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Full text of "The Intercolonial : a historical sketch of the inception, location, construction and completion of the lines of railway uniting the inland and Atlantic provinces of the Dominion. --"

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 \NTERCO .JON/At 


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THE 


IN TERCO LO N IAL. 


A HISTORICAL SKETCH 


01' THE 


iNCEPTION, LOCATION, CONSTRUCTION AND COMPLETION OF 
THE LINE 01<' RAILWAY UNITING TIlE 


INLAND AND ATLANTIC PROVINCES 


01' THB 


DOMINION, 


WITH MAPS AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. 


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l':NOINJtHU.-l1f-t
U].K]f OB TIlE NCWFtiUNDLA:ND. INTEIU,"'OLONIAL A:ND CAlfAlJl..l.1f r..l.CIFJU UAILWAY8. 


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By SANDFOHD FLEl\IING, C. E., 


58230 
IDlnntrt
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DA WSO N BROTH ERS, PU BL ISH ER S, 
LONDON. SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & CO. 
1876. 


I . 



Entered according to Act of Parliament in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six, 
by SANDFORD FLEMING, in the office of the Minister of Agriculture and Statistics at Ottaw&. 



THE HONOURABLE ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, 


MINISTER OF PUBLIC WORKS AND PREMIER OF CANADA. 


SIR, 


As the Intercolonial 
ailway is now in a position to be opened for 
traffic, it is my duty, as Chief Engineer, to submit a final Report on its 
condition. 


A Report such as the usual course prescribes, would necessarily 
be professional and technical, and would be confined to a description of 
the results which have been effected, and a statement of the cost at 
which these have been attained. 
But the Intercolonial Railway is national in its objects and charac- 
ter, and to my mind it calls for more extended consideration. As 
the head of the Department of Public Works, and as the Minister who 
has directed the conoluding operations on the Railway, you have been 
good enough to acquiesce in the view, that a barren relation of figures 
and detail would be insufficient and unsatisfactory. 
I have therefore felt it incumbent upon me to depart from the 
course generally followed on such occasions. 
I have endeavoured. in the following pages, to give the early his- 



ü 


DEDICATION. 


tory of the Railway, and to trace the causes which prevented the 
adoption of a direct route, and in this connection I have been led to 
review the negotiation::> which ended in the establi::;hment of the Maine 
Boundm'y, I have endeavoured to describe the frequent fruitless 
attempts which were subsequently made to obtain the means of con- 
structing the line, and the considerations which led to the adoption of 
the present route. In cases where the location is open to criticism, I 
have given a narrative of the events which enforced its determination, 
I have stated the principles which governed the construction of the 
Railway, and I have described several of the most important stnlCtures; 
at the same time I have briefly set forth the character of the country 
tln'ough which the Railway passes. 


Although it may be said that the present volume includes much 
beyond the sphere of my official duties, I venture to hope that the course 
pursued by me will meet with your approval, and I trust that you will 
believe that I have striven honestly, to place on record what has passed 
under my own notice, and what I have gathered from official documents 
and from public records. 


Tlùrteen years have passed sinee my first appointment as Chief 
Enginecr,-a duty assigned to me by the Imperial and Provincial Gov- 
ernments at the commencement of the Survey. At that period a long 
tract of wilderness separated the Maritime from the Inland Provinces. 
The Railway, which now connects them, I may venture to assert, will 
rank second to none on this Continent. In the embellishment of its 
structures it may be surpassed by the lines of the old world, but in the 
cs!'entials of a Railway, it will, when entirely eompleted, have no supe- 
rior. 


Somc further expenditure is still uece
l:'ary, but the Uailway il:' in 



DEDICATION. 


üi 


a condition to be opened for traffic throughout its entire length, there
 
fore my official relations with the work may now terminate. 
In placing this volume before you, I feel that I am performing the 
last act of duty, in the office I have long held, and that I am separating 
myself ñ'om a work, to the prosecution of which, with many friends and 
fellow-labourers, I have devoted for many years the best energies of my 
life. A connection of this kind is not broken without an effort; hut 
any personal considerations must disappear in view of the completion 
of a work, which realizes the national aspirations of half a century, by 
bringing within a few hours, the old fortress of Halifax and the older 
Citadel of Quebec, and which must form an important section of the 
Railway, destined, ere long, to extend from East to West through the 
entire Dominion. 


I am, Sir, 
Your Obedient Servant, 
SANDFORD FLEl\UNG. 


OTTAWA, 1st July, 1876. 




CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER I. 


EARLY HISTORY. 


1832 TO 1842. 


PA.GE 
Early Suggestions of a Railway System for Canada-Henry Fairbairn's 
Extraordinary foresight-An Intercolonial Railway first projected-Explor- 
ation of the Route--Smith and Hatheway's Report--The project meets the 
approbation of the Lower Canada Legislature--Opinions of Captain Yule, 
R. E.-St. John's Press advocates the Scheme--Deputation to England- 
Imperial Government grant .f:l0,OOO--Survey commenced under Captain 
Yule, R. E.-Engineering Character of Route favourable--Western traffic to 
be competed for-Opinions of the New York Press on the" Great Project JJ 
-Cupidity of the peorle of the United States-Interference of the State of 
Maine--Suspension of the Survey-Lord Durham-The Kcmpt Road.. 5 


CHAPTER II. 


THE BOUNDARY QUESTION. 


1783 TO 1842. 


Final settlement of the Boundary Line disastrous to the Railway-Treaty 
of Paris of 1783-Disputed interpretations of that Treaty-Subsequent 
Treaty of 1794-The Commission under it--St. Croix River namf'.d in the 
Treaty-Doubtful location of the" Highlands JJ of the Treaty-The due 
North Line--Verification of Boundary of old Nova Scotia by Ancient Let- 
ters-Patent--Featherstonhaugh and Mudge on Original Grant-Treaty of 
Ghent in 1814-Blunders of the Commissioners-Arbitration of the King of 



vi 


CONTENTS. 


PAG_ 
the Netherlands-Award rejected by the United States-President Andrew 
Jackson on the question-His reasonable proposals declined by the English 
Government-New Survey organized by both Countries-State of Maine 
overtly breaks International Law-Lord Ashburton's l\iission to 'Vashing- 
ton-Daniel Webster-The Boundary Line adopted prejudicial to Canada 19 


CHAPTER III. 


EARL Y HISTORY CONTINUED. 


1842 TO 1852. 


l\lilitary lWad Surveyed-Railway Mania of 1845 brings out the Halifax 
and Quebec Scheme--Sir Richard Broun advocates it-The various Routes 
-Government of New Brunswick favours the route by Annapolis-St. An- 
drews anù Quebec Railway revived-Lord Ashburton takes Stock in it- 
Ashburton Treaty Kills the Scheme - Halifax and Quebec routes to be 
Surveyed-Captain Pipon and l\fr. Henderson appointed-Major Robin- 
Bon's Report recommending Bay Chaleur Route--Mr. Wilkinson objects- 
Construction of the Railway urged as a relief for the Famine in Ireland- 
Major Carmichael-Smyth's views-Railway Conference at Portland-Nova 
Scotia sends Mr. Howe to England-British Government objects to the 
Scheme--Imperial Proposals-Negotiations upset-Deputation to Eng- 
land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 40 


CHAPTER IV. 


HISTORY CONTINUED. 


1852 TO 1862. 


The Provinc<,s builrl Railways on their own Rcsource!\-Another unsuc- 
cessful app<'al to the Home Government-Civil War in the United States- 
Provinces again appeal-Resolutions of Quebec in 1861-Effect of the 
"Trent Affair "-Provinces ask for modified assistance-Failure of Negotia- 
tions ..."..,.... _ , , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . _ , . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . , , . .. 55 


, 



CONT.I<;'sTS. 


VB 


CHAPTER V. 


HISTORY CONTINUED. 


1862 TO 1867. 


PAG. 
State of Railway Extension in 1862-New Brunswick and Nova Scotia 
make fresh efforts-Survey determined on-l\Ir. Sandford Fleming appointed 
-l\Ir. Fleming's Report--Advantages of Bay Chaleur Route-Newfound- 
land Railway-Political dead-lock in Canada-l\Iovement towards Confeder- 
ation-l\lembers of Canadian IRgislature invited to Maritime Provinces- 
Convention at Charlottetown-The Quebec Convention-Resolutions re- 
specting Intercolonial Railway-General festivities-Act of Confederation- 
Act guaranteeing Interest on Railway Loan ...... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 64 


CHAPTER VI. 
1867 TO 1876. 


LOCATION AND CONSTRUCTION. 


Effects of the Ashhurton Treaty on the Location of the Line--Railways 
previous to Confederation-Commencement of Location Survey-Rival 
Routes through New Brunswick-Military Considerations-Rival Routes in 
Nova Scotia-Line Recommended-Controversy respecting the Route--Ac- 
tion in Nova Scotia-The Controversy carried to Ottawa-Final adoption 
of the Combination Line--Appointment of Commissioners-The Contract 
System-Tenùers Received-The Bridge Controversy-The Engineer ad- 
vocates Iron-The Commissioners insist on Wood-Iron finally adopted- 
The Eastern Extension Controversy-Line from :Moncton to Amherst 
adopted-Location between Miramichi and l\Ioncton-Construction proceeds 
under the Commissioners-Completion of Line under Department of Public 
Worb ...., - . . _ . . . _ _ . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ...,.. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 77 


· CHAPTER VII. 


THE ENGINEERING CHARACTER OF THE LINE. 
Principles of Construction-Climatic effects of Frost and Thaw on the 
Works-Action on Road-Bed-Thorough drainage--Clearing the Line-- 
Natural Snow-fences-Bridges-'Vhpn Bridges should be nsed-Precautions 
in building bridges and culverts-Cuttings and their 'Vidth-Ballast-Iron 



viii 


CONTENTS. 


PAGB 
and Steel rails-Station buildings-Water supply-Principles of Construc- 
tion concurred in-The" Rail System" or Superstructure-Bessemer Steel 
Rails-Jfish and Scabbard Joints-Cross-ties-Ballasting-The Substructure 
-Cuttings aud Embankments-Drainage-Precaution against frost-Em- 
bankments preferable to open bridges-Measurement of Streams-Standard 
designs-Box Culverts-Arch Culverts-Open Culverts-Pipe Culverts- 
Tunnels-Inclined Culverts-Bridges and Viaducts-Bridge Superstruc- 
ture ,....................................,..,......................... 108 


CHAPTER VIII. 


THE ST. LAWRENCE DISTRICT. 


General Features of the Line-Greatest Altitude-Geographical Divis- 
ions-The Four Districts-The Engineering Staff-The St. Låwrcnce Dis- 
trict-General De
ription-Crossing the Height of Land-Geology of the 
District-The River Systems-Division A, Contract No.1-Division B, Con- 
tract No.2-Division C, Contract No.5-Division D, Contract No. 8--Di- 
vision E, Contract No. 13-Division F, Contract No. 14.... ............. _ 139 


CHAPTER IX. 


THE RESTIGOUCHE DISTRICT. 


General Direction-Metapedia Valley-Geology of the District-The 
Restigouche Bridge-Artificial Foundation-Climatiç Forces-Ice Jam- 
Shoves-Freshets-Division G, Contract No. 17-Division H, Contract No. 
IS-Division I, Contract No. 19-Division K, Contract No.3-Division L, 
Contract No.6-Division M, Contract No.9-Division N, Contract No. 15, 
Tete-a-gauche Bridge-Nepissiguit Bridge ............................... 156 


CHAPTER X. 


THE MIRAMICHI DISTRICT. 


Features of the District-Extensive Carboniferous basin-Division 0, 
Contract No. 16-Division P, Contract No. lO-Division Q, Contract No. 
20-l\Iiramichi River Crossing-Deepwater Branch-Division R, Contract 
No. 21-Division S, Contract No. 22-Division T, Contract No. 23 ....... 175 



CONTENTS. 


ix 


CHAPTER XI. 


THE MIRJUlICHI BRIDGES. 


PAGB 
Location of the Two Bridges-Original Design-Borings-Great Depth 
of Bed-rock Discovered-Engineering Opinions-Original Design adhered 
to-The South West Bridge--The North Abutment-General Description 
of Pier Foundations-Pier E.-Pier F.-Pier G.-Pier H.-Pier I.-South 
Abutment-The North West Bridge--Borings-Pressure Experiments- 
Modified Plan of Foundations-The South Abutment-The North Abutment 
-The Caissons for Piers-Pier X.-Difficulties met with-Pier D.-Pier 
C.-Pier B.-Pier A.-Concrete-l\Iasonry-Plant-Contractors-Engi- 
neers-Completion _........ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 187 


CHAPTER XII. 


THE NOVA SCOTIA DISTRICT. 


Length and Sub-Division-General Description-The Cobequid Moun- 
tains-Geological Features-Springhill Coal-field-The Iron l\Iines-Divi- 
sion U. old line--Division V. Eastern Extension-Division W. Contract 
No. 11. Division X. Contract No.4-Division Y. Contract No.7-Division 
Z. Contract No. 12 ..................................................... 220 


CHAPTER XIII. 


CONCLUDING REMARKS. 


Scope of the V olume,-General Statements-Opening of Sections- 
Gross quantities of Work-Average quantities per mile--Total Expenditure 
-Review of the Boundary Question-Diplomacy of the United States- 
Sacrifice of British Interests-The Lesson Taught-General Observations- 
The Railway and the Dominion-Historical Events-Suggestive Associa- 
tions-Men identified with the Railway-A Coincidence--Opening of the 
Line ................................................................... 232 


APPENDIX. 
Table of Gross quantities of principal kinds of Work .........,........ 241 
Table shewing Average quantities of Excavation and Masonry per mile 242 
The short Ocean Passage _ _ _ _ _ .., _,................ ............. 243 
The Engineering Staff ..,. _ _. ,. '..,....... ,...,. .,....,. ,- - - -. - , 251 



LIST OF PLATES. 


No. I AGE. 
1. General Map, . . . . . . . . . 106 
2. Skeleton Map, showing drainage basins, . 34 
3. R
duced general Map, with projected lines, 68 
4. Skeleton Map, showing direct line, 78 
5A. Great Clay Cutting at Trois Pis toles, ] 44 
5. Trois Pistoles Bridge, . 146 
6. Bridge at Hic, . ] 48 
7. Rimonski Bridge, ]50 
8. Grand Metis Bridge, ]52 
9. Amqui Bridge, . . ];')4- 
]0. River Metapedia-Railway on opposite hank, ].36 
] 1. Causapseal Bridge-1st crossing River 1\[etapedia, 1.:;8 
12. River l\Ietapedia-1\IiII Stream Bridge in progress, in the dilStanee,. ](jQ 
]3. Pier-Mill Stream Bridge, 3d-crossing River l\Ietapedia, in winter,. ]6:2 
] 4. Restigouehe Bridge, Location Plan, . ] f)4 
15. Pier-Restigouche Bridge, winter view, . ] 66 
] ß. Rcstigouehe Bridge-from the New Brunswick side. Frontispiece 
17. Restigouche Bridge-Plan and elevation, with section of river, ]66 
18. Restigouche Bridge-Foundation and Masonry of Piers, 166 
19. Tunnel at Morrisey's Rock, ]61; 
20. New Mills ßridge, ] 70 
21. Tête à Gauche Bridge, 172 
22. Nipissiguit Bridge, 174 
23. Bridge at Red Pine Brook-masonry in progress, 178 
24. Barnaby River Tunnel, . ] 8:2 
25. General IJlan of Miramichi Bridges, . 188 

6, Southwest l\Iiramichi-Section of River-Plan and elevation of 
Bridge, 
" Drawing of Piers, 
2K'c .C South Abutment. 
29." " North Abutment, 
30." " View of Bridge, . 
31. Northwest l\Iiramichi-Section of River-Plan and elevation of 
Bridge, 
Piers, Founùations, &c" . 
View of 'V orks in progress, 
Pier of BrIdge, 


27. 


" 


32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
:,W, 
:
7. 


C' 


" 


" 


" 


" 


CC 


SackviIle Bridge, 
l\Iissifluash Briùge, 
River Phillip Bridg{', . 
Vi:uluct acros
 FolJy HiveI' V:lllc,}', 


jh. 


190 
]
:2 
1
16 
2/)4 
HI8 


200 
202 
2]6 
218 
224 
226 
228 
230 



INTERCOLONIAL RAILvVAY. 


CHAPTER I. 


EARLY mSTORY, 1832 TO 1842. 


Early suggestions of a Railway System for Canoda,-Henry Fairbairn's Extraordinary 
foresight,-An Intercolonial Railway first projected.-Exploration of the Route,-Sruith 
and Hatheway's Report.-The project meets the approbation of the Lower Canada 
Legislature.-Opinions of Captain Yule, R. E.-St, John's press advocates the scheme,- 
Deputatiou to England-Imperial Government grants ÆIO,OOO-Survey Commenced 
under Captaiu Yule, R. E.-Engineering character of Route fa vourable.- Western Traffic 
to be competed for.-Opinions of the New York Press on the" Great Project."-Cupidity 
of the people of the United States,-Interference of the State of J!.Iaine.-Suspension of 
the Survey.-Lord Durham.-The Kempt Road. 


THE project of an Intercolonial Railway, to connect the Maritime 
Provinces with the Canadas, early occupied public attention. Few 
arc aware that among the first consequences of the stimulus given to 
progress, throughout the world, by the creation of the Railway system. 
we must assign a prominent position to the consideration of a scheme 
for connecting Halifax with St. John, and the Bay of Fundy with the 
St. Lawrence. 
The Stockton and Darlington Railway. of which the fiftieth 
anniverRary was celebrated last autumn, had been but a few years 
in operation, when British North America became awakened to the 
necessity of establishing the Railway system within her territory as a 
relief to the di:mbility under which she was labouring. Although the 




 


'l'HE INTERCOLONIAL. 


influence it was destined to exercise upon the world was at that time 
but imperfectly understood by the mass of men, some minds foresaw the 
power which it possessed to develope the resources of a country. They 
were but few, and it was only by slow degrees that the generation which 
witnessed its introduction appreciated the revolution it would accom- 
plish. 
Extraordinary as it may seem, a wrIter who may be classed with 
t
e few far-seeing men who lived two generations ago, turned his views 
across the Atlantic and suggested the construction of Railways in 
British America as a means of promoting her progress. 
The Stockton and Darlington line, the first in the series of Eng- 
lish passenger Railways, indeed, thc first of the kind in any part of the 
world, was opened on the 27th September, 1825. In the United Service 
Journal of 1832, 1\11'. Henry Fairbairn,.the writer in question, published 
the first notice, so far as known, of a project for applying the Railway 
system to Canada. He says: "I propose, first to form a Rail way for 
" wagons, from Quebec to the Harbour of St, Andrews upon the Bay of 
"Fundy, a work which will convey the whole trade of the St. Law- 
" renee, in a single day, to the Atlantic waters. Thus the timber, pro- 
" visions, ashes, and other exports of the Provincés may be brought to 
" the Atlantic, not only with more speed, regularity and security, than 
"by the river St. Lawrence, but with the grand additionål advantage 
" of a navigation open at all seasons of the year; the harbour of St. 
" Andrews being capacious, deep, and never closed in the winter season, 
" whilst the St. Lawrence is unnavigable from ice, from the month of 
"November to May. Another great line of railway may be formed from 
"Halifax, through Nova Scotia to St. John's, in the Province of New 
" Brunswick, and thence into the United States, joining the railways 
" which are fast spreading through that country, and which will soon 
"reach from New York to Boston and through the whole New England 
"States. This railway will not only bring to the Atlantic the lumber, 
"provisions, metal, and other exports of the provinces, but from the 
"situation of the harùour of Halifax, it will doubtless command the 



EARLY mSTORY. 


7 


" whole stream of passengers, mails, and light articles of commerce pass- 
"ing into the British possessions and to the United States and every 
" part of the continent of America. 
" Indeed, if the difficulties and expense of constructing these works 
"in our North American Colonies were tenfold greater, an imperative 
"necessity would exist for their adoption, if it is desired by the Govern- 
"ment of this country, to maintain an equality of commercial advan- 
"tages with the neighbouring United States. For the splendid 
"advantages of the railway system are well understood in that country, 
" where great navigable rivers are about to be superseded by railways 
" of vast magnitude, reaching over hundreds of miles. Indeed, in no 
"country, will the results of the railway system be so extensive as in 
"the United States, for it will assimilate their only disadvantage, in- 
"land distance from the sea; and it will effect the work of centuries to 
"connect, consolidate, and strengthen that giant territory, lying beneath 
"all climates and spreading over a quarter of the globe. If then we 
"would contend with these advantages, in our North American Prov- 
"inces, it is only by similar works, that we can bring to the Atlantic, 
" the agricultural exports of the Colonies, and secure the stream of 
" emigration, which otherwise, with the facility of inland transportation, 
"will be rapidly dive
ted to the Western regions of the United 
" States." 
These words were penned forty-four years ago and they are worthy 
of preservation, not only for the correctness of view expressed and for 
the enunciation of a policy which has been entirely carried out, but for 
the modern language and tone in which the writer clothed his argu- 
ment. The mind which, in those days, could judge what railways would 
effect, and could foreshadow what has taken half a century to accom- 
plish, must have been of no ordinary kind, and, on the completion of the 
Intercolonial Railway it seems a fitting time to remember Henry Fair- 
bairn and mention his name with honour. 
St. Andrews, on the Bay of Fundy, was then an important centre of 
I.n..iness in New Brunswick, and the mention of the part assigned 



8 


THE I:NTEltCOL01:oiIAL. 


to that locality In this scheme at once attracted public attention 
there. The commercial importance of the undertaking was immediatel)' 
recognized and its active population lost no time in putting into practi- 
cal form the policy which Mr. Fairbairn had pointed out for it to fol- 
low; a meeting was called on the 5th October, 1835, at which resolu- 
tions advocating the line of Railway were unanimously carried. 
More than ordinary interest is attached to these proceedings as they 
may be held to be the first step taken towards the consummation of the 
project. The resolutions enunciated the necessity of a Railway from 
Canada to the nearest winter port in New Brunswick, viz., St. Andrews, 
the national importance of the project, and the prospect that it would be 
remunerative. The resolutions further set forth that an association 
be formed to promote the bMilding of a Railway. The association was 
at once organized and an executive committee appointed.. 
A dcputation was also named to wait upon Sir Archibald Campbell, 
then Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick, to demonstrate the advan- 
tages which must result from the scheme and to solicit his assistance. 
The Lieutenant-Governor expressed his appreciation of the zeal and 
enterprise which suggested a project so well calculated to prove bene- 
ficial, commercially and in every other respect; and promised to sup- 
port the project. The association appointed 1\1r. George H. Smith and 
Mr. E. R. Hatheway to explore the territory; so that the feasibility of 
the undertaking could be ascertained, and the character of the difficul- 
ties in the way made known. These gentlemen reported in January, 
1836. The route followed hy them was in part that which the present 
New Brunswick & Canada Railway has taken from :St. Andrews north- 
ward to Woodstock, thence it proceeded np the valley of the river St. 
John as far as the point called Mars Hill, about 120 miles from St. An- 


· Ron. Jas_ Al1anshaw, Chairman. 
Thomas Wyer, Esq,. Deputy Chairman, 
Harris Hatch. ) 
John Wilson. I 
.James Rnit. J Committee of Mpnagement. 
881111\('1 Frye, 
J. McMaster, 
Adam Jack Secretary and Treasu 



EARLY HIRTORY_ 


9 


drews, and then turned nearly 'Vestward towards Quebec, ending on 
the height of land hehycen the watcr::; of the river Bt. John and the 
St. Lawrence. The exploration wa::; not continued farther than this 
height of land, owing to an examination having heen prcviously made 
through the district lying hetween it and the city of Quebec, by Cap- 
tain Yule of the Royal Engineers. The latter exploration had been 
carried on under the authority of Lord Aylmer, Governor-General of 
Canada. The report of 1\Ie
sr
. Smith and Hathevay declared that no 
obstructions had been met to impede the formation of the Railway. that 
a great portion of the lands were fit for settlement, and no burnt tracts 
hatl been found. The work was pronounced hy the explorers to be less 
difficult than was expected. During the progress of the survey, the 
association appealed to public opinion, and a verdict waR pronounced 
unmistakably in its favor. In this state of affairs it became advisable 
to communicate with Lower Canada; accordingl)' in December, 1835, a 
deputation proceeded to Quebec, to bring the matter under the notice 
of the Government. Resolutions favorable to the undertaking were 
adopted in the same month by both Houses of the Legislature. The 
resolutions of the Legislative Council bear date 19th December. They 
are highly laudatory of the project, and promise the pa::;sing of a law 
authorizing the construction of the Railway, recommending at the same 
time the work to the consideration of the Imperial authorities.- 
Similar Resolutions were adopted by the House of Assembly the 
ensuing week. 
The inhabitants of Quebec and Montreal equally expressed sym- 
pathy in the undertaking. The Boards of Trade of both cities joined the 
association, and special committees were appointed to act in concert 
with the deputation. 


· That a railroad between the p01't of 8t, Andrews, in the Bay of Fundy, which is open 
at all scasons of the year, Rnd the port of Quebec, would greatly diminish the disadvant-lge 
unde1' which t1\is province lahour
 from the 
ve1'ity of its climate and the consequent inter- 
ruption ()f the navi
ation of the Rh-er 8t Lawrence, T1ult the opening of such communi- 
cation between the points before mentioneil wouM promote the settlement of the country, 
ltI'ently facilitate the intercourse between these provinces an,l the C'nitell Kingdom, extend 
thrj interch'lO
c of commo(litics between the British possc.gions in America, increase the 



10 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


In compliance with the wish of the deputation, Captain Yule, R. E., 
who }md made the exploratory survey between Quebec and the height 
of land, placed on record the expression of his opinion, that the scheme 
was beyond the ordinary limits of commercial speculation; that it was 
even Romething more than inter-provincial in its character; that it 
included the greater object of reducing the time necessary to Vass 
bctwcen Europe and America. 
In St. John, New Brunswick, a deep interest was felt in theschemc, 
and, although a degree of rivalry existed between that place and St. 
Andrcws, the press of St. John gave its support to the project.- 
In January, 1836, a deputation proceeded to England, carrying with 
them a petition to the King, and remained there engaged in negotiation 
with thè Imperial Government until the following June. 
During March, resolutions similar to those passed by the Legislature 
of Lower CaI
ada were carried in the House of Assembly, Nova Scotia; 
and in the same month a bill passed the Legislature of New Brunswick, 


demand for British manufactures, and be the means of affording additional employment to 
British shipping. That for the foregoing reasons it is highly expedient to promote and 
facilitate the views of the Saint Andrews and Quebec Uailroad Company Association, and 
that so soon as the Legislature of the province of New Brunswick shall have passed an Act 
to establish a railroad between Saint Andrews and the province line, every facility ought to 
be given to the enactment of a law of a similar nature upon conilitiotls as favourable as way 
have been granted to any railroad company within this province. 
That an humble address be presented to His Excellency, the Governor-in.Chief, prlLying 
that His Excellency will be pleased to transmit the above Resolutions to the Secretary of 
State for the Colonial Department, as the opinion of the LegisllLtive Council, upon the sub. 
ject to which it has reference; and praying also t!1at His Excellency will be pleased to reo 
commend the subject to the favourable consideration of lIis MajesJy's Government, if Ilis 
Excellency shall think fit to do so." 
· We most sincerely hope that this grand projection may rêceive the favourable con- 
sideration of the King and his government. The great importance of connecting these two 
ports by railroad will at once be seen, when we remind our readers that Quebec is bound in 
icy fetters for about six months in the year, while at the same time New Brunswick would 
receive an additional impulse by St. Andrews being the port of exit for the productions of 
Csmada. We certlLinly think that our neighbours of St. Andrews ILre entitled to grent credit 
for the persevering mann('r in which they have, for a number of months past, directed their 
attention to the sllhject, both in having visited Quehec and causing a survey of the contem- 
plated line of road to be made, and that, too, at their own expense. It is true, they ha,o 
much to gaiu if it should go into successful operation; but at the same time, we must feel 
the heneflts to be derived from it, for our interests are so intimately blended, that whatever 
affect> the one must also hc felt hy the otl1er."-81. .fohn'.. ('oll/i,r, P""''''lry 25, l
Sr.. 



E\HLY HISTORY. 


11 


incorporating the" St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad Company," for 
the constr-uction of a line from St. Andrews, New lirunswick, to Lower 
Canada. 
Lord Glenelg was then Secretary of State for the Colonies, and it 
was to him the several resolutions of the Provincial Legislature, and 
the reports of what had then been done, were submitted. On the 
jth 
of April an estimate of the cost of construction, and of the probable 
traffic, was also laid before him. The cost of the work was estimated at 

-!,oOO,OOO, and the revenue to be derived at e;ûoû,OOO, apart from the 
carriagc of mails.- 
The deputation urged the importance of an immediate survey on a 
more comprehcnsive scale than that of the previous explorations, and 
suggested that a sum not exceeùing æl0,OOO be expended in an explora- 
tion thruugh the wilderness country, an expenditure which would save 
thousands in the end; and as the service cuuld not be completed in one 
season, that it should be commenced withuut delay. The deputation 
further proposed, as the means for raising the necessary capital, that 
the sum of æ2.jO,OOO should be given as 11. bonus or special grant to the 


· Estimate of cost of comtruction. 
Grading 250 miles at $5,000 per 
mile (currency).."... ....,...J;. 312,500 
Making the road "n<l J!uttin
 down 
rails for a single tr:Lck, with turn- 
outs, ere" at $7,000 per mile.. .. 437,;;00 


Whole estimate'. cost.. ...... ..J:. 750,000 
The association thou!!ht it safe to 
allow for contingencies, in ad. 
dition thereto.. .. .. . . " . . . .. .. -I:: 2ÚO,OOO 


Total.. .. .. .. , . _. ... _ .. .. . , , ,.l:I,OOO,OOO 
Of, in sterling JIIoncy...,.,.,..J:. &s8,889 


I "'ports to Qllcbfoc. 


'Vest India prOflu('e.......... _...,.:l 5,000 
EurllJ!ean mnnur'L<'tures an,l merchan- 
.Iisc.. .... _ . _ . . . . .. ..,......... 10,000 
]..t<;:"'Ien
('r
, avpr:J!!in!! l!í p('r .1n.\P. 2f10 

Iays, at liO shilli,;!!" ellch. _ . . -. . _ . _ 15,r.OO 
M..cellaneou. artie1es. equal to 50,000 
harrels at Ii shillings each, , , 
Elni
rant8t say a _ . . 


12.r.oO 
5,000 


Amount of imports..... ..... _. _.. OH,I00 


Exports from Quebec. 
Flour and provisions, say 110,000 har- 
rds, at 3 shillings per harreL _ .. . ,.l:1ß,1iOO 
'Vheat, barley, oats, etc,...... _.. _ _ to,OOH 
Staves, ashes and miscellaneous nr- 
ticles.. . . .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. _ ... 1O,OO() 
Passengers, as IJer contra.. . . 15,1;00 


Amount from exports.... .. ., .. . . E;;:!,I00 


To and from ti,e Ù,tcr",editltc couI/try. 
100,000 tons deals, timhf'r. hOllrd
, 
HIllI planb, at 7s. 6,1. per tfln. . _ . -I:: 37,WO 
Shin
les, st,u'cs, sllwlo[(s, sCllntlin!!, 
and other dimension Inmhf'r __... 7.;
") 
Pro,.i!'lions, f!OOtl
. pas
cn
ers; i. ('., 
settlers find operators. . . . . , . . . , . . 6,:JIIO 


Total. . . . . . . . . 


.... .. _ L fJl,::OO 


Prohllble income, _ _ _ .... _. _. El;,l.;110 
Equal in sterling money to.... _. _ ..l:134,r.r.r. 


Allowllnce for carrying fIlllils nn,l other 
it{.ms not in('hulc.1 



12 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


company on the principle established in the province fur the construc- 
tion of roads and internal improvements; that a further sum of 
.t500,OOO be invested in the stock of the company, the ùividclllb tu 
forlll a part of the casual revenues; the remaining æ250,OOO to be 
obtained in stock in the Canadas and New Brunswick. 
On the 5th 
Iay, 1836, the deputation addressed a letter to Sir 
George Grey, then Gnder-::;ecretary of State, acknowledging the receipt 
of his letter of the 4th inst., which COIl veyed to them the gratifying informa- 
tion that their application for a !Sum of money not exceeding æ10,OOO, 
to he expendc9. in the exploration and survey of the proposed line of 
Hailway from St. Andrews to Quebec, had been granted; and that the 
other propositions submitted hy them would receive the attention of 
GovernIllent so soon as the result of the survey should be known. The 
deputation concluded their letter with an expression of thanks to 
Lord Glenelg. 
The day after the arrival, from England, of the deputation at St. 
Andrews, 10th June, 1836, resolutions were passed at a public meeting 
to the effect-" that the munificent donation of ælO,OOO by His Majcsty, 
.. for the purpose of carrying into effect an exploration of the line for a 
" Railroad from St. Andrews to Quebec, affords an additional proof of 
"His l\lajesty's solicitude for the prosperity of his British North Ameri- 
.. can Colonies, and is hailed by the members of the Association as an 
"earnest of the ultimate completion of the work." Sir Archilmld 
Campbell was also thanked for the countcnance and encouragement, 
he had given tu the work. 
The survey was entrusted to Captain Yule, who had a high repu- 
tation in the ROJal Engineel's for practical knowledge and profe
sional 
ability, and upon thc 24th July, 1836, that officer commenced the work 
at Point Levi!S. 
The object was to ascertain whether the country was suitable for 
railway construction; also, to obtain !Such data as time would permit, 
in order to form an opiniun as to the most eligible lino. The scope 
of the cxamination was not eonfincd to the project of connccting St. 



EARLY HISTORY. 


13 


Andrews and Quebec. It wa:> t.'xtended to the wider question as to 
the bcncfits whfch the work would confcr on the whole country. The 
survey followed the valley of the Etchemin Hiver to Etehemin Lakc, 
which had been previously examined by Captain Yule, and recommended 
for the route of the Levis and Kennebec Railway. From Lake Etehe- 
min, the line of exploration was as straight as possible towards :\lars 
lIill, and then direct to St. Andrews. 
Between the upper part of the River St. John, nearest the Lake 
Etchemin and :\lars Hill, several short lines werc explored. (Tntil that 
pcriod, the country from cast to west, was unknown. The only reports 
made of its character had heen ginn by hunters who had passed in 
canoes along the St. John, the Allagash, or the Restook, and the gen- 
eral belief was that it was generally level; at least, without great in- 
equalities. 
In the exploration made by Captain Yule not a single feature, 
stream, lake nor mountain could be identified until the Restook was 
rcached. There was neither lllap nor laud-mark to a::;sist the exploring 
party. 
The survey showed se,'eral level tracts; but at other points the 
route was occa!Sionally turned to the right or left by high hill!S and 
ridges. On the portion of thc line between 
lars I Ell amI St. Andrews, 
no important obstacles were founù. The route, as a ,
hole, was found 
to be remarkably free from such obstacles as might have been looked 
for in a large tract., of which part ,,,as believe.! to partake of a highland 
character; while there wt're few abrupt rocky ridges to lead to a 
deviation of the route from a direct course. But four large rivers, and a 
few broad and deep ravines were met. One unusual cause of expense 
was to be looked for, viz., the difficulty of obtaining supplies. The 
distance was -estimated at 300 miles, allli the cost of the line at one 
I 
million pounds. 
The scheme was favourably received by the Governor-General and 
by the great hody of the people. 
It was O'enerallv looked upon as promi,ÜlIg extraordinaryadvan- 
b " . 


. 



14 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


tages, and as a project which would give an impetus, never before ex- 
perienced, to the prosperity of the country. On all sides it was held that 
every effort should be made to obtain an unintelTupted communication 
with the seahoard. 
:\Ioreove:', the project was thought to be the commencement of a sys- 
tem of internal improvements to extend to the Far \Vest, which had 
only to bc put in operation to create an immense traffic and greatly to aùd 
to the wealth of the provinces. It was argued that this consideration 
should be kept prominently in view. The value of the export trade 
from the \Vest, \Va
 inferred from the rivalry between New York 
and Pennsylvania in their endeavour to control it. 
The people of the United States, moreover, appeared clearly to un- 
derstand the advantages which would result to the British Prov- 
inces from the undertaking. Illustrations of the spirit in which the 
project was reviewed, can be found in the press of New York of that 
date.. These furnish an early indication that it was this project 
which suggested to parties in the United States the policy of claim- 
ing a portion of New Brunswick as a part of Maine, so that the pro- 
posed line .could not be followed. 
At that time the entire country through which Captain Y ulc pros- 
ecuted the surveys was held to be wholly within British territory. 


." A GREAT PROJECT,-The plan which the Canadians and the New Brunswick peopl.., 
under the auspices of the British Government, have projected, of a railroad from Qucbec to 
St. Andrews, in New Brunswick, or the City of St. John, so as to make, as it is said, St, An. 
drews a whwf and the Bay of Fundy a /lUrbour for the St. Lawrence, is one of the most mag- 
nificent that has yet been projected upon this continent, and calculate,l to in vol ve, ultimately, 
the most important political consequences, The idea was stolen from the Maine Legislature (!) 
where the project originally started; but Great Britain, with that sagacity amI foresight 
that distinguish all her political movements, has taken it up an.1 aelopted it, anel is likply, 
for want of sufficient enterprise in the Maine Le
islature, not only to rob that State of the 
honour and the profit, but even of the territory oyer which it is absolutely necessary to con. 
struct the road: hence, undoubtedly, the reason wh
. Sir Charles Vaughan, in his ('orr,,"- 
ponden('e with our Government, relative to th(' North EAstern honnclary, II.fl('r the startin!! of 
the project, r('fnoed ('ven to fll.ll ha('k upon the ,,,vard of the J\:inl! of Holland, :IS to the 
dividing line hplwpen Maine and the British Provinces. though he was very wi1\in!! to fidopt 
that line immprli:ltply after the award. The object of the British GovprnnlPnt now is 10 
spcnre enough of this disllUted country to wake a railroad upon, between the B3Y of Fnmly 
:11,,1 Qllehe(
 



EARLY HISTORY. 


1.
 


It was in 1837 that the Government of the United States made objec- 
tion to the mute proposed, and Canada was then in rebellion. ". ere 
the troubles of that date too tempting an opportunity to be neglected? 
Had that outbreak not taken place, would the claim ever have been ad- 
vanced ? 
It is true that in the treaty of 1783 the boundary was very 
vaguely described; but it was capable of arrangement. Unfortunately 
however, Canada, then weak, at war with herself, without cohesion, 
shaken by political difEcultie8, oft'eTed herself a \villillg prey to a strong 
and ambitious neighbour. 
If the loss has been hers, the fault has, to no small extent, been hers 
also. The facts are now the history of the past, and there are few inci- 
dents of modern times which more plainly tell their lesson. Let us only 
hope that the lesson is not to be read in vain, and that those who follow 
us will profit by its teaching and will not again, by disunion and polit- 
ical discord, court spoliation, or dismemberment. The promoters of the 
Railway were, for the first time, made aware of the action of the Cnited 
States Government, through the deputation of the association then in 
England. Upon their application for an interview with Lord Glenelg, 
the deputation received a despatch from Sir George Grey,. Under-Sec- 
retary of State, to the effect, that as the Government of the State 


.. This project we have called magnificent, not only on account of the undertaking itself, 
but on account of its high and weighty consequences. It enables the British Government 
to send all her troops, munitions of war, etc., with all possible speed, from that important 
naval position, Halifax, where the British Government is now fitting up one of the strongest 
fortifications in the world, to Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, the Lakes, and all along our 
northern and north-western territories, In five or six days, soldiers can be taken from the 
great military and naval depot at Halifax and put upon the 8t. Lawrence from Quebec to 
Ontario. The difficult and dangerous navigation of the 81. Lawrence is thus avoided, The 
British will also thus have a port where their produce can be sent to and from the 'Vest 
IniliE'
, Military and commercial ailv.mtages prompt the British Government to expen,l 
M,OOO,OOO. for with the harbour of Halifax, as it is near EuropE', a cordon of British bayonets 
can bemailetosurrounilusintheshortestpossibletime.anil the proilllce of the Canadas, 
now seE'king 1\ mart in New York in American ships, can thus be turned to St. Andrews or 
Rt. .John in British bottoms, But rE'ly upon it, there is no question with a foreign power 
now so vasth- invol-ing the future destinies of this cOUlltry, 11.5 the disputed boundary line 
with F.n!!lnml" 
· 3d Jul)', 1837. 



') 


Hi 


THE IXTERCOLO:-<IAL. 


of Maine had protested again
t the prosecution of the undertaking, on 
the ground that it involved an infringement of certain stipulation8 re- 
specting the un8ettled hofmdary question, the Governor-Gencral of Can- 
ada and the Lieutenant-Governor of New Brun:nvick had bcen instructed 
to prevcnt further proceedings until mea8urc::; had bçen taken to remove 
thc objeetion8 of tltp Statc of l\Iaillf'. 
In pursuance of thi8 interference, on the 24th of the same montI], 
the secreta,ry of the aS80ciation received a communication from 
Sir John Harvey, Fredericton, to the f'ffect that he had received 
the commands of His :Majesty's Uovel'llment, in consequence of a 
reprcsentation from that of the United States, peremptorily to prohibit 
any furthcr proceedings for the construction of a railroad between St. 
Andrews and Quehec until the points in dispute 8hould be settlf'd. 
Captain Yule also wrote to the association on the sudden turn of affairs, 
adding a few wor<ls of sympathy and hope, and the proceedings of the 
association were ahruptly closed. 
An attempt was madc in 1838 to revive the project, but the bound- 
ary question had thtn a8sumed grave importance, and nothing could he 
done. 
The difficulties with Maine, which followed the sudden and unex- 
pected suspension of the Railway survey, and the troubles connected 
with the rehellion in both Canadas, pointed to the fact that if Northern 
America was to rcmain British America, there must be a speedier con- 
nection between hcr and the Mother Country, and that in winter there 
must be a modc of approach to the Canad..1.s other than the frozen St. 
Lawrence. The fin;t indication that light had dawned in the Colonial 
office upon this subject, is found in a despatch from Lord Glenelg to 
ir 
John Harvey,-to thc effect that the Imperial Government had resolvf'd to 
adverti::;e for tenders for carrying the mails hetween England and Halifax 
by steam instead of sailing vessels; and that the Imperial postma.c;ter- 
Gf'neral had turned his attention to the necessity of increased expedi- 
tion in the carriage of mails by land. 
· 24th Oct.. 1838. 



EARLY HISTORY. 


17 


In a despatch dated 4th May, 18:39, Lord Normanby informed Sir 
John Harvey that a contract had been entered into for a semi-monthly 
mail by steamships between Liverpool and Halifax, and the improvement 
of the mail roads was again earnestly pressed on the Colonial Govern- 
ments. 
It was, doubtless, the knowledge of the views of the Imperial 
Government, which led Lord Durham in his celebrated report to allude 
to the future of British America. 
Some explanation has always been sought for his expressions at 
this date. - The words, it is true, are not many, but viewed in the light of 
our present knowledge they are pregnant with meaning. He says: "The 
"completion of any satisfactory communication between Halifax and 
" Quebec, would ill fact produce. relations between these Provinces 
"that would render a general union absolutely necessary." He was 
indeed more of a prophet than was believed for many years. In theory, 
the rail way was undoubtedly the pivot of the Dominion, in fact, the 
railway owes it::! existence to the Dominion. In February, 183!), 
a body of armed men from the State of Maine attempted to take pos- 
session of the disputed territory. The organization of a force to repel 
the invasion must have established the necessity of a military road 
through the length and breadth of British America. These various 
difficulties led to a report from the post-office authorities at Quebec,- 
in which the road then used for carrying mails between Quebec and 
Fredericton is described as passing through the territory in dispute, and 
stating that in giving up this route there was but one other choice, "the 
neglected road partially opened hy Sir James Kempt," between Metis 
on the Lower St. Lawrence and the River Restigouche. 
The ad vantage of the 
Ietis road, since known as the Kempt road, 
at that time was, that it passed through undi;puted territory. From a 
military point of view it cllmmended itRclf to the Government on the 
ground that troops and supplies could he hrought by water from Halifax 
up the Restigouche to within 300 miles of Quebec, at periods '" hen 


· JanulU}', ls:m. 



18 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


the St. Lawrence is not practicable. An exploration and survey of a 
road from the Restigouchc to the St. Lawrence was therefore made ill 
the summer?f 1839, and in the following year an appropriation was 
voted by the Imperial Parliament for the completion of this communica- 
tion between Lower Canada and New Brunswick. It retained the name 
of its first projector, Sir James Kempt; for many years previous to 
1839 it had fallen into disuse, and had almost become forgotten, but 
the dark and complicated aspect of affairs again brought it to notice, 
and led to its restoration. 


. Quoted by Lord Normanby in despatch, May, 1839. 



CHAPTER II. 


TIIE BOUNDARY QUESTION, 1783 to 1842. 


Final settlement of the Boundary Line disastrous to the Rail way ,-Treaty of Paris of 178.'3.- 
Disputed interpretations of that Treaty.-Subsequent Treaty of 1794.- The Commission 
under it-St. Croix River named in the Treat)..-Doubtful Location of the" Highlands ,. 
of the Treaty.-The due North Line.-Verification of boundary of old Nova Scotia by 
ancient Letters Patent-Featherstonhaugh and Mudge on original Grant.-Treaty of 
Ghent in 1814.-Blunders of the Commissioners.-Arbitration of the King ohhe Nether 
lands.-Award rejected by the United States.-President Andrew J'll'kson on the QIIC
- 
tion,-llis reasonable proposals dpclinl)d by the English Government.-A new survey 
organized by both Countries.-State of Maine overtly breaks International Law.-Lord 
Ashburton's Mission to Washington,-Daniel Webster,-The Boundary Line adopted 
prpjudicial to ('anada. 


The Maine Boundary question, alluded to in the last chapter, was 
settled by Treaty in August, 18-12; Lord Ashburton representing Great 
Britain, and the celebrated Daniel Webster the United States. It ct,ded 
to the United States much of New Brunswick Territory, including all 
that portion west of the River St. John through which Captain Yule 
had made the Railway survey in 1837. Thus its effect was almost 
to sever the geographical connection between the maritime Provinces 
anù the Canadas. 
One immediate consequence of this diplomatic sacrifice was the 
indefinite postponement of the Railway; and when a quarter of a 
century later, the period came for the construction of a line, the deter- 
mination of its course was rendered a matter of the greatest possible 
difficulty. 
It will be neeessary to revert to the treaty of Paris of Septemher, 
1783. in order fully to understand this now almost forgotten difficulty. 
which at one timp threatened seriou:> complications. 



20 


THE INTERCOLO
IAL, 


Tt was set forth, that in order: "to forget all past misunderstand- 
"ings and differences that have unhappily interrupted the good co1'1'es- 
"pondence and friendship which they mutually wish to restore, and to 
"establish such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse between the 
"two countries, upon the ground of reciprocal advantages and mutual 
" convenience, as may promote and secure to both perpetual peace and 
" harmony," .. .. .. .. "Article I. His Britannic Majesty acknowl- 
"edges the said United States, viz. New Hamp
hire, &c." .. .. .. 
" Article II. And that all disputes which might arise in future on the sub- 
"ject of the boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is 
" hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their 
"boundaries, viz.-from the Northwest angle of Nova Scotia, viz. that 
"angle which is formed by a line drawn due north, from the source of 
" St. Croix river to the highlands, along the said highlands which di vide 
"those rivers that empty themselves into the St. Lawrence, from those 
"which fall into the Atlantic Ocean; to the Northwesternmost head of 
"Connecticut River; thence down along the middle of that river to 
"the forty-fifth degree of North latitude; from thence on a line due 
"West on that latitude, until it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraf}uy ; 
" thence along the middle of the said river into Lake Ontario; .. .. 
".. .. .. East, by a line to be drawn along the middle of the River 
"St. Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy, to its source; and 
"from its source directly North to the aforesaid highlands which divide 
.. the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, from those which fall 
"into the river St. Lawrence; comprehending all islands within 
" twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States and 
" lying between lines to be drawn due East from the points where the 
.. aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia on 
he one part, and East 
" Florida on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy, and 
" the Atlantic Ocean; excepting such lands as now are, or heretofore 
"have been, within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia." 
There is every reason to believe that this description so far as it 
rclates to the Maim' houndary was sufficiently definite and intelligible 



THE BOUNDARY QUESTION. 


21 


to the framers of the Treaty, and that its me,ming was distinctly un- 
derstood by them. Indeed tRere is nothing that the writer has seen 
which suggests that any doubt was felt at that time regarding it. Only 
a few years elapsed, however, when it was seen that the provisions of 
the Treaty contained the elements of dispute. It is not to he wondered 
at, therefore, when half a century had passed over, and another genera- 
tion had to interpret them, that doubts were started hy the new men 
who were then seeking political distinction. The old question assumed 
an entircly new form. Fresh claims were propounded. Difficulties, 
before unknown, were created; and the lloundmy, notwithstanding re- 
peated attempts at settlement, could not be defined to the satisfaction 
of both parties to the Treaty. 
In 178-1, immediately after the conclusion of the Treaty, a part of 
the ancient Province of Nova Scotia was converted into the Province 
of Ncw Brunswick. English settlements were made at 8t. Andrews, 
and on the river Sehuodic, helieved to be the St. Croix of the Treaty. 
But even at this early period, some of the citizens of the United States 
were advancing the claim that the Magaguadavic was the true St. Croix. 
Other difficulties having occurred, a new treaty, called" The Treaty of 
Amity Commerce and Navigation," was made in 179-1. 
In the fifth article of this treaty after setting forth that doubts had 
ariscn, as to what river was truly intended by the name of 
t. Croix, it 
provided that the questiun should be referred to the final decision of COIll- 
. 
missioners, to be appointed as follows, viz: "One Commissioner shall 
" be namcd by His Majesty, and one by the Presidcn t of the U llited States 
" hy and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and the said 
"two commissioners shall agree on the choice of a third; or if they can- 
" not so agree, they shall each propose one person, and of the two names so 
" proposed, one shall be drawn by lot in the presence of the two original 
" commissioners; and the three commissioners so appointed shall be 
"swurn impartially to examine and decide the said question according 
" to such evidcnce as shall respectively be laid before thcm. · · · · 
" The sai(l commissioners shall, by a declaratiun under their hands and 



22 


THE l
TEltCOLO
IAL, 


" scals, decide what river is the river St. Croix intended by the Treaty 
".. .. .. .. .. and :>hall particularize the latitude and longitude of 
.. it8 muuth and of it8 80urce, .. .. .. .. and both parties agree to 
.. consider such decision as final and conclu::;ive, 80 that the same shall 
"never thereafter be called into question, or made tbe subject of di8pute 
" 01' difference between them:' 
Thesc instruction8 are sufficiently simple and explicit, and acting 
upon them negotiations were commenced in 17!)6. By common agree- 
ment of the two nominated cummissioners, a judge of the SuprpnlC 
Court of :K cw York, a man whose character stuod high fOl" talents and 
integrity, was appointed the third commissioncr and umpire. Thruugh- 
out the negotiations which continued until the autumn of 1798, it was 
strcnuously in8i8ted upon, un the part of the United States, that the 
Magaguadavic was the true St. Croix. This view was not accepted by 
the Dritish commissioner. The rcsult was that the third Cummissioner 
dccided tlmL the British claim was fully estahlishcd to the ri H
i" 
Schoodic as thc true Hiver 81. Croix of thc Treaty of 1 j8
. The rin-l' 
has two branches, unc flowing from the 'Vest, the other frum the Non h. 
Of tllese two In'anches, the western had heen 80mctime8 calle!l the 
Sehoodic, but the northern had been invariahly called the ChiputnaC- 
cook. The commissioncrs recognized the \\ estern branch as the main 
stream. The source of the wcstcrn branch of the ::O;choodic or true 
t. 
Croix, is -6ome 50 miles di8tant from the 80urce of the ca:"te1'l1 bralH'lI 
or Chiputnaticook; the interval hetwccn the meridians of longit nde 
of these two points is aLout 70 statute miles. Noh\ithstanding thi,
 
decision that the westcrn branch, the so called river Schoodic, \\as thc 
river St. Croix of the Treaty of 1783, the conuui8sioners Ill'opospd and 
ùecided that the Chiputnaticook, or eastern branch, 8huuld fOrIn the 
line of boundary; and in conformity with this deci8ioll they erected a 
boundary monument at its source. For what cause, or on what prin- 
ciplc they arrived at this view i8 unintelligihle. The duty of the com- 
missioners was in reality limited to the determination of the geugraphical 
pll
ition of the river St. Croix, dl.:clared, hy tLe Treaty of 17
3, to he 



THE ßOl'
U.\.RY QL'ESTION. 


23 


the boundary of the t\\ (I cuuntrili5' In deciding that any other river 
shoulJ be the boundary tIll,') entirely ovcr:>tel'ped their duty. It was 
indeed generally acknowledged that the commissioners had exceeded 
thcir powers, and in 1798 a.n explanatory article was added to the 
treaty of 1794, releasing the commÏ:;sionel's from their obligations to 
define the ri,vcr St. Croix, and declaring that the decisions to which 
they had come :,;hould be permanently binding on England and the 
United States. 
The establishment of the boundary at the source of the Chiputna- 
ticook in place of that of the true St. Croix, was the first false step in 
these unfortunate negotiatiuns. From this fatal error arose all the 
subsequent difficulties. which emharra:<se(} the consideration of the 
question, and lùtimately led to a settlemcnt disastrous to the interest.... 
of Canada. It was also unfOltunate th,tt :;teps were not taken to de- 
fine the entire boundary between the true starting-point un the St. 
Cruix, and the :mcceedillg gu"crning point. Had thi" coursc been 
pursued, the true meaning and intcnt of the description given in the 
Treaty would have bCl>n appdrelIt. Even had the labour:; ùf the COlll- 
mbsioners been extended to ei:>tablish the bound..try from their 0\\ II 
starting-point, consideralJle light wouhl have been thrown upon the 
subject. In all probability they would have discovered the mi,;take the.\ 
had made, and as just andreasonahle men, would ha"c been lell to recti- 
fy it. They contcnted themselves, hnwever, in creating a starting-point 
not de
igncd by the Treaty, aud here their ol'erations ceased. The main 
boundary still remained undefincd. Had the urdinary principle:> which 
are followed in laying down the lines of a property, been applied, much 
confusion would llitve becn avoided, and a houndary line traced, the 
substantial fairness of which would have been beyond impeachment. 
Thirty-fi\ e year" afterwards, the Government of the 'Lnited StaÌl 
clearly enunciated the principles to he fullowed, through the Sl'cl'eh\l \ 
of State, tbe Hunorahle Edward Living:,tone. " Boundaries of tra. 
., anù countries, where tbe region through wh:ch the line is to l'a
" 
., unexplored, are frequentl,v de
i
llate.I 1,y natl1ral nhjpct
, the rl't'Li
e 



24 


THE I
TEItCOLONIAL. 


"situation of which is not known, hut which arc supposed to bc in 
" the direction of a particular point of the compass-where the natural 
"olJject is found in the designated direction, no question can arisc.- 
"'\Vhcre the course will not touch the natural Loul1l1ary, the rule 

. universally adopted is, not to consider the boundary as one impos8ible 
" to be traced; but to preserve the natural boundary, and to reach it 
" by the nearest direct course. Thus if after more accurate surveys 
"shall have been made, it 8hould be found that the north cour8e from 
" the head of the St. Croix should not reach thc highlal1l18 which answer 
"the description of those de8ignatcd in the Treaty of 1 j83; then a 
"direct line from the head of the St. Croix, whatever may be its direc- 
" tioD, to such highland8, ought to be adopted, and the line would 
"still be conformable to the Treaty." On this principle the fir8t cffort 
was to discover the higlùands which corresponded with th08e descrihed 
in the Treaty, and to take the point in those highland8 nearest to the 
due north line. It would then have been in strict accordance with the 
Treaty, to draw a direct line to that point from the other known fixed 
natural point, the source of the St. Croix, without regard to the pre- 
cise course named in the Treaty. 
A due north linc from the true river St. Croix crosses, ht. A 
height of land, separating the waters flowing into the Atlantic from 
those flowing into the Bay of Fundy: 2d. A height ofland scparating 
the waters flowing into thc Bay of Fundy from the waters flowing into 
the Bay Chaleur: 3d. A height of land scparating the waters flowing 
into the Bay Chaleurfrom those flowing into the Estuary ofthe St. Law- 
rence. A due north line from the Chiputnaticook, the assumed river St. 
Croix, crosses, 1st. A height of land separating waters flowing into the 
Hay of Fundy on the one side from waters on the other side flowing into 
the river St. John, and finally into the Bay of Fundy: 2d. A height 
of land separating waters flowing into the Bay of Fundy from waters 
flowing into the Bay Chaleur: 3d. A height of land separating 
waters flowing into the Bay Chalcur from waters flowing into the 
Estuary of the St. Lawrence. It is obvious that not one of the heights 



THE BOUNDARY QUESTION. 


25 


of land on either north line, strictly agrees with the highlands 
described in the Treaty, viz :_0' highland:> which divide rivers that 
empty themsehes into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall 
into the Atlantic Ocean." Such are to be found, however, at the 
dividing ridge between the sources of the Penobscot and the Chaudière. 

\.t the sources of these rivers is to be found that point in the high- 
lands nearest to the north line of the Treaty; accordingly such point 
pre:>ents itself as the natural object described in the Treaty of 1 ï
:3. 
Between :.meh point and the other known point, the source of the river 
St. Croix, a direct line drawn would have indicated the true boundary. 
To the west of the dividing ridge, between the Penobscot and the 
Chaudière, tho course of the highlands was ea:;ily defined to the Con- 
nccticut River, and thence along the 45th parallel of latitude to the 
westward; on this point there was no great diffcrence of opinion. 
It must never be lost sight of that in the Treaty description, the 
boundary is set forth as commencing at the Northwest angle of Nova 
Scotia, at the northern end of the direct line from the river St. Croix. 
It is, therefore, a matter of historical interest to examine how far the line 
drawn from the river St. Croix to the dividing ridge, at the source of 
the Chaudière, coincides with the boundary of thc old province of Kova 

cotia. 
The first grant of Nova Scotia is containcd in letters patcnt to 
\Yilliam Alexander, Earl of Sterling, from King James 1st, in 1ü21, alllI 
confirmed by Charles 1st, in 1625. 
The description of Nova Scotia, given in these letters patent, is as 
follows :-" Omnes et singulas terms continentis, ac insulas situatas et 
" jacentes in Americâ intra caput seu promontorium communi tel' Gap 
"de Sable appellat. Jacen. prope latitudinem quadraginta trium 
" graduum autoo circa ab equinootiali lineâ, versus Septentrionem, a 
"quo promontorio versus littus maris tendon ad occident em ad statio- 
"nem Sanctæ )Iariæ navium vulgo S(wctmarcix BIIY. Et deinceps, 
"versus Septentrioncm pOl' directam lineam introitum sive ostium 
"magnæ illius stationis navium trajicien, quæ excurrit in terre orien- 



2G 


THE ll"rEltCoLU
I.-\L. 


"talem plagam inter regiolles Suriquorum et Etcheminorum vu1go 
"Sul'irj1lOil5 et Efr.JI(,JJlinf'.
 ad fluvium vulgo nomine .8w/f'tæ 
.. (Jrzu:is appellat. Et ad scaturiginem remotissimam sive fontem 
.. ex occidelltali parte ejusdem qui se primum predicto fIuvio im_ 
"mescet. Unde per imaginariam direct am Linpam quæ pergere per 
.. terram seu currere vt'rsus Septentrionem concipietur ad proximam 
"navium 
tationcm, t1 U\ i um vel Scaturigillem in magno thn io de 
.. Canada I:;CSC exoneralltem. Et ab eo pergendo versus orieutem per 
"maris oris littomles ejusdem 11uvii de Canada ad fluvium stationelll 
"navium portum aut littus COl1l111uniter nomine de Gathepe vel Gaspee 
" Dotum et appclhLtum." 


Translation of the text. 
"All amI siu
ular the lau<ls of the Continent, and Islands, situated and lying in 
"America, within the hend or proll1ontory commonly called Cape Saùle, lying near the 
"north latitude of forty-three degrees, or thereabouts, frum tll(' cq uinoctial line; from 
"which promontory, towards (or along) the shore of the sea stretching to the west, to the 
"ships' station of St. !\Iary, commonly called St. Mary's Bay; and thence, towards the 
"north, by a. direct line crossing over the entrance or mouth of that great ships' station 
"which extends iulallli into the eash,rn tract of country ùetwcen the regions of the Suriqui 
" al\ll Etclwmines, ('ommonh' Suriquois allli Etc!\{'mins. to the river cOllimonly called IIY the 
" name of St, Croix; ana to the most remote ""uree 01' spring, from the "estern part of the 
"same. which first mingle. itself with the .aid river; whem'e, hy au imaginary direct line 
" which might be conceived to proecc,l through the country. or to run towards the nurth, to the 
.. nea
stships' station, ri,'er, ur spring, emptyiug itself in the great river of Canada; and 
.. thence, ùy proceeding towar<ls the East by the Gulf shores of the same' river of Canada; 
.. to the river, ships' station, port, or shore, commonly known and called ùy the nallle of 
.. Gathepc or Gaspee." 
The explanations of Messr!'. Featherstonbaugh and Mudge, on the 
text of the original grant, establish that the original houndary linc of Nova 
Scotia. from the mouth of the St. Croix to the source of the Chaudière, 
was the boundary liue designed hy the framers of the Treaty of 1jí-<:t In 
reality, the text of the Treaty is a repetition of the grant of 1(j
1, and it 
could scarcely have been more precise, except with regard to the cour:;e 
of the imaginal'y'straight line l,etweell the two natural objects, the 
source of the River St. Croix amI the particular point in the highland::,. 
The original grant runs :-" An imaginary direct line, which might be 
., conceived (eoncipictur) to procecd through the cJuntry or to run to- 
" wat'lh; the north ., 



'fHg HOl"SDAltY Qt:'ESTI02\. 


27 


A slight al'parLlIl'P from tllis language wa;; admitted into the Treaty, 
proha1ly \\ ith a Üew to a1lJl'e\ iate the description, ana hence the ùis- 
crcpaney. \\T e have ane north. instcad of towards the north in a ùirect 
or straight line. Othc1'\\ isl' the two descriptions llaYC one anLl the sa1l10 
mea.ning. The ('ommis!:'illlwl's of the two (
oveTnmpnts, howpver, de- 
cidcd on the point at the source uf the Chiputnatieook as the starting- 
point; and they determinl'ù that this rin'l' shouhl hereafter be consid- 
l'red the 
t. Cl'oix-the Sanche Crucis of the Xonl. ::5eotia grant, whieh 
it undoubtedly was not. 
The nc-x:t step takl'n to C'ffect a settlf'fllpnt of the boundary was in 
1::-;1-1, and the course dcterminedon is full v set forth in thc fifth Article 
. . 
of the Treaty of Ghcnt, '\iz:- 
" "Thcreas neither tlULt poillt of the hi
hlanils lying due north from 
"thc !'OUl'!'C of the river St. C'roi-x:, ùe!:>ignatcil in tllf' formcr Treaty of 
,. Peaee hetween the two Powers as tILe North-west angle of Nuva 
" :--;eutia.llor the northwesternmost head of the COlllleetieut Uivl.r,havc) et 
"heen ascerta.ined; and whereas that part of the houlldary line IJetween 
" the doiuillions of the two powel s. \\ hich ('xtcmls frum the sourcp (Jf 
"the river St. Croix directly north to the ah(Jve mentioncLl 
orth-we'it 
"angle of Kova Scotia, thence along the 
aid higlùallùs whieh ùÏ\'idc 
"those rivers that empty thcmselves intu the river St. Lawrence from 
"those which fall into the .\tlantic ()I'caJl. to the nurthwcstcrnmost hcail 
"of the Connecticut Hin'r. Iht'nccdown along the middle of that rivcr to 
"the -1;)th dcgree of Korth latitude, thenee hyaline due west in said 
'"latitude, until it strikes the river Iroquuis or Cataraqui. has not Jet 
"been surveyed; it is agrcCll. that for tht'
;c several purposes, two Com- 
"missioncls !Shall be appointed, !Sworn. and authoriz
d to act cxactly in 
"the manner ùirectpd with respcct to those mentiuncd in the next prc- 
" ceding .\rticle, unless otherwise 
pecifietl in the present article. The 
":;;aid C'mnmis",iom-rs shall mect at 
t, AlHlrews. in the Province of 
"Ncw Brunswick. and shall have powl'r to adjourn to such other place 
" or places as tllC'Y shall think fit. The said Commissioners shall have 
.. l'()\Vpr to aSl:I'rtain alltl,ll't "1'1I1inc thp poiuts ahove mentionctl, ill eon- 



28 


THE INTERCOLONIAl,. 


" formity with the provisions of the said Treaty of Peace of 1783 ; and 
"shall cause the boundary aforesaid, from the source of the HiveI' St. 
"Croix to the River Iroquois or Cataraqui, to be surveyed alld mm'ked 
"according to the said provisions; the said Commissioners shall make 
" a map of the said boundary, and annex to it a declaration under their 
"hands and seals certifying it to be the true map of the said boun- 
"dary, and particularizing the latitude and longitude of the North- 
"wcst angle of Kova Scotia, of the north-westernmost head of the Con- 
"nccticut River, amI of such other points of the said boundary as 
"they may deem proper. And 1)oth partics agree to consider such 
"map and dcclaration as finally and conclusively fixing the said 
"Loundary. And in the event of the two Commissioners differing, 
"or both or either of them refusing, declining, or wilfully omitting 
"to act, such rcports, declarations, or statements shall be made by 
"them, or either of them, and such reference to a friendly Sovereign 
"or State shall be madc, in all respects as in the latter part of the 
"fourth Article is contained, and in as full a manner as if thc sallle 
" was herein repeated." 
Had these Commissioners commenced at the source of the truc St. 
Croix, that is to say, the main or wcstcrn branch, and then extended a 
line due north, they would have reach cd highlands, at no great dis- 
tance, where the waters flowing into the Atlantic take thcir l'Íse. But 
the Commissioners began their labours at the point of commencemcnt 
erroneously established by their predecessors at the source of thc Chi- 
putnaticook. Starting from this point, on a course due north, thcy 
passed through the opening in the highlands through which the River 
St. John finds a passage. The Commissioners in con3equcnce found the 
wording of the Treaty in no way in accordance with the physical fea- 
hues of the country. The line run, not striking highlands, hut passing 
through them at the opening through which the St. John flows, they 
cncountercd a wille intermediate expanse, and finally struck a second 
range of highlanLls at a point where the rivcr ::\Ictis takes its rise. nut 
the lattcr highlanLls divi<leLl thc waters flowing into the Bay Chaleur, 



TIlE BOUNDARY QUESTION. 


2!) 


from those flowing into the estuary of the St. Lawrence, alllI cOlùd not 
po::;sibly be considered the highland::; of the Treaty of 1783. 
The Commissioners, under the Treaty of Ghent could not arrive at 
any decision. A::; a last l'esource, under its proyisions, the que::;tion was 
referred by common consent to the King of the Netherland::; for arbitra- 
ment, anù the duty wa::; accepteLl by that monarch. The subject was 
fully submitteLl to the arbitrator by the repre::;entatives of both Govern- 
ments, "ith documentary evidence, and all that could throw light upon 
the case. It is believed, however, that the fact, that the western branch 
of the St. Croix had been set aside for the eastern branch, was not 
hrought prominently forward. It may have been incidentally men- 
tioned, but it was not adduced as a link in the evidence to explain 
much that was otherwise inexplicable. The boundary had in fact been 
dedared to be settled in 1798, as far as the monument at the head 
of the Chiputnaticook could estaLlish it, and although the selcction 
of that stream was admitted to be a departure from the Treaty of 
1783, it was held that this settlement precluded the reopening of tho 
question. 
The award of the King of the Netherlands was delivered at the 
Hague on the 10th of January, 1831. It was to the effect that the evi- 
Llence submitted, anù the vague aIllI indefinite stipulations of the Treaty 
of 1783 did not permit an adjudication of either of the lines claimed by 
the respective Governments. The opinion was further expressed, that 
the original description of the boundarie::; of the British Provinces did 
not afford any ba:,;i::; for a decision; that the instructions of Congress, 
when the Treaty of ] 7
j wa::; being negotiated, placed t.he north-west 
angle of Kova Scotia at the ::;ource of the River St. John; that accord- 
ing to Mitchell's map, (a docnment extant when the Treaty of 1783 wa::; 
made and submitted in evidence,) the latitude of that angle was as far 
north as the banks of the St. Lawrence; that according to the boun- 
dary of the Government of Quebec. it ought to be sought for at the 
highlands dividing the rivers which empty themselve::; into the River 
St. Lawrence from tIlOse which fall into the sea; eonsP'luently, that the 



:-:!o 


THE IXTERCOLO
L\L. 


north-west angle of Nova Scotia was uuknown III 178:3, unascertained 
by the Trcaty of (
hent, anLl f'till remaining to llc fOUllfL 
The arbitrator was abo of opinion that the rivers falling into the 
Bay Chaleur and into the Bay of FUIllly could not he consiLlcred, 
according to the meaning of the Treaty, as rivers flowing into the At- 
lautic; and spccifieally that the rivers St. John and Hestigollche cannot 
bc lookerl upon as answcring to the latter description. 
It was furthcr advanced that the term ., highlaJH1s" applies not only to 
a hilly or elevated country, but also to land which, not nceessari1y 
hilly. divides waters flowing in oppositf' direction,,; "that the verb 
"divide appears to requirc the contigujty of the ohjects to he divided;" 
and that, therefore. no highlands answering tIll' 11escription of the 
Treaty of 178:1 occurred in a due north linc from the source of the 
RiYer St. Croix. 
Therefore, finding himscH unahlf' to adjlll1gc eithf'r of the line", the 
Arbitrator conccived it expc(licnt to suggest a. linc of houndary. 
The Government of Great Britain announced to the Government of the 
United States their willingness to acqui(>s('c in any boundary prop08eLl 
by the King of the :Kethedunds. The Scnatc of thl' l'nited States rf'- 
jeeted the award, and invitcd the President to enter anew into nego- 
tiations with the British ({ovcrnment UpOIl the whole question of the 
bounclary. 
'X t'gotiations were accordingly renewf'd, and a long diplomatic 
corresronrlence ensued. The Executive of the rnited States by no 
means helLl it to be impracticable to determine the boundary in- 
tended hy the Treaty of 17:-3. The President, General .Jackson, ex- 
1'r1'8sl-',1 him"l'lf !,;Ìnpen-'ly anxiolls to haw' the que
tion amicahlyad- 
justed during his term of o1'6('c. I II' direct!-'d a propo"al to he madf' 
and repeate(l at various timf's, 'whieh secmed to open a way calculated 
to bring ahout a satisfactory 
olution. The proposal of the Pr('
idpJIt is 
fully cxplained in a note sent to the Dnke of \Vellington, from \Vash- 
ington. · 


<< April 28th, H
:;;;. Uun, .Juhn For>) th, Sl-'Crl'(ar) or State, \\'a.hington, to Sir C. H. Vaughan. 



nor
DARV QrESTION. 


31 


.. fly the Treaty of 1 ï:-;
. the boundary between the dominions of 
.. the two government
 "as to be a line drawn from tht' sourcp of the 
.. St. Croix. directly north, to the highlands which divide the rivers 
" "hich fall into the Atlantic Ocean from thosf' which fall into the 
.. River f::t. Lawrence, the point at which the Iluc north line was to 
., cut the higWamls. was also designated as the northwest angle of Nova 
.. Scotia; thence along the said highlands to the northwesternmost 
" head of the Connecticut River. etc. The ascertainment of the true 
" northwest II;ngle of Nova Scotia, or the nesignation of the highlands 
.. referred to. lms been the principal difficulty by "hich the settlement 
" of the bounrlary ha.'3 been so long retarded: and it "as tlH' suppose,l 
." impracticahility of satisfactorily accomplishing that a
('ertainmf'nt or 
.. designation \\hich prevented the :uljustment hy the .\I'hitrator. The 
"r;nited States have alway'" contenderl, tha,t thp point. to which they 
.. han uniformly claim",l, is upon certain highlands north of the river 
.. St. .John, which answers, in (,I.'ery respect. the deseription given in 
.. the Treaty. and is the true northwest angle of Xova Scotia: a claim 
,. which is not intendeLl to be abanLloned 01' weakened by anything the 
.. Pre",ident has authorized to he propo:.c,l or said upon the subject. If 
.. the highlands now referred to, do in truth, answer the Lle,wription, no 
,. doubt conld be reasonably f'ntertaincd of the justice of our claim, a,> 
" there would he a perfect concurrence in the course prescribed, and 
.. the natural object designated by the Treaty; but on the part of Great 
.. Britain it has been strenuousl:v contendeLl. that no highlands, answer- 
.. ing the description in the Treaty, could be foulld nurthwarLl of the 
.. river St. John, upon a line running directly north; and it has, there- 
.. fore, been insi
ted that the due north line "hall be deemed to ter- 
.. minate to the southward of that river, and at a place called Mars 
.. Hill. The President is ad"ised, that it is a rule in practical survey- 
.. ing. which prm,ailell in this C"ountry before the revolution, amI ha;:; 
.. since heen. and still i::; considered obligatory. that when there i::; found 
.. in the location of the premises described in a deed or any other instl'u- 
"mellt. a ,1i"'a
rcement in the cllllr....e of a 
il..en lilli', antI the hearin
 of 



32 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


" a natural ohject called for, as its termination, the given course must 
" he made to yielLl to the given object, and the line closed at the object, 
"in a direction corresponding, as nearly as practicable, to the course 
"prcscribed; upon the principle that the natural ohject furnishes evi- 
"dence of the true intention of the parties, which may be relied upon 
"with more safety than the course, errors in which constantly occur, 
"from the imperfections in the instruments used, or the want of knowl- 
"edge of those in whose hands they may have been placed. He has 
" thought that this rule might be rightfully and properly applied to the . 
"matter now in contl"Oversy, and is willing to agree, that if, upon a 
"thorough examination, it shall appear to those appointed by the par- 
" ties to make it, that His :Majesty's Government is correct in its assump- 
"tion, that the higlùands hitherto claimed by the United States, as 
"those designated by the Treaty, do not answer that descril)tion, but 
"that those highlands are to be found to the west of the due north 
" line; that the boundary line should be closed according to the cstab- 
"lished rule in practical surveying. \Vhether there are highlands to 
" be found in a northwesterly course from the source of the St. Croix, 
"answering' better to the description given in the Treaty of 17R3, than 
"those heretofore claimed by the United States, and so clearly idcnti- 
" fied as to remove all reasonable douht, remains to be ascertained. K 0 
',' inquiry into this fact, with a view to apply it to the respective and 
" conflicting pretensions of the parties, has hitherto been made. It was 
" under these circumstances, and with such impressions, that 1\11'. Liv- 
"ingstone was authorized to propose to Sir Charles R. Vaughan, for 
"the consideration of his Government, that a new commission should 
"be appointed, consisting of an equal numbcr of comi:llissioners, with 
"an umpire, selected by some fricndly sovereign, from among the most 
"skilful men in Europe, to decide on all points in which they might 
"disagree; or a commission entirely composeLl of scicntific Europeans, 
"sclected by a fricIHlIy sovercign, to be attend ell in the survcy and 
" cxamination of the country, hy agents appointed by the parties. The 
"adoption of this cour..e woull1, it \Va::; urged, havc thc hcncfit of strict 



THE BOUNDARY QUESTION. 


33 


"impartiality in the ('ommi
sioners' local knowledge and high profes- 
h giollal skill, "hich, though heretofore separately called into action, 
" have never before been combined for the solution of the question:' 
"In consequence of a wish expressed by Sir Charles R. Vaughan 
" to be more fully advised of the views of the President, upon the subject 
"of this proposition. he was furnished with a diagram, by which the 
"manner in which it was intended the line should be run, in the event 
"of highlands being discovered better answering the Llescription of the 
"Treaty, than those claimeLl by the Cnited f'tate", was pointed out 
" distinctly; while to relieve His Majesty's Government from all ap- 
"prehension of a mOl'e extended claim of territory on our part, l\Ir. 
"Livingstone was authorized to disclaim and did disclaim. all pretensions 
"on the part of the "Cnited States, to the territory East of the line, 
"which had been previously run dircctly north from the source of the 
" St. Croix. - - - 
" The President sincerely believes th,Lt the new proccss of investi- 
"gation. proposed by him, might under the control of the principle of 
h practical surveying developed, lead to a settlement of this agitating 
"question, which, as it would be legally and fairly made according to 
., a long established and well known rule, prevalent equally among the 
" citizens of the United States and the subjects of his Britannic .:\Iajesty : 
" ought to be, and he confidently trusted would be, satisfactory to all 
" parties." 
The new principle of settlement, on the basis of the Treaty of 1783, 
embraced in the above extract, was made and urged by the Government 
of the United States for fully two years.- 
Five dt'''patehes were written on the suhject urging the fair. the 
honourable. allll at the same time the practical solution of the question 
as recommended by President .Jackson. They were forwarded to Lord 
l'alll1cr
ton. .\ sixth dated ,April 2Hth, lH:1t" from 1\11" Forsyth was 


..\pril 30th antI :\[ay 28th, 1833, from Mr. LÌ\';n
.t()nc to Sir C. R. Vau
han. .June fith, 
IS;;3, anilIlbrch 11th and 21st. 183J, frow Ilk :\lcL,lIIc. Secrctary of State, to Sir C. H. 
\?:II1
han. 


3 



34 


THE INTERCOLONIAL, 


despatcllf'd to the Duke of Wellington. The proposition made uy the 
United States was not entertained, but a counter proposal was sub- 
mitted by the Imperial Government, urging the expediency of agreeing 
upon a conventional boundary; a proceeding which would have neces- 
sitated a new treaty, amending the Treaty of 1783. 
The United States Government had no authority to make a treaty 
without the concurrence of the Senate; moreover, it was even a question 
whether the treaty could be made without first obtaining the consent of 
the States, contiguous to the boundary. But the President had the 
constitutional authority to establish the line described in the Treaty of 
178R, and in order to effect a speedy adjustment of a perplexing ques- 
tion, he felt justified in submitting the principle of settlement baseLl on 
expediency and equity. At this day it is difficult to comprehend tho 
reasons which induced the Imperial Government to reject the proposal 
of President Jackson; a mode of 8ettlement frequently repeated, alId 
which was presented on grounds supported by argument and sustained by 
practice. The proposal of the PresiLlent removed all Llifficulty in the MLY 
of a speedy and satisfactory solution. The boundary, as far as the heaLl 
of the minor branch of the St. Croix, had been agreed upon by 1I0th 
nations; and a monument had been erected as a fixed point of departure. 
It was now proposed and urged by the United States, to discard the 
due north line, to seek west of the due north line the undisputed 
.. highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the 
"river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean," 
to find the point in the .. water shed" of these highlands nearest to 
the due north line, and to trace a direct course from it to the mOlllUllent 
already established. If this principle had been adopt ell, a straight lino 
would have been drawIl from the monument at the heaLl of the Chil'ut- 
natieook, to a point which could have been establÜ;hed with prccision, 
in the" water shed" of the highlands which separate the sources of 
the f'haudière from those of the Penohscot; hew heing the lIIost I'a:-;t- 
m'ly poiut in the only highlal\lls agrceing beyond Ilispllte witll the 
tre,lty. This poiut is found a little to th(' north amI \\ o:<t of the 



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THE BOUNDARY QUESTION. 


35 


intersection of the 70th meridian west longitude aml the 46th parallel 
of north latituùe. 
An examination of the map of the country. Plate Xo. 2, on 
which are depicted the water-shed", of the different drainage ba
ins, 
will at once satisfy the reader that no other point could possibly be 
chosen. The water-shed which divides" those rhers that empty them- 
selves into the 'river St. Lawrence from those which fall into the 
Atlantic Ocean," cannot be mistaken or disputed. The most eastcrly 
extremity of that water-shed is undoubtedly where the drainage basin 
of the Day of Fundy begins. Here three water-sheds converge; 
namely, the watcr-shed between the river :-it. Lawrence and the 
Atlantic drainage systcms; the water-shed betwcen the river St. 
Lawrence and Ray of Fundy basins; and the water-shed betwcen the 
Day of Fundy and the 
\tlantic drainage systems. The point of 
convergence of thl'se three water-sheds is the only point that could 
have been seleetcd as the natural object sought for, had the prol)osal 
of President Jackson been acquiesccd in. 
That the proposal fcll to the ground, must be attributcd entirely to 
the fact that the Imperial Govcrnmcnt declincd to concur in it, UlIlcss 
cumbercd with conditions which a President of the United Statcs had 
no power to acccpt. 
Occasional letters passed between the two Governments respecting 
a houndary to he establishcd by con
ention, but no progress was made 
towards settlement. Indeed, little was done beyond an exchange of 
diplomatic correspondcnce, until the survey for the railway from St. 
Andrews to Quebec attracted attention. Representations were then 
made hy.the Statc of Maine to the Fcderal Government, to have the 
survey stopped. The following year, on the Government of the rnited 
States asking the concurrence of the Statc of Maine to enter into a treaty 
for a f'OInentional boundary line, the Hou;;e of Reprcsentative;; passed 
t'l'''fllutions. affirming the inexpeùiency of entering into the negotiations, 


· 23.1 IIl.lrch, 183G. "Resoh'ed, that it is nut expedient to give the assent uf this 
. Stale tu ti,l' 1..."lcral (;u\ crnlllcnt tu treat with that of Great Britain, fur R cunvcnliunal 



36 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


and insisting on the line establish cd by the Treaty of liS:], and asking 
for the erection of fortifications to defend it. 
In July, lti:]!), Colonel :Mudge and )11'. Featherstonhaugh were ap- 
pointed by the Imperial Govcrnment to survey the dis}Juted territory, 
amI to cxamine the several lines of boundary and the different ranges 
of highlands. 
In April, 18-10, they reported that there was a defined range of 
highlands lying betwcen the sources of the rivers ChaUllière and Du 
Loup flowing northward, and the Androscoggin and Kennebec flow- 
ing southward. and that it continucd along the head watcrs of the 
Penobscot, which it divided from the waters of the St. John. Thcse 
highlands wcre describcd as being capallle of heing traced across the 
river St. John and towards the hcad of the lby Chaleur; they also 
rcportl>d that the
'ì:J highlands complied with the spil'Ít of the Treaty of 
1jH
-that 110 other highlands in the COUll try to the north were found 
to allswcr the dcscription; and that, to meet the want of such height of 
lallll, fictitious mountain ranges had been inserted in maps of some 
Smnyors of the Unitcd States. The Govcrnment of the Lnited Statcs, 
on their sidc, directcd a sUlTey to be made of the duc north line, as far 
as the head of thc l'Íver Metis on the high ground overlooking the St. 
Lawrence. In the mean time, an armed force from )[aine entered upon 
allll took posscssion of the disputcd lands on the river St. John, and 
in the neighhourhood of the old established British settlement at )Iada- 
waska. They constructed forts and roa.ds; thcir surveyors laid off lots 
of land, and sales wcre made WitJl dceds regularly drawn up :-a.ll under 
the authority of the State of )lainc, and in direct contravention of the 
mutual agrccmcnts made by the L'nited States neneml Government with 
the Imperial Government. Conflicts occurred uetween the settlers and 
the intruders; on one night the marauders uurned down three home- 


"Iinc fur our northeastern bOIlI1t]ary, hut tlll1t tins Statc will insist on thc linc cstahlished 
.. by the Treaty of 178;)," 
" Resol..e,l, that the Maritime fmntier anti thc extcnsi ve interior position of this State are 
" in >\ defcnceless ami e'<pose,1 positiun, .LIlt! we nAy with cunthlcllce thlLt the Ft'.leml GUH,rn, 
" Illcnt will eausc suiL'Lhle furtific,Ltions tu he erectcll tur thc defcnee of the same." 



THE nOUXD.\RY Qt"ESTIOY. 


37 


steads, destroying property of the value of $2.300. Mr. FairfieM, who 
gave the name to the Fort on the Aroostook, was elected (;overnor a 
second time, by an immense majority, for the avowed purpose of taking 
possession of the disputed territory in accordance with his e,<pressell 
determination. It was believed in the United States, that one chief 
motive with England was to preserve a direct mail route and military 
road between Halifax and Quebec, and it was equally a chief motive 
with many in the United States to stop that communication. The ques- 
tion became more and more perplexing. A voluminous correspondence 
passed bet.ween the Imperial Goyernment, the Government of the 
United States, thc Government of the State of Maine, and that of the 
Province of New Brunswick. but no progress was made towards a set- 
tlement; and so matters continued until 1842, when Lord Ashburtoll, 
under instructions from the Earl of .Aberdeen, proceeded to 'V ashing- 
ton as plenipotentiary charged with full powers to negotiate and settlc 
all matters in discussion between the United States and Great Britain. 
Daniel 'Vebster was the Secretary of State, and he at once com- 
menced negotiations with Lord Ashburton for a conventional boundary.- 
Mr. Webster received the advice and assistance of four commission- 
ers from the State of Maine. The result was the conclusion of the 
Ashburton Treaty.t Thc first article declared :-" That the line of 
"boundary shall be as follows :-Beginning at the monunwnt at the 
"source of the river St. Croix, as designated and agreed to by thc 
" Commi::,sioners under thc 5th Article of the Treaty of 17
4, - · · · 
"thence north, following the exploring line run and marked by the 
" Surveyors of the two Governments in the years 1817 and 181R, · · 
"to its intersection with the river St. .John, and to the middle of the 
" channel thereof; thence up the miòdle of the main channel of the said 
"river St. John to the mouth of the river St. Francis; thence up thc 
" middle of the channel of the said river St. Francis and of the Lakes 
"through which it flows, to the outlet of the Lakc Pohcnagamook; 
"thence southwesterly in a straight line to a point on the northwest 


· 17th .June, 1842 


t Signed at WashingtCln, !)th AUJ:rust. 1842 



38 


TIlE INTEIWOWNIAL. 


"branch of the river St. John, which point shall be tcn milcs distant 
" from the main branch of the St. J olm, in a straight line and in the 
" nearc::;t dircction; but if the said point shall he found to be less than 
" seven miles from the nearest point of the summit or crest of the high- 
" lands that divide thosc rivers which empty themselves into the river 
,,::;t. Lawrcnce, from those which fall into the river St. John, then the 
"said point shall be made to recede down the said northwest llranch of 
"the river St. John, to a point seven miles, in a straight line, from the 
"said summit or ercst; thence in a straight linc, in a cour::;e about 
"south, eight degrces west, to the point where the parallel of latitude 
"of 4Go 25' north, intersects the southwest branch of the St. John; 
.. thence southerly by the said braneh to the source thereof in the high- 
" lana:; at the l\1etjarmette Portage; thence down along the saíd high- 
" lanùs which divide the waters which empty themselves into the river 
"St. Lawrence, from those whieh fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the 
"head of lIall's Stream; thence down the middle of said strcam, till 
.. the line thus run intersects the old line of boundary surveyed and 
"marked by Valentine and Collins previously to the year 1774, as the 
" -!:ïth degree of north latitude, and which has been known and under- 
.. stoo(l to be the line of actual division between the Statcs of New York 
.. and Vermont on one side, and the British Province of Canada on the 
" other; and from said point of intersection west along the said divid- 
"ing line, as heretofore known and understood, to the Iroquois or St. 
" Lawrence River." The Treaty farther declared the river St. John to 
be as free and open, from its source to its mouth in the Day of Fundy, 
to the inltahitants of the State of :Maine, as to the inhabitants of the 
Province of New Brunswick. 
This ended the dispute. On the one hand, the United States acc<,pt- 
cò about five thousand square miles less territory than had been 
claimcd for her on the plea that the 1ine of boundary should extcnd on 
the due north line from the river St. Croix to the source of the river 
Metis on the crest of the dividing ridge between the river Restigouehe 
and the lower St. Lawrence. It was argued that thcse were the high- 



THE BOUNDARY QUESTION. 


39 


lalllis described in the treaty of 1783, as separating the waters falling 
into the Atlantic from the waters emptying into the river St. Law- 
rence :-a claim utterly untenable, as the highlands at the source of 
the :Metis only separate waters falling into the Bay Chaleur from those 
flowing into the St. Lawrence, where it ceased to be a river; the St. 
Lawrence at that point being an estuary of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
scarcely less in width than Lake Ontario, and wider than the English 
Channel between Dover and Calais. On the othCl' hand, the Imperial 
Government yielded an equal area of the territory which she had 
al ways persistently claimed, embracing the country watered by the 
river St. John, through which Captain Yule had made the survey for 
the railway between Quebec and St. Andrews, a country reported to 
be remarkably favourable for the construction of the projected Truuk 
line of Railway. 
In reviewing the whole negotiations, it is evident that the first 
blunder on the part of those representing Great Britain, was made 
in 17
7, in accepting as the bounùary, the minor branch of the rivcr 
St. Croix (the Chiputnaticook) instead of the main river; and by 
an addendum to the Treaty of 1794, declaring it the boundary 
as far as the monument, which had been erected at its source. Haù 
the main river St. Croix been adhered to, as the Trcaty of 1783 
unquestionably intended, the true principles of settlement, those in 
fact which President Jackson so frequently urged for adoption, would 
inevitably have carried the line of boundary more than a hundred miles 
south of its present position, and would have preserved for the Domin- 
ion of Canada a territory measuring some eleven thousand square miles, 
equalling the combined areas of the states of Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut; and which, from its geographical position, could not fail to be 
of the utmost value to the Dominion. When the location of the Inter- 
colonial Railway is considered, the prejudicial effect of the Ashburton 
Treaty will be more generally understood. 



CHAPTER III. 


EARLY HISTORY CONTINUED 


1842 TO 1852. 


Military Road Suryeycd.-Railway Mania of 184;j brings out the Halifax and Quebec 
scheme. - Sir Uichard Broun advocates it. - The various routes, - Government 
of New Brunswick favours the route by Anuapolis, - St. Andrews aud Queuec 
Railway revived,-Lord Ashuurton takes stuck in it.-Ashuurton treaty killed the 
scheme,-Halifax and Queuec routes to be surveJed.-Captain Pipon and Mr, 
Henderson aI'Pointed.-Major Robinson's report recommending Bay Chaleur route.- 
Mr. 'Vilkinson objects,-Construction of railway urged as a relief for the famine in 
Ireland, - Major Carmichael-Smyth's views -Railway conference at Portland,- 
Nova Scoti.. sl'IHls Mr. Howe to England,-British Government objects to scheme.- 
Imperial proposals,-Negotiations upset.-Deputation to England, 


THE settlement of the Boundary question did not lessen the ncceS- 
sity for a military road; indeed some line of communication for military 
purposes was the more necessary, as the new Boundary interposed a 
wedge uf forcign territory which threatened to sever all connection be- 
tween the Maritime Provinces and Quebec. 
Accurdingly, not long after the conclusion of the Treaty, thc Im- 
perial Government directed a survey of a military road to be UllIler- 
taken, having in view the connection of the Provinces, at a distance as 
remote as practicable from the frontier. This survey was made by CoL 
Holloway of the Royal Engineers, aided by Sir James Alexander, then 
a Captain in the 14th Regiment. The latter was well and favourahly 
known, acquainted with Canadian life, and strongly sympathizing ,\'ith 
Canadian interests. 
The route explored crossed the interior of Kew Brunswick from 
the bend of the river Pctitcoùiac, by Boicstown. Grand Falls, the 
nurth of Lake Tenúscouata and H.ivièrc du Loup to Qucbec. It was 



E.\.ltLY IW;TOrt\'" C()
TI
UED. 


41 


reported that lines of fortification were to be constructed to protect 
the road, and that a military post was to be established at the GraUlI 
Falls. 
The survey was made in 1K-!-!. The reports sct forth that in tr:n'- 
ersing the highlands, the most difficult grades would not exceed 1 in 
1.); that thc:-:e could be reduced hyoblique and prolonged circuits; 
that the bridging of streams would be attended with but little diffi- 
culty as the main rivcrs, St. Juhn and 
liramichi, were avoided j that 
the projected road would traverse a fertile, uuc1caredcountry, where there 
were abundant materials of wood and stone; and that the engincers 
pstimated the cost at .t:2.ïOO per mile for a macadamized roall, amI 
.t-!.iO per mile fur a plank road subject to repairs in 5 years and 
rencwal in 10 ycars. Thc total length of the road was estimated at 
500 miles. 
The year 18-15 will be long memorable as that of the great railway 
mania in the United Kingdom. During this period many old projects 
were revived and many new ones started. Among the former ,,,as that 
of the St. .Andrews and Quebec Railway, apparently recalled to life by 
the proposal of a new scheme, the Halifax and Quebec Railway, the pros- 
pectus of which had been issued in England. 
At that time Sir Richard Broun was engaged in taking steps fur 
the formation of a Colonization Company, under unusually favo\ll'- 
able circumstances. The design was to combine the influence of all 
partics, on both sides of the Atlantic, who were intercsted in. or othcr- 
"ise favourable to the revival of the rights of the Baronetage of Scot- 
land amI Xova Scotia. He was also engaged in schemes for connectin: 
Grcat Britain with Japan, China and the East Indies, by mcans of :t 
continuous line of steam navigation and railwfl
-s through British 
Kurth America. At this juncture he reccived a lettcr from a ::\11'. 
'Villi am Bridges, suggesting that a railway to unite the waters of till' 
Atlantic and the St. Lawrencc would be bencfieial to the Xorth An1l'1':- 
can Provinces, allli requesting his aid. It \\as rc;ulily promised, as the 
1'I'lIjeet so entircly a
rel'tl with his own theories. 



-12 


TIlE INTEUCOWNIAL. 


Sir nichanl Broun accordingly took an active part in the advance- 
ment of the scheme of the Halifax and Qucùec Railway, and advocated 
it for years. In July, 18-1':>, he forwarded to the Governors of New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia a memorial from the Provisional Board 
praying for certain facilities and advantages on the plea that the pro- 
posed railway would supersede the necessity for the projected militmy 
road, and tha,t it would furnish facilities for the systematic plantation 
and settlement of the whole frontier territOlY of British North America. 
The memorial was accompanied by a letter from l\lr. Bridges, asking 
t hat the prayer of the memorialists should be recommended to the Home 
Government; and the memorial was forwarded. 
Several routes were projected. One followed the line of the pro- 
posed militalY road from Halifax, by Truro, the Bend of the Petieodiac, 
Boiestown, Grand Falls and Temiseouata Lake. Another, joining the 
ahove line at Truro and starting from Canso. Another, starting from 
Halifax, crossing the Bay of Funùy between Annapolis and St. John, 
and then proceeding to Fredericton and Boiestown ; and another, taking 
the last mentioned route to Fredericton, and proceeding up along the 
west side of the river St. John to Grand Falls. 
The Governor of New Brunswick, in a despatch to the Home Gov- 
ernment, stated, that having conferred with the Executive Council and 
several influential persons in Fredericton and St. John, there appeared 
to him a general disposition to co-operate with the nail way Association, 
particularly if the Association would declare its intention of adopting 
the route from Halifax, by Annapolis, St. John and Fredericton. 
These lu.oposals and negotiations revived the project of the St. An- 
drews and Quebec Hailway, dormant since 1837. A meeting was helù on 
the 8th October, 1
-15, at which a delegate was appointed to wait upon the 
Colonial Secretmy and present a communication from t.he Association, 
in furtherance of the general interests of the undertaking. On the 24th 
of the same munth, a f'pecial meeting of the Chamher of Commerce of 
St. .J ohn was held, when two delegates from 
t. Andrews were heard 
on behalf of the S1. Andrews Railway, and resolutiuns were passed, 



Joal
LY HISTOI
ï COSTISL"ED. 


43 


thankiug the deputation for the information they had gIven, assuring 
them that the most eligible lines for the general good would neces- 
sarily command the must attention and cow:;ideration, l't
garùless oflocal 
interests. 
In November following, the Chamber of Commerce of St. John 
held another meeting and presenteù a report to the Governor, consiùer- 
ing only the two routes from Halifax and giving their decided prefer- 
ence to that passing by .Annapolis, St. John and Fredericton. 
On the other hand, the people of St. Andrews continued their e'-- 
crtions in hchalf of their own project. Subscription lists were opened, 
the capital asked for bcing æ750,OOO in shares of æ
3 each. 
On the 23th November, 18-16, a general meeting of the Stock- 
holders ,,,as held, when a board of local directors was elected. Several 
shares were taken in England, and a London board was appointpd, of 
\\ hich )11'. William Bridges, formerly of the Halifax and Quebec Rail- 
,\ ay, became Secretary. Lord Ashburton was a member of this boarù, 
and he courteously expressefl his symlJathy with the project. '" 
The settlement of the boundary question had placed St. Andrews 
at a great disadvantage. It could no longer obtain a direct connection 
with Quebec, without crossing territory which now formed part of the 
State of l\Iaine. Thus the confident hope which the people of St. 
Andrews had formed with respect to their town becoming the ocean 
terminus of a great Intercolonial Railway, had passed away. It is 
true that a joint stock company, under the name of the St. Andrews 
and Canada Uailway Co. after many struggles and difficulties sue- 


PICCADILLY, 25th June, 1847. 


. 


C'S[B, 
.. In reply to your note, I be
 to eay that I will take \\ith pleasure a sl1lall interest 
.. of (!500) five hundred pounds in the St. Allllrews and Woodstock Railway Company, I 
.. ILII1 geting too ol,l for any extensive venture!! of this or any otber kind, but I feel so strong- 
"Iy interested in the settling of your tine Colony, that I ILII1 tempted to take this trifling in- 
.. vestment in a useful undertaking connected with it," 
.. I congratulate you on having Lord Fitzwilliam to place his name at the head of your 
" London subscribers. You could not pos5ibly appear before the public more ad vantageoU5- 
"ly than you are." 
To Captain UOIllNSON. R. N. 



44 


TJIR INTERCOLONIAL. 


ceeJed in constructing a railway as far as 'Woodstock. a distance of 94 
miles; hut the Company has not been able to extend its works beyond 
that point. 
In the mean time, the Halifax amI Quehec scheme was experiencing 
many difficulties. The prospectus puhlished in England had given the 
names of several men of 8tanding and influence in Kova Scotia as con- 
nected with it. Several of these gentlemen repudiated the connection, 
stating that they never had Leen consulted and that their names had 
bcen used without their sanction. This proceeding de8troyed confi- 
dence in the association. Nevertheless Lord Falkland, the Govcmur, 
looked upon the scheme as both practicable and de8irable, and declared 
that he should deeply lamtmt its heing abandoned, either for want of effort 
to determine its feasibility, or from its having been undertakcn by 
individuals without the influence to effect its completion. In view 
of the importance of the project, alike to the Mother Country 
and to the Colonies, he applied to the Home Government to send 
out competent 
Iilitary or Civil Engineers to make an accurate sur- 
vey, by which the practicability of the scheme could be detcrmined 
and the best route established. He also set before the Home authori- 
ties that, as the mother country would obtain direct Railway communi- 
cation with Quebec, the object proposed by the military road, it 
was hoped that the British Government would contribute towards the 
railway, some portion of the money which would otherwise have becn 
expended on the military road. 
,Mr. Gladstone, then Secretary of State for the Colonies, replied 
to this despatch and approached with caution the qnestion of granting 
any aid to the undertaking; but in April, 1846, instructions werc issucli 
to the Royal Engineers to make the survey asked for. 
Puhlic attention was much turned to the project by the speeeJlCs 
and writings of many prominent ml'n who Iliscusscd it. The }Joints 
gcnerally consillered were, the cffect that the railway would have on the 
commerce of the country, on the settlement of wild Janas, and on the 
union of tIll' }l1"I-I\- inees into one community, the more intimate eonncction 



EARLY HISTORY CONTINUED. 


.Li 


which could be estahlishell with the mother country ann the greatf'r 
general security in case of war. On the last point, Co!. Holloway, 
who had cunducted the survey for the military road expressed himself 
strongly in favour of the Railway.- 
Sir John Harvey in his opening address to the House of Legisl,t- 
ture of Nova Scotia in January, 18-17, recommended to their continued 
attention this railway, which he said was not second to any project 
whieh hall ever engaged the notice of any Colonial Legislature in any 
part of the British Dominions, and which would :-" constitute the 
.. most important link in that great line of communication, which lUay 
" bc destined at no remote period to connect the Atlantic with t
l'} 
" Pacific Ocean, and to conduct to a British seaport, from those into 
.. which it is now forced, that vast stream of trade, not of our own \\" est- 
.. ern possessions alone, but of the rich and extensive wheat and grain 
" growing districts ')f all Central 
\llleriea." 
Resolutions were pas.;ell II:. the Parliaments of the three 
Provinces, in :Nova Scotia on 4th 

al'ch, Xe\V Brunswick 011 the 
a 
April, and Canada on the 
'ìth 
Iay, 13--1:G, setting forth the necessity 
fur the survey, and binding the several Provinces to make good the 
expense, each within its own limits. 
Accordingly instructions for the survey were issued on the 11th 
June, 1846, by Mr. Gladstone, to Captain Pipon amI Lieutenant Hen- 
derson of the Royal Engineers. 
These instructions gave general directions for the linc of survey: 
-viL. From Halifax to some port in the Bay of FUllllj-, whence hy 
steamer connection would he made with St. John; starling again from 
St. .Tohn the line would proceell to Fl'l'derictún amI along' the valley 
of the river St. John to the Grand Falls; thence by the E.Lst side of 


. 4th :\r.Lf. 18:::0, 
" I know that the British Govermll('IlL is strongly indined for a military rOall, and if I 
" see no objection 011 fnrther inquif} I wonld gladly recommeml a. railway instead of the 
" ordinary turnpike roal\. I believe the Go'"erIllnent is impressell with the importance of ., 
.. railway from Qneltec to Halifax in a political pOlllt of ,'iew, allll I am of opinion th:Lt it is 
"hig-hly dC'sirah1c, if not .Lhsolntely l'>,<entia1, for the mililar} ,ldence of Ill(' Uritish Allleri' 
.. can Provinces." 



4(ì 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


Lake Temiscouata to the mouth of the river du Loup, and thence by 
the south bank of the river St. Lawrence to Quebec. 
A second line was projected from Halifax to the bend of the 
Petitcodiac, thence as straight to the Grand Falls as would be consistent 
with the best mechanical selection of the line, and from thence as be- 
fore described to the St. Lawrence 
A third line was projected from Halifax to the oend of the Petitco- 
diac, and thence keeping to the northwest by Newcastle and the Bay 
Chaleur, or its vicinity, to the St. Lawrence. 
The survey was carried on by Capt. Pipon and :Mr. Henaerson- 
until 28th October, 18-16, when Capt. Pipon, in an attempt to save the 
life of a boy in his party, was ùrowned in the river Rcstigouche. The 
whole duty then devolved upon 1\Ir. Henderson, until the summer of 
1847, when :\Iajor Robinson of the Royal Engineers was appointeù to 
take the place of Captain Pipon. 
On the 1st May, 18-17, Mr. Henderson made a preliminary report 
as far as the survey had then proceeded. He objected to the first route 
on four grounds. 1st, on account of the break in through communica- 
tion, owing to the necessity of crossing the Bay of Fundy, 40 miles 
wide; 2d, from the probability that private enterprise would open 
up that section of the province; 3d, because in his opinion it was 
" evidently the object of the trunk line to benefit as much as possible 
" the mass of the Provinces," and 4th, because of very steep grades and 
heavy works to be found on that route. 
On the second route he gave the preference to a line starting from 
Dartmouth, on the east side of Halifax harbour, because from that place, 
as a terminus, the railway would be five miles shorter than from Ha1ifax. 
The Cohequid.l\lountains were well explored, allll the pass lJY Folly 
Lake pointed out. The survey by that time had reached the head waters 
of the river Rcsti
ouche, and showNI that there would be difficulty and 
expense ill cl'ossilJg' the rivcr Tolli(}lll'. a hraneh of the St. JohlJ, alltl that 


'" I\'uw C,,1. Ikmlcr80n 



EARLY HISTORY CONTINUED, 


47 


the construction of a railway by the line ",hid, had previously been 
selected for a military road" as impracticable. 
On the third route he endeavoured to find a line that would prevent 
the necessity of folJowing the sea-shore along thc Bay Chaleur, but it was 
not possible to find one. By the valley of the Kepissiguit, a practicable 
line was" out of the question," the hills becoming mountains separated 
by deep ravines, and at last" the mountains at the heads of the Tobique, 
1\Iiramichi, etc., rise in wild confusion." He himself explored the 
greater portion ot the wilderness, in which lie the heads of the Tobique, 
Nepissiguit and Upsalquiteh. On the whole he was forced to give his 
preference to the coast line by the Day ('haleur. 
Major Uobiuson made the final rep9rt of the survey uudcr date of 
:ast August, lR!8. 
The route recommended was from Halifax to Truro, passing over 
the Coùe(luid :\Iountains, thence by the Gulf shore to the river ,l\Iira- 
michi, which would be erosse<l at the head of tide. thence proceeding by 
the Kipissiguit River to the Hay Chaleur, and along the eoast to 
the mouth of the Metapedia, proceeding up the valley of the l\Ietapcdia 
to the vicinity of the f;t. Lawrence, thence along the St. Lawrence to 
the Rivière du Loup and Point Levis. 
The estimate for this line, for G3,3 miles, from Halifax to Quebec, 
was set down by 
[ajor Robinson at æ7000 sterling per mile, or in round 
numbers ÆS,OOO,OOO sterling, and it was strongly recommended that the 
railway, at whatever time it might be commenced, should be properly amI 
efficiently constructed. 
TJ
e route recommended would, in .l\Iajor Robinson's opinion, secure 
the greatest immcrliate amount of remuneration for the expenditure. and 
the development in the highest degree of the commerce and fisheries of 
New Brunswick. The greatest facilities for construction wcre afforded, 
at many points, hy its proximity to the sea, and, from the same cause, 
the least apl'l'ehellsion of interruption of traflic IIY climatic inJlll- 
cnces. Its ],(,lIlotI"III'SS frolU lli(' United 
latl's frolilicr sCI'IIl'(,d it fl'om 
aHa..!\: ill ('asp of hostilities \\ ith till' ('HitI'd :-;tat"s. alltl tli,' g'l':ull's 



48 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


would be easy on account of its passing through the least elevated 
country. 
Major Robinson also urged, as additional reasons for the adoption 
of his route, and the speedy construction of the road :- 
That by embarking and disembarking at Halifax, the danger and 
inconvenience from the navigation of the Gulf of St. Lawrence would 
be avoided, 
That the mails to and from Canada would pass over territoryexclu- 
sively British, and yet be received at 1\Iontreal as soon as they could 
be received at Doston. 
That from a political and military point of view the proposed rail- 
way had become a work of necessity. 
And that, if it should ever become necessary or advisahle to unite all 
the British Korth American Provinces under one Legislative Govern- 
ment, the means to the end, the first step to its accomrlishment, would 
be the construction of the Halifax and Quebcc Rail way. 
In a letter of an earlier date he made mention of the difficulties 
attending the survey, and he spoke of the dangers and hardships whieh 
those engaged in the survey had experienced.. 
Soon after the appearance of Major Robinson's report, Mr. 'Wilkin- 
son, of the Crown Laml,; ()ffice in Fredericton, who had been in charge 
of one of the surveying parties, published a pamphlet ol,jecting to Major 
Robinson's recommendation of the Bay Chaleur route and his condem- 
nation of the shorter and direct route through the centre of Kew 
Brunswick. Mr. "Ïlkinson contended that sufficient examination IHHI 
not been made to establish the best line through the central district ( f 
New Drunswick, and that more explorations were desirahle. 


. lIe writes that one of his chief surveyors and draughtsmcn, Mr, Grant, "in some burnt 
"land, having left the line for IL short time to make a sketch from some rising grollnd, eouM 
" not again find the track, and after being lost for five days without a morsel of fooll, W:IS 
" founllon the morniug of the sixth day lying exhausted, and at the last cxtrelllit), hy some 
"Iumherllleu passiug most I'rClvielentially "1' thé stre:ml to which he hnll \\nnelel"ed, allel 
" when uuahle to nunc fartl",r he had laiel ,Iown on the top of the hank for two days. This 
"solitary hoat was, in all prohahility, the onl) oue passing that way for a twelvemonth 
"to
"th,'r. Mr. Grant's han.ls allll feet wcre frnst,hittcn. an,1 though this IUlppenecl\':lrly 
" in 1\'1)\clllher, he h:ls not )\.t (17lh He!:., 1
lï) full
 reg:liul'lllhl' 11>1' 01 1111'111." 



EARLY HISTORY CO
TI
TED. 


49 


:\Iajor Robinson replied that large parties had been employed for two 
seasons on the central route, that officers of the Royal Engineers had 
explored the district for the military road, that he had made use of their 
reports. and that all information showed the improbability of discover- 
ing in that direction a practicable route for a railway. This discussion 
was continued until 18.j2. 
In the mean time, a problem of more than usual difficulty occupied 
public attention :-colonization from Ireland, in consequence of the 
famine of 18-17. It was contended that the Imperial Government 
should direct a systematized emigration to the British Colonies, with 
the certainty b
 obtaining employment for the emig-rant on his arrival. 
The arguments mainly took the form of the scheme advocated by Sir 
Richard Broun. that colonization should he considered in connection 
with Railway construction. One gentleman, 
Ir. Buchanan, in a letter 
dated 12th February, 18-n, to Lord Elgin, advocated the employment 
of 2.),000 men on the Halifax and Quebec rail way; to each of whom 
should be given 50 acres of land along the line of the railway, besides 
cert<,1.Ïn wages.- 
Lord Grey, himself, favoured the grant of money to railways, instead 
of paying any direct subsidy to emigratio:l, on the principle that emi- 
gration would follow the commencement of the railway. lIe consid- 
ered that the hardships and difficulties, attendant on the new life 
of the emigrant, were to no small extent caused by want of combination, 
and by the absence of division of employment ;-and in order that colo- 
nization might be best promoted, Parliamentary appropriations were 
required for carrying out desirable improvements, such as railways and 
canals, or other public works. 
On the part of the local Governments, no effort was spared to in- 
duce the Home Government to intervene. 
On the 
lst )1arch, 1t)-l!), au act wa", passed by the Legislature of 


· Such a roa!! he said, "as a great antl national \\ork, is Il,lmitte,l bye\'cry one con- 
"m'cte!! with the colony, to be of the first an!! llU>" .-- 1 , . -, ...1,_., the 
" Colony, Lut to the :\Iuther Country." 


4 



GO 


THE I
TEr.COLO
IAL. 


tI 


Xova Scotia, authorizing the transfer to the Imperial authorities of 
Crown Lands, ten miles wiùe, on each siùe of the line of the proposed 
railway, and pledging the House to the payment of æ::w,ooo sterling, 
for interest on capital to carryon the work. 
The Home Government, however, replied that the demands on the 
Imperial Treasury were, at that time, too manifold and too pressing to 
admit of any measure being submitted to Parliament for the aid 
required. 
The project accordingly remained stationary; as the united resources 
of the three Provinces, unaided, were inadequate to carryon the work. 
But the question in no way passed out of view. It was discussed in 
the press. Several pamphlets appeared in its alhocacy, among the lat- 
ter a brochure hy l\Iajor Carmichael-Smyth, appeared in the winter of 
1
-t9, earnestly setting forth the advantages of employing the people 
and capital of Great Britain in her own Colonies. This writer advo- 
cated the application of the surpluslaoourof the United Kingdom, to the 
construction, not only of an Intercolonial communication, but of an 
Imperial line of railway from Halifax to the Pacific coast. 
The importance of a railway connection between Halifax and the 
C"nited States system of Raih"ays, was fully recognized in the United 
States, and an effort was early made to effect it. In July, 1850, a con- 
yention was called to meet at Portland, for the purpo
e of considering 
a series of propositions for the construction of a rail way from Portland, 
through New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to Halifax. Hepresentatives 
from the several British Provinces were invited to attend. At the 
meeting of this convention, the representatives of United States inter- 
ests pledged themselves to construct their part of the railway through 
the 
tate of i\Iaine. Further, capitalists who were present professed 
their readiness to complete the whole railway through the British 
Provinces, provided Acts of Incorporation, with liberal grants of money 
and land, were gi "en. 
The representatives of the TIritish Provinces, however, determined 
that they would construct the railway through their own territory with 



EARLY HISTORY COXTIX'LED. 


51 


their 0" n resources. But as the rate of interest on loans would be re- 
duced by an Imperial guarantee, another appeal" as made to the Home 
Government to guarantee the interest on the cost of its con::;truction; 
the revenue of the Provinces being J!ledgeù to the Briti"h Government 
as security. 
The people of Nova Scotia were especially interested in the com- 
pletion of this railway connection with Halifax, their capital. :\Ir. 
Howe, then premier, accordingly proceeded, as a delegate to England, 
to press their cause on the Home Goyernment. He was so far success- 
ful, that he received a letter, 10th 
Iarch, 1S;)1, from the Colonial 
5ecretary, to the effect that the Government had determined to recom- 
mend to Parliament that the guarantee should be granted, or that 
the money bhoulù be advanceù from the Briti::;h Treasury. on certain 
conditions. 
This letter made mention" of the strong sense entertained by the 
" British Government of the extreme importance, not only to the Colo- 
" nies directly interested, but to the Empire at large, of pÍ'O\iding for 
" the construction of a railway, by which a line of communication may 
" be established, on British territory, between the Provinces of Kova 
" Scotia, Kew Bruns'\\ick, and Canada." 
:Mr. Howe's mission" as to advocate the claims of Nova Scotia, in 
regard to the railway projected from Halifax to S1. John, to meet a 
railway through the State of :Maine from Portland. But the letter of the 
" Colonial Secretary stateù that the British Government would not feel 
justified in asking Parliament to pledge the credit of England for any 
object which was not pf importance to the Empire as a whole. As they 
did not consider that the r
ilway advocated by Mr. Howe answered this 
description, in order to obtain the Imperial guarantee it was essential that 
satisfactory arrangements should be made with Canada and K ew Bruns- 
wick, by which the construction of a railway, passing wholly through 
British territory from Halifax to Quebec or :Montreal, shoulù be pro- 
vided for. 
Moreover, in order that arrangements might be effected, thc Im- 



52 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


perial Government proposed to recommend to Parliament that Canada 
and New Brunswick should receive equal assistance. It was also 
determincd, that the cost should bc provided for by loans raised 
by the Provinces, with the Imperial guarantee; that the line recom- 
mended by :Major Robinson, need not be followed, if a shorter and 
better line should be found, but that any deviation should be subject 
to the approval of the Imperial Government; that the loans to 
be raised in the several provinces should be a first charge upon the 
Provincial revenue, after payments on account of the civil lists ; and 
also, that taxes should be imposed sufficient to provide for the pa) ment 
of interest and sinking fund. 
It was also stated, that the British Government would "hy no 
"means object to its forming part of the plan which may be determined 
" upon, that it should include a provision for establishing a communi- 
"cation between the projected Railway and the Railways of the Lnited 
" States." 
At the same time (14th 
Iarch, 18,')1), Earl Grey, Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, wrote to the Earl of Elgin, Governor General of Can- 
ada, that lIer )Iajesty's Government had long earnestly desired to see 
the Railway constructed, as they considered it calculated greatly to 
advance the commercial and political interests both of the British Prov- 
inces in Korth America and of the Mother Country; and that they 
regarded the work as of so much importance to the whole Empire as to 
justify them in recommending to I
arlia
lent that Imperial assistance 
shouM IJe given. Earl Grey concluded by suggesting that a deputation 
from the Executive Councils of Xova Scotia and Kew Brunswick, 
should meet Lord Elgin and his Council, for the purpose of coming to 
some agreement on the different matters to be considered in connec- 
tion with the Railway; whieh agreement, after being approved by the 
Legislatures of the several Provinces, might be submitted for the sanc- 
tion of the Imperial Parliament. 
The suggested conference was held at Toronto, and a satisfactory 
arrang-cment attained. The Parliamcnt of Canada, bcing then in ses- 


.. 



EARLY HISTORY COXTD<UED. 


53 


sion, proceeded without delay to the required legislation. The Assem- 
blies of the 
laritime Provinces wcre call cd expressly for the purpose, 
but before the Legislature of New Brunswick could meet, a despatch 
was received from London conveying the intelligence that, although the 
British Govermnent had no objection to the project including a proviso 
for establishing a communication with the Rail ways of the United States, 
the cost of such a communication could not be included in the 
guarantee. 
Mr. Howe had understood that the guarantee would cover the cost 
of the Railway advocatcd by him in London, namely, from Halifax, by 
Truro and St. John, to join the Railways from Portland in the Cnited 
States, a.s well as of the main line to Quebec and Montreal. As this 
Railway (the European and North American Railway) was considered 
to be of very great importance to K ew ßrunl'.wick, and as th
 Legisla- 
ture of that Province had already pledged the public credit to the ex- 
tent of oC300,OOO sterling for that line a.nd the St. Andrews and Quebec 
Railway, it was not considered expedient to accept the terms ofi'ered if 
that line was not included in the guarantee. 
The conference therefore came to an end; but the delegates before 
separating expressed their determination not to abandon the hope of ob- 
taining the desired aid from the Imperial G-ovel'llment. Accordingly 
Sir Francis Hincks, 
lr. E. B. Chandlcr and 
lr. Howe proceeded to 
London and pressed their views on the Government of which Lord 
Derby was then the head. 
Although the various despatches show that the Imperial Govern- 
ment, under different administrations, always held that the proposed 
Rail way from Halifax to Quebec would be of benefit to the Mother 
Country, the terms conceded to 
Ir. Howe by the letter of the 10th 
l\Iarch, 1851, required that the Railway should be constructed at the 
CORt of the Provinces; and that thc Provinces should tax themselves 
sufficiently to secure the ::\Iother Country from loss by the guarantee 
of interest. The aRsistance offered by the Imperial Goyernment was 
limited to the guarantee of a loan, by which the yearly interest would 



54 


THE INTERCOLO}'lAL. 


be reduced. It therefore followed, that the deputation should consider 
what would be most advantageous to the Provinces. They urged that 
Major Robinson recommended this route principally on military consid- 
erations. treating revenue as of secondary importance, as his line avoided 
the populous di:,;triets of New Brunswick; that, on account of the settle- 
ment of recent difficulties with the United 
tates, military considera- 
tions neeù no longer assume such prominence, and no special necessity 
continued for keeping the railway far oft from the frontier of the 
United 
tates; consequently, that the proposed line should pass by 
St. John and up the valley of the river St. John, as that route 
promi:,;ed the greatest commercial advantages. It was further argued, 
that as the whole cost of construction would be horne hy the Prov- 
inces, the Colonial Legislatures could scarcely be expected to sanc- 
tion a line with the primary view of consulting military or Imperial in- 
terests. 
Lord Derby acknowledged the force of the argumC'nts, and admitted 
the importance of a Railway through British territory, connecting the 
Provinces. He however declined to extend aid on the terms uroposeù. 



CHAPTER IV. 


mSTORY CONTIXUED. 


185
 TO 18ü2. 


The pro"inres build raihvavs on their own resources.-Another unsuccessful appeal to the 
Home Govemment.-Civil" ar in Cnited States.-Provinces again appeal.-Resolutions of 
Quebec in 1861.-Effect of "the Trent affair."-Provinces ask for modifie:l assistance, 
-Failure of negotiations. 


No further communications on the subject appear to have passed 
between the several Governments, from 185
 to 1S':>I, with the excep- 
tion of a statement furnished by the Imperial authorities in April, 1836, 
showing that the surveys had cost oC1-!,l:i03.1 j .10 sterling, with a re- 
quest to the three Provinces to repay the balance 0\\ ing by them, 
.f:1-!49.17A sterling. 
The three Provinces, however, without any unity of plan, but each 
acting indep
ndently, determined each with its own resources to pro- 
ceed with the construction of railways. 
The Intercolonial system accordingly was commenced at different 
points, on no defined plan, and on no assured certainty when the full 
system would be completed. 
In 18.:;2, Canada incorporated the Grand Trunk Railway Company 
with the Provincial guarantee of $12,000 per mile, for the construction 
of the line from f.:arnia to Trois Pistoles, 1':;3 miles east of Quebec. 
The section to St. Thomas, 41 miles, was finished in 1855, to River du 
Loup, about 120 miles from Quebec, in 1
60. The line was not con- 
tinued to Trois Pistoles as originally intended, and River du Loup ac- 
cordingly became the tenninus of the Grand Trunk Railway. 
In 
eptember, 1852, New Brunswick entered into a contract with 
Messrs. Peto, Betts, Jackson and Brassey, for the construction of the 



56 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


railway from the western side of the Province, easterly to the boundary 
line between New Brunswick and Kova 
cotia. By September, 18.')3, tIle 
surveys were so far completed that the first sod was turned on the 1-1th 
of that month, Construction was immediately commenced, and was 
prosecuted until 18.::J-1. But the financial crisis, consequent upon the 
('rimean war, brought the operations to a close. 
In 18;J(i, the contractors retired from the work, and the portions of 
the line 01} which their operations had been carried on, lying chiefly 
between )Ionctoll and Shediac, were tral1sferred to the Provincial 
Government. Operations were at once undertaken by the Government. 
The railway was opened for traffic in l
(jO, between St. ,John and 
Shediac, a distance of 108 miles, 
In the spring of 18,')-1, Nova Scotia passed the Railway Act, au- 
thorizing a Provincial loan. The first sod was turned at Richmond, 
near Halifax, on the 13th June, 18.')-1. The railway was opened for 
public traffic to Truro, (il miles, on the l.)th December, 1838. 
Thus between Quebec and Halifax, 2RR miles of rail way were indepen- 
dently built by the three Provinces, without aid from the Imperial Govern- 
ment. In .June, 18.::Jï, negotiations were resumed, and a deputation left 
Canada in July, to submit to the Imperial Government the poJitiealcou.- 
siderations which suggested that aid should be granted to the enterprise. 
The Imperial executive, however, declined to apply to Parliament for 
the aid asked for, on the ground that the resources uf the Empire were 
already severely taxed. 
The following year. pursuant to mutual agreement, each Province 
sent an address to the Queen, setting forth that each Legislature was 
prepared to aid the railway to the full extent of the resources of the 
country, and that they would regard no sacrifice too great to promote 
its construction. 
On -the 1st 
fay, 18.38, the Legislature of Nova Scotia addressed 
Her :MajestÝ, to the effect that this entprprise. of more than colonial 
importance, had been pressed upon the consideration of Hpr ::\Tajesty's 
Government for many years, that the benefits to be derived were ac- 



.fÜSÁ'lJRY COXTIXL"ED. 


vi 


knowledged, but that, ag the accomplishment was beyond their un- 
aided resources, the result must depend on the assistance which would 
bc given it. 
In the same year the Legislature of Canada, passecl a series of reso- 
lutions - setting forth, that the national importance of the scheme 
called for the interference of the Government, that during the months 
of winter, intercourse between the Provinces could only be carried on 
through the L nited States; that in time of war, the difficulty of access 
to the ocean would be seriously felt; and arguing that the railway, 
while extending facility of communication from Province to Province, 
was necessary for Imperial interests, and would form an important 
section of a highway which would ultimately extend across British 
America from thc Atlantic to the Pacific. 
Each Province also sent delegates to London again, to press upon 
the Imperial Government the object so earnestly desired; but only to 
meet with another denial, the negative being clothed in the official 


.1. That the construction of an Intercolonial Railway, comrecting the Provinceø of Xew 
Brunswick, amI 
o\'a Scotia with C.uHlda, has long been regarded as a matter of national 
concern, amI ought earnestly to be pressed on the consideration of the Imperial Govern- 
ment, 
2. That during se,'eral months of the year, intercourse between the United Kingdom and 
Canada, can only be carriell on through the territory of the United States of America, and 
that such dependence on anll exclusive relations with a foreign country cannot, even in time 
of peace, but exercise an important amI unwholesome influence on the status of Canat!a, as a 
portion of the Empire, anll may tent! to establish elsewhere that id
ntity of interest, which 
ought to exist het\\een the l\lother Countr.r and ber Cðlonies. 
3. That while the House implicitly relies on the repeated assurance of the Imperial 
Government, that the strength of the Empire would be put forth to sccure this Province 
again
t external aggression, it is convincell that such strength cannot be sufficiently exerted 
during a large portion of the year, from the absence of sufficient means of communication; 
and that should the amicable relations which at prpsent so happily exist hetwecn Great 
Britain and the l
nited States be ever disturbell, the difficulty of access to the Ocean Iluring 
the winter months might seriousl:; endanger the safety of the Pro' incl'. 
4. That in view of the spee,ly opening up of the territories now occupiell by thp Hudson 
Bay Company, and of the Ilevclopment anll settlement of the vast regions between Canada 
anll the Pacific Ocean, it is esseutial to the interests of the Empire at large, that a highway 
exteniJing frnm tlJe Atlantic Ocean weshvRrd should exist, which should at once place the 
\\ hole British pos<c.<ions in AmericR, within the rearly access amI easy protection of Great 
Britain, whilst, by the facilities for internRI communicRtion thus Rfforder1, the prosperity of 
tho.c grl
at dependencies would be promoted, their strength consolillaterl and aùlled to the 
strength of the ,Empire, and their permanent union with the Mother Countr)" secured. 
8 



58 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


phraseology which the practised pen of the Colonial Office can so well 
use. 'Vhile those who were advocating the project saw that in the 
future the federation of British North America must follow, the 
Colonial Office considered that the opportune moment had not 
arrived; that national expenditure must yield to national resources; 
and however important the benefits which the Intercolonial Railway 
would confer, objects of interest to Great Britain yet more urgent had 
presented them
elves, and that the project must yield to the necessity 
of not unduly increasing the public burthens. 
In 18G1 the civil war was raging in the United States. Again 
the necessity of the railway became so evident that it could not 
be ignored; and it was felt that under the pressure of events another 
appeal should be made for Imperial assistance. An address was pre- 
sented to the Queen in April, repeating the arguments so frequently and 
so unsuccessfully advanced. But there was the same reply, that it was 
not possible to encourage expectation of assistance. The provinces, 
however, still adhered to their determination in no way to abandon the 
enterprise, and in October, 1861, a despatch was sent to the Imperial 
Government, conveying the Resolutions agreed to by fifteen délegates 
from the several Provinces, met in council at Quebec. 
These resolutions were to the effect that the Governmcnt of the 
Provinces should renew the offers of October, 18.")8, to the Imperial 
Government, to aid in the construction of a railway to connect Halifax 
with Quebec, and that a delegation from each Province should proceed 
to England, with the object of pressing the project upon the Home 
Government. At the same time that the Provinces should endeavour 
to procure the separate provincial legislation nece
sary to carry out 
the project, and that the route should be decided by the Imperial Gov- 
ernment. 
The delegates · proceeded to England and, while tl->ey were engaged 
in submitting their propositions to the Colonial Secretary, news of 


-Hon, P. :\1. Vankonghnet for Canada, Hon. Joseph Howe for Nova Scotia,and Hon. 
S. L. Tilley for New Brunswick. 



HISTORY CONTINUED. 


59 


what is known as "the Trent affair," reached England. This event 
placed the enterprise in such a light before the BIitish public, that the 
success of their application seemed assured. 
The delegates themselves put forward their case with great force, 
stating that the late startling events rendered their representations almost 
superfluous. The war against which they had desired security was 
now imminent. Their frontier was unprotected, and exposed to the con- 
centration of hostile troops at the termini of seven railways of the Lnited 
States. A hundred thousand men, they said, could be sent across the 
frontier with more ease than a single battery of artillery could be trans- 
ported from England, or a single barrel of flour carried to the sea-board. 
In their present position, if cut off by war from the United 
tates and 
by the winter ice from Canada, the :\lar!time Provinces would have to 
depend upon Europe for their breadstuffs. The delegates added, that, if 
the facts which had occurred, and the dangers which were apprehended 
did not successfully plead their cause, all that they could advance would 
only be a needless intrusion on the patience of the Government. 
The terms which the delegates at this time proposed were different 
from those previously submitted. The estimate for the railway, re- 
quired to be constructed, was æ3,000,000 Sterling, and the delegates pro- 
posed that in order to meet the yearly interest on this sum at four per 
cent., the provinces would raise yearly æ60,000, if the Imperial Govern- 
ment would raise the other æ60,000 yearly; in consideration of which, 
mails, troops, and munitions of war on Imperial account, were to be 
carried free. This proposal the Imperial Government declined to ac- 
cept, but renewed the offer of Lord Grey, of the 10th l\Iarch, 183!. 
On the 10th ::\Iarch, 1862, delegates from all the provinces met again 
in Quebec to consider the renewed proposal of the Imperial Government; 
and they came to the resol ution to accept the proposal of the Imperial 
guarantee of interest on the loans to be made. 
Influenced by the conviction of the paramount importance of the 
railway as forming an essential link in a line through British territory, 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the Provinces resolved themselves to 



60 


THE IYTERCOLOYIAL. 


assume the liahilities nece
sary to it
 construction. Delegates were ac- 
cordinglyappointed to proceed to England. to arrange the terms on 
which loans could he made, and the extent of the security to be given, 
as well as the amounts to be allowed for the transport of troops and 
maib, and indeed generally to determine the best mode of commencing the 
enterpri
e. Several interviews took place between the members of the 
Home Government and the deìegates. The rate of interest, the terms 
of re-payment, and the question of the priority of the Imperial obliga- 
tion over the other debts of the provinces, were all severally discussed, 
likewise the establishment of a sinking fund, which the delegates did 
not favour. The delegates from Kew Brunswick and Nova Scotia did 
not recognize that serious difficulty was involved in this last condition, 
and therefore to meet their legi
lative duties, they left London he fore the 
termination of the negotiations, The delegate
 from Canada, however, 
had formed strong objections to the establishment of a sinking fund; 
they therefore prepared a memorandum dated December 23nl, 18G2, on 
this point, setting forth, that the conditions proposed by the delegates, 
and detailed in a paper submitted, t would enable the Colonies to borrow 
the ]
equisite funds at the low rate of 3! per cent., and would render 
the Imperial guarantee a real act of assistance: one which \Vould be 


. lIon. 'v. p. Hnwl:m.l 
1\I1 Hon, J. B, Sicotte for Canada; Hon. Joseph Howe for Nova 
Scotia, an<l lInn. S. L. Tilley for '\ew Brunswick. 


t 


CO
DITIOXS PROPOSED BY TIlE DELEGATES. 


"1. TllRt the loan shall be f,)r .1:3,000,000 Sterling, 
"2, That the liabilities of each Colony shall be appor'ioned as follows :- 
Æl,250,000 for Canada. 
8i,j,000 for Ncw Brunswick. 
8i5,OOO for Nova Scotia. 
"3, That the debentures shall he'lr interest at the rate of 3i per cent. 
"4. That the intprest shall be pai<l half yearly in London, on the 1st day of May; and 
the 1st <lay of Novemher, 
"5, That the loan shall be repaicl in four instalments, 
Æ 250,000 in 10 years. 
500.000 in 20 years, 
1,000,000 in 30 )'ears. 
1,250,000 in 40 .)'car8, 



HISTORY COSTIYUED. 


61 


accepted ac; an equivalent to a contribution by the Imperial Govern- 
ment to the ulldertaki:lg. The memorandum further set forth that the 
resources of the provinces were in themselves an ample security against 
any loss falling on the Imperial exchequer. 
This memorandum was forwarded to the Colonial Office, but no 
farther interview consequent upon it was held. Their colleagues hav- 
ing left for X ova Scotia amI X ew Brunswick, the Canadian delegates 
themselves returned to their own Province. 


"6. That the net profits of the road shall be applied towards the extinction of the loan. 
.. 7. That the loan shall be the first charge upon the revenue of each Colony, after the 
existing debts and charges. 
"8, That the Imperial Government shall have the right to select one of the Engineers 
appointed to make the surveys for the location of the linc. 
"9. That the selection of the line sluill rest with the Imperial Government, 
"10. If it is conclU!led that the work is to be constructed by a joint Commission, it 
"shall be constitutell in the following proportions: Canalla shall appoint two of the Commis- 
"sioners, Kew Brunswick and Nova Scotia each one. These four shall name a fifth before 
" entering upon tbe discharge of their duties. 
"Such portions of the railways now owned by the ßovernments of Nova Scotia, and 
" New Brunswick which may be requirell to form part of the Intercolonial roall, will be 
" worked under the above Commission. 
"12, All net gain or loss resulting from the working and keeping in repair of any 
.. portion of the roads constructed by No'va Scotia and 
e\V Brunswick and to be usell as a 
"part of tbe Intercolonial road, shall be received and borne by these Provinces respecti\"ely; 
"anll the surplus, if any, after the payment of interest, shall go in abatement of interest on the 
"whole line between Halifax and Rivière du Loup, 
"13. That the rates shall be uniform over each respective portion of the road, 
"U. Tbat Crown Lands required for tbe Railway or Stations shall be provillell by 
each Province," 



62 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


CONDITIONS PROPOSED ON THE PART OF THE DIPERIAL GOVERX),IENT. 
"1. That Bills shall be immediately submitted to the Legislatures of Cana,1:L, Nova. 
Scotia, an<1 New Brunswick, authorizing the respective Governments to borrow L3,000,000, 
under the guarantee of the British Government, in the following proportions :-five-twelfths 
Canada, three and one-half twelfths, Nova I3cotia, an<1 three an<1 one-half twelfths, New 
Brunswick, 
"2, But no such loan to be contracted on behalf of anyone Colony, until corresponding 
powers have been given to the Governments of the other two Colonies concerne<1, nor unless 
the Imperial G01'ernment shall guarantee payment of interest on such loan until repaid. 
"3. The money to be applie<1 to the completion of a railway connecting Halifax with 
Quebec, on a line to be approve<.l by the Imperial Government, 
cc 4. The interest to be a first charge on the consolidate,l revenue funds of the different 
provinces, after the civil list and the interest of existing <1ebts, and as regards Canada, after 
the rest of the six charges enumerated in the 6 an<1 {) Vie" cap. 118, and 3 and 4 Vic., cap, 35 
(Acts of Union.) 
"ó. The debentures to be in series as follows, viz.: 


L 250,000 to be payable 10 years after contracting loau. 
600,000 20 
1,000,000 30 
1,250,000 40 


"In the event of these debentures, or any of them, not being redeemed by the {'olonies 
at the period when they fall due, the amount unpaid shall become a charge on their respect- 
ive revenues, next after the loan, until paid. The principal to be repaid as follows:- 
1st, Decade (say 18G3 to 1872, inclusive), L2;)0,000 in redemption of the 1st series, at 
or before the close of the 1st decade from the contracting of the loan. 
"2n<1, Deca<1e (say 1873 to 1882, inclusÍ\'e.) A sinking fund of L40,000, to be remitted 
annually; being an amount adequate, if invcstCll "t 5 per "ent. compound interest, to provide 
L500,000, at the en<1 of the Deca<1e: the sum to be remitted annually, to be invested in the 
names of Trustees in Colonial Securities of any of the three l>r()\'inces, prior to, or forming 
part of the loan now to be raise<1, or in such other colouial Securities as Her Majesty's Gov- 
ernment shall direct, anl1 the then Colonial Government apprO\'e. 
3rd, Decade (say 1883 to 1892, inclusive). A sinking fund of ;;(80,000, to be remitted 
annually; being an amouut adequate, if invested at õ per cent. compound interest, to pro- 
vide L1,000,000 at the end of the decade: the amount, when remitte<1, to be investe<1, as in 
the case of the sinking fund for the preceding decade. 
"4th, Decade (say 1893 to 1002, inclusive). A sinking fund of L100,000, to be re- 
mitted annuall).; being an amount adequate, if invested at õ per cent, compound interest, to 
provide 
n,250,OOO, bein(! the balance of the loan, at the end of the decade. This amount, 
when remitted, to be invested as in the preceding decade. 
" Should the sinking fund of any decade produce a surplus, it will go to the credit of the 
next decade. And in the last decade the sinking fun<1 "ill be remitted or reduced accord- 
ingly, 
"It i
, of course, understood, thRt the assent of the Treasury to these arrangements, 
presupposes adequate proof of tl,e sufficiency of the Colonial revenues to meet the charges 
intended to be imposed upon them. 
"6, The eonotruction of the railway to he conducted hy five commissioners, Two to 
be nppointed I>y C'anada, one by Nova Scotia, and one by New Brunswick. These four to 
choose the remaining commissioner. 



HISTORY CO
TIN'GED. 


63 


.. i. The preliminary surveys to be effected at the expense of the Colonies, by three 
engineers, or other officers nominated, two by the commissioners, and one by the Home 
Government. 
I, 8. Fitting provision to be made for carriage of troops, etc. 
"9, Parliament not to be asked for thi9 guarantee until the line and surveys shall have 
been submitted to and approved of by Her Majesty's Government, and until it shall ha\'e 
been shown, to the satisfllction of Her 
lajesty's Government, that the line can be con- 
structed without further application for all Imperial guarantee." 


Canada. 


Pirst 
Decade 


CANADA, 1'EW BR1:SSWICK, AND NOVA SCOTIA INTERCOLONIAL RAILWAY LoAN. 


I Fourlh 
Decade. 


To pay annually for interest.. .... . . .. .. L ;;0,000 
At the end of the fir.;t ten years, a princi. 
pal sum or.......................... lO-!,;;S3}1' 
And after the first ten ) ears a sinking 
fund per annum.. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. ....."...' 


Per annum .... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
AmI at the end of the first ten years a 
principal sum of...................... 
New B. unsu'iC:C 


60,000 


10-!,583}1' 


To pay annually for interest.. ..' . . ... . . 35,000 
At the end of the first ten years a princi- 
pal sum of.. .... .. .. .... .. .. . . .. ... , . i2,'jOS}1' 
And after the first ten years a sinking 
fund per annum,.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .., - - . . . . . . 


SFco7ld 
Decade. 


Third 
Decude, 


L 
O,1333}1' 


41.666% 


62,500 


32,083}1' 26,250 14,583}1' 


.. .. . .. .. .. .... ....... ... ...... . . . 


3,),O\JO 


Per annum............................ 
And at the emi of the first tcn years a 
principal sum of .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . 
Nora Scolia. 
To pay annually for int
rest. . .. .. . . . . . . 35,000 
At the end of the first ten years a princi- 
pal sum of. . . . . . , . _ , . . . . . . , , , . . , . . , , , i2,i08}1' 
After the first ten years a sinking fund 
per annum,. . . . . . . . . .... ............ .........., 


'j2,70S}1' 


Per annum..... .. .. .. .... ..... . .. .... . . 
And at the end of the first ten )< ears a 
principal sl1m of . . . . . . , , , . . . , . , . . . . , 


35,000 


'j2.708 }1' 


L 45,1j33}1' L 3.,500 


........ .. .....-..... 


16.666% 


33,333 }1' 


62,.)()() 


'j0,833 }1' 


ll,666'$) 23,333}1' 29,166% 
43,750 4:1 5S3}1' 43,.50 


........... ............ .. ......... 


32,083}1' \ 26,250 
.. "1 ;,;,J" 



 
. . . . 
.
:

 J . . 

:



 


14,583 }1' 


29,166% 


43,,50 



CHAPTER V. 


mSTORY CONTINUED. 


1862-1867. 


State of railway extension in 18G2-New Brunswick and Nova Scotia make fresh efiorts- 
Surycy detennined on-
[r. Sandford Fleming appointed-Mr, Fleming's report-Ad- 
vantages of the Bay Chaleur route-Newfoundlaod railway-Political dead-lock in 
Canada-Movement towards Confederation-Members of Canadian Legislature Ïl1\"ited 
to lIIaritime Provinces-Com"ention at Charlottetown-The Quebec Convention-Reso- 
lution rcspecting Intercolonial Railway-General festivities-Act of Confederation-Act 
guaranteeing interest on Railway loan. 


.. 


At the close of the decade ending 1862, the Railway system had 
been extencleù through a considerable portion of British 
\merica. 
The Grand Trunk Railway was in operation from Sarnia, at the foot of 
Lake Huron, to Rivière du Loup a hundred and twenty miles from 
Quebec towards Halifax; a distance in all of 71:;0 miles. A Railway 
had been constructed from St. John to Shediac in New Brunswick one 
hundred and cight miles in length. Halifax had been similarly con- 
nected with Truro in Kova Scotia, by a line sixty miles in leugth; 
and towards the close of 18(i
 a well directed effort had been made 
to establish the conditions on which the Imperial Government would 
assist in the completion of the line yet to be constructed. Although 
this attcmpt did not succeed, the hope was still entertained that the 
difficultics cxperienced could eventually be removcd, if a spirit of con- 
cession and good feeling actuated all who were conducting the negotia- 
tions. 
The action of the Canadian delegates with regard to the sinking 
fund, lell to some disappointmcnt in the Maritime Provinces. The con- 
ditions had been fully dis
nsspd in repeated conferences, and changes 



HISTORY CONTThlJED. 


65 


had been introduced to meet the objections that had from time to time 
been offered. It was considered, therefore, that possibly the Imperial 
Government might have been induced to modify the oùjectiolli:; which 
it had advanced, if met by argument and conciliation. 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies ill a despatch to the Gov- 
ernor-General of Canada. January 17, 18t53, stated that he certainly had 
been under the impression that, with the exceptiolL of the estaùlishing 
of a sinking fund, all the difficulties had heen rcmoved by explanation 
or concession; that the objections to a sinking fund had been to a grcat 
extent removed; and that he thought some of thc grounds set forth in 
the mcmorandum of the Canadian delegates \\olùd hardly have he en 
achallced if the ohjectors had thought it ad visaule to asccrtain by 
further couference the intentions of IIer )Iajesty's Government. 
The Legislatures of Kew Brunswick amI Kova 
cotia in no way 
remitted their efforts, they still put forth their old energy and con- 
tinued that unflinching support and determination, which had gone 
so far towards attaining success. On the return of the delegates, hills 
were passed authorizing loans for the construction of the railway. The 
votes were carried with the expectation that the Government of Canada. 
would take the same course. But it was held in that Province that 
the failure of the negotiations left matters precisely where they had' 
been, aIllI that there was no mill for legi;;lation inlli:imuch as no defined 
policy had bcen determined. 
On the 
.jth Fehruary. lRô:3. an Order in Council was passed hy the 
Canadi,Lll Executive; it expressed concurrence in the action taken by 
their dclegates and suggested a course of action which in their view 
would, more speedily than any other, arrive at a practical and definite 
settlement. 
In the recent negotiations in London, the Home Government had 
insisted that the Imperial Parliament should not be lli:iked to guarantee 
the loan of 1:3,OUU,OOO, until the surveys had been made, the linc suh- 
mitted to and approved by Her :\Iajesty's Government, and until it had 
beeu satisfactorily shown that the railway could be put in operation 
5 



66 


THE I
TERCOLONIAL. 


without further application for an Imperial guarantee. It was further 
a:;ked that the survey should be carried on by three engineers, one of 
whom was to be appointed by the Home Government. 
.AccordinglJT the Canadian Government considered that a reliable 
survey and estimate should precede any further negotiations with 
respect to ways and means. 

\ sum was therefore placed in thc estimates for that purpo!';e and 
It was arranged that the duty should be performed by a commission of 
three Engineers, one appointed by the Province of Canada, one jointly 
by K ova Scotia and New Brunswick, and the third by the Imperial 
Goyernment. 
In pursuance of this arrangement the Government of Canacla passed 
an order in Council on the 2
nd 
\.ugust, 18G3, appointing 1\11'. Sand- 
ford Fleming to co-operate with the nominees of the Imp
rial Govern- 
ment and the Lower Provinces. . 
This appointment was communicated to the Governments interested, 
with the reqnest that such action should be taken as would enable :\Ir. 
Fleming with his colleagues to commence the survey without ..lelay. 
Mr. Fleming was however nominated by Xova Scotia and Ncw Bruns- 
wick, and the Duke of K ewcastle, then Colonial Secretary, likewise 
appointed him on behalf of the Imperial Government.. 
In making the selection of :\11'. Sandford Fleming as the represent- 
ative of the Impeyial Government while he at the same time wa!': acting 
for the British American Provinces, it was felt that the Duke had 


· The appointment was mal1e by Despatch dated October 17, 1863, to the Governor 
General-The Duke says ;-" the character of Mr. Sandford Fleming whom, in your l1e8- 
" patoh No. 81, you mention as having been nominated by the Government of CalUllla to under- 
"take the preliminary suney of the line of Intercolonial Railway, is 80 unexceptionable; and 
"the selection of him by the Government of Nova Scotia and Xew Brunswick is such a 
" further convincing proof of his qualification for the office of Engineer for the line, that I am 
"qnite ready to availm.rself of his services as the represcntatÍ\'e of the Imperial GO\ernlllent. 
"Your Lordship will accordingly be pleased to appoint Mr. Fleming at once to the situation. 
"It is agreeable to me to feel that by selecting IIlr. Flcming as the ('ombined representative 
"of IIer :\Iajesty's Government and of the 
"rth Americ'LII Provinces specially interested in 
" this important subject, IIIl1ch delay has been avoided, and that the wish{os of your Govern- 
"ment for the immediate ('ommen('emcnt of the slIrn'y JMVC, as far as this appointment is 
., concerned, been complied with." 



HISTORY COXT1Nl"ED. 


67 


rightly appreciated the importance of avoiding the delay and incoIl- 
venience invariably attendant on divided re:>ponsiLility. 
III the meantime a di:>cussioll had arisen betwecn the Government::; 
of Xcw Bmnswick and Canada,-respecting a mi:mnderstanding which 
had occurred in the previous year. Xew Brunswick was willing to enter 
on the survey, but asked Canada to pledge itself to certain conditions 
regarding it. Canada. on the other hand, considered that negotiations 
should only commence when tile survey was completed. 
. 
The Government of Xova Scotia regarded the proposed survey as 
indispem;ahle and expre8sed its regret that any que8tioll had been 
raised at that time as to the extent to which the Government would 
ultimately be bound by it. 
lt does not appear that there was an}" actual settlement of the mis- 
understanding. But on the 
Oth Fehruary, 1813-1, the difficulty was for 
the time got rid of by a despatch from the Governor G-eneral to the 
effect :-that. in order to avoid delay, Canada had decidel! to under- 
take the survey on its o\Vn responsibility and at its sole expense; but 
that it would be for N 0\ a Scotia. and l' ew Brunswick to consider, in 
event of the survey proving useful, if they would deem it right to pay 
their proportion of the cost. 
On the 5th 
[arch, 186-1, the Engineer left Quebec for River du 
Loup, the terminus of the Grand Trunk Railway, to commence a recon- 
naissance of the country and to arrange for forwarùing the supplies 
necessary to the prosecution of the work. These operations had to be 
undertaken, in a country destitute of roads. on snow::;hoes and on dog- 
sleds. Nevertheless. on the opening of spring, a large staff of assistants 
were at work at various points between River du Loup anl! Truro. 
The survey was divided into two sections, one extending south- 
ea"terly from the railway in operation hetween St. .ToilIl aIllI Slil'dial', 
to Truro, the then terminus of the Nova Scotia Hailwa:,": the other ex- 
tending northwesterly from the St. John and Shediac Railway to River 
du Loup. 
ill the fonnel. division a range of high lands, kno\\ n 308 the Cobe- 



68 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


quid Mountains, had to be crossed. On the latter division for about 
200 miles southeasterly from River du Loup, a broken, elevated country, 
covered by a dense forest, without settlements or roads, intervened. 
It is in this division tha
 the Tohique. the Notre Dame, the Shik 
Shok, and other minor ranges of hi6'hlands, are met. Before the 
close of 1864 the country between Hiver du Loup and Truro had been 
well explored, and more than one practicable line established. 
The report of the survey was made on the 9th February, 186,'), set- 
ting forth the routes surveyed, and such projected lines as seemed 
worthy of notice. It specially dealt with the means of meeting ob- 
stacles of a physical or climatic nature, and pointed out how difficulties 
of a serious character might he overcome. The quality of the land, and 
its fitness for cultivation and settlement, were reporteù upon; and ap- 
proximate estimates of quantities of the work to be performed were 
attached. The comparative values of the various routes in a commer- 
cial point of view were aho reported on. 
In all fifteen different lines and comhinations of lines, projected III 
various directions through the country, were compared.- 


. Table of Comparative Distance,ç fmm RÙ'er du Lr/flp to St. Jolm and lIalifax. 


I 
IXo. of line.1 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 


ROUTES. 


Frontier 
Routes. 


Cl'ntral 
Routes. 


Bay Chaleur I 
Routes. 


13 
14 
15 


II 


27 
45 
00 


81', .1011:'01. TO 1I.-\J.lF.-\
. 
I Hailway Xot I . 

ot Total. Total. 
Built Built. Built. 
292 319 II 184 401 I ;J8;) 
30;) 3;)0 202 414 jfij' 
301 301 1;)7 410 I 5Ul 
. 
I , 
326 326 1;)7 4:;;) I :)!J2 
3:'8 328 137 I 4:17 .)\) l 

 (:} 380 120 4;:;2 .:Jí:! 
449 426 80 4;)8 :):18 
307 3H 120 416 :):16 
313 300 I 80 422 :)02 
326 122 61 4:1;) 4!J6 

23 3GO 120 4:;2 :):)2 
3::!9 40(j 80 4:18 518 


TO 


Haih"av 
Built' 


00 
00 
37 
77 
37 
77 
96 
37 

7 
i
 I ' 


 
06 3!J0 


1_-' 
I 
2l II ' 
47:} 
486 


4!)(j 
4:->6 
499 


ßl6 
5-17 
560 


120 
61 
61 



..; 


/' 


:J 


. 


-1-1 1 
ii, 
.
. 
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HISTORY CONTINUED. 


69 


These lines were grouped under three distinct heads, and designated 
"Frontier," " Central," and "Bay Chaleur" routes. 
The .. Fruntier" ruutel$ were thr4o'e ill llumùer, and embraced the 
lines which closely approached, in SOllle rart of their course, the ÙOUll- 
dary of the United States. 
"The "Bay Uhaleur" routes were also three in number, and in- 
cluded those lines which in their course touched the shore of the Bay 
Chaleur. 
The '<UentraZ" routes embraced all those lines projected though the 


The following deductions OIa)' be drawn :- 
Line 
Yo. 8 is the shortest ,Frontier Houte tu St. John; its total length is 301 miles, the 
whole of which is )et to be built, By this line the total distance to Halifax ÎB 667 miles, of 
which 157 miles are constructed, leaving 410 miles yet to be made. 
Line No.4 is the shortest Central Route 10 :Sl. Jul...: its total length is 326 miles, the 
whole of which has to be madf'. By this line the distance to Halifax is 59'2 miles, of which 
157 miles are built, leaving 435 miles to be constructe'!. 
Line No. 13 is the shortest Bay Chaleur Route tn St. John; its totallengtb is 424 miles, 
of which 37 miles are constructed, leaving 3
7 miles to be made. By this line the total dis- 
tanL'e to Halifax is 616 miles, of which 120 miles are already made, leaving 496 miles to be 
built. 
Lille No, 3 is the .hortest Frontier Route to Halifax as well as to St. John, the distances 
are already gÏ\'en. 
Line No, 10 is the shortest Central Ronte to Halifax; the total distance by it is 496 miles, 
of which 61 miles are built, leaving to be built 436 miles. 
The total dist..mce to St. John by line No. 10 is 422 miles, of which 96 miles are built, 
leaving to be constructed 826 miles, 
Lir
 No, 14 is the shortest Ba,y Chaleur Route to Halifax; its total length is ó47 
miles, of which 61 miles are constructed, leaving 486 miles to be made. By this line 
the total distance to St. John ÎJI 473 miles, of which 96 miles are built, leaving 377 
miles yet to be constructed 
The shortest of all the lines to St. John is No, 8, Frontier Route. 
The shortest of all the lines to Halifax is No. 10, Central Route. 
Line No.3 requires the constrnction of 25 miles less than No. 10, to connect River 
du Loup with both St. John and Halifax: but the total i1i.tance to Halifax by line No. 
3, is 71 miles greater than by line No. 10. whilst the total distance to St. John by line No, 
10 is 121 miles greß
r than hy line No.8. 
The shortest route from Ri\"er d Loup to the Atlantic Sea Board, on British terri- 
tory is by line No. 1 10 St. A..rTr
II'S. 
The total <li
tan('e to St. A..rTmrs h, tnis line is eetimated at 277 miles, of which 67 miles 
are constructei1_ 'f'avin
 onlv 210 mile- to he huilt, 
The total distance to St. .fohn hy line No 1 is 319 miles, of which 292 miles require 
to be ma<le. 
The total distance to Balifax by line No.1 ÎB 585 miles, of which 401 miles require to 
be built. 



70 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


interior of the country, at some distance from the frontier on the one 
hand, and from the Bay Chaleur on the other. 
"'hile in each Case the general engineering features of the line:;, and 
the nature of the country through which they were projected were set 
forth, the fact was prominently put forward that there was little prospect 
of any considerable amount of" local traffic" by any route, and that no 
profitable return could be looked for from that source for many years. 
It was likewise shown that no great proportion of "through freight," 
could, under ordinary circumstances be profitably carried over the pro- 
posed railway. It was argued that, during- ,the season of navigation, 
freights could be more cheaply taken by water; and in winter, unless the 
'Cnited States placed restrictions on Canadian traffic, freight now passed 
in bond, would continue to follow the shorter routes to the Atlantic. 
On the other hand by opening up an outlet through British territory 
the effect would be that shorter lines through the United States would 
be kept under control. Accorclingly, even when in no way used for 
freight, by the influence it would exercise On the customs' regulations, 
and the railway interests of the enited States, the new line would 
directly benefit the agricultural and commercial interests of the "\Vest- 
ern Provinces. 
It was claimed that a line touching the Bay Chaleur possessed spe- 
cial advantages in the matter of passenger traffic. Previous tll the sur- 
ve)., the extension of the Lnited States lines by the Atlantic coast to 
Halifax had been advocated with the view of reducing the time taken 
in the ocean passage, by shortening its length. Powerful influences 
had been enlisted to complete the coast line to Halifax. It was consid- 
ered probable that, on the completion of this connection, most of the 
passenger traffic, not only from the Pnited States, hut also from the 
Province of Canada, west of 
rontreal, would seek Halifax tIlrough 
the rnited States, instead of passing over the Intercolonial via River 
du Loup. 
The Bay Chaleur, however, is not only nearly a hundred and fifty 



mSTORY CONTINUED. 


71 


miles nearer than Halifax to Liverpool, but at the same time it Ii:> two 
hundreù anù sixty-six miles nearer :\lontreal than Halifax is. ( ;oni:>e- 
quently the selection of a port on the Bay Chaleur for ocean i:>teamers 
would shorten the whole dii:>tance between )Iuntreal anù Liverpool 
fully four hundreù miles. Even between Liverpool anù K ew York one 
huwh'cd and sixty milei:> woulù bc saveù by commencing the ocean pas- 
sage at the Bay Chalcur. 
The Intercolonial Railway accordingly presents an important route 
for ocean, mail, and passenger traffic, to Canada, the \V cstel'll 
tates, 
and to a hu'
'e pOl,tion of the Central States. 
These fiLets pointeù to a linc by thc Bay Chaleur as preferable to 
the Cenlral or the Frontier lines. 
It "as suggei:>teù that this line might exercise important influence on 
Newfoundland. The consiùeration of the shorte
 lines between Amer- 
ica a1ll1 Europe with reference more particularly to the conveyance of 
pasi:>engers and i1lails, pointed to the extension of the railway system 
across N ewfoundlallll. '" The theory wa..; aù vanceù that there already ex- 
isted, or that in all probability there wuulù soon be, sufficient traffic to 
sustain a daily line of ocean steam!"rs across till' Atlantic. The iùea of 
incllldin;; X ewfoundlanù in the i:>chcme of inter-eommunication anù mak- 
ing a rail way there, a continuation, a:; it were, of the Intercolonial line, 
with the prospect of :he Islanù becoming part uf the Feùeral uniun 
may have appeareù to he vi.Ûonary. But neverthelcss somc advance 
has been maùe in that direction. In the ten yeari:> which have since 
elapsed, Newfoundlanù has IJecn awakeneù by the spirit of progress, 
anù she more thoroughly uIHlcrstanùs the im}!ortance of her geographi- 
cal position. Last year, the intcrior of the Island, scarcely beforo 
trodden by the white man, and full of natural resources, was pasi:>ed 
over by a large staff of engineers sent by her Government to examine 
the practicability of a railway from the extrcme east to the extreme 
west. Another decade may recorù rei:>ults such ai:> the chronicl6r of 


. See Appendix. 



72 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


to-day gives to the world of what has been effected by the Dominion in 
the last ten years, 
The rl'port contained estimates of the probable cost of the Interco- 
lonial Railway, which however, were necossarily imperfect, as they were 
based on the limited examination. The line surveyed through the 
interior of the country, was estimated at an average of $-16,000 per mile, 
or 
20,633,500, for a total distance of 438 miles, the length of new 
rail way to be constructed. 
Only a portion of the line since adopted by the Bay Chaleur, had 
then been tested by instrumental survey, but upon the data obtained, 
applied as an average, to the whole distance between River du Loup 
and 'Iruro, the total cost was roughly estimated at *10,833,21-1. It was 
stated thitt it was possible that a less sum might suffice, but that until 
more elaborate surveys established the exact character of the work, the 
line could not safely be estimated under the co.;t of twenty million dollars. 
\\Thile the survey was in progress in the year 1864, important move- 
ments were made towards the establishment of the Dominion. 
The Governments of Kova Scotia, Kew Brunswick, amI Prince Ed- 
ward Island, were authorized by their respective Legislatures to enter 
into negotiations for the union of the Maritime Provinces; and a con- 
vention was appointed to meet in the month of September, at Char- 
lottetown, Prince Edward Island. 
In Canada, after a long contest, to a great extent the result of sec- 
tional jealousies between the Eastern amI "\Vestern Provinces, it seemed 
as if parties had assumed such an attitude that the continuance of Gov- 
ermneut by a Parliamentary majority had become an impossibility. 
In \\" estern Canada, it was maintained that that province, being the 
most populous, was unfairly represented in the Legislature. Eastern 
Canada, on the other kand, had held that no change could be made in the 
Union Act, which assigned equal representation to both provinces. 
To remedy the dissatisfaction, an attempt had for some years been made 
to govern by double majorities, in itself an unwieldy and impracticable 
arrangement. 



HISTORY CONTLNUED. 


73 


This is not the place, however, to dii:>cUSS the political events which 
led to confederation. It ii:> enough to remark that there seemed to be no 
extrication from difficulties which threatened to become chronic, ex- 
cept in the adoption uf some meai:>ure which woulù unite in a whole 
the several provinces of British America, so that more national interests 
and a wider field woulù caUi:>e merely sectional interests to be of 
secondary importance. It was felt by both parties that the time had 
arriveù when decided steps should be taken. After much deliberation, 
it wai:> determined with the general aSi:>ent of the supporters uf the 
government anù of the opposition, to unite in one effurt to secure the 
confederation of the Canadas with the :\laritime Pro, inces. 
On the prorogation" of the Legislature in June, a fusion of parties 
took place, and a new government was announced, with the avowed 
policy of consummating the confeùeration of the British 
orth Ameri- 
can Provinces. 
EiJ.!:ht of the members of the new executive were accordingly de- 
puted to the convention of the :\laritime Provinces., appointed tu as:,;em- 
ble at Charlottetown. The movement in Canada exercised great influ- 
ence upon the events which followed. It had long been felt that from 
geographi
al position, and from dii:>tinct political organization. there had 
been but limited bUi:>iness relations, and an almost to
al absence of social 
intercourse, between the various provinces, which it was now pro- 
posed politically to unite into one great nationality. Accorùingly, 
the inhabitants of St. Juhu and Halifax coni:>idered it desirable to 
form the acquaintance of the political leaders of the provinces pro- 
posing to enter into alliance with them. 
On the prorogation of the Canadian Legislature, the members of 
both Houses were tendered the public and private hm;pitalitici:> of the 
cities of St. John and Halifax. The invitations were immediately 
accepted. 
During the summer the visit was paiù. A steamer with some 
three hunùred representative men from all parts of Canada, from the 
banks of the St. Lawrence, from the Ottawa, from Central Canada, 



74 


THE IXTERCOLONIAL. 


from Toronto and ih; populous ncighbourhood and from the shores of 
the upper lakes, landed in the Lower Provinces, where a series of ban- 
quet!:> followed one on the other, whcre private hospitality "as pro- 
fusely offered and where abundant opportunities were created for the 
crowd of vi!:>itors to know the people, the industries and the resources 
of the :\laritime Provinces, which were now visited for the first time, by 
nearly all tho!:>e present. 
The time-honoured custom of the British race, of inaugurating a 
great undertaking by festivities and hospitalities, ushered in the birth 
of the Dominion. The hanq ueting "hich commenced in the cities 
washed by the waves of the ocean, was repeated before many months 
throughout Canada; and the citie::; by the St. Lawrence and hy the lakes 
gavc back the echo of the cheers which had so lately been heard at the 
seaboard. 
()n the 8th Septemher, the memorable meeting took place at Char- 
lottetown, where rel're::;entativc::; of Canada, New Brunswick, Kova 
Scotia, and Princc Edward I::;land were drawn together; but the larger 
question of a fedpral union of all the Provinces completely over::;hadow- 
ed thc more limited question of a union of the :\Iaritime Provinces 
for which the convention had been called. 
After the adjournment of the convention meetings were held at 
IIalif:n: and St. John. The question, huwever, had really bcen settled at 
Charlottetown; but the u::;ual banquets followed, the customary speeches 
WeI'e madc, and the SlÜ)ject ,va::; at each place thoroughly di!:>cussed. 
In October 18fì-1, with the sanction of the Imperial Government, a 
conven tion of delcgates from all the Province!:>, including K ewfound- 
land, was held at Quehec; a series of 72 resolutions was adopted, by 
which it wa::; proposed to unite Ea::;tern and \\Testern Canada with New 
Brunswick, Nova 
cotia, and Prince Edward hland. At the same 
time, provi::;ion was made for the admi::;sion öf the Territories then oc- 
cupied by the Hudson ßay Company, together with British Columbia 
and Newfoundland. 
These resolutions formed the basi!:> of the articles of Confederation 



HISTORY CO:XTLXUED. 


75 


subsequently incorporated in an Imperial act. The 68th resolution 
specially bears upon the subject of this volume; it was therein deter- 
mined that "the general Government shall secure, without delay, the 
"completion ofthe Intercolonial Railway from River du Loup. through 
"Xew Bruuswick. to ï'ruro in Xova Scotia." 
"TilllÏn a period of five months, a series of important events hap- 
pened with startling rapidity; events which culminated in a scheme 
that not only providerl for the construction of the Rail way which effort; 
exteuding over a quarter of a century had failed to secure, but that 
con:,:.olidated in one government Provinces scattered over half a conti- 
nent, which had remained I:>eparate from the first daYI:> of their exist- 
ence under Britil:>h rule. 
The resolutions of the Quebee convention, having received the a
)- 
probation of the Imperial Government, were submitted to the Provin- 
eial Legi:,:.latures and sanctioned: 
By the Province of Canada, on 10th 1Iarch, 186.). 
By the Province of Non!. Scotia. on 18th April, 186G. 
By the Province of New Brunswick, on 6th 
\.pril, 1SGG. 
The Provincial Legislatures also addressed Her ::\Iajesty the 
Queen, praying that a measure might be submitted to the Imperi.Ü 
Parli,lment to provide for the union of the whole of British X"rth 

\.meric,l, The Governor General
 with deputations from the govern- 
ments of the sm"cral Pro\.inees. proceeded to England to arrange with 
the Imperial Authoritie" the preliminary steps. These deputation3 
met iri conference on the 4th December, 18GG, ill London. 
.\. distinct provision for an Imperial guarantee of 1::3.000,000 ster- 
ling for the Intercolonial Railway. formed the substantial distinction 
between the rel:>olutions agreed upon at Quebec, and those 
u"mitted 
to the Imperial Government at London. Her 1tljesty's ::\Iinisters suh- 
miUed a Bill to the Imperial Parliament, desl
mltell the" British Xorth 
America .\et of IHlÌï:' creatin
 the Dominion of ('anacIa. The Dill re- 
ceived the royal s;tnction on the 29th 1Iarch, l
lìï, and became, on the 
1st July, 1867, the Constitution of Canada. 



76 


THE INTERCOLO
IAL. 


On the 12th April, 1867, the Imperial Parliament passed a secund 
bill in the interest of Canada, entitled: " An Act for authorizing a 
guarantee of interest on a loan to be raiseù by Canada, towards the 
construction of a railway connecting Quebec and H:alifax." Under 
this Bill the funds, to the extent of æ3,OOO,OOO sterling, for the con- 
struction of the Intercolonial Railway, were provided. 



CHAPTER VI. 


1867 TO 1876. 


LOCATION AND CONSTRUCTION. 


Effect of the Ashburton Treaty on the Location of the Line.-Railways preTious to Con- 
feileratinn,-Commencement of Location SUr\'ey,-Rival Routes through New Bruns- 
wick.-:\Iilitary Consi<lerations.-Rival Route" in Nova Scotia-Line Recommended.- 
Contro'l'ersy respecting the Route,-Action in No,-a ScotÏ:1.-The controversy l"arrieil 
to Ottawa.-Final ailoption of the Combination Line.-Appointment of Cnmmi""ionerø.- 
The Contract S.rstem.-Ten<lers Received.-The Bridge ControverB) ,-The Engineer 
advocates Iron.-The Commissioners insist on Wood.-Iron finally adopted,-The East- 
ern Extension Controversy,-Line from Moncton to Amherst adopteil,-Location 
bl'tween IIliramichi and Moncton.-Construction proceeds under the Commissioners.- 
Completion of Line uniler Department of Public Works. 


THE location of the line being necessarily confined to British terri- 
tory, it was forced to make a considerable detour, to avoid entering the 
State of :\Iaine. Had no national considerations presented themselves, or 
had the boundary been laid down accorùing to the Treaty of 1783, or even 
in accordance with the settlement proposed, and, to some extent, pressed 
by the Lnited States some years prior to the Ashburton Treaty, there 
would have been no difficulty in securing a direct, eligible route. 
The Railway would, in this case, in all probability, have followed 
the general course of the route surveyed by Captain Yule, in 18
ï, for 
the St. Andrews and Quebec Railway, as far as the neighhourhood of 
the river St. John, but with such modifications and improvements as 
further surveys might have suggested. Owing to certain political 
influences Captain Yule was bound by his instructions to pass to the 
north of ðIars Hill. Thus his line was deflected out of the direct course 
to the seahoard; and it is highly probable that untrammelled he would 
have followed a shorter route. It is evident, from an inspection of the map, 
and from the natural features of the country, that lines of railway might 
.77 



78 


THE INTERCOLO:SIAL. 


have been projected, so as to bring :\Iontreal within 380 miles of St. 
Andrews, 415 miles of St. John, and 6':;0 miles of Halifax; and that the 
distance from Quebec to St. Andrews need not have exceeded :!':;O miles; 
Gi miles les!:> than to Portland. Fredericton, the seat of local govern- 
ment, would have been on the main line to Halifax, and distant from 
1\Iontreal ahout 3iO miles; and these lines, moreover, would have heen 
wholly within the limits of.the Dominion had the international boundary 
been traced according to the true spirit and intent of the Treaty of 
1i83. 
The di!:>tance between :Montreal and Halifax might thus have been 
lessened nearly 200 miles. St. Andrews would have taken the place 
of Portland as the winter terminus of the Grand Trunk Railway, and 
would have commanded, together with St. John, a traffic now cut off 
from both places, and centred at a foreign port. 
The direct route would have bruught the Springhill coal fields 
of Nova Scotia some 200 miles nearer to Montreal than by the present 
line of the Intercolonial, amI would have renderell it possible to trans- 
port coal by rail at a comparatively moderate cost. 
If, unrler 
mch circumstances, an Intercolonial line to connect the 
citie!:> of the :\Iaritime Provinces with those of the St. LawrenceJuul been 
coustructed, the lmilding of 2.;0 miles of railway representing an ex- 
penditure of B;10,000,OOO would have been unneces!:>ary. Great a!:> this 
saving would have been, the economy in working it and in maintenance 
would have been more important. The direct line would also have at- 
tracted certain branches of traffic which by the longer route must either 
be carried at a loss or be repelled. These considerations render the differ- 
ence in favour of the direct line incalculable, and cause the more regret 
that the treaty made by Lord Ashburton, which ceded British ter- 
ritory equal in size to two of the smaller States of the Union, rendered 
such a direct line through BritiJ:>h territory forever impoF-sible. Al- 
though it is too late to recti(y tl1Ïs almost fatal error, it is important in 
a history of the Intercolonial Rail way to recount all the steps by which 
so costly a consequence ha!:> been forced upon the Dominion. 



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LOCATIOY AXD COKSTRGCTION. 


79 


It has already been mentioned that previous to Confederation in 
lSGï, the separate Provinces had commenced, within their own limits, 
systems of railways demanded hy their own requirements. In Canada 
proper a milway had heen built from the river St. Clair, at the e).treme 
". e,.:t. through Toronto, )Iontreal, and Quebec, to rh'er du LOllp. In 
X 0\ a Scotia, the line from Halifax to Truro had been completed; 
and in Xew Brunswick, St. John hat! heen conuected with f'hediac 
upon the (ìlllf of 
;t. Lawrence. These important but distinct sections 
it became the first duty of the Dominion Government to connect by 
the most 3(h-antageow; route possible throug-h British territory. 
The Briti:::h Xorth Amel'ica Act, uniting thc Provinces 1I1 one 
Dominion, came into force on the 1st of J uly, U
fì'j. One of thp. 
tipu- 
lations wa
 that the Railway 
hould be commenced within six months, 
and be finished within four years. 
A week hall not elapsed after the date of union when the Engineer- 
ill-Chipf receind instructions from the )linister of Public ,,- orks to 
proceed with the surveys necessary to establish the location, 
The 
eason of lRlìï was occupied in ascertaining the best position 
for the Hailway hetween Truro and Amherst, and, in Fehruary of the 
folIo\\ ing year, plans and profiles of a route from Truro to the houndary 
between Xoya 
cotia and Sew Brunswick were submitted to the 
Government fur approvaL 
In ] '.;fj8, the suryeys were continued on the whole line, and a large 
engineering staff was employed in examining the country bet\\ een 
1\ ova Scotia and river du Loup. A controversy arose hetween the ad- 
vocates of different routes through X ew Brunswick. The press teemed 
with articles on tlw suhject, and the contest was carried into the Legis- 
lature and Prh-y Council of the Dominion. The chief contest was be- 
tween a 
orthern or Ba.y Chaleur route, a Central route and a Frontier 
route hy the yalleyof the river 
t. .John, "hich for a great length, 
wouM be close to the boundary bet" een XI"'" Brunswick and the 
tate 
of )Iaine. The advocates of the Frontier route set militar:," considera- 
tions altogether aside. The
' contended that since the day of .Major Roh- 



80 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


inson, who first recommended the Northern route, the revolution in naval 
armaments 11<1(1 placed the two line::; on an equality; that treaties had 
opened the Gulf of St. Lawrence to all nations; that there were no 
groumh; for anticipating difficultics with the United Sta
es, as their inter- 
ests were all on the side of peace; that, shouM any disturbing element 
arise, it would be settled by the pen, amI not by the sword; and that, 
if the Railway should he constructed as a military road. it WOl11<1 hc in 
danger wh'wever placerl, and would, from that point of view, invite 
attack, while, if regarded as a commercial enterprise, its peaceful mis- 
sion would be its protection. They further argued that a yast amount of 
public money would be saved by the adoption of the .FlOntier route. 
Owing to the lenJth of line in operatio:\ which couM be available, a 
much less }/!ngth of new railway wonM he l'equired; 5.) miles of rail- 
way, alreatly constrncted and in operation, being purchasable at a low 
price, They farther argued that, thc vaHey of the river St. .John heing 
well settled, there would he a considerable revenue from the ordinary 
trade of the district; and that there would also be a large lumber 
trade from Aroostook, in Maine, as well as from the New Brunswick 
counties. 
It was, however, asserted on the other side, that on the Northern 
line there were many large lumber establishmeuts, some of which would 
turn out more sawn lumber than all the mills between Fredericton and 
the source of the St. John, including those iu the Aroostook couutry; 
that such a line would certainly henefit and develop Aroostook; but 
what was wanted was a railway to develop the resources of Canada; 
and that the population per mile on the Northern route was much 
larger than that on the Frontier route, even including the population of 
Aroostook, which amouuted to about one-half {If the total number 
named. 
The advocates of the Northern rou.te also claimed that the estimates 
of the Frontier line were placed at too low a figure, as the Rail ways 
offered for sale were sunk in debt, and were in snch a bad condition as 
to require extensive repairs; and they contended that the Frontier line, 



LOCATIOX AND COXSTRl7CTION. 


81 


III its entirety through to Truro, would be more costly by 
l,OOO,OO,O 
than the Northern line. They also showed by the long-continued 
negotiations, that neither the Provincial nor British Governments ever 
lost sight of the necessity of consulting military cOIJSiderations; and 
that one of the latest Colonial Recretaries had said emphatically that 
no line which did not secure the advantages of a safe military road 
would ever receive the countenance of the British Government. 
The contest which was most persevered in was however he tween 
the Cf'Iltral aud Northern routes; the Central being mainly advocated 
III the interest of the city of St. John. 
The safety of the Railway from attack in time of war continued 
to occupy a prominent place in these discussions. It was a
sertcd 
that the Northern route, rccommellded by Major Robinson because 
"passing at the greatest distance from the United States, and possessing 
"in thc hig-hest degree the advantage of security frum attack in <::ase of 
"hostilities," was, in reality, greatly exposell to attack, a". at se\ cral 
points, it was close to the sea; and that op('rations could be 1I10re 
successfully carriell on against it than against the Central route, "hich, 
at all points was at least 30 miles distant frolU the .\merican fwntier. 
It was held that this distance was sufficient to make the Railway ::;afe, 
or at least as safe as a consillerable portion of the Granll Trunk Hail- 
way westward
 from river du Loui>; amI that it would be so regarded 
by the British Government. 
On the other side. it was denie<<l that the Northern line was open 
to attack, as only vessels of light draught could enter the waters which 
it touc
ed; and that an enemy's fleet could not enter the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, except at the ri"k of bcing cut off from support and supplies; 
". hereas, an attack could be much more re
lllily made on th,. Central 
route, St. .John city awl river being comparatively near American har- 
bours. Bcsillcs, the long vulnerahle portion of the Central line would 
not he so defcnsible as thc portion of the Grand Trunk Railway lying 
nearest the .American frontier. because, in the latter case, there was an 
intervening range of mountain!; impracticable for the passage of troops 
6 



82 


THE I
TEr.COLO
TAL. 


and heavy artillery; while in the formcr. the line passing into thc valley 
of thc St. .John, the river woultl afforcl really means of attack. 
As in the case of the Frontier route, an argument" as advanced 
in favour of the Central route on account of the less length of railway 
required. But to maintain this argument it was stated that no rail- 
\va,\-s on the route ,,-ould have to be purchased, because the companies 
owniu6' them ,,'ould willingly grant running powers ovcr such as were 
constructed. On the other side it was shown that the project was not in 
accon1.mce with the designs of the British Government, as evidenccd by 
their proposec1 guarantee being for ;';3.000,000, wit
l the condition that 
tlU' Dominion Government would raise a further æl,OOO,OOO, whilst the 
estimate of the cost on the Central route was less than the ;';8.000.000. 
It was accordingly argued that a çontinuous line of railway was con- 
templated, and not a connection with railways in operation. A forcible 
ohjection was made to the Central route, that one of the railways pro. 
posed as a connection was owned or controlled by citizens of the TTllitcrl 
States. Offers to carry troops in case of need were made to meet this 
argument. But it was evident !'uch offers could not he cnfol'cell: on 
the declaration of war the railway companies could readily "ith- 
draw all their rolling stock within the Lnited States frontier. and 
leave the railway useless to the Dominion though available to the 
enemy. 

()me stress was lairl on the amount of through frcigl1t which 
would follow the Central route to St. John as a shipping port. It was, 
howe\ er, contended that through freight from Montreal would take the 
line ofthe Grand Trunk Railway to Portland. and not a route 300 miles 
longer ny river du Loup to St. .John. Also, it was contendc<1 that, in the 
matter of breadstuffs and provisions, the United States was the natu- 
ral market for St. John. Trade returns !'howed that. while restrictions 
were laid upon trade between the British Korth .\merican Provinces 
and the Pnited States. the supply of breac1stuffs anrI provisiom: for 
St, .Tohn went from Canada: hut when reciprocity pl'p\,tilpd this sup- 
ply came from the United States, to the c\:tcnt of i5 per cent. of the 



J,OCATION A
D COXSTRUCTION. 


83 


whole. It was further argued that, if reciprocity should be again es- 
tablished, the through freigl]t would prove a nullity. 
On the side of the Northern Line. it "US argued that the natural 
trade of the populous region tllrough which it would pass l]ad, c\'en 
during the existence of the Reciprocity Treaty. been with Canad",; the 
imports of flour from the Lnited States never having exceeded between 
10 and 15 per cent. of the total impOl'ts, unless under exceptional 
circumstances. 
It was said that the Central route had nothing in its favour which 
the :Northern had not; but that the Xorthern had many special ad\'an- 
tages over the Central and every other route. It would undoubtedly 
fulfil the national object for which the scheme was first originated, 
viz :-the creation of a safe military road not open to sudden assault 
either by land or sea. It would pass through much "ell-settled 
country, including !;everal important towns and villages; and "ould 
traverse many outlets by which lumber is brought from the interior. 

\ considerable trade might be looked for in grain. and. eventually. iu 
manufactures, from Ontario to the 
Iaritillle Provinces; and very prob- 
a1Jly return freight at cheap rates would be obtained in coals. minerals 
and fish. 
The fi::,h trade was held to be of great importance and worthy of 
heing fostered as productive of profit. Fish, cured and dried, 'Yas sold 
for ahout three cents per pound; if packed in ice and transported to 
C.
uebec or Ontario it 'would bring ten cents pf'r pound. As the co::;t of 
curi.ngand drying was equal to the cost of carriage, the ten cents per pound 
ff)r the frozen fish would afford a larger profit to the fishermen. would 
foster this branch of trade, and would speedily develop this class of 
railway traffic. 
The claims of Prince E(hmrd Island and K e'\\ foundland. were 
urged in advocacy of the K orthern route, inasmuch as it "as generally 
considered desirahle to consolidate the Dominion by including the,.;e 
Islands in Confederation; and it could not be doubted that the Korth- 
ern route would he the most acceptable to them, particularly to Kew- 



!-4 


THE IYTERCOLOXlo\.L. 


fOl1ndland, in VieW of the quick trans-Atlantic route hy way of that 
hlalHl suggested by the Chief .Engineer in his report of If<û-1. 
\Vhile the discu,.;sion proceedetl allll the objections against each 
route were being an,.;wered by arguments bm;e(l on commercial tht'ories 
of profit; alii I while each particular l'oute, in its turn, was zealously 
atlvo('atcd and its merits enlarged upon by its friends, the Chief Eng:- 
neeI' avoided all eXpl"ession of opinion as to the line he held to be 
preferable; a cour,.;e of action which was made a matter of re- 
proach to him hy huth si(leo; in the controversy. Viewing the course 
l'Ufsl1pd, he entertains, after t1ie lapse of years, the opinion by which 
he was then guided, that it was unnecessary and would have been im- 
politic, for him to have taken part, in any way, in the discussion. 
"Then 
lr. Fleming entered upon the survey in 186-1, his instruc- 
tions on this point were very plain. He was not called upon to se- 
lect what he held to be the most eligihle line: indeed, as he rea(l his 
instructions, he considered it to be his duty to withhold all indications 
of preference. IIis own opinions were, however, explicitly aud directly 
f'xpre,;sed, wlwn it became his (luty to place them on record. In 
)[arch, 18GR, he was requested by the Government to report on the 
route he held to be the hest. 
Ile replie(l that military considerations as well as the commf'rcial 
capabilities of the line lmd to be regarded. \Vith a prospective in- 
C'reasing traffic, the rail way would probably become self-sustaining', 
hut on the other hand, a line with little traffic, and with no likelihood 
of any great increa,.;e, threatene(l to become a permanent bU1'(len. 
There appeared to be but little prospect of much local traffic on 
any of the 'routes. Agricultural prospects were nowhere extremely 
promising; and, except in Nova Scotia, the mineral resources of the 
(>ountry, as far as known, appeared of little importance. It" as. in- 
(lee(l, difficult to foresee that any great development of purely local 
traffic would take place. The most exaggerated estimates of way 
Imsine"s, ou any of the routes, for a long time were anticipated 
to fall short of the cost of maintenance. 



LOCATIO
 A
D COXSTRGCTIO
. 


8':; 


In the matter of through traffic, the fact had to be taken into com;id- 
eration that a railway was being constructed to connect St. John Xew 
Bruns" ick, with Bangor in 
Iaine, and thence ,yith the railway sy
telll" 
of Canada and the 'Cnited States. This line would be a formidable 
competitor to the Intercolonial Railway, if the latter were built on 
either a frontier or central route, while the route by the Bay Chaleur, 
and the adoption of a port on that Bay, for ocean 
teamers, "ould en- 
able the Intercolonial Railway to command a large "hare of the !'a]J- 
iùly increasing mail amI p
ssenger traffic between Europe and America, 
The Chief Engineer, after examining the arguments aùvanced in 
favour of each I"Oute, placed on record his opinif\n, that, beyond u duubt, 
the line by the Bay Chaleur was the route to be adopted. 
The Imperial authorities never lost sight of the military element which 
the railway 
hould retain. Un several occasion" the
- clearly intimated 
that a northern or Bay Chaleur route was the one which they preferred: 
not only 
Iajor Robinson, but other military authorities ]Juinted out the 
northern route as the proper loeation. The con))lIi,,
ioners appointed 
to consider the defence of the Province of Canada reported in 18G:2 that 
no time should be lost in opening a road by the valley of the :\Ietapedia 
to 
Ietis on the S1. Lawrence, and that, for military purpo:"cs. the pref- 
erence should be given to the line of Railway by the Day Chaleur. 
In If<G-! the Deputy Director of fortification:,. Co!. J ervois, reported 
that whilst the Temiscouata route by Grand Falls and Fredericton to 
St. John was, on account of its proximity to the .\merican fruntif'r. 
liable to be cut off at the commencement of ho"tilities. the route from 
Halifax through Kova Scotia and along the Eastern side ofXc\\ Bruns- 
wick, caned the :\Ieh\ p edia route, would afford access to Canada dlll'il1
 
. 
 
war; and that. except at the part where it run" along the 
outhel'll 
shore of the St. Lawrence, where, owing to the nature and position of 
the country in the adjacent part of the States, it is scarcely subject to 
attack, the whole line might he held to be at such a distance from 
the fmntier that it would not be liaLle to interruption bJ an enemy. 
\Vere fmthe)" evidence required of this feeling, it is to be found 



86 


THE IXTERCOLOXIAL. 


in the fact that the Duke of Buckingham sent a despatch to the Gover- 
nor General in the spring of 186K. intimating that the Imperial guarantee 
would at once be made available provided the Bay Chaleur route was 
adopted, and, on receiving notification of the choice of route, the Duke 
furwarded a second despatch which fully e
tahlishes that the route by 
the Bay Chaleur was held to he the only line \\ hich provides for the 
national objects involved in the undertaking.. 
During the period that the location through New Brunswick was 
the matter of daily debate, the course of the line in Nova Scotia was also 
discussed, with equal warmth and pertinacity; more especially that por- 
tion, some thirty miles in length. in which the mineral districts adjoining 
the Cobequid mountains are included. The chief promoter of these 
discussions was Mr. John Livesey, who represented the Londonderry 
Iron l\Iines, and who for more than four years never ceased to put his 
YÌews forward. 
From the time of the survey made in 1864, Mr. Livesey continually 


'" 


DOWNING STREET, 
22 July, Uiü8, 


(COpy CANADA, No. 155,) 
My LoRD. 
" I han> received your Lorilship's telegraphic message that the route by the Bay of Cha- 
" leur has ueen select
d by the Canadian Government, as the one to connect Truro with 
.. RIver du Loup and thus complete the Intercolonial Railway. 
" I understand three routes to have been under the consideration of the Governnwnt of 
" Canada, namely, one crossing the St. .John ri"er either at 'V oodstock or Fredericton, the 
" second in a more central direction tllrun
h Xl'\\' Brunswick, and the third following the line 
" selected by Major Robinson in 1848. 
" The route crossinj.( the St, John rÏ\er, either at Woollstock or Freilericton, is one to 
" which the assent of Her Majesty's Government cou\l1 not have been given. The objec- 
" tions on military grounds to any line on the South side of the St. John river are insupera- 
,. hie. One of the main adnmta
es sought in g-ranting an Imperial guarantee for constructing 
" the railway, would have been defeated, if that line had been selected, 
" The remaining lines were the Central line and that following the general course of the 
" ronte surveyed by l\Iajor 1l0binson,-and Her 
hjesty's Government have learned with 
" mnch satisfaction that the latter hns been selected b
' the Cnnadian Government, The 
.. communication which this line affords with the Gulf of St. L'''Hence nt various points, alHI 
" its remoteness from the American frontier, are conclnsi'e cOllsi,lerntions in its fa,'onr, and 
" there can be no donbt that it is the only one which provides for the national objects 
" involved in the undhtaking." · 


I have etc" etc. 
Signed, BUCKINGHAM & CHANDOS. 


To Governor the Rt. Hon. Viscount l\Ionck. 



LOCATIO
 A:XD CO
STRUCTION. 


87 


urged, both privately and official1y, the importance of locating the 
rail way on a route pas:5Ïng close to the fumaces uf the Iron :\Iines in 
which he was interested. 
Four different routes between Truro and a point of junction on the 
rail \, ay from ?t. John to ::;hediac "ere examined allllrcportl'd on; one 
was far to the east, another was far to the west, two" ere central. Dy 
combiwing parts of these central routes, t\\O other routes werc com- 
pounded. Of the two central routes, one was essentially the same as that 
recommendeù by 
Iajor Robinson in It-5-lï, Thc other was 
imilar to 
that advocated by 
Ir. Livesey. It ,vas by a comLiliatiun uf the tn u 
that the ro
lte called" Line 13" W.1S formed, to cruss the Cobequid Hills 
by the pass at Folly Lake and tu descend by the northel'll slope of thc 
Hills towards Amherst. It was held that this line would be",t accom- 
modate all interests, having primary regard tu gcneÙlI cunvenience. 
In It-5fj.), the Government of 
 ova 
eoti,L directed :\11'. Fleming to 
report on the best route frum Truro to the boundary of the Province. 
In June of that year he recommended that a central route should 
be adopted. From commercial considerations, a central route appeared 
to him the most important, as it would accomodate the Iron District on 
the Cobequid Hange, and open up the Springhill coalfield. He was 
accordingly instructed to proceed with the location of the most eligible 
line on a central route. 
The working season of 18G5 was occupied in surveys. Every pass 
across the Cobequid mountains, within the limits of the iron district, 
was examined, and every effort was made to secure a practicable line 
near the Iron works. Six lines were surveyed, designated by the letters 
A, D, a, D, E, F. 
The first kept the southern slope of the Cobequid :\Iountains, cross- 
ing the FoIl} River and the two branches of the Great Village River, 
pa
sing immediately on the South side of the Acadia Iron "T orks. After- 
wards it turned northwards, and crossed to the north sIde of the hills by 
a gorge, known as Madison.s Brook, and by Isaac's Lake 011 the summit, 
686 feet above sea level. 



88 


THE I
TERCOLOXIAL. 


The line B passed clol'e to the Acadia Iron works. thence turning 
northwards it followed the Great Village River, on which the works 
are situated, to the summit at Sutherland's Lake, where the elevation is 
7 -1:; feet above sea level. 
Lines C, D, E and F allpasl'ed by Folly Lake, where they attained 
the summit level of SUO feet above sea level. 
Of these lines, B was the shortest, but had the most objectionable.... 
grades. F was second in point of length, and had the most favourable 
grades. .\ was fourth in point of length, and second in favourablc grades. 
Line .\, passing close to the Acadia Iron 'V orks. was advocated by 
Mr. Livesey. The Chief Engineer, on the contrary, gaye it as his 
opinion that line F \\ as in all respects entitled to the preference, 
and that, in view of its engineering features, he would recommend it 
for adoption. 
The Engineer considerecl that lines 
\ and F would equaHy well 
accommodate the Springhill coalfield; that though F would not DCCOl1l- 
modate the then existing iron works so well as A. it would equally" ell 
accommodate any extension of the 'works. and give much better accom- 
modation to the traffic of the villages on the Gulf coast. He showed 
also, that, although l\Ir. Livesey had in some of his letters endeavoured 
to convey the idea that line F" just !5kirts the eastern edge" of the ore 
district. a former manager of the works had conveyed the impression 
that the ore deposits were equally on (mch side of line F, lind that they 
extended over a large area in both directions. 
Other evidence of the same import wm,; furnished by a lUap and 
pamphlet, issued some years previously in the interest of the iron mines, 
which contained reports of several mineralogists and mining engineers. 
One of these writers expresscd his opinion that east of the Folly lEver 
there were dcposits of ore sufficient to produce from 20,000 to 2-1,000 
tons of metal ammally, while the works at that time situated to thc west 
of Folly River were only capahle of producing about 
OOO tons per 
annum. It was, however, possible to e-..::tcnd them so as to produce from 
10,000 to 12,000 tons per annum. The mal' accompanying the I)amphlet 



LOCATION AND CONSTRUCTION. 


89 


showed the" proposed site of new works," one on the Folly River, and 
another on Pine Brook, two miles east of Folly River. 
It could not therefore be maintained that the route F, by Folly 
Lake, would not extend ample accommodation to the mineral region. 
In August, 1865, a contract was entered into between the govern- 
menh; of Nova Scotia and New Brun:\wick, on the one side, and the 
Intercolonial Contract Company of London, on the other, for the con- 
struction of the railway between Truro and Moncton. The Govern- 
ment of Nova Scotia, having in 
Iay, 1866, received the report ofthe Chief 
Engineer, endorsed his views in reference to the Folly Lake route, Line 
F, and refused to sanction the construction of this portion of the rail- 
way unde! the contract which tIle) had made with the Intercolonial 
Contract Company, unle"s the Company adhered to line F. 
The members of the Kova Scotia Government were personally on 
friendly relations with :\Ir. Livesey. And, as that gentleman took every 
opportunity of enforcing his vie" s. the members of the government werè 
fully informed of the importance of the iron works, and of the expediency 
of selecting a route as favourable to them as the general interests of the 
country would permit. 
After Confederation the Chief Engineer received instrut:tions from 
the Dominion Government to locate the line from Truro to :\loncton. 
At this time the Dominion Ministry had :\Ir. Flcming's report of )[ay 
18(ì6, approved of by the Nova Scotia Government. The marked fea- 
ture of these instructions was that he should adopt the most eligible 
line, giving due weight to the cost of construction, cost of future work- 
ing and management, and also to genera] interests. 
From the above facts it is evident that no course was open to the 
Chief Engineer other than to follo\\ the line designated F. 
But )[1'. Livesey was not satisfied with this course, and in Reptem- 
ber, 1867, he addressed. a letter, enclosing a copy of the correspondence, 
to the then l\Iinister of Public 'V orks, anf] in consequence the Chief 
Engineer was instructed again to consider the case between the two 
routes with regard to:- 



90 THE I
TEHCOLO
I.AL. 


1::;t. "The local traffic likely to be obtained by these lines re- 
t;pectively." 

1H1. " The development of natural sources of wealth in the vicinity 
" of those lines respectively, 1>y reason of their construction." 
In September, 1808, the Chief Engineer accordingly reported on 
the rival lines A and F, and slu",-ed that the line .F was preferablc to 
A under the considerations of length, cost of construction, grades and 
curvcs, and consequently in cost of future workillg and mallagellwnL 
Although the line, as located, crossed and passed Hear to valuable de- 
posits of iron ore, it did not run sufficiently near to the iron works to 
be of full serYice without the construction of a Dranch, some 7 miles 
long. 
The cost of construction of line F and a branch would he con- 
siderahly less than that of line 
\, ,\ itllOUt :HIding to A for the extra 
cost of working it. 1 t \\'as of importance that the iron works should 
hrtye the bellf'fit of railway servicc, amI it \\"as desiraLle that Òe earliest 
possilJle tunncction, con:oistent \\ ith general inter!.'sts, should he made 
with tl1('m amI the Sprin
hill coal mines. It was considered that line 
F and a Il\'aneh to the iron mines \nJl11d a1:,;o e'{tcml a connection with 
the coalmillcs,::;o much more favourable for c1u.ap transport than line 
A that it would prove to be the most economical ruute for mineral 
traflic. 
The decision arrived at was ha,.;(.d on a comparison of the lines. 
Linc F pas,.;cd oycr a sUlIimit 100 fect lowcr than that crossed by Line 
A; it was the Lest, the shortest, and, e\ cn including the 1>ralleh to the 
iron mines, the cheapest, amI" as therefore entitle,l to the prcff'rence. 
A cOllllJÍuaÜon line was mentiOlH'd as having been traced on new 
ground betwecn lines }' and A. It \\ as four miles longer than line F 
hut reduced the branch from seven miles to three. In the compari::;on, 
the Engineer considered the comLination line second ill point of merit 
to line F, and in his opinion line A was the least favourable of the 
thrce. 
On the other hanù Captaiu Tylcr, Government Inspector of Rail- 



LOCATION A
D CO
STRUCTIO
. 


m 


ways, England, was applied to by Mr. Livesey. and reported in July 
Ib68, that in his opinion, taking into account cost of con;;truction, 
working over the 
;uper-elevations, counter gradients and curves on 
steep gradients, line A would still be considered cheaper than line F ; 
that the construction of line F instead of line A appeared to him, from 
every point of view, to be a great mistake; and that the manufacture of 
iron in a cheap form by the use of Springhill coal was of so great im- 
portance that' "such an obstruction to the development of such re- 
"sources, as the construction of line F when line A is available and les8 
"costly, would be nothing less than a general mÌ8fortune to the indus- 
" trial interests of the Dominion." 
In replying to this letter of Capt. Tyler, the Chief Engineer stated 
that he was satisficd that Capt. Tyler, and 1\1r. .Atkinson who had 
worked out the calculations for Captain Tyler, "ere not in jJossessioll 
of all the information which the survey affol'lled, aud therefore that 
their conclusions, based on imperfect data, could scarcely be correct; 
and he repeated that without capitalizing' the extra cost of working 
line A, this line would cost, in construction alone, about 
100,OOO more 
than line F with a branch to the iron mines; that line F was the 
cheapest to operate, the shortest, and as far as he could judge, tile best 
in every respect. 
During the months of Septemher and October, 18G8, ::\Ir. Livesey 
had test pits sunk in ninf'teen cuttings on line A, which had been as
;umed 
in the Chief Engineer's estimates as cither wholly or almost wholly 
rock, and he reported that a very large deduction should consequently 
be made from the estimated cost of line A. This deduction was at 
once made by the Chief Engineer; but nevertheless he saw no reason 
to make any material change in the views he had expressed, and he 
maintained that although line A had lwen surveyed, tested, revÜ;ed and 
improved by repeated trial surveys, it remained substantially as it had 
been originally described by him; and that it was his deliberate opin- 
ion that. taking the two lint's as they were then repre
ented hy plans 
and profiles, line F wa..; capablc of doing, at the same cost of working 



92 


THE I
TERCOLONIAL. 


expcnses, at least ten per cent. more business than Hne A, and that no 
improvement could be made in line A that would materially lower the 
cost of working, without at the ::;ame time greatly increasing the cost 
of construction. 
Other parties took part in the discussion, amongst whom were 
the lIon. R. 13. Dickey, the lIon. A. \\'. ::\IcLelan, afterwards one of 
the Railway Connnis"ioners, ::\11'. -:\1orri::;on, M. P. p, for Colchester, and 
Mr. Purdy, ::\1. P. P. for Cumberland. 
Kotwithstanding that the Govel'lmient of Nova Scotia had, in 
18G6, endor::;ed the views of the Chief Engineer with rcgard to line F, 
the Executive Council of Kova 
cotia, on 3d Augnst, l
liH, passed a 
Minute, which was approved by His Excellency, the Lieut. Governor, 
to the effect that, in the interests of the Province, the location of line 
A should be adopted in preference to that of line F. 
It was stated by one of the gentlemen referred to, in a letter 
dated 21st Septemher, 18t
8, that thi::; ::\Iinute of Council, though pas::;ed 
on 3d August, was not communicated to the House of ,Assembly until 
l;)th Septemher, and that the House of A::;::;embly was indignant at the 
action of the Government. Three days afterwards tbe House of As- 
sembly pas::;ed a resolution in favour of tbe Folly Lake route, line F. 
A fe\\> days after the pas::;ing of this resolution, tbe Chief Engineer, 
by request of the Government of Nova Scotia, met the l\Iembers of 
Council at Halifax. There were, however, only three members pre::;ent. 
After hearing full explanations, they concun:ed in the views of the En- 
gineer with respect to the adoption of line F, and freely told him to 
state to the Dominion Government thc result of the interview. They 
further intimated that they would make a ::\Iinute of Council, expressing 
their concurrencc, but that they felt themselves precluded from doing so 
by tbe minute which they had previously been induced to pas::;, without 
sufficient knowledge of the fact::;. 
The controversy was carried to Ottawa. One Nova Scotia gentle- 
man, in pres::;ing his view::; on the notice of the Secretary of State for 
the Dominion, drew attention to the claim advanced on behalf of the 



LOCATlO
 A
D CO
STnUCTlON, 


93 


iron mines with respect to the large capital inve
ted by the company, 
and nll't this claim by saying that the people in the villages on the Gulf 
coast had invested infinitely more capital in building wharves, clearing 
lands, building roads, bridging streams, opening stone quarries, building 
ships, working copper mills, and that they were at that time cmploying 
more men, developing intercsts of more real and lasting benefit, and 
contributing more to the Dominion revenues, than the mining company. 
He contended that all this population, which he estimateil at 10,000, 
should not be forced to pass over 12 miles more of mountain roads to 
get to the railway, because the Mining Company had located their works 
on the least eligible route. 
The local advocates of both lines, at considerable length, exhaust- 
ed every argument in favour of the line which each advocated. Their 
argumeuts were based on the populatiou and agricultural products of 
the district; allli the c()ntruYers
' branched off in to a discussion re- 
specting the distances from certain points to the line of rail way, and 
to other unimportant matters of a purely local nature 
A line has already bccn refened to, which was designate!l the 
" Combination line," from the fact that, by a cross branch from tl1f' one 
to thc other, it combincd portions of huth the rival lines, and as it 
would thm; unite the local interests, prc\ iousl." in conflict, the comhina- 
tion line was favoured by both cuntending parties. This line connected 
the eastern portion of lint" A with the "estern portion of line F, the 
connection passing within three miles of the iron mines. 
On the 4th Kovember, 1
1;
, the Chief Engineer was called upon 
for a report. He adhrred to the opinions previously express cd as to 
the engineering advantages of line F, but he was prcpared to admit 
that the combination line appeared to possess certain commercial 
merits. It would accommodate the population on the Gulf coai'.t 
equally with line F, it being in fact identical with line F, from Folly 
Lake northwards, amI at the same time it would afford greater accom- 
modatiun to the iron works. 
The combination line, it is true, would be some four miles longer than 



94 


THE INTERCOLOXIAL. 


line F, and would possess an objectionable alignment, but its gradients 
would not be less favourable. It was further submitted that, although 
the new line proposed was longer, the extra traffic arising- from its 
close proximity to the iron works might, in some degree, compensate 
for the allditiunal cost of operating the extra length. 
By a letter of 6th November, 1
6
, the Government notified the 
Chief Engineer that.. the combination line" hall been finally adopted, 
and directed him to proceed with the location measurements in accord- 
ance with that decision. 
Thus the controversy was ended; and hence arose that gigantic 
and conspicuous sweep which the railway traveller will observe on the 
southern flank of the Cobequid Mountains, where the line describes 
nearly half a complete circle. So marked is this feature in the loca- 
tion that the popular voice has applied to it the term. " The Grecian 
Bend," which, possibly, may be retained so long as the railway endures. 
The decision arrived at respecting the location of the line in Nova 
. Scotia, and thc adoption of the route by the Day Chaleur, left only 
that portion which extends from the river l\Iiramichi to the boundary 
of Nova Scotia to be determined. This question was not disposed of 
until the following year. 
While the location surveys were in progress during lR()8, the Gov- 
ernment, in view of commencing the construction of the line, directed 
the Chief Engineer to prepare plans and specifications, so that tenders 
might be called for. 
. 
The specifications and conditions of contract were suhmitted to 
the Privy CounCil in November, and, with some amendments, were 
adopted, and advertisements for tenders were published. 
In December of the same year, in compliance with the Statute, 30 
Vie. Cap. 13, four Commissioners were appointed to assume the manage-- 
ment of the Railway. 
A. 'Yalsh, Esq., Chairman. 
The Hon. E. B. Chandler. 
C. J. Brydges, Esq. 
\V. F. Coffin, Esq. 



LOCATIOS A
D COSSTRrCTION. 


95 


On 1\1r. Coffin's resignation the Hon. A. 'V. .McLelan was 
appointed. Mr. Flcming still rcmaincd the principal executiye of- 
ficer. 
Undcr the terms of the Statute, the appointment of all officers, 
e
cept the Chief Engineer, was left to the Conllni8sionel'::;. They ac- 
cordingly engaged a secretary and an accountant, and formally re-ap- 
pointed the engineering staff, which, at that time, consisted of three 
district engineers, together with residcnt engineers and the necessary 
assistants, for each separate surveying party. 
The Chief Engineer, with the three district engineers, met the Com- 
missioners on the 30th December, 18G
, at St. John, N. n., for the first 
time. At this meeting the Commissioners announced their intention to 
alter in some essential }Joints the specification and system of contracts 
previously determined on. The proposed changes had reference to 
the basis on which contracts should be entcred into, and to the 
character of the bridges. The Commi
sioners had resolved to make 
the bridges of wood, instead of iron as recommended by the Chief 
Engineer. 
The Government had previously determined to construct the line 
in short sections of about 20 miles, and concurred in letting the work 
by measurement and price, as a schedule contract, The Commissioners 
declared themselves in favour of letting each section at a bulk sum for 
the whole, and not bya schedule of prices; and they recommended 
this plan to the Government. 
The Chief Engineer objected to this principle, but his objections 
were not entertained. Accordingly. he felt himself constrained to sub- 
mit his views on the subject to the Government. \Yhile, on one 
hand, he felt bound to follow the instructions of the Commissioners, 
he was also, directly responsible to the Government for any advice he 
tendered; and if, on essential points, his yiews differed from those of the 
Commissioners, his duty "as to submit the differcnce to the Executive, 
and in dcfence of his own reputation, to place }jjs opinions on 
record. 



Ð6 


THE INTERCOLU
lAL 


Accordingly, the Chief Engineer addressed the Premier,. setting 
forth the important changes proposed by the Commissioner
, which he 
held to be unwise and ill-considered; and, on two uccasions foUowin;., t 
he submitted at some length his objections to the course proposed, and 
asked the interference of the Government with regard to it. 
The Commi:<sioners replied t to the first conllnunication; the 
second and third remain unanswered. 
The controversy formed the subject of returns to Parliament in 
18ïO, when the papers were brought duwn and printed. The first com- 
munication of the Chief Engineer was not, however, included with 
them. 
In the memorandum fnrnibhed by the Commissioners, they insisted 
that the proper course to be taken was to caU for tenders for the con- 
struction of each respective section of the Railway, for a bulk sum, 
and to hold the contractor to complete the work f.or the amount of 
his tender, without advance of price for increa
e of work, or any re- 
duction for diminution of work. rhe Chief Engineer conteIllled that 
the knowledge of the work required on any section was insufficient to 
admit of letting the work for a bulk smll; that no contractor could 
exactly understand the extent of the obligation which he was as:mming; 
and that contracts let on this system, as matters then were, would 
certainly end unsatisfactorily; and that difficulties would arise to per- 
plex the Engineers, the Commissioners, and, finaUy, the (
overnmcnt. 
lIe also pointed out that aU contracts should only he let on knm
.n 
data, but that if it were deemed ach-is,tble to cummence construction 
before the measurements were completed, and the exact quantities 
estaUishcd, the principle of measurement and schedule price shouM he 
adopted. A contractor would then perfectly understand that he would 
only be paid at the prices in his tender for aU the work which he per- 
formed, and for that only. 


. 2d Januar)', 1869. 


t 27th January, 1869; 10th March, 1869- 
t 26th January, 1869, 



LOCATION AND CONSTRUCTION. 


97 


The opinion of the Chief Engineer was, however, not sustained, 
and tender::; were a::;ked on the bulk sum system. 
In February and April, 1869, tenders for bridging and grading 161 
miles, di \'ided in to seven sections, were received. The following list 
will show the great difference of value attached to the work: 


Lowest 
Tenders. 


Highest 
Tenders. 


Division A. Section No. I, 20 miles..........................$ 
Ie B. " ., 2 20 " .......................... 
K. .. 3' 2-1 , , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . 
X, .. 4' 26 . . . .. .. .................. 
C. .. ó' 26 ....'..................... 
L. .. 6' 21 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 
Y. or "7: 2-1 . . ., . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 


175,000 
299,000 
288,000 
29ï,OOO 
345,997 
237,000 
333,600 


S 700,000 
820,000 
936 000 
911;;000 
1,014,000 
63a,l50 
1.008,000 


Total, 


161 miles. 


$1,9ï5,597 $6,O
!J,I50 


Generally speaking, the lowest tenders were accepted, and the 
work was placed under contract. 
The tenders varied in the aggregate from less than two millions to 
more than six millions, or to the extent of fully 300 per cent., and 
showed that the parties who tenderefl, had imperfect ideas of the work 
which they offered to perform. It is not ::;urprising, therefore, that, be- 
fore the expiration of twelve months, five out of the seven contracts 
had to be annulled and relet at a large advance. 
The failure of the first contractors to complete their engagements, 
established that the proper course had not been followed in the first 
instance. An attempt was made to remedy the evil, as far as it could 
possibly be done, by furnishing contractors with more complete data, 
but no change was made in the prineiþle of letting the work. The 
"schedule price" system was not entertained., for it was held that the 
Commissioners were committed to the" bulk sum" form of contract, 
and that, accordingly, it could not be departed from. 
One important point, on which a serious difference of opinion arose, 
was in regard to the bridges. In the specification submitted by the 
Chief Engineer to the Privy Council, the abutments and piers were 
designed to be constructed of the best description of masonry, with 
iron superstructure. 


7 



98 


THE INTERCOLONIAL 


It appeared to the Chief Engineer that great precautions should be 
taken with these structures, in order to have them permanent. Iron 
and stone being the most durable materials, their use would remove 
risk of accident from fire, and from natural decay. And, although the 
first cost might be greater, the permanent structures would avoid the 
constant periodical charge for restoration which wooden work would 
require. :Moreover, the geographical situation of the line admitted of 
the delivery of materials by sea-going vessels, directly on the line at 
convenient points j so that the first cost of iron structures would be 
reduced to the least possible amount. 
The Commissioners entertained the opposite opinion, and decided 
that the bridges should be constructed of wood. 
The position was one of difficulty.. The Chief Engineer was de- 
sirous of avoiding all cause of difference with the Commissioners; but 
his deliberate opinion was on record. The ground assumed by him had 
not been lightly taken, and the more the subject was considered by 
him, the more convinced he felt of the correctness of the principles 
of construction which he had advocated. No argument, however, 
which he could advance, appeared to have the least weight with the 
Commissioners. They had determined to make ccrtain changcs; that 
the recommendations of the Chief Engineer should be set aside; and 
that iron should not be l
sed, but that timber should take its 
place. 
In .Tanuary, 186ft, the Chief Engineer maòe his first appeal in the 
matter, to the Premier, f'ir John A. :\[acdonald, and he submitted at 
length the arguments why iron and not wood should be used. This 
letter wa!' referred to the Commissioners in the usual course. It has 
never he en replied to; and the arguments aòvanced in that com- 
munication remain to this day without refutation. But thc decision of 
the Commissioners was bustaine(l. Five of the bridges were, how
ver, 
exempted from the principle originally laid down hy the C'onnnis!'ion- 
ern; otherwise, the order was given that all the bridges should be built 
of wood. 



LOCATION AND CONSTRUCTION 


Ð9 


In 1\Iay, 1870, the Chief Engincer recurred to tne question, in a 
statement prepared for submission to Parliament. A complete list of 
the bridges was given, and it was there set forth that the cost of con- 
structing them of iron would be but slightly in excess of building them 
of wood, and accordingly he recommended that iron should bc used. 
The R'1ilway Commissioners still adhered to the view they had 
previou"ly exnressed, for, in a majority report, ::;Ïgnt'd by :ì\Iessrs. Brydges, 
Chandler and 
J cLelan, they repeated the recommendation that, with 
the exception of the five bridges named, wood shoultl be used through- 
out the line. This report is dated 3d July. 1\Ir."
 alsh, however, the 
remaining Commissioner, and Chairman of the Board, 011 the 5th July, 
gave his opiniun in favor of iron. The matter was thus again brought 
before the Govcrnment, and on the 7th July an Order in Council was 
passed, affirming the decision of the majority that wood should be used. 
The Chief Engineer took another opportunity of appcaling to the 
authorities on the subject. On the 
.jth July, he wrote to the Premier, 
Sir John A. 
Iacdonald, and on the 

d August to the Commissioners. 
In the latter communication he asked a delay of ten days for some 
work in progress, so that the matter could be reconsidered by the 
Governmen t. 
In September, 1\11'. C. J. Brydges. one of the Commissioners, address- 
ed, on his own account, a communication to the Privy Council on the 
subject. He argued that the fear of wooden bridges catching fire was 
groundless; that, in his expericnce of eighteen years as a Railway)lan- 
agel', he had known no instance of a wOullen bridge having been in- 
juriously affected through the cause assigned. lIe contended that the 
Chief Engineer's calculations of quantities and' cost were erroneous, 
that iron bridges woùld cost at least :;;.300,000 more than the slim 
named, and that their introduction would probably add 
.jOO,OOO to the 
cost of the line and would cause delay and confu::-:ion. 
:\11'. Fleming replied to the communication. IIc cited two instanccs 
of bridges on the Grand Trunk Railway, under the management of :\Ir. 
Brydges, having been destroyed by fire but a fcw weeks before the date 



100 


THE ISTERCOLONIAL. 


of 1\1r. Brydges statement. 1\1r. Fleming contended that his estimates 
were correct, and challenged examination into their accuracy: and he 
further made a final appeal in favor of iron bridges. 
After an examination which estahlished that the estimatcs of 
the Chief Engineer Were correct,. the Commissioners eventually with- 
drew their objections and rccommended that all bridges over GO feet 
span should be built of iron. But the Chief Engineer persisted in 
his efforts to hav'e every bridge, down to the smallest span-2-l feet- 
made of iron, and at last, by an Order in Council, dated 12th 
Iay, 
1871, authority was given to have them so constructed. 
"Tith the exception of three structures built of wood hy direction 
of the COll1mis
ioners, against the protest of the Chief Engineer, all the 
bridge spans, of whatever width, throughout the line, have the super- 
structure of iron. 
At the period when the Comm.ssioners were appointed, the line 
lJad heen detcrmined from river du Loup to the river Miramichi, and 
from the northern boundary of :Kova Rcotia to Truro, but the location 
of thc intervening distance of about 120 milcs had not been madc. 
It has alrea,ly been mentioned that contracts had been made in 
18G,) hetwecn the Ilitercolonial Contract Co. of London, and the Gov- 
ernments of Nova Scotia and :K ew Brunswick, for the construction of 
the line between Truro and l\Ioncton, with the design that this section 
should eventually form part of the Intercolonial Railway. In the 
winter of 1806-07 the Intercolonial Contract Co. failed, and assigned 
thcir contract to 
Icssrs. Clark, Punchard & Co. 
By the provisions of the contract between the Company and the 
Govcrnment of New Brunswick. it was set forth that the railway should 
interscct the St. John and Shediae Railway east of l\Ioncton, and should 
pass the village of Dorchester within a specified distance. 


. :\11", Fleming's oriJ:(inal estimate of the cost of bril1ges with iron super. 
structure, inchulin
 masonry, was.. '." . . .. . .,. . . .. . ... . ... . .51,294,607 
'Viti. woollen BuperBtrudllre,.....,..........".."...,.........., 1,293,469 
The Rctual cost erected, completed, with iron 8uperstructure,.......... 1,2;4,027 



LOCATION AND CONSTRUCTION. 


101 


The British North America Act was passed in :\Iareh and came into 
force on the 1st July, 18Gï; and, as it contained provisions for the im- 
mediate construction of the Intercolonial Hailway, the Govemment 
of Nova Scotia took steps to nullify the contract within the limits of 
that Province, no work having been executed. At the same date but 
limited action had been taken either by the Company or by their assign- 
ees within the Province of New Brunswick. At this stage of affairs the 
New Brunswick Government would also have been justified in inter- 
vcning. Certainly they should have ascertained how far the proposed 
line would have accorded with the general route of which it was ulti- 
mately to form a part. In the contract in question, it had becn stipu- 
lated, in order to serve some local or passing interest, that the line 
should run to the village of Dorchester. It was quite uncertain if this 
location would best conform to the main route. Indeed, as it was af- 
terwards prO\"ed, the Intercolonial Railway, in order to serve com- 
paratively insignificant iuterests, was twisted many miles out of its 
proper course. 
'V ork to some extent, however, was commenced some time before 
1st July, 18G'j, and, on the 8th ofthat mon th, 
Ir. C. H. Grant, the agent 
of the contractors, wrote to the Provincial Secretary, announcing that 
he had arrived at Dorcbester to assume his duties, and that he w
 
provided with full powers and instructions to carryon the work. 
There appears no record of the extent of the work performed be- 
fore 1st July, 18137. It is, however, well understood that its value was 
unimportant. 
In July, 1867, on the fonnation of the first Dominion Government, 
intimation was given to the Government of New Brunswick, that the 
proposed Eastern Extension Railway, as the short section in question 
was then designated, might not be in a proper position to form an 
eligible section of the Intercolonial I:ailway, and in October the :\lin- 
ister of Public "T orks submitted to the Privy Council a memorandum 
to the effect that certain parties, since the 1st July, 1867, had been en- 
gaged in constructing a railway between Moncton and Sackville, in 



102 


THE INTERCOLO
IAI,. 


New Brunswick. with a view to its becoming a portion of the J nter- 
colonial Railway, and that he was doubtful if the location of the line, 
or the character of the work would be such as to justify the nenel'al 
Government in adopting it as part of the Intercolonial line ; he, there- 
fore, recommended that the Government of New Brunswick should be 
notified that the railway could not be adopted, unless it shoulcl he found 
suitahle in location and character; and. therefore. that the work" must 
be, and continue to be, at the sole cost and risk of the Province." 
Cpon this notification, the contractors' agent addressed the 
Minister of Public ,V ol'ks in a letter datcd 6th December, lRG7, to 
the 
ffect that the works in question had bcen commenced early in 
June, 18G6, after eight ñlOnths had been spent in surveys, and that by 
the 1st July, 18Gï, upmuds of six miles of grading had been formed, 
and that at the date of his letter, fourteen miles were completed and all 
the material for the permanent way providdl. lIe addcd that the route 
taken had been prescribed by the New Brunswick Government and by 
the contract, and that it passed through a most populous and most 
fertile district. The Provincial Secretary of New Brumnvick also de- 
clared that the New Brunswick Government would have cancelled 
the contract at the time of Confederation, if it had been practicable to 
do so, but that, in reality, the Province was obliged to accept the "it- 
nation, with the expectation that the Federal Government would 
accept the line and make provision for refunding the suhsidy advanced 
by the Province. 
The Minister of Public "T orks accordingly instructed the (,hief 
Engineer to examine the railway in question, so that the GoveÎ'Iuncnt 
could determine whether or not the transfer should be entertailH'd, 
Assuming that the point of junction, near )Ioncton, was suitahle, he 
was instructed to report whether a better alignment <:ould he procured 
between the point of junction and the termination of his location 
surveys at the boundary of Nova f'cotia. lIe was also to report the 
actual value of the work done and the materials deliverecl. 
The examination was made, and the Chief Engineer reported:- 



LOCATIO
 .AXD cO
:Hm:'ciÎu:;"'. 


10-3 


that two lines had been found, both of whi(;h passed over 10" PI' sum- 
mits, and were in every respect more f,1\"ourable, than the line in que.;- 
tion; that one of the direct lines \Hts 

I
 miles, and the other ".!.ï"t
o 
miles long, while the line in process of construction by Dor(;hester was 
3ï! miles, or thirty-three per cent. longer than the most direct line. 
The value of the work executed and materials delivered was ascer- 
tained to be less than 
80,OOO, ::,ome of "hich, timber and sleepers, 
could be moved. 
The Chief Engineer pointed out that a great saving, in first (;ost 
even, would result by paying the value of the work d:me on the line 
under construction, abandoning it wholly, and adopting a direct line. 
He argued that the railway to connect the several Provinces should not 
be unnecessarily increased in length, nor its engineering features he 
made worse than need be; and that in this case the railway would be 
twisted a long distance out of its proper course "ithout sening any 
sufficient purpose. The Go\-ernment of X ew Brunswick" as certainly 
committed to a contract for work ultimately to be a !Jart of the Inter- 
colonial, "hich provided that the line should pass a small village of 
local importance. It was discovered that this contract ill\ 01\ ed the 
construction of an unnecessary length of raihvay, with hea\'y gradients 
and oltjectionaLle curves; that it would practically place 
 0\ a Scotia 
f!'Olll eight to ten miles farther from the remaining portions of X orth 

-\Illerica than was necessary. and thus virtually impose a ta'\:. of ,",ome- 
thing like one shilling a head, and the same amount per ton, on all pas- 
sengers and freight passing over the rail way, fm' all time to come. 
It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that the Dominion Govern- 
ment were unwilling to accept the unwise contract made by Xew 
Brunswick; or that the Engineer of the Dominion should suggest, that 
it was a matter of absolute economy. to pay for the value of the work 
done and place the railway in its proper position; and thus, at an ex- 
pense of less than $SO.OOO, to save the construction and perpetual 
maintenan
e of nearly ten miles of linp. 
The 
'eport of the Chief Engineer being made known, several Sena- 



104 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


tors and 
[embers of the House of Commons, representing New Druns- 
y'ick in the Dominion Parliament, met at Ottawa and addressed a letter 
to the Secretary of State, in which they laid great stress on thc fact, that 
the Imperial Government had, through the Duke of Newcastle, assured 
:Kew Brunswick, by letter dated 19th :\larch, 1864, "that if the Lower 
" Provinces shall, at their own expense. commence the construction of 
"a railway on a line approved by Her :Majesty's Government, between 
"Truro and the Bend, and if subsequently the proposed loan of 
" æ3,000,000 shall be raised under the Imperial guarantee, the railway 
"between Truro and the Bend, and the works constructed thereon by 
"Lower Provinces, shall, as far as Her Majesty's Government is con- 
"cerned, be considered to form part of the l'ltilway on which the loan 
"of æ 3,000,000 is to be expended. This assurance is given merely for 
"the purpose of providing (as far as Her Majesty's Government is con- 
"cerned) that New Brunswick and Nova Scotia shall not be prejudiced 
"by commencing the railway in an
icipation of a final alTangement." 
They. also laid great stress on a subsequent utterance of the Im- 
perial Government which affirmed that the Confederation of the Prov- 
inces "would not in any way affect or alter the cOlTespondence '" hich 
"had already passed between the Imperial Government and thc British 
" North American Provinces, on the subject of the Intercolonial Hail- 
" way." 
It was maintained that, on the strength of these utterances, the 
Government of Ne:v Brunswick had proceeded with the construction 
of the rail way, and that every precaution had been taken to select 
the best line that would correspond with the terms of arrangements 
made with the contracting company, which prescribed a circuitous 
rou te past the village of Dorchester. 
Applications of the same character followed, of which the general 
tenor was, that it would be a breach of faith, if the Dominion Govcrn- 
ment should construct a rival railway within a few miles of the one 
under construction; aIllI an injustice to New Brunswick, not to adopt 
tbe latter as a part of the Intercolonial Railway. 



LOCATION AND CO
STRUCTIO
. 


105 


The matter, by order in Council- was accordingly referred to the 
Intercolonial Railway Commissioners, to report on the advisability of 
adopting the line as a portion of the Intercolonial; farther, to state its 
money value to the Dominion, taking into account, in case of purchase, 
the prospective loss in the adoption of the line in preference to the 
shorter and better route. 
The Commissioners recommended that the Dominion Government 
should offér to Kew Brunswick, to a8sume the Eastern Extension Rail- 
way, when satisfactorily completed, for the gross sum of SS94,OOO, the 
K ew Brunswick Government to settle with the contractors; and that 
the New Brunswick Government should be notified, that, if this offer 
was not accepted ,,,ithin sixty days, the Commissioners should be au- 
thorized to proceed with the construction of the direct route. 
A l\Iinute of Council was passed in accordance with this recommen- 
dation, and a notification of it sent to the Lieutenant Governor of New 
Brunswick. 
The contractors' agent, having received a copy of this decision from 
the Government of New Brunswick, appealed against it, on the ground 
that the sum offered for the completed railway was insufficient, and 
begged för a farther com;ideration. 
The X ew Brunswick Government do not appear to have objected to 
the Order in Council, but, in communicating the order to the contractors' 
agent, added, that "in any arrangement for the sum to be paid for 
" the road, it must be borne in mind, that the amount for which the 
"Province of New Brunswick is liable, as well as for subsidy as land 
"damages. under the construction contract, is to be deducted, in order 
" that the Province may be re-imbursed for any outlay respecting the 
" road." 


The question remained unsettled until the summer of 1869, when 
it was finally agreed that the railway from Painsec to the boundary of 
Nova Scotia should be transferred to the Dominion Government for 


· 12th March, 1869. 



106 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


the sum of $t;94,OOO divided into two portions :-$250,000, to be paid 
to the Province, to reimburse it for an outlay of $:372,.')00 in subsidies 
aad :;;27,300 in land damages; and >=;644,000, to be paid to the con- 
tractors. 
Thus the circuitous route by Dorchester was definitely adopteù for 
the Intercolonial Railway. 
There only remained to be determincd the line between the River 
:Miramiehi at the north and :Moncton at the south, to complete the 
whole location from Rivcr du Loup to Truro. 
The line projected by 1Iajor Robin,,;on in 1RH, crosserl the two 
branches of the 
Iiralllichi at Imliantuwn, some fourteen miles above 
the point which has been since selected, and then took a tolerably 
direct course toward Shediac, passing, far up from the sea, the waters 
of the Richilmcto and Ductouche. 
I n December, 18G8, a number of gentlemen interested in having the 
railwa} constructed nearer to Moncton, the" Beud" so frequently 
referred to as a point on the routes between Halifax and Quebec, mct, 
in compliance with a requisition, at )Ioncton, and passed sevcral Resulu- 
tions on the subject, which wcre immediately presented to the Railway 
Commissioners. 
The Chief Engineer was thereupon instructed to make the neces- 
sary surVC)'S of the country southerly from the River Miramichi. 
Three line:, were surveyed, one designated the -. Shure line," extend- 
ing from the point sele
ted for bridging the Ri,'er 
Iiramichi, by 
Chatham amI Hichibucto to Painsec Junction. 
1\. secOlHlline, designated" The )Iiddle line," extending from the 
Rivcr 1[iramichi more directly to Painsec .r unction than the Shore line, 
keeping at some distance from Chatham amI other towns on the Gulf 
Shore. 
A Third line, "The Interior line," proceeding directly to the 
nearest point on the existing Railway, west of ;\[oncton. 
A comparison of these several lines established. 1st. That the" Shore 
line," passed through the bcst settled section of the country; 2nd. That 



PlA TE No. 1 


&9 


6!> 


62 


--/' ':><... 


1 


GE
r:RAL MAP 
SHEWINC ROUTE OF THE 
INTERCOLONIAL RAILWAY 


\ 


'r 
\ 


Sandford Fleming.En
'in-Chief. 


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" L 



 


r} 
---- 



LOCATlOX A
D CO
STRrCTIOX. 


107 


"the :\Iiddle line" wa<; the most direct to Halifax, being one mile shorter 
than the" Interior line" and four miles shortertllan the" 
horeline;" 3rd. 
That the" Interior line" was the most direct to 
t. John, being three 
miles shorter than the .. )liddle line" and seventeen miles shorter than 
the" Shore line"; 4th. That the" Interior line" was the shortbt to con- 
struct. the length of railway to he built being six miles less than the 
.. )Iiddle line" and ten miles less than the" Shore line; ., and .jth. That 
the" Interior line" "ould be the cheapest to construct, an estimate of 
cost being 
1í 5,000 less than the <. 
liddle line" and SjOO,OOO less than 
the" Shore line." 
Taking all these facts into consideration the Commissioners report- 
ed in fa, our of the ,< Interior line" and the Government accordingly 
adopted it. 
The entire line having now been established, the work of construc- 
tion "as proceeded with, the Commissioners managing and controlling 
the e\.penditure until the .rear 1:-\j --1, "hen Parliament passed an Act 
OJ Yic. Cap. 1.j) vesting all the powers amI duties of the Conllnissioners 
in the ){ini::,ter of Public 'Works. 
At the time of the transfer to the department of Puhlic '\Yorks. the 
Intercolonial Uailway "as in a fOl'\\oard statc, the portion between 
':\{olll'Íon and Truro and between Ri\oi
re du Loup and Trois Pistoles, 
in all 153 miles, being open for traffic. Since then the "orks have 
been carried on, to their ple:"ent state of completion, directly under thp 
control of the Department. 



CHAPTER VII. 


THE ENGINEERING CHARACTER OF THE LINE. 


Principles of Construction-Climatic effects of frost and thaw on the works-Action on 
Road bed-Thorough drainage-Clearing the Line-
atural snow fences-Bridge
- 
When bridges should be used-Precautions in building bridges and culverts-Cuttings 
and their width-B,lUa.t-Iron and Steel Rails-Station buildings-Water supply- 
Principles of construction concurred in-The" Rail system," or Superstructure- 
Bessemer Steel Rails-Fish and Scabbard Joints-Cross-ties-Ballasting-The 
SuLs tructure-Cuttings and Embankments-Drainage-Precautions against frost-Em- 
bankments preferable to open bridges-Measurement of streams-Stal1l1arll designs 
-Box Culverts-Arch Culverts-Open Culverts-Pipe Culverts-Tunnel_Inclined 
Culverts-Bridges Rnd Viaducts-BrhJge superstructure. 
A marked feature of the Report of 1865, was the opinion ex- 
pres::;ed with regard to the structures and other works throughout 
the line, and the geueral eugineeriug features of the Railway, as a 
whole. 
The geographical positiou of the Railway, and the national cbar- 
aéter of the work, equally suggested substantial masonry and iron 
bridges; the estimates accordingly provided for structures of tbis class. 
The exigencies of climate were also held to be paramount, calling for a 
perfect system of drainage, and ballasting, to assure a good and du- 
rable road-bed. 
Tbe whole character of the Railway was fully considered, and the 
views expressed were sustained by snch argument as the necessities of 
the case suggested. Much which was then said may now be brought 
forward, as setting forth the principles, on which it was proposed that 
the Railway should be constructed. 
The climate of Canada has a marked effect on railway works. The 
frost is very severe; it penetrates the ground, where denuded of snow, 
to a depth of from three to four feet, occasionally even to a greater 
depth. 


lO
 



CH
\.RACTElt OF THE LI:NE. 


109 


On the slopes of cuttings and emhankments, the snow not unfre- 
qnently is drifted by the wind so as to leave such spots exposed. On 
the track itself the deep snow is removerl to admit the passage of trains. 
In all such places the frost penetrates the soil to some distance, and if, 
owing to the presence of springs, or other causes, water be retained, in- 
jurious effects will certainly be experienced from freezing, and the sub- 
sequent thaw. 
. 
Embankments, when newly formed, retain much of the rain of 
autumn. During the ensuing winter this moisture is converted into ice, 
and when the thaw of spring is felt, the material, to the extent the frost 
has penetrated, is frequently reduced to the consistency of paste. The 
material has then a tendency to slide and to produce results exactin
 
considerable outlay to restore the work to its original form. 
The first winter, with the ensuing spring thaws, is the most trying 
on new embankments. After the end of the third year, orrlinarily 
the ditIìculty disappears. It is different with cuttings. In wet soils, 
time alone will not give stability. Year after year, on the breaking 
up of winter, certain kinds of earth, impregnated with water, become 
semi-fluid; in this state they slide and fill up the ditches, sometimes 
flowing even over tl
e rails. In such cuttings, when proper precautions 
are not taken to carry off the superfluous water, such results are con- 
stantly experienced. 
The road-bed itself, even when well ballasted, is not free from dis- 
turbance, when the subsoil is permitted to retain water within the frost 
limit. The rails, consequently, are thrown out of level and alignment, 
producing an irregularity eq ually injurious to the rails and to the rolling 
stock. 'Wherever the track is in this condition, it is not practicalJle to 
maintain the speed of trains, with a due regard to safety. 
Such effects are not always confined to cuttings. They are witnes- 
sed even on level sections of country, and, in all CIL;;es, are attrihutahle 
to the presence of w,tter and the action of frost. There is but one rem- 
edy to meet this condition-thorough drainage. Good ditching to some 
extent obviates the difficulty, but this remedy is often imperfectly applied. 



110 


THE IKTEltCOLO::-<IAL. 


Any shallow ditch, on a descending grade, will carry the surface 
,\atpr to the extent of its O\Hl depth. But this partial result is ill- 
suffieient. The ditch must be taken below the line penetrated by the 
frost in the road-bed; otherwise thc road-bed will continue to besaturatcd 
hy moist ure, and penetrated by frost, with the effcct descrihed. The 
:-;uh:-;oil, therefore, must also be kept dry by under drains, carried be- 
low frost limit. "'herever this work is effectually done, the slopes of 
cuttings and the road-bed, in all circum::;tances, will be kept dry and 
solid. 
The clearing of the line also requires attention. In forest land the 
extcnt cleared ::;hould 1)(' of sufficient width to remove all chance of the 
ohstruction of trains, from trees falling across the track, and to reduce the 
risk of injury from extensive bush fires. The latter contingency is not 
improhable, especially in the 1Iaritime P!'ovinces where resinous forests 
prevail. In such cases the flame becomes unmanageable from its mag- 
nitude, and, rolling across the track unchecked, it destroys everything 
combustible in its way, and at times impedes traffic. 
The space thus cleared will, in a few years, admit of the growth 
of a belt of evergreens, to act in winter as a natural snow fence. 
Should the adjoining lands be cleared of their timber, a snow fence 
becomes a necessity, and a thick belt of brush would prove extremely 
effecti ve for that purpose. 
1\0 portion of railway work is more important than its bridges 
"ïJCn a line is carried out by private effort, a circumscribed capital 
may compel the adoption of cheap structures. In such cases it is not 
the character of the structure, or its economy, which commends itself; 
but it is the necessity of the case, which limits its cost. 
A railway constructed to meet a national requirement, and situated 
like thc Intercolonial, is controlled by no such limitation. It requires 
no argumcnt to establish that in such circumstance::; all structures 
should he of thc best form suggested by experience, and that the most 
durablc material ::;hould bc used. They are then permam;ntly built, 
and require no subsequent renewal. The first expense is the one cost 



CTIARACTER OF THE LIXE. 


111 


and in the cnd, the durable "tructure is by far the least co
tl:r. 
The"e principles clearly establish what the bridges on the Inter- 
colonial line ,.;hould be, structures marked by no unnecessary expense, 
suhstantial, massive and permanent. 
Some general rules were laid down to determine the mode in 
whieh the large streams and the minorri,'ers should be crossed. "'her- 
ever practicahle. an arch culvert for the waterway was introrluced 
\\ ith superincumhent embankment. Only in cases where the height 
of the roadway, above the stream, "ould not admit an arch, was it 
considered e
pedient to employ an open structure, and in all open- 
ings. except when capable of heing spanued by beams of timber, it was 
designed that" rought iron ginlen; should he used. 
The si7es of the hridges and culverts were not rcduced to the nar- 
rowest limits. It was held of importance, not only to make full pro- 
vision for the pa...sage of flood-water, but to keep in view the increased 
freshet discharge. to be looked for at a future period when the cultiva- 
tion of the land and the removal of th
 forest would cause more 
rapid surface drainage. 
::\lainly to facilitate the removal of snow from the track, it was de- 
signed that thc rails should he raised more than ordinarily above the 
level of the adjoining surfacc, and that the cuttings should han suffi- 
cient width to admit of the snow being cast aside by snow-ploughs. The 
quantities of e-..:cavation suhmitted were computed on the basis that the 
cuttings should hav'e generally a width of 30 feet at formation level, 
with side slopes of one and one-half to one. That average width to be 
varied in different localities in proportion to the record of snow-fall. 
Ballast is an important element in a railway. 1Iuch of the dura- 
bility of the rails. and. indeed, of the rolling stock, depends upon it. 
The raih\ ays which do the mo<;t husine"s with the least outlay are, a., 
a rule, found to be the hest halla.;te(l; and the employment of the be"t 
ballast ohtainahle, evcn at "omcwhat hi6'h co<;t, was recamnwnded as 
true economv. 
At the time when thc report of 186.) was made, steel rails were but 



112 


THE I:NTERCOLONIAL. 


little known, and it was then contemplated to use iron rails, weighing, 
with the joiut fastenings, 70 Ibs, per lineal yard. It was pointed out 
that the iron should be the best mauufactured. There is no economy 
in purchasing low-priced, inferior iron. The charges of shipping, trans- 
porting, handling, laying track, and other expenditure, are the same, 
whatever be the quality of the iron. This point was satisfactorily met, 
as steel rails were substituted for iron throughout the whole line. 
,Vith the exception of the few localities where towns called for 
extended accommodation, it was held that there was no necessity for 
much expenditure on station buildings: and it was held to be wholly 
unnecessary to spend money through the wilderness portions of the line 
on costly buildings. 
The water supply for the engines always exacts consideration, and 
attention must be directed to provide a frost-proof water service; with- 
out it a railway cannot be satisfactorily worked. 
A sufficient number of permanent establishments, consisting of 
engine stables and work-shops, with suitable machinery, for, the accom- 
modation and repair of rolling stock, were recommended to be placed 
at central and convenient points, judiciously selected. 
The principles laid down received general assent, and it was 
recognized that a work of such national importance should be of a high 
8tand
tl'd. 
The report and the estimates were submitted to the Imperial and 
Provinci
tl Governments, and in the negotiations which followed, these 
documents, with others of the same import, prepared in Lo
ùon by the 
Chief Engineer in 1868, formed, in part, the basis of the arrangements 
by which the Imperial guarantee was given. 
On the consolidation of the Dominion in 1867, the location was 
proceeded with, and it became the duty of the Chief Engineer to pre- 
pare designs for the work, and to determine how the accepted prin- 
ciples of construction could be best applied. 
It is not necessary to enter into the details of the explorations and 
surveys, and of the preparation of the working plans, and of the con- 



CHARACTER OF THE LINE. 


113 


duct of the work for the years it has been in progress; but a descrip 
tion of the railway as it has been carried out, is indispensable to show 
what its engineering character really is. 
It is claimed that unfavorable climatic influences have been guarded 
against; that the structures are thorough and permanent; and that 
with regard to the permanent way, when drainage and ballasting are com- 
pleted as designed, the railway may be classed as second to no work 
of its kind either on this Continent or in Europe. 
A railway of a high standard is in fact a simple problem. It does 
not eÀact magnificence of design, or works which astonish by their dis- 
play or cost. Architectural monuments have no place on public works 
like the one in question, and many well known structures can be re- 
garded only as mementos of useless expenditure. 
As a theory, the perfect railway consists of two parallel lines of 
continuous rails, uniformly sustained by a firm and slightly elastic sup- 
port. Bridges and culverts are incidents naturally to be looked for, 
but never to be introduced, except where absolutely exacted. It is 
the dnty of the Engine
r to design and establish them as cheaply as 
he can, having regard to permanency, and not to convert them into 
opportunities for display. Taste may even be consulted without any 
expenditure beyond that required to secure solidity, and the skill of 
the designer should aim at the attainment of effect with the least extent 
of adorned material, and strive after the grace of outline to be found 
in extreme simplicity. 
In the Intercolonial Railway it was held better to aim at the reali- 
zation of this principle, than to advocate the introduction of structures 
remarkable for their magnitude and ornament, however gratifying to 
the personal pride of the designer. . 
The Railway proper may indeed be narrowed to two essential 
parts. 
1. The" rail-system," which may be called "the superstructure." 
including rails, cross-ties or sleepers, ballast, and everything placed 
above the permanently firm surface, known as formatioq level. 



114 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


2. The "sub-structure," which includes all worKJ:! .r
qUlred to bring 
the road bed up to "formation level," on which the' rail system is 
superimposed. 


THE SUPERSTRUCTURE. 


The Intercolonial Railway has been laid throughout its length 
with Bessemer steel rails, weighing 57 ribs. to the yard. This weight 
is nmtrly 20 per cent. lighter than the iron rails originally proposed, 
but owing to the character of the material, the steel rails are in reality 
stronger and much more durable. 
It has been said that to be perfect, a rail tra.ck should be continu- 
ous, but such a result is not practicable. Rails are manufactured in 
bars, generally not exceeding 30 feet in length, laid end to end and the 
continuity is broken where the joints occur. 



 


lQI 


These frequent joints con- 
stitute one of the defects to be 
guarded against. On the In- 
tercolonial Railway. two ex- 
pedients have been adopted, to 
overcome it; one the- ordinary 
fish-joint, :Figs. 1 and 2; the 
other what is known aR the 
Bcabb
trd joint. The former is 
a. well-known contrivance for 


====> 


@ 


::::
 

 


Fig, L 



 


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.


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--
 

- - ;f---
-
-
-! 

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-
Z
r


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.... 
-----", >!I:":", 
I. 

 

-
- 
 - 


..... 



 
. 

 


- 


FIg. I. 



CHARACTER OF THE LL"IE. 


115 


keeping the ends uniform in line and level. The fish-plates lie between 
the flange and head of the rail, and are only 2! inches deep. As they 
have to endure the strain of passing trains, the rigidity of the joint 
is inferior to that of the rail, the latter having a larger sectional area 
and a depth of U inches. The ordinary fish-plates do not, therefore, 
give perfectly unyielding joints. 



 __ -- - -- - -==:=11
 
= 

 
--==-
[-] 0 

 
 . __I_
 

 
 
'. 
 
 
{. ..,,' /"'-i=j?-
J': .

. 
!,L 
 '.::rf It ;I/ a
j 
i:! ) \\ 
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 . ,rj";: '. .,,- " 
I . t \ x:,

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t
) 
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.......\\., '\-.'). ,
',I 
ø' ." 

: ,' 

 
;- /' ./'
 


.0 


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- -\
 


. :::
-->-. .. 
.. / i.....t;:-;,: -:.. '\. " 
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. '...:.....'tr J 'h,. ,'/." ' \ 
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 > ""-;-" . I ." 
. I I . I \" '- I.,. I . 
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 : ,:

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.. 
\ 4 ,:.:-::-y , / ' , 
'\
"'< tJ: 1 _/- 1,//(1/ 


I'i<<.s. 


Jl The scabbard-joint, 
, Figs. 3. aud 4, ;g mo,:" 
.. _ 
 ngId. masmuch as It 

 -;:;'4.,=t

' h,::-

t=.:::3= 
_ =_
, 
akes a steel, beam, 3
 


 ---=t='.c --==---- : -: ;:;- - 
 
 ' -
 ll1ches deep, mstead of 
< 
 j ..::=-==-::;:
"= i :::=--
...;;
 } 
/,

-


---'__ 
;; ==- _

 :'!, h
ts a greater mass 

...,...;;;;
>- .
 ,- '--r;- ' 

';) 

 
-
- --'-.. 
 - 

_E-":' of metal, better distrib- 
- - ----- 
_ ë-.- --, -=-- --=- 
 
 
 _ uted; and IS more 
-
 
-- 
,--=- ""J simple, having fewer 
Fig, f. 
parts. The scabbard when properly made of good steel, is undoubtedly 
the best splice known for rails, and severe tests go to prove that, of all 
fastenings, it makes a joint approaching the most nearly in strength 
that of the mid-section of raiL In effect, it renders the rails composing 
tbe track. approximately continuous. 
The rails are spiked to cross-ties or sleepers, 6 in. thick by R in. on 
the facE', laid on an average 2 feet 6 ill. from centre to centre. They 
are invariably of the best description of timber procurable in the dis- 


... - - 



116 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


tricts traversed, and generally consist of Black Spruce, Prince's pine, 
Tamarac and Cedar. 
A substance, not too rigid, is needed to furnish a bed for the cross. 
ties: this is designated ballast. It lies as a cushion on the road-bed, 
and gives to the rail system a slight and uniform elasticity. The 
quality of the material for ballast is important. Gravel, the material 
generally employed. if mixed with clay or light loamy sand that will 
hold water, is unsuitable and should not be used. A coating of such 
unsuitable material is even injurious, as it simply elevates the road-bed, 
and has the effect of narrowing the space for proper ballast. The em- 
bankments are 18 feet wide at formation level. If a coating 12 in. 
thick be added, the side. slopes being 1! to 1, the width of the hal- 
last bed is reduced to 15 feet, and it thus becomes necessary to 
wid
n the embankment when proper ballast is laid down. The use 
of improper ballast, results in the premature destI
uction of rails and 
rolling stock, while the longer life attainable by both on a well bal- 
lasted line, establishes the necessity for the use of material of the best 
quality. 


THE SUB-STRUCTURE. 


Everything which goes to form the foundation for the rail-system 
may be called the substructure. 
When a level tract of country is not intercepted by streams, no 
necesflity presents itself for openings through or across the railway. 
'Ye then have the most favorable conditions for construction, and it is 
neces:mry only to form a light embankment, two or three feet in height, 
brought up a trifle above the ordinary level of the snow. the materia.l 
bemg taken from two parallel Hide ditches, Fig. 5. 


r.------ ...._.1.
--. - .n___
 
_._'1DI_---",,: 
. i

 !i : 
- ------:'"I'-_.._------------- 

-
 
-.:..' -
 ; . 

i 

 


,,

 



 


}'ia:. s. 



CHARACTER OF THE LINE. 


117 


It is rarely that conditions so favorable are met. On the Inter- 
colonial Railway they are the exception. Although in limited locali- 
ties the line traverses ground approximately flat, the natural drainage 
of the country and provision for freshet discharge, generally rendered 
openings through the railway indispensable, even in these localities. 
The railway passes over several ranges of elevated water-sheds 
and numerous subsidiary ridges, separating the river systems which it 
crosses. In traversing a long extent of country with a surface so 
diversified, cuttings and embankments of all depths and heights are 
unavoidable; and nearly every variety of soil and rock is to be met. 
'\Vhere embankments are necessary, they ha\"e generally been formed of 
a uniform width of 18 feet at formation level, with slopes generally of 
1! to 1. In some cases the natural slope which the material has taken 
is not in accordance with this proportion. The maximum height of 
embankment on the whole line is 110 feet. 
The original intention was to form cuttings of more than the 
usual width, for the purpose of securing ample drainage, and to afford 


-- -----
---------------------------- 


--------- 


Fi&, 6- 
EXC.AX.A.TIO'i Uf ROCK, 



118 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


facility for keeping the track clear of snow. ,Vith a view to avoid 
expense, this proposition was not entertained; and genprally the width 
is but 22 feet at formation level. There are exceptions, however, 
where the width is greater. The side slopes in rock are 0.25 horizon- 
tal to 1 perpendicular,asin Fig. 6; in ordinary earth 1! horizontal to 1 
perpendicular; but in some wet clay cuttings, slopes of 2 to 1 were 
found necessary. 
It has been stated 
that the frost penetrates 
the ground to a great 
depth, and as a conse- 
quence wherever the soil 
is at all wet, the thaw -- --=-- :... 
 = 
disturbs the road-bed 
and injuriously affects 
the earthworks. Special 
care was consequently 
directed to drainage. Fig. __ 
7, illustrates the plan Fig,7. 
adopted in the formation of underdrains: they are placed, as a 
rule, immediately at the foot of slopes; formed with drain pipes and 
the trenches filled with ballast to within a foot of the surface. In 
rock cuttings, provision was made for carrying off the water by shallow 
trenches on both sides, as shown in figure 6, so as to keep the track 
perfectly dry. 
Fig. 8 is a cross section of the ordinary cutting, 22 feet wide at 
formation level. It shows the underdrains below the f
ost limit, so 
that water to a depth of at least four feet will be carried off, and the 
road-bed kept dry and free from the effects of frost. "Then such cut- 
tings are subjected to the effects of the maximnm snow-faU, as is indi- 
cated on the diagram, the operation of the rail way becomes difficult. 
A large expenditure, either in removing the snow, or in roofing the 
cuttings, may be lookpd for. 
- - 


df 


:... 



 %
-r- 



CHARACTER OF THE LINE 


119 


. 
't ... 


, ..----..'..--- ..' 
'-_..ø-' 
 ......___...... 


':1"- 
F1<<8. 
It is to be regretted that the cuttings were not formed on the 
principle shown by Fig. 9. The deep side ditches would have f111fìllt-ul 


'........---- 



 


F1<<. 8, 
the duty of underdrains in keeping the road-bed dry and free from 
disturbance by frost, and at the same time would have afforded space 
to receive the snow thrown off by the snow plough. The increased 
width would have enhanced the cost to a less extent than was 
assumed by the opponents of the principle, as the extra width in many 
cases would have provided material for embankments, where, the nar- 
rower cuttings being insufficient, borrowing pits had to be resorted to. 
It is also estimated that cuttings of the larger form referred to, would 
have entailed less additional cost than the erection of snow sheds. 
Besides, wide cuttings are preferable; as in themselves the snow sheds 
being perishable, and from time to time requiring renewal, are always 
exposed to destruction by fire. 



120 


THE INTERCOWNIAL. 


Structures for the passage of water, whether of rivers or less im- 
portant streams, should never be lightly considered. One of the 
leading principles observed, was to create as few bridge openings as 
possible. 'Vhenever practicable to pass a stream through a covered 
passage in the continuous embankment, that system was followed. The 
same principle governed in carrying the line across valleys. It was 
held that no viaducts should be introduced; that as an engineering 
question, an earthern embankment is preferable. A calculation of the 
comparative cost, proved that of the two, under ordinary circumstances, 
where the height does not exceed 80 feet, the embankment is the 
cheaper, and that in Borne exceptional cases, embankments of a greater 
height may be with economy employed. 
Open bridges were, therefore, strictly confined. with a single ex- 
ception,. to the large river crossings. 
So little was known, at this period, of the country through which 
the Intercolonial Railway now runs, that it was difficult to establish in 
each case the requirements of waterway and the other conditions to be 
observed. In settlements, information of some kind may be obtained, 
but the country to be traversed was for a great extent a wilderness, and 
few data of any kind were known concerning it. 
In each case reliable information had to be gathered in order that 
the size and character of structure might be determined. A structure 
conceived on a scale unnecessarily large calls for a useless expenditure 
of money. If too cramped in size, annually during floods it will be ex- 
posed to the risk of being carried away. Ultimate destruction is gen- 
erally its fate, and when this contingency arises, even if no loss of life 
results, the money expended in reconstruction may be held as so much 
dead loss. Any miscalculation with regard to the size or character ot 
a structure generally results in uncalled-for expense, and it is thcrefore 
necessary clearly to determine what the true requirements in each ca:>e 
are. 


Assistants were accordingly detailed to measure the streams during 


-Folly River Viaduct. 



CHARACTER OF THE LINE. 


121 


the periods of maximum discharge; 10 ascertain the sectional area, 
velocity and volume, when the freshets from the melted snows were at 
their height. This information was tested by repeated observations; 
and the number and sectional area of all openings for the passage of 
water was determined in accordance with it. To the sectional area 
thus ascertained was added a marginal allowance for floods of more than 
ordinary occurrence. 
The precise character of each individual work next became the sub- 
ject of considtration. 
It wal:> deemed advisable to reduce the plans to a limited number of 
classes; to adopt designs of the simplest type; and to prepare standard 
working drawings, which would suit ordinary cases, and which could 
readily be adapted to any peculiar necessity. They were as follows:- 
1. Box culverts. 
2. Arch culverts. 
3. Open culverts. 
4. Pipe culverts. 
5. Tunnels. 
6. Inclined culverts. 
7. Bridges and viaducts. 
:Many of the structures embraced in this classification aTe remark- 
able only for their number. N everthelel:>s the description of the rail- 
way would he incomplete, without mention of them. 


1. Box CULVERTS. 


These culverts were designed to carry off runs of water, or for 
places where an outlet for surface drainage across the line was necessary. 
They ranged from two feet to six feet in width, and from two feet 
to nine .feet in height, but the prevailing size was two feet or two feet 
six inches in width by four feet high. Fig. 10 is a cross section of the 



1 .)" 
...... 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


commonly occurring size. It was deemed advisable 
to adopt four feet as the standard height for the 
smaller culverts, so that a man could pass through to 
repair or clean them out. 
Few culverts have been constructed of less 
height than four feet, although occasionally where 
was low, culverts two feet six inches square have been 


the road-bed 
introdu ced. 
As some quarries furnished large flat stones, adapted for this char- 
acter of work, and other quarries supplied material better fitted for the 
arch, it was an object to accommodate the designs to such circum- 
stances 
Box Culverts, of various sizes ranging up to six feet in width 
by nine feet in height, were used when it was advantageous to 
do so. Figs. 11 and 
12 are cross sections 
of medium sized box 
culverts, the water- 
way of the one three 
feet wide, by four feet 
six inches high. that 
Figs. 13 and 14 indicate 


Fig.lO, 


Flg.ll. 


Fîg.12. 


of the other four feet wide by six feet high. 


", 



' 



"'
 




 

 
the proportions of the largest sizes built, the water-way of the one being 
five feet by seven feet six inches, and the clear opening of the other 



CHARACTER OF THE LINE. 


123 


being six feet wide by nine feet high. These sections show the manner 
in which structures of this class, over three feet in width, had their 
walls corbelled, in order to carry the massive covering stones l'equired. 
These large box culverts were introduced only when the material 
available was unusu- r: _ 
1 

'!1'\J \ 
ally strong and mass- 
.. .... 'P. .,... 
iii 
i ve. The ends of all' '''\t\l"l''
'' ( 
cuI verts of this class .-..; (It' 
were of a simple de- 
sign, as in Fig. 15; 
they were usually ------------ 
placed square to the -------------------------------------- 
body of the work. 
wi,th deep apron walls Fia. u. 
to prevent any undermining by the stream or upheaval by frost. 


2. ARCH CULVERTS. 
The arch culvert was designed for streams requiring a clear width 
of water-way from 4 feet to 20 feet and upwards; and when the em- 
bankment through which they passed was of sufficient height to admit 
the turning of the arch. 


--- ---_:_---

 -- -- .!_--- - - 
=

:
}
:
 


Fiji. 16. 


'Vith Bome modifications 
to suit local circumstances, 
they were all made after one 
type. The lower, or down- 
stream end, is shown by Figs. 
16 and 17; the former being 
an elevation and the latter a 
longitudinal section. The up- 
stream end is formed with 
cross wall to obviate the possi- 
bility of the current finding a 
passage behind the masonry. 



124 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


Fig. 17. 
Fig. 18 represents an elevation of the up-stream end of this cul- 
vert, and Fig. 19 is a longitudinal section. The parapet walls, indeed 
exposed walls in all structures, were directed to be backed with a quan- 


F1&' 18. 



CHARACTER OF THE LINE. 


12.) 


tity of sma}] rip-rap or broken stone, as indicated III Fig. 17 and 19, to 
prevent injury from frost. Particular attention was paid to the foun- 


Fig. II, 


dations; in all cases where the natural sub-stratum seemed at all doubt- 
ful, artificial foundations were obtained by piles, concrete and other 
means. 
Drawings were prepared for ten different sizes, with arches from 
4 to 20 feet diameter, oross-seotions of which are shown by Fig. 20. 
Every horizontal and vertical dimension was proportioned to the size 
of the arch. The length only varied aCGord-ing to the height of the 
superinoumbent embankment. And to prevent mistakes in setting out 
the work in the field, tables of lengths above and below the centre line 
were prepared, by which culverts of any size, in any embankment on 
the line, could be laid off with accuracy. 
Only at one point has an arch of more than 20 feet been introduced; 
and special drawings were then prepared. In Fig. 20 are represented 



126 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


cross sections, of the various arch culverts up to 20 feet span, which. 
have been built on the line. 


,_J;_i_

__ ----of-- _ j -Ef!,..
Ln#, ____________ 


I'll- So 


3. OPEN CULVERTS. 


As already mentioned, a decided preference was given to covered 
structures for the pass:tge of streams; and they were adopted whenever 
practicable. There were cases, however, when, owing to the width of 
streams, or insufficient height of embankment, a covered passage could 
not be obtained. In all such ca!'es the streams had to be spanned by 
open structures, which were formed of beams or girders placed on walls 
of masonry. Open structures above 20 feet span were termed bridges; 
when of less than 20 feet span, they were accounted open or beam cuL 
verts. Fig. 21 is a type of the open culvert. It consists essentially of 



CHARACTER OF THE LINE. 


127 


two masonry abutments, proportioned to the height of the embankment, 
sufficiently far apart to allow a passage for the stream, and on which 


'.' 


1'1 I 


, 

 - 
..----......aD; D -------- 
I 
I 
I 
I 
: 
, 


-_-.;:-
 -.-.a:=,_ "_. 


Fi8. Ii. 
rests the rail system, supported on beams stretching from abutment to 
abutment. In open culverts of small span the beams are !;ingle under 
each rail; in the larger spans they are double and set side by side. 
The great majority of structures of this class do not exceed 10 feet 
span and are invariably in shallow embankments. For reasons given, 
the introduction of the large size was studiously avoided; the number 
on the line is consequently limited. The figure shows an open culvert 
of 20 feet span, in an embankment 20 feet high; this is the largest !;ize. 
In cases where the embankment exceeded 20 feet in height, and the 
stream required the width, arches of 20 feet span were substituted. 
4. PIPE CULVERTS. 


In localities where building material could not be obtained without 
difficulty, it was found advantageous to employ cast iron pipes or cylin- 
ders. These pipes were of cast iron three feet in diameter, with spigot 
and faucet joints. Culverts of this class were advantageom;ly intro- 
duced on sections of the line near tide-\\ ater, where the iron cylinders 
could be brought by sea-going vessel!;. They were quickly and econo- 
mically made, the two ends were encased in masonry; the body of the 
culvert consisted of a sufficient number of iron pipes to reach across the 
embankment, the castings being of different lengths. The pipes were 



128 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


bedded and completely enca8ed, to a minimum thickness of nine inch
, 
in hydraulic cement concrete. 
There can be no question with regard to the durability of this class 
of structure. The chemical affinity between cement and iron is such, 
that the concrete becomes as hard as stone and will alone be sufficient 
to resist the pressure of the embankment and all wear and tear, even 
should the iron lining be removed by oxidation: a contingency not to 
be looked for, except after a long interval of time. Pipe culverts were 
introduced in all situations, but they were found more especially use- 
ful in side-hill ground, where structures of the 6th class were called 
for. Fig. 22 illustrates the lower portion of a pipe culvert on side-hill. 


g
-- 


Fig. 22. 


5. TUNNELS. 


'Vhere streams crossed the railway in deep rocky ravines, it was 
frequently found preferable, as a matter of convenience and economy 
instead of spanning the ravine by a bridge or constructing a culvert, to 
pierce one side of the ravine by a tunnel. through which the stream 
could be diverted, and to form a solid embankment across the channel 



CHARAcrER Ol<' TIlE LI
E. 


1 .")('. 
_" 


of the stream itself. This expeùient \Va" aùopteù, not only in ùeep 
ravines, but in other localities. Figs. 23 and 
 1 show a section and plan 


Fig.l!3. 
of a tunnel, which was formed at one point on the line under an em- 
bankment exceeding 100 feet in height. The whole work, including 


./'-<" 


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J?
 

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W 
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l-ig. :!-I. 


the embankment, was completed at less cost than a bridge, or even a 
culvert with the superincumbent pmb.wkmcnt. The one conrlition 
necessary, was the presence of rock of sufficient solidity and dura- 
bility. They have been used in cases \\ here the rock was of a nature 
requiring to he lined with masonry; a8 in the pcrishaLle 
alldstones, 
along some parts of the Bay of Fundy. In all cases they brought into 
playa cheap description of labour in thcir construction, and allowed the 
formation of the roadway to be proceedcd with, much 800ncr than 

 



130 


THE INTERCOLOXIAL. 


would have been possible, had structures of masonry been carried 
out. 
On side-hill ground, such as occurred in passing over the Cobequid 
mountains in Nova Scotia, small tumlels were frequently introduced, 
they are shown in Fig. 25. 


FIg. 15. 


6. INCLINED CULVERTS. 


The designs for structures of the 1st and 2d class were applicable 
where streams flowed in channels with little fall; but 011 side hills, where 
the streams often become swollen torrenh;, it was nece::,sary to adopt 
means to prevent the possibility of destruction of the structure. 
Ordinary culverts were employed in all ca.ses where the fall of the 
stream did not exceed, on an average, one foot in twenty. "Tith stre,tm" 
of a greater fall, the structures employed, came under the designation 
.. Inclined Culverts," and in all such cases special designs were pre- 
pared. Inclined culverts were built of both Box and Arch work: 
Fig. 26 shows the mode adopted for arches. 
In both cases the walls were regularly 8tcpped, to insure stahility: 



CHARACTER OF THE LI
E. 


1.31 


and precautions were taken to prevent the water of the stream from 
finding a way underneath the paving or below the walls. 



.... 


The line of paving was placed considerably lower than the natural 
bed of the stream; the whole mai:;onry was laid in cement; and the 
walli:; at the upper end were built in such a way as to be impervious to 
water. 
To increase the security of the work, a concrete wall was formed 
underneath and around the hodyof the culvert, midway betwecn the 
two ends; and thi::; wall "as made 1>erfectly watcr-tight, acro,:;::; the 
ravine in which the culvert was huilt. The footings of walb were full 
bedded in cement, and the spaccs underneath the paving and around 
the walls were filled with concrete. The paving wa::; all laid in 
cement. 



lS2 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


Other precautions were taken to render the work secure. In cases 
where the walls could not he founded on rock, the lower ends Imd a 
deep set apron wall, with wing walls and a secondary front wall also 
deep set. Above and around the ,vhole, loose stone filling," rip-rap," 
was placed, to deRden the effects of the 8tream rushing rapidly down the 
smooth surface of the culvert. These and other precautions were 
adopted as the circumstances of each individual case seemed to dictate, 
in order to secure permanence in the work. Fig. 26, represents a longi- 
tudinal section of the up-stream portion of a culvert of this class. 
Here the wing walls are square to the body of the structure: but at the 
down-stream end, the arrangement shown on Fig. 22 "as generally car- 
ried out, with such modifications as each case necessitated. 
It has already been stated that iron pipe8 were used for inclined 
culverts, but they were only introduced to carry off streams l'equiring 
lesb than tlll'ee feet water-way. The pipes were cast in short length8, 
those for the lower part of the culvert having radiant ends, so that, 
when set in place, they would lie in a curve as in Fig. 22. By this 
means the water descending through the culvert with great velocity, 
would be changed in its direction and discharged horizontally, thus 
reducing the tendency to undermine the lower end of the structure. 


7. BRIDGES A
D VIADUCTS. 


This class includes all structures with clear openings exceeding 20 
feet. On the Intercolonial Railway, the spans range from 24 feet, 
the minimum, to 200 feet, the maximum. 
It has already been stated that a viaduct is not, under ordinary 
circumstances, an economical or desirahle structure; alllI that it should 
only be introduced where a river of considerable width has to be cross- 
ed. 
\ccordingly Bridges have been avoided in all cases, where a solid 
earthen embankment could be formed. The one exception, at the River 
Folly in :Nova Scotia, has already been mentioned. 
The number and length of spans, and, to some extent, the form of 
the superstructure of a bridge, depend on the width of the river at 



CHARACTER OF THE LIXE. 


133 


flood, the character of the river bed, the formation and movement of 
ice, and the quantity of drift timber which may be looked for. It was 
not found necessary in any case to have wider openings between the 
piers than 200 feet, and although in many instances seyeral openings 
occur in the same structure, it was only considered expedient to adopt 
spans so great in three bridges. 'Vherever the cost of founding piers 
was not excessive, spans not exceeding 100 feet were used; and in 
every instance where the character of the river would admit with safety 
the employment of spans shorter than 100 feet, they were adopted. 
In laying down general principles by which the construction of 
the whole of tIte structures on the line was to be governed, engineering 
requirements were primarily regarded; but economy in expenditure 
was by no means lm;t sight of. It was felt that while the abutments 
and piers should be designed to efficiently re
i;;t the peculiar climatic 
forces to which they would be exposed. it was equally important to 
accomplish the desired object at a minimum cost. A saving of expen- 
diture at one point, or on a single structure, might be a matter of no 
great consequence, but when multiplied by the number of cases which 
occur on such a length of line. the importance of a well-considered 
system becomes apparent. 
The question is governed by several considerations, the most im- 
portant of which is the difference between skilled and unskilled labour, 
The Engineer determined that iron should be used instead of wood in 
the spans of bridges. on account of its durability, hut he also consid- 
ered that there should be as few bridges as possible, for reasons already 
suhmitte,l; and from the consideration that the iron work had to be 
imported; and. being the product of skilled labour, mure costly than 
ordinary earth or stone work executed in the locality. Again. as ma!>on- 
ry, is likewise the product of skilled labour and costs for a given quan- 
tity. fifty times as much as earthwork, it should in consequence be 
useil :"paringly. in fact never introduced where the latter can be sub- 
stituted: moreover, it was held that none but the best masonry should 
be admitted and that a limited quantity of good masonry could in 



134 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


most cases be employed more adv&ntageously than a larger quan- 
tity of inferior masonry; that the difference in cost between equal 
quantities of both kinds was limited. and no way in comparison to 
the greater degree of stability and permanency attained by the use of 
masonry of the first quality. 
In designing the Piers, their expusure to ice and drift-wood rendered 
it necessary to make them massive and of a form which would enable 
them to resist any shock. It would be no economy to make them 
otherwise. But in the form of the abntments, it was found that 
strength, durability, amI the principlm; of economy referred to, could be 
COllsulted at one and the same time. 
The plan of abutment adopted, consisted simply of a hollow tower 


" 


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" $..' 
" x -" 
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FI&.IIII. 



CHARACTER OF THE LINE. 


135 


of no greater width than was required for the support of the super- 
structure, and built perpendicularly on the four sides. The sections 
Figs. 27 and 2
 give the form of tower as it has been built; in some 
ca:,es with two rectangular cells as in Figs. 27 and 
D; in others, the 
void was made circular a8 in Figs. 28 and 30; and in both cases the 
voids were corbelled or arched at the top to support the ballast and 
rail system. 


w;'
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Fig, a), 


Fig, 29. 


A comparison between the cost of this form of abutment and the 
plan cOll1monl
r carried into eÀecution on Railways previously con- 
structed, may be advantageously made. 
Abutments have usually been built with wings, necessarily heavy, 
in order to resist the pressure of the embankments. 
Taking four different designs carried into execution on the Grand 
Trunk Railway, with the formation level GO feet high, the quantity of 
masonry in each abutment is a8 follows;- 


Design No. 1 3230 Cubic Yards. 
" 2 2060 " 
" 3 2260 " 
" 4 2310 " 


Giving an average of 2465 cubic yards for each abutment. 
As the difference i8 alm08t wholly in the form of abutment, it is 



136 


THE INTERCOLONIÅL. 


not necessary to take into the calculation the intermediate piers, 
when a comparison of cost is made. 
The two estimates of cost stand thus :- 
(1) In the Intercolonial Railway system:- 
2180 cubic yards of masonry in the pair of 
land piers and towers - - - - - - - - - - - at $13 - - $
8,340 
2 sixty fept iron girders erected - - - - - $ 3,834 
Less 12000 cubic yards of em- 
bankment, saved - - - at 30 cents - - - - - - 3,600 234 


$28,574 


(2) In the Winged Abutment system:- 
4930 cubic yards of masonry - - - - - - at $13 - - - - 64,090 


Difference in favour of the new system 
:15,516 
It will thus be apparent that the saving effected is large; it 
amounts indeed to fully fifty per cent. of the cost of both abutments 
con:-;tructed on the old plan. The estimate indicates the saving in one 
hridge only. 
But economy in first cost is not the only or main advantage. It is 
well known that winged abutments, even if built sufficiently massive 
to resist the thrust of emhankment. are frequently injured and ulti- 
mately dc:-;troyed through another agency. If the emhankment be 
formed of any material that will hold moisture, the low temperature of 
'winter is certain to act injuriously upon it. The moist clay or earth 
behind the masonry becomes frozen solid, and in obedience to the 
expansive powers of frost, produces an irresistible thrust on the ma- 
sonry, which, whatever its strengih, will eventually become fractured 
and displaced. 
This destructive agent, acting year after year, will sooner or later 
render reconstruction a necessity. 
This effect can never take place with the bridge abutments of the 
Intercolonial Railway. It is impossible for the hollow towers, placed 



CHARACTER OF THE LINE. 


l:H 


in the hearts of the embaukments to he reut asunder, or in any way in- 
Jured, either by the thrust of the earth or by frost. The pressure is at 
all times external, and beiug nearly uniform from all sides, no destruc- 
tive effects can result. 
It is not claimed that there is anything remarkable or novel in the 
peculiar kiIHl of ahutmellt descriùed; but it is heM that the princi- 
ple::; of constructiou observed show a due regard to economy as well 
as to engineering requirements and climatic condifons. 
Fig. 31 represents an abutment of moderate height before its 


.. 
-:-
--- 


-_-:- 


..::......--=-- 


- 
- - 
-- 


- -:-
 


-- -- 
---- - 
=-
- 
- - - 


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L f - r l 'lo.
 
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Fig. 31, 


connection with the embankment. It also shows a common form of 
pier adopted in cases where the structure is opposed to running i()e. 
The supprstructnre of three of the bridges viz. :-at River dl1 Loup, 
Is'e Verte and l\[issiguash are of wood. These were erected, under 
the protest of the chief engineer, by direction of the Commissioners 



138 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


before theIr policy on this question was reversed. All the other 
bridges on the line have iron superstructures; three of the latter viz:- 
the Restigouche and the two 1\Iiramichi bridges, are" pin connection" 
trusses, constructed by a Philadelphia firm, :\Iessrs. Clarke, Reeves & 
Co. All the others are "plate" or "lattice" girders erected in place 
by an English firm, The Fairbairn Engineering Company. 



CHAPTER VIII. 


THE ST. LAWRENCE DISTRICT. 


General Features of the Line-Greatest Altitude-Geographical Divisions-The Four 
Districts-The Engineering Staff-The St, Lawrence District-General Descrip- 
tion-Crossing the Height of Lalld-Geolog)' of the District-The River Systems- 
Division A, Contract 
o. I-Division B, Contract No, 2-Division C, Contract No. 
5--Division D, CC'atrnct No. S-DÌ\'ision E, Contract No. 13-Dhision F, Contract 
No. 14. 


The Railway extends for ljR miles in the Province of Quehec. 
Crossing into New Brunswick at the river Restigouche, the distance in 
that Province is 24H miles. At the river l\Iissiguash it passes into 
Nova Scotia, to terminate at Truro, a distance of 80 miles; joining at 
that place, the line constructed previous to Confederation hetween 
Truro and Halifax. 
The greatest altitude I'eached hy the line is in the Province of 
Quehec. This is at Lake :\Ialfait, 108 miles from River du Loup, 
and 743 feet ahove the sea. Nova Scotia ranks second to Quebec in 
respect of altitude, a height of 610 feet above the sea being attained 
at Folly Lake, in the Cobequid l\Iountains, 24 miles west of Truro: 
while the highest elevation in New Brunswick, 514 feet, is at Barti- 
bogue, about mid-way hetween Bathurst and 1\Iiramichi. 
At the river Restigouche, the boundary between Quebec and New 
Brunswick, and at the river l\lissiguash, the boundary of K ova Scotia, 
the railway is but little above tide-water; at the Îormer, less than 
40 feet; and at the latter, less than 10 feet. The levels near the extreme 
ends of the line-Truro and lEver du Loup--are not high; conse- 
quently, the line is divided, geographically, into three,main ridges-one 
in each province. The ridges may be described as being 1tiO, 2-:1:0 and 



140 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


80 miles broad, rising respectively to 743, 514 and 610 feet above the 


sea. 


During construction it was found convenient to divide the Line into 
four Districts, which were again sub-divided into 2.) Divisions desig- 
nated by the letters of the alphabet, beginning with A at River du 
Loup and ending with Z next to Truro. The Di
tricts were called the 
St. Lawrence, the Restigouche. the 
liramichi and the Nova Scotia. 
The Restigouche District embraced seven Divisions, each of the 
other three embraced six Divisions. The lengths were as follows: 


St. Lawrence District, 
Restigouche " 
Miramichi " 
N ova Scotia " 


1
0
 Miles. 
128 " 
1171 " 
12-H " 


Total, 


499i 


" 


These four sections were each placed under a District Engineer 
respolI!'ihle directly to the Engineer-in-Chief. Resident Engineers 
were appointed to each separate Division. who acted under the 
Engineer of the District; and the latter again had their necessary 
assistants. The" ork on each Division" as carried on unùer a distinct 
contract. 
THE ST. LAWltE
CE DISTRICT extends from River du Loup along 
the shore of the St. Lawrence as far as Little 
Ie.tis, where the line turns 
in a southerly dircction to cross the highlands, dividing the waters flow- 
ing into the St. Lawrence from those flowing into the Bay Chaleur by 
the l\Ietapedia, a tributary of the Restigouche. Its length is 12!)i miles 
and it embraces the following Divi::;ions : 


Di vision A, Contract No.1. . . . . . 20 miles long 
" B, " 2 20 " 
" C, " 5 . 26 " 
" D, " 8 . 20i ., 



THE ST. LA WREXCE DISTRICT. 


141 


Division E, Contract No. 13 . . .. 20
 
" F, .. 14 . . .. 22
 


" 


" 


Total length,. . . . . . . . 129t miles. 


For 90 miles the railway lies within a short distance of the St. 
Lawrence, in no place more than three miles from it. An irregular 
highland range e
tem1ing, ",ith but very few breaks, f.rom River du 
Loup to Gaspé, dictated this location. Attempts were made to find a 
location further inland, but the country was rough; consequently. con- 
struction would ha\ e been e
pensive and the gradients steep. Along 
these first ninety miles the cbuntry is closely settled: bcsides the num- 
erous farm-houses which assume the appearance of a continuous strag- 
gling village, there are several towns and villages, as River du Loup, 
Isle Verte, Trois Pistoles. St. Simon, St. Fabien, Bic, Rimouski, St. 
Luce. St. Flavie, and :ì\Ietis. 
The most favorable point for crossing the Mountain range occurs 
near lIetis. '" here a depre!<sion is found in the summit, 743 feet above 
the sea, at a distance, on a straight line from the St Lawrence, of about 
20 miles. There is, also, at a distance of 6 miles from the St. Lawrence, 
an intermediate summit, 561 feet high, on a ridge overlooking the river. 
The country, on this mountain range is rough and rocky, and many 
curves are accordingly introduced, the grades being also steep. But, 
after descending the Southern slope, the flat country along the shore of 
Lake 
letapedi
 is met, which extends to the end of the District. 
There is a considerahle area of good land near Lake )Ietapedia. 
It is estimated that a belt ten miles broad, in this quarter, contains 
130,000 acres of good farming land. 
The rock formation of the St Lawrence District belongs principal- 
ly to the Lauzon division of the Quebec group; the geological posi- 
tion of which is about the middle of the Silurian System. This group 
extends in tbe form of a belt parallel to tbe St Lawrence, terminating 
in the Gaspé peninsula. 



142 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


The Lauzon division is of considerable breadth, west of River du 
Loup, but contracts to a few miles, at Rimouski. Small outliers of the 
Sillery sandstone occur in this distance, one of which is met about two 
miles below River du Loup, and another extends between Cacouna and 
River Isle Verte. 
Interstratified with the shales of the Lauzon division, grey sand- 
stone and limestone conglomerates occur at Trois Pistoles, Dic and 
Grand Metis. The conglomerates are coarse, and consist of a 
andy 
matrix with pebbles of white quartz and masses of limestone and dio- 
rite. 
Between Rimouski and Great :Metis the rail way crosses a small 
basin of the Sillery limestone. 
Near Lake Metapedia conglomerates again occur associated with 
shales; along the shore of the Lake, the rocks consist of limestone, 
sandstone shales, and diorite, with an occasional trap dyke. 
From these various rocks the building material for the heavy ma- 
sonry on the district was obtained. 
The Riv'ers flowing into the St LawrenCf', although of no great 
length, yet rising, as they do, in the neighboring highlands, at times 
discharge a great body of water. On all there is enormous water 
power from fiI11s and rapids, easily made available, though hitherto but 
little used. At River du Loup there are three natural falls, one 100 
feet high, and two about 20 feet high, almost quite unused. At the 
mouth of the River the water power gained by an artificial fall drives 
a large flour mill, and likewise the works of a foundry and machine- 
shop. 
The District Engineer, until the close of the ,york, was Mr. Samuel 
Hazlewood, who assisted in the exploratory survey of 18G4, and the 
location survevs of 1868-69. 



THE ST. LAWREYCE DISTRICT. 


143 


DIYISIOX A. 


COXTRACT No.1. 


This Division, generally, is comparatively level; it traverses the 
table-land or terrace between the St. Lawrence and the elevated range 
which rises at no great distance from the line. The works are generally 
light, consisting of low embankments to raise the road-hed above the 
ordinary snow level. There are only two rock cuttings of importance, 
and these are near the western end. For four miles the railway passes 
over tracts of bog, some low-lying, with peat only a few fcet deep, othe1's 
lying higher, with growing peat, 20 or 30 feet deep. Ko difficulty at- 
tended the formation of the road-bed, the low embankments being com- 
posed of peat taken from side ditches, generally 15 or 20 feet from the 
embankments. The matted roots of brushwood and scrub spruce, to- 
gether with moss and peaty material, formed embankments sufficiently 
tenacious. Although there was a slight sinking in some places, there 
was no breaking up of the surface, and the l'Oadway is firm, though 
elastic. The 
mrface in such cases is covered with a layer of gravelly 
sand about six inches thick, as a protection against fire. 
The culverts on this section are unimportant, there being only 
three over eight feet span, t\\ 0 of which are twelve feet. There are 
th1'ee bridges, one with a span of 30 feet over the TenÜscouata road, 
one of three spans built over the River du Loup, and the third of two 
spans built over the River J sle Verte. That over the Temiscouata road 
is close to that ove1' the Du Loup, and may be considered as constitut- 
ing parts of one hridge, the western abutment of the river bridge bcing 
the eastern abutment of the road bridge. The river bridge is on a 
skew, but the eastern abutment of it is on the square. The foundation 
is rock, on the hed of the river; and the water being shallow. having 
only a depth of a few inches in summer, there was no need of coffer- 
dams. 
The bridge over the River Isle Verte rests upon a rock foundation; 



144 


THE INTERCOLO
IAL. 


the water, dming the dry season, being so shallow as to occasion no 
difficulty in founding the piers. 
The piers of the Isle Verte bridge are on the skew, while the abut- 
ments are square; thus, each span has a short and a long side, the longer 
being 100 feet and thc shorter 8R feet. 
All that is worthy of remark concerning the bridges of this Division, 
is, that thcy are of wood, and constitute two of the three wooden 
bridge::. erectell ulJon the whole line. They were commenced anterior 
to the reversal of the Government policy in this respcct, all the other 
bridges being of iron. 
Both bridges are built upon what is known as the Howe truss 
principle. 
In these bridges the roadway runs on the top of the girders. 
Thcre are few curves; the two longest tangents are each about six 
miles. 
The grades are easy. 
There was abundance of hallast on the Division, but the pits were 
of little depth. 
The work of construction was executed by )Ie
sr
. George and 
James \\T orthington. The contract was entered into in )Iarch, 1
ü9. 
The time fOl' completion assigned was 1st Jul}', 1871, but the work 
was not entirely finishcd until 1st July, 11;72. In addition to the 
amount of the contract, :j;;1
9,700, a further sum of 
:3.J,OOO, for extm 
works, was paid. 
The total length of the Division is 20 miles. 
The average excavation was 18,200 cubic yards per mile, and of 
masonry 29.,} cubic yards. 
The Rcsident Engineer in charge was :Mr. Leonard G. Bell, pre- 
viously employed on the Surveys of 1868-69. 



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THE ST. LAWREXCE DISTRICT. 


145 


DIYISION B. 


CONTRACT No.2. 


This Division, for half its length, lies on land similar to the Coun- 
try cros::;ed by the Line on Division A. After passing the village of 
Trois Pistoles, it enters the valley of St. Simon, a- wiùe flat ex- 
panse bounded On both sides by high ridges of barren rock. Generally 
the works are light, but there are large culverts at the village of Trois 
Pi::;toles and an expensive bridge over the river of that name, hesides 
heavy cuttings and embankments at the approaches. The cutting on the 
west side of the river was especially heavy, being at one place 56 feet 
deep. All the cuttings in this neighùourhood consisteù of a blue clay of 
great tenacity, sometimes containing a !<mall portion of fine dead sand. 
The ordinary pick and shovel were wholly inadequate in these eXcava- 
tions, spades proving more succes::;ful ; yet, even with them, the work 
was tedious. The clay wa::; dug out in small square blocks, and slung 
by means of 
ingle pronged iron forks, or ::;pikes, into the wagons. It 
was so tenacious, that the slinging and the suùsequent dumping scarce- 
ly altered the shape of the block::;. 'Vhen acted upon by water and 
frost it would, however, ::;lide away in a semi-fluid condition, carrying 
evarything with it. On the west side, the cutting is on a side-hill, the 
foot of which rests on the shore of the St. Lawrence, while the top reaches 
to the flat ground about 200 feet above the river, and having about 8 
feet of gravel lying on the surface. At the commencement of opera- 
tions, the flow of water from between the gravel and clay, produced 
masses of mud which constantly slid down to the bottom of the cut- 
ting, seriously retarding the work. Such slips were to some extent 
obviated by a deep drain, some distance back, sunk through the bed of 
gravel into the underlying clay, thus tapping the superficial springs. 
Other difficulties, however, presented them::;elves. At the we::;t end of 
this cutting, and under a low embankment, a small culvert had been 
buHt on apparently sufficient foundation OIl the side-hill. The culvert 
10 



146 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


sank somewhat, and then remained many months without any percept- 
ible change. It, however, eventually sank so much that it became 
necessary to remove it altogether and huild it on another site. In 
a few weeks after its recom;truction a landslip occurred, carrying the 
culvert together with the embankment and many thousands of yards of 
earth, to a distance of several hundred feet, into the river, leaving a 
gulf about 200.feet wide. This landslip was doubtless caused by the un- 
due presence of water in the ground; and showed the necessity of deep 
under-ùrainage. The cuttings in which these difficulties were experi- 
enced, extended over a mile on the west side and a mile on the east side 
of Trois Pistoles. The west side was the most troublesome. Vertical 
shafts, fifty feet apart, and to depths varying from 25 to 30 feet under 
formation, were sunk along the uphill side of the railway, and about 
15 feet distant from it. From shaft to shaft, tunnels about five feet 
diameter, were driven, each with an inclination to points where 
lateral off. take tunnels to the side-hill were provided for the diRcharge 
of the water collected. In the bottom of the tunnels a 
ewer 
pipe was placed and the tunnels and vertical shafts were filled 
with gravel. These tunnels have been effective in drying aIllI solidi- 
fying the ground, more especially that portion immediately under 
the Railway. During last summer, a considerable quantity of fluid 
mud slipped from the surface of the South slope of the deep cut imme- 
diately to the westwarù of the Trois Pistoles River; but though it dis- 
placed the rails for a short distance, the road bed and underlying earth 
were wholly unmoved. 
When the contract was entered into, the Engineer designed that 
the slopes of the cuttings should be made 2 to 1; and the width at 
formation level 30 feet. During the progress of the work these 
designs were over-ruled by the Commissioners, who allowed 
the contractors to make the slope at H to 1, the same as for ordi- 
nary earth. The action of the weather. however, in continu- 
ously causing surface Hlips, has already Lrought the slope to 2 
to 1, or even to a flatter slope. The cutting 011 the east side of Trois 



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THE ST. LAWRENCE DISTRICT. 


147 


Pistoles River was not attended with so much difficulty, not being on a 
side-hill, and not having any top bed of gravel draining into the cutting. 
Underdrains of an ordinary character, laid on both sides of the road- 
bed at a depth of 4 feet below formation level, were here sufficient. 
They keep the road-bed in good order; but the sides, from not having 
sufficient slope, are constantly slipping. The embankments also gave 
trouble owing to the slippery nature ofthe material when wet: but they 
now seem to have consolidated. III some parts, the lìlopes have been 
covered with gravel with good effect. The western embankment, in 
particular, caused anxiety for a time, a portion of it being in the old 
channel of the river. At this place the filling as it progressed sank con- 
tinually, pushing laterally and upheaving the soft material at the base 
of the embankment. The application of cribwork for protecting 
the emhankment from the wash of the river, was found beneficiaL 
A timber crib, filled with stones, sheeted on the outside, was built 
round the project
d base of the embankment; and although the 
upheaval within this crib was such as to raise the material 20 feet above 
the level, it was retained in position by the protecting work: the latter 
remaining uninjured except in one unimportant part. 
The total width of tlie Trois Pistoles River, at the point of crossing, 
is about 1000 feet: the bridge of 5 spans of 100 feet each, occupies the 
eastern half of the channel. The piers and abutments are on rock 
found at a little depth. Expensive coffer-dams were 110t necessary, the 
site being nearly dry at low water. The abutments are square towers 
built according to Fig. 28. The piers, were commenced for a super- 
structure of wood, but when the design was changed for one of iron, 
less breadth sufficed; and, accordingly, the piers were reduced in size, 
so that one portion of the pier appears forming the base of the 
supcrincumhent portion as a plinth. The iron work was constrUfted 
and erected b y the ".Fairbairn EnO'ineerinO' Com p an y of EnO'laIHI " 
b ð 0 , 
who undertook the contract of all spans from 24 to 100 feet. An illus- 
tration of this bridge is given in plate No.5. 
East of the village there are two 1.:; feet arched culverts, built in 



148 


THE INTERCOLONIAL, 


accordance with the general designs described in a former chapter. They 
are in embankments of 30 feet and 44 feet deep. 
The line has comparatively few curves, and the tangents are cor- 
respol1llingly long. The grades are easy. Those reaching the maximum 
of 52 feet per mile, are not of any extent. 
The contractors were Messrs. George and James '\Vorthington. 
The amount of their contract was <Jt;::!99,OOO. They were, however, paid 
about :J!;'iO,OOO more than this sum, partly on account of the dIfficulty 
met in the cuttings at Trois Pistoles, and partly on account of extra 
work. The cuntract was entered into in March, 1859, and the work 
was to be completed on 1st .T uly, 1871; but owing to the difficulties ex- 
perienced at Trois Pistoles, it was not finished until the summer of 
1873. 
The length of the Division is 20 miles. The average quantity of 
excavation is -12,800 cubic yards per mile, and of masonry 603 cubic 
yards. The resident engineer, during the first two years, was 1\11'. "T. 
H. Napier, who had been engaged in the location surveys of 1
68-69. 
On his resignation he w
s succeeded by 311'. John R. Macdonnell. l\Ir. 
Bell was subsequently placed in charge till April, 1872, when 1\11'. H. 
Langton was appointed. 


DIVISION C. 


CONTRACT No. 5 


This Division runs for a few miles through the valley namcd in 
thp last Division. Crossing a low ridge, it thence traverses a second 
valley until it meets the face of the mountain at the head of Dic Bay. 

kirting the face of this mountain, and crossing several spurs of head- 
lands forming the eastern side of the Harbour of Bic, it emerges on the 
sea shore, which it follows for several mi]e
, keeping on a narrow belt of 
flat ground. 



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THE ST. LAWRENCE DISTRICT. 


Htl 


The Division has heavy work of all kinds, the principal being the 
rock cuttings near the village of Bic. The Line has been located along 
the precipitous face of the mountain, in one place in front of a perpen- 
dicular cliff, part of which had to be removed to make room for the 
road-bed. No part of the work was attended with any peculiar difficulty. 
As far as Bic village the Line is somewhat curved, but the curves are 
for the most part of no great length, and the general direction of the Line 
is straight. The heavy work may be said to end at Otty Bay, where the 
Line, which left the shore of the St. Lawrence at Trois Pistoles, again 
touches it and so continues to Rimouski. In a few places between 
Otty Bay and Rimouski, the works come within the wash of high tides 
wherc protection was called for. 
There are three bridges; one, near St. Fabien, of 80 feet span; 
one at Bic, of 110 feet span; and one over the Rimouski River, with five 
spans, each 80 feet wide. In all cases the superstructure is of iron. 
At the St. Fabien bridge the river has an S curve and a diversion of 
the stream was made, over which the òridge was built upon ground 
then dry. A mill stands near this place, the dam of which was inter- 
fered with by the works; and the bridge has been so constructed as 
to admit the passage of water to the mill, the building of a new dam 
and a roadway to the mill. 
The bridge at Bic is built over a rocky gorge with its two abut- 
ments on the rock, as shown on plate No.6. 
The bridge at Rimouski is built at the mouth of the river. It has 
all the piers and abutments on rock several feet below water level. The 
excavation for the foundation was throuO'h O'ravel in de l )th from 5 t o 
b" , 
10 feet. Coffer-dams were required, but the bed of the river was so 
porous that great difficulty was experienced in laying dry the founda- 
tion of the deepest pier. Concrete was resorted to in this case, upon a 
bed of which the masonry was commenced. Plate No.7 is a view of 
this structure. 
There are ll}lmerous curves; the three sharpest are of 1910 feet 
radius, and have an aggregate length of about 1440 yards. The grades 



150 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


are generally easy, although several of 1 per 100 are used. There is no 
elevation of importance to be surmounted. 
The contract in the first instance was let to 1\11'. Edward Haycock 
for $361,574; at the end of one season 1\11'. Haycock threw up the con- 
tract. The remainder of the work was let the following spring, at 
$533,000 to Alexander McDonnell & Co., after $48,762 had been paid 
to 1\11'. Haycock The work was to have been completed by 1st July, " 
1871, but it was not finished until 1st January, 1873. The length of 
the division is 26 miles. The average excavation is 35,000 cubic j'ards 
per mile and of masonry 320 cubic yards. 
The Resident Engineer until the summer of 1871 was 1\11'. Roderick 
1\1cLennan, who had been employed on the surveys of 1868-69; but he 
retired from the work and was !mcceeded by 1\11'. John R. Macdonnell. 


DIVISION D. 


CONTRACT No.8. 


This Division is on comparatively level ground, some miles away 
from the sea-shore. The elevated range bounding the Railway on the 
right from River du Loup trends away to the south after passing Ri- 
mouski where this Division begins; but the flat country rises towards 
the south'; and the Railway, leaving the sea, gradually inclines to- 
ward it. 
The works are lighter than on any other section of the whole Rail- 
way. 
There is no bridge on this Division, but there are several culverts, 
very few of which required much masonry. There was no especial diffi- 
culty in executing any of the works, except an arched culvert over a 
stream about three miles from the eastern end of the Divi:;ion. This is 
a twelve feet culvert in an embankment ahout 20 feet deep. The em- 
bankment from the westward had been carried close to the site chosen 



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THE ST. LAWRENCE DISTRICT. 


151 


for the culvert, near the channel of the stream, during the first season's 
work. No change appeared to have taken place at the site during the 
winter; but on the opening of the following season, when the excava- 
tion for the culvert was commenced, the pres
;ure of the embankment 
caused an upheaval of soft mud in large quantities, and in such a man- 
ner, that farther excavation was impossible. The ground was tested 
by boring, when a firm stl'atum wm; discovered some 18 feet below the 
surfal.:e. [t was then determined to construct a pile foundation. The 
piles were easily driven, but so Roft was the material penetrated that 
the driving of a fresh pile would partially float those driven. Con- 
sequently, they had to be weighted until the masonry was started. The 
outer piles were driven perfect! y close, and formed a kind of coffer-dam, 
the opposite sides of which were tied together to prevent spreading and 
in order effectively to enclose the whole space underneath the structure. 
A bed of concrete was placed over the piles, and on this foundation the 
masonry was commenced. This work was somewhat troublesome, a 
whole season having been spent upon it. But it was finally completed 
at no great cost, and has answered the purpose satisfactorily. 
The line is generally straight, and IlI-'arly parallel to the direction 
of the St, Lawrence. 
The contractor wås 
Ir. Duncan 
IcDonald, whose price was 
$100,000. The contract was dated 1st November, 18(;9, the work to be 
finished OIl the 1st July, 1871. It was completed in the December of 
that year. 
The length of the Division is 20
, miles. The average quantity of 
excavation is about 15,000 cubic yards per mile, and of ma::50nry 180 
cubic yards. 
The Resident Engineer was Mr. John Lindsay, previously employed 
on the Surveys of 1868-69. 



152 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


DIVISION E. 


CONTRACT No. 13. 


The Railway, on this Division, crosses the water-shed between the 
St. Lawrence and Restigouche Rivers,and passes over an intricate, hilly 
country, with deep valleys, intersected and crossed by a constant suc- 
cession of ridges, whose summits rise to a considerable elevation between 
the different tributaries of the Rivers Tortigaux and l\Ietis. It was ac- 
cordingly a matter of some difficulty to find a good location through it. 
The country was thoroughly explored and the best route obtained. The 
line, nevertheless, has numerous curves, many of them of short radius. 
'\Vhere the line crosses the long ridge overlooking the bt. Lawrence, it 
sweeps round a full semi-circle, part of which is in a long deep cutting. 
On the entire Division there is an aggregate length of more than eleven 
miles of curves, and the aggregation of curvature is about 1407 de-- 
grees. 
One continuous grade, rising up to cross the ridge overlooking the 
St. Lawrence, is 21 miles long, and rises at the rate of fi8 feet per mile. 
This is followed by another grade, ascending it?- the same direction at 
the rate of 52.
0 to the mile, for a length of over 2
 miles. There is 
an aggregate length of over 10
 miles of grades rising 1 in 100; and of 
grades rising 0.8 or 0.9 in 100, a farther Jength of1
 miles; so that of 
steep grade:,; there is an aggregate length of 15 mi1es, out of a total 
length of 20
 miles, the extent of the Division. 
The work on this Division is the most expensive, with one excep- 
tion, on the whole Railway. The excavation and embankment far ex- 
ceeded the quantity in any other locality. A large proportion of the 
excavation was in rock, and one embankment is 80 feet deep. 
The quantity of embankment required was much in excess of the 
quantity of cutting on the line. and, therefore. extensive borrowing pits 
were nece:,;sary. In some spots, the material available for borrowing 
was so scanty that many acres of ground were stripped to furnish the 



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THE ST. LAWRENCE DISTRICT. 


153 


quantity required. The total quantity excavated was about 1,750,000 
cubic yanl:,;, of which one-sixth was rock. 
There are seven tunnels, varying from 6 feet to 12 feet in diameter, 
for carrying streams across the Railway; and one tunnel, 20 feet diame- 
ter, parallel to the Railway, through a tongue of land rounù which the 
River Tortigaux flowed, crossing the Railway line twice. This tunnel 
takes the whole stream and saves two bridges across the line. It is 
about 500 feet long. All the tunnels are cut through rock; and, with 
one exception, it has not been found necessary to line any of them with 
masonry. 
One of the clay cuttings gave some trouble, which would have 
been avoided by making it wider and with flatter slopes, in the first 
instance. 
An embankmpnt across soft, swampy ground, was laid U}JOll a plat- 
form of trees placed side by side. The material sank I'll 1JUl>lfU', raising 
the surface beyond the embankment to a height of from six to eight 
feet ahove the original level, and to the extent of 20 feet out from the 
slope of the emhankment. The emhankment is now perfectly firm. 
The l\Ietis bridge is alone of importance on the Division, having 
four spans of 10.) feet in width. :-:;ome difficulty arose with the fuunda- 
tions, The western abutment was built upon a double platform. with 
concrete deposited hetween the timbers. The eastern amI western piers 
were built upon a pile foundation; the centre pier was huilt upon a 
stratum of gravel and boulders, the founùations being taken well ,lown. 
The coffer-dam was afterwards filled with the best concrete, maùe of 
Portland cement. 
In order to turn the river, and prevent its flowing between the East- 
ern pier and the East bank of the river, a rough ,dng wall was built. 
The piers are protected from the wash of the river hy rip-rap laid 
round them. The total height of the bridge, from the bed of the river 
to the formation level, Ís 60 feet. Plate No. 8 shows the bridge com- 
pleted. 
The Contractors were ::\Iessrs. \V. E. ::\IacDonald & Co" who carried 



1."}4 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


on the work almost to completion. The contract was entered into in May 
1870, the work was to lmve been finished on the 1st July, 1872, at a cost 
of $934,033. But, about the end of the year 1873, when the comple- 
ting of the work still required an expenditure of $126,500, it was taken 
off the Contractors' hands and finished by the Govel'llment late in the 
year 187-1. The length of the Division is 20
 miles. 
The average quantity of excavation is almost 85,000 cubic yards 
per mile, and of masonry 423 cubic yards. The total length of the 
tunnels for the passage of streams is 1,593 feet, 
The first Hesident Engineer, in charge of the Division, was Mr. \V. 
F. Biggar, previously employed on its exploration and location. On 
his retirement he ,,-as succeeded by Mr. H. J. Cambie, who remained 
in charge until the works were taken out of the hands of the Con- 
tractors, after which, Mr. \Yilliam :;\lcCarthy was placed in charge. 


DIVISION F. 


CONTRACT No. 14. 


At the end of the first mile the railway passes over the highest 
summit on the whole line. It then descends through an easy country 
to the basin of the ::\1 etapedia Lake and continues to run on a flat, wide, 
tract of land, bordering the lake, to its outlet. 
The summit which is 743 feet above the sea, is at Lake Malfait, the 
source of the HiveI' Sayabec, flowing eastward into Lake l\Ietapedia. 
It is on the dividing ridge between the waters of the St. Lawrence and 
those of the Bay Chaleur. At the commencement of the Division the 
curves are of short radius, their aggregate length, however, is not great, 
heing little over a mile. In the first seven miles the aggregate length 
of grades, ascending and descending, is nearly five miles, of 1 per 100. 
The remaining grades, together with the curves, are light. 
There are only three bridges of any importallc
, namely, that over 


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THE ST. LAWRENCE DISTRICT. 


155 


the St. Pierre, near the head of the Metapedia Lake; that over the 
Tobegote, near the lower end of the same Lake; Rnd that over the 
Amqui, at the end of the division. The spans of these bridges are 
respectively 80, 30, and 100 feet. The St. Pierre bridge is built on a 
natural foundation of gravel and boulders. At the Tohegote bridge 
site, soft material exists to a great depth, necessitating a pile founda- 
tion of peculiar construction, and the use of concrete. The Amqui 
bridge is also built on a pile foundation, protected by rip-rap. The 
principal part of the stone for the Amqui bridge is compact, hard, yel- 
low sandstone taken out of cuttings on the division. A view of this 
bridge is given in plate No.9. 
The contractors were )Iessrs. Neilson & )IcGaw, whose price was 
$245,475 and who carried on the work to completion. The work was 
to have been completed on 1st July, 1872, but it was not finished until 
the summer of 1875. 
The total length of the Division is 22! miles. The average quan- 
tity of excavation is about 21,000 cubic yards per mile and of mason- 
ry 203 cubic yards. 
The first Resident Engineer in charge of the works was 1\11'. Henry 
Carre, who had been on the surveys of 1868-69. He remained in charge 
for about H years, when he retired and was succeeded by Mr. John 
Lindsay, who was again succeeded by Mr. T. D. Taylor. 



CHAPTER IX 


THE RESTIGOUCHE DISTRICT. 


General Deßcription-:Metapedia Valley-Restigouche Valley-Bay Chaleur-Geological 
features-Division G, Contract No. 17-Division II, Contract No. 18-Division I, Con- 
tract No, 19-The Restigouche Bridge-Artificial foundation -Climatic forces- 
Ice jams-Shoves-Freshets-The massive character of the Piers-Division R, 
Contract No, II-Division L, Contract 
o, 6-Divlsion 1.1, Contract No, 6-Dh-ision l\I, 
Contract No.9-Division N, Contract No. 15-The Tête.a-Gauche Bridge- 
The 
jpissiquit Bridge, 
This District includes the lower half of the l\Ietapedia valley, crosses 
the Restigouche at the mouth of the l\Ietapedia, and continues by the 
Bay Chaleurs. Its length is 128 miles. It embraces the following 
divisions 


Division G-Contract No. n 20 Miles long 
" H " 18 20 " " 
" I " 19 10 " " 
" K " 3 24 " " 
" L " 6 21 " " 
" M " 9 21 " " 
" N " 15 12 " " 


Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 " " 
The Line for 40 miles follows a south-easterly direction, and then 
runs easterly for 30 miles, after which, its course is south-east, finally 
bearing nearly due south. 
The l\Ietapedia valley is generally contracted, with steep hills and 
rocky sides rising to the height of 600 to 800 feet, for many miles, 
barely affording space for the Railway, the river, and the l\Ietapedia 
Road. The adjoining country, in many places deeply furrowed by 
streams, rises, approximately, 
oo feet above the valley. 



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THE RESTIGOUCHE DISTRICT. 


157 


There are several lateral valleys, the principal of which are 
those of two rapid tributaries of the Metapedia, the Rivers Causapscal 
and Assametq uagan, rising in the Shikshok ,Mountains to the east of the 
Railway, and thuse of .McKinnon's Brook and other streams, on the west- 
ern side. For a di!:-itance of 20 miles below the mouth of the Metape- 
dia, the Railway follows the valley of the Restigouëhe, between high, 
steep, rocky hills. It then crosses the promontory, at the point of 
which lies the Harbour of Dalhousie. The Line runs about a mile from 
the Bay Chaleur, sometimes touching the shore, until it reaches the 
village of Bathurst. It then leaves the shore, in order to cross the prom- 
ontory between Bathurst amI 
Iiramichi. The country i!:-i !:-ilightly roll- 
ing, and comprises clayey, gravelly, peaty and rocky soils. The high 
mountainous country is found more inland, the intervening distance 
being broken and hilly. 
The rocks in the Restigouche district, with some trifling exceptions, 
belong to the Gaspé limestone series of upper Silurian age. This series 
is known to occupy an immense area. Nearly the whole hyùrographic 
basin of the Restigouche belongs to this series. The rocks consist of 
grey and dark shales and limestone. On the Metapedia, vast deposits 
of calcareous shaly and slaty strata appear interstratified with lime- 
stone bands. N ear the "Devil's Elbow," sandstone is met of a green- 
ish gray color. At the mouth of the River Restigouche, a small basin 
of the lower carboniferous rocks occurs. It consists of red !:-iandstone 
and conglomerates. Conspicuous conical hills of amygdaloid and other 
trap rocks attract attention near Dalhousie. The basin is flanked on 
both sides by the Gaspé limestone series, which generally occupies the 
elevated country overlooking the valley, and it extends from Dalhousie 
to Bathurst. It afforded excellent limestone for the masonry at several 
places. 
Grey granite is exposed on the rivers flowing into Bathurst Har- 
bour, compo!:-ied of opaque white feldspar, colourless translucent quartz, 
and black mica. In some respects it restmbles the celebrated Aberdeen 
granite; and yielded massive building material for some of the finest 
masonry on the Line. 



158 


THE D!TERCOLONIAL. 


The principal rivers are the ::\Ietapedia, the Restigouche, Eel River, 
the Charlo, Jacquet River, the Tête-à-gauche, and the Nipissiguit. 
The Metapedia drains an area of 1700 square miles; the Resti- 
gouche, with its tributaries above the crossing of the Railway, drains 
about 5200 square miles, of which the Upsalquitch, a branch from the 
south, drains 1400. The rivers from the Restigouche down to the 
Nipissiguit drain about 1300 square miles, and the Nipissiguit in a 
course of 70 miles drains 800 square miles. 
Mr. Marcus Smith conducted the surveys of the Diliitrict in 1868- 
69, and afterwards had charge of the works of construction until April, 
1872. He was succeeded by Mr. L. G. Bell. 


DIVISION G. 


CONTRACT No. 17. 


This Division lies in the valley of the ::\Ietapedia river. The west- 
ern half traverses a comparatively o,pen country with gently sloping 
hills. The eastern half is contracted between steep, rocky banks. 
About one half of the Line is curved, but the curves, except in a few 
cases, are of ample radius. The grades, which are eas):, have generally 
a descent eastwards. The greatest difference of level, that between the 
two ends, is 212 feet. The works are moderately heavy, requiring care 
in their execution, Lut no very great difficulty was experienced. The 
total quantity of cutting is about two-thirds of a million cuLic yards, 
of which one-fifteenth is rock. But little of the rock excavated was 
found suitaLle for masonry. The ashlar stone had to be brought some 
di::;tance, chiefly from the eastern end of Lake i\Ietapedia, Lut mate- 
rial for the smaller structures was obtained near the middle of the 
Division at Otter Brook quarry. This stone is a kind of sand-stone, 
close and firm in tlle texture, and generally well stratified. 
Two Lridges cross the 
Ietapedia, the first at Causapscal, nedr the 



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THE RESTIGOUCHE DISTRICT. 


159 


middle of the Division, the second nearer the eastern end. At each 
crossing the line passes the river at an angle of 45 0 , and the bridges, 
consequently, are askew. Each bridge has three spans of 100 feet 
wide on the skew face. Ko difficulty was experienced in their con- 
struction. The foundations were built in cabson!:> excavated from 
within, pumps of some power being requisite to control the water. At 
one point. the Line passes through a sharp bend in the river, called 
.. Aleck's Elbow," owing to a very high eliff which causes it to sweep 
round a sharp curve of a q muter of a circle. A diversion of the river 
was made, the Railway being protected by crib-wharfing. There are 
several pieces of crib-wharfing in the Division, but the work at 
.. Aleck's Elbow" is the heaviest and lllost important. Fig. No. 32 








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illustrates the manner in which crib-wharfing was constructed when 
the line encroached on the river. The embankment was faced with 
rip-rap, interlaced with a rough framework of cedar timbers. as a precau- 
tion to prevent inroads by flood-water on the newly formed earthwork. 
Abundance of ballast was found on the Division. The contractor 
was )Ir. S. P. Tuck, the price being 8,140,000. The work was to be 
completed on the 1st July. 1872. In 1874, there being still much of 
the work to be performed, the Government took the Division out of 
the contractor's hauds and finished it by day's labor. It was com. 
pleted in 1875. 
The Division is 20 miles long. 
The average quantity of excavation is about 30,000 cubic yards per 
mile, and of masonry 435 cubic yards. 



160 


THE INTERCOLO:NIAL. 


The resident Engineer was Mr. 'Valter George Bellairs. Mr. Bel- 
lairs dying in April, 1874, was succeeded by 
1r. John R. 
IacdonelL 


DIVISION H. 


CONTRACT No. 18. 


This Division lies in the valley of the 
Ietapedia, but in a more 
contracted portion than the Division last described; the line being con- 
fined within the narrow limits of the high, abrupt boundaries, and gen- 
erally following the windings of the river. The curves are numerous, 
and many are of short radius, but very few exceed 1,000 feet in length. 
There are several heavy cuttings and embankments, but neither 
cuttings nor embankments were attended with difficulty. 
Many of the rock cuttings turned out excellent stone for masonry 
backing, and for covering culverts; but little of it, however, could be 
used in face work. A portion of the building stone used came from the 
Otter Brook quarry. As the slopes of the embankments, in some cases, 
extended to the hed of the river, crib-wharfing, similar to that con- 
structed at ., Aleck's Elbow," was adopted where expedient. In other 
places, near the large rock cuttings, large seized flat stones were huilt 
into a heavy wall with a face batter of 1
 to 1, backed up with ordinary 
atones as in Figure No. 33. 


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THE RESTIGOUCHE DISTRICT. 


161 


There are but two bridges of any importance on the Division, 
namely, that over ::\IcKinnon's brook, having two spans eighty feet wide, 
and that over the third crossing of the ::\Ietapedia at ::\Iillstream, having 
four spans, each 100 feet wide on the skew face. Like the upper 
Ieta- 
pedia bridges, the latter crosses the river at an angle of 45 0 with the 
general direction of the stream. Notwithstanding that the whole btJd of 
the ri.er, for a considerable distance up stream, is rock, the foundations 
of the bridge did not reach it, owing to the dip of tlle strata being too 
great. Attempts were made but it was found impracticable to sink the 
foundation down to it. They are accordingly on the coarse gravel 
which forms the bed of the river. Piling was not considered necessary. 
The eastern abutment and the three piers were built in water, from 
6 to 8 feet deep, all the masonry being carried 14 feet under 
low water and protected by rip-rap. A good quarry was dis- 
covered near the bridge; nut, however, until a quantity of 
stone had been brought down from the quarry at :\Ietapedia Lake 
The cost of transportation was necessarily great; but the Contractor 
requiring cedars for crib-wharfing, which he procured at the Lake, 
they were used for rafting the stone. Each raft was worked by three 
Indians, and carried about two cubic yard::; of stone. The distance from 
the quarry on the Lake to the bridge is nearly 50 miles. Plates Nos. 
12 and 13 are illustrative of the site and character of the structure. 
There are several cast iron pipe culverts,3 feet in diameter, on the 
steep side-hill, for which they are peculiarly suitable, and prove 
highly satisfactory. 
The work on this Division was undertaken early in the summer of 
1870, to be finished by 1st July, 1872. It was not. however, until the 
beginning of 1876 that the work was finally completed. 
The Contractors were Robert H. l\IcGreevy & Co., the contract 
price $648.600. At the beginning of the season of 1875, the Govern- 
ment took the work into their own hands. 
The length of th.e Division is 20 miles. The average quantity of 
excavation is about 45,000 cubic yards per mile, and of masoury 44':'; 
11- 



162 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


cuhic Jar(ls. There is a total length of -!2-! feet of cast iron pipe cul- 
verts. The first Hesident Engineer was ::\Ir. 'V. G. Thompson. In 
April, 18ï2, he was succeeded by Mr. Peter Grant. 


DIVISION I. 


CONTRACT No. 19. 


About two-thirds of this Division is located in the Valley of the 
:Metapedia, At the mouth of this valley the Railway crosses the Res- 
tigouche, by the bank of which the line is continued. It has many 
curves, few of them, however, extend for much length. Heavy cuttings 
and embankments are not frequent, owing to narrow stretches of flat 
ground along the river hank which afford space for the line. At the 
crossing of the Restigouche there are two heavy rock cuttings and 
one long and somewhat high embankment. The rock cuttings sup- 
plied a great quantity of the stone required to raise the base of the 
embankment above high water mark; one cutting furnished all the 
stone used in the Restigouche bridge, except material for the face of 
cutwaters, copings of piers, and girder seats, which are of Bathurst 
granite. 
There are several pieces of heavy protection work, but none at- 
tended with any special difficulty. A large quantity of crib-whal'fing 
had been provided for in the estimates. Owing, however, to a method 
of removing earth, then, at little cost, successfully introduced by the 
Contractor, the crib-work was not considered necessary. At this place, 
a steep bank about 120 feet high and composed chiefly of gravel pro- 
jected for a distance of about 1000 feet along the edge of the river, leav- 
ing no site for the Railway. It was designed to construct an embank- 
ment along the river side protected by extensive crib-wharfing. The 
sub-contractor introduced a mptholl of washing away th(' gravel by 
means of water jets. Streams from the high löide-hills were dammed 



PLATE NO 13 


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"fJ R.""" JløJ.aptd. GE. 
... (in wi..Iw_1 




THE RESTIGOl-CHE DISTRICT. 


163 


up at a point about half a mile from the work; the water wa!; conveyed 
bv a wooòen trouah to the place where required, and directed against 
' ð 
the face of the bank in a continuous stream. Its force undermined and 
loo
ened the material so efff'ctually that masses, often by thou- 
sands of yards, would slide into the river in a brief space of time, 
Immense quantities of material were thus removed, with very little 
manual labour and at a cost, probably, less than one-sixth of ordinary 
excavation. The result was that the railway was made on solid ground, 
requiring little or no protection. The change had also the effect of 
flattening the curvatnre of the line. This system of excavating material 
hy an available flow of water was so successful, that it was adopted on 
other portions of the line where streams with sufficient fall could be 
obtained. 
There are several small girder bridges on this division, but the 
chief structure is the Restigouche bridge, a work which calls for 
special notice. 
The Division was originally let to ::\11'. S. P. Tuck, to be completed 
1st July, 18ï2. It was afterwards transferred to .Messrs. Thomas 
Boggs & Co. Subsequently an arrangement was made, by which, the 
Bridge was severed from the other work, l\Ir. ð1artin l\Iurphy becom- 
ing contractor for the main structure. 


THE RESTIGOUCHE BRIDGE. 


The River Restigouche, constitutes the boundary between Quebec 
and New Brunswick. The Railway bridge connecting the two Prov- 
incps is the only bridge which crosses the River. It is situated below 
its confluence with the l\1etapedia. After emerging from the con- 
tracted valley through which the ::\1etapedia flows, the railway turns 
almost at right angles, to follow the Restigouche. The main stream for 
some òistance is hemmed in between high steep hills, rising abruptly 
to a height of from 500 to 'j00 feet, and the sudden change in the direc- 
tion of the Railway, necessitates the construction of the bridge on a 
skew of forty-five degrees. 



164 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


The hills are composed of a metamorphosed slate, much contorted 
and so tilted, that the direction of the cleavage is not easy to dder- 
mine. The river takes the direction of the strike and has, no doubt, 
shaped its course from denudation. Blue clay underlies the gravel in 
the bed of the river, but it is undoubtedly local. 

oundings aud horings were made through the ice, early in lR6
. 
which led to the opinion that the bed of the river was rock overlaid 
with some inches of graveL But it was found that stones imbedded in 
gravel, were the hard substance met, and that the solid rock was at a 
much greater depth. The outcrop of rock on both sides of the valley 
Ruggested that the stone in the gravel was rock, .in situ. Suhsequent 
borings, however, showed the gravel to extend from seven to ten feet, 
underlying which, plastic blue clay is found. The Section, plate No. 
17 will show the position and thickness of the different f;trata.. 
At pier No.1, rock was reached at 53 feet under the summer level 
of the river; at pier No.2, at 75 feet; at pier No.3 at 62 feet; and 
at pier No.4, at 54 feet. 
Accordingly, piling was necessary in all the foundations, except 
for that of the Easterly abutment, which was built on the rock. The 
work of piling was continued throughout the winter, that season being 
suitable for this operation, the ice forming a platform for the ma- 
chinery. The coffer-dams wcre protected by triangular shared cribs to 
act as breakwaters, so constructed as to prevent injury to the works. 


. The more recent borings show the following strata at the different structures, 


I WC"t I Pier Pier Pier Pier East 
ablltment. No.1. No.2, No.3, No, 4. ahurment 
- - -- ---- 
ft. ft, ft. ft. ft. ft. 
r.oam above Bummer water, - - 10 
Depth of ordinary waler - - .. .. 6 3 "'1 10 6 
Gravel -. - - - - - - - - - - - - . 10 7 10 7 4 
m III' day - - - - . - - - . - - - - 60 88 60 48 40 
Black clay and Band - . - - - - . 6 3 2 
Total Depth from ordinary IOW I -\- - -,- 
waler to rock - - - - - - - - Norockmel'l 63 76 62 54 6 



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V. 




THE RESTIGOUCHE DISTRICT. 


165 


from the ice. The arrangement of the piers, colfer-dams, and break- 
waters is shown on plate No. 1 j. 
The pumping was effected by five engines, with an aggregate of jO 
horse power. Centrifugal pumps. capable of discharging nearly 6000 
gallons per minute were used. 0" ing to the stratum of gravel, and the 
heavy flow of water, the excavation was performed with difficulty. The 
pier foundations consist each of close square piling, enclosing an area 
of 102 feet by 16 feet, with four row
 of iiltermediate piles, three feet 
apart The space between the piles was filled with concrete and a plat- 
form was constructed upon them 81 feet under water, so as equally to 
distribute the weight of the superincumbent masonry. Much difficulty 
was experienced in the execution of these works in a deep and rapid 
river. The pile driving, of more than 60.000 lineal feet of timber 
was carried on almost continuously from August 18ï2 until April 1
H. 
Ice begins to form in this River in K ovemher; and although the rapids 
of the River remain for some time open. where the current is slight, ice 
sufficently firm to carry a man wiII form in twent
- four hours. From 
Novemher until :\Iarch. but little rain falls. the thermometer ranging 
from 32 ahove to 32 helow zero. The average, during the five years 
occupied in constructing the bridge is slightly below zero. A change 
in the weather, when the winter sets in unusually early, accompanied 
with rain, wiII occasionally raise the water and break up the ice, pro- 
ducing "ice-jams." The 
Ietapedia is especially liable to these inci- 
dents; in the Restigouche they are not common. The low temperature 
as a rule, from Xovember to :\Iarch, produces ice from two to four feet 
thick and about the end of 1Iarch it reaches its maximnm strength. 
Moreover, the ice is not confined to the surface of the River. As in many 
northern localities anchor ice is developed to a great extent, sometimes 
to double the thickness of the surface ice. It is not therefore surprising 
that at the end of winter a sudden thaw raising the water of the main 
stream and setting adrift the whole winter ice, should produce aston- 
ishing results. Floating down stream. these masses of ice meeting with 
obstructions wiII pile one On the other, until a "jam," completely 



166 


THE INTERCOLONIAl,. 


across the river, is produced. The water thus dammed hack will 11l a 
few Lours rise to a height, sometimes of twenty feet. The" jam .. 
ultimately gives way, and a moving mass of ice, water and uprooted 
trees is borne onwards often with a current of 7 or S miles an hour. 
The piers were designed to resist these occasional forces, and l1ence 
their peculiar form sl10wn in the drawings, plate No. 18. 
The river Restigouche is liable not only to these" ice 8huves," but 
to occasional fre8hets; the most marked of which. the "spring fre
het," 
occurs yearly with regularity at the end of 
Iay, or beginning of June. 
So regular is this periodical flood, that it is annually anticipated. 
The spring freshet is distinct frolll the "run of ice," several weeks 
intervening. It always occurs immediately after the warIn weather sets 
in and is due to the melting of the snOw in the uplands, where the 
tributaries take their rise. This freshet usually raises the ,Metapedia 
12 feet, and the Restigouche 18 feet above urdinary SUlllmer leveL 
The rise of the water is gradual, and still more sO is its fall; the for- 
mer generally occupies several days, and the latter as many weeks; 
the river rarely assuming its ordinary level until the last week in 
June. 
The Restigouche has been famous for its lumbering operations for 
half a century; and a great quantity of timber is still cut on its banks. 
The contingency of !"afts and drift logs striking the piers and endanger- 
ing the superstructure, had to be provided against. Hence the prolonga- 
tion of the cut-water to the extent shewn in the dra\Üngs.* 
Every precaution has been taken to render the piers of the bridge 
capable of resisting the formidable forces, to wl1Ìch they will periodically 
be exposed. It is believed that they will remain uninjured. 
It has been stated that the masonry is built on a pile foundation, 
except in the easterly abutment which is built on rock. Although, 


. The writer has witnessed the entire removal of a bridge in Canada through this CRuse. 
When proper precautions are not taken the occurrence is not uncommon. During a .. timber 
drive" at flood water, the logs form a jam against the piers; allll as the water riscs, are 
raised beneath the superstructure; lift it from its seat, an? finally carry it a way, 



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RESTIGOUCHE BRIDGE: 


DRAWINGS or fOUNDATION AND MASONRY or PIERS. 


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THE RESTIGOUCHE DISTRICT. 


167 


owing to the current, the ice impinges with great force on that side of 
the river, the foundation being well let into the rock, and the wall 
being well built and protected, no injury is likely to result. 
The masonry, generally, is built of 8tone found in the adjoining 
railway cutting, on the 80uth-easterly bank, where blocks of good di- 
men8ion8 were obtained. The" ork is executed in cour8es, 30 inches 
thick in the footings, and 24 inches in the body of the work, the 
blocks beiug from six to eight feet long. The stone is tough and well 
adapted for work requiring great strength. Being difficult to dress, 
however, except in the line of cleavage, it was decided to use granite 
for the cutwaters amI quoins. 
The granite was brought from the River Nipissiguit, beyond 
Bathurst. It is not unlike the" ell known Aberdeen granite, the scales 
of mica only being somewhat smaller. The distance from the quarry is 
nearly 90 miles, 70 of which only were by open navigation. The blocks 
were therefore prepared in the quarry, and when reduced to their 
proper size, weighed from three to nine tons each. The massive 
character of the piers is shown by plate .K o. 15. 
The necessity for great strength is evident from the foregoing ac- 
count of the phenomena yearly witnessed in the river, which no light 
structure could resist. The face stones of the cut waters, the coping, 
hridge seats, and the two upper courses of ashlar, together with the 
skew quoins on the down-stream end of piers, are of granite. A strik- 
ing contrast is accordingly obtained to the dark slate colour of the 
body of the masonry. which adds to the appearance of the structure. 
Plate No. 16 is a view of the bridge from the south bank of the 
riTeI'. 
The total quantity of masonry exceeds 6000 cubic yards; the 
whole is built in Portland cement, amI the exposed parts of piers were 
secured by strong iron clamps, so contrived that it would be impos"ible 
for floating logs, or ice, to disturb a sinerle stone without movin g the 
. ð 
whole mass to ,\ hich it is attached. 
The work was commenced in the summer of 1870, and completed 



168 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


by Christmas, 1875. During the whole of that time, notwithstanding 
the heavy plant and material employed, not a single serious casualty 
occurred. Mr. Martin Murphy was the contractor. Mr. Peter Grant 
was in charge of the work throughout, as Resident Engineer. 


DIVISION K. 


CONTRACT No.3. 


This Division is for several miles of its length on the slope, or at 
the base, of steep and rocky side-hill. 
No especial difficulty attended any of the cuttings, or embank- 
ments, except the cutting at Morrissey's Hock, a point of rock jutting 
out sharply into the River Restigouche, and which it was necessary to 
pierce in order to avoid curvature and heavy protecting works. The 
maximum depth was 95 feet, the length of the point was 600 feet, half 
of which was about 20 feet deep. As material was required for em- 
bankment, it was designed to make an open cut throughout, but 166 
feet of the length is tunnelled. Thc rock lies in shapeless unstratified 
masses, and no difficulty was experienced in completing the work. The 
rock is hard, but exposure to the weather may render it friable, in 
which event, it may become necessary to line the tunnel with ma- 
sonry. This is the only tunnel through which the railway passes. 
At Morrissey's Rock there is a diversion of the public road for a 
length of 2i miles. 
There are on this Division four bridges; one with a single span of 
40 feet wide; one at Christopher's brook, near the" head of the tide" 
in the Restigouche, has eight spans, each of 60 feet: the 1\'1'0 other 
bridges, one at Campbellton, and one over Eel River, have each three 
spans 60 feet wide. The bridge at Christopher's brook provides for the 
passage of the stream, the conduit to a saw-mill, the tail-race from a 
grist-mill, and access from the public road to a lumber yard. The ma- 
sonry is built of hard, red stone found near the spot. The Camp- 
bellton bridge is built in tideway over the mouth of a small river. 



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THE RESTIGOUCHE DISTRICT. 


169 


The foundation is on piles. The embankment leading up to the bridge 
is protected by Clib-work from the wash of the sea. 
On the steep side-hill, pipe culverts are introduced to a greater 
extent than on any other division in the District. 
:Much of the stone was taken from the quarry at Bordeau on the 
Quebec side of the Restigouche; of a bluish, grey sandstone, easily 
quarried and worked. 
The port of Campbellton, about the middle of this Division, was 
of advantage during construction; and the Government made a pier 
and a :,;hort branch railway, by "hich the rails were delivered. About 
10 miles eastward from Campbell ton, the line leaves the shore of the 
Restigouche, and traverses the promontory on 'which Dalhou
ie is situ- 
ated. Dalhousie, at the head of the Bay Chaleur, has a fine natural 
harbour. It was much to be desired that the railway should pass by 
this place, but though the portion of the line to the west would be of 
easy construction, that from Dalhousie, toward the east, would have 
involved heavy cuttings, sharp curves, and a tunnel, besides lIlcreas- 
ing the length about four miles. 
The contract was let to )Iessrs. Elliott, Grant and 'Vhitehead, in 
March, lMfìÇl, for the sum of B::!S
.OOO. But the work could not be 
completed for that amount. Accordingly in ::\lay, 1870, a new contract 
was made with ::\Iessrs. F. X. Berlinquet & Co., for the SUln of 
$-lG2,-1H, being an addition of about 77 per cent. to what remained 
of the money unpaid to the original contractors under their contract. 
This sum, however, proved still insufficient. The contractors were 
bound to complete their work by 1st .July, 1
71, but though they 
ha(1 received from the Commissioners large advances, in the begin- 
ning of the working season of lð73, nearly two years after the date 
appointed for the completion of the work, and when there was still a 
great deal of work of all kinds to be done, they notified the C'ommis- 
sioners that, without considerable help in money, they could not con- 
tinue. Their contract was then annulled, and the work was com- 
pleted by the Government in 187-1. 



.. 


170 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


The division is 24 miles long. The average quantity of excava- 
tion is about 26,000 cubic jards per mile, and of masonry 477 cubic 
yards. There is also a total length of 1065 feet of cast-iron pipe cul- 
verts. 
The Hesident Engineer was MI'. Henry A. F. 
lcLeud, who re- 
mained in charge until the work was practically completed. 


DIVISION L. 


CONTRACT No.6. 


This Division lies along the Bay Chaleur at no great distance 
from it. There arc several heavy cuttings and embankments, but none 
which caused any especial difficulty. Several embankments being close 
to the waters of the Bay, have heen protected by rip-rap, 01' crib- 
wharfing. 
The first five miles of the Division are straight, and the curves on 
the whole are few and easy. 
The grades also are light. 
There are un the" hole Division nine bridges, amounting to 1150 
feet in length. The largest is the Jacquet bridge, which has three 
spans, each IOu fcet wide. It is built in thc estuary of the River 
Jacquet, "hich, a1though 1':>00 feet wide at high water, has very litHe 
water at low tide, except in the main channel, about 100 fcet wide. A 
good gravel foundation was obtained for. the piers and the eastern 
ahutmcnt, but the foundation for the western abutment was not at- 
tained until the excavation had reacllPd a depth of between 12 and 15 
feet below the ùed of the l'Íver. The main channel lies between the 
west abutment and thc west pier, from 6 to 8 feet deep at low water. 
The force of the current, in the spring, against temporalY ohstructions, 
caused such an eddy that a great deal of the hed of the river near the 
west abutment was scooped away, almost to the level of the founda- 
tion, ]:2 feet or more below the level of the old bed, but no farther 



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THE RESTIGOUCHE DISTRICT. 


171 


damage was done. In the following winter a large quantity of heavy 
stones was sunk through the ice into the bed of the river, completely 
covering all parts liable to be acted on by freshets, and so arresting 
the scour. The eJllbankments on both sides of the Jacquet river bridge 
have been protected by crib-wharfing. 
Of the nine bridges on this Division an illustration of one-New 
Mill Bridge-is furnished. Plate No. 20. The contract was let in April, 
18ü9, to ,Mr. Jacques Jobin, for 82-11,500, the work to be finished on 1st 
July, 1871. This contract was annulled, and a new contract was en- 
tered into in )lay, 1870. with Messrs. F. X. Berlinquet & Co., to be 
finished by the 1st July, 1871. The price contracted for was ';'-156,946, 
being considerably more than twice the amount then remaining unex- 
pended under )[r. Jobin's contract, and nearly double the amount of 
the first tender, made by )[essrs. Bellinquet & Co., for the whole of 
the same work. But the new contractors, in the beginning of 1873, 
were unable to proceed; their cuntract was annulled, and the work 
was completed in 187-1, by the Government, 
The length of the Division is 21 miles; the average quantity of 
excavation about 26,000 cubic yards per mile, and of masonry 572 
cubic 
Tards. 
The Resident Engineer was :\[r. Edward Lawson, who had been 
on both the exploratory survey of 18lH, and the location survey of 
1868. He vms succeeded by )Ir. Henry N. Ruttan, who remained 
until the wbole vms nearly completed and transferred to tbe Depart- 
ment of Public Works. 


DIVISION 1'1. 


CO
TRACT No.9. 


This section is generally light; nevertheless there are se, eral 
heavy rock cuttings, and one deep, but short embankment. 



172 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


The grades are easy, there being a difference of only 113 feet be- 
tween the highest and lowest levels. The Division is almost all on tan- 
gent lines, there being but five curves of a total length of something 
more than a mile. But as all these curves, except the last, which is 
only 500 feet long, and flat, turn in one direction, toward the south, 
the general direction of the line at the end of the division, is nearly at 
right angles to that at the commencement. There is one tunnel across 
the line, made in rock on the side of a deep valley, by which tunnel, a 
long culvert in the bottom of a mill-dam has been obviated. The rock 
in which the tunnel has been cut is not firm, so that eventually the tun- 
nel may have to be lined. 
There are three bridges, all on rock foundations, with but little ex- 
cavation. That over the river Belledune, has two spans 60 feet wide, 
and is across a short valley 50 feet deep. The other bridges, over the 
Elm Tree and Nigadoo rivers, have each only (me span 80 feet wide. 
The Division is almost all in bush land, and generally about one 
mile distant from the shore of the Bay Chaleur. 
The length of the Division is 
1 miles. The average quantity of 
excavation is about 22,
00 cubic yards per mile, and of masonry 339 
cubic yards. The work was let in October, 1869, to Messrs. J. n. Ber- 
trand & Co., for $354,897, and was to have been finished on 1st July, 
1871. These contractors signified their inability to proceed with their 
work at the time when Messrs. Berlinquet & Co., with whom they 
were connected, failed to carry out their contract. In 18ï3 the Gov- 
ernment assumed the completion of this division also. 
The Hesident Engineer, was l\Ir. Charles Odell, who had been em- 
ployed on the location surveys of 1868-69. 


DIVISION N. 


CONTRACT No. 15. 


This Division leaves the Bay Chaleurs, but agaiu touches \t at the 



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THE RESTIGOUCRE DISTRICT. 
. 


173 


head of Bathurst Harbour. In general direction it bears southwards, 
towards the base of the promontory which lies between the Bay Chaleur 
and 
Iiralllichi, terminating at Shippigan. 
It is a short section. only 1
 miles long, but in proportion to ita 
length. it is one of the most expensive. 
There are nine curves, amounting in the aggregate length, to nearly 
2
 miles; they are all easy. The grades also are light; the greatest 
difference of level between any two points, being only 78 feet. The 
rock cutting::; are comparatively light, but there are several heavy earth 
cuttings and emhankments. Of these. two embankments, at Tête- 
à-gauche. contain 1
0.000 cubic yards. and the cutting between them 
held HO,OOO. Another embankment at Kipissiguit river, contains 
90,000 cubic yards, and the cutting at the west end of it, from which it 
"as principally made, gave 74,000 cubic yards. Several of the cuttings 
east of Tète-à-gauche, had good clear gravel, from which a large quan- 
tity of ballast was obtained. In a few cuttings the clay was of a 
slightly sandy nature, and slipped until the sides a--sumed a flat slope. 
The excavation caused some trouble during wet weather; but tbe cut- 
tings are neither long nor deep. 
The heaviest work was in masonry, there being six bridges, besides 
three large arched culverts. One of the latter is 
O feet span, in an 
embankment 30 feet deep, and is built of heavy granite ashlar. Near 
to this is the bridge over the River Tete-à-gauche, which has five 
spans, each 100 feet, crossing a valley about 55 feet deep. The next 
important bridge, is that over the River Nipisf;Ìguit, with six 
spans, each 100 feet. The river is 500 feet wide and the depth of its 
bed, below formation level, is 43 feet. Tbe water is not deep during 
the summer season, but flows in a shallow, turbulent stream, on a 
rough rocky bed. The masonry was laid at low water, without diffi. 
culty. Plates Nos. 21 and 2
 illustra.te these important structures. 
The masonry on this Divi::;ion is marked by the massive oharacter 
of its granite courses. 
The granite cutwaters and quoins of the Restigouche Bridge, 



174 


THE INTER(;OLONIAL. 


were transported from this locality. The granite was easily cut, and 
the quarrying of stone was not expensive, as there was little waste 
and no stripping. 
The length of the Division is 12 miles. The average quantity of 
excavation is 52,000 cubic yards per mile, and of masonry 1061 cubic 
yards. 
The work was let on the 15th June, 1870, to Messrs. J. B. Bertrand 
& Co. They failed in fulfilling their contract, and the work was 
assumed by the Government and completed in 1874. 
The Resident Engineer was Mr. P. A. Peterson who had been 
employed on the location survey. He was succeeded by 
Ir. Charles 
Odell, who remained in charge until the work was completed. 
The starting point for the proposed branch to Shippigan, has been 
located near the crossing of the Nipissiguit. This branch was sur- 
veyed in the winter of 1873-74, and was designed to form a short mail 
route between England and America. The harbour of Shippigan was 
al80 surveyed, soundings being taken through the" Shippigan Sound," 
and the channel out to the Bay Chaleur, over an area of about 20 
square miles. 
The result of the survey is to show that only wharves and piers, a 
short distance out from the land, are required to make the harbour 
available for the largest steamers; they likewise establish the fact, 
that the branch railway can be constructed without any extraordi- 
nary expenditure. 



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CHAPTER x. 


THE :MIRAMICHI DISTRICT. 


Features of the District-Extensive Carboniferous basin-Division 0, Contract No. 16- 
Division 1', Contract No. IG-Division Q, Contract No. 2G-:\liramichi River Crossing 
-Deepwater Branch-Division R, Contract No. 21-Division S, Contract No. 22- 
Division T, Contract No. 23. ' 


This District commence8 East of the River Nipissiguit. The line 
is remarkably straight, there being but a slight bend in the general 
direction, at the River l\Iiramichi, calling for the introduction of some 
curves. The Dil:;trict has the greatest length of tangents; and the 
longest single tangents, on the whole Railway, one being continuous 
for a di8tance of thirty miles. 
The following are the Divisions: 


.Division 0, Contract 16, 1St Miles long. 
., P, " 10, 20 " 
" Q, " 20, 6 " 
" R, " 21, 25 " 
" S, " 22, 25 " 
" T, " 23, 221 " 
Total length, 117t miles. 


The first two divisions lie on the water-shed between the tribu. 
taries of the northwest Miramichi and those waters falling into the 
Bay Chaleur and the Gulf. The stream8 c1'088ed are consequently 
small. The surface of the country is slightly undulating, and large 
tracts of flat boggy land and swamps are met. The land is wild, 



176 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


of a poor quality and generally covered with dwarf spruce; a growth 
which has sprung up since the great Mimmichi fire, which devastated 
so much of the Province fifty years ago. 
The Hi vel' l\Iiråmichi lies in a low wide trough, and the approaches 
to it from both sides are through a somewhat broken country; the rail- 
way accordingly has a winding location in descending into the valley 
from the northerly side where it follows the slope of the deep, crooked, 
steep-sided valley of a tributary. 
After crossing the Miramichi and a8cending the southerly slope of 
the valley, the railway enter
 on another water-shed dividing the nu- 
merous rivers, Koucbibuuguac, Hichibucto. Buctouche, &c., falling into 
the Gulf, from Salmon river and the \Vashademoak, tributaries of the 
River St. John. The land is undulating, but the ridges are higher and 
the earthworks heavier than on the western portion. The soil some- 
what improves, but the country is wild, though important settlements 
are not far distant. 
This District spans a remarkable carboniferous basin, forming as it 
does Ðne of the most conspicuous geological features of New Brunswick. 
Bathurst is at one side of the basin, while .:\Ioncton is at the other, and 
it extends far into the interior of the country. \Vith the exception of 
a narrow fringe of lower carboniferous rocks, the strata within this ex- 
tensive area belong to the middle coal formation and consist chiefly of 
greyish sandstone and shales in horizontal strata. Only a few thin 
seams of coal have yet been found. 
On the south side of the Bay Chaleur, two coal seams, of only six 
and eight inches respectively, crop out; another, about two feet in thick- 
ness, occurs at Grand Lake, some distance to the west of the railway. 
Other seams have been reported, and there are reasonahle grounds for 
supposing that .. boring" to a considerable depth near the middle of 
the basin would develope workable beds of coal, near the line of rail- 
way. 
Near Bathur8t a stratum of shale contains nodules of vitreous sul- 
phide of copper. An attempt to work this deposit has been made. 



THE MIRA:\IICHI DISTRICT. 


177 


Southwesterly from 
loncton, near Hillsborough, the remarkable 
mineral" Albertite," so valuable for gas making, is found and profitably 
worked. 
Although the railway runs along a succession of water-sheds, the 
country is not in any place very elevated, the highest point being 514 
feet above the sea. 
The District ends at Moncton, the "Bend of the Petitcodiac." 
Here the railway between St. John and Shediac is met, and at this 
place large workshops and o:ffice
 have been erected. 
The Distnct Engineer, until the rail way was transferred to the 
Der
rtment of Public ,V orks, was :\Ir. Alex. L. Light. Previous to 
1869, :Mr. 'V. H. Tremaine had charge of the surveys. 


DIVISION O. 


CONTRACT No. 16. 


This Division has a course mainly due south, there is only one 
curve on the line, about 1600 feet long and of long radius. The work 
throughout was light, and the grades in general are easy; some, how- 
ever, rise 1 in 100, but the longest is only it miles long. They gener- 
ally rise towards the south; those descending towards the south have 
a total fall of 72 feet, and those ascending, have a total rise of 484 feet; 
the greatest difference of level between any two points being 412 
feet; this difference being at the extreme ends. 
The line being on or near the water-shed.. the culverts and 
bridges are neither large nor numerous. The numher, however, which 
would have been required, was considerahly reduced by extensive 
ditching along the line of railway, the ground being peculiarly suit- 
able for this work. There are, however, several large open culverts 
of wide span, to permit the passage of the large flow of water accu- 
mulated by the drainage works. 



178 


THE I:NTERCOLONIAL. 


The only bridge on the divi:.-;ion has three spans of 40 feet each, 
over the Reel Pine Brook. The yallp)' over which this briùge is built 
is ahout 36 feet deep, below formation level; but the abutments, on 
the side of the valley, are only about 25 feet high. The foundation is 
a shaly rock; the masonry is of granite, in massive blocks. Plate No. 
2:3 shows this structure in process of com;truction. 
The work was let, in 1\Iay, uno, to 11essrs. King & (tough for 
$:!OG,IJIJO, to he completed on the 1st .July, 1872. During the con- 
struction of the WOl'k. the contractors and their sureties got into diffi- 
culties. and the conduct of the work devolved upon l\lr. Gough alone. 
In 
Iarch, It\7 -1, a considerable quantity of work remaining to be exe- 
cuted, it was completed by the Government. 
The line runs, throughout, over wild land. The length is 18! 
miles; the average quantity of excavation, 18,600 cubic yards per 
mile, and of masonry 172 cubic yards. 
The Resident Engineer was 1\11'. James -"'V. Fitzgerald. 


DIVISION P. 


CONTRACT No. 10. 


This Division is straight for the first 8 miles; nine curves are 
met mi the succeeding part of the line; the last is nparly three-fifths of 
a mile long, and extends nearly ninety degrees of a circle. 
The greatest difference of level between any two points on the 
division is that hetween the extreme ends, t11P northern part heing 31)6 
feet higher than the sonthern. The grades on the whole 'division are 
rltther steep, several being at the limit of 1 ill 100, one being 3t miles 
long. 
The cuttings and emhankments are heavy. Three cuttings had 
187,000 cubic yards of earth, and (j,j,OOO cubic yards of rock. One 



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THE :MIRAl\IICHI DISTRICT. 


179 


embankme
t has 185,000 cubic yards; another, only 450 feet long, has 
71,000 cubic yards; three cuttings have an aggregate of 200,000 cubic 
yards. 
Part of the southern end of the Division is on difficult ground, on 
the side of a deep valley; but, in general, although the country is in 
some places Jlilly in the direction of the line of railway, it is seldom 
so transversely. 
The line being near a water-shed, there are very few important 
streams. Consequently, the culverts are generally small; many, how- 
ever, are long. The only bridge is over the river Bartibogue, having 
one span 80 feet wide, and about 30 feet high from the foundation. 
The rock formations on this section are sandstone of good qmdity. 
Many of the culverts are under heavy embankments, and display ex- 
cellent examples of masonry of the class shown by Fig. No. 34. 


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180 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


the end of 1870, however, when work to the extent of $30,850 had 
been done, the contract was annulled. A new contract was entered 
into with Mr. Duncan Macdonald, to fhlÌ,;h the work by 1st .Tuly, 187::2, 
for the sum of 
365,!:J:W. It was completed on the 10th December, 
1874. 
The line generally passes through wild bush-land, of poor qual- 
ity; the total length is 20 miles. The average quantity of excavation 
is about 47,500 cubic yards per mile, and of masonry 430 cubic 
yards. 
The Rf'sident Engineer was Mr. "V alter lVL Buck, who had been 
engaged on the Location Surveys in 1868-69. 


of 


DIVISION Q. 


CON'lRACT No. 20. 


This Division, though only 6 miles long, was let for the highest amount 
of any division on the whole railway except Division E, but the mileage 
rate is two and one-half times that of Division E. 
About three-eighths of the Divi::òion is on curves, but the curves are 
not of short radius. There are two grades of 1 per 100, of an aggre- 
gate length of 3! miles; the rest of the line is nearly level. 
The cuttings and embankments are comparatively light, the 
deepest cutting being 24 feet, and the highest embankment about 20 feet, 
except at two points, where the embankments enter the Miramichi 
River. There is scarcely any rock in the cuttings. 
The culverts are very few and small. The principal work on the 
division is the crossing of the two Miramichi rivers, the bl'idges of 
which are specially described.. 
The contract for all the work on the Division, except the super- 


. Chapter XI. 



THE MIRAMICHI DISTRICT. 


181 


structure of the bridges, was made in September, 1870, with Messrs. 
Brown, Brooks & Ryan, for the sum of $642,854, the work to be com- 
pleted on the 1st July, 1873. Afterwards a change was made in the 
plans, by which the bridge over the North-west Miramichi was to be con- 
structed with six spans, instead of five as originally intended, and the 
time was extended. For the additional span the contractors were to 
be paid the sum of $25,000. The work was finished at the close of 
the year, 1875. by the original contractors. 
The average quantity of excavation is about 47,500 cubic yards per 
mile, and of masonry, independent of the l\Iil'amichi bridges, 157 cubic 
yards. 'The bridges contain 11,082 cubic yards of masonry. 
The Resident Engineer was Mr. W. B. Smellie. 


NEWCASTLE BRANCH. 


About a mile towards the west from the crossing of the North-west 
Miramichi, a branch leaves the main line and extends to deep water in 
the Miramichi Harbour, at the town of Newcastle. Its general course 
is easterly; its length H miles. 
The line il3 almost straight for its whole length, and its maximum 
grade is 63 feet in a mile. At the point where the branch ends, the 
Government purchased t
e property including a wharf. This wharf has 
been extel1ded a short distance into the river, and now forms a conve- 
nient landing for sea-going vessels. The rails are laid to the wharf, 
and extensive accommodation is afforded for shipping. ' 
The work, including grading, ballasting, tracklaying, wharf-'"exten- 
sion, and station accommodation. was constructed in 1872, under con- 
tract with Mr. George Perkins, at a cost of $25,123. 



182 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


DIVISION R. 


CONTRACT No. 21. 


On this Division, 25 miles long, there are but six curves. the ag- 
gregate length of wbich is less than two miles. The last five miles of 
the Division are straight. One curve 500 yards long has a radius of half 
a mile; the other curves are easy. 
The grades in general are light, there being but four which have 
an ascent of 1 per 100. Each of these is about one mile long. The 
greatest difference of level between any two points is 256 feet, these 
points being 16 miles apart. 
There are but two places where the cuttings and embankments are 
heavy; the first is between ,the 11th amI 15th miles, where the cut- 
tings amount to 64,000 cubic yards of rock and 50,000 cubic yards of 
clay, and the embankments to 279,UUO cubic yards. There is also a 
river diversion with 7UUU cubic yards of rock and 
OOO cubic yards of 
clay. The second is between tbe 19th and 21st miles where two cuttings 
amount to 26,000 cubic yards of rock, and 33,000 cubic yards of clay; 
and a river diversion at the same place, where 7000 cubic yards of rock 
and 3000 cubic yards of clay have been excayated. The embankment 
between the two cuttings contains 1,)0,000 cubic yards. 
The masonry is light; there are but three bridges, each with a 
single span; one 1uO feet wide, the other two being 80 feet. The 
foundations of the latter are on rock, attained at a depth of a few feet 
below the beds of the rivers; that of the fin;t is hard clay at a depth of 
about 20 feet below the surface of the adjoining ground. The river 
had to be diverted for this bridge, the bottom at the original cross- 
ing being a mixture of quicksand and clay. The diversion is about 10 
feet deep, made through gravel. 
The three bridges referred to are over the Barnaby river and one 
of its branches; the courbe of the river is very winding, and crosses the 



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THE MIRMIICHI DISTRICT. 


183 


railway at two points besides those just mentioned. At the first a 
tunnel about 115 feet long, and an open cutting at each end has been 
constructed through solid rock for the pa::;::;age of the river. The total 
length of open cutting and tunnel is about 700 feet, the width is 
o 
feet, and the height of the tunnel is 20 feet: the rock being ::;olid it \Va::; 
not necessary to line the tunnel. A culvert to perform the duty of 
this tunnel would have been under 40 feet of embankment, abuut 140 
feet long, and would have greatly exceeded the tunnel in cost. This 
tunnel is shown in Plate No. 24. 
At the last crossing of the Barnaby river there is an arch culvert 
16 feet wide, built on rock in the line of a diversion, about 1000 feet 
long. The diversion is 4 feet deep, in rock throughout it::; length, and 
the rock is so solid, that where the culvert is built. the abutment::; stand 
on top of the rock and not on the level of the bottom of the diver::;ion. 
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184 


THE DITERCOLONIAL. 


guac river. It is built under an embankment 60 feet high, and is con- 
sequently nearly 200 feet long. There are no abutments of masonry, 
the river is diverted into a rock channel, and the arch 30 feet wide, 
springs off the sandstone rock. Fig. 
 o. 35 is from a photograph of the 
arch hefore the heavy emhankment was carried over it. 
N ear the 22d mile on the Division, there is a large bog, part of 
which was wet. The railway has a low embankment ahout 5 feet 
high over it. \Vhere the bog was moist, a layer of trees was placed to 
recei ve the embankment: the bog sank two or three feet under the 
superincumbent weight, but the surface remained intact: the ground 
oubide the railway line was in no way disturhcd. The embankment 
is now quite firm. 
Neal' the 10th mile, the railway is carried across a shallow lake, the 
water having been drained by long and wide side ditches. Ncar the 
same place the railway is formed over high hug, on a platform of trees; 
the hog sank a little, but the work is firm, 
The work was let to Mr. Patrick Purcell in 1870, to be completed 
on 1st July, 1R72; the work was finished in November 1874. 
1\ early all this Division is wild lal1l1, much of it marshy and boggy; 
there are several settlements on good land near to the Kouchihouguac 
and Barnaby rivers. The valley of the Hamaby river, from the rail- 
way to the )Iiramichi, contains some excellent land. 
The length is 2.) miles; the average quantity of excavation IS 
about 32,000 cubic yards pel' mile, and uf masonry 2t39 cubic yan18. 
The Resident Enginecr was :\11'. F. .J. Lynch. 
At 700 yards from the beginning of the division, a hranch, about 
9 miles long, runs to the town and Purt of Chatham, on the east side of 
the :\1iramichi. It is muleI' construction by a private company, and 
almost complete. 



THE MJRA"I1CHI DISTRICT. 


185 


DIVISION S. 


CO:STRACT No. 22. 


'Vith the exception of a curve 1700 feet in length, the rail way is 
canied on tangents 30
- miles in length, extending 8 miles into the ad- 
joining Divi
ion. 
The grades are easy; a few rise 1 in 100, only one extending 
somewhat less than 1! miles. The difference of level between the 
highest and lowest points, is 171 feet in a distance of 7! miles. 
The cuttings and embankments are light. An embankment at 
the river Køuchibouguacis, near the beginning of the Division, contains 
flbout 40,00U cubic yards; another at the river Richibucto, about the 
middle of the Division, contains 103,000 cubic yards; and another 6ï ,000 
cuhic yards. Two cuttings, one on each side of the river Richibucto, 
held about 14,000 cubic yards of rock and 56,000 cuhic yards of clay. 
Another held 17,uuu cubic yards of rock and 
:
.OOO cubic yards of clay. 
Additional borrowing was, however, required for the embankmcnts. 
There are seven bridges, four with one span each; one of RO feet, 
another of 30 feet, and twú of 
-l feet. Of the three larger bridges, 
one has three spans of 5u feet, and the other two, have each three spans 
of 40 feet. 
The streams at the two last bridges are very rapid, in consequence 
of which, extensive protection works were pruvided. The masonry 
throughout is built of sandstone. 
At the bridges last referred to, over the North and South Coal 
branch rivers, coal and bituminous shale have been found. 
The work was let in Decemher, 1HïO, to :Messrs. C. Cummings & 
Co., to be completed by 1st July, 1HB. for $:
:n.ooo. At the end of 
the latter year, the work, being not more than one-half done, was 
taken out of the llitnds of the contractors, and completed by the Gov- 
ernment in the Spring of 1S7S. 
All this Division is in wild forestland. Its length is 25 miles. The 



186 


THE INTERCOLONIA.L. 


average quantity of excavation is about 29,100 cubic yards per mile, 
and of masonry 270 cubic yards. 
The Resident Engineer was 1\11'. \V. J. Croasdale, who was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Charles Blackwell. 


DIVISION T. 
CONTRACT No. 23. 
This Division is almost straight; there are but four curves of 
ample radius. The difference of level between the highest and lowest 
points is 300 feet; the grades are generally steep, most of them ranging 
between 0.75 in 100 and 1 in 100, there ?eing seven subordinate 
summits. 
The cuttings and embankments arc generally light; one embank- 
ment, however, contains about 7;J.UUU cubic yards. The adjoining cut- 
ting amounted to GU,OOO cubic yards, in part rock. 

ollle trouble was experienced from one of the embankmeuts hav- 
ing ::-;lipped. About HO,OOO cubic yanh; of material were brought by 
train to make goud the deficiency. 
There are t\\ 0 extensive wet bogs, hut the road has heen success- 
fully formed across them. .A layer of "hole trees with their hranches 
was placed in the direction of the line of the railway; and uuother 
la) cr trallsver
ely, the hutts being at the outer ::-;ides of the rail way 
line. The embankment \\ as then formed and stuuds welL 
The ma80lUY is light; the culverts are nearly all small, and there 
is only one bridge, over the Xorth river. It has a span of 50 feet on a 
rock foundation. 
The wnrk was let in l>ecemher, 1870, to l\Ie"srs. SutherlaIHI, Grant 
& Co., for :j;;2ïü,7f)U, to be completed by 1:;t .Tuly, lHï2. It was event- 
ually htken out of the hands of the contractors and finished by days' 
lahour, hy the Government. early in 1
75. 
The first engineer in charge of thi:-l divi8ion was 1\11'. Collingwood 
Schreiber. In 1871, :Mr. Ch!1rltJs lllackwell was appointed. 


* 



CHAPTER XI. 


THE MIR.A1.nCHI BRIDGES. 


Location of the two Bridges-Original Design-Borings-Great depth to bed.rock dis- 
covered-Engineering Opinions-Original Design adhered to-The South- West Bridge 
-The North Abutment-General De.cription of Pier Foundations-Pier E-Pier F- 
Pier G-Pier H-Pier I-South Abutment-The North-West Briùge-Borings- 
Pressure Experiments-Modified Plan of Foundations-The South Abutment-The 
North Ahutment- The Caissons for Piers-Pier X-Difficulties met with-Pier D- 
Pier C-Pipr B-Pier A-Concrete-
Iasonry-Plant - Contractors - Engineers- 
Completion. 


After the River 
Iiramichi had been carefully surveyed, it was de-- 
cided that the Railway should cross two miles above the point of junc- 
tion of the northwest and southwest branches; here the .xorthwest 
Branch is 1330 feet wide, and the Southwest 1600 feet. The range of 
ordinary tiòes is about five feet; but that of extreme tides is more 
than ten feet. Tidal influences extend up the two rivers some fourteen 
miles above the points of crossing. Owing to the presence of shoals, 
especially in the Southwest River, navigation is difficult for sea-going 
vessels beyond the junction of the branches. 
The town of .Newcastle, the port for vessels of deep draught, is 
situated below the confluence of the two Rivers. and a branch Railway 
1i miles in length, has been constructed from the main line to the deep 
water terminus at that place. 
It was originally designed that the Xorthwest should have five, and 
the Southwest Branch six spans of .
OO feet; but it was found expe- 
dient to make the Northwest bridge of six spans. Thus both struc- 
tures have precisely the same water-way, 1200 feet. 
The first survey led to the opinion, that rock was met in both 
rivers at a depth of from 45 ft. to 50 ft., under extreme high tide; that 
187 



188 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


the actual depth of water varied from 15 to 33 feet; and that the bed of 
both rivers consisted of silt from 17 to 30 feet deep. 
The plan originally adopted for the foundations was to cont'ltruct 
them of huge caissons filled with concrete. The lower part of the 
cais80n was to be a chamber, designed in the form of an inverted hop- 
per, to admit of undermining and of dredging operation8; each cham- 
ber being accessible by a shaft. During the work these shafts were 
designated" wells," which indeed they re8embled; and it was through 
them that the silt, when removed by dredges, was lifted to the surface. 
It \Va8 designed that the caissons, when undermined, should sink through 
the silt of the river bed to the rock; and that, when finished, they 
should be brought to the level of six feet under low water, and be en 
tirely filled with concrete; thus giving a solid foundation to the 
masonry. It was originally determined, that the Southerly abutments 
of both bridges ShOlÙd have their foundations on these concreted cais- 
sons; and that the Northerly abutments should be built, in the ordinary 
way, on the dry land of the two shores. 
'Vhen the work described was placed under contract, and opera- 
tions were commenced, it was discovered that the stratum immedi- 
ately under the silt was not rock, as supposed, but a bed of gravel, 
more or less compact, and of varying thickness, overlying a thick de- 
posit of sand and silt in the northwest river, and of clay in the south 
west. It was found that the average depth to the bed rock under 
high water, waB, in the Northwest branch 112 feet, and in the South- 
west 90 feet, instead of less than half these depths as at first believed. 
After careful investigation, the Engineer did not consider it 
necessary to incur the enormous expense involved in the carrying of 
the foundations to the bed-rock of the River. He satisfied himself that 
it would be sufficient to sink the caissons to the depth of the gravel 
stratum which formed the hard sub8tance assumed to be rock when 
the preliminary survey was made. He did not deem it expedient to 
change in any way the contract plans for the Southwest Bridge; but 
he thought it advit:ïable to make some modififation in the designs for 



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THE :r.IIRA:\UCHI BRIDGES. 


I8!) 


that of the Northwest. In this case he propobed another span, so as to 
throw the southerly abutment upon the river bank, and thus secure 
a rock fouudatioll, relieving the comparatively thin gravel bed, and the 
other strata forming the bed of the river, from the weight of the high 
emb<tukment which formed part of the original plan. He also consid- 
ered it pruùent to enlarge the base of each pier, in order to distribute 
the super-incumbent weight over a greater supporting area. 
The Chief Engineer announced to the Commissioners the decision 
he had come to. 
The latter, however, in view of the magnitude of the work, referred 
the matter to two other Engineers, 
Iessrs. Samuel Keefer and C. S 
Gzowski. 
These gentlemen reported against the plans of the Chief Engineet 
and expressed a strong opinion adverse to the practicability of carr: 
ing them out. At the same time they brought forward a desig"l 
their own, which they recommended the Commissioners to adopt. 
The plan proposed appeared to the. Chief Engineer to b., 
open to grave objections; and he advised the Government not to hazard 
its adoption. 
After several communications had passed on the subject be- 
tween Jan. 13th and March 9th 1872, the Government finally passed 
an order in Council, sustaining the views of the Chief Engineer, and 
throwing upon him the responsibility of carrying into execution his 
own plans. 



19û 


THE IXTERCOLONIAL. 


THE SOUTHWEST BRIDGE. 


It has been stated that the original borings, made during the pre- 
liminary survey of 1868, led to erroneous conclusions re:specting the 
river-bed. The only tools and appliances which could then be obtained, 
were imperfect and not well adapted for ascertaining, with accuracy, 
the character of strata at a considerable depth under water. The conse- 
quence was, that a hard substance met with, at from 40 to 50 feet under 
high water, was assumed to be a continuation of the rock formation, 
which cropped out on the banks of the river. 
During the winter of 1870-1, more perfect implements were used, 
and tI, discovery was made that the hard stratum was only a bed of 
graveT ind that the true bed-rock was, in the southwest river, some 50 
feet lower than it was previously believed to be. Plate No. 
6, shows 
the relative position of the several strata which underlie the river.- 
. The following is an abstract of the borings made at the several piers and aùutmentø 
subsequent to 1870: 


Water, 
S,md, 
Tough brown clay, 


6' 4" 
1 6 
41 6 


Water, 
Sand, 
Gravel, 
Tough brown clay, 


AT CENTRE OF PIER G. 
14' 7" 
30 '6 
7 ,0 
43 0 


AT FACE OF NORTH ABUTMENT. 


Rock at 


48' 3" Below datum. 


Rock at 


96' (YI Below datum 


AT CENTRE OF PIER B. 


Water, 
Saml, 
Gravel, 
Tough brown clay, 


26 ' 9" 
13 10 
2 0 
34 6 


Water, 
Sand, 
Gravel, 
Tough brown clay, 


AT CENTRE OF PIER H. 
13' 1(Y1 
34 8 
6 2 
42 4 


Roell: at 


77 ' 1" Below datum. Rock at 


97 ' (YI Belm,. datum 


AT CENTRE OF PIER F. 


AT CENTRE OF PIER 1, 


Water, 22' 4" Water, 16' 3" 
Sand, 21 3 Sand, 31 0 
Gravel, 7 10 Gravel, 6 3 
Tough brown clay, 41 7 Tough brown clay, 42 3 
Rock at 93' (YI Below datum. Rock at 94' 9" Below datum. 




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THE :\HRA:\HCHI BRIDGES. 


191 


Th
 Chief Engineer, nevertheles::;, decided to carry out the original 
design, and to sink the caissons of the piers down to the gravel bed, 
and that of the south abutment to some distance into the underlying 
clay. 
The work has been accordingly carried out as shown in the draw- 
ings. The north abutment is at the river's edge. The south abut- 
ment stands about 300 feet from the shore, an earthen embankment 
connecting it with the river bank. 


THE NORTH ABUT}!ENT. 


'Yhen the north abutment was proceeded with, the foundation 
for the front wall was excavated to the depth of 161 feet below high 
water, and the area filled with concrete to a depth of eighteen inches. 
The foundation for the wing walls was stepped back, as shown on the 
drawings, plate No. 29. 
The masonry was commenced on the 27th July, 1871, the founda- 
tion stone being laid by the Chairman of the Commission, 
Ir. Aquila 
'\Vabh, on the 3d of August. The work was continued until the end 
of November, when a few stones only were wanted in the parapet 
walls to complete the structure. 


THE PIERS. 


The five piers are lettered E, F, G, H and I; they are placed at the 
points indicated on the drawin<Ts . , E beina next the north abutment 
'" b 
and I nearest the southern side of the ri \"er. 
The following table gives the depths, to the supposed rock, from 


AT 80UTH ABUTMENT. 
Face. Centre. Back. 
Water, 17' 2" 17' 4" 17' 4" 
Sand, 6 0 Ó 0 6 3 
Sand and Gravel, 1 0 2 0 1 0 
Mud and Vegetable Mould, 8 9 6 8 2 6 
Gra\el, 1 4 
Tough brown clay, 43 9 45 0 47 3 
Rock at 78' 0" 75' 0" 73' -1" 



192 


THE INTEROOLONIAL. 


the preliminary borings; to the gravel bed, from subsequent borings; 
and also the depths t? which the cais80ns have been actually sunk. 


Site of Pier. Depth to supposed Depth to gravel bed Depth to which 
ro('k from from caissolls were 
preliminary !Jurings. subsequent borings, actually sunk. 
Pier E, 44 feet. 40.6 feet. 40.2 feet. 
" F, 44 " 43.6 " 44 " 
" G, 41 " 45, " 45 " 
" H, 49 " 48.5 " 49 " 
" I, 41 " 47.2 " 47 " 
- - -- 
Mean, 43.8 feet. 45.0 feet. 45 feet, 


The original design for the foundations of the piers, as shown in 
Plate Ko. 27, was adhered to; and as all the five cases were alike, a 
brief description of one will suffice. 
The foundation works consisted, essentially, of a large caisson 
formed of hewn timber and water-tight planking; the top dimensions 
73 feet by 17 feet were constant, the bottom varying according to 
depth, The caisson was divided into compartments, all of which, ex- 
cept the lower ones, designated "bottom chambers," were filled with 
concrete as the work proceeded. 
The bottom chambers were left for the purpose of excavating un- 
derneath the caissons, either by dredges, steam pumps or divers; they 
communicated with the open air by means of vertical shafts or wellt;, 
through which the excavated material was elevated. The bottom 
chamhers, as the drawings show, were constructed like inverted hop- 
pers, terminating in a cutting edge formed of hardwood timber and 
boiler plate. 
As the material underneath was removed the caissons were sunk 
until they rooched the required depth; the bottom chambers and the 
shafts leading to them were then filled in solid with concrete, from the 
cutting edges to the surface. 
For the purpose of building the masonry, coffer-dams were attach- 
ed to the tops of the caissons, but so as to be removable when the piers 
were completed. In order that they should extend above high water, they 
were from 12 to 14 feet deep. They were made of such strength as, 




 


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193 


when pumped out, would resist the pressure of the outside water, and 
they were thoroughly secured to the caisson. The outsides were 
covered with three-inch planks, put on with close water-tight joints. 


PIER E. 


The first of the caissons built was that for pier E. It was com- 
menced on the 1
th of June, 18ï1, and when the building was suffici- 
ently advanced it was launched on the 17th of August. A stag- 
ing upon pil.es driven into the river bottom was erected arounù the 
site of the pier, forming a platform along both sides, and across the t 
down river end, tbç upper end being left open. Into this space the 
caisson was floated, the building pr
ceeded with, and finisl
ed, to 
the full height of 30' feet, before any concrete filling was done. 
. 
The depth of water at the site of the pier was 26 feet 9 ins. 
and it was required to sink th'è caisson to the depth of 43 feet, or 16 
feet 3 ins. below the bed of the river. 
The filling of the compartments with concrete was begun on the 
1-1th of September. and proceeded at;:th
 rate of 
O cubic yard" a day. 
The caisson settled down gradually. By' the end of October the 'com- 
partments were filled and the caisson had sunk 2 feet 9 inches into 
the lwrl of the river. 
Two \V oodford " Dredge Pumps" were then put in operation for the 
removal of the underlying material; they continued at work up to the 
end of the season, during which time.. the caisson sank a farther depth 
of 2 feet. 
,V ork was resumed on the 21st of :May, 1H72, but the progress 
made with the pumps was so slow that it was determined to substitute 
drerlging machinery. Frequent interruptions arose from sunken logs 
and hranches, which had to be removed by divers. N'evertheless by 
the 20th of June a further depth of 5 feet had been obtained. 
'''hen the dredges commenced operations the cutting edges stood 
36 feet 6 inches below high water. It was soon di::;covered that the 
13 



194: 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


caisson was passing through a heavier description of material than what 
had been anticipated. It consisted of gravel mixed with clay, and was 
so compact that the dredge buckets made little impression upon it. It 
therefore became necessary for divers to excavate, by pick and shovel, 
the material from beneath the cutting edges, and to remove stones 
by hand. This subaqueous work was very tedious, and it was only 
after a month's incessant labour, that the caisson finally obtained a 
level bearing 2 feet 9 inches higher than at first intended. 
To give the caisson additional weight to aid it in sinking, it 
was arranged that the material dredged out of the chambers should be 
deposited within the coffer-dam, the wells having been continued to 
the top of the coffer-dam by temporary planking. 
The chambers and wells up to the proper level were filled with 
concrete. On the completion of this work the dredged material was 
removed from the coffer-dam preparatory to laying the masonry. 
When the coffer-dam was pumped out, there being very little leakage, 
the water was perfectly under control, and in no way impeded building 
operations. 
The masonry was commenced at 11 feet 6 inches below high water 
level. It was begl1Jl on the 3d of October 1872, and during the season 
was carried to the top of the cut-water, 6 feet above high water mark. 
,V ork was resumed on the 12th of l\lay 1873, and the pier was 
completed on the 18th of June following. 


PIER F. 


The caisson for this pier was ready for launching with the high tide 
in the middle of September 1R71. 
The depth of water was 22 feet -1 inches. The top of tlw gravel 
bed" as found at -13 feet 7 inches. The rlepth required to he reached 
was fixed at 44 fcpt below high water, 
On the 31st of October the concrete filling was begun, and con- 



THE 
IIR.UIICHI RRIDGES. 


195 


tinued to the end of the season, at which time the caisson had settled 
about It foot into the sand. 
During the winter a scour took place around the up-river end 
of the caisson, which had the effect of lowering it a further depth of ;) 
feet. 
\\T ork was resumell on the l
th of .J une 18ï
, and after some con- 
crete filling had been done, the caisson was ùrought to a horizontal 
hearing h.r the operations of It \\Y oodford pump, and the cutting edges 
lowered to :n feet helow high "ateI'. 
The dre(lge towers were then erected anrl carried directly upon 
the top of the coff'er-ùam lending th
ir weight to the sinking (Jf the 
caisson. Fig. No. 36 shows the dredging machinery in position. 


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196 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


On the 17th of September the dredges commenced operations; 
the caisson sinking gradually. )leeting with no obstructions, it reached 
the required depth on the 25th of the same month. During the fol- 
lowing month the bottom chambers and well
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crete to within 6 feet of the top. The work was stopped for the 
season on the 1st of l' ovember. 
,V ork was resumed on the 5th of l\Iay 1873, the concrete filling 
was completed and the coffer-dam pumped out. There was a consider- 
able leakage in this dam, prohahly from the fact that it was exposed to 
the action of ice. Two pumps were required to permit the lower 
courses of masonry to be laid. 
The layjng'of masonry was begun on the 15th of May, and was 
completed on the 21st of July, 1873. 
PIER G. 


The depth of water at the site of this pier at high tide was 14 feet 
7 inches. The top of the gravel was found at the depth of 45 feet 
below high water. The caisson had therefore to be sunk over 30 feet 
through the sand. 
The construction of the caisson was bcgun on the 1Rth of Septem- 
ber 1871 and considerahly advanced in October. It was deemed ad- 
visable to leave it on the stopk::; until the following summer. It was 
successfully launched on the 2
rd July 1872, and two days afterward8 
floated into position. 
The building of the caisson was sm;pended when it had reachCd a 
height of 22 feet. 1'0 further huilding was done until the 26th of Septem- 
ber, when the concrete filling was begun. There heing only ahout 3 
feet of water in the compartment
 at low tide. advantage of this was 
taken to have the concrete in the compartments rleposited about the 
time of low water, and consequently, most of it had time to partially 
set in the air hefore it was suhjected to the action of water. 
By the 12th of Odober, tbe filling of the caisson, to the extent 
it was built, was completed, It was then necessary that the dredging 



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THE :MIRA:\UCHI BRIDGES. 


197 


should be commenced before the building could be continued. To 
enable the dredges to work, and at the same time admit the other opera- 
tions to be proceeded with, it was necessary to erect a strong frame to 
carry the dredge towers, at some height above the floor of the general 
platform. The work of sinking the caisson was resumed early in June 
1873, and by the 18th of the month, the cutting edges had reached the 
required depth of 4.-j feet below high water. 
In removing the dredgerl sand from the coffer-dam it was found 
that the quantity of water coming in was so great that two steam 
pumps \\ ere required to keep it under control during the laying of 
the first courses of masonry. The masonry was begun on the 25th 
of July, and completed on the 15th of September 1873. 


PIER H. 


The depth of water at high tidf:: at the site of this pier was 13 feet 
10 inches. 
The depth to the gravel bed on which the caisson had to rest was 
49 feet. 
Con
h uction of the caisson was commenced early in June 1873. It 
was launched on the 10th of July. and floated into position on the 15th. 
The filling with concrete was continued up to the 21st of August, at 
which time the caisson was 24 feet high and had settled 2 feet 6 inches 
into the river bottom. 
The dredges commenced operations on the 14th of October. On 
the 1st of Xm'ember the depth of 3.-j feet was reached; and the work 
was then closed for the season. Operations were resumed on the 23d 
May, 1874, and continued until the 23rd of June, when the full depth 
of 4\:1 feet was reached. 
After filling up the caisson with concrete, one steam pump was 
sufficient to keep the water under control. 
The setting of lllas
:mry began on the 11th of August, at 14 feet 
below high water, and the pier was finished on the 28th of September 
1874. 



198 


THE I
TERCOLONIAL. 


PIER I. 


The depth of water at high tide at the site of this pier was 11 feet 
3 inches. The depth to the top of the gravel bed was 47 feðt below 
high water; the height of the caisson had therefore to be 33 feet. 
The caisson was conunenced on the 
lst of July 1873, on Lhe 10th 
of September it was floated into position. and soon afterwards con- 
crete filling was proceeded with. 
A scour having taken place at the up-river end, the caisson was 
brought to a horizontal bearing by means of the pumping machinery, 
and the weak points protected by rip-rap. \\T ork \\ as suspended on 
the 14th of Xovember. the cutting edges then standing 
o feet 6 inches 
below high water. 
'V ork was resumed on the 9th of June 187-1. and Woodford pumps 
were used to lower the caisson, until on the 2
th of July the dredgcs 
were ready for work. The operations were then continued and after 
sundry interruptions, the caisson reached the required depth on the 
6th September, 
The Chambers and wells were filled with concrete as in the other 
piers; and on the 29th, masonry was cOlllmenced. The leakage of the 
coffer-dam. in this case, was so considerable, that two steam pumps were 
required to keep the water sufficiently low. The masonry was com- 
pleted on the 31st of October. ' 


SOUTH ABUTl\1ENT. 


This ahutment was ahout 300 feet from the shore. with a depth 
of water at high tide at its site of 17 feet 4 inches. It was necessary 
that the caisson should rest horizontally and therefore that the cutting 
edges should be sunk into the brown clay which the horings showed as 
lying 26 feet below high water at the back of the abutment and 34 
feet at the face. The sinking to the neccs:mry depth was tedious and 
expensIve. 



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THE MlRAMICm BRIDGES. 


199 


The foundation works were similar to those already described, 
except that the caisson had four wells or chambers through which the 
silt was removed. 
The construction of the caisson was begun about the 1st of Sep- 
tember 1872. 'When it was floated into position, the building was 
carried on until the 31st of Uctober. when work was suspended for the 


season. 
The building was resumed on the 7th of June 1873, and finished 
shortly after. During the winter a scour took place around the North- 
west corner, which gave a depth of 20 feet below high water and the 
caisson settled accordingly. Before proceeding farther, it was neces- 
sary to bring the caisson to a level bed; and therefore the sunk corner 
was supported by a couple of 2 inch iron rods from a truss resting on 
the surrounding staging: the iron rods having long adjusting screws. 
Towards the end of June the cai:5son was brought to a level. 1Vhen 
the clay was reached, the sinking became very Blow. The clay was too 
hard to be excavated by the dredges and had to be excavated by hand 
by the divers with pick and spade. This labour had to be carried on 
to the depth of 8 feet at the back of the abutment, but to a less depth 
along the front and sides. It required the constant exertions of two 
divers anù a lm'ge number of other men for two months. 
By the 6th of October, the front of the caisson was brought to 
rest on the clay. with horizontal bearing throughout. .When building 
commenced, the water coming into the coffer-dam was kept unùer b) 
one steam pump. 
The masonry was begun on the 21st of October, and continued to 
the 13th of November, at which period, the masonry had reached 6.5 
feet under high water, and further work was suspended. 
At this time the heavy earth embankment had approached close to 
the abutment. During the winter the material was tipped over the 
front and sides of the coffer-dam. till it appeared above the surface 
of the water. 
The false works were destroyed during the winter, but were 



200 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


restored in the spring of 187-1. The masonry was completed on the 
6th of August of the same year. 
The embankment was formed around the abutment, and the slopes 
and sides covered with rip-rap, three feet thick, from the bed of the 
river to five feet above extreme high water. 


THE NORTHWEST BRIDGE. 


It has already been stated, that the first design for the North West 
Bridge was similar to that for the South W- est; the chief difference be- 
ing in the number of spans. The northwest structure was to have had 
five spans, each 200 feet wide; while the other was designed to have 
six spans of the same size. It has also been explained, that the first 
survey led to a misconception with regard to the strata in the bed of 
the River; that, instead of rock being found at an average depth of -18 
feet under high-water, the hard substance struck by the boring tools 
was only a bed of gravel overlying a great deposit of silt, and that the 
rock was actually 112 feet below high water. 
It is necessary to state, that, when the meliminary survey was made, 
only such boring implempnts could be obtained; as could be extempor- 
ized in the neighbourhood by a country blacksmith, and that with 
these imperfect implements the attempt was made to ascertain the na- 
ure of the river bottom. The bed of the river was from twenty to 
1 wenty-five feet below high-water; and after the boring rods had 
passed through about the samp extent of mud, they, in every trial, 
struck a hard substance. The operator saw sandstone rock cropping 
out on the river bank; and he naturally, but as it afterwards proved, 
incorrectly, inferred, that he had struck a continuation of the rock for- 
mation, underlying the river. 
During the winter of 1870-1, more perfect boring implements were 
employed in testing the nature of the river bottom before building 
operations were commenced. It was then that the true nature of the 
river bed was discovered. 




 


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THE 1\HHAl\HCHI BRIDGES. 


201 


A series of accurate borings was then instituted. These borings 
were made from scows during the summer of 1871; and from the 
ice during the following winter. The site of each pier was carefully 
established: and besides the test borings on the centre line, others were 
made on parallel lines ;)0 feet distant on each side of the centre line. 
The results did not materially differ from those obtained on the centre 
line, and showed that the strata were horizontal. 
The boring was performed in the mmal manner, 7-inch tubing be- 
ing used. Some arrangement was, however, necessary to meet the dif- 
ficulty which the rise and fall of the tide presented when operating 
from the ice, in order that the tube should be maintained vertical and 
steady and free from all liahility to derangement, as the ice rose and 
fell. A wooden tube or box, 9 inches square inside, and of sufficient 
length to extend heyond the range of tides, was sunk through the ice, 
and had arms which rf'sted upon and were made fast to the surface. 
This box protected the upper end of the iron tuhing from the ice, while 
itself rose and fell with the tide. 'Vhen operating from a scow, a 
well through the floor of the scow s
rved the same purpose. On reach- 
ing a suitable depth a smaller tube-5 inches diameter-was introduced, 
telescopic fashion; care being taken that the upper end of the smaller 
tube did not fall below the hottom of the larger one. The point of the 
tubing was in all cases made to precede thf' point of the valve auger 
or other boring tool in use, and thus the exact depth and character of 
the various strata were ascertained. The results are shown on the 
section of the river hottom, plate No. 31. 
As the boring proceeded for the northwest bridge, experiments 
were made to ascertain hy direct pressure the load which the strata 
would carry. On the tubes reaching the point to be tested, and the 
material within having been removed, iron rods smaller than the 
tubing were passed down, The rods terminated in a blunt end with 
an area of three square inchps. They were kept clear fl'om friction, 
and were loaded ahove the surface of the water with different weights, 
which were allowed to remain for definite lengths of time. In this 



202 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


manner the supporting power of the differcnt strata in the bed of the 
river was distinctly ascertained. 
The result of these tests may, possibly, possess some interest to the 
professional reader.- 
The information thus obtained having established that the piers 
might safely be founded on the gravel stratum, the Chief Engineer did 
not deem it necessary to change in any way the original plan; he, 
however, held it expedient to increase the width of the caissons from 
24 to 30 feet, in ordcr to distribute the weight over an area one-fourth 
greater than at first designed. But a difficulty arose with the contract- 
ors. They argued that an increase in the width of the base of the 
caissons would render the sinking of them extremely difficult; and they 
demanded a large increase in price for the additionullabour and expense 
which they asserted the change would exact. To meet these objections 
the Engineer proposcd a modification in the form of the caissons with 
an increased base, which the contractors undertook to carry out for 
little more than the original contract price. 
The modified plan of foundations for the Piers, adopted and car- 
ried into execution, is shown in Plate No. :32. A large oblong caisson 
open at the top and bottom, was first sunk in proper position at 
each pier site; its lower edge resting on the bed of the river, and its 
upper edges extending above water. Around the four sides were 
square piles driven close together. \Vithin the enclusedarea, all the sand 
and mud, down to the gravel bed, were removed, and the space 
filled with rubble stone and concrete in equal proportions. The space 
within the caisson, and above the original river bed, was then 
filled with concrete up to the bed for the masonry. The concrete thus 
formed a huge monolithic ma::.,::; for the support of the superincumbent 
pIer. 
It has already been stated that an additional span was given to 
the Northwest Bridge; by this arrangement the two abutments were 


· See Arrcndix. 




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THE )IIRA)IICHI BRIDGES. 


203 


placed on the shore, where no difficulty was experienced in founding 
them. 
The five piers were lettered consecutively from north to south; A. 
B. C. D. and X. 
Plate No. 31 shows the relative position of the piers and abutments; 
together with the strata which underlie the River. 



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THE SOUTH ABUTMENT. 
Operations were commenced on the 13th of May, 1872, at the 
Southerly abutment. One-half of the site lay within the water 
mark; and in order to ohtain a fouml;\tion, a coffer-dam was necessary. 
This was constructed of crib work and sheet piling, and of only 
three sides, carrying a platform ahollt 20 feet wide. A wharf for the 
. discharge of building 
tone was formed on the front, and a travel- 



204 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


leI' was constructed, by which the material for building was lifted 
directly into position. The sheet piling within the crib work was in 
two rows, 5 feet apart, driven to the rock; and the space between the 
rows was filled in with clay puddle. The rock bottom was laid bare, 
and then cut into steps to receive the masonry, the front wall of which 
commenced 12
 feet below high water leveL Little trouble was 
experienced from water; what little was met with, flowed in through 
fissures in the rock. 
The masonry, 985 cubic yards, was commenced on the 13th of 
June, and completed on the 28th of August, 1872. 


THE NORTH ABUTMENT. 


The site being entirely within high-water mark, it was necessary 
to construct a coffer-dam. The shore at ,this point is bold, and the 
rock dips towards the river, when, at the face of the abutment, it 
drops to a slope of about one to two. The whole abutment is placed on 
solid rock, the front wall commencing HJ feet 6 inches below high- 
water. The rock lay in a series of irregular benches, and was cut into 
horizontal steps, to receive the masonry. The coffer-dam was well 
constructed; and in consequence the water was controBed by one 
Woodford pump, driven by an engine on a scow alongside. The 
masonry was placed in position by a Traveller erected on the crib- 
work. The masonry, 1115 cubic yards, was commenced on the 15th 
of August, 1872, and completed in the following November. The 
mass of the masonry is of freestone from quarries in the locality: the 
girder seats are of granite, in single blocks, 6 feet by 4! feet, and 21 
feet deep. The upper surface is 23 feet 7 inches above extreme high- 
water. 
Plate No. 29 shews the form and detail of these abutments. 


THE CAISSONS FOR PIERS. 


The caissons were each 60 feet by 30 feet, built of timbers, 12 



PLATE No. 29. 


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THE MIRAl\IICHI BRIDGES. 


205 


inches square, hewn true on their beds, halved together at the corners 
and hreaking joints on the sides and ends. A roll of oakum was laid 
between the timhers, Loth on the flat, and at the Lutt joints, to render 
all water-tight. The timbers were fastened every 4 feet of their length, 
and at the Lutts, with juniper treenail8. 
The cai8sol18 were commenced on launch-ways near the Bridge 
site, and '\ere built to a height of six or eight feet previous to being 
launched. The construction was then proceeded with, afloat, until the 
requisite height was obtained. The tOp8 when in place were, in all 
cases, left above high-water level, as each cais80n had eventually to 
serve as a coffer-dam. 
As the cais80ns had to be pumped out to permit the building of the 
masonry, it was necessary to strengthen them internally by means 
of longitudinal and lateral struts and braces, which were afterwards 
removed. 
"
hen the caissons were floated into position, they were loaded 
down with stone, to hold them in place. Square piles were then driven 
round the four sides, to the gravel bed. The pile8 were each bolted to 
the upper timbers of the cais80ns, and a waling timber was secured 
along the outside faces, about midway between high and low tide 
mark. 


PIER X. 


Pier X was the first commenced; and as the difficulties met were 
here first overcome, a brief account will suffice for all the piers. The 
cais80n for this pier was commenced on the 19th day of J nne, 1872. 
Some little difficulty was experienced in launching it, but it was even- 
tually floated into position on the 6th July, and temporarily secured by 
driving a few piles on each side and end. Building was then pro- 
ceeded with, and the required height was reached on the 26th. On the 
caisson grounding, it was found that the bed of the river was 80me- 
what uneven, and it became necessary to level it by dredging away the 
inequalities and 60 allow the caisson to rest horizontally. 



206 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


In order to sink the caisson, a platform was foamed on its top, and 
loaded with stone. 
Two steam pile-drivers were then employed in driving the sheet 
piling. The piles were twelve inches square; driven, as close as possihle, 
to a depth of 47 feet 6 inches below high water: passing 8 inches into 
the gravel bed, which, at this pier, is 6 feet 
 inchei\ in thickness. The 
driving for the last few feet was very slow. This work was completed by 
the 6th of September, when temporary piles were driven for a platform 20 
feet wiae on each of the four sides of the caisson. On the platform a 
gantry was erected, of such height and length as would allow the 
traveller which it carried to lift building stone from the scows and set 
them on any part of the structure. Before commencing the masonry, 
the traveller was constantly in use in moving the engines and pumps 
employed in dredging, and in raising any sunken trees found embedded 
within the area of the foundations. The engines and machinery used 
in dredging and in pumping, were placed on the platform, which further 
served as a wharf for the discharge of material of all kinds. 
The river bed at this pier consisted of a black vegetable deposit, 
funy 16 feet in depth, and a mixture of mud and sand about 8 feet deep. 
Two pnmps, driven by separate engines, commenced operations on the 
21st of September 1872, but the progress made in the vegetable deposit 
was very slow. The pumps simply settled down into an area a little 
larger than their hase. while the material stood firm with nearly vertical 
sides. The action of water jets was brought to bear on it; and by 
means of this expedient, it was reduced, and ultimately removed by the 
pumps. 
The upper layer of material contained a quantity of partiany 
decaye(l wood, which continually became jammed in the working 
parts of the pumps, amI nccessitater} frcqnent disconnecting of the 
machines for the removal of the ohstruction. Two logs of Din:h were 
founel pIllIJt'(ldcd in the deposit, :
u feet helow high water. The 
removal of these occupied several days, as the material overlying them 
had to be dredged out for their whole length before they could be 



THE :MIRA\HCHI BRIDGES. 


207 


moved. Eventually, chains were made fast to them by divers, and the 
logs were raised by the traveller overhead: one piece measured 
(j feet 
long and 16 inches in diameter, the other 15! feet long, and 20 inches 
in diameter. 
The pumps continued in operation up to the 20th of 
ovember, 
when the formation of the ice rendered a suspension of work necessary. 
Up to this time a great proportion of the vegetable deposit had been 
removed. 'V ork was resumed on the 5th of :\Iay 1873, and the whole 
material within the area of the caisson was dredged out to the depth of 
46 feet below high water mark by the 31st of :\Iay. 
The dredging of this foundation extended over a period of twelve 
weeks; but deducting for wet weather and other delays, the actual 
pumping occupied sixty days of two engines and two pumps. 
The quantity of material remO\ ed was 1-!16 cubic yards; and taking 
the capacity of each pump at seven cubic yards (l
OO gallons) per 
minute, it appears that a cubic yard of water carried out with it on an 
average 0.075 cubic feet of solid matter, or at the rate of 1 cubic yard 
of the deposit to 356 cubic yards of water. 
Preparations were at once made to put in a 
! feet layer of con- 
crete over the whole area excavated. It was deposited through large 
spouts reaching to the bottom. Alternate layers of quarry rubhle stone 
and concrete were evenly distributed over the area until the space was 
filled up to the level of the bed of the river. A layer of concrete 6
 
feet thick was then put in by means of boxes with movahle bottoms. 
These boxes were contrived to open only when they touched bottom, 
in order that the concrete should be as little diluted as possible, by 
passing through the water. 
The concrete was brought to the proposed level h," the middle of 
July; '" hen, after a few days delay. an attempt was madc to unwater the 
dam with two "T oodford pumps; hut the concrete had not sufficiently 
set. amI the machinery was O\Terpowered and pumping had to he 
postponed. 
"Tith a view to make good the defects in the concrete and to 



208 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


reduce the head of water, another layer of concrete 18 inches deep was 
put in, which brought the surface up to 13 feet below high water. 
On the 30th of J tl.ly a second attempt was made to pump out the 
dam with two pumps, but without success. On the following day bags 
filled with clay were laid over the places where the leaks seemed to be 
greatest, viz. along the timbers of the caisson. The two pumps then, 
with ease, ran the water down to within three feet of the concrete, and 
held it there; though the leak was still considerable, and evidently was 
increasing. "'aIls of clay puddle were now built over the heaviest 
leaks, and a third pump introduced. On the 9th of August the three 
pumps were started with the falling tide, and in fifteen minutes the sur- 
face of concrete was laid bare. 
This condition was maintained for some time; when, without the 
. slightest warning, a large mass of concrete, close to the timber on the 
northern side, was forced up and the dam immediately fined, notwith- 
standing the pumps continued running. The Chief Engineer decided 
to make good the concrete, to add an additional layer, and defer further 
pumping for some months, in order to give the concrete time to harden. 
At the same time, with the view of securing and strengthening the 
caisson, he directed that heavy iron rods should be passed through from 
side to side, dividing it into six equal lengths, and that similar rods 
anchored in the concrete should be placed at both ends. All these rods 
were firmly tightened by nuts and screws; and as they were placed at 
some distance under water, divers in ordinary waterproof armour were 
employed. Rods such as described were placed in all the other pier8. 
The work was not proceeded with in winter, but was resumed on 
the 11th of May 187-!. Two pumps were then started, the water was 
speedily lowered to the concrete which proved hard and solid. The 
leaks betw
en the concrete and the timber were still considerable, but 
there was no appearance of leak through the body of the mass. In put- 
ting in the concrete in July 1873, weUs were left at each corner into 
which the pumps were set. It was considered that much of the leakage 
came in at these points; and on the additional layers of concrete being 



THE !IIIRA:\IICHI BRIDGES. 


209 


put on, the wells were filled up. As the 'Y oodford pump req uires water 
at least 12 inches deep in order to work with advantage, the concrete 
could not be laid quite bare. and the first course of footings-2! feet 
deep-was set partly in water. Any irregularities in the surface were 
removed by making up the concrete to a uniform level, so that every 
block had a solid bed. That the water might he entirely under control 
at any state of the tide a second engine and pump were put in position. 
The first course was set by the lbth of :\Iay. 
There was no further difficulty in keeping the dam free of wa- 
ter, and the masonry soon rose above the surface; but all anxiety was 
not removed. 
It was discovered at the end of June that the foundation of the 
structure, since the commencement of the masonry, had settled about 
six inches. Accurate measurements were regularly taken, and it ap- 
peared that a gradual settlement was going on. The building of the 
masonry was continued until the 6th of July, when the work was sus- 
pended, the pier being then four feet from the required height. Up to 
the 29th of August, the work had settled in all ten and a half inches. 
It was now determined to place on the pier a load several hundred tons 
greater than, on the completion of the bridge, it would be required 
to carry, and thus by direct weight force the whole structure to a per- 
manent bearing. This course was the more called for as doubts 
had been strongly expressed as to the sufficiency of the strata, 
underlying the river, to carry the bridge. For this purpose a 
platform was built on the footings of the masonry; upon this 
and the unfinished pier, stone and rails to the weight of about 4.)0 tons 
were placed. Up to the 3d of October, under this load, a further de- 
pression had taken place of 2! inches. The work remained thus load- 
ed until the following spring, when another 100 tons were added, but 
no farther settlement was perceptible. Fig. No. 38 shows the pier 
partially loaded. 
Careful investigation showed that the close piling around the 
concrete had not been disturbed in any way; that each pile re- 
mained precisely in the same position as when first driven; and that 
14 



210 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


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the gravel stratum which supported them had not yielded in any way. 
The settlement wal) therefore wholly within the caisson; and was un- 
doubtedly due to tIlt' !:ompression and consolidation of the stone fill- 
ing lwlow the concrete, under tllP load which had heen huilt over it. 
lt was evident from tll{' fact that the masonry was without the slight- 
e!-òt sign of crack or flaw, that thc concrete had a monolithic character, 
and had gradually sunk en maRse as the material under it hecame com- 
pres!-òptl by the superincumbent weight. 
"Then the structure was completecl, and the false works removed, 
the sheet piling and dam were cut off helow low water le,'cl, 
lId a 
mass of rip-rap depusitecl, as shown in Plate No. 32, so as entirely to 
cover and secure the wholt' of the works on whil'h the ma,;onry rests. 
TIn; rip-rap was allowed to take a natural slope, and was rounded at 
the up and down :"tream ends to reduce the effects of any cross-cur- 



THE lIIlRA:\IICHI BRIDGES. 


211 


rents produced by the obstruction of the stream; and to obviate, as far 
as possible, the chances of a scour. 


PIER D. 


The foundation caisson, as CODf'tructed, is as that for Pier X. It 
was launched on the 9th August, 18'j
o and muved near to the site of 
the pier. The building continu
d till the 16th of Octoher, when it 
had aUained the required depth of 30 feet. Ûn the following day, 
and while the tide was running out, the caisson broke from its moor- 
ingf', but it was recovered without being damaged. It was loaded and 
sunk, and the driving of the sheet piling commenced: hut when the 
works were closed for the season on the 20th November, the piling 
was not completed. In thif' case the piling was driven to the depth of 
43 feet below high water leveL 
The wor
 was resumed on the üth of May, 1873, and by the 1st 
of .J une, the sheet piling and the piling for the surrounding platform 
were completed, and the plank and machinery placed in position. The 
dredging, carried on as in the last pier, was commenced 5th of June, 
1873. The material, a clean coarse sand, yielded readily to the action 
of the 'V oodford pump; the result accordingly differed from that at 
pier X. The depth of the sand was over 11 feet, and the excavation 
measured 700 cubic yards. 
By the 18th, the dredging was complf'ted to the depth of 41 feet 
under high water; and although it extended over fourteen days, only 10! 
days wcre employed in actual pumping, with two engines and pumps. 
The capacity of each pump being twelve hundred gallons, or seven 
cubic yards per minute. a cubiC' yard of water carried with it n.
1 
cubic feet of sand, i.r.o 1 cuhic yard of sand was removed wit.h 12fì 
cubic yards of water, 
The concrete filling was completed by the 25th September. No 
masonry was, however, laid that season. 
On the 21st of August, 1874, an unsuccessful attempt was made 



212 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


to pump out the coffer dam. On the 24th, a second attempt was made; 
but the water could not be lowered more than 11 feet below hicrh water 
'" 
with the pumping power employed. An additional engine with pump 
being put in operation, the water was run down sufficiently for the 
first course of masonry to be started. The stream of water discharged 
was at least 7000 gallons per minute. 
The masonry progressed rapidly, and was Boon brought above the 
water leTe!. No settlement took place until betwEen the 17th and 
24th September, when it was found that the pier had 
ettIed slightly. 
On the 2nd of October, building was suspendeù. the top of the 
structure being then 6 feet from the required height. The pier was 
then loaded with stone and iron, weighing about 500 tons, and it was 
found, on the 7th November, that a further settlement had taken place, 
of 0.17 feet. On the 27th January, the total settlement had reached 
0.46 feet. Since the latter date no further subsidence has been 
detected. The load rtmained on the pier all winter, building was 
resumed on the 1st June, and in four days the structure was com- 
pleted. As in pier X, the masonry settled with the maN" of concrete on 
which it rested without loosening a joint or fracturing a single stone. 


PIER C. 


The depth to the bed of river at the site of this pier was 29 feet. 
The caisson for the foundation was similar to those already described. 
It was launched on the 16th of May, 1R73, floated away, and finished 
to the height of 30 feet. On the 23d of June, it was placed in 
position and loaded down. The sheet piling, driven to the depth of 
,(4 feet below high water, was completed on the Rth of July. 
The dredging commenced on the 1f>th of Augu!'t. The material 
overlying the gravel bed, consisted altogether of 13 feet of clean coarse 
sand. The dredging extended over seventeen days, but the machinery 
ran only nine days in all. The quantity of sand removed was 800 



THE :r.IIRAMICHI BRIDGES. 


213 


cubic yards, every cubic yard of water thrown out carrying with it 0.28 
cubic feet of sand, or 1 cubic yard of solid matter in 94.5 cubic yards 
of water pumped. 
The filling of the space dredged out was treated differently from 
that of piers X and D. Instead of the alternate layers of concrete and 
rubble stone, the whole space up to the level of the river bed was 
filled in with stone, crushed to the size used for concrete, but with- 
out sand being added; and a layer of concrete 13 feet in depth was 
deposited upon this base. The concrete was completed by the 29th 
of October, 18ï3, when the works were closed fur the season. 
On the 16th of June, 1!j74, everything being ready, three pumps 
driven by two engines, were started, with a favorable tide. The water in 
the dam was then run down to 12 feet below high water, but the pumps 
in operation could do no more, It was apparent that more power must 
be used. On the 

nd, a trial was made with four pumps, driven by 
three engines; and, for a short time, they succeeded in lowering the 
water to 14 feet below high water. It was necessary, however, for the 
four pumps to run without intermission to hold their own. On the 
stoppage of a pump, the water at once began to rise. A third effort 
was made on the following morning with the same result. The 
greatest head obtained was 8 feet 10 inches. On the stoppage of all 
the pumps, the water rose in the dam 52 inches in eleven minutes. 
Operations were now suspended at this pier for three weeks. It was 
siml}ly a question of pumping power, and it was accordingly deter- 
mined to add a large Gwynne dredge pump, and a fourth engine. In 
the mean time blocks of stone for a 2! feet course were placed roughly 
in position by divers. The five pumps were put in operation. They 
succeeded in lowering and holding the water 14 feet below high water 
level. 
On the stones being laid bare they presented an uneven appear- 
ance, some having been carried upon the laitense. and others upon 
points of concrete standing above the surface. It was accordingly 
necessary to raise the stones in order to obtain a level bed. By the 



214 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


27th of July the first course, 2
 feet thick, was set, after which no diffi- 
culty with the water was experienced. 
The )Iasonry steadily progressed, and no settling was discovered 
until the 7th of August. On the 1;">th, when there had been 13
 feet of 
masonry built, a subsidcnce of 2 inches had taken place. Pp to the 
17th of September when building was suspended at 6 feet from the 
full height, the total settlement was 0.24 feet. As in the other 
cases the pier was loaded by placing on it 575 tom; over and above the 
weight of pier when fini
hed. During the operation of loading, a set- 
tlement of 0.13 feet at the up-river end, and u.u7 feet at the down river 
end took place, and from the 23rd of November to the3Ist of Decemher 
1874, a still further settlement 0.07 at the up river end, o.on feet at the 
down river end was observed. At this date the total settlement was 
0.48 feet. The load remaineù on the pier until the 6th of April 1ö75, when 
work was resumed and completed. But no chang
 whatever has 
taken place since the close of 1874; and the masonry as in the other 
piers remains without a flaw. 


PIER B. 


The depth of water was 27 feet 4 inches, and the material a clean 
sharp sand 24 feet 5 inches deep; the gravel bed being rëached at 51 
feet 9 inches below high water; a thickness of gravel 5 feet 6 inches 
overlying the deep deposit of silt between it and the rock. 
The caisson was floated into its exact position on the Rth of .July 
1873. In grounding it indicated unevenness of bottom. The incquali- 
ties were rectified by the use of a force pump and hose. The piling, 
50 feet long, was at once begun. 
The dredging commenced on the 1.
th of September, and extpnded 
oyer 36 days. The actual running time of the two pumps was 1ü
 
days. The quantity of material removed from within the limits of the 
foundation was 1-!95 cubic yards. Each cubic yard of water thrown 



. 


THE MIRAl\IICHI BRIDGES. 


215 


out by the pumps mu
t therefore have carried with it 0.29 feet of sand, 
01' 1 cubic yard of 
and with 9:!,7 cubic yards of water. 
The dredging was completed on the 
:!nd of October, and the 
foundation wa
 theu filled with crushed stone
 to the level of the river 
bed. On the 10th of X ovember, work ceased; at which time the fill- 
ing was completed. 
Un the 
.th of 
Iay, 18H, work was resumed. The concrete filling 
was completed on the 12th of June, bringing the surface up to 1û feet 
below high water. During the period allowed for the concrete to 
harden, divers were engaged putting in iron tie-rods similar to those 
ahead y referred to. 
4n attempt was made to pump out the dam on the 13th of October, 
with the hope that the footings of the masonry might be laid before the 
sea
on closed. Foul' engines with five pumps, however, after repeated 
attempts, failed to lower the water to the full depth req uirecl. 
During the winter it was determined to add another layer of con- 
crete 4 feet in thicknes
 and thus bring the surface to 12 fect below 
high water, as at pier X. The concrete was fini
hed on the 2
d of May, 
187.5. 
On the 13th of June, the pumps were started and the surface of 
the concrete laid bare in 20 minutes. The concrete was fonnd hard 
and compact. The surface was levelled off, and the masonry began on 
the following day. It continued without interruption till the 24th of 
July, when work was suspended preparatory to loadiugthe structure to 
test for settlement. The load in this case was .5.
O tons. During the 
process ofloading, from the 24th of July to the 4th of Augu
t, the pier 
had settled 0.18 feet. On the 9th of August, a further settlement had 
taken place of 0.14 feet. On the 20th of August no further change 
could be observed. Building was r.esumed on the 24th and completed 
on the 30th of August. 



216 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


PIER A. 


The depth of water at high tide is 31 feet 6 inches at the site of 
this pier. The material under the river bed was a black vegetable 
deposit 18 feet 9 inches deep, overlying the gravel bed found at 48 feet 
6 inches below high water. 
The caisson was made fast in position on the 4th of September, 
1873. The dredge pumps were put in operation 011 the 2.5th of Oct. 
and continued until the 15th November when the work was suspended 
for the season. 
Work was resumed on the 29th of May, 187-1, and the dn;dging 
completed on the 30th of June. This work extended altogether over 
54 days, but the actual running time was 24 days. There were 10-14 
cubic yards of material removed, giving 0.14 cubic feet thrown out with 
each cubic yard of water, or 1 cubic yard of solid matter with HI3 cubic 
yards of water. The space dredged out was filled in with crushed stone 
to the level of the bed of the river. 
Early in July the concrete was begun, and deposited to a depth of 
15 feet 6 inches below extreme high water. No attempt was made to 
pump out the foundation of this pier, as it was anticipated the same dif- 
ficulties would be experienced as at pier B, and it was allowed to stand 
over to the following summer. During the winter it was decided to 
put in another 4 feet layer of concrete. This work was done early in 
the summer of 1!j75, and on the first attempt to pump out the dam the 
surfacc of the concrete was laid bare with comparatively little trouble. 
The water was lowered to 12 feet in 15 minutes and readily maintained 
there during half tide. Building was commenced on the 27th of July, 
and finished for the purpose of applying the load by the 21st of August. 
The fir,.;t settlement observed was on the 4th of August, when it was 
found to be 0.0.5 feet. On the 21st of August previous to loading for 
test, the structure had 'Settled 0...12 feet. The load applied was 550 
tons. During the process of loading the structure settled 0.33 feet. 




 

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THE MIRAMICHI BRIDGES. 


217 


The load remained for ten days without further 
masonrj was completed on the 14th of September 
settlement was 0.74 feet. 


settlement. The 
1875. The total 


CONCRETE. 


The concrete used in the foundations was made from broken stone, 
coarse river-sand, and the celebrated English Portland cement. The 
stone was broken to pass through a ring less than three inches in diam- 
eter. As the breaking of the stone by a Blake Machine, pulverized 
much of the material, the proportion of sand depended upon the condi- 
tion of the stone; but snfficient saud was always added to the broken 
stone to fill up all the interstices and render the mass compact. 
The concrete for the fonndations of the Northwest Bridge was 
made with two barrels of cement to the cubic yard of crushed stone, 
that for the foundation of the Southwest Bridge with one barrel to 
the cubic yard; except in the filling of the caisson for Pier E, and 01 
the wells of all the other caissons, the concrete for which had two bar- 
rels per cubic yard of broken stone. Care was taken to thoroughly 
mix the ingredients. The total quantity of cement used in these bridges 
was about 14,000 barrels. 


MASONRY. 


The masonry of the abutments and piers was of a thoroughly mas- 
sive and substantial character. The stones were of large dimensions, 
well proportioned and put together in the best style of workmanship. 
Each stone in the cutwaters and exposed angles was secured by 
iron dowels run in with cement. The masonry was laid in Portland 
cement mixed in the proportion of two measures of sand to one of pure 
cement. 
The stones for the girder seats and faces of the ice breakers 



'II 


218 


THE I
TERCOLO
I^L. 


were massive blocks of granite; some of which were brought from the 
Nipissiguit River near Bathurst, a distance of about 175 miles hy water. 
The greater portion, however, was obtained from boulders near 
the river banks, from twelve to sixteen miles above the railway cross- 
ing. The building stone proper is a light coloured free-stone obtained 
from two quarries; one on the River 
Iiramichi, about four miles 
below the site of the hridges; the other, from which the greater quan- 
tity was brought, near the mouth of the River llartibogue, a trihutary 
of the l\[iramichi, about seventeen miles distant from the railway 
crossing. Both quarries furnishpd stones similar in colour and quality. 
The rpmaining work at this bridge was now confined to the deposit 
of rip-ra!J around the piers and the erection of the iron superstructure. 
The plant employell in the construction of these bridges was large 
and costly; besides a full assortnwnt of ordinary tools and appliances, 
it consisted of a steam tug, with 21 large scows; machinery workecl by 
steam for excavating. crushing stone. pile-lhiving, dredging, lifting and 
moving material; also diving apparatus. The pumping machinery was 
especially effective; it consisted of -1 \V oodford pumps, with j! inch 
discharge pipes, and 1 Gwynne !Jump with a 12 inch discharge. These 
were driven by 5" steam engines. of ,")O-horse power each. The pumps 
made, on an average, 400 revolutions per minute, at which rate they 
threw from 1200 to 1500 gallons per minute each. The Gw.vnne pump 
threw as much as 2'=>00 gallons per minute. The \Voodford pumps 
had tlwir pipes in lengths of 9 feet, attached to light angle-iron frames 
3 feet sq nare; each length having its own driving shaft attached. 
The lengths were easily fitted into each other, amI sppured by small holts 
at the angles, the shafting at the same time locking together. The 
driving pulley was quickly raisecl or lowered on the shafting to suit the 
situation, and was secured with screws. The pumps re,;trd on the 
material to be removed, and although secured to the caisson so as to 
prevent lateral motion, they were free to move vertically amI they 
settled down with their own weight as the material was thrown out. 
In conjunction with the \Y oodford pnmps, two powerful Cameron 



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THE MIRAlIIICHl BRIDGES. 


219 


force pumps, with a supply of three-inch hose, capable of throwing six 
heavy streams, were constantly in operation. The flexible hose termi- 
nated in metallic nozzles of one-inch bore, which were attached to the 
ends of long guide poles, by mealls of which powerful jets of water were 
directed against the material in the coffer-dams, to loosen it, and bring it 
within the operation of the pumps. 
The work of both bridges has been sati!:!factorily completed by the 
Contractors, l\Iessrs. Brown, Brooks, and Ryan 
The difficulties experienced in carrying out the north-west hrictge 
have been fully described. :\[1'. Joseph Tomlinson acted as Superin- 
tendent in connection with the foundations of the south-west bridge. 
This structure was carried to completion without any departure from 
the original designs, aud without any claims for extras on the part of 
the contractors. 
1\11'. A. L. Light was Engineer of the District; and under him, Mr. 
'V. B. Smellie had direct charge, as Resident En!!ineer, of both the 
Miramichi bridges, from the commencement of construction until their 
final completion. 
The south-west bridge was first completed. The fir"t train was 
passed over, and the bridge was opened for use, on August 26th, 1875, 
by His Excellency, General Sir William O'Grady Haly, Administrator 
of the Government. 



CHAPTER XII. 


THE NOVA SCOTIA DISTRICT. 


r.engt.h and Sub-Divisions-General Description-The Cobequid Mountains-Geological 
J.<'eatures-Sprin
hill Coal Field-The Iron Mines-Division U, Old Line-Division 
V, Eastern Extension-Division W, Contract No. ll-Division X, Contract No. 4- 
Division Y, Contract No.7-Division Z, Contract No. 12. 


This District commences at Moncton, and after following 8 miles 
of the railway between St. John and Shediac, takes an indirect course, 
the general bearing of which is nearly south-easterly, to terminate at 
Truro at the head of Cobequid Bay, in the Bay of Fundy. 
It comprises the following divisions :- 
Division U. E. & N. A. Railway, 7i miles long. 
" V. Eastern Extension, 37 " " 
" W. Contract No. 11, - - 41 " " 
" x. " "4,- -27 " " 
" Y. " " 7, - - 241 " " 
" z. " "12, - - 24 l' " " 


Total length, 


1241 miles. 


It has the most crooked alignment, the greatest extent of curva- 
ture, the sharpest curves, the highest hridge, the deepest embank- 
ment, the steepest grade, and the second highest summit on 
the whole railway. It touches tide water at four points, and a con- 
siderable summit is found between each two of the points. It has the 
longest stretches of the most level ground; and it passes through the 
roughest country, except that at the chief summit on the St. Lawrence 
District. The character of its soil is accordingly varied, ranging from 
the highest fertility in the marshes surrounding the heads of bays of 
220 



THE NOVA SCOTIA DISTRICT. 


221 


the Bay of Fundr, to almost absolute barrenness in the elevated spots. 
Its rocks range from the granite of the Cobequid mountains, to the 
coal measures. It was the source of protracted contention in regard to 
the route; although the location was confined to the narrow limits of 
an Isthmus between the Gulf of bt. Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy. 
The Cobequid mountains cross the Nova Scotia District about 25 
miles from its southerly end. From 
Ionctoll to the Cobequid range, 
the line crosses three belts of lower carboniferous rocks, and two of the 
middle coal formation; one of the former being at either extremity, the 
third being in the middle. The well-known Springhill coal field, is 
situated on the most southerly of the belts of the middle coal forma- 
tion. 
The flanks of the Cobequids are occupied by rocks partially meta- 
morphosed. On the southerly side the strata consist of quartzites and 
slates. These are intersected by a large irregular vein composed of 
carbonates and oxides of iron. This vein extends a long distance on 
each side of the railway, and is being worked by the Steel Company ot 
Canada. The construction of the Intercolonial line and the Branch to 
Pictou, places the iron region midway and within easy reach of two 
all but inexhaustible coal fields. These favourable conditions promise 
the future establishment of important industries in this quarter. 
In the middle of the Cobequid range, a hard reddish granite or 
gneiss is met. Between the Cobequids and Truro, the railway traverses 
another trough of .carboniferous rocks, but no coal-seams sufficiently 
thick for profitable working, have been found. 
The first District Engineer, was Mr. 'V. H. Tremaine, who had 
had the conduct of the location surveys, and also assisted in the pre- 
liminary surveys of 1864. He remained in charge of the works until 
the close of 1871, when he was succeeded by Mr. Collingwood Schrei- 
ber, who remained until their completion. 



222 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


DIVISION U. 


This title has been given to a section, about eight miles long, of 
the St. John and Shediac Railway, extending northward from Moncton 
to Paingec, which is commun to the two railways. The St. John and 
Shediac Hailway was constructed by the Government of New Bruns- 
wick, and is a part of one of the rival schemes of 18-1-5, for connecting 
Quebec and Halifax. This section was opened for public traffic in 
1860, and having been well constructed is in excellent order. The 
Engineer-in-Chief, was Mr. A. L. Light. 


DIVISION V. 


This Section, otherwise known as the " Eastern Extension " of the 
St. .Tohn and Shediac Railway, extends from Painsec to the Provincial 
Boundary Line. 
It was constructed by a Company under contract with New Bruns- 
wick, and was finished during the summer of 1871. After comple- 
tion it was purchased for the Government of the Dominion, by the 
Intercolonial Railway Commissioners, for the sum of $894,000; be- 
ing at the rate of *24,000 per mile, for 37 i miles, its total length. The 
line departs, to some extent, from a right line drawn between the 
termini; making a sweep of seven miles in a distance of 20 miles. 
Besides this general devia'tion, the line in itself is exceedingly crooked, 
13 of the 37 miles being on curves, some of which are very sharp. 
About the middle of the division there is a sharp 4 0 curve (Radius 
1432 fept) which sweeps round a semicircle; it is succeeded by another 
curve, Hcady as sharp, which pa:-;ses round three-eighths of a circle. 
These curves are on long maximum grades. 
As a great deal of this division is on meadow land, the cuttings and 
embunkmcuts are generally light. There is, however, some heavy work, 



THE NOVA SCOTIA DISTRICT. 


223 


but as the rail way was constructed at a fixed rate per mile, easy con- 
struction was more attended to than directness of route. Consequent- 
ly, even in the most difficult sections of the route, so much curvature 
has been thrown into the line, that the earthwork on the whole, is com- 
paratively easy. The curves are, as a rule, sharp, and the grades steep. 
From Dorchester, the middle of the division, for more than four 
miles, there is an almost continuous ascending grade, the greatest part 
of which rises 1 in 100. It is succeeded by a continuous descending 
grade of 1 in 100, for 2 miles. The remaining grades are easy, the few 
that rise quickly, have been introduced to reduce the earthwork. 
In the meadow lands, or marshes, which would be covered by high 
tide, "aboideaus" have been built across the embankments to keep back 
the rising tides. They are square wooden culverts, generally about 3 
feet 6 inches wide, each side made of three squared logs, laid transversely 
to the railway, the top and bottom being of squared l?gs laid at right 
angles with the sides. The lower end for six or eight feet, is -! feet 4 
inches square; whe1"e the narrow dimensions commence, two half doors 
are hung hOl'izontally, one at the top and one at the bottom, closing 
together tightly in the middle, the lower rising with the rising tide. 
They are made of hard wood, in pieces bound together by copper bolts 
The lower falls on a slip of wood to keep up the outer edge a few 
inches, and the rush of the incoming tide is sufficient to raise it to a 
vertical position and close it. Lnder circumstances where a larger 
sectional area is necessary for the drainage discharge, instead of in- 
creasing the size of the aboideau. two or more are constructed side by 
side. In one case, at Aulac, east of Sackville, there are five. These 
ahoideaux have in all cases been found very efficient. 
"Then the railway embankments are subject to the action of the 
tides, a cheap but efficient protection for the sloIJPs. has been formed, 
by placing trees and bruslm ood in layers at right angles to each other, 
with thin coucltcs of ordinary l1lal'sh mud'" between them, This pro- 
tection, even when almost plumb on the face, has fully succeeded. 


· ThE' local term for the rich plastic suL-tance thrown up Ly the tidcs of the nay of 
Fund). 



224 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


On this portion of the Rail way there are many small pile and 
trestle bridges. A peculiarity in their construction is the use made of 
"Ships' Knees" as angle pieces. . 
A bridge with three spans, each 160 feet wide, crosses the river 
Tantramar, at Sackville. The superstructure is of iron, on the English 
lattice principle: the roadway is on the lower chord, the upper horizon- 
tal bracing being at a height to admit the passage of trains. The piers 
were, in the first place, of slight construction. Indeed they may be de- 
scribed as having had no greater dimensions than was barely necessary to 
carry the superstructure. Consequently, the first winter tried them 
severely; one pier subjected to a heavy thrust of ice was found not to 
have strength sufficient fully to resist the strain, and a displacement re- 
sulted endangering the whole structure. These piers have since been 
rebuilt, at a cost many times exceeding the outlay which would have 
been necessary to build them sufficiently massive in the first place. 
Six miles from Painsec, there is an iron girder bridge of 50 feet 
span; the only one of the \Varren pattern between Rivière du Loup 
and Halifax. The roadway is carried on the top chord. 
In general, there is not sufficient ballast on this division, and in 
many places it is not of good quality. Difficulty was experienced in 
obtaining suitable material; excepting near Sackville, there was no 
good gravel to be had on the line. Iron rails are laid 34 miles; the rails 
have not worn well; the insufficiency and inferior quality of the ballast 
have doubtless contributed to this result, for without good and sufficient 
ballast no road can be maintained in good order. 
The Eastern Extension, having been constructed by the Province 
of New Brunswick, ends at the boundary between that Province and 
Nova Scotia, in the middle of the river Missiguash; and, as is usual in 
such cases, only the \Vestern abutment of the bridge over that river 
was built by New Brunswick. 



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THE 
OVA SCOTIA DISTRICT. 


225 


DIVISION W. 


CO
TRACT K o. 11. 


This Division begins in the middle of the river l\Iissiguash, 
and includes the Eastern abutment and the whole superstructure of 
the bridge. 
, , 
This superstructure is of wood, a Howe truss, with the roadway 
on the hottom chord. The span is 100 feet, the width between the 
trusses 19 feet, and the total height of the truss to the upper horizontal 
bracing, 21 feet 6 inches. It is the third of the wooden truss bridges on 
the whole line of the Intercolonial Rail\\ay. 
Although timber has been employed in spanning the river, the 
abutments are of substantial masonry, in every way suitable for the 
support of iron girders; should a spark at any time from passing trains 
lead to the destruction of the bridge by fire, and for a time sever 
railway connection between the two Provinces. 
The masonry is built on a pile foundation properly protected by 
crib-work and rip-rap from the wash of the tide. 
There are two ahoideaux on this division; One for Gordon's Brook, 
near the first mile; and the other for the river La Planche, about 2
 
miles from the beginning of the division. The first has double, and 
the second has four-sluiced pa
sages. 
There was consideraWe sinking of embankments over places where 
the marshes were soft and boggy, but it was anticipated and provided 
for. 


The dh-ision is only 41 miles long. The work was let in X ovem- 
bel', 1Rt5f), to )Iessrs. Davis. Grant and Sutherland, for 
61,713, to be 
completed by September of the year following. Changes were made in 
the location and grades, by which the cost of construction was in- 
creased by $8,668.24. The work was not finished until 27th Xovem- 
bel', 1871. 


15 



22G 


THE INTEIWOLONIAL. 


The average quantity of excavation is 37,7.'50 cubic yards reI' mile, 
and of masonry 290 cubic yards. 
The Resident Engineer in charge was 1\11'. George H. Henshaw. 


DIVISION X. 


CONTRACT No.4. 


This Division, 27 miles long, is the longest division constructed 
under the Commissioners. It begins one mile east of Amherst, on the 
" Amherst Uidge," where there is a cutting, one mile long, which con- 
tained 60,000 cubic yards. The embankment following was calculated 
to require 50,000 cubic yards in less than half a mile of its length. 
On account of its soft marshy bottom, a further quantity of 
18,00U cubic yards was provided. The emhankment has settled down, 
spread out at the base, and raised up the adjoining surface; the 
sinkage still continues, and the embankment requires occasional atten- 
tion. There is, however, no probability of accident. 
The line is much curved, there being forty curves amounting in 
the aggregate to nearly 13 miles in length, with more than 1600 de- 
grees of curvature. One curve, almost a mile long, encloses an arc of 
127 degrees; and is followed by one, 1000 yards long, enclosing an arc of 
103 degrees. Only a few of the curves are of short radius. 
Generally the grades are approximately level. But for 14 
miles the separate grades vary from 0.75 in 100 to 1 in 100, three 
ascending eastwards, divided by level, or easy grades in the same direc- 
tion ; the total height ascended is 206 feet in 5 miles, gaining the high- 
est point on the division, 245 feet above the lowest point. The line 
then ùescends continuously for 133 feet in a length of 31 miles. 
The first cutting, with 60,000 cubic yards, is the heaviest on the 
division. The cutting at the tenth mile contained 42.000 cubic yards, 
There are four heavy embankments, the lightest requiring 42,000 cubic 



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7 


yards, the heaviest 65,uuO cubic yards. Except on the man;hes the 
embankment::; are all ::;hort; the cuttings are also short. 
The quantity of rock in the cutting:.:, was in the ratio of one to 
twenty of earth. 
A special protection, which has been found efficient, was provided 
for the railway, where the line runs close to the )Iaccan river. Piles 
were closely driven to the level of the ground, by the side of the river, 
sta}ed by a second row of piles driven inland, 10 feet apart, the space 
between being filled with stone and brushwood, 
There are several aboideaux on the line, similar to those described, 
and many small culverts of masonry. 
The Nappan river is crossed by a bridge 100 feet wide, with 
wrought iron superstructure, having the roadway on the lower chord. 
The abutments are built on a pile foundation, the outside piles being 
closely driven, and the foundations protected by masses of heavy rip- 
rap. Embankments washed by the tide are protected, according to 
local practice, by brushwood and small poles, laid in layers with" marsh 
mud" between them. 
A skew bridge of 24 feet span, with iron superstructure, is con- 
structed over a tramway from a coal mine. 
A third bridge, of 100 feet span, with iron superstructure, is built 
over the Little Forks river. The abutments are about 33 feet high, 
built on rock a few feet below the bed of the stream. 
The work was let in 18()9, to Messrs. Elliott, Grant and 'Vhite- 
head, for the sum of 
:!97,000. At the close of that year, when work 
to the amount of
-!G,200 had beenperformed, the contractors found their 
prices were too low; and their contract was annulled. On 25th l\Iay, 
1870, a new contract was entered into with Messrs. Smith and Pit- 
blado, to finish the work for $-!38.

t), on 1st July. 1871. It" as fin- 
ished one year later. 
The length of the division is 
7 miles. The average quantity of 
excavation per mile is 25,800 cubic yards, and of ma::;onry 418 cubic 
yards. 




2{1 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


The Resident Engineer to the close of 1871, was 
Ir. Geo. H. 
Henshaw: at the latter date the District EnO'ineer assumed clmro'e amI 
'" '" 
1\11'. .r. R. Smith acted as assistant. 
At the Springhill station, a branch has been constructed to the 
Springhill coal mines. It is short, with sharp curves anù steep graùes, 
and with numerous changes in both, The ballast is bad, in many 
places heing sandy day. The Branch is not a part of the Intercolonial 
Railway, but is worked by the Springhill Coal Company. 


DIVISION Y. 


CONTRACT No.7. 


This Section is heavy, having upwards of a million cubic yards of 
earth excavation, and forty thousand cuhic yards of rock. X early all 
the heavy work is 0.8 the last six miles. There are several deep rocky 
ravines, the emhankments over three of which have respectively a 
height on the centre line of iO feet, 96 feet, and 10,=> feet. One cutting, 
chiefly rock, has a depth of.)2 feet on the centre line; as these works 
are on the steep sides of hills, ",0 the extreme heights and depths are 
greater. 
. The division for three-fourths of its length i:'\ on orùinary rolling 
land; hut for the remaining distance it lies on steep rocky side-hill, by 
\yhich it ascends from the valley of the river Wallace, to a hig-h sUln- 
mit at Folly Lake, the highest point on the railway bctween1\letapedia 
and Halifax. The height of this summit is t507 feet above the sea. and 
thl' height of the lowest point, at Hiver Philip. near the west end of 
the division, is 
3 feet, so that the total ascent is 52-1 feet. On the 
whole length there are eleven milps of steep grades varying from o.
o 
in 100 to 1 in 100, H miles descending, and 9! miles ascending, 
towards Truro. 



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. 


THE XOVA SCOTIA DISTRICT. 


229 


The curves are numerous and some are sharp; one, a -1: 0 curve, 
1433 feet radius, is nearly 
100 feet long; and another, a 3 0 
U' 
curve, radius 161
 feet, is over 1
00 feet long. The totallengtll of 
curves is above 10 miles, and the total curvature amounts to 10
.)o. 
The tangents are all short except ill one instance, where the length is 
5 miles. 
On this division seven tunnels are introduced, in place of long 
heavy culverts, in the ravines pa-.,sed over; three of 9 feet diameter, four 
of 7 feet. The three former are rC'spectively 
OO. 3.")5, and 370 feet 
long. These seven tunnels are cut through solid rock; and require no 
lining, except in the case of one, which, for a length of 211 feet in the 
middle, required the protection of stone masonry 18 inches thick, with a 
water-way of 6 feet. There are, moreover, several tunnels -I: feet wide 
by 5 feet high, to take the place of box culverts for ordinary surface 
drainage. These tunnels are constructed on a steep side-hill and answer 
the purpose welL The small tunnels, at the upper end, have a wide 
perpendicular well, cut into the rock. from the bottom of which the 
incline commences, parallel to side-hilL Choking by floods and injury 
to the road-bed are thus avoided. A depth of at least 6 feet of solid 
rock has been maintained over the smaller, aud of 12 feet over the 
larger passages so the conduits themselves are imperishable. 
There are three bridges ou the division, one over the river Philip 
with three spans each 100 feet wiùe. The two others have spans of 
50 feet and r.o feet, over branches of the \Vallace river. There is 
nothing peculiar in their construction. The extreme height of the 
bridge over the river Philip is 6U feet. 
The WOl'k was let in 186
 to 
Iessrs. H. J. Sutton & Co., for 
$-I:l
,n5.). After executing work to the extent of 
.)3,731, in 18fi9, the 
('ontractors gave up their contract, as their prices were too low. The 
remainder of their work was let in 
Iay, 1870, for $.")57,750, to 
Iessrs. 
James Simpson & Co., the work to be completed on 1st July, 1871 ; 
but it was not completed until the summer of 1872. 
The total length ùf the division is 2H miles. The average quantity 



230 


THE INTERCOLOXIAL. 


of excavation is about 45,
()0 cubic yards, and of ma:-.onry :142 cubic 
yards, per mile. There are besides .576 lineal feet of cast iron pipe 
culverts, and 1
03 lineal feet of tunnels. 
The Resident Engineer from the commencement of the work until 
the close of 1871 was Mr. Tom S. Rubidge, who had been employed in 
the Exploratory surveys of 1
ö4. Mr. P. S. Archibald, his assistant 
remained until the rails were laid, and had charge of the track 
laying and ballasting. 


DIVISION Z. 


CONTRACT No. 12. 


The first seven miles of this division have many curves, the line 
windiug round headlands of the River Folly valley; the remainder of 
the division has long tangents with some long flat curves. 
As the Railway falls from Folly Lake, 1100 feet above the level of 
the sea, to Truro, only a few feet above the sea level, many of the 
grades &ore extreme, the greatest difference of level being 578 feet. 
One continuous grade, more than two miles long, descends at the rate 
of 1.
O in 100. There is an aggregate length of 5! miles on grades 
descending at rates varying between 0.80 and 0.\
4 in 100. There are in 
all 10! miles of heavy grades on the Section. 
Several tunnels take the place of culverts under deep embank- 
ments; with one exception, in compact conglomerate rock. all required 
to be lined, the other six being huilt in soft red :mndstone, or rather a 
hardened sandy clay. 
The most important of the several iron bridges, is that over the 
river Folly, with six spans of 100 feet, R2 feet in height from the bed 
of the river, a striking structure built of durable sandstone of various 
colours. The foundations are on rock, It spans t.
lC eastern portion 



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THE NOVA SCOTIA DISTRICT. 


231 


of the valley at this place. A long narrow ridge, about 50 feet high, 
divides the valley of the Folly from that of a smaller stream. This 
seconù valley, 80 feet deep, is crossed by a solid embankment; the 
stream Leing diverted through a tunnel into the Folly. 
There are three low bridges, each with two spans of 100 feet; 
another bridge, over the Salmon river at Truro, has three spans of 100 
feet. 
The work was let by contract in 1
69, to Messrs. Sumner and 
Somers, for $597,600, to be completed on 1st July, 1871. But on 
July 1st, 1872, although $551,000 had been paid to the contractors, the 
work heing much behindhand, the Government undertook its completion 
by days' labour. $105,000 in excess of the original contract sum has 
been expended. 
The total length of the division is 2H miles; the average quantity 
01 excavation about -1:3,700 cubic yards per mile, and of masonry -1:62 
cubic yards. Th<Jre are 1251 lineal feet of tunnels. 
The Resident Engineer was Mr. \Vm, Hazen, who had been on 
the location surveys of 1869. He was in charge until the close of 
1871, after which the District Engineer took charge. 
At Londonderry station, about 7 miles from the commencement of 
the division, a branch 3 miles in length, runs to the Londonderry Iron 
mines. It was constructed by the Mining Company. 
At Truro, the Railway joins the line constructed from Halifax to 
Pictou by the Government of Nova Scotia, before the union of the 
Provinces. 



CHAPTER XIII. 


CONCLUDING REl\IARKS. 


Scope of the Volume-General Statements-Openin
 of Seetions-Gross Quantities of W ork- 
Average Quantities per l\liIe-Total Expenditure-Review of the Boullllary Ques- 
tiem-Diplomacy of the United State
-Sacrifiee of British Interests-The Lesson 
Taught.....GeneraIUbsen.ations-The Railway and the Dominion-Histnrie'll Events- 
Suggestive Associations-Men identified with the Uailway-A Coincidence-Open. 
ing of the Line. . 


It has been the aim óf the writer to give, in the preceding pages, 
a concise account of the Intercolonial Hailway, in its several stages. 
'Vhile setting forth the principal facts in its history, as far as he has 
been ahle, the writer has also presented those suhsidiary events, which 
have more or less influenced the project from the beginning. These 
rccords may appear of doubtful utility to those who are familiar 
with them; but, when the present actors shall have passed away, 
the permanence of the record may be held by another generation 
to he of some value, 
The Railway will hereafter be known to the general public chiefly 
on account of the advantages which it has created, and the con- 
veniences which it has increased, To the statesman and the engineer, 
its history has more suggestive teaching. The writer, however, does 
not conceive it to be his province to enlarge on this view. It only 
remains for him to add some general statements respecting the under- 
taking, and so bring to an end the duty he has assumed, of record- 
ing its vicissitudes and its successful consummation. 
The line south of Moncton has been open since 1873, by which 
means Rail way connection between St. John and Halifax was 
attained. At the north the distance from River du Loup to St. 



CO
CLUDI:SG RE)IARKS. 


233 


Flavie, 813 miles, was opened in August, 187-1:. Between Campbel- 
ton and l\Ioncton, 185 miles, trains have been running, with some 
interruptions, since last winter. The remaining sections are )Jow 
completed, and the line may be considered fit for traffic throughout. 
Tables are given, in the appendix, which lcihow the gross quanti- 
ties of the work in each District, and the average quantities per mile 
on each Division. Being based on the returns of actual measure- 
ments, they may be regarded as authoritative. 
They show that more than two hundred thousand cubic yards of 
masonry has been built. and that the excavation amounts to sixteen 
million cubic yards, of which nine to ten per cent has been rock. 
Comparing the different Divisions, the lowest average excavation 
per mile is 13,663, the highest 81,9\16 cubic yards. The lowest aver- 
age of masonry is 179, the highest is 2,00-1: cubic)' ards per mile. 
Making comparison of the four Districts, the average excavation 
per mile is as follows: - 


The St. Lawrence District 
The Hestigouche District- 
The Miramichi District 
The N ova 
cotia District - - 


33,631 cubic yards. 
33,000" " 
31,940" " 
30,200" " 


The average masonry per mile may also be stated thus: - 


The St. Lawrence District - - - - - 
The Restigouche District - - - - 
The l\Iiramichi District - - - - - 
The Nova 
cotia District - - - - 


33:2 cubic yards. 
557" " 
376" " 
330" " 


On the line, as a whole, the average gives the excavation at 32,210 
cubic yards, and the. masonry at 401 cubic yards per mile. 
It is not practicable to state the precise cost of the several sections 
in each case, as many of the claims advanced by contractors are unset- 
tled. Moreover, some time must elapse before the entire ballasting 
and draining are thoroughly.completed. 



234 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


At this date, the capital account shows a total expenditure of 
$21,.569,136.7!.1, on all services, including branch lines and rolling- 
stock. 
The statements of quantities and cost may be said to be all 
that was needed to close the description of a work which, for so 
many years, has Qccupied public attention, and which is now a fact 
in the history of the Dominion. . 
The Boundary question, no pleasant page in our records, might have 
been briefly passed over: the consideration of it adds little to national 
pride, or national satisfaction. But when we find that railway con- 
nection with the nearest British Atlantic port is now attained by 
traversing twice the distance which, under a just settlement of that 
question, would have been necessary, the subject prominently pre- 
sents itself; and the events which led to this condition of affairs 
claim investigation that could not be avoided. 
At this date, we look back with bewilderment at the extraordin- 
ary series of negotiations which ended in the establishment of the 
Maine Boundary, - a result which converted undoubted British ter- 
ritory into foreign soil, which alienated the allegiance of thousands 
of British suhjects, without their consent, and which made a direct 
connection on our own soil, between Central Canada and the Atlantic, 
an impossibility. 
The diplomacy of the United States has not always appeared so 
straightforward as it seems to have been in this matter. Individual 
citizens may have acted in a captious, exacting and aggressive spirit. 
But it is evident, throughout, that tht: Executive at 'Vashington 
desired to settle the line of boundary, described in the Treaty of 
178
, on a fair and equitable basis. Indeed, it is scarcely possible to 
suggest a proposal more marked by sagacity and justice than that 
made by President Jackson. The local irritation in Maine was a 
minor quantity in the problem; General Jackson would have elimin- 
ated it in a very simple manner. The truculence of a few provincial 
politicians would have cost him little thought. In Lord Ashburton's 



CONCLUDING REl\IARKS. 


235 


time the temper of individual citizens would have been as readily con- 
trolled by Daniel 'Vebster, whose str('ngth of will would have been 
little coerced by the now forgotten delegates sent to a
sist him. 
The local irritation in 
Iaine did not gain strength until years 
after the rejection of the ,V a
hington propositions for a settlement. 
The ill-feeling subsequently shown was strongly incited by the men 
who sympathized with the Canadian rebellion of 183ï. Had the 
offers made by the United States been accepted, the boundary would 
have been satisfactorily established long before the period of the out- 
break. Even in 11:\-12, it was po
sihle to fall back upon President 
Jackson's offer, had Lord _hhburton po
sessed the least fitness for his 
duties. 
1'0 Canadian can reflect, without pain and humiliation, on the sac- 
rifice of British interests in the settlement that was made. Yet 
however strongly we may he actuated by this thought, we can have no 
ill-feeling against the Gnited States. The fault doe
 not lie \\ ith the 
"T ashington Government. It is due to the ignorance of the merits 
of the case, and to an indifference to the interests at stake, on the part 
of the Imperial representative, who hall been entrusted with the pro- 
tection of the rights and the honour of the Empire. 
The Imperial authorities recognize the lesson taught by the Ash- 
burton Treaty, in adopting the policy of the federation of the British 
American Provinces, and in acting on the principle that no Canadian 
interest shall hereafter be discussed in Imperial negotiations without 
the pre!;;ence of a Dominion representative. 
It is scarcely necessary to say that these remarks in no way point 
to a severing of the tie that links Canadians to tlle Parent Land. The 
universal feeling throughout the Dominion is, that British cOJ,nection 
is a mainstay in our political existence; and the strength of that con- 
nection has been shown by the way in which it has withstood occa- 
sional shocks, among which may be reckoned the Treaty of 1842. 
Though the Dominion has sustained an irreparable loss of inherit- 
ance, she fully appnciates the advantages of her position. Ll1ller the 


. 



236 


THE INTERCOLO
IAL. 


fostering care of the Mother Country, she has passed peacefully into 
the possession of illimitable acres, vast forests, inexhaustible deposits 
of mineral wealth, and fisheries on three O{;e3.nS, Her still boundless 
territory and resources will tax the energies and enterprise of her sons 
for centuries, and may well afford room and welcome for the millions 
who may seek her :óhores from less favoured lands. 

 
For more than twenty years after the Ashburton Treaty, many 
fruitless attempts were made to revive the railway project. Delega- 
tion after delegation called upon the Home Government, without suc- 
cess, to connect the several Provinces by railway, 
o that British 
America should have the meu,ns of inter-communication. Explora- 
tions and surveys were indeed made, but no practical result followed 
until the time arrived for the political union of the Provinces. 
The Intercolonial Railway owes its existence to the creation of the 
Dominion, although it may be said that neither could have been 
consummated without the other.., One of the first efforts of united 
British America has been the estahlishment of this line of COlll- 
munication, to make intercourse possible between the Pro\'inces. It 
is the railway which brings the l\laritime Provinces into connection 
with Central Canada. At each extremity of the wilderness hitherto 
unoccupied except by the hunter or the Indian, and never traversed 
without difficulty, were found separate communities, each with the 
sentiment that all had interests in common; all equally belonged to 
the outer Empire of Great Britain; all were identified with her 
glories and greatness; all had been devoted to her in the hour 
of trial, yet all were denied means of intercommunication, and were 
unable to unite for a common purpose. There is no longer an un- 
penetrated wilderness to bar the hope of realizing all the benefits 
of union. The Province
 are now brought into daily conncction 
and association. possessing identity of political life, with institutions 
extending equal just:ce to all, covered with the ample flag of the 
Empire, and with advantages which are unrival1ed. If we but prove 
true to ourselves, our future prosperity is assured, 



CnXCLrDIXG REMARKS. 


237 



 


It does not fall within the province of the writer to allude to the 
pa!'t history of the country, or to make special mention of the places 
of interest that are reached hy the Railway. The district now opened 
up has, through want of communication, been hitherto cut off from 
the every-day life of the re
t of C'anada; hut it pos::-.c::-.ses much 
to repay the tourist. both in the variety and character of its land- 
scape and in the traditions which throw a halo over many a locality. 
The railway will give easy access to many of the scenes of the 
long litruggle betweeJ] France and Britain for the mastery of the 
:Korthern Continent, terminated by the triumph of 'Volfe at Quebec. 
The record of many of these events is still imperfectly written. 
The naval engagement on the Bay Chaleur, the fierce contests around 
the now grass-grown Forts of Lawrence, Beausejour and :Moncton, are 
seldom heard of; but the scenes of these conflicts are now made 
acce
siLle; and some future hi!'torian, may, by the inspiration of view- 
ing the ground. he induced to perpetuate the events. The expulsion of 
the Acadians from their homes, which, 'Volfe declared, ., added 
nothing to the renown of the King's arms," we may wish to forget. 
The ever-memorable 
Iiramichi fire, half a century ago, still remem- 
bered, might well be entombed in similar oblivion; but the tale is to 
be told, and to be remembered. 
More than three centuries ago, Jacques Cartier, coasting by New 
Brunswick, landed on its shores, to abandon them for an exploration 
of the great river, with which his memory is for ever connected. 
At a still earlier date fishermen from the Basque Provinces left 
their Ri!'cayan homes. to enrich their country by the oil and ivory of 
the walrus, which in vast herds frequented the Bay Chaleur and the 
St. Lawrence, in those early days. Pushing investigation still far- 
ther back, we meet the Indians, who held the country as a possession 
from nature. 'Ye ask the remnants of this once fierce and numerous 
race, and we ask the ethnologist, equally in vain, whence they came, 
and from what stock they descended. The district traversed by the 



23R 


THE INTERCOLONIAL. 


railway is full of suggestive associations, and cannot fail tf) awaken 
the attention and interest of enquiring minds. 
During the past forty years many public men, conspicuous 111 the 
Councils of the several Provinces, have been identified with this rail- 
way. Of late years another class, less prominent but more numerous, 
have been the direct and immediate instruments in bringing the work 
to its present completion. 
All may feel an honest pride in this connection, whatever part 
they played. Some may have toiled for renown: others have pa- 
tiently and silently laboured for duty or for bread. 
The traveller, who is borne onwards, moving in an hour a distance 
which would have taken weeks to traverse thróugh the tangled forests. 
scarcely casts a thought on the thousands of the sons øf labour, who 
toiled so many days and years, in making smooth his path. Promi. 
nent in the list are those who explored the forest, who traced the line, 
and who directed the work to its completion. Their professional bro- 
therhood and official relationship with the writer suggests to him 
the duty of placing their names permanently on record. The En- 
gineeri Ilg Staff, from the earliest explorations to the present time, 
is given in the Appendix. It is a mournful duty more especially to 
record the names of those who have fallen, and to pay the last 
tribute to their memory. 
It appears. from the account of Jacques Cartier's first voyage, that 
011 the 1st July, 1534, at a point between the Bay Chaleur and Mira- 
michi, he first planted his foot on the new Continent. 
On the ht July. 17ô1, the great Indian Chief, Argimault. whose 
race had long warred against the British settlers, met the authorities 
at Halifltx, and terminated the Indian wars, by declaring perpetual 
submission to Great Britain. and with great solemnity buried the 
hatchet for ever. 
The Dominion 6ame into being 333 years after the bold navigator 
of St. Malo landed on the shores of Acadia; and the anniversary of its 



CO:-JCLUDING RE)IARKS. 


239 


Lirth in the present year marks another important epoch in the his- 
tory of the country. On this day, July 1st, 1876, may be chronicled 
the completion of the Intercolonial Railway, and the full COlJsum- 
mation of the union of the British Provinces in North America. 



.. 



APPE:KDIX. 


TAnI.E of Gross Quantities of the principal kinds of work executed on the 
\\ hole line. 


DE;;CRIPTlO
 OF 'VORI
. 


QCAXTITIFS. 


. 


Forest clearing - - - - 
Earth e"C:J.,ation - - - - - 
Rock excanttion - - - - - - 
Total e"\:C:\,ation - 
1\Iasonry 


Iron pipe culverts, 2,188 lineal feet. equal to substi- 
tuter! ::\Iasonry - - - - - - - - - - 
Tunnel!. for strf'arns, 4,8ß2 lineal feet, equal to sub- 
stituted ::\1asonry - - - - - - 
Concrete - - - - - - - - - - - 
Iron Brid:re superstructure - - - - - - - 
Timber Bridge superstructure - - - - 
Cross Ties (Sleepers) - - - - 
Steel Rails - - - - 


Iron Rails - - - 


5,1 fi2 Acres. 
1-1..:;-16.218 Cubic yards. 
1.5-13.577 Do. 
16,OH
.7
.1 Do. 
200,-167 Do. 
8,000 Do. 
2.'>.000 Do. 
12.000 Do. 
I-tHO Lineal feet. 
830 Do. 
1,2:;O,OOU 
43..'>uO Tons. 
4.500 Do. 


16 




-t2 


APPE:SDIX. 


TABLE, shewing averag(' quantities of Excm:ation and 11/asonryj per mile. 


DJSTRIC1. 


I I::: 
.
 E 
-:;: 
 
is ..J 


.........; 
o 
 
ö.;:; 

g 
U 


EX('AVATION. 
1 ,.:\lAsmmY 
\ Per cClItage l__ 
Cu. ytls. Hoek Earth Cu. )"<18. 


1 17, GK5 7 9S :;W.') 
2 36.::00 100 li03 
5 32..-,77 1;:; 8.; 320 
8 13,G65 4 % 179 
13 t;UJ% 2{) 80 4::!:3 
14 ::!0,770 8 I 
I:;! '20:3 
1- 1- 1 -'-- 
33,G:31 I 11 I 89 I 3:iì 
I 
17 29,7 1 iK 6 !J-! 4S,) 
18 44,li.ï-! 10 90 4-1.; 
1!1 48.!I,ï-! IS H7 ]0:J4 
3 ::!.ï.GK7 9 
I 1 477 
6 2.ï,7:3-! 1.1 ! IH 4 {l72 
2 
9 ::!i,1 K.ï l-! HG I 3a!' 
15 51,n.-,!! 1 !I!) I,Oft1 


r - :W.{JOO - 100 2;:;0 
V - 1 ;,.Hli;; 5 9.; 212 
W 11 27,7;;0 - 100 2!JO 
X 4 2';.771 7 9:1 41H 
y 7 4,;.2(;2 I 7 !IS 342 
Z I 12 4:3,71 U 18 H2 4G2 


St. La wrellce District 


" !..... 
.' " 
" " 
" 


A"erages, St. Lawrence District 


I{cbtigouche Dbtrict - 


" " 
" " 


" " 


" 


" " 


A"era!!e
, Ih
btigouche District 


1\Iiramichi Di
trict 


" " 


" " 


" " 


" " 


Averages, l\[iramichi District 


Nma Scotia Dj,.,trict 


'I. " 


to' " 


h " 


" " 
" " 


Awrag 
, Nova Scotia Di
trictl 


A"crag('
 for the wholc LiolC 


A 
B 
C 
D 
}
 
F 


G 
II 
I 
K 
L 
l\[ 
N 


----,-' 


33,000 


8 


o 
l' 
Q 
R 

 
T 


II; IH,.')!I4 H 9H!' 
10 47.:1;:;2 !It 90 4 
20 47,411 3 97 
21 32,042 I!) 81 
22 2!I,I:W I 7 !,:! 
23 2H,U4.) 5 I 95 
1---1--- 
I 31.940: 71 I 92
 I 


92 I 


557 


172 
430 


2004 


21;9 
2
19 
:270 


376 


I I ',".2"" 10 ' '" \ 03" 
,---"71 3
.210 1 9 -,---;ï-4m 



AI'PEXDIX. 


243 


THE SHORT OCEAN PASSAGE. 


EXTRACTR FRO)I THE CHIEF EXGIXEEr.'S REPORT OF lRG.>, ON THE 
EXPLORATORY St::'RVEY FOR THE I
TEl{COLO
IAL RAILW.\.Y. 


., Xewfou\l(Uand, a large Island off the main land of Xorth America, and 
Ireland, an Island off the European coa
t, resemble each other in being similar 
outl) ing; portionb of the Continents to which they re
pectÌ\ e1y belong. Po

ibly 
they mOl) lu\\ e a more important similarity and relationship, through the remark- 
ahle geographical po
ition \\hich they hold, the one to the other, and to the great 
centre
 of population and commerce in Europe and America. 
A glance at thp chart of the Atlantic will shew that between Ireland and 
:Kewfoundland, the Ucean can be spanned by the shortest line. 
Ireland is separatt'd from England antl Scotland by the Irish Channel; Xcw- 
foundland IS separated from Xew Brunswick and Xova Scotia b) the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence. Alrp:uly rail\\ ays have reached the western coast of Ireland and 
brought it within sixteen hours of the British capital. Were it possible to 
introduce the Locon1Uti\e into Xewfoundland and establi
h steam communication 
bet\\een it and the cities of America, a route would be created from Continent 
to Continent, having the Ocean Pas
age rerluced to a minímum. 
This route would not be open for traffic throu
hout the whole ) ear; during 
certain mçmth;:;, the direct course of steamers would be so impl'de(1 b,\" floating 
ice, that it couM not with certainty 01' safet) he traversed. It then.forc remains 
to be seen whpther the route Ims sufficient advantages ,\hilst O!WI\, to recommen(l 
its establishment and use, during probably not more than seven months of the 
year. 
In thi
 respect thc Xewfoundlaml route mu
t be viewed prp('i-ely in the 
same light 3" many other line of tram(. in Xorth America. mul po-sihl) it ma) 
he found of eqnal importance. Of tIll 

 WOl'h
 may bp IUpntiont.d the Canal
 of 
Camula and the Lnited States. \\ hid, nlthough elo,ed to traffic .luring wintcI', 



244 


APPE
DIX. 


ha\ e justified the expenditure of enormous SUlliS of money in their original con- 
struction, and in repeated enlargements anù extensions. 
lhl\ing alludeù to the great objection to 8 route across Sewfoundlalld, we 
may now proceed to enqnire into its merits. 
The track of steamers from the British coast to Sew York, and to all poillts 
north of Xpw Y ork. l'a"
es Ireland and 
e\\foumlland. either to the 1I0rth 01' to 
the "out h; the mo!>t u
ual course, however, is to the south of hoth Islands. '" es- 
s..ls hound wp&terly, make for Cape Race ou the south-ea
tcrly coa
t of x...w- 
foumllaml; whilst those bound ea
terly. make Cape Clear on the south-\H'
terly 
an
le of Ireland. Xot far from Cape Hace is the lIarbour of St. .Johns, :1IIÙ 
npar Capp ('leal' i
 the Harhour of Yalentia; the one is the most easterly Port 
of America, the other is the mo"t westerly Port of Europe. They are lli"tant 
from each other ahout 1 r.-tO miles. 
The Iri
h Railways are not yet extended to Yall'1\tia, hut they have reached 
Killarney, within ahout 30 mile
 of it. 
From St, .Tohns across Xe\\fOlllldlaml to the Gulf of 
t. Lawrence, dIP di
- 
tance is prohahl)' about 300 mill's. On thc ðt. L,u\Tence coa
t of the Island, the 
Chart she\\s two Harhours, either of v. hich may be found availahle as points of 
tran"hipmpnt; the one St. George's nay, the other, Port au Port; they fire 
situ:tted near pach other. and both are equally in a direct line from St. Johns 
v. ..sterly to the main land. 
On the westerly "hore of the Gulf. we find at the entrance to the Bay Cha- 
It'ur. the Harbour of Shippi
an. From St. Geor
es Ba.' to Shippigan. the dis- 
tance is from 2-t0 to 2.;0 miles. Shippigan may he connected hy means of the 
"olltl'mplatl'.) Illtercolonial Railway with Canada and the rnitf'd States. 
The line of Steam communication from Great Britain across Ireland amI 

.." fouJIIl1:Ul(l. and hy the contemplated Intercolonial Railwa) to the Interior of 
Xorth America, possps
ps somp important recommcndations as \\ ill presently be 
se"n. It will.,llOwevpr, first he necp"sary to allude to the quc
tion of !>pppd. 
At the pl'ose1\t time Ocean Stt'amcrs generally carry both freight and passen- 
gers, allli in this T'e"lwct they are lihe what are termed "mi"e.) train
" on Rail- 
\Va,\'s. These mi
ed trains are emplo.' pd to 
el'\'e localities v. here there is not 
sufficient pa
sellger ami freight traffic to ju
tify the running of 
eparate trains. 
On railways doing a largt' business. the traffic is properly classificd; fast 
train
 are run to CaIT} pa,,,engcrs 3ml mails ollly, 
hilst slow trains are useù to 



APPE
DIX. 


2-15 


convey he:1\ y freight. A similar classification of Ocean traffic may be sug
e
ted. 
Freight will natUl'aIly go by the cheape"t mode of conve) ance. while Pa

eng('rs 
ann )lails will seek the speediest. 
It is .",eIl b.nown that the shape of a 
t('arnship, other things beiug equ'll, 
gO\ erns her speed. The shape again depends on the load 
he may be constructed 
to carry: if the ship is reqnired only for mails and pa
sengers :ulli such, oyagl's 
as need but a small y'uantity of fuel, she may be constructed on a model buth 
sharp and Ii
ht, and thus be capable of running more rapi(ll) than if built t.o 
carry hea, y and hulky load
. .A steamship for he:1\ y Io:uls may l,e cumpared to 
a dra) horse, ",hiht one made specially fur passen
ers and rapid tran
it, ma.\' 
re.;emble a race horse, and Iib.e the latter, the le
s weight carried the 11I01"e speed 
will be made. 
If these ,iews are correct, it is clear that the speed of Ocean Stpalllshil's 
might be con
iderably increa-ed when constructed for a 
peÓal purpose. The 
(li
t:mæ bet\\een St. Johns (XewfollIulIand) and Yalentia. i, not mu('h Illore than 
half the distance between Li,erpool and Xew York; ann henc(' about half the 
quantity of coal and supplies ,\Vuld be re(luired for the pas-age, between the 
former point,. 
It is (Iuite obvious, therefore, that a ste:\m,hip constructed 
ppcially to run 
bet\\een St. Johns and Valenth. and for the purl'o
e of canTing only pas
engers 
and mails. with such light e\:pre,s matter a" usually goes by pa'senger trains, 
,",ould attain a higher rate of 
peed than e:\.isting ocean hteamers. 
A rate of 1ôt miles per hour is thought to he quite po

ible: the di,tance 
betwecn Yalpntia and St. Johns is 16-tO mile
. At this a"snmed rate therefore 
the ocean pa"sage might be accompli,hed in lilt) hour". 
'Vith regard to the speed on land. it appears from nra(l
haw's Railway 
Guide, that the Iri,h mails are re
larly carried bet\\een LOIHlon :Uld IIul)head 
at the rate of -to miles an hour including stoppa!!;es. that the Irish Channel is 
cro
sed at the rate of 16 miles an hour, including the time re'luired for tl'an"hip- 
mcnt at IIolyhead and Kin)!stou, an.] that the mail.; reach (lueenstown MIllie 16 
hours after they leave London. YaIcntia i, very little further from Dublin than 
Queenstown, and on tllP completiou of a railway to Yalentia, there is nothing to 
pre\ent it being reached from London in the same time now occnpie(l in carrying 
the mails to Ql1eenstown. 
Galway ha, been mcntioneù as a proper point to connect with oceau 




-t6 


APPEKDIX. 


steamers, it is fu]]y an hour nearer London than Valentia, but probably three 
hours (in time) further from America. 
.Although 40 miles an hour is a common rate of speed on the railways in 
Eng1and, it is not usual to mn so rapidly on the Americau side of the Atlantic. 
On the leading pa-senger routes in the rnite(l States, 30 miles an hour 
indUflin)! stoppages is attaine!l. 'Vith the rail track and rolling stock in a 
good condition, there is no difficulty in running at thc
e rates of !'peed. There- 
fore, a minimum rate of 30 miles an hour, may reasonably he as"umed as that at 
\\hich the mails might be carried overland. to \arious point
 hereafter referred to. 
lI:n ing fixed upon a practicable rate of spee(l by land and water, tlIe time 
necessary for the com eyanee of the ;\Iails irom London to Xew York, by the 
projected route, may now be ascertained: 


From London to Yalentia at present rate of speed in England 
Yalentia to St. .J nhns, 1640 miles at 1 6! mile
 per hour 
Ht. Juhns to St. Georges, . 
" St. Georges to Shippigan, 250 miles at 16! miles per hour 
" Shippigan to :Kew York, !JOG miles at 30 miles per hour 


. 16 hours 
100 " 


8! " 
15! " 
31 " 


Total, 


171 hours. 


It is thus apparent, that withont assuming rates of speed at a]] e:\.traordi- 
nary, it wonltl be possible to carry the mails from London to 1Sew York in 171 
hours, or 7 k day!'. by the route pa_sing over Ireland, Xewfoundland, and by the 
propo"ed Intf'rmlonial Hailway from Shippigan. 
In oroer to compare the route referred to \\ ith existing line!', the results of 
the past year (lH64) may now be presented. 


l'ASSAGES BETWEE
 LIVERPOOL AII'D NEW YORK. 


:Kame of Steam"hip Line. 
Inman LÙle.-Average of 52 Eastern and 
52 "-estern passages 
Shurtest pa"sages . 
Cunard Line.-Average of 27 Eastern 
and 2.1 "-estern pa-sages 
Shortest passages . 


,,- est'n Pas. East'n 1'as. 1\1 ean. 
d. h. m. d. h. m. d. h. 
13 1!J 11 12 18 34 13 7 
11 5 0 10 ;) 0 10 17 
11 12 46 1U 11 42 11 0 
9 17 0 9 3 0 9 01 



APPEXDIX. 


2-17 


PASS\.GES BETWEE
 SOUTHA'1PTON AXD XEW 'lORK_ 


Xame of Steamship Line 
Hamburg Line.-Average of 23 "estern 
and 2.3 Eastern passages 
Shortest passages . 
Bremen Line-Average of 20 Eastern 
and :?:? W. estern pa
sages 
Shortest pas
ages . 


"T e"t'n Pas. Ea'it'n Pas. 
Ican. 
d. h. m. d. h. m. d. h. 
13 11 46 12 15 53 13 1 
10 9 0 10 17 0 10 13 
It R 'r 12 9 42 ]3 9 
-, 
10 17 0 10 19 0 10 18 


From the above it will be seen, that while the mean average of all the pa"s- 
ages. made he tween Liverpool or Southampton ,md X ew Y orl., mngl'
 from 11 
days up to 13 days 9 hours; it is estimated that by Ireland, XewfoundlalHl, aIllI 
Shippigan. the passage could be made in 7 dol.';; 3 hours. nearly four days less 
time than the lowest mean a\erage, and two days less than the shortest of 246 
pa"'sa!!e
, if not the ,.er!J shortest pa
"age on n
cord. These advantages alone are 
Imfficient to attract the attention of business men. but the great recommemlation 
of the Xewfoundland route to most travellers, wouhl he the !'.hortening of the 
Ocean pa'isage 'proper, from 26-1 honrs (the average by the Cunard line) to 100 
hours. 
The above comparison has been made becau
e the greatest number, amI per- 
haps the best, Ocean Steam"hip Lines ('un to Xew York. _-\ similar comparison 
with the Bo<;ton, Portland, and Quebec lines, would "how a resnlt still more in 
fa,'or of the Xewfoundlaml route. 
The following table, giving the time rl'quired between London and, arious 
points in Xorth America, will show at a glance the great advantage \\ hich would 
accme to the people of both hemispheres by the establishment of the sllOrt Ocean 
passage TO/lte. B.' this table it will be seen that the )Iails from LOIulon. could 
not only be carried to an parts of the Briti"h Prodnces. and to an point
 in the 
:Korthern States. in a marvenously short space of time hy the route herein pro- 
jected. but that it is quite possible to deliver them on the shores of the Gulf of 
l\lexi(:<) Ù, nine da!Js,-lesf'. time, in fact, than the shortest passages of the Cunard 
or of any other Steamers between Li\-erpool and Xew York, 



2-18 


APPEXDIX. 


Time required to carry tIle Jlails by tlte Proposed Short Ocean Passage, and by tIle 
Intacolouial Railwayfrom Sltippiglln. 


From Londou to St. .10Ims, X.F. 4 days 2U hours. 
., " Shippigau 5 .. 2U ., 
" " Halifax 6 " 5 " 
" " St. John, :rì. B. 6 " 4 " 
" " Quebec 6 " 10 " 
" " 1\1ontreal 6 " 16 " 
" " Toronto 7 " 2 " 
" " Buffalo 7 " 6 " 
" " Detroit 7 ,. 8 ., 
" " Chicago 7 " 20 " 
" " Albany 7 ., 0 " 
" " New York - 7 " 3 " 
" " Boston 6 " 1!J " 
" " Portlanrl 6 " 15 " 
" " New Orleans 9 " 0 " 


Haying 
hown that by shortening the orean passage acr-os
 the Atlantic to a 
millimum, the time of transit between the great centres of bu
iness in Europe 
and America cau be very greatly reduced; so much so indeed, that a 1'l'>I-onable 
hope lllay be entertained tlJat the entire Mail matter passing hatween the two 
Continents. may eventually be attracted to the new route, it may he well now to 
enquire what pruportion of pa
sengers may be e"{pectc(l to trayel over it. 
Before 1838 the only mode of crossing the .\.tlantic was by sailing ships; 
the pa
sa
e commonly occupied from sh: to ten weeks. until the intro(luetion of a 
superior class of vessels 1.no"-n as the American Liners; these fine ships made 
an !n"erage homeward passage of 24 days, aud an average outw:ml pa'
age of 36 
days. 
The year lR3R saw the h{'ginning of a New Era in transatlantic communil'a- 
tions. Two Steam vessels crossed from shore to shore; one," The Sil'iu
," left 
Cork on .\.pril 4th, anotllPr. "The Great "r estern." left Bri-tol on _\.pril 8th, 
and tb('y hoth arrivcd at Xew York on the same da:y. the 23d of April; the av('r- 
age iòpeed of th,.. former waS 161 miles per day, that of the latter 208 miles per 
d
y. 
" The Great ". estern" continued to run from 1838 to 1844. ma1.iIJ
 ill all 84 
passtlges; she ran the outward trip in an average time of 15! days, and the home- 
ward trip in an a"era
e time of 13t days. 
The CUIillrd Line commenced running in July, 18-10, with three steamers, "The 



APPE5DIX. 


249 


Britannia," "The Acadia," and "The Caledonia," under a contract with the 
Briti
h GO\ erument to make monthly pa..
ages. 
lnltl-l(j, under a new contract, the Cunal'd Company undertook to despatch a 
::\Iail Stpamer once a fortnight from Liverpool to Halifax and 13o
ton, and 
another ::\lail Steamer once a fortni
ht from Liverpool to Xew York. This ser- 
vice has been maintained "ith amazing regularity and increasing efficiency to the 
present day. 
These were the pioneers of a system of Ocean Steam X'nigation which has 
already done so much to increase the intercourse between the two continents' 
By reducing the length and uncertainty of the vo
 ages a., well a
 the incon- 
venicnce
, in man
 ca-e
. the mi-eries. "hieh pa>>>>engers haa pre\'iou>>ly to endure, 
a vast deal of good ha
 been accompli"hed. 
The number awl tonnage of steamships engaged in carrying pa
seng"rs and 
good.; bet\\een the Bl'itish l..lands and Xorth Amcrica. has of late 
 ears increa-ed 
with "ollllerful rapidit}. In lRG! no le
s than tl'n regular lines of Ucean 
steamers" erf' emplll
 ed in running either to Xew York or to porh nUl.th of that 
city in thp Cnite,l State" or in Canada. Of the"e ten lines. t"o "cre "eekly and 
eight fortni.
ll!ly. e'Jlli\alent in all to six weekly line
: so that thcre were on an 
avemgf' "h, -tl'am
hips le:1\ ing each side weekl.v. or nearly one 1'\ ery day, 
The total numher of pa--,'ngers carried by these val'iou" Steam line
 during the 
past year" a
 I:J3,:n ï, and by far the largest number travelled during the Summer 
months. 
It \\()Uld not take a very large proportion of Pas
engers cro

ing in anyone 
year to gi\ e emplo
 ment to a daily line of Steamers on the short Oep:Ul P:wmge 
route from St. .Tohn to ,. alentia or to Galway. A total numher of -1.000 eaeh 
wa)" wonltl gÏ\.. 
oo pa"
engf'rs each trip, for se\ en months in the )- car. 
It is 01.\ iou., then that there is alreadyahundance of Pa"-engcr traffic, if the 
purely pa--enw'r route Ullller di-cu"sion, po"..p,se" sufficient attraction
. To settle 
thi" point tllP :1Ih antagp., and disad\ ant'l
es of the route mll'it be fairly weighed. 
The ohstruction., uffered by floating ice during sP\'croll month., in the year, are 
insuperable \\ hill' they last; ,luring this period IIalifa'l:: or some cqually good port, 
open in wint..r, will be a\ ailahlf'. 
The frequent tran"hipment'i from Railway to Steam-hip. and cire !'I'/"Sfl. may be 
eon!'.idererl h,v ,ome an nhje(.tion to the route; for COl1\'ey:ulCe of Fr..ig-ht they 
certainly would he ohjectionahle, bllt mo_t p:b
l'n!!erS woultl prohahh' con
ider the 
tran..hipml'lIt-, agreeahle challges,:t" th{'
 would relieve the tedium of the journey, 



2.jO 


APPE
DIX. 


"
ith re
ard to the comparative safety of this route, it would "eem as if 
the tuh'antagp
 were gl't'atly in its favour. The portion of a \'o,yage l'l:'t\\ een Xl'\\' 
York allll Liverp')ol, whieh !'eamen least fear, is that from Irpl:ulII to Xe\\ fouml- 
Iauù. It is wdl knu\\ n that thf' mo
t dangerou
 part of tllp whole \o,yage i" along 
the American ('oasi bet\\ een Xew York allll Cape llacl", \\ here thick fogs so 
fre(luently prevail; this coast line is about 1.000 miles in Ipngth. amI it ha
 been 
the sl:cne of the larger number of the disastel's \\ hidl have Ol:curre(!. Xo less than 
fOUl'teen or fifteen Oceau Steam"hips have been lost on this portion of the 
Atlantic Seaboard, 


The route \\hich favours increased seclll'ity from sea-risks, allll which is the 
shortest in point of time, must eventually hecome the cheapest, awl in conse(Iuence 
the most fre1lucnted. If then thc route propo
t'd across :Kewfollllllland and 
Ireland avoids many of the dangers of existing routes, and reduces the Ocean 
passage proper to I no hour
, woulrl not the cUITent of tr:l\ el naturally seck this 
route in preference to other
. during the open season? 
If. a
 it ha
 been shewn, this route wouM I'educe the time between London and 
Xe\V York some three or four days, amI bring Toronto one thÎl'.IIH'arf'r Liverpool 
(in time) than Xew York is now; if it \\ouM J.!Ï\:e the merchant in C'llÏcago his 
Endish letters four or five da\'S earlier than hp has e\er } et rPI'..Ï\ I'd tllI.m ; if it 
be ;,ossihle by thi" propose a r
ute to lift the mails in LOl;donJallll lay them down 
in Xl'\\' Orleans in le
s tim(' than they have e\er yet reache,l XI'\\' York, then 
it surely poss('
s('s wh'antagt's which must eventually estahli
h it. not simply as an 
Inter-Colonial. bnt rather a, an Inter-Continental line of communication, 
These are purely comnwl'cial considerations. and however important they may 
he as such. the Statf'
man wíll rearlily perceive, in the project. a(hantages 
of another kiml. It lpay he of some consequence to eüend to Xe\\ ìoumUallfl. a5 
well as to thi' oth..r ProvilH'f'S of B1"Íti
h .\merica, tllt' h..nefit
 of rapia inter-com- 
munication. It \\ ill proha hly accorrl with Imperial )loliey to fo
ter tIlt' :-ìhippinJ.! of 
the Gulf, and to encourage the buihling up of such a Fleet of swift Steam 'rs as a 
Daily Line aero
s the Ocean would require, II mu't surely be important to the 
Empire. to Sl'eure in perpetuity the control of thl' 
l'l'at Big'hw:!." hetween 
thc t \\ 0 ('ontinellts. It mu-t be eqnally her policy to develop the rc
ourees and 

romote the pro
perity of these Colonies-and to hind mOl'(, dosely, hy ties of 
mutual benefit, the friendly relationship which happily cxists between the people 
on both sides of the Atlantic." 



APPE
DIX. 


:!;)1 


THE EXGIXEEIUSG STAFF. . 


1t;û3 to 1876. 


Gentlemen engaged \\ ith the Enginper-in-Chief in the reconnoissance made 
during the \\ inter of lRG3-G!. 


Thoi'e recol"llpd in italics are now dead. 


"T. II. TRE:\IAlr-'E, 
J. Royer Smith, 
.Alex. Fraser, 


H. J. CA'IBIE, 
John Flemi"g, 
H. Bradley. 


STAFF O
 THE EXPLORATORY S{)RVEY. 


1
6-t. 


Those recorded in italics are now dead. 


Engineers in Clwrge. 


DAVID 
T \Rli:, 
"-,\LTER LAWSON, 


"-. II. TRnI.UNE, 
TO'I S. I{LBIDGE, 


So HAZLEWOOD. 


.Ass istants. 


H. J. CA'IBIE, 
J. F. Gn."DET, 
G. 
JIc Guire, 


EDWAUD LAWSON, 
'L B. LEATHER, 
A. Williamson. 


w: G. Belli1frs. 


Junior .Assistants. 


C. BLACKWFLL, 
J. F. Darwell, 


E. H. KEATING, 
J. R. Smith. 


Erplorers. 


H. Bradley, 


.Alex. Frasf'T. 



252 


APPENDIX. 


STAFF ON THE PRELUt1L
ARY SURVEY. 


D. STARK, 
H. J. CA'IIBIE, 
TnOJIAS HAJlISAY, 


1865. 


,V. II. TRE
IAINE, 


s. HAZLEWOOD, 
S. PARKER TUCK, 
C. UDELL. 


STAFF ON THE Pr.ELUtUNARY S1o"ItVEY. 


W. H. TREJIAINE, 
C. ODFLL, 
H. A. F. MACLEOD, 
"-JI. II \ZE
, 
E. 'Y. JARVIS, 
J. R. f-;}IlTH, 
II. DONh.IN, 
"., DAL E HARRIS, 
H. A. GRAY, 


.1867. 


s. lIAzU:WOOD, 
J.UIES ODELL, 
HEXRY CARRE, 
"T. G. BELLAIRS, 
E. [I, KEATING, 
J. JFLLETT, 
ALEX. SCIn.:mIAN, 
"T. JOHXSTON, 
C. II. ::\IcLEOD. 



APPENDIX. 


STAFF OY THE LOCATION SURVEY. 


18G8. 


Chief Engineer's Office. 
W. J. FORREST, .A,.,sistant. T. R. BURPE, Secretary. 
District Engineers. 
W. H. TRnIAINE, 
S. HAZI,EWOOD. 


C. SCRRFIßER. 
l\IARCLS ::;'HTR, 


\Y. II. E. NAPIER, 
R. 1\ICLI:XXAX. 
H. A. F. M-\cLEOD, 
'W.1\1. Br;-Cl;:, 
JOHN LINDSAY, 


L, G. BELL, 
J. J. l\ICGEE, 
W M. 1\1 t:RDOCH, 
COLIN CAR
IAX, 
R. CARR HARRIS, 
E. H. IÜ:.unw, 
A. BRISTOW, 


H. S. LANGTON, 
G. R. FELLOWES, 
W. l\ICCARTHY, 


Engineers in 


Charge. 
P. A. PETERSON, 
IIFXRY C-\RRE, 
R. SHAXLY, 
J. R. IIARTLEY, 
'V3I. HAZEN, 


E. LAWSON. 
.Assistant Engineers. 
THOS. REYNOLDS, JUNR. 
W. l\ICPIIILLIPS, 
G. II. GARDEN, 
E. A. IL\ImIS, 
"T. D. HARRIS, 
J. R. S3HTH, 
JA1IIES CAD\IAN, 


J. E. MORSE. 
Juniors. 


H. N. RUTTAN, 
J. JEI.LETT, 
J. A. DICKEY, 
P. S. ARCIIIBALD. 


253 



254 


APPENDIX, 


STAFF O
 LOCATION AKD COXSTRUCTION.-l
G!1. 
Cltief Engineer's ().fJi.ee. 
W. J. FORREST, Assistant, T. R. BCRPE, Secretary. 
District Engineers. 
J\IARCCS S'IITH. A. L. LIGHT, 
S. HAZLEWOOD, 'V. H. THE3L\INE. 
Engineers in Charge. 
W. II. E. SAPIER, 


L. G. BELL, 
'V. F. BIGGAR, 
R. McLJ:NNAN, 
P. A. PETERSON, 
T. S. HnIIDGE, 
E. LAWSON, 


JOU!\i LINDSAY, 
HEYRY CARRE, 
R. SU-\NLY, 
C. ODELL, 
II. A. F. :\1 AcLEOD, 
,Yo .J. ('RO -\SDALE, 
G. H. lIEx:>lLnv. 
Assistant Engineers. 


F. .J. Lyxcn. 
W. .1\1. BUCK, 


THos. REYNOLDS, Jr., 
L. CHANIH,ER, 
A. BmSTOW, 
J. R. McDoNELL, 
F. BOLGER, 
C. BLACKWELL, 
):3. D. l\ICCONl>o ELL, 
A. J. HILL, 
J. B. IInay, 
J. L. P. O'IIANLY, 
E. A. 'YIUIOT, 
E. H. KEATING, 
J. F. DARWALL, 
COLIN CAR3IAN, 


'V,[. J\Inmocn, 
t. D. TAl LOR, 
J. J. l\Ic(
LE, 
G. E. )[cLAeGHLIN, 
J. C. BROWN, 
R. C. HARRIS, 
E. A. II -\RRIS, 
G. H. G-\RDEN, 
J. "T. ,?OBERTS, 
P. 'VOODGATE, 
THos. RA '[SAY, 
J. ROn:R S3IITH, 
E. "T. .JARVIS, 
H, DONKIN. 


Juniors. 


H. S. LAXGTO..-, 
G. R. FELLOWES, 
H. N. UUTTAN, 
P. S. ARCHIllALD, 


W. 1\IcCARTnT, 
J. JELLETT, 
C. MORSE, 
J. A. DICKEY. 



APPEXDIX. 


STAFF ON COXSTnrcTlo)<.-1SïO, 
('/tief Engineer's Office. 
'W. J. FORREST, Assistant. T. R. IkRPE, S
cretàry. 


District Engineers. 
SA,rGFL H \ZLEWOOD, )I-\RCG:5 SmTH, 
A. L. LIGHT, ,Yo H. TRDI-\IXE. 
Engineers in Charge. 
H. )[CLEXXAN. 
W. II. E. X -\PIER, 


L. G. BELL, 
H. .J. CAmUE, 
P. A. PFTI'RSOY. 


JOllY LIXD:5-\Y. 
"T. G. BELLAIR:5, 
C. UDI'LL. 


'W. F. BIGGAR, 
E. LAW"OX. 
"-. J. CHOASDALE, 
III'XRY CARRE. 
F. J. L'XCH, 
''\. .T. .FITZGERALD, 
'L n. S,rELLIE, 


Pt.TER l;R \XT, 
"'. G. TJI(nrl':50N, 
W. ,;\I. BCCK. 
II. ..\, F. .:\hcLEOD, 
G. II. Ih:x"H nv. 


Assistant Engineers. 
THo:::. REYXOI.DS, Jr., "'\r. l\[rRDOCH, 
G. E. )IcL.-\rGIILIN, J. C. Bt:owy. 
A. BRI:;Tow, J. J. )lcGEE, 
H. S. L-\XGTON, F. BOLGER, 
J. R. )[CDOYELL, T. D. TAYLOR, 
L. ClI-\"DLER, G. R. FELLOWES, 
J. B. HEGAY. J. 'W. ROBERTS, 
COLIX CAlnIAN, B. D. l\ICCOXYELL, 
G. II. GumEN, H. DO"KI!\'. 
L. B. HA,rLIN, J. F. D-\RWALL, 
R. C. HARRIS, 'Y,r. G05:5IP. .Tr., 
J. ROYER SmTH, E. W. J -\RVIS, 
E. H. KEATING, P. S. .\RCHIBALD, 
C. BLACI
WELL, E. A. WIL'WT, 
P. ".OODGHE, J. L. P. Ü'HAXLY, 
H. P. BELL, A. J. HILL. 
Junio1's. 


'W. )[CCARTIlY, 
C. MORSE, 
P. S. ARCHIBALD, 


H. N. RuTTAN, 
J. JELLETT, 
J. A. DICKEY. 



55 



256 


APPENDIX. 


STAFF ON CONSTRUCTION. 
1871. 
Chief Engineer's Office. 
W. J. FORREST, Assistant. T. R. llGRPE, Secretary. 
District Engineers. 
A. L. LIGllT, 
Run;EL HAZLEWOOD. 


W. H. TRE'IAINE. 


J\!ARcr;s S
IITH, 


C. SCHREIBER, 
H. J. CA:\IBIE, 
JOH
 LINDSAY. 
W. G. BELLAIRS, 
1V. G. TnmIPSON, 
E. LAWSON, 
C. ODELL, 
W. 1\1. BUCK, 
P. A. PETERSON, 
T. S. RGBIDGE, 


Engineers in Charge. 
L. G. BELL, 
J. R. McDoXELL, 
HEXRY CARRE, 
PETFR GRANT, 
H. A. F. 3I.-\.cLEOD, 
1\'. J. .FITZGERALD, 
1Y. n. S'IELLlE, 
F. J. L'\
cH, 
G. II. HEYSHAW, 
C. BLACKWELL, 
W. J. CROASDALE. 


.Assistant Engineers. 
THOS. REYNOLDS, Jr., T. D. TAYLOR. 
L. CHANDLER, II. S. LANGTON, 
L. B. HA:lILlN, G. E. l\ICLAUGHLlN, 
F. BOLGER, J. C. Bnowy, 
G. W. l\ICCREADY, J. .T. l\ICGEE, 
G. R. FFLLOWES, J. R. IIEGAN, 
R. CARR :HARRIS, J. ROYER S:lIITn, 
E. ",Y. .JAR'"IS, 1Y,n. GOSSIP, Jr., 
}:. A. .Wn,:lIOT, J. A. DICKEY, 
H. DmmIN, II. P. BELL, 
G. II. GARDEN, A. J. HILL. 
Juniors. 


W. l\lcCARTny, 
H. N. RGTTAN, 


C.l\IORSE, 
J. JELLETT, 
P. S. ARCHIBAJ,D. 



APPENDDI... 


STAFF ON COKSTRUOTION. 
IRï2. 


Chùf EU.lIilll'er's Office. 
W. J. FORREST, A""istant. f. R. HURPE, Secretary. 
District E'lgineers. 
A. L. LIGHT, L. G. BELL, 
SA 'IUEL II -\ZL EWOOD, C. SCHREIBER. 


H. J. CA11BIE, 
J. R. l\ICDONELL, 
W. G. THO'IPSON, 
PETER GRANT, 
W. J. FITZGERALD, 
W. 1\1. BUCK, 
C. BLACKWELL, 
E. LAWSON, 


H. S. LANGTON, 
W. MCCARTHY, 
G. R. FELLUWES, 
G. W. :\ICCREADY, 
G. H. l\IIDDLETON, 
R. CARR HARRIS, 
J. JELLETT, 
C. l\IORSE, 
'\V.u. GO::;SIP, Jr., 
E. A. WILMOT, 


Engineers in Charge. 
JOHN LIYDSAY, 
\V. G. BELLAIRS, 
H. A. F. l\IAcLEOD 
\V. B. S'IELLIE, 
F. J. LYXCH, 
,Yo .J. CROASDALE, 
P. A, PETERSON, 
C. ODELL. 


Assistant Engineers. 
T. D. TAYLOR, 
J. J. l\ICGEE, 
JAS. CADMAN, 
J. C. BROWN, 
J. B. BROPHY, 
H. N. Rt:TTAN, 
G. H. GARDEN, 
II. DO:!'lKIN 
P. S. ARCHIBALD, 
L. B. HA
ILIN, 


J. B. HEGAN. 
17 


251 



258 


APPENDIX. 


STAFF ON CONSTRUCTION. 


1873. 


Chief Engineer's Office. 
W. J. FORREST, Assistant. T. R. BURPE, Secretarv. 
District Engineers. 


L. G. BELL, 
A. L. LIGHT. 


H. J. CA1IIBIE, 
JOHN LINDSAY, 
PETER GRANT, 
W. J. FITZGERALD, 
W. 1\1, BUCK, 
H. A. F. 1\!ACLEOD, 


J. J. 1\ICGEE, 
W. 1\ICCARTllY, 
L. B. HAMLIN, 
J. B. HEGAN, 
H. DONKIN, 
WJII. GOSSIP, Jr., 
G. H. MIDDLETON, 
E. A. \VILMOT, 
JAMES CADMAN, 


SAMUEL HAZLEWOOD, 
C. SCHREIBER. 


Engineers in Charge. 
J. R. l\1CDONELL, 
W. G. BELLAIRS, 
C. ODELL, 
\V. B. S:\IELLlE, 
F. J. LYNCH, 
W. J. CROASDALE, 


C. BLACKWELL. 


.Assistant Engineers. 


G. W. MCCREADY, 
T. D. TAYLOR, 
H. N. RUTTAN, 
C. l\IORSE, 
R. C. HARRIS, 
H. DONKIN, 
J. JBLLETT, 
G. R. YELLOWES, 
G. H. GARDEN 



C. SCHREIB.I!.R, 
L. G. BELL, 


H. .T. CA "BIE, 
PETER GRANT, 
'V. It S'll
LLIE, 
W. 1\1. BUCK, 
H. A. F. MACLEOD, 


T. D. TAYLOR. 
H. S. LANGTON, 
W. 1\ICCARTHY, 
L. B. HAMLIN, 
JAMES CADMAN, 


PETER GRANT, 
C. BLACKWELL, 
P. S. ARCHIBALD, 
A, SINCLAIR, 


APPENDIX. 


STAFF ON CONSTRUCTION. 


1874. 


District Ellyilteers. 


S. HAZLEWOOD, 
A. L. LlGH.f. 


Engineers in Charge. 
J. R. l\!CDONELL, 
'V. J. FITZGERALD, 
F. J. LYNCH, 
C. BLACKWELL, 
C. ODELL, 


Assistant Engineers. 
G. H. MIDDLETON, 
G. R. FELI.OWES. 
R. N. RUTTAN, 
G. H. GARDEN, 
C. l\!ORSE, 
P. S. ARCHIBALD. 


STAFF ON CONSTRUCTION. 
1875. 


Superintending Engineer. 
C. SCHREIBER. 


Resident Engineers. 


,v. n. S'IELLIE, 
.T. H. l\ICDONELL, 
W, l\!CCARTHY, 
,V. MANN. 


25,t 



-2ßO 


PETER GRANT, 
C. BLACKWELL, 
P. S. ARClIJBALD, 
A. SINCLAIR, 


APPENDIX. 


STAFF ON r,ONSTRUCTION. 


1R76. 


Superintending Ellgineer. 
C. SCHREIBER. 


Resident Engineers. 
w. B. S3IELLIE, 
J. R. l\ICDONELL, 
W. MCCARTHY, 
W. MANN. 



INDEX. 


Aberdeen, Earl of, 37. 
Aboideaux, 223, 225,227. 
Abutments, Plan of, Adopted, 134. 
Acadia Iron Works, 87,88. 
Allanshaw, lIon. Jas., 8. 
Albertite, 177. 
Alexander, Sir James, 40. 
Aleck's Elbow, 159,161. 
Allagash River, 13. 
Altitudes, 139, 228. 
Amherst Ridge, 226. 
Androscoggin and Kennebec, 36. 
Annapolis, S1. John and Fredericton 
Line, 43. 
Apron \Valls, 123. 
Aroostook. 37, 80. 
Ashb1Jrton, Lord, 19, 37,43, 78, 235. 
Ashburton Treaty, 37, 39, 77, 78, 235. 
Ballast, 111, 224. 
Baronetage of Scotland and Nova 
Scotia, 41. 
Bartibogue River, 218 
Bathurst, 172, 176. 
Bay Chaleur, 24,36,47,71, 157,173. 
Bay Chaleur Routes, 68, 79, 83, 85, 86. 
Bend, The Grecian, 94. 
" of the Petitcodiac, 177. 
Bessem
r, Steel Rail., 112,114. 
Bic, 148. 
Bogs, 184, 186. 


Boundary Question, 19, 234. 
Bordeau Quarry, 169. 
Boring, 190, 192,200, 20L 
Boiestown, 40. 
Bridges, 98, 110. 
Bridges, 1\11'. William, 41, 43. 
Bridges and Viaducts, 133. 
Bridges on the Intercolonial, 
Amqui 
Barnaby 
Bartibogue 
Belledune. 
Bic 
Campbelton 
Christophel's 
Elm Tree 
Eel 
Jacquet 
Isle Verte 
l\Ietapedia 
l\Iillstream 
l\Ietis 
l\IcKinnon's 
l\liramichi 
l\1issiguash 
North . 
Nigadoo 
Nipissiguit . 
Red Pine 
Restigouche 


155 
182 
179 
172 
1-!9 
168 
168 
172 
168 
170 
143 
159 
161 
153 
161 
187 
225 
186 
172 
]73 
17
 
16:3 



262 


INDEX. 


149 
143 
149 
155 
224 
143 
173 
155 
147 
75, 79, 


Rimouski 
River du Loup 
St. Fabien 
St. Pierre 
Tantramar 
Temiscouata 
Tetê-à-gauche 
Tobegote 
Trois Pistoles 
Brith,h North America Act, 
101. 
Broun, Sfr Richard, 41, 42, 49. 
llrydges, C. J., 94, 99, 100. 
Buckingham, Duke of, 86. 
Buctouche, 106. 
Caissons, 188, 191, 196, 197, 202, 2D4, 
211. 
Cameron, Force Pumps, 218. 
Campbell, Lieut. Gov. Sir A., 8. 
Campbelton, Port, 169. 
Canadian Climate, Effects of, on 
'V orks, 108. 
Canada, New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia Railway Loan, 63. 
Capital Account, 234. - 
Carboniferous Basin of New BrunEI- 
wick, 176. 
Central Routes, 68, 69, 79, 81, 82. 
Chandler, lIon. E. R., 53, 94, 99. 
Chatham, 106, 184. 
Chaudiere River, 34. 
Chaudiere and River Du Loup, 36. 
Ch:tTlo River, 15ft 
Chief Enginf'er appointed, fi6. 
Chiputnatieook River. 22.24,27,34,39. 
Clarke Reeves & Co., 138. 
Clark PUllchard & Co., 100, 101, 102, 
105. 
Clay Cutting at Trois Pistoles. 145. 
Cohequid Mountains, 46, GI'!, 87,88, D4, 
130. 221. 


Coffin, W. F.. 94. 
Colonization Company, 41. 
Clearing, 110. 
Combination Line, 93, 94. 
Commissioners of Treaty of 1794,21, 
27,29. 
Commissioners of Intercolonial Rail- 
way, 94, 96,98, 99, 100,101, 105, 
107, 189, 222. 
Concrete, 151, 153, 188, 191 to 217. 
Concrete Wall, 131. 
Conditions proposed by Delegates, 60. 
Conditions proposed by Imperial Gov- 
ernment, 62. 
Confederation of Provinces, 72. 
Conference, Toronto. 52. 
Connecticut River, 27. 
Contracts, Bulk Sum, 95, 96, 97. 
Contract No.1, 143. 
" "2, 145. 
" .. 3, 168. 
.. "4, 226. 
" "5, 148. 
" "6,170. 
.. "7,228. 
" "8, 150. 
" ., 9, 171. 
" .. 10, 178. 
.. .. 11, 225. 
.. " 12, 230. 
., " 13, 152. 
" " 14, 154. 
" " 15, 172. 
" " 16, 177. 
.. " 17, 158. 
., " 18, 160. 
" " 19, 162. 
" " 20, 180. 
" " 21, 182. 
" . .. 22, 185. 
"23, 186. 



Contractors, 
Division A, Geo. and Jas. Worth- 
ington, 143. 
Division E, Geo. and Jas. W orth- 
ington, 147. 
Division C, Edward Haycock, 150. 
Division D, Dnncan McDonald, 
151. 
Division E, W. E. McDonald & 
Co., 153. 
Division F, Neilson & McGaw, 155. 
Division G, S. P. Tnck, 159. 
Division H, R. H. McGreevy & Co., 
161. 
Division I, Thos. Boggs & Co., 163. 
Division K, F. X. Eerlinquet & Co., 
169. 
Division L, F. X. Berlinquet & Co., 
171. 
Division M, F. X. Berlinquet & 
Co., 172. 
Division N, J. B. Bertrand, 174. 
Division 0, King & Gough, 178. 
Division P, McBean & Robinson, 
D. McDonald, 179. 
Division Q,Brown, Brooks & Ryan, 
IHI. 
Division R, Patk. Purcell. 184. 
Division S, C. Cummings & Co., 
185. 
Division T, Sutherland, Grant & 
Co., 186. 
Division W, Davis, Grant & Suth- 
erland, 225. 
Division X, Elliott, Grant & 
Whitehead, 227. 
Division Y, H. .J. Sutton & Co., 
229. ' 
Division Z, Sl.tmner & Somers, 231. 
Restigouche Bridge, Martin 
Murphy, 167. 


INDEX. 


263 


Contractors, 
Miramachi Bridges, Brown, Brooks 
& Ryan, 219. 
Conventional Boundary Line, 35. 
Convention at Charlottetown, 73. 
Cost of Bridges, estimated, 100. 
" " actua1, 100. 
" Railway approximate, 72. 
" " actual, 284. 
" of Survey, 55. 
Culverts, general plan, 121. 
" box, 121, 122. 
,. arch, 123. 
" open, 126. 
" pipe, 127. 
" inclined, 130. 
" covers, 122. 
Curves, 148, 149, 152, 158, 160, 163, 
170, 172, 173, 177, 178, 180, 
182, 185, 220, 222, 226, 229. 
Cuttings, 109, 111, 117, 119, 145, 
160. 
Cribwork; 147, 169. 
Crib-wharfing, 159, 161, 170, 171. 
Cross-ties, 115, 116. 
Dalhou
ie, 157, 169. 
Dartmouth, 46. 
Derby, Earl of, 53. 
Devil's Elbow, 157. 
Dickey, Hon. R. B., 92. 
Diverted Streams, 128. 
Division A, 143. 
B,145. 
C, 148. 
D, 150. 
E,152. 
F,154. 
G,158. 
H,160. 
1,162. 
K,168. 


. 



264 


Division L, 170. 
1\1, 171. 
N,172. 
0, 177. 
P,178. 
Q,180. 
R,182. 
S,185. 
T,186. 
U,222. 
V,222. 
W,225. 
X,226. 
Y,228. 
Z,230. 
Divisions of Railway, 139, 140. 
Distances, 40, 78, 140. 
Districts, 140. 
Di.-.trict Engineers, 140. 
Ditches, 110.119,177. 
Dorchester, 101, 104. 
Drainage, 118. 
Dredges, 188, 195, 197. 
Dredge Pumps (Woodford's), 193,195, 
198, 207. 
Due North Line, 30, 36. 
Durham, Lord, 17. 
Eastern Extensi.on Rai.lway, 101, 103, 
105,222, 224. 
Elgin, Earl of, 52. 
Embankments, 109, 116, 117, 120,136, 
148, 151, 153, 173, 179, 186. 
Engineering Staff, 238, 251. 
Etchemin, River & Lake, 13. 
Exmvation and Masonry (averages). 
144, 148, 150, 151, 154, 155, 
1.39, IG1, 170, 171, 172, 174, 
17R, 1RO, 181, 184, 186, 226, 
227, 230, 231, 241, 242. 
European alld Nurth American Ry., 
53. 


INDEX. 


Fairbairn Engineering Company, of 
England, 138, 147. 
Fairbairn, Henry, 6. 
Fairfield, Governor, 37. 
Falkland, Lord, 44. 
Featherstonehaugh and 1\Iudge, 26, 86. 
Fish Joints, 115. 
Fisheries, 47, 83. 
Folly Lake, 46, 87, 88, 89, 92, 93, 228. 
Folly River, 88, 132, 230. 
Formation Level, 113, 117. 
Foundation of Arch Culverts, 126. 
" Piers, 192. 
Forsyth, Hon. John, 30. 
Fredericton, 17, 45, 80, 85. 
Freight, through, 70, 82. 
Frontier Routes, 68, 69, 79. 
Frost, action of, 109, 136. 
F. Line, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93. 
Frye, Samuel, 8. 
Geologieal Formations, 141, 221. 
Gladstone, Right Hon. Mr., 44. 
Glenelg, Lorù, 11, 15. 
Grades, 144, 148, 149, 151, 158, 171, 
172, 173, 177, 178, 180, 226, 
230. 
Grand Falls, 40, 45, 85. 
Grand Lake, 176. 
Grand Trunk Railway, 55, 78, 81, 82 
83, 135. 
Grant, C. H., agent, 101, 102, 105. 
Grant, 1\Ir., 48. . 
Great Village River, 87. 
Grey, Earl, 49, 52. 
" Sir George, 12, 15. 
Gwynne Pump, 218. 
Gzowski, C. S., 189. 
Halifax, 45, 78, 79, 85. 
Halifax and Pictou Ry., 231. 
" "Portland, 50, 51. 
" " St. ,John, 5. 


- 



HaliIax and Quebcc Railway Routes, 
"" 37,41, 45, 46, 48, 
50,53,58 106. 
" "Truro. 3 6. 
Hatch, Harris, 8. 
Hatheway, E. R., 8. 
Harvey, Sir John, 16, 17, 45. 
Heavy Cuttings, 146, 152, 160, 173, 
178, 182, 226, 228. 
Highlands of the Trcaty, 20, 24,27,30, 
34,39. 
Hincks, Sir Francis, 53. 
Holloway, Colonel, R. E., 40. 
Howe, Hon. Joseph, 51, 53, 58, 60. 
Howe Truss Bridge, 144,225. 
Howland, Ron. W. P., 60. 
Jack, Adam, 8. 
Jackson, President Andrew, 30, 33,34, 
35, 234. 
Jacquet River, 158. 
Ice, action of, 133, 165. 
Imperial Guarantee, 51, 60, 75. 
Jervois. Colonel, 85. 
Imperial Negotiations on Canadian 
1\Iatters, 235. 
" Railway, 50. 
Interior Line, 107. 
Invasion of Disputed Territory, 36." 
Irish Colonization Project, 49. 
Iron Bridges, 98, 100. 
" District of Nova Scotia, 87, 88. 
" Ore, 90. 
Isaac's Lake, 87. 
Isle Vertè, 141. 
Keefer, 
amuel, 189. 
Kempt, Sir .Tames, 17, 18. 
Levis & Kennebec Ry., 13. 
Livesey, .John. R6, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91. 
Livingstune, lIon. Ed., 23, 32. 
Lucal Traffic, 70, 84. 
Location uf the Line, 77, 86. 


INDEX, 


265 


Londonderry Branch Line, 231. 
" Iron l\Iinc, 86, 88, 93. 
Lumber Establishments, 80. 
1\Iaccan River, 227. 
1\Iacdonald, Sir .John A., 96, 98,99. 
McLane, 1\1., 33. 
1\IcLelan, Hon. A. W.,92, 95, 99. 
Mc1\Iaster, J., 8. 
l\Iadison Brook, 87. 
1\Iagaguatlavic River, 21. 
Mail Route, 48. 
1\laine, State of, 14, 16, 17, 19,36,37, 
50,80. 
1\1a1fait Lake, 154. 
1\1:11"s HiB,8, 77. 
Masonry, 133, 173, 217. 
Metapedia Lake, 141, 154. 
" River, 157, 158. 
" Valley, 47, 85, 156, 158, 
160,162. 
Metis, 17, 36, 85, 141. 
1\letjarmette Portage, 38. 
Middle Line, 106, 107. 
Military Road, 40, 45, 85. 
Minister of Public Works, 79, 89, 102, 
107. 
1\litche]]'s Map, 29. 
1\lil'amichi Bridges, 187. 
" Dis trict, 175. 
" River, 47, 100, 106, 173, 
218. 
Moncton, 89, 101, 106, 176,220,223. 
" and SackviBe Ry., 102, 103, 
105. 
1\Iontreal, 9, 78, 79. 
Morrison, 1\lr., 92. 
1\lorrissey's Rock, 1 fi8. 
1\Iudge. Colonel, 3fi. 
Natural Snow Fenccs, 110. 
Nctht'rlandt;, King of, 29. 
New Brunswick and Canada Ry., 8, 19. 



2GG 


New Brunswick Routes, 68, 69, 79,85, 
86,94. 
Newcastle, Duke of, 66, 104. 
" Branch Railway, 181, 187. 
Newfoundland, 83. 
" Railway, 71.. 
Ncw York, 14,38. 
Nipissiguit River, 158, 175, 218. 
" Valley, 47. 
Normanby, Lord, 17. 
Northern Route, 80. 
Northwest Bridge, :Miramichi, 200. 
Notre Dame 1\Iountains, 68. 
Nova Scotia Boundary, 105, 224. 
Nova Scotia District, 220. 
" Railway, 67. 
" Npw Brunswick a.nd Ca.n- 
ada Railway, 51. 
Open Structures, 126. 
Opening of the Intercolonial, 233. 
Ottawa, 92, 104, 
Otter Brook Quarry, 158, 160. 
Otty Bay, 149. 
Painsec, 106,222. 
Palmerston, Lord, 33. 
Parliament, Returns to, 96, 99, 104. 
Passenger Traffic, 70, 84. 
Penobscot River, 2?, 34. 
" and St. John, 36. 
Permanent way, 112, 113. 
Peto, Betts, Jackson & BrasBey Messrs. 
55. 
Pictou Branch Line, 221. 
Piers, 134,191, 192, 224. 
Pier A, (1\Iiramichi,) 216. 
Pier B, " 214. 
"C, " 21
 
"D, " 211. 
"E, " 193,217. 
"F, " 194. 
"G, " 619. 


INDEX. 


Pier If, 


197. 
1!:1
, 
205. 


" 


"I. " 
"X, " 
Pine Brook, 89. 
Pipon, Captain R. E., 45, 46. 
Point Levis, 47. 
Pohenagamook Lake, 37. 
Portland,78. 
Prince Edward Island, 83. 
Principles of Bridge Building, 133. 
" "proposed Settlement with 
U. 8.,33,34. 
Provincial Boundaries, 139. 
Purdy, Mr., 92. 
Quebec Conference, 59. 
Quantities, Tables of, 241, 242. 
Qucbee, 9, 17, 78, 79. 
Quebec Convention on Confederation, 
74. 
Rails, 113, 114. 
Rail Joints, 114. 
Rail System, 113. 
Railways in British America, in 1862, 
64. 
.. Pre
ious to Confederation, 79. 
" Subsidies, 49. 
Rait, James, 8. 
Reciprocity Treaty, 83. 
Restigouche Bridge, 163. 
R
stigouche District, 156. 
" River, 17, 18, 38, 46, 158, 
168. 
" Valley, 158. 
Restook River, 13. 
Riehibueto, 106, 176. 
Rimouski, 141, 142. 
River du Loup, 40, 45, 67, 68, 79, 81, 
100, 106,141, 232. 
Robinson, Major, R. E., 46, 47, 52,79, 
81, 85, 87, 106. 
Road-bed, 110, 111, 118, 147. 



.. 


Rock Cuttings, 118, 149, 152, 160,162, 
171. 
Routes projected to St. Lawrence, 42. 
" through Nov!1- Scotia, 87. 
Royal Engineer's Survey, 44, 46, 47. 
Rules for crossing Rivers and Streams, 
111. 
Sandstones of Bay of Fundy, 129. 
Sayabec River, 154. 
Scabbard rail joints, 115. 
Schedule price system, 97. 
Schoodic River, 21. 
Segmental arch, 183. 
Shediac, 79, 87,106. 
Shik-Shok Mountains, 68, 157, 
Shippegan Island, 173, 174. 
Ships Knees as angle pieces, 224. 
Shore Line, 106, 107. 
Short Ocean Passage, 243, 
Sicotte, Hon. J. B., 60. 
Hide hill pipe Culverts, 128, 161, 168. 
" Slopes, 111, 118. 
Skew bridges, 144,159. 
Smith, Geo. H., 8. 
Smyth, l\Iajor Carmichael, 50. 
Snow, 108, 111, 118. 
Snow fences, 11 O. 
" plow, 119. 
South West Bridge (Miramichi), 190, 
217. 
Spans of bridges. lengths of, 132. 
Springhill Coal Field, 78, 87, 90, 91, 
221, 228. 
Steel Company of Canada, 221. 
" Rails, 111, 114. 
Stirling, Earl of, 25. 
Stockton and Darlington, Ry., 5, 6. 
St. Andrews, 7, 12, 13, 43, 78. 
" and Quebec, Ry. 11,35, 
41, 42, 53, 77. 
" and Wooc1stoc.Æ, Ryo't ,13. 


INDEX. 



67 


St. Croix River, 20, 21, 24, 25;26, 28, 
37. 
St. Fabicn,141. 
St. Flavie, 141. 
St. Francis River, 37. 
St. John, 10,42, 45,78, 79, 85, 86, 95. 
" River, 9, 13, 19, 45. 
" and Shediac Ry., 56, 67, 177, 
220, 222. 
.. District, 139. 
St. Luce, 141. 
St. Simon, 141, 145. 
Sub-soil drainage, 110. 
Substructure, 116, 117,118. 
Superstructure, 113, 115. 
Summits of ranges, 141, 154. 
Surveys, 36, 40, 65, 79, 87,102,103, 106. 
Structures for passage of Water, 120, 
122. 
Table of distances, 68. 
" .. quantities, 233, 241, 240. 
Temiscouata Lake, 40, 46, 85. 
" Road, 143. 
Tilley, Hon. S, L., 58, 60. 
Tende!"s, 94, 97. 
Tobique River, 46, 47. 
" Range, 68. 
Tortigoux River, 152. 
Test Pits, 91. 
" of Bridge Foundations, 209. 
Tête-à-gauche River, 158. 
Tunnels, 128, 153, 172, 183, 230. 
Tunnel at l\Iorrissey's Rock, 168. 
Transatlantic route, 84. 
Traveller, 204, 206. 
Treaty of Paris of 1783.-19,26,31, 
33,36. 
Treaty of 1794.-21, 25,37, 77. 
Treaty of Ghent, 1814.-27. 
" Ashburton, 37, 77, 78, 235. 
" R
'cirrncjty. R2, 




6S 


Trenches, 118. 
Trent Affair, 59. 
Trois Pistoles, 141, 145. 
Truro, 67,79, 87, 89, 100, 104, 106, 
220. 
Tyler Captain, 90. 
Under drains, 118, 147. 
United States Opposition, Hi, 17. 
Upsalquitch River, 47. 
Valentine and Collins, survey, 38. 
Vankoughnet, Hon. P. 1\1.,58. 
Vaughan, Sir C. R., 32, 33. 
Vermont Boundary, 38. 
Viaducts, 132. 
Walsh, Aquila, 94, 99,191. 
Warrell Bridge Pattern, 224. 


INDEX 


Water Jets, 162. 
Water Sheds, 152, 154, 175, 177, 179. 
" of Treaty, 35. 
Webster, Daniel, 19,37,235. 
Wellington, Duke of, 30, 34. 
Wilkinson Mr., 48, 
Wilson, John, 8. 
Winged Abutments, 136. 
Wooden bridges, 98, 99. 
" on Intercolonial, 144, 225. 
Woodford Dredge Pumps, 193, 195, 
198, 204, 209, 211, 213, 218. 
Woodstock, 8. 
Wyer Thomas, 8. 
Yule, Captain, R. E., 9, 10, 12, 13, 1
 
16, 19, 39,77. 






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