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Full text of "Interactive computer graphics : final report"

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INDEX 

Page 



1. SCD Cover Letter for Report -. . . 1 

2. Graphic Team Transmittal Letter to SCD 2 

3. IM 76-415 . 3 

4. Objectives .."-.' . . . 8 

5. Interacitve Computer Graphics Background 9 

6. Project Approach . . 11 

7. Summary and Recommendations General 12 

8. Summary and Recommendations Mapping 13 

9. Summary and Recommendations Digitizing 15 

10. Summary and Recommendations Users . . 17 

11. Summary and Recommendations BLM Graphic Capability .... 19 

12. Summary and Recommendations Short Range . . 20 

13. Summary and Recommendations Long Range 22 

14. Appendix 23 

15. Map Study • . ...... 24 

16. Digitizing Study 32 

17. User Analysis 66 

18. BLM Graphic Capability 72 

19. Graphic Processing Capabilities (Specifications) .... J 73 

20. Minimum Technical Design Criteria 124 

21. Glossary ' & 136 



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United States DeDartment of the Interior 



BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

DENVER SERVICE CENTER 

DENVER FEDERAL CENTER. BUILDING SO 

DENVER. COLORADO 80225 



To: Director 400 

From: Director, DSC 

Subject: Interactive Computer Graphics Team Report 



December 25, 1976 



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The following report is submitted in accordance "with WO IM 76-415 
and completes WAR, same subject unnumbered, approved 10/13/76. 



I believe the analysis and summaries 
in the report are sound. A thorough 
report as it relates to the Bureau's 
Plan for Information Management. The 



and recommendations contained 
review should be made of this 
mission and-to-the -Strategic 
Recommendations are far-reaching 



and the full impact of this space age technique is not well understood. 

The Recommendations charter a course for the Bureau which will not 
only test the Strategic Plan to some extent, but give us a preview of 
the future. I strongly suggest a detailed presentation on the subject 
be given with an informal question and answer period so there is no 
misunderstanding of the destination and goals if this advice is followed 




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To: 

From: 
Subject: 



United States Department of the Interior 

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

DENVER SERVICE CENTER 

OENVER FEDERALCENTER. BUILDING 50 

DENVER. COLORADO 80225 



Director, Denver Service Center 
Interactive Computer Graphics Team 
Final Report and Recommendations 



December 10, 1976 



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Attached is the final report, including suggested directions for 
the Bureau from the Interactive Computer Graphics Team. 

The Team has reviewed-many volumns of data- about-Other systems, 
studied BLM efforts, and tried to Refine the requirements into a 
set of specifications. 

In our recommendations we have also attempted to give the Bureau some 

direction and advice as it approaches -this new era in Information 

Management. It has been a difficult task, primarily due to the absence 
of definitive information on the subject and the lack of experience by 
our resource technicians, who have to define their grapic needs. 

The team extends an offer of support for any further information, 
presentation or involvement in this matter. 

We would like to express our thanks to members of your staff who 
assisted the team both in supplying data and in giving clerical 
and logistical support. 



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Christma 



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'l^ry 

Eugepe D. Russe 
Systems Coordinator 
Graphics Team Leader 
Denver Service Center 




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David Nelson 

Team Leader 

Resource Information Systems Development Team 






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Computer Systems Analyst 
Alaska State Office 



Jerry Ives 
Training Leader 
Denver Service Center 

J i uy May \J 
Computer Specialist 
Denver Service Center 






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United States Department of the Interior 



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iO-IGG -X 

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT D-110 

WASHINGTON-, D.C. 20240 ., .... '0-120 

August 5, 1976 D--50-ii 

D-200-£i 
Instruction Memorandum No. 76-415 D-300— 
Expires 6/30/77 O" 400 



To : S C D , SD - Oregon and Alaska 



D-SCO 
O-600 
D-700 



D-300 

From: Associate Director U3 _J_ 

INFO 

Subject: Interactive Graphics Core Team Assignment OFC _ 

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The Steering Committee has recommended that a standard graphics and bind. 

"digitizing -systems -capability be- developed within -the-Buraau—^The 

first phase of this project will be to define requirements, establish 
criteria and develop specifications for this effort, as indicated 
in the enclosures. To accomplish this, a Technical Interactive Graphics 
Team will be formed. Arrangements have been made with the respective 
Directors for assignment of personnel to the team as follows: 

Eugene Russell - Team Leader ( DSC) 
Dan Hegarty - Data Processing (DSC) 
Allen Arnold - Mapping (DSC) 
Dave Nelson - S.O. Resources (Oregon) 
Dirk R hynsburger - Data Processing (Alaska) 

The first team meeting will be held on August 19, 1976, at 8:30 A.M., 
in Room 1116 of the Service Center, at which time the scope of effort 
will be defined and project scheduling will be developed. 

In light of this project, the suspension on further development of 
CRLS, ORIS, ar.d Alaska interactive graphics will remain in effect. 



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Enclosure 1 

End. 1 - Interactive Graphics Core Team 



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Interactive Graphics Team 

1. Objective 

- The Interactive Graphics -Team will prepare recommendations, 
criteria and specif ica tions for an automated capability for mapping, 
graphics and digitizing. The team will also serve as an advisory- 
group to Resource DRD teams and may iye - -assigned system~de"s±gix and devel- 
opment responsibility. 

2. Approach 

The Interactive Graphics Team will meet with representativaa of the 

Steering Committee, AD-Technical Services staff, Denver Service Center 

—staff-and-personnel-presently-working-on-CRIST-ORIS— a nd-^the-A-laska— graphics 
system. 

These meetings will provide an opportunity for the team members to 
work together in identifying the scope of the project. The following 
are some discussion points: 

1. Establishment of work relationships among team members and 
assignment of specific responsibilities. 

2. • Definition of the areas of work involved. This includes 
identification of~3LM-needs in graphics and digitizing, evaluation of 
existing systems and identification of new systems needed. 

3. Determination as to the best method of accomplishing the 
objectives. This includes decisions concerning most effective use of 
personnel resources, methods of scheduling and control of the project 
through the use of reporting procedures and milestones, location of 
personnel, use of contracting, evaluation of available software, etc. 

4. Definition of the Specific work tasks involved, including 
estimates of manpower and time 'required for completion. These tasks 
will include systems design, programming, testing and implementation of 
graphic computer systems. 

Once established, the Interactive Graphics Team will be responsible for 
all phases of the project, subject to review and approval by the Steering 
Committee. The team may request short term tsa of BIM personnel with other 
technical skills for either advice or- f or execution of specific sub-tasks. 
All efforts towards system development will be in accordance with the 
implementation of the strategic plan. 

3. Coordination 

Close contact must be maintained with other components within BIM, 



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other federal agencies, other governments and industry sources .- These 
relationships are shovn on the accompanying chart. Liaison with these 
groups will help eliminate duplicate effort in the collection of data 
and the development of processing systems. It will also insure compa- 
tibility among data being collected and stored and provide proper inter- 
^ace^.ej^een_sxstpms_where_applicab_le ._ _Sp_ecif ic e mphasis should be 
placed upon the relationship with the Resource Inventory DRD Team 
since this project will provide direct support for their effort. 



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SCHEDULE 4 PARTICIPANTS 



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OBJECTIVES 



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This Interactive Computer Graphics Team will prepare recommendations, 
criteria, and specifications for an automated capability for mapping, 
graphics, and digitizing: -The -Team-will also serve as an advisory 
group to Resource DRD Teams and may be assigned system design and 
development-responsibility (Stated da-WO ,IM-Z6^415>. .14-Sapt. Z6,) - . 



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INTERACTIVE COMPUTER GRAPHICS BACKGROUND 



Although Interactive Computer Graphics is a relatively new field the 
Bureau has been involved, to some extent, in this process for the last 
decade. Probably the first effort was in Eugene, Oregon on the Map 
Model system. There have been major revisions to the original system 
both in software and hardware and name. This system now called ORIS 
(Oregon Resource Information System) is currently _operational_oa the 
Siluslaw Resource Area, Eugene Oregon District. 

Second to get underway was the Denver-based CRIS (Comprehensive 
Resource Information System). This system primarily got its emphasis 
during the energy crisis and was used on the Decker-Birney Planning 
Unit in Montana. This area has management jurisdiction over some 
valuable coal fields and CRIS was used in conjunction with this 
resource. Due to problems, to be discussed later, this effort has 
been shelved. 

Next the AGIS (Alaska Geographic Information System) was created. 
This was in support of the massive land claims in Alaska brought 
about by ANCSA, (PL 92-203.) This system has been developed around 
the land title, description and case management workload. It is 
operational today and serving a needed purpose. 

Last, "OASIS" is being tested in the area of Outer Continental 
Shelf activity. This system is being developed under contract by 
Computer Sciences Corporation and will eventually encompass all 
records dealing with the management of the OCS. 

This system is currently under development and due to be demonstrated 
late this year. 

Recently (within the last two years) the Bureau attempted to review 
the first three of these systems to determine if: a) There was 
duplication, b) they could be merged into one, c) or pick the best. 
These efforts generally failed due to: a) No clear, concise set of 
Bureau requirements to match each system against, b) extremely tech- 
nical processes being evaluated by "management" and c) the purposes 
being so different that it was hard to relate one to the other. 

During this same time frame the Strategic Plan for Information Manage- 
ment was formulated and the decision was made to embark on the course 
this plan advised. With this decision a halt was called to further 
development on any of the three systems just described. The main reason 
for this decision was to create a standard BLM graphics procedure in 
support of the Strategic Plan rather than many fragmented efforts. 

OCS management couldn't wait on the Strategic Plan so they contracted 
with the company mentioned earlier, to provide a computer system to 
assist in the management of this valuable resource. ■ ' • 



In august 1976 the interactive graphics team was created to take a 
look at these graphic systems and give some guidance to BLM in this 
little understood area. I 

Some negative observations can be made about previous efforts: 

a) All are generally single purpose in their use, not multi- 
purpose. 

b) All were understaffed. 

c) Specific written requirements were lacking at the beginning 
of all. • - 

d) None had adequate equipment. 

On the positive side: 

a) Each fulfilled or are fulfilling a purpose. 

b) Many mistakes were made in this development but from this 
has emerged a small cadre of experienced, extremely bright 
personnel who have the ability to provide BLM with as good 
a system as there is in operation anywhere today. 

c) We have profited in having different types of equipment. 
We now know some types of equipment to avoid. 

d) We have gained some experience in: 

1 ) Data collection 

2) Communications 

3) Desirable menus 

4) Program size 

5) Data base size 

6) Contracting 

7)_ Different vendor equipment interface 

8) Maps 

9) Data correction 
10) Our customers 

Other agencies have failed after huge expenditures of manpower and 
money due to: 

1. Lack of user involvement 

2. Lack of training 

3. Lack of proper equipment 

4. Lack of concept conditioning and management support. 

We believe that because of the experiments which have been made in 
BLM, the close coordination and cooperation of these units and the 
support of management we will be able to succeed where others have 
failed. Most encouraging is the enthusiasm of the field personnel 
involved in the Resource DRD effort. 



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PROJECT APPROACH 



The Team attempted to use a simple, logical approach to this study. 
The first information needed was the availability of data for Graphics. 
How many maps, what kind of condition are they in and what information 
is available from sources external to the Bureau. 

Second, how is the best, most economical and easiest way to capture 
this data and put it in an automated system. 

Third, how can it be processed, stored and moved from collection 
point to storage and from storage to use. 

Fourth, who, where are the users and what do they need to get the 
job done. 

Having defined these basic categories as the area in which the Team 
was to work, a plan was devised and implemented to collect the infor- 
mation, analyze it, and produce the report which follows: 

To collect information on maps, overlays, etc., an assignment 
was given to the Office of Special Mapping DSC. They sampled three 
PD states and prepared a report based on their findings. (See Appendix) 
The representatives from Alaska and Oregon furnished information on 
these unique states. 

State of the ART information on digitizing, scanning and any other 
means of entering Geographic was obtained from a report prepared by 
Scientific Systems Development. (See Appendix) 

The processing, storage and general handling of the information was 
a task requiring all member participation. Other agencies were 
visited and a great amount of documentation was reviewed along with 
detailed review of BLM graphic efforts to date. The Team also com- 
bined their efforts in defining the user community, their needs and 
from this prepared a set of specifications for a graphic system. 

This information was then analyzed by the Team and the recommenda- 
tions were prepared for this report. 



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Summary and Recommendations 
General 



The interactive computer graphics problem in BLM is a tough one. 
We need this ability to support the Strategic Plan but problems 
are endless. Some of the major ones are: 

1 . Poor map base 

2. Overlay information not standard 

3. Manual digitizing extremely slow 

4. No major breakthrough in the data collection/entry problem 

5. yery scarce ADP skills in this area 

6. Little or no equipment presently available in BLM to develop 
this process on 

7. Not well defined, interface with data from other agencies 

8. Little ability or understanding of the majority of BLM 
people in this area 

9. A data requirement which is staggering possibly 100 billion 
characters 

10. A fully utilized work force with little slack time to spend 
on this subject 

This paints a ^ery bleak picture. Maybe it is brighter than it appears 
The recommendations of this report are in a positive vein. Let us do 
some experimenting and get better information on the subject. As we 
are doing this, there is a good prospect that innovations and break- 
throughs will come. There are some wery encouraging signs. We have 
some wery bright field professionals who feel it must work. This 
desire coupled with a dedicated ADP force may accomplish what now 
seems impossible. 

Data on costs, production and effective utilization of this process 
are not available as they relate to BLM's information. The recommenda- 
tions are to conduct some wery controlled testing and using the results 
make decisions which will set the Bureau's course. 



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SUMMARY: 

We have divided mapping into four categories: base maps, planning 
unit maps, URA overlays, special use maps, and project maps. 

The current Bureau policy, with respect to base maps, is that we 
will use USGS maps. Although there are some states using BLM produced 
base maps, these maps are being phased out. All Bureau lands will 
have. coverage by the end. of 1977 with large scale USGS mapping. (See 
Issue paper "A Geo-reference System for the Bureau Information System") 
These will be 1:24,000 (7-1/2"), 1:62,250 (15' in the conterminous 
states), and 1:63,360 (15' in Alaska) topographic maps; or 1:62,250 
orthophoto quads. 

The 1:100,000 intermediate scale map. is being produced thru coop- 
erative agreement. The Bureau, consequently, has significant impact 
on priority settings. 

At the smaller scale of 1:250,000, we have complete coverage. This 
is the old AMS series which the GS has taken over. Many of these maps 
will not meet national map accuracy standards. The GS through revision, 
is correcting this. 

Only a minimal amount of information contained on -these maps is 
digitized. Of the digitized information, the majority descibes the 
land form. The AMS has digitized the land form on most of the 1:250, 000's 
The GS, as an output from the process of producing orthophoto quads pro- 
duces a digital terrain profile. 

For future 1:24,000 maps, the GS will use an additional number 
scribed bases containing unique features, thus increasing the cost 
effectiveness of digitizing base map data. The 1:100,000 mapping pro- 
cess had been designed with future digitizing in mind. 

The GS map and the aerial photograph are usually the basic 
document for the storage of information. The resource specialist, 
while in the field, often records his observations on GS maps or the 
aerial photograph. 

We define Planning Unit maps as being those maps which are used 
as a base for the URA overlays. These maps are usually Bureau pro- 
duced: 1" = 1 mile, or 1/2" = 1 mile planametric maps. Although, 
at times, GS maps are used. The Bureau produced maps are usually of 
low quality, do not meet national map accuracy standards, and do not 
contain geographic reference information. Because of the lack of 
meeting standards and not containing reference information, it will 
be extremely difficult to accurately position linear features and 
area boundaries portrayed on the URA overlays. 



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There are around 20,000 URA overlays. The information is not 
located to map accuracy standards, but includes alphanumeric and 
symbolic information, and' often includes more than one feature. 
Consequently, the digitizing of the data will require significant 
human involvement. 

Special use maps are unique to a specific resource activity or 
office. They are in many different scales and contain various types 
of information. Most will probably have to be hand digitized. 

Project maps are high quality and large scale, (i.e., a recreation 
site map.) 

RECOMMENDATIONS: 

Provide the office of Special Mapping, DSC, with an automated 
cartographic system. This can be offline. This is necessary to 
meet the requirements of Chapter 3 of DM 757, the Cooperative Agree- 
ment with the GS on intermediate scale mapping, and to digitize map 
information as it's produced, not at some later time at increased 
cost. 

Begin digitizing for basic reference information the drainage, 
major transportation, land grid, and significant man-made features 
information from the 1:100,000 map scrib plates. With respect to 
the URA overlays, we recommend going to the source document from which 
the URA information was obtained to obtain the basic data. 



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The decision to enter information on special maos and project 
maps will have to be handled on a case-by-case basis. 

Since most of resource management decisions are affected by 
topography, the system must have some way of portraying topography. 
Therefore, we recommend work begin on the development of a terrain 
model . 



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B. DIGITIZING 

SUMMARY: 

There is a wide variety of digitizing equipment available on the 
market, ranging from components such as boards, paper tape and magnetic 
tape data recorders, storage CRT graphic displays, minicomputers, disk 
memories, printers, keyboards, TV cameras, film scanners, microdensito- 
meters, etc. to systems composed of these components together with 
software for geometrical manipulation and data film storage, editing 
and retrieval . 

There is no system that automatically does the entire graphic 
digitizing job. This ideal system would consist of a hopper at one 
end which would accept BLM quad maps, USGS 7-1/2 minute quads (1:24,000) 
and 1 degree by 30 minute (1:100,000) maps, planning unit overlays, 
Master title plats, survey plats, historical indices, etc. and a high 
data rate channel to a megascale digital computer having the BLM data 
base stored in its terabit random access store. 

BLM graphic data is recorded on maps of differing scales, using a 
variety of line widths and a range of quality. Data associated with 
graphics are available as alphanumeric characters, e.g., UTM, state 
plane, or latitude/longitude coordinates, area surface and subsurface 
ownership categories. There is no one best system for digitizing this 
variety of input data forms. 

A large amount of data awaits to be digitized in each of a variety 
of formats. Consideration should be given to using the best digitizing 
system for each class of data rather than attempting to use a single 
system for all classes of data. For instance, a key entry system 
appears well suited for gathering alpha-numeric data in existing BLM 
manual data files, a digitizing board appears suited for the digitizing 
of rectangular ownership lots and survey corners, and a line follower 
system appears well-suited for non-analytical curvilinear graphic data 
such as surface hydrography, soils maps, and resource overlays. 

RECOMMENDATION: 

If the Bureau's graphic system is going to embrace its almost limit- 
less sources of natural resources and land use information within a viable 
time period it must develop a digitizing system (this includes hardware, 
software, manpower, and operating procedures) capable not only of an 
initial high rate of production but also the ability to incorporate 
better methods and technologies as they become feasible. 

Digitizing will be one of the most costly efforts in the Strategic 
Plan and specifically graphics. 

The Bureau should consider testing a graphic data input section much 
like we know keypunch today. 



Small processor (mini) could support several digitizers which 
would be operated in an on-line graphic display fashion. It seems 
this is the most practical way to start. Very precise instructions 
would have to be issued to the field prior to their sending maps or I 
overlays in to be recorded. This would also inforce the standards 
set up in the mapping section. As maps were digitized, the original 
document would be sent back to the field and the entry group would 
enter the new information into the main computer storage. 

In conjunction with this effort, all available automated coor- 
dinate data should be used, e.g., USGS, Army Map Service, NOBA, etc* 
Also at the same time, tests can be run and documentation recorded on 
the Alaska scanner which will be used in Land Status Recordation. 

At the end of a year, or some predetermined time, the results of 
all efforts could be evaluated and a new course set. 



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C. USERS 

SUMMARY: 

Potential users of the Bureau's system consists of: 

BLM - 80 percent of area and district people are assumed 

to be prospective users of a BLM computerized infor- 
mation system. 

OTHER FEDERAL AGENCIES - Interfaces with needs of USGS, 

USFS, Park Service, EPA, etc. 

NON-FEDERAL - Other government (state, county, City, etc.) 

NON-GOVERNMENT - 1) corporate, commercial 

2) non-commercial, citizens 

Characteristically the user audience of this graphic system 
addresses have not worked in an environment in which interactive 
computer processing is an integral part. 

The implementation of an interactive graphics capability will 
require a drastic change in thinking and operational procedures 
within our field units. It is hard to visualize today how they will 
function in a computer graphic environment, but certain things we 
can project. Due to the complexity of our natural environment 
resource managers are faced with the seemingly insurmoutable problem 
of combining or relating the various environmental factors into a 
logical construct. Until recently this function was performed by the 
laborous process of overlaying resource maps plotted on mylar and trac- 
ing the resultant. However, today it has become apparent that this 
methodology is too slew and inaccurate to keep pace with the acceler- 
ating demand upon our natural resources. The graphic system will per- 
form these tasks rapidly and accurately providing the user with an 
almost limitless spectrum of resource information and relational con- 
structs. Updating will be simple and most recalculation will be auto- 
matic. Data resolution can be varied as the need dictates. Erroronecus 
or out-of-date data can be more easily located and corrected or deleted. 
Service to the public will be enhanced because of the wide range of infor- 
mation available at many locations. Planning will not resemble the activity 
we know today due to availability of information, again this function can 
be performed in many locations not available to us today. 



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RECOMMENDATION: 

We must make the user an integral part of the overall system at 
the earliest possible time. This could be accomplished through user 
training, management orientation, involving the user and management 
in the development of the graphic system, investigating impacts on 
present planning procedures, and incorporating user feedback as an 
integral part of system development and implementation. This will 
nurture the operational condition in which the user views the system 
and data base as theirs. BLM must begin today to train and prepare 
the BLM Resource people so that the impact of this new concept will be 
lessened to a great extent. BLM has a good training facility, so lets 
put them to work in this direction. 




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D. BLM GRAPHIC CAPABILITIES 



SUMMARY: 



In aggregate the Bureau's four graphic systems (ORIS, CRIS, AEGIS, 
OASIS) represent not only the end product of extensive research, develop- 
ment, trial and error but also the state of the art in graphic map 
processing. We do not have to go outside the bureau for this expertise. 

(See Minimum Design Criteria Section in the Appendix) 

RECOMMENDATIONS: 

Any further development of graphics be on the integrated bureau 
system as defined under the Strategic Plan. 

(See "E" for further recommendations) 

Further development, when aimed at a common goal, should be 
encouraged. The moratorium on systems development should be lifted 
and progress continued as manpower is available. 

Technicians should be brought together as frequently as travel permits 
to exchanae ideas and benefit from each other's work. 



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E. SHORT RANGE RECOMMENDATIONS 

It appears, at this time, that the DSC computer acquisition and 
installation will be delayed probably at least six months. This means 
that nearly a year from the time this report is due, is the earliest 
time we can count on any effective computer support from DSC. With 
the work on Phase I of the Strategic Plan continuing and a high per- 
centage of this data being graphic it would seem to be an error not 
to take advantage of the delay and experiment and test as much as 
possible. Then, when equipment is available, there should be less 
errors and false starts. Can this be done? 

Here is one suggestion: One half of the Eugene District has 
some data collected on seven different features and has a graphic 
system in daily operation today. BLM could finish collecting the 
data for the rest of the district along the lines of the DRD require- 
ments. This could be accomplished by setting up a small data collec- 
tion unit with digitizing and other input media. Factual information 
on data collection costs and time could be collected. 

For the time period involved this unit would not have to be 
manned with permanent positions, but could probably be run by temps 
from the college. This "would be a real test of procedures. The data 
could be processed on the Lane County computer. This system will very 
nearly parallel the DSC system where there will be a large host computer 
and either a mini or just dumb terminals at user stations. The Lane 
County equipment is modern and very reasonable in cost. 

To make this recommendation more attractive there is strong, experi- 
enced leadership there to head this type of project and a healthy raport 
with users is already established. 

Some tinkering with software would have to be accomplished. This 
again, would seem to be an opportune time to get the graphic technicians 
of BLM together and give them direction and support on the best and most 
efficient way to utilize the equipment and system. 

This recommendation would require some equipment to be acquired 
but most of it could be leased. . Again a good test. 

As an addition to this test it would seem appropriate to pick a 
PD District, not necessarily in Oregon, and add them to the test. Possi- 
bly the area in Southern Idaho that is used in the ASVT test. Their 
equipment is similiar to that required by graphics and could be shared. 

We should route the shopping list of information system capabili- 
ties and requirements for geographic and -graphics data handling to 
select user audiences for appraisal. Integrate user feedback into the 
BLM graphic system or in related application areas wherever feasible. 



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The new graphics group invisioned in the above test should consist 
of a team leader, three to five programmers/analysts, one to two carto- 
graphers/digitizer operators, and a map specialist/programmer data base 
planner/coordinator. Organization should be located at the Denver 
Service Center but organizationally located independent of Data Process- 
ing. The data base planner/coordinator should be brought on board early 
in the system design phase and provide the user to system interface at 
the pilot site. 

We have outlined below two alternate configurations to meet the 
short term needs of the graphic system. Both alternatives are based 
on the premise that to be operational we need an interactive digitiz- 
ing system to meet temporal and productional requirements for a Bureau 
system. Option A places the primary processing functions on an inde- 
pendent mainframe, while option B integrates both digitizing and primary 
processing on a single computer, in this case a mini with sufficient 
capabilities to handle both functions. 



( 



OPTION A 



OPTION B 



Buy time on a Non-BLM 
Large Computer to 
Integrate Present BLM 
Capability to Produce 
BLM Standard Graphics 




high speed 
lines 




Buy BLM Digitizing 
System with Mini 
Disc Tape Drive to 
Implement a Pro- 
ductional Digitizing 
Capability 



plotter 
printer 




Graphic 

Team 

Equipment 



Graphic 
Team 

Equipment 
(Pilot Site) 



Digitizing 
Station 



Editing 
Station 




Buy BLM a Large 
Mini-Computer to 
Integrate Present 
BLM Graphic 
Capabilities and 
to Develop a High 
Volume Digitizing 
System 

high speed_ 
lines 




Digitizin 
Station 



Graphic 
Team 

Equipment . 
(Pilot Site) 



1- Software moved to BLM mainframe at first opportunity 

2- Consider the alternatives of deferring the DBMS tie until BLM mainframe 
and its associated data base management system is available or using the 
host with the possibility of later converting to the BLM System. 

3- To be a viable alternative both processing and digitizing capabilities 
must be implemented. 



c 



c I 




Long Range Recommendations: 

Based on what we know now, the following course would seem 
appropriate dependant on the test results. 

1. Plan and budget for equipment based on activity/ 
priority. 

2. Collect information intensively on the same basis. 

3. Collect information in other areas on a time-personnel 
available basis. 

4. Develop operating standards and enforce them. 

5. Embark on an intensive training program. 

6. Perform a study on organizational impact of this system. 

7. Assemble a graphics development group (technicians) as 
soon as equipment is known and requirements are defined 
and approved. 

8. Continue to work closely with USG5 and USFS and attempt 
to exchange automated data rather than collecting all 
our own. 

9. As early as possible determine the need and prepare the 
acquisition for either Regional computers, State level 
computers on "smart" District capability. 

10. Endeavor to make use of remote sensing as an input source, 



; 




• 



22 



( 






€ 



• 



APPENDIX 




^ 



( 






(J 



• 



BASE MAP DATA 



The following matrices show the relationship between the scribed 
bases and the thirteen base map data categories for the 1:250,000 and 
larger scale USGS maps. Of the thirteen data categories, the first 
eleven are defined in the 1975 USGS proposal, "Digital Cartographic 
Data Base Preliminary Description." 

The twelfth and thirteenth are additional data categories which 
are also of significant interest to the Bureau. 

The most significant point that the matrices show is that for the 
older maps, most bases contain more than one feature. Most of the maps 
of BLM lands fall into this category. The newer maps, primarily the 
1:100,000, are produced from more bases which contain unique features. 

The cost of digitizing features on bases increases with the 
increase in the number of features on a base. This is because more 
manual processes are required to separate the features. 



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United Stales Department of the Interior 

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

DENVER SERVICE CENTER 

DENVER FEDERAL CENTER. BUILDING SO 

DENVER. COLORADO 80225 



Memorandum 

To: Team Leader, Interactive Computer Graphic Team 

From: Lynn A. Strand, Chief, Branch of Photogrammetry 

Subject: Unit Resource Analysis (URA) Overlay Study Report 

In response to your memorandum, 1260 (D-100) of August 31, 1976. The 
information requested in the memorandum is as follows: 

Question 

2. Some Guidelines on Information Needed for the Study 

A. Maps 

1. Standard 

Answer - The standard maps used by the Bureau for the URA 
base maps are as follows: 

a. BLM H inch = 1 mile Color Quad Series 

b. BLM h inch = 1 mile District Maps 

c. BLM 1 inch = 1 mile Planning Unit Maps 

d. USGS 15 min and 7% min Quad maps 

2. Availability - Currency, accuracy 

Answer - Availability of map coverage by one or more of 
the series of maps listed in part A-l is complete in all 
states except Nevada. Nevada has areas not covered by 
the newer series of maps. The areas are covered by the 

old Administratives Unit Maps. 

Currency status of the series of maps used by the 3ureau 
is questionable. It is estimated that at least 75% of the . 
maps used are out of date by more than 5 years. 

The accuracy standards of the series of maps produced by 
the Bureau will depend upon the methods used to make the 
maps. Where USGS quad maps were used as the base for the 

^00JT/ 0/V 



IN REPLY R 

9160 (D-: 



3 (s; 7p I 29 






Bureau map, the accuracy should' meet the "Standard 
Mapping Accuracy Standards." Map identifiable objects 
will be shown within 1/50 of a inch at nap scale of 
their true locations. Maps' made by other than upon a 
USGS base will range from standard accuracy to very poor. 

Source material recorders for Bureau map produced by the 
Denver Service Center are on file and accuracy standards 
for a given map can be obtained. The 30 minute quad maps 
produced by the Portland Service Center have a base map 
history index on them. The records for other maps pro- 
duced in Portland have been lost. 

Parts 3 and 4 furnished by Jerry Ives. 

5. Volume 

Answer - There are approximately 600 planning units in 
the BLH and each planning unit has the base map. 

6. How long to get a complete, adequate base? 

The USGS estimates that they will have complete coverage 
in the 7% or 15 minute quadrangle series by 1985. The 
1$ western states will be 50% covered by the new 1:100,000 
map series by 1979. Q{bo5]o U l^|j 

B. Overlays - Special Maps or Other Supplements to Base Maps 

1. Status - How many do we have; will havej 

Answer - There are approximately 600 planning units in 
the Bureau. Approximately 75%, or 450 of the planning 
units do have the required Unit Resource Analysis (URA) 
overlays completed. An average URA will have 35 overlays, 
or about 21,000 overlays to be entered in to the 
Interactive Computer Graphic System. 

The remaining (150) URA overlays will be finished within 
two years. 

2. Condition - Completeness 

Answer - The overlays studied are on mylar and in good 
physical condition. The overlays are registered to the 
base map in approximately - position'by - hanger" iiooksr - In 
areas of high activity the informaiton Is In the process 
of being updated at all times. All the required overlays 
have been made for the URAs studied. 






c 



• 



• 



• 



3. Can they be digitized or scanned? 

Answer - The overlays will have to be digitized by hand. 
Many overlays have more than one type of line information 
plus symbols, numerical and alphabitical data. The over- 
lay data will have to be related to other maps by 
triangulation stations which are on the base map for some 
of the URA. The newer base maps use a coordinate system. 

A. Which overlays should be entered into a system and which 
type should not. 

Answer - All phase II and phase III overlay information 
should be entered into the system. Phase II and III 
information is physical or policy data that effects 
decisions for making phase IV and V overlays. 

Considerations should be given as to entering data into 
the system from the original source data and not from 
the URA overlays. This data may be on USGS quad maps, 
maps from other agencies, computer print outs or in 
narrative form. 

5. Accuracy 

Answer - The accuracy of line location on the URA overlays 
is dependent upon the type of information shown and the 
person drawing the line. Some types of information is of 
a general nature, such as wild life habitat area, and the 
line location accuracy is not required. Other types of 
information such as drainage areas, the line location can 
be specific, but may be place on the overlay in the general 
location only. 




^1 



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• 




C Digitizing Graphic Data 



& 



1. Methods 



a. Board and Cursor 



(1) Off-line digitize, on-line edit 

(2) Big computer vs. small computer 
(5) Board position transducers 



b. Raster Scan 



• 



(1) TV camera 

(2) Drum scanner 

(3) Microdensitometer 



c. Line Follower 



d. CRT and Point Controller 



e. Key Entry 



2. Board and Cursor 



• 



a. Board Sizes 



b. Transducer Methods 

(1) Strings, pulleys, shaft encoders 

(2) Stervo driven worm/screws, shaft encoders 

(3) Acoustic 

(4) Track, linear optical encoders 

c. Cursors 

(1) Closed loop - contact maintenance 

(2) Open loop - free-floating 

3. Raster Scanners 

3.1 TV Cameras 

5.2 Drum Film Scanner 

3.3 Scanning Microdensitometer 

3.4 Software considerations 

4. Line Followers 

5. Interactive Graphics System 

6. Costs 



( 



t 



J 






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7. Conclusions 



S. Recommendations 



> 




£ 



34 



( 



( 






6/0 



» 



• 



C DIGITIZING GRAPHIC DATA 



1. Methods. 



Several methods of converting map and graph types of 
data into digital format have been "used over the past 
20 years as digital computers have come into widespread 
use. The motivation for digitization of map data is to 
have the high data processing rate digital computer to 
tackle the large amount of data that a map contains. 

Processing of map data on digital computers is compatible 
from a resolution standpoint. Map data can have a 
moderately high spatial resolution with errors measured 
in a few thousandths of an inch over a span of a few 
tens of inches. The digital nature of data representa- ' 
tion in computers permits virtually any degree of 
resolution. Thus, digital computers can readily 
accommodate any map data resolution. 

Map digitization typically employs a mechanical measuring 
device with a conversion of the linear position measure- 
ment coordinates to electrical signals. The coordinates 
can be X and Y cartesian, rho and theta polar, or varia- 
tions thereof such as line count (Y) ar <d pi^el position 



CO 



(X) . The electrical signals may be voltages whose 
amplitudes are proportional to the coordinates. In 
such case, these analog voltages are easily converted 
to digital format by an Analog-to-Digital (AD) Converter. 

One widely used type of map digitization equipment is the 
board and cursor. Other types of digitizers are: the 
TV camera, the drum .scanner, the computer controlled micro- 
densitometer, the computer-controlled laser beam, and the 
interactive graphics display. Each of these is discussed 
in detail below. 

2. Board and Cursor. 

The board and cursor type of digitizer has been available 
for many years. Modifications have been made as mechanical 
positioning measurement technologies were developed result- 
ing in several different types of board/cursor arrangements, 

a. ' Beam Type Cursors ■ • 

Digitizing boards were initially modifications of 
plotting boards having a beam spanning the board 
surface and a cross hair fixture mounted on the beam. 
The beam is free to move in one direction (say X) 
and the crosshair fixture in the other direction, Y. 



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The operator moves the crosshair fixture over the 
point to be digitized and presses a button to cause 
the coordinates to be digitized and recorded. The 
coordinate digitizer could be shaft encoders on a 
shaft common to pulleys over which run cables from 
the beam and the crosshair fixture for X and Y 
respectively. 

Disadvantages of this early arrangement include 
obstruction of part of the operators field of view 
by the beam and the operator fatique caused by 
having to move the beam mass around. 

One advantage of the beam cursor is that high re- ' 
solution can be obtained by suitable shaft encoders. 

An improvement on the beam type cursor is a board 
where the beam is cantilevered from a track running 
across the top of the board. The beam mount moves 
back and forth (to the operator's right and left) 
on the track. The beam moves in the mount perpendicu- 
lar to the track axis for the second coordinate. At 
the end of the beam is mounted the crosshair in a 
fixture that contains sensitive strain detectors. 
When the operator moves the crosshair, the strain 

detector send signals to servo motors 'which move 

37 



the cantilever bean, in the direction the operator ( 

desires. The servo-driven bean, reduces operator 

fatigue. Since the bea, is cantilevered fro. one -. 
^ge of the board, less of the operator's field of 

view is obscured relative *■« , u 

ea relative to a board spanning beam. 

# 

One cantilever bean, type of digitizer is manufactured 
by ionics, tte digitizer can be mounted on any 
flat surface and does not require a special board. 
*» position sensing is performed by light emitting 
diodes, photo sensitive transistors, and optical bar 
tracks mounted in the beam and on the bean, track.' " 

U» readout resolution is 0.01 inch over an area 
UP to 2.4 inches by 36 inches. 

°- Free Cursor 

*» free- cursor is a small- hand . held device ^^ . 
^ cable to the system electronics.- ^e free cursor 
can be in the form of a holder contain a crosshair 
«th up to a half-dozen push buttons, or can be in 

the form of a pen. 



Applicon supplies a stylus type of free cursor with 
a data tablet. The data tablet is available in a ' 



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33 



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range of sizes having working areas from 12 inches square 
to 34 by 44 inches. The resolution is specified as 160 
lines per inch or 0.00625 inches. The stylus position 
sensing technique is not described in Applicon. Two 
stylus types are available: marking and non-marking. 
The marking stylus has a ball point pen tip. A manually 
operated switch is used by the operator to trigger 
the digitizing of the stylus position. The non-marking 
stylus has the switch incorporated which is closed 
when the point is depressed. 

An example of a crosshair type of free cursor is supplied 
by Instronics in their Gradicon System and by Calma in 
their Calmagraphics system. The cursor contains a coil 
of wire that carries a current to generate a magnetic 
field. A sensor is mounted under the glass board surface 
on a beam and track. The sensor signal is fed to a 
servo-mechanism that detects when the sensor is not 
centered under the cursor crosshair, and drives the 
sensor mount to the center. The sensor mount position 
is readout -via encoders coupled to the beam and track. 
(The sensor mount also supports a lamp which produces 
a halo of light under the cursor.) Accuracy of +_ 0.003 
inches is claimed for specially selected components. 

Talos Svstems offers a board using a free cursor that 



can either the crosshair puck type or a pen stylus type. . 
The sensing of the cursor is by means of a differential 
electronic servo system. Accuracies are a function of 
the cursor location. Optional accuracy of +0.005 inch 
is claimed with resolution of 0.001 inch while standard 
accuracy is +_ 0.01 inch and standard resolution is 0.01 
inch. Board jg^zes range from 11 by 11 inches to 44 by 
60 inches. 

Summagraphics offers a board with a crosshair type cursor 
or a pen-type stylus operating with a magnetostrictive 
sensing system. Boards are available with active areas 
ranging from 11 by 11 inches up to 36 by 40 inches. 
Resolution is 100 lines per inch for all board sizes 
with 200 lines per inch optional. 

One pen-type cursor and board system is manufactured by 
Science Accessories Corporation and is called graf/pen. 
The graft/pen stylus emits a high frequency sound impluse 
which is detected by two linear microphone sensors which 
are mounted on two edges of the board. Since the sound 
waves travel through air, there is no need for the graf/pen 
stylus to be in contact or in close proximity to the board. 
Thus, any display surface such as a table, a drafting 



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board, a blackboard, or a projection screen can serve 
as a board. The microphone sensors can be supplied 
in any length -up to 72 inches. A free cursor with 
crosshair is available and is plug interchangeable 
with the stylus. 

Accuracy is specified to be 0.1% or 0.01 inch whichever 
is greater. The crossover point is at a board size of 
10 inches square. For board sizes smaller than this, 
the accuracy is limited by the readout resolution of 
0.01 inch. Larger boards have accuracies which decrease 
as board size (and microphone sensor lengths) increase. 



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3. Raster Scanners 



3.1 TV Cameras 






Raster scanners can be adapted to automatic digitizing. 
One low cost raster scanner is the TV camera. Several 
companies offer TV cameras mounted on adjustable fixtures 
above horizontal light tables for viewing films and 
maps. Typical of such companies are Spatial Data 
Systems, Stanford Technology Corporation (International 
Imaging Systems subsidiary) , and ISI of Lawrence, 
Kansas. 

TV cameras have the disadvantage of low resolution 
relative to other raster scanners. Resolution varies 
from about 320 pixels by 240 lines to 640 pixels by 
480 lines. 

3.2 Drum Film Scanner • 

■Optronics manufacturers a film digitizer that can be 
adapted to map digitizing if the map image is reduced 
in size to less than 10 inches on a. side. The Optronics 
film digitizer has a drum on which the image transparency 
is mounted. A light source with optics is on the 
interior of the drum in a fixed -position. A light 



sensor is on the exterior of the drum also in a fixed 
position. The drum rotates to provide one of the 
scanning dimensions and is positioned along its axis 
of rotation by means of a lead screw to provide the 
second scanning dimension. 

The optical system has several different square aperture 
sizes available measuring 25, 50 and 100 micrometers on 
a side. This small aperture provides a suitably high 
resolution for digitizing maps even after they have 
been reduced in size by a factor of 2 to 3 in linear 
dimension. 



Associated with the Optronics scanner can be a magnetic 
tape drive for off-line digitizing or the scanner can be 
interfaced to a minicomputer for more integrated digitizing, 

3.3 Scanning Microdensitbmeters - • ' 

Microdensitometers used for measuring film densities have 
been adapted to automatic scanning by adding motor drives 
to the table. Tables are usually only large enough to 
accommodate the 9.5 inch square film image normally used 
in aerial photography; however, map images could be 



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_photographically--reduced -to— this size -without much 
problem. The light source and sensor optics are very 
high quality and permit quite small- apertures- to be 
used. 

Perkin Elmer has one such scanning microdensitometer 
available for sale or for contract use. One dis- ■ 
advantage of the microdensitometer approach tc map 
digitizing is that the device is rather slow and 
represents overkill from a resolution standpoint. 

3.4 Software Consideration ■ • 

The scanner discussed above produce a stream of data 
that is very voluminous. A straight- forward scanner 
operating with a map having dark (or opaque) lines on 
a white (or transparent) background will produce one 
bit of information for each resolution element in the 
image. For the Optronics drum scanner, the number of 
resoltuion elements can be as high as 90 million for 
a single image. Most of the resulting 90 million bits 
of data will be redundant since they will represent 
the background. One method of reducing the number of 
bits is to use run length coding. Here, strings of 



c .-\-» ---*•/-> c\ 



44 



identical bits are replaced by a count of the number 
of identical bits in a sequence of identical bits. 

In any event, the raw scanner data must be processed 
by a computer to transform the line by line scanner 
data to line segment or point data. 



3 



45 



4. Line Followers 

One firm, 10 Metrics, has developed a system for digitizing 
graphic data using a laser beam line following technique. 
Use of this system is available on w a contractual. .bas,is., ltvl4 .„ 
and the Geological Survey has had a large amount of data 
digitizied on the system. The system is called "Sweepnik" 
by 10 Metrics. ■ •* ,., ._...., 

10 Metrics has two laser beam line follower mechanisms con- ■ 
trolled by minicomputers (TDEC Model- PDP 15s} . -■■ The 1 document 
containing the map must be a transparency through which the 
laser beam passes to a photomultiplier tube. The field 
over which the beam can be moved is limited in size to 
160 mm by 110 mm (6.3 inch by 4.3 inch) . For larger docu- 
ments such as those being digitized by the USGS, GS over- ' 
prints a grid forming rectangular cells measuring 120 mm 
by 80 mm. GS supplies to 10 metrics two copies on transparent 
Mylar stable base plus one ozalid copy. 10 Metrics cuts 
the two mylar copies into strips, each of which contains a 
rwo of grid cells with a large margin on either side. The 
strips are wound on a reel in the scanner housing. The 
operator manually positions each grid cell in the center 
of the operating area. The segment of film is held in 
position between two flat plates of glass. 



46 



A laser beam is used since it can be focused to a small spot. 
Spot diameter at the film plane is claimed to have 80% of 
its power in a 20 micron diameter circle. The beam is caused 
to nutate in a circular scan the diameter of which can be 
varied from to 1.2 mm. Currently, the circle being used 
has a diameter of 1.0 mm. The circle is traced at 150 
resolutions per second. The angular position around the 
circle is digitized to a resolution of one part in 4096 
(i.e., 12 bits). 

The operator manual ly positions the circular scan at an 
intersection point on the line using a trackball controller. 
Data fed to the computer from the laser scanner are: 



D 



a. The angular position where the beam intersects the edge • 
of the line. 

b. The angular width of the line. 

The operator designates the direction the scanner is to follow 
the line. The scanner then automatically follows the line 
until it reaches an intersection. Intersections are determined 
by the line width exceeding a threshold value. The computer 
records the Table "X, Y coordinates of the scanner at pre-- " 
scribed intervals along the line. GS specifies every 100 






47 



) 



) 



microns. Where the line contains sharp turns, data is 
recorded at smaller intervals to retain the line position 
information. Essentially, the line follower is automatic 
only from one intersection to the next. Operator inter- 
vention is required at every intersection to tell the 
scanner which direction to go for the next line. The data 
recorded on tape consists of these line segments running 
from intersection to- intersection. The operator keeps 
track of which lines have been digitized by marking with 
a color pencil on the ozalid copy. The operator positions 
the beam with the aid of a TV monitor which displays the-- - 
region around the scanning beam at 70x magnification. This 
display aids the operator in deciding where valid inter- 
sections are encountered or if the automatic line follower 
simply encountered a wide spot in the line. 

Editing of the digitized map is performed with the aid of 
a TaktTonix graphic display terminal. The editing operator 
looks for missing line segments and mismatches of lines 
that cross over the grid and hence are digitized at different 
times. The editor also codes areas on both sides of each 
line segment by typing code numbers in at the terminal 
keyboard. I cam away with the impression that there is 
a great deal of operator involvement in each stage of the 
map digitizing job using Sweepnik. 



43 



s.fr 



Problems encountered using Sweepnik on the GS maps were: 

a. Line quality — holes and gaps in the line, varying 
line widths. 

b. Excessive density «— lines too close together. 

10 Metrics uses college students on a part-time basis to 
operate the Sweepnik equipment. Operator shift length is 
limited to about four hours since the detailed visual demands 
of the job are tiring. 

The Sweepnik is capable of generating a large amount of 
digital data along each line. As a result, curved lines 
appear to be well suited for line-follower type of digitizing. 
For straight lines, such as the cadastral grid, Sweepnik 
will generate a large volume of rdundant data. It takes only 
two points to define a line segment. ■ 









49 



(T 






) 



5. Interactive Graphics Systems 

Several companies have developed interactive graphics 
systems (IGS) based on off-the-shelf hardware components 
and in-house developed graphics software. These systems 
are based on a minicomputer obtained from one of the 
prominent minicomputer manufacturers such as Digital 
Equipment Corporation,— Hewlett Packard, Data -General, 
Varian, etc. Also obtained from the minicomputer manu- 
facturer will be those peripherals useful to the system 
usually including a single or dual platter disk memeory 
having 2.4 to 4.8 megabytes of storage capacity, a computer - 
compatible magnetic tape drive, and/or a communications 
interface. Once the data .is digitized and edite-i on the 
IGS, it may be transferred to a large scale computer by 
means of the tape or over the phone line. 

Other hardware components include a digitizer board with 
cursor and, almost always, a Tektronix storage CRT graphics 
terminal. The graphics display is an essential component 
in the editing step following digitizng. The graphics 
- display permits the operator to view the data- for omitted,-, 
lines, erroneous locations of points, etc. Corrections 
are readily made to the digitized data residing in the IGS 



50 






in an- interactive mode. 

The interactive operating mode of the IGS is better suited 

to getting the digitizing job done correctly than is a 

batch mode computer with its long tunv around delays between , . , ; . t u ,._ ;1 

editing steps. 

Representative IGS's are summarized below-;- •-•"« - •- - — . 









51 






INTERACTIVE" GRAPHICS SYSTEMS 

1. Applicon, Intercorporated. 

Graphic System 800 consists of PDP'll minicomputer with 
56k bytes of memory, 24 -megabyte 1 disk pak memory, 9 channel 
magnetic tape drive, Xynetics flatbed or Calcomp drum 
plotter, Tektronix graphic display. 

Digitizer tablets have areas from 12 inch by 12 inch up to 
54 inch by 44 inch. 

Repeatability _+ 0.005 inches 
Accuracy +^ 0.005 inches 
Linearity +_ 0.006 inches 
Resolution 0.006 inches. 

2. Auto Trol 

Series 7000 Auto-Draft Interactive Graphics System: 

Varian minicomputer, 48 kilobyte core memory. 

Diablo disk memory with one fixed, one removable platter, 

4.68 megabytes. 
Tektronix 19 inch storage CRT graphics terminal 
Teletype ASR55 console typewriter 

52 






<r 






Various plotters, drum and flatbed 
Various digitizer boards: 

a. Beam-mounted cursor using glass scale measuring technique, 
50 by 60 inches. 

Accuracy + 0.003 inch 
Resolution 0.001 inch 
Crosshair cursor with 3X magnifier. 

b. Beam-mounted cursor using mechanical encoders, 35 by 57 
inches working area. 

Accuracy _+ 0.01 inch. 
Resolution 0.001 inch. 

c. Free moving cursor, puck or pen type. Board size up to 
36 by 48 inches. 

Accuracy + 0.01 inch. 
Resolution 0.001 inch. 

Software . Menu of geometric figures, operations user definable 
functions is interpreted from a board area. Menu can be placed 
anywhere on working surface of board. 



Interface can be made to photogrammetric and other scientific 
equipment via rotary and linear encoders. 

53 



f 



3. Bendix 

Interactive Drafting System 100. 

Datagrid digitizer board: 

Active area 42 by 60 inches. 

Resolution_0.002 inch. 

Accuracy _+ 0.005 inch. 

Repeatability + 0.002 inch. 

Free cursor with 5 control button. s 
ASR 33 Teletypewriter. 
Floating keyboard (optional) with 28 or 51 alphanumeric, 

miscellaneous symbol and control keys. 
Nova minicomputer, 24 k word memory. 
Disk memory, one fixed, one removable platter, 5 megabyte 

capacity. 
Magnetic tape drives (optional) 7 or 9 track. 
Paper tape punch (optional) 
Flat bed plotter (optional). 
Tektronix storage CRT graphics terminal. 

Fortran IV applications software Input/Output drivers written 
in assembly language. 

4. Computer Equipment Company 



Compugrid 

54 



Digitizer board dizes from 20 by 20 inches to 42 by 60 inches 

(this may be a Bendix Datagrid board) . 

Resolution 0.001 inch. 

Accuracy + 0.005 inch. 

Free moving crosshair type cursor. 

Floating keyboard, 52 characters. 

Nova minicomputer, 32 kilobyte memory. 

ASR 33 teletypewriter. 

Optional peripherals: magnetic tape drives, RS 232 communication 

interface, punched card reader/punch, paper tape reader/punch. 



5. Computervision Corporation 

Interact II LIS 

Digitizer board can also plot back 34 by 56 inch drawing surface. 

Nova minicomputer with up to 128 kilobytes. 

Magnetic tape, 7 or 9 track (optional). 

Disk memory, up to 23 megabyte capacity. 

Tektronix storage CRT graphics display incorporated in a design 

console. 












r 



( 



Application software package CDP3/E for mapping, surveying, 
architectural, structural design, piping. 
CVPL (Computervision Programming Language) allows user to 
program his own Fortran type input statements. 

6. Gerber Scientific Instrument Company 

Interactive Design System 

Digitizer board is also a plotter. 
Vacuum holddown. 
Back lighting. 
Four pen head. 
Resolution: 0.001 inch. 
Accuracy: +_ 0.005 inch. 
Repeatability: _+ 0.003 inch. 

Digitizer cursor is mounted on beam, servo driven in response 
to slight pressure by operator. 

Tektronix storage CRT graphics display mounted in console. 

HP 2100 minicomputer with 48 kilobyte memory. 
Disk drive, 4.3 megabyte capacity. 

Optional Equipment: .Magnetic tape drives, additional disk drives, 

synchronous data set interface, hard copy unit for recording CRT 

56 



displays, plotters 

7. Instronics 

Gradicon System (as supplied to USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center). 

LSI 11 microprocessor. 

Digitizer board with working area of about 36 by 54 inches. 

Free cursor. 

Accuracy + 0.003 inch. 

ASR 53 with paper tape Teader for program input. 

Interface to 029 key punch for punched card output. 



"> 



' i 



57 



i 



J 



6. Costs. 

a. Off-Line Digitizer Board System. 

The digitizing system used by the BLM CRIS project con- 
sisting of a digitizer board and free cursor with con- 
troller feeding a magnetic tape drive, interactive 
editing of the data in the Cyber using a Tektronix - - 
storage'CRT graphics " terminal generated a cost figure 
of about $350 per township to digitize data for a -set 
. of 5 townships. Data digitized included the cadastral 
grid and ownership boundaries within sections, surface 
hydrology, the transportation net, and coal resource 
data. The resulting data file contained 338 kilobytes. 
The digitizing cost was approximately $1.00 per kilobyte. 

b. Line Follower System (Sweepnik) 

A cost formula has been developed by 10 Metrics for 
Sweepnik usage and is: 

Cost (in $) = { 0.06 + 0.03 / No. of lines + 7*10~ 7 (No. of Pts)} Area (sq7 in'.')' 

Examples given were approximately $250 for a political 

boundary plate and $500 for a fairly detailed plate measuring 

3 ft. by 4 ft. Two out of three example plates observed 

had predominantly curved lines. The Sweepnik system 

53 



appears to be well suited for curved line following 
since it can automatically follow the curves and record 
the very large volume of point coordinates necessary to 
define the line* For straight lines, Sweepnik will also 
produce a large volume of point coordinates, a large 
percentage of which will have little information content 
since only two points are required to define a straight 
line segment. Sweepnik appears to. be. at a disadvantage... . : 
when such straight line segment information as the cadastral 
grid net is to be digitized. 



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59 



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7, Conclusions 

7.1 There is a wide variety of digitizing equipment avail- 
able on the market, ranging from components such as 
boards, paper tape and magnetic tape data recorders, 
storage CRT graphic displays, minicomputers, disk 
memories, _ printers, keyboards, TV cameras, film 
scanners, microdensitometers, etc. to systems composed 
of these components together with software for geo- 
metrical manipulation and data film storage, editing 
and retrieval. 

7.2 There is no system that automatically does the entire 
graphic digitizing job. Tnis ideal system would con- 
sist of a hopper at one end which would accept BLM quad 
maps, USGS 7% minute quads (1:24,000) and 1 degree by 
30 minute (1*100,000) maps, planning unit overlays, 
Master title plats, survey plats, historical indices, 
etc. and a high data rate channel to a megascale digital 
computer having the BLM data base stored in its terabit 
random access store. 

7.5 BLM graphic data is recorded on maps of differing 

scales, using a variety of line widths and a range of 



60 



"■' 



quality. Data associated with graphics are available 
as alphanumeric characters, e.g., UTM, state plane, or 
latitude/longitude coordinates, area surface and sub- 
surface ownership categories. There is no one best 
system for digitizing this variety of input data forms. 

7.4 A large amount of data awaits to be digitized in each 
of a variety of formats. Consideration should be given 
to using the best digitizing system for each class of 
data rather than attempting to use a single system for 
all classes of data. For instance, a key entry system 
appears well suited for gathering alpha-numeric data in 
existing BLM manual data files, a digitizing board appears 
suited for the digitizing .of rectangular ownership lots 
and survey corners, and a line follower system appears 
well-suited for non-analytical curvilinear graphic data 
such as surface hydrography, soils maps, and resource 
overlays. 






J 






61 






bi4 



» 



J 



8. Recommendation 

Given that the digitization of the large amount of BLM 
map data is justified, it is recommended that several dif- 
ferent techniques be employed where each type of data be 
digitized by the best technique available. For instance, 
where map location data is already in digital form on 
maps or plats, use key entry means to incorporate that 
data into the data base. Where the map data consists 
primarily of straight line segments, use a board and 
cursor to digitize only the end points of the line seg- 
ments, and key enter the necessary ancillary data. Where 
the map data is curvilinear and extensive such as surface 
hydrology or soils, use line following equipment. A 
multiple of techniques is not wasteful since many digitizing 
units are required to handle the large amount of map data 
to be digitized. Thus, different types of equipment can 
be gainfully employed in the task withouthaving equipment 
idle. 



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6Z5 



APPENDIX A 



Map Series 1:100,000 



The preparation of the 1:100,000 scale maps has been planned with 
future automated map scanning in mind. Multiple scribing plates 
for each color separation have been defined to limit each plate 
to one category of information. For instance, black plate 013 
contains only the boundaries for national, state, county, civil 
and BLM district jurisdictions; while black plate 015 contains 
the land net (surveyed and protracted township, range and section 
lines, land grants larger than a section and section subdivision 
lines) . 



Difficulties for automatic scanning still remain in the 1:100,000 
scale maps. For instance, where a road runs along a section line, 
the^line on : black plate. 015, is-, deleted and the road line is scribed 
on one of the red road plats (021 or 022) . In anticipation of this 
problem area, an intermediate film positive is made after the township, 
t u iJ=4 range.. and,. s^ctioa^Iines- are~ scribed. This plate, numbered -016 or~" '" 
015A, will be satisfactory for automated scanning of the land net 
down to section lines but it does not contain any section subdivision 
_,_.„ lines. T ,T-A££ei./nthe, .intermediate- plate ■> is produced, plate 015 is modified 



IV .in 



* 



to add the section subdivision lines and to delete any land net lines 
in conflict with roads and drainage (occasionally a canal or ditch 
may run on a section line) . It, therefore, is not possible to auto- 
matically scan both the land net and section subdivision lines from 
the same plate. 

Another problem exists in the section subdivision lines that run 
through the centers of sections 1, 6, 31 or 36 of any township. 
These four sections are labeled with their section numbers. This 
labeling requires that the subdivision lines be deleted where they 
conflict in the centers of these sections. (The section numbers are 
not offset from center to avoid the conflicts.) 



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65 



( 



( 



c 



USER ANALYSIS 



) 



j 



j 



1. Who and Where and How. 



The predominant use of the interactive Graphics System will be made by 
the personnel at the District and Area offices. At this level Graphics 
will be mainly used to answer operational questions, prepare reports 
and to update the information that is stored. Computer Graphics will 
be yery important in planning at this level, but in a different way 
than today. First the information will be more current, there will be 
more of it and it will be easier to access than at present. Secondly, 
planning will become part of a daily occurrence as information is put 
into storage, statistics recomputed, results studied and information 
evaluated possibly using techniques not readily available now. In- 
stead of awaiting the hectic timing of AWP, periodic needs, pressures, 
local and national programs can be evaluated on a daily basis to 
determine the impact on Planning Units and Resource Areas. 

Some use of the detailed information will be made at State level. 
Generally to check on severe problem, Planning or Social Pacing. 
At this level most of the data handling should be at an aggregate 
level but may still be displayed with background information, e.g., 
District features, etc. 

DSC will have little use for the extremely detailed information 
except to sample and study. They will probably use graphics, but 
more as a reporting medium. 

WO will also use graphics, but much in the same context as DSC. 

2. What are they doing today? 

There are many small differences in the way each District, Resource 
Area or Planning Unit, stores and displays information. The most 
typical operation when change occurs at the Planning Unit or Resource 
Area level, is to make a notation on a wall map or a map that may be 
in a filing cabinet identified to a specific resource. Then, as time 
permits, put the info on the proper overlay or do a more professional 
job on the wall map. Sometimes the info is put into folders marked 
by the Resource and Unit. These folders are then pulled out and 
researched when; a) questions are asked; b) AWP time; or c) if there 
is time to update. 

Some of these systems are very" Effective in allowing access to infor- 
mation and in updating the current situation. This is because they 
were constructed following a specific needs guideline. Unfortunately 
there is very little standardization to these procedures and no way 
of aggregation. 

When overlays are used, there is some reluctance to trust them unless 
the author or creator is the one using them. There is a large varia- 
tion on how they are constructed and how accurate they are. Some 



65 



are meticulously drawn with a fine point pen while others are drawn with 
artistic sweeps of a felt tip marker. Probably each is adequate for the 
purpose in the Geographic Area they represent but it is impossible to 
combine data and get meaningful results. 

3. Frequency of Requests and Data Volume 

This is a very elusive area and the information is based on best 
guesses, for example, it is difficult to get "Number of Requests by 
Unit by Day" information. One extreme is to answer "All" questions 
with a Graphic System and the other end is to only use it at AWP or 
planning time. Probably the true answer lies closer to the "All" end 
than the other. It is hard for many to visualize what can be done and 
relate this to the day-to-day work. There seems to be generally two 
v i ews : 

1. I don't understand computers and don't see how they 
could help me in my job. 

2. Star Trek - The Resource technician sets in a command 
chair with a giant screen in front of him. This screen 
has a detailed colored picture of the piece of world 

he wants to view and there are a matrix of buttons that 
solve all problems from "Best Fishing" to "Solution to 
Middle-East Oil Problem." 

Again the median is somewhere in between. 



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67 



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The following table gives some guidance on volume. 



DIGITIZING TIME AND VOLUME 

Minimum Information 
Minimum Data per Township 



300,000 characters = 30,000 points 

Base Map information 40 man hours 

Minerals 40 " 

Land Status 20 

Ground cover/soils 40 " 



140 Hours per Township 



Typical Planning Unit: 20,000 acres and 1,260 man hours 
Characters by Typical Planning Unit: 3,375,000 
Transmit Time (9600 BAUD): 60 min. 



r"- 



I 









» 



J 



i 



DATA REQUIREMENTS 

Minimum Information 

Minimum Data per Township 

DescriDtive 



Source 

ORIS 
CRIS 

Contract 
CRIS * 
CRIS * 





Subject 




# Characters 


Ground Cover/soils 

Minerals 

Base Information 

Land Status (Surface) 

Land Status (Sub Surface) 


115 
130 

50 
5 
5 


,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 



305,000 



* Color quads not MTP 

X, Y Point = 10 characters 

Bureau total = 6.1 billion 

Typical "window" - 7-1/2 min. quad. 

Typical "window" - 450,000 characters 

Transmit time (9600 BAUD) = 500 seconds 

Transmit time = 8 minutes 

Attribute data per township = 70,000 

Souce : 

Average Polygon = 40 Acres x 15 Characters x 576 (#40s in TWP) = 69,120 
Transmit time: 1 min. 17 sec. 



cc 



In the Strategic Plan page 5-139, Chart 4 (next page), some activity 

data was prepared* This corresponds very closely with the Team's estimates 

We think, however, most of our estimates are very conservative. 



The chart indicates there will be 5 billion characters activity per 
month. For a 20 working day month this reduces to about 250,000,000 
characters per day. If this is further divided by approximately 70 
districts it turns out that data transmission to each district would 
be about one hour per day. This sounds reasonable but again the esti- 
mate is probably low. 

One could assume that a single "session" or inquiry at any point may 
eat up the hour and that would be it for the day. This may be true 
initially because it is assumed that the early tendency will be to 
ask for more data than can be used. This will soon reach a practical 
level just because of the time required to move data. When operators 
are experienced many questions will be answered by transmitting the 
answer only. 



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es. 



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j 

Data Ssts 


Av-r 5S . s 

No. /Period 


Period 


Distribution 


Office 


Totai. Period 


Trans 

SlZ2 


Char./P*r:od 


Vegetation: 
Forage 


278 


monthly 


even 


11 


3,058 


25K 
200 


76,450.000 
611,600 


Trees 


278 


monthly 


even 


11 


3,058 


2SK 
200 


76,450,000 
611,600 


Soils 


260 


monthly 


even 


11 


2.360 


25 K 
200 


71,500.000 
572,000 


Minerals 


101 


monthly 


even 


11 


1,111 


25K 
200 


27,775;000 
222,200 


Geologic 


278 


monthly 


even 


11 


3,058 


25K 
200 


76.450,000 
611,600 


Water . 


378 


monthly 


even 


11 


4.158 


25K 
200 


103,950,000 
831,600 


Wildlife 


278 


monthly 


even 


11 


3.058 


25K 

200 


76,450,000 
611,600 


Meteorology 


■ 60 


monthly 


even 


\] 


660 


25K 

- 200 


16,500.000 
132.000 


Recreation 


40 


monthly 


even 


61 


2,440 


25K 
200 


61.000.000 
438,000 


Cultural 


350 


monthly 


even 


11 


3,850 


25K 
200 


96,250.000 
770,000 


Land Records 


1700 


monthly 


even 


11 


18.700 


200 


3,740,000 


Case File 


12C0 


monthly 


even 


11 


13.200 


200 


2,640.000 


Socio-Econ 


1700 


monthly 


even 


11 


13,700 ' 


200 


3,740,000 


A& FC 


1800 


monthly 


even 


11 


19,800 


200 


3,960.000 


Protection 


278 


monthly 


even 


11 


3.058 


200 


611,600 


M &0 


300 


monthly 


even 


' 80 


24.000 


200 


4,800,000 


Payroll 


48 


monthly 


even 


80 


3,340 


200 


768,000 


Property 


20 


monthly 


even 


80 


1,600 


200 


380,000 


Text 


1700 


monthly 


even 


30 


18,700 


200 


3,740,000 


URA 


278 


monthly 


even 


80 


3,053 


25K 

200 


76,450,000 
611,600 


MFP 


1700 


monthly 


even 


80 


18,700 


25K 
200 


4,575,000,000 
3,740,000 


Program Plan 


5 


yearly 


= 


80 


400/12=33 


200 


6.600 


Budget 


4000 


yearly 


= 


WO 


4,000/12=333 


200 


66.600 


OUTPUT 










171,033 




5,622,414,932 


INPUT 
TOTAL/MONTH 










21.510 
192.543 transactii 


Dns 


168.907.450 


5,791.322.382 
characters 



is 



Chart U- Output 



5-139 
71 



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f<^ BLM GRAPHIC CAPABILITY 



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i 



There are at present within the Bureau, four computer graphic systems 
designed to capture and manipulate geographic and natural resource 
information (AGIS, CRIS, ORIS, AND OASIS). Being largely independent 
efforts to meet localized user needs, these systems collectively provide 
a wide range of valuable software techniques that are not only the 
culmination of extensive development efforts but also represent the 
present state of the art in map graphics. 

In consolidating the best software features from each of the four 
bureau systems the principal task will lie in the restructuring of the 
Input/Output formats into a set system structure and in interfacing to 
the Data Base Management System (DBMS) that will be resident on any 
large computer system. 

Since each of the four systems was developed on a different computer 
system (AGIS on a Burroughs B2700, CRIS on a CDC CYBER-70, ORIS on an 
IBM 370-155 and a System 7, and OASIS on Computer Science Corporation's 
UN I VAC) the input - output formats especially in the area of random 
access were tailored to a specific machine's hardware and software 
requirements. Data structuring is the area in which individualization 
to meet set user needs is most prevalent. 

The requirements of storing, organizing, and retrieving the vast amount 
of information necessary to make a Bureau-wide map graphics system viable 
will require the Data Base Management System be an integral part of the 
graphic system's structure and operation. 

The consolidation of the bureaus graphic efforts is not only a. viable 
source for a bureau graphic system but also represents the most cost 
effectiveness method to design a totally new system in-house. Contract- 
ing for this system would necessitate the redevelopment of techniques 
and methodologies already present within the bureau. This approach 
would also require training some personnel in Bureau mission and 
activities. 



I L 



The definition of 
Needed Geographic and Graphic Processing Capabilities Under the 
Strategic Plan for Information Systems 

Bureau of Land Management 

Interactive Graphics Study Team 

December 10, 1976 

A list of options for geographic and graphic processing capa- 
bilities, not yet a development charter or a set of deliverables, 
has been developed for review. User and management selection of 
capabilities for development, and verification of need, may be 
facilitated through a review of the options presented. 

Specifications relating to speed, acceptability criteria, costs 
and development scheduling and method have not been sharply 
defined. Users are assummed to be primarily district and 
resource area people, some state office people and still fewer 
service center and Washington Office people. User skills in 
programming are assumed to be low or nonexistent. Use, in terms 
of user hours, is expected to be heavily oriented to field 
offices o Two figures and an option list for mapping and computer 
graphics capabilities under the Strategic Plan for Information. 
Systems follow. 

Technical readers should also refer to Che "Minimum Technical 
Design Criteria" section. 



( 



( J 






.J 



/o 



>. 



> 



FIGURE 1 - A review configuration for computerized, geographic (map) data handling and graphics 
capability options and relationship of mapping and graphics to other AD? capabilities 
under the Strategic Plan (numbers relate to review list of options). 



Define characteristics of data 



acquisition, input, processing, output 



1 



Enter new data 



Entry and edit 

non-geographic 

data 




Enter Change data 



Data insertion, verification 
and edit 



3 



> 



i 



Revision and reedit until OK 
insert into data base, 
maintain change records 



Conversion and Compaction of data to standard format 



10 * 



Store map and data elements in a Data Base Management System 



11 



User implements commands for data use applications 



uj^db 



Enter change 
data inter- 
actively on- 
line from 
user site 



12.6-14 



Edit inter- 
activity 



12 



12-i er 



J 



Revise until 

ok' 



ir 6,ii-2S 



19 



13.1-5 



lu 'T- 



IS -w 



17 



1 



inter new tneme 
data interac- 
tively on-line 
from user site 



13.6-9 



Eel: inter- 
activity 



13.10 



Revise until 
OK 



nciorm |j l*3 cor.ver- 


data 


II sion of map 


elements 


1 data to dif- 


and mao 


|: ferent Dro- 


statistics 


ll jection, and 


into other 


different 


fores 


form 











Perrora 

data 
retrieval 
selection 
on basis 
of location 
and/ or data 
element 


So matn- 
matic 
manipula- 
tion sorts 
simnaries 
statistics 



Apply other 
ADP capabil- 
ities to 
geographic 
or other 
data 



Ti, 6, 11-25 



11-25' 



11-2ST 



H-2SY 



11-25Y 



11-25 T 



20 <r 



Process 

Topographic 

Information; 

contouring 

seen area 

perspective 

profiling 

slope aspect 

areas 



4 

11-25 



Do grapnics 
f or_ non map 
data - pie 
chart, bar 
chart, line 
graph 


Interactive 
.analysis..^— x 
with map 
image and 
data elements 



-25 



T 

11-25 



22 



Create map 
overlay by 
mathmatically 
merging of 
two or more 
map themes 
in a single, 
composite 
sap 



9.11-2S 



23 Jm 



Aggregate 
like areas; 
like as . 
defined by 
user with 
data ele- 
ment ( s ) 



zjg 



2S >- 



Lo utility 1 f 
functions 
security 
utiliza- 
tion saving| 
of work 
files sym- 
bol genera- 
tion, etc. 



opeciricatisns or 
output by users , 
graphic and tabular 
lines specif, for 
maps^ map shading, 
map scale specif. ? 
annotation of each 
map entity in a 
theme^ selection of 
nap themes, etc. 



U?2S 



11 



-Is 



11-25 



/- 



». 



"\ 



5 



FIGURE 2 - Separation of graphic and nongraphic processing by application areas, graphic 
options consider all applications 




Data Use Applications 



Setae potential for 
Graphic Display 



L 



Hon geographic ** 
Data handling and graphes 



— ***L2r^E 



1 { >.WP t Prcrran ^anageTCent 



H Acct. C fund control | 



am r'ianni." 



Finance- Payroll I 



>\ Panptv»r & Or-an. .Vrmt 



Property Control! 



Ho potential for 
Graphic Display 



** Bar charts, pie charts, 
lin« graphs, histogram 
ate. 



Geographic 
D*t* handling and graphics 



Resource Inventory 



| Planning LiRA <h 

| Planning i'.f? V 

| Land records ;-',r~.t. p 



1 Utilization Mgwt. 



Protection 



J*Z 



ioaai Analysis 



fEAK/EIS Pre?. 6 ruai. k — 



* Application Packages listed.. under..aongeographic ar.d geographic are frca: Lir.ne, James H. 
and Smith, Susan 3., Strategic Plan for Information Systems Management for tha 3LH Information 
Systess Steering Committee, Vol. 1, the framework 1976, Tig. 2, p. 13. 






/Z 



-T] 



> 



J 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



1. 
1.1 

1.1.1 
1.1.2 
1.1.3 
1.2 
11.2.1 

1.2.2 



1.2.3 



1.3 • 

1.3.1 

1.3.2 
1.3.3 



Description 



Define characteristics of data including map acquisi- 



tion, input, processing, output 



Do detailed requirements definition . Requirements 
for data and data processing and graphics should be 
derived from: 

Requirements of resource DRD teams 

Experience with existing geographic systems . 

Management objectives and expectations . 



Define required content of a datum: ' with tKre e f actors 

I 

Theme : what is being measured (descriptor, map 
attribute, data element, variable). The assigned value 
or code for an attribute is the data value. : " 

Spatial : geographic data have a spatial component 
jWhen theme data is spatially delineated, it may have 
(one or more data attributes within the same spatial 

j 

reference if the multiple theme data are all homo- 
geneous for the defined space. 

Temporal : data is valid when recorded. Time ob- 
served (date, hour), and time period reference (per 
day, per year) are significant to many data applications 



Phases of dara base collection and use : 

Data specification involves definition of the data 
set (attribute) and data topics (groups of attributes) 
and the data format. 

Data acquisition includes making and recording the 
observations. 

Data storase, retrieval, and manipulation 



76 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



Description 



1.3.4 
1.3.5 

1.4 

1.4.1 
1.4.1.1 

1.4.1.2 

1.4.2 

1.4.2.1 

1.4.2.2 

1.4.3 



! 



Data dissemination is delivery of data to users. 

Data applications are performed by users (man and/ 
or machine) to carry out their operating-control- 
planning activities . 

Spatial framework, collection units (points, lines, 
areas) . 

Point data can be: 

Discrete distribution phencma : such as wells, 
'section corners, individual buildings, or 

Continuous distribution data : recorded cnly at 
points such as rainfall, and temperature. 

Line data can be: 

Static: like roads, rivers, section lines, or 



Dvnamic: which covers movements and flows along 



' lines . 



J 



1.4.3.1 



1.4.3.2 



1.5 



1.5.1 



Area data ( eight irregular polygons or uniform cel„s 
in a grid) can be 

Stock data : which are observations on data- 
elements which occupy areas such as vegetation, owner, 
etc. 

Flow data : where spatial interactions between 
pairs of areas, e.g., ore mined in area X and refined 
in area Y. 

Spatial area data collection units natural institu- 
tional and arbitrary should be guided by users need 
for data, and the ability and economics of data collec- 
tion. Data and areas can be aggregated and generalized 
by users and machines, data cannot be disaggregated to 
smaller areas . 

Natural units . A "natural" area /'delineation and 
classification means that bcunaries of areas are defin 
to coincide with discontinuities in the distribution o: : 

77 









) 



^ 



J 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10,, 1976 



Number 



1.5.2 



1.5.3 



1.5.4 



J 



DescriDtion 



uniform or physionomic regions, areas derived from flcr 
data are called nodal or functional regions . 

Institutional units . Administrative and political 
boundaries define institutional areas. 



Arbitrary units . Arbritrary data collection units 
like satellite Imagery cells or concentric rings abo-jt 
a point of interest may be used for data collection. 

Areal resolution . Users needs, data sources and 
data applications and' user region will be required as 
inputs to defining spatial resolution of data for 
different data themes (e.g. soils in Fairbanks and 
soils in Medford^and forestry in Flagstaff and forestry. 
in Coeur d'Alene; forage in Duluth and forage in 
Winnemucca) . 



78 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 









Description 



! 2. 



; 2.0 



2.1 



2.1.1 



2.1.2 



2 13 



I 

| 2.1.4 



Entry of new data for creation of an initial data 
base for a data theme (incut) 



5 



Entry of new data . The information system must 
provide multiple methods of entering new data, most 
commonly from a manually useable form to a computer 
useable form. Differences in data and data source 
and number of data themes on source dictate the appro- 
priate method for data capture efficiency -and economy. 
This section focuses upon creation of the initial data 
bases and some batch processing is acceptable and 
expected. 

Entry of geographic (map) data . Geographic 
referencing or ceding of the location of map entities 
is geocoding. Methods of geccoding all data sources 
in Section 1 must be available in the information 
system to prepare graphic input. Geocoding of coordin- 
ates can be either direct (plane or terrestial) or 
indirect, map inches etc., and convertable to the 
standard coordinate system discussed in Section 9. 
Geocoding methods are part of the_ information system, 
but are prerequisites to the graphics system. Geo- 
coding methods of preparing input to the geographic 
data base must include: 

Manual digitizing of individual map enrities 



(points, lines, areas) with line vectors between 
points on a line or perimeter. Geocoding options : 
User selected points (x, y coordinates) 
Continuous points (coordinates) taken on a 
distance moved or time elapsed. 

Digital terrain model data taken at a grid of x, 
y positions regular or irregular and having some data 
elements) recorded at each position, e.g. elevation. 

Satellite imagery data processed- into acceptable 
line or cell format must be storable and retrievable 
with the graphics system. 

Raster scanning of a single theme map (and 
multiple' "heme maps with theme separation techniques). 
Scanned data for a single data theme must be separat- 
able into map entities e.g. road segments and 



d 



79 



c, 



9 



J 



J 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



i Numbs: 



Description 



uniquely identified so that data elements entered 
separately can be relaxed to the appropriate map 
entity. (Raster data converted to line data prior to 
input ) . 

2 . 2 Entry of map attributes ( data elements ) . Alpha 
numeric data descriptive of map entities is entered by 
one of the following: 

2.2.1 Key entry to cards or magnetic tape or disk. 

2.2.2 Optical character- reader input of data. 

2.2.3 Read in from an already computer readable source, 
e.g., satellite data. 

2.3 | Methods of associating data for individual map 
'entities with its corresponding set of data elements-, 
must be provided for each data entry method. 

2.M- J Data formats must accomodate the -input methods cited 
fin 2.1 and 2.2 and data sources cited in Section 1 
^including point, line, area and cell and coordinate, 
bearing-distance and other data. 



80 



•A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOP. GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
: BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



\ 



Number 



Description 



3. 
3.0 



3.1 

3.1.1 

3.1.2 

3.1.3 
3.1.4 

3.2 

3.2.1 
3.2.2 



3.3 



3.4 



3.5 



Verification and edit of new data (error detection), j 



Data verification of new input data by both computer 
and manual methods is being required. Some data 
checking may be done concurrently and inactively at the 
time of data entry, other aspects may be best done by 
patch processing. Both map and data element edits are 
crequired to remove as many machine and/or manual errors 
as possible. This section focuses upon high volume 
work of creating the initial data bases. 

Edit of geographic (map) data . Computer edit of map 
data is required to test for: 

Complete coverage (area data only) no omissions. 

Redundant coverage , identify multiple entry same 

entity . 
t 

j Area closure 
i 

Line edit for _underruns (e.g. — \ ) , ove rruns (e.g. 

No. 

Edit of data elements . Computer edit of this des- 
criptive map attribute data by data theme, and in seme 
cases multiple themes „ 

Edit each attribute (data element) for valid codes 

Edit for logical value/code relationships by 
applying cross attribute logic tests (e.g. an acceptable 
age-weight" relationship and tolerance). Logical edit 
programs are application based rather than graphics 
based software. 

Verification of map entity and map attribute linkage . 
Test for a complete match for each entity, no redundant 
matches . 

Write cut report of deviations from acceptable level 
for operator /user revision. 

Visual inspection cf map plctback and data listing 



J 






81 



ar 



■9 



J 



J 



•A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
:(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
JBLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



i 



Nuxr.be] 



4. 



4.0 



4.1 



4.1.1 



4.1.2 



4.2 



4.3 



4.4 



Description 



Revision of new initial data after edit (error 
correction) 



Revision of new .data . Correction of invalid initial 
input data may be by computer or manual method (or both) 
and utilize both batch and interactive processes. This 
revision specifically designed to facilitate creation 
of initial data bases. 

Computer only adjustment of data . Computer detection 
of erroneous, inconsistent, missing or redundant data 
to be followed by computer correction in cases where 
user judgement is not required. Output report of edit 
errors and actions taken. 

Map registration , that is computerized fitting of 
an input map to existing data on the basis of user 
selected reference poings. This corrects map errors 
sand distortion. 

''•• Map registration to standard reference coordinates 

Isystem. 
I-* 

Manual "only" adjustment of data . Manual correction 
of computer or manually detected errors. Computer 
jerror findings should isolate problems and indicate 
{their nature and if appropriate correction options . 
Manually redigitize, keypunch etc. the revision. 

Interactive man-computer adjustment of data . On-line 
map and/ or alpha-numeric data revision should be 
provided by the system, through a cathode-ray tube. 
Addition, deletion and changes of point, line, and 
area perimeter map data must be provided for high 
volume production operations. 

Match map data j map attributed data. Apply 
Sections 4.2 or 4.3 to resolve multiple matches of 
data for a map entity, vice versa, or no match. 



82 



'a' REVIEW" LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

! Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



Number 



Description 









5. 



5.1 



5.2 



Entry of nongeographic and/or other nongraphic data 

Central computer site entry of data such as payroll, 
personnel, budget, timber cruise and appraisal data 
etc. Non» geographic^but processing by other ADP 
capabilities and possibly subject to graphic outputs 
such as bar charts, line graphs, etc. Subject to 
prior definition of format. 

User site data entry of data same as above but input 
from a user terminal. 



( 



) 



83 



0- 



» 



|a review' list of options, criteria and notes for geographic 
•(ma?) data handling and graphics capabilities of a standard 
jblm information system 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



i isumoe: 



Description 






J 



J 



i Entry of change (update/ correct ion) data (input). 



6.0 



6.1 



6.1.1 



5.1.2 



6.1.2.1 



6.2 



t 6.2.1 



Entry of change data to update or correct an 
existing data base should accomodate input from all 
sources cited in the section on entry of new (initial) 
data. All of the data input methods in the new data 
section should also be available for input of change 
data. This section applies to infrequent high volume 
update and revision of data which can be done in a 
delayed timing and away from the user site. Operator, 
but not user judgment, may be required. Batch processir 
is acceptable and expected for efficiency and economy. 

Entry of geographic (map) data . Similar methods to 
section on new (initial) data entry (2.1, 2.1.1-2.1.4) 
with eaual or greater accuracy dIus : /»*& &v/*fy *J<t' m 

Map registration points in both the initial data 
jbase and the change data are required in the data. 
(This is required for computerized fitting the change 
jinput map to existing data for the data theme (cited -i: 
jdata revision section). 

Computerized integration of change data into 
existing data. Change data must be added to, deleted 



from or existing data modified by the computer. 

Insertion of revised line and area Derimeter data 



into the data base must be provided and fragments and 
remainders of lines (or areas) of the theme properly 
redefined and associated with their related data ele- 
ments and revised map statistics (area, envelope 
length etc.) calculated. Include detection of resultirjg 
sliver areas and their disposition to either retention 
as an entity or merging into adjacent area. Coordinate 
with Section 8.6. 

Entry of map attribute change (data elements) . Entry 
of alpha/numeric data for the changed map entities and/ 
or changed data for an unchanged map entity (points, • 
lines or areas in a data theme) would be the same as 
described in Section 2.2. 

Addition and deletion of data elements for all map 
entities, must be possible (will require coordination 

84 



JA REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(!1A?) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



Numbs: 



6.3 



6.4 






Description 



.with data base manager. 

Methods of associating data map and map attribute dat£ 
must be provided when these data inputs are separated 
in time, location or technique of data entry. 



Data formats must conform or be convertable to the 
existing data base. 



( 



3 



/ 



85 



fr 



o 



A REVIEW' LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 






Description 



7. Data insertion, verification and edit of change 
.data (error detection) . 

7.0 Data verification for change input data by both man- 
•ual and computer methods is required. Some data 
,checking may be done concurrently and interactively 
jwith data entry, other phases of editing may best be 
"done by batch processing. Both map and map attribute 
I data must be verified and edited. Infrequent high 
ivolume changes such as major reinventories are treated 
|in this section rather than initial data base creation 
lor daily file maintenance from the user site which is 
ito be all interactive and on-line. 



7.1 



17.1.1 



I 



J Edit of geographic (map) data . Computer edit of map 

jdata is required to test for: 
i 

Complete coverage and proper integration of 
^revised line and area perimeter data. Small remainder 
ilines and areas will have to be retained or merged 
Iwith an adjacent map entity on user defined specifica- 
tions . 






J 



7.1.2 
I 

17.1.3 

7.1.4 
7.1.5 

7.2 

7.2.1 
7.2.2 



Redundant coverage edit of lines , area perimeters , 
^identify for removal (unless inconsistent with 
Section 9.1) 



Area 



closure edit ( \/ LO )• 



Line edit overrun , underrun ( X -\ <) • 

Automate moving of a map entity to a new location 
specified by user: east, west, north, south 5 rotate. 

Edit of data elements . Computer edit of this des- 
criptive map attribute data by data theme, and in some 
cases multiple data themes. 

Edit of each attribute for valid codes . 

Edit for logical value/code relationships by 
applying cross attribute logic tests. 



86 



•A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



Description 



7.3 



7.4 



7.5 



Verification of map entity-map attribute linkage 
test for a complete match of each and no missing or 
redundant matches. 

Write out report- of deviations from acceptable level 
ifor operator/ user revision (for both man and man 
i at tributes) 

Visual inpsection of nap plotback and data listing. 



87 



c 



i) 



> 



J 



. ,'IEVf LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES :Z?. GEOGRAPHIC 
DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES ZT A S7ANDARI 
FORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1575 



(MA?) 
BLM I 



Vv-W. 



Description 



8. Revision of change data after edit (error correction) 

8.0 i Revision of change data . Correction of invalid 
j change data may be by both batch and interactive 
Iprocessses . 
i 

8.1 j Computer only adjustment of data . Same as 4.1 
i 

8.2 | Manual "only" adjustment of data . Same as 4.2 

I 

8.3 I Interactive man-computer adjustment of data . Same 

as 4.3. 

8.4 Match map data and map attribute data . Apply sec- 
tions 8.2 and 8.3 to resolve multiple matches of data 
for a map entity, vice versa. or no match. 

I 

8.5 j Conversion and compaction of data to standard forma"C . 
I 

3.6 j Insertion of edited, change data into data base. 
•Copy of corrected file reinserted into data base. 
t 

8.7 j Maintenance of change record files . Maintain 
! archival files of before, change, and after change. 
I Include date, type of change (update or correction of 
■map or attribute data or both). 



88 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FC?. GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES CF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



9.2 



9.1 



q -2 

3 . w 



9.1+ 



9.5 



Description 



_1 



Conversion of various input data to a standard fcr- 
.mat and data comcaction (coordinate with Section 10) 



Identify, format, convert and compact data to stand- 
ard data format which will result in a minimum combined 
cost (considering: data storage, data processing, and 
data transmission) and a large scale to small scale map 
range which is large enough to introduce significant 
geodetic errors into a two dimensional map. Accept anc 
convert all data sources cited. 

Convert entered coordinated data from input device 
(units digitizer, scanner cell, etc., into the standard 
| geographic data base requirements. Convert all data 
themes to the standard to be used in the data base. 

Use adequate precision in geodetic location coord- 
nates to store data for large scale map use for some 
data themes. 

| Calculate the map statistics for geographic data filds 
jand each individual map entity in each theme, which are 
.'needed for graphics manipulations, e.g., envelopes, 
centroids, etc., and quasi "data elements" such as 
(acreage,, line length, etc. 

i 

j Merge or otherwise relate map, map attribute data an d 

man sxatistic data. 



( 



89 



e> 



v) 



j 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
IBLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Kitrr.Va-r. 



10. 



10.1 



10.2 



10.3 



10.6 



10.7 



10.8 



10.9 



10.10 



DescriDtion 



; Store map and data elements; do geographic data base 
management and interface with data base management 



Partition the data base geographically and hier- 
archically for rapid and efficient retrieval of any 
;data at any scale for any arbritrary area nationwide 
|(where coverage is desired) . 

j Define a local coordinate storage scheme for data 
'themes within a geographic partition (see also and 
(coordinate with 9.1). 

Store for each partition as many separate data themes 



[as required to define all single and multiple attribute 

(data theme reauired by users for the partition. 

1 

10. 4 j Store frequently used data theme composites (see 
[Section 22) of separate data themes with each partition 

i 

10.5 ! Refine the data structure to interface with the DBMS 

• __________.____________________-___^_____________^___-^__-_________-^_— __ 

Ito Dermit data retrieval by logical and relational 

j * w ^ 

(associations of attributes within both a-. partition 
land an arbitrarily shaped area defined by a user which 



:may span more than one partition. 

Store work map files being created by a user or 
modified copies of the data base files being used in 
studies (such as alternative analyses). 



Insure that the DBMS is properly instructed to up- 
date each of the Dointer files (which relate data loca- 



tions in the files) when authorized updates to coordin- 
ate data are received. 

Protection of data base from accidental catastrophic 
damages by including sophisticated data base integrity 



checks and recovery. 

Creation of copy of files for data protection when 
files are revised. 

Security of files from oten access fcscme confiden- 
tial and sensitive information. 



90 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



( 



Number 



Description 



10 . 11 j ; Data base accessible from multiple locations and 

devices . Use time sharing techniques to allow sharing 



access to a data base through a communications network, 



< 



^ 



C 






91 



f e> 



) 



J 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
I (MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
'BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



fcumoer 



11. 

11.1 



11.2 



11.3 



11.4 



11.5 



11. 5.1 



11.5.2 



Description 



User implements commands for data use applications 

Command control level . A command interpreter should 
serve as a central control level for invoking system 
capabilities. The interpreter is software which is 
responsible for checking the command for valid syntax- 
( format) and valid verbs. The interpreter would then 
jinvoke the system function associated with the verb, 
land also pass the related parameters to that function 
[through a standard area (core and disk file). When 
[errors are encountered, the interpreter should provide 
{complete error diagnostics including corrective options 

Error handling . A discipline for error handling, 
diagnostic generation, control traceback, and break- 
jpoint interrupt handling should be adopted across all 
jsystem functions requiring these facilities . Under 
[this dicipline, it should be possible for interrupt 
<of a function at one level to be detected at levels 
'jabove it. 
i 

\ User access location . Serve users who are resource 
{specialists, clerks, line and staff people with avail- 
able services from user sites; districts, state offices 
-service center and headquarters. Users mustjiot be 
'required to have programming skills. 

Estimate of cost. The kind of service desired and 
number and size of data base themes should be entered 
and formulas used for estimating cost and time to 
accomplish 'the service under different priority levels. 
User specification of priority and type of processing 
can then be done. 

Processing type and priority . Cost and immediacy of 
of user need will influence user specification a 
processing method. 

Interactive on-line processing of the data including 
manipulations in Sections 12-24 and output Section 25. 
This is appropriate for most small areas (Resource Area 
or Planning Unit) and/or simpler data sets over larger 
areas . 



Remote job entry of a jcb for off-line batch proces- - 
s.ia g- T ^i~h_jjiie.r-a£^.i ve^jn - 1 i r.e_s_e.t. _up_£>.f_ . t he pno s.es.siRg - . 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



Description 



11.6 

11.6.1 
11.6.1, 



job(s). This is appropriate for complex map composit- 
ing, summaries, etc., requiring long processing times. 

Alternative levels of user interface and system 
prompting response should be provided for infrequent 
users and frequent users. 



I 



i 11.6.1. 



Keyboard entered commands with English-like phrases 



■ Command syntax should follow a uniform format 
such as: 

(label) (verb) (positional parameters) 
(label) (verb) (keyword = parameters) 

Saving of user-defined command sequences for 
Subsequent use as procedures composed of system defined 
(Commands. (Sec S««.ti»o 2&S") 



11.6.1.35 



Abort processing command to interrupt processing 



[the previous command and return the system to a known 
status such as a return to the command monitor (to 
receive a new user command) . 
I 



11.6.2 



t 

I 



Command entrv bv selection of action from menu can 



e used when a few fixed options or functions are avail- 
able. Menus may be slower than keyboard commands but 
they may give more prompting and guidance about options 
to users. 

11.6.2.1 Used in lieu of keyboard command entry by users 
preferring menus . 



11.6.2, 



11.7 



11. 7.1 



Menu may appear on screen for use in choosing 
commands by using graphic crosshairs, typing a name 
(from a list), indicating choice with a graphic tablet 
cursor (electronic pointer), by number key, by pressure 
sensitive points on a tablet, light pen (electronic 
pointer) etc. 

System request for user response should be uniform 
and include: 

Audible sound signal used to indicate readiness for 
another command. 



( 







) 



J 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 


(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 


BLK INFORMATION SYSTEM 


Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1375 


Number | Description 


11.7.2 


Prompt symbol on the user device (CRT screen) such 




as a flashing light . 








. 










1 





















































94 



;a re vie::. 1137 or options, criteria and itotes ?:?. geographic 

(HAP) LA'.' A HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 

3lm :::?,;-:: at i on system 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1375 



Description 



D.2. 0-5 



12.0 



Entry of change (update/correction) data (input ) 
.interactively on-line and from user- site 

I Entry of change data to update or correct an existing 
|data base should accomodate input data from user site 
^devices (which should therefore have suitable resolu- 
tion for map input). Change is done for only one data 
;theme map at a time. Map and attribute changes are to 
!be completed for a map entity under a computer prompt 
Isequence leading the user through the process . Map 
^changes should be shown on the CRT screen in refresh 
slines not fixed until acceptable edit has been achiev- 
ied. Old and changed attributes (data elements) are to 
!be listedCedited until OK. 



12.1 



i 



Entry at geographic (map) data Similar methods to 



112.1.1 



12.1.2 



12.1.2.1 



{section on new (initial) data entry (2.1, 2.1.1) with 
equal or greater accuracy plus map entity addition, 
deletion, or partial change. 

Map registration points in both the initial data 
base and the change data are required in the data. This 
is required for computerized fitting the change input 
imap to existing data for the data theme (cited in data 
revision section). 

Computerized integration of change data into ex- 
isting data Change data must be added to, deleted 
jfrom or existing data modified by the computer. 

Insertion of revised line and area perimeter data 



12.2 



into the data base must be provided and fragments and 
remainders of lines (or areas) of the theme properly 
redefined and associated with their related data ele-. 
ments and revised map statistics (area, envelope length 
etc.) calculated. Include deletion of resulting 
sliver areas and their disposition to either retention 
as an entity or merging into an adjacent area.' 

I Entry of map attribute change (data elements ) Entry 
of alpha/numeric data for the changed map entities and/ 
or changed data for an unchanged map entity (points, 
lines, or areas in a data theme) would be the same as 
described in section 2.2 



95 



■ "~> 






'"> 



V 



) 



J 



A REVIEW 1 LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAFHIC 
(MA?) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BUS INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



12.2.1 



12.3 



|12.4 
I 



12, 



Description 



i Addition and deletion of data elements for all 
pap entities must be possible (will require coordina- 
tion with database manager). 

Methods of associating data Map and map attribute 
•data must be provided when their data inputs are 
{separated in time, location or technique of data entry. 



r 



A cursor (cross hairs or other electronic pointer de- 



vice could meet this requirement . ) 

Data formats must conform or be convertible to the 



existing data base. 
l 



i Visible highlighting of change data both attribute 
jand map changes until editing is complete. 

i 



96 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES CF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



i 



Descrin tion 



12.6-11 



12.5 



12.7 



12.7.1 



12.7.2 



12.7.3 



12.7.4 



12.7.5 



12.3 



12.3.1 



12.3.2 



Insert data, do verification and edit of change data 

; ( error detection) interactively on-line and from user- 

'site 
i 

Data verification for change input data by both 
(manual and computer methods is required. Some data 
'checking may be done concurrently and interactively 
[with data entry, other phases of editing may best be 
idone by batch processing. Both map and map attribute 
| data must be verified and edited. Medium volume daily 
(file maintenance from the user site, interactive and 
| on-line 3 rather than infrequent, high volume changes 
[are treated in this section. 



Edit of geographic (map) data . Computer edit of 
imap data is required to test for: 

I 

| Complete coverage and proper integration of re- 

: vised line and area perimeter data must be verified, 
i Small remainder lines and areas will have to be re- 
gained or merged with an adjacent map entity on user 
| defined specifications. 



} 



Redundant coverage edit of line, area perimeters, 
identify for removal (unless inconsistent with section 
9.1) 

Area closure edit 

Line edit overrun, underrun (-4-, — \ ) 

Automatic moving of a map entity to a new location 
specified by the user: east, west, north, south, ro- 
tate. 

Edit of data elements . Computer edit of this des- 
criptive map attribute data by data theme , and in some 
cases multiple data themes. 

Edit of each attribute for valid codes 

Edit for logical value/ code relationships by 
applying cross attribute logic tests (tnis is user 
application software). 



( 



w 



t> 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Nunyaer 



Description 



.2.9 ; Verification of map entity-map attribute linkage ; 
test for a complete match of each and no missing or 
redundant matches. 

12.10 Write out report on CRT of deviations from accep- 
table level for operator/user revision for both map 

and map attributes) 

12.11 Visual inspection of map CRT plotback and data 
listing. 



V 



) 



J 



98 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC i 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD j 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM j 



Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



i 






Description 



12.12-16. Revision of change data after edit (error correction' 



interactively on-line and from user-site 



12.12 

12.12.1 
12.12.2 
12.12.3 

12.13 

12. ia 
12.15 



Revision of change data . Correction of invalid 
change data may be by both batch and interactive 
processes . 

Computer 'only ''adjustment of data . Same as 4-.1. 

Manual "only" adjustment of data . Same as M- . 2 . 



Interactive man-computer adjustment of data . S ame 



jas ^.3. 

Match map data and map attribute data . Apply sec- 
jtions 8.2 and 8.3 to resolve any multiple matches of 
idata for a map entity, vice versa or no match. 

i 

Co nversion and compaction of data to standard format . 

Complete edit . Users will be required to ; 



a 12.15.1 J Complete all map and/or attribute changes and edit 
3 i until acceptable, or 

112.15.2 Abort the change and accept the initial condition,, 

12.15 Maintenance of change record files. Maintain archi- 

i 

val files of before, change and after change. Include 
data, type of change, (update or correction of map, or 
attribute data or both) 



K 



99 



o 






J 



J 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



•Number 



Description 



13.1-5 



13.1 



13.* 



13.2.1 



I 13.2.2 



j 
t 

\ 13.2.3 



13.3 



; 13.4 



13.5 



I Enter new data for creation of an initial data base 
j for a data theme (input) interactively on-line and 
from user- site 



Entrv of new data from user site interactively and 

■ 

on-line . Users must have the capability to create 



relatively simple new data themes from the user termi- 
nal using a map input device and source document of 
acceptance accuracy for the intended use . Similar to 
Section 2 but done from user -site.. new data themes 
m«v be special study area boundaries 7 an evolving 
Management Framework Plan (MFP) areas, etc". - Coordi- 
nation with data base manager is required to obtain 
file space. 

Registration of map to be entered to existing refer- 
ence base map in the data base. Designate equivalent 
[points to: 

\ 

Register the map and provide the basis for 
| computer fitting of the new map the stored map and 



Correction of shrinkage or distortion in the incut 



i 

i map , and 

3asis for converting incut coordinates to the 
'standard coordinates of the data base. 

Entry of the new map by manual digitizing at the 
user using a device like a graphic data tablet. New 
map entry'displayed on a CRT as data is entered (over 
other themes ) . 

Definition of map attributes , existing or new to be 
associated with the data theme being created. Coor- 
dinate this activity with data base manager to avoid 
redundancy and get space 

Entry of attribute data for the new map. The data 
elements associated with the new map theme must be 
entered and associated with each map entity. 



100 



iA REVIEW ' LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES EC?. GEOGRAPHIC 
j(I!AP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OE A STANDARD 
3LM INEOENATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1375 



( 






DescriDtion 



13.6 



13.6 



Enter new data for creation of an initial data base 
]for a data theme (input) interactively on-line and 
jfrom user site , con't. 

Verification and edit of new data by visual examina- 
tion of the map image and data elements listed on a 
;CRT and by computer methods . 
i 



[13.6.1 

jp.3.6.1, 
113.6.1. 

13.6.1. 

13.5.1, 

13.6.2 



13.6.2.1 



Edit of ~ geographic (map) data . Computer edit of 
imap data is required to test for: 



1 



Complete coverage (area data only) no omissions 



2 Redundant coverage , identify multiple entry same 
jentity 



Area closure 

Line edit for overruns (e.g., ^T~) , underruns 
<(e.g.,-/) 

i 



Edit of data elements . Computer edit of this des- 
criptive map attribute data by dara theme , and in some 

leases multiDle themes. 

i 

i 

} 



Edit each attribute (data element) for valid 



jcodes 



13.6.2.2 



13.7 



id.; 



13,9 



Edit for logical value/ code relationships by 
applying cross attribute logic tests (e.g., an accep- 
table age-weight relationships and tolerance). Logi- 
cal edit programs are application based rather than 
graphics . 

V erification of map entity and map attribute linkage 
test- for, a complete match for each enxity , no redun- 
dant matches . 

Write out report of deviations from acceptable level 
for operator/user revision 

Visual inspection of map display and data listing. 



101 






) 



A REVIEW. LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC j 



(MA?) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



Number 



Description 



13.10 ; Revision of new initial data after edit (error 
j correction ) 
i 

13.10 Revision of new data . Correction of invalid initial 
input data may be by computer or manual method (or 
j both) and utilize both batch and interactive processes 
jThis revision specifically designed to facilitate 
creation of initial data bases. 



13.10.1 Computer only adjustment of data . Computer detec- 
tion of erroneous, inconsistent, missing or redundant 
| data to be followed by computer correction in cases 
! where user judgment is not required. Output report of 
edit errors and actions to us***i 

13.10.1.1 Map registration , that is computerized fitting 
of an inpur map to existing data on the basis of user 
selected reference points. This corrects map errors 
and distortion 



13 



,10.1.1 



13.10.2 



Map registration to standard reference 

j coordinate system 
i ' 

! 
i 

j Manual "only" adjustment of data . Manual correc- 
tion of computer or manually detected errors. Ccm- 



13.10.3 



13.10.1+ 



j outer error findings should isolate Droblems and indi- 
icate their nature and if appropriate correction op- 
itions. Manually redigitize, keypunch, etc., the revi- 
sion. 

..... Interactive man-computer adjustment of data . On- 
line map and/or alpha-numeric data revision should be 
provided by the system through a cathode-ray tube. 
Addition deletion and changes of point, line, area 
perimeter, and map data must be provided for high 
volume production operations . 

Match map data and map attribute data . Apply sec- 
tions M-.2 or 4.3 to resolve multiple matches of data 
for a map entity, vice versa or no match. 



102 



i a review list 0" options, criteria and notes for geographic 
! u1a?) data handling and graphics capabilities cp a standard 
blm information system 

Graphics Study Team, December 13, 1975 



v,,_-_ -^ 



Description 









14. 



14.1 



|14.2 

i 



Reformation of data variables : data elements 
attributes and data nor related to maps) and map 
[statistics 

I Variable reformation . The user must be able to 
[specify data element manipulations necessary to put 
•the data for each map entity into the best form for 
juse in responding to his need. For example, if volume 
of wood on each mapped area is needed the user should 
Ibe able to form and use a composite variable for area 
{volume : . , 

Data element x map statistic -V* S^ *<*> ^ v *- «- lcu * eKr 
Wood volume per acre x Acres £o«- a.*ce- v/*Vu.*v\€ 



i 
1 

Reformation methods 

{must include addition, subtraction 

jplication, exponentiation, etc. 



Arithmetic reformation methods 
division, multi- 



J 



i 



103 



r 




) 






lA REVISE LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES TOR GEOGRAPHIC 
I (MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES CP A STANDARD 
J3LM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1375 



Description 



15. 
15.1 






.15.2 
3 

115.2.1 

1 



15.2.2 

! 

: 
i 
j 15.2.3 



115.2.4 



15.3 



Do conversions of map data format and coordinates . 

Purpose of map conversion . For high speed and/or 
jlower cost map compositing or map display output in a 
different map projection (e.g., a Lambert Conic Con- 
formal projection to a Universal Tranverse Mercator 
[projection) it is required that the information system 
ibe capable of doing map conversion. The system would 
'assume the standard case unless a user specified 
[Otherwise. 

{ Map, form conversions 

i_ _ 

•< _ Area polygons to cells of user specifiable size 
] (e.g., 1 mile by 1 mile, 1 meter by 1 meter, 10 ft 
!by 10 ft). 

1 Lines to cells containing part of the line. 



I 



!cell. 



Points to cell containing point, point count per 



Cell data to points, line and area data 



MaD oroiection conversions. To simolify and reduce 
cost of data storage map data would be stored in one 
standard projection such as Universal Transverse Mer- 
cator. Input data from other projections would be 
converted to the standard for storage and output maps 
requiring a different projection would be converted 
prior to drawing of the map . 



104 



iA REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
I (MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
|BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



! 



wuniper 



Description 



16 



15.1 



16.1.1 



Perform data retrieval, users at user-site terminal 

i 

Retrieval of locational data . Users must be able to 
ispecify retrieval and output map display or tabular 
lists of map entity data on the basis of a data ele- 
■ment and/or geographic location parameters . 
| 

Retrieval on data element map statistic data bases . 



(Use any combination of map attribute data elements, 
'and/or map statistics or reformed data (see Sect. 14-) 
[to do this selective retrieval. For example: select 
jand write or display only entities which are: color = 
| green, age greater than, 35 and less than 4-6, etc. 
I 
16.1.2 | Retrieval on locational relationships . Select on 
f basis of points within an area, lines within an area, 
jareas within an area. For example wells in a resource 
'area, roads in a district, critical water's hed in a 



116.1.3 
t 



I 16. 1.3.1 






township . 

Retrieval on location basis, geographic window . 
Any arbitrary area may be used as a retrieval and/or 
display basis. Windowing capability options for 
defining an area for processing or map display follow 

Automatic scaling . Computer calculation of the 
scale which will just fit the area to be displayed 
orf\ the DaDer or screen area available. 



16.1.3.2 Window in is a command "zooms in" enlarging a 
user defined subarea on an existing display to a 
smaller area (results in a larger but unspecified map 
scale). 



16.1.3.3 



16.1.3.4 



Window out is command which "zooms out" reducing 
the existing display area map scale and displaying a 
larger scale and displaying a larger area (results in 
a smaller but unspecified map scale). 

Window with specified scale. A fixed map scale 
and poinx (e.g., center of desired display) may be 
used to designate a window area for display. 



105 



> 






j 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



Description 



16.1.3.5! Window to an area defined by named entities 

(e.g., townships) at the outer corners of a desired 
display (e.g., a set of 16 Master Title Plats) 



16.1.3.6 



16.1.3.7 



16.1.3.8 



16.1.3.9 



15.1.4 



16.1.5 



16.1.6 



Window to specified coordinates . Window to and 
do processing or display on the basis of user speci- 
fied coordinates for corners of the area. 

Window save . The user must be able to define 
and save any arbitrary area for future use in speci- 
fying processing or map display. For example an area 
containing a planning unit, study area, etc. might be 
specified. 

Window to saved area . Users must be able to 
designate a saved area (see 16.1.3.7) during subse- 
quent work. 

Deletion of saved window . Saved named windows 
must be subject to user deletion when they are no 
longer needed. 



Map entity selection . Users must be able to select 
an individual map entity (point line or area) from a 
data theme by a graphic pointer (movable crosshair or 
other electronic pointer). Once selected the user may 
switch from a map to a listing of data elements for 
the area, revise its shape, delete it, etc. 

Proximity selection . Users should be able to 
retrieve entities within a user specified distance 
frpnL points, _or- lines, or areas having given charac- 
teristics . 

Select on basis of edge characteristics . Retrieve 
data for processing or display on the basis of an edge 
characteristic (e.g., all areas bordering on elk 
wintering areas ) . 



106 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MA?) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



Description 



16.2 

16.2.1 

15.2.1. 
16.2.1, 
16.2.1, 



16.2.1.4 



16.2.2 



Retrieve location . The user should be able to find 
out what area is displayed if use has been interrupted, 

• Find and label the display of map or data listing 
with the area covered. 

Window name 

Coordinates for corners of the display 

Township Range reference for whole map or map 
corners 

Coordinates of a poin t indicated by the user witl 
an electronic pointer . 

Find and display coordinates of line intersection. 
Compute and display location of the intersection of 
two designated lines (in one or different data themes). 



107 



o 



) 






: A review list of options, criteria and notes for geographic 

[(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
jBLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



1 HT 

i Nunib* 



~ i 



i^ 7 



il7.1 



17.2 



17.3 



17.4 



17.5 



17.5 



Description 



Do mathematical manipulations 

Arithmetic manipulation Users must be able to spec- 
ify arithmetic manipulations on data including re- 
formation of data (section 140 and sorts, sort sum- 
maries, application of logical operations, limited 
statistical operations and formula application. 

Data sorting The user must be able to specify 
criteria and do sorting into multilevel strata. Mul- 
tiple sort levels (e.g. up to 9) need to be provided. 
For example, sort by District, planning unit, vegeta- 
tion class, vegetation age, and slope. 

Data summation The user must be able to summarize 
data in selected data elements and map statistics for 
all data in an area and by sorted levels. For example 
sort vegetation by resource area and age, class and 
sum acres by each age class (1, 10, 20 etc.) The user 
must also be able to specify the output, location and 
device (e.g. user site cathode-ray tube). Other ex- 
amples: map entity counts, sums of data elements and 
sums of reformed variables . 



Apply logical operators Users must be able to speci- 
fy the application of logic to individual map entities 
for data retrieval and other manupilations . For ex- 
ample retrieve and display areas with no vegetation 
and which have slopes over 90 percent. Logical opera- 
tors include MID, OR, NOT EQUAL, EQUAL, GREATER THAN, 
ETC. 

Limited statistical capabilities Users should be 
able to apply simple statistical procedures to data 
without shifting to a full statistical capability 
program. Users should be able to 

sum data 

count entities 

calculate means 

calculate standard deviations 

Apply formulas including weighting functions Do area 
calculations, grade calculations, distance calculations 
etc. 



108 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
IBLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



! Number 



18 



13.1 



18.2 



Description 



Apply other ADP capabilities 

Other ADP capabilities Automatic data processing 
capabilities with geographic data include mapping, map 
compositing and other map data handling- Other ADP 
capabilities described under the Strategic Plan should 
also be accessible to the user from his location and 
provided with a self help guide to users . Text pro- 
cessing such as composition, update. and special pro- 
cesses such as time series analysis and simulation 
model processing should also be provided through the 
user-site terminal. 

Access to nongraphic processing An effort will be 
made to make nongraphic processing available to user 
sites and non programmer users., Such processing would 
be set up so the computer prompted the user and guided 
his use of the computer. 



109 



V 



A 






V 



3 









A RE VIE".;. LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR 'GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



lumzir 






19 
19.1 

19.2 



119.3 



19.4 



19.5 



19.5 



19.7 



Description 



Process topographic information 

i . 

! Topographic data ToDograDhic data storage may be in 

the form of contours or in positional coordinates with 

[elevation data. 

Do contouring The geographic-graphic system should 
(convert data to required contour interval and display 
'the data. 

Calculate seen area The system should process ter- 
rain data to find the area which can be seen from a 
{point, or a series of points along a line. For ex- 
iample: what area can be seen from points along a wild 
land scenic waterway. 

I Calculate slope aspect areas Calculate from terrain 
(data (x, y coordinates and elevations) map area entity 
|which have slopes within user defined intervals. For 
.'example: define areas which are homogeneous for slope 
jpercent classes such as : , 1-5, 5-25, 26-55,56-76, 76+. 
r 

1 Calculate a profile along a line Develop a cross 
section profile between designated points. For ex- 
ample: a road, profile, pipeline profile, cable log- 
ging profile etc. 

Perspective view Calculate and prepare for output 
to paper or CRT a perspective view of a terrain model 
from a user specified location and elevation. 

Surface presentation of data Display in perspective 
nontopcgraphic data such as volume per acre, population 
density, traffic use (tons per mile per year) etc. as 
a third (elevation) axis. The third dimension could 
be used like elevation to show a surface. 



no 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLn INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



20 
20.1 



20.2.1 

i 

!20 . 2 . 2 
20.2.3 
20.2.4 



Description 



Do graphics for non-gecgraphic data 



Do nongeographic graphics : Calculate sums and 

P 1 



proportions of geographic and nongeographic data. 



20.2 i Display nongeographic output Draw to user specified 



(Size. 



s 



! 



Pie charts 



Bar charts 



Line graphs 



Plot results of other ADP capability processing 
je.g. linear regression graphs 





. 














































; 




• 













V 



J 



J 



in 



) 






A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES 0? A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



Nunbe: 



21. 



21.1 



21.2 



21.2.1 



21.2.2 



Description 



Interactive user analysis of graphic image 

User interaction with graphic image . The user fre- 
quently needs to calculate and know limited measure- 
ments about a map so limited direct user analysis 
should be provided. 

User quantification . Map statistic data should be 
available for each map entity in a data theme in the 
data base . Area and length measures should be avail- 
able to the users for the superimposed themes in any 
cathode-ray tube map display. Other interactive 
changes should also be possible for cosmetic adjust- 
ment prior to copying or plotting. 

Area computation using an electronic pointer to 
define an area in a CRT display. 

Perimeter and/or length computation of a line or 
area or between rwo designated points. 



21.2.3 



Label adjustment , repositioning, so that annota- 
tion will nox overlaD other annotation. 



112 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
3LM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



22 



22.1 



22 


.1 


,1 


22 


» ate 


.2 


22 


.1 


.3 


22 


,1 


A 


22 


.1 


5 


22 


.1 


,6 


22 


.2 





22.2.1 
22.2.2 
22.2.3 



22.3 



Description 



Create composite map and map attribute data themes 
(overlay) 



Data compositing . Data compositing in the merging 
of two or more data themes (map and attribute data) 
to create a new data theme. Separate maps mathemati- 
cally combined to create the new map and a merged set 
of data elements associated with each of the new map 
entities. This process is sometimes called map over- 
lay and it is like but more than the physical overlay 
of different themes. .New map statistics are calcu- 
lated for the map entities in the composite. Data 
theme composites of the following kinds are required. 

Area and area , e.g., Soil and vegetation 

Area and line patch, e.g., soil and road 

Area and point , e.g., spotted owl nests and vege- 
tation 

Line and line , e.g., road and waterway 

Line and point , uncommon, may not be necessary 

Point and point , uncommon s may not be necessary 

Apply logical operations . The user must be able to 
make inquiries on the composites using logical opera- 
tions (Boolean algebra). 

Intersection (I), e.g., soil P and vegetation S 

Union (U) , e.g., either soil P or vegetation S 

Remainder (R), e.g., soil P but not vegetation S 

Apply logical operations to different composite 
types . Combinations of 22.1 and 22.2 should include 





the following: 



112 



r > 






A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) .DATA. HANDLING. AND. GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



Description 



22.4 



22.5 



22.6 






: 



22.6.1 



22.6.2 



2^.6.-3- <* 



22,7 



Operation 



Intersection 



Union 



Remainder 



Area S Area 



P and S 



either 
P or S 



P £ not S 



Composite Type 



Area S Line 



P and S 



Not 

applicable 



P S not S 



Area S Point 



P and S 



Not 

aDDlicable 



P and not S 



Apply map composite procedures to data in a cell for 
mat. For approximations and economy data may be first 
converted to cell format (see section 15.2) prior to 
compositing. 

Change data prior to composite . Prior to a compo- 
site operation it may be desirable to create a simpli- 
fied data theme(s). Selective retrieval could be used 
to isolate the parts of the map and data applicable to 
the users problem. The purpose would be to make the 
results clearer, or reduce the time and cost for pro- 
cessing, (see section 16 on retrieval). 

Set up by user . The user interface must provide for 
user specifications which tailor the composite to his 
needs-. Interactive on-line, ^ c '\o setup from the users 
location for later off-line processing requires that 
the user specify: 

Area to be composited (e.g., District x, planning 
unit y-, window- -currently displayed on the cathcde-ray 
tube, etc.) 

Data themes to be composited - (e .g. , soils, lands, 
planning unit, selected vegetation). 



Disposition" of- composited file .. The user should - 
designate the length of time that the file should be 
saved. 

Do data file housekeeping;. 

— 

c -■ ~ "Maintai^r file lists the system should enter the 
composite file name into data lists for subsequent 
use or user housecleaning elimination (coordinate with 
section 10 and data base.) 

114 



;a re viz;." list of options, criteria and notes 



GE03RAPH2C 



| (MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES CE A STANDARD 
BLM INFOPJIATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



22.7.2 






""^ 



Descriotion 



Calculate map statistics . Map statistics such as 
.area length, etc", should be calculated for each map 
I entity and these stored with the file, (coordinate 
with section 9 on data compaction). 



) 



J 



115 



> 



) 









A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAE) JDATA .HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD ~ 
3LM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



^umoer 



23. 



23.1 



23.1.1 



23.1.2 



23.2 



Description 



Aggregate like areas as defined by users 

Aggregate similar areas. The user should be able to 
define less complex maps by entering specifications 
for combining areas of similar characteristics. Two 
purposes are: 

Scale reduction : A map with great detail and 
suitable at a large scale (1 inch = 1000 ft) may be 
needed at a smaller scale (such as 1/2 inch = 1 mile) 
for generalization of „ a data theme. If the map was 
originally stored with soil type and slope the user 
may wish to aggregate to only sets of many soil types 
and ignoring slope . 

Data simplification : Generalized data may be 
needed even without a scale change (see 23.1.1 for 
example) . 

Disolve unnecessary lines : Internal lines in an 
aggregated area should not be drawn on a map output. 



116 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
3LM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10,. 1975 



Nunber 



24. 

24.1 

24.1.1 



24.1.2 



24.2 



24.3 

24.3.1 
24.3.2 
24.3.3 
24.3.4 
24.4 



24.4.1 
24.4.2 
24.4.3 



Descriotion 



Do utility functions 

Keep data secure 

Limit access . The system should provide ways to 
limit who will have access or who will not have access 
to look at data (map and/or some or all attribute 
data). For example archeological data, personnel data 
and fiscal data may need to be wholy or partially 
restricted. 

Limit data changing . Users may need to limit who 
is authorized to actually modify the data. For 
example users in Arizona should not change data in 
Wyoming and perhaps soil scientists should not change 
wildlife data without coordination with the wildlife 
man. 



Save work ccpy of a file . The system should provide 
a user command to create a copy of a file and save it. 
For example an evolving action plan or an evolving 
revision of a Management Framework Plan needs to be 
saved and be separate from a current official file . 

Keep a use record . The system should provide users 
with a record of use : 

Who used i t 

What functions use d 

Data themes used 

Data elements used 

Help the user . . The system should help the user by 
providing geographic and graphic data handling op- 
tions (coordinate with section 11 and user assistance 
section 18). 

Direcxcrv of capabilities 



Directorv of data themes 



Director"/ of data elements 



» 



C 



117 









A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



Number 



Description 



21.4.4 
24.4.5 
24.4.6 
24.5 



24.5.1 



24.5.2 



24.6 



Directory of geographic windows 
Directory of map symbols 



Etc. 



24.6.1 
24.6.2 
24.6.3 
24.6.4 



Save a set of user commands ♦ Users should be able 
to save a complex set of commands which have been 
generated to manipulate and/or display data. Reuse 
of a command set permits. 

Easy generation of standard outputs such as maps 
or reports on a repetitive basis tyt 

User addition of current parameters such as : 
display area, date, map scale, data themes, etc. may 
need to be provided for in the saved command set. 

Create svmbols. Users should be able to inter- 
actively design and create symbols required for map 
'annotation where these do not exist in a symbol file, 
j These must be*. 

Entered 

Edited 

Revised 

Designated for incorporation into maD outDut 







24.7 

24.7.1 
24.7.2 

24.7.3 



Create areas around Doints , lines, or areas. The 
system must be able to generate areas around points , 
lines or areas. Area creation is on the basis of: 

Data element (s ) having user specified values and/oi 

User specified map entities , designated indivi- 
dually with an electronic pointer while the entity 
is displayed on a CRT, 



Purposes of area creation ar e to use the created a 
as part of a new data theme (e.g . , creation of a buff ei 
zone along a road or waterway in the development of a 
land use (MFP) plan. Map compositing of created areas 



re< 



113 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



Number 



Description 



24. 7. ^ 



would permit quantification _( e.g. , what and how much 
vegetation is in areas created around eagle nests). 

. Sizing of created area would be controlled by user 
specifying width of area. Areas around map entities 
are illustrated below; .v 



Point; ( • } 



Line 



Area 




-.' 



119 



o 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



Description 



25. 
25.1 

25.1.1 



25.1, 
25.1, 
25.1, 
25.1, 



25 



25 
25 






1.5 
1.7 
2 



25.3 



25.3.1 



25.3.2 



— — *-^_«_— _• C — 



Specification of output by users 

Put output on desired device . Users should be able 
to specify the output device. Available options need 
to include ; 

Cathode-ray tube (CRT) terminal screen at the 
user- site 

CRT paper copier (called a hard copy device) 

Printer 

Alpha-numeric terminal 

Flatbed map plotter 

File storage 

Etc ., 

Default output . If the user does not define ex- 
plicitly the device , scale , title or content the 
system should, have a fallback assumption for output, 
e.g., CRT, automatic scaling window related to termi- 
nal location, etc. If insufficient information is 
given the system should make inquiries of the user. 

Specify map output 

Define map content . Users should be able to 
specify the data themes and apply selective criteria 
(data element, window, etc. see section 16). For J 
example : the user may want a map of land status 
(all), roads (all) and forage (but only forage areas 
of a high production , class ) . 



Define map area . The user should be able to 
specify the map area and/or scale_ of output map_._ 
section 16.1 for these retrieval capabilities. 



See 



..-Specify line tyoes for drawing macs. The user-- 
should be able to customize the output map by picking 
line types (dashed, dotted, solid, etc.) while remain- 
ing within some standard line use pattern. 

_ 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1975 



.ur^e 



bpr< 



Description 



25.3.3.1 



- _ :-- JTT" _ vc 



25.3.4 



25.3.4.1 



25.3.4.2 



25.3.4.3 



25.4.1 



Instruct system to draw an offset line . Display 
of a congruent boundary of an area (multiple boundaries 
along the same line) may require a slight offset to 
distinguish different lines as separate and distinct 
(e.g., master title plat line codes). 

Specify map annotation (labeling ) . Users should 
have control of wha~ annotation is put on each map 
entity displayed. 

Specify map attribute (s ) labeling, one or multi- 
ple, for each map entity to be put on the map (e.g., 
section number of the section area). 

Specify map statistic labeling for the map (e.g. 
map acres for each soil area) . 

Specify map symbols for the output map . Users 
should be able to define map symbols to be used on a 
[map. For example: put well symbols at each well 
jlocation. 

Define maD outDut cosmetics. The user should be 

- 

able to specify the map and have the system output on 
the map the following: 






25.4.1.1 

25 

25 

25 

25.4.1.5 



,4.1.2 
,4.1.3 
.4.1.4 



25.4.1.6 



Title 

User name 

Data and time 

Legend of line types and symbols 

Location of title , legend, etc. , on non CRT map 
output-with-interaetive moving of these on a CRT pre- 
view of the plot , also interactive moving of annota- 
tions to a clear area if they overlap. (Up, down, left, 
right and rotate). 

Scale of the map on CRT, paper copy of CRT, 
plotter-, etc- »- include bar and numeric scale (e.g., 
either 1" = 1 mile or 1:63,360), include a bar scale. 



121 




Cs. 



J : . 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLM INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



Description 



25.5 



25.5.1 



25.5.2 



25.6 
25.6.1 
25.6.2 
25.6.3 
25. 6. if 



25.6.5 

25.7 



25.7.1 



25.7.1. 
25.7.1. 
25.7.1. 
25.7.1, 



Instruction for shading or cross hatching map or 
graph. The user should be able to set two kinds of 
shading. 

Fixed shading /hatching of areas (or along lines) 
having a user specified attribute (e.g., critical 
elk winterfeed). 

Propertional shading or hatching according to 
class intervals defined by the user. For example: 
light if age 0-20, medium if age 21-80, dark if over 
age 80. 

Set up graphs . The user must define graph output by 

Picking data axis for data elements to be graphed 

Selecting s caling units for each axis . 

Labeling pie charts, bar graphs, etc. 

Shading pie and bar charts 

Draw graphs on CRT and/or plotter 

Specify alpha-numeric output > Display alpha-numeric 
data element data as annotation on maps (see section 
25. 3. 4). Also display lists of data elements for a 
given geographic entity. 

Write data element lists . Display a list of "data 

elements about a map entity in response to a users 

designation of the entity by name or electronic 
pointer. The user should be able to command 

A ll- attributes in a data theme, o«~ 

i a 

A user selected subset of attributes o.a<J 
Specify the "Output Device such as: 



25.7.1.3 



ill - An adjacent monitor CRT screen which would not 
require erasing the main CRT map display. 



Ar. adjacent alnha-numeric (typewriter-like) 



122 



A REVIEW LIST OF OPTIONS, CRITERIA AND NOTES FOR GEOGRAPHIC 
(MAP) DATA HANDLING AND GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES OF A STANDARD 
BLK INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Graphics Study Team, December 10, 1976 



Number 



Description 



25.7.1.3 



25.7.1.3 



25.7.2 



3 The main CRT termina l by replacing the map 
display with the data list and subject to redisplay 
of the map ) . 

4 By using a part of the CRT terminal scree n for 
the data listing and retaining part of the map (per- 
haps all at a smaller scale). 

Tabular data lists . Users must be able to set up 
tabular reports such as the sort and summary and 
statistical data (see section 17). The user must be 
able to specify columns, e.g., sort levels of selected 
data elements (if rows are individual map entities, 
and various summations of data elements, e.g., acres, 
number of areas, etc. Rows in the tabular report 
might be individual map entities , or whole strata 
levels of a summation. 



^ 



3 



123 



' 



o 



Minimum Technical Design Criteria for a Mapping and Graphics 

Capability 

Bureau of Land Management 
Interactive Graphics Study Team 
November 19, 1976 

A minimum set of design criteria set forth in technical terms 
follows. These technical criteria are the fundamental basis for 
the capabilities set out in the list of options for geographic 
and graphics capabilities. 









Zt 



f 



r ) 







Minimum Technical Design Criteria 

Number Description 

1. User Interface Command Design 

1.1 A command interpreter should serve as a central 
control, level for invoking system functions. The 
interpreter would be responsible for checking the 
command for valid syntax and valid verbs . The in- 
terpreter would then invoke the system function 
associated with the verb, and also pass the related 
parameters to that , function through a standard area 
(core or disk file). When errors are encountered, 
the interpreter should provide complete error diag- 
nostics. 

1.2 A discipline for error handling, diagnostic genera- 
tion, control traceback, and breakpoint interrupt 
handling should be adopted across all system functions 
requiring these facilities. It should be possible 
under this discipline for interrupt of a function 

at one lever to be detected at the levels above it. 

1.3 Keyboard entered commands 

1.3.1 One unique key (such as "cntl C") should be defined 
as an interrupt or break to return the system to 

a known status such as a return to the command 
monitor. 

1.3.2 Command syntax should follow a uniform format 
possibly of form: 

(lable) (verb) (positional parameters) 
(label) (verb) (keyword=parameters) 

1.3.3 User-defined commands act as procedures composed 
of system-defined commands. 

1.4 Menu entered commands 

1.4.1 Used when there are a few fixed options or functions 
to choose from 

1.4.2 Used in lieu of keyboard commands for users pre- 
ferring menus 

1.4.3 Menu may appear on screen for making a choice 

1.4.3.1 by graphic crosshair 

1.4.3.2 by typing a name 

1.4.3.3 by using the tablet cursor 



2! 



_ . _. ^Minimum Technical Design Criteria_ 

Number _. ! Description 
1.4.3.4 by number key 

1.4.4 Menu may be positioned on tablet for choosing with 
tablet cursor 

1.4.5 Cursor or crosshair picking may be by 

1.4.5.1 pointing to the choice name 

1.4.5.2 pointing to a box by the choice 

1.5 System should signal request for user response with 
a signal uniform for all user inputs 

1.5.1 audible signal 

1.5.2 prompt signal on screen 









> 



1?F 




I 



Number 

2. 

2.1 

2.1.1 

2.1.2 

2.2 

2.3 



2.4 



2.5 



2.6 






2.7 

2.7.1 

2.7.1.1 

2.7.1.2 

2.7,2 

2.7.2.1 

2.7.2.2 

2.8 



MINIMUM TECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA 
Description 
Geograpnic Database Design, Management and DBMS Interface 

Partition the data base 

geographically and 

hierarchically for retrieval of any data at any 
scale for any arbitrary area nationwide. 

Define a local coordinate storage scheme for themes 
within a partition 

Convert input themes from digitizer (input coordinates) 
to geographic and database coordinates; intersect in- 
put themes with partitions for storage 

Store for each partition as many separate themes 
(overlays) as are required to define all single and 
multiple attribute thematic (polygon, choropleth) 
maps for the partition. 

Store for each partition the composites of separate 
themes which are frequently recalculated 

Examine data within partitions by individual themes 
input from separate source maps covering adjacent 
areas in each partition to preclude cospatial en- 
coding of a single theme (tautological overlay) 

Further refine the data structure to interface with 
the DBMS to permit 

Data retrieval by 

logical and 

relational associations of attributes 
within both 

a partition and 

an arbitrarily shaped user defined area which may 
span more than one partition. 

Provide - thirmed - (weeded) data for these retrievals; 
merge partitions for these retrievals; provide gen- 
eralized data for these retrievals when display is 
reauested at smaller scale for larger areas 



127 



MINIMUM TECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA 
i 






Number Description 

2.9 Insure that the DBMS is properly instructed to up- 
date each of the pointer files used for retrieval 
when updates to coordinate data are received from 
authorized terminals 



3 



L 



128 



o 






o 



Number 

3. 

3.1 

3.1.1 

3.1.1.1 

3.1.1.2 

3.1.2 

3.1.3 

3.1,3.1 

3.1.3,2 

3.2 

3.2.1 

3.2.2 

3.2.3 

3.2.4 

3-2. 5_ 

3.2.5 

3.2.6.1 

3.2.6.2 

3.2.6.3 

3.2.6.4 

3.2.6.5 

3.2.6.5 

3.2.7 



MINIMUM TECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA 

Description 

Database Creation 

Data formats 

Conventional maps 

Arc, polygon, point 

cellular format 

Tabular attribute information 

Other 

Bearing distance 

Field surveys and inventories 

Data verification and topologic edits 

Computer verification of polygon closure 

Computer verification or assignment of polygon 
attribute linkage - node adjustment 

Computer verification through area cross checks of 
map completeness 

Computer verification of data consistency 
(internal) 

Interactive editing of text information 

Interactive a editing of arc, polygon, point 

Delete an arc 

Add an arc 

Delete a point • 

Add a point 

Move a point 

etc. 

Map registration (computerized fit of map input 
to existing base map. ) 



MINIMUM TECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA -\ 

m 



Number Description 

3.2.7.1 Standard reference systems (accepted - converted 
to std for storage) 

Latitude/ longitude 
State plane coordinates 
Universal Transverse Mercator e^a. 

3.2.7.2 User selected reference points for adjustment 

3.2.7.3 Map distortion (adjustment by computer paper 
stretchy e-ic. 3 



) 



C 






~n 






MINIMUM TECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA 

Number Description 

4. Database Update . Function same as data base creation; 
repeat numbering beginning with 4 instead of 3. 






) 




121 



MiA/iNVUNl TECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA 
Number Description 

5. Manipulation/Analysis/Utilities 

5.1 Locational retrievals 

5.1.1 point in polygon 

5.1.2 polygons within a user defined window '(polygon) 
(retrieval area) 

5.1.3 cursor selection of a line or point feature 

5.1. ^ proximity selection (everything within a given 
distance of a point, line or polygon) 

5.1.5 select on edge characteristics (all areas border- 
ing urban development) 

5.2 Overlays (utilizing all boolean operations) 

5.2.1 polygon overlay with area, length perimeter calcs 

5.2.2 cellular overlay with area, length perimeter calcs 

5.3 Reclassification of variables reformation and com- 
bination of variables to be new attribute new code 
for an attribute 

5 . 4 Mathematical aggregation of variables 

5.4.1 summation 

5.4.2 statistics 

5.4.3 formulas , including weighting functions 

5,5 Conversion of cellular data to polygon 

5.5 Conversion of polygons to cells 

5»7 Conversion from std map projection to another pro- 
jection for display 

5,3 Interactive design and creation of symbols /symbol 
sets 

5,9 User interaction with the graphic image 

5.9.1 area comcu-aticn 



id 









C 



J 



C) 



MINIMUM TECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA 

Number Description 

5.9.2 perimeter/length computation 

5.9.3 label adjustment 
5.10 Shading/ crosshatching 







132 



MINIMUM TECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA 

Number Description 

6. Graphic and Alpha Display (output) and input. 

6.1 Be able to obtain current location of graphic beam 

6.1.1 in absolute screen coordinates 

6.1.2 in verbal screen coordinates 

6.2 Be able to move graphic beam to a given location 

6.2.1 Direct move 

6.2.1.1 absolute coordinates 

6c 2.1.2 virtual coordinates 

6.2.2 Relative move 

6.2.1.1 absolute increment 

6.2.1.2 virtual increment 

6.3 Be able to draw from current graphic beam location 
to another location 

6.3.1 Direct draw 

6.3.1.1 absolute coordinates 

6.3.1.2 virtual coordinates 

6.3.2 Relative draw 

6.3.2.1 absolute increment 

6.3.2.2 virtual increment 

6.M- Be able to set bounds of screen window 

6. 4,1 absolute coordinates 

6.M-.2 virtual coordinates 

6.5 Must have several distince line types for drawing 
vectors 

6.6 Be able to obtain location of a graphic crosshair on 
screen 












f o 






MINIMUM TECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA 

Number Description 

6.6.1 absolute coordinates 

6.6.2 virtual coordinates 

6.7 Graphic tablet support 

5.7.1 obtain absolute coordinates of tablet pen or cursor 
when pressed 

6.8 Character and symbol output 

6.8.1 Hardware characters 

6.8.1.1 Full ASCII character set 

6.8.1.2 multiple sizes 

6.8.1.3 output horizontally from current alpha cursor 
position 

6.8.1.4- line-full and page-full handling 

6.8.2 Software character/symbol 

6.8.2.1 generation from symbol definition table 

6.8.2.2 scalable based on virtual window 

6.8.2.3 slantable 

6.8.2.4 rotatable 

6.8.3 Move alpha cursor position to a location 

6.9 Character input 

6.9.1 full ASCII keyboard 

6.9.2 obtain position of alpha cursor 



"v. 



135 



\ 








) 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS 



1. BATCH PROCESSING 

A method whereby items are coded and collected into groups and 
then processed sequentially. 

2. BAUD 

For practical purposes it is now used interchangeably with 
"bits per second" as a unit of measure of data flow, i.e., 
9600 Baud equals about 900 characters per second. 

3. BYTE 

Group of consecutive binary digits operated upon as a unit and 
usually shorter than a computer word (e.g. a 6-bit or 8-bit byte). 

4. CELL 

The smallest region in a grid. 

5. CHOROPLETH MAP 

Map showing discrete areas such as states or counties. These 
units are considered uniform with respect to the statistics 
collected within them. 

6. CONGRUENCING 

The digital transformation of images so that their geometric 
properties can be related. 

7. CONTOUR 

Line joining points of equal vertical distance above or below 
a datum. 

8. CRT 

An electronic vacuum tube containing a screen on which information 
may be stored by means of a multigrid modulated beam of electrons 
from the thermionic emitter storage effected by means of charged 
or uncharged spots. 

9. CURSOR 

Aiming device, such as a lens with crosshairs, on a digitizer. 

10. DATA BANK 

An information store usually in digital form organized in such 
a manner that retrieval and updating can be done on a selective 
basis and in an efficient manner. 

11. DATA BASE MANAGEMENT 

A systematic approach to storing, updating and retrieval of 
information stored as data items, usually in the form of records 
in a file, where many users, or even many remote installations 
will use common data banks. 



13; 



12. DATA ELEMENT 

Discrete defined information variables are known as Data Element 
Map atribute Data Elements which describe a map entity are known 
as map attributes. 

13. DATA TABLET 

A flat tablet which will output the digital position of a pointer 
placed at any position on its surface . 

14. DATA THEME 

A user delineated data category consisting of a map and map 
attribute (s) will be known as a data theme. A theme will 
contain only one type of map entity (points or line paths, 
or areas). 

15. DENSITOMETER 

Device used to measure the density of a small area on a film. 
Density measurement is calibrated against a standard opaqueness. 

16. DIGITAL IMAGE 

A two-dimensional matrix which represents an area on a photograph. 
Each position of the array is assigned a grey level, which may be 
limited to two. Synonym: Digitized Image, Digital Picture Function. 

17. DIGITIZER 

A device that converts an analog measurement into digital form. 

18. DIGITIZATION, MANUAL 

The process of conversion of analogue or graphic data into digital 
form by an operator with or without mechanical or computer aids. 

19. DIGITIZER, GRAPHIC 

Machine that changes graphic cartographic information into a 
digital format for computer input. 

20. DIGITIZER, LINE-FOLLOWING 

Device which automatically tracks an individual line and at 
selected intervals digitally records its position with respect 
to an arbitrary coordinate system. 
Synonym: Automatic Line-Following, A.L.F. 

21. DIGITIZER, POINT 

A manually controlled cursor senses position, usually by 
electromechanical means. An operator must activate the 
recording of positional elements or other information. 

22. DISPLAY 

Any graphic presentation in hard-copy or as a transient image or 
A device (usually CRT) attached to a computer for the rapid dis 
of selectable information in map or list form. 

137 







23. DISPLAY, ALPHANUMERIC 

A display system usually CRT, which produces lists, texts, or 
spaced alphanumerics on a screen, the alphanumeric shapes 
being produced wither by hardware or software generators. 

24. DISPLAY, INTERACTIVE 

Display with a facility for an operator to modify the data by 
designating locations. 

25. DISPLAY, LINE DRAWING 

A display system (usually CRT) which produces an image from 
lines drawn as a series of dots or vectors on a screen. 

26. EDGE 

Exact term for the division between two mapped areas which is 
exterior to the subset being bounded. 
Synonym: Boundary. 

27. EDITING 

Detection and correction of the data obtained in graphic data 
reduction. 

28. FEATURE 

A cartographic type e.g. coastline, or 

A cartographic type in digital form appearing as part of the 

descriptor in coded form (Feature Code) 

29. FIRMWARE 

Logic circuits in read-only memory that may be achieved by the 
software under certain circumstances. 

30. GEODETIC COORDINATES 

Latitude and longitude with reference to a standard spheroid. 

31. GRAPHIC 

. -Symbol produced by hand or machine drawing, or by printing, or 
Completed map or chart produced as in the above definition. 

32. GRAPHIC FORM 

A physical or pictorial representation of data such as printing 
plotting output or CRT drawings. 

33. GRID COORDINATES 

Euclidean coordinate system in which points are described by 
perpendicular distances from an arbitrary origin. 

34. HARD-COPY 

•_. --Any map, -chart or-graphic presentation recorded on a sheet in such 
a manner that it may be stored or transported. 
Synonym: Descriptor, Identifier, Label. 

128 



< 



35 . HARDWARE 
The mechanical, magnetic, electrical and electronic devices or 
components of a computer. 

36. HEURISTIC 

Helping to discover, learn, or to inspire inventigation. An 
unstructured approach to problem solving. 

37. HILL SHADING 

Shading employed to create a three-dimensional impression of relief. 

38. INTERACTIVE 

Man-machine conversational interaction with the user giving an 
instruction and the computer doing the task and responding. Response 
ration is less than 100. 

39. INTERACTIVE POSITIONING DEVICE 

A device which is operated manually to locate a specified position, 
usually on a CRT display screen. The location will be identified 
on the screen and will be recorded by the computer. Devices used 
may be a tablet, joystick, 'mouse', tracking ball, or lightpen. 
See also Data Tablet. 

40. INTERSECTION 

Region containing all the points common to two other regions. 

41. ISLAND 

Single-line boundary within a polygon. 

42. JOIN 

The process of joining 2 pieces of data in digital form when 
joining may require interpolation or clipping of data points. 
If the join situation is not exact and has to be modified 
requiring data erasure with interpolation, the operation is 
then usually referred to as merge. 

43. JOYSTICK 

A small control lever which can be moved in any angular direction. 

It may output an analog or digital value proportional to position or 

a value proportional to direction but with a rate signal dependent 

on deflection. In the former case the joystick will remain at any 

set position, but in the latter automatically returns to center. 

or 

See Interactive Positioning Device. 

44. LABEL 

Descriptor of an item being digitized. 

45. LETTERING (CARTOGRAPHIC) 

All names, letters and figures appearing on the face of a map.' 

139 



o 



46. LIGHT PEN 

It is a high speed, photosensitive device with which the "operator" 
can cause the computer to change or modify the display on the 
cathoderay tube. 

47. LINE CLOSING 

Making tv/o lines, or the two ends of one line, to have a common 

node. 

Synonym: Line Joining, Line Merging. 

48. MAP, BASE DETAIL 

Map used as a primary source for compilation or as a framework 
on which new detail is printed. 

49. MAP ENTITY 

Each separately identified geographic entity can have different 
descriptive attributes associated with it. Three types of 
geographic (map) entities will be recognized; points line paths, 
and areas. Map entities are delineated by applying user defined 
criteria and the resultant entities are assumed to be homogeneous 
within some standard. 

50. MAP, PLANIMETRIC 

Map showing only the horizontal location of detail. 

51. MAP, THEMATIC 

Map designed to demonstrate particular features or concepts. In 
conventional use this term excludes topographic maps. 

52. MAP, TOPOGRAPHIC 

Map whose principal purpose is to portray and identify the features 
of the earth's surface as faithfully as possible within the 
limitations imposed by scale. 

53. MICRON 

A unit of length equal to one thousandth of a millimeter, i.e., 
one millionth of a meter or 39 millionths of an inch. 

54. MINICOMPUTER 

A low cost computer with limited core capacity. Widely used for 
device and system control and data handling when large computations 
are not involved. 

55. ON-LINE 

Discriptive of a system and peripheral equipment or devices in a 
system in which the operation of such equipment is under control 
of the central processor. 

56. 0RTH0PH0T0GRAPH 

Copy of a perspective photograph from which distortion due to tilt 
and relief have been removed. 

140 



57. OVERLAY 

Map of an area to be superimposed on one or more maps of the sail 

area. The purpose is to find data combinations, or more exactly 

intersections and unions. 

or 

Digital image of areas as in definition one above. 

58. POLYGON 

Plan figure consisting of three or more vertices (points) 
connected by line segments or sides. The plane region bounded 
by the sides of the polygon is the interior of the polygon. 

59. RASTER SCAN 

A line-by-line sweep across a display surface to generate or 
record an image. 

60. REAL-TIME PROCESSING 

Processing which appears instantaneous to the person or device 
controlling a computation. 

61. REGISTERING 

The alignment process by which two or more map or chart overlay 
sheets are made coincident for color printing purposes. 

62. RELIEF REPRESENTATION 

Any technique used to depict the configuration of the surface 
of the earth (or other heavenly body) on a map, e.g. contouring, 
hill shading, layer tinting. 

63. RESOLUTION 

Measure of the ability of an imaging system to separate the 
images of closely adjacent objects. The units might be, cycles 
or lines per mm., least separation in mm., least separation in 
radians. 

64. RESPONSE RATIO 

Ratio of elapsed time to computer processor execution time. Batch, 
interactive and real-time systems (and processing) differ primarily 
with respect to response ratio. 

65. RESPONCE RATIO - BATCH 

The response ratio is large, typically being over 100. Complex 
procedures such as a sort-summary for a whole planning unit 
could use this slower mode. 

66. RESPONCE RATION - REAL-TIME 

The response ratio for this processing is less than 5. The BLM 
Strategic Plan will probably not require real-time processing. 



1 

141 



J 



d 



( ) 



67. SCANNER 

Any device which systematically breaks up an image into picture 
elements (or pixels) and records some attribute of each picture 
element. . 

68. SEGMENT 

Subset of consecutive polygon points. 
Synonym: Link, Arc. 

69. SMOOTHING 

Filling a line of observed data points by a continuous line. 

70. SOFTWARE 

The internal programs or routines professionally prepared to 
direct a computer in its operation. 

71 . TELEPROCESSING 

A term denoting systems that transmit data from one point to 
another in the course of processing. 

72. THINNING 

Removal of redundant points composing a line, in order to 
reduce storage requirements. 
Synonym: Culling. 

73. UNION 

Region containing all of the points in either of two other regions 

74. WINDOWING 

A method of designating and separating out a particular area of 
map data for presentation on a display. 



142 



( 



( 



1 



( 



rf 



» 



A 









o' 



^ 



*