptis orationem trahet ? 
Nam quomodo pugnam ineuntibus tot simul metus 
laboris, dolorum, postremo mortis ipsius exciderint, 
nisi in eorum locum pietas et fortitudo et honesti 

29 praesens imago successerit? Quae certe melius per- 
suadebit aliis qui prius persuaserit sibi. Prodit enim 
se, quamlibet custodiatur, simulatio, nee unquam 
tanta fuerit loquendi facultas, ut non titubet atque 
haereat/ quotiens ab animo verba dissentiunt. Vir 
autem malus aliud dicat necesse est quam sentit. 

30 Bonos nunquam honestus sermo deficiet, nunquam 
rerum optimarum (nam iidem etiam prudentes erunt) 

^ atque haereat, Buttmann : adhaereat, B. 

* Aen. i. 151 sqq, 
37° 



BOOK XII. I. 26-30 

guide the people from the paths of error to better 
things. Was not this the man conceived by Virgil 27 
and described as quelling a riot when torches and 
stones have begun to fly : ^ 

"Then, if before their eyes some statesman grave 
Stand forth, with virtue and high service crowned. 
Straight are they dumb and stand intent to hear." 

Here then we have one who is before all else a 
good man, and it is only after this that the poet adds 
that he is skilled in speaking : 

"His words their minds control, their passions soothe." 

Again, will not this same man, whom we are striving 28 
to form, if in time of war he be called upon to inspire 
his soldiers with courage for the fray, draw for his 
eloquence on the innermost precepts of philosophy ? 
For how can men who stand upon the verge of battle 
banish all the crowding fears of hardship, pain and 
death from their minds, unless those fears be re- 
placed by the sense of the duty that they owe 
their country, by courage and the lively image of a 
soldier's honour ? And assuredly the man who will 29 
best inspire such feelings in others is he who has 
first inspired tliem in himself. For however we strive 
to conceal it, insincerity will always betray itself, and 
there was never in any man so great eloquence as 
would not begin to stumble and hesitate so soou as 
his words ran counter to his inmost thoughts. NTow 30 
a bad man cannot help speaking things other than 
he feels. On the other hand, the good will never be 
at a loss for honourable words or fail to find matter 
full of virtue for utterance, since among his virtues 
practical wisdom will be one. And even though his 

37« 



QUINTILIAN 

inventio ; quae etiamsi lenociniis destituta sit, satis 
tamen natura sua ornatur nee quidquam non diserte, 

3 1 quod honeste, dicitur. Quare, iuventus, immo omnes 
aetates, (neque enim rectae voluntati serum est 
tempus ullum) totis mentibus hue tendamus, in hoc 
elaboremus ; forsan et consummare contingat. Nam 
si natura non prohibet et esse virum bonum et esse 
dicendi peritum, cur non aliquis etiam unus utrumque 
consequi possit ? cur autem non se quisque speret 

32 fore ilium aliquem ? Ad quod si vires ingenii non 
suffecerint, tamen ad quern usque modura processe- 
rimus, meliores erimus ex utroque. Hoc certe procul 
eximatur animo, rerum ^ pulcherrimam eloquentiam 
cum vitiis mentis posse misceri. Facultas dicendi, 
si in malos incidit, et ipsa iudicanda est malum ; 
peiores enim illos facit, quibus contigit. 

33 Videor mihi audire quosdam (neque enim deerunt 
unquam, qui diserti esse quam boni malint) ilia 
dicentes : Quid ergo tantum est artis in eloquentia ? 
cur tu de coloribus et difficilium causarum defensi- 
one, nonnihil etiam de confessione locutus es, nisi 
aliquando vis ac facultas dicendi expugnat ipsam 
veritatem ? Bonus enim vir non agit nisi bonas 
causas, eas porro etiam sine doctrina satis per se 

34 tiietur Veritas ipsa. Quibus ego, cum de meo pri- 

^ rerum, Regius: rem, B. 

* color is a technical term for " the particular aspect given 
to a case by skilful manipulation of the facts — the 'gloss' 
or ' varnish ' put on them by the accused or accuser." — Peter- 
son on Quint, x. i. 116. 

372 



BOOK XII. I. 30-34 

imagination lacks artifice to lend it charm, its own 
nature will be ornament enough, for if honour dictate 
the words, we shall find eloquence there as well. 
Therefore, let those that are young, or rather let all 3 1 
of us, whatever our age, since it is never too late to 
resolve to follow what is right, strive with all our 
hearts and devote all our efforts to the pursuit of virtue 
and eloquence ; and perchance it may be granted to us 
to attain to the perfection that we seek. For since 
nature does not forbid the attainment of either, why 
should not someone succeed in attaining both to- 
gether ? And why should not each of us hope to be 
that happy man ? But if our powers are inadequate 32 
to such achievement, we shall still be the better for 
the double effort in proportion to the distance which 
we have advanced toward either goal. At any rate 
let us banish from our hearts the delusion that 
eloquence, the fairest of all things, can be combined 
with vice. The power of speaking is even to be 
accounted an evil when it is found in evil men ; for it 
makes its possessors yet worse than they were before. 

I think I hear certain persons (for there will 33 
always be some who had rather be eloquent than 
good) asking, " Why then is there so much art in con- 
nexion with eloquence ? Why have you talked so 
much of ' glosses,' ^ the methods of defence to be 
employed in difficult cases, and sometimes even of 
actual confession of guilt, unless it is the case that 
the power and force of speech at times triumphs over 
truth itself? For a good man will only plead good 
cases, and those might safely be left to truth to 
support without the aid of learning." Now, though 34 
my reply to these critics will in the first place be 
a defence of my own work, it will also explain what 

373 



QUINTILIAN 

mum opere respondero, etiam pro boni viri officio, 
si quando eum ad defensionem nocentium ratio 
duxerit, satisfaciam. Pertractare enim, quomodo 
aut pro falsis aut etiam pro iniustis aliquando dicatur, 
non est inutile, vel propter hoc solum, ut ea facilius 
et deprehendamus et refellamus ; quemadmodum 
remedia melius adhibebit, cui nota quae nocent 

35 fuerint. Neque enim Academici, cum in utramque 
disserunt partem, non secundum alteram vivunt, nee 
Carneades ille, qui Romae audiente Censorio Catone 
non minoribus viribus contra iustitiam dicitur disse- 
ruisse quam pridie pro iustitia dixerat, iniustus ipse 
vir fuit. Verura et virtus quid sit, adversa ei malitia 
detegit, et aequitas fit ex iniqui contemplatione 
manifestior, et plurima contrariis probantur. Debent 
ergo oratori sic esse adversariorum nota consilia ut 

36 hostium imperatori. Verum et illud, quod prima 
propositione durum videtur, potest adferre ratio, ut 
vir bonus in defensione causae velit auferre ali- 
quando iudici veritatem. Quod si quis a me pro- 
poni mirabitur, (quanquam non est haec mea proprie 
sententia, sed eorum, quos gravissimos sapientiae 
magistros aetas vetus credidit) sic iudicet, pleraque 
374 



BOOK XII. I. 34-36 

I consider to be the duty of a good man on occasions 
when circumstances have caused him to under- 
take the defence of the guilty. For it is by no 
means useless to consider how at times we should 
speak in defence of falsehood or even of injustice, if 
only for this reason, that such an investigation will 
enable us to detect and defeat them with the greater 
ease, just as the physician who has a thorough 
knowledge of all that can injure the health will be 
all the more skilful in the prescription of remedies. 
For the Academicians, although they will argue on 35 
either side of a question, do not thereby commit 
themselves to taking one of these two views as their 
guide in life to the exclusion of the other, while the 
famous Carneades, who is said to have spoken at 
Rome in the presence of Cato the Censor, and to 
have argued against justice with no less vigour than 
he had argued for justice on the preceding day, was 
not himself an unjust man. But the nature of virtue 
is revealed by vice, its opposite, justice becomes yet 
more manifest from the contemplation of injustice, 
and there are many other things that are proved by 
their contraries. Consequently the schemes of his 
adversaries should be no less well known to the 
orator than those of the enemy to a commander in 
the field. But it is even true, although at first sight 36 
it seems hard to believe, that tliere may be sound 
reason why at times a good man who is appearing 
for the defence should attempt to conceal the truth 
from the judge. If any of my readers is surprised 
at my making such a statement (although this 
opinion is not of my own invention, but is derived 
from those whom antiquity regarded as the greatest 
teachers of wisdom), I would have him reflect that 

375 



QUINTILIAN 

esse, quae non tam factis quam causis eorum vel 

37 honesta fiant vel turpia. Nam si hominem occidere 
saepe virtus, liberos necare nonnunquam pulcherri- 
mum est, asperiora quaedam adhuc dictu, si com- 
munis utilitas exegerit, facere conceditur, ne hoc 
quidem nudum est intuendum, qualem causam vir 

38 bonus, sed etiam quare et qua mente defendat. Ac 
primum concedant mihi omnes oportet, quod Stoi- 
corum quoque asperrimi confitentur, facturum ali- 
quando virum bonum ut mendacium dicat, et quidem 
nonnunquam levioribus causis, ut in pueris aegro- 
tantibus utilitatis eorum gratia multa fingimus, 

39 multa non facturi promittimus ; nedum si ab homine 
occidendo grassator avertendus sit aut hostis pro 
salute patriae fallendus ; ut hoc, quod alias in servis 
quoque reprehendendum est, sit alias in ipso sapiente 
laudandum. Id si constiterit, multa iam video posse 
evenire, propter quae orator bene suscipiat tale 
causae genus, quale remota ratione honesta non 

40 recepisset. Nee hoc dico (quia severiores sequi 
placet leges) pro patre, fratre, amico periclitantibus, 
tametsi non mediocris haesitatio est, hinc iustitiae 



BOOK XII. I. 36-40 

there are many things which are made honourable 
or the reverse not by the nature of the facts, but by 
the causes from which they spring. For if to slay 37 
a man is often a virtue and to put one's own children 
to death is at times the noblest of deeds, and if it 
is permissible in the public interest to do deeds 
yet more hon-ible to relate than these, we should 
assuredly take into consideration not solely and 
simply what is the nature of the case which the 
good man undertakes to defend, but what is his 
reason and what his purpose in so doing. And first 38 
of all everyone must allow, what even the sternest 
of the Stoics admit, that the good man will some- 
times tell a lie, and further that he will sometimes do 
so for comparatively trivial reasons ; for example we 
tell countless lies to sick children for their good and 
make many promises to them which we do not intend 
to perform. And there is clearly far more justifica- 39 
tion for lying when it is a question of diverting 
an assassin from his victim or deceiving an enemy 
to save our country. Consequently a practice which 
is at times reprehensible even in slaves, may on 
other occasions be praiseworthy even in a wise man. 
If this be granted, I can see that there will be many 
possible emergencies such as to justify an orator in 
undertaking cases of a kind which, in the absence of 
any honourable reason, he would have refused to 
touch. In saying this I do not mean that we should 40 
be ready under any circumstances to defend our 
father, brother or friend when in peril (since I 
hold that we should be guided by stricter rules in 
such matters), although such contingencies may 
well cause us no little perplexity, when we have to 
decide between the rival claims of justice and natural 

VOL. IV. N 377 



QUINTILIAN 

proposita imagine, inde pietatis. Nihil dubii relin- 
quamus. Sit aliquis insidiatus tyranno atque ob id 
reus : utrumne salvum eum nolet is, qui a nobis 
iinitur, orator ? an, si tuendum susceperit, non tam 
falsis defendet, quam qui apud iudices malam causam 

41 tuetur? Quid si quaedam bene facta damnaturus 
est iudex, nisi ea non esse facta convicerimus, non 
vel hoc modo servabit orator non innocentem modo, 
sed etiam laudabilem civem ? Quid si quaedam 
iusta natura, sed condicione temporum inutilia civi- 
tati sciemus, nonne utemur arte dicendi bona qui- 

42 dem, sed malis artibus simili ? Ad hoc nemo 
dubitabit, quin, si nocentes mutari in bonam mentem 
aliquo modo possint, sicut posse conceditur, salvos 
esse eos magis e re publica sit quam puniri. Si 
liqueat igitur oratori futurum bonum virum, cui vera 

43 obiicientur, non id aget, ut salvus sit? Da nunc, 
ut crimine manifesto prematur dux bonus et sine 
quo vincere hostera ^ civitas non possit : nonne ei 
communis utilitas oratorem advocabit? Certe Fa- 
bricius Cornelium Rufinum, et alioqui malum civem 

' hcstem, Obreeht : honestem, B. 



BOOK XII. I. 40-43 

affection. But let us put the problem beyond all 
question of doubt. Suppose a man to have plotted 
against a tyrant and to be accused of having done so. 
Which of the two will the orator, as defined by us, 
desire to save ? And if he undertakes the defence 
of the accused, will he not employ falsehood with 
no less readiness than the advocate who is defending 
a bad case before a jury? Again, suppose that the 41 
judge is likely to condemn acts which were rightly 
done, unless we can convince him that they were 
never done. Is not this another case where the 
orator will not shrink even from lies, if so he may 
save one who is not merely innocent, but a praise- 
worthy citizen ? Again, suppose that we realise that 
certain acts are just in themselves, though prejudicial 
to the state under existing circumstances. Shall we 
not then employ methods of speaking which, despite 
the excellence of their intention, bear a close re- 
semblance to fraud. Further, no one will hesitate 42 
for a moment to hold the view that it is in the 
interests of the commonwealth that guilty persons 
should be acquitted rather than punished, if it be 
possible thereby to convert them to a better state ot 
mind, a possibility which is generally conceded. If 
then it is clear to an orator that a man who is guilty 
of the offences laid to his charge will become a good 
man, will he not strive to secure his acquittal ? 
Imagine for example that a skilful commander, with- 43 
out whose aid the state cannot hope to crush its 
enemies, is labouring under a charge which is obvi- 
ously true : will not the common interest irresistibly 
summon our orator to defend him? We know at 
any rate that Fabricius publicly voted for and secured 
the election to the consulate of Cornelhis Rufinus, 

379 



QUINTILIAN 

et sibi inimicum, tamen, quia utilem sciebat ducem, 
imminente bello, palam consul em suffragio suo fecit 
atque id mirantibus quibusdam respondit, a cive se 
spoliari malle quam ab hoste venire. Ita, si fuisset 
orator, non defendisset eundem Rufinum vel mani- 

44 festi peculatus reum? Multa dici possunt similia, 
sed vel unum ex iis quodlibet sufficit. Non enim 
hoc agimus, ut istud illij quem formamus, viro saepe 
sit faciendum ; sed ut, si talis coegerit ratio, sit 
tamen vera finitio, oratorem esse vintm bonum dicendi 

45 peritum. Praecipere vero ac discere, quomodo etiam 
probatione difficilia tractentur, necessarium est. 
Nam frequenter etiam optimae causae similes sunt 
malis, et innocens reus multis verisimilibus pre- 
mitur ; quo fit, ut eadem actionis ratione defendendus 
sit, qua si nocens asset. lam innumerabilia sunt 
bonis causis malisque communia, testes, litterae, sus- 
piciones, opiniones. Non alitor autem verisimilia 
quam vera et confirmantur et refelluntur. Qua- 
propter, ut res feret, flectetur oratio manente honesta 
voluntate. 

II. Quando igitur orator est vir bonus, is autem 
citra virtutem intelligi non potest, virtus, etiamsi 

* The date is uncertain, but the reference must be either to 
the Samnite war of 290 or the war with Pyrrhus, 



BOOK XII. I. 43-11. I 

despite the fact that he was a bad citizen and his 
personal enemy, merely because he knew that he 
was a capable general and the state was threatened 
with war.^ And when certain persons expressed 
their surprise at his conduct, he replied that he had 
rather be robbed by a fellow-citizen than be sold as 
a slave by the enemy. Well then, had Fabricius 
been an orator, would he not have defended Rufinus 
against a charge of peculation, even though his 
guilt were as clear as day ? I might produce many 44 
other similar examples, but one of them taken at 
random is enough. For my purpose is not to 
assert that such tasks will often be incumbent 
on the orator whom I desire to form, but merely to 
show that, in the event of his being compelled to 
take such action, it will not invalidate our definition 
of an orator as a "good man, skilled in speaking." 
And it is necessary also both to teach and learn how 45 
to establish difficult cases by proof. For often even 
the best cases have a resemblance to bad and, the 
charges which tell heavily against an innocent per- 
son frequently have a strong resemblance to the 
truth. Consequently, the same methods of defence 
have to be employed that would be used if he were 
guilty. Further, there are countless elements which 
are common to both good cases and bad, such as oral 
and documentary evidence, suspicions and opinions, 
all of which have to be established or disposed of in 
the same way, whether they be true or merely re- 
semble the truth. Therefore, while maintaining his 
integrity of purpose, the orator will modify his plead- 
ing to suit the circumstances. 

II. Since then the orator is a good man, and such 
goodness cannot be conceived as existing apart from 



QUINTILIAN 

quosdam impetus ex natura sumit^ tamen perficienda 
doctrina est : mores ante omnia oratori studiis erunt 
excolendi atque omnis honesti iustique disciplina 
pertractanda, sine qua nemo nee vir bonus esse nee 

2 dicendi peritus potest. Nisi forte accedemus iis, qui 
natura constare mores et nihil adiuvari disciplina 
putant ; scilicet ut ea quidem, quae manu fiunt, 
atque eorum etiam contemptissima confiteantur egere 
doctoribuSj virtutem vero, qua nihil homini, quo ad 
deos immortales propius accederet, datura est, obviam 
et illaboratam, tantum quia nati simus, habeamus. 
Abstinens erit qui id ipsum, quid sit abstinentia, 

3 ignoret ? Et fortis qui metus doloris, mortis, super- 
stitionis nulla ratione purgaverit ? Et iustus qui 
aequi bonique tractatum, qui leges, quaeque natura 
sunt omnibus datae quaeque propriae populis et 
gentibus constitutae, nunquam eruditiore aliquo 
sermone tractarit ? O quam istud parvum ^ putant, 

4 quibus tam facile videtur I Sed hoc transeo, de quo 
neminem, qui litteras vel primis, ut aiunt, labris 
degustarit, dubitaturum puto. Ad illud sequens 
praevertar, ne dicendi quidem satis peritum fore, 
qui non et naturae vim omnem penitus perspexerit 

6 et mores praeceptis ac ratione formarit. Neque 

* parvum, Spalding: parum, B. 
38a 



BOOK XII. II. 1-5 

virtue, virtue, despite the fact that it is in part 
derived from certain natural impulses, will require to 
be perfected by instruction. The orator must above 
all things devote his attention to the formation of 
moral character and must acquire a complete know- 
ledge of all that is just and honourable. For without 
this knowledge no one can be either a good man or 
skilled in speaking, unless indeed we agree with 2 
those who regard morality as intuitive and as owing 
nothing to instruction : indeed they go so far as to 
acknowledge that handicrafts, not excluding even 
those which are most despised among them, can 
only be acquired by the result of teaching, whereas 
virtue, which of all gifts to man is that which makes 
him most near akin to the immortal gods, comes to 
him without search or effort, as a natural concomitant 
of birth. But can the man who does not know what 
abstinence is, claim to be truly abstinent ? or brave, if 3 
he has never purged his soul of the fears of pain, death 
and superstition ? or just, if he has never, in language 
approaching that of philosophy, discussed the nature 
of virtue and justice, or of the laws that have been 
given to mankind by nature or established among 
individual peoples and nations ? What a contempt 
it argues for such themes to regard them as being 
so easy of comprehension ! However, I pass this by ; 4 
for I am sure that no one with the least smattering 
of literary culture will have the slightest hesitation 
in agreeing with me. I will proceed to my next 
point, that no one will achieve sufficient skill even in 
speaking, unless he makes a thorough study of all 
the workings of nature and forms his character on 
the precepts of philosophy and the dictates of reason. 
For it is with good cause that Lucius Crassus, in the 5 

383 



QUINTILIAN 

enim frustra in tertio de Oratore libro L. Crassus 
cuncta, quae de aequo, iusto, vero, bono deque iis, 
quae sunt contra posita, dicantur, propria esse ora- 
toris adfirmat, ac philosophos, cum ea dicendi viribus 
tuentur, uti rhetorum armis, non suis. Idem tamen 
confitetur, ea iam esse a philosophia petenda, vide- 
licet quia magis haec illi videtur in possessione earum 

6 rerum fuisse. Hinc etiam illud est, quod Cicero 
pluribus libris et epistolis testatur dicendi facultatem 
ex intimis sapientiae fontibus fluere, ideoque ali- 
quamdiu praeceptores eosdem fuisse morum atque 
dicendi. Quapropter haec exhortatio mea non eo 
pertinet ut esseoratoremphilosophum velim, quando 
non alia vitae secta longius a civilibus officiis atque 

7 ab omni munere oratoris recessit. Nam quis philoso- 
phorum aut in iudiciis frequens aut clarus in con- 
tionibus fuit ? Quis denique in ipsa, quam maxime 
plerique praecipiunt, rei publicae administratione 
versatus est? Atqui ego ilium, quern instituo, Roma- 
num quendam velim esse sapientem, qui non secretis 
disputationibus, sed rerum experimentis atque operi- 

8 bus vere civilem virum exhibeat. Sed quia deserta 
ab his, qui se ad eloquentiam contulerunt, studia 
sapientiae non iam in actu suo atque in hac fori luce 
versantur, sed in porticus et in gj'mnasia primum, 

* Chs. XX. xxvii. and xxxi. 



BOOK XII. II. 5-8 

third book of the de Oratore,^ affirms that all that is 
said concerning equity, justice, truth and the good, 
and their opposites, forms part of the studies of an 
orator, and that the philosophers, when they exert 
their powers of speaking to defend these virtues, are 
using the weapons of rhetoric, not their own. But 
he also confesses that the knowledge of these sub- 
jects must be sought from the philosophers for the 
reason that, in his opinion, philosophy has more 
effective possession of them. And it is for the same 6 
reason that Cicero in several of his books and letters 
proclaims that eloquence has its fountain-head in the 
most secret springs of wisdom, and that consequently 
for a considerable time the instructors of morals and 
of eloquence were identical. Accordingly this ex- 
hortation of mine must not be taken to mean that I 
wish the orator to be a philosopher, since there is no 
other way of life that is further removed from the 
duties of a statesman and the tasks of an orator. 
For what philosopher has ever been a frequent 7 
speaker in the courts or won renown in public 
assemblies ? Nay, what philosopher has ever taken a 
prominent part in the government of the state, which 
forms the most frequent theme of their instructions ? 
None the less I desire that he, whose character I am 
seeking to mould, should be a " wise man " in the 
Roman sense, that is, one who reveals himself as a true 
statesman, not in the discussions of the study, but 
in the actual practice and experience of life. But 8 
inasmuch as the study of philosophy has been 
deserted by those who have turned to the pursuit of 
eloquence, and since philosophy no longer moves in 
its true sphere of action and in the broad daylight of 
the forum, but has retired first to porches and gyra- 

385 



QUINTILIAN 

mox in conventus scholarum recesserunt: id, quod 
est oratori necessarium nee a dicendi praeceptoribus 
traditur, ab iis petere nimirum neeesse est, apud 
quos remansit, evolvendi penitus auctores, qui de 
virtute praecipiunt, ut oratoris vita cum scientia 
9 divinarum rerum sit humanarumque coniuncta. Quae 
ipsae quanto maiores ac pulchriores viderentur, si 
illas ii docerent, qui etiam eloqui praestantissime 
possent ? Utinamque sit tempus unquam, quo per- 
fectus aliquis, qualem optamus, orator hanc artem 
superbo nomine et vitiis quorundam bona eius cor- 
rumpentium invisam vindicet sibi ae, velut rebus 

10 repetitis, in corpus eloquentiae adducat. Quae 
quidem cum sit in tris divisa partes, naturalem, 
moralem, rationalem, qua tandem non est cum 
oratoris opere coniuncta ? 

Nam ut ordinem retro agamus, de ultima ilia, 
quae tota versatur in verbis, nemo dubitaverit, si 
et proprietates vocis cuiusque nosse et ambigua 
aperire et perplexa discernere et de falsis iudicare 
et colligere ac resolvere quae velis oratorum est. 

11 Quanquam ea non tam est minute atque concise 
in actionibus utendum quam in disputationibus, quia 
386 



BOOK XII. n. 8-1 1 

nasia and finally to the gatherings of the schools^ all 
that is essential for an orator, and yet is not taught 
by the professors of eloquence, must undoubtedly be 
sought from those persons in whose possession it 
has remained. The authors who have discoursed on 
the nature of virtue must be read through and 
through, that the life of the orator may be wedded 
to the knowledge of things human and divine. But 9 
how much greater and fairer would such subjects 
appear if those who taught them were also those 
who could give them most eloquent expression ! O 
that the day may dawn when the perfect orator of 
our heart's desire shall claim for his own possession 
that science that has lost the affection of mankind 
through the arrogance of its claims and the vices of 
some that have brought disgrace upon its virtues, 
and shall restore it to its place in the domain of 
eloquence, as though he had been victorious in a 
trial for the restoration of stolen goods ! And since 10 
philosophy falls into three divisions, physics, ethics 
and dialectic, which, I ask you, of these depart- 
ments is not closely connected with the task of the 
orator ? 

Let us reverse the order just given and deal first 
with the third department which is entirely con- 
cerned with words. If it be true that to know the 
properties of each word, to clear away ambiguities, 
to unravel perplexities, to distinguish between truth 
and falsehood, to prove or to refute as may be 
desired, all form part of the functions of an orator, 
who is there that can doubt the truth of my conten- 
tion? I grant that we shall not have to employ 11 
dialectic with such minute attention to detail when 
we are pleading in the courts as when we are 

^87 



QUINTILIAN 

non docere modo, sed movere etiam ac delectare 
audientes debet orator, ad quod impetu quoque ac 
viribus et decore est opus ; ut vis amnium maior est 
altis ripis multoque gurgitis tractu fluentium quam 

12 tenuis aquae et obiectu lapillorum resultantis. Et 
ut palaestrici doctores illos, quos numeros vocant, 
non idcirco discentibus tradunt, ut lis omnibus ii, qui 
didicerint, in ipso luctandi certamine utantur (plus 
enim pondere et firmitate et spiritu agitur), sed ut 
subsit copia ilia, ex qua unum aut alterum, cuius se 

13 occasio dederit, efficiant, ita haec pars dialectica, sive 
illam dicere malumus disputatricem, ut est utilis 
saepe et finitionibus et comprehensionibus et se- 
parandis quae sunt differentia, et resolvenda ambigui- 
tate, distinguendo, dividendo, illiciendo, implicando, 
ita, si totum sibi vindicaverit in foro certamen, obstabit 
melioribus et sectas ad tenuitatem suam vires ipsa 

14 subtilitate consumet. Itaque reperias quosdam in 
disputando mire callidos, cum ab ilia cavillatione 
discesserint, non magis sufficere in aliquo graviore 
actu quam parva quaedam animalia, quae in angustiis 
mobilia campo deprehenduntur. 

15 lam quidem pars ilia moralis, quae dicitur Ethice, 
certe tota oratori est accommodata. Nam in tanta 
388 



BOOK XII. II. 11-15 

engaged in philosophical debate, since the orator's 
duty is not merely to instruct, but also to move and 
delight his audience ; and to succeed in doing this 
he needs a strength, impetuosity and grace as well. 
For oratory is like a river : the current is stronger 
when it flows within deep banks and with a mighty 
flood, than when the waters are shallow and broken 
by the pebbles that bar their way. And just as 12 
the trainers of the wrestling school do not impart 
the various throws to their pupils that those who 
have learnt them may make use of all of them in 
actual wrestling matches (for weight and strength 
and wind count for more than these), but that they 
may have a store from which to draw one or two 
of such tricks, as occasion may offer; even so the 13 
science of dialectic, or if you prefer it of disputa- 
tion, while it is often useful in definition, inference, 
differentiation, resolution of ambiguity, distinction 
and classification, as also in luring on or entangling 
our opponents, yet if it claim to assume the entire 
direction of the struggles of the forum, will merely 
stand in the way of arts superior to itself and by its 
very subtlety will exhaust the strength that has 
been pared down to suit its limitations. As a 14 
result you will find that certain persons who show 
astonishing skill in philosophical debate, as soon as 
they quit the sphere of their quibbles, are as help- 
less in any case that demands more serious pleading 
as those small animals which, though nimble enough 
in a confined space, are easily captured in an open 
field. 

Proceeding to moral philosophy or ethics, we may 16 
note that it at any rate is entirely suited to the 
orator. For vast as is the variety of cases (since in 

389 



QUINTILIAN 

causarum^ sicut superioribus libris diximus, varietate, 
cum alia coniectura quaerantur, alia finitionibus con- 
cludantur, alia iure summoveantur vel transferantur, 
alia colligantur vel ipsa inter se concurrant vel in 
diversum ambiguitate dueantur, nulla fere did potest, 
cuius non parte in aliqua tractatus aequi ac boni 
reperiatur, plerasque vero esse quis nescit, quae 

16 totae in sola qualitate consistant? In consiliis vero 
quae ratio suadendi est ab honesti quaestione se- 
posita? Quin ilia etiam pars tertia, quae laudandi 
ac vituperandi officiis continetur, nempe in tractatu 

17 recti pravique versatur. An de iustitia, fortitudine, 
abstinentia, temperantia, pietate non pluritna dicet 
orator? Sed ille vir bonus, qui haec non vocibus 
tantum sibi nota atque nominibus aurium tenus in 
usum linguae perceperit, sed qui virtutes ipsas mente 
complexus ita sentiat, nee in cogitando ita laborabit 

18 sed, quod sciet, vere dicet. Cum sit autem omnis gene- 
ralis quaestio speciali potentior, quia universo pars 
continetur, non utique accedit parti quod universum 
est, profecto nemo dubitabit, generales quaestiones 

19 in illo maxime studiorum more versa tas. lam vero 
cum sint multa propriis brevibusque comprehen- 



* See III. vi. 45. ' See iii. vi. 23. * See iii. vi. 15. 

* Probably an allusion to contradictory laws. See vii, vii. 

* See VII. ix. 



39° 



BOOK XII. II. 15 19 

them, as I have pointed out in previous books, we seek 
to discover certain points by conjecture,^ reach our 
conclusions in others by means of definition,^ dispose 
of others on legal grounds ^ or by raising the ques- 
tion of competence,"^ while other points are estab- 
lished by syllogism 2 and others involve contradic- 
tions* or are diversely interpreted owing to some 
ambiguity of language 5), there is scarcely a single 
one which does not at some point or another involve 
the discussion of equity and virtue, while there are 
also, as everyone knows, not a few which turn 
entirely on questions of quality. Again in delib- 16 
erative assemblies how can we advise a policy without 
raising the question of what is honourable ? Nay, 
even the third department of oratory, which is 
concerned with the tasks of praise and denunciation, 
must without a doubt deal with questions of right 
and wrong. For the orator will assuredly have 17 
much to say on such topics as justice, fortitude, 
abstinence, self-control and piety. But the good 
man, who has come to the knowledge of these things 
not by mere hearsay, as though they were just words 
and names for his tongue to employ, but has grasped 
the meaning of virtue and acquired a true feeling for 
it, will never be perplexed when he has to think out 
a problem, but will speak out truly what he 
knows. Since, however, o^enerfl/ questions are always 18 
more important than special (for the particular is 
contained in the universal, while the universal is 
never to be regarded as something superimposed on 
the particular), everyone will readily admit that the 
studies of which we are speaking are pre-eminently 
concerned with general questions. Further, since 19 
there are numerous points which require to be 

391 



QUINTILIAN 

sionibus finienda (unde etiam status causarum dicitur 
finitivus), nonne ad id quoque instrui ab iis^ qui plus 
in hoc studii dederunt, oportet ? Quid ? non quae- 
stio iuris omnis aut verborum proprietate aut aequi 
disputatione aut voluntatis coniectura continetur? 
quorum pars ad rationalem, pars ad moralem tracta- 

20 turn redundat. Ergo natura permixta est omnibus 
istis oratio, quae quidem oratio est vera. Nam 
ignara quidem huiusce doctrinae loquacitas erret 
necesse est, ut quae vel nullos vel falsos duces 
habeat. 

Pars vero naturalis, cum est ad exercitationem 
dicendi tanto ceteris uberior, quanto maiore spiritu 
de divinis rebus quam humanis eloquendum est, 
turn illam etiam moralem, sine qua nulla esse, ut 

21 docuimus, oratio potest, totam complectitur. Nam 
si regitur providentia mundus, administranda certe 
bonis viris erit res publica ; si divina nostris animis 
origo, tendendum ad virtutem nee voluptatibus ter- 
reni corporis serviendum. An haec non frequenter 
tractabit orator ? lam de auguriis, responsis, religione 
denique omni, de quibus maxima saepe in senatu 
consilia versata sunt, non erit ei disserendum, si 



* See III. vi. 31. 

* i e. natural philosophy in the widest sense, 
» §15. 

392 



BOOK XII. II. 19-21 

determined by appropriate and concise definitions 
(hence the definitive basts^ of cases), it is surely 
desirable that the orator should be instructed in 
such things by those who have devoted special 
attention to the subject. Again, does not every 
question of law turn either on the precise meaning 
of words, the discussion of equity, or conjecture as 
to the intention — subjects which in part encroach on 
the domain of dialectic and in part on that of ethics ? 
Consequently all oratory involves a natural admixture 20 
of all these philosophic elements — at least, that is to 
say, all oratory that is worthy of the name. For 
mere garrulity that is ignorant of all such learning 
must needs go astray, since its guides are either 
non-existent or false. 

Physics 2 on the other hand is far richer than the 
other branches of philosophy, if viewed from the 
standpoint of providing exercise in speaking, in 
proportion as a loftier inspiration is required to 
speak of things divine than of things human; and 
further it includes within its scope the whole of 
ethics, which as we have shown' are essential to the 
very existence of oratory. For, if the world is 21 
governed by providence, it will certainly be the 
duty of all good men to bear their part in the 
administration of the state. If the origin of our 
souls be divine, we must win our way towards virtue 
and abjure the service of the lusts of our earthly 
body. Are not these themes which the orator will 
frequently be called upon to handle ? Again there 
are questions concerned with auguries and oracles 
or any other religious topic (all of them subjects 
that have often given rise to the most important de- 
bates in the senate) on which the orator 'will have to 

393 



QUINTILIAN 

quidem^ ut nobis placet, futurus est vir civilis idem ? 
Quae denique intelligi saltern potest eloquentia 

22 hominis optima nescientis ? Haec si ratione mani- 
festa non essent^ exemplis tamen crederemus. Si- 
quidem et Periclem, cuius eloquentiae, etiamsi nulla 
ad nos monumenta venerunt, vim tamen quandam 
incredibilem cum historici, tum etiam, liberrimum 
hominum genus, comici veteres tradunt, Anaxagorae 
physici constat auditorem fuisse, et Demosthenemj 
principem omnium Graeciae oratorum, dedisse ope- 

23 ram Platoni. Nam M. Tullius, non tantum se debere 
scholis rhetorum, quantum Academiae spatiis, fre- 
quenter ipse testatus est ; neque se tanta in eo 
unquam fudisset ^ ubertas, si ingenium suum consepto 
fori, non ipsius rerum naturae finibus terminasset. 

Verum ex hoc alia mihi quaestio exoritur, quae 
secta conferre plurimum eloquentiae possit, quan- 
quam ea non inter multas potest esse contentio. 

24 Nam in primis nos Epicurus a se ipse dimittit, qui 
fugere omnem disciplinam navigatione quam velo- 
cissima iubet. Neque vero Aristippus, summum in 
voluptate corporis bonum ponens, ad hunc nos laborem 
hortetur. Pyrrhon quidem quas in hoc opere habere 
partes potest? cui iudices esse, apud quos verba 
faciat, et reum, pro quo loquatur, et senatum, in 

* fudisset, Badius : fuisset, MSS. 



1 Or. iii- 12. 

2 iraiSflav iraffav aKdrtov apdfitvos <l>evyt. 



394 



BOOK XII. II. 21-24 

discourse, if be is also to be the statesman we 
would have him be. And finally, how can we con- 
ceive of any real eloquence at all proceeding from 
a man who is ignorant of all that is best in the 
world .'* If our reason did not make these facts 22 
obvious, we should still be led by historical examples 
to believe their truth. For Pericles, whose elo- 
quence, despite the fact that it has left no visible 
record for posterity, was none the less, if we may 
believe the historians and that free-speaking tribe, 
the old comic poets, endowed with almost incredible 
force, is known to have been a pupil of the physicist 
Anaxagoras, while Demosthenes, greatest of all the 
orators of Greece, sat at the feet of Plato. As for 23 
Cicero, he has often proclaimed ^ the fact that he 
owed less to the schools of rhetoric than to the 
walks of Academe : nor would he ever have developed 
such amazing fertility of talent, had he bounded his 
genius by the limits of the forum and not by the 
frontiers of nature herself. 

But this leads me to another question as to which 
school of philosophy is like to prove of most service 
to oratory, although there are only a few that can be 
said to contend for this honour. For in the first 24 
place Epicurus banishes us from his presence without 
more ado, since he bids all his followers to fly from 
learning in the swiftest ship that they can find.^ 
Nor would Aristippus, who regards the highest good 
as consisting in physical pleasure, be likely to exhort 
us to the toils entailed by our study. And what 
part can Pyrrho have in the work that is before us? 
For he will have doubts as to whether there exist 
judges to address, accused to defend, or a senate 
where he can be called upon to speak his opinion. 

395 



QUINTILIAN 

26 quo sit dicenda sententia, non liquebit. Academiam 
quidam utilissimam credunt, quod mos in utramque 
partem disserendi ad exercitationem forensium cau- 

.L sarum proxime accedat. Adiiciunt loco probationis, 
quod ea praestantissimos in eloquentia viros ediderit. 
Peripatetici studio quoque se quodam oratorio iactant ; 
nam theses dicere exercitationis gratia fere est ab 
lis institutum. Stoici, sicut copiam nitoremque elo- 
quentiae fere praeceptoribus suis defuisse concedant 
necesse est, ita nullos aut probare acrius aut con- 

26 cludere subtilius contendunt. Sed haee inter ipsos, 
qui velut Sacramento rogati vel etiam superstitione 
constricti nefas ducunt a suscepta semel persuasione 
discedere, Oratori vero nihil est necesse in cuius- 

27 quam iurare leges. Maius enim est opus atque 
praestantius, ad quod ipse tendit, et cuius est velut 
candidatus, si quidem est futurus cum vitae, turn 
etiam eloquentiae laude perfectus. Quare in ex- 
emplum bene dicendi facundissimum quemque pro- 
ponet sibi ad imitandum, moribus vero formandis 
quam honestissima praecepta rectissimamque ad 
virtutem viam deliget. Exercitatione quidem utetur 
omni, sed tamen erit plurimus in maximis quibusque 

28 ac natura pulcherrimis. Nam quae potest materia 

^ See II. i. 9. in. v. 5. and 10. 



BOOK XII. II. 24-28 

Some authorities hold that the Academy will be the 25 
most useful school, on the ground that its habit of 
disputing on both sides of a question approaches 
most nearly to the actual practice of the courts. 
And by way of proof they add the fact that this 
school has produced speakers highly renowned for 
their eloquence. The Peripatetics also make it their 
boast that they have a form of study which is near 
akin to oratory. For it was with them in the main 
that originated the practice of declaiming on general 
questions ^ by way of exercise. The Stoics, though 
driven to admit that, generally speaking,their teachers 
have been deficient both in fullness and charm of 
eloquence, still contend that no men can prove more 
acutely or draw conclusions with greater subtlety 
than themselves. But all these arguments take 26 
place within their own circle, for, as though they 
were tied by some solemn oath or held fast in the 
bonds of some superstitious belief, they consider that 
it is a crime to abandon a conviction once formed. 
On the other hand, there is no need for an orator to 
swear allegiance to any one philosophic code. For 27 
he has a greater and nobler aim, to which he directs 
all his efforts with as much zeal as if he were a 
candidate for office, since he is to be made perfect 
not only in the glory of a virtuous life, but in that of 
eloquence as well. He will consequently select as 
his models of eloquence all the greatest masters of 
oratory, and will choose the noblest precepts and 
the most direct road to virtue as the means for 
the formation of an upright character. He will 
neglect no form of exercise, but will devote special 
attention to those which are of the highest and 
fairest nature. For what subject can be found more 28 

397 



QUINTILIAN 

reperiri ad graviter copioseque dicendum magis 
abundans quam de virtute, de re publica, de provi- 
dential de origine animorum, de amicitia ? Haec 
sunt, quibus mens pariter atque oratio insurgat, quae 
vere bona, quid mitiget metus, coerceat cupiditates, 
eximat nos opinionibus vulgi animumque caelestem 
erigat.^ 

29 Neque ea solum, quae talibus disciplinis conti- 
nentur, sed magis etiam, quae sunt tradita antiquitus 
dicta ac facta praeclare, et nosse et animo semper 
agitare conveniet. Quae profecto nusquam plura 
maioraque quam in nostrae civitatis monumentis 

30 reperientur. An fortitudinem, iustitiam, fidem, con- 
tinentiam, frugalitatem, contemptum doloris ac 
mortis melius alii docebunt quam Fabricii, Curii, 
Reguli, Decii, Mucii aliique iunumerabiles ? Quan- 
tum enim Graeei praeceptis valent, tantum Romani, 

31 quod est maius, exemplis. Tantum quod non cognitis 
ille rebus adquieverit,^ qui non modo proximum 
tempus lucemque praesentem intueri satis credat, 
sed omnem posteritatis memoriam spatium vitae 
honestae et curriculum laudis existimet. Hinc mihi 
ille iustitiae haustus bibat, hinc sumptam libertatem 
in causis atque consiliis praestet. Neque erit per- 

^ erigat added by Meister. 

^ cognitis ille rebus adcjuieverit, HcUm, Bonnell i cognatia 

ide rebus admoveri, B,. 

^-^-jsi .:•?', jsi* fete »'" 

398 



BOOK XII. II. 28-31 

fully adapted to a rich and weighty eloquence than 
the topics of virtue, politics, providence, the origin 
of the soul and friendship .'' The themes which tend 
to elevate mind and language alike are questions 
such as what things are truly good, what means there 
are of assuaging fear, restraining the passions and 
lifting us and the soul that came from heaven clear 
of the delusions of the common herd. 

But it is desirable that we should not restrict our 29 
study to the precepts of philosophy alone. It is still 
more important that we should know and ponder 
continually all the noblest sayings and deeds that have 
been handed down to us from ancient times. And 
assuredly we shall nowhere find a larger or more 
remarkable store of these than in the records of our 
own country. Who will teach courage, justice, 30 
loyalty, self-control, simplicity, and contempt of 
grief and pain better than men like Fabricius, Curius, 
Regulus, Decius, Mucins and countless others ? For 
if the Greeks bear away the palm for moral precepts, 
Rome can produce more striking examples of moral 
performance, which is a far greater thing. But the 31 
man who does not believe that it is enough to fix 
his eyes merely on his own age and his own transitory 
life, but regards the space allotted for an honourable 
life and the course in which glory's race is run as 
conditioned solely by the memory of posterity, will 
not rest content with a mere knowledge of the 
events of history. No, it is from the thought of 
posterity that he must inspire his soul with justice 
and derive that freedom of spirit which it is his duty 
to display when he pleads in the courts or gives 
counsel in the senate. No man will ever be the 
consummate orator of whom we are in quest unless 

399 



QUINTILIAN 

fectus orator, nisi qui honeste dicere et sciet et 
audebit. 

III. luris quoque civilis necessaria huic viro 
scientia est et morum ac religionum eius rei publicae, 
quam capesset. Nam quails esse suasor in consiliis 
publicis privatisve poterit tot rerum, quibus praecipue 
civitas continetur, ignarus ? Quo autem modo patro- 
num se causarum non falso dixerit, qui, quod est in 
causis potentissimum, sit ab altero petiturus, paene 
non dissimilis iis, qui poetarum scripta pronuntiant? 

2 Nam quodammodo mandata perferet, et ea, quae sibi 
a iudice credi postulaturus est, aliena fide dicet, et 
ipse litigantium auxiliator egebit auxilio. Quod ut 
fieri nonnunquam minore incommodo possit, cum 
domi praecepta et composita et sicut cetera, quae 
in causa sunt, inde^ discendo cognita ad iudicem 
perfert, quid fiet in iis quaestionibus, quae subito 
inter ipsas actiones nasci solent ? non deformiter 
respectet et inter subsellia minores advocatos in- 

3 terroget ? Potest autem satis diligenter accipere, 
quae turn audiet, cum ei dicenda sunt, aut fortiter 
adfirmare aut ingenue pro suis dicere ? Possit in 
actionibus : quid fiet in altercatione, ubi occurren- 
dum continuo, nee libera ad discendum mora est? 

',' iagrjf) * inde, Halm: in, MSS. 
400 



BOOK XII. 11. 31-111. 3 

he has both the knowledge and the courage to speak 
in accordance with the promptings of honour. 

III. Our orator will also require a knowledge of 
civil law and of the custom and religion of the state 
in whose life he is to bear his part. For how will he 
be able to advise either in public or in private, if he 
is ignorant of all the main elements that go to make 
the state? How can he truthfully call himself an 
advocate if he has to go to others to acquire that 
knowledge which is all-important in the courts ? 
He will be little better than if he were a reciter of 
the poets. For he will be a mere transmitter of the : 
instructions that others have given him, it will be on 
the authority of others that he propounds what he 
asks the judge to believe, and he whose duty it is to 
succour the litigant will himself be in need of succour. 
It is true that at times this may be effected with but 
little inconvenience, if what he advances for the 
edification of the judge has been taught him and 
composed in the seclusion of his study and learnt by 
heart there like other elements of the case. But 
what will he do, when he is confronted by unexpected 
problems such as frequently arise in the actual 
course of pleading? Will he not disgrace him- 
self by looking round and asking the junior counsel 
who sit on the benches behind him for advice ? Can J 
he hope to get a thorough grasp of such information 
at the very moment when he is required to produce 
it in his speech ? Can he make his assertions with 
confidence or speak with native simplicity as though 
his arguments were his own ? Grant that he may do 
so in his actual speech. But what will he do in a 
debate, when he has continually to meet fresh points 
raised by his opponent and is given no time to learn 

401 



QUINTILIAN 

Quid, si forte peritus iuris ille non aderit? Quid, 
si quis non satis in ea re doctus falsum aliquid sub- 
iecerit ? Hoc enim est maximum ignorantiae malum, 

4 quod credit eum scire qui moneat. Neque ego sum 
nostri moris ignarus oblitusve eorum, qui velut ad 
arculas sedent et tela agentibus subministrant, neque 
idem Graecos quoque nescio factitasse, unde nomen 
his pragmaticorura datum est. Sed loquor de ora- 
tore, qui non clamorem modo suum causis, sed omnia, 

5 quae profutura sunt, debet. Itaque eum nee inu- 
tilem, si ad horam forte constiterit, neque in testa- 
tionibus faciendis esse imperitum velim. Quis enim 
potius praeparabit ea quae, cum aget, esse in causa 
velit? Nisi forte imperatorem quis idoneum credit 
in proeliis quidem strenuum ct fortem et omnium, 
quae pugna poscit, artificem, sed neque delectus 
agere nee copias contrahere atque instruere nee 
prospicere commeatus nee locum capere castris scien- 
tem ; prius est enim certe parare bella quam gerere. 

6 Atqui simillimus huic sit advocatus, si plura, quae 
ad vincendum valent, aliis reliquerit, cum praesertim 



* Ad horam constare appears to be a technical term for 
"appearance at the preliminary hour," the purpose of which 
is indicated in the paraphrase given above. 

402 



BOOK XII. in. 3-6 

up his case ? What will he do, if he has no legal 
expert to advise him or if his prompter through 
insufficient knowledge of the subject provides him 
with information that is false } It is the most serious 
drawback of such ignorance, that he will always 
believe that his adviser knows what he is talking 
about. I am not ignorant of the generally prevail- 4 
ing custom, nor have I forgotten those who sit by 
our store-chests and provide weapons for the pleader : 
I know too that the Greeks did likewise: hence 
the name of pragmaticus which was bestowed on 
such persons. But I am speaking of an orator, who 
owes it as a duty to his case to serve it not merely 
bj the loudness of his voice, but by all other means 
that may be of assistance to it. Consequently I do 5 
not wish my orator to be helpless, if it so chance 
that he puts in an appearance for the preliminary 
proceedings to which the hour before the commence- 
ment of the trial ^ is allotted, or to be unskilful in 
the preparation and production of evidence. For 
who, sooner than himself, should prepare the points 
which he wishes to be brought out when he is 
pleading ? You might as well suppose that the 
qualifications of a successful general consist merely 
in courage and energy in the field of battle and skill 
in meeting all the demands of actual conflict, while 
suffering him to be ignorant of the methods of levy- 
ing troops, mustering and equipping his forces, 
arranging for supplies or selecting a suitable position 
for his camp, despite the fact that preparation for 
war is an essential preliminary for its successful 
conduct. And yet such a general would bear a 6 
very close resemblance to the advocate who leaves 
much of the detail that is necessary for success to 

403 



QUINTILIAN 

hoc, quod est maxime necessarium, nee tam sit 
aiduum, quam procul intuentibus fortasse videatur. 
Namque omne ius, quod est certum, aut scripto aut 
moribus constat ; dubium aequitatis regula exami- 

7 nandum est. Quae scripta sunt aut posita in more 
civitatis, nuUam habent difficultatem, cognitionis 
sunt enim, non inventionis ; at quae consultorum 
responsis explicantur, aut in verborum interpretatione 
sunt posita aut in recti pravique discrimine. Vim 
cuiusque vocis intelligere aut commune prudentium 
est aut proprium oratoris ; aequitas optimo cuique 

8 notissima. Nos porro et bonum virum et prudentem 
in primis oratorem putamus, qui cum se ad id, quod 
est optimum natura, direxerit, non magnopere com- 
movebitur, si quis ab eo consultus dissentiet ; cum 
ipsis illis diversas inter se opiniones tueri concessum 
sit. Sed etiam, si nosse, quid quisque senserit, volet, 
lectionis opus est, qua nihil est in studiis minus 

y laboriosum. Quodsi plerique, desperata facultate 
agendi, ad discendum ius declinaverunt, quam id 
scire facile est oratori, quod discunt qui sua quoque 
confessione oratores esse non possunt? Verum et 
M. Cato cum in dicendo praestantissimus, tum iuris 
idem fuit peritissimus, et Scaevolae Servioque Sul- 
404 



BOOK XII. m. 6-9 

the care of others, more especially in view of the 
fact that thiSj the most necessary element in the 
management of a case, is not as difficult as it may 
perhaps seem to outside observers. For every point 
of law, which is certain, is based either on written 
law or accepted custom : if, on the other hand, the 
point is doubtful, it must be examined in the light 
of equity. Laws which are either written or founded 7 
on accepted custom present no difficulty, since they 
call merely for knowledge and make no demand on 
the imagination. On the other hand, the points ex- 
plained in the rulings of the legal experts turn either 
on the interpretation of words or on the distinction 
between right and wrong. To understand the mean- 
ing of each word is either common to all sensible 
men or the special possession of the orator, while 
the demands of equity are known to every good 
man. Now I regard the orator above all as being 8 
a man of virtue and good sense, who will not be 
seriously troubled, after having devoted himself to 
the study of that which is excellent by nature, if 
some legal expert disagrees with him ; for even they 
are allowed to disagree among themselves. But if 
he further wishes to know the views of everyone, 
he will require to read, and reading is the least 
laborious of all the tasks that fall to the student's 
lot. Moreover, if the class of legal experts is as a rule 9 
drawn from those who, in despair of making suc- 
cessful pleaders, have taken refuge with the law, 
how easy it must be for an orator to know what 
those succeed in learning, who by their own con- 
fession are incapable of becoming orators ! But 
Marcus Cato was at once a great orator and an 
expert lawyer, while Scaevola and Servius Sulpicius 

405 



QUINTILIAN 

10 picio concessa est etiam facundiae virtus. Et M. 
Tullius non modo inter agendum nunquam est desti- 
tutus scientia iaris, sed etiam componere aliqua de 
eo coeperat, ut appareat posse oratorem non dis- 
cendo tantum iuri vacare, sed etiam docendo. 

11 Verum ea, quae de moribus excolendis studioque 
iuris praecipimus, ne quis eo credat reprehendenda, 
quod multoscognovimus, quitaedio laboris,quemferre 
tendentibus ad eloquentiam necesse est, confugerint 
ad haec deverticula desidiae. Quorum alii se ad 
album ac rubricas transtulerunt et formularii vel, ut 
Cicero ait, leguleii quidam esse maluerunt, tanquam 
utiliora eligentes ea, quorum solam facilitatem seque- 

12 bantur; alii pigritiae arrogantioris, qui subito fronte 
conficta immissaque barba, veluti despexissent ora- 
toria praecepta, paulum aliquid sederunt in scholis 
philoso})horum, ut deinde in publico tristes, domi 
dissoluti captarent auctoritatem contemptu cetero- 
rum. Philosophia enim simulari potest, eloquentia 
non potest. 

IV. In primis vero abundare debet orator exemplo- 
rum copia cum veterum, turn etiam novorum, adeo 
ut non ea modo, quae conscripta sunt historiis aut 
sermonibus velut per manus tradita, quaeque cotidie 
aguntur, debeat nosse, verum ne ea quidem, quae 



> i. e. as well as experts on the law. 

* The praetor's edicts were displayed on a whitened board 
{in albo), while the headings of the civil law were written in 
red. • dt Or. i. Iv. 236. 

406 



BOOK XII. III. 9-iv. I 

were universally allowed to be eloquent as well.* 
And Cicero not merely possessed a sufficient supply of 10 
legal knowledge to serve his needs when pleading, 
but actually began to write on the subject, so that 
it is clear that an orator has not merely time to 
leam, but even to teach the law. 

Let no one, however, regard the advice I have 11 
given as to the attention due to the development 
of character and the study of the law as being 
impugned by the fact that we are familiar with 
many who, because they were weary of the toil 
entailed on those who seek to scale the heights 
of eloquence, have betaken themselves to the study 
of law as a refuge for their indolence. Some of 
these transfer their attention to the praetor's edicts 
or the civil law,^ and have preferred to become 
specialists in formulae, or legalists, as Cicero * calls 
them, on the pretext of choosing a more useful 
branch of study, whereas their real motive was its 
comparative easiness. Others are the victims of a 12 
more arrogant form of sloth ; they assume a stern 
air and let their beards grow, and, as though de- 
spising the precepts of oratory, sit for a while in 
the schools of the philosophers, that, by an assum{>- 
tion of a severe mien before the public gaze and by 
an affected contempt of others tliey may assert their 
moral superiority, while leading a life of debauchery 
at home. For philosophy may be counterfeited, but 
eloquence never. 

IV. Above all, our orator should be equipped 
with a rich store of examples both old and new : 
and he ought not merely to know those which are 
recorded in history or transmitted by oral tradition 
or occur from day to day, but should not neglect 

407 



QUINTILIAN 

2 sunt a clarioribus poetis ficta, negligere. Nam ilia 
quidem priora aut testimonioruin aut etiam iudica- 
torum obtinent locum, sed haec quoque aut vetustatis 
fide tuta sunt aut ab hominibus magnis praeceptorum 
loco ficta creduntur. Sciat ergo quam plurima ; 
unde etiam senibus auctoritas maior est, quod plura 
nosse et vidisse creduntur, quod Homerus frequentis- 
sime testatur. Sed non est exspectanda ultima aetas, 
cum studia praestent ut, quantum ad cognitionem 
pertinet rerum, etiam praeteritis saeculis vixisse 
videamur. 

V. Haec sunt, quae me redditurum promiseram, 
instrumenta non artis, ut quidam putaverunt, sed 
ipsius oratoris. Haec arma habere ad manum, 
horum scientia debet esse succinctus, accedente 
verborum figurarumque facili copia et inventionis 
ratione et disponendi usu et memoriae firmitate et 
actionis gratia. Sed plurimum ex his valet animi 
praestantia, quam nee metus frangat nee adclamatio 
terreat nee audientium auctoritas ultra debitam 

2 reverentiam tardet. Nam ut abominanda sunt con- 
traria his vitia confidentiae, temeritatis, improbitatis, 
arrogantiae, ita citra constantiam, fiduciam, forti- 
tudinem nihil ars, nihil studium, nihil profectus ipse 
profuerit, ut si des arma timidis et imbellibus. Invi- 
tus mehercule dico, quoniam et aliter accipi potest, 

» I Pr. 22 and xii. Pr. 4. 

4o9 



BOOK XII. IV. i-v. 2 

even those fictitious examples invented by the great 
poets. For while the former have the authority of 2 
evidence or even of legal decisions, the latter also 
either have the warrant of antiquity or are regarded 
as having been invented by great men to serve as 
lessons to the world. He should therefore be ac- 
quainted with as many examples as possible. It is 
this which gives old age so much authority, since 
the old are believed to have a larger store of know- 
ledge and experience, as Homer so frequently bears 
witness. But we must not wait till the evening of 
our days, since study has this advantage that, as far 
as knowledge of facts is concerned, it is capable of 
giving the impression that we have lived in ages 
long gone by. 

V. Such are the instruments of which I promised * 
to give account, the instruments, that is, not merely 
of the art, as some have held, but of the orator him- 
self These are the weapons that he should have 
ready to his hand, this the knowledge with which he 
must be equipped, while it must be supplemented by 
a ready store of words and figures, power of imagi- 
nation, skill in arrangement, retentiveness of memory 
and grace of delivery. But of all these qualities the 
highest is that loftiness of soul which fear cannot 
dismay nor uproar terrify nor the authority of the 
audience fetter further than the respect which is 
their due. For although the vices which are its 2 
opposites, such as arrogance, temerity, impudence 
and presumption, are all positively obnoxious, still 
without constancy, confidence and courage, art, study 
and proficiency will be of no avail. You might as 
well put weapons into the hands of the unwarlike 
and the coward. It is indeed with some reluctance, 

VOL. IV. o 409 



QUINTILIAN 

ipsam verecundiam, vitium quidem, sed amabile et 
quae virtutes facillime generet, esse interim adver- 
sam, multisque in causa fuisse, ut bona ingenii 
studiique in lucem non prolata situ quodam secreti 

3 consumerentur. Sciat autem, si quis haec forte 
minus adhuc peritus distinguendi vim cuiusque verbi 
leget, non probitatem a me reprehendi, sed vere- 
cundiam, quae est timor quidam reducens animum 
ab iis quae facienda sunt ; inde confusio et coepti 
paenitentia et subitum silentium. Quis porro dubitet 
vitiis adscribere adfectum, propter quem facere 

4 honeste pudet ? Neque ego rursus nolo cum, qui sit 
dicturus, et soUicitum surgere et colore mutari et 
periculum intelligere ; quae si non accident, etiam 
simulanda erunt. Sed intellectus hie sit operis, non 
metus, moveamurque, non concidamus. Optima est 
autem emendatio verecundiae fiducia, et quamlibet 
imbecilla frons magna conscientia sustinetur. 

6 Sunt et naturalia, ut supra dixi, quae tamen et 
cura iuvantur, instrumenta, vox, latus, decor; quae 

» I Fr. 27. 
410 



BOOK XII. V. 2-5 

as it may give rise to misunderstanding, that I say 
that even modesty (vvrhich, though a fault in itself, is 
an amiable failing which may easily be the mother of 
virtues) is on occasion an impediment and has 
frequently caused the fruits of genius and study to 
consume away in the mildew of obscurity merely 
because they have never been displayed to the public 
day. But in case any of my readers should still lack J 
skill to distinguish the precise meaning of each 
word, I would have him know that it is not honest 
shame that is the object of my criticism, but that 
excess of modesty which is really a form of fear 
deterring the soul from doing what is its duty to do, 
and resulting in confusion of mind, regret that our 
task was ever begun, and sudden silence. For who 
can hesitate to give the name of fault to a feeling 
that makes a man ashamed to do what is right ? On • 
the other hand, I am not unwilling that the man who 
has got to make a speech should show signs of 
nervousness when he rises to his feet, should change 
colour and make it clear that he feels the risks of his 
position : indeed, if these symptoms do not occur 
naturally, it will be necessary to simulate them. 
But the feeling that stirs us should be due to the 
realisation of the magnitude of our task and not to 
fear : we should be moved, but not to the extent of 
collapsing. But the best remedy for such excess 
of modesty is confidence : however great our natural 
timidity of mien, we shall find strength and support 
in the consciousness of the nobility of our task. 

There are also those natural instruments which, as 
I mentioned above,^ may be further improved by 
care, such as voice, lungs and grace of carriage 
and movement, all of which are of such importance 

411 



QUINTILIAN 

quidem tantum valent, ut frequenter famam ingenii 
faciant. Habuit oratores aetas nostra copiosiores, 
sed, cum diceret, eminere inter aequales Trachalus 
videbatur. Ea corporis sublimitas erat, is ardor 
oculorum, frontis auctoritas^ gestus praestantia, vox 
quidem non, ut Cicero desiderat, paene tragoedorum, 
sed super omnes, quos ego quidem audierim, tragoe- 

6 dos. Certe cum in basilica lulia diceret primo 
tribunali, quattuor autem iudicia, ut moris est, 
cogerentur, atque omnia clamoribus fremerent, et 
auditum eum et intellectum et, quod agentibus 
ceteris contumeliosissimum fuit, laudatum quoque 
ex quattuor tribunalibus memini, Sed hoc votum 
est et rara felicitas; quae si non adsit, sane sufficiat 
ab iis, quibus quis dicit, audiri. Talis esse debet 
orator, haec scire. 

VI. Agendi autem initium sine dubio secundum 
vires cuiusque sumendum est. Neque ego annos 
definiam, cum Demosthenen puerum admodum 
actiones pupillares habuisse manifestum sit, Calvus, 
Caesar, Pollio multum ante quaestoriam omnes aeta- 
tem gravissima iudicia susceperint, praetextatos 
egisse quosdam sit traditum, Caesar Augustus duo- 
decim natus annos aviam pro rostris laudaverit. 

2 Modus mihi videtur quidam tenendus, ut neque prae- 

» de Or. I. xxviii. 128. 

• Of the Centumviral Court. Four dififerent cases were 
being tried simultaneously. 

* Demosthenes was 18, Crassus 19, Caesar 21, Asinius Pollio 
22 and Calvus not much older. See Tac. Dial. 34. 

41? 



BOOK XII. V. 5-vi. 2 

as frequently to give a speaker the reputation for 
talent. Our own age has had orators of greater 
resource and power, but Trachalus appeared to stand 
out above all his contemporaries, when he was speak- 
ing. Such was the effect produced by his lofty 
stature, the fire of his eye, the dignity of his brow, 
the excellence of his gesture, coupled with a voice 
which was not almost a tragedian's, as Cicero^ 
demands that it should be, but surpassed the voice 
of all tragedians that I have ever heard. At any 6 
rate I remember that, when he was speaking in the 
Basilica Julia before the first tribunal, and the four 
jMinels of judges^ were assembled as usual and the 
whole building was full of noise, he could still be 
heard and understood and applauded from all four 
tribunals at once, a fact which was not complimentary 
to the other pleaders. But gifts like these are such 
as all may pray for and few are happy enough to 
attain. And if we cannot achieve such fortune, we 
must even be content to be heard by the court which 
we are addressing. Such then should the orator be, 
and such are the things which he should know. 

VI. The age at which the orator should begin to 
plead will of course depend on the development of 
his strengtli. I shall not specify it further, since it 
is clear that Demosthenes pleaded against his 
guardians while he was still a mere boy, Calvus, 
Caesar and Pollio^ all undertook cases of the first 
importance before they were old enough to be 
qualified for the quaestorship, others are said to have 
pleaded while still wearing the garb of boyhood, 
and Augustus Caesar delivered a funeral oration over 
his grandmother from the public rostra when he was 
only twelve years old. In my opinion we should aim 2 

413 



QUINTILIAN 

propere destringatur immatura frons nee/ quidquid 
est illud adhuc acerbum, proferatur; nam inde et 
contemptus operis innascitur et fundamenta iaciuntur 
impudentiae et, quod est ubicunque pernieiosissimum, 

3 praevenit vires fiducia. Nee rursus differendum est 
tirocinium in senectutem ; nam cotidie metus crescit, 
maiusque fit semper quod ausuri sumus et, dum 
deliberamus quando incipiendum sit, incipere iam 
serum est. Quare fructum studiorum viridem et 
adhuc dulcem promi decet, dum et veniae * spes est 
et paratus favor et audere non dedecet et, si quid 
desit operi, supplet aetas, et, si qua sunt dicta 

4 iuveniliter, pro indole accipiuntur : ut totus ille 
Ciceronis pro Sexto Roscio locus : Quid enim tarn 
commune quam spiritus vivis, tetra mortuis, mare Jluctu- 
aniibus, litus eiectis ? Quae cum sex et viginti natus 
annos summis audientium clamoribus dixerit, defer- 
visse tempore et annis liquata iam senior idem 
fatetur. Et hercule quantumlibet secreta studia 
contulerint, est tamen proprius quidam fori profectus, 

* nee, Buttmann: et, ifSS. 

^ veniae, Davisius : venia et, MSS. 

* pro Rose. Amer. ixvi. 72. Oral. xxx. 107. 



BOOK XII. VI. 2-4 

at a happy mean. The unripe brow of boyhood 
should not be prematurely robbed of its ingenuous 
air nor should the young speaker's powers be brought 
before the public while yet unformed, since such a 
practice leads to a contempt for study, lays the 
foundations of impudence and induces a fault which 
is pernicious in all departments of life, namely, a self- 
confidence that is not justified by the speaker's 
resources. On the other hand, it is undesirable to 3 
postpone the apprenticeship of the bar till old age: 
for the fear of appearing in public grows daily and 
the magnitude of the task on which we must venture 
continually increases and we waste time deliberating 
when we should begin, till we find it is too late to 
begin at all. Consequently it is desirable that the 
fruit of our studies should be brought before the 
public eye while it is still fresh and sweet, while it 
may hope for indulgence and be secure of a kindly 
disposition in the audience, while boldness is not 
unbecoming and youth compensates for all defects 
and boyish extravagance is regarded as a sign of 
natural vigour. Take for example the whole of the 4 
well-known passage from Cicero's defence of Sextus 
Roscius : ^ " For what is more common than the air 
to the living, than the earth to the dead, than the 
sea to mariners or the shore to shipwrecked men ? " 
etc. This passage was delivered at the age of 
twenty-six amid loud applause from the audience, 
but in later years ^ he acknowledges that the ferment 
of youth has died down and his style been clarified 
with age. And, indeed, however much private study 
may contribute to success, there is still a peculiar 
proficiency that the courts alone can give : for there 
the atmosphere is changed and the reality of the 

415 



QUINTILIAN 

alia lux, alia veri discriminis facies, plusque, si 
separes, usus sine doctrina quam citra usum doctrina 

5 valet. Ideoque nonnulli senes in schola facti stupent 
novitate, cum in iudicia venerunt, et omnia suis 
exercitationibus similia desiderant. At illic et iudex 
tacet et adversarius obstrepit et nihil temere dictum 
perit et, si quid tibi ipse sumas, probandum est, et 
laboratam congestamque dierum ac noctium studio 
actionem aqua deficit, et omisso magna semper 
flandi tumore in quibusdam causis loquendum est; 

6 quod illi diserti minima sciunt. Itaque nonnullos 
reperias, qui sibi eloquentiores videantur, quam ut 
causas agant. Ceterum ilium, quem iuvenem tene- 
risque adhuc viribus nitentem in forum deduximus, 
et incipere quam maxime facili ac favorabili causa 
velim, ferarum ut catuli moUiore praeda saginantur, 
et non utique ab hoc initio continuare operam et 
ingenio adhuc alendo callum inducere, sed iam 
scientem, quid sit pugna, et in quam rem studendum 

7 sit, refici atque renovari. Sic et tirocinii metum, 
dum facilius est audere, transient, nee audendi 
4i6 



BOOK XII. VI. 4-7 

peril puts a different complexion on things, while, if 
it is impossible to combine the two, practice vrithout 
theory is more useful than theory without practice. 
Consequently, some who have grown old in the 5 
schools lose their heads when confronted by the 
novelty of the law courts and wish that it were 
possible to reproduce all the conditions under which 
they delivered their exercises. But there sits the 
judge in silence, their opponent bellows at them, no 
rash utterance passes unnoticed and all assumptions 
must be proved, the clock cuts short the speech that 
has been laboriously pieced together at the cost of 
hours of study both by day and night, and there are 
certain cases which require simplicity of language and 
the abandonment of the perpetual bombast of the 
schools, a fact which these fluent fellows completely 
fail to realise. And so you will find some persons 6 
who regard themselves as too eloquent to speak in 
the courts. On the other hand, the man, whom we 
conducted to the forum while still young and in the 
chann of immaturity, should begin with as easy and 
favourable a case as may be (just as the cubs of wild 
beasts are brought up to start with on softer 
forms of prey), and should not proceed straight 
from this commencement to plead case after case 
without a break, or cause his talents to set and 
harden while they still require nourishment ; on the 
contrary, as soon as he has come to realise the nature 
of the conflicts in which he will have to engage and 
the object to which his studies should be directed, he 
should take an interval of rest and refreshment. 
Thus, at an age to which boldness is still natural, he 7 
will find it easy to get over the timidity which invari- 
ably accompanies the period of apprenticeship, and 



QUINTILIAN 

facilitatem usque ad contemptum operis adduxerit. 
Usus est hac ratione M. Tullius, et cum iam clarum 
meruisset inter patronos, qui turn erant, nomen, in 
Asiam navigavit seque et aliis sine dubio eloquentiae 
ae sapientiae magistris, sed praecipue tamen ApoUo- 
nio Molonij quem Romae quoque audierat, Rhodi 
rursus formandum ac velut recoquendum dedit. Turn 
dignum operae pretium venit, cum inter se congruunt 
praecepta et experimenta. 

VII. Cum satis in omni certamine virium fecerit, 
prima ei cura in suscipiendis causis erit ; in quibus 
defendere quidem reos profecto quam facere vir 
bonus malet, non tamen ita nomen ipsum accusatoris 
horrebit, ut nullo neque publico neque privato duci 
possit officio, ut aliquem ad reddendam rationera 
vitae vocet. Nam et leges ipsae nihil valeant, nisi 
actoris idonea voce munitae ; et si poenas scelerum 
expetere fas non est, prope est ut scelera ipsa per- 
missa sint, et licentiam malis dari certe contra 
2 bonos est. Quare neque sociorum querelas nee 
amici vel propinqui necem nee erupturas in rem 
publicam conspirationes inultas patietur orator, non 
poenae nocentium cupidus, sed emendandi vitia 
418 



BOOK XII. VI. 7-vii. 2 

will not, on the other hand, carry his boldness so far 
as to lead him to despise the difficulties of his task. 
This was the method employed by Cicero : for when 
he had already won a distinguished position at the 
bar of his day, he took ship to Asia and there studied 
under a number of professors of philosophy and 
rhetoric, but above all under Apollonius Molon, 
whose lectures he had attended at Rome and to 
whom he now at Rhodes entrusted the refashioning 
and recasting of his style. It is only when theory 
and practice are brought into a perfect harmony 
that the orator reaps the reward of all his study. 

VII. When our orator has developed his strength 
to such a pitch that it is equal to every kind of con- 
flict in which he may be called upon to bear his part, 
his first consideration should be to exercise care in 
the choice of the cases which he proposes to under- 
take. A good man will undoubtedly prefer defence 
to prosecution, but he will not have such a rooted 
objection to the task of accuser as to disregard his 
duty towards the state or towards individuals and 
refuse to call any man to render an account of his 
way of life. For the laws themselves would be 
powerless without the assistance of advocates equal 
to the task of supporting them ; and to regard it as a 
sin to demand the punishment of crime is almost equi- 
valent to the sanctioning of crime, while it is certainly 
contrary to the interest of the good to give the 
wicked free leave to work their will. Therefore, our 
orator will not suffer the complaints of our allies, the 
death of friends or kinsmen, or conspiracies that 
threaten the common weal to go unavenged, while 
his conduct will be governed not by a passion to 
secure the punishment of the guilty, but by the 

419 



QUINTILIAN 

corrigendique mores. Nam qui ratione traduci ad 

3 meliora non possunt, solo metu continentur. Itaque 
ut accusatoriam vitam vivere et ad deferendos reos 
praemio duci proximum latrocinio est, ita pestem 
intestinam propulsare cum propugnatoribus patriae 
comparandum. Ideoque principes in re publica viri 
non detrectaverunt hanc officii partem, creditique 
sunt etiam clari iuvenes obsidem rei publicae dare 
malorum civium accusationem, quia nee odisse im- 
probos nee simultates provocare nisi ex fiducia bonae 

4 mentis videbantur ; idque cum ab Hortensio, Lucullis, 
Sulpicio, Cicerone, Caesare, plurimis aliis, turn ab 
utroque Catone factum est, quorum alter appellatus 
est sapiens, alter nisi creditur fuisse, vix scio, cui 
reliquerit huius nominis locum. Neque^ defendet 
omnes orator idem, portumque ilium eloquentiae 
suae salutarem non etiam piratis patefaciet ducetur- 

6 que in advocationem maxime causa. Quoniam tamen 
omnes, qui non improbe litigabunt, quorum certe 
bona pars est, sustinere non potest unus, aliquid 
et commendantium personis dabit et ipsorum qui 

^ neque, early edd. : namque, MSS. 



» i. e. Cato the Elder. 

4?^ 



BOOK XII. VII. 2-5 

desire to correct vice and reform morals. For fear 
is the only means of restraining those who cannot 
be led to better ways by the voice of reason. Conse- ! 
quently, while to devote one's life to the task of 
accusation, and to be tempted by the hope of reward 
to bring the guilty to trial is little better than making 
one's living by highway robbery, none the less to rid 
one's country of the pests that gnaw its vitals is 
conduct worthy of comparison with that of heroes, 
who champion their country's cause in the field of 
battle. For this reason men who were leaders of the 
state have not refused to undertake this portion of 
an orator's duty, and even young men of high rank 
have been regarded as giving their country a pledge 
of their devotion by accusing bad citizens, since it 
was thought that their hatred of evil and their 
readiness to incur enmity were proofs of their confi- 
dence in their own rectitude. Such action was 
taken by Hortensius, the LucuUi, Sulpicius, Cicero, 
Caesar and many others, among them both the Catos, 
of whom one was actually called the Wise,^ while if 
the other is not regarded as wise, I do not know of 
any that can claim the title after him. On the other 
hand, this same orator of ours will not defend all and 
sundry : that haven of safety which his eloquence 
provides will never be opened to pirates as it is to 
others, and he will be led to undertake cases mainly 
by consideration of their nature. However, since 
one man cannot undertake the cases of all litigants 
who are not, as many undoubtedly are, dishonest, he 
will be influenced to some extent by the character 
of the persons who recommend clients to his pro- 
tection and also by the character of the litigants 
themselves, and will allow himself to be moved by 

421 



QUINTILIAN 

iudicio decernent, ut optimi cuiusque voluntate 
moveatur; namque hos et amicissimos habebit vir 

6 bonus. Summovendum vero est utrumque ambitus 
genus vel potentibus contra humiles venditandi 
operam suam vel illud etiam iactantius minores 
utique contra dignitatem attollendi. Non enim for- 
tuna causas vel iustas vel improbas facit. Neque 
vero pudor obstet, quo minus susceptam, cum melior 
videretur, litem cognita inter discendum iniquitate 

7 dimittat, cum prius litigatori dixerit verum. Nam et 
in hoc maximum, si aequi iudices sumus, beneficium 
est, ut non fallamus vana spe litigantem. Neque 
est dignus opera patroni, qui non utitur consilio, 
et certe non convenit ei, quem oratorem esse 
volumus, iniusta tueri scientem. Nam si ex illis, 
quas supra diximus, causis falsum tuebitur, erit 
tamen honestum quod ipse faciet. 

8 Gratlsne el semper agendum sit, tractari potest. 
Quod ex prima statim fronte diiudicare impru- 
dentium est. Nam quia ignorat, quin id longe sit 
honestissimum ac liberalibus disciplinis et illo, quem 
exigimus, animo dignissimum, non vendere operam 
nee elevare tanti beneficii auctoritatem, cum plera- 

* XII. i. 36. 
422 



BOOK XII. VII. 5-8 

the wishes of all virtuous men ; for a good man will 
naturally have such for his most intimate friends. 
But he must put away from him two kinds of 6 
pretentious display, the one consisting in the 
officious proffering of his services to the powerful 
against those of meaner position, and the other, 
which is even more obtrusive, in deliberately support- 
ing inferiors against those of high degree. For a 
case is not rendered either just or the reverse by the 
social position of the parties engaged. Nor, again, 
will a sense of shame deter him from throwing over 
a case which he has undertaken in the belief that it 
had justice on its side, but which his study of the 
facts has shown to be unjust, although before doing 
so he should give his client his true opinion on the 
case. For, if we judge aright, there is no greater 7 
benefit that we can confer on our clients than this, 
that we should not cheat them by giving them empty 
hopes of success. On the other hand, no client that 
does not take his advocate into his counsel deserves 
that advocate's assistance, and it is certainly unworthy 
of our ideal orator that he should wittingly defend 
injustice. For if he is led to defend what is false 
bv any of the motives which I mentioned above,^ his 
own action will still be honourable. 

It is an open question whether he should never 8 
demand a fee for his services. To decide the 
question at first sight would be the act of a fool. 
For we all know that by far the most honourable 
course, and the one which is most in keeping with a 
liberal education and that temper of mind which we 
desiderate, is not to sell our services nor to debase 
the value of such a boon as eloquence, since there 
are not a few things which come to be regarded as 

423 



QUINTILIAN 

que hoc ipso possint videri vilia, quod pretium 
9 habent ? Caecis hoc, ut aiunt, satis clarum est, nee 
quisquam, qui sufficientia sibi (modica autem haec 
sunt) possidebit, hunc quaestum sine crimine sordium 
fecerit. At si res familiaris amplius aliquid ad usus 
necessaries exiget, secundum omnium sapientium 
leges patietur sibi gratiam referri, cum et Socrati 
collatum sit ad victum, et Zeno, Cleanthes, Chry- 

10 sippus mercedes a discipulis acceptaverint. Neque 
enim video, quae iustior acquirendi ratio quam ex 
honestissimo labore et ab iis, de quibus optime 
meruerint, quique, si nihil invicem praestent, indigni 
fuerint defensione. Quod quidem non iustum modo, 
sed neeessarium etiam est, cum haec ipsa opera 
tempusque omne alienis negotiis datum facultatem 

11 aliter acquirendi recidant. Sed tum quoque ten- 
endus est modus, ac plurimum refert et a quo 
accipiat et quantum et quousque. Paciscendi quidem 
ille piraticus mos et imponentium periculis pretia 
procul abominanda negotiatio etiam a mediocriter 
improbis aberit, cum praesertim bonos homines 
bonasque causas tuenti non sit metuendus ingratus; 
424 



BOOK XII. VII. 8-1 1 

cheap, merely because they have a price set upon 
them. This much even the blind can see, as the 9 
saying is, and no one who is the possessor of sufficient 
wealth to satisfy his needs (and that does not imply 
any great opulence) will seek to secure an income 
by such methods without laying himself open to the 
charge of meanness. On the other hand, if his 
domestic circumstances are such as to require some 
addition to his income to enable him to meet the 
necessary demands upon his purse, there is not a 
philosopher who would forbid him to accept this form 
of recompense for his services, since collections were 
made even on behalf of Socrates, and Zeno, Cleanthes 
and Chrysippus took fees from their pupils. Nor 10 
can I see how we can turn a more honest penny than 
by performance of the most honourable of tasks and 
by accepting money from those to whom we have 
rendered the most signal services and who, if they 
made no return for what we have done for them, 
would show themselves undeserving to have been 
defended by us. Nay, it is not only just, but 
necessary that this should be so, since the duties of 
advocacy and the bestowal of every minute of our 
time on the affairs of others deprive us of all other 
means of making money. But we must none the 11 
less observe the happy mean, and it makes no small 
difference from whom we take payment, what pay- 
ment we demand, and how long we continue to do 
so. As for the piratical practice of bargaining and 
the scandalous traffic of those who proportion their 
fees to the peril in which their would-be client 
stands, such a procedure will be eschewed even by 
those who are more than half scoundrels, more 
especially since the advocate who devotes himself 

425 



QUINTILIAN 

12 quodsi sit futurus, malo tamen ille peccet. Nihil 
ergo acquirere volet orator ultra quam satis crit ; ac 
ne pauper quidem tanquam mercedem accipiet, sed 
mutua benivolentia utetur, cum sciat se tanto plus 
praestitisse. Non enim, quia venire hoc beneficium 
non oportet, oportet ^ perire. Denique ut gratus sit 
ad eum magis pertinet qui debet. 

VIII. Proxima discendae causae ratio, quod est 
orationis fundamentum. Neque enim quisquam 
ingenio tarn tenui reperietur, qui, cum omnia quae 
sunt in causa diligenter cognoverit, ad docendum 

2 certe iudicem non sufficiat. Sed eius rei paucissimis 
cura est. Nam ut taceam de negligentibus, quorum 
nihil refert, ubi litium cardo vertatur, dum sint quae 
vel extra causam ex personis aut communi tractatu 
locorum occasionem clamandi largiantur, aliquos et 
ambitio pervertit, qui partim tanquam occupati 
semperque aliud habentes, quod ante agendum sit, 
pridie ad se venire litigatorem aut eodem matutino 
iubent, nonnunquam etiam inter ipsa subsellia 

3 didicisse se gloriantur; partim iactantia ingenii, ut 

* Second oportet added by Buttmann. 
436 



BOOK XII. VII. I i-viii. 3 

to the defence of good men and worthy causes will 
have nothing to fear from ingratitude. And even if 
a client should prove ungrateful, it is better that he 
should be the sinner and not our orator. To con- 12 
elude, then, the orator will not seek to make more 
money than is sufficient for his needs, and even if he 
is poor, he will not regard his payment as a fee, but 
rather as the expression of the principle that one 
good turn deserves another, since he will be well 
aware that he has conferred far more than he receives. 
For it does not follow that because his services 
ought not to be sold, they should therefore be 
unremunerated. Finally, gratitude is primarily the 
business of the debtor. 

VIII. We have next to consider how a case should 
be studied, since such study is the foundation of 
oratory. There is no one so destitute of all talent 
as, after making himself thoroughly familiar with all 
the facts of his case, to be unable at least to commu- 
nicate those facts to the judge. But those who 2 
devote any serious attention to such study are very 
few indeed. For, to say nothing of those careless 
advocates who are quite indifferent as to what the 
pivot of the whole case may be, provided only there 
are points which, though irrelevant to the case, will 
give them the opportunity of declaiming in thunder- 
ous tones on the character of persons involved or 
developing some commonplace, there are some who 
are so perverted by vanity that, on the oft-repeated 
pretext that they are occupied by other business, 
they bid their client come to them on the day pre- 
ceding the trial or early on the morning of the day 
itself, and sometimes even boast that they learnt up 
their case while sitting in court ; while others by 3 

427 



QUINTILIAN 

res cito accepisse videantur, tenere se et Intel ligere 
prius paene quam audiant mentiti, cum multa et 
diserte summisque clamoribus, quae neque ad 
iudicem neque ad litigatorem pertineant, decanta- 
verunt, bene sudantes beneque comitati per forum 

4 reducuntur. Ne illas quidem tulerim delicias eorum, 
qui doceri amicos suos iubent, quanquam minus mali 
est, si illi saltem recte discant recteque doceant. 
Sed quis discet tam bene quam patronus? Quomodo 
autem sequester ille et media litium manus et 
quidam interpres impendet aequo animo laborem 
in alienas actiones, cum dicturis tanti suae non sint ? 

5 Pessimae vero consuetudinis libellis esse contentum, 
quos componit aut litigator qui confugit ad patro- 
num, quia liti ipse non sufficit, aut aliquis ex eo 
genere advocatorum, qui se non posse agere con- 
fitentur, deinde faciunt id quod est in agendo diffi- 
cillimum. Nam qui iudicare, quid dicendum, quid 
dissiraulandum, quid declinandum, mutandum, fing- 
endum etiam sit^ potest, cur non sit orator, quando, 

* Advocatus is here used in its original sense. By Quin- 
tilian's time it had come also to mean "advocate," and is 
often so used by him elsewhere. 

428 



BOOK XII. viii. 3-5 

way of creating an impression of extraordinary talent, 
and to make it seem that they are quick in the up- 
take, pretend that they have grasped the facts of 
the case and understand the situation almost before 
they have heard what it is, and then after chanting 
out some long and fluent discourse which has nought 
to do either with the judge or their client, but 
awakens the clamorous applause of the audience, 
they are escorted home through the forum, perspiring 
at every pore and attended by flocks of enthusiastic 
friends. Further, I would not even tolerate the 
affectation of those who insist that their friends, and 
not themselves, should be instructed in the facts 
of the case, though this is a less serious evil, if the 
friends can be relied upon to learn and supply the 
facts correctly. But who can give such effective 
study to the case as the advocate himself? How 
can the intermediary, the go-between or interpreter, 
devote himself whole-heartedly to the study of other 
men's cases, when those who have got to do the 
actual pleading do not think it worth while to get 
up their own .'' On the other hand, it is a most 
pernicious practice to rest content with a written 
statement of the case composed either by the litigant 
who betakes himself to an advocate because he finds 
that his own powers are not equal to the conduct of 
his case, or by some member of that class of legal 
advisers ^ who admit that they are incapable of plead- 
ing, and then proceed to take upon themselves the 
most difficult of all the tasks that confront the pleader. 
For if a man is capable of judging what should be 
said, what concealed, what avoided, altered or even 
invented, why should he not appear as orator himself, 
since he performs the far more difficult feat of making 

429 



QUINTILIAN 

6 quod difficilius est, oratorem facit ? Hi porro non 
tantum nocerent, si omnia scriberent uti gesta sunt. 
Nunc consilium et colores adiiciunt et aliqua peiora 
veris, quae plerique cum acceperunt, mutare nefas 
habent et velut tliemata in scholis posita custodiunt. 
Deinde deprehenduntur et causam, quam discere ex 
suis litigatoribus noluerunt, ex adversariis discunt. 

7 Liberum igitur demus ante omnia iis, quorum 
negotium erit, tempus ac locum, exhortemurque 
ultro, ut omnia quamlibet verbose et unde volant 
repetita ex tempore exponant. Non enim tam 
obest audire supervacua quam ignorare necessaria. 

8 Frequenter autem et vulnus et remedium in iis 
orator inveniet, quae litigatori in neutram partem 
habere momentum videbantur. Nee tanta sit acturo 
memoriae fiducia, ut subscribere audita pigeat. 

Nee semel audisse sit satis ; cogendus eadem 
iterum ac saepius dicere litigator, non solum quia 
effugere aliqua prima expositione potuerunt, praes- 
ertim hominem (quod saepe evenit) imperitum, sed 
430 



BOOK XII. vm. 5-8 

an orator ? Such persons would not, liowever, do so 6 
much harm if they would only put down all the 
facts as they occurred. But as it is, they add sug- 
gestions of their own, put their own construction on 
the facts and insert inventions which are far more 
damaging than the unvarnished truth. And then 
the advocate as a rule, on receiving the document, 
regards it as a crime to make any alteration, and 
keeps to it as faithfully as if it were a theme set for 
declamation in the schools. The sequel is that they 
are tripped up and have to learn from their oppo- 
nents the case which they refused to learn from their 
own clients. We should therefore above all allow 7 
the parties concerned ample time for an interview in 
a place free from interruption, and should even 
exhort them to set forth on the spot all the facts in 
as many words as they may choose to use and allow- 
ing them to go as far back as they please. For it is 
less of a drawback to listen to a number of irrelevant 
facts than to be left in ignorance of essentials. 
Moreover, the orator will often detect both the evil 8 
and its remedy in facts which the litigant regarded 
as devoid of all importance, one way or the other. 
Further, the advocate who has got to plead the case 
should not put such excessive confidence in his 
powers of memory as to disdain to jot down what he 
has heard. 

Nor should one hearing be regarded as sufficient. 
The litigant should be made to repeat his statements 
at least once, not merely because certain points may 
have escaped him on the occasion of his first state- 
ment, as is extremely likely to happen if, as is often 
the case, he is a man of no education, but also that 
we may note whether he sticks to what he originally 

431 



QUINTILIAN 

9 etiam ut sciamus an eadem dicat. Plurimi enim 
mentiuntur et, tanquam non doceant causam, sed 
agant, non ut cum patrono sed ut cum iudice 
loquuntur. Quapropter nunquam satis credendum 
est, sed agitandus omnibus modis et turbandus at 

10 evocandus. Nam ut medicis non apparentia modo 
vitia curanda sunt sed etiam invenienda quae latent, 
saepe ipsis ea, qui sanandi sunt, occulentibus, ita 
advocatus plura quam ostenduntur aspiciat. Nam 
cum satis in audiendo patientiae impendent, in 
aliam rursus ei personam transeundum est, agendus- 
que adversarius, proponendum quidquid omnino 
excogitari contra potest, quidquid recipit in eiusmodi 
disceptatione natura. Interrogandus quam infes- 

11 tissime ac premendus. Nam dum omnia quaerimus, 
aliquando ad verum, ubi minime exspectavimus, 
pervenimus. 

In sunima optimus est in discendo patronus 
incredulus. Promittit enim litigator omnia, testem 
populum, paratissimas consignationes, ipsum denique 

12 adversarium quaedam non negaturum. Ideoque 
opus est intueri omne litis instrumentum ; quod 
videre non est satis, perlegendum erit. Nam frequen- 
tissime aut non sunt omnino, quae promittebantur, 
aut minus continent aut cum alio aliquo nocituro 
permixta sunt aut nimia sunt et fidem hoc ipso 

43' 



i 



BOOK XII. Yin. 8-12 

said. For a large number of clients lie, and hold 9 

forth, not as if they were instructing their advocate 
in the facts of the case, but as if they were pleading 
with a judge. Consequently we must never be too 
ready to believe them, but must test them in every 
way, try to confuse them and draw them out. For 10 
just as doctors have to do more than treat the 
ailments which meet the eye, and need also to 
discover those which lie hid, since their patients 
often conceal the truth, so the advocate must look 
out for more points than his client discloses to him. 
After he considers that he has given a sufficiently 
patient hearing to the latter's statements, he must 
assume another character and adopt the rCle of his 
opponent, urging every conceivable objection that a 
discussion of the kind which we are considering may 
permit. The client must be subjected to a hostile 11 
cross-examination and given no peace : for by en- 
quiring into everything, we shall sometimes come 
upon the truth where we least expect it. 

In fact, the advocate who is most successful in 
getting up his case is he who is incredulous. For 
the client promises everything : the people, he says, 
will bear witness to the truth of what he says, he can 
produce documentary evidence at a moment's notice 
and there are some points which he says his opponent 
will not deny. It is therefore necessary to look into 12 
every document connected with the case, and where 
the mere sight of them is not sufficient, they must 
be read through. For very frequently they are 
either not at all what the client alleged them to be, 
or contain less, or are mixed up with elements that 
may damage our case, or prove more than is required 
and are likely to detract from their credibility just 

433 



QUINTILIAN 

13 detractura quod non habent modum. Denique 
linum ruptum aut turbatam ceram ^ aiit sine agnitore 
signa frequenter invenies ; quae, nisi domi excusseris, 
in foro inopinata decipient, plusque nocebunt desti- 
tuta quam non promissa nocuissent. Multa etiam, 
quae litigator nihil ad causam pertinere crediderit, 
patronus eruet, modo per omnes, quos tradidimus, 

14 argumentorum locos eat. Quos ut circumspectare 
in agendo et attentare singulos minime convenit, 
propter quas diximus causas, ita in discendo rimari 
necessarium est, quae personae, quae tempora et 
loca, instituta, instrumenta, cetera, ex quibus 
non tantum illud, quod est artificiale probationis 
genus, colligi possit, sed qui metuendi testes, 
quomodo sint refellendi. Nam plurimum refert. 
invidia reus an odio an contemptu laboret, quoi-um 
fere pars prima superiores, proxima pares, tertia 
humiliores premit. 

15 Sic causam perscrutatus, propositis ante oculos 
omnibus quae prosint noceantve, tertiam deinceps 
personam induat iudicis, fingatque apud se agi 

* turbatam ceram, Salmasius : turbata cetera, B 

* V. X. 20 sq'i- i. e. sources from which arguments may be 
drawn. 

4,^4 



BOOK XII. viii. 12-15 

because they are so extravagant. Further, it will 13 
often be found that the thread is broken or the seal 
tampered with or the signatures unsupported by 
witnesses. And unless you discover such facts at 
home, they will take you by surprise in court and 
trip you up, doing you more harm by forcing you to 
abandon them than they would have done had they 
never been promised you. There are also a number 
of points which the client regards as irrelevant to 
his case, which the advocate will be able to elicit, 
provided he go carefully through all the " dwelling- 
places " of argument which I have already described.^ 
Now though, for reasons already mentioned, it is 14 
most undesirable that he should hunt for and try 
every single one of those, while actually engaged in 
pleading his case, it is most necessary in the prelimi- 
nary study of the case to leave no stone unturned to 
discover the character of the persons involved, the 
circumstances of time and place, the customs and 
documents concerned, and the rest, from which we 
may not merely deduce the proofs known as artificial, 
but may also discover which witnesses are most to be 
feared and the best method of refuting them. For 
it makes a great difference whether it be envy, 
hatred or contempt that forms the chief obstacle to 
the success of the defence, since of these obstacles 
the first tells most against superiors, the second 
against equals, and the third against those of low 
degree. 

Having thus given a thorough examination 15 
to the case and clearly envisaged all those points 
which will tell for or against his client, the orator 
must then place himself in the position of a third 
person, namely, the judge, and imagine that the 

435 



QUINTILIAN 

causam, et, quod ipsum movisset de eadem re 
pronuntiaturum^ id potentissimum, apud quemcunque 
agetur, existimet. Sic eum raro fallet eventus, aut 
culpa iudicis erit. 

IX. Quae sint in agendo servanda, toto fere opere 
exsecuti sumus ; pauca tamen propria huius loci, 
quae non tam dicendi arte quam officiis agentis ^ 
continentur, attingam. Ante omnia ne, quod pleris- 
que accidit, ab utilitate eum causae praesentis 

2 cupido laudis abducat. Nam ut gerentibus bella 
non semper exercitus per plana et amoena ducendus 
est, sed adeundi plerumque asperi colles, expug- 
nandae civitates quamlibet praecisis impositae rupi- 
bus aut operum mole difHciles, ita oratio gaudebit 
quidem occasione laetius decurrendi et aequo 
congressa campo totas vires populariter explicabit; 

3 at si iuris anfractus aut eruendae veritatis latebras 
adire cogetur, non obequitabit nee illis vibrantibus 
concitatisque sententiis velut missilibus utetur, sed 
operibus et cuniculis et insidiis et occultis artibus 

4 rem geret. Quae omnia non dum fiunt laudantur, 
sed cum facta sunt; unde etiam cupidissimis 

> agentis, Obrecht : agendis, B. 
436 



BOOK XII. vin. 15-1X. 4 

case is being pleaded before himself, and assume 
that the point which would have carried most weight 
with himself, had he been trying the case, is likely 
to have the greatest influence with the actual judge. 
Thus he will rarely be deceived as to the result of 
the trial, or, if he is, it will be the fault of the judge. 
IX. As regards the points to be observed in the 
actual pleading, I have dealt with these in every 
portion of this work, but there still remain a few on 
which I must touch as being specially appropriate to 
the present place, since they are concerned not so 
much with the art of speaking as with the duties 
of the advocate. Above all it is important that he 
should never, like so many, be led by a desire to win 
applause to neglect the interest of the actual case. 
It is not always the duty of generals in the field to 
lead their armies through flat and smiling country : 
it will often be necessary to cross rugged mountain 
ranges, to storm cities placed on inaccessible cliffs or 
rendered diflBcult of access by elaborate fortifications. 
Similarly oratory will always be glad of the oppor- 
tunity of manoeuvring in all its freedom and delight- 
ing the spectator by the deployment of its full 
strength for conflict in the open field ; but if it is 
forced to enter the tortuous defiles of the law, or 
dark places whence the truth has to be dragged 
forth, it will not go prancing in front of the enemy's 
lines nor launch its shafts of quivering and passionate 
epigram of the fashion that is now so popular, but 
will wage war by means of sap and mine and ambush 
and all the tactics of secrec}*. None of these • 
methods win applause during their actual execution : 
the reward comes after they have been carried to a 
successful termination, when even the most ambitious 

437 



QUINTILIAN 
opinionis plus fructus venit. Nam cum ilia dicendi 
vitiosa iactatio inter plausores suos detonuit, resurgit 
verae virtutis fortior fama, nee iudices a quo sint 
moti^ dissimulantj et doctis creditur, nee est orationis 

6 vera laus nisi cum finita est. Veteribus quidem 
etiam dissimulare eloquentiam fuit moriSj idque 
M. Antonius praecipit, quo plus dicentibus fidei 
minusque suspectae advocatorum insidiae forent. 
Sed ilia dissimulari, quae turn erat, potuit ; nondum 
enim tantum dicendi lumen accesserat, ut etiam 
per obstantia erumperet. Quare artes quidem et 
consilia lateant et quidquid, si deprehenditur, perit. 

6 Hactenus eloquentia secretum habet. Verborum 
quidem delectus, gra vitas sententiarum, figurarum 
elegantia aut non sunt aut apparent. Sed vel 
propter hoc ipsum ostendenda non sunt quod 
apparent; aut si unum sit ex duobus eligendum, 
causa potius laudetur quam patronus. Finem tamen 
hunc praestabit orator, ut videatur optimam causam 
optime egisse. Illud certum erit neminem peius 

438 



BOOK XII. IX. 4-6 

will reap a richer recompense than they could ever 
have secured by other means. For so soon as the 
thunders of applause awakened among their admirers 
by these affected declamatory displays have died 
away, the glory of true virtue rises again with 
renewed splendour, the judges do not conceal who 
it is has moved them, the well-trained orator wins 
their belief and oratory receives its only genuine 
tribute, the praise accorded it when its task is done. 
The old orators indeed used to conceal their elo- 6 
quence, a method which is recommended by Marcus 
Antonius, as a means of securing that the speaker's 
words should carry conviction and of masking the 
advocate's real designs. But tlie truth is that the 
eloquence of those days was capable of concealment, 
for it had not yet attained that splendour of diction 
which makes it impossible to hide its light under a 
bushel. Therefore artifice and stratagem should be 
masked, since detection in such cases spells failure. 
Thus far, and thus only, may eloquence hope to enjoy 
the advantages of secrecy. But when we come to 6 
consider the choice of words, the weight essential 
to general reflexions and the elegance demanded by 
figures, we are confronted by elements which must 
either strike the attention or be condemned to non- 
existence. But the very fact that tliey strike the 
attention is a reason why they should not flaunt 
themselves obtrusively. And, if we have to make 
the choice, I should prefer that it should be the 
cause, and not the orator, to which we award our 
praise. Nevertheless, the true orator will achieve 
the distinction of seeming to speak with all the 
excellence that an excellent case deserves. One 
thing may be regarded as certain, that no one can 

439 



QUINTILIAN 

agere quam qui displicente causa placet ; necessc 

7 est enim extra causam sit quod placet. Nee illo 
fastidio laborabit orator non agendi causas minores, 
tanquam infra eum sint aut detractura sit opinioni 
minus liberalis materia. Nam et suscipiendi ratio 
iustissima est officium, et optandum etiam ut amici 
quam minimas lites habeant ; et abunde dixit bene, 
quisquis rei satisfecit. 

8 At quidam, etiamsi forte susceperunt negotia 
paulo ad dicendum tenuiora, extrinsecus adductis 
ea rebus circumlinunt ac, si defecerint alia, conviciis 
implent vacua causarum, si contingit, veris, si minus, 
fictis, mode sit materia ingenii mereaturque clamo- 
rem dum dicitur. Quod ego adeo longe puto ab 
oratore perfecto, ut eum ne vera quidem obiecturum, 

9 nisi id causa exigit, credam. Ea est enim prorsus 
canina, ut ait Appius, eloquentia, cognituram male 
dicendi subire; quod facientibus etiam male audiendi 
praesumenda patientia est. Nam et in ipsos fit 
impetus frequenter, qui egerunt, et certe petulan- 



* A cognitor is one who represents another. The litigant 
may abuse his opponent, but that does not justify his 
advocate in doing so. 



BOOK XII. IX, 6-9 

plead worse than he who wins applause despite the 
disapproval meted out to his case. For the inevitable 
conclusion is that the applause must have been 
evoked by something having no connexion with the 
case. Further, the true orator will not turn up his 7 
nose at cases of minor importance on the ground of 
their being beneath his dignity or as being likely 
to detract from his reputation because the subject 
matter does not allow his genius full scope. For the 
strongest reason for undertaking a case is to be found 
in our duty towards our clients : nay, we should even 
desire the suits in which our friends are involved to 
be as unimportant as possible, and remember that the 
advocate who gives an adequate presentment to his 
case, has spoken exceeding well. 

But there are so ne who, even although the cases 8 
which they have undertaken give but small scope for 
eloquence, none the less trick it out with matter 
drawn from without and, if all else fails, fill up the 
gaps in their case with abuse of their opponents, 
true if possible, but false if necessary, the sole con- 
sideration that weighs with them being that it affords 
exercise for their talents and is likely to win applause 
during its delivery. Such conduct seems to me so 
unworthy of our perfect orator that, in my opinion, 
he will not even bring true charges against his 
opponents unless the case demand. For it is a 9 
dog's eloquence, as Appius says, to undertake the 
task of abusing one's opponent,^ and they who do so 
should steel themselves in advance to the prospect 
of being targets for like abuse themselves, since 
those who adopt this style of pleading are frequently 
attacked themselves, and there can at any rate be 
no doubt that the litigant pays dearly for the violence 



VOL. IV. 



441 



QUINTILIAN 

. tiam patroni litigator luit. Sed haec minora sunt 
ipso illo vitio animi, quod maledicus a malefico non 

10 distat nisi occasione. Turpis voluptas et inhumana 
et nulli audientium bona gratia a litigatoribus 
quidem frequenter exigitur, qui ultionem malunt 
quam defensionem, Sed neque alia multa ad arbi- 
trium eorum facienda sunt. Hoc quidem quis 
hominum liberi modo sanguinis sustineat petulans 

11 esse ad alterius arbitrium? Atqui etiam in ad- 
vocatos partis adversae libenter nonnulli invehuntur; 
quod, nisi si forte meruerunt, et inhumanum est 
respectu communium officiorum, et cum ipsi qui 
dicit inutile (nam idem iuris responsuris datur), tum 
causae contrarium, cui ^ plane adversarii fiunt et 
inimici, et quantulumcunque eis virium est, con- 

12 tumelia augetur. Super omnia perit ilia, quae 
plurimum oratori et auctoritatis et fidei adfert, 
modestia, si a viro bono in rabulam latratoremque 
convertitur, compositus non ad animum iudicis sed 

13 ad stomachum litigatoris. Frequenter etiam species 
libertatis deducere ad temeritatem solet non causis 
modo, sed ipsis quoque, qui dixerunt, periculosam. 

* cui, Halm : qui, B. 
442 



BOOK XII. IX. 9-13 

of his advocate. But such faults are less serious than 
that which lies deep in the soul itself, making the 
evil speaker to differ from the evil doer only in 
respect of opportunity. It is not uncommon for 10 
the litigant to demand a base and inhuman gratifi- 
cation of his rancour, such as not a single man among 
the audience will approve, for it is on revenge rather 
than on protection that his heart is set. But in this, 
as in a number of other p>oints, it is the duty of the 
orator to refuse to comply with his clients' desires. 
For how can a man with the least degree of gentle- 
manly feeling consent to make a brutal attack merely 
because another desires it? And yet there are some 11 
who take pleasure in directing their onslaughts 
against their opponents' counsel as well, a practice 
which, unless they have deserved such attacks, shows 
an inhuman disregard of the duties incumbent on the 
profession, and is not merely useless to the speaker 
(since he thereby gives his opponent the right to 
reply in the same strain), but contrary to the 
interests of his case, since it creates a hostile and 
antagonistic disposition in the advocates attacked, 
whose eloquence, however feeble it may be, will be 
redoubled by resentment at the insults to which 
they have been subjected. Above all, it involves a 12 
complete waste of one of the most valuable of an 
orator's assets, namely that self-restraint which gives 
weight and credit to his words, if he debases him- 
self from an honest man into a snarling wrangler, 
directing all his efforts not to win the goodwill of the 
judge, but to gratify his client's spite. Often too 13 
the attractions of freedom of speech will lure him 
into a rashness of language perilous not merely to 
the interests of the case, but to those of the speaker 

443 



QUINTILIAN 

Nee immerito Pericles solebat optare, ne quod sibi 
verbum in mentem veniret, quo populus offenderetur. 
Sed quod ille de populo, id ego de omnibus sentio, 
qui tantundem possunt nocere. Nam quae fortia 
dum dicuntur videbantur, stulta cum laeserunt 
vocantur. 

14 Nunc, quia varium fere propositum agentium fuit, 
et quorundam cura tarditatis, quorundam facilitas te- 
meritatis crimine laboravit, quem credam fore in hoc 

15 oratoris modum, tradere non alienum videtur. Adferet 
ad dicendum curae semper quantum plurimum po- 
terit. Neque enim hoc solum negligentis, sed mali 
et in suscepta causa perfidi ac proditoris est, peius 
agere quam possit. Ideoque ne suscipiendae quidem 
sunt causae plures quam quibus sufTecturum se sciat. 

16 Dicet scripta quam res patietur plurima et, ut De- 
mosthenes ait, si continget, et sculpta. Sed hoc aut 
primae actiones aut quae in publicis iudiciis post 
interiectos dies dantur permiserint ; at cum protinus 
respondendum est, omnia parari non possunt, adeo 
ut paulo minus promptis etiam noceat scripsisse, si 
alia ex diverso, quam opinati fuerint, occurrerint. 

^ This passage is our sole authority for the saying. 
444 



BOOK XII. IX. 13-16 

himself. It was not without good reason that Peri- 
cles used to pray that no word might occur to his 
mind that could give offence to the people. But 
what he felt with regard to the people, I feel with 
regard to every audience, since they can cause just 
as much harm to the orator as the people could 
ever do to Pericles. For utterances which seemed 
courageous at the moment of speaking, are called 
foolish when it is found that they have given offence. 

In view of the fact that there is commonly a great 14 
variety in the aims which pleaders set before them- 
selves and that the diligence shown by some is 
branded as tedious caution, while the readiness of 
others is criticised as rashness, I think that this will 
be an appropriate place to set forth my views as to 
how the orator may strike the happy mean. He will 15 
show all the diligence of which he is capable in his 
pleading. For to plead worse than he might have 
done, is not merely an indication of negligence, but 
stamps him as a bad man and a traitor, disloyal to the 
cause which he has undertaken. Consequently he 
must refuse to undertake more cases than he feels 
he can manage. As far as possible he will deliver 16 
only what he has written, and, if circumstances 
permit, only what he has, as Demosthenes says,^ 
carved into shape. Such a practice is possible in 
first hearings and also in subsequent hearings such as 
are granted in the public courts after an interval of 
several days. On the other hand, when we have to 
reply on the spot, it is impossible to prepare every- 
thing : in fact for the less ready type of speaker, it 
may, in the event of his opponents putting forward 
arguments quite other than those which they were 
expected to advance, be a positive drawback to have 

445 



QUINTILIAN 

17 Inviti enim recedunt a praeparatis et tola actione re- 
spiciunt requiruntque, num aliquid ex illis intervelli 
atque ex tempore dicendis inseri possit ; quod si fiat, 
non cohaeret nee commissuris modo, ut in opere 
male iuncto, hiantibus sed ipsa coloris inaequalitate 

18 detegitur. Ita nee liber est impetus nee cura con- 
texta, et utrumque alteri obstat ; ilia enim quae 
scripta sunt retinent animum, non sequuntur. Itaque 
in his actionibus omni, ut agricolae dicunt, pede stan- 

19 dum est. Nam cum in propositione ac refutatione 
causa consistat, quae nostrae partis sunt scripta esse 
possunt, quae etiam responsurum adversarium certum 
est (est enim aliquando certum) pari cura refelluntur. 
Ad alia unum paratum adferre possumus, ut causam 
bene noverimus, alterum ibi sumere, ut dicentem 

20 adversarium diligenter audiamus. Licet tamen 
praecogitare plura et animum ad omnes casus compo- 
nere, idque est tutius stilo, quo facilius et omittitur 
446 



BOOK XII. IX. 16-20 

written anything. For it is only with reluctance 17 
that such speakers will under such circumstances 
consent to abandon what they have written, and 
throughout their pleading keep looking back and 
trying to discover whether any portion of their 
manuscript can be saved from the wreck and inter- 
polated into what they have to improvise. And if 
they do make such interpolations, the result is a lack 
of cohesion which is betrayed not merely by the 
gaping of the seams where the patch has been un- 
skilfully inserted, but by the differences of style. 
Consequently, the vigour of their eloquence will be 18 
hampered and their thought will lack connexion, each 
of which circumstances reacts unfavourably upon the 
other, since what is written trammels the mind 
instead of following its lead. Therefore, in such 
pleadings we must, as the rustic adage says, " stand 
on all our feet." For since the case turns on the 19 
propounding and refutation of arguments, it is 
always possible to write out what we propose to 
advance on our own behalf, and similar preparation 
is also possible with regard to the refutation of such 
replies as are absolutely certain to be made by our 
adversary : for there are times when we have this 
certainty. But with regard to all other portions of 
our speech, the only preparation that is possible in 
advance consists in a thorough knowledge of our 
case, while there is a second precaution which may 
be taken in court, consisting in giving our best 
attention to our opponent's speech. On the other 20 
hand, there is much that may be thought out in 
advance and we may forearm our mind against all 
possible emergencies, a course which is far safer 
than writing, since a train of thought can easily be 

447 



QUINTILIAN 

cogitatio et transfertur. Sed sive in respondendo 
fuerit subito dicendum, sive quae alia ita exegerit 
ratio, non oppressum se ac deprehensum credet 
orator, cui disciplina et studium et exercitatio dederit 
21 vires etiam facilitatis ; quem armatum semper ac velut 
in procinctu stantem non magis unquam in causis 
oratio quam in rebus cotidianis ac domesticis serrao 
deficiet, nee se unquam propter hoc oneri subtrahet, 
modo sit causae discendae tempus; nam cetera 
semper sciet. 

X. Superest ut dicam de genere orationis. Hie 
erat propositus a nobis in divisione prima locus ter- 
tius ; nam ita promiseram me de arte, de artifice, de 
opere dicturum. Cum sit autem rhetorices atque 
oratoris opus oratio pluresque eius formae, sicut 
ostendam, in omnibus his et ars est et artifex. Pluri- 
mum tamen invicem differunt ; nee solum specie, ut 
signum signo et tabula tabulae et actio actioni, sed 
genere ipso, ut Graecis Tuscanicae statuae, ut Asianus 
2 eloquens Attico. Suos autem haec operum genera, 
quae dico, ut auctores, sic etiam amatores habent ; 
atque ideo nondum est perfectus orator ac nescio an 
ars ulla, non solum quia aliud in alio magis eminet, 
sed quod non una omnibus forma placuit, partim 

* n. xiv. 5, 
448 



BOOK XII. IX. 2o-.\. 2 

abandoned or diverted in a new direction. But 
whether we have to improvise a reply, or are obliged 
to speak extempore by some other reason, the orator 
on whom training, study and practice have conferred 
the gift of facility, will never regard himself as lost 
or taken at hopeless disadvantage. He stands 21 
armed for battle, ever ready for the fray, and his 
eloquence will no more fail him in the courts than 
speech will fail him in domestic affairs and the daily 
concerns of life : and he will never shirk his burden 
for fear of failing to find words, provided he has time 
to study his case : for all other knowledge will always 
be his at command. 

X. The question of the "kind of style" to be 
adopted remains to be discussed. This was described 
in my original division ^ of my subject as forming its 
third portion : for I promised that I would speak of 
the art, the artist and the work. But since oratory 
is the work both of rhetoric and of the orator, and 
since it has many forms, as I shall show, the art and 
the artist are involved in the consideration of all 
these forms. But they differ greatly from one 
another, and not merely in species, as statue differs 
from statue, picture from picture and speech from 
speech, but in genus as well, as, for example, 
Etruscan statues differ from Greek and Asiatic 
orators from Attic. But these different kinds of 2 
work, of which I speak, are not merely the product 
of different authors, but have each their own follow- 
ing of admirers, with the result that the perfect 
orator has not yet been found, a statement which 
perhaps may be extended to all arts, not merely 
because some qualities are more evident in some 
artists than in others, but because one single form 

449 



QUINTILIAN 

condicione vel temporum vel locorum, partim iudicio 
cuiusque atque proposito. 

3 Primi, quorum quidem opera non vetustatis modo 
gratia visenda sunt, clari pictores fuisse diountur 
Polygnotus atque Aglaopbon, quorum simplex color 
tam sui studiosos adhuc habet, ut ilia prope rudia 
ac velut futurae mox artis primordia maximis, qui 
post eos exstiterunt, auctoribus praeferant, proprio 
quodam intelligendi, ut mea opinio est, ambitu. 

4 Post Zeuxis atque Parrhasius non multum aetate 
distantes, circa Peloponnesia ambo tempora (nam 
cum Parrhasio sermo Socratis apud Xenophontem 
invenitur) plurimum arti addiderunt. Quorum prior 
luminum umbrarumque invenisse rationem, secundus 

5 examinasse subtilius lineas traditur. Nam Zeuxis 
plus membris corporis dedit, id amplius atque 
augustius ratus atque, ut existimant, Homerum 
secutus, cui validissima quaeque forma etiam in 
feminis placet. I lie vero ita circumscripsit omnia, 
ut eum legum latorem vocent, quia deorum atque 
heroum effigies, quales ab eo sunt traditae, ceteri, 

6 tanquam ita necesse sit, sequuntur. Floruit autem 
circa Philippum et usque ad successores Alexandri 



^ Of the painters mentioned in this and the following 
sections Polygnotus of Thasos, son of Aglaophon, painted ab 
Athens in the middle of the 5th century B.C. Zeuxis of 
Heraclea and Parrhasius of Ephesus flourished 420-390, while 
the remainder are painters of the 4th century. Of these 
Pamphilus of Sicyon was the teacher of Melanthius and 
Apelles, the latter being the most famous painter of antiquity. 

'^ Meinor. m. x. 1. 

' I.e. by giving them roundness and solidity by his treat- 
ment of light and shade, 

45° 



BOOK XII. X. 2-6 

will not satisfy all critics, a fact which is due in 
part to conditions of time or place, in part to the 
taste and ideals of individuals. 

The first great painters, whose works deserve 3 
inspection for something more than their mere 
antiquity, are said to have been Polygnotus and 
Aglaophon,^ whose simple colouring has still such 
enthusiastic admirers that they prefer these almost 
primitive works, which may be regarded as the first 
foundations of the art that was to be, over the works 
of the greatest of their successors, their motive 
being, in my opinion, an ostentatious desire to seem 
persons of superior taste. Later Zeuxis and Par- 4 
rhasius contributed much to the progress of painting. 
These artists were sepai-ated by no great distance of 
time, since both flourished about the period of the 
Peloponnesian war : for example, Xenophon ^ has 
preserved a conversation between Socrates and 
Parrhasius. The first-mentioned seems to have 
discovered the method of representing light and 
shade, while the latter is said to have devoted 
special attention to the treatment of line. For 6 
Zeuxis emphasised the limbs of the human body,^ 
thinking thereby to add dignity and grandeur to 
his style : it is generally supposed that in this he 
followed the example of Homer, who likes to 
represent even his female characters as being of 
heroic mould. Parrhasius, on the other hand, was 
so fine a draughtsman that he has been styled the 
law-giver of his art, on the ground that all other 
artists take his representations of gods and heroes as 
models, as though no other course were possible. 
It was, however, from about the period of the reign 8 
of Philip down to that of the successors of Alexander 

451 



QUINTILIAN 

pictura praecipue, sed diversis virtutibus. Nam 
cura Protogenes, ratione Pamphilus ac Melanthius, 
facilitate Antiphilus, concipiendis visionibus, quas 
<f>avTaaias vocant, Theon Samius, ingenio et gratia, 
quam in se ipse maxirne iactat, Apelles est prae- 
stantissimus. Euphranorem admirandum facit, quod 
et ceteris optimis studiis inter praecipuos et pingendi 
fingendique idem mirus artifex fuit. 

7 Similis in statuariis differentia.^ Nam duriora et 
Tuscanicis proxima Gallon atque Hegesias, iam minus 
rigida Calamis, molliora adhuc supra dictis Myron 
fecit. Diligentia ac decor in Polyclito supra ceteros, 
cui quanquam a plerisque tribuitur palma, tamen, ne 

8 nihil detrahatur, deesse pondus putant. Nam ut 
humanae formae decorem addiderit supra verum, ita 
non explevisse deorum auctoritatem videtur. Quin 
aetatem quoque graviorem dicitur refugisse nihil 
ausus ultra leves genas. At quae Polyclito defue- 

9 runt, Phidiae atque Alcameni dantur. Phidias ta- 
men diis quam hominibus effingendis ^ melior artifex 
creditur in ebore vero longe citra aemulum, vel si 

^ statuariis, Christ : statuis, MSS. 

* effingendis, Dukerus : efficiendis, MSS. 



* Gallon of Aegina and Hegesias flourished in the latter 
years of the 6th century. Calamis of Athens and Myron of 
Eleutherae, first half of 5th centurj'. Phidias of Athens and 
Polyclitus of Argos, the two most famous sculptors of the 
second half of 5th century. Praxiteles, middle of 4th 
century. Lysippus and Demetrius, last half of 4th century. 

45 « 



BOOK XII. X. 6-9 

that painting flourished more especially, although 
the different artists are distinguished for different 
excellences. Protogenes, for example, was renowned 
for accuracy, Pamphilus and Melanthius for sound- 
ness of taste, Antiphilus for facility, Theon of Samos 
for his depiction of imaginary scenes, known as 
<fiavT(L(Tiai, and Apelles for genius and grace, in the 
latter of which qualities he took especial pride. 
Euphranor, on the other hand, was admired on the 
ground that, while he ranked with the most eminent 
masters of other arts, he at the same time achieved 
marvellous skill in the arts of sculpture and painting. 

The same differences exist between sculptors. The 7 
art of Gillon and Hegesias ^ is somewhat rude and 
recalls the Etruscans, but the work of Calamis has 
already begun to be less stiff, while Myron's statues 
show a greater softness of form than had been 
achieved by the artists just mentioned. Polyclitus 
surpassed all others for care and grace, but although 
the majority of critics account him as the greatest 
of sculptors, to avoid making him faultless they 
express the opinion that his work is lacking in 
grandeur. For while he gave the human form an 8 
ideal grace, he is thought to have been less success- 
ful in representing the dignity of the gods. He is 
further alleged to have shrunk from representing 
persons of maturer years, and to have ventured on 
nothing more difficult than a smooth and beardless 
face. But the qualities lacking in Polyclitus are 
allowed to have been possessed by Phidias and 
Alcamenes. On the other hand, Phidias is regarded 9 
as more gifted in his representation of gods than of 
men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is 
without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he 

453 



QUINTILIAN 

nihil nisi Minervam Athenis aut Olympium in Elide 
lovem fecisset, cuius pulchritude adiecisse aliquid 
etiam receptae religioni videtur ; adeo maiestas 
operis deum aequavit. Ad veritatem Lysippum ac 
Praxitelen accessisse optime adfirmant. Nam Deme- 
trius tanquam nimius in ea reprehenditur et fuit 
similitudinis quam pulchritudinis amantior. 

10 In oratione vero si species intueri velis^ totidem 
paene reperias ingeniorum quot corporum formas. 
Sed fuere quaedam genera dicendi condicione tem- 
porum horridiora, alioqui magnam iam ingenii vim 
prae se ferentia. Hinc sint Laelii, Africani, Catones 
etiam Gracchique, quos tu licet Polygnotos vel 
Callonas appelles. Mediam illam formam teneant L. 

1 1 Crassus, Q. Hortensius. Tum deinde efflorescat non 
multum inter se distantium tempore oratorum ingens 
proventus. Hie vim Caesaris, indolem Caelii, sub- 
tilitatem Calidii, diligentiam Pollionis, dignitatem 
Messalae, sanctitatem Calvi, gravitatem Bruti, acu- 
men Sulpicii, acerbitatem Cassii reperiemus ; in iis 
etiam, quos ipsi vidimus, copiam Senecae, vires 
Africani, maturitatem Afri, iucunditatem Crispi, 

12 sonum Trachali, elegantiam Secundi. At M. 
454 



BOOK XII. X. 9-i» 

had produced nothing in this material beyond his 
Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in 
Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have 
added something even to the awe with which the 
god was already regarded : so perfectly did the 
majesty of the work give the impression of godhead. 
Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme 
as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is 
blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less 
concerned about the beauty than the truth of his 
work. 

Now, if we turn our attention to the various styles 10 
of oratory, we shall find almost as great variety of 
talents as there are of personal appearance. There 
were certain kinds of oratory which, owing to the 
circumstances of the age, suffered from lack of polish, 
although in other respects they displayed remarkable 
genius. In this class we may place orators such as 
Laelius, Africanus, Cato, and even the Gracchi, 
whom we may call the " Polygnoti " and " Callones " 
of oratory. Among orators of the intermediate 11 
type we may rank Lucius Crassus and Quintus 
Hortensius. Then let us turn to a vast harvest of 
orators who flourished much about the same period. 
It is here that we find the vigour of Caesar, the 
natural talent of Caelius, the subtlety of Calidius, 
the accuracy of PoUio, the dignity of Messala, the 
austerity of Calvus, the gravity of Brutus, the acumen 
of Sulpicius and the bitterness of Cassius, while 
among those whom we have seen ourselves we 
admire the fluency of Seneca, the strength of Afri- 
canus, the mellowness of Afer, the charm of Crispus, 
the sonority of Trachalus and the elegance of Se- 
cundus. But in Cicero we have one who is not, 12 

455 



QUINTILIAN 

Tullium non ilium habemus Euphranorem circa plures 
artium species praestantem^ sed in omnibus, quae in 
quoque laudantur, eminentissimum. Quem tamen et 
suorum homines temporum incessere audebant ut 
tumidiorem et Asianum et redundantem et in re- 
petitionibus nimium et in salibus aliquando frigidum 
et in compositione fractum, exultantem ac paene, 

13 quod procul absit, viro molliorem ; postea vero quam 
triumvirali proscriptione consumptus est, passim qui 
oderant, qui invidebant qui aemulabantur, adulatores 
etiam praesentis potentiae non responsurum in- 
vaserunt. Ille tamen, qui ieiunus a quibusdam et 
aridus habetur, non aliter ab ipsis inimicis male audire 
quam nimiis floribus et ingenii affluentia potuit. 
Falsum utrumque, sed tamen ilia mentiendi propior 

14 oceasio. Praecipue vero presserunt eum, qui videri 
Atticorum imitatores concupierant. Haec manus 
quasi quibusdam sacris initiata ut alienigenam et 
parum superstitiosum devinctumque illis legibus 
insequebatur ; unde nunc quoque aridi et exsuci et 

15 exangues. Hi sunt enim, qui suae imbecillitati sa- 
nitatis appellationem, quae est maxime contraria, 
obtendant; qui, quia clariorem vim eloquentiae 
velut solem ferre non possunt, umbra magni nominis 
delitescunt. Quibus quia multa et pluribus locis 

» Cp. X. i. 105 jg-. • /. «. Attic 



BOOK XII. X. 12-15 

like Euphranorj merely distinguished in a number 
of different forms of art, but is supreme in all the 
different qualities which are praised in each individual 
orator.i And yet even his own contemporaries 
ventured to attack him on the ground that he was 
bombastic, Asiatic, redundant, given to excessive 
repetition, liable at times to be pointless in his 
witticisms, sensuous, extravagant and (an outrageous 
accusation !) almost effeminate in his rhythm. And 13 
later, after he had fallen a victim to the proscrip- 
tion of the second triumvirate, those who hated 
and envied him and regarded him as their rival, nay, 
even those who had flattered him in the days of his 
power, attacked him now that he could no longer 
reply. But that very man, who is now regarded 
by some as being too jejune and dry, was attacked 
by his personal enemies on no other ground than 
that his style was too florid and his talents too little 
under control. Both charges are false, but there is 
more colour for the lie in the latter case than in 
the former. Those, however, who criticised him 14 
most severely were the speakers who desired to be 
regarded as the imitators of Attic oratory. This 
coterie, regarding themselves as the sole initiates in 
the mysteries of their art, assailed him as an alien, 
indifferent to their superstitions and refusing to be 
bound by their laws. Their descendants are among 
us to-day, a withered, sapless and anaemic band. 
For it is they that flaunt their weakness under the 15 
name of health, in defiance of the actual truth, and 
because they cannot endure the dazzling rays of the 
sun of eloquence, hide themselves beneath the 
shadow of a mighty name.^ However, as Cicero him- 
self answered them at length and in a number of 

457 



QUINTILIAN 

Cicero ipse respondit, tutior mihi de hoc disserendi 
brevitas erit. 

16 Et antiqua quidem ilia divisio inter Atticos atque 
Asianos fuit, cum hi pressi et integri, contra inflati 
illi et inanes haberentur, in his nihil superflueret, 
illis iudicium maxime ac modus deesset. Quod 
quidam, quorum et Santra est, hoc putant accidisse, 
quod, paulatim sermone Graeco in proximas Asiae 
civitates influente, nondum satis periti loquendi 
facundiam concupierint, ideoque ea, quae proprie 
signari poterant, circuitu coeperint enuntiare ac 

17 deinde in eo perse verarint. Mihi autem orationis 
differentiam fecisse et dicentium et audientium 
naturae videntur, quod Attici limati quidam et 
emuncti nihil inane aut redundans ferebant, Asiana 
gens tumidior alioqui atque iactantior vaniore etiam 

18 dicendi gloria inflata est. Tertium mox, qui haec 
dividebant, adiecerunt genus Rhodium, quod velut 
medium esse atque ex utroque mixtum volunt ; 
neque enim Attice pressi neque Asiane sunt abund- 
antes, ut aliquid habere videantur gentis, aliquid 

19 auctoris. Aeschines enim, qui hunc exilio delegerat 

458 



BOOK XII. X. 15-19 

passages, it will be safer for me to be brief in my 

treatment of this topic. 

The distinction between the Attic and the Asiatic 16 
schools takes us back to antiquity. The former were 
regarded as concise and healthy, the latter as empty 
and inflated : the former were remarkable for the 
absence of all superfluity, while the latter were 
deficient alike in taste and restraint. The reason 
for this division, according to some authorities, 
among them Santra, is to be found in the fact that, 
as Greek gradually extended its range into the 
neighbouring cities of Asia, there arose a class of 
men who desired to distinguish themselves as orators 
before they had acquired sufficient command of the 
language, and who consequently began to express 
by periphrases what could have been expressed 
directly, until finally this practice became an in- 
grained habit. My o\vn view, however, is that the 17 
difference between the two styles is attributable to 
the character both of the orators and the audiences 
whom they addressed : the Athenians, with their 
polish and refinement, refused to tolerate emptiness 
and redundance, while the Asiatics, being naturally 
given to bombast and ostentation, were puffed up 
with a passion for a more vainglorious style of 
eloquence. At a later period, the critics, to whom 18 
we owe this classification, added a third style, the 
Rhodian, which they asserted to lie midway between 
the two and to be a blend of both, since the orators 
of this school are neither so concise as the Attic nor 
redundant like the Asiatic school, but appear to 
derive their style in part from their national char- 
acteristics, in part from those of their founder. For 19 
it was Aeschines who introduced the culture of 

459 



QUINTILIAN 

locum, intulit eo studia Athenarum, quae, velut sata 
quaedam caelo terraque degenerant, saporem ilium 
Atticum peregrino miscuerunt. Lenti ergo quidam 
ac remissi, non sine pondere tamen neque fontibus 
puris neque torrentibus turbidis, sed lenibus stagnis 
similes habentur. 

20 Nemo igitur dubitaverit, longe esse optimum genus 
Atticorum. In quo ut est aliquid inter ipsos com- 
mune, id est iudicium acre tersumque, ita ingeni- 

21 orum plurimae formae. Quapropter mihi falli multum 
videntur, qui solos esse Atticos credunt tenues et 
lucidos et significantes sed quadam eloquentiae fru- 
galitate contentos ac semper manum intra pallium 
continentes. Nam quis erit hie Atticus ? Sit 
Lysias ; hunc enim amplectuntur amatores istius 
nominis modum. Non igitur iam usque ad Coccum 
et Andocidem remittemur. Interrogare tamen velim, 

22 an Isocrates Attice dixerit. Nihil enim tam est 
Lysiae diversum. Negabunt. At eius schola prin- 
cipes oratorum dedit. Quaeratur similius aliquid. 
Hyperides Atticus? Certe, at plus indulsit volup- 
tati. Transeo plurimos, Lycurgum, Aristogitona et 

* The only Coccus known to us is stated by Suidas to 
have been a pupil of Isocrates, whereas we should here 
have expected Quintilian to refer to some orator of the 
5th century contemporary with Andocides (closing decades 
of 4th century). 

460 



BOOK XII. X. 19-22 

Athens at Rhodes, which he had chosen as his place 
of exile : and just as certain plants degenerate as a 
result of change of soil and climate, so the fine Attic 
flavour was marred by the admixture of foreign 
ingredients. Consequently certain of the orators of 
this school are regarded as somewhat slow and 
lacking in energy, though not devoid of a certain 
weight, and as resembling placid pools rather than 
the limpid springs of Athens or the turbid torrents 
of Asia. 

No one therefore should have any hesitation in 20 
pronouncing Attic oratory to be by far the best. But 
although all Attic writers have something tn com- 
mon, namely a keen and exact judgement, their 
talents manifest themselves in a number of different 
forms. Consequently I regard those critics as com- 21 
mitting a serious error who regard only those 
authors as Attic who, while they are simple, lucid 
and expressive, are none the less content with a 
certain frugality of eloquence, and keep their hands 
modestly within the folds of their cloaks. For what 
author is there who answers to this conception ? I 
am prepared to grant that there is Lysias, since he 
is the favourite model of the admirers of this school, 
and such an admission will save us from being 
referred to Coccus^ and Andocides. But I should like 22 
to ask whether Isocrates spoke in the Attic style. 
For there is no author less like Lysias. They will 
answer in the negative. And yet it is to the school 
of Isocrates that we owe the greatest orators. Let 
us look for something closer. Is Hyperides 
Attic .'' Yes, they reply, but of an over-sensuous 
character. I pass by a number of orators, such as 
Lycurgus and Aristogeiton and their predecessors 

461 



QUINTILIAN 

his priores Isaeum, Antiphonta ; quos ut homines 
inter se genera similes, differentes dixeris specie. 

23 Quid ille, cuius modo fecimus mentionem, Aeschines ? 
nonne his latior et audentior et excelsior ? Quid 
denique Demosthenes ? non cunctos illos tenues et 
circumspectos vi, sublimitate, irapetu, cultu, coni- 
positione superavit ? non insurgit locis ? non figuris 
gaudet? non translationibus nitet? non oratione 

24 ficta dat tacentibus vocem ? non illud iusiurandum 
per caesos in Marathone ac Salamine propugnatores 
rei publicae satis manifesto docet praeceptorem eius 
Platonem fuisse ? quem ipsum num Asianum appel- 
labimus plerumque instinctis divino spiritu vatibus 
comparandum ? Quid Periclea ? similemne credimus 
Lysiacae gracilitati, quem fulminibus et caelesti 
fragori comparant comici, dum illi conviciantur ? 

25 Quid est igitur, cur in iis demum, qui tenui venula 
per calculos fluunt, Atticum saporem putent, ibi 
demum thymum redolere dicant ? Quos ego ex- 
istimo, si quod in iis finibus uberius invenerint solum 
fertilioremve segetem, negaturos Atticam esse, quod 
plus, quam acceperit, seminis reddat, quia banc eius 

26 terrae fidem Menander eludit. Ita nunc, si quis ad 
eas Demosthenis virtutes, quas ille summus orator 

* Georg. 35 sqq. (Koerte) ; 4ire'5wK«i' hp&Sis koI SiKaiws, ou 
vKfov, I dAA' wrh rh fifrpoy. 

462 



BOOK XII. X. 22-26 

Isaeus and Antiphon ; for though they have a certjiin 
generic resemblance, they may be said to differ in 
species. But what of Aeschines, whom I mentioned 23 
just now ? Is not his style ampler and bolder and 
more lofty than theirs ? And what of Demosthenes 
himself? Did not he surpass all those simple and 
circumspect orators in force, loftiness, energy, polish 
and rhythm ? Does he not rise to great heights in 
his commonplaces ? Does he not rejoice in the employ- 
ment of figures ? Does he not make brilliant use of 
metaphor? Does he not lend a voice, a fictitious 
utterance to speechless things ? Does not his famous 24 
oath by the warriors who fell fighting for their country 
at Salamis and Marathon show that Plato was his 
master? And shall we call Plato an Asiatic, Plato 
who as a rule deserves comparison with poets instinct 
with the divine fire of inspiration ? What of Pericles ? 
Can we believe that his style was like the slender 
stream of Lysias' eloquence, when the comedians, 
even while they revile him, compare his oratory to 
the bolts and thunder of the skies ? What is the 25 
reason, then, why these critics regard that style 
which flows in a slender trickle and babbles among 
the pebbles as having the true Attic flavour and 
the true scent of Attic thyme ? I really think that, 
if they were to discover a soil of exceptional richness 
and a crop of unusual abundance within the boundaries 
of Attica, they would deny it to be Attic, on the 
ground that it has produced more seed than it 
received : for you will remember the mocking com- 
ments passed by Menander^ on the exact fidelity 
with which the soil of Attica repays its deposits. 
Well, then, if any man should, in addition to the 26 
actual virtues which the great orator Demosthenes 

463 



QUINTILIAN 

habuit, tamen quae defuisse ei sive ipsius natura seu 
lege civitatis videntufj adiecei'it, ut adfectus con- 
eitatius moveat, audiam dicentem, Non fecit hoc 
Demosthenes ? et si quid numeris exierit aptius (for- 
tasse non possit, sed tamen si quid exierit) non erit 
Atticum ? Melius de hoc nomine sentiant credantque 
Attice dicere esse optime dicere. 

27 Atque in hae tamen opinione perseverantes 
Graecos magis tulerim. Latina mihi facundia, ut 
inventionej dispositione, consilio, ceteris huius gene- 
ris artibus similis Graecae ac prorsus discipula eius 
videtur, ita circa rationem eloquendi vix habere 
imitationis locum. Namque est ipsis statim sonis 
durior, quando et iucundissimas ex Graecis litteras 
non habemus, vocalem alteram, alteram consonantem, 
quibus nullae apud eos dulcius spirant ; quas mutuari 

28 solemus, quotiens illorum nominibus utimur. Quod 
cum contingit, nescio quomodo hilarior protinus 
renidet oratio, ut in Zephyris et Zophoris. Quae si 
nostris litteris scribantur, surdum quiddam et bar- 
barum efficient, et velut in locum earum succedunt 

29 tristes et horridae, quibus Graecia caret. Nam et 
ilia, quae est sexta nostrarum, paene non humana 

1 See n. xvi. 4. Qiiintilian alludes to an alleged law for- 
bidding Athenian orators to appeal to the emotions in the 
law courts. ^ * and T. 

' Friezes. * F and U ; ze/uri and zo/ori, 

464 



BOOK XII. X. 26-29 

possessed, show himself to be the possessor of others, 
that either owing to his own temperament or the 
laws of Athens ^ Demosthenes is thought to have 
lacked, and should reveal in himself the power of 
strongly stirring the emotions, shall I hear one of 
these critics protesting that Demosthenes never did 
this? And if he produces something rhythmically 
superior (an impossible feat, perhaps, but let us 
assume it to be so), are we to be told that it is not 
Attic? These critics would show finer feeling and 
better judgement, if they took the view that Attic 
eloquence meant perfect eloquence. 

Still I should find this attitude less intolerable if 27 
it were only the Greeks that insisted on it. For Latin 
eloquence, although in my opinion it closely resembles 
the Greek as far as invention, arrangement, judge- 
ment and the like are concerned, and may indeed be 
regarded as its disciple, cannot aspire to imitate it 
in point of elocution. For, in the first place, it is 
harsher in sound, since our alphabet does not contain 
the most euphonious of the Greek letters, one a 
vowel and the other a consonant,^ than which there 
are none that fall more sweetly on the ear, and 
which we are forced to borrow whenever we use 
Greek words. The result of such borrowing is, for 28 
some reason or other, the immediate accession to 
our language of a certain liveliness and charm. 
Take, for example, words such as zephyri and zophori : * 
if they were spelt according to the Latin alphabet, 
they would produce a heavy and barbarous sound. 
For we replace these letters by others of a harsh 
and unpleasant character,* from which Greece is 
happily immune. For the sixth letter in our alphabet 29 
is represented by a sound which can scarcely be 

465 



QUINTILIAN 

voce vel omnino non voce potius inter discrimina 
dentium efflanda est ; quae, etiam cum vocalem 
proxima accipit, quassa quodammodo, utique quotiens 
aliquam consonantium frangit, ut in hoc ipso J rangit, 
multo fit liorridior. Aeolicae quoque litterae, qua 
Servian cei-viitnque dicimus, etiamsi forma a nobis 
repudiata est, vis tamen nos ipsa persequitur, 

30 Duras et ilia syllabas facit, quae ad coniungendas 
demum subiectas sibi vocales est utilis, alias super- 
vacua, ut equos liao et aequum scribimus ; cum etiam 
ipsae hae vocales duae efficiant sonum, qualis apud 
Graecos nullus est, ideoque scribi illorum litteris 

31 non potest. Quid ? quod pleraque nos ilia quasi 
mugiente M ^ litteracludimus in quam^ nullum Graece 
verbum cadit: at illi ny iucundam et in fine praecipue 
quasi tinnientem illius loco ponunt, quae est apud 

32 nos rarissima in clausulis. Quid? quod syllabae 
nostrae in B litteram et D innituntur adeo aspere, 
ut plerique non antiquissimorum quidem, sed tamen 
veterum mollire temptaverint non solum aversa pro 
abversis dicendo, sed et in praepositione B litterae 

33 absonam et ipsam S subiiciendo. Sed accentus 
quoque, cum rigore quodam, turn similitudine ipsa. 



^ M added by Halm. 

' quam, Halm : qua, MSS. 



^ cp. I. iv. 11. 

* A sound approximating to our W. 

8 The sound of Q in itself does not differ from C. It 
would therefore be useless, save as an indication that U and 
another vowel are to follow. The U in this combination 
following Q was, as Donatus later pointed out, "neither a 
vowel nor a consonant," i.e. it was something between U 
andV. 



466 



BOOK XII. X. 29-33 

called human or even articulate, being produced by 
forcing the air through the interstices of the teeth. 
Such a sound, even when followed by a vowel, is 
harsh enough and, as often as it clashes (^frangit) 
with a consonant,^ as it does in this very word 
frangit, becomes harsher still. Then there is the 
Aeolic digamma whose sound occurs in words such 
as our serviis and cerviis ; for even though we have 
rejected the actual form of the letter, we cannot 
get rid of that which it represents. ^ Similarly the 30 
letter Q, which is superfluous and useless save for 
the purpose of attaching to itself the vowels by 
which it is followed, results in the formation of 
harsh syllables, as, for example, when we write eqtios 
and aequum, more especially since these two vowels 
together produce a sound for which Greek has no 
equivalent and which cannot therefore be expressed 
in Greek letters.^ Again, we have a number of 31 
words which end with M, a letter which suggests 
the mooing of a cow, and is never the final letter 
in any Greek word : for in its place they use the 
letters ny, the sound of which is naturally pleasant 
and produces a ringing tone when it occurs at the 
end of a word, whereas in Latin this termination is 
scarcely ever found. Again, we have syllables which 32 
produce such a harsh effect by ending in B and 
D, that many, not, it is true, of our most ancient 
writers, but still writers of considerable antiquity, 
have attempted to mitigate the harshness not merely 
by saying aversa for abversa, but by adding an S 
to the preposition ab, although S is an ugly letter 
in itself. Our accents also are less agreeable than 33 
those of the Greeks. This is due to a certain rigidity 
and monotony of pronunciation, since the final 

467 



QUINTILIAN 

minus suaves habemus, quia ultima syllaba nee aeuta 
unquam excitatur nee flexa circumdueitur, sed in 
gravem vel duas graves cadit semper. Itaque tanto 
est sermo Graecus Latino iueundior, ut nostri poetae, 
quotiens dulce carmen esse voluerint, illorum id 

34 nominibus exornent. His ilia potentiora, quod res 
plurimae carent appellationibus, ut eas necesse sit 
transferre aut cii'cumire ; etiam in iis, quae de- 
nominata sunt^ summa paupertas in eadem nos 
frequentissime revolvit ; at illis non verborum modo, 
sed linguarum etiam inter se differentium copia 
est. 

35 Quare qui a Latinis exiget illam gratiam sermonis 
Attici, det mihi in eloquendo eandem iucunditatem 
et parem copiam. Quod si negatum est, sententias 
aptabimus iis vocibus quas habemus, nee rerum 
nimiam tenuitatem, ut non dicam pinguioribus, 
fortioribus certe verbis miscebimus, ne virtus utraque 

36 pereat ipsa confusione. Nam quo minus adiuvat 
sermo, rerum inventione pugnandum est. Sensus 
sublimes variique eruantur. Permovendi omnes 
adfectus erunt, oratio translationum nitore illumi- 
nanda. Non possumus esse tam graciles : simus 
fortiores. Subtilitate vincimur : valeamus pondere. 
Proprietas penes illos est certior : eopia vincamus. 



* /. e. the last syllable and often the last two syllables 
have the grave accent. See I. v. 22 sqq. 

* I.e. because the names are not wholly adequate and 
there are no satisfactory synonyms. 

468 



BOOK XII. X. 33-36 

syllable is never marked by the rise of the acute 
accent nor by the rise and fall of the circumflex, but 
one or even two grave accents ^ are regularly to be 
found at the end. Consequently the Greek language 
is so much more agreeable in sound than the Latin, 
that our poets, whenever they wish their verse to 
be especially harmonious, adorn it with Greek words. 
A still stronger indication of the inferiority of Latin 34 
is to be found in the fact that there are many things 
which have no Latin names, so that it is necessary 
to express them by metaphor or periphrasis, while 
even in the case of things which have names, the 
extreme poverty of the language leads us to resort 
to the same practice.^ On the other hand, the 
Greeks have not merely abundance of words, but 
they have also a number of different dialects. 

Consequently he who demands from Latin the 35 
grace of Attic Greek, must first provide a like 
charm of tone and equal richness of vocabulary. If 
this advantage is denied us, we must adapt our 
thoughts to suit the words we have and, where our 
matter is unusually slight and delicate, must avoid 
expressing it in words which are, I will not say too 
gross, but at any rate too strong for it, for fear that 
the combination should result in the destruction 
both of delicacy and force. For the less help we 36 
get from the language, the more must we rely on 
inventiveness of thought to bring us through the 
conflict. We must discover sentiments full of lofti- 
ness and variety, must stir all the emotions and 
illumine our style by brilliance of metaphor. Since 
we cannot be so delicate, let us be stronger. If 
they beat us for subtlety, let us prevail by weight, 
and if they have greater precision, let us outdo 

469 



QUINTILIAN 

37 Ingenia Graecorum etiam minora suos portus ha- 
bent : nos plerumque maioribus velis movemur, 
validior spiritus nostros sinus tendat ; non tamen 
alto semper feremur^ nam et litora interim sequenda 
sunt, nils facilis per quaelibet vada accessus ; ego 
aliquid, non multo tamen, altius, in quo mea cumba 

38 non sidat, inveniam. Neque enim, si tenuiora haec 
ac pressiora Graeci melius, in eoque vincimur solo et 
ideo in comoediis non contendimus, prorsus tamen 
omittenda pars haec orationis, sed exigenda ut 
optime possumus ; possumus autem rerum et modo 
et iudicio esse similes, verborum gratia, quam in 

39 ipsis non habemus, extrinsecus condienda est. An 
non in privatis et acutus et indistinctus et non super 
modum elatus M. Tullius? non in M. Calidio 
insignis haec virtus ? non Scipio, Laelius, Cato in 
eloquendo velut Attici Romanorum fuerunt? Cui 
porro non satis est, quo nihil esse melius potest ? 

40 Adhuc quidam nullam esse naturalem putant 
eloquentiam, nisi quae sit cotidiano sermoni simil- 
lima, quo cum amicis, coniugibus, liberis, servis 
loquamur, contento promere animi voluntatem 
nihilque arcessiti et elaborati requirente; quid- 

* Owing to the subtlety and delicacy of the Greek 
language even second-rate talent will be able to win dis- 
tinction in dealing with minor things. But the coarser and 
more full-blooded nature of Latin makes this difficult. 

470 



BOOK XII. X. 36-40 

them in fullness of expression. Even the lesser 37 
orators of Greece have their own havens where they 
may ride in safety,^ while we as a rule carry more 
sail. Let stronger gales fill our canvas, and yet let 
us not always keep the high seas ; for at times we 
must cling to shore. The Greeks can easily traverse 
any shallows ; I must find a deeper, though not 
much deeper, channel, that my bark may not run 
aground. For even though the Greeks surpass us 38 
where circumstances call for delicacy and restraint, 
though we acknowledge their superiority in this 
respect alone, and therefore do not claim to rival 
them in comedy, that is no justification for our 
abandonment of this department of oratory, but 
rather a reason why we should handle it as best we 
can. Now we can at any rate resemble the Greeks 
in the method and judgement with which we treat 
our matter, although that grace of language, which 
our words cannot provide, must be secured by the 
admixture of foreign condiments. For example, is 39 
not Cicero shrewd, simple and not unduly exalted 
in tone, when he deals with private cases .'' Is not 
Calidius also distinguished for the same virtue ? 
Were not Scipio, Laelius and Cato the Attic orators 
of Rome ? Surely we ought to be satisfied with 
them, since nothing can be better. 

There are still some critics who deny that any 40 
form of eloquence is purely natural, except that 
which closely resembles the ordinary speech of every- 
day life, which we use to our friends, our wives, our 
children and our slaves, a language, that is to say, 
which contents itself with expressing the purpose 
of the mind without seeking to discover anything 
in the way of elaborate and far-fetched phraseology. 

471 



QUINTILIAN 

quid hue sit adiectum, id esse adfectationis et 
ambitiosae in loquendo iactantiae, remotum a veri- 
tate fictumque ipsorum gratia verborum, quibus 
solum natura sit officium attributum, servire 

41 sensibus : sicut athletarum corpora, etiamsi validiora 
fiant exercitatione et lege quadam ciboruni, non 
tamen esse naturalia atque ab ilia specie, quae sit 
concessa homiuibus, abhorrere. Quid enim, inquiunt, 
attinet circuitu res ostendere et translationibus, id 
est aut pluribus aut alienis verbis, cum sua cuique 

42 sint adsignata nomina ? Denique antiquissimum 
quemque maxime secundum naturam dixisse con- 
tendunt : mox poetis similiores exstitisse, etiamsi 
parcius, simili tamen ratione, falsa et impropria 
virtutes ducentes. Qua in disputatione nonnihil 
veri est, ideoque non tam procul, quam fit a quibus- 

43 dam, recedendum a propriis atque communibus. Si 
quis tamen, ut in loco dixi compositionis, ad neces- I 
saria, quibus nihil minus est, aliquid melius adiecerit, 
non erit hac calumnia reprehendendus. Nam mihi 
aliam quandam videtur habere naturam sermo 
vulgaris, aliam viri eloquentis oratio ; cui si res 
modo indicare satis esset, nihil ultra verborum 

^ XI. ch. 4. 
472 



BOOK XIL X. 40-43 

And they hold that whatever is added to this 
simplicity lays the speaker open to the charge of 
affectation and pretentious ostentation of speech, 
void of all sincerity and elaborated merely for the 
sake of the words, although the sole duty assigned 
to words by nature is to be the servants of thought. 
Such language may be compared to the bodies of 41 
athletes, which although they develop their strength 
by exercise and diet, are of unnatural growth and 
abnormal in appearance. For what, say these critics, 
is the good of expressing a thing by periphrasis or 
metaphor (that is, either by a number of words or 
by words which have no connexion with the thing), 
when everything has been allotted a name of its 
own .'' Finally, they urge that all the earliest orators 42 
spoke according to the dictates of nature, but that 
subsequently there arose a class of speakers re- 
sembling poets rather than orators, who regarded 
false and artificial methods of expression as positive 
merits ; they were, it is true, more sparing than 
the poets in their use of such expressions, but none 
the less worked on similar lines. There is some 
truth in this contention, and we should therefore 
be careful not to depart from the more exact usage 
of ordinary speech to the extent that is done by 
certain orators. On the other hand, that is no 43 
reason for thus calumniating the man who, as I said 
in dealing with the subject of artistic structure,^ 
succeeds in improving upon the bare necessaries ot 
style. For the common language of every day seems 
to me to be of a different character from the style 
of an eloquent speaker. If all that was required of 
the latter was merely to indicate the facts, he might 
rest content with literalness of language, without 

VOL. IV. Q 473 



QUINTILIAN 

proprietatem elaborarct ; sed cum debeat delectare, 
movere, in plurimas animum audieutis species 
impellere, utetur his quoque adiutoriis, quae sunt 

44 ab eadem nobis concessa natura. Nam et lacertos 
, . exercitatione constringere et augere vires et colorem 

trahere naturale est. Ideoque in omnibus gentibus 
alius alio facundior habetur et eloquendo dulcis 
magis (quod si non eveniret^ omnes pares essent) ; 
at idem homines aliter de re alia^ loquuntur et 
servant personarum discrimina. Ita, quo quisque 
plus efficit dicendo, hoc magis secundum naturam 
eloquentiae dicit. 

45 Quapropter ne illis quidem nimium repugno, qui 
dandum putant nonnihil etiam temporibus atque 
auribus nitidius aliquid atque adfectius postulantibus. 
Itaque non solum ad priores Catone Gracchisque, sed 
ne ad hos quidem ipsos oratorem adligandum puto. 
Atque id fecisse M. Tullium video, ut cum plurimum 2 
utilitati, tum partem quandam delectationi daret ; 
cum et suam se rem agere diceret, ageret autem 

46 maxime litigatoris. Nam hoc ipso proderat, quod 
placet. Ad cuius voluptates nihil equidem quod 

^ at idem homines aliter de re alia loquuntur, Balm : ct 
idem homines alf de re allocuntur, 0. 
* plurimum, Christ : omnium, G. 



BOOK XII. X. 43-46 

further elaboration. But since it is his duty to 
delight and move his audience and to play upon 
the various feelings, it becomes necessary for him 
to employ those additional aids which are granted 
to us by that same nature which gave us speech. 
It is, in fact, as natural to do this as to harden the 44 
muscles, increase our strength and improve our com- 
plexion by means of exercise. It is for this reason 
that among all nations one man is regarded as more 
eloquent and more attractive in his style than 
another (since if this were not the case, all speakers 
would be equal) ; but the same men speak differ- 
ently on different subjects and observe distinctions 
of character. Consequently the more effective a 
man's speaking, the more in accordance with the 
nature of eloquence will it be. 

I have, therefore, no strong objection even to the 45 
views expressed by those who think that some conces- 
sion should be made to the circumstances under which 
we speak and to the ears of the audience which 
require something more polished and emotional than 
ordinary speech. For this reason I consider that it 
would be absurd to restrict an orator to the style of 
the predecessors of Cato and the Gracchi, or even 
of those orators themselves. And I note that it was 
the practice of Cicero, while devoting himself in the 
main to the interests of his case, to take into account 
the delectation of his audience as well, since, as he 
pointed out, his own interests were concerned as 
well as those of his client, although of course the 
latter were of paramount importance. For his very 
charm was a valuable asset. I do not know what 46 
can be added by way of improvement to the charms 
of his style, except perhaps the introduction ot 

475 



QUINTILIAN 

addi possit invenio, nisi ut sensus nos quidem dicamus 
plures. Neque enim non ^ fieri potest salva tracta- 
tione causae et dicendi auctoritate, si non crebra 
haec lumina etcontinua fuerint et invicem ofFeceriiit. 

47 Sed me hactenus cedentem nemo insequatur ultra. 
Do tempori, ne hirta toga sit, non ut serica ; ne 
intonsum caput, non ut in gradus atque anulos comp- 
tum, cum eo quod, si non ad luxuriam ac libidinem 
referas, eadem speciosiora quoque sint, quae honesti- 

48 ora. Ceterum hoc, quod vulgo sententias vocamus, 
quod veteribus praecipueque Graecis in usu non fuit 
(apud Ciceronem enim invenio), dum rem contineant 
et copia non redundent et ad victoriam spectent, 
quis utile neget ? Feriunt animum et uno ictu fre- 
quenter impellunt et ipsa brevitate magis haerent 
et delectatione persuadent. 

49 At sunt qui haec excitatiora lumina, etiamsi dicere 
permittant, a componendis tamen orationibus ex- 
cludenda arbitrentur. Quocirca mihi ne hie quidem 
locus intactus est omittendus; nam plurimi' erudi- 

* non added by Buttmann. 

* nam plurimi, Halm : a plurimis, G. 

* For this ever-recurring technical term there is no 
adequate translation. It means a "reflexion couched in 
aphoristic or epigrammatic form." 

476 



BOOK XII. X. 46-49 

something more in the way of brilHant reflexions to 
suit the taste of our own times. For this can be done 
without injury to the treatment of our case or im- 
pairing the authority of our language, provided that 
such embellishments are not too frequent or con- 
tinuous, and do not mutually destroy the effects 
which they were designed to produce. I am ready 47 
to go so far along the path of concession, but let no 
man press me further. I concur in the fashion of 
the day to the extent of agreeing that the toga 
should not be long in the nap, but not to the extent 
of insisting that it should be of silk : I agree that 
the hair should be cut, but not that it should be 
dressed in tiers and ringlets, since we must always 
remember that ornaments, unless they be judged 
from the standpoint of the fop and the debauchee, 
are always effective in proportion to their seemliness. 
But with regard to those passages to which we give 48 
tlie name of reflexions,^ a form of ornament which 
was not employed by the ancients and, above all, 
not by the Greeks, although I do find it in Cicero, 
who can deny their usefulness, provided they are 
relevant to the case, are not too diffuse and con- 
tribute to our success? For they strike the mind 
and often produce a decisive effect by one single 
blow, while their very brevity makes them cling to 
the memory, and the pleasure which they produce 
has the force of persuasion. 

There are, however, some who, while allowing 49 
the actual delivery of such specially brilliant forms 
of ornament, think that they should be excluded 
from the written speech. Consequently I must not 
dismiss even this topic without a word of dis- 
cussion. For a number of learned authorities 

477 



QUINTILIAN 

torutn aliam esse dicendi rationem, aliam scribendi 
putaverunt ; ideoque in agendo clarissimos quosdam 
nihil posteritati mansurisque mox litteris reliquisse, 
ut Periclem, ut Demaden ; rursus alios ad compo- 
nendum optimos actionibus idoneos non fuisse, ut 
60 Isocraten ; praeterea in agendo plus impetus ple- 
rumque et petitas vel paulo licentius voluptates, 
commovendos enimesse ducendosque animos imperi- 
torum ; at quod libris dedicatum in exemplum edatur, 
id ^ tersum ac limatum et ad legem ac regulam com- 
positum esse oportere, quia veniat in manus doctorum 

51 et iudices artis habeat artifices. Quin illi subtil es 
(ut sibimet ac multis persuaserunt) magistrirrapa'Seiy/ia 
dicendo, ivdvfirjfia scribendo esse aptius tradiderunt. 
Mihi unum atque idem videtur bene dicere ac bene 
scribere, neque aliud esse oratio scripta quam monu- 
mentum actionis habitae. Itaque nullas non, ut 
opinor, debet habere virtutes,^ virtutes dico, non 
vitia. Nam imperitis placere aliquando quae vitiosa 

52 sint, scio. Quo different igitur? Quodsi mihi des 
consilium iudicumsapientium, perquam multa recidam 
ex orationibus non Ciceronis modo, sed etiam eius, 
qui est strictior multo, Demosthenis. Neque enim 

* at quod . . . dedicatum . . . edatur id, Halm : ad quos 
. . . dedicatorum . . . edantur et, G. 

* secoiid virtutes added by Buttmann. 

* See V. xi. 1. Parallels and especially historical ones. 
^ See V. xiv. 1 sqq. A form of syllogism. 

478 



BOOK XII. X. 49-52 

have held that the written and the spoken speech 
stand on different footings, and that consequently 
some of the most eloquent of speakers have left 
nothing for posterity to read in durable literary form, 
as, for example, is the case with Pericles and Demades, 
Again, they urge that there have been authors, like 
Isocrates, who, while admirable writers, were not 
well-fitted for actual speaking; and, further, that 50 
actual pleading is characterised by a greater energy 
and by the employment, almost verging on license, 
of every artifice designed to please, since the minds 
of an uneducated audience require to be moved and 
led. On the other hand, the written speech which 
is published as a model of style must be polished 
and filed and brought into conformity with the 
accepted rules and standards of artistic construction, 
since it will come into the hands of learned men 
and its art will be judged by artists. These subtle 51 
teachers (for such they have persuaded themselves 
and others that they are) have laid it down that 
the TrapaSciy/xa ^ is best suited for actual speech and 
the evdvfjirjfjia ^ for writing. My own view is that 
there is absolutely no difference between writing 
well and speaking well, and that a written speech 
is merely a record of one that has actually been 
delivered. Consequently it must in my opinion 
possess every kind of merit, and note that I say 
merit, not fault. For I know that faults do some- 
times meet with the approval of the uneducated. 
What, then, will be the difference between what is 52 
written and what is spoken ? If I were given a jury 
of wise men, I should cut down a large number of 
passages from the speeches not only of Cicero, but 
even of Demosthenes, who is much more concise. 

479 



QUINTILIAN 

adfectus omnino movendi erunt, nee aures dele- 
ctatione mulcendae, cum etiam prooemia supervacua 
esse apud tales Aristoteles existimet ; non enim 
trahentur his illi sapientes ; proprie et significanter 

53 rem indieare, probationes colligere satis est. Cum 
vero iudex detur aut populus aut ex populo, laturique 
sint seutentiam indocti saepius atque interim rustici, 
omnia quae ad obtinendum, quod intendimus, pro- 
desse credemus adhibenda sunt ; eaque et cum di- 
cimus promenda et cum scribimus ostendenda sunt, 
si modo ideo scribimus, ut doceamus quomodo dici 

54 oporteat. An Demosthenes male sic egisset, ut 
scripsit, aut Cicero ? aut eos praestantissimos oratores 
aUa re quam scriptis cognoscimus ? Melius egerunt 
igitur an peius ? Nam si peius, sic potius oportuit dici, 
ut scripserunt ; si melius, sic potius oportuit scribi, 

55 ut dixerunt. Quid ergo? Semper sic aget orator, 
ut scribet ? Si licebit, semper. Si vero quando ^ 
impediant brevitate tempora a iudice data, multum 
ex eo, quod oportuit- dici, recidetur; editio habebit 
omnia. Quae tamen ^ secundum naturam iudicantium 

* Si vero quando, Wolfflin : steterunt quae, G. 

* oportuit, Christ : potuit, MSS. 

^ quae tamen, Halm : quaedam, (?. 



1 Rhet. iii. 13. 



480 



BOOK XII. X. 52-55 

For with such a jury there would be no need to 
appeal to the emotions nor to charm and soothe the 
ears, since according to Aristotle ^ even exordia are 
superfluous, if addressed to such persons, as they 
will have no influence upon judges who are truly 
wise : it will be sufficient to state the facts with 
precision and significance and to marshal our array 
of proofs. Since, however, our judges are the 53 
people, or drawn from the people, and since those 
who are appointed to give sentence are frequently 
ill-educated and sometimes mere rustics, it becomes 
necessary to employ every method that we think 
likely to assist our case, and these artifices must 
not merely be produced in speech, but exhibited in 
the written version as well, at least if in writing it 
our design is to show how it should be spoken. If 54 
Demosthenes or Cicero had spoken the words as 
they wrote them, would either have spoken ill.'' 
And is our acquaintance with either of those two 
great orators based on anything save their writings? 
Did they speak better, then, or worse than they 
wrote ? If they spoke worse, all that can be said 
is that they should have spoken as they wrote, 
while, if they spoke better, they should have 
written as they spoke. Well, you ask, is an orator 55 
then always to speak as he writes .'' If iK)ssible, 
always. If, however, the time allowed by the 
judge is too short for this to be possible, he will 
have to cut out much that he should have said, 
but the published speech will contain the omitted 
passages. On the other hand, such passages as 
were uttered merely to suit the character of the 
judges will not be published for the benefit of 
posterity, for fear that they should seem to indicate 

481 



QUINTILIAN 

dicta sunt, non ita posteris tradentiir, ne videantur 

56 propositi fuisse, non temporis. Nam id quoque 
plurimum refert, quomodo audire iudex velit, atque 
eius vultus saepe ipse rector est dicentis, ut Cicero 
praecipit. Ideoque instandum iis quae placere in- 
tellexeris, resiliendum ab iis quae non recipientur. 
Sernio ipse, qui facillirae iudicem doceat, aptandus. 
Nee id mirum sit, cum etiam testium personis aliqua 

57 mutentur. Prudenter enim, qui cum interrogasset 
rusticum testem, an Amphionem nosset, negante eo, 
detraxit aspirationem breviavitque secundam eius 
nominis syllabam, et ille eum sic optime norat. 
Huiusmodi casus efficient, ut aliquando dicatur aliter 
quam scribitur, cum dicere, quomodo scribendum est, 
non licet. 

58 Altera est divisio, quae in tres partes et ipsa 
discedit, qua discerni posse etiam recte dicendi 
genera inter se videntur. Namque unum subtile, 
quod Icrxi'ov vocant, alterum grande atque robustum, 
quod dSpbv dicunt, constituunt ; tertium alii, medium 
ex duobus, alii floridum (namque id avOrjpbv ap- 

59 pellant) addiderunt. Quorum tamen ea fere ratio 
est, ut primum docendi, secundum movendi, 
tertium illud, utrocumque est^ nomine, delectandi 
sive, ut alii dicunt, conciliandi praestare videa- 
tur officium ; in docendo autem acumen, in con- 

^ utrocumque est, ffalm : est ultrorumque, G. 

* Not in any extant work. 

* The witness did not recognise the name correctly 
pronounced Amphlon, but recognised it when pronounced 
Amplon. 

» suhtilis {lit. — finely woven) applied to style has three 
meanings : (a) refined, {b) precise, (c) plain. See Sandys on 
Cic. Or. vi. 20. 

482 



BOOK XII. X. 55-59 

the author's deliberate judgement instead of being 
a mere concession to the needs of the moment. 
For it is most important that we should know how 56 
the judge is disposed to listen, and his face will 
often (as Cicero^ reminds us) serve as a guide to 
the speaker. Consequently we must press the points 
that we see commend themselves to him, and draw 
back from those which are ill-received, while our 
actual language must be so modified that he will 
find our arguments as intelligible as possible. That 
this should be necessary is scarcely surprising, when 
we consider the alterations that are frequently 
necessary to suit the characters of the different 
witnesses. He was a shrewd man who, when he 57 
asked a rustic witness whether he knew Amphion, 
and the witness replied that he did not, dropped 
the aspirate and shortened the second syllable,* 
whereupon the witness recognised him at once. 
Such situations, when it is impossible to speak as 
we write, will sometimes make it necessary to speak 
in language other than that which we use in 
writing. 

There is another threefold division, whereby, 68 
it is held, we may differentiate three styles of 
speaking, all of them correct. The first is termed 
the plain' (or taxvov), the second grand and 
forcible (or dSpov), and the third either inter- 
mediate or florid, the latter being a translation 
of av$Tjp6v. The nature of these three styles is, 59 
broadly speaking, as follows. The first would seem 
best adapted for instructing, the second for moving, 
and the third (by whichever name we call it) for 
charming or, as others would have it, conciliating 
the audience ; for instruction the quality most 

483 



QUINTILIAN 

ciliando lenitas, in movendo vis exigi videatur. 
Itaque illo subtili praecipue ratio narrandi proban- 
dique consistet, sed saepe id ^ etiam detractis ceteris 

60 virtutibus suo genere plenum. Medius hie modus 
et translationibus crebrior et figuris erit iucundior, 
egressionibus amoenus, compositione aptus, sententiis 
dulcis, lenior tamen ut amnis lucidus quidem sed 

61 virentibus utrinque ripis- inumbratus. At ille, qui 
saxa devolvat et pontem indignetur et ripas sibi faciat, 
multus et torrens iudicem vel nitentem contra feret 
cogetque ire, qua rapiet. Hie orator et defunctos 
excitabit ut Appium Caecum, apud hunc et patria 
ipsa exclamabit, aliquandoque ut Ciceronem in ora- 

62 tione contra Catilinam in senatu alloquetur. Hie et 
amplificationibus extollet orationem, et in superla- 
tionem quoque erigetur. Quae Charybdis tarn vorax t^ 
et Oceanus medius Jidius ipse. Nota sunt enim iam 
studiosis haec lumina. Hie deos ipsos in congressum 
prope suum sermonemque deducet: Vos enim Albani 
tumuli atque luci ; vos, inquam, Albanorum obrutae arae, 

* saepe id, Halm : que id, G. 

* ripis inumbratus, Meyer : sipisim umbratus and the like, 
MSS. 

* Verg. Aen. viii. 728. 

* See m. viii. 54. ' ' Cicero in the pro Caelio makes both 
Appius Caecus and her brother Clodius address Clodia, the 
former rebuking her for her immorality, the latter exhorting 
her thereto." 

' Phil. n. xxvii, 67. The passage continues : " could 
scarce, methinks, have swallowed with such speed so many 
things, scattered in so many places." 

484 



BOOK XII. X. 59-62 

needed is acumen, for conciliation gentleness, and 
for stirring the emotions force. Consequently it is 
mainly in the plain style that we shall state our 
facts and advance our proofs, though it should be 
borne in mind that this style will often be sufficiently 
full in itself without any assistance whatever from 
the other two. The intermediate style will have 60 
more frequent recourse to metaphor and will make 
a more attractive use of figures, while it will intro- 
duce alluring digressions, will be neat in rhythm 
and pleasing in its reflexions : its flow, however, will 
be gentle, like that of a river whose waters are clear, 
but overshadowed by the green banks on either side. 
But he whose eloquence is like to some great torrent 61 
that rolls down rocks and " disdains a bridge " ^ and 
carves out its own banks for itself, will sweep the 
judge from his feet, struggle as he may, and force 
him to go whither he bears him. This is the orator 
that will call the dead to life (as, for example, Cicero 
calls upon Appius Caecus ^) ; it is in his pages 
that his native land itself will cry aloud and at 
times address the orator himself, as it addresses 
Cicero in the speech delivered against Catiline in 
the senate. Such an orator will also exalt his style 62 
by amplification and rise even to hyperhole, as when 
Cicero' cries, "What Charybdis was ever so vora- 
cious ! " or " By the god of truth, even Ocean's 
self," etc. (I choose these fine passages as being 
familiar to the student). It is such an one that 
will bring down the Gods to form part of his 
audience or even to speak with him, as in the 
following, " For on you I call, ye hills and groves 
of Alba, on you, I say, ye fallen altars of the 
Albans, altars that were once the peers and equals 

485 



QUINTILIAN 

sacronnn populi Romani sociae et aequales. Hie iram, 
hie misericordiam inspirabit, hoc dicente iudex deos ^ 
ap{)ellabit et flebit et per omnes adfectus tractatus 
hue atque illuc sequetur nee doeeri desiderabit. 

63 Quare si ex tribus his generibus necessario sit 
eligendum unum, quis dubitet hoc praeferre omnibus 
et validissimum aHoqui et maxiinis quibusque causis 

64 accommodatissimum ? Nam et Homerus brevem 
quidem eum iucunditate et propriam, id enim est 
non deerrare verbis, et carentem supervacuis eloquen- 
tiam Menelao dedit, quae sunt virtutes generis iilius 
primi, et ex ore Nestoris dixit dulciorem melle 
prqfluere sermonem, qua certe delectatione nihil fingi 
maius potest; sed summam expressurus^ in Ulixe 
facundiam et magnitudinem ilU vocis et vim orationis 
nivibus hibernis ' et copia verborum atque impetu 

65 parem tribuit. Cum hoc igitur nemo mortalium con- 
tendet ; hmic ut deum homines intuebunlur. Hanc vim 
et celeritatem in Pericle miratur Eupolis, hanc 
fulminibus Aristophanes comparat, liaec est vere 
dicendi faeultas. 

66 Sed neque his tribus quasi formis inclusa eloquentia 
est. Nam ut inter gracile validumque tertium aliquid 
constitutum est, ita horum inter se intervalla sunt, 

* hoc dicente iudex deos apellabit et flebit, Madrig : hoc 
dicente iudet appellavit et flevit, G. 

2 expressurus, M. Seyffert : regressurus est, O. 

' vocis . . . hibernis, Seyffert : vicisset cum orationi 
similibus, O. 



^ pro Mil. xxxi. 85. 

• II. iii. 214. The words which Quintilian translates by 
71071 deerrare verbis are oh^" afafiaprofir-fis, "no stumbler in 
speech," rather than "correct in speech." 

486 



BOOK XII. X. 62-66 

of the holy places of Rome." ^ This is he that will 
inspire anger or pity, and while he speaks the judge 
will call upon the gods and weep, following him 
wherever he sweeps him from one emotion to 
another, and no longer asking merely for instruction. 
Wherefore if one of these three styles has to be 63 
selected to the exclusion of the others, who will 
hesitate to prefer this style to all others, since it 
is by far the strongest and the best adapted to the 
most important cases ? For Homer himself assigns 64 
to Menelaus * an eloquence, terse and pleasing, exact 
(for that is what is meant by " making no errors in 
words ") and devoid of all redundance, which qualities 
are virtues of the first type : and he says that from 
the lips of Nestor ' flowed speech sweeter than honey, 
than which assuredly we can conceive no greater 
delight : but when he seeks to express the supreme 
gift of eloquence possessed by Ulysses* he gives a 
mighty voice and a vehemence of oratory equal to 
the snows of winter in the abundance and the vigour 
of its words. " With him then," he says, "no mortal 65 
will contend, and men shall look upon him as on a 
god."^ It is this force and impetuosity that Eupolis 
admires in Pericles, this that Aristophanes ^ compares 
to the thunderbolt, this that is the power of true 
eloquence. 

But eloquence cannot be confined even to these 66 
three forms of style. For just as the third style is 
intermediate between the grand and the plain style, 
so each of these three are separated by interspaces 

^ n. i. 249. « //. iii. 221. 

* A blend of Fl. iii. 223 and Od. viii. 173. 

• Ach. 530. "Then in his wrath Pericles the Olympian 
lightened and thundered and threw all Greece into confusion." 

487 



QUINTILIAN 

atque inter haec ipsa mixtum quiddam ex duobus 

67 medium est eorum. Nam et subtili plenius aliquid 
atque subtilius et vehementi remissius atque ve- 
hementius invenitur, ut illud lene aut ascendit ad 
fortiora aut ad tenuiora summittitur. Ac sic prope 
innumerabiles species reperiuntur^ quae utique aliquo 
momento inter se difFerant : sicut quattuor ventos 
generaliter a totidem mundi cardinibus accepimus 
flare, cum interim plurimi medii et eorum varia 
nomina et quidam etiam regionum ac fluminum 

68 proprii deprehenduntur, Eademque musicis ratio 
est, qui, cum in cithara quinque constituerunt sonos, 
plurima deinde varietate complent spatia ilia ner- 
vorum, atque his, quos interposuerunt, inserunt 
alios, ut pauci illi transitus multos gradus habeant. 

69 Plures igitur etiam eloquentiae facies, sed stultissi- 
mum quaerere, ad quam se recturus sit orator, cum 
omnis species, quae modo recta est, habeat usum, 
atque id ipsum non sit oratoris, quod vulgo genus 
dicendi vocant. Utetur enim, ut res exiget, omni- 
bus, nee pro causa modo, sed pro partibus causae. 

70 Nam ut non eodem modo pro reo capitis et in 
certamine hereditatis et de interdictis ac spon- 



* cp. n. X. 5 and iv. ii. 61. Spcmsio (= wager) was a form 
of lawsuit in which the litigant promised to pay a certain 
sum of money if he lost his case. The interdict was an order 
issued by the praetor commanding or prohibiting certain 
action. 

488 



BOOK XII. X. 66-70 

which are occupied by intermediate styles com- 
pounded of the two which lie on either side. For 67 
there are styles fuller or plainer than the plain, and 
gentler or more vehement than the vehement, while 
the gentler style itself may either rise to greater 
force or sink to milder tones. Thus we may discover 
almost countless species of styles, each differing from 
the other by some fine shade of difference. We may 
draw a pai*allel from the winds. It is generally ac- 
cepted that there are four blowing from the four 
quarters of the globe, but we find there are also 
a large number of winds which lie between these, 
called by a variety of names, and in certain cases 
confined to certain districts and river valleys. The 68 
same thing may be noted in music. For after assign- 
ing five notes to the lyre, musicians fill up the 
intervals between the strings by a variety of notes, 
and between these again they interpose yet others, 
so that the original divisions admit of a number of 
gradations. 

Eloquence has, therefore, a quantity of different 69 
aspects, but it is sheer folly to inquire which of these 
the orator should take as his model, since every 
species that is in itself correct has its use, and what 
is commonly called style of speaking does not depend 
on the orator. For he will use all styles, as cir- 
cumstances may demand, and the choice will be 
determined not only by the case as a whole, but by 
the demands of the different portions of the case. 
For just as he will not speak in the same way when 70 
he is defending a client on a capital charge and 
when he is speaking in a lawsuit concerned with an 
inheritance, or discussing interdicts and suits taking 
the form of a wager,^ or claims in connexion with 

489 



QUINTILIAN 

sionibus et de certa credita dicet, sententiarum 
quoque in senatu et contionum et privatorum con- 
siliorum servabit discrimina, multa ex differentia 
personarum, locorum temporumque mutabit, ita in 
eadem oratione aliter concitabit/ aliter coneiliabit, 
non ex iisdem haustibus iram et misericordiam petet, 
alias ad docendum alias ad movendum adhibebit 

71 artes. Non unus color prooemii, narrationis, argu- 
mentorum, egressionis, perorationis servabitur. Dicet 
idem graviter, severe, acriter, vehementer, concitate, 
copiose, amare, comiter, remisse, subtiliter, blande, 
leniter, dulciter, breviter, urbane, non ubique similis, 

72 sed ubique par sibi. Sic fiet cum id, propter quod 
maxime repertus est usus orationis, ut dicat utiliter 
et ad efficiendum quod intendit potenter, turn 
laudem quoque nee doctorum modo sed etiam vulgi 
consequatur. 

73 Falluntur enim plurimum, qui vitiosum et cor- 
ruptum dicendi genus, quod aut verborum licentia 
exultat aut puerilibus sententiolis lascivit aut immo- 
dico tumore turgescit aut inanibus locis bacchatur 
aut casuris, si leviter excutiantur, flosculis nitet aut 
praecipitia pro sublimibus habet aut specie libertatis 
insanit, magis existimant populare atque plausibile. 

74 Quod quidem placere multis nee infitior nee miror. 

* aliter concitabit, added by Halm. 
499 



BOOK XII. X. 70-74 

loans, so too he will preserve a due distinction 
between the speeches which he makes in the senate, 
before the people and in private consultations, while 
he will also introduce numerous modifications to 
suit the different persons and circumstances of time 
and place. Thus in one and the same speech he 
will use one style for stirring the emotions, and 
another to conciliate his hearers ; it is from difl^erent 
sources that he will derive anger or pity, and the 
art which he employs in instructing the judge will 
be other than that which he employs to move him. 
He will not maintain the same tone throughout his 71 
exordium, siatevienl of fact, arguments, diyression and 
peroration. He will speak gravely, severely, sharply, 
with vehemence, energy, fullness, bitterness, or 
geniality, quietly, simply, flatteringly, gently, sweetly, 
briefly or wittily ; he will not always be like him- 
self, but he will never be unworthy of himself. 
Thus the purpose for which oratory was above all 72 
designed will be secured, that is to say, he will 
speak with profit and with power to effect his aim, 
while he will also win the praise not merely of the 
learned, but of the multitude as well. 

They make the gravest mistake who consider that 73 
the style which is best adapted to win popularity 
and applause is a faulty and corrupt style of speaking 
which revels in license of diction or wantons in 
childish epigram or swells with stilted bombast or 
riots in empty commonplace or adorns itself with 
blossoms of eloquence which will fall to earth if 
but lightly shaken, or regards extravagance as 
sublime or raves wildly under the pretext of free 
speech. I am ready to admit that such qualities 74 
please many, and I feel no surprise that this should 

491 



QUINTILIAN 

Est enim iuciinda auribus ac favorabilis qualiscunque 
eloqiientia et ducit animos naturali voluptate vox 
omnis, neque aliunde illi per fora atque aggerem 
circuli ; quo minus mirum est, quod nulli non 

75 agentium parata vulgi corona est. Ubi vero quid 
exquisitius dictum accidit auribus imperitorum, 
qualecunque id est, quod modo se ipsi posse de- 
sperent, habet admirationem, neque immerito ; nam 
ne illud quidem facile est. Sed evanescunt haec 
atque emoriuntur comparatione meliorum, ut lana 
tincta fuco citra purpuras placet ; at si contuleris 
Tyriae eam^ lacernae, conspectu melioris obruatur, 

76 ut Ovidius ait. Si vero iudicium his corruptis acrius 
adhibeas ut fucinis ^ sulfura, iam ilium, quo fefellerant, 
exuant' mentitum colorem et quadam vix enarrabili 
foeditate pallescant. Lucent igitur haec citra solem, 
ut quaedam exigua animalia igniculi videntur in 
tenebris. Denique mala multi probant, nemo im- 
probat bona. 

77 Neque vero omnia ista, de quibus locuti sumus, 
orator optime tantum sed etiam facillime faciet. 
Neque enim vim summam dicendi et os * admira- 

^ Tyriae earn, ffalm: etiam, MSS. 

* fucinis, BuUmann : fucinus, G. 

' ilium quo fefellerant exuant, Bvitmann: illud quod 
fefellerat exuat, G. * os, Halm : eos, G. 

* The agger of Servius TuUius, which served as a promenade. 
The nearest modern parallel may be found in the " Hyde 
Park orator." ' Hem. Am. 707 sqq. 

492 



BOOK XII. X. 74-77 

be the case. For any kind of eloquence is pleasing 
and attractive to the ear, and every effort of the 
voice inspires a natural pleasure in the soul of man ; 
indeed this is the sole cause of those familiar gather- 
ings in the Forum or on the Old Wall,^ so that there 
is small reason for wonder if any pleader is safe to 
draw a ring of listeners from the crowd. And when 75 
any unusually precious phrase strikes the ears of an 
uneducated audience, whatever its true merits, it 
wakens their admiration just for the very reason 
that they feel they could never have produced it 
themselves. And it deserves their admiration, since 
even such success is hard to attain. On the other 
hand, when such displays are compared with their 
betters, they sink into insignificance and fade out 
of sight, for they are like wool dyed red that 
pleases in the absence of purple, but, as Ovid ^ says, 
if compared with a cloak of Tyrian dye, pales in the 
presence of the fairer hue. If, however, we test 76 
such corrupt eloquence by the touchstone of a critical 
tiiste, as, for example, we test inferior dyes with 
sulphur, it will lay aside the false brilliance that 
deceived the eye and fade to a pallor almost too 
repulsive to describe. Such passages shine only in 
the absence of the sunlight, just as certain tiny 
insects seem transformed in the darkness to little 
flames of fire. Finally, while many approve of things 
that are bad, no one disapproves of that which is 
good. 

But the true orator will not merely be able to 77 
achieve all the feats of which I have spoken with 
supreme excellence, but with the utmost ease as 
well. For the sovereign power of eloquence and 
the voice that awakens well-deserved applause will 

493 



QUINTILIAN 

tione dignum infelix usque ad ultimum sollicitudo 
persequitur, quae ^ oratorem macerat et coquit aegre 
verba vertentem et perpendendis coagmentandisque 

78 eis intabescentem. Nitidus ille et sublimis et lo- 
cuples circumfluentibus undique eloquentiae copiis 
imperat. Desinit enim in adversa niti, qui pervenit 
in summum. Scandenti circa ima labor est ; ceterum 
quantum processeris, mollior elivus ac laetius solum. 

79 Et si haec quoque iam lenius supina perseverantibus 
studiis evaseris, inde fructus illaborati offerunt sese 
et omnia sponte proveniunt ; quae tamen cotidie 
nisi decerpautur, arescunt. Sed et copia liabeat^ 
modum, sine quo nihil nee laudabile nee salutare 
est, et nitor ille cultum virilem et inventio indicium. 

80 Sic erunt magna non nimia, sublimia non abrupta, 
fortia non temeraria, severa non tristia, gravia non 
tarda, laeta non luxuriosa, iucunda non dissoluta, 
grandia non tumida. Similis in ceteris ratio est 
ac tutissima fere per medium via, quia utriusque 
ultimum vitium est. 

XI. His dicendi virtutibus usus orator in iudiciis, 
consiliis, contionibus, senatu, in omni denique officio 
boni civis finem quoque dignum et optimo viro et 
opere sanctissimo faciet, non quia prodesse unquam 



1 quae, Halm : nee, MSS. 

» liabeat, Heiiidorf : habet, MSS. 



m^ 



BOOK XII. X. 77-xi. I 

be free from the perpetual distress of harassing 
anxiety wljich wastes and fevers the orator who 
painfully corrects himself and pines away over the 
laborious weighing and piecing together of his 
words. No, our orator, brilliant, sublime and 78 
opulent of speech, is lord and master of all the 
resources of eloquence, whose affluence surrounds 
him. For he that has reached the summit has no 
more weary hills to scale. At first the climber's toil 
is hard, but the higher he mounts the easier be- 
comes the gradient and the richer the soil. And 79 
if by perseverance of study he pass even beyond 
these gentler slopes, fruits for which none have 
toiled thrust themselves upon him, and all things 
spring forth unbidden ; and yet if they be not 
gathered daily, they will wither away. But even 
such wealth must observe the mean, without which 
nothing is either praiseworthy or beneficial, while 
brilliance must be attended by manliness, and im- 
agination by soundness of taste. Thus the works 80 
of the orator will be great not extravagant, sublime 
not bombastic, bold not rash, severe but not gloomy, 
grave but not slow, rich but not luxuriant, pleasing 
but not effeminate, grand but not grandiose. It is 
the same with other qualities : the mean is safest, 
for the worst of all faults is to fly to extremes. 

XI. After employing these gifts of eloquence in 
the courts, in councils, in public assemblies and the 
debates of the senate, and, in a word, in the per- 
formance of all the duties of a good citizen, the 
orator will bring his activities to a close in a manner 
worthy of a blameless life spent in the pursuit of 
the noblest of professions. And he will do this, 
not because he can ever have enough of doing good, 

495 



QUINTILIAN 

satis sit et ilia mente atque ilia facultate praedito 
non optandum operis pulcherrimi quam longissimum 
tempus, sed quia decet hoc quoque prospicere, ne 

2 quid peius, quam fecerit, faciat. Neque enim 
scientia modo constat orator, quae augetur annis, 
sed voce, latere, firmitate ; quibus fractis aut im- 
minutis aetate seu valetudine cavendum est, ne quid 
in oratore summo desideretur, ne intersistat fati- 
gatus, ne quae dicet parum audiri sentiat, ne se 

3 quaerat priorem. Vidi ego longe omnium, quos 
mihi cognoscere contigit, summum oratorem, Domi- 
tium Afrum valde senem, cotidie aljquid ex ea 
quam meruerat auctoritate perdentem, cum agente 
illo, quem principem fuisse quondam fori non erat 
dubium, alii, quod indignum videatur, riderent, alii 
erubescerent ; quae occasio fait de ^ illo dicendi, 

4 inalle eum deficere quam dexinere. Neque erant ilia 
qualiacunque mala sed minora. 

Quare antequam in has aetatis veniat insidias, 
receptui canet et in portum integra nave perveniet. 
Neque enim minores eum, cum id fecerit, studiorum 
fructus prosequentur. Aut ille monumenta rerum 
posteris aut, ut L. Crassus in libris Ciceronis destinat, 

* de added by Halm. 



* By "finish" is meant "retire from pleading." 






BOOK XII. XI. 1-4 

or because one endowed with intellect and talents 
such as his would not be justified in praying that 
such glorious labours may be prolonged to their 
utmost span, but for this reason^ that it is his duty 
to look to the future, for fear that his work may be 
less effective than it has been in the past. For the 2 
orator depends not merely on his knowledge, which 
increases with the years, but on his voice, lungs and 
powers of endurance. And if these be broken or 
impaired by age or health, he must beware that he 
does not fall short in something of his high reputa- 
tion as a master of oratory, that fatigue does not 
interrupt his eloquence, that he is not brought to 
realise that some of his words are inaudible, or to 
mourn that he is not what once he was. Domitius 3 
Afer was by far the greatest of all the orators whom 
it has been my good fortune to know, and I saw 
him, when far advanced in years, daily losing some- 
thing of that authority which his merits had won 
for him ; he whose supremacy in the courts had once 
been universally acknowledged, now pleaded amid 
the unworthy laughter of some, and the silent 
blushes of others, giving occasion to the malicious 
saying that he had rather '• faint than finish." ^ And 4 
yet even then, whatever his deficiencies, he spoke 
not badly, but merely less well. 

Therefore before ever he fall a prey to the ambush 
where time lies in wait for him, the orator should 
sound the retreat and seek harbour while his ship 
is yet intact. For the fruits of his studies will 
not be lessened by retirement. Either he will be- 
queath the history of his own times for the delight 
of after ages, or will interpret the law to those 
who seek his counsels, as Lucius Crassus proposes 

497 



QUINTILIAN 

iura quaerentibus reddet aut eloquentiae componet 
artem aut pulcherrimis vitae praeceptis dignum os 

5 dabit. Frequentabunt vero eius domum optimi 
iuvenes more veterum et vere dicendi viam velut ex 
oraculo petent. Hos ille formabit quasi eloquentiae 
parens, et ut vetus gubernator litora et portus et 
quae tempestatum signa, quid secundis flatibus, quid 
adversis ratio poscat, docebit, non hunianitatis solum 
communi ductus officio, sed amore quodam operis. 

6 Nemo enim minui velit id, in quo maximus fuit. Quid 
porro est honestius quam docere quod optime scias ? 
Sic ad se Caelium deductum a patre Cicero pro- 
fitetur ; sic Pansam, Hirtium, Dolabellam in morem 

7 praeceptoris exercuit cotidie dicens audiensque. Ac 
nescio an eum tunc beatissimum credi oporteat fore, 
cum iam secretus et consecratus, liber invidia, procul 
contentionibus famam in tuto collocarit et sentiet^ 
vivus earn, quae post fata praestari magis solet, 
venerationem et, quid apud posteros futurus sit, 
videbit. 

8 Conscius sum mihi, quantum mediocritate valui, 

^ sentiet, Ohrecht : sententia et, G. 

1 de Or. I. xlii. 190. * pro Cael. iv. 10. 

498 



BOOK XII. XI. 4-8 

to do in the de Oratore'^ of Cicero, or compose some 
treatise on the art of oratory, or give worthy utterance 
to the sublimest ideals of conduct. His house 6 
will, as in the days of old, be thronged by all 
the best of the rising generation, who will seek to 
learn from him as from an oracle how they may find 
the path to true eloquence. And he as their father 
in the art will mould them to all excellence, and 
like some old pilot will teach them of the shores 
whereby their ships must sail, of the harbours where 
they may shelter, and the signs of the weather, and 
will expound to them what they shall do when the 
breeze is fair or the tempest blows. Whereto he 
will be inclined not only by the common duty of 
humanity, but by a certain passion for the task that 
once was his, since no man desires that the art 
wherein he was once supreme should suffer decay 
or diminution. And what can be more honourable 6 
than to teach that which you know surpassing well ? 
It was for this that the elder Caelius brought his son 
to Cicero, as the latter ^ tells us, and it was with this 
intent that the same great orator took upon himself 
the duties of instructor, and trained Pansa, Hirtius 
and Dolabella by declaiming daily before them or 
hearing them declaim. And I know not whether 7 
we should not deem it the happiest moment in an 
orator's life, when he has retired from the public 
gaze, the consecrated priest of eloquence, free from 
envy and far from strife, when he has set his glory 
on a pinnacle beyond the reach of detraction, enjoys, 
while still living, that veneration which most men 
win but after death, and sees how great shall be his 
renown amid generations yet unborn. 

I can say with a good conscience that, as far as 8 

499 



QUINTILIAN 

quaeque antea scierim, quaeque operis buiusce gratia 
potuerim inquirere, candide me atque simpliciter in 
notitiam eorum, si qui forte cognoseere voluissent, 
protulisse. Atque id viro bono satis est, docuisse 
9 quod scierit. Vereor tainen, ne aut magna nimium 
videar exigere, qui eundem virum bonum esse et 
dicendi peritum velim, aut multa, qui tot artibus in 
pueritia diseendis morum quoque praecepta et 
scientiam iuris civilis praeter ea, quae de eloquentia 
tradebantur, adiecerim, quique haec operi nostro 
necessaria esse crediderint, velut moram rei per- 

10 horrescant et desperent ante experimentum. Qui 
primum renuntient sibi, quanta sit humani ingenii 
vis, quam potens efficiendi quae velit, cum maria 
transire, siderum cursus numerosque cognoseere, 
mundum ipsum paene dimetiri, minores, sed diffi- 
ciliores artes potuerint. Turn cogitent, quantam 
rem petant, quamque nullus sit hoc proposito prae- 

11 mio labor recusandus. Quod si mente conceperint, 
huic quoque parti facilius accedent, ut ipsum iter 
neque impervium neque saltern durum putent. Nam 
id, quod prius quodque maius est, ut boni viri simus, 
500 



BOOK XII. XI. 8-1 1 

my poor powers have permitted, I have published 
frankly and disinterestedly, for the benefit of such 
as might wish to learn, all that my previous know- 
ledge and the researches made for the purpose of 
this work might supply. And to have taught what 
he knows is satisfaction enough for any good man. 
I fear, however, that I may be regarded as settmg 9 
too lofty an ideal for the orator by insisting that he 
should be a good man skilled in speaking, or as 
imposing too many subjects of study on the learner. 
For in addition to the many branches of knowledge 
which have to be studied in boyhood and the tradi- 
tional rules of eloquence, I have enjoined the study 
of morals and of civil law, so that I am afraid that 
even those who have regarded these things as 
essential to my theme, may be appalled at the delay 
which they impose and abandon all hope of achieve- 
ment before they have put my precepts to the test. 
I would ask them to consider how great are the 10 
f)owers of the mind of man and how astonishing its 
capacity for carrying its desires into execution : for 
has not man succeeded in crossing the high seas, in 
learning the number and the courses of the stars, 
and almost measuring the universe itself, all of them 
accomplishments of less importance than oratory, but 
of far greater difficulty ? And then let them reflect 
on the greatness of their aims and on the fact that 
no labour should be too huge for those that are 
beckoned by the hope of such reward. If they can 11 
only rise to the height of this conception, they will 
find it easier to enter on this portion of their task, 
and will cease to regard the road as impassable or 
even hard. For the first and greatest of the aims 
we set before us, namely that we shall be good 

SOI 



QUINTILIAN 

voluntate maxime constat ; quam qui vera fide 
indueritj facile eas, quae virtutem decent, artv'is 

12 accipiet. Neque enim aut tam perplexa aut tam 
numerosa sunt quae praecipiuntur,* ut non paucorum 
admodum annorum intentione discantur. Longam 
enim facit operam quod repugnamus ; brevis est 
institutio vitae honestae beataeque, si credas. Natura 
enim nos ad mentem optimam genuit, adeoque discere 
meliora volentibus promptum est, ut vere intuenti 

13 mirum sit illud magis malos esse tam multos. Nam 
ut aqua piscibus, ut sicca terrenis, circumfusus nobis 
spiritus volucribus convenit, ita certe facilius esse 
oportebat secundum naturam quam contra eam vivere. 
Cetera vero, etiamsi aetatem nostram non spatio 
senectutis sed tempore ^ adolescentiae metiamur, 
abunde multos ad discendum annos habent. Omnia 

14 enim breviora reddet ordo et ratio et modus. Sed 
culpa est in praeceptoribus prima, qui libenter de- 
tinent quos occupaverunt, partim cupiditate diutius 
exigendi mercedulas, partim ambitione, quo difficilius 
videatur' esse quod pollicentur, partim etiam in- 
scientia tradendi vel negligentia. Proxima in nobis, 
qui morari in eo quod novimus, quam discere quae 

I praecipiuntur, Buttviann : praemiintur, O, 
* tempore, early edd. : corpore, G, 
» videatur esse, added by Balm. 



BOOK XII. XI. 11-14 

men, depends for its achievement mainly on the 
will to succeed : and he that truly and sincerely 
forms such resolve, will easily acquire those forms 
of knowledge that teach the way to virtue. For 12 
the precepts that are enjoined upon us are not 
so complex or so numerous that they may be 
acquired by little more than a few years' study. It 
is repugnance to learn that makes such labour long. 
For if you will only believe it, you will quickly learn 
the principles that shall lead you to a life of virtue 
and happiness. For nature brought us into the world 
that we might attain to all excellence of mind, and 
so easy is it for those to learn who seek for better 
things, that he who directs his gaze aright will 
rather marvel that the bad should be so many. For 13 
as water is the natural element of fish, dry land 
for creatures of the earth and the circumambient 
atmosphere for winged things, even so it should 
be easier to live according to nature than counter 
to her will. As regards other accomplishments, 
there are plenty of years available for their acquisi- 
tion, even though we measure the life of man not 
by the span of age, but by the period of youth. For 
in every case order and method and a sense of pro- 
portion will shorten our labour. But the chief fault 14 
lies with our teachers, in that they love to keep back 
the pupils they have managed to lay their hands on, 
partly from the desire to draw their miserable fees 
for as long as possible, partly out of ostentation, to 
enhance the difficulty of acquiring the knowledge 
which they promise to impart, and to some extent 
owing to their ignorance or carelessness in teaching. 
The next most serious fault lies in ourselves, who 
think it better to linger over what we have learned 

503 



QUINTILIAN 

15 nondnm scimus^ melius putamus. Nam ut de nostris 
potissimum studiis dicam^ quid attinet tam multis 
annis quam in more est plurimorum (ut de his, a 
quibus magna in hoc pars aetatis absumitur, taceam) 
declamitare in schola et tantum laboris in rebus 
falsis eonsumere, cum satis sit modico tempore im- 
aginem veri discriminis et dicendi leges comperisse ? 

16 Quod non eo dico, quasi ^ sit unquam omittenda 
dicendi exercitatio, sed quia non in una sit eius 
specie consenescendum. Res varias ^ cognoscere et 

;, praecepta vivendi perdiscere et in foro nos experiri 
potuimus, dum scholastici sumus. Discendi ratio 
talis, ut non multos poscat annos. Quaelibet enim 
ex iis artibus, quarum habui mentionem, in paucos 
libros contrahi solet ; adeo non est infinito spatio 
ad traditionem opus. Reliqua est exercitatio,' quae 

17 vires cito facit, cum fecit, tuetur. Rerum cognitio 
cotidie crescit, et tamen quam multorum ad earn 
librorum necessaria lectio est, quibus aut rerum 
exempla ab historicis aut dicendi ab oratoribus 
petuntur, philosophorum quoque consultorumque 
opiniones, si utilia velimus legere non, quod ne fieri 

' quasi, Halm : qua, Q. 

* Res varias, added by Halm. 

• ad traditionem. Halm : ac traditione, G. : exercitatio 
added by Halm. • ' o ' ' 



BOOK XII. XI. 14-17 

than to learn what we do not yet know. For ex- 15 
ample, to restrict my remarks mainly to the study 
of rhetoric, what is the use of spending so many 
years, after the fashion now so prevalent (for I will 
say nothing of those who spend almost their whole 
lives), in declaiming in the schools and devoting so 
much labour to the treatment of fictitious themes, 
when it would be possible with but slight expenditure 
of time to form some idea of what the true conflicts 
are in which the orator must engage, and of the 
laws of speaking which he ought to follow ? In 16 
saj'ing this, I do not for a moment mean to suggest 
that we should ever omit to exercise ourselves in 
speaking. 1 merely urge that we should not grow old 
over one special form of exercise. We have been in a 
position to acquire varied knowledge, to familiarise 
ourselves with the principles that should guide our 
life, and to try our strength in the courts, while wc 
were still attending the schools. Thetheory of speak- 
ing is of such a nature that it does not demand 
many years for its acquisition. For any one of the 
various branches of knowledge which I have men- 
tioned will, as a rule, be found to be comprised in 
a few volumes, a fact which shows that instruction 
does not require an indefinite amount of time to be 
devoted to it. The rest depends entirely on practice, 
which at once develops our powers and maintains 
them, once developed. Knowledge increases day 17 
by day, and yet how many books is it absolutely 
necessary to read in our search for its attainment, for 
examples of facts from the historians or of eloquence 
from the orators, or, again, for the opinions of the 
philosophers and the lawyers, that is to say, if we 
are content to read merely what is useful without 

VOL. IV. R 505 



QUINTILIAN 

quidem ^ potest, omnia ? Sed breve nobis tempus 

18 nos facimus. Quantulum enim studiis partimur? 
Alias horas vanus salutandi labor, alias datum fabulis 
otium, alias spectacula, alias convivia trahunt. Adiice 
tot genera ludendi et insanam corporis curam, pere- 
grinatio, rura, calculorum anxiam sollicitudinem, 
invitamenta libidinum et vinum et flagrantibus omni 
genere voluptatum animis ^ ne ea quidem tempora 

19 idonea, quae supersunt. Quae si omnia studiis im- 
penderentur, iam nobis longa aetas et abunde satis 
ad discendum spatii viderentur vel ^ diurna tantum 
computantibus tempora ut nihil noctes, quarum bona 
pars omni somno longior est, adiuvarent. Nunccom- 
putamus annos, non quibus studuimus, sed quibus 

20 viximus. Nee vero si geometrae et musici * et gram- 
matici ceterarumque artium professores omnem suam 
vitani, quamlibet longa fuerit, in singulis artibus 
consumpserunt, sequitur ut plures quasdam vitas ad 
plura discenda desideremus. Neque enim illi didi- 
cerunt haec usque in senectutem, sed ea sola didicisse 
contenti fuerunt ac tot annos non in percipiendo 
exhauserunt, sed in praecipiendo." 

21 Ceterum, ut de Homero taceam, in quo nullius 
non artis aut opera perfecta aut certe non dubia 

^ si utilia, Christ : sicuti alia, MSS.: quod ne fieri quidem, 
Halm : quod quidem, MSS. 

* The text is as corrected by Halm. The MSS. give a variety 
of readings. The chief alteratioiis involved by Halm's correction 
are invitamenta for multae causae, multae earn, etc., and 
flagrantibus /or flagitiis, I'he other chaiiges are of the simplest 
and most ordinary character. 

* vel, Buttmann : ut, MSS. 

* et musici, added by Halm {erasure in G). 

* sed in praecipiendo. Halm : #** p** p**#do 0. 

506 



BOOK XII. XI. 17-21 

attempting the impossible task of reading every- 
thing? But it is ourselves that make the time for 18 
study short: for how little time we allot to it! 
Some hours are passed in the futile labour of cere- 
monial calls, others in idle chatter, others in staring 
at the shows of the theatre, and others again in 
feasting. To this add all the various forms of amuse- 
ment, the insane attention devoted to the cultivation 
of the body, journeys abroad, visits to the country, 
anxious calculation of loss and gain, the allurements 
of lust, wine-bibbing and those remaining hours 
which are all too few to gratify our souls on fire 
with passion for every kind of pleasure. If all this 19 
time were spent on study, life would seem long 
enough and there would be plenty of time for learn- 
ing, even though we should take the hours of day- 
light only into our account, without asking any 
assistance from the night, of which no little space 
is superfluous even for the heaviest sleeper. As it 
is, we count not the years which we have given to 
study, but the years we have lived. And indeed 20 
even although geometricians, musicians and gram- 
marians, together with the professors of every other 
branch of knowledge, spend all their lives, however 
long, in the study of one single science, it does not 
therefore follow that we require several lives more 
if we are to learn more. For they do not spend all 
their days even to old age in learning these things, 
but being content to have learned these things and 
nothing more, exhaust their length of years not in 
acquiring, but in imparting knowledge. 

However, to say nothing of Homer, in whom we 21 
may find either the perfect achievements, or at 
any rate clear signs of the knowledge of every art, 

507 



QUINTILIAN 

vestigia reperiunt.ur, (ut Eleum Hippiam transeam, 
qui non liberalium modo disciplinarum prae se 
scientiam tulit, sed vestem et anulum crepidasque, 
quae omnia manu sua fecerat, in usu habuit, atque 
ita se praeparavit, ne cuius alterius opere egeret,) 
illusisse tot malis, quot^ summa senectus habet, 
universae Graeciae credimus Gorgian, qui quaerere 

22 auditores de quo quisque vellet iubebat. Quae 
tandem ars digna litteris Platoni defuit? Quot 
saeculis Aristoteles didicit, ut non solum, quae ad 
philosophos atque oratores pertinent, scientia com- 
plecteretur, sed animaliuni satorumque naturas o\iines 
perquireret ? Illis haec invenienda fuerunt, nobis 
cognoscenda sunt. Tot nos praeceptoribus, tot ex- 
emplis instruxit antiquitas, ut possit videri nulla 
sorte nascendi aetas felicior quam nostra, cui do- 

23 cendae priores elaborarunt. M. igitur Cato idem 
summus imperator, idem sapiens, idem orator, idem 
historiae conditor, idem iuris, idem rerum rusticarum 
peritissimus fuit inter tot operas militiae, tantas 
domi eontentiones, rudi saeculo, litteras Graecas 
aetate iam declinata didicit, ut esset hominibus 
documento ea quoque percipi posse quae senes con- 

24 cupissent. Quam multa, paene omnia, tradidit Varro ! 
Quod instrumentum dicendi M. Tullio defuit ? Quid 

* tot malis quot, Bonnell: tot ####s quod, O, 
^o8 



BOOK XII. XI. 21-24 

and to pass by Hippias of Elis, who not merely 
boasted his knowledge of the liberal arts, but wore 
a robe, a ring and shoes, all of which he had made 
with his own hands, and had trained himself to be 
independent of external assistance, we accept the 
universal tradition of Greece to the effect that 
Gorgias, triumphant over all the countless ills in- 
cident to extreme old age, would bid his hearers 
propound any questions they pleased for him to 
answer. Again in what branch of knowledge 22 
worthy of literary expression was Plato deficient ? 
How many generations' study did Aristotle re- 
quire to embrace not merely the whole range of 
philosophical and rhetorical knowledge, but to 
investigate the nature of every beast and plant. 
And yet they had to discover all these things which 
we only have to learn. Antiquity has given us all 
these teachers and all these patterns for our imitation, 
that there might be no greater happiness conceivable 
than to be born in this age above all others, since 
all previous ages have toiled that we might reap the 
fruit of their wisdom. Marcus Cato was at once a 23 
great general, a philosopher, orator, historian, and 
an expert both in law and agriculture, and despite 
his military labours abroad and the distractions of 
political struggles at home, and despite the rudeness 
of the age in which he lived, he none the less 
learned Greek, when far advanced in years, that he 
might prove to mankind that even old men are 
capable of learning that on which they have set 
their hearts. How wide, almost universal, was the 24 
knowledge that Varro communicated to the world ! 
What of all that goes to make up the equipment of 
an orator was lacking to Cicero ? Why should I say 

R2 509 



QUINTILIAN 

plura? cum etiam Cornelius Celsus, mediocri vir 
ingenio, non solum de his omnibus conscripserit 
artibus, sed amplius rei militaris et rusticae et medi- 
cinae praecepta reliquerit, dignus vel ipso proposito, 
ut eum scisse omnia ilia credamus. 
26 At perficere tantum opus arduum et nemo perfecit. 
Ante omnia sufficit ad exhortationem studiorum, 
capere id rerum naturam nec,^ quidquid non est 
factum, ne fieri quidem }>osse ; turn omnia, quae 
magna sunt atque admirabilia, tempus aliquod quo 

26 primum efficerentur habuisse. Nam et poesis ab 
Homero et Vergilio tantum fastigium accepit et 
eloquentia a Demosthene atque Cicerone. Denique 
quidquid est optimum, ante non fuerat. Verum 
etiam si quis summa desperet (quod cur faciat, cui 
ingenium, valetudo, facultas, praeceptores non de- 
erunt?), tamen est, ut Cicero ait, pulchrum in 

27 secundis tertiisque consistere. Neque enim, si quis 
Achillis gloriam in bellicis consequi non potest, 
Aiacis aut Diomedis laudem aspernabitur, nee qui 
Homeri non fuerunt, Tyrtaei.^ Quin immo si hanc 
cogitationem homines habuissent, ut nemo se meli- 
orem fore eo qui optimus fuisset, arbitraretur, ii ipsi, 
qui sunt optimi, non fuissent, neque post Lucretium 

* nee, Zumpt : eo, AO. 

' non fuerunt, G : non tyrthei, second hamd of A, written 



tn over an erasure. 



5»o 



1 Or. i. 4. 



BOOK XII. XI. 24-27 

more, since even Cornelius Celsus, a man of very 
ordinary ability, not merely wrote about rhetoric in 
all its departments, but left treatises on the art of 
war, agriculture and medicine as well. Indeed the 
high ambition revealed by his design gives him the 
right to ask us to believe that he was acquainted 
Mith all these subjects. 

But, it will be urged, to carry out such a task is 25 
difficult and has never been accomplished. To 
which I reply that sufficient encouragement for 
study may be found in the fact, firstly, that nature 
does not forbid such achievement and it does not 
follow that, because a thing never has been done, it 
therefore never can be done, and secondly, that all 
great achievements have required time for their first 
accomplishment. Poetry has risen to the heights 26 
of glory, thanks to the efforts of poets so far apart 
as Homer and Virgil, and oratory owes its position 
to the genius of Demosthenes and Cicero. Finally, 
whatever is best in its own sphere must at some 
previous time have been non-existent. But even if 
a man despair of reaching supreme excellence (and 
why should he despair, if he have talents, health, 
capacity and teachers to aid him ?), it is none the 
less a fine achievement, as Cicero ^ says, to win the 
rank of second or even third. For even if a soldier 27 
cannot achieve the glory of Achilles in war, he will 
not despise fame such as fell to the lot of Ajax and 
Diomede, while those who cannot be Homers may 
be content to reach the level of Tyrtaeus. Nay, if 
men had been obsessed by the conviction that it was 
impossible to surpass the man who had so far shown 
himself best, those whom we now regard as best 
would never have reached such distinction, Lucretius 

5»' 



QUINTILIAN 

ac Macrum Vergilius nee post Crassum et Hortensium 

28 Cicero, sed nee illi, qui post eos fuerunt. Verum 
ut transeundi spes non sit, magna tamen est dignitas 
subsequendi. An PoUioet Messala, qui lam Cicerone 
arcem tenente eloquentiae agere coeperunt, parum 
in vita dignitatis habuerunt, parum ad posteros 
gloriae tradiderunt? Alioqui pessime de rebus 
humanis perductae in summum artes mererentur, 

29 si, quod optimum, idem ultimum^ fuisset. Adde 
quod magnosmodica quoque eloquentia parit fructus 
ac, si quis haec studia utilitate sola metiatur, paene 
illi perfectae par est. Neque erat difficile vel vete- 
ribus vel novis exemplis palam facere, non aliunde 
maiores opes, honores, amicitias, laudem praesentem, 
futuram hominibus contigisse, nisi indignum litteris 
esset, ab opere pulcherrimo, cuius tractatus atque 
ipsa possessio plenissimam studiis gratiam refert, 
banc minorem exigere mercedem, more eorum, qui 
a se non virtutes sed voluptatem, quae fit ex virtu- 

30 tibus, peti dicunt. Ipsam igitur orandi maiestatem, 
qua nihil dii immortales melius homini dederunt et 
qua remota muta sunt omnia et luce praesenti ac 
memoria posteritatis carent, toto animo petamus 
nitaniurque semper ad optima, quod facientes aut 
evademus in summum aut certe multos infra nos 
videbimus. 

1 idem ultimum, added by Buttmann, 



BOOK XII. XI. 27-30 

and Macer would never have been succeeded by 
Virgil, nor Crassus and Hortensius by Cicero^ nor 
they in their turn by those who flourished after 
them. But even though we cannot hope to surpass 28 
the great, it is still a high honour to follow in their 
footsteps. Did Pollio and Messala, who began to 
plead when Cicero held the citadel of eloquence, 
fail to obtain sufficient honour in their lifetime or 
to hand down a fair name to posterity .'' The arts 
which have been developed to the highest pitch 
of excellence would deserve but ill of mankind if 
that which was best had also been the last of its 
line. Add to this the further consideration that 29 
even moderate eloquence is often productive of 
great results and, if such studies are to be measured 
solely by their utility, is almost equal to the perfect 
eloquence for which we seek. Nor would it be difficult 
to produce either ancient or recent examples to show 
that there is no other source from which men have 
reaped such a harvest of wealth, honour, friendship 
and glory, both present and to come. But it would 
be a disgrace to learning to follow the fashion of those 
who say that they pursue not virtue, but only the 
pleasure derived from virtue, and to demand this 
meaner recompense from the noblest of all arts, whose 
practice and even whose possession is ample reward 
for all our labours. Wherefore let us seek with all 30 
our hearts that true majesty of oratory, the fairest 
gift of god to man, without which all things are 
stricken dumb and robbed alike of present glory and 
the immortal record of posterity ; and let us press 
forward to whatsoever is best, since, if we do this, 
we shall either reach the summit or at least see 
many others far beneath us. 

513 



QUINTILIAN 

31 Haec erant, Marcelle Victori, quibus praecepta 
dicendi pro virili parte adiuvari posse per nos vide- 
bantur, quorum cognitio studiosis iuvenibus si non 
magnam utilitatem adferet, at certe, quod magis 
petimus, bonam voluntatem. 



SM 



BOOK XII. XI. 3t 

Such, Marcellus Victorius, were the views by 31 
the expression of which it seemed to me that I 
might, as far as in me lay, help to advance the 
teaching of oratory. If the knowledge of these 
principles proves to be of small practical utility to 
the young student, it should at least produce what 
I value more, — the will to do welL 



515 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Academia, Academici, in. i. 35 ; xn. 

ii. 23 and 25. 
A.ccias, I. vii. 14; I. riii. 11; v. x. 

«4; V. xiil. 43. 
Accasator Cossntiani Capitonis, Ti. 

i. 14. 
Achilles, I. x. 30 ; n. xrii. 8 ; m. rii, 

11 tgq.; TO. Tiii. 53; vn. ii. 7; 

vn. ix. 8; vm. iv. 24; i. i. 47, 

50, 65; xn. li. 27. 
Aciscnlas, VI. iii. 63. 
Aegyptus, L xii. 60 ; m. viii. 33. 
Aeli'us Catus, Tin. vi. 37, 
Aelins Stilo, X. i. 99. 
Aemilins Scaurus, V. xii. 10. 
Aenobarbos, vi. i. 50. 
Aeolis, L iv. 16. 
Aeoliis, vm. iv. 18. 
Aerope, H. iii. 73. 
Aesctunes, n, xvii. 12; rv. It. 5; 

X. I. 77; XL iii. 7 and 168; xn. 

X. 19 and 23. In Ctesiph., v. xiii. 

42; VI. i. 20; vn. i. 2; X. i. 22 

(S206)nx. vi. 3. 
Aeschines Socraticns, T. xi. 27. 
Aeschylus, X. i. 66. 
Aesopus, fabulist, I. Ix. 2; T. xl. 19, 

•JO. 
Aesopus, tragic actor, XI. iii. 111. 
Aetoli, X i. 49. 
Aier, see Domitios. 
Airanios, X. i. 100. 
Afri, XI. i. 80. 
Airica, m. viii. 17 and 33 ; vn. ii. 6 ; 

H. I. 73. 
Alricanns, V. xl. IS; XL i. 12. Se« 

Inlius and Scipio. 
Agamemnon, m. vi!. 12; in. xi. 5; 

IX. iii. 57 ; XI. I. 37. 
Agatharchns, XI. ii. 14. 
Aglaophon, xn. x. 3. 
Agnon, n. xvii. 15. 
Abala, v. xiu. 24, 



Aiax. IV. ii. 13 ; V. x. 41 ; ▼. xl. 40 ; 

vn. ix. 2 ; vm. iv. 24 ; n. iii. 73 : 

xn. xi. 27. 
Albinovanns. see Pedo. 
AJbutius, n. XT. 36; m. IL 4; m. 

vi. 62. 
Alcaens, X. i. 63. 
Alcamenes, xn. x. 8. 
AJcibiades, vra. iv. 23. 
Alcidamas Elaites, m. i. 10. 
Alexander, I. i. 23; n. xx. 3; m. 

viii. 16; v. x. 42 and 111; vra. 

V. 24; xn. X. 6. 
Alexandrinns, I. ii. 7. 
Allobroges, XI. i. 89. 
Amphictjones, V. i. 111. 
Ampbion, xn. x. 57. 
T. Ampins, m. viii. 50. 
Anaxagoras, xn. ii. 2'2. 
Anaxtmenes, m iv 9 
Anchariana famllia, IV. i. 74 ; vn. ii. 

10; IX. ii. 56. 
Andocides, xn. x. 21. 
Andromache, VI. ii. 23. 
Andronlcns, XI. iii. 7. 
Annalis, Sext., VI. iii. 58. 
Antigonns, n. xiii. r.>. 
Antimachos, X. i. 53. 
Antipater of Sidon, X. vii. 19, 
Antiphilos, xn. x. 6. 
Antiphon, m. i. 11 ; xn. x. 22. 
C. Antonins, IX. iii. 94, 
M. Antonios, orator, n. xr. 7; n. 

xvii. 6; nLi. 19; m. vi. 45; vn. 

iii. 16 ; vm. Pr. 13 sq. ; xi. iii. 8 

and 171 ; xn. i. 21 ; xn. ix. 5. 
H. Antonins, triomvir, vn. iii. 18; 

vm. iv. 25. 
Antonius Gnipho, 1. vi. 23. 
Antonins Rofus, I. v. 43. 
Apelles, n. xiii. 12; xn. x. 6. 
Aper, XL ii. 31. 
Apollas Callimachas, XI. ii. 14. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Apollo, in. yii. 8 

ApoUodorus of Pergamum, n. xv. 12 ; 

in. i. 1, 17, 18; m. v. 17; in. vi. 

35 sqg. ; UI. xi. 3 ; IV. i. 50 ; IV. ii. 

31; V. xiii. 59; vn. ii. 20; IX. i. 

12 ; XI. ii. 14. 
ApoUodorei, n. xi. 2; in. i. 18; IV. 

i. 50. 
ApoUonia, m. i. 17. 
ApoUonius Molon, rhetorician, m. i. 

16; xn. vi. 7. 
ApoUonius Kliodius, poet, X. i. 54. 
ApoUonius of Drepanum, IX. ii. 52. 
Appius Oaecus, n. xvi. 7; III. viii, 

64; V, xiii. 35; XI. i. 39; xn. ii. 

9 ; xn. X. 61, 
M'Aquilins, n. xr. 7. 
Aratus, X. i. 46 and 55 (Phaenom. (1), 

X. i. 46. 
Archedemus, m. vi. 31 and 33. 
Archias, X. vii. 19. 
Archilochus, X. i. 59. 
Archjrtas, I. x. 17. 
Aieopagitae, v. ix. 13. 
Areus, n. xv. 36; ni. i. 16. 
Aristarchus, I. iv. 20 ; X. i. 54 and 59. 
Aristippus, xn. ii. 24. 
Aristogeiton, xn. x. 22. 
Ariston, n. xv. 19. 
Aristophanes, grammarian, I. I. 15; 

X. i. 54. 
Aristophanes, poet, I. x. 18 ; X. i. 65 ; 

xn. X. 65. 
Aristophon, V. xii. 10. 
Aristoteles, I. i. 23; I. iv. 18; n. xv. 

10; n. xxi. 23; m. i. 13 and 14; 

in. iv. 1; in. vi. 23, 49, 60; m. 

vii. 1; X. 1. 83; xn. x. 52; xn. 

xi. 22 ; wepl ep/i. (2), I. vi.28 ; Oryllus, 

n. xvii. 14 ; Rfiet., n. xvii. 14 ; ra. i. 

14; V. X. 17; (i. 2) n. xv. 13 and 

16; n. xvii. 14; V. i. 1; v. xii. 9; 

(i. 3) n. xxi. 23 ; (i. 9) in. vii. 23 

and 25; (i. 13) in. vi. 49; (ii. 

1 sqq.) V. X. 17; (ii. 23) V. x. 78; 

V. xii. 10 ; (ii. 26) in. ix. 5 ; (iii. 2) 

vm. iii. 6; (iii. 7) vin. iii. 37; 

(iii. 8) K. iv. 87 sqq. ; (iii. 12) m. 

viil. 63 ; (iii. 13) m. ix. 5 ; xn. x. 

52; (iii. 14) m. viii. 8; IV. i. 72; 

(iii. 16) IV. ii. 32 ; Soph. El. (i. 4), 

vn. ix. 8. 
Aristoxenus, I. x. 22. 
Arruntius, III. xi. 14. 
0. Artorius Proculus, IX. 1. 2. 

5x8 



Asconlus, see Pedianua. 

Asia, XI. ii. 50 ; xn. vi. 7 ; xn. x. 16. 

Asiani, vm. Pr. 17; IX. iv. 103; 

xn. X. 1, 12, 16 sqq. 
Asinius PoUio, I. v. 8; I. vi. 42; I. 

viii. 11; IV. i. 11; vi. i. 21; vi. 

iii. 110 ; vn. ii. 5 and 26 ; vm. i. 3 ; 

vm. iii. 32; IX. ii. 9 and 24; IX. 

iii. 13 and 34; IX. iv. 76 and 132 

(fragm.); X. i. 22, 24, 113; X. ii. 

17 and 25; xn. i. 22; xn. vi. 1; 

xn. X. 11 ; xn. xi. 28. 
Aspasia, 7. xi. 27. 
Asprenas, X. I. 22 ; XI. i. 57. 
Atalanta, V. ix. 12. 
Atellani, vi.iii. 47. 
Athenae, I. xii. 15 ; n. xvi. 4; in. vii. 

24; v. ix. 5; vi. i. 7; VI. iii. 107 

vn. ii. 4; X. i. 76; XI. iii. 123 

xn. X. 9; xn. x. 19. 
Athenaeus, n. xv. 23; m. i. 16; m. 

iii. 13 ; in. v. 5 ; ra. vi. 47. 
Atbenienses, I. x. 48; V. xi. 38 and 

40; VI. V. 7; ix. ii. 92; X. i. 66. 
Athenodorus of Khodes, n. xvii. 15. .' 
Atratinus, XI. i. 68. ' 

Atreus, ni. viii. 45. 
Atridae, vn. ii. 3. 
Attici.vi. i. 7; Vi.iii. 18; VI. Pr. 13 

vra. i. 2 ; Vin. iii. 28 and 59 ; rx. iv. 

145; X.i.44, 65, 80,100, 107, 115 

xn. ii. 17; xn. x. 1, 14, 19, 20 sqq., 

25, 26, 35, 39. 
Atticus, rhetorician, m. 1. 18. 
T. Attius, v. xiii. 42. 
Auctor ad Herenn. See Comiflciua. 
Aufidia, IV. ii. 106 ; VI. i. 20 ; X. i. 22. 
Aofidius Bassus, X. i. 103. 
Augustus Caesar, I. vi. 19; I. vii. 22; 

ra. i. 17; VI. iii. 52, 59, 63-5, 74, 

75, 77, 79, 95; vm. iii. 34; xn. 

vi. 1. 
Aurelius, XL i. 31. 

Babylon, vm. v. 24. 
Bagoas, V. xii. 21. 

Bassus, see Aufidius, lonins, Saleina. 
Berenice, IV. i. 19. 
M. Bibaculus, X. i. 96. 
P. Blessius, VI. iii. 58. 
Bostar, vn. ii. 10. 
Britannia, vn. iv. 2. 
Brutus, v. xi. 7. 

M. Brutus, accuser of Cn. Plancai, 
Vi.iii. 44. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



U. Bmtos, orator, m. vi. 93; IX iii 
95; IX. iv. 75; X. i. 23 and 123; 
I. T. 20; X.vji. 27; S3, i. 5; in. 
i. 22; xn. X. 11. 

Bulbus,iv,ii. 107, 

Barrus, I. iv. 15. 

Busiris II. xviL 4. 

Caecilianas, XI. i. 39. 

Caecilius, comic poet, L Tiii. 11; X. I. 

99; XLi. 39. 
Caecilius, rhetorician, m. i. 16; m. 

vi.48; V. X. 7; vin. iii. 35; EX. i. 

12; K.iii. 38, 46, 89, 91, 97. 
Q. Caecilius, would-be accuser of 

Verres,V.xiii.l8; VII.ii.2; XI.i.20. 
M. Caelius, I. v. 61 ; I. vi. 29 and 42 ; 

IV. ii. 27 and 123 sqq.; VI. iii. 25, 

39,41; vm. Ti. 53; IX. iii. 58; X. 

i. 115 ; X. ii. 25 ; XI. i. 51 ; xn. x. 

11 ; XIL xi. 6. 
Caepasins, VL i. 41 ; VL iii. 39. 
Caerellia, VL iii. 12. 
C. Caesar, I. v. 63; L vii. 21 and 

34; in. vii. 28; m. viii. 19, 47, 

55; IV. i. 39; V. xiii.5; Vl. i. 31 ; 

VLiii. 61, 75, 91, 109, 112; vn. ii. 

6; vn. iv. 2; vm. iv. 20; x. i. 

38 and 114; X.ii. 25; xi. i. 38 and 

80; xn. X. 11. See also under 

lulius Caesar Strabo. 
C. Caesar, vn. ii. 6. 
Calamis, xn. X. 7. 
Calchas, n. xiii. 13 ; vn. iv. 2 ; vm. 

ii. 9 ; vm. iv. 20. 
M. Calidius, orator, X. i. 23 ; XL iii. 

123 and 155; xn. x. 11. 
Callicles, n. xv. 28. 
Callimaciias, Z. i. 58. 
Callon, xn. X. 7 and 10. 
C. Calvus, I. vi. 42 ; VI. i. 13; VI. iii. 

60; IX. ii. 25; IX. iii. 56; X. i. 

115; X. ii. 25; xn. i. 22; in. vi, 

1 ; xn. X. 11. 
Campatins, VL iii. 71. 
Cannae, vm. vi. 26. 
C. Carbo, IX. iv. 103 ; X. viL 27. 
Caria, XI. iii. 58. 
Cameades, xn. i. 35. 
Cascellius, VL iii. 87. 
Cassias Parmensis, V. xi. 34. 
C. Cassias Severus, VL i. 43; VL iii. 

27, 78, 79, 90; vm. ii. 2; vm. iii. 

89; X. i. 22; i i. 116; XL i. 57; 

XL iii. 133; xn. x. 11. 



Castor, XL ii. 11. 

Catilina, V. ii. 4 ; XL i. 2S. 

Catius, X. i. 124. 

M. Cato the censor, L vi. 42; L vii, 

23; n. V. 21; n. xv. 8; m. i. 19; 

m. vi. 97; V. xi. 39; VI. iii. 105; 

vm. iii. 29; VIILV..33; vnLvi. 9; 

IX. ii. 21 : n. iv. 39 ; xn. i. 1 and 

35; xn. iii. 9; xn. vii. 4; in. 

xi. 23. 
Cato Uticensis, HL v. 8 and 11 ; m. 

viii. 37 and 49; v. xi. 10; VLiii. 

112; vm. ii. 9; rx. iv. 75; I. v. 

13; iLi. 69; in. vii. 4. 
Catullus, X. i. 96 ; (xxix. 1) EX. iv. 

141; (Ixii. 45) ES. iii. 16; (IxxiL) 

L V. 20; (lixivi.) VLiii. 18; (xciii.) 

XI. i. 38 ; (icvii. 6) L v. 8. 
Catulus, VL iii. 81 ; n. iii. 35. 
Caudinum iu^um, m. viii. 3. 
Celsina, VL iii. 85. 
Celsos, see Cornelius. 
Ceres, Lvi.l4; nLvii. 8; vm. vi, 34, 
Cestius, I. V. 20. 
M. Cethegus, n. xv. 4; XI. iii. 31. 
Chaeronea, EX. ii. 62. 
Chaos, m. vii. 8. 
Charisins, X. i. 70. 
Channadas, XL ii. 26, 
Chiron, L x, 30 ; vm. vi. 37. 
Cbiysippus, philosopher, L i. 4 and 

16; L iii. 14; L x. 32; L xi. 17; 

n. XV. 34; in. i. 28; xn. vii, 9. 
Chrvsippus (Vettius), VL iii. 61. 
Chrvsogonus, IV. ii. 3 and 19. 
M. Cicero, L iv. 11 ; L v. 13, and 60 

sqq.; L vi. 18; L vii. 20 and 34; 

L viii. 11 ; n. v. 16 and 20; EL xvi, 

7; m. i. 20; m. viii. 4€, 50, 65; 

IV. i. 19; IV. V. 24; V. x. 31; v. 

xi. 17 ; V. xiii. 2 and 62 ; VL iiL 1, 

2, 4, 5, 47-9, 51, 65, 67-9, 76-7, 

84, 88, 98; vn. i. 10; vn. ii. 39; 

vn. iii. 28; vn. ii. 12; vm. ii. 4; 

vm. iii. 32, 64, 64, 66; vm. v. 33; 

IX. i. 25 ; H. ii. 96 ; IX. iii. 1 and 74 ; 

EX. iv. 1, 16, 36, 53, 66 *w-, 79. 

146; X. i. 24, 33, 39, 40, 80, 81, 

92 sgq., 105 tqq., 112, 113 tgq. ; X. 

ii. 17, 18, 24; X. v. 2, 11, 16; X, 

vii. 14, 19, 37, 28; XL i. 17, 24; 

XL iii. 8, 10, 85, 141, 171, 184; HL 

Pr. 4; xn. i. 14, 16, 19, 20, 21 sqq.; 

ULii. 6, 23; ULvi. 4, 7; xn. vii. 

4; in. X. 12 sqq., 39, 45, 48, 53, 



INDEX OF NAMES 



64, 06; XU. xJ. 6, 26, 28; Riteto- 
rica; Brut., {ii. 8) XI. i. 31; (vii. 
27) III. i. 12; (iv. 58) XI. iii. 31; 
(xxi. sqg.) n. i. 4; (xivi. 101) Til. 
li. 12; (xxxviii. 141) XI. iii. 171, 
184; (Li. 216 sq.) XI. iii. 129; (Ixii. 
225) XI. iii. 128; (Ixxiv. 259) XI. 
iii. 10, 35; Qxxx. 278) XI. iii. 123, 
155; (Lxxxii. 283) X. i. 115; 
(Ixxxviii. 301) X. tI. 4; (xci. 314 
sg.) xn. vi. 7; (xci. 316) xn. i. 20; 
Se Inv., see Rhetorica ; Orator, (i. 
1) IX. iv. 101; (i. 4) xn. xi. 26; 
(iii. 12) xn. ii. 23; (x. 34) X. vii. 
27; (xii. 39) X. i. 33 ; (xiv. sqg.) m. 
iii. 7; (xiv. 44) vm. Pr. 14; (xir. 
46) m. V. 15; m. vi. 44; (xvii. 
55) XI. iii. 1; (xviii. 57) XI. iii. 
68, 60 ; (xviii. 59) XI. iii. 122, 126 ; 
(lix. 62) X. i. 33; (xx. 67) IX. iv. 
54; (xxi.sgq.) XI. i. 4; (x2iii.)XI. i. 
92 ; (xxiii. 77) IX. iv. 37 ; (xxv. 85) 
a. ii. 29; (xxvi. 87) VL iii. 42; 
(xxvi. 90) VI. iii. 18; (xivii. 93) 
vm. vi. 23 ; (xxviii.) XI. i. 92 ; (xxii. 
104) X. i. 24; (xxx. 107) xu. i. 20; 
xn. vi. 4 ; (xxxix. sqg.) IX. i. 36 sgg. ; 
(xlv. 154) I. V. 66; (xlvi. 155) I. vi. 
18; (xJvii. 157) I. v. 44; (xlviii. 
161)IX. iv. 38; Qi- 171) ix. iv. 115; 
(Ixi. 204) rx. iv. 124; (Ixiii. 214) 
IX. iv. 103; (Ixiv, sgg.) IX. iv. 79; 
(Irv. 219) IX. iv. 109; (Ixvi. 223) 

IX. iv. 101; (Ixvii. 223 sgg.) ix. ii. 
15; K. iv, 122; (Lsx. 232) IX. iv. 
14; Qxx. 234) DC. iv. 55; (Ixxl. 
235) IX. iii, 39; De Oratore m. vi. 
69; IX. iii. 90; X. iii. 1 ; (I. iii. 12) 
vm. Pr. 25; (vi. 20) n. xxi. 14; 
(vi. 21) n. xxi. 6; (xxi. 94) vm. 
Pr. 13; (xxviii. 128) xn. v. 5; 
(xxix. 132) XI. iii. 177 ; (xxxi. 138) 
n. XV. 5; (xxxi. 141) lU. iii. 16; 
(xxxi. 142) ra. iii. 7; (xxxiii. 150) 

X. iii. 1; (xxxiv. 155) X. v. 2; 
(xlii. 190) xn. xi. 4; Qv. 236) xn. 
iii. 11; (II. vii. 30) n. xvii. 36; 
{sgq.) m. iv. 2; (xxi. 88) n. iv, 
8 ; (xxv. 108 sqg.) vn. iii. 16 ; (xlv. 
188)Xi.iii.94; (liv. 220) VI. iii. 81; 
(Iv. 223) VI. iii. 43; G^ii. 232) n. 
xvii. 5; (l^iii- 236) VI. iii. 8; (Ixi. 
248) VI. iii. 50; Qxvi. 266) VI. iii. 
38; Qxvi. 267) VI. iii. 67; (Lsvii. 
»74) I. V. 66 ; (Ixviii. 376) VI. iii. 

520 



87; (Ixix. 278) VI. iii. 88; (Ixx. 
281) VI. iii. 84; Qxxi. 289) VI. iii. 
23; (Ixxxii.) m. viii. 14; (Ixxxii. 
334) m. viii. 1 ; (Ixxxvi. 352) XL 
ii. 14; Qxxxvi. 354) XI. ii. 21; 
(Ixxxvii. 358) XI. ii. 22; (Ixxiviii. 
360) XI. ii. 26; (m. x. 37) XI. i. 1 ; 
(xi. 42) XI. iii. 10; (xiv. 54) (11. 
xxi . 6 ; (xiv. 66) n. xx. 9 ; (xv. sgg.) 
I. Pr. 13; (xxiv. 93) n. iv. 42; 
(xxvi. 101) n. xii. 7; (xxx.) m. v. 
15; (xxxi.) xn. ii. 6; (xii. 164) 
vm. vi. 16; (1. 194) X. vii. 19; 
(Iii. sgq.) IX. i, 26 sgq.; (liii. 202) 

IX. ii. 40; (Iv. 210) XI. i. 4; (Ivi. 
213)xi.iii.7; Qvi. 214) XI. iii. 115; 
(lix. 220) 1. xi. 18; XI. iii. 128; 
(lix. 222) XI. iii. 1 ; Pari. Or., (i. 3) 
m. iii. 7; (v. 16) vm. iii. 36; (vi. 
19 sgg.) vm. iii. 42 sqg.; (ix. 31) 

IV. ii. 107; (xviii. 62) m. v. 6; 
(xxvii.97)ra. viii.65; (xxviii.103) 
m. xi. 19; (xxx. 104) m. xi. 10; 
(xxx. 105) vn. iii. 35; (xxxi. and 
xxxviii.) in. vi. 50 ; Rhetorica (alias 
i/e Inventione), n. xv. 6 ; m. i. 20 ; 
m.iii.6; ni.vi.68*g. and 64; (i. 2) 
m. ii. 4; (i. 5 sgg.) U. xxi. 4; (I. v. 
6) n. XV. 5 and 33 ; II. xvii. 2 ; (i. 6) 
III. V. 14; (I. viii. 10) ra. vi. 50; 
(I. xi. 14) m. vi. 68 ; (I. xiv. 19) m. 
xi. 9, 10, 12 ; (I. xxx. 46 sqg.) V. x. 
78; (I. xxx. 49) V. xi. 2 and 23; 
(I. xxxi. 51) V. X. 6, 73 ; V. xi. 2 ; 

V. xi. 28 ; (I. xxxiv. 67) V. x. 6 ; (L 
xxxiv. 58 sgg.) V. xiv. 7 ; (I. xxxvii. 
67) v. xiv, 6; (I. Ivi.) VI. i. 27; 
Topica, (iii. 12) v. x. 85; (iii. 13) 
V. X. 62 ; v. xi. 33 ; (iii. 15) V. xi. 
32; (v) V. X. 63; (vii. 32) V. xiv. 
34; (viii. 35) I. vi. 28; (x. 42) V. 

X. 73; (xxi.) in. v. 15; (xxi. 79) 
m. V. 5; vn. i. 4; (xxi. 80) m. 
V. 18; (xxi. 81) m. v. 6; (xxii. 
85 and 87) VU. iii. 8; (xxiii. 88) 
vn. iii. 28; (xxiv. 91) m. iii. 15; 
(xxv. 93) ra. vi. 13; (xxv. 94) in. 
vii. 28; (xxv. 95) ra. xi. 18; (xxvi, 
97) IV. ii. 64; Loci communes, n. i. 
11; Fragmenta rhetorica, VI. ii. 32; 
Oraliones ; Pro Archia (i. 1), XI. i. 
19; XI. iii. 97; (viii. 19) V. xi. 25; 
vm. iii. 75; rx. iv. 44; xi. i. 34; 
n. iii. 84 and 167 ; In Q. Caecilium, 
see Verriues; Pro Caecina (L l\ 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Dt. iii. 80; (ir. 11) IT. ii. 49; (vlii. 
23) IV. ii. 132; (x. 27) VL iii. 56; 
(xii. 34) V. li. 33 ; (xiii. 37) V. x. 
68 ; (iIt. sqq.) vn. vi. 7 ; (iv. 42) 
vn. iii. 17; (it. 43) V. x. 92; vn. 
iii. 29; (xv. 44) TIL iii. 29; (ivi. 
45) T. I. 93; (six. 55) T. x. 98; 
(xxix. 82) rx. iii. 22; Pro Caelio, 
IT. i. 31 and 39; IT. ii. 27; IX. ii. 
39; XI. i. 68; (ii. 4) XL i. 28 ; (iv. 

10) xn. xl. 6 ; (liii. 31) T. xiii. 30 ; 
EC. IT. 98; (xiii. 32) IX. ii. 99; 
(xiT. tqq.) m. Tiii. 54; (liT. 33) 
EC IT. 102; m. X. 61; (xiv. 34) 
IX. iT. 104; (XT. 35) rx. ii. 60; 
(XT. 36) TIILiii. 22; (xri. 38) vm. 
iv. 1; (xrii. 39) IX. ii. 15; (xiii. 
53) rx. ii. 47 ; (ixTi. 62) rx. iv. 64 ; 
(xxix. 69) VL iii. 25; In CoUili- 
nam I., xn. x. 61 ; (i. 1) it. i. 68 ; 
rx. ii. 7; IX. iii. 30; (i. 2) (EX. ii. 
26; IX. iii. 44; (i. 3) vm. iT. 13; 
(ii. 4) IX. iii. 29 ; (ii. 5) IX. iii. 19 ; 
(T. 10) K. iii. 45; (t. 12) Tm. Ti. 
15; (Tii. 17) Tm. iT. 10; (Tii. 18) 

IX. ii. 32; (viii. 19) EX. ii. 45; (ix. 
22) IX. iii. 62; (x. 25) Tm. t1. 41 ; 
(xi. 27) IX. ii. 32; rx. iii. 71; xn. 

X. 61; (xii. 30) rx. iii. 71; In 
Catilinam II. (i. 1), rx. iii. 46 and 
77; In Catilinam III. (ix. 21), v. 
xi. 42; In Catilinam IV. (ii. 3), 
TI.iii. 109 ; In Clodium et Curionem, 
in. vii. 2; fr. T. x. 92; Tm. iii. 
81; Tm. Ti. 56; rx. ii. 96; Pro 
Cluentio, U. XTii. 21; IT. i. 69; 
IT. ii. 19 and 85; T. Til. 37(?); 
T. xi. 13; V. xiii. 42; TL v. 9; 
XL i. 61 and 74; (i. 1) IT. i. 36; 
TL T. 9 ; vm. Ti. 65 ; EX. iT. 68, 92, 
101, 133; (i. 4) EX. ii. 19; EX. iii. 
75 and 81; IX. It. 75; (ii. 5) rx. 
ii. 61; IX. iii. 81 and 85; (iv. 9) 
IT. T. 11; (iT. 11) IT. i. 79; (v. 

11) IT. ii. 16 and 130 ; XI. iii. 162 ; 
(T. 14) IT. ii. 121; XL iii. 162; 
(Ti.l5)r7.ii.l05; ES. iii. 62, 77, 81 ; 
(xi. 32) Tm. iT, 11; (xiT. 41) rx. 
iii. 38; (xTii. tqg.) T. ii. 1; n. i. 
74; (n. »qq.) IT. ii. 19; TL i. 41 ; 
(xii.) TI. iii. 39; (xxi. 68) TL iii. 
40; (xxiH.63)rx.ii. 51; (xxiii.64) 
T. X.68; (xxvi.)rr. ii.l07; (xxrii. 
75) T. xi. 22 ; (xxix. 80) IX. iii. 82 ; 
(xTTJii. 91) Tm. Ti. 55; (xxxr. 96) 



Tm. iii. 51 ; (xxxri. 98) T. x. 108; 
(xxiTii.l03)IX.ii.8; (xxxTlii.106) 
EX. ii. 16; (xl. Ill) T. xiii. 39; 
(xiii.) IT. i. 75; (xlTlii. 134) T. xi. 
13; (xlTiii. 135) T. xiii. 33; QiL) 
IT. T. 20 ; T. xiii. 42 ; (Iii- 143) T. 
liii. 47; Giii- 146) T. li. 25; (Ix. 
166) IX. ii. 48; (be 167) a. iii. 
37; Qx. 168) T. liii. 15; (lii. 169) 
EX. ii. 60; In competitores, m. Til. 
2 ; Pro Comelio, IT. iii. 13 ; T. xiii. 
18 ; TL T. 10 ; TH. iii. 36 ; Tm. iii. 
3; H. iii. 164; fr. IT. It. 8; T. xi. 
25 ; T. xiii. 26 ; EX. ii. 55 ; IX. iT. 
122 sqq.; Pro Deiotaro, IT. i. 31; 
Pro Flaceo, XI. i. 89 ; Pro Fonteio, 
XI. i. 89 ; fr. TI.iii.51 ; Pro Fundanio, 
I. iT. 14; Pro Gobinio, XL i. 73; 
Pro Q. Oallio, Tm. iii. 66; XL iii. 
155 and 165; De lege agraria, n. 
xri. 7; (n. t. 13) T. xiii. 38; Tin. 
iT. 28 ; Pro lege Manilia, n. It. 40 ; 
Oe proscriptorum liberis, XI. i. 85 ; 
Pro Ligario, IT. i. 39, 66, 70; Vf. 
ii. 108 ; T. xiii. 20 ; TI. t. 10 ; n. 
ii. 50; X. i. 23; XI. i. 78; (i. 4) 
IX. IT. 73, 75, 92, 105 ; XL iii. 108 
tqq.; (i. 2) IT. i, 67; IT. ii. 109 
and 131; Tm. t. 13; EC ii. 51; 
nc. iT. 133; XL iii. 162; (i. 3) it. 
ii. 110; (ii. 4) n. ii. 51, lOS, lU); 
(iii. 6 sqq.) XL iii. 166 ; (iii. 7) IX. 
ii. 14 and 28; (iiL 8) T. x. 93; 
(iii. 9) T. xiii. 31; Tm, iT. 27; 
Tm. Ti. 12; EX. ii. 7, 33, 57; EX. 
iT. 99 ; XL iii. 166 ; (It. 10) T. xiii. 
5; Tm. T. 10; IX. ii. 29; ix. It. 
102 ; (T. 15) TUL iii. 85 ; (vi. 19) 
T. xl. 42; T. xiT. 1; ex. iii. 36; 
(X. 30) Tn. iT. 17 ; (x. 31) v. x. 93 ; 
(xii. 35) TL iii. 108 ; (iii. 37) Tm. 
T. 3; (xii. 38) Tm. t. 7; EX. iT. 
107; Contra ami MetHli, IX. iiL 
40, 43, 45, 49, 50 ; Pro Milone, n. 
XI. 8; m. Ti. 12 and 93; m. xi. 
15 ; IT. i. 20 and 31 ; it. ii. 25 and 
57; IT. iii. 17; IT. t. 15; t. xIt, 
22; TL T. 10; vn. Ii. 43; EX. IL 
41; EX. It. 133; X. t. 20; XL 1. 
40 ; XI. iii. 47 ; (i> 1) IX. It. 74 and 
93; XI. iii. 47 tqq.; (ii. 5) Tm. Ti. 
48; IX. iii. 77; (iii. 7) T. xi. 12; 
(iii. 8) T. xi. 16 and 18; (iii. 9) T. 
liT. 18 »qq.; (iT. 9) T. xi. 15; 
Tm. T. 11; (iT. 10) T. xiT. 17 and 

521 



INDEX OF NAMES 



19; IX.iii. 83; (iv. 11) v. xiv. 17; 
(v.) V. ii. 1; (vii. 17) v. i. 41; 
(x. 28) IV. ii. 57; (i. 29) TV. ii. 121 ; 
▼. X. 50; vn. i. 37; (xi. 30) iv. 
iv. 2; (xii. 33) rx. ii. 54 and 56; 
(xiii. 33) IX. iii. 6; (xiii. 34 sgq.) 

VIII. vi. 7; (xvi. 41) v. xiv. 3; 
(xviii.47)IX. ii. 26; (xi.)V. x. 37; 
(XI. 53) vni. vi. 41 ; (xxii. 59) ix. 
iii.30;(xiii 60)Vin.iii. 22;(xxvii. 

72) v. li. 12 ; IX.iii. 28 ; (xxix. 79) v. 
xiv. 2 ; (xxxi. 85) IX. ii. 38 ; XI. i. 34 ; 
H. iii. 115 and 167; xn. x. 62; 
(xxxiii.) IX. ii. 41 ; (xxxiv. 94) VI. i. 
27 ; IX. iii. 23 ; (xxxvii. 102) VI. i. 24 ; 
XI. iii. 172; (xxxviii. 105) XI. iii. 
173; Pro Murena, n. iv. 2i; XI. i. 
69; (i. 1) IX. iv. 107; (ii. 4) V. xi. 
23; (iii.) rv. i. 75; (v. 11) IV. v. 
12; (vi. 14) IX. ii. 36; (viii. 17) 
V. xi. 11; (ix. 22) V. xiii. 27; (ix. 
22) IX. ii. 100; IX. iii. 32 ; (xi. 25) 
vni. iii. 22; (xii. 26) vn. i. 51; 
(xiii. 29) vra. iii. 79; IX. iii. 36; 
(xvii. 35) vin. vi. 49; (ivii. 36) 
vm. iii. 80; (xxix. 60) vm. vi. 30; 
(ixxv. 73) vn. iii. 16; (xxxvi. 76) 

IX. iii. 82; (xxivji. 79) VI. i. 35; 
(xxxvii. 80) IX. ii. 18; (xxxix. 83) 

V. X. 99; (fragm.?) IX. iii. 21; 
Pro Oppio, v. xiii. 17 and 20 sg.; 

VI. V. 10; XI. i. 67; V. x. 69 and 
76 ; V. xiii. 21 and 30 ; IX. ii. 51 ; 
Philippic II., (i. 2) XI. i. 25 sg.; 
(ii. 4) V. xiii. 38; (xvii.) v. xiii. 
38; (XXV. 62) rx, ii. 47; (xxv. 63) 
V. X. 99; vm. Iv. 8, 10, 16; vm. 
vi. 68; K. iv. 23, 29, 44, 107; 
XI. iii. 39, 167, 172; (xxvi. 64) IX. 
ii. 26; IX. iii. 29; (xxvii. 67) vm. 
iv. 26; vra. vi. 70; xn. x. 62; 
Phil. ra. (iv.) V. xiii. 38 ; (ix. 22) ix. 
iii. 13 and 72; PAt7.IV.(iii.8)IX.iii. 
86 ; Phil. vra. (i. 2) m. viii. 5 ; (i, 
3) vn. iii.25; Phil. IX. m. viii. 5; 
(iii. 7) vn.iii. 18; Phil. XI. (vi. 14) 
vm.iii. 29; Phil. xra. (19) V. xiii. 
38; In Pisonem, ra. vii. 2; (i. 1) V. 
xiii. 38; (xiii. 20) IX. iii. 67; (xxx. 

73) V. xiii. 38 ; In Pisonem, fragm., 
IX. iv. 47 and 76; vm. iii. 21; 
vra. V. 18(?); Pro Quinctio (i. 4), 
XI. i. 19; (xxv. 78) IX. iii. 86; 
Pro RcMrio perdtiell. reo., V. xiii. 
20; vn. i. 9 and 16; (vi. 18) XI. 

522 



iii. 169 ; (ix.) VI. i. 49; Pro Rabirio 
Postumo, ra. vi. 11 ; rv. i. 46 and 
49; IV. ii. 10; IX. ii. 17; (iii. 7) 
IX. iii. 6; (x. 28) IV. ii. 18; (xvii. 
46) XI. iii. 172; De Rege Alex. (7), 
L V. 13 ; De haruspicum respomis, 

V. xi. 42; Pro Roscio Amerino, IV. 
ii. 19; vn. ii. 23; (xxii.) IV. ii. 3 
and 19; rx. ii. 53; (xxvi. 72) xn. 
vi. 4; Pro Scauro ambitus reo., iv. 
i. 69; Pro Scauro repel, reo, I. v. 
8; r?. i. 69; v. xiii. 28 and 40; 

VI. i. 21; vn. ii. 10; xi. i. 89; 
Pro Sestio (liv. 115), vm. iii. 34; 
Pro Tullio (vii. 14), IV. ii. 131; 
(xxiv. 56) V. xiii. 21 ; Pro Vareno, 
VI. i. 49; vn. i. 9 and 12; vn. ii. 
10, 22, 36 ; fr. rV. i. 74; V. x. 69 ; V. 
xiii. 28; vm. iii. 22; IX. ii. 56; 
In Vatinium testem, v. vii. 6 ; XI. 
i. 73 ; Pro Vatinio, XI. i. 73 ; Ver- 
rinae, IV. i. 20 and 31; IV. iii. 13; 
VI. i. 54; VI. iii. 4; VI. v. 4; X. i. 
23; XI. ii. 25; Div. in Caecilium, 
V. xiii. 18; (i. 1) IV. i. 49; IX. ii. 
17; (ii. 4"> IX. ii. 59; (xii. 40) XI. 
i. 20; (xiii. 41) XI. i. 44; (xiv. 45) 
IV. V. 24; Act. I., (XV. sg.) TV. i. 
20; VI. i. 13; Act. II. (I. i. 1), IX. 
iv. 119; (I. iii. 9) vra. iv. 2; (I. 
xxiv. 63) IV. ii. 2; (I. xx.) iv. ii. 
114; VI. i. 54; (I. xxx. 76) XI. iii. 
162; (I. xxx. 77) IX. i. 16; (I. xiii. 
109) V. X. 76; (I. xlvi. 121) vi. iii. 
55; (n. i. ) m. vii. 27; (n. xxx. 
73) IV. ii. 67; (IV. iii. 5) rv. v. 4; 
rx. ii. 61 ; (IV. xvii. 37) ix. ii. 52 ; 
(IV. XX. 43) IX. ii. 60; (IV. xxv. 
Ivii.) VI. iii. 55; (IV. xxvi. 57) IX 
ii. 61; (IV. xliii. 95) VI. iii. 55; 
(iv. 48) m. vii. 27; IV. ii. 19; K. 
iv. 127 ; (IV. Iv. 123) V. xi. 7 ; (V. 
ii. 4)rx.ii. 47; (V. iii.) iv. ii. 17; 
(V. V. 10) rx. ii. 22 ; (V. x.) IV. iii. 
18; (V. xvii. 44) IX. iii. 34; (v. 
xxvii. 70) rx. iv. 64; (V. xxxiii. 
86) vm. iii. 64; IX. iv. 104; XI. 
iii. 90; (V. xii. 107) rx. iii. 43; 
(V. xliv. 116) IX. ii. 57; IX. iii. 11; 
(V. xliv. 117) vm. iv. 19; IX. ii, 
51; IX. iv. 70; (V. xiv. 118) IV. ii. 
106; vm. iv. 27; rx. iv. 71, 108. 
124; XI. i. 40; (V. xiv. 119) IX. iii. 
34; (V. Iii. 136) VI. i. 3; (V. Ivi. 
145 vra. vi. 72; (v. 62 tq.) IV. il. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



113; (V. liii. 161) IX. ii. 40; (V. 
Ixii. 162) IX. iv. 103; XI. i. 40; 
XL iii. 90 ; (V. bdii. 163) ix. ii. 38 ; 
(V. Lrvi. 170) Tin. iv. 4 ; (V. Ixxii.) 
VI. i. 3 ; Fraqmenia ineerta, VUL 
Ti. 47; n. ii. 18, 41, 47, 60; DC. 
iii. 21, 42, 48, 87; XI. iii. 155; 
Commentarii causarum, rv. i. 69; 
X. Tii. 30 *q. ; Epistulae, L vii. 34; 
DC. iv. 41; X. i. 107; XL I. 21; 
xn. ii. 6; Ad Appium Pulchrum, 
in. Tiii.3; VIII.iii.35; Ad Atiicum, 
(V. IV. 3), V. xi. 21 ; (vm. vii. 2) 
VL iii. 109; vm. v. 18; (IX. x. 6) 
vm. iii. 32 : Ad Bruium, n. xi. 10 ; 
m. viii. 42; V. i. 9; VL iii. 20; 
vm. iii. 6 and 34; vm. vi. 20 and 
55; ix.iii.4lBnd58; lX.iv.41(?); 
Ad Catrelliam, VLiii.112 ; Adfilium, 
I. vii. 34; Ad ineertum, ix. iii. 61 ; 
Dialogi, XL i. 20; Cato maior (iii. 
7), V. X. 9 ; V. xi. 41 ; Catultu, HL 
vi. 64; Laeliui (xxiv. 89), vm. iii. 
55; Lueulliu, m. vi. 64; De not. 
deorum (I. xxxiv. 95), L v. 72; 
vm. iii. 32; De republiea, IX. iii. 
75; Tusculanae (L ii. 4), L x. 19; 
(I. xxiv. 59 ( ?)) X. vi. 4 ; Carmina, 
vm. vi. 73; IT. iv. 41; XL i. 24; 
lAbri de iure, xn. iii. 10; Libri 
Platonit el Xenophontu Translati, 
V. xi. 28; X. V. 2; Fragmenta in- 
certa, vm. iii. 21; DC. iv. 100(?); 
xn. i. 17. 

Cimber, vm. iii. 29. 

Cimbricum scutum, VL iii. 38. 

Ctona, see Helvius. 

Caandins, I. vii. 26 ; VL iii. 81 ; vm. 
V. 16. 

Cleanthes, n. xv. 34; n. xvii. 41; 
xn. i. 18; xn. vii. 9, 

Cleon, XL iii. 123. 

Clitarehus, X. i. 75. 

aoatilla, vm. V. 16; IX. ii. 20; IX. 
iii. 66; IX. iv. 31. 

Clodia, in. viii. 54 ; V. xiii. 30. 

P. Clodius, n. iv. 35 ; m. v. 10 ; m. 
vii. 2; ra. viii. 54: m. xi. 15 and 
17; rv. ii. 25, 67, 88; V. ii. 4; VI. 
iii. 49; vn. i. 34 ««.; vn. ii. 45; 
X. V. 13 ; XL i. 39. 

Sex. Clodius Phonnio, VI. iii. 56. 

Cluentianum iudicium, XL i. 74. 

Clusiaios Figolus, TIL ii. 5 and 
26. 



ClTtaemnestra, n. xvii. 4; m. xL 

4 sqq. and 20 ; VUL vl. 53. 
Coccus, xn. X. 21. 
Colotes of Tecs, n. xiii. 13. 
Comic poets, anonymous, TL iii. 97; 

IX. iii. 16. 
Corax, n. xvii. 7; m. i, 8. 
Cornelia, l. i. 6. 
Comelii tres, V. x. 30. 
Cornelius Celsus, rbetorician, n. xv. 

22 and 32; m. i. 21; m. v. 3; 

m. xvi. 13 and 38; m. vii. 25; 

IV. i. 12; IV. ii. 9 tq.; vn. i. 10; 

vn. ii. 19; vm. iii. 35 and 47 ; IX, 

i. 18; rr. ii. 22, 40, 54, 101 sq.. 

104, 107; IX. iv. 132 and 137; X, 

i. 23 and 124; xn. xi. 24. 
C. Ciomelius trib. pleb., X. v. 13. 
Cornelius Qallus, poet, I. v. 8 ; I. i. 93. 
Cornelias Hufinus, xn. i. 43. 
Cornelius Severus, poet, X. i. 89. 
Comificins, m. i. 21 ; EX. iii. 89; (iv. 

14) EX. iii. 31 and 70; (iv. 15 sqq.) 

EX. iii. 98 ; (iv. 18) V. x. 2 ; (iv. 22) 

EX. iii. 72; (iv. 25) EX. iii. 55 sq. 

and 91 ; (iv. 29) IX. iii. 88 ; (iv. 36) 

EX. ii. 27 ; (iv. 43 and 52) EX. ii. 31. 
Cios, vm. vi. 71. 
Coesatianns Capito, VI. i. 14. 
L. Cotta, V. xiii. 20 and 30; VL v. 

10; XLi. 67; XL iii. 10. 
Cranon, XI. ii. 14. 
L. Crassus, orator, I. xi. 18; n. iv. 

42; n. XX. 9; VL iii. 43 sq.; vn. 

vi. 9; vnLPr. 14: vnLiii. 89; x. 

iii. 1; X.V. 2; XI. i. 4 and 37; XI. 

iii. 8 and 94; xiLii. 5; xn. z. 10; 

xn. xi. 4 and 27. 
Crassus Dives, XL ii. 60. 
Oates, L ix. 6. 
Cratinns, X. i. 63. 
Cremutius, X. i. 104. 
Crispus Passienus, VI. i. 60; X. i. 24; 

XI. i. 31. 
Critolaus, n. xv. 19 and 23 ; n. xvii. 

15. 
Cupido, n. iv. 26. 
Curetes, X. i. 49. 
Curjanum indicium, vn. vi. 9. 
Curii,xn. ii. 30. 
C. CJurio (the elder), XI. iii. 129. 
C. Curio ( ? the younger), VI. iii. 7«. 
M'. Curius, VI. iii. 72 ; vn. ii. 38. 
Curins Vibius, VL iii. 73. 
Qyctops, vm. iii. 84; vm. iv. 24. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Oynicas, IV. II. 80. 
C^TUs, XI. ii. 50. 
C^hnius, II. xiii. 13. 

Daedalns, "vm. vi. 18. 

Declaimer, fragment of unknown, vm. 

ill. 22. 
Delphicum oracalum, x. 1. 81. 
Demades, n. xvii. 13 ; xn. x. 49. 
Demeas, vn. ix. 10; vm. ii. 16. 
Demetrius, comic actor, XI. iii. 178. 
Demetrius Phalereus, orator, II. iv. 

41 sq.; IX. iii. 84; X. i. 33 and 80. 
Demetrius, sculptor, Xll. x. 9. 
Demoleos, vm. iv. 25. 
Demosthenes, L xi. 5; n. v. 16; m. 

vi. 3 ; V. xiii. 42 ; V. xiv. 32 ; VI. 

i. 20; VI. ii. 24; VI. iii. 2; vm. v. 

33; IX. ii. 40 and 98; IX. iv. 17, 

36, 47, 55, 146; X. i. 24, 39, 76, 105 

sqq.; X. ii. 24; X. iii. 25 and 30; 

n. iii. 6 sq., 54, 68, 130, 168; xn. 

i. 14 sq. and 22 ; xn. ii. 22 ; XII. ix. 

16; xn. I. 23, 24, 26, 52, 54; xn. xi. 

26 ; Action against hisguardiani, xn. 

vl. 1 ; In Androtionem (7), V. xiv. 

4; Pro Ctesiphonte, IV. i. 32, 66, 

68; IX. ii. 54; X. i. 22; XI. i. 22; 

XI. iii. 97; (1) IX. iv. 63 sq. and 

73; (18)IV.ii. 131; (128) XI. i. 22 ; 

(179) IX. iii. 55; (208) IX. ii. 62 

and 168; Ve Haloneso, in. viii. 5; 

In Midiam (72), VI. i. 17; Philip- 

picae, ni. viii. 65 ; (i. 2) VI. v. 7 ; 

(iii. 17) IX. iv. 63 >q. ; Epistulae, X. 

i. 105. 
Diana, m. vii. 8. 
Didius Gallus, VI. iii. 88. 
Dido, IX. ii. 64. 
Didymus, I. viii. 20. 
Diogenes of Babylon, I. i. 9. 
Diomedes, XI. i. 37; xn. xi. 27. 
Dion, I. X. 48; m. iii. 8. 
Dionysius, I. x. 48 ; V. xi. 8 ; vm. vi. 

62. 
Dionysius of Halicamassus, m. i. 16 ; 

IX.iii. 89; IX. iv. 88. 
Dolabella, vi. iii. 79 and 99; vm. ii. 

4; ix.i. 16; xn. xi. 6. 
Domitia Passieni, VI. i. 50 ; vn. iii. 74. 
Domitianus, IV. Pr. 2 sq.; X. i. 91. 
Domitius Afer, V. vii. 7; V. x. 79; 

VI. iii. 29, 42, 54, 68, 81, 84 sq., 

92-4; vm. V. 3 and 16; IX. ii. 20; 

IX. iiL 66 and 79; lX.iv. 31; X. i. 

$24, 



24, 86, 118; n. iii. 12S; xn. x. 

11 ; xn. xi. 3. 
Domitius Marsus, VI. iii. 102 igq., 108, 

111. 
L, Domitius, IV. ii. 17. 
Dorica, vm. iii. 59. 
Duilius, I. vii. 12. 

Egeria, n. iv. 19. 

Effnatius, v. xiii. 33. 

Elis, xn. X. 9. 

Empedocles, I. iv. 4; ra. 1. 8. 

Empylns of Ehiodes, rhetorician, X. 
vi. 4. 

Ennius, I. v. 12; I. vi. 12; I. viii. 
11; vra.iii. 31; ix. ii. 36; IX. iv. 
115; X.i. 88; 4nn. (160) (Vahlon), 
vm. vi. 9; (178) VI. iii. 86; (186) 
vn. ix. 6; (222) IX. iv. 115; (305) 
XI. iii. 31; (309) n. xv. 4; (472) 
n. xvii. 24 ; Medea, v. i. 84. 

Ephorus, n. viii. 11; IX. iv. 87; X. 
i. 75. 

Epicurus, H. xvii. 15; vn. iii. 5; X. 
ii. 15; xn. ii. 24. 

Epicurei, V. vii. 35 ; X. i. 124. 

Eratosttienes, L i. 16 ; xi. ii. 14. 

Euathlus, m. i. 10. 

Buenus, I. x. 17. 

Euphorion, x. i. 66 ; XI. ii. 14. 

Euphranor, xn. x. 6 and 12. 

Eupolis, 1. X. 18 ; X. i. 65 ; xn. x. 65. 

Euripides, m. i. 14; v. x. 31 {Phoe- 
niss., 636 sq.); X. i. 67 sq. 

Eurypylus of Iiaxissa, XI. ii. 14. 

Fabia Dolabellae, VI. iii. 73. 

Fabius, m. viii. 19 and 37; (Cunc- 

tator)ii. xvii. 19; VI. iii. 61; vra. 

ii. 11; XL 11.80. 
Fabius Pictor, L vL 12. 
Fabricius, vn. ii. 88 ; xn. i. 43 ; xn. 

ii. 30. 
Fama, IX. 11. 36. 
C. Fannius, vn. ix. 12. 
Fidenates, m. viii. 37. 
Figulus Clusinius, vn. ii. 4 sq. and 26. 
Flaccus, see Valerius. 
Flaminius, n. xvi. 6. 
On. Flavins, vntiii. 22. 
Flavus, see Sei^ius «uid Verginiua. 
Florus, see Julius. 
Fontcius, VI. iii. 61. 
Fulvius, VL iii. 100. 
Furiua, see Bibaculua. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Gabinins, XI. i. 73. 

A. Galba, wit, VI. iii. 27, 62, 64, 66, 

80, 90. 
Servius Galba, n. !▼. 8. 
Galliae, vui. r. 15: X. iii. 13. 
Gallio, ra. i. 21; IX. ii. 9). 
Gallua, see C!omelias and Sulpicios. 
Gallus, ni. Tiii.l9; n. iii. 38 and 79; 

Tin. Jv. 20. 
Gavius, I. vi. 36. 
Germani, vm. iv. 20; vm. ▼. 24. 
Gennania, ra. viii.19. 
Qennanicam belliim, X. i. 103, 
Germanirus, see Domitianus. 
GeU, I. Pr. 6. 
Glaucia, 11. xvi. 5. 
Glaucus of Carystas, XI. ii. 14. 
Glyco Spjridion, VI. i. 41. 
Gnipho, see Antonius. 
Gorgias of Leoiitini, n. xxi. 21 ; m. 

i. 8, 9, 12, 13, 18 tq.; ni. viii. 9; 

IX. ii. 102; ES-iii. 74; .\II. xi. 21. 
Gracchi, I. i. 6; n. v. 21 ; II. xri. -5; 

in. vii. 21; T. xi. 6; Vin. v. 33; 

xn. z. 10 and 45. 
C. Graccbas, I. x. 27; II. iv. 15; XL 

iii. 8 and 115. 
Tib. Gracchus, V. xiii. 24; vn. iv. 

13. 
Qraecia, m. iv. 14; XlLii. 22; xn. x. 

28. 
Graeci, I. i. 12 and 13 ; I. v. 32 and 

60 sqq.; I. I. 21; v. xiv. 32; X. i. 

22; XI. i. 89; XI. ii. 51; XL iii. 

102,123,138; XILii.30; xn.x.33; 

xn.xi.23. 
Oraii,Vin. iv. 21. 
Gratiae, X. i. 82. 

Hannibal, n. xvii. 19; m. viii. 17; 

V. X. 48 ; Vin. iv, 20, 
Heius, vn. iv. 36. 
Helena, in. viii. 9; vm. iv. 21. 
Hegesias, sculptor, xn. x. 7. 
C. Helvius Cinna, poet, X. iv. 4, 
Helvins Mancia, vi. iii. 38. 
Hercules, ni- vii. 6; VL i. 36; vn. 

ii. 17; X. i. 56; Xl.iii. 73. 
Hermagoras, rhetorician, n. xv. 14; 

n. xxi. 21; in. i. 16; ill. iii. 9; 

ra. V. 4 and 14; m. vi. 3, 21, 53, 

56, 59 »q.\ m. xi. 1 and IS; m. 

xviii. 22; V. Ix. 12; IX. ii. 106. 
Hermagoras, pupil of Ibeodorus of 

Gadara, in. i. 18. 



Hermagorei, m. 1. 1 and 16; ra. v. 

4 ; vn. iv. 4. 
Hennocreon, V. x. 78. 
Herodotus, IX. iv. 18 and 46; X. 1. 

73 and 101. 
Hesiodus, L i. 15 ; v. xi. 19 ; X. i. 52. 
Hippiae nuptLie, wa. iv. 16. 
Hippias of Elis, ra. i. 10 and 12; XII 

xi. 21. 
Hippocrates, VI. iii. 34. 
Hirtins, vm. iii. 54; xn. xi. 6. 
Hispania, I. v. 57. 
Hlspo, VL iii. 100. 
Homems, I. viii. 5 ; n. iii. 12 ; n. xvii. 

Sand 18; v. xii. 14; vn. x. 11; vra. 

V 9 ; vm. vi. 18 ; X. i. 24, 46 tqq., 

57, 62. 65, 81, 85 ; xn. iv. 2 ; XIL x. 

5 and 64 ; xn. xi. 21 and 26. Iliad 

(i. 249), xn. I. 64; (ii. 180) ra. 

vii. 12; (ii. 201) IX. iii. 57; (ii. 

255 sqq.) XL i. 37; (ii. 477) m. vii. 

12; (ii.558)v. xi.40; (iii. 156 «99.) 

vra. iv. 21; (iii. 214 and 221 tqq.) 

xn. X. 64; (iii. 217) XI. iii. 158; 

(iv. 125) 1. V. 72 ; (iv. 299) V. xii. 

14; (V. 801) ra. vii. 12; (vii. S19) 

vm. iv. 24; (xvi. 140) vm. iv. 24; 

(xxi. 196) X. i. 46; Odyssey (viii. 

173) XU. X. 65; (ix. 394) L v. 72; 

(xi. 130) I. V. 67; (xi. 523) vm. iii. 

84; (XV. 299) vra. vi. 37. 
Horatius, one of three Horatii, ra. vi. 

76; rv. ii. 7; V. xi. 10; vn iv. 8. 
Horatins, L viii. 6; I. i. 94 and 96; 

Odes (L iv. 13) vra. vi. 27; (L 

xii. 1) vra. ii. 9; (L xii. 40) IX. 

iii. 18; (i. 14) vm. vi. 44; (L xv. 

24) EX. iii. 10; (n. xiii. 26) X. i. 63 ; 

(ra. vi. 36) vm. ii. 9; (iv. ii.) x. i. 

61; (IV. ii. 11) rx. iv. 54; Epistle* 

(L i. 41), IX. iii. 10; (L i. 73) V. xi. 

20 ; (L V. 23) XL iii. 80 ; Ars Poet 

(1), vra. iii. 60; (25) IX. iii. 65; 

(63) vra. vi. 23; (139) vnL iii. 20; 

(311) L V. 2; (359) X. i. 24; (388) 

Introd. 2; (402) X. i. 56; Satire*. 

(L i. 100) IX. iv. 65; (L iv. 11) i. 

i. 94; (L vi. 104) L v. 67; (L x 

44) VI. iii. 20; (n. v. 41) vm. vi. 

17; (n. vi. 83)IX 'ii.l7. 
Q. Hortensius, L v. 12; IL i. 11; m. 

V. 11; rv. V. 24; VI. iii. 98; vm. 

iii. 35; X. i. 23; X. v. 13; I. vi. 

4; XLii. 24; XL iii. 8; xn. vii. 4; 

xn. X. 11 and 27. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Hortensins, daughter of, I. i. 6. 
Hyperbolus, I. x. 18. 
Hyperides, II. xv. 9; X. i. 77; X. v. 
2 ; xn. I. 22. 

Dium, V. X. 42. 

Interamna, IV. ii. 88. 

lopas, I. X. 10. 

Ipiucrates, V. xii.lO. 

Ipliigcnia, n. xiii.13. 

Irus, III. vii. 19. 

Isaeus, xn. X. 22. 

Isauricus, VI. in. 25 and 48. 

Isocrates, n. viii. 11 ; n. iv. 4 and 33 
m.i. 13-16; m. iv. 11; HI. v. 18 
ni. vi. 3; m. viii. 9; iv. ii. 31 
IX. iii. 74 ; IX. iv. 4 and 35 ; X. i. 74 
and 108 ; xn. x. 22 and 50. 

Isthmos, III. viii. 16. 

Italia, I. vi. 31 ; I. xii. 15; vn. ii. 26. 

luba, VI. iii. 90; XI. i. 80. 

ludaicae superstitionis auctor, III. vii. 
21. 

lulia basilica, XII. v. 6. 

lulius Airicanus, Till. V. 15 ; X. i. 118; 
xn. X. 11. 

O. lulius Caesar Strabo, VI. iii. 38; 
IX. i. 28; XI. iii. 129. 

lulius Floras, X. iii. 13. 

lulius Secundus, X. i. 120 sq.; X. iii. 
12 sqq.; xn. X. 11. 

Junius Bassus, vi. iii. 27, 57, 74. 

liuio, I. vi. 25; vm. iv. 18. 

luppiter, I. vi. 25; n. iii. 6; m. vii. 
4 and 8; X.i. 46; xn. x. 19. 

Labienus (i), V. liii. 20. 

Labienus (ii), L v. 8; IV. 1. 11 ; IX. 

iii. 13. 
Lacedaemon, III. vii. 24. 
Lacedaemonii, I. x. 14; I. xi. IS; n. 

xvi. 4; vn. ii. 4. 
Laches, vn. ix. 10. 
Laelia, I. i. 6; IX. iv. 32. 
D. Laelius Balbus, X. i. 24; xn. x. 

10 and 39. 
Laenas Popilius, HI. i. 21 ; X. vii. 32 ; 

XI. iii. 183. 
Latium, I. vi. 31. 
Latona, in. vii. 8. 
Latro, see Porcius. 
Lentulus (Catilinarian), V. x. 30; 

(Spinther), vi.iii.57. 
On. Lentulus (orator), XI. iii. 8. 
Lentuli, VI. iii. 67. 



Leocrates, XI. ii. 14. 

Leonidas, I. i. 9. 

Liber, Ul. vii. 8 ; VIU. vl. 24. 

Liburnia, ix. ii. 34. 

Licinius, see Archias, 

Ligarius, vn. ii. 6. 

Linus, I. X. 9. 

Livius Andronicus, X. ii. 7. 

T. Livius, I. V. 66; I. vii. 24; n. v. 

19; vm. i. 3; vni. iii. 63; X. i. 

101; Praef. (1), ix. iv. 74; (i. 9) 

IX. ii. 37; (i. 12) I. v. 44; (ii. 27) 
vm. vi. 20; (xxxviii. 54) vni. vi. 
9; Epist. adfllium, n, v. 20; X. 1. 
39; (?) vm. ii. 18. 

Lotophagi, V. viii. 1. 

Lucanus, X. i. 90. 

Lucilius, I. V. 66; I. vi. 8; I. vii. 15 

and 19; I. viii. 11; rx. iv. 38 and 

113; X. i. 94. 
Lucretia, V. xi. 10. 
Lucretius, I. iv. 4 ; X.i. 87; xn. xi.27; 

(i. 936) ui. i. 4; (iv. 1) vm. vi. 45; 

(iv. ll)in. i. 4. 
LucuUi, xn. vii. 4. 
Lupercalia, I. v. 66. 
Lupus, see Rutiliua. 
Luranius, IX. iv. 38. 
0. Lusius, in. xi. 14. 
Lycurgus (lawgiver), i. x. IB. 
Lycurgus (orator), XII. x. 22. 
Lydia, ni. vii. 6. 
Lysias, II. xvii. 6; m. viii. 51; IX. 

iv. 16 and 17; X. i. 78; xn. i. 

21 sqq. 
Lysippus, xn. i. 9. 

Macer, VI. iii. 96; X. i. 56; X. i. 87; 

xn. xi. 27. 
Maecenas, I. vi. 62 ; IX. iv. 28. 
Sp. Maelius, in. vii. 20 ; V. ix. 13 ; V. 

xiii.24. 
Magnus, V. x. 30. 
Mancia, see Helvins. 
Manctnus, VU. iv. 21. 
M. Manlius, V. ix. 13; V. xi, 7; Vil. 

ii. 2 ; cp. also m. vii. 20. 
Manlius Sura, VI. iii. 64; XI. iii. 126. 
Maratlion, IX. ii. 62 ; XI. iii. 168; Xll. 

X. 24. 

M. Marcellus, V. xi. 7; X. i. 38. 
Marcellus Victorius, see Victoriua. 
Marcia, m. v. 11 ; X. v. 13. 
Marcianus, VI. iii. 95. 
Maricas I. x. IS. 



526 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Marius, m. viii. 37. 

ifarrucini, vn. ii. 26. 

Mars, ni. vii. 5, 8 ; vni. vi. 24. 

Marsus, see Domitius. 

Matius, m. i. 18. 

Medea, VUL v. 6; IX ii. 8; X. i. 98; 

XI. iii. 71. 
Megabyzus, V. lii. 21. 
Megarii.y. xi. 40. 
Melanthius, HI. x. 6. 
Menalcas, vm. vi. 47. 

Menander, I. viii. 7 ; I. x. 18 ; m. vii. 

18; in. xi. 27; IX. iii. 89; X. i. 

69, 70 ; XI. iii. 91 ; xn. x. 25. 
Meneiaus, u. xiii. 13; vin. iii. 84; 

XII. X. 64. 
Mercurius, m. vii. 8. 
Meropes, \'II1. vi. 71. 

Messaia, I. v. 15 and 61 ; I. vi. 42 ; 

I. vii. 23 and 34; rv. i. 8; vni. iii. 

34; IX. iv. 38; X. i. 22, 24, 113; 

X. V. 2 ; xn. X. 11 ; xn. xi. 28. 
Metellus, IX. iii. 50. 
Metrodorus of Scepsis, X. vi. 4 ; XI. ii 

22 and 26. 
Milo of Croton, I. ix. 5. 
T. Milo, in. V. 10; m. xi. 15 and 17; 

IV. ii. 25 and 27; V. ii. 1; vi. iii. 

59; VI. V. 10; vn. i. 34 sgq.: vil. 

ii. 45; VII. iv. 8; X. v. 13; Xl. i. 40. 
Minerva, ni. vii. 8; Z. i. 91 ; XI. i 

24; xn. X. 9. 
MisericorUia, v. xi. 38. 
Mitliridates, vni. iii. 82; XLii. 50. 
Modestus, I. vi. 30. 
Uors, IX. ii. 3C. 
Mucii,xn. iii. 30. 
L. Morena, vi. i. 35. 
Musa, IV. Pr. 4; X. i. 55. 
Myron, n. xiii. 10; xn. i. 7. 

Xaevius of Arpinnm, vu. ii. 24. 
Xarbonensis, vi. iii. 44. 
Niisica, V. xiii. 24. 
Naucrates, m. vi. 3. 
Neptunua, in. vii. 8. 
C. Nero (Claudius), vi. iii. 50. 
Nero Imp., vm. v. 15 and 18. 
Nestor, xu. i. 64. 
Nicander, X. i. 56. 
Nicias, I. x. 48. 
Nicostratus, U. viii. 14. 
Nigidias, XI. iii. 143. 
Nireus, I. x. 48. 
Nonianus, see Serviliu& 



Nov&nios Gallic, P., n. il. 35. 
Nnma, I. x. 20 ; m. vii. 18 ; vn. 1. 24. 
Nomantia, vm. vi. 30. 
Numantinus, m. viii. 3; vn. iv. 12. 

Oceanns, m. viii. 16; vn. iv. 2; X. L 

46. 
Oedipus, IX. iii. 89. 
Opitergini, ra. viii. 23 and 30. 
Oppianicus, V. ii. 1. 
P. Oppius, VI. iii. 67 ; XI. i. 67. 
Orators, frcigments of unknown, V. x. 

71; vra. ii. 3; vm. v. 20 sgg.; 

vm. vi. 14; n. ii. 17 and 50; IX. 

iii. 15, 48, 87. 
Orestes, m. xi. 4 sgq., 11, 20; m. t. 

11 ; vn. iv. 8. 
Orphena, I. x. 9. 
Ostiensis portus, n. ixi. 18; ra. viii. 

16. 
Ovidius Naso, VI. iii. 96; X. i. 88, 93 

98; J/<rt<2mor7'/i., IV. i. 77 ; (i. 502) 

Vin. iii. 47; (v. 17) IX. iii. 48: (x. 

422) IX. ii. 64; (xi. 456) IX. iv. 65 ; 

(xiii. 1) I. V. 43; (xiii. 5) V. x. 41 ; 

Rem. Am. (707), Xll. x. 74 ; Medea, 

vm. V. 6; X. i. 98; Epigrams, ix. 

iii. 70. 

Pacuvius, L V. 67; I. viii. 11; L xii. 

18; vm. vi. 35; X. i. 97. 
Padus, I. V. 8. 

Palaemo, I. iv. 20 ; L vi. 35. 
Palamedes, ra. i. 10. 
Palla, IV. ii. 27. 
Pallas, VI. ii. 33. 
Pampiiilus, painter, xn. x. 6. 
Pampbilus, rhetorician, m. vi. 34. 
Pansa, XII. xi. 6. 
Panya.sis, X. i. 54. 
Paris, ra. vii. 19; V. x. 84; VUI. iv. 

21. 
Parius, n. lix. 3. 
Parrhasius. xn. x. 4 «9. 
Parthi,m. viii. 33. 
Passienus, see Oispos. 
Patrocles, rhetorician, n. xv. 16; in. 

vi. 44. 
Patroclus, I. i. 49. 
Paulus, L., L X. 47. 
Pedianus Asconia«, I. vii. 24; v. x. 9. 
Pedo Albinovanus, vi. iii. 61 ; x. i. 90. 
Pelides, vm. vi. 29. 
Peloponoesius, vn. ii. 7; in. x. 4. 
Pelops, IX iv. 140. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Pericles, I. x. 47; n. xvl, 19; in. i. 

12; X. i. 82; xn. ii. 22; xn. li. 

3; xn. T. 24, 49, 65. 
Peripatetici, n. xv. 20; n. xvii. 2; 

ni. i. 15; xn. ii. 25. 
Perses, HI. vii. 21, 
Persius, X. i. 94; Sat. (i. 9), IX. iii. 9; 

(i. 2C) I.\. iii. 42; (i. 95) IX. iv. 65; 

(i. 106) X. iii. 21; (v. 71)1. v. 8. 
Pharsalus, XI. ii. 14. 
Phidias, II. iii. 6 ; XU. x. 8 sqq, 
Philemon, X. i. 72. 
Philetas, X. i. 68. 
Philippus, consul, XI. i. 37. 
Philippus, L. Marcius, \1. iii. 81. 
Philippus of Macedon, I. i. 23; xn. 

X. 6. 
Philistus, X. i. 74. 
Philocteta, V. x. 84, 
Philodamus, iv. ii. 114; XI. iii. 171 
Phoenix, lI. iii. 12 ; ll. xvii. 8. 
Phormio, VI. iii. 6G. 
Phryne, II. xv. 9 ; X. v. 2. 
Picens, IV. ii. 2. 

Pindaras, vin. vi. 71 ; X. i. 69 and 109 
Piraeus, viii. vi. 04. 
Pisandros, X. i. 56. 
Pisaurum, VII. ii. 26. 
Plsistratus, V. xi. 8. 
Piso, 0., ix.iii.22. 
Piso, IX. ii. 01. 
Placentinus, I. v. 12. 
Placidus, VI. iii. 53. 
Planous, Cn., \1. iii. 44. 
Plataeae, XI. iii. 168. 
Plato, I. X. 13, 15, 17; I. xi. 17; I. 

xii. 15; u. XV. 24, 26, 29; v. vii. 

28; VUI. vi. 04; IX. iv. 77 sg.; X. 

i. 81 and 108; X. v. 2; xn. ii. 22; 

XII. X. 24; XII. xi. 22; Oorg., 

(419 E) n. xxi. 1 and 4; (452 E) 

n. XV. 10 ; (453 A) II. XV. 5 ; (454 B) 

n. XV. 18; (460 C) II. xv. 27; 

(462 n) n. XV, 24; (463 D) lI. xv. 

25 ; (464 B) n. XT, 25 ; (466 A) II. 

IT. 25; (500 C) II. xv. 27; (508 C) 

II. XV. 28 ; P/tafdr. C261 A), n. xv 

19; n. xxi. 4; (201 D) III. i. 10; 

(266 E) in. i. 11 ; (267 A) Tl. xv. 31 ; 

(273 E) II. XV. 29; (275 A) xi. ii. 9; 

Reipubl. I. init., VUI. vi. 64 ; Soph. 

(222 C), III. iv. 10; Symp. (21 8 b), 

vni. iv. 23 ; Tim. inic, IX. iv. 77 ; 

(47) I. X, 13. 
Plautialex, IX.iii. 5& 

528 



Plautps, comic poet, X. i. 99. 
Plautus, Stoic, X. i. 124; cp. II. xiv. 

2; in. vi. 23. 
Pletorius, vi. iii. 51. 
Plinius (the elder), in. i. 21 ; XI. ii. 

143 and 148. 
Plisthenes, ni. vii. 19. 
Plotius, II. iv. 42; XI. iii. 143. 
Poeni, I. V. 57. 
PoUio, see Asinius. 
Pollux, XI. ii. 11. 
Polus, n. XV. 28. 
Polycletus, xn. i. 7. 
Polycrates, II. xvii. 4; ni. i. 11. 
Polygnotus, XII. x. 3 and 10. 
Polynices, V. x. 31. 
Polyxena, VI. ii. 23. 
Pompeius, CM., in. viii. 33, 50, 56 sgii. ; 

IV. ii. 25; IV. iii. 13; VI. iii. Ill; 

vn. ii. 6; Vin. iii. 21; ix. ii. 55; 

IX. iii. 95 ; XI. i. 80 ; XI. iii. 164. 
Pompeius, S., m. viii. 44. 
Pompoaius Secundus, VIII. iii. 31 ; X. 

i. 98. 
Pomponius, VI. iii. 75. 
Pomptina palus, ni. viii. 16. 
Popilius, see Laenas. 
Porcius Latro, IX. ii. 91; X. v. 18. 
Posidonius, lU. vi. 37. 
Praxiteles, n. xix. 3 ; xn. x. 9. 
Priamus, in. viii. 53 ; vni. iv. 21 sqq. ; 

X. i. 50. 

Priuemas ager, VI. iii. 44. 

Proculeius, VI. iii. 79 ; IX. iii. 68. 

Prodamus, I. x. 18. 

Prodicus, III. I. 10 and 12; ni. iv. 10. 

Propertius, X. i. 93. 

Proserpina, IV. ii. 9; IV. iii. 13; XL 

iii. 164. 
Protagoras, m. i. 10 and 12 ; III. iv. 10. 
Protogenes, xn. x. 6. 
Ptolomaeus, vn. ii. 6. 
Publilia Ciceronis, VI. iii. 75. 
Punicum bellum, ni. viii. 30. 
Pyrrhus, n. xvi. 7; V. x. 10; VI. iii, 

10; vn. il. 6. 
Pyrron, xn. ii. 24. 
Pythagoras, I. x. 12 and 32; XI. i. 

27; xn. i. 19. 
Pythagorei, I. xii. 15; IX. iv. 12 

Quintilianus pater, IX. iii. 37. 

Quintilianus filius, I. Pr. 1 tqq.; II. 
xii. 12; in. i. 22; HI. vi. 08; IV 
Pr. 2 *qq.; IT. i. 19; IT. ii. 86; T. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



L 8; T. xli. 16; ▼. tU. 7; vi Pr. 

1 and 3; VL il. 25; vn. i. 3, 22, 

29,54; vn.ii.24; vm. vi. 76 ; IX. 

ii. 73; X. i. 91; XL i. 5; XI. ii. 

39; xn. li. 8. 
Quintius, V. liii. 39. 
Quirinos, I. vli. 12. 

Rabirius Postomus, TIL I. 9. 

Rabirius, poet, X. i. 90. 

Reguli, xn. ii. 30. 

Rhodii,Xl.iii. 7. 

Rhodus, m. i. 17 ; xn. vi. 7. 

Roma, V. ix. 5. 

Romani veteres, 1. 1. 20 ; ni. vii. 24. 

Romulns, IL iv. 19 ; m. vii. 5. 

Roscius Amerinas, S., vn. ii. 2 and 23. 

Roscius, Q., actor, XL iii. 111. 

Ruins, see Antonins. 

Rullua, Tm. iv. 28. 

Rutilins Lupna, IX. ii. 99, 101 *qq.; 

IX. iii. 36 and 89; (i. 4) IX iii. 65; 

(i. 5) IX. iii. 68; (i. 10) IX. iii. 36; 

(ii. 2) IX. iii. 92 ; (ii. 6) IX. iii. 89 ; 

(ii. 12) IX. iii. 75; (ii. 16) H. iii. 

84,91; (ii. 19) IX. iii. 93. 
Eutilius, P., V. ii. 4 ; XI. i. 12. 

Sacerdos, TI. iii. 55. 

Sagontini, m. viii. 23. 

Salamis, T. xi. 40; IX ii. 62; ZI. iii. 

168; xn. X. 24. 
Salarius, vn. i. 9. 
Saleius Bassus, X. i. 90. 
Saliorum cannina, I. vi. 40 ; I. x. 20. 
Sallostius C!rispu3, n. iv. 9; ly. ii. 

45; vin. iii. 29; X. i. 32, 101, 

102 $q.; X. li. 27; X. iii. 8; Cat. 

(17), vm. iii. 44; (20) m. viii. 45; 

lug. (1), rx iv. 77; (x. 1) rx. iii. 

12; (X. 7) vm. V. 4; (xix.) n. xiii, 

14; (xx.) m. viii. 45; (xxi.) vm. 

iii. 44 ; (xxiv.( ?)) rx iii. 17 ; (xxxviii.) 

vm. iii. 44; Hist. Jr., IV. ii. 2; 

vm. iii. 82; vm. vi. 59; ix iii. 

12; xn. ix. 9; Ded. in Cic., rv. i. 

68 ; IX iii. 89. 
Samnites, m. viii. 17. 
Santra, xn. x. 16. 
Sardus, L v. 8 ; XI. i. 89. 
Sarmentos, VI. iii. 58. 
Satuminus, n. xvi. 5; V. xi. 6; VI. i. 

49; VU. i. 9. 
Satomos, I. vi. 36. 
Scaevola, Q., vn. vi. 9 ; zn. iii. 9 



Scaevola, XI. ii. 38. 

Scamander, XI. i. 74. 

Scaurus, M. Aemilius, V. xli. 10; T. 

xiii. 40 and 55. 
Scipio Africa nus Maior, m. viii. 17; 

V. X. 48; vm. iv. 20; vm. vi. 9; 

XI. i. 12; xn. I. 10. 
Scipio Africanns Minor, l. vii. 25 ; vm. 

vi. 30 and 43 ; X i. 99 ; xn. x. 10 

and 39. 
Scipio, Metellus, v. xi. 10. 
Scipio. see also Serapio and Nasica. 
Scopa, XL ii. 14 sqq. 
Seneca, philosopher, vm. t. 18; IX 

ii. 8; X i. 125 sqq.; xn. x. 11. 
Seneca, rhetorician, vm. iii. 31 ; IX 

ii. 48 sq., 98. 
Septimius, IT. i. 19. 
Serapio, VLiii.67. 
Serranus, X. i. 89. 
Servilia lex, vi. iii. 44. 
Servilius Nonianus, X. i. 102. 
Servins, IX. iv. 38. 
Severos, see Cassius, Cornelius. 
Sextii.X. i. 124. 
Sibyllinilibri.V. x. 30. 
Sicilia, L vi. 30; L x. 48; m. vJI. 

27; IV. iii. 13, 21; VI. iii. 80; n. 

iii. 164. 
Sicinius, C, XI. iii. 129. 
Siculus, VI. iii. 41 ; X. i. 89. 
Simonides, X i. 64 ; XI. ii. 11. 
Sinon, IX ii. 9. 
Sirenes, V. viii. 1. 
Sisenna, I. v. 13 ; vm. iii. 35. 
Socrates, L x. 13; L xi. 17; n. xr. 

26, 30; n. xvi. 3; n. xxi. 4; m. 

i. 9; IV. iv. 6; V. xi. 3, 27, 42; 

Vin. iv. 23; IX ii. 46, 85; XL i. 

9 *q. ; xn. vii. 9 ; xn. x. 4. 
Socratici, V. vii. 28; T. xi. 27; X i. 

35, 81 sq.; xn. i. 10. 
Sol, L vii. 12. 
Sophocles, X. i. 67. 
Sophron, L x. 17. 
Sosipater, Tn. ii. 4. 
Spatale, Tm. v. 17 and 19. 
Sphinx, TLiii. 98. 
Spiridioo, see Glyco. 
Staienos, IV. ii. 107. 
Stertinins, m. i. 21. 
Stesichoms, X i. 62. 
Stilo, see Aelius. 
Stoici, L iv. 19; L x 15; n. rv. 20| 

IL xvii. 2; m. i. 15; y. vii. 36: 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Vl.Iii. 78; X. 1.84, 124; XT. 1. 70; 

Xn. i. 18 and 38; XII. ii. 24. 
Stratocles, XI. iii. 178 tqq. 
Suelius, VI. iii. 78. 
Suetonii Caesar (53), vni. ii. 9. 
Sulla, m. viii. 53; V. x. 30 and 71; 

XI. i. 12 and 85. 
Sulpicianus, VI. iii. 75. 
Sulpicius Gallus, I. x. 47 ; n. iv. 8. 
Sulpicius, Serving, III. viii. 5; IV. ii. 

106; VI. i. 2U; vn. iii. 18; IX. iii. 

21; X. 1. 22 and 116; X. v. 4; X. 

vii. 30; XI. 1. 69; xn. iii. 9; XII. 

vii. 4; XD. X. 11. 
Sulpicius Longus, VI. iii. 32. 
Sura, see Maulius. 
Sybaritae, in. vii. 24. 
Syri sententia (480), vni. v. 6; IX. iii. 

64. 
Syracusae, I. x. 48. 
Syracusani, V. xi. 7. 

Tabulae XU, I. vi. 11; ni. vi. 84; 

V. xiv. 18. 
Tarentini, VI. iii.lO. 
Tarentum, VII. viii. 4. 
Terentianus pater, XI. i. 39. 
Terentius, I. viii. 11 ; VI. iii. 56 ; Viil. 

iii. 35; X. i. 99; XI. i. 39; Andr. 

(I. i. 41) vni. V. 4; Eun. (I. i. 1), 

IX. ii. 11; IX. ill. 16; IX. iv. 141; 

XI. iii. 182; (I. ii. 5) IX. iii. 18; 

(I. ii. 75) IX. ii. 58 ; Phorm. (i. i. 2), 

I. vii. 22. 
Terentius Varro, M., I. iv. 4; I. vi. 12 

and 37; X. i. 95 and 99; XII. xi. 24. 
Terraconenses, VI. iii. 77 
Thebae, V. i. Ill ; xi. iii. 1C8 
Thebani, V. x. Ill sqq. 
Themistocles, I. i. 19; IX. ii. 92; XI. 

ii. 50. 
Theocritus, X. i. 55. 
Theodectes. 1. iv. 19; n. xv. 10; m. 

i. 14; iv.ii.63; IX.iv. 88; XI.ii.51. 
Theodores of Byzantium, in. i. 11. 
Theodores of Gadara, U. 3cv. 16 and 

21; in. i. 17 iqq.\ ni. vi. 2, 36, 

61; in. xi. 3; iv. i. 23; V. xiii.59. 
Theodorei, n. xi. 2 ; in. i. 18 ; m. iii. 

8; ui. xi. 27; iv. ii. 32. 
Theodotus, in. viii. 55 sqq. 
Theon. in. vi. 48; IX. iii. 76. 
Theophrastus, m. i. 15; ni. vii. 1; 

ni. viii. 62; IV. i. 32; vm. i. 2; 

IX. iii. 76; IX. iv. 88; X. 1. 27. 



Theopompns, historian, n. viii. 11 ; 

IX. iv. 35; X. i. 74. 
Theopompus of Sparta, II. xvli. 20. 
Thelites, ni. vii. 19; XI. i. 37. 
Thessali,v. x. Ill sqq. 
Thetis, m. vii. 11. 
Thrasybulus, m. vi. 26; vn. iv. 44. 
Thrasymachus, m.iii. 4 and 12. 
Thucydides, IX. iv. 16 ; X. i. 33, 73 sq., 

101; X. ii. 17; (i. 8)IX. iv. 78. 
Tiberius Caesar, m. i. 17. 
Tibullus, X. i. 93. 
Tiburs, VI. iii. 44. 
Timagenes, I. x. 10; X. 1. 76. 
Timanthes, n. xiii. 12. 
Timotheus, U. iii. 3. 
Tinga of Placentia, L v. 12. 
Tiro, VI. iii. 5 ; x. vii. 31. 
Tisias, n. xvi. 3 ; n. xvii. 7 ; m. i. 8. 
Titius Maximus, VI. iii. 71. 
Titius, XI. iii. 128. 
Torquatus, V. xi. 10. 
Trachalus, VI. iii. 78; vni. v. 19; X, 

i. 119; xn. V. 5 sq.; xn. i. 11. 
Tragic poets, anonymous, quoted, VI. 

iii. 96; vin.iii. 31 and 48; vni. vi. 

10, 14, 35; IX. iii. 57 and 77; rx. 

iv. 140. 
Trebatius, m. xi. 18; V. x. 64. 
Triarius, v. xiii. 40. 
Troia, vn. ii. 3. 

Troianus, vn.il. 7; vni. iv. 21. 
Troilus, vn. ix. 7. 
Tryphon 1, Introd. letter. 
Tubero, V. xiii. 20 and 31 ; X. 1. 23 ; 

XI. i. 78 and 80. 
TuUius, Vl.iii. 63. 
Tuscanicae statuae, XU. x. 1 and 7. 
Tutilius, in. i. 21. 
Tydeus, in. vii.12. 
O^dides, Vlll. vi. 29. 
T^ndaridae, XI.ii.l6. 
^rtaeus, X. i. 66. 

Valerius Corvus, n. iv. 18. 
Valerius Flaccus, X. i. 90. 
Valgius, 0., m. i. 18; in. v. 17; v. 

1.4. 
Varenus, C, VII. i. 9. 
Varenus, On., vn. i. 9. 
Varius, HI. viii. 45; X. i. 98; X. iii. 8. 
Varius of Suero, v. xii. 10. 
Varro, see Terentius. 
Varro, P., of Atax, I. v. 17 ; 1. 1. 87. 
Vams, L., TLiii. 78. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Vatinius, V. vii. 6; «. iii. 60, 68, 77, 

84; XL 1.73. 
Venns, n. iv. 26; vm. vi. 24; I. 1. 

79 and 100. 
Vergilius Maro, L vii. 8, 18, 20; 1. 

viii. 5; L i. 10; VI. ii. 32; VL iii. 

20; vm. iii. 20, 24, 47, 63, 79, 

vni. iv. 24; H. iii. 14; X. i. 56. 

85 sqq.; X. iii. 8; xn. xi. 26 sq.; 

Am. (i. 1), L ▼. 27; IX. iii. 62; 

XL iii. 36; (i. 3) XL iii. 34; (i. 6) 

L T. 18; (i. 19) IX. iii. 14; (i. 33) 

vm. T. 11; (i. 45) L v. 18; (i. 48) 

IX. ii. 10; (i. 65) vm. vi. 29; (i. 

67) IX. iii. 17; (i. 78) XI. iii. 176; 

(i. 81) vm. iv. 18; (i. 109) vm. ii. 

14; (i. 135) rx. ii. 54; (i. 151) XIL 

i. 27; (i. 162) vm. vi. 68; (i. 177) 

\TIL vi. 23; (i. 335) XL iii. 70; (i. 

369) L V. 43; K. ii. 7; (i. 399) 

IX. iii. 75; (i. 477) vn. Ix. 7; (i. 

617) XL iii. 176; (i. 742) L x. 10; 

(ii. 1) L V. 43; (ii. 15) vm. vi. 34; 

(ii. 29) IX. ii. 37; (ii. 69) EC ii. 9; 

(ii. 104) rx. iii. 11 ; (ii. 262) vm. 

iii. 84; (ii. 268) VUL vi. 60; (ii. 

307) vm. vi. 10; (ii. 311) vm. vi. 

25; (ii. 355) vm. iii. 72 and 78; 

(ii. 435) K. iii. 35; (ii. 640) V. xi. 

14; (iii. 29) vm. iii. 70; (iii. 55) 

IX. iii. 25; (iii. 56) IX. ii. 10; (iii. 

193)XILPr. 4; (iii. 234) IX. iii. 64; 

(iii. 321) VL ii. 22 ; (iii. 436) n. xiii. 

8; (iii. 475) vm. vi. 42; (iii. 517) 

IX. iv. 65; (iii. 620) XI. iii. 70; 

(iii. 631) vm. iii. 84; (iii. 659) vm. 

iv. 24; (iv. 143) vm. iii. 73; (iv. 

174) rx. ii. 36; (iv. 254) L v. 25; 

VHL iii. 72; (iv. 359) vnL iii. 54; 

(iv. 379) rx. ii. 50; (iv. 381) n. ii. 

48; (iv. 419) vm. ii. 3; (iv. 425) 

IX. ii. 39; (iv. 495) vm. vi. 29; 

(iv. 550) H. ii. 64; (iv. 592) IX. ii. 

11 ; (iv. 695) H. iii. 25; (v. 9) xn. 

Pr. 4; (V. 212) vn. ix. 10; (v. 248) 

H. iii. 9; (v. 264) vm. iv. 25; (v. 

319) vm. vi. 69; (v. 426) vra. iii. 

63 ; (vi. 1) vm. vi. 10 ; (vi. 16 and 

19) vra. vi. 18; (vi. 179) L iv. 28; 

(vi. 275) vm. vi. 27 and 41; (vi. 

276) vm. vi. 41 ; (vii. 464) L vii. 

18; (vii. 618) vra. iii. 70; (vii. 649) 

vra. iv. 6; (vii. 759) IX. iii. 34; 

(vii. 787) IX. iii. 15 ; (vii. 791) V. x. 

10; {vii.808)Vin.vi.69; (viii .641) 



vm. iii. 19; (vlli. «42) rr. ill. 26; 

(viii. 691) vra. vi. 68; (viii. 728) 

vm. vi. 11; in. x. 61; (ix. 26"> L 

vii. 18; (ix. 474) VL ii. 32; (ix. 

773) vra. vi. 12; (x. 1) L Iv. 28; 

rx. iv. 49; (I. 92) rx. ii. 49; (x. 

782) VL ii. 33 ; (xl. 40) VL ii. 32 ; 

(li. 89) VL ii. 32 ; (xi. 142) VHL vi. 

21; (xi.383)IX.ii. 49; XL iii. 176; 

(xi. 406) rx. iii. 14; (xi. 681) vm. 

ii. 10; vnLvi. 40; (xn. 208) L vi. 

2; (xii. 638) EC iii. 46; (xli. 646) 

vra. V. 6; Eel. (i. 2), rx. iv. 86; 

(i. 11) L iv. 28; (i. 15) L vi. 2; (i. 

23) V. xi. 30; (i. 43) IX. iii. 63; 

(i. 81) X. i. 12 ; (ii. 66) vra. vi. 22 ; 

(ii. 69) rx. iii. 28 ; (iii. 8) rx. iii. 69 ; 

(iii. 17 and 21) rx. ii. 13; (iii. 26) 

XL iii. 176; (iii. 69) L vi. 2; (iii. 

103) vra. vi. 73 ; (iii. 104) vra. vi. 

62; (iv. 62) EC iii. 8; (vi. 5) vm. 

li. 9; (vi. 62) L v. 35; (viii. 13) 

X. i. 92 ; (viii. 28) rx. iii. 6 ; ; (ix. 7) 

vm. vi. 46; (ix. 45) IX. iv. 54; (x. 

11) IX. iii. 18; (x. 50) X. i. 66; 

(X. 72) IX. iii. 44; Georg. (i. 43) IV. 

ii. 2; (i. 54) rx. iii. 39; (i. 86) rx. 

iii. 96; (i. 181) vm. iii. 20 ; (i. 183) 

rx. iii. 6; (1. 295) vm. ii. 10; (i. 

367) vm. iii. 47; (i. 388) V. ix. 15; 

(i. 422) V. ix. 16 ; (i. 431) T. ix. 15 ; 

(i. 612) vm. iii. 78 ; (ii. 74) L v. 36 ; 

(ii. 169) rx. iii. 24; (ii. 272) i. iii. 

13; (ii. 298) EC iii. 21; (ii. 541) 

vra. vi. 45; rx. iii. 20; (iii. 79) 

vra. ii. 15; (iii. 83) vra. li. 15; 

(iii. 135) vra. vi. 8; (iii. 243) L v. 

28; (iii. 344) EC ill. 51; (iii. 346) 

EC ill. 20; (iii. 364) vm. vi. 40; 

(iii. 381) VHL vi. 66; (ui. 435) IX. 

iii. 21; (iv. 59) vra. vi. 18; (iv. 

445) rx. iii, 15 ; Catal. (2), vm. Hi. 

27. 
Veiginlns Flavns, m. 1. 21; m. vl. 

45; rv. 1. 23; vn. iv. 24; vm. Hi. 

33; XI. iii. 126. 
Verres, vm. vi. 37. 
Venius, XL i. 31. 
Vestinns, VL ill. 64. 
Vettius of Pracneste, i. v. 56. 
Vibius Crispns, v. xiii. 48 ; vm. v. IS 

and 17 ; x. i. 119 ; xn. x. 11. 
Vlctoriie, EC ii. 92. 
Victorins MaicellDS Introd. letter, u 

Pr. 6;4Pr. 1; TLPr.l; xn. xi. 31. 

531 



INDEX OF NAMES 



ViUius, A., VI. iii.C9. 

Virtus, IX- ii. 36. 

Visellius, EX. ii. 101 and 107; EL iii. 

89 
Vite,' IX. ii. 36. 
Vlixes, I. iv. 16; n. xiil. 13; rv. ii. 

13; VI. iii. 96; XI. iii. 168; xn. x. 

64. 
Voluptas, rx. ii. 36. 
Volusenus Catulns, X. i. 24. 
Vrbinia, IV. i. 11 ; vn. ii. 4 sg. and 20. 
Vrba, VtilL 17 and 103; vm. ii. 5; 

VIILT. ». 



Vulcanua, vm. yi. 23. 

Xenophon, V. xi. 27 ; X. 1. 33, 75, 82 ; 
X. V. 2; Mem. (ii. 1), IX. ii. 36; 
(iii. X. 1) xn. 2. 4. 

Zeno.n. XX. 7; iv.li. 117; xn.1. 28; 

xn. vii. 9. 
Zeuxis, xn. x. 4 sq. 
Zmyrua, IX. ii. 64. 
Zoiius, IX. i. 14. 
Zopyrus of Clazomenae, ni. Ti. 3. 



53* 



INDEX OF WORDS 



oft, L Ti.69; xn. X. 32. 

abdicatio, m. vi. 76; vn. iy. 10, 25, 

27, 29. 
ablatiros casos, L i. 26; I. t. 59; 

vn. ii. 10. 
absolnta defensio, vn. ir. 4 and 9. 
abttemiui, i. vii. 9. 
abstulit, I. vi. 69. 
abrersa, XH. x. 32. 
abusio, vnL vi. 34 $q. ; vm. ii. 5. 
accentns, I. v. 22 ; UL x. 33. 
accosatio matna, m. x. 4; m. 1. 3; 

vn. ii. 9 and 23 : XI. i. 57. 
acerratio, IZ. iii. 53. 
acetabulum, vm. ti. 35. 
Aehaii, L T. 63. 
actos «■ irpofi?, m. vi. 26. 
ad, at, I. vii. 5. 
ad aliqnid, L Ti. 13; m. ri. 23, 36 *35., 

51, 90. 
adfectns, VI. it. passim, 
adfirmatio, V. xii. 12; D. i. 28; Ii. 

iii. 154. 
adgressio — inx'^pvf^ T. x. 4; T. 

sir. 27. 
adhaerens t«mpns, T. z. 46. 

aiiatfOTfTa, VUL ii. 20. 

adiectio, I. v. 6; L v. 38; I. t. 40; 

IX. iii. 18, 27 *qq., 55. 
aditmcta, v. x. 74. 
adianctio, IZ. i. 33. 
adnominatio — vapovoiiM<rCa, IZ. iii. 

66. 
iSo(ov, rv. i. 40. 
adposita argumenta, V. x. 87. 
adposittun = itrCOfrov, a. xiv. 3 ; vin. 

ii. 10 ; vm. vi. 40, 43 ; DL iv. 24. 
aipov, m. X. 58. 

adseniio, adsentior, L t. 13 ; IZ. ill. 7. 
adsereratio, L IT. 20. 
adsomptio, T. xiv. 5 tqg. 
adstunptiva cansa, vn. iv. 7. 
advarbia, L iv. 19 and 29 ; ZL ill. 87. 



aduUiri, IZ. iii. 1. 

ae, ai l. vii. 18. 

aedificare etfuum, vm. t1. 34. 

ofdus, haedus, l t. 20. 

Aegyptc venio, I. v. 38. 

Amea, L v. 61. 

aenigma, TL iii. 61; vm. vi. 14 and 

52 tqq. 
aeolica litteia, I. iv. 8; L Tli, 26; 

xn. X. 29. 
aerumna, vm. iii. 26. 
a^er, I. vi. 37. 
Agrippa, L iv. 25. 
otto, L iv. 11. 
a'vo«, T. xi. 20. 
At<7u>ircu>i X.6ryoi, 7. xl. 30. 
atrt'a, m. xl. 5. 
aX-nokcrfiiL, IX. iii. 93. 
aiTioi', m. xi. 4, 6. 
aKoKovSa, V. X. 75. 

a.KV(tov, vm. ii. 3. 

al, vm. ii. 3. 

Alba, Albanut, Albetuu, L vL 15. 

Albanns, VI. iii. 44. 

albenti caelo, vra.iii. 35. 

albi denies, vm. ii. 20. 

albom ac rnbricae, zn. iii. 11. 

Aleianter,l.ix. 16. 

allegoria, v. xi. 21; vi. iii. 69; vm. 

vi. 14, 44 sq., 57 «j.; IZ. i. 5; H. 

ii. 46. 
dAAoiw<rc$, IZ. iii. 92. 
altercatio, U. iv. 28; TL Iii. 4 and 

46 ; VI. ir. 1 and 21 ; Z. L 35; zn. 

iii. 3. 
ambitus •• periodos, EX. iv. 23 and 

124; = periphrasis, Z. i. 16. 
ambulo Ham, I. iv. 38. 
amisit, L vi. 69. 
<1m*'PoAio, m. vi. 46 and 88; TL lil. 

47 and 62 ; vn. ix. 1 sqg. 
amphibrachTS iz. iv. 83 and i06. 
•^i^Uof Of, IT. L 10. 

533 



INDEX OF WORDS 



amphiraacer, ix. iv. 81. 
amplificatio, viii. iv. 1 tqq., 17. 
an, aut, I. v. 50. 
Anacreonticon colon, IX. iv. 78. 
avayKolov, IX. ii. 106; IX. iii. 99. 
a>>aKC<^aXai<o(ri;, VI. i. 1 and 8. 
(ivaitXaiTts, IX. iii. 97. 

analogia, i. v. 13; I. vi. 1, 3 sqq., 15; 
V. li. 34. 

(iva/oii'Tjcris, IX. ii. 106. 
anapaestus, IX. iv. 48, 81, 110. 
ava.crKtVTj, II. iv. 18. 
nvoDTTpo^-fi, I. V. 40 ; vni. vi. 65. 
Anchisa, I. v. 61. 
av(iri<j>aTOS, actio, IV. i. 60. 
<ivoi.Kov6fi.r)Tov, VIII. iii. 59. 
avTava.K\aaLi, IX. iii. 68. 
ofTajTufioo-it, VIII. iii. 77 and 79. 
antegerio, I. vi. 40 ; VIII. iii. 25. 
(ii'TcyKA.Tj/xa, VII. iv. 8. 
anteoccupatio, IX. i. 31 and 44. 
dvOripov, X. iii. 58. 
<ii'eurro(f>opo,IX. ii. 106; ix.lii. 87. 
Anticato, I. v. 68. 
avTiSoTOL, I. X, 6. 
avTiKa.Tr}yopia, HI. I. 4 ; VH. ii. 9 sq., 

18, 20, 25 sq. 
Kar' a.vTi\ri\l/i.v, VII. iv. 4. 
avTi/uTa/3oA>;, IX. iii. 85 and 97. 
avTivoiiia, in. vi. 46; vn. i. 15; vn. 

vii. 1 ; vn. x. 2. 
avTi<t>pa<Ti^, vni. vi. 57; IX. ii. 47. 

avrCppritrK;, IX. il. 106. 
antisophistes, XI. iii. 126. 
ai/TiVTa<nv, Vn. iv. 12. 
KaT avrCdeaiv, Vn. iv. 7. 
atniOerov, IX. ii. 101 ; IX. iii. 81 and 

92. 
avTovoiJia(Tia, Vm. vi. 29 sq., 43; IX. 

i. 6 sq. 
airayopevcrii, IX. iv. 66. 
d7roAac(rToi, IX. iv. 56. 
aper, I. vi. 13. 
apex, I. iv. 10 ; I. vii. 2. 

oK^e'Aeio, VHI. iii. 87. 
a(j>o5os, IX. iii. 87. 
a(f>opii,ai ipyiav, in. vi. 27. 

aTToSeif ei!, I. X. 38 ; V. X. 1 and 7 
apologatio, V. xi. 20. 
apologus, VI. iii. 44. _ 

07ro<<)SeyjU,aTHCOi', VI. iii. 109. 

aposiopesis, vin. iii. 85 ; IX. ii. 54 sq. ; 

IX. iii. 60 «j. 
i.iro(TTpoi>ri, IV. 1. 63; IX. ii. 38; IX. 

iii. 24 and 26. 

554 



appellatio, I. ir. 19-21 ; IX. iii. 9. 

Apri, XI. ii. 3. 

arbitrorum disceptationes, H. i. 43. 

arbos, I. iv. 13. 

argenteei, I. vii. 16. 

Argiletum, I. vi. 31. 

argumentatio, IV. ii. 79; vni. Pr. 7; 

XI. iii. 164. 
argumentum, I. iv. 2 ; V. viii. 6 ; v. 

X. passim ; v. xi. 32 sqq. ; V. xii. 

1; V. liv. 33; vn. ii. 44; IX. iv. 

135 and 138. 
armamentum, vn. ix. 4. 
appvSixov, IX. iv. 56. 
ars, n. xvii. 41 ; n. xviii. 1 ; n. xx. 3. 
articuli, i. iv. 19 ; IX. iii. 98. 
articulosa partitio, IV. v. 24. 
artiOcialis probatio, v. i. 1 ; V. ix. 

1 sqq. ; xn. viii. 14. 
(i<rxT)/iiaTto-Tos, vm. iii. 59; IX. i, 13. 
asper homo, vni. vi. 6. 
assiduus, v. x. 55. 
ao-Teia/xos, vm. vi. 57. 
astrologia, n. xviii. 1. 
aaiivScTov, IX. iii. 50 sqq. ; IX. It. 23. 
atabulus, vm. ii. 13. 

dTex""** !!• 3^X' 2. 

dTex>'oi probationes, v. i. 1. 

Atreus, I. v. 24. 

Attice, vm. i. 2 ; xn. x. 18 and 20 sqq 

■ATTtKio-/u,os, I. viii. 8 ; VI. iii. 107. 

audaciter, I. vi. 17. 

avere, I. vi. 21. 

aversio, IX. ii. 38. 

auftigit, I. V. 69. 

augurale, vm. ii. 8. 

avKr)TpCi, VII. ix. 4. 

aurea tecta, vni. vi. 28. 

aureei, I. vii. 16. 

autem, l. v. 39. 

aiUumo, vm. iii. 26. 

ofi'a, m. vi. 53. 

B, I. iv. 15. 

bacchius, IX. iv. 82 and 101 sqq. 

balare, I. v. 72. 

barbarismus, I. v. 5 sqq. 

basilica lulia, XII. v. 6. 

beatUas, beatitudo, vm. iii. 32. 

Belena, I. iv. 15. 

Belli for Duelii, I. iv. 15. 

belligerare, IX. iv. 39. 

bellum from duellum, I. iv. 16. 

Beneventum, n. vi. 31. 

bicUnium I. v. 68. 



INDEX OF WORDS 



hipennu from pinntif, L it. 20. 

hoselUellas, v. xi.21. 

Sftaano^, XI. iii. 53. 

$paxv\oyCa, TUl. iii. 82; II. iii. 50 

and 99. 
Hruges, I. iv. 15. 
Bnai, I. vi. 31. 
Burn, I. iv. 25. 

C, I. Tii.28; I. xi. 5. 

caelibes, I. Ti. 36. 

caesim dicere, IX. ir. 128. 

cnMui, calidus. I. vi. 19. 

(■alefacern for talfacere, I. vi. 31. 

f^alypsonem, i. v. 63. 

f^amillus, I. v. 32. 

canina eloquentia, Xll. ix. 9. 

cano. canto, dico, vm. vi. 38. 

'"anobus. I. v. 13. 

ranon Alexandrinomni, I. iv. 3; x. :. 

54. 
<^anojntae, I. v. 13. 
cantare, XL i. 56 ; XI. iii. 57 iqq. 
canticam, I. viii. 2; I. x. 23; II. .i. 

35; H. iii. 167. 
rantus, H. iii. 23, 60 and 172. 
canius = tyre of wheel, L v. 8. 
Capilolium, I. vi. 31. 
capsis, I. V. 66. 

caput (how carried), XL iii. 68 sqq. 
caput = status, m. ri. 3, 31, 89; HI 

xi. 3 and 27. 
easamo, I. v. 8. 
Cassantra, I. iv. 16. 
catsus for conM, I. vii. 20. 
Castor, XL ii. 11 ; quantity of -o, L 

V. 60. 
castrata respublica, vm. vi. 15. 
casus, I. iv. 26 ; I. v. 45 and 61 ; L 

vi. 22: vm. iii. 20. 
Cato, quantity of -o, vn. ix. 13. 
causa (a category), m. vi. 27 ; =aiTto, 

m. xi. 5 and 10: =t6 trvvex""! HI. 

xi. 24 ; = quaestio finita or vTr66e<ri<;, 

m. V. 7; kinds of causae, m. iii. 

15 ; m. iv. 1 sqq. ; HL x. 1 and 3 ; 

rv. i. 40. 
causidicns, HL i. 25. 
caussa, 1. vii. 20. 
centumviri, in. x. 3 ; IT. i. 57 ; rv. ii. 

3; V. ii. 1; v. x. 115; vn. iv. 11 

and 20 ; XI. i. 78 ; XL iii. 138. 
cerae, X. iii. 30 sqq. 
ceratinae, I. x. 5. 
cemo, vn. ix. 2. 



cervix, 1. xi. 9; H. iii. 82; (.use in 

the singular), vm. iii. 35. 
cerrom, I. vii. 26. 
Cethegus, L v. 23. 
XoAjj-ot, I. i. 37. 
XaXKiVTiKTi, n. xxi. 10. 
Xap<«mjpi<rfi<k, IX. iii. 99. 
chenturione*, I. v. 20. 
cliironomia, L xi. 17. 
choreus, IX. iv. 80 tqq., 103 sgq., 140. 
choronae, L v. 20. 
XP*<tt)it?, I. ix. 5. 
chria, L ix. 3 tqq. ; n. iv. 26. 
Xpovo^, m. vi. 25. 
cinctnra, XL iii. 138 tqq. 
circuitus = periodus, H. iii. 122 and 

124; n. i. 26; =« irepti^p<t<ris, vnL 

vi. 59. 
circum, I. v. 25 tq. 
circumducta syUaba « irep«rirw/bi»->], 

I. V. 35. 
circumductio, rx. iv. 118 ; H. iii. 39. 
circumductum = periodus, H. iv. 32. 
circiunlocutio, vra. vi. 61. 
circumscriptio = periodus, DC. i. 35 

and 91 ; rx. iv. 124. 
circumstantia = irept'<r7-a<ris,V. x. 104. 
clamos, L iv. 13. 
clarigatio, vn. iii. 13. 
classis, I. ii. 23 and 24 ; L vi. 33 ; X. 

V. 21. 
clausula, vm. v. 13 ; IX. iii. 45 ; EX. 

iv. 18, 45, 61 tqq., 70, 93. 
cogitatio, X. vi. 1 tqq. 
cognatio, ix. ii. 105. 
collectio, IX. ii. 103. 
collectiva quaestio, vn. i. 60. 
collect, not conlegit, H. iii. 35. 
n)»i (plural), L vi. 42. 
coUum (carriage of), n. i. 82. 
color, IV. ii. 88, 91, 94 tqq.; vi. v. 5; 

vn. i. 40, 63; X. i. 116; X. vi. 5; 

XL i. 85 ; xn. i. 33 ; xn. viii. 6. 
columa for columna, I. vii. 29; co- 

Inmna rostrata, I. vii. 12. 
eomam in jfradus franqere, L vi. 44. 
comici, L vii. 22 ; L viii. 8 ; xn. U. 

22. 
commentatio = (vOviiJiiia, v. x. 1. 
commentum = evOviiriiui, V. x. 1 ; 

rx. ii. 107. 
commiseratio, X. i. 107. 
commissura verborum, vn. x. 16 ; n. 

iv. 37; xn. ix. 17. 
commoratio, n. i. 27 ; rx. ii. 4. 

535 



INDEX OF WORDS 



commune (exordium), IT. i. 71 ; (argn- 

mentum), v. liii. 29, 34 ; vn. i. 28 ; 

(syllabae) H. iv. 84 ; see locus, 
communicatio, IX. i. 30; IX. ii. 20, 

23, 25. 
comoedia, I. vlii. 7; X. i. 9, 65 sqq., 

69, 82, 99; XI.iii. 74. 
comoedus, I. xi. 1 ; VLii. 35; XI.iii. 

91 and 181. 
comparatio, n. iv. 21 ; VI. iii. 66 ; VII. 

ii. 22 ; vin. iv. 3, 9 ; vm. v. 6 ; vin. 

vi. 9. 
comparativus (status), HI. vi. 90; 

teenus causarum) rn. x. 3 ; vn. iv. 

12; (aigumenta) V. x. 86 sqq.; 

(contraposita) ix. iii. 32 ; IX. iii. 19. 
complexio ■= avvdipetm, L v. 6 and 

17; (in logic) v. xiv. 5. 
compositio, vm. iii. 67; IX. iv. pai 

Sim ; XI. i. 33. 
compositio verborum, I. v. 65 and 70. 
comprehendere, comprendere, I. v. 21. 
comprehensio = periodus, IX. iv. 121 

and 124. 
ooncertativa accusatio, vn. ii. 9. 
concessio, IX. ii. 61. 
conciliatio, IV. i. 16; lX.i. 32; IX. ii. 

3; XI. iii. 154. 
conclusio — periodus, IX. iii. 98 ; IX. 

iv. 22; X, ii. 17; ■» clausula, vm. 

▼.13. 
concursio, IX. i. 33. 
conexio, V. xiv. 6, 12, 17. 
confessio, IX. ii. 17, 61. 
confirmatio, IV. iii. 1 iqq. ; T. viii. 5 ; 

X. V. 12. 
coniectura, m. vi. 30; vn. Ii. 1, 19, 

27; vn. iv. 24. 
coniecturales causae, n. iv. 26 ; IV. ii. 

81 ; IV. iv. 8 ; cf. vn. i. 63. 
coniieit, I. iv. 11. 
eonire, coire, I. vi. 17. 
coniugatum, V. x. 85. 
coniunctio, I. iv. 18. 
coniunctum tempus, V. viii. 6 ; V. ix. 

5; vn. ii. 46. 
conlatio = Trapa^oAij, V. xi. 2 and 23. 
eon/ejit, XI. iii. 35. 
consensio, IX. ii. 61. 
consequens, V. viii. 5 ; V. x. 74 sq. ; 

VI. iii. 76; Vin. vi. 40; IX. ii. 103. 
consonantes, I. iv. 6 and 10; IX. iv. 

37; XT. iii. 34, 35. 
constitutio = status, m. vi. 2 ; vn. 

iv. 5 sqq. 



consul, I. vi. 32 ; I. vii. 29. 

consummatio, IX. ii. 103. 

contentio, IX. i. 31; IX. ii. 2; IX. iii. 

81. 
continens •" <rvvex<"') HI. xi. 1, 9, 

18 sq., 24. 
continuatio = periodus, IX. iv. 22 and 

124; continuatio sermonis, vm. ii. 

14; IX. iii. 23. 
continuatum, IX. i. 35. 
contrapositum, IX. iii. 81 and 83; 

contraposita, IX. iii. 32 and 102; 

IX. iv. 18. 
contrarium (figure), IX. i. 34; IX. iii. 

90 ; •■ ev6viJLrjfia, V. X. 2. 
controversiae, n. iv. 33; IV. ii. 94, 

97; vn. i. 4; IX. i. 14; ix. ii. 65 

sqq., 77, 88. 
corUumeliam fecit, n. iii. 13. 
conversio = ai'Tt/oLeTa^oA^, IX. i. 33. 
convinctiones, I. iv. 18 *}. 
convivimus, 1. vi. 44. 
coppa, I. iv. 9. 
cordax, ix. iv. 88. 
Cordus, I. iv. 25. 

Corinthi Dionysium esse, vni. vi. 52. 
Corinthia aera, IX. ii. 8; verba, VUL 

iii. 28. 
correctio, IX. i. 30, 35 ; ix. iii. 89. 
cortex amara and amarus, I. v. 35. 
Corvinum, vn. ix. 4. 
cotidie, I. vii. 6. 
Cotlae, I. iv. 25. 
creticus, IX. iv. 81 and 107. 
Crispus, XI. ii. 31. 
crocodillinae, I. x. 6. 
cubare supra se, vm. ii. 20. 
Culcides, I. iv. 16. 
cum and quum, I. vii. 5. 

D, I. iv. 16; I. vii. 12 ; xn. x. 32. 
dactylicus rhythmus, IX. iv. 46 sqq. 
dactylus, IX. iv. 49, 81, 85, 104, 

136. 
damae timidi, IX. iii. 6. 
dativus, L iv. 26 ; vn. ix. 13. 
de eodem et alio, m. vi. 31, 36; VII. 

Iii. 8. 
de susum, I. v. 38. 
declamare, declamatio, I. ii. 13; n. i. 

2 ; n. X. 1 sqq. ; n. xi. 3 sqq., 15 ; 

IV. ii. 29; V. xii. 17; V. xiii. 44; 

vn. i. 4 and 38; X. ii. 12; X. v. 

14 sqq.; XI. i. 38 and 83; xn. zi, 

16. 



536 



INDEX OF WORDS 



decUmatores, ni. viii. 44, 61, 69 ; IT. 

ii. 28; v. xiii.42; vm. iii. 22 ; n. 

ii. 42; X. i. 71; I. Tii. 21; XL i. 

55 tqq. 
declinatio (figure), IX. i. 32, 34, 42, 44. 
declinatio (grammat.), L iv. 13, 21, 

27, 29; L V. 63; n. xt, 4; vm. 

iii.32. 
dederont, I. Iv. 16. 
defensio coniimcta, vn. i. 15. 
definita qaaestio, vn. ii. 1 sqq. 
definitio, m. tI. 42; definitiones, L 

vi.29. 
ifiviovL^, vx ii. 24; TUL iii. 88; IX. 

ii. 104. 
delatxjres, m. x. 3 ; IX. ii. 74. 
deliberativum genns orationis, IL i. 2 ; 

iLiv. 25; n. I. 11; ULiii. 14; m. 

It. 15, 16 ; m. vi. 56 ; m. Tiii. 1 sqq., 

6, 10, 12, 22 tqq., 58 iqq., 66; 

Tm. Pr. 6 ; VUL iii. 11 ; XL i. 48. 
demonstrativum genus causamm, 11. 

X. 11; n. ixi. 23; m. iv. 9, 12, 
14; m. Tii. 1 sqq.; m. viii. 8, 63; 
V. X. 43 ; vn. iv. 3 ; Tm. Pr. 8 ; Tm. 
iii. 11 : DC. iv. 130; XL i. 48. 

denies aliri. Tin. vi. 40. 
deprecatio, m. vi. 13 ; V. ilii. 5 ; vn. 
IV. 3 and 17 ; IX. i. 32 ; rx. ii. 3 ; 

XI. 1. 52. 

deprehendere and dtprendere, rx. iv. 

59. 
depulsio, m. vi. 7 and 16 tqq. ; ra. 

xi. 1 ; VL iv. 2 ; Vin. Pr. 9. 
derivatio verbonun, m. vii. 25; XL 

i. 90. 
descriptio, rv. iii. 12; IX. ii. 44; ix. 

iv. 138. 
detractio (figure), IX. il. 37; H. iii. 

18 tqq., 27, 58, 62. 
detractio litterarom. I. v. 16 and 38; 

= tAAeii/dt, L T. 40. 
devorari hominem, vm. vi. 25. 
dialectice, L x. 37; n. xvii. 14 and 

42 ; n. II. 7 ; n. ni. 13 ; V. xiv. 

27; XiLii. 10*99. 
dialectici, n. iv. 41 ; vn. ill. 14. 
SuiAeimK, I. v. 29 ; IX. iv. 18. 
iioMjayri, IX. iii. 49. 
dialog!, V. vii. 28 ; V. xiv. 27 ; n. Ii. 

31 ; X. V. 15 ; XI. i. 21. 
iuumias trx^^uiTa, IX. ii. 107. 
iiarvrmvii, IX. ii. 41. 
dieem for dieam, l vii. 23. 
dichoreus, IX. iv. 95 and 103. 



dictare, X. iii. 18 tqq. 

dictu, L iv. 29. 

Jiffoiot, IX. iii. 87. 

difierens, V. x. 55 and 58. 

digammon, I. iv. 8 ; L vii. 27. 

digestio, ix. i. 31 ; rx. ii. 2. 

digiti,XLiii. 92. 

diqnu' locoque, ix. iv. 38. 

digressio, rv. ii. 19; rx. i. 28 and 35; 

ix.ii. 55*59.; IX. iii. 90; X. i. 33. 
diCTessus, IV. iii. 14 ; X. i. 40. 
diiunctio, IX. i. 35; IX.iii. 45. 
SiKoioXoyia, IX. iii. 99. 
iiKaioXcyiKOs, XH. vi. 33. 
dinomeratio, rx. i. 35: rx. iii. 91. 
Diovf Yictore for Diovi Victori, L iv. 17. 
dispositio, m. iii. 1 tqq.; TL iv. 1; 

vn. Pr. 1 ; vn. i. 1 tqq. ; vn. i. 

5 tq. and 11 ; x. ii. 27. 
disputatrix = JioAcimir^, IL XX. 7 ; 

xn. ii. 13. 
dissimilia, v. x. 73 ; T. xi. 5 *99. ; VL 

iii. 63. 
dissimnlatio, rv. i. 60; rv. ii. 117; vi. 

iii. 85; IX. i. 29; IX. ii. 14 and 

(■» ironia) 44; Xn. ix. 5. 
dissipatio, rx. i. 35 ; cp. IX. iii. 39. 
dissolatio, IX. iii. 50. 
dissolntom, rx. i. 34. 
distincta oratio, XL iii. 35. 
distinctio (figure), rx. i. 33 ; IX. ilL 65 

and 82 ; (punctuation) XI. iii. 35, 

37 tqq., 47, 62, 181. 
distributio, IX. i. 30 ; IX. ii. 2. 
DUit, L vi. 34. 
diu, L iv. 29. 
divisio, V. X. 63; vn. i. 1; vm. t. 

30 sqq.; IX. ii. 105. 
dirissiones, L vii. 20. 
dixti, rx. iii. 22. 
dochinius, rx. iv. 79, 97, 99. 
ioyiioLTucoi, sermones, n. xv. 26. 
dua, duapondo, I. v. 15. 
dual is numertis, I. v. 42. 
dubitatio, IX. i. 30 and 35; IX. ii. 19; . 

rx.iU. 88. 
duetare exercHus, vm. iii. 44. 
Duelii and Belli. I. iv. 15. 
duellum, l iv. 15. 
jvucof, L V. 42. 
dum, IX. iii. 16. 
duplicia indicia, XL i. 78. 
tvvaim, n. XV. 3 ; V. X. 33. 
SvvaTov, m. viii. 25. 
tviTirapaKo\mi0ifrov, IV. i. 40. 

537 



INDEX OF WORDS 



E, I. Ir. 9 and 17; I. vii. 15; IX. ir. 

34. 
ebur, I. vi. 22. 
ediscere, I. 1. 36; n. vii. 1 sqq.; n. 

xiii. 15 ; XI. ii. 27 sqq., 44. 
effectiva ars, n. xviii.5. 
€yKUKAt09 iratfieta, I. s, 1. 
fyKiaiiiafrTiKOv, III. iv. 13. 
egressio, egressus, in. ix. 4; IV. iii. 

12 sqq.; XI. iii. 64 and 164. 
ei for i, I. vii. 15. 
f'lKwi', V. xi. 24. 
t'lKora, V. ix. 8; V. x. 15, 
elpuiv, IX. ii. 46. 
^moi, I. vi. 36. 
*« ru>v TTpb? dAAijXo, V. X. 78. 
tK^ao-eis, V. X. 86. 
elegia, I. viii. 6 ; X. i. 58 and 9.1. 
iXeyKTiKoi sermones Platonis, II. xv. 

26. 
eliminat gradus, vin. iii. 31. 

eAAen/(ts, I. V. 40; VIII. vl. 21. 
elocutio, n. V. 21 ; Book VIII. and IX. ; 

vni. Pr. 17; XI. i. 1. 
elecutoria, elocutrix, II. xiv. 2. 
emendatio (gen.), X. iv. 1 sqq. ; (figure) 

IX. ii. 17. 

emicavit for emicuit, I. vi. 17. 
efi(<)a(ri9, VI. iii. 69; VIII. ii. 11; vm. 

iii. 83, 86; vin. iv. 26; IX. ii. 3 

and 64; IX. iii. 57. 
emutatio, vni. vi. 51. 
ivavTioTT)';, IX. ii. 106 ; IX. iii. 90. 
ivdpyfia, IV. ii. 63; VI. ii. 32; vm. 

iii. 61. 
enarratio, I. ii. 14 ; I. iv. 2 ; 1. viii. 

18; n. V. 1. 
cvSo^ov, IV. i. 40. 
(vepyeia, Vm. iii. 89. 
enim hoc voluit, I. v. 39. 
enimvero, IX. iii. 14. 
€vvoi.a. III. vi. 35 and 37. 
ivpvOfLov, IX. iv. 56 and 77. 
ensis and (tladius, X. i. 11. 
ivTex''°i- probationes, V. i. 1. 
enthymema, I. x. 37; rv. ii. 107; v. 

X. 1 sqq.; V. xiv. 1, 2, 17, 24, 25; 
vra. V. 4 and 9; IX. ii. 106; ix. 
iv. 67; XI. iii. 102; xn. x. 51. 

enumeratio = <zi/a)Cf</)oAat«i>cris, V. xiv. 

11 ; VI. i. 1 and 36. 
enayiayri, V. X. 73 ; V. xi. 2. 
ejraitoAou07)(Ti?, IX. ii. 103. 
cTrai/aAjji/zi?, VIII. iii. 51. 

iirdvoSo';, IX. iii. 35 and 97. 



»irefepya<Tca, VIU. iii. 88. 
fne^evytxeuov, IX. iii, 62. 
(■mx^cprjijia, IV. iv. 1 ; V. I. 2, 4 ; V. 
xi. 2; V. xiv. 5 and 14; Vin. v. 4; 

IX. ii. 107. 

epici, X. i. 46 sqq., 85 sqq. 
epicoena, I. iv. 24; I. vi. 12. 
fTTiSetKTiicos, n. X. 13 ; in. iv. 13 sqq. 

fTTiSirjyrj<rL^, IT. ii. 128. 
epilogi, VI. i. 7, 37, 41, 55; Vll. ii. 
56; vn. iv. 19; IX. iv. 137 sqq.; 

X. i. 107; XI. iii. 170. 
epiphonema, vin. v. 11. 
epiraedium, I. v. 68. 
e;riT<x(^tot, m. iv. 5. 

epitheton, vm. ii. 10; vra. iii. 20; 

vra. vi. 29 and 40 ; ix. i. 6. 
epitogium, I. v. 68. 
erclum citum, vn. iii. 13. 
e'<rxi?M<'''''i<r/ie'(Tj oratio, IX. i. 13. 
esse videatur, IX. iv. 73. 
essentia, n. xiv. 2; ra. vi. 23; Vin. 

iii. 33. 
est preceded by a vowel, IX. iv. 109. 
lieiKr), II. xxi. 3 ; VI. ii. 8 ; Xii. ii. 15. 
ethologia, I. ix. 3. 
■neoTToua, IX. ii. 58 ; IX. iii. 99. 
4^05, VI. ii. 8 and 17 ; vi. iii. 93. 
etymologia, I. vi. 1, 28 sqq., 38; V. 

X. 55 and 59; vn. iii. 25. 
euxwATj. ni. iv. 10. 
evidentia, iv. ii. 63; VI. ii. 32; vm. 

iii. 61; IX. ii. 40. 
€v(f>avTaa'CtuTo^, VI. ii. 30. 
ev^Oivia, I. V. 4. 
Europai, I. v. 17. 
evpv9ft.ia, I. X. 26. 
Eutkia, I. V. 61. 
e|oAAa-y^, IX. iii. 12. 

excessus, cp. excursio, egressio, m. Ix. 

1 and 4. 
exclamatio, IX. i. 34 and 39; IX. ii. 

27; IX. iii. 97. 
excursio, I. xi. 3; n. xiii. 1; IV. ii. 

105 sgq.; IV. iii.l. 
excursus, IV. iii. 5 and 12 ; X. v. 12. 
excusatio, vn. iv. 3, 14, 31. 
exemplum, V. n. 1; V. xi. 1 sqq. and 

n sqq.; IX. i. 31; IX. xxi. 2; XII. 

iv. 1. 
efepyaeria, Vm.iii. 88. 
efeTaoTtKoi', ra. iV. 9. 
eihortatio, IX. ii. 103. 
exhortativus (status), m. vi. 47; 

(genus), V. X. 82. 



MS 



INDEX OF WORDS 



ezitaa • CK/Saaeit , T. z. 86. 
exordium, iv. i. 1 iqq., 5, 7, 11, 16, 

28, 30, 42, 68, 62, 71, 72, 76; XI. 

iii.161. 
expecto and exspecto, L vii. 4. 
expectorat, vm. iv. 31. 
explanatio (figure), IZ. i. 27; IX. ii. 2. 
eipositio, m. ix. 7 ; 17. ii. 50; ViLii. 

26; XI. i. 53. 
exsecratio, rx. i. S2 ; IX. ii. 3. 
eitemporalis actio, X. vi. 6; X. vii. 

18; XI. ii. 3. 
extenoatio, IX. i. 27; IX. ii. 3. 

F, I. iT. 14; xn. X. 29. 
fabricari, rx. iii. 6. 
face lorfac, L vi. 21. 
faciem ioTfaciam, l vii. 23. 
facere (categoiy), m. vi. 24. 
facetum, VL iii. 20. 
facilUer, L vi. 17. 
faedus for haedus, L iv. 14. 
fori, vm. iii. 27. 
fatcialim, l iv. 20. 
favoTy vm. iii. 34. 
fcminina positio, I. iv. 24. 
femur, L vi. 22. 
/(fro, Liv. 29; L vi. 26. 
femim for gladius, vm. vi. 20 ; ferrum 

and mucTO, x. i. 11. 
fides = iri<rTei9, V. I- 8 and 10 tqq. 
FiguUUum, \TII.iii. 32. 
figrura = (TX^Aio, L V. 5 ; L viii. 16 ; 

DLxili. 11; vn. iv. 28; VI. iii. 70; 

VUL vi. 67 ; IX. passim. 
figuratus, vm. iii. 59; tx. i. 13 and 

14; IX. ii. 65 sqq. and 88. 
Fimbriaium, vm. iii. 32. 
finis = finitio, IV. iv. 3 ; V. x. 54, etc. 
finitae questions, m. v. 7 ; vm. Pr. 8. 
finitio, m. v. 10 ; v. x. 36 and 54 sgg. ; 

VL iv. 4; vn. iii. 1 sqq., 19 sqq.\ 

vn. X. 1 sqq. ; IX. iii. 91. 
finitiva causa, vn. iii. 36; see also 

status, 
firmamentnm causae » <rvv€xov, m. 

xi. 1, 9, 19. 
fletur, I. iv. 28. 
flexa littera, syllaba, L v. 23 and 30 ; 

xn. X. 33. 
Floralia, l. v. 52. 
fluctuatur and flitctttat, tx. iii. 7. 
fordeum for hordeum, L iv. 14. 
forma — species, v. x. 62. 
formulae, m. vi. 69 ; vn. iv. 20. 



formularii, xn. iii. 11. 
fraudaior, I. iv, 28. 
frugalis, L vi. 17. 
ftmis, L vi. 5. 
Furii for Fusii, L iv. 13. 

G, L vii. 12. 

(Tattu indicated by C, 1. vii. 28. 

Galbae, V iv. 25. 

galliambi, IX. iv. 6. 

Gailica verta, L v. 57. 

gallus, vn. ix. 2. 

yeAoior, VL iii. 22. 

geminatio, L iv. 10; L vii. 14: vm. 
V. 18; IX.i. 33; H. iii. 28, 45, 47 ; 

IX. iv. 119. 
gemma, vm. vi, 6. 

generalis quaestio, m. v. 9; m. vi. 

21; vn. i. 49 and 58 ; VU. ii.l tqq.; 

I. V. 13; xn. ii. 18. 
ytvtm = coniectura, m. vi. 53. 
geometria, I. x. 34 sqq. 
gestus, L xi. 3 and 16 ; JJ.iii. 65 sqq., 

88 sqq., 102, 109, 117, 125, 181. 
gladioUt, L vi. 42. 
gladius and ensis, X. i. 11 ; and mucro, 

X. i. 11 and 14; gladia, i. v. 6. 
y\ui<r<rai, L i. 35. 
glossemata, L viii. 15. 
Glycerium, L iv. 24. 

Gnaeus, I. vii. 29. 

yfu^Oi, Tm. V. 3. 

Gracci, L v. 20. 

graaili, L vi. 27. 

gradatio (figure), tz. i. 34 ; IX. iii. 54. 

grammatice, L iv. 4, 5, 6; I. v. 54; 

L viii. 12; L X. 17; IL i. 1 sqq. 

and 4. 
grammaticus, L ii. 14; L iv. 1 ji^. ; 

L viii. 21 ; n. xiv. 3 ; DC iv. 53 ; x 

i. 64. 
gravis (accent), I. v. 22 sqq. 
gubemator for agitator, vm. vL S. 
gurdi, L v. 57. 
guttur, L vi. 23. 

H, L ▼. 19 sqq. 

habere (category), ra. vl. 24. 

a£p6v, xn. X. 58. 

ap^oi'ta, I. Z. 12. 

haruspex, l vii. 9. 
have, L vi. 21. 
Hecoba, I. iv. 16. 
r^ixtpov, m. vl. 28. 
bendeca^llabi, L viii. 6. 

539 



INDEX OF WORDS 



here and heri, I. iv. 8; 1. vii. 22. 

Eermagora, I. v. 61. 

herous (epic), I. viii.5; X. i. 46 sqq., 

85 sqq. ; = dactyl, IX. iv. 88 sqq. 
CTfpoibxrt;, IX. iii. 12. 
heu, I. iv. 20. 

hexameter, IX. iv. 74, 75, 78. 
«^ts, X. i. 1 and 59 ; X. v. 1. 
hiatus, IX. iv. 33 sqq. 
Hispanum nomen, I. v. 8 and 57. 
historia, I. viii.18; II. Iv. 2; in. viii. 

67 iqq.; IX. iv. 18 and 129; X. i. 

31, 73 sqq., 101 sqq.; X. v. 15. 
historice, L ix. 1. 
historici,I. vi. 2; I. x. 40; n. iv. 19; 

IV. ii. 2; vm. vi. 65. 
histriones, VI. ii. 35; X. v. 6; XI. iii. 

89. 
homo, I. vi. 34. 
o^o(t'£cia, VIII. iii. 52. 
oiLOLomiorov, IX. iii. 78 sqq. 
ofxoiOT€\evTov, IX. iii. 77 sq, 
homonyma, Vin. ii. 13. 
ofxtdtaffxia, VII, ix. 2. 
hordea, I. v. 16. 
v\.r\, V. X. 33. 

imoKKayri, Vm. vi. 23 ; IX. iii. 92. 
imaKXaKTiKTi <na.<ri<!. III. vi. 47. 
hyperbaton, I. V. 40 ; \m.y\.G2 sqq.; 

Vin. ii. 14; IX. i. 3, 6; ix. iii. 23, 

91 ; IX. iv. 26. 
hyperbole, VI. iii. 67; vm. iv. 29; 

vm. \i.Gl sqq.; IX. i. 5. 
VJrefoipeo-is = exceptio. III. vi. 61. 
viroiiaaroA^, XI. iii. 35. 
viroariyinri, XI. iii. 35. 
vir6e«<n?, ni. V. 7 and 18. 
vjronm-aKTis, IV. ii. 3 ; IX. ii. 40 and 58. 

I, I. iv. 7 and 11 ; I. vii. 17 and 21 ; 

nc. iv. 34. 
iaculari, vm. ii. 5. 
iam, I. iv. 10. 
iambus, IX. iv. 47, 76, 80, 88, 136; 

X. i. 9, 59, 96. 
iiioT7/s, m. vi. 63. 
iecur, I. vi. 22. 
igituT, I. v. 39. 
imago (figure), IX. i. 35; ■= (^avrao-i'oi, 

VI. iii. 29; X. vii. 15. 
imitatio, I. iii. 1 ; IX. i. 30 ; ix. ii. 35 

and 58; X. i. 3, 21 sq., 27; X. ii. 

Itqq. 
imminutio (figure), IX. i. 34; IX. iii. 

90. 



mutatio (solecism), I. v. 12 and 41 ; 

(figure) rx. i. 35. 
imperterritus, I. v. 65. 
inipius for parricida, vm. vi. 30. 
improprium, I. v. 46 ; I. viii. 13 ; Vlll. 

ii. 3 sqq.; vm. iii. 15; XII. x. 42. 
improvisum (figure), IX. i. 35; IX. iii. 

90. 
in changed to im in composition, I. 

vii. 7. 
in Alexandriam, 1. v. 38. 
inartiflcialis probatio, V. 1. 1. 
incisa = Koiinara, IX. iv. 22, 67, 122 

sqq. 
incompositus, I. v. 65. 
incrementum, vm. iv. 3 and 28. 
incumbere illi, in ilium, ix. iii. 1. 
incurvicervicum pecus, I. v. 67 and 70. 
indicium = a-rjueiov, V. ix. 9. 
indifferens syllaba, IX. iv. 93. 
inductio = eiraycoyj), V. X. 73 ; V. xi 

2 sqq. 
Infinitae quaestiones, m. v. 6 ; X. v. 11. 
infitialis status =» coniecturalis, m. vi. 

15 and 32 ; IX. i. 8. 
ingenua, VII. ix. 4. 
ingrati actio, VII. iv. 37. 
initium causae = airCa, in. xi. 5. 
inluslo = ironia, vm. vi. 54; ix. i. 28. 
inlustratio = evapyfia, VI. ii. 32. 
inopinatum ■» TrapaSoiov, VL iii. 84; 

IX. ii. 23. 
Inscripta = non scripta, m. vi. 37; 

vn. iv. 36. 
insequentia, V. x. 45 sq., 75; vn. ii. 

46. 
insinuatio, rv. i. 42 and 48. 
instruments, n. xii. 24 ; V. x. 51 ; 

VII. ii. 25 and 45; XII. v. 1 sq. 
intellego and video, X. i. 13 sq. 
intentio, ra. vi. 7 and 13 sqq. ; ill. 

ix. 1; V. xiv. 6; vi. iv. 2; vii. i. 

9, 13, 16; VII. V. 2; vm. Pr. 9; 

(=p propositio), v. xiv. 6, 12, 16 sq. 
intercapedinis, vni.iii. 46. 
intercluslo (figure), IX. iii. 23. 
interdicta, n. x. 6; IV. ii. 61; vn. v. 

3 ; xn. X. 70. 
interfatio, IV. ii. 50. 
interiectio, I. iv. 19 ; •= parenthesis, 

VIII. ii. 15. 

interpositio (figure), IX. iii. 23. 
Interrogatio (of witnesses), V. vi. 3 
sqq., 22, 27; (figure) IX. ii. 6 sqq., 

IX. iii. 98. 



INDEX OF WORDS 



intermptio — a»-o<ri<iinj<j-i?, n. il. 54. 
interraptam (figare), IX. i. 35. 
intra and intus, I. v. 50. 
inventio, m. iii. 1 ; vm. Pr. 14; Vin. 

iii. 2 ; I. i. 106. 
inverslo = a.va<TTpo<!>rj, I. v. 40 ; = al- 

legoria, VUL vi. 44. 
invidere hanc rem, hoe re, DL iii. 1 ; 

huitit rei, IX iii. 17. 
inridut and inridiosus, TL ii. 21. 
iocus, VI. iii. 21. 
iiuTOJCiafio?, I. V, 32. 
iracundia (figure), II. i. 32 ; n. ii. 3. 
ironia, IV. i. 39 ; VI. ii. 15 ; VL iii. 68 ; 

vm. vi. 54; n. i. 3 and 7; n. ii. 

44 and 97; EE. iii. 29. 
laxvov, m. X. 58. 
'nrxyoTr^s, I. V. 32. 
la-oKuXov, IX. iii. 80. 
iteratio, IX. i. 28; IX. ii. 68. 
itur, I. iv. 28. 
iudiciales cansae, n. 1. 10 ; m. iv. 16 ; 

m. vi. 104; m. viii. 53; m. ix. 

1 sqg., 3,4,9; VI. ii. 1 ; viII. Pr. 

6, 9 tgq., 11 ; vm. iii. 11 ; IX. iv. 

130 ; X. vil. 5. 
iugata, V. X. 94; VI. iii. 6. 
iugulum petere, vm. vi. 51. 
iugum Ca^idintim, m. viii. 3. 
lulia basilica, xn. v. 6. 
iunctura, vm. iii. 45; tx. iv. 22, 32, 

43; XI. iii. 53. 
iuridicialis status, m. vi. 32 to., 45, 

47, 57. 
larisconsalti, V. xiv. 34; XL ii. 41. 
iusi for iuui, L vii. 21. 
iusiurandum, V. i. 2 ; V. vi. 1 sqq. 

K, L iv. 9 ; I. vil. 10. 

Koipoi, ra. vi. 26. 

KajceiiifmTov, vm. iii. 44 and 47. 

Koxo^iJAuL, n. iii. 9 ; vm. vi. 73. 

Koxo^TiAoi', vm. iii. 56 tgq. 

KOLKOirvv^frov, vm. iii. 59. 

KojcoTc^via, n. rv. 2 ; n. XI. 2. 

car' cu(r07)<riv, HI. vi. 37; avTiXriifii.v, 
vn. iv. 4 ; fwoiav, ra. vi. 37 ; prrrov 
ecu iidyotav, m. vi. 46; prfTov jcat 
irwt^aUptaiv, m. vl. 61 ; (rv/i/S^/Srjxof , 
m. vi. 56 ; irvodeaiv, V. X. 95. 

KaTaveir\a<Tti(VOv, L Xi. 6. 

caravAii^K (figure), IX. iL 103. 

xaroo'icrvi}, n. iv. IS. 

KaTaYpijo-if, vm. ii. 6; vm. vl. 34 
and 36 : IX. i. 5. 



KoSoKiKo, n. xiii.l4; vm. v. 7. 

KtiaOai., in. vl. 24. 

ice(^<iAa(oi' yiviKutinTOv, in. vl. 2 ; ep. 

m. xi. 27. 
kAi/xoI, IX. iii. 54. 
KOiKoiTTOfiia, L V. 32. 
KOfi^ara, IX. iv. 22. 
koppa, I. iv. 9. 
KpLvofitvov, m. xi. 4 and 18. 
xpiVctt, V. xi. 36. 
KptTiKij, V. xiv. 28. 
KuAo, tx. iv. 22. 

labda, I. xi. 5. 

Aa/3&ucicr/u.<k, I. V. 32. 

laborant fructus, vm. vi. 8 

labos, I. iv. 13. 

Laenates, I. iv. 25. 

Lartius, VL iii. 96. 

Loses for Lares, I. iv. 13. 

larare, I. iv. 13; I. vi. 44. 

landatio, n. iv. 20 ; m. vii. 2 ; XI. Hi. 

126, 131, 153. 
laureati pastes, vm. vi. 32. 
Itber, L iv. 17. 
lectio, L I. 31, 32; I. viii. 1 sgq.; t. 

viii. 6; n. V. 1 sgq., 18; X. i. 17, 

20 tgq., 27, 45. 
legale quaestionum genus, m. T. 4; 

m. vi. 87 sgq. 
leguleii, xn. iii. 11. 
Aijicrr^, I. vii. 17. 

Ae'wf, vn. ix. 6. 

lepus, I. vi. 12 and 33. 

lex Manilla, n. iv. 40; Plantla, tX, 

ill. 56; ServUia, VI. iii. 44; thea- 

tralis, ni. vi, 9; leges contrariaa, 

in. vi. 88; vn. vii. l sqg. 
libera oratio = vapprjiria, IX. ii. 27. 
.Vt^uKol A0701, v. xi. 20. 
licentia ■= vappria-ia, EX. ii. 27. 
lltterae, I. i. 24 and 27; I. iv. 7; L 

vii. 11 and 31 ; n. xvlii. 4; VI. Pr. 

14; IX. iv. 36; xn. i. 27. 
titteratoria, litteratrix, n. xiv. 3. 
litteratura — granuuatice, n. i. 4 ; n. 

xiv. 3. 
litus, V. xiv. 34; vn. iii. 13. 
locaples, v. x. 55. 
loci argumentomm, V. vlH. 4; T. x. 

20; VI. iii. 65. 
loci commones, n. 1. 1, 9, 11; n. iv. 

22, 27 ; rv. vii. 4 ; V. I. 3 ; V. xiil. 

67; I.T. 12; XL 1. 46. 
locatio recta — opdoi-rtui, I. vi. 20. 



INDEX OF WORDS 



lodicea, i, yi. 4j. 

\oyiK6v, genus quaestionum, in. v. 4. 

AoyoJaiiaAoi, HI. i. 11. 

Longi, I. iv. 25 ; I. vi. 38. 

loquendi genera = StoAeicToi, I. v. 29. 

lucubratjo, X. iii. 27. 

lucus, I. vi. 34. 

Indus, I. vi. 34; ludi Floralia ac 

Megalensia, I. v. 52. 
lupus femina. I. vi. 12. 
lurchinabundus, I. vi. 42. 
Juiun'atur and liuuriat, IX. iii. 7. 
lyrici, I. viii. 6 ; IX. iv. 53 ; X. i. 61 

and 96. 

M, IX. iv. 39, 40 ; xn. i. 31. 

HaKpo\oyia, VIII. iii. 53. 

magester for magister, I. iv, 17. 

Maiia, 1. iv. 11. 

rnaleficus, I. v. 66. 

malevolus, I. v. 68. 

malus, I. vii. 3. 

mappa, I. v. 27. 

Marcipores, I. iv. 26. 

marmuT, I. vi. 23. 

mastruca, I. v. 8. 

fiaraioTexi"<i> U. ^CX. 3. 

maximus, maxumus, I. vii. 21. 

medidies, I. vi. 30. 

medium diceudi genus, X. i. 52 and 

80 ; XII. X. 58 sq. 
Megalensia, I. v. 62. 
/oieyaAoTrpeTTtio, IV. ii. 61. 
mehe for mf , I. v. 21. 
fietaxns, VIII. iii. 50. 
fxe'Ao; and pud/xo;, I. x. 22. 
membra = xwAa, IX. iv. 22, 67, 123. 
membratim, IX. iv- 126, 127. 
memoria, X. 1. 19 ; I. iii. 1 ; ni. iii. 1 

and 10; XI. ii. 1 sqq., 11 sqq., 36 

and 40. 
Menerva, I. iv. 17. 
merere for mereris, I. v. 42. 
meridies and medidies, I. vi. 30. 
fiepiKol eTTiAoyot, TI. i. 56. 
mertare, I. iv. 14. 
merula, I. vi. 38. 
>teTa^a<ris (figure), IX. iii. 25. 
utTafioXri (figure), IX. iii. 38 ; rhythmi, 

IX. iv. 50. 
^teToATji/d? (causa), in. vi. 46; (figure) 

VI. iii. 52 ; IX. ii. 106 ; (trope) 

vra. vi. 37 sq.; IX. i. 5. 
HiTa<t)opd, VI. iii. 68; VIII. vi. 4 sqq., 

8; IX. i. 6; ix.ii. 46. 



metaplasmus, I. viii. 14. 

/nerao-Tatrts = translatio, ni. vi. 53 ; 

vn. iv. 14; (figure) IX. ii. 41. 
methodice, IX. i. 1. 
metonymia, vin. vi. 23 ; IX. 1. 5. 
ju-eVpa, IX. iv. 45-51. 
metrici pedes, IX. iv. 48 and 52. 
Metloeoque Fufetioeo, I. v. 12. 
fiCftrjaii = jjSoTToita, IX. ii. 58. 

mimi = pantomimi, vi. iii. 8 and 29. 
mimi = comoediae, I. x. 17; IV. ii. 

53. 
minae = icaTdjrA))|is, IX. Ii. 103. 
minuendi species, vin. iv. 1 sqq. and 

28. 
miseratio, VI. i. 9, 19, 23, 27, 30, 46; 

XI. iii. 171. 
modi verborum, I. v. 41 ; = tropes, 

vm. V. 35; (musical) I. x. 14 and 

31. 
modulatio scaenlca, xi. iii. 67. 
molossus, IX. iv. 82, 100, 102. 
fiovoeiSeia, XI. iii. 44. 
monosyllaba, IX. iv. 42. 
/xovoTovia, XI, iii. 46. 
morae = pauses, XI. iii. 39. 
moralis philosophia, XU. i. 15. 
motus = tropes, IX. i. 2. 
mucTO for gladtus, vm. vi. 20 ; X. i 

11 and 14. 
mugitus, vni. vi. 31. 
mulsa, I. V. 16. 
multiplicatio = avvoBpaiaiJ.o'i, Vin. iv 

27. 
munerarius, Vin. iii. 34. 
murmur, VIII. vi. 31. 
mus, VIII. iii. 20. 

musica ratio niunerorum, ix. iv. 139. 
musice, I. x. 9 sqq., 17, 22, 31 ; I. iv. 4. 
mutatio, IX. iii. 27 and 92. 
^uKTrjpio'/ios, vni. vi. 69. 

N, I. V. 60 ; xn. X. 31. 

nam enim, I. v. 38. 

narratio, II. iv. 2 sqq., 16 ; m. vi. 92 ; 

in. ix. 1 ; IV. ii. passim ; vm. Pr. 1 ; 

IX. iv. 134 and 138; XI. iii. 162. 
Naso, XI. ii. 31. 
naturalis philosophia, xn. ii. 10 and 

20 sqq. 
narigare aequor, IX. iii. 17. 
ne and non, I. v. 60; ne hoe fecit, 

I. V. 38. 
negotialis, n. xxi. 3 ; m. vi. 67 ; ni. 

vii. 1. 



INDEX OF WORDS 



uegotiam, m. t. 17. 

Nerei, I. v. 24. 

neutralis (positio), I. It. 24 ; (nomen) 

I. v. 54. 
noctivagus, I. y. 68. 
yorj/ia, n. xi. 1 ; vm. v. 12. 
I'omicb*' genus qnaestionum, m. v. 4. 
nomina, l. iv. 18, 2a-6 ; I. iv. 24 tqq.; 

1. v. 60, 61 ; m. vi. 36 ; vm. vi. 31. 
nota aspirationis, I. iv. 9. 
iiotatio = etymologia, I. vi. 28. 
uumems (category), HI. vi. 26; 

(rhytlim) IX. iv. 17, 22, 27, 45 sqq., 

54, 67, 61, 62, 66; (number) I. v. 

45; ix.iii. 8. 
nuncupare, vULiii. 27. 

O, L iv. 16 ; L vi. 8 ; I. vii. 11. 

ob, I. vii. 7. 

obiuigatio (figure), rx. i. 32; IX. ii. 3. 

obliqui casus, L vi. 10, 22; adlocu- 

tiones, IX. ii. 37; sententiae, IX. ii. 

79, 94. 
obsequium, VUL iii. 35. 
obticentia (figure), IX. ii. 54. 
occultatio (figure), IX. iii. 98. 
octonarius versus, ix. iv. 72 sq. 
'OSvaafvi;, 1. iv. 16. 
oeconomia. I. viii. 9 and 17; in. iii. 

9; cp. ra. X. 11. 
oiA"), IT. i. 2. 
oVos, IV. i. 3. 
olli, vm. iii.25. 
Olympus, I. V. 62. 
oi^ptaroirooa, I. V. 72; Vin. vl. 31; 

IX. 1. 3 and 5. 
operositas = nepiepyia, vm. iii. 55. 
Opiter, I. iv. 25. 
oppido, vm. iii. 25. 
optatio (figure), IX. viii. 32 ; II. ii. 3. 
optimus and oplumiu, l iv. 8; L vii. 

21. 
oratores Graeci, X. i. 76 ; Latini, X. i 

105 sqq. 
oratoria, oratrix, ll. xiv. 1. 
ordo, m. iii. 8 ; IX. iii. 91. 
originatio = crv/xoAoyia, I. vi. 28. 
omatus, vm. iii. 1 sqq. ; XT. i. 2 and 7. 
op^ocVeia, L V. 33 ; I. vi. 20. 
opOoypaipia, I. vii. 1. 

paeo, I. vi. 11. 

paean, rx. iv. 47 tq., 79 sqq., 96, 106. 

110, 136. 
paedagcigi, 1. 1. 8. 



paenitentia dicti, ix. ii. 60. 

paeniiurus, ix. iii. 12. 

TzaiSona^i, I. xii. 9. 

palaestrica, n. xxi. 11. 

palaestrici, I. xi. 15; L xii. 9; n. 

viii. 7; xn. ii. 12. 
palaestritae, rx. iv. 56. 
palimbacchins, H. iv. 82, 102. 
palus, I. vii. 3. 
pan^yrici, n. x. 11; m. iv. 14; m. 

viii. 7. 
Pansae, i. iv. 25. 
Ilai^aAe'wi', Vn. ix. 6. 
wafKpokij, V. xi. 1 and 23; vx. iii. 59; 

vm. iii. 77. 
vapdSeiyna, V. xi. 1 ; XH. X. 61. 
TTopoSiao-ToAj), rx. iii. 65. 
vapaSiriyriam, IX. ii. 107. 
irapdSoiov, IV. 1. 40 ; (figure) n. il. 33. 

jrapaifeTiicoi' (figure), IX. ii. 103. 
irapatppaiTK, I. ix. 2 ; X. V. 5. 
7rapa<riai7r)}<xt5, IX iii. 99. 
jrapauft/o-is (figure), IX. ii. 106. 
irape'/t/3a<7i?, IV. iii. 12 and 14. 
irap€'>iirru)<ri9, IX. iii. 23. 
napevOea-i^, IX. iii. 23 and 26. 
vaptT^Ofieva, V. X. 75. 

pariambus, rx. iv. 80. 

jTopiaoi' (figure), rx. iii. 76. 

irapioSt}, IX. ii. 35. 

vapuSCa, VLiii. 97. 

irapoifiia, V. xi. 21 ; vm. vi. 57. 

jrapoMoAoyia (figure), IX. iii. 99. 

vapovofxaaia., IX. iii. 66 <$. and 30. 

irapop/x>)T4icil OTaffis, m, vi. 47. 

■nappriaia, IX. ii. 27 ; DC iii. 99. 

parricida, VUL vi. 35. 

parricidalus, I. vi. 42. 

participia, I. iv. 19 and 27; L t. 47; 

I. vi. 26. 
participialia verba, I. iv. 29. 
partitio, I. ii. 13; m. ix. 1 ; rv. v. 1 

sqq., 24, 26 ; IV. ii. 49 ; IV. v. 1 and 

24 ; VU. i. 1 ; IX. iv. 92 and 131. . 
pastor populi, vm. vi. 8. 
iraBjiTiKa.1, probationes, v. xii. 9. 
ndSoi Emd jrdOri, VL ii. 7 sq. and 20 sqq, 
pati (category), ra. vi. 24; (passive) 

L vi. 26 : IX. iii. 7. 
patrare bella, vm. iii. 44. 
peculiolum magnum, t, v. 46. 
pecuniosus, v. x. 6. 
pedem ronjerrr, vm. vi. 61. 
pedestris oratio, X. i. 81. 
Pelia, L T. 61. 

543 



INDEX OF WORDS 



mjXiKOTrjs, VII. iv. 16. 

pellerit, not perlexil, xi. iii. 35. 

pentameter, rx. iv. 98 and 109. 

TTfvTdaTifioi percussiones, VS.. iv. 51. 

ircv^/ui/xepe^, IX. iv. 78. 

penus, TIL iii. 13. 

pepigi, I. vi. 10. 

irnroiii/uicVa, TIEt. vi. 32. 

percontatio, DC i. 29 ; IX. ii. 6 sgq. 

percursio, IX. i. 27. 

percussiones, rx. iv. 61 and 75; XI. 

iii. 108. 
TTcpi (vvoCai, vm. iii. 35. 
TTtpitpyia, VIII. iii. 55. 
nepCepyof = otiosum, I. vi. 19. 
periodus, IX. iv. 22, 124, 125, 128; 

XI. i. 49. 
jr£pi'<^pa<ri9, vm. Iii. 53; vm. vi. 69 

sgq. ; IX. i. 3 and 6 ; IX. iii. 97. 
irtptao-oAoyia, IV. ii. 43; Vin. vi. 61. 
irepiiTTao-is, lU. v. 18; V. X. 104. 
pennissio (figure), IX. i. 35; IX. ii. 

25; IX. iii. 90. 
peroratio, VI. i. 1 sgq., 12 sqq., 21. 

55; VL ii. 7; vn. x. 12; vm. Pr. 

11. 
perpetualia praecepta = KaBoKixd, n. 

xiii.l4. 
perpetua oratio, ii. xx. 7; actio, VI. 

iv. 2. 
perpotare in balneis, I. vi. 44. 
persona (gramm.), I. iv. 29 ; (category) 

m. vi. 25; IV. ii. 129; V. x. 23 

sqq. ; VI. i. 25 ; vn. ii. 27 sgq. ; IX. 

i. 31 ; IX. ii. 29, 68, 76 ; IX. iii. 89. 
pes, IX. iv. 45 sqq., 52 sqq., 60 sqq., 

79 sqq. 
pelorritum, I. v. 57. 
Phaelbon, I. v. 17. 
t^OLvraaia, vm. iii. 88; <f>avTaaCai, VI. 

ii. 29; X. vii. 16; xn. x. 6. 
philosophi,I. Pr. 10; V. vi. 3; V. vii. 

35; vn. iii. 16; vn. ix. 1 ; X. i. 35, 

81 sqq., 123 sqq.; XI. i. 35; xu 

ii. 6 sqq. ; XU. xi. 17. 
piiilosophia, I. iv. 4; xn. ii. 20 and 

23; XILiii. 2. 
phonasci, n. viii. 15; XI. Iii. 19 and 

22. 
<l>pa.ai<! = elocutio, vm. i. 1 ; x. i. 42 

and 87. 
Phrygium canere, I. i. 33. 
pictai vestis, I. vii. 18. 
pinguetudo, I. xi. 4. 
pirmum, i. iv. 12. 

544 



piratica, vm. iii. S4. 
Jri JTeis, V. X. 8. 
pituita, I. vi. 36. 
Fius, V. X. 30. 
plasma, I. viii. 2. 

7rAaT6ia(r/x09, I. V. 32. 

Plato, I. V. 60. 

Plauti, I. iv. 25. 

plenus vino and vini, IX. iii. 1. 

irAeo^acr/xos, I. V. 40; VIII. iii. 53; 

DC. iii. 46 sq. 
vXoKri = repetitio, IX. iii. 41 and 49. 
ploxenum, I. v. 8. 
pluralia, pluraliter, L v. 16; II. iii. 

20. 
poculum epotum, vm. vi. 24. 
poenariae actiones, rv. iii. 9; vn. iv. 

20. 
poetae, I. Iv. 2; I. viii. 14; I. x. 29; 

V. xi. 39; X. i. 27, 41-72, 85-100. 
poeticae narrationes, n. iv. 2. 
jroiijTiKj), n. xviii. 2. 
iroAirtKOf, I. x. 15. 
TroAvirTwroi/, IX. i. 34; IX. iii. 37. 
iroXviTvv&iTov, IX. iii. 61. 
pomeridies, IX. iv. 39. 
pondo, I. V. 15. 
pontificum commentarii, vm. ii. 12; 

annates, X. ii. 7. 
porca for porcus, vm. iii. 19. 
positio prima, I. v. 60 and 65 ; I. iv. 

24 ; I. vi. 10 and 22 ; = Seo-is, IX. 

iv. 48 and 55; nominis, vm. vi. 

23; = materia declamandi, n. x. 

15. 

7rO(TOT7J5, vn. iv. 16. 

possessivum nomen, I. v. 45. 

possibile, m. viii. 25. 

Poslumus, I. iv. 25. 

potus, 1. iv. 29. 

irpaKTiKiq, ars, n. xviii. 1. 

praeceps ira, vm. vi. 27. 

praechones, I. v. 20. 

praedictio, IX. ii. 17. 

praeiudicia, v. i. 2 ; V. ii. 

praelectio, I. ii. 15; I. v. 11; I. viii. 

8 and 13; II. v. 4. 
praemunitio, IX. i. 30; IX. Ii. 2 and 

17. 
Praenestina verba, I. v. 56. 
praeparatio (figure), IX. ii. 17; pro- 

bationis, IV. ii. 65 sqq. 
praepositio, I. iv. 13 and 19; IX. iii. 

71. 
praescriptio, m. vi. 72 ; vn. v. 2 sqq. 



INDEX OF WORDS 



praesomptio ^ irpoXij^tf, IX. ii. 16 

and 18. 
praesamptom — vpoXrprriKov, HL vi. 

35. 
praeteritiun, L iv. 29 ; I. vi. 26. 
praeTaricatio, vn. i. 32. 
vpaynara, UL vi. 28. 
iTftayiiaTiicii, m. vi. 57 ; HI. vii. 1 ; 
s-pay^arcjcof , n. xxi. 3 ; jrpayfiaTtKOv, 

m. vi. 35. 
pragmatici, ni. vi. 59 ; xn. iii. 4. 
praruus, L iv. 29. 
«-paf 15, in. vi. 26. 
precula for pergula, I. v. 12. 
principalis quaestio, IV. iv. 1. 
principium = exordium, Vf. i. 1 tqq. ; 

IV. i. 42. 
Privemas ager, VL iii. 44. 
probabile, vm. iii. 42. 
probatio, V. i. 1 ; inartificialis, y. il.- 

vii; V. li. 43; artificialis, V. viii.- 

xiv. ; (other reff.) n. iv. 4 ; vn. ii. 35 

sqg. ; vn.iii.28; XI. iii. 163 ; lineares, 

L X. 49. 
probarenmt, I. iv. 16. 
procoratio, vn. iv. 35. 
procursio, IV. iii. 9 ; XI. iii. 126. 
prodnctio (syllabarem), vn. ii. 13; 

IX. iii. 69; (liljerorum, etc.), VT. i. 

30. 
irpo<ic0e(ri( (figure), IX. ii. 106. 
irpoe7riirA>ja'(reif rj inrepPoK^, Vm. iii. 

37. 
progenies, I. vi. 26. 
prognoetica, v. ix. 15. 
progressio (figure), IX. i. 33. 
irpoArj+is, IT. i. 49 ; IX. ii. 16 ; IT. lit 

99. 
rpo^rfirriicov, m. Ti. 35. 
proles, vm. iii. 26. 
promiscua = iriicuiva, I. iv. 24. 
promisyo (figure), IX. i. 32 ; IX. ii. 2. 
pronomen, L iv. 19 ; L v. 26 and 47. 
pronuntiatio, I. xj. 4 sqq.; n. i. 13; 

n. xii. 9 ; XI. iii. passim. 
prooemium, m. ix. 8; it. i. 2 sq., 63, 

73 ; IX. iv. 132 and 134 ; cp. exor 

dium. 

proportio >=• avaXoyia, I. vi, 3. 
proposita»themata,Tn. i. 4; «■ 9«<rt«, 

m. V. 6. 
propositio, m. ix. 1 «?. ; IT ii. 30; IT. 

iv. 1 sqq., IV. v. 26; TIL i. 46; 

opp. refutatio, xn. ix. 19; (logic) 

V. liv. 5 ; (figure) H. ii. 105. 



proprietas verbomm, Tm. ii. 1 597 ; 
status, m. vi. 53 and 56. 

proprius, l v. 3 and 71 ; T. x. 55 sqq. ; 
Tn. iii. 24; Tm. iL 1 and 7 sqq. ; 
xn. I. 42. 

pTosapia, L vi. 40 ; vm. iii. 26. 

irpoo-airococris (figure), IX. iii. 94. 

proscripturU, tul vi. 32. 

vpooiriyopia., L iv. 21. 

irpoaaiSiat = accentus, I. v. S2. 

wpoaofJiiXrjTiKi^, m. iv. 10. 

apcxruiroiroita, I. viii. 3; m. viii. 49 
mnd 52; TL i. 25; IX. ii. 29 and 
37; XLi. 41. 

vpoTfiCirrtKri <rra<ris, m. vi. 47. 

psaltae, I. x, 18 ; cp. 1. 1. 31. 

v!'evio7pa<#>tot, L X. 39. 

psi, L iv. 9. 

Publicola, m. vil. 18 ; Publicolae L vi. 

31. 
Publipores, I. iv. 26. 
puerei, I. vii. 15. 
Pulixena, L iv. 16. 
puUare, I. iv. 14. 
punior, IX. iii. 6. 
puppis for naiis, vm. vi. 20. 
purgatio (figure), IX. I. 32 ; IX. il. 9. 
pyrrliicliius, IX. iv. 80, 106, 140 
PytMci, I. iv. 31. 
pyxis, vm. vi. 35. 

Q, I. iv. 9 ; xn. X. 30. 

quadripes for equus, vm. vi. 20. 

quaeso, TULiii. 25. 

qoaestio, m. v. 4, 5, 16; m. vi. 2, 

35, 46, 55-61, 65 sqq., 83; m. xi 

1 tqq., 4; IT. ii. 8; T. x. 36, 44; 

TL iv. 4; vn. i. 6, 7 sqq., 13, 18. 

23, 45, 49 ; Tn. ii. 1, 15, 42 ; Tn. iii. 

13; Tn. iv. 9, 25; vn. v. 1; vn. 

X. 15; TUL Pr. 8, 10; X. v. 11; 

xn. ii. 18, 19; naturales, I. iv. 4; 

Tn. ii. 7 ; servorum, T. iv. 1 sqq. 
quale, m. vi. 36, S8, 44, 56, 80; T. 

X. 53 ; quale, I. v. 26. 
quaJitas, in. v. 10; m. vi. 10, SS, 

36 sq.; y. I. 40; T. xiii. 19; Vi 

iv. 4; vn. ii. 40; vn. iii. 6; vn. 

iv. 1 sqq.; xn. Ii. 15; verboram. 

L iv. 27 ; L V. 41. 
quam mnltum, m. vi. 90. 
quando (category), m. vi. 24. 
quantitas, m. vi. 23 ; vn. iv. 15, 41 

sqq. 
qoantnm sit, m. vi. 36 and 90. 

545 



INDEX OF WORDS 



qtuue for quasi, i. vii. 24. 

queens, vin.iii. 33. 

queentia, 11. xiv. 2. 

quianam, vui.iii. 25. 

quid sit, ni. vi. 3G, 44, 56, 80; V. x. 

63. 
Quirinalis, I. vi. 31. 
quidquid, not qtdcquid, I. vii. 6. 
ywire, I. vi. 26. 
yMot, I. vii. 27. 
quoque ego, I. v. 39. 
quotidie for cotidie, I. vii. 6. 
9uuni, I. vii. 5. 

R and S, I. iv. 13 ; rho, I. xi. 5. 
raeda, I. v. 67 and G8. 
ratio = aiTiop, ill. xi. 4 igg'. ; «= eTri- 
Xe'ipr/na, V. X. 6. 

ratiocinatio, v. xi. 1; v. xiv. 5; 

=• eTTixe'ipTj/ia, V. X. 6 ; (figure) IX. 

iii.98. 
ratioeinativus status, ni. vi. 43, 4G, 

61 sq.; V. X. 6; VII. viii.3. 
rational is pars philosophiae = dialec- 

tica, XU. ii. 10. 
reatus, vm. iii.,34. 
rebus ageraibus, IX. iii. 13. 
rectus casus, I. iv. 13; I. v. 61; 

sermo, n. v. 11; oratio, x. v. 8. 
recusans = o </)f'vyaii/, in. x. 1. 
redditio contraria = a.vTa.v65o<m, VIII. 

iii. 77 and 79 sq. 
refutatio, V. xiii.l sqq. ; vi.iii. 72. 
regressio (figure), IX. iii. 35. 
reipublicae laesae actio, vn. iii. 2 ; 

VII. iv. 37. 
reiectio in alium, IX. i. 30. 
relatio (figure), IX. i. 25; IX. ii. 59; 

IX. iii. 97; causarum, VI. iii. 77. 
remigare pennis, vm. vi. 18. 
remotio, v. x. 6(5. 
repercutiendi genera, vi. iii. 45 and 

78. 
repetitio (figure), IX. i. 33 ; IX. ii. 4 ; 

IX. iii. 29 sqq., 47; = 7rA.oK^, IX. iii. 

41 ; = a.v<XK^(paKaiui(Ti^, VI. i. 1. 
repetundanim causae, IV. ii. 14 sq. 

and 86; V. vii. 6. 
repraesentatio = eVapyeia, vin. iii. 61. 
reprehensio (figure), IX. 1. 34; IX. ii. 

18. 
repudiiiniusti actio, VII. iv. 38. 
respiratio, XI. iii. 39 and 49. 
responslo sibi ipsi, ix. i. 35; IX. ii. 

14; IX. iii. 90. 



resultans, IX. iv. 66 and 83 ; xi. iii. 

183. 
reticentia (figure), ix. ii. 54 and 67; 

IX. i. 31. 
reversio = aj'oorpoijb^, VHI. vl. 65. 
revocatio verbi, ix. i. 33. 
prjTov Kai Siduoia, HI. vi. 46 ; KaTaprfrov 

Koi vTTf^dipeinv, III. vi. 61. 
rhetor, n. i. 1 sqq.; n. ii. 1 sqq.; n. 

iii. 1 sqq. ; II. iv. 1 sqq. 
rhetorice, II. xiv. 5; ll. xiii. 1 sqq., 

15, 38; n. xiv. 5; n. xv. 1 sqq., 15, 

38; n. xvi. 1, 11; n. xvii. 1 sqq., 

23,25, 26; n.xviii.2; II. ix. 1 sqq.; 

II. xxi. 24; m. i. 8; m. ii. 1; iii. 

iii. 1 sqq., 13, 15; V. x. 54; vn. iii. 

6 and 12 ; VUI. Pr, 6 ; XII. x. 1. 
Rhodium genus dicendi, xn. x. 17. 
pvP/iioj and ^fAos, I. X. 22; ix. iv. 

45 ; = numeri, rx. iv. 54 ; ix. iv. 

46 sqq. 
ridiculum, VI. iii. 22 sqq., 110 sqq. 
risus, VI. iii. 1 sqq., 7, 37 sq., 105. 
robur, I. vi. 22. 

rogatio (figure), IX. i. 29 ; IX. ii. 6. 
Romanus for Romani, viii. vi. 20. 
rubricae, XU. iii. 11. 
mere, I. vi. 26. 
Rufl, I. iv, 25, 

S, I. iv. 13, 14; I. vii. 20, 21; I. xi. 

6; IX. iv. 37; xn. x. 32. 
Sabina verba, I. v. 66, 
saccaria, vin. ii. 13. 
saeculum felix, vm. vl, 24, 
salsura, VI. iii. 18 sq. 
Sapiens, V. x. 30; sapientes septem 

V. xi. 39. 
<rapi5icrju,ds, VIII. vi. 59. 
satagere,VJ. iii. 5^; XI.iii.l28. 
satura, X. i. 93. 
saucius pectus, IX. iii. 17, 
scabillum from scamnum, I. iv, 12. 
scala, I. V. 16. 
Scauri, I. iv. 25. 
schema, I. v. 52 sqq. ; I. viii. 14 and 

16; II. xi. 1; VI. iii. 70; vm. iii. 

50; IX. i. 11 sqq. and 25; IX. ii. 

65 and 92 ; IX. iii. 2 ; cp. figura, 
crX>)^'aTi<r/J.os, I. viii. 14, 
scholae publicae, I. ii, 1 sqq. and 16. 
scholasticae materiae, IV. ii. SO; vn. 

i. 14; XI. i. 82, 
Scipiones, 1. iv, 25. 
scopa, 1. V, 16, 



546 



INDEX OF WORDS 



acribendi ars, I. i. 27, 28, 34 «?. ; I. 

vii. 1, 28, 30; X. iii. 1 sqq., 10, 30; 

I. V 1 sqq. ; xn. ix. 16 ; xn. x. 

49 tqq. 
scripsere and sc-ipserunt, I. v. 44. 
scripttun et voluntas, m. vi. 88 ; vn 

i. 49 sqq. ; vn. v. 5 sq. ; vn. vi. 1 sqq. ; 

vn. vii. 1 ; vn. viii. 1 ; vn. i. 1 sqq. ; 

cp. also m. vi. 37; vn. i. 13; vn. 

▼.5. 
sedes argumentorum, v. x. 20 and 

100; V. xii.l7. 
seiunctio, rx. i. 23 ; IX. ii. 2. 
<rqixeiov, V. Ix. 9 ; oAvtoi', 7. ix. 3 ; 

(in rhythm), IX. iv. 51. 
semivocales, I. iv. 6 ; I. vii. 14. 
senarios, IX. iv. 72 sq., 75, 125, 140. 
senatus, I. vi. 27; (derivation), I. vi. 

33. 
sensa, vm. v. 1. 
sensus, vm. v. 1 sq. = sententiae 

xn. I. 46. 
sententiae, I. viii. 9; I. ix. 3; n. xi. 

3; n. xii. 7; m. viii. 65; VI. iii. 

36; vn. i. 44; vm. iv. 29; vm. v. 

passim; IX. ii. 107; rx. iii. 76 

and 98 ; x. i. 60 ; xn. ix. 3 ; xn. 

X. 48. 
sententiolae, xn. x. 73. 
sequens = (irWeroy, vm. vi. 40. 
Serani, I. iv. 25. 
sermocinatrix, m. iv. 10. 
servom, I. vii. 26. 
tercus, I. iv. 8 and 11. 
sescuplex pes, IX. iv. 47. 
sibt for stbi, I. vii. 24. 
gigna, V. viii. 1 ; V. ix. 3 sqq. ; T. x. 74. 
significatio =« e^^uurt^, IX. i. 27 ; DC. 

ii. 3. 
silva, X. iii. 17. 
similia, V. x. 73; V. xi. 1 sqq.; iX 

iii. 75 sqq. 
similitndo, V. x. 1; V. xi. 22 sqq.; 

vm. iii. 72 sqq.; vm. vi. 8 and 49; 

IX. i. 31; rx. ii. 2. 
simolatio (figure), IX. ii. 26. 
singTilaria, I. v. 16 ; IX. iii. 20. 
siiiunt segetes, vm. vi. 6. 
toleae, vm. ii. 8. 
tolitaurilia, l. v. 67. 
Boloecismus, I. v. 4, 34 sqq., 51. 
sotadei, I. viii. 6; IX. iv. 6 and 90. 
spartum, vm. i. 2. 
species, v. x. 25 tgq. ; vn. i. 23 sq. 
spts, L vi. 26. 



Spinther, VI. iii. 51. 

spondeus, IX. iv. 48 ig., 80, 88, 97, 101. 

sponsiones, vn. v. 3. 

<rTa(7is = status, m. vi. 3. 

status = o-TOO-i;, m. vi. passim ; Vn. 

iv. 15; vn. V. 2 and 5; vn. vi. 

1 sqq. ; vn. vii. 1 sqq. ; vn. viii. 

1 sqq. ; vn. x. 1 ; IX. 1. 8 ; xn. ii. 19. 
Stella, I. vi. 35. 
sterols curiae, vm. vl. 15. 
stlites and stlocus, I. iv. 16. 
o-TOix»'a. m.iii. 13. 
snasoria, n. i. 8; n. iv. 5; m. viii. 

1 sqq. ; vn. iv. 2 ; Vm. Pr. 9. 
sabiectio (figure), IX. iii. 98. 
sublatio, rx. iv. 48 and 55. 
substantia, m. vi. 39 ; rx. i. 8. 
Subura, I. vii. 29. 
Sufenas, I. v. 62. 
snggcstio, IX. li. 15. 
Suliae, I. iv. 25. 

sullaturit, vm. iii. 32 ; vm. vi. 32. 
sulpur, I. vi. 22. 
suotetaurilia, I. v. 67. 
superiectio = hjrperbole, vnL vl. 67. 
saperiatio, IX. i. 29 ; ix. ii. 3 ; zn. x. 

62. 
snstentatio, IX. ii. 23. 
syllaba, I. i. 26, 30 sqq., 37; EC iv. 

84, 85, 92, 93 ; XH. x. 32, 33. 
syUogismus, ra. vi. 15 sqq., 43, 88 ; V 

X. 3 and 6 ; V. x. 36 ; V. xiv. 14, 

20, 24 sqq.; VU. iii. 11; vn. viii. 

1 sqq. ; vn. x. 1 sqq. ; IX. iv. 57. 
syllogisticus status, V. x. 6. 
aviiPffiriKOTa, TH. vi. 36 ; Kara aviifie- 

^Tjicds, m. vi. 56. 
<rvV^oAor, I. vi. 28. 
(rvratpeffis, I. V. 17. 
trwoAoci^ij, L V. 17; EX. Iv. 36 and 

109. 
(rvvadpoto-fxu;, Vm. iv. 27. 
(nivSe<r/i09, 1, iv. 18. 
oMvixov, m. xi. 1 and 9. 
synecdoche, vm. vi. 19 tqq. ; XX. 1. 

8; rx. iii. 58 sqq. 
irvvoiKfiiaai^, IX. iii. 64. 
<n)VMwti.ia, vm. iii. 16 ; IX. iii. 45. 
truvreXiicTf <TTdiTi<;, rX. vi. 47. 
avvTOiJiO<;, IV. ii. 42. 
Byntonorum modi, IX. iv. 142. 

talpae oculis capti, VS.. tii.6. 
TaTreiVoKri?, Vill. iii. 48. 

tauru*, vm. ii. 13. 

547 



INDEX OF WORDS 



TawToAoyia, IV. H. 43 ; vm. iii. 60. 

technici, n. xiii. 15. 

TfKa^pia, V. ix. 3. 

Telarno, I. v. 60. 

T<Aos, U. XV. 38. 

tempus, m. vi. 25 sg. ; v. i. 42 ij?. ; 

secundum, v. z. 46; vn. ii. 46; 

iunctum, adhaerens, insequens, V. 

X. 46; VII. ii. 46; (rhythm) IX. iv. 

47, 51, 81, 84 sgq., 98. 
Terei, I. v. 24. 
testatio, V. vii. 32. 
testes, V. i. 2; v. vii. 9 sqq., 25, 32 

sqg. ; see interrogatio. 
testimonia, V. vii. 1 tgq.; divina, V. 

vii. 35; V. xi. 42; (historical) X. i. 

34. 
TeTpaoTjjiiot, percussiones, IX. iv. 51. 
tetrastichon, VI. iii. 96. 
thema, n. x. 5; IV. ii. 28 and 68; 

V. X. 9; vn. i. 4; vn. ii. 54; XII. 

vra. 6. 

BeuprjTiKri, II. xviii. 1. 

SeVis, n. i. 9; n. iv. 24; m. v. 6 

and 11 ; xii. ii. 25. 
toga, XI. iii. 131, 139 sqg. 
togatae fabulae, X. i. 100. 
Tovdpioi', I. X. 27. 
tondemur, I. vi. 44. 
Toj-oi, I. V. 22. 
tonores = tenores, I. v. 22. 
ToiriKTi, V. xiv. 28. 
T07ro"j'pa(|)io, IX. ii. 44. 
topper, I. vi. 40. 
tractio, I. iv. 20. 
tractus, vm. iii. 32. 
traductio (figure), IX. iii. 71. 
tragici,I. viij.8. 

tragoedia, I. v. 52 ; X. i. 66 and 97. 
traiectio = liyperbaton, vm. ii. 14; 

IX. i. 29; IX. ii. 3. 
transgressio = hyperbaton, vni. vi. 

62 sg.; IX. i. 34; IX. iii. 91; rx. 

iv. 28. 
transitio (figure), IX. iii. 98. 
translatio, ni. vi. 38, 60, 66; V. xlv. 

34; vn. iv. 13; VIU. ii. 6; VIU. vi. 

4 sgq., 14 sqg., 49 sg.; IX. ii. 41. 
translativa = /j.e7aAr)i//i?, in. vi. 46; 

t. quaesciones, in. vi. 52 ; t. status, 

ni. vi. 46, 48, S3, 56, 60, 68 sgq., 

83 
translatus, I. v. 71 ; IV. 1. 71. 
transpositiva = nieraATnl/is, m. vi. 40. 
transumptio (figure), Vin. vi. 37. 

S4S 



transurnptiva «» jxeraAjji^is, m. vl. 46i 

Traswnennus, I. v. 13. 

trepondn, I. v. 15. 

Tp./3^, U. XV. 23 ; X. vii. 11. 

tribrachys, IX. iv. 82. 

trihunale, I. vi. 17. 

TpUiaka, n. XV. 23; X. vii. 11. 

trimeter, IX. iv. 71, 74 sg., 90. 

triguedra, triguetra, I. v. 30. 

triunipi, I. V. 20. 

trochaeus, IX. iv. 80, 82, 88, 105 sq., 

135, 140. 
TpoTTos, in. vi. 27 ; v. X. 72. 
tropus, I. viii. 16; VI. iii. 67; vni. 

vi. passim ; rx. i. 1 and 4 sq. 
tuburchinabundus, I. vi. 42. 
tumuUus, VU. iii. 25. 
tunica, XI. iii. 138 sgq. 
Tusca verba, I. v. 56. 
tutelae actio, vn. iv. 35. 
tyranmts, I. v. 62. 

V, I. iv. 8, 11, 16. 

Valerius, Valesius, I. iv. 13. 

vapos, I. iv. 13. 

vapulo, IX. iii. 7. 

ubi (category), m. vi. 24. 

vehementer, veiiieiUer, I. v. 21. 

velH, 1. vi. 44. 

venales, Vin. ii. 8. 

venustum, Vl. iii. 18. 

verba (grammat.), I. iv. 18 and 27 sqq 

Vergilius, Vin. vi. 28. 

versus, ix. iv. 72 sqq. 

vertex, vm. ii. 7. 

vesperug, I. vii. 12. 

vestigium = o-jju-eioi', V. ix. 9. 

video and intellego, X. i. 13 »q. 

vlsio = itavraaia, VI. ii. 29 and 32; 

vm.iii. 88; xn. x. 6. 
fisurus, IX. iii. 12. 
vitavisse and vitasse, IX. iv. 59. 
vituperatio, m. vii. 1 and 19 sqq. 
Vlixi, I. V. 63. 

vocabulum, I. iv. 20, 21 ; IX. iv. 24. 
vocales, I. iv. 6, 10 sgq.; vm. iii. 16; 

IX. iv. 33; XI. iii. 34. 
vocalitas = eixbiovia, L v. 4. 
volucres, I. v. 28. 
Vopiscus, I. iv. 25. 
vorstis, vortices, I. vll. 26. 
urbanitas, VI. iii. 8, 17, 45, 103 sq., 

107 ; VI. iv. 10. 
urbanum, VI. iii. 105 *q., 110; Vm. 

iii. 34 sq. 



INDEX OF WORDS 



urbet bene moralae, vm. vi. 24. 

Fftt, XI.ii. 31. 

oixria, in. vi. 23; irfpi ovaia.% Koi 

<ruti.fii^r\K6ru>v, in. vi. 36. 
Vulcanus, vm. vi. 23. 
rulgus, L iv. 8 and 10. 
vulpes, I. vi. 33. 
vultas, n. iii. 72 tqq. ; vultus, vm, 

Ti.28 



•YAvcrcj-eu!, I. v. 16. 



tephyri, XII. x. 28. 
(JjjTTjua, m. xi. 4. 
tophori, ill. I. 28. 



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Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. 
Homer: Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 
Homer: Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 
IsAEUS. E. W. Forster. 

IsocRATES. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 
[St. John Damascene]: Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. O. R. 

Woodward, Harold Mattingly and D. M. Lang. 
JosEPHUS. 9 Vols. Vols. I.-IV.; H. Thackeray. Vol. V.; 

H. Thackeray and R. Marcvis. Vols. VI.-VII.;' R. Marcus. 

Vol. VIII.; R. Marcus and Allen Wikgren. Vol. IX. L. H. 

Feldman. 
Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. 
LuciAN. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. A. M. Harmon. Vol. VI. K. 

Kilbum. Vols. VII.-VTII. M. D. Macleod. 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds, 3 Vols. 
Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell: Ptolemy: Tetkabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins, 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines, 
Menander, F. G. Allinson. 
Minor Attic Orators (Antiphon, Andocides, Lycurgus, 

Demades, Dinarchus, Hyperides), K, J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. 
NoNNOs: Dionysiaca. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus, a. W. Mair. 
Papyri. Non-Literary Selections, A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. Literary Selections (Poetry). D. L, Page. 
Parthenius. Cf. Daphnis and Chlob. 
Pausanias: Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones, 4 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V.; F. H. Colson and Rev. G, H, 

Whitaker. Vols. VI.-IX.; F. H. Colson. Vol, X, F. H. 

Cokon and the Rev. J. W. Earp. 
Philo: two supplementary Vols, {Translation only.) Ralph 

Marcus, 

6 



Philostkatus : The Life of Apoixokics ot Tyama. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. 
Philostkatus: Imagines; Caijjsteatus : Descbiptions. A. 

Fairbanks. 
Philostbatus and ExjNAPnjs : Lives o» the Sophists. Wilmer 

Cave Wright. 
PiKDAB. Sir J. E. Sandys. 
Plato: Charmides, Alciblades, Hipparchus, The Lovebs, 

Theaqes, Mnfos and Epinomis. \V. R. M. Lamb. 
PuiTO: Cbatytus, Pabmenides, Gbeatbb Hippias, Lesseb 

HippiAS. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: EuTHYPHBe, Apolooy, Cbtto, Phaedo, Phaedbu3. 

H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Laches, Pbotaoobas, Meno, Edthydemus. W. R. iL 

Lamb. 
Plato: Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
Plato: Lysis, Symposixtm, Goboxas. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 
Plato: Statesman, Philebus. H.N. Fowler; Ion. VV. R. M. 

Lamb. 
Plato: Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Timaeus, Cbitias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epistxjlak. 

Rev. R. G. Bury. 
Plotinus: a. H. Armstrong. Vols. I.-III. 
Plutabch: Mobalia. 15 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C, Babbitt. 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold. Vols. VII. and XIV. P. H. De 

Lacy and B. Einarson. Vol. IX. £. L. Minar, Jr., F. H. Sand- 
bach, W. C. Helmbold. Vol. X. H. X. Fowler. Vol. XI. 

L. Pearson and F. H. Sandbach. Vol. XII. H. Chemiss and 

W. C. Helmbold. 
Plutabch: The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 
PoLYBius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 

Pbocopius : HisTOBY OF THE Wabs. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 
Ptolemy: Tetbabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 
QuiNTUS Smybnaeus. a. S. Way. Verse trans. 
Sextus Empibicus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 
Stbabo: Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 
Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds. Hebodbs, 

etc. A. D. Knox. 
Theopheastus : Enquiby into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort^ 

Bart. 2 Vols, 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. 
Tbyphiodobus. Cf. Oppian. 

Xenophon : Cybopaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. 
Xknophon: Hellenica. C. L. Brownson. 2 Vols. 
7 



Xknophon: Anabasis. C. L. Brownson, 

Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Marchant. 

Symposidm and Apology. O. J. Todd. 
Xenophon: Scbipta Minoka. E. C. Marchant and G. W. 

Bowersock. 



IN PREPARATION 



Greek Authors 

Aristides : Orations. C. A. Behr. 

Hebodianus. C. R. Whittaker. 

Libanius: Selected Works. A.F.Norman. 

MusAEUs: Hero and Leandeb. T. Gelzer and C. H. 

Whitman. 
Theophrastus : De Causis Plantarum. G. K. K. Link and 

B. Einarson. 

Latin Authors 

AscoNius: Commentaries on Ciceeo's Orations. 

G. W. Bowersock. 
Benedict: The Rule. P. Meyvaert. 
Justin-Tbogus. R. Moss. 
Manilius. G. p. Goold. 
Pliny: Letters. B. Radice. 



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