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Full text of "Interlocking subversion in Government Departments. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-third Congress, second session,first session]"

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7 

INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN 
GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS 



APPENDIX TO 

HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

DEPARTMENTS 



PART 14 
Appendix I 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
32918° WASHINGTON : 1953 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

FEB 9 - 1954 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota, Chairman 

ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin PAT McCARRAN, Nevada 

WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia 

ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utali JAMBS O. EASTLAND, Mississippi 

ROBERT C. HENDRICKSON, New Jersey ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee 

EVERETT MCKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois WILLIS SMITH, North Carolina 

HERMAN WELKER, Idaho OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina 

JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JR., Missouri 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana, Chairman 
ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah PAT McCARRAN, Nevada 

ROBERT C. HENDRICKSON, New Jersey JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi 

HERMAN WELKER, Idaho WILLIS SMITH, North Carolina 

JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina 

ROBERT MORRIS, Chicf Courisel 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

(The documents in this volume were accepted for the record by the chairman 
on Wednesday, July 8, 1953.) 

II 



INTEELOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVEENMENT 

DEPAETMENTS 



Exhibit No. 272 

[From the New Leader, New York, N. T., September 28, 1940] 

Communists Plan Tieup of United States War Industries Through Control 

OF National Labor Board 

(By Bill Harpman) 

Washington, D. C. — Under cover of the war in Evirope, the creation of a 
national defense program in this country, and the current presidential campaign, 
the Communist Party is quietly making its bid for complete control of the 
National Labor Relations Board. Through this control, it hopes to dominate the 
organized labor movement of the United States ; and through this domination, 
it expects to be in position to sabotage defense activities, in the interests of the 
Soviet-Nazi pact, and direct the political policies of labor along lines dictated by 
the Kremlin. 

The immediate focus of the struggle for control of the NLRB is the vacancy 
in one of the three seats on the Board, which occurred when the term of Chair- 
man J. Warren Madden lapsed late in August. Control of this seat is crucial to 
the Communist Party as it will give it a majority. At present the Board is the 
scene of a bitter internal fight between Edwin S. Smith, trusted fellow traveler 
and confidante of the Communists, and Dr. William Leiserson, who has the con- 
fidence of the bona fide labor movement as loyal to our democratic institutions. 
Thus, the next presidential appointment will determine the fate of the Com- 
munist Party's bid for power over American Labor. 

Edwin S. Smith came to Washington as the protege of Mary Van Kleeck, the 
founder of the Communist-sponsored Interprofessional Association, vociferous 
admirer of the Soviet regime and sponsor of the Lundeen bill, which was drafted 
by the Communist Party. He associated himself with the Stalinists, .ioining 
in the Communist-controlled social lobb.y in Washington and working closely 
with such "party-liners" as Nathan Witt, secretary ofthe NLRB, and Thomas 
I. Emerson, assistant general counsel. 

Smith became a member of the executive committee of the Washington chapter 
of the League for Peace and Democracy, which Earl Browder admitted to be a 
Communist "transmission belt," and which was originall.v inspired and later dis- 
solved by the Communist Party. In the summer of 1938, he attended 2 Com- 
munist-inspired conferences in Mexico City ; he was a speaker at 2 sessions of 
the International Industrial Relations Institute, organized by Mary Van Kleeck ; 
and he attended the sessions of the World Congress Against War and Fascism, 
at which the Communist symbol of the hammer and sickle was displayed promi- 
nently and Communist speakers dominated the scene. 

He was also a sponsor of two other Communist Party innocents' organizations — 
the Washington Friends of Spanish Democracy and the National Conference on 
Constitutional Liberties, at whose recent sessions he was one of the main speakers. 
He has consistently favored the interests of the Communist wing of the CIO 
both administratively and in his decisions on cases involving Stalinist-controlled 
unions that have come up before the Board ; and he has aided the Connnunist 
Party use the NLRB as a source of jobs for its patronage machine and to put 
Communist Party stooges in key positions within the Board. His most notorious 
decision was the one in the case of the longshoremen of the Pacific coast, in which 
he helped to hand over to Harry Bridges, notorious leader of the Communist- 
dominated International Longshore and Warehousemen's Union, control of the 
members of the A. F. of L. unions in the northern Pacific ports. 

This decision was so raw, and the protests of the A. F. of L. were so bitter, that 
the case is again before the Board for reinvestigation. Only a short time ago, 
Smith and Witt were ready to fire Elinore Herrick, at the bidding of the Stalinists, 
during the Consolidated Edison case, because she refused to be partial toward 
the Communist-controlled CIO union. What was at stake was the Communist 
Party's drive to get a stranglehold on strategic American industries, in line with 
the plans of the Soviet-Nazi pact. 

929 



930 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Behind Edwin Smith is arrayed the whole of the carefully constructed Com- 
munist Party apparatus in the National Labor Relations Board. At recent hear- 
ings before the House committee investigating the Board, it was disclosed that 
an astonishing number of its personnel were members of such Communist-domi- 
nated organizations as the American League for Peace and Democracy, the 
National Lawyers' Guild, and the International Juridical Association, spawn of 
the Communist Party International Labor Defense. The staflBng of the Board 
with members and supporters of Communist Party dominated organizations is 
traceable to the activities of Smith's "brain-trusters" in the Board, Nathan Witt 
and Thomas I. Emerson. 

Nathan Witt, who is the secretary of the NLRB, has been a member of the 
League for Peace and Democracy, the International Juridical Association, and 
the Lawyers' Guild. He was one of the founders of the guild and is still an 
active member despite its public repudiation by such men as Adolph A. Eerie, 
Assistant Secretary of State, and Attorney General Jackson, who found it to l)e 
Communist dominated. 

His wife was one of the leaders of the League for Peace and Democracy and 
is an active member of the League of Women Shoppers, another Communist 
Party innocents' group, linked through its officers to the American Peace 
Mobilization. 

The associate general counsel, Thomas I. Emerson, was, like Witt, one of the 
founders of the Lawyers' Guild and is today the leader of the Stalinist faction 
in its Washington chapter and a member of its constitution committee. He was 
also a member of the national committee of the International Juridical Associa- 
tion. Mrs. Henderson [sic], better known as Bertha Paret, is a leading member 
of the League of Women Shoppers. Both these men, in close cooperation with Lee 
Pressman, general counsel of the CIO, energetic activist in Communist-controlled 
front organizations, and ardent follower of the CP line, have filled the NLKB 
with Communist Party and CIO partisans. 

It has been charged by reliable authorities that Witt has asked those applying 
for jobs as to their social philosophy, to make sure that they were sympathetic 
to the Communist Party line. A short time ago, a key position in the new Ad- 
ministrative Division of the Board was given, through the pressure of Smith 
and Witt and over the protests of Leiserson, to Aaron Warner, who had been 
active in the CP organized Interprofessional Association and was a member 
of the Lawyers' Guild. 

Last year the underground rumblings within the NLRB reached the ears of 
Congress, and the House set up an investigating committee, unfortunately 
manned, in large part, by labor baiters. The Communists and fellow travelers 
in the Board scurried to cover until the charges were flying thick and fast. To 
protect themselves, they joined with these antilabor Congressmen in attacking 
the Board's chief economist, David J. Saposs, as a Communist. 

Their purposes were twofold : They needed a scapegoat to deflect the at- 
tacks against the CP stooges in the Board ; moreover, they wanted to drive 
Saposs out of the Board as he has been a close associate of Dr. Leiserson, an 
outspoken anti-Communist who has opposed the use of the Board as a CP 
patronage machine. He has fought communism in and outside the labor move- 
ment for many years. The alliance between the conservatives and the Commu- 
nists was evident in every move of both groups. In arranging the presentation 
of the Board's case before the committee, Saposs, xmlike the other keymen in the 
Board, was not given the chance to present his own defense, appearing only 
when called, and not to present his own case, but ratlier for hostile cross-exami- 
nation. The committee not only recommended amendments to the Labor Act 
but the abolition of Saposs' Division of Economic Research. 

When the CIO sent an army of lobbyists to fight amendments to the act last 
spring, they were ordered not to defend Saposs and his division. The work of the 
"poison squads" was so effective that the well-meaning, prolabor members of 
the committee. Congressmen Murdock and Healey, all but asked for Saposs' dis- 
missal in their minority report. The result was that Congress made no ap- 
propriation for his Division. The Board, to keep its work in order, found it 
necessary to make financial provision for the Division from its general funds. 

It was necessary for men like President William Green, of the A. F. of L, 
David Dubinsky, of the ILGWU, and anti-Communist CIO leaders like R. J. 
Thomas, of the auto workers' union, and Philip Murray, of the steel workers' 
union, to come to the defense of Saposs and his Division and to clear him of the 
charge of communism. 



I 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 931 

lu the face of such vigorous opposition, the CP commissars and their fellow- 
travelers decided that their best bet. in their struugle for control of the Board, 
was to press for Maddeu's reappointment, since they could not hope to get 
another Edwin Smith on the Board. Madden had proven himself to be a 
typical innocent, amendable to the "liberal" persuasion of the fellow travelers 
and the Communist wing of the CIO. He has defended the activities of Nathan 
Witt: voted in favor of Harry Bridges in the west coast longshore case; voted 
to appoint Aaron Warner to the Administrative Division ; prevented a thorough 
cleaning-out of Comunists from the Board ; refused to listen to those in and out 
of the Board who warned him about the Communist termites around him; 
and generally proven himself to be a reliable, if unwilling, tool. 

The Communist backers of Madden, however, have been obscured by typical 
cover-up maneuvers : John L. Lewis, whose alliance with the CP was definitely 
proven by his role in the recent convention of the New York State Industrial 
Union Council of the CIO, has been pressuring President Roosevelt, directly and 
indirectly, for Madden's reappointment. Men like Senator Thomas, of Utah, 
Daniel Tobin, of the teamsters' union, and Philip Murray, of the steelworkers, 
have lent their names for the same purpose. And they have even been able to 
induce Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins to join the Communist-inspired 
pressure squad for the reappointment of Madden. 

The remarkable thing about this lemarkable story is the fact that there is a 
very real danger that these maneuvers of the Communists may succeed. Al- 
though A. F. of L. President Green once made clear his opposition to Madden, 
this has not been followed up, at this crucial time, when the appointment by 
the President seems due very shortly. Because of his preoccupation with the 
huge and vital task of defense, President Hillman, of the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America, has unfortunately not bothered to bring his great influence 
to bear against the appointment of this Communist-sponsored candidate whose 
activities would wreck the national defense program. 

While the trade-union movement is busy with an election campaign for Roose- 
velt and with preserving the rights of labor in the defense program of the Na- 
tion, it is overlooking a vital sector of labor's interests in the control and proper 
operation of the NLRB. On the other hand, however, the Communists have been 
very active as they know that this is a world of pressure-politics and that if they 
can divert the country's attention with spurious slogans of peace and civil liber- 
ties to cover up their un-American activities, they will be able to win the struggle 
for control of the Board. 

Obviously, the issue goes beyond the NLRB, for this is but a vital part of a 
larger conspiracy on the part of Moscow's Communist Party to penetrate and 
control our Government agencies, our labor movement and our strategic peace and 
war industries. 

This is of a piece with the Communist penetration of the American merchant 
marine through the domination of the National Maritime Union led by Joe Cur- 
ran ; their penetration of the American communications system through the 
dominance of the American Communications Association ; their increasing pene- 
tration of the transportation system and the Government service. 

The stakes in this conspiracy are the organization of active Communist sabo- 
tage of our defense. 

Whether the Communists will be able to do this depends upon whether the 
labor movement and the New Deal administration will awaken in time to this 
menace. The first test is at hand in the Communist bid for control of the Na- 
tional Labor Relations Board through the reappointment of Madden. 



Exhibit No. 273 

List of National Research Project Published Reports by Indhiduals Ap- 
pearing AS Witnesses or Named in Testimony Before the Senate Internal 
Security Subcommittee 

A list of the Project's published reports appears below. These publications 
have been reviewed for statistical and economic analysis by Edmund J. Stone, 
assistant to the director, and edited and printed under his direction. 

GENERAL 

Unemployment and Increasing Productivity, by David Weintraub assisted by 
Harold L. Posner, Report No. G-1, March 1937. Prepared for the National Re- 
sources Committee report, Technological Trends and National Policy. 



932 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

The Research Program of the National Research Project, by Irving Kaplan, 
Report No. G-2, August 1937. ( P. 2. ) 

Summary of Findings to Date, March 1938, by David Weintraub and Irving 
Kaplan, Report No. G-3, March 1938. 

Effects of Current and Prospective Technological Developments Upon Capital 
Formation, by David Weintraub, Report No. G-4, March 1939. Also published 
in the American Economic Review, volume XXIX, No. 1 (March 1939), supple- 
ment. 

STUDIES IN TTPES AND RATES OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE 

Manxifacture 

Industrial Instruments and Changing Technology, by George Perazich, Her- 
bert Schimmel, and Benjamin Rosenberg, Report No. M-1, October 1938. Pre- 
pared under the supervision of George Perazich. 

Mechanization in the Bx'ick Industry, by Alfred J. Van Tassel and David W. 
Bluestone, Report No. M-2, June 1939. Prepared under the supervision of 
George Perazich. 

Mechanization in the Cement Industry, by George Perazich, S. Theodore Woal, 
and Herbert "Schimmel, Report No. M-3, in press. Prepared under the super- 
vision of George Perazich. 

Industrial Research and Changing Technology, by George Perazich and Philip 
M. Field, Report No. M-4, in press. Prepared under the supervision of George 
Perazich. 

Mechanization in the Lumber Industry, by Alfred J. Van Tassel, Report No. 
M-5, in press. Prepared under the supervision of George Perazich (with assist- 
ance of D. W. Bluestone ) , 1940. ( P. 3. ) 

STUDIES IN PRODUCTION, PRODUCTTVirY, AND EMPIX>YMENT 

Mmiufacture 

Production, Employment, and Productivity in 59 Manufacturing Industries, 
1919-36, by Harry Magdoff, Irving H. Siegel, and Milton B. Davis, Report No. 
S-1, May 1939. Prepared under the supervision of Harry Magdoff. (P. 4.) 

Minmg 

Technology, Employment, and Output per Man in Petroleum and Natural-Gas 
Production, by O. E. Kiessling, H. O. Rogers, G. R. Hopliins, N. Yaworski, R. L. 
Kiessling, J. Brian Eby, Lew Suverdrop, J. S. Ross, R. E. Heithecker, W. B. 
Berwald, Andrew W. Rowley, M. A. Schellhardt, Richard Sneddon, Boyd Guthrie, 
Herbert Schimmel, and J C. Albright, Report No. E-10, July 1939. Conducted 
in cooperatiop with the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of 
Mines, and prepared under the supervision of O. E. Kiessling, (P. 6.) 

Agriculture 

Selective Factors in an Expanding Labor Market : Lancaster, Pa., by Edward 
J. Fitzgerald, Report No. L-4, June 1939. (P. 7.) 

Farm-City Migration and Industry's Labor Reserve, by Francis M. Vreeland 
and Edward J. Fitzgerald, Report No. 1^7, August 1939, (P. 8.) 



Exhibit No. 274 

United States Atomic Energy Commission, 

Washington 25, D. C, June 30, 1953. 
Hon. William E. Jenner, 

Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee. 
Dear Senator Jenner: Reference is made to your letter of May 14, 1953, 
requesting personal history statements, personnel security questionnaires, stand- 
ard forms 57, and other forms of this nature tilled out by or for David Hawkins 
and Philip Morrison. I understand that Mr. William Mitchell, our General 
Counsel, and Mr. Edward Trapnell, Special Assistant to the General Manager, 
have discussed with you and Mr. Morris, of the subcommittee's staff, the Com- 
mission's reasons for proposing that the subcommittee be furnished with excerpts 
from all available forms of the type in which the committee is interested 
pertinent to information requested on those forms as to Communist affiliations. 
Our proposal was prompted by the following considerations: (1) We regard 
personnel security questionnaires as privileged documents which should be held 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



933 



confidential in the interests both of fairness to the individual and proper conduct 
of our security program. (2) Hawlcins and Morrison were not Government 
employees, but rather were employees of Manhattan district contractors during 
the period in question. (3) Some of the documents of the type in which the 
subcommittee is interested were obtained from Morrison and Hawlvins by their 
private employers for their personnel flies. We understand that you aiid Mr. 
Morris indicated that the subcommittee is primarily interested in information 
requested on these forms pertinent to Communist afhliations, and we trust that 
this manner of making the information available to the subcommittee will be 
satisfactory. 

First, with respect to Dr. Hawkins : 

(1) On May 8, 1943, Hawkins executed a Manhattan engineer district per- 
sonnel security questionnaire, for his employment by the University of Cali- 
fornia on the atomic energy pro.1ect. This form did not contain any direct 
questions relating to Communist associations, but item 14 of this questionnaire 
did require listing of membership in organizations. This item, as Hawkins 
filled in the form, is set forth below : 

"14. Membership in organizations: (List all organizations of which you are 
or have been a member since 1930). 



Name 


Character 


Address 


Years 
member 


American Federation of Teachers, Local 349.. _ 
American Federation of Teachers, Local 442... 


Professional trade union.. 
do 


Berkeley, Calif 

Palo Alto, Calif 

Berkeley, Calif 


1938-39 
1940-41 


Pi Mu Epsilon (Berkeley chapter) 


Local professional-. 


1943- 







(2) On the same date. May 6, 1943, Hawkins filled out and executed an "em- 
ployee's declaration" on a form entitled "Application for United States of 
America — Personnel Security Questionnaire." This form had an explanatory 
paragraph reading as follows : 

"UNITED STATES OF AMERICA — PERSONNEL SECURITY QUESTIONNAIRE 

"To enable the employer to discharge its obligations under the espionage and 
national defense statutes, and regulations thereunder, the following facts are 
submitted for the information of the Government of the United States. This 
questionnaire is not intended to cast doubt upon the loyalty of any citizen of 
the United States, but, on the contrary, is intended to establish mutual confi- 
dence among loyal war workers by obviating any suspicion which might be cast 
upon them, and by making as diflicult as possible the employment of agents of 
foreign governments who by subversive and sabotage tactics might endanger such 
loyal workers and the work under performance." 

The form was reciuired by the University of California, apparently for its 
personnel records, and perhaps as the basis for obtaining data for typing up 
the MED personnel security questionnaires for their employees' signatures. Only 
one item on this form has any bearing upon Communist associations, and this 
item is here quoted in its entirety as filled out by Hawkins. 

"Membership in organizations (list all organizations of which you are or have 
been a member since 1930. State name, character, type or kind of organization 
such as athletic, business, fraternal, labor, military, musical, political, profes- 
sional, religious, social, trade, vocational, etc.) : 



Name (e. g., Sigma Xi, Local No. 1) 



American Federation of Teachers, Local 349. 
American Federation of Teachers, Local 442. 
Pi Mu Epsilon, University of California 



Character (profession, 
trade, etc.) 



Professional trade union. 
do 

Local— professional 



Address of organi- 
zation 



Berkeley, Calif. 
Palo Alto, Calif 
Berkeley, Calif- 



Years a 

member 

(19— to — ) 



1938-39 
1940-41 
1943- 



With respect to Dr. Mon-ison : 

(1) On May 29, 1943, Morrison executed an "Information form for Govern- 
ment Employees" in connection with his employment by the University of 
Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory which was working on the IMED project. 
Items 6 (a) and (h) of this form are significant from the standpoint of your 



934 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



subcommittee's interest. Tliese items, as tlie form was filled out by Morrison, 
are excerpted in full below : 

"6. Associations: 

"a. Are you or have you ever been a member of any political party or organiza- 
tion which now advocates or has ever advocated overthrow of the constitutional 
form of government in the United States? No. 

(Yes or No) 
"If yes, give details : 

"Name of organization Dates of membership Position held 



"h. List all clubs, societies, trade unions, associations, religious affiliations, or 
any type of organization with which you have been connected in any way what- 
ever. (Give addresses and indicate whether you are now connected with such 
organization.) In addition to those given in 5g:^ 
"American Physical Society, 175 5th Avenue, New York — now member. 
"American Federation -of Teachers, New York — no longer member. 
"University Assistants and Readers, Berkeley, (ialif. — no longer member. 
"American Student Union, New York — no longer member." 

(2) On October 28, 1944, Dr. Morrison executed an MED Personnel Security 
Questionnaire, item 14 of which is excerpted below : 

"Membership in organizations (list all organizations of which you are or have 
been a member since 1930) : 



Name 



Sigma Xi -. 

Phi Beta Kappa 

American Federation of Teachers. 

American Student Union.. 

National Student League 



Character 



Academic. 

do 

Labor 

Student.-. 
do 



Address 



New York. 

do 

do 



Years 
member 



1940- 

1940- 

1937-41 

1935-39 

1934-35 



(3) On the same date, October 28, 1944, Dr. Morrison executed a "Personnel 
Security Questionnaire, United States of America," similar to the second form 
described above with respect to Dr. Hawkins, which was required by the Univer- 
sity of California, apparently for its personnel records. The only item on this 
form i)ertinent to the question of Communist affiliation is that concerning "mem- 
bership in organizations," which is excerpted below in full : 

"Membership in organizations: (List all organizations of which you are or 
have been a member since 1930 — fraternal, labor, business, political, etc.). 



Name 



Sigma Xi 

Phi Beta Kappa 

American Federation of Teachers. 

American Student Union 

National Student League 



Type of organization 



Academic. 

do 

Labor 

Student.. - 
do 



Address 



New York. 

.....do 

do 



Term of 
member- 
ship 



1940- 

1940- 

1937-41 

1935-39 

1934-35" 



"(4) On August IG, 1947, Dr. Morrison executed an Atomic Energy Com- 
mission personnel security questionnaire in connection with his employment by 
the University of California. Item 16 is the only item pertinent to Communist 
affiliations and is excerpted in full below : 



^ Item 5 (g) lists scholastic, honorary, and professional fraternities. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 935 

"IG. All Organization Membership — Name, Address, Type (Inclusive dates and 
any office held) : 
"Federation American Science, Educational, Washington, D. C. (Member National 

Administration Commission) 1945 to date 
"Sigma Xi, Academic, 1940 to date 
"Phi Beta Kappa, Academic, 1940 to date 

"American Federation Teachers, Labor, New York, N. Y., 1937^1 
"American Student Union, Student, New York, N. Y., 1935-39 
"National Student League, Student, New York, N. Y., 1934-35." 

Incidentally, the AEC's personnel security questionnaire in use at that time 
was revised several years ago and now contains a nimiber of items designed to 
elicit direct responses concerning membership in Communist, fascist, totalitarian, 
and subversive organizations. 

Both Morrison and Hawkins also signed an a^davit of loyalty to the Con- 
stitution of the United States of America. These were, we understand, obtained 
by their employer, the LTniversity of California, pursuant to INIED requirements. 
a" copy of this form is attached hereto for your information. 

In your letter of May 14. you also ask whether any unpublished AEC reports 
had, by July 1949, identified in specific terms liquid metals which might be used 
as a coolant in a reactor. The Smyth Report, Atomic Enei'gy for Military Pur- 
poses, an MED publication published in 1945, referred to molten bismuth as a 
liquid metal coolant planned for use in a production reactor in 1942. A very 
detailed examination of possible coolants was declassified by the AEC prior to 
September 1947, when this material was published as part of volume I of The 
Science and Engineering of Nuclear Power, by Clark Goodman. 
Sincerely yours, 

Gordon Dean, 

Chairman. 

Affidavit of Loyalty to the Constitution of the 
United States of America 

The undersigned certifies that he is a citizen of the United States of America, 
that he does not advocate, and Is not a member of any political party or organ- 
ization which advocates the overthrow of our constitutional form of government 
in the United States of America. 

Date 

Name 

Badge No 



Exhibit No. 275 
ToLAN Committee* 

* * * The recent report of the Tolan committee to the House of Representa- 
tives, on October 20. proposes a completely centralized national administration of 
industry and manpower, working upon a single plan for victory in the war. Its 
proposals are embodied in the Kilgore-Pepper bill in the Senate and the Tolan 
bill in the House. The committee bluntly declares that "our war effort is in 
jeopardy," that "this war can be lost in Washington," if such a central admin- 
istration is not established. The committee is composed of conservative Demo- 
crats and Republicans, with not a "left-winger" among them. Indeed, Congress- 
man Bender of Ohio, supporting the report, complains that ".some points are not 
made strong enough." And Mr. Bender, leader of the old-line Republican Party of 
his State, is a confirmed anti-New Dealer, but clearly moved by one single con- 
sideration — patriotism, the will to victory in the war, which he sees is in grave 
danger unless the Tolan committee proposals are adopted and carried out 
energetically. 

Indeed, the Tolan committee proposals are truly national, and deserve the 
support of capital equally with that of labor, of the farmers equally with that 
of the small industrialists, businessmen and middle classes. It shows the only 



1 One Year Since Pearl Harbor (address delivered in Detroit, November 12, 1942), by Earl 
Browder ; volume XXI, No. 11, December 1942, The Communi.st — A Magazine of the Theory 
and Practice of Marxism-Leninism, editor : Earl Browder. 

32918°— 53 — pt. 14 2 



936 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

way in which our economy can be mobilized to meet the strains of all-out war 
without a breakdown * * * (pp. 978-979.) 

******* 

* * * Such proposals as those in the Kilgore-Pepper and Tolan bills must be 
supported by all, whether they are adopted by the Executive or by Congress 
(p. 979). 

******* 



Exhibit No. 276 
ToLAN Committee* 

In the third interim report of the Tolan committee I do find the heart of the 
whole problem stated very sBai-ply, clearly, succinctly. I want to read a para- 
graph of the Tolan report because it stands out in current literature on war 
ec-onomics like a veritable i>earl. Here is the quotation : 

"There is no phase of our economic life which can be unessential in total war. 
Every phase must be planned, must be guided, must be brought under central 
administrative control. Total war requires that our vast economic system be 
operated along the organizational lines of a single industrial plant. Under con- 
ditions of maximum war production, everyday market relationships virtually 
disappear." 

The present confusions, lags, bottlenecks, and breakdowns in the war produc- 
tion are in the largest part a result of failure to realize this central truth stated 
in the Tolan report and to draw the necessary conclusions. * * * In the words 
of the Tolan committee report, it is literally true that for maximum war pro- 
duction every phase of the national economy must be planned, must be guided, 
must be brought under administrative control ; that everyday market relation- 
ships virtually disappear (p. 796). 

* * * * * * * 

It is an extremely interesting question why, among all the Government 
agencies concerned with one phase or another of the national economy, why was 
it the Tolan committee which came most directly to the heart of the whole 
national economic problem? The answer undoubtedly is that just because the 
Tolan committee was basically charged with the study of the limited piioblem of 
the migration of labor, it unerringly was directed, by the nature of its special 
job, to the heart of the general problem (p. 797). 

******* 

* * * Unfortunately we do not have the latest results of the Tolan com- 
mittee investigation, which are not yet printed. They would be most valuable 
because they cover the first months of the official war period, whereas the 
figures I am going to recite are for the latter part of 1941 ; but we already know 
that there has been no change in the general outline of facts as revealed in the 
Third Interim Report of the Tolan Committee (p. 798). 



Exhibit No. 277 

Persons Mentioned in the Berle Memo September 5, 1939, Who Participated in 
THE Preparation of American Postwar Foreign Policy, According to the 
State Department Publication, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, 
1939-45 

Hiss, Alger : Attended meetings of subcommittee on territorial problems, of the 
advisory committee ; alternate member, policy committee ; appointed Special 
Assistant to the Director of the Office of Special Political Affairs ; attended 
meetings preparatory to Dumliarton Oaks Conference; member, agenda group; 
alternate member, armament committee ; menfber of committee to allocate officers 
to work on the basic instrument of the general international organization prepara- 
tory to the Dumbarton Oaks Conference ; responsible for developing administra- 
tive arrangements for Dumbarton Oaks; executive secretary, American group 
Dumbarton Oaks ; present at preconference briefing, Dumbarton Oaks ; executive 



2 Thp Economics of All-Ont War, b.v Earl Browder (speech delivered at the New York 
State Convention of tlie Communist Partv at ^lanhattan Center, New York City, August 
20, 1042) : volume XXI, Xo. 0, October 1042, the Communist Magazine of the Theory and 
Practice of Marxism-Leninism, editor, Earl Browder. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 937 

" secretary of executive secretariat of American group at Dumbarton Oaks ; sec- 
retary in international capacity, Dumbarton Oalis meeting of lieads of Great 
Britain, Russia, and United States ; secretary, steering committee, Dumbarton 
OalvS ; attended meetings for drawing up plans for a general international organ- 
ization ; member of committee preparing for Crimea Conference ; attended meet- 
ing of the interdepartmental committee on dependent area aspects of international 
I organization as State Department representative ; accompanied President to 
Yalta ; in charge of an-angements for United Nations Conference at San Fran- 
cisco; secretary, informal organizing group on arrangements for the Sau 
Francisco Conference. 

Coe, V. Frank : Listed as a representative at meetings of the interdepartmental 
group to consider postwar international economic problems and policies, repre- 
senting the Treasury Department. Attended meetings of the American Technical 
Committee representing the Foreign Economic Administration. Alternate 
member of the informal policy committee on Germany. 

Currie, Lauchlin : Listed as a representative at meetings of the interdepart- 
mental group to consider postwar international economic problems and policies 
representing the Executive Office of the President. Member for work on economic 
problems of the advisory committee; member, committee on postwar foreign 
economic policy ; member, executive committee on economic foreign policy. 

Duggan, Laurence : Member, advisory committee ; member, subcommittee on 
political problems ; member, departmental committee on political planning ; 
chairman, area committee for Latin America of committee on special studies; 
member, policy committee. 

Wadleigh, H. Julian : Participated in various meetings of Interdepartmental 
Group to consider Post-War International Economic Problems and Policies ; 1941, 
economic studies largely on long-range problems of lend-lease ; research secretary 
for Subcommittees, Economic Reconstruction and Economic Policy : attended 
meetings of Territorial Problems Subcommittee when problems In his field arose ; 
secretary, Taylor committee; Assistant Chief of economic branch of research 
staff ; Assistant Chief, Division of Economic Studies. 



ExHiisiT No. 278 

[From the Saturday Evening Post, March 12, 1949] 

Here's Wheee Oub Young Commies Are Trained 

(By Craig Thompson) 

Do you imagine that all the youthful dupes of United States Reds 
are embittered misfits from underprivileged families? Then this 
article, telling how and where American youngsters are taught con- 
tempt for their country, will enlighten you— and shock you. 

It takes more than a party card to transform the eager-beaver malcontents the 
Communist Party attracts into the tireless mischief-makers the party w^ants. 
Knowledge of how to manipulate twilight sleepers like Henry Wallace, when to 
attempt to wreck a man's business or what justifies treason does not come 
naturally — even to Communists. These things have to be taught. To teach 
them, the Communists have set up a chain of schools scattered across the United 
States. 

The biggest school is in New York. It fills four floors of a gaunt yellow-brick 
building at 575 Avenue of the Americas, diagonally across the intersection of 
16th Street from a Jesuit college, and it is called the Jefferson School of Social 
Science — "A People's University of Progressive Character." 

The Jefferson school annually enrolls 3,000 students — a fraction of the total 
signed up by the national chain, which stretches from Boston to the California 
Labor School in San Francisco, and includes establishments in Chicago, Phila- 
delphia, Newark, Cleveland, and other localities. Formerly some of these were 
identified by such names as the Abraham Lincoln, Walt Whitman, or Samuel 
Adams Schools, but after being listed as subversive by the United States Attor- 
ney General's office, they seem to have gone underground. All are part of what 
the CommunLst Daily Worker describes as a "continuing process of reci-uiting 
and training new youthful forces for leadership within the Communist Party." 
Or, as one callow recruit phrased it : "The party will take anybody. You don't 
have to know anything to join — after you join they send you to school." 



938 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

It is as easy to enroll in the Jefferson School as to enter a neighborhood movie 
house. There are no scholastic requirements. The only questions asked are 
name, place of employment, and trade-union affiliations. The fees are low — .50 
cents to a dollar for individual forum lectures, and $7.50 for courses of 10. 
Special discounts are given to party groups and members of party affiliates such 
as the American Youth for Democracy. Once enrolled, the neophyte is plunged 
into a strange and, for some, exhilarating atmosphere of open conspiracy. Every- 
one speaks and acts on the assumption that everyone else is already a Communist 
or about to become one. People who, elsewhere, will go to jail rather than admit 
being party members here openly proclaim it. 

Recently, I sent a student into the Jefferson School. She was a young woman 
researcher who could take shorthand notes. She attended classes and talked to 
other students, setting down what she learned in a series of reports which run to 
thousands of words and are the substance of this article. 

The hallmark of Communist enterprises is squalor — a stage prop to induce 
more and bigger money gifts from its dupes — and the Jefferson School bears the 
approved stamp. Peeling paint hangs from its walls, the floors are bare and 
scuffed, the furniture nicked and rickety and the windows gray with grime. 
The student roster is by no means limited to doltish fledglings sent by the party 
cells. Although the school does lean heavily on the party machinery for its 
pupils, it also uses advertisements and articles in the party press and word-of- 
mouth promotion in legitimate universities. Communist-front groups, and imion 
halls. Pressurized proselytizing which stresses slogans such as "You are invited 
to examine the Marxist approach," or "Socialism having become a science must 
be pursued as a science, it must be studied," seems to have a hypnotic attraction 
for boys and girls in the honest universities. The result is that a majorit.v of the 
students, far from being union toughs, imported bomb tossers, or hardened social 
wreckers are, instead, run-of-the-mine young Americans between 17 and 25 years 
old. No more than half of them are card-carrying Communist Party members. 

Considered collectively, these eager, shiny-eyed boys and girls furnish solid 
proof that United States communism is roping in its new puppets by catching 
them in their teens. It is a safe bet that if the parents of some of them knew 
what their children are up to, many a comfortable middle-income home would rock 
with horrified parental thunder. But the kids are too deeply engrossed in plot- 
ting the class struggle to care. Later on. as they learn more about Communist 
reality, some will change their minds and withdraw. Meanwhile it seems only 
fair to give them the same protection the law gives juvenile criminals by with- 
holding their full identities. 

All of them are afflicted with the discontent of youth and, basically, it is this 
that makes communism acceptable to them. But a more complete analysis of a 
group of 8 revealed 8 subvarieties of discontent. John was a stupid boy in 
search of self-importance ; Ruth, a girl in revolt against "reactionaries" ; Claire, 
a bright girl keeping up with her Communist husband ; Arthur, an adventurous 
boy in search of action; Larry, a brilliant boy in search of i)ower ; Margery, an 
emotional stargazer in search of an antidote to poverty ; Joe, an angry laborer 
in search of a weapon to use against his bosses ; and Sella, a girl of Syrian 
parentage who felt she was a victim of racial discrimination. 

The 8 were among the 23 students — 14 of them college kids — who signed up 
for a course called Principles of Marxism, I, which Alan Max, managing editor 
of the Daily Worker, conducted in a shoe-box shaped room on the fourth floor. 
Max is h loose-limbed 6-footer, about 40, with a thin, sallow face. His teaching 
method was the usual routine of lecture and questions, but he was merciless in 
heaping scorn or ridicule on those who did not have the right answers and he 
had a flair for converting wrong answers into quick, effective illustrations of 
Communist tactics. He deftly demonstrated the technique of the propaganda 
lie, for example, when a boy suggested that communism had its early roots in the 
teachings of Christ. 

"Look," Max cut in harshly, "it's all right to make a claim before a congres- 
sional committee for propaganda purposes. It sounds good to compare com- 
munism with Christ for people like that. But we're here to examine this thing 
scientifically." 

Although much of what passed for instruction in this group was carried 
on in the mumbo-jumbo patter of the Marxian cultists, when Max laid down the 
party line on Henry Wallace, he did it in a language everybody could under- 
stand. 

"Today," he said, "the line-up is really between the camp of democracy rei> 
resented by the Soviet Union, and the camp of fascism, capitalism and war 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 939 

represented by the United States. Even people who are not consciously in this 
fight are particii)ating in it. What they do will depend on the experiences they 
go through. The Couununists have the job of shaping these exijeriences, and 
that is being done through a mass movement — the third party. 

"Don't thinlv Henry Wallace has any great love for the Communists. He 
knows that without us he would have no third party. But if we go out today 
and ask for socialism, we would get nowhere. Therefore we have to support 
Wallace. The organization of the third party is but the first step. Altliough 
AVallaee is the leader of the party, he is not important. It is the building of 
the party that is important. What must l)e done is to enroll the support of the 
workers. One of Wallace's assets is his ability to attract the middle class. 
But Communists are interested in fulfilling their job through the workers and 
the trade unions. If the unions play an important role in it, the Communists 
will gain through them." 

The self-importance-seeking .John interrupted with a question, "Doesn't W^al- 
lace want nationalization of industry?" 

"Just what Wallace means I don't know," Max replied. "He thinks progressive 
capitalism can do the.se things. Where the industries were nationalized in 
England, it was done to rook the people. This was not so in Russia. 

'•Of course, Wallace is not the third party. His program is not the program 
of the party. Wallace will not come to power. Where the Communists and 
Wallace get together is on the program of monopolies, fascism, and war. This 
is the basis for the united front between liberals and Communists. The job of 
the Communist Party now is to press forward in the third party." 

Those who heard Max's forthright deliverance of the party orders on Wal- 
lace — far more baldly and frankly stated than any directive that has appeared 
in the Daily Worker — received it as a reward for patience. Max held it back 
until the last night of his 10 weeks' course, and by that time the class had shaken 
down to its diehard core of 8. Some of those who dropped out were repelled 
by Max's cynicism, some rejected communism, and others defaulted for lack of 
time and energy. 

The amount of time-consuming activity the party apparatus demands of its 
youngsters is appalling. The school functions as one of the interlocking party 
fronts, part of a system by which various Communist-inspired enterprises lend 
their members to one another for picket lines, mass demonstrations, political 
rallies, and fund solicitation. 

Claire, the girl who had married a Communist, casually revealed the frequency 
of the calls when she matter of factly observed, "I only see my husband about 12 
hours out of a whole week." 

Actually all this activity is a part of Communist training. In capturing a 
labor union or any other organization, the method is to infiltrate with a trusted 
group willing to work long hours, take on any job nobody else wants, attend all 
meetings, outwait the opposition in order to shove through resolutions after 
the majority has gone home, and to keep at it until control is gained. Obviously 
any convert who is not willing to give what it takes while the experience is new 
will not do it later on. The party shakes them out early. 

The school's main empha.sis is on "Marxist theory." which is a code phrase 
for "tactics," but it also has classes to "provide unionists and other progressives 
with the theory and facts for solution of their problems." Some New York labor 
bosses, long accustomed to playing footsie with the Communists in their unions, 
have lately begun to take a very dim view of the Jefferson School's instructional, 
demonstrational, conspiratorial activity. 

In October 1946, Department Store Employee, the newspaper of the CIO De- 
partment Store Employees Local Union 12.")0, announced that 40 members of the 
local had been enrolled in the Jefferson School for a special study of strikes and 
the "most effective methods to use on stubborn employers." Some time later the 
methods became apparent when demonstrations of as many as 1,000 persons 
began creating disturbances before several large department stores. While some 
stores bought newspaper space to shout that they were innocent of ill will toward 
unions, customers stayed away in droves. 

What the customers did not understand was that the fight was not between 
stores and union, but a drive by Communists to destroy the non-Communist lead- 
ership of the CIO United Retail, Wholesale, and Department Store Employees 
International Union. The international had filed non-Communist affidavits re- 
quired by the Taft-Hartley Act and called on the locals to follow suit. By 
bringing pressure on the stores, the Communists hoped to force them into the 
lineup against the international's leadership. The campaign was met by drastic 



940 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

anti-Red action on the part of the CIO, but it did succeed in splitting the inter- 
national. The victims were the hapless stores, and the tactics the kind that 
causetl erstwhile fellow-traveling Mike Quill, of the Transport Workers Union, 
to couple the name of the JefEerson School with that of a labor lawyer whom be 
called "stinko, pinko Harry Sacher * * * the leftwing banker-lawyer with the 
elevator shoes." Mr. Sacher is a Jefferson School trustee. 

The school's board of trustees contains two real professors — Margaret Schlauch. 
of New York University, and Dirk J. Struik, of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology — and its chairman, Lyman R. Bradley, only recently became an ex- 
professor of New York University. He was let go after a contempt conviction 
for refusal to testify about the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, another 
Communist front. Howard Selsam, trustee and directoi', is another ex-profes- 
sor. He taught philosophy at Brooklyn College, but lost his .job there when a 
backsliding colleague named him as a campus Communist. Other trustees are 
Robert W. Dunn, an inveterate fellow traveler and formerly on the editorial 
board of the magazine Soviet Russia Today; Harry Sacher; Doxey Wilkerson. 
formerly of Howard University and a member of the Communist Party national 
committee; Nathan Witt, a lawyer who has figured prominently in the Commu- 
nist news ; and Ruth Young, an official of the United Electrical, Radio and IMa- 
chine Workers Union, CIO, and a delegate to the Communist national convention 
in 1945. The board's treasurer is Alexander Trachtenberg, Communist national- 
committee member and head of the party's book-publishing "concern. Its secre- 
tary is Frederick Vanderbilt Field. 

In such company Mr. Field is an oddity — a man of wealth. His money comes 
from his great-great-grandfather. Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt, and much 
of it seems to be going to the Communists. A New York building of which he is 
part owner — at 23 West 26th Street — is a warehouse of Communist-front groups, 
including such notable ones as the American Committee for Protection of the 
Foreign Born ; the Council on African Affairs ; the Veterans of the Abraham Lin- 
coln Brigade ; and the Committee for Democratic Rights. When these or any of 
the other fronts which tenant his building give fund-raising dinners, Mr. Field 
can be counted on to buy not one plate at a paltry $7.50, but 10 or even 20. When 
the Jefferson School was projected, he subscribed thousands to get it going. 

To top Communist leaders, the idea of milking such willing providers while 
working for the revolution which will destroy them presents no problems of con- 
science. It does, however, to some of the party's small fry. Joe, the one bona 
fide worker in Max's class, an angry, shaggy, thunder-browed type, explored the 
subject with Max. 

"How," he demanded, "can the party take in capitalist millionaires as mem- 
bers? These people are the exploiters of the workers, and yet the party welcomes 
them. I worked in a factory owned by a woman, tremendously wealthy. She 
exploited us workers. But she was a card-holding Communist Party member. 
Here she was, supposedly espousing the cause of the worker, yet exploiting him 
at the same time." 

Max replied, "I don't know of any Communist Party members who, by their 
wealth, discredit the Communist Party cause. Sure, there are some who are 
wealthy by a matter of inheritance who are Conmiunist Party members. But they 
contribute large donations to the party and represent no serious threat to the 
worker ; there's no danger the millionaires will take over the Communist Party." 

In the Jefferson School, the word "revolution" is rarely used, but underlying 
everything the school teaches is the basic doctrine that someday the United 
States will undergo a bloody upheaval in which the Communists will seize power. 
The inevitability of revolution was described by Max as the "third law'' of 
Marxian historical materialism. Realistically, however, he taught his pupils 
that in the United States this desirable event is far off and that meanwhile the 
first duty of communism is to build up strength to shape the experiences of the 
people. To some of his pupils this program seemed too slow, and Arthur, an ad- 
venturous boy who wanted immediate action, put their thoughts into questions. 

"The New Deal," he said, "was not progressive at all, and I want to know why 
the Communist Party supported it." 

Max: "Was there nothing progressive about unemployment insurance?" 

Artiitir: "I can't answer that question in those terms. What I want to know 
is why we supported it when we knew it would not achieve our ends? It only put 
off the crisis that much longer." 

j\Iax : "You want to know why the Communists did not vote with the reac- 
tionaries?" 

Arthur : "I know it sounds awful, but it would have achieved our ends quicker. 
Now only God knows how long it will be." 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 941 

JIax : "Didn't the Wagner Act help build the working class? Didn't it aid 
the Communists to build their class? The working class does not become more 
powerful by becoming disorganized. The workers have first to oi'ganize their 
strength, which takes a number of years." 

Outtalked, but unconvinced, Arthur shot back, "The Communist Party is con- 
trolled by intellectuals. The workers do not believe in the Communist cause. 
They have to be shown." 

This was a frightful heresy, and it produced some fascinating verbal scurry- 
ing when the session ended. Arthur's two closest pals in class were John and 
Larry. All three were students at the College of the City of New York, where 
Larry had proved himself bright enough to get halfway through before he be- 
came old enough for steady shaving. When the class ended, Larry cornered 
Arthur and began, in a quiet but determined manner, to argue him out of his 
heretical notion. Meanwhile John collected a half dozen other students and made 
an impromptu speech. 

John was a zoot-suited toothpick chewer who identified himself as the or- 
ganizer in a Communist Party group in Brooklyn. He had the natural equip- 
ment of a nwnor functionary in any political party — the habitual half-whisper 
which made what he said sound like a confidence, the determination to explain 
and extol every policy handed down from above. 

He said, "If the Communist Party were to support some of these reactionary 
measures to make the people suffer, they would all turn against it. We have 
to keep the people on our side all the time, so that when the crises fomes we 
can step right in and take over. Our present program is proving very successful. 
It's true that during the war we lost some ground, especially in the United Auto 
Workers, but that was because George Addes just didn't employ the right tactics. 
But the party's tactics are correct now. We're getting more and more members 
every day. Why, this is the first year in ages when the party has been able to 
pay its organizers like me regular weekly salaries." 

When he finished, the three boys went out together, arm in arm. The picture 
of these kids debating the best method of seizing the United States would have 
been comic but for one thing. At some future time any one of them might be 
in a position to steal top-secret documents from his Government, and be willing 
to do it. 

The atmosphere of the Jefferson School subtly created and steadily encouraged 
blind loyalty to Soviet Russia. Every mention of the United States was one of 
poisoned criticism, and every allusion to the Soviet paradise was one of sweetened 
adulation. 

In such surroundings it was easy to carry ideas to dangerous depths of tor- 
tured logic. "Now let's get on to this war in the making," Max opened on one 
occasion. "The United States is out to destroy the only Socialist state in the 
world, though they might call it a war of prevention." 

Arthur, the sometime heretic, leaped at the opening. "Yes," he said, "the rea- 
son for the hysteria against the Soviet Union is that it is a Socialist state. There- 
fore what we would have would be an imperialist war by the United States and 
a war of national defense on the part of the Soviet Union. World War II was a 
war of imperialism on the part of the Allies, but the Soviet Union fought a war 
of national liberation." 

"Well," Max queried, "you're against imperialism. Why did you fight in it?" 

"The only reason was that the Soviet Union was attacked," Arthur said, and 
was rewarded with a beam of approval. 

A belief like that is all a man needs to justify treason. 

The presence of the girl who gathered the material for this article in Alan 
Max's class was wholly accidental. His was only 1 of 20 theory courses given 
each term, and she chose it solely because it fitted most conveniently into her 
crowded schedule. Talks with other students and experience in other classes 
convinced her that it was representative, and, more to the point, all its pupils had 
similarly had their choice of classes dictated by convenience. Thus, its core of 
eight die-hards is actually a random sampling of young United States Commu- 
nists, and this fact, taken with other evidence, permits some generalities to be 
drawn. 

For one thing, the prevalent belief that the Communist movement relies mainly 
on embittered social misfits seems to need revision. Of the 8, only 2 — Joe, the 
worker, and the Syrian girl Sella — could be so classified. Two others did have 
a background of poverty, but they were not yet embittered misfits. The remain- 
ing four — Arthur, Larry, Ruth, and Claire — all came from secure, comfortable 
homes. 



942 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Some time back, when I had just returned from a 2-year stay in Russia, I was 
invited to dinner in the home of a friend, a well-lcnown and successful physician. 
His son, a college student, was present and asked a continuous string of questions 
about the Soviet Union. The answers made him turn glum, then surly and, being 
too well bred to insult his father's guest, he abruptly left us. 

With a half-apoldgetic show of indulgence, his father remarked, "I think my 
boy has swallowed a good many leftist ideas." Indulgence is natural in parents, 
but I know my friend reacts with violent anger to the kind of "leftist ideas" the 
Jetferson School teaches. Yet his son could have been Arthur, Larry or any one 
of several hundred boys there. 

What is it that enables communism to entice and entrap young United States 
citizens"/ The eight bitter-enders in Max's class provided an answer. Every one 
of them enlisted originally because he believed communism offered the promise 
of a better way of life. . 

Margery, an emotional girl from a poor, lower-East Side tenement, stated their 
faith in flaming words : "It is a whole way of life, all-encompassing. It is the 
study, movement and means whereby a whole new society will be achieved." 

John was equally emphatic. "To me, the organization of the Soviet state is 
the most wonderful thing the world has ever seen." 

By now it would seem that the 30-year development of the Soviet system in 
Russia has proved to everyone that this is the biggest myth in the Soviet propa- 
ganda arsenal. But the lie still finds people to believe it, and communism, en- 
couraging blind hatred toward all who deny the myth, insulates its victims 
against truth and reason. Sella, the Syrian girl, was a sample of what Jeffer- 
son School indoctrination can do. 

She said. "I've been going to night classes at Hunter College for the past 2 
years. I was going to major in history, but I've got so disgusted with the lying 
propaganda in the courses that I've given up the idea." 

To the uninitiated, the facade of higher learning the Jefferson School maintains 
can be deceptive. Its catalog is studded with high-altitude offerings such as 
philosophy of history, logic and scientific method, or problems of philosophy. 
Even philosophy of art becomes Communist preachment: "The struggle for great 
art * * * is the struggle for a society in which exploitation of man by man does 
not exist." A closer inspection reveals that many of these courses are dropped 
without ever being begun. Of 68 listed instructors, only a comparative handful 
actually carry the teaching load. This working group includes not only admitted 
Communists like Doxey Wilkerson, Howard E. Johnson, educational director of 
the New York County Communist Party, and Alan Max, but a greater number 
of professionally trained teachers who, like Selsam, were dropped by New York's 
educational system for alleged Communist affiliations. 

While they wait and work for the revolution, the boys and girls of the Jeffer- 
son School will not sing too publicly of their alma mater. The proper attitude 
was summed up in one question and answer. 

"Say," a student asked, "does the Jefferson School give you a diploma when 
you finish?" 

"Who would you show it to," Max snapped back, "your employer?" 



Exhibit No. 279 
[From the Communist, June 1938] 
Mauxism-Leninism foe Society and Science 

A TEAK OF science AND SOCIETY : A CRITIQUE 

(By V. J. Jerome) 
******* 
In looking over the first year's work of Science and Society, we find no indi- 
cation of struggle against Trotskyism ; no heed to the serious tasks of analyzing, 
exposing and counteracting this embodiment of counterrevolution and treachery, 
with its pseudo-philosophical trappings. And this, during a year in which the 
great Soviet trials and convictions and that momentous Stalinist document, 
Mastering Bolshevism, demonstrated clearly the need and the method of 
directing the attack against such masked enemies with vigor and foresight; a 
year in which the I'eople's Front in Spain branded and outlawed the Trotskyite 
POUM as a helpmate to Franco behind the lines ; a year during which the liberal- 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



943 



intellectual world, Science and Society's world, was being contaminated with 
confusion in regard to these issues. In connection with the Marxist-Leninist 
strugirle against Trotskyism, there reigns an unfortunate silence in Science and 
Society. Indeed, the so-called Marxist Quarterly, which is in reality a camp 
cirgan. has escaped without a word of criticism. 

But the struggle against Trotskyism is a central task that falls on the editors 
in their work of promoting the principles of Marxism-Leninism. I'recisely in 
Ihe colleges, one of the main stamping grounds of Trotskyism, where the Hooks 
niul the Burnhams hold court, Science and Society has its work to do. Cer- 
tainly, in America academic spheres, where students and faculty members have 
been trained to look up to John Dewey, it is expected of a magazine like Science 
and Society to counteract the pernicious influence which the aura of his bygone 
hheralism "may exert in behalf of Trotskyism. The magazine could make a 
.special contribution in this connection by showing that it is not accidental that 
the foremost exponent of instrumentalism, with its fundamental renunciation of 
theory and its denial of the class struggle as an objective fact, should branch out 
in defense of counterrevolutionary Trotskyism ; in fact, of any violent opposi- 
tion to the organizers of the inevitalde victory of socialism. 

It must be said that Science and Society has so far not been able to fulfill 
this important Marxist task. It has, in its own specific field, failed to point out 
the danger signs in connection with pragmatist-instrumentalism, the dominant 
American bourgeois philosophy, which, precisely because of its alleged progres- 
sivism, offers an opportunity for philosophic charlatans to adulterate Marxism 
for the lienefit of the bourgeoisie. 

What are the principal reasons for this? We can trace them to the magazine's 
basic weakness. By and large, the contributions evidence a detachment from 
the scene of proletarian practice; from contemporary, economic, social, and 
political currents. This is evidenced by the tendency to a recession from the 
present which characterizes the range of topics and, in the main, their treatment. 
This is not said in any depreciation of the value of historical research, but, on 
the contrary, in the interests of bringing the study of the past into a closer 
dialectical relationship with present-day life. 

A number of the articles, well-reasoned, logical, basically correct, could have 
gained in validity and persuasiveness through integration with the dynamics 
of current events. One looks at the table of contents in the four issues. The 
subjects, in articles and communications, range themselves as follows : 



Philosophy 13 

Political economy 2 

History 3 

Political theory 3 

Colonial problems 1 



Psychology 1 

Mathematics 1 

Linguistics 2 

Religion 2 

Literature and art 4 



Although one welcomes the considerable inclusion of philosophic articles ; and 
while noting, too, that this table must be read with allowance for overlappings, 
one must register uneasiness at the scarcity of articles dealing — yes, in the 
manner behooving Science and Society — with the most vital issues in the world 
today. Should not such a publication rather demonstrate that Marxism as a phil- 
osophy is at one with ilife, with moving events ; the theory and the practice — the 
theory because of the practice — of the working class? Marxism for Marx was 
never a doctrine isolated from the movements of his day — from the revolutions 
of 1848, the Paris Commune, the struggle of Poland for liberation, the socialist 
and trade union movements, the conditions of the working class, the development 
of the Party, the struggle against anti-proletarian elements as well as their 
theories. It would be well if the magazine in its future issues presented Marxism 
in its living unfoldment. This would result in a more concrete application of 
Marx's method to the economic, political, and theoretical phases of the class 
struggle in the world today. Such problems as the dialectics of democracy ; 
the nature, origin, and development of classes in the United States ; the Marxist- 
Leninist theory of the state in relation to the government of the People's Front ; 
in addition to the problems of modern natural science in connection with 
the economic structures and the productions relations of the world of capitalism 
and the world of sociali.sm — would, if adequately ti-eated, in the specialized man- 
ner called for by Science and Society, do much to carry out the basic purposes of 
the magazine, thereby widening its important sphere of influence. 

It would be interesting to see a dialetic treatment of the entire range of de- 
velopment of the movement for independent political action of the American 
working class. Here is a ta.sk for some of the contributors who have demon- 



?291S° 



-pt. 14- 



944 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

strated by their careful scholarship their capacity to make a valuable Marxist 
contribution in regard to the American scene. 

It is the tendency to abstraction which is no doubt responsible for the silence 
of the magazine in regard to the Soviet Union, the touchstone of all political and 
theoretical positions today. Outside of an article on lingiiistics and, in a sense, 
the discussion of heritage, not a single treatment of any phase relating to the 
socialist achievements in the Soviet Union. Yet the visible transformation of so- 
ciety and the individual in the new Socialist Republic, as registered In the 
great Stalinist Constitution of socialist democracy ; the vanguard role of the 
Soviet Union in relation to progressive humanity, as seen in its policy and strug- 
gle for peace — surely, such topics are worthy of a few pages in Science and 
Society. 

A segment of the world is being remade, galvanized, under our eyes. A new 
humanity in birth, a new economy, a new culture, new mores, a new psychology, 
a new social practice — 20 years of victorious Soviet power; 20 years of empirical 
proof of the correctness of the Marxist-Leninist theory which, in this land, the 
Communists are advancing against all opponents as the program for the Ameri- 
can people. And in the Marxian magazine. Science and Society, not a single 
article (but for the exceptions noted) dealing with the existence of the Soviet 
Union — the living embodiment of the Marxian objective. 

These serious omissions result from insufficient emphasis that Leninism is the 
only Marxism today; that Stalin embodies the theory and practice of Marx, 
Engels, and Lenin, developed and rendered concrete in the present epoch of the 
struggle of the two worlds. Such emphasis would, of necessity, immediately bring 
to the fore who the actual enemies of Marxism are today and how to fight those 
enemies. The understanding that the promotion of Marxism means the struggle 
for Marxism would of necessity involve the realization of the party nature of 
philosophy ; that implicit in ^larxism is the vanguard party of the pro- 
letariat — the Communist Party; that the revolutionary content of Marx and 
Engels was restored and developed only there where bolshevism as a pai-ty came 
into being in the historic split with Menshevism ; that the victory of Marxism 
in Russia was made possible because of the presence of the IVLarxist-Leninist 
Party as guardian, guide, and rallying force of all the exploited and oppressed, 
through increasingly heightened levels of struggle and class consciousness toward 
the victorious climax of socialism. 

We have stated earlier, and we wish to reaffirm at the conclusion, the consid- 
erable achievements of the magazine, its auspicious beginnings, and the hopeful 
prospects for its realization of the purposes the editors have set for it. On the 
basis of its efforts and of its realizations to date. Science and Society is deserving 
of the fullest support of the Communist Party and of all progressives. 

We have brought these criticisms and suggestions, not without awareness of 
the difficulties surrounding the editing of such a magazine ; not without aware- 
ness of the social and psychological factors which make it hard for academic 
scientists and scholars, who constitute the majority of the contributors, to 
develop and come forwai-d as definitive exponents of Marxism ; not without 
awareness of the impossibility of achieving completely the objectives in the space 
of 1 year of the magazine's existence. 

But the very emergence of Science and Society implies 'a conscious purpose to 
transform science into an instrument for refashioning society. So it is fitting 
to remember Lenin's counsel to the editors of the similarly purposed Soviet 
periodica]. Under the Banner of Marxism; that "a magazine'that desires to be 
an organ of militant materialism must be a militant organ." 



Exhibit No. 280 
National Research Project 

The National Research Project of the Works Progress Administration was 
set up by WPA Administrator Harry L. Hopkins in October 1935 for the purpose 
of collecting and analyzing data bearing on the problems of unemployment and 
relief. David Weiiitraub and 'Irving Kaplan were appointed respectively as 
director and associate director of the project. 

"The task set for them was to assemble and organize the existing data which 
bear on the problem and to augment these data by field surveys and analyses. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 945 

'To this end, many irovernmental agencies which are the collectors and re- 
►sitories of pertinent information were invited to cooperate. The cooperating 
igeneies of the United States Government include the Department of Agricul- 
ture, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor, the Bureau 
3f Mines of the Department of Interior, the Railroad Retirement Board, the 
Social Security Board, the Bureau of Internal Revenue of the Department of 
the Treasury, the Department of Commerce, the Federal Trade Commission, and 
the Tariff Commission. 

"The following agencies also joined with the National Research Project in 
conducting .special studies : The Industrial Research Department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, the National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., the 
Employment Stabilization Institution of the University of Minnesota, and the 
Agricultural Economics Departments in the Agricultural Experiment Stations of 
California, Illinois, Iowa, and New York." 

After September 1, 1939, NRP was sponsored by the National Resources 
Planning Board, Execurive Office of the President. (Source: The Work and 
Publications of the WPA National Research Project on Reemployment Oppor- 
tunities and Recent Changes in Industrial Techniques, p. 1.) 



Exhibit No. 281 

United States Department of Agkictjltube 

agkicultukal adjustment administration, washington, d. c. 

Returned from PCB 1/19/35 

Approved for P7 

Employee entered upon new duties ; 



Date : October 29, 1934 
Recommendation to the Secretary : 

Vacancy : Position No. 10S06, Journal No. 123, approved by President, February 2, 
1935. 

Action requested : Change in Grade and Designation Involving Promotion, Sec- 
tion 10a, Title I, Public No. 10, 73d Congress. 

Name : John J. Abt. 

State : Illinois. 

Date of Birth : May 1, 1904. 

Classification : Fr : P-6 To : P-7, 

Designation : Fr : Chief Attorney To : Special Attorney. 

Salary : Fr : $6,000 To : $6,500 per annum less deductions of $ for. 

Appropriation : Salaries <& Expenses, Agricultural Adjustment Administration, 
Symbol No. 3X017-104-99-001. 

Cooperative Employment : None. 

Name and Salary of Predecessor: Fr : Sheet No. 2491, P-6-3o, To: Sheet No. 
3506. New Position. 

Headquarters : Washington, D. O. 

Date elfective : Feb. 8, 1935. 

Period : Indefinite. 

To Report in : Person. 

Reasons (Including statement of education, training, and experience for appoint- 
ment, reinstatement, transfer, etc.) : 

Since November 22, 1933, ]Mr. Abt has been serving in this Administration, his 
last designation l)eing that of Chief Attorney, at $6,000 per annum, in the Litiga- 
tion Section of the Office of the General Counsel. It is now proposed to assign 
him to the position of Siiecial Attorney, at $6,500 per annum, in the same Section, 
to be effective as soon as possible. 

Under general direction, Mr. Abt will act as Chief of the Litigation Section, 
by directing all work ; consider all requests for the institution of court proceed- 
ings for the enforcement of licenses and marketing agreements under the Agri- 
cultural Adjustment Act, and codes under the National Industrial Recovery Act 
which are under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agriculture; assign personnel 
to conduct litigation and supervise the conduct of all such litigation ; advise with 
the Department of Justice with respect to matters of policy in the conduct of liti- 



946 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

gation ; advise in tlie drafting of administrative orders, regulations, and amend- 
ments to the Agricultural Adjustment Act with special reference to matters which 
affect or may involve litigation; have entire charge of the preparation of trial 
and trial of important cases ; take personal charge of cases in which it will be 
necessary to defend attacks upon the constitutionality of the Agricultural Adjust- 
ment Act and the National Industrial Recovery Act, as well as administrative 
actions taken in connection therewith, such as licenses, orders made by Control 
Committee, etc. ; also be in charge of and try important suits brought by licensees 
and others against the Secretary of Agriculture to enjoin the enforcement of the 
Agricultural Adjustment Act or licenses issued thereunder ; prepare briefs for 
use in the trial courts and in the appellate and supreme courts in special cases ; 
supervise the preparation of briefs by attorneys in the Litigation Section ; and 
perform related work that may arise. 

Mr. Abt received his Ph. B. degree from the University of Chicago in 1924 and 
his J. D. degree from the same school in 1926. From 1927 to 1929 he was employed 
by the law firm of Levinson, Becker, Frank, Glenn & Barnes, Chicago, at $4,500 
per annum ; from 1929 to 1931 was a partner in the firm of Bachrach & Abt ; and 
from 1931 to 1933 was a member of the firm of Sauenschein, Berksaw, Lautmann, 
Levinson & Morse, Chicago, at $6,000 per annum. 

C. C. Davis, Adinmistrator. 



Exhibit No. 282 

Securities and Exchange Commission, 

Regional Office, 
Neiv York, N. Y., FcJirunry 25, 1936. 
Mr. Harry L. Kinneae, 

Chief Clerk, Works Progress Administration, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Kinnear: I received your letter of February 19, 1936, upon my return 
to Washington last week. 

You state that my retirement record has been received from the Department 
of Agriculture showing that I was suliject to the retirement act at the time of 
my appointment in the Works Progress Administration and that it is, there- 
fore, incumbent iipon you to start making retirement deductions commencing 
March 1, 1936. You further suggest that I confer with the Payroll Department 
with a view to making application for deposit of the amount not deducted from 
June 26, 1935, to February 29, 1936. 

I am of the opinion that the retirement deduction is not applicable to me at 
the present time. I was not in the classified civil service during my employment 
by the Department of Agriculture but was subject to the retirement deduction 
solely by reason of the fact that I was an employee in the Office of the Solicitor 
of Agriculture. Section 693 of title 5 of the United States Code makes the re- 
tirement deduction applicable separately to (a) employees in the classified 
civil service, and (b) employees of the offices of the solicitors of the several 
executive departments. Subsection (d) of the same section makes the retirement 
deduction applicable to "unclassified employees transferred from classified posi- 
tions." However, it does not make the deduction applicable to unclassified em- 
ployees of the offices of the solicitors of the executive departments who are sub- 
sequently transferred to unclassified positions. In other words, the statute 
makes a distinction lietween the case of a classified employee transferred to an 
unclassified position and the case of an unclassified employee who originally 
held a position specifically made subject to retirement deductions but who was 
subsequently transferred to an unclassified position. Inasmuch as my case falls 
within the latter category, I am of the opinion that the retirement deduction is 
not applicable to me. ' 

I shall be glad to discuss the matter with you further upon my return to 
Washington. I have been temporarily loaned by Mr. Hopkins to do some si^ecial 
work with the Securities and Exchange Commission, but shall probably be 
making frequent trips to Washington. 
Very truly yours, 

John .7. Ai?t, 
Assistant General Counsel, Works Progress Administration. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



947 



Exhibit No. 283 

United States Civil Service Commission, 

Service Record Division, 
Washington 25, D. C, July 1, 1953. 

statement of federal service 

Notice to individuals — Tliis record should be preserved — Additional copies 
of service histories cannot be furnished due to limited personnel in the Com- 
mission. This record may be presented to appointing officers for their inspection. 

Name: White, Harry D. 

Date of birth : October 29, 1S92. 

Authority for original appointment (Examination from which appointed or 
other authority — Executive Order, Law, or other exemption) : 49 Statute 200, 
Act of June 16, 1933. 



Effective date 



Nature of action 



Position, grade, salary, etc. 



June 20,1934 
Oct. 4, 1934 
Oct. 5,1934 



Oct. 31,1934 
Nov. 1,1934 



Apr. 1, 1936 

July 1, 1937 

Mar. 25, 1938 

Jan. 1, 1939 

Mar. 1, 1940 

Aug. 5, 1941 

Jan. 1, 1942 



Jan. 23,1945 
Jan. 24,1945 

Apr. 30,1946 



E .xcepted appointment 

Resignation without prejudice. 
Excepted appointment (Tarifl Act of 
1930, Sec. 331). 

Resignation without prejudice. 
Excepted appointment (E. O. 6756, 
6-28-34). 

Promotion 

Promotion... 

Promotion 

Promotion 

Promotion 

Additional designation (Sec. 513 of Rev. 

Act of 1934). . 
Classification (Ramspeck Act and 

E. O. 8743. Rated eligible on Form 

375). 

Resignation (To accept a presidential 
appointment as Assistant Secretary). 

Presidential appointment (Title 31, 
Para. 143, U. S. Code). 

Resignation (In order to take up new 
duties as U. S. Executive Director of 
the International Monetary Fund). 



Economic Analyst, $5,700 per annum. Treasury, 
OlTice of Secretary, Washington, D. C. 

Special Expert, Chief Economic Analyst, P-6, 
$5,600 per annum, U. S. Tariff Commission, 
Washington, D. C. 

Principal Economic Analyst, $5,600 per annum. 
Treasury, Division of Research and Statistics, 
Washington, D. C. 

Assistant Director, $0,500 per annum. 

Assistant Director, P-7, $7,500 per amium. 

Director, Monetary Research, P-7, $8,000 per 
aimum. 

$8,500 per annum. 

$9,000 per annum. 

Assistant to the Secretary (Dir. of Monetary 
Research). No co.npensation. 

Assistant to the Secretary and Director of Mone- 
tary Research P-8, $9,000 per annum. Treasury, 
Division of Monetary Research, Washington, 
D. O. 



Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, $9,000 per 
annum. Treasury, Office of the Secretary, 
W^ashington, D. C. 



A. M. Deem, 
Chief, Audit Section. 

The above tran.script of service history does not include all salary changes, 
intra-agency transfers within an organizational unit not involving changes from 
one official heiadquarters or duty .station to another, and promotions or demo- 
tions, since Federal agencies are not required to report all such actions to the 
Commission. 



Exhibit No. 284 

Treasury Department, 

Telegraph Office, 
Applcton, Wis., June 9, 193^. 
Dr. Jacob Vineb, 

Office of the Secretanj, Treasury Department: 

Will be very glad to come and work with you. 

H. D. White. 



948 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



Exhibit No. 285 

Tbeasttry Depabtment 

inter office communication 



March 25, 1938. 



To : Mr. Harper. 
From : Mr. Thompson. 

Will you please have a letter prepared for the signature of the Secretary 
appointing Harry D. White as Director of Monetary Research at a base salary 
of .'?8,000 per annum, payable from the appropriation, Exchange Stabilization 
Fund, effective as of March 25, 1938. 

The position of Director of Monetary Research was established by Treasury 
Department Order No. 18, approved by the Secretary March 25, 1938. 



Exhibit No. 286 

July 1, 1935. 
Mr. Harry D. White, 

Priti. Economic Analust at $5,600 per annum, EBGSR, Division of Research 
d Statistics. 

Sir : By direction of the Secretary, your appointment for emergency work has 
been continued without change in designation or salary, effective July 1, 1935, for 
such period of time as your services may be required on such work and funds are 
available therefor, but not to extend beyond June 30, 1936. 
Respectfully, 

(Signed) J. E. Harper, 
Chief, Division of Appointments, 
Secy's List, 6-29-35. 



Exhibit No. 287 

July 1, 1937. 
Mr. Harry D. White, 

Assistant Director at $6,500 per annum, EBGSR, Division of Research and 

Statistics. ^ 

Sir: You are hereby transferred, promoted, and appointed, effective July 1, 
1937, an Assistant Director, P-7, in the Division of Research and Statistics, with 
compensation at the rate of seventy-five hundred dollars per annum, payable 
from the appropriation, "Exchange Stabilization F^ind." 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr., 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



Exhibit No. 288 

October 1, 1936. 
Mr. Habby D. White, 

Principal Economic Analyst at $5,600 per annum, EBGSR, 
Division of Research and Statistics. 
Sir: You are hereby promoted and appointed for emergency work, effective 
October 1, 1936, an Assistant Director, EO 17, in the Division of Research and 
Statistics, with compensation at the rate of sixty-five hundred dollars per annum, 
payable from the appropriation, "Exiienses, Emergency Banking, Gold Reserve, 
and Silver Purchase Acts, 1937," for the duration of the work, but not to extend 
beyond June 30, 1937. 

By direction of the Secretary: 
Very truly yours, 



Oath: 



(Signed) Wm. H. McReynolds, 
Administrative Assistant to the Secretary. 



INTERLOCKIXG SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 949 

Exhibit No. 289 




Exhibit No. 290 

Decembek 28, 1938. 
Mr. Harry D. White, 

Director of Monctarij Research, Treasury Department. 

Sir: Your compensation as Director of Monetary Research is hereby increased 
from $8,000 to $8,500 per annum, payable from the Exchange Stabilization Fund, 
effective January 1, 1939. 
Very truly yours, . 

(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr., 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



950 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Exhibit No. 291 

Makch 25, 1938. 
Mr. Harby D. White, 

Washington, D. C. 

SiK : You are hereby appointed effective March 25, 1938, Director of Monetary 
Research in the office of tlie Secretary, with compensation at the rate of $8,000 
per annum, payable from the appropriation, "Exchange, Stabilization Fund." 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) H. Mokgenthau, Jr., 

Secretary of the Treasury. 
Oath : This is to be carried as a transfer ; oath was not taken. 



Exhibit No. 292 

March 1, 1940. 
Mr. Harry D. White, 

Director of Monetary Research, 

Treasury Department. 
Sir : Your compensation as Director of Monetary Research is hereby increased 
from $8,500 to $9,000 per annum, payable from the Exchange Stabilization Fund, 
effective as of this date. 



Very truly yours, 



(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr., 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



Exhibit No. 293. 

August 5, 1941. 
Mr. Harry D. White, 

Director of Monetary Research, 

Treasury Department. 

Sir : Under the provisions of section 513 of the Revenue Act of 1934 you are 
hereby appointed an Assistant to the Secretary with compensation at the 
rate of $9,000 per annum, payable from the appropriation "Exchange Stabiliza- 
tion Fund," effective August 5, 1941. 

You will continue as Director of Monetary Research in charge of the Divi- 
sion of Monetary Research and in addition will perform such other duties as 
may be assigned to you from time to time. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr., 

Secretary of the Treasury. 

August 14, 1941. 



Exhibit No. 294 



Mr. Harry D. White, 

Assistant to the Secretary, 

Treasury Department. 

Sir : By letter of August 6 to Hon. Henry C. [sic] Wallace, chairman of the Eco- 
nomic Defense Board, I informed him of my intention to designate you as my 
alternate on the Economic Defense Board, subject to his continuing approval, 
as provided in Executive Order No. 8839 of July 30, 1941, establishing the 
Board. 

Such approval having been given, I now hereby designate you to represent 
the Treasury Department as my alternate on the Board. A copy of Executive 
Order No. 88.39, setting forth the purposes and functions of the Board is at- 
tached for your information. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr., 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 951 

Exhibit No. 295 
[From the Federal Register, Vol. C, No. 149, August 1, 1941, pp. 3823-3824] 

The President 

Executive Order 

establishing the economic defense board 

By virtue of tbe authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the 
United States, by virtue of tlie existence of an unlimited national emergency, and 
for the purpose of developing and coordinating policies, plans, and programs 
designed to protect and strengthen the international economic relations of the 
United States in the interest of national defense, it is hereby ordered as follows : 

1. The term "economic defense." whenever used in tliis Order, means the con- 
duct, in the interest of national defense, of international economic activities in- 
cluding those relating to exports, imports, the acquisition and disposition of 
materials and commodities from foreign countries including preclusive buying, 
transactions in foreign exchange and foreign-owned or foreign-controlled property, 
international investments and extensions of credit, shipping and transportation 
of goods among countries, the international aspects of patents, international com- 
munications pertaining to commerce, and other foreign economic matters. 

2. There is hereby established an Economic Defense Board (hereinafter referred 
to as the "Board"). The Board shall consist of the Vice President of the United 
States who shall serve as Chairman, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the 
Treasury, the Secretary of War, the Attorney General, tbe Secretary of the Navy, 
the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of Commerce. The Chairman 
may, with the approval of the President, appoint additional members to the Board. 
Each member of the Board, other than the Chairman, may designate an alternate 
from among the officials of his Department, subject to the continuing approval of 
the Chairman, and such alternate may act for such member in all matters relating 
to the Board. 

3. In furtherance of such policies and objectives as the President may from 
time to time determine, the Board shall perform the following functions and 
duties : 

a. Advise the President as to economic defense measures to be taken or func- 
tions to be performed which are essential to the effective defense of the Nation. 

b. Coordinate the policies and actions of the several departments and agencies 
carrying on activities relating to economic defense in order to assure unity and 
balance in the application of such measures. 

c. Develop integrated economic defense plans and programs for coordinated 
action by the departments and agencies concerned and use all appropriate means 
to assure that such plans and programs are carried into effect by such depart- 
ments and agencies. 

d. Make investigations and advise the President on the relationship of economic 
defense (as defined in paragraph 1) measures to postwar economic reconstruc- 
tion and on the steps to be taken to protect the trade position of the United 
States and to expedite the establishment of sound, peacetime international 
economic relationships. 

e. Review proposed or existing legislation relating to or affecting economic 
defense and, with the approval of the President, recommend such additional legis- 
lation as may be necessary or desirable. 

4. The administration of the various activities relating to economic defense 
shall remain with the several departments and agencies now charged with such 
duties but such administration shall conform to the policies formulated or 
approved by the Board. 

5. In the study of problems and in the formulation of programs, it shall be the 
policy of the Board to collaborate with existing departments and agencies which 
perform functions and activities pertaining to economic defense and to utilize 
their services and facilities to the maximum. Such departments and agencies 
shall cooperate with the Board in clearing proposed policies and measures in- 
volving economic defense considerations and shall supply such information and 
data as the Board may require in performing its functions. The Board may 
arrange for the establishment of committees or groups of advisers, representing 
two or more departments and agencies as the case may require, to study and 
develop economic defense plans and programs in respect to particular commodi- 
ties or services, geographical areas, types of measures that might be exercised, 
and other related matters. 

32918°— 53— pt. 14 4 



9^2 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

6. To facilitate unity of action and the n>aximiim use of existing services and 
facilities, each of the following departments and agencies, in addition to the de- 
partments and agencies represented on the Board, shall designate a responsible 
officer or officers, subject to the approval of the Chairman, to represent the depart- 
ment or agency in its continuing relationships with the Board : The Departments 
of the Post Office, the Interior, and Labor, the Federal Loan Agency, the United 
States Maritime Commission, the United States Tariff Commission, the Federal 
Trade Commission, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the 
Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Resources Planning Board, the 
Defense Communications Board, the Office of Production Management, the Office 
of Price Administration and Civilian Supply, the Office for Coordination of Com- 
mercial and Cultural Relations Between the American Republics, the Permanent 
Joint Board on Defense, the Administrator of Export Control, the Division of 
Defense Aid Reports, the Coordinator of Information, and such additional de- 
partments and agencies as the Chairman may from time to time determine. The 
Chairman shall provide for the systematic conduct of business with the foregoing 
departments and agencies 

7. The Chairman is authorized to make all necessary arrangements, with the 
advice and assistance of the Board, for discharging and performing the responsi- 
bilities and duties required to carry out the functions and authorities set forth in 
this Order, and to make final decisions when necessary to exjyedite the work of the 
Board. He is further authorized, within the limits of Such fxmds as may he 
allocated to the Board by the President, to employ necessary personnel and make 
provision for the necessary supplies, facilities, and services. The Chairman 
may, with the approval of the President, appoint an executive officer. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt. 
The White House, 

July 30, 1941. 

[No. 8839] 
[F. R. Doc. 41-5597 ; Filed, July 31, 1941 ; 11 : 20 a. m.] 



Exhibit No. 296 

AUGTTST 6, 1941. 
Hon. Henry C. [sic] Wallace, 

Chairman, Economic Defense Board, 

Washington, D. G. 
My Dear Mr. Chairman: I propose, subject to your continuing approval, 
as provided in the Executive order establishing the Economic Defense Board, 
to designate Mr. Harry D. White, assistant to the Secretary, as my alternate on 
the Board. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr. 



Exhibit No. 298 

Department of State, 

Washington, September 30, 1941. 
Mr. Harry D. White, 

Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, 

Treasury Department, Washinyton, D. C. 
My Dear Mr. White: It is a pleasure to inform you that the Government of 
Cuba has indicated to the Department its satisfaction with the naming of 
yourself and Messrs. Eddy and Spiegel, of the Treasury, and Messrs. Walter R. 
Gardner and George B. Vest, of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve 
System, as a technical mission in compliance with its request for assistance 
in connection with monetary and banking questions. Your assignment to this 
mission is conse(]|uently effected in accordance with the letter of the Secretary 
of the Treasury of September 25, 1941. 

You will act as chief of the mission and direct the work of its other members. 

The Cuban Government has been informed that the mission will arrive in 

Habana during the first week in October. Upon your arrival there you should 

report to the Honorable George S. Messersmith, Ambassador of the United 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 953 

States to Cuba, who will introduce you to the appropriate Cuban oflficials. 
Tlie mission will be responsible to Ambassador Messersmith, and j'ou should 
ulttaia his approval of any informal recommendations involving questions of 
policy which the mission may propose to make to the Cuban officials. Formal 
recommendations should be prepared for transmittal to the Cuban Government 
through the Department of State. 
I wish you a pleasant journey and every success in the mission. 
Sincerely yours, 

Sumner Wells, 

Under Secretary 
(For the Secretary of State). 



Exhibit No. 299 

October 12, 1942. 
The United States Civil Service Commission, 

Washington, D. C. 

Gentlemen: Transmitted herewith is recommendation for the classification 
of Harry D. White, under the Ramspeck Act and section 1 of Executive Order No. 
8743, as an assistant to the Secretary and Director of Monetary Research, P-S, ' 
at $9,000 per annum, in the Division of Monetary Research. 
Classification is to be effective January 1, 1942. 
Very truly yours, 

T. F. Wilson, 
Director of Personnel. 
By A. McLane, 



Exhibit No, 300 

Tp.easury Department 

interoffice communication 

February 25, 1943. 
To : Dr. Harry White. 
From : Secretary Morgenthau. 

Effective this date, I would like you to take supervision over and assume full 
responsibility for Treasury's participation in all economic and financial matters 
(except matters pertaining to depository facilities, transfers of funds, and war 
expenditures) in connection with the operations of the Army and Navy and the 
civilian affairs in the foreign areas in which our Armed Forces are operating 
or are likel.y' to operate. This will, of course, include general liaison with the 
State Department, Army and Navy, and other departments or agencies, and 
representatives of foreign governments on these matters. 

In the above connection, you will, of course, keep Under Secretary Bell advised 
Avith respect to all matters affecting gold, coins, coinage, currency, or rates of 
exchange. You will also consult with Mr. Paul or Mr. Luxford and Mr. Pehle 
in all matters which come within the jurisdiction of the Foreign Funds Control. 

O. K., H. M., Jr. [written notation]. 



Exhibit No. 301 
United States Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 

personnel recommendation, page 1C604 

January 27, 1943. 

To Director of Personnel : 
Name: White, Harry D. 
From : Division of Monetary Research 

Nature of Recommendation : Classification under Ramspeck Act and E. O. 8743. 

Effective: January 1, 1942. 

Position : Asst. to the Secy, and Dir. of Monetary Research 

Grade: P-8 

Salary: $9,000 per annum 



954 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Bureau or Div. : Div. of Monetary Research 

Headquarters : Washin^on, D. C. 

Post of Duty : Washington, D. C. 

Appropriation Allotment : Exchange Stabilization Fund 

Field (Q) Deprtmtl. (X) 

Civil Service or other legal authority : C. S. C. File No. 3-3, dated Jan, 23, 1943. 

Appropriation : ESFR. 

Date of birth : 10-29-1892. 

Legal residence : *Maryland. 

Sex: M. 

Subject to Retirement Act ? Yes. 

Remarks : *Legal residence changed from Wisconsin to Maryland. 

David White, 
(Bureau or Divisioti Head). 



Exhibit No, 302 

June 17, 1943. 
The honorable the Secretart of State. 

My Dear Mr. Secretary: This is in reply to your letter of June 11, 1943, 
asking that I designate a representative from this Department to serve as a 
member of the Interdepartmental Committee for Economic Policy in Liberated 
Areas. 

I am designating Mr. Harry D. White to serve as Treasury representative on 
that committee. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr. 



Exhibit No, 303 

May 31, 1943. 
Hon. Reid F. Murray, 

House of Representatives, 

Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Mr. Murray : This is in reply to your letter of May 13, 1943, addressed 
to Mr. Theodore F. Wilson, Director of Personnel, in which you request a 
complete personnel record of Mr. Harry D. Wliite, Assistant to the Secretary. 

Mr. White attended Stanford University and received the degrees of bachelor 
of arts and master of arts fi-om that institution. He also received the degree of 
doctor of philosophy from Harvard University. 

Prior to entering the Federal service, Mr. White served 6 years as an instructor 
in economies at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., and 2 years as professor 
of economics at Lawrence College in Wisconsin. 

Mr. White was appointed an economic analyst in the Office of the Secretary of 
the Treasury, effective June 20, 1934. He resigned from this position on October 
4, 1934, and from that date until November 4, 1934, was employed by the Tariff 
Commission. On November 5, 1934, Mr. White was appointed principal economic 
analyst in the Division of Research and Statistics, Treasury Department. He 
was promoted to Assistant Director of Research and Statistics, effective October 6, 
1936, and held that position until March 25, 1938, when he became Director of 
Monetary Research. On August 30, 1941, Mr. White was given the additional 
title and duties of an Assistant to the Secretary. 

Mr. White's present duties include responsibility for the work of the Division 
of Monetary Research, for the management and operation of the Stabilization 
Fund, and for all matters with wliich the Treasury Department has to deal 
having a bearing on foreign relations. He also serves as alternate for the 
Secretary and Treasury representative with various intergovernmental and inter- 
departmental boards and committees. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) W. N. Thompson, 
Administrative Assistant to the Secretary. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 955 

Exhibit No. 304 

July 17, 1944. 
Hon. Frances P. Bolton, 

Committee on Forek/n Affairs, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 

My Dear IMbs. Bolton : With further reference to your letter of July 5, 1944, 
I am pleased to furnish information for the Foreign Affairs Committee con- 
cerning the qualifications of Mr. Harry D. White, Assistant to the Secretary and 
Director of the Division of Monetary Research. 

Mr. White attended "Stanford University and received the degrees of bachelor 
of arts and master of arts from that institution. He also received the degree of 
doctor of philosophy from Harvard University. 

Prior to entering the Federal service, Mr. White served 6 yars as an instructor 
in economics at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., and 2 years as professor 
of Economics at Lawrence College in Wisconsin. 

Mr. White was appointed an economic analyst in the Office of the Secretary 
of the Treasury, effective June 20, 1934. He resigned from this position on 
October 4, 1934. and from that date until Noveml^er 4, 1934. was employed by the 
Tariff Commission. On November 5. 1934, Mr. White was appointed principal 
economic analyst in the Division of Research and Statistics, Treasury Depart- 
ment. He was promoted to Assistant Director of Research and Statistics, effec- 
tive October 6, 1936, and held that position until March 25, 1938, when he became 
Director of Monetary Research. On August 30, 1941, Mr. White was given 
the additional title and duties of an Assistant to the Secretary. 

Mr. White's present duties include responsibility for the work of the Division 
of Monetary Research, for the management and operation of the Stabilization 
Fund, and for all matters with which the Treasury Department has to deal 
having a bearing on foreign relations. He also serves as alternate for the 
Secretary and Treasury representative with various intergovernmental and 
interdepartmental boards and committees. 

[Written notation:] Mr. Bell cleared with the Sec'y, 7/16/44. 

Mr. White has represented the Treasury Department on the following bodies : 
The Interdepartmental Lend-Lease Committee 
The Canadian-American Joint Economic Committee 
The Executive Committee on Commercial Policy 

The Executive Committee and Board of Trustees of the Export-Import Bank 
The Interdepartmental Committee on Inter-American Affairs 
The National Resources Committee 
The Price Administration Committee 
The Committee on Foreign Commerce Regulations 
The Interdepartmental Committee on Post- War Economic Problems 
The Committee on Trade Agreements 
The National Munitions Control Board 
The Acheson Committee on International Relief. 
The Board of Economic Warfare 

The Executive Committee on Economic Foreign Policy 
The Liberated Areas Committee 
The O. S. S. Advisory Committee. 
The U. S. Commercial Corporation 
The Interdepartmental Committee on Planning for Coordinating the Economic 

Activities of U. S. Civilian Agencies in Liberated Areas 

Mr. White's publications include the following : French International Ac- 
counts, Harvard University Press ; Some Aspects of the Tariff Question, Third 
Edition by F. W. Taussig, with the cooperation of Mr. H. D. White. 

1 trust that this information may be of asistance to you and the Committee 
on Foreign Affairs. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Charles S. Bell. 
Administrative Assistant to the Secretary. 



956 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Exhibit No. 305 

The White Hotjse, 

, 194___. 

To the Senate of the United States: 

I nominate Harry D. White, of Maryland, to be Assistant Secretary of the 
Treasury, in place of the Honorable John L. Sullivan, whose resignation is ef- 
fective November 30, 1944, 

Exhibit No. 306 
The President, No\'ember 28, 1944. 

The White House. 
My Dear Mr. President : I have the honor to recommend the appointment of 
Mr. Harry D. White of Maryland, as Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, in 
place of the Honorable John L. Sullivan, whose resignation is effective November 
30*, 1944. 

Mr. White has been serving with the Treasury Department since November 
5, 1934, and at the present time he is Assistant to the Secretary and Director 
of Monetary Research. 

I am transmitting herewith a nomination in the event you approve Mr. White's 
appointment. 

Faithfully yours. 



November 28, 1944, 4 : 30 p. m. 



(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr. 



Exhibit No. 307 

Treasury Department, 
Washington, December 1, 19^. 

TEEASUEY DEPARTMENT ORDER NO. 56 

Effective immediately, the Director of Foreign Funds Control will report to Mr. 
Harry D. White, Assistant to the Secretary. 

Treasury Department Order No. 52, dated April 15, 1944, is modified accord- 
ingly. 

(Signed) D. W. Bell, 
Acting Secretary of the Treasury. 

See Subject File — Secretary Orders and Circulars. 



Exhibit No. 308 

January 26, 1945. 
treasury department order no. 58 

Effective from and after this date the Division of Monetary Research and 
Foreign Funds Control will continue under the supervision of Mr. Harry D. 
White, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. 

Treasury Department Order No. 52, dated April 15, 1944, is superseded, and 
Order No. 56, dated December 1, 1944, is modified by this order. 

(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr. 
Secretary of the Treasury. 
See Subject File — Secretary's Orders in Mr. Percy Burdette's oflace. 



Exhibit No. 309 

Treasury Department 

resignation 



January 22, 1945. 



To the honorable the Secretary of the Treasury. 

Sir : I hereby tender my resignation from the position of Assistant to the 
Secretary and Director of Monetary Research at a salary of $9,000 per annum 
in the Treasury Department to take effect January 23, 1945, 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 957 

Reasons : To accept a presidential appointment as Assistant Secretai*y. 
Respectfully, 

(Signed) Harky D. White. 

Recommended for acceptance prejudice. 

(With or without) 

, 10— 

(Date) 

(Name) 
(Title)" 

Exhibit No. r;iO 












958 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



Exhibit No. 311 

April 30, 1946. 
Hon. Harry D. White, 

Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, 

Wasliinyton, D. C. 

Dear Mr. White : I accept with regret your resignation as Assistant Secre- 
tary of the Treasury. 

My regret is lessened, however, in the knowledge that yon leave the Treas- 
ury only to assume new duties for the Government in the field of international 
economics as the United States Executive Director of the International Mone- 
tary Fund. In that position you will be able to carry forward the work you so 
ably began at Bretton Woods and you will have increased opportunity for the 
exercise of your wide knowledge and expertness in a field which is of utmost 
importance to world peace and security. 

I am confident that in your new position you will add distinction to your 
already distinguished career with the Treasury. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Harry S. Teuman. 



Exhibit No. 312 

Executive Nominations Confirmed by the Senate February 6, 1946 

internationaii monetary fund and international bank for reconstruction 

and devklopment 

Harry D. White to be United States Executive Director of the International 
Monetary Fund for a term of 2 years and until his successor has been appointed. 
(Copied from the Congressional Record, February 6, 1946.) 



Exhibit No. 813 



Treasury Department, 
WasMngton, April SO, lOJfG. 



The President, 

Tlie White House. 

My Dear Mr. President : On the 6th of May the International ^Monetary Fund 
begins its work. I therefore tender my resignation as As^sistant Secretary of 
the Treasury, effective May 1. 

I leave the Treasury Department, in which I have served these last 12 years, 
with real regret, but look forward to my new duties as the United States 
Executive Director of the Fund, for I believe the Fund has a real opportunity 
to help the world achieve monetary stability and sustained prosperity. 

I shall do my best to carry out the policies of international economic coopera- 
tion which you have fostered. 
Faithfully, 

Harry D. White, 
Assistant Secretary, 

Exhibit No. 314 

United States Ctvil Service Commission, 

Service Record Division, 
Washington 25, D. C, July 1, 1953. 



statement of federal service 

Notice to individuals — This record should be preserved — Additional copies 
of service histories cannot be furnished due to limited personnel in the Com- 
mission. This record may be pre.sented to appointing officers for their inspection. 
Name : Wilkerson, Doxey A. 
Date of birth : April 24, 1905. 

Authority for original appointment (Examination from which appointed or 
other authority — E'xecutive Order, Law, or other exemption) : Schedule A-1-13. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



959 



Effective 
date 



Nature of action 



Position, grade, salary, etc. 



June 18,1942 



July 3. 1942 
July 4. 1942 



Aug. 18,1942 

July 17,1942 

Dec. 29,1942 
Jan. 9, 194.3 

June 23,1943 



War Service Appointment (Tempo- 
rary) (For a temporary period from 
6-18-42 through 7-3-42). 

Termination 

War Service Appointment (Tempo- 
rary) Sched. A-1-13. 



Extension of War Service Appoint- 
ment (Temporary) (Not to exceed 
9-16-42). 

Extension of War Service Appoint- 
ment (Temporary) (Not to exceed 
11-15-42). 

Termination (Expiration of Tempo- 
rary Appointment). 

War Service Appointment (Regulation 
V). 

Resignation — Voluntary (To join the 
Communist Party, and to accept per- 
manent employment with that organ- 
ization). 



Consultant, CAF-11, $10.55 per diem, WAE 
OfBce of Price Administration, Consumer Divi- 
sion, Educational Relations Branch, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Consultant, CAF-11, $10.55 per diem, WAE 
Office of Price Administration, Consumer Divi- 
sion, Educational Relations Branch, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 



Education Specialist, P-4, J3,800 per annum 
Office of Price Administration, Dept. of Infor- 
mation, Washington, D. C, 



A. M. Deem, 
Chief, Audit Section. 

The above transci'ipt of service hi-story doe.s not include all salary changes, 
intraagency transfers within an organizational unit not involving changes from 
one official headquarters or duty station to another, and promotions or demotions, 
since Federal agencies are not required to report all such actions to the Com- 
mission. 



ExiiiuiT No. 314A 
Executrt: Office of the Pkesident, Office of Price Administration 

advice of personnel action 

This advice : July 22, 1943. 

Issuing office : Page 8, Action 20654. 
Name: Wilkerson, Doxey A. 
Xature of action : Resignation — Voluntary. 
Date of birth : April 24, 11)05. 

Effective date : .June 23, 1943, at 5 : 00 p. m. (Pay ly^ hours). 
Position : Education Specialist, Title Code : #2S0. 
Grade and salary : P-4, $3,S(X) per annum. 
Office: Department of Information. 
Division : Consumer Division. 
Section : Educational Services Branch. 
Unit : Section Code : #433. 
Headquarters : Washington, D. C. 
Departmental or field : Departmental. 

Remarks : To join the Communist Party, and to accept permanent employment 
with that organization. 

Appointments to positions are made for such period of time as the work is 
required and funds are available. New appointments are sub.iect to character 
investigation. You are subject to the provisions of the Retirement Act. This 
document may not be used as a basis for the assertion of any authority or for a 
claim of any privileges as a representative of the Office of Price Administration. 

Kenneth D. Warner, 

Personnel Officer. 
32918° — 53 — pt. 14 5 



' 960 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION EST GOVERNMENT 



Exnii5iT No. P.l; 




mMm^y 




ir.^wi>mimm>) 



OSTH or 

OFFICE 



Krmi»M 



, -mmmmm&s 



so HEU' }.{F'GOD. 



:iyv»;:L: '<:-:::■: :■-:^ ■^^■■''-■*^^ 










INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



961 




96f 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



!«?««^"«i't<':«'A'??Biw*i-vi»>s>»(«.'^^».««»:A%* 





■■■4 




rNTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



963 



<s-?>  >^^^WvN^?v■^^^s^v.^K?W|)5^>K"S«Ni?!^'^::^557W^:!^^ 




\<^ 



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i^i^JyS-fS^ *!^  fc 3 Sim! 



sSs 



964 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 




si m i iiwiwiiM swa^gg^ 




it- 




INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



965 



Exhibit No. 137 





966 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



Exhibit No. 317A 



s-^-^i>~''„ ^-Sf^'^jfi, 









> AroouBt-gf » -■>;. . ,-. . ,..., . .-.y,-. , - . — ^ — ,-.. 

'"■(^"(TS) Effecti-^iKss jc Kseetixss «««2 iiea^uix with 



pteimlsi; f 



:., iii\ Metsti 






: , fw^ tg tew feMte it Bg <i«t<Wfa« 8. 



ST*.TR AXY OTSIKR E3CJEKKN"rS IXtK»n>KR]E» 






Has marlcs 5n alJ u»iri«'!infz1 ci'sroentji, and no wiitins marks, 

Plua marks c-n at leapt h&'':i <it tho yrKii^rHlWHi n^kiinejit;!, Aix? ?k* mmcs 

inRfkx.... ..._ „. -..,; ,...< — .._..;„„.,.^. 

C^ecX wijitks or bfftt'.'r en a znjaiority of xindGriir-cd elesftwts, arjfi »«>• 

minnis raarkB cwrefanj^tisiited by (ji«3 iiiarks , 

OwcV uwfks «r W'tk-r on a majorfty -if ur.dcrHned eltaimta, and jkirds 

KnarJf^ sict C'Viir';ofnpe7iP»te<J l5y pl>is omrk?* ..„ :,.,y„. ..._.. — - 

Hintw marks on at h^o.-*? hfl;f tif tiu>-imderjj.ne<i *;i^n^r>U. ....- 



Very s^wl 



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KsJ.mif ikpprpv*^ by efficiency TatiG!? cormniUtM> 



Xitport iti esa.^}<fytv . 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



967 



Exhibit No. 317B 







...(16) < 
...<18> J 








Phis msrk» «B ali ana«rlM«j;;<M«tttit- 

marks™,.. .-..^ 

fflinos tnarias «^| 
(Thecfe marks or ^tt*>^;;^fip 
YTJitrks Pitt t>v«iw.>jmj»f<hjSi^ 



R&tM b}<:. 



j;BBiH«»e<L fey 



<iMre«t Hittsjr *«*(»!} 



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lUtojr ap|>«w»<) W eflfcwncj: ?rtiKg:i«Sw»i||Ni|jf 




968 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



Exhibit No. 318 
Application fob Federal Employment 

Standard Form No. 57 
Approved April 9, 1942 
(Revised July 1942) 
U. S. Civil Service Commission 

C. Dept. Cir. No. 332 

Mr. Irving Kaplan. 

3354 Martha Custis Drive, Alexandria, Virginia. 

Date of birth (month, day, year) : Sept. 23, 1900. 

Age last birthday : 43. 

Date of this application : August 17, 1944. 

Legal or voting residence : State : Pennsylvania. 
Telephone numbers : RE-7500, Temple 0983, X-6276. 



G 



S. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 



11. (a) Check one: X Male. __ Female 
Separated. X Married Divorced. 

12. Height, without shoes : 5 ft. 7% in. 
Where were you born ? Poland. 
Are you a citizen of the United States? Yes. 
Do you advocate or have you ever advocated 



(b) Check one: __Widowed. —Single. 



or are you now or have you 



Weight: 1301b. 

13. 

14. 

17. 

ever been a member of any organization that advocates the overtln'ow of the 
Government of the United States by force or violence? No. 

31. (a) Have you ever filed applications for any Federal civil service exami- 
nations? Yes. 

(If so, list them below.) 



Titles of examinations 



Senior Social Science Analyst. 
Senior Industrial Economist. . 

Principal Statistician 

Principal Economist 



Examined in what cities 



Month 
and year 



1938 
19.S9 
1939 
1940 



Ratings 



32. Education: (a) Highest grade completed, elementary or high school: 12. 
Did you graduate? Yes. 



Name and location of school 


Dates attended 


Years completed 


Degrees con- 
ferred 


Semester 
hours 




From— 


To- 


Day 


Night 


Title 


Date 


credit 


(b) College or university.-- 
















C. C. iX. Y., New York City 


9-19 
9-20 
9-27 


6-20 
6-23 
1-29 










35 


Columbia, New York City 






A. B. 


6-23 


Grad. 


Fordham Law School, New York 






3f. 


(e) Other 





























(d) List your four chief undergraduate 
subjects 


Semester 
hrs. 


Lisu your four chief graduate subjects 


Semester 
hrs. 






General honors course 

Special Subject: Methods in the Social 
Sciences, Economics and Statistics, 18 
hrs. Anthropology, 9 hrs. 


24 



























34. Are you now a licensed member of any trade or profession (such as 
electrician, radio operator, pilot, lawyer, CPA, etc.) ? No. 

35. References: List live persons, who are not related to you by blood or 
marriage, who live in the United States, and who are or have been mainly 
responsible for close direction of your work, or who are in a position to judge 
your work critically in those occupations in which you regard yourself as best 
qualified. 



INTERLOCKLNTG SUBVERSION EST GOVERNMENT 



969 



Full name 


Address 

(Give complete address, including street and 

number) 


Business or occupation 


'SI. Joseph Meehan.. 


Commerce Department, Washington, D. C... 
Washineton. D. C 


Chief, Div. Research & Stat. 
Exec. Asst. to the Pres. 


Stinrf RifP 


Budget Bureau, Washington, D. C 


Director, Div. of Statistical Stand- 


Joseph Dorfman 


Dept of Economics Columbia Univ 


ards. 
New York City. 


War Denartment. Washineton. D. C 


Chief, Analysis and Reports, 






MM&D. 



36. May inquiry be made of your present employer regarding your character, 
qualifications, etc.? Yes. 

37. Experience : In the space furnished below give a record of every employ- 
ment, both public and private, which you have had since you first began to work. 
Start with your present position and work back to the first position you held, 
accounting for all periods of unemployment. Describe your field of work and 
position and, except for employments held less than three months, give your 
duties and responsibilities in such detail as to make your qualifications clear. 
Give name you used on pay roll if different from that given on this application. 

Present position : Place Washington, D. C. From Feb. 2, 1942, to date. Name 
of employer : War Production Board, Washington, D. C. Kind of business or 
organization : Government. Exact title of your position : Head Program Prog- 
ress Analyst. Salary: Starting, $6,500; Final, $6,500. Duties and responsibil- 
itie.s : Analysis of programs and problems of war production. 

Place : Washington, D. C. From Feb. 21, 1940, to Feb. 2, 1942. Name of 
employer: F. W. A. Address: North Interior Bldg.. Washington, D. C. Kind 
of business or organization : U. S. Government. Exact title of your position 
Prin. Res. Economist. Salary : Starting, $ ; Final, $5,600. Duties and re- 
sponsibilities : In charge of Research Section. 

Place: Washington. D. G. From Oct. 9, 1939, To Feb. 20, 1940. Name of 
employer : Social Security Board. Address : Washington, D. C. Kind of busi- 
ness or organization : U. S. Government. Duties and responsibilities : On detail 
from Department of Justice for survey on research and reporting system of 
the Bureau of Old Age and Survivors Insurance. Planned and conducted survey. 

Place: Washington, D. C. From Aug. 1938, To Oct. 8, 1939. Name of em- 
ployer : Department of Justice. Address : Washington, D. C. Kind of business 
or organization : U. S. Government. Exact title of your position Spec. Asst. to 
Attorney General. Salary: Starting $ ; Final, $5,400. Duties and respon- 
sibilities : Economic advisory planning. Direction and conduct of research 
and supervision of staff. 

Place : Philadelphia. Pa. From Nov. 1935 to Aug. 1938. Name of employer : 
WPA Nat'l Research Project. Address : Philadelphia, Pa. Kind of business or 
organization : U. S. Government. Exact title of your position : Assoc. Director. 

Salary: Starting $ — per yr. Final $5,400. Duties and responsibilities: 

Planning and directing of research program and staff. 

Place : Washington, D. C. From July 1935 to Oct. 1935. Name of employer : 
Works Progre.ss Adm. Address : 1734 New York Avenue, Wa.shington, D. C. 
Kind of business or organization : U. S. Government. Exact title of your posi- 
tion : Principal Statistician. Salary: Starting, $ per yr. Final, $4,200. 

Duties and re.sponsibilities : Direction of research and staff. 

Place : San Francisco, Calif. From Sept. 1929, to April 1935. Name of em- 
ployer : Pacific Gas & Electric Co. Address : San Francisco, Calif. Exact title 

of your position : Economist and Statistician. Salary : Starting $ per 

yr. Final, $3,600. Duties and responsibilities : Planning and directing of re- 
search activities. 

Place: New York, New York. From Oct. 1926 to July 1929. Name of em- 
ployer : Nat'l Industrial Conference. Address : 247 Park Avenue, New York, 
N. Y. Exact title of your position : Member, Research Staff. Salary : Starting, 

$ per yr. Final, $3,600. Duties and responsibilities : Research in public 

finance. Federal, State, and local taxes. 

From October 1923 to June 1924. Duties and responsibilities : Graduate work 
in anthropology and statistics with Franz Boas. 



^70 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Exhibit No. 319 

Hk^vdquabteus, U. S. Forces, Eukopean Theater 

WHW/klk 
(Main) APO 757 
18 December 1945 

AG 300.4 (15 Dec. 45) L-59. 

Subject: Orders. 

To : Mr. Irving Kaplan, US Civilian, 

1. Mr. Irving Kaplan, US Civilian, attaclied this Hq., O of Mil Govt (US Zone), 
is relieved from assignment and duty in this theater effective 18 December 1945 
and will proceed from his present station to Paris, France, thence by first avail- 
able air (ET-US-2-F4137-TDP-DEC) transportation to Washington, D. C. 

2. Travel by military aircraft, Army or Naval transport, commercial steamship, 
motor and/or rail transportation is directed. A baggage allowance of 65 pounds 
is authorized while traveling by air. 

3. The cost of transportation will be borne by the War Department. 

4. Mr. Kaplan is not on the War Department payroll and therefore not sub- 
ject to the provisions of Civilian Personnel Cir No. 18, WD 1944. 

5. Mr. Kaplan is designated an official courier for the purpose of carrying 
classified and unclassified documents. 

6. TCNT. TDN. 60-115,114,500 P 461-02 A 212/60425. 
By command of General McNarney. 

AG 300.4. 1st Inc. 

Office of Military Government for Germany (U. S.), APO 742, U. S. Army, 20 
December 1945. 

To whom it may concern. 

In complying with the provisions of this order, Mr. Irving Kaplan, US Civilian, 
is authorized to proceed by air (ET-US-2-F4137-TDP-DEC) transportation from 
this station to his destination. 
For the Commanding General : 

George E. Seigler, 
8W0, VBr, Asst Adjutant General. 



Exhibit No. 319A 

June 18, 1945. 

The Honorable the Secretary of State. 

(Attention: Mr. Thomas H. Claffey) 
My Dear Mr. Secretary: This Department wishes to send to Germany Mr. 
Irving Kaplan. Mr. Kaplan will be assigned to the civilian group requested for 
duty with the United States Group Control Council and Supieme Headquarters 
Allied Expeditionary Forces, to which project number CAD 111-T has been 
assigned by the Civil Affairs Division, War Department. 

A biographical sketch of Mr. Kaplan is enclosed. His character and loyalty to 
this Government are being investigated by this Department. 

It is of vital importance that Mr. Kaplan leave this country as soon as 
possible. This Department will appreciate your issuing him the Special Pass- 
port for which he has applied. 
Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Charles S. Bell, 
Administrative Assistant to the Secretary. 



Exhibit No. 320 

Division of Monetary Research 

CROSS reference sheet 

Memo to : Mr. O'Daniel. 
From : Mrs. Hall. 
Dated: 9/21/45. 

Subject: Monetary Research personnel detailed to FFC for assignment m 
Germany. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 971 

See file : Germany & Finance division — AGO, 
See files for : Mesinoff, Gloria 

Rippel, Lorna 

Kaplan, Irving 

Kamarck, Andrew M. 

Miller, Frances M. (Mrs.) 

Nasserr, Marjorie A. 



Exhibit No. 321 

Treasury Department, 
Treasury Enforcement Agencies, 

July 17, 1945. 

[Report examined, approved and forvparded to Chief Coordinator July 21, 
1945. R. E. Tuttle, District Coordinator, Treasury District No. 5.] 

In re : Irving Kaplan, Alexandria, Va. 

Applicant : Assistant Director, Division of Monetary Research, Treasury De- 
partment. 

Chief Coordinator, 

Treasury Enforcement Agencies, WasJiington, D. C: 

This report relates to an investigation to determine the character, reputation, 
and loyalty to this Government of the above-named individual, vpho is being 
considered for a position in the Division of Monetary Research, Treasury De- 
partment, Washington, D. C. 

The applicant was the subject of a character investigation in connection with 
an appointment to his present position in the Foreign Economic Administration, 
Washington, D. C, on September 12, 1944. That investigation was conducted 
by the United States Civil Service Commission and the report thereof was 
favorable to the applicant. Pertinent information disclosed by the previous in- 
vestigation report is incorporated herein. 

The case jacket and related papers are transmitted herewith. 

Personal History and Appearance 

The applicant was interviewed in Washington, D. C, on June 28, 1945, and 
stated that he was born on September 23, 1900, in Zdziencial, Poland, the son 
of Morris A. and Jennie Kaplan, natives of Poland and naturalized citizens of 
the United States. He said that his parents are deceased. Mr. Kaplan advised 
that his name originally was Isidor Kaplan, but that about the year 1914 he 
dropped the given name "Isidor" and assumed the name "Irving," without 
the formality of legal action. 

An examination of the records of the Citizenship Unit, United States Civil 
Service Commission, Washington, D. C, disclosed that the applicant's father 
was admitted to United States citizenship in the Supreme Court of the State 
of New York on December 18, 1911, and that a son named "Isidor," aged 10 
years, appeared on the naturalization records. The applicant therefore claims 
United States citizenship through his father's natui'alization. Mr. Kaplan 
related that he is married to the former Dorothy Friedland, a native of New 
York City, N. Y. He said they were married on March 31, 1939, in New 
York City, N. Y., and that they have no children. He also asserted that he 
has no known relatives residing outside the United States. He said that his 
wife is his only dependent. 

On the occasion of interview, the applicant presented a favorable appearance 
and was cooperative in answering questions. No physical defects or peculiari- 
ties were observed and none were disclosed. 

EDUCATION 

According to the applicant's statement, he attended public school in Bronx, 
N. Y., graduating from high school in June 1917. Mr. Kaplan's statement 
that he attended the City College of New York and Columbia University, 
New York City, N. Y., and that he was graduated from the latter university 
with a Bachelor of Arts degree in June 1923 was confirmed. Mr. Edward J. 
Grant, registrar of Columbia University, advised in a letter that the appli- 



972 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



cant maintained a high scholastic rating, was in good standing and received 
the AB degree with general honors on June 6, 1023. 

Mr. Kaplan also stated that he enrolled at Fordham University Law School 
in September 1927, and that he discontinued attendance in 1929, The acting 
registrar of Fordham University Law School, in reply to a letter, advised* that 
the applicant was in attendance from September 19, 1927, to April 10, 1920. 
The letter further advised that the applicant's record as to his character, 
attendance, and deportment was perfectly regular in every way; that there is 
nothing in the records which reflects any disloyalty to the United States on 
the part of the applicant. 

EMPLOYMENT 

When interviewed, the applicant gave the following employment informa- 
tion : 



Date 



July 1918 to June 1919..- 

July 1919 to September 
1923. 

October 1923 to June 
1924. 

July 1924, to October 
1926. 

October 1926 to July 
1929. 

September 1929 to April 
1935. 

April 1935to July 1935.- 

July 1935 to October 
1935. 

November 1935 to 
August 1938. 

August 1938 to Febru- 
ary 1940. 

February 1940 to Febru- 
ary 1942. 

February 1942 to Sep- 
tember 1944. 

September 1944 to date 
of interview. 



Employer 



Fierce Oil Corp., 25 Broad St., New York, 

N. Y. 
A. I. Namm Co., Broolclyn, N. Y 



Unemployed 

Corporation Trust Co., 120 Broadway, 
New York, N. Y. 

National Industrial Conference Board 247 
Park Avenue New York, N. Y. 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co., San Francisco, 
Calif. 

Unemployed 

Works Progress Administration, 1734 New 
York Ave., Washington, D. C. 

WPA (National Research project), Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Department of Justice, Washington, D. C- 

Federal Works Agency, Washington, D. C 

War Production Board, Washington, D. C 

Foreign Economic Administration, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



Position 



Salary 



Cost-clerk 

Statistical clerk. 



Research analyst . 



Member of research 

staff. 
Economist 



Principal statistician.. 
Associate director 



Special assistant to 
Attorney General. 

Principal research 
economist. 

Head-program prog- 
ress analyst. 

Economic adviser 



Per year 
$960 

1,120 



2,310 
3,600 
3,600 



4,200 
5,400 
5,400 
5,600 
6,500 
8,000 



No inquiries have been made concerning the applicant's employment history 
prior to the year 1935, inai^much as investigation has disclosed that tlie applicant's 
service record subsequent to that time has been declared satisfactory. 

An examination of the microfilm records of the Federal Works Agency, Wash- 
ington, D. C, disclosed that Mr. Kaplan was employed by the Works Progress 
Administration, Washington, D. C, on March 16, 1935, as a principal statistician 
at a salary of $4,200 per annum. The records show that on September 16, 1936. 
the applicant's status was changed to that of Associate Director of the National 
Research Project (WPA), at Philadelphia, Pa., at a salary of $5,400 per annum. 
The records disclosed that the function of the National Research Project was 
to make a survey on reemployment opportunities and to evaluate changes in 
indu-strial techniques. According to the records, the applicant resigned his 
position on August 2, 1938, in order to accept a position with the Department of 
Justice in Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Kaplan's personnel file. Department of Justice, Washington, D. C, dis- 
closed that he was appointed on August 3, 1938, as a Special Assistant to the 
Attorney General (expert), at a salary of $5,400 per annum, and that he was 
assigned to the Antitrust Division, Wa.shington, D. C. The records further 
disclose that Mr. Kaplan was detailed to the Social Security Board in Wash- 
ington, D. C, for a period of several months. The records indicate that the 
applicant's services were terminated without prejudice on April 5, 1940, because 
of a necessary reduction in force. There was nothing of a derogatory nature 
contained in the applicant's personnel file. 

The report of the United States Civil Service Commission disclosed that Mr. 
Kaplan was appointed to a position in the Federal Works Agency, Washington, 
D. C, on April 21, 1940, as a research analyst, salary $5,600 per annum, and 
that he was assigned to the Office of the Administrator, Research and Statistics 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



973 



Division. The report disclosed that the applicant's status was changed to that 
of principal research analyst, salary $5,600 per annum, on July 15, 1940; that 
his eflicieucy rating dated October 20, 1941, was "excellent", and that on February 
1, 1942, the applicant's services were terminated by a transfer to the War Produc- 
tion Board, Washington, D. C. 

The Civil Service report further indicated that the applicant received a tem- 
porary appointment with the War Production Board, Washington, D. C, on 
February 2, 1942, as head economic analyst, grade P-7, salary $6,500 per annum, 
and that he was assigned to the Fiscal Division, Industry and Commodity Re- 
search Branch. The report also indicated that on February 16, 1942, the appli- 
cant's status was changed to that of head, program progress analyst, at the 
same grade and salary, and that his services were terminated by transfer to the 
Foreign Economic Administration, Washington, D. C, on September 11, 1944. 

The applicant's personnel file at the Foreign Economic Administration, Wash- 
ington, D. 0., disclosed that Mr. Kaplan was appointed by a transfer from the 
War Production Board on September 12, 1944, as director, program and rejwrt 
staff, grade P-S, at a salary of $8,000, and that he was assigned to the Office of 
the Administrator, Office of Economic Program. This is Mr. Kaplan's present 
position. 

Mr. James W. Angell, Assistant Administrator, Office of Economic Program, 
Foreign Economic Administration, Washington, D. C, advised, when interviewed, 
that Mr. Kaplan had been under his personal sui)ervision since January 1945. 
According to Mr. Angell, the applicant has performed entirely satisfactory serv- 
ices and is a capable and efficient employee. He said that the work on which 
Mr. Kaplan had been engaged is about completed and that consequently the 
applicant is making a request for a transfer to the Treasury Department. He 
mentioned that Mr. Kaplan had expressed a desire to make a connection with 
one of the permanent Government agencies. Mr. Angell also said that to the 
best of his knowledge he knew of nothing whatsoever which would reflect unfa- 
vorably on the applicant's character, reputation, or loyalty to the United States 
Government. 

FINANCIAL CONDITION 

On June 29, 1945, the applicant executed a financial statement on CCO-Form 
No. 2, disclosing assets in the amount of $5,380. The principal item listed among 
the assets consisted of United States Government bonds valued at $3,200. He 
listed no liabilities. 

The files of the Associated Retail Credit Men of Washington, D. C, Inc., 
indicate that the applicant and his wife have established satisfactory credit 
accounts in this city. There was no indication in the file that the applicant was 
ever the subject of litigation, suits, or judgments. 

The collector of internal revenue, Baltimore, Md., verified that Mr. Kaplan 
filed income-tax returns for the calendar years 1939-44, 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 

The files of the Metropolitan Police Department, Washington, D. C, and the 
Police Department of Alexandria, Va., disclosed no record of the applicant's 
name. 

The following-named individuals have expressed favorable comments concern- 
ing Mr. Kaplan's character, reputation, and loyalty to this Government : 



Name and address 


Occupation 


Length of 
acquaintance 


Mr. Louis S. Friedland, New York City, NY .. 


Editor 


Years 

20 


Dr. Joseph Dortaan, Columbia University, New 
York, N. Y. 

Mr. Harry Magdoff, Department of Commerce, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Stuart A. Rice, Bureau of the Budget, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Mr. M. J. Meehan, Department of Commerce, 
Washington, D. C. 


Professor - 


15 


Chief, Current Business Analysis 
Unit. 

Assistant Director, Statistical Stand- 
ards Division. 

Chief, Division Research and Statis- 
tics. 

• 


9 
6 
3 



974 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

It is the statement of Mr. Kaplan that he never has been a member of, asso- 
ciated or aflaiiated with, any organization which advocates or supports any move- 
ment opposed to the constitutional form of government of the United States. 

IMr. Kaplan stated that he has no interest in any concern primarily engaged 
in the sale or manufacture of tobacco or alcoholic beverages; that he is not 
engaged in the private practice of law and is not enrolled as an attorney or 
agent to practice before the Treasury Department. 

The applicant exhibited his selective service registration and classification 
cards, which indicated that he was registered on February 16, 1942, with local 
board No. 3, Washington, D. C, and was classified 4-A. Mr. Kaplan stated that 
he has reached his 44th birthday. 

SUMMARY 

This investigation disclosed nothing which would indicate that the statements 
made by Mr. Irving Kaplan concerning his history were not substantially cor- 
rect. Informed sources have expressed favorable comments concerning the 
applicant's services, character, reputation and loyalty to this Government. 

E. J. Gaffney, Agent. 

[July 25, 1945: No identification. R. W., Committee on Un-American 
Activities.] 



Exhibit No. 322A 

United States Civil Sf^vice Commission, 

Service Record Division, 
Wasliingtofi 25, D. C, Juhj 1, 1953. 

statement of federal service 

Notice to individual!? — this record should be preserved — additional copies of 
service histories cannot be furnished due to limited personnel in the Commission. 
This record may be presented to appointing officers for their inspection. 
Name: Kaplan. Irving. 
Date of birth : 9-2.3-00 . 

Authority for original appointment (examination from which appointed or 
other authority — executive order, law, or other exemption) : Excepted executive 
order 5-0-35. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



975 



Effective date 



Mar. 16 1936 



Sept. 16, 1936 

Aug. 2, 1938 

Aug. 3, 1938 

Mar. 15.1939 

May 9, 1939 

Teb. 20,1940 

Feb. 21,1940 



July 1, 1941 



Feb. 1, 1942 
Feb. 2, 1942 



Feb. 16,1942 



July 1, 1942 



Sept. 11, 1944 
Sept. 12, 1944 



July 11,1945 
July 12,1945 



July 12,1945 



May 19,1946 
May 20, 1946 



June 28,1947 



Nature of action 



Excepted Appointment 

Promotion 

Resignation 

Excepted Appointment (E.xecutive 

Order 7942, Aug. 2, 1938). 

Discharge without prejudice 

Excepted Appointment (Executive 

Order 7942, Aug. 2, 1938). 

Discharge without prejudice 

Excepted Appointment --. 

No record of separation 

Probational Appointment (Principal 
Economist (Option 9) 91.00). 

Separation — Transfer 

Appointment by Transfer.. 



Change in Designation — Inter Division 
Transfer. 



Transfer. 

Separation— Transfer 

Appointment by Transfer (Reg. IX, 
Sec. 2b). 

Separation — Transfer 

Appointment by Transfer (Reg. IX, 
Sec. 2a). 

DetaO (For a period not to exceed 120 
days) . 

"Incumbent to be assigned to the 
United States Group Control Coun- 
cil, Germany." 
Separation — Transfer 

Appointment by Transfer (DC 549, 
Reg. V, Sec. B) 



Separation (R. I. F.). 



Position, grade, salary, etc. 



Associate Director, $5,000 per annum, Works 
Progress Administration, National Research 
Project. 

$5,400 per annum. 

Special Assistant to Attorney General, $5,400 
per annum, Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Expert, $5,400 per annum, Justice, Washington, 
D. C. 

Research Analyst, $5,600 per annum, EO-16 
Federal Works Agency, Office of the Chief 
Research and Statistics Section, Washington, 
D. C. 

Principal Research Economist, P-6, $5,600 per 
annum. Federal Works Agency, Office of the 
Administrator, Washington, D. C. 

Head Economic Analyst, P-7, $6,500 per annum, 
War Production Board, Statistics Division, 
Industrial & Commodity Research Branch, 
Washington, D. C. 

Head Program Progress Analyst, P-7, $6,500 per 
annum. War Production Board, Executive 
Office of the Chairman, Office of Progress Re- 
ports, Washington, D. C. 

Head Program Progress Analyst, P-7, $6,500 per 
annum. War Production Board, Statistics 
Division, Washington, D. C. 

Director, Programs and Reports Staff, P-8, 
$8,000 per annum, Foreign Economic Adminis- 
tration, Office of the Administrator, Office of 
Economic Programs, Washington, D. C. 

P-8, $8,750 per annum. 

Economic Advisor (Liberated Area Problems) 
P-8, $8,750 per annum. Treasury, Division of 
Monetary Research, Washington, D. C. 

Economic Advisor, P-8, $8,750 per annum. 
Treasury, Foreign Funds Control. 



Economist (Chief Stabilization Studies Division) 
P-8, $9,012.50 per annum. Office of War Mobili- 
zation and Reconversion, Advisory Board — - 
Guaranteed Wage Study, Washington, D. C. 

P-8, $10,000 per annum. 



A. M. Deem, 
Chief, Audit Section. 

The above transcript of service history does not include all salary changes, 
intra-agency transfers within an organizational unit not involving changes from 
one official headquarters or duty station to another, and promotions or demotions, 
since Federal agencies are not required to report all such actions to the Com- 
mission. 



Exhibit No. 322B 
United States Treasuky Department, Washington, D. C. 



PERSONNEL RECOMMENDATION 



To Director of Personnel : 
Name : Kaplan, Irving 
From : Division of Monetarj' 
Nature of Recommendation : 
Position : Economic Adviser 
Grade: P-8. 
Salary : $8,000 per annum. 

Bureau or Division : Division of Monetary Research 
Headquarters : Washington. D. C. 
Post of Duty : Washington, D. C. 



June 18, 1945. 



Research. 

War Service Appointment. 

(Liberated Area Problems). 



976 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



Appropriation allotment : For Funds. 

Field or Deptl. : Deptl. 

Effective : July 12, 1945. 

Appropriation : ESFR. 

Date of birth : 9/23/00 

Legal residence : Fenna. 

Sex: M. 

Race: W. 

Subject to Retirement Act : Yes. 

Remarks : Appointed for the duration of the war and six months thereafter 
unless sooner terminated. Character investigation is in process; appointment 
recommended subject to favorable report thereon. 
Justification : Services required. 

F. CoE, 
Bureau or Division Head. 



Exhibit No. 322C 

July 11, 1945. 
Mr. Irving Kaplan, 

Division of Monetary Research, 

Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Mb. Kaplan : On the recommendation of Mr. Frank Coe, Director of 
Monetary Research, you are hereby appointed Economic Adviser, grade P-8, 
i?8,750 per annum, effective July 12, 1945. 
By direction of the Secretary : 
Very truly yours, 

Paul McDonald, 
Acting Administrative Assistant to the Secretary. 



Exhibit No. 322D 
United States Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 



personnel recommendation 

To Director of Personnel : 
Name : Kaplan, Irving 
From: DiTision of Monetary Research 
Nature of Recommendation : Appointment by transfer. 



July 12, 1945. 



Position. 



Grade 

Salary 

Bureau or Div. 
Headquarters,. 
Post of Duty.. - 
Appropriation. 
Field or Deptl. 



From— 



Director, Programs and Reports Staff. 
P-8 



$8,750 per annum 

Foreign Economic Administration. 
Washington, D. C_ 



To- 



Economic Adviser (Liberated Area 

Problems). 
P-8. 

$8,750 per annum. 
Division of Monetary Research. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Exchange Stabilization Fund. 
Departmental. 



Civil service or other legal authority: Reg. IX, Sect. 2A, F33913, XS:T:JH, 

7/11/45. 
Appropriation : p]SFR. 
Date of birth : 9/23/00. 
Leual residence : I'enn. 
Sex : M. Race : W. 
Subject to Retirement Act: Yes. 
Effective July 12, 1945 

Remarks: Subject to favorable report on character investigation. For a 
period not to exceed one year. Employee entitled to reemployment benefits un- 
der the War Service Regulations. 

Justification : Services required. F. Coe, 

Bureau or Division Head. 

Approved : 

D. W. Bell, 
Acting Secretary. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



977 



December 29, 1945. 
Mr. O'Daniel 
Mrs. Woodell 

Ml'. Irving Kaplan returned to the United States on December 23, 1945. 

Mr. Andrew M. Kamarck returned to the United States on December 14, 1945. 

[Written notation : ] to O. D. 12/29/45 grp Mr. Gatshel has been notified. 



Exhibit No. 322E 

United States Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 

personnel recommendation 



To Director of Personnel : 
Name : Kaplan, Irving 
From : Division of Monetary Research 
Nature of Recommendation: Pay Increase (Periodic). 



April 10, 1946. 



From— 



To— 



Position -. 

Grade 

Salary 

Bureau or Div 
Headquarters. 
Post of Duty_. 
Appropriation. 
Field or Deptl. 



Economic Advisor 

P-8 

$8,750 per annum 

Division of Monetary Research 

Washington, D. O 

Washington, D. O 

Exchange Stabilization Fund... 
Deptl 



Economic Advisor. 

P-8. 

$9,012.50 per annum. 

Division of Monetary Research. 

Washington, D. C. 

Washington, D. C. 

Exchange Stabilization Fund. 

Deptl. 



Appropriation : ESFR 
Date of borth : 9/23/00 
Legal residence : Penn. 
Sex : M. Race : W. 
Subject to Retirement Act? Yes. 
Effective March 24, 1946 
Approved. 

Paul Z. Kelley, 
Administrative Assistant to Secretary. 

Justification : Current eflBciency rating : Excellent, Date and amount of last 
increase : 9/12/44. Service and conduct otherwise satisfactory : Yes. Position 
not temporary. Leave without pay or furlough in excess of 30 days : None. 

Frank Coe, 
Bureau of Division Head. 



Exhibit No. 322F 

United States Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 

personnel recommendation 

May 17, 1946. 
To Director of Personnel : 
Name : Kaplan, Irving 
From : Division of Monetary Research 
Nature of Recommendation : Separation-Transfer. 



From- 



To- 



Position 

Grade 

Salary 

Bureau or Div 

Headquarters-. 
Post of Duty.. 
Appropriation. 
Field or Deptl 



Economic Advisor 

P-8 

$9,012.50 per annum 

Division of Monetary Research 

Washington, D. C 

Washington, D. 

Exchange Stabilization Fund.. 
Departmental 



Oflice of War Mobilization and Recon- 
version. 



978 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Civil Service or other legal authority : TCSR XVI, Sec. 3. 

Appropriation : ESFR. 

Date of birth : 9-23-1900. 

Legal residence : Penn. 

Sex: M. Race: W. 

Subject to Retirement Act? Yes. 

Effective : May 19, 1946, c. o. b. 

Frank Coe, 
Bureau or Division Head. 
Approved : 

Paul Z. Kelley, 
Administrative Assistant to the Secretary. 



Exhibit No. 322G 

June 23, 1945. 
Miss WiLMA R. Staek, 

United States Civil Service Commission, 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Dear Miss Stark : I am sending the enclosed supplement to my application, 
form 57, at the request of Mrs. Hall of the Treasury Department. 
Sincerely yours, 

Irving Kaplan, Adviser. 
Copy to Mrs. Mary Hall. 

Irving Kaplan 

1. Economic Adviser, Foreign Economic Administration : Responsible for 
the Office of Reconstruction and Foreign Development, Office of Economic Pro- 
grams, concerned with requirements of foreign economies for imports and foreign 
financing, and their bearing on United States foreign economic policies, trade 
problems and patterns and financing arrangements. 

Publications : Confidential report on Worldwide Import and Financing Require- 
ments, and supplementary reports by countries and areas. 

2. Head Production Program Analyst, Progress Division, War Production 
Board : Responsible for planning and directing the preparation of reports analyz- 
ing the progress and problems of war production as a whole and In particular 
segments or programs, developments in the war economy, the economic problems 
which have developed or are to be anticipated and the measures available for the 
solution of the problems of war production and the war economy. Coordinated 
the work of several sections and their staff, integrating the findings of the various 
studies into concrete appraisals of (1) the adequacy of war procurement and 
production, as a whole and in particular segments or programs, (2) the resources 
of critical materials, component supply, plant capacity and labor allocated, 
utilized and required therefor, (3) the resources available and to become avail- 
able for other essential economic uses, (4) the extent and adequacy of programs, 
production plans, and organizational preparations for the utilization of the 
resources available and in prospect, and (5) the problems of utilizing such re- 
sources. Reviewed and evaluated the policies and the operating procedures in the 
War Production Board governing war production and the utilization of resources 
in the war economy, on the basis of the foregoing analyses and reports, and 
prepared recommendations for the modification and/or adaptation of policies and 
operating procedures. Conferred with responsible officials in the War Production 
Board and related agencies with respect to the status and development of the 
programs and operations that are the subject of the Progress Division's analyses 
and reports and arranged for the flow of relevant information, Deputy Director 
of Division. 

Publications: Secret monthly reports on United States production programs 
and implementing mechanisms and controls, including reports on lend-lease and 
other foreign trade programs. 

3. Principal Economist, Federal Works Agency: Chief of the Research Section 
in the Division of Research and Statistics. Responsible for the organization 
and development of the Research Section and for the development of progress 
reporting on the defense public works and the defense housing programs which 
were then carried on by the Statistics Section of the same division. Planned 
and directed studies on the economic role, coordinate operations and financing, 
and other special problems of the various operating agencies within the FWA — 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 979 

the PWA, WPA, USHA, PBA, and BPR ; and problems in the development and 
operation of defense housing and defense public-works programs. 

4. Si^ecial assignment to the Division of Statistical Standards of the Budget 
Bureau and the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Bureau of the Social Security 
Board : Reviewed the work and records of the OASIB of the SSB for the purpose 
of establishing the uses of the records appropriate to the functions of the SSB 
and the additional uses of interest to other governmental agencies ; and to plan 
a system of statistical tabulations and researcli for the Division of Analysis oi 
the OASIB. The resiilt of this survey was issiied as a special report to the 
Directors of the OASIB and the Division of Statistical Standards. The report 
and the recommendations were adopted as the basis for organizing and developing 
the statistical and research work in the OASIB. 

5. Special Assistant to the Attorney General and Economic Analyst, Anti- 
trust Division, Department of Justice : Planned and directed studies in connec- 
tion with the investigations of the TNEC and the Antitrust Division. Respon- 
sible for the general economic analysis in the Antitrust Division related to the 
work of the TNEC; for planning the development of the housing survey by the 
TNEC ; for planning and directing the Antitrust Division's investigations related 
to the housing survey — investigations of plumbing, heating, and lumber indus- 
tries and of distribution of housing materials. 

6. Associate Director of WPA, National Research Project : Responsible for 
planning, developing, and directing the research work, the results of which have 
been published in some fifty-odd publications covering production, productivity, 
and unemployment in various industries and in the economy as a whole, the 
trends in industrial techniques and their economic effects, and labor-market prob- 
lems related thereto. 

Publications : The research program of the National Research Project on 
Reemployment Opportunities and Recent Changes in Industrial Economics ; an 
exposition of the economic perspective of the project and the program of research 
undertaken. 

Summary of Findings of the National Research Project ; an analysis of the 
results of the completed program of research. 

Some 50 to 60 publications under various authorship prepared under my 
direction. 

7. Further description and publications of earlier employment can be supplied 
if desired. 

Assistant Director, P-8 : Under general administrative direction, with very 
wide latitude for independent or unreviewed action or decision, serves as 
Assistant Director of Monetary Research, collaborating with the Director 
($9,000) in planning, directing, and supervising the activities performed in 
the Division of Monetary Research ; advises and confers with the Secretary of 
the Treasury, the Director of Monetary Research, the Director of Foreign Funds 
Control, and other Treasury officials on the most important, difficult, and highly 
technical monetary matters — usually of policymaking significance ; on occasion, 
represents the Secretary of Treasury and Treasury Department in foreign coun- 
tries on the most important and responsible economic missions ; and performs 
other duties of broadest scope and of greatest complexity, importance, and re- 
sponsibility in the fields of economics and national and international finance. 



Exhibit No. 32.3 

The following information was taken from Form 57 Application for Federal 
Employment of Virginius Frank Coe : 
Question : 

4. Mr. Virginius Frank Coe. 

5. 2700 36th St. NW., Washington, D. C. 

6. Date of birth : Jan. 5, 1907. 

7. Age last birthday : 38. 

8. Date of this application : Feb. 14, 3945. 

9. Legal or voting residence : State ; Kentucky. 

10. Telephone numbers : Exec. 7030, Ext. 482. Ordway 7177. 

11. Male. Married. 

12. Height : 6 ft. AVeight : 160 lb. 

13. Where were you born? Richmond, Virginia. 



980 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

17. Do you advocate or have you ever advocated, or are you now or have you ever 
been a member of any organization that advocates the overthrow of the 
Government of the United States by force or violence? No. 
21. Are you now employed by the Federal Government? Yes. 

(ff) If so: Foreign Economic Administration, Tempo. T. Bldg., Wash. 
D. C. . ' . 

(b) If you now are or have ever been so employed, give dates: from 
June 10.34 to present. 
23. Have you registered under the Selective Service Act? Yes. 

If so, give address and number of local board : Local Board No. 1, Fair- 
fax County, Virginia. 
If Classified, give your classification : 4-C. Your order number : 1G5. 

31. Have you ever filed applications for any Federal civil-service examinations? 

Yes. (If so list them below.) 

Titles of examinations : Principal Economist (Unassembled). 
Examined in what cities : Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C, 
Month and Year : Material submitted Dec. 27, 1041. 

32. Education: (a) Circle highest grade completed, elementary or high school: 

11. Did you graduate? Yes. 
(ft) College or University : 

University of Chicago 102.3-1026 Ph. B August '26. 
University of Chicago 1026-1028. 
University of Chicago 1030-10.31. 
University of Chicago 1032-1033. 
(d) List your four chief undergraduate subjects: Social history of tech- 
nology; Industry and trade; Public Finance; Economics. List 
your four chief graduate subjects : Economics ; International Trade 
Theory ; Social Control ; Research in Economics. 
35. References : 



Jacob Viner 

Harry D. White- 
Lauchlin Currie. 
Paul McXutt... 
Milo Perkins 



University of Chicago, Chicago, 111 

U. S. Treasury Dept., Washington, D. C 

White House, Washington, D. C 

Federal Security Agency, Washington, D. C. 
723 15th St. NW., Washington, D. C 



Economist. 
Assistant Secretary. 
Admin. Asst. to President. 
Administrator. 
Businessman. 



37. Experience: 

Place: Washington, D. C. From Nov. '43 to present. 

Name of Employer: Foreign Economic Admin., 14th and Constitution Ave., 
Washington, D. C. 

Name and title of your immediate supervisor : Leo T. Crowley, Administrator. 

Exact title of your position : Assistant Administrator. 

Salary per annum : Starting : $8,000. Final : $0,000. 

Duties and responsibilities : Under the general direction of the Administrator, 
and subject to such policies and directives as may be prescribed hy him, serves 
as Assistant Administrator in charge of the Office of Economic Programs, with 
responsil)ility fyr analyzing, developing, and recommending basic policies and 
broad programs for approval by the Administrator to achieve the objectives 
of the Foreign Economic Administration. 

Place : Washington, D. C. From June 1043 to Nov. 1943. 

Name of employer: Oflice of Economic Warfare, Washington, D. C. 

Name and title of your immediate supervisor : Leo T. Crowley. 

Exact title of your position : Assistant to Director. 

Salary: Starting: .$8,000. Final: ,$8,000. 

Duties and responsibilities: None given on form. 

Place : Washington, D. C. From Feb. 1042 to June 1043. 

Name of employer: Board of Economic Warfare, Washington, D. C. 

Name and title of your immediate supervisor : Milo Perkins, Executive Director. 

BEW. 
Exact title of your position : Asst. to Exec. Dir. 
Salary Starting: .$8,000. Final: $8,000. 
Duties and responsibilities: As Special Asst. to the Executive Director of the 

Board of Economic Warfare, assisted in coordinating the functions and 

programs necessary to the carrying out of general program of economic 

warfare. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 981 

riace : Washington, D. C. From Nov. 1941 to June 1942. 

Name of employer : Joint War Production Committee, U. S. and Canada, 
Washington, D. C. 

Name and title of your immediate supervisor : Milo Perkins, Executive Director, 
BEW. 

Exact title of your position : Executive Secretary. 

Salary: Starting: $8,000. Final: $8,000. 

Duties and responsibilities : As Executive Secretary of the Joint War Production 
Committee U. S. and Canada, U. S. Section, prepared and arranged reports to 
he submitted by the Committee, supervised the preparation and analysis of 
necessary statistics, maintained liaison with other interested agencies, and 
carried out other business of the Committee as directed by the Chairman. 

Place : Washington, D. C, and London, England. From June 1941 to Dec. 1941. 

Name of employer : U. S. Treasury Dept., Washington, D. C. 

Number and class of employees you supervised : Two. 

Name and title of your immediate supervisor : Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Secretary 
of the Treasury. 

Reason for leaving : To resume duties at U. S. Treasury. 

Exact title of your position : Spec. Asst. to Ambassador Winant, London, England. 

Salary : Final, $9,000. 

Duties and responsibilities : To advise and assist the Ambassador on financial 
and any other related economic matters; to perform special tasks for the 
Secretary of the Treasury. To supervise the financial work of the Embassy 
including the preparation and supervision of financial reports to departments 
in Washington. Work concerning the British and American exchange controls 
and other matters. 

Place : Washington, D. C. From Sept. 1940 to Feb. 1942. 

Name of employer : U. S. Treasury Department, Washington, D. C, Div. of 
Monetary Research. 

Number and class of employees you supervised : 6 to 20 economists. 

Name and title of your immediate supervisor : Harry D. White, Director. 

Exact title of your position : Assistant Director. 

Salary : Final, $7,000. 

Duties and responsibilities: Under the direction of the Director («) the prepar- 
ation of a number of memoranda and studies, ( b ) the supervision of research 
work by others, (c) interviews, conferences, representing the Treasury on 
outside committees, as instructed by the Director. 

Place : Washington, D. O. From July 1940 to Sept. 1940. 

Name of emijloyer : Advisory Commission to Council on National Defense, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Number and class of employees you supervised : Ten economists. 

Name and title of your immediate supervisor: Leon Henderson. 

Exact title of your position: Principal Economist. 

Salary : Final, $7,000. 

Duties and responsibilities : This position was that of the liaison between Mr. 
Leon Henderson and («) a fiscal staff organized for this work and (b) other 
financial economists in the Treasury, Federal Reserve, SEC, and other agencies. 
Part of the duty was the organization of economists working on fiscal aspects 
of price control. 

Place : Washington, D. C. From Sept. 1939 to July 1940. 

Name of employer : Federal Security Agency, Washington, D. C. 

Number and class of employees you supervised : Secretary and research asst. 

Name and title of immediate supervisor : Paul V. McNutt, Director, Federal 
Security Agency. 

Exact title of your position : Economic Consultant. 

Salary: Final, $6,500. 

Duties and responsibilities : Economic Consultant, serving as a channel to the 
Administrator of the Federal Security Agency for economic information and 
analyses prepared in the constituent agencies ; and consultant for the Ad- 
ministrator on economic questions concerning the Social Security, Youth, and 
other programs. 



982 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Place : Washington, D. C. From April 1939 to Sept. 1939. 

Name of employer : U. S. Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 

Number and class of employees yoi; supervised : Several economists and 

statisticians. 
Name and title of your immediate supervisor : Harry D. AVhite, Division of 

Monetary Research. 
Exact title of your position : Principal Economist. 
Salary : Final, $5,600. 
Duties and responsibilities : Conducting independent research and carrying out 

other tasks under Dr. White, the Director. 

Place : Washington, D. C. From June 193G to Sept. 1936. 

Name of employer : U. S. Trea.sury Department. Washington. D. C. 

Number and class of employees you suiiervised : Several Economists. 

Name and title of your immediate supervisor : George Haas. 

Exact title of your position : Principal Economist. 

Salary : Final, $6,000. 

Duties and responsibilities : This was in the Division of Research and Statistics 
in the Secretary's Office. The main project was a study of the indexes of 
competitive position which related to international exchange and interna- 
tional price problems. In addition, memoranda were prepared on a variety 
of other problems connected with gold, silver, exchange rates, international 
trade, and international capital movements. 

Place : Toronto, Canada. From Sept. 1936 to April 1939. 

Name of employer : Bankers' Educational Association, Toronto, Canada. 

Kind of Business : This is a nonprofit organization of the banks of Canada, 

which arranges for courses of instruction for personnel of these banks. 
Exact title of your position : Lecturer. 
Salary : $400 per month. 
Duties and responsibilities : Lecturer in Money and International Finance. 

Place : University of Toronto. From Sept. 1934 to May 1939. 

Name of employer : University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. 

Kind of Business or Organization : Dept.. of Political Science, comprising both 
Economics and Political Science. 

Name and title of your immediate supervisor: E. J. Urwick, H. A. Innes. 

Exact title of your position : Lecturer. 

Salary: $2,800. 

Duties and responsibilities : Lecturer in Economic Theory and Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Economic Theory, 

Place : Washington, D. C. From June 1934 to Sept. 1934. 

Name of Einployer : U. S. Treasury Dept., Washington, D. C. 

A special staff of economists was set up to study the monetary and banking sys- 
tem of the U. S. and to prepare reports on needed changes. 

Exact title of vour position : Economic Consultant. 

Salary: Final, $4,200. 

Duties and responsibilities: A study of the behavior of local government debt 
during the preceding twelve years and of the extent to which changes in local 
government debt policies offset federal fiscal policies. Studies of U. S. capital 
markets, gold imports, exchange rates, and wage changes. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 983 

Place : Washinston. D. C. From Aug. 1933 to June 1934. 

Name of eiuployer : Brookings Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Kind of business or organization : The Brookings Institution is an endowed organ- 
ization conducting research in economics and political science. 

Number and class of employees you supervised : None. 

Name and title of your immediate supervisor : Leverett Lyons. 

Reason for leaving : Accepted new position. 

Exact title of your position : Economist. 

Salary : Final, $2,800. 

Duties and responsibilities : Worked on a special study of the National Industrial 
Recovery Act and its administration. 

Place : Washington, D. C. From June 1933 to July 1933. 

Name of employer : Nat'l Assn. of Manufacturers, Washington, D. C. 

Number and class of employees you supervised : Three statisticians and several 
clerks. 

Name and title of your Immediate supervisor : Professor S. H. Nerlove, University 
of Chicago. 

Reason for leaving : Completion of job. 

Exact title of your position : Economist. 

Salary : Starting, $400 per month. 

Duties and responsibilities : In charge of statistical work ; directing and gather- 
ing, computation, and analysis of statistics relating to the men's clothing 
Industry. 

Place : Chicago, Illinois. From June 1930 to June 1931. 

Name of employer : University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. 

Kind of business or organization : This was an economic and statistical staff 

financed out of special funds allotted to Prof. Schultz. 
Name and title of your immediate supervisor : Henry Schultz. 
Reason for leaving : Appointment was for one year. 
Exact title of your position : Research Asst. 
Salary : Starting, $1,200. 
Duties and responsibilities : Under the direction of Prof. Schultz, to carry out a 

study on statistical demand curves for certain agricultural products, using 

methods developed by Prof. Schultz. 

Place : Baltimore, Maryland. From Sept. 1928 to June 1980. 

Name of employer : Johns Hopkins Institute of Law, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Kind of business or organization : This was a pure research organization with the 

objective of integrating law and the other social sciences. Four full professors 

directed the work. 
Number and class of employees you supervised : Several statistical clerks. 
Name and title of your immediate supervisor : L. C. Marshall. 
Reason for leaving : Endowment not attained. 
Exact title of your position : Research Asst. 
Salary : Final, $1,800. 
Duties and responsibilities: Conducted independent research on (a) application 

of economics to law, and ( &) on patent law. 

Place : Chicago, Illinois. From Sept. 1926 to Sept. 1928. 
Name of employer : University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. 
Exact title of your position : Research Asst. 
Salary : Starting, $750. 



984 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



Exhibit No. 324 



^^ TRUSTEE 

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RUSTEES 

tOBfitT S. MOOUNOI 

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WHrr^pocato R. COL 
NOItUAN H DAVtS 
FitfDeitIC A DELANO 
CUUtENCE PHELPt DOCXS 
JEAOUE O GSEENC 
DAVID P. HOUSTON 
VEJINON KfLXOCC 
JOHN C MERRIAU 
HAFOLO C MOIA.TOM 
JOHN BARTON PATNB 

BOLTON surm 



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OFFICERS 








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HENRY P SEIOEMANN. 








HAROLD MOULTON 
Prniitnt. 








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Exhibit No. 325 

September 19, 1934. 
The honorable the Secretary of the Treasury. 

I siibniit herewith my re.signation as Economic Analyst in the Treasury Depart- 
ment effective as of September 20, 1934. 

ViRGINUS F. COE. 

Forwardintr address : Department of Economics, University of Toronto, 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 



Exhibit No. 326 

University of Toronto, 
Department of Political Science, 

Toronto 5, Canada, May Sth, 1936. 
Dr. George C. Haas, 

Director, DlviHion of Rcfscarel} and Statistics, 
Treasurji Department, Washington, D. C. 
AIy Dear Dr. Haas : Thank you for your letter of May 4th. I should be glad 
to accept a summer appointment in your Division and would be able to arrive 
there June 1st if that is convenient to you. Would you please notify me of the 
outcome as soon as possible so that I can make the necessary arrangements. 
Yours sincerely, 

V. F. CoE. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 985 

Exhibit No. 327 

[Telegram] 

OFFICIAL BUSINESS GOVERNMENT RATES 

Charge Treasury Department, Appropriation for Emergency Banking, Gold 
Reserve and Silver Purchase Acts, 1935-1937. 

Treasury Department, 
Washington, May 20, 1936. 
Mr. Frank Cob, 

Department of Econofnics, University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Canada. 

You are appointed in Division Research and Statistics at salary of $500 per 
month for three months beginning June 1st. 

(Signed) Wm. H. McReynolds, 
Administrative Assistant to the Secretary. 



Exhibit No. 328 

Treasury Department, 

, Washington, September 18, 1936. 
The Honorable, The Secretary of the Treasury. 

Sir : I herewith submit my resignation as an Economic Analyst, at $6,000 per 
annum. Emergency Banking Roll, in the Division of Research and Statistics, 
effective as of the close of business on October 3, 19.36. 

I am resigning to resume my teaching at the University of Toronto. 
Yours respectfully, 

V. F. Coe. 



Exhibit No. 329 

February 9, 1939. 
Prof. V. F. Coe, 

Department of Political Science, 

University of Toronto, Toronto 5, Canada. 

Dear Frank: The pressure of work is unfortunately increasing here and I 
am wondering whether you would be able to help us out. 

Would it be possible for you to secure a leave of absence for the academic 
year 1939-40 in order to join our staff? There are numerous problems before 
us that I know you are interested in and if you could arrange to come to Wash- 
ington within the next mouth or two and plan to stay until the summer of 
1940 I would appreciate it. The remuneration would be at the rate of $5,600 
a year. 

Please let me know as soon as possible. 
Sincerely, 

(Signed) H. D. White. 

2/9/39 : Mailed by L. S. 



986 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Exhibit No. 330 
tlniversiti? of Toronto 

TORONTO S, CANADA 



DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE 
273 BLOOR STREtT WEST 



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CCONOMIC* 



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Exhibit No. 331 

February 28, 1939. 
Mr. Thompson. 
Mr. Bell. 

It is recommended that, effective as of April 1, 1939, Mr. V. F. Coe be apiiointed 
in the Division of Monetary Research as a Principal Economic Analyst, EO-IG, 
at .$r»,GOO per annum, payable from the appropriation, "Exchange Stal)ilization 
Fund." 

Mr. Coe will rejilace Mr. Frank A. Southard, who resigned as of the close of 
business on Septeuil)er 15, 1938. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 987 

Exhibit No. 332 

Treasury Department, 
Division of Monetary Research, 

Washington, Septemher 23, 1939. 
Mr. H. D. White, 

Director of Monetary Research, 

Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. White : I hereby tender my resignation from the Division of Mone- 
tary Research, Office of the Secretary, Treasury Department, effective at the 
close of business September 25, 1939. I am resigning to accept a position as 
Economic Advisor at the Federal Security Agency. 

. I have enjoyed my work with you a great deal and I am very grateful for the 
opportunity you have given me. 
With best wishes, 



Sincerely, 



V. Fkank Coe. 



Exhibit No. 333 

Treasury Department 

interoffice communication 

Date : August 7, 1940. 
To : Mr. Thompson. 
From : Mr. White. 

I should like to have Mr. V. Frank Coe appointed, at a salary of $7,000 a year, 
to replace Mr. Glasser in the Division of Monetary Research. (Mr. Coe has 
worked for the Treasury several times before.) 

Mr. Coe is at present employed by the National Defense Council and receives 
$7,000 a year. His chief has agreed to release him for work in the Treasury. 

Hand written memo : Asst. Director, Monetary Research, $7,000, Ex. Stab. ; 
estab. eff. date of oath for Secy's, signature. • 



Exhibit No. 334 

August 7, 1940. 
Mr. V. Frank Coe, 

Washington, D. C. 
Sir : You are hereby appointed, effective date of oath, Assistant Director of 
the Division of Monetary Research, with compensation at the rate of $7,000 per 
annum, payable from the appropriation, "Exchange Stabilization Fund." 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr., 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



988 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Exhibit No. 335 

5683 

Ton D.1S>^ 

U, S. TKEASURY DEPAETMEST 

division of Monetary Bese^roh 

(Office) 

APFIDAVIT REQUIBED BY TH2 at3RGENCY RELIEF 
APPROPRIATION ACT, FISCAL YEAH 1941 

I» V- EranJc Coe do solennly swear 

(or ftfflm) that (l) I am a citizen o.f the United States, nnd 
thfit (2) I do not and will not adrocp.tc the overthrow of tho 
Govcrnncnt of tho Unitod Stfitcs, and th,-t (3) I sa not a memter 
of an organization and vill not becono a nenber of an org.-.niza- 
tion that advocates the overthrow of the Govcrnncnt of tho 
United States, 

I further solemnly swear (or affim) that (4) I an not 
an alien, nor a Coammlst, nor a ncnbcr of an;/ Nazi Bund Organi- 
zation, and that I will not becono a Coanunist or a member of 
any Nazi Bund Organization during any time I aay bo paid fron 
funds appropriated by the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, 
fiscal year 1941, 



(signature) 



Subscribed and sworn to before no at W^shinston, 3.C., 
thiE *^ — ^day of CjAy^^ , 19 UQ. 



(Nane) y ^ V^^v^^ Cl^'^rJ'-^'^'-C C'-^ ' 

(Titlcl "OTABY PUBLIO; P. C.ti 

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^1 



Exhibit No. 336 

Treasury Department 
interoffice communication 

Date : August 17, 1940. 
To : Mr. H. W. Stutler, Per.«ionnel Division. 
From : H. D. White. 

It is requested that the appointment of V. Frank Coe as Assistant Director 
of the Division of Monetary Research be made effective Aug. 13, 1940. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



Exhibit No. 337 



989 



The Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense, 

Federal Reserve Building, Washington, D. C, August 20, 1940. 
Mr. H. D. White, 

Director of Monetary Research, Treasury Dcpnrtment, 

WasMiigton, D. C. 

Dear Mr. White: In compliance with your request of August 16, 1940, the 
following information is furnished with regard to Mr. V. Frank Coe : 

Date of Appointment : July 1, 1940. 
Date of Separation : August 11, 1940. 

Nature of Appointment : Excepted Appointment in accordance with Executive 
Order No. 8257, dated September 21, 1939. 



Accumulated leave as of Jan. 1, 1940: 

Annual 

Sick 

Total leave granted during current calendar year 

Annual 

Sick (without medical evidence) 



Days 



Hours 



Minutes 



1 
42 






Respectfully, 



Margaret Holmead, 
Chief, Personnel Section. 



Exhibit No. 338 

United States Civil Service Commission Classification Sheet 

Check to indicate whether sheet is for — New position : X. 

Give following information for item checked (Temporary or permanent) 
Permanent. 

Classification 



Service 



Grade 



Class 



Initials 



Recommended by Bureau 

Allocation by head of Department. 



P 
P 



120 
120 



1. Name : Coe, V. Frank. 

2. C. S. C. number of last sheet for this employee : 

3. Employee's present basic annual salary rate: $7,000. 

4. Allowances (deduction for Q. S. L., etc.) (Character and value) : 

5. Department : Treasury. 

6. Bureau: Secretary's OfHce. 

7. Division : Monetary Research. 

8. Section or unit : 

9. Title of position : Assistant Director of Monetary Research. 

10. Description of the duties and responsibilities of the position: (Describe, as 
objectively and concretely as possible, the duties and responsibilities of the 
position in question, following this order: (1) Kind and extent of super- 
vision or direction under which the work is performed; (2) the major, 
regular, periodic, or more important tasks, indicating proportion of time ; 
(3) the tasks of lesser frequency or importance, indicating proportion of 
time ; (4) any supervisory responsibility, showing the number of employees 
in each grade suijervised ; and (5) any other facts or figures bearing upon 
the characteristics of the position from the standpoint of difficulty, com- 
plexity, responsibility, independence of action or decision, or any other allo- 
cation factor.) 



990 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Under administrative direction with very wide latitude for independent or 
unreviewed action and decision as Assistant Director of tiie Division of Monetary 
Researcli assists tlie Director in planning, sujpervising, and directing the work 
of the Division of Monetary Research, which is charged with the preparation 
of analysis and recommendations to aid tlie Secretary of the Treasury and other 
Treasury officials in the formulation and execution of policies in connection with 
the Stahilization Fund, Customs and Tariff problems, Foreign Funds Control, tlie 
National Defense Program, fiscal and monetary problems, etc. Supervises group 
of economic analysts in gi-ades P-1 to P-6 engaged in conducting research, making 
economic analysis and studies and preparing memoranda and reports in the fol- 
lowing fields: (1) economic, financial, and political conditions of foreign coun- 
tries involving analysis of current financial data, country surveys of the domestic 
and international economic situation, and analysis of new developments for one 
of the following geographical areas: Latin America, Continental Europe, Far 
East, and British Empire; (2) International investments including U. S. for- 
eign investments, blocked and other involuntary investments, foreign holdings 
in the U. S., foreign assets of the United Kingdom, and other allied and axis 
foreign assets; (3) foreign commercial policy involving such matters as dumping, 
Tarilf Act and Customs problems, countervailing duties, foreign discrimination, 
export control, strategic material, and other U. S. foreign commerce problems; 
(4) exchange control including statistics, economic information and analysis of 
Foreign Funds Control in both this country and abroad, with special emphasis 
upon analysis of information and statistics made available through Foreign 
Funds Control; (5) international money and finance including gold-silver, ex- 
change rates, capital movement, international monetary agreements, and foreign 
monetary systems — legislation; (6) banking and domestic finance including 
U. S. economic conditions. Treasury finance, and the national economy, currency 
and coinage, banking problems, monetary and banking legislation, and problems 
of inflation; (7) Stabilization funds including both U. S. and foreign stabiliza- 
tion funds, stabilization operations, and international competitive position. 
]\Iore specifically, incumbent performs such duties as follows : advises and con- 
sults with the Director of the Division in the determination of policies and work 
programs of the Division and in the formulation of conclusions and recom- 
mendations ; serves as an alternate for the Director on various interdepart- 
mental committees and subcommittees; plans, directs, and reviews work per- 
formed by Monetary Research in one or more of the fields described above ; 
receives general assignments from the Directoi', or more frequently, on own 
initiative plans and supervises various projects and studies consisting of both 
long-term comprehensive projects and short studies dealing with specific ques- 
tions, problems or events ; attends Congressional debates and hearings and various 
conferences and meetings, which are pertinent to the work of the Division ; 
analy.ses, evaluates, criticizes, and comments on various proposals, schemes, 
or plans of an economic or financial nature; occasionally serves as a foreign 
representative of the Treasury Department or as a member of a delegation 
at foreign conferences. 

11. (a) For what purpose is any part of the work described above reviewed 

within the same organizational subdivision or unit? 
(6) Give the usual organizational title of the reviewer or reviewers. 

12. Give name and usual organizational title of employee's immediate supervisor: 

Harry D. White, Director of Monetary Research. 

13. Give actual qualifications (education, training, experience, etc.) of employee; 

or, if the position is a vacancy, the qualifications necessary for the work. 

EDUCATIONAL TRAINING 

Indicate the highest grade or year: Elementary school: 7. High school: 4. Col- 
lege : 4. Name : University of Chicago, I'h. B. in 192G. Technical or post 
graduate : Kind and extent graduate work at U. of Chicago, 1926-28, 1930-32. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 991 

EXPERIENCE AND OTHER SPECIAL QUALIFICATIONS 

2 years Research Assistant at Johns Hopkins U. 

I year Research Assistant at Broolvings Institute. 

5 years Assistant Professor of Economics, at U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. 

3 mos. Consulting Economist with Nat'l Adv. Defense. 
9 mos. Prin. Cons. Economist with Fed. Security Agcy. 

II mos. Economist with Treasury. 

Aug. 13. 1940, to June 26, 1941— Asst. Dir. of Div. of Monetary Research. 
June 26, 1941 — Special Assistant to the Amer. Ambassador to Great Britain. 
14. Date when employee entered upon the duties and assumed the responsibilities 
described above : July 1, 1941. 

Charles S. Bell, 
Assistant Administrative Assistant to the Secreto/ry. 



Exhibit No. 339 

May 2, 1941. 
Mr. V. F. CoE, 

Assistant Director of Monetary Research, Treasury Department. 

Dear Mr. Coe : You are hereby designated to act as my alternate on the 
National Munitions Control Board. The duties of the Board are outlined in 
Section 12 of the Neutrality Act of 1939, approved November 4, 1939, a copy of 
which act is attached. 

Very truly yours, * 

(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr., 

Secretary of the Treasury. 
See File of Mr. V. F. Coe. 



Exhibit No. 340 

Mat 2, 1941. 
The Honorable The Secretary of State. 

Dear Mr. Secretary : Please be advised that I have designated Mr. V. F. Coe, 
Assistant Director of Monetary Research, to represent me, as my alternate, on 
the National Munitions Control Board. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr., 



See File of Mr. V. F. Coe. 



Exhibit No. 



Secretary of the Treasury. 



June 26, 1941. 



Mr. V. Frank Coe, 

Care of the Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 

Sir : You are hereby appointed Special Assistant to the American Ambassador 
to Great Britain for such period of time as may be necessary for the performapce 
of the duties to which you will be assigned. 

If you will inform the Department of State of the date of your contemplated 
departure for London, it will make the necessary arrangements for priority in 
connection with your air travel from New York to London. 
Very truly yours, 

G. HowLAND Shaw, 

Assistant Secretary. 
(For the Secretary of State). 



992 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



Exhibit No. 342 



Form 3201— (April 1935) 

D. S. CIvU Ssrrloa Commlaalon 



CLufflnunoN SruBOLS j 


Service 


Orede 


Cl»ra 


EO 


18 





SERVICE RATING FORM 

(Read Inatructloas oa btrk o( this form) 



Check one: 

SupervUory ..__ ^ 

Nonsupervisory LJ 



Coe, V. Frank 



Name "^^^l.llJI^l _...: Department ..l^Ifil^X.. 

i?.?.^A9®..?.?...^l}?...?£.9J:?.t?-.':X Division, of. Monet arj:..Iie3ea,r.c]l 

(Bureau) (Division) (Section) ("subaKtion) 



On llnea below 

BAfk csnploreef 

1^ If oeltfaer strong 
Dor weak polot. 

— 11 weak point. 

+ U strong point. 



1. Underline the elements which are especially important in the position. 

2. Mark nonsupervisory employees on all elements except those in italics. 

3. Mark supervisory employees on all elements. 



la bona below rmie eaiilayvet 

1 or 3 If Einllent. 

3 or 4 ir Vtry Oood. 

tor 6 U Oood. 

7 or 81/ Fair. 

t or 10 U Unatbftctarr. 



-t"- (a) 
-t- (b) 
-f - (c) 

.p. (d) 



I. QUALITY OF PERFORMANCE 

Thoroughness; adequacy of results. 

General dependability; accuracy of results. 

Technical skill with which the important procedures or instruments are 
employed in performing his duties. , 

Original contributions to method or knowledge. 

Effectiveneaa in jotting good work done by hia unit. 



Bktli« 
OBew 



If. PRODUCTIVENESS 

Amount of work accomplished. 

Application of energy, interest, and technical resources to duties; industry. 
Effect iveness in planning so as to utilize time to best a dvantage. 
Completing assignments; making progress on assigned projects. 
Composing adequate reports or other reqtiired writings. 



..f^Ca) 
...yr. (b) 
..^. (c) 

...fr (d) 
..:f7. (e) 

CBt«t« aoy othor eiamenu of tKl« ola« ooaaidar«d> 

.i^- ig) Effectiveness in securing adequate output from hia unit. 



ZK 






~±. (a) 

_r.. (b) 

Jf--. (c) 
-#-- (d) 
^.. (e) 
■4:. (f) 

(k) 



Kated by 

Keviewed by . 



III. QUALIFICATIONS SHOWN ON JOB 

Knowledge of particular field of work and of the fundamenuls on 
w hich it is based. — _ 

Analytical ability; constructive reasoning in the field of specialization. 

Scientific or professional attitude; fairness, freedom from bias. 

Judgment, sense of proportion, common sense. 

Initiative, resourcefulness; ability to grow. 

Cooperativeness; ability to work with and for others. 

(9t«t« AAy other al.meQU of thia -' — ooa«idar*d> 

Effectiveneaa in developing and training employees. 



iiU 



'N 



(KatiDg olIkcer> 



(Date) 



(Heviewlog olTicer) 



(Dale) 



Sum of ratings . . 
Report to employee . 

On the whole, do you consider 
the deportment and attitude 
of this employee toward his 
work to be satisfactory? . . . 



J> 



(Aoswer 'froa", "No", or "Fmiriy so") 



Sum of lUtlnfs Report to Employee 
a - 7 Eicellent. 

8-13 Very QckhI. 

M - 19 Oood. 



aO- 24 
2S-30 



Fair. 
Unsatisfactory. 



Slgniaeance 
Promotable within grade if below top salary, 
Promotable within grade If below top salary. 

No salary change if receiving middle salary or above- 1/ 
below middle, proniutable not beyond EttiddJe salary. 
Reduce one step if above middle salary. 
DUmls6 from present [>o&itloiL 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 993 

Exhibit No. 343 

Board of Economic Warfare, 
Office of the Executive Director, 
Washington, D. C, December 31, 19.^1. 
Mr. Harry White, 

Division of Monetary Research, 

The Treasury Department, Washington, D. G. 
Dear H^ujry : As you know, Frank Coe has been acting as Executive Secretary 
of the .Joint War Production Committee — United States and Canada. The work 
is getting much heavier and I very much need him on a full-time basis, anyway 
for the next 90 days, I did not ask this until I got in a jam and I hope you can 
work out a way of granting it. He would be in our British Empire Division 
which is run by Bill Stone and would, of course, be doing a great deal of work 
for me i^ersonally on the Committee. 
I hope you can work it out. 
Sincerely yours, 

MiLO, 

Executive Director. 

DRAFT statement OF DUTIES 

1. To act as Executive Secretary of the Joint War Production Committee — 
United States and Canada, United States Section, and under the direction of the 
Executive Director of the Board (and the Chairman of the Committee) to 
conduct necessary correspondence of the Committee, arrange meetings of the 
Committee and its subcommittees, maintain the records of the Committee, pre- 
pare and arrange for reports to be submitted to the Committee, supervise the 
preparation and analysis of necessary statistics, maintain liaison with other 
interested agencies, and carry out other business of the Committee as directed 
by the Chairman. 

2. To prepare memoranda for the Director of the British Empire Division, 
furnish reports concerning the War Production Committee, maintain liaison with 
related work of the Division, and carry out other duties as directed by the 
Director of tlie British Empire Division. 



Exhibit No. 344 

Board of Economic Warfare, 
(Formerly Economic Defense Board), 

Washington, D. C, January 21, 1942. 
Director of Personnel, 

Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir : Will you please advise whether the Treasury Department will 
interpose any objections to the release of Mr. V. Frank Coe, Assistant Director 
of Monetary Research, for transfer to the Board of Economic Warfare as Execu- 
tive Secretary to the Chairman of the "Joint War Production Committee of the 
United States and Canada." at Grade CAF-15, $8,000 per annum. 

Since Mr. Coe's services are essential to the immediate operation of this 
committee, it will be appreciated if you will let us know the earliest date he can 
be released for duty if you concur in this transfer. 
Very truly yours, 

John M. Simmons, 

Personnel Officer. 



Exhibit No. 345 



January 80, 1942. 



Mr. John M. Simmons, 

Personnel Officer, Board of Economic Warfare, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mb. Simmons : Reference is made to your letter of January 27, 1942, 
your file number AM-3-JMS, addressed to the Director of Personnel and re- 



994 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

questing to be advised whether the Treasury Department will release Mr. 
X. Frank Coe to work with the Board of Economic Warfare at $8,000 per year, 
CAF-15. 

The Treasury Department will interpose no objection to Mr. Coe's transfer 
from this office, and he can be released for duty with your Board on February 2, 
1942. 

^'ery truly yours, 

H. D. White, 
Assistant to the Secretary. 



Exhibit No. 346 

Treasury Department, 
Division of Monetary Research, 

Wasliinrjton, January 31, 19^2. 
The Honorable The Secretary of the Treasury, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Secretary Morgenthau : Will you please accept my resignation from 
the position of Assistant Director of the Division of Monetary Research in 
the Treasury Department, effective at the close of business February 1, 1942. 

Mr. White, I understand, has told you the reasons for my resignation. I want 
to add something, now that, because I am leaving, I can do it without fear of 
flattering. This is that, though I want to make the change, I am very sorry 
to lose the boss. Because I admire the things you try to do and your courage 
in pushing for them, I would rather work under you than under anyone in 
Washington. I feel the same about Harry White, who, in my opinion, is the 
best example of how an economist should serve his chief and his Government. 

Thank you for many kindnesses. 

With best wishes. 



Yours sincerely, 



Frank Coe. 
(V. F. Coe) 



Exhibit No. 347 

February 7, 1942. 
Mr. V. Frank Coe, 

Assistant Director of Monetary Research, 

Treasury Department. 

Dear Mr. Coe: Thank you for your note of January 31, 1942. and for your 
kind remarks. I am sorry you are leaving the Treasury. Your help in a 
difficult period has been much appreciated. I wish you every success in your 
new position. 

Sincerely, 

(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr., 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



Exhibit No. 348 



Board of Economic Warfare, 
Washington, D. C, August 6, 19-'/2. 

office of the executive director 

Personnel No. 3 : Apiiointments. 
Memorandum No. 22. 
Distrilmtion : DS. 

Mr. V. Frank Coe and IMr. James L. McCamy have been appointed as assistants 
to the Executive Director. 

MiLO Perkins, 
Executive Director. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 995 

Exhibit No. 349 
Kecommendation for Classification 

under the ram speck act and section 1 of executive order no. 8743 

Board of Economic Warfare, 
Washington, D. C, November 5, 1942. 
Civil Service Commission, 

Washington, D. C. 

Gentlemen : 

1. The employee named below, who, on July 1, 1941, occupied a position which 

has been brought into the classified service by operation of the Ramspeck 
Act, and Executive Order No. 8743, of April 23, 1941, and who on January 
1, 1942, occupied a permanent position, is recommended for classification 
under section 1 of that Order. To be made effective as of the date of this 
recommendation. 

Name : V. Frank Coe. 

2. Position held on July 1, 1941 : 

(o) Designation: Spec. Asst. to American Ambassador in Great Britain. 
(6) Grade and salary : EO-19, $9,000 per annum. 

(c) Bureau or service : Treasury. 

(d) Official station: London, England. 

(e) Cite legal authority for appointment and funds from which paid on 

July 1, 1941 : Exchange Stabilization funds. 

Position held on date of this recommendation : 
(a) Designation: Executive Secretary. 
(&) Grade and salary : CAF-15, .$8,000 per annum, 
(c) Bui'eau of service : Board of Economic Warfare. 
id) Official station : Washington, D. C. 

(e) Cite legal authoritv for apiwintment and funds from which paid on 
January 1, 1942 : E. O. 88.33, Exchange Stabilization funds. 

3. On .January 1, 1942, was employee: (a) Actually in a pay status? Yes. 

(ft) On authorized annual or sick leave? No. (c) On furlough or leave 
without pay? No. 

4. Was employee in a nonpay status at any time between July 1, 1941, and 

January 1, 1942? No. If so, give specific dates: 

5. Is employee entitled to military preference? No. If so, preference was estab- 

lished in n Commission's central office. D Commission's 

district office. If preference is claimed but has not been established, 
furnish Form 14 and proof specified thereon. 

6. I certify that this employee was in the service on July 1, 1941, and has served 

with merit thereafter for not less than 6 months. Furnish record of service 
from July 1, 1941, to date. If part of this service was in another agency, 
give full information so that record may be identified. Use space below if 
desired. 
6/25/41 : Ch. Status to Special Assistant to Ambassador in Great Britain, 
EO-19, $9,000 per annum, London, England (Treasury Department). 

12/3/41 : Ch. Status to Assistant Director of Monetary Research, P-7, $7,000 
per annum, Washington, D. C. (Treasury Department). 

2/2/242 : Transfer to Board of Economic Warfare under Executive Order SS33 
as Executive Secretary, CAF-1.5, .$8,000 per annum, Washington, D. C Under 
general direction of the Executive Director of the Board of Economic Wai-fare, 
who has been designated by the President to serve as Chairman of the Joint War 
Production Committee of Canada and the United States, to serve as Executive 
Secretary to the Committee and to generally serve in the place of the Chairman 
who is preoccupied with a number of other responsibilities in the economic war- 
fare effort; to direct surveys and analysis of the scarcity of raw materials and 
goods as they relate to these countries, preliminary to the allocation and distri- 
bution according to the basic needs ; to direct studies and proposals facilitating 
legislation designed to remove administrative barriers, including tariffs, import 
duties, customs, and other regulations or restrictions of any character which 
would prohibit, prevent, delay, or otherwise impede the free flow of necessary 
munitions and war supplies between the United States and Canada or suspend 



996 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



or otherwise eliminate for the duration of the war ; to recommend policy and 
procedure which would achieve or facilitate the maximum volume and speed up 
war outputs on a uniform scale, involving the integration of the resources of 
both countries ; to collaborate with the Chief of the British Empire Division of 
the Board of Economic Warfare on any proposals that may arise in connection 
with the activities of the Committee and the British Empire Division ; and to 
perform other duties as assigned by the Chairman of the Committee. 

Francis R. Poore, 
Chief, Personnel Division. 



Exhibit No. 350 

Office of Lend-Lease Administration, 

Washi77gton, D. C, June 21, 1943. 
Mr. George Stephenson, 

Board of Economic Warfare, 

l-'/tli and Constitution Are., Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Stephenson : I am sending you attached two copies of the schedule 
of the Lend-Lease School beginning tomorrow Tuesday, June 22. 

In accordance with our recent conversations, Mr. V. Frank Coe appears on 
this schedule Wednesday, June 30, at 4 : 45 p. m. for forty-five minutes to talk 
about the work of the "Board of Economic Warfare." Your cooperation is 
greatly appreciated. 

In regard to your sending candidates to the school I regret very much, owing 
to the enrollment being much larger than we can handle with our present accom- 
modations, that it was necessary for us to ask you to refrain from sending any 
of your people, however, we hope to run another school in the very near future 
and send you invitations for several people to come at that time. 
Sincerely yours, 

James J. Townsend, 

Training Division. 



The Lend-Lease School, June 22-Juhj 5, 19Jf3. Time: 

Conference Room B-2 



4:00 to 5:00 p. m.. 



Time 



Subject 



Speaker 



Tuesday, June 22: 

4:00p. m 

4:1.") p. m 

4:30 p. m 

Wednesday, June 23, 

4:00 p. m 

5:00p.m 

Thursday, June 24: 

4:00p.m 

5:10p.m 

Friday, June 25: 

4:n0p.m 

4:45 p. m 

Saturday, June 26: 
4:00p. m 



Monday, June 28: 

4:00p.in 

4:15 p. m 

4:45 p. m 

Tuesday, June 29: 
4:00 p. m 

4:45 p. m 

Wednesday, June 30: 

4:00p. m 

4:45 p. m 

Thursflay, July 1: 
4:00 p. m 

4:45 p. m 

Friday, July 2: 

4:00 p. m 

4:50 p. ni 

5:15 I), m 

Monday, July 5: 
4:00p.m 



Introductory Talk 

Short Talk .._ 

Philosophy of Lend-Lease 

History of Lend-Lease 

Organization of Lend-Lease 

Lend-Lease and Other Government Agencies 

The work of the Legal Staff... 

Foreign Liaison Division 

Clearance of Requisitions 

Liaison with the U. S. S. R 



Operations Division 

Transportation and Storage Division 

Requirements and Allocations: Topside View 

Handling Specific Requirements 

Food and Agricultural Machinery 

Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabiliation 

Board of Economic Warfare 

Liaison with the War Department and War Department Lend- 
Lease. 
Lend-Lease in the Field 

Reciprocal Aid 

Keeping the Records 

Liaison for Information 

Written Quiz on the Course _. 



Mr. Knollenberg. 
Mr. Stetfinius. 
Mr. Van Buskirk. 

Mr. Young. 
Mr. Lynch. 

Mr. Buckley. 
Mr. Ball. 

Mr. Orchard. 
Mr. Simmons. 

General Wesson. 
Mr. Hazard. 

Mr. Martin. 

Lt. Cmdr. Watson. 

Mr. Miller. 

Mr. Lehensburger 
Mr. Spence. 

Mr. Anderson. 
Mr. Coe. 

General Spalding. 
Mr. Stillwell. 
Mr. Denby. 

Mr. Acheson. 
Mr. Kurth. 
Mrs. Castle. 

The Student. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 997 

Exhibit No. 351 
United States Civil Service Commission 

Classification Sheet 

C. S. C. No. 10. 

Bureau No. 6A. 

Code 

Check to indicate whether sheet is for — New position : X. 

Give following information for item checked (Temporary or permanent) : 
Indefinite. 

Classification 



Recommended by bureau 

Allocation by head of department 

Allocation by Civil Service Commission 



Service 



CAF 
CAF 
CAF 



Grade 



15 
15 
15 



Class 



130 
130 
130 



Initials 



Date: Jan. 13, 1944. 



1. 

i! 

4. 



Name : Coe, V. Frank. 

C. S. C. number of last sheet for this employee : 

Employee's present basic annual salary rate : 

Allowances (deduction for Q. S. L., etc.) (Character and value): 

5. Department : Foreign Economic Administration. 

6. Bureau : Office of the Administrator. 

7. Division : Otfice of Economic Programs. 

8. Section or unit : 

9. Title of position : Assistant Administrator — CAF-15. 

10. Description of the duties and responsibilities of the position : (Describe, as 
objectively and concretely as possible, the duties and responsibilities of the 
position in question, following this order: (1) Kind and extent of supervi- 
sion or direction under which the work is iierformed; (2) the major, 
regular, periodic, or more important tasks, indicating proportion of time ; 
(3) the tasks of lesser frequency or importance, indicating proportion of 
time; (4) any supervisory responsibility, showing the number of employees 
in each grade supervised; and (.5) any other facts or figures bearing upon 
the characteristics of the position from the standpoint of difficulty, com- 
plexity, responsibility, independence of action or decision, or any other 
allocation factor.) 
Under the general direction of the Administrator, and subject to such policies 
and directives as may be prescribed by that official, serves as Assistant Admin- 
istrator in charge of the Office of Economic I'rograms, with responsibility for 
analyzing, developing, and recommending basic policies and broad programs for 
approval by the Administrator to achieve the objectives of the Foreign Economic 
Administration. 

Specifically : Plans, directs, and coordinates a staff of consultants and econo- 
mists engaged in the study and analysis of projects and programs of international 
scope, such studies embracing past, present, and contemplated programs of world- 
wide economic trade and financial significance. 

Directs the study of, in collaboration with officials in the operating divisions, 
the major impediments to the successful execution of their functions and is 
responsible for developing procedural changes or other remedial measures which 
will smooth out operating difficulties. 

Advises the Administrator on the effectiveness of existing programs and 
projects, pointing out the relative strengths and weaknesses of various segments 
of the total program ; recommends revision in basic policies and broad programs 
in order to achieve the objectives of the Foreign Economic Administration. 

In consultation with the budget officer of the Administration, recommends to 
the Administrator financial requirements for proposed programs and allocations 
to programs of funds made available therefor ; as'sists the Administrator in the 
presentation of budget estimates to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress. 

Prepares or directs the preparation of special and/or periodic reports for the 
President and Congress, marshaling such data in the form of pi-ogress reports 
from the operating divisions of the Administration as may be necessary in the 



998 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



preparation of the above ; advises the Administrator with respect to policies and 
programs involving reciprocal lend-lease matters. 

11. (a) For what purpose is any part of the work described reviewed within the 

the same organizational subdivision or unit? 
(6) Give the usual organizational title of the reviewer or reviewers. 

12. Give name and usual organizational title of employee's immediate supervisor: 

Leo T. Crowley, Administrator, Foreign Economic Administration. 

13. Give actual qualifications (education, training, experience, etc.) of employee; 

or, if the position is a vacancy, the qualifications necessary for the work. 

14. Date when employee entered upon the duties and assumed the responsibilities 

described above. 

Caret Shaw, Jr., 

Personnel Officer. 
E. W. Adams, 
Classification Officer. 
Date : January 6, 1944. 

Exhibit No. 352 
personnel recommendation 

United States Treasury Department, 

Washinffton, D. C, February I4, 1945. 
To Director of Personnel : 

Name : Coe, Frank V. 

From : Division of Monetary Research. 

Nature of Recommendation : Transfer. 



Position 

Grade 

f-alary 

Bureau or Div. 

Headquarters. _ 
Post of Duty... 
Appropriation.. 
Field or DeptL 



From— 



Assistant Administrator 

CAF-15 

$9,000 per annum 

Offlce of Econ. Programs, 
Economic Administration. 

Washington, D. C 

Washington, D. C 



Foreign 



Departmental- 



To— 



Director of Monetary Research. 

P. 8. 

$9,000 per annum. 

Div. of Monetary Research. 

Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Exchange Stabilization Fund. 
Departmental. 



Civil service or other legal authority: War Service Reg. IX, Sec, 2 (b) ; File 

No : XS : T : mp F-8.501 dated 2-15-45. 
Appropriation : ESFR, 
Date of birth : 1-5-07. 
Legal residence: Kentucky. 
Sex: M. Race: W. 
Subject to Retirement Act? Yes. 
Effective : February 16, 1945. 
Remarks : Without reemployment rights. 
Approved : 

H. O. White, 
Bureau or Division Head. 
D. W. Bell, 
Acting Secretary. 



Exhibit No. 353 

Febkuaky 16, 1945. 
Mr. V. Frank Coe, 

Washinffton, D. C. 

Sib: You are hereby appointed Director of Monetary Research, CAF 15, with 
compensation at the rate of $9,000 per annum, payable from the appropriation, 
"Exchange Stabilization Fund," effective today. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) H. ]\Iorgenthau, Jr. 
Cross reference made. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 999 

Exhibit No. 354 
^^'Jl,rS.Tr:^.%'^ PERSONNEL AFFroAVIT 

(^''cbruary 1, iJiit 



U. S. TREASURY DEPARTMENT 



DITISIOM OF MOMETAXY RESEARCH D. C. 



(Bureau or Diviiioo) (Place of employmeot) 

I, J-,' ;..: : do solemnly swear (or affirm) that 

(1) I am a citizen of the United States, and that (2) I do not and will not advocate the over- 
throw of the Government of the United States by force or violence, and that (3)1 am not 6, 
member of an organization and will not become a member of an organization that advocates 
the overthrow of the Government of the United States by force or violence, and that (4) I do 
not and will not advocate, nor am I a member of any political party or organization which advo- 
cates the overthrow of our constitutional form of government in the United States, nor will I 
become a member of such organization. 

I further solemnly swear (or affirm) that (5) I am not an alien, nor a Communist, nor a 
member of any Nazi Bund Organization, and that I will not become a C!ommunist or a mem- 
ber of any Nazi Bund Organization during such time as I am an employee of the Federal 
Government. 



I (Signatu 



Subscribed and sworn to before me at . ?:IMy.25??iL__P_'._?^- 

this -A.^ f^ day of y^^koA^JZ^a^. , 194^ 

(Name) r-^^Cc</l^^ 

Deslguated to adfflinietpr oaths, ,m.,, , 

B^^-206 Indepen<3ent Offices (Jiile) 

^propriation Aat, 1944 




I6-~?7132-1 0- •- coriaNimt Miniiiift ofPiCC 



Exhibit No. 355 

Tkeasuby Department 

washington 

Press Service No. 4.5-21. 

For release, morning newspapers, Monday, February 19, 1945. 

Secretary Morgenthau today announced the appointment of Frank Coe to 
be Director of tlie Treasury's Division of Monetary Researcli, a position formerly 
held by Dr. Harry D. White who was recently made Assistant Secretary of the 
Treasury. 



1000 INTERLOCK 



3 9999 05445 3566 



ENT 



Mr. Coe returns to the Treasury from the Foreign Economic Administration 
where he has been Assistant Administrator. He has held a number of other 
positions in the Government, including that of Executive Secretary of the Joint 
War Production Committee of the United States and Canada, Economist for the ' 
National Advisory Defense Commission, and the Federal Security Agency, and 
Special Assistant to the United States Ambassador to Great Britain. He was 
Technical Secretary General of the International Monetary Conference held in 
Bretton Woods last year. Mr. Coe first entered the Treasury in 1934 and has 
served there in a number of positions including that of Assistant Director of 
Monetary Research. 

Mr. Coe is 38 years old; he is a native of Richmond, Virginia ; was educated 
in the University of Chicago and has served on the staffs of Jolms Hopkins 
University, the Brookings Institute, and the University of Toronto. He is mar- 
ried and has two children. The family home is at 2700 36th Street NW., 
Washington. 



Exhibit No. 356 

Treasury Department, 
Division of Monetary Research, 

Washington, June 10, 19ff6. 
Honorable Fred M. Vinson, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 
My De.\r Mr. Secretary: This is to siibmit my resignation as Director of the 
Division of Monetary Research in order to join the staff of the International 
Monetary Fund. As you know, this action is in accord with plans discussed 
over some time, and the Division is fuUy prepared for the change. I shall, of 
course, be glad to assist the incoming Secretary of the Treasury and the succeed- 
ing Director of the Division in any way that is desired. 

On resigning, I would like to thank you for your personal kindness and to pay 
tribute to your splendid leadership in the field of international finance. As 
('hairman of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and 
Financial Problems, you have successfully guided the Council through financial 
problems of unprecedented magnitude and complexity. As the Secretary of the 
Council in this period, I know the Council has been able to reach agreed solu- 
tions of the important problems before it because of your vigorous and wise 
chairmanship. 

Along with myself, the staff of the Division wishes you success in the important 
position to which the President has appointed you. 
Very truly yours, 

Frank Coe, 
Director of MoiH^fory Research. 

X 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN 
GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS 



HEARINGS .-..■■.:„. 



BEFORE THE 



SUBCOMMITTEE TO Il^VESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EKJHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 
DEPARTMENTS 



OCTOBER 28, 29, NOVEMBER 12, 17, 18, 23, 
AND DECEMBER 2, 1953 



i 



PART 15 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
32918 WASHINGTON : 1953 



Boston Public LDrary 
Superintendent of Documents 

FEB 2 3 1954 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota, Chairman 

ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin I'AT McCARRAN, Nevada 

WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia 

ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utali JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi 

ROBERT C. HENDRICKSON, New Jersey ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee 

EVERETT Mckinley DIRKSEN, Illinois OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina 

HERMAN WELKER, Idaho THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri 

JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Secxjeity 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana, Chairman 
ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah PAT McCARRAN, Nevada 

ROBERT C. HENDRICKSON, New Jersey JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi 
HERMAN WELKER, Idaho OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina 

JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of— Pas« 

Ismail Ege (Ismail Gussevnovich Akhmedoff), October 28 and 29, 

1953 _" 1001-1029, 1047-1067 

Clarence F. Hiskev, October 28, 1953 1029-1031 

Leon Josephson, October 28, 1953 1032-1033 

Mrs. Louise R. Bennan, October 28, 1953 1034-1035 

Lement Upham Harris, October 28, 1953 1035-1039 

Philip Levy, October 28, 1953 1039-1045 

III 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

DEPARTMENTS 



WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 28, 1953 

Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 
OF the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 

Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

New York, N. Y. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 12 :30 p. m., in room 
110, United States Courthouse, Foley Square, New York, N. Y., 
AVilliam E. Jenner (chairman of the subcommittee), presiding. 

Present : Senator Jenner. 

Also present: Robert Morris, subcommittee counsel; J. G. Sour- 
wine, special counsel; Benjamin Mandel, director of research, and 
Robert C. McManus, research analyst. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

The Senate Internal Security Committee of the United States 
Senate is going into its investigation of Communists in the Govern- 
ment. We have encountered many of them in our Government. 

This morning we have a witness. Colonel Akhmedoff, who is going 
to give us further evidence on Soviet espionage in connection with 
the infiltration in our Government. 

Will you be sworn to testify, Colonel? 

Do you swear the testimony given in this hearing will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ISMAIL EGE (ISMAIL GUSSEYNOVICH AKHMEDOFF) 

The Chairman. Be seated. 

Will you state your full name for our record ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. My full name is Ismail Gusseynovich Akhmedoff. 
I-s-m-a-i-1 G-u-s-s-e-y-n-o-v-i-c-h A-k-h-m-e-d-o-f-f. 

Mr. Morris. Your "last name is spelled A-k-h-m-e-d-o-f-f? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That is right. 

The Chairman. Where do you reside. Colonel ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. I reside in Washington, D. C, 5025 Fifth Street 
NW. 

The Chairman. What is your business, or profession ? _ 

Mr. Akhmedoff. I am a writer at this time. I am looking for a job 
in some technical corporation as electrical engineer. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Morris, with the questioning of the 
witness. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Akhmedoff, where were you born? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. I was born 1904 in Urals, that is Orsk. 

1001 



to- 



1002 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Mr. Morris. What year? 

Mr. Akiimedoff. 1904, I7th of July. 

The Chairman. Now, will you tell us where that is, generally 
speaking? 

Mr. Akhjiedoff. That is Orenburg district. O-r-e-n-b-u-r-g 
Xow it is called Chsalvosk. C-h-s-a-1-v-o-s-k. 

The Chairman. In Russia ? 

]Mr. Akhmedoff. In Russian Urals. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what you were doing at the time of 
the 1917 revolution? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. In the 1917 revolution I was 13 years and I 
was attending Russian high school. 

In 1919 I joined voluntarily the Young Communist organization. 

Mr. JMoRRis. The Young Communist organization in 1919 after the 
revolution ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That is right. I was sent in 1919, in perhaps 
August it was, to Orenburg to enter the Institute of Oriental Lan- 
guages, which was an affiliate of Moscow Oriental Institute. 

I was studying in this institute for 1 year. 

Mr. Morris. Will you speak a little louder ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. In 1920 I was sent to Wokhara, W-o-k-h-a-r-a, in 
the educational field to prepare teachers of the primary schools on the 
Soviet lines to organize propaganda in the educational field. 

Mr. Morris. How old were you at that time? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. I was 16 years old. That is no wonder, because 
during the revolution even boys who were 12 years old were taken 
and going to fight for the revolution. 

The Chairman. Boys 12 years old were engaged? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. Twelve, thirteen, fourteen. It was no wonder. 

Mr. Morris. How long were you engaged in that educational work ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. I was engaged in the educational field until 1923. 
Then I saw my own education was not enough, so I want myself to 
continue my education and some technical qualifications, and I went 
to Petrovsk, Caucasus, Kuba. 

In 1925, I was sent by the Central Committee of the Young Com- 
munist Party to Leningrad to the School of Communication. That 
is a signal school. 

In 1929 I was graduated from this institute in Leningrad with the 
rank of first lieutenant, signal troops. 

]\Ir. Morris. In the year 1929, when you were 25 years of age, you 
graduated from this military school ; is that right? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That is right, with the rank of first lieutenant. 

Mr. Morris. What was the name of the school ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That was in Russian Leningradskaya Vuennaya 
Shkola Svyazi, which means Military School for Signal Communica- 
tions. 

The Chairman. That school was located in Leningrad? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That was located in Leningrad. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat was the next episode in your life? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. After being graduated from the military school 
for signal communications, I was sent to Caucasus, to Tbilisi, 
T-b-i-1-i-s-i — that is the capital of Georgia — as first lieutenant to serve 
the radio battalion of the Red army. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1003 

Mr. Morris. You served in the Red army with the rank of lieu- 
tenant ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. During this next period ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. And after perhaps 3 or 4 months, because of know- 
ing Turk's language and a little German, I was appointed to the intelli- 
gence section of the headquarters of Caucasian Eed army, where I 
served until 1932 in the intelligence section for operations on border 
against Turkey and Iran. 

In 1932 on my own desire I was sent to Leningrad to enter the mili- 
tary electrotechnical college from which I graduated in 1936 with 
the rank of military engineer of third rank, which is equal now to the 
captain engineer of electricity. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the next episode in your life? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. After being graduated from the military elec- 
tronic college in Leningrad, I was appointed in the fall of 1936 to 
Moscow center scientific research institute for communications of the 
Eed army, where I worked until 1938 as a research engineer, then chief 
of a subsection, then deputy chief for section and finally chief of first 
section, which was engaged in construction, testing, and research of 
army wireless. 

Mr. Morris. Will you explain that a little more fully, please, Mr. 
Akhmedoff? 

Mr. Akh^viedoff. I will do it. In Moscow, in Sokolniti, there 
exists a central research institute for communications of the Red army. 
The function of that institute was research, testing, and construction 
of army wireless units and other communications devices, telephone, 
telegraph, research, and scientific work in the field of cosmic rays. 

At that time there existed another institute, also an institute for 
the mechanics of the Red army. 

In 1937, both institutes were combined into one institute which was 
called central research scientific institute for techniques and special 
techniques of the Eed army. 

My last assignment in that was chief of the first section of that com- 
bined institute. 

Mr. Morris. What year was that, Colonel ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. It was from 1936 up to 1938. 

In 1938 I was sent to the war college of general staff. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what the general staff's war college 
Avas at that time ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. Well, that war college of the general staff, I am 
told, was organized approximately in 1935 or 1934. I don't remem- 
ber exactly. That was a college for the preparation of general staff 
officers for the general staff work, and central apparatus in Moscow 
and in the military districts on high level. 

Usually it was required in order to enter this war college of the 
general staff to be a graduate from one of the various military colleges 
which in Russia are called academies. There were 14 in my time 
in the Soviet Union, including Frunze Military Academy. Frunze 
Military Academy was a pure militaiy college, and the rest of the 
ones were the technical colleges for the air force, for the armored 
troops, communications, and so on. 

A person who had to give courses in physics in the Red army after 
graduation from one of these colleges had to serve in the field or in 



1004 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

the central apparatus of the commissariat for defense for 2 years at 
least, to apply to enter the war college of the general staff of the 
Red army. 

I was graduated from this war college in 1940 in full and being 
a student of this war college I took part in campaign, in shameful 
campaign, I would tell, against Finland in the headquarters of the 
Ninth Army, which was commanded by General Chuyko. 

Mr. Morris. That was in the year 1940 or 1939 ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That was in the winter of 1939. The operations 
began approximately in December and they ended March 13, 1939. 

Mr. Morris. What rank did you have at the time ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. At that time I was military engineer of second 
rank, which is equal of major now in the Soviet army, major engineer. 

In 1940, in full I was graduated from the above-mentioned war 
college for general staff and was appointed to the military intelligence 
department of the general staff as chief of the fourth section. 

The Chairman. Chief of what ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. Of the fourth section of the military intelligence 
department of the general staff. 

Mr. Morris. This is in the year 1940 and you graduated from staff 
school ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. I was graduated in full in September 1940. After 
2 weeks I was appointed to the military intelligence department. 

Mr. Morris. Your first assignment was cliief of the fourth section 
of the intelligence de])artment of the general staff? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Chairman, as a result of staff conferences 
with the witness here today, we and he have prepared a chart which 
is now over there. I suggest that possibly we finish off this man's 
biographical sketch and then we will address ourselves to that chart. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

Mr. Morris. So you became the head of the first section of the mili- 
tary intelligence department of the general staff? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. Tliat is right. 

Mr. Morris. This is now in September 1940? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That is right. 

The Chairman. Will you indicate liere which is the fourtli section? 
^ Mr. Akhmedoff. This is fourth section which was the second sec- 
tion responsible for the procurement of technical data. It was the 
technical armaments of the foreign armies of first-class powers, Ger- 
many, England, United States, Japan, Czechoslovakia, and so on. 

The Chairman. What was your rank at that time ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. At that time my rank was major of general staff 
of the Red army. 

The Chairiman. Thank you very nuich. You may proceed. You 
may resume the witness stand. 

Mr. Morris. Plow long did you occupy this position as chief of this 
particular section? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. About eight and a half or nine months. At the 
end of May 1941 I was sent to Germany posted into the field under 
cover of service president of Tass in Berlin with the false name of 
Nikolayeff Georiri Petrovich. 

Mr. Morris. That was a false name you assumed in undertaking 
your assignment? 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1005 

Mr. Akhmedoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You say the cover of your assignment was that you 
were vice president of Tass ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That is in Berlin. 

Mr. Morris. Actually, your real assignment was what? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. My real assignment was organization and expan- 
sion of military intelligence in Germany. I could not go with my own 
life because I was known in the Soviet pr&ss as Akhmedoff, with my 
real name, and it is the practice in Soviet military intelligence when 
personnel who are officers are sent abroad they are sent by false names 
in order to protect them in their work, their operations. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about the nature of your work there 
as an officer in the Soviet intelligence acting under the cover of vice 
president of Tass ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. Mostly it happened under rather tragic and I 
would say tragic-comic circumstances. When I was in Moscow in 
general staff, chief of fourth section, approximately in April, I think 
it was the I7th of April, we got a cable from Shkvor fourth section, 
who was having a very good contact with the high command of the 
German Army. It was stated in the cablegram that the Germans are 
concentrating their troops on the Soviet frontiers and that German 
liigh command and Government order to stop Soviet military orders 
in Skoda plant in Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. Morris. Can I break in at that point and ask you a little more 
detail on some of these points you are giving us right now ? 

You say tliis was in the spring of 1941 ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. It was in April 1941. 

Mr. Morris. In your capacity as colonel of the fourth section 

Mr. Akhmedoff. As chief of the fourth section. I was still major 
of general staff. 

Mr. Morris. In that capacity you heard that this report had been 
submitted to your Soviet superiors about tlie German war prepara- 
tions ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. I did not say it. It was reported to me. 

Mr. Morris. By whom was it reported ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. By a source whose name was Shkvor. 

Mr. Morris. Spell that, please. 

Mr. Akhmedoff. S-h-k-v-o-r. He was vice president of Skoda 
plant in Czechoslovakia in 

Mr. Morris. What did he report ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. This gentleman was not a paid agent. He was 
patriotic Czech and the Kussians got him into an intelligence plan on 
his patriotic feelings. He was looking for revenge on Germans and 
agreed to work for the Russian Government, but Russians forget and 
put aside his patriotic feelings, used him in a very good way as agent. 

They do it always. This source reported that the Germans are 
concentrating their troops on the Soviet frontiers, that the German 
high command and Government order to stop the Soviet military 
orders on Skoda plants and in the second half of June 1941, the 
Germans are going to declare war against the U. S. S. R. 

That was one of tlie most important informations got by the RU — 
not in 1941, in all years when there exist their military intelligence. 

32918— 53— pt. 15 2 



1006 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Because of the report of that information it was sent immediately 
to the members of the Politburo, including Stalin. 

The same night I was called back to the EU. That means in Eng- 
lish military intelligence department. 

Mr. Morris. So whenever you use the word RU, you are using it 
in that sense, the military intelligence department ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That is right. And deputy chief for the military 
intelligence department. Major General Panfilof showed me this 
cablegram with the resolution of Stalin which was written and signed 
by Stalin with red ink, and it read : 

This information is English provocation, find out who is making this provoca- 
tion and punish him. 

So I was sent to Germany to find out if that was true or not. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, to determine whether or not this re- 
port of this agent was an accurate report ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. It became your official assignment to pursue that? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. That is right, besides other assignments. One of 
the most important assignments, I came to Germany at the end of 
May 1941. Saturday, June 21, 1941, we got another information 
that the Germans were going to declare war on Soviet Russia the 
next day, that is Sunday, June 22. That was sent immediately to 
Moscow headquarters and reported to Dekanozov, who was ambas- 
sador of Soviet Russia in Berlin and comic thing, Dekanozov, who 
was right hand of Stalin, still did not believe in that information 
and we were ordered to forget it and go to a picnic party the next day, 
but that picnic did not take place because at 3 in the morning, that 
was Sunday morning, Dekanozov was called to the Von Ribbentrop 
and delivered note about declaration of war by Germany. 

Mr. Morris. How long were you in Berlin altogether ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. Altogether it was about 3 weeks. 

Mr. Morris. How did you get out of Germany ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. I was interned by the Germans, because as vice 
president of Tass I had no diplomatic passport. My passport was 
the usual passport for Government employees. 

Tass correspondents do not have diplomatic passports usually. 
It was in my time. 

Mr. Morris. How long were you interned ? • _ 

Mr. Akhmedoff. I was taken to a concentration camp in Berlin. 
It was about 3 weeks until we were exchanged by the Germans. Dip- 
lomats arrested in Germany were taken via Belgrade to the Turkish- 
Bulgaria frontier and the Russians came by way of Kuba, Tibilisi to 
Germany. 

So I came to Turkey. It was perhaps at the end of Julj^ or August 
of 1911. In Turkey I got the directive of the chief of Soviet military 
intelligence to stay in Turkey and direct military intelligence against 
Germany from Turkish territory ; I was neutral and in order to cover 
my activities I was given title as press attache of the Soviet Ambas- 
sador in Ankara. 

Mr. Morris. That was cover? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. Of course it was cover. 

Mr. Morris. How long did you stay there? 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1007 



Mr. Akhmedoff. I stayed over there until the 3d of June 1942, 
when I broke with Soviet Government and the Communist Party. 

Mr, Morris. Did you have a wife at that time ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. No. My wife was — I don't know if she was killed 
or she died, by natural causes, but I got a telegram in the autumn of 
1941, perhaps in October or November, and that telegram was very 
short, and it stated that your wife died in a few days, and there was 
no explanation how it happened. I was just crazy. The second para- 
graph of the same telegram had word that director, which means the 
chief of military intelligence, "Hoped that you will fight for your 
glorious fatherland in a better way." 

So I tried to find out why she died, and I could not find it out in any 
way. 

Mr. Morris. Where did she die? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. She died in Sverdlovsk district in Urals. Per- 
haps in the village of Pervonaysk, if I remember it correctly. 

The Chairmax. From whom did you receive the telegram ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. From the chief of the military intelligence de- 
partment. I knew from her letter that she was evacuated to Urals 
when the Germans were advancing to Moscow, and they were forced 
to work in potato field and so on just to keep on. 

Mr. Morris. Doing forced labor, in other words ? 

Mr. Akhmedoff. Yes; that is right. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, this witness has given us his back- 
ground, his history, his experience w4th Soviet military intelligence. 
With the limitations of time and place that are inherent in his testi- 
mony, he is prepared to give us some information that I think would 
be of interest to the committee in pursuing the line of inquiry that you 
suggested at the beginning of the session ; namely, that of following 
up, determining the nature of Soviet espionage rings and possibly 
giving us some clews to their operations. 

He has asked permission, and he has complied with our 24-hour 
hour rule, to make a short statement. I cannot see any reason why 
he should not be allowed to make the statement. He has complied 
with the rule, and he has given us the reason for making the statement 
and I see no reason why he should not be allowed to make the 
statement. 

The Chairman. You may proceed with your statement. 

Mr. Akhmedoff. I, Ismail Gusseynovich Akhmedoff, ex-lieutenant 
colonel of the military intelligence department of the general staff of 
the Red army, have the following statement : 

On the 3d of June 1942, in Istanbul, Turkey, I broke with the Gov- 
ernment of the U. S. S. R. and All-Union Communist Party of 
Bolsheviks, renounced my Soviet citizenship, and went to the Turkish 
authorities asking for asylum as political refugee. 

From this crucial date in my life history, I did my best to denounce 
Soviet subversive activities and I did that always on my own initiative. 

I had joined voluntarily the All-Union Communist Party of 
Bolsheviks in 1921, for, being young, emotional, and unexperienced, I 
believed that communism would bring happiness, freedom, equality, 
and the same degree of political freedom to the national minorities 
of the former Tzarist Empire of Russia. 



1008 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

I had joined voluntarily the Ked army in 1925, for I believed that 
it was an instrument of peace, or defense, and not of any kind of 
aggression. 

Then, being little by little admitted into the inner circles of Com- 
munist Party, climbing up and up along the thorny roads of Soviet 
military hierarchy, I saw the true face of communism, of Soviet dic- 
tatorship, and its weapon of aggression— the Eed army. I saw the 
tears, the bloodshed, the horrors of the liquidation of uprisings 
against the Soviet tyranny in the Middle Asia and Tzars-Caucauses, 
collectivization and of forced labor, the purges, the Soviet-Finnish 
War, the occupations of Baltic countries and Bessarabia. I was terri- 
fied and ashamed for the cruel methods of Soviet government. 

This was an indication that I was having spiritual conflict with 
myself. Finally, I asked myself the most important question : Was 
it worth to fight for communism ? Was communism a right kind of 
prescription against the social disease called by many as crisis of 
human society? 

I am proud to declare here that in the end of 1930's, while still liv- 
ing and working in the U. S. S. R., I was able to answer those vital 
questions in the positive way and to make up my mind to break with 
the Soviets whenever chances would come. 
My answers were these: 

Communism is not worth to fight for. For the contrary, it was 

necessary and worth to fight against communism, to fight by all 

nieans if we wish the spiritual values of mankind do not submerge 

into the dark seas of evil. 

That is because communism is Godless, is unscientific, is outmoded. 

Why? 

At first, after great deal of thinking, I rejected so-called philosophy 
of communism. I cannot accept the materialistic idea that the whole 
universe, beginning from the tiny single atom and ending with extra - 
galactic nebulae, the wonderful orderliness of the natural phenomena, 
the mysteries of life and death are just created by some accident from 
meaningless chaos. 

I do believe that the whole universe, including ourselves, are 
created by God. That our life has its purpose and meaning. I do 
believe that our souls are immortal. 

Coming to that, the most important conclusion to me, I found my 
lost religion, which is Islam, and with it peace of my mind. 

As a logical result of this thought I rejected the materialistic inter- 
pretation of the history of human activity. Therefore, I could not 
accept that the bloody "proletarian revolutions" are the only remedy 
of conflicts between the labor and capital. 

The whole life is conflict. Nevertheless, there are many ways to 
settle those conflicts. The social experiences in the west had proven 
that there are more effective ways in settling those conflicts between 
the labor and capital. 

I have seen and am convinced that the Soviet system does not serve 
the interests of the people of the U. S. S. R. The Government of the 
U. S. S. R. is not government of people, by people, and for people. It is 
not even the dictatorship of proletariat. It is the dictatorship of Com- 
munist rulers in the Kremlin which have in their minds the fantastic 
and criminal idea to rule the world to suppress freedom and to convert 
the free world into a gigantic concentration camp. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1009 

So, in\yardl3', I have done and finished with communism while I 
was still living- in the U. S. S. R. Outwardly, I could not express 
myself because of well-known Soviet conditions. 

Therefore, there was only one way to escape Soviets and fight them 
and tliis one way was to get a chance to be posted to some Soviet foreign 
service. 

For me this chance came in the form of my appointment to the 
Soviet Military Intelligence Department of General Stall. After 9 
months' service as chief of the technical intelligence section of the 
above-mentioned department, I was posted into the field, to Germany 
for intelligence purposes, under the cover as vice president of TASS 
in Berlin, and under the cover name of Georgi Petrovich Nikolayeff. 
That happened in the end of May 1941. 

I could not defect to Germans for the Germany of Hitler was 
another form of totalitarian state. Finally, due to the Germano- 
Soviet War I was posted in Turkey. From there I was ordered to 
organize and carry out intelligence operations against Germany. 
Istanbul was my headquarters. The title of press attache of Soviet 
Embassy in Turkey was my cover. 

As far as there was the war and the western democratic powers 
were allies with Soviets, I decided for a while to carry out my duties. 
Besides, I had a little hope ; nevertheless, a hope that Soviets would 
change their internal and foreign policies under the new circumstances. 

My little hopes were ruined very quickly. For my sincere desire to 
cooperate with the representatives of allies in our common struggle 
against the enemy, I was labeled by Moscow as an "opportunist" and 
"Fascist." 

When soldiers of the Red army, of the armies of the Western Allies, 
were dying on the battlefronts, the official representatives of Krem- 
lin were systematically calling among themselves U. S. A. and Eng- 
land by unprintable names and threatening that one day, after Ger- 
many's collapse, they would do and finish with other "capitalistic" 
countries. 

Then, contrary to the previous directives of Moscow, I was ordered 
])y Vinogradoff, then Soviet Ambassador to Turkey, to carry out 
political espionage against Turkey in general, and at least try by all 
means to enlist into Soviet service some ]irominent Turkish editors 
and members of Turkish Parliament as Falih Rifki Atay, Hyseyin 
Cahit Yalchin, Ahmet Emin Ralman, in particular. 

Being myself Turk, I rejected categorically his offer, motivating 
that espionage against the Turks was none of my business. 

As the result of all that, the atmosphere around me was darkened 
and in the end of May 1942 I was recalled back to the U. S. S. R. to 
give account on my behavior. Instead of going back and be silent 
toy of Moscow bosses, I preferred to stay in the free countries and 
fight communism. Since that date, for 11 years, I fought communism 
by act. 

Gentlemen, I came before your subcommittee on my own request 
as a voluntary witness. I promise you to tell the whole truth about 
Soviet intelligence activities against the free world. I am ready 
to testify to it publicly if that would be necessary. In acting this 
way I am motivated by my desire to fight communism. That testi- 
mony and publicity can cost my life. But there are some moral values 
bigger than life itself. So help me God. 



1010 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

I have known hundreds of high-ranking officers of the Soviet Army, 
scores of members of the Communist Party of Soviet Union. Some 
of them are now prominent figures in the U. S. S. R. I know, and 
I am sure in that, some of them have better inner feelings, are not 
corrupted by Communist psychology, and have a critical attitude 
toward Soviet regime. 

I am sure that there are Soviet officials in the various Soviet foreign 
services scattered all over the world waiting for some chance to break 
with Soviets and to get to freedom. 

I should like to call publicly upon such persons to find their own 
ways to freedom and to join struggle against the communism. 

Mr. Chairman, I would just add two words to my statement. After 
I broke with the Soviets I was living for 8 years in Turkey. In 1950, 
I was granted Turkish citizenship. In connection with that I crossed 
down my name as Akhmedoff. Akhmedoff was furnished. I took, 
as it is custom in Turkey, the name Ege, in honor of the District Ege 
Ege in which I was living all these years since 1950. 

Now, my name is Ismail Ege. I have nothing to be afraid from 
the Soviet. And soon if somebody is going to discover that I had 
such name, I am absolutely open, since I am in the fight on commmiism. 
Mr. MoREis. You left Turkey in 1950? 
Mr. AhkjViedoff. That is right. 
Mr. Morris. Where did you go in 1950 ? 

Mr. AHKMEDorr. In 1950 I came to Italy and West Germany and 
I was working for the international Envoy Co., which is a branch 
of General Electric Co. 

Mr. Morris. You stayed in West Germany until 1953; did you not? 
Mr. Ahkmedoff. That is right. I came to the United States on 
February 29, 1953. 

(Witness addressed as Mr. Ege from here on.) 

Mr. Morris. I suppose we should call you Mr. Ege from now on. 
Mr. Ege, would you tell us what steps you made to communicate 
with American intelligence officers after your defection from the 
Soviet organization? 

Mr. Ege. In order to tell it in sequence, at first I took legal steps 
when I still was press attache of Soviet Ambassador in Turkey. I did 
pay my respect to American consular officials in Istanbul in the winter 
of 1942, perhaps in March or February. 

I talked to that gentleman openly, that I am a Soviet officer, I am 
going to break with Soviets on ideological grounds. 

As far as war was going I hated not to desert war; I was still 
official. I told him if it would be all right to enter as private of any- 
body in the SU Anny, and to fight Japan and/or Germany, and the 
battlefront, I would be glad to aid. 

But because of friendship and everybody was thinking that Russia 
was sincere, my proposal was not turned down, but I got no answer 
and I don't blame the consul general for it because of the situation. 

Then in 1945 I addressed, I sent a letter to the ximbassador in Tur- 
key, Mr. Wilson, giving him my background and stating that I have 
got information which concern the security of the United States. I 
got a letter instructing me to Istanbul. I was interviewed in Istanbul 
in 1945. I have information which I am going to repeat now here. 

Then in 1948, 1 was interviewed in a lengthy way by an FBI repre- 
sentative. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1011 

Mr. Morris. FBI in what year, 1948 ? 

Mr. Ege. November 1948, at the time when the President's election 
was. 

Mr. Morris. You imparted your knowledge of the Soviet intelli- 
gence organization to the FBI in 1948 ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Since then to whom have you imparted this informa- 
tion? 

Mr. Ege. Since then 

Mr. Morris. Have you seen the FBI again ? 

Mr. Ege. Several times I have. 

Mr. Morris. Since you have come to this country ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Ege, one American witness, at least she was 
an American agent, and her experience brought her strictly within the 
American scope of things, has testified that to her knowledge there 
were four espionage rings working in the Government in the United 
States. I know you are going to give us great details on the general 
nature of the staff, but your testimony here today will be related with 
particularity to that aspect of our investigation which indicated that 
there may well still be 2 more of these particular 4 rings still in exist- 
ence in Washington. That is a possibility the committee has not been 
able to determine, whether or not they are still operating. 

To your knowledge, and, first, based on your own knowledge and 
based on your own estimate of the Soviet intelligence organization, 
how many espionage rings were operating in the United States in the 
years 1941, 1942, when you defected from the Soviet organization? 

Mr. Ege. Can I demonstrate on the chart in order to be more 
explicit? 

(The chart referred to follows:) 



1012 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



CHAKT Of THE INTERMATIOKAI, SOVIET IMIKXICENCE SYSTEM 
As of May 1941 • 



Central Co:iralttee 
Communist Party, USSR 



3 



Council of People's 

Commissars 




Cover Organla- 
tlons in ForeJgn 
Countries 



Mavy 



Commissariat 
for Defense 



Intelligence 



NKVD 



General Staff 



T~\ 



L 



Comintern 



Foreign onioe 



Foreign 
Department 



Foreign Trade 



Counter 

Int«lllgencf 

Pepartment 



TASS 



CI 



Intelligence 
Department 



Intourlst 



VOKS 



Operations 
Branch 



Information 
Branch 



Training 



Auxiliary 
Units 



State Bank 
Foreign Dept. 



Various Inter- 
natlDoal Inatl 
tutlons 



Strategic 



Intelligence 



Sections 



oerraany 

Italy 

France 

England 

Sweden 

Norway 

Spain 

Switzer- 
land 

Rumania 

Yugoslav 
la 

Czecho- 
slovtki. 



Turkey 

Afghan- 
istan 

Iran 

Arabliin 
countrl 

Bulgaria 

Greece 



United 
States 

Far Eas 

Canada 

Japan 

Mexico 

South 
Ameri 

India 



ca 



z 



VS technic- 
ally advanced 
countries: 
Germany 
United State 
Great Britair 
France 
Czechoslov- 
akia 
Switzerland 
Sweden 
Norway 
Japan 
Canada 
Italy 



X 



Terror- 
istic 
acts; 
uprls 
ings, 
kidnap- 
ings; 
special 
duties; 
Includ 
Ug USA 



False 

docu- 
ments; 
pass- 
ports; 
count- 
erfeit- 
ing ; nc> 
techni- 
cal me 
ods; In 
cZuUog 
USA 



X.\ d 



Direc- 
tion of 
opera- 
tive & 
tactic- 
al in- 
telli- 
gence of 
military 
istricti 
front 4' 
separatp 
armies 



Ciphel 



Coounissarlat 
for Education 



Various Scien- 
tific Insti- 
tutions 



Purchasing 
Commi s s 1 on s 



Legal 
Networks 



Illegal 
Networks 



Legend 



Contact 
^utrorJlnf.te 



Mr. IMoRitis. You may. 

Mr. Ege. That chart "was composed by me and that is of the Soviet 
intelligence system as of ]May 1941. At that time the Soviet had three 
channels organizing international espionage against the whole world. 

One channel was NKVD, which means the military or at that time 
commissariat for the internal affairs. 

Tlien commissariat for defense, which is now military, and that is 
military for defense, and Navy. 

All of these were, of course, subordinate to the council or people's 
commissars. 

Mr. Morris. Were they subordinate to the central committee of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. _Ege. I would not say legally, because legally the Communist 
Party is out ; they have connections. But there is one real boss of the 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1013 

Soviet Union, the central committee of Communist Party. From the 
leoal point of view we cannot tell that they are subordinated. 

But the political party in power, the only party and as far as all 
members of council of people's commissars or members of the Politburo 
and central committee, it is under the central committee of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. Actually, though, the lines drawn there, if this is a 
realistic basis, the lines drawn from the central committee could be 
stronger lines than the lines from the council of people's commissariat? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. I cannot in reality say it is so. You are 
right. I am just pointing out here from 

Mr, JMoRRis. The formal relationship is that they are under the 
council of people's commissars, but actually they are run by the central 
committee of the Communist Party. 

]\Ir. Ege. That is right, because all are run by the presidium of the 
old Communist Party. 

Now, commissariat for defense had its general staff, and general 
staff, as any general staff, has its big departments, G-1, G-2, G-3, and 
so on. G-1 was for the operation and G-2 , that is intelligence 
department. 

Historically, that intelligence department of the Ked army went 
through the reorganization, changing its name from time to time. It 
was known, when the Red army was organized and when there was no 
general staff, but the main staff of the Red army, as the registration 
flepartment of the Red army. 

Then the second bureau of the army general staff. Then fourth 
department of the general staff. Then the seventh department of the 
general staff, and then just intelligence department and now it is 
operating at the main department. 

Mr. Morris. When you say now, what do you mean by that state- 
ment, as of the time of this chart ? 

Mr. Ege. No ; by now, I mean today. But at the time. May 1941, 
it was the intelligence department. 

I see from Soviet papers that now they call it the main intelligence 
department. That is not secret. 

Anyway, the name is not important. The importance is the func- 
tion. From the day it was created it carried out intelligence operations 
against the free world. 

During my time that intelligence department consisted of four main 
bodies : Operations branch, information branch, training branch, and 
auxiliary units. 

Under operations branch it included the group of sections which 
were conducting agent operations. That is real espionage in foreign 
countries. 

The information branch is the branch to whom materials and secret 
data procured by the operative sections is sent for evaluation, and 
dissemination and for further utilization. 

The training contains schools, academies, their research center for 
communications and auxiliary, sanitary and sewer, and welfare. 

Now, operations branch, as of May 1941, consisted of eight sections. 
Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Eight is cipher and that was called oper- 
ations because of the importance of cipher. 

32918— 53— pt. 15 3 



1014 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION EST GOVERNMENT 

But it had nothing to do with the conducting of espionage 
operations. 

Now, the seventh was directions of operative and tactical intelli- 
gence of the military districts front and separate armies. It perhaps 
is known, and still I have to stress it, that every military district, 
especially border districts, and separate armies and front located on 
the frontier area as Transcaucasia, Turkistan, Fares, had their own 
intelligence sections to operate along the frontiers of foreign countries. 

These sections were directed by the seventh section. 

Now, coming to this end, the first section was responsible for organ- 
ization of military intelligence against western powers in Europe, 
that is in Germany, Italy, France, England, as you see here. 

The second was responsible for organization of military espionage 
against the Middle East, Turkey, Afghanistan, Iran, Arabia countries, 
and Bulgaria and Greece. 

The third one was concerned with the United States — that was the 
second section which was responsible for the organization of military 
and political espionage against the United States — and Canada and 
the Far East. 

So that was a big and responsible section. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, probably for our purposes, that third 
is the most important section, 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

And the fourth was the section for procurement of technical mate- 
rials from advanced countries, such as United States, England, Ger- 
many, Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, Norway, Canada, Italy. 

Mr. Morris. That was your section ? 

Mr. Ege. That was m}^ section. 

Mr. Morris. You told us in executive session, did you not, that you 
had reports from the Aberdeen Proving Ground during that period, 
did you not? 

Mr. Ege. I did. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that, just by way of giving us 
an example of the kind of intelligence material that was coming 
from the United States to you as a member of that section? 

Mr. Ege. In 1941 — it was in the winter and by winter I mean Feb- 
ruary, March — to my attention came a list of materials from the 
United States through Amtorg, which was using the diplomatic chan- 
nels as it is the usual way in intelligence in Soviet Russia. And 
there were hundreds of pages of technical data, photostats, blue- 
prints, and photos of latest American tanks, artillery guns, and elec- 
tronic devices, developed and tested at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. 

Now, as I talk to you, the usual procedure is when agents of the 
operative section get such material it is sent to the information 
branch in order to evaluate it. The intelligence agent is not com- 
petent, himself, to evaluate all technical data. But this material 
was considered so important they sent General Golikov, who was 
chief of Soviet Military Intelligence at that time. Golikov took it 
immediately to report to the chief of general staff of the Eed army, 
and 2 or 3, I think 3 times, that material was got this way. It was 
procured by the illegal residents of the fourth section who had trans- 
ferred in their turn their material to the legal residents of the fourth 
section operating under cover of Amtorg in New York. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1015 

Mr. Morris. You say this particular intelligence material was 
procured by the illegal representatives in the United States. 

Mr. Ege. That is is right. 

Mr. Morris. Who transmitted them to the legal representatives 
who were operating under the cover of Amtorg in the United States ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right; through cutouts. 

Mr. Morris. That, you say, took place in the spring of 1941? 

Mr. Ege. No; in winter, in March, February 1941, because in the 
spring I was in German business and I was preparing my own cover. 

Mr. Morris. That was during the Stalin-Hitler pact, when there was 
some kind of alliance between Hitler and Stalin ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. I think the question originally was for you to give 
us, based on your own knowledge and experience, the number of 
rings that were operated. 

Mr. Ege. The fifth section, that was the most dreadful and I would 
say inhuman section which was responsible for the organization of 
terroristic action, sabotage action, kidnaping, and so on. 

The sixth section was responsible for procuring false documents, 
passports, counterfeit, and introduction of new technical methods. 

The fifth section and sixth section were having their own network 
in the United States. That I know, because the chief of the fifth 
section was my classmate from the general staff college, major of 
General Staff Melnikov. He was deputy chief and the chief was 
Colonel Mansurov. Melnikov, having business contact with the fourth 
section, was talking about their activity in the United States, not 
disclosing, of course, the number of network or the names. 

The sixth section was commanded by Bolshakov. At that time he 
was colonel. Then he came to the United States as major general 
and he was military attache in Washington in 1945 and 1946. And 
he had, because he was working sometimes in force before me, he 
had his network in Canada and the United States. 

Now, in order to come to this number you were asking me about, 
I want to tell a few words about the structure of Soviet networks in 
foreign countries. 

Usually the Soviet intelligence organization has two channels, one 
is so-called legal network, which in Soviet intelligence it is under- 
stood are networks consisting of Soviet citizens working in some Soviet 
foreign office or in some Soviet office working as Tass, Voks, foreign 
section of the state bank, Amtorg, foreign offices and so on. 

I will tell it afterward, a little later. Persons working here, of 
course, have Soviet passports. Sometimes they have false names, some- 
times they have real names. It depends on the situation and the back- 
ground of the person. They are conducting the espionage under cover 
of these organizations and that kind of network is full legal network. 

Mr. Morris. It is not legal in our sense of the word, not that it is 
permitted by us, but it is more formal. 

Mr. Ege. That is right. It is not legal, of course, but in order to 
differentiate from illegal network. By illegal network, it is under- 
stood network of agents called residents in Soviet terminology who 
consist of foreigners, of American citizens, of British citizens, of 
Turkish citizens. They don't need cover because they have their 
names and passports and they are traveling. They might have a high 
position in Government so they don't need cover. 



1016 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Such a network is called illegal network in Soviet Russia intelligence. 

As a result, every section has its legal and illegal network, and at 
least they will have two, in order if one is out, something happens, || 
still to have another one ready for the work. That is minimum. 

Mr. Morris. They have 2 legal and 2 illegal, at least ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. That is minimum. They might have 3 
or 4 even. The more the better — for them ; I mean. 

Now, having third, fourth, fifth, sixth sections which are conducting 
espionage activities against the United States, it is possible and per- 
missible to assume that at least there were 8 legal and 8 illegal net- 
works on the line of general staff, intelligence department. 

They got NKVD which got its foreign department, counterintelli- 
gence department. r 

Now, NKVD is the right hand of the central committee Communist P 
Party and these two bodies — it is paradoxical the people from here 
don't like the people from here [indicating] and the people from i 
NKVD don't trust the general staff officers as a general rule. Now, |' 
as far as NKVD, the right hand of the Communist Party and people 
are more trusted, they are given more finances, and they have more 
expansion, so, just being conservative, it is possible to think that at 
least the number of these legal and illegal networks from the line of 
NKTVD is at least about 8 or 9. 

Now, I would say at a minimum there are 25 networks, legal and 
illegal, if we subdivided the legal and illegal from the standpoint of 
Soviet terminology you still have 20 legal organizations. 

"\^niat is the more important thing and I have to stress it here, each 
illegal network and legal network are separate and individual. 

So, for instance, if the fourth section would have its legal network, 
it is individual, and on most occasions they are not known to other 
people. 

Mr. Morris. In fact, you told us in executive session, did you not, 
that there was an organization working for the third section, that you 
wanted in the fourth section? Do you remember telling us about the 
Institute of Pacific Relations in the third section in the executive 
session ? 

Mr. Ege. I will repeat it here. That question of IPR came to my 
attention in the late autumn of 1941. Perhaps you will remember 
the year of 1941 was one which was characterized by the danger of 
war" between Soviet Russia and Germany. There was no war in the 
autnmn of 1940, and the early spring of 1941. War was declared by 
the Germans June 22, 1941. 

But general staff of the Red army estimated that war was coming 
because of the political and military situation. 

So the military intelligence department was engaged in the working 
out of so-called mobilization plans for the future agent work. 

According to the directive of Golekov who got his 

Mr. Morris. That is G-o-l-e-k-o-v? ■\'\'Tio was Golekov? 

Mr. Ege. He was lieutenant general rank and he was chief of mili- 
tary Soviet intelligence department in 1941. 

The chiefs of the sections were ordered to work out alternative plans 
for the Communist war. We had tAvo plans. One was to^ take into 
consideration that Germanv was being engaged in war with Soviet 



INTERLOCKTNG SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1017 

Government and perhaps potentially, looking forward, that the 
United States would be a temporary ally in that case. 

The second alternative was havin<>- in mind that U. S. S. R. would 
be engaged in war with the United States, having as an ally Germany. 

And we, having to work out for both all these alternative plans, 
how to organize quickly if that war is going to happen, how to finance 
it, how to organize communications, w^hicli is very important and 
difficult. 

The chief of my American subsection, Vartanyan Archak Armena- 
kovich, rank, brigadier engineer, which is equal to major general — 
he Avas in person responsible for the plans against the United States 
as technical section. 

So he came down to report to me — ^lie was chief of American sub- 
section of the fourth section, which was under my command — to report 
that it would be a nice idea to include in this plan IPR. 

I was a newcomer to the intelligence department. I had no idea 
what was IPR. 

Mr. Morris. IPR was the Institute of Pacific Relations? 

Mr. Ege. I know, because Vartanyan reported to me that IPR was 
tlie Institute of Pacific Relations, and he told that Vartanyan, what 
I have to tell here, his background. He is outstanding in Russian 
intelligence. He was employed by Russian intelligence and in 1938 
and 1937 he was working in the United States as chief engineer of 
Amtorg and that was his cover, he was legal resident of our military 
intelligence department. 

So he knew that thing. He told that IPR is a good channel, why 
we don't use it. 

I told him that as far as we were technical intelligence, perhaps 
it is used by the first section. He insists still that w^e have to use it. 

It was my duty to report to Golekov that some chiefs of subsections 
are advising ns to use this channel of IPR in case of war and for 
intelligence work in general. 

Golekov listened to me, answered that it is already used by the 
tliird section and that is not for fourth, which is technical, and that 
is all I know about IPR. 

It was not up to me to question my chief. The intelligence business 
is business where people less speak the better and when they don't 
go into the function of the sections. 

Mr. Morris. The sum and substance of the whole thing was that 
you were told that the third section was using it and the fourth 
section should not therefore use it? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

The Chairman. The committee will recess at this time. Colonel. 

We will reconvene at 2 : 30. 

(Thereupon, at 1:45 p. m., a recess was taken until 2:30 p. m., 
same day.) 

afternogx session 

The hearing reconvened at 2 : 30 p. m., upon the expiration of the 
recess. 

The Chairman. The committee Avill come to order. 

Mr. Morris, will you proceed with the questioning of the witness? 



1018 INTERLOCKING ^SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT ' 

TESTIMONY OF ISMAIL EGE— Resumed 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Ege, will you tell us briefly what you mean 
by some of these cover organizations in foreign countries that you 
have on your chart ? 

Mr. Chairman, before we begin, may I offer for the record, to be 
inserted in the record at the time that Mr. Ege first commenced his 
testimony about this particular structure, a small version of the chart 
that appears on the board. 

Senator Jenner. It may go into the record and become a part of 
the record. 

(The chart appears at p. 1012.) 

Mr. Ege. Now, all these operations, sections, called sections for 
agents operating — in Russian they are called agenturnye otdelyi — in 
order to send intelligence officers, had to use various Soviet organiza- 
tions operating in foreign countries. 

Suppose some correspondents of Tass, Rogov, for instance 

Mr. Morris. Is that Vladimir Rogov ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. That is R-o-g-o-v? 

Mr. Ege. R-o-g-o-v. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you say he was working in the third section? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. What was his rank? 

Mr. Ege. Major in my time. 

Mr. Morris. When was that ? 

Mr. Ege. January or February 1941. 

Mr. Morris. He worked in the section next to yours, the third 
section ? 

Mr. Ege. The third section ; that is right. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, he was an intelligence officer in that 
section ? 

Mr. Ege, That is right. He was sometimes mysteriously disappear- 
ing and nobody in the department is asking. Nobody saw him. 

Mr. Morris. May I interrupt the testimony of this witness at this 
time to bring into perspective here some of the testimony we took 
last year about Mr. Rogov? I think it fits in very nicely with the 
testimony being given today. 

Mr. Chairman, in the course of our hearings on the Institute of 
Pacific Relations, we discovered 2 letters in the files, at least 2 letters, 
bearing on Vladimir Rogov; first is a letter dated January 17, 1944, 
from Edward C. Carter to xilger Hiss in Washington, D. C. This 
reads : 

My friend, Vladimir Rogov, Tass correspondent enroute Moscow to London, 
will be Washington Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday. Knows Chinese lan- 
guage. Been China 5 years. Was in Shanghai following Pearl Harbor until last 
March. Perhaps you, Hornbeck, would enjoy meeting htm. If so, please com- 
nmnicate Tass, Washington. 

Signed by Edward C. Carter. 

And there was a telegram at the same time sent to Laughlin Currie. 
Another document, which appears on page 144 of the hearings, 
reads : 
Here is copy of a telegram I have just sent to Alger Hiss. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1019 

This was sent to Rose Yardiimian, paid secretary of the Washington 
office of the IPR 

When we tried to subpena Rose Yardumian to be a "witness we dis- 
covered she had been in Red China at the time of the hearings. 

This telegram says : 

Here is a copy of the telegram I have just sent to Alger Hiss. Would you 
telephone him that I think Hornbeck and he would greatly appreciate a private 
talk with Rogov. I also enclose a copy of a telegram I have sent to Currie. 
Tou might phone Currie, too, telling him I think he would like to talk with 
Rogov. 

Then it goes on. There is an answer to that from the secretary, 
Rose Yardumian, which reads: 

I received your letter of January 17 with copies of the telegrams you sent 
Mr. Hiss and Mr. Currie. I called Alger Hiss yesterday morning and he told me 
that he had received your wire, but was sure that I would understand that he 
could not make the first advance in arranging a private talk with Rogov, He 
said that if Larry Todd — 

of Tass — 

wanted to bring Rogov to Hornbeck's office they would not refuse to see him. 

Yardumian says: 

I am not sure I understand the machinations of our State Department. Mr. 
Currie has arranged to see Rogov at 12 o'clock today. Colonel Faymonville is 
returning to Washington from New York this morning and is supposed to get 
in touch with our office then. Rogov and Bill have been at the Cosmos Club for 
the last 214 hours talking with Lattimore, Remer, and Vincent. 

In the record we have a recommendation from Mr. Motylev who was 
identified as one of the Soviet officials of the IPR. 

Motylev said that he thought Remer would be named to represent them in 
New York on the staff before the conference. This could not be confirmed until 
Rukharin came back, but he thought this would be worked out. Edward C. 
Carter explains it would also be desirable to have a Soviet person on the inter- 
national staff in the period between conferences. He suggested someone like 
Rogov. 

Now, was this the same Rogov that we are talking about here, Mr. 
Ege? 

Mr. Ege. I don't know about the facts you were reading. I knew 
Rogov who was in the Russian Military Intelligence Department. 

Now, using Tass as cover for the operations of officers is not un- 
usual. It is in the country the usual thing because when somebody 
from the General Staff office is going to some foreign country to act 
as an agent of the Intelligence Department he cannot go with his 
passport where it is written major of General Staff, Rogov and so on. 

He had to have some cover, so it was used as cover. It was very 
characteristic of Tass in Germany — for instance, the president of 
Tass was a person called Tarasov and whose real name is Uden. He 
was resident of NKVD in Germany. 

Now, in the Tass staff agency in Berlin, there was Kudryavtsev 
Sergi. 

Mr. MoKRis. You were in the Tass office in Berlin, were you not ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. You were there as an intelligence officer? 

Mr. Ege. I was an intelligence officer with Chovpsev, president of 
Tass. 



1020 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Mr. Morris. So now when you are speaking of the makeup of Tass 
in Berlin, you are speaking of it on the basis of your own direct expe- 
rience in that office ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. I was talking that the president of Tass, 
Tarasov, was representative of the NKVD apparatus and I, as second 
person after him, as vice president, was representing the Intelligence 
Department of the General Staff. 

And Kudryavtsev Sergi was correspondent of Tass and for 2 or 3 
years working for the fourth section as agent. There was another 
representative of Tass who came 1 week before me and who was work- 
ing for the fourth section. I don't remember his name. 

There was a correspondent of Tass in Berlin, Yehosef Verchovpsev. 
I don't know exactly whether he was working for NKVD, but for 
Military Intelligence he was not working. 

That was the Tass organization in Berlin and the present attache 
of the Soviet Ambassador, Levrov, was again representative of 
NKVD, individual representative of NKVD. 

Now, when I was forced to Turkey to Ankara and Istanbul, Tass 
was full of Soviet agents again. Vishnyakov who was president of 
Tass in Ankara, was resident of NKVD. Mikhailov, who was cor- 
respondent of Tass in Istanbul was major of section of the Intelli- 
gence Department of the Red Army. 

Mr. Morris. These are all intelligence officers either under the 
NKVD or intelligence officers for the General Staff ayIio were opera- 
ting under the cover of Tass ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. And Morozov who was also Tass cor- 
respondent in Istanbul, was in reality colonel of General Staff and 
was working for the second section. 

Lakayeva who was correspondent of Tass in Istanbul was working 
for Navy Intelligence. 

Mr. Morris. How did Rogov fit into that? You said that Rogov 
was a Tass man. 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Now, as far as I saw him in the first section, they could appoint him 
to China, Far East, or United States, I don't know, because that was 
not business of mine, but as far as in Tass, he was having cover of 
Tass, that is my assumption, but I don't know exactly. 

What I know exactly was that Rogov was intelligence officer in the 
Military Department in February and March of 1951. 

Mr. Morris. Was Constantine Oumansky also a Tass man? 

Mr. Ege. In my time the director of Tass in Soviet Union, in Mos- 
cow I mean, Chravin, was director of Tass. 

According to my knowledge Chravin was before Oumansky director 
of Tass. 

Mr. Morris. Was Oumansky also an intelligence officer? 

Mr. Ege. I don't know. I know he was Ambassador to the United 
States from Soviet Union. 

I want to clear one thing. What I am talking, that while Tass as 
a whole body is intelligence organization, it is still a news agency, but 
the Soviet organizations are using it as a cover. 

Sometimes it is quite possible that some correspondent of Tass 
is pure correspondent, having nothing with intelligence, but that 
might be, in my opinion, a very rare case. As far as I saw in Ger- 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1021 

many and Turkey, everybody was connected with some intelligence 
channel. 

The Foreign Trade Commissariat has in every foreign country its 
representatives who are called Torgpred, which means representative 
of Foreign Trade Commissariat and that p)erson is second after am- 
bassador in his rank. 

Now, that organization under the Torgpred, it is so impersonal, 
consisting of mostly engineers, technicians, and so on, especially it 
Avas true for Amtorg in the United States. Now, persons in Amtorg 
or foreign-trade representatives in other countries were used by the 
intelligence department and they were having foreign-trade repre- 
sentatives as cover for them. 

For instance, Portapovo, who was Torgpred of Soviet Union in 
Rome in 1941, was legal resident of the fourth section. "WHien war 
was declared by Germany, Portapovo was transferred from Eome 
to Ankara, Istanbul, and still he was working for the fourth section. 

I mentioned Vartanyan. He was chief engineer of Amtorg in New 
York here and having that cover he was working as legal representa- 
tive for the fourth section. 

When Vartanyan was called back to the Soviet Union his place 
was occupied by a person called Korovin, who was chief engineer of 
Amtorg after Vartanyan, and he was legal resident of the fourth 
section. And Vartanyan used to work with a person called Baranov, 
who was engineer and he was naval intelligence officer working for 
the fourth section. 

The same holds for the Foreign Office. For instance, ambassador, 
consular. Everybody in the Soviet Embassy engaged in diplomatic 
activity or nondiplomatic activity at the same time he was working 
for some intelligence channel as NKVD or General Staff intelligence 
or Navy. 

In Germany in 1941, just before the break of war, the first consular 
of the Soviet in Berlin, Kabolov, was chief resident of NKVD and 
factually speaking he was more powerful than Dekanozov, and if 
we take Ankara in 1941-42, the first secretary, second secretary, 
third secretary of Soviet Embassy were engaged in espionage activity. 

The first secretary was working for NKVD. The second secretary 
was working for the military intelligence, the third secretary was 
working for the military intelligence and consul general of the 
Soviet Union in Istanbul, Akimov, was, in fact, assistant resident to 
military attache in Ankara, Tokol Lyachterov. 

I could demonstrate how all these organizations were used as cover 
by tens and tens of names. I am here under oath. I am not exag- 
gerating something, or inventing. I can demonstrate everything by 
true facts that the tens of tens of persons working in Soviet Embassy 
and consulates were working under these covers for Soviet intelligence 
agents. 

Now, here we have Comintern. That is a separate body. The 
Comintern was furnishing all its agents to the intelligence depart- 
ment, to NKVD. I don't know about Navy. But Navy was created 
somewhere in 1940. 

As far as the general staff, I know persons that come from Comin- 
tern to work for the intelligence department. It was quite right to 
assume that as far as NKVD was more powerful, they were giving 

32918 — 53— pt. 15 4 



1022 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

representatives. Contact through Comintern was through the Cen- 
tral Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 

The Chairman. You have various international institutions. Will 
you give us some elaboration on that? 

Mr. Ege. As an example, I was telling here about IPR. I put here 
various international institutions. Their work, for instance, Inter- 
national Agrarian Institute, and so on. 

The General Staff Intelligence Department used international 
bodies. Suppose there is war, for instance, between some country and 
the Soviet Union; of course, all Soviet Ambassadors and trading 
organizations and Tass are closed down, and everybody departs from 
the country, but international organizations are still working because 
they are not Soviet organizations. 

The Soviets might have their affiliates here, sections, so it is a very 
convenient way to plant here agents and then to use for intelligence. 

The Chairman. You are speaking now of May 1941, but unless they 
have changed their method of operation, you have no doubt in your 
mind that they are probably using the United Nations in the same 
fashion as they have used international agricultural committees, and 
so forth. 

Mr. Ege. I am sure of it. For instance, the same Kudryavtsev who 
was Tass correspondent in Turkey, was transferred in 1941 to Moscow, 
and from Moscow he was sent to Canada where he got involved in 
the Canadian atomic-spy case. Kudryavtsev was one of the cutouts 
between the illegal network and the network of military attache. 

After that conduct Kudryavtsev was appointed to the Soviet dele- 
gation at the United Nations. That Kudryavtsev was agent for the 
fourth section and he worked under me for some time. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I at this time offer for the record 
certain excerpts from the security memorandum which we have de- 
scribed in our previous hearings? We introduced into the record, I 
believe, about two pages during the last series of hearings. The 
report was described by now Vice President Nixon as a top-secret se- 
curity memorandum. It was circulated among the top officials of 
the United States Government, including the President of the United 
States, and it is dated November 1945. It is rather an extensive 
report, but in conjunction with the testimony of this witness today 
and some other witnesses whom we have here, I would like to offer 
for the record certain parts of that memorandum, described as it is as 
a top-secret security memorandum, as Mr. Nixon has described it. I 
would like to put it in the record. 

The first page bears out precisely what this witness has been talking 
about and I would like to you, Mr. Ege, if you would, to listen and 
make observations on the accuracy of the statement. 

This memorandum is dated November 1945. It reads : 

INTRODUCTION 

This memorandnm has heen prepared for the pni-pose of presenting in concise 
form the picture of Soviet espionage activity in the United States. It is divided 
into three sections: First, Soviet espionage activity between World War I and 
World War II; second, espionage activity during World War II; and third, 
Soviet espionage activity as it exists in the United States today. 

Throughout the entire period under consideration Soviet espionage in the 
United States has depended upon the Communist organization in the United 
States for assistance. This has been particularly true during World War II. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1023 

It will be remembered that the governing body of the Soviet Union is the 
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which meets at only certain intervals. During 
the interim periods the Council of Peoples Commissars is the actual controlling 
body. The membership of this Council as well as of the Presidium is composed 
of members of the All Union Ccmnmnist Party of Bolsheviks. Because of this 
interrelationship between the actual Government of the Soviet Union and All 
Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, it is not surprising that all espionage 
activities performed for the Soviet Union are closely related to Communist 
activities abroad. 

As will be seen, however, individuals other than high oflScials of the Com- 
munist Party in the United States have been encouraged to withdraw from 
strictly Communist Party activities when engaged full time on Soviet espionage. 

The Soviet Union has had two principal intelligence organizations actively 
engaged in large-scale espionage activities in foreign countries and particularly 
in the United States. These are the NKVD (Peoples Commissariat of Internal 
Affairs) and the Soviet military intelligence. Information obtained by these 
groups, as well as the other Soviet organizations, whose activities are related 
in intelligence spheres, are coordinated in Moscow and there disseminated to 
the interested divisions of the Soviet Government. 

The NKVD, or Peoples Commissariat of Internal Affairs, was established 
by a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars July 11, 1934, and contained the 
Department of States Security, which prior to that time had been known as the 
OGPU (Obeyedinenoye Gossudarstuennoye Politicheskoye Upravlyeniye) of 
All Union Department of Political Administration. The OGPU was created in 
1922 to succeed the CHEKA (VSYA-Rossiskaya Chrezviychainoya Komissia 
Po-Borbos Kentre Revolulisya) or the Extraordinary Commission To Combat 
Counterrevolution, Speculation, and Sabotage which was organized in December 
of 1917. Insofar as is known the CHEKA was primarily responsible for intelli- 
gence matters within the U. S. S. R., but its successor, the OGPU, as will be seen, 
established a foreign branch and the NKVD continued to operate in countries 
outside the Soviet Union. 

Since June 1941, following the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Nazis, 
the Department of States Security of the NKVD has frequently been referred 
toasGUGBEZ (Gosudarstvinaia Ucieijdenaia Gosudaraetvinai Bezapustnovisti). 

The Soviet military intelligence organization which was established in 1921 
was originally termed "the fourth department of the Red army." However, 
the fourth department was reorganized into the intelligence department of the 
general staff and within the past 5 years into the intelligence department of 
the Red army. 

I submit there is a great resemblance between that description of 
the Soviet military intelligence as it appeared in this 1945 memo- 
randum and as the witness gave it today. 

Did you hear my reading of that, Mr. Ege? 

Mr. Ege. I did, and I think that is precisely correct except a few 
minor things which are not important. 

For instance, the name of the military intelligence department, 
it was at first registration department, as I was talking, then it was 
second bureau, then fourth department, and when Bezine was in 
Persia and Uritsky came as chief of that military intelligence de- 
partment, it was called seventh department of general staff, and dur- 
ing Proskurov, after Uritsky was purged, it was called intelligence 
department. 

During the Golikov period it was called the intelligence depart- 
ment of the general staff of the Red army. 

Mr. Morris. May these 2 pages, pages 1 and certain sections of 
page 2, as I had designated here, go into the record at this time? 

The Chairman. They may go into the record and become a part 
of the record. 

(The material referred to is as follows:) 



1024 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Introduction 

This memorandum has been prepared for the purpose of presenting in concise 
form the picture of Soviet espionage activity in the United States. It is divided 
into three sections : First, Soviet espionage activity between World War I and 
World War II; second, espionage activity during World War II; and, third, 
Soviet espionage activity as it exists in the United States today. 

Throughout the entire period under consideration Soviet espionage in the 
United States has depended upon the Communist organization in the United 
States for assistance. This has been particularly true during World War II. 

It will be remembered that the governing body of the Soviet Union is the 
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which meets at only certain intervals. During 
the interim periods the Council of Peoples Commissars is the actual controlling 
body. The membership of this Council as well as of the Presidium is composed 
of members of the All Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks. Because of this 
interrelationship between the actual Government of the Soviet Union and All 
Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, it is not surprising that all espionage 
activities performed for the Soviet Union are closely related to Communist 
activities abroad. 

As will be seen, however, individuals other than hish officials of the Com- 
munist Party in the United States have been encouraged to withdraw from 
strictly Communist Party activities Mhen engaged full time on Soviet espionage. 

The Soviet Union has had two principal intelligence organizations actively 
engaged in large-scale espionage activities in foreign countries and particularly 
in the United States. These are the NKVD (Peoples Commissariat of Internal 
Affairs) and the Soviet military intelligence. Information obtained by these 
groups as well as the other Soviet organizations, whose activities are related 
in intelligence spheres, are coordinated in Moscow and there disseminated to the 
interested divisions of the Soviet Government. 

The NKVD, or Peoples Commissariat of Internal Affairs, was established by a 
decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars July 11, 1034, and contained the 
Department of States Security, which prior to that time had been known as the 
OGPU (Obeyedinenoye Gossudarstuennoye Politicheskoye Upravlyeniye) of All 
Union Department of Political Administration. The OGPU was created in 1922 
to succeed the CHEKA (VSYA-Rossiskaya Chrezviychainoya Komissia Po-Borbos 
Kentre Revolulisya) or the Extradorinary Commission to Combat Counterrevo- 
lution, Speculation, and Sabotage which was organized in December of 1917. 
Insofar as is known the CHEKA was primarily responsible for intelligence mat- 
ters within the U. S. S. R., but its successor, the OGPU, as will be seen, 
established a foreign branch and the NKVD continued to operate in countries 
outside the Soviet Union. 

Since June 1941 following the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Nazis, the 
Department of States Security of the NKVD has frequently been referred to as 
GUGBEZ (Gosudarstvinaia Ucirijdenaia Gosudaraetvinai Bezapustnovisti). 

The Soviet military intelligence organization, which was established in 1921, 
was originally termed "the fourth department of the Red army." However, the 
fourth department was reorganized into the intelligence department of the general 
staff and within the past 5 years into the intelligence department of the Red 
army. 

CANADIAN ASPECTS OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 

As will be noted in this memorandum, there has been a considerable inter- 
exchange of Soviet espionage agents between Canada and the United States. 
Through the efforts of Canadian Communists, Canadian passports and other 
Canadian identification papers have been obtained for use by Soviet espionage 
agents operating in the United States and for others temporarily resident in the 
United States who were destined for Soviet espionage missions elsewhere in the 
world. It will also be noted that information requested by the Soviets of their 
espionage agents in Canada related to matters affecting the security of the 
United States. In this latter regard, it has been pointed out that prior to World 
War II Soviet agents traveling in Europe and elsewhere on United States and 
Canadian passports were subject to little suspicion by reason of holding such 
passports because of the heterogenous nationality groups existing in both the 
United States and Canada and further because neither the United States nor 
Canada had recognized espionage systems abroad. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1025 

SCOPE OF THIS SURVEY 

Investigation by this Bureau of the activities of the Communist Party in the 
United iStates has shown that the activities of the Soviets are not limited to 
espionage but also include the supervision of and dissemination of propaganda 
as well as the actual supervision in many instances of the organizational activi- 
ties of the Communist Party in the United States. 

This memorandum does not include a discussion of propaganda media of the 
Soviets in the United States nor does it deal with strictly Communist Party 
organizational activities. It has been confined to a survey of the espionage 
organizations of the Soviets in this country. 

Many of the individuals named in this memorandum have at various times 
engaged in strictly proj^aganda or strictly party organizational activity. How- 
ever, those phases of their conduct have not been treated herein. 

SOVIET AGENTS ENTERING THE UNITED STATES AS REFUGEES 

In London, England, at the outbreak of World War II, there was an organi- 
zation known as the Far Eastern Fur Trading Co. operated by Uscher Zloczower, 
an Austrian, and Rubin Blucksmann, also an Austrian. When the war com- 
menced, Blucksmann was the only officer of the firm in London and he was 
ordered interned. After his internment, an examination of the books and records 
of the Far Eastern Fur Trading Co. was in correspondence with Frank Kleges, 
who operated a firm known as the Anonymous Society for the Importation of 
Dried Beans in Paris, France. Other items found prompted the British author- 
ities to interview Blucksmann, and they determined through him that the Far 
Eastern Fur Trading Co. was one of the cover firms similar to Kleges' firm in 
Paris, which were associated with the firm of Wostwag in Berlin, which latter 
firm was the principal business cover for Soviet military espionage in Europe. 

SOVIET ESPIONAGE ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES DURING WORLD WAR II 

During the period preceding the entry of the United States into World War II, 
the Soviets were known to have utilized the offices of Amtorg as a base of 
espionage operations in the United States. Results of the investigation, as set 
forth in the preceding section of the memorandum, indicate that they had also 
used other Soviet agencies in the United States, such as Intourist and possibly 
the diplomatic and consular offices. 

During the participation of the United States in World War II as an ally of 
the Soviet Union, it will be seen that the Soviets broadened their base of espio- 
nage operations against the United States, utilizing embassy personnel as heads 
of various intelligence organizations and also making use of the purchasing com- 
mission of the U. S. S. R. in the United States, more popularly known as the 
Soviet government purchasing commission, for increased military and industrial 
espionage activity. 

Viktor Andreevich Kravchenko, former inspector for the Soviet government 
purchasing commission who broke with the Soviets in April 1944, advised an 
agent of this Bureau that each employee of the Soviet government purchasing 
commission is instructed to submit upon his return to Moscow a complete report 
of everything he saw and heard in the United States. He cited as an example 
the case of Semen Vassilenko, an employee of the purchasing commission who 
flew from Washington to Moscow in February 1944 with six big pouches of 
material regarding new and secret developments in war industry iu the United 
States. Kravchenko stated that he knew Vassilenko was carrying secret material 
because he had known the latter for 15 years and had helped him load his 
pouches in the purchasing commission offices. Kravchenko reported that accord- 
ing to information subsequently received by the purchasing commission Vassilenko 
submitted such a complete and interesting report that he had been appointed to 
the Supreme Council for the Ukrainian U. S. S. R. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you know an agent named Adams ? 
Mr. Ege. I did. 
Mr. Morris. Who was he? 

Mr. Ege. Adams was illegal agent, or illegal resident, correctly 
speaking, of the fourth section. 
I want to give his background. 
Mr. Morris. He was in the fourth section, your section? 



1026 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Mr. Ege. Tliat is right. He came under this organization, illegal 
network. He was head of one network, having his contact with 
legal network through cutout. 

The Chairman. What do you mean by legal network through 
cutouts ? Will you explain that word, "cutout" ? 

Mr. Ege. I mean by legal network the network that consists of 
Soviet agents who have Soviet passports. The persons who are 
M'orking under some cover as Tass or Amtorg or foreign offices as 
consul and so on. Usually they have their own network of 4, 5, 6, or 2 
persons, 1 is head of the network and he is called resident. The other 
ones are called agents, Soviet agent in Soviet military intelligence it 
is called legal residency. 

Under illegal it means network consisting of foreign agents, United 
States citizens, British, or Turks. They have no cover, no Soviet 
organization. 

Still somebody has to contact these two bodies because sometimes 
these networks mostly don't have a direct contact with Moscow 
headquarters. 

So, the illegal resident is given Tass for conducting his operations 
and for directing the job of the illegal agents, to contact them, and 
the person who is going to contact the legal resident is called cutout. 
That is courier for communications. 

Now, Adams was head of the illegal network of the United States. 

Mr. Morris. For the fourth section ? 

Mr. Ege. For the fourth section. Before that, perhaps, he was 
working for another section because this chart is as of May 1941, and 
it is up to the organization of military intelligence department in 
1940. 

Before the number and character of sections were other ones that 
was reorganized according to the decree of general staff chief and 
chief, intelligence department. 

Now, with Adams it was a long-standing practice, according to his 
file; Adams was born in some Scandinavian country, Sweden or 
Norway. He was all Bolshevik, working for the Comintern. He was 
a friend of Lenin and he was appointed in the early twenties director 
of the first Soviet auto plant in Moscow. He was engineer. 

Mr. Morris. Would that be under Amtorg? Would that be a 
subdivision of Amtorg? 

Mr. Ege. No ; it would not be because the auto plant was in Moscow. 
It had nothing to do with Amtorg. 

Mr. Morris. You say he was in the United States, though? 

The Chairman. No, this is back in 1920. 

Mr. Ege. I am talking about his background in Soviet Russia. 

Now, in the late twenties, according to his file, he was sent to the 
United States as Soviet agent working for Amtorg to purchase auto 
parts and machine tools for auto plants. 

According to his file he came several times legally in the name of 
Soviet foreign-trade organization, as Amtorg representative, and 
at that time he was legal agent of the military intelligence because he 
was Soviet citizen. 

Now, somewhere in the late thirties, according to his file, he was 
sent illegally to the United States, according to Maria Polykova, who 
was chief of the European section, could qualify for military intelli- 
gence department, he was sent to the United States, I mean Adams, 



LNTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1027 

through Canada by a false passport and when I was chief of the 
fourth section Adams was operating in the United States, having a 
contact with AMTORG foreign chief engineer Korovin, and pro- 
curing necessary data on various technical devices. 

The interesting thing is, which would be a very good lesson, it was 
the decision of the chief of intelligence department, General Golikov, 
to call back Adams from the United States. 

The reason was Adams was of long-standing practice, and every- 
body who was working under Berzine and Uritsky was, and Golikov 
had in his mind to call him back to send him to some "safe place" in 
Soviet Russia. 

Adams being in contact, it was suggested it would be better for him 
to go back to Soviet Russia. Adams perhaps was more person. He 
refused diplomatic, he did not come. 

When I was in 1941 in Russian intelligence department, until I 
departed for Germany, Adams was working for the fourth section. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know his first name ? Do you recall from 
your own experience Adams' first name ? 

Mr. Ege. I don't recollect exactly. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I at this point introduce another 
section of that security memorandum described as it has been 
described ? 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. This bears on an individual who was under the sur- 
veillance of the security authorities at the time and Arthur Alexan- 
drovitch Adams. I offer here two-thirds of one page which I would 
like to go into the record at this point. 

The Chairman. It may go in the record, and it will become a part 
of the record. 

Mr. Mandel (reading) : 

Arthur Alexandrovich Adams entered the United States at Buffalo, N. Y., 
May 17, 1938, on a fraudulent Canadian birth certificate obtained through the 
services of M. S. Milestone, of Toronto, Canada, who has been identified by the 
RCMP as a secret member of the Communist Party of Canada. Adams had 
previously been in the United States prior to January 1921, when he left volun- 
tarily from the port of New York for the Soviet Union in the party headed by 
Ludwig Martens. He returned at various times during the twenties and early 
thirties as a representative of Amtorg, according to the records of the immi- 
gration and naturalization service in New York. 

Upon his arrival in the United States in 1938, he established a business 
known as the Technological Laboratories, with one Jacob Broches Aronoff, a 
New York attorney of Russian birth. Adams later used the offices of the Elec- 
tronics Corp. of America and the offices of Keynote Recordings, both in New 
York City, as covers for his activity. 

According to investigation by officers of the Manhattan engineer district, 
Clarence Hiskey, an employee on the atomic-bomb project at the University of 
Chicago, received notice on April 27, 1944, that he was to be called to active duty 
as an officer in the Army of the United States. The following day Arthur Adams 
visited Hiskey in Chicago. Immediately after this conference Hiskey flew to 
Cleveland, Ohio, where he made a contact with one 

Mr. Morris. The reason that name has been exed out, it is the name 
of an American citizen whom we have not given an opportunity to 
deny the truth or falsity of the statement. 

The Chairman. That is the policy of the committee. We have no 
names published unless they have an opportunity to come into private 
executive session to explain their position. 



1028 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Mr. Mandel (reading) : 

who was persuaded by Hiskey to take over the latter's duties in the University 
of Chicago Laboratory. X had secured employment on the atomic-bomb project 
in Chicago. 

Adams is known to be a contact of Pavel Mikhailov, acting Soviet consul 
general in New York City, who has been identified heretofore to an agent of this 
Bureau by Igor Guzenko as the head of an important group of Red army intel- 
ligence espionage agents. For example, on the night of October 25, 1944, Adams 
was seen by Bureau agents to leave the residence of Jacob Broaches Arnonoffi 
carrying an extremely large and heavy case. Mikhailov drove an automobile up 
to the curb, Adams carefully put the case into the trunk compartment and drove 
off with Mikhailov. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Mr. Mikhailov ? 

Mr. Ege. Yes ; his real name is Mel Shinikov. He was, prior to his 
admission to the United States, chief of European section of the fourth 
section, and rank was engineer of second rank, which is equal to major. 

Mr. Morris. He was an intelligence officer. 

Mr. Ege. He was in the intelligence department and he was ap- 
pointed before me in the department after being graduated from the 
Military Academy for the Air Force in Moscow. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Chairman, I would like to point out for the 
record the strong similarity between the Adams described by this 
witness and the Adams described by that, the visits to this country 
and the organizations they were connected with almost coincide 
completely. 

You gave this testimony to the committee before you knew about 
this particular memorandum ; did you not ? 

Mr. Ege. I did. I heard this memorandum several days before. 

Mr. Morris. You said you heard this memorandum before ? 

Mr. Ege. I meant before my testimony here. 

Mr. Morris. When did you give your testimony, in 1945 ? 

Mr. Ege. In 1945. In 1945 I had no idea. 

Mr. Morris. You also told this committee some weeks ago your 
story as you gave it today ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Whom did you tell in 1945 about Adams ? 

Mr. Ege. In 1945 I told to some some person called Mr. Curtis, and 
he recommended himself from some security agency of the United 
States Government, which was, I don't know i nobody told me about it. 

I gave him Adams' description and what he was doing, was Soviet 
intelligence. It was in July 1945. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how frequently did you meet Adams? Did he 
work directly with you, or did you just know he worked in the section 
with you? 

Mr. Ege. I could not meet Adams. Adams was in the United 
States. I was in Moscow, so person to person I never met Adams. 
I met his wife in Moscow. She was giving me my English lessons. 
She was staying in Moscow while Adams was working in the United 
States. She was one of my best English teachers. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have mentioned in this thing Clar- 
ence Hiskey. Pursuant to policy, we have called Mr. Hiskey in ex- 
ecutive session and given him an opportunity to deny the statement 
appearing in this memorandum. I wonder Mr. Ege, if you will step 
down from the chair, please. 

(Witness temporarily excused.) 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION EST GOVERNMENT 1029 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Clarence Hiskey, come forward, please. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony given in this 
hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. HiSKEY. I do. 

The Chairman. Mr. Hiskey has made a request that the lights be 
turned off while he is testifying. 

TESTIMONY OF CLARENCE F. HISKEY, BROOKLYN, N. Y., ACCOM- 
PANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, ALBERT L. COLLOMS 

The Chairman. State your full name to the committee. 

Mr. Hiskey. Clarence Francis Hiskey. 

Mr. Morris. Wliere do you reside ? 

Mr. Hiskey. Grace Courts, Brooklyn. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession ? 

Mr. Hiskey. I am a chemist. 

Mr. Morris. Let the record show that Mr. Hiskey is before the 
committee with his attorney, and I believe we have his attorney's 
name and address in the executive session. 

The Chairman. Proceed with questions. 

Mr. Morris. You appeared approximately a year ago before this 
committee, did you not ? 

Mr. Hiskey. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. At the time you were professor of Brooklyn Poly- 
technical Institute? 

Mr. Hiskey. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You were called before this committee at that time in 
connection with an investigation that this committee was making in 
subversion in education? 

Mr. Hiskey. Yes ; I was. 

The Chairman. Please do not take photographs of the witness 
while he is trying to testify. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Hiskey, from what university have you graduated ? 

Mr. Hiskey. University of Wisconsin. 

Mr. Morris. In what year? 

Mr. Hiskey. 1939. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us your employment very briefly from 
1939 through the war? 

Mr. Hiskey. I taught at the University of Tennessee. I worked 
for the Tennessee Valley Authority. I worked for Columbia Uni- 
versity, and for the University of Chicago. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you work for the University of Chicago ? 

Mr. Hiskey. From about September of 1943 to April — you supplied 
me the date— April 27, 1944. 

Mr. Morris. What was the nature of your work at the University 
of Chicago? 

Mr. Hiskey. Chemical research work of a classified sort. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you do any work on the atomic bomb project ? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Hiskey. I prefer not to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. Why is that? 

32918— 53— pt. 1.5 5 



1030 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Mr. HiSKET. It is a matter of record what the University of Chi- 
cago was working on and it would be best to leave it. 

The Chairman. I think you might answer it. There is nothing 
confidential in what kind of work you were doing. Were you work- 
ing for the atomic energy project at the University of Chicago? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. HiSKEY. I worked in the metallurgical labs at the University 
of Chicago. 

Mr. Morris. In connection with the atomic energy project; is that 
correct ? 

We don't want any details of what you did. 

Mr. HisKEY. I worked on the metallurgical project. 

Mr, Morris. Which was part of the atomic bomb program? 

Mr. HiSKEY. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. That was also known as the Manhattan engineering 
project? 

Mr. HiSKEY. Part of it. 

Mr. Morris. Now. did you receive notice on April 27, 1944. that you 
were to be called to active duty as an officer in the Army of the United 
States? 

INIr. HiSKEY. On or about that time. It seems to me I was ordered 
up on that date, yes, but I was notified a month or two in advance. 

Mr. Morris. Now, the following day, April 28, did Arthur Adams 
visit you in Chicago? 

Mr. HiSKEY. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. I did not hear the answer. 

Mr. HiSKEY. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you after this conference with Arthur Adams fly 
to Cleveland, Ohio, where you made contact with a certain person? 

The Chairman. Let the record show that the witness before re- 
sponding confers with his counsel. 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. HiSKEY. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Morris. Did j^ou persuade somebody he should take your place 
in the University of Chicago lab ? 

Mr. HiSKEY. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, did this person secure employ- 
ment in the University of Chicago lab ? 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. HiSKEY. It is getting difficult now. I don't know what we are 
talking about. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I admit the last question was vague 
because we don't want to mention this man's name until we reach 
him. So, I will discontinue the question. 

Then you went into the Army ? 

Mr. HisKEY. I did. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do in the Army ? 

Mr. HiSKEY. I went in the Chemical Warfare Service and I first 
was assigned to duty in the Northwest Territory in Canada for a 



ESTTERLOCKESTG SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1031 

short wliile and then was transferred to Hawaii, where I was a captain 
in the 43d Chemical Lab Company. 

Mr. Morris. During this period when you were in northwest Can- 
ada and when you were in Hawaii, did you have access to classified 
ijiformation? 

Mr. HiSKEY. In the Northwest Territory ? 

Mr. Morris. Didn't you mention the Northwest Territory in Can- 
ada? 

Mr. HiSKEY. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. During that tour of duty and the tour of duty in 
Hawaii in connection with chemical research, did you have access 
to classified material ? 

Mr. HiSKEY. I wrote the classified material that I had access to. 
I made the discoveries and I published them, 

Mr. Morris. They were all your own discoveries? 

Mr. Hiskey. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Hiskey, are you presently a Communist? 

Mr. Hiskey. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party in April 
27, 1944? 

Mr. Hiskey. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

The Chairman. We do not recognize your right to refuse to answer 
under the first amendment, but we do recognize the right under the 
fifth amendment. That you do not have to bear witness against 
yourself. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this witness, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

The Chairman. The witness will be excused. 

(Witness excused,) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, in connection with this there are some 
other witnesses here in the room. We asked them to come here at 2 :30. 
It is now 3 :30. Rather than keep them waiting, I suggest we inter- 
rupt the chronological sequence of this narrative witness and put 
them on the stand. 

The Chairman. It will be satisfactory. 

Could you come back tomorrow and testify ? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. 

The Chairman. For the convenience of the people we have sub- 
penaed here this afternoon, we will ask you to stand by at this time 
until tomorrow at 10 o'clock when we will reconvene. 

We will proceed to call the other witnesses. 

Mr. Ege. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Leon Josephson. Is Mr. Josephson here? 

Mr. Neuburger (attorney). As I advised you this morning my 
client objects to the lights. 

The Chairman. Mr. Josephson objects to the lights being on during 
the testimony and pictures during the testimony. You may take them 
before or after. 

Do you swear the testimony given in this hearing will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Josephson. I do. 

The Chairman. Let the record show that Mr. Josephson is before 
the committee with his attorney. 



1032 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

TESTIMONY OF LEON JOSEPHSON, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y., ACCOM- 
PANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, SAMUEL A. NEUBURGER 

The Chairman. State your full name. 

Mr. JosEPHSON. Leon Josephson. 

The Chairman. Where do you reside? 

Mr. Josephson. 160 West 16th Street. 

Mr. Morris. "\^'liat is your business or profession ? 

Mr. Josephson. At the present time I am working with my brother 
in his restaurant. 

Mr. Morris. Who is your brother ? 

Mr. Josephson. My brother in Warren Josephson. 

Mr. Morris. I have here a short excerpt from the same security 
memorandum I would like to introduce in the record at this time. 
May we use the same procedure of having Mr. Mandel read it into 
the record? 

The Chairman. Read it in the record and it will become a part of 
the record. 

Mr. ]VLa.ndel. This is a memorandum dealing with Philip M. Levy : 

Physical surveillances and confidential sources have identified as a contact 
of Victoria Stone. Philip M. Levy, of South Orange, N. J. According to the 
records of the Department of State. Levy had provided the business cover for 
Leon Josephson. a former New Jersey lavpyer, who now operates Cafe Society 
Uptown and Cafe Society Downtown in New York City, when Josephson traveled 
to Copenhagen, Denmark, with one George Mink in 1935. Both Josephson and 
Mink were arrested by the Danish police and charged with espionage on behalf 
of the Soviets. Josephson was released very shortly after his arrest, but Mink 
was held for many months and finally deported to the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Josephson, have you been a former New Jersev 
lawyer ? 

Mr. Josephson. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You did practice before the New Jersey bar? 

Mr. Josephson. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you once operate Cafe Society Uptown? 

Mr. Josephson. Yes — no, I didn't. My brotlier did. I worked 
there, but I had no official interest. 

Mr. Morris. You worked, but you had no interest? The same for 
Cafe Society Downtown? 

Mr. Josephson, That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Have you traveled to Copenhagen, Denmark ? 

Mr. Josephson. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, that no witness is required to give testimony against himself. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named George Mink? 

Mr. Josephson. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, for the purpose of the record, I would 
like to point out that George Mink has been identified as a Soviet 
agent. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Did you travel to Copenhagen, Denmark, with George 
Mink in 1935? 

Mr. Josephson. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Were you arrested by the Danish police at any time? 

Mr. Josephson. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 



J 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION EST GOVERNMENT 1033 

Mr. Morris. Were you and Mink arrested together by the Danish 
police and charged with espionage on behalf of the Soviets ? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Were you released shortly after your arrest? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge was Mink held for many months 
and finally deported to the Soviet Union? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Were you in 1935 a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Morris. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Philip M. Levy, of South 
Orange, N. J. ? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a person named Victoria Stone? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Arthur Adams ? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Did you hear the testimony of Mr. Ege here today ? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. Who? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Ege, the witness who has been testifying, the for- 
mer Soviet colonel? 

Mr. JosEPHSOx. Part of it. 

Mr. Morris. Did you hear him testify about a certain agent named 
Adams ? 

Mr. JosEPHsoN. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a man answering that description in 
Amtorg? Did you have any dealings with him ? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. 

The Chairman. That will be all. You will be excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Morris. I think, Mr. Chairman, that we should have Mr. Philip 
M. Levy as a witness inasmuch as his name has been mentioned. 

The Chairman. Mr. Levy, will you come forward, please. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Levy appeared in executive session today, as you 
know, Mr. Chairman, and was asked to stand by. 

The Chairjian. Is Mr. Levy's counsel in the audience? 

(No reply.) 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Berman. Is Mrs. Berman present ? 

^Ir. FoRKR. Senator, we request no photographs be taken. 

Tlie Chairman. We will respect your request, Mr. Forer. 

Will you be sworn to testify? 

Do you swear that the testimony given in this hearing will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mrs. Berman. I do. 



1034 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. LOUISE R. BERMAN, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y., 
ACCOMPANIED BY HER COUNSEL, JOSEPH FORER 

The Chairman. You may be seated. Will you give us your full 
name? 

Mrs. Berman. Louise K. Berman. 

The Chairman. Where do you reside? 

Mrs. Berman. In New York City. 

The Chairman. I believe you testified in executive session you are 
a housewife by occupation ? 

Mrs. Berman. Yes, sir. 

The Chair]\ian. Mr. Morris, will you proceed with questioning of 
Mrs. Berman? 

Mr. Morris. Have you been known as Louise Bransten? 

Mrs. Berman. That was my name. 

Mr. Morris. Was that your maiden name? 

Mrs. Berman. My married name. 

Mr. Morris. What was your maiden name ? 

Mrs. Berman. Louise Eosenberg. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have another portion of this security 
memorandum bearing on this gentleman, Mr. Mikhailov, who has been 
identified by Mr. Ege here today as a Soviet intelligence officer, I 
would like to read into the record. It is a short section. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris (reading) : 

During the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held at 
San Francisco, in the spring of 1945, Louise Bransten entertained at her home 
Dimitri Manuilski, the principal representative of the Ukraine S. S. R., who is 
more widely known as a longtime official and spokesman of the Comintern. 
Bransten is, at the present time, in New York City where she has established 
contact with Pavel Mikhailov, acting Soviet consul general, who has been re- 
ported to this Bureau and to the RCMP by Igor Guzenko, mentioned elsewhere 
in this memorandum, as the head of Red Army Intelligence espionage activity 
in the New York area. 

Now, Mrs. Berman, did you entertain in the spring of 1945 at your 
home, Dimitri Manuilski ? 

Mrs. Berman. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of my 
rights under the first amendment, and my privilege under the fifth 
amendment, not to be a witness against myself. 

The Chairman. Let the record show that your right to refuse to 
answer under the first amendment is not recognized by the commit- 
tee, but your right to refuse to answer under the fifth amendment is. 

Mr. Morris. Did you in 1945 in New York City establish contact 
with Pavel Mikhailov, who has been described here today ? 

Did you make contact with him sometime in 1945 ? 

Mrs. Berman. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

The Chairman. Let the record show under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Were you in 1945 a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Berman. I object to any question about my political beliefs, 
opinions, or affiliations. 

Mr. Morris. Yes, Mrs. Berman, but you must understand we are 
not dealing with political beliefs. The people here identified are 
people who have been described by the witness today as agents of the 
Soviet Government. We are asking you in connection with youi- asso- 
ciation with them. We are not interested in your political belief. 



ESTTERLOCKING SUBVERSION DST GOVERNMENT 1035 

Mrs. Berman. What is the question ? 

Mr. Morris. Were you at that time an organized member of the 
Communist Party of the United States? 

Mrs. Berman. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

Mrs. Berman. I refuse to answer the question on the same ground. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. 

The Chairman. You are excused, Mrs. Berman. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Chairman. Has Mr. Levy returned, or his counsel? 

(No reply.) 

Mr. Morris. Is Lement Harris here ? 

The Chairman. Mr. Harris, will you be sworn to testify ? 

Do you swear the testimony given in this hearing will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Harris. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LEMENT UPHAM HAERIS, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, DAVID M. EREEMAN 

The Chairman. Be seated. 

Will you state your full name for the committee? 

Mr. Harris. Lement U. Harris. 

The Chairman. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Harris. In New York City, 2865 Faber Terrace, Far Rock- 
away, Long Island. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is your business or profession ? 

Mr. Harris. Self employed doing research in agriculture. 

The Chairman. You may proceed with the examination. 

Mr. Morris. May I read another excerpt from the same security 
memorandum which has been identified in the record. 

Lement Harris, who resides at Chappagua, N. Y., is a native-born citizen. 
Harris is operating ostensibly as a research worker for Farm Research, Inc., 
in New York City. Actually, according to highly confidential and reliable sources, 
he is the treasurer of the secret fund of the Communist Party in this country, 
which can be used for undercover operations, presumably both of an espionage 
and a propaganda nature. Harris is a known contact of Louise Bransten, 
Gerhart Eisler, Grace Granich, .Joseph Brodsky, William Z. Foster, Al Landy, and 
Alexander Trachtenberg, to mention only a few. 

Mr. Harris, did you reside in Chappagua, N. Y. ? 

Mr. Harris. I did. 

Mr. Morris. Are you a native-born citizen ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes. 

IVlr. Morris. Did you once operate as a research worker for Farm 
Research, Inc. ? 

Mr. Harris. I am not willing to answer that, based on possible 
self-incrimination under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been the treasurer of a secret fund of the 
Communist Party in this country ? 

Mr. Harris. I refuse to answer questions of that character because 
it brings in my possible relationship with the Communist Party which 
at the present time is a very dangerous thing for anyone to admit to. 
Therefore, I use the amendment. 

The Chairman. Use the fifth amendment? 



1036 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Mr. Harris. Use the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge were any funds which you 
possessed, that you came into possession of as treasurer, used for the 
purpose of espionage in this country ? 

Mr. Harris. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds. 

The Chairman. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Were funds to your knowledge ever used for propa- 
ganda. 

Mr. Harris. I would refuse to answer that. I understand what is 
in the papers as much as anyone, but I have no wish to add any testi- 
mony of my own for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a woman named Louise Bransten who 
just testified here today ? 

Mr. Harris. I must refuse that for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Gerhart Eisler ? 

Mr. Harris. The same reason. 

The Chairman. The record will show all through that the witness 
declines to answer under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever meet with Gerhart Eisler ? 

Mr. Harris. I must refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever meet with Grace Granich ? 

Mr. Harris. I must refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever meet with Joseph Brodsky ? 

Mr. Harris. I must refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. William Z. Foster. 

Mr, Harris. Same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. A1 Landy ? 

Mr. Harris. The same answer. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever meet with Alexander Trachtenberg ? 

Mr. Harris. Same answer. 

Mr. Morris. Are you today a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Harris. On that I not only refuse on the basis of the fifth 
amendment, but I think it definitely does involve the first amend- 
ment, the amendment that guarantees a person a right to speech, a 
right to association, and the challenge to a person's right to be a 
member of the Communist Party is a challenge to his right to associate 
with whomever he pleases. 

So I call on both the first and the fifth amendment on such a ques- 
tion as that. 

The Chairman. The committee will recognize your refusal to an- 
swer under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been connected with the National Farmers 
Union? 

Mr. Harris. I am a member of the National Farmers Union. 

Mr. Morris. You have never been active in that organization? 

The Chairman. Have you been active in that organization? 

Mr. Harris. Yes ; in a sense that I am a member and have attended 
meetings of locals and conventions. 

Mr. Morris. The reason for questioning, did you attend a conven- 
tion of the National Farmers Union in Topeka, Kans., about 1946 
or 1947? 

Mr. Harris. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever been an official of that union? 

Mr. Harris. No ; I have not. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1037 

Mr, INIoRRis. I have no more questions. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I have 1 or 2 questions. 

Are you now or have you ever been a member of a worldwide con- 
spiracy, having as one of its objectives the overthrow of the Govern- 
ment of the United States by force or violence ? 

Mr. Harris. I am going to consult. 

The Chairman. You may consult your counsel. 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Harris. In answer to your question, I want to say categorically 
and flatly that in my opinion the honest and truthful answer is "No." 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is the Communist Party of the United States of 
America part of a worldwide conspiracy, one of the objectives of 
which is to overthrow the Government of the United States by force 
and violence ? 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Harris. In my opinion, and such knowledge as I have, I want 
to say emphatically again that that is not an accurate description of 
the functions of the Communist Party of the United States. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I want you to define to the committee the extent of 
such knowledge as you have about the Communist Party of the United 
States of America. 

Mr. Harris. That question I cannot answer because of the jeopardy 
that is pervading the country at the present time. I am hoping that 
that jeopardy will pass, such as the period of the alien sedition laws 
passed and went into our history, 

I cannot answer today because of the jeopardy to me. 

The Chairman. Why didn't you refuse to answer that under the 
fifth amendment ? Is that the reason ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Harris, if the Communist Party is not a part 
of the conspiracy to overthrow the Government of the United States 
by force and violence, what do j'ou fear by revealing any association 
you may have had with that party ? 

Mr. Harris. The fear has plenty of ground. There are people in 
})rison right now for association and for belief. 

I had hoped and really had believed that would never happen in 
America. It is also the fear is here because of laws passed, notabl}^ 
the McCarran Act, which places many people in serious jeopardy. 

I regret as much as you to have to rely on the amendment to the 
Constitution, but I am very proud that the Constitution provided 
that there should not be any such probings into a person's political 
beliefs and I think the Constitution in its spirit was against political 
harassment. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Are you asserting here that in your opinion if you 
answered truthfully questions about your connection with the Com- 
munist Party you would incriminate yourself? 

Mv. Harris. I am sorry. That question seems to me to be of a 
loaded character, and I must refuse to answer it. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Don't you realize, sir, that in order to claim your 
privilege under the fifth amendment you must contend and assert 
that if you answered truthfully the question which has been put 
you it might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Harris. I know that, that the line of questions such as I just 
refused contains such jeopardy to me and I do so assert. 



1038 INTERLOCKING 'subversion EST GOVERNMENT 

Mr. SoTJRwiNE. You described yourself as self-employed. 

Mr. Harris. That is right. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Conducting agricultural research. 

Mr. Harris. That is right. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. How do you manage to make a living out of that 
self-employment. How do you sell it? Do you write or do you fur- 
]iish information to people or to publications, or what? 

Mr. Harris. My earnings are somewhat less than that of a Senator, 
but I have a little income of my own that is sufficient to permit me to 
do that. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you have any income from the Soviet Union 
either directly or indirectly ? 

Mr. Harris. Flatly no. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Have you ever had such an income ? 

Mr. Harris. No. 

Mr, SouRWiNE. Do you have any income from the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Harris. I must refuse to answer that question. It might 
incriminate me. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I have no more questions. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask one question. 

In connection with a pamphlet entitled "Meat, a National Scandal," 
by Lement Harris, published by New Century Publishers, I would 
like to ask you if you did as a matter of fact write that pamphlet? 

Mr. Harris. I am sorry 

The Chairman. Would you like to see it ? 

Mr. Harris. I can see it from here. I am sorry that the Attorney 
General's long list and other reasons that give a certain atmosphere 
to many organizations today doing useful things stands in the way of 
my answering that question. 

The Chairman. You mean you can't answer the question whether 
or not you wrote this pamphlet ? 

Mr. Harris. That is right, because it leads into an area of possible 
jeopardy. I must not answer it. 

The Chairman. You mean a truthful answer about this pamphlet 
here might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Harris. There have been people incriminated because they 
walked through a door today in America. Congress carries a terrible 
responsibility for it. That condition should be changed. 

The Chairman. 'Wliat door are you referring to ? 

Mr. Harris. I am referring to the charges against certain Com- 
munists who in the indictment against them said they came out of a 
certain door. That is the crime with which they are charged. That 
is a disgraceful, almost fantastic, state of affairs in my opinion. 

Mr. Morris. In this pamphlet it mentions that you spent a year in 
the Soviet Union during which you made an intensive study of 
Soviet agriculture, visiting many state and collective farms in 
U. S. S. R., observing Soviet methods and scientific discoveries in the 
sphere of agriculture. Is that a true statement? Did you spend a year 
in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What year was that? 

Mr. Harris. That was the year 1929, 1930. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1039 

Mr. Morris. Have you been in the Soviet Union on any other 
occasions? 

Mr. Harris. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What years? 

Mr. Harris. 1935. 

Mr. Morris. Since then? 

Mr. Harris No. 

Mr. Morris. Just two trips to the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Harris. Eight. 

Mr. Morris. Did you study intensively Soviet agriculture ? 

Mr. Harris. I worked at it and studied it both. 

Mr. Morris. On the basis of that experience you have proceeded to 
write various articles on the subject. I am not referring to this 
pamphlet. 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Harris. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. 

The CiiAiRMAX. Are there any further questions ? 

You may be excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

]\Ir. Morris. I understand Mr. Philip Levy has come in. 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony given in this hearing 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Levy. I do. 

The Chairman. Be seated and let the record show that Mr. Levy 
is present with his counsel. 

You will state your full name for our committee. 

TESTIMONY OF PHILIP LEVY, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

MAXWELL M. ALBACH 

Mr, Levy. Philip Levy. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Levy. 257 Kingsland Terrace, South Orange, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession? 

Mr. Levy. Export-import and textiles. 

Mr. Morris. Of textiles? 

Mr. Levy. General merchandise. 

Mr. Morris. May I point out that this witness is called here today 
because his name has been mentioned in the security memorandum 
and for no other reason, but for the fact that his name appeared in 
the memorandum. 

I would like to read again for the benefit of you, Mr. Levy, a cer- 
tain security memorandum that has been classified by our Govern- 
ment as secret. We want to give you an opportunity to make com- 
ment on what the memorandum said. It is for that purpose and only 
that purpose that you were called here today. 

There is no implication of any kind in the fact that you are here : 

Physical surveillances and confidential sources have identified as a contact 
of Victoria Stone, I'hilip M. Levy, of South Oran;:e, N. J. According to the 
records of the Department of State, Levy had provided the business cover for 
Leon Josephson, a former Nevp Jersey lawyer, who now operates Cafe Society 
Uptown and Cafe Society Downtown in New York City, when Josephson traveled 



1040 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

to Copenhagen, Denmark, with one George Mink in 1935. Both Josephson and 
Mink were arrested by tlie Danish police and charged with esffionage on behalf 
of the Soviets. Josephsou was released very shortly after his arrest, but Mink 
was held for many months and finally deported to the Soviet Union. 

Now, Mr. Levy, do you know a person named Victoria Stone? 

Mr. Levy. I do. 

Mr. Morris. Who is Victoria Stone? 

Mr. Levy. A person who operates a jewelry store on Madison 
Avenue. 

Mr. Morris. Operates a jewelry store on Madison Avenue ? 

Mr. Levy. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What is the basis of your knowledge ? 

]Mr. Levy. I knew her as a friend of Julius Heiman. 

Mr. ^Morris. Who is Julius Heiman ? 

_Mr. Levy. He is a man whom I met in business and through some 
friend many years ago. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have any Imowledge that Julius Heiman was 
in fact a Soviet agent ? 

Mr. Levy. Never. 

Mr. Morris. You don't know ? 

Mr. Levtt. None whatsoever. 

Mr. Morris. But you know Victoria Stone because Victoria Stone 
is a friend of Julius Heiman? 

Mr. Levy. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Leon Josephson ? 

Mr. Levy. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is the basis of your knowledge of Josephson? 

Mr. Levy. I knew him years ago. He once helped do some, showed 
me how to do some bookkeeping years ago. 

Mr. Morris. Some bookkeeping? 

Mr. Levy. Single-entry bookkeeping way back when I was doing 
some small business in textiles. 

Mr. Morris. Is tliat your only association with him ? 

Mr. Levy. That was the only association up to that time. 

Mr. Morris. How about associations after that time? 

Mr. Levy. I had no business with him. Wlien I was away on a 
trip on business abroad, when I was not in the office, he obtained 
samples of lubricating oil from my office without my knowledge. I 
have written that in a letter to the State Department "many years ago. 

Mr. Morris. He did it without your knowledge? 

Mr. Levy. Tliat is right. 

Mr. Morris. You wrote that fact to the State Department many 
years ago? 

Mr. Levy. I did. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a man named Arthur Adams about 
whom Ave have had mucli testimony here today? 

Mr. Levy. I knew a man by the name of Adams who I am told now 
is named Arthur Adams. 

Mr. Morris. Who is the Arthur Adams you did know? 

Mr. Levy. This man Adams I knew was introduced once to me by 
a man by the name of Blumlein. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that name, please? 

Mr. Levy. B-1-u-m-l-e-i-n. And Mr. Blumlein wanted to know if 
I would be willing to import, to go into an import business or export 
business with Canada. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1041 

Mr. Morris. So Adams asked you- 



Mr. Levy. Not Adams — Mr. Blumlein. I said that I did not have 
any money to put into a business, but I would be glad to do it since 
1 knew how to do export-import business. We went up to a lawyer's 
office by the name of Aronoff. 

Mr. Morris. Is that Jacob Aronoff ? 

Mr. Levy. I would not know his first name; I don't recall it. li 
might be that. 

And the corporation papers were drawn up. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Where was that office ; do you know ? 

Mr. Leatt. About 165 Broadway I think. I think it was the Men- 
son Building. I don't recall the year, but I would put it around 1936, 
roughly. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was this corporation known as Technological 
Laboratories, Inc. ? 

Mr. Levy. I didn't know it, I didn't remember the name at all. I 
couldn't recognize the name. Never heard of it until it was told to 
me a few daj^s ago by the FBI and by you and I say that may be it, 
but I don't recall it. 

Mr. Morris. How active was this business you have been describing 
to us? 

Mr. Levy. Nothing materialized from it. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, it was just a paper corporation? 

Mr. Levy. That is right ; that is all. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know in May 1939 Arthur Adams was listed 
as the president ancl treasurer of that corporation ? 

Mr. Levy. No. 

Mr. Morris. You don't know that? 

Mr. Levy. No. 

Mr. Morris. You know he was connected with it? 

Mr. Levy. Yes ; because he was one of the incorporators. 

Mr. Morris. To your know^ledge he could have been president and 
treasurer. 

Mr. Levy. He could be that. He could be anything, too. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you didn't take great interest in this 
corporation ? 

Mr. Levy. No business materialized. I just forgot about it com- 
pletely. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know in 1939 Philip Levy is listed as secretary ? 

Mr. Levy. I didn't know that. 

Mr. Morris. And Jacob Aronoff is listed as assistant secretary. 

Mr. Levy. I didn't know that. 

Mr. Morris. Was any stock issued to you? 

Mr. Levy. None whatsoever. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know that as a fact or do you know that you 
didn't possess any certificates? 

Mr. Levy. I did not possess any and I don't know any was issued 
tome. 

Mr. Morris. It could have been one share of stock issued to you, 
and yet you did not know ? 

Mr. Levy. That is right. 

Mr. SouRwiisTE. You were an incorporator? 

Mr. Levy. I was ; but that is all I heard of it. 



1042 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Don't you have sufficient knowledge of law to know 
that an incorporator must own stock? 

Mr. Levy. I didn't know that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know it now ? 

Mr. Levy. I have seen corporations made with ordinary dummies 
who are clerks in the office and then they do something or other and 
then the corporation is formed. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you a dummy in this deal? 

Mr. Levy. No ; but I wouldn't say I was a dummy. I intended to 
go into that deal to make some money, but nothing happened. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You were not stooging for anybody else? 

Mr. Levy. Not at all. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You were going to get a share of the profits if there 
were profits? 

Mr. Levy. If business were made I was going to get a share of the 
profits. 

Mr. Sourwine. It was your understanding you were to get a share 
of the corporation ? 

Mr. Levy. That is right. 

Mr. Sourwine. Wlien it was formed you owned a part of it? 

Mr. Levy. I don't know that. I should have, I suppose, but I 
didn't. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have any knowledge at all that Arthur Adams, 
listed as president and treasurer of this corporation, was a Soviet 
agent ? 

Mr. Levy. None whatsoever. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Levy. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You have never attended Communist meetings? 

Mr. Levy. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You have never dealt with anybody you knew was an 
acknowledged Soviet agent? 

Mr. Levy. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. That is your unqualified testimony? 

Mr. Levy. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. That you never dealt with these people, Arthur Adams, 
Julius Heiman, or anybody else at any time with the knowledge that 
they were in fact Soviet agents? 

Mr. Levy. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know whether a corporation that you were con- 
nected with ever provided business cover for Leon Josephson ? 

Mr. Levy. I don't know that. 

Mr. Morris. You don't know that Leon Josephson ever traveled 
for a corporation with which you had anything to do? 

Mr. Levy. I don't recall of any. 

Mr. Morris. You have given us your full experience, you have told 
us fully about your dealings with Leon Josephson? 

Mr. Levy. No ; I wouldn't say that. I would say that a little later 
there was a small business thatlasted only a few months in trying to 
sell an intercommunication instrument. 

Mr. Morris. What was that ? Will you tell us about that, please ? 

Mr. Levy. There were a couple of people from Newark who knew 
intercommunication instruments, and I don't remember their names. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1043 

Mr. Morris. Was that Standard Sound Products? 

Mr. Levy. That is it. And it went for a few months and nothing 
happened. I lost a little money, and that is that. 

Mr. Morris. How did Mr. Josephson figure in that business? 

Mr. Levy. If there were profits he might have shared in the profits. 

Mr. Morris. Did he ever travel in connection with that ? 

Mr. Levy. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Morris. What other corporations have you been connected with, 
Mr. Levy ? 

Mr. Levy. I was connected with Victory Fluorescent Lighting. I 
remember that one. I don't remember the people particularly that I 
was in with, but they were local people. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You testified about Victoria Stone and said she was, 
what was your phrase, "ran a jewelry store"; was that it? 

Mr. Levy. Yes; she operated a jewelry store. 

Mr. Sourwine. Where is that jewelry store? 

Mr. LE\Tf. On Madison Avenue. 

Mr. SouR\viNE. Have you been there? 

Mr. Levy. I have been there. 

Mr. Sourwine. Many times? 

Mr. Levy. I might have been there quite a few times. I wouldn't 
say many. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you been there recently? 

Mr. Levy. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. How long has it been since you were there? 

Mr. Levy. I would say about 6 years, anyway, at least. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether she still runs the store? 

Mr. Levy. I don't know. I will say this, I passed by I think in a 
car or something and I think the sign is still there. Whether she 
runs it or not, I don't know. 

Mr. Sourwine. Is her name on the door ? 

INIr. LE\Tr. I was too far away to see that, but there would be a 
big sign on the store. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know who owns that store ? 

Mr. Levy. I don't. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know anybody who has a financial interest 
in it? 

Mr. Levy. I could suspect that it could be Julius Heiman, but I 
wouldn't know. 

Mr. SouRwaNE. That is all. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever have a business at 60 or 66 Leonard 
Street? 

Mr. Levy. Yes ; I was there many years. 

Mr. Morris. What was the nature of your business there ? 

Mr. Le\'Y. The same as now, this Federated Trading Corp. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge did Arthur Adams visit that 
establishment on occasion? 

Mr. Levy. Never. 

Mr. Morris. Never to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Levy. Never. 

Mr. Morris. You made one trip to Mexico, did you not? 

Mr. Levy. I did. 



1044 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Mr. Morris. You had difficulty getting a passport to travel? 

Mr. Levy. I did. 

Mr. Morris. Did you intervene witli a friend of yours to help you 
with that? 

Mr. Levy. I did. 

Mr. Morris. With whom did you intervene? 

Mr. Levy. David K. Niles. 

Mr. Morris. Who was he at the time? 

Mr. Levy. He was Presidential assistant. 

Mr. Morris. You asked him to help you to get this difficulty cleared 
np about the passport? 

Mr. Levy. I did. 

Mr. Morris. Did he help you ? 

Mr. Levy. He did. 

Mr. Morris. Did you make the trip to Mexico ? 

Mr. Levy. I did. 

Mr. Morris. What year was that? 

Mr. Levy. 1945. 

Mr. Morris. Were you also president of the Paramount Natural 
Gas Co.? 

Mr. Levy. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. That is at 810 Bridge Street? 

Mr. Levy. That was an address that may have been put there. J 
went in with a fellow by the name of — well, he worked for a steamship 
company. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat was his name ? 

Mr. Levy. Hawk. And I think we lost some money on that. 

Mr, Morris. Were you president of the Export Discount Corp. ? 

Mr. Levy. No. 

Mr. Morris. Never? 

Mr. Levy. Never. 

Mr. Morris. Were you connected with a firm known as Emmons 
Hardware Co., Inc. ? 

Mr. Levy. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. AVhat was your connection with that firm ? 

Mr. Levy. We were trying to sell woodscrews imported from Bel- 
gium and from Japan. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever do any business with the Amtorg Trad- 
ing Corp. ? 

Mr. Levy. None whatsoever. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named MemalofF? 

Mr. Levy. Yes. 

Mr. INIoRRis. Who was he ? 

Mr. Levy. He is a friend I have known for many years. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a Dr. Louis Miller? 

Mr. Levy. I don't know him. 

Mr. Morris. You were also treasurer, I think you said, of the Vic- 
tory Fluorescent Lighting Co. ? 

Mr. Levy. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. How about Federated Corp. ? 

Mr. Levy. That is the one I am in now. 

Mr. Morris. That is your present job? 

Mr. Levy. That is right. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1045 

Mr. Morris. How about the corporation Simplicity Patterns? 

Mr. Levy. I never heard of it until it was spoken of today. 

Mr. Morris. No further questions. 

The Chairmax. If there are no further questions, you may be ex- 
cused. 

(Witness excused.) 

The Chairman. The committee at this time will recess until 10 
o'clock tomorrow morning. 

(Thereupon, at 4 : 10 p. m., a recess was taken until Thursday, Octo- 
ber 29, 1953, at 10 a. m.) 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOYERNMENT 

DEPARTMENTS 



THURSDAY, OCTOBER 29. 195.'^ 

Subcommittee To Ina^stigate the Administration 
OF THE Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, 
; New York, N. T. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 10 a. m., in room 110, 
United States Courthouse, Foley Square, New York, N. Y., William 
E. Jenner (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, subcommittee counsel; Benjamin 
Mandel, director of research ; and Robert C. McManus, professional 
staflf member. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. We will pro- 
ceed with the witness who was on the stand yesterday and who was 
interrupted for the convenience of the other witnesses. 

TESTIMONY OF ISMAIL EGE (ISMAIL GTJSSEYNOVICH AKHMEDOFF), 

WASHINGTON, D. C— Resumed 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, yesterday we had gotten to that part 
of the interrogation of Mr. Ege where we were identifying particular 
agents, Soviet agents of the third or fourth section of Soviet intelli- 
gence. Then we were tracing what their activity was with respect 
to espionage in the United States. 

I think we had mentioned Mr. Rogov. The witness had stated that 
Mr. Rogov was a member of the third section, an officer in the third 
section and we showed for the record some of Mr. Rogov's activities 
in the United States. 

Also, Mr. Ege brought out the fact that a certain agent working 
in the fourth section — that was Mr. Ege's own section — was a man 
named Adams who was an active Soviet agent in the United States. 

Then we proceeded to put into the record a certain security memo- 
randum and certain witnesses involved in the security memorandum 
to show how Mr. Adams did operate in the United States. 

I think then the other agent was Mr. Mikhailov. I would like to 
ask a few questions about him. 

Who was Mr. Mikhailov ? 

Mr. Ege. Mr. Pavel Mikhailov was in 1941 in the winter — by winter 
I mean February or March, December 1940 — chief of European sec- 
tion of fourth section with rank of engineer of second rank. 

He was graduated from the academy of the air force. He came 
to the intelligence service 2 or 3 years before my appointment. 

Mr. Morris. Before 1940? 

1047 



1048 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 



Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. He was a Soviet intelligence officer in the vears anDrox- 
nnately 1938 ? ^ i i 

Mr. Ege. 1938, 1939 and 1940 and 1941. In 1941 1 left for Germanv 
m May. ^ 

Mr. Morris. What rank did he have at that time ? 

Mr. Ege. Engineer of second rank which is equal to major. 

Mr. Morris. Of course yon don't know anything about him after 
1 942 wdien yon defected ? 

Mr. Ege. I don't know anything. 

Mr. Morris. Yesterday we had on here a witness who had been 
named m this security memorandum as being a contact of Mikhailov 
here in the United States. 

Now, did you know that man named Dimitri Manuilski ? 

Mr. Ege. Well, personally I did not know him, but Manuilski is 
very well known all over the world and in the Soviet Union, because 
once he was head of the delegation of All Union Communist Party at 
Comintern. 

Mr. Morris. He was a Comintern man ? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Where does that fit into the intelligence scheme, Mr. 

Ege? ' 

Mr. Ege. It would fit in the central committee of the Communist 
Party, U. S. S. R., heading the delegation of this Communist Party 
with the Comintern. So he was here. 

As he was on a high level, party level, chiefs of sections had no 
contact with him. As usual the routine, this contact was done always 
in person by the Chief of Russian Intelligence Department of 
General Staff. 

Mr. Morris. Now would he be an intelligence agent? 

Mr. Ege. He would not be. 

Mr. Morris. Manuilski ? 

Mr. Ege. He would be helping intelligence activities in directing 
it but he, himself, would not be agent. 

Mr. Morris. He would be director of intelligence, a general? 

Mr. Ege. He would not be director because the intelHgence depart- 
ment was directed by generals, but he would be a man who from 
Comintern would help to get some reliable foreign Communists into 
Russian service. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the section of the security memoran- 
dum we had in the record yesterday was this : 

During the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held at 
San Francisco in the spring of 1945, Louise liransten entertained at her home 
Dimitri Manuilski, the principal representative of the Ukraine S. S. R., who is 
more widely known as a longtime official and spokesman of the Comintern. 

Bransten is, at the present time, in New York City where she has established 
contact with Pavel Mikhailov, acting Soviet consul general, who has been 
reported to this Bureau and to the RCIMP by Igor Guzenko, mentioned elsewhere 
in this memorandum, as the head of Red army Intelligence espionage activity in 
the New York area. 

In 1945 we had a secret security memorandum of the United States 
security agencies stating that Mr. Pavel Mikhailov whom this witness 
knew previously to be a major in Soviet intelligence, at that time was 
head of the Red army intelligence espionage activity in the New 
York area, making a contact with an individual witness whom -we had 






INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1049 

here yesterday who would not deny that contact, but instead invoked 
the fifth amendment. 

Now did you know a man named Malikov ? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. Who was Mr. Malikov ? 

Mr. Ege. Mr. Malikov was in 1929 military attache to Iran, residing 
in Teheran. 

At that time I was in the top section of the intelligence section of 
the Caucasian army headquarters. This intelligence section was 
charged with the organization of intelligence against Turkey and 
Iran as far as that was the case. 

Malikov was in contact with the fourth section which is intelligence 
section of the headquarters of the Caucasian Red army. 

Now, in 1932 Malikov was appointed chief of the intelligence section 
of the above-mentioned headquarters of the Caucasian Army. When 
I was sent to the military electrotechnical college in Leningrad, Mali- 
kov was appointed to the intelligence headquarters of the general 
staff here. 

After that I don't know what happened to him. He was one of the 
top Soviet intelligence officers. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the staff has completed a survey of the 
security memorandum that has been identified in this record. 

On the basis of that survey we have here three more pages. Yester- 
day we gave out two pages of this memorandum. We have here three 
more pages which can be released and put in this record for the infor- 
mation of the committee in trying to determine the problems facing the 
committee in the recommendation of legislation. 

I would like these three additional pages to go into the record at 
this time. 

The Chairman. They may go in the record and become part of the 
record. 

(The documents referred to are as follows :) 

Kravchenko further stated that Gen. Leonid Rudenko, the chairman of the 
Soviet Government Purchasing Commission, is in charge of the collection of 
secret information for transmittal to Moscow. According to Kravchenko, he 
was told by Rudenko on March 30, 1944, that his office safe contained much 
valuable secret information regarding tank motors, navigation instruments, and 
secret airplane devices which he and his subordinates had obtained in the United 
States. This material was to be dispatched to Moscow by pouch at the earliest 
opportunity. Kravchenko also advised that General Rudenko was actually a 
political officer rather than a real military officer inasmuch as Rudenko was 
chairman of the executive committee of the Communist Party in Rostov and 
also a member of the state political bureau of the party prior to the war. 

Kravchenko also advised an agent of this bureau that Moscow has at the 
present time complete data of the industrial organization within the United 
States and every day is collecting additional information regarding commercial 
and private industry in this country. Stalin is better informed, according to 
Kravchenko, on United States and the productiveness of the United States firms 
than is the IJnited States Government. 

NELSON-ZUBILIN MEETING OF APRIL 10, 1943 

Steve Nelson now is a member of the national board of the National Committee 
of the Communist Party of the United States. He has used the aliases Stephan 
Mesarosh. Steve J. Mesarosh, Joseph Fleishchinger, Louis Evans, and "Hugo." 
The latter name, according to a highly confidential source, is the cover name used 
by him in making contacts with the Soviet consulate in San Francisco, Calif. 

According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service records. Nelson was 
born in 1903 in Yugoslavia of Jewish parents and arrived in the United States at 



1050 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

the port of New York, June 14, 1920, making an illegal and fraudulent entry 
under the name Joseph Fleishchinger. This entry was legalized by order of the 
Immigration Service, November 21, 1922, and he became an American citizen 
by naturalization at Detroit, Mich.. November 26, 1928. 

According to a highly confidential and reliable source. Nelson attended the 
Lenin School in Moscow in the 1930's. In August 1930 he applied for a United 
States passport, and, according to the State Department records, willfully 
furnished fictitious information in his application to the effect that he was born 
in Rankin, Pa. In July 1933, Nelson filed with the American consul at Vienna 
Austria, for a 2-year renewal of his passport, stating that he had resided in 
Russia from September 1931 to May 1933, and had resided in Germany, Switzer- 
land, and Austria from May to July 1933. 

A highly confidential and reliable source has advised that Nelson claims he 
was in China for 3 months in 1933, working for the Comintern in Shanghai and 
that a coworker in Shanghai was Arthur Ewert, a well-known Comintern agent 
subsequently sentenced to imprisonment in Brazil for his part in tie Communist 
revolution of 1935. 

According to a highly confidential source. Nelson is quoted as stating that he 
performed espionage ^^•ork for the Soviet Government during the period that 
he was absent from the United States. The exact date of his return to this 
country is not known, but in 1934 he contributed an article to the Party 
Organizer, official organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, 
U. S. A. During the Spanish civil war, considerable publicity was given in the 
Communist press to the fact that Nelson had gone to Spain and had risen to 
the rank of lieutenant colonel in the International Brigade of the Loyalist army 
Upon Nelson's return from Spain in the latter part of 1937 he became active in 
the affairs of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade and in the American 
League for Peace and Democracy. Since 1938 he has been a national figure in 
the Communist Party in this country. 

A highly confidential and reliable source quoted Nelson in November 1941 as 
saying, "Roosevelt and Churchill are fine men, but we cannot expect them to 
promise socialism. We know there will be quarrels, but now we must defeat 
Hitlerism-fascism. We may have to take guns against the United States and 
England later." 

A highly confidential source of complete reliability furnished information that 
on April 10, 1943, Nelson was visited at his home, then in Oakland, Calif by 
Vassili Zubilin, a secretary of the Soviet Embassy, Washington, D. C, who has 
been definitely indicated by investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
to have been the head of NKVD activity in the United States from 1942 until 
his recall to the Soviet Union in August 1944. According to a confidential and 
reliable source, Zubilin's cover name was "Cooper." 

At the time of this meeting, Zubilin was working the Comintern apparatus. 
Nelson advised Zubilin that his work on behalf of the apparatus had been predi- 
cated upon a note from Moscow which had been brought to him by a courier 
from New York and that Earl Browder was fully cognizant of the fact that he, 
Nelson, was engaged in secret work for the Soviets. 

Nelson discussed thoroughly with Zubilin the various personalities engaged 
in work for the Comintern apparatus on the west coast, using for the most part 
cover names in referring to them. The principal activities which were not being 
conducted to Nelson's satisfaction were contacts with Japanese Communists 
m the relocation centers and the handling of literature and other documentary 
material which was being transmitted to points in the South Pacific by Com- 
munist seamen couriers. 

Nelson also discussed thoroughly with Zubilin what are vaguelv described by 
him as "Russian activities," to distinguish them from the political and propa- 
ganda work of the Comintern. In connection with these "Russian activities" 
he pointed out that a number of the officials of the Communist Party were 
alarmed by the fact that Soviet representatives would approach party members 
in California and give them specific assignments, presumably of an" espionage 
nature, and would instruct them to say nothing to their superiors in the party 
regarding the assignments given them by the Soviets. Nelson suggested to 
Zubilin that in each important city or State, the Soviets have but one contact 
who was trustworthy, and to let that man handle the contact with party mem- 
bers who were to be given special assignments by the Soviets. 

At the time of this meeting. Nelson complained to Zubilin about the inefficiency 
of two persons working for the apparatus. (These persons, who later were 
identified through investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as Getzel 



I INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1051 

Hochberg and Mordecai Rappaport, were relieved of their duties for the ap- 
paratus and actually transferred to other cities from those in which they had 
been working — Hochberg from New York to Detroit, and Rappaport from the San 
Francisco Bay area to Los Angeles, Calif.) 

Vassili Mikhailovich Zubilin, with aliases, V. Zarubin, Vassili Luchenko, and 
"Cooper," was born January 22, 1900, in Moscow, according to the protocol form 
filed with the State Department by the Soviet Embassy. In January 1942, he 
was appointed third secretary of the Embassy of the U. S. S. R. in Washington, 
D. C. He was subsequently raised in grade to second secretary. He was finally 
recalled to the Soviet Union and departed August 27, 1944. While in the United 
States, he was accompanied by his wife, Elizabetha Yurevna Zubilin, and his 
12-year-old son. 

COMMUNIST PAKTY OFFICIALS ENGAGED IN ACTIVITY FOB THE COMINTERN APPARATUS 

It will be recalled that Vassili Zubilin, second secretary of the Soviet Embassy, 
Washington, D. C, and the reported head of NKVD activity in the United States, 
was working with the Comintern apparatus in conection with his intelligence 
program. Communist functionaries active in the apparatus have been identified 
as follows : 

During the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held at 
San Francisco in the spring of 1945, Louise Bransten entertained at her home 
Dimitri Manuilski, the principal representative of the Ukraine S. S. R., who 
is more widely known as a long-time official and spokesman of the Comintern. 
Bransten is, at the present time, in New York City where she has established 
contact with Pavel Mikhailov, acting Soviet consul general, who has been reported 
to this Bureau and to the RCMP by Igor Guzenko, mentioned elsewhere in this 
memorandum, as the head of Red army intelligence espionage activity in the 
New York area. 

Gregori Markovich Kheifetz, whose cover name was "Mr. Brown," was, until 
his departure from San Francisco for the Soviet Union, July 6, 1944, the ^'ice con- 
sul at the Soviet consulate, San Francisco. According to the protocol form filed 
by the Soviet Embassy with the Department of State, Kheifetz was born in Mos- 
cow, May 15, 1899. Reportedly, from this protocol form, Kheifetz had served as 
vice president of the Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries 
(VOKS) from 19.37 to 1941, when he arrived in the United States. However, 
highly confidential and reliable sources have advised that Kheifetz performed 
special work for the Soviet Government in Germany from 1934 through 1938, 
which resulted in the identification and punishment of persons involved in sub- 
version, which culminated in the "blood purge" of 1938 in the Soviet Union. A 
highly confidential source has reported that Kheifetz alleged, on one occasion, 
that he had been a secretary at one time to the widow of Lenin. 

SOVIET ESPIONAGE ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES AFTER WORLD WAR II 

During the period since VE-day and particularly since VJ-day, the picture of 
Soviet espionage activity in the United States has become clearer. 

According to the information furnished to a representative of this Bureau and 
to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police by Igor Guzenko, as set out elsewhere 
in this memorandum, the headquarters of Red army intelligence in Moscow issued 
instructions after the use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and on Nagasaki, 
and in fact subsequent to the actual surrender of Japan, that the discovery of all 
technical phases of the construction of the atomic bomb was the No. 1 espionage 
project for the Soviets. 

Under these instructions it would not be likely that Soviet espionage in this 
country would decrease. According to Guzenko, the complete data was to be 
supplied to Moscow regarding the atomic bomb by the end of December 1945. 

As far as Red army intelligence activity in the United States is concerned, 
only three persons previously identified in this memorandum as engaged in espi- 
onage activity are still connected with the official representation of the Soviets 
in the United States. These three are Gen. Ilia Saraev, military attach^, Soviet 
Embassy, Washington, D. C. ; Pavel Mikhailov, acting Soviet consul general. New 
York City; Col. A. I. Servin, tank department, Soviet Government Purchasing 
Commission, Washington, D. C. In addition to these, there have been identified 
in this memorandum * * * of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, 
who is reportedly working for Red army intelligence, as well as the group pri- 
marily located in New York City, headed by Arthur Alexandrovich Adams. 



1052 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

In addition to tlie above individuals reportedly active at tlie present time,' 
there are still residual elements of the old Soviet military intelligence organiza- 
tion, whose activities in the United States are still under investigation. It may 
be noted that all individuals mentioned in this memorandum as having vrorked 
for the Soviet military intelligence at any time vpho are still in this country are 
being checked carefully. 

With regard to the NKVD organization in the United States, the Soviet repre- 
sentatives identified in this memorandum as members of the NKVD who are 
still active in this country are as follows : Andrei Schevchenko, Amtorg, New 
York City ; Lenoid Malov, Soviet consulate, New York City ; Mikhail Mukachev, 
Soviet consulate, Los Angeles, Calif. 

"With regard to Andrei Schevchenko, this individual has been particularly 
active in attempting to obtain classified United States Army information regard- 
ing jet propulsion. It is interesting to note that Elizabeth Bentley has stated 
that Anatole Gromov has advised her that he would be engaging in no further 
contacts with her after November 21, 1945, until the last week of January 1946. 

Mr. Morris. One of these sections concerns the relation of one Steve 
Nelson with a man named Vassili Zubilin, secretary of the Soviet 
Embassy in Washington in the year 1943. 

Did you know Mr. Zubilin ? 

Mr. Ege. I did not. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Ege, would you tell us the role that the 
Soviet Embassy in Washington and the Soviet Ambassador to Wash- 
ington played in Soviet espionage based upon your own personal 
experience in the Soviet intelligence system? 

Mr. Ege. Well, in 1942 Soviet Ambassadors, having their diplo- 
matic position as chief of the Embassy, were a little away from in- 
telligence activities. 

That does not mean that they did not, though. Under roofs of So- 
viet embassies, consulates, trade organizations, there were secret organ- 
izations of Soviet intelligence channels working for Soviet intelli- 
gence. But they personally did not take part in it and did not 
direct it. 

In 1942, approximately in February or January, there was top 
secret order. 

Mr. Morris. This is January of what year? 

Mr. Ege. 1941. 

Mr. Morris. There was a top secret order. Did you see this? 

Mr. Ege. I read it mj^self and signed it that I had read it. 

Mr. Morris. You signed that you had read this top secret order? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. What did the order say? 

Mr. Ege. That order was issued by the Central Committee of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the Bi-Council of Peoples 
Commissars and was signed by Stalin and Molotov. 

In that order it was stated that from now on Ambassadors of Soviet 
Union had to become real bosses. In Russian that is tlie word 
"Chaosyain." In English translated, that means proprietor, boss, 
the first manager, the person who is running some business. 

Under this work always in cablegrams and in secret correspondence 
their names were always mentioned this way as proprietors, as bosses. 

For instance, the chief of the Eussian military intelligence was re- 
ferred to always, not as chief of Eussian intelligence, but as director. 

For instance, in relation to NKVD apparatus, Russian intelligence 
used the word "sosedy." 

The Chairman. Meaning what ? 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1053 

Mr. Ege. Meaiiinc: nei^jlibors. That is iieiglibor or<iaiiization. The 
same NKVD effect in rehition to military apparatus; and in secret 
correspondence you would not find the word "ambassador" or chief 
of militar}' intelli£>:ence, or NKVD, even not Communists; were called 
members of trade unions, "profsousnike." 

Mr. Morris. Does that mean there would be cover names even in 
vour own internal communications? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

jNIr. Morris. They would not even use the name "Communist Party 
member,'' they would use "members of the trade union ?" 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. In connection with members of NKVD, they would 
use "neighbors?" 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Ambassadors were what ? 

^Ir. Ege. Boss. The Communist Party members, and I would tell 
in 1941, 90 percent that were sent to foreign countries were Commu- 
nists and had taken away the Communist Party documents and were 
sent as no party members. 

They have no right to tell that they are Communists. So they were 
referred as trade-union members or profsousnike. 

Now the top-secret document signed by Stalin and Molotov made 
an excellent point in a very categorical way that up to this date. I 
mean the date of issue of that order, Ambassadors were not playing 
the role of real boss. 

Mr. Morris. Repeat that again. Up to this point this directive 
which you read and signed for stressed the point that the Ambassador 
up to that time had not been playing the role of the real boss? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And the date again ? 

Mr. Ege. That was January or February 1941. 

Mr. Morris. Continue please. 

i\Ir. Ege. And it was pointed out that especially in the most impor- 
tant countries as Germany, United States, Turkey, Ambassadors had 
to play that role of boss in every sense of the word, representing in 
the country in which they were a real representative of Communist 
Party and Soviet Government. 

Now, historically it is known and that is not secret that there was 
always a fight between the intelligence channels I was talking of yes- 
terday, between the intelligence of NKVD and of the general staff, 
and there was a fight between navy intelligence and NKVD, but there 
was never fight between general staff intelligence and navy intelli- 
gence. 

That is explained by the fact that intelligence department and 
navy intelligence department consisted of professional intelligence 
officers having the necessary education for that and running their 
business according to the directives of the general-staff chief. 

NKVD is the most dreadful organization, is the secret political 
police, and was trying to put their hands here to control them and 
to make competition in that field. That brought always for the 
Soviet Government undesired results. 

For instance, I was mentioning yesterday Avakinyan was NKVD 
resident in the United States, was arrested in May or the end of 
April 1941 by the FBI. 



y 



1054 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION EST GOVERNMENT 

Everybody in the intelligence department was laughing and that 
was just for them a good occasion to make good face. But in NKVD 
everybody was, of course, down. That is a little demonstration. 

But from 1929 as far as I knew Russian intelligence, they were 
always fighting each other. That top-secret document was pointing 
to that unsound competition and pointing out that Ambassadors had 
to coordinate the intelligence activities of these various channels. 
That means that Ambassadors from that date became responsible for 
the coordination of the intelligence activities of Russian military, 
NKVD, and Navy intelligence organizations, and it was pointed out 
that from that date responsible representatives of the military intel- 
ligence, NKVD intelligence and navy intelligence, had to send first- 
hand information at first to the Ambassador before sending their 
information to Moscow headquarters. 

It was very characteristic of Dekanosov, who was Ambassador of 
Soviet Union to Germany just before the war, became the real boss, 
and he was directing the militaiy attache of Soviet Russia, Major 
General Tupikov, and resident of NKVD, first consul of Soviet Ain- 
bassador in Berlin, Kubalov, and all other persons I mentioned yes- 
terday, press attache level, Tass president, Tarasov, and so on, to 
get that information ; to give it to him and trying to direct it in person. 

The same happened after that order in Turkey, where in 1941-42, 
where the Ambassador to Turkey of the Soviet was Mr. Vinogradov. 
He was Soviet Ambassador to Turkey. 

Mr. Morris. As a result of that directive he was put in as coordina- 
tor of intelligence ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, that is from your own firsthand experience in 
Turkey with the intelligence organization? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Wlien I was in Turkey as an intelligence officer conducting opera- 
tions against German3% not against Turkey — I make accent on that, 
my job in Turkey was only one job, to organize military intelligence 
against Germans from the neutral territory of Turkey, and nothing 
more. 

So I was interested to get some Yugoslav general staff officers who 
were in some British camps in Iraq or Syria. It was necessary to get 
them and to send them to Moscow in order after that short-range rei^ 
to send them to Marshal Tito's organization, because at that time m 
Yugoslavia there were various groups of Mikhailovich, Tito, and 
supporters of King Paul. 

So, according to that top-secret document issued by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment and party, I had to inform Vinogradov on that operation. 

Vinogradov told me that it had nothing to do with your military 
intelligence, I will do it directly with the Government. He sent his 
cipher to Soviet Government in Moscow. I mean to the Kremlin, and 
to ireneral staif officers. 

The Yugoslavs were taken from the camps in Iraq and sent to Mos- 
cow, and they never come to the military intelligence department. 
The)' were taken care of in INIoscow by the high Government officials 
representing NKVD, and after a short training they were sent back 
to Yugoslavia. That is a good demonstration how that order worked. 

More than that, in Turkey, while I was over there, Vinogi-adov was 
personally engaged in political espionage. I was told by Vinogradov, 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1055 

almost an order, to try to enlist some very well-known members of 
Turkish Parliament to Russian intelligence service, to any service, to 
NKVD, to military. 

Mr. JMoRRis. You were ordered to enlist them ? 

Mr. Ege. To try to enlist them. Of course, enlistment or recruit- 
ment does not happen in intelligence service in 2 clays. You have to 
approach a person, to study his background, his weak points, strong 
points, and use those points. 

Mr. Morris. So it was your job, I mean the Ambassador, Mr. Vino- 
gradov, directed you to enlist members of the Turkish Parliament 
into some of your own intelligence agencies ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

I pointed out to Vinogradov that Turks would never serve the Rus- 
sians and especially members of the Turkish Parliament. I tried to 
persuade him that his plan was just ridiculous and dangerous. 1 
talked to him, if he is going to gain friends among Turks, the best 
way is to act as British and American Governments acted. 

I pointed out to him if he is going to do that friendship it is better 
to invite Turkish analysts and British newspapermen, to take them 
to the battlefronts to show how things are over there, to show Soviet 
people, and to improve trade between Turkey and Soviet Union, giving 
more to Turks petroleum and paper. 

In order not to stay in verbal argument with Vinogradov I wrote 
that report to the military intelligence department. Then I talked 
to Vinogradov. ^'STien he was insisting I refused to do it because I 
was, myself, and I am Turkish and Turks are not going to work 
against the interests of Turkey. 

So on that basis my friendship with Vinogradov was a little dark- 
ened at that time. 

Mr. Morris. Mav I get to the American here. Was that order 
issued to the American Ambassador at that time ; the order of Febru- 
ary or March of 19 il? 

Mr. Ege. In that top order was written names of Dekanozov, who 
was Ambassador to Grermany; Oumansky, Ambassador to United 
States ; and Vinogradov was Ambassador to Turkey. 

Mr. Morris. So Oumansky actually received that order? 

Mr. Ege. I am sure. 

Mr. Morris. You read the name of Oumansky in the order ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. That order was given to us in order in 
our intelligence activities to keep to that order. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Chairman, I would like to read from the 
Security Memorandum certain activities of the Soviet Embassy offi- 
cials in Washington to show how, as a supplement of the testimony 
of this witness here today, the Communist organization here in the 
United States did, in fact, operate. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris (reading) : 

A highly conadential source of complete reliability furnished information that 
on April 10, 1943, Nelson was visited at his home, then in Oakland, Calif., by 
Vassili Zubilin, a secretary of the Soviet Embassy, Washington, D. C, who has 
been definitely indicated by investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
to have been the head of NKVD activity in the United States from 1942 until his 
recall to the Soviet Union in August 1944. According to a confidential and 
reliable source, Zubilin's cover name was "Cooper." 



1056 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Vassili Mikhailovich Zubilin, with aliases, V. Zarubin, Vassili Luchenko, and 
Cooper, was boru January 22, 1900, in Moscow, according to the protocol form 
filed with the State Department by the Soviet Embassy. 

In January 1942 he was appointed third secretary of the Embassy of the 
U. S. S. R. in Washington, D. C. He was subsequently raised in grade to 
second secretary. He was finally recalled to the Soviet Union and departed 
August 27, 1944. While in the United States, he was accompanied by his wife, 
Elizabeta Yurevna Zubilin and his 12-year-old son. 

At that point we have deleted the names because we have not had 
an opportunity to treat with each individual case. 

Gregori Markovich Kheifetz, whose cover name was Mr. Brown was, until his 
departure from San Francisco for the Soviet Union, July 6. 1944, the vice consul 
at the Soviet consulate, San Francisco. According to the protocol form filed 
by the Soviet Embassy with the Department of State, Kheifetz was born in 
Moscow, May 15, 1899. 

Reportedly, from this protocol form, Kheifetz had served as vice president 
of the Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, VOKS, from 
1937 to 1941, when he arrived in the United States. 

I wonder if you will tell us what VOKS was or the Society for 
Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries? 

Mr. EcxE. VOKS means in Russian "Vsesouznoe obshestvo Kultnr- 
noy suyaze, szagranitsey." That orrranization is established by the 
Soviet Government in order to promote cultural relations with the 
foreign countries and it does it. 

Of course, doing so it makes Communist propaganda. And to in- 
dicate, that organization operating in foreign countries does its best 
to find friends of Soviet Union, the people who for some reasons like 
Soviet Russia but it does not state on this. 

These sections for agent operations are using it as they are using 
foreign office or foreign trade or Tass and that was a' very good 
place to put agents from first section, second section, third section, 
and fourth section. 

The fourth section did not care too much because people here 
are not engineers or technicians and have no value for technical in- 
telligence, but that is a very good place for the third section, for the 
second section, for the first section, and as far as I know from my 
experience in Moscow VOKS was widely used by the intelligence, 
military intelligence, to put the persons who have been discovered. 

Mr. AloRRis. The witness has just testified that VOKS, this organi- 
zation VOKS, was an instrument for Soviet intelligence agents." 

Now in connection with some of the front organizations that this 
committee has from time to time encountered, we have determined 
that some of these front organizations in the United States are ac- 
tually subsidiaries of VOKS about which the witness has just testi- 
fied. I submit that that testimony he just gave could be related to 
the work of several of these Communist-front organizations who have 
been identified in our record as subsidiaries of VOKS. 

I have just three more paragraphs I would like to read here : 

According to the information furnished to a repi-esentative of this Bureau 
and to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police by Igor Guzenko, as set out else- 
where in this memorandum, the headquarters of Red army intelligence in 
Moscow issued instructions after the use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima 
and on Nagasaki, and in fact subsequent to the actual surrender of Japan, 
that the discovery of all technical phases of the construction of the atomic 
bomb was the No. 1 espionage project for the Soviets. 

Under these instructions it would not be likely that Soviet espionage in this 
country would decrease. According to Guzenko. the complete data was to be 
supplied to Moscow regarding the atomic bomb by the end of December 1945. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1057 

As far as Red army intelliirence activity in the United States is concerned, 
only tliree persons previously identified in this memorandum as engaged in 
espionage activity are still connected with the official representation of the 
Soviets in the United States. These three are Gen. Ilia Saraev, military 
attach^, Soviet Embassy, Washington, D. C. — 

Did you know Mr. Saraev ? 
Mr. Ege. I did not. 
]VIr. Morris (reading) : 

Pavel Mikhailov, acting Soviet consul general, New York City — 

Yon did know him ? 

Mr. Ege. I did. 

Mr. Morris (reading) : 

Col. A. I. Servin, tank department, Soviet Government Purchasing Com- 
mission^ — 

Did you know him? 
Mr. Ege. I did not. 
Mr. Morris (reading) : 

Washington, D. C. 

I think, Mr. Chairman, the rest of the memorandum will be in the 
record and will speak for itself. 

Now, Mr. Ege, you told us in executive session that there was an 
American agent who was a United States Reserve Anny officer that 
you encountered in your experiences? 

Mr. Ege. That is\ight. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us as fully as you possibly can from your 
own experience with this man as many identifying and individuating 
notes as you possibly can. 

Mr. Ege. Well, that Reserve officer of the American Army was in 
the lOoO's Avorking somewhere in China and as far as I recollect he 
came to China as a civilian, then entered the Chinese Army. 

Mr. Morris. Entered the Chinese Army? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. Even though he was a United States Reserve officer? 

Mr. Ege. I know that he was a Reserve officer from the statement 
given to me by my chief of subsection, by Polyakova. 

Somewhere in the late years of 1930, perhaps in 1935 or 1936 or 
1937, he was recruited for Soviet military intelligence. In 1941 he 
was living in Moscow, acting as an Intourist guide and writing some 
articles for the Moscow news in English. 

He was listed as personnel to the fifth section which I listed yester- 
day, terroristic and other acts. I don't recall his name. He was about 
30 or 28 years at that time, married. 

Mr. Morris. That is in 1941 ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right ; married, had a child, and there was a plan 
to send him back to the United States for subversive activities. When 
I was sent to Germany he was still in Moscow. 

I have nothing to tell about him except that information because 
I don't read more about him. He was very conservative and being 
a member of the fifth section he had no right to tell about his where- 
abouts to me. 

I know him because I was taking from him English lessons 2 
months — 1 month I took lessons, about 8 lessons. 

Mr. Morris. That is all the identification you can give this com- 
mittee about this particular individual? 



1058 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know where he lived in the Soviet Union when 
he was living in Moscow? 

Mr. Ege. Yes ; he was living on Gorki Street, which is Fifth Avenue 
for Moscow as Fifth Avenue for New York. His house was near the 
restaurant Aragvi. Going from the Red Square to the Mossovet, 
which is the ]\Ioscow Council, on the right side just opposite a little 
cafeteria, third floor. I don't remember the number of his house. 

He was known anyway to the American Ambassador because he 
was having relations as Intourist guide with the foreigners, especially 
American and British. 

The Chairman. Who was the American Ambassador at that time? 

Mr. Ege. I don't know. 

The Chairman. We can find out. He made no reference when you 
were taking your English lessons about where he came from in this 
country, what State or what section ? 

Mr. Ege. He did not make reference but he knew very well New 
York because he was talking to me what was uptown and downtown 
and how to get to the Metro ; I mean subways, and how you have to 
address police, and how in New York it is difficult to get around be- 
cause there is a conglomeration of many nations and some persons 
speak English poorly. 

He was talking in a detailed way about New York, so I get the idea 
he knew New York. 

The Chairman. You say the American Ambassador knew this 
gentleman ? 

Mr. Ege. I can't say, because I don't know who was the American 
Ambassador, but he was known to the American Ambassador. 

Mr. Morris. He was not known as a member of the fifth section ? 

Mr. Ege. No. 

Mr. Morris. You told us in executive session about a seven-brothers 
project. Will you tell us to the best of your recollection the nature of 
and the persons involved in this seven-brothers operation ? 

Mr. Ege. That was one of the projects which is a routine one in 
order to send legal Soviet citizens abroad and to use them in the 
future for intelligence activities. 

Because all these cover organizations, as I reported today and yes- 
terday, as Tass, Foreign Office, Amtorg, Voks, and so on, were not 
enough, it was necessary to use any possible other channel and one of 
those channels was the educational field. 

It was the plan to send seven young intelligence officers, who were 
trained in a special intelligence school in Moscow, to American col- 
leges and universities to be trained over there as engineers and so on. 

These persons being graduated from intelligence school and being 
intelligence officers did change their real names by cover names and 
there was written memoranda by the Commissar of Education to 
American Embassy asking to grant visas to enter the United States 
for the reason of entering United States colleges. 

These persons were going to be used, while being in these institutions 
or afterward, according to the situation, as intelligence agents of mili- 
tary intelligence. 

When I was going to Germany the question of getting the visas 
still was not finished ; and whether they were sent or not I have no idea. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1059 

Mr. Morris. In other words you know that the project was under- 
taken. 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Did you see any of the papers involved in this project ? 

Mr. Ege. I did because that was the fourth section. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, it was a project of the fourth section? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. This plan that had been drawn up was directly under 
your scrutiny? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. As far as that project involved adminis- 
trative or Commissariat of Education and so on, that was discussed in 
the central committee party and it was blessed by Malenkov who was 
first secretary of Central Committee of Communist Party at that 
time. 

Mr. Morris. What had he done earlier by the way ? Wliat was his 
earlier record? 

Mr. Ege. I knew Malenkov not personally ; I never met him in per- 
son. I was not his level. I was just a little intelligence officer. He 
was up in the party. I was a member of the party. Malenkov was 
first secretary and he had been the right hand of Stalin, he had a 
great role in various decisions. 

As first secretary of the party — as you remember that happened 
after the big purges, he was powerful and he played a role in the 
intelligence, he was in person interested with the organization and 
with the scope and with the expansion of the military intelligence of 
NKVD and of navy. 

I want to put here in the record, Mr. Morris, in connection with the 
Guzenko statement, I am sure that after war they expanded the organ- 
ization and the best record for it is a statement by Malenkov when he 
addressed the last party congress in Moscow in 1952. And if news- 
papermen would recollect, in his address he pointed out that the party 
liad done its best to expand and strengthen the Russian intelligence 
apparatus. 

Sir. Morris. What year was that? 

Mr. Ege. In 1952, the last party congress of the Soviet Union Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Morris. He stated at that time, this general we are talking 
about, Malenkov, was the one that said at that time that the Soviet 
intelligence activities had been expanded? 

Mr. Ege. That is right, and the political report was the most im- 
portant report in the party congress. 

Mr. Morris. In connection with the 7-brothers operation, you dealt 
with some of these 7 agents yourself? 

Mr. Ege. I saw all these seven persons. 

Mr. Morris. But you cannot tell us their names? 

Mr. Ege. That is right because too many years elapsed and I don't 
want to mix up somebody who is innocent of that business. 

Mr. Morris. But you do know that the Soviet Minister of Educa- 
tion did ask for the seven visas at one time? 

Mr. Ege. I know it exactly because that memorandum was prepared 
by the fourth section of intelligence, and to that memorandum was at- 
tached a top-secret memorandum; that that was according to the 
instruction of Malenkov in order that the Minister of Education 
would sign it. He would not sign it without that. 



1060 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

Mr. Morris. And the year was what ? 

Mr. Ege. That was again March or April of 1941. 

Mr. Morris. Now that memorandum was transmitted to the Amer- 
ican Ambassador in Moscow; is that right? 

Mr. Ege. It was at first transmitted to the Commissariat of Educa- 
tion and I understood that after the Commissariat of Education signed 
it it was transmitted to the American Embassy in Moscow. 

The Chairman. I will ask the staff to do some research on that 
particular memorandum. 

Mr. Morris. This memorandum did mention a group of seven 
people ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. It was one memorandum including these 
seven men. 

Mr. Morris. That was during the Hitler-Stalin Pact, was it not ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. And seven brothers is a code name. It 
does not mean that these are brothers. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a Soviet agent named Tirron who some- 
times used the name Tirov ? 

Mr. Ege. You mean Tairov? 

Mr. Morris. Who was he? 

Mr. Ege. He was deputy chief for Soviet military intelligence in 
1929, 1930. I would not say that he was agent because according to 
the legal point, of course, he was a Soviet agent, he was a spy, but 
still in Soviet Russia they do change words in various ways. 

For instance, a Soviet officer is not called an agent because he is 
directing agent operations. He is an officer, he gets orders. An agent 
is some person who works in that apparatus for money, for ideological 
reasons and so on, but an officer is still an officer. 

For instance, I don't consider myself an agent as it was written 
in some newsjDapers. I was military intelligence officer. I was ordered 
to do it and wdien I say that it does not fit my honor, I broke with 
the Soviets. Now Tairov, he was a general and he was deputy chief 
for Berzin who was chief of Soviet military intelligence in the 1930's. 

At the same time Tairov was right hand of Stalin and he was in 
Russian military intelligence to supervise Berzin wdio was a chief. 

When trouble came in the Far East with Blucher, who was com- 
mander in chief of the Far Eastern front, and when Stalin suspected 
Bluclier, he sent his emissary, Tairov, to Blucher as his Commissar. 

So Tairov used to be put always in troubled places in order to re- 
port to Stalin about the responsible Soviet commanders or about chiefs 
of various intelligence departments. 

I think he was purged himself after good service to Stalin, anyway. 

Mr. Morris. Now there was an agent named, a fourth-section officer 
named Faraday. 

Mr. Ege. Faradav is a code name. He was illegal resident for 
fourth section in the United States. 

Mr. Morris. This is your own section? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Faraday is a code name for this officer who was oper- 
ating in the United States? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. I can give his background. 

Mr. MoRius. Would you, please? 

Mr. Ege. He came to tlie United States from Czarist Russia some- 
where around 1906 or 1907, after the first Russian revolution in 1905. 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1061 

He was a JeAv and just being persecuted in Czarist Russia he was 
forced to flee to the United States where he found freedom and that 
country adopted him and he became after some years a naturalized 
American citizen. 

His age was in 1941 about 56 or 58. He was an older person. He 
was born somewhere in tlie Ukraine, perhaps Kiev or Kharkov. I 
don't recollect exactly. 

Then sometime in the lOoO'S he was recruited by the Soviet intelli- 
gence personnel working under cover of Amtorg and he became illegal 
resident. 

He was running his business under cover. He had a shop of electric 
apiDliances in New York. He was very convenient to use persons 
illegal ; he would legalize him and finish him and set him as a separate 
network afterward. I don't recall his real name. 

Mr. MoREis. If in executive session this committee were to give you 
certain names of possibilities would you conceivably recognize his 
right name? 

Mr. Ege. I do not think so. 

Mr. Morris. You do know his cover name was Faraday? 

Mr. Ege. It was not cover name ; it was a code name which was used 
on secret correspondence. 

The Russian service used a code name in secret correspondence in 
order not to reveal him. So usually an intelligence person has three 
names. One is the real name ; one is cover name ; one is code name. 

For instance, my code name was Arman. That was used only in 
secret corresj3ondence in order if somebody would get it, he w'ould 
find Arman. 

Mr. Morris. You do know this man operated as a subordinate of 
yourself, a subordinate of the fourth section operating in the United 
States at the time you were head of the fourth section ? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. I know he was for some time in contact 
with Adams. 

Mr. Morris. You do know he was in contact with Adams? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. Perhaps two times with Adams in 1941, 
in the winter. 

INIr. ]MoRRis. In the winter of 1941 you know he was in contact with 
Adams? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. That is all the individuating notes you can give us on 
(he agent operating in the United States in your section? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Who is Mr. Arshansky? 

Mr. Ege. He was my classmate. He was not a classmate, but he 
was a graduate 1 year after me from the Military Electro-Technical 
College in Leningrad with the rank of captain or engineer of third 
rank. 

After that he was appointed or attached to the military intelligence 
department where he was graduated from the secret intelligence corps 
and then he was planned to be sent to the United States illegally. 

I was talking yesterday that there are illegal networks and illegal 
agents. I was talking that by illegal network or agent Russian mili- 
tary intelligence understands foreigners working for Soviet intelli- 
gence. But there were still Soviet citizens who were sent illegally 



y 
1062 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

to some foreign country, having in their hands these falsely procured 
foreign passports. 

So Arshansky was ordered to prepare his — as the Russians call 
legend — which is cover story, false story. He was sent to Tallin, 
Estonia, and Riga, Latvia, to find out some past history, life of some- 
body who was deceased or was recently arrested, just to replace him 
by Arshansky. 

Arshansky had to learn everything about that imaginary person, 
when he was born in Riga, Latvia, from what school he was graduated, 
and he was going to learn the language in order to ascertain he was 
from this country. 

And the sixth section had orders from the fourth section to pre- 
pare or be ready to prepare him false documents. With that false 
document and prepared life history and false life history he had 
to be sent to the United States and in some future to become Soviet 
agent in this country. 

That is all about Arshansky. 

Mr. Morris. You mentioned from time to time the fifth section, 
the terroristic section. 

Mr. Ege. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I think you told us in executive session of an attempt 
that was made on the life of Von Papen, which you know about 
from your own experience ? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you relate that episode to the best of your ability ? 

Mr. Ege. I think it had nothing to do with the fifth section of the 
military intelligence department. Why I think, because I was my- 
self military intelligence officer. I knew the military attache, I knew 
other military residents. I am sure that military intelligence de- 
partment of the general staff had no role in that business. 

I don't know exactly if it was organized by the Soviet Union. I 
know that two persons arrested by Turkish authorities and put after 
trial into jail, that is Pavlov and Kornilov, and Pavlov was working 
under title of press attache and he never did something with press 
in his life. Kornilov was working undercover as clerk in the Soviet 
Trading Organization. 

Mr. Morris. Pavlov was acting as a press attache at the Soviet 
consulate ? 

Mr. Ege. In Istanbul. 

Mr. Morris. The other gentleman was working ? 

Mr. Ege. The other man, Kornilov, was working as clerk in the 
Soviet Foreign Trade Organization in Istanbul which is equal of 
Amtorg. Now these two persons I know exactly were working as 
agents for the NKVD apparatus. 

Mr. Morris. They were working for the NKVD rather than the 
Soviet military intelligence ? 

Mr. Ege. I know it exactly and that apparatus was hated by a per- 
son whose name was Naumov and who was also press attache and 
had nothing to do with the press; and his deputy was commercial 
attache of Soviet Embassy, Baklanov, who was right hand of Pavlov 
and chief resident of NKVD. 

Why I know now that he was chief resident of NKVD, it was told 
openly before coming to Turkey, according to Naumov, which he 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1063 

delates in the presence of consul general and deputy for the military 
attache ; he told that he was accepted by Stalin and was given right 
directive to expand intelligence and activities of NKVD in Turkey 
because the Soviets had very great interest at that time in the Middle 
East. 

Now, Pavlov was also the right hand of Naumov and was working 
in Istanbul in clandestine operations. He had contact with the per- 
son who was killed during that assassination, whose name if I am 
not mistaken was Abburachman, wdio was a Turkish barber. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us for the record what the attempted 
assassination was? 

Mr. Ege. One fine day in Ankara, I don't recollect the date, when 
Von Papen 

Mr. Morris. He was German Ambassador to Turkey ? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. He used always to take fresh air and one day he 
was coming back to his house with his wife. He heard a tremendous 
commotion near him and he went down. He escaped by just a little 
scratch. That was a bomb thrown to him. Some persons were ar- 
rested in connection with this one. These persons were Pavlov and 
Kornilov. 

Mr. Morris. Whom you knew to be XKTS^D agents ? 

Mr. Ege. Exactly. I know the arrest of Pavlov and Kornilov by 
Turkish authorities gave a big headache for the Russian Embassy. 
Everybody was excited and afraid. 

At first they did not want to deliver to Turkey authorities this 
Pavlov. Pavlov was arrested on the train. He was running to 
Russia under escort of diplomatic courier armed with revolvers. 
Turkish police arrested him while he was just coming from Ankara. 

Mr. Morris. After that episode he was escaping to the Soviet 
Union ; he had an armed Soviet diplomatic courier with him ? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. Pavlov was running. He could not run to the 
East, so he was running to Aeski Shehir, and from Aeski Shehir to 
Kiseri ; and he could not get to Kiseri and he came back to Istanbul, 
changing trains. 

He took refuge under the roof of the consulate and he told that 
he is ill ; he is not going to see somebody and Naumov was trying to 
keep him away from eveiy person in the Soviet Embassy. 

When the Turks made request to deliver him, there was special 
conference at the Soviet consulate in Istanbul. In that conference I 
took part because I was one of the residents working against Gennany. 
In that conference there w^ere present Akimov, who was consul gen- 
eral ; and his real name is Tageev, and his rank was Russia commissar 
of the regiment. 

He was working as consul general of Soviet Russia and that was 
his cover. His real business was, he was assistant to military attache 
for the espionage activities against Turkey. He was long-standing- 
intelligence officer working before in Iran. 

There was present military attache of Soviet Russia, Colonel 
Lyachatvrov. There was present Naumov, chief resident of NKVD, 
and I was present. 

The question under discussion was to give to Turkey Pavlov or not. 
Naumov was putting the question to fight the Turks from Russian 
Embassy in Istanbul, put machine guns and bombs. Well, we said it 



1064 INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 

was ridiculous because you can't fight Turks in Istanbul; they will 
finish you. That is, anyway, suspicious. 

Tageev proposed to send to Moscow a cable requesting that Soviet 
Russia would arrest Turkish consulate in Batumi as an answer to 
that Pavlov request. We, being consulted in that question, told 
just wait and await answer of Moscow and report how the situation 
is without any suggestion, because that was not business of consulate. 
The Embassy was business of Moscow. 

In the evening there was a telegram from Moscow to deliver Pavlov 
in Turkish han^s. Pavlov was arrested and tried in court. That 
is all. 

Mr. MoRKis. That is all there is on it ? 

Now, with respect to the various adversaries or enemies of the 
Soviet Union, you know that Germany was an enemy of the Soviet 
Union. You also know that Turkey was. Of all the foreign coun- 
tries, that is foreign to the Soviet Union, what country occupied 
the No. 1 place of hostility ? 

Mr. Ege. We were trained in Soviet policies and party line and, 
according to party line, always the United States of America was 
enemy No. 1. And their reason for it was that if Soviet Russia is a 
totalitarian state, the United States is a free country and these are 
opposite countries in the ideological field, I mean. 

The United States of America is for freedom, for free enterprise, 
for the dignity of individual, and for principles of western democ- 
racy. Over there we have the Soviet Union, which is the most totali- 
tarian state where the individual is not free. He is a slave of the state. 
Mr. Morris. You said in all your training you were told the United 
States of America was the No. 1 enemy. 

Would you give us concrete details about that? Was it taught to 
you in your staff colleges? 

Mr. Ege. It was taught us in general staff college. It was told us 
during the political training in the intelligence department. It was 
told to us always during my life. 
JSIr. Morris. It is a well-established fact and long since recognized ? 
Mr. Ege. Tactically they did change it but it was tactical as tempo- 
rary means. But in principle the United States was enemy No. 1. 
I can give you an example. 

For instance, Germany was potential enemy; then it became real 
enemy of Soviet Union. Soviet Russia knew it, but the Russians 
were impressed by German military policy, by militant Nazi Party 
methods, and there was competition, but that competition was be- 
tween two totalitarian states. It was not competition and not enemy 
in principle. 

When I was being sent as vice president of Tass in Germany, di- 
rector of Tass, Chavinson, told openly to me : '"Look, here you are 
going as correspondent of Tass, and you are an intelligence officer 
and you have your owii business, but you are still correspondent of 
Tass. So, as correspondent of Tass your first duty would be to learn 
by any means how Nazi Party is organized; how they keep that 
military discipline.*' 

I asked why. He told me: '"Don't be naive. The Central Com- 
mittee Party likes it. We have to accept something from Germans, to 
learn it." 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1065 

He told that for public opinion for common people, we were talking 
that the Germans are our enemies. But the Central Committee is 
interested in real things. 

More than that, during the war I was in Turkey. I say that the 
Americans, British, French, Soviet Army were fighting the Germans. 
That was fine and excellent job. Being a human being and being just, 
having in mind to do my best in that fight, I tried to do my best in 
my friendship w^ith the foreign news})apermen, but you have to be 
over there in order to have a picture of it. 

For instance, some Mr. Smith from the United States press, I am 
talking just names, not real; or Mr. Brown from Associated Press 
or United Press was coming to the Soviet Ambassador to visit us 
as friends. Immediately the telephone: "Downstairs is a foreign 
.Vmerican correspondent, perhaps spy. Find out, of course, is he 
^py or not. If he is a spy, for what agency he is working." 

Third, "Dine and wine him. Then try to impose your policy, your 
doctrine ; approach him. Find his background and, finally, in some 
future try to use him." 

That was double-face play always with every correspondent, every 
press attache; always ringing telephones, instructions, and always 
excitement. 

More than that, suppose there was a ball or reception in some diplo- 
matic corps or quarter or embassy — for instance, Turks were giving 
diplomatic reception for the diplomats of allies. 

Everybody who is taking part in that ball, reception, is invited to 
the Soviet Embassy and he is instructed who he will see at that recep- 
tion ; how he will see him ; how he is going to bow his head — how many 
inches down or up — how he had to smile, how big or just a little; how 
to speak with him, in a sincere way or cold way ; and always try to find 
out something that is secret ; and how to kiss his madame's hand. 

For 2 days, 3 days that instruction is given — then you go. You are 
not free because when you go, after you there are representatives of 
NKVD and they are looking upon you, how you act as an agent in 
that business. Do you do as you were instructed or not. If you do 
not, that is written in your file. 

That was some dirty play and it was so shameful that many of the 
persons even belonging to the Soviet Embassy resented it. And news- 
papermen here, if they were at that time at some reception, perhaps 
could see that most of these fellows were just standing on the corners 
because they were afraid and still they had to act. 

More than that, that was a fine fight against Nazis ; everybody hoped 
that that would be changed. We are a little brave to tell that Ameri- 
cans are fighting, British are fighting, that they are doing their best ; 
and immediately that Naumov would come, or military attache, "Tell 
these rascals the United States Government or Americans, they are 
not doing, they are just giving money for it"; or English, and many 
unprintable words which I cannot tell here. It does not fit. 

Then when we finish with Germans, the turn would come for other 
capitalistic countries. Perhaps it would be more logical during the 
times when Stalingrad was under question, when Soviet Government 
flew from Moscow to Kubishev and where the Soviet Union's question 
of existence was at stake. They had to have a mind not to think about 
this military intelligence operations against the United States, but 
they were taking their gifts to expand it. 



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Even in Turkey all this intelligence personnel had directives, that 
if it is possible to recruit somebody to send to the United States from 
Turkey, report it to Moscow, and do it. 

For instance, there was a Polish engineer. He was working in a 
Turkish military factory. I don't recall his name. He was agent 
for the second section of the military intelligence. 

There was his wife. She was going to the United States. She was 
a recruit and she was sent to work against the United States from Iran. 

Over the oceans there were hundreds of tanks, food, shoes, arma- 
inents coming; and from Turkey and from various countries agents 
were coming to the United States. 

The Chairman. From all this testimony that you have given today 
and yesterday I would like to ask you, Mr. Ege, whether or not you 
think that this Government's recognition of Russia has worked to the 
jidvantage of Russia? 

Mr. Ege. I think it worked to the advantage of Russia. 

The Chaikvian. Also, I would like to ask you if you have told us 
everything that you know about the Institute of Pacific Relations in 
^'our tevStimony yesterday ? 

Mr. Ege. I told everything in yesterday's testimony. 

The Chairman. This committee wants to thank you for appearing 
before us. I think you have told us that there was some danger in 
your appearing publicly and telling us this story of intrigue that you 
have unfolded before this committee in the last 2 days. We want to 
compliment you on your courage. 

We want to thank you for the contribution you have made to this 
committee and we appreciate it very, very much. 

Mr. Ege. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, just one question. 

Inasmuch as the witness here today did work for Amtorg, I would 
like to ask you with a little more particularity to what extent you Imew 
that Amtorg operated as a cover for Soviet intelligence? 

I don't think we addressed ourselves expressly to take in view the 
fact that an earlier witness did work for Amtorg for 10 years and 
then the Soviet Purchasing Commission. I think you heard his testi- 
mony ; did you not ? 

Mr. Ege. I did. 

Mr. Morris. Would vou answer that question ? 

Mr. Ege. Well, from the date Amtorg was established, Amtorg 
was in a more expanded way used by the military apparatus. 

As for the fourth section I know that it was used by Korovin, by 
Vartanyan, by military intelligence, and Korovin and Vartanyan 
were persons worlring as chief engineers for Amtorg. ^ 

There were numbers of other persons who were engineers and Soviet 
officials and working for intelligence. I am not giving names because 
I don't recall them and I don't just relate facts which I don't know 
exactly. But I am sure they were using it and, not only the fourth 
section ; the sixth section was using it. 

Mr. Morris. You know for a fact, according to your own expe- 
rience, the fourth section was using it. You know from the man, the 
head of the sixth section, that they were using it? 

Mr. Ege. I know that third section was using it, too. 

The Chairman. You have no reason to doubt that NKVD, Navy, 
and others were using it? 



INTERLOCKING SUBVERSION IN GOVERNMENT 1067 

Mr. Ege. I am sure of it, categorically sure, because there is always 
fight between NKVD and military intelligence and Navy to get 
chances to occupy vacancies in Amtorg. 

]\Iore than that, Foreign Trade Commissar Mikoyan, who was a 
i member of the Politburo and I think he is still a member of the 
Presidium, was aware of that fact. 

] Mr. Morris. You used the words "cutout" in your testimony. 
I Mr. Ege. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What is your meaning of "cutout" so that we will 
understand it completely? 

Mr. Ege. The person who is having contact between legal and ille- 
gal organizations. 

The Chairmax. Any further questions? 

If not, again I want to thank you for appearing. 

We will stand adjourned. 

(Whereupon, the hearing was adjourned to reconvene subject to 
call of the Chair.) 



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